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Tour intermediaries and the regional tourism economy : the case of Japanese tour distribution in British… Stubbs, Thomas E. 1984

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TOUR I N T E R M E D I A R I E S AND T H E R E G I O N A L T O U R I S M ECONOMY: THE C A S E OF J A P A N E S E TOUR D I S T R I B U T I O N I N B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A  by THOMAS E . B.A.,  A THESIS  STUBBS  Simon F r a s e r  SUBMITTED  University  I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF  THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S  FOR THE D E G R E E OF  M A S T E R OF ARTS in THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE School  STUDIES  Of C o m m u n i t y A n d R e g i o n a l  We a c c e p t to  this  thesis  the required  THE U N I V E R S I T Y  Thomas E.  conforming  standard  OF B R I T I S H  May  ©  as  Planning  COLUMBIA  1984  Stubbs,  1984  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be granted by  department o r by h i s or her  the head o f  representatives.  my  It is  understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be  allowed w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (3/81)  Columbia  written  ii  Abstract The  s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of t o u r i s t  regions  attempting  to plan f o r a t o u r i s t  the i n d u s t r y has g e n e r a l l y focused supply  such  to c r e a t e a tourism  travel  on  tourism  industry  space  role  of  to  and  of  Planning of elements  facilities  planning  control  tourism  Intermediary  ability  necessitates  their  t h e s i s examines the  corporations  tourism over  is  economies  the  flow  to  to i n f l u e n c e the s p a t i a l  flow  of  significance  international  understanding  Industrial  Organization  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and This  model  tourists  extent  tourism  is  of  of  flow  regions.  i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s .  and  their  the  involvement  This  intermediary  travel. sold  through and  a host  market s t r u c t u r e i s necesary  analyze tour d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s . the  their  t o u r i s t s and  m u l t i n a t i o n a l network of intermediary f i r m s i n market an  order  particularly  due  of  c o n t r o l over the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of t o u r i s t  regions,  the  policy.  from market regions i n t o and w i t h i n host  Because  for  tour o p e r a t i o n ) i n  I n t e r m e d i a r i e s serve to n e g o t i a t e and d i r e c t  tourists  of  the r o l e of tour i n t e r m e d i a t i o n  intermediary  regional  organizational  Yet,  to  must a l s o examine elements i n f l u e n c i n g demand  to develop a more informed  impacts.  concern  industry.  allocating  economy.  ( t r a v e l agencies, tour wholesaling and  important  of  as l o c a t i o n of h o t e l s and entertainment  such as promotion, marketing  The  is  Techniques  elicited  to  from  Model p r o v i d e s methods to o u t l i n e  s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  has been used to apply concepts  an  industry.  of r e l e v a n t market,  i n d u s t r y s i z e , s e l l e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n , s c a l e economies and  product  1U  differentation  to the Japanese organized  tour market to  British  Columbia. It  was  found,  using  this  a n a l y s i s , that Japanese based  intermediary c o r p o r a t i o n s have s i g n i f i c a n t  sales  control  the tour d i s t r i b u t i o n process  f c r Japanese organized  British  over  Columbia.  In 1983,  over  t o u r i s t s to  53 per cent of these  tourists  are c o n t r o l l e d by s i x firms which s e l l , organize, d i s t r i b u t e guide  or c o n t r a c t to guide.  Japanese  corporations  programmes. role  in  Of  take  a  the  remaining  central  role  47  per  distribution  of  tourists  cent,  in d e c i d i n g tour  Japanese intermediary c o r p o r a t i o n s p l a y a  the  and  throughout  dominant the  B.C.  economy. The number the  influence of p o l i c y  allocation  Intermediaries  of  intermediary  implications. and  have  groups of - t o u r i s t s to and local  level,  involvement planning  strategies  ability  of to  tourist  to  a  facilities.  selectively direct  within regions.  On  should be developed  i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . strategies  point  Tourism planning cannot stop at  promotionthe  corporations  a  regional  with  Without t h i s  large and  intermediary involvement,  would be l e s s p r e c i s e in t h e i r attempts to  develop p o l i c i e s to i n f l u e n c e the s p a t i a l  flow of  tourists.  Table  of  Contents  Abstract L i s t of T a b l e s L i s t of F i g u r e s Chapter  i i vi vii  I  TOUR I N T E R M E D I A T I O N  AND THE R E G I O N A L ECONOMY  1  1 . INTRODUCTION  1  2.  PROBLEM STATEMENT  2  3.  BACKGROUND AND L I T E R A T U R E  3  4.  METHODOLOGY  16  5.  TECHNIQUES 5.1 R e l e v a n t M a r k e t 5.2 M e a s u r e m e n t Of S i z e 5.3 S e l l e r C o n c e n t r a t i o n 5.4 P r o d u c t D i f f e r e n t a t i o n 5.5 S c a l e E c o n o m i e s 6. EXPECTED RESULTS  17 18 19 19 20 20 20  7.  21  JUSTIFICATION  FOR THE A N A L Y S I S  Chapter II AN O V E R V I E W OF O R G A N I Z A T I O N AND S T R U C T U R A L OF THE I N T E R N A T I O N A L T O U R I S M I N D U S T R Y 1.  THE TOUR PRODUCT  2.  THE I N T E R N A T I O N A L  3.  THE S E L L I N G OF THE T O U R I S M  4.  THE S A L E OF T O U R I S M  5.  INTERNATIONAL  Chapter  CHARACTERISTICS  23 23  TOUR I N D U S T R Y  25  IMAGE  26 27  INTERMEDARIES:  TOURIST  DISTRIBUTORS  31  III  T H E B R O A D E N I N G HORIZONS  OF J A P A N E S E T O U R I S T S  41  1 . INTRODUCTION  41  2.  THE J A P A N E S E T O U R I S T  41  3.  JAPANESE TRAVEL HABITS  4.  J A P A N ' S L E A P INTO  AND P A T T E R N S  INTERNATIONAL  TRAVEL  44 47  5.  SUMMARY  Chapter  56  IV  AN A N A L Y S I S  OF J A P A N E S E TOUR D I S T R I B U T I O N  INB.C  57  1 . INTRODUCTION  57  2.  AN O V E R V I E W OF B . C .  AND J A P A N E S E I N T E R M E D I A R I E S  3.  T E C H N I Q U E S OF A N A L Y S I S 3.1 R e l e v a n t M a r k e t 3.2 F i r m S i z e And C o n c e n t r a t i o n 3.3 P r o d u c t D i f f e r e n t a t i o n 3.4 S c a l e E c o n o m i e s  57 61 61 64 69 71  ••  4.  TRENDS AND I M P L I C A T I O N S  OF MARKET S T R U C T U R E ON B . C .  5.  SECONDARY TRENDS OF I N T E G R A T I O N  74  SUMMARY  78  Chapter V T O U R I S M I N THE P R O C E S S OF I N T E R N A T I O N A L I Z A T I O N : FOR CORPORATE D I V I S I O N  ...72  PLANNING 79  1 . OVERVIEW  79  2.  Q U E S T I O N S FOR ADDRESS 2.1 R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g 2.2 R e g i o n a l P r o m o t i o n 2.3 L o c a l P l a n n i n g  83 87 90 91  3.  NATIONAL PLANNING  92  4.  CONCLUSIONS  94  vi  List  of T a b l e s  I.  1.1  I n t e r i n d u s t r y Growth i n B.C  5  II.  1.2 T r a v e l Markets i n B.C  III.  1.3 S e l e c t Overseas Market Growth and Change i n B.C.  IV.  1.4 Percentage of Overseas V i s i t s , One to Western Canada  V.  3.1  VI.  3.2 V a r i a b l e s 1983  VII.  3.3 Chronology of Japanese T r a v e l Trade With Western Canada  6  or More Nights  Changing Purposes of Japanese T r a v e l  8  46  of Overseas Japanese T r a v e l Growth  196348  Development  V I I I . 3.4 Japanese Overseas T r a v e l Growth 1963-1983  50 54  IX.  4.1 S i z e and Ranking of the Top Ten Japanese S e r v i c e Agencies, 1975  X.  4.2  XI.  4.3 Market C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , S i z e , D i s t r i b u t i o n C o n c e n t r a t i o n of S e l l e r Firms  XII.  4.4 Japanese Corporate Investment i n B.C. Tourism Related Infrastructure  Functional  7  Travel  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Intermediary Firms and  59 63 66 .76  vii  List  of F i g u r e s  1. 2.1 The T o u r i s t Trade D i s t r i b u t i o n Network 2. 2.2 F u n c t i o n a l Industry  $SIGNOFF  Breakdown of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l  29 Tour  32  1  I. 1.  TOUR INTERMEDIATION AND THE REGIONAL ECONOMY  INTRODUCTION  I n t e r n a t i o n a l tourism industries.  i s one of the l a r g e s t and f a s t e s t  The i n d u s t r y i s j u s t beginning  growing  to gain r e c o g n i t i o n  and  study as i t p l a y s a more dominant r o l e i n the world  economy.  The  r a p i d growth of tourism  need  understand  and  trade i s going changes  fostered  r a t i o n a l i s e the i n d u s t r y .  affecting the  planners attempting  and  has  Furthermore,  tourist  patterns  patterns  of  and  tourist  their  travel  destination  policymakers  to  tourist  regions  attempting  tourism  impacts.  tourism  trade  impacts.  i s e s s e n t i a l to  to plan f o r a tourism economy.  f o r c e s i n f l u e n c i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n  within  the  through a number of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and s t r u c t u r a l  Understanding  The  trade  to  is  of  grown  into  of i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t to  determine  elements  An i n c r e a s i n g interdependance has  tourists  influencing  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  from the r i s e of m u l t i - n a t i o n a l tour  intermediaries.  Tour i n t e r m e d i a r i e s ( r e t a i l e r s , wholesalers and  operators) have  become  markets  influencing  through host One  key the  industrialization  paralleled  distribution  is  economy by  one  system the  forces  patterns  in  of  over of  intermediary  Japanese t r a v e l l e r s  going  under  some  tourists  the  last  three  the f a s t e s t overseas T h i s has  distribution abroad.  increasing  Japanese t r a v e l market.  e s p e c i a l l y to western Canada. strong  organizing  regions.  distribution  the P a c i f i c  tour  An  decades  examination  has  been  growth r a t e s ever,  fueled  channels  The r i s e of  the  for of  growth  the  flow  of of  distribution  2  channels host 2. The  would allow an understanding  of t h e i r  i n f l u e n c e over a  region. PROBLEM STATEMENT purpose  of  international  this  thesis  tourism  is  trade  to  ties  examine  the  nature  of  to Canada, s p e c i f i c a l l y  the  r o l e of intermediary c o r p o r a t i o n s n e g o t i a t i n g the d i r e c t i o n flow  of  tourists  intermediary dimensions  2  from  Japan  organizational of the B.C.  Changing  to B.C.  Research w i l l  influence  on  1  the  organizational  effective  focus on  structural  tourism economy. relationships  and  s t r u c t u r e of the tourism trade must be understood direct  and  policies  towards  Columbia.  the  resulting  in  equitable  Therefore,  to  growth  of  tourism  in  British  attempt  to  d e l i n e a t e the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s of the tour  intermediary c o r p o r a t i o n s h a n d l i n g  the  f o l l o w i n g research q u e s t i o n s w i l l be 1)  To  what  extent  do  this  order  Japanese  thesis  will  market.  The  addressed:  intermediary c o r p o r a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e the  flow of Japanese t o u r i s t s i n t o  and  within  the  B.C.  tourism  economy? This w i l l  l e a d to two  2)  role  What  communities and 3)  What  are  do  further questions  tour  i n t e r m e d i a r i e s play as agents for host  regions? the  broader  And, planning  intermediation?  1 2  r e l e v a n t to p l a n n i n g :  A b i l i t y to arrange the flow of t o u r i s t s O v e r a l l p a t t e r n of t o u r i s t d i s t r i b u t i o n  implications  of  tour  3  3.  BACKGROUND AND  Over  the  last  r e g i o n a l l y and trade  flows  economies. has  had  LITERATURE few  decades,  sectorally. from  trade  Regionally,  the A t l a n t i c  further  tourism and  effects  only  trends,  region and  oil  trade.  Between  t r a v e l r e c e i p t s rose 328  per cent  to $106  1981 billion  i n c r e a s e d 60 per cent (WTO)  industry  per cent  Provincially,  increase  tourism  component of the.B.C.  sectors  forecasts a  revenues from minning,  (table  tourism  doubling  economy. of  grown s t e a d i l y 1.1).  would  in  tourism  Over the  revenues.  the  As  logging have  to become  E x c l u d i n g o i l and  be  3.7  i s becoming an  such as minning and  or d e c l i n e d , tourism has largest  to  1990.  by the 4.3  1983).  important  third  and  Canada's r e a l r a t e of i n d u s t r i a l growth at  surpassed  (CGOT  province's  industries,  1972  the World Tourism O r g a n i z a t i o n  l a s t decade, there has been a near  stagnated  i t s growing  trade  world  Nationally,  traditional  major  to  doubling of c u r r e n t s t a t i s t i c s by  increasingly  its  British  r a p i d l y becoming the world's l a r g e s t i n d u s t r y ,  m i l l i o n and  receipts  sectors  i n many r e g i o n a l economies.  number of i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r i p s  per cent was  in  is  international  280  shift  energy, r e f l e c t changing p a t t e r n s .  Tourism  The  dramatic  shifted  In a d d i t i o n , changing forms of trade i n new  p a r t n e r s are from the P a c i f i c  US.  a  have  to the P a c i f i c has a l t e r e d many  Columbia i s c e n t r a l to both of these  second  patterns  second  the gas  largest  industry.  the  Of B.C.  markets, r e s i d e n t and American v i s i t o r s are by f a r  largest  accounting  for  over  75  per  cent of volume and  4  revenues ( t a b l e comparison,  1.2).  Overseas  markets,  although  have been e x p e r i e n c i n g the most s i g n i f i c a n t  in the l a s t decade  (table  1.3,  1.4).  international travel  with  changes  rapid  i s slowly becoming e v i d e n t .  growth  almost  equal  drop  in  Atlantic  traffic.  trade  Two prime  markets have helped f u e l t h i s trend, the Japanese and Hong visitors, western  which  Kong  have both experienced r a p i d r a t e s of growth to  Canada.  The s i g n i f i c a n t changes industry  in  economic  growth  rates  among  and w i t h i n markets point to a need to understand t h e i r  e f f e c t s on the B.C. been  of  Of t h i s growth  there has been a trend towards i n c r e a s i n g P a c i f i c  an  in  Representing four per cent  of volume and e i g h t per cent of revenues, the  to B.C.,  minor  thoroughly  international  economy.  One area of study which  addressed g l o b a l l y or l o c a l l y  tourism  trade  has  not  i s the e f f e c t of  industrialization  to  regional  economies. Tourism's  reputation  as a growing i n t e r n a t i o n a l  employment generator and means stimulated  active  promotion  to and  diversify  the  development.  a b s o l u t e r a t e and magnitude of growth p o t e n t i a l of necessitated have  p o l i c y guidance.  already  environmental (Krippendorf  caused effects  1982, EIU 1973).  economy  has  However,  the  tourism  has  The r a t e and magnitude of growth  widespread altering  industry,  the  economic,  social  fabric  many  of  and regions  Table 1.1 Inter-Industry Growth i n B.C.  Year  °  Fishing (Million) 1  o  if  Agriculture (Million)  Tourism (Million)  Mining (Million)  O i l & Gas (Million)  383.3  86.1  1,846  1032.9.  231.3  3,489  3  5  Forestry (Million) 6  1969  85.8  203.4  376.7  1974  220.5  407.8  869  1979  517.5  653.9  1,650  2128.2  738.8  7,164  526.9  900.4  2,010  1678.1  912.9  6,303  1982  % Annual Growth  47.23  (1983) 34.05  Wholesale marketed value, including halibut landing.  41.12  33.6  81.56  26.26  Federal Dept. of Fish and Oceans.  Farm cash receipts, S t a t i s t i c s Canada 21-001 Annual. 'Ministry of Tourism Annual Reports, N.B. 46% Resident Derived Revenue, 27% Rest of Canada, 27% Foreign. ^Copper, zinc, molybedenum, coal, others. Mining s t a t i s t i c s usually include o i l & gas revenues but are broken down i n this case. Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Annual. 'Crude o i l sales, natural gas to pipe.  Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Annual.  'Principal s t a t i s t i c s of wood industries (lumber, plywood, veneer, doors, sashes, and singles) + p r i n c i p a l stats, of pulp and paper. S t a t i s t i c s Canada 25-202 Annual.  Table 1.2 Travel Markets in B r i t i s h Columbia  Number of V i s i t o r s  -  1  (000) 1971  (000) 1982  % 1971 Volume  % 1982 Volume  Resident B.C.  2,630  5,550  33  48  Resident Canada  3,038  2,930  38  26  U.S.A.  2,347  2,560  29  22  65  440  0.8  8,080  11,480  Overseas Total  % Annual Growth  M i n i s t r y of Tourism (1983), Tourism Facts 1982.  2  % of Visitor Revenue 1982  910  46  -  570  28  -  365  18  4  34  164  8  100  4%  2,010  100  S t a t i s t i c s Canada 66-201 Annual Travel Between Canada and Other Countries. 2  Visitor Revenue 1982 (million)  9  2  Table 1.3 Select Overseas Market Growth and Change to B.C. 1972 - 1982  Number of Person V i s i t s 1976 1978 1980  1982  1982 BC Entries as a % of Canadian Entries  Growth  1972  1974  U.K.  27,597  46,539  55,502  65,584  92,973  85,975  17.1  310  Japan  17,763  33,291  46,280  61,302  68,200  63,907  47.1  351  Germany  7,373  12,465  17,874  24,040  37,821  43,785  20.0  600  Australia  7,914  15,724  20,463  21,448  25,237  23,769  29.0  400  Hong Kong  . 7,459  10,028  12,631  11,934  13,532  18,897  48.0  220  Source:  S t a t i s t i c s Canada 66-001 Annual S t a t i s t i c s Canada 66-201 Annual  Table 1.4 Percentage of Overseas Visits, One.or More Nights to Canada. Select Regions.  (1982) Average Expenditure Visitor  (1982) Total Spending (000,000)  1  1  1972  1974  1976  1978  1982  % 1972 1982 Change  31.7  29.6  27.2  27.4  24.7  -5.2  337.00  160.6  8.8  9.6  9.9  10.0  10.7  +1.8  546.10  100.3  70.9  68.4  66.6  65.2  62.1  -7.8  438.30  468.2  Australia  2.6  3.4  3.6  3.6  3.5  +0.9  479.10  28.6  Japan  4.8  5.6  6.2  7.3  6.7  +1.9  607.50  69.8  Asia + Oceania  14.3  17.3  19.1  21.0  22.6  +7.3  540.00  180.7  Total  85.2  8517  86.7  86.2  84.7  -0.5  479.70  825.5  U.K. Germany Europe  1  These are Statistics Canada estimates.  Source:  Statistics Canada 66-201. Statistics Canada 66-001.  9  As tourism has grown from a p a r t fledged i n d u s t r y to  the  time  enterprise  to  a  full-  i n these r e g i o n s , a number of problems r e l a t i n g  o r g a n i z a t i o n of the i n d u s t r y have s t i m u l a t e d government  involvement. A determined e f f o r t to a i d and guide tourism development i n B.C. $50  d i d not r e a l l y begin u n t i l a j o i n t million,  five  federal  provincial  year Tourism Industry Development Agreement  (TIDSA) was signed i n 1978.  This s i g n i f i e d ,  development  major  of  -  several  promotional campaigns e.g.  for  projects  example,  the  e.g.Whistler  and  Super-Natural B r i t i s h Columbia.  TIDSA's main o b j e c t i v e came from i t s Department of Regional Economic Expansion diversified  and  (DREE) spatially  trend by many c o u n t r i e s implemented  roots,  through  to  achieve  (Young 1973, OECD 1979:12).  of  actions  of  Tourism  tourism development'. responsibility  was in  (DREE 1978). the  1980  establishment  of  the  provinces,  the  in  direction,  policy  sectoral  and Canada. and  Federal  As a r e s u l t ,  the  government's promotion  there  has  s t r u c t u r a l changes i n the B.C.  economy i n f l u e n c i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n of tourism  and rise been  tourism  impacts.  These e f f o r t s have a l l attempted to grasp the f o r c e s of intangible industry.  a  to 'promote and guide  These combined e f f o r t s have shown a s i g n i f i c a n t  in v i s i t o r s to B.C. spatial,  was  Since the j u r i s d i c t i o n of tourism i s  Tourism Canada has aided research.  TIDSA  a s e r i e s of programs which aimed to f o s t e r  Accompanying these Ministry  regionally  aggregated growth, p a r a l l e l l i n g the  p l a n n i n g , development and o r g a n i z a t i o n  separate  more  an  Tourism i s best understood i f i t i s viewed  10  as  a t r a d e a b l e commodity.  T r a d i t i o n a l export-base  p l a c e t h e o r i e s view tourism as r e g i o n a l economy (Richardson be  defined  as  a  basic  tertiary  1973).  and  and  central-  endogenous  to  a  As a commodity, tourism  activity  by  can  r e c o g n i z i n g these b a s i c  elements:  1) Tourism i s an economic good which i s c o n s t r u c t e d through patterned  consumption  lifestyle 2)  As  an  The  experience  4)  series  good,  consumption It  of  is  tourism  therefore  ultimate  of  a  s a l e of tourism  travellers  for  is  takes  number of d i f f e r e n t methods aiming flow  services  creating  a  productive  in  its  facilities. place  reverse  f o r e i g n exchange as a b a s i c  The  of  tourism  of i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and  production. earning  a  experience.  requirement 3)  of  the  at the p o i n t of  export  potentially  activity. 'products'  i s the r e s u l t of a  to c r e a t e and manipulate  corporate  or  regional benefit.  the The  i n d u s t r y i s h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e and m u l t i - n a t i o n a l . 5) Tourism, as an  i n d u s t r y uses the community and host  a b a s i c resource,  sells  i t as a commodity and,  in  region as  the  process,  a f f e c t s the l i v e s of everyone. Tourism  products  consumption of t r a v e l  are  'manufactured'  patterns  As  regional  tourism development and promotion grow, the p a t t e r n of  tourists  is  the  regional  influenced.  influence  spatial  tourism  Resorts tourist  The  sum  space  economy.  are b u i l t and travel.  of  spatial  these  supports  patterns.  through the  regions are promoted to  Overall,  a  number  of  11  organizational  f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e the r e s u l t i n g s t r u c t u r e of the  industry:  1) The t o u r i s t levels  of  industry  organization;  individual  service  promotions  and,  organize  i s ultimately structured  the  through  attractions,  industry  spatial  locational government  intermediaries.  flow  of  through  tourists  three  dynamics  planning  of and  These a l l serve t o through  marketing,  a d v e r t i s i n g , and development. 2)  Tour  service  industries  are  sold  through the c o l l e c t i v e  promotion and s a l e of t o u r i s t e x p e r i e n c e s or with  industry  intermediaries  (retail  through  travel  wholesalers and tour o p e r a t o r s ) who n e g o t i a t e  contracts  agents,  service  tour  contracts  to s e l l a s e r i e s of tour arrangements to customers. 3) tour  Intermediaries 'products'.  accomodation,  are  'processors'  Destination-region  entertainment  ordinating  and  for  of  marketing  services  their  play two p a r t i c u l a r l y  they are the ' c r e a t o r s '  been  a  trend  over tourism  the  important  tourism  practices  and  customers.  functions:  product  through  towards more intermediary  t r a v e l trade.  1980,1981,1982).  New  more  first co-  second, they are the product.  r a p i d growth i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l tourism  communications t e c h n o l o g i e s (EIU  (transport,  overseas  i n t e r n a t i o n a l brokers of the t o u r i s t d e s t i n a t i o n ' s Following  formation of  e t c . ) are r e l a t i v e l y dependent on  the a c t i o n s of i n t e r m e d i a r i e s Intermediaries  through t h e i r  there  has  organizational control  efficient  have enabled the r i s e  transport  and  i n mass t r a v e l  Mass t r a v e l has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the  12  packaged  tour which has  combined the low cost and  s e c u r i t y d e s i r e d by t r a v e l l e r s process  tourism  into  Burkhart and Medlik industry 1982).  has  a  with  more  1975).  the  refined  Consequently, the  of  and  i n d u s t r y has  corporate commodity  As a r e s u l t  become more c o m p e t i t i v e  psychological desire  to  (Cohen  these  1972,  trends,  the  comprehensive ( B r i t t o n  evolved  through a  number  of s i g n i f i c a n t changes p l a c i n g more c o n t r o l of the t o u r i s t s the  hands  of  Intermediaries  industry  intermediaries  1975).  have a l t e r e d i n d u s t r y s t r u c t u r e by becoming  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l middlemen who region to  (IUOTO  negotiate  into  key  the flow of t o u r i s t s  from  region.  The  tourist  susceptible  to  concentration.  distribution various Tour  system  degrees  between  regions  is  of i n f l u e n c e , i n t e g r a t i o n and  intermediary  corporations  from  market  regions have n a t u r a l i n f l u e n c e , through r e t a i l  agents over s a l e s  to  lends  destination  integration  of  regions. the  This  intermediary  operation)  into  control, the  flow of t h e i r t o u r i s t s .  has  been  1979).  destination  conceptualized  as  regions  which  This  to  (wholesaling,  enables  complex  them  intermediaries, this  regions  have  grown  fledged tourism  economy, the  international,  especially  s p a t i a l l y plan  to  relationship  ' s t r u c t u r a l dependency' (Roxborough  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the t o u r i s t  regions  function  itself  D e s t i n a t i o n region s e r v i c e s are r e l a t i v e l y dependent  market region  As  influence  i s one  inherent  trade. from  part-time  importance overseas  f o r and  of the r i s i n g  on  of  hosts  to a  full-  intermediaries  tourists  is  i n v e s t in tourism,  pivotal.  for As  they must a l s o  13  plan with tour i n t e r m e d i a r i e s to i n f l u e n c e the flow of  tourists.  However, most tourism plans are based on  campaigns  and  specific  patterns.  projects,  T h i s gap  the  complexities  now  at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y Canada's  market have  Ference  reflected  1980,  EIU  cutbacks  1981).  position  are extending (Sorenson  i n the  Attempts  to  tour  This i s  international to  aid  corporations  B.C  tourism  organization (Pollock  1980,  losing  their  f i r m s , based in market r e g i o n s , which  t h e i r c o n t r o l of the t o u r i s t  1983:2).  One  energy developing  B.C.  It  government has  spent  in  has  efforts  rationalized  to  increase  However,  intermediaries many B.C. tourism  changes  handling  this  tour c o r p o r a t i o n s industries  controlled  firms who  and  of  less  than a few,  a  time  and  in  B.C.  in  the  and  Japanese  promoted r e g i o n a l  tourism development on the growth of such markets (Tourism 1981:17).  B.C.  t h i s trade through promotion, language  hospitality training, etc. to  i n t o and w i t h i n  example i s the Japanese t r a v e l market to  For more than a decade the B.C.  travel  1983).  i n the r e l a t i v e e r o s i o n of  to enable more development  consequence i s B.C.  competitive  and  of the i n d u s t r y (Antonson  understanding  1983).  One  B.C.  i n d u s t r y o r g a n i z a t i o n or tour  competitive p o s i t i o n  (Bailie faced  on  r e f l e c t s a lack of p o l i c y and  of  and  not  promotional  organization  B.C. of  market have l e d to the demise of  (Sorenson are now  1983:2).  As  a  result,  more dependent on f o r e i g n  have a more s o l i d i f i e d b a r g a i n i n g  position  p r o p e n s i t y to d i s t r i b u t e the t o u r i s t  i n t o more  set and  refined  If B r i t i s h Columbia  itineraries.  i s to pursue t o u r i s t  trade as a  viable  1 4  development  option,  an  understanding  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the intermediaries  role  of of  its  inherent  international  i s needed to a i d development p o l i c y .  It follows  that the planned expansion of B.C's tourism  economy  the  To summarize:  1)  f o r c e s of strong d i s t r i b u t i o n channels.  The  organization  s u c c e s s f u l plan  of  Certain  organized  flows  f o r a tourism economy.  t o u r i s t s which i n f l u e n c e s  2)  tourist  markets  have  intermediaries.  central  is  the  'enclaves'  This  f o r c e s of these d i s t r i b u t i o n  more informed  is  to the of  Highly  controlled  reduces not only  by  revenues  An understanding  of  systems i s e s s e n t i a l to enable  tourism and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g .  3) E f f o r t s to develop a tourism economy i n  B.C.  must  f o s t e r s p a t i a l and s e c t o r a l dimensions of the i n d u s t r y . an organized  face  pattern  strong d i s t r i b u t i o n systems.  but a l s o d i s t o r t s the image of the r e g i o n . the  will  impacts.  systems can become t o u r i s t  international  It  tour  s t r u c t u r e , tourism  aim  to  Without  regions may not r e c e i v e the type  of tourism economy expected. The nature  next  chapter  of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l tourism  o u t l i n e the inherent by  w i l l provide an in-depth overview of the  a case study  review of t h e i r  industry.  f o r c e s w i t h i n the system.  This  serves  T h i s i s followed  of the Japanese t r a v e l l e r s and c o r p o r a t i o n s . rise  to  A  i n t o the i n t e r n a t i o n a l scene i s followed by  an e v a l u a t i o n of the i n d u s t r i a l s t r u c t u r e of the  B.C.  tourism  1 5  economy as i t  r e l a t e s to t h i s market.  16  4. A  METHODOLOGY number of methods c o u l d be used t o determine the i n f l u e n c e of  i n t e r n a t i o n a l tour i n t e r m e d i a t i o n through of  regional  intermediary  understanding  of  tourists  influence  be  would  function  of  (retailing,distributing,  the  flow  However, an understanding  forces  of  incomplete  market  structure.  tour  wholesaling  ,  without The  corporations  and  operating  tours)  tourism p r o d u c t s .  A s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s of  tour intermediary s e c t o r , ( i . e . ,  l i m i t s of s e r v i c e markets,  degree  of  B.C.  the  tourism economies.  the b a s i c  intermediary  serve to s e l l  over  integration,  ownership)  i s needed  product to  differentation  understand  and  ultimate  the t e c t o n i c s of tourism  trade. The cannot  r o l e of be  foreign  adequately  structure.  corporations  examined without  Basic f o r e i g n d i r e c t  investment  w i l l not occur  Investment  trading first  investment  tour  products  l o o k i n g a t market  theory t e l l s  i n i n d u s t r i e s with pure  us that  competition.  occurs when a company has a comparative  advantage to  e x p l o i t : t e c h n i c a l , access t o c a p i t a l , management,  distribution,  etc.  behaviour  I n t e r n a t i o n a l trade  exporters  outlines  (or importers) based on t h e i r  the marketplace would be  theory  (Grubel  imprecise  advantages  of  1981).  without  competing  Planning f o r the tourism economy an  analysis  these  f i r m behaviour.  understood,  first  of  the  firms i n the marketplace  Policy prescription  and  as  r e l a t i v e advantages i n  e f f e c t s a host r e g i o n . advantages  firm  comparative and how t h i s  ultimately  affects  I f an i n d u s t r y i s t o be  a market s t r u c t u r e a n a l y s i s must be conducted.  17  The  Industrial Organization  techniques  to  elicit  Model  information  s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an 1968).  This  the tour  industry  product  industry  size,  seller  differentation,  intermediary  market to B r i t i s h 5.  about  a  number  organizational (Bain  1968,  model w i l l be used, in p a r t , to apply  r e l e v a n t market, economies,  provides  and  Stigler  concepts of  concentration,  conduct and  of  scale  performance to  s e c t o r h o s t i n g the Japanese organized  tour  Columbia.  TECHNIQUES  To determine the parameters for t h i s a n a l y s i s , consultation  with  the  Canadian  Market Japan provided  a list  B.C.  was  This  listing  Canada's l i s t industry represents  of 22 organized  enlarged  (Appendix  and  A s s o c i a t i o n of T r a v e l Agents:  then  of 23 packages to Canada and  officials  observation  A)  tour  and  to  narrowed from Tourism others provided  (CGOT 1983b).  a c t i v e packages i n 1983  products  The  i s estimated  from  study  to  list  represent  most Japanese r e l a t e d tour programmes' to Western Canada. An  i n t e r v i e w schedule  organization  of  was  set up to d i s c u s s the  i n d u s t r y i n t e r m e d i a r i e s handling  Firms i n v o l v e d with  associated  tour  through l i s t i n g s and  d i s c u s s i o n s with  industrial  t h i s market.  programmes  were  located  industry representatives.  Interviews  were s t r u c t u r e d in an  informal f a s h i o n to o b t a i n  information  required.  of questions  A set l i s t  address at each i n t e r v i e w answered  nor  information  were  sought -  intermediaries  was  (Appendix  asked  all  B).  questions  seller  volume  received  from  and  Not  the  were o u t l i n e d for all  listed. linkages  at l e a s t one  respondents The with  primary other  representative  18  company f o r each tour programme.  In many cases,  cross  checking  q u a l i f i e d the data. This analysis w i l l market  and  Information  focus p r i m a r i l y on d e f i n i n g the r e l e v a n t  determining  size  and  seller  concentration.  r e c e i v e d from i n t e r v i e w s has allowed  overview of these 5.1 Relevant  a  descriptive  f a c t o r s to be d e s c r i b e d .  Market  .we may d e f i n e the r e l e v a n t market as i n c l u d i n g a l l s e l l e r s i n any i n d i v i d u a l industry (strictly a group of s e l l e r s of c l o s e - s u b s t i t u t e outputs who supply a common group of buyers) and a l l the buyers to whom they s e l l . . . . Bain Buyers are d e f i n e d as a l l packaged)  tour  travellers  Japanese and  n e g o t i a t i n g and a r r a n g i n g  their  are f u r t h e r  function  achieve  defined  this,  a  by  more  organized  sellers  (group  those  and  corporations  flow t o western Canada. for further  1968, 6-7  Sellers  analysis.  To  narrowed framework must be d e l i n e a t e d .  T h i s t h e s i s w i l l only examine the Japanese t r a v e l market to B.C. Of  this  market,  packaged)  will  only be  intermediaries  in  organized  studied. the  tour  While  Japanese  travellers examining  organized  (group  and  the e f f e c t s of  tour  market,  an  overview of the independent Japanese t r a v e l l e r can be p r o v i d e d . Description taxonomy.  It  determination concentration.  of  the  provides of  other  Relevant  relevant an market  market  outline  i s an which  parameters  market data does  such  provide  exercise in  enables as  the  s i z e and  policymakers  19  with an overview of market p l a y e r s . 5.2  Measurement Of A  insight of  listing  Size  of  seller  i n t o the nature  firms  corporations  would  provide  of trade r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; the a c t u a l  shows r e l a t i v e  influence.  S i z e of any  and  volume,  capacity.  labour  measures  Confidentiality  (1979  Travel  i n f o r m a t i o n on organized  company  and  Regulation  to most  Act).  tour volume  of  Interviews  handled  by  each  T h i s measurement  was  concentration.  Concentration  Size and central  l i m i t s access  inter-company r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  then used to determine s e l l e r Seller  as  employed, c a p i t a l employed, value added  provided  5.3  such  However, s e l e c t i o n of s i z e measures i s determined  by data a v a i l a b i l i t y . these  size  e n t e r p r i s e can  be c a l c u l a t e d through a number of comparative measures sales,  little  to  s e l l e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n among and the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s .  between  firms  is  This a n a l y s i s o u t l i n e s  the f o r c e s of market s t r u c t u r e i n f l u e n c i n g the  distribution  of  tourists. Market  and  size  comprehensive view picture  of  enterprise  of  data  industry  concentration and  concentration Establishment  are  can  establishment  combined  to  structure. be  provide A  more  a more accurate  determined by i n v e s t i g a t i n g  concentration.  Establishment  r e f e r s to ownership i n t e g r a t i o n among e n t e r p r i s e s . integration  s t r u c t u r e of d i s t r i b u t i o n  allows a deeper understanding channels.  of  the  20  5.4  Product D i f f e r e n t a t i o n The  supply  v a r i e t y of products served by s e l l e r s  i s a function  and  to  demand  forces.  However,  dependence of t o u r i s t s f o r advice purchase  of  the  differentation on  product  intermediaries.  Scale  from  sellers  sight-unseen)  to the  determination  of  be determined  to o f f e r a v a r i e t y of p r o d u c t s .  Economies  over f i r m s i z e .  The v a r i o u s  costs-  rates  -hotel  influence  6.  relative  (due  Therefore, d i f f e r e n t a t i o n w i l l  Optimal l e v e l s of f i r m e f f i c i e n c y exert  w i l l be  the  i s e s p e c i a l l y important to host regions dependent  through s e l l e r propensity 5.5  due  of  firm s i z e .  costs  etc.  of inputs  and  A brief  others-  outline  of  a natural  influence  (wholesale  service  -advertising influencing  etc.) factors  delineated.  EXPECTED RESULTS  Intermediaries  now  have  the  ability  to organize the flow of  t o u r i s t s between regions on a l a r g e s c a l e . expected  that  a  significant  degree of intermediary  w i l l be found i n the Japanese t r a v e l point  to  a  intermediaries plans.  As a r e s u l t ,  market  to  i t is  influence  B.C.This  need to r a t i o n a l i z e the r o l e of i n t e r n a t i o n a l as  part  of  a l l regional  tourism  will tour  development  21  7.  JUSTIFICATION FOR  Planners  THE  ANALYSIS  cannot a f f o r d to l o s e s i g h t of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  institutionalized  economic  power  and  (Weaver 1984).  T h i s power i n f l u e n c e s the  therefore  ultimate  the  analysis  rests  involved  in  on  the  growth  the  and  development  spatial  economy  and  f u t u r e of a r e g i o n .  examination  tourist  regional  of  industry  as  institutional  This forces  i t r e l a t e s to r e g i o n a l  planning. Few  in-depth  academic s t u d i e s have covered the s t r u c t u r e of  i n t e r n a t i o n a l tour regions.  intermediaries  Perhaps  distribution region and  the  systems but  market  (WTO  best  was  their  known  1978).  Askari  packaged  effects  on  the  nature  of  s p e c i f i c a n a l y s i s to  any  outlines  does not apply  a n a l y s i s on the nature of however,  and  (1971) developed the tours.  His  l i m i t e d to t h e i r demand f u n c t i o n .  host  first  contribution, In  he p r o j e c t e d that changing o r g a n i z a t i o n of the tour  conclusion, industry  as  a r e s u l t of packaged tour growth would l e a d to a need to f u r t h e r study  their  effects  shown that changing must  be  studied  strategies  a  (Vukonic  trends in  i s recognized  large  problem. purposes.  order  1982,  It  general  (Askari  economy.  towards  industrialization planning  1980).  that t h i s study takes a s e l e c t i v e look  However, i t should First,  tourism  c o n t r i b u t e to three  development p o l i c y can  regions.  to s t u d i e s on Canada's r o l e Finally,  tourism  Recent works have  to more a c c u r a t e l y develop  Lanfant  a c c u r a t e l y d e l i n e a t e d by host w i l l add  1971:43,51).  t h i s w i l l a l s o add  Second, t h i s in  the  at  other  be more  information  changing  Pacific  to a deeper understanding  22  of the B r i t i s h Columbia economy.  23  11.  AN OVERVIEW OF ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURAL  CHARACTERISTICS  OF THE INTERNATIONAL TOURISM INDUSTRY T h i s chapter flow  of  examines the  tourists  distribution  into  host  system  regions.  organizing  The d i s t r i b u t i o n  system  i n v o l v e s the a c t o r s o r g a n i z i n g , promoting  and  regions  r e q u i r e s the c r e a t i o n  as  an end product.  T h i s process  and/or s t i m u l a t i o n of t o u r i s t  t r a v e l patterns  selling  the  through  tourist  the  host  region. The p a t t e r n of t o u r i s t t r a v e l a  tourism  the tour their its  economy.  industry  impacts.  what  of t o u r i s t t r a v e l  must be aware of i n d u s t r y s t r u c t u r e and  the  To understand t h i s , we must  tour product  i s , how  i t i s organized,  THE TOUR PRODUCT trade  of  tourism  products  The product  has  -  categorized  i n the same f a s h i o n as thermal  only c a r r i e s  'Super-Natural  broad geographical  geographically  consumed i n s i t u ; successful  representation  fixed  British  of  in  space.  Because the t o u r i s t a unique i n d u s t r y .  The  coal-  distinct  images.  It  standard  cannot  -the  As a r e s u l t ,  in reverse.  tourism  and d i s t r i b u t i o n  Columbia'  and c u l t u r a l  i t i s an export export  three  i s not i d e n t i f i a b l e using  criteria-  the  and  sold.  characteristics.  also  to the planning of  o r g a n i z a t i o n and s t r u c t u r e of  i n f l u e n c e s the p a t t e r n s  Planners  examine  promoted and  The  The o v e r a l l  i n f l u e n c e over t r a v e l p a t t e r n s .  first  1.  i s central  be  product  Tourism i s i t must be  follows  that  depends upon i t s s u c c e s s f u l  from abroad.  i n d u s t r y has no t a n g i b l e product, i t i s static  'tourism  plant'  elements  are  24  combined  into  services  and  symbiotic  a  'product'  images.  This  tourism  marketing,  spatial  concept,  elements  by  conveyed which  one  tourist  i n t o consumer goods.  most  differs  his  in  two  industry, i t i s a  regions  are  This  The  u n i t i n g of a  advertising alone may once  'processing'  and  not  they  be are  i n f l u e n c e s the  w i t h i n r e g i o n a l economies.  its  region  dependent  r e l a t i v e c o n t r o l over  pricing  and,  (2)  and  quality. just  industries  and  on an e x t e r n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n  international  tourist.  f o r the a p p r o p r i a t e form of tourism development in  l i g h t of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s reverse  the  r e s p e c t s ; (1) the s u p p l i e r i s not  system f o r the supply of the Planning  of  promotion through  attractions  product,  whole  relatively  outcome  nature  i n d u s t r i e s the s u p p l i e r has  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of Tourism  an  through  their  flow of t o u r i s t s i n t o and  In  is  tour i n t e r m e d i a r i e s .  r e l a t e d to tourism become processed  product  p r a c t i c e s employed in marketing and  governments, i n d u s t r y and single  which are, in r e a l i t y , a s e r i e s of  is  even  more  complex.  As  a  export, host regions are the r e c e p t o r s of market r e g i o n  tourists.  However, the s a l e of the tourism product  in market r e g i o n s . distribution w i t h i n host  often  As r e g i o n a l development plans are  systems  organizing  regions must be  fostered,  the flow of t o u r i s t s  understood  to  direct  occurs  into  and  appropriate  polic ies. "...Overlooking this essential f a c t i s probably the basic cause for many misunderstandings, disputes and less than e s s e n t i a l marketing and development schemes in tourism...."  WTO  1978:2  25  2.  THE INTERNATIONAL TOUR INDUSTRY  The  international  tourist  industry  functions  as  a  service  l i n k i n g the t o u r i s t , or consumer, to the producer of those goods and  services  desired  by  comprised of two d i s t i n c t  1)  The s t a t i c element  supply  sector,  transportation  a  consists  etc.  the d e s t i n a t i o n  of  accommodation,  t o plan and develop a s e l e c t tourism  elements  the  of  years,  with  through d e s t i n a t i o n  tourism  'system'  space economy.  t o u r i s t v a r i e s through any  one  elements  tourists  restaurant,  demand;  of  r e s o r t s and scenic  tour drives  This  system  However, the p a t t e r n  of each  tourist  1979).  space  economy.  Tour  of t o u r i s t s .  upon the dynamic  marketing,  promotion  s a l e s which i n f l u e n c e the d i r e c t i o n  within  of  space economy  building  s e r v i c e s are r e l a t i v e l y dependent  influencing  international  the  (Gunn  s e r v i c e s are not automatic r e c e p t o r s  2) These tour  regions'  and image of the r e g i o n .  c r e a t i n g a tourism  forms  It i s  and entertainment s e r v i c e s which are a l l part  have been common i n recent service  the d e s t i n a t i o n .  but i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d elements:  combination  the c u l t u r e , geography Efforts  consumers,  and  and  flow  of  the p h y s i c a l l y planned space economy of a host  region. Although a pre-planned space economy may duality  of  the t o u r i s t . the  static  the  industry  influences  be  developed,  a  the a c t u a l s p a t i a l flow of  T h i s d u a l i t y i s the c o n t r a s t  elements, and what i s promoted,  between what the dynamic  exists, elements.  26  Dynamic elements have p a r t i c u l a r tourist  products  are  often  i n f l u e n c e because  bought sight-unseen.  purchases an image i n search of an experience. marketing and s a l e of tourism  international  i s as important  The t o u r i s t  As a r e s u l t , the to the  region  as  the s p a t i a l p l a n n i n g of the i n d u s t r y . 3.  THE SELLING OF THE TOURISM IMAGE  A key element i n the 'processing' of tourism stimulating  tourist  motivation  through  Images are c r e a t e d by p r i v a t e agencies to  induce  subject  the  to  the  influencing "forms  of  tourist  to v i s i t  'social  travel reality  are  organization  construction  of  enterprise  alters  the  and  associations  s p e c i f i c areas.  T o u r i s t s are  spatial  of  their  LeFebvre on  by  the  notes,  principles  of  The d e f i n i t i o n and  government  patterns  expectations  (1972:45)  planning".  realities  (Dann 1981).  public  contrived  rationality,  these  As  images  and  engineering'  patterns.  f o r s a l e depends on  and  and  actions  private of the  tourist. ...it i s p o s s i b l e that images, as p e r c e i v e d by individuals i n the t r a v e l market, may have as much to do with an area's tourism development success as the more t a n g i b l e r e c r e a t i o n and tourism r e s o u r c e s . . . Hunt 1975:7 Tourists  seek ' r e a l i t y '  by impenetrable tourism  is  i n t h e i r t r a v e l s but are i n h i b i t e d  l a y e r s of c o n t r i v e d r e a l i t y .  l i k e the experience  The experience  of s o c i e t y ; s o c i e t y has been at  l e a s t p a r t i a l l y c r e a t e d by and i s an extension (McLuhan  1964).  of  media  tools  T o u r i s t s seek to get away from i t a l l but,  so doing, are manipulated  by  of  planners  and  organizers  in  of the  27  tourist  trade  (McCannell  1976).  (1961) i s the ' c u l t u r a l doping' never leaves the environmental victim  of  a  the product  T h i s , a c c o r d i n g to B o o r s t i e n  of  the  tourist.  The  tourist  bubble c o n t r i v e d f o r him: he i s a  s e r i e s of staged pseudo-events that together  and s a l e of  tourism.  Planning  form  f o r tourism  must  c o i n c i d e with the a p p r o p r i a t e c r e a t i o n and s a l e of tour images. Without t h i s t i e , planning would be d i s f u n c t i o n a l . 4.  THE SALE OF TOURISM  Many e n t e r p r i s e s p r o v i d i n g t o u r i s t to  the customer.  rely  on  the  intermediaries reservation  Consequently, t o u r i s t  influences such  services  of  but  mandatory.  for  The within  system and s a l e s  as  travel  agents,  tour  and  charter  brokers.  T h e i r success and  depend  international  tour  I n t e r m e d i a r i e s are thus  n e g o t i a t e and d i r e c t  directly  s e r v i c e e n t e r p r i s e s must  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  p r o f i t a b i l i t y does not t o t a l l y agents,  s e r v i c e s do not s e l l  in  upon  tour  customers a  pivotal  operators,  distribution i t i s a l l but position  the flow of the t o u r i s t .  development, promotion and s a l e of tourism takes a  multi-tiered  framework.  Host  region  place  federal,  p r o v i n c i a l , and m u n i c i p a l governments, and p r i v a t e concerns tourism.  All  to  levels  of  government  become  involved  sell in  c o n s t r u c t i n g tour images to promote s a l e s enhancing the economic w e l l - b e i n g of i t s region and i n o r g a n i z i n g the flow of to  minimize adverse  business, t r a n s p o r t Private  The tourism s e c t o r i n c l u d e s small  companies,  corporations  enhance t h e i r own  effects.  also  economic  tourists  accommodation  services, etc.  c o n s t r u c t images to s e l l well-being.  These  tourism to  a l l serve  to  28  i n f l u e n c e the d i s t r i b u t i o n system for the tour The  tour  d i s t r i b u t i o n system i s s c h e m a t i c a l l y  the accompanying f i g u r e ( f i g 2.1). services  with  distribution national  the  and  (intermediaries, and  conceptual  obtained i f three  purchase  are  and  i n t e r e s t to p r o f i t  travel  view basic  of  primarily  systems  employment  on:  opportunities,  revenues,  adverse e f f e c t s .  can  become  They tend to focus  -Encouraging higher u t i l i z a t i o n  I t i s in  image. only  be  recognized:  Regional T o u r i s t O r g a n i z a t i o n s  tax  the  promotional,  f o r e i g n exchange,  -Minimizing  While  from each s a l e while i t i s  distribution  f a c t s are  tour  associations,  i n t e r e s t to produce an o v e r a l l tour  -Expanding business and  -Increasing  tourism  f o r c e s of the  sales representatives).  to maximise r e g i o n a l b e n e f i t .  -Earning  o u t l i n e d in  play an a c t i v e r o l e i n the a c t u a l s a l e .  in the a s s o c i a t i o n s  1) N a t i o n a l  Tourists  i n f l u e n c e of the  organizations  intermediaries  A  or  organizations  intermediaries the  aid  system  associations  product.  of f a c i l i t i e s  and,  involved  2v  Figure  1-2.1  The T o u r i s t  Trade  Distribution  Network  PRODUCERS OF TOURISM SERVICES TRANSPORT; I Air, Car, I Land,Sea, Rental,etc. ;  ACCOMODATE ION; Hotels, Motels, etc.  OTHER;  ATTRACTION; Museums, parks,etc.  Retail, , Banking, etc.  i  I  \1/ DISTRIBUTION AND SALES INTERMEDIARIES  Tour Intermediaries  Traeel Associations  Government Tourism Organizatj ions  Sales Representatives of Tourism Services.  (Advertising, Promot i on,Mar ket i ng)  Tourists-Visitors-Customers  f  30  2)  Tour  brokers  intermediaries for  interest  host-region  to  services  -Whether nour  3)  In  their  services.  they  they  However,  serve it  is  as  commission  of  secondary  to  send t o u r i s t s of  tour  to,  and  distribution  follow  national  plans.  reach the  depend  sell,  practices  organization  order  services  i n v o l v e d to  them:  -Which d e s t i n a t i o n -Which  become  upon  international the  marketplace  distribution  system  host-region to  sell  their  products: -National  tourism  i n market  destination -Intermediaries for  of  influence  role  in  the  to  increase  of  the  offices  and  services  with  contract  the nature  a  tourism  the  international  activities  trade the  with  missions  serve  to  link  sell  their  market. tour  services  to  commission.  Recognizing planners  develop promotional  regions.  -Representative  product  organizations  sale their  this  economy.  spatial markets  of  As  shown,  distribution  of  intermediaries  and d i s t r i b u t i o n tourism  intermediary.  system  exports,  of  is  critical  for  differential  actors  tourists.  Within  play  tourists.  a more If  significant regions  t h e y must u n d e r s t a n d  the  aim role  31  5.  INTERNATIONAL INTERMEDARIES: TOURIST DISTRIBUTORS  Industry  intermediaries  services processing distribution and  act  as brokers of d e s t i n a t i o n - r e g i o n ,  the tourism  channels  to  product.  smooth the trade  (fig.2.2).  These  enterprise, operating aspect.  there  can  are  be  broken  of  form  between the t o u r i s t  intermediation  down  components.  destination  Tour  regions  they  have  wholesaling  and  industrial  wholesaling  i s the most of  service  to  airlines  retail  and  travel  hotel  o p e r a t o r s handle the i n t r i c a c i e s of the for hotels,  and  important contracts  agents  R e t a i l agents work on a commission  wholesalers,  arrangements  an  occur  the marketing and d i s t r i b u t i o n of.  'created'  originating countries. tour  like  retailing/distribution,  I t i n v o l v e s both the n e g o t i a t i o n  products  for  brokers  hosts. E s s e n t i a l l y three main f u n c t i o n s  in  These  ground  companies.  tour  such  transport,  as  etc.  in basis Tour  booking for  tour  wholesalers. Intermediary f u n c t i o n s  are  by  no  means  distinct,  they  i n t e g r a t e with each other and with t o u r i s t r e l a t e d i n d u s t r i e s to provide faceted inherent  can  a  wide  v a r i e t y of tourism  firms.  nature of t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n does  However, the m u l t i -  not  detract  from  the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each component.  The  first  be  divided  accommodation) activities).  of these r e l a t e s to f u n c t i o n .  Component s e r v i c e s  i n t o those e s s e n t i a l f o r t o u r i n g and  those  which  are  ( t r a n s p o r t and  peripheral  (tours,  Figure 2.2 Functional Structure of the Tourism Industry  TOURISM DESTINATION (Supply Region)  TOURISM MARKET (Generating Region)  Service-Supply Sector Potential Travellers Group tours •uniforms •specialized •flexible Independent traveller  I  Retail Travel Agents  N  T  E  R  M  E  Tour Distributors  D  I  A  R  I  Tour Wholesalers  E  S  Tour Operators  •transportation •accommodations •restaurant •gift stores •attractions •entertainment •services  33  An  agency  can  a c t p r i m a r i l y - a s a t i c k e t i n g agent f o r outbound  t r a v e l l e r s , as w e l l as traffic.  The  aggregation. functions  ground  operator  characteristic  wholesaling,  borders.  Often  a  aggregation occurs. involved  inbound  to  spatial  of  intermediary  etc.) s p a t i a l l y  The t h i r d  multiplicity  for  relates  Companies can c a r r y out a number (operating,  traits.  local  second  t o u r i s t s across  become  a  relates of  to  organizational  functional  For example, intermediary  connecting  and  spatial  corporations  i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d i n g as w e l l as being  can local  c o n t r a c t agents f o r o t h e r s . The  organization  of intermediary  the o r i g i n a t i n g c o u n t r i e s countries  (where  corporate  (where tours are sold) and d e s t i n a t i o n  tours  are  negotiated)  influences  d i s t r i b u t i o n of t o u r i s t s i n t o host  regions.  enterprises  characterized  has  been  changing,  l e v e l s of i n t e g r a t i o n , which has been the rise  in  the  These trends,  international as we w i l l  networks i n both  tourist  see,  The nature of these  key  trends  merchandising i n d u s t r y except on a g l o b a l s c a l e . and  structural  i n t e g r a t i o n , chain  changes  in  the  retail  stores, systematizing  sent planners s c u r r y i n g  to  rationalize  by force  industry  parallel  the  increasing in  their  (Hudson, n.d.). in  the  retail  Organizational  sector  caused  by  and conglomeration have plans  for  commercial  centres. International "large  corporations  creating, the v a r i o u s  and  intermediaries capable  marketing  of  have evolved organizing,  i n t o systems of co-ordinating,  the d i v e r s e elements which c o n s t i t u t e  t o u r i s t products a v a i l a b l e " ( B r i t t o n  1982a:253-4).  34  These  are  corporate  structured  o r g a n i z a t i o n have  i n f l u e n c e of tour The  first  is  companies  favourable they  the  a  develop  retailers.  systems  l i n k e d to  been followed  (e.g.,  international  intermediaries  and  change  new  Hyatt  in  cost and 1972)  and  of  tourists  They can a f f o r d  and  gain  access  the  to  a r e f i n e d commodity  (Lanfant  are  networks  groups of of  action product.  in  addition  (EIU such  and  more  on  structure  efficient  the  industry.  of  On  one  jumbo j e t opened  the  other  it  caused  Mass t r a v e l has  s e c u r i t y d e s i r e d by t r a v e l l e r s  to process tourism  (Burkhart  1974:187).  Medlik  a  been low  (Cohen  the c o r p o r a t e ' d e s i r e and  the  transport  1979a,1981b ,1983). as the  to  Sons).  packaged tour which brought together  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l fulfilled  form  organization  mediums  the  channels)  (e.g., Thomas Cook and  r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the by  operations"  International)  p o s s i b i l i t i e s of mass t r a v e l , but  characterized  These  i n t e r n a t i o n a l tourism  been f a c i l i t a t e d by new,  transport  significant  eventual  by a number of i n t e r n a t i o n a l h o t e l  communications t e c h n o l o g i e s  hand  and  in e s t a b l i s h i n g  number  tour  (organized  corporations  i n d u s t r y has  to the  their  economies.  advantage  international  s t r u c t u r i n g of the  trend has  This  marked  scale  promotional campaigns  co-ordinators  l e a d i n g to the This  greater  a  role  These firms become e s t a b l i s h e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y  Such  agencies and  increasing  of  through these channels.  p o s i t i o n s due  through a "system of 1980:22).  the  Three trends  r e l a t i v e degree of c o n t r o l over.  l a r g e marketing and many  to  channels.  growth i n f i r m s i z e and  sought  bargaining  have  led  intermediaries  amalgamation as they large  distribution  into  35  Integrated c o r p o r a t i o n s p r o c e s s i n g t o u r i s t p i v o t a l p o s i t i o n s because of t h e i r p o i n t s of various  destination  regions. supply  regions and  T h e i r r e a l power l i e s and  demand,  they  t o u r i s t s into a select  to supply  contracts  host  industries  destinations.  organizational  able  to  through bulk  demand through t h e i r c r e a t i o n select  duality;  of  This  trend,  that  to  both  n e g o t i a t e the flow of  or  related services.  long  (obtained  at  marketing  and  lends of  within  in o r i g i n a t i n g  attuned  set of d e s t i n a t i o n s and  They are attuned with  connection  s a l e of tourism in  are  resources are in  itself  term  discounts)  and  promotion  of  to  horizontal  service  the  and  second vertical  integration. Vertical  integration  has  i n d u s t r i e s , such as an a i r l i n e between  i n t e r m e d i a r i e s and  occurred  and  a  hotel  Horizontal  primarily  intermediaries.  tour  service  corporation,  and  s e r v i c e s such as a tour operator  accommodation s e r v i c e s . amongst  between  i n t e g r a t i o n of r e t a i l agents  with  integration  tour  This  has  and  occurred  leads  wholesalers  to  the  and  tour  also  been  operators. The  rapid  rise  of  these  corporations  f a c i l i t a t e d by the p e n e t r a t i o n of non system.  For  shareholder Group  and  example,  Barclay's  i n Thomas Cook and Budget  c o r p o r a t i o n s are  Car  has  - tourism c a p i t a l  Bank  is  now  into  the  largest  Sons, ITT owns the Sheraton  rental,  the  largest  Japanese  i n t e g r a t e d with soqo soshas or general  the  Hotel tour  trading  houses. These  organizational  changes w i t h i n the i n d u s t r y c e n t r i n g  36  around the  rise  important their  of  the  c o n t r o l the  resources  abroad.  of  b e n e f i t s and  government promotion and  changes in the form  retail  and  these  structure  new  of  urban  intermediaries dependence  model  the  follows  1976,  planning  for  r o l e of in l i g h t Such  i s needed  as  Lundgren  1977,  leaves  commodities  dependent  Britton and  Lundgren  i n t e g r a t i o n of  syndrome.  regions  regions  external  creating  This  'export  as  forces.  destinations  this  substitutable As  local  i n d u s t r i e s v i e for the s a l e of t h e i r s e r v i c e s , they can s u b s t i t u t a b l e commodity to other  1980,  B r i t t o n (1980) shows that  destination on  region  s e r v i c e i n t e g r a t i o n of market  into destination  integration  order  of s e r i o u s host  core-periphery  these companies.  in  multinational  basic trend of m u l t i n a t i o n a l  and  (Davies  distribution.  as one  H i l l s and  intermediary  region c o r p o r a t i o n s  the  organizations.  corporations  i n d u s t r y as a t y p i c a l  enclaves'  traditional  In a more c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s , H i l l s  outlined  the tour  these  been d e s c r i b e d  (IUOTO  UNCTAD 1982). have  of has  influencing  commercial c e n t r e s  to address the changing r o l e s of tour role  The  can  sector have caused a s i g n i f i c a n t change in  A re-assessment of tourism  The  i n essence,  sables,  impacts.  have  hoping to export  development need r e - e v a l u a t i o n  f o r c e s of the power of  1976).  corporation  Intermediaries,  i n d u s t r i a l process of tour  distribution  the  intermediary  i m p l i c a t i o n s for d e s t i n a t i o n regions  tourist  of the  tour  if  the  service become a  price  is  not s i m i l a r . The  d i s t r i b u t i o n of b e n e f i t s from tourism  the o r g a n i z a t i o n  and  s t r u c t u r e of the  industry  i s determined between  by  market  37  and  d e s t i n a t i o n regions.  d i s t r i b u t i o n and function  of  impacts  derived  from  various  markets  three v a r i a b l e s : the o r g a n i z a t i o n and  the d i s t r i b u t i o n regions,  I t f o l l o w s that the p a t t e r n of income  and  system,  the  costs  of  that  the volume of t o u r i s t s served  is  a  s t r u c t u r e of  system  to  host  from that p a r t i c u l a r  market. The  specific  o r g a n i z a t i o n and  s t r u c t u r e of the  distribution  system depends upon the l e v e l of trade i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n between regions can  (Lanfant  be  1980:21).  related  organization processed  and  the  (packages  channels.  tourism as an  The  of of  export  intra  corporations  behaviour  have  the  the  the  trend  towards  'sun,sand and of  tour  ability  and  pattern  This  development  inter-firm  flows.  etc.)  more  of  ability  process  the  'channeling'  of  between  many  surf' destinations).  As d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r ,  to  grow some  behaviour  intrinsically  more  developed  and  diversify  cases  to  t o u r i s t s through t h e i r and  The  intermediaries ultimately  o p e r a t i o n s g l o b a l l y , e n a b l i n g them in  channels.  and  tourist  i n f l u e n c e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n system.  influence  industrialization  i n d u s t r i a l i z e d process has happened  (especially tropical  The  l e v e l of trade  degree  structuring  the flows  distribution  regions  to  The  evolves  r e l a t e d to the  tour their  directly  distribution out  of  a  inter-regional  i n t e r n a t i o n a l growth of f i r m s . In theory,  host entry  region or  f o r e i g n c o r p o r a t i o n s export  when  the  competitive  to or  environment f o r conducting advantages  s p a t i a l b a r r i e r s to entry  to  compensate  (see Caves 1971,  invest  in  business for  H i r s c h 1976).  a has  various  38  As  tourism  and competitive invest  trade  e v o l v e s , firms l e a r n more about  b a r r i e r s to entry and may then wish to export or  f u r t h e r i n the t r a d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p .  are n a t u r a l l y m u l t i n a t i o n a l , corporations  from  host  more aspects of t o u r i s t leads  spatial  as  and  travel  Tour i n t e r m e d i a r i e s  patterns  evolve  tour  market regions attempt to c o n t r o l  flow  to  reap  further  benefit.  This  to v a r i o u s l e v e l s of i n t e g r a t i o n which c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y  stems from market region c o u n t r i e s (IUOTO 1975:46). The action  i n f l u e n c e of these to  control  the  evolutionary  flow of t o u r i s t s  most s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s needing highly  structured  of t o u r i s t  flows  different  set  through  firms.  host  of channels.  the  Regions  t o be  behaviour without  Markets  create select Each  These channels  market  with  patterns has  organization  control  a  each have t h e i r own  impact and environmental  and  the  corporate  i s perhaps one of the  regions.  social  of  addressed.  d i s t r i b u t i o n channels  form of economic leakage, depending on  trends  over  of  impact  controlling  the c o - o r d i n a t i n g  f u n c t i o n are i n c r e a s i n g l y s u b j e c t to such p r e s s u r e s . The sided  c o s t s of s t r u c t u r e d channels  issue.  On  one  side  to host regions i s a  i n t e r m e d i a r i e s serve to b r i n g the  t o u r i s t and h i s revenue i n t o the host  r e g i o n , but i n t e r m e d i a r i e s  manipulate and c o n t r o l the flow of t o u r i s t s , p o t e n t i a l l y concern  f o r the r e g i o n ' s  international  tourism  interest. planning  The  thus  that i n t e r m e d i a r i e s play i n the host T r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g approaches industry  two-  central  without  question  in  r e v o l v e s around the r o l e  region's economy. relating  to  the  tourism  have used i t as a ' t o o l f o r r e g i o n a l development' (see  39  Clarke  1981,  Macklin, theory  Pearce 1981,  Monaghan 1979).  or,  specifically,  by t a k i n g  efforts  to  i n v e n t o r i e s of s e r v i c e s  outline  that they have not i s how  the  Planners  a tour product.  examined  the  s p a t i a l pattern in  general  demand.  They have taken market  desired  products  intermediaries It  but  as  they  industry  for  and  and  attractions  and  This  transport  integration  profile  have not  studies  to  examined the  Several  1)  linkages.  engineering  regions  as the  control  over  i s not an  of  social  t o u r i s t s w i l l be o u t s i d e  automatic  Columbia's  turn,  i t only becomes so the  lends  distribution  i s as  of the t o u r i s t  engineering,  the  the hands of host  tourist  tour  flow  of  investment itself  to  system.  discussion.  the t o u r i s t  2) D i s t r i b u t i o n systems are the British  in  international  s p a t i a l planning the  i n f l u e n c e of  by a d v e r t i s i n g , p l a n t  This,  p o i n t s emerge from t h i s  Social  determine  'manufacturing agents'.  i s only c r e a t e d  the  tourism,  assumed a somewhat p r e d i c t a b l e  a l l international visitors;  within  in  travel.  through a complex d i s t r i b u t i o n system i n f l u e n c i n g tourists.  within  s o l d , thus  of t o u r i s t  f o l l o w s that B r i t i s h Columbia  destination  industry  i n d u s t r i a l process of  have  systems  T h e i r major d e f i c i e n c y i s  s e r v i c e s are organized  i n f l u e n c i n g the  Marshall  These approaches have followed  in attempt to s p a t i a l l y d e f i n e a tourism  a region  that  Gunn 1979  key  important to plant. spatial  Without flow  of  regions.  l i n k s in d i r e c t i n g  industry  host  receives  the  way  international  40  visitors.  Marketing s t r a t e g i e s , product development and t o u r i s t  expectations systems  are  which  primarily  direct  determined  the t o u r i s t  through  distribution  i n t o the pre-planned tourism  space economy.  3) As tourism t r a d e r e l a t i o n s h i p s evolve there i s a tendency f o r r  a distinct  set of d i s t r i b u t i o n firm  behaviour.  channels  spatial  flow of t o u r i s t s than p r e v i o u s l y planned f o r .  and  result  created  of  control  can  be  result  4) The tour i n d u s t r y  This  to  because  of  the  inherent  d i s t r i b u t i o n channels having to be l o c a t e d i n  a  in a different  i s subject t o a c e r t i a n degree  ownership  as  both  of  foreign  nature market  of and  destination regions.  In  the  depth. economy  following  c h a p t e r s , these p o i n t s w i l l  Their s i g n i f i c a n c e will  be  tested  and  relevance  to  be d i s c u s s e d i n the  B.C.  through a case of the Japanese  market and the o r g a n i z a t i o n and s t r u c t u r e channels h a n d l i n g t h i s market.  of  the  tour travel  distribution  41  III.  THE BROADENING HORIZONS OF JAPANESE TOURISTS  1.  INTRODUCTION  It  is  important to understand  the nature of t o u r i s t markets i n  order to a i d i n the p l a n n i n g of a tourism economy. region i s supported by a number of d i f f e r e n t their  own  specific  primarily  aims  effect  at  outlining  i n f l u e n c e d the Japanese 2.  on  the  Each  markets each having  economy.  This  the h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s  traveller  chapter which have  to v i s i t Western Canada.  THE JAPANESE TOURIST  Trends of seeking r e c r e a t i o n through t r a v e l , along with rising of  living  the  standards and economic i n t e g r a t i o n  world,  international  have  contributed  tourism.  Japan  to  now  the  special  generates  $4.81  billion Canada  (US) t o r e c e i v i n g now  receives  annually, representing visitors  or  seven  about  n a t i o n s (OECD,  appeal  over  140,000  one  of  cent  of  4 million value  of  1982).  approximately per  Japan's  with the r e s t  overseas v i s i t s per year, r e p r e s e n t i n g a t o t a l export  are  tourist  visitors  international  per cent of overseas t r a v e l l e r s .  Americans  by f a r the most frequent v i s i t o r s a c c o u n t i n g f o r over 90 per  cent of i n t e r n a t i o n a l Japanese  travel  to Canada.  are t h i r d behind B r i t i a n  Of overseas t r a v e l , the  (26.4 per  cent)  and  Germany  (10.4 per c e n t ) . The  Japanese  v i s i t o r s to B.C.  are  second  largest  group of overseas  (14 per cent) behind the B r i t i s h  accounting f o r about However, Japanese  the  (24 per cent)  two per cent of a l l i n t e r n a t i o n a l  travel  expenditure accounts f o r about  travel. f i v e per  42  cent  of  i n t e r n a t i o n a l v i s i t o r s to B.C.  ($26.7 m i l l i o n ) ,  ($69.8  m i l l i o n ) n a t i o n a l l y (StatsCanada 66-201, 66-001). Japanese fondness for t r a v e l dates back to the (1600-1867), to  allow  when a newly c o n s t r u c t e d  communication  possibility  of p u b l i c t r a v e l .  of t r a v e l l e r s . over  140  The  million  from e a r l y school traverse  their  s h r i n e s and and  between  network of roads designed  provinces  opened  domestic t r a v e l  industry  t r i p s per year.  Travel i s a l i f e l o n g  years  to  country  have  or to consider  business  like  fueled  of  Japanese c u l t u r e .  must  life  no other.  much  leisure  Traditional  1912)  emphasis  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and  (Tokuhisa,  that  But  people  to  Shinto regions  i t i s only  internationally  recent  Confucianist  phenomenon in  ethics  During the M e i j i  tended  to  Restoration  on the workplace l i m i t e d i n d i v i d u a l s '  sake was  The  in  free-time  activities.  frowned upon; the general  free time should  1980:129).  Japanese have had  be used f o r shigoto  work e t h i c was  so p e r v a s i v e  to adopt a French e q u i v a l e n t  for  social  or  work  that  vacation,  the "  ".  Social f o s t e r e d new growing  habit;  of  Pilgrimages  is a fairly  participation  f o r i t s own  consensus was  bakesion  accommodate  groups  of t h i s demand.  discourage the p u r s u i t of l e i s u r e .  Enjoyment  the  t r a v e l in terms of a l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y .  concept  -  up  Today, the Japanese are a nation  r e c e n t l y that the Japanese have begun to t r a v e l  (1868  period  Buddhist temples, as w e l l as v i s i t s to home  family  The  Edo  and  economic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s  attitudes  appreciation  towards for  leisure.  of post-war Japan have There  has  been  a  the v i r t u e s of s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t away  43  from the pressures Japan's  first  of urban l i f e and  individual  robbing in  ITQ  and  him #2,  everyday  p. 36).  forms  of  has  led  life  specifically  to  Japanese may  take  work" (ITQ  #2,  Although  limiting  the  workers.  to  the  While  some  their leisure  as  of the the  16.3  1973 The  of  travel  are now take  to  confines  travel  seriously  is  of  geared  conclude that  time  days a v a i l a b l e , and  the  time  as  the  their  primary  available  ever  strong  f a c t o r in  to  Japanese  i s i n c r e a s i n g i t does not come For  worker took only 8.3  example,  in  1981  the  v a c a t i o n days a year  even t h i s was  an  increase  out over  average of 4 v a c a t i o n days a n n u a l l y . use  of days o f f has  that tends to g i v e higher the  in  as  remains  been l i m i t e d not only by a strong  work e t h i c , but a l s o by a c o r p o r a t e  on  the  to  spiritual  in Japanese s o c i e t y , t r a d i t i o n a l l y  vacation  Japanese  as  quoted  a l e i s u r e p u r s u i t i s p l a y i n g an  c l o s e to North American standards. average  systemization  mental,  outside  increase  causing  workplace  amount  term  p. 36) .  tourism role  the  ( F i n a n c i a l Times, 1973  d e s i r e to seek  an  workplace.  to give expression  when s o c i a l  recreation  "...  1973,  to  The  leisure,  more s i g n i f i c a n t attachment  in an age  of h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y "  1973,  defined  for the human being  faculties  physical  routinized  White Paper on L e i s u r e  ". . . the o p p o r t u n i t y his  a  job.  ranking  employee  to those who  T h i s i s changing, however.  becoming d i r e c t l y  advantage  begun to provide  of  their  evaluation put  Japanese  i n v o l v e d in encouraging vacation  time.  r e s o r t s for employee use  system  in more hours corporations employees  to  Many companies have or  organize  company  44  group  tours  during h o l i d a y p e r i o d s .  employee's pay compensation p a r t of t h e i r The 128)  of  leisure  only  package, they are given h o l i d a y s  Study of L i f e Awareness ( c i t e d i n Tokuhisa,  i n d i c a t e d that overseas t r a v e l  per  cent  1980,  i s the most p r e f e r r e d  time, although t h i s r e p o r t e d d e s i r e i s  three  as  pay.  1978  p.  T h i s i s o f t e n part of the  of the p o p u l a t i o n .  fulfilled  use by  In the same year the  Survey of Free Time Expenditure showed that the r a t e of i n c r e a s e in  l e i s u r e expenditures was  expenditures. Japanese Tourism  According to a 1980  people i n Japan  respondents  conducted 1982  wished  who  3.  survey on the d a i l y  the  to  to  23  the "youth" age group  per  was,  of  tourist course,  distribution patterns. cultural  products limited  channels  as  a  characteristics  extreme example than the Initially, technical  Japanese  the  second only life".  priority  were  (18 to 30 years o l d ) .  the  quest  them to v a r i o u s r e g i o n s . the  necessary  A major determinant  of  PATTERNS  lead by  of  "housing  As the d e s i r e to t r a v e l abroad became a r e a l i t y , certain  cent  life",  their  leisure  life  Minister's Office (  "leisure  enrich  pursue  JAPANESE TRAVEL HABITS AND  Prime  pp.2-3),  to e n r i c h t h e i r  desired  predominantly  by  ,1983,  to the 27 per cent wishing Those  higher than that of o v e r a l l consumer  of  travel  infrastructure  for This and  to c r e a t e and n e g o t i a t e trade any  trade  pattern  is  the  of the t o u r i s t and there i s not a more Japanese. travel  abroad  was  primarily  for  visits  to examine i n d u s t r y and commercial  technology  and o r g a n i z a t i o n .  As tourism evolved t h e i r n a i v e t e ,  nature  of  45  travel  and  tourists  .  attachments  to  groups c h a r a c t e r i z e d them as group  I t was not uncommon to  see  busloads  of  uniformed  t o u r i s t s v i s i t i n g a l l of the ' c l a s s i c s ' - the V a t i c a n , Athens or London  in  the  early  years.  Group  travel  p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y as important as i t was i n the table  3.1).  There i s an i n c r e a s i n g  direct  experience of the  a c t i v i t i e s and t e s t i n g As active are  Japanese  for  culture,  increasingly  changing  habits  Japanese t o u r i s t s attraction  to  group  comradery  new  If  been  the  t r a v e l p a t t e r n s , B.C. visitors  (see  recreational  popular  decreased more  Today sport and reasons  to  health  travel.  economy  As  broadened,  adventurous forms of t r a v e l has l e d regions  like  western  of western Canada, p a r t i c u l a r l y  the Rockies has  experience.  more  1960's  through  i n t o the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  and  longer  (Moeran, 1983, p.96).  forms of t r a v e l became the norm. becoming  mid  no  preference f o r example, f o r  local cuisine  travel  Japanese i n t e g r a t i o n  and  local  is  to  existing  absorb  a  Canada.  ' s u p e r n a t u r a l ' B.C.  more  'exotic'  surveys are i n d i c a t i v e  may experience an  The  increasing  travel  of f u t u r e number  of  i n coming y e a r s .  Because  Japanese  geared p r i m a r i l y  leisure  travel  to f o r e i g n  to s i g h t s e e i n g , famous landmarks  Rockies and Niagara F a l l s h o l d a s p e c i a l  appeal.  countries i s such  as  the  Table 3.1 Changes in the Purpose of Japanese Tourism Travel  Year 1964  60.3  2.8  19.0  4.0  7.2  5.2  1966  63.6  4.5  14.4  4.6  5.3  5.6  1970  39.2  6.7  32.0  3.0  9.8  7.3  1972  41.1  4.5  34.5  2.7  4.2  8.4  1974  42.5  7.5  29.4  3.3  4.0  7.6  1976  31.3  10.3  26.3  4.3  4.1  15.1  (Cited i n Tokuhisa,  1980, p. 133).  Sports  Sightseeing, Pleasure  V i s i t s to Shrines, Temples ..  Group Relaxation  Hobbies or Studies  Health and Recouperation  47  According  to recent  surveys Canada now  ranks as a top country of  d e s t i n a t i o n choice  f o r Japanese t o u r i s t s ( E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s  Nippon  1980).  Research  associated Rockies  with  There  visiting  is  various  a  locales  have p a r t i c u l a r p r e s t i g e as one  in vogue. British  Scenic  grandeur  Columbia  is  desire  some  analysts  crowding and  to  and  Canadian  of the p l a c e s  currently  settings,  '79;  with  Nippon Research,  to the outdoors has  the  increased  p o l l u t i o n (Moeran, 1983,  pp.  In  1964,  Japan accepted the IMF  exchange r e g u l a t i o n s  on  currency  began,  liberation  of  urbanization,  As  a  restrictions  was  with a $500 (U.S.) currency  continued,  the  industry  these c o n s t r a i n t s . evolved  travel  selling  limited  phasing  on  purchase of  the  to  organized  highly  Yen  trips,  strengthened  the Japanese  strengthened As we  by an  s h a l l see  and  travel  growth r a t e s ever.  single As  In trip  lifting  to work within,  structured  industry  tours to obtain volume discounts As  the  value  to of  more funds were allowed f o r overseas deficit  grew  rapidly.  This  intense d e s i r e of Japan's people to  l a t e r , Japan  of  lifted.  exchange l i m i t .  meet r i g i d exchange l i m i t a t i o n s ( t a b l e 3.2). the  a  s e r v i n g t h i s market had  As a r e s u l t , a  foreign  general  f o r e i g n exchange f o r l e i s u r e purposes were g r a d u a l l y overseas tourism  1980).  recommendation to l i f t  imports.  for  96-7).  JAPAN'S LEAP INTO INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL  passport  which  been a t t r i b u t e d by  pressures  4.  1964,  value  the  natural  (Visitor  escape to  status  well endowed, are becoming a p r i o r i t y  many Japanese t r a v e l l e r s This  and  certain  1983,  experienced  one  of  the  was  travel. fastest  48  Table 3.2 Variables of Japanese Travel Growth Value of Japanese Yen to Canadian Dollar  Year  Limit of Foreign Exchange Funds ($US)  Balance of Travel Payments Deficit (millions)  Events  1963  0.002996  -  -  -  1964  0.002996  500  -  4/1/64 Tourism Begins  1965  0.002995  500  17  -  1966  0.002975  500  40  -  1967  0.002979  500  55  Expo '67  1968  0.002989  500  41  -  1969  0.003005  700  93  -  1970  0.002916  1000  83  Jumbo Jet, Osaka Worlds F a i r  1971  0.002912  1000  337  Multi-Trip Passports  1972  0.003270  1000  573  -  1973  0.003696  3000  1043  -  1974  0.003354  1500  1123  Oil  1975  0.003430  1500  1115  -'  1976  0.003327  3000  1351  Montreal Olympics  1977  0.003980  3000  1727  -  1978  0.005480  No l i m i t  3247  -  1979  0.005375  No l i m i t  4256  Second O i l C r i s i s  1980  0.005183  No l i m i t  3949  -  1981  0.005450  No l i m i t  3883  -  1982  0.004966  No l i m i t  3362  -  1983  .  Crisis  0.005190  ^ank of Canada Review, Jan. 1984, Table 65. 2  0ECD.  International Tourism i n OECD Countries (Annual).  49  Organized they  helped  traveller the  t o u r s had a s p e c i a l appeal f o r novice to  reduce  fear  of  the  unknown  i n f a m i l i a r group s i t u a t i o n s .  international  government industry  scene,  regulations, to maintain  Slow  i n response has  sales  first  allowed  the  expanded  targeting  t r a v e l and was  Japanese  at unprecedented  rates.  time s e l l i n g grasp  on  brand  an  tours.  expensive I t was  in  the f i r s t  tours  tourism  in  As  prices  the fell  Before t r a v e l  was  elsewhere  However,  travel  first  gained  to develop markets.  to launch an 1969  conjunction  with  In J u l y  i n c l u s i v e tour to most c a r r i e r s had with  a  to i n c r e a s e c a p a c i t y ,  a c t i v i t i e s and organized t i e s  q u i c k l y c o p i e d and by  name  into  commodity and agents had a tough  the a i r l i n e s which  Japan and abroad  the  They promoted saving f o r  C a r r i e r s , aiming  t h e i r marketing  Swiss A i r was T h i s was  opportunities.  the i n d u s t r y .  strengthened agencies  new  tour  i n Japan and  introduced p o t e n t i a l d e s t i n a t i o n s .  originally  integration  i t s t i g h t c o n t r o l over the market.  ' L i b e r a t e d ' , major t r a v e l agencies  began  by keeping  to the gradual easing of  i n d u s t r y became more systematized, t r a v e l and and  travellers;  1964  Europe. introduced  a c o n s o r t i a of  travel  agenc i e s . The J a p a n e s e - B r i t i s h Columbia t r a v e l connection dates to  1955  when  Canada  and Japan reached a b i l a t e r a l  a i r l i n e s agreement and waived v i s a permanent employment  (see t a b l e 3.3  trade development with Canada). first  return  commercial  fees f o r v i s i t o r s not f o r a chronology  In that year CP A i r  back  seeking  of Japanese began  its  50  Table 3.3 Chronology of Trade Events 1952  F i r s t Technical V i s i t s to B.C.  1955  B i - l a t e r a l A i r Treaty Signed  1955  CP A i r F l i e s to Tokyo  1961  J.A.L. F l i e s to Vancouver  1964  Travel Liberation Sapporo Winter Olympics  1964  Annual Trade Missions  1965  Canadian Trade and Travel Office  1968  J.A.L. and C P .  Direct F l i g h t s  Montreal Expo 1968 1970  Osaka World's Fair  1974  Widebody F l i g h t s  1976  Montreal Olympics  1985  Expo '85 Japan  1986  Expo '86 Vancouver  1988  Calgary Winter Olympics  51  flights  from Vancouver to Tokyo and on to Hong Kong.  until 1968  1961 before  that  I t was not  Japan A i r l i n e s began l a n d i n g i n Vancouver and  i t flew Tokyo-Vancouver  direct.  E a r l y v i s i t s were p r i m a r i l y t e c h n i c a l and were arranged local  by  Vancouver i n t e r m e d i a r i e s such as Bob Iwata who began t h i s  trade i n 1952. Other t r a v e l e x i s t e d , one notable t r i p being the 1925  first  ascent  of Mt.  Robson was not climbed after  a  successful  Canadian Rockies The  first  Vancouver pioneer  by  Japanese  expedition.  remain as the primary  a c t i v e campaign t o develop Bureau  in  1963,  trade  o r g a n i z a t i o n of companies  American-style  21  agreements  travel  were  packages  began  made  agreements  networks  of  retail  trip  was  i n t e r m e d i a r i e s p r o c e s s i n g the tour lasted  only  d i s t r i b u t o r s to grow and l e a r n  as  about  l e d by the pioneers  itinerary  agents  requirements. through  B.C. with  as the  the d i r e c t  intermediaries.  airlines product  This  product long  the  followed  As these  day  their  agents.  with  l e a d i n p a r t by another  made  from  d i s t r i b u t i n g agents i n Japan to take  distributors  ties  This  provided them with d i d not meet Japanese  through  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the  government's Ken Woodward.  q u i c k l y l e a r n e d , the  These  1950, two years  by the now almost annual trade missions  provincial  Mt.  tourism draw today.  of t h i s t r a d e , Gordon Kadota.  Initial  climbers.  by a Canadian p a r t y u n t i l American  Visitor's  the next year B.C.  Robson  and to  system  market  of  f o r Japanese i t took  for  intricacies  tour  B.C. tour those  of the  business. In  1968  the Japan T r a v e l Bureau (J.T.B.) introduced  their  52  own  s h o r t - h a u l " M i n i " and honeymoon  through (NEC)  their  own  outlets.  "Honey"  L a t e r J.T.B.  packages  to  and Nippon  sell  Express  combined to produce "Look" t o u r s , t r a v e l packages .marketed  worldwide. agencies  Concentrating found  it initially  to s e l l t h e i r packages. however,  on  package  mass  packaged  difficult  Eventually,  tours  became  dual  important system  First,  due  locus  retailers. of  tour  to  their  outlets  popularity  T h i s s i g n i f i e d the  the  industry  of c a r r i e r s and agencies  wholesalers and making  trends.  to convince other  these  a common commodity s o l d out of  most r e t a i l o u t l e t s on commission. of two  production  Second,  changed  from  a  to a t r i l o g y of c a r r i e r s ,  a  programing  beginning  shift  from  in  the. d e c i s i o n  host region "inbound"  operators to market region "outbound" w h o l e s a l e r s . In 1969  Contract Bulk  t r a v e l agencies success  of  I n c l u s i v e Tour f a r e s (CBIT) motivated  to p r a c t i c e w h o l e s a l i n g and  independent  wholesalers.  l a r g e minimum group f a r e s favoured a b i l i t y to meet the standard and their  stronger  purchasing  and  this  Strict  fostered  the  requirements  on  l a r g e r agencies which had  thus c o n t r o l a i r seats retailing  powers.  wholesaling and brand-name tours became standards industry.  Smaller agencies wishing  dependent s i s t e r gain  access  to  to the l a r g e r agencies supply  one's tour brochure The currency  channels.  or  through  After  this  i n the h o l i d a y had  form  to become a  consortia  to  F i e r c e competition to have  on d i s p l a y weeded out the weak.  combination for  to wholesale  the  of  increased  availability  of  foreign  tourism as w e l l as the i n t r o d u c t i o n of m u l t i - t r i p  passports the f o l l o w i n g year  (1971)  helped  to  broaden  travel  53  opportunities. however, by  These  the  developments  appearance  of  were a l l but overshadowed,  the  jumbo  jet  (1970).  The  i n c r e a s e d passenger c a p a c i t y of these wide-body j e t s opened up a whole  new  market,  namely  middle  income groups who  c o u l d not have a f f o r d e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a v e l . t h i s new  form  of  transport  farther  on what funds were a v a i l a b l e .  the average annual t a b l e 3.4). to 2.3 this  The  million  allowed  the  After  1971  It should be noted, market has been extremely  a  64  Perhaps  the  most  to t a b l e 3.2).  of the f i r s t overseas cent.  years (see  f o r most  that  trips. the  Japanese  tourism  t e l l i n g years were 1973/74.  currency  l i m i t s i n 1973  of payments t r a v e l  T h i s was  " O i l Shock" l a t e  travel  growth  rate  almost i n 1973, had  stopped  a l l o t m e n t s f o r tourism had once again reduced tourist.  By  in a  (refer  c o l d by the  been reduced  A  stimulated  deficit  however.  R i s i n g t r a v e l c o s t s and a r e d u c t i o n i n  the Japanese  of  t r a v e l never  cent growth i n tourism f o r that year, r e s u l t i n g  near doubling of the balance back  three  v u l n e r a b l e to worldwide macro-economic  i n f o r e i g n and domestic per  travel  over 50 per cent  the r a t i o of t o u r i s t  however,  to  t r a v e l l e r s rose from 500,000  dropped below 80 per cent of a l l overseas  rise  Japanese  (1969-1973), with tourism accounting  increase.  conditions.  specifically  For the next  i n c r e a s e i n t o u r i s m was  number of overseas  More  otherwise  1974  impact the  to a mere 2 per  foreign  currency  t r a v e l o p t i o n s for  54  Table 3.4 Japanese Overseas Travel Growth (thousands of trips)  Year  International (000) % Growth  1  1963  -  1964  -  -  Canadian % Growth  2  1403  -  1981  41.2  British Columbia % Growth  3  -  -  -  1965  158.8  24.3  3206  61.8  1966  212.4  33.7  2799  -12.7  1967  267.5  26.0  18979  166.6  1968  343.5  28.4  12515  -34.1  1969  492.9  43.6  18525  48.0  1970  663.5  34.6  22011  18.8  9688  1971  961.1  44.9  25855  17.5  12164  25.6  1972  1392.0  44.8  52438  102.8  17763  46.0  1973  2288.9  64.4  71095  35.7  24400  37.4  1974  2335.5  2.0  77543  9.0  33200  36.0  1975  2466.0  5.6  90411  16.6  46500  40.0  1976  2852.6  15.6  106783  18.1  46200  -  1977  3151.4  10.5  97532  -8.7  45500  -.02  1978  3525.1  11.9  127827  31.1  61500  35.2  1979  4038.3  14.6  158582  24.1  70500  14.6  1980  3909.3  -3.2  162253  2.3  68200  -.3  1981  4006.4  2.5  146461  -9.7  62800  -.8  1982  4086.1  2.0  139447  63907  •  1983  138716  ^International Tourism Quarterly, 1983, V. 29. S t a t i s t i c s Canada.  66 - 201.  S t a t i s t i c s Canada.  66 - 001.  -  -  -  -  55  As  Japan adjusted  again. a  to increased  o i l p r i c e s tourism  began to  By t h i s time a decade of t o u r i s t t r a v e l had  far-reaching,  tourist  integrated  industry  directing  through many f o r e i g n d e s t i n a t i o n s .  economic  growth,  rising  levels  of  established the  Japanese  A sustained  disposable  rise  term  of  income, and  strong Japanese currency  helped to s t i m u l a t e  1976  foreign  l i m i t s were back to the  1973  again  the t r a v e l d e f i c i t  had  t h i s time Japan  represented markets  one  and  (OECD, 1978, increase 1978  currency  of  almost doubled.  Canada's  Canada  t r a v e l demand.  a  fastest  By  growing  By  l e v e l s and  tourist  export  Japan's f a s t e s t growing t r a v e l d e s t i n a t i o n  p. 411);  a trend that was  f u e l e d by a 72  per  in the Yen's buying power over the Canadian d o l l a r .  a l l f o r e i g n currency  r e s t r i c t i o n s were l i f t e d ,  four m i l l i o n overseas t r a v e l l e r s l e f t  and  in  Japan's shores, with  cent In 1979 over  150,000 v i s i t i n g Canada. A and  further  the recent  rate  of  however,  round  of o i l p r i c e i n c r e a s e s  worldwide economic r e c e s s i o n ,  growth  in  it  economic  regulations  is that  Japanese  travel  for two  conditions  have  Japanese Government has reasons.  tourism  limited  continued First  have Canada.  rather  than  international to allow  to  of t h e i r balance of trade d e f i c i t s with Japan  have a trade  second, to allow  s u r p l u s with Japan.  government  understanding  a  we  the  The  u n r e s t r i c t e d overseas  promote  T h i s l a s t point does not apply  1981,  T h i s time,  travel.  among n a t i o n s ,  1982).  and  limited  goodwill part  and  to  i n 1980  and  c o u n t r i e s to recoup (Farrell,  to Canada, however, s i n c e  56  5.  SUMMARY  The  s h o r t , r a p i d growth of the Japanese overseas  tourism  market  i s an outcome of Japan's r a p i d entry i n t o the western world. c u l t u r a l , economic and  As  i n d u s t r y b a r r i e r s to t r a v e l were removed,  Japanese t r a v e l l e r s began v i s i t i n g c o u n t r i e s f u r t h e r a f i e l d . As  t o u r i s t market expands i t s h o r i z o n s  t h i s playground Ash  1976).  playground. accomodate  becomes t h e i r  British  to  Columbia  Japanese  which i n d u s t r y develops concern  'pleasure p e r i p h e r y '  B.C.  visitor  detail.  now  part  within  to host the Japanese  tourism policymakers  the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s t r a d e . in  is  Industry has become e s t a b l i s h e d the  i n t o other  The  (Turner  of to  B.C. is  and  the Japanese integrate  and  T h i s manner in of  attempting  next chapter  regions,  particular to determine  looks at  this  57  IV. 1. The  AN ANALYSIS OF  JAPANESE TOUR DISTRIBUTION IN  B.C.  INTRODUCTION purpose of t h i s chapter i s to present  in-depth  a n a l y s i s of the tour  Japanese organized methods been  derived  used  as  We  a  general  guide  to  to data,  of the  cost and  To achieve Theory  describe  observed  i n f l u e n c e d by corporate  IOT  model was  the  process  of  not  intermediaries.  T h i s chapter undertakes  AND  Japanese market i s p r i m a r i l y a group t r a v e l of  JAPANESE INTERMEDIARIES  their  travel  travellers  (Tokuhisa,  1980).  an  cultural  exotic  o p p o r t u n i t i e s opened up, services  of  the  I t must a l s o be  Japan's s p a t i a l and on  use  travel  there was  agents  and  of  remembered  other  abroad to handle the d e t a i l s of overseas  the  grown i n  percent  of  intermediaries  that  because  of  international travel  Therefore, almost  has  Eighty  services  i s o l a t i o n , any  flavour.  market,and  industry  response to l o c a l demands for i t s s e r v i c e s . overseas  integration  economies.  The  sector  tourist  integration is p a r t i a l l y  r e g i o n a l tourism B.C.  to  This  AN  takes  have  attempted  Japanese  2.  intermediary  (IOT)  organizational  a more s p e c i f i c a n a l y s i s of the e f f e c t s of corporate  OVERVIEW OF  this,  time l i m i t a t i o n s .  i n t o western Canada.  into evolving  handling  s t r u c t u r e of the Japanese t r a v e l i n d u s t r y  application  have j u s t  integration  corporations  from I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n  Rigorous  p r i m a r i l y due  intermediary  r e s u l t s of a more  tours to B r i t i s h Columbia.  i n f l u e n c e s over the B.C.  the  capacity service trips.  when  travel  demand  for  intermediaries  58  Trade l i n k s concentrated  connecting  in  Japan,  almost a l l aspects of evident  where  their  tourists  to  B.C.  Japanese i n t e r m e d i a r i e s  clients'  trip  are control  abroad.  This  is  by examining the dominance of Japanese firms with m u l t i -  functional roles. What  Japanese  few  Most B.C.  intermediary  with s t i f f  competition  firms operate as ground  services  that e x i s t i n B.C.  from the h i g h l y organized  operators. are  faced  Japanese  tour  handlers. Japanese different can  be  retail six  based t r a v e l s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s have evolved from  r o o t s , each i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r u l t i m a t e divided  and  areas; t r a f f i c  other i n d u s t r y  J.T.B.  Japan N a t i o n a l  and  Nippon  and  Tours i s  agencies to a i d  large using  in  retail  outlets  sales.  the  share of the  traffic  controlled  by  now  affiliations.  operate  t h e i r l o c a t i o n a l advantages and Other  enterprises, co-operative general,  Twenty-  Nippon Express, Kinki-Nippon, Tokyo T o u r i s t  M e i t i t s u World T r a v e l a l s o have railway Most  groups.  T r a v e l have r e l a t i o n s with  Railways; Japan C r e a t i v e  Airlines  These  corporations,  top 50 agencies are wholly or p a r t l y owned by  corporations.  and  general  service corporations  of the  Japan  i n t o three  status.  traffic industry.  industry  groups  a s s o c i a t i o n s and -  related  travel  service  c r e d i t networks  include  newspaper  in-house systems.  agencies c o n t r o l the  Broken down by employment, the  dominance of these e n t e r p r i s e s are evident  (see t a b l e  In  largest  size 4.1).  and  59  Table  IX - 4.1 S i z e Travel  and R a n k i n g o f t h e Top T e n J a p a n e s e S e r v i c e A g e n c i e s , 1975  (As of July. 197S)  Rank 1 2  3 4 5 6  7 8 9 10  Company Japan Travel Bureau Meitetsu World Travel Nippon Express Co. Nippon Travel Agency Tokyu Tourist Corp. Kinki Nippon Tourist Hankyu Express Intn'l. Japan Creative Tours Yusen Air/Sea Service Nishitetsu Travel  Overseas Travel Staff Number  Ratio (A)  2,290 1.406 963 883 676 542 513 331 304 204  19.4% 93.4% 12.5% 65.5% 18.7% 30.0% 73.8% 87.3% 87.1% 56.8%  Number of Certified Travel Reps.  Ratio (B)  3,431 382 575 1,104 648 1.323 262 99 119 139  1.49 0.27 0.60 1.25 0.96 2.44 0.51 0.30 0.39 O.60  Ratio (A) Number of overseas travel staff against total number of employees. Ratio (B) Number of overseas travel staff divided by number of certified representatives.  p.56, Japan Travel Blue Book. (1975), Moritani Travel Enterprises: Tokyo.  1  60  The  B.C.  Japanese  of  travellers  most and  industry  only  Over 800  international keeping  of  The  a small  province. to  requiring  B.C. little  proportion  of  the  i n B.C.,  handling  whereas o n l y t r a v e l agent  ranks  (see  JATA  can  be  compared  industry  agencies a l l belong agents  association  for  the  t o be the  the  B.C.  than  self-  way  of  tourism the  is  group  involved  467  international agents  license.  amongst  industry  described,  in  its  whereas  is optional.  and  at  of  Japanese  1952,  B.C.  public  membership  in  to  limit  Travel  tourism  best,  as  industry  and  the  Japanese  - private association B.C.'s t o u r i s m  in  For  organizing  1979.  for  Services,  incremental  law  in  adverse  counterpart.  in  an  Japanese p o l i c y  t r a v e l industry  i t s t r a v e l agency  to a general  i n J a p a n have  The  1983a,b, R e g i s t r a r  to  travel  i t s t r a v e l s e r v i c e agents  organized  Japan promulgated  service  Except  industry  fragmentation maintains a secure  Columbia  example,  services majority  in  rather  are  f o r the  tend  consequence  independent  tourists  extensive  true  to i t s  activities.  close  uncoordinated  travel  the  In a d d i t i o n , e f f o r t s t o d e v e l o p t h e  British  travel  require  the  contrast  Columbian  same h o l d s  to  t o the  general  nationals  1983).  not  As . a  to ensure a h i g h l y  effects  British  a g e n t s c a p a b l e of  registered  is a striking  tourists  services.  intermediary  order  foreign  i s geared  traveller;  its  do  independent,  intermediary  of  who  international visitors  directed  are  Most  travel intermediaries.  Japanese,  in  industry  counterpart.  independent of  travel  of  industry  61  3.  TECHNIQUES OF  The  a c t u a l nature of  shown  through  firms  ANALYSIS  a  corporate  market  i n the trade of any  trade  relationships  structure analysis. product  The  are  behaviour of  internationally is  influenced  by a number of f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g f i r m s i z e , c o n c e n t r a t i o n , type  of  best  scale  economies  and  products  offered.  Firm's d e c i s i o n to  i n v e s t and  export depends on t h e i r  relative  advantages.  a n a l y s i s o u t l i n e s the b a s i c s t r u c t u r e of the the Japanese organised 3.1  traveller  firms i n v o l v e d  to western Canada i n  This with  1983.  Relevant Market Determination  critical  and  definition  f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n of other  To achieve  this  (retailing,  seller  firms  were  distribution/marketing,  promotion, tour o r g a n i z a t i o n for  of  definitions).  numbering and  and,  the  market s t r u c t u r e a n a l y s i s . categorized package  types  categorized seller  handling  c e r t a i n intermediary  Tour  distribution  Firm inbound  seller sellers.  t y p o l o g i e s can  be  4.2)  functions. overall  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by the type of  Firms are market  of  firms.  divided  Outbound c o r p o r a t i o n s  r e c e i v i n g the Japanese.  of  formed through  into  outbound  and  are ones based i n Japan  ' s e l l i n g ' western Canada wereas inbound c o r p o r a t i o n s based  C  in-depth  is a diversity  channels are  inter-company agreement amongst these  and  see appendix  (table  f u n c t i o n forming part of the  firms.  function  T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n enables a more  s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n of s e l l e r s  by  by  development  tour operation  As the acccompanying f i g u r e shows, there firm  r e l e v a n t market i s  These c o r p o r a t i o n s intermediary  are  B.C.  are p r i m a r i l y  involvement that  they  62  have over the flow of the Japanese t o u r i s t .  (see appendix C f o r  definitions) Type A firms have the a b i l i t y and  guide  the t o u r i s t  sell  through f o r e i g n lands.  d i r e c t c o n t r o l of a l l aspects development and  to both  essential  to  tour These  packages firms'-have  touring-  o r g a n i z a t i o n , tour o p e r a t i o n and  booking  -package and,  63  Table X - 4.2  \  \  Functional C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Firms  of  Intermediary  FIRM TYPE  FIRM FUNCTION  A  B  C  RETAILING  **  **  **  DISTRIBUTING AND MARKETING  **  **  **  \ .  D  E  F  i  PACKAGE DEVELOPMENT & NEGOTIATION  **  **  TOUR ORGANIZATION & BOOKING  **  **  **  **  i  TOUR OPERATION !.. ,  i  **  ** ':  **  **  i  I  **  **  64  retailing. the  Type B firms are s i m i l a r to A f i r m s except they  ground  operation  component.  This  involves  l a s t minute  booking arrangements and  guide s e r v i c i n g .  Type C firms are  d i v e r s e c o n t r a c t i n g with  inbound firms to  sell  v a r i o u s packages or to c r e a t e s p e c i a l Of  inbound  delineated.  firms,  in Japan. agents versus 3.2  Type E and  for  other  Firm S i z e And The  organize  of  market  s c a l e and On  servicing  obtained  analysis  The  the  more  accurate  Volume of grouped and  is  detailed  distribution  by  The  extensively  most e f f i c i e n t way is  packaged  through i n t e r v i e w s .  of f i r m s , t h e i r  f o r the purposes of t h i s study in  packages f o r s a l e abroad.  of firms g i v e s a  D with a complete l i s t i n g  involvement  ranging  tour packages f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n  structure.  volume handled for 1983. data  involvement  be  Concentration  r e s u l t s of t h i s  Appendix  can  s e r v i c e agency.  tours handled by each f i r m was overall  structure  the d i f f e r e n c e being a guide s e r v i c e  s i z e and c o n c e n t r a t i o n  picture  distribute  F f i r m s act p r i m a r i l y as ground  firms,  a booking and  firm  c r e a t e t h e i r own  D f i r m s c r e a t e and  and  less  trips.  complementary  There i s a h i e r a r c h y of  from type D firms who Type  a  lack  function  to present  outlining  network, f i r s t  in and this  corporate  on an  overall  then with sub-market breakdowns. the  patterned  aggregate  into  three  level,  the  different  Japanese  markets  by  d i s t r i b u t i o n channels are d e l i n e a t e d from type previously  classified  categorisation  (see  appendix  shows the s t r u c t u r e and  D,  tourist  can  f i r m type. A,B&C  table  Three  firms  4.3).  dominance of f i r m s .  be  as This  65  Of group and packaged Japanese t o u r i s t s to in  1983,  Canada  i t i s estimated that 33 per cent were handled through  type A ' i n t e g r a t e d Vancouver  western  firms.  (JTB 1982, NEC  These three firms a l l have o f f i c e s 1983 and JAL 1974).  in  With the exception  of JTB, these f i r m s o r g a n i z e , d i s t r i b u t e and guide almost a l l of the  t o u r i s t s under t h e i r c o n t r o l .  arrangement between a  The exceptions are a  special  ..  66  Table XI - 4.3 Market C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , S i z e , D i s t r i b u t i o n and C o n c e n t r a t i o n of S e l l e r Firms JAPANESE FIRMS  B.C. FIRMS  FIRM TYPE Number of Companies By Type.  Total Volume Handled By Classified Firms.  Average Size By Volume.  Share of Volume By Firm By Region.  14,0.00  21,300  4,630  3,040  69%  8,700  2,900  28%  67  long-time Vancouver pioneer, handles  about  Bob Iwata and  JTB.  Iwata  travel  2000 t o u r i s t s under c o n t r a c t t o JTB every  year.  In a d d i t i o n some small s p e c i a l t y tour c o n t r a c t s such as c o n t r a c t s are l e t to l o c a l Approximately  20  firms.  per  cent  of the organized  t o u r i s t s were  d i r e c t e d through type B f i r m s which have an appointed Vancouver.  fishing  office  in  These o f f i c e s work under e x c l u s i v e c o n t r a c t to t h e i r  distribution  partner  and  perform  f u n c t i o n s as d i r e c t e d .  The  only r e a l d i f f e r e n c e between these three  firms i s  the  licensed  office  Representative  offices  the  integrated  contribute l i t t l e  firms  have.  to the B.C economy.  Combined,  s i x Japanese  firms have near t o t a l c o n t r o l of one h a l f of the market. The  third  'channel'  arrangements between l o c a l tour  program  idea.  Often  seven  per  t h i s way.  and  consists  of  a s e r i e s of i n t e r - f i r m  inbound firms o f f e r i n g to  provide  outbound d i s t r i b u t o r s l o o k i n g f o r a s e l l a b l e  these arrangements are f o r s p e c i a l groups. cent  Forty-  of Japanese t r a v e l l e r s were estimated  to t r a v e l  One Japanese f i r m that dominates i s Fellow  Travel's  arrangement with Canapak t o u r s , an o l d Vancouver company. arrangements  are  best  s e r v i c e aggrements. into  the  developed. B.C.  firms  service  a  overall  Most l o c a l decision  They wait operate  contracts  described  on  as  f i r m s have  only  inter-market  limited  f o r d e c i s i o n s from t h e i r Japanese primarily  when  input  how a l l the t o u r s are s o l d and  on  the  periphery  partner.  picking  up  they can. A few have l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d  r e l a t i o n s with  seller  firms but most,  'wait  phone  call  for a  specialized  Other  to  as  one  operator  be t o l d what to do'.  noted,  However, a  68  l a r g e r p o r t i o n of the tour d o l l a r stays in western Canada due  to  the g r e a t e r amount of s e r v i c e put i n . Of  inbound  operators  firms  one  number of f i r m s . about  it  year  a  dominant  organized  TAC,  Canapak  the  role  as  tour  These f i r m s average c l o s e  contracting  T r a n s p a c i f i c tours 4900  four companies. firms.  play  of which i s American.  to 5,000 t o u r i s t s per  handled  three  their  (TPT), C P  services  to  Air's subsidiary  Japanese t o u r i s t s l a s t year  American  company  a  dealt  with  for  three  d e a l s p r i m a r i l y with Fellow T r a v e l , p r e v i o u s l y  used to d e a l with JTB and  other  f i r m s but have s i n c e l o s t  the  contracts. In the past, B.C.  in  tour  packaged development u n t i l Japanese f i r m s began to open up  local  offices.  Only  packager  today.  distribute Years ago For  one  firms took a more a c t i v e  f i r m , Skyland,  Skyland  has  its  can be c l a s s i f i e d as a tour own  i t s ' packages to r e t a i l e r s and there were at l e a s t  example,  TPT,  Tokyo to f a c i l i t a t e  f i v e B.C.  Iwata T r a v e l and the trade  of  role  office  in  organized  groups.  have c l o s e d t h e i r o f f i c e s and  Ten  tour  o f f i c e s in  programmes.  l i g h t of the recent moves by Japanese c o r p o r a t i o n s , a l l of companies  to  firms in t h i s p o s i t i o n .  Cantour a l l had  their  Tokyo  Cantour has  In these  gone out of  business. Japanese based c o r p o r a t i o n s have d i r e c t from a l l organized B.C.-based  inbound  type  'F'  and  profit  t r a v e l l e r s l e a v i n g Japan f o r western Canada. companies  q u a r t e r s of the market. the  input  ground  only handle approximately  When d i s c o u n t i n g the operators who  three-  ' s h e l l ' nature  receive l i t t l e  of  r e t u r n , the  69  American ground  'E' c o r p o r a t i o n , operator,  approximately  and  B.C.  one-half  Iwata's  deal  with  J.T.B.as  a  based i n t e r m e d i a r i e s are i n v o l v e d with  of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of Japanese  tourists,  then only as s e r v i c e agents. 3.3  Product  Differentation  Seller A was  s i z e and c o n c e n t r a t i o n d i f f e r among products  s e r i e s of sub-markets make up the o v e r a l l product market. outlined earlier,  quality.  there  However,  differentation  there  is differentation is  handled  through  seperate  two  negotiations  arrangements  are  of  different  primarily  tourists  but  into  cent  of  Eastern  Canada,  American and Japanese  t r i a n g l e route to Banff.  trip  includes  V i c t o r i a , two to f i v e before  is  Over  80  packaged and group tours to Western Canada f o l l o w  the c l a s s i c golden ten day  product  Canada  i n t e r m e d i a r i e s based i n San F r a n s i s c o or Los Angeles. per  and  For Western Canada,  for  made through  little  As  flow.  systems.  a r e made  in price  relatively  i n terms of s p a t i a l t o u r i s t  S p a t i a l l y , the d i s t r i b u t i o n  to  sold.  flying  representatives,  two  nights  The  typical  seven  i n Vancouver, one i n  i n the Rockies and p o s s i b l y one i n Calgary  home. there  In was  discussions little  with  industry  d e s i r e to explore new tour  dest i n a t i o n s . The range  three i n t e g r a t e d type A companies a l l  of  products  supermarkets o f f e r i n g  over  similar prices.  a  similar  These firms are l i k e  j u s t about every a l t e r n a t i v e s e l l i n g  brand-name ahead of the product. s e l l Look tours  sell  jointly.  Two  firms,  J.T.B.  their  and  NEC  70  The  three  type  concept but are  B  known  firms for  their  Kintetsu  primarily  Playguide  and V i v r e are known  firms  a l l list  operate  on a s i m i l a r brand-name  specialties.  For  deals with grouped t o u r i s t s and for  the c l a s s i c Banff  quality  length  and  Kintetsu  selling  the  A l l o p t i o n s are f a i r l y The  product  main  are  not  except for one,  fully  is  mostly  Fellow T r a v e l .  farther  are  afield.  i n t o the market. economies,  the  for  to  Vivre  c l o s e to  Japanese type C firms  are much s m a l l e r  spreading  programmes  offer  smaller  in  in contrast number with.  f i r m s that a more d i v e r s e array of  tour  However,  are  exists  quality.  the  Japanese  It i s i n t h i s form of corporate  propensity  and  These firms search out a  offered  a more d i v e r s e a r r a y of higher  quality,  standard  difference  six  selling  to conduct and develop tours  through these  tour programmes  i t s own.  integrated  of p o t e n t i a l agents in B.C. It  in  r o l e i n s k i packaging occupying  t h i r t y per cent of the market on which  These  most o f t e n to s p e c i a l i s e d groups  while V i v r e focuses on the same routes but does play a s i g n i f i c a n t  others,  t r i a n g l e as t h e i r main  From there, they o f f e r a number of options  a l l d u p l i c a t e d by each other.  the  tours.  point.  direction.  example,  tourist  s t r u c t u r e that  exist.  There  d i f f e r e n t packages to gain as  firms  we  will  see  have a hard  below  in  time o f f e r i n g  is  a  access scale their  small programmes. By d e f i n i n g the r e l e v a n t market in more p r e c i s e is  evident  that  s p e c i a l t y product level  of  detail  some firms have 100 market. but  per cent c o n t r o l of  T h i s a n a l y s i s d i d not  i t has  terms,  go  into  it  their this  been shown that the top s i x firms  71  c o n t r o l the packaged or common tour market. the  exception  group tour 3.4  Scale  B.C.  firms,  of Skyland, deal p r i m a r i l y with more s p e c i a l i s e d  programmes. Economies  S t r u c t u r a l advantages to f i r m s i z e i n f l u e n c e the for  foreign  based  distributing  firms  tourists  to  take  throughout  loosing their t r a d i t i o n a l firms.  with  a  more  B.C.  A number of reasons l i m i t B.C.  in t h i s market, one  being the  active  B.C.  f u n c t i o n a l r o l e as  propensity role  f i r m s have been type  'D'  firm a b i l i t y  lack of a  in  large  or  'E'  to compete  market  to  gain  s c a l e economies over. In  general,  service  bulk p u r c h a s i n g . standard  room  For example, h o t e l s give up to 30 per r a t e s for a l a r g e enough volume.  here l y with the ability  to  tour  large  take  such p r a c t i c e s s e r v i c e s , who  supply i n d u s t r i e s give p r e f e r a n c e to  integrated  advantage  also can  the  are able the  position  have  smaller  industry  a  s e r v i c e s f o r two to bargain  s p a t i a l pattern  of  and  tour programming and  the  In a d d i t i o n , the  larger  more convenient product f o r  large  deal  with  access. supply  reasons.  for a better  of  First, rate and,  to develop a r e f i n e d , cost e f f i c i e n t  Advertising  who  to  of  advantages  As a r e s u l t , l a r g e i n t e r m e d i a r i e s  For example, firms with  better  intermediary  o f f e r a l a r g e r and  large services l i m i t i n g  d i r e c t with tour  corporations  of t h i s d i s c o u n t i n g .  direct  programming.  The  cent  buyers  deal  they are  in a  second, they  program  limiting  travel. marketing c o s t s a l s o play c e n t r a l r o l e s in  the  type of product s e l l a b l e .  Packaged  and  .72  group tours may o f f e r s i m i l a r products, different  manner.  To  sell  they are s o l d  in-a  very  group tours one must have c o n t a c t s  with o r g a n i s a t i o n s whereas package tours must be made a c c e s s i b l e to  the p u b l i c .  The top s i x firms s e l l both,  while  the  others  focus on one or the other. 4.  TRENDS AND IMPLICATIONS OF MARKET STRUCTURE ON B.C.  Based  on  organized terms  of  the  above  a n a l y s i s , the performance of the Japanese  tour market to B r i t i s h Columbia can be the  companies  acted  marketing  and  conduct as  of s e l l e r  inbound  sales  in  firms.  in  O r i g i n a l l y B.C.  operators  Japan.  understood  packaging  tour  tours  for  T h i s has g r a d u a l l y changed as  B.C.  companies now a c t p r i m a r i l y as ground o p e r a t o r s .  cases  the l o c a l tour operator  In  has been r e l e g a t e d to a tour  many guide  s e r v i c e whose f u n c t i o n i s l i m i t e d to c o n t r a c t i n g buses and s t a f f to  Japanese  representatives  (Canadian  Travel  News,  7,  June,1983,pp.1-2.). Historically,  observed  since  the  tourist  trade r e l a t i o n s began a f t e r World War two.  First,  four  of  larger  offices  and  the  directed  three  companies  operations  intermediaries.  J.A.L.  opened  from  distributors. opened wholesaling  Express.  notably B.C.  be  San  there  Fransisco  with  the  firms  help  worked  of  local  actively  to  a wide a r r a y of tour programmes f o r s a l e to Second, offices  recent y e a r s , major wholesalers offices  can  At t h i s time, B.C.  organize and develop Japanese  trends  J.T.B.  in  the  mid-1970's C P .  i n Vancouver.  and  And, t h i r d , i n  have a l s o been opening Vancouver  (the world's  largest)  and  Nippon  firms a r e now p r i m a r i l y ground o p e r a t i n g agents  73  having  little  to do with the more l u c r a t i v e packaging elements.  From recent d i s c u s s i o n s with other  agencies  possible The  are  industry o f f i c i a l s  watching  these  moves  it  seems  that  c a r e f u l l y with  the  i n t e n t i o n of f o l l o w i n g s u i t . trend to i n t e g r a t e d  demise of l o c a l o p e r a t o r s .  offices  will  only  continue  In a s e r i e s of i n t e r v i e w s with  the local  i n t e r m e d i a r i e s i n v o l v e d in t h i s market, a number of reasons were sighted  for  their  c a r r y i n g c o s t s of payment  and  inability service  to s u r v i v e .  bookings  uncertaianties  intermediaries;  in  These i n c l u d e (1) the  aggrevated  by  commitments  from  in  Japanese tour  or  s u p p l i e r a g a i n s t another making p r o f i t margins minimal; and,  (3)  the a b s o l u t e Tour  ( 2 ) a s t r a t e g y of s e l l i n g one  delays  s i z e of competing f i r m s .  intermediary  certain  profit  inbound  operators  gain access one  who  This  to  regions  frustrates  In g e n e r a l , sell  different  corporate  sell  the  to  enter  to  different  porducts  access  this  The  who  integrated d i s t r i b u t i o n degree  of  to one  markets. market.  The  Outbound Two  factors  influence  companies,  the and,  firms must a t t a i n the  low  have s i g n i f i c a n t economies  of  channels. that Japanese tour  c o r p o r a t i o n s have over the flow of t h e i r t o u r i s t s indisputable.  of  only have  to the Japanese market; f i r s t ,  market B.C.  c o s t s of Japanese competitors s c a l e and  achieve  situation  inbound o p e r a t o r s  market i s t i g h t l y c o n t r o l l e d by a r e l a t i v e l y few second,  to  must d e a l with outbound i n t e r m e d i a r i e s to  to markets.  sell  l i m i t B.C.  corporations  margins.  type of product  operators  region,  Japanese s t y l e of business,  intermediary to  highly  B.C.  is  organized  74  and  i n t e g r a t e d , has  services  at  enabled them to secure  net-net  In order  to f u r t h e r  focused  on  wholesale p r i c e s and refine  selling  a  their  very  tour  'products'  c o s t s of developing entails  for  a new  destinations  and  retail.  have  'image' of Canada.  system, p r o p e n s i t y  the  to  also With a  innovate  Japanese in Canada i s low. of  The which  image c r e a t i n g to s t i m u l a t e demand.  retail  limiting  they  product are expensive, most  a d v e r t i s i n g and  i s f a r e a s i e r to allow  s e l l them at  operations  narrow  tightly controlled distribution new  volume c o n t r a c t s  costs  It  agents to s e l l the most best known and  maximizing  profits  due  to  increased economies of s c a l e . 5.  SECONDARY TRENDS OF  Japanese  ownership  INTEGRATION  and  service supply-sector  control  (Table  a l s o extends i n t o the  4.4).  This  is  number of Japanese owned or c o n t r o l l e d g i f t their  tourists.  In the g i f t  made in Japan with tour specific  stores.  tourism  evident  by  the  shops which c a t e r  to  shop trade, o f t e n arrangements are  i n t e r m e d i a r i e s to steer the  T h i s i s secured  by g r a n t i n g the  tourist  to  intermediary  a  15-20% per cent commission on s a l e s . Gift  exchanges  Japanese. gifts,  Before  senbetsu  are  an  departure  important the  part of t r a v e l f o r the  traveller  is  presented  , which are u s u a l l y in the form of cash.  money i s then used to purchase g i f t s during h i s or her tour.  These  are know as omiage and  items or  symbols  visiting  Canada omiage tend  Indian  art.  from  the  country  are u s u a l l y that  is  to be n a t u r a l jade,  These purchases account for  with This  overseas  representative visited.  When  f u r , salmon, or  approximately  35  per  75  cent  of overseas t r a v e l expenditure In B.C.  sweater,  one  of the most popular  which i s c o n s i d e r e d  Coast n a t i v e a r t . sweaters  has  firms,  The  some  located  for  the  (Meikle,  items i s the Cowichan  these  supply  1983,  in  gift  '79).  to be a f u n c t i o n a l example of West  demand  surpassed  Cowichan Indians  (Visitor  p.4)  home-spun,  capacity and  these  Japan, are now  q u a l i t y the souvenir gifts  industrially  brand-name  collector.  producing  f o r t h i s market e x i s t e d through  Japanese  two  by  Corporation, industry.  The  Prince Hotel  Japanese  Canada Harbour developed  Place,  a  $130  status  symbol  which At  is  least  a  major  three One  1979). inferior for  the  was  jade  manufacturing  of  when  operational.  i n Toronto i s a  million  i s believed  joint  venture  a hotel chain.  investment,  is  being  I n t e r n a t i o n a l , a s u b s i d i a r y of Tokyu in  the  leisure  and  tourism  Vancouver r e s t a u r a n t s are owned by of these  is  a  JAL  Hotel  Systems  which c a t e r s i n - f l i g h t meals as w e l l as s e r v i n g some  of i t s packaged tour customers. tour  a  companies, a railway and  Toyku Hotels  Japanese c o r p o r a t i o n s . subsidiary  , March  ownership in the accommodation s e c t o r  limited.  between  an i m i t a t i o n  i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o the production  the C o n t i n e n t a l Jade C o r p o r a t i o n  to be  as  native  commercial  produced sweaters are of  serves  Further  the  a number of  under the brand name "Cowichan" ( Vancouver Sun Although  of  hand-knit  itineraries last  year.  Two  of these were p a r t  of  JTB  76  Table  4.1  Summary o f I n c o r p o r a t e d Companies I n v o l v i n g Japanese Corporate i n the Tourism I n d u s t r y 1974 - September 1983 i n Western Canada Hotels  Interests  (Canada)  P r i n c e H o t e l , Toronto 22% Seibu Rwy, 88%  P r i n c e H o t e l s Corp.,  Japan  Canada Harbour P l a c e H o t e l , H o t e l and Convention Tokyu H o t e l s C o r p o r a t i o n , Japan  Centre  Souveniers . F u j i Food B r a i n Company - G i f t Shop R e t a i l Asami T r a d i n g Company - G i f t Shop R e t a i l Yokohama Okaddaya Corp. - G i f t Shop R e t a i l B.B. & K L e a s i n g Corp. - G i f t Shop R e t a i l ( 2 s t o r e s ) O.K. G i f t Shops - G i f t Shop R e t a i l J o i n t Venure (3 s t o r e s ) The C o n t i n e n t a l Jade I n c . - Jade & Souvenier M a n u f a c t u r i n g (now out o f b u s i n e s s ) Food Sakae Iwamato R e s t r a u r a n t - Japanese Food Papa C h i n ' s Restaurant - Chinese Food - J o i n t Venure I n t e r n a t i o n a l Foods I n c . owns: 1. Kaede Restaurant - Japanese Food Restaurant 2. Aero I n t . E n t e r p r i s e s - Serves JAL I n - f l i g h t Meals The P a c i f i c I n c . - Japanese Food & C u l i n a r y Nintendo of America Inc. - P i z z a Time Theatre R e s t a u r a n t s  Sources:  FIRA data f i l e s ,  Annual  Reports, Cross Referenced  Interviews  77  Patterns  of  ownership  Japanese c o r p o r a t i o n s Hawaii,  it  (Farrell  had  c o n t r o l over l o c a l tourism p l a n t  i s more e x t e n s i v e  i s estimated  the h o t e l s and 1978  and  in  other  regions.  foreign  visibility lifted passed.  of  a combined investment of over $600 m i l l i o n in  1982:330).  investment and  In  that the Japanese owned 17 per cent  Negative p u b l i c r e a c t i o n to t h i s  of ownership caused the Japanese government to p l a c e on  by  in the l e i s u r e  c o s t s to  foreign  guidelines  i n d u s t r y because of  reserves.  They  level  their  subsequently  these a d m i n i s t r a t i v e g u i d e l i n e s a f t e r the l a s t o i l shock Since then Japanese investment has  p h y s i c a l p l a n t and In  towards l e s s v i s i b l e  California  intermediary patronize.  a  virtual  corporations The  intermediary war  'telling'  feelings  F r a n s i s c o tour bus  bus  been away  from sectors.  occurred  which  bus  the  over  the  lines  to  at t h i s time were summed up by a  San  operator:  ". . . What we want to break through is a multinational monopoly that keeps a g r i p on the Japanese t o u r i s t and h i s money from the time he leaves Tokyo to the time he r e t u r n s . . . "  The A However,  subsequent similar  monopolistic  court  practices  fashion.  restaurants,  s p a t i a l flow and  gift  York Times, 7,Dec.1980:9  disallowed  exist  in  B.C.  Japanese intermediary  out vouchers, coupons and as  ruling  New  this but  practice. not  corporations  in  a  hand  c r e d i t c h i t s f o r v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s such  stores etc.  purchasing  T h i s in turn i n f l u e n c e s the  p a t t e r n of t h e i r customers.  78  SUMMARY The  recent opening and  offices San  i n t e g r a t i o n of Japanese tour  in Vancouver f o l l o w s s i m i l a r trends  Fransisco  these o f f i c e s  and  New  York.  in  intermediary  Hawaii,  While the primary  London,  reason  to open  i s to host n a t i o n a l s t h e i r r o l e needs  examination.  It c o u l d a l s o be argued that these are j u s t l o g i c a l  steps i n the  export  and  investment  their  ultimate  behaviour  effect  will  of the f i r m , one must be  and  how  policies  ask  what  could  be  s t r u c t u r e d to d e a l with them. The cities  interdepandancy allows  of  Japanese  corporate  not only f o r arrangements of Japanese  but a l s o for o t h e r s .  For example, JALPAK now  sells  in B r i t i s h Columbia, to Mexico t a k i n g advantage intermediary  s t r u c t u r e in  T h i s chapter  The  implications  of  among  travellers  t o u r s , based the  weaker  B.C.  has o u t l i n e d the general trends of i n t e g r a t i o n  and c o n t r o l of the Japanese c o r p o r a t i o n over market.  offices  next chapter  the Japanese t r a v e l  w i l l provide an overview and o u t l i n e  f o r Canadian tourism r e l a t e d  planning.  79  V.  TOURISM IN THE PROCESS OF INTERNATIONALIZATION: PLANNING  FOR  CORPORATE DIVISION 1.  OVERVIEW The  purpose of t h i s chapter  international such  as  impact  of  tour i n t e r m e d i a r i e s on r e g i o n a l tourism economies  British  considered  i s to summarize the  to  Columbia.  Regional  tourism  economies  are  be both the p h y s i c a l resources and s e r v i c e s p l u s  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l network a i d i n g the development, promotion and s a l e of tourism.  I t has been shown  that  a  number  of  large,  p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f o r c e s e x t e r n a l to the tourism p l a n t play a  significant  role  in  determining  i n d u s t r i a l i z e and manipulate the  evolutionary  i t s use.  Firm's d e s i r e to  p u b l i c demand i s seen  as  process of tourism development.  part  This  process  can be s i m p l i f i e d  i n t o a number of steps s t a r t i n g  unaided  e x p l o r a t i o n t o mass produced, h i g h l y organized  tourist towards  tourist flows.  T h i s process, a r e s u l t  industrialization  of  from  of  initial,  incremental  changes  of trade p a t t e r n s i s problematic f o r  planners because of i t s gradual  and  relatively  uncontrollable  effects. Machlis  and B i r c h (1983) i n t h e i r attempts to formulate an  i n t e g r a t e d theory of tourism o u t l i n e d series  of  natural  this  'phenomenon'  steps towards i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n .  t i e s evolve the c o r p o r a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between region  changes  from  a  high  ratio  making over the flow of t o u r i s t s to a controlled decisions.  host  as  a  As t r a v e l and  guest  of l o c a l l y - b a s e d d e c i s i o n high  ratio  of  foreign-  80  At  the  community l e v e l a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n was  the n a t u r a l c y c l e of tourism Butler  a  hosting tourist  described  as  (1980).  To  t r a d i n g evolves  from  development by B u t l e r  community  involved  in  tourism  exploratory  visitors  to  negotiating  i n t e r m e d i a r i e s to bargain  Taken to an  with  f o r the flow of  external  tourists.  i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l the hypothesis  that  "Tourism indirectly causes the d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s to become g r a d u a l l y i n t e r l i n k e d in economic, social and cultural networks that are organized i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y on the b a s i s of a central d e c i s i o n making body"... Lanfant p a r a l l e l s other  t h e o r i e s of tourism  Unfortunately  none  e m p i r i c a l l y analyze the  process  tourism related evolves Two  of  Japanese  of  to  industrialization. above  theorists  integration.  corporate  economy i t can be e x p l a i n e d  in  as an  firms.  facilitate  the  International  actualized  the  touring  through  the  opportunities. becoming  r e g i o n a l firms to  These d e c i s i o n s are base,  to  generally  promotional  or  technical superiority.  tour  agencies seek to 'export  trade  i n r e c e i v i n g regions  (distribution, client  monopoly advantages) and  B.C.  process  As tourism  corporations;  set up o f f i c e s  flow of t o u r i s t s .  based on marketing  of  intermediary  to  analyzing  evolutionary  t r a d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s with other  or to i n v e s t and  out  i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o the  the behaviour of e x p o r t i n g  for  set In  firms become a c t i v e in the p u r s u i t of new  involved  much  the  the process  strategies exist  export,  of  1980:22  intermediaries t h e i r nations  value  at  imports'  home  integration  acting  as of  as  by  keeping  possible. their  outbound  tour  as  This i s agencies  81  worldwide.  However,  a primary reason that m u l t i n a t i o n a l  in a l l s e c t o r s open up t r a d i n g o f f i c e s abroad i s to gain to  foreign  traded  In  regions  integrate  their  supply  and  them to manipulate the flow  advantage.  This  flow  form and d i s t r i b u t i o n of tourism There  are  similar  over  foreign  sell,  i n host  parallels  service  industry,  debate  which  tourists industrial  a l t e r s the  and  p o l i c y concerns over a A  agencies  central,  common  i s to enable f o r e i g n In the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  the maintainence of access to m u l t i n a t i o n a l  i s important to that  recent  ability  regions.  firms e a s i e r access t o t h e i r home market. banking  of  becomes the firms  number of i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s . argument  their  demand f a c t o r s to a c e r t a i n l e v e l of  process forming the product that they  firms  are n e g o t i a t e d and  firms l e a r n to overcome b a r r i e r s to entry  interdependence allows to  tourism,  access  abroad.  As to  markets.  firms  that  firm's operation.  policy  analysis  has  I t i s evident undergone  from  deeper  treatment i n s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s such as banking. For  tourism  firm's a b i l i t y stemming  policy  to c o n t r o l  t o be r e l e v a n t , tourism  supply  i t must recognise the and  demand  from the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of m u l t i n a t i o n a l  factors  intermediary  integration. I t must be recognised  that as  ". . .the i n d u s t r y expands, there are s t i l l some underlying economic realities that cannot be dismissed. The e x i s t i n g d i v i s i o n of power between tourist-generating economies and host ones will continue simply because marketing elements are c r u c i a l to the i n d u s t r y : whoever has the most e f f e c t i v e access to the u l t i m a t e market will dominate, even i f not c o n t r o l the i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n d u s t r y . . . "  82  Turner 1975:21 S p e c i f i c a l l y , even i f regions have development c o n t r o l over the c r e a t i o n of i t s tourism p l a n t , intermediary of supply and  demand f a c t o r s may  the flow of t o u r i s t s i n t o and Clearly  a  Columbia with Japanese  similar reference  tourist.  exploration,  To  l i m i t host  within their  region.  has  to  corporations  summarize,  promotion,  region c o n t r o l over  process the  interdependence  been e v o l v i n g in B r i t i s h organizing  the  f i v e steps can be o u t l i n e d ;  industrialization,  integration  ans  systemization.  1)  Initial  exploration  throughout  v i s i t o r s began as e a r l y e x p l o r e r s and  western Canada by Japanese traders, later  adventurist  mountain c l i m b e r s , then t e c h n i c a l v i s i t o r s  i n the mid-1950's.  2)  in  When  tourism  promotional 3)  missions  left  was  liberated  As  Japan,  western Canada to develop t h i s  As the r e s u l t s from the promotion and  i n , corporate 4)  travel  initial  various trade.  sales t r i c k l e d  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of t h i s trade began.  industrialization  occurred,  corporate  integration  followed. 5) Corporate aspects  s y s t e m i z a t i o n of the t o u r i s t  of the t r a v e l l e r s consumption  of i n t e g r a t i o n .  flow to encompass more  i s the l a s t p o t e n t i a l step  83  2.  QUESTIONS FOR  There  are  planners  ADDRESS  potentially should  three areas of concern  address  for  the  role  that host  of  region  transnational  intermediat i o n :  1) To what extent do f o r e i g n intermediary c o r p o r a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e the flow of t o u r i s t s i n t o and w i t h i n the tourism economy? Due  to  the  nature  of  the Japanese t o u r i s t and  c o r p o r a t i o n , tourism trade t i e s have evolved to Japanese their  based  c o r p o r a t i o n s now  interests.  pleasure  direct  Western Canada i s now  periphery.  a  of  tourists  stage  where  the flow of t o u r i s t s in part  of  Japanese c o r p o r a t i o n s now  to manipulate the flow  Japanese  into  the  Japanese  have the  ability  within  various  and  destinations.  At  first  s i g h t i t would seem that the r o l e of r e g i o n a l t o u r i s t  o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s s i m p l i f i e d and made more d i r e c t as a r e s u l t integration.  If  the  encourage the t o u r i s t Tourism Act  aim  of  industry  tourism in  1980), equal concern  British  "to  promote  Columbia.'  and  (Min.of  must be given to understand  e x t e r n a l f o r c e s which e f f e c t B.C's With  is,  of  the  tourism economy.  the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of t r a v e l to a s e l l e r s market as a  r e s u l t of i n t e g r a t i o n , m u l t i - n a t i o n a l groups may concessions  from host governments  tourists  (UNCTAD  examples  are  1982,  already  Japanese t o u r i s t  i n B.C.  IUOTO evident  to  facilitate  1976,1972, on  two  WTO  fronts  begin the 1976).  to demand flow  of  Initial  regarding  the  Japanese tour operators are asking f o r  84  more  a s s i s t a n c e a i d promoting t h e i r  only wish to s e l l a very Tokyu  Hotels  re-negotiate  tour plans even though they  narrow image of the r e g i o n .  Secondly,  Corporation  i s now l o o k i n g f o r an opportunity to  their contract  f o r a j o i n t - p a r t n e r and may ask f o r  concessions.  2)  What e f f e c t s do these i n t e r m e d i a r i e s have on the host  and  i t s tourism economy? The  flow  d i s t r i b u t i o n of b e n e f i t s a s s o c i a t e d with  of  Japanese  corporations. smaller  tourists  The change  intermediaries  based out  of  Japan  geographically  but  corporations intensive case,  alter  region  intermediaries in  alters  a  distribution gift  of  store  to  flows  from  pattern  of  structurally.  preferences  and  a  number  corporations  trade  Large  towards  of  not  only  intermediary  larger,  capital  the notion that tourism,  in this  intensive enterprise.  services  for  position  the  destroying  i s a s m a l l , labour Host  trade  to a few l a r g e , i n t e g r a t e d  trade  services  the trade  i s i n the i n t e r e s t s of the Japanese  in  also  region  are  relatively  international tourists. bargain  tourists.  commissions  and  dependant  on  I n t e r m e d i a r i e s are  selectively  allocate  the  On a micro s c a l e , p r a c t i c e s such as  and  special  bulk-rate  hotel  prices  i n f l u e n c e d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s and reduce net r e g i o n a l b e n e f i t . On host  a  macro-scale, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t o u r i s t s to and w i t h i n a region  tourists  i s subject to  to  other  c o n t r o l over t o u r i s t  intermediaries  regions, flows  who  can  divert  the  an a b i l i t y they may have i f t h e i r  i s as e x t e n s i v e  as  in  the  Japanese  85  market.  3) What are the broader planning In  a  broader  i m p l i c a t i o n s and  perspective  there are three  d i s c u s s i o n ; the economic e f f e c t s social may  implications  and  of  these  From  an  economic  opportunity  cost  of  lost  linkages  economic leakage i s the extent  the  their  leakages  associated given  with here.  of investment and  and  foreign Central  integration  firms.  With the Japanese t r a v e l market valued generates  about  2,300 jobs to the B.C.  market i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  of a l l markets.  multipliers  B.C.  in  two  approximately one spending  i s s u e s needing  enterprises,  perspective  e n t e r p r i s e needs more examination than was  of f o r e i g n  issues?  a s s o c i a t e d environmental problems they  cause.  to  policy  job was  Var  structured t r a v e l patterns,  tourism  it  f o r every  1982).  it  economy i f the  In a study of  regions,  created  (Liu,Quayson and  at $26.7 m i l l i o n  was  tourism  shown  $10,000  in  that travel  However, with such h i g h l y  i t would l e a d one  to  believe  that  these net b e n e f i t s would be somewhat l e s s . Highly issues.  structured  Local  controlled  travel  reception  groups  of  of  flows r a i s e at l e a s t two a  tourists  series  of  would  need  impact of l a r g e groups on a community can s i z e and here. tourist  distribution Secondly,  the  through  these  discussions  practices image  of  large,  be  intermediaries  with Japanese c o n s u l a t e  externally  negotiation. intimidating.  (differentation) the  social  are  officials  Firm  central  country p r o j e c t e d is  The  important.  to  the In  in Vancouver they  86  expressed  problems  Japanese  tourists  of t h i s region and  associated  with  that  the  r e c e i v e a very narrowed and c o n t r o l l e d  image  that the t o u r i s t  the  'feeling  f e e l s he  is  being  somewhat  controlled'. Third,  patterned  tourist  implications.  For example,  beginning  recognise  to  Parks  the  flows  have  Canada  officials  problems  associated  h i g h l y c o n t r o l l e d groups on the n a t u r a l Parks  Canada).  They  are  just  now  environmental  environment  deal  with  just  with l a r g e , (pers.comm  undertaking  determine the extent and best ways to  are  a the  study  to  flow  as  c o n t r o l l e d by tour o p e r a t o r s . It tour has  is  the  social,  economic and environmental  intermediary c o n t r o l which need f u r t h e r study. outlined their a b i l i t y  cause.  to have impacts  on  a  e f f e c t s of This thesis  region  questions  of  how  f u r t h e r reseach Planning organization  these  e f f e c t s come about.  i n these areas for  a  and  tourism resulting  structural  I t i s c l e a r that  i s needed. economy  that  structure  of  is  aiding  the  industry  e s s e n t i a l to l o c a l communities, r e g i o n a l economies and aiming  to f o s t e r an agreed  Because tourism, formulated as an  affects  industrial  the  life  of  interest.  is  national  uses  host  i t as a product, and  everyone  form of tourism c r e a t e d through  i s of p a r t i c u l a r  the  upon development s t r a t e g y .  industry,  and communities as a r e s o u r c e , s e l l s process  a  Past a n a l y s i s of the tourism i n d u s t r y has examined what  e f f e c t s tourism has on the region and not the deeper  systems  as  in its  those  regions i n the  areas,  organized  the  parts  87  To  foster  tourism  planning,  development s t r a t e g y would external and  how  inputs  of  address  Policy  integrating  intermediary  on  system, aim  all  p l a y e r s to be  lead  involved  comprehensive  public,  could  to  a  community  -  the  larger links,  in the  end,  enterprise.  better organization  i n the process of s e l l i n g  industry  foster  i n d u s t r y , and,  and  investigate  into  to c o n t r o l leakages and  - directed  private  of the tourism  enterprises  the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e of the  could  more  directives  smaller  f a c i l i t a t e more s e l f  These  based  the o r g a n i z a t i o n  i t i s processed.  methods  help  into  be  a  enabling a l l  tourism.  Such  p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e s are o u t l i n e d below. 2.1  Regional At  Planning  the  industry  regional  into  approach.  The  'develop the of  economy  main  goal  efforts have of  planning  approaches and  have  which  to  integrate  use  tourism  a  systems  has  been to  true d e f i n i t i o n of what  examined  Unfortunately, the  i n d u s t r y s e r v i c e s without  f o r c e s i n f l u e n c i n g the u l t i m a t e goal would be  taken  approaches  they d e s i r e or at what c o s t s .  infrastructure  product  to i n t e g r a t e the  generally  these  i n d u s t r y ' without any  industry  tourism  the  level  of the  tourism  into  of  i n v e s t i g a t i n g the  viable  A common regional  complements e x i s t i n g economic a c t i v i t i e s without  s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r i n g s o c i a l or environmental concerns. In B r i t i s h  most  allocation  facilities. a  type  Columbia,  ". . . i t i s apparent that there was a lack of an appropriate industry image, in initiating and implementing plans and programs; i n the past several years, the Tourism branch has been l o c a t e d i n s e v e r a l ministries, generally understaffed and primarily  8 8  involved in l i t t l e or no act i v i t y . . . "  research, marketing and promotion with comprehensive planning or development Marshall,Macklin,Monoghan 1979  The of  B.C.  government has  industry  role  s e c t o r s to i n d u s t r y  in resource  disposal  of The  it  been  resources  sectors  has  tourism  through  resource  sectors  tourism  industry  in  has  just  lent  and  The  development  growth and it  in  into  begun  and  of the tour etc.  As  the water  similar  role, service  the  other  a more mature s t a t e ,  the  process  of  the  industry  i n d u s t r y by the p r o v i n c i a l government the  lack of o r g a n i s a t i o n  been towards p r o j e c t - - s t y l e  is  disorganized  a very  campaigns,  away from comprehensive planning  Policy  government's main  rationalisation.  the  focus has  organization  facilitator  promotion  through the TIDSA agreement r e f l e c t policy.  a  followed  evolved  o r g a n i z a t i o n , p o l i c y and Directions  the  marketing have  as  The  the  such as timber, mineral  i n d u s t r y has  involved  left  itself.  been  p u b l i c resources  rights. has  historically  p22  crucial  and  not  s t a t e of the  development  p o l i c y (Antonson  only  due  to the  i n d u s t r y but  and  1983).  infancy,  a l s o to  guide  through the number of p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t s of i n t e r e s t that i t  confronts-  -inter-industry,  resource,  host-guest and  corporate  i n t e r e s t / r e g i o n a l growth problems. It  can  be  administering  the  observed TIDSA  by  examining  programme and  larger  developments.  facilitated  project-oriented  process  that government  have been away from r a t i o n a l i t y scale  the  organisation  priorities  and  towards  T h i s process  l a r g e business vs small e n t e r p r i s e and  of  increased  has the  89  r a t e of  incremental  change tourism  stimulates.  A major study of the process of  TIDSA  implementation  was  shown that ". . . The rush to develop p r o j e c t c o n s t r u c t i o n ahead of planning and the attempt to co-ordinate numerous s e c t o r s revealed delays and f r u s t r a t i o n over the u l t i m a t e goals and methods to achieve them..." Montgomery and In a systematic be  study of the programme o b j e c t i v e s ,  shown that l i t t l e  a t t e n t i o n was  most c r u c i a l to the tourism  p a i d to the  industry,  The before  programme  had  the r e g i o n a l tourism public  followed  and,  continued rationality'  according be  The  an  to  industry  allocated  (Ference 1982).  aiming  to  time  structure, gaining  As can and  local  access  i t s ' funds even  then  the  'expenditure  projects  observed,  without  funding  was  small development, TIDSA which  flow  of  Without  e n t e r p r i s e s have a  large, tourism  ultimately  interests.  small  the  c o n t r o l over the  impacts.  addition,  to  relatively their  policy  towards development.  and  In  and  be  l a r g e r corporate  intermediaries. little  of  officials  various  to f o s t e r l o c a l and  i n t o the hands of the  organized  harder  and  o b j e c t i v e s o u t l i n e d were not  g e n e r a l l y adopted a mega-project s t r a t e g y  plays  considered  s t r a t e g i e s were r e l e a s e d  a l l o c a t e d away from o r g a n i z a t i o n  has  can  i n t o development  spent 80 per cent  consultation.  to  While  it  1984  1982).  TIDSA  without  items  organisation  d i r e c t i o n , while e f f o r t s were channeled b l i n d l y (see Ference  Murphy  integrated  tour  region c o u l d have organized  tourists  90  It  is  clear  inter-industry organization  that  and  r e g i o n a l tourism  industry-community  high  on  their  i n i t i a t i v e s enable regions and pattern  of  tourism  s t r a t e g i e s must p l a c e  tourist  travel  i n d u s t r y i s made  up  communication  task  list.  communities and of  Organizational  to  therefore  and  help the  organization  shape  the  impacts.  The  and  promotion.  Without r e g i o n a l input, b e n e f i t s c o u l d be l e s s than c o s t s . 2.2  Regional The  take  on  Promotion  international  sale  a  different  number  influencing  tourist  of  of r e g i o n a l tourism  behaviour.  promotional  economies can forms,  These i n c l u d e d i r e c t  marketing  and  a d v e r t i s i n g , marketing-trade missions,  and  press, and  of  these s t r a t e g i e s changes when i n t e r m e d i a r i e s play a dominant  role.  hosting  each  e s t a b l i s h i n g overseas o f f i c e s .  E f f o r t s to c o n t r o l the  image of tour  region promotion more d i f f i c u l t  The  tour  e f f e c t of  regions  to be e q u i t a b l e and  agents  make  any  host  efficient  to  the e n t i r e i n d u s t r y . In  B.C.  as having these  s t r a t e g i e s of h o s t i n g press and  d i r e c t promotional missions  backward  a  trade  regions  do  office not  does. have  as w e l l  have been adopted.  methods are e f f e c t i v e , they do not allow  representation  operators  the  While  the same type of  Small  enterprises  and  same  opportunity  for  representat i o n . In d i s c u s s i o n s with  industry o f f i c i a l s ,  to deal with the o f f i c e s of the A l b e r t a Tokyo.  There  argument  c o u l d be represented  was  they f e l t  Government  i t easier  located  that more e n t e r p r i s e s and  more e f f e c t i v e l y .  As a r e s u l t , the  in  regions smaller  91  e n t e r p r i s e has more i n p u t . 2 . 3 Local  Planning  Communities must l e a r n to d e a l with tour develop  an  agreed  Intermediaries tourist  can  flows,  not  image  manipulate  planning  volume,  pattern  has mostly been  organization.  Communities  accomodate r e s i d e n t s and not v i s i t o r s .  and  select  on  often  Visitors,  programme by i n t e r m e d i a r i e s .  promotion planned  like  Organization  the  industry  tourism  industry  fabric  of  by on  residents. the  to  residents through  of v i s i t o r  flows w i t h i n a community would a i d i n the s u c c e s s f u l of  of  On a l o c a l s c a l e ,  based  are  costs  impact the community e s p e c i a l l y when they are channeled a  to  and method of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .  a l l of which are important.  community tourism and  upon  intermediaries  acceptance  The e f f e c t s of an unorganized  social,  economic  and  environmental  the community are w e l l documented (Wall  1983, Murphy  1 983) . S t r a t e g i e s to a i d i n the communities  planned  development  of  tourist  have expressed "a number of common p o i n t s which have  s i m i l a r a p p l i c a t i o n i n l i g h t of the above f i n d i n g s : (1) Communities must d e f i n e t h e i r They have a number of c h o i c e s and (2)  r o l e i n the tourism  process.  r e l a t i n g to the degree of a c t i v i t y  l e v e l of i n t e g r a t i o n they d e s i r e w i t h i n the tourism Local  community  organization abroad.  An  is critical unorganized  system.  to the s u c c e s s f u l s a l e of a flow  of  visitor  traffic  through the community can r a i s e a number of c o n f l i c t s . (3)  Promotion  controlling  of  the  the community as a community image  of  the  community.  i s e s s e n t i a l to  This  makes  the  92  community  a  saleable  product  that  can  be n e g o t i a t e d  with  tour  organizers. Locally  (4)  enables  defined  the  involvement  tolerance  community it  wants  in  (5) C l o s e  relationships  to  the  ensure  to  proper  limits  attempt  or  to  the  industry.  with  either  define  public  representation  and  carrying the  agencies  sale  capacity  of  extent  is  of  essential  the  community  abroad.  3.  NATIONAL  National economic  PLANNING  concerns  have  development.  two camps,  development  described  in  incentive  grants  government  has  Tourism aim  to  planned  integrate tourism  promotion.  Tourism  aided  the  in  and  foreign  intermediaries areas. to  which  services  press  Canmap p r o v i d e s tour  programme  is  These  programmes  exist  to  being  tour  educate by  with  programmes  for  discontinued  spite  of  the  view  a  familiarise them  through  Canadian  the  year. in  is  intermediaries.  foreign at  pre-  prospective  and  to  which  the  Canada  escorting  assistance  as  federal  programmes  together  for  ,  strategies.  tourists  brings  into  regional  The  three  of  split  through  Rendez-vous  developed  last  be  regional  development  planning  f u e l e d by  economy.  develop  can  fostered  distribution  and  aiding  infrastructure.  been  offering  a programme  been  regional  marketplace  is  intermediaries  has in  has  Famtours  The  and  space  developing  different  employed  aid  promotion  buyer/supplier firms  strategies  one,  to  d i r e c t e d towards  The  chapter  also  been  that  tour  customers. end  of  this  93  ". . . Much of the promotional effort of the industry and government has been on vague a d v e r t i s i n g c a m p a i g n s e x t o l l i n g t h e s c e n i c and c u l t u r a l v i r t u e s of Canada or some p a r t i c u l a r p r o v i n c e . While this was v i r t u a l l y t h e o n l y a v a i l a b l e avenue of e n c o u r a g i n g t h e footloose American tourist, the overseas visitor r e q u i r e s not o n l y t h e p o t e n t i a l a t t r a c t i o n s but also s p e c i f i c formulas for v i s i t i n g Canada..." ITQ It  is  to b e t t e r  that  integrate  process. limited  clear  programmes  the  However,  tour  to develop s p e c i f i c , tourist  t o and w i t h i n  There are address.  co-ordinated their  being  of  policy  national in  rationalised.  This  effects  of  dramatic.  Within  new  routes  to Japan.  This  has  this  thesis.  First,  due t o  the  routes  to  travel  that rises,  policy  18 months  limited  limited.  intermediaries  of  Second,  to  industry  with jump  on  of  of  flight  opened to  Japanese Canadian  demand with  for these  Japanese  regional  the  relevance  additional  the  is  U.S.-Japan  of  association into  into  airlines  F u r t h e r m o r e , as  further disenfranchising  flow  the  further  dictate  capacity  market the  likely  airline  two c o n s e q u e n c e s  are  B.C.  is  regions  w h i c h need  three  American a i r l i n e s to  the  distribute  deregulation  the p o s s i b i l i t y  country are  industry  up t o  treaties  U.S.  was  that  planning  may soon be c a r r i e d  The  seems  the  to  the domestic  agreements.  it  is  the  region.  s p h e r e where b i - l a t e r a l  airports,  it  for  formulas  international  flights  must be d e v e l o p e d  into  responsibility  p e r s p e c t i v e and  three areas  Regulation  currently  intermediary  federal  to a n a t i o n - w i d e  and p o l i c i e s  #2,1981:37  tour  control  over  tourists. the  role  of  Canadian  offices  abroad  needs  deeper  94  study  in light  of the r o l e  aware and e d u c a t e d more l i k e l y  they  Third,  ability  a foreign public are  a r e t o use a C a n a d i a n  decisions  Review Agency  secondary  policy  exists  possibility industry.  handed  the  trade of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  act  tourist  them c e n t r a l  as  developments  the  the i n d u s t r i a l  to  intermediary  to  market  o r g a n i z e r s and t h e i r  While  the  merits  of  role  is  or dependent  imperative  initiative -the  stage  that  tourist  tourism  the the heart  o r g a n i z a t i o n of a s e r i e s  experience  planning  host  international  and t h e i r  flow f o r  be  makes  impacts. project  process.  dismissed,  can cause e i t h e r  p l a n t and  workers.  move beyond that  on  are  i n i g n o r a n c e of  distribution  the an It  the p r o j e c t  forms t h e i n d u s t r y -  of s e r v i c e s that  and, e v e n t u a l l y s e r v e s  the  to  This role  plant  cannot  c a p a c i t y of t o u r i s t  and i n t o  regions  has f o c u s e d  u l t i m a t e consequences of a mismatched p o l i c y excess  Similar  Intermediaries  of t o u r i s t s  development  to  similar objectives.  process.  i n the  not  from c o n t r o l l i n g t h e  B.C.  a larger  firm the  eliminate  shown t h a t  t o u r i s m development p o l i c y create  nations.  from market  tourism  the  Investment  o r g a n i z e r s of the t o u r i s t  travellers  to  country,  the F o r e i g n  industry  I t has been  t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n  Regional  a  The more  operator.  markets to other  tourists  i s h i g h l y complex.  of  by  would m a i n t a i n  The  architects  tour  foreign service industries  CONCLUSIONS  Japanese  about  Japanese  banking  Similar policy  intermediaries  influence.  n a t i o n a l s w i t h i n Canada but  Canadian  in  of  their  4.  regions  down  (FIRA) have a l l o w e d  to d i s t r i b u t e  develop  of i n t e r m e d i a r y  to d i s t r i b u t e  forms t h e t o u r i s m i t s impacts.  As  95  this  t h e s i s has shown, e x t e r n a l  ability  to  organize  regional  interest.  the  flow  forces  of o r g a n i z a t i o n  have  the  of t o u r i s t s p o t e n t i a l l y beyond  96  APPENDIX A - JAPANESE TOUR PACKAGES TO BRITISH COLUMBIA Tour brand name - Company  affiliation  1.  Greening Tour - Hankyu Express I n t e r n a t i o n a l , Tokyo.  2.  Jetour/Kanata - World Tour Operators, Tokyo.  3.  Jalpack - Japan C r e a t i v e  4.  Diamond Tour - M i t s u b i s h i  5.  Happy Tour - NNR-Nishitetsu T r a v e l , Tokyo.  6.  H e l l o Young - Yamashin T r a v e l S e r v i c e , Tokyo.  7.  Value Tour - V i v r e I n t e r n a t i o n a l , Tokyo.  8.  Super Tour - V i v r e I n t e r n a t i o n a l ,  9.  H o l i d a y / S i l v e r Tour - K i n t e t s u  Tours, Tokyo. Co., Tokyo.  *  *  Tokyo.  I n t . , Tokyo.  10.  Mach - Nippon T r a v e l , Tokyo.  *  11.  Maple Valance - Naigai  12.  Look - Japan T r a v e l Bureau, Nippon Express, Tokyo.  13.  Elk/Dynamic Tours - Nippon Express, Tokyo.  14.  Playguide Tour - Playguide Tours Inc., Tokyo.  15.  Top Tours - Tokyu T o u r i s t Corp., Tokyo.  16.  L e i s u r e Tours - Funi Tour I n t . , Tokyo.  17.  Blue Guide - H i t a c h i T r a v e l , Tokyo.  18.  Yomiuri Tours - Yomiuri T r a v e l , Tokyo.  19.  Groovy Tour - TEC A i r S e r v i c e , Tokyo.  20.  Let's Go Tours - Lets Go Tours, Tokyo.  21.  Good Luck Tours - Good Luck Co., Tokyo.  22.  Sun & Sun - Sun &Sun Co., Tokyo.  23.  A l p i n e Tour - A l p i n e Tour S e r v i c e , Tokyo.  24.  Smile Tour - Seiko T r a v e l , Tokyo.  25.  Fellow Tour - Fellow T r a v e l , Japan.  T r a v e l , Tokyo.  * *  * * * * *  * *  97  26.  Orange Tours - U n i v e r s a l Tours, Japan.  27.  Worldgate Tours - Worldgate Tours, Japan.  28.  Youth Tours - G l o b a l Youth Bureau, Japan.  29.  Skyland Tours - Skyland T r a v e l , Vancouver.  31.  V i v a Tours - Japan T r a v e l  32.  Canada Tour - Nikko T r a v e l , Japan.  33.  E l k Tours - Nippon Express, Japan.  34.  Dynamic Canada - Nippon Express.  35.  UBC  Bureau.  Tours - Nippon Express.  * Tour Packages not handled i n t h i s study.  98  APPENDIX B - INTERVIEW OUTLINE The  following The  information  was  f o l l o w i n g information  sought was  from  each  interview.  sought:  1. Corporate h i s t o r y - Length of t o u r i s t trade.  business  with  the  Japanese  2. Affiliation Connections with other industry i n t e r m e d i a r i e s , length of a f f i l i a t i o n and nature of a f f i l i a t i o n . 3. Tour packages handled - Which packages they serviced, which f i r m s , estimated annual volume per package. 4. Projections on future assimilation, integration. 5. Economics of advantages of constraints.  changes  -  Growth,  with  decline,  operation - Costs of conducting business, scale and/or afilliations, opportunities,  6. D i s t r i b u t i o n of t o u r i s t flows - The macro (to what areas of western Canada) and micro (using what s e r v i c e s ) aspects of t h e i r tour p l a n s . This information was organization analysis.  then  used  to  conduct  an  industrial  99  APPENDIX C - DEFINITIONS Ground operator: A company or i n d i v i d u a l p r o v i d i n g such s e r v i c e s as hotel accomodation, sightseeing transfers etc. e x c l u s i v e of t r a n s p o r t a i o n to and from the d e s t i n a t i o n . R e c e i v i n g Agent: A tour operator or t r a v e l agent who s p e c i a l i z e s in s e r v i c e s f o r incoming v i s i t o r s . Tour  Operator: A company which c r e a t e s tours and/or subcontracts their generally include advertising, r e s e r v a t i o n operations of a t o u r .  and/or markets i n c l u s i v e performance. Functions flyer d i s t r i b u t i o n and  Organized Tour: The development by tour packaged, group or i n c l u s i v e t o u r .  intermediaries  of  a  Package Tour: A s a l e a b l e t r a v e l product which o f f e r s , at an inclusive price, several or more t r a v e l elements which would otherwise be purchased s e p e r a t l y by the t r a v e l l e r . Conducted Tour: 1) A prearranged t r a v e l program, u s u a l l y f o r a group, e s c o r t e d by a c o u r i e r . In a f u l l y conducted tour, escort and/or guide s e r v i c e i s provided throughout. 2) A s i g h t s e e i n g program conducted by a guide, such as a c i t y tour. D i s t r i b u t i o n Channels: The system of n e g o t i a t i o n s and aggrements and negotiations between market and destination i n t e r m e d i a r i e s to c r e a t e the flow of t o u r i s t s i n t o and within d e s t i n a t i o n regions. Land Arrangements: A l l s e r v i c e s provided reached the d e s t i n a t i o n . Net  Net  to a c l i e n t  once he has  Net r a t e : A wholesale rate o f f e r e d to tour wholesalers from tour s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s . Rate: A wholesale rate provided tour w h o l e s a l e r s .  t o r e t a i l t r a v e l agents from  S u p p l i e r : The a c t u a l producer of a u n i t of the c a r r i e r , h o t e l , s i g h t s e e i n g tour e t c .  tour  system;  a  100  Market Region: The home country of the t o u r i s t s . the O r i g i n a t i n g or Generating country.  A l s o known as  D e s t i n a t i o n Country: The country i n which the t r a v e l product i s experienced. A l s o known as the Host or R e c e i v i n g c o u n t r y . Tourist: Any v i s i t o r who stays in a host country 24 hours.  f o r more than  Industry I n t e r m e d i a r i e s : Those agents, operators, wholesalers, and brokers forming p a r t of the d i s t r i b u t i o n channel. Inbound T r a v e l : The n e g o t i a t i o n of t r a v e l i n t o home n a t i o n s . Outbound T r a v e l ; The n e g o t i a t i o n of t r a v e l  from  foreign countries  from home c o u n t r i e s  101  4' A F u n c t i o n a l Breakdown o f  , RetaII/Distribution  _  Wholesaling  Tour  Intermediary C  .  "  j — -  Tour  Packages/Groups  SBsnsBssnsuBsssniiansinsnaBBnsBsaaiBiBBaawanxnasnssnflsasnsinvaaBUsdaniasasnssssasssnassssaaU-t. STAGE  1.  CORPORATE  INTEGRATION  - INTEGRATED  FUNCT. -<  1.  Japan T r a v e l Bureau 376 O u t l e t s  2.  JTB  (JTB,  (JTB)  JTB  'LOOK'  International  Retail  (25?  NEC)  •VIVA'  Japan)  P a c l f l c o Creative Services  (PCS)  JCT  only)  Subsidiary  (West  (Japan A i r l i n e s  coast  0 4,  'JALPAK'  -t> t _1  Subsidiary)  (' 3.  Nippon Express  (NEC)  NEC J a p a n ,  San  •ELK  Francisco  (NEC F r e i g h t F o r w a r d i n g ,  TOURS'  4,0',  •DYNAMIC CANADA'  Japan)  'UBC  --a.  TOURS'  (25$ L o o k  Tours)  Tota %  of Grand T o t a l /  STAGE 1.  Many  Agencies  PI a y g u i d e T o u r s  2.  Many  Agencies  VIvre  3.  Klntetsu  Int.  (KInkl-NIppon,  Tour Co. Railway  International  Klntetsu Japan)  Centre My T o u r  Int.  (San  (Japan)  (Japan)  Tour Operations  Francisco)  APPOINTED  • S H E L L ' COMPANIES A C T INT  OFFICE -  'PLAYGU1DE  CANADA'  'SUPER  TOURS'  'VALUE  TOURS'  •HOLIDAY'  3.7  Tour  Group T o u r s  27C  (Vancouver) 8.7C  Total % of  Inc.  II.  Grand T o t a l  4v->  • III.  REPRESENTATIVE  OFFICE -  MON JAPANESE COMPANIES SELL THEIR TOUR UPERAT ION S E R V I C E S TO MAJOR WHOLESALERS ( C o n p a n y  Types " A - C " Negotiating  with  "D-F").  - o 1.  Fellow  2.  Universal  3.  Nalgat (C.  Travel  L t d . (Japan)  Tours  (Japan)  • FELLOW TOURS'  Universal  •ORANGE TOURS'  Nagal  Travel  Itoh,  F e l low T r a v e l  Tours  'MAPLE  Travel  VALANCE  Cana-Pak  5,000 <  1  Cana-Pak  900 - *  Cana-Pak  950 ,  T r a n s - P a c l f I c T o u r s I n c . T P T (1974)  Japan)  (100?  C"-»,-  (Total  Hankyu E x p r e s s  Hankyu  (Hankyu R a i l w a y ,  5.  Jetours; Tokyu  6.  Jolnt-Nafgat,  Hankyu,  Travel  Worldgate  Tours  Tours  35p . > *•  -  •KANATA'  -  Others  n  -  TPT  1974-1979)  II  It  _  tl  tl  -  Tours  -/  1  1,600*  2,000  "  1  -f  Worldgate  (Japan)  Tours  .'  Global  'WORLDGATE * T o u r s  (Japan)  'YOUTH'  Y o u t h B u r e a u (GYB)  8.  G l o b a l Youth Bureau  9.  -  Nippon T r a v e l  Odakyu T o u r s  Odakyu  and O t h e r s . • •  (Total  T.A.C.  Tours  Others  H o l i d a y s Vancouver  (100? T . A . C .  1 , 5 0 0 L *-  II  i,4ee»'>-  "  1 ,000^  tours  (900  4,900)  UBC T o u r s f o r NEC n o t  Included)  <-""' f  10.  not Included)  j  -  7.  'GREENING'  Travel  Japan)  (600 f o r J . T . B .  C P . A i r Vancouver)  (40? C . I t o h  4.  Cana-Pak  5,900)  -  '  (Total  T.A.C.  Seattle)  4,000)  Japan T r a v e l  Corporation  n  _  it  —  JTC  (JTC Vancouver) 11.  Yamaudf  YamaudI  Tours  1,00©^-  Tours  JTC  JTC  (Vancouver)  ( N e w s p a p e r Company) 12.  S e i k o Watch  13.  Nlkko Travel  Seiko  Travel  •SMILE TOURS'  Nlkko  Travel  'CANADA TOUR'  (Japan) (Japan)  _^ 1,800  Maple Fun Tours  700^* "*  Canadian Odyssey (Vancouver,  14.  Skyland Holidays  Many  (Vancouver)  ' SKYLAND'  Tours  Toronto)  Skyland Tours  Maple Fun Canadian Odyssey  Office  (Vancouver)  Skyland Tours  Forms 4 D i s t r i b u t e s  own p a c k a g e s  20,300  Total ?  ,ooe -<•  i  (Vancouver)  of Grand T o t a l  43,0<5o'  GRAND TOTAL % OF ESTIMATED TOURS TO WESTERN CANADA  1  j C. BC  :  'C.P. For  A i r group p a s s e n g e r d a t a e x t r a p o l a t e d  Individual  Japanese v i s i t o r s ,  on C . P . f l i g h t s  for the entire  a group e s t i m a t e  Tokyo-Vancouver (25,575).  market.  CP a n d J A L o c c u p y a p p r o x i m a t e l y  c a n b e made by m u l t i p l y i n g C P ' s a v e r a g e  A rough e s t i m a t i o n  equal  load f a c t o r  c a n be made t h a t 9 0 ? o r 4 6 , 0 0 0 o f d i r e c t  marked j j h a r e s .  (.80)  x geat (370)  I In  Interviews  50,400. the  with  tour  Intermediaries,  T o double check t h i s  proportion  figure  of group t r a v e l e r s  90? of t h e i r  roughly  clientele  matches t h e r a t i o  w o u l d be g r e a t e r .  came f r o m t h e s e d i r e c t  flights.  o f Japanese group t o I n d i v i d u a l  >  c a p a c i t y x number o f f l i g h t s  a i r p a s s e n g e r s on T o k y o - V a n c o u v e r f l i g h t s  The remainder overseas travel  < %  travel  (270) x a v e r a g e r a t i o  of Japanese passengers (.32)  A total  estimate  f o r grouped tours  Into B . C . can then  a t 5 0 , 4 0 0 •: 6 3 , 9 0 7 o r 7 9 ? J u s t below 8 3 ? d e t e r m i n e d by JNT0 f o r 1 9 8 3 .  )  of a l l Japanese v i s i t o r s  |  fnam^the W e s t e r n U . S . A .  1  f o r an e s t i m a t e  In g r o u p s .  be c a l c u l a t e d  a t 46,000 + [46,000 -  (.90)  T h i s a s s u m e s a l l g r o u p p a c k a g e s were s u r v e y e d .  (46,000)1 o r If  anything,  Appendix Srporatlons  D  Handling  Japanese Packaged  Volume 1983  1983  Vancouver  Group  Tour  (Total)  JTB V a n c o u v e r (100?  JTB  (1983)  B.C.  1983  Operation  H S LI H U N G TOKYO-VANCOUVER (Company T y p e A & B 00  HOURS t o  1983  w i t h some  Inc.  Ground  Past  Arrangements  Subcontract1ng). JTB V a n c o u v e r  Japan)  Operation  (B.  and  IWATA 2 0 0 0 ,  Others 1983)  1964  -  1984  JTB,  1968  -  1982  Cantour  1976 -  1983  Canapak.  1964  present  -  San  on  Francisco Vancouver 1964  4 off  -  CP  present IWATA  travel 00  PCS  Vancouver  (100*  JCT  (1975-)  PCS  Vancouver  1975  -  Cantour,  Japan)  B.IWATA  and  others  1964-1975 1964-1975  San  Francisco  Office  Dtrecttves  '0 ( T o t a l )  Nomuta E x p r e s s (Appointed 1984.  (1977)  Shell  N.E.C.  Office)  Nomura E x p r e s s  Vancouver  T P T UBC T o u r s ,  900  1975  -  NEC  San  Francisco  1964-1984  Vancouver  ,ooo 33 DIRECTLY FOR A JAPANESE PARENT (Company T y p e " B "  00  Playguide  Tours  Playguide 50  Vivre  j\i  Vancouvei—  Inc.  Vancouver  (1983) Joint-Venture  International Vivre  with  Japan  a Shell  Type " E "  Playguide (J  Tours  4 C Tours  Vivre  Office) 1968  Inc.  Vancouver,  1500,  1983)  -  1983  Appointed,  Various representative offices  International  Vancouver,  1978  -  Joint-Venture  My T o u r )  (1982)  (Appointed  Shell  My Office)  Tour  1964  -  1984  Kintetsu  San  1968  -  1982  Cantour  (Vancouver)  and  •J  others  Franclso  102  BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.  Antonson,R.(1983). Tourism P o l i c y Development - Or Lack of Same Presented to the 5FU foundation program i n t o u r i s m management.  2.  Archer,B.(1982) "Tourism M u l t i p l i e r s and T h i e r Implications". Tourism Management 3, pp  3.  Askari,H.(1971). 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