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Daniel Defoe as a colonial propagandist Alam, Fakrul 1984

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DANIEL DEFOE AS A COLONIAL PROPAGANDIST By FAKRUL ALAM B.A. (Hons)., The U n i v e r s i t y o f Dhaka, 1974 M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f Dhaka, 1975 M.A., Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f E n g l i s h )  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1984 © F a k r u l Alam, 1984  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be  department o r by h i s o r her  granted by  the head o f  representatives.  my  It is  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be  allowed without my  permission.  Department o f  ^-A^  CJ$> ^  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  Columbia  written  ABSTRACT  T h i s t h e s i s c o n s i d e r s d i f f e r e n t aspects of Defoe's c o l o n i a l propaganda: i t s i d e o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , to a d i s c u r s i v e t r a d i t i o n , and i t s p o l e m i c a l U n l i k e p r e v i o u s c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the s u b j e c t ,  i t s links  strategy. i t analyzes  f u l l y the n o n f i c t i o n a l works as w e l l as the f i c t i o n  to give  a comprehensive account of Defoe's c o n t r i b u t i o n to c o l o n i a l discourse. Chapters I to IV examine four of Defoe's t r a c t s as c o l o n i a l propaganda. The f i r s t  chapter s c r u t i n i z e s An  H i s t o r i c a l Account o f the Voyages and Adventures o f S i r Walter R a l e i g h , a work designed to a t t r a c t the South Sea Company to one of Defoe's f a v o r i t e p r o j e c t s . The second s t u d i e s the H i s t o r y of the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s , a t r a c t which l i n k s up knowledge,  trade, and empire to argue f o r the  extension of Western man's dominion over the extra-European world. The next chapter c o n s i d e r s Defoe's Plan o f the E n g l i s h Commerce as a work composed to convince readers that c o l o n i z a t i o n was  e s s e n t i a l f o r England's p r o s p e r i t y and  power. Chapter IV t r e a t s Defoe as an expert on overseas a f f a i r s and notes h i s l i n k s to c o l o n i a l c i r c l e s . I t focuses a t t e n t i o n on h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to A t l a s Maritimus, sees him  *  *  •  111  as a "geographer" colonial  i n the Hakluyt  t r a d i t i o n , reviews h i s  schemes, and d i s c u s s e s h i s views on o t h e r r a c e s  and  final  as  places. The  f o u r c h a p t e r s i n v e s t i g a t e Defoe's f i c t i o n  c o l o n i a l propaganda. Because the c o l o n i a l a s p e c t s o f the f i c t i o n have not gone u n n o t i c e d , Chapter V surveys the work t h a t has been done and  suggests  the approaches  that  can  s t i l l be taken to f u r t h e r i l l u m i n a t e Defoe's n a r r a t i v e s  as  i m p e r i a l i s t propaganda. Chapter VI examines i n g r e a t e r detail  than has been attempted  b e f o r e how  r e f l e c t h i s c o l o n i a l concerns. The  Defoe's  next two  settings  chapters analyze  Defoe's p r o t a g o n i s t s as p r o t o t y p i c a l c o l o n i z e r s . Both r a t i o n a l , e m p i r e - b u i l d i n g a t t r i b u t e s as w e l l as unpleasant  their  their  a s p e c t s are c o n s i d e r e d .  T h i s study concludes w i t h an assessment o f Defoe's success as a c o l o n i a l p r o p a g a n d i s t . I t suggests that  the  t r a c t s can be seen as s i g n i f i c a n t as p a r t o f a body o f w r i t i n g which p e r s i s t e n t l y upheld the cause o f empire; i t notes t h a t Defoe's n a r r a t i v e s have m e r i t e d a d i s t i n c t i v e p l a c e because o f the appeal o f t h e i r t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on subsequent c o l o n i a l e n t e r p r i s e through  images o f success  w r i t e r s who fiction.  have promoted  and  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  List  of Figures  v  Abbreviations  v i  Acknowledgments  viii  Introduction  1  Chapter I  R a l e g h , D e f o e and C o l o n i a l D i s c o u r s e ....13  Chapter I I  B a c o n i a n i s m and D e f o e ' s The H i s t o r y of the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s and I m p r o v e m e n t s  40  D e f o e ' s P l a n f o r E n g l i s h Commerce: the Economic I m p e r a t i v e f o r Colonization  91  Chapter I I I  C h a p t e r IV  A t l a s Maritimus & Commercialis: D e f o e ' s Map  f o r the World  T  Chapter V  The F i c t i o n s as C o l o n i a l P r o p a g a n d a  Chapter VI  S e t t i n g and I d e o l o g y i n D e f o e ' s Fiction D e f o e ' s P r o t a g o n i s t s as P r o t o t y p i c a l , C o l o n i z e r s (1)  Chapter V I I Chapter V I I I  Defoe's P r o t a g o n i s t s Colonizers  (2)  135 ....198 221 293  as P r o t o t y p i c a l 345  Conclusion  401  Bibliography  410  V  L I S T OF FIGURES Figure  1  "Raw" A n a l y s i s of the S u b s c r i b e r s A t l a s Maritimus  of 138  vi  ABBREVIATIONS  AM  A t l a s M a r i t i m u s & C o m m e r c i a l i s . London, 1728.  BD  A B r i e f D e d u c t i o n o f t h e O r i g i n a l , P r o g r e s s , and Immense G r e a t n e s s o f t h e B r i t i s h W o o l l e n M a n u f a c t u r e . London, 1727.  C  C a l e d o n i a , A Poem i n H o n o u r o f S c o t l a n d , A n d t h e S c o t s N a t i o n . E d i n b u r g h , 1706.  CEG  The C o m p l e a t E n g l i s h G e n t l e m a n . E d . K a r l London: D a v i d N u t t , 1890.  CJ  C o l o n e l J a c k . E d . Samuel H. Monk. L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965.  CS  C a p t a i n S i n g l e t o n . E v e r y m a n ' s L i b r a r y . L o n d o n : J.M. Dent, 1963.  EP  A n E s s a y Upon P r o j e c t s . L o n d o n , 1 6 9 7 .  FARC  The F a r t h e r A d v e n t u r e s o f R o b i n s o n C r u s o e . E d . G e o r g e A. A i t k e n . L o n d o n : J.M. D e n t , 1 8 9 5 .  FYV  The F o u r Y e a r V o y a g e s o f C a p t . G e o r g e R o b e r t s . Y o r k : A u g u s t u s M. K e l l y , 1 9 6 3 .  GHP  A G e n e r a l H i s t o r y o f t h e R o b b e r i e s and M u r d e r s o f t h e Most N o t o r i o u s P y r a t e s . Ed. Manuel Schonhorn. Columbia, South C a r o l i n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f South C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1972.  HAR  A n H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t o f t h e V o y a g e s and A d v e n t u r e s o f S i r W a l t e r R a l e i g h . London, 1719.  HD  A G e n e r a l H i s t o r y o f D i s c o v e r i e s and I m p r o v e m e n t s i n U s e f u l A r t s . L o n d o n , 1725-1726.  L  The L e t t e r s o f D a n i e l D e f o e . E d . G e o r g e H e a l e y . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1955.  Bulbring.  Harris  New  ABBREVIATIONS, c o n t i n u e d  MF  The F o r t u n e s and M i s f o r t u n e s o f t h e Famous M o l l F l a n d e r s ^ Ed. G.A. S t a r r . L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965.  NVRW  A New V o y a g e Round t h e W o r l d . Ed. G e o r g e A. L o n d o n : J.M. D e n t , 1895.  PEC  A P l a n o f t h e E n g l i s h Commerce. New M. K e l l y , 1967.  R  The R e v i e w . Ed. A.W. S e c o r d , 22 v o l s . New F a c s i m i l e R e p r i n t S o c i e t y , 1938.  RC  The L i f e and S t r a n g e S u r p r i s i n g A d v e n t u r e s o f R o b i n son C r u s o e . Ed. J . Donald C r o w l e y . London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972.  SR  S e r i o u s R e f l e c t i o n s D u r i n g t h e L i f e and S t r a n g e S u r p r i s i n g A d v e n t u r e s o f R o b i n s o n C r u s o e . Ed. G e o r g e A. A i t k e n T L o n d o n : J.M. D e n t , 1895.  York:  Aitken.  Augustus York:  U n l e s s i n d i c a t e d above, works by Defoe were r e a d i n m i c r o form .  viii  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I want t o e x p r e s s my t h a n k s  first  o f a l l t o my  s u p e r v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r I a n R.oss; h i s c r i t i c i s m a n d q u i e t e n c o u r a g e m e n t h a v e b e e n i n v a l u a b l e . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o P r o f e s s o r s David Macaree and Lee Whitehead f o r t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n s . I am i n d e b t e d t o D r . A a l y Rehman, D r . T i r t h a n k a r B o s e a n d A.E. C h r i s t a C a n i t z f o r r e a d i n g  several  c h a p t e r s o f my d i s s e r t a t i o n a n d f o r s a v i n g me f r o m e r r o r s o f e x p r e s s i o n . My d e e p e s t  many  i n d e b t e d n e s s , however, i s  t o my w i f e , Nazma; h e r c o n s t a n t s u p p o r t a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t all  t h e s e y e a r s e n a b l e d me t o c o m p l e t e  the study.  1  INTRODUCTION D a n i e l Defoe as a C o l o n i a l  For approximately Defoe t r i e d  t h i r t y years  to convince  Propagandist  (1700-1730), D a n i e l  t h e E n g l i s h n a t i o n o f the importance  o f c o l o n i z a t i o n . He p r o p o s e d many p r o j e c t s f o r c o l o n i z i n g A f r i c a and A m e r i c a and o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d d i s c o v e r e d b y E u r o p e a n s ; he f e l t "infinite after"  t h a t t h e r e were  still  t r e a s u r e s o f t r a d e a n d P l a n t a t i o n s t o be s e a r c h ' d  (HD, 2 6 9 ) . He saw i t a s h i s t a s k t o p r e s e n t h i s  projects  t o successive administrations,, to f i n a n c i e r s , and,  indeed, near t h e end o f h i s l i f e , p u b l i c . He w r o t e t i r e l e s s l y expansion  i nhis letters,  t i v e s o f adventure,  to the general  periodicals,  tracts,  and n a r r a -  i m a g i n a t i v e l y b l e n d i n g f a c t and f i c t i o n o f t a l e s o f t r a v e l and  t r a c t s o f empire, as a d v i s e r t o i n f l u e n t i a l e x p e r t on t r a d e , commerce, a n d m a r i t i m e merchant and a l a t e r  shareholder  f i g u r e s , as  affairs,  and f i c t i o n s ,  as one-time  i n enterprises l i k e the  R o y a l A f r i c a n Company, a s a w r i t e r o f h i s t o r i e s ,  Defoe p a r t i c i p a t e d  reading  about t h e n e c e s s i t y o f overseas  i n t h e p r o c e s s . As v o r a c i o u s reader  tracts,  newly  polemical  and t h e e n c y c l o p e d i c A t l a s M a r i t i m u s ,  a c t i v e l y as w e l l as i m a g i n a t i v e l y i n  2 colonial Not  ventures. s u r p r i s i n g l y , Defoe's a c t i v i t i e s  propagandist  have a t t r a c t e d  as a  s c h o l a r l y a t t e n t i o n . In  l a r , M a x i m i l l i a n E. Novak i n E c o n o m i c s and The D a n i e l D e f o e ( 1 9 6 2 ) and (1976) h a v e e a c h d e v o t e d c o l o n i a l p r o j e c t s and hensive  s t u d y o f him  colonial  P e t e r E a r l e i n The  particu-  Fiction  World  of Defoe  a c h a p t e r o f t h e i r works t o Defoe's  have l a i d  t h e g r o u n d w o r k f o r a compre-  as a c o l o n i a l p r o p a g a n d i s t .  In h i s  c h a p t e r , " F i c t i o n as C o l o n i a l P r o p a g a n d a , " Novak has c o n v i n c i n g l y f o r r e a d i n g books l i k e M o l l F l a n d e r s  argued  and  C o l o n e l J a c k as e x t e n s i o n s o f D e f o e ' s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c est i n colonization; World,"  of  inter-  i n h i s f a r - r e a c h i n g c h a p t e r , "The  Wider  E a r l e s p a n s t h e t r a c t s as w e l l as t h e f i c t i o n  to  o u t l i n e D e f o e ' s v i s i o n on t r a d e , commerce, e x p l o r a t i o n , overseas  expansion.  I n Dreams o f A d v e n t u r e ,  Deeds o f E m p i r e  (1979), a study o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between adventure and  i m p e r i a l i s t h i s t o r y , M a r t i n G r e e n has  t o D e f o e ' s f i c t i o n s and has tracts very b r i e f l y  devoted  a  d i s c u s s e d a few o f t h e  novels chapter  colonial  i n h i s notes. Pat Rogers a l s o a p p o r t i o n s  p a r t o f a chapter to the t o p i c Robinson  and  i n h i s 1979  monograph  on  Crusoe.  Complementing these c h a p t e r - l o n g surveys o f Defoe's w o r k s as a c o l o n i a l p r o p a g a n d i s t  are essays  devoted  to  the  a n a l y s i s o f s p e c i f i c n o v e l s to b r i n g out  their  aspects. I n e v i t a b l y , Robinson  a t t r a c t e d t h e most  C r u s o e has  colonial  3 a t t e n t i o n : 0. M a n n o n i has p s y c h o a n a l y z e d ial  i n a paper  Novak has  published i n Prospero  s t u d i e d the p o l i t i c a l  Crusoe  and C a l i b a n  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  claim to k i n g s h i p of h i s i s l a n d  i n D e f o e and  Man  and  (1963);  which  i n "Robinson  Crusoe  i s more w i d e - r a n g i n g  Pearlman  has  than  as a c o l o n (1950); Crusoe's  the Nature  t h e C a n n i b a l s " an  its title  suggests,  essay  E.  t r e a t e d D e f o e ' s h e r o as a c o l o n i z e r b e n t  d o m i n a t i o n . Gary J . Scrimgeour's  "The  D e f o e ' s C a p t a i n S i n g l e t o n " ( 1 9 6 3 ) has s e c t i o n o f t h e book was  designed  Problem  on  of Realism i n  shown t h a t t h e  African  to s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t i n  the e x p l o i t a t i o n  o f the r e s o u r c e s o f the s u b c o n t i n e n t .  Finally,  Jack's  J a n e H.  Defoe's Romania t t i e s e "  "A New  V o y a g e Round t h e  ( 1 9 6 1 ) has  endeavored  l o n g - n e g l e c t e d w o r k as a n o v e l w r i t t e n attract attention lishing South  t o one  of  World:  to e x p l i c a t e  specifically  a  to  of Defoe's pet p r o j e c t s f o r estab-  E n g l i s h s e t t l e m e n t s i n the southernmost  part of  America. Faced  colonial  w i t h these c h a p t e r - l e n g t h surveys o f Defoe's  schemes and  p r o p a g a n d a , one  may  e s s a y s on  w e l l ask whether a n o t h e r  Defoe's p r o j e c t s f o r overseas p u b l i c a t i o n o f J.A.  s p e c i f i c n o v e l s as  of  i s necessary.  The  D o w n i e ' s " D e f o e , I m p e r i a l i s m , and  the  T r a v e l Books R e d i s c o v e r e d "  expansion  study  colonial  i n t h e 1983  Yearbook of E n g l i s h  S t u d i e s i n d i c a t e s , however, t h a t i n t e r e s t by no means b e e n e x h a u s t e d . N o t i n g how  i n the t o p i c  critical  has  attention  to  4 the s p i r i t u a l divert  aspects of Robinson  attention  Downie p r o c e e d s story  and  has  away f r o m o t h e r e l e m e n t s to treat  i t and  tended  to  o f the work,  i t s s e q u e l as an  adventure  as i m p e r i a l i s t i c p r o p a g a n d a . I n t h e p r o c e s s ,  Downie r e v i e w s q u i t e t i o n and  Crusoe  a few o f D e f o e ' s i d e a s a b o u t  summarizes b r i e f l y  some o f h i s f a v o r i t e  colonizacolonial  proj ects. Despite i t s salutary  e m p h a s i s on t h e i m p o r t a n c e  of  s t u d y i n g Defoe's i m p e r i a l i s t v i s i o n , however, Downie's essay,  like  the c h a p t e r - l e n g t h s u r v e y s o f Novak,  G r e e n , and R o g e r s , colonial  i s e s s e n t i a l l y an o v e r v i e w o f D e f o e ' s  schemes and  What i s now p r o v i d e --  t h e i r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n the  n e e d e d -- and what t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s not another  examination of a single the major n o n f i c t i o n a l will  attempts  summary t r e a t m e n t o f t h e t o p i c  n o v e l but a s u s t a i n e d a n a l y s i s tracts  as w e l l  i n the c o l o n i a l endeavor.  on t h e s u b j e c t o r t r y i n g  illustrating  as t h e f i c t i o n  different  to o u t l i n e  to or  of which  generaliz-  i t i n a few p a g e s o r of a  c o n s i d e r s as f u l l y  particular as n e c e s s a r y  a s p e c t s o f D e f o e ' s c o l o n i a l p r o p a g a n d a . To  f o u r o f h i s more n e g l e c t e d b u t  tracts  Instead of  i t through the d i s c u s s i o n  novel, this dissertation  end,  fictions.  do j u s t i c e t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y and b r e a d t h o f D e f o e ' s  involvement ing  Earle,  -- An H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t  important  colonial  o f t h e V o y a g e s and  t u r e s o f S i r W a l t e r R a l e i g h ( 1 7 1 9 ) , The  History  this  Adven-  o f the  the  5  P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s and I m p r o v e m e n t s ( 1 7 2 6 ) , The  Plan of  t h e E n g l i s h Commerce ( 1 7 2 8 ) , and A t l a s M a r i t i m u s (1728) and o f t h e f i c t i o n s w h i c h s e r v e as c o l o n i a l p r o p a g a n d a The L i f e Crusoe  and S t r a n g e S u r p r i s i n g A d v e n t u r e s o f  ( 1 7 1 9 ) , The  F a r t h e r Adventures  ( 1 7 1 9 ) , The L i f e , A d v e n t u r e s Captain Singleton  ( 1 7 2 0 ) , The  of the T r u l y Honourable  V o y a g e Round t h e W o r l d ,  of Robinson  F o r t u n e s and M i s f o r t u n e s o f  C o l . Jacque  Remarkable  (1722), A  and a c o u p l e o f t h e l i v e s  N o t o r i o u s P y r a t e s ( 1 7 2 4 - 1 7 2 8 ) -- a r e one  advantage  tracts  Crusoe  and P y r a c i e s o f t h e Famous  G e n e r a l H i s t o r y o f t h e R o b b e r i e s and M u r d e r s  Certainly,  New in A  o f the Most  scrutinized.  of paying close a t t e n t i o n  Defoe's  colonial  clearly  than ever b e f o r e the i d e o l o g i c a l aspects of h i s  i s t h a t t h e y e n a b l e us  drawn t o c o l o n i a l p r o p a g a n d a  exigencies or s u p e r f i c i a l t h e y s u g g e s t t h a t he was  concerns about  carefully  c o l o n i z a t i o n . In f a c t ,  i a l i s m are i d e o l o g i c a l  s y s t e m o f i d e a s c o n g r u e n t w i t h , and  commerce;  i n the n e c e s s i t y  thought out h i s  Defoe's  i n the sense  Defoe  economic  t r a d e and  a fervent believer  o f o v e r s e a s e x p a n s i o n and had ideas about  n o t m e r e l y by  to  t o see more  w r i t i n g s on o v e r s e a s a f f a i r s . T h e s e t r a c t s r e v e a l t h a t was  --  Robinson  t h e Famous M o l l F l a n d e r s ( 1 7 2 2 ) , The H i s t o r y and Life  --  v i e w s on  colon-  that they belong to a s u p p o r t i v e o f , the  c o n c e p t o f o v e r s e a s e x p a n s i o n and  the machinery  of world  domination a v a i l a b l e at t h a t time  ( f o r example,  government-  6 supported trading  c o l o n i a l ventures  or p r o j e c t s sponsored  by  huge  companies).  P r e v i o u s c o m m e n t a t o r s on D e f o e h a v e i g n o r e d o r u n d e r valued  t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h D e f o e was  drawing  c o n s c i o u s l y on  such a system o f i d e a s t o persuade h i s r e a d e r s a t i o n was  essential  f o r E n g l a n d ' s a s c e n d a n c y . As  o f the n o n f i c t i o n a l works w i l l his colonial  l i k e Ralegh  i d e a s o f w r i t e r s l i k e B a c o n and and  essential  our  r e v e a l , D e f o e had  their  ideas convinced  and  study  arrived  a f t e r absorbing  the  activi-  Defoe t h a t c o l o n i z a t i o n  was  f o r E n g l a n d ' s power and p r o s p e r i t y .  expansion  must be  t o promote  s e e n as p a r t o f a l a r g e r  intel-  l e c t u a l endeavor d i r e c t e d at a c c o m p l i s h i n g mastery over extra-European  t o a t r a d i t i o n o r what we  d i s c o u r s e , a b o d y o f k n o w l e d g e and tion  the  w o r l d . T h i s study t h e r e f o r e r e s t o r e s Defoe's  c o l o n i a l w r i t i n g s t o t h e i r c o n t e x t s and belonging  at  the  the H a k l u y t s . T h e i r  In other words, Defoe's p e r s i s t e n t e f f o r t s overseas  coloniz-  schemes a f t e r a c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f  a c h i e v e m e n t s o f men  ties  that  c o n s i d e r s them as  will  also call  p r a c t i c e about  f o r m e d by a c c r e t i o n , w h i c h c a n be  a coloniza-  t r a c e d i n England  to  as e a r l y as t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . W h e t h e r i n v o k i n g t h e example o f R a l e g h ,  or a r g u i n g the case  from a q u a s i - B a c o n i a n  for colonial  activity  p e r s p e c t i v e , o r a d v o c a t i n g more o v e r -  s e a s s e t t l e m e n t s as t h e p a n a c e a f o r an a i l i n g E n g l i s h economy, o r e x h o r t i n g h i s f e l l o w C h r i s t i a n s t o f u l f i l  the  7  Biblical  injunction  D e f o e was  to m u l t i p l y  articulating beliefs  p e o p l e who  had  England's  argued f o r  should not  half-truths  truth  to  or  extension  and  to  the  the  result  i t , had  a c t i v i t y and  become so  the  integral  Defoe's i d e a s about c o l o n i z a t i o n  are  C r u s o e and  the  New  least  study w i l l V o y a g e he  one  cultivation, so the  behavior  to take  another  failure  to  colonial  reaffirm  the  However, i f and  his  managed t o  trans-  i m p o r t a n t r e s p e c t ; as  n o t e , i n works l i k e effects  or  Spaniards,  Indian  unoriginal  v e r y much a p a r t o f a t r a d i t i o n , he  this  gather  become  to E n g l i s h  region with conviction.  d i s c o u r s e i n at  the  of Guiana, despite h i s  p r o p a g a n d a t h a t D e f o e c o u l d embrace i t and  conclusion of  discursive  t h o u g h t t h a t i t k e p t out  someone l i k e D e f o e . Or  example, Ralegh's v i s i o n  of  about  certainties.!  land under t h e i r  in English colonial  potentials  of  indolence of  S o u t h A m e r i c a n s , had  about Spanish c o l o n i a l  form the  of  times transforming untruths  about the  the  became dogma f o r  tracts  of  this tradition, i t  dimly-perceived concepts into  d o c i l i t y of  realize  of a group  f i n d t h a t Defoe's ideas  e v e n t s , at  indifference  persistent  and  us  instance, beliefs  the  the  earth,  of a k i n d of orthodoxy which tend to  a r o u n d o b j e c t s and  or  long for  were u n o r i g i n a l  f o r m a t i o n s --  their  the  characteristic  a latecomer to  surprise  colonization  of  replenish  empire.  S i n c e D e f o e was  For  and  a d i v i s i o n of  the  Robinson it  so  8  that a purely  f i c t i o n a l n a r r a t i v e became as v a l i d  o f c o n v e y i n g c o l o n i a l c o n c e r n s as To himself  a great  extent,  D e f o e managed t o c l a i m a p l a c e  quite  and,  as  such, f e l t  them i n t o r e a l i t y .  and  be  to evaluate  t o show how  w h i c h he On  he  m a s t e r i n g the  subject  One  who  to a degree t h a t  now,  an  expert  extent  tried  has  maritime  functions  to  of the d i s s e r t a t i o n  to gather support f o r  makes h i m s e l f  o r when he  the  coyly refuses  impression  perspective  he  dictum t h a t knowledge c o u l d man's d o m i n i o n o v e r t h e  prosperity.  c o n s e q u e n t l y , we the  will  to  to r e v e a l  a the  scheme i n  t h a t he  himself  other  occasions,  adopts i n the  History  the  l e a d t o an e x t e n s i o n  e a r t h . The  R o b i n s o n C r u s o e as w e l l as  projects  indispensable  o f h i s knowledge about a s p e c i f i c  case o f the  fiction;  He  h i s knowledge  o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s , Defoe c e l e b r a t e s  the  by  were i n a p o s i t i o n t o t r a n s l a t e  e x p e c t e d t o b e n e f i t f r o m h i s e x p e r t i s e . On i n the  texts  Defoe's knowledge of c o l o n i a l a c t i v i t y  p r i n t , Defoe even g i v e s  as  on  c o m p e l l e d t o use  o f the  as when he  p a r t i c u l a r venture,  for  of c o l o n i z a t i o n .  f e l t w o u l d l e a d t o n a t i o n a l power and  occasions,  full  the  till  c o n c o c t schemes f o r men  will  on  s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y , and  p r o b a b l y gone u n n o t i c e d affairs  by  i d e a o f o v e r s e a s e x p a n s i o n and  accumulating information was,  the n o n f i c t i o n a l t r a c t s .  i n English c o l o n i a l discourse  which propagated the  a method  Baconian  of  Western  attitude spills  over  examine a n o v e l  like  t r a c t s t o show how  into  Defoe's  9 v i e w s on k n o w l e d g e In  and power i n f o r m h i s c o l o n i a l  an e s s a y c o l l e c t e d  propaganda.  i n The F e r m e n t o f K n o w l e d g e  (1980), a  v o l u m e on t h e h i s t o r i o g r a p h y o f e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n c e , Roy  P o r t e r h a s n o t e d how  "the  scarce are studies which analyze  l i n k s between p o l i t i c a l  and c o g n i t i v e  imperialism,  b e t w e e n t h e p h y s i c a l c o n q u e s t o f t h e g l o b e and appropriation;" i t w i l l links  i n Defoe's  i t s mental  be one o f o u r t a s k s t o n o t e t h e s e  c o l o n i a l w r i t i n g s , and  i m p o r t a n c e o f e x a m i n i n g t h e way  to underline  i n which " p h y s i c a l  the  and  i n t e l l e c t u a l e x p l o r a t i o n complemented each o t h e r , " even i n the  w o r k s o f someone l i k e  D e f o e who  v u l g a r i z e d the Baconian  tradition.2 B u t t h o u g h D e f o e was affairs,  and  u n d o u b t e d l y an e x p e r t on  though h i s e x p e r t i s e w i l l  be e m p h a s i z e d  a n a l y s i s o f h i s n o n f i c t i o n a l w o r k s , he was ing  colonial i n our  n o t above  combin-  conjectures w i t h c e r t a i n t i e s or untruths w i t h facts  promote h i s f a v o r i t e c o l o n i a l  schemes. I f D e f o e ' s v i e w s  c o l o n i a l i s m c a n be s e e n as i d e o l o g i c a l  i n the sense  t h e y b e l o n g t o a s y s t e m o f i d e a s e n d o r s i n g and  it  i n the p e j o r a t i v e  l e d him to c r e a t e f a l s e  on  that  advancing  o v e r s e a s e x p a n s i o n , h i s i m p e r i a l i s t v i s i o n c a n a l s o be as i d e o l o g i c a l  to  seen  sense o f the word i n t h a t  images o r , a t t h e l e a s t ,  images  w h i c h t o u c h up t h e t r u t h t o make c o l o n i z a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e  to  his  the  r e a d e r s . To p u t i t d i r e c t l y , D e f o e ' s b i d t o i n t e r e s t  reading public  i n o v e r s e a s e n t e r p r i s e d i r e c t e d him  towards  10 fiction  and  away f r o m t h e v e r i f i a b l e  and  the s u b s t a n t i a b l e .  T h i s movement i n D e f o e ' s c o l o n i a l w o r k s away f r o m t h e and  towards the f a b u l o u s  will  a l s o be  discussed  in  truth  this  study. To and  make h i s c o l o n i a l  to disseminate  schemes a p p e a l i n g  to h i s  h i s ideas about c o l i n i z a t i o n  e f f e c t i v e manner, D e f o e had  to c a l l  p r o f e s s i o n a l w r i t e r . In p a r t i c u l a r , his  p r o j e c t s were a c c e p t a b l e  and  had  to c r e a t e d i f f e r e n t  readers  i n the  upon a l l h i s s k i l l s  as  he  that  had  t o make s u r e  to d i f f e r e n t groups of  assumes t h e r o l e o f t h e k n o w l e d g e a b l e w r i t e r on designs  his tract  f e e l compelled to accept the r e a d e r  of Captain  ial  trade  S i n g l e t o n , on  illustrates  o f a t l e a s t one  t r a c t . Our  of the  d i s s i m i l a r groups of people,  readers of the  of  the  o f the  images he  the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s  world.  projects  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of Defoe's  of the  of  colonDefoe's  constructs  w o r k s t o d e l i v e r h i s message i n d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s  a d o p t s , and  he  through h i s  p o l e m i c a l s t r a t e g y , o f t h e a r t w i t h w h i c h he  he  would  the o t h e r hand,  p r o p a g a n d a i n v o l v e s t h e r e f o r e , an e x a m i n a t i o n  stance  and  h i s p r o j e c t s f o r c o l o n i z a t i o n . For  adventures the f e a s i b i l i t y i n the  them.  Defoe  so t h a t h i s r e a d e r s  c r e a t e d a p r o t o t y p i c a l h e r o who  described  a  people  structures for presenting  I n t h e P l a n o f t h e E n g l i s h Commerce, f o r i n s t a n c e ,  commerce and  most  for  l a n g u a g e he u s e s , creates still  his  to convince uncolonized  the his parts  11  Ultimately,  then, t h i s  study seeks  t o do more t h a n  r e c o r d D e f o e ' s i d e a s on c o l o n i z a t i o n i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l has  been attempted  b e f o r e . I t endeavors to e v a l u a t e  i d e a s , examine t h e i r  i m p l i c a t i o n s , and  contexts. I t strives  t o a s s e s s D e f o e ' s s t a t u s as an  on c o l o n i a l a f f a i r s  and  just than  these  s i t u a t e them i n t h e i r  o f f e r s a c l o s e and  y s i s o f D e f o e ' s p e r f o r m a n c e as a c o l o n i a l  expert  sustained analpropagandist.  12 NOTES  1 Compare t h e c o n c e p t o f " d i s c o u r s e " and " d i s c u r s i v e formations" Books,  2  i n Edward S a i d ' s O r i e n t a l i s m (New Y o r k :  1 9 7 8 ) , pp.  Roy  Studies  Century Science, Cambridge  94-99.  P o r t e r , "The  o f Knowledge:  Vintage  T e r r a q u e o u s G l o b e , " i n The  Ferment  i n the H i s t o r i o g r a p h y of E i g h t e e n t h -  e d . P o r t e r and G.S.  U n i v e r s i t y Press,  Rousseau  1 9 8 0 ) , pp.  (Cambridge:  294-295.  13  CHAPTER I R a l e g h , D e f o e and C o l o n i a l  Discourse  D e f o e ' s An H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t o f t h e V o y a g e s and A d v e n t u r e s o f S i r W a l t e r R a l e i g h was p r o b a b l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1720,  t h o u g h t h e t i t l e - p a g e g i v e s 1719 as t h e y e a r o f  publication.1  The 1720 p u b l i c a t i o n  icance,  i t p l a c e s t h e t r a c t a s f o l l o w i n g by a f e w  since  d a t e has i t s s i g n i f -  months R o b i n s o n C r u s o e , D e f o e ' s f i r s t  major success i n the  f i c t i o n a l mode, and p r e c e d i n g b y a f e w t h e b u r s t i n g o f t h e S o u t h - S e a B u b b l e . I n t h e s p r i n g o f 1720, company o f f i c i a l s had o f f e r e d and  t o assume p r a c t i c a l l y  the whole n a t i o n a l debt,  t h e i n t e r e s t a r o u s e d had made t h e Company t h e c e n t e r o f  a r u s h o f p r o j e c t s f o r the development Defoe's t r a c t ,  o f the South Seas.  "Humbly p r o p o s e d t o t h e S o u t h - S e a Company" --  t h e t y p i c a l modest p r e t e n s i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t o r w h i c h would mimic  Swift  so i n g e n i o u s l y -- was t h u s aimed a t a s p e c i f i c  a u d i e n c e -- t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f t h e S o u t h - S e a Company. The title-page also boldly outlines h i s particular proposal:  "An  A c c o u n t how t h a t R i c h C o u n t r y [ G u i a n a ] m i g h t now be w i t h E a s e , P o s s e s s ' d , P l a n t e d , S e c u r ' d t o t h e B r i t i s h N a t i o n -and w h a t Immense W e a l t h and E n c r e a s e o f Commerce m i g h t be  14 R a i s ' d from The than and  thence."  H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t , however, p u r p o r t s  t o be  a p r o j e c t ; i t i s a l s o a h i s t o r y of Ralegh's d i s c o v e r i e s exploits,  and  o f h i s a t t e m p t t o d i s c o v e r a g o l d mine i n  Guiana. Defoe's t r a c t attempt;  laid,  i s meant t o be  f o r R a l e g h ' s scheme f a i l e d ,  t i t l e - p a g e , not  due  t o "any  Defect  or i n the R e a l i t y o f the  R a l e g h ' s i n t e n t i o n was  a v i n d i c a t i o n of according  to  t h i n g i t s e l f , " but  betrayed  to the  attention  t h e n , o r a t any  time,  i n d i f f e r e n c e t o i t by  Nevertheless,  the  tract  had  because  Spanish. to  attract  e i t h e r as p r o j e c t o r  h i s t o r y . Commentators o f Defoe have i g n o r e d their  consigning  i t or  i t to f o o t n o t e s .  i s o f i n t e r e s t to the s t u d e n t  " b i o g r a p h i c a l " method e m p l o y e d , and  are a l l r e l e v a n t to a study  initiated  Since Ralegh,  a d i s c o u r s e on  Defoe's p r o j e c t , the the c o n t e x t s  of  choice  p l a c e o f t h e p r o j e c t i n D e f o e ' s scheme f o r c o l o n i a l  propagandist.  as  shown  D e f o e as an e x a m p l e o f h i s c o l o n i a l p r o p a g a n d a . The o f the s u b j e c t , the  that  the  i n t h e Scheme he  Defoe's H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t , however, f a i l e d  ion,  more  life  expans-  o f D e f o e ' s method as  a l o n g w i t h the younger  the  a  Hakluyt,  c o l o n i a l i s m which u l t i m a t e l y l e d to and  w o r k s o f R a l e g h p r o v i d e one  of Defoe's c o l o n i a l  t e x t s . Defoe's p r o p o s a l  of for  the c o l o n i z a t i o n o f G u i a n a i n the H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t i s b a s e d on and  his readings  his circle;  o f t h e w o r k s on  t h e r e g i o n by  h i s s k e t c h of Ralegh i s d e r i v e d from  Ralegh the  15  image o f R a l e g h c r e a t e d by a d i s c u r s i v e t r a d i t i o n . The which f o l l o w w i l l , as  colonial  t h e r e f o r e , study  t e x t and  focus of our  biography;  b u t we  i n q u i r y to consider  Defoe h i m s e l f o f f e r s  two  the H i s t o r i c a l will  Account  a l s o broaden  the c o n t e x t s  o f our  reasons f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n of  t h e memory o f R a l e g h f r o m i n a d e q u a t e  b i o g r a p h i e s . He  Dramatic D r o l l e r y " enacted  5).3  The  insufficient  (HAR,  3).2  Men  tribute  only p r a i s e which w i l l  like  biographers  will  "superfi-  A "piece  of  to h i s greatness  suffice  Ralegh are unfortunate  who  (HAR,  i s to s t r e s s h i s be  incited  to i m i t a t e  b e c a u s e t h e y want  record their actions for posterity " i n  a manner e q u a l  to the Z e a l they  t h e H o n o u r and  I n t e r e s t of t h e i r Country"  express'd  when l i v i n g , (HAR,  H i s t o r i a n s " become " a l m o s t t u r n ' d t h a t t h e numerous a t t e m p t s  (HAR,  39)  of t h e i r  i n t o Romance" (HAR,  Faithful 5),  to r e c o r d Ralegh's voyages  have f a i l e d b e c a u s e t h e i r a u t h o r s masters"  for  4 ) . Aware  t h a t R a l e g h ' s e x t r a o r d i n a r y deeds have " f o r want o f  and  and  t o h o n o r R a l e g h ' s memory i s a l s o  " g l o r i o u s a c t i o n s " so t h a t o t h e r s w i l l him.  histories  R a l e i g h , i s such a  c i a l ... empty... i m p e r f e c t w o r k "  as  to  i s i n d i g n a n t because a r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d  book, M e m o i r s o f S i r W a l t e r  dismissed  the  text.  t h e H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , he w a n t s rescue  pages  facts,  "have n o t  been e q u a l l y  Defoe o f f e r s h i s  own  16 v e r s i o n . D e f o e , h o w e v e r , does n o t s e e h i s own a c c o u n t a s perfect,  f o r w h i l e he i s a b l e t o " s u p p l y t h e D e f e c t s " o f h i s  predecessors  (HAR, 5 ) , he i s aware t h a t "some a b l e r Hand may  f o l l o w t h e s e s h e e t s as above,  and make t h e work  compleat".  H i s f a c t s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , a r e a u t h e n t i c , f o r a s he r e v e a l s t o h i s r e a d e r s a few p a g e s l a t e r , he h a s t h e "Honour t o be related  t o H i s B l o o d " (HAR, 8) and i s h e i r t o t h e " F a m i l y  T r a d i t i o n " which has kept a l i v e Ralegh's "inmost and b e l i e f s "  thoughts  (HAR, 9 ) .  Although the impulse to w r i t e the authentic h i s t o r y o f Ralegh's voyages  and a d v e n t u r e s , and t o c o r r e c t s p u r i o u s  s t o r i e s about t h e Renaissance p r o j e c t o r , appear  t o be t h e  chief reason f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n of the H i s t o r i c a l Defoe  i s r e a l l y making  Account,  a play f o rh i s readers' confidence  b e f o r e p r e s e n t i n g h i s own p r o p o s a l . The h i s t o r i c a l  insight  g l e a n e d f r o m R a l e g h ' s a d v e n t u r e s must be o f u s e i n t h e p r e s e n t . Not i d l e h i s t o r y but the p r o f i t s  t o be r e a p e d  from  a s t u d y of. t h e p a s t i n s p i r e s D e f o e ' s  t r a c t . The f a i l u r e t o  a c t on R a l e g h ' s p r o j e c t h a d r e s u l t e d  i n the loss t o England  o f " t h e S o v e r e i g n t y o f t h e R i c h e s t , M o s t P o p u l o u s , and most F e r t i l e Country i n the World" Defoe's  "biographic" intention  overriding  interest  Defoe's  (HAR, 4 1 ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i s soon o v e r p o w e r e d  b y an  i n empire.  i m p u l s e t o c e l e b r a t e R a l e g h , however, i s  17 genuine. Despite h i s execution of  i n 1618, o r perhaps  i t , R a l e g h h a d become a f a v o r i t e s u b j e c t  h a g i o g r a p h y . By t h e t i m e D e f o e p u b l i s h e d Ralegh's  life  that  conflict with  English  Writers  Hill  has s u c c i n c t l y  he was an i l l u s t r i o u s  the k i n g , but a l s o because  i m p e r i a l p o l i c y which  empire.4  his tribute,  seventeenth century r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s  i z e d R a l e g h not o n l y because in  of Puritan  a n d d e a t h h a d become -- a s D e f o e so a p t l y  o b s e r v e s -- a "Romance". C h r i s t o p h e r demonstrated  because  laid  ideal-  commoner  he f o s t e r e d  the basis  an  f o r the English  and s c i e n t i s t s e n g a g e d i n c o l o n i a l p r o p a -  ganda p r o c l a i m e d him t h e i r l e a d e r  and d e d i c a t e d  to him, o r prepared t r a c t s commissioned also a patron of the studies  t h e i r works  b y h i m . R a l e g h was  connected w i t h n a v i g a t i o n  and  e x p l o r a t i o n . As h i s t o r i a n , he w r o t e o f t h e " p l a n t i n g " o f nations  i n new w o r l d s and o f t h e m i g r a t i o n  celebrated  a tyrant  l i k e Nimrod  o f t r i b e s , and  as a c o l o n i z e r . H i s H i s t o r y  o f t h e W o r l d o c c a s i o n a l l y becomes s u b t l e p r o p a g a n d a  f o r an  E n g l i s h overseas empire  a finger  i n t h e A m e r i c a s , and p o i n t s  a t S p a n i s h i m p e r i a l p o l i c y , as i n t h e a s s e r t i o n t h a t  para-  d i s e m u s t be somewhere n e a r t h e e q u a t o r , and t h e d e c l a r a t i o n that  the Spanish could  e a s i l y be e x p e l l e d  from America.5  As  a p r o j e c t o r , R a l e g h c o n c o c t e d schemes f o r c o l o n i z a t i o n w h i c h would  a p p e a l t o a b r o a d s e c t i o n o f t h e E n g l i s h p u b l i c -- t h e  merchants  of the c i t y ,  anyone l o o k i n g  younger  s o n s , t h e common s o l d i e r , and  f o r s p o i l . His ventures l e d d i r e c t l y  to the  18 f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e V i r g i n i a Company. A s a m e r c a n t i l i s t , he called  f o r the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the state i n overseas  ventures. More s i g n i f i c a n t l y , R a l e g h e s t a b l i s h e d  some o f t h e  codes w h i c h governed E n g l i s h c o l o n i a l d i s c o u r s e i n t e x t s l i k e h i s The D i s c o v e r i e  o f G u i a n a , t h e anonymously  Of t h e V o y a g e f o r G u i a n a for  ( w r i t t e n p e r h a p s b y Thomas  R a l e g h ) , and H a k l u y t ' s D i s c o u r s e C o n c e r n i n g  Planting  composed Hariot  Western  ( w r i t t e n a t R a l e g h ' s r e q u e s t and u n d e r h i s g u i d -  ance) . These t e x t s f o s t e r e d  a t t i t u d e s which e v e n t u a l l y l e d  t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f o t h e r c o l o n i a l t e x t s and o f c o l o n i a l institutions.  I n J o h n Pym's P r o v i d e n c e I s l a n d Company, i n  Cromwell's Western  D e s i g n , i n t h e works o f e d i t o r s  like  P u r c h a s who p r e a c h e d a b o u t e m p i r e , R a l e g h ' s v i s i o n o f England's  imperial glory  l i v e d o n . H i s o b s e r v a t i o n s -- s u c h  as S p a n i s h c r u e l t y t o t h e n a t i v e s , n a t i v e  receptivity to  E n g l i s h v e n t u r e s , and t h e i n h e r e n t s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e English his  f o r t h e t a s k o f c o l o n i z a t i o n -- w e r e p e r p e t u a t e d b y  a d m i r e r s and p e r v a d e a t e x t l i k e  the H i s t o r i c a l  As a p u r i t a n , and a s an a c t i v e c o n t r i b u t o r propaganda,  Defoe  shared the impulse to r e v i v e  Account.  to colonial Ralegh's  memory and s c h e m e s . E v e n i f t h e H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t h a d n e v e r been w r i t t e n , Defoe's v e n e r a t i o n f o r R a l e g h c o u l d ascertained the Defoe  have been  f r o m t h e many r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e E l i z a b e t h a n i n  c a n o n . A s C.E. D o b l e h a d n o t e d i n 1 8 9 3 , when t h e  19 H i s t o r i c a l Account was  s t i l l not a t t r i b u t e d  to Defoe,  ences to Ralegh appear i n at l e a s t nine o f Defoe's always accompanied  with the h i g h e s t of p r a i s e . 6 And  refer-  works, i n the  f i r s t hundred pages or so of h i s General H i s t o r y of Discove r i e s and Improvements -- a work not i n c l u d e d list  i n Doble's  -- Defoe makes e x t e n s i v e use of Ralegh's H i s t o r y and  compares i t s author to Hanno of Carthage -- Defoe's c o l o n i z i n g s t a t e . I n d i r e c t evidence o f Defoe's  ideal  fascination  with Ralegh's works i s a l s o to be found i n Defoe's  library  catalogue, where at l e a s t f i v e t i t l e s by Ralegh are numbered J We must remember, however, that Defoe chooses to c l a i m s p e c i a l s t a t u s as Ralegh's biographer not because he i s a writer  i n the P u r i t a n c o l o n i a l t r a d i t i o n , nor because he has  read Ralegh's works, great man.  but because he i s a descendant of that  Recent b i o g r a p h e r s of Defoe have dismissed  c l a i m of k i n s h i p or have  ignored i t . The  this  l e a s t s k e p t i c a l of  them, James S u t h e r l a n d , observes that i f Defoe was  really  Ralegh's descendant, "by the time i t [the blood of Ralegh] reached Defoe i t must have been running r a t h e r t h i n . " 8 But i f Defoe's c l a i m to k i n s h i p can be questioned or s e t a s i d e as hard to b e l i e v e , h i s ploy f o r l e g i t i m a c y should be seen as a f i c t i v e his  device which h i n t s at the imaginative nature of  biography. Thus Defoe p r o v i d e s f o r h i s H i s t o r i c a l  Account a p l o t and c r e a t e s f i r s t  a seemingly r e l i a b l e  20 n a r r a t o r . The try  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of Ralegh  t o show, seems t o be b a s e d  on D e f o e ' s  itself,  as we  will  imaginative  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with his subject. The  p l o t o f Defoe's  Historical  Account  f r o m t h e many l e g e n d s t h a t had grown a r o u n d a n . S i r W a l t e r R a l e g h , an " i l l u s t r i o u s (HAR, his  the  q u e e n and  composed  Elizabeth-  commoner" by  3 ) , e m p l o y s h i s s u p e r i o r m e r i t and v i r t u e s  birth  to win f o r  country the t r e a s u r e s of the Americas.  t u r b e d b y d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s and his  i s one  Unper-  i n c a r c e r a t i o n , he k e e p s  alive  s c h e m e s , and a c q u i r e s i n t h e p r o c e s s s e t t l e m e n t s f o r t h e  E n g l i s h i n North America. makes one  l a s t attempt  The  -- b u t  is sacrificed  i s t h w a r t e d by  of s i x t y ,  own  he  the  Spanish  t o them.  p r e s e n t a t i o n of Ralegh's  p r o j e c t i o n o f Defoe's  a t t h e age  t o w i n t h e u l t i m a t e p r i z e --  immense r i c h e s o f G u i a n a m a c h i n a t i o n s and  Finally,  c h a r a c t e r i s based  on  a  p e r s o n a l i t y onto that of the  m a s t e r s p i r i t o f E n g l i s h c o l o n i a l p o l i c y . For example, the claims that Ralegh's his  L e a r n i n g " (HAR,  "books and n o t men",  projects originated  i n "the Depth o f  8 ) , that i n u n i v e r s i t y Ralegh and n a r r a t i v e s o f a d v e n t u r e r s  t h o s e o f C o l u m b u s , C o r t e z , and P i z a r r o , t h o u g h t r u e , appear  t o be b a s e d  on no v e r i f i a b l e  imaginative i d e n t i f i c a t i o n Defoe's  read like  possibly  s o u r c e , b u t on  w i t h h i s h e r o . The  an  catalogue of  l i b r a r y r e v e a l s , a f t e r a l l , an e x t e n s i v e h o l d i n g i n  Spanish c o l o n i a l  literature, his self-portrait  has  him  21 p o r i n g o v e r o l d maps, c h a r t s , and b o o k s a b o u t his  t h e new w o r l d ,  i d e a l E n g l i s h G e n t l e m a n c a n make " t h e t o u r o f t h e w o r l d  i n books", (CEG,  and h i s p r o j e c t s m o s t l y o r i g i n a t e d  225).  i n h i s study  9  In the H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t , Defoe u n d e r l i n e s the " r a t i o n a l " nature o f Ralegh's plans f o r Guiana. A c c o r d i n g to D e f o e , R a l e g h c o n c e n t r a t e d on r e g i o n s i n t h e A m e r i c a s were n o t under S p a n i s h r u l e ,  and c o n c l u d e d t h a t  r e g i o n s were e m i n e n t l y c o l o n i z a b l e  which  certain  (HAR, 10, 2 7 ) . D e f o e ' s  p r o j e c t s f o r S o u t h A m e r i c a w e r e t h e m s e l v e s b a s e d on s u c h a process of " r a t i o n a l " can geography southernmost  d e d u c t i o n . H i s study of South Ameri-  and o f R a l e g h ' s work c o n v i n c e d D e f o e t h a t t h e p a r t o f t h e c o n t i n e n t were s t i l l  u n i n h a b i t e d by  t h e S p a n i s h ; t h i s r e g i o n , a s w e l l as R a l e g h ' s G u i a n a , w e r e thus s u i t a b l e o b j e c t s f o r E n g l i s h c o l o n i a l v e n t u r e s . A c c o r d i n g t o D e f o e , R a l e g h ' s c h o i c e was a l s o by t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e u n p o s s e s s e d R i c h , as f i t  s p a c e was " p e r h a p s  as  f o r s e t t l e m e n t , and as e a s y t o c o n q u e r " a s  Spanish America  (HAR, 1 0 ) . Two comments c a n be made a b o u t  this observation. F i r s t , discourse,  dictated  i n a process t y p i c a l of c o l o n i a l  space a c q u i r e s f o r Defoe as i t d i d f o r h i s  o s t e n s i b l e s u b j e c t , R a l e g h , a q u a l i t y whereby i t s emptiness is converted into p o t e n t i a l i t y . Defoe's  observation  Ralegh's choice,  Second,  i s significant,  i n Defoe's  the "perhaps" i n  f o r i t indicates  o p i n i o n , was an e d u c a t e d  that guess.  22  Defoe's i m a g i n a t i v e  insight  worth noting. I n f a c t ,  i n t o R a l e g h ' s method i s a g a i n  i n one o f D e f o e ' s f a v o r i t e w o r k s , The  H i s t o r y o f t h e W o r l d , R a l e g h had defended t h e u s e o f conjectures  i n h i s t o r i o g r a p h y and geography:  I n e i t h e r do r e p r e h e n d t h e b o l d n e s s o f T o r n e l l i u s i n c o n j e c t u r i n g , n o r t h e modesty o f S c a l i g e r and S e t h u s C a l o i s i u s i n f o r b e a r i n g t o s e t down a s w a r r a n t a b l e , s u c h t h i n g s a s depend o n l y u p o n l i k e l i h o o d . F o r t h i n g s whereof t h e p e r f e c t knowledge i s t a k e n away f r o m u s b y a n t i q u i t y , must be d e s c r i b e d i n h i s t o r y , a s g e o g r a p h e r s i n t h e i r maps d e s c r i b e t h o s e c o u n t r i e s , w h e r e o f as y e t t h e r e i s made no t r u e d i s c o v e r y , t h a t i s e i t h e r b y l e a v i n g some p a r t b l a n k , o r by i n s e r t i n g t h e land o f pigmies, rocks of loadstones, w i t h headlands, bays, great r i v e r s , and o t h e r p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s , a g r e e a b l e t o common r e p o r t , t h o u g h many t i m e s c o n t r o l l e d b y f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , and f o u n d c o n t r a r y t o t h e t r u t h . . . .  R a l e g h g o e s on t o o b s e r v e t h a t t h e g e o g r a p h e r does n o t h a v e the  same f r e e d o m a s t h e h i s t o r i a n ,  f o r i n t h e age o f t h e  "greedy m e r c h a n t " and t h e " s u b t l e shipmen" t h e t r u t h soon o u t . Y e t , " t h e same f i c t i o n s conjectures)  painted  will  ( o r l e t them be c a l l e d  i n maps do s e r v e  only to mislead  such  d i s c o v e r e r s a s r a s h l y b e l i e v e them."10 Inevitably,  t h e d i v i s i o n b e t w e e n t r u t h and f a l s e h o o d i s  o b s c u r e d by s u c h a method, and o f t e n c o n j e c t u r e s o f f as t r u t h s about t h e w i d e r w o r l d . than innocent  transformations  T h e r e c a n a l s o be l e s s  o f empty s p a c e s i n maps t o  c a t c h t h e a t t e n t i o n o f r e a d e r s . And t h e r e intriguing possibility  a r e passed  i s always t h e  that the cartographer  would  perhaps  23 get  c a u g h t up  i n h i s own  i t y o f the p r o c e s s , unconsciously  and  fictions.  the p i t f a l l s  o f the method, i s  about the b l a n k  his conversations  w o r t h d i s c o v e r i n g e x i s t e d ; "and t h e s e t h i n g s , and  consistency,  as  point  having  Similarly,  discovery"  land  i n h i s w o r k i n g Head  (HAR,  he  1 1 ) . H e r e , what was finally  translated into reality  c e r t a i n , at  probwhich  through a c t i o n .  i n D e f o e ' s P a t a g o n i a n p r o j e c t , what i s p r o b a b l e  s o o n becomes c e r t a i n , and w i t h c o l o n i z i n g the The  with  brought h i s thoughts to such a  i s s o o n made c o n s i s t e n t and i t must be  of  t r a c t of  t o depend u p o n t h e C e r t a i n t y o f i t ,  r e s o l v ' d upon the able  spaces  that  with s a i l o r s acquainted  the American c o a s t l i n e , concluded that a v a s t  digested  complex-  a c k n o w l e d g e d by D e f o e i n h i s o b s e r v a t i o n  Ralegh, a f t e r his conjectures A m e r i c a , and  Something of the  use  engenders a l i f e l o n g  obsession  region.  o f g o l d as a m o t i f  t h e A p o l o g y show how  i n Ralegh's D i s c o v e r i e  e a s i l y conjectures  o f t r u t h s , h a l f - t r u t h s , and  untruths  can  b a s e d on a  and  mixture  harden i n t o c e r t -  a i n t y . R a l e g h wanted to b e l i e v e i n E l Dorado, a c c e p t e d testimony  o f some u n r e l i a b l e S p a n i a r d s and  e m b r a c e d n a t i v e l e g e n d s as t h a t "when men  are  f a c t s . H o w e v e r , he was  constrained  to f i g h t ,  same hope as when t h e y a r e p r e s t and desires of spoyle  and  Indians,  riches."H  edge t h a t t h e e v i d e n c e o f a few  I t was  and  a l s o aware  i t h a t h not  encouraged by  the  the the  a l s o of such knowl-  a u r i f e r o u s r i v e r s and  native  24 g o l d ornaments a l o n g transformed  and l e g e n d s became  i n t o dogma a b o u t g o l d e n l a k e s and c r y s t a l mount-  ains. I t i s probably 1617,  with the testimonies  a measure o f R a l e g h ' s o b s e s s i o n  t h a t by  when he s e t o u t f o r h i s s e c o n d G u i a n a e x p e d i t i o n , he  was w i l l i n g  t o stake  m i n e whose e x i s t e n c e  everything  on t h e d i s c o v e r y  o f a gold  he was u n s u r e o f . A s one o f h i s b i o -  g r a p h e r s h a s p u t i t : "The f i n a l  a c t i n Ralegh's l i f e  be  fraud, a falsehood  flawed  f a t a l l y by t h i s b a s i c  was t o  t h a t was  p a r t w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g and p a r t d e l i b e r a t e d e c e p t i o n  i n which  L a w r e n c e K e y m i s c o n n i v e d -- f o r t h e r e was no m i n e , s i m p l y belief  i n i t s e x i s t e n c e ."12  The  f a c t that Ralegh staked  his life  on t h e e x i s t e n c e  o f such a mine, however, gave c r e d e n c e t o t h e b e l i e f t h e r e was g o l d  that  i n Guiana. I n t h e H i s t o r i c a l Account Defoe  t y p i c a l l y p i c t u r e s a G u i a n a " r i c h e r i n G o l d and S i l v e r M e x i c o and P e r u "  than  (HAR, 4 1 ) . T h i s , and t h e a s s e r t i o n t h a t  Guiana i s a country ain,"  a  "full  o f i n h a b i t a n t s , l i k e Great  Brit-  a r e b e l i e f s deduced by Defoe from Ralegh's w r i t i n g s .  H e r e t h e y a r e o f f e r e d t o t h e S o u t h S e a Company as c e r t a i n ties ing  - - o n e more e x a m p l e o f t h e way i n w h i c h w i s h f u l t h i n k and, i n part d e l i b e r a t e deception,  s o o n came t o be  a c c e p t e d as t h e t r u t h . T h e r e a r e o t h e r ways i n w h i c h t h e b l a n k teased  s p a c e s i n maps  D e f o e i n t o t h o u g h t and l e d h i m t o c o n j e c t u r e s  which  h a r d e n e d i n t o c e r t a i n t i e s . What D e f o e o b s e r v e s o f h i s  25 biographical  subject  i s c e r t a i n l y a p p l i c a b l e to h i s  e x e r t i o n s on b e h a l f o f t h e u n d i s c o v e r e d of the world: the globe exerted  l o n g as  to discover  fiction  t h e r e had  ( s o l o n g had  h i m s e l f f o r new  i n the course and  "As  Discovery"  or unclaimed  b e e n any he  own  new  regions  world  l i v e d ) w o u l d he  (HAR,  2 7 ) . As we  have  will  o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , Defoe k e p t m i x i n g  i n h i s unceasing  efforts  a t t e n t i o n t o S o u t h A m e r i c a and t i o n s o c c u p y an  to a t t r a c t  A f r i c a . As  in  fact  English  a result,  fic-  i n t e g r a l part of h i s d i s c u r s i v e prose.  the o t h e r hand, h i s f u l l - l e n g t h n o v e l s South-Sea r e g i o n  (A New  see  dealing with  On  the  V o y a g e R o u n d t h e W o r l d ) and  Africa  ( C a p t a i n S i n g l e t o n ) embody a l l t h e e c o n o m i c a r g u m e n t s n e e d e d to convince  h i s readers  o f the n e c e s s i t y of c o l o n i z i n g these  areas. Other c l u e s s c a t t e r e d throughout the Account suggest the and  Historical  s i m i l a r i t i e s between Ralegh's  situation  D e f o e ' s . They i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p o r t r a i t o f R a l e g h  sketched  i n the  t r a c t was  to a considerable  r e s u l t o f t h e p r o j e c t i o n o f D e f o e ' s own that of h i s hero's. misfortunes  (HAR,  7,  h i s own  37),  patriotism  o f s u p e r i o r v i r t u e and  i n 1719.  Defoe a l s o s t r e s s e s the  o f R a l e g h ' s p r o j e c t s and  (HAR  "the merit"  f o r example, i s s t r i k i n g l y a p p l i c a b l e to  situation  ested nature  o f men  the  personality into  Defoe's r e i t e r a t e d p o i n t about  constant 4,  extent  7,  disinter-  emphasizes Ralegh's  1 2 ) . U n d o u b t e d l y , he w o u l d h a v e l i k e d  to  26 convey  a similar  s e l f l e s s n e s s and n a t i o n a l i s m  i n committing  h i m s e l f t o t h e p u b l i c medium o f p r i n t . R a l e g h ' s  "genius f o r  g r e a t u n d e r t a k i n g s " makes h i m t h e i d e a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e "the  e n t e r p r i s i n g g e n i u s o f the age"  (HAR,  7) and  of  qualifies  h i m f o r t h e p o s t o f t h e " F a t h e r o f I m p r o v e m e n t " (HAR,  27).  T h i s t r i b u t e comes, o f c o u r s e , f r o m t h e a u t h o r o f t h e E s s a y on P r o j e c t s and c o u n t l e s s s c h e m e s , who  had c e l e b r a t e d  g e n e r a l p r o j e c t i n g "Humor" o f h i s n a t i o n , and had his  e r a "the p r o j e c t i n g age" The  labelled  (EP, i i ) .  few b r i e f r e f e r e n c e s t o R a l e g h ' s e m o t i o n s  and  thought processes i n the H i s t o r i c a l Account are a l s o ing. how  Thus t h e m e t a p h o r o f b i r t h  riage"  (HAR,  to e x p l a i n  first  a t t e m p t i s d e s c r i b e d as a " m i s c a r -  2 8 ) ; i n p r i s o n he i s " f u l l  o f i t " [ h i s scheme  G u i a n a ] ; when r e l e a s e d he i s b e t r a y e d i n t o a n o t h e r  carriage"  (HAR,  3 6 ) . These metaphors  w i t h Defoe. For example, of  i s used by Defoe  reveal-  R a l e g h n o u r i s h e d h i s scheme f o r o v e r t w e n t y y e a r s . The  f a i l u r e of Ralegh's  for  the  p r o j e c t s " w h i c h was  Crusoe  are almost  Account Defoe  habitual  i n B r a z i l has a head  "full  bound t o l e a d h i m i n t o f u t u r e  "mis-  c a r r i a g e s " and away f r o m t h e t r a n q u i l i t i e s station of l i f e "  "mis-  of "the middle  (RC, 3 8 ) . A t one p o i n t i n t h e  emphasizes  how  Ralegh's  Historical  " g r e a t H e a r t was  not  to  be so c h o k ' d b y D i s a p p o i n t m e n t " as t o g i v e up h i s V i r g i n -  ia  scheme b e c a u s e  o f a temporary  s e t b a c k (HAR,  such c o n f i d e n c e i n the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s must h a v e s u s t a i n e d D e f o e  2 0 ) . Some  o f h i s own  schemes  i n h i s repeated endeavors  to  27 t r a n s l a t e them i n t o r e a l i t y . When D e f o e d e s c r i b e s a R a l e g h " v i o l e n t l y a g i t a t e d " i n s p i r i t by t h e p r o s p e c t s o f  new  w o r l d s t o be d i s c o v e r e d  describ-  (HAR,  2 7 ) , he was  i n g an e m o t i o n he had h i m s e l f f e l t . ed r e m i n d e r s t h a t R a l e g h was  possibly  F i n a l l y , Defoe's  repeat-  s i x t y y e a r s o l d when he s e t o u t  f o r h i s f i n a l G u i a n a gamble (HAR,  3 5 , 36, 40) assume  signif-  i c a n c e when we r e c a l l  h i m s e l f about t h a t  age  t h a t he was  when he w r o t e t h e H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t . B o t h R a l e g h and D e f o e t r u s t e d  i n t h e power o f p r i n t  when o t h e r p e r s u a s i v e t e c h n i q u e s f a i l e d  t o promote  p r o j e c t s . R a l e g h ' s The D i s c o v e r i e o f t h e L a r g e and Empire o f Guiana  was  over the uncommitted A p o l o g y was  their Bewtiful  w r i t t e n t o s i l e n c e s k e p t i c s and w i n a f t e r h i s f i r s t Guiana e x p e d i t i o n ;  the  d a s h e d o f f i n 1618, a few weeks b e f o r e h i s  d e a t h , i n a f r a n t i c b i d t o k e e p h i s p r o j e c t a l i v e and make himself indispensable.  I n a d d i t i o n , he o r c h e s t r a t e d  p r o d u c t i o n o f many c o l o n i a l schemes.  These  tracts  t o promote  the  related  i n c l u d e H a k l u y t ' s seminal D i s c o u r s e Concern-  i n g W e s t e r n P l a n t i n g , H a r i o t ' s A B r i e f e and T r u e R e p o r t o f t h e New  Found L a n d o f V i r g i n i a ,  t h e anonymous V o y a g e t o  G u i a n a , and D r . J o h n Dee's c h a r t o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n coastline. This i m p l i c i t word  f a i t h i n t h e power o f t h e w r i t t e n  t o p r o p a g a t e t h e g o s p e l o f e m p i r e amongst a w i d e r  s e c t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c and t h e e f f o r t  to bypass the court  t h r o u g h p r i n t a r e c e r t a i n l y among R a l e g h ' s most i m p o r t a n t  28 l e g a c i e s t o D e f o e . A g a i n and proposals  t o men  l i k e King  upon, Defoe turned to the  again,  when h i s most  W i l l i a m and  Harley  cherished  were not  acted  t o p r i n t . R a l e g h ' s t r a c t s were a d d r e s s e d  l i t e r a t e , mercantile  p u b l i c ; Defoe's t r a c t s  and  j o u r n a l s were d i r e c t e d a t a s i m i l a r a u d i e n c e . However,  the  H i s t o r i c a l Account, also characterized  an  incorporated (HAR, by  42),  1719  S o c i e t y o f Men  become t h e  A l t h o u g h the seems t h e v e r y nor  p o w e r f u l enough f o r such a work"  i s more s p e c i f i c a b o u t i t s t a r g e t e d  large financial  Company had  as a " S p e e c h t o  institutions  like  the  audience; South-Sea  c h i e f hope o f c o l o n i a l p r o j e c t o r s .  d e c i s i o n t o commit t h e i r p r o j e c t s t o p r i n t  model o f d i s i n t e r e s t e d n e s s , n e i t h e r  Defoe were about t o d i v u l g e  scheme. I t i s i n t h i s  context  the  full  Ralegh  d e t a i l s of  that a f i n a l  documents r e p r o d u c e d i n p a r t  lands,  and  discovering  c o u n t r i e s " . Defoe c l a i m s  t h i s document i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n from i t which are (HAR,  14).  t h e Queenes M a j e s t i e  "very  and  and  t o have the  to S i r new of  clauses  n e c e s s a r y t o be h a n d e d t o P o s t e r i t y "  of Defoe's c l a i m to k i n s h i p , i s the R a l e g h , " h i s h e i r s and  assigns"  and  territories  the  are  original  r e p r o d u c e s two  What i s s t r i k i n g a b o u t t h e  enjoy" forever  planting of  be  the  i n the H i s t o r i c a l Account  L e t t e r s p a t e n t g r a n t e d by  Walter Ralegh, f o r the  their  comment can  made on D e f o e ' s c l a i m t o k i n s h i p w i t h R a l e g h . Among  "The  for  document, i n t h e  reiterated point  shall  "have, h o l d e ,  discovered  light  that occupie  according  to  29 the  terms of the p a t e n t  (HAR,  t h a t as h e i r t o R a l e g h , and he  1 5 - 1 8 ) . The as owner o f  implication is  the o r i g i n a l  i s i n a u n i q u e p o s i t i o n t o o v e r s e e any  patent,  expedition  sent  o u t by  t h e S o u t h - S e a Company t o G u i a n a . The  concluding  of  t r a c t d i s c l o s e t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r has  also  the  further  information  w h i c h makes him these sheets  on  the r e g i o n  e v e n more i n d i s p e n s a b l e :  i s ready to l a y before  P l a n or C h a r t of the R i v e r s all  f o r s u c h an  and  accumulated  expedition  "...the author  d e s c e n d a n t , and possession, other  he  as an  Stores,  is willing  the Depth o f Water,  5 5 ) . B o t h as  has  the  mastering  organization able  to put  c l a i m t o k n o w l e d g e can  the  texts initiated  ongoing discourse patent,  on  a  facts in his t h e Company. I n  i t to  be  being  use.  s e t a s i d e as  unveri-  s e e n as a m a t t e r  by R a l e g h and  Hakluyt  t e x t of  in  of an  Ralegh's  the E n g l i s h N a t i o n ,  a c c o u n t o f t h e v o y a g e by C a p t a i n  B a r l o w and  the  as was  The the  expedition  G r e n v i l l e , a l l quoted i n Defoe's  tract.  Defoe a l s o quotes e x t e n s i v e l y from R a l e g h ' s D i s c o v e r i e authenticate  a  a v a i l a b l e to Defoe i n H a k l u y t ' s  P r i n c i p a l l Navigations...of  under S i r R i c h a r d  be  c o l o n i a l i s m . The  f o r e x a m p l e , was  with  with  s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge i s  I f D e f o e ' s c l a i m t o k i n s h i p can fiable,  a l l the  to n e g o t i a t e  w o r d s , p r i v i l e g e d and  o f f e r e d t o an  (HAR,  e x p e r t who  of  them [ t h e Company] a  the n e c e s s a r y I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the N a v i g a t i o n ,  scheme o f t h e U n d e r t a k i n g . . . "  pages  h i s p r o j e c t . D e f o e ' s G u i a n a scheme, i n  to  other  30 words, i s the he  had  r e s u l t of h i s w i l l i n g n e s s to b e l i e v e  r e a d about the  Hakluyt's  region  similarities  two  not  o b s c u r e the  unknown, l i k e  g l o r y , and  of h e r o i c  was  one  t h i n g , Ralegh's concept of  His Guiana e x p e d i t i o n , e m p i r e , and  b a s e d on  was  action."13  a more c o m m e r c i a l m e n t a l i t y .  as  though m o t i v a t e d a mixture of f a c t  Defoe, i n tune w i t h  his era,  J o h n McVeagh has  these  the  heroic  a l s o "bound up w i t h h i s i m a g i n a t i v e  the  course,  s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between  t h a t o f most E l i z a b e t h a n s ,  as u t i l i t a r i a n .  fiction,  and  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h R a l e g h and  i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e to c o l o n i a l i s m , of  p r o j e c t o r s . For  gold,  i n Ralegh's Discourse  collection.  Defoe's i m a g i n a t i v e  should  i n what  well by and  conception displayed  summed up  the  d i s t i n c t i v e n a t u r e of Defoe's v i s i o n i n these words: Defoe's t r a v e l d e s c r i p t i o n s , trade accounts, econo m i c p a m p h l e t s and t h e r e s t add up t o a c a t a l o g u e of the l a v i s h e x c e l l e n c e of n a t u r a l c r e a t i o n , r e d u c i n g i t s w e a l t h t o method, l i s t i n g i t s p l a c e , q u a n t i t y and k i n d . A l w a y s t h e r e f e r e n c e i s t o w h a t can be done w i t h t h e raw m a t e r i a l s , t o how i t s p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s can be t a p p e d , i t s w e a l t h e x t r a c t e d , t o t h e d e t a i l s o f p r o c e s s and c o n s e quence w h i c h g i v e Defoe's w r i t i n g i t s immediate relevance.14  In such a v i s i o n , knowledge which c o u l d not commercial use,  be  put  to  or a heroism which would e x i s t i n a s t a t e  tension with u t i l i t a r i a n i s m ,  d i d not  have a  place.  of  31 D e f o e , u n l i k e R a l e g h , c o n s t r u c t e d h i s schemes  explicit-  l y on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t E n g l a n d h a d now become a t r a d i n g n a t i o n , and n e e d e d ain i t s e l f .  an a g g r e s s i v e  commercial p o l i c y t o sust-  J.G.A. P o c o c k h a s p o i n t e d o u t i n t h e M a c h i a v e l -  l i a n Moment, t h e " v e r y r a p i d p a c e " w i t h w h i c h "an e n t i t y known a s T r a d e " e n t e r e d  the language o f p o l i t i c s  i n post-  R e s t o r a t i o n E n g l a n d . T r a d e was s o m e t h i n g w h i c h "no w r i t e r , pamphleteer, or t h e o r i s t could a f f o r d t o n e g l e c t . " I n a time o f w a r , i t became " i n t i m a t e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e c o n c e p t s .of e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s and n a t i o n a l p o w e r . " C o n s e q u e n t l y , "Machi a v e l l i a n " assumptions l i k e j o i n t - s t o c k companies  t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f e x p a n s i o n by  allied  t o t h e c o u r t and t h e C i t y o f  London f i n a n c i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t Defoe's  gave an u n i q u e f l a v o u r t o  colonial discourse. S t y l i s t i c a l l y ,  a s an a n a l y s i s o f  D e f o e ' s R e v i e w p i e c e s on t h e S o u t h - S e a Company w i l l r e v e a l , Defoe employed,  a g a i n u n l i k e R a l e g h , "a h i g h l y a m b i v a l e n t  rhetoric, replete with alternatives, s i o n s , " which Pocock  sees as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e p o l i t i c a l  morality of early eighteenth-century Finally,  and t h i s  total  England.15  i s a c r u c i a l p o i n t t o keep  Ralegh based h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s e l s e w h e r e on p e r s o n a l  c o n f l i c t s and c o n c l u -  i n mind,  on G u i a n a i n t h e D i s c o v e r y a n d  o b s e r v a t i o n a s w e l l as h i s r e a d i n g . I n  c o n t r a s t , D e f o e r e l i e d e n t i r e l y on o t h e r w r i t e r s and  hearsay i n concocting h i s c o l o n i a l  schemes. C o n s e q u e n t l y ,  w h i l e Ralegh's o b s e r v a t i o n about Guiana i s o f t e n  concrete,  32 D e f o e ' s d e p i c t i o n o f t h e New i z e d and  superficial.  gonia which  The  World  i s almost  b l u r r e d and  always  general-  dimly r e a l i z e d  emerges i n D e f o e ' s c o l o n i a l w r i t i n g ,  for  example, i s the i n e v i t a b l e consequence o f h i s t o t a l on o t h e r s o u r c e s . The conjecture; product  inability  to v i s u a l i s e  edge and  t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n of distant  inadequate  knowl-  d i s c u r s i v e t r a d i t i o n o f t e n prove mony o f t h e s e n s e s . As M a r g a r e t  more p o t e n t T. Hodgen has  C e n t u r i e s , "even S i r W a l t e r R a l e g h ,  of the fabulous. Without  not  that  l i k e E l Dorado d i e h a r d ,  i n t h e S i x t e e n t h and  t r a v e l l e r , was  in  l a n d s , d e s p i t e the f a c t  b e e n t h e r e . Some l e g e n d s  her E a r l y Anthropology  Defoe  or r e a l i s t i c  p r e c o n c e i v e d n o t i o n s or the b e l i e f s generated  skeptical  forces the  o r the o t h e r s o u r c e s used by  were not c o m p l e t e l y a c c u r a t e , t h o r o u g h ,  and  clearly  received information.  C e r t a i n l y , Ralegh  t h e y had  reliance  the A f r i c a o f C a p t a i n S i n g l e t o n i s thus  o f the i m a g i n a t i o n supplementing  Pata-  by  a  than the  testi-  observed  in  Seventeenth  that scholarly  and  immune t o t h e s u g g e s t i v e power  h e s i t a t i o n , he r e p e a t e d  the  exist-  e n c e o f t h e semi-human b e i n g s , f i t o n l y f o r a p l a c e b e l o w man  h i m s e l f i n the  hierarchy."16  I n a manner c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s p e n c h a n t f o r p l a y - a c t ing, Ralegh  also perpetuated  successful adventurer schemes and  and  t h e m y t h o f h i m s e l f as  the  c o l o n i z e r , whereas h i s V i r g i n i a  h i s G u i a n a v e n t u r e s , though p i o n e e r i n g , were a l l  33 failures. and  I n d e e d , as D a v i d B. Q u i n n o b s e r v e s i n h i s R a l e g h  the B r i t i s h Empire, Ralegh's p l a c e i n the h i s t o r y  of  E n g l i s h o v e r s e a s e x p a n s i o n i s due n o t t o h i s " l o n g p r o t a g o n i s m o f E n g l i s h as a g a i n s t S p a n i s h i m p e r i a l i s m , n o r f r o m l a s t i n g achievement  i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f E n g l i s h  ty overseas" but to h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to E n g l i s h t h e o r y . 1 7 And  i t i s i n the realm of theory that Ralegh  i t i s largely  s t u f f o f l e g e n d s and D e f o e ' s ity.  authori-  colonial  D e f o e meet. As b i o g r a p h y , t h e H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t quate because  and  i s inade-  f i c t i v e , b a s e d as i t i s on p r o j e c t i o n o f h i s own  I t overlooks Ralegh's f a i l u r e s ,  any  the  personal-  evasions, distortions  and r o l e - p l a y i n g . B u t i n i t s c o n c r e t e p r o p o s a l i t r e v i v e s Ralegh's i m a g i n a t i v e concept of a t r o p i c a l empire,  which  would u n f o l d  i t s t r e a s u r e s f o r t h e E n g l i s h , and become t h e  i d e a l market  f o r E n g l i s h i n d u s t r y . A l t h o u g h o f no  icance i n i t s e l f ,  Defoe's H i s t o r i c a l Account  of Ralegh's t r a c t s ,  i s i n the  along with countless other  obscure or l i t t l e - r e a d  signif-  similarly  p a m p h l e t s , and c o n s t i t u t e a  which would u l t i m a t e l y bear f r u i t  line  i n t h e shape o f a  tradition tropical  E n g l i s h empire. "Guiana i s a c o u n t r y t h a t h a t h y e t her Maidenhead" wrote R a l e g h i n h i s D i s c o v e r i e ; Defoe quotes l i n e w i t h a p p r o v a l (HAR, violation  the  48) and a p p r o p r i a t e s t h e image o f  i n h i s t i t l e - p a g e p r o m i s e a b o u t G u i a n a --  t h a t r i c h c o u n t r y m i g h t now  "how  be w i t h E a s e , P o s s e s s ' d , P l a n t e d  and S e c u r e d t o t h e B r i t i s h N a t i o n " ; i n t h e n o t - t o o - d i s t a n t  34 f u t u r e t h e image w o u l d be t r a n s l a t e d  i n t o a c t i o n ; the v i o l a -  t i o n w o u l d be c o m p l e t e ; t h e v i s i o n o f a t r o p i c a l e m p i r e w o u l d become a  reality.  35 NOTES  1  Defoe,  On  p. 176  2nd  ed.  Moore has  this  of A C h e c k l i s t of the W r i t i n g s of D a n i e l  (Hamden, Conn.: A r c h o n t o say about  Books, 1971),  J.R.  the date of p u b l i c a t i o n o f  this  tract:  D o t t i n d a t e s i t i n J a n . 1720. B u t as l a t e as 26 Aug. 1720 i t was a d v e r t i s e d i n The D a i l y P o s t : " T h i s Day i s p u b l i s h ' d , Humbly p r o p o s e d t o t h e S o u t h - S e a Company." I f t h e t r a c t had a c t u a l l y a p p e a r e d i n 1720, t h i s l a t e a d . m i g h t h a v e b e e n no more t h a n t h e p u b l i s h e r ' s e f f o r t t o a r o u s e i n t e r e s t i n i t a t a t i m e when t h e S o u t h - S e a b u b b l e was n e a r i n g i t s c o l l a p s e .  2 Defoe i s p r o b a b l y r e f e r r i n g  t o Memoirs o f S i r W a l t e r  Raleigh: His L i f e , h i s M i l i t a r y Naval E x p l o i t s , h i s Preferments and V e n t u r e s , I n w h i c h a r e i n s e r t e d  the P r i v a t e  I n t r i g u e s b e t w e e n t h e C o u n t o f Gondomar, t h e S p a n i s h Ambass a d o r , and  the Lord S a l i s b u r y , the S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e ,  t e n by Mr. L e w i s T h e o b o l d . i t was  T h i s t r a c t was  published i n  e v i d e n t l y q u i t e p o p u l a r , f o r i t went i n t o  editions  i n that  1719;  three  year.  3 M o o r e p o i n t s o u t t h a t i n a 1717 Defoe quoted  writ-  6 lines  political  from the m a n u s c r i p t o f Dr.  pamphlet George  36 Sewell's tragedy, S i r Walter Raleigh, a play not acted at L i n c o l n ' s Inn F i e l d u n t i l  J a n u a r y 1718 and n o t p u b l i s h e d  until  1 7 1 9 . See h i s D a n i e l D e f o e : C i t i z e n o f t h e M o d e r n  World  ( C h i c a g o : t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p.  25.  4 Christopher H i l l , Revolution  I n t e l l e c t u a l Origins o f the English  ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , pp. 1 5 4 - 1 6 1 . I  am i n d e b t e d t o H i l l ' s  c h a p t e r on R a l e g h ' s i m p a c t on P u r i t a n  ideology f o r the following for  summary o f R a l e g h ' s  importance  colonizers. Like H i l l ,  many o t h e r s c h o l a r s h a v e o b s e r v e d how P u r i -  tans tended t o r o m a n t i c i z e Ralegh's  life  and h i s c o l o n i a l  p r o j e c t s . The h i s t o r i a n o f h i s G u i a n a p r o j e c t , V.T. H a r l o w , for  example,  o b s e r v e s : "The s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , s m a r t i n g  under S t u a r t misgovernment,  idealised  t h e g r e a t days o f  E l i z a b e t h , a n d r e v e r e d t h e name o f R a l e g h ( h i m s e l f t h e v i c t i m o f a S t u a r t ) a s t h e c h a m p i o n and m a r t y r o f a n a t i o n a l liberty."  A c c o r d i n g t o H a r l o w , R a l e g h ' s G u i a n a scheme h a d a  " p r o f o u n d " i n f l u e n c e on " P u r i t a n b u s i n e s s m e n  and s t a t e s -  men". I t s " s u b t l e m i x t u r e o f r e l i g i o n , p o l i t i c s , m e r c e " a p p e a l e d t o someone l i k e ic  Cromwell. Ralegh's  "prophet-  i m a g i n a t i o n c a l l e d up a v i s i o n o f E n g l a n d o v e r s e a s " w h i c h  c o n t i n u e d t o i n s p i r e many t i l l ty.  and com-  Harlow's  i t was t r a n s l a t e d  into  reali-  comments on R a l e g h e x p l a i n how h i s i d e a s and  37 p r o j e c t s became p a r t o f t h e E n g l i s h c o l o n i a l basic  tradition  t o t h e t h o u g h t s o f a p r o j e c t o r l i k e D e f o e . The  t i o n s a r e f r o m pp. x v i - x v i i ,  x l i , xliii  o f Harlow's  and  quotaIntro-  d u c t i o n t o h i s e d i t i o n o f R a l e g h ' s The D i s c o v e r i e o f t h e L a r g e and B e w t i f u l E m p i r e Press,  of Guiana  ( L o n d o n : The  1928).  5 The Works o f S i r W a l t e r R a l e i g h  (Oxford: Oxford  U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 8 1 9 ) , I I p. 89 and V I I pp.  6  "The  Memoirs o f C a p t a i n C a r l e t o n :  Academy, X L I I I  7  Argonaut  (20 May,  898-899.  S w i f t or Defoe?"  1893), 438-439.  Numbers 179, 907, 986,  1133  and 1199  i n Helmut  H e i d e n r e i c h ' s e d i t i o n o f the L i b r a r i e s o f D a n i e l Defoe P h i l l i p s Farewell  (1731)  ( B e r l i n : W.  8 James S u t h e r l a n d , D e f o e  and  H i l d e b r a n d , 1970).  ( P h i l a d e l p h i a and New  York:  J . B . L i p p i n c o t t Company, 1 9 3 8 ) , p. 2. S u t h e r l a n d ' s comments and t h e s i l e n c e o f t h e o t h e r l e a d i n g D e f o e b i o g r a p h e r o f t h i s c e n t u r y , J o h n R o b e r t M o o r e , on D e f o e ' s  claim to kinship  w i t h Ralegh i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s something that i s u n v e r i f i able.  38 9 See H e i d e n r i c h ' s I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e L i b r a r i e s , xix-xxl  f o r comments on D e f o e ' s  c o l l e c t i o n o f voyages  t o p o g r a p h i e s ; t h e s e l f - p o r t r a i t i s t o be f o u n d < i n  pp. and  Defoe's  L i f e and R e c e n t l y D i s c o v e r e d W r i t i n g s 1 7 1 6 - 2 9 , I I I , e d . Lee  ( L o n d o n : J.C. H u t t o n , 1 8 6 9 ) , pp.  435-436.  1 0  The Works o f S i r W a l t e r R a l e i g h , I V , pp.  H  R a l e g h , The D i s c o v e r i e o f t h e L a r g e and  E m p i r e o f G u i a n a , e d . V.T. P r e s s , 1 9 2 8 ) , p.  Harlow  W.  ( L o n d o n : The  683-684.  Bevtiful Argonaut  10.  12 R o b e r t L a c e y , S i r W a l t e r R a l e g h and N i c o l s o n , 1 9 7 3 ) , p.  (London: W e i d e n f e l d  342.  13 S t e p h e n G r e e n b l a t t , S i r W a l t e r R a l e i g h : The R e n a i s s a n c e Man  and h i s R o l e s (New  i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) , p. 103 and  14 J o h n McVeagh, " D e f o e  H a v e n and L o n d o n : Y a l e U n i v e r s passim.  and t h e Romance o f T r a d e , "  Durham U n i v e r s i t y J o u r n a l , NS,  34:2  ( 1 9 7 8 ) , 145.  15 J.G.A. P o c o c k , The M a c h i a v e l l i a n Moment: F l o r e n t i n e Political  T h o u g h t and  the A t l a n t i c R e p u b l i c a n T r a d i t i o n  39 (Princeton:  Princeton  U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975), pp. 426, 442,  447.  16 Margaret T. Hodgen, E a r l y Anthropology i n the Sixteenth  and Seventeenth Century ( P h i l a d e l p h i a :  University  of P h i l a d e l p h i a P r e s s , 1964), p. 409.  17 David B. Quinn, Ralegh and the B r i t i s h  Empire  (London: The E n g l i s h U n i v e r s i t i e s P r e s s , 1947), pp. 269-279.  40  CHAPTER I I B a c o n i a n i s m and D e f o e ' s The H i s t o r y o f P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s and I m p r o v e m e n t s  I  D e f o e ' s The G e n e r a l H i s t o r y o f t h e P r i n c i p a l ies  and Improvements, I n t h e S e v e r a l A r t s and  Particularly Plantation,  Discover-  Sciences,  t h e G r e a t B r a n c h e s o f Commerce, N a v i g a t i o n , I n A l l P a r t s o f t h e Known W o r l d f i r s t  and  appeared  i n f o u r numbers b e t w e e n O c t o b e r 1725 and May 1726. I n December  o f 1726 t h e f o u r numbers w e r e bound t o g e t h e r  along with a conclusion  and an i n d e x  s i n g l e book w i t h a new t i t l e title,  -- p u b l i s h e d  page and a s l i g h t l y  The H i s t o r y o f t h e P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s  ments, I n t h e S e v e r a l A r t s and S c i e n c e s , G r e a t B r a n c h e s o f Commerce, N a v i g a t i o n All  and -as a altered and I m p r o v e -  P a r t i c u l a r l y the  and P l a n t a t i o n , I n  P a r t s o f t h e Known W o r l d ^ . The work b e l o n g s t o a p e r i o d  when D e f o e was t u r n i n g h i s a t t e n t i o n away f r o m f i c t i o n and p o l i t i c a l p a m p h l e t s t o g u i d e b o o k s and t o d i d a c t i c , paedic  encyclo-  t r e a t i s e s . T y p i c a l l y , t h e s e w o r k s were d i r e c t e d t o -  w a r d s t h e more c o m m e r c i a l s e c t i o n o f t h e r e a d i n g  p u b l i c and  41 offered  them " c o m p l e a t " p r o s p e c t s  various  " p r o f i t a b l e " s u b j e c t s . New  commerce, s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r i e s , and fertile  upon h i m s e l f  a c c o u n t o f the he  intended  e r i e s and subject, factures, ation"  the  task  (HD,  i s the  Desires  from h i s  horizons  for his he  only yet  took  t h e i r c u r i o s i t y by times.  a f t e r the  still  in A r t , Science,  discover'd,  an  Furthermore,  further  behind"  (HD,  Discovv i ) . His  Navigation  a l s o c o n v i n c e the  Manu-  and  Plant-  reader  that  s e r v e s t o show/How l i t t l e ' s  t o know" (HD,  iv,  240).  c o u r s e o f t h e w o r k , h o w e v e r , i t becomes q u i t e  that despite  h i s sweeping c l a i m s ,  Defoe i s i n t e r e s t e d i n , the a b o u t , and  geographical  " i m p r o v e m e n t i n Commerce and  1 9 6 - 1 9 7 ) ; he w i l l  known, t o what t h e r e ' s In the  new  o f s t i r r i n g up  t o " k i n d l e new  discoveries  "What's y e t  clear  o p e n i n g up  a d v a n c e s made i n e a r l i e r  says,  and  d i s c o v e r i e s o f the Moderns were  Improvements w h i c h are he  latest  H i s t o r y o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s  the  of  developments i n trade  d i s c o v e r i e s , the  s o c i e t y and  I n The  views  amazing r a t e .  D e f o e knew t h a t  readers.  "general"  schemes o f s e l f - i m p r o v e m e n t f l o w e d  m i n d a t an  transforming  and  the  the  "discoveries"  " I m p r o v e m e n t s " he w a n t s t o  schemes f o r t h e  f u t u r e he w i l l  reveal  talk  are  p r e d o m i n a n t l y c o l o n i a l d i s c o v e r i e s , c o l o n i a l improvements, and  c o l o n i a l p r o j e c t s . For  the  o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s science,  trade  and  true subject  i s the  fruitful  o f The  History  i n t e r a c t i o n of  empire, the m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t s  accruing  42 from advances i n n a v i g a t i o n , tions,  commerce, s c i e n t i f i c  inven-  and t h e v o y a g e s o f e x p l o r a t i o n . V i e w i n g h i s t o r y a s  process, only  temporarily  i m p e d e d , he t h i n k s , b y t h e s t a s i s  o f t h e M i d d l e Ages, Defoe p r e s e n t s i n t h i s work h i s v i s i o n of a b o u n t i f u l f u t u r e , r e s u l t i n g from the mastery o f u n c l a i m e d n a t u r e . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c k n o w l e d g e i s the k e y t o such an e n t e r p r i s e ,  f o r i t i s t h e knowledge o f  t h e M o d e r n s w h i c h i s o p e n i n g up t h e w i d e r w o r l d  f o r European  domination. Put  t h i s way, D e f o e ' s v i s i o n i n The H i s t o r y o f t h e  Principal Discoveries in  has a Baconian q u a l i t y ; i t i s Baconian  i t s c e l e b r a t i o n o f progress through technology, i t s  s c o r n f u l d i s m i s s a l o f t h e knowledge o f t h e A n c i e n t s , implicit  its  assumption t h a t knowledge i s t h e key t o mastery  o v e r n a t u r e , and e v e n i t s a t t e m p t a t b e i n g a k i n d o f h i s t o r y o f some u s e f u l a r t s a n d s c i e n c e s . as  too large a claim  T h i s , h o w e v e r , may a p p e a r  t o make o n b e h a l f  of a writer  D e f o e , f o r he i s n o t e a s i l y s e e n a s a B a c o n i a n For  t h i s r e a s o n we w i l l  The  History o f the P r i n c i p a l Discoveries  and  will  turn  relationship  instead  ideologue.  p o s t p o n e f o r t h e moment t h e s t u d y o f as a B a c o n i a n  text  t o a s u r v e y o f B a c o n i a n i s m and i t s  to c o l o n i a l discourse  t r a d i t i o n . As b e f o r e ,  like  and D e f o e ' s l i n k s  our i n t e r e s t i s i n the contexts  to this o f our  t e x t , t h e d i s c u r s i v e n a t u r e o f t e x t s , and t h e d i a l e c t i c between t e x t and t r a d i t i o n .  43  II  A convenient  place to begin  t h i s attempt  to link  Bacon-  i a n i s m t o c o l o n i a l d i s c o u r s e i s G.N. C l a r k ' s l u c i d d i s c u s s i o n o f the socio-economic ment i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h Welfare  c o n t e x t o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l improve-  c e n t u r y i n h i s S c i e n c e and S o c i a l  i n t h e A g e o f Newton:  T h e r e w e r e men who, t h o u g h n o t q u i t e s c i e n t i s t s , w e r e e n t h u s i a s t s f o r e d u c a t i o n and o r g a n i z e d d i s c o v e r y , l i k e J o h n Amos Comenius and Samuel H a r t l i b . These belonged t o a c l a s s o f w h i c h t h e g r e a t e s t was B a c o n , and t h e y w e r e a l l c a r r i e d f o r w a r d b y a g r e a t wave o f a d v e n t u r i n g h o p e f u l n e s s w h i c h we may t r a c e b a c k t o t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The age b e l i e v e d i n a c t i o n ; t h e w o r l d was i t s o y s t e r . P i s t o l s e t o u t t o open i t w i t h h i s s w o r d , b u t t h e r e was a c t i v e t h o u g h t t o o , and t h e r e w e r e many who p l i e d t h e i r m a t h e m a t i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s w i t h t h e same a g g r e s s i v e energy.2  C l a r k ' s o b j e c t i v e i s t o s i n g l e out t h e s t a t u s o f a group o f men who b e l i e v e d i n a c t i o n a n d p r o g r e s s ; n o t q u i t e ists,  they a p p l i e d themselves  scient-  e n e r g e t i c a l l y t o k n o w l e d g e and  d i s c o v e r y . T h e s e men were s t i m u l a t e d b y t h e d i s c o v e r i e s o f the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e c e n t u r y which w i t n e s s e d interest by  a renewed  i n the organized e x p l o r a t i o n of the earth's  surface  t h e l i k e s o f Bartholmew D i a s , C h r i s t o p h e r Columbus, John  C a b o t , V a s c o de Gama, and A m e r i g o V e s p u c c i . The same of optimism,  " a c t i v e thought",  mixture  and " a g g r e s s i v e e n e r g y " went  44 i n t o t h e p r o j e c t s o f B a c o n and h i s s u c c e s s o r s , whose e n e r g e t i c a p p l i c a t i o n o f knowledge would  yield  them power o v e r  nature. The  l i n k s b e t w e e n k n o w l e d g e and p o w e r , b e t w e e n  t i f i c / g e o g r a p h i c d i s c o v e r i e s and nature, Baconianism focus i n Aphorism  and  dominion  over  scien-  unclaimed  c o l o n i z a t i o n , come c l e a r l y  into  CXXIX o f t h e F i r s t Book o f B a c o n ' s Novum  Organum: A g a i n , i t i s w e l l t o o b s e r v e t h e f o r c e and v i r t u e and c o n s e q u e n c e s o f d i s c o v e r i e s ; and t h e s e a r e t o be s e e n nowhere more c o n s p i c u o u s l y t h a n i n t h o s e t h r e e w h i c h w e r e unknown t o t h e a n c i e n t s , and o f w h i c h t h e o r i g i n , t h o u g h r e c e n t , i s o b s c u r e and i n g l o r i o u s ; n a m e l y , p r i n t i n g , g u n p o w d e r , and t h e magnet. F o r t h e s e t h r e e h a v e c h a n g e d t h e w h o l e f a c e and s t a t e o f t h i n g s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d ; t h e f i r s t i n l i t e r a t u r e , the second i n w a r f a r e , the t h i r d i n n a v i g a t i o n ; whence h a v e f o l l o w e d i n n u m e r a b l e c h a n g e s ; i n s o m u c h t h a t no e m p i r e , no s e c t , no s t a r seems t o h a v e e x e r t e d g r e a t e r power and i n f l u e n c e i n human a f f a i r s t h a n t h e s e m e c h a n i c a l d i s c o v e r i e s . F u r t h e r , i t w i l l n o t be a m i s s t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e t h r e e k i n d s and as i t w e r e g r a d e s o f a m b i t i o n i n m a n k i n d . The f i r s t i s t h o s e who d e s i r e t o e x t e n d t h e i r own power i n t h e i r n a t i v e c o u n t r y ; w h i c h k i n d i s v u l g a r and d e g e n e r a t e . The s e c o n d i s o f t h o s e who l a b o u r t o e x t e n d t h e power o f t h e i r c o u n t r y and i t s d o m i n i o n among men. T h i s c e r t a i n l y has more d i g n i t y , t h o u g h n o t l e s s c o v e t o u s n e s s . B u t i f a man e n d e a v o u r t o e s t a b l i s h and e x t e n d t h e power and d o m i n i o n o f t h e human r a c e i t s e l f o v e r t h e u n i v e r s e , h i s a m b i t i o n ( i f a m b i t i o n i t c a n be c a l l e d ) i s w i t h o u t d o u b t b o t h a more wholesome t h i n g and a more n o b l e t h a n t h e o t h e r two. Now t h e e m p i r e o f man o v e r t h i n g s d e p e n d s w h o l l y on t h e a r t s and s c i e n c e s . F o r we c a n n o t command n a t u r e e x c e p t by o b e y i n g h e r . 3  45 These p a r a g r a p h s a r e seminal  because o f the c l a r i t y  and t h e  c o n v i c t i o n w i t h w h i c h t h e y s t a t e B a c o n ' s b a s i c t h e s i s : mecha n i c a l discoveries are transforming l i f e by extending science  should  t h e c o n d i t i o n o f human  man's power o v e r n a t u r e .  Consequently,  be p u r s u e d n o t o u t o f s e l f - i n t e r e s t b u t f o r  s o c i a l amelioration. This Baconian e t h i c o f s c i e n t i f i c research  sanctioned,  w i t h some r e s e r v a t i o n s , t h e d o c t r i n e o f  n a t i o n a l power t h r o u g h e m p i r e , w h i l e  embracing whole-heart-  e d l y a more d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h n a t u r e . d o m i n i o n o f man o v e r n a t u r e  F i n a l l y , the  and h i s e m p i r e o v e r  things  d e p e n d e d on t h e s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e . Bacon r e a c t s  imaginatively to the geographical  e r i e s o f h i s age a s w e l l a s t o p u r e l y m e c h a n i c a l  discov-  discover-  i e s . He s c o f f s a t t h e t r a v e l s o f D e m o c r i t u s , P l a t o a n d P y t h a g o r u s a n d c o m p a r e s them t o r e c e n t new w o r l d an  whereby " o u r s t o c k  discoveries i n the  o f experience  has i n c r e a s e d t o  i n f i n i t e amount." He l i k e n s h i s s p e c u l a t i o n s  Organum t o C o l u m b u s ' s b e f o r e across  the A t l a n t i c ,  beginnings  o f great  i n t h e Novum  he embarked on h i s v o y a g e  s p e c u l a t i o n s w h i c h were " t h e c a u s e s and events."  He e n l i s t s  inhisaid Biblical  p r o p h e c y t o a d v o c a t e t h e e x p a n s i o n o f man's d o m i n i o n unclaimed nature  over  and t o l i n k t h e advancement o f knowledge  w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f t h e New W o r l d : Nor s h o u l d t h e p r o p h e c y o f D a n i e l be f o r g o t t e n t o u c h i n g t h e l a s t a g e s o f t h e w o r l d : - "Many s h a l l  46 go to and f r o , and knowledge s h a l l be i n c r e a s e d ; " c l e a r l y i n t i m a t i n g that the thorough passage of the world (which now by so many d i s t a n t voyages seems to be accomplished, or i n course of accomplishment), and the advancement of the s c i e n c e s , are d e s t i n e d by f a t e , that i s , by D i v i n e Providence, to meet i n the same age.  For Bacon, there i s a d i a l e c t i c o f reinforcement  by which  "the b r e a t h of hope which blows on us from that New ent" w i l l  s t i m u l a t e men  Contin-  to f u r t h e r d i s c o v e r i e s . 4  Knowledge f o r Bacon, then,  i s not a m e d i t a t i o n  o f the  known but an e x p l o r a t i o n o f the unknown, a d i s c o v e r y uncharted  lands. Among the most u b i q u i t o u s  of  tropes of the  Novum Organum i s that o f d i s c o v e r y ; the word i t s e l f i s used f o r both s c i e n t i f i c and  geographic d i s c o v e r y . A  similar  i n c l u s i v e n e s s c h a r a c t e r i z e s Bacon's use of the word  "em-  p i r e " ; empire over t h i n g s i n c l u d e s p o l i t i c a l domination. I t i s p r e c i s e l y the ambiguities which allowed ial  i n Bacon's use  of these words  l a t e r w r i t e r s to apply them i n s t r i c t l y  colon-  contexts. That Bacon was  i n t e r e s t e d i n organized  discovery  b e h a l f of an E n g l i s h empire comes out c l e a r l y i n h i s s c i e n t i f i c works. Howard B. White has and has  analyzed  on non-  these works  d i s c u s s e d Bacon's theory of empire i n Peace Among  the Willows. White observes that "Baconian i m p e r i a l i s m was naval i m p e r i a l i s m ; " f o r i t was )  a  Bacon's b e l i e f that England's  i s l a n d s i t u a t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e d a strong f l e e t and  acquisition  47 more " o f r e m o t e t h a n o f c o n t i g u o u s  territories."  Focussing  on B a c o n ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f g e o g r a p h i c a l p r o b l e m s i n "The Greatness  o f the Kingdom o f B r i t a i n " , White notes  B a c o n ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t c o l o n i e s s h o u l d be c o u l d be h e l d " w i t h o u t constant ial  as was  the constant  that i t i s  e s t a b l i s h e d which  t o o g r e a t a s t r u g g l e " and  supply of people.5 Naval  s u p r e m a c y was  through thus  t o t h e c o n q u e s t o f t h e o c e a n t h a t i t e m 120 logue o f P a r t i c u l a r H i s t o r i e s "  Bacon  Another Baconian detail  the p r a c t i c a l  essent-  attached  o f Bacon's  "Cata-  i n h i s projected History of  T r a d e i s " t h e H i s t o r y o f t h e A r t o f N a v i g a t i o n and arts thereto  a  search for p r o f i t a b l e c o l o n i e s . I t  i s c e r t a i n l y because o f the g r e a t importance  c r a f t s and  True  of  the  belonging."6  essay,  "Of P l a n t a t i o n s " , s p e l l s o u t  aspects o f h i s program f o r empire.  H e r e , t h o u g h he  recognizes  the need f o r "speedy P r o f i t s " ,  urges long term  investment  f o r g r e a t e r rewards.  f u l people,  n o t v a g a b o n d s , a r e t o be  and  Only  o f t h e l a n d a r e t o be  a t t e n t i o n to d e t a i l readers  t o p l a n t what i s e s s e n t i a l  a l s o a d v i s e s them on what must be ation  i s t o be  n e e d e d , how A  final  Care-  the  diligently cultivated.  i s n o t a b l e ; n o t o n l y does he  His  direct his  to a p l a n t a t i o n , but imported,  he  skill-  transported.  f u l o b s e r v a t i o n i s t o be made o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n and products  in  he  where t h e p l a n t -  f o u n d e d , what s o r t o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a r e  t h e n a t i v e s a r e t o be aspect  of Baconian  t r e a t e d , and  so  on.  imperial policy, also  noted  48 by W h i t e , must be d i s c u s s e d b e c a u s e o f i t s i m p o r t a n c e i n E n g l i s h c o l o n i a l d i s c o u r s e . I n h i s e s s a y , "Of E m p i r e " , d e v e l o p s t h e n o t i o n o f what W h i t e war".  To p u t i t b l u n t l y ,  calls  "an a p p r e h e n s i v e  the doctrines o f n a t i o n a l  and n e c e s s i t y w e r e j u s t c a u s e s  Bacon  o f w a r , and s i n c e  greatness  expansion  i n E u r o p e was n e i t h e r n e c e s s a r y n o r j u s t , B r i t a i n h a d t o expand i t s dominion i n the Americas likely  through c o l o n i a l wars.  Spanish  a n d T u r k i s h p o s s e s s i o n s w e r e t h u s t h e most  t a r g e t s o f an e x p a n s i o n i s t p o l i c y ;  the h o s t i l i t y o f  t h e s e n a t i o n s was a l l t h e more r e a s o n f o r a t t a c k . Bacon's response  7  t o t h e o p e n i n g up o f t h e New W o r l d  thus complex. I t f i l l e d into  territory  was  h i m w i t h hope and s t i m u l a t e d h i m  f r a m i n g a p r o g r a m whose g o a l was t o e x t e n d man's domin-  i o n over n a t u r e through t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f knowledge. I t caused h i m t o f o r m u l a t e an i m p e r i a l p o l i c y w h i c h  would  c o n t r i b u t e t o n a t i o n a l g r e a t n e s s and p r o s p e r i t y .  I t also l e d  him t o f i c t i o n  isa  -- f o r h i s f a b l e o f New A t l a n t i s  imaginative response The  description  to the great  final  discoveries.  i n t h e P r o l o g u e o f New A t l a n t i s o f t h e  voyage o f a European s h i p from Peru i n t o t h e u n c h a r t e d  South  Seas i s a n o b v i o u s e x a m p l e o f B a c o n ' s u s e o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f v o y a g i n g . L i k e many o t h e r s o f h i s c e n t u r y he was  inter-  e s t e d i n t h e r e g i o n and wondered a l o u d "whether t h e r e  [were]  any  S o u t h e r n C o n t i n e n t s o r o n l y i s l a n d s and t h e l i k e . " 8 I n  all  p r o b a b i l i t y , B a c o n ' s v i s i o n o f a n i s l a n d U t o p i a was  49 i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i m a g i n a t i v e  and e n t h u s i a s t i c a c c o u n t s o f  the r e g i o n . H i s account o f a s h i p blown from i t s course t o the  i s l a n d a f t e r the s a i l o r ' s  s u p p l i c a t i o n t o a God "who  s h e w e t h h i s w o n d e r s i n t h e d e e p " was meant t o be i v e , b u t t h e r e was a l s o t h e f e e l i n g  instruct-  that undiscovered  parts  o f t h e S o u t h Seas "might have i s l a n d s o r c o n t i n e n t s ,  that  h i t h e r t o w e r e n o t come t o l i g h t . " The n a r r a t o r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the riches o f the island g o l d , and s i l v e r  -- i t s wholesome d r i n k s ,  -- was a l s o i n a c c o r d  fruits,  with the speculations  i n contemporary l i t e r a t u r e about t h e w e a l t h  o f these  i s l a n d s . The e s s e n t i a l l y B a c o n i a n c l u s t e r o f k n o w l e d g e , c o n q u e s t o f s p a c e , and e m p i r e come t o g e t h e r made b y t h e F a t h e r the  i n t h e comment  o f Salomon's house t h a t t h e o b j e c t i v e o f  i n s t i t u t i o n was " t h e k n o w l e d g e o f C a u s e s , and s e c r e t  m o t i o n o f t h i n g s ; and t h e e n l a r g i n g o f t h e b o u n d s o f Human Empire, t o the e f f e c t i n g o f a l l things  possible."9  B a c o n ' s i n f l u e n c e a f t e r h i s d e a t h c a n be s e e n i n p a r a l lel  movements. H i s t h o u g h t s t i m u l a t e d  mental philosophy  the growth o f e x p e r i -  and f o s t e r e d a s p i r i t  of cooperation  men whom we w o u l d n o t now h e s i t a t e t o c a l l the o t h e r  on  h a n d , B a c o n i a n i s m a f f e c t e d men who w e r e p r i m a r i l y  propagandists applying  scientists;  among  f o r s o c i a l reform  and i n t e r e s t e d m a i n l y i n  t h e new k n o w l e d g e f o r t h e e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n o f  the w o r l d ' s r e s o u r c e s .  The f i r s t  able exponents i n Robert Boyle;  g r o u p f o u n d one o f i t s most t h e second i n c l u d e d  men  50 l i k e Samuel H a r t l i b  and h i s a s s o c i a t e s , men whom one h i s t o r -  i a n has c l a s s i f i e d as p r o p o n e n t s o f " v u l g a r s i n c e " t h e y had abandoned Bacon's inflamed fruit'  Baconianism",  'experiments o f l i g h t ' f o r  a p o c a l y p t i c s p e c u l a t i o n s , h i s 'experiments o f  f o r the u n c o n t r o l l e d e l a b o r a t i o n o f gadgets."10 There  were, o f course,  s e v e r a l l i n k s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s ; f o r  e x a m p l e , B o y l e was a d i s c i p l e o f H a r t l i b , and what i s more t o o u r p u r p o s e , b o t h groups were a c t i v e l y ial  engaged i n c o l o n -  activity. I n R o b e r t B o y l e and t h e E n g l i s h R e v o l u t i o n , J.R. J a c o b  has  pointed  aggressive,  o u t how B o y l e and t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y u p h e l d an acquisitive,  t h e new e x p e r i m e n t a l  philosophy  efficient exploitation it:  "Even b e f o r e  and i m p e r i a l i s t i c i d e o l o g y  and how  was u t i l i z e d e a r l y i n t h e  of colonial  resources.  i t was i n c o r p o r a t e d  As Jacob p u t s  i n 1662, t h e R o y a l  S o c i e t y was e n c o u r a g e d b y t h e k i n g t o s u r v e y t h e r i c h e s o f the e m p i r e . And a f t e r  i treceived  much o f i t s t i m e a t t e m p t i n g t r a d e . " 1 1 Thomas S p r a t ' s records "Epistle  i t s r o y a l c h a r t e r i t spent  t o promote i n d u s t r y , empire and  History of the Royal  t h i s aspect o f the Society's Dedicatory",  Sprat  cites  Society  a c t i v i t i e s . In h i s  t h e honor accorded t o the  " a u t h o r s o f N a t u r a l D i s c o v e r i e s " even i n A n t i q u i t y over speculative philosophers the word " d i s c o v e r y " and  and m a r t i a l h e r o e s . A s i n B a c o n ,  embraces t h e d i s c o v e r y  o f new  worlds,  among t h e d i s c o v e r e r s p r a i s e d a r e t h o s e who " f i n d o u t  51 new c o l o n i e s . " C o w l e y ' s Ode, p r e f i x e d t o S p r a t ' s emphasizes the c o l o n i z i n g m i s s i o n great  history,  of the Society:  C h a m p i o n s , we e x p e c t t o g e t / T h o s e s p a c i o u s In the t e x t i t s e l f ,  discover'd  the  B a c o n i a n program o f e s t a b l i s h i n g "Dominion over  and  reminds h i s readers o f the o p p o r t u n i t y when Columbus was f o r c e d  E n g l i s h court which lacked  of  information  reintroduces  lost  things"  to English  t o t u r n away f r o m an  confidence  d i s c o v e r i e s . Sprat reproduces  Sprat  Countries  not  discovery  yet."  "From y o u ,  i n h i s p r o j e c t f o r new  i n h i s text several  examples  c o l l e c t e d by t h e new B a c o n i a n e m p i r i c i s t s  from d i s t a n t r e g i o n s  i n accordance w i t h  the d i r e c t i o n s o f  the R o y a l S o c i e t y . H i s H i s t o r y o f t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y reflects art"  the confidence  o f men o f h i s g e n e r a t i o n  and " d i l i g e n c e " w o u l d r e v e a l  plants, Handicrafts,  since  "new c r e a t u r e s ,  also  that  minerals,  t h i s h a s a l w a y s been t h e c a s e  w i t h new D i s c o v e r i e s . " The s c o p e o f t h e S o c i e t y ' s ties,  i n Sprat's  whole globe,  view, should  is still  activi-  be e x t e n d e d t o i n c l u d e t h e  f o r he i s c o n f i d e n t  a n o t h e r New W o r l d  "human  "that  the Discovery  behind." Sprat concludes  of that  once A m e r i c a i s c o l o n i z e d by E u r o p e , " e i t h e r by a F r e e T r a d e , o r by C o n q u e s t , o r b y any o t h e r Civil and  Affairs,  America w i l l  may f u r n i s h u s w i t h  inits  a p p e a r q u i t e a new t h i n g t o u s  an a b u n d a n c e o f R a r i t i e s . " He demon-  s t r a t e s how t h e s o c i e t y c o u l d tions;  Revolution  assist  i n overseas  planta-  f o r e x a m p l e , he t h e o r i z e s how " t r a n s p l a n t i n g o u t o f  52 one  L a n d i n t o a n o t h e r " u s e f u l p l a n t s and  contribute  to economic s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . 1 2  A l t h o u g h S p r a t h i m s e l f was the  i d e a l s and  ialistic  activities  no  of the  s c i e n t i s t , his record  Society  reveals  aspect of "High" Baconianism. Another  apologist  f o r t h e new  scientifically Ultra;  animals would  science,  i n c l i n e d , was  o r , t h e P r o g r e s s and  and  one  who  was  the  somewhat more  Joseph G l a n v i l l . His  Plus  Advancement o f Knowledge  ( 1 6 6 8 ) was  meant t o s u p p l e m e n t  H i s t o r y and  the p u r e l y  scientific  B o y l e and  Since Sprat's  contributions  his fellow s c i e n t i s t s . G l a n v i l l ' s polemical  t i o n i s to c e l e b r a t e f o c u s a t t e n t i o n on to the  imper-  clerical  the Days o f A r i s t o t l e celebrate  the  the  of  inten-  d i s c o v e r i e s o f t h e M o d e r n s , and  f u t u r e . As  much as B a c o n , he  S c r i p t u r e s t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o "an  of  to  resorts  inexhaustible  v a r i e t y of Treasure which Providence hath lodged i n Things, t h a t t o t h e W o r l d s end t h o s e who  "go  B a c o n , he  makes t h e  c o v e r y and  will  down t o see  afford fresh Discoveries"  H i s wonders i n the  same c o n n e c t i o n  e m p i r e when he  r e m i n d s h i s r e a d e r s how  t o us  G l a n v i l l r e l i s h e s the  c o n t r a s t between the  "But  and  deep." L i k e  between s c i e n t i f i c  Experiment discovered  e l s of the A n c i e n t s  for  the v a s t A m e r i c a . " L i k e  "one Bacon,  restricted  the d i s t a n t voyages of the  dis-  trav-  Moderns:  i t h a t h b e e n t h e h a p p y p r i v i l e g e o f l a t e r Days t o  t h e Way  to apply  Navigation;  and  the w o n d e r f u l V e r t u e s of the Loadstone by  t h e D i r e c t i o n o f t h e Compass we  find to  securely  53 commit o u r s e l v e s t o t h e immense Ocean..."13 Glanvill  devotes  two  chapters  to discuss  t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by B o y l e . The  specifically  second o f these  chap-  t e r s d r a w s on t h e l a t t e r ' s u n p u b l i s h e d  w r i t i n g s to o f f e r  complete account  intentions.  of Boyle's  scientific  i n c l u d e s a scheme f o r e m p i r e , as t h e f o l l o w i n g  a  This  passage  shows: Another s e c t i o n of the U s e f u l n e s s of Experimenta l P h i l o s o p h y , as t o t h e E m p i r e o f Man o v e r i n f e r i o u r C r e a t u r e s ; where he i n t e n d s t o p r e m i s e some g e n e r a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s a b o u t t h e Means w h e r e b y E x p e r i m e n t a l P h i l o s o p h y may become u s e f u l t o Human L i f e ; p r o c e e d i n g t h e n c e t o shew, T h a t t h e E m p i r e o f Man may be p r o m o t e d by t h e N a t u r a l i s t s s k i l l i n C h y m i s t r y , b y h i s s k i l l i n M e c h a n i c k s , o r by t h e A p p l i c a t i o n o f M a t h e m a t i c k s , b o t h p u r e and m i x t : T h a t t h e Goods o f M a n k i n d may be much i n c r e a s e d by the N a t u r a l i s t ' s i n s i g h t i n t o Trades; That the N a t u r a l i s t may much A d v a n t a g e men, by e x c i t i n g and a s s i s t i n g t h e i r c u r i o s i t y to d i s c o v e r , take n o t i c e , and make u s e o f t h e home-bred R i c h e s and A d v a n t a g e s o f p a r t i c u l a r C o u n t r i e s , and t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r number, b y t r a n s f o r m i n g t h i t h e r t h o s e o f others....1^  F a m i l i a r Baconian new  dicta  like  the u t i l i t a r i a n nature  p h i l o s o p h y , t h e E m p i r e o f Man  experimental  and  philosophy here mingle  with a clear  t i l e - i m p e r i a l purpose: the n a t u r a l i s t c o u n t r y ' s w e a l t h by a s s i s t i n g t r a d e and  those  i t s extension  of  the  through  mercan-  could c o n t r i b u t e to a  involved i n colonial  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . His knowledge, i n other words, i s  useful to c o l o n i a l e n t e r p r i s e .  54 B o y l e and h i s R o y a l S o c i e t y a s s o c i a t e s , however, were not  content  m e r e l y t o t h e o r i z e on b e h a l f  o f t h e new  science  f o r c o l o n i a l a c t i v i t y . A key aspect o f Baconianism, a f t e r all,  was t h e w e l d i n g  o f theory  and p r a c t i c e f o r t h e e x t e n s -  i o n o f w e s t e r n man's e m p i r e . T r u e t o t h i s c o n c e p t i o n , w o r k e d a s a n e n e r g e t i c member o f t h e C o u n c i l P l a n t a t i o n s which, along with the  Boyle  f o r Foreign  C o u n c i l o f T r a d e , "was t o  make p o l i c y f o r a n d o v e r s e e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e English colonies The ers  i n t h e West I n d i e s a n d N o r t h A m e r i c a . " 1 5  Royal S o c i e t y r e c r u i t e d seventeenth-century voyag-  to i t s s c i e n t i f i c  the accurate  p r o j e c t s a n d g a v e them g u i d e l i n e s f o r  c o l l e c t i o n o f f a c t s about d i s t a n t l a n d s .  These  p r o j e c t s had v e r y w o r l d l y g o a l s , as i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e Royal Society Transactions  n o t e on a c c o u n t s o f v o y a g e s :  The p r e s e n t C o l l e c t i o n r e a c h i n g t o t h e most d i s t a n t P a r t s o f t h e S o u t h e r n and N o r t h e r n R e g i o n s o f t h e G l o b e and b e i n g p e r f o r m e d by s k i l l f u l N a v i g a t o r s , a n d F a i t h f u l O b s e r v e r s , must n e e d s C o n t a i n many uncommon a n d u s e f u l t h i n g s upon most o f t h e Heads o f N a t u r a l a n d M a t h e m a t i c a l S c i e n c e s , as w e l l as T r a d e a n d o t h e r P r o f i t a b l e k n o w l e d g e , w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e e n l a r g i n g o f t h e Mind and Empire of Man. 1 6  Scholarly scientific the European search and  empire a r e again  discourse  i s here a l l y i n g  itself  f o r m a r k e t s and e m p i r e s . S c i e n c e , combined, and t h e r e  o f c o g n i t i v e and p o l i t i c a l  with trade,  i s t h e same l i n k a g e  i m p e r i a l i s m . That t h e t r a v e l l e r s  55 took the S o c i e t y ' s d i r e c t i o n s i e r ' s A New  s e r i o u s l y i s shown i n Damp-  V o y a g e Round t h e W o r l d , a w o r k d e d i c a t e d t o t h e  P r e s i d e n t o f t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y and c o n t a i n i n g r e c o r d s o f n a t u r a l phenomena and  the produce  scientific o f the  New  World. I f B o y l e and  the p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f "High" Baconianism  were a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d h i s group  i n colonial discourse, Hartlib  o f " V u l g a r " B a c o n i a n s were n o t l a g g i n g f a r b e h i n d  i n t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to i t . man's d o m i n i o n Empire  and  They t o o b e l i e v e d  o v e r n a t u r e and  i n extending  f u r t h e r i n g the cause  of  t h r o u g h k n o w l e d g e and o r g a n i z e d d i s c o v e r y . I n h i s  magisterial  s u r v e y o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c , m e d i c a l and  i d e a s o f t h e E n g l i s h P u r i t a n s , The G r e a t S c i e n c e , M e d i c i n e and R e f o r m , d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h how absorbed  the p u r i t a n i c  l i k e Bacon,  linked  1626-1660, C h a r l e s Webster  i m a g i n a t i o n " and how  the S c r i p t u a l  e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e New  pronounced  the  Puritans, f r o " and  o f D a n i e l t o " t h e o p e n i n g up  and  World."17 i n a sense, o f c o u r s e , the i n colonies of  earlier  l i k e R a l e g h ; b u t s u c h B a c o n i a n p r e m i s e s as a  a n t i - s c h o l a s t i c i s m , a c l e a r commitment t o e x p e r i -  mental p h i l o s o p h y f o r i t s p o s s i b i l i t i e s ment, and  has  "increasingly  " r u n n i n g t o and  P u r i t a n s were r e v i v i n g t h e i n t e r e s t intellectuals  Instauration:  c o l o n i a l ventures  the " i n c r e a s e o f knowledge"  social  for social  improve-  t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t gave a  distinctive  character to t h i s generation of c o l o n i a l  enthus-  56 iasts. Macaria  ( 1 6 4 1 ) , a Utopian work, p r i n t e d anonymously,  but very s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y i n the t r a d i t i o n o f Bacon's New A t l a n t i s , and almost c e r t a i n l y a product o f the H a r t l i b circle, ial  shows the important s h i f t  i n emphasis i n the c o l o n -  schemes o f the " v u l g a r " Baconians.  In t h i s d i a l o g u e  between a t r a v e l l e r and a s c h o l a r , addressed to s o c i a l reformers i n g e n e r a l and parliament i n p a r t i c u l a r , the p r o j e c t s d i s c u s s e d i n c l u d e the C o u n c i l o f Trade and the C o u n c i l f o r New P l a n t a t i o n s : In the C o u n c i l l o f Trade by Sea there i s establ i s h e d a law, that a l l T r a f f i c k i s l a w f u l l which may e n r i c h the kingdom. In the C o u n c i l l f o r new P l a n t a t i o n s there i s e s t a b l i s h e d a law, that every yeare a c e r t a i n e number s h a l l be sent out, s t r o n g l y f o r t i f i e d , and p r o v i d e d f o r at the p u b l i c k e charge, t i l l such times as they may s u b s i s t by t h e i r own endeavours; and t h i s number i s s e t downe by the s a i d C o u n c i l l , wherein they take d i l i g e n t n o t i c e o f the surplusage o f people that may be spared.18  T h i s has a d i s t i n c t i v e l y economic edge; the U t o p i a o f the P u r i t a n s i s the product o f the new knowledge a p p l i e d to s o c i a l and p r a c t i c a l concerns. There  i s a movement away from  d e s c r i p t i v e n a t u r a l h i s t o r y or predominantly concerns  scientific  to r a t i o n a l economic o r g a n i z a t i o n . In a p a r a l l e l  movement, these Baconians  moved away from s c i e n t i f i c  histor-  i e s o f trade to more g e n e r a l economic h i s t o r i e s and pro-  57 jects. A key t e x t i n t h i s r e s p e c t , placed cal  Baconian science  context"  one w h i c h " s u c c i n c t l y  i n i t s w i d e r economic  and t y p i f i e s  and i d e o l o g i -  the approach t o c o l o n i e s o f the  " v u l g a r " B a c o n i a n s , i s B e n j a m i n W o r s l e y ' s P r o f i t s Humbly Presented the  t o t h i s Kingdom.19 W o r s l e y b e l i e v e d  i m p o r t a n c e o f s a l t p e t r e as a f e r t i l i z e r  fervently i n  and had  devised  a new p r o c e s s f o r i t s m a n u f a c t u r e . W o r s l e y b e g i n s h i s t r a c t with s c i e n t i f i c producing economic  considerations  -- he w i l l  s a l t p e t r e i n a b u n d a n c e -- b u t s o o n moves on t o considerations. Using  the idiom of the p r o j e c t o r ,  he s p e l l s o u t t h e b e n e f i t s t o be d e r i v e d This  e x h i b i t a way o f  f r o m h i s scheme.  i n c l u d e s more c o l o n i e s and more p l a n t a t i o n s s i n c e  petre  c o u l d be u s e d more e f f e c t i v e l y  i n a tropical  salt-  environ-  ment b y E n g l a n d ' s s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n .  Such B a c o n i a n p r e o c c u -  pations  for social  tion,  a s t h e u s e o f t h e new s c i e n c e  "the enlargement  o f Dominions,"  d i s c o v e r i e s a r e now p l a c e d  ameliora-  and t h e p u r s u i t o f new  i n a specifically colonial  con-  text . As was t h e c a s e w i t h t h e " H i g h " B a c o n i a n s , H a r t l i b ' s circle  involved i t s e l f  t h e o r e t i c a l aspects  i n t h e p r a c t i c a l as w e l l as t h e  o f e m p i r e . I n The G r e a t I n s t a u r a t i o n ,  W e b s t e r h a s shown how t h e f o r m a t i o n in  o f the C o u n c i l o f Trade  1650 was a f f e c t e d b y t h e v i e w s o f W o r s l e y and h i s a s s o c i -  a t e s . The members o f t h e C o u n c i l  i n c l u d e d many o f H a r t l i b ' s  58 supporters  and W o r s l e y h i m s e l f was a p p o i n t e d t h e S e c r e t a r y  o f t h e C o u n c i l . W o r s l e y was a l s o i n v o l v e d of the Navigation  A c t o f 1651 w h i c h a n t i c i p a t e d many  acts designed t o c o n t r o l c o l o n i a l trade The  o f t h e new s c i e n c e  makers i n v o l v e d resources. can  forsocial  other  and s h i p p i n g .  " v u l g a r " B a c o n i a n s were thus i n v o l v e d  c o l o n i a l e n t e r p r i s e , b o t h as i d e o l o g u e s use  i n the formulation  i n English  interested i n the  improvement and as p o l i c y  i n the e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i i o n  of colonial  W o r s l e y s t e x t a l s o shows how a s c i e n t i f i c 1  scheme  g i v e way t o a p r o j e c t o r ' s c o n c e r n ; t h e a t t e m p t t o w r i t e  a scientific  t r a c t y i e l d s to the proselyte's  sweeping c l a i m s  on b e h a l f  imaginative,  of colonization.  Ill  The  crucial  l i n k between t h e B a c o n i a n s and Defoe i s t h e  D i s s e n t i n g Academy i n N e w i n g t o n G r e e n where he s t u d i e d . I t s founder, Charles  M o r t o n , was a P u r i t a n e d u c a t i o n a l  who c a r r i e d on t h e p r o j e c t s a n d v a l u e s  o f t h e P u r i t a n Revo-  l u t i o n and i n c u l c a t e d i n h i s s t u d e n t s t h e v a l u e s and  hiscircle.  of Hartlib  He was a man o f p r o n o u n c e d s c i e n t i f i c  e s t s and s o m e t h i n g o f a p r o j e c t o r ; h i s p r o p o s a l  s c i e n t i f i c knowledge f o r s o c i a l  inter-  f o r the use  o f s e a - s a n d a s manure was a t y p i c a l l y u t i l i t a r i a n enlist  reformer  attempt to  i m p r o v e m e n t . Among  h i s l e g a c i e s t o D e f o e was a c o p y o f t h e Compendium  Physicae,  59 a b o o k w h i c h "shows an e x t e n s i v e r a n g e o f f a m i l i a r i t y t h e b e s t and  latest  D e f o e ' s The atively  s c i e n t i f i c knowledge o f the  period."20  Compleat E n g l i s h Gentleman r e c o r d s  the importance  s c i e n c e s t h a t he had  he a s s i g n e d  with  imagin-  t o the e d u c a t i o n  i n the  r e c e i v e d i n M o r t o n ' s Academy. H i s  E n g l i s h g e n t l e m a n has  " t r e a s u r ' d up  t h e n i c e s t n a t u r e " and  has  almost  142).  b y h e a r t " (CEG,  ideal  a mass o f e x p e r i m e n t s  "the P h y l o s o p h i c  of  Transactions  I n A s t r o n o m y he  i s so  profic-  i e n t as t o be p e r f e c t l y a t home among t h e p l a n e t s .  The  " C o m p l e a t G e n t l e m a n " f e e l s t h a t s i n c e s c i e n c e i s "a p u b l i c k b l e s s i n g to mankind" i t ought, l i k e spread (CEG,  over  t h e w h o l e e a r t h , as t h e n a t i o n s c o v e r  1 9 8 ) . The  John K e i l l , and  "sacred knowledge,  ideal  t u t o r teaches  Newton and  Experimental  o t h e r s , and  is proficient  members o f t h e human r a c e Baconians,  he  c o m p a s s , and It  (CEG,  as  as w e l l  f i t f o r t h e most  228).  of  i n Natural  P h i l o s o p h y . To D e f o e , " e x p e r i m e n t a l  s t u d y i n t h e w o r l d " and  sea"  h i s p u p i l s the works  as n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y " i s t h e most " a g r e e a b l e profitable  the  [to]  L i k e B a c o n and  well  as  gifted the  c e l e b r a t e s t h e i n v e n t i o n s o f t h e magnet,  the  geographical discoveries.  i s c l e a r , though, t h a t Defoe, d e s p i t e h i s knowledge  o f s c i e n c e , was 'Hartlib'  circle  interested  in i t like  o n l y i n s o f a r as  the Baconians  i t c o u l d be  t h e W o r s l e y s and  the  applied to  s o c i a l a m e l i o r a t i o n . Indeed, Defoe v u l g a r i z e s the i d e a l even f u r t h e r than  of  Baconian  consciously stakes  60 a claim for this first  t r a d i t i o n . T h i s comes o u t c l e a r l y  m a j o r s u c c e s s , A n E s s a y Upon P r o j e c t s  declares  in his  (1697). Defoe  i n i t t h a t "new D i s c o v e r i e s i n T r a d e ,  i n A r t s and  M y s t e r i e s , o f M a n u f a c t u r i n g G o o d s , o r Improvement o f L a n d " w e r e a s i m p o r t a n t as any d i s c o v e r y made b y " a l l i e s and R o y a l S o c i e t i e s  i n the World"  t h e Academ-  (EP, 1 5 ) . Consequent-  ly,  improvements i n t h e engine  and  even t h e r e c e n t i n n o v a t i o n o f t h e Penny-Post g e t honor-  able mention.  Indeed,  schemes o f p u b l i c now c a l l  o f warfare, the lode-stone  so g r e a t i s D e f o e ' s e n t h u s i a s m f o r  i m p r o v e m e n t t h a t h i s c o n c e r n w i t h what we  s c i e n c e seems e v e n more r e m o t e t h a n t h e p u r i t a n  reformer's o f the seventeenth century. S i m i l a r l y , becomes a l m o s t  i m p o s s i b l e t o acknowledge Defoe's  f o r c o l o n i a l d i s c o v e r i e s as r e l a t e d s c i e n c e and s c i e n t i f i c  i t often enthusiasm  to his interest i n  discoveries.  O c c a s i o n a l l y , a n d i n t h e most s t a r t l i n g manner, we do become c o n s c i o u s o f how d e e p l y embedded D e f o e ' s are i n seventeenth-century  s c i e n c e , a n d how c u r i o u s l y  come o u t i n h i s c o l o n i a l w r i t i n g s . c a n be c u l l e d  from Robinson  to h i s i s l a n d environment approach,  attitudes  Crusoe:  Some c o n v e n i e n t t h e hero  examples  l e a r n s t o adapt  by adopting the s c i e n t i f i c  " . . . b y s t a t i n g and s q u a r i n g e v e r y t h i n g b y R e a s o n ,  and b y m a k i n g t h e most r a t i o n a l Judgment o f t h i n g s , Man  they  may be i n t i m e M a s t e r  every  o f e v e r y m e c h a n i c k A r t " (RC, 6 8 ) .  L a t e r , w h i l e m e d i t a t i n g on what c o u r s e t o t a k e " t o know t h e  61 V e r t u e and Goodness o f any o f t h e F r u i t s o r P l a n t s w h i c h I should  d i s c o v e r , " Crusoe r e g r e t s  Observation" ever,  while  i n Brazil  t h a t he h a d made " s o l i t t l e  (RC, 9 9 ) . He s o o n l e a r n s , how-  t o o b s e r v e and r e c o r d w i t h t h e eye o f t h e n a t u r a l i s t ,  as h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e a s o n s i n h i s i s l a n d  (RC, 106).,  and  (RC, 1 0 9 ) .  h i s a c c o u n t s o f i t s f l o r a and f a u n a s u g g e s t Nevertheless,  Discoveries  i t i s i n The H i s t o r y o f t h e P r i n c i p a l  t h a t D e f o e made h i s o n l y  sustained  l i n k h i m s e l f w i t h t h e new s c i e n c e . I n d o i n g ing  science,  stance,  attempt t o  s o , and i n m i x -  t r a d e , and e m p i r e , i n assuming a m i l l e n i a l  i n advocating  unclaimed nature,  a r e t u r n o f man's d o m i n i o n o v e r  i n stressing the increase  power t h r o u g h s c i e n c e  and t e c h n o l o g y ,  of national  i n h i s b e l i e f that the  Europeans needed t o r i s e  to the opportunities offered  by  D e f o e was w r i t i n g a B a c o n i a n t e x t ,  t h e Age o f D i s c o v e r y ,  a l b e i t a " v u l g a r " o n e . Now t h a t we h a v e p r o v i d e d  them  the context  o f o u r t e x t , i t i s t o i t t h a t we must t u r n .  IV  L i k e t h e B a c o n i a n s , D e f o e d e f i n e s k n o w l e d g e i n The History of the P r i n c i p a l Discoveries arian,  imperialistic  i s going  utilit-  t e r m s . H i s i n t e r e s t i s i n " u s e f u l know-  ledge" which has c o n t r i b u t e d this  i n essentially  t o " t h e good o f m a n k i n d " and  to direct h i shistory of useful discoveries  62 (HD,  i i i ) . I t i s h i s hope t h a t many o f t h e s e  d i s c o v e r i e s may gradual  be  " p r o f i t a b l y r e v i v d " (HD, 1  improvement o f the w o r l d  c o u n t r i e s c a n n o t be  forgotten  v i ) . The  through d i s c o v e r i e s  deserves a h i s t o r y because without fertile  now  such knowledge s e v e r a l  reclaimed  and  replanted,  c o u n t r i e s " w h i c h w o u l d a b u n d a n t l y s a t i s f y as w e l l ambition,  as o u r  a v a r i c e by  f u r t h e r I m p r o v e m e n t " (HD, A pervasive  t h e i r Product  assumption of Defoe's H i s t o r y of  c o u l d command n a t u r e needs. In a l i t e r a l  nature's  Capacity  and  a p p l y i n g knowledge  shape the w o r l d  as w e l l as  t o meet  imaginative  men  their  s e n s e , men's  e x t e n d e d t h r o u g h an a c t i v e s e a r c h  i n the case of the C a r t h a g i n i a n s ,  Defoe g l o r i f i e s ,  into  whose s k i l l s  ment o f t h e i r N a v i g a t i o n was  i n n a v i g a t i o n g a v e them  an  an  improve-  improvement t o t h e i r  Power,  e x t e n d e d t h e i r E m p i r e w h e r e v e r t h e i r s h i p s w o u l d come"  (HD,  43). This  i s one  o f t h e r e a s o n s why  the  first  two  o f the work r e t u r n o b s e s s i v e l y t o the a c h i e v e m e n t s o f Phoenicians  and  their successors,  the C a r t h a g i n i a n s :  " t h e i r eager d e s i r e to improve i n knowledge" they i n power, t h e r e b y to  as  a nation  a d v a n t a g e i n c o l o n i a l power o v e r t h e Romans: " t h e  and  the  s e c r e t s . Knowledge, i n o t h e r words, i s seen  s t r e n g t h , as  of  4).  P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s i s t h a t by  e m p i r e c o u l d be  and  our  Defoe  (HD,  74).  becoming a p e r p e t u a l  source  of  parts the  through  increased inspiration  63 Defoe r e t a i n s t h e m i l l e n i a l , the Baconians.  scriptural  framework o f  We h a v e a l r e a d y s e e n how B a c o n  enlisted  B i b l i c a l prophecy i n t h e cause o f d i s c o v e r y by q u o t i n g  from  D a n i e l and how G l a n v i l l r e t u r n e d t o t h e B i b l e t o l i n k schemes f o r o v e r s e a s  e x p l o r a t i o n w i t h God's d e s i g n  f o r the  u n i v e r s e . L i k e them, D e f o e s e e s t h e p u r s u i t o f d i s c o v e r i e s as p a r t o f man's m i s s i o n on e a r t h . God d e l i v e r e d t h e g l o b e t o man a s a " U n i v e r s a l B l a n k " w h i c h w o u l d y i e l d ures  only after  "people  it,  so t h a t " a l l  "further enquiry"  and s p r e a d  i t s treas-  (HD, 1 ) . He a s k e d  a numerous r a c e u p o n i t . "  men t o  God schemed  t h e i n t r i n s i c k W e a l t h w h i c h Heaven f u r n i s h e d  t h e G l o b e w i t h [ c o u l d ] be f o u n d  o u t a n d made u s e o f " (HD,  6 ) . B i b l i c a l h i s t o r y p r o v i d e d examples o f t h e c o l o n i z i n g and p l a n t i n g o f t h e w o r l d b y Noah's d e s c e n d a n t s . had  The P h o e n i c i a n s  f o l l o w e d t h e d i c t a t e s o f t h e i r M a k e r -- " t o r e p l e n i s h  t h e e a r t h " (HD, 8 0 ) . B u t i t was o n l y i n r e c e n t y e a r s , a n d a c c o r d i n g t o God's d e s i g n s , t h a t man was i n a p o s i t i o n t o fulfil  Biblical  p r o p h e c y and p o s s e s s  great d i s c o v e r i e s . I t i s obvious open'd t h e s e T r e a s u r e s  the world  through the  t o D e f o e t h a t "Heaven h a s  o f Wisdom and k n o w l e g e t o t h e w o r l d "  f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t r a d e , commerce, a n d c o l o n i z a t i o n (HD, 306). spread him  Typically,  the spread  o f knowledge i s equated w i t h the  o f t h e European a l l over  t o s e e how " t h e y  p r e p a r i n g themselves  the world;  took t h e Alarm  almost  i t i s amazing f o r a l l together,  a s i t w e r e on a s u d d e n , o r b y a g e n e r a l  64 P o s s e s s i o n o r r a t h e r I n s p i r a t i o n t o spread Knowledge  through  t h e E a r t h . . . " (HD, 2 3 7 ) . The  b e l i e f t h a t human h i s t o r y  f o r m s a movement t o w a r d s  a d e s i r a b l e f u t u r e w h i c h c o u l d be a c h i e v e d  through the  a p p l i c a t i o n o f knowledge i n t h e cause o f d i s c o v e r i e s a l s o l i n k s Defoe t o t h e Baconians.  Science  i n h i s v i e w has been  c o n t r i b u t i n g more t o human w e l f a r e i n h i s age t h a n  ever  b e f o r e ; a d v a n c e s i n m a t h e m a t i c s , a s t r o n o m y and n a v i g a t i o n have t r a n s f o r m e d  t h e c o n d i t i o n o f man's e x i s t e n c e on t h e  e a r t h . He i s c o n f i d e n t , h o w e v e r , o f a d v a n c e s i n f u t u r e a g e s which w i l l  make t h o s e o f h i s own age o b s o l e t e .  he e x p r e s s e s world;  h i s confidence  Repeatedly,  i n the d i s c o v e r y o f another  new  t h e o n l y b a r r i e r t o s u c h a d i s c o v e r y was t h e e s t a b -  l i s h m e n t o f a n e x a c t method o f d e t e r m i n i n g Already, the f a c t that the "Northern  longitude.  N a t i o n s " had been  p l a c e d i n a p o s i t i o n o f s u p e r i o r i t y w h i c h a l l o w e d them t o " d e s p i s e t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d " who w e r e i g n o r a n t o f t h e d i s c o v e r i e s o f h i s age c o n f i r m e d ledge  t o work wonders i n t h i s The  t o h i m t h e power o f know-  life  (HD, 3 0 5 ) .  r a p i d a d v a n c e s made i n n a v i g a t i o n s i n c e t h e M i d d l e  Ages and t h e consequences t h e y had i n c h a n g i n g  the world  e x e m p l i f y t h e power o f d i s c o v e r i e s . A s was t h e c a s e Bacon and t h e B a c o n i a n s ,  with  D e f o e i s aware t h a t t h e e x t e n s i o n  o f t h e E u r o p e a n ' s e m p i r e d e p e n d s on c o n t r o l o f t h e h i g h seas. Defoe thus attempts  t o w r i t e , however u n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  65 and  i n a d e q u a t e l y , a h i s t o r y o f n a v i g a t i o n . He p o i n t s o u t  that very l i t t l e tion t i l l  i n developing  naviga-  t h e modern e r a when t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e l o a d s t o n e  revolutionized ically,  had been a c c o m p l i s h e d  t h i s branch  he f e e l s  techniques  of the u s e f u l arts. Characterist-  t h a t i t was h e a v e n ' s d e s i g n t o k e e p t h e  o f mathematical  n a v i g a t i o n f o r h i s age (HD,  1 1 9 ) . He i s q u i c k t o p o i n t o u t how t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f V e n i c e , Germany, S p a i n , P o r t u g a l , H o l l a n d , a n d E n g l a n d  depended on  t h e i m p r o v e m e n t s made i n n a v i g a t i o n (HD, 2 3 1 ) . Defoe g i v e s f u l l  credit  t o Copernicus  t h e new a g e ; he d i s c u s s e s C o p e r n i c u s '  as t h e h e r a l d o f  c o n t r i b u t i o n and t h a t  o f Tyco Brahe and e m p h a s i z e s t h e c e n t r a l  importance  ofthe  t e l e s c o p e i n t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e new w o r l d . He d e c l a r e s t h a t b e t w e e n 1400 a n d 1600 " a l m o s t illustrious  a l l t h e g r e a t and most  I m p r o v e m e n t s i n t h e s u b l i m e s t p a r t s o f know-  ledge have been found parts o f the World"  out, o r a t l e a s t extended i n these  (HD, 2 2 7 ) . T h e s e i n c l u d e t h e d i s c o v e r y  of p r i n t i n g ,  t h e c o m p a s s , t h e i m p r o v e m e n t s made i n " t h e a r t  of warfare",  and, o f course,  t h e d i s c o v e r i e s made i n t h e new  w o r l d . Q u i t e a s much a s B a c o n a n d t h e B a c o n i a n s ,  Defoe's  i m a g i n a t i o n responds f u l l y t o these d i s c o v e r i e s ; they his  mind w i t h schemes  of the world  fill  f o rthe appropriation o f the resources  f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f man. He i s amazed  at the  d i f f e r e n c e s t h e y h a v e made f o r man's f u t u r e and t h e r a p i d s t r i d e s man h a s b e e n a b l e t o t a k e t h r o u g h  them.  66 I n o t h e r w o r d s , D e f o e s p e a k s as a Modern t a k i n g up a well-defined position since the Renaissance. ing Phoenicians  i n t h e c o n t r o v e r s y w h i c h had e r u p t e d Apart  from the e n t e r p r i s i n g ,  coloniz-  and t h e C a r t h a g i n i a n s , Defoe has v e r y  praise f o rancient c i v i l i z a t i o n s .  In h i s b e l i t t l i n g  little  o f the  a c h i e v e m e n t s o f t h e A n c i e n t s and h i s d i s m i s s a l o f t h e philosophy For  o f the schoolmen, Defoe i s a g a i n q u i t e  t h e Moderns a r e n o t o n l y h e i r s  Ancients possessed mechanical  Baconian.  t o whatever l e a r n i n g the  but a l s o equipped  w i t h knowledge and  a i d s w h i c h h a d g i v e n them immense a d v a n t a g e s i n  t h e i r b i d t o r e s t o r e man's d o m i n i o n o v e r  nature.  Defoe cannot r e s i s t mocking t h e knowledge o f t h e A n c i e n t s , a s when he p r o v e s  how s m a l l S t . P a u l ' s  "Very  great  V e s s e l " d e s c r i b e d i n A c t s r e a l l y was (HD, 3 7 ) ; o r when he d i s m i s s e s t h e b e l i e f o f S e n e c a , V e r g i l , J u v e n a l and o t h e r Ancients  t h a t T h u l e was t h e l i m i t  L i k e B a c o n , he i s c o n d e s c e n d i n g travels;  "would b o l d l y attempt  aids,  (HD, 3 8 ) .  i n h i s reference to ancient  t h e Roman s e a - t r a d e w i t h I n d i a , f o r e x a m p l e , i s  d i s m i s s e d a s no more h o n o r a b l e  (HD,  o f the world  81). With  t h a n what a c o n t e m p o r a r y  a t any t i m e  i n a Gravesend wherry"  t h e i r maps a n d c h a r t s and o t h e r n a v i g a t i o n a l  t h e M o d e r n s h a v e made " s u c h  v a s t conquests  and D i s c o v -  e r i e s a s no H i s t o r y c a n p a r a l l e l ;  not a l l the r a p i d  Conquests o f Alexander  o r o f Cyrus b e f o r e him;  the Great,  not J u l i u s Caesar w i t h h i s boasted  motto v e n i , v i d i ,  vici  67 ever came up to the conquering Army o f Cortez and P i z a r r o " (HD, 273). At times, i t i s t r u e , he w i l l g i v e c r e d i t to the A n c i e n t s f o r t h e i r knowledge i n Astronomy  and t h e i r courage,  but more o f t e n than not, he d i s m i s s e s the t r a d e , commerce, s c i e n c e s , and e d u c a t i o n o f " D u l l A n t i q u i t y " (HD, 76). As w i t h the Baconians, s c i e n c e , t r a d e , and empire are c l o s e l y l i n k e d i n Defoe's world-view. The Phoenicians i l l u s t r a t e i d e a l l y how  the three can be i n t e r - r e l a t e d :  "their  Correspondence n e c e s s a r i l y begat Trade, Trade begat Navigat i o n , N a v i g a t i o n by making D i s c o v e r i e s begat P l a n t a t i o n s , and remote P l a n t a t i o n s again i n c r e a s ' d Correspondence"  (HD,  80). Adopting the a n t i - h e r o i c view c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f P u r i t ans, Defoe d i s m i s s e s the achievements o f the Greeks and the Romans. As f a r as he i s concerned, Alexander the Great or the Roman conquerors showed no i n t e r e s t i n c o l o n i z a t i o n , conquering only f o r the sake o f conquest. They are, theref o r e , t r e a t e d c o o l l y by Defoe. Thus Caesar's conquest o f the North o f Europe i s s l i g h t e d s i n c e i t i s not "a d i s c o v e r y o f Commerce but a mere p o s s e s s i o n by Armies f o r Conquests" 169). The Portugese, on the other hand, had  (HD,  demonstrated  r e c e n t l y the p r o f i t a b i l i t y , and thus the d e s i r a b i l i t y , o f a l i n k between o r g a n i z e d d i s c o v e r y , commerce, and  colonies.  Defoe's a d m i r a t i o n f o r p r o f i t a b l e knowledge,  f o r know-  ledge which l e d to mastery over nature, h i s confidence i n progress through trade and o r g a n i z e d d i s c o v e r y , h i s admira-  68 tion  f o r t h e M o d e r n s and  together  c o n t e m p t f o r t h e A n c i e n t s , a l l come  i n t h i s very r h e t o r i c a l  p a s s a g e o f The  History of  the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s : What was t h e W o r l d b e f o r e ? And t o what w e r e t h e Heads and Hands o f M a n k i n d a p p l y d ? The R i c h had no Commerce, t h e P o o r no Employment; War and t h e Sword was t h e g r e a t F i e l d o f H o n o u r , and t h e S t a g e o f P r e f e r m e n t ; and y o u h a v e s c a r c e a Man e m i n e n t i n t h e W o r l d f o r any t h i n g b e f o r e t h a t T i m e , b u t f o r a f u r i o u s o u t r a g i o u s f a l l i n g upon h i s f e l l o w C r e a t u r e s , l i k e N i m r o d and h i s S u c c e s s o r s o f modern Fame. Where w e r e t h e Men t h a t a r r i v ' d t o C h a r a c t e r s , t o Fame, and t o D i s t i n c t i o n , by T r a d e , by t h e M a t h e m a t i c k s , by t h e k n o w l e d g e o f n a t u r a l o r e x p e r i m e n t a l P h i l o s o p h y ? Where was t h e S i r W a l t e r R a l e i g h s , t h e V e r u l a m s , t h e B o y l s , o r Newtons o f those Ages? N a t u r e b e i n g not e n q u i r ' d i n t o , d i s c o v e r ' d none o f h e r s e c r e t s t o them, t h e y n e i t h e r knew, o r s o u g h t t o know, what now i s t h e F o u n t a i n o f a l l human k n o w l e d g e , and t h e g r e a t M i s t e r y f o r t h e w i s e s t Man t o s e a r c h i n t o , I mean N a t u r e (HD, 2 3 8 - 2 3 9 ) .  I n a d d i t i o n t o i t s B a c o n i a n a s s u m p t i o n s , and allusion  d i s c o v e r e r who The  explicit  to Bacon, the passage i s s i g n i f i c a n t because i t  r e v e a l s Defoe's admiration  own.  the  will  pry  f o r the r e s t l e s s ,  into nature's  curious, active  s e c r e t t o make i t h i s  H i s t o r y o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s thus  b r a t e s Noah as t h e  first  p l a n t e r , the C a r t h a g i n i a n  celegeneral  Hanno as t h e R a l e g h o f h i s g e n e r a t i o n e a g e r t o p u r s u e d i s c o v e r i e s , Copernicus  and  new  Tyco Brahe f o r t h e i r c o n t r i b u -  t i o n to Astronomy, the n a v i g a t i o n a l s k i l l s  o f Columbus  D i a z , the c o l o n i z i n g e x p e d i t i o n s o f C o r t e z  and  Pizarro,  and and  69 the works of Roger Bacon and Boyle on magnetism.  (Defoe's  work i n c l u d e s a nine page summary of Boyle's works on magnetic p r o p e r t i e s ) . A r e l a t e d but c u r i o u s f e a t u r e o f the work i s Defoe's p r a i s e f o r mythic and  legendary  dabblers  into  nature's  s e c r e t s and h i s e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e i r mythic or  legendary  s t a t u s . Daedalus, f o r example, i s d i s c u s s e d as a great pioneer  i n n a v i g a t i o n who  devised canvas wings f o r f l i g h t  by  o b s e r v i n g the movement of b i r d s . Prometheus i s d e s c r i b e d as "eaten up or consum'd w i t h an eager d e s i r e f o r knowledge" through the o b s e r v a t i o n o f the s t a r s . T h i s  obsession,  a c c o r d i n g to Defoe, l e d to exposure and e v e n t u a l l y death (HD,  82). The weight on A t l a s ' shoulder  i s e x p l a i n e d as  the  great burden imposed on him o f d i r e c t i n g human government because o f h i s "great knowledge of Astronomy, and h i s great Wisdom". Solomon's wisdom -- exemplary f o r Bacon and h i s followers  i s emphasized, though h i s i n a b i l i t y to f i n d a  s h i p p i n g route to the Indies i s t r e a t e d as a s i g n of the l i m i t a t i o n o f h i s knowledge. Defoe a l s o laments the f a t e o f Dr. Faustus,  F r i a r Bacon and  some other Moderns, those "more  than o r d i n a r y i n t i m a t e searchers  i n t o nature" with "a  stock  o f knowledge" so s u p e r i o r to t h e i r contemporaries  that  were i n e v i t a b l y misunderstood and m i s t r e a t e d  304).  (HD,  they  Defoe i s not content, however, merely to p r a i s e other men  f o r t h e i r d i s c o v e r i e s and  c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the  extension  70 o f man's e m p i r e ; he o f f e r s h i s own  puts himself  in their tradition  schemes f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . J u s t as  H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t o f t h e V o y a g e s and W a l t e r R a l e i g h was  not  meant t o be  o f the  world's resources, readers.  As  utilitarian results  with  was  D e f o e d e t a i l s h i s own  the  i n proposals  not  other  men.  projects  schemes o f H a r t l i b and with  t h a t are not  the  the  designed to  They  for his  his friends,  scientific;  e a s i l y s e e n as  s u r p r i s e t o us  scientific.  include:  t h a t Defoe's proposals  m o s t l y c o l o n i a l i n n a t u r e o r t h a t he  has  the  this  (i) The d i s c o v e r y o f s e v e r a l p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d , and p a s s a g e t o them, w h i c h h a v e n o t y e t b e e n known. (ii) The f u r t h e r d i s c o v e r y o f s u c h p a r t s as y e t , b u t i m p e r f e c t l y known. (iii) The b e t t e r i m p r o v i n g , as w e l l t h e S o i l as t h e Commerce o f t h o s e C o u n t r i e s w h i c h a r e f u l l y known and Discovered. (iv) The d i s c o v e r i n g s e v e r a l b r a n c h e s o f Commerce n o t y e t known, o r m e d d l e d w i t h i n t h e World. (v) The e x t e n d i n g o u r p r e s e n t Commerce i n s e v e r a l p a r t s o f t h e Known W o r l d , w h e r e i t has n o t y e t b e e n p r a c t i s ' d (HD, viii).  I t comes as no  the  the  o f f e r s h i s "Schemes o f I m p r o v e m e n t " t o  readers i n h i s Preface.  be  Ever  e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n of  s p i r i t mixes i n him  Defoe f i r s t  Adventures of S i r  d i s c o v e r i e s made by  p r o j e c t o r i n t e r e s t e d i n the  the  a "meer B i o g r a p h y " ,  H i s t o r y of the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s a mere r e c o r d  and  are  moved away f r o m  his  71 scientific  to commercial c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  L i k e Worsley i n  P r o f i t s Humbly P r e s e n t e d t o t h i s K i n g d o m , D e f o e , i n a s s u m i n g the p r o j e c t o r ' s  idiom,  a w i d e r e c o n o m i c and  places  h i s a t t i t u d e to d i s c o v e r i e s  i d e o l o g i c a l context.  h i s t o r y , organized  discovery,  the  g e o g r a p h y , he w i l l  offer his u t i l i t a r i a n  As  applied  an  "expert"  sciences, schemes t o  a u d i e n c e i n t e r e s t e d i n t r a n s l a t i n g them i n t o  in  and an  reality.  I n e f f e c t , D e f o e ' s "Schemes o f I m p r o v e m e n t " i n v o l v e d i f f e r e n t p r o j e c t s . The his reading  o f these i s concocted out  o f A f r i c a n h i s t o r y and  the A f r i c a n C o n t i n e n t . h i s t o r y and  first  trade  empire encourage him i n these regions  and  put  and  the  about  D e f o e has  rich African  that a return to  and  prosperity  a v i s i o n of a  to e x p l o i t the  o f E u r o p e , who  o f the  were n o b l e ,  desir-  North A f r i c a reduced rejuvenated  f l o u r i s h i n g European c o l o n i e s  o n l y way  an  f l o u r i s h i n g Carthaginian  destroyed  i t " i n t o the possession  nations  of  Biblical  t h r o u g h e f f i c i e n t e x p l o i t a t i o n was  to a barren desert, A f r i c a n trade  r i c h e s . The  to b e l i e v e  a b l e . Though C a r t h a g e was  The  two  Ralegh's H i s t o r y o f the World, Defoe c r e a t e s  of the Phoenicians  region.  his speculations  B a s i n g h i s a s s u m p t i o n s on  A f r i c a o f immense, u n e x p l o i t e d  in  in  the  r i c h e s o f A f r i c a was diligent and  had  to  industrious a genius apt  to )  cultivate height,  the  Soil,  w h i c h i t may  i n v o l v e d the  and  r a i s e the P r o d u c t i n the  be,  expulsion  and  has  b e e n " (HD,  112).  same This  of i t s present i n h a b i t a n t s , Muslims,  72 who  everywhere " l a i d  ed and  improv'd  Chapter  it"  the World (HD,  pears  cultivat-  134).  X I I o f The H i s t o r y o f t h e P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r -  i e s o f f e r s a r a t i o n a l e and Africa.  waste [ r a t h e r ] than  a program f o r the conquest  B a c o n ' s d o c t r i n e o f "an a p p r e h e n s i v e  in a specifically  war"  now  i m p e r i a l c o n t e x t . Since the  i n h a b i t a n t s o f A f r i c a a r e n o t o n l y "Enemies t o God,  of reap-  present and  to  t h e C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n b u t E n e m i e s t o M a n k i n d , " s i n c e as p i r a t e s and  t y r a n t s they oppress  C h r i s t i a n s u b j e c t s , and  t h e i r neighbors  and  s i n c e t h e y a b u s e Commerce (HD,  t h e y s h o u l d be o v e r w h e l m e d and  137),  d r i v e n o u t by a p o w e r f u l  p a n - E u r o p e a n army. S u c h an e x p e d i e n t w o u l d p r o t e c t t h e i r neighbors  f r o m t h e i r r a i d s . A l s o , s u c h an " E x p e r i m e n t "  bring profit  would  as w e l l as g l o r y . D e f o e a n t i c i p a t e s o b j e c t i o n s  t o h i s schemes; f o r e x a m p l e , t h e d a n g e r o f t h e  victors  f i g h t i n g o v e r t h e i r s p o i l s c a n be a v o i d e d by h i s d e t a i l e d scheme o f war  w h e r e e v e r y n a t i o n w o u l d a t t a c k and  f r o m a s p e c i f i c p a r t o f A f r i c a . As he p u t s large  i n i t s e x t e n t , and  the Country  it:  profit  " A f r i c a i s so  on t h e C o a s t  everywhere  so g o o d t h a t t h e r e i s e n o u g h t o s a t i s f y e v e r y P r e t e n d e r , l e t e v e r y one The  k e e p what t h e y c o n q u e r "  second  o f D e f o e ' s two  (HD,  153).  "schemes o f I m p r o v e m e n t " i s a  p l a n f o r the c o l o n i z a t i o n o f the southernmost America.  Defoe's i n t e r e s t  and  part of  i n the r e g i o n i s well-known  South and  73 has  been d i s c u s s e d  by  many s c h o l a r s ; h e r e we  can  note  that  f o l l o w i n g R a l e g h ' s c o n j e c t u r a l approach t o Guiana, Defoe assumes v a s t , u n c l a i m e d b u t ideal  f o r p l a n t i n g . He  properly  opines that  s e c u r e d , p e o p l e d , and  e a s i l y and  specifically  the A f r i c a n p r o p o s a l ,  management and  the  defended  investment  t h i s one  Defoe i s  i s meant  confident  e x p l o i t a t i o n w o u l d make a  i n P a t a g o n i a i d e a l f o r the E n g l i s h c o l o n i z i n g  spirit.  C h a p t e r X X I I o f The  H i s t o r y of the P r i n c i p a l  eries o f f e r s a d e t a i l e d proposal  f o r a new  S i r John Narborough's  d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s region  h i s own  Defoe c r e a t e s the  and  had  c o n c l u d e s i n t h e manner o f t h e man  p r o m i s ' d i n t h i s work, l e t him Though t h e s e a r e  the  only  of other  ially  take t h i s two  and  speculator:  of future  i m p r o v e m e n t s t o be  i s confident  that with  " i f any  Improvement  f o r one"  (HD,  projects discussed  p l a n n e d t o t a k e up made i n t h e  o f t h e most p r o f i t a b l e E t h i o p i a n  w o r k . He  p o t e n t i a l . . He  H i s t o r y o f the P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s ,  a s s u r e s h i s r e a d e r t h a t he has ion  confident  in  imagination,  from such a c o l o n y  e n q u i r e s a f t e r the p r o s p e c t s  D e f o e i n The  fertile  the p i c t u r e of a land of great  a d v a n t a g e s t o be  Discov-  settlement  S o u t h A m e r i c a . B a s e d m o s t l y on  lists  be  region,  c o u l d be  e f f o r t and  for h i s English readers;  that organized  which would  such a remote  supplied  would soon repay the  handsomely. U n l i k e  colony  r i c h regions  t h e new  297). by  he the  future,  quest-  espec-  commerce, i n a n o t h e r a i d s to knowledge  1  74 man  w i l l continue  t r a d e and a r e no  still  e m p i r e . As  d o u b t new  w h i c h was  306).  he p u t s  Countries  worlds  and  expand h i s  i t i n h i s c o n c l u s i o n : "There  and  L a n d s y e t t o be  planted,  n e v e r d i s c o v e r d o r p l a n t e d b e f o r e ; and  o f new  Before  c o n s i d e r a t i o n those I m p r o v e m e n t s and  already Planted  farther Planting"  c o n c l u d i n g , h o w e v e r , he  empire. This p r o p o s a l , r a t h e r l i k e transplanting,  i s b a s e d on  c o f f e e , now  are (HD,  cannot r e s i s t  proposal which w i l l demonstrate h i s " s c i e n t i f i c "  item l i k e  which i s  1  worth our  capable  t o d i s c o v e r new  a  final  approach to  S p r a t ' s comments  the assumption t h a t a  on  precious  o b t a i n a b l e o n l y at g r e a t c o s t from  the  A r a b i a n G u l f , c o u l d be p r o f i t a b l y p l a n t e d i n t h e West I n d i e s , t h e mouth o f t h e R i o G r a n d e , o r S i e r r a L e o n e , w h i c h were i n the  same l a t t i t u d e as t h e  r e g i o n s of A s i a . Defoe i s e n t i r e l y and  coffee-growing  scientific,  reasonable  c o n f i d e n t about h i s p r o p o s a l : "Let the Experiments  made and  the Negative  prov'd,  and  oppose i t ; f o r D e m o n s t r a t i o n p u t s but  places  till  nature  t h e n we  must be  then  indeed  an end  no Man  will  to a l l Arguments;  a l l o w ' d t o j u d g e as R e a s o n and  of Things d i r e c t us"  (HD,  be  the  307).  V  As b e f i t s t h e new  a h i s t o r i a n o f the d i s c o v e r i e s o c c a s i o n e d  approach t o knowledge, Defoe c o n s t a n t l y  invokes  by  75 reason and  and emphasizes t h e r a t i o n a l n a t u r e o f h i s  h i s t o r i c a l m e t h o d . He w i l l  o f f e r no schemes w h i c h  "neither p r o b a b i l i t y of success" nor " r a t i o n a l (HD,  assumptions  v i i ) ; he i s c o n s c i o u s o f t h e f a c t  have  foundation"  t h a t "Reason a n d  N e c e s s i t y " a r e t h e " a l l o w e d P a r e n t s o f a l l new d i s c o v e r i e s " (HD,  5 4 ) . What i s r e a s o n a b l e  profitable; fleet  t h u s h i s scheme t o s e n d a f o r m i d a b l e  t o d e s t r o y t h e A f r i c a n s must be c o n s i d e r e d  honorable  "and i n d e e d r e a s o n a b l e "  Related of  a n d n e c e s s a r y must a l s o be  t o these repeated  (HD,  cheap,  150).  a s s e r t i o n s of the r a t i o n a l i t y  h i s schemes a r e D e f o e ' s r e m i n d e r s  through  European  t h a t h i s meanderings  h i s t o r y a r e u l t i m a t e l y m e t h o d i c a l . He i n t e n d s t o be  analytical;  the subject o f h i s inquiry  i s t h e "How", "by  w h a t s t e p s " , "when", a n d "by whom" (HD, 2 ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , will  b e g i n a t t h e b e g i n n i n g a n d move s e l e c t i v e l y  recorded h i s t o r y  till  he w i l l  b r i n g the reader  he  through  to the  p r e s e n t a n d p r o s p e c t s o f f u t u r e g l o r y . I f he d w e l l s on t h e p a s t a t a n y one p o i n t i t i s n o t b e c a u s e he i s i n t e r e s t e d i n history has  f o r h i s t o r y ' s sake, b u t because t h e s t u d y o f what  b e e n must l e a d t o what may be (HD, 1 0 0 ) . T h r o u g h o u t The  H i s t o r y o f t h e P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s Defoe reminds us t h a t he  i s f o l l o w i n g a c a r e f u l p l a n , f o c u s s i n g on what i s i m p o r t -  a n t and p r o m i s e d vant. Always, by  by h i s t i t l e  and o m i t t i n g what i s i r r e l e -  he l e a d s u s t o b e l i e v e , h i s c o u r s e  the usefulness of h i s subject to the present.  i s dictated  76 Defoe a l s o t r i e s  t o a s s u r e us o f the r e a s o n a b l e n e s s o f  h i s u n d e r t a k i n g and t h e s o u n d n e s s  o f h i s method by a  contin-  uous d i s p l a y o f l e a r n i n g . A l w a y s r a n k l e d by t h e doubts by h i s d e t r a c t o r s about h i s knowledge, p o i n t one o f h i s most c h e r i s h e d b e l i e f s  he r e p e a t s a t -- and one  r e a p p e a r s i n The C o m p l e a t E n g l i s h G e n t l e m a n s c h o l a r i s n o t one who  cast  one  which  -- t h a t t h e t r u e  s t u d i e s o n l y t h e C l a s s i c s b u t one  knows t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y E u r o p e a n  languages,  astronomy,  geography, mathematics, t r a d e , e n g i n e e r i n g , n a v i g a t i o n , all  the branches of h i s t o r y  (HD, 2 1 5 ) . As  p o i n t he p a r a d e s h i s k n o w l e d g e throughout the  who  and  i f to prove h i s  o f most o f t h e s e  fields  text.  I n d e e d , The H i s t o r y o f t h e P r i n c i p a l  Discoveries  a p p e a r s t o be one o f t h e more l e a r n e d and a l l u s i v e  of  D e f o e ' s w o r k s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s made t o t h e B i b l e and t o R a l e g h ' s H i s t o r y o f t h e W o r l d , he to c l a s s i c a l al,  authors l i k e Lucan, T i b e l l i u s ,  refers  C l a u d i a n , Juven-  S e n e c a , S t r a b o , and e v e n c a t a l o g u e s t h e l e a r n e d men  antiquity  (HD, 2 1 6 ) . Among E n g l i s h a u t h o r s , he q u o t e s  of  from  o r m e n t i o n s v e n e r a b l e a u t h o r s l i k e Camden, M i l t o n and Rymer, b u t i s n o t a b o v e q u o t i n g "a h o m e l y t h e need o f one ified,  d i s t i c h " when he  feels  (HD, 2 2 0 ) . O f t e n , h i s s o u r c e s a r e n o t  ident-  as when he a l l u d e s t o a " L e a r n e d W r i t e r " t o show  t h e f i r s t b o a t was  floated  (HD, 2 2 ) , o r r e f e r s  w r i t e r "whose name I c a n n o t now  how  to a French  r e c o l l e c t " to discuss  Tyrian  77 surgical  skills"  (HD,  93),  or c i t e s  "Best Authors" to give h i s estimate Africans (HD,  t o be  137).  include  the  Hakluyt, As  His  read the  he  R a l e g h , and  a h i s t o r i a n of s c i e n t i f i c relevant  scientific  H i s t o r y of Navigation  Author" of Lexicon 176,  250,  i n a d e q u a t e , he  And  36).  On  wright ally  one  (HD,  has  has  he  on  has  to  has  also  the  Commerce, w i t h whom the  L e a r n e d Mr.  "Learned Boyl"  example,  the b a s i s of  even " c o n s u l t e d "  i s , adding i n parenthesis how  the  t h a t he  he  illustra-  has  read  (HD,  the  best  ship-  has  "critic-  Romans made t h e i r  h i s doubts i f they could  r e a l l y be  ships,  c a l l e d such  57)! Defoe's d i s p l a y of  ality  alludes  s e e n as w e l l as w r i t e r s he  i n q u i r e d , " to f i n d out  t h o u g h he  S i r John Narborough.  where w r i t t e n s o u r c e s h a v e p r o v e d  early vessels  occasion,  there  "the  force  discoveries  goes t o u n p u b l i s h e d o n e s . F o r  attempts to d e s c r i b e t i o n s w h i c h he  of  d i s c o v e r i e s , he  and  the  exploration  o f Roman t r a d e ,  T e c h n i c u m , and  251).  and  t r a c t s . He  extent  and  for later  Texcera, Orleinna  t a k e s i s s u e about the  (HD,  o f t h e number  sources f o r e a r l y explorers  B i b l e and  w r i t e r o f The  c a l c u l a t i o n of  o v e r c o m e by h i s p r o p o s e d e x p e d i t i o n a r y  Neihoff,  befits  the  and  learning, l i k e his claims  method, however, c a n n o t d i s g u i s e  to r a t i o n -  the e s s e n t i a l l y  i d i o s y n c r a t i c n a t u r e of h i s h i s t o r y . In d e a l i n g w i t h o f d i s c o v e r i e s , and  in striving  a b o u t what t h e y c a n  do  the  t o change p e o p l e ' s m i n d s  i n the p r e s e n t to a c h i e v e a  better  age  78 f u t u r e , Dejioe r e w r i t e s h i s t o r y and more o r l e s s i g n o r e s t h e deep p a s t o f c l a s s i c a l a n t i q u i t y and t h e e c o n o m i c l i f e o f G r e e c e a n d Rome. As M a n u e l S c h o n h o r n o b s e r v e s i n h i s t h o u g h t - p r o v o k i n g p a p e r , "Defoe, t h e Language o f P o l i t i c s , and  the Past,"  D e f o e "has no p a r a l l e l among h i s c o n t e m p o r a r -  ies i n h i s wholesale dismissal of that a t t i t u d e that any  secure t r u t h i n the opinion  o f p a s t a g e s , " no  f o r the accomplishments o f c l a s s i c a l use  f o r c u s t o m and t r a d i t i o n . 2 1  civilization,  sought  respect and no  Such a r a d i c a l d e n i a l o f t h e  p a s t meant t h a t he was r e a d y t o w r i t e h i s own v e r s i o n o f i t o r t o t r e a t h i s t o r y t o some e x t e n t  as a form o f f i c t i o n .  C o n s e q u e n t l y , when he p r a i s e s  a handful  only  t h e i r c o l o n i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s before when he b e l i t t l e s  of nations f o r  t h e modern p e r i o d , o r  t h e c o l o n i a l and c o m m e r c i a l s u c c e s s e s o f  G r e e c e o r Rome, he does so n o t b e c a u s e he was i g n o r a n t , b u t b e c a u s e h i s t o r y does n o t s e r v e h i s i m m e d i a t e a i m : t o show t h a t p r o g r e s s t h r o u g h o u t t h e a g e s c a n be e q u a t e d w i t h dynamic, e x p a n s i o n i s t  s o c i e t y which uses s c i e n c e ,  n o l o g y , and commerce f o r c o n t i n u a l  a  tech-  discoveries.  From D e f o e ' s v a n t a g e p o i n t , p a s t s o c i e t i e s c a n be e a s i l y d i v i d e d i n t o two camps, t h o s e f o r and t h o s e c o l o n i z a t i o n and t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d ' s According  against resources.  t o D e f o e , Noah and h i s s o n s , t h e P h o e n i c i a n s  the C a r t h a g i n i a n s ,  and W e s t e r n E u r o p e a n s i n r e c e n t  belong to the side of the progressives;  and  times  t h e G r e e k s and t h e  79 Romans and  the M i d d l e Ages d e s e r v e contempt because  dabbled i n u n p r o f i t a b l e knowledge or because they  they  conquered  w i t h o u t c o l o n i z i n g . L a r g e chunks o f h i s t o r y , innumerable i m p o r t a n t d i s c o v e r i e s , and are  ignored,  dismissed,  the  c o n t r i b u t i o n s of other  or glossed  o v e r . I t i s not  D e f o e i s u n a w a r e o f them; r a t h e r , he w h a t e v e r does n o t prejudices.  practice 226).  But  he  (HD,  nicest Discoveries  dismisses  and  to  see  t h e s i s or confirm  were found o u t ,  t h e y were d i s c o v e r d 1  such c l a i m s ,  f o r example, t h a t  force of i t ,  that  his  i s c o n s c i o u s t h a t many h a v e o p i n e d  i n China before  ally believed, the  conform to h i s b a s i c  T h u s , he  "almost a l l our  chooses not  races  Nature not  for could  here"  in  (HD,  i t be r a t i o n -  "Powder c o u l d be d i r e c t Man  and  that  known,  and  to f i g h t with i t "  226)? Defoe's c o n j e c t u r a l approach to h i s t o r i o g r a p h y  contributes  to the  fictionalization  of h i s t e x t . A c t u a l l y , a  method w h i c h p r o p o s e s t o show what c a n b a s i s o f what was h i s most c a n d i d , "search  Defoe i s w i l l i n g  t h e m s e l v e s --  speculative.  t o concede t h a t  be  (HD,  But  the  theory  At  because of  done t h o u g h i s " t o  305).  the  our the deduce  his originals  l i k e R a l e g h ' s h i s t o r y o r t h e B i b l e --  t i m e s s u s p e c t as h i s t o r y w h i l e m o t i v a t e d by  done s o l e l y on  "imperfect"  k n o w l e d g e ; what c a n  from j u s t o r i g i n a l s "  be  i s b o u n d t o be  i n t o A n t i q u i t y " must be  gaps i n our things  possible  also  h i s deductions are  t h a t h i s t o r y must be  of  are  always use  at  80 in  the present.  A good e x a m p l e , and  one  a l s o meant t o  c o n t r i b u t e to a contemporary c o n t r o v e r s y , A m e r i c a was  first  p e o p l e d by  the C a r t h a g i n i a n s ,  " r a t i o n a l " t h a t "a P e o p l e w h o l l y new  d i s c o v e r i e s and  settle  dedicated  boldly venturing  W o r l d f o r them" w o u l d a l s o be and  i n unknown l a n d s  i s his thesis that  the  (HD,  to search  on  the  coast  first  to cross  the  engaged i n a l l s o r t s o f p r o d u c t i v e  the  t h o u s a n d popu-  m i l l i o n s of  citizens  labor i s s i m i l a r l y  t h e r e g i o n as  the  ocean  76). His p o r t r a i t of  o f A f r i c a , and  a t e d by h i s d e s i r e t o p r e s e n t  after  into a l l Parts of  f l o u r i s h i n g Carthaginian empire, w i t h three lous c i t i e s  since i t i s  ideal  motiv-  for recol-  onization. Defoe, of course, " f i c t i v e " nature the  imagination  was  w r i t i n g a t a t i m e when  o f h i s t o r y was allowed  more w i d e l y  considerable  o f The  acknowledged  c o n t r i b u t e to  H i s t o r y of the P r i n c i p a l  of  the  Discover-  i e s . H i s n a r r a t i v e s t a n c e , h i s mode o f e m p l o t m e n t , and use  and  l a t i t u d e . I t i s not  s u r p r i s i n g t h e n t h a t many f i c t i v e d e v i c e s imaginative nature  the  o f l a n g u a g e f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i z e h i s h i s t o r y as a  his form  fiction. Defoe's n a r r a t i v e stance,  the p r o g r e s s i v e , r a t i o n a l , l o o k i n g at the past  as o u t l i n e d a b o v e , i s t h a t  commercial p r o j e c t o r - h i s t o r i a n  rationally, methodically,  H i s a c t u a l p o i n t o f view, however, i s r e a l l y unsystematic,  and  of  knowledgably. arbitrary,  p a r t i a l . D e f o e s e e s i n t h e p a s t what  he  81 wants t o see i n i t ; a l l h i s d i s p l a y o f l e a r n i n g cannot his  biases. S i m i l a r l y , h i s claims  undercut by h i s i d e o l o g i c a l his  after his  t o method a r e c o n s t a n t l y  imperatives. This  discussion of Carthaginian  c a n be s e e n i n  t r a d e a n d d i s c o v e r i e s when,  " c r a v i n g l e a v e " from h i s r e a d e r s ,  a t t e n t i o n to the present  hide  he s u d d e n l y  shifts  i n h a b i t a n t s o f A f r i c a and t h e  r e a s o n s f o r e x p e l l i n g them (HD, 1 3 5 ) . I n a n o t h e r  instance,  D e f o e p r o c e e d s t o number t h e many i m p r o v e m e n t s made i n t h e art  o f warfare  as something a p p r o p r i a t e  a b r u p t l y changes h i s d i r e c t i o n  t o h i s theme b u t  " i n order  to b r i n g Things  more A n t i e n t up t o a n e v e n l i n e o f Time w i t h them; a n d particularly  t o speak o f t h e D i s c o v e r y  o f unknown  Countries,  as w e l l f o r C o n q u e s t a s f o r Commerce" (HD, 2 3 1 ) . Though D e f o e makes a p e r f u n c t o r y d a t e s and p r o v i d e  attempt t o supply  a genealogy o f the p r i n c i p a l d i s c o v e r i e s  from t i m e t o t i m e , h i s work i s p r i m a r i l y p l o t t e d t o r e i t e r a t e h i s c e n t r a l t h e s i s -- f u r t h e r c o l o n i a l v e n t u r e s a r e necessary  f o r a p r o g r e s s i v e n a t i o n -- a n d h i g h l i g h t h i s age  as on t h e t h r e s h o l d o f a g l o r i o u s f u t u r e . The manner i n w h i c h he p r e s e n t s  h i s two p r o j e c t s i n d i c a t e s how he m a n i p u -  l a t e s h i s t o r y f o r these  p u r p o s e s . A s we h a v e s e e n , The  H i s t o r y o f t h e P r i n c i p a l D i s c o v e r i e s was f i r s t f o u r numbers; t h e f i r s t  two c l i m a x  published i n  i n the proposal to  conquer and s e t t l e N o r t h A f r i c a and t h e second p a i r i n t h e p r o j e c t t o c o l o n i z e South America. W i t h i n  these  numbers,  82 Defoe s e l e c t s , o r g a n i z e s , d i