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The apprehension of disorder : science and the naturalization of monstrosity in England, 1775-1830 Adams, Kim Susan 1984

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THE APPREHENSION OF DISORDER: SCIENCE AND THE NATURALIZATION OF MONSTROSITY IN ENGLAND, 1775 - 1830 By KIM SUSAN ADAMS B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES , (Department of H i s t o r y ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1984 ©Kim Susan Adams, 1984 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the r e - quirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the head o f my d e p a r t - ment or by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main M a l l Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 D a t e Oohbtr 5j i i ABSTRACT T h i s essay i s about the h i s t o r y o f t e r a t o l o g y , the name g i v e n d u r i n g the 1830's t o t h a t s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e concerned e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h the study o f p h y s i c a l m a l f o r m a t i o n s . U n t i l r e - c e n t l y , most w r i t e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s s u b j e c t have themselves been p r a c t i c i n g s c i e n t i s t s , committed t o p o s i t i v i s t views of s c i e n c e and i t s h i s t o r y . As such, they have tended t o r e p r e s e n t t h e h i s t o r y o f t e r a t o l o g y as a c o n t i n u o u s and o b j e c t i v e p r o g r e s - s i o n o f knowledge, from e r r o r t o t r u t h . I would argue t h a t such i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , m a i n l y because they f a i l t o c o n t e x t u a l i z e p a s t t h i n k i n g about monstrous phenomena, p e r p e t u a t e a f a l s e i m p r e s s i o n o f the h i s t o r y o f t e r a t o l o g y . T h i s essay o f f e r s an a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h a t h i s t o r y , one which seeks t o r e s t o r e the r e - l a t i o n between the h i s t o r y o f s c i e n c e and the h i s t o r y o f i d e a s . A b a s i c premise o f t h i s paper i s t h a t the appearance o f t e r a t o l o g y i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s not b e s t c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i f i c thought and p r a c - t i c e . On the c o n t r a r y , between 1775 and 1830 the study o f mon- s t r o s i t y was f u n d a m e n t a l l y t r a n s f o r m e d . Not o n l y were the t h e o r i e s and the language of m o n s t r o s i t y r e v i s e d , but the people who s t u d i e d monsters d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d became i n c r e a s i n g l y con- s c i o u s o f themselves as p r o f e s s i o n a l s c i e n t i s t s , d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the w o r l d o f p o p u l a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g by s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge and e x p e r t i s e . At a deeper l e v e l , these changes may be un d e r s t o o d as p a r t of a more g e n e r a l r e f o r m u l a t i o n o f b i o l o g i c a l knowledge which o c c u r r e d toward the end o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . U n t i l around i i i the 1750's, the study o f monsters belonged t o n a t u r a l h i s t o r y and was in f o r m e d by a code o f knowledge which gave p r i o r i t y to s t r u c t u r e , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and the e x t e r n a l appearance of l i v i n g t h i n g s . A c c o r d i n g t o the p r i n c i p l e s o f t h a t o r d e r , monsters were "monstrous" p r e c i s e l y because, by v i r t u e o f mani- f e s t s t r u c t u r a l i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , they appeared t o be so. Q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from Nature's r e g u l a r s p e c i e s , they were s e g r e g a t e d i n a s p e c i a l c a t e g o r y o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y and i n v e s t i g a t e d as s i n g u l a r c u r i o s i t i e s o f n a t u r e . Towards the end of the c e n t u r y , t h i s view o f l i v i n g t h i n g s began t o g i v e way t o an h i s t o r i c a l - o r g a n i c concept o f " l i f e . " Absorbed i n t o the l a r g e r study o f l i f e , i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f mon- s t e r s became dominated by the b i o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s o f " o r g a n i z a - t i o n " and "development," and the monstrous became equated s t r i c t l y w i t h the p a t h o l o g i c a l . H e n c e f o r t h , s c i e n t i f i c concep- t i o n s o f monstrous organisms were r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d . Among n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t e r a t o l o g i s t s , monsters were not i r r e g u l a r f r e a k s of n a t u r e , but r e g u l a r and o b j e c t i v e specimens o f abnormal development, c a p a b l e of s i g n i f i c a n t l y enhancing s c i e n t i f i c knowledge o f the norm. A c c o r d i n g t o n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y thought, such organisms, w h i l e they were q u a n t i t a t i v e l y d e v i a n t , were by no means q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r forms o f l i f e . Indeed s i n c e m a l f o r m a t i o n s were s u b j e c t t o the same i n v a r i a b l e laws o f p h y s i o l o g y and embryology which governed a l l o rganisms, t h e r e was, i n r e a l i t y , n o t h i n g monstrous i n m o n s t r o s i t y . I t was w i t h t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n the e s s e n t i a l meaning of m o n s t r o s i t y t h a t the s c i e n c e of t e r a t o l o g y became p o s s i b l e . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT I I ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v PREFACE. 1 INTRODUCTION 8 CHAPTER ONE: NATURAL WONDERS AND NATURAL HISTORY 35 P a r t One: T r a d i t i o n a l Views o f M o n s t r o s i t y 35 P a r t Two: S t u d i e s o f M o n s t r o s i t y from 1650 t o 1750... 45 CHAPTER TWO: MONSTROSITY AND THE CONCEPT OF FUNCTION 86 CHAPTER THREE: ORGANIZATION, DEVELOPMENT AND THE SCIENCE OF ANOMALIES 122 CONCLUSION 169 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 176 V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am d e e p l y g r a t e f u l t o my s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. Harvey M i t c h e l l , f o r t he k i n d and i n v a l u a b l e d i r e c t i o n t h a t he has o f f e r e d me through a l l the stages o f t h i s p r o j e c t . I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o the Department o f H i s t o r y f o r i t s s u p p o r t , t o the p r o f e s s o r s who have taught me and t o the l i b r a r i a n s o f Woodward and Main L i b r a - r i e s f o r t h e i r h e l p i n p r o v i d i n g me w i t h s o u r c e s . F i n a l l y , I owe a s p e c i a l debt t o my f r i e n d s and f a m i l y — t o L a r r y Adams and V i N e l s o n i n p a r t i c u l a r , I am more g r a t e f u l t h a n I can p o s s i b l y say. 1 PREFACE E r r o r i s not e l i m i n a t e d by the m u f f l e d f o r c e o f a t r u t h which g r a d u a l l y emerges from the shadows, but by the f o r m a t i o n of a new way o f 'speaking true.'-'- — M i c h e l F o u c a u l t From the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , most s c h o l a r s h i p i n the h i s t o r y of s c i e n c e has proceeded upon the t w i n assumptions o f o b j e c t i v i t y and c o n t i n u i t y . S i n c e t h e n , i f h i s t o r i c a l study has tended t o a u t h o r i z e any one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i t i s the p o s i t i v i s t v iew t h a t s c i e n c e i s an o b j e c t i v e e n t e r p r i s e , and i t s h i s t o r y a l i n e a r "march" towards t r u t h . I n r e c e n t y e a r s , however, v a r i o u s h i s t o r i a n s have argued t h a t these c l a i m s — a n d a l l the c o r r e l a t i v e themes of p r o g r e s s , s c i e n t i f i c detachment and c u l t u r a l i m m u n i t y — a r e d e e p l y f a l l a c i o u s . A c c o r d i n g t o such s c h o l a r s as Thomas Kuhn, K a r l Popper and M i c h e l F o u c a u l t , f o r example, they p e r p e t u - a t e an e s s e n t i a l l y f l a w e d i m p r e s s i o n not o n l y o f s c i e n c e but a l s o o f i t s h i s t o r y . Z Such r e v i s i o n i s t s c h o l a r s h i p i s not u n i v e r s a l l y endorsed by s c i e n t i s t s , but i t has proved u n s e t t l i n g t o t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e s o f h i s t o r i c a l thought. Indeed, most contemporary h i s t o r i a n s , w h i l e they would d i f f e r on p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , would a t l e a s t agree t h a t the h i s t o r y o f s c i e n c e i s something o t h e r t h a n t h i s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d s t o r y o f detached o b j e c t i v i t y . I t i s now g e n e r a l l y acknowledged t h a t s c i e n c e i s an a c t i v i t y d e e p l y embedded i n c u l t u r e , i n t e r n a l l y l i n k e d w i t h the p h i l o s o - p h i c a l , r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l movements of a g i v e n p e r i o d , and l i k e o t h e r forms of human endeavor, i n h e r e n t l y i n f o r m e d by sub- j e c t i v e c o n c e r n s . Moreover, f a r from b e i n g c o n t i n u o u s , i t now 2 seems apparent t h a t i t s h i s t o r y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n s t e a d by con- s i d e r a b l e d i s c o n t i n u i t y , by d r a m a t i c upheavals which a t v a r i o u s times have t r a n s f o r m e d the v e r y b a s i s f o r what counts as s c i e n c e . C l e a r l y , the o l d s t o r y o f f a c t s and d i s c o v e r i e s i s b e i n g o v e r - t u r n e d i n f a v o r o f a more c o n t e x t u a l i z e d k i n d o f h i s t o r y , one which seeks t o r e s t o r e the n e c e s s a r y r e l a t i o n between s c i e n c e , i d e a s and s o c i e t y . T h i s r e v i s e d h i s t o r i o g r a p h y has produced much debate c o n c e r n - i n g the h i s t o r y o f the l i f e s c i e n c e s i n the e i g h t e e n t h and n i n e - t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , engendering many q u e s t i o n s which were s i m p l y not r a i s e d i n the c o n t e x t of p r e v i o u s h i s t o r i c a l t h i n k i n g . Most p r o m i n e n t l y , M i c h e l F o u c a u l t has argued t h a t i t i s m i s t a k e n t o speak o f b i o l o g i c a l s c i e n c e b e f o r e the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , f o r the r e a s o n t h a t the concept of " l i f e , " as a dynamic b i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s , was u n a v a i l a b l e t o s c i e n t i s t s b e f o r e t h a t t i m e . I n con- t r a s t t o l i f e , F o u c a u l t a r g u e s , e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n v e s t i g a t o r s s t u d i e d l i v i n g b e i n g s , which were seen as p a r t o f a f i x e d , d i v i n e - l y c r e a t e d o r d e r and a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g t o the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l 3 c r i t e r i a o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . However, from around 1775, t h e r e was a r a d i c a l change i n knowledge, an " e p i s t e m i c " break, as F o u c a u l t t e l l s u s , which p e r m i t t e d i n v e s t i g a t o r s t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e f u n c t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n , development, norm and u l t i m a t e l y " l i f e " as o b j e c t s o f a r a t i o n a l s t u d y . I t was p r e c i s e l y a t t h a t t i m e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t b i o l o g y appeared as a s c i e n c e , o r more s p e c i f i c a l - l y , as the s c i e n c e " o f l i f e . " I n the same p r o c e s s , " l i v i n g b e i n g s , " the o b j e c t o f e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , d i s - appeared. I t was i n r e a d i n g F o u c a u l t ' s work on the h i s t o r y o f b i o l o g y 3 t h a t I f i r s t became i n t e r e s t e d i n the s u b j e c t o f t h i s e s s a y, i n the problem of how, i n the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , "monstros- i t y " was t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o an o b j e c t o f s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y . Though F o u c a u l t t r e a t s p a s t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f monsters o n l y i n p a s s i n g , i t seemed t o me t h a t the s u b j e c t c o n s t i t u t e d a p a r t i c u l a r l y i n - t e r e s t i n g sub-theme w i t h i n the l a r g e r h i s t o r y o f b i o l o g y . Indeed, I t h i n k i t i s p o s s i b l e t o comprehend how m o n s t r o s i t y was " s c i e n - t i z e d " o n l y i n r e f e r e n c e t o the l a r g e r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n which o c c u r r e d i n b i o l o g i c a l knowledge towards the end o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . For i t was o n l y when s c i e n t i s t s d e f i n e d l i f e as a s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g p r o c e s s , dependent upon i n t e r n a l laws of o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h a t they were a b l e t o e x p l a i n m o n s t r o s i t y as a p u r e l y p a t h o l o - g i c a l phenomenon, s u b j e c t t o r e g u l a r , o r g a n i c laws and amenable, t h e r e f o r e , t o an o b j e c t i v e s t u d y — a s t u d y known s i n c e the 1830's as t e r a t o l o g y . I n the w i d e s t sense, t h e n , the f o l l o w i n g essay may be read as a study i n the h i s t o r y o f the l i f e s c i e n c e s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s about the appearance of t e r a t o l o g y , the l i f e s c i e n c e concerned e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h p h y s i c a l m a l f o r m a t i o n . N e c e s s a r i l y , because one " e v e n t " i s a c o r o l l a r y o f the o t h e r , i t i s a l s o about the d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f m o n s t r o s i t y . At bottom, i t addresses one fundamental q u e s t i o n : what were the c o n c e p t u a l c o n d i t i o n s which made t e r a t o l o g y p o s s i b l e ? My answer t o t h i s problem r e s t s on two v e r y b a s i c p r o p o s i - t i o n s . The f i r s t o f t h e s e i s t h a t n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s , when they spoke of the " s c i e n c e " of m o n s t r o s i t y , d i d not do so because they had f i n a l l y d i s c o v e r e d some t r u t h which had been t h e r e a l l a l o n g , but r a t h e r , as F o u c a u l t argues, because they had 4 f o r m u l a t e d a new way o f 'speaking t r u e . ' T e r a t o l o g i s t s were 4 a b l e t o "know" monsters o n l y t o the e x t e n t t h a t they were s u c c e s s f u l i n r e d u c i n g them t o o b j e c t i v e l y d i s e a s e d specimens, i n r e d u c i n g them, i n Canguilhem*s terms, t o "a s i n g l e form of know- l e d g e . " ^ Indeed, much o f the p r o j e c t of e a r l y t e r a t o l o g i s t s — the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an o b j e c t i v e d i s e a s e t e r m i n o l o g y , the a r t i - c u l a t i o n of t e r a t o l o g i c a l l a w s, the r e l i a n c e upon q u a n t i t a t i v e c o n c e p t s — c a n be un d e r s t o o d as an attempt t o d e v i s e a p u r e l y ob- j e c t i v e way o f knowing. However, w h i l e t e r a t o l o g i s t s c l a i m e d t o have made the study of m o n s t r o s i t y i n t o an o b j e c t i v e s c i e n c e , they n o n e t h e l e s s spoke o f monsters as "anomalous" and "abnormal," terms which, i n t h e i r e s s e n t i a l a m b i g u i t y , cannot be reduced t o a s i n g l e meaning. C e r t a i n l y , i f the s e concepts were o b j e c t i v e i n the sense t h a t they r e f e r r e d t o the s t a t i s t i c a l i n c i d e n c e o f mon- s t r o s i t y , t hey were a t the same time e v a l u a t i v e ; they embody the judgement t h a t some o r g a n i c c o n d i t i o n s — f o r both b i o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l r e a s o n s — a r e more d e s i r a b l e t h a n o t h e r s . Y e t , among n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s , the judgement o f a b n o r m a l i t y was not seen as a judgement, because i t had been e l e v a t e d t o the s t a t u s o f a f a c t by a s c i e n c e which sought t o n a t u r a l i z e b oth a b n o r m a l i t y and n o r m a l i t y as q u a n t i t a t i v e and t h e r e f o r e e m p i r i c a l c o n c e p t s . I n f a c t , i t was because s c i e n t i s t s b e l i e v e d t h a t the study of monsters c o u l d enhance t h e i r f a c t u a l knowledge o f the normal t h a t m o n s t r o s i t y assumed a s p e c i a l importance i n n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s t u d i e s o f l i f e . I n any c a s e , g i v e n t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i t i s c l e a r why the h i s t o r y o f t e r a t o l o g y i s not be s t u n d e r s t o o d as a detached p r o g r e s s i o n towards " t r u t h . " S e condly, I t h i n k t h a t the work o f n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t e r a - t o l o g i s t s r e p r e s e n t s not a c o n t i n u a t i o n of e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y 5 s c i e n c e , but r a t h e r a d i s c o n t i n u i t y , a f u n d a m e n t a l l y new way o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g the phenomenon of p h y s i c a l m a l f o r m a t i o n . Monsters became r e g u l a r i z e d specimens of p a t h o l o g y ; they had not always been seen as such. Between 1775 and 1830, the u n d e r l y i n g r u l e s which c o n d i t i o n e d t h i n k i n g about m o n s t r o s i t y changed, and i t was t h i s s h i f t , m a n i f e s t e d i n changing p a t t e r n s o f language, t h e o r y and i n v e s t i g a t i o n , which u l t i m a t e l y p e r m i t t e d the i n s t i t u t i o n o f t e r a t o l o g y as a s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e i n i t s own r i g h t . By the 1830's, monsters had a l l but d i s a p p e a r e d , e c l i p s e d by deranged organs, p a t h o l o g i c a l specimens and s t r u c t u r a l m a l c o n f o r m a t i o n s . I n t h i s sense, I t h i n k i t i s t r u e t o say t h a t m o n s t r o s i t y i s a c a t e g o r y o f e i g h t e e n t h - a n d not n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y thought, f o r by the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e r e were v i a b l e and n o n - v i a b l e organisms, t h e r e was l i f e and d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , but n a t u r e p r o - duced n o t h i n g so i n e x p l i c a b l e as monsters. A c c o r d i n g t o t e r a - t o l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g , s i n c e t h e r e was n o t h i n g i n m o n s t r o s i t y t h a t c o u l d not be e x p l a i n e d by the laws of o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e r e was, i n r e a l i t y , n o t h i n g "monstrous" i n monsters. I t was o n l y t h e n , when wonder f o r the u n n a t u r a l had y i e l d e d t o i n t e r e s t i n the p a t h o l o g i c a l , t h a t t e r a t o l o g y became p o s s i b l e . 6 NOTES TO THE PREFACE M i c h e l F o u c a u l t , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o On the Normal and the P a t h o l o g i c a l , by GeorgesCanguilhem, t r a n s . C.-Fawcett ( D o r d r e c h t : D. R e i d e l , 1978), p. x i v . 2 Thomas Kuhn, The S t r u c t u r e o f S c i e n t i f i c R e v o l u t i o n s (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1965); K a r l Popper, C o n j e c t u r e s and R e f u t a t i o n s : The Growth of S c i e n t i f i c Knowledge (New York: B a s i c Books, 1965); M i c h e l F o u c a u l t , The Order of T h i n g s , a t r a n s l a t i o n o f Les Mots et l e s choses (New York: B a s i c Books, 1970). For a comprehensive d i s c u s s i o n o f the h i s t o r i o - graphy of the h i s t o r y o f s c i e n c e , see Aant E l z i n g a , The Growth o f Knowledge ( U n i v e r s i t y o f Goteburg: Department of Theory of S c i e n c e , Report 116, November 1979). Other u s e f u l h i s t o r i o - g r a p h i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s a r e found i n G. Rousseau and R. P o r t e r , eds., The Ferment o f Knowledge: S t u d i e s i n the H i s t o r i o g r a p h y o f E i g h t e e n t h - C e n t u r y S c i e n c e (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1980); K a r l F i g l i o , "The Metaphor of O r g a n i z a t i o n : An H i s t o r i o - g r a p h i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e on the B i o - M e d i c a l S c i e n c e s of the E a r l y N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y , " H i s t o r y o f S c i e n c e 14 (1976), pp. 17 - 53; R. Young and M. T e i c h , eds., Changing P e r s p e c t i v e s i n H i s t o r y o f S c i e n c e (London: Heinemann, 1973). 3 F o u c a u l t , The Order of T h i n g s , p. 160. See a l s o pp. 127-8, where F o u c a u l t w r i t e s : H i s t o r i a n s want t o w r i t e h i s t o r i e s o f b i o l o g y i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y ; but they do not r e a l i z e t h a t b i o - l o g y d i d not e x i s t t h e n , and t h a t the p a t t e r n o f know- ledge t h a t has been f a m i l i a r t o us f o r a hundred and f i f t y y e a r s i s not v a l i d f o r a p r e v i o u s p e r i o d . And t h a t i f b i o l o g y was unknown, t h e r e was a v e r y s i m p l e r e a s o n f o r i t : t h a t l i f e i t s e l f d i d not e x i s t . A l l t h a t e x i s t e d was l i v i n g b e i n g s , which were viewed through a g r i d o f knowledge c o n s t i t u t e d by n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . 4 F o u c a u l t , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o On the Normal and the P a t h o l o g i - c a l , p. x i v . For s i m i l a r approaches t o the h i s t o r y o f the l i f e s c i e n c e s , see GeorgesCanguilhem, On the Normal and the P a t h o l o g i - c a l ; K a r l F i g l i o , "The Metaphor o f O r g a n i z a t i o n ; " Stephen C r o s s , "John Hunter, the Animal Oeconomy, and L a t e E i g h t e e n t h - Century P h y s i o l o g i c a l D i s c o u r s e , " S t u d i e s i n H i s t o r y of B i o l o g y , ed. W. Coleman and C. Limoges, 5 ( B a l t i m o r e : Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1981), pp. 1 - 110; F r a n c o i s Jacob, The L o g i c o f L i f e : A H i s t o r y o f H e r e d i t y (New York: V i n t a g e Books, 1976). None of these a u t h o r s have w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a l l y or i n any l e n g t h about m o n s t r o s i t y , but each has been i n f l u e n t i a l i n d e t e r m i n i n g my approach t o the h i s t o r y o f s c i e n c e , and by ex- t e n s i o n t o the h i s t o r y o f t e r a t o l o g y as w e l l . A l l c h a l l e n g e the p o s i t i v i s t a s s e r t i o n t h a t the h i s t o r y o f s c i e n c e i s about the d i s c o v e r y of t r u t h . F o u c a u l t , f o r example, i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y comments t o Canguilhem's s t u d y , w r i t e s t h a t the h i s t o r y o f b i o l o - gy i s "not a h i s t o r y o f the t r u e , o f i t s slow epiphany; i t would not be a b l e t o c l a i m t h a t i t r e c o u n t s the p r o g r e s s i v e d i s - 7 c o v e r y o f a t r u t h ' i n s c r i b e d f o r e v e r i n t h i n g s o r i n the i n t e l l e c t , ' except t o imagine t h a t contemporary knowledge f i n a l l y p o s sesses i t so c o m p l e t e l y and d e f i n i t i v e l y t h a t i t can s t a r t from i t t o measure the p a s t " ( p . x i v ) . Canguilhem, On the Normal and the P a t h o l o g i c a l , p. 7. 8 INTRODUCTION — A l l moveables of wonder from a l l p a r t s , Are h e r e — A l b i n o s , p a i n t e d I n d i a n s , Dwarfs, The Horse of Knowledge, and the l e a r n e d P i g , The S t o n e - e a t e r , the Man t h a t swallows f i r e , G i a n t s , V e n t r i l o q u i s t s , the I n v i s i b l e G i r l , The Bust t h a t speaks, and moves i t s g o g g l i n g eyes, The Wax-work, Clock-work, a l l the m a r v e l l o u s c r a f t Of Modern M e r l i n s , w i l d B e a s t s , Puppet-shows, A l l out-o'-the-way, f a r - f e t c h ' d , p e r v e r t e d t h i n g s , A l l f r e a k s o f n a t u r e , a l l Promethean thoughts Of Man; h i s d u l n e s s , madness and t h e i r f e a t s , A l l jumbled up t o g e t h e r t o make up T h i s P a r l i a m e n t o f Monsters. Tents and Booths Meanwhile, as i f the whole were one v a s t M i l l , Are v o m i t i n g , r e c e i v i n g , on a l l s i d e s , Men, Women, t h r e e y e a r s ' C h i l d r e n , Babes i n arms. — W i l l i a m Wordsworth, on Bartholomew F a i r , 1802 From the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , whether they appealed as d i v i n e omens, n a t u r a l wonders, s c i e n t i f i c c u r i o s i t i e s o r side-show o d d i t i e s , monsters provoked a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of i n t e r e s t and s p e c u l a t i o n . S u r v e y i n g the s u b s t a n t i a l body of w r i t i n g on the s u b j e c t between 1550 and 1750, one i s i m m e d i a t e l y s t r u c k by the tremendous d i v e r s i t y i n t h i n k i n g about m o n s t r o s i t y , by the wide range i n response and e x p l a n a t i o n . There a r e d e s c r i p t i o n s 2 of "God's judgement shewn upon C h i l d r e n " (1580), of h i s "Handy- 3 4 worke" (1615), h i s "works of wonder" (1635), and o f h i s " d i s - p l e a s u r e a g a i n s t S i n " (1748).^ There are cases o f demonic i n t e r - v e n t i o n , wayward m a t e r n a l i m a g i n a t i o n , u n n a t u r a l c o n n e c t i o n s be- tween men and b e a s t s , and m e c h a n i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e s w i t h the f o e t u s . I n some monstrous p r o d u c t i o n s , Nature has r e p o r t e d l y - 7 8 " s p o r t e d h e r s e l f " (1740), and o t h e r times she has " e r r e d . " One reads a l t e r n a t i v e l y o f a s t o n i s h m e n t , s u r p r i s e and f e a r , of 9 bei n g s which were p r o d i g i o u s , odd or s i n g u l a r , o f monsters " t e r r i b l e t o b e h o l d " ( 1 6 7 0 ) , 9 o f those which "amused" ( 1 7 4 0 ) , 1 0 and o f the most common c u r i o s i t i e s , "the l i k e o f which were 11 never h i t h e r t o o b served"(1740). Though ov e r w h e l m i n g l y v a r i e d , t h e r e i s n e v e r t h e l e s s one sense i n which a l l e a r l y accounts o f m o n s t r o s i t y a re s i m i l a r . A l l are dominated by the view t h a t monsters, whatever e l s e they may be, are "monstrous," t h a t i s , e x t r a o r d i n a r y , s i n g u l a r and i r r e g u l a r . A c c o r d i n g t o the p o p u l a r consensus, monsters were wonders of the h i g h e s t o r d e r , f o r they i l l u s t r a t e d the i n f i n i t e c a p a c i t y o f d i v i n e , demonic o r i m a g i n a t i v e f o r c e s t o i n t e r v e n e a t w i l l i n the o r d i n a r y c o u r s e o f Nat u r e . From the sev e n t e e n t h cen- t u r y , i f t h e more s c i e n t i f i c a l l y - i n c l i n e d r e j e c t e d such e x p l i c i t s u p e r n a t u r a l s p e c u l a t i o n s , they n e v e r t h e l e s s c o n t i n u e d t o under- s t a n d monsters as wondrous i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , though w i t h the im- p o r t a n t p r o v i s o t h a t t h e s e were i r r e g u l a r i t i e s o f n a t u r e . S t i l l , monsters appeal e d p r i m a r i l y as c u r i o s i t i e s , as bein g s which, by v i r t u e of m a n i f e s t s t r u c t u r a l i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , were q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the " r e g u l a r " p r o d u c t i o n s o f God or Nat u r e . A r i s i n g from t h e . e r r a t i c p l a y o f chance, a c c i d e n t , e r r o r and s p o r t , o r o r i g i n a l p r o d u c t i o n s o f God, they were u l t i m a t e l y i n - e x p l i c a b l e and d e c i d e d l y w o n d e r f u l . C l e a r l y f o r Wordsworth, mon- s t e r s s t i l l p l a c e d p r o m i n e n t l y i n t h i s wonder c a t e g o r y , a l o n g w i t h a s t a g g e r i n g panorama o f o t h e r out-o'-the-way t h i n g s . S i d e - show e x o t i c a , p r o d i g y o f n a t u r e , Godly wrath; f e a r , awe and c u r i o - s i t y — w e l l i n t o the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , "monster" c o n t i n u e d t o embody these themes. And, above a l l , monster s i g n i f i e d i r r e g u l a r - i t y . 10 I t was p r e c i s e l y on t h i s p o i n t t h a t l a t e e i g h t e e n t h - and e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s broke w i t h p r e v i o u s p a t t e r n s of t h o u g h t , and i f such t r a d i t i o n a l images c o n t i n u e d t o i n f o r m the p o p u l a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g , by the 1770's, they had become anathema t o the more s c i e n t i f i c a l l y - m i n d e d . Concerned t o d i s c r e d i t the v iew of monsters as i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , many s c i e n t i f i c w r i t e r s sub- j e c t e d the whole range of past t h e o r i z i n g t o the most s c a t h i n g c r i t i c i s m . A c c o r d i n g t o the l e a r n e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t , "such o p i n i o n s . . . c o u l d have been e n t e r t a i n e d o n l y i n an age o f g r o s s s u p e r - 12 s t i t i o n and c r e d u l i t y . " So argued John N o r t h , a n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y d o c t o r who, i n h i s " L e c t u r e on M o n s t r o s i t i e s " (1840), d i s m i s s e d the hypotheses of s i x t e e n t h - and s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y w r i t e r s as " w h i m s i c a l " and " a b s u r d : " Upon t h i s p a r t o f the s u b j e c t [ t h e e f f i c i e n t causes of m o n s t r o s i t y ] w r i t e r s of the 1 6 t h and 17th c e n t u r y gave f u l l p l a y t o t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n , and accumulated many w h i m s i c a l and absurd hypotheses. Monsters b e i n g , i n t h e i r b e l i e f , e n t i r e l y out of the p a l e of the g e n e r a l p l a n and o r d i n a r y r u l e s o f n a t u r e , they were compelled t o have r e c o u r s e t o the i n f l u e n c e o f wonder- f u l c a u ses. Hence those e x t r a o r d i n a r y b i r t h s which were a t t r i b u t e d t o the a d u l t e r o u s connexion between men and b e a s t s , from which d e p l o r a b l e and absurd p r e j u d i c e s some p a i d the p r i c e o f t h e i r l i b e r t y , and o t h e r s o f t h e i r l i v e s . Hence a l s o the supposed i n t e r v e n t i o n of the D e i t y , who was thought t o c r e a t e monsters f o r the purpose of a s t o n i s h i n g o r t e r r i f y - i n g man; or of demons, the o r i g i n o f e v i l , p l a c e d almost u n i v e r s a l l y a f t e r the D e i t y , by the s i n g u l a r consent o f the g r o s s s u p e r s t i t i o n o f the p e o p l e , most of the e c c l e s i a s t i c s , and even the p h i l o s o p h e r s of v a r i o u s s e c t s . 1 3 I t was i n a s i m i l a r manner, t o o , t h a t Dr. W. Cooper b e r a t e d the n o t i o n o f 'photographic' m a t e r n a l i m a g i n a t i o n , a t h e o r y proposed by numerous e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n v e s t i g a t o r s t o account f o r mon- s t r o u s b i r t h s . A c c o r d i n g t o Cooper (1775), i t was a " v e r y weak s u p p o s i t i o n , e n t i r e l y v o i d of f o u n d a t i o n , d i r e c t l y c o n t r a r y t o 11 a l l p h i l o s o p h y and e x p e r i e n c e , " w i t h " n o t h i n g t o support i t but v u l g a r o p i n i o n , t r a n s m i t t e d t o us from the ages of a n a t o m i c a l 14 i g n o r a n c e . " Whatever d i f f e r e n c e s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may have d i v i d e d them, n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s were i n unanimous a c c o r d i n s c o r n i n g such t r a d i t i o n a l " o p i n i o n s " as p r o d u c t s of c r e d u l i t y , i g n o r a n c e , or "the darkness of the m i d d l e ages."''""' Such o p i n i o n , based on appearances which masked a t r u e r r e a l i t y , c o u l d no l o n g e r c o n s t i t u t e r e a l knowledge. Between 1750 and 1850, s c i e n t i s t s expended c o n s i d e r a b l e energy i n an attempt t o wrest m a l f o r m a t i o n from i t s " v u l g a r , " " s u p e r s t i t i o u s , " and " u n s c i e n t i f i c " a s s o c i a t i o n s , t o empty i t of a l l t h a t was i l l u s o r y and m e t a p h o r i c a l , i n s h o r t , t o t r a n s f o r m m o n s t r o s i t y i n t o a " p u r i f i e d " concept o f s c i e n c e . I n f a c t , the e n t i r e study of monsters changed d r a m a t i c a l l y d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d , and these changes may be comprehended i n t h r e e v e r y apparent t r e n d s . F i r s t l y , from the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h i n t o m o n s t r o s i t y drew on a f u n d a m e n t a l l y new s e t o f t h e o r e t i c a l assumptions. The most e x p l i c i t o f these was t h a t m a l f o r m a t i o n s were cases o f p a t h o l o g y , a r i s i n g from abnormal ( i . e . q u a n t i t a t i v e ) d e v i a t i o n s i n the o t h e r w i s e normal p r o c e s s e s o f l i f e . By the 1820's, the e m b r y o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h e s o f s c i e n - t i s t s such as J.F. M e c k e l , E t i e n n e S e r r e s and I s i d o r e G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e had a u t h e n t i c a t e d the e p i g e n e t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f f o e t a l development. H e n c e f o r t h , m a l f o r m a t i o n s were u n d e r s t o o d i n s t r i c t l y b i o l o g i c a l terms, as cases o f a r r e s t o r excess i n embry- o l o g i c a l development. Or, as John N o r t h e x p l a i n s : . . . t h e g r e a t e r number of monsters are b e i n g s whose growth has been a r r e s t e d , and i n whom the organs of the embryo have been r e t a i n e d u n t i l b i r t h , and are 12 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f o e t a l organs. T h i s a r r e s t o f development i s v e r y i n s t r u c t i v e as t o those cases o f m o n s t r o s i t y i n which t h e r e i s a d e f i c i e n c y o f organs . . . o t h e r phenomena a r i s e from excess o f development, i n which the organs are l a r g e r o r more numerous t h a n usual.1° Almost a l l cases of m o n s t r o s i t y c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d and c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s new p r i n c i p l e o f a r r e s t and e x c e s s . For example: I n d i v i d u a l s are o c c a s i o n a l l y seen, the whole s u r f a c e of whose b o d i e s , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g covered w i t h s k i n , i s c o v e r e d w i t h s c a l e s . . . Such persons have been c a l l e d p o r c u p i n e f a m i l i e s . T h i s c o n d i t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a s p e c i e s o f d i s e a s e , o f which t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l v a r i e t i e s , termed i c h t h y o s i s . 1 7 Such " a n o m a l i e s , " the a u t h o r e x p l a i n s , a r i s e from an " i n d u r a t i o n of p a r t s which are n a t u r a l l y s o f t , " and are " a t t r i b u t a b l e t o an 18 excess o f development." E v e n t u a l l y t h i s t h e o r y e n t i r e l y sup- p l a n t e d o l d e r c o n c e p t i o n s o f m o n s t r o s i t y . I t c o n t a i n e d assump- t i o n s — n o t a b l y t h a t m a l f o r m a t i o n s were s u b j e c t t o i n t e r n a l p h y s i o l o g i c a l l a w s — w h i c h , i n North's words, were " f a t a l " t o 19 c e r t a i n " o l d d o c t r i n e s . " S e c o n d l y , w h i l e r a t i o n a l i s t t h e o r i e s were w o r k i n g t o d i s l o d g e p a s t b e l i e f s about m a l f o r m a t i o n , a new language, i n f u s e d w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d v o c a b u l a r y and a p r e c i s e m e d i c a l t e r m i n o l o g y , tended a t the same time t o d i s p l a c e p a s t ways of t a l k i n g about monsters. Embedded i n a new c o n c e p t u a l frame, monsters were no l o n g e r de- s c r i b e d as p r o d i g i e s , s i n g u l a r i t i e s and wonders, but d e s i g n a t e d i n s t e a d i n o b j e c t i v e terms of anomaly, d i s e a s e , m a l f o r m a t i o n , e m b r y o l o g i c a l a r r e s t and p h y s i o l o g i c a l d i s o r d e r . S i n c e they were un d e r s t o o d as d i s e a s e e n t i t i e s , monsters were s p e c i f i e d a c c o r d - i n g l y , as cases o f d i p l o g e n e s i s , c y c l o p i a , i c h t h y o s i s , e t c . , and t h e i r m a l f o r m a t i o n s c l a s s i f i e d as phocmeles, t r i c h i a s i s , exom- 13 p h a l o s , e t c . C l e a r l y , t h i s was a language a v a i l a b l e o n l y t o those w i t h e x p e r t m e d i c a l knowledge. I n comparison, o l d p a t t e r n s o f speech, deemed o v e r l y s u b j e c t i v e and m e t a p h o r i c a l , came t o s i g n i f y an i g n o r a n t and v u l g a r mode of u n d e r s t a n d i n g and hence, were rendered " o f f l i m i t s " i n s c i e n t i f i c d i s c u s s i o n s . D i s l o d g e d i n f a v o r of a more s c i e n t i f i c a l l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d s e t o f words and r e a l i t i e s , the o l d language o f wonder, and a l l of the images t h a t went w i t h i t , d i s a p p e a r e d from the s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o u r s e on m o n s t r o s i t y . S i m i l a r l y , as f o r e x p r e s s i v e responses o f f e a r , wonder or u n r e s t r a i n e d c u r i o s i t y , they s i m p l y ceased t o be l e a r n e d o p t i o n s . F i n a l l y , a f t e r 1750, i n v e s t i g a t o r s of m o n s t r o s i t y became i n c r e a s i n g l y s p e c i a l i z e d and p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t s c i e n t i f i c t h i n k i n g about m a l f o r m a t i o n was more and more detached from the broad base o f p o p u l a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g . D u r i n g the 1830's, the s c i e n t i f i c s tudy o f monsters was g i v e n a name— t e r a t o l o g y — a n d was t h e r e b y d e s i g n a t e d as a s p e c i a l i z e d b r a n c h 20 of knowledge, a p r o f e s s i o n a l d i s c i p l i n e i n i t s own r i g h t . By the 1850's, t e r a t o l o g y had become an i n s t i t u t i o n : d o c t o r s c o u l d enumerate the "fundamental laws o f t e r a t o l o g y , " c o u l d e v a l u a t e p a s t r e s e a r c h e s as more o r l e s s worthy " c o n t r i b u t i o n s " t o t e r a t o l o g i c a l knowledge, and c o u l d l i s t the " g r e a t names" i n t e r a - 21 t o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . U n l i k e , the l o o s e l y a f f i l i a t e d amateurs of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , who had i n v e s t i g a t e d monsters as one o f a wide range of o t h e r t o p i c s i n n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , those engaged i n t e r a t o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h were c o n s c i o u s of themselves as b e l o n g i n g t o a coherent community o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s , w i t h a s p e c i a l i z e d i n t e r e s t , e x p e r t knowledge, a p r e c i s e language and shared 14 a t t i t u d e s , not o n l y about a b n o r m a l i t y , but a l s o about how i t ought to be s t u d i e d . By the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , c o n c e p t i o n s o f m o n s t r o s i t y were c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a l o n g l i n e s o f what was s c i e n t i f i c and what was n o t . By the e a r l y 1800's, t h e r e were two d i s p a r a t e modes o f d e s c r i b i n g , r e p r e s e n t i n g and under- s t a n d i n g p h y s i c a l m a l f o r m a t i o n , one which was " e x p e r t , " and one which was " p o p u l a r , " a word which by the n f u n c t i o n e d as an 22 e x p l e t i v e , s i g n i f y i n g a l l t h a t was m i s i n f o r m e d . I t was around t h i s same t i m e , t o o , t h a t t e r a t o l o g y became r e g a r d e d as an a c t i v i t y which had a p a s t , p r e s e n t and f u t u r e , as a c o l l e c t i v e endeavor w i t h i t s own d i s c e r n i b l e h i s t o r y . With t h e s e changes i n t h e o r y , language and s c i e n t i f i c p r a c t i c e , m o n s t r o s i t y was f i n a l l y wrenched from i t s former n i c h e i n the c o n c e p t u a l geography o f wonders and i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , and r e s i t u a t e d i n a new c o n t e x t , as a concept o f t e r a t o l o g y . What came to dominate n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t h i n k i n g was the view t h a t m o n s t r o s i t y was a h i g h l y r e g u l a r phenomenon, s u b j e c t t o system- a t i c laws o f embryology and p h y s i o l o g y . I n f a c t , the e n t i r e p r o j e c t o f t e r a t o l o g i s t s can be seen as an attempt t o r e g u l a r i z e i r r e g u l a r i t y , f o r , a c c o r d i n g t o B r e s c h e t , " n o t h i n g i s monstrous 23 24 i n n a t u r e , " and t o S e r r e s , "the o r d e r i s i n the d i s o r d e r . " For I s i d o r e G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e , m o n s t r o s i t y was "no l o n g e r a b l i n d d i s o r d e r , but an o t h e r o r d e r , e q u a l l y r e g u l a r , e q u a l l y 25 s u b j e c t t o l a w s , " and e q u a l l y g i v e n t o " c o n s t a n t and p r e c i s e 2 6 r u l e s . " S i m i l a r l y , i n h i s essay on the fundamental laws of t e r a t o l o g y , Dr. A.M. Adam e x p l a i n e d t h a t "modern i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t e r a t o l o g y and r e c e n t advances i n embryology, have c l e a r l y shown t h a t m a l f o r m a t i o n s a re n e i t h e r the b l u n d e r s and f a i l u r e s 15 of n a t u r e , nor y e t l u s u s n a t u r a e , her e c c e n t r i c and i n e x - 27 p l i c a b l e f r e a k s . " For a l t h o u g h " v a r i o u s s p e c i e s p r e s e n t many d i s t i n c t g e n e r i c c h a r a c t e r s and g r e a t s t r u c t u r a l d i v e r s i t i e s , the u n i t y of o r g a n i c f o r m a t i o n which has p r e s i d e d over t h e i r development g i v e s r i s e t o many v e r y s t r i k i n g and unexpected 28 a n a l o g i e s . " " A l l o r g a n i c p r o c e s s e s , " moreover, "are l i a b l e t o m u t a t i o n and d i s t u r b a n c e , and a l l development i s s u b j e c t t o m y s t e r i o u s d e v i a t i o n s and a b n o r m a l i t y , " so t h a t even i n n a t u r e ' s 30 m a l f o r m a t i o n , "the g r e a t e s t r e g u l a r i t y i s o b s e r v a b l e . " For John N o r t h , l i k e w i s e , m o n s t r o s i t y was "not a d i s o r d e r a r i s i n g from the b l i n d f r e a k s o f n a t u r e , " but was "governed by c o n s t a n t and p r e c i s e l a w s , " and " c a p a b l e of b e i n g s u b m i t t e d t o a r e g u l a r 31 and s c i e n t i f i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . " Summarizing v a r i o u s known "anomalous" c o n d i t i o n s , N o r t h was emphatic i n p o i n t i n g out t h a t the m a l f o r m a t i o n s i n q u e s t i o n were by no means " r a r e " o r "un- common," but f r e q u e n t l y encountered i n organisms throughout the 32 a n i m a l kingdom. And f i n a l l y , i n an emblematic passage, Adam c o u l d argue t h a t the word monster i t s e l f was o b s o l e t e and t h e r e - f o r e ought t o be e n t i r e l y " a b o l i s h e d " from " m e d i c a l l i t e r a t u r e " 33 as " i n d e f i n i t e , c o n f u s i n g and u n s c i e n t i f i c . " Once an e x t r a - o r d i n a r y phenomenon, f o r e x p e r t s such as t h e s e , who were i n - formed by new assumptions about s c i e n c e , n a t u r e and l i f e , mon-' s t r o s i t y had become above a l l an o b j e c t i f i e d m a t t e r of s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t , a m a t t e r of the g r e a t e s t r e g u l a r i t y , and i n t h i s sense, no l o n g e r " m o n s t r o s i t y " a t a l l . How, t h e n , i s one t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n the study of monsters? Was i t a m a t t e r o f the t r u t h f i n a l l y emerging a f t e r a c e n t u r y o f c u m u l a t i v e r e s e a r c h and i n v e s t i g a t i o n ? T h i s , 16 i n any c a s e , i s how e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s seem t o have u n d e r s t o o d the h i s t o r y o f t e r a t o l o g y . I s i d o r e G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e , f o r example, proposed t h a t the h i s t o r y o f t e r a - t o l o g y be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p e r i o d s : the f a b u l o u s ( s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s ) , the p o s i t i v e (1700-1750), and the 34 s c i e n t i f i c (1750-1832). A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s v i e w , the s c i e n c e o f m o n s t r o s i t y remained " a r r e s t e d " i n " i n f a n c y " f o r c e n t u r i e s , hampered by " r i d i c u l o u s and b i z a r r e e x p l a n a t i o n s , " and by the 35 "absurd p r e j u d i c e s " which dominated the s u p e r s t i t i o u s age. Only a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y was the " i m p o r t - ance of o b s e r v a t i o n " a p p r e c i a t e d , and many f a c t s , g a t h e r e d w i t h 3 6 " c a r e and e x a c t i t u d e , " accumulated. F i n a l l y , a f t e r a " r a p i d p r o g r e s s towards t r u t h , " t h i s "march" c u l m i n a t e d i n the s c i e n t i - 37 f i c age, when a t r u e s c i e n c e o f m o n s t r o s i t y appeared. W r i t - i n g about the study o f m o n s t r o s i t y a few y e a r s l a t e r , John N o r t h o f f e r e d a s i m i l a r v e r s i o n o f i t s h i s t o r y : I proceed t o g i v e you i n t h e p r e s e n t l e c t u r e a b r i e f . . . s k e t c h of the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t we have d e r i v e d on the s u b j e c t o f m o n s t r o s i t i e s , w i t h i n the l a s t few y e a r s , from the l a b o u r s of the F r e n c h and German w r i t e r s , e s p e c i a l l y M e c k e l , Soemmering, B r e s c h e t , S e r r e s , and above a l l , G e o f f r o y S t . H i l a i r e . The r e - searches o f these d i s t i n g u i s h e d w r i t e r s have f i l l e d up a g r e a t b l a n k i n m e d i c a l s c i e n c e . B e f o r e t h e i r time almost every example of monstrous f o r m a t i o n was a t t r i b u t e d , not merely by the p u b l i c , but a l s o by the p r o f e s s i o n , t o a w h i m s i c a l d e v i a t i o n o f Nature from her accustomed laws. Such c o n t i n u e d t o be the p r e v a i l i n g d o c t r i n e u n t i l the b e g i n n i n g o f the 18th c e n t u r y , when b e t t e r - f o u n d e d and more p h i l o s o p h i c views began to be e s t a b l i s h e d , and were g r a d u a l l y c a r r i e d t o t h e i r p r e s e n t comparative s t a t e o f p e r f e c - , t i o n . 3 8 Most subsequent commentary t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e about the h i s - t o r y o f t e r a t o l o g y has been w r i t t e n by s c i e n t i s t s , who have i n - c l u d e d s h o r t " s k e t c h e s " of p a s t r e s e a r c h e s i n t e r a t o l o g y i n t h e i r 17 o t h e r w i s e s t r i c t l y m e d i c a l works. These " t e x t b o o k " h i s t o r i e s have tended t o remain f a i t h f u l t o North's v i s i o n o f s c i e n c e — a n o b j e c t i v e , s t e a d i l y a d vancing e n t e r p r i s e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , l i k e N o r t h , they have r e p r e s e n t e d the h i s t o r y o f t e r a t o l o g y as an " i n e x o r a b l e " march t o t r u t h . I n such n a r r a t i v e s , the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y appears p r e d i c t a b l y as the g o l d e n age o f t e r a t o l o g i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g , i n c o n t r a s t t o l e s s e n l i g h t e n e d e r a s , which were a p p a r e n t l y r i f e w i t h s u p e r s t i t i o u s c r e d u l i t y , darkness and r i d i - c u l o u s b e l i e f s . Gould and P y l e , f o r example, i n Anomalies and C u r i o s i t i e s o f M e d i c i n e (1896), e x p l a i n t h a t " t h e r e has been l i t t l e improvement i n the mode of e x p l a n a t i o n o f monstrous b i r t h s u n t i l the p r e s e n t c e n t u r y , w h i l e i n the mi d d l e ages, the s u p e r s t i t i o n s were more l u d i c r o u s and o b s e r v a t i o n s more i g n o r a n t t h a n b e f o r e 40 the time of G a l e n . " To account f o r the o r i g i n s o f t e r a t o l o g y , such accounts t y p i c a l l y s e a r c h the p a s t f o r evi d e n c e o f t e r a t o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s " i n embryo." The h i s t o r y o f t e r a t o l o g y then reads as though i t were a c o n t i n u o u s , l i n e a r t r a d i t i o n , i n which " s c i e n t i s t s , " from A r i s t o t l e t o Mendel, p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a d i s c o v e r y by d i s c o v e r y a c c u m u l a t i o n o f knowledge t o b r i n g t e r a t o l o g i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o i t s p r e s e n t s t a t e . J o s e f Warkany, a contemporary t e r a t o l o g i s t , f o r example, c l a i m s t h a t t e r a t o l o g y i s "a s c i e n c e t h a t can be 41 t r a c e d t o the e a r l i e s t times o f human h i s t o r y , " a t a s k which he t a k e s up i n v a r i o u s a r t i c l e s on the h i s t o r y o f t e r a t o l o g y . He speaks o f the " t e r a t o l o g i c a l knowledge o f people l i v i n g i n a 42 Stone Age c i v i l i z a t i o n , " and r e g a r d s B a b y l o n i a n p r i e s t s as the 43 "founders o f the s c i e n c e of t e r a t o l o g y . " He d e s c r i b e s the t e r a t o l o g i c a l knowledge of the Greeks and Romans, c l a i m i n g t h a t 18 A r i s t o t l e "had a s u r p r i s i n g knowledge of t e r a t o l o g i c a l f a c t s . " He t r a c e s the " d e c l i n e o f t e r a t o l o g y " i n the m i d d l e ages and i t s 45 r e v i v a l i n the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . F i n a l l y , he a r r i v e s a t the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , which towers as a "peak i n the a r e a o f t e r a - t o l o g y . " I n o bvious ways, n a r r a t i v e s such as t h i s m i s r e p r e s e n t the concerns of p a s t o b s e r v e r s o f m o n s t r o s i t y . They assume t h a t p a s t works can be i n t e r p r e t e d a c c o r d i n g t o modern concerns and a modern " w o r l d v i e w . " As Jacques Roger says o f the w r i t e r s o f t h i s type of h i s t o r y : . . . they were m a i n l y - i n t e r e s t e d i n the development of t h e i r s c i e n c e , from the p a s t as they s t u d i e d as h i s t o r i a n s , t o the p r e s e n t t h a t they knew as s c i e n - t i s t s . That development was o f course d i r e c t e d t o - ward the p r e s e n t and so was i t s h i s t o r y . . . A c c o r d - i n g t o t h a t p e r s p e c t i v e 1 8 t h c e n t u r y s c i e n c e was modern s c i e n c e i n the c r a d l e and t h i s made i t p o s s i b l e t o a p p l y modern c r i t e r i a o r modern c a t e g o r i e s t o s c i - e n t i s t s f o r whom they d i d not exist.4-7 The most d i r e c t way t o q u e s t i o n the l i m i t a t i o n s o f such ap- proaches i s t o c o n s i d e r , as F o u c a u l t has done i n the case o f b i o - l o g y , whether t h e r e was, b e f o r e the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , such a d i s c i p l i n e o r such an a c t i v i t y as " t e r a t o l o g y . " The word i t s e l f was c o i n e d by G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H l l a i r e i n the 1830's and became i n c r e a s i n g l y f r e q u e n t i n E n g l i s h usage a f t e r t h a t , but i t does not appear a t a l l i n s c i e n t i f i c works on monsters b e f o r e the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Men who i n v e s t i g a t e d monsters i n the e i g h t - eenth c e n t u r y d i d not c o n c e i v e themselves as " c o n t r i b u t o r s " t o a p a r t i c u l a r d i s c i p l i n e , but r a t h e r , worked i n a s c i e n t i f i c l a n d - scape i n which the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s u b j e c t s was v e r y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h e i r c o n c e r n s , moreover, were q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . I n 1741, f o r example) the R o y a l S o c i e t y 19 p u b l i s h e d a paper by D a n i e l d e S u p e r v i l l e , i n which monsters were d i s c u s s e d w i t h i n a more g e n e r a l essay on g e n e r a t i o n . F o r de- S u p e r v i l l e , a major co n c e r n was t h a t o f s q u a r i n g what he observed i n monsters w i t h what he b e l i e v e d about God. R e f u s i n g t o b e l i e v e t h a t God would have c r e a t e d embryos " i m p e r f e c t , " he i n s i s t e d t h a t monsters c o u l d o n l y be caused by m e c h a n i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e s a f t e r 48 c o n c e p t i o n . C e r t a i n l y , d e S u p e r v i l l e d i d not see the s c i e n t i f i c map d i v i d e d as i t was l a t e r t o be, i n t o s p e c i a l i z e d d i s c i p l i n e s where the e m b r y o l o g i s t s t u d i e d " r e p r o d u c t i o n and development," and the t e r a t o l o g i s t "anomaly." R a t h e r , he c o n c e i v e d the study of m o n s t r o s i t y a c c o r d i n g t o c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a (God and g e n e r a t i o n ) , and, w r i t i n g i n a p r e - t e r a t o l o g i c a l w o r l d , brought a s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t s e t o f q u e s t i o n s and answers t o bear on the problem of monsters. F u r t h e r , when e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n - v e s t i g a t o r s d i s c u s s e d the problem of m o n s t r o s i t y , i t was i n a language q u i t e d i s s i m i l a r from t h a t employed by t e r a t o l o g i s t s . I n 1741, a f t e r h a v i n g encountered a case o f a f o e t u s born w i t h o u t a b r a i n , W i l l i a m Gregory sent a r e p o r t of the phenomenon t o the R o y a l S o c i e t y , d e s c r i b i n g the f o e t u s as a "monster, r e s e m b l i n g a 49 hooded monkey." A hundred y e a r s l a t e r , such f o e t u s e s were de- s i g n a t e d i n s t r i k i n g l y more o b j e c t i v e terms, as cases o f anen- c e p h a l y , a d e s i g n a t i o n which suggests an a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g . C l e a r l y , t h e n , e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n - v e s t i g a t o r s d i d not speak as t e r a t o l o g i s t s , and d i d not d e f i n e themselves as such, f o r the r e a s o n t h a t n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i d e a s about m o n s t r o s i t y were not a p a r t o f t h e i r c o n c e p t u a l u n i v e r s e . Except f o r the f a c t h t i t i s d i r c t e d s p c i f i c a l l y a t the h i s t o r y o f t e r a t o l o g y , t h e r e i s n o t h i n g new i n the p r e c e d i n g 20 c r i t i q u e . F or many r e c e n t h i s t o r i a n s o f s c i e n c e , the g o l d e n age v e r s i o n o f n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n c e has been s t r i k i n g d i s c o r d - a n t l y , as something of- a myth. Stephen Gould, though he b e l i e v e s t h a t a " f a c t u a l r e a l i t y e x i s t s " and t h a t " s c i e n t i s t s can l e a r n about i t , " suggests t h a t s c i e n c e i s b e s t u n d e r s t o o d as a s o c i a l l y embedded a c t i v i t y . A s c i e n c e does not b e g i n " i n the n o t h i n g n e s s of i g n o r a n c e , " he a r g u e s , moving toward t r u t h "by g a t h e r i n g more and more i n f o r m a t i o n , c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e o r i e s as f a c t s accumulate." R a t h e r , 'sciences work w i t h e l a b o r a t e d c o n t e x t s f o r e x p l a i n i n g f a c t s from the o u t s e t , " and o f t e n i t i s e x t r a - s c i e n t i f i c c o n s i d - e r a t i o n s which determine how, o r even i f , a p a r t i c u l a r problem w i l l be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d . " ^ F o u c a u l t , t o o , would argue t h a t s c i e n c e i s by no means a c u l t u r a l l y detached a c t i v i t y . I n h i s v i e w , i t i s d e e p l y l i m i t e d , i n f a c t c o n s t i t u t e d , by the s p e c i f i c code of knowledge which governs a l l i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y a t a g i v e n t i m e . S i n c e a l l t h a t can be s a i d i n any p e r i o d i s l i m i t e d by t h i s code, s c i e n t i s t s , l i k e o t h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l s , can f o r m u l a t e q u e s t i o n s and answers o n l y i n t h i s most r e s t r i c t e d and h i s t o r i c a l l y con- d i t i o n e d way. S i m i l a r l y , GeorgesCanguilhem, i n h i s study of n i n e - t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o normal and p a t h o l o g i c a l con- d i t i o n s , argues t h a t a b n o r m a l i t y i s not p r o p e r l y r e g a r d e d as a f a c t , but r a t h e r as a h i s t o r i c a l l y s i t u a t e d judgement. F o l l o w - i n g from t h i s , he attempts t o c h a r a c t e r i z e the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s which made i t p o s s i b l e f o r n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n - t i s t s t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e a b n o r m a l i t y i n the way t hey d i d . G i v e n t h i s c l i m a t e o f s c h o l a r s h i p , i t i s e v i d e n t why h i s - t o r i c a l s k e t c h e s of t e r a t o l o g y , l i k e t h a t o f f e r e d by N o r t h , G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e and numerous t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y w r i t e r s , no 21 l o n g e r " r e s o n a t e . " I f most h i s t o r i a n s would now o f f e r a d i f f e r - ent h i s t o r y o f t e r a t o l o g y , i t i s l a r g e l y because our views o f s c i e n c e .have changed s i n c e the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . When we ask (and u n l i k e N o r t h , we do a s k ) , "can s c i e n c e make c l a i m s t o t r u t h ? " we can no l o n g e r answer u n e q u i v o c a l l y . I n any cas e , examined t h i s way, the h i s t o r y o f how monsters came t o be a t o p i c o f i n t e r e s t f o r e x p e r t s c i e n t i s t s , a l o n g w i t h b e i n g an episode i n the h i s t o r y o f s c i e n c e , i s a l s o n e c e s s a r i l y an e p i s o d e i n the h i s t o r y of i d e a s and c u l t u r e . Between 1750 and 1850, r a d i c a l change o c c u r r e d i n t h e study o f monsters, and as we have seen, by the 1830's, monsters had become the o b j e c t o f study f o r t h e o r i s t s o f a newly d e s i g n a t e d s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e . I n v e s t i g a t o r s a r t i c u l a t e d an a l t o g e t h e r new s e t o f t e r a t o l o g i c a l laws and t h e o r i e s , they spoke o f mal- f o r m a t i o n i n an o b j e c t i v e and h i g h l y m e d i c a l i z e d i d i o m , and they saw themselves as a community o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s , d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the v u l g a r by e x p e r t modes of speech and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . However, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o comprehend the appearance o f t e r a t o l o g y o n l y i f one c o n s i d e r s t h a t i t was symptomatic o f a deeper r e o r i e n t a t i o n i n t h i n k i n g about n a t u r e , d e v i a t i o n and the study o f l i v i n g t h i n g s , a r e o r i e n t a t i o n which gave r i s e t o an e n t i r e l y new con- c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f monsters. How o t h e r w i s e can one e x p l a i n , f o r example, t h a t n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s spoke o f m a l f o r m a t i o n as a h i g h l y r e g u l a r , i f abnormal, phenomenon, w h i l e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a u t h o r s d e s c r i b e d monsters as s u r p r i s i n g , odd and i r - r e g u l a r ? I would argue t h a t e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f m o n s t r o s i t y proceeded upon t h e t a c i t b e l i e f t h a t monsters were 22 e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from those l i v i n g t h i n g s which were r e g u l a r . They were d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f b e i n g s . Such a b e l i e f was p o s s i b l e because u n t i l around 1750 the study o f m o n s t r o s i t y belonged t o n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , and was in f o r m e d by i t s c o n t e n t , i t s methods and i t s e n c y c l o p e d i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Nature as a d i v i n e l y c r e a t e d o r d e r o f f i x e d s p e c i e s , d i f f e r e n t i a t e d one from the o t h e r by m a n i f e s t s t r u c t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s . A c c o r d i n g t o the p r i n c i p l e s of t h i s o r d e r , monsters were "monstrous" p r e - c i s e l y because by v i r t u e o f v i s i b l e ( i . e . s t r u c t u r a l ^ i r r e g u l a r - i t i e s , they appeared t o be so. In c o n t r a s t , n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s belonged t o a f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t u a l o r d e r , one which made " l i f e " — a n d not f i x e d s p e c i e s — t h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t o f s t u d y , and one which d e f i n e d m a l f o r m a t i o n a c c o r d i n g l y , not as m o n s t r o s i t y , but as b i o l o g i c a l a b n o r m a l i t y . I n c r e a s i n g l y a f t e r 1750, s c i e n t i s t s came to unde r s t a n d e x t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e as an e x p r e s s i o n o f i n t e r - n a l f u n c t i o n s and t o i n t e r e s t themselves i n comprehending these i n v i s i b l e p r o c e s s e s o f l i f e . By the e a r l y 1800's, w i t h what F o u c a u l t has c h a r a c t e r i z e d as the C u v i e r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , l i v i n g b e i n g s had become "organisms," dynamic systems governed by an i n t e r n a l p l a n and by i n t e r n a l laws o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . As G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e s uggested, i t was upon the " g r e a t s c i e n c e s of o r g a n i s a t i o n " t h a t the s c i e n c e of m o n s t r o s i t y was 52 b u i l t . S t u d i e s i n compa r a t i v e anatomy and p h y s i o l o g y suggest- ed t h a t a b n o r m a l i t i e s o c c u r r e d r e g u l a r l y throughout the l i v i n g w o r l d , t h a t a l l organisms were s u s c e p t i b l e t o m a l f o r m a t i o n s and t h a t t h e s e accorded w i t h the same i n v a r i a b l e r u l e s which u n d e r l a y 53 a l l a n i m a l l i f e . S i m i l a r l y , s t u d i e s i n embryology made i t 23 p o s s i b l e t o un d e r s t a n d m a l f o r m a t i o n i n terms o f o r g a n i c h i s t o r y , t o e x p l a i n the p r i n c i p l e s o f a b n o r m a l i t y as q u a n t i t a t i v e d e v i a - t i o n s i n an o t h e r w i s e normal developmental n l a n . The whole n o t i o n o f monsters as f r e a k i s h d e v i a t i o n s i n a f i x e d , d i v i n e o r d e r was g r a d u a l l y eroded as l i f e became seen as a dynamic and s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g p r o c e s s , a p r o c e s s which comprehended b o t h the normal and t h e p a t h o l o g i c a l w i t h i n i t s e l f . Informed by such a s s u m p t i o n s , i t was no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e f o r n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s t o r e g a r d monsters as q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t b e i n g s . On the c o n t r a r y , a c c o r d i n g t o the p r e v a i l i n g n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y view, monsters, q u a l i t a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g , were p r e c i s e l y the same as n o r m a l l y formed b e i n g s . I f monsters appeared t o be d i f f e r e n t , t h i s was o n l y i l l u s o r y , f o r d e s p i t e s t r u c t u r a l v a r i a t i o n , t h e r e were deep p h y s i o l o g i c a l u n i f o r m i t i e s i n a l l l i f e . A c c o r d i n g t o George F i s h e r , a noted n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t e r a t o l o g i s t , " . . . a l l the s t r u c t u r a l d e v i a t i o n s from the normal type which a re c a l l e d m a l f o r m a t i o n s . . . from the s l i g h t e s t t o the g r e a t e s t , c o n s t i t u t e a c o n t i n u e d s e r i e s , the d i f f e r e n c e . . . c o n s i s t i n g i n the s i m p l e m a t t e r o f q u a n t i t y and not a d i f f e r e n c e i n k i n d . " " ^ Thus, w h i l e e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y r e s e a r c h e s i n t o m o n s t r o s i t y were o r g a n i z e d upon the p r i n c i p l e s o f s t r u c t u r e , o f the v i s i b l e and q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e , t e r a - t o l o g y was c o n d i t i o n e d by a new s e t o f c o n c e p t u a l r u l e s : bv o r g a n i z a t i o n , develoDment and q u a n t i t a t i v e d e v i a n c e . S i m i l a r l y , i f e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r v i n v e s t i g a t o r s had posed a dichotomy between r e g u l a r and i r r e g u l a r p r o d u c t i o n s o f n a t u r e , n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t e r a t o l o g i s t s posed a new dichotomy: a l l l i f e p r o c e s s e s were r e g u l a r , but i n s o f a r as q u a n t i t a t i v e v a r i a t i o n o c c u r r e d , some 5 24 organisms were h e a l t h y and some were p a t h o l o g i c a l , some normal and o t h e r s abnormal. The n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y view of l i f e as a r e g u l a r and s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g p r i n c i p l e e nabled s c i e n t i s t s t o speak of norms and a b n o r m a l i t i e s as o b j e c t i v e ( i . e . b i o l o g i c a l ) f a c t s o f l i f e . I f p h y s i o l o g i c a l norms e x i s t e d , s c i e n c e c o u l d o n l y know them through an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o p a t h o l o g i c a l forms, which d e v i a t e d , i n some measurable way, from the norm. Monsters p r o v i d e d j u s t such p a t h o l o g i c a l cases f o r s t u d y . I n much the same way as the in s a n e were i n v e s t i g a t e d t o e l u c i d a t e the meaning o f s a n i t y , so monsters were s t u d i e d as a means o f comprehending normal l i f e p r o c e s s e s . Viewed i n the most o b j e c t i v e manner, the p h y s i c a l l y malformed were reduced t o b i o l o g i c a l l y d i s e a s e d specimens, i d e n t i c a l t o h e a l t h y organisms save f o r q u a n t i t a t i v e v a r i a t i o n s . However, t o the e x t e n t t h a t they were m e d i c a l i z e d i n t h i s way, monsters ceased t o be monstrous, f o r above a l l a b n o r m a l i t y was seen as a h i g h l y r e g u l a r and o b j e c t i v e l y e x p l i c a b l e phenome- non. Indeed, bv the 1830's, v a r i o u s s c i e n t i s t s e x p r e s s e d d i s - s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the term, "monster." I t was w i d e l y f e l t , w i t h Dr. A. M. Adam, t h a t "monsters" s h o u l d be d e s c r i b e d o b j e c t i v e l y , termed " g e n e r i c a l l y m a l f o r m a t i o n s , and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d under t h e i r 5 6 own p r o p e r t e r a t o l o g i c a l d e s i g n a t i o n s . " For G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e , t h e r e was o n l y one k i n d of organism which c o n s t i t u t e d a monster, and t h i s , not because the organism was i r r e g u l a r o r " d i f f e r e n t , " but because i t was so q u a n t i t a t i v e l y d e v i a n t as to be i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h l i f e . At one time a m o r a l l y charged phenomenon, r e s u l t i n g from the judgements of God, m o n s t r o s i t y became, f o r S a i n t - H i l a i r e and h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , an o b j e c t i v e 25 m a t t e r o f a r r e s t e d organs and i m p a i r e d f u n c t i o n s , i n which v a l u e had no p l a c e . The f a c t t h a t the d e s i g n a t i o n , "abnormal," con- s t i t u t e d an e s s e n t i a l l y s u b i e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n was h e n c e f o r t h o b s c u r e d , by a s c i e n c e which c l a i m e d t o d e a l o n l y i n o b j e c t i v e knowledge. F i n a l l y , w i t h these changes i n s c i e n t i f i c t h i n k i n g , the r u p t u r e between l e a r n e d and p o p u l a r c o n c e p t i o n s o f m o n s t r o s i t y was a s s u r e d . S c i e n t i s t s c o u l d no l o n g e r t o l e r a t e the p o p u l a r view of malformed i n d i v i d u a l s as d e v i a t i o n s from the "course o f n a t u r e , " nor c o u l d they e x p e r i e n c e them as i n t o x i c a t i n g s p e c t a c l e s o f i r r e g u l a r i t y . A c c o r d i n g t o the s c i e n t i f i c p o i n t o f view, monsters were s i m p l y b i o l o g i c a l d e v i a t i o n s and specimens, t h e r e f o r e , o f the most o b j e c t i v e k i n d o f i n t e r e s t . R e f u s i n g common sense i m p r e s s i o n s i n f a v o r o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge, t e r a t o l o g i s t s approached m o n s t r o s i t y not i n terms of how i t appeared t o the eye, but i n terms of how i t was t o be comprehended by the mind. Thus, w h i l e monsters c o n t i n u e d t o appeal on the f a i r g r o u n d s as e x t r a o r d i n a r y b e i n g s , and phenomena of some wonder, t h e y had a l l but d i s a p p e a r e d from the s c i e n t i f i c v o c a b u l a r y , e c l i p s e d by anencephaly, d i p l o g e n e s i s and o t h e r d i s e a s e e n t i t i e s . At bottom, t h i s essay i s an attempt t o c h a r a c t e r i z e such c o n c e p t u a l changes, and t o e l u c i d a t e t h i s p r o c e s s o f " s c i e n t i z a t i o n . " I n r e s e a r c h i n g t h i s problem, I have drawn on a c c o u n t s o f v a r i o u s i n v e s t i g a t o r s who, between 1650 and 1850, i n t e r e s t e d themselves i n t h e q u e s t i o n o f m o n s t r o s i t y . " ^ At f i r s t , many of t h e s e accounts were i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e because they embodied forms of language and thought which were q u i t e f o r e i g n . I n one sense, 26 t h e r e f o r e , my c e n t r a l problem has been t o a c q u i r e a f o r e i g n language and t o d i s c o v e r the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c i e s o f a f o r e i g n way o f thought. I n a p p r o a c h i n g t h i s problem, I assumed two t h i n g s : f i r s t , t h a t v a r i o u s u t t e r a n c e s were in f o r m e d by p a r t i - c u l a r t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s which were c u r r e n t , i n s c i e n t i f i c t h i n k i n g about m o n s t r o s i t y and s e c o n d l y , t h a t t h e s e t h e o r i e s belonged i n a s p e c i f i c e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l framework, which governed the k i n d s of q u e s t i o n s asked arid the k i n d s of e x p l a n a t i o n s g i v e n . In s h o r t , t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e w r i t i n g s , I have t r i e d t o r e i m a g i n e t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t e x t s and t o determine what k i n d s o f p h i l o - s o p h i c a l and e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s c o u l d have supported the d i v e r s i t y o f t h e o r i z i n g and t h i n k i n g about monsters. As f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n , I have arranged t h i s essay i n t o t h r e e c h a p t e r s . Chapter one c o n s i d e r s the s t u d y o f m o n s t r o s i t y d u r i n g the p e r i o d e x t e n d i n g r o u g h l y from 1650 t o 1750, and attempts t o show how t h i n k i n g about monsters was c o n s t r a i n e d by the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l code of n a t u r a l h i s t o r y and by the c e n t r a l concept of s t r u c t u r e . Chapter two i s concerned w i t h how s c i e n t i s t s d u r i n g the l a t t e r p a r t o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y approached the s t u d y of monsters, and d i s c u s s e s the t r a n s i t i o n s which o c c u r r e d as i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o m o n s t r o s i t y became dominated by the p r i n c i p l e of a n i m a l f u n c t i o n . F i n a l l y , c h a p t e r t h r e e i s about the appearance of t e r a t o l o e y i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I t attempts to demonstrate how the s c i e n c e o f anomalies was ordered by contemporary concepts o f l i f e , o r g a n i z a t i o n and development. Few contemporary h i s t o r i a n s have addressed the problem of 58 m o n s t r o s i t y . Whether t h i s i s , as a r e c e n t a r t i c l e s u g g e s t s , because the s u b j e c t has seemed " t r i v i a l " or " t a s t e l e s s , " o r 27 whether the a u e s t i o n s i m p l y d i d not o c c u r i n p r e v i o u s h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t s , the f a c t remains t h a t the s u b j e c t has r e c e i v e d l i t t l e 59 s e r i o u s h i s t o r i c a l a t t e n t i o n . " R e c e n t l y , however, the whole q u e s t i o n of p a t h o l o g i c a l b e h a v i o r s and s t r u c t u r e s i n man has been p r o v o k i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t , and t h e r e are now s e v e r a l s t u d i e s , l i k e those of F o u c a u l t or Canguilhem, which attempt t o e x p l a i n p a s t t h i n k i n g about d i s e a s e , madness, c r i m i n a l i t y and o t h e r p a t h o l o g i c a l phenomena. These works have shown why the Droblem o f a b n o r m a l i t y i s n e c e s s a r i l y an h i s t o r i c a l problem, f o r , as Canguilhem s a y s , "a c o n g e n i t a l c l u b f o o t , a s e x u a l i n v e r s i o n , a d i a b e t i c , a s c h i z o p h r e n i c pose innumerable q u e s t i o n s " which, i n the end, r e f e r t o the Dast, or t o "the whole of a n a t o m i c a l , 6 0 e m b r y o l o g i c a l , p h y s i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . " What such s t u d i e s suggested t o me was t h a t the work o f s c i e n t i s t s who i n v e s t i g a t e d m o n s t r o s i t y between 1750 and 1850 might p r o v i d e a c o n c r e t e case i n how a c o n d i t i o n o f b e i n g " d i f f e r e n t " came t o be c o n c e i v e d as " d e v i a n t " and u n d e r s t o o d by s c i e n t i s t s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a , as "abnormal." L i k e s t u d i e s i n the h i s t o r y o f madness o r d i s e a s e , i t seemed t h a t the h i s t o r y o f s c i e n t i f i c t h i n k i n g about m o n s t r o s i t y might c l a r i f y Dast con- c e p t i o n s o f n a t u r e , l i f e and a b n o r m a l i t y . At the same t i m e , i t seemed t h a t the t o p i c might throw l i g h t on many o f the more b a s i c q u e s t i o n s i n tne h i s t o r y of s c i e n t i f i c thought: how i s s c i e n t i f i c knowledge ge n e r a t e d ? , what i s the h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c i e n t i f i c and p o p u l a r knowledge?, how ought the h i s t o r y o f s c i e n c e t o be c h a r a c t e r i z e d ? , i s s c i e n c e about the t r u t h ? , e t c . I f the s u b i e c t o f m o n s t r o s i t y has been o v e r l o o k e d i n o t h e r h i s t o r i c a l c l i m a t e s , t h e n , i t aDpears t o me now i n h i g h r e l i e f , as an obvious 28 c o r r e l a t e of problems such as t h e s e . F i n a l l y , t h i s study arose from more than j u s t an a b s t r a c t , academic concern. As Canguilhem s u g g e s t s , i t i s i n the p r e s e n t t h a t problems provoke r e f l e c t i o n , and i t i s c e r t a i n l y i n an attempt t o " s e e " the p r e s e n t t h a t I have t r i e d t o see the p a s t . I b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s m i s t a k e n t o t h i n k o f a b n o r m a l i t y as an a b s o l u t e , t o endow i t w i t h the s t a t u s and the a u t h o r i t y o f a f a c t . I t i s not a f a c t , but a concept i n which two forms o f k n o w l e d g e — t h e s u b j e c t i v e and the o b j e c t i v e — h a v e been mixed from the o u t s e t . I f n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s thought o t h e r w i s e , i t was because they equated the abnormal w i t h the p a t h o l o g i c a l and sought t o reduce such phen- omena as d i s e a s e and m o n s t r o s i t y t o a m a t t e r o n l y o f organs and f u n c t i o n s . The normal and the abnormal, i t was assumed, were o r g a n i c c o n d i t i o n s which c o u l d be q u a n t i t a t i v e l y d e f i n e d and which were t h e r e f o r e a u t h e n t i c f a c t s o f s c i e n c e , from which a l l v a l u e had been e l i m i n a t e d . However, i m p l i c i t i n the dichotomy posed between the normal and the abnormal was an i d e a l o f p e r f e c t i o n and the judgement t h a t some c o n d i t i o n s o f l i f e a r e more p e r f e c t t h a n o t h e r s . C e r t a i n l y one may argue t h a t t h i s i s so, but t h e r e i s no p u r e l y e m p i r i c a l d a t a t o support such c l a i m s . S t i l l , we l i v e i n a w o r l d from which the p h y s i c a l l y malformed have, f o r the most p a r t , been removed t o i n s t i t u t i o n s . Modern s c i e n c e c o n t i n u e s t o d e s i g n a t e these as o b j e c t i v e cases o f a b n o r m a l i t y . Some now see such "specimens" as g e n e t i c m i s t a k e s which, w i t h s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r - v e n t i o n , can be e r a s e d . These, I t h i n k , are c o n c r e t e and d i s - q u i e t i n g problems, and they r e f e r t o the whole q u e s t i o n o f how we are t o u n d e r s t a n d a b n o r m a l i t y . I f a b n o r m a l i t y i s a problem f o r s c i e n c e t h e n , i t must a l s o be a h i s t o r i c a l problem. H i s t o r i c a l 2 9 s t u d y p e r m i t s us t o see how pa s t t h i n k i n g on the s u b j e c t has been c o n s t r a i n e d ; i t suggests t o us t h a t modern thought i s e q u a l l y c o n s t r a i n e d . I n s h o r t , i t p r o v i d e s us w i t h the means, and I t h i n k the o n l y a v a i l a b l e means, o f r e n d e r i n g our own t h i n k i n g about a b n o r m a l i t y open t o c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n . 30 NOTES TO THE INTRODUCTION The a b b r e v i a t i o n PTRS i s used throughout t o r e f e r t o the P h i l o s o p h i c a l T r a n s a c t i o n s o f the Ro y a l S o c i e t y . ^ W i l l i a m Wordsworth, The P r e l u d e , ed. E. S e l i n c o u r t (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960), v i i , p. 124. 2 C o r n e l i u s P e t , "An example o f Gods judgement shewn upon two C h i l d r e n , " E n g l i s h Book S e r i e s , 1475-1640 (Ann Arbor: U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s ) , R e e l 379, 1580. 3 G. Pu r s l o w , "God's Handy-worke i n Wonders m i r a c u l o u s l y shewn upon two women l a t e l y d e l i v e r e d o f two Mo n s t e r s , w i t h a most s t r a n g e and t e r r i b l e E arth-quake," E n g l i s h Book S e r i e s , 1475-1640 (Ann A r b o r : U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s ) , R e e l 1067, 1615. 4 A. G r i f f i t h , "A t r u e and c e r t a i n e r e l a t i o n o f a s t r a n g e b i r t h borne a t Stonehouse," E n g l i s h Book S e r i e s , 1475-1640 (Ann A r b o r : U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s ) , R e e l 1164, 1635. "'"Of a Monstrous B i r t h , " The Gentleman's Magazine 18 (Dec- ember 1748), p. 535. 6 see f o r example Ambroise P a r e , On Monsters and M a r v e l s (1573), t r a n s . J a n i s P a l l i s t e r ( Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1982), p. 4. 7 R o b e r t Corke, "A L e t t e r from the R i g h t Revd F a t h e r i n God R. Bi s h o p of Corke, t o the R i g h t H o n b l e John E a r l o f Egmont, FRS c o n c e r n i n g an E x t r a o r d i n a r y s k e l e t o n , " PTRS 41 (1740), p. 812. g see f o r example F r a n c i s Bacon, The Advancement o f L e a r n i n g i n The Advancement o f L e a r n i n g and New A t l a n t i s , ed. A r t h u r J o h n s t o n (Oxford: C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1974) , p~. 6~8~. 9 Jacomo G r a n d i , " C o n c e r n i n g some A n a t o m i c a l O b s e r v a t i o n s , and two odd B i r t h s , " PTRS 5 (1670), p. 1189. •^Corke, C o n c e r n i n g an E x t r a o r d i n a r y s k e l e t o n , " p. 810. Joseph d e T o r r e s , "An E x t r a o r d i n a r y Case o f the Heart o f a C h i l d t u r n e d u p s i d e down," PTRS 41 (1740), p. 776. 12 John N o r t h , "A L e c t u r e on M o n s t r o s i t i e s , " The Lanc e t 1 (1840), p. 857. 1 3 I b i d . , p. 918. 14 W. Cooper., "An Account o f an e x t r a o r d i n a r y acephalous B i r t h i n a L e t t e r t o W i l l i a m Hunter," PTRS 65 (1775), p. 319. 31 1 5North, "On Monstrosities," p. 918. 1 6 I b i d . , p. 857. 1 7 I b i d . , p. 913. 18 T,., Ibid. 1 9 I b i d . , p. 859. 20 The word "teratology" was f i r s t used i n reference to the science of anomalies by Isidore Geoffroy S a i n t - H i l a i r e , i n Histoire Generale et P a r t i c u l i e r e des Anomalies de L'Organisation chez L'Homme et Les Animaux, ou Traite de Teratologic, 3 vols. (Paris: J. B a i l l i e r e , 1832-36). 21 see for example A l l e n Thomson, "Remarks Upon the Early Condition and Probable Origin of Double Monsters," The London and Edinburgh Monthly Journal of Medical Science i v (June 1844), pp. 479-90; v (July 1844), pp. 567-84; A.M. Adam, "Contributions to Teratology," The London and Edinburgh Monthly Journal of Medical Science x v i i i (March 1854), pp.. 241-49; xix (May 1854), pp. 399- 405; George Fisher, "Diploteratology: An Essay i n Compound Human Monsters, Comprising the History, Literature, C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , Description and Embryology of Double and T r i p l e Formation," Trans- actions of the New York State Medical Society (1865), pp. 232-68; (1866), pp. 207-60. 22 For this use of the word popular, see Chapter 3, pagel59f. 23 quoted i n Adam, "Contributions to Teratology," p. 247. . 2 4 I b i d . , p. 248. 25 I. Geoffroy S a i n t - H i l a i r e , Traite de Teratologie, I, p. 18. ^ I b i d . , p . 21. 27 Adam, "Contributions to Teratology," p. 399. ^ I b i d . , p. 247 . 29 Ibid. 30 Ibid., p. 399. 31 North, "On Monstrosities," pp. 858-59. 32 In his lecture, North continually refers to the fact that certain malformations recur regularly. For example, he writes: . . . Again, we not uncommonly fi n d , as a specimen of monstrosity i n the human subject, a cloaca . . . Mon- st r o s i t y from a fis s u r e i n the l i p s . . . i s by no means uncommon. . . We often meet i n the human subject with a bifu r c a t i o n of the glans penis . . . Imperforation of the vulva i s not infrequent. 32 N o r t h was a p p a r e n t l y concerned t o erode the c u r i o s i t y a p p e a l o f monsters. 33 Adam. " C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o T e r a t o l o g y , " p. 242. 34 f o r G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e ' s f u l l d i s c u s s i o n of the h i s t o r y o f t e r a t o l o g y , see h i s T r a i t e de T e r a t o l o g i c , I , pp. 1-27. 35 I b i d . , p. 4. " ^ I b i d . , p. 7 . 37 I b i d . , p. 8. 3 8 N o r t h , '.'On M o n s t r o s i t i e s , " p. 857. T 39 There a r e a number of s c i e n t i f i c works which i n c l u d e s u r - veys of the h i s t o r y o f t e r a t o l o g y . From the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , see G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e ' s T r a i t e de T e r a t o l o g i c and George F i s h e r ' s " D i p l o t e r a t o l o g y . " H i s t o r i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s a r e a l s o p r o - v i d e d i n G. Gould and W. P y l e , Anomalies and C u r i o s i t i e s of M e d i c i n e (New York: Sydenham P r e s s , 1896); ZTi W. B a l l a n t y n e , "The T e r a t o l o g i c a l Records of Chaldea," T e r a t o l o g i a 1 (1894), pp. 127-43, " A n t e n a t a l P a t h o l o g y i n the H i p p o c r a t i c W r i t i n g s , " T e r a t o l o g i a 2 (1895), pp. 275-87, " T e r a t o g e n e s i s : An I n q u i r y I n t o the Causes o f M o n s t r o s i t i e s , " Edinburgh M e d i c a l J o u r n a l XLI (1896), pp. 593-603. From the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , see I l v a V e i t h , " C o n g e n i t a l Anomalies i n H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e , " Modern M e d i c i n e (1963), pp. 253-68; T. Pe r s a u d , " C o n g e n i t a l M a l f o r m a t i o n s , " West I n d i a n M e d i c a l J o u r n a l 19 (1970), pp. 240-6; T. Persa u d , ed., Problems o f B i r t h D e f e c t s , from H i p p o c r a t e s t o Th a l i d o m i d e ( B a l t i m o r e : U n i v e r s i t y Park P r e s s , 1977); W. Barrow, "A B r i e f H i s t o r y o f T e r a t o l o g y t o the E a r l y T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y , " T e r a t o l o g y 4 (1971), pp. 119-30; M. L i p t o n , "The H i s t o r y and S u p e r s t i t i o n s of B i r t h D e f e c t s , " J n l o f American Pharm Assoc 2 (1971)., pp. 395- 99; Joseph Warkany, C o n g e n i t a l M a l f o r m a t i o n s (Chicago: Year Book M e d i c a l P r e s s , 1971); Joseph Warkany, " C o n g e n i t a l M a l f o r m a t i o n s Through the Ages," i n Drugs and F e t a l Development, ed. M. K l i n g - b e rg (New York: Plenum P r e s s , 1972), pp. 17-30; Joseph Warkany, " C o n g e n i t a l M a l f o r m a t i o n s i n the P a s t , " i n Problems o f B i r t h D e f e c t s , ed. T. Persaud ( B a l t i m o r e : U n i v e r s i t y Park P r e s s , T977). ^ G o u l d and P y l e , "Anomalies," p. 161. ^ W a r k a n y , " C o n g e n i t a l M a l f o r m a t i o n s i n 42 ^ I b i d . 43 T,., I b i d . , p. 7. 44 T,., I b i d . , p. 14. I b i d . , p. 15. 4 6 I b i d . the P a s t , " p. 5. 33 47 Jacques Roger, "The L i v i n g World," i n The Ferment o f Know- ledge , ed. G. Rousseau and R. P o r t e r (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r - s i t y P r e s s , 1980), p. 256. 48 D a n i e l d e S u p e r v i l l e , "Some R e f l e c t i o n s on G e n e r a t i o n and On M o n s t e r s , With a D e s c r i p t i o n o f some p a r t i c u l a r monsters," PTRS 34 (1741), pp. 294-307. 49 W i l l i a m Gregory, "An Account o f a Monstrous F o e t u s , r e s e m b l i n g a hooded Monkey," PTRS 32 (1741), p. 764. "^Stephen Gould, The Mismeasure o f Man (New York: W.W. N o r t o n , 1981), p. 22. " ^ I b i d . , p. 321. 52 G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e , T r a i t e de T e r a t o l o g i c , I , p. 3. 5 3 T , . , I b i d . 54 1. see Canguilhem, On the Normal and the P a t h o l o g i c a l , Chapter 55, George F i s h e r , "Does M a t e r n a l Mental I n f l u e n c e Have any C o n s t r u c t i v e o r D e s t r u c t i v e Power i n the P r o d u c t i o n o f Malforma- t i o n s ? " American J o u r n a l o f I n s a n i t y (1870), p. 275. 5 6 Adam, " C o n b t r i b u t i o n s t o T e r a t o l o g y , " pp. 246-7. ~^For the most p a r t , I have c o n f i n e d my r e s e a r c h t o E n g l i s h s o u r c e s , except i n cases where i t was c l e a r t h a t E n g l i s h i n v e s t i - g a t o r s were themselves r e l y i n g h e a v i l y on French a u t h o r s . 5 8 I have found no contemporary h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s which make the s c i e n t i z a t i o n o f monsters i n l a t e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y England t h e i r p r i m a r y f o c u s . However, t h e r e are some works which p r o v i d e i n t e r e s t i n g and h e l p f u l d i s c u s s i o n s of v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of the problem o f m o n s t r o s i t y i n h i s t o r y . I n La Nature et Les P r o d i g e s (Geneva: L i b r a i r i e Droz, 1977), Jean Ceaitifprovides an a n a l y s i s o f the " d i a l e c t i c " between the A r i s t o t e l i a n t r a d i t i o n and the d i v i n a - t i o n t r a d i t i o n i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n s of m o n s t r o s i t y through the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . K a t h a r i n e Park and L o r r a i n e Daston i n " U n n a t u r a l C o n c e p t i o n s : The Study o f Monsters i n S i x t e e n t h - and Seventeenth-Century France and England," Past and P r e s e n t 92 (August 1981), pp. 20-54, t r a c e the e v o l u t i o n i n a t t i t u d e s towards monsters u n t i l the end o f the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I n The Shows of London (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978), R i c h a r d A l t i c k i n c l u d e s a few c h a p t e r s on p o p u l a r a t t i t u d e s t o " f r e a k s " i n the e i g h t e e n t h and n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . L e s l i e F i e l d l e r ' s F r e a k s : Myths and Images of the S e c r e t S e l f (New York: Simon and S c h u s t e r , 1978) comments on the m y t h o l o g i c a l import o f f r e a k s i n modern c u l t u r e . For i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n s o f the problem of monsters i n the h i s t o r y of the l i f e s c i e n c e s , see GeorgesCanguilhem. On the Normal and the P a t h o l o g i c a l and La Connaissance de l a V i e ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e P h i l o s o p h i q u e s J . UrirT^ 1965) ; F r a n c o i s Jacob, The L o g i c o f L i f e ; M i c h e l F o u c a u l t , The Order o f T h i n g s . There are 34 some b r i e f but u s e f u l t r e a t m e n t s o f the t e r a t o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g s o f p a r t i c u l a r s c i e n t i s t s as w e l l . See Stephen C r o s s , "John Hunter. . . and L a t e E i g h t e e n t h - C e n t u r y P h y s i o l o g i c a l D i s c o u r s e ; " S h i r l e y Roe, M a t t e r , L i f e and G e n e r a t i o n (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1981); Stephen Gould, Ontogeny and Phylogeny (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977). 59 Park and Daston, " U n n a t u r a l C o n c e p t i o n s , " p. 22. Canguilhem, On the Normal and the P a t h o l o g i c a l , p. 7. 35 CHAPTER ONE NATURAL WONDERS AND NATURAL HISTORY: THE STUDY OF MONSTERS IN THE LATE 17TH AND EARLY 18TH CENTURIES P a r t One: T r a d i t i o n a l Views of M o n s t r o s i t y Monsters are t h i n g s t h a t appear o u t s i d e the course o f Nature (and are u s u a l l y s i g n s of some f o r t h - coming m i s f o r t u n e ) , such as a c h i l d who i s born w i t h one arm, a n o t h e r who w i l l have two heads, and a d d i t i o n a l members over and above the o r d i n a r y . — Ambroise P a r e , 1573 I f m o n s t r o s i t y was a t o p i c of g r e a t i n t e r e s t among n a t u r a l h i s t o r i a n s of the l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h and e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , these i n v e s t i g a t o r s were by no means the f i r s t t o i n t e r e s t them- s e l v e s i n monstrous phenomena. On the c o n t r a r y , t h e r e had been p e r e n n i a l i n t e r e s t i n monsters s i n c e v e r y a n c i e n t times when B a b y l o n i a n d i v i n e r s made e x t e n s i v e i n q u i r i e s i n t o what v a r i o u s anomalous b i r t h s might s i g n i f y . I f such b i r t h s were " r e a d " c o r r e c t l y , they c o u l d , i t was t h o u g h t , d e l i v e r v a l u a b l e f o r e c a s t s o f f u t u r e e v e n t s . Thus, a c c o r d i n g t o B a b y l o n i a n r e c o r d s , i f an i n f a n t were born w i t h o u t e a r s , t h e r e would be mourning i n the c o u n t r y ; a monster w i t h no f i n g e r s s i g n i f i e d t h a t the town would have no b i r t h s ; an i n f a n t born w i t h the ears o f a l i o n i n d i c a t e d 2 t h a t a p o w e r f u l k i n g would r e i g n , and so f o r t h . S i n c e t h a t t i m e , a l l k i n d s of e x p l a n a t i o n s o f m o n s t r o s i t y had been advanced, each based on s p e c i f i c assumptions c o n c e r n i n g the n a t u r e o f r e a l i t y and each g e n e r a t e d i n the c o n t e x t o f o t h e r p r e v a i l i n g b e l i e f s . Through- out the s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , m o n s t r o s i t y c o n t i n u e d t o e x c i t e i n t e r e s t of the most d i v e r s e k i n d , and by the 1650's, 36 t h e r e e x i s t e d an e x t e n s i v e and v a r i e d l i t e r a t u r e on the s u b j e c t . To comprehend the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f m o n s t r o s i t y which were under- t a k e n between 1650 and 1750, i t i s h e l p f u l f i r s t t o have some g e n e r a l i d e a of the k i n d s of t h i n k i n g which c h a r a c t e r i z e d these e a r l i e r p e r i o d s . Indeed, i t i s o n l y when the work of l a t e r s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n v e s t i g a t o r s i s viewed r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y t h a t the problems which concerned them and the n o v e l t y o f t h e i r ap- proach becomes e v i d e n t . From c l a s s i c a l t i m e s , though s p e c i f i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were c o n d i t i o n e d by t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t s , t h i n k i n g about monsters had been o r i e n t e d i n t h r e e main d i r e c t i o n s . F i r s t - l y , i n the c o n t e x t o f v a r i o u s s p e c u l a t i o n s about d i v i n a t i o n , mon- s t e r s were und e r s t o o d p r i m a r i l y as s i g n s . Perhaps the most ou t - s t a n d i n g c l a s s i c a l proponent o f t h i s view was C i c e r o , who i n c l u d e d monsters as one o f a number of p r o d i g i e s and p o r t e n t s by which the gods ad d r e s s e d themselves t o man, t o g i v e warning of f u t u r e 3 events or impending menace. A major C h r i s t i a n exponent o f t h i s n o t i o n was I s i d o r e o f S e v i l l e , who, i n h i s E t y m o l o g i a e , e x p l a i n e d t h a t " p o r t e n t s are a l s o c a l l e d " s i g n s , " " m o n s t r o s i t i e s , " and " p r o d i g i e s " because they seem t o p o r t e n d and t o p o i n t o u t , t o 4 demonstrate, and t o p r e d i c t f u t u r e happenings." S i n c e monsters almost always d i e d a t b i r t h , reasoned I s i d o r e , God c o u l d not p o s s i b l y have i n t e n d e d them f o r any o t h e r purpose than t o p r o - v i d e mankind w i t h w a r n i n g s . D e r i v e d from the L a t i n word, " t o show," or " t o warn," "monster" s t i l l embodies r e s i d u a l elements of t h i s l i n e o f t h i n k i n g , whereby monstrous b i r t h s were t o be read as omens o f d i v i n e purpose. 37 Seco n d l y , an a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t a c c o u n t i n g of m o n s t r o s i t y was proposed by A r i s t o t l e . Though he r e t a i n e d the v o c a b u l a r y o f d i v i n a t i o n i n d e s i g n a t i n g a n i m a l s t h a t "don't conform t o the u s u a l p r o d u c t i o n s o f n a t u r e " as monsters, he n e v e r t h e l e s s d i v e s t - ed the term o f i t s s u p e r n a t u r a l c o n n o t a t i o n s and sought t o ground m o n s t r o s i t y f i r m l y i n the n a t u r a l w o r l d . ^ S i n c e Nature submits t o N e c e s s i t y , n o t h i n g , i n h i s v i e w , was a c t u a l l y c o n t r a r y t o Nature's p l a n . Monsters t h e r e f o r e were n e i t h e r t e r r i f y i n g nor s h o c k i n g ; nor were they s i g n s , but r a t h e r , f a c t s o f n a t u r e , 6 n e c e s s a r y , as he e x p l a i n e d , "by a c c i d e n t . " J u s t as a grammarian i s c a pable o f e r r i n g i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f speech, so n a t u r e o c c a s i o n a l l y f a i l e d , due t o a deaf r e s i s t a n c e o f m a t t e r , i n i t s s t r i v i n g toward p e r f e c t form. As f o r the t e l e o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a - t i o n s of monstrous b i r t h s , A r i s t o t l e p r o v i d e d no e x p l i c i t commentary and r e s t r i c t e d h i s e f f o r t s i n s t e a d t o an attempt a t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and an e x p l i c a t i o n of n a t u r a l i s t i c , e f f i c i e n t causes. F i n a l l y , a c c o r d i n g t o the canon o f the wonder t r a d i t i o n , monsters were not so much s p e c i f i c omens as they were g e n e r a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f n a t u r a l o r d i v i n e power, m i r a c u l o u s events which a t t e s t e d , as i n P l i n y , 7 t o the i n g e n u i t y o f N a t u r e , o r l a t e r , g as i n A u g u s t i n e , t o the power and wisdom of God. For adherents o f t h i s v i e w , monsters appealed f o r the most p a r t as a l l - h u m b l i n g wonders, as marvels d e s e r v i n g o f man's a b i d i n g awe. D u r i n g the s i x t e e n t h and se v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , t h e s e t h r e e l i n e s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , or some c o m b i n a t i o n o f them, c o n t i n u e d t o i n f o r m b o t h l e a r n e d and p o p u l a r c o n c e p t i o n s o f m o n s t r o s i t y . From the e a r l y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , d i s c u s s i o n s o f monstrous 38 b i r t h s appeared i n v a r i o u s k i n d s o f c o n t e x t s , from pamphlets and t r a c t s i n t e n d e d f o r r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n , t o p o p u l a r b a l l a d s , broadsheets and wonderbooks, which were c a t a l o g u e s of s t r a n g e events and c u r i o u s l o r e c o m p i l e d p r i m a r i l y f o r e n t e r - t a i n i n g r e a d i n g . Most p r o m i n e n t l y , monstrous b i r t h s f i g u r e d i n t h e o l o g i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s , where they served a wide v a r i e t y o f r h e t o r i c a l purposes. I n 1523, f o r example, L u t h e r and Melanchthon j o i n t l y p u b l i s h e d a pamphlet i n t e r p r e t i n g the appearance of a s t r a n g e , a s s - l i k e monster found f l o a t i n g i n the T i b e r R i v e r t o be a message from God, s y m b o l i z i n g e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c o r r u p t i o n and i n d i c a t i n g the doom o f the papacy. T h i s pamphlet, t r a n s l a t e d i n t o F r e n c h , Dutch and E n g l i s h , was enormously i n f l u e n t i a l as Park and Daston p o i n t out i n e s t a b l i s h i n g monsters " f i r m l y i n the c e n t r e 9 o f both C a t h o l i c and P r o t e s t a n t r e l i g i o u s p o l e m i c . " I n o t h e r c a s e s , C h r i s t i a n a u t h o r s made monsters the o b j e c t o f r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n , a r g u i n g t h a t they were tokens o f d i v i n e d i s p l e a s u r e over man's i n i q u i t y . As such, monsters were h a i l e d as a g e n e r a l warning t o a l l s i n n e r s . I n 1580, f o r example, the b i r t h of two monstrous c h i l d r e n was p r o c l a i m e d as "an example of God's Judgement shewn upon two c h i l d r e n , " c l e a r l y i n t e n d e d as d i v i n e admonishments. As the a u t h o r says: D e a r l y b e l o v e d b r e t h e r n l i k e as d a i l y we see the wondrous works of God, t o a d v e r t i s e us t o the amend- ment o f our s i n f u l , wicked and d e t e s t a b l e l i v e s , be- f o r e he doth plague u s , l i k e as always he i s good and m e r c i f u l and doth not p u n i s h us a c c o r d i n g t o our de- f e c t s , but s e n d i n g us f i r s t s i g n e s and t o k e s t o ad- monish us of h i s i r e which we so r i g h t l y deserve f o r our so l i t t l e r e g a r d i n g and esteeming o f h i s most h o l y word and g o s p e l . But we d a i l y n e g l e c t i n g and not r e g a r d i n g the same: He t h e r e f o r e h a t h not o n l y sent hideous Monsters and f e a r f u l s i g n e s , unto those where they were borne and seen, but a l s o unto us. u 39 F o l l o w i n g t h i s , the a u t h o r proceeded t o d e s c r i b e two monsters, one a double monster, h a l f b l a c k and h a l f w h i t e and the o t h e r a mon- s t e r which d i d "most w o n d e r f u l l y speak" f o r t h r e e days, a d v i s i n g man t o "amend" h i s ways. S i m i l a r l y , a t r a c t p u b l i s h e d i n 1613, p r o v i d i n g "Strange news of a p r o d i g i o u s monster," warns t h a t monsters are sent to " s i g n i f y t o us the u g l i n e s s o f S i n i n the Eyes o f God:" Man a t f i r s t l o s i n g o f h i s Innocence, l o s t a l s o h i s p l a c e , and c o n t r a c t e d a heavy c u r s e both t o h i m s e l f e , and t o h i s p o s t e r i t i e . The E a r t h i t s e l f e i n n o c e n t of h i s crime was a c c u r s t f o r h i s sake, f o r whom i t was c r e a t e d and brought f o r t h t h o r n s , b r i a r s and s t i n k i n g weeds, where b e f o r e i t was f u l l o f p l e a s u r e . . . and so had c o n t i n u e d i f man had c o n t i n u e d i n h i s f i r s t c r e a t i o n : Now the e a r t h brought f o r t h monsters and \ u g l y shapes, s t r a n g e and f u l l o f t e r r o r . The heavens themselves changed the frame o f t h e i r b e auty, p u t t i n g f o r t h f i r e y meteors, b l a z i n g comets and o t h e r p r o - d i g i o u s s i g h t s , b r e e d i n g wonder and amazement. " S i n and w i c k e d n e s s , " the a u t h o r c o n t i n u e s , " c a u s e t h the e a r t h t o b r i n g f o r t h p r o d i g i o u s monsters, so f a r from the f a r e frame o f Nature, t h a t they make Nature h e r s e l f a f r a i d t o l o o k upon them." Though the p r e v a i l i n g message i n such r e l i g i o u s works was God's i r e , t h e r e were some v a r i a t i o n s on t h i s theme. A c c o r d i n g to a pamphlet w r i t t e n i n 1635, p r e s e n t i n g a " t r u e and c e r t a i n e r e l a t i o n of a s t r a n g e b i r t h , " monsters are not so much i l l u s t r a - t i o n s o f God's d i s p l e a s u r e , but d e m o n s t r a t i o n s o f h i s g r e a t 12 power and mercy. God, i t was suggested, makes monsters f o r our i n s t r u c t i o n ("as the word of God, so the Works o f God a r e f o r our D o c t r i n e and I n s t r u c t i o n " ) . Monsters are "works o f wonder" which evidence God's mercy and remind us of h i s presence ("He h a t h made h i s w o n d e r f u l works t o be remembered"). God u s u a l l y c r e a t e s p e r f e c t b e i n g s , but man, i n h i s i n g r a t i t u d e , takes' such p e r f e c t i o n 40 f o r g r a n t e d . God i s t h e n moved t o change the "course o f t h i n g s " and b r i n g s f o r t h monsters t o demonstrate a l l t h a t he i s p o t e n t i a l l y c a p a b l e o f . These p r o d u c t i o n s , reasons the a u t h o r , s e r v e t o i l l u - s t r a t e t h a t the u s u a l p e r f e c t s t a t e o f t h i n g s i s due d i r e c t l y t o God's mercy, and worthy, t h e r e f o r e , of human g r a t i t u d e . A f t e r 1650, s p e c u l a t i o n s about m o n s t r o s i t y became i n c r e a s i n g - l y n a t u r a l i s t i c and s e c u l a r i z e d , but the n o t i o n o f monsters as s i g n s of d i v i n e w i l l endured i n the p o p u l a r i m a g i n a t i o n . As l a t e as 1748, one c o u l d r e a d i n The Gentleman's Magazine of a " s u r - p r i s i n g " monstrous c h i l d , which a c c o r d i n g t o the a u t h o r was "a remarkable d i s p l a y o f d i v i n e a l m i g h t y power and u ndoubtedly v i s i b l e p r o o f of God's d i s p l e a s u r e a g a i n s t S i n , " f o r " c o n t r a r y t o the e s t a b l i s h e d laws of n a t u r e , He sometimes p e r m i t s l u s u s n a t u r a e t o e x i s t among the human s p e c i e s , " harmony and beauty 13 b e i n g the u s u a l "beauty of a l l h i s works." (The p a r e n t o f t h i s monster, the a u t h o r n o t e d , had been "remarkably v i l e . " ) I f much of the i n t e r e s t i n m o n s t r o s i t y d u r i n g the s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s was r e l i g i o u s i n n a t u r e , monsters a l s o aroused c u r i o s i t y of a more s e c u l a r k i n d . From the e a r l y 1500's, t h e r e are r e f e r e n c e s t o monsters b e i n g e x h i b i t e d f o r p r o f i t , as c u r i o u s s p e c t a c l e s o f n a t u r a l wonder. By 1600, such " f r e a k s o f n a t u r e " were a prominent a t t r a c t i o n a t f a i r s and t a v e r n s where they c o u l d be seen f o r a f e e . I n a d d i t i o n , by the l a t e r s i x - t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the s u b j e c t o f m o n s t r o s i t y was a major f e a t u r e i n wonder books. There, monsters appeared amongst a wide assortment of c u r i o u s marvels and s t r a n g e phenomena, p r e s e n t e d as i n t r i n s i c a l - l y i n t e r e s t i n g wonders "more t o s u r p r i s e and e n t e r t a i n the r e a d e r 14 than t o a c q u a i n t him w i t h imminent apo c a l y p s e o r judgement." 41 Perhaps the most famous monster book of the p e r i o d was Des Monstres et p r o d i g e s , p u b l i s h e d i n 1573 by the French surgeon, Ambroise P a r e . I n i t , Pare p r o v i d e d a complete compendium of the l a t e s t i n f o r m a t i o n about monsters, drawn from the t e s t i m o n y o f a wide range of a n c i e n t sources ( t h e B i b l e , H i p p o c r a t e s , A r i s t o t l e , S t . A u g u s t i n e , e t c . ) as w e l l as from more c u r r e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s and p o p u l a r r e p o r t s . I n t e r e s t e d i n the d i v e r s e a r c h i t e c t u r e of n a t u r e , Pare p r e s e n t e d a s s o r t e d i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the v a r i e d shapes, s i z e s , s t r u c t u r e s and resemblances r e p o r t e d t o have o c c u r r e d i n monstrous p r o d u c t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g examples of t h o s e " m a r v e l l o u s c r e a t u r e s " a r i s i n g from s u p e r n a t u r a l agents a l o n g s i d e t h o s e s t r a n g e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s produced from more n a t u r a l i s t i c f a c t o r s . Something of a v i s u a l e x t r a v a g a n z a , Pare's book proved enormously p o p u l a r f o r b o t h F r e n c h and E n g l i s h a u d i e n c e s . I t was s t i l l w i d e l y known, i n f a c t , i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , though i n the hands of n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t e r a t o l o g i s t s , i t came t o serve a purpose f a r d i f f e r e n t from t h a t i n t e n d e d by Pare (or "worthy o l d Ambroise P a r e " as one n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y d o c t o r de- s c r i b e d h i m ) . ^ For t e r a t o l o g i s t s , Des Monstres et p r o d i g e s c o n s t i t u t e d a c o n v e n i e n t p o l e m i c a l t o o l , commonly c i t e d as a t e l l i n g example of the a b s u r d i t i e s which c o u l d p r e v a i l i n a w o r l d w i t h o u t the b e n e f i t o f s c i e n t i f i c t r u t h . D i s c u s s i n g the monster book genre i n 1865, f o r example, George F i s h e r argued t h a t many of the f i g u r e s i n such works were "made from mere d e s c r i p t i o n s by d i f f e r e n t w r i t e r s , who made up t h e i r account from p o p u l a r r e p o r t and t r a d i t i o n s , i n which f a n c i f u l resemblances t o imps, demons and o t h e r phantoms of t h e i r b r a i n s were f r e e l y i n d u l g e d i n , and g l o w i n g l y p o r t r a y e d . " Such s t o r i e s , F i s h e r c o n t i n u e d , 42 "having passed through s e v e r a l e d i t i o n s , a t l a s t g a i n e d credence and were regar d e d as a u t h e n t i c . " " ^ What i s most noteworthy about the v a r i o u s s i x t e e n t h and se v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y c o m p i l a t i o n s o f monsters, l i k e t h a t o f Pare, ( i s t h a t they f r e e l y i n c o r p o r a t e d b oth p o p u l a r and l e a r n e d n o t i o n s o f m o n s t r o s i t y . A p p a r e n t l y , no s t r i c t d i v i s i o n was drawn between the two forms of knowledge. T y p i c a l l y , wonder books p o r t r a y e d a d i v e r s e assortment o f the most f a b u l o u s s o r t s o f be i n g s (beings which we would a u t o m a t i c a l l y deem i m p o s s i b l e o r p u r e l y i m a g i n a r y ) a l o n g w i t h o t h e r cases o f what we would acknowledge as r e a l o r p o s s i b l e m a l f o r m a t i o n s . For example, i n Pare's book, one f i n d s a monster w i t h the form o f a dog and the head o f a f o w l , a man w i t h the hands and f e e t o f an ox, a h y b r i d monster, h a l f man and h a l f swine, a c h i l d w i t h a f r o g ' s f a c e , a h e a d l e s s c h i l d w i t h eyes on i t s c h e s t and a l l o t h e r c o n c e i v a b l e c o m b i n a t i o n s . I n c o n s i d e r i n g the causes o f such e x t r a o r d i n a r y b e i n g s , Pare drew h e a v i l y on p o p u l a r thought, and suggested s e v e r a l f o r c e s , b o th n a t u r a l and s u p e r n a t u r a l , which o p e r a t e d i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f monsters: The f i r s t i s the g l o r y o f God. The second, h i s wr a t h . The t h i r d , t oo g r e a t a q u a n t i t y o f seed. The f o u r t h , too l i t t l e a q u a n t i t y . The f i f t h , t he i m a g i n a t i o n [ m a t e r n a l ] . The s i x t h , the narrowness o r s m a l l n e s s o f the womb. The sev e n t h , the i n d e c e n t p o s t u r e o f the mother, as when, b e i n g p regnant, she has s a t too l o n g w i t h h e r l e g s c r o s s e d , o r p r e s s e d a g a i n s t her womb. . . The e i g h t h , through a f a l l , o r blows s t r u c k a g a i n s t h e r womb . . . The n i n t h , t h r o u g h h e r e d i t a r y o r a c c i d e n t a l i l l n e s s e s . The t e n t h , t h rough r o t t e n o r c o r r u p t seed. The e l e v e n t h , t h r o u g h m i x t u r e o r m i n g l i n g of seed [ h y b r i d i z a t i o n ] . The t w e l f t h , t h r o u g h the a r t i f i c e o f wic k e d s p i t a l beggars [ i m p o s t u r e s ! . The t h i r t e e n t h , t h r o u g h Demons and D e v i l s . 1 ' 43 Pare d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between v a r i o u s k i n d s o f m o n s t r o s i t y on the b a s i s of what had caused them, f o r t h e i r " c o n f o r m a t i o n s " were seen to co r r e s p o n d d i r e c t l y and o f t e n v i s i b l y w i t h the p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r which had caused t h e . i r r e g u l a r i t y . Thus, i f a monster had too many p a r t s , i t was ranked w i t h a l l s i m i l a r l y e x c e s s i v e p r o d u c t i o n s a r i s i n g from too g r e a t a q u a n t i t y of. seed. Too few p a r t s r e s u l t e d from too l i t t l e seed; forms which were com- p l e t e l y " a g a i n s t n a t u r e " (those born w i t h the form of a dog and the head o f a f o w l , f o r example) d e r i v e d o b v i o u s l y from the wrath of God; and be h i n d those mixed p r o d u c t i o n s w i t h p a r t s h a l f man and h a l f beast was the "abominable" f a c t o r o f h y b r i d i z a t i o n (or " u n n a t u r a l " c o i t i o n between two d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s ) . C l e a r l y , t h e r e was no sense i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a t monstrous f o r m a t i o n s were l i m i t e d by a n y t h i n g r e m o t e l y l i k e b i o l o g i c a l law, f o r almost any c o m b i n a t i o n o f p a r t s was p o s s i b l e . Monsters were not seen t o conform w i t h any n e c e s s a r y laws o f " l i f e , " but r a t h e r were l i m i t e d o n l y by the l i m i t s o f the human i m a g i n a - t i o n . Nor was t h e r e any sense t h a t the study o f monsters s h o u l d be r e s t r i c t e d t o e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . Any i n f o r m a t i o n — i n c l u d i n g a l l t h a t had ever been w r i t t e n o r t o l d — w a s seen as a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t o f the monsters' " h i s t o r y , " u s e f u l i n a s c e r - t a i n i n g the "meaning" o f the b i r t h . Indeed, the d i s t i n c t i o n be- tween r e a l and i m a g i n a r y monsters was not a p p a r e n t l y an im p o r t a n t one a t a l l , and t h i s because i n a study which was not y e t " s c i - e n t i z e d , " w r i t e r s d i d not l i m i t t h e i r i n t e r e s t t o monsters as f a c t s o f n a t u r e , b u t , l i k e P a r e , c o n s i d e r e d them a l s o as s i g n s , d e r i v i n g u l t i m a t e l y from the f o r c e s o f d i v i n e i m a g i n a t i o n . O f t e n t o e x p l a i n v a r i o u s monstrous p r o d u c t i o n s , w r i t e r s r e - 44 s o r t e d each time t o the a c t i o n o f God, s i n c e a c c o r d i n g t o the p r e v a i l i n g m e t a p h y s i c , the e n t i r e n a t u r a l w o r l d , and a l l i t s component p a r t s , was the r e s u l t o f a d i r e c t c r e a t i o n , a d i r e c t s u p e r v e n t i o n on the p a r t o f God. A c c o r d i n g t o P a r e , f o r example, " i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t " . . . c o m p l e t e l y a b h o r r e n t c o n f i g u r a t i o n s "proceed from the judgement of God, who p e r m i t s f a t h e r s and mothers t o produce such abominations from the d i s o r d e r t h a t they make i n c o p u l a t i o n , l i k e b r u t i s h b e a s t s , i n which t h e i r a p p e t i t e g u i d e s them, w i t h o u t r e s p e c t i n g the t i m e , o r o t h e r 18 laws o r d a i n e d by God and N a t u r e . " Thus, f o r P a r e , n a t u r e was the e x p r e s s e d word of God, an immense t e x t of m u l t i p l e and m u t u a l l y c o r r e s p o n d i n g marks and s i g n s , w h ich, i f c o r r e c t l y d e c i p h e r e d , c o u l d d e l i v e r knowledge of God's u n i v e r s a l d e s i g n . G i v e n t h i s t h e o c e n t r i c u n i v e r s e of s i g n s and a n a l o g i e s , i t i s apparent why almost any monster was p o s s i b l e , and why t h e c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n t o be asked o f monstrous b i r t h s was what they s i g n i f i e d . F o r , i n c r e a t i n g monsters, God was c l e a r l y s a y i n g something. 45 P a r t Two: S t u d i e s o f M o n s t r o s i t y from 1650 t o 1750 . . . e i t h e r F i c t i o n , o r want of O b s e r v a t i o n has made more Monsters t h a n Nature ever produced. — John F l o y e r , 1 6 9 9 1 9 I n 1699, S i r John F l o y e r , a w e l l known E n g l i s h p h y s i c i a n , s u b m i t t e d an account o f "two Monstrous P i g s " t o the R o y a l S o c i e t y . I n i t , he undertook t o demonstrate t h a t " P i g s w i t h a Man's Head," " P i g s w i t h Dogs Heads," "a Monster h a l f Man and the lower p a r t s l i k e a Dog," and many o f the c r e a t u r e s mentioned by s i x - t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a u t h o r s , were s i m p l y i m p o s s i b l e c o m b i n a t i o n s , i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h "new D i s c o v e r i e s " c o n c e r n i n g a n i m a l genera- 20 t i o n . For F l o y e r , as f o r many of h i s l e a r n e d c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , t r a d i t i o n a l l i n e s o f r e a s o n i n g about m o n s t r o s i t y had l o s t t h e i r f o r c e . What was needed, F l o y e r suggested, was a more r e l i a b l e study o f monsters, based on s c i e n t i f i c r e a s o n i n g , and above a l l , on c a r e f u l e m p i r i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s , f o r as he s a i d , " e i t h e r F i c t i o n , o r want of O b s e r v a t i o n has made more Monsters t h a n Nature ever produced." By the 1650's, men o f s c i e n c e had begun t o c h a l l e n g e the a u t h o r i t y o f the a n c i e n t s , o f hearsay e v i d e n c e and o f t r a d i t i o n , c h o o s i n g t o r e l y i n s t e a d upon the c l e a r l i g h t of t h e i r own ex- p e r i e n c e . L i k e F l o y e r , they s u s p e c t e d the a u t h e n t i c i t y o f p o p u l a r s u p e r s t i t i o n and o f those f a b u l o u s r e p o r t s from the p a s t ; so t o o d i d they q u e s t i o n the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t e l e o l o g i - c a l s p e c u l a t i o n s i n s t u d i e s o f the n a t u r a l w o r l d . For many e m p i r i c a l l y - m i n d e d i n v e s t i g a t o r s o f the t i m e , the problem of 46 a s c e r t a i n i n g God's w i l l o r h i s purposes was deemed o u t s i d e the scope of " s c i e n c e . " A c c o r d i n g t o F r a n c i s Bacon, f o r example, the s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y o f n a t u r e ought not t o i n c o r p o r a t e spec- u l a t i o n s about p r i m a r y causes a t a l l , f o r t h e s e , he argued, c o u l d not be d e f i n i t i v e l y known. I n s t e a d , i n v e s t i g a t o r s were a d v i s e d t o c o n c e n t r a t e on p e n e t r a t i n g t h e w o r l d o f n a t u r e i t s e l f , i n s o f a r as i t was g i v e n t o the senses and a c c e s s i b l e t o man's l i m i t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g . As men o f s c i e n c e , they were t o r e s t r i c t t h e i r e f f o r t s t o a d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r a l phenomena i n o r d e r to d i s c o v e r the immediate p r i n c i p l e s which governed them. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , such s u g g e s t i o n s were not u n i v e r s a l l y heeded, and throughout the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , r e p o r t s o f mon- s t r o u s phenomena c o n t i n u e d t o encompass many s u p e r n a t u r a l and p o p u l a r n o t i o n s . From the 1650's, however, t h e r e were a growing number o f i n v e s t i g a t o r s who sought t o make the study o f monsters more e m p i r i c a l and t o t r e a t those " s i n g u l a r " e x i s t e n c e s s t r i c t l y as f a c t s of n a t u r e . Indeed, f o r n a t u r a l h i s t o r i a n s between 1650 and 1750, a c e n t r a l c o n c e r n was t o sever the s u b j e c t o f m o n s t r o s i t y from i t s s u p e r n a t u r a l f o u n d a t i o n , t o empty i t of i t s f a b u l o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h a n c i e n t l e g e n d and p o p u l a r l o r e . To f a c i l i t a t e t h i s aim, such i n v e s t i g a t o r s attempted t o l i m i t t h e i r s t u d i e s o f monstrous phenomena t o t h r e e main t a s k s : a c c u m u l a t i n g e x t e n - s i v e c o l l e c t i o n s o f monstrous specimens, c o m p i l i n g a c c u r a t e accounts of any s t r a n g e b i r t h s r e p o r t e d , and d e s c r i b i n g a l l cases of m o n s t r o s i t y as e x a c t l y as p o s s i b l e , i n c l u d i n g o n l y such i n f o r m - a t i o n as was g i v e n by o b s e r v a t i o n . Such a p r o j e c t , i t was hoped, would r e s u l t i n a t r u l y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c a t a l o g u e o f a l l o f Nature's m o n s t r o s i t i e s . 47 I n u n d e r t a k i n g t h i s p r o j e c t , i n v e s t i g a t o r s were r e s p o n d i n g t o a model o f s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t y endorsed by the Ro y a l S o c i e t y and i n s p i r e d by the Baconian program o f s t u d y i n g monsters as a d i s t i n c t t o p i c w i t h i n n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , about which i n f o r m a t i o n 21 was to be accumulated i n a s y s t e m a t i c , i n d u c t i v e manner. I n h i s Novum Organum, Bacon had c o u n s e l l e d s c i e n t i s t s t o g a t h e r r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about monsters, u r g i n g t h a t "a c o m p i l a t i o n , or p a r t i c u l a r n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , must be made o f a l l monsters and p r o d i g i o u s b i r t h s of n a t u r e ; o f e v e r y t h i n g , i n s h o r t , which i s 22 new, r a r e , and u n u s u a l i n n a t u r e . " I n p a r t , Bacon's program was concerned w i t h d i s p l a c i n g what he r e v i l e d as v u l g a r c u r i o s i t y , i n f a v o r o f more reasoned brands of i n t e r e s t , f o r as he s a i d , " N e i t h e r can any man marvel a t the p l a y o f puppets, t h a t goeth 23 b e h i n d the c u r t a i n , and a d v i s e t h w e l l of the motion." To t h i s end, he a d v i s e d t h a t the study o f monsters be w e l l - p u r g e d of the mass of unfounded b e l i e f which had encumbered i t s i n c e a n c i e n t t i m e s . We have, as he s a i d : A number o f books of f a b u l o u s experiments and s e c r e t s , and f r i v o l o u s i mpostures f o r p l e a s u r e and s t r a n g e n e s s ; but a s u b s t a n t i a l and severe c o l l e c t i o n o f the h e t e r o - c l i t e s o r i r r e g u l a r s o f n a t u r e , w e l l examined and de- s c r i b e d , I f i n d n o t : s p e c i a l l y not w i t h due r e j e c t i o n o f f a b l e s and p o p u l a r e r r o r s . For as t h i n g s a re now, i f an u n t r u t h i n n a t u r e be once on f o o t , what by r e a s o n o f the n e g l e c t of e x a m i n a t i o n , and countenance of a n t i q u i t y , and what by r e a s o n of the use of the o p i n i o n i n s i m i l i t u d e s and ornaments of speech, i t i s never c a l l e d down. ^ What was r e q u i r e d , he argued, was a c o m p i l a t i o n o f dependable a c c o u n t s , g a t h e r e d " w i t h a r i g o r o u s s e l e c t i o n , so as t o be 25 worthy of c r e d i t . " Furthermore: Those are most t o be su s p e c t e d which depend upon super- s t i t i o n , as the p r o d i g i e s of L i v y , and those perhaps, but l i t t l e l e s s , which a r e found i n the works o f 48 w r i t e r s on n a t u r a l magic, or even alchymy, and the l i k e ; f o r such men, as i t were, are the v e r y s u i t o r s and l o v e r s o f f a b l e s ; but. our i n s t a n c e s s h o u l d be d e r i v e d from some grave and c r e d i b l e h i s t o r y , and f a i t h f u l n a r r a t i o n . 2 6 B e s i d e s recommending t h a t the study o f monsters be emptied of f a b l e and e r r o r , Bacon a d v i s e d a c l e a r d i v i s i o n between s t u d i e s i n n a t u r a l h i s t o r y and those i n t h e o l o g y . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f n a t u r a l causes belonged p r o p e r l y t o n a t u r a l h i s t o r y ; r e - searches i n t o the s u p e r n a t u r a l o r i g i n s o f t h i n g s were more p r o p e r l y c o n f i n e d t o t h e o l o g y . As f a r as n a t u r a l h i s t o r i a n s were concerned, the study o f monsters was t o be f o c u s s e d e x c l u s i v e l y on n a t u r a l i s t i c q u e s t i o n s , f o r "the n a r r a t i o n s t o u c h i n g the p r o d i g i e s and m i r a c l e s of r e l i g i o n s , " b e i n g " e i t h e r not t r u e , or not n a t u r a l , " were i n Bacon's view " i m p e r t i n e n t f o r the s t o r y o f II27 n a t u r e . " S t i l l , though Bacon c a l l e d f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f monsters i n t o the study of n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , he n e v e r t h e l e s s l o c a t e d them i n a s p e c i a l c a t e g o r y , d i s t i n c t from the more mainstream r e s e a r c h e s i n t o n a t u r e . Moreover, t h i s s e g r e g a t i o n was not a r b i t r a r y , but one which Bacon u n d e r s t o o d as c o r r e s p o n d i n g a c c u r a t e l y w i t h the r e a l i t y of t h i n g s . For n a t u r e h e r s e l f worked i n d i f f e r e n t modes, and w e l l i n t o the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , was u n d e r s t o o d a c c o r d i n g t o a d i s t i n c t c o n c e p t u a l dichotomy. On the one hand, t h e r e were r e g u l a r phenomena of n a t u r e , t h a t i s , phenomena r e s u l t i n g from 2 8 n a t u r e p r o c e e d i n g f r e e l y , and w i t h o u t " m o l e s t a t i o n , " " i n c o u r s e . " These were c o n t i n u o u s and c a p a b l e o f b e i n g grouped i n t o f i x e d s p e c i e s . On the o t h e r hand, t h e r e were c u r i o u s or i r r e g u l a r p r o - d u c t i o n s , which, though not c o n t r a r y t o n a t u r e , were, thanks t o e r r o r , o b s t r u c t i o n , or chance, c o n t r a r y t o the u s u a l c o u r s e o f 49 n a t u r e . Because they e x h i b i t e d apparent s t r u c t u r a l i r r e g u l a r - i t i e s , such d e v i a t i o n s , whether they o c c u r r e d amongst a n i m a l s , v e g e t a b l e s or c r y s t a l s , were known c o l l e c t i v e l y as m o n s t r o s i t i e s . I n c o n t r a s t t o r e g u l a r l i f e forms, these were i n c a p a b l e o f b e i n g c l a s s i f i e d i n t o s p e c i e s . They not o n l y d e v i a t e d from the s t r u c - t u r a l mold of t h e i r p a r e n t s p e c i e s , but they were unable t o propagate t h e i r own k i n d i n a l i n e a g e o f i d e n t i c a l l y formed i n d i v i d u a l s . A r i s i n g from t h e " p l a y o f random and i n d e t e r m i n a t e f o r c e s — f r o m " d i g r e s s i o n s and d e f l e x i o n s " — i t was a m a t t e r of mere chance whether such b e i n g s would be s u f f i c i e n t l y equipped t o s u r v i v e the g i v e n p h y s i c a l w o r l d a t a l l . Each monster r e p r e s e n t e d an e c c e n t r i c and d i s c o n t i n u o u s p r o d u c t i o n , o c c u r r i n g a g a i n s t the ongoing output of r e g u l a r c r e a t u r e s , o n l y m a r g i n a l l y i n c l u d e d i n the n a t u r a l o r d e r , as a f a i l e d s p e c i e s or a s i n g u l a r i n d i v i d u a l . (Hence the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y d e s i g n a t i o n o f monsters as " s i n g u - l a r i t i e s . " ) S t r u c t u r a l l y , v i s i b l y and hence q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i s - t i n c t from a l l o t h e r c r e a t u r e s , such o d d i t i e s c l e a r l y d i d not b e l o n g i n the same c a t e g o r y w i t h the r e g u l a r p r o d u c t i o n s of n a t u r e and were c o n s e q u e n t l y s e g r e g a t e d i n a s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r y o f n a t u r a l c u r i o s i t i e s , where they s t a y e d f o r a good p a r t o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I n s p i r e d by Bacon's program f o r the advancement of l e a r n i n g , and i n k e e p i n g w i t h h i s a d v i c e about monsters, the R o y a l S o c i e t y took up the t a s k o f a c t i n g as the c e n t r a l r e p o s i t o r y f o r monster d a t a . Bacon's c a l l f o r r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about monsters was echoed i n many of the e a r l y p u b l i c a t i o n s o f the R o y a l S o c i e t y . I n 1693, f o r example, S i r Hans Sl o a n e , i n h i s c a p a c i t y as S e c r e t a r y t o the S o c i e t y , i s s u e d a r o u t i n e c i r c u l a r t o v a r i o u s 50 men of s c i e n c e , b oth i n England and abroad, r e q u e s t i n g any i n - f o r m a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t . "The R o y a l S o c i e t y , " he w r o t e , "are r e s o l v e d t o p r o s e c u t e v i g o r o u s l y the whole d e s i g n of t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n and a c c o r d i n g l y , they d e s i r e you w i l l be p l e a s e d t o g i v e them an account of what you meet w i t h o r hear of t h a t i s c u r i o u s i n n a t u r e , or i n any way t e n d i n g t o the advancement of 29 n a t u r a l knowledge." Complying w i t h such r e q u e s t s , l e a r n e d c o r r e s p o n d e n t s from a l l over Europe endeavoured t o i n q u i r e i n t o any monstrous phen- omena t h a t o c c u r r e d , i n o r d e r t o f u r n i s h the s c i e n t i f i c community w i t h an account of the monster, and i d e a l l y w i t h a drawing or specimens as w e l l . Thus, by the 1660's, monsters were b e i n g de- s c r i b e d , d i s s e c t e d , drawn and p i c k l e d i n the i n t e r e s t s of n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . I n 1665, f o r example, Mr. D avid Thomas wrote t o Robert B o y l e , o f f e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d "Upon the s t r i c t e s t i n q u i r y , " c o n c e r n i n g a "Monstrous C a l f , " a p a r t o f w h ich, he c o n t i n u e d , he 30 had "begg'd of Dr. Haughten f o r you." From I t a l y , Jacomo G r a n d i , " P u b l i c k Anatomist of V e n i c e , " wrote t o i n f o r m the S o c i e t y t h a t he "met w i t h n o t h i n g c u r i o u s " i n h i s " A n a t o m i c a l D i s s e c t i o n s o f the f i r s t Y e a r ," but i n 1669 " l i g h t e d upon two odd B i r t h s , " worthy 31 of the S o c i e t y ' s a t t e n t i o n . I n 1685, the S o c i e t y r e c e i v e d a d e t a i l e d d i s c o u r s e and diagrams upon "the D i s s e c t i o n o f a Mon- s t r o u s Double C a t t , " p r o v i d e d by the prominent I r i s h a n a t o m i s t , Dr. A l l a n M u l l e n , who would have g i v e n "an account b e f o r e t h i s time of the Monstrous C a t l i n g t h a t I l a t e l y D i s s e c t e d , but t h a t my 32 busyness would not g i v e me l e a v e t o put i t i n w r i t i n g t i l l now." From D u b l i n , George Ash ( s e c r e t a r y of the D u b l i n S o c i e t y ) wrote a p o l o g e t i c a l l y i n the same y e a r , e x p l a i n i n g t h a t "The Account I 51 here send o f the Horny G i r l i s , much more i m p e r f e c t t h a n I hoped i t would have been, b o t h because i t s p a r e n t s or f r i e n d s , who might g i v e some i n f o r m a t i o n o f the b e g i n n i n g and o c c a s i o n o f the growing out o f these Horns, are not t o be found, and t h a t the owner of t h i s Monster would not be perswaded t o l e t us take the 33 f i g u r e t h e r e o f , which we d e s i g n ' d t o p r e s e n t you." I n 1696, Dr. C y p r i a n u s s u b m i t t e d an account o f a monstrous i n f a n t , born w i t h a wound i n i t s b r e a s t , o c c a s i o n e d by the " f o r c e o f Imagina- t i o n . " "Amongst some o t h e r E x t r a o r d i n a r y A c c i d e n t s which have o f f e r e d themselves t o me, s i n c e my coming home, t h e r e i s one," 34 he n o t e s , "worth your knowing." S i m i l a r l y , h a v i n g encountered a s t r a n g e p r o d u c t i o n born o f a woman under sentence o f T r a n s p o r t - a t i o n , Dr. Timothy S h e l d r a k e r e p o r t e d i t t o Hans Sloane i n 1739 , w r i t i n g , " I H e r e w i t h send you b o t h a Draught and D e s c r i p t i o n o f a monstrous B i r t h , which I b e l i e v e the R o y a l S o c i e t y have had as ye t no Account o f ; which g i v e s me Hopes, t h a t what I here send w i l l 35 prove the more a c c e p t a b l e t o you." So, too d i d Reverand Derham, FRS and renowned devotee of n a t u r a l h i s t o r y (and t h e o l o g y ) respond t o the S o c i e t y , g i v i n g i n 1708 an "Account o f some I n u n d a t i o n s ; Monstrous B i r t h s , " and "Appearances i n the Heavens," a l l "Observ- 3 6 a b l e s " which he deemed worthy o f the S o c i e t y ' s n o t i c e . As he e x p l a i n s : I R e c e i v e d some time s i n c e a L e t t e r from M a g h r a f e l t i n the N o r t h o f I r e l a n d , from a v e r y I n t e l l i g e n t P e r - son t h e r e , and g r e a t W e l l - w i s h e r t o our R o y a l S o c i e t y , one Mr. Neve; who out o f h i s own good W i l l had c o l l e c t - ed some of the Lough-Neagh P e t r i f i c a t i o n s , P i e c e s o f the Giants-Causway, and o t h e r C u r i o s i t i e s , and sent them,, he t e l l s me, as f a r as B r i s t o l : But h e a r i n g the S o c i e t y had o f them a l r e a d y i n t h e i r R e p o s i t o r y , he took no f u r t h e r c a r e o f them . . . But t h e r e are some o t h e r M a t t e r s r e l a t e d by him, t h a t I b e l i e v e w i l l n o t be u n a c c e p table.37 52 A f t e r t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n , Derham goes on t o d e s c r i b e a " p r o - d i g i o u s F l o o d (the l i k e not i n the Memory of man)," "some Mon- s t r o u s b i r t h s , " and one " l a s t C u r i o s i t y , " a v e r y " s t r a n g e L i g h t i n the N o r t h . " Amongst l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h - and e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y men of s c i e n c e , monsters appealed v e r y much as c u r i o s i t i e s of n a t u r e , t o be observed and c o l l e c t e d as such. Indeed, a t f i r s t g l a n c e , the work of such i n v e s t i g a t o r s l o o k s l i k e l i t t l e more than an e n c y c l o p e d i c p r o j e c t o f c u r i o s i t y c o l l e c t i n g . A long w i t h an almost s t a g g e r i n g range o f o t h e r i r r e g u l a r phenomena, such as r a r e f o s s i l bones, s t r a n g e r o c k f o r m a t i o n s or u n u s u a l p l a n t and animal specimens, monsters were g a t h e r e d , d i s s e c t e d , p r e s e r v e d and d i s p l a y e d i n v a r i o u s p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n s o r museums throughout England. A h i g h l y f a s h i o n a b l e a c t i v i t y , many gentlemen kept mon- s t e r c o l l e c t i o n s of t h e i r own:; M. B u s s i e r e , a F r e n c h c o r r e s p o n d e n t w i t h the S o c i e t y , a f t e r p r o v i d i n g an account o f a c h i l d born w i t h - out a b r a i n (1698), a d v i s e d r e a d e r s t h a t he keeps "the Bones o f t h a t S k u l l i n [ h i s ] House, where any Body may have a view o f i t , 38 t o s a t i s f y t h e i r C u r i o s i t y , when they p l e a s e . " Hans S l o a n e , too was an e n t h u s i a s t i c c o l l e c t o r o f n a t u r a l specimens, b o t h " c u r i o u s " and o t h e r w i s e . A c c o r d i n g t o Walpole's d e s c r i p t i o n o f Sloane's p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , b e s i d e s p l e n t y o f " f o e t u s e s i n s p i r i t s , " t h e r e were embryos, c o c k l e s h e l l s , h i p p o - 39 potamuses, sh a r k s w i t h one ear and s p i d e r s as b i g as geese."(1753) From a l l appearances, Sloane's v i s i o n o f the R o y a l S o c i e t y seems t o have been t h a t i t would become an o r d e r l y r e s e r v o i r f o r such f a c t s o f n a t u r e , each f a c t p u b l i s h e d , or e l s e c l a s s i f i e d , l a b e l l e d and p r e s e r v e d f o r easy d i s c u s s i o n and o b s e r v a t i o n . D e s c r i b i n g 53 the Royal S o c i e t y r e p o s i t o r y i n 1700, Ned Ward c h a r a c t e r i z e d i t as a Warehouse of A e g y p t i a n Mummies, Old Musty S k e l e t o n s , and o t h e r A n t i q u a t e d Trumpery: magnets, a p a r c e l o f S h e l l - F l i e s almost as b i g as L o b s t e r s , an A v i a r y o f Dead B i r d s , sundry s o r t of S e r p e n t s , S k e l e t o n s of Men, Women and Monkeys, B i r d s , Beasts and F i s h e s , A b o r t i v e s put up i n P i c k l e , and abundance of o t h e r 40 Memorandums of M o r t a l i t y . As f o r l i v i n g monsters, they were e x h i b i t e d i n f a i r s , t a v e r n s or p r i v a t e houses, p r o v i d i n g gentlemen w i t h the e a g e r l y sought o p p o r t u n i t y of i n s p e c t i n g t h e s e c u r i o s i t i e s i n the f l e s h . When- ever they happened upon monstrous b i r t h s o r l i v e e x h i b i t i o n s , the s c i e n t i f i c a l l y minded u s u a l l y took i t upon themselves t o w r i t e up a d e s c r i p t i v e a c c o u n t , t o be c i r c u l a t e d amongst o t h e r devotees o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , o r , as i n the p r e c e d i n g examples, s u b m i t t e d t o the Royal S o c i e t y f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . O f t e n i n such r e p o r t s , a u t h o r s i n c l u d e d one o r two l a u d a t o r y l i n e s i n r e f e r e n c e t o the n o v e l t y or e x c e p t i o n a l n a t u r e o f t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r c a s e , t h e r e b y j u s t i f y i n g i t as a d e s e r v i n g a d d i t i o n t o the e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g s t o c k o f know- ledge about n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , and l e g i t i m i z i n g i t as a n o v e l and t h e r e f o r e worthy c u r i o s i t y . I n 1736, f o r example, Joseph de T o r r e s , a S p a n i s h p h y s i c i a n , happened upon an "uncommon O b s e r v a t i o n , " an " e x t r a o r d i n a r y Case" i n which the h e a r t o f an i n f a n t was t u r n e d 41 u p s i d e down. De T o r r e s wrote o f i t t o the S o c i e t y , e x p r e s s i n g h i m s e l f i n hopes t h a t the S o c i e t y would not "be d i s p l e a s e d w i t h an Account o f a new and s u r p r i s i n g P r o d i g y c o n c e r n i n g the H e a r t , the l i k e o f w h i c h , " he adds, "was never h i t h e r t o o b s e r v e d , t i l l I saw i t on the 29th of December 1736, i n a new-born Female I n f a n t o f the Town of Almoyna, and f a i t h f u l l y d e l i n e a t e d i t . " However e l s e 54 these l e a r n e d i n v e s t i g a t o r s u n d e r s t o o d m o n s t r o s i t y , monsters were s e c u r e l y l o c a t e d w i t h i n the c o n c e p t u a l c a t e g o r y o f " c u r i o s i - t i e s " and i t was as c u r i o s i t i e s t h a t they were so r i g o r o u s l y c o l l e c t e d . To modern r e a d e r s , the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y penchant f o r mon- s t e r s — a n d monster c o l l e c t i n g — m a y appear as a r a t h e r " u n s c i e n t i - f i c " p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h n o v e l t y , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e accounts commonly i n c l u d e t r i b u t e s t o the monsters' g r e a t s i n g u l a r i t y and r e f e r e n c e s t o the s u r p r i s e and astonishment o f c u r i o u s o b s e r v e r s . C e r t a i n l y t o n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t e r a t o l o g i s t s , such t r e a t m e n t s seemed f r i v o l o u s , and i n d i c a t i v e o f a " v u l g a r " and o v e r l y sub- j e c t i v e s t y l e o f thought. P a r t l y t h i s was because, by the n i n e - t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the v e r y c a t e g o r y o f n a t u r a l c u r i o s i t i e s had d i s - appeared. By th e n , n a t u r e was seen as a m o n o l i t h i c f o r c e , o p e r a - t i n g i n o n l y one mode, and i n c a p a b l e o f " d e v i a t i n g " from her p a t h t o produce a s e p a r a t e c l a s s o f odd or i r r e g u l a r phenomena. Ap- pa r e n t d i s o r d e r was u n d e r s t o o d as p a r t o f a deeper, u n d e r l y i n g o r d e r , and w h i l e c e r t a i n n a t u r a l f u n c t i o n s remained c u r i o u s , no phenomenon of n a t u r e c o u l d be c o n s t r u e d , by v i r t u e o f i t s v i s i b l e i r r e g u l a r i t y , as a " c u r i o s i t y . " However, the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y view o f n a t u r e and of what c o n s t i t u t e d a s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t i n n a t u r e , was v e r y d i f f e r e n t . To speak o f c u r i o s i t i e s , and t o speak o f them e x p r e s s i v e l y , was not n e c e s s a r i l y u n s c i e n t i f i c , nor was i t by any means " i d l e " t o expend e n d l e s s energy c o l l e c t i n g such specimens. There are t h r e e reasons t h a t t h i s was so. F i r s t l y , a c c o r d i n g t o e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s , o r d e r was not i n d i s o r d e r ; o r d e r was opposed t o d i s - o r d e r . I n o t h e r words, n a t u r e , a heterogenous f o r c e , d i d produce 55 c u r i o s i t i e s , and from a l l appearances, they were s t r a n g e l y d i s - c o r d a n t w i t h the o r d i n a r y c o u r s e o f n a t u r a l e v e n t s . T h i s meant t h a t , w h i l e engaging i n a s e r i o u s n a t u r a l i s t i c s t u d y , i t was n e v e r t h e l e s s q u i t e p o s s i b l e f o r e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n v e s t i g a t o r s to e x p e r i e n c e monsters as c u r i o u s s p e c t a c l e s o f the most a s t o n - i s h i n g k i n d , d e s e r v i n g o f awe and s u r p r i s e . F or w h i l e monsters were "of n a t u r e , " they were a t the same time " c u r i o s i t i e s , " v i s i b l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from n a t u r e ' s r e g u l a r p r o d u c t i o n s . S e c o n d l y , a c c o r d i n g t o the s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r a l t e n e t s o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , i t was p r e c i s e l y t h r o u g h a c o l l e c t i o n of such phenomena t h a t s c i e n t i f i c knowledge would be advanced. For n a t u r a l h i s t o r i a n s of the t i m e , n a t u r e was an immense t a b l e a u o f f i x e d and c o n t i n u o u s s p e c i e s , each l i v i n g t h i n g ' p r e f o r m e d o r i g i n a l l y by God, i n k e e p i n g w i t h a harmonious p l a n . One o f the p r i m a r y g o a l s o f e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y n a t u r a l h i s t o r y was t o b r i n g a l l o f n a t u r e , i n c l u d i n g her i r r e g u l a r and a c c i d e n t a l v a r i a t i o n s , w i t h i n the scope of man's v i s i o n . To know n a t u r e , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o r e p r e s e n t the f u l l panorama o f her c r e a t u r e s , a r r a n g e d s i d e by s i d e , a c c o r d i n g t o the p l a n which was e x i s t e n t i n n a t u r e . And, t o u n d e r s t a n d the o r d e r , i t was u s e f u l t o observe the d i s o r d e r , f o r as Bacon s a i d , "he who i s a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the paths o f n a t u r e , w i l l more r e a d i l y observe her d e v i a t i o n s ; and v i c e v e r s a , he who has l e a r n t her d e v i a t i o n s , w i l l be a b l e more 42 a c c u r a t e l y t o d e s c r i b e her p a t h s . " C o l l e c t i o n , of c o u r s e , was an i n t e g r a l component of t h i s program, not as an end i n i t s e l f , but as a n e c e s s a r y means f o r f u r t h e r i n g man's u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the a c t u a l p r i n c i p l e s and r e l a - t i o n s h i p s o p e r a t i n g i n n a t u r e . A r g u i n g r e p e a t e d l y f o r a s t e p by 56 s t e p amassing of d a t a , Bacon had r e g a r d e d such i n d u c t i v e a c t i v i t y as a p r e l i m i n a r y means of a c h i e v i n g a c c u r a t e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about the n a t u r a l w o r l d . As he e x p l a i n e d i n the " D i s t r i b u t i o O p e r i s : " I n our method axioms are r a i s e d up i n g r a d u a l s u c c e s s i o n and s t e p by s t e p , so t h a t we do not a r r i v e a t the most g e n e r a l statement u n t i l the l a s t s t a g e , and t h e s e gen- e r a l statements come o u t , not n o t i o n a l , but w e l l - d e f i n e d and such as n a t u r e may acknowledge t o be r e a l l y w e l l - known t o h e r , and which s h a l l c l e a v e t o the v e r y marrow of t h i n g s . 4 3 I f p a r t o f the v i s i o n o f Bacon's New A t l a n t i s was, as P h i l i p R i t t e r - bush s u g g e s t s , "an army of c o l l e c t o r s r a n g i n g the e a r t h , s e e k i n g specimens f o r the c a b i n e t o f a c e n t r a l r e p o s i t o r y where they c o u l d be s o r t e d and a r r a n g e d , " the o t h e r p a r t o f h i s v i s i o n was t h a t , through such a c t i v i t y , t r u e statements about n a t u r e would 44 a c c r u e . T h i r d l y , i f the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y study o f m o n s t r o s i t y s t r u c k l a t e r s c i e n t i s t s as " u n s c i e n t i f i c , " t h i s was a l s o because, throughout most of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the l i n e s between p r o - f e s s i o n a l and amateur, s c i e n t i f i c and p o p u l a r were r e l a t i v e l y ob- s c u r e . There was, i n f a c t , a c o n t i n u a l c r o s s o v e r i n i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f monstrous b i r t h s between what l a t e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s would r e g a r d as s c i e n t i f i c " i n t e r e s t " and p o p u l a r " c u r i o s i t y . " T r a d i t i o n a l themes of h y b r i d i z a t i o n , m a t e r n a l i m a g i n a t i o n , and Godly w r a t h p e r s i s t e d i n the p o p u l a r i m a g i n a t i o n , and whether such views were endorsed or d i s c r e d i t e d by more l e a r n e d i n v e s t i g a t o r s , they n e v e r - t h e l e s s c o n t i n u e d t o e n t e r i n t o s c i e n t i f i c s p e c u l a t i o n s , i f o n l y i n d e t e r m i n i n g the k i n d s o f q u e s t i o n s which were asked. C e r t a i n l y i t i s q u i t e c l e a r t h a t the l e a r n e d founders of the R o y a l S o c i e t y undertook t h e study o f monsters f o r l a r g e l y s c i e n t i f i c r e a s o n s — t o enhance n a t u r a l knowledge. Thus, on the one hand, monsters 57 were t o be d e s c r i b e d a c c o r d i n g t o p a r t i c u l a r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l r u l e s and w i t h due g r a v i t y , as f a c t s o f n a t u r e . But a t the same t i m e , such o d d i t i e s enjoyed tremendous a p p e a l , as a s t o n i s h i n g c u r i o s i t i e s and s c i e n t i f i c n o v e l t i e s . B e s i d e s the R o y a l S o c i e t y c o l l e c t i o n and p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n s l i k e t h a t o f Hans Sloane, where a d m i s s i o n was u s u a l l y r e s t r i c t e d t o m e d i c a l p e o p l e , s c i e n t i s t s o r h i g h l y p l a c e d laymen, t h e r e were a host of e x h i b i t i o n s o f human monsters, both l i v i n g and dead, i n the f a i r s , t a v e r n s and s t r e e t s of London. Such p o p u l a r e x h i b i t s appealed t o the l e a r n e d and the unlearned a l i k e , and w e l l i n t o the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , p r o - v i d e a r a t h e r s t r i k i n g c o u n t e r p o i n t t o the c o n c u r r e n t " e m p i r i c a l " e x a m i n a t i o n s o f monsters which were t a k i n g p l a c e i n s c i e n t i f i c c i r c l e s . Most of the " f r e a k s " shown p u b l i c l y i n London between 1700 and 1800 were t r e a t e d i n the P h i l o s o p h i c a l T r a n s a c t i o n s , and i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , the S o c i e t y ' s members moved f r e e l y from one m i l i e u t o the o t h e r , w i t h no apparent sense o f i n c o n g r u i t y . I n v e s t i g a t o r s e x p r e s s e d no s c o r n f o r the p o p u l a r wonder which monstrous b i r t h s g e n e r a t e d , but r e g a r d e d "tumultous concourses o f g a z i n g p e o p l e " as a m a t t e r of c o u r s e . ^ S i n c e t h e s c i e n t i f i c community drew no r i g i d d i s t i n c t i o n s between amateur and p r o f e s s i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , the R o y a l S o c i e t y a c c e p t e d a l l manner of accounts f o r p u b l i c a t i o n — from the e x t r e m e l y p r e c i s e and l e a r n e d a n a t o m i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f Dr. M u l l e n t o the more i n t u i t i v e l y s k e t c h e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f f e r e d by Reverend Derham. Indeed, d u r i n g the l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h and e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , a s t r i k i n g v a r i e t y o f people c o n t r i b u t e d accounts o f m o n s t r o s i t y t o the R o y a l S o c i e t y . Some c o n t r i b u t o r s i d e n t i f i e d themselves as d o c t o r s or p h y s i c i a n s or l o c a l surgeons; 58 some were a n a t o m i s t s , o t h e r s clergymen, and s t i l l o t h e r s were d e s c r i b e d s i m p l y as n o b l e p e r s o n s , as I n t e l l i g e n t p e o p l e , or as people o f l e a r n i n g and c u r i o s i t y . One was an i n g e n i o u s s t u d e n t i n p h y s i c k , one a v i c a r , one a p r o f e s s o r o f mathematics, and many d e s c r i b e d themselves o n l y as f e l l o w s o f the R o y a l S o c i e t y . A g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f the people who s t u d i e d monsters may be d e s c r i b e d as amateur s c i e n t i s t s , p eople w i t h a commitment t o e m p i r i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n and experiment, p u r s u i n g a g e n e r a l r a t h e r t h a n a p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t i n the s t u d y of n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . They d i d not have s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge of m o n s t r o s i t y , nor d i d they i n v e s t i g a t e m o n s t r o s i t y e x c l u s i v e l y , but r a t h e r wrote about i t whenever they came a c r o s s an example o f a s t r a n g e b i r t h i n t h e i r p r a c t i c e o r when news of a monstrous e x h i b i t a t t r a c t e d them t o a v i e w i n g of the c u r i o s i t y . There seems to have been no c l e a r d e m a r c a t i o n between men o f s c i e n c e and men o f l e a r n i n g i n g e n e r a l , but r a t h e r an exchange of i n f o r m a t i o n took p l a c e amongst a v e r y d i v e r g e n t group of i n t e r e s t e d and c u r i o u s amateurs. What makes i t p r o b l e m a t i c t o d e s c r i b e the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n t e r e s t i n m o n s t r o s i t y i s t h a t t h e r e seems t o have been a sub- s t a n t i a l amount of c u r i o s i t y s e e k i n g on the p a r t o f such amateurs. Though p u r p o r t e d l y p u r s u i n g a s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t , many m a n i f e s t e d a t t i t u d e s towards monsters which v e r g e d on the more p o p u l a r d i s - p l a y s o f c u r i o s i t y mania. Some i n v e s t i g a t o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y c h u r c h - men, had l i t t l e s p e c i a l i z e d a n a t o m i c a l knowledge and were p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h arousling the contemporary a p p e t i t e f o r n a t u r a l (and t h e r e b y d i v i n e ) wonder. W r i t i n g i n 1738 o f a man who was "one i n t i r e Bone from the Top of h i s Head t o h i s Knees," Bishop Robert Corke expounded at l e n g t h about the a s t o n i s h i n g appearance of the 59 man's s k e l e t o n , which among o t h e r n o v e l f o r m a t i o n s , f e a t u r e d bones " l i k e the Spurs of a Cock," and " R a m i f i c a t i o n s " l i k e "Shoots 46 o f w h i t e C o r a l . " One o f the most " e x t r a o r d i n a r y t h i n g s " he " e v e r saw," the Bishop c o u l d not " f o r b e a r " l e t t i n g the s c i e n t i f i c community p a r t a k e w i t h him i n "the Amusement," even though p r o - v i d i n g an account would be " v e r y d i f f i c u l t . " F o r as he e x p l a i n e d , I t i s "many Years s i n c e I have seen any t h i n g o f Anatomy, and of Consequence have f o r g o t t e n the Names of the Bones b e l o n g i n g t o the v a r i o u s P a r t s of the human Body." S i m i l a r l y , when Reverend Edmund Almond wrote t o one o f the S o c i e t y ' s f e l l o w s i n 1744, he p r o v i d e d l i t t l e a n a t o m i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about th e " G i g a n t i c Boy a t W i l l i n g h a m , " but p r o c l a i m e d him o f g r e a t i n t e r e s t as an e x t r a - o r d i n a r y " P r o d i g y i n N a t u r e , " b r i n g i n g "People f a r and near t o 47 see him." A few months l a t e r , the surgeon, Thomas Dawkes, f u r n i s h e d the S o c i e t y w i t h a more " e x a c t d e s c r i p t i o n o f the g i a n t , measured w i t h utmost A c c u r a c y . " Having engaged "the A t t e n t i o n o f the C u r i o u s i n t h i s Neighbourhood," Dawkes f e l t t h a t the " p r o d i g y " 48 a l s o demanded the a t t e n t i o n o f the "Learned." When such i n v e s t - i g a t o r s p r o c l a i m e d t h e i r s u p r i s e or astonishment over monstrous b i r t h s , t hey d i d so i n t u i t i v e l y , not as o b j e c t i v e s p e c i a l i s t s con- f r o n t e d by specimens of p a t h o l o g y , but as s p e c t a t o r s c o n f r o n t e d by what, from a l l appearances, was e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y d i f f e r e n t . Such e x p r e s s i v e and s u b j e c t i v e responses would not become s t i g m a t i z e d as u n s c i e n t i f i c u n t i l the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , when p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge r e q u i r e d more p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s t r a i n t . G i v e n t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s - — t h e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y v iew o f n a t u r e as a heterogenous o r d e r , the p r i m a r y r e l i a n c e upon c o l - l e c t i o n as a means of s t u d y i n g n a t u r e , and the r e l a t i v e l y open 60 exchange between s c i e n t i f i c and p o p u l a r k n o w l e d g e — t h e apparent c r a z e f o r monster c o l l e c t i n g among e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n v e s t i g a t o r s appears not so u n e q u i v o c a l l y as l a t e r s c i e n t i s t s were t o d i s m i s s i t , as an i n d i s c r i m i n a t e weakness f o r n o v e l t y . R a t h e r , i t was p a r t o f what was c o n s i d e r e d a c o n c e r t e d s c i e n t i f i c e n t e r p r i s e , d i r e c t e d toward i n c r e a s i n g n a t u r a l knowledge and f u e l l e d by l e g i t i m a t e s c i e n t i f i c c u r i o s i t y . I f the R o y a l S o c i e t y p u b l i s h e d some accounts which d i d not meet w i t h these h i g h e r aims, i t was because the d i s t i n c t i o n between s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t , i d l e c u r i o - s i t y and wonder were somewhat b l u r r e d i n a s c i e n t i f i c community y e t to be p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d . Among th o s e l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h - and e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n v e s t i g a t o r s who c o n s i d e r e d themselves men o f s c i e n c e , Bacon's program f o r c l e a n s i n g the study o f monsters o f t r a d i t i o n a l e r r o r was f o r the most p a r t w e l l - h e e d e d . I n c o l l e c t i n g " c r e d i b l e " d a t a and w r i t i n g " g r a v e " r e p o r t s , s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t o r s observed a number of m e t h o d o l o g i c a l g u i d e l i n e s , aimed a t e x t r a c t i n g t h e t r u e f a c t s about monsters from the l a y e r s o f f a l s e h o o d which en- g u l f e d the s u b j e c t . F i r s t l y , i n d e s c r i b i n g c a s e s , they con- cerned themselves w i t h the n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s o f the monster i n q u e s t i o n , depending e i t h e r upon d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n o f the case o r upon the t e s t i m o n y o f p u r p o r t e d l y r e l i a b l e w i t n e s s e s f o r i n - f o r m a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y , a u t h o r s were c a r e f u l t o r e c o r d the c i r - cumstances s u r r o u n d i n g monstrous b i r t h s , n o t i n g t i m e s , p l a c e s , w i t n e s s e s , a t t e n d a n t p h y s i c i a n s or surgeons, and s u p p l y i n g f a i t h - f u l n a r r a t i o n s o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t . F u r t h e r , i n an e f f o r t t o e s t a b l i s h the r e l i a b i l i t y o f a c c o u n t s , they o f t e n l i s t e d t h e i r own c r e d e n t i a l s or the c r e d e n t i a l s o f w i t n e s s e s . 61 M. G a i l l a r d , f o r example, d e s c r i b i n g the b i r t h o f an i n f a n t born w i t h two heads i n Toulouse i n 1697 w r i t e s : There was seen t h e r e , Twelve Years ago, an I n f a n t who had Two Heads . . . Master P e t e r , sworn Chyrurgeon, opened i t i n Presence o f Mr. B a y l e , Doctor o f P h y s i c k , and M a s t e r o f A r t s , and Master Carboneau, sworn Chyrurgeon. 4-9 As f o r h i s own c r e d e n t i a l s , G a i l l a r d i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f as a Doctor of P h y s i c k o f the F a c u l t y o f Toulouse. S i m i l a r l y , i n an account of a monstrous double b i r t h i n L o r r a i n e (1722), the a u t h o r b e g i n s i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t y l e , w i t h a r e f e r e n c e t o h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s : I the U n d e r w r i t t e n , Surgeon i n O r d i n a r y t o h i s R o y a l Highness the Duke of L o r r a i n , c e r t i f y , t h a t on the l a s t o f December, 1722, I went by h i s Orders t o Domp Remy l a P u c e l l e , t o see t h e r e S e b a s t i a n a Camus, aged 44 Y e a r s , d e l i v e r e d on the 24th o f the s a i d Month, be- i n g C h r i s t m a s Eve, about e i g h t o ' c l o c k i n the E v e n i n g , of two C h i l d r e n , o r Twins, j o i n e d t o g e t h e r i n the Manner as appears by the Draughts * . . 50 M a n i f e s t i n g t h e same c o n c e r n t o prove the a u t h e n t i c i t y of h i s a c c o u n t , W i l l i a m Gregory ended!his r e p o r t of a monstrous f o e t u s by a v e r r i n g t h e "above Case t o be s t r i c t l y t r u e , t o the b e s t o f my knowledge, as w i t n e s s my Hand t h i s 30th Day o f A p r i l , 1733.""^ I n g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , i n v e s t i g a t o r s f r e q u e n t l y weighed the t e s t i m o n y o f w i t n e s s e s f o r r e l i a b i l i t y , as d i d M. B u s s i e r e i n 1698 i n h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the case o f a c h i l d born w i t h o u t a b r a i n . "The M i d w i f e , " he r e p o r t e d , " s a i d the C h i l d came a l i v e out o f the U t e r u s ; but t h o ' we cannot t r u s t such R e p o r t , y e t , t i s c e r t a i n , t h e Mother a s s u r e t h , t h a t she f e l t him s t i r r i n g v e r y o f t e n , " and the husband, "keeping h i s Hands f a s t upon her B e l l y . . ... a f f i r m e t h he f e l t p l a i n l y the C h i l d ' s motions . . . [which i s ] 52 s u f f i c i e n t t o prove, t h a t he was a l i v e i n the B e l l y o f h i s Mother.'.' 62 R e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the monster, f i r s t o f how i t appeared e x t e r n a l l y and t h e n f r e q u e n t l y i n d i s s e c t i o n were g i v e n , and o f t e n a d r a w i n g , r e n d e r e d i n r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l , was appended. I f p o s s i b l e , i n v e s t i g a t o r s endeavoured t o p r e s e r v e the monster. I n 1665, f o r example, an a u t h o r d e s c r i b e s Robert B o y l e ' s e f f o r t s t o p r e s e r v e the head of a monstrous c o l t . B o y l e , he ex- p l a i n s : went i n t o the S t a b l e . . . and got the Head h a s t i l y and r u d e l y cut o f f . . . A f t e r w a r d s he caused i t t o be put i n t o a V e s s e l , and c o v e r e d w i t h S p i r i t o f Wine, t h e r e b y c h i e f l y i n t e n d i n g , t o g i v e good example, t o - g e t h e r w i t h a p r o o f , t h a t by the h e l p o f the s a i d s p i r i t . . . the p a r t s o f A n i m a l s , and even Monsters, may i n Summer i t s e l f be p r e s e r v e d l o n g enough, t o r o a f f o r d A n a t o m i s t s the o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f examining them. F i n a l l y , any r e f e r e n c e s t o s u p e r n a t u r a l c a u s e s , f a b l e o r un- founded b e l i e f was a v o i d e d except i n cases where the a u t h o r was concerned t o d i s c r e d i t such v i e w s . I n the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s M e c h a n i c a l and C r i t i c a l I n q u i r y i n t o the Nature o f Hermaphrodites (1741), f o r example, James Parsons c l e a r l y e x p r e s s e d h i s a v e r s i o n t o s u p e r s t i t i o u s " m y s t e r i e s " i n t r e a t m e n t s o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y : I do not promise m e t h o d o l o g i c a l and f i n i s h e d T r e a t i s e s , but o n l y some s h o r t H i n t s on N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , and rude S t r o k e s o f Reasoning, y e t I have t h i s f o r my P l e a ; t h a t the E x p u l s i o n o f S u p e r s t i t i o u s M y s t e r i e s and E r r o r s , O c c u l t Causes, and i n f i n e , the Promotion o f T r u t h aire my s o l e I n t e n t i o n s . 5 4 Most accounts s u b m i t t e d t o the R o y a l S o c i e t y between 1665 and 1750 f o l l o w e d a s i m i l a r f o r m a t , i n which the a u t h o r f i r s t p r e s e n t e d g e n e r a l commentary c o n c e r n i n g the t i m e s , dates and c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e b i r t h , and then proceeded t o the main p o i n t o f the e x e r c i s e , w h i c h was t o p r e s e n t an a n a t o m i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the case. Though numerous examples c o u l d be c i t e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p a t t e r n , W i l l i a m Durston's p o r t r a y a l o f a double monster, 63 s u b m i t t e d t o the Royal S o c i e t y i n 1670, i s a t y p i c a l i l l u s t r a - t i o n . A f t e r n a r r a t i n g the events o f the b i r t h , D u r s ton goes on t o p r e s e n t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , f i r s t f o c u s s i n g on the e x t e r n a l f e a t u r e s o f the monster. As he r e p o r t s : T h i s B i r t h , as you see, had two Heads, and two Necks; as a l s o the Eyes, Mouths and E a r s , s u t a b l y d o u b l e . Four Arms w i t h Hands, and as many Leggs and F e e t . There was t o b o t h but one Trunk; but two Backbones, from the C l a v i c l e s t o the Hypogastrium, and from the s h o u l d e r s down t o the bottom o f the: L o i n s they were not d i s t i n c t , but cemented and c o n c o r p o r a t e d , a f t e r t h i s manner: The r i g h t C l a v i c l e o r Channel bone of the R i g h t - h a n d - C h i l d ( b e i n g l o ng) joyned w i t h the l e f t C l a v i c l e o f the L e f t - h a n d - C h i l d . The Ribbs on the f a c e s i d e o f both o f them, by the C a r t i l a g e s o r G r i s t l e s were u n i t e d . . . ^5 F o l l o w i n g t h i s , the a u t h o r p r o v i d e s a s k e t c h o f the i n t e r i o r view of the monster. Upon d i s s e c t i o n , t hey found: one N a v i l - v e i n , and one L i v e r , but t h a t was v e r y l a r g e , w i t h the B l a d d e r o f G a l l s e a t e d i n i t s u s u a l p l a c e : but t h e r e were two U r i n a r y B l a d d e r s , two Wombs, f o u r K i d n e y s , and one Stomach, w i t h the Oesophagus o r G u l l e t p e r f o r a t e and open from the Mouth of the l e f t head . . . What i s most s t r i k i n g about Durston's account and h i g h l y t y p i c a l of a l l such l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y accounts i s t h a t the a u t h o r d i d not v e n t u r e beyond d e s c r i p t i o n t o o f f e r any t h e o r e t i c a l c o n j e c t u r e s as t o the causes o f the monster i n q u e s t i o n . On the c o n t r a r y , though the s t y l e , l e n g t h and a n a t o m i c a l p r e c i s i o n o f d e s c r i p t i o n s v a r i e d , most E n g l i s h a u t h o r s , l i k e D u r s t o n , were c o n t e n t merely t o d e s c r i b e what was seen. T h i s r e l i a n c e upon d e s c r i p t i o n (as opposed t o t h e o r e t i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n ) may be counted as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c m e t h o d o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e of the l a t e seventeenth-and e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y study of m o n s t r o s i t y and one which, l i k e the c o m p i l a t i o n o f accounts and the c o l l e c t i o n o f specimens, a c c o r d e d e x a c t l y w i t h the p r e v a i l i n g n o t i o n o f what a n a t u r a l h i s t o r y ought t o be. 64 As Jacques Roger says: The h i s t o r y o f the word h i s t o r y i t s e l f would deserve an a c c u r a t e s t u d y . I n the 1670's, i t o f t e n means a p l a i n d e s c r i p t i o n o f a n a t u r a l phenomenon. I n t h a t sense, and even i n p h y s i c s , a h i s t o r y o f n a t u r e i s opposed t o a n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y which i s a s e a r c h f o r the causes of the phenomenon. A c c o r d i n g t o many s c i e n t i s t s of the t i m e , one s h o u l d f i r s t w r i t e an ample h i s t o r y of n a t u r e b e f o r e t h i n k i n g o f b u i l d i n g a p h i l o s o p h y of i t . 5 6 A c c o r d i n g t o M i c h e l F o u c a u l t , inasmuch as n a t u r a l h i s t o r y concerned i t s e l f w i t h the problems of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and r e p r e - s e n t a t i o n , i t was n e c e s s a r i l y a p r o j e c t l i m i t e d l a r g e l y t o the d e s c r i p t i o n o f l i v i n g b e i n g s . As we have seen, n a t u r a l h i s t o r i a n s tended t o v i e w n a t u r e as an immense o r d e r o f f i x e d , d i v i n e l y c r e a t e d s p e c i e s . From the s i m p l e s t t o the most complex, each s p e c i e s o f a n i m a l o c c u p i e d a p l a c e i n the g raduated c h a i n o f b e i n g , and each was d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the next by m a n i f e s t s t r u c t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between them. N a t u r a l h i s t o r y sought t o " r e - p r e s e n t " t h i s v i s i b l e o r d e r , t o c o n s t r u c t a c l a s s i f i c a t o r y scheme which would e x a c t l y r e p r e s e n t t h a t which God had e s t a b - l i s h e d i n n a t u r e . I n o r d e r t h a t t h e y might be p r o p e r l y s o r t e d and a r r a n g e d , t h e r e f o r e , a l l o f n a t u r e ' s c r e a t u r e s had f i r s t t o be d e s c r i b e d . They had, moreover, t o be d e s c r i b e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r w a y — i n terms, t h a t i s , o f t h e i r e x t e r n a l s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s - t i c s . I t was p r e c i s e l y i n t h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l manner t h a t n a t u r a l h i s t o r i a n s , l i k e D u r s t o n , d e s c r i b e d cases of m o n s t r o s i t y . Mon- s t r o u s double b i r t h s , h e r m a p h r o d i t e s , monsters w i t h m u l t i p l e s t r u c t u r a l d e f i c i e n c i e s or i m p e r f e c t i o n s — a l l o f these were p o r - t r a y e d , not as i n t e g r a t e d organisms, but as s t r a n g e s t r u c t u r a l a s s e m b l i e s , w i t h no r e f e r e n c e t o any u n d e r l y i n g o r g a n i c method 65 o p e r a t i n g beneath the apparent s t r u c t u r a l madness. I n composing such s k e t c h e s , authors d e s c r i b e d each u n n a t u r a l p a r t s i m p l y as i t appeared to the eye. How such p a r t s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h o t h e r s , how they a f f e c t e d the a n i m a l as a whole, how the organism com- pensated f o r d e f i c i e n c i e s — s u c h " o r g a n i c " q u e s t i o n s were not r a i s e d , and t h i s because monsters were not u n d e r s t o o d as o r g a n i c systems. They were s t r u c t u r a l l y , and not f u n c t i o n a l l y , i m p e r f e c t p r o d u c t i o n s . G i v e n t h i s p r i m a r y r e f e r e n c e t o " s t r u c t u r e " and "appearance" i n the study o f l i v i n g t h i n g s , the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y c o n c e p t u a l - i z a t i o n of monsters as c u r i o u s and s i n g u l a r i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , as q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b e i n g s , becomes much more comprehen- s i b l e . F o r , as l o n g as s t r u c t u r e s e r v e d as the key c r i t e r i o n i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c r e a t u r e s i n t o , s p e c i e s , i t meant t h a t monsters would be i d e n t i f i e d as bei n g s o f a p r o f o u n d l y d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e from a l l t h o s e l i v i n g t h i n g s which were r e g u l a r . F i r s t l y , because any two i n d i v i d u a l l i v i n g t h i n g s , i f they d i f f e r e d i n s t r u c t u r e , were c o n s i d e r e d t o d i f f e r i n e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r as w e l l and t o b e l o n g i n two s e p a r a t e s p e c i e s . Secondly,, because each mon- s t r o s i t y r e p r e s e n t e d a d i s c o n t i n u o u s s i n g u l a r i t y , an i n d i v i d u a l which resembled no o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l and a b e i n g , t h e r e f o r e , which belonged d e f i n i t i v e l y t o no one s p e c i e s . Monsters were monstrous p r e c i s e l y because they were s t r u c t u r a l l y , t h a t i s v i s i b l y , d e v i a n t . I n b e i n g so, they b l u r r e d the c a t e g o r i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s between one s p e c i e s and a n o t h e r , c h a l l e n g i n g a p p a r e n t l y f i x e d b o u n d a r i e s , such as t h a t which s e p a r a t e d man from b e a s t . To the e x t e n t t h a t i t was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o n a t u r a l h i s t o r y and s u b j e c t t o such m e t h o d o l o g i c a l r u l e s , the study of monsters 66 became much more " n a t u r a l " t h a n i t had been i n p r e v i o u s p e r i o d s , i n k e e p i n g w i t h Bacon's i n j u n c t i o n s a g a i n s t m i x i n g s u p e r n a t u r a l c o n j e c t u r e w i t h s t u d i e s of n a t u r e . However, though the d i v i s i o n s between t h e o l o g i c a l , p h i l o s o p h i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c knowledge were acknowledged among e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n v e s t i g a t o r s , the bound- a r i e s between these f i e l d s o f knowledge were not drawn a l o n g the same l i n e s as they were t o be i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . At the t i m e , a l l o f n a t u r e was u n d e r s t o o d as God's o r i g i n a l c r e a t i o n . S t u d i e s o f t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d were und e r t a k e n i n the knowledge t h a t they r e f e r r e d u l t i m a t e l y t o God, t o demonstrate the g l o r y and wisdom of the master d e s i g n e r o f the n a t u r a l o r d e r . For Bacon, a knowledge of n a t u r a l f a c t s would p r o v i d e a " r i c h s t o r e - 5 8 house f o r the g l o r y o f the C r e a t o r , " and s i m i l a r l y , Hans Sloane d e s c r i b e d h i s g r e a t c o l l e c t i o n o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y not o n l y as con- t r i b u t i n g t o the "use and improvement o f p h y s i c and o t h e r a r t s and s c i e n c e s , and b e n e f i t o f mankind," b u t , most i m p o r t a n t , as " t e n d i n g many ways t o the m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the G l o r y of God [and] 59 the c o n f u t a t i o n of a t h e i s m and i t s consequences." With such c l e a r l i n e s c o n n e c t i n g n a t u r a l t h e o l o g y w i t h , n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , r e l i g i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s e n t e r e d r e a d i l y i n t o e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s p e c u l a t i o n s o f the n a t u r a l w o r l d and p r e d i c t a b l y , f i g u r e d p r o m i n e n t l y i n d i s c u s s i o n s o f m o n s t r o s i t y as w e l l . Some i n v e s t - i g a t o r s , f o r example, p r o v i d e d i n c i d e n t a l commentary about such i s s u e s as whether monsters had "humane s o u l s , " whether they had " r e c e i v e d b a p t i s m , " and whether the p a r e n t s of monstrous i n f a n t s were of good or bad r e p u t e . ^ Moreover, throughout the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the whole q u e s t i o n o f the o r i g i n of monsters was u l t i m a t e l y i n s e p a r a b l e 67 from t h e o l o g y . Indeed, one o f the u n d e r l y i n g i s s u e s c o n d i t i o n i n g p h i l o s o p h i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n s i n t o the causes of m o n s t r o s i t y was whether God would o r would not have i n c l u d e d such a p p a r e n t l y m a r g i n a l c r e a t u r e s i n H i s o r i g i n a l p l a n o f c r e a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o the t h e o r y o f p r e f o r m a t i o n , which was the most w i d e l y h e l d v iew of a n i m a l g e n e r a t i o n between 1700 and 1750, a l l l i v i n g c r e a t u r e s began as p r e - e x i s t i n g embryos, c r e a t e d by God a t the b e g i n n i n g o f c r e a t i o n . Each embryo was a m i n i a t u r e v e r s i o n o f the p a r t i c u l a r a n imal i t was d e s t i n e d t o become, w i t h a l l the n e c e s s a r y p a r t s o f the a n i m a l i n t a c t and a w a i t i n g o n l y a n i m a t i o n t o s t i m u l a t e the p r o c e s s of g r o w t h . ^ Whether the embryo p r e - e x i s t e d i n the female egg or i n the male sperm was a c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e and one which d i v i d e d p r e f o r m a t i o n i s t s i n t o two opposed camps. On t h e one hand, the o v i s t s argued t h a t "the Image, the Type, the P i c t u r e o f the Embryo," was c o n t a i n e d i n the "Eggs of 6 2 the Females." A n i m a l c u l i s t s , on the o t h e r hand, h e l d t h a t the embryo was c o n t a i n e d i n the male semen, which was a " L i q u i d f u l l o f s m a l l Worms," or a n i m a l c u l a , each of which c o n s t i t u t e d a 6 3 " t r u e Embryo." The a p p e a l of the a n i m a l c u l i s t p o s i t i o n was t h a t the e x i s t e n c e o f the a n i m a l c u l a c o u l d p u r p o r t e d l y be demon- s t r a t e d t h r o u g h a c t u a l o b s e r v a t i o n , f o r w i t h the a i d o f a m i c r o - scope, i t was p o s s i b l e f o r s c i e n t i s t s t o see the "embryo" i n the male semen. Informed by t h i s t h e o r y , some c l a i m e d t o have a c t u a l l y seen t i n y monstrous embryos, preformed a n i m a l c u l a w i t h " u n n a t u r a l " p a r t s , though how much c r e d i b i l i t y was a f f o r d e d such c l a i m s , i s u n c l e a r . For t h o s e concerned w i t h the causes of m o n s t r o s i t y , the main q u e s t i o n t o be d e c i d e d was whether monsters were o r i g i n a l , t h a t 68 i s , preformed by God and t h u s , p a r t o f H i s o r i g i n a l p l a n , o r whether they arose o n l y a c c i d e n t a l l y , through m e c h a n i c a l i n j u r - i e s i n f l i c t e d upon an o t h e r w i s e p e r f e c t l y formed embryo. By the 1720's, t h i s q u e s t i o n had s u r f a c e d i n the European s c i e n t i f i c community i n the form o f a debate (and o f t e n an e x p l i c i t l y 64 t h e o l o g i c a l debate) between " o r i g i n a l i s t s " and " a c c i d e n t a l i s t s . " Or, i n the words o f D a n i e l d e S u p e r v i l l e , whose paper about genera- t i o n and m o n s t r o s i t y was p u b l i s h e d by the Royal S o c i e t y i n 1740: The O p i n i o n s o f Most o f the N a t u r a l P h i l o s o p h e r s on t h i s head may, upon the main, be reduced to the s e two Hypo- t h e s e s : 1. That Monsters a re o r i g i n a l , t h a t i s t o say, t h a t even i n C o n c e p t i o n the Monster i s c o n c e i v e d . 2. That they a re not produced but by A c c i d e n t . 6 5 D e S u p e r v i l l e h i m s e l f e n t e r e d t h i s debate s q u a r e l y on the s i d e o f the a c c i d e n t a l i s t s , f o r as he sa y s , "supposing every Animalculum t o be an Embryo c r e a t e d , I cannot imagine them t o be c r e a t e d i m p e r f e c t ! " Whatever they be, t h e r e f o r e , he b e l i e v e s monsters " r i g o r o u s l y s p e a k i n g , " t o be a c c i d e n t a l : To how many A c c i d e n t s a re they not s u b j e c t a f t e r w a r d s i n the Ve n t e r o f the Females? A F a l l o f the Mother, a s t r o n g P r e s s u r e , a C o n t u s i o n , e t c . may d i s o r d e r the n i c e and ten d e r S t r u c t u r e o f t h a t l i t t l e C r e a t u r e so f a r , t h a t a g r e a t many o f i t s P a r t s do not u n f o l d themselves any l o n g e r , a r e d e s t r o y e d , o r have t h e i r Order and n a t u r a l S i t u a t i o n i n t i r e l y changed. . . The d i s t u r b e d and d i s o r d e r e d I m a g i n a t i o n o f the Females ought a l s o t o be ranged among the a c c i d e n t a l Causes o f Monsters.°^ I n a s i m i l a r m e c h a n i s t i c f a s h i o n does d e S u p e r v i l l e account f o r double m o n s t r o s i t i e s ("Siamese" t w i n s ) : The P r o d u c t i o n of a l l t h e s e Monsters t h a t a r e do u b l e , o r have s u p e r f l u o u s Members, may. v e r y w e l l be o c c a s i o n e d by two A n i m a l c u l a e n t r i n g i n t o the same Egg; they t o u c h , they c l o s e , they u n i t e , they crowd each o t h e r : The P a r t s o f the weakest., b e i n g too much crowded, cannot extend nor d i s p l a y t h emselves; so they v a n i s h , as i t were, so much the e a s i e r as t h e y are e x t r e m e l y t e n d e r , and w i t h o u t any s e n s i b l e C o n s i s t e n c y . ^ 7 69 James Pa r s o n s , t o o , i n h i s s p e c u l a t i o n s i n t o the n a t u r e o f herm- a p h r o d i t e s , i n s i s t s t h a t such monsters can o n l y be e x p l a i n e d as a c c i d e n t s o r i n j u r i e s i n the womb. God c o u l d not p o s s i b l y have i n t e n d e d them, f o r the r e a s o n t h a t such p r o d u c t i o n s , unable t o p r o c r e a t e , are c o n t r a r y t o the s u r v i v a l o f the s p e c i e s , and con- t r a r y t h e r e f o r e t o God's p l a n o f c o n t i n u i t y . ^ O b v i o u s l y , much b e s i d e s " s c i e n c e " was e n t a n g l e d i n such d i s c u s s i o n s . At i s s u e were the v e r y b a s i c problems of God's r o l e i n the u n i v e r s e and the e x i s t e n c e o f o r d e r i n n a t u r e . For a c c i d e n t a l i s t s , such as Parsons and d e S u p e r v i l l e , i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n c e i v e t h a t an i n t e l l i g e n t God would p u r p o s e f u l l y c r e a t e beings t h a t so o b v i o u s l y d e p a r t e d from the harmonious o r d e r o f r e g u l a r and c o n t i n u o u s s p e c i e s . The l o g i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e was t o a p p e a l to more m e c h a n i s t i c t h e o r i e s o f a c c i d e n t a l i n t e r f e r e n c e . God, they reasoned, c r e a t e s a l l embryos p e r f e c t , w i t h a l l the mechanisms n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e i r s u r v i v a l , and a c c o r d i n g t o a harmonious p l a n . But i n the course o f t h e i r u n f o l d i n g , such embryos are s u s c e p t i b l e t o any number of a c c i d e n t s which a c t d i r e c t l y upon the p a r t s o f the embryo t o a l t e r i t s f o r m a t i o n . For o t h e r s , such r e a s o n i n g was f u l l o f d i s q u i e t i n g i m p l i - c a t i o n s . At bottom, i t meant t h a t the n a t u r a l o r d e r , once s e t i n m o t i o n , was no l o n g e r s u b j e c t t o God's guidance. Such a scheme, i t was f e l t , l e f t too much t o b l i n d chance, thus t h r e a t - e n i n g the e x i s t e n c e o f an o r d e r e d , God-governed u n i v e r s e . To overcome such d i f f i c u l t i e s , o r i g i n a l i s t s ( n o t a b l y A l b r e c h t von H a l l e r ) advanced the argument t h a t monsters were not a c c i d e n t a l a t a l l , but t h a t monstrous s t r u c t u r e s were preformed, j u s t l i k e a l l o t h e r s , i n the f i r s t rudiments o f the f o e t u s . A c c o r d i n g t o 70 o r i g i n a l i s t l o g i c , monsters 1 were not r e a l i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n Nat u r e , but o n l y appeared t o be so t o man, who was i n c a p a b l e o f p e n e t r a t i n g God's l a r g e r d e s i g n . A l l through the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y ( u n t i l p r e f o r m a t i o n was abandoned i n f a v o r o f e p i g e n e s i s ) , the debate over the o r i g i n s o f m o n s t e r s — l a r g e l y t h e o l o g i c a l i n n a t u r e — w a s a major p r e o c c u p a t i o n o f those " p h i l o s o p h e r s " who attempted t o square the problem o f m o n s t r o s i t y w i t h t h e i r n o t i o n s o f God and g e n e r a t i o n . Though most E n g l i s h i n v e s t i g a t o r s c o n f i n e d themselves t o the t a s k o f d e s c r i b i n g whatever m o n s t r o s i t y they happened a c r o s s , some d i d engage, i n d e S u p e r v i l l e ' s terms, i n the b u s i n e s s o f e x p l a i n i n g the u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f m o n s t r o s i t y . A g r e a t v a r i e t y of e x p l a n a t i o n s were advanced. Bacon, f o r example, spoke o n l y i n the most g e n e r a l terms, s u g g e s t i n g t h a t monsters a r o s e from e r r o r o r chance, from d i g r e s s i o n s i n the o r d i n a r y course o f n a t u r e ' s p r o d u c t i o n . For o t h e r s , the p r i n c i p l e b e h i n d mon- s t r o s i t y was not e r r o r , but s p o r t , and i t was p r i m a r i l y f o r h er own amusement t h a t n a t u r e made monsters. I n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the " e x t r a o r d i n a r y s k e l e t o n " p u b l i s h e d i n 1738, Robert Corke r e p o r t s t h a t ' " i n t he f l e s h y P a r t o f h i s Thighs and B u t t o c k s Nature seems t o have s p o r t e d h e r s e l f , i n sen d i n g out v a r i o u s R a m i f i c a t i o n s of Bones from h i s Coxendix and Thigh-bones, not 69 u n l i k e the Shoots o f w h i t e C o r a l , but i n f i n i t e l y more i r r e g u l a r . " For the most p a r t , E n g l i s h i n v e s t i g a t o r s f a v o r e d a c c i d e n t a l i s t (as opposed t o p r e f o r m a t i o n i s t ) t h e o r i e s o f m o n s t r o s i t y . U n t i l the middle o f the c e n t u r y , i f they s p e c u l a t e d about the e f f i c i e n t causes o f m o n s t r o s i t y a t a l l (which was r a r e l y ) , the m a j o r i t y o f a u t h o r s r e s o r t e d t o me c h a n i c a l f a c t o r s such as f a l l s , blows, 71 o v e r c r o w d i n g i n the womb or ma t e r n a l i m a g i n a t i o n . I n h i s account of "Two Monstrous P i g s " (1699), f o r example, Dr. F l o y e r d e s i g n e d t o prove t h a t "the D i s t o r t i o n o f the p a r t s o f a F o e t u s , may o c c a s i o n i t t o r e p r e s e n t the F i g u r e of d i f f e r e n t A n i m a l s , w i t h o u t any r e a l C o i t i o n b e t w i x t the two S p e c i e s . " 7 ^ R e f u t i n g the t h e o r y o f h y b r i d i z a t i o n , F l o y e r was " c o n v i n c e d " t h a t a mon- s t r o u s p i g which he encountered "was not from the C o n j u n c t i o n o f both K i n d s ; but o n l y o c c a s i o n e d by the p e r v e r t i o n o f the com- p r e s s i o n o f the Womb," a phenomenon which he c o n s i d e r e d " v e r y f r e q u e n t " i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f monsters. L i k e F l o y e r , most e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n v e s t i g a t o r s r e j e c t e d the t h e o r y o f h y b r i d i z a t i o n , c o n s i d e r i n g i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r humans t o produce o f f s p r i n g o f a non-human s p e c i e s . However, the f a c t t h a t monstrous animals o f t e n resembled humans, and v i c e v e r s a , c o n t i n u e d t o be a g r e a t mystery. I n p o p u l a r thought, h y b r i d i z a - t i o n — a l o n g w i t h m a t e r n a l i m a g i n a t i o n — p r o v i d e d s a t i s f a c t o r y ex- p l a n a t i o n s f o r such resemblances; b o t h e x p l a n a t i o n s r e s t e d on the evidence o f v i s u a l analogy. The p e r s i s t e n c e of these b e l i e f s i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d i n the p a r t i c u l a r l y b i z a r r e case of Mary T o f t , who, i n 1726, g a t h e r e d g r e a t n o t o r i e t y from her c l a i m s t h a t she had g i v e n b i r t h t o over f i f t e e n r a b b i t - l i k e o f f s p r i n g . Dubbed "the r a b b i t b r e e d e r , " t h i s woman, by i n t r o d u c i n g p a r t s o f r a b b i t s i n t o her v a g i n a and f e i g n i n g " d e l i v e r y , " had c o n v i n c e d a l o c a l surgeon t h a t she was a c t u a l l y g i v i n g b i r t h t o ra b b i t s . 7 ' ' " The rea s o n f o r t h i s u n n a t u r a l o c c u r r e n c e was, Mrs. T o f t c l a i m e d , t h a t she had on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s seen r a b b i t s r u n n i n g i n the f i e l d and had " l o n g e d " t o make a meal of them. When a d d i t i o n a l m e d i c a l men were c a l l e d i n t o examine the c a s e , the f r a u d was found o u t , 72 n o t , however, w i t h o u t g e n e r a t i n g a g r e a t d e a l o f excitement i n the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n around Godlyman. In her " c o n f e s s i o n , " Mary T o f t a d m i t t e d t h a t she had c o n c o c t e d the scheme i n an attempt t o make money from c u r i o s i t y s e e k e r s , a p p a r e n t l y a s s u r e d t h a t t h e r e would be p l e n t y o f i n t e r e s t e d v i e w e r s . Whatever e l s e t h i s e p i - sode i l l u s t r a t e s , i t c e r t a i n l y suggests t h a t the p r o c e s s e s of g e n e r a t i o n were s t i l l f a r from c l e a r i n p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . G i v e n t h i s l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t "common sense" e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r m o n s t r o s i t y were t o p e r s i s t throughout the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Though some l e a r n e d o b s e r v e r s c o n s i d e r e d the b e l i e f c o n t r a r y t o r e a s o n , the most commonly c i t e d cause of m o n s t r o s i t y i n the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y — b o t h i n p o p u l a r and l e a r n e d a c c o u n t s — was m a t e r n a l i m a g i n a t i o n . There were two main v a r i a t i o n s i n t h i s a c c i d e n t a l i s t t h e o r y . Some b e l i e v e d t h a t a mental i m p r e s s i o n of the mother a t the time o f c o n c e p t i o n o r d u r i n g pregnancy i n f l u e n c e d the f o r m a t i o n of the c h i l d by p r o d u c i n g a k i n d o f d i r e c t "photo- g r a p h i c " e f f e c t on the o f f s p r i n g . Others suggested t h a t m a t e r n a l f r i g h t , w o r r i e s , s t r e s s o r shock c o u l d produce m a l f o r m a t i o n s i n the c h i l d i n a more n o n - s p e c i f i c way, so t h a t the e x c i t i n g f a c t o r bore no d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the n a t u r e o f the d e f e c t . U n t i l the l a t e r e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i t was the f i r s t o f these views which predominated, and though they d i d not attempt t o e x p l a i n the e x a c t mechanics of the p r o c e s s , many i n v e s t i g a t o r s noted t h a t f o e t u s e s a c q u i r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which corresponded d i r e c t l y t o a p a r t i c u l a r s i g h t o r event which had impressed the mother. F W r i t i n g i n 1739, f o r example, W i l l i a m Gregory e x p l a i n e d the b i r t h o f a c h i l d r e s e m b l i n g a hooded monkey as the r e s u l t of 73 the mother's encounter w i t h some t r a v e l l i n g e n t e r t a i n e r s : Soon a f t e r C o n c e p t i o n , some F e l l o w s who t r a v e l t he Cou n t r y , w i t h a Bear and a Monkey, p l a c e d themselves b e f o r e the Woman's Door, i n o r d e r t o make D i v e r s i o n f o r t he Populace. The Monkey had a Hood on, which reached t o h i s S h o u l d e r s , o f which the Woman took p r o d i g i o u s n o t i c e ; and a l l the time the Monkey was p l a y i n g h i s T r i c k s , i n t u r n i n g over a S t i c k , e t c . the Woman c o u l d not keep h er Eyes o f f from him. Some s m a l l time a f t e r , the Woman met a Man o f a t h i n , p a l e , d i s m a l A s p e c t , upon whom she l o o k e d v e r y e a r n e s t l y , and thought h i s Face t o be. . . l i k e the Monkey's Face. When the Woman was q u i c k w i t h C h i l d , and the Foetus began t o move, the Woman f e l t i t t u r n over and over . . . j u s t as the Monkey t u r n e d over the S t i c k . . . I need not here mention the e x a c t Re- -j^ semblance of [ t h i s ] Foetus t o a hooded Monkey . . . S i m i l a r l y , D a n i e l d e S u p e r v i l l e defended the t h e o r y o f ma t e r n a l im- a g i n a t i o n on the grounds t h a t i t was supported by "Hundreds of i n s t a n c e s " d e r i v i n g from o b s e r v a t i o n . As he e x p l a i n s : . . . some twenty Years ago, a C l o t h - s h e a r e r i n H o l l a n d had the M i s f o r t u n e t o f a l l i n t o the Hands of some drunken young F e l l o w s , who murdered him, and stabbed him w i t h more th a n twenty Wounds w i t h t h e i r Swords. He was t o be m a r r i e d t h a t v e r y Week: H i s Sweetheart saw h i s Corpse naked w i t h a l l t h o s e Wounds, and was two Days a f t e r d e l i v e r e d o f a dead C h i l d , which had the Marks of the Wounds i n the same P l a c e s o f i t s Body, where the Mother had observed them on her dead Lover.73 A n t i c i p a t i n g s k e p t i c i s m , d e S u p e r v i l l e c o n t i n u e s : I v e r y w e l l know, t h a t t h e s e s o r t s o f I n s t a n c e s , o f which one might a l l e d g e some Hundreds, w i l l not go down w i t h c e r t a i n P e o p l e , who deny the E f f e c t s o f the Mother's I m a g i n a t i o n on the Fo e t u s . . . [However] d a i l y O b s e r v a t i o n s demonstrate t o us, t h a t the d i s - o r d e r e d and d i s t u r b e d I m a g i n a t i o n o f Women o f t e n h u r t s the I n f a n t s . Among the o t h e r a c c i d e n t a l causes o f m o n s t r o s i t y , e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n v e s t i g a t o r s a l s o c i t e d a wide v a r i e t y of me c h a n i c a l p r e s s u r e s o r i n t e r f e r e n c e s . I n e x p l a i n i n g a case o f double mon- s t r o s i t y , f o r example, James Parsons o f f e r e d the f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n : 74 From hence i t w i l l be easy t o account f o r the p r e t e r - n a t u r a l Adhesion of the s e two C h i l d r e n . . . and from hence a l s o we s h a l l be a b l e t o account f o r every o t h e r M o n s t r o s i t y t h a t can a t t e n d Animals and V e g e t a b l e s . We have observed b e f o r e , t h a t each Seed and Ovum con- t a i n s the Animal and V e g e t a b l e p r o p e r t o i t s s p e c i e s . Now, when two o r more o f these a n i m a l Ova are f e c u n - d a t e d , and come i n t o the U t e r u s , the S i d e s of the Ova . . . must i n e v i t a b l y come i n t o C o n t a c t ; and i f t h e Membranes o f each c o n t i n u e i n a good S t a t e , the Foet u s ' s w i l l be f r e e i n t h e i r s e v e r a l Apartments, and grow p r o p o r t i o n a b l y ; but i f the P a r t s of the Mem- brane s , which a re c l o s e t o g e t h e r , by b e i n g t h i n o r weak, or by any i r r e g u l a r R e s i s t a n c e , o r F r i c t i o n , come t o be d i s s o l v e d o r broken, then the F l u i d s o f both u n i t e , and the two l i t t l e O r g a n i z a t i o n s , h a v i n g no l o n g e r a P a r t i t i o n between them, come t o g e t h e r , adhere, and i n t w i n e i n t o each o t h e r . . . and a t l e n g t h the Whole becomes i r r e g u l a r and monstrous.74 Whatever the p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r y they advanced t o e x p l a i n mon- s t r o s i t y , however, whether t h e y were e x p l a i n e d as o r i g i n a l de- b i l i t a t i o n s o f the embryo, as p r o d u c t s of m a t e r n a l i m a g i n a t i o n , o v e r c r o w d i n g i n the womb, f a l l s , c o n t u s i o n s , as jok e s o f n a t u r e or chance d i g r e s s i o n s , e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n v e s t i g a t o r s d i d not t h i n k of m o n s t r o s i t y as a phenomenon dependent upon o r l i m i t e d by " o r g a n i c " l a w s . I n f a c t , m o n s t r o s i t y was not s t r i c t l y an o r g a n i c m a t t e r a t a l l , s i n c e such s t r u c t u r a l d e v i a t i o n s were seen t o oc c u r i n b o th l i v i n g t h i n g s and i n c r y s t a l s , and a c c o r d i n g t o the same g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s i n both c a s e s . I n a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e o r i g i n s o f l i v i n g monsters, i t was n e c e s s a r y t o r e s o r t t o f o r c e s o u t s i d e the organism i t s e l f — e i t h e r a c c i d e n t a l i n t e r f e r e n c e s o r p r o v i d e n - t i a l d e s i g n . A c c o r d i n g t o a c c i d e n t a l i s t t h e o r i e s , t o e x p l a i n a g i v e n de- v i a t i o n , one had f i r s t t o un d e r s t a n d the n a t u r e of the a c c i d e n t s which caused the i n j u r y , f o r depending upon the k i n d o f i n t e r - f e r e n c e (an i n the case of m a t e r n a l i m a g i n a t i o n , upon what the mother had s e e n ) , the monster's s t r u c t u r e would be a f f e c t e d d i f - 75 f e r e n t l y . S i n c e an i n d e t e r m i n a t e v a r i e t y o f a c c i d e n t s c o u l d o c c u r , the p o s s i b l e range o f s t r u c t u r a l m a l f o r m a t i o n s was v i r t u a l l y e n d l e s s . T h i s i s not t o say t h a t e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n v e s t i g a t o r s r e g a r d e d any c o m b i n a t i o n o f p a r t s as b e i n g p o s s i b l e . With the g e n e r a l r e j e c t i o n o f the h y b r i d i z a t i o n t h e o r y i n f a v o r of p r e - f o r m a t i o n , most o f the f a n t a s t i c h y b r i d s o f the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y had been r e l e g a t e d t o the r e a l m o f the i m a g i n a r y . I t was c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t monsters c o u l d not d e v i a t e e n t i r e l y from the known p r o c e s s e s o f g e n e r a t i o n . However, u n t i l the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o determine what k i n d s o f s t r u c t u r a l i r r e g u l a r i t i e s might o c c u r , s i n c e e x t e r n a l f o r c e s were seen t o a c t d i r e c t l y upon the p a r t s o f the embryo, which responded i n a me c h a n i c a l as opposed t o an o r g a n i c f a s h i o n t o such i n t e r f e r e n c e s . S i m i l a r l y , f o r those who s u b s c r i b e d t o o r i g i n a l i s t t h e o r i e s , m o n s t r o s i t y was not a p r e d i c t a b l e b i o l o g i c a l d e v i a t i o n , but r a t h e r an a c t o f p r o v i d e n c e , the meaning o f which was u n a v a i l a b l e t o man. Such t h e o r i e s p r e c l u d e d the p o s s i b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a s c i e n t i - f i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f monsters. I n v e s t i g a t o r s o f the time d i d r e c o g n i z e c e r t a i n broad c a t e g o r i e s o f m o n s t r o s i t y , d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between double monsters, hermaphrodites and monsters w i t h g e n e r a l l y odd c o n f o r m a t i o n s , but w i t h i n these l a r g e r c l a s s e s , g r e a t v a r i e t y was p o s s i b l e . I n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , each monster was a unique and u n i q u e l y i r r e g u l a r p r o d u c t i o n , a r i s i n g from chance, a c c i d e n t or p r o v i d e n c e . L i k e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n c e i n g e n e r a l , i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o m o n s t r o s i t y from 1650 t o 1750 appear e x t r e m e l y " d i v e r s e " and "com- p l e x , " and p a r t i c u l a r l y opaque t o modern u n d e r s t a n d i n g . ^ There are many reasons why t h i s might be so, but I t h i n k K a r l F i g l i o ' s 76 a r g u m e n t — t h a t e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n c e does not square e a s i l y w i t h the s p e c i a l i z e d and fragmented c h a r a c t e r o f the modern s c i - e n t i f i c m e n t a l i t y — i s most f r u i t f u l . 7 ^ A c c o r d i n g t o F i g l i o , people i n t h i s c e n t u r y have become used t o t h i n k i n g o f s c i e n c e as a h i g h l y p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d endeavour, w i t h a " s p e c i a l i z e d f a c t u a l c o n t e n t , " and c l e a r d e m a r c a t i o n s , not o n l y "between th e s c i e n c e s , " but between " s c i e n c e and o t h e r forms of human a c t i v i t y . " T h i s c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z e d k i n d of t h i n k i n g "encourages us t o w r i t e h i s - t o r i e s of the emergence and development of d i s c r e t e s c i e n c e s " i n which the " d i s c i p l i n e b o u n d a r i e s have been drawn up by an a p p a r e n t - l y n a t u r a l l o g i c . " What has become i n c r e a s i n g l y a p p a r e n t , however, i s t h a t , i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e r e s i m p l y were no d i s c r e t e s c i e n c e s , a t l e a s t not i n the modern sense. I n v e s t i g a t o r s o f the time i n t e r e s t e d themselves i n a wide range of t o p i c s , and i n t h e i r s t u d i e s o f n a t u r e , drew on d i v e r s e k i n d s of knowledge. Con- s e q u e n t l y , the o l d "space" of n a t u r a l h i s t o r y i s , i n F o u c a u l t ' s terms, " d e f i n i t i v e l y b l u r r e d f o r modern e y e s . " 7 7 I n many senses, the study o f monsters d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was, or c e r t a i n l y appears from a modern p e r s p e c t i v e , h i g h l y p a r a d o x i - c a l . I t was n a t u r a l i s t i c , and y e t h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e o l o - g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ; monsters were grave f a c t s of n a t u r e , and a t the same time c u r i o u s and sometimes amusing s p e c t a c l e s o f e n t e r - t a i n m e n t , a t t e s t i n g t o the powers of Nature. Accounts were i n - tended to be e m p i r i c a l , but were o f t e n f u l l o f e x p r e s s i v e and sub- j e c t i v e commentary. F u r t h e r , the s c i e n t i f i c community i t s e l f was not c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , w i t h the l i n e s between p r o f e s s i o n a l and ama- t e u r b e i n g b l u r r e d . What we see i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i n f a c t , i s an i n t e r e s t 77 i n monsters which was d i v i d e d a l o n g p a r a l l e l l i n e s o f p o p u l a r as opposed t o l e a r n e d c u r i o s i t y , w i t h a f a i r amount of i n t e r m i n g l i n g and o v e r l a p p i n g between the two. A d i v e r s e assortment of d o c t o r s , i n t e r e s t e d gentlemen, and churchmen, a l l c l a i m i n g t o be engaged i n a s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y of n a t u r e , o f f e r e d accounts f o r p u b l i c a t i o n t o the R o y a l S o c i e t y ' s T r a n s a c t i o n s . There, monsters appeared i n v a r i o u s k i n d s o f d i s c u s s i o n s , i n p u r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e accounts o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , i n t r e a t m e n t s on g e n e r a t i o n and i n accounts de- s i g n e d p r i m a r i l y t o p l e a s e the c u r i o u s or i n s p i r e the devout. And f i n a l l y , i f the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s t u d y o f monsters appears con- f u s e d , i t i s a l s o p a r t l y because i n v e s t i g a t o r s o f the p e r i o d were themselves u n c e r t a i n o f how t o g r a p p l e w i t h t h i s " s t r a n g e " phen- omenon, and o f t e n f e l t t h e m s e l v e s , i n d e S u p e r v i l l e ' s terms, t o be 78 " g r o p i n g i n d a r k n e s s " f o r answers. Such d i v e r s i t y n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o o f f e r some g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s about the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of m o n s t r o s i t y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . F i r s t l y , i n E n g l a n d , the s t u d y of m o n s t r o s i t y was l a r g e l y an e m p i r i c a l p r o j e c t o f c o m p i l a t i o n , c o l l e c t i o n and de- s c r i p t i o n . When c a l l e d upon t o r e s e a r c h cases o f m o n s t r o s i t y , i n v e s t i g a t o r s weighed, measured, d i s s e c t e d , drew, p i c k l e d , r e - corded d a t e s , times and c i r c u m s t a n c e s j p r o v i d i n g d e s c r i p t i v e r a t h e r than t h e o r e t i c a l a c c o u n t s . (Of the more th a n f o r t y a u t h o r s who corresponded w i t h the R o y a l S o c i e t y , o n l y e i g h t o f f e r e d s p e c u l a t i o n s about the causes of m o n s t r o s i t y . ) Most of the t h e o r i z i n g t h a t o c c u r r e d about m o n s t r o s i t y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was c a r r i e d on i n France and Germany, and communicated t o E n g l i s h a u d i e n c e s through the exchange o f l e t t e r s and r e p o r t s . I n f l u e n c e d p r i m a r i l y by Bacon's i n d u c t i v e program of r e s e a r c h i n g monsters as 78 a p a r t o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , E n g l i s h i n v e s t i g a t o r s were s a t i s f i e d t o d e s c r i b e . When they d i d engage i n t h e o r e t i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n s , they r e l i e d m a i n l y upon m e c h a n i s t i c causes, such as f a l l s , blows o r m a t e r n a l i m a g i n a t i o n . S e c o n d l y , c o n c e p t u a l l y monsters were und e r s t o o d as i r r e g u l a r - i t i e s of n a t u r e and t h i s because the predominant p r i n c i p l e s which c o n d i t i o n e d t h i n k i n g about monsters were " s t r u c t u r e " and "appear- ance." In o t h e r words, monsters were monstrous because they were s t r u c t u r a l l y d i s t i n c t ; i t was on t h i s b a s i s t h a t they were seg- r e g a t e d i n a s e p a r a t e c l a s s o f i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , which belonged on the f r i n g e of the n a t u r a l o r d e r . Thus, monsters i n t h e e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y were not g e n e r a l l y seen as p a r t o f the planned o r d e r , but as chance d i g r e s s i o n s , f a i l e d s p e c i e s i n fundamental o p p o s i t i o n t o an o r d e r which was f i x e d , r e g u l a r and c o n t i n u o u s . T h i r d l y , from t h i s i t i s apparent t h a t when we t h i n k o f the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y study o f monsters, we can t h i n k o f i t as i n some senses s c i e n t i f i c , because e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n v e s t i g a t o r s c o n s i d e r e d i t t o be so. We cannot, however, t h i n k o f i t as t e r a - t o l o g y o r p r o t o - t e r a t o l o g y . Not o n l y was the word t e r a t o l o g y not used by e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s , but the c o n c e p t i o n o f m a l f o r m a t i o n as b i o l o g i c a l a b n o r m a l i t y d i d not e x i s t . Such a con- c e p t i o n was i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y assumptions about l i v i n g t h i n g s , and i n c o m p a t i b l e too w i t h the p r e v a i l i n g view o f n a t u r e as a heterogenous f o r c e . F i n a l l y , i n a t t e m p t i n g t o c h a r a c t e r i z e the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y study o f monsters, I have r e l i e d on c e r t a i n c e n t r a l i d e a s : n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , s t r u c t u r e , appearance, i r r e g u l a r i t y o f n a t u r e , f i x e d s p e c i e s , d i v i n e c r e a t i o n , d i s c o n t i n u i t y , q u a l i t a t i v e d i f - 79 f e r e n t i a t i o n and e m p i r i c i s m . These, I t h i n k , c o n s t i t u t e d the p r i n c i p a l s e t o f i d e a s , p e r c e p t i o n s and methods around which the study of m o n s t r o s i t y was o r g a n i z e d u n t i l around 1750. When c o n s i d e r e d i n l i g h t o f th e s e o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s , t h e v a r i o u s modes o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g , t h e o r i z i n g and t a l k i n g about monsters app e a r s , i f •. .-no l e s s complex and d i v e r s e , a t l e a s t more com- p r e h e n s i b l e . 80 NOTES TO CHAPTER ONE P a r t One ^"Pare, On Monsters, p. 3 2 quoted i n Warkany, C o n g e n i t a l M a l f o r m a t i o n s , p. 8. See a l s o B a l l a n t y n e , " T e r a t o l o g i c a l Records o f Chaldea," pp. 127-42., 3 C i c e r o , De Natura Deorum, t r a n s . H. Rackham (Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1951) , p. 129. 4 I s i d o r e o f S e v i l l e , "The M e d i c a l W r i t i n g s , " t r a n s . W i l l i a m Sharpe, T r a n s a c t i o n s o f the American P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y , n.s. 54, P a r t 2 (1964), p. 51. : ^ A r i s t o t l e , G e n e r a t i o n o f A n i m a l s , t r a n s . A. Peck (London: Heinemar, 1953), p. 425. 6 I b i d . , p. 403. 7 P l i n y , The N a t u r a l H i s t o r y o f P l i n y , ed. John Bostock and H. R e l y (London: Henry Bohn, 1855) I I , pT 135. D e s c r i b i n g v a r i o u s monstrous r a c e s supposed t o e x i s t i n f o r e i g n l a n d s , P l i n y says: N a t u r e , i n her i n g e n u i t y , has c r e a t e d a l l these marvels i n the human race, w i t h o t h e r s o f a s i m i l a r n a t u r e , as so many amusements t o h e r s e l f , though they appear m i r - a c u l o u s t o us... ...As a s t r i k i n g e v i d e n c e o f h e r power, l e t i t be s u f f i c i e n t f o r me t o have c i t e d whole n a t i o n s i n the l i s t o f her p r o d i g i e s . g S t . A u g u s t i n e , C o n c e r n i n g the C i t y o f God a g a i n s t the Pagans, t r a n s . H. B e t t e n s o n (London: Cox and Wyman, 1972), p. 661. 9 Park and Daston, " U n n a t u r a l C o n c e p t i o n s , " p. 26. " ^ C o r n e l i u s P e t , "An example of Gods judgement," E n g l i s h Book S e r i e s , R e e l 379, 1580. "^"Strange news of a p r o d i g i o u s monster, E n g l i s h Book S e r i e s , R e e l 584, 1613. 12 A. G r i f f i t h , "A t r u e and c e r t a i n e r e l a t i o n , " E n g l i s h Book S e r i e s , R e e l 1164, 1635. 13 "Of a Monstrous B i r t h , " The Gentleman's Magazine, p. 535. 14 Park and Daston, " U n n a t u r a l C o n c e p t i o n s , " p. 36. ^Adam, " C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o T e r a t o l o g y , " p. 243. 1 6 F i s h e r , " D i p l o t e r a t o l o g y , " (1865), p. 241. 81 ^ P a r e , On Monsters, pp. 3-4. ^ I b i d . , p. 5. P a r t Two 19 John F l o y e r , "A R e l a t i o n of two Monstrous P i g s , " PTRS 21 (1699) , p. 434. 20 I b i d . , p. 433. 21 The R o y a l S o c i e t y p u b l i s h e d the accounts o f o v e r f o r t y a u t h o r s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . 22 F r a n c i s Bacon, Novum Organum i n The P h y s i c a l and M e t a p h y s i c a l Works o f L o r d Bacon, ed. J . Devey (London: G. B e l l and Sons, 1898), p. 496. 23 F r a n c i s Bacon, The Advancement o f L e a r n i n g i n The Advance- ment of L e a r n i n g and New A t l a n t i s , ed. A r t h u r Johns t on (Oxford: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974), p. 55. ^ ^ I b i d . , p. 69. 25 Bacon, Novum Organum, p. 496. 2 6 T K . , I b i d . 27 Bacon, The Advancement of L e a r n i n g , p. 70. Here Bacon f u r t h e r comments t h a t "these n a r r a t i o n s , which have m i x t u r e w i t h s u p e r s t i t i o n , " s h o u l d be " s o r t e d by t h e m s e l v e s , and not . . . m i n g l e d w i t h the n a r r a t i o n s which are merely and s i n c e r e l y n a t u r a l . " 2 8 Bacon, The Advancement of L e a r n i n g , pp. 68-9. 29 quoted i n G.R. deBeer, S i r Hans Sloane (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1953), p. 84. 30 David Thomas, "An O b s e r v a t i o n t o u c h i n g some p a r t i c u l a r s f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a b l e i n the Monster mentioned i n the f i r s t Papers of t h e s e P h i l o s o p h i c a l T r a n s a c t i o n s , " PTRS 2 (1665), pp. 20-1. 31 G r a n d i , "Concerning some A n a t o m i c a l O b s e r v a t i o n s , " p. 1188. 32 A l l a n M u l l e n , "A d i s c o u r s e on the D i s s e c t i o n o f a Monstrous Double C a t t , " PTRS 15 (1685), p. 1135. 33 George Ash, "Concerning a G i r l i n I r e l a n d , who has s e v e r a l Horns growing on her Body," PTRS 13 (1685), p. 1202. 82 Dr. C y p r i a n u s , "An Account o f a C h i l d born w i t h a l a r g e Wound i n the B r e a s t , " PTRS 19 (1696), p. 291. 35 Timothy S h e l d r a k e , " C o n c e r n i n g a Monstrous C h i l d born o f a Woman under Sentence of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , " PTRS 41 (1739), p. 341. 3 6 W i l l i a m Derham, "An Account o f Some I n u n d a t i o n s , Monstrous B i r t h s , Appearances i n the Heavens, and o t h e r O b s e r v a b l e s , " PTRS 26 (1709), pp. 308-10. 3 7 I b i d . , p. 310. 3 8 M. B u s s i e r e , "An A n a t o m i c a l Account o f a C h i l d ' s Head, Born Without a B r a i n , " PTRS 21 (1698), p. 144. 39 quoted i n A l t i c k , The Shows o f London, p. 25. I b i d . , p. 14. 41 d e T o r r e s , "An E x t r a o r d i n a r y Case," p. 776. 42 Bacon, Novum Organum, p. 496. 43 quoted i n P h i l i p R i t t e r b u s h , O v e r t u r e s t o B i o l o g y (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964), p. 61. 44 I b i d . , p. 61. 45 W i l l i a m D u r s t o n , "A N a r r a t i v e o f a Monstrous B i r t h i n Plymouth," PTRS 5 (1670), p. 2098. 46 Corke, "An E x t r a o r d i n a r y S k e l e t o n , " pp. 810-12. 47 Edmund Almond, "Some Account o f the G i g a n t i c Boy a t W i l l i n g - ham," PTRS 43 (1745), p. 250. 4 8 Thomas Dawkes, "A L e t t e r Concerning the same C h i l d , " PTRS 43 (1745), p. 251. 49 M. G a i l l a r d , " P a r t i c u l a r O b s e r v a t i o n s upon d i f f e r e n t M a l a d i e s , " PTRS 19 (1697), p. 717. " ^ C o l i n M a c L a u r i n , "An Account o f a monstrous double B i r t h i n L o r r a i n e , " PTRS 32 (1723), p. 34. "^Gregory, "An Account o f a Monstrous F e o t u s , " p. 764. 52 B u s s i e r e , " A n A n a t o m i c a l Account," p. 141. 5 3 " O b s e r v a b l e s Upon a Monstrous Head," PTRS 1 (1665), p. 85. James P a r s o n s , M e c h a n i c a l and C r i t i c a l I n q u i r y i n t o the Nature o f Hermaphrodites (London: J . Walthoe, 1741). p. i v . 83 5 5 D u r s t o n , "A N a r r a t i v e , " pp. 2096-7. "^Roger, "The L i v i n g W o r ld," p. 264. T h i s r e l i a n c e upon de- s c r i p t i o n meant t h a t i n v e s t i g a t o r s r e q u i r e d no s p e c i a l i z e d s c i e n - t i f i c knowledge t o engage i n a c c e p t a b l e w r i t i n g , f o r w i t h a minimum o f . a n a t o m i c a l knowledge, i t was p o s s i b l e t o p r o v i d e a v a l i d em- p i r i c a l account of a monstrous b i r t h . I t was p a r t l y f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t the study of monsters was so w i d e l y a c c e s s i b l e t o amateurs and n a t u r a l t h e o l o g i a n s , who would e v e n t u a l l y be b a r r e d from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n e x p e r t s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o u r s e . ~^For an i n t e r e s t i n g contemporary c r i t i q u e o f the p r e v a i l i n g c l a s s i f i c a t o r y scheme i n the l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , see John Locke, Essay C o n c e r n i n g Human U n d e r s t a n d i n g , ed. A. F r a s e r (Oxford: C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1894)7 PP» 240-2. Locke was h i g h l y c r i t i c a l o f the " o r d i n a r y way o f r e a s o n i n g " i n the m atter of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , a r g u i n g t h a t t a x o n o m i s t s s h o u l d not l a y the "whole s t r e s s on the f i g u r e , and r e s o l v e the whole essence of the s p e c i e s o f man . . . i n t o the outward shape." The e x i s t e n c e o f monsters, a c c o r d i n g t o Locke, demonstrated the weakness o f t h i s r e l i a n c e upon s t r u c - t u r e i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g one s p e c i e s from a n o t h e r . I n k e e p i n g w i t h such a scheme, Locke p o i n t e d o u t , monsters i n e v i t a b l y must be c l a s s e d as something n e i t h e r man nor b e a s t , but p a r t a k i n g somewhat of e i t h e r , a p r o p o s i t i o n which he saw as a b s u r d . For L o cke, monsters p r o v i d e d p r o o f t h a t s p e c i e s and essences were n o t h i n g but man's a b s t r a c t i d e a s w i t h names annexed t o them, and not n e c e s s a r i l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the r e a l i t y o f t h i n g s . 5 8 Bacon, Advancement of L e a r n i n g , p. 36. 59 quoted i n A l t i c k , The Shows of London, p. 229. 6 0 The q u e s t i o n o f whether monsters had human s o u l s ( i . e . whether they were , e s s e n t i a l l y human) was p r o b l e m a t i c t o e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n v e s t i g a t o r s . T h e i r concern over t h i s i s s u e i s i n s t r u c - t i v e . I t was, I t h i n k , o n l y because of the p r i o r i t y a t t a c h e d t o s t r u c t u r e and v i s i b l e appearance i n the study o f l i v i n g t h i n g s t h a t such a q u e s t i o n c o u l d be r a i s e d . C e r t a i n l y i t was not an i s s u e which was d i s c u s s e d by n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s , f o r they r e c o g n i z e d t h a t g r e a t s t r u c t u r a l v a r i e t y o c c u r r e d w i t h i n s p e c i e s w i t h o u t a l t e r i n g the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r o f the a n i m a l . For e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n v e s t i g a t o r s , s t r u c t u r e was a key c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g one s p e c i e s from a n o t h e r , so t h a t i f a monster e x h i b i t e d "non-human" s t r u c t u r e s , or those t h a t were analagous t o some non-human f o r m a t i o n s , i t a u t o m a t i c a l l y provoked the q u e s t i o n of whether the monster was e s s e n t i a l l y human or n o t . T h i s became p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t i n cases of anencephaly, where the c h i l d had no b r a i n . For n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s , such s p e c u l a t i o n s were o u t s i d e the scope of s c i e n c e . Monsters by t h e n were specimens of human p a t h o l o g y . I f they were g r o s s l y deformed, they were c h a r a c t e r i z e d as n o n - v i a b l e , but not as non-human. ^ T h e p r e f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y was f i r s t advanced i n the 1670's by Malebranche, M a l p i g h i and J a n Swammerdam. A c c o r d i n g t o S h i r l e y Roe, i t arose i n d i r e c t response t o the m e c h a n i s t i c embryology of 84 the C a r t e s i a n s . For p r e f o r m a t i o n i s t s , a m e c h a n i c a l p r o c e s s based on m a t t e r and motion a l o n e was inadequate i n e x p l a i n i n g the cora- plexitiesro£ embryology. Such c o m p l e x i t y seemed t o i n d i c a t e the i n t e l l i g e n c e o f a d i v i n e c r e a t o r . A f t e r the 1670's, p r e f o r m a t i o n won wide acceptance and s e r v e d as the main t h e o r y o f g e n e r a t i o n u n t i l the l a t e r e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , when the t h e o r y o f e p i g e n e s i s g a i n e d more g e n e r a l credence. 6 2 d e S u p e r v i l l e , "Some R e f l e c t i o n s on G e n e r a t i o n , " p. 296. 6 3 I b i d . 64 Between 1706 and 1743, t h e r e was a heated d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s q u e s t i o n i n the Academie des S c i e n c e s , c a r r i e d on by Lemery ( a c c i - d e n t a l i s t ) and Winslow ( o r i g i n a l i s t ) . I n 1739, A l b r e c h t von H a l l e r p u b l i s h e d a t r e a t i s e on monstrous b i r t h s o p p o s i n g the a c c i d e n t a l i s t v i e w . U n t i l the l a t t e r p a r t o f 'the c e n t u r y , most E n g l i s h i n v e s t i g a t o r s d i d not e n t e r t h i s debate on e i t h e r s i d e , but c o n f i n e d t h e i r r e s e a r c h e s t o p u r e l y e m p i r i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s . Of t h o s e who d i d s p e c u l a t e about the cause o f m o n s t r o s i t y i n E n g l a n d , the a c c i d e n t a l i s t v i e w p r e v a i l e d . O r i g i n a l i s t t h e o r i e s became more w i d e l y a c c e p t e d a f t e r the 1750's. 6 5 d e S u p e r v i l l e , "Some R e f l e c t i o n s on G e n e r a t i o n , " p. 305. ^ ^ I b i d . , pp. 305-6. 6 7 I b i d . , p. 302. 6 8 P a r s o n s , A M e c h a n i c a l and C r i t i c a l I n q u i r y , pp. 75-6. A c c o r d i n g t o P a r s o n s , "we must not a s s e n t t o the S a i n t [ A u g u s t i n e ] i n i m a g i n i n g God t o be the immediate Author o f any Form i n t h o s e poor C h i l d r e n (commonly c a l l ' d monstrous) t h a t might be p a i n f u l o r d i s a d v a n t a g e o u s t o t h e i r w e l l - b e i n g and P r e s e r v a t i o n . . . Tho' the f i r s t semina of any s p e c i e s o f Animals are p l a n t e d by the O r d i n a t i o n o f the A l m i g h t y , i n an a b s o l u t e Manner i n the B e g i n n i n g , from which they cannot d i g r e s s i n t h e i r s u c c e s s i v e G e n e r a t i o n s ; y e t a Woman . . . may b r i n g f o r t h a C h i l d deformed i n e v e r y member; which can r e a s o n a b l y be accounted no o t h e r t h a n one a c c i d e n t a l l y i n j u r e d i n the U t e r u s . " F u r t h e r , he b e l i e v e s , "Every s p e c i e s o f Animals a r e the same now t h a t they ever were, and we must . . . expect no o t h e r w h i l e time s u b s i s t s . " 6 9 Corke, "An E x t r a o r d i n a r y S k e l e t o n , " p. 812. ^ F l o y e r , "A R e l a t i o n o f two Monstrous P i g s , " pp. 431-2. ''"'"For a f u l l account o f Mary T o f t , see S. Seligman, "Mary T o f t — T h e R a b b i t Breeder," M e d i c a l H i s t o r y 5 (1961), pp. 349-60. That h y b r i d i z a t i o n p e r s i s t e d i n p o p u l a r thought i n t o the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s e v i d e n c e d i n Timothy S h e l d r a k e ' s r e p o r t o f a monstrous c h i l d born o f a woman under sentence o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . S h e l d r a k e suggests t h a t some o b s e r v e r s r e g a r d e d the monster t o have a r i s e n from h y b r i d i z a t i o n , o r from some " P r a c t i c e s b oth u n n a t u r a l and u n l a w f u l " t h a t the mother was accused o f h a v i n g engaged i n . 85 72 Gregory, "An Account o f a Monstrous F o e t u s , " pp.764-5. 73 d e S u p e r v i l l e , "Some R e f l e c t i o n s on G e n e r a t i o n , " pp.306-7. 74 James P a r s o n , "An Account of a p r e t e r n a t u r a l C o n j u n c t i o n of two Female C h i l d r e n , " PTRS 25 (1748), pp. 535-6. 7"*In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Ferment o f Knowledge, R. P o r t e r c h a r a c t e r i z e s e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n c e as " d i v e r s e " and "complex," n o t i n g t h a t " a l l attempts t o t o t a l i z e i t have been wrecked upon the r e e f s o f d i v e r s i t y and c o m p l e x i t y . " (p. 4 ) . 7 6 F i g l i o , "The Metaphor o f O r g a n i z a t i o n , " pp.17-18. 7 7 F o u c a u l t , The Order o f T h i n g s , p. 162. 7 8 d e S u p e r v i l l e , "Some R e f l e c t i o n s on G e n e r a t i o n , " p. 295. 86 CHAPTER TWO MONSTROSITY AND THE CONCEPT OF FUNCTION, 1750 - 1800 Monsters . . . seem p e c u l i a r l y l i k e l y t o a s s i s t us i n the p r o s e c u t i o n o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h e s . . . . I f we were never t o see an a n i m a l except i n i t s p e r f e c t s t a t e , we c o u l d form no j u s t i d e a o f the comparative n e c e s s i t y of d i f f e r e n t p a r t s . — John C l a r k e , 1793 1 From around the middle o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , v a r i o u s s c i e n t i s t s began t o f o r m u l a t e the problem of m o n s t r o s i t y i n a new way, and w i t h a new s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s i n mind. When e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n v e s t i g a t o r s had s p e c u l a t e d about monstrous b i r t h s , i t was, as we have seen, p r i m a r i l y i n the c o n t e x t of t h e i r r e s e a r c h e s i n t o n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , and a c c o r d i n g t o a view of n a t u r e as an immutable o r d e r o f s p e c i e s , each endowed by God w i t h the p r e c i s e organs and p a r t s n e c e s s a r y f o r e x i s t e n c e . D u r i n g the second h a l f of the c e n t u r y , however, w h i l e i t r e t a i n e d c e r - t a i n t i e s w i t h n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , the study o f m o n s t r o s i t y was i n c r e a s i n g l y absorbed i n t o the s c i e n c e s o f p h y s i o l o g y and p a t h - o l o g y , and o r d e r e d by a r e v i s e d s e t of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s about v i t a l f u n c t i o n and the c o n d i t i o n s o f animal l i f e . By the 1770's, r e s e a r c h i n t o monstrous phenomena was r e - o r i e n t e d around one c e n t r a l and e s s e n t i a l l y n o v e l i d e a . T h i s was t h a t monsters c o n s t i t u t e d not b l i n d e c c e n t r i c i t i e s of n a t u r e , but cases o f p a t h o l o g y , w h i c h , when compared w i t h h e a l t h y be- i n g s , c o u l d s e r v e t o e l u c i d a t e the laws of p h y s i o l o g y and u l t i - m a t e l y , the v e r y n a t u r e o f l i f e . For l a t e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s , i n f a c t , monsters, a l o n g w i t h o t h e r d i s e a s e d spec- imens, came t o occupy a c e n t r a l p l a c e i n the s c i e n t i f i c examina- 87 t i o n o f l i f e . F o r , as John Hunter remarked, " j u s t as the:.'weight' i n a c l o c k might e x p l a i n the use o f the ' s p r i n g ' i n a watch," so monstrous s t r u c t u r e s may e x p l a i n "something i n the p h y s i o l o g y of the more p e r f e c t a n i m a l s , " t h e r e b y t h r o w i n g l i g h t upon "the 2 p r i n c i p l e o f a n i m a l l i f e . " T h i s p a t t e r n of change i n the s t u d y of m o n s t r o s i t y i s e v i - dent i n the work of many l a t e r e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s , but i t i s perhaps most c l e a r l y m a n i f e s t i n the works o f John Hunter (1728 - 1793), the famous surgeon and comparative anato- m i s t o f London. Though h i s r e s e a r c h e s i n t o m o n s t r o s i t y were of an unprecedented r i g o u r , Hunter's i n t e r e s t s were by no means r e - s t r i c t e d to the s u b j e c t of monsters. On the c o n t r a r y , he under- took an e x c e p t i o n a l l y d i v e r s e range o f s t u d i e s i n anatomy, phys- i o l o g y , and p a t h o l o g y w h i l e a t the same time p u r s u i n g a m u l t i - f a c e t e d c a r e e r i n m e d i c i n e . B e s i d e s m a i n t a i n i n g a s u r g i c a l p r a c t i c e and a s c h o o l o f anatomy, Hunter performed an enormous number of p h y s i o l o g i c a l experiments and wrote p r o l i f i c a l l y o f h i s s c i e n t i f i c f i n d i n g s . D u r i n g h i s l i f e t i m e , he p u b l i s h e d t r e a t i s e s on a wide assortment o f t o p i c s , from the n a t u r a l h i s t o r y o f bees, the organ o f h e a r i n g i n f i s h , the l y m p h a t i c system and animal h e a t , to the e f f e c t s of gun shot wounds, the n a t u r e o f d i g e s t i o n and f o s s i l s . I n a d d i t i o n , he wrote two papers on m o n s t r o s i t y , "An Account o f an E x t r a o r d i n a r y Pheasant" and "An Account o f a Free M a r t i n , " b o t h c o n t a i n e d i n h i s O b s e r v a t i o n s on C e r t a i n P a r t s of the Animal Oeconomy, a c o l l e c t i o n o f papers he c o m p i l e d i n 1786. Many of Hunter's notes were l e f t u n p u b l i s h e d t i l l a f t e r h i s d e a t h , and i t was not u n t i l the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a t two c o m p i l a t i o n s were unde r t a k e n . These, The Works of John Hunter 88 (1837) and Essays and O b s e r v a t i o n s (1861) c o n t a i n e d , a l o n g w i t h an enormous number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s on animal l i f e , h i s b a s i c views c o n c e r n i n g m o n s t r o s i t y . Hunter's s u r g i c a l s k i l l , h i s t e a c h i n g and h i s w r i t i n g brought him g r e a t a c c l a i m i n the E n g l i s h s c i e n t i f i c community. But i t was f o r h i s work i n comparative anatomy t h a t he was most w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d . A c c o r d i n g t o E v e r a r d Home ( h i s b r o t h e r - i n - l a w and b i o g r a p h e r ) , t h e r e was l i t e r a l l y no new an i m a l brought t o England which was not shown t o Hunter. Perhaps the most en- t h u s i a s t i c c o l l e c t o r o f a n i m a l specimens o f h i s age, h i s e n e r g i e s were engaged, from 1765 u n t i l h i s d e a t h , i n the b u i l d i n g up o f a comprehensive a n a t o m i c a l museum, which, f o r Hunter would con- s t i t u t e the " t r u e book of n a t u r e . " I n 1799, when the museum was handed over t o the C o l l e g e o f Surgeons, i t c o n t a i n e d 13,682 specimens, r e p r e s e n t i n g over 500 s p e c i e s of a n i m a l s , a l l a r r a n g e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t he p r i n c i p l e s o f anatomy, p h y s i o l o g y and p a t h o l o g y as they o c c u r r e d i n the l i v i n g w o r l d . By modern s t a n d a r d s , Hunter's s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t s appear ov e r w h e l m i n g l y w i d e - r a n g i n g . For him, however, s u r g e r y , p h y s i o - l o g y , comparative anatomy and p a t h o l o g y were a l l components o f a s i n g l e mode o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n . " A l l h i s l a b o u r s , " a c c o r d i n g t o h i s b i o g r a p h e r , James Palmer, "were d i r e c t e d t o the e l u c i d a t i o n o f the laws o f l i f e ; " b o t h h i s w r i t i n g and h i s c o l l e c t i o n may be^ reg a r d e d as fo r m i n g n e c e s s a r y p a r t s o f t h a t g e n e r a l u n d e r t a k i n g , the " w r i t i n g f o r m i n g the t e x t t o h i s museum;—his museum the 3 a p p r o p r i a t e i l l u s t r a t i o n o f h i s w r i t i n g s . " I t was, t h e n , i n the c o n t e x t o f t h i s l a r g e r attempt t o a s c e r t a i n the p r i n c i p l e s of an i m a l l i f e t h a t Hunter undertook s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e s i n t o 89 m o n s t r o s i t y , a s u b j e c t f o r which he m a i n t a i n e d an a b i d i n g i n t e r e s t ? - Through h i s work, he conveyed many n o v e l views t o a wide audience o f s t u d e n t s and s c i e n t i s t s and, i n many senses, s e t the tone o f E n g l i s h r e s e a r c h i n t o m o n s t r o s i t y u n t i l the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . At f i r s t g l a n c e , Hunter's i n t e r e s t i n monsters appears l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t from the c u r i o s i t y c o l l e c t i n g o f e a r l i e r ama- t e u r s . Indeed, as Stephen Cross p o i n t s o u t , "the s t o r y of Hunter's a n i m a l c o l l e c t i n g . . . i s one of the most p i c t u r e s q u e 4 o f the p e r i o d . " From 1765, when he b u i l t a r e s i d e n c e t o ac- commodate h i s a n a t o m i c a l r e s e a r c h e s , he seems t o have spared no expense or energy t o secure s p e c i m e n s — i n c l u d i n g m o n s t r o s i t i e s — f o r d i s s e c t i o n , e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and d i s p l a y . He p a t r o n i z e d cab- i n e t s a l e s , hounded animal d e a l e r s f o r s k e l e t o n s and m a i n t a i n e d c o n t a c t s a l l over Europe w i t h t r a d e r s , e x - p u p i l s , o r s c i e n t i s t s who s u p p l i e d him w i t h a s t e a d y s e r i e s o f specimens. Many of the monstrous s k e l e t o n s d i s p l a y e d i n h i s museum were tho s e which he had begged, borrowed or bought from v a r i o u s side-show e x h i b i t o r s . So a s s i d u o u s was Hunter i n s u r v e y i n g the f a i r g r o u n d s f o r p o t e n t i a l specimens, i n f a c t , t h a t he a p p a r e n t l y g a i n e d something of a g h o u l i s h r e p u t a t i o n among "th e f r e a k s " who were u n d e r s t a n d a b l y u n s e t t l e d a t the p r o s p e c t o f t h e i r bones ending i n h i s museum."' I n any c a s e , through a l l h i s v a r i o u s c o n t a c t s and a c t i v i t i e s , he managed t o amass an i m p r e s s i v e c o l l e c t i o n o f monstrous specimens. By the 1790's, h i s museum c o n t a i n e d over 300 examples of mon- s t r o s i t y , r e p r e s e n t i n g cases o f m a l f o r m a t i o n i n a wide range of a n i m a l s p e c i e s . I n k e e p i n g w i t h the f o u r c a t e g o r i e s o f mon- s t r o s i t y which Hunter r e c o g n i z e d , t h e s e specimens were arranged 90 i n f o u r s e p a r a t e e x h i b i t s : p r e t e r n a t u r a l s i t u a t i o n o f p a r t s , a d d i t i o n o f p a r t s , d e f i c i e n c y of p a r t s and h e r m a p h r o d i t i c a l m a l f o r m a t i o n . Two c a t e g o r i e s ( a d d i t i o n of p a r t s and d e f i c i e n c y o f p a r t s ) were f u r t h e r broken down i n t o s u b - c l a s s e s on the b a s i s o f w h i c h o r g a n s — t h o s e o f c i r c u l a t i o n , d i g e s t i o n , g e n e r a t i o n o r the nervous s y s t e m — w e r e a f f e c t e d . I f Hunter's monster c o l l e c t i n g resembles the c u r i o s i t y mania of t h e e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , h i s i n t e r e s t i n m o n s t r o s i t y was, i n f a c t , p a r t of a l a r g e r study i n comparative anatomy, a study q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from e a r l i e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . I n the f i r s t p l a c e , Hunter's major c o n c e r n i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g animals was not w i t h s t r u c t u r e and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , but r a t h e r w i t h f u n c - t i o n . D e s c r i b i n g h i s s t y l e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n , John Abernethy, a one-time s t u d e n t and l a t e r exponent o f Hunter's views, r e c a l l e d : When he met an animal he had never d i s s e c t e d , he c a r e d l i t t l e by what name i t was c a l l e d and t o what f a m i l y i t b elonged . . . He wished t o know how i t s f o o d was d i g e s t e d , how i t s b l o o d c i r c u l a t e d , how i t s e c u r e d and defended i t s e l f from i n j u r y . . . how the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o f i t s s p e c i e s was e f f e c t e d and i n s u r e d . . . 6 F u r t h e r , i n a r r a n g i n g h i s museum, Hunter's o b j e c t i v e was not t o r e v e a l the s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s p e c i e s . On the c o n t r a r y , a c c o r d i n g t o Palmer, Hunter's o r i g i n a l d e s i g n i n the f o r m a t i o n o f h i s museum "was t o f u r n i s h an ample i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the phenomena o f l i f e e x h i b i t e d throughout the v a s t c h a i n of o r g a n i z e d b e i n g s , by a d i s p l a y o f the v a r i o u s s t r u c t u r e s i n which the f u n c t i o n s o f l i f e are c a r r i e d - o n . " 7 / - " S t r i c t l y p h y s i o l o g i c a l i n i t s c h a r a c t e r " and "devoted t o the i l l u s t r a t i o n of the s c i e n c e of l i f e , " Palmer c o n t i n u e d , the museum: c o n s i s t s o f d i s s e c t i o n s o f p l a n t s and a n i m a l s , i n which the s t r u c t u r e s s u b s e r v i e n t t o the d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s 91 a r e . . . d i s p l a y e d . These s t r u c t u r e s are t a k e n from every c l a s s of o r g a n i z e d m a t t e r , and are a r r a n g e d i n s e r i e s , a c c o r d i n g t o the f u n c t i o n [ l o c o m o t i o n , d i g e s - t i o n , r e s p i r a t i o n , s enses, r e p r o d u c t i o n ] i n o r d e r o f t h e i r c o m p l e x i t y , b e g i n n i n g w i t h the s i m p l e s t form, and e x h i b i t i n g the s u c c e s s i v e g r a d a t i o n s o f o r g a n i z a - t i o n t o the most complex.^ To the e x t e n t t h a t Hunter saw s t r u c t u r e as s u b s e r v i e n t t o f u n c t i o n , so, i n h i s view, was anatomy t o be the s e r v a n t of p h y s i o l o g y . I n f a c t , the s t u d y of s t r u c t u r e was, f o r him, i n - h e r e n t l y l i n k e d t o the study o f f u n c t i o n ; he b e l i e v e d , as W i l l i a m Coleman p o i n t s o u t , t h a t " w i t h o u t a knowledge of f u n c t i o n or the purpose f o r which a g i v e n organ was d e s i g n e d t h e r e c o u l d 9 be no s a t i s f a c t o r y u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s t r u c t u r e i t s e l f . " I t was i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h i s c l o s e r e l a t i o n between comp a r a t i v e anatomy and p h y s i o l o g y t h a t Hunter broke w i t h the e a r l i e r t r a d i t i o n o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , i n which s t r u c t u r e and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n had been the p r i m a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , j u s t as Hunter r e c o g n i z e d c o m p a r a t i v e anatomy and p h y s i o l o g y as c o r r e l a t i v e p a r t s o f the l a r g e r i n - v e s t i g a t i o n of l i f e , so too d i d he u n i t e the study o f p h y s i o l o g y w i t h h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o p a t h o l o g y , or the " p h y s i o l o g y o f d i s e a s e , " as he l a b e l l e d i t . I n h i s y e a r l y course on the p r i n c i p l e s o f s u r g e r y , he c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y began by i n t r o d u c i n g h i s s t u d e n t s to the " p h y s i o l o g y o f the a n i m a l oeconomy i n i t s n a t u r a l or h e a l t h y s t a t e , " and t h e n proceeded t o p a t h o l o g y , w h i c h , he ex- p l a i n e d , "may be c a l l e d the p e r v e r s i o n o f the n a t u r a l a c t i o n s of the a n i m a l oeconomy." R e j e c t i n g the c u r r e n t o n t o l o g i c a l t h e o r y o f d i s e a s e , Hunter d e f i n e d d i s e a s e not as an i n v a s i v e e n t i t y , v i s i t i n g the s i c k body, but r a t h e r , i n s t r i c t l y p h y s i o l o g i c a l terms, as a d e v i a t i o n from 92 the body's normal f u n c t i o n s . To u n d e r s t a n d d i s e a s e , he b e l i e v e d , p h y s i c i a n s must comprehend normal, h e a l t h y f u n c t i o n s . Thus, be- f o r e he t r e a t e d " o f the d i s e a s e s of the a n i mal body" i n h i s l e c - t u r e s , he r e g a r d e d i t as n e c e s s a r y " t o g i v e such g e n e r a l i d e a s of p h y s i o l o g y , and t o l a y down such axioms and p r o p o s i t i o n s , " as would enable h i s s t u d e n t s t o f o l l o w him "through a l l the n e c e s s a r y de- s c r i p t i o n s of p r e t e r n a t u r a l a c t i o n s of the machine.""'""'" And, t h e r e v e r s e a l s o b e i n g t r u e , he argued t h a t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h e a l t h y f u n c t i o n s was f a c i l i t a t e d by an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the p a t h o l o g i - c a l . I n l o c a t i n g the study of d i s e a s e w i t h i n the s c i e n c e o f v i t a l f u n c t i o n , Hunter c o n s t i t u t e d a new r e l a t i o n between the p h y s i o l o g i c a l and the p a t h o l o g i c a l , d e f i n i n g b o t h as v i t a l phen- omena, s u b j e c t t o the same laws, and b o t h as n e c e s s a r y components of the same i n q u i r y i n t o the n a t u r e of l i f e . M o n sters, a c c o r d i n g t o Hunter, p r o v i d e d a p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u - a b l e r e s o u r c e i n t h i s comparative i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the normal and the p a t h o l o g i c a l . As he e x p l a i n e d : B e s i d e s h a v i n g r e c o u r s e t o many of the i n f e r i o r o r d e r s of a n i m a l s f o r the e l u c i d a t i o n o f some of the phen- omena of the more c o m p l i c a t e d o r d e r s , we a r e a l s o o b l i g e d t o D i s e a s e f o r many of our h i n t s on the a n i m a l oeconomy, or f o r e x p l a i n i n g the a c t i o n s of p a r t s , f o r the wrong a c t i o n o f a p a r t o f t e n p o i n t s out what the n a t u r a l a c t i o n was, and i t s e l f g i v e s an i d e a o f l i f e . D i s e a s e o f t e n c o r r e c t s our i m a g i n a t i o n s and o p i n i o n s , and shows us t h a t such and such p a r t s cannot have the uses commonly a t t r i b u t e d t o them, and t h e r e f o r e b r i n g s us a s t e p towards the knowledge of the t r u e use. M o n s t r o s i t i e s c o n t r i b u t e t o r e c t i f y our o p i n i o n s i n the same i f not a more i n t e l l i g i b l e manner. A monster i s e i t h e r from a d e f i c i e n c y o f p a r t s . . . o r e l s e from a m o d i f i c a t i o n caused by a wrong arrangement or c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p a r t s , which w i l l produce an u n n a t u r a l a c t i o n , by which means the n a t u r a l a c t i o n may be known.12 93 Among Hunter's c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , and i n c r e a s i n g l y from the 1770's, the stu d y of m o n s t r o s i t y was p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f v i t a l f u n c t i o n . To Dr. James J o h n s t o n , f o r example, w r i t i n g t o the Ro y a l S o c i e t y i n 1767, monsters demon- s t r a t e d "more c o n s e q u e n t i a l l y than e x p e r i m e n t s " how p a r t s f u n c t i o n 13 and which f u n c t i o n s are n e c e s s a r y t o l i f e . As such, t h e s e " s i n g u l a r e x i s t e n c e s " a f f o r d e d u s e f u l i n f e r e n c e s i n the s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n of l i f e . S i m i l a r l y , Dr. John C l a r k e , a prominent London m i d w i f e r y p r a c t i t i o n e r , i n h i s " D e s c r i p t i o n o f an E x t r a - o r d i n a r y P r o d u c t i o n o f Human G e n e r a t i o n , " (1793) argued t h a t mon- s t e r s "seem p e c u l i a r l y l i k e l y t o a s s i s t us i n the p r o s e c u t i o n o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h e s , " f o r " i f we were never t o see an a n i m a l except i n i t s p e r f e c t s t a t e , we c o u l d form no j u s t i d e a of the 14 comparative n e c e s s i t y o f d i f f e r e n t p a r t s . " Thus, w h i l e t h e y were once i n v e s t i g a t e d as s t r u c t u r a l c u r i o s i t i e s , i n a s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r y of n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , by the end o f the c e n t u r y , monsters r e p r e s e n t e d s p e c i a l cases o f p a t h o l o g y , c a p a b l e o f i l l u m i n a t i n g the laws o f a n i m a l f u n c t i o n . By the e a r l y decades o f the n i n e - t e e n t h c e n t u r y , W i l l i a m Lawrence c o u l d argue t h a t " the c o n s i d e r a - t i o n of monstrous p r o d u c t i o n s " belonged not t o "th e n a t u r a l h i s - t o r y of our s p e c i e s , " but r a t h e r t o the s c i e n c e s o f " p a t h o l o g y and physiology."''"^ For s c i e n t i s t s such as John Hunter, the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p r o j e c t o f d e s c r i p t i o n and c o m p i l a t i o n , based on a code of knowledge which gave p r i o r i t y t o s t r u c t u r e and appearance, c o u l d no l o n g e r d e l i v e r m e a n i n g f u l i n f o r m a t i o n about monstrous b i r t h s . And t h i s because i t was not w i t h e x t e r n a l appearance 94 but r a t h e r w i t h the r e a l i t y beneath a p p e a r a n c e s — w i t h the h i d d e n f u n c t i o n s o f l i f e — t h a t they were p r i m a r i l y concerned. Indeed, d u r i n g the second h a l f of the c e n t u r y , the c e n t r a l o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , s t r u c t u r e , g r a d u a l l y d i m i n i s h e d i n importance as E n g l i s h s c i e n t i s t s f o c u s s e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n i n s t e a d upon q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o animal f u n c t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o Hunter's way o f t h i n k i n g , what appeared on the s u r f a c e , o r what was v i s i b l e , was un d e r s t o o d as c o n d i t i o n e d by what was i n t e r n a l and i n v i s i b l e , by f u n c t i o n s such as r e s p i r a t i o n and d i g e s t i o n , c o n c e p t u a l ab- s t r a c t i o n s which c o u l d not be seen and c o u l d not be r e p r e s e n t e d d i r e c t l y i n words. The tremendous range o f s t r u c t u r a l v a r i a t i o n i n the n a t u r a l w o r l d was su b s e q u e n t l y c o n s t r u e d as i l l u s o r y , as masking a deeper u n i f o r m i t y , f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t r u c t u r e were c o n s i d e r e d as mere s u r f a c e v a r i a t i o n s o f those v i t a l f u n c t i o n s which were common and n e c e s s a r y t o a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s . T h i s p r i m a r y r e f e r e n c e t o f u n c t i o n as the c o n d i t i o n i n g p r i n c i p l e of animal l i f e put a number o f q u e s t i o n s on the agenda f o r l a t e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s : what a r e the p a r t s which perform the v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s ? , which f u n c t i o n s a r e the most e s s e n t i a l i n s u s t a i n i n g l i f e ? , what i s the v i t a l r e l a t i o n between s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n ? , i n s h o r t , what a re the c o n d i t i o n s o f animal l i f e ? I t was s p e c i f i c a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o p h y s i o l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n s such as these t h a t s c i e n t i s t s from the 1770's undertook s t u d i e s o f m o n s t r o s i t y . C h a r l e s P e a r s , f o r example, i n s u b m i t t i n g an account of "a f u l l grown Woman i n whom the O v a r i a were d e f i c i e n t , " (1805) l a i d t he case b e f o r e the Ro y a l S o c i e t y "as an a d d i t i o n t o those a l r e a d y r e g i s t e r e d i n the P h i l o s o p h i c a l T r a n s a c t i o n s , w i t h the view o f e l u c i d a t i n g such p h y s i o l o g i c a l i n q u i r i e s as are 95 connected w i t h the s t a t e o f the organs of g e n e r a t i o n . " A c c o r d - i n g t o P e a r s , "The h i s t o r y of t h i s c a s e , . . . becomes v a l u a b l e , as i t shows t h a t an i m p e r f e c t s t a t e o f the o v a r i a i s not o n l y a t t e n d e d w i t h an absence of a l l the c h a r a c t e r s b e l o n g i n g t o the female a f t e r p u b e r t y , but t h a t the u t e r u s i t s e l f , a l t h o u g h p e r - f e c t l y formed, i s checked i n i t s growth f o r want of due s t r u c t u r e 17 of those p a r t s . " R e p o r t i n g t o the R o y a l S o c i e t y o f Edinburgh i n 1792, A l e x a n d e r Monro wrote of a monstrous p r o d u c t i o n w a n t i n g b r a i n , h e a r t and l u n g s , a specimen which he found u s e f u l i n sub- s t a n t i a t i n g c e r t a i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o n j e c t u r e s about the c i r c u l a - 18 t i o n of the b l o o d . S i m i l a r l y , i n 1793, John Clarke argued t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r monstrous b i r t h was s u f f i c i e n t t o prove t h a t " t h a t i n t i m a t e c o n n e x i o n of the b r a i n and nervous system, which t a k e s p l a c e a f t e r b i r t h , i s not n e c e s s a r y f o r the f o r m a t i o n o f a body 19 i n o t h e r r e s p e c t s p e r f e c t . " For Anthony C a r l i s l e , a monstrous lamb demonstrated t h a t "the f o r m a t i o n and growth o f a n i m a l s i n the u t e r u s are independent o f any i n f l u e n c e from t h o s e p a r t s o f t h e i r b r a i n which p r o p e r l y b e l o n g to s e n s a t i o n . " (1801) "The c a r e f u l observance of such c i r c u m s t a n c e s may," he s u g g e s t e d , " b r i n g us t o d i s c o v e r i e s o f the h i g h e s t v a l u e , i n t h a t p a r t o f p h y s i o l o g y 20 [ t h e nervous system] which i s now enveloped i n deep m y s t e r y . " W r i t i n g i n 1809 o f a f o e t u s born w i t h o u t a h e a r t , Benjamin B r o d i e argued t h a t the c i r c u l a t i o n of b l o o d p r i o r t o b i r t h can be 21 " c a r r i e d on by the a c t i o n o f the v e s s e l s o n l y . " And, i n an account of an acephalous f o e t u s , p u b l i s h e d i n 1814, W i l l i a m Lawrence argued t h a t the e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e s e p r o d u c t i o n s can l e a d t o i n t e r e s t i n g and u s e f u l r e s u l t s , f o r "by shewing us what happens when an i m p o r t a n t organ i s wanting or malformed, i t c o n t r i b u t e s 96 t o f i x our o p i n i o n r e s p e c t i n g i t s u s e s . " C l e a r l y , as monsters were p e r c e i v e d as o b j e c t s of p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t u d y , they tended t o l o s e t h e i r v a l u e as wondrous beings and f u n c t i o n e d i n s t e a d as r e ady-made—or n a t u r a l — e x p e r i m e n t s , i m p o r t a n t o n l y i n s o f a r as they i l l u m i n a t e d p a r t i c u l a r p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s . The i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f m o n s t r o s i t y i n t o the s t u d y o f p h y s i o l o - gy tended t o d i s c r e d i t former modes of i n v e s t i g a t i n g monstrous o c c u r r e n c e s . I n e a r l i e r a c c o u n t s , a u t h o r s had o f t e n p r o c l a i m e d each case as a g r e a t s t r u c t u r a l c u r i o s i t y , s t r e s s i n g the n o v e l t y of t h e i r r e p o r t as the main c r i t e r i o n of i t s v a l u e . I n c o n t r a s t , l a t e r e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y authors tended t o recommend t h e i r cases as u s e f u l o r i n s t r u c t i v e t o the e x t e n t t h a t they were a p p l i c a b l e t o a p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e i n p h y s i o l o g y . T h i s c o n c e r n i s e v i d e n t , f o r example, i n an account of a monstrous lamb, p u b l i s h e d by the R o y a l S o c i e t y i n 1801, i n which Anthony C a r l i s l e b e g i n s : I am much i n d e b t e d t o you f o r the p r i v i l e g e o f i n - s p e c t i n g the monstrous lamb sent by Dr. P u l t e n e y of B l a n d f o r d , whose l a u d a b l e i n t e r e s t f o r the p r o - motion of s c i e n c e , induced him t o p r e s e n t i t t o you . . . A c c o r d i n g t o your s u g g e s t i o n , I took the o p p o r t u n i t y . . . t o examine the b r a i n and i t s con- n e c t i o n s : they seem t o me v e r y r e m a r k a b l e , and might have a f f o r d e d m a t t e r , t o an acute o b s e r v e r , of h i g h i n t e r e s t i n the s c i e n c e o f p h y s i o l o g y , had t h i s monster been weaned a l i v e . 2 3 Moreover, i n s t e a d o f l i m i t i n g t h e i r e x a m i n a t i o n s t o i s o l a t e d examples of m o n s t r o s i t y , i n v e s t i g a t o r s i n c r e a s i n g l y r e f e r r e d t o o t h e r cases of a s i m i l a r n a t u r e , so t h a t the p r i n c i p l e s o f mon- s t r o s i t y might become e v i d e n t . I n 1767, f o r example, James Joh n s t o n p r o v i d e d the R o y a l S o c i e t y w i t h a h i s t o r y o f a f o e t u s born w i t h a v e r y i m p e r f e c t b r a i n i n which he a n a l y s e d v a r i o u s r e p o r t e d specimens " s i m i l a r t o t h i s " and then drew some g e n e r a l 97 c o n c l u s i o n s about o p e r a t i o n s of the nervous system: These s i n g u l a r e x i s t e n c e s a f f o r d u s e f u l i n f e r e n c e s , and shew t h a t the i r r i t a b i l i t y o f the h e a r t , i s c a p a b l e o f bein g s u s t a i n e d , by v e r y low degrees o f the nervous power, w h i l e t h a t i r r i t a b i l i t y i s kept up by the f o s t e r - i n g heat o f the mother. T h i s f e e b l e l i f e i s soon ex- t i n g u i s h e d , when the i n f l u e n c e o f the mother's warmth and c i r c u l a t i o n cease. Such i n f a n t s d i e as soon as born o r soon a f t e r . . . Such examples . . . demonstrate t h a t the s p i n a l marrow i s the p r i n c i p a l organ o f the i n t e r c o s t a l nerves.24 F i n a l l y , among such s c i e n t i s t s , a major c o n c e r n was t o push s t u d i e s of m o n s t r o s i t y beyond mere d e s c r i p t i o n , i n o r d e r t o r e n - der the t o p i c more s c i e n t i f i c a l l y " u s e f u l . " A c c o r d i n g t o John C l a r k e , f o r example, the "mere d e s c r i p t i o n of any monster i s of v e r y s m a l l u t i l i t y , u n l e s s i t tends t o e x p l a i n some a c t i o n o f the 25 animal economy, b e f o r e i m p e r f e c t l y , o r not a t a l l u n d e r s t o o d . " Thus, w h i l e s c i e n t i f i c j o u r n a l s c o n t i n u e d t o p u b l i s h b r i e f d e s c r i p - t i v e accounts o f p a r t i c u l a r monsters, t h e r e was a widesp r e a d con- sensus t h a t t h i s method was not cond u c i v e t o the promotion o f s c i e n c e . I n f a c t , j u s t as s t r u c t u r a l concerns became secondary t o q u e s t i o n s o f f u n c t i o n i n the study of m o n s t r o s i t y , so t o o d i d a n a t o m i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n e v e n t u a l l y g i v e way t o p h y s i o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n as the a p p r o p r i a t e l y s c i e n t i f i c means o f d i s c u s s i n g monstrous phenomena. I m p l i c i t i n l a t e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y works on m o n s t r o s i t y was a d e f i n i t i o n o f l i f e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t which had dominated e a r l i e r s t u d i e s i n n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . A c c o r d i n g t o the m e c h a n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y o f the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the essence o f each l i v i n g machine was a s p e c i a l type o f c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h o u t which i t would not work. God, i t was b e l i e v e d , had g i v e n e v e r y n a t u r a l b e i n g i t s s t r u c t u r e and the exact q u a n t i t y of motion o r f o r c e 98 n e c e s s a r y f o r i t s w o r k i n g . T h i s meant t h a t between the o r g a n i c and i n o r g a n i c w o r l d s , t h e r e was no r e a l g u l f , but o n l y i n c r e a s - i n g l y complex machines. Among John Hunter's c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , t h i s view was l o s i n g i t s p l a u s i b i l i t y , f o r no c o n c e i v a b l e d e f i n i t i o n of l i f e i n s t r u c t u r a l terms alone c o u l d do j u s t i c e t o the dy- namic and i n t e g r a t e d f e a t u r e s of v i t a l a c t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o Hunter, l i v i n g t h i n g s were not mere machines, p a s s i v e i n the hands of God. On the c o n t r a r y , i f the o r d e r o f c r e a t u r e s was u l t i m a t e l y d e s i g n e d by God and u l t i m a t e l y unchanging, i t was n e v e r t h e l e s s an a c t i v e , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g system, an a n imal "oeconomy" which d i d not r e q u i r e God's d i r e c t i n t e r v e n t i o n f o r i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n and c o n t i n u a t i o n . L i f e was an a c t i v e f o r c e , and l i v i n g c r e a t u r e s were i n h e r e n t l y endowed w i t h s p e c i a l v i t a l p r i n c i p l e s w hich a l l o w e d them t o reproduce t h e m s e l v e s , t o r e a c t t o the environment and t o f u l f i l l the f u n c t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s of e x i s t e n c e . As o b s e r v a t i o n s of m o n s t r o s i t y had c o n f i r m e d , l i f e was not dependent upon a s p e c i f i c c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p a r t s , s i n c e a tremendous v a r i e t y o f s t r u c t u r e was p o s s i b l e t o c a r r y out the n e c e s s a r y v i t a l f u n c t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o John C l a r k e , f o r example, monsters demonstrated t h a t : n a t u r e can d e v i a t e from the u s u a l arrangment of p a r t s , w i t h o u t any m a t e r i a l i n c o n v e n i e n c e ; and t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the e x i s t e n c e of p a r t s so as t o be c a p a b l e of be- i n g a p p l i e d t o the purpose f o r which they a r e i n t e n d e d , i n the p e r f e c t s t a t e o f the system, r a t h e r t h a n any p r e c i s e o r d e r o f them, i s r e q u i r e d f o r c a r r y i n g on the f u n c t i o n s o f an a n i m a l body. 6 By the 1770's, t o know l i f e was no l o n g e r a m a t t e r of a s c e r t a i n i n g the p a r t i c u l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n s of s p e c i e s . By t h e n , as F o u c a u l t s u g g e s t s , th e study of l i v i n g t h i n g s was becoming the s c i e n c e o f l i f e , an e x p e r i m e n t a l s c i e n c e aimed a t e l u c i d a t i n g the i n t e r n a l 99 process o f v i t a l f u n c t i o n . With t h i s t r a n s i t i o n i n the study of l i v i n g t h i n g s , s c i e n t i s t s began t o p e r c e i v e monsters i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y " o r g a n i c " f a s h i o n . In o t h e r words, e x t e r n a l m a l f o r m a t i o n s appeared l e s s as random i r r e g u l a r i t i e s o f s t r u c t u r e and more as m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f i n t e r - r e l a t e d and c o o r d i n a t e d derangements w i t h i n a v i t a l system. There were, i t was o b s e r v e d , c e r t a i n v i t a l p r i n c i p l e s , such as "com- p e n s a t i o n " o r " c o r r e l a t i o n of p a r t s " which seemed t o govern i n the p r o d u c t i o n of such derangements. A c c o r d i n g t o John Hunter's e l d e r b r o t h e r , W i l l i a m , a renowned o b s t e t r i c i a n , f o r example, In p r e t e r n a t u r a l c a s e s , we o f t e n observe t h a t what i s p r e t e r n a t u r a l l y d e f i c i e n t or w a n t i n g , i s i n some o t h e r way p r e t e r n a t u r a l l y made up or compensated . . . as i f formed on purpose t o make up f o r t h a t d e f e c t . Without some such compensation l i f e c o u l d not go on.27 S i m i l a r l y , John Abernethy argued t h a t , i n monstrous p r o d u c t i o n s , as i n a l l v i t a l systems, p a r t s a r e c o r r e l a t e d , t h a t "no p a r t o f the animal body can i n g e n e r a l be v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l y d i s o r d e r e d w i t h o u t o c c a s i o n i n g a c o r r e s p o n d e n t derangement i n o t h e r p a r t s o f the s y s t e m . " 2 ^ I n c r e a s i n g l y , t o d i s c u s s m o n s t r o s i t y r e q u i r e d not o n l y ana- t o m i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n , but a l s o p h y s i o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s i n which p e c u l i a r i t i e s i n s t r u c t u r e were e x p l a i n e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e g e n e r a l f u n c t i o n s of the i n t e r n a l economy of the a n i m a l . I t was i n t h i s t y p i c a l f a s h i o n , f o r example, t h a t John Hunter d i s c u s s e d a specimen w i t h a malformed h e a r t . I n t e r e s t e d t o demonstrate how the deformed a o r t a a f f e c t e d the organism as a whole, he w r o t e : The l i v e r was l a r g e r and o c c u p i e d more of the l e f t s i d e t h a n i t g e n e r a l l y does; i t s s t r u c t u r e was un- d i s e a s e d . The v i s c e r a o f the abdomen i n g e n e r a l were 100 p r e f e c t l y sound, and had no p e c u l i a r i t y except t h e i r c o l o u r a r i s i n g from the u n i v e r s a l l y morbid c i r c u l a - t i o n , owing t o a d e f i c i e n c y p r o b a b l y o f the prop e r q u a n t i t y o f b l o o d c i r c u l a t i n g t h r o u g h the lun g s by i t n a t u r a l course o f the pulmonary a r t e r y , which was prev e n t e d by the a o r t a opening i n t o b o t h v e n t r i c l e s . 2 9 C l e a r l y , what u n d e r l a y such e x p l a n a t i o n s was the view t h a t mal- f o r m a t i o n s o c c u r r e d i n a s y s t e m a t i c way and a c c o r d i n g t o some i n t e r n a l p h y s i o l o g i c a l l o g i c . Most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , as monsters came t o be seen i n r e l a t i o n t o the s c i e n c e of p h y s i o l o g y , i t became i m p o s s i b l e f o r s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t o r s t o m a i n t a i n the l o n g s t a n d i n g view o f monsters as w h i m s i c a l i r r e g u l a r i t i e s o f n a t u r e . I t was not t h a t t h i s i d e a was o v e r t u r n e d by any sudden d i s c o v e r y o r i n s i g h t , but r a t h e r t h a t the v e r y b a s i s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g m a l f o r m a t i o n i n such a way was no l o n g e r v a l i d . Throughout the second h a l f o f t h e c e n t u r y , i n f a c t , the g e n e r a l s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o u r s e c o n c e r n i n g m o n s t r o s i t y was i n c r e a s i n g l y dominated by the i d e a o f r e g u l a r i t y . A c c o r d i n g t o Hunter, f o r example, t h e r e "must be" some " p r i n c i p l e " g o v e r n - 30 i n g the p r o d u c t i o n of monsters. T h i s c o n v i c t i o n l i k e l y a r o s e i n p a r t from the e x t e n s i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f monstrous specimens which Hunter undertook i n e s t a b l i s h i n g h i s museum o f "monstrous and malformed p a r t s . " I n a r r a n g i n g and c a t a l o g u i n g h i s c o l l e c t i o n , he grouped m a l f o r m a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o which o f the organs were a f f e c t e d and observed r e c u r r e n t p a t t e r n s i n the typ e s of mal- f o r m a t i o n s produced. I n ke e p i n g w i t h such o b s e r v a t i o n s , he r e f e r r e d c o n t i n u a l l y t o " s p e c i e s " o f m o n s t r o s i t y , n o t i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s common t o v a r i o u s t y p e s . S t r u c k by t h i s r e g u l a r - i t y , Hunter was l e d t o c h a l l e n g e the view o f monsters as cap- r i c i o u s p r o d u c t i o n s : monsters, he argued d i d not "appear t o be 101 31 a matter o f mere chance." I n s t e a d , they were governed by c e r t a i n laws. I n the p r o d u c t i o n of u n n a t u r a l h e r m a p h r o d i t e s , he wrote, "the same c e r t a i n laws" seem o p e r a t e as i n the malcon- 32 f o r m a t i o n of o t h e r p a r t s o f a n i m a l s . And as he f u r t h e r n o t e d , "from the r a r i t y o f any p e c u l i a r i t y i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f malform- a t i o n s of any p a r t i c u l a r k i n d of a n i m a l s , one would be i n c l i n e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e i s but one p r i n c i p l e g o v e r n i n g t h e s e form- 33 a t i o n s . " Matthew B a i l l i e , t o o , argued t h a t monsters were e s s e n t i a l l y r e g u l a r . As he wrote, " i t i s e x a c t l y the same c r e a t i v e a c t i o n which produces the n a t u r a l s t r u c t u r e , o r any d e v i a t i o n from i t ; f o r i n cases of d e v i a t i o n the a c t i o n i s e i t h e r c a r r i e d 34 too f a r , ceases t o o soon, o r i s d i v e r t e d i n t o uncommon c h a n n e l s . " Thus, f o r B a i l l i e , monsters were e s s e n t i a l l y u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from o t h e r l i v i n g b e i n g s , except f o r such excesses and d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the c r e a t i v e a c t i o n . Though the e x a c t p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f monstrous f o r m a t i o n s were unknown, most s c i - e n t i s t s of the time agreed t h a t monsters, l i k e a l l o t h e r n a t u r a l phenomena, were governed by d e t e r m i n a t e laws. Indeed, by the 1770's, i t was g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t what- ever o c c u r r e d i n Nature was p a r t o f a u n i f o r m , homogeneous o r d e r ; why t h a t o r d e r s h o u l d encompass monsters was not a l t o g e t h e r c l e a r . "Why n a t u r e s h o u l d , i n i t s g r e a t e r d e v i a t i o n s , f a l l i n t o a very i m p e r f e c t f o r m a t i o n , much below the s t a n d a r d o f h e r 35 common work," wrote B a i l l i e , "does not appear v e r y o b v i o u s . " Perhaps, he tho u g h t , " i t i s w i t h a view t o check the propoga- t i o n o f g r e a t v a r i e t i e s , so as t o p r e s e r v e an u n i f o r m i t y i n the same s p e c i e s of a n i m a l s . " I n any cas e , f o r B a i l l i e , monsters 102 were a n a t u r a l o c c u r r e n c e w i t h i n the n a t u r a l economy; the q u e s t i o n o f why monsters o c c u r r e d was of much l e s s " i m p o r t a n c e " t h a n the f a c t t h a t they d i d o c c u r . A l l t h a t was, was r e g u l a r . These changing views of m o n s t r o s i t y are most c l e a r l y e v i d e n t i n l a t e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y d i s c u s s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the o r i g i n s of monsters. I n the e a r l y p a r t of the c e n t u r y , t h e o r e t i c a l s p e c u l a - t i o n s about the causes of monstrous b i r t h s had c e n t r e d , as we have seen, around the c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e of whether monsters were o r i g i n a l o r a c c i d e n t a l . When they d i d t h e o r i z e about t h i s ques- t i o n , most E n g l i s h i n v e s t i g a t o r s o f the time had f a v o r e d a c c i d e n t - a l i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t monsters a r o s e from mat- e r n a l i m a g i n a t i o n , or from e x t e r n a l m e c h a n i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e s w i t h the embryo, which o r i g i n a l l y had been c r e a t e d p e r f e c t . D u r i n g the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , these same i s s u e s were s t i l l a t o p i c o f a c t i v e d i s c u s s i o n , though, i n k e e p i n g w i t h the e x p e r i m e n t a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y g e n e r a l l y endorsed, s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t was absorbed more w i t h the problem of u n d e r s t a n d i n g the p h y s i o l o g y o f monstrous specimens than w i t h d i s c o v e r i n g t h e i r causes. A c c o r d i n g t o Matthew B a i l l i e , f o r example, whether m o n s t r o s i t y depended "on the o r i g i n a l f o r m a t i o n or was produced a f t e r w a r d i n the g r a d u a l e v o l u t i o n of an animal d i d not appear t o be a q u e s t i o n of much im p o r t a n c e , nor perhaps c o u l d i t be a b s o l u t e l y determined.' Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , however, of those l a t e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s who concerned themselves w i t h the problem of c a u s a t i o n , many c h a l l e n g e d the v a l i d i t y of a c c i d e n t a l i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . "Upon the whole," B a i l l i e c o n s i d e r e d , " i t i s more r e a s o n a b l e t o t h i n k , t h a t the same p l a n of f o r m a t i o n i s c o n t i n u e d from the b e g i n n i n g , than t h a t a t any subsequent p e r i o d t h e r e i s a change i n t h a t p l a n . ' 103 L i k e w i s e , though John Hunter f e l t t h a t some evi d e n c e i n d i c a t e d the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c c i d e n t a l i n t e r f e r e n c e s , he, t o o , was more i n c l i n e d to the o r i g i n a l i s t p o s i t i o n t o account f o r the m a j o r i t y of m a l f o r m a t i o n s . "Some i n s t a n c e s of m o n s t r o s i t y , " he suggested, "may be owing t o a c c i d e n t , " but even i n such c a s e s , " t h e r e must be a s u s c e p t i b i l i t y f o r such, which s u s c e p t i b i l i t y must be o r i - 38 g i n a l . " Moreover, he added, "most p r e t e r n a t u r a l f o r m a t i o n s of the body which a monster i s born w i t h a r i s e out o f a d e f e c t i n the 39 f i r s t arrangement of the animal m a t t e r . " Thus, though a c c i - d e n t a l i s m was by no means u n i v e r s a l l y abandoned, t h e r e was a marked t r e n d , w i t h i n the s c i e n t i f i c community, towards a broader acceptance of o r i g i n a l i s t v i e w s . From t h a t t i m e , a c c i d e n t a l i s t t h e o r i e s were the s u b j e c t o f i n c r e a s i n g s c i e n t i f i c s c r u t i n y . T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n the case o f " p h o t o g r a p h i c " mater- n a l i m a g i n a t i o n , a t h e o r y which, w h i l e w i d e l y supported among p o p u l a r a u d i e n c e s , s t r u c k numerous s c i e n t i s t s o f the p e r i o d as p a r t i c u l a r l y i n d e f e n s i b l e . A major c r i t i c o f m a t e r n a l i m a g i n a - t i o n was W i l l i a m Hunter, who, i n the course o f h i s o b s t e t r i c p r a c t i c e , undertook a m e t h o d i c a l study o f the m a t t e r . A c c o r d i n g t o a l a t e r commentator, Hunter "made i n q u i r y i n two thousand c a s e s , of the mothers b e f o r e the b i r t h o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n , i n r e - gard t o any apprehensions which they had e x p e r i e n c e d as t o markings, d e f o r m i t i e s o r m o n s t r o s i t i e s , and he c a r e f u l l y noted t h e i r answers and the cause, or c a u s e s , which they supposed were 40 s u f f i c i e n t t o g i v e r i s e t o such m a l f o r m a t i o n s . " The t h e o r y , Hunter c o n c l u d e d , was g r o u n d l e s s , f o r i n no case d i d a s i n g l e c o i n c i d e n c e o f mental emotion and a c o r r e s p o n d i n g abnormal d e v i a t i o n o c c u r . 104 P a r t i c u l a r l y i l l u s t r a t i v e o f the growing m e d i c a l s k e p t i c i s m over m a t e r n a l i m a g i n a t i o n i s the comprehensive argument p r e s e n t e d by Dr. W. Cooper i n 1775. W r i t i n g t o W i l l i a m Hunter about h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f an acephalous b i r t h , Cooper s u b j e c t e d the t h e o r y to a l e n g t h y c r i t i q u e : The p a r t i c u l a r h y p o t h e s i s , which has been almost u n i v e r s a l l y adopted, i s , t h a t m o n s t r o s i t y and marks i n c h i l d r e n depend upon the i m a g i n a t i o n and l o n g i n g of the mother. Such p e r n i c i o u s a p r i n c i p l e as t h i s ought t o have v e r y r a t i o n a l e v i d e n c e , and the most s t r i k i n g f a c t s t o support i t . But i s i t not d i r e c t l y t o t he c o n t r a r y ? Indeed a g r e a t many r i d i c u l o u s s t o r i e s have been r e l a t e d t o the w o r l d , w hich, however, upon a l i t t l e r e f l e c t i o n , e i t h e r o b v i a t e t h e m s e l v e s , or e l s e a r e c o n t r a d i c t e d by those f a c t s t h a t o c c u r . May we not e x e m p l i f y t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n by the case o f t w i n s now r e l a t e d ? One o f the c h i l d r e n was p e r f e c t , and i s s t i l l l i v i n g ; the o t h e r proves t o be remark- a b l y d e f e c t i v e . Does not t h e q u e s t i o n n a t u r a l l y a r i s e h e r e , how c o u l d one c h i l d be a f f e c t e d by the d i s t u r b e d i m a g i n a t i o n o f the mother and not the o t h e r ? But the mother, upon r e p e a t e d e x a m i n a t i o n , r e c o l l e c t s no f r i g h t i n p a r t i c u l a r w h i l e she was pregnant. N e i t h e r , i f she d i d , would i t a t a l l i n v a l i d a t e the f o r c e of our argument upon t h i s s u b j e c t ; f o r she c o u l d not p o s s i b l y see any c h i l d w i t h o u t a head: and more e s p e c i a l l y , because o t h e r p a r t s , as the v i s c e r a and med u l l a s p i n a l i s , were e q u a l l y d e f e c t i v e , which a re e n t i r e l y out of the r e a c h o f the eye or i m a g i n a t i o n o f the mother t o form any i d e a about them. To e l u - c i d a t e t h i s p o i n t s t i l l f u r t h e r , can any c a n d i d p e r s o n p o s s i b l y suppose, t h a t the c a s u a l a g i t a t i o n o f mind of a pregnant woman, s h o u l d e i t h e r produce or d e s t r o y a whole system o f b l o o d v e s s e l s , nerves and f i b r e s , which are i n d i s p e n s a b l e c o n s t i t u e n t s o f almost ev e r y p a r t o f the body? And may we not adduce one p r o o f more, i n support o f our argument, from what happens t o anim a l s and v e g e t a b l e s ? Among thes e a l s o , such e x t r a o r d i n a r y d e v i a t i o n s from the g e n e r a l c o u r s e o f n a t u r e a re by no means uncommon; y e t the former are p o s s e s s e d o f a much l e s s share o f i m a g i n a t i o n than i s u s u a l l y a l l o t t e d t o the human s p e c i e s ; and the l a t t e r have none a t a l l . ; Reasoning i n t h i s same manner upon s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s o f t h i s k i n d i n which I have been concerned, my c o n c l u s i o n s have always been s i m i l a r , t h a t the u s u a l l y a s s i g n e d cause o f the mother's i m a g i n a t i o n i s by no means equal t o the m a n i f o l d e f f e c t s produced. 105 L i k e a number o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , Cooper c o n s i d e r e d the o r i g i n - a l i s t l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g more c o m p e l l i n g . As he s a i d , " i s i t not more r e a s o n a b l e t o conclude w i t h you, s i r , i n your e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l l e c t u r e s , t h a t whatever be the d e f e c t o r d e f o r m i t y i n a monstrous b i r t h , i t can never be o c c a s i o n e d by a c c i d e n t s of any k i n d d u r i n g pregnancy, but p r o b a b l y has i t s e x i s t e n c e always o r i g i n a t i n g , cause adhuc i n c o g n i t a , i n the f i r s t stamina o f the K -.42 embryo. There a r e , I t h i n k , v a r i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s growing d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h a c c i d e n t a l i s t t h e o r i e s . I n the f i r s t p l a c e , i t was symptomatic o f the more g e n e r a l r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t mechan- i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y and the t h e o l o g i c a l view o f n a t u r e which had dominated e a r l i e r s t u d i e s . N e i t h e r m a t e r n a l i m a g i n a t i o n nor mec h a n i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e conformed w i t h l a t e r e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y views of l i f e and of how the s c i e n t i f i c s tudy o f l i f e ought t o be conducted. When e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n v e s t i g a t o r s debated the problem o f a c c i d e n t a l i s m v s . o r i g i n a l i s m , i t was o f t e n i n terms which were e x p l i c i t l y t h e o l o g i c a l , and t h i s because God was a s s i g n e d a v e r y a c t i v e r o l e i n the r u n n i n g o f the u n i v e r s e . One o f the major arguments a g a i n s t o r i g i n a l i s m had been t h a t God would not have c r e a t e d beings so a p p a r e n t l y c o n t r a r y t o h i s con- t i n u o u s o r d e r . However, by the 1770's, i t was g e n e r a l l y assumed t h a t t h e r e was no r e a l d i s o r d e r i n the n a t u r a l w o r l d . Moreover, s i n c e Nature o p e r a t e d somewhat more i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f God, the study o f l i v i n g t h i n g s was more c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from n a t u r a l t h e o l o g y . For s c i e n t i s t s o f the t i m e , t h e r e f o r e , mon- s t r o s i t y was not so n e c e s s a r i l y a t h e o l o g i c a l i s s u e . Indeed, when l a t e r e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s endorsed 106 o r i g i n a l i s m j i t was most t y p i c a l l y e m p i r i c a l — a n d not t h e o l o g i c a l — p r o o f s which were advanced t o support t h e i r c l a i m s . There were, a c c o r d i n g to contemporary o b s e r v a t i o n s , many f a c t s which seemed t o undermine the s t r e n g t h o f the a c c i d e n t a l i s t p o s i t i o n . John Hunter, f o r example, found a c c i d e n t a l i s m i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s of monstrous forms i n f o e t u s e s which had been a b o r t e d a t v e r y e a r l y p e r i o d s . S i n c e "monsters are formed as e a r l y as we can observe any f o r m a t i o n , " i t was p r o b a b l e , he c o n s i d e r e d , t h a t the p r i n c i p l e o f m o n s t r o s i t y o c c u r r e d i n the 43 f i r s t arrangement o f m a t t e r . Moreover, i f , as had been c l a i m e d , monsters were produced from the c o a l e s c i n g of two embryos i n the womb, how, Hunter wondered, c o u l d one account f o r the f a c t t h a t supernumerary p a r t s were always s i t u a t e d n a t u r a l l y , t h a t "two heads are always on the s h o u l d e r s ; f o u r l e g s are always p l a c e d a t the lower p a r t o f the b e l l y ; a supernumerary f i n g e r o r toe i s 44 on the hand and f o o t , e t c . " S i m i l a r l y , i f monsters a r o s e from a c c i d e n t a l i n t e r f e r e n c e s , how c o u l d one e x p l a i n the numerous cases of " h e r e d i t a r y t r a n s m i s s i o n " i n which the i d e n t i c a l mal- f o r m a t i o n s had r e c u r r e d " i n the c h i l d r e n o f one f a m i l y " o r i n the o f f s p r i n g o f a monstrous parent. 4"' And f i n a l l y , assuming t h a t e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s a c t e d d i r e c t l y upon the embryo, t h e n the v a r i e t y of monsters would be l i m i t l e s s . But t h i s , as Hunter ob s e r v e d , was c l e a r l y not so. On the c o n t r a r y , m a l f o r m a t i o n s were r e s t r i c t e d t o c e r t a i n p r e d i c t a b l e t ypes and o c c u r r e d a c c o r d i n g t o r e g u l a r p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . I n g e n e r a l , i t was t h i s type of t h i n k i n g which undermined the c r e d i b i l i t y o f a c c i d e n t a l i s t t h e o r i e s , f o r a c c i d e n t a l i s m c o u l d not be e a s i l y squared w i t h the 107 r e g u l a r i t i e s which were seen t o o p e r a t e i n the p r o d u c t i o n of a l l v i t a l phenomena, i n c l u d i n g monsters. Such t h e o r i e s were, as 46 Cooper a r g u e d , " c o n t r a d i c t e d by those f a c t s t h a t o c c u r . " S e c o n d l y , i f c e r t a i n t h e o r i e s earned the i n c r e a s i n g s c o r n o f s c i e n t i s t s , t h i s was a l s o a s i g n o f the d i v i s i v e t e n s i o n s which were d e v e l o p i n g between " p o p u l a r " and " p r o f e s s i o n a l " modes of thought. From around 1750, s c i e n t i s t s were becoming more con- s c i o u s of themselves as a coherent group of p r o f e s s i o n a l s , d i s - t i n g u i s h e d from the uninformed populace and from amateurs by en- l i g h t e n e d ways of t h i n k i n g . From t h a t t i m e , a g u l f between e x p e r t and non-expert s t y l e s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n widened, u n t i l , by the end of the c e n t u r y , t h e r e was a c l e a r d e m a r c a t i o n i n the minds of s c i e n t i s t s between what was s c i e n t i f i c and what was n o t . M a t e r n a l i m a g i n a t i o n , i t was f e l t , was n o t . From the m i d d l e o f the c e n t u r y , members o f the l i t e r a r y and s c i e n t i f i c e l i t e s were becoming h i g h l y c r i t i c a l o f the a c t i v i t i e s o f amateurs, and p a r t i c u l a r l y o f the amateur tendency to v a l u e d e s c r i p t i o n and c o l l e c t i o n over " u s e f u l " a b s t r a c t i o n . In a 1751 e d i t i o n of The Rambler, f o r example, Samuel Johnson q u e s t i o n e d the s c i e n t i f i c v a l u e o f v i r t u o s i , who ranged the n a t u r a l w o r l d i n s e a r c h o f c u r i o s w i t h o u t c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the growth o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge: There a r e , i n d e e d , many s u b j e c t s of study which seem but r e m o t e l y a l l i e d t o u s e f u l knowledge, and of l i t t l e i m portance t o happiness or v i r t u e . . . Yet i t i s dangerous t o d i s c o u r a g e w e l l - i n t e n d e d l a b o u r s , or i n n o c e n t c u r i o s i t y . . . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o determine the l i m i t s of e n q u i r y , or t o f o r e s e e what consequences a new d i s c o v e r y may produce . . . The v i r t u o s o t h e r e - f o r e cannot be s a i d t o be w h o l l y u s e l e s s ; C o l l e c t i o n s o f t h i s k i n are o f use t o the l e a r n e d , as heaps of stones and p i l e s of t i m b e r are n e c e s s a r y t o the a r c h i - t e c t . But t o d i g the q u a r r y or t o s e a r c h the f i e l d , r e q u i r e s not much of any q u a l i t y , beyond s t u b b o r n p e r s e v e r a n c e . . . 4 7 108 S i m i l a r l y , i n The C i t i z e n o f the World, G o l d s m i t h (1762) p r o - t e s t e d the amateur tendency t o view a l l n a t u r e b i t by b i t ; now the p r o b i s c i s , now t h e antennae, now the pinnae o f — a f l e a . . Thus they p r o - ceed, l a b o r i o u s i n t r i f l e s , c o n s t a n t i n experiment, w i t h o u t one s i n g l e a b s t r a c t i o n , by which a l o n e know- led g e may be p r o p e r l y s a i d t o i n c r e a s e . ^ W i t h i n the s c i e n t i f i c community, i n v e s t i g a t o r s e x p r e s s e d sim- i l a r s e n t i m e n t s , recommending t h a t c o n t r i b u t o r s p r o v i d e p h y s i o - l o g i c a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s as opposed t o mere d e s c r i p t i o n s i n t h e i r works on m o n s t r o s i t y . The R o y a l S o c i e t y , t o o , was a p p a r e n t l y r e - s o l v e d to demand more s c i e n t i f i c a c c o u n t a b i l i t y from i t s con- t r i b u t o r s . I n 1752, the S o c i e t y ' s d i r e c t o r s announced a change i n p o l i c y i n the subsequent p u b l i c a t i o n o f a r t i c l e s , s t r e s s i n g t h a t they would be s c r e e n i n g a r t i c l e s w i t h more d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as t o s c i e n t i f i c u s e f u l n e s s i n the f u t u r e . From t h a t t i m e , the r o l e of amateurs i n the study of m o n s t r o s i t y d e c l i n e d n o t i c e a b l y . Of the a u t h o r s who s u b m i t t e d accounts o f m o n s t r o s i t y t o the R o y a l S o c i e t y between 1750.and 1800, almost a l l were m e d i c a l d o c t o r s , t e a c h e r s of m e d i c i n e or b o t h . U n l i k e e a r l i e r amateurs, these people tended t o have a s o p h i s t i c a t e d knowledge o f anatomy and p h y s i o l o g y , and p e r c e i v e d d e f o r m i t i e s a c c o r d i n g l y . They l o o k e d f o r the correspondence between h e a l t h y and malformed s t r u c t u r e s , i d e n t i f y i n g d e f o r m i t i e s as i m p e r f e c t rudiments or misplacements o f regular" s t r u c t u r e s . I n o r d e r t o account r e a s o n - a b l y f o r d e v i a t i o n s i n monstrous humans, o b s e r v e r s r e q u i r e d a thorough knowledge of h e a l t h y anatomy, as i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s from C l a u d e - N i c o l a s LeCat's d e s c r i p t i o n o f a monstrous human f o e t u s i n 1767: These two h y d a t i d e bags were beh i n d t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g . 2 which I took f o r an i m p e r f e c t eye, because 109 i t was t r a n s p a r e n t , and surrounded by teguments not u n l i k e e y e l i d s . . . Under t h i s k i n d of parenchymatous s u b s t a n c e , which was w h i t e and g l a n d u l a r , was a mus- c u l a r mass, more c o n s i d e r a b l e and conspicuous than one c o u l d w e l l have expected i n such a s u b j e c t . I t d o u b t l e s s c o n s i s t e d o f the o c c i p i t a l and perhaps f r o n t a l m u s c l e s , drawn towards each o t h e r . . . Thus, t h e r e was n e i t h e r jejunum, o r duodenum, or stomach, o r any l i v e r p r o p e r l y s p e a k i n g : f o r t h a t , which I found i n the p l a c e of i t , was a r e d v i s c u s , and o f the conglomerate k i n d , l i k e t h e k i d n e y i n a f o e t u s . . . I opened i t , and was more and more c o n v i n c e d t h a t i t was r a t h e r a k i d n e y , o r knot of r e n a l g l a n d s , t h a n a l i v e r , a l t h o u g h i t was one mass, and p l a c e d i n the mid s t of the i n t e s t i n e s ; i t had s t i l l l e s s the r e - semblance of a h e a r t , h a v i n g no c a v i t y , no v e s s e l s , o r any muscular f i b r e s . 4 9 B e i n g d o c t o r s , t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t o r s were i n t e r e s t e d p r i m a r i l y i n t he m e d i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of monstrous b i r t h s . They i n q u i r e d i n t o such q u e s t i o n s as how a n a t o m i c a l d e f i c i e n c i e s a f f e c t e d l i f e p r o c e s s e s , to what e x t e n t h e a l t h was i m p a i r e d by m a l f o r m a t i o n s and how v a r i o u s cases of m o n s t r o s i t y might be t r e a t e d . More- o v e r , many cases which had p r e v i o u s l y been d e s i g n a t e d "monstros- i t i e s " were r e d e f i n e d as p a r t i c u l a r d i s e a s e c o n d i t i o n s . I n an a r t i c l e s u b m i t t e d to the Royal S o c i e t y i n 1791, f o r example, E v e r a r d Home suggested t h a t c e r t a i n excrescences? o f the human body were symptomatic o f d i s e a s e , and not of m o n s t r o s i t y . As he e x p l a i n e d : . . . I have been induced t o l a y b e f o r e the Ro y a l S o c i e t y the f o l l o w i n g account o f a d i s e a s e which o c c u r s sometimes i n the human body, v e r y remarkable i n i t s e f f e c t s , but v e r y l i t t l e u n d e r s t o o d as t o i t s cause; namely, the p r o d u c t i o n of an exc r e s c e n c e s i m i - l a r t o a h o r n . So c u r i o u s a phenomenon has n a t u r a l l y a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n o f the i g n o r a n t as w e l l as the p h i l o s o p h e r ; and the i n d i v i d u a l s who have had the m i s f o r t u n e t o be s u b j e c t t o t h i s d i s e a s e have been c o n s i d e r e d as monsters.-^0 S i m i l a r l y , John Abernethy d i s c u s s e s the case o f a c h i l d w i t h an a p p a r e n t l y monstrous s k i n c o n d i t i o n , a r g u i n g t h a t i t i s more 110 p r o p e r l y u n d e r s t o o d as a symptom of d i s e a s e , amenable t o t r e a t - ment and c u r e . A c c o r d i n g t o the c h i l d ' s mother, Abernethy r e p o r t s , the d e f o r m i t y resembled the e n t r a i l s o f a p i g , by which she had e i t h e r been f r i g h t e n e d o r d i s g u s t e d d u r i n g her pregnancy. Abernethy h i m s e l f , however, p r e f e r s t o see t h i s d e f o r m i t y as a d i s e a s e , most p r o b a b l y , he s u g g e s t s , "an aneurysmal enlargement o f the v e s s e l s , i n consequence, of t h e i r anastomoses."^''' As monsters were m e d i c a l i z e d i n t h i s way, and c o n c e i v e d more as cases of d i s e a s e t h a n as c u r i o s i t i e s , i n v e s t i g a t o r s r e q u i r e d a s p e c i a l i z e d m e d i c a l knowledge t o e n t e r i n t o d i s c u s s i o n s o f the s u b j e c t at a l l . T h e i r work s u b s e q u e n t l y became i n a c c e s s i b l e t o those who c o u l d not boast s u f f i c i e n t e x p e r t i s e . At the same time t h a t " s c i e n c e " was becoming more c l o s e d t o people w i t h u n s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge, so t h e r e was an e f f o r t among s c i e n t i s t s t o s egregate t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s from the uninformed m u l t i t u d e s . Of the t h r e e famous n a t u r a l h i s t o r y c o l l e c t i o n s i n the second h a l f o f the c e n t u r y , f o r example, the a n a t o m i c a l e x h i b i t s o f Brookes, W i l l i a m and John Hunter, o n l y q u a l i f i e d m e d i c a l men, s c i e n t i s t s and o c c a s i o n a l l y " n o b l e " men o f l e a r n i n g were a d m i t t e d . S i m i l a r l y , though the B r i t i s h Museum was t o be open t o the p e o p l e , the t r u s t e e s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t the museum's main purpose was t o promote s c i e n c e and t h e a r t s , and "not t o c a t e r t o the c u r i o s i t y of m u l t i t u d e s i n quest of amusement." In an e f f o r t t o d i s c o u r a g e the " r i f f - r a f f , " they l i m i t e d e n t r y t o those who had gone through the r a t h e r e x a c t i n g p r o c e s s of r e - 52 s e r v i n g t i c k e t s o f a d m i s s i o n . Regarding the open p o l i c y of the museum as dangerous, one of the t r u s t e e s v o i c e d h i s o p p o s i t i o n I l l as f o l l o w s : a g e n e r a l l i b e r t y t o o r d i n a r y people of a l l ranks and denominations i s not t o be k e p t w i t h i n bounds. Many i r r e g u l a r i t i e s w i l l be committed t h a t cannot be p r e - v e n t e d by a few l i b r a r i a n s who w i l l soon be i n s u l t e d by such people . . . I f any such people are i n l i q u o r o r misbehave, they are r a r e l y w i t h o u t t h e i r a c c o m p l i c e s , . . . who out o f an I d l e v a n i t y i n e x e r t i n g what they w i l l c a l l t h e i r l i b e r t y w i l l s i d e w i t h them and promote m i s c h i e f s . . . No persons o f s u p e r i o r degree w i l l c a r e t o come on such days.53 A p p a r e n t l y , the l e a r n e d wanted t o keep w e l l away from the mob whose u n r e s t r a i n a b l e p a s s i o n s posed a t h r e a t t o the reasoned p u r s u i t s o f the s c i e n t i f i c community. G i v e n t h i s growing t r e n d towards p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n t h e n , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t v a r i o u s p o p u l a r t h e o r i e s o f m o n s t r o s i t y were t a r g e t s o f d e r i s i o n i n s c i e n t i f i c c i r c l e s . I n the case of m a t e r n a l i m a g i n a t i o n , i t s t r u c k l e a r n e d i n v e s t i g a t o r s as de- c i d e d l y u n s c i e n t i f i c and, i n f a c t , f u n c t i o n e d f o r them as some- t h i n g o f a p o l e m i c a l t o o l i n t h e i r l a r g e r e f f o r t t o s e t them- s e l v e s a p a r t from the i g n o r a n t . Indeed, p a r t of Cooper's r a t i o n - a l e f o r d enying the t h e o r y was t h a t i t was " v u l g a r . " What made i t v u l g a r , moreover, was t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t e d a way of knowing which r e l i e d too h e a v i l y upon the s e n s e s — a n d more s p e c i f i c a l l y upon mere appearances. For s c i e n t i s t s such as Cooper, who con- cerned themselves w i t h the i n v i s i b l e p r i n c i p l e s and t h e c o n c e a l e d r e a l i t y o f t h i n g s , such i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s d i d not c o n s t i t u t e r e a l knowledge. For t h e r e was, t hey b e l i e v e d , o f t e n a d i s c r e p a n c y between what appears t o be and what i s . While some monstrous f o r m a t i o n s may have l o o s e l y resembled v a r i o u s o b j e c t s or animals t h a t t h e mother had seen, t h i s d i d not mean t h a t t h e r e was any c a u s a l r e l a t i o n between the two e v e n t s . I n f a c t , s i n c e monsters t 112 were governed by the same k i n d s o f p r i n c i p l e s which o p e r a t e d i n a l l v i t a l phenomena, s c i e n t i s t s found i t i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o imagine how t h e r e c o u l d be any r e l a t i o n between the two. Mon s t e r s , i t was t r u e , appeared t o be h i g h l y i r r e g u l a r , and seg r e g a t e d from n a t u r e ' s o r d i n a r y works. But s c i e n t i s t s adopted the view t h a t what seemed t o be was n o t , i n a c t u a l i t y , so, s i n c e i n r e a l i t y t h e r e s i m p l y was no " d i s o r d e r . " C e r t a i n l y , s c i e n t i s t s were s t r u c k by the o d d i t y o f monstrous f o r m a t i o n s and c o n t i n u e d t o d e s c r i b e them as remarkable and s u r p r i s i n g d e v i a t i o n s . But a c c o r d i n g t o the s c i e n t i f i c p o i n t o f view, monsters were not cases o f s u b v e r t e d n a t u r a l law, and hence, d i d not c o n s t i t u t e e n t e r t a i n i n g s p e c t a c l e s of c u r i o s i t y o r wonder. Perhaps the most p a t e n t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n which can be made o f the p e r i o d between 1750 and 1800 i s t h a t i t was a time o f i n t e n s e a c t i v i t y and t r a n s i t i o n i n the study o f m o n s t r o s i t y . I n the p r e - c e d i n g a n a l y s i s , I have suggested v a r i o u s c u r r e n t s o f change which were w o r k i n g a t the time t o t r a n s f o r m the way i n which mon- s t e r s were i n v e s t i g a t e d and u n d e r s t o o d , and i n g e n e r a l , these may be comprehended i n terms o f t h r e e broad t r e n d s . F i r s t l y , w i t h r e s p e c t t o the peopl e who s t u d i e d monsters d u r i n g the p e r i o d , they were becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n s c i o u s of themselves as an e l i t e group o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s , d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from p o p u l a r and amateur elements by e n l i g h t e n e d knowledge and thought. B e s i d e s the f a c t t h a t t h e y shared a s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge o f anatomy and p h y s i o l o g y , what made these i n v e s t i g a t o r s a coherent group was t h a t they saw themselves engaged i n a common p r o j e c t t o o b j e c t i f y m o n s t r o s i t y , and t h i s i n the i n t e r e s t s o f e x t r a c t i n g genuine knowledge from the massive conglomerate o f i n f o r m a t i o n on the 113 s u b j e c t . To know m o n s t r o s i t y , they assumed, meant t o reduce i t to an o b j e c t o f p a t h o l o g y , t o e l i m i n a t e a l l t h a t which d i d not bear upon the g e n e r a t i o n o f a u t h e n t i c knowledge. I n s o f a r as i t r e c o g n i z e d the l e g i t i m a c y of n o n o b j e c t i v e forms of knowledge, p o p u l a r "wisdom" came t o be seen as a form o f i n t e l l e c t u a l de- l u s i o n , e s s e n t i a l l y a n t i p a t h e t i c t o the aims of s c i e n c e . The r e - s u l t was t h a t the study o f m o n s t r o s i t y , rendered i n a c c e s s i b l e t o n o n - e x p e r t s , became i n c r e a s i n g l y a l i e n a t e d from the w o r l d of p o p u l a r response and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . S e c o n d l y , a t the same time as the s t u d y o f monsters was be- coming more p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d , s c i e n t i s t s were a l s o b r i n g i n g a number of new c o n c e p t u a l p r i n c i p l e s t o bear on t h e i r r e s e a r c h e s i n t o monstrous b i r t h s . I n r e a d i n g the accounts o f v a r i o u s s c i - e n t i s t s of the p e r i o d , one i s i m m e d i a t e l y s t r u c k by how c o n c e p t u a l - l y d i s s i m i l a r t h e y are from t h o s e of the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . What seems t o have o c c u r r e d i s something i n the way o f a "gram- m a t i c a l " t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , a change, t h a t i s , i n the u n d e r l y i n g r u l e s which c o n d i t i o n e d t h i n k i n g about m o n s t r o s i t y . Most prom- i n e n t l y , w h i l e e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s t u d i e s were o r g a n i z e d around the p r i n c i p l e s o f s t r u c t u r e and v i s i b l e form, t h o s e o f the l a t t e r p a r t of the c e n t u r y were c e n t r a l l y i n formed by the concept of f u n c t i o n . To l a t e r s c i e n t i s t s , the s t r u c t u r e o f a p a r t was, i n i t s e l f , i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e , except i n r e l a t i o n t o i t s use i n the organism. Thus, when they compared the a n a t o m i c a l s t r u c t u r e s of d i f f e r e n t a n i m a l s , i t was a c c o r d i n g t o the c r i t e r i o n o f i n t e r n a l f u n c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n e x t e r n a l form. Above a l l , t h e i r c oncern was w i t h e l u c i d a t i n g the p r i n c i p l e s o f the i n t e r n a l economy. 114 As s c i e n t i s t s accorded an i n c r e a s i n g l y p r i o r r o l e t o f u n c - t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t h e i r s t u d i e s o f the l i v i n g w o r l d , the n o t i o n of m o n s t r o s i t y was s u b s t a n t i a l l y a l t e r e d . J u s t as s t r u c t u r a l v a r i a t i o n c o u l d no l o n g e r s e r v e as the p r i m a r y t a x - onomic c r i t e r i o n f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g l i v i n g t h i n g s i n t o s p e c i e s , n e i t h e r c o u l d i t serve as the s t a n d a r d f o r s e g r e g a t i n g monsters i n a s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r y on the f r i n g e o f the n a t u r a l o r d e r . For Hunter's c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , i n f a c t , m o n s t r o s i t y was not so much a taxonomic concept as i t was a p h y s i o l o g i c a l one. T h i s meant t h a t they d i d not see monsters as u n c l a s s i f i a b l e and s i n g u l a r i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , which were v i s i b l y , and hence, q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i s - t i n c t from a l l o t h e r a n i m a l s . R a t h e r , t h e y were seen as p a t h o l o - g i c a l d e v i a t i o n s from a norm, s u b j e c t t o the same laws as a l l o t h e r l i v i n g t h i n g s and thus e s s e n t i a l l y l i k e o t h e r b e i n g s save f o r c e r t a i n q u a n t i t a t i v e d e v i a t i o n s . N a t u r e , i t was assumed, was a homogeneous o r d e r , u n i f o r m l y r e g u l a r i n normal o p e r a t i o n s and no l e s s so i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f monsters. From t h i s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t the s u b j e c t of m o n s t r o s i t y was becoming p r o g r e s s i v e l y detached from i t s c o n c e p t u a l base i n n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . There was growing d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among s c i e n t i s t s w i t h the methods which had p r e v i o u s l y g u i d e d r e s e a r c h e s i n t o mon- s t r o u s b i r t h s . To compile d e s c r i p t i o n s o f monsters, f o r example, was c o n s t r u e d as u n p r o d u c t i v e . S i m i l a r l y , h a v i n g s c a l e d down the range of concerns and responses c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e , l a t e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s tended t o r e f r a i n from the k i n d s o f s u b j e c t i v e commentary which had c h a r a c t e r i z e d e a r l i e r w r i t i n g on the s u b j e c t . As they were c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the s c i e n c e o f p h y s i o l o g y , monsters were r e g a r d e d i n a much more o b j e c t i v e manner, as p a t h - 115 o l o g i c a l specimens, s i g n i f i c a n t t o s c i e n c e o n l y t o the e x t e n t t h a t they c o n t r i b u t e d t o the knowledge o f l i f e . F i n a l l y , t h e s e m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n the study and meaning o f m o n s t r o s i t y had s i g n i f i c a n t r e p u r c u s s i o n s on the s c i e n t i f i c d i s - c o u r s e concerned w i t h the o r i g i n of monsters. S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e r e were a growing number o f s c i e n t i s t s towards the end o f the c e n t u r y who r e f u s e d t o ac c e p t the a u t h o r i t y of a c c i d e n t a l i s t t h e o r i e s of m o n s t r o s i t y . P r i m a r i l y , I t h i n k , t h i s was because the i d e a of e x t e r n a l a c c i d e n t a l f o r c e s a c t i n g d i r e c t l y upon the embryo was not e a s i l y r e c o n c i l e d w i t h the r e g u l a r i t i e s which were seen t o o p e r a t e not o n l y i n m o n s t r o s i t i e s but i n a l l o f Nature's p r o d u c t i o n s . Impressed by t h i s i n v a r i a b l e r e g u l a r i t y , many s c i e n t i s t s suggested t h a t the more i n t e l l i g e n t l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g t o f o l l o w i n ex- p l a i n i n g monsters was o r i g i n a l i s m . To l o c a t e the o r i g i n of mon- s t r o s i t i e s i n the f i r s t f o r m a t i o n of the embryo was an i n t e r - p r e t a t i o n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p r e v a i l i n g v iew o f n a t u r e as a homogeneous o r d e r , and i n k e e p i n g , too w i t h v a r i o u s contemporary o b s e r v a t i o n s of monstrous phenomena ( i . e . t h a t m a l f o r m a t i o n s oc- c u r r e d i n s y s t e m a t i c p a t t e r n s , t h a t they were o c c a s i o n a l l y i n - h e r i t e d , t h a t t h e r e were s p e c i e s of monsters'*. The q u e s t i o n o f why n a t u r e s h o u l d p e r m i t such d e v i a t i o n s t o o c c u r , so h i g h l y prob- l e m a t i c a l to e a r l i e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s , d i d not seem t o s t r i k e l a t e r s c i e n t i s t s as l e g i t i m a t e grounds f o r d o u b t i n g the s t r e n g t h of o r i g i n a l i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The p o s s i b l e purpose o f monsters i n the n a t u r a l economy was, i n f a c t , a t o p i c of d i s c u s s i o n s e l - dom r a i s e d i n t h e i r w r i t i n g s . 116 I n c o n s i d e r i n g the c h a r a c t e r o f l a t e r e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s t u d i e s i n m o n s t r o s i t y , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y many f e a t u r e s which were to become more pronounced i n the n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n c e o f t e r a t o l o g y . The h e i g h t e n e d sense of p r o f e s s i o n a l ex- c l u s i v e n e s s among s c i e n t i s t s , the attempt t o o b j e c t i f y monsters and t h e tendency t o d e f i n e them as r e g u l a r p a t h o l o g i c a l d e v i a t i o n s — a l l o f t h e s e were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t e r a t o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I n l i g h t o f such apparent c o n s i s t e n c i e s , one c o u l d argue t h a t the work of l a t e r e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n v e s t i - g a t o r s i s best p l a c e d w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f "modern" s c i e n c e . C e r t a i n l y , P h i l i p R i t t e r b u s h so i n t e r p r e t e d John Hunter's work, when he d e s i g n a t e d Hunter as among the " f i r s t of the modern b i o - l o g i s t s . " Modern as they may seem, however, I t h i n k t h a t i t i s mis- t a k e n t o u n d e r s t a n d l a t e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y works as c o n s t i t u t i n g the b e g i n n i n g s o f t e r a t o l o g y ; f i r s t l y , because s c i e n t i s t s w o r k i n g at the time d i d not d e f i n e themselves as t e r a t o l o g i s t s , and s e c o n d l y , w h i l e t h o s e who wrote on t e r a t o l o g y i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y e x p r e s s e d a g e n e r a l r e g a r d f o r t h e e m p i r i c a l s p i r i t of l a t e r e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n c e , they d i d not t r e a t w r i t i n g s from t h a t p e r i o d as i m m e d i a t e l y r e l e v a n t t o t h e i r own r e s e a r c h e s . I n - deed, the papers which such s c i e n t i s t s as John Hunter, Matthew B a i l l i e o r E v e r a r d Home p u b l i s h e d on the s u b j e c t o f m o n s t r o s i t y were r a r e l y , i f e v e r , d i s c u s s e d i n t e r a t o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g s of the e a r l y 1830's. A p p a r e n t l y , t e r a t o l o g i s t s d i d not f e e l d e e p l y i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a l l i e d w i t h such w r i t e r s . What t h i s suggests i s t h a t l a t e r e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y 117 i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o m o n s t r o s i t y , though they had much i n common w i t h t e r a t o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h e s , were i n c o m p a t i b l e , i n some e s - s e n t i a l way, w i t h n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y views of a b n o r m a l i t y . The b a s i s f o r t h i s i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y , I t h i n k , was t h a t l a t e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s d i d not un d e r s t a n d m o n s t r o s i t y as a h i s t o r i c a l phenomenon—as a s e r i e s o f complex o r g a n i c e v e n t s , t h a t i s , o r i g i n a t i n g w i t h i n the organism a t some time d u r i n g i t s d e v e l o p - mental h i s t o r y . T h i s was a premise fundamental t o the s c i e n c e o f t e r a t o l o g y , but one q u i t e f o r e i g n t o e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t h e o r i e s o f m o n s t r o s i t y . A c c o r d i n g t o n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t h o u g h t , each l i v i n g organism was the p h y s i c a l r e a l i z a t i o n o f an i n t e r n a l p l a n o f development and o r g a n i z a t i o n . A l l the a t t r i b u t e s o f the organ- ism were seen as i n t e r d e p e n d e n t p a r t s o f a dynamic system, and l i f was a p u r p o s i v e , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g p r o c e s s o r i g i n a t i n g i n and i n s e p a r a b l e from o r g a n i z a t i o n i t s e l f . The o r i g i n of t h i s system, i t was un d e r s t o o d , was the embryo, the f i r s t o f a s u c c e s s i o n o f d e t e r m i n a t e o r g a n i c events from which the a d u l t form would slow- l y emerge. To un d e r s t a n d an organism, whether anomalous o r normal t h e r e f o r e , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o r e f e r t o i t s o r g a n i c h i s t o r y . L a t e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s , on the o t h e r hand, d i d not r e f e r t o the laws of e r n b r y o l o g i c a l development i n o r d e r t o account f o r the o r i g i n s o f m o n s t r o s i t y . Nor d i d they u n d e r s t a n d l i f e i n p r e c i s e l y the same h i s t o r i c a l terms as d i d l a t e r s c i e n - t i s t s . John Hunter, f o r example, though he regard e d l i f e as s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g , d i d not see i t as s o l e l y dependent upon an i n t e r - n a l p l a n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . On the c o n t r a r y , f o r Hunter, l i f e d e - pended u l t i m a t e l y on some s p e c i a l v i t a l p r i n c i p l e o r f o r c e "super- 118 added" t o the a n i m a l body, a view which tended t o l e a v e some r o l e to God i n e x p l a n a t i o n s o f v i t a l phenomena. I n Hunter's work t h e r e i s , i n f a c t , a c e r t a i n i n t e l l e c t u a l t e n s i o n : c e r t a i n - l y h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n comparative anatomy and h i s view of d i s e a s e was modern i n the sense t h a t he d e f i n e d d i s e a s e as an i n t e r n a l m a l f u n c t i o n o r i g i n a t i n g w i t h i n the v i t a l system; a t the same tim e , however, he m a i n t a i n e d a d e f i n i t i o n o f l i f e w hich, i n i t s i n s i s t e n c e upon the r o l e of c e r t a i n e x t e r n a l p r i n c i p l e s , p l a c e s h i s thought i n a pre-modern c o n t e x t . T h i s , I t h i n k , makes i t i m p o s s i b l e t o l o c a t e h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f m o n s t r o s i t y w i t h i n the n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y study o f t e r a t o l o g y . For w h i l e h e — a n d most of h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s — d i d attempt t o i n c l u d e m o n s t r o s i t y i n the s c i e n c e o f v i t a l f u n c t i o n , they d i d not u n d e r s t a n d i t a c c o r d i n g t o the same laws of development and o r g a n i z a t i o n which were to dominate n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t h i n k i n g about l i f e and a b n o r m a l i t y . Indeed, though Hunter i n s i s t e d t h a t m o n s t r o s i t y was a l a w - l i k e phenomenon, he d i d not r e g a r d i t i n r e l a t i o n t o a developmental embryology, and hence d i d not attempt t o e x p l a i n what the s p e c i f i c laws of m o n s t r o s i t y might be. 119 NOTES TO CHAPTER TWO ''"John C l a r k e , " D e s c r i p t i o n of an e x t r a o r d i n a r y P r o d u c t i o n of Human G e n e r a t i o n , w i t h O b s e r v a t i o n s , " PTRS 83 (1793), pp. 157-8. 2 John Hunter, Essays and O b s e r v a t i o n s on N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , Anatomy, P h y s i o l o g y , P s y c h o l o g y and Geology, 2 v o l s . , ed. R. Owen (London: John Van Voorst7 1861), T] pT 249. 3 James Palmer, ed., The Works of John Hunter, 4 v o l s . (London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green and Longman, 1837), I , p. v i i i . 4 Stephen C r o s s , "John Hunter . . . and L a t e E i g h t e e n t h - Century P h y s i o l o g i c a l D i s c o u r s e , " p. 11. ^Hunter i s s a i d t o have haunted C h a r l e s Byrne, f o r example, (shown d u r i n g the 1780's as the " I r i s h G i a n t " ) w i t h such p e r s i s - tence t h a t Byrne was d r i v e n t o extreme measures t o ensure t h a t h i s bones would be p r o p e r l y b u r i e d a f t e r h i s d e a t h . He arranged.: f o r h i s remains t o be thrown i n t o the sea t o f o i l Hunter's p l a n s t o p r e s e r v e h i s s k e l e t o n , but l e g e n d has i t t h a t , i n the end, Hunter b r i b e d the u n d e r t a k e r a l a r g e sum o f money f o r the body. Whatever the " t r u e " d e t a i l s o f the s t o r y , Hunter d i d succeed i n p r o c u r i n g Byrne's bones and promptly put them on d i s p l a y a t the R o y a l C o l l e g e o f Surgeons, where they c o u l d be viewed by s c i e n t i s t s o n l y . quoted i n John K o b l e r , The R e l u c t a n t Surgeon: A B i o g r a p h y of John Hunter (New York: Doubleday, 1960), pT 106. 7 P a l m e r , The Works, I , p. 148. ^ I b i d . , p. 156. 9 W i l l i a m Coleman, B i o l o g y i n the N i n e t e e n t h Century: Prob- lems o f Form, F u n c t i o n and T r a n s f o r m a t i o n (New York: John W i l e y and Sons, 1971) , p. 18. •^Palmer, The Works, I . p. 211. L 1 I b i d . , p. 219. 1 2 I b i d . , p. 220. 13 James J o h n s t o n , "A H i s t o r y of a Foetus born w i t h a v e r y i m p e r f e c t B r a i n , " PTRS 57 (1767), p. 120. " ^ C l a r k e , "An E x t r a o r d i n a r y P r o d u c t i o n , " pp. 157-8. " ^ W i l l i a m Lawrence, L e c t u r e s on P h y s i o l o g y , Zoology, and the N a t u r a l H i s t o r y o f Man (London: James Smith, 1823), p7 369. 120 16 C h a r l e s P e a r s , "The Case o f a f u l l grown Woman i n whom the O v a r i a were D e f i c i e n t , " PTRS 95 (1805), p. 225. •*" 7Ibid. , p. 227. 18 A l e x a n d e r Monro, " D e s c r i p t i o n of a Human Male Monster, i l l u s t r a t e d by T a b l e s , w i t h Remarks," R o y a l S o c i e t y o f Edinburgh T r a n s a c t i o n s 3 (1794), p. 227. 19 C l a r k e , " A n E x t r a o r d i n a r y P r o d u c t i o n , " p. 159. 20 Anthony C a r l i s l e , "Account of a monstrous Lamb," PTRS 91 (1801), p. 142. 21 Benjamin B r o d i e , "Account o f the D i s s e c t i o n o f a Human Fo e t u s , i n which the C i r c u l a t i o n of the B l o o d was c a r r i e d on w i t h o u t a H e a r t , " PTRS 27 (1809), p. 161. 22 W i l l i a m Lawrence, "Account o f A C h i l d Born Without a B r a i n , which L i v e d Four Days," M e d i c o - C h i r u r g i c a l T r a n s a c t i o n s 5 (1814), p. 170. 23 C a r l i s l e , "A monstrous Lamb," p. 139. 24 Jo h n s t o n , " H i s t o r y o f a F o e t u s , " p. 120. 25 C l a r k e , "An E x t r a o r d i n a r y P r o d u c t i o n , " p. 157. I b i d . 27 W i l l i a m Hunter, "Three Cases o f M a l c o n f o r m a t i o n i n the H e a r t , " M e d i c a l O b s e r v a t i o n s and I n q u i r i e s 6 (1758), p. 305. 2 8 John Abernethy, The S u r g i c a l and P h y s i o l o g i c a l Works (London: Longman, H u r s t , Rees, Orme and Brown, 1825) , p~. 9~7 29 John Hunter, Catalogue o f the Contents o f the Museum of the R o y a l C o l l e g e , P a r t s V and VI (London: R i c h a r d T a y l o r , 1831), p. 127. 30 Hunter, Essays and O b s e r v a t i o n s , I , p. 239. 31 John Hunter, "Account o f an E x t r a o r d i n a r y Pheasant," i n O b s e r v a t i o n s on C e r t a i n P a r t s of the Animal Oeconomy (London: N i c o l and Johnson, 1786) , p~! 63. 32 I b i d . , p. 64. 33 Hunter, Essays and O b s e r v a t i o n s , I , p. 248. 34 Matthew B a i l l i e , "An Account of a remarkable T r a n s p o s i t i o n of t he V i s c e r a , " PTRS 78 (1788), p. 363. 121 35 I b i d . , p. 362. 3 6 T U . , I b i d . 3 7 T K . , I b i d . 3 8 Hunter, Essays and O b s e r v a t i o n s , p. 240. 39 J y I b i d . 40 F i s h e r , " M a t e r n a l Mental I n f l u e n c e , " p. 262. 41 Cooper, "An E x t r a o r d i n a r y acephalous B i r t h , " pp. 317-19. 4 2 I b i d . , pp. 319-20. 43 Hunter, Essays and O b s e r v a t i o n s , p. 243. 44 -w- - . . . I b i d . 4 ' ' i b i d . , p. 246. 46 Cooper, "An E x t r a o r d i n a r y acephalous B i r t h , " p. 318. 47 quoted i n A l t i c k , The Shows o f London, p. 22. 48 quoted i n R i t t e r b u s h , O v e r t u r e s t o B i o l o g y , p. 63. 49 N i c o l a s L e ^ a t , "A monstrous human F o e t u s , " PTRS 57 (1767), pp. 5-7. " ^ E v e r a r d Home, " O b s e r v a t i o n s on c e r t a i n horny E x c r e s c e n c e s of the Human Body," PTRS §1 (1791), p. 95. "'''"John Abernethy, S u r g i c a l O b s e r v a t i o n s (London: Longman, H u r s t , Rees, Orme and Brown, 1810), p. 266. 52 quoted i n A l t i c k , The Shows o f London, p. 26. 53 I b i d . , p. 26 . 54 R i t t e r b u s h , O v e r t u r e s t o B i o l o g y , p. 186. 122 CHAPTER THREE ORGANIZATION, DEVELOPMENT AND THE SCIENCE OF ANOMALIES . . . w i t h o u t a c o n s t a n t r e f e r e n c e t o the h i s t o r y o f f o e t a l development, the exact n a t u r e or a n a t o m i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f m a l f o r m a t i o n s cannot be f u l l y under- s t o o d . . . -. — A l l e n Thomson, 1844 A l t h o u g h one may d i s c e r n much t h a t was " s c i e n t i f i c " i n l a t e r e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o monstrous phenomena, i t was o n l y i n the f i f t y y e a r p e r i o d between 1800 and 1850 t h a t the study of m o n s t r o s i t y became "a s c i e n c e " i n i t s own r i g h t . D u r i n g t h a t t i m e , I s i d o r e G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e p u b l i s h e d h i s t h r e e volume work, H i s t o i r e Generale e t P a r t i c u l i e r e des Anoma- l i e s de L' O r g a n i s a t i o n chez : L' Homme et l e s Animaux, ou T r a i t e de T e r a t o l o g i c (1832-36), the f i r s t comprehensive study devoted to the s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s o f m o n s t r o s i t y . Though i t drew m a i n l y on the r e c e n t r e s e a r c h e s o f F r e n c h and German s c i e n t i s t s , S a i n t - H i l a i r e ' s work accorded w e l l w i t h p r e v a i l i n g E n g l i s h t h e o - r i e s o f l i f e and d e v i a t i o n , and i n f a c t , came t o f u n c t i o n f o r E n g l i s h s c i e n t i s t s as something of a t e x t b o o k on m o n s t r o s i t y . In i t , S a i n t - H i l a i r e touched upon every c o n c e i v a b l e i s s u e con- c e r n i n g m o n s t r o s i t y — f r o m c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and h i s t o r y of the s c i - ence t o an a n a l y s i s of p o p u l a r b e l i e f s . Most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , he set f o r t h the o r g a n i c laws of m a l f o r m a t i o n as i t o c c u r r e d t h r o u g h - out the l i v i n g w o r l d , and advanced r a t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the causes of m o n s t r o s i t y i n the organism's embryonic h i s t o r y . I t was i n t h i s work, t o o , t h a t he f i r s t c o i n e d the term, " t e r a t o l o g y , " 123 (from the Greek, " d i s c o u r s e " on "monsters") t o denominate t h a t branch of s c i e n c e concerned w i t h o r g a n i c m a l f o r m a t i o n s . Between 1800 and 1850, E n g l i s h s c i e n t i s t s wrote e x t e n s i v e l y — and v a r i o u s l y — o n monstrous phenomena. M e d i c a l j o u r n a l s of the time c o n t a i n numerous r e p o r t s of monstrous b i r t h s , some s t r i c t l y d e s c r i p t i v e i n n a t u r e , and s u b m i t t e d f o r the most p a r t by d o c t o r s who a p p a r e n t l y f e l t a p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o i n f o r m the s c i e n t i f i c community of any cases of m a l f o r m a t i o n which they en- c o u n t e r e d . Many o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s , i n k e e p i n g w i t h e a r l i e r m e t h o d o l o g i e s , r e f e r r e d t o cases o f m o n s t r o s i t y as u s e f u l compar- a t i v e specimens, p u r e l y i n the i n t e r e s t s o f c l a r i f y i n g p a r t i c u l a r p h y s i o l o g i c a l i s s u e s . At the same t i m e , however, t h e r e were those l i k e W i l l i a m Lawrence or A l l e n Thomson who m a n i f e s t e d an i n t e r e s t i n the s u b j e c t o f m o n s t r o s i t y f o r i t s own sake, and who, i n c a s t - i n g the problem i n i t s t h e o r e t i c a l form, endeavoured t o a c q u a i n t r e a d e r s not w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r specimen of m o n s t r o s i t y , but r a t h e r w i t h the g e n e r a l laws which governed i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f a l l cases of p h y s i c a l a b n o r m a l i t y . Among t h e s e a u t h o r s , t h e r e was a shared base of knowledge, and a shared sense of c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the advancement of a p a r t i c u l a r d i s c i p l i n e . Moreover, i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s of m a l f o r m a t i o n , they drew c o n s i s t e n t l y on a r e v i s e d v o c a b u l a r y — t h a t of " o r g a n i z a t i o n , " "development," "anomaly," " a b n o r m a l i t y , " and e m b r y o l o g i c a l " d i s o r d e r . " By the middle o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e n , t e r a t o l o g y had become not merely s c i e n t i f i c , but i n one d o c t o r ' s words, "a d i s t i n c t branch o f s c i e n c e , " a s c i e n c e " c h a r a c t e r i s e d by s p e c i a l and p e c u l i a r f a c t s , and r e g u l a t e d by l a w s , " and one t o which a l l 2 q u e s t i o n s of m o n s t r o s i t y were s u b s e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d . 124 To u n d e r s t a n d the appearance o f t e r a t o l o g y , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to c o n s i d e r i t as p a r t o f a much l a r g e r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n the study of l i f e which o c c u r r e d a t the end of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t - u r y . R e c e n t l y , t h e r e has been much d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g the n a t u r e of t h a t t r a n s i t i o n , and though the i s s u e o f how i t might be s t be a n a l y s e d remains c o n t r o v e r s i a l , t h e r e i s g e n e r a l agree- ment among h i s t o r i a n s t h a t the " q u e s t i o n s men were i n t e r e s t e d i n a n d i t h e types o f e x p l a n a t i o n s they were pr e p a r e d t o a c c e p t " 3 changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y a t t h a t t i m e . A c c o r d i n g t o M i c h e l F o u c a u l t , such m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n e x p l i c i t s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o u r s e were symptom- a t i c o f a deeper r e v o l u t i o n i n t h i n k i n g , o r of what he terms an e p i s t e m i c break, i n which "one deep o r g a n i z i n g mode of thought, the " t a x o n o m i c a l , " was g i v i n g way t o a n o t h e r , the " o r g a n i c - 4 h i s t o r i c a l . " I t was t h i s e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l t r a n s i t i o n , i n F o u c a u l t ' s view, which p e r m i t t e d the c o n s t i t u t i o n o f " l i f e " and contemporaneously, the appearance o f b i o l o g y as the s c i e n c e o f l i f e . Without de n y i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y o f o t h e r types o f a n a l y s i s , I would argue t h a t i t was t h i s same t r a n s f o r m a t i o n which p e r m i t t e d the c o n s t i t u t i o n o f " a b n o r m a l i t y " and the appearance o f t e r a t o l o g y as w e l l . I f , as F o u c a u l t argues, l i f e d i d not e x i s t i n the p e r i o d from 1650 t o 1800, i t was because the c e n t r a l concepts o f b i o l o g y , and most p a r t i c u l a r l y , the n o t i o n s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and d e v e l o p - ment, were u n a v a i l a b l e t o p r e v i o u s n a t u r a l h i s t o r i a n s , whose i n t e r e s t was f o c u s s e d on the e x t e r n a l p r o p e r t i e s o f l i v i n g t h i n g s and upon the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l arrangement of s p e c i e s i n a " s c a l a r , u n i d i m e n s i o n a l h i e r a r c h y " o f beings."' D u r i n g the second h a l f o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , however, as ev i d e n c e d i n Hunter's work 125 i n c o mparative anatomy, t h e r e was a growing c o n c e r n w i t h the i d e a of a n i m a l i t y i t s e l f , as i t was r e v e a l e d i n the i n t e r i o r s t r u c t u r e s and f u n c t i o n s of a l l v a r i e t i e s o f b e i n g . By the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e r e were a number o f s c i e n t i s t s who, f o l l o w i n g C u v i e r ' s l e a d , c o n s i d e r e d a n i m a l l i f e " f a r too c o m p l i c a t e d " t o be con- s t r a i n e d i n terms o f a s i n g l e d e f i n i t i o n o r v i t a l q u a l i t y ; i t was no l o n g e r r e d u c i b l e t o a p r i n c i p l e "superadded" t o the assembly of s t r u c t u r e s and organs i n the animal body. On the c o n t r a r y , l i f e was seen as a p r o p e r t y . o f the whole organism and the r e s u l t o f a number o f i n t e r a c t i n g o r g a n i c p r o c e s s e s . I t was, i n o t h e r words, a complex e x p r e s s i o n o f the e s s e n t i a l i n t e r i o r p r o c e s s e s o f a l i v i n g c r e a t u r e and c o n s t i t u t e d by the i n t e r n a l laws o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . Thus, a c c o r d i n g t o W i l l i a m Lawrence, one o f the f i r s t E n g l i s h proponents o f C u v i e r ' s new s c i e n c e of o r g a n i z a t i o n , the s t u d y o f b i o l o g y had as i t s o b j e c t "the v a r i o u s forms and phenomena of l i f e , the c o n d i t i o n s and laws under which the s t a t e e x i s t s , and the causes which are a c t i v e i n p r o d u c i n g and main- 6 t a m i n g i t . C e n t r a l t o t h i s n o t i o n o f l i f e , and a dominant metaphor i n n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y thought i n g e n e r a l , was the concept o f organ- i z a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o F r a n c o i s Jacob, o r g a n i z a t i o n came t o f u n c - t i o n i n b i o l o g i c a l thought and appeared i n c r e a s i n g l y i n e x p l i c i t s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o u r s e as "a s t r u c t u r e of a h i g h e r o r d e r t o which a l l p e r c e p t i b l e p r o p e r t i e s of organisms were r e f e r r e d . " As he says: Form, a t t r i b u t e s and b e h a v i o r a l l became e x p r e s s i o n s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . By i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n the l i v i n g c o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the n o n - l i v i n g . Through o r g a n i z a - t i o n organs and f u n c t i o n s j o i n e d t o g e t h e r . O r g a n i z a - t i o n assembled the p a r t s o f the organism i n t o a whole, enabled i t t o cope w i t h the demands of l i f e and i n - s p i r e d forms throughout the l i v i n g world.7 126 I n Lawrence's v i e w , l i f e was " i m m e d i a t e l y dependent, p h y s i o - l o g i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , upon o r g a n i z a t i o n . " I n s h o r t , l i f e was p u r p o s i v e , i t s o b j e c t b e i n g t o e x i s t and t o engender e x i s t e n c e ; i t was c o n d i t i o n e d , i n t h a t i t had c o n t i n u a l l y t o respond to e x t e r n a l " c i r c u m s t a n c e s ; " i t was s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g , i n the sense t h a t each l i v i n g t h i n g had a p l a n o f development o r i g i n a t i n g w i t h i n i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n ; and f i n a l l y , inasmuch as organs were "developed, p e r f e c t e d , m o d i f i e d , decayed and d e s t r o y e d " a c c o r d i n g to t h i s i n t e r n a l p l a n , l i f e was h i s t o r i c a l . The i n s i s t e n c e on the h i s t o r i c i t y o f l i f e was a prominent f e a t u r e of b i o l o g i c a l thought i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and one which c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d "modern" b i o l o g y from the work o f " c l a s s i c a l " s c i e n t i s t s . Indeed, perhaps the most s t r i k i n g change which took p l a c e i n the l i f e s c i e n c e s toward the end o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y was the replacement o f c y c l i c a l o r s t a t i c views of n a t u r e by a more h i s t o r i c a l mode of t h i n k i n g . From the e a r l y 1800's, s c i e n t i s t s c o n c e n t r a t e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n l e s s on the c o n d i t i o n s o f b e i n g than on the p r o c e s s e s o f "becoming." I n s o f a r as i t was p e r c e i v e d as p a r t o f a dynamic p r o c e s s , any g i v e n i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t e n c e came t o be d e f i n e d p r i m a r i l y by what had preceded i t . For s c i e n t i s t s such as G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e o r W i l l i a m Lawrence, i n f a c t , a knowledge of l i f e c o u l d not be o t h e r t h a n h i s t o r i c a l , and hence the concept o f development became, a l o n g w i t h o r g a n i z a t i o n , an e s s e n t i a l c o n s t i t u e n t of b i o l o g i c a l s c i e n c e . Nowhere i n b i o l o g i c a l thought was t h i s d e velopmental p h i l o - sophy more c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d t h a n i n the t h e o r y of e p i g e n e s i s , which, i n the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , s u p p l a n t e d p r e f o r m a t i o n 127 as the most w i d e l y adopted i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f f o e t a l development. Though the s p e c i f i c p r o c e s s e s and causes of development remained i s s u e s o f c o n t e n t i o n throughout the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , by the 1820's, the e m b r y o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h e s o f v a r i o u s prominent s c i - e n t i s t s — C . F . W o l f f , J.F. M e c k e l , E t i e n n e S e r r e s , G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e — h a d f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d the r e a l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l de- velopment as opposed t o the p r e f o r m a t i o n i s t i n s i s t e n c e on mere augmentation. By t h e n , t h e r e was g e n e r a l agreement w i t h i n the s c i e n t i f i c community as a whole t h a t the t h e o r y o f p r e f o r m a t i o n , i n L orenz Oken's words, " c o n t r a d i c t [ e d ] the laws of n a t u r e ' s 9 development." Behind t h i s u n e q u i v o c a l r e j e c t i o n o f p r e f o r m a t i o n was a d e n i a l o f g e n e r a t i o n as a s i m p l e p r o d u c t i v e e v e n t , f o r a c c o r d i n g t o e p i g e n e t i c l o g i c , the i r r e f u t a b l e f a c t s of genera- t i o n were " p r o c e s s " and " c o m p l e x i t y . " Or, as W i l l i a m Coleman e x p l a i n s : E p i g e n e s i s d e f i n e s o r g a n i c development as the produc- t i o n i n a c u m u l a t i v e manner of i n c r e a s i n g l y complex s t r u c t u r e s from an i n i t i a l l y more o r l e s s homogeneous m a t e r i a l (the f e r t i l i z e d egg). An a d u l t organism i s thus produced i n e p i g e n e t i c terms by a sequence of e v e r - n e w embryonic f o r m a t i o n s , each f o r m a t i o n b u i l d - i n g on those t h a t went b e f o r e and the whole emerging from the u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f e r t i l i z e d egg. G e n e r a t i o n , t h e n , must i n c l u d e not o n l y the r e p r o d u c t i v e a c t ( e s s e n t i a l l y , f e r t i l i z a t i o n ) but w i l l a l s o embrace t h a t v a s t complex of events t h a t c a r r i e s the d e v e l o p - i n g organism from egg t o a d u l t . 1 0 I n f o c u s s i n g upon j u s t those e v e n t s , and most i m p o r t a n t l y , i n comparing the e m b r y o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s o f v a r i o u s a n i m a l s p e c i e s , n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s were d e e p l y impressed w i t h the tremendous developmental u n i t i e s which were seen t o e x i s t "even between c r e a t u r e s f a r removed from each o t h e r i n the s c a l e of b e i n g . C e r t a i n l y f o r G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e and h i s f o l l o w - e r s , the s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t t r u t h o f b i o l o g y was the " u n i t y 128 o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , " the "symmetry of d e s i g n " which pervaded the animal kingdom. As Stephen Gould s u g g e s t s , t h i s b e l i e f i n the u n i t y o f nature, and i t s laws " p e n e t r a t e d everywhere" and l e d q u i t e n a t u r a l l y to the widespread view t h a t the animal kingdom i t s e l f was an organism, i n a c o n t i n u a l s t a t e o f development from 12 s i m p l e t o more complex s t a t e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . A p a r t i c u l a r l y e x p l i c i t e x p r e s s i o n of t h i s o r g a n i c v i s i o n was o f f e r e d by J.F. Mec k e l , an e a r l y advocate of r e c a p i t u l a t i o n , who argued t h a t "the development of the i n d i v i d u a l organism obeys the same laws as the development of the whole a n i m a l s e r i e s ; t h a t i s t o say, the h i g h e r a n i m a l , i n i t s g r a d u a l development, e s s e n t i a l l y passes 13 through the permanent o r g a n i c stages t h a t l i e below i t . " I t was the r e o r i e n t a t i o n of b i o l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g around t h i s o r g a n i c - h i s t o r i c a l n o t i o n of l i f e w h i ch, i n c o n c e p t u a l terms, made the s c i e n c e o f t e r a t o l o g y p o s s i b l e . I n v e s t i g a t o r s began t o speak of the s c i e n t i f i c laws of m o n s t r o s i t y o n l y as t h i n k i n g about m a l f o r m a t i o n became dominated by the b i o l o g i c a l concepts o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and development. A c c o r d i n g t o W i l l i a m Lawrence, f o r example, p r o b a b l y the f i r s t E n g l i s h s c i e n t i s t t o a p p l y c o n t i - n e n t a l i d e a s of o r g a n i z a t i o n t o the problem o f m o n s t r o s i t y , mon- s t e r s o r " a b e r r a t i o n s of the f o r m a t i v e p r o c e s s , " must be r e f e r r e d " t o the same g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s as the o t h e r d e v i a t i o n s from the h e a l t h y e x e c u t i o n of f u n c t i o n s , " and un d e r s t o o d a c c o r d i n g t o 14 "the common r u l e s a p p l y i n g t o o r g a n i z e d b e i n g s . " For John N o r t h , m o n s t r o s i t y was s c i e n t i f i c a l l y c omprehensible o n l y i n r e f e r e n c e t o o r g a n i z a t i o n , f o r as he s a i d , " the laws g o v e r n i n g the p r o d u c t i o n o f these anomalies must be d e r i v e d from the g e n e r a l laws o r p r i n c i p l e s of organisation.".''"^ S i m i l a r l y , i n 129 G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e ' s view, i t was o n l y a f t e r a l l the o t h e r branches of the " g r e a t s c i e n c e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n " t h a t t e r a t o l o g y 16 was " b o r n . " B e f o r e a t r u e s c i e n c e o f m o n s t r o s i t y c o u l d be c o n t e m p l a t e d , he argued, i t was n e c e s s a r y t h a t the laws of o r g a n i c f o r m a t i o n and the g e n e r a l f a c t s o f a n i m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ( c o n s i d e r e d i n a l l s p e c i e s and ages) be r e v e a l e d . Such, S a i n t - H i l a i r e suggested, was the immense accomplishment of comparative anatomy, which, by r e l a t i n g a d u l t w i t h embryonic forms and by comparing animals w i t h the a d u l t and embryo of v a r i o u s s p e c i e s , had g i v e n r i s e t o the t h e o r y of " u n i t y of o r g a n i c c o m p o s i t i o n , " the f i r s t and most i m p o r t a n t law o f t e r a t o l o g y . What t h i s law a f f i r m e d was t h a t a l l a n i m a l s were formed a c c o r d i n g t o common pro c e s s e s and a common p l a n . To u n d e r s t a n d any g i v e n f o r m a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , and c e r t a i n l y t o u n d e r s t a n d m o n s t r o s i t y , i t was nec- e s s a r y t o r e f e r t o the organism's developmental h i s t o r y . A c c o r d - i n g to John N o r t h , f o r example,, " f o r many ages, thousands upon thousands of cases o f m o n s t r o s i t y were c o l l e c t e d , but i n o r d e r t o understand t h e i r o r i g i n , i t was a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y t o know the t r u e laws of the o r i g i n a l development of the v a r i o u s organs i n the human subject."''" 7 S i m i l a r l y , f o r A l l e n Thomson, a noted n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y e m b r y o l o g i s t , i t was unnecessary t o adduce p r o o f s of. the importance of a knowledge of the laws of f o e t a l development t o the T e r a t o l o g i s t , f o r i t i s now almost u n i v e r s a l l y a d m i t t e d , t h a t every s u c c e s s i v e s t e p which has been made . . . i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the f o r m a t i v e p r o c e s s o f the embryo, has tended t o remove some p a r t of the o b s c u r i t y which belongs t o the h i s t o r y of m a l f o r m a t i o n . An extended and c a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n of t h e s e malforma- t i o n s themselves has shown t h a t , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e i r v a s t number, the same or s i m i l a r forms so f r e q u e n t l y r e t u r n , t h a t they may r e a d i l y admit of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; and a comparison of these forms w i t h those assumed by the same p a r t s of the embryo, at d i f f e r e n t e a r l y s t a g e s o f i t s f o r m a t i o n and development, 130 have p o i n t e d out so many obvious resemblances between them, as t o demonstrate, t h a t , w i t h o u t a c o n s t a n t r e f e r e n c e t o the h i s t o r y of f o e t a l development, the e x a c t n a t u r e or a n a t o m i c a l s t r u c t u r e of m a l f o r m a t i o n s cannot be f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d , and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e i r d i f f e r e n t forms cannot be so a c c u r a t e l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d , as t o admit of t h e i r b e i n g c l a s s i f i e d upon s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s . 1 8 These r e v i s e d b i o l o g i c a l views had immense r e p e r c u s s i o n s on t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the o r i g i n s and causes o f mon- s t r o s i t y . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , they l e d t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the t h e o r y of a r r e s t e d and excess development, which, as i t s name i m p l i e s , d e f i n e d m o n s t r o s i t y i n p u r e l y q u a n t i t a t i v e terms, as cases of d e f i c i e n t o r e x c e s s i v e o r g a n i c development. There was much d i s c u s s i o n among t e r a t o l o g i s t s c o n c e r n i n g who the f i r s t t h e o r i s t o f developmental a r r e s t was. Some noted the i n f l u e n c e of W o l f f , H a l l e r or S e r r e s , and o t h e r s c i t e d J.F. Meckel as i t s o f f i c i a l " f o u n d e r . " A c c o r d i n g to A l l e n Thomson, f o r example, the f i r s t s u g g e s t i o n o f the t h e o r y may be due t o Harvey, but [ i t ] can o n l y be s a i d t o have been d i s t i n c t l y s t a t e d as a g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e by H a l l e r and C.F. W o l f f . The l a s t , M e c k e l , however, must be reg a r d e d as the c h i e f founder o f t h i s view, f o r i t i s t o h i s l a b o u r s more th a n t o those o f any o t h e r s i n g l e o b s e r v e r , t h a t i t owes the s c i e n t i f i c shape i t has i n modern times assumed, and i t s g e n e r a l a d o p t i o n by p h y s i o l o g i s t s . 1 9 The c o n c e r n w i t h a t t r i b u t i n g c r e d i t f o r the o r i g i n s o f p a r t - i c u l a r t h e o r i e s r e f l e c t s a d i s t i n c t i v e l y n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p h i l - osophy about the way s c i e n c e works. However, I would suggest t h a t the t h e o r y of a r r e s t e d development i s b e s t u n d e r s t o o d as a n a t u r a l consequence of a p a r t i c u l a r c o n s t e l l a t i o n of b i o l o g i c a l i d e a s ; the q u e s t i o n of who i n i t i a t e d i t i s not o n l y u l t i m a t e l y unanswerably, but a l s o o f secondary importance. What i s more i m p o r t a n t i s t h a t i t c o n s t i t u t e d a c r e a t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n o f the 131 c u r r e n t n o t i o n s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and development t o the problem o f m o n s t r o s i t y . Indeed, as G. F i s h e r c l a i m e d , i t arose from the meeting of comparative anatomy and embryology, and not from any s i n g l e a c t of g e n i u s : Comparative anatomy was brought t o the a i d o f g e n e r a l and d e s c r i p t i v e anatomy. The m a t u r e l y and n o r m a l l y developed human body was compared w i t h the embryo; the v a r i o u s s p e c i e s o f o r g a n i z e d beings and t h e i r embryos were compared w i t h man, and as a r e s u l t we became a c q u a i n t e d , on the one hand, w i t h the i n t i m a t e s t r u c - t u r e , c o m p o s i t i o n and s c i e n c e o f the human body, and on the o t h e r , w i t h the g e n e r a l f a c t s , p l a n and u n i t y of animal o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a l l i t s m u l t i f o r m genera and s p e c i e s , i n every age. On the s e compre- h e n s i v e views a new t h e o r y o f anomalies and mon- s t r o s i t i e s was founded, v i z : t h a t of a r r e s t and r e t a r d - a t i o n o f development . . . 20 The n o v e l t y o f developmental a r r e s t l a y i n the f a c t t h a t i t d e f i n e d m o n s t r o s i t y n o t so much as an anomaly o f form o r f u n c t i o n , but p r i m a r i l y as an anomaly of development. The b a s i c t e n e t of the t h e o r y was t h a t monsters r e p r e s e n t e d d i s e a s e c o n d i t i o n s r e - s u l t i n g from an abnormal r e t a r d a t i o n , o r sometimes from an e x c e s s , i n normal e p i g e n e t i c development. I n h i s essay on m o n s t r o s i t i e s , John N o r t h e x p l a i n e d t h e t h e o r y i n p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n c i s e terms: A l l the organs a r e formed a t v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the growth of the ovum. At f i r s t each organ i s ex t r e m e l y minute, e x t r e m e l y s i m p l e ; and each a f t e r w a r d s passes through a s e r i e s o f changes i n the p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p - ,ment. When the d i f f e r e n t organs have a r r i v e d a t t h e i r permanent and n a t u r a l s t a t e , some o f them have passed t h r o u g h a g r e a t e r number o f changes than o t h e r s , and have d e v i a t e d from t h e i r o r i g i n a l c o n f o r m a t i o n more than o t h e r s . I n some, the changes are few and un- i m p o r t a n t ; i n o t h e r s , they a r e numerous and i m p o r t a n t . T h i s i s the normal, but not the i n v a r i a b l e law o f development, f o r an organ may sto p o r be e n t i r e l y a b o r t i v e ; o r , on the c o n t r a r y , i t may exceed i t , and thus a r i s e the two g r e a t c l a s s e s o f m o n s t e r s — o n e from a r r e s t o f development, the o t h e r from i t ex- cess . . . A c c o r d i n g t o the law which admits the f o r m a t i o n . . . o f organs, monsters from a r r e s t of development may be c o n s i d e r e d as permanent embryos . . . We see a t the end o f t h e i r i n t r a u t e r i n e l i f e some o f 132 the organs i n the s i m p l e s t a t e i n which t h e y were a t f i r s t formed.21 Developmental a r r e s t was an immensely s u c c e s s f u l and i n f l u - e n t i a l i d e a , and one which s t r u c k n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s i n England, as w e l l as i n France and Germany, as a c o n v i n c i n g e x p l a n a t i o n f o r many o f the observed cases o f m a l f o r m a t i o n . As A l l e n Thomson observed i n 1844: Almost a l l t e r a t o l o g i s t s a re now agreed i n r e f e r r i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f m a l f o r m a t i o n s by d e f e c t t o the o c c u r r e n c e o f an i n t e r r u p t i o n or a r r e s t , as i t has been termed, of some o f the steps o f n a t u r a l f o e t a l . : de- velopment . . . No one who p r o f e s s e s any a c q u a i n t a n c e e i t h e r w i t h embryology o r w i t h the v a r i o u s forms o f m a l f o r m a t i o n can have f a i l e d t o be s t r u c k w i t h the remarkable resemblances between some o f t h e s e malforma- t i o n s and the t r a n s i t o r y c o n d i t i o n s p r e s e n t e d by the embryo or some o f i t s p a r t s i n d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f i t s development.22 By the 1830's, developmental a r r e s t was the most w i d e l y c i t e d e x p l a n a t i o n f o r m o n s t r o s i t y , and i n f a c t came t o f u n c t i o n not merely as a t h e o r y but as one o f the i r r e f u t a b l e p r i n c i p l e s upon which t e r a t o l o g y was b u i l t . I m p l i c i t i n the t h e o r y o f developmental a r r e s t was the n o t i o n 23 t h a t Nature "does n o t h i n g u n d e s i g n e d l y , " t h a t "even malforma- t i o n s a r e governed by c e r t a i n r e g u l a r , d e f i n i t e and s y m m e t r i c a l 24 la w s . " Indeed, one o f the major o b j e c t i v e s o f n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t e r a t o l o g i s t s was t o a r t i c u l a t e the fundamental " l a w s " of t e r a t o l o g y , and a l o n g w i t h developmental a r r e s t , v a r i o u s o t h e r axioms were advanced as the b a s i c g o v e r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f monstrous development. I n g e n e r a l , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y f o u r major " l a w s " which were g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d : 1. The u n i t y o f o r g a n i c c o m p o s i t i o n : I n t r i n s i c t o b o t h b i o l o g i c a l and t e r a t o l o g i c a l t h e o r y , the law o f o r g a n i c u n i t y r e f e r r e d t o the deep o r g a n i z a t i o n a l symmetry which was seen t o 133 pervade the animal kingdom. I t was p r o b a b l y the most commonly a l l u d e d t o p r i n c i p l e i n t e r a t o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g s . I n a c o n c i s e statement of t h i s " f i r s t and most i m p o r t a n t law" o f t e r a t o l o g y , John N o r t h e x p l a i n e d s i m p l y t h a t " the organs o f animals a r e com- posed of p r e c i s e l y the same m a t e r i a l s , a re always e s s e n t i a l l y the 25 same, and are combined a c c o r d i n g t o d e f i n i t e r u l e s . " Comment- i n g on the same p r i n c i p l e , A.M. Adam wrote: T r a n s c e n d e n t a l anatomy has shown us t h a t throughout the whole o f the an i m a l kingdom u n i t y o f o r g a n i s a t i o n i s t he g r e a t p r i n c i p l e g o v e r n i n g the development o f s p e c i e s . A f t e r t h e model o f a g r e a t a r c h e t y p e o r types a l l animals a r e f a s h i o n e d ; and a l t h o u g h t h e i r v a r i o u s s p e c i e s p r e s e n t many d i s t i n c t g e n e r i c c h a r a c t e r s and g r e a t s t r u c t u r a l d i v e r s i t i e s , the u n i t y o f o r g a n i c f o r m a t i o n which has p r e s i d e d over t h e i r development g i v e s r i s e t o many v e r y s t r i k i n g and unexpected a n a l o g i e s . . . I n the v a r i o u s stages o f t h e i r development the h i g h e r animals p r e s e n t t r a n s - i t o r y o r g a n i c resemblances, more or l e s s s t r i k i n g , t o o t h e r s which a r e lower; and the i n f e r i o r animals a g a i n . . . are but the permanent embryos o f s p e c i e s which a re h i g h e r . A remembrance of these f a c t s w i l l e nable us a l l the b e t t e r t o und e r s t a n d t e r a t o l o g i c a l phenomena i n g e n e r a l . . . 26 The importance o f t h i s p r i n c i p l e l a y i n the f a c t t h a t i t rendered a l l s p e c i e s o f m a l f o r m a t i o n open t o s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a - t i o n , and i n so d o i n g , p r o v i d e d r a t i o n a l grounds f o r the t o t a l n a t u r a l i z a t i o n — a n d d e m y s t i f i c a t i o n — o f m o n s t r o s i t y . Most spec- i f i c a l l y , i t enabled s c i e n t i s t s t o account f o r the resemblances o f human m o n s t r o s i t i e s t o v a r i o u s animal f o r m a t i o n s , a phenomenon which, i n the p a s t , had l e d t o a wide range o f t h e o r e t i c a l con- j e c t u r e , from h y b r i d i z a t i o n and d i v i n e i n t e r f e r e n c e t o mat e r n a l i m a g i n a t i o n . However, a c c o r d i n g t o A.M. Adam: Many o f the m a l f o r m a t i o n s o f the human embryo are analogous t o the normal c o n d i t i o n s o f some o f the lower a n i m a l s , — a r r e s t of d i s t u r b a n c e o f i t s d e v e l - opment h a v i n g o c c u r r e d a t a p e r i o d when t h e f o e t u s p r e s e n t e d some o f the s p e c i f i c t r a n s i t o r y o r g a n i c s i m i l a r i t i e s t o which I have a l l u d e d . The shortened 134 l i m b s and d e f i c i e n t arms o f the m a l f o r m a t i o n s c a l l e d phocomeles resemble the c o n d i t i o n o f the e x t r e m i t i e s i n s e a l s and c e r t a i n c e t a c e a ; a d u p l e x u t e r u s , a c l o a c a l f i s s u r e , and a s m a l l - s i z e d b r a i n approximate the deformed embryo t o the c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e r o d e n t i a ; and d i a p h r a g m a t i c incompetency i s analogous t o the normal o r g a n i s a t i o n o f o v i p a r o u s a n i m a l s . These resemblances of t h e malformed f o e t u s t o some o f the lower animals .have :been,.'.by the v u l g a r , a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e e f f e c t s of some i m p r e s s i o n s made on the m a t e r n a l i m a g i n a t i o n d u r i n g pregnancy . . . r a t h e r t h a n to a c c i d e n t a l and m y s t e r i o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s a r r e s t i n g the growth o f the embryo, and t h e r e b y g i v i n g permanence t o c e r t a i n o f i t s r u d i m e n t a r y con- d i t i o n s . 27 For John N o r t h , " o r g a n i c u n i t y " c l e a r l y demonstrated t h a t t h e r e was n o t h i n g i n m o n s t r o s i t y which c o u l d not be e x p l a i n e d by the laws of o r g a n i c f o r m a t i o n . As he e x p l a i n e d : By t h i s law o f u n i t y of type i n the f o r m a t i o n o f anima l s . . . we a r e enabled t o e x p l a i n the r e - semblance t h a t i s so f r e q u e n t l y t r a c e d between the anomalous f o r m a t i o n i n one r a c e o f a n i m a l s , and the n a t u r a l form i n o t h e r s . N o t h i n g i s more common th a n to f i n d t h a t the anomalous s t r u c t u r e o f mon- s t r o u s f o r m a t i o n s , i n man f o r example, r e p r e s e n t s a c c u r a t e l y and.def i h i t e l y the n a t u r a l s t r u c t u r e i n o t h e r a n i m a l s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s law, eve r y animal i n whom t h e r e has been an a r r e s t o f development, ought to r e a l i s e , i n some o f i t s organs, the con- d i t i o n t h a t i s met w i t h among the i n f e r i o r c l a s s e s ; and such i s the c a s e . A g a i n , when t h e r e i s an ex- cess of development, then we f i n d the same resem- b l a n c e between the animals which are the s u b j e c t s of i t , and some b e i n g s t h a t a r e h i g h e r i n the s c a l e . T h i s i s o c c a s i o n a l l y found, but i t i s not so common as are examples o f the human f a m i l y r e - 2g sem b l i n g lower r a c e s , i n consequence o f d e f i c i e n c y . To i l l u s t r a t e these p r o c e s s e s , N o r t h p r o v i d e s numerous examples: Many o f the monstrous f o r m a t i o n s i n man, consequent upon an a r r e s t o f development, bear a marked r e - semblance t o d i f f e r e n t mammalia. For example, the p e r s i s t e n c e o f the t a i l , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of mammalia. I n the e a r l y stages o f the human em- bryo t h e r e i s a n a t u r a l p r o l o n g a t i o n o f the os c o c c y g i s , which i s n e i t h e r more nor l e s s t h a n a t a i l , and which i s u s u a l l y removed i n the pr o c e s s of development . . . I n the pr o c e s s of embryonic l i f e the t a i l ought t o be removed; but i f any c i r - cumstance ta k e s p l a c e i n the e a r l y p e r i o d o f u t e r o - g e s t a t i o n , so as t o a r r e s t o r r e t a r d the 135 development of the embryo, the t a i l may remain. For N o r t h and h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , " o r g a n i c u n i t y " c l e a r l y demon- s t r a t e d t h a t m a l f o r m a t i o n s were n o t , as once b e l i e v e d , b l i n d f r e a k s o f n a t u r e . As such, i t o f f e r e d d e f i n i t e p r o o f f o r the f a c t o f n a t u r e ' s a l l - p e r v a s i v e r e g u l a r i t y , and f o r B r e s c h e t ' s famous a s s e r t i o n t h a t " n o t h i n g i n Nature i s monstrous." 2. The law o f e c c e n t r i c development: On the b a s i s o f the e m b r y o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h c a r r i e d out by S e r r e s and G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e , n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t e r a t o l o g i s t s adopted the view t h a t development proceeds c e n t r i p e t a l l y . As N o r t h argued, t h i s was c o n t r a r y " t o the d o c t r i n e o f H a l l e r and a l l the p h y s i o l o g i s t s of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , " who supposed t h a t " e v e r y v e s s e l and every n e r v e , d i v i d i n g more and more, proceeded from the h e a r t 30 and b r a i n towards the s u r f a c e . " A c c o r d i n g t o the law o f ec- c e n t r i c development, however, the " v e s s e l s and nerves a r e formed b e f o r e the h e a r t and b r a i n . " T h i s meant t h a t anencephaly, a l o n g w i t h o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s i n which i n f a n t s were born w i t h o u t p r i n c i p a l organs, c o u l d be l o g i c a l l y e x p l a i n e d by the t h e o r y o f development- a l a r r e s t . So, t o o , i n Adam's view, c o u l d developmental a r r e s t account f o r those m a l f o r m a t i o n s a r i s i n g from the "non-union" of p a r t s . As he s a i d : A c c o r d i n g t o S e r r e s ' t h e o r y o f " e c c e n t r i c " development, the embryo i s p r i m a r i l y formed from two l a t e r a l h a l v e s , and hence a l l the organs s i t u a t e d c e n t r a l l y , as the h e a r t , u t e r u s , b l a d d e r , e t c . , are o r i g i n a l l y d ouble. Of the c o r r e s p o n d i n g organs o f the two h a l v e s , some are i n t e n d e d t o be u n i t e d , and o t h e r s t o remain d i s - t i n c t and double. Now s h o u l d embryogenesis a t t h i s stage be d i s t u r b e d , the f u t u r e a p p r o p r i a t e c o n d i t i o n s of t h e s e organs may be t o t a l l y d i s o r d e r e d ; and i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t , i n such a c a s e , the n o n - j u n c t i o n o f p a r t s which ought t o be u n i t e d , w i l l as s u r e l y produce a 136 s t r u c t u r a l m a l f o r m a t i o n , as w i l l the f u s i o n of o t h e r s d e s t i n e d t o remain s e p a r a t e . 3 1 3. The law o f compensation o r " o r g a n i c b a l a n c e " : V a r i o u s e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n v e s t i g a t o r s had noted the f a c t t h a t , i n most cases of m o n s t r o s i t y , m a l f o r m a t i o n s d i d not occur s i n g l y , but r a t h e r i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h " c o r r e s p o n d i n g derangements i n o t h e r p a r t s of the system." I n t e r a t o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g s o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h i s phenomenon was e x p l a i n e d i n terms of e x c e s s i v e o r d e f i c i e n t n u t r i t i o n i n the developmental p r o c e s s e s of the organism, by the law o f "compensation." As N o r t h ex- p l a i n e d : Excess o f n u t r i t i o n i n one organ i s proved t o i n v o l v e the t o t a l o r p a r t i a l a t r o p h y of:'another, and v i c e v e r s a . I f one organ be p r e t e r n a t u r a l l y l a r g e , a n o ther i s p r e t e r n a t u r a l l y s m a l l ; o r i f one be p r e t e r n a t u r a l l y s m a l l , we f i n d , by the same law o f compensation, t h a t another i s p r e t e r n a t u r a l l y l a r g e . 3 2 S i m i l a r l y , a c c o r d i n g t o A.M. Adam: . . . i n the m a j o r i t y of i n s t a n c e s [of m o n s t r o s i t y ] , the g e n e r a l law h o l d s good, t h a t the m a l f o r m a t i o n of one p a r t a f f e c t s the development o f o t h e r s i n a g r e a t e r or l e s s e r degree . . . I t would seem as i f , when d e f e c t i v e development o c c u r s i n one p a r t of the body, n a t u r e compensated f o r the a t r o p h y by the i n - c r e a s e d growth of'some o t h e r r e g i o n . . . o r g a n i c h y p e r t r o p h y can o n l y occur i n u t e r o , a t the expense of the n u t r i t i o n o f some o t h e r p a r t . 3 3 R e l a t e d t o t h i s t h e o r y was the i d e a t h a t , s i n c e a l l malform- a t i o n s a r o s e from an i n t e r f e r e n c e i n the development o f a no r m a l l y - f o r m e d organ, "they never w h o l l y l o s e t h e i r normal t y p e s . " I n o t h e r words,"however deformed a p a r t may be, i t never so c o m p l e t e l y l o s e s i t s o r d i n a r y d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 34 as t o d e f y r e c o g n i t i o n . " Thus, argues Adam, "the bones com- p o s i n g the a n e n c e p h a l i c cranium, r u d i m e n t a r y and malformed though they be, a r e a l l s e v e r a l l y d i s t i n c t and ca p a b l e o f r e c o g n i t i o n 137 by the anatomist." Behind t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n was a fundamental be- l i e f i n o r d e r , and a c o n c u r r e n t d e n i a l o f random chance i n the development of m o n s t r o s i t i e s . I n e f f e c t , t h i s c o n s t i t u t e d a d e n i a l of the p o s s i b i l i t y o f " m o n s t r o s i t y " i t s e l f , f o r , t o the e x t e n t t h a t a l l types o f m a l f o r m a t i o n were c o n c e i v e d as d e t e r - minate d e f o r m i t i e s w i t h i n a c o r r e l a t e d o r g a n i c system, t h e r e was no m a l f o r m a t i o n which d e f i e d r a t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n . 4. The a f f i n i t y o f s i m i l a r p a r t s f o r each o t h e r : I n a r g u - i n g a g a i n s t a c c i d e n t a l i s t t h e o r i e s o f m o n s t r o s i t y , i t w i l l be r e - c a l l e d t h a t John Hunter had c i t e d the tremendous r e g u l a r i t i e s which seemed t o govern i n cases of double m o n s t r o s i t y . N i n e - t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t e r a t o l o g i s t s were no l e s s s t r u c k w i t h the f a c t t h a t i n such cases " p a r t s of a s i m i l a r k i n d were i n v a r i a b l y 35 a t t a c h e d to each o t h e r . " I n h i s study of u n i t e d _ t w i n s ^ G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e deduced from t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t h a t " i f two or more organs p e r f e c t l y resemble each o t h e r , they 3 6 seem to have a s t r o n g tendency t o u n i t e and approach." Such 37 "harmony of u n i o n , " argued Adam, "was u n i f o r m and c o n s t a n t . " Thus, A r t e r i e s are never seen c o a l e s c i n g w i t h n e r v e s , nor the a l i m e n t a r y c a n a l w i t h the abdominal a o r t a ; but i n m a l f o r m a t i o n s by d u p l i c i t y , the f u s i o n always t a k e s p l a c e between s i m i l a r p a r t s ; sternum i s u n i t e d t o sternum, v e r t e x t o v e r t e x , p e l v i s t o p e l v i s , and so on. And not o n l y so, but i n such cases the c o r - r e s p o n d i n g organs of the u n i t e d t w i n s a r e j o i n e d t o g e t h e r ; muscle co r r e s p o n d s t o muscle w i t h won- drous c e r t i t u d e , the nerves j o i n n e r v e s , and the a r t e r i e s t h e i r f e l l o w - v e s s e l s . 3 8 A c c o r d i n g t o N o r t h , t h i s " a f f i n i t e de s o i pour s o i " was a p r i n c i p l e " c o n s t a n t and common t o a l l monsters, and i n f l u e n c e d a l l 39 t h e f a c t s o f double m o n s t r o s i t y . " Moreover, i t p r o v i d e d s c i - e n t i s t s w i t h an a b s o l u t e s t a n d a r d f o r a s s e s s i n g the t r u t h of 138 v a r i o u s r e p o r t s o f double m o n s t r o s i t y . As N o r t h s a i d : Knowing t h i s f a c t , we can a t once d i s t i n g u i s h between t r u e cases o f m o n s t r o s i t y and those which a r e a l l e g e d t o have been met w i t h , but which r e a l l y n e ver o c c u r r e d ; we can d i s t i n g u i s h between the f a b u l o u s monsters o f by gone days, and those which r e a l l y e x i s t e d . Many cases of m o n s t r o s i t y r e c o r d e d i n former times were mere f a b l e s . I n many such i n s t a n c e s one head i s r e p r e s e n t e d as growing from the upper, the o t h e r from the i n f e r i o r p a r t o f the body; the back of one was s a i d to be a t t a c h e d t o the b e l l y o f the o t h e r . No such c a s e s , I b e l i e v e , were ever seen. The law r e g a r d i n g the f o r m a t i o n o f double monsters i s u n i v e r - s a l and i n v a r i a b l e . . . 40 A l t h o u g h the p r e c e d i n g d e s c r i p t i o n p r o v i d e s o n l y a summary of the t e r a t o l o g i c a l laws which were r e c o g n i z e d by n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s , i t s u f f i c e s t o i l l u s t r a t e b o th the p r i o r r o l e which t e r a t o l o g i s t s g e n e r a l l y a t t a c h e d t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r m o n s t r o s i t y , as w e l l as t h e i r uncompromising i n s i s t e n c e upon the r e g u l a r i t y o f monstrous phenomena. As mal- f o r m a t i o n s were p e r c e i v e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the laws of embryology, i t became m a n i f e s t l y c l e a r t h a t they were r e s t r i c t e d t o c e r t a i n d e t e r m i n a t e and r e c u r r e n t t y p e s , and hence c o u l d be s c i e n t i f i c a l l y c l a s s i f i e d . The laws of embryology, argued S a i n t - H i l a i r e , i n d e t e r m i n i n g the number of phases of development of an organism, a l s o determine the p o s s i b l e number of anomalies by a r r e s t so t h a t " o n l y c e r t a i n t y p e s o f m a l f o r m a t i o n " — i n compliance w i t h 41 the laws of anomalous f o r m a t i o n — " a r e p o s s i b l e ; " Such mal- f o r m a t i o n s , i t was acknowledged, r e c u r r e d r e g u l a r l y throughout the animal kingdom. A c c o r d i n g t o George F i s h e r , f o r example, t h e r e a r e " c e r t a i n w e l l marked t e r a t i c a l forms, which may be r e g a r d e d as t y p e s , which have o c c u r r e d among the lower a n i m a l s , i n common w i t h man, w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o s p e c i e s , n a t i o n , g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a -42 t i o n , or t i m e , and which have been reproduced a g a i n and a g a i n . " 139 Impressed by t h i s f a c t of i n v a r i a b l e c o n s t a n c y , v a r i o u s t e r a - t o l o g i s t s concerned themselves w i t h the problem of a r r a n g i n g m a l f o r m a t i o n s i n t o d e f i n e d c l a s s e s , o r d e r s , genera and s p e c i e s , w i t h each type o b j e c t i v e l y d e s i g n a t e d under i t s a p p r o p r i a t e t e r a t o l o g i c a l t i t l e . And though s c i e n t i s t s d i s a g r e e d on the p a r t i c u l a r s o f v a r i o u s systems o f arrangement, t h e r e was u n i v e r - s a l r e c o g n i t i o n not o n l y of the p o s s i b i l i t y but a l s o of the n e c e s s i t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g a s c i e n t i f i c system of t e r a t o l o g i c a l 43 nomenclature and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I f d e velopmental a r r e s t p r o v i d e d a s o l i d t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r e x p l a i n i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g m a l f o r m a t i o n s , however, i t d i d not d i s p e l a l l the m y s t e r i e s of t e r a t o l o g i c a l development. The one major q u e s t i o n which remained "beyond the r e a c h " o f t e r a t o l o g y was what t r i g g e r e d d evelopmental a r r e s t s and excesses i n the f i r s t 44 p l a c e . To account f o r the immediate causes of d i s t u r b a n c e s , v a r i o u s p r o p o s a l s were advanced, i n c l u d i n g d i s e a s e , h e r e d i t a r y t r a n s m i s s i o n , m e c h a n i c a l v i o l e n c e and the i n f l u e n c e o f some po w e r f u l " m o r a l " emotion i n the mother. While those w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge o f embryology r e - j e c t e d the " p h o t o g r a p h i c " t h e o r y o f d i r e c t m a t e r n a l i m a g i n a t i o n , i t was g e n e r a l l y a d m i t t e d t h a t the mother's e m o t i o n a l s t a t e , t o the e x t e n t t h a t i t a f f e c t e d o r g a n i c f u n c t i o n s , might a l s o i n f l u e n c e f o e t a l development i n a more n o n - s p e c i f i c way. I n an a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n The Lancet i n 1840, f o r example, the a u t h o r , an anonymous c o n t r i b u t o r , p r e s e n t e d the f o l l o w i n g argument: Without h o l d i n g the v u l g a r o p i n i o n which a t t r i b u t e s a l l anomalies and monstrous developments t o i m p r e s s i o n s made on the mind of the mother d u r i n g .pregnancy, and w i t h o u t f o r an i n s t a n t a d m i t t i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of the f o e t u s assuming the e x a c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the o b j e c t 140 p r o d u c t i v e o f f r i g h t , we may, I t h i n k , admit t h a t sudden and s t r o n g emotions . . . may not be w i t h o u t e f f e c t s on the development of the human ovum. Is i t , i n d e e d , not r a t i o n a l t o suppose t h a t the u t e r u s , the i r r i t a b i l i t y o f which i s so much e x a l t e d d u r i n g pregnancy, as w e l l as i t s c o n t e n t s , and the s t r u c t u r e s connected w i t h i t , s h o u l d have t h e i r f u n c t i o n s a f f e c t e d by a moral shock r e c e i v e d by the g r e a t nervous centre?4-> S i m i l a r l y , A l l e n Thomson, though he was more i n c l i n e d t o t r a c e a r r e s t s t o some o r i g i n a l c o n d i t i o n of the germ, d i d not deny the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s of mind upon body: A c c o r d i n g t o Thomson, sudden or v i o l e n t changes i n the f u n c t i o n s of the mother, derangements of the g e n e r a l c i r c u l a t i o n , nervous a f f e c t a t i o n s and o t h e r c i r - cumstances which tend t o d i s t u r b the u t e r i n e f u n c t i o n s , may be l i a b l e to o c c a s i o n i n j u r y t o the f o e t u s , and any v i o l e n t a f f e c t a t i o n o f the mind of a pregnant woman, i n s o f a r as i t tends t o derange the b o d i l y f u n c t i o n s , may produce some e f f e c t on the n u t r i t i o n of the c h i l d . ^ Thomson was e q u a l l y r e c e p t i v e t o the f e a s i b i l i t y o f mech- a n i c a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g development, and i n f a c t , d u r i n g the 1830's, performed a s e r i e s o f e x p e r i m e n t s , l i k e those under- t a k e n by S a i n t - H i l a i r e , t o t e s t the e f f e c t o f v a r i o u s e x t e r n a l f o r c e s upon the embryo: By p l a c i n g eggs d u r i n g i n c u b a t i o n i n u n n a t u r a l p o s i t i o n s . . . or by c o v e r i n g d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f the s h e l l w i t h wax . . . , G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e found t h a t he c o u l d . . . cause d i s t u r b a n c e t o the p r o c e s s of development . . . and t h a t not u n f r e q u e n t l y the mode of development of the embryo was . . . a f f e c t e d . I n 1833 and 1834, I made s e v e r a l s e r i e s o f experiments of the same k i n d . . . and w i t h a s i m i l a r r e s u l t . . . But t h e s e appearances . . . cannot be s a i d t o a f f o r d examples of more th a n a v e r y l i m i t e d k i n d o f abnormal development, and are v e r y d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e c o n s t a n t and now well-known forms of m a l f o r m a t i o n which are g e n e r a l l y a s c r i b e d t o a r r e s t of development. I t cannot be d e n i e d , however, t h a t the experiments of the G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e s , and my own, i l l u s t r a t e i n some measure, the e x t e n t t o which some m u t i l a t i o n s o f the embryo may owe t h e i r o r i g i n t o 141 m e c h a n i c a l causes a c t i n g d u r i n g development. . . Such o b s e r v a t i o n s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , however, the m a j o r i t y o f cases o f developmental a r r e s t , Thomson surm i s e d , i n d i c a t e d "an o r i g i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n o f the ovum o r germ as the cause of t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n . 1 The i d e a o f c e r t a i n germs b e i n g p r e d i s p o s e d t o m a l f o r m a t i o n l e f t a g r e a t d e a l u n e x p l a i n e d , but i t s t r u c k Thomson as a l i k e l y h y p o t h e s i s , c o m p a t i b l e b o t h w i t h d e v e l o p m e n t a l i s m and w i t h ob- s e r v a t i o n s o f the h e r e d i t a r y t r a n s m i s s i o n o f m o n s t r o s i t y . I n any case, w h i l e the q u e s t i o n o f what p r e c i p i t a t e d developmental a b n o r m a l i t i e s was not (and has not s i n c e been) f i n a l l y r e s o l v e d , the t h e o r y o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l a r r e s t d i d a t l e a s t p r o v i d e t e r a - t o l o g i s t s w i t h a r a t i o n a l means o f e x p l a i n i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g m a l f o r m a t i o n s . As S a i n t - H i l a i r e argued, the " i n g e n i o u s t h e o r y of a r r e s t , " though i t d i d not " i l l u m i n a t e the e f f i c i e n t causes of m o n s t r o s i t y , " a t l e a s t "threw l i g h t on i t s proximate c a u s e s , " and i f i t " d i d not g i v e us immediate means t o e x p l a i n m a l f orma - r : . . . t i o n s , " i t d i d p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y " f a c t s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r 49 n a t u r e and f o r m a t i o n . " The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f these b i o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s had v e r y deep i m p l i c a t i o n s . Most o b v i o u s l y , they d i s c r e d i t e d , i n a v e r y d e c i s i v e manner, the i d e a of monsters as i r r e g u l a r b e i n g s . In p l a c e of t h i s view, a s s e r t e d G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e , was sub- s t i t u t e d the " t r u e r , more p h i l o s o p h i c a l n o t i o n " o f b e i n g s im- peded i n t h e i r development and i n whom the organs of the embryo have been conserved u n t i l b i r t h . A c c o r d i n g t o John N o r t h , "the t h e o r y o f the f r e q u e n t a r r e s t and r e t a r d a t i o n o f o r g a n i c development"was the major f a c t o r i n f i n a l l y f r e e i n g the study o f m o n s t r o s i t y from the e r r o r s of t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f : i t "has l e d 142 t o sound views and the g r e a t p r o g r e s s t h a t has now been made i n the s u b j e c t of monsters, the phenomena h a v i n g been f o r m e r l y almost u n i v e r s a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o some a c c i d e n t a l d e v i a t i o n from the t r a c k o f N a t u r e . H o w e v e r , as he e x p l a i n e d , an e x a m i n a t i o n " o f o r i g i n a l development" has demonstrated t h a t monsters are by no means c o n t r a r y t o Nature's l a w s , but r e g u l a r p a t h o l o g i c a l d e v i a t i o n s i n normal development. Thus, i n p l a c i n g anomalous appearances as abnormal events i n embryology, developmental a r r e s t gave to m o n s t r o s i t y the d e f i n i t e s i g n i f i c a t i o n , not of s u b v e r t e d n a t u r a l law, but r a t h e r , o f d i s e a s e . F o r , as Canguilhem p o i n t e d o u t , once the e t i o l o g y and p a t h o l o g y o f mal- f o r m a t i o n s were known, the anomalous was i d e n t i f i e d i r r e v o c a b l y 52 w i t h the p a t h o l o g i c a l . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , i m p l i c i t i n the t h e o r y of developmental a r r e s t was the view t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i n Nature o c c u r r e d a c c o r d i n g t o uniformly.regular p r i n c i p l e s , and t h a t , i n c o n f o r m i n g t o the same n a t u r a l l a w s, the p a t h o l o g i c a l was i n essence i d e n t i c a l t o the n o r m a l — a n d e q u a l l y s u b j e c t t o s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y . Indeed, to the e x t e n t t h a t monsters were reduced t o specimens o f a r r e s t e d o r e x c e s s i v e development, they were rendered b a s i c a l l y a l i k e normal- l y developed b e i n g s , the d i f f e r e n c e between them b e i n g r e - s t r i c t e d t o a m a t t e r o f q u a n t i t y r a t h e r than k i n d . Through t h i s d e n i a l o f the a u t h e n t i c i t y o f q u a l i t a t i v e knowledge, the boundary between the normal and the abnormal, i n b e i n g made t o appear i l l u s o r y , was e f f e c t i v e l y e r a s e d . A c c o r d i n g t o Canguilhem, i t was i n the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a t t h e r e a l " i d e n t i t y o f the normal and the p a t h o l o g i c a l , a p p a r e n t l y so d i f f e r e n t , and g i v e n opposing v a l u e s by human e x p e r i e n c e , became a k i n d o f 143 s c i e n t i f i c a l l y guaranteed dogma." At t h a t t i m e , t h e r e was a g e n e r a l acceptance of the t h e s i s t h a t " p a t h o l o g i c a l phenomena are i d e n t i c a l t o c o r r e s p o n d i n g normal phenomena save f o r q u a n t i t a t i v e v a r i a t i o n s . " T h i s meant t h a t the concept o f mon- s t r o s i t y , once d e f i n e d i n q u a l i t a t i v e term o f s t r u c t u r a l " d i f f e r e n c e " became n a t u r a l i z e d i n the t e r m i n o l o g y o f s c i e n c e as a d e t e r m i n a t e m a t t e r o f measurable p h y s i o l o g i c a l " d e v i a n c e . " U l t i m a t e l y , i t was t h i s q u a n t i f i c a t i o n o f a b n o r m a l i t y which made i t p o s s i b l e f o r t e r a t o l o g i s t s t o speak o f the " g r e a t p r o g r e s s " t h a t had been made i n the study o f m o n s t r o s i t y . For j u s t as p r o g r e s s i n knowledge o f the p h y s i c a l w o r l d c o n s i s t e d i n con- s i d e r i n g a l l movements as n a t u r a l , t h a t i s , as conforming t o the laws of n a t u r e , so too d i d " p r o g r e s s " i n b i o l o g i c a l knowledge c o n s i s t i n u n i f y i n g the laws o f h e a l t h y l i f e and p a t h o l o g i c a l i • f 54 l i f e . I n the i n t e r e s t s o f r e d u c i n g monsters t o n a t u r a l o b j e c t s o f p a t h o l o g y , a major aim o f the t e r a t o l o g i c a l program i n the n i n e - t e e n t h c e n t u r y was t o r e s t r i c t t he study o f monsters t o an i n - v e s t i g a t i o n based p u r e l y on o b j e c t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e forms of knowledge. C e r t a i n l y , t h i s i s apparent i n the p r o l i f e r a t i o n 55 o f s t a t i s t i c a l s t u d i e s which were und e r t a k e n from the 1820's, but nowhere i s i t more e v i d e n t t h a n i n the d e s i g n a t i v e language f o r m u l a t e d by t e r a t o l o g i s t s t o d i s c u s s anomalous phenomena. The language of n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s was, i n f a c t , r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r i a n s i n the l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h and e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . I n d e s c r i b i n g a case o f con- j o i n e d t w i n s i n 1670, f o r example, Jacomo G r a n d i e x p l a i n e d t h a t 144 the t w i n s were j o i n e d i n such a way t h a t they "seem'd t o k i s s 5 6 one a n o t h e r ; " I n 1810, Benjamin Gibson p r o v i d e d a much more o b j e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f a s i m i l a r double monster, s t a t i n g mere- 57 l y t h a t "the l i p s came i n c o n t a c t . " U n t i l around 1750, i n f a c t i n v e s t i g a t o r s spoke of m o n s t r o s i t y i n a h i g h l y " e x p r e s s i v e " l a n g uage. Most o f t e n , monsters were d e s c r i b e d i n terms of what C h a r l e s T a y l o r has c a l l e d " s u b j e c t - r e l a t e d p r o p e r t i e s , " t h a t i s , " p r o p e r t i e s t h a t t h i n g s have i n the e x p e r i e n c e o f s u b j e c t s , and 58 which wouldn't e x i s t i f s u b j e c t s of e x p e r i e n c e d i d n ' t e x i s t . " I n t h e i r r e p o r t s o f monstrous b i r t h s , n a t u r a l h i s t o r i a n s t y p i c a l drew from a common s e t of a d j e c t i v e s — s u c h as p r o d i g i o u s , wonder f u l , a s t o n i s h i n g , amazing, s u r p r i s i n g , amusing, t e r r i b l e , f r i g h t e n i n g — a l l o f which, i n m a n i f e s t i n g f e e l i n g , r e f e r r e d t o the ex- p e r i e n c e of s u b j e c t s . Moreover, i n d e s c r i b i n g p a r t i c u l a r mal- f o r m a t i o n s , they r e l i e d h e a v i l y on s u b j e c t i v e i m p r e s s i o n s : one 59 reads of a monstrous c a l f w i t h a " C e r b e r u s - l i k e " tongue, con- 6 0 j o i n e d t w i n s " h o l d i n g each o t h e r , as i n Loving-manner," a g i r l 61 w i t h f i n g e r s bent l i k e Turkey's Claws," and a monstrous c h i l d 6 2 w i t h " Excrescences as i f i t were a r t i f i c i a l L a c e s . " At the same t i m e , s i n c e m a l f o r m a t i o n s were not seen t o r e - c u r i n r e g u l a r c l a s s e s , t h e r e was l i t t l e s p e c i a l i z e d v o c a b u l a r y t o d e s i g n a t e p a r t i c u l a r k i n d s o f m o n s t r o s i t y . I f w r i t e r s wished t o c o n f e r e x a c t i n f o r m a t i o n about the s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the monster i n q u e s t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , they were o b l i g e d t o employ a n a t o m i c a l language (as i n a monstrous c h i l d w i t h o u t a b r a i n ) or q u a n t i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s such as": the weight whereof was e i g h t pounds and a q u a r t e r ; the C i r c u m f e r e n c e of the l e f t head was about 145 e l e v e n I n c h e s , t h a t o f the r i g h t b e i n g h a l f an Inch l e s s . The C i r c u m f e r e n c e o f the Trunk was about s i x t e e n Inches and a q u a r t e r ; and the l e n g t h of b o t h , from head t o f o o t , was f u l l e i g h t e e n t h i n c h e s and an h a l f . 6 3 Other t i m e s , and most commonly, they employed metaphor t o con- vey an image of a p a r t i c u l a r f o r m a t i o n : I t was not easy t o t h i n k o f any S o r t o f S k i n , or n a t u r a l Integument, t h a t e x a c t l y resembled i t . Some compared i t t o the Bark o f a Tree; o t h e r s thought i t l o o k e d l i k e S e a l - S k i n ; o t h e r s l i k e the H i d e " o f . t h e E l e p h a n t ^ or the S k i n about the Legs of the R h i n o c e r o s ; and some took i t t o be l i k e a g r e a t Wart . '. . The b r i s t l y P a r t s . . . l o o k e d and r u s t l e d l i k e the B r i s t l e s , o r Q u i l l s , o f an Hedge-Hog. ( 1 7 3 2 ) 6 * From around the middle of the c e n t u r y , and i n c r e a s i n g l y a f t e r the e a r l y 1800's, t h i s k i n d o f m e t a p h o r i c a l language d e c l i n e d i n f a v o r o f a much more o b j e c t i v e and p r e c i s e t e r m i n o l o g y . Indeed, i f the s c i e n t i z a t i o n o f m o n s t r o s i t y i n v o l v e d changes i n s c i e n - t i f i c t h e o r y and c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , i t was a l s o n e c e s s a r i l y a l i n g u i s t i c " e v e n t , " i n which a d e s i g n a t i v e language o f t e r a t o l o g y g r a d u a l l y assumed primacy over an e x p r e s s i v e language of wonder i n the o r d e r o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n . W r i t i n g i n 1741 on the s u b j e c t o f H ermaphrodites, f o r example, James Parsons e x p r e s s e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the c h o i c e o f words a v a i l a b l e t o him, and so c o i n e d a more a p p r o p r i a t e L a t i n a t e term, which would not o n l y p r o v i d e an e f f i c i e n t d e s i g n a t i o n , b u t would a l s o e l i m i n a t e any e x t r a - s c i e n t i f i c meaning: As some Words are o f t e n r e p e a t e d t h r o u g h the whole Essay, I c o u l d not a v o i d t a k i n g the L i b e r t y o f f o r m i n g the a d j e c t i v e Word M a c r o c l i t o r i d e u s , w h i c h , tho' not i n Use b e f o r e . . . i s h i g h l y n e c e s s a r y here f o r two Reasons; f i r s t , because i t i s a s h o r t Way o f e x p r e s s i n g what, i n E n g l i s h , would be a c o n s i d e r a b l e Sentence; and s e c o n d l y , a much more decent Term . . . where the E n g l i s h word might be l e s s agreeable.65 146 C e r t a i n l y , among l a t e r e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a u t h o r s , Parsons' c o n c e r n f o r o b j e c t i f y i n g the language of m o n s t r o s i t y i s v e r y e v i d e n t . I n the w r i t i n g s of s c i e n t i s t s such as John Hunter or Matthew B a i l l i e , i t i s most o f t e n o b j e c t i v e a n a t o m i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n and not metaphor which s e r v e s as the s t a n d a r d form of d e s c r i b i n g monstrous specimens. A t y p i c a l example i s Matthew B a i l l i e ' s ac-; count of a t r a n s p o s e d v i s c e r a (1788) i n which he w r i t e s : The l i v e r was s i t u a t e d i n the l e f t h y p o c h o n d r i a c r e g i o n , the s m a l l l o b e b e i n g towards the r i g h t , and the g r e a t l o b e i n the l e f t - s i d e . The l i g a m e n t s u n i t i n g i t t o the diaphragm corresponded t o t h i s change, the r i g h t t r a n s v e r s e l i g a m e n t b e i n g l o n g e r , and the l e f t be- i n g s h o r t e r , than u s u a l . The suspensory l i g a m e n t c o u l d undergo l i t t l e change. . . the g a l l b l a d d e r was seen on the l e f t - s i d e p r e s e r v i n g i t s p r o p e r r e l a t i v e s i t u a t i o n t o the g r e a t l o b e ; o f the l i v e r , and the v e s s e l s o f the p o r t a e were found t o be t r a n s p o s e d c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the change of c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The hep- a t i c a r t e r y was found c l i m b i n g up o b l i q u e l y from the f i g h t towards the l e f t , b e f o r e the l o b u l u s s p i g e l i i . . . The ductus communis c h o l i d o c h u s was on the l e f t of the o t h e r v e s s e l s , b e i n g formed from the ductus h e p a t i c u s and ductus c y s t i c u s i n the common way . . . °" I n such a c c o u n t s , the wonder a d j e c t i v e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y w r i t i n g were seldom used t o d e s c r i b e monstrous f o r m a t i o n s . I n s t e a d , i n v e s t i g a t o r s r e l i e d on a l e s s e x p r e s s i v e range o f m o d i f i e r s such as u n u s u a l , uncommon, i m p e r f e c t o r d e f e c t i v e . D u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e s e l i n g u i s t i c t r e n d s became even more pronounced. Convinced of the need t o e s t a b l i s h a one-to-one correspondence between word and r e f e r e n t , t e r a t o l o g i s t s sought t o f o r m u l a t e an e x a c t , t r a n s p a r e n t t e r m i n o l o g y which would a l l o w them t o d e s c r i b e monsters not i n terms of what they were l i k e , but r a t h e r , i n terms of what they were. There was, i n con- sequence, a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of new t e r m i n o l o g y t o d e s i g n a t e p a r t i c u l \ 147 m a l f o r m a t i o n s , as w e l l as t o name the hundreds o f d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s o f m o n s t r o s i t y . I n the case o f double monsters, f o r ex- ample, S a i n t - H i l a i r e d e s i g n a t e d s e v e r a l r e c u r r i n g t y p e s , i n - c l u d i n g Ensomphalia, Monomphalia, S y c e p h a l i a , M o n o c e p h a l i a , Sys- 6 7 omia, Monosomia, H e t e r o t y p i a , H e t e r a l i a , P o l y g n a t h i a , e t c . S i m i l a r l y , i n h i s l e c t u r e on monsters, John N o r t h enumerated a wide range o f m a l f o r m a t i o n s and d e s i g n a t e d each a c c o r d i n g t o i t s p r o p e r t e r a t o l o g i c a l l a b e l : D isplacement o f the b r a i n i s by no means uncommon, c o n s t i t u t i n g h e r n i a c e r e b r i o r e n c e p h a l o c e l e . . . Exomphalos,. o r u m b i l i c a l h e r n i a , may o c c a s i o n a l l y a r i s e a f t e r b i r t h . . . but g e n e r a l l y . . . i s a p r i m i t i v e m a l f o r m a t i o n . The h a i r o f the e y e l a s h e s i s sometimes t u r n e d i n a t b i r t h , c o n s t i t u t i n g what i s termed t r i c h i a s i s . . . I r r e g u l a r openings o f the male u r e t h r a are by no means uncommon . . . Sometimes i t opens a t the upper p a r t o f the p e n i s , c o n s t i t u t i n g a s p e c i e s o f m a l f o r m a t i o n t e c h n i c a l l y termed e p i - s p a d i a s ; a t o t h e r times the opening i s on the lower p a r t o f the p e n i s , c o n s t i t u t i n g a n o t h e r s p e c i e s of m a l f o r m a t i o n , c a l l e d hypospadias . . • . 68 In k e e p i n g w i t h t h e i r e f f o r t s t o d e m y s t i f y a b n o r m a l i t y , t e r a t o l o - g i s t s a v o i d e d words l i k e p r o d i g y , wonder or c u r i o s i t y and r e - commended cases o f m a l f o r m a t i o n as " i n t e r e s t i n g " o r " i n s t r u c t i v e " "specimens" o f "anomalous" o r "abnormal" growth. At the same time as the language used t o d e s c r i b e monstrous phenomena was becoming more o b j e c t i v e , the s i g n i f i c a t i o n of the term, "monster" was i t s e l f i n f l u x . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t , throughout the se v e n t e e n t h and e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , monsters had been d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o the t w i n c r i t e r i a o f s t r u c t u r e and appearance. I n o t h e r words, any apparent i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n s t r u c t u r e , whether they o c c u r r e d i n a n i m a l s , v e g e t a b l e s o r c r y s - t a l s , c o n s t i t u t e d a m o n s t r o s i t y . I n f u s e d as i t was w i t h images of d i s o r d e r and i r r e g u l a r i t y , the word c a r r i e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e 148 c o n n o t a t i v e l o a d . Towards the end of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , v a r i o u s s c i e n t i s t s began t o c h a l l e n g e t o t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f m o n s t r o s i t y , and w h i l e the term remained ambiguous t h r o u g h - out the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i t s meaning was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e - s t r i c t e d . A c c o r d i n g t o Matthew B a i l l i e , f o r example, i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g what was monstrous from what was n o t , s t r u c t u r e i n i t s e l f was no l o n g e r an a c c u r a t e c r i t e r i o n . Commenting on the man w i t h the t r a n s p o s e d v i s c e r a , he argued: I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o t h i n k , t h a t n a t u r e s h o u l d f o l l o w some g e n e r a l p l a n i n her o p e r a t i o n s . There i s some e f f e c t which she has i n view, and she w i l l g e n e r a l l y employ the same means t o produce i t . I n the s t r u c t u r e o f any a n i m a l , h er view i s t o form such a c o m b i n a t i o n of p a r t s as t o r e n d e r the animal f i t t e d f o r c e r t a i n purposes. She w i l l commonly form the same c o m b i n a t i o n where the same purposes are t o be s e r v e d ; o r , i n o t h e r words, t h e r e w i l l be the same s t r u c t u r e i n the same s p e c i e s of a n i m a l s . The same e f f e c t , however, may be produced w i t h o u t a s t r i c t adherence t o the employment o f the same means . . . and t h e r e f o r e t h e r e i s no r e a s o n why n a t u r e s h o u l d not sometimes d e v i a t e from her o r d i n a r y p l a n s . A c c o r d i n g l y we f i n d t h e r e i s much v a r i e t y i n a n i m a l s t r u c t u r e ; but t h i s does not commonly a f f e c t the an i m a l f u n c t i o n s . In B a i l l i e ' s v i e w , t h a t w h i c h , by v i r t u e o f u n u s u a l s t r u c t u r e , appeared to be monstrous, was not i n a c t u a l i t y so. On the con- t r a r y , so l o n g as the f u n c t i o n s o f l i f e were not a f f e c t e d , such a b e i n g c o n s t i t u t e d not a m o n s t r o s i t y (as p r e v i o u s a u t h o r s had s u g g e s t e d ) , but merely a v a r i e t y o f an i m a l s t r u c t u r e . The term monster, he suggested, s h o u l d be r e s t r i c t e d t o those " g r e a t d e v i a t i o n s which n a t u r e produces i n the s t r u c t u r e of an a n i m a l , " by which "the a n i m a l becomes o f t e n u n f i t f o r c o n t i n u i n g i t s e x i s t e n c e . " 7 ^ Thus, f o r B a i l l i e , m o n s t r o s i t y was not so much a ma t t e r o f uncommon s t r u c t u r e as i t was a matter o f i m p a i r e d , o r n o n - v i a b l e f u n c t i o n s . 149 Among n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s , t h i s p h y s i o l o g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n of m o n s t r o s i t y was w i d e l y adopted. I n W i l l i a m Lawrence's view, f o r example, m o n s t r o s i t y was by no means a s i m p l e concept o f v i s i b l e form: I n p a r t s . . . where one model i s g e n e r a l l y adhered t o , d e v i a t i o n s o c c a s i o n a l l y t a k e p l a c e : these a b e r r a t i o n s from the accustomed type a r e c a l l e d by a n a t o m i s t s v a r i e t i e s . . . When the b o d y , i n g e n e r a l , o r some l a r g e and conspicuous p a r t o f i t , d e v i a t e s from the accustomed f o r m a t i o n , which d e v i a t i o n i s accompanied g e n e r a l l y w i t h i m p e r f e c t i o n " i n some of the f u n c t i o n s , the c r e a t u r e i s c a l l e d a monster.71 S i m i l a r l y , a c c o r d i n g t o G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e , the wide range o f ma l f o r m a t i o n s which o c c u r r e d i n n a t u r e were not "monstrous" but "anomalous," and w h i l e he o c c a s i o n a l l y used the term monster, i t was o n l y i n r e f e r e n c e t o those organisms which were so d e f i c i e n t o r e x c e s s i v e as t o be " u n v i a b l e . " I n s h o r t , f o r . n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s , i t was p r i m a r i l y v i a b i l i t y and not s t r u c t u r e which s e r v e d as the c r i t e r i o n f o r d e f i n i n g a monster. I f some a u t h o r s sought t o r e s t r i c t t he meaning o f the term monster to an o b j e c t i v e m a t t e r o f b i o l o g i c a l f a c t ( i . e . o f v i a b l e v s . n o n - v i a b l e s t r u c t u r e s ) , t h e r e were tho s e who went f u r t h e r , and suggested t h a t the word be removed a l t o g e t h e r from s c i e n t i - f i c d i s c o u r s e . I n h i s 1775 account o f an acephalous b i r t h , W i l l i a m Cooper wrote: I n c o n f o r m i t y t o the g e n e r a l language o f a u t h o r s , I have i n t h i s essay o c c a s i o n a l l y adopted the use o f the term monster. There i s , however, something i n t h a t word e x t r e m e l y repugnant t o our common f e e l i n g s , and v e r y apt t o l e a v e a t e r r i f y i n g i m p r e s s i o n upon the mind. Why may not the Author o f B e i n g sometimes p r o - duce v a r i a t i o n s i n the human s p e c i e s , as w e l l as i n the animal and v e g e t a b l e kingdoms, and e q u a l l y exempt too from such f r i g h t f u l a p p e l l a t i o n s ? 7 2 A c c o r d i n g t o Cooper, s i n c e monster evoked too many v u l g a r images, i t would be more a p p r o p r i a t e , " i n the p r e s e n t i n s t a n c e , and 150 every s i m i l a r one," s i m p l y t o "explode the common term." By the 1840's, though monster was s t i l l w i d e l y used i n s c i e n t i f i c w r i t i n g s t o denote s e r i o u s l y malformed organisms, more n e u t r a l terms, such as m a l f o r m a t i o n , unusual f o r m a t i o n , and i m p e r f e c t o r g a n i z a t i o n s were much more common. J u s t as the language of m o n s t r o s i t y became much more s c i - e n t i f i c a l l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d , so too were v a r i o u s t o p i c s e x c l u d e d from the s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o u r s e on m o n s t r o s i t y . Indeed, as s c i - e n t i s t s sought t o n a t u r a l i z e monsters as o b j e c t s o f d i s e a s e , the range o f concerns which they c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r i n q u i r y was c o n s i d e r a b l y narrowed. F or the most p a r t , t e l e o - l o g i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n s were removed from the t e r a - t o l o g i c a l agenda, not o n l y because such i n t e r e s t s were p e r i p h e r a l t o s c i e n c e , - b u t a l s o on the grounds t h a t they c o n s t i t u t e d po- t e n t i a l impediments t o the g e n e r a t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge. C e r t a i n l y , t h e r e was g e n e r a l avoidance o f such q u e s t i o n s as whether p a r t i c u l a r monsters had s o u l s . One d o c t o r who d i d r e f e r t o the problem, d i s m i s s e d i t as c o m p l e t e l y " a b s u r d " when he heard of a mother, who, a f t e r the death o f her Siamese t w i n s , c o n s u l t e d a d o c t o r ' s a d v i c e t o determine whether the monster!s) had one s o u l o r two. A p p a r e n t l y , t h i s was not c o n s i d e r e d a v a l i d m e d i c a l q u e s t i o n . ,. F u r t h e r , commenting on the i n h e r e n t "dangers" o f t e l e o l o g i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n , W i l l i a m Lawrence warned: In o r d e r t o prove t h a t a b r a i n has e x i s t e d , and has been d e s t r o y e d i n t h e s e c a s e s , H a l l e r observes t h a t i t i s q u i t e c o n t r a r y , not o n l y t o the wisdom o f n a t u r e , but t o common sense, f o r a r t e r i e s , v e i n s , and nerves t o be made i n a s k u l l , where t h e r e i s no b r a i n . T h i s i s a dangerous argument: i s i t not e q u a l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y t h a t a rectum s h o u l d be formed w i t h o u t an anus, s i n c e 151 l i f e cannot be c o n t i n u e d w i t h o u t such an opening? I f n a t u r e be so wise and c a r e f u l , why d i d not she p r o v i d e a g a i n s t the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the head? And why does she go on w o r k i n g month a f t e r month, t o no purpose', i n c o n s t r u c t i n g the numerous o t h e r monsters, which are i n c a p a b l e o f l i f e ? Not con- t e n t e d w i t h e x e r c i s i n g h i s mental f a c u l t i e s on what comes under the o p e r a t i o n o f h i s senses, and ex- p l o r i n g the i n s t r u c t i v e scenes o f n a t u r e , man i s ever d i s p o s e d t o e n t e r the r e g i o n s o f i m a g i n a t i o n , and t o g i v e t o the be i n g s o f h i s f a n c y , whom he f i r s t c l o t h e s w i t h a l l the a t t r i b u t e s of p e r f e c t i o n , the d e s i g n s and a c t i o n s which a c c o r d o n l y w i t h h i s own s h o r t s i g h t e d n e s s and i g n o r a n c e . He i s as pos- i t i v e about what goes on i n t h i s unseen r e g i o n , as i f he d i r e c t e d a l l the o p e r a t i o n s h i m s e l f , and can t e l l you v e r y p r e c i s e l y what does, and what does not harmonize w i t h the wisdom o f the C r e a t o r , which t u r n s out a t l a s t t o be the e x a c t r e p r e s e n t - a t i o n of h i s own knowledge o r p r e j u d i c e s . Why may not a r t e r i e s , v e i n s , e t c . which u s u a l l y b e l o n g t o a b r a i n be formed w i t h o u t a b r a i n . . . I t i s enough t h a t the t h i n g happens: whether n a t u r e has any d e s i g n i n these f o r m a t i o n s , o r n o t , we l e a v e undetermined, u n t i l we a r e inf o r m e d o f some d a t a on which a d e c i s i o n may be grounded.73 S i m i l a r l y , i n recommending h i s view o f l i f e as a pr o c e s s dependent s o l e l y on o r g a n i z a t i o n , Lawrence i n s i s t e d t h a t the i s s u e was s t r i c t l y a p h y s i o l o g i c a l one and had no r e l a t i o n t o q u e s t i o n s o f t h e o l o g y . "The t h e o l o g i c a l d o c t r i n e of the s o u l , " he argued, "has n o t h i n g t o do w i t h t h i s p h y s i o l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n , - 74 but r e s t s on a s p e c i e s o f p r o o f a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t . " C l e a r l y , i n Lawrence's v i e w , between n a t u r a l t h e o l o g y and b i o - l o g i c a l s c i e n c e t h e r e e x i s t e d a f i x e d e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l boundary. E v i d e n t l y , most n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t e r a t o l o g i s t s shared Lawrence's s e n t i m e n t s , f o r u n l i k e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a u t h o r s , they seldom d i s c u s s e d the t h e o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f monstrous b i r t h s i n t h e i r t e r a t o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g s . Indeed, as m o n s t r o s i t y came t o be p e r c e i v e d as the outcome o f a r e g u l a r , b i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s , i t 152 ceased t o arouse the same sense o f wonder f o r Nature as a r t i s t o r f o r God as c r e a t o r . Both Nature and God, as a c t i v e , p e r s o n a l - i z e d agents o f c r e a t i o n , receded f u r t h e r t o the background o f s c i e n t i f i c thought. E p i g e n e s i s tended t o focus a t t e n t i o n on the t e m p o r a l , on-going p r o c e s s e s of development, thus weakening the tendency, m a n i f e s t e d by i n v e s t i g a t o r s a l l t h r o u g h the e i g h t - eenth c e n t u r y , t o contemplate a s p e c i f i c c r e a t i v e f o r c e i n the p r o d u c t i o n of m o n s t e r s . ^ The o v e r - r i d i n g i n t e r e s t of t e r a t o l o - g i s t s was to show how n a t u r a l f o r c e s and causes were themselves r e s p o n s i b l e f o r malformed organisms, and c o n s e q u e n t l y , i t was t o t h e s e causes and not t o e x t e r n a l agents t h a t they r e f e r r e d i n t h e i r w r i t i n g s . I n t h i s sense, the s u b j e c t o f m o n s t r o s i t y became independent o f both God and N a t u r e , and s i t u a t e d i n - s t e a d w i t h i n the c o n c e p t u a l nexus of L i f e . At the same time as s c i e n t i s t s r e f r a i n e d from t h e o l o g i c a l commentary, they a l s o tended t o a v o i d d i s c u s s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the e t h i c a l or moral import o f m o n s t r o s i t y . V a r i o u s a u t h o r s d i d v e n t u r e b r i e f l y i n t o the moral r e a l m i n commending the c i v i l - i z i n g r o l e o f s c i e n c e i n a u t h o r i z i n g more humane a t t i t u d e s t o - wards monsters. I n h i s essay on " D i p l o t e r a t o l o g y " (a word he c o i n e d f o r the study o f double m o n s t e r s ) , f o r example, F i s h e r condemned the b a r b a r i s m which had been s a n c t i o n e d i n former p e r i o d s o f d a r k n e s s : The b a r b a r i s m s o f the Greeks and Romans were executed on such u n f o r t u n a t e c h i l d r e n as the p a r e n t s or n e i g h b o r s p l e a s e d t o c a l l "monsters." T h i s o p i n i o n and p r a c t i c e r e c e i v e d the s a n c t i o n and support o f the most l e a r n e d o f t h a t day. As r e c e n t l y as the b e g i n n i n g o f the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , R i o l a n u s , one o f the most d i s - t i n g u i s h e d men of h i s age, g r a v e l y t e l l s us t h a t 153 c h i l d r e n w i t h s i x f i n g e r s , g i a n t s , d w a r f s , e t c . , who are made a f t e r the image of the d e v i l , may be a l l o w e d t o l i v e , but s h o u l d be removed from the s i g h t of the p u b l i c , and p e r p e t u a l l y " shut up i n some chamber or p l a c e of s e c u r i t y . The rudiments o f t h i s s u p e r s t i t i o n s t i l l e x i s t . Even a t the p r e s e n t t i m e , t h e r e i s a s t r o n g p o p u l a r o p i n i o n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n by not a few persons o f i n t e l l i g e n c e ; b u t , as f a r as I am aware, h a v i n g no advocates i n the m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n t h a t not o n l y j u s t i f i e s , but almost demands i t as a d u t y o f the accoucheur t o d e s t r o y the l i f e of t h e most u n n a t u r a l monsters, e i t h e r by s u f f o - c a t i o n o r by the employment of a n e s t h e t i c s . 7 6 C e r t a i n l y , the s c i e n t i z a t i o n o f m o n s t r o s i t y meant t h a t mon- s t r o u s c h i l d r e n , however abnormal or r u d i m e n t a r y t h e i r d e v e l o p - ment happened t o be, were i d e n t i f i e d a b s o l u t e l y as n a t u r a l and u n e q u i v o c a l l y as human. I n t h e o r y , t h i s a l s o r e n d e r e d them m o r a l - l y n e u t r a l , f o r i n e q u a t i n g the monstrous s t r i c t l y w i t h the p a t h o l o g i c a l , t e r a t o l o g i s t s d e n i e d the r o l e o f " e v i l " i n the p r o d u c t i o n of monstrous f o r m a t i o n s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the moral stigma a g a i n s t e i t h e r c h i l d o r parent was e f f e c t i v e l y a n n u l l e d . However, w h i l e monsters were humanized i n t h i s way, they were by no means p e r s o n a l i z e d , f o r , i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e i r p r o - j e c t of o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n , s c i e n t i s t s , showed l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n d i s c u s s i n g any q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the p s y c h o l o g i c a l or sub- j e c t i v e dimension of abnormal e x i s t e n c e . To the degree t h a t they were s c i e n t i z e d , monsters l o s t t h e i r v a l u e as b e i n g s and i n s t e a d f u n c t i o n e d as i n t e r e s t i n g specimens of p a t h o l o g y , u s e f u l o n l y to the e x t e n t t h a t they e l u c i d a t e d the norm. Commenting on the s c i e n t i f i c u t i l i t y o f monstrous specimens, F i s h e r noted t h a t the " n e c e s s a r y consequence of an e x a c t and p r o f o u n d know- ledge of anomalies w i l l be t h a t the s t u d y o f normal and abnormal f a c t s , i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d t o g e t h e r , [ w i l l ] l e n d each o t h e r a mutual and p o w e r f u l s u p p o r t . " 7 7 L i k e w i s e , a c c o r d i n g t o James 154 Palmer, t o the s u b j e c t o f m o n s t r o s i t y "much a t t e n t i o n h a s l o f ? l a t e - y e a r s been d e s e r v e d l y d i r e c t e d , s i n c e [ i t ] \ ~.\ . h e l p s t o 7 8 throw much l i g h t on the laws of normal f o r m a t i o n . " Thus, as Canguilhem s u g g e s t s , i f d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the mad- man was i n the a s y l u m where he s e r v e d t o t e a c h r e a s o n , so the monster was i n the e m b r y o l o g i s t 1 s j a r where he s e r v e d t o t e a c h the norm. Inasmuch as monsters were "apprehended" i n t h i s way, they became s t u d i e s i n abnormal human development and problems t h e r e a f t e r f o r the i n t e l l e c t a l o n e . As such, t h e y were not ex- p e c t e d t o induce any o v e r t s u b j e c t i v e r e s p o n s e , whether of shock, wonder or d i s g u s t , so t h a t any a l l u s i o n t o the apparent e c c e n t r i - c i t y o f p a r t i c u l a r m a l f o r m a t i o n s a l l but d i s a p p e a r e d from the exchanges of e x p e r t s c i e n t i s t s . There seems t o have been a s t r o n g sense among t e r a t o l o g i c a l e x p e r t s , i n f a c t , t h a t what was e x t r a - s c i e n t i f i c was a l s o d e c i d e d l y u n s c i e n t i f i c . Con- s e q u e n t l y , p r o f e s s i o n a l s responded t o monsters as they would t o any o t h e r b i o l o g i c a l specimen of s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t — i n the d e s i g n a t i v e and unemotive language of r e a s o n . F i n a l l y , as the s u b j e c t o f m o n s t r o s i t y was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the mainstream of b i o l o g i c a l t h o u g h t , p o p u l a r e x p l a n a t i o n s o f monstrous p r o d u c t i o n s became s u b j e c t t o g e n e r a l r i d i c u l e and c e n s u r e . C e r t a i n l y , many e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s had condemned v a r i o u s p o p u l a r t h e o r i e s , but the s c i e n t i f i c repud- i a t i o n of common sense knowledge became much more i n t e n s i f i e d and widespread i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I n p a r t , t h i s was symptom- a t i c o f the tremendous s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f t e r a t o l o g i c a l knowledge 155 which was i n c r e a s i n g l y e v i d e n t from the e a r l y 1800's. I n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , those who i n v e s t i g a t e d monsters had been g e n e r a l i s t s , o n l y s e c o n d a r i l y concerned w i t h the problem of m o n s t r o s i t y . I n c o n t r a s t , many n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s ( A l l e n Thomson, G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e , S e r r e s , F i s h e r ) developed a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n m o n s t r o s i t y , and spent a g r e a t d e a l of t h e i r time on t e r a t o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h and w r i t i n g . The r e s u l t was t h a t t e r a t o l o g i c a l knowledge (and the t e r m i n o l o g y n e c e s s a r y t o t a l k about monsters i n a l e a r n e d f a s h i o n ) became h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d and i n c r e a s i n g l y d i v o r c e d from the o r d i n a r y w o r l d o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g . For the e x p e r t t e r a t o l o g i s t , p o p u l a r t h e o r i e s o f m o n s t r o s i t y were s i m p l y u n t e n a b l e . T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n the cases o f d i r e c t m e c h a n i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e and m a t e r n a l i m a g i n a t i o n , t h e o r i e s which, as we have seen, had been c r i t i c a l l y s c r u t i n i z e d by v a r i o u s s c i e n t i s t s from the middle o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t - u r y . By the 1820's, s c i e n t i f i c s k e p t i c i s m toward these t h e o r i e s was widespread. Not o n l y d i d they f a i l t o p e n e t r a t e through the d e c e p t i v e facade of appearance t o expose the t r u e r e a l i t y o f t h i n g s , but b o t h e x p l a n a t i o n s smacked of v u l g a r c r e d u l i t y . Con- s e q u e n t l y , i n t e r a t o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g s o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y they were e i t h e r scorned as u n f o r t u n a t e d i g r e s s i o n s i n the h i s - t o r y of t e r a t o l o g y , or summarily d i s m i s s e d as v u l g a r a b s u r d i t i e s . Or, perhaps most d i s p a r a g i n g l y , they were not mentioned a t a l l . One of the most s t e r n c r i t i c s of these t h e o r i e s was W i l l i a m Lawrence. I n Lawrence's judgement, the i d e a o f m e c h a n i c a l f a c t o r s a c t i n g d i r e c t l y upon the embryo was not o n l y u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d by 156 f a c t , but "repugnant t o a l l our knowledge c o n c e r n i n g the animal 80 oeconomy." Commenting on the t h e o r y o f d i r e c t m e c h a n i c a l i n t e r - f e r e n c e , he w r i t e s : By what f a c t s are we j u s t i f i e d i n b e l i e v i n g t h a t the r i b s of two f o e t u s e s , and the c l a v i c l e s , can d e t a c h themselves from t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s t e r n a , and become f i x e d , each t o the sternum o f the o t h e r , as i n the s k e l e t o n o f the double f o e t u s e s ; t h a t two p e r f e c t h e a r t s , i f the c h e s t c o u l d be thus metamorphosed, c o u l d be u n i t e d i n t o an organ w i t h one a u r i c l e o n l y , and w i t h two v e n t r i c l e s , of which each produces a pulmonary a r t e r y and an a o r t a ; t h a t a new communica- t i n g c h a n n e l s h o u l d be formed between the two a o r t a e , as i n the double b o d i e d p i g a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d and i n the Hungarian s i s t e r s ? I f we c o u l d b e l i e v e a l l these wonders, i t would not be s u f f i c i e n t ; f o r m o n s t r o s i t i e s o c c u r when t h e r e has been no v i o l e n c e i n f l i c t e d d u r i n g pregnancy. 81 What d i s t u r b e d Lawrence p a r t i c u l a r l y about the d o c t r i n e of me c h a n i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e was t h a t i t r a n c o n t r a r y t o the i n v a r i a b l e r e g u l a r i t i e s w hich were observed i n monstrous p r o d u c t i o n s . W ith c o n s i d e r a b l e r h e t o r i c a l f o r c e , he c o n t i n u e d : L e t us a l l o w , what i s not supported by a shadow of p r o o f , t h a t a f o r c e can be a p p l i e d t o the c h i l d i n u t e r o , c a p a b l e of c a u s i n g t h i s e x t e n s i v e d e s t r u c t i o n ; how does i t happen t h a t the head s h o u l d be d e s t r o y e d i n a l l cases j u s t so f a r as the o r b i t s ? I t must e i t h e r t a k e p l a c e suddenly o r g r a d u a l l y . The former cannot be the cas e , f o r the b r a i n and i t s membranes c o u l d not be a n n i h i l a t e d w i t h o u t k i l l i n g the c h i l d : moreover i n the fr e q u e n c y of the s e c a s e s , how does i t happen t h a t the head i s never found i n t h i s b r u i s e d c o n d i t i o n ? I f i t be the consequence o f g r a d u a l p r e s s u r e , how s u r p r i s i n g i t i s t h a t the d e s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d always be found p r e c i s e l y a t the same p o i n t , t h a t no specimens o f an e a r l i e r o r l a t e r s tage s h o u l d e v er have been met w i t h ! How i s the presence o f the h a i r a t t h e edge o f the integuments, where i t does not e x i s t n a t u r a l l y , t o be accounted f o r ? Why a r e females so much o f t e n e r the s u b j e c t s o f such a c c i d e n t s than males? Why do not o t h e r p a r t s s u f f e r i n the same way, s i n c e the b r a i n i s p r o t e c t e d by a bony case a t an e a r l y p e r i o d , w h i l e the bones i n o t h e r p a r t s are i n t e r n a l ? How does e x t e r n a l f o r c e d e s t r o y the spinous p r o c e s s e s o f the v e r t e b r a e through the integuments i n s p i n a b i f i d a ? 8 2 157 I f i n a somewhat l e s s f o r c e f u l s t y l e . , Lawrence's o b j e c t i o n s a g a i n s t d i r e c t m e c h a n i s t i c i n f l u e n c e s were echoed by a number o f n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s . A c c o r d i n g t o James P e n d l e t o n , f o r example, i n h i s 1826 essay on the p r i n c i p l e s o f m o n s t r o s i t y : Double monsters have been a s c r i b e d t o the u n i o n of two ova i n t o one i n the u t e r u s , where from p r e s s u r e they have u n i t e d ; but d i s s e c t i o n o f these monsters shows such an arrangement of p a r t s t o s u i t the u n i t e d f o e t u s e s as never c o u l d have been produced by an a c c i d e n t a l u n i o n . . . Monsters w i t h d e f i c i e n c y o f p a r t s have been a s c r i b e d t o p r e s s u r e a g a i n s t the w a l l s o f the u t e r u s , c a u s i n g a b s o r p t i o n ; t h i s s u p p o s i t i o n i s not a d m i s s i b l e , as p r e s s u r e c o u l d never cause a h a r e - l i p , nor remove the cerebrum and c e r e b e l l u m and not d e s t r o y the f o e t u s . ^ 3 I f the t h e o r y o f m e c h a n i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e was u n a c c e p t a b l e t o n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y e x p e r t s , m a t e r n a l i m a g i n a t i o n was even more "repugnant" t o t h e i r s e n s i b i l i t i e s . I n h i s t r e a t i s e on m o n s t r o s i t y p u b l i s h e d i n 1814,. Lawrence s u b m i t t e d the t h e o r y t o a l e n g t h y c r i t i q u e , which was not o n l y e x a c t i n g , but a l s o p a r t - i c u l a r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the stand which was g e n e r a l l y t a k e n on the q u e s t i o n by those w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d e m b r y o l o g i c a l know- l e d g e . I n h i s a n a l y s i s , Lawrence r e p u d i a t e d the t h e o r y on two major grounds. In the f i r s t p l a c e , he summoned an e x t e n s i v e s e r i e s o f arguments t o demonstrate t h a t the t h e o r y was a t odds w i t h the laws of o r g a n i c c o m p o s i t i o n and development. For example: A knowledge of the d i f f e r e n t k i n d s , and of the a n a t o m i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f monsters, a f f o r d s v e r y s t r o n g , and indeed i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e p r o o f s o f the a b s u r d i t y o f the common n o t i o n s . The most z e a l o u s advocates of the o p i n i o n , which i n d e e d o n l y makes the m a t t e r more o b s c u r e , w i l l h a r d l y contend t h a t the i m a g i n a t i o n o f the mother can a n n i h i l a t e o n e - t h i r d or o n e - f o u r t h o f a head, and adapt t o i t an e x a c t l y c o r r e s p o n d i n g p i e c e o f another head, r e s e m b l i n g i t so e x a c t l y i n s i z e , form, f e a t u r e s , e t c . I f i t s h o u l d not be d i f f i c u l t enough t o account f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of t h i s 158 s y m m e t r i c a l double head, a h a r d e r t a s k r emains; v i z . t o e x p l a i n how the i m a g i n a t i o n o f the mother changes n e a r l y h a l f the body; f o r the v e r t e b r a l column may be d o u b l e , the b r e a s t c o n s e q u e n t l y b r o a d e r , e t c . i n such an example. ... We s h a l l a g a i n ask how l o n g i n g o r f r i g h t can d i s p o s e o f '. the b r a i n , membranes, s c u l l , s c a l p , e t c . as i n a c e p h a l i ? How i t can s t o p up the anus, or a n n i - h i l a t e the nose, and b r i n g t o g e t h e r and confound i n one the two eyes? . . . I n cases of h a r e - l i p , the p a r t s do not resemble the snout of a h a r e , but are formed i n q u i t e an o p p o s i t e way. The upper jaw-bones a r e drawn a p a r t , and the f a c e c o n s e q u e n t l y more t h a n u s u a l l y b r o a d , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g narrow and s t a n d i n g forwards as i n the hare. The l i p o f the hare i s not f i s s u r e d , but m e r e l y n o t c h e d , and covered w i t h l o n g s t i f f b r i s t l e s . The f i s s u r e o f the l i p i s o f t e n t h e s m a l l e s t p a r t of the d e f o r m i t y i n the human s u b j e c t ; t h e r e i s a d i v i s i o n t h r ough the whole of the bony; and s o f t p a l a t e , t o which a hare's head has n o t h i n g analogous.84 A l o n g w i t h e x p o s i n g the t h e o r y on these p h y s i o l o g i c a l grounds, Lawrence a l s o d e r i d e d i t as an i r r a t i o n a l h o l d o v e r from an un- e n l i g h t e n e d p a s t . Summarizing v a r i o u s r e p o r t s o f m o n s t r o s i t y from the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , Lawrence w r i t e s : I s i t not v e r y c l e a r t h a t the i m a g i n a t i o n i s much more p o w e r f u l l y at work i n these good p e o p l e , t h a n i n the poor mothers? D e v i l s , apes, hares and c a t s are a l l a l i k e t o them. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o contend a g a i n s t a d v e r s a r i e s : i f they a r e d r i v e n from t h e i r monkeys and h a r e s , they c o n j u r e up an a r r a y a g a i n s t g^ u s , r i m p s , demons and o t h e r phantoms of t h e i r b r a i n s . And f u r t h e r : But i t i s n e e d l e s s t o pursue f u r t h e r a q u e s t i o n , on which a l l r a t i o n a l persons w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the c i r c u m s t a n c e s a r e a l r e a d y unanimous . . . T h i s b e l i e f i n the power of i m a g i n a t i o n , l i k e the b e l i e f i n w i t c h c r a f t , i s g r e a t e r o r l e s s a c c o r d i n g t o the p r o g r e s s of knowledge, which i n t r u t h d i f f e r s g r e a t l y i n d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s and heads. We know t h a t many e n l i g h t e n e d women are f u l l y c o n v i n c e d o f i t s a b s u r d i t y , w h i l e s o i - d i s a n t g ^ p h i l o s o p h e r s are s t i l l found who support i t . Thus, w h i l e the s c i e n t i f i c campaign a g a i n s t t h e s e l o n g - s t a n d i n g t h e o r i e s of m o n s t r o s i t y was j u s t i f i e d l a r g e l y by the 159 new b i o l o g i c a l p h i l o s o p h y o f l i f e , i t was a l s o p a r t of the l a r g e r s c i e n t i f i c program t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e p o p u l a r from p r o - f e s s i o n a l modes of u n d e r s t a n d i n g . L a b e l l e d as u n s c i e n t i f i c , such p o p u l a r views r e p r e s e n t e d a way o f s e e i n g n a t u r a l pheno-:- mena which t o the e x p e r t , denoted an e s s e n t i a l l y f l a w e d v i s i o n . Indeed, one of the main f a c t o r s i n Lawrence's r e j e c t i o n o f m a t e r n a l i m a g i n a t i o n was t h a t i t drew a u t h o r i t y from a form of knowledge which, i n g r a n t i n g a p r i o r s t a t u s t o appearances, was i t s e l f s u p e r f i c i a l and d e c e i v e d , f o r ' a s he s a i d : That the v u l g a r , who know o n l y the s u r f a c e o f t h i n g s , and a r e c o n t e n t e d w i t h the most d i s t a n t resemblances and the l o o s e s t a n a l o g i e s , s h o u l d a s c r i b e the h a r e - l i p t o the s i g h t of a h a r e , i s not v e r y strange.87 Lawrence, o f c o u r s e , was not al o n e i n condemning p o p u l a r ways of u n d e r s t a n d i n g . T h i s k i n d o f a n t i - p o p u l a r r h e t o r i c was, i n f a c t , a common f e a t u r e o f n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t e r a t o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g . Though they a t t a c k e d p o p u l a r t h e o r i e s on v a r i o u s d i f - f e r e n t grounds, most t e r a t o l o g i s t s shared Lawrence's concern w i t h d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g r e a l ( s c i e n t i f i c ) from common sense ( p o p u l a r ) knowledge. John N o r t h , f o r example, noted the l a c k of e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e t o su p p o r t p o p u l a r c l a i m s : C o n g e n i t a l m e l a n o t i c s t a i n s upon the s u r f a c e of the s k i n v a r y g r e a t l y i n s i t u a t i o n , form, and c o l o u r , and sometimes they are cover e d w i t h h a i r . They are o f t e n , by the p u b l i c , s a i d t o resemble some animal by which the mother has been f r i g h t e n e d d u r i n g her pregnancy. But how i s the evidence o b t a i n e d upon which t h i s f o o l - i s h b e l i e f i s founded?^8 And f u r t h e r : A c c o r d i n g t o the p o p u l a r b e l i e f , i f a pregnant woman l o o k a t a p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t , i s d i s g u s t e d o r f r i g h t - ened by i t . . . i t v e r y f r e q u e n t l y happens t h a t the resemblance, both i n shape and c o l o u r o f t h a t o b j e c t , w i l l be i m p r i n t e d upon the body o f the f o e t u s ; 160 . . . I n support of t h i s b e l i e f you w i l l f i n d , i n numerous w r i t e r s , a v e r y imposing a r r a y o f s o - c a l l e d f a c t s . But examine them c l o s e l y , and you w i l l a l s o f i n d the e v i d e n c e upon which they r e s t i s a n y t h i n g but s a t i s f a c t o r y . 8 9 For George F i s h e r , p o p u l a r thought e x h i b i t e d the same ab- s u r d c r e d u l i t y o f p r e - e n l i g h t e n e d p e r i o d s : A l l the e a r l y t r e a t i s e s on t h i s s u b j e c t are c h a r a c - t e r i z e d by the extreme c r e d u l i t y o f the a u t h o r s , who r e c o r d e d the most abs u r d and improbable c a s e s , and the g r o s s e s t e r r o r s , as w e l l as some r a t i o n a l o b s e r v a - t i o n s . . . I n the o l d e r works w i l l be found accounts and f i g u r e s o f s i n g l e and double monsters of a mixed c h a r a c t e r , b e i n g composed of human and a n i m a l b o d i e s ; f o r example, the body of a hog, w i t h the head and neck of a man . . . and i n a n o t h e r the head of an e l e p h a n t w i t h p r o b i s c i s and t u s k s w e l l developed!! N o t h i n g can be more absurd than the i d e a o f any progeny whatever r e s u l t i n g from i n t e r c o u r s e between man and the lower a n i m a l s , or among animals o f wide- l y d i f f e r e n t genera. There i s , however, a p o p u l a r o p i n i o n y e t e x t a n t , which g i v e s credance t o such an h y p o t h e s i s . 9 0 Such t h i n k i n g , he c o n t i n u e d , was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a b l i n d r e l i a n c e upon a u t h o r i t y , a p a r t i c u l a r l y o b s t i n a t e b a r r i e r t o s c i e n t i f i c p r o g r e s s : The p e r i o d under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , c o m p r i s i n g s c a r c e l y f i f t y y e a r s , was marked by v e r y g r e a t p r o g r e s s . One o f the most f o r m i d a b l e o b s t a c l e s t o the advancement of s c i e n c e , and which perhaps i n some degree c o n t i n u e s t o r e t a r d p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r o g r e s s , has ever been a b l i n d s u b m i s s i o n t o a u t h o r i t y . I n every age a few master minds . . . have made themselves c o n t r o l l i n g s p i r i t s ; and by a dogmatic assumption o f a u t h o r i t y became e s t a b l i s h e d . . . To untrammel the mind from the i n - f l u e n c e o f mere a u t h o r i t y , t h a t i t may have f r e e scope i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f f a c t s and laws which e x i s t and are e s t a b l i s h e d i n n a t u r e , i s the grand a n t e - cedent n e c e s s a r y t o s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r y and perm- anent p r o g r e s s . 1 In a s i m i l a r v e i n d i d F i s h e r lament the l a c k o f sound t e r a t o l o g i c a l knowledge among amateur i n v e s t i g a t o r s o f m o n s t r o s i t y : I t has f r e q u e n t l y been supposed by those i n t o whose 161 hands a case o f m o n s t r o s i t y has f a l l e n , t h a t i t was r e - markably r a r e , i f not u n i q u e ; the d e s i r e t o p r e s e r v e the specimen e n t i r e f o r the c a b i n e t or museum has d e t e r r e d them from making an a n a t o m i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f i t s i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , the d e s c r i p t i o n b e i n g r e s t r i c t e d t o the e x t e r n a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n ; w h i l e on the c o n t r a r y o t h e r s may have e n t e r e d i n t o n e e d l e s s d e t a i l r e g a r d i n g the s t r u c t u r e of the common v a r i e t i e s o f monsters, which had been r e p e a t e d l y d e s c r i b e d by d i f - f e r e n t o b s e r v e r s . A l l t h i s a r i s e s from a want of knowledge of the comparative r a r i t y o f s e v e r a l forms, and o f the r e s u l t s o f p r e v i o u s o b s e r v a t i o n s . 9 2 " A n d ' f i n a l l y , " v a r i o u s t e r a t o l o g i s t s i m p l i e d t h a t the v e r y language of p o p u l a r d i s c o u r s e was i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o the g e n e r a t i o n o f knowledge. A c c o r d i n g t o Adam, f o r example, w h i l e the word, monster, " h a v i n g so l o n g h e l d a p l a c e i n our language, cannot w e l l be d i s p e n s e d w i t h i n t r e a t i n g o f c o n g e n i t a l d e f o r m i t i e s , " . . . " m e d i c a l men would do w e l l t o a v o i d u s i n g a term so v e r y un- 93 s c i e n t i f i c and c o n f u s i n g . " From commentary of t h i s k i n d , i t i s c l e a r t h a t , i n t h e i r knowledge of monsters, n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t e r a t o l o g i s t s f e l t them- s e l v e s t o be f o r t u n a t e l y removed from the i g n o r a n t p u b l i c . Indeed, by the 1840's, the d i s c r e p a n c y between e x p e r t and non- e x p e r t a t t i t u d e s t o monsters c o n s t i t u t e d an i r r e c o n c i l a b l e i n - t e l l e c t u a l g u l f . Having reduced m o n s t r o s i t y t o a matter o f d i s e a s e , p r o f e s s i o n a l s scorned the k i n d o f n a i v e wonderment p e r v a d i n g the f a i r g r o u n d s , where monstrous s p e c t a c l e s c o n t i n u e d t o evoke awe and amazement among c u r i o s i t y s e e k e r s . Among t e r a - t o l o g i s t s , these were s t i g m a t i z e d as v u l g a r r e s p o n s e s , based on v i s u a l i l l u s i o n , and on the m i s t a k e n view t h a t n a t u r e encompassed modes of b e i n g which were " d i f f e r e n t . " C e r t a i n l y , t h i s had been a w i d e l y h e l d b e l i e f i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , when n a t u r e was u n d e r s t o o d i n terms of a dichotomy which opposed " r e g u l a r " t o " i r r e g u l a r " phenomena. For e a r l y n a t u r a l h i s t o r i a n s , wonder 162 was a p e r m i s s i b l e response t o m o n s t r o s i t y , f o r inasmuch as they c o n s t i t u t e d i r r e g u l a r s t r u c t u r a l a s s e m b l i e s , r e s u l t i n g from e r r o r or s p o r t , monsters were both d i f f e r e n t and w o n d e r f u l . By the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , however, s c i e n t i s t s had r e - j e c t e d t h i s dichotomy i n f a v o r o f a more homogeneous view of n a t u r e . For t e r a t o l o g i s t s , e v e r y t h i n g i n n a t u r e was r e g u l a r , but because q u a n t i t a t i v e d e v i a t i o n s o c c u r r e d , some phenomena were Normal and some were Abnormal. Most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , between the normal and the abnormal, t h e r e was no r e a l d i s c o n t i n u i t y and no r e a l d i f f e r e n c e . To the eye, monsters may have appeared t o be d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of b e i n g s , and a c c i d e n t a l d e v i a t i o n s from n a t u r e ' s laws. A c c o r d i n g t o s c i e n t i f i c t hought, however, i n d i v e r t i n g a t t e n t i o n from the t r u e n a t u r e o f a b n o r m a l i t y t o i t s outward m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , such common sense i m p r e s s i o n s were i l - l u s o r y and m i s t a k e n . At a deeper l e v e l , monsters were merely p a t h o l o g i c a l organisms, a b n o r m a l l y augmented o r d i m i n i s h e d ac- c o r d i n g t o the r e g u l a r o p e r a t i o n s of t e r a t o l o g i c a l law. S t r i c t - l y s p e a k i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e was no m o n s t r o s i t y , but o n l y h e a l t h and d i s e a s e , p h y s i o l o g y and p a t h o l o g y , the normal and the abnormal. I f monsters were s t i l l c u r i o u s i n the sense t h a t they p r o v i d e d i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d i e s o f o r g a n i c development, they were not C u r i o s i t i e s o f Nature and n o t , t h e r e f o r e , t o p r o - v i d e i d l e i n t o x i c a t i o n f o r the senses. On the c o n t r a r y , as specimens of human a b n o r m a l i t y , they were t o a p p e a l e x c l u s i v e l y to the mind. Thus, w h i l e the famous e x h i b i t i o n f r e a k , Claude Seurat, was s t i l l b e i n g e x p e r i e n c e d on the f a i r g r o u n d s as a p r o - d i g i o u s wonder o f N a t u r e , and s e n s a t i o n a l i z e d as "The L i v i n g S k e l e t o n , " f o r the more p r o f e s s i o n a l r e a d e r s o f the M e d i c a l 163 A d v i s o r , he was above a l l an i n t e r e s t i n g b i o l o g i c a l specimen, a case o f "marcores, o c c a s i o n e d by an e a r l y o b l i t e r a t i o n o f many 94 of the l a c t e a l v e s s e l s and m e s e n t e r i c g l a n d s . " 164 NOTES "TO CHAPTER THREE ^"Thomson, "Double M o n s t e r s , " p. 479. F i s h e r , " D i p l o t e r a t o l o g y , " 1866, p. 207. F u r t h e r , a c c o r d i n g t o F i s h e r , " the h i s t o r y of anomalies o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i s no l o n g e r t o be re g a r d e d as a mere d e t a i l o f p r o d i g i e s , and s p o r t s of n a t u r e , r e s u l t i n g from s u p e r n a t u r a l c auses, but r e q u i r e s t o be s t u d i e d as a s c i e n c e which i s governed by n a t u r a l and r a t i o n a l l a w s , no l e s s c e r t a i n i n t h e i r o p e r a t i o n and r e s u l t s , t h a n those which a re concerned i n normal d e v e l o p - ment." (1865, p. 235) 3 J . G o o d f i e l d - T o u l m i n , "Some A s p e c t s o f E n g l i s h P h y s i o l o g y : 1780 - 1840," J o u r n a l o f H i s t o r y o f B i o l o g y 2 ( F a l l 1969), p. 283. 4 F i g l i o , "The Metaphor o f O r g a n i z a t i o n , " p. 20. " ' i b i d . , p . 25 . ^Lawrence, L e c t u r e s , p. 52. 7 J a c o b , The L o g i c of L i f e , p. 74. ^L^awrence, L e c t u r e s , p. 6. 9 quoted i n Gould, Ontogeny and Phylogeny, p. 35. •^Coleman, B i o l o g y i n the N i n e t e e n t h Century, pp. 35-6. ^Adam, " C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o T e r a t o l o g y , " p. 247. 12 Gould, Ontogeny and Phylogeny,- p. 34. 13 quoted i n Gould, Ontogeny and Phylogeny, p. 37. 14 Lawrence, "Account o f a C h i l d Born Without -a B r a i n , " p. 215. 1 5 N o r t h , "On M o n s t r o s i t i e s , " p. 858. 16 G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e , T r a i t e de T e r a t o l o g i c , I I I , p. 3. ^ 7 N o r t h , "On M o n s t r o s i t i e s , " p. 857. 18 Thomson, "Double M o n s t e r s , " p. 479. 1 9 I b i d . , p. 484. 20 F i s h e r , " D i p l o t e r a t o l o g y , " 1865, p. 248. 21 N o r t h , "On M o n s t r o s i t i e s , " p. 858. 22 Thomson, Double M o n s t e r s , " p. 484. Thomson, however, argued t h a t the t h e o r y o f developmental a r r e s t d i d not p r o v i d e an adequate e x p l a n a t i o n f o r many cases o f double m o n s t r o s i t y . 165 23 Adam, " C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o T e r a t o l o g y , " p. 399. 2 4 I b i d . , p. 248. 2 5 N o r t h , "On M o n s t r o s i t i e s , " p. 858. 2 6 Adam, " C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o T e r a t o l o g y , " pp. 246-7. 2 7 I b i d . , p. 248. 2 8 N o r t h , "On M o n s t r o s i t i e s , " p. 858. 29 I b i d . 3 0 I b i d . , p. 859. 31 Adam, " C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o T e r a t o l o g y , " p. 400. 3 2 N o r t h , "On M o n s t r o s i t i e s , " p. 860. 33 Adam, " C o n t r i b u t i o n s ?to<;Teratology," pp. 400-1. I b i d . 3 5 N o r t h , "On M o n s t r o s i t i e s , " p. 860. I b i d . 37 Adam, " C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o T e r a t o l o g y , " p. 399. 3 8 T V , I b i d . 39 N o r t h , "On M o n s t r o s i t i e s , " p. 860. I b i d . 41 G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e , T r a i t e de T e r a t o l o g i c , I I I , p. 428 42 F i s h e r , " D i p l o t e r a t o l o g y , " (1866),.p. 207. 43 A c c o r d i n g t o G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e , f o r example, " i n t e r a t o l o g y , as i n a l l s c i e n c e s , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a good c l a s s i f i c a t i o n remains n e c e s s a r y i n knowing p a r t i c u l a r f a c t s . ( T r a i t e , I , p. 8 0 ) . 44 N o r t h , "On M o n s t r o s i t i e s , " p. 860. 45 "The F o e t u s , a f t e r F r i g h t o f the mother," The Lancet (1840), p. 341. 46 quoted i n F i s h e r , " M a t e r n a l M e n t a l I n f l u e n c e , " p. 270. 47 Thomson, "Double M o n s t e r s , " p. 486. 166 4 8 I b i d . , p.. 487. 49 G e o f f r o y S a i n t - H i l a i r e , T r a i t e de T e r a t o l o g i c , I , pp. 18-19, " ^ I b i d . , p. 18. ^ N o r t h , VOn M o n s t r o s i t i e s , " p. 857. 52 Canguilhem, On the Normal and the P a t h o l o g i c a l , p. 78. 53 I b i d . , p. 13. 54 I b i d . , p. 71. "^Most o f the s t a t i s t i c a l surveys were concerned w i t h t a b - u l a t i n g e i t h e r the p r o p o r t i o n o f monstrous t o normal b i r t h s , o r the r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y o f v a r i o u s kinds' o f m a l f o r m a t i o n . There was a g r e a t d e a l o f d i s c r e p a n c y i n the numbers p u b l i s h e d ( S a i n t - H i l a i r e e s t i m a t e d t h a t 1 out o f every 3000 b i r t h s was monstrous, w h i l e Adam c a l c u l a t e d the r a t i o as 1 t o 232), but by the 1840's, s c i e n t i s t s e x p r e s s e d an uncompromising commitment t o the i d e a l o f g r o u n d i n g m o n s t r o s i t y i n a sound s t a t i s t i c a l base. I t was p a r t l y i n an attempt t o f a c i l i t a t e such computations t h a t Adam argued so s t r o n g l y f o r a b o l i s h i n g the word monster. Without the c o n s i s t e n t use o f a more p r e c i s e t e r a t o l o g i c a l t e r m i n o l o g y , he argued, s c i e n t i s t s c o u l d "not hope t o o b t a i n c o r r e c t s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the s u b j e c t . " ( " C o n t r i b u - t i o n s ," p. 243). 5 6 G r a n d i , " C o n c e r n i n g some A n a t o m i c a l O b s e r v a t i o n s , " p. 1188. "^Benjamin G i b s o n , " D e s c r i p t i o n o f an e x t r a o r d i n a r y Human F o e t u s , " PTRS 28 (1810), p. 123. 5 8 C h a r l e s T a y l o r , "Language and Human N a t u r e , " A l a n B. P l a u n t Memorial L e c t u r e s (Ottawa: C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Informa- t i o n O f f i c e , 1978), p. 9. 59 "An Account of a v e r y odd Monstrous C a l f , " PTRS 1 (1665), p. 10. 6 0 Derham, "An Account o f Some . . . Monstrous B i r t h s , " p. 310. 61 Ash, " C o n c e r n i n g a G i r l i n I r e l a n d , " p. 1203. 6 2 C h r i s t o p h e r Krahe, "The D e s c r i p t i o n o f a Monstrous C h i l d , " PTRS 14 (1684), p. 600. 6 3 D u r s t o n , "A N a r r a t i v e , " p. 2097. 167 64 John Machin, "An uncommon Case o f a Distempered S k i n , " PTRS 37 (1732), pp. 299-300. 6 5 P a r s o n s , M e c h a n i c a l and C r i t i c a l I n q u i r y , pp. v i i - v i i i . 6 6 B a i l l i e , "A Remarkable T r a n s p o s i t i o n , " p. 355. ^ q u o t e d i n Thomson, "Double M o n s t e r s , " p. 482. 6 8 N o r t h , "On M o n s t r o s i t i e s , " pp. 913-16. 69 B a i l l i e , "A Remarkable T r a n s p o s i t i o n , " pp. 359-60. 7 0 I b i d . , p. 362. 7^Lawrence, "Account o f a C h i l d Born Without a B r a i n , " p. 172. 72 - Cooper, "An E x t r a o r d i n a r y acephalous B i r t h , " p. 320. 73 Lawrence, "Account o f a C h i l d Born Without a B r a i n , " pp. 209-10. 74 Lawrence, L e c t u r e s , p. 6. 7 "'in l a t e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a c c o u n t s , a u t h o r s o f t e n r e - f e r r e d t o " N a t u r e " as a p e r s o n i f i e d , a c t i v e f o r c e i n the p r o - d u c t i o n of monsters. N i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a u t h o r s , though they o c c a s i o n a l l y p e r s o n i f i e d N ature, most t y p i c a l l y r e f e r r e d t o the b i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s and laws which were i n v o l v e d . Compare, f o r example, Matthew B a i l l i e ' s d i s c u s s i o n on page'148 w i t h North's e x p l a n a t i o n on page 134. 7 6 F i s h e r , " D i p l o t e r a t o l o g y , " (1865), pp. 238-9. I n "Mat- e r n a l Mental I n f l u e n c e s , " p. 255, F i s h e r w r i t e s : The c i v i l i z e d w o r l d has made one l o n g and p r o g r e s s i v e s t e p i n removing the o r i g i n and cause o f p h y s i c a l m a l f o r m a t i o n from the sphere of d e v i l s , or angry and unappeased gods, t o the more c o n t r o l l a b l e and l e s s f r i g h t f u l power o f the u n f o r t u n a t e mother's mind. . . I t i s t o be hoped "that the " r i c h and poor, r e f i n e d and v u l g a r , educated and i g n o r a n t , " throughout the e n l i g h t e n e d w o r l d , w i l l r e l i q u i s h t h e i r " u n q u e s t i o n i n g f a i t h " f o r a s p i r i t o f p h i l o - s o p h i c a l i n q u i r y , and make another p r o g r e s s i v e s t r i d e , and seek the e x p l a n a t i o n of m a l f o r m a t i o n i n the r e a l m o f p a t h o l o g i c a l h i s t o l o g y . . . " 7 7 F i s h e r , " D i p l o t e r a t o l o g y , " (1865), p. 234. 7 8 Palmer, The Works, I , p. 148. 79 Canguilhem, La Connaissance de l a V i e , p. 178. 168 80 Lawrence, "Account of a C h i l d Born Without a B r a i n , " p. 207. 8 1 I b i d . , pp. 207-8. 8 2 I b i d . , pp. 208-9. 8 3 James P e n d l e t o n , " O b s e r v a t i o n s on M o n s t r o s i t i e s , " P h i l J o u r n a l o f the Med and P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s n.s. 4 (1826), p.297. A l l e n Thomson, t o o , a d m i t t e d t h a t m e c h a n i c a l f a c t o r s may e x e r t an i n f l u e n c e i n a r r e s t i n g f o e t a l development, a f f e c t i n g the f o e t u s i n a n o n - s p e c i f i c as opposed t o a d i r e c t way. However, he f e l t t h a t "the c o n s t a n c y w i t h which c e r t a i n forms r e t u r n and the i n v a r i a b l e symmetry t h a t they v e r y g e n e r a l l y p r e s e n t , d e p r i v e s the t h e o r y o f a l l i t s p r o b a b i l i t y . " ("Double M o n s t e r s , " p. 487). 84 Lawrence, "Account of a C h i l d Born Without a B r a i n , " pp. 202-5. 8 ^ I b i d . , pp. 204-5. 8 ^ I b i d . , pp. 206-7. 8 7 I b i d . , p. 203. 8 8 N o r t h , "On M o n s t r o s i t i e s , " p. 862. 89 0 * I b i d . , p. 919. 90 F i s h e r , " D i p l o t e r a t o l o g y , " (1865), pp. 240-2. 91 I b i d . , p. 246. 92 I b i d . , p. 234. 93 Adam, " C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o T e r a t o l o g y , " p. 243. 94 quoted i n A l t i c k , The Shows of London, p. 261. CONCLUSION S i n c e the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , most w r i t e r s have r e p r e s e n t e d the h i s t o r y of t e r a t o l o g y as a detached and l i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n from e r r o r t o t r u t h . U n d e r l y i n g such i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are the c e n t r a l assumptions o f " o b j e c t i v i t y " and " c o n t i n u i t y , " premises which i n obvious ways obscure and m i s r e p r e s e n t the c o m p l e x i t i e s o f s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t y i n the p a s t . For w h i l e t e r a t o l o g i s t s may have b e l i e v e d i n t h e i r own o b j e c t i v i t y , the e s s e n t i a l a m b i g u i t y of n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y b i o l o g i c a l thought makes i t i m p o s s i b l e t o speak of t e r a t o l o g y as a p u r e l y detached and o b j e c t i v e e n t e r p r i s e . C e r t a i n l y from the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a major aim o f the t e r a t o l o g i c a l program was t o n e u t r a l i z e the study of monsters, t o model i t a f t e r the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s , and t o r e s t r i c t i t t o a d i s c o u r s e of d e s c r i p t i o n and f a c t . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a d e s i g n a t i v e d i s e a s e t e r m i n o l o g y , the r e j e c t i o n o f p o p u l a r " e r r o r " and o f e x p l i c i t t h e o l o g i c a l and moral c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , the r e l i a n c e upon q u a n t i t a t i v e t h e o r i e s and s t a t i s t i c a l s t u d i e s — a l l o f t h i s may be u n d e r s t o o d as an attempt t o reduce m o n s t r o s i t y t o a q u a n t i t a t i v e and n o n - e v a l u a t i v e s t u d y , d i s t i n c t from o t h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c i p l i n e s . However, w h i l e t e r a t o l o g i s t s attempted t o make the study of monsters a d i s c r e t e and v a l u e - n e u t r a l s c i e n c e , t h e i r thought was o r d e r e d by concepts which were themselves i n t r i n s i c a l l y ambiguous and e v a l u a t i v e . Anomalous, abnormal, u n v i a b l e , d i s o r g a n i z e d , m o n s t r o u s — t h e s e words were i n v e s t e d w i t h m u l t i p l e meanings and v a l u e s . When t e r a t o l o g i s t s spoke of monsters as abnormal, f o r 170 example, i t was, i n one sense, i n a p u r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e way; i t r e f e r r e d t o f o r m a t i o n s which were s t a t i s t i c a l l y u n u s u a l . At the same t i m e , however, "abnormal" i m p l i e d an e v a l u a t i v e judgement; not o n l y were monstrous organisms not u s u a l , but they were l e s s t h a n i d e a l , and t h i s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o bo t h b i o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l norms. C e r t a i n l y m a l f o r m a t i o n was no l o n g e r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the " e v i l " o f demonic i n t e r f e r e n c e o r human s i n f u l n e s s (monsters were no l o n g e r u n n a t u r a l ) , but i t was n e v e r t h e l e s s imbued w i t h a c l e a r l y n e g a t i v e b i o l o g i c a l v a l u e , as an i n t e r n a l d i s t u r b a n c e which t h r e a t e n e d an organism from the i n s i d e and j e o p a r d i z e d i t s v i a b l i t y . I n c o n t r a s t t o normal organisms, monsters were d i s o r g a n i z e d , p a t h o l o g i c a l , abnormal, o r , i n W i l l i a m Lawrence's terms " i m p e r f e c t organisations,"''" o f t e n " i n c a p a b l e o f independ- 2 ent v i t a l i t y . " And t h i s not o n l y because monsters were b i o - l o g i c a l l y m a r g i n a l o r u n v i a b l e , but a l s o because they r e p r e s e n t e d a t h r e a t t o the s o c i a l organism. Such p e o p l e , a c c o r d i n g t o 3 Lawrence, were o f t e n " u n f i t f o r a c t i v e employment," o r 4 "burthensome t o o t h e r s . " Thus, t o the e x t e n t t h a t "organism," " l i f e , " "monster" were themselves m e t a p h o r i c a l c o n c e p t s , a t a deep l e v e l they p e r m i t t e d a c o n t i n u a l f l o w between one k i n d o f thought and a n o t h e r , and e f f e c t i v e l y e r a s e d the bou n d a r i e s w hich, on the s u r f a c e , appeared t o d i s t i n g u i s h s c i e n t i f i c from s o c i a l o r moral thought. I n some c a s e s , t e r a t o l o g i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s d i s p l a y e d an even more obvious c o n f l a t i o n o f s o c i a l v a l u e and s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r y . C o n s i d e r , f o r example, A.M. Adam's d i s c u s s i o n o f the r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y of m a l f o r m a t i o n i n the two sexes. There was, t o Adam's knowledge, overwhelming s t a t i s t i c a l e v i d e n c e 171 t o suggest t h a t , among human m o n s t r o s i t i e s , " m a l f o r m a t i o n s o c c u r much more f r e q u e n t l y i n the female than i n the male sex.""' But how, he wondered, were s c i e n t i s t s t o e x p l a i n t h i s f a c t ? I s the female more weakly and c o n s e q u e n t l y more s u s c e p t i b l e t o d i s e a s e and m a l f o r m a t i o n t h a n the male? I do not t h i n k t h a t we are w a r r a n t e d i n s a y i n g so. The o n l y h y p o t h e s i s which seems t o me a t a l l t e n a b l e , i s not t h a t the sex i nduces the m a l f o r m a t i o n , but t h a t the m a l f o r m a t i o n determines the sex. I am o f o p i n i o n t h a t i t may o c c u r t h u s : — A h i g h e r degree of f o r m a t i v e power i s p r o b a b l y r e q u i s i t e f o r the c o n v e r s i o n o f the embryo i n t o a male than i n t o a female c h i l d , f o r the margins of the s i n u s u r o g e n i - t a l i s need t o be developed more l a r g e l y , and t o be u n i t e d more e x t e n s i v e l y i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n o f the male perineum and scrotum. I f , t h e r e f o r e , from the f i f t h t o the f o u r t e e n t h o r s i x t e e n t h week, a n y t h i n g happens t o d i s t u r b o r a r r e s t the development of the embryo, i t s a u t o t r o p h y , or i n h e r e n t f o r m a t i v e power, becomes so weakened t h a t i t cannot p o s s i b l y a c c o m p l i s h the p e r f e c t c l o s u r e o f the p r i m i t i v e c l o a c a l f i s s u r e , and the f o e t u s c o n s e q u e n t l y becomes a female. I m p l i c i t i n Adam's e x p l a n a t i o n i s the judgement t h a t what i s more b i o l o g i c a l l y complex i s a l s o more " p e r f e c t . " A c c o r d i n g t o the p r e v a i l i n g concepts of embryology, i n f a c t , the u l t i m a t e i d e a l of b i o l o g i c a l development was the p e r f e c t l y formed human male; a l l " o t h e r " forms o f o r g a n i z a t i o n were n e c e s s a r i l y ranked as " l o w e r " forms of o r g a n i z a t i o n and u n d e r s t o o d , a t l e a s t meta- p h o r i c a l l y , as monstrous d e v i a t i o n s from the norm. ("In e f f e c t , " wrote S e r r e s , " i n v e r t e b r a t e s a r e o f t e n o n l y l i v i n g m o n s t r o s i t i e s , i f we compare them to p e r f e c t v e r t e b r a t e s . " ) What t h i s meant was t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s — i n t h i s case d i s t i n c t i o n s between the s e x e s — c o u l d be j u s t i f i e d on the b a s i s t h a t they were a l e g i t i m a t e r e f l e c t i o n o f what was " n a t u r a l . " Here s o c i a l and s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r y a r e mixed i n such an i n e x t r i c a b l e f a s h i o n 172 t h a t i t i s somewhat a r b i t r a r y t o speak of a d i s t i n c t i o n be- tween the two. I f n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t e r a t o l o g y cannot be a c c u r a t e l y de- s c r i b e d as an o b j e c t i v e and v a l u e - n e u t r a l s c i e n c e , n e i t h e r i s i t best understood as the c u l m i n a t i o n of a l o n g and coherent s e a r c h f o r the t r u e f a c t s c o n c e r n i n g m o n s t r o s i t y . N i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t e r a t o l o g y was not a mere e x t e n s i o n or augmentation of e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y knowledge. On the c o n t r a r y , t h e r e was much t h a t was new i n the t e r a t o l o g i c a l approach t o the problem of monsters. U n l i k e the l o o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d i n v e s t i g a t o r s o f the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t e r a t o l o g i s t s were c o n s c i o u s o f them- s e l v e s as an e l i t e and e x c l u s i v e community of p r o f e s s i o n a l s , d i v o r c e d from the w o r l d o f p o p u l a r e x p e r i e n c e by an e x p e r t knowledge and by e n l i g h t e n e d a t t i t u d e s towards s c i e n c e and ab- n o r m a l i t y . F u r t h e r , when they d e s c r i b e d cases o f m o n s t r o s i t y , i t was i n a h i g h l y d e s i g n a t i v e t e r m i n o l o g y , r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the e x p r e s s i v e wonder v o c a b u l a r y o f former p e r i o d s . I n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s o f the n a t u r e and causes o f m o n s t e r s , n i n e - t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i s t s drew on a r e v i s e d s e t o f b i o l o g i c a l laws and t h e o r i e s which tended t o supersede e a r l i e r assumptions c o n c e r n i n g monstrous phenomena. Developmental a r r e s t , o r g a n i c u n i t y , e c c e n t r i c d e v e l o p m e n t — a l l o f these t h e o r i e s comprehended m a l f o r m a t i o n s i n b i o l o g i c a l and o b j e c t i v e terms, as r e g u l a r p a t h o l o g i c a l d e v i a t i o n s i n the e m b r y o l o g i c a l h i s t o r y o f an organism. As such, they a l t e r e d the b a s i c frame o f r e f e r e n c e c o n c e r n i n g the o r i g i n and meaning of m o n s t r o s i t y , p l a c i n g i t s q u a r e l y w i t h i n the l o c u s of b i o l o g i c a l as opposed t o t h e o l o g i - 173 c a l thought. By the 1830's, the a u t h o r i t y of s c i e n t i f i c over common sense knowledge was an i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y guaranteed r e a l i t y ; by t h e n , the s t u d y of monsters was r e c o g n i z e d as a l e g i t i m a t e s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e which c o u l d c l a i m a u t h e n t i c knowledge of o r g a n i c m a l f o r m a t i o n s . At a deeper l e v e l , the appearance of t e r a t o l o g y may be under- st o o d as p a r t o f a more g e n e r a l r e f o r m u l a t i o n o f b i o l o g i c a l knowledge which o c c u r r e d toward the end o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I n a t t e m p t i n g t o c l a r i f y t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , I have suggested a number of d i c h o t o m i e s which are u s e f u l i n compre- hending the s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o u r s e on m o n s t r o s i t y i n the e i g h t e e n t h and n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . S t r u c t u r e - f u n c t i o n , s t a t i c - d y n a m i c , v i s i b l e - i n v i s i b l e , a p p e a r a n c e - r e a l i t y , d e s c r i p t i o n - e x p l a n a t i o n , q u a l i t a t i v e - q u a n t i t a t i v e , i r r e g u l a r - r e g u l a r , i m a g i n a r y - r e a l : t h e s e , I would s u g g e s t , c o n s t i t u t e d the main c a t e g o r i e s around which p a s t t h i n k i n g about m o n s t r o s i t y was o r g a n i z e d . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e d i c h o t o m i e s , i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d the s c i e n t i z a t i o n o f monsters i n terms of c e r t a i n c e n t r a l themes. F i r s t l y , a f t e r 1750, the t e l e o l o g i c a l d e t e r m i n - ism of the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y began t o g i v e way t o a new form of p h y s i c a l d e t e r m i n i s m . From t h a t t i m e , s c i e n t i s t s a f - f o r d e d a much l e s s c e n t r a l r o l e t o God i n t h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n s o f monstrous phenomena and i n s t e a d attempted t o account f o r mal- f o r m a t i o n s p r i m a r i l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o " N a t u r e . " By the 1820's, however, b o t h God and Nature had been demoted, and monsters were be i n g e x p l a i n e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the laws of " L i f e . " 174 T h i s change was p a r a l l e l e d by another t r a n s i t i o n i n which the p r i n c i p l e s o f " o r g a n i z a t i o n " and "development" g r a d u a l l y assumed primacy over " s t r u c t u r e " i n s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n s o f l i f e . Indeed, i f e a r l i e r n a t u r a l h i s t o r i a n s r e g a r d e d monsters as q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from Nature's r e g u l a r p r o d u c t i o n s , i t was because the s t u d y o f m o n s t r o s i t y was based, u n t i l the m i d d l e of the c e n t u r y , on a code of knowledge which gave p r i o r i t y t o s t r u c t u r e and the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a n i m a l s p e c i e s . D u r i n g the second h a l f o f the c e n t u r y , however, s c i e n t i f i c views of the l i v i n g w o r l d and o f what c o n s t i t u t e d a knowledge of i t changed r a d i c a l l y . As s c i e n t i s t s l o o k e d beneath the s u r f a c e of t h i n g s , and i n t e r e s t e d themselves i n the i n v i s i b l e p r o c e s s e s of l i f e , t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of m o n s t r o s i t y were i n c r e a s i n g l y dominated by c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of v i t a l f u n c t i o n . D u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the study o f monsters became ab- sorbed i n t o the s c i e n c e s of l i f e , and r e c o n s t i t u t e d around the c e n t r a l p r i n c i p l e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and development. From t h a t t i m e , monsters were un d e r s t o o d as p a t h o l o g i c a l d e v i a t i o n s from the norm, as b e i n g s which, though q u a n t i t a t i v e l y d e v i a n t , were by no means q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t . When John N o r t h o r A.M. Adam spoke of developmental a n o m a l i e s , i n f a c t , i t was i n the c o n t e x t o f a n o v e l s e t o f i d e a s c o n c e r n i n g the n a t u r e of l i f e , and i n r e f e r e n c e t o something q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from what e a r l y . e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n v e s t i g a t o r s had u n d e r s t o o d as monstrous i r r e g u l a r i t i e s of n a t u r e . By the 1830's, monsters were no l o n g e r monstrous; the s t u d y ; o f . m o n s t r o s i t y . h a d become t h e - s c i e n c e ~ o f a n o m a l i e s , a s c i e n c e based on a f u n d a m e n t a l l y new way o f 'speaking t r u e . ' 175 NOTES TO THE CONCLUSION ''"Lawrence, "Account o f a C h i l d Born Without a B r a i n , " p. 181. 2 I b i d . , p. 171. 3 I b i d . , p. 181. 4 I b i d . , p. 171. ^Adam, " C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o T e r a t o l o g y , " pp. 244-46. quoted i n Gould, Ontogeny and Phylogeny, p. 51. 176 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY P r i m a r y Sources A. B e f o r e 1750 Almond, Edmund. "Some Account o f the G i g a n t i c Boy a t W i l l i n g - ham." PTRS, 43 (1745), p. 249. Ash, George. "Concerning a G i r l i n I r e l a n d who has s e v e r a l Horns growing on her Body." PTRS, 15 (1685), p. 1202. Bacon, F r a n c i s . The Advancement of L e a r n i n g and New A t l a n t i s . E d i t e d by A r t h u r J o h n s t o n . 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