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Creating the foundations of a comprehensive junior concert band program Balanuik, John Alexander 1984

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CREATING THE FOUNDATIONS OF A COMPREHENSIVE JUNIOR CONCERT BAND PROGRAM by JOHN ALEXANDER BALANUIK B.Mus., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1979 B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981 M.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of V i s u a l and Performing Arts i n Education Music Education Programme We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1984 © John Alexander Balanuik, 1984 In present ing t h i s thes is in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ib ra ry s h a l l make i t f ree l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thes is for scho la r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representat ives . It i s understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of t h i s thes is for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Department of \)VSOA U At^D ftfcfrfoftHl K J Q ^ t k O C A T l d k ) The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 / f i l l i i Supervisor: Dr. John S. Murray ABSTRACT The Curriculum Development Branch of the M i n i s t r y of Education of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia issued Secondary Music (8-12) A  Curriculum/Resource Guide during the 1980-81 academic year. The Guide contains the lear n i n g outcomes and content f o r band with sample outlines and units intended to guide band i n s t r u c t i o n through the introductory, intermediate and senior l e v e l s . S p e c i f i c , sequential and comprehensive lesson plans, exercises and examinations designed to accomplish and evaluate each of the lear n i n g outcomes and content are not provided. The Guide has not created consistent standards throughout the province. My observations of numerous classroom s i t u a t i o n s and discussions of the problem with my collegues and supervisor lead me to speculate that an inadequate or incomplete d i s t r i b u t i o n of resource materials made band d i r e c t o r s u n w i l l i n g or unprepared to supplement the Guide. A review of the l i t e r a t u r e showed that many books p e r t a i n i n g to the stated l e a r n i n g outcomes and content of the Guide e x i s t however the information has not been compiled and organized i n t o complete, self-contained lesson plans, exercises and examinations. A f t e r ten months of research, I had gathered thousands of pages of material relevant to each of the stated band s k i l l s and objectives i n the Guide. I recognized that the dimensions were beyond my irmiediate resources so I contained my planning to the f i r s t three i i i l earning outcomes ( t e c h n i c a l competency, a r t i c u l a t i o n and theory) and further reduced the scope by l i m i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n to the f i r s t three years (8-10). Preliminary and r e v i s e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials and evaluation devices contained i n t h i s thesis were prepared based on the long-term learning outcomes of the Guide and the medium- and short-term learning outcomes from various sources i n the l i t e r a t u r e . The process of developing the foundations of a comprehensive ju n i o r concert band program involves teaching students how to read and understand music (chapter 1), how to recognize and perform melodic and rhythmic patterns (chapters 2-3), and how to develop musicianship by c o r r e c t l y applying a r t i c u l a t i o n and dynamic techniques to the scales and d r i l l s that are the rudiments of performance (chapters 4-5). The Guide has o u t l i n e d the goals of a Secondary Band Program. This t h e s i s provides p o s s i b l e methods f o r the accomplishment and evaluation of selected goals within the program. Subsequent coverage of the goals could provide a textbook f o r band i n s t r u c t i o n throughout the province which would permit students to move from d i s t r i c t to d i s t r i c t and be as prepared musically as they are academically. John Alexander Balanuik August, 1984 iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF EXAMPLES v i i i ACKNOWI^ IX^ EMEKTS x i Chapter 1. MUSIC THEORY 1 Introduction to the Problem 1 Learning Outcomes of the Program 2 Learning Outcomes, Year One 2 Learning Outcomes, Year Two 5 Learning Outcomes, Year Three 7 Lesson 1 10 Lesson IB • 14 Lesson 2 16 Lesson 3 20 Lesson 4 29 Lesson 4B 31 Lesson 5 33 Lesson 6 36 Lesson 7 39 Lesson 8 41 Lesson 9 43 V Lesson 10 ' 45 Lesson 11 47 Lesson 12 49 Lesson 13 51 Lesson 14 52 Lesson 15 53 Lesson 16 54 Lesson 17 55 Lesson 18 56 Lesson 19 57 Lesson 20 60 Lesson 21 66 Lesson 22 70 Lesson 23 71 Lesson 24 - 74 Lesson 25 74 Level 2, Lesson 1 75 Lesson IB 76 Lesson 2 78 Lesson 3 83 Lesson 4 84 Lesson 4B 85 Lesson 5 90 Lesson 6 93 Lesson 7 94 Lesson 8 95 v i Lesson 9 , 100 Lesson 10 102 Lesson 11 103 Lesson 12 105 Lesson 13 108 Lesson 14 109 Lesson 15 110 Lesson 16 112 Lesson 17 113 Lesson 18 114 Lesson 19 115 Lesson 20 116 Lesson 21 .' 117 Lesson 22 127 Lesson 23 130 Lesson 24 132 Lesson 25 134 Lesson 26 136 Lesson 27 138 Lesson 28 139 Lesson 29 140 Lesson 30 141 Lesson 31 142 Music Theory Schedule 143 Chapter 2. RHYTHMIC PROGRESSIONS 147 Introduction to the Problem 147 v i i Rhythmic progressions 150 Chapter 3. PRE-BAND 167 Introduction to the Problem 167 Lessons 169 Chapter 4. TECHNIQUE X 254 Introduction to the Problem 254 Technique, Year One 254 Technique, Year Two 259 Technique, Year Three 263 Chapter 5. PREPARATION FOR PERFORMANCE 266 Diaphragmatic Breathing 266 Warm-up and Tuning Exercises 271 Articulation and Dynamic Exercises 271 Articulation Guide 272 FCOTNOTES 273 LIST OF REFERENCES 275 Appendix 1. Curwen Hand Signs 279 Appendix 2. Recorder Fingering Chart 281 v i i i LIST OF EXAMPLES Example Page 1. MUSIC STAFF OR STAVE 1 0 2. LINE AND SPACE POSITION NAMES 1 0 3. TREBLE CLEF DIAGRAM 1 1 4. NOTES ON STAFF, TREBLE CLEF H 5. NOTES BELOW STAFF, TREBLE CLEF H 6. NOTES ABOVE STAFF, TREBLE CLEF 12 7. BAR LINES AND MEASURES 12 8. DOUBLE BAR LINE 12 9. USE OF SHARP, FLAT AND NATURAL ACCIDENTAL SIGNS 14 10. BASS CLEF DIAGRAM 16 11. NOTES ON STAFF, BASS CLEF 16 12. NOTES BELOW STAFF, BASS CLEF 16 13. NOTES ABOVE STAFF, BASS CLEF IV 14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TREBLE CLEF AND BASS CLEF 20 15. TREBLE CLEF AND BASS CLEF UNISON NOTES 21 16. CHROMATIC SCALE TREBLE CLEF ASCENDING 25 17. CHROMATIC SCALE TREBLE CLEF DESCENDING 26 18. CHROMATIC SCALE BASS CLEF ASCENDING 27 19. CHROMATIC SCALE BASS CLEF DESCENDING 28 20. PROCEDURE FOR COUNTING UP 12 SEMITONES 29 i x 21. PROCEDURE FOR COUNTING DOWN 12 SEMITONES 31 22. PROCEDURE FOR DESCRIBING PITCH 33 23. DESCRIBING PITCH ABOVE THE STAFF, TREBLE CLEF 36 24. DESCRIBING PITCH BELOW THE STAFF, TREBLE CLEF 37 25. USE OF SINGLE AND DOUBLE ACCIDENTAL SIGNS 39 26. DIAGRAM OF COMPARATIVE VALUES OF NOTES 41 27. DIAGRAM OF COMPARATIVE VALUES OF RESTS 43 28. DIAGRAM OF NOTES AND RESTS 45 29. SIMPLE TIME SIGNATURES AND GROUPINGS 47 30. NOTE VALUES IN SIMPLE TIME SIGNATURES 49 31. PROCEDURE FOR CONSTRUCTING CHROMATIC AND MAJOR SCALES 57 32. REVIEW OF MAJOR SCALE FORMULA 60 33. PROGRESSION OF SHARP AND FLAT KEYS 60 34. CONSTRUCTION OF SHARP MAJOR SCALES 61 35. CONSTRUCTION OF FLAT MAJOR SCALES 62 36. CIRCLE OF FIFTHS 63 37. PROCEDURE FOR IDENTIFYING MAJOR KEY SIGNATURES 66 38. NAMES OF TONES IN A MAJOR SCALE ". 70 39. REVIEW OF MAJOR KEY SIGNATURES 71 40. CHROMATIC PROGRESSION ABOVE AND BELOW STAFF, TREBLE CLEF ... 75 41. CHROMATIC PROGRESSION ABOVE AND BELOW STAFF, BASS CLEF 76 42. ENHARMONIC EQUIVALENTS .78 43. CONSTRUCTION OF SHARP MAJOR SCALES 83 44. CONSTRUCTION OF FLAT MAJOR SCALES 84 45. TRANSPOSITION BY KEY OR BY INTERVAL 85 46. SINGLE AND DOUBLE DOTTED NOTE VALUES 90 X 47. PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING TOTAL' RHYTHMIC VALUE 91 48. SIMPLE AND COMPOUND TIME SIGNATURES 95 49. DETERMINING CORRESPONDING TIME SIGNATURES 97 50. GROUPING IN SIMPLE TIME SIGNATURES 100 51. GROUPING IN COMPOUND TIME SIGNATURES 101 52. COMPARATIVE VALUES OF DOTTED AND TIED DOTTED NOTES 102 53. DIAGRAM OF DOTTED NOTES 103 54. DIAGRAM OF DOUBLE, SINGLE AND NON-DOTTED NOTES 105 55. STRUCTURE OF SIMPLE AND COMPOUND TIME 108 56. DIAGRAM OF NOTES AND RESTS 110 57. CHART OF ALL MAJOR SCALES 117 58. PROGRESSION OF SHARP AND FLAT KEY SIGNATURES 121 59. CONSTRUCTING SCALES BY INTERVAL PATTERNS 122 60. DETERMINING INTERVAL SIZE 130 61. DETERMINING INTERVAL TYPE AND FREQUENCY IN A MAJOR SCALE ... 132 62. SEQUENCE OF SHARPS AND FLATS 134 63. MUSICAL TERMS SHOWING STRENGTH OF TONE 138 64. MUSICAL TERMS SHOWING SPEED 139 65. MUSICAL TERMS SHOWING SPEED 140 66. MUSICAL TERMS RELATING TO TONE 141 67. MUSICAL TERMS RELATING TO SPEED .' 142 68. MUSIC THEORY SCHEDULE 143 69. TECHNIQUE, YEAR ONE 254 70. TECHNIQUE, YEAR TWO 259 71. TECHNIQUE, YEAR THREE 263 x i ACKNOvvXEDGEMENTS This project has been completed because of the direct and indirect assistance given to me by many people. I would l i k e to thank Mr. Terry McBurney, Mrs. Beth L e u l l i e r and Mr. Doug Doddington for their support and encouragement; Mr. Arnold Silzer, Mr. Gord Wallington and Mrs. Claire Harcus who have assisted in numerous aspects of the program; and Dr. John S. Murray and Dr. Allen E. Clingman whose expertise i n matters relating to music and curriculum have been invaluable. I am grateful for the support and encouragement offered by my parents, John and Viola Balanuik, my sis t e r , Joan and would l i k e to make special mention of the insights provided by my wife, Linda. 1 Chapter 1 MUSIC THEORY Introduction to the Problem The Curriculum Development Branch of the Ministry of Education of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia issued Secondary Music (8-12) A Curriculum/Resource Guide in 1980.^ This book "addresses i t s e l f to human growth and development. Historical components are combined with the technological advances of today's society so that students become musically l i t e r a t e , technically competent and aesthetically 2 responsive." The Guide contains the learning outcomes and content for band with sample outlines and units intended to guide band instruction through the introductory, intermediate and senior levels. Specific, sequential and comprehensive lesson plans, exercises and examinations designed to accomplish and evaluate each of the learning outcomes and content are not provided. The Guide i s intended to be supplemented by music teachers. This thesis, "Creating the Foundations of a Comprehensive Junior Concert Band Program", w i l l examine possible ways of achieving the learning outcomes and content of technical competency, .articulation and theory as defined by the Ministry of Education. I define "Junior Concert Band" as band in grades 8-10 and describe grades 6-7 theory and recorder classes as "Pre-Band". The learning outcomes the students should be able to demonstrate after 2 successful completion of Pre-Band and Junior Concert Band are:' Technical Competency The student should be able to demonstrate competency through the ranges of a band instrument. Articulation The student should be able to demonstrate and apply articulation and dynamic techniques. Theory The student should be able to understand the symbols and technical terms of music and display competency in their application. -refinement of embouchure -accurate intonation -major, rninor and chromatic scales in varying tempi and articulation patterns -arpeggios -breath control through diaphragmatic breathing -refinement of tone quality -legato, staccato and tenuto tonguing - l i p f l e x i b i l i t y -attack -release -accents -dynamics -tempo indications -accidentals and eriharmonic tones -syncopation -phrasing -balance -simple, compound and irregular metres -modes -interval study in varying applications both vocally and with the instrument The medium-term learning outcomes the student should be able to demonstrate after successful completion of Pre-band and one year of 4 Junior Concert Band are as follows. Individual S k i l l s While playing a l l major scales in whole notes ( o = 96), the student should be able to perform the following s k i l l s . 1. Demonstrate the correct embouchure for his instrument. 2. Show the correct hand and finger position for his instrument. 3 3. Maintain the following posture: student seated on the front six inches of the chair, feet f l a t on the floor, back straight, head upright and arms relaxed and away from the body. 4. Demonstrate abdominal breathing. 5. Produce a tone with the proper attack. 6. Produce a good tone. 7. Correctly finger 90% of the notes introduced during the f i r s t year (of Junior Concert Band). 8. Perform the above scales from memory with only one missed note per scale. Discriminating S k i l l s 1. Label the different note values introduced during the f i r s t year (of Junior Concert Band) with 90% accuracy. 2. Write the note and rest values introduced during the f i r s t year (of Junior Concert Band) with 90% accuracy. 3. Clap five rhythms selected from the method book (or the rhythmic exercises) with 90% accuracy. 4. Perform i n 4/4, 2/4, 3/4 and £ meters. 5. Recognize i f a pitch i s louder or softer than a given pitch in nine out of ten pitches. 6. T e l l i f a pitch i s higher or lower than a given pitch in nine out of ten pitches. 7. Differentiate between a major and minor chord given aurally in seven out of ten chords. 8. Write intervals from unison to octave with 90% accuracy. 9. Write the l e t t e r names for a l l notes in the treble clef with 4 80% accuracy. 10. Write the key signature for a l l major keys with 90% accuracy. 11. Take rhythmic dictation of five exercises selected from the method book with 85% accuracy. 12. Differentiate between a good tone and a bad tone when played by the director or a student in eight out of ten tones. 13. A l l exercises in theory of music level 1. Interpretive S k i l l s 1. Indicate the phrases i n five exercises selected from the method book with 90% accuracy. 2. Indicate the high point in a phrase i n five selected exercises with 90% accuracy. 3. Define the music terminology used in the method book with 90% accuracy. 4. Demonstrate normal tonguing and slurring in perforrning five selected exercises from the method book with 90% accuracy. 5. Demonstrate correct phrasing in performing five exercises selected from the method book with 90% accuracy. 6. Demonstrate correct concert procedure during the performance of one piece of music selected from the method book. Humanistic S k i l l s 1. Indicate personal responsibility through adequate individual practice of at least t h i r t y minutes a day. 2. Show acceptable behavior in class as determined by the director and the class. 3. Demonstrate the a b i l i t y to function i n a group as determined 5 by the director. 4. Show responsibility towards the group by attending a l l performances. 5. Give constructive c r i t i c i s m in a positive manner as determined by the director. 6. Accept constructive c r i t i c i s m as determined by the director. The medium-term learning outcomes the student should be able to demonstrate after successful completion of Pre-band and two years of Junior Concert Band are as follows."' Individual S k i l l s 1. Correctly finger the notes in the standard range of his instrument with 90% accuracy. 2. T e l l i f nine out of ten given pitches are i n tune with another pitch. 3. Play in tune during the performance of music played during the last month of school. 4. Play a l l major scales in quarter notes ( J = 96) one octave, from memory with only one missed note per scale. 5. Play a l l harmonic and melodic minor scales in whole notes ( J = 96) one octave with only one missed note per scale. 6. Play a l l chromatic scales in quarter notes ( J = 96) one octave, from mernory with only two missed notes per scale. 7. Produce a tone with a proper attack and release on the major, minor and chromatic scales. Group S k i l l s 6 1. Blend within a homogeneous section of instruments during the performance of a concert piece. 2. Balance within a homogeneous section of instruments during the performance of a concert piece. 3. Blend within a heterogeneous section of instruments during the performance of a concert piece. 4. Balance within a heterogeneous section of instruments during the performance of a concert piece. Discriminating S k i l l s 1. Write the following note and rest values with 90% accuracy: whole, half, quarter, eighth, sixteenth and thirty-second. 2. Clap five rhythms from the concert literature with 75% accuracy. 3. Demonstrate the a b i l i t y to play i n the following meters: 4/4, 2/4, 3/4, 6/8 and 3/8. 4. Differentiate between a major and minor chord in nine out of ten chords. 5. Write intervals and quality from unison to octave with 60% accuracy. 6. Write a l l the notes in the clef of his instrument with 90% accuracy. 7. Write the key signatures for a l l major and iriinor keys with 80% accuracy. 8. Correctly transpose from concert pitch to written pitch for his instrument eight out of ten pitches. 9. A l l exercises in theory of music level 2. 7 Interpretive S k i l l s 1. Define the terminology presented during the year with 90% accuracy. 2. Perform one piece of concert music following the musical instructions precisely. 3. Demonstrate regular attack, legato attack, staccato attack and slurring as indicated in one piece of concert music. 4. Demonstrate correct concert procedure during the performance of a concert piece. 5. Prepare a written evaluation of a taped performance of himself. Humanistic S k i l l s 1. Develop a positive attitude toward the group as determined by the director. 2. Express ideas to the group in class discussion. 3. Express opinions to the group i n class discussion. The medium-term learning outcomes the student should be able to demonstrate after successful completion of Pre-band and three years of Junior Concert Band are as follows. Individual S k i l l s 1. Produce a tone with proper attack while performing a l l major scales from memory, two octaves where possible, in quarter notes ( J = 120), with only one missed note per scale. 2. Produce a tone with proper attack while performing a l l rrdnor scales, harmonic and melodic, from memory, two octaves where 8 possible in quarter notes ( • = 96), with only one missed note per scale. 3. Play a l l chromatic scales in quarter notes ( J = 96), from memory, two octaves where possible, with only one missed note per scale. Discriminating S k i l l s 1. Clap five selected rhythms with 90% accuracy. 2. Write intervals and quality from unison to octave with 90% accuracy. 3. Write the key signatures of a l l major and minor scales with 90% accuracy. 4. Write a l l simple and compound time signatures with 80% accuracy. Interpretive S k i l l s 1. Define the terminology presented during the year with 90% accuracy. 2. Perform a melodic line from a selected concert piece following dynamic changes. 3. Label the following forms correctly in eight out of ten recordings: ABA, theme and variations, strophic and concert march. 4. Write a brief history of the music performed during the year. Humanistic S k i l l s 1. Discuss music with proper terminology developed through class discussions. 2. Demonstrate an awareness of past achievements in music through written and oral presentations. The short-term learning outcomes the students should be able to 9 demonstrate a f t e r successful completion of a lesson are contained throughout chapters 1-5 and the appendices. Preliminary and revised i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials and evaluation devices contained i n t h i s thesis were prepared based on the long-term learning outcomes of the Guide and the medium- and short-term learning outcomes from various sources i n the l i t e r a t u r e . The process of developing the foundations of a comprehensive j u n i o r concert band program involves teaching students how to read and understand music (chapter 1), how to recognize and perform melodic and rhythmic patterns (chapters 2-3), and how to develop musicianship by c o r r e c t l y applying a r t i c u l a t i o n and dynamic techniques to the scales and d r i l l s that are the rudiments of performance (chapters 4-5). 10 Lesson 1 The purpose of this lesson is to introduce the rudiments of music and to establish a foundation on which further learning and understanding of how music is created can be built. Music is written on, between, above, or below five parallel lines known as a staff or stave. Example 1 Each line and space has a position name. Example 2 — — — r r Fifth line Fourth space „ „ . , c Fourth line Third space Third space Second space _ , %. — . — c Second line First space „. , , . c First line The note names in music are A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. These note names represent the seven natural tones in music and are repeated sequentially to include a l l the tones from the lowest to the highest register. Note names vary according to the clef sign. A clef is a sign placed at the beginning of the staff to indicate the name and pitch of the notes placed on the staff. There are many clef signs. The treble or G clef is written as follows. 11 Example 3 F = l p tt a ^ J. When the treble c l e f i s at the beginning of the s t a f f , the notes on the s t a f f are as follows. Example 4 3 ZEE t±Treble Clef E B Leger lines are used to extend the range of the s t a f f . The notes below the s t a f f are as follows. Example 5 D 31 TT Treble Clef D B Using leger lines, the notes above the st a f f are as follows. 12 Example 6 -© - - o -1 Treble Clef G B Bar lines divide the music into specified units. Example 7 -© - - S -) 1 ^ > Treble clef bar line measure or bar bar line A double bar line indicates the end of the composition or movement. Example 8 Double bar 13 Lesson 1A At the beginning of each stave, write a treble clef and then, under the note in the space between the staves, write the resultant note names. i i 1 1 | 1 I n 1 1 1 © 1 i i n -e-1 • 1 1 ' I I 1 : 1 n 1 1 W 1 ~ I I O 1 n .n. i i f > l i i—i -e--e-/-» c > 1 1 CJ f 1 1 1 1 "D" jQ. 1 O i ^ i [ i_>. f I 1 o n ' 1 ° 1 1 1 1 1 -0-a -e-- -o i i i fl 1 ! | r i i ; 1 " • " i 1 1 ,. Q n /-> _Q_ XT U ^ 1 ' - i n <-\ . ..i i w 1 i 1 1 1 u -e--e- -e- - r\ 14 Lesson IB The purpose of this lesson is to introduce the sharp, f la t , and natural accidental signs. The sharp sign ( # ), placed before a note, raises that note by-one semitone or by one half step. The f lat sign (1? ), placed before a note, lowers that note by one semitone or by one half step. The natural sign ( \^  ), placed before a note, cancels the sharp or f la t . The accidental signs remain in effect unti l the end of the measure or unti l the note is altered by another accidental sign. Example 9 1 ) 1 , 6 — U 1—m 41 —m • p • 15 L e s s o n IB W r i t e t h e name o f e a c h n o t e i n t h e s p a c e b e t w e e n t h e s t a v e s b e l o w i t . „ _L_ -^A~ TT r Jfc b-e--e-o--9-e--I 4«- n | T T 3 f t I i — * --trrr- - ! ht- P O 3t 1i i TT 3te ZUZ .0 u 7 ^ p -e-i-cr ax i x t> o I • 3-. '"'1 !j i l l ] 1 -p -e-16 Lesson 2 The purpose of this lesson i s to introduce the bass c l e f and the notes on, below, and above a s t a f f beginning with a bass c l e f . The bass or F c l e f i s written as follows. Example 10 3 When the bass c l e f i s at the beginning of the s t a f f , the notes on the s t a f f are as follows. Example 11 o Q 3 — : O- " Bass Clef G A B C D E F G A Leger lines are used to extend the range of the s t a f f . The notes below the st a f f are as follows. Example 12 ^ ^ ^ 5 = = = ^ ^ ^ -cr Bass Clef F E D C B 17 The notes above the staff are as follows. Example 13 -o- si. z ± £ : = Q ^ ^ - - - - --e- - a -3= Bass Clef B C D E F G A B C 18 Lesson 2A At the beginning of each stave, write a bass clef and then, under the note in the space between the staves, write the resultant note names. 1 6 1 9 1 i ° — e O -e- -e- -CL e j •—n i —e 1 1 i n ! 1 I (J < n i 1 " g U , , n , 1 1 j i 1 1 i 1 i ... n ' i o n i 1 n r ^ ] i ! <r/—• i ^ 1 o 1 1 <• ! < > 1 n 1 t l 1 1 Cl 1 1 C O 1 n 1 1 i 1 i I C J t") i 1 Ci ' ! 1 CJ i 1 1 1 i o i ~w -e- -©-1 1 ' ' 1 r 1 1 1 n O | , | 1 ( l 1 i r, i i -©- • -e-t !J n 1 i ; i i 1 © 1 TT 0 TT <_> 1 • CJ 1 1 w 1 1 - 1 -e- O -S-19 L e s s o n 2B W r i t e t h e name o f e a c h n o t e i n t h e s p a c e b e t w e e n t h e s t a v e s b e l o w i t . 3 u 9 tax 3 •fko n: o 3 T I i' i r — CL. m P o P O I T -*-fr b - e -rc -9—e-w -b-o-3 = -9-e-TP" TP I F te Lesson 3 The purpose of this lesson i s to i l l u s t r a t e the relationship between the treble c l e f and the bass c l e f . Example 14 h r> ° y 0 o u / c, r> ° // n ° \ J n o ° s-\ • n O ^ )• n " ' r i " ° ' r> " ° G A B C D E F G A B C D E F G A B C D E F G 21 Example 15 The notes in column 1 are the same pitch as the notes displayed i n column 2. Notes that sound the same, have the same name, but look different are called unisons or octaves. Notes that sound the same, but have a different name and look different are called enharmonic equivalents. These notes share the same lett e r name therefore they are unisons. unisons 22 Column 1 1 t± -e-Colurrn 2 - e -3E T T 23 Column 1 La Column 2 —7 ) ^ 1 :  .^ r U — ^ > ^ =5 >j. 7 ) =£ te w ) ^ \ — 7 / s 7 T T ) ^ 24 Column 1 e -Column 2 Example 16 IS ZEZ HI o o XT F F# G Gf A Aft B C C# D D# E F F# G G# A A# B C C# D D# in ci E F F# G G# A A# B C C# D D# E F t Example 17 — 7 t — < J y » o p o — „ — =* k • = ^-2- ;<> o F E Eb D Db C B Bb A Ab G Gb F E Eb D Db C B Bb A Ab G 7 >-Q—^ w — e n P o o o - 1 ^  Gb F E Eb D Db C B Bb A Ab G Gb F Example 18 5 n z t r r o o - s r A A# B C C# D D# E F F# G G# A A# B C C# D D# E F F# G 3= G# A A# B C C# D D# E F F# G G# A Example 19 a -Q-3= -e- Q v o o A Ab G Gb F E Eb D Db C B Bb A Ab G Gb F E Eb D Db C B co CM 3E TTT Bb A Ab G Gb F E Eb D Db C B Bb A 29 Lesson 4 The purpose of this lesson i s to diagram the procedure for counting up 12 semitones or half steps to reaffirm the distance between notes one octave apart. Example 20 - n <") <-> . / n n "- :<) <-> -/, V ) O . • <J G G# A A# B C C# D D# E F F# G F# G G# A A# B C C# D D# E F F# ) r / o C -> - .c_> — (] 1 " O t ) : - C ) u ) i n rt /—i ("> T : C> ^ . Eb E F F# G G# A ' A# B C C# D E b 30 L e s s o n 4 v I n t h e m e a s u r e p r o v i d e d t o t h e r i g h t o f e a c h n o t e , w r i t e a n o t h e r n o t e one o c t a v e a b o v e i t . at 1 1 i \ Ufl2 -cr • i 1 I Li i i i i i a u 5 1 1 1 ; > \ 1 \ •• H a, e 11 o | | Li g 1 U fe 31 Lesson 4B The purpose of this lesson i s to diagram the procedure for counting down 12 semitones or half steps to reaffirm the distance between notes one octave apart. Example 21 3E o p o XL O P O G G b F E E b D D b C B B b A A b G ij:o L[Q P O o L o -3= O V o o P o ^ o I A # A A b G G b F E E b D D b C B A # -P-e- o b » o = t e " o P o o p Bb A Ab G Gb F E Eb D Db C B Bb 32 Lesson 4B In the measure provided to the right of each note, write another note one octave below i t . -©-\ 5 Q —J © \ 5  —)-n 1 ~ G  -4—• " o —J- 1 n-. '° i -O. e -j. -e-• ^ T <) —J-•9 s —• i 1 9  i i > 1 8  _J U 1 -^f- 5 c) e 1 —J. ° -4 -^f. e n [ r n _J Z X L r „ 33 Lesson 5 The purpose of this lesson i s to provide a uniform procedure for describing pitch. A note i s natural unless i t i s altered by an accidental (sharp or f l a t ) or by a key signature (lesson 19). Notes can be described i n relation to their position on the s t a f f . Example 22 ) -e-This note (middle C) can be described as: treble c l e f , below the sta f f , one leger l i n e , l i n e . The f i n a l descriptor (line) i d e n t i f i e s the note as either a l i n e or a space. -O- J This note (middle C) can be described as: bass c l e f , above the staff, one leger l i n e , l i n e . -e-/ V K This note (C) can be described as: treble c l e f , above the st a f f , two leger lines, l i n e . 34 J _ This note (B) can be described as: bass clef, below the staff, two leger lines, space. 35 Lesson 5 Write the notes indicated in whole notes on the staves below. Middle C B using one leger line A f l a t D sharp E natural — 7 t ^ — A sharp C f l a t B sharp G f l a t Another G f l a t — 7 / ^ \ . E f l a t A natural D f l a t G sharp F sharp — 7 ) ^ _^  B natural C two leger lines A two leger l i r E sharp les G two leger lines — 7 / t v — F A C E D — 7 ) - , * => B E A D > ~ — • - • => C A G E D 36 Lesson 6 The purpose of this lesson is to review the procedure for describing pitch (covered in lesson 5) and to diagram the procedure using notes above and below the staff. Example 23 t± -©-r+ 8 cr ID CD Hi rr 3 cr 5? o i—1 CD Hi O Hi rr 3 cr o CD CD cr o M CD Hi rr §• H CD O rt I—' CD O I— 1 CD Hi rf 3 cr r -CD o CD H i r t h 8-CD O r -CD Hi rr H CD cr M CD o I— 1 CD Hi e t I o Hi r t h CD cr a i—• CD Hi CD 8* CO r t 0) Hi Hi ! CD r t CD CO r t ft Hi I CD CO f t ft Hi I CD r t CD CO r t ft Hi ! CD rt ST CO r t ft Hi P± PL P> p) P> PA ff 8* ff ff 8". ff rt CD ft Hi 3 rt 8" CO r t OJ Hi Hi r t sr CO rt • PJ Hi Hi rt 5T CO rt 0) Hi Hi ' r t s-CO rt 0) Hi Hi i r t 8T CO r t ft i CD r t ST CO r t D) Hi Hi 3 O CD iQ CD H $ CO o 8 CD 8 CD 5-CD O D CD CD CD S" CD co 8 s1 i CD CO CD CD H CD CO CD CD H. CD CO CO TJ PJ o CD CD CD r-1 CD 8 5" to CD CD CD M CD 8 CD CO CO TJ P> O CD CD CD CD CD 5-CD CO CO *8 o CD t r e b l e c l e f , below the s t a f f , three leger l i n e s , space, f l a t t r e b l e c l e f , below the s t a f f , three leger l i n e s , space t r e b l e c l e f , below the s t a f f , three leger l i n e s , l i n e t r e b l e c l e f , below the s t a f f , two leger l i n e s , space, f l a t t r e b l e c l e f , below the s t a f f , two leger l i n e s , space t r e b l e c l e f , below the s t a f f , two leger l i n e s , l i n e , f l a t t r e b l e c l e f , below the s t a f f , two leger l i n e s , l i n e t r e b l e c l e f , below the s t a f f , one leger l i n e , space, f l a t t r e b l e c l e f , below the s t a f f , one leger l i n e , space t r e b l e c l e f , below the s t a f f , one leger l i n e , l i n e t r e b l e c l e f , below the s t a f f , no leger l i n e s , space, f l a t t r e b l e c l e f , below the s t a f f , no leger l i n e s , space 38 Lesson 6 Write the notes indicated in whole notes on the staves below. 7 I I I Middle C D below the B above the G on the stave stave stave 7 1 I , I -A natural E above the C above the C below the stave stave stave 7 I I I D natural F flat A sharp E natural 7 I I I B sharp F natural A flat C sharp 7 I I I C flat E sharp G sharp B on the stave ^v. —j — -F below the E above middle C F below middle C A below middle C ~i F sharp B sharp A fi r s t space G fourth space 39 Lesson 7 The purpose of t h i s lesson i s to review the sharp, f l a t and natural accidental signs and to introduce the double sharp, double f l a t and double natural accidental signs. A sharp (#) placed before a note w i l l a l t e r that note by r a i s i n g i t by one semitone or one h a l f step. A f l a t (b) placed before a note w i l l a l t e r that note by lowering i t by one semitone or one h a l f step. A natural cancels a sharp or f l a t . A double sharp (x) placed before a note w i l l a l t e r that note by r a i s i n g i t by two h a l f steps or one whole step. A double f l a t (bb) placed before a note w i l l a l t e r that note by lowering i t by two h a l f steps or one whole step. A double natural (\^ ) cancels a double sharp or double f l a t . A natural sign w i l l cancel only one of the two sharps or f l a t s . Example 25 §5 40 Lesson 7 Alter the notes one semitones by adding either a sharp or a f l a t as requested. L E  © -if / e — L-2 Raise lower raise lower raise lower raise -Q-1 XT X T Lower raise lower raise lower raise lower L... e e => < * e Raise lower raise lower raise lower raise X Z X X t± x n - e - X X " ~ o — lower Lower raise raise lower raise lower / — e ±u -e-Raise lower TT raise lower -e -raise lower TT raise LJ — — o O 1 (=1 Lower raise lower '-0. r a i s e lower - e -r a i s e lower x x -e -Raise lower raise lower raise lower raise 41 Lesson 8 The purpose of t h i s lesson i s to diagram the comparative values of notes. Example 26 One whole note i s equal i n value to: i ) two h a l f notes i i ) four quarter notes i i i ) eight eighth notes i v ) sixteen sixteenth notes J J J J J J v) thirty-two thirty-second notes 4 2 L e s s o n 8 I n t h e m e a s u r e p r o v i d e d , w r i t e one n o t e e q u a l i n v a l u e t o t h e sum o f t h e n o t e s i n t h e g i v e n m e a s u r e . r i i fr r & ' 1 -1 1 1 — « ? » 1 F ± = F = -T - 4 1 Tir b J O » f 1 1 1 : W-» • • * k •» ^ ^ bl b . 1 1 1 f i r i> ' " i t U U l 1 r LI i \ \ r 1 "1 J 1 f 1 M 11 . . . . . ! ; !f r u fj r>. • L " l ' r* 1 f* i 4+ l l 1 \ 1 L . 1 1 u » f I LU fLj T -1 1 mm m 4 r h r i • • • J i 1 • * i * M i 4-It U 1 1 1 * 1 • J 1 11 1 " P I 1 1 l-f 1 A u a • m * 1 I ' f i r p i »r LPE r1 r 43 Lesson 9 The purpose of t h i s lesson i s to diagram the comparative values of r e s t s . Example 27 One whole r e s t i s equal i n value t o : i ) two h a l f r e s t s , - m m-i i ) four quarter r e s t s £ £ £ £ i i i ) eight eighth r e s t s 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 i v ) sixteen sixteenth r e s t s 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 v) thirty-two thirty-second r e s t s 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 4 4 Lesson 9 In the measure provided, write one rest equal in value to the sum of the notes in the given measure. 4 4 4 E E 1 4 4 w . 1 J T J n f — K 1 h 1 -r-- & r — - l — P r 4 ^—i § j 4 1 j- —1—i \ — i — 1 1— 1 H — H H — h H — ^ — ^ 1 n ( — 1 — n — H r I D P I — . . . s i j ' j > h j > 4 d i i 4-i-4 5 Lesson 10 The purpose of t h i s lesson i s t o compare the r e l a t i v e values of notes and r e s t s . Example 28 A whole note i s equal i n value to a whole r e s t . A h a l f note i s equal i n value to a h a l f r e s t . A quarter note i s equal i n value t o a quarter r e s t . An eighth note i s equal i n value t o an eighth r e s t . A s i x t e e n t h note i s equal i n value to a sixteenth r e s t . \ A thirty-second note i s equal i n value to a thirty-second r e s t . o = J . _ J - i "J> - 7 J" - * ' J5 - , 46 L e s s o n 10 I n t h e m e a s u r e p r o v i d e d , w r i t e o n e n o t e e q u a l i n v a l u e t o t h e r e s t i n t h e g i v e n m e a s u r e . -rf 1 i 1 4 j . tin y \ 5* 1 1 i —i <5 —————————q 1 • II • • " • M =4- ? r 1 1 7 1 = il 7 Ii —i i 1 . _ 1 =fe <= — t ¥ , " 7 z3z 1 r , •—r H 1 H 1 > ! u r, 7 h (• , c 1 1. ) / . >• - — | ^ 1 H —A 1 I 3< > f| / 1 47 Lesson 11 The purpose of t h i s lesson i s to introduce simple time signatures and groupings. Example 29 I. J> J> J 1 S J J J 1 I J J I J J J ! J J J J I J J 2 J J J 2 J J J J 49 Lesson 12 The purpose of this lesson i s to provide a chart outlining the number of beats given to notes in the simple time signatures. Example 30 In 2/8, 3/8 and 4/8 time: a thirty-second note receives 1/4 beat, a sixteenth note receives 1/2 beat, an eighth note receives 1 beat, and a quarter note receives 2 beats. In 2/4, 3/4 and 4/4 time: a thirty-second note receives 1/8 beat,-a sixteenth note receives 1/4 beat, an eighth note receives 1/2 beat, a quarter note receives 1 beat, and a half note receives 2 beats. In 2/2, 3/2 and 4/2 time: a thirty-second note receives 1/16 beat, a sixteenth note receives 1/8 beat, an eighth note receives 1/4 beat, a quarter note receives 1/2 beat, a half note receives 1 beat, and a whole note receives 2 beats. 50 L e s s o n 12 I n t h e s p a c e b e t w e e n t h e s t a v e s , w r i t e how many b e a t s e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g n o t e s w o u l d r e c e i v e . -+4 1 — h 1 H 1 1 H 1 1 1 n — M f o h r t^t— ri ^ J D J1 1-1 J' In J" I I It 11! t ^ ! r = ^ 1 r r hJ r 1^ ^ h I I , | ;i nl J i-i ,l—1 "i b> 1 — -Sptt . 1 4 n V -H » -H -H J 2  3 b r9 f -H S) • 2 n 1 { ' 1 i -9 n -- t t — • y — i Lfi »P T k -H J - 1 -6 f« > 4 r -3 < - k * — K 1 1 1 1 -? n ^ — . -}—i i ± * 1 h ' -H ± t ^ H H it 1 Hp'' H i h \ X n 2 _ i 1 -H . - J f i * -tf K  -i n A h } 4 rJ , 1 -<&+ r t M ri 1-H . S 1 Ht i h — ~ ~i 1 -f b r -rt . 1 RCA r rH r 1 1 h 1 1 rH H , 4 J 2 1 il f> I -H * -4 . -H -i r. "fc n 51 Lesson 13 In the measures provided, write notes of any value in accordance with the given time signatures. Insure proper grouping of notes. 1 i > - H I -h, n -*fr-H 1 ] I ( =1 *=i4 ; + \ -WW < 1 Ffc======! * y d ) .1 = f f ^ i ! ^ f , 1 H 1 J , ^ WrS H l 4*4 — [ i l< II r J / 1 i h I I ) ; = | -TT-H r 1 KflVH - * M r 1 52 Lesson 14 Complete the following measures by adding one rest to each measure. Insure proper grouping in accordance with the given time signatures. F M —f—f "~f—<• J 1 11 s *_i_J =fl-H P fl . =1 —i - 1 — v — r 1 _J_X1  1 * -h—r. n H - 7 > M 1 =" =SpB 4—r-f-—* n i 1— iyA f 1-) , . . . . II ^ — - — -r m 1 II -) ?> n 1 1 H [ J » = T = i = i ^ — i J dr.Tt —1 4 -* -Wrf—a—r-1 ) 1 4 - * V 9 r m ii ' — I ~h :—n V I — -tW =N=r= h II - w i — i 1 11 rtn *ft Ii " "] f] J ii j — Tl ft ,f ii 4-— J J " i i — # L , _j—«_i—J . > i • r^t -— . — \ -H¥) 1 1 T ' 1 1 1 = * • r^fi #*=!= i 11 (• J i f =&r?—— (p? «• « v H • — (. ' * r ~f 53 Lesson 15 F i l l each measure with notes and rests properly grouped in accordance with the given time signatures. -1 f " 1 —i h , i "/ : 1 h i -ffirH 1 i J = — - . •h (vft 1 h - i -ft • ^ ; l II U VH = 1 — 7 ^ r [ ( • • [j 4>r4 r 11 v 1  -*>r7 •A-M 1 I f f • =ff -&-a i P.) =B -*£rL  l h ll -^nf (• h H 4 ^ : 1 1 j l ^ : r 1 | K If h = - • ^ | f r ff = — n W 54 Lesson 16 Correctly group the given notes in accordance with the given time signatures. r - r — h i \ -t-rH « il—a S—-y * i— r i a * •s—h [ -<©-H a 1 1 H k —K W -- t fH « F ^ = f * — 1 f-J i — t "<!p^  E-r 4 -f-J J =f 4—i 4*4 . -1 j i I * i I -J 1 - r. - k -C S D" 14 ' J d-\ — J - I -ftHl . r T -h?—K • « k-i v • —1 -*rN , 1 - j — , i J  55 L e s s o n 17 C o r r e c t l y g r o u p t h e g i v e n n o t e s a n d r e s t s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e g i v e n t i m e s i g n a t u r e s . XT » » I • H [ L , y -r—1 « M « ^ i j j 1 : II #H 1 — 1 — —r- -f r c F — 1 „ 4'i > f 56 Lesson 18 Complete the following measures with properly grouped rests. P l - » p r-, ; . 1 = -H— xr. i h r - h - j - i • -fc—f* rH ^ - H ^ 1 -!- K i i — fe -7 > , 2 • 1* i* - > — * m \ ^ b =j 3= 3E P P * * r m - 4 • i » 1 p -H r - T H - — ^7 = i rH 1 L _ 1 f 1. u \ ' \ a 41 n 1 • ''' i = = -—7 — ? 1 b ^ r !» 1 1 l>-| 1 = p q •v - . . - . — L V T r-1 Lesson 19 The purpose of this lesson i s to diagram the procedure for constructing chromatic and major scales using the charts provided i n lesson 3. Example 31 5 P-© e-4 - e - l o o ^ j j n O PO Q—::r€r v-e> e -C C#/Db D D#/Eb E (Fb) F (E#) F#/Gb G G#/Ab A A#/Bb B ST ST ST ST ST ST ST ST ST ST ST 58 Lesson 19 Write a treble clef at the beginning of each stave, then write the scales indicated adding the necessary accidentals and slurs to mark the semitones. C Major ascending and descending in whole notes G Major ascending and descending i n half notes D Major ascending and descending in quarter notes A Major ascending and descending in eighth notes C Major ascending and descending in quarter notes F Major ascending and descending in half notes Bb Major ascending and descending i n whole notes 59 Eb Major ascending and descending i n half notes C Major ascending and descending i n half notes A Major ascending and descending in quarter notes D Major ascending and descending i n quarter notes G Major ascending and descending in half notes Eb Major ascending and descending i n half notes F Major ascending and descending in whole notes 60 Lesson 20 The purpose of this lesson i s to reinforce the method of constructing major scales using the formula: T T ST T T T ST, to compare the progression of sharps and f l a t s , and to diagram the c i r c l e of f i f t h s . Example 32 ^ n M O " "=e= o -WS WS HS WS WS WS HS T T ST T T T ST Example 33 Progression of sharp keys: C G D A E B F# C# Progression of f l a t keys: C F Bb Eb Ab Db Go Cb The progression of sharp keys moves i n ascending f i f t h s . The progression of f l a t keys moves i n descending f i f t h s . Similarly, the sequence of sharps i n a key signature moves i n ascending f i f t h s and the sequence of f l a t s i n a key signature moves i n descending f i f t h s . Sequence of sharps i n a key signature: F# C# G# D# A# E# B# Sequence of f l a t s i n a key signature: Bb Eb Ab Db Gb Cb Fb 61 Example 34 \> ri 3 T — r 5- o 9 u 9  T T ST T T T ST D If n 0 —7 2 = „ © U = . . KJ • • b o u ° i T T ST T T T ST - n © 3 = O <> ° • K — 0 © — i T T ST T T T ST Is " 0 / I C J u T T ST T T T ST - 7 > ~~~ H 3 " 3 •- » : o " z ± z = =-!_} K e - <-' T T ST T T T ST 62 Example 35 IS ) / If o C 1 ° -©- 0 T T S T T T T S T IS ) / V T T S T T T T S T / (c y 1 h o c ; • " ' T T S T T T T S T ) :  / ) " - = u T T S T T T T S T — k o — ^ «» 2  —^1 p-e ° A . T T S T T T T S T 63 Example 36 64 Lesson 20 Write a bass clef at the beginning of each stave, then write the scales indicated adding the necessary accidentals and slurs to mark the semitones. C Major ascending and descending in whole notes Eb Major ascending and descending in half notes F Major ascending and descending in quarter notes A Major ascending and descending in eighth notes D Major ascending and descending in quarter notes Bb Major ascending and descending in quarter notes G Major ascending and descending in whole notes 65 C Major ascending and descending in half notes Bb Major ascending and descending i n whole notes A Major ascending and descending i n eighth notes F Major ascending and-descending i n quarter notes Eb Major ascending and descending in half notes G Major ascending and descending in eighth notes D Major .ascending and descending in whole notes 66 Lesson 21 The purpose of this lesson i s to provide a method for identifying major key signatures. Example 37 ) / K In the key of C Major, there are no sharps or f l a t s . ) \ (( > \ In the key of G Major, there i s 1 sharp. It i s F# and i t i s the leading tone or the tone one semitone below G. — 7 I : =* In the key of D Major, there are 2 sharps; F# and C#. The f i n a l sharp i s C#. It i s the leading tone or the tone one semitone below D. 67 In the key of A Major, there are, 3 sharps; F#, C# and G#. The f i n a l sharp i s G#. It i s the leading tone or the tone one semitone below A. h 1 —7 ) £ 1 f In the key of E Major, there are 4 sharps; F#, C#, G# and D#. The f i n a l sharp i s Dl. It i s the leading tone or the tone one semitone below E. is ) V ) In the key of F Major, there i s 1 f l a t . It i s Bb and i t i s the suMcminant or the note 5 semitones above F. V In the key of Bb Major, there are 2 f l a t s ; Bb and Eb. The f i n a l f l a t i s Eb. It i s the subdominant or the note 5 semitones above Bb. Another way of determining a f l a t major key by looking at the key signature i s to locate the f i n a l f l a t and then go back one. 68 — ; ) i 7- 9 j In the key of Eb Major, there are 3 f l a t s ; Bb, Eb and Ab. The f i n a l f l a t i s Ab. It i s the subdordnant or the note 5 semitones above Eb. In the key signature, the Ab i s immediately preceded by Eb. —1 n / > V f ) In the key of Ab Major, there are 4 f l a t s ; Bb, Eb, Ab and Db. The f i n a l f l a t i s Db. It i s the subdcminant or the note 5 semitones above Ab. In the key signature, the Db i s ifrirediately preceded by Ab. There are other major key signatures that w i l l be introduced i n l e v e l 2, lesson. 21. 69 Lesson 21 Write each major scale one octave ascending and descending in half notes according to the provided key signatures. Mark'all semitones with slurs. '1 -t * — 1 *> 1 i I = 1 T 1 ) h. •=, 4 I* : ' 1 - 4 4 -..,) T T- . > -J—1) = j = l — J — r T = = j V Nt • — i - • 1 70 Lesson 22 The purpose of t h i s lesson i s to provide a l i s t of the names of tones i n a major s c a l e . Example 38 The eighth tone i n a major scale i s c a l l e d the t o n i c or keynote. The seventh tone i n a major scale i s c a l l e d the leading tone. The s i x t h tone i n a major scale i s c a l l e d the mediant. The f i f t h tone i n a major scale i s c a l l e d the dominant. The f o u r t h tone i n a major scale i s c a l l e d the subdcminant. The t h i r d tone i n a major scale i s c a l l e d the submediant. The second tone i n a major scale i s c a l l e d the supertonic. The f i r s t tone i n a major scale i s c a l l e d the t o n i c or keynote. n T T ST T T T ST 71 Lesson 23 The purpose of this lesson i s to review the methods for determining the key of a key signature and to id e n t i f y the tonic note of each of the keys studied i n lesson 21. If there are no sharps or f l a t s i n the key signature, the key i s C Major. If the key signature i s sharp, locate the f i n a l sharp and read up one semitone to deterrxdne the key. If the key signature i s f l a t , locate the f i n a l f l a t and read the f l a t immediately preceding i t to determine the key. Example 39 3 E 3 Key of C Major Key of G Major - ^ r — -=±= < 5 Key of D Major Key of A Major Key of E Major Key of F Major 72 1 • / 1/ w Key of Bb Major Key of Ab Major Key of Eb Major 73 Lessons 22-23 Write the key signatures of the major scales using the provided tonic notes. / f=* e n> -n , -*P © 5 ICC St 1> o ii m S t 3= i Identify the following keys indicated by the major key signatures and write the tonic note as a whole note in the space provided. •. i t i x 5 ^ E E 3 m 3 t e 74 Lessons 24-25 J Correct the positioning of the stems and the grouping of the notes in the following passages of music. } <• l> N - -5 — ^ r r r ^ * a • J # _ . -**r~ •"•' U b \ --1 7 * • t — h — 1 i 1 rr -HI-H—f— r f >•• - J ' --i «l J • < a t *—n-J i l l | l| 3= 3 £ I 3 r 3 = 75 Music Theory Level 2 Lesson 1 The purpose of this lesson is to review and expand recognition of notes above and below the staff . Example 40 t ^ ^ - * # a - f e * =ff= ) T / (/ •> ) G G# A A # B C C # D D # E F F# ) / (( \ ' L i u l " r ~ ^ * ^ D D b C B Bb A A b G G b F E Eb 76 Lesson IB The purpose of this lesson is to review and expand recognition of notes above and below the staff begun by a bass clef. Example 41 n . $ n . _z$^t ^ f e B C C# D D# E F F# G G# A A# 3E -e- p -©-F E Eb D Bb C B Bb A Ab G Gb 77 L e s s o n 1 Write the name of each note in the space between the staves below i t . f=+ 1 e r — ^ 4 1 t - - t " n 1 - --V , — U 1 " 1 _ 1 ' u . I - 0 " 1 ! -J n — 1 t = f e j | e 1 i r n 1 / I e r — 4 - n i f-1 r-^ -~f.—U II -. o 4 n • 1 o 1 1 n 1 fc-= ~J : U e y : H 1 ' S_S T — i 1 1 tfo 1 |5 C l j | L - C J >-e — i ) | -—V— 1 jja j 1 b o 1 J o 1 A : 1 TT IP 1 1 ^-e -e-H— , n . " Hft *ft n ••: ' I1 XL • j " U 1 e 1 ^ 1 1 r& h! Lo i t-e • e ^ 1 1 u  > Q  w=) l) I„. i b-o. 1) u u e #b 1 -7T 1 ^ 78 Lesson 2 The purpose of this lesson i s to provide a l i s t of a l l enharmonic equivalents. An enharmonic equivalent i s two different names given to the same sound. Example 42 Cb is the same pitch as B B# is the same pitch as C c# i s the same pitch as Db Db i s the same pitch as c# D# is the same pitch as Eb Eb i s the same pitch as D# E i s the same pitch as Fb E# is the same pitch as F Fb is the same pitch as E F i s the same pitch as E# F# i s the same pitch as Gb Gb is the same pitch as F# G# is the same pitch as Ab Ab is the same pitch as G# A# is the same pitch as Bb Bb is the same pitch as A# B is the same pitch as Cb The following pairs of notes are examples of enharmonic equivalents. They look different and have different names but they sound the same. 79 Column 1 Column 2 enharmonic equivalents 80 Column 1 Column 2 3 81 Column 1 > ) ; JL 1 — ; ) * ^ h-e .X. h — 7 4 >> °-Column 2 J 1 ^1 ?-e TJ : o —y 1 \m 5 } :  83 Lesson 3 The purpose of this lesson i s to provide a method for constructing major scales with sharp key signatures using only the let t e r names of the notes. Example 43 c D E F G A B C G A B C D E F# G D E F# G A B c# D A B c# D E F# G# A E F# G# A B • c# D# E B c# D# E F# G# A# B F# G# A# B c# D# E# F# c# D# E# F# ' G# A# B# c# F i r s t tetrachord Second tetrachord 84 Lesson 4 The purpose of this lesson i s to provide a method for constructing major scales with f l a t key signatures using only the let t e r names of the notes. Example 44 c B A G F E D C F E D C Bb A G F Bb A G F Eb D C Bb Eb D C Bb Ab G F Eb Ab G F Eb Db C Bb Ab Db C Bb Ab Gb F Eb Db Gb F Eb Db Cb Bb Ab Gb Cb Bb Ab Gb Fb Eb Db Cb Fi r s t tetrachord Second tetrachord 85 Lesson 4B The purpose of this lesson i s to diagram one method for transposing music from one key to another or a distance specified by an interval. Example 45 C Major to G Major Perfect f i f t h C Major to D Major = Major second C Major to A Major = Major sixth C Major to E Major Major th i r d C Major to B Major Major seventh C Major to F# Major = Augmented fourth G Major to C Major Perfect fourth G Major to D Major = Perfect f i f t h G Major to A Major = Major second G Major to E Major = Major sixth G Major to B Major Major third G Major to F# Major = Major seventh G Major to C# Major = Augmented fourth D Major to C Major Minor seventh D Major to G Major Perfect fourth D Major to A Major Perfect f i f t h D Major to E Major Major second D Major to B Major Major sixth D Major to F# Major = Major th i r d D Major to C# Major = Major seventh 86 A Major to C Major A Major to G Major A Major to D Major A Major to E Major A Major to B Major A Major to F# Major A Major to C# Major E Major to C Major E Major to G Major E Major to D Major E Major to A Major E Major to B Major E Major to F# Major E Major to C# Major B Major to C Major B Major to G Major B Major to D Major B Major to A Major B Major to E Major B Major to F# Major B Major to C# Major F# Major to C Major F# Major to G Major F# Major to D Major Minor third Minor seventh Perfect fourth Perfect f i f t h Major second Major sixth Major third Minor sixth Minor third Minor seventh Perfect fourth Perfect f i f t h Major second Major sixth Minor second Minor sixth Minor third Minor seventh Perfect fourth Perfect f i f t h Major second Diminished f i f t h Minor second Minor sixth 87 F# Major to A Major F# Major to E Major F# Major to B Major F# Major to C# Major C# Major to G Major C# Major to D Major C# Major to A Major C# Major to E Major C# Major to B Major C# Major to F# Major C Major to F Major C Major to Bb Major C Major to Eb Major C Major to Ab Major C Major to Db Major C Major to Gb Major F Major to C Major F Major to Bb Major F Major to Eb Major F Major to Ab Major F Major to Db Major F Major to Gb Major F Major to Cb Major Bb Major to C Major Minbr third = Minor seventh Perfect fourth Perfect f i f t h = Diminished f i f t h = Minor second = Minor sixth = Minor th i r d = Minor seventh Perfect f i f t h Perfect fourth Minor seventh Minor th i r d Minor sixth Minor second = Diminished f i f t h Perfect f i f t h = Perfect fourth = Minor seventh Minor th i r d = Minor sixth = Minor second Diminished f i f t h = Major second 88 Bb Major to Bb Major to Bb Major to Bb Major to Bb Major to Bb Major to Eb Major to Eb Major to Eb Major to Eb Major to Eb Major to Eb Major to Eb Major to Ab Major to Ab Major to Ab Major to Ab Major to Ab Major to Ab Major to Ab Major to Db Major to Db Major to Db Major to Db Major to Db Major to F Major Eb Major = Ab Major = Db Major = Gb Major = Cb Major = C Major = F Major Bb Major = Ab Major = Db Major = Gb Major = Cb Major = C Major F Major Bb Major = Eb Major = Db Major = Gb Major = Cb Major =' C Major F Major = Bb Major = Eb Major = Ab Major = Perfect f i f t h Perfect fourth Major seventh Minor third Minor sixth Minor second Major sixth Major second Perfect f i f t h Perfect fourth Minor seventh Minor t h i r d Minor sixth Major third Major sixth Major second Perfect f i f t h Perfect fourth Minor seventh Minor th i r d Major seventh Major third Major sixth Major second Perfect f i f t h 89 D b M a j o r t o G b M a j o r = P e r f e c t f o u r t h D b M a j o r t o C b M a j o r = M i n o r s e v e n t h G b M a j o r t o C M a j o r A u g m e n t e d f o u r t h G b M a j o r t o F M a j o r M a j o r s e v e n t h G b M a j o r t o B b M a j o r = M a j o r t h i r d G b M a j o r t o E b M a j o r = M a j o r s i x t h G b M a j o r t o A b M a j o r = M a j o r s e c o n d G b M a j o r t o D b M a j o r = P e r f e c t f i f t h G b M a j o r t o C b M a j o r = P e r f e c t f o u r t h C b M a j o r t o F M a j o r = A u g m e n t e d f o u r t h C b M a j o r t o B b M a j o r = M a j o r s e v e n t h C b M a j o r t o E b M a j o r = M a j o r t h i r d C b M a j o r t o A b M a j o r = M a j o r s i x t h C b M a j o r t o D b M a j o r = M a j o r s e c o n d C b M a j o r t o G b M a j o r = P e r f e c t f i f t h 90 Lesson 5 The purpose of this lesson is to diagram the number of beats given to single and double dotted notes. A single dot placed immediately after a note increases the duration of that note by half its original value. A second dot would increase the duration again by one quarter its original value. Example 46 One dotted whole note is equal in value to: o-i) three half notes i i ) six quarter notes i i i ) twelve eighth notes iv) twenty-four sixteenth notes J J - J J J J J J J J J J J J J « « J J J • • J J J v) forty-eight thirty-second notes o • o-I J. is equal in value to is equal in value to is equal in value to is equal in value to o o J J • J • J • J + J J 91 J • i s equal i n value t o J +' i s equal i n value to J + + «T J^. i s equal i n value t o + J^. i s equal i n value t o + ^ + «^ To provide a s i n g l e note equal i n value t o the sum of a given set of notes, think i n terms of f r a c t i o n s , determine a camion denartinator, and add. Example 47 To f i n d a s i n g l e note equal t o : i ) convert i n t o f r a c t i o n s : 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 8 8 16 16 16 16 8 8 Note that t h i s step i s a s t r a i g h t conversion w i t h a whole note equal -to 1, a h a l f note equal t o 1/2, et c . i i ) determine a common denominator: 4 2 4 2 16 .16 16 16 i i i ) add the f r a c t i o n s together: 4 + 2 + 4 + 2 = 16 16 16 16 16 16 i v ) reduce the f r a c t i o n : 16 16 v) re-think i n musical terms: 1 = whole note v i ) complete the exercise: the rhythmic progression given above i s equal i n value t o one whole note. 92 Lesson 5 Write one note in the measure provided equal in value to the sum of the notes in the previous measure. i J i a, . ' « - * * i f -*P—•*—•—1 i l \ J) [ |. •— 1-S\ 11 ;| , . , , . m _ i ^ - 1 — - — ' d- r — i — — h 1 II i y J - J J- J ^ • J—j • * : i — J - « r * -. . r - J - | 1 T? i II l a « • 1 U—j • i j l l II f J- j « N > p j* * i fr>~ rt p L » r * 1 { n i ii - * — = — i _ \.. ... / • * P » Pi ' " d IT?— - • -L-_ , —Q 3 L i _ ] 1 j 1 |1 1 * p Cuf (TTT J | [ T l i i i 1 ^ [ f ' f i r r i -*-*-+- \ a M — i-| . 1 r r a - f ' - i . - . -..'1 * * 4 1 " i r i - I — u — H rr- r 4 r J J LT rf ] J M l II . -1 1" (- = _ . « r ' \ . .. Hi) J -in : J J , r • • 1 'I 1 • a J i ' J i - • — [• f b L i J ' » ^ _ J — J _ i _ ! — t4-rrfrJ * 1 T n i ^ J Tf f , ' J {. ' LL1 L a 1 -*-\—\ 4, L U i r 1 1 / a • < . 1 • • i IK m i II — n Tr 4 H-1 1-- 1 u i 1 M J r:—1 r 1 1 11 L J L J — S } 1 • II . 1 Jl 1 TT \ r-1 i -J r-i j tin ~4f. m— t 1 E ' 93 Lesson 6 Write one note in the measure provided equal in value to the sum of the notes and rests in the previous measure. II m n ft 0 0 N f i ii r —t—| —i— ' 1 1 1 1 " 1 — 1 —Z-i= —t- '—'A n 0-f-f f f f i • — i i > - #— \ I " 1 1 0 0-1  f i - J J — f r — 1 1 r-\ * r-f-\ ^ 5 1 1 | v f"'- 1 t : 1 ' 7 r - r H •? / ( ^ /a a a « ^ " c 1 1 1 C 1 -j*—~] r i 7—X3| 1| * r-i - J 1 ( 1 j L 2-1 f f L W 1 1  * - p 1 i ^ ' 1 ' ' 1 -4) H' j r ! = 1 C 1 ^  U ' ) " i H 1-Ul 7 i 7 ^ 7 ! ) 3= 0 0 0 0 ^ 0 ^3 0- P \ mm ?! 17 C i . n - f 94 Lesson 7 Write one note i n the space provided equal in value to: One quarter six quarter four eighth one half note note notes notes —7 =3 y. i One whole note ft 1/16 whole note four sixteenth notes sixteen sixteenth notes J ) =5 Four t h i r t y -second notes whole + half note two half + two quarter notes two quarter notes — 7 ^ j. One eighth note six eighth notes two half notes 1/2 whole note =) . S. Three half notes IN 1/4 whole note two sixteenth notes one quarter + two eighth notes — 7 j. Four quarter notes four h a l f notes 1/8 whole note twelve sixteenth notes _ > Pi :  J Two eighth notes Three eighth notes two sixteenth + •two eighth notes twelve eighth notes 95 Lesson 8 The purpose of this lesson is to diagram the simple and compound time signatures. A time signature provides three bits of information: the number of beats in a measure, what note will receive one beat, and 4 how the notes will be grouped. The time signature, 4 , indicates that there are four beats in a measure, that the quarter note will receive one beat, and that the notes will be grouped to show four quarter note divisions or two half note divisions. Example 48 2 8 2 4 2 2 3 8 Indicates each measure will contain two beats Indicates the eighth note wil l receive one beat Together, i t indicates a division into two eighth notes. Indicates each measure will contain two beats Indicates the quarter note wil l receive one beat Together, i t indicates a division into two quarter notes. Indicates each measure will contain two beats Indicates the half note will receive one beat Together, i t indicates a division into two half notes. Indicates each measure w i l l contain three beats Indicates the eighth note will receive one beat Together, i t indicates a division into three eighth notes. 96 3 4 3 2 4 8 Indicates each measure will contain three beats Indicates the quarter note will receive one beat Together, i t indicates a division into three quarter notes. Indicates each measure will contain three beats Indicates the half note will receive one beat Together, i t indicates a division into three half notes. Indicates each measure will contain four beats Indicates the eighth note will receive one beat Together, i t indicates a division into four eighth notes or two quarter notes. ^ Indicates each measure will contain four beats 4 Indicates the quarter note will receive one beat Together, i t indicates a division into four quarter notes or two half notes. . . Indicates each measure will contain four beats 4 2 Indicates the half note will receive one beat Together, i t indicates a division into four half notes or two whole notes. 97 Simple time signatures are based on the number '2*. There are 2 sixteenth notes i n an eighth note, 2 eighth notes i n a quarter note, 2 quarter notes in a half note, and 2 half notes i n a whole note. While dotted notes do exist in simple time, they are the exception rather than the rule. Compound time signatures are based on the number '3' and are typified by dotted notes. There are 3 sixteenth notes i n a dotted eighth note, 3 eighth notes in a dotted quarter note, 3 quarter notes in a dotted half note, and 3 half notes in a dotted whole note. Every simple time signature has a corresponding compound time signature that can be determined by multiplying the top and bottom numbers of the simple time signature by '3' and '2' respectively. By dividing the top and bottom numbers of the compound time signature by '3' and '2' respectively, one can determine the corresponding simple time signature. The importance in understanding corresponding simple and compound time signatures l i e s with selecting the most appropriate time signature for the music. If the music contained in a simple time signature i s predominantly dotted, perhaps a compound time signature would lesson the degree of reading d i f f i c u l t y . Example 49 2 8 x 3 2 6 16 3 8 x 3 2 9 16 4 8 x 3 2 12 16 In each of the above equations, the simple time signature i s multiplied by the numbers '3' and '2' to determine the compound time 98 signature. In the following set of equations, the compound time signature i s divided by '3' and '2' respectively to determine the simple time signature. g divided by ^ 2 4 9 3 g divided by ^ 3 4 12 divided by 3 2 4 4 6 4 divided by 3 2 2 2 9 4 divided by 3 2 3 2 12 divided by 3 2 4 2 99 Lesson 8 Correct the grouping < provided passages of r sf the notes according t nusic below. J J " - f "f 5 T M o the time sianatures J-i" J in the • * , > r loft L 7 7 ! >— 7 C 7 ( 7 7 J — ? (Tl ' 1 1 m d m m a d m *~f ' •* > — i H T — r - M 3  • tVi ii ? ? 77 I * l);, 1 r T i i r " . . f f f T7-h - — i " 1 '•' u U U n: . i . r  Lf C 1) L  1 / * * ~ — h • •*-* *-f 1 > K 'i h c—<— o ; i ? 1 | 1 / — * — / — j b b H i f r t r r t ' ^ » : r **f " M w l — 1 1 1 —•— 5-H ! 4 1 i K<Pr^ 1 / / * N _ 1 1 11 — i i ^ - f 5 r 4 — h • • h*-T» 4 ]•—r )1) ~* ^  i i d ~ > ' p > — H k i -1 1-4 1 i v v - / ? — X 4 L —i—t—J—i—i—u • i ii H 100 Lesson 9 The purpose of t h i s lesson i s t o diagram the d i v i s i o n of notes i n both simple and compound time signatures. Example 50 8 * 2 4 2 2 Example 51 6 16 12 16 6 8 12 8 6 4 12 4 J J J J J « m 16 • • * 9 8 J J J J I J J J 2 J J J J m m m m m m m » j j j - j j j J J J 4 J J J J J J 101 Lesson 9 Write the proper time signature at the beginning,, of each stave. J » 7 -4-j 1 M i = f = | t? i f — 1 J 1 j . ^ - L j t li i F f s - i — i i -s-r 1 r I i < w J \? = * r ^ - r - j J - . J 1 J J 1 1 1 1 1 i I I I , , 2 I -1 f) I b i ? .,| -#>• • -#-i > 1 -to 1 - f — 1 1 , 1 1 i. f t! ^ 1 ~ ~ J 1 J 1 • • 102 Lesson 10 The purpose of t h i s lesson i s to diagram the comparative values of dotted notes and t i e d dotted notes. Example 52 o • i s equal i n value to d • d • J • i s equal i n value to J • J -J - i s equal i n value to i s equal i n value to «^ J- i s equal i n value to ^ «^ 103 Lesson 11 The purpose of t h i s lesson i s to furth e r diagram the comparative value of dotted notes. Example 53 o- is equal in value t o o + d o r d + d + d J- is equal in value t o J + J o r J + J + J J- is equal in value t o J + J ^ o r J ^ + J ^ + J ^ is equal in value t o J ^ + ^ o r J ^ + J ^ + J ^ is equal in value to ^ + ^ or + + «^ 104 Lesson 10-11 Write groups of two tied notes equal in value to the following dotted notes. tur-1 h i '1 J ' • r at • . - 1 i i Write groups of three tied notes equal in value to the following double — * 1 1 j 1 1 -4ft r ^ — j Hntt^  • [ II [ att= l> ~1 I N 1 1 - -1 ' ' ' -4 1 r 1 N 1 « J • t II a — 105 Lesson 12 The purpose of t h i s lesson i s to f u r t h e r diagram the comparative value of double, s i n g l e , and non-dotted notes. Example 54 o- i s equal i n value to 28 s i x t e e n t h notes o- i s equal i n value to 24 s i x t e e n t h notes o i s equal i n value to 16 s i x t e e n t h notes J. J J.. J. J jV J> i s equal i n value to 14 sixteenth notes i s equal i n value to 12 s i x t e e n t h notes i s equal i n value to 8 s i x t e e n t h notes i s equal i n value t o 7 sixteenth notes i s equal i n value to 6 sixteenth notes i s equal i n value t o 4 sixteenth notes i s equal i n value to 3.5 sixteenth notes i s equal i n value to 3 sixteenth notes i s equal i n value to 2 sixteenth notes i s equal i n value to 1.75 sixteenth notes i s equal i n value to 1.5 sixteenth notes 106 • i s equal i n value to 1 ' s i x t e e n t h note This chart may be used to determine the lowest common denominator i n exercises intended to f i n d the t o t a l number of beats contained w i t h i n a measure. The values would be read as f r a c t i o n s with, f o r example, the whole note being equal i n value to 16 sixteenth notes and consequently being read as 16/16 or, simply, as 1. 107 Lesson 12 Write one note in the measure provided equal in value to the sum of the notes . in the previous measu A p a re. f> f! n * a 1 h -4 1 A n fi i 1 1 1 [ * a a a » 1 1) 1 1- • • — r i f t I ) — J 1 • • a a a a 11 M b a n (• i M T b l U l • 1 1 u u P £ a a a a a a 1 1 1 • • a i • i +- ^ & 'T- b b £ ! = * i > . . . . \ = — 111r uui i — » - » — -1 ' Ii bl l>U a a • a a p b ' ? I I 1> / n (s a i ^ 1 1 1 Hi. * * a • • 1-r - | i i J — 1 D 1 \) 1 — — : h 1 H r? /I a a • ' L-bb5b • a a a a i ^ i ' 1 .1 ' = -a a a a 1 r 'T t i b X k ft a a L 1 i 1 1 b b 1 1 * * 1-1 i — i — h + . c c c a a a a n r r i> 1 i a a a a a f E • l> I I) ' a k • 1 H ij 'T 1 U l b 1 = * nf a a a a » 1 1 1 I I M P n n u 1 • • i i 1 1 ' a a a a a H ' Y U b 1) [> I r ) ' a a a a a • 1 ' I i i 1 =* — m - m H b u i> FIT1 * * * •* 1 H r) • = A • A A A a a* p . 1 a a a o if — u - b b i ) — 1 a a a a a H 4 EEE&U 1 i 1> b I- 1 MMMMT^  1-Lesson 13 The purpose of t h i s lesson i s to diagram the comparative values of dotted and non-dotted notes and to compare the basic structure of simple and compound time. Example 55 i. J> J> ^ . n n n . c. i. J J J . n n n . rm rm rm . j . . rm - i J = j j . n n - rm rm In the above s e r i e s of notes, the dotted notes break down in t o groups of threes and f o l l o w the pattern: 3, 6, 12, e t c . The non-dotted notes break down i n t o groups of twos and follow the pattern: 2, 4, 8, etc. In both instances, there i s a doubling of the previous value. 109 Lesson 13-14 Write one note in the space provided equal in value to half the sum of the note in the previous measure. , P C ' II 1 1 A 3 i i. n . • Iff ! '1 1 f Hi... 1 ll l h p p Write one note in the space provided equal in value to twice the sum of the note in the previous measure. •4 rr-. 1 H r- 1 4 > — I 9 — f i — 1 \ — ^ — p / •• a - $ \— 1 £ i 4 — i 1 r~7 : 1 i r 1 i i J. * , . i *^ L M r •Pi h h f k .1 - . - L 110 Lesson 15 The purpose of this lesson is to diagram the comparative values of notes and rests. Example 56 o •• is equal in value to o- is equal in value to o is equal in value to J.. is equal in value to 1 is equal in value to _ J is equal in value to J . . is equal in value to c • J . is equal in value to i J is equal in value to I ;>.. is equal in value to y • j>. is equal in value to 7-is equal in value to 7 is equal in value to 7-is equal in value to 7-is equal in value to 7 is equal in value to ¥• is equal in value to 7-is equal in value to 7 I l l Lesson 15 Write one rest in the space provided equal in value to the sum of the note(s) in the previous measure. 1 1 =1 -n- — H e n - : i _| 4 r P "I1 k 1 l) , ; l 1 1 T T — j 1 k H r '*[' & 1 ll , i I 1 I 1 1 — — 1 \ H f i r — 4 « ' t ' 1 1 t = t = i 1 1 14 'T 1 1 i 1 — — ' i • 1 P 1 1 « i "Tf Ml r i ^ « . . 1 1 1 1 M==i n-r: i F i ^ " * 0 lip__£ L_ L il> .. i = r umi--I h k=ti= m * t J r i h ' i r — — . i 1 U , — H 1 i | y D i f . . i r ^ — 1 • » I i •in 1 Ai 1 r i- i i • • • • • i t k> 1 4 s H > 112 L e s s o n 16 Write dotted notes in the space provided equal in value to the sum of the rest(s) in the previous measure. I(f> 7 7 1 |i ? 7 | r i ^ 1 4 J f 1 J. .. _.. ' 1 — \ — / [ :  1 r- 1 . _ ^ Z j p 1 n ^ 1 — j : _ ^ Z 1 j f—=fc ! h 1 w — i y S i ' / " - r " - f t 1 \ [ -•• 1 1 \ \ • rr? i : — i 1 .. .... . | .„ ,. V i -^f | r i 4) 3- 1 i f - | j r i i i / - f 1 V • • > . , ! ito i 1 i 4- I i i — M - I 1 ; n & 3 y 1 3 ^ - i _ 1—. , — H ^ <ip 7 ? |) .1 4 • \-' M : , — ^ [1 . 1- 7 i > n ...I 4 : H > ~ ~ I H *) i r 7 ^ IT f / -> 1 H ~r 1 / -if i 113 L e s s o n 17 Using a variety of different note lengths and groupings, f i l l each of the following measures according to the given time/Signatures. i ii h 1 ll'l II 1 4r4i 11 fit m B E i t m 114 Lesson IS Write the proper time signatures at the beginning of each stave and then add bar lines to the following passages of music in accordance with the tine signatures. puma _ ! _ _ , :L.L!_ —1 f i 1 1 1 r r r f -— i -• p~p p P P P-1 t-f»— ~r—n 1 L U 1 \,u r r r r — F 1 U J 'rr prr r •  =f r -f-f-f 1 f - f - f — * -1 - = J J _ J H U - i — : _ _ J — U _ i - 1 V - V-— p p r p r — : — » • P =d—1—f—1 1 * 5 - ^ — > — —L±-4 ) •• i1 M • LU Ll ^ P P - 7 rr ^rr~p - f f 4=±= i ' i f r " ^ - - - ^ — > > „ ii 4 L f 7 Lf -rf-fe / U 7 I—: i—i— * * * —L —1-44 • *>»>* *>— r r f " fl $4 M 1 rfi i r—r~ J v 7 M—i— -f f~~—I —L== — p -J 1 K y f • i ~l . , I 1—) -d^— r i r — r -Q—4 1—4 4—-1 L )• f H ' l _ ii ^ 1 ^ 1 '| r r r r { 3 1—4—^ 1— > ~r~i— / -f- 1 — A - 4 — }i - L — i 1 1 LT LT: — i * f * — • — > — • P *—«— « d-—r-t— ~ (i \ -Hfe#£ r - i - i — i ^JLI f — _LJ \ i f = l b r -r 11-1 ^ 115 Lesson 19 Correctly group the notes in the following passages of music and then add bar lines in accordance with the given time signatures. -> V i ft r r f r-* - r ~ >. i : * t * v -4-<—^ r ' 1 7 t 1 rr r r • a- 1 f" ).). f=E r r r i >. >. >. >. >. i, f i f i ?. f i ,i ,M—I 1 lt 1. 1, I 1 < ' r M — r — ^ vr.ij , * > i* f i" i *• r* 1* f-f -*, ^  r p.?-1* * * ~ . _ . > • •MY I' I W—"j—V L. / V 1 V r \h\- ] > 7 r ) L , . i (j)8 * 7 / ' « / / * i.t'l., rrrr 1 *~\ •fT Tt • - 7 - + -- / V / / / V / — 3 — / — ' ——1 • I B •f*—i* ~ f ~ f — * i, N 1 n*—• >—1*"-?- • » f \ ' - L- \ • m / * * \ 1 J —^— f ) ' V— 116 L e s s o n 20 Provide the appropriate time signature at the beginning of each stave. j 7 & i r m P^P j p c E ^ | - p - ^ | i : mum m LU UJ a rm7 an p 7 r r r r r r f j j - p f p (• r r f p r ^ F * = = =H* A k 1 • " P * '<? 1 ( 1 1 4 r - T — « r t - ^ i r i * * 1 1 1) L * » ~ it 4 M =H=fc « • * J l u I ? ii i !-—#—•—~— I ' U ' U ' • # } ft • • » ] 1 / » • • » u |l "t' 1 ' 1 . ) c 1 LM v. 3 3 LT" 1  ISf: E 1=1=4 ' f 1 • l> i H 117 Lesson 21 The purpose of this lesson i s to provide a complete chart of a l l major scales. Example 57 ZEE X X WS WS HS / WS WS WS HS F i r s t tetrachord Second tetrachord N ' 4 t o ° © U : -) o < >— ° - 1 WS WS HS., F i r s t tetrachord WS WS WS HS Second tetrachord f / •> II <~> (S u O ^ |l WS WS HS WS WS WS HS F i r s t tetrachord Second tetrachord 118 N 41 O 4- T / 1 r- T \. WS WS HS WS WS WS HS F i r s t tetrachord Second tetrachord — t 1 •Yr n ( } ' n - : o Ji- ^ WS WS HS WS WS WS HS F i r s t tetrachord Second tetrachord — - , <> ; :  a —ifen : ;-e : m e—1 •-f"— t WS WS HS WS WS WS HS F i r s t tetrachord Second tetrachord / i :— - o 4 =-© • WS WS HS F i r s t tetrachord WS WS WS HS Second tetrachord 119 / ) • — 1 * • =) n • ;-© : » - 1 1 . ^ r — J ^ S : — b o — — t 1 — ? WS WS HS F i r s t tetrachord WS WS WS HS Second tetrachord / c > n It -\ u ° o / o - e -HS WS WS/^ WS HS WS WS F i r s t tetrachord Second tetrachord —7 £ ~ U 0 N  a ^ n 5 TT' 2. 1 1 W II HS WS WS/ WS HS WS WS F i r s t tetrachord Second tetrachord — 7 = > . — ^ o ^ — r — - 1 1 HS WS WS WS HS WS WS F i r s t tetrachord Second tetrachord 120 — 7 I LLO © s—i 2J p-e— © ^ 1 | " p O " HS WS WS WS HS WS WS First tetrachord Second tetrachord — 7 > u 1? O n 1—^ ^ — p-G f \) HS WS WS WS HS WS WS First tetrachord Second tetrachord >—b - — 1 =» p-e <>C"> ?-e ^ 1— 1 1 " re tro-" HS WS WS WS HS WS WS First tetrachord Second tetrachord K b o ^ 1 1 i ^ LLU b - e — T T T i jj 2 J V J P-© - i s HS WS WS First tetrachord WS HS WS WS Second tetrachord 121 I E "P~TT T I 7 -P-e- p-e-HS WS WS F i r s t tetrachord • WS HS WS WS Second tetrachord Example 58 Key of C Major 0 sharps 0 Elats Key of G Major 1 sharp F# Key of D Major 2 sharps F#, C# Key of A Major 3 sharps F#, c#, G# Key of E Major 4 sharps F#, C#, G#, D# Key of B Major 5 sharps F#, c#, G#, D#,. A# Key of F# Major 6 sharps F#, c#, G#, D# A#, E# Key of C# Major 7 sharps F#, c#, G#, D#, A#, E#, Key of F Major 1 f l a t Bb Key of Bb Major 2 f l a t s Bb, Eb Key of Eb Major 3 f l a t s Bb, Eb, Ab Key of Ab Major 4 f l a t s Bb, Eb, Ab, Db Key of Db Major 5 f l a t s Bb, Eb, Ab, Db, Gb Key of Gb Major 6 f l a t s Bb, Eb, Ab, Db, Gb, Cb Key of Cb Major 7 f l a t s Bb. Eb, Ab, Db, Gb, Cb, 122 Another way to determine what notes are contained within each major scale i s to alternate tetrachords. Beginning with the C Major scale, make the second tetrachord the f i r s t tetrachord of the G Major scale. Because the f i r s t and eighth notes of a major scale are always an octave apart, only three additional notes have to be found. When those have been determined, take the second tetrachord of the G Major scale and make i t the f i r s t tetrachord of the D Major scale and so on u n t i l a l l sharp keys have been found. To determine the f l a t keys, begin again with the C Major scale and take the f i r s t tetrachord, reverse i t , and make i t the f i r s t tetrachord of the F Major scale. As before, the f i r s t and eighth notes are an octave apart so only three additional notes must be determined. To continue through the remaining f l a t keys, take the second tetrachord of the F Major scale and make i t the f i r s t tetrachord of the Bb Major scale and so on. There are other scales and sequences of notes called modes that are contained in junior concert band music and the interval patterns for the more frequently found are as follows. Example 59 Major scale WS WS HS WS WS WS HS Harmonic minor scale WS HS WS WS HS WS+HS HS Melodic minor scale WS HS WS WS WS WS HS (descending) WS WS HS WS WS HS WS Chromatic scale HS HS HS HS HS HS HS (continued) HS HS HS HS HS 123 Dorian mode WS HS WS WS WS HS WS Phrygian mode HS WS WS WS HS WS WS Lydian mode WS WS WS HS WS WS HS Mixolydian mode WS WS HS WS WS HS WS Hypodorian mode WS HS WS WS HS WS WS Hypophrygian mode HS WS WS HS WS WS WS Hypolydian mode WS WS HS WS WS WS HS Hypomixolydian mode WS HS WS WS WS HS WS Pentatonic mode WS WS+HS WS WS WS+HS Whole-tone mode WS WS WS WS WS WS Both the authentic ( dorian, Phrygian, lydian, and mixolydian) and the plagel (hypodorian, hypophrygian, hypolydian, and hypomixolydian) modes are generally limited in range to one octave beginning and ending on specified pitches. 124 Lesson 21 Write the following major scales one octave ascending without key-signatures using accidental signs and marking a l l semitones with slurs. ) : • , 3 , C Maj G Major — ) ! J F Major D Major Bb Major -^=Y. J = : A Major [) 7 ) , : j. . i Eb Major 125 ) • 1 3 »^ E Major Ab Major I ' 1 . B Major ) Db Major —7 ^ , j. F# Major -<=* Gb Major \ i n C# Major 126 ) = 1 4 7 : •  ' Cb Major F Major — ) : 1 / // -> A Major Bb Major — ) = : 1 J E Major Eb Major B Major 127 Lesson 22 Write the following scales one octave descending using the proper key signatures and marking a l l semitones with a slur. — ) , / f v ) C Major E Major t± G Major B Major 3i F Major 9 = Db Major — l~ 1 / (t Ab Major 128 ) 1 / // -v. V D Major J / — F# Major 3^ 5 Bb Major • J Gb Major IS —~i I : .... ryJl : -> A Major ; : , J = C# Major ) 1 t ( Eb Major 129 — 7 > 3 , ^ -£ Cb Major Ab Major ) 5 Db Major C Major — ) , : ! / (( D Major B Major ^ . : ^ _i i E Major 130 Lesson 23 The purpose of this lesson i s to provide a chart for determining interval size. Example 60 Unison Minor second one semitone Major second two semitones one whole tone Minor t h i r d three semitones Major th i r d four semitones two whole tones Diminished fourth four semitones two whole tones Perfect fourth five semitones Augmented fourth six semitones three whole tones Diminished f i f t h six semitones three whole tones Perfect f i f t h seven semitones Augmented f i f t h eight semitones four whole tones Minor sixth eight semitones four whole tones Major sixth nine semitones Minor seventh ten semitones five whole tones Major seventh eleven semitones Perfect octave twelve semitones six whole tones Minor ninth thirteen semitones Major ninth fourteen semitones seven whole tones Minor tenth fifteen semitones Major tenth sixteen semitones eight whole tones 131 Lesson 23 In the space between the staves, identify each of the following intervals. -4 9 1 e n 1 ^= 4 — O n -e 1 e £-g!i 1 — M 4 = e ~ T J •Vn— n -H— h r e — " r r ^ 1 i u •••!> Q— -Y I 4. a 'i ! | 1 1» f 1 I n I ,7 n • - • - i 0 o bu -9- b -e-Y i ; — ' r> •ft n 1 ll ..... , ... . . ^ • v r i « ^ o 1 i l r i •r ~ — i r <j "0" >^ j o b-e-| 1 i 1 ii . „ i 1 w *• - n U b o _ u I1 p • / 1 ! 1) 1 1 1 Yi Q i i ^ I L ~ i 11) rP f J b !> 1 / n o ^ i yi ° () I I k X fir n n a n rrH 1 11 u I i 4 i Q 1 0 , o y 1 0 •> o / n tl 1 b <i b n n N 1 1 Y ri {i n n f, h Q r> !&• n 1' i I u t J i i n 1 P c i i r L •) O n i i i A 1 f) T l| l rrl • b. c> IVI 1 • — *j L ' 1 i ji TT 1 b o < ' W * u 1 ll 1 l ^ H xk - t> o d 1 TT 1 V -7T e 6 —HH3 1- i s (1 b u e L £ H S L b-O 1 132 Lesson 24 The purpose of this lesson i s to provide a method for determining how many of a particular interval i s contained within a two octave span of a major scale. Example 61 To determine how many major thirds there are i n the C Major scale: i ) write out the C Major scale two octaves, and D „ M o o + ^ -t — n — © — u If V ) p, CJ u •e- w ° C D E ' F G A B C D E F G A B C i i ) reaffirm how many semitones are contained i n a major t h i r d (four semitones or two whole tones). i i i ) Beginning on middle C, count up chromatically four semitones. iv) If one of the notes l i s t e d above i s four semitones above middle C, then the distance between the two notes can be marked as a major t h i r d . v) If the note i s not l i s t e d then continue on to the second note, D, and repeat the procedure. vi ) Upon completion, eliminate any doubles that may have been counted. 133 Lesson 24 In the measures provided, write a l l the requested intervals contained in the keys designated by the given major key signatures. / fc : ; u. b, All the minor seconds All the major seconds All the minor thirds All the major thirds All the perfect fourths All the augmented fourths All the perfect fifths All the minor sixths All the major sixths All the minor sevenths 1 * All the major sevenths All the minor seconds g 3 3 All the major seconds All the minor thirds B E All the major thirds All the perfect fouths All the augmented fourths . II All the perfect fifths / b V , Ii, All the minor sixths All the major sixths i y g , | t r • ft—'-rr1 ••• - "• All the minor sevenths All the major sevenths All the minor seconds All the major seconds 134 Lesson 25 The purpose of this lesson i s to provide a procedure for determining key signatures from diatonic intervals. A diatonic interval i s a pair of notes contained i n the same scale. A chromatic interval i s a pair of notes not contained in the same scale. In many instances, a diatonic interval w i l l be found in more than one scale. The f i r s t step i n this process to determine key signatures from diatonic intervals i s to understand the sequence of sharps and f l a t s . Example 62 Sequence of sharps: F# C# G# D# A# E# B# Sequence of f l a t s : Bb Eb Ab Db Gb Cb Fb The sequence of sharps and f l a t s are exactly opposite in order with the progression of sharps moving in ascending perfect- f i f t h s and the progression of f l a t s moving i n descending perfect f i f t h s . It is this consistency of order that permits determination of key signatures. The second step i s to locate the sharp or f l a t that i s closest to the end i n one of the above sequences. If the sequence of sharps i s involved, the f i n a l sharp w i l l be the leading tone and the key w i l l be one semitone or one half step above i t . If the sequence of f l a t s i s involved, the f i n a l f l a t w i l l be the subdominant and the key w i l l be five semitones below i t . The sharp diatonic interval may be contained in key signatures with more sharps. The f l a t diatonic interval may be contained in key signatures with less f l a t s . 135 Lesson 25 List the major keys that contain each of the following diatonic intervals. ' 1 - n -ft —I e cr i r > U 3JZ m 4± IF b | o -4 n : 1 ! fl> o \ 9 1 b—en • - i i ) 1 jr o 4f ! t o = ^ 3 -ft-©-136 Lesson 26 The purpose of this lesson i s to provide a procedure for determining the key of a given melody. To determine the key of a given melody, find the sharp or f l a t that i s closest to the end in the sequence of sharps and f l a t s . For a sharp key signature, the f i n a l sharp w i l l be the leading tone and the key w i l l be one semitone above i t . For a f l a t key signature, the f i n a l f l a t w i l l be the subdominant of the key and the tonic or keynote w i l l be five semitones lower. In the progression of f l a t s , the key w i l l be the f l a t preceding the f i n a l f l a t . 137 Lesson 26 Determine the key in each of the following examples and place the key signature at the beginning of the stave. p f • ')• IN - 1 J ! 1 1 - f t 1 1 1 1 i 7 i —a 4 ' n 1 ~4 T9 tr» • H — — | • 4 — i 11 r [ = _ i L • 1 u WARD MUSIC LTD Vancouver. B C 138 Lesson 27 The purpose of this lesson i s to provide a l i s t of words showing strength of tone. Example 63 Pianissimo (pp) Mezzo piano (mp) Piano (p) Mezza voce (mv) Mezzo forte (mf) Forte (f) Fortissimo ( f f) Crescendo ( Decrescendo ( Diminuendo Sforzando (sf) Forzando (fz) Rinforzando (rf) Very soft Moderately soft Soft Medium tone Moderately loud Loud Very loud Gradually become louder Gradually become softer Gradually become softer Accented Accented Strengthen the tone 139 Lesson 28 The purpose of this lesson i s to provide a l i s t of words showing speed. Example 64 Grave Lento Largo Larghetto Adagio Andante Andantino Moderato Allegretto Allegro Vivace Presto Prestissimo Extremely slow, solemn Slow Broad Rather broad Slow, leisurely Going at an easy pace At a moderate pace but not as slow as andante Moderate speed Rather fast Fast Lively Very quick As fast as possible 140 Lesson 29 The purpose of this lesson i s relating to speed. Example 65 Accelerando (accel.) Rallentando ( r a i l . ) Calando Ritardando (ritard.) Ritenuto ( r i t . , riten.) A tempo Ad libitum (ad l i b . ) A piacere Meno mosso Pi i u mosso to provide another l i s t of words Get gradually faster Get gradually slower Softer and slower Slow down the speed Hold back the speed In time (original speed) At the performer's pleasure At the performer's pleasure Slower at once Quicker at once 141 Lesson 30 The purpose of this lesson i s to tone. Example 66 Mancandb Smorzandb Morendo Piu forte Piu piano Meno forte Meno piano Perdendosi provide a l i s t of terms relating Failing or waning tone Dying away Dying away More loudly More so f t l y Less loudly Less s o f t l y Losing i t s e l f by getting softer and slower 142 Lesson 31 The purpose of this lesson i s to relating to speed. Example 67 Largamente Adagietto Tempo ordinario Tempo commodo Vivacissimo Tosto Celere Veloce Stringendo (string.) Stretto Affrettando Tempo giusto Doppio tempo Doppio movimento L'istesso tempo Tempo primo Piu lento another l i s t of terms Broadly, massively Rather leisurely Ordinary speed Convenient, comfortable speed Extremely l i v e l y Quick, rapid Quick, nimble Swiftly Hurrying the speed Hurrying the speed Hurrying the speed In s t r i c t or exact time In double time In double time In the same time as the preceding movement . At the same speed as at f i r s t More slowly 143 Example 68 Year One, Term One: September to Mid-October Theory of music level 1:1A Theory of music level 1:1B Theory of music level 1:2A Theory of music level 1:2B Theory of music level 1:3 Theory of music level 1:4 Term Two: Mid-October to Christmas Break Theory of music level 1:5 Theory of music level 1:6 Theory of music level 1:7 Theory of music level 1:8 Term Three: January to Mid-February Theory of music level 1: 9 Theory of music level 1: 10 Theory of music level 1: 11 Theory of music level 1: 12 Theory of music level 1: 13 Term Four: Mid-February to the End of March Theory of music level 1:14 Theory of music level 1:15 144 Theory of music level 1:16 Theory of music level 1:17 Theory of music level 1:18 Term Five: A p r i l to Mid-May Theory of music level 1:19. Theory of music level 1:20 Theory of music level 1:21 Theory of music level 1:22 Theory of music level 1:23 Term Six: Mid-May to the End of June General review in preparation for a f i n a l , cumulative examination. Year Two, Term One: September to Mid-October Theory of music level 2:1 Theory of music level 2:2 Theory of music level 2:3 Theory of music level 2:4 Theory of music level 2:5 Term Two: Mid-October to Christmas Break Theory of music level 2:6 Theory of music level 2:7 Theory of music level 2:8 145 Theory of music level 2:9 Theory of music level 2:10 Term Three: January to Mid-February Theory of music level 2:11 Theory of music level 2:12 Theory of music level 2:13 Theory of music level 2:14 Theory of music level 2:15 Term Four: Mid-February to the End of March Theory of music level 2:16 Theory of music level 2:17 Theory of music level 2:18 Theory of music level 2:19 Theory of music level 2:20 Term Five: A p r i l to Mid-May Theory of music level 2:21 Theory of music level 2:22 Theory of music level 2:23 Theory of music level 2:24 Theory of music level 2:25 Term Six: Mid-May to the End of June Theory of music level 2:26 146 Theory of music level 2:27 Theory of music level 2:28 Theory of music level 2:29 Theory of music level 2:30 Theory of music level 2:31 Theory of music level 2:32 Theory of music level 2:33 General review in preparation for a f i n a l , cumulative examination. 147 Chapter 2 RHYTHMIC PROGRESSIONS Introduction The rhythmic progressions contained in this chapter are intended to be used to build student recognition of the primary components of rhythm, to aid i n the study of articulations and dynamics, and to accompany exercises involving concert scales. Most of the concert pieces contained within the junior concert band repetoire use one or more of the following rhythmic progressions. If students are familiar with these rhythmic progressions they w i l l be able to perform them with less d i f f i c u l t y in the concert pieces. The primary components of rhythm are whole notes and whole rests, half notes and half rests, quarter notes and quarter rests, eighth notes and eighth rests, sixteenth notes and sixteenth rests, and eighth note t r i p l e t s and quarter note t r i p l e t s . The whole note ( o ) and the whole rest ( ) receives 4 beats in 4/4 time. The beats are counted 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 . The sound or silence i s continuous. The half note ( d ) and the half rest ( _ ) receives 2 beats in 4/4 time. The beats are counted 1 - 2 or 2 - 3 or 3 - 4 depending on the placement of the half note or half rest within the measure. The sound or silence i s sustained for 2 f u l l beats. The quarter note ( J ) and the quarter rest ( £ ) receives 1 beat. 148 in 4/4 time. The beat i s counted 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 depending on the placement of the quarter note or quarter rest within the measure. The sound or silence i s sustained for 1 f u l l beat. The eighth note ( *P ) and the eighth rest ( 7 ) receives h beat in 4/4 time. Consecutive eighth notes and rests are counted 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + with the numbers indicating the f i r s t half of the beat and the addition signs indicating the second half of the beat. The sixteenth note ( ) and the sixteenth rest ( 7 ) receives h beat in 4/4 time. Consecutive sixteenth notes or sixteenth rests are counted I e + a 2 e + a 3 e + a 4 e + a indicating the 4/16ths contained in each quarter note or quarter rest beat. The eighth note t r i p l e t and the quarter note t r i p l e t are examples of 3 against 2 counting; 3 eighth notes or 3 quarter notes are written in a rhythmic progressions where only 2 eighth notes or 2 quarter notes should be. To accomodate t r i p l e t s , maintain the beat but instead of counting "1 +" or "1 2", say " t r i - p l - e t " . Remember that simple time signatures are based on "2" while compound time signatures are based on "3". Also remember that fractions w i l l remain constant in both simple and compound time. An eighth note (1/8) i s equal to 2 sixteenth notes (1/16 + 1/16 = 1/8) and i s half the value of a quarter note (1/4 divided by 2 = 1/8). The reader i s encouraged to impose the articulation markings found in chapter 5 on the rhythmic progressions to increase the level of d i f f i c u l t y and to expand learning. Similarly, dynamic markings can be used to challenge the reading a b i l i t i e s of the students once i t becomes apparent that the rhythmic progressions 149 are f u l l y understood. The rhythmic progressions should be used during concert scale reviews to increase interest in the scales and depth of understanding in the patterns. The progressions can be counted out and performed, clapped and performed, clapped by the director and written out by the students or played by the director and played back by the students. Once the rhythmic progression and the concert scale are understood by the band students, the pattern can be applied as a rhythmic ostinato on each step of the scale. In a more advanced application, the director can specify the rhythmic progression, the placement of specific articulation markings and dynamic levels within that progression, and the concert scale the exercise w i l l be performed on. This d r i l l can be accomplished using the entire band or selected individuals within the group and serves to reinforce the lesson that there i s more to performing music than merely playing notes and rhythms. The experience of performing musically during the technical part of the lesson w i l l establish a standard that w i l l continue when concert pieces are being taught. 150 J > b — i 4 y' " - — e — t: \ 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 1 - 2 - 3 4 1 - 2 3 4 "7 —> = 1 — = L >— M V « « — W —+4 * 7 < ^ — * 7 ? 1 2 3 4 1 + 2 3 4 1 + 2 3 + 4 " f — d —w » afcat 1 2 3 4 1 2 + 3 4 1 2 3 4 + 4 M — 1 . m « a 1 1 2 3 + 4 1 + 2 3 4 1 + 2 + 3 4 # • a A * « * •a __JH_ 1 2 3 + 4 + 1 2 + 3 4 + 1 + 2 3 + 4 4 = - 1 4MW 4M 1 + 2 3 4 + 1 2 + 3 + 4 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 A 41 4 4 4 41 a i i 1 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 4 + 1 + 2 3 + 4 + 151 -& - R -4 * ^ A ' 1 L* ~ J J « A c m « —a c i 1 — i 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 - 2 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 - 4 > A A i A j a " 7 « 7 * •*f-i-« 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 +4 + 3 = ^ » *» « « 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + > r £ . i fl11 •7 • fl fl fl fl --4-4 4/_jd "7_ji 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + - j r M —1 ——t «1 1 / fl ~~fl — i 1 + 2 + 3 + '4+ 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 ii h k, k-4, f, +-1 • • 7 • "7 * fl 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + ^ 3 z x j b f l a 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 152 — | 1- 1 h i 1 - 2 + h J h 3 4 M 1 2 : SB - 3 + J g 4 I \ fl 2 3 -4 r — -4 + 1 - 2 + J , 1 ~ 3 - 4 + 1 + 2 3 1 h 4 • I - 2 + 3 + 4 = - = i •1 2 + ..,«! • .« 3 - 4 + 1 + 2 - 3 •+ 1 < L 1 til 1 + I - 2 -4 H 3 + 4 + I + 2 3 4 + 1 + fl 2 fl + L 4 — fl 3 — 4 « i + • I fl + 2 : 3 + 4 - T = i -2 + 3 4 + 1 1 J + t « \ 3 + * fli fl i + i fl 2 c - 3 H i « fl. 4 + 1 I + 2 - 3 + 4 k J 1 + fl _ 3 + 4 + A I - 2 1 fl + 3 -M- 1 1 + 4 « ...fl fl~ fl" tiff 1 41 a m m i mu m , 1 + 2 3 - 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 +4 1 - 2 3 - 4 + 153 I a 7 mz 7 4>' 7 1 - 2 + 3 - 4 1 2 + 3 + 4 1 + 2 + 3 4 + 3 J i " 7 m m a 1 + 2 3 + 4+ 1 + 2 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 4 + J . J ' l J ' J . 1 J ' l i 1 + 2 3 - 4 + 1 + 2 3 - 4 + 1 2 + 3 + 4 + 93tM * a a m 1 + 2 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 4 + 4^< - * m b 1 m i w 1 * 1 * 1 ! *-1 + 2 3 + 4 + 1 +2 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + N=1 I J b J ] > 7 £ 7 • L4__ — + - * 1 » 7 * • • 1 2 + 3 . 4 + 1 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 2 + 3 - 4 154 "7 * * 3F 5 1 2 3 + 4 1 2 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 3 + 4 4H | J 1 H i 5= : • J M J) J M—+• 4 ^ — • L_7_«J Z33: « 7 « l « l 7 a 3 1 2 + 3 + 4 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 2 + 3 4 + J ICE 1 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 4 + 1 - 2 + 3 4 + > — — 5 1 > 1 M I — e — * ^ — « L 1 1 + 2 3 + 4 1 2 3 4 1 - 2 + 3 + 4 + 3S 1 - 2 3 - 4 1 - 2 + 3 - 4 1 . 2 3 4 —> M J i -]JM > — > w J J ) M > > ~\ — 4 — £ ^ « * 1 I — t 7 • » 7 C £ * 1 + 2 3 4 1 - 2 - 3 + 4 + 1 .2 - 3 + 4 + 155 IE 2 . + 1 + . 2 + L ~7 i J'l I 1 + 2 + 1 e + 2 + l e + 2 e + (|l J—J J w m a-a J -1 1 + 2 + l + a 2 + 1 + 2 + a a J a 1 + 2 e •+ l e + 2 + l e + a 2 + 4-d d d ti d a d \ d d d a 1 + 2 e + a l + a 2 + a l e + 2 e + i ~ a fl fl l e + 2 + a l + a 2 e + l e + a 2 e + l + a 2 e + a l e + a 2 + a l e + 2 e + a 156 {/ m J W d J. « ftl • ff fl> flf fll * { l e + a 2 e + a 1 + 2 e + a l e + a 2 + 3= H fll * l fll zfr_fc_£ d l d T * l * H - 7^ J 7 d 7 « H l e + a 2 e + a l e + a 2 e + a l e + a 2 e + a =F - - — 0... s 44 = / 3 « fl a i A 7 i 1. e + a 2 e + a 1 e + a. 2 e + a l e + a 2 e + a *v * m m w 1 fg 7«< 7 « J « H ^ l e + a 2 e + a l e + a 2 e + a l e + a 2 e + a fi: C|'^  "7 fll 7 *l *l *l "7*^ 1 *\ d 1 d il - ^ f - J 7 ** *^  * 1 e + ..a 2 e + a l e + a 2 e + a l e . + a 2 e + l e + a 2 e + a 1 e + a 2 e + a l e + a 2 e + a fc l e + a 2 e + a 1 e + . 2 e + a l e + a 2 e + a 157 3E l e + a 2 + 1 + a 2 e . + 1 + 2 e + a l e + a 2 e + a 1 e + a 2 + l e + a 2 e + 1 + a 2 e + a l e + a 2 e + a l e + a 2 e + a J . J ' l J ' - J ^ f c ^ 3 1 e + a 2 + a l e + a 2 e + a 1 e + a 2 e + a nst 4mm- m m « 3S l e + a 2 + a l e t a 2 e + a 1 +a2 e + a a ' ' J' IE 31 a m 1 e +a2 e + l e + a 2 e + a l e + a 2 e + a -3H — 1 e + 2 e + a l e + a 2 e + a 1 + 2 e + a 158 h J J ) 1 1 7 • - d « a l e + a 2 + 1 + a 2 e + l e + a 2 e + a 5 4 i ai 7 oi d d d d d ai d *1 l e + a 2 e + a 1 e + 2 e + a l e + a 2 + a J . J)| J> J . J . ] > | J J ] ]>J J>[ « t l « • 1 e + 2 e + a 1 e + a 2 e + a 1 + a 2 e + a h n J J l e + 2 e + a 1 e + a 2 e + a l e + a 2 e + a J 7 «K 7 « f r 3: 5 l e + a 2 e + a l e + a 2 e + a l e + a 2 e + a <r JSJ. 7 J'i i J ^ J'TT 1 e + a 2 • + 1 + a 2 . + l + a 2 e + J'J i l l J l T I • 1 + a 2 + a l + a 2 e + a l + a 2 + 159 1 + 2 e + 1 + 2 e + a l e + 2 e + J J"»] 7 j1 J | J" J J J 7 J~J 1 J -7 l + a 2 e + l e + a 2 e + a 1 + a 2 + a fed; J 7 1 1 H i ± 7*8'*1 7 4 — * ? m m : . _ i l + a 2 e + a l e + a 2 +. a ' 1 + a 2 + a 3 l e + 2 e + 1 + 2 + l e + a 2 e + a • ft | 1 1 / ^ 1 1 7 ^ a / r 1 + 2 + l e + a 2 + 1 + 2 + 41 — * — J)M >—>—d—1 —c 1 - • 7 c : — £ — 7 • « 7 .—£—**—( 1 + 2 + a • 1 e + 2 + a 1 e + 2 + l e + 2 + 1 +. 2 e + a 1 + 2 e + a 160 a _ J-- J'J 1 2 3 - 4 + 1 - 2 - 3-4 . + 1 - 2 a 3- 4 a M i l 1 2 e + a 3 4 1 2 e + a 3 + 4 1 2 + 3 e + a 4 d = 1 J h - 4 '/Llr « i l l fl fll fll "1 fl) « 1 2 e + a 3 4 e + a 1-2+ 3 e + a 4 1 + a- 2 + 3 4 3 fll fl • fl fll fl fl fl fl 3 Z3i ZZ—I B 3 E l + 2 + a 3 + 4 l + a 2 + 3 + a 4 1-2+ 3 + a 4 fl flfl flflflB: si * ai a i - i « a a a a * fl fl * l + a 2 e + a 3 + 4 1 e + 2 + 3 + 4 l e + 2 + 3 + a 4 ft I I I • »a mm « l e + 2 e + a 3 + 4 1 + a 2 e + 3 e + a 4 1-2+ 3 e + 4 + a 7^ =H -—• ~a "a ^ i J J - 1 = ^ — a —S — — • | — 1-2 + a J 2 — / - 4 +a i n K n i S B 1 + 2 3 4 + w 1 + 2 a 4. 3 + 4 + 161 J'h J J J J H J ' J I ' J M J « m 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 +2 + 3 +4 + 4 J'J'J 7 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 3 + 4 + 1 +2+ 3 +4 1 2 + 3 + 4 3 7 * 1 + 2 + 3 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 38. 7 m * 1 + 2 + 3 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 1 +2 + 3 + J i m j^ii •) ? i i 7id^^?f I e + a 2 e + a l e + a 2 e + a 1 + a 2 + 1 + a 2 . + a l e + 2 e + 1 + a 2 e + 162 hp = = t = b 4 - h — , — j > — * J j . t — — 1 , • 1 • B ! •> « l e + 2 + a 1 + a 2 e + a 1 + 2 e + a l e + a 2 e + a l e + a 2 e + l e + a 2 + a «S I M a? ^ ffli ^ l e + a 2 e + a l e + a 2 e + a 1 + a 2 e • + a «1 ai *1 «t ^ #J a) a1 ^ « /^ a a w ^ f 1 + a 2 e + a I e + a 2 e + a l e + a 2 e + a BE! 5E ^ *d d ^ ^ d-d ^ ahd- at ^ d d d ^ l e + 2 e + l e + a 2 + a l e + a 2 e + a * a at l e + a 2 e + a l + a 2 e + a 1 + 2 e + a - f a — A h _ ty J I at. i * -9 •••• « I B - r • mm Si ta 1 e + a 2 + 1 e + a 2 + 1 e + a 2 e + a 163 !>•; n r-r ^yq- d ii a 7-*—i a w a 1 + 2 e + a l e + a 2 e . + a l e + a 2 e + a H — 1 mm — I - 1 4 « a . . a 1 e + a 2 + 1 + 2 e + a 1 e + a 2 e + a « a i 1 e + a 2 1 2 e + a 1 + 2 e + a l e + a 2 3 4 l e + a 2e+a 3 4 l e + a 2e+a 3 e + a 4 1 2 3 ' a • 4 • 1 2 a 3 a 4 1 2 a 3 4 1 2 a 3 + 4 1 2 a 3 4 + 1 2 a 3 + 4 + -"1 - f i — . —2% 11 m M — a —m —m —m m 1 -» 4£ ._M - • —m SK-JB Jm 1 HE • _; ffj 1 • L J U I mw m • -1 1 + 2 a 3 + 4 1 a 2 + 3 e + a 4 1 a 2 e . + a 3 + 4 164 5 : MJUb 3 3 3 3 ^ • 1 a 2 3 e + a 4 + 1 a 2 e + a . 3 a 4 + 1 a 2 a 3 e + a 4 1_dTi ~J~fl fll fll fll- At fl M i l l + a 2 a 3 + 4 1 a 2 + a 3 4 + l e + 2 a 3 + a 4 4 • i i ~i i i « n t « i m J " f l " f l fl • fl 1 4 n 4 fl - fl • 4 • fl « • fl fl - fl l a 2 e + 3 e + a 4 1 e + 2 + a 3 a 4 e + a 1 a 2- a 3 a 4 a 1 fl ..4 fl • • a> a . , . , fl fl fl m . .fl fl ,: fl fl -. fl fl 1 e+a 2 3 e+a 4 1 e+a 2 e+a' 3 e+a 4 1 e+a 2 3 a 4 • J J j i azzzs S C 3 9=3D 1 a 2 e+a 3 4 1 e+a 2 a 3 4 1 a. 2 + 3 e+a 4 J ^ C 1 3 3 E a J It fl fll fll fll fl at m fl fl—fl fl i flflflaiflfl fl at 3 3 3 3 t r i - p l - e t 2 3 + 4 t r i - p l - e t 2 + 3 - 4 t r i p l e t t r i p l e t 3 4 1 6 5 1 a 2 h\ 1 1 1 + 3 i + 1 + a 1= 0 2 + =4= 1 • 3 + 4 1 \ ' "4__J + 1 L#3 > + 1 1 a I 3 + l 2 - 3 - 4 -H= 5 - 6 1 -2 --3 4 -5 -6 1 ] I L -2 3 4 -5 4 f l 6 I l 2 2 1 flb 4-5-6 L -2 -• -3 4 -5 6 1 2 i m 3 4 4) 1 « 5 fm | 6 l =NF=f -3 M • 4 5 6 ft P fl L 2 + = 3 41 4 -5-6 1 -2 3 4 5 6 - • •-] i 4 4 2 3 * . 4 -1 5 t _ 6 4 l J . - 2 m i 3 4 1 M - 4 -=1= - 5 6 J .1 + 41 1 — ? — 2 in d 3 4 •4-5 A j 6 1-2-3 - 4 5 6 4 1 , 1 - 2: J L 3 + m 4 5 6 . a I d -2 + d -f 41 3 4-• 41 -5 + — * - ! 6 i 1 1 2 4 II + 3 i 4 + 4 1 • -5-•6 1 a -2 + I I 3 + ' 41 4-5-6 u l 2-3 ifli 1 + <• 41 1 5 J i -6 + 166 M m m BE 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 - 2 - 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 - 5 6 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 6 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 5 6 1 —1 fl i fl fl 8 — * fl fl fl 1 fll . fl ' f l ~ « 1 1 2 + 3 4 5 6 1-2 + 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 + 6 _I ZH ZZZ9IZZZZZK ZZZ3I 1 2 3 4-5 + 6 1-2 + 3 4-5 + 6 1 2 + 3 4 5 + 6 - f T T - 1 p j = | — I — z + i v / fl 4 fl 1 •1- i fl fl „ fll- 4 fl l - 2 - 3 + a 4 + a 1 - 2 + a 3 - 4 + a 1-2.-3 - 4 + a jjtjft 7 J J fll i L f l L f l L i ^ l + a 2 + a 3 4+a 1+a- 2+a 3+a 4+a 1+a 2 3+a 4 as 1 2 t r i - p l - e t 1 t r i p l e t t r i - p l - et t r i - p l - et 3-4 + 167 Chapter 3 PRE-BAND Introduction Pre-band instruction i s a forum for presenting some d i f f i c u l t performance techniques without the added complexities of a band instrument. Pre-band lessons i n music theory and recorder to grades 6-7 students provide the s k i l l s to read and perform music on an instrument that i s re l a t i v e l y easy to produce a sound on. Students are sequentially presented notes and rhythms that gradually increase in d i f f i c u l t y . The selected rhythms are presented over and over to allow students to become comfortable with the patterns. The new fingerings are featured at the top of each page to serve as a reference and to diagram enharmonic equivalents and alternate fingerings. When students have successfully completed the recorder and relevant theory lessons, they should find the transition onto a band instrument substantially easier. The recorder lessons are to be used again during the f i n a l months of f i r s t year junior concert band as they are within a range easily attained on the flute and the saxophone and, to a lesser extent, on the clarinet. The lessons can be adapted to accomodate the trumpet and bass sections of the band. During the second and thi r d years of junior concert band, the passages of music for the recorder can be used in combination with 168 the Curwen hand signs and concert pitch recognition. The director states the concert key the exercise is in and, using the hand signs to show the steps in the progressions, leads the students through the melodic and rhythmic passages in unison. I find this procedure especially useful in teaching chromatic scales. I describe each of the steps in terms of concert pitch so a chromatic scale one octave from Bb to Bb would follow the verbal pattern: concert Bb, concert B, concert C, concert D, concert Eb, concert F, concert G, concert A, and concert Bb up the octave. As the students will have performed each of the major concert scales during first year junior concert band, the exercise should be easily performed by the students. This knowledge is particularly valuable when warming-up and tuning. By integrating hand sign and concert pitch recognition with the melodic and rhythmic progressions contained in the recorder exercises, the students are building on knowledge received during an earlier stage of development. By building on these fundamental approaches to band instruction, learning becomes less apprehensive and more familiar to the student. 169 170 ZEE 171 A r ^ e d C 0 3 49—# 32 — ) — — • 1—4t 1—«l — # > - — • 1 — • =£= —.3 r e • 1 — < — " i - > — ) ' )— - J i c c J * f < * • C m ( J — • 2 £ = E E £ • — 4 — # 172 ./ # 9 -if 4 = H - — -^ — • < J—« P — a — • 1 — a — • J—J m a • * m € & 173 174 175 176 0 0 0 CO 00 1 e 0 0 00 00 4± • 0 • 0 0 o 00 00 n = ^ f ~ l • —« -I—- • — • ^ = — ^ — - b ~ 1 -* fl 7 J - 4 — /—•= r — 4 177 ^—r— H . J j 1 ^ * al 1 aft * I. 4 ) v =^=^: V J 1 — « H * — a l I ' *J * P - 1  V-I — * f> a1 • 1 _ w » " c y > - - - • i 41 ._ • A • .. / N — t r* m : V-j : — W i — ...V-_ — < » • 1 h • • * — 5 h n »• — . mm p— • -- • — v — ai mm — — t i — * • J| fe • i f) 0*— i • a- - a ## •—J 5 ^ - i — 4 -a • — * — 4 H » 178 179 180 181 182 0 0 0 0 0 00 00 ^ c—e =) . S! u . 0 00 1 " — ~ \ V / : i_i 0 7 = ) — J - © — — j \*=1 M ) r- 1 1 l y 1 ¥ 4 - * [—ci S.M 1 * * 1 - - U — M «1 H • -1 —1 • • ^  J • 4 ^ — f - ^ — / — M I 4 - 4 J -44. i 4 - ^ L _ ^ / /_ 3 4 r i t #-i a 183 184 185 0 0 — CO 7 / =>,— h-& t 0 ^ -. % ^ —. 3 oo 00 • J V - — v - } — w -M — • 1 4 — * ^ — — = — L _ ! K 1 . d -¥ ^ — / - • 7 * — * - / A1 • -4-186 188 M i , =f=ft=l nn rrr-h m i j I il 1 • * J y * • ' J J • • -• --• j n * a i t^ Uh—• >' t . j J r =r . ., aa | ... — mw —w—dm —•> J ... . - 'a 1 - ~ • • H* — • 189 k-^ 1 3 i i 1 _ M J 1 ;4 — « J ' 1 : a — J I 1 : fl. 1 • 191 jl 1 P it—I-• — i ~ f ~ ~ i 1-^ a m -fll -W-fr1' j . J J ' : r m m m -fl=*^ —p— i * J— ( a • • 3--t,^L K n 1 . i « M ai ai a1 —'—aL • ^ J J a L • f= ^ f • " a H=j= =*=^  j-fll \~ T—P~ ^1 I f r T " _ * - a _ * -1 f l 1 » J. 1j «l J ' H=4r i — * — — • ~ i fl « * a *"aT — * — ( 1 J * * Lfl_, • f l - j — * - - — = i V 0 J J J 192 193 B B S r H -I -i -0-ll J J J mm — • —•— —* -0- — • —<•> « — * « — * - * ' 4 J — — : = • = « i 194 195 lr. J fl 7^ w— -ALLZ: T-M — fl — • < 1 • • l-a1 - « 0 •J—• - a ~i 1 — i - — • i - J — • -U — « - J 1—m>-—• - J - ' — • ! j r n T 1 ~ s F p -4 • 1 — « —d 1—* - — • K { 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 = 3 = 1 = as H5H i l — • —t m M -3 . 7 ^ — 1 1 7 « ? — 1 1 — f —•> fl - 4 - ? — _< 4 » •—m 4-1 m • -fll 9-| -k-fl — « « 203 204 • 1— • • _ •M 1 • m j y 1 : 7 ^ = •V > • • l — r i — 1 - 4 ^ - — 1 — — 3 -7—W • ; 1 m - T + to i = = f c = i •H h - P •— —•— r p - i _P i — t > — i M — — j — 1 w = 205 206 0 • 0 0 CO 00 - L . .. =)—: 0 0 o 00 00 / ==>— b-e— —i» t • 0 CO CO in 207 208 Q e t • • 0 00 00 -©-0 • 0 0 0 00 00 1 t± 0 • 0 • • 0 00 CO > — I f - " — f C J ¥ ft a 1 E *—m-m. 3f •—1 1*—1 i 1 r i * e 4 s * * L ^ .u • f r h » 9 ^ .—1 + — if U . J i — -• l» f P • • —*> m - H r 7>ta. « P t : J J J » > i - - j — " 209 210 211 r i b . 1 * — • • L J •m— =Nf i — " 1> #• m-H — - |4 - f t — * — * i 4 = -0— • y — A r -h *^  |« > a — — 1 m • **— —t m— »^— - i i i — — * • 1 ' — r J > 4 • V-r — s — h < = 4 = y. U-44 ••^—m—t I f t — J i 1—< p— f • 1 - *—6 H r —r fm • — * - 4 - ft r — f — i — - v M — 1 ^ — i — h_. t J — 212 1 p = p s * I r i ^ — ^ 9 J | _ » , , ( | "• 4 * i — p -" » • • a • • M l T ! . p—oj, w —1 • J J. • a -k • • - — V 8 7 * ) 1 = * • -° a • a 1 ai • *= a — V • -k m * P r -fi a J ( ft -g— -X I a • — — 7 ^ * * • ¥= .I « — • — 4 = - • — r * « • rJ: • t —«L • • ~ a*—: r' ===*= » a » • a. a is • U T = 4 - h — ^ 1 1 a* ==1 213 K 1 - .1 . 1 7 m i v •—1 mr— » r - , r i 1 \ i • o r^ —1—1 J Mr ; 1 l 1 i e a 1 1 ^ -if b p i , «u 1 — r + a a • " f «U ft-— f - P ' r i' 4 ^ — 5 - S — e • 1 •) -I m L - l p - 1 • f w » 4 P — t u a b a —t 7 " ^ - 4 -1 ^ i - i - 1 1 -7 i • ~ T - ! VT •• — 3 -~ J 8 1 * P _ l * - 5 — 1 = 1 a a • » • 214 fh j - B M • • • — • ^ —V : 1 1 1 / t = f c = j d — 4 - ^ W / r ) - * - f l l • 1 n •— —< • h M I 1. ' 1 f U 1 1 — j — 1 17 a - 4 - J -^7 • ~ B P •—' » • i * p (1) K J —• ' J w P — i d i r • — » HP- • r T » » p P • —4 • .B> p 1—19 = # p = * j • 1 9 • 1 — i » p f*— 1 1 — 4 -H u -=HB ^ ffC —+- 0 — 4 - — ? — L_Ji p-1 * — • — p — • — = r ~ P — •j — d — « — = ; — • — = : h I > ^ P p — ft ^ 1 ' = J = t ± d • — < r U > h J 1 —V L J 1 7 \) 215 d — i •- i 1 i P P m J h H — 1 l 1—?- * 1 ) l T j t r ' r—I MT- *=! 1 *—4 1—• • — 4 1 — - 4 - , i — - r - r 1 — 1— " 7 K : » f - * 1 = 1 h — ^ h -1 i ^ 1 » - gm. I - 4 - —ml » < 1 »— 5= m9 -u — i a * — 1 • • >-p-p » -f-Hfe)-» —• T T r • 1 _ai - S P — — L - M n — r ft-f 1 -y-—^  t—w mfi « d 1 ± • J <=£= A — -H —« =}=" — — r — 9 r *—1  Mm -r-r fe-l • K — •—1 D =* >- - 4 - • T 1 a —\ 1 X 216 ~ f - n d r -Hft H i h » • — • 1 p — m—i •> ~ - 1 •I «—* e fa"' L i I 4 = J 4 ^ /-V —4- H — f -H 3 4 4 4 * 7 J 7 _ ^ (U r l 7 —i-—H—/-j p - 4 q • • P-=-—£ • — 4 a V! > i 1 J •— •— ti— •—- 1 — 1 — 1 i (ft " H — \h-\ — f l l . — • "1 -—• ' 7 • ^ k • 1 — p — •> » s 1 - , l r ( - 1 1m) r i — — i i * ' 1 « 1 •• • • 4 1 j • 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 P~TT i t * 1> 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 232 • r- m m -r , n j n 1 u * w — — i V V Tmt » » r B> • •> D p « J mw233 234 235 236 237 M r ~ 9- • w • V-A -v-m • • =£= i V—\ y- A -238 239 240 • 0 0 o 0 CO 00 3 t± 0 • M 00 D : j : - e -7 • — >• 0 M CO 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 * i j ft J ft J t » . I J i <u • J " t i J •-•J m m m 252 253 254 Chapter 4 TECHNIQUE A Sequential Approach to Technical D r i l l s The purpose of this chapter i s to delineate sequentially the major, minor, and chromatic scales; the arpeggios and other technical d r i l l s ; the rhythmic exercises; and the ear training and hand sign recognition lessons designed to establish a firm base for reading pitch and rhythm, fluently. Example 69 Year One, Term One September to Mid-October S k i l l Reference Concert Bb Major Scale I Recommend 7:1 Advanced Technique for Bands 2:1 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 8-9:1 Concert Eb Major Scale I Recommend 7:5 Advanced Technique for Bands 6:14 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 8-9:12 Chromatic Scale Concert Bb I Recommend 15:1 Advanced Technique 2:4(c) Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 12:1 255 Chromatic Scale Concert Eb Hand sign recognition Ear Training Concert Bb Ear Training Concert Eb Rhythmic Exercises I Recommend 15:2 Advanced Technique for Bands 6:17(c) Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 12:6 Appendix 1 Unison, major second ascending, major thi r d ascending Unison, major second ascending, major thi r d ascending Advanced Technique for Bands 3:6(a-r) Advanced Technique for Bands 7:19(a-o) Term Two: Mid-October to Christmas Break Concert Ab Major Scale Concert F Major Scale Chromatic Scale Concert Ab Chromatic Scale Concert F Hand sign recognition Ear Training Concert Ab I Recommend 8:13 Advanced Technique for Bands 10:27 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 8-9:11 I Recommend 8:9 Advanced Technique for Bands 14:40 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 8-9:2 I Recommend 15:4 Advanced Technique for Bands 10:30(c) Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 12:11 I Recommend 15:3 Advanced Technique for Bands 14:43(c) Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 12:8 Appendix 1 Perfect fourth ascending, perfect 256 Ear Training Concert F Rhythmic Exercises Term Three: January Concert C Major Scale Concert Db Major Scale Chromatic Scale Concert C Chromatic Scale Concert Db Hand sign recognition Ear Training Concert C Ear Training Concert Db Rhythmic Exercises f i f t h ascending Perfect fourth ascending, perfect f i f t h ascending Advanced Technique for Bands ll:32(a-o) Advanced Technique for Bands 15:45(a-o) to Mid-February I Recommend 9:17 Advanced Technique for Bands 18:53 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 8-9:3 I Recommend 9:21 Advanced Technique for Bands 22:66 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 8-9:10 I Recommend 15:5 Advanced Technique for Bands 18:56(c) Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 12:3 I Recommend 15:6 Advanced Technique for Bands 22:69(c) Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 12:4 Appendix 1 1 Major sixth ascending, major seventh ascending Major sixth ascending, major seventh ascending Advanced Technique for Bands 19:58(a-q) Advanced Technique for Bands 23:71(a-l) 257 Term Four: Mid-February to the End of March Concert G Major Scale Concert D Major Scale Chromatic Scale Concert G Chromatic Scale Concert D Hand sign recognition Ear Training Concert G Ear Training Concert D Rhythmic Exercises I Recommend 10:29 Advanced Technique for Bands 26:79 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 8-9:4 I Recommend 11:33 Advanced Technique 33:115 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 8-9:5 I Recommend 15:8 Advanced Technique for Bands 26:82(c) Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 21:10 I Recommend 15:9 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 12:5 Appendix 1 Perfect octave ascending, major second descending, major third descending Perfect octave ascending, major second descending, major thi r d descending Advanced Technique for Bands 27:84(a-q) Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 40:1-36 Term Five: A p r i l to Mid-May Concert A Major Scale Concert E Major Scale I Recommend 11:37 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 8-9:6 I Recommend 12:41 258 Chromatic Scale Concert A Chromatic Scale Concert E Hand sign recognition Ear Training Concert A Ear Training Concert E Rhythmic Exercises Term Six: Mid-May to Concert B Major Scale Chromatic Scale Concert B Hand sign recognition Ear Training Concert B Rhythmic Exercises Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 8-9:7 I Recommend 15:10 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 12:12 I Recommend 15:11 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 12:7 Appendix 1 Perfect fourth descending, perfect f i f t h descending Perfect fourth descending, perfect f i f t h descending Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 40:37-72 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 41:73-114 the End of June I Recommend 12:45 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 8-9:8 I Recommend 15:12 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 12:2 Appendix 1 Major sixth descending, major seventh descending, perfect octave descending Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 41:115-156 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 42:157-172 259 Example 70 Year Two, Term One: September to Mid-October S k i l l Reference Concert G Harmonic Minor Scale Concert G Melodic Minor Scale Concert C Harmonic Minor Scale Concert C Melodic Minor Scale Concert D Harmonic Minor Scale Concert D Melodic Minor Scale Concert F Harmonic Minor Scale Concert F Melodic Minor Scale I Recommend 13:1 I Recommend 13:2 Advanced Technique for Bands 3:7 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 8-9:1 I Recommend 13:3 I Recommend 13:4 Advanced Technique for Bands 7:20 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 8-9:12 I Recommend 13:5 I Recommend 13:6 Advanced Technique for Bands 15:46 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 8-9:2 I Recommend 13:7 I Recommend 13:8 Advanced Technique for Bands 11:33 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 8-9:11 Term Two: Mid-October to Christmas Break Concert A Harmonic Minor Scale Concert A Melodic Minor Scale I Recommend 13:9 I Recommend 13:10 Advanced Technique for Bands 19:59 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 8-9:3 260 Concert Bb Harmonic Minor Scale Concert Bb Melodic Minor Scale Concert Eb Harmonic Minor Scale Concert Eb Melodic Minor Scale Concert E Harmonic Minor Scale Concert E Melodic Minor Scale I'Recommend 13:11 I Recommend 13:12 Advanced Technique for Bands 23:72 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 8-9:10 I Recommend 14:13 I Recommend 14:14 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 8-9:9 I Recommend 14:15 I Recommend 14:16 Advanced Technique for Bands 27:85 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 8-9:4 Term Three: January to Mid-February Concert B Harmonic Minor Scale Concert B Melodic Minor Scale Concert F# Harmonic Minor Scale Concert F# Melodic Minor Scale Concert C# Harmonic Minor Scale Concert C# Melodic Minor Scale Concert G# Harmonic Minor Scale Concert G# Melodic Minor Scale I Recommend 14:17 I Recommend 14:18 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 8-9:5 I Recommend 14:19 I Recommend 14:20 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 8-9:6 I Recommend 14:21 I Recommend 14:22 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 8-9:7 I Recommend 14:23 I Recommend 14:24 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 8-9:8 261 Term Four: Mid-February to the End of March Interval Studies Concert Bb I Recommend 17:1-4 Technical Exercises Concert Bb Advanced Technique for Bands 2:5 Advanced Technique for Bands 3:7-9 Advanced Technique for Bands 4:10-11 Advanced Technique for Bands 5:12-13 Interval Studies Concert Eb I Recommend 17:5-8 Technical Exercises Concert Eb Advanced Technique for Bands 6:18 Advanced Technique for Bands 7:20-22 Advanced Technique for Bands 8:23-24 Advanced Technique for Bands 9:25-26 Interval Studies Concert F I Recommend 17:9-12 Technical Exercises Concert F Advanced Technique for Bands 14:44 Advanced Technique for Bands 15:46-48 Advanced Technique for Bands 16:49-50 Advanced Technique for Bands 17:51-52 Interval Studies Concert Ab I Recommend 18:13-16 Technical Exercises Concert Ab Advanced Technique for Bands 10:31 Advanced Technique for Bands 11:32-35 Advanced Technique for Bands 12:36-37 Advanced Technique for Bands 13:38-39 Term Five: A p r i l to Mid-May Interval Studies Concert C I Recommend 18:17-20 Technical Exercises Concert C Advanced Technique for Bands 18:57 262 Advanced Technique for Bands 19:59--61 Advanced Technique for Bands 20:62--63 Advanced Technique for Bands 21:64--65 Interval Studies Concert Db I Recommend 18:21-24 Technical Exercises Concert Db Advanced Technique for Bands 22:70 Advanced Technique for Bands 23:72--74 Advanced Technique for Bands 24:75--76 Advanced Technique for Bands 25:77--78 Interval Studies Concert G I Recommend 19:29-32 Technical Exercises Concert G Advanced Technique for Bands 26:83 Advanced Technique for Bands 27:85--87 Advanced Technique for Bands 28:88--89 Advanced Technique for Bands 29:90--91 Interval Studies Concert D I Recommend 19:33-36 Term Six: Mid-May to the End of June Interval Studies Concert A I Recommend 20:37-40 Interval Studies Concert E I Recommend 20:41-44 Interval Studies Concert B I Recommend 20:45-48 263 Example 71 Year Three, Term One: September to Mid-October S k i l l Reference Arpeggio Concert Bb Arpeggio Concert Eb Technical Exercises Concert Bb Technical Exercises Concert Eb I Recommend 16:1 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 18-23:1 I Recommend 16:2 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 18-23:12 I Recommend 7:3 Advanced Technique for Bands 2:2-3 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 14:1 I Recommend 7:7 Advanced Technique for Bands 6:15-16 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 14:2 Term Two: Mid-October to Christinas Break Arpeggio Concert Ab Arpeggio Concert F Technical Exercises Concert Ab Technical Exercises Concert F I Recommend 16:4 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 18-23:11 I Recommend 16:3 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 18-23:2 I Recommend 8:15 Advanced Technique for Bands 10:28-29 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 14-15:3 I Recommend 8:11 Advanced Technique for Bands 14:41-42 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 14-15:12 264 Term Three: January to Arpeggio Concert C Arpeggio Concert Db Technical Exercises Concert C Technical Exercises Concert Db Brass Lip D r i l l s Term Four: Mid-February to Arpeggio Concert G Arpeggio Concert D Technical Exercises Concert G Technical Exercises Concert D Brass Lip D r i l l s Mid-February I Recommend 16:5 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 18-23:3 I Recommend 16:6 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 18-23:10 I Recommend 9:19 Advanced Technique for Bands 18:54-55 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 14-15:11 I Recommend 9:23 Advanced Technique for Bands 22:67-68 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 14-15:4 I Recommend 4:1-5 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 24-25 the End of March I Recommend 16:8 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 18-23:4 I Recommend 16:9 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 18-23:5 I Recommend 10:31 Advanced Technique for Bands 26:80-81 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 14-15:10 I Recommend 11:35 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 14-15:9 I Recommend 4:1-5 Fussell 24-25 265 Term Five: A p r i l to Mid-May Arpeggio Concert A Arpeggio Concert E Technical Exercises Concert A Technical Exercises Concert E Brass Lip D r i l l s I Recommend 16:10 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 18-23:6 I Recommend 16:11 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 18-23:7 I Recommend 11:39 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 14-15:8 I Recommend 12:43 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 14-15:7 I Recommend 4:1-5 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 24-25 Term Six: Mid-May to the End of June Arpeggio Concert B Technical Exercises Concert B Brass Lip D r i l l s I Recommend 16:12 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 18-23:8 I Recommend 12:47 Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 14-15:6 I Recommend 4:1-5 Fussell 24-25 266 Chapter 5 PREPARATION FDR PERFORMANCE Diaphragmatic breathing Numerous strategies exist to develop correct diaphragmatic breathing and breath control. Teal describes this exercise to help achieve correct breathing.^ 1. Walk slowly, keeping the body loose. 2. Stand erect, but comfortably. Shoulders and arms should be relaxed. Swing the arms while walking. 3. Take in a f u l l breath quickly on one step. 4. Hold this breath for two steps. 5. Exhale through the mouth slowly for eight to ten steps. 6. Take two more steps before the next inhalation. Teal notes that, in the above exercise, "the inhalation is fast 12 and the remainder of the cycle i s much slower." Wilkins recommends that the following series of exercises be 13 practiced daily. He suggests a gradual increase from ten to twenty times a day and warns not to exceed six times without a rest period i f fatigued. Exercise A 1. Place palm of hand upon the abdomen just below the ri b s . 2. Take a breath slowly, feeling the diaphragm move outward against the hand. 3. S t i l l inhaling slowly, expand the chest upward and outward u n t i l a comfortable supply of a i r has been taken. 4. Hold the breath for several seconds. 5. Exhale slowly, but do not permit the ribs to contract u n t i l almost a l l the a i r has been expelled. 267 6. The diaphragm does not retract u n t i l the end of the exhalation. In performing this exercise, always remember that the breath must flow out evenly. If the result i s jerky and wavering, inhale a smaller quantity of a i r and the control of i t w i l l be easier. The beginner can hear the out-flow of a i r i f he w i l l use the sibilant "S" when exhaling. It is advisable for him to do this in a l l the exercises so that he can t e l l i f the breath i s flowing smoothly and steadily. As he gains control of the breath, he should increase the inhalation. Exercise B 1. Place palm of hand upon the abdomen just below the r i b s . 2. Take a breath slowly, feeling the diaphragm move outward against the hand. 3. S t i l l inhaling slowly, expand the chest upward and outward u n t i l a comfortable supply of a i r has been taken. 4. Exhale slowly, interrupting the steady flow of a i r by frequent pauses. The purpose of these pauses i s to strengthen the muscles used in controlling the a i r column. Exercise C 1. Inhale slowly. 2. Hold breath for several counts when capacity i s reached. 3. Exhale quickly. Exercise D 1. Inhale quickly. 2. When the lung capacity is reached, hold the breath again. 3. Exhale slowly and steadily. Shank describes the exhaling process as: ...the most important breathing facet in playing, since i t is blowing which produces the sound. ...Disregard the mental concept of the diaphragm or lower areas of breathing. Think of blowing di r e c t l y through the horn. If you blow properly out front, the breath apparatus works automatically. A major effort should be concentrated on blowing the a i r from the mouth through the horn. Have the feeling of blowing your nose. Feel the pressure of the ai r against the front of the face. This idea is developed i s three stages. 1. Start "frontal projection" by developing a vocal "m" sound or 268 hum that vibrates the entire nasal bone structure of the face. 2. Using a well-developed frontal hum, open the l i p s into a pucker whistle position and begin to whistle. This sounds rather complex, but what results here i s the coordination of a good frontal projection with the release of a i r . You are gradually moving towards playing the instrument. 3. This step, a "buzz card" technique, adds a vibrating medium to the a i r stream. Any small card w i l l suffice. While doing the hum and whistle, place the end of the. card against the open l i p s , making the card vibrate sympathetically with the sounds. The more center of sound there is to the buzz on the card, the greater the degree of frontal projection. Bollinger suggests ten steps to achieve proper diaphragmatic 16 breathing and support. 1. Hands at sides, bend over u n t i l weight hangs on hips. F i l l lungs to capacity, and then hiss the a i r out slowly. 2. Hands behind head, elbows out. Inhale suddenly, exhale slowly (over and over). 3. Lie face up on the floor. Next breath deeply and notice what happens, i.e., what parts of the body move while breathing and how they move. Notice the f e e l of breathing while in this position. Take a deep breath and exhale. Do this ten times, slowly, and stay as relaxed as possible. 4. Stand up. Think of the lungs as a balloon. F i l l up the balloon completely, and s o f t l y say "Hup" so you f i l l your mouth also. Then hold for an instant, think of the note you are to play, aim, then release. (The diaphragm should have the feeling of grunting as i t s pressure i s used to move the a i r steadily.) Check daily: with hands on hips, try to f i l l up a l l around the waist. 5. Take a pocket-size mirror, open the mouth and throat wide and watch closely in the mirror while inhaling. Now do the same thing when exhaling, and try to get the same feeling. 6. Take a deep breath through the mouth (the same manner as when lying down on the back) and then exhale very slowly through the l i p s for about 15-20 seconds. Then take another deep breath and repeat exhaling slowly through the l i p s . A l l breathing while playing an instrument should f e e l exactly this way. 7. Next take a deep breath and blow a stream of a i r against the back of the hand. A stream of cold a i r suggests inadequate support, and this i s wrong. A warm a i r stream usually means good support. (To obtain a warm a i r stream, think of trying to moisten glasses to polish them, etc.) 8. Take a thin sheet of paper (small piece), and place i t 269 against a wall or the middle of a music stand, and practice blowing a i r through the l i p s toward the paper, and see how long the paper w i l l stay on the wall or music stand with this a i r pressure. 9. Try to whistle, sustaining the tone as long as possible. 10. Swim often-especially underwater. Zorn views breath support as a three-fold process: inhalation, switchover and exhalation and provides the following experiments to 17 i l l u s t r a t e each phase. Examining the muscles used in the inhalation. 1. Take a slow, deep inhalation as though you were sipping through a straw and notice how your r i b cage and abdomen expand (...the muscles of the diaphragm contract downward while the r i b cage expands outward). Repeat the experiment i f necessary. Exploring inhalation capacity. 2. Again, take a slow, cipping inhalation. When your lungs f e e l f u l l to capacity, hold your breath for a second, then sip in s t i l l more a i r . This experiment should give you an idea of your inhalation capacity. It was probably a good deal more than you anticipated and dramatically more than a normal, everyday-activity breath intake. It should be pointed out, however, that this sort of double inhalation i s not recommended for performance, but i s useful as an experiment. Your ultimate goal i s to take i n as much a i r as possible with a single inhalation. Analyzing the switchover. 3. Take a slow, sipping inhalation. When your lungs are f u l l , hold everything for several seconds, and note that a new set of muscles has taken over control to hold the a i r from rushing out. This i s the switchover. In the exhalation process, the abdominal muscles surrounding the waist control the rate and pressure of the a i r being exhaled. Analyzing the muscles controlling the exhalation. 4. Take a moderate inhalation, make the switchover, and then simulate several coughs. Notice which muscles are being activated. Analyzing the rate and pressure of the exhaled a i r . 5. Take a slow, f u l l inhalation, make the switchover, and then exhale gradually, sounding the sibi l a n t , "Sssss..." Try 270 varying the loudness level of the s i b i l a n t . Repeat this f i n a l experiment several times u n t i l you thoroughly understand the whole breathing process. To teaching proper diaphragmatic breathing while involving students rhythmically and developing basic vibrato techniques, Bollinger 18 suggests breath impulse or panting. Here, the diaphragm i s contracted sharply causing the a i r in the lungs to be thrust upward and outward in accelerated bursts. Bollinger warns that this method w i l l sound rhythmic and mechanical during the i n i t i a l stages but w i l l develop into an a r t i s t i c sound. Mueller has compiled a series of exercises intended to lesson 19 tension and to open the throat. Ideally, Mueller writes; Shoulders should remain low, but the chest and spinal column should remain erect but not r i g i d . Abdominal wall muscles, acting in an in-and-up fashion, expel the a i r i n the proper amount and at the proper rate of speed. These muscles are even more important in playing a wind instrument than the l i p s , for they control the breath which sets the l i p s vibrating. They control volume, carrying power, pitch, and even the character of the tonal result. Fresh breath should be taken before the supply is completely exhausted. Therefore the amount of a i r taken should be geared to the length, loudness, and tessitura of the phrase played. Exercises in long tones with dynamic contrasts, and exercises in gradually increased scope of intervals, help to establish control of the breath apparatus. Exercises to open the throat. 1. By whispering the word "who-oo-oo" over and over, then the word "pooh" in a lik e manner, one w i l l become aware of what an open throat feels l i k e . 2. By placing the palm of the hand l i g h t l y over the collarbone region at the base of the throat while playing forte, a reasonable feeling of relaxation should be noted. While complete relaxation of this area is v i r t u a l l y impossible, minimal contraction of these muscles i s the key to good endurance. 3. A second check can be made with the two index fingers touching l i g h t l y the area just below and behind the lower jaw structure. Tension, i f i t is present" at this point, is caused by 271 excessive stiffness of the tongue muscle during sustained passages, or by moving the tongue back and forth rather than up and down during articulation. The following suggestions on breath control are also submitted 4. Release a l l the a i r from the lungs. Wait as long as possible. Now take a quick breath. It w i l l be correctly placed. 5. Pant as though you had just completed a mile race. Please note carefully your muscular sensations. 6. Visualize and simulate s n i f f i n g the fragrance of a beautiful rose. 7. Inhale and exhale two incorrect high chest breaths. Now take a t h i r d breath, placing i t deeply and correctly. 8. While s i t t i n g , lean as far forward as possible, placing your head between your knees as you practice breathing. 9. Using a wide belt around your waist just below the r i b cage (higher than normal belt placement), draw i t t i g h t l y during a short portion of your practice session to serve as a reminder of correct breath placement. by Mueller. 20 Warm-Up and Tuning Exercises Warm-Up Exercises Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l 4-7:A-L Advanced Technique for Bands 30-31:92-97 Tuning Exercises I Recommend 2-3 I Recommend 5:1-4 I Recommend 6:5-10 Advanced Technique for Bands 32:98-107 Articulation and Dynamic Exercises Articulation Exercises I Recommend 21:1-2 I Recommend 22:3-4 I Recommend 23:5 272 Dynamic Exercises I Recommend 23:6-7 18 Articulation Guide r A f A r f r sfp r r r f r fz r sf r r V r Horizontal accent (accent the note, hold for f u l l value, "doot" tonguing, detach from the following note). Verticle accent (marcato, heavy accent, hold the note less than i t s f u l l value, short "dot" tonguing). Heavy accent (play the note as short as possible, "dit" tonguing). Staccato (play the note short and light, "daht" tonguing). Legato (hold the note for i t s f u l l value, "doo" tonguing). Subito marking (accent the note then quickly fade to piano). Subito marking (accent the note then quickly fade to piano). Rinforzando (accent the note then sustain for remaining value at forte), Accented Accented Tenuto accent (accent the note, hold for f u l l value, sustain to following note). Dash (accented staccato, play the note short and heavy). 273 FOOTNOTES Secondary (8-12) Music Curriculum/Resource Guide, (Victoria, Canada: Ministry of Education, 1980). 2 Ibid., p. 1. 3 Ibid., pp. 13-14. 4 Based largely on Robert D. Devine, "A Band Report Card Based on a Three-Year Curriculum with Specific Objectives," in The  Instrumentalist, ed. Kenneth L. Neidig (Evanston, I l l i n o i s : The Instrumentalist Company, 1981), Vol. 35, No. 11, pp. 18-19. 5Ibid., p. 19. 6 I b i d . , p. 19. 7 The sequence of the music theory lessons follows the format of James Murray' Brown, A Handbook of Musical Knowledge, (Amersham., Bucks: Halstan & Co. Ltd., 1967). The l i s t of terms in level 2, lessons 27-31 are taken di r e c t l y from pp. 46-47. g The rhythmic patterns have been taken from many sources, the most prominent being: Raymond C. Fussell, Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l , (Melville, New York: Schmitt, Hall & McCreary, 1939), pp. 43-52; Nilo W. Hovey, Advanced Technique for Bands, (Chicago: M. M. Cole Publishing Co., 1963); James D. Ployhar, I Recommend, (Melville, New York: Byron-Douglas Publications, 1972). 9 The exercises for recorder are original however the sequence of note introduction i s based on Carle Hodson, arr., The Empire Classroom  Method for Recorder, (New Westminster, Canada: Empire Music Publishers Ltd., 1962) and the rhythmic progression were taken from Nilo W. Hovey, Advanced Technique for Bands, (Chicago: M. M. Cole Publishing Co., 1963). See Appendices 1-4. 274 Larry Teal, 'The Art of Saxophone Playing, (Evanston, I l l i n o i s : Sumrrty-Birchard Co., 1963). 12T, . , Frederick Wllkins, The Mechanics'- of Breathing," The Conn Chord, VI, 3, (May, 1983), 12. 14 Barry M. Shank, "Short Cut to Correct Breathing," The Instrument-a l i s t , XVIII, 3 (October, 1963), 30. Ibid., p.. 30. 16 Donald F. Bo l l i n g e r , Band Director's Complete. Handbook, .(West Nyack, New York: Parker Publishing Company, Inc., 1979), p. 71. 17 Jay D. Zorn, Brass Ensemble Method f o r Music Educators, (Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc., 1977), pp. 1-2. 18 Secondary (8-12) Music Curriculum/Resource Guide,• ( V i c t o r i a , Canada: M i n i s t r y of Education, 1980), p.54. 275 LIST OF REFERENCES Books Bollinger, Donald F. Band Director's Complete Handbook. West Nyack, • New York: Parker Publishing Company, Inc., 1979. Brown, James Murray. A Handbook of Musical Knowledge. Amersham, Bucks: Halstan & Co. Ltd., 1967. Buehlman, Barbara, and Whitcomb. Ken. Sessions in Sound. Dayton, Ohio: The Heritage Music Press, 1976. Burton, Stanley. Instrument Repair for the Music Teacher. Sherman Oaks, California: Alfred Publishing Co., Inc., 1978. Colwell, Richard J. The Teaching of Instrumental Music. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts., 1969. Duvall, W. Clyde. The High School Band Director's Handbook. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1960. Ernst, Roy E. Developing Competence in Teaching Instrumental Music. Fairport, New York: Ergo Publications, 1978. Fussell, Raymond C. Exercises for Ensemble D r i l l . Melville, New York: Schmitt, Hall & McCreary, 1939., Hodson, Carle, arr. The Empire Classroom Method for Recorder, Part One. New Westminster, Canada: Empire Music Publishers Ltd., 1962. Holloway, Ronald A. Guide to Teaching Percussion. 3rd ed. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers, 1978. Hovey, Nilo W. Advanced Technique for Bands. Chicago: M. M. Cole Publishing Co., 1963. Howard, Bertrand. Fundamentals of Music Theory. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1975. Hunt, Norman J. Guide to Teaching Brass. 2nd ed. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers, 1978. 276 Kinney, Guy S. Complete Guide to Teaching Small Instrumental Groups  in the High School. West Nyack, New York: Parker Publishing Company, Inc., 1980. Kohut, Daniel L. Instrumental Music Pedagogy. Englewcod C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1973. Kuhn, Wolfgang E. Instrumental Music. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1970. Labuta, Joseph A. Guide to Accountability in Music Instruction. West Nyack, New York: Parker Publishing Company, Inc., 1974. Leach, John Robert. Functional Piano for the Teacher. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1968. Leonhard, Charles, and House, Robert W. Foundations and Principles  of Music Education. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1972. Madsen, Clifford K. and Yarbrough, Cornelia. Competency-Based Music  Education. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1980. McBeth, W. Francis. Effective Performance of Band Music. San Antonio, Texas: Southern Music Company, 1972. Mueller, Herbert C. Learning to Teach Through Playing: A Brass Method. Don Mills, Ontario: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1968. Neidig, Kenneth L. Music Director's Complete Handbook of Forms. West Nyack, New York: Parker Publishing Company, Inc., 1973. Otto, Richard A. Effective Methods for Building the High School Band. West Nyack, New York: Parker Publishing Company, Inc., 1971. Pizer, Russell A. Administering the Elementary Band: Teaching Beginning  Instrumentalists and Developing a Band Support Program. West Nyack, New York: Parker Publishing Company, Inc., 1971. . How to Improve the High School Band Sound. West Nyack, New York: Parker Publishing Company, Inc., 1976. Ployhar, James D. I Recommend. Melville, New York: Byron-Douglas Publications, 1972. Porter, Maurice M. The Embouchure. London: Boosey and Hawkes, 1970. Righter, Charles Boardman. Teaching Instrumental Music. New York: Carl Fischer, 1959. 277 Rothrock, Carson. Training the High School Orchestra. West Nyack, New York: Parker Publishing Company, Inc., 1971. Sawhill, Clarence, and McGarrity, Bertram. Playing and Teaching Woodwind Instruments. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1964. Secondary (8-12) Music Curriculum/Resource Guide. Victoria, Canada: Ministry of Education, 1980. Shumway, Stanley. Harmony and Ear Training at the Keyboard. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers, 1970. Teal, Larry. The Art of Saxophone Playing. Evanston, I l l i n o i s : Surrmy-Birchard Co., 1963. Weerts, Richard. Developing Individual S k i l l s for the High School Band. West Nyack, New York: Parker Publishing Company, Inc., 1969. . Handbook of Rehearsal Techniques for the High School Band. West Nyack, New York: Parker. Publishing Company, Inc., 1976. Zorn, Jay D. Brass Ensemble Method for Music Educators. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc., 1977. 278 Articles and Periodicals Devine, Robert D. "A Band Report Card Based on a Three-Year Curriculum with Specific Objectives." The Instrumentalist, 35 (June, 1981), 17-19. Shank, Barry M. "Short Cut to Correct Breathing." The Instrumentalist, XVIII, 3 (October, 1963), 30. Wilkins, Frederick. "The Mechanics of Breathing." VI, 3 (May, 1963), 12. The Conn Chord, 279 Appendix 1 Cuxwen Hand Signs The following page contains the Curwen hand signs used to direct students during warm-up exercises including major scales and arpeggios. 280 Curwen Hand Signs t i 7 l a 6 so 5 f a 4 mi 3 re 2 do 1 leading tone sub-mediant dominant sub-dominant mediant super-tonic tonic or keynote 281 Appendix 2 Recorder Fingering Chart The following page contains a fingering chart to accompany the instructions contained in chapter 3. ENGLISH FINGERING Thumb b«k of Instrument 0 e 0 0 0 • • o o o © o © © © © © © © © © foic Anger (Index) o o o 0 o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 middle finger o o o o o ilng finger • • • • • • • • • • o o o 0 o 0 o o o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o o o o 0 Index • • • • • • • o o o • o o 0 o o o o o o 0 0 0 o o o 0 o 0 0 0 0 middle finger • • 0 • • o o • • o o o 0 o o o o o o o 0 0 o 0 0 o o o 0 0 0 o ilng finger • •  o o oo oo oo oo oo 00 oo oo 00 •mall finger • • • o o oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo 3 i XX era s* CTQ rt Q - open hole 6 - cloicd hole © - h»!f-open hole NJ 00 NJ a I 1 -« s4uto4 Fingering System<Wo,ld8hole5o :z • 5* © . S 5 l in German System) I r -0— In1* 0 n-«*((» • [o*e* • • • • • 0 • #« • d " o'" O a a a a a a aa> a Q <? • • • • • • • e • • O • O O • O • O • O • • • 0 0 m • • 0 m 0 0 • HXimm M-flM(l) "*"*" • • • • • • • • O • O • • • O O 0 0 O O • TUr* ft*t**0) • • • • • • 0 O • • O • O 0 O • O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 • f*»-R»a«(4) ~ • • • • O O • O • 0 O O 0 D O 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O (•) 0 0 0 0 • • ft*»M(l)-• 0 • O • O • O O O O O 0 O O O O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O O • • O O O • O O O O O O 0 O O O O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O 0 0 0 O 0 0 1 • O O O O 0 • 0 0 O O O O O 0 O O O O O O 0 0 0 0 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 O 4=> <(() Normal fingering (2) (3) Shift fingering> 

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