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Daniel Defoe as a colonial propagandist Alam, Fakrul 1984

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DANIEL DEFOE AS A COLONIAL PROPAGANDIST By FAKRUL ALAM B.A. (Hons)., The Uni v e r s i t y of Dhaka, 1974 M.A., The Un i v e r s i t y of Dhaka, 1975 M.A., Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of English) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1984 © Fakrul Alam, 1984 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of ^-A^ CJ$> ^   The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date ABSTRACT This thesis considers d i f f e r e n t aspects of Defoe's c o l o n i a l propaganda: i t s ideo l o g i c a l implications, i t s links to a discursive t r a d i t i o n , and i t s polemical strategy. Unlike previous contributions to the subject, i t analyzes f u l l y the n o n f i c t i o n a l works as well as the f i c t i o n to give a comprehensive account of Defoe's contribution to c o l o n i a l discourse. Chapters I to IV examine four of Defoe's tracts as co l o n i a l propaganda. The f i r s t chapter scrutinizes An H i s t o r i c a l Account of the Voyages and Adventures of S i r Walter Raleigh, a work designed to attra c t the South Sea Company to one of Defoe's favorite projects. The second studies the History of the P r i n c i p a l Discoveries, a tract which links up knowledge, trade, and empire to argue for the extension of Western man's dominion over the extra-European world. The next chapter considers Defoe's Plan of the  English Commerce as a work composed to convince readers that colonization was essential for England's prosperity and power. Chapter IV treats Defoe as an expert on overseas a f f a i r s and notes his links to c o l o n i a l c i r c l e s . It focuses attention on his contribution to Atlas Maritimus, sees him * * • 1 1 1 as a "geographer" i n the Hakluyt t r a d i t i o n , reviews his c o l o n i a l schemes, and discusses his views on other races and places. The f i n a l four chapters investigate Defoe's f i c t i o n as c o l o n i a l propaganda. Because the c o l o n i a l aspects of the f i c t i o n have not gone unnoticed, Chapter V surveys the work that has been done and suggests the approaches that can s t i l l be taken to further illuminate Defoe's narratives as i m p e r i a l i s t propaganda. Chapter VI examines i n greater d e t a i l than has been attempted before how Defoe's settings r e f l e c t h i s c o l o n i a l concerns. The next two chapters analyze Defoe's protagonists as p r o t o t y p i c a l c o l o n i z e r s . Both t h e i r r a t i o n a l , empire-building a t t r i b u t e s as well as t h e i r unpleasant aspects are considered. This study concludes with an assessment of Defoe's success as a c o l o n i a l propagandist. I t suggests that the t r a c t s can be seen as s i g n i f i c a n t as part of a body of writing which p e r s i s t e n t l y upheld the cause of empire; i t notes that Defoe's narratives have merited a d i s t i n c t i v e place because of the appeal of t h e i r images of success and t h e i r influence on subsequent writers who have promoted c o l o n i a l enterprise through f i c t i o n . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS L i s t o f F i g u r e s v A b b r e v i a t i o n s v i Acknowledgments v i i i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Chapter I R a l e g h , Defoe and C o l o n i a l D i s c o u r s e ....13 Chapter I I B a c o n i a n i s m and Defoe's The H i s t o r y o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s  and Improvements 40 Chapter I I I Defoe's P l a n f o r E n g l i s h Commerce: the Economic I m p e r a t i v e f o r C o l o n i z a t i o n 91 Chapter IV A t l a s M a r i t i m u s & C o m m e r c i a l i s : Defoe's Map f o r the World T 135 Chapter V The F i c t i o n s as C o l o n i a l Propaganda ....198 Chapter VI S e t t i n g and I d e o l o g y i n Defoe's F i c t i o n 221 Chapter V I I Defoe's P r o t a g o n i s t s as P r o t o t y p i c a l , C o l o n i z e r s (1) 293 Chapter V I I I Defoe's P r o t a g o n i s t s as P r o t o t y p i c a l C o l o n i z e r s (2) 345 C o n c l u s i o n 401 B i b l i o g r a p h y 410 V LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 "Raw" Analysis of the Subscribers of Atlas Maritimus 138 v i ABBREVIATIONS AM A t l a s M a r i t i m u s & C o m m e r c i a l i s . London, 1728. BD A B r i e f D e d u c t i o n o f the O r i g i n a l , P r o g r e s s , and Immense G r e a t n e s s o f the B r i t i s h W o o l l e n Manufac- t u r e . London, 1727. C C a l e d o n i a , A Poem i n Honour o f S c o t l a n d , And the S c o t s N a t i o n . E d i n b u r g h , 1706. CEG The Compleat E n g l i s h Gentleman. Ed. K a r l B u l b r i n g . London: D a v i d N u t t , 1890. CJ C o l o n e l J a c k . Ed. Samuel H. Monk. London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. CS C a p t a i n S i n g l e t o n . Everyman's L i b r a r y . London: J.M. Dent, 1963. EP An Es s a y Upon P r o j e c t s . London, 1697. FARC The F a r t h e r A d v e n t u r e s o f Ro b i n s o n Crusoe. Ed. George A. A i t k e n . London: J.M. Dent, 1895. FYV The Four Y e a r Voyages o f Capt. George R o b e r t s . New York: Augustus M. K e l l y , 1963. GHP A G e n e r a l H i s t o r y o f the R o b b e r i e s and Murders o f the Most N o t o r i o u s P y r a t e s . Ed. Manuel Schonhorn. Columbia, South C a r o l i n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f South C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1972. HAR An H i s t o r i c a l A ccount o f the Voyages and Adv e n t u r e s o f S i r W a l t e r R a l e i g h . London, 1719. HD A G e n e r a l H i s t o r y o f D i s c o v e r i e s and Improvements i n U s e f u l A r t s . London, 1725-1726. L The L e t t e r s o f D a n i e l Defoe. Ed. George H a r r i s H e a l e y . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1955. ABBREVIATIONS, c o n t i n u e d MF The F o r t u n e s and M i s f o r t u n e s o f the Famous M o l l F l a n d e r s ^ Ed. G.A. S t a r r . London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. NVRW A New Voyage Round the World. Ed. George A. A i t k e n . London: J.M. Dent, 1895. PEC A P l a n o f the E n g l i s h Commerce. New York: Augustus M. K e l l y , 1967. R The Review. Ed. A.W. S e c o r d , 22 v o l s . New York: F a c s i m i l e R e p r i n t S o c i e t y , 1938. RC The L i f e and S t r a n g e S u r p r i s i n g A d v e n t u r e s o f R o b i n -son Crusoe. Ed. J . Donald Crowley. London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972. SR S e r i o u s R e f l e c t i o n s D u r i n g the L i f e and S t r a n g e S u r p r i s i n g A d v e n t u r e s o f R o b i n s o n Crusoe. Ed. George A. A i t k e n T London: J.M. Dent, 1895. U n l e s s i n d i c a t e d above, works by Defoe were r e a d i n m i c r o -form . v i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I want t o ex p r e s s my thanks f i r s t o f a l l t o my s u p e r v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r I a n R.oss; h i s c r i t i c i s m and q u i e t encouragement have been i n v a l u a b l e . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o P r o f e s s o r s D a v i d Macaree and Lee Whitehead f o r t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n s . I am i n d e b t e d t o Dr. A a l y Rehman, Dr. T i r t h a n -k a r Bose and A.E. C h r i s t a C a n i t z f o r r e a d i n g s e v e r a l c h a p t e r s o f my d i s s e r t a t i o n and f o r s a v i n g me from many e r r o r s o f e x p r e s s i o n . My deepest i n d e b t e d n e s s , however, i s to my w i f e , Nazma; her c o n s t a n t s u p p o r t and encouragement a l l t h e s e y e a r s e n a b l e d me to complete the s t u d y . 1 INTRODUCTION D a n i e l Defoe as a C o l o n i a l P r o p a g a n d i s t For a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i r t y y e a r s (1700-1730), D a n i e l Defoe t r i e d to c o n v i n c e the E n g l i s h n a t i o n o f the importance o f c o l o n i z a t i o n . He proposed many p r o j e c t s f o r c o l o n i z i n g A f r i c a and Am e r i c a and o t h e r p a r t s o f the w o r l d newly d i s c o v e r e d by Europeans; he f e l t t h a t t h e r e were s t i l l " i n f i n i t e t r e a s u r e s o f t r a d e and P l a n t a t i o n s t o be s e a r c h ' d a f t e r " (HD, 269). He saw i t as h i s t a s k to p r e s e n t h i s p r o j e c t s t o s u c c e s s i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s , , to f i n a n c i e r s , and, indeed, near the end o f h i s l i f e , t o the g e n e r a l r e a d i n g p u b l i c . He wrote t i r e l e s s l y about the n e c e s s i t y o f over s e a s e x p a n s i o n i n h i s l e t t e r s , p e r i o d i c a l s , t r a c t s , and n a r r a -t i v e s o f a d v e n t u r e , i m a g i n a t i v e l y b l e n d i n g f a c t and f i c t i o n i n the p r o c e s s . As v o r a c i o u s r e a d e r o f t a l e s o f t r a v e l and t r a c t s o f empire, as a d v i s e r t o i n f l u e n t i a l f i g u r e s , as e x p e r t on t r a d e , commerce, and m a r i t i m e a f f a i r s , as one-time merchant and a l a t e r s h a r e h o l d e r i n e n t e r p r i s e s l i k e the Ro y a l A f r i c a n Company, as a w r i t e r o f h i s t o r i e s , p o l e m i c a l t r a c t s , and f i c t i o n s , and the e n c y c l o p e d i c A t l a s M a r i t i m u s , Defoe p a r t i c i p a t e d a c t i v e l y as w e l l as i m a g i n a t i v e l y i n 2 c o l o n i a l v e n t u r e s . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , Defoe's a c t i v i t i e s as a c o l o n i a l p r o p a g a n d i s t have a t t r a c t e d s c h o l a r l y a t t e n t i o n . I n p a r t i c u -l a r , M a x i m i l l i a n E. Novak i n Economics and The F i c t i o n o f  D a n i e l Defoe (1962) and P e t e r E a r l e i n The World o f Defoe (1976) have each devoted a c h a p t e r o f t h e i r works t o Defoe's c o l o n i a l p r o j e c t s and have l a i d the groundwork f o r a compre-h e n s i v e study o f him as a c o l o n i a l p r o p a g a n d i s t . I n h i s c h a p t e r , " F i c t i o n as C o l o n i a l Propaganda," Novak has argued c o n v i n c i n g l y f o r r e a d i n g books l i k e M o l l F l a n d e r s and C o l o n e l J a c k as e x t e n s i o n s o f Defoe's so c i o - e c o n o m i c i n t e r -e s t i n c o l o n i z a t i o n ; i n h i s f a r - r e a c h i n g c h a p t e r , "The Wider World," E a r l e spans the t r a c t s as w e l l as the f i c t i o n t o o u t l i n e Defoe's v i s i o n on t r a d e , commerce, e x p l o r a t i o n , and o v e r s e a s e x p a n s i o n . I n Dreams o f A d v e n t u r e , Deeds o f Empire (1979), a s t u d y o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between adventure n o v e l s and i m p e r i a l i s t h i s t o r y , M a r t i n Green has devoted a c h a p t e r t o Defoe's f i c t i o n s and has d i s c u s s e d a few o f the c o l o n i a l t r a c t s v e r y b r i e f l y i n h i s n o t e s . P a t Rogers a l s o a p p o r t i o n s p a r t o f a c h a p t e r t o the t o p i c i n h i s 1979 monograph on R o b i n s o n Crusoe. Complementing th e s e c h a p t e r - l o n g s u r v e y s o f Defoe's works as a c o l o n i a l p r o p a g a n d i s t are essays devoted t o the a n a l y s i s o f s p e c i f i c n o v e l s t o b r i n g out t h e i r c o l o n i a l a s p e c t s . I n e v i t a b l y , R o binson Crusoe has a t t r a c t e d the most 3 a t t e n t i o n : 0. Mannoni has p s y c h o a n a l y z e d Crusoe as a c o l o n -i a l i n a paper p u b l i s h e d i n P r o s p e r o and C a l i b a n (1950); Novak has s t u d i e d the p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f Crusoe's c l a i m t o k i n g s h i p o f h i s i s l a n d i n Defoe and the N a t u r e o f  Man (1963); i n "Robinson Crusoe and the C a n n i b a l s " an essay which i s more w i d e - r a n g i n g than i t s t i t l e s u g g e s t s , E. Pearlman has t r e a t e d Defoe's hero as a c o l o n i z e r bent on d o m i n a t i o n . Gary J . Scrimgeour's "The Problem o f R e a l i s m i n Defoe's C a p t a i n S i n g l e t o n " (1963) has shown t h a t the A f r i c a n s e c t i o n o f the book was d e s i g n e d t o s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t i n the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the r e s o u r c e s o f the s u b c o n t i n e n t . F i n a l l y , Jane H. J a c k ' s "A New Voyage Round the World: Defoe's Romania t t i e s e " (1961) has endeavored to e x p l i c a t e a l o n g - n e g l e c t e d work as a n o v e l w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a l l y to a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n to one o f Defoe's pet p r o j e c t s f o r e s t a b -l i s h i n g E n g l i s h s e t t l e m e n t s i n the southernmost p a r t o f South A m e r i c a . Faced w i t h these c h a p t e r - l e n g t h s u r v e y s o f Defoe's c o l o n i a l schemes and essays on s p e c i f i c n o v e l s as c o l o n i a l propaganda, one may w e l l ask whether another s t u d y o f Defoe's p r o j e c t s f o r o v e r s e a s e x p a n s i o n i s n e c e s s a r y . The p u b l i c a t i o n o f J.A. Downie's "Defoe, I m p e r i a l i s m , and the T r a v e l Books R e d i s c o v e r e d " i n the 1983 Yearbook o f E n g l i s h  S t u d i e s i n d i c a t e s , however, t h a t i n t e r e s t i n the t o p i c has by no means been e x h a u s t e d . N o t i n g how c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n to 4 the s p i r i t u a l a s p e c t s o f R o b i n s o n Crusoe has tended t o d i v e r t a t t e n t i o n away from o t h e r elements o f the work, Downie proceeds t o t r e a t i t and i t s s e q u e l as an adventure s t o r y and as i m p e r i a l i s t i c propaganda. I n the p r o c e s s , Downie r e v i e w s q u i t e a few o f Defoe's i d e a s about c o l o n i z a -t i o n and summarizes b r i e f l y some o f h i s f a v o r i t e c o l o n i a l p r o j e c t s . D e s p i t e i t s s a l u t a r y emphasis on the importance o f s t u d y i n g Defoe's i m p e r i a l i s t v i s i o n , however, Downie's e s s a y , l i k e the c h a p t e r - l e n g t h s u r v e y s o f Novak, E a r l e , Green, and Rogers, i s e s s e n t i a l l y an o v e r v i e w o f Defoe's c o l o n i a l schemes and t h e i r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n the f i c t i o n s . What i s now needed -- and what t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n a ttempts t o p r o v i d e -- i s not a n o t h e r summary t r e a t m e n t o f the t o p i c o r e x a m i n a t i o n o f a s i n g l e n o v e l but a s u s t a i n e d a n a l y s i s o f the major n o n f i c t i o n a l t r a c t s as w e l l as the f i c t i o n w h i c h w i l l do j u s t i c e t o the c o m p l e x i t y and b r e a d t h o f Defoe's i n v o l v e m e n t i n the c o l o n i a l endeavor. I n s t e a d o f g e n e r a l i z -i n g on the s u b j e c t o r t r y i n g t o o u t l i n e i t i n a few pages o r i l l u s t r a t i n g i t t h r o u g h the d i s c u s s i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r n o v e l , t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n c o n s i d e r s as f u l l y as n e c e s s a r y the d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f Defoe's c o l o n i a l propaganda. To t h i s end, f o u r o f h i s more n e g l e c t e d but i m p o r t a n t c o l o n i a l t r a c t s -- An H i s t o r i c a l A c count o f the Voyages and Adven- t u r e s o f S i r W a l t e r R a l e i g h (1719), The H i s t o r y o f the 5 P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s and Improvements (1726), The P l a n o f  the E n g l i s h Commerce (1728), and A t l a s M a r i t i m u s (1728) --and o f the f i c t i o n s w hich s e r v e as c o l o n i a l propaganda --The L i f e and S t r a n g e S u r p r i s i n g A d v e n t u r e s o f Robinson  Crusoe (1719), The F a r t h e r A d v e n t u r e s o f Robinson Crusoe (1719), The L i f e , A d v e n t u r e s and P y r a c i e s o f the Famous  C a p t a i n S i n g l e t o n (1720), The F o r t u n e s and M i s f o r t u n e s o f  the Famous M o l l F l a n d e r s (1722), The H i s t o r y and Remarkable  L i f e o f the T r u l y Honourable C o l . Jacque (1722), A New  Voyage Round the World, and a c o u p l e o f the l i v e s i n A  G e n e r a l H i s t o r y o f the R o b b e r i e s and Murders o f the Most  N o t o r i o u s P y r a t e s (1724-1728) -- are s c r u t i n i z e d . C e r t a i n l y , one advantage o f p a y i n g c l o s e a t t e n t i o n to Defoe's c o l o n i a l t r a c t s i s t h a t they enable us to see more c l e a r l y than ever b e f o r e the i d e o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f h i s w r i t i n g s on o v e r s e a s a f f a i r s . These t r a c t s r e v e a l t h a t Defoe was drawn to c o l o n i a l propaganda n o t merely by economic e x i g e n c i e s or s u p e r f i c i a l concerns about t r a d e and commerce; they suggest t h a t he was a f e r v e n t b e l i e v e r i n the n e c e s s i t y o f o v e r s e a s e x p a n s i o n and had c a r e f u l l y thought out h i s i d e a s about c o l o n i z a t i o n . In f a c t , Defoe's views on c o l o n -i a l i s m a re i d e o l o g i c a l i n the sense t h a t they b e l o n g to a system o f i d e a s congruent w i t h , and s u p p o r t i v e o f , the concept o f o v e r s e a s e x p a n s i o n and the machinery o f w o r l d d o m i n a t i o n a v a i l a b l e a t t h a t time ( f o r example, government-6 s u p p o r t e d c o l o n i a l v e n t u r e s or p r o j e c t s sponsored by huge t r a d i n g companies). P r e v i o u s commentators on Defoe have i g n o r e d o r under-v a l u e d the e x t e n t t o w h i c h Defoe was drawing c o n s c i o u s l y on such a system o f i d e a s t o persuade h i s r e a d e r s t h a t c o l o n i z -a t i o n was e s s e n t i a l f o r England's ascendancy. As our study o f the n o n f i c t i o n a l works w i l l r e v e a l , Defoe had a r r i v e d a t h i s c o l o n i a l schemes a f t e r a c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the achievements o f men l i k e R a l e g h and a f t e r a b s o r b i n g the i d e a s o f w r i t e r s l i k e Bacon and the H a k l u y t s . T h e i r a c t i v i -t i e s and t h e i r i d e a s c o n v i n c e d Defoe t h a t c o l o n i z a t i o n was e s s e n t i a l f o r England's power and p r o s p e r i t y . I n o t h e r words, Defoe's p e r s i s t e n t e f f o r t s t o promote o v e r s e a s e x p a n s i o n must be seen as p a r t o f a l a r g e r i n t e l -l e c t u a l endeavor d i r e c t e d a t a c c o m p l i s h i n g mastery over the e x t r a - E u r o p e a n w o r l d . T h i s s t u d y t h e r e f o r e r e s t o r e s Defoe's c o l o n i a l w r i t i n g s t o t h e i r c o n t e x t s and c o n s i d e r s them as b e l o n g i n g t o a t r a d i t i o n o r what we w i l l a l s o c a l l a d i s c o u r s e , a body o f knowledge and p r a c t i c e about c o l o n i z a -t i o n formed by a c c r e t i o n , w h i c h can be t r a c e d i n England t o as e a r l y as the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Whether i n v o k i n g the example o f R a l e g h , o r a r g u i n g the case f o r c o l o n i a l a c t i v i t y from a q u a s i - B a c o n i a n p e r s p e c t i v e , o r a d v o c a t i n g more over -seas s e t t l e m e n t s as the panacea f o r an a i l i n g E n g l i s h economy, o r e x h o r t i n g h i s f e l l o w C h r i s t i a n s t o f u l f i l the 7 B i b l i c a l i n j u n c t i o n t o m u l t i p l y and r e p l e n i s h the e a r t h , Defoe was a r t i c u l a t i n g b e l i e f s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a group o f p e o p l e who had argued f o r l o n g f o r the e x t e n s i o n o f England's empire. S i n c e Defoe was a l a t e c o m e r t o t h i s t r a d i t i o n , i t s h o u l d not s u r p r i s e us t o f i n d t h a t Defoe's i d e a s about c o l o n i z a t i o n were u n o r i g i n a l and the r e s u l t o f d i s c u r s i v e f o r m a t i o n s -- o f a k i n d o f o r t h o d o x y w h i c h tend t o g a t h e r around o b j e c t s and e v e n t s , at times t r a n s f o r m i n g u n t r u t h s o r h a l f - t r u t h s o r d i m l y - p e r c e i v e d c oncepts i n t o c e r t a i n t i e s . ! For i n s t a n c e , b e l i e f s about the i n d o l e n c e o f the S p a n i a r d s , o f t h e i r i n d i f f e r e n c e t o the l a n d under t h e i r c u l t i v a t i o n , or the d o c i l i t y o f the South A m e r i c a n s , had become so p e r s i s t e n t i n E n g l i s h c o l o n i a l thought t h a t i t kept out the t r u t h about S p a n i s h c o l o n i a l a c t i v i t y and I n d i a n b e h a v i o r and became dogma f o r someone l i k e Defoe. Or t o t a k e a nother example, Ralegh's v i s i o n o f G u i a n a , d e s p i t e h i s f a i l u r e t o r e a l i z e i t , had become so i n t e g r a l t o E n g l i s h c o l o n i a l propaganda t h a t Defoe c o u l d embrace i t and r e a f f i r m the p o t e n t i a l s o f the r e g i o n w i t h c o n v i c t i o n . However, i f Defoe's i d e a s about c o l o n i z a t i o n are u n o r i g i n a l and h i s t r a c t s v e r y much a p a r t o f a t r a d i t i o n , he managed t o t r a n s -form the d i s c o u r s e i n a t l e a s t one i m p o r t a n t r e s p e c t ; as the c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l n o t e , i n works l i k e R o b i n s o n  Crusoe and the New Voyage he e f f e c t s a d i v i s i o n o f i t so 8 t h a t a p u r e l y f i c t i o n a l n a r r a t i v e became as v a l i d a method o f c o n v e y i n g c o l o n i a l concerns as the n o n f i c t i o n a l t r a c t s . To a g r e a t e x t e n t , Defoe managed t o c l a i m a p l a c e f o r h i m s e l f i n E n g l i s h c o l o n i a l d i s c o u r s e by m a s t e r i n g the t e x t s w hich p r o p a g a t e d the i d e a o f o v e r s e a s e x p a n s i o n and by a c c u m u l a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on the s u b j e c t o f c o l o n i z a t i o n . He was, q u i t e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y , and t o a degree t h a t has p r o b a b l y gone u n n o t i c e d t i l l now, an e x p e r t on m a r i t i m e a f f a i r s and, as such, f e l t c o m p e l l e d t o use h i s knowledge t o c o n c o c t schemes f o r men who were i n a p o s i t i o n t o t r a n s l a t e them i n t o r e a l i t y . One o f the f u n c t i o n s o f the d i s s e r t a t i o n w i l l be t o e v a l u a t e Defoe's knowledge o f c o l o n i a l a c t i v i t y and t o show how he t r i e d t o g a t h e r s u p p o r t f o r p r o j e c t s w h i c h he f e l t would l e a d t o n a t i o n a l power and p r o s p e r i t y . On o c c a s i o n s , as when he makes h i m s e l f i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o a p a r t i c u l a r v e n t u r e , o r when he c o y l y r e f u s e s t o r e v e a l the f u l l e x t e n t o f h i s knowledge about a s p e c i f i c scheme i n p r i n t , Defoe even g i v e s the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t he h i m s e l f e x p e c t e d t o b e n e f i t from h i s e x p e r t i s e . On o t h e r o c c a s i o n s , as i n the case o f the p e r s p e c t i v e he adopts i n the H i s t o r y  o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s , Defoe c e l e b r a t e s the B a c o n i a n d i c t u m t h a t knowledge c o u l d l e a d t o an e x t e n s i o n o f Western man's dominion over the e a r t h . The a t t i t u d e s p i l l s o v e r i n t o the f i c t i o n ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , we w i l l examine a n o v e l l i k e R o b i nson Crusoe as w e l l as the t r a c t s t o show how Defoe's 9 views on knowledge and power i n f o r m h i s c o l o n i a l propaganda. I n an e s s a y c o l l e c t e d i n The Ferment o f Knowledge (1980), a volume on the h i s t o r i o g r a p h y o f e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n c e , Roy P o r t e r has noted how s c a r c e are s t u d i e s which a n a l y z e "the l i n k s between p o l i t i c a l and c o g n i t i v e i m p e r i a l i s m , between the p h y s i c a l conquest o f the g l o b e and i t s mental a p p r o p r i a t i o n ; " i t w i l l be one o f our t a s k s t o note t h e s e l i n k s i n Defoe's c o l o n i a l w r i t i n g s , and t o u n d e r l i n e the importance o f examining the way i n w h i c h " p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l e x p l o r a t i o n complemented each o t h e r , " even i n the works o f someone l i k e Defoe who v u l g a r i z e d the B a c o n i a n t r a d i t i o n . 2 But though Defoe was u n d o u b t e d l y an e x p e r t on c o l o n i a l a f f a i r s , and though h i s e x p e r t i s e w i l l be emphasized i n our a n a l y s i s o f h i s n o n f i c t i o n a l works, he was not above combin-i n g c o n j e c t u r e s w i t h c e r t a i n t i e s o r u n t r u t h s w i t h f a c t s t o promote h i s f a v o r i t e c o l o n i a l schemes. I f Defoe's views on c o l o n i a l i s m can be seen as i d e o l o g i c a l i n the sense t h a t they b e l o n g t o a system o f i d e a s e n d o r s i n g and a d v a n c i n g o v e r s e a s e x p a n s i o n , h i s i m p e r i a l i s t v i s i o n can a l s o be seen as i d e o l o g i c a l i n the p e j o r a t i v e sense o f the word i n t h a t i t l e d him t o c r e a t e f a l s e images o r , a t the l e a s t , images which t o u c h up the t r u t h t o make c o l o n i z a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e t o h i s r e a d e r s . To put i t d i r e c t l y , Defoe's b i d t o i n t e r e s t the r e a d i n g p u b l i c i n o v e r s e a s e n t e r p r i s e d i r e c t e d him towards 10 f i c t i o n and away from the v e r i f i a b l e and the s u b s t a n t i a b l e . T h i s movement i n Defoe's c o l o n i a l works away from the t r u t h and towards the f a b u l o u s w i l l a l s o be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . To make h i s c o l o n i a l schemes a p p e a l i n g to h i s r e a d e r s and to d i s s e m i n a t e h i s i d e a s about c o l i n i z a t i o n i n the most e f f e c t i v e manner, Defoe had to c a l l upon a l l h i s s k i l l s as a p r o f e s s i o n a l w r i t e r . In p a r t i c u l a r , he had to make sure t h a t h i s p r o j e c t s were a c c e p t a b l e to d i f f e r e n t groups of people and had to c r e a t e d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r e s f o r p r e s e n t i n g them. In the P l a n o f the E n g l i s h Commerce, f o r i n s t a n c e , Defoe assumes the r o l e o f the knowledgeable w r i t e r on t r a d e and commerce and d e s i g n s h i s t r a c t so t h a t h i s r e a d e r s would f e e l c o m p e l l e d to a c c e p t h i s p r o j e c t s f o r c o l o n i z a t i o n . For the r e a d e r o f C a p t a i n S i n g l e t o n , on the o t h e r hand, he c r e a t e d a p r o t o t y p i c a l hero who i l l u s t r a t e s through h i s a d v e n t u r e s the f e a s i b i l i t y o f a t l e a s t one o f the p r o j e c t s d e s c r i b e d i n the t r a c t . Our c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f Defoe's c o l o n -i a l propaganda i n v o l v e s t h e r e f o r e , an e x a m i n a t i o n o f Defoe's p o l e m i c a l s t r a t e g y , o f the a r t w i t h which he c o n s t r u c t s h i s works to d e l i v e r h i s message i n d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s f o r d i s s i m i l a r groups of p e o p l e , o f the language he u s e s , the s t a n c e he a d o p t s , and the images he c r e a t e s to c o n v i n c e h i s r e a d e r s o f the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f the s t i l l u n c o l o n i z e d p a r t s of the w o r l d . 11 U l t i m a t e l y , t h e n , t h i s s t u d y seeks t o do more than j u s t r e c o r d Defoe's i d e a s on c o l o n i z a t i o n i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l than has been attempted b e f o r e . I t endeavors t o e v a l u a t e t h e s e i d e a s , examine t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s , and s i t u a t e them i n t h e i r c o n t e x t s . I t s t r i v e s t o a s s e s s Defoe's s t a t u s as an e x p e r t on c o l o n i a l a f f a i r s and o f f e r s a c l o s e and s u s t a i n e d a n a l -y s i s o f Defoe's performance as a c o l o n i a l p r o p a g a n d i s t . 12 NOTES 1 Compare the concept o f " d i s c o u r s e " and " d i s c u r s i v e f o r m a t i o n s " i n Edward S a i d ' s O r i e n t a l i s m (New York: V i n t a g e Books, 1978), pp. 94-99. 2 Roy P o r t e r , "The Terraqueous Globe," i n The Ferment  o f Knowledge: S t u d i e s i n the H i s t o r i o g r a p h y o f E i g h t e e n t h - C e n t u r y S c i e n c e , ed. P o r t e r and G.S. Rousseau (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1980), pp. 294-295. 13 CHAPTER I Ra l e g h , Defoe and C o l o n i a l D i s c o u r s e Defoe's An H i s t o r i c a l A ccount o f the Voyages and  Ad v e n t u r e s o f S i r W a l t e r R a l e i g h was p r o b a b l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1720, though the t i t l e - p a g e g i v e s 1719 as the y e a r o f p u b l i c a t i o n . 1 The 1720 p u b l i c a t i o n date has i t s s i g n i f -i c a n c e , s i n c e i t p l a c e s the t r a c t as f o l l o w i n g by a few months Robinson Crusoe, Defoe's f i r s t major s u c c e s s i n the f i c t i o n a l mode, and p r e c e d i n g by a few the b u r s t i n g o f the South-Sea B u b b l e . In the s p r i n g o f 1720, company o f f i c i a l s had o f f e r e d to assume p r a c t i c a l l y the whole n a t i o n a l debt, and the i n t e r e s t aroused had made the Company the c e n t e r o f a r u s h o f p r o j e c t s f o r the development o f the South Seas. Defoe's t r a c t , "Humbly proposed to the South-Sea Company" --the t y p i c a l modest p r e t e n s i o n o f the p r o j e c t o r which S w i f t would mimic so i n g e n i o u s l y -- was thus aimed a t a s p e c i f i c a u dience -- the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f the South-Sea Company. The t i t l e - p a g e a l s o b o l d l y o u t l i n e s h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o p o s a l : "An Account how t h a t R i c h Country [Guiana] might now be w i t h Ease, P o s s e s s ' d , P l a n t e d , S e c u r ' d to the B r i t i s h N a t i o n --and what Immense Wealth and Encrease o f Commerce might be 14 R a i s ' d from thence." The H i s t o r i c a l A ccount, however, p u r p o r t s to be more than a p r o j e c t ; i t i s a l s o a h i s t o r y o f Ralegh's d i s c o v e r i e s and e x p l o i t s , and o f h i s attempt to d i s c o v e r a g o l d mine i n G u i a n a . Defoe's t r a c t i s meant to be a v i n d i c a t i o n o f t h a t attempt; f o r Ralegh's scheme f a i l e d , a c c o r d i n g to the t i t l e - p a g e , not due to "any D e f e c t i n the Scheme he had l a i d , o r i n the R e a l i t y o f the t h i n g i t s e l f , " but because Ralegh's i n t e n t i o n was b e t r a y e d to the S p a n i s h . Defoe's H i s t o r i c a l A ccount, however, f a i l e d to a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n t h e n , or a t any t i m e , e i t h e r as p r o j e c t or as h i s t o r y . Commentators o f Defoe have i g n o r e d i t or shown t h e i r i n d i f f e r e n c e t o i t by c o n s i g n i n g i t to f o o t n o t e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the t r a c t i s o f i n t e r e s t to the s t u d e n t o f Defoe as an example of h i s c o l o n i a l propaganda. The c h o i c e o f the s u b j e c t , the " b i o g r a p h i c a l " method employed, and the p l a c e o f the p r o j e c t i n Defoe's scheme f o r c o l o n i a l expans-i o n , a r e a l l r e l e v a n t to a s t u d y o f Defoe's method as a p r o p a g a n d i s t . S i n c e R a l e g h , a l o n g w i t h the younger H a k l u y t , i n i t i a t e d a d i s c o u r s e on c o l o n i a l i s m which u l t i m a t e l y l e d to Defoe's p r o j e c t , the l i f e and works of R alegh p r o v i d e one o f the c o n t e x t s o f Defoe's c o l o n i a l t e x t s . Defoe's p r o p o s a l f o r the c o l o n i z a t i o n o f Guiana i n the H i s t o r i c a l A ccount i s based on h i s r e a d i n g s o f the works on the r e g i o n by R alegh and h i s c i r c l e ; h i s s k e t c h o f R alegh i s d e r i v e d from the 15 image of R a l e g h c r e a t e d by a d i s c u r s i v e t r a d i t i o n . The pages wh i c h f o l l o w w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , s t u d y the H i s t o r i c a l Account as c o l o n i a l t e x t and b i o g r a p h y ; but we w i l l a l s o broaden the f o c u s o f our i n q u i r y t o c o n s i d e r the c o n t e x t s o f our t e x t . Defoe h i m s e l f o f f e r s two reasons f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n o f the H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t . In the f i r s t p l a c e , he wants to r e s c u e the memory of R a l e g h from inadequate h i s t o r i e s and b i o g r a p h i e s . He i s i n d i g n a n t because a r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d book, Memoirs o f S i r W a l t e r R a l e i g h , i s such a " s u p e r f i -c i a l ... empty... i m p e r f e c t work" (HAR, 3).2 A " p i e c e o f Dramatic D r o l l e r y " enacted to honor Ralegh's memory i s a l s o d i s m i s s e d as i n s u f f i c i e n t t r i b u t e t o h i s g r e a t n e s s (HAR, 5).3 The o n l y p r a i s e which w i l l s u f f i c e i s to s t r e s s h i s " g l o r i o u s a c t i o n s " so t h a t o t h e r s w i l l be i n c i t e d to i m i t a t e him. Men l i k e R a l e g h are u n f o r t u n a t e because they want b i o g r a p h e r s who w i l l r e c o r d t h e i r a c t i o n s f o r p o s t e r i t y " i n a manner e q u a l to the Z e a l they e x p r e s s ' d when l i v i n g , f o r the Honour and I n t e r e s t o f t h e i r C o u n t r y " (HAR, 4 ) . Aware t h a t R a l e gh's e x t r a o r d i n a r y deeds have " f o r want of F a i t h f u l H i s t o r i a n s " become "almost t u r n ' d i n t o Romance" (HAR, 5 ) , and t h a t the numerous attempts to r e c o r d Ralegh's voyages have f a i l e d because t h e i r a u t h o r s "have not been e q u a l l y m a s t e r s " (HAR, 39) o f t h e i r f a c t s , Defoe o f f e r s h i s own 16 v e r s i o n . Defoe, however, does not see h i s own account as p e r f e c t , f o r w h i l e he i s a b l e t o " s u p p l y the D e f e c t s " o f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s (HAR, 5 ) , he i s aware t h a t "some a b l e r Hand may f o l l o w t h e s e s h e e t s as above, and make the work compleat". H i s f a c t s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , are a u t h e n t i c , f o r as he r e v e a l s t o h i s r e a d e r s a few pages l a t e r , he has the "Honour t o be r e l a t e d t o H i s B l o o d " (HAR, 8) and i s h e i r t o the " F a m i l y T r a d i t i o n " w h i c h has ke p t a l i v e R alegh's "inmost thoughts and b e l i e f s " (HAR, 9 ) . A l t h o u g h the impu l s e t o w r i t e the a u t h e n t i c h i s t o r y o f Ral e g h ' s voyages and a d v e n t u r e s , and t o c o r r e c t s p u r i o u s s t o r i e s about the R e n a i s s a n c e p r o j e c t o r , appear t o be the c h i e f r e a s o n f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n o f the H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t , Defoe i s r e a l l y making a p l a y f o r h i s r e a d e r s ' c o n f i d e n c e b e f o r e p r e s e n t i n g h i s own p r o p o s a l . The h i s t o r i c a l i n s i g h t g l e a n e d from Ralegh's adventures must be o f use i n the p r e s e n t . Not i d l e h i s t o r y but the p r o f i t s t o be reaped from a s t u d y of. the p a s t i n s p i r e s Defoe's t r a c t . The f a i l u r e t o a c t on Ra l e g h ' s p r o j e c t had r e s u l t e d i n the l o s s t o England o f " t h e S o v e r e i g n t y o f the R i c h e s t , Most P o p u l o u s , and most F e r t i l e C o u n t r y i n the Wo r l d " (HAR, 4 1 ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , Defoe's " b i o g r a p h i c " i n t e n t i o n i s soon overpowered by an o v e r r i d i n g i n t e r e s t i n empire. Defoe's i m p u l s e t o c e l e b r a t e R a l e g h , however, i s 17 genu i n e . D e s p i t e h i s e x e c u t i o n i n 1618, or perhaps because o f i t , R a l e g h had become a f a v o r i t e s u b j e c t o f P u r i t a n h a g i o g r a p h y . By the time Defoe p u b l i s h e d h i s t r i b u t e , R a l e g h's l i f e and death had become -- as Defoe so a p t l y o b s e r v e s -- a "Romance". C h r i s t o p h e r H i l l has s u c c i n c t l y demonstrated t h a t s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s i d e a l -i z e d R a l e g h not o n l y because he was an i l l u s t r i o u s commoner i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the k i n g , but a l s o because he f o s t e r e d an E n g l i s h i m p e r i a l p o l i c y w h i c h l a i d the b a s i s f o r the E n g l i s h empire.4 W r i t e r s and s c i e n t i s t s engaged i n c o l o n i a l propa-ganda p r o c l a i m e d him t h e i r l e a d e r and d e d i c a t e d t h e i r works t o him, o r p r e p a r e d t r a c t s commissioned by him. R a l e g h was a l s o a p a t r o n o f the s t u d i e s connected w i t h n a v i g a t i o n and e x p l o r a t i o n . As h i s t o r i a n , he wrote o f the " p l a n t i n g " o f n a t i o n s i n new w o r l d s and o f the m i g r a t i o n o f t r i b e s , and c e l e b r a t e d a t y r a n t l i k e Nimrod as a c o l o n i z e r . H i s H i s t o r y  o f t h e World o c c a s i o n a l l y becomes s u b t l e propaganda f o r an E n g l i s h o v e r s e a s empire i n the A m e r i c a s , and p o i n t s a f i n g e r a t S p a n i s h i m p e r i a l p o l i c y , as i n the a s s e r t i o n t h a t p a r a -d i s e must be somewhere near the e q u a t o r , and the d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t the S p a n i s h c o u l d e a s i l y be e x p e l l e d from America.5 As a p r o j e c t o r , R a l e g h c o n c o c t e d schemes f o r c o l o n i z a t i o n w h i c h would a p p e a l t o a broad s e c t i o n o f the E n g l i s h p u b l i c -- the merchants o f the c i t y , younger sons, the common s o l d i e r , and anyone l o o k i n g f o r s p o i l . H i s v e n t u r e s l e d d i r e c t l y t o the 18 f o u n d a t i o n o f the V i r g i n i a Company. As a m e r c a n t i l i s t , he c a l l e d f o r the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the s t a t e i n o v e r s e a s v e n t u r e s . More s i g n i f i c a n t l y , R a l e g h e s t a b l i s h e d some o f the codes w h i c h governed E n g l i s h c o l o n i a l d i s c o u r s e i n t e x t s l i k e h i s The D i s c o v e r i e o f G u i a n a , the anonymously composed Of the Voyage f o r Gu i a n a ( w r i t t e n perhaps by Thomas H a r i o t f o r R a l e g h ) , and H a k l u y t ' s D i s c o u r s e C o n c e r n i n g Western  P l a n t i n g ( w r i t t e n a t Ra l e g h ' s r e q u e s t and under h i s g u i d -ance) . These t e x t s f o s t e r e d a t t i t u d e s which e v e n t u a l l y l e d to the c r e a t i o n o f o t h e r c o l o n i a l t e x t s and o f c o l o n i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . I n John Pym's P r o v i d e n c e I s l a n d Company, i n Cromwell's Western D e s i g n , i n the works o f e d i t o r s l i k e P urchas who preached about empire, Ralegh's v i s i o n o f England's i m p e r i a l g l o r y l i v e d on. H i s o b s e r v a t i o n s -- such as S p a n i s h c r u e l t y t o the n a t i v e s , n a t i v e r e c e p t i v i t y t o E n g l i s h v e n t u r e s , and the i n h e r e n t s u p e r i o r i t y o f the E n g l i s h f o r the t a s k o f c o l o n i z a t i o n -- were p e r p e t u a t e d by h i s a d m i r e r s and pervade a t e x t l i k e the H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t . As a p u r i t a n , and as an a c t i v e c o n t r i b u t o r t o c o l o n i a l propaganda, Defoe shared the impu l s e t o r e v i v e R a l e gh's memory and schemes. Even i f the H i s t o r i c a l Account had never been w r i t t e n , Defoe's v e n e r a t i o n f o r R a l e g h c o u l d have been a s c e r t a i n e d from the many r e f e r e n c e s t o the E l i z a b e t h a n i n the Defoe canon. As C.E. Doble had noted i n 1893, when the 19 H i s t o r i c a l Account was s t i l l not attributed to Defoe, refer-ences to Ralegh appear in at least nine of Defoe's works, always accompanied with the highest of praise. 6 And in the f i r s t hundred pages or so of his General History of Discov- eries and Improvements -- a work not included in Doble's l i s t -- Defoe makes extensive use of Ralegh's History and compares i t s author to Hanno of Carthage -- Defoe's ideal colonizing state. Indirect evidence of Defoe's fascination with Ralegh's works is also to be found in Defoe's l i b r a r y catalogue, where at least f i v e t i t l e s by Ralegh are numbered J We must remember, however, that Defoe chooses to claim special status as Ralegh's biographer not because he is a writer in the Puritan c o l o n i a l t r a d i t i o n , nor because he has read Ralegh's works, but because he is a descendant of that great man. Recent biographers of Defoe have dismissed this claim of kinship or have ignored i t . The least skeptical of them, James Sutherland, observes that i f Defoe was r e a l l y Ralegh's descendant, "by the time i t [the blood of Ralegh] reached Defoe i t must have been running rather thin."8 But i f Defoe's claim to kinship can be questioned or set aside as hard to believe, his ploy for legitimacy should be seen as a f i c t i v e device which hints at the imaginative nature of his biography. Thus Defoe provides for his H i s t o r i c a l  Account a plot and creates f i r s t a seemingly r e l i a b l e 20 n a r r a t o r . The c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f R a l e g h i t s e l f , as we w i l l t r y t o show, seems t o be based on Defoe's i m a g i n a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h h i s s u b j e c t . The p l o t o f Defoe's H i s t o r i c a l Account i s one composed from the many legends t h a t had grown around the E l i z a b e t h -an. S i r W a l t e r R a l e g h , an " i l l u s t r i o u s commoner" by b i r t h (HAR, 3 ) , employs h i s s u p e r i o r m e r i t and v i r t u e s t o w in f o r h i s queen and c o u n t r y the t r e a s u r e s o f the A m e r i c a s . Unper-t u r b e d by d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s and i n c a r c e r a t i o n , he keeps a l i v e h i s schemes, and a c q u i r e s i n the p r o c e s s s e t t l e m e n t s f o r the E n g l i s h i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . F i n a l l y , a t the age o f s i x t y , he makes one l a s t attempt t o win the u l t i m a t e p r i z e -- the immense r i c h e s o f Guiana -- but i s t h w a r t e d by S p a n i s h m a c h i n a t i o n s and i s s a c r i f i c e d t o them. The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f R a l e g h ' s c h a r a c t e r i s based on a p r o j e c t i o n o f Defoe's own p e r s o n a l i t y onto t h a t o f the m a s t e r s p i r i t o f E n g l i s h c o l o n i a l p o l i c y . F o r example, the c l a i m s t h a t Ralegh's p r o j e c t s o r i g i n a t e d i n "the Depth o f h i s L e a r n i n g " (HAR, 8 ) , t h a t i n u n i v e r s i t y R a l e g h r e a d "books and not men", and n a r r a t i v e s o f a d v e n t u r e r s l i k e t hose o f Columbus, C o r t e z , and P i z a r r o , though p o s s i b l y t r u e , appear t o be based on no v e r i f i a b l e s o u r c e , but on an i m a g i n a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h h i s h e r o . The c a t a l o g u e o f Defoe's l i b r a r y r e v e a l s , a f t e r a l l , an e x t e n s i v e h o l d i n g i n S p a n i s h c o l o n i a l l i t e r a t u r e , h i s s e l f - p o r t r a i t has him 21 p o r i n g over o l d maps, c h a r t s , and books about the new w o r l d , h i s i d e a l E n g l i s h Gentleman can make "the t o u r o f the w o r l d i n books", and h i s p r o j e c t s m o s t l y o r i g i n a t e d i n h i s s t u d y (CEG, 2 2 5 ) . 9 In the H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t , Defoe u n d e r l i n e s the " r a t i o n a l " n a t u r e o f Ralegh's p l a n s f o r Guiana. A c c o r d i n g to Defoe, R a l e g h c o n c e n t r a t e d on r e g i o n s i n the Americas w h i c h were n o t under S p a n i s h r u l e , and c o n c l u d e d t h a t c e r t a i n r e g i o n s were e m i n e n t l y c o l o n i z a b l e (HAR, 10, 2 7 ) . Defoe's p r o j e c t s f o r South A m e r i c a were themselves based on such a p r o c e s s o f " r a t i o n a l " d e d u c t i o n . H i s s t u d y of South Ameri-can geography and o f Ralegh's work c o n v i n c e d Defoe t h a t the southernmost p a r t o f the c o n t i n e n t were s t i l l u n i n h a b i t e d by the S p a n i s h ; t h i s r e g i o n , as w e l l as Ralegh's Guiana, were thus s u i t a b l e o b j e c t s f o r E n g l i s h c o l o n i a l v e n t u r e s . A c c o r d i n g t o Defoe, Ralegh's c h o i c e was a l s o d i c t a t e d by the assumption t h a t the unpossessed space was "perhaps as R i c h , as f i t f o r s e t t l e m e n t , and as easy to conquer" as S p a n i s h A m e r i c a (HAR, 1 0 ) . Two comments can be made about t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n . F i r s t , i n a p r o c e s s t y p i c a l o f c o l o n i a l d i s c o u r s e , space a c q u i r e s f o r Defoe as i t d i d f o r h i s o s t e n s i b l e s u b j e c t , R a l e g h , a q u a l i t y whereby i t s emptiness i s c o n v e r t e d i n t o p o t e n t i a l i t y . Second, the "perhaps" i n Defoe's o b s e r v a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r i t i n d i c a t e s t h a t R alegh's c h o i c e , i n Defoe's o p i n i o n , was an educated guess. 22 Defoe's i m a g i n a t i v e i n s i g h t i n t o R a l e g h ' s method i s a g a i n w o r t h n o t i n g . I n f a c t , i n one o f Defoe's f a v o r i t e works, The  H i s t o r y o f the Wor l d , R a l e g h had defended the use o f c o n j e c t u r e s i n h i s t o r i o g r a p h y and geography: I n e i t h e r do reprehend the b o l d n e s s o f T o r n e l -l i u s i n c o n j e c t u r i n g , nor the modesty o f S c a l i g e r and Sethus C a l o i s i u s i n f o r b e a r i n g t o s e t down as w a r r a n t a b l e , such t h i n g s as depend o n l y upon l i k e -l i h o o d . F o r t h i n g s whereof the p e r f e c t knowledge i s tak e n away from us by a n t i q u i t y , must be d e s c r i b e d i n h i s t o r y , as geographers i n t h e i r maps d e s c r i b e those c o u n t r i e s , whereof as y e t t h e r e i s made no t r u e d i s c o v e r y , t h a t i s e i t h e r by l e a v i n g some p a r t b l a n k , o r by i n s e r t i n g the l a n d o f p i g m i e s , r o c k s o f l o a d s t o n e s , w i t h h e a d l a n d s , bays, g r e a t r i v e r s , and o t h e r p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s , a g r e e a b l e t o common r e p o r t , though many times c o n t r o l l e d by f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , and found c o n t r a r y t o the t r u t h . . . . R a l e g h goes on t o observe t h a t the geographer does not have the same freedom as the h i s t o r i a n , f o r i n the age o f the "greedy merchant" and the " s u b t l e shipmen" the t r u t h w i l l soon o u t . Y e t , "the same f i c t i o n s ( o r l e t them be c a l l e d c o n j e c t u r e s ) p a i n t e d i n maps do se r v e o n l y t o m i s l e a d such d i s c o v e r e r s as r a s h l y b e l i e v e them."10 I n e v i t a b l y , the d i v i s i o n between t r u t h and f a l s e h o o d i s obscured by such a method, and o f t e n c o n j e c t u r e s a r e passed o f f as t r u t h s about the w i d e r w o r l d . There can a l s o be l e s s than i n n o c e n t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f empty spaces i n maps t o c a t c h the a t t e n t i o n o f r e a d e r s . And t h e r e i s always the i n t r i g u i n g p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the c a r t o g r a p h e r would perhaps 23 g e t caught up i n h i s own f i c t i o n s . Something o f the complex-i t y o f the p r o c e s s , and the p i t f a l l s o f the method, i s u n c o n s c i o u s l y acknowledged by Defoe i n h i s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t R a l e g h , a f t e r h i s c o n j e c t u r e s about the b l a n k spaces o f A m e r i c a , and h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h s a i l o r s a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the American c o a s t l i n e , c o n c l u d e d t h a t a v a s t t r a c t o f l a n d w o r t h d i s c o v e r i n g e x i s t e d ; "and h a v i n g i n h i s w o r k i n g Head d i g e s t e d t h e s e t h i n g s , and brought h i s thoughts t o such a c o n s i s t e n c y , as t o depend upon the C e r t a i n t y o f i t , he r e s o l v ' d upon the d i s c o v e r y " (HAR, 1 1 ) . Here, what was prob-a b l e i s soon made c o n s i s t e n t and f i n a l l y c e r t a i n , a t which p o i n t i t must be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o r e a l i t y t h r o u g h a c t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , i n Defoe's P a t a g o n i a n p r o j e c t , what i s p r o b a b l e soon becomes c e r t a i n , and engenders a l i f e l o n g o b s e s s i o n w i t h c o l o n i z i n g the r e g i o n . The use o f g o l d as a m o t i f i n Ralegh's D i s c o v e r i e and the A p o l o g y show how e a s i l y c o n j e c t u r e s based on a m i x t u r e o f t r u t h s , h a l f - t r u t h s , and u n t r u t h s can harden i n t o c e r t -a i n t y . R a l e g h wanted t o b e l i e v e i n E l Dorado, a c c e p t e d the t e s t i m o n y o f some u n r e l i a b l e S p a n i a r d s and I n d i a n s , and embraced n a t i v e legends as f a c t s . However, he was a l s o aware t h a t "when men are c o n s t r a i n e d t o f i g h t , i t h a t h not the same hope as when they are p r e s t and encouraged by the d e s i r e s o f s p o y l e and r i c h e s . " H I t was a l s o o f such knowl-edge t h a t the e v i d e n c e o f a few a u r i f e r o u s r i v e r s and n a t i v e 24 g o l d ornaments a l o n g w i t h the t e s t i m o n i e s and legends became t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o dogma about g o l d e n l a k e s and c r y s t a l mount-a i n s . I t i s p r o b a b l y a measure o f Ralegh's o b s e s s i o n t h a t by 1617, when he s e t out f o r h i s second Guiana e x p e d i t i o n , he was w i l l i n g t o s t a k e e v e r y t h i n g on the d i s c o v e r y o f a g o l d mine whose e x i s t e n c e he was unsure o f . As one o f h i s b i o -g r a p h e r s has put i t : "The f i n a l a c t i n Ralegh's l i f e was t o be f l a w e d f a t a l l y by t h i s b a s i c f r a u d , a f a l s e h o o d t h a t was p a r t w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g and p a r t d e l i b e r a t e d e c e p t i o n i n wh i c h Lawrence Keymis c o n n i v e d -- f o r t h e r e was no mine, s i m p l y a b e l i e f i n i t s e x i s t e n c e ."12 The f a c t t h a t R a l e g h s t a k e d h i s l i f e on the e x i s t e n c e o f such a mine, however, gave credence t o the b e l i e f t h a t t h e r e was g o l d i n Guiana. I n the H i s t o r i c a l Account Defoe t y p i c a l l y p i c t u r e s a Guiana " r i c h e r i n G o l d and S i l v e r than Mexico and P e r u " (HAR, 4 1 ) . T h i s , and the a s s e r t i o n t h a t Guiana i s a c o u n t r y " f u l l o f i n h a b i t a n t s , l i k e G r e a t B r i t -a i n , " a r e b e l i e f s deduced by Defoe from Ralegh's w r i t i n g s . Here they a re o f f e r e d t o the South Sea Company as c e r t a i n -t i e s - - o n e more example o f the way i n which w i s h f u l t h i n k -i n g and, i n p a r t d e l i b e r a t e d e c e p t i o n , soon came t o be a c c e p t e d as the t r u t h . There are o t h e r ways i n wh i c h the b l a n k spaces i n maps te a s e d Defoe i n t o thought and l e d him t o c o n j e c t u r e s w h i c h hardened i n t o c e r t a i n t i e s . What Defoe observes o f h i s 25 b i o g r a p h i c a l s u b j e c t i s c e r t a i n l y a p p l i c a b l e t o h i s own e x e r t i o n s on b e h a l f o f the u n d i s c o v e r e d or u n c l a i m e d r e g i o n s o f the w o r l d : "As l o n g as t h e r e had been any new w o r l d i n the g l o b e t o d i s c o v e r (so l o n g had he l i v e d ) would he have e x e r t e d h i m s e l f f o r new D i s c o v e r y " (HAR, 2 7 ) . As we w i l l see i n the c o u r s e o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , Defoe k e p t m i x i n g f a c t and f i c t i o n i n h i s u n c e a s i n g e f f o r t s t o a t t r a c t E n g l i s h a t t e n t i o n t o South A m e r i c a and A f r i c a . As a r e s u l t , f i c -t i o n s occupy an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f h i s d i s c u r s i v e p r o s e . On the o t h e r hand, h i s f u l l - l e n g t h n o v e l s d e a l i n g w i t h the South-Sea r e g i o n (A New Voyage Round the World) and A f r i c a ( C a p t a i n S i n g l e t o n ) embody a l l the economic arguments needed t o c o n v i n c e h i s r e a d e r s o f the n e c e s s i t y o f c o l o n i z i n g t h e s e a r e a s . Other c l u e s s c a t t e r e d t hroughout the H i s t o r i c a l  A ccount suggest the s i m i l a r i t i e s between Ralegh's s i t u a t i o n and Defoe's. They i n d i c a t e t h a t the p o r t r a i t o f R a l e g h s k e t c h e d i n the t r a c t was t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t the r e s u l t o f the p r o j e c t i o n o f Defoe's own p e r s o n a l i t y i n t o t h a t o f h i s h e r o ' s . Defoe's r e i t e r a t e d p o i n t about "the c o n s t a n t m i s f o r t u n e s o f men o f s u p e r i o r v i r t u e and m e r i t " (HAR, 4, 7, 3 7 ) , f o r example, i s s t r i k i n g l y a p p l i c a b l e t o h i s own s i t u a t i o n i n 1719. Defoe a l s o s t r e s s e s the d i s i n t e r -e s t e d n a t u r e o f R a l e gh's p r o j e c t s and emphasizes Ralegh's p a t r i o t i s m (HAR 7, 1 2 ) . U ndoubtedly, he would have l i k e d t o 26 convey a s i m i l a r s e l f l e s s n e s s and n a t i o n a l i s m i n c o m m i t t i n g h i m s e l f t o the p u b l i c medium o f p r i n t . R alegh's "genius f o r g r e a t u n d e r t a k i n g s " makes him the i d e a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f "the e n t e r p r i s i n g g e n i u s o f the age" (HAR, 7) and q u a l i f i e s him f o r the p o s t o f the " F a t h e r o f Improvement" (HAR, 2 7 ) . T h i s t r i b u t e comes, o f c o u r s e , from the a u t h o r o f the E s s a y  on P r o j e c t s and c o u n t l e s s schemes, who had c e l e b r a t e d the g e n e r a l p r o j e c t i n g "Humor" o f h i s n a t i o n , and had l a b e l l e d h i s e r a "the p r o j e c t i n g age" (EP, i i ) . The few b r i e f r e f e r e n c e s t o Ralegh's emotions and thought p r o c e s s e s i n the H i s t o r i c a l Account are a l s o r e v e a l -i n g . Thus the metaphor o f b i r t h i s used by Defoe t o e x p l a i n how R a l e g h n o u r i s h e d h i s scheme f o r over twenty y e a r s . The f a i l u r e o f Ralegh's f i r s t attempt i s d e s c r i b e d as a " m i s c a r -r i a g e " (HAR, 2 8 ) ; i n p r i s o n he i s " f u l l o f i t " [ h i s scheme f o r G u i a n a ] ; when r e l e a s e d he i s b e t r a y e d i n t o a n o t h e r "mis-c a r r i a g e " (HAR, 3 6 ) . These metaphors are almost h a b i t u a l w i t h Defoe. For example, Crusoe i n B r a z i l has a head " f u l l o f p r o j e c t s " w h i c h was bound t o l e a d him i n t o f u t u r e "mis-c a r r i a g e s " and away from the t r a n q u i l i t i e s o f "the m i d d l e s t a t i o n o f l i f e " (RC, 3 8 ) . A t one p o i n t i n the H i s t o r i c a l  A ccount Defoe emphasizes how Ralegh's " g r e a t H e a r t was not to be so chok'd by D i s a p p o i n t m e n t " as t o g i v e up h i s V i r g i n -i a scheme because o f a temporary s e t b a c k (HAR, 2 0 ) . Some such c o n f i d e n c e i n the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f h i s own schemes must have s u s t a i n e d Defoe i n h i s r e p e a t e d endeavors t o 27 t r a n s l a t e them i n t o r e a l i t y . When Defoe d e s c r i b e s a R a l e g h " v i o l e n t l y a g i t a t e d " i n s p i r i t by the p r o s p e c t s o f new w o r l d s t o be d i s c o v e r e d (HAR, 2 7 ) , he was p o s s i b l y d e s c r i b -i n g an emotion he had h i m s e l f f e l t . F i n a l l y , Defoe's r e p e a t -ed r e m i n d e r s t h a t R a l e g h was s i x t y y e a r s o l d when he s e t out f o r h i s f i n a l G uiana gamble (HAR, 35, 36, 40) assume s i g n i f -i c a n c e when we r e c a l l t h a t he was h i m s e l f about t h a t age when he wrote the H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t . Both R a l e g h and Defoe t r u s t e d i n the power o f p r i n t when o t h e r p e r s u a s i v e t e c h n i q u e s f a i l e d t o promote t h e i r p r o j e c t s . R a l e g h's The D i s c o v e r i e o f the L a r g e and B e w t i f u l  Empire o f Guiana was w r i t t e n t o s i l e n c e s k e p t i c s and w in over the uncommitted a f t e r h i s f i r s t G uiana e x p e d i t i o n ; the A p o l o g y was dashed o f f i n 1618, a few weeks b e f o r e h i s d e a t h , i n a f r a n t i c b i d t o keep h i s p r o j e c t a l i v e and make h i m s e l f i n d i s p e n s a b l e . I n a d d i t i o n , he o r c h e s t r a t e d the p r o d u c t i o n o f many c o l o n i a l t r a c t s t o promote r e l a t e d schemes. These i n c l u d e H a k l u y t ' s s e m i n a l D i s c o u r s e Concern- i n g Western P l a n t i n g , H a r i o t ' s A B r i e f e and True R e p o r t o f  the New Found Land o f V i r g i n i a , the anonymous Voyage t o  G u i a n a , and Dr. John Dee's c h a r t o f the N o r t h American c o a s t l i n e . T h i s i m p l i c i t f a i t h i n the power o f the w r i t t e n word t o propagate the g o s p e l o f empire amongst a w i d e r s e c t i o n o f the p u b l i c and the e f f o r t t o bypass the c o u r t t h r ough p r i n t a re c e r t a i n l y among Ra l e g h ' s most i m p o r t a n t 28 l e g a c i e s t o Defoe. A g a i n and a g a i n , when h i s most c h e r i s h e d p r o p o s a l s t o men l i k e K i n g W i l l i a m and H a r l e y were not a c t e d upon, Defoe t u r n e d t o p r i n t . R a l e g h ' s t r a c t s were add r e s s e d t o the l i t e r a t e , m e r c a n t i l e p u b l i c ; Defoe's t r a c t s and j o u r n a l s were d i r e c t e d a t a s i m i l a r a u d i e n c e . However, the H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t , a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a "Speech t o an i n c o r p o r a t e d S o c i e t y o f Men p o w e r f u l enough f o r such a work" (HAR, 4 2 ) , i s more s p e c i f i c about i t s t a r g e t e d a u d i e n c e ; f o r by 1719 l a r g e f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e the South-Sea Company had become the c h i e f hope o f c o l o n i a l p r o j e c t o r s . A l t h o u g h the d e c i s i o n t o commit t h e i r p r o j e c t s t o p r i n t seems the v e r y model o f d i s i n t e r e s t e d n e s s , n e i t h e r R a l e g h nor Defoe were about t o d i v u l g e the f u l l d e t a i l s o f t h e i r scheme. I t i s i n t h i s c o n t e x t t h a t a f i n a l comment can be made on Defoe's c l a i m t o k i n s h i p w i t h R a l e g h . Among the documents r e p r o d u c e d i n p a r t i n the H i s t o r i c a l Account are "The L e t t e r s p a t e n t g r a n t e d by the Queenes M a j e s t i e t o S i r W a l t e r R a l e g h , f o r the d i s c o v e r i n g and p l a n t i n g o f new l a n d s , and c o u n t r i e s " . Defoe c l a i m s t o have the o r i g i n a l o f t h i s document i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n and r e p r o d u c e s two c l a u s e s from i t w h i c h are " v e r y n e c e s s a r y t o be handed t o P o s t e r i t y " (HAR, 1 4 ) . What i s s t r i k i n g about the document, i n the l i g h t o f Defoe's c l a i m t o k i n s h i p , i s the r e i t e r a t e d p o i n t t h a t R a l e g h , " h i s h e i r s and a s s i g n s " s h a l l "have, h o l d e , o c c u p i e and e n j o y " f o r e v e r the t e r r i t o r i e s d i s c o v e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o 29 the terms of the p a t e n t (HAR, 15-18). The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t as h e i r to R a l e g h , and as owner o f the o r i g i n a l p a t e n t , he i s i n a unique p o s i t i o n to o versee any e x p e d i t i o n sent out by the South-Sea Company to Guiana. The c o n c l u d i n g pages o f the t r a c t d i s c l o s e t h a t the n a r r a t o r has a l s o accumulated f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on the r e g i o n f o r such an e x p e d i t i o n w h i c h makes him even more i n d i s p e n s a b l e : " . . . t h e a u t h o r of these s h e e t s i s ready to l a y b e f o r e them [the Company] a P l a n or C h a r t of the R i v e r s and S t o r e s , the Depth of Water, a l l the n e c e s s a r y I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the N a v i g a t i o n , w i t h a scheme o f the U n d e r t a k i n g . . . " (HAR, 5 5 ) . Both as a descendant, and as an e x p e r t who has a l l the f a c t s i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n , he i s w i l l i n g to n e g o t i a t e w i t h the Company. In o t h e r words, p r i v i l e g e d and s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge i s b e i n g o f f e r e d t o an o r g a n i z a t i o n a b l e to put i t to u s e . I f Defoe's c l a i m to k i n s h i p can be s e t a s i d e as u n v e r i -f i a b l e , the c l a i m to knowledge can be seen as a m a t t e r of m a s t e r i n g the t e x t s i n i t i a t e d by R a legh and H a k l u y t i n an ongoing d i s c o u r s e on c o l o n i a l i s m . The t e x t o f Ralegh's p a t e n t , f o r example, was a v a i l a b l e to Defoe i n H a k l u y t ' s The  P r i n c i p a l l N a v i g a t i o n s . . . o f the E n g l i s h N a t i o n , as was the account o f the voyage by C a p t a i n B a r l o w and the e x p e d i t i o n under S i r R i c h a r d G r e n v i l l e , a l l quoted i n Defoe's t r a c t . Defoe a l s o quotes e x t e n s i v e l y from Ralegh's D i s c o v e r i e to a u t h e n t i c a t e h i s p r o j e c t . Defoe's Guiana scheme, i n o t h e r 30 words, i s the r e s u l t o f h i s w i l l i n g n e s s to b e l i e v e i n what he had r e a d about the r e g i o n i n Ralegh's D i s c o u r s e and H a k l u y t ' s c o l l e c t i o n . Defoe's i m a g i n a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h R a l e g h and the s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e to c o l o n i a l i s m , o f c o u r s e , s h o u l d not obscure the s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between these two p r o j e c t o r s . F o r one t h i n g , Ralegh's concept of the unknown, l i k e t h a t o f most E l i z a b e t h a n s , was h e r o i c as w e l l as u t i l i t a r i a n . H i s Guiana e x p e d i t i o n , though m o t i v a t e d by g o l d , g l o r y , and empire, and based on a m i x t u r e o f f a c t and f i c t i o n , was a l s o "bound up w i t h h i s i m a g i n a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n o f h e r o i c a c t i o n . " 1 3 Defoe, i n tune w i t h h i s e r a , d i s p l a y e d a more commercial m e n t a l i t y . John McVeagh has summed up the d i s t i n c t i v e n a t u r e o f Defoe's v i s i o n i n these words: Defoe's t r a v e l d e s c r i p t i o n s , t r a d e a c c o u n t s , econ-omic pamphlets and the r e s t add up to a c a t a l o g u e o f the l a v i s h e x c e l l e n c e o f n a t u r a l c r e a t i o n , r e d u c i n g i t s w e a l t h to method, l i s t i n g i t s p l a c e , q u a n t i t y and k i n d . Always the r e f e r e n c e i s to what can be done w i t h the raw m a t e r i a l s , to how i t s p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s can be tapped, i t s w e a l t h e x t r a c t e d , to the d e t a i l s o f p r o c e s s and conse-quence which g i v e Defoe's w r i t i n g i t s immediate r e l e v a n c e . 1 4 In such a v i s i o n , knowledge w h i c h c o u l d not be put to commercial use, or a h e r o ism w h i c h would e x i s t i n a s t a t e o f t e n s i o n w i t h u t i l i t a r i a n i s m , d i d n o t have a p l a c e . 31 Defoe, u n l i k e R a l e g h , c o n s t r u c t e d h i s schemes e x p l i c i t -l y on the assumption t h a t England had now become a t r a d i n g n a t i o n , and needed an a g g r e s s i v e commercial p o l i c y t o s u s t -a i n i t s e l f . J.G.A. Pocock has p o i n t e d out i n the M a c h i a v e l - l i a n Moment, the " v e r y r a p i d pace" w i t h w h i c h "an e n t i t y known as Trade" e n t e r e d the language o f p o l i t i c s i n p o s t -R e s t o r a t i o n E n g l a n d . Trade was something w h i c h "no w r i t e r , p a m phleteer, o r t h e o r i s t c o u l d a f f o r d t o n e g l e c t . " I n a time o f war, i t became " i n t i m a t e l y connected w i t h the concepts .of e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s and n a t i o n a l power." C o n s e q u e n t l y , "Mach-i a v e l l i a n " assumptions l i k e the p e r c e p t i o n o f e x p a n s i o n by j o i n t - s t o c k companies a l l i e d t o the c o u r t and the C i t y o f London f i n a n c i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t gave an unique f l a v o u r t o Defoe's c o l o n i a l d i s c o u r s e . S t y l i s t i c a l l y , as an a n a l y s i s o f Defoe's Review p i e c e s on the South-Sea Company w i l l r e v e a l , Defoe employed, a g a i n u n l i k e R a l e g h , "a h i g h l y a m b i v a l e n t r h e t o r i c , r e p l e t e w i t h a l t e r n a t i v e s , c o n f l i c t s and c o n c l u -s i o n s , " w h i c h Pocock sees as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the p o l i t i c a l m o r a l i t y o f e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y England.15 F i n a l l y , and t h i s i s a c r u c i a l p o i n t t o keep i n mind, R a l e g h based h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s on Guiana i n the D i s c o v e r y and elsew h e r e on p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n as w e l l as h i s r e a d i n g . I n t o t a l c o n t r a s t , Defoe r e l i e d e n t i r e l y on o t h e r w r i t e r s and h e a r s a y i n c o n c o c t i n g h i s c o l o n i a l schemes. C o n s e q u e n t l y , w h i l e R a l e g h ' s o b s e r v a t i o n about Guiana i s o f t e n c o n c r e t e , 32 Defoe's d e p i c t i o n o f the New World i s almost always g e n e r a l -i z e d and s u p e r f i c i a l . The b l u r r e d and d i m l y r e a l i z e d P a t a -g o n i a w h i c h emerges i n Defoe's c o l o n i a l w r i t i n g , f o r example, i s the i n e v i t a b l e consequence o f h i s t o t a l r e l i a n c e on o t h e r s o u r c e s . The i n a b i l i t y t o v i s u a l i s e c l e a r l y f o r c e s c o n j e c t u r e ; the A f r i c a o f C a p t a i n S i n g l e t o n i s thus the p r o d u c t o f the i m a g i n a t i o n s u p p l e m e n t i n g inadequate knowl-edge and r e c e i v e d i n f o r m a t i o n . C e r t a i n l y , R a l e g h or the o t h e r sources used by Defoe were not c o m p l e t e l y a c c u r a t e , t h o r o u g h , or r e a l i s t i c i n t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n o f d i s t a n t l a n d s , d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t they had been t h e r e . Some legends l i k e E l Dorado d i e h a r d , and p r e c o n c e i v e d n o t i o n s or the b e l i e f s g e n e r a t e d by a d i s c u r s i v e t r a d i t i o n o f t e n prove more p o t e n t than the t e s t i -mony o f the senses. As Margaret T. Hodgen has observed i n her E a r l y A n t h r o p o l o g y i n the S i x t e e n t h and S e v e n t e e n t h  C e n t u r i e s , "even S i r W a l t e r R a l e g h , t h a t s c h o l a r l y and s k e p t i c a l t r a v e l l e r , was not immune t o the s u g g e s t i v e power o f the f a b u l o u s . Without h e s i t a t i o n , he r e p e a t e d the e x i s t -ence o f the semi-human b e i n g s , f i t o n l y f o r a p l a c e below man h i m s e l f i n the h i e r a r c h y . " 1 6 I n a manner c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s penchant f o r p l a y - a c t -i n g , R a l e g h a l s o p e r p e t u a t e d the myth o f h i m s e l f as the s u c c e s s f u l a d v e n t u r e r and c o l o n i z e r , whereas h i s V i r g i n i a schemes and h i s Guiana v e n t u r e s , though p i o n e e r i n g , were a l l 33 f a i l u r e s . Indeed, as D a v i d B. Quinn observes i n h i s R a l e g h  and the B r i t i s h Empire, Ralegh's p l a c e i n the h i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h o v e r s e a s e x p a n s i o n i s due not t o h i s " l o n g p r o t a g o n -ism o f E n g l i s h as a g a i n s t S p a n i s h i m p e r i a l i s m , nor from any l a s t i n g achievement i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f E n g l i s h a u t h o r i -t y o v e r s e a s " but t o h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o E n g l i s h c o l o n i a l t heory.17 And i t i s i n the r e a l m o f t h e o r y t h a t R a l e g h and Defoe meet. As b i o g r a p h y , the H i s t o r i c a l Account i s i n a d e -quate because i t i s l a r g e l y f i c t i v e , based as i t i s on the s t u f f o f legends and Defoe's p r o j e c t i o n o f h i s own p e r s o n a l -i t y . I t o v e r l o o k s Ralegh's f a i l u r e s , e v a s i o n s , d i s t o r t i o n s and r o l e - p l a y i n g . But i n i t s c o n c r e t e p r o p o s a l i t r e v i v e s R a l e g h ' s i m a g i n a t i v e concept o f a t r o p i c a l empire, w h i c h would u n f o l d i t s t r e a s u r e s f o r the E n g l i s h , and become the i d e a l market f o r E n g l i s h i n d u s t r y . A l t h o u g h o f no s i g n i f -i c a n c e i n i t s e l f , Defoe's H i s t o r i c a l Account i s i n the l i n e o f R a l e g h ' s t r a c t s , a l o n g w i t h c o u n t l e s s o t h e r s i m i l a r l y o b scure or l i t t l e - r e a d pamphlets, and c o n s t i t u t e a t r a d i t i o n w h i c h would u l t i m a t e l y b ear f r u i t i n the shape o f a t r o p i c a l E n g l i s h empire. "Guiana i s a c o u n t r y t h a t h a t h y e t her Maidenhead" wrote R a l e g h i n h i s D i s c o v e r i e ; Defoe quotes the l i n e w i t h a p p r o v a l (HAR, 48) and a p p r o p r i a t e s the image o f v i o l a t i o n i n h i s t i t l e - p a g e promise about Guiana -- "how t h a t r i c h c o u n t r y might now be w i t h Ease, P o s s e s s ' d , P l a n t e d and Secured t o the B r i t i s h N a t i o n " ; i n the n o t - t o o - d i s t a n t 34 f u t u r e the image would be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a c t i o n ; the v i o l a -t i o n would be complete; the v i s i o n o f a t r o p i c a l empire would become a r e a l i t y . 35 NOTES 1 On p. 176 o f A C h e c k l i s t o f the W r i t i n g s o f D a n i e l Defoe, 2nd ed. (Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1971), J.R. Moore has t h i s t o say about the date o f p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t r a c t : D o t t i n dates i t i n J a n . 1720. But as l a t e as 26 Aug. 1720 i t was a d v e r t i s e d i n The D a i l y  P o s t : " T h i s Day i s p u b l i s h ' d , Humbly proposed t o the South-Sea Company." I f the t r a c t had a c t u a l l y appeared i n 1720, t h i s l a t e ad. might have been no more than the p u b l i s h e r ' s e f f o r t t o arouse i n t e r e s t i n i t a t a time when the South-Sea bubble was n e a r i n g i t s c o l l a p s e . 2 Defoe i s p r o b a b l y r e f e r r i n g t o Memoirs o f S i r W a l t e r  R a l e i g h : H i s L i f e , h i s M i l i t a r y N a v a l E x p l o i t s , h i s P r e f e r - ments and V e n t u r e s , I n w h i c h a r e i n s e r t e d the P r i v a t e  I n t r i g u e s between the Count o f Gondomar, the S p a n i s h Ambas- s a d o r , and the L o r d S a l i s b u r y , the S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , w r i t - t e n by Mr. L e w i s Theobold. T h i s t r a c t was p u b l i s h e d i n 1719; i t was e v i d e n t l y q u i t e p o p u l a r , f o r i t went i n t o t h r e e e d i t i o n s i n t h a t y e a r . 3 Moore p o i n t s out t h a t i n a 1717 p o l i t i c a l pamphlet Defoe quoted 6 l i n e s from the m a n u s c r i p t o f Dr. George 36 S e w e l l ' s t r a g e d y , S i r W a l t e r R a l e i g h , a p l a y not a c t e d a t L i n c o l n ' s Inn F i e l d u n t i l J a n u a r y 1718 and not p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 1719. See h i s D a n i e l Defoe: C i t i z e n o f the Modern  World ( C h i c a g o : the U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1958), p. 25. 4 C h r i s t o p h e r H i l l , I n t e l l e c t u a l O r i g i n s o f the E n g l i s h  R e v o l u t i o n ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1965), pp. 154-161. I am i n d e b t e d t o H i l l ' s c h a p t e r on Ralegh's impact on P u r i t a n i d e o l o g y f o r the f o l l o w i n g summary o f Ralegh's importance f o r c o l o n i z e r s . L i k e H i l l , many o t h e r s c h o l a r s have observed how P u r i -t a n s tended t o r o m a n t i c i z e Ralegh's l i f e and h i s c o l o n i a l p r o j e c t s . The h i s t o r i a n o f h i s Guiana p r o j e c t , V.T. Harlow, f o r example, o b s e r v e s : "The s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , s m a r t i n g under S t u a r t misgovernment, i d e a l i s e d the g r e a t days o f E l i z a b e t h , and r e v e r e d the name o f R a l e g h ( h i m s e l f the v i c t i m o f a S t u a r t ) as the champion and m a r t y r o f a n a t i o n a l l i b e r t y . " A c c o r d i n g t o Harlow, Ralegh's Guiana scheme had a " p r o f o u n d " i n f l u e n c e on " P u r i t a n businessmen and s t a t e s -men". I t s " s u b t l e m i x t u r e o f r e l i g i o n , p o l i t i c s , and com-merce" a p p e a l e d t o someone l i k e C romwell. Ralegh's "prophet-i c i m a g i n a t i o n c a l l e d up a v i s i o n o f England o v e r s e a s " w h i c h c o n t i n u e d t o i n s p i r e many t i l l i t was t r a n s l a t e d i n t o r e a l i -t y . Harlow's comments on R a l e g h e x p l a i n how h i s i d e a s and 37 p r o j e c t s became p a r t o f the E n g l i s h c o l o n i a l t r a d i t i o n and b a s i c t o the t h o u g h t s o f a p r o j e c t o r l i k e Defoe. The quota-t i o n s a r e from pp. x v i - x v i i , x l i , x l i i i o f Harlow's I n t r o -d u c t i o n t o h i s e d i t i o n o f R a legh's The D i s c o v e r i e o f the  L a r g e and B e w t i f u l Empire o f G u i a n a (London: The Argonaut P r e s s , 1928). 5 The Works o f S i r W a l t e r R a l e i g h ( O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1819), I I p. 89 and V I I pp. 898-899. 6 "The Memoirs o f C a p t a i n C a r l e t o n : S w i f t o r Defoe?" Academy, X L I I I (20 May, 1893), 438-439. 7 Numbers 179, 907, 986, 1133 and 1199 i n Helmut H e i d e n r e i c h ' s e d i t i o n o f the L i b r a r i e s o f D a n i e l Defoe and  P h i l l i p s F a r e w e l l (1731) ( B e r l i n : W. H i l d e b r a n d , 1970). 8 James S u t h e r l a n d , Defoe ( P h i l a d e l p h i a and New York: J.B. L i p p i n c o t t Company, 1938), p. 2. S u t h e r l a n d ' s comments and the s i l e n c e o f the o t h e r l e a d i n g Defoe b i o g r a p h e r o f t h i s c e n t u r y , John R o b e r t Moore, on Defoe's c l a i m t o k i n s h i p w i t h R a l e g h i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s something t h a t i s u n v e r i f i -a b l e . 38 9 See H e i d e n r i c h ' s I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the L i b r a r i e s , pp. x i x - x x l f o r comments on Defoe's c o l l e c t i o n o f voyages and t o p o g r a p h i e s ; the s e l f - p o r t r a i t i s t o be found<in Defoe's L i f e and R e c e n t l y D i s c o v e r e d W r i t i n g s 1716-29, I I I , ed. W. Lee (London: J.C. H u t t o n , 1869), pp. 435-436. 1 0 The Works o f S i r W a l t e r R a l e i g h , IV, pp. 683-684. H R a l e g h , The D i s c o v e r i e o f the L a r g e and B e v t i f u l  Empire o f G u i a n a , ed. V.T. Harlow (London: The Argonaut P r e s s , 1928), p. 10. 12 R o b e r t L a c e y , S i r W a l t e r R a l e g h (London: W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1973), p. 342. 13 Stephen G r e e n b l a t t , S i r W a l t e r R a l e i g h : The R e n a i s - sance Man and h i s R o l e s (New Haven and London: Y a l e U n i v e r s -i t y P r e s s , 1973), p. 103 and passim. 14 John McVeagh, "Defoe and the Romance o f Trade," Durham U n i v e r s i t y J o u r n a l , NS, 34:2 (1978), 145. 15 J.G.A. Pocock, The M a c h i a v e l l i a n Moment: F l o r e n t i n e  P o l i t i c a l Thought and the A t l a n t i c R e p u b l i c a n T r a d i t i o n 39 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1975), pp. 426, 442, 447. 16 Margaret T. Hodgen, Early Anthropology i n the  Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century (Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press, 1964), p. 409. 17 David B. Quinn, Ralegh and the B r i t i s h Empire (London: The English U n i v e r s i t i e s Press, 1947), pp. 269-279. 40 CHAPTER I I Bac o n i a n i s m and Defoe's The H i s t o r y o f P r i n c i p a l  D i s c o v e r i e s and Improvements I Defoe's The G e n e r a l H i s t o r y o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r - i e s and Improvements, I n the S e v e r a l A r t s and S c i e n c e s ,  P a r t i c u l a r l y the G r e a t Branches o f Commerce, N a v i g a t i o n , and  P l a n t a t i o n , I n A l l P a r t s o f the Known World f i r s t appeared i n f o u r numbers between October 1725 and May 1726. In Decem-ber o f 1726 the f o u r numbers were bound t o g e t h e r and --a l o n g w i t h a c o n c l u s i o n and an in d e x -- p u b l i s h e d as a s i n g l e book w i t h a new t i t l e page and a s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d t i t l e , The H i s t o r y o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s and Improve- ments, I n the S e v e r a l A r t s and S c i e n c e s , P a r t i c u l a r l y the  Gr e a t Branches o f Commerce, N a v i g a t i o n and P l a n t a t i o n , I n  A l l P a r t s o f the Known World^. The work belongs to a p e r i o d when Defoe was t u r n i n g h i s a t t e n t i o n away from f i c t i o n and p o l i t i c a l pamphlets to guidebooks and to d i d a c t i c , e n c y c l o -p a e d i c t r e a t i s e s . T y p i c a l l y , these works were d i r e c t e d t o -wards the more commercial s e c t i o n o f the r e a d i n g p u b l i c and 41 o f f e r e d them "compleat" p r o s p e c t s and " g e n e r a l " views o f v a r i o u s " p r o f i t a b l e " s u b j e c t s . New developments i n t r a d e and commerce, s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r i e s , the l a t e s t g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s c o v e r i e s , and schemes o f s e l f - i m p r o v e m e n t f l o w e d from h i s f e r t i l e mind a t an amazing r a t e . Defoe knew t h a t the d i s c o v e r i e s o f the Moderns were t r a n s f o r m i n g s o c i e t y and opening up new h o r i z o n s f o r h i s r e a d e r s . In The H i s t o r y o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s he took upon h i m s e l f the t a s k o f s t i r r i n g up t h e i r c u r i o s i t y by an account o f the advances made i n e a r l i e r t i m e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , he i n t e n d e d to " k i n d l e new D e s i r e s a f t e r the f u r t h e r D i s c o v -e r i e s and Improvements which are s t i l l b e h i n d " (HD, v i ) . H i s s u b j e c t , he s a y s , i s the "improvement i n Commerce and Manu-f a c t u r e s , d i s c o v e r i e s i n A r t , S c i e n c e , N a v i g a t i o n and P l a n t -a t i o n " (HD, 196-197); he w i l l a l s o c o n v i n c e the r e a d e r t h a t "What's y e t d i s c o v e r ' d , o n l y s e r v e s to show/How l i t t l e ' s known, to what t h e r e ' s y e t to know" (HD, i v , 240). In the c o u r s e o f the work, however, i t becomes q u i t e c l e a r t h a t d e s p i t e h i s sweeping c l a i m s , the " d i s c o v e r i e s " Defoe i s i n t e r e s t e d i n , the "Improvements" he wants to t a l k about, and the schemes f o r the f u t u r e he w i l l r e v e a l are p r e d o m i n a n t l y c o l o n i a l d i s c o v e r i e s , c o l o n i a l improvements, and c o l o n i a l p r o j e c t s . For the t r u e s u b j e c t o f The H i s t o r y  o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s i s the f r u i t f u l i n t e r a c t i o n o f s c i e n c e , t r a d e and empire, the m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g 42 from advances i n n a v i g a t i o n , commerce, s c i e n t i f i c i n v e n -t i o n s , and the voyages o f e x p l o r a t i o n . V i e w i n g h i s t o r y as p r o c e s s , o n l y t e m p o r a r i l y impeded, he t h i n k s , by the s t a s i s o f the M i d d l e Ages, Defoe p r e s e n t s i n t h i s work h i s v i s i o n o f a b o u n t i f u l f u t u r e , r e s u l t i n g from the mastery o f u n c l a i m e d n a t u r e . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge i s the key t o such an e n t e r p r i s e , f o r i t i s the knowledge o f the Moderns w h i c h i s opening up the w i d e r w o r l d f o r European d o m i n a t i o n . Put t h i s way, Defoe's v i s i o n i n The H i s t o r y o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s has a Ba c o n i a n q u a l i t y ; i t i s Bac o n i a n i n i t s c e l e b r a t i o n o f p r o g r e s s t h r o u g h t e c h n o l o g y , i t s s c o r n f u l d i s m i s s a l o f the knowledge o f the A n c i e n t s , i t s i m p l i c i t a ssumption t h a t knowledge i s the key t o mastery over n a t u r e , and even i t s attempt a t b e i n g a k i n d o f h i s t o r y o f some u s e f u l a r t s and s c i e n c e s . T h i s , however, may appear as too l a r g e a c l a i m t o make on b e h a l f o f a w r i t e r l i k e Defoe, f o r he i s not e a s i l y seen as a Ba c o n i a n i d e o l o g u e . F o r t h i s r e a s o n we w i l l postpone f o r the moment the stu d y o f The H i s t o r y o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s as a Ba c o n i a n t e x t and w i l l t u r n i n s t e a d t o a su r v e y o f Ba c o n i a n i s m and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o c o l o n i a l d i s c o u r s e and Defoe's l i n k s t o t h i s t r a d i t i o n . As b e f o r e , our i n t e r e s t i s i n the c o n t e x t s o f our t e x t , the d i s c u r s i v e n a t u r e o f t e x t s , and the d i a l e c t i c between t e x t and t r a d i t i o n . 43 I I A c o n v e n i e n t p l a c e t o b e g i n t h i s attempt t o l i n k Bacon-i a n i s m t o c o l o n i a l d i s c o u r s e i s G.N. C l a r k ' s l u c i d d i s c u s -s i o n o f the soc i o - e c o n o m i c c o n t e x t o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l improve-ment i n the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n h i s S c i e n c e and S o c i a l  W e l f a r e i n the Age o f Newton: There were men who, though not q u i t e s c i e n t i s t s , were e n t h u s i a s t s f o r e d u c a t i o n and o r g a n i z e d d i s c o v e r y , l i k e John Amos Comenius and Samuel H a r t -l i b . These belonged t o a c l a s s o f wh i c h the g r e a t -e s t was Bacon, and they were a l l c a r r i e d f o r w a r d by a g r e a t wave o f a d v e n t u r i n g h o p e f u l n e s s w h i c h we may t r a c e back t o the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The age b e l i e v e d i n a c t i o n ; the w o r l d was i t s o y s t e r . P i s t -o l s e t out t o open i t w i t h h i s sword, but t h e r e was a c t i v e thought t o o , and t h e r e were many who p l i e d t h e i r m a t h e m a t i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s w i t h the same a g g r e s s i v e energy.2 C l a r k ' s o b j e c t i v e i s t o s i n g l e out the s t a t u s o f a group o f men who b e l i e v e d i n a c t i o n and p r o g r e s s ; not q u i t e s c i e n t -i s t s , t h ey a p p l i e d themselves e n e r g e t i c a l l y t o knowledge and d i s c o v e r y . These men were s t i m u l a t e d by the d i s c o v e r i e s o f the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the c e n t u r y w h i c h w i t n e s s e d a renewed i n t e r e s t i n the o r g a n i z e d e x p l o r a t i o n o f the e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e by the l i k e s o f Bartholmew D i a s , C h r i s t o p h e r Columbus, John Cabot, Vasco de Gama, and Amerigo V e s p u c c i . The same m i x t u r e o f o p t i m i s m , " a c t i v e t h o u g h t " , and " a g g r e s s i v e energy" went 44 i n t o the p r o j e c t s o f Bacon and h i s s u c c e s s o r s , whose ener-g e t i c a p p l i c a t i o n o f knowledge would y i e l d them power o v e r n a t u r e . The l i n k s between knowledge and power, between s c i e n -t i f i c / g e o g r a p h i c d i s c o v e r i e s and dominion over u n c l a i m e d n a t u r e , B a c o n i a n i s m and c o l o n i z a t i o n , come c l e a r l y i n t o f o c u s i n Aphorism CXXIX of the F i r s t Book o f Bacon's Novum  Organum: A g a i n , i t i s w e l l t o observe the f o r c e and v i r t u e and consequences o f d i s c o v e r i e s ; and t h e s e are t o be seen nowhere more c o n s p i c u o u s l y than i n those t h r e e w h i c h were unknown t o the a n c i e n t s , and o f w h i c h the o r i g i n , though r e c e n t , i s obscure and i n g l o r i o u s ; namely, p r i n t i n g , gunpowder, and the magnet. For t h e s e t h r e e have changed the whole f a c e and s t a t e o f t h i n g s throughout the w o r l d ; the f i r s t i n l i t e r a t u r e , the second i n w a r f a r e , the t h i r d i n n a v i g a t i o n ; whence have f o l l o w e d innumerable changes; insomuch t h a t no empire, no s e c t , no s t a r seems t o have e x e r t e d g r e a t e r power and i n f l u e n c e i n human a f f a i r s than t h e s e m e c h a n i c a l d i s c o v e r i e s . F u r t h e r , i t w i l l not be amiss t o d i s t i n g u i s h the t h r e e k i n d s and as i t were grades o f a m b i t i o n i n mankind. The f i r s t i s those who d e s i r e t o extend t h e i r own power i n t h e i r n a t i v e c o u n t r y ; which k i n d i s v u l g a r and d e g e n e r a t e . The second i s o f those who l a b o u r t o extend the power o f t h e i r c o u n t r y and i t s dominion among men. T h i s c e r t a i n l y has more d i g n i t y , though not l e s s c o v e t o u s n e s s . But i f a man endeavour t o e s t a b l i s h and e x t e n d the power and dominion o f the human r a c e i t s e l f over the u n i v e r s e , h i s a m b i t i o n ( i f a m b i t i o n i t can be c a l l e d ) i s w i t h o u t doubt b o t h a more wholesome t h i n g and a more n o b l e than the o t h e r two. Now the empire o f man over t h i n g s depends w h o l l y on the a r t s and s c i e n c e s . For we cannot command n a t u r e e x c e p t by o b e y i n g her.3 45 These paragraphs a re s e m i n a l because o f the c l a r i t y and the c o n v i c t i o n w i t h which they s t a t e Bacon's b a s i c t h e s i s : mech-a n i c a l d i s c o v e r i e s a re t r a n s f o r m i n g the c o n d i t i o n o f human l i f e by e x t e n d i n g man's power over n a t u r e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , s c i e n c e s h o u l d be pursued not out o f s e l f - i n t e r e s t but f o r s o c i a l a m e l i o r a t i o n . T h i s B a c o n i a n e t h i c o f s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h s a n c t i o n e d , w i t h some r e s e r v a t i o n s , the d o c t r i n e o f n a t i o n a l power t h r o u g h empire, w h i l e embracing w h o l e - h e a r t -e d l y a more d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h n a t u r e . F i n a l l y , the dominion o f man over n a t u r e and h i s empire over t h i n g s depended on the s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n o f knowledge. Bacon r e a c t s i m a g i n a t i v e l y t o the g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s c o v -e r i e s o f h i s age as w e l l as t o p u r e l y m e c h a n i c a l d i s c o v e r -i e s . He s c o f f s a t the t r a v e l s o f D e m o c r i t u s , P l a t o and Pythagorus and compares them t o r e c e n t d i s c o v e r i e s i n the new w o r l d whereby "our s t o c k o f e x p e r i e n c e has i n c r e a s e d t o an i n f i n i t e amount." He l i k e n s h i s s p e c u l a t i o n s i n the Novum  Organum t o Columbus's b e f o r e he embarked on h i s voyage a c r o s s the A t l a n t i c , s p e c u l a t i o n s w h i c h were "the causes and b e g i n n i n g s o f g r e a t e v e n t s . " He e n l i s t s i n h i s a i d B i b l i c a l prophecy t o advocate the e x p a n s i o n o f man's dominion over u n c l a i m e d n a t u r e and t o l i n k the advancement o f knowledge w i t h the a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f the New World: Nor s h o u l d the prophecy o f D a n i e l be f o r g o t t e n t o u c h i n g the l a s t ages o f the w o r l d : - "Many s h a l l 46 go to and f r o , and knowledge s h a l l be increased;" c l e a r l y intimating that the thorough passage of the world (which now by so many distant voyages seems to be accomplished, or in course of accomplish-ment), and the advancement of the sciences, are destined by fate, that i s , by Divine Providence, to meet in the same age. For Bacon, there i s a d i a l e c t i c of reinforcement by which "the breath of hope which blows on us from that New Contin-ent" w i l l stimulate men to further discoveries.4 Knowledge for Bacon, then, i s not a meditation of the known but an exploration of the unknown, a discovery of uncharted lands. Among the most ubiquitous tropes of the Novum Organum i s that of discovery; the word i t s e l f i s used for both s c i e n t i f i c and geographic discovery. A similar inclusiveness characterizes Bacon's use of the word "em-pir e " ; empire over things includes p o l i t i c a l domination. It is p r e c i s e l y the ambiguities in Bacon's use of these words which allowed l a t e r writers to apply them in s t r i c t l y colon-i a l contexts. That Bacon was interested i n organized discovery on behalf of an English empire comes out c l e a r l y in his non-s c i e n t i f i c works. Howard B. White has analyzed these works and has discussed Bacon's theory of empire in Peace Among  the Willows. White observes that "Baconian imperialism was a naval imperialism;" for i t was Bacon's b e l i e f that England's ) island s i t u a t i o n necessitated a strong f l e e t and a c q u i s i t i o n 47 more " o f remote than o f c o n t i g u o u s t e r r i t o r i e s . " F o c u s s i n g on Bacon's d i s c u s s i o n o f g e o g r a p h i c a l problems i n "The True G r e a t n e s s o f the Kingdom o f B r i t a i n " , White notes t h a t i t i s Bacon's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t c o l o n i e s s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d w h i c h c o u l d be h e l d " w i t h o u t too g r e a t a s t r u g g l e " and t h r o u g h a c o n s t a n t s u p p l y o f people.5 N a v a l supremacy was thus e s s e n t -i a l as was the c o n s t a n t s e a r c h f o r p r o f i t a b l e c o l o n i e s . I t i s c e r t a i n l y because o f the g r e a t importance Bacon a t t a c h e d t o the conquest o f the ocean t h a t i t e m 120 o f Bacon's "Cata-logue o f P a r t i c u l a r H i s t o r i e s " i n h i s p r o j e c t e d H i s t o r y o f Trade i s "the H i s t o r y o f the A r t o f N a v i g a t i o n and o f the c r a f t s and a r t s t h e r e t o b e l o n g i n g . " 6 A n o t h e r B a c o n i a n e s s a y , "Of P l a n t a t i o n s " , s p e l l s out i n d e t a i l the p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s o f h i s program f o r empire. Here, though he r e c o g n i z e s the need f o r "speedy P r o f i t s " , he u rges l o n g term i n v e s t m e n t f o r g r e a t e r rewards. Only s k i l l -f u l p e o p l e , and not vagabonds, are t o be t r a n s p o r t e d . Care-f u l o b s e r v a t i o n i s t o be made o f the v e g e t a t i o n and the p r o d u c t s o f the l a n d are t o be d i l i g e n t l y c u l t i v a t e d . H i s a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l i s n o t a b l e ; not o n l y does he d i r e c t h i s r e a d e r s t o p l a n t what i s e s s e n t i a l t o a p l a n t a t i o n , but he a l s o a d v i s e s them on what must be i m p o r t e d , where the p l a n t -a t i o n i s t o be founded, what s o r t o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a r e needed, how the n a t i v e s a r e t o be t r e a t e d , and so on. A f i n a l a s p e c t o f B a c o n i a n i m p e r i a l p o l i c y , a l s o noted 48 by W h i t e , must be d i s c u s s e d because o f i t s importance i n E n g l i s h c o l o n i a l d i s c o u r s e . I n h i s e s s a y , "Of Empire", Bacon d e v e l o p s the n o t i o n o f what White c a l l s "an a p p r e h e n s i v e war". To put i t b l u n t l y , the d o c t r i n e s o f n a t i o n a l g r e a t n e s s and n e c e s s i t y were j u s t causes o f war, and s i n c e e x p a n s i o n i n Europe was n e i t h e r n e c e s s a r y nor j u s t , B r i t a i n had t o expand i t s dominion t h r o u g h c o l o n i a l wars. S p a n i s h t e r r i t o r y i n the Americas and T u r k i s h p o s s e s s i o n s were thus the most l i k e l y t a r g e t s o f an e x p a n s i o n i s t p o l i c y ; the h o s t i l i t y o f thes e n a t i o n s was a l l the more r e a s o n f o r a t t a c k . 7 Bacon's response t o the opening up o f the New World was thus complex. I t f i l l e d him w i t h hope and s t i m u l a t e d him i n t o f r a m i n g a program whose g o a l was t o extend man's domin-i o n o ver n a t u r e t h r o u g h the a p p l i c a t i o n o f knowledge. I t caused him t o f o r m u l a t e an i m p e r i a l p o l i c y w h i c h would c o n t r i b u t e t o n a t i o n a l g r e a t n e s s and p r o s p e r i t y . I t a l s o l e d him t o f i c t i o n -- f o r h i s f a b l e o f New A t l a n t i s i s a f i n a l i m a g i n a t i v e response t o the g r e a t d i s c o v e r i e s . The d e s c r i p t i o n i n the P r o l o g u e o f New A t l a n t i s o f the voyage o f a European s h i p from P e r u i n t o the u n c h a r t e d South Seas i s an o b v i o u s example o f Bacon's use o f the l i t e r a t u r e o f v o y a g i n g . L i k e many o t h e r s o f h i s c e n t u r y he was i n t e r -e s t e d i n the r e g i o n and wondered a l o u d "whether t h e r e [were] any S o u t h e r n C o n t i n e n t s o r o n l y i s l a n d s and the l i k e . " 8 I n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , Bacon's v i s i o n o f an i s l a n d U t o p i a was 49 i n f l u e n c e d by the i m a g i n a t i v e and e n t h u s i a s t i c a ccounts o f the r e g i o n . H i s account o f a s h i p blown from i t s c o u r s e t o the i s l a n d a f t e r the s a i l o r ' s s u p p l i c a t i o n t o a God "who sheweth h i s wonders i n the deep" was meant t o be i n s t r u c t -i v e , but t h e r e was a l s o the f e e l i n g t h a t u n d i s c o v e r e d p a r t s o f the South Seas "might have i s l a n d s o r c o n t i n e n t s , t h a t h i t h e r t o were not come t o l i g h t . " The n a r r a t o r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the r i c h e s o f the i s l a n d -- i t s wholesome d r i n k s , f r u i t s , g o l d , and s i l v e r -- was a l s o i n a c c o r d w i t h the s p e c u l a t i o n s i n contemporary l i t e r a t u r e about the w e a l t h o f the s e i s l a n d s . The e s s e n t i a l l y B a c o n i a n c l u s t e r o f knowledge, conquest o f space, and empire come t o g e t h e r i n the comment made by the F a t h e r o f Salomon's house t h a t the o b j e c t i v e o f the i n s t i t u t i o n was "the knowledge o f Causes, and s e c r e t motion o f t h i n g s ; and the e n l a r g i n g o f the bounds o f Human Empire, t o the e f f e c t i n g o f a l l t h i n g s p o s s i b l e . " 9 Bacon's i n f l u e n c e a f t e r h i s d e a t h can be seen i n p a r a l -l e l movements. H i s thought s t i m u l a t e d the growth o f e x p e r i -mental p h i l o s o p h y and f o s t e r e d a s p i r i t o f c o o p e r a t i o n among men whom we would not now h e s i t a t e t o c a l l s c i e n t i s t s ; on the o t h e r hand, B a c o n i a n i s m a f f e c t e d men who were p r i m a r i l y p r o p a g a n d i s t s f o r s o c i a l r e f o r m and i n t e r e s t e d m a i n l y i n a p p l y i n g the new knowledge f o r the e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n o f the w o r l d ' s r e s o u r c e s . The f i r s t group found one o f i t s most a b l e exponents i n R o b e r t B o y l e ; the second i n c l u d e d men 50 l i k e Samuel H a r t l i b and h i s a s s o c i a t e s , men whom one h i s t o r -i a n has c l a s s i f i e d as proponents o f " v u l g a r B a c o n i a n i s m " , s i n c e " t h e y had abandoned Bacon's 'experiments o f l i g h t ' f o r i n f l a m e d a p o c a l y p t i c s p e c u l a t i o n s , h i s 'experiments o f f r u i t ' f o r the u n c o n t r o l l e d e l a b o r a t i o n o f gadgets."10 There were, o f c o u r s e , s e v e r a l l i n k s between the two groups; f o r example, B o y l e was a d i s c i p l e o f H a r t l i b , and what i s more to our purpose, b o t h groups were a c t i v e l y engaged i n c o l o n -i a l a c t i v i t y . I n R o b e r t B o y l e and the E n g l i s h R e v o l u t i o n , J.R. Jacob has p o i n t e d out how B o y l e and the R o y a l S o c i e t y u p h e l d an a g g r e s s i v e , a c q u i s i t i v e , and i m p e r i a l i s t i c i d e o l o g y and how the new e x p e r i m e n t a l p h i l o s o p h y was u t i l i z e d e a r l y i n the e f f i c i e n t e x p l o i t a t i o n o f c o l o n i a l r e s o u r c e s . As Jacob p u t s i t : "Even b e f o r e i t was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n 1662, the R o y a l S o c i e t y was encouraged by the k i n g t o su r v e y the r i c h e s o f the empire. And a f t e r i t r e c e i v e d i t s r o y a l c h a r t e r i t spent much o f i t s time a t t e m p t i n g t o promote i n d u s t r y , empire and tr a d e . " 1 1 Thomas S p r a t ' s H i s t o r y o f t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y r e c o r d s t h i s a s p e c t o f the S o c i e t y ' s a c t i v i t i e s . I n h i s " E p i s t l e D e d i c a t o r y " , S p r a t c i t e s the honor a c c o r d e d t o the " a u t h o r s o f N a t u r a l D i s c o v e r i e s " even i n A n t i q u i t y o ver s p e c u l a t i v e p h i l o s o p h e r s and m a r t i a l h e r o e s . As i n Bacon, the word " d i s c o v e r y " embraces the d i s c o v e r y o f new w o r l d s , and among the d i s c o v e r e r s p r a i s e d a re those who " f i n d out 51 new c o l o n i e s . " Cowley's Ode, p r e f i x e d t o S p r a t ' s h i s t o r y , emphasizes the c o l o n i z i n g m i s s i o n o f the S o c i e t y : "From you, g r e a t Champions, we expect to get/Those s p a c i o u s C o u n t r i e s n o t d i s c o v e r ' d y e t . " In the t e x t i t s e l f , S p r a t r e i n t r o d u c e s the B a c o n i a n program o f e s t a b l i s h i n g "Dominion over t h i n g s " and reminds h i s r e a d e r s o f the o p p o r t u n i t y l o s t t o E n g l i s h d i s c o v e r y when Columbus was f o r c e d t o t u r n away from an E n g l i s h c o u r t w h i c h l a c k e d c o n f i d e n c e i n h i s p r o j e c t f o r new d i s c o v e r i e s . S p r a t r e produces i n h i s t e x t s e v e r a l examples o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d by the new Baconian e m p i r i c i s t s from d i s t a n t r e g i o n s i n accordance w i t h the d i r e c t i o n s o f the R o y a l S o c i e t y . H i s H i s t o r y o f the R o y a l S o c i e t y a l s o r e f l e c t s the c o n f i d e n c e o f men o f h i s g e n e r a t i o n t h a t "human a r t " and " d i l i g e n c e " would r e v e a l "new c r e a t u r e s , m i n e r a l s , p l a n t s , H a n d i c r a f t s , s i n c e t h i s has always been the case w i t h new D i s c o v e r i e s . " The scope of the S o c i e t y ' s a c t i v i -t i e s , i n S p r a t ' s view, s h o u l d be extended to i n c l u d e the whole g l o b e , f o r he i s c o n f i d e n t " t h a t the D i s c o v e r y o f ano t h e r New World i s s t i l l b e h i n d . " S p r a t c o n c l u d e s t h a t once Ame r i c a i s c o l o n i z e d by Europe, " e i t h e r by a Free Trade, o r by Conquest, or by any o t h e r R e v o l u t i o n i n i t s C i v i l A f f a i r s , A merica w i l l appear q u i t e a new t h i n g t o us and may f u r n i s h us w i t h an abundance o f R a r i t i e s . " He demon-s t r a t e s how the s o c i e t y c o u l d a s s i s t i n o v e r s e a s p l a n t a -t i o n s ; f o r example, he t h e o r i z e s how " t r a n s p l a n t i n g o u t o f 52 one Land i n t o a n o t h e r " u s e f u l p l a n t s and a n i m a l s would c o n t r i b u t e t o economic s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . 1 2 A l t h o u g h S p r a t h i m s e l f was no s c i e n t i s t , h i s r e c o r d o f the i d e a l s and a c t i v i t i e s o f the S o c i e t y r e v e a l s the imper-i a l i s t i c a s p e c t o f " H i g h " B a c o n i a n i s m . A n o t h e r c l e r i c a l a p o l o g i s t f o r the new s c i e n c e , and one who was somewhat more s c i e n t i f i c a l l y i n c l i n e d , was J o s eph G l a n v i l l . H i s P l u s  U l t r a ; o r , the P r o g r e s s and Advancement o f Knowledge S i n c e  the Days o f A r i s t o t l e (1668) was meant t o supplement S p r a t ' s H i s t o r y and c e l e b r a t e the p u r e l y s c i e n t i f i c c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f B o y l e and h i s f e l l o w s c i e n t i s t s . G l a n v i l l ' s p o l e m i c a l i n t e n -t i o n i s t o c e l e b r a t e the d i s c o v e r i e s o f the Moderns, and t o f o c u s a t t e n t i o n on the f u t u r e . As much as Bacon, he r e s o r t s t o the S c r i p t u r e s t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o "an i n e x h a u s t i b l e v a r i e t y o f T r e a s u r e w h i c h P r o v i d e n c e h a t h lodged i n T h i n g s , t h a t t o the Worlds end w i l l a f f o r d f r e s h D i s c o v e r i e s " f o r t hose who "go down t o see H i s wonders i n the deep." L i k e Bacon, he makes the same c o n n e c t i o n between s c i e n t i f i c d i s -c o v e r y and empire when he reminds h i s r e a d e r s how "one Experiment d i s c o v e r e d t o us the v a s t A m e r i c a . " L i k e Bacon, G l a n v i l l r e l i s h e s the c o n t r a s t between the r e s t r i c t e d t r a v -e l s o f the A n c i e n t s and the d i s t a n t voyages o f the Moderns: "But i t h a t h been the happy p r i v i l e g e o f l a t e r Days t o f i n d the Way t o a p p l y the w o n d e r f u l V e r t u e s o f the Loadstone t o N a v i g a t i o n ; and by the D i r e c t i o n o f the Compass we s e c u r e l y 53 commit o u r s e l v e s t o the immense Ocean..."13 G l a n v i l l devotes two c h a p t e r s t o d i s c u s s s p e c i f i c a l l y t he c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by B o y l e . The second o f these chap-t e r s draws on the l a t t e r ' s u n p u b l i s h e d w r i t i n g s t o o f f e r a complete account o f B o y l e ' s s c i e n t i f i c i n t e n t i o n s . T h i s i n c l u d e s a scheme f o r empire, as the f o l l o w i n g passage shows: A n o t h e r s e c t i o n o f the U s e f u l n e s s o f Experiment-a l P h i l o s o p h y , as t o the Empire o f Man over i n f e r -i o u r C r e a t u r e s ; where he i n t e n d s t o premise some g e n e r a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s about the Means whereby E x p e r i m e n t a l P h i l o s o p h y may become u s e f u l t o Human L i f e ; p r o c e e d i n g thence t o shew, That the Empire o f Man may be promoted by the N a t u r a l i s t s s k i l l i n C h y m i s t r y , by h i s s k i l l i n M e c h a n i c k s , o r by the A p p l i c a t i o n o f M a t h e m a t i c k s , b o t h pure and m i x t : That the Goods o f Mankind may be much i n c r e a s e d by the N a t u r a l i s t ' s i n s i g h t i n t o Trades; That the N a t u r a l i s t may much Advantage men, by e x c i t i n g and a s s i s t i n g t h e i r c u r i o s i t y t o d i s c o v e r , t a k e n o t i c e , and make use o f the home-bred R i c h e s and Advantages o f p a r t i c u l a r C o u n t r i e s , and t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r number, by t r a n s f o r m i n g t h i t h e r those o f o t h e r s . . . . 1 ^ F a m i l i a r B a c o n i a n d i c t a l i k e the u t i l i t a r i a n n a t u r e o f the new p h i l o s o p h y , the Empire o f Man and i t s e x t e n s i o n t h r o u g h e x p e r i m e n t a l p h i l o s o p h y here mingle w i t h a c l e a r mercan-t i l e - i m p e r i a l purpose: the n a t u r a l i s t c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o a c o u n t r y ' s w e a l t h by a s s i s t i n g those i n v o l v e d i n c o l o n i a l t r a d e and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . H i s knowledge, i n o t h e r words, i s u s e f u l t o c o l o n i a l e n t e r p r i s e . 54 B o y l e and h i s R o y a l S o c i e t y a s s o c i a t e s , however, were not c o n t e n t merely t o t h e o r i z e on b e h a l f o f the new s c i e n c e f o r c o l o n i a l a c t i v i t y . A key a s p e c t o f B a c o n i a n i s m , a f t e r a l l , was the w e l d i n g o f t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e f o r the e x t e n s -i o n o f w e s t e r n man's empire. True t o t h i s c o n c e p t i o n , B o y l e worked as an e n e r g e t i c member o f the C o u n c i l f o r F o r e i g n P l a n t a t i o n s w h i c h , a l o n g w i t h the C o u n c i l o f Trade, "was t o make p o l i c y f o r and ove r s e e the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the E n g l i s h c o l o n i e s i n the West I n d i e s and N o r t h America."15 The R o y a l S o c i e t y r e c r u i t e d s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y voyag-e r s t o i t s s c i e n t i f i c p r o j e c t s and gave them g u i d e l i n e s f o r the a c c u r a t e c o l l e c t i o n o f f a c t s about d i s t a n t l a n d s . These p r o j e c t s had v e r y w o r l d l y g o a l s , as i s i n d i c a t e d by the R o y a l S o c i e t y T r a n s a c t i o n s note on accounts o f voyages: The p r e s e n t C o l l e c t i o n r e a c h i n g t o the most d i s t a n t P a r t s o f the Southern and N o r t h e r n Regions o f the Globe and b e i n g performed by s k i l l f u l N a v i -g a t o r s , and F a i t h f u l O b s e r v e r s , must needs C o n t a i n many uncommon and u s e f u l t h i n g s upon most o f the Heads o f N a t u r a l and M a t h e m a t i c a l S c i e n c e s , as w e l l as Trade and o t h e r P r o f i t a b l e knowledge, w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o the e n l a r g i n g o f the Mind and Empire o f Man. 1 6 S c h o l a r l y s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o u r s e i s here a l l y i n g i t s e l f w i t h the European s e a r c h f o r markets and empires. S c i e n c e , t r a d e , and empire a r e a g a i n combined, and t h e r e i s the same l i n k a g e o f c o g n i t i v e and p o l i t i c a l i m p e r i a l i s m . That the t r a v e l l e r s 55 took the S o c i e t y ' s d i r e c t i o n s s e r i o u s l y i s shown i n Damp-i e r ' s A New Voyage Round the World, a work d e d i c a t e d t o the P r e s i d e n t o f the R o y a l S o c i e t y and c o n t a i n i n g s c i e n t i f i c r e c o r d s o f n a t u r a l phenomena and the produce o f the New World. I f B o y l e and the p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f " H i g h " B a c o n i a n i s m were a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n c o l o n i a l d i s c o u r s e , H a r t l i b and h i s group o f " V u l g a r " Baconians were not l a g g i n g f a r b e h i n d i n t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o i t . They too b e l i e v e d i n e x t e n d i n g man's dominion over n a t u r e and f u r t h e r i n g the cause o f Empire t h r o u g h knowledge and o r g a n i z e d d i s c o v e r y . I n h i s m a g i s t e r i a l s u r v e y o f the s c i e n t i f i c , m e d i c a l and s o c i a l i d e a s o f the E n g l i s h P u r i t a n s , The G r e a t I n s t a u r a t i o n :  S c i e n c e , M e d i c i n e and Reform, 1626-1660, C h a r l e s Webster has d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h how c o l o n i a l v e n t u r e s " i n c r e a s i n g l y absorbed the p u r i t a n i c i m a g i n a t i o n " and how the P u r i t a n s , l i k e Bacon, l i n k e d the S c r i p t u a l " r u n n i n g t o and f r o " and the " i n c r e a s e o f knowledge" o f D a n i e l t o "the opening up and e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the New World."17 i n a sense, o f c o u r s e , the P u r i t a n s were r e v i v i n g the i n t e r e s t i n c o l o n i e s o f e a r l i e r i n t e l l e c t u a l s l i k e R a l e g h ; but such B a c o n i a n premises as a pronounced a n t i - s c h o l a s t i c i s m , a c l e a r commitment t o e x p e r i -mental p h i l o s o p h y f o r i t s p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r s o c i a l improve-ment, and the importance o f c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t gave a d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r t o t h i s g e n e r a t i o n o f c o l o n i a l enthus-56 i a s t s . Macaria (1641), a Utopian work, printed anonymously, but very self-consciously in the t r a d i t i o n of Bacon's New  A t l a n t i s , and almost c e r t a i n l y a product of the Har t l i b c i r c l e , shows the important s h i f t in emphasis i n the colon-i a l schemes of the "vulgar" Baconians. In this dialogue between a t r a v e l l e r and a scholar, addressed to s o c i a l reformers in general and parliament in p a r t i c u l a r , the projects discussed include the Council of Trade and the Council for New Plantations: In the Councill of Trade by Sea there i s estab-lished a law, that a l l T r a f f i c k i s lawfull which may enrich the kingdom. In the Councill for new Plantations there i s established a law, that every yeare a certaine number s h a l l be sent out, strongly f o r t i f i e d , and provided for at the publicke charge, t i l l such times as they may subsist by the i r own endeavours; and this number i s set downe by the said C o u n c i l l , wherein they take d i l i g e n t notice of the surplusage of people that may be spared.18 This has a d i s t i n c t i v e l y economic edge; the Utopia of the Puritans i s the product of the new knowledge applied to s o c i a l and p r a c t i c a l concerns. There i s a movement away from descriptive natural history or predominantly s c i e n t i f i c concerns to r a t i o n a l economic organization. In a p a r a l l e l movement, these Baconians moved away from s c i e n t i f i c h i s t o r -ies of trade to more general economic h i s t o r i e s and pro-57 j e c t s . A key t e x t i n t h i s r e s p e c t , one wh i c h " s u c c i n c t l y p l a c e d B a c o n i a n s c i e n c e i n i t s w i d e r economic and i d e o l o g i -c a l c o n t e x t " and t y p i f i e s the approach t o c o l o n i e s o f the " v u l g a r " B a c o n i a n s , i s Benjamin Worsley's P r o f i t s Humbly  P r e s e n t e d t o t h i s Kingdom.19 Worsl e y b e l i e v e d f e r v e n t l y i n the importance o f s a l t p e t r e as a f e r t i l i z e r and had d e v i s e d a new p r o c e s s f o r i t s manufacture. W o r s l e y b e g i n s h i s t r a c t w i t h s c i e n t i f i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s -- he w i l l e x h i b i t a way o f p r o d u c i n g s a l t p e t r e i n abundance -- but soon moves on t o economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . U s i n g the i d i o m o f the p r o j e c t o r , he s p e l l s out the b e n e f i t s t o be d e r i v e d from h i s scheme. T h i s i n c l u d e s more c o l o n i e s and more p l a n t a t i o n s s i n c e s a l t -p e t r e c o u l d be used more e f f e c t i v e l y i n a t r o p i c a l e n v i r o n -ment by England's s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n . Such B a c o n i a n p r e o c c u -p a t i o n s as the use o f the new s c i e n c e f o r s o c i a l a m e l i o r a -t i o n , " the enlargement o f Dominions," and the p u r s u i t o f new d i s c o v e r i e s a r e now p l a c e d i n a s p e c i f i c a l l y c o l o n i a l con-t e x t . As was the case w i t h the " H i g h " B a c o n i a n s , H a r t l i b ' s c i r c l e i n v o l v e d i t s e l f i n the p r a c t i c a l as w e l l as the t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s o f empire. I n The G r e a t I n s t a u r a t i o n , Webster has shown how the f o r m a t i o n o f the C o u n c i l o f Trade i n 1650 was a f f e c t e d by the views o f Worsley and h i s a s s o c i -a t e s . The members o f the C o u n c i l i n c l u d e d many o f H a r t l i b ' s 58 s u p p o r t e r s and Worsley h i m s e l f was a p p o i n t e d the S e c r e t a r y o f the C o u n c i l . W o r s l e y was a l s o i n v o l v e d i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f the N a v i g a t i o n A c t o f 1651 which a n t i c i p a t e d many o t h e r a c t s d e s i g n e d t o c o n t r o l c o l o n i a l t r a d e and s h i p p i n g . The " v u l g a r " Baconians were thus i n v o l v e d i n E n g l i s h c o l o n i a l e n t e r p r i s e , b o t h as i d e o l o g u e s i n t e r e s t e d i n the use o f the new s c i e n c e f o r s o c i a l improvement and as p o l i c y makers i n v o l v e d i n the e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i i o n o f c o l o n i a l r e s o u r c e s . W o r s l e y 1 s t e x t a l s o shows how a s c i e n t i f i c scheme can g i v e way t o a p r o j e c t o r ' s c o n c e r n ; the attempt t o w r i t e a s c i e n t i f i c t r a c t y i e l d s t o the p r o s e l y t e ' s i m a g i n a t i v e , sweeping c l a i m s on b e h a l f o f c o l o n i z a t i o n . I l l The c r u c i a l l i n k between the Baconians and Defoe i s the D i s s e n t i n g Academy i n Newington Green where he s t u d i e d . I t s f o u n d e r , C h a r l e s M o r t on, was a P u r i t a n e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m e r who c a r r i e d on the p r o j e c t s and v a l u e s o f the P u r i t a n Revo-l u t i o n and i n c u l c a t e d i n h i s s t u d e n t s the v a l u e s o f H a r t l i b and h i s c i r c l e . He was a man o f pronounced s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r -e s t s and something o f a p r o j e c t o r ; h i s p r o p o s a l f o r the use o f sea-sand as manure was a t y p i c a l l y u t i l i t a r i a n attempt to e n l i s t s c i e n t i f i c knowledge f o r s o c i a l improvement. Among h i s l e g a c i e s t o Defoe was a copy o f the Compendium P h y s i c a e , 59 a book w h i c h "shows an e x t e n s i v e range o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the b e s t and l a t e s t s c i e n t i f i c knowledge o f the p e r i o d . " 2 0 Defoe's The Compleat E n g l i s h Gentleman r e c o r d s i m a g i n -a t i v e l y the importance he a s s i g n e d t o the e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s c i e n c e s t h a t he had r e c e i v e d i n Morton's Academy. H i s i d e a l E n g l i s h gentleman has " t r e a s u r ' d up a mass o f experiments o f the n i c e s t n a t u r e " and has "the P h y l o s o p h i c T r a n s a c t i o n s almost by h e a r t " (CEG, 142). I n Astronomy he i s so p r o f i c -i e n t as t o be p e r f e c t l y a t home among the p l a n e t s . The "Compleat Gentleman" f e e l s t h a t s i n c e s c i e n c e i s "a p u b l i c k b l e s s i n g t o mankind" i t ought, l i k e " s a c r e d knowledge, [ t o ] s p r e a d over the whole e a r t h , as the n a t i o n s c o v e r the s e a " (CEG, 198). The i d e a l t u t o r teaches h i s p u p i l s the works o f John K e i l l , Newton and o t h e r s , and i s p r o f i c i e n t i n N a t u r a l and E x p e r i m e n t a l P h i l o s o p h y . To Defoe, " e x p e r i m e n t a l as w e l l as n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y " i s the most " a g r e e a b l e as w e l l as p r o f i t a b l e s t u d y i n the w o r l d " and f i t f o r the most g i f t e d members o f the human r a c e (CEG, 228). L i k e Bacon and the B a c o n i a n s , he c e l e b r a t e s the i n v e n t i o n s o f the magnet, the compass, and g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s c o v e r i e s . I t i s c l e a r , though, t h a t Defoe, d e s p i t e h i s knowledge o f s c i e n c e , was i n t e r e s t e d i n i t l i k e the Baconians o f the ' H a r t l i b ' c i r c l e o n l y i n s o f a r as i t c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o s o c i a l a m e l i o r a t i o n . Indeed, Defoe v u l g a r i z e s the B a c o n i a n i d e a l even f u r t h e r than the W orsleys and c o n s c i o u s l y s t a k e s 60 a c l a i m f o r t h i s t r a d i t i o n . T h i s comes out c l e a r l y i n h i s f i r s t major s u c c e s s , An Ess a y Upon P r o j e c t s (1697). Defoe d e c l a r e s i n i t t h a t "new D i s c o v e r i e s i n Trade, i n A r t s and M y s t e r i e s , o f M a n u f a c t u r i n g Goods, o r Improvement o f Land" were as i m p o r t a n t as any d i s c o v e r y made by " a l l the Academ-i e s and R o y a l S o c i e t i e s i n the Wo r l d " (EP, 1 5 ) . Consequent-l y , improvements i n the engine o f w a r f a r e , the l o d e - s t o n e and even the r e c e n t i n n o v a t i o n o f the Penny-Post get honor-a b l e mention. Indeed, so g r e a t i s Defoe's enthusiasm f o r schemes o f p u b l i c improvement t h a t h i s concern w i t h what we now c a l l s c i e n c e seems even more remote than the p u r i t a n r e f o r m e r ' s o f the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . S i m i l a r l y , i t o f t e n becomes almost i m p o s s i b l e t o acknowledge Defoe's enthusiasm f o r c o l o n i a l d i s c o v e r i e s as r e l a t e d t o h i s i n t e r e s t i n s c i e n c e and s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r i e s . O c c a s i o n a l l y , and i n the most s t a r t l i n g manner, we do become c o n s c i o u s o f how d e e p l y embedded Defoe's a t t i t u d e s a re i n s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n c e , and how c u r i o u s l y they come out i n h i s c o l o n i a l w r i t i n g s . Some c o n v e n i e n t examples can be c u l l e d from R o b i n s o n Crusoe: the hero l e a r n s t o adapt t o h i s i s l a n d environment by a d o p t i n g the s c i e n t i f i c a pproach, "...by s t a t i n g and s q u a r i n g e v e r y t h i n g by Reason, and by making the most r a t i o n a l Judgment o f t h i n g s , e v e r y Man may be i n time M a s t e r o f e v e r y mechanick A r t " (RC, 6 8 ) . L a t e r , w h i l e m e d i t a t i n g on what c o u r s e t o t a k e " t o know the 61 V e r t u e and Goodness o f any o f the F r u i t s o r P l a n t s w h i c h I s h o u l d d i s c o v e r , " Crusoe r e g r e t s t h a t he had made "so l i t t l e O b s e r v a t i o n " w h i l e i n B r a z i l (RC, 9 9 ) . He soon l e a r n s , how-e v e r , t o observe and r e c o r d w i t h the eye o f the n a t u r a l i s t , as h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the seasons i n h i s i s l a n d (RC, 106)., and h i s a c c o u n t s o f i t s f l o r a and fauna suggest (RC, 109). N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s i n The H i s t o r y o f the P r i n c i p a l  D i s c o v e r i e s t h a t Defoe made h i s o n l y s u s t a i n e d attempt t o l i n k h i m s e l f w i t h the new s c i e n c e . I n d o i n g s o , and i n mix-i n g s c i e n c e , t r a d e , and empire, i n assuming a m i l l e n i a l s t a n c e , i n a d v o c a t i n g a r e t u r n o f man's dominion over u n c l a i m e d n a t u r e , i n s t r e s s i n g the i n c r e a s e o f n a t i o n a l power t h r o u g h s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y , i n h i s b e l i e f t h a t the Europeans needed t o r i s e t o the o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d them by the Age o f D i s c o v e r y , Defoe was w r i t i n g a Bac o n i a n t e x t , a l b e i t a " v u l g a r " one. Now t h a t we have p r o v i d e d the c o n t e x t o f our t e x t , i t i s t o i t t h a t we must t u r n . IV L i k e the B a c o n i a n s , Defoe d e f i n e s knowledge i n The H i s t o r y o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s i n e s s e n t i a l l y u t i l i t -a r i a n , i m p e r i a l i s t i c terms. H i s i n t e r e s t i s i n " u s e f u l know-l e d g e " w h i c h has c o n t r i b u t e d t o "the good o f mankind" and t h i s i s g o i n g t o d i r e c t h i s h i s t o r y o f u s e f u l d i s c o v e r i e s 62 (HD, i i i ) . I t i s h i s hope t h a t many o f these now f o r g o t t e n d i s c o v e r i e s may be " p r o f i t a b l y r e v i v 1 d " (HD, v i ) . The g r a d u a l improvement o f the w o r l d t h r o u g h d i s c o v e r i e s d e s e r v e s a h i s t o r y because w i t h o u t such knowledge s e v e r a l f e r t i l e c o u n t r i e s cannot be r e c l a i m e d and r e p l a n t e d , c o u n t r i e s "which would a b u n d a n t l y s a t i s f y as w e l l our a m b i t i o n , as our a v a r i c e by t h e i r P r o d u c t and C a p a c i t y o f f u r t h e r Improvement" (HD, 4 ) . A p e r v a s i v e assumption o f Defoe's H i s t o r y o f the  P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s i s t h a t by a p p l y i n g knowledge men c o u l d command n a t u r e and shape the w o r l d t o meet t h e i r needs. I n a l i t e r a l as w e l l as i m a g i n a t i v e sense, men's empire c o u l d be extended t h r o u g h an a c t i v e s e a r c h i n t o n a t u r e ' s s e c r e t s . Knowledge, i n o t h e r words, i s seen as s t r e n g t h , as i n the case o f the C a r t h a g i n i a n s , a n a t i o n Defoe g l o r i f i e s , whose s k i l l s i n n a v i g a t i o n gave them an advantage i n c o l o n i a l power over the Romans: "the improve-ment o f t h e i r N a v i g a t i o n was an improvement t o t h e i r Power, and extended t h e i r Empire wherever t h e i r s h i p s would come" (HD, 4 3 ) . T h i s i s one o f the r e a s o n s why the f i r s t two p a r t s o f the work r e t u r n o b s e s s i v e l y t o the achievements o f the P h o e n i c i a n s and t h e i r s u c c e s s o r s , the C a r t h a g i n i a n s : t h r o u g h " t h e i r eager d e s i r e t o improve i n knowledge" they i n c r e a s e d i n power, t h e r e b y becoming a p e r p e t u a l source o f i n s p i r a t i o n t o Defoe (HD, 7 4 ) . 63 Defoe r e t a i n s the m i l l e n i a l , s c r i p t u r a l framework o f the B a c o n i a n s . We have a l r e a d y seen how Bacon e n l i s t e d B i b l i c a l prophecy i n the cause o f d i s c o v e r y by q u o t i n g from D a n i e l and how G l a n v i l l r e t u r n e d t o the B i b l e t o l i n k schemes f o r ov e r s e a s e x p l o r a t i o n w i t h God's d e s i g n f o r the u n i v e r s e . L i k e them, Defoe sees the p u r s u i t o f d i s c o v e r i e s as p a r t o f man's m i s s i o n on e a r t h . God d e l i v e r e d the g l o b e t o man as a " U n i v e r s a l B l a n k " w h i c h would y i e l d i t s t r e a s -u r e s o n l y a f t e r " f u r t h e r e n q u i r y " (HD, 1 ) . He asked men t o "people i t , and spread a numerous r a c e upon i t . " God schemed so t h a t " a l l t he i n t r i n s i c k W ealth w h i c h Heaven f u r n i s h e d the Globe w i t h [ c o u l d ] be found out and made use o f " (HD, 6 ) . B i b l i c a l h i s t o r y p r o v i d e d examples o f the c o l o n i z i n g and p l a n t i n g o f the w o r l d by Noah's descendants. The P h o e n i c i a n s had f o l l o w e d the d i c t a t e s o f t h e i r Maker -- " t o r e p l e n i s h  the e a r t h " (HD, 8 0 ) . But i t was o n l y i n r e c e n t y e a r s , and a c c o r d i n g t o God's d e s i g n s , t h a t man was i n a p o s i t i o n t o f u l f i l B i b l i c a l prophecy and po s s e s s the w o r l d t h r o u g h the g r e a t d i s c o v e r i e s . I t i s o b v i o u s t o Defoe t h a t "Heaven has open'd t h e s e T r e a s u r e s o f Wisdom and knowlege t o the w o r l d " f o r the b e n e f i t o f t r a d e , commerce, and c o l o n i z a t i o n (HD, 306). T y p i c a l l y , the spread o f knowledge i s equated w i t h the spread o f the European a l l over the w o r l d ; i t i s amazing f o r him t o see how "t h e y took the A l a r m almost a l l t o g e t h e r , p r e p a r i n g themselves as i t were on a sudden, o r by a g e n e r a l 64 P o s s e s s i o n o r r a t h e r I n s p i r a t i o n t o spread Knowledge t h r o u g h the E a r t h . . . " (HD, 237). The b e l i e f t h a t human h i s t o r y forms a movement towards a d e s i r a b l e f u t u r e w h i c h c o u l d be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h the a p p l i c a t i o n o f knowledge i n the cause o f d i s c o v e r i e s a l s o l i n k s Defoe t o the B a c o n i a n s . S c i e n c e i n h i s view has been c o n t r i b u t i n g more t o human w e l f a r e i n h i s age than e v e r b e f o r e ; advances i n mathematics, astronomy and n a v i g a t i o n have t r a n s f o r m e d the c o n d i t i o n o f man's e x i s t e n c e on the e a r t h . He i s c o n f i d e n t , however, o f advances i n f u t u r e ages which w i l l make those o f h i s own age o b s o l e t e . R e p e a t e d l y , he e x p r e s s e s h i s c o n f i d e n c e i n the d i s c o v e r y o f an o t h e r new w o r l d ; the o n l y b a r r i e r t o such a d i s c o v e r y was the e s t a b -l i s h m e n t o f an e x a c t method o f d e t e r m i n i n g l o n g i t u d e . A l r e a d y , the f a c t t h a t the " N o r t h e r n N a t i o n s " had been p l a c e d i n a p o s i t i o n o f s u p e r i o r i t y w h i c h a l l o w e d them to " d e s p i s e the r e s t o f the w o r l d " who were i g n o r a n t o f the d i s c o v e r i e s o f h i s age c o n f i r m e d t o him the power o f know-ledg e t o work wonders i n t h i s l i f e (HD, 305). The r a p i d advances made i n n a v i g a t i o n s i n c e the M i d d l e Ages and the consequences they had i n changing the w o r l d e x e m p l i f y the power o f d i s c o v e r i e s . As was the case w i t h Bacon and the B a c o n i a n s , Defoe i s aware t h a t the e x t e n s i o n o f the European's empire depends on c o n t r o l o f the h i g h seas. Defoe thus a t t e m p t s t o w r i t e , however u n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y 65 and i n a d e q u a t e l y , a h i s t o r y o f n a v i g a t i o n . He p o i n t s out t h a t v e r y l i t t l e had been a c c o m p l i s h e d i n d e v e l o p i n g n a v i g a -t i o n t i l l t he modern e r a when the d i s c o v e r y o f the l o a d s t o n e r e v o l u t i o n i z e d t h i s b r a n c h o f the u s e f u l a r t s . C h a r a c t e r i s t -i c a l l y , he f e e l s t h a t i t was heaven's d e s i g n t o keep the t e c h n i q u e s o f m a t h e m a t i c a l n a v i g a t i o n f o r h i s age (HD, 119). He i s q u i c k t o p o i n t out how the p r o s p e r i t y o f V e n i c e , Germany, S p a i n , P o r t u g a l , H o l l a n d , and England depended on the improvements made i n n a v i g a t i o n (HD, 231). Defoe g i v e s f u l l c r e d i t t o C o p e r n i c u s as the h e r a l d o f the new age; he d i s c u s s e s C o p e r n i c u s ' c o n t r i b u t i o n and t h a t o f Tyco Brahe and emphasizes the c e n t r a l importance o f the t e l e s c o p e i n the d i s c o v e r y o f the new w o r l d . He d e c l a r e s t h a t between 1400 and 1600 "almost a l l the g r e a t and most i l l u s t r i o u s Improvements i n the s u b l i m e s t p a r t s o f know-ledge have been found o u t , o r a t l e a s t extended i n t h e s e p a r t s o f the W o r l d " (HD, 227). These i n c l u d e the d i s c o v e r y o f p r i n t i n g , the compass, the improvements made i n "the a r t o f w a r f a r e " , and, o f c o u r s e , the d i s c o v e r i e s made i n the new w o r l d . Q u i t e as much as Bacon and the B a c o n i a n s , Defoe's i m a g i n a t i o n responds f u l l y t o the s e d i s c o v e r i e s ; they f i l l h i s mind w i t h schemes f o r the a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f the r e s o u r c e s o f the w o r l d f o r the b e n e f i t o f man. He i s amazed a t the d i f f e r e n c e s they have made f o r man's f u t u r e and the r a p i d s t r i d e s man has been a b l e t o t a k e t h r o u g h them. 66 In o t h e r words, Defoe speaks as a Modern t a k i n g up a w e l l - d e f i n e d p o s i t i o n i n the c o n t r o v e r s y w h i c h had e r u p t e d s i n c e the R e n a i s s a n c e . A p a r t from the e n t e r p r i s i n g , c o l o n i z -i n g P h o e n i c i a n s and the C a r t h a g i n i a n s , Defoe has v e r y l i t t l e p r a i s e f o r a n c i e n t c i v i l i z a t i o n s . In h i s b e l i t t l i n g o f the achievements o f the A n c i e n t s and h i s d i s m i s s a l o f the p h i l o s o p h y o f the schoolmen, Defoe i s a g a i n q u i t e B a c o n i a n . F o r the Moderns are not o n l y h e i r s t o whatever l e a r n i n g the A n c i e n t s p o s s e s s e d but a l s o equipped w i t h knowledge and m e c h a n i c a l a i d s w h i c h had g i v e n them immense advantages i n t h e i r b i d to r e s t o r e man's dominion over n a t u r e . Defoe cannot r e s i s t mocking the knowledge o f the A n c i e n t s , as when he proves how s m a l l S t . P a u l ' s "Very g r e a t V e s s e l " d e s c r i b e d i n A c t s r e a l l y was (HD, 37); or when he d i s m i s s e s the b e l i e f o f Seneca, V e r g i l , J u v e n a l and o t h e r A n c i e n t s t h a t Thule was the l i m i t o f the w o r l d (HD, 3 8 ) . L i k e Bacon, he i s condescending i n h i s r e f e r e n c e t o a n c i e n t t r a v e l s ; the Roman s e a - t r a d e w i t h I n d i a , f o r example, i s d i s m i s s e d as no more ho n o r a b l e than what a contemporary "would b o l d l y attempt a t any time i n a Gravesend wherry" (HD, 8 1 ) . W i t h t h e i r maps and c h a r t s and o t h e r n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s , the Moderns have made "such v a s t conquests and D i s c o v -e r i e s as no H i s t o r y can p a r a l l e l ; n o t a l l the r a p i d Conquests o f A l e x a n d e r the G r e a t , o r o f Cyrus b e f o r e him; n o t J u l i u s Caesar w i t h h i s bo a s t e d motto v e n i , v i d i , v i c i 67 ever came up to the conquering Army of Cortez and Pizarro" (HD, 273). At times, i t i s true, he w i l l give credit to the Ancients for their knowledge in Astronomy and th e i r courage, but more often than not, he dismisses the trade, commerce, sciences, and education of "Dull Antiquity" (HD, 76). As with the Baconians, science, trade, and empire are clos e l y linked in Defoe's world-view. The Phoenicians i l l u s -trate i d e a l l y how the three can be in t e r - r e l a t e d : " t h e i r Correspondence necessarily begat Trade, Trade begat Naviga-tion , Navigation by making Discoveries begat Plantations, and remote Plantations again increas'd Correspondence" (HD, 80). Adopting the anti-heroic view c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Pu r i t -ans, Defoe dismisses the achievements of the Greeks and the Romans. As far as he i s concerned, Alexander the Great or the Roman conquerors showed no interest in colonization, conquering only for the sake of conquest. They are, there-fore, treated coolly by Defoe. Thus Caesar's conquest of the North of Europe i s slighted since i t i s not "a discovery of Commerce but a mere possession by Armies for Conquests" (HD, 169). The Portugese, on the other hand, had demonstrated recently the p r o f i t a b i l i t y , and thus the d e s i r a b i l i t y , of a li n k between organized discovery, commerce, and colonies. Defoe's admiration for p r o f i t a b l e knowledge, for know-ledge which led to mastery over nature, his confidence in progress through trade and organized discovery, his admira-68 t i o n f o r the Moderns and contempt f o r the A n c i e n t s , a l l come t o g e t h e r i n t h i s v e r y r h e t o r i c a l passage o f The H i s t o r y o f  the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s : What was the World b e f o r e ? And t o what were the Heads and Hands o f Mankind applyd? The R i c h had no Commerce, the Poor no Employment; War and the Sword was the g r e a t F i e l d o f Honour, and the Stage o f P r e f e r m e n t ; and you have s c a r c e a Man eminent i n the World f o r any t h i n g b e f o r e t h a t Time, but f o r a f u r i o u s o u t r a g i o u s f a l l i n g upon h i s f e l l o w C r e a t -u r e s , l i k e Nimrod and h i s S u c c e s s o r s o f modern Fame. Where were the Men t h a t a r r i v ' d t o C h a r a c t e r s , t o Fame, and t o D i s t i n c t i o n , by Trade, by the M a t h e m a t i c k s , by the knowledge o f n a t u r a l o r exper-i m e n t a l P h i l o s o p h y ? Where was the S i r W a l t e r R a l e i g h s , the Verulams, the B o y l s , o r Newtons o f t h o s e Ages? Nature b e i n g not e n q u i r ' d i n t o , d i s c o v e r ' d none o f her s e c r e t s t o them, they n e i t h -e r knew, or sought t o know, what now i s the Fount-a i n o f a l l human knowledge, and the g r e a t M i s t e r y f o r the w i s e s t Man t o s e a r c h i n t o , I mean Nature (HD, 238-239). I n a d d i t i o n t o i t s B a c o n i a n a s s u m p t i o n s , and the e x p l i c i t a l l u s i o n t o Bacon, the passage i s s i g n i f i c a n t because i t r e v e a l s Defoe's a d m i r a t i o n f o r the r e s t l e s s , c u r i o u s , a c t i v e d i s c o v e r e r who w i l l p r y i n t o n a t u r e ' s s e c r e t t o make i t h i s own. The H i s t o r y o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s thus c e l e -b r a t e s Noah as the f i r s t p l a n t e r , the C a r t h a g i n i a n g e n e r a l Hanno as the R a l e g h o f h i s g e n e r a t i o n eager t o pursue new d i s c o v e r i e s , C o p e r n i c u s and Tyco Brahe f o r t h e i r c o n t r i b u -t i o n t o Astronomy, the n a v i g a t i o n a l s k i l l s o f Columbus and D i a z , the c o l o n i z i n g e x p e d i t i o n s o f C o r t e z and P i z a r r o , and 69 the works of Roger Bacon and Boyle on magnetism. (Defoe's work includes a nine page summary of Boyle's works on magnetic properties). A related but curious feature of the work i s Defoe's praise for mythic and legendary dabblers into nature's secrets and his explanation of t h e i r mythic or legendary status. Daedalus, for example, i s discussed as a great pioneer in navigation who devised canvas wings for f l i g h t by observing the movement of birds. Prometheus i s described as "eaten up or consum'd with an eager desire for knowledge" through the observation of the stars. This obsession, according to Defoe, led to exposure and eventually death (HD, 82). The weight on Atlas' shoulder i s explained as the great burden imposed on him of d i r e c t i n g human government because of his "great knowledge of Astronomy, and his great Wisdom". Solomon's wisdom -- exemplary for Bacon and his followers i s emphasized, though his i n a b i l i t y to find a shipping route to the Indies i s treated as a sign of the l i m i t a t i o n of his knowledge. Defoe also laments the fate of Dr. Faustus, F r i a r Bacon and some other Moderns, those "more than ordinary intimate searchers into nature" with "a stock of knowledge" so superior to t h e i r contemporaries that they were inevitably misunderstood and mistreated (HD, 304). Defoe i s not content, however, merely to praise other men for t h e i r discoveries and contributions to the extension 70 o f man's empire; he p u t s h i m s e l f i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n and o f f e r s h i s own schemes f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . J u s t as the H i s t o r i c a l A c c ount o f the Voyages and A d v e n t u r e s o f S i r  W a l t e r R a l e i g h was not meant t o be a "meer B i o g r a p h y " , the H i s t o r y o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s was not d e s i g n e d t o be a mere r e c o r d o f the d i s c o v e r i e s made by o t h e r men. Ever the p r o j e c t o r i n t e r e s t e d i n the e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n o f the w o r l d ' s r e s o u r c e s , Defoe d e t a i l s h i s own p r o j e c t s f o r h i s r e a d e r s . As w i t h the schemes o f H a r t l i b and h i s f r i e n d s , the u t i l i t a r i a n s p i r i t mixes i n him w i t h the s c i e n t i f i c ; t h i s r e s u l t s i n p r o p o s a l s t h a t a r e not e a s i l y seen as s c i e n t i f i c . Defoe f i r s t o f f e r s h i s "Schemes o f Improvement" t o h i s r e a d e r s i n h i s P r e f a c e . They i n c l u d e : ( i ) The d i s c o v e r y o f s e v e r a l p a r t s o f the w o r l d , and passage t o them, w h i c h have not y e t been known. ( i i ) The f u r t h e r d i s c o v e r y o f such p a r t s as y e t , but i m p e r f e c t l y known. ( i i i ) The b e t t e r i m p r o v i n g , as w e l l the S o i l as the Commerce o f those C o u n t r i e s w h i c h are f u l l y known and D i s c o v e r e d . ( i v ) The d i s c o v e r i n g s e v e r a l branches o f Commerce not y e t known, or meddled w i t h i n the World. (v) The e x t e n d i n g our p r e s e n t Commerce i n s e v e r a l p a r t s o f the Known Wor l d , where i t has not y e t been p r a c t i s ' d (HD, v i i i ) . I t comes as no s u r p r i s e t o us t h a t Defoe's p r o p o s a l s a r e m o s t l y c o l o n i a l i n n a t u r e o r t h a t he has moved away from 71 s c i e n t i f i c t o commercial c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . L i k e Worsley i n P r o f i t s Humbly P r e s e n t e d t o t h i s Kingdom, Defoe, i n assuming the p r o j e c t o r ' s i d i o m , p l a c e s h i s a t t i t u d e t o d i s c o v e r i e s i n a w i d e r economic and i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t . As an " e x p e r t " i n h i s t o r y , o r g a n i z e d d i s c o v e r y , the a p p l i e d s c i e n c e s , and geography, he w i l l o f f e r h i s u t i l i t a r i a n schemes t o an a udience i n t e r e s t e d i n t r a n s l a t i n g them i n t o r e a l i t y . I n e f f e c t , Defoe's "Schemes o f Improvement" i n v o l v e two d i f f e r e n t p r o j e c t s . The f i r s t o f t h e s e i s c o n c o c t e d out o f h i s r e a d i n g o f A f r i c a n h i s t o r y and h i s s p e c u l a t i o n s about the A f r i c a n C o n t i n e n t . B a s i n g h i s assumptions on B i b l i c a l h i s t o r y and R a l e gh's H i s t o r y o f the World, Defoe c r e a t e s an A f r i c a o f immense, u n e x p l o i t e d r i c h e s . The r i c h A f r i c a n t r a d e o f the P h o e n i c i a n s and the f l o u r i s h i n g C a r t h a g i n i a n empire encourage him t o b e l i e v e t h a t a r e t u r n t o p r o s p e r i t y i n t h e s e r e g i o n s t h r o u g h e f f i c i e n t e x p l o i t a t i o n was d e s i r -a b l e . Though Carthage was d e s t r o y e d and N o r t h A f r i c a reduced t o a b a r r e n d e s e r t , Defoe has a v i s i o n o f a r e j u v e n a t e d A f r i c a n t r a d e and f l o u r i s h i n g European c o l o n i e s i n the r e g i o n . The o n l y way t o e x p l o i t the r i c h e s o f A f r i c a was to put i t " i n t o the p o s s e s s i o n o f the d i l i g e n t i n d u s t r i o u s n a t i o n s o f Europe, who were n o b l e , and had a g e n i u s apt t o ) c u l t i v a t e the S o i l , and r a i s e the P r o d u c t i n the same h e i g h t , w h i c h i t may be, and has been" (HD, 112). T h i s i n v o l v e d the e x p u l s i o n o f i t s p r e s e n t i n h a b i t a n t s , M u s l i m s , 72 who everywhere " l a i d the World waste [ r a t h e r ] than c u l t i v a t -ed and improv'd i t " (HD, 134). Chapter X I I o f The H i s t o r y o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r - i e s o f f e r s a r a t i o n a l e and a program f o r the conquest o f A f r i c a . Bacon's d o c t r i n e o f "an a p p r e h e n s i v e war" now reap-pears i n a s p e c i f i c a l l y i m p e r i a l c o n t e x t . S i n c e the p r e s e n t i n h a b i t a n t s o f A f r i c a are not o n l y "Enemies t o God, and t o the C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n but Enemies t o Mankind," s i n c e as p i r a t e s and t y r a n t s they oppress t h e i r n e i g h b o r s and C h r i s t i a n s u b j e c t s , and s i n c e t h e y abuse Commerce (HD, 137), t h e y s h o u l d be overwhelmed and d r i v e n out by a p o w e r f u l pan-European army. Such an e x p e d i e n t would p r o t e c t t h e i r n e i g h b o r s from t h e i r r a i d s . A l s o , such an "Experiment" would b r i n g p r o f i t as w e l l as g l o r y . Defoe a n t i c i p a t e s o b j e c t i o n s t o h i s schemes; f o r example, the danger o f the v i c t o r s f i g h t i n g over t h e i r s p o i l s can be a v o i d e d by h i s d e t a i l e d scheme o f war where e v e r y n a t i o n would a t t a c k and p r o f i t from a s p e c i f i c p a r t o f A f r i c a . As he p u t s i t : " A f r i c a i s so l a r g e i n i t s e x t e n t , and the C o u n t r y on the Coast everywhere so good t h a t t h e r e i s enough t o s a t i s f y e v e r y P r e t e n d e r , and l e t e v e r y one keep what they conquer" (HD, 153). The second o f Defoe's two "schemes o f Improvement" i s a p l a n f o r the c o l o n i z a t i o n o f the southernmost p a r t o f South A m e r i c a . Defoe's i n t e r e s t i n the r e g i o n i s well-known and 73 has been d i s c u s s e d by many s c h o l a r s ; here we can note t h a t f o l l o w i n g R a l e g h's c o n j e c t u r a l approach t o G u i a n a , Defoe assumes v a s t , u n c l a i m e d but r i c h r e g i o n s w h i c h would be i d e a l f o r p l a n t i n g . He o p i n e s t h a t such a remote r e g i o n , p r o p e r l y s e c u r e d , p e o p l e d , and s u p p l i e d c o u l d be defended e a s i l y and would soon repay the e f f o r t and the i n v e s t m e n t handsomely. U n l i k e the A f r i c a n p r o p o s a l , t h i s one i s meant s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r h i s E n g l i s h r e a d e r s ; Defoe i s c o n f i d e n t t h a t o r g a n i z e d management and e x p l o i t a t i o n would make a c o l o n y i n P a t a g o n i a i d e a l f o r the E n g l i s h c o l o n i z i n g s p i r i t . C h a pter X X I I o f The H i s t o r y o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v - e r i e s o f f e r s a d e t a i l e d p r o p o s a l f o r a new s e t t l e m e n t i n South A m e r i c a . Based m o s t l y on S i r John Narborough's d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s r e g i o n and h i s own f e r t i l e i m a g i n a t i o n , Defoe c r e a t e s the p i c t u r e o f a l a n d o f g r e a t p o t e n t i a l . . He l i s t s the advantages t o be had from such a c o l o n y and c o n c l u d e s i n the manner o f the c o n f i d e n t s p e c u l a t o r : " i f any man e n q u i r e s a f t e r the p r o s p e c t s o f f u t u r e Improvement pr o m i s ' d i n t h i s work, l e t him t a k e t h i s f o r one" (HD, 297). Though the s e a r e the o n l y two p r o j e c t s d i s c u s s e d by Defoe i n The H i s t o r y o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s , he a s s u r e s h i s r e a d e r t h a t he has p l a n n e d t o t a k e up the q u e s t -i o n o f o t h e r improvements t o be made i n the f u t u r e , espec-i a l l y o f the most p r o f i t a b l e E t h i o p i a n commerce, i n a n o t h e r work. He i s c o n f i d e n t t h a t w i t h the new a i d s t o knowledge 1 74 man w i l l c o n t i n u e t o d i s c o v e r new w o r l d s and expand h i s t r a d e and empire. As he p u t s i t i n h i s c o n c l u s i o n : "There are no doubt new C o u n t r i e s and Lands y e t t o be p l a n t e d , w h i c h was never d i s c o v e r 1 d or p l a n t e d b e f o r e ; and which i s s t i l l w o r t h our c o n s i d e r a t i o n those a l r e a d y P l a n t e d are c a p a b l e o f new Improvements and f a r t h e r P l a n t i n g " (HD, 3 0 6 ) . B e f o r e c o n c l u d i n g , however, he cannot r e s i s t a f i n a l p r o p o s a l w h i c h w i l l demonstrate h i s " s c i e n t i f i c " approach to empire. T h i s p r o p o s a l , r a t h e r l i k e S p r a t ' s comments on t r a n s p l a n t i n g , i s based on the assumption t h a t a p r e c i o u s i t e m l i k e c o f f e e , now o b t a i n a b l e o n l y a t g r e a t c o s t from the A r a b i a n G u l f , c o u l d be p r o f i t a b l y p l a n t e d i n the West I n d i e s , the mouth o f the R i o Grande, or S i e r r a Leone, p l a c e s w h i c h were i n the same l a t t i t u d e as the c o f f e e - g r o w i n g r e g i o n s o f A s i a . Defoe i s e n t i r e l y s c i e n t i f i c , r e a s o n a b l e and c o n f i d e n t about h i s p r o p o s a l : " L e t the Experiments be made and the N e g a t i v e p r o v ' d , and then i n d e e d no Man w i l l oppose i t ; f o r D e m o n s t r a t i o n p u t s an end t o a l l Arguments; but t i l l t h en we must be a l l o w ' d t o judge as Reason and the n a t u r e o f Things d i r e c t u s " (HD, 307). V As b e f i t s a h i s t o r i a n o f the d i s c o v e r i e s o c c a s i o n e d by the new approach t o knowledge, Defoe c o n s t a n t l y i n v o k e s 75 r e a s o n and emphasizes the r a t i o n a l n a t u r e o f h i s assumptions and h i s t o r i c a l method. He w i l l o f f e r no schemes which have " n e i t h e r p r o b a b i l i t y o f s u c c e s s " n or " r a t i o n a l f o u n d a t i o n " (HD, v i i ) ; he i s c o n s c i o u s o f the f a c t t h a t "Reason and N e c e s s i t y " a re the " a l l o w e d P a r e n t s o f a l l new d i s c o v e r i e s " (HD, 5 4 ) . What i s r e a s o n a b l e and n e c e s s a r y must a l s o be p r o f i t a b l e ; thus h i s scheme t o send a f o r m i d a b l e European f l e e t t o d e s t r o y the A f r i c a n s must be c o n s i d e r e d cheap, h o n o r a b l e "and indeed r e a s o n a b l e " (HD, 150). R e l a t e d t o these r e p e a t e d a s s e r t i o n s o f the r a t i o n a l i t y of h i s schemes are Defoe's reminders t h a t h i s meanderings through h i s t o r y a r e u l t i m a t e l y m e t h o d i c a l . He i n t e n d s t o be a n a l y t i c a l ; the s u b j e c t o f h i s i n q u i r y i s the "How", "by what s t e p s " , "when", and "by whom" (HD, 2 ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , he w i l l b e g i n a t the b e g i n n i n g and move s e l e c t i v e l y through r e c o r d e d h i s t o r y t i l l he w i l l b r i n g the r e a d e r t o the p r e s e n t and p r o s p e c t s o f f u t u r e g l o r y . I f he d w e l l s on the p a s t a t any one p o i n t i t i s n o t because he i s i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s t o r y f o r h i s t o r y ' s sake, but because the s t u d y o f what has been must l e a d t o what may be (HD, 100). Throughout The  H i s t o r y o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s Defoe reminds us t h a t he i s f o l l o w i n g a c a r e f u l p l a n , f o c u s s i n g on what i s im p o r t -ant and promised by h i s t i t l e and o m i t t i n g what i s i r r e l e -v a n t . Always, he l e a d s us to b e l i e v e , h i s c o u r s e i s d i c t a t e d by the u s e f u l n e s s o f h i s s u b j e c t t o the p r e s e n t . 76 Defoe a l s o t r i e s t o a s s u r e us o f the r e a s o n a b l e n e s s o f h i s u n d e r t a k i n g and the soundness o f h i s method by a c o n t i n -uous d i s p l a y o f l e a r n i n g . Always r a n k l e d by the doubts c a s t by h i s d e t r a c t o r s about h i s knowledge, he r e p e a t s a t one p o i n t one o f h i s most c h e r i s h e d b e l i e f s -- and one w h i c h r e a p p e a r s i n The Compleat E n g l i s h Gentleman -- t h a t the t r u e s c h o l a r i s not one who s t u d i e s o n l y the C l a s s i c s but one who knows the contemporary European languages, astronomy, geography, mathematics, t r a d e , e n g i n e e r i n g , n a v i g a t i o n , and a l l the branches o f h i s t o r y (HD, 215). As i f t o prove h i s p o i n t he parades h i s knowledge o f most o f t h e s e f i e l d s t h r oughout the t e x t . I ndeed, The H i s t o r y o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s appears t o be one o f the more l e a r n e d and a l l u s i v e o f Defoe's works. I n a d d i t i o n t o the f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s made t o the B i b l e and t o Ralegh's H i s t o r y o f the World, he r e f e r s t o c l a s s i c a l a u t h o r s l i k e L ucan, T i b e l l i u s , C l a u d i a n , Juven-a l , Seneca, S t r a b o , and even c a t a l o g u e s the l e a r n e d men o f a n t i q u i t y (HD, 216). Among E n g l i s h a u t h o r s , he quotes from or mentions v e n e r a b l e a u t h o r s l i k e Camden, M i l t o n and Rymer, but i s not above q u o t i n g "a homely d i s t i c h " when he f e e l s the need o f one (HD, 220). O f t e n , h i s sources are not i d e n t -i f i e d , as when he a l l u d e s t o a "Learned W r i t e r " t o show how the f i r s t boat was f l o a t e d (HD, 2 2 ) , or r e f e r s t o a F r e n c h w r i t e r "whose name I cannot now r e c o l l e c t " t o d i s c u s s T y r i a n 77 s u r g i c a l s k i l l s " (HD, 9 3 ) , or c i t e s the c a l c u l a t i o n o f the " Best A u t h o r s " t o g i v e h i s e s t i m a t e o f the number o f A f r i c a n s to be overcome by h i s proposed e x p e d i t i o n a r y f o r c e (HD, 137). H i s s o u r c e s f o r e a r l y e x p l o r e r s and e x p l o r a t i o n i n c l u d e the B i b l e and R a l e g h , and f o r l a t e r d i s c o v e r i e s H a k l u y t , N e i h o f f , T e x c e r a , O r l e i n n a and S i r John Narborough. As b e f i t s a h i s t o r i a n o f s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r i e s , he has a l s o r ead the r e l e v a n t s c i e n t i f i c t r a c t s . He a l l u d e s t o the w r i t e r o f The H i s t o r y o f N a v i g a t i o n and Commerce, w i t h whom he t a k e s i s s u e about the e x t e n t o f Roman t r a d e , the "Learned A u t h o r " o f L e x i c o n Technicum, and "the Learned Mr. B o y l " (HD, 176, 250, 251). And where w r i t t e n s o u r c e s have proved i n a d e q u a t e , he goes to u n p u b l i s h e d ones. For example, he a t t e m p t s to d e s c r i b e e a r l y v e s s e l s on the b a s i s o f i l l u s t r a -t i o n s w h i c h he has seen as w e l l as w r i t e r s he has r e a d (HD, 3 6 ) . On one o c c a s i o n , he has even " c o n s u l t e d " the b e s t s h i p -w r i g h t t h e r e i s , a d d i n g i n p a r e n t h e s i s t h a t he has " c r i t i c -a l l y i n q u i r e d , " to f i n d out how the Romans made t h e i r s h i p s , though he has h i s doubts i f they c o u l d r e a l l y be c a l l e d such (HD, 5 7 ) ! Defoe's d i s p l a y o f l e a r n i n g , l i k e h i s c l a i m s to r a t i o n -a l i t y and method, however, cannot d i s g u i s e the e s s e n t i a l l y i d i o s y n c r a t i c n a t u r e of h i s h i s t o r y . In d e a l i n g w i t h the age o f d i s c o v e r i e s , and i n s t r i v i n g to change p e o p l e ' s minds about what they can do i n the p r e s e n t to a c h i e v e a b e t t e r 78 f u t u r e , Dejioe r e w r i t e s h i s t o r y and more o r l e s s i g n o r e s the deep p a s t o f c l a s s i c a l a n t i q u i t y and the economic l i f e o f Greece and Rome. As Manuel Schonhorn observes i n h i s t h o u g h t - p r o v o k i n g paper, "Defoe, the Language o f P o l i t i c s , and the P a s t , " Defoe "has no p a r a l l e l among h i s contemporar-i e s i n h i s w h o l e s a l e d i s m i s s a l o f t h a t a t t i t u d e t h a t sought any s e c u r e t r u t h i n the o p i n i o n o f p a s t ages," no r e s p e c t f o r the accomplishments o f c l a s s i c a l c i v i l i z a t i o n , and no use f o r custom and t r a d i t i o n . 2 1 Such a r a d i c a l d e n i a l o f the p a s t meant t h a t he was ready t o w r i t e h i s own v e r s i o n o f i t o r t o t r e a t h i s t o r y t o some e x t e n t as a form o f f i c t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , when he p r a i s e s o n l y a h a n d f u l o f n a t i o n s f o r t h e i r c o l o n i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s b e f o r e the modern p e r i o d , o r when he b e l i t t l e s the c o l o n i a l and commercial s u c c e s s e s o f Greece o r Rome, he does so not because he was i g n o r a n t , but because h i s t o r y does not s e r v e h i s immediate aim: t o show t h a t p r o g r e s s throughout the ages can be equated w i t h a dynamic, e x p a n s i o n i s t s o c i e t y w h i c h uses s c i e n c e , t e c h -n o l o g y , and commerce f o r c o n t i n u a l d i s c o v e r i e s . From Defoe's vantage p o i n t , p a s t s o c i e t i e s can be e a s i l y d i v i d e d i n t o two camps, tho s e f o r and those a g a i n s t c o l o n i z a t i o n and the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the w o r l d ' s r e s o u r c e s . A c c o r d i n g t o Defoe, Noah and h i s sons, the P h o e n i c i a n s and the C a r t h a g i n i a n s , and Western Europeans i n r e c e n t times b e l o n g t o the s i d e o f the p r o g r e s s i v e s ; the Greeks and the 79 Romans and the M i d d l e Ages deserve contempt because they d a b b l e d i n u n p r o f i t a b l e knowledge or because they conquered w i t h o u t c o l o n i z i n g . L a r g e chunks o f h i s t o r y , innumerable i m p o r t a n t d i s c o v e r i e s , and the c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f o t h e r r a c e s are i g n o r e d , d i s m i s s e d , o r g l o s s e d o v e r . I t i s not t h a t Defoe i s unaware o f them; r a t h e r , he chooses not t o see whatever does not conform t o h i s b a s i c t h e s i s o r c o n f i r m h i s p r e j u d i c e s . Thus, he i s c o n s c i o u s t h a t many have o p i n e d t h a t "almost a l l our n i c e s t D i s c o v e r i e s were found o u t , and i n p r a c t i c e i n C h i n a b e f o r e they were d i s c o v e r 1 d h e r e " (HD, 226). But he d i s m i s s e s such c l a i m s , f o r c o u l d i t be r a t i o n -a l l y b e l i e v e d , f o r example, t h a t "Powder c o u l d be known, and the f o r c e o f i t , and N a ture not d i r e c t Man t o f i g h t w i t h i t " (HD, 226)? Defoe's c o n j e c t u r a l approach t o h i s t o r i o g r a p h y a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s t o the f i c t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f h i s t e x t . A c t u a l l y , a method w h i c h proposes t o show what can be done s o l e l y on the b a s i s o f what was p o s s i b l e i s bound t o be s p e c u l a t i v e . A t h i s most c a n d i d , Defoe i s w i l l i n g t o concede t h a t our " s e a r c h i n t o A n t i q u i t y " must be " i m p e r f e c t " because o f the gaps i n our knowledge; what can be done though i s " t o deduce t h i n g s from j u s t o r i g i n a l s " (HD, 305). But h i s o r i g i n a l s themselves -- l i k e R a l e g h's h i s t o r y o r the B i b l e -- are a t times s u s p e c t as h i s t o r y w h i l e h i s d e d u c t i o n s a r e always m o t i v a t e d by the t h e o r y t h a t h i s t o r y must be o f use 80 i n the p r e s e n t . A good example, and one a l s o meant t o c o n t r i b u t e t o a contemporary c o n t r o v e r s y , i s h i s t h e s i s t h a t A m e r i c a was f i r s t p e o p l e d by the C a r t h a g i n i a n s , s i n c e i t i s " r a t i o n a l " t h a t "a P e o p l e w h o l l y d e d i c a t e d t o s e a r c h a f t e r new d i s c o v e r i e s and b o l d l y v e n t u r i n g i n t o a l l P a r t s o f the World f o r them" would a l s o be the f i r s t t o c r o s s the ocean and s e t t l e i n unknown l a n d s (HD, 7 6 ) . H i s p o r t r a i t o f the f l o u r i s h i n g C a r t h a g i n i a n empire, w i t h t h r e e thousand popu-l o u s c i t i e s on the c o a s t o f A f r i c a , and m i l l i o n s o f c i t i z e n s engaged i n a l l s o r t s o f p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r i s s i m i l a r l y m o t i v -a t e d by h i s d e s i r e t o p r e s e n t the r e g i o n as i d e a l f o r r e c o l -o n i z a t i o n . Defoe, o f c o u r s e , was w r i t i n g a t a time when the " f i c t i v e " n a t u r e o f h i s t o r y was more w i d e l y acknowledged and the i m a g i n a t i o n a l l o w e d c o n s i d e r a b l e l a t i t u d e . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g then t h a t many f i c t i v e d e v i c e s c o n t r i b u t e t o the i m a g i n a t i v e n a t u r e o f The H i s t o r y o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r - i e s . H i s n a r r a t i v e s t a n c e , h i s mode o f emplotment, and h i s use o f language f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i z e h i s h i s t o r y as a form o f f i c t i o n . Defoe's n a r r a t i v e s t a n c e , as o u t l i n e d above, i s t h a t o f the p r o g r e s s i v e , r a t i o n a l , commercial p r o j e c t o r - h i s t o r i a n l o o k i n g a t the p a s t r a t i o n a l l y , m e t h o d i c a l l y , k nowledgably. H i s a c t u a l p o i n t o f v i e w , however, i s r e a l l y a r b i t r a r y , u n s y s t e m a t i c , and p a r t i a l . Defoe sees i n the p a s t what he 81 wants t o see i n i t ; a l l h i s d i s p l a y o f l e a r n i n g cannot h i d e h i s b i a s e s . S i m i l a r l y , h i s c l a i m s t o method a r e c o n s t a n t l y u n d e r c u t by h i s i d e o l o g i c a l i m p e r a t i v e s . T h i s can be seen i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f C a r t h a g i n i a n t r a d e and d i s c o v e r i e s when, a f t e r " c r a v i n g l e a v e " from h i s r e a d e r s , he su d d e n l y s h i f t s h i s a t t e n t i o n t o the p r e s e n t i n h a b i t a n t s o f A f r i c a and the reasons f o r e x p e l l i n g them (HD, 135). I n an o t h e r i n s t a n c e , Defoe proceeds t o number the many improvements made i n the a r t o f w a r f a r e as something a p p r o p r i a t e t o h i s theme but a b r u p t l y changes h i s d i r e c t i o n " i n o r d e r t o b r i n g Things more A n t i e n t up t o an even l i n e o f Time w i t h them; and p a r t i c u l a r l y t o speak o f the D i s c o v e r y o f unknown C o u n t r i e s , as w e l l f o r Conquest as f o r Commerce" (HD, 231). Though Defoe makes a p e r f u n c t o r y attempt t o s u p p l y d a t e s and p r o v i d e a genea l o g y o f the p r i n c i p a l d i s c o v e r i e s from time t o t i m e , h i s work i s p r i m a r i l y p l o t t e d t o r e i t e r -a t e h i s c e n t r a l t h e s i s -- f u r t h e r c o l o n i a l v e n t u r e s a re n e c e s s a r y f o r a p r o g r e s s i v e n a t i o n -- and h i g h l i g h t h i s age as on the t h r e s h o l d o f a g l o r i o u s f u t u r e . The manner i n whic h he p r e s e n t s h i s two p r o j e c t s i n d i c a t e s how he manipu-l a t e s h i s t o r y f o r thes e p u r p o s e s . As we have seen, The  H i s t o r y o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n f o u r numbers; the f i r s t two c l i m a x i n the p r o p o s a l t o conquer and s e t t l e N o r t h A f r i c a and the second p a i r i n the p r o j e c t t o c o l o n i z e South A m e r i c a . W i t h i n t h e s e numbers, 82 Defoe s e l e c t s , o r g a n i z e s , d i s t o r t s , and adapts h i s t o r y t o l e a d us up t o the p r o p o s a l s . The f i r s t number, f o r example, b e g i n s w i t h a r a p i d s u r v e y o f the d i s p e r s i o n o f Noah's descendants a f t e r the F l o o d and then s e t t l e s on the P h o e n i c -i a n s ; i t c o n c l u d e s w i t h the p i c t u r e o f a t h r i v i n g C a r t h a g e . The second more or l e s s c o n c e n t r a t e s on the C a r t h a g i n i a n empire and ends w i t h h i s scheme t o r e v i v e i t s r i c h e s . The t h i r d g l a n c e s over the " r u i n o u s " c o n d i t i o n o f t r a d e a f t e r the f a l l o f Carthage and then d i s c u s s e s the major d i s c o v e r -i e s o f the modern e r a , c o n c l u d i n g t h a t a f t e r such knowledge, l i m i t l e s s p r o g r e s s was p o s s i b l e . The f o u r t h number c o n t i n u e s t h i s theme and a f t e r t r a c i n g the e x p a n s i o n made p o s s i b l e by the advances i n n a v i g a t i o n suggests t h a t the crowning achievement would be the p o s s e s s i o n o f P a t a g o n i a . The f i c t i v e n a t u r e o f Defoe's The H i s t o r y o f the  P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s i s most c l e a r i n h i s h a n d l i n g o f language. Homely and commonplace metaphors, images drawn from d i v e r s e s o u r c e s , and image p a t t e r n s t e s t i f y t o the i m a g i n a t i v e n a t u r e o f h i s d i s c o u r s e . Defoe can thus borrow s t o c k metaphors from the A n c i e n t - M o d e r n c o n t r o v e r s y t o d e p i c t the Modern as s t a n d i n g on "the s h o u l d e r o f t h r e e thousand y e a r s a p p l i c a t i o n " o r d e p i c t the A n c i e n t s as u s h e r -i n g the Moderns t o "the v e r y d o o r " o f g r e a t d i s c o v e r i e s (HD, i i i ) . To the men who had s u r v i v e d the F l o o d , the w o r l d appeared as "a rough Diamond, t h a t has i t s i n t r i c a t e V a l u e 83 i n i t s e l f , but the o u t s i d e c o n c e a l ' d the i n s i d e ; " i t was up t o them t o p o l i s h i t so t h a t " i t s L u s t r e might reappear a g a i n " (HD, 1 ) . Cadmus, whom Defoe c r e d i t s w i t h a new method o f w r i t i n g , i s d e s c r i b e d as a "merchant" who t r a d e s w i t h h i s "Cargo o f L e a r n i n g " (HD, 8 5 ) . S i n c e a c c o r d i n g t o Defoe, commerce had been d e s t r o y e d t w i c e , once by Nebuchadnezzar, and then by the Romans, i t i s compared t o "a man r u n n i n g a Race, who by some unhappy d i s a s t e r , o r m i s t a k e , has h i s Ground t o r u n a l l over a g a i n " (HD, 126). E l s e w h e r e , i n a p e s s i m i s t i c s e c t i o n , commerce i s imaged as "a Boat a d r i f t ...and l e f t as i t were r o l l i n g upon the Water w i t h o u t a Rudder" (HD, 153). Such an image i s c u r i o u s l y a p p r o p r i a t e to a t e x t d e a l i n g w i t h the h i s t o r y o f n a v i g a t i o n , as i s the image o f h i s account o f the w o o l l e n t r a d e when brought t o i t s " m e r i d i a n h e i g h t " (HD, 214). To a t t r a c t the a t t e n t i o n o f h i s r e a d e r s , Defoe c o n s t a n t l y r e s o r t s t o human emotions and e x p e r i e n c e s . The P o r t u g e s e e x p l o r e r s , f o r i n s t a n c e , are d e s c r i b e d as c a s t i n g "many a w i s h f u l eye...upon the v a s t extended I n d i a n Ocean" b e f o r e the i n v e n t i o n o f the compass (HD, 250). But w i t h i t , t h ey and o t h e r European n a t i o n s can f i n d t h e i r way i n remote r e g i o n s "as d i r e c t l y as a C a r r i e r ' s Horse does h i s r o a d , o r as the C a r r i e r h i m s e l f does the Inn he i s t o lodge a t " (HD, 260). An example o f Defoe's use o f image p a t t e r n s i n The  H i s t o r y o f t h e P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s i s h i s use o f a n i m a l 84 imagery i n the d i s c u s s i o n o f N o r t h A f r i c a n h i s t o r y a f t e r the d e s t r u c t i o n o f C a r t h a g e . C a r t h a g e , i t s c o l o n i e s , and t h e i r i n h a b i t a n t s are l i k e n e d t o " i n f a n t s thrown out t o the w o l f " because o f the Roman conquest (HD, 2 5 ) . A f t e r the M uslim conquests c e n t u r i e s l a t e r , the A f r i c a n s t u r n e d i n t o "a G e n e r a t i o n o f Drones", d e s p i s i n g i n d u s t r y and t h r i v i n g on r o b b e r y and p i r a c y (HD, 134). The c o u n t r y s i d e then became a den f o r t h e s e r a p a c i o u s c r e a t u r e s , "a k i n d o f w i l d b e a s t s i n f i n i t e l y more d e s t r u c t i v e t o the w o r l d " than t i g e r s and l i o n s . These "Beast o f P r e y " l i v e d on "the S p o i l o f t h e i r i n n o c e n t and i n d u s t r i o u s n e i g h b o u r s " (HD, 137). They are c o n s i s t e n t l y d e s c r i b e d as " w i l d b e a s t s " and compared t o "a Bear or a w o l f " or "a swarm o f l o c u s t s " who l a t e r s pread over S p a i n (HD, 143, 149, 186). I n c o n t r a s t , the C h r i s t i a n v i c t i m i s l i k e t h a t n o b l e a n i m a l , the h o r s e , "overwrought and not a b l e t o e x e r t h i m s e l f t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f h i s c r u e l D r i v e r ; " c o n s e q u e n t l y , he s i n k s and d i e s "under h i s l o a d " (HD, 140). How d e l i b e r a t e l y Defoe i s u s i n g a n i m a l imagery comes out c l e a r l y when, i n the c l i m a c t i c p a r t o f t h i s s e c t i o n , he a n t i c i p a t e s h i s r e a d e r ' s " d e s i r e " : " C u r i o s -i t y now might l e a d the Reader t o d e s i r e me t o e n t e r i n t o p a r t i c u l a r s and t o l a y down a scheme how I would have them share t h i s B e a r - S k i n " (HD, 150). F i n a l l y , we must note a few o f the many r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s i n our t e x t ; f o r d e s p i t e Defoe's c l a i m s t o " p l a i n I 85 E n g l i s h " and " p l a i n d e a l i n g " he was never w h o l l y a r t l e s s . He i s , as a l w a y s , aware o f h i s a u d i e n c e ; on one o c c a s i o n he even t r i e s t o c h a r a c t e r i z e i t : "When I speak i n the f i r s t p e r s o n a l P l u r a l o r N a t i o n a l l y , under the terms we, and us, I mean not England o r B r i t a i n o n l y , but as the t r a d i n g n a t i o n s o f Europe t a k e n c o m p l e t e l y " (HD, 201). He has d e s i g n s on i t and b r i n g s a l l h i s s k i l l s t o work t o move h i s r e a d e r . A v e r y r h e t o r i c a l passage where Defoe emphasizes the achievements o f the Moderns when compared t o the A n c i e n t s has a l r e a d y been quoted above (HD, 2 3 8 ) , but t h e r e are o t h e r i n s t a n c e s o f h i s use o f r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s . One o t h e r such passage o c c u r s when he t r i e s t o work up the emotions o f h i s r e a d e r s t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n s p l a n n e d t o empha-s i z e the expenses i n c u r r e d and the p a i n endured by the European n a t i o n s because o f the N o r t h A f r i c a n p i r a t e s (HD, 149). Very e a r l y i n the t e x t , when he i s f o c u s s i n g on the b e g i n n i n g o f commerce and n a v i g a t i o n , he a p o s t r o p h i z e s Tyre and i t s merchants f o r t h e i r s u c c e s s i n t r a d e , n a v i g a t i o n , and c o l o n i z a t i o n , c l i m a x i n g the apostrophe w i t h a q u o t a t i o n from V e r g i l (HD, 7 1 ) . Ano t h e r o f h i s f a v o u r i t e d e v i c e s t o h e i g h t e n the e m o t i o n a l e f f e c t i s p a r a l l e l i s m ; he uses i t , f o r example, i n h i s P r e f a c e t o emphasize the many d i s c o v e r -i e s o f h i s a n c e s t o r s (HD, v ) . An i d i o s y n c r a t i c approach t o h i s t o r y , a d e c e p t i v e n a r r a t i v e s t a n c e , a c a r e f u l l y s t r u c t u r e d t e x t and the d e l i b -86 e r a t e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f language, t h e n , i n d i c a t e the f i c t i v e n a t u r e o f The H i s t o r y o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s . Though t h e s e d e v i c e s and Defoe's p o p u l i s t i n t e n t i o n s d i s g u i s e i t s l i n k t o t h e B a c o n i a n t r a d i t i o n , we s h o u l d now see i t i n i t s t r u e c o n t e x t : The H i s t o r y o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s i s a B a c o n i a n t e x t i n t h a t i t assumes t h a t knowledge i s the key t o w o r l d d o m i n a t i o n . I n a s t u d y o f Defoe's works as c o l o n i a l propaganda, i t has i t s r i g h t f u l p l a c e ; i t shows h i s l i n k s t o a t r a d i t i o n w h i c h argues f o r c o l o n i z a t i o n as e s s e n t i a l f o r p r o g r e s s and r e v e a l s the i n g e n u i t y w i t h w h i c h he p r e s e n t e d some o f h i s p e t p r o j e c t s f o r o v e r s e a s e x p a n s i o n . 87 NOTES 1 John R o b e r t M oore 1s A C h e c k l i s t o f the W r i t i n g s o f  D a n i e l Defoe, 2nd ed. (Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1971) comments on the c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f the work's p u b l i c a t i o n . A p p a r e n t l y , the f o u r numbers were t o come out i n s u c c e s s i v e months, but the l a s t two f e l l w e l l b e h i n d the p u b l i c a t i o n s c h e d u l e . When f i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d by the f i r m o f W. Mears on 13 December 1726, i t "was made up by b i n d i n g the monthly p a r t s t o g e t h e r by adding a C o n c l u s i o n and an Index, and by s u b s t i t u t i n g one new g e n e r a l t i t l e - p a g e f o r the f o u r separ-at e t i t l e - p a g e s " (Moore, p. 200). 2 G.N. C l a r k , S c i e n c e and S o c i a l W e l f a r e i n the Age o f  Newton (2nd ed. O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1949), p. 92. 3 V o l . IV o f The Works o f F r a n c i s Bacon, ed. James Spedding, R o b e r t L e s l i e E l l i s , and Douglas Denon Heath (London: 1870), p. 114