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The school primers and the political culture of British Columbia, 1880-1980 Ahsan, Syed Aziz-Al 1984

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THE SCHOOL PRIMERS AND THE P O L I T I C A L CULTURE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA, 1880-1980 By SYED A Z I Z - A L AHSAE B.A., M c G i l l  University,  1982  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f P o l i t i c a l  We a c c e p t to  this  Science  thesis  the required  O c t o b e r 1983 Aziz-al  conforming  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H  ©Syed  as  Ahsan,1983  COLUMBIA  In  presenting  requirements  this thesis f o r an  of  British  it  freely available  agree for  that  for  that  for reference  and  study.  I  for extensive be  her  copying or shall  DE-6  (2/79)  the  publication  not  be  of  further this  this  It  thesis my  is  thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  Columbia  make  head o f  representatives.  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  copying of  g r a n t e d by  the  University shall  permission.  Department  the  Library  h i s or  f i n a n c i a l gain  degree at the  p u r p o s e s may by  f u l f i l m e n t of  I agree that  permission  department or understood  advanced  Columbia,  scholarly  in partial  written  - i i -  ABSTRACT  The  school  b e t w e e n 1880 of  and  p r i m e r s used i n B r i t i s h  1980  the province's  Columbia  a r e used t o measure t h e  political  culture.  The  evolution  research  method  used i s c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s . Three hypotheses are t e s t e d : will  picture  primers w i l l diversity; secular  picture  3) B.C.  egalitarian society;  an i n c r e a s i n g  primers w i l l  hypotheses  di\ ersity r  egalitarianism The  tolerance  picture  an  of  2)  B.C.  ethnic  increasingly  concerning secularization  i s supported only  l i m i t a t i o n s and  indicators  and  a r e s u p p o r t e d . The h y p o t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g  used i n t h e c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s The  primers  society. The  ethnic  an i n c r e a s i n g l y  1) B.C.  partially.  advantages  of the  are stressed  i n the  used t o measure e g a l i t a r i a n i s m  be t h e w e a k e s t o f t h o s e u s e d i n t h i s  indicators  study.  conclusion.  appear  to  - i i i -  T A B L E OF CONTENTS List  of I l l u s t r a t i o n s  Introduction: The  v  the Content A n a l y s i s * o f  P o l i t i c s of Selection  B.C. P r i m e r s . . .  of Primers  1  Research Method Problems Involved  2 i n the Content A n a l y s i s  of School  Primers  3  Previous  Findings:  I. Studies II.  o f P r i m e r s Done b y P o l i t i c a l  Studies  o f P r i m e r s Done  Scientists...  by Non-Political v  Scientists Our  1  6  Hypotheses  Historical  12  Background and i t s R e l a t i o n  t o Our  Hypotheses  12  Equalitarianism.  12  Multi-ethnicity  18  Decline  21  Our  of Religiousness  D a t a , t h e P r o b l e m s They Posed and R e s o l u t i o n  of  Those P r o b l e m s  21  The  23  Merits  and D e m e r i t s o f Our S o u r c e s  H y p o t h e s i s N o . 1 : B.C. P r i m e r s Increasingly Our  Findings  Egalitarian  Will Picture  Society  an 24 26  -iv-  H y p o t h e s i s No.2: B.C. P r i m e r s  Will  Picture  an  Increasing Tolerance of Ethnic Diversity Our  39  Findings  H y p o t h e s i s N o . 3 : B.C. P r i m e r s  ....37  Will  P i c t u r e an  Increasingly Secular Society  45  Our  45  Findings  Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n Appendices  (1-16)  Bibliography  48 53 70  -V-  LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS  GRAPH N o . 1 : Lower S p e c i e s , Appearing i n Pictures  Children,  and A d u l t s  o f B.C. P r i m e r s t o Measure  Equalitarianism., GRAPH No.2: C h i l d r e n Pictures  27 and A d u l t s  Appearing i n  o f B.C. P r i m e r s t o Pleasure  Equalitarianism  28  GRAPH No.3: Lower S p e c i e s , Appearing i n P i c t u r e s  Children,  and A d u l t s  o f B.C. P r i m e r s t o  Measure E q u a l i t a r i a n i s m GRAPH No.4: Lower S p e c i e s ,  29 Children,  and A d u l t s  A p p e a r i n g i n t h e Text of B.C. P r i m e r s t o Measure Equalitarianism  30  GRAPH No.5: Lower S p e c i e s ,  Children,  and A d u l t s  A p p e a r i n g i n t h e Text o f B.C. P r i m e r s t o Measure Equalitarianism.  31  GRAPH No.6: Lower S p e c i e s ,  Children,  and A d u l t s  A p p e a r i n g as A c t i v e A c t o r s  i n Pictures  o f B.C.  P r i m e r s t o Measure E q u a l i t a r i a n i s m GRAPH No.7: P u b l i c A u t h o r i t y Appearing i n Pictures  Figures  32 and Symbols  o f B.C. P r i m e r s t o Measure  Equalitarianism GRAPH No.8: P u b l i c A u t h o r i t y  35 Figures  and Symbols  A p p e a r i n g i n t h e Text o f B.C. P r i m e r s to Measure Equalitarianism  36  -vi-  GRAPH N o . 9 : N o n - A n g l o - S a x o n s A p p e a r i n g o f B.C. P r i m e r s  t o Measure E t h n i c  i n t h e Text  Diversification..  GRAPH No. 1 0 : N o n - A n g l o - s a x o n s A p p e a r i n g Text  o f B.C. P r i m e r s  in.the  t o Measure .Ethnic  Diversification GRAPH N o . 1 1 :  GRAPH N o . 1 2 :  Appearing  t o Measure E t h n i c  t o Measure E t h n i c  Religious Figures  i n Pictures  Diversification..  Non-white People Appearing  o f B.C. P r i m e r s GRAPH N o . 1 3 :  41  Non-white People Appearing  o f B.C. P r i m e r s  Diversification..  43  and Symbols  i n P i c t u r e s o f B.C. P r i m e r s t o M e a s u r e  GRAPH N o . 1 4 :  46  Religious Figures  i n t h e Text  and Symbols  o f B.C. P r i m e r s  Secularization.... Figure  42  i n Pictures  Secularization  Appearing  40  No . 1 : Summary o f F i n d i n g s  t o Measure 47 45  -1-  Introduction Though schools are not p o l i t i c a l a crucial  role  any s o c i e t y . images that  in the o v e r a l l  political  express d i r e c t l y  To study  or  the e v o l u t i o n  B r i t i s h Columbia I  primary  socialization  they  play  process of  Primers can thus be expected to c o n t a i n symbols and indirectly,  l e a s t c e r t a i n aspects Of a s o c i e t y ' s  textbooks)  institutions,  not the whole,  political  of the p o l i t i c a l  s c h o o l s from 1880s to  for  culture  of  (grade 1 1980s as my  I use Only the b a s i c p r i m e r s ,  or advanced p r i m e r s ,  at  culture.  s h a l l use the b a s i c primers  used in B . C .  sources.  if  not  the sake of u n i f o r m i t y  pre-primers  and  manageabi1ity.  The P o l i t i c s Of S e l e c t ion Of Primers In B . C .  the s e l e c t i o n of  school primers  committee appointed by the M i n i s t r y invites  the B r i t i s h  the u n i v e r s i t i e s Faculties)  Of E d u c a t i o n . The  Columbia Teachers F e d e r a t i o n  in B . C .  (particularly their  representative  but not n e c e s s a r i l y  Of the M i n i s t r y  (B.C.T.F.)  From a l l  own s t a f f  each u n i v e r s i t y either  affiliation. in B . C .  the  and makes  the chairman. The  i s u s u a l l y an employee who i s  appointed on the b a s i s of experience and q u a l i f i c a t i o n , than p o l i t i c a l  and  s e l e c t s the committee. The  a l s o nominates a member from i t s  him the c o o r d i n a t o r ,  Ministry  Education  to submit nominations to the M i n i s t r y .  names s u b m i t t e d , the M i n i s t r y Ministry  i s done by a  Usually  one member i s s e l e c t e d from  The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  t e a c h e r s or school a d m i n i s t r a t o r s .  standard s e l e c t i o n process s i n c e the  rather  of the B . C . T . F .  T h i s has been the  1940s. T h i s committee  are  -2-  authorizes  primers  committee  companies  revise  their  criteria  the S e l e c t i o n  of s e l e c t i o n a r e v e r y  c o m m i t t e e do n o t i n s i s t  B.C. p o l i t i c a l  culture.  awareness of the n e c e s s i t y society  B.C.  supply  free  Usually,  submitting  order  society.  But i s s u e s  - a r e not taken  systematic society  attempt  them t o  The members  the primers  should  t h e r e h a s been an  t h e changed  such as e g a l i t a r i a n i s m  r o l e o f women  d i m e n s i o n s of - f o r example,  t o w a r d s a more o r l e s s e g a l i t a r i a n  on t h e p a r t think  In o t h e r  of t h e committee B.C. s o c i e t y  words, no  to portray  should  be.  B.C.  1  Method The  analysis, embodied  to portray  that  into consideration.  i n t h e way t h e y  Research  Recently  informal.  and t h e m u l t i - c u l t u r a l , m u l t i - e t h n i c  whether B.C. i s e v o l v i n g  1  on t h e m a r k e t .  or f o r e i g n ,  primers before  The  members o f t h e c o m m i t t e e .  reflect  in  i n B.C. s c h o o l s .  from t h o s e a v a i l a b l e  c o m p a n i e s , whether C a n a d i a n  The in  to teach  t o t h e members o f t h e s e l e c t i o n c o m m i t t e e .  foreign the  a r e used  s e l e c t s primers  Publishing copies  that  research  a technique  method u s e d that  in this  project  i s content  e n a b l e s us t o q u a n t i f y  messages  i n words and images.  T h i s s e c t i o n on " t h e P o l i t i c s o f S e l e c t i o n . . . . " i n t e r v i e w w i t h Dr.Jane C a t t e r s o n of the F a c u l t y U.B.C.  i s b a s e d on my of E d u c a t i o n at  -3-  The Problems Involved In The Content A n a l y s i s Of School Primers R.R.Woodsworth c i t e s the case of a Canadian primer w r i t t e n a c c o r d i n g to content g u i d e l i n e s set by the p u b l i s h e r s order  that the book be accepted by the a p p r o p r i a t e  This,  the c r i t i c  picture  authorities.  argues, p r o v i d e s an obvious e x p l a n a t i o n  of the s t e r e o - t y p e d b l u e - e y e d , w h i t e - s k i n n e d ,  h a i r e d Caucasian c h i l d that  in  i s presented throughout  for  the  fair-  the  V.Hamm argues that a major problem i n a n a l y z i n g content  text. is  1  to  determine how the author has s e l e c t e d what was to be i n c l u d e d h i s work.  2  R.De Charms and G.H.MOeller give s o l u t i o n to such  problems as whether passive r e f l e c t o r s o c i e t y or n o t . children's their  the message coded from the primers i s a.  of p r e v a i l i n g v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s  They contend that  readers are w r i t t e n to transmit c u l t u r a l  c o n t a i n e d in the b o o k . manipulated i n f l u e n c e ,  3  Even i f  1  2  3  it  in values,  acceptance of the v a l u e s  school primers do c o n t a i n  to the p u b l i c ,  namely,  the c h i l d r e n , and the p a r e n t s . A r a d i c a l  from p r e v a i l i n g  i n a given  the degree of manipulation cannot go  beyond a degree Of a c c e p t a b i l i t y  Hence,  s i n c e the s t o r i e s  very use depends on the c u l t u r a l  teachers,  in  norms c o u l d be expected to produce  the  departure controversy.  can u s u a l l y be expected that the primers w i l l enable  R.R.Woodsworth, "A Content A n a l y s i s Of Two Elementary Grade One Readers", (unpublished paper, Dept.Of P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , U . B . C . , 1968) p . 9 .  V.Hamm, "Comparative Content A n a l y s i s Of Two Grade 1 P r i m e r s " , (Unpublished paper, D e p t . o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , U . B . C . , 1968) p.2. R.De Charms, G . H . M o e l l e r , "Values Expressed In American C h i l d r e n ' s Readers: 1800-1950", J o u r n a l of Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology (1962, v o l . 6 4 , N o . 2 ) p . 1 3 7 .  -4-  one to t r a c e the dominant p o l i t i c a l But whether or not, will  culture  of a given  society.  t h i s chain of arguments a p p l i e s to the case of  cannot be s e t t l e d at t h i s p o i n t .  Our content  B.C.  analysis  focus on t h a t .  Previous  Findings A survey of the works that  report  content a n a l y s i s of  school primers shows them to have been w r i t t e n not p r i m a r i l y political  scientists,  but by s p e c i a l i s t s such as e d u c a t o r s ,  psychologists,and psychiatrists.  There i s a p a u c i t y  literature  content of  t r a c i n g the p o l i t i c a l  S t u d i e s Of Primers Done By P o l i t i c a l S.M.J.Snyder  by  of  primers.  Scientists  (1970) s t u d i e d the school primers used in  Quebec and O n t a r i o between 1830 and 1970 to t r a c e the changing i n f l u e n c e of r e l i g i o u s  authority.  He observed that the E n g l i s h -  Canadian t e x t s had experienced the g r e a t e s t move towards secularization  in  1 8 9 0 , s i x t y years before those of F r e n c h -  Canada. There was, however, cases.  a move toward the s e c u l a r in both  1  V i c t o r Hamm (1968) d i d a comparative content a n a l y s i s of Grade 1 primers used in Canada and Germany in the 1960s. Hamm t e s t e d the f o l l o w i n g hypotheses; authority  1  1) the German textbook  shows  as a remover of o b s t a c l e s while the Canadian textbook  S . M . J . S n y d e r , "Crosses Crowns And Crayons: A Content A n a l y s i s of School Primers For Quebec and O n t a r i o 1830 to 1970", (Unpublished paper, D e p t . o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , U . B . C . 1970) p. 17a.  -5-  shows a u t h o r i t y  as an o b s t a c l e ; 2) the German textbook  male as the a u t h o r i t y the Canadian t e x t ;  in the home to a greater  3) the German textbook  the a c t i o n - i n i t i a t o r  in the home, while  d i s p l a y s a g r e a t e r degree of children  The f i r s t was r e j e c t e d . hypothesis, authority textbook  In  degree than does  s t r e s s e s the a d u l t as  the Canadian textbook  independence on the part  faced with a d e c i s i o n .  shows the  of  1  two hypotheses were confirmed but the interpreting  Hamm remarks that  third  h i s f i n d i n g s concerning the the German textbook  first  showed  as a remover of o b s t a c l e s whereas the Canadian showed a u t h o r i t y  to be an o b s t a c l e in i t s e l f .  case of the second hypothesis the a u t h o r i t y  2  In  the  in the Canadian home  was evenly balanced between the male and the female p a r e n t s , while the t e x t s showed the German male to be r a l a t i v e l y authority  more in  in the home than the female, and a greater  authoritarian  than h i s Canadian c o u n t e r p a r t .  R.R.Woodsworth  3  (1968) d i d a content a n a l y s i s of  Canadian Grade 1 primers -  two  one F r e n c h , the other E n g l i s h .  The  French primer was p u b l i s h e d in 1958 and the E n g l i s h one in 1960. Woodsworth t e s t e d two h y p o t h e s i s :  that the French - Canadian  primer s t r e s s e s i n d i v i d u a l i s m rather  than group a c t i o n while  opposite i s true of the E n g l i s h p r i m e r ;  the  2) that the F r e n c h -  Canadian t e x t p r e s e n t s a more a c c u r a t e p o r t r a y a l  of r e a l i t y  than  ^.Hamm, "Comparative Content A n a l y s i s Of Two Grade 1 P r i m e r s " , p p . 6 , 9 & 13. 2  Ibid,  pp.16 & 17.  3  Ibid,  p.16.  -6-  does the E n g l i s h  text.  1  Both hypotheses were c o n f i r m e d . While in the E n g l i s h Canadian primer a l a r g e m a j o r i t y activities,  of p i c t u r e s c o n s i s t e d of  in the French-Canadian primer there was a more even  distribution activities.  between p i c t u r e s d e p i c t i n g  individual  As for the second h y p o t h e s i s ,  presented to the c h i l d the world as i t primer p o r t r a y e d a rather aggression.  idyllic  and group  the French text  is,  whereas the  English  u t o p i a devoid of v i o l e n c e  Scientists  David M c C l e l l a n d ' s ( 1961 ) c e l e b r a t e d study of achievement syndrome was based on the hypothesis achievement m o t i v a t i o n used c h i l d r e n ' s :  or  2  The Content A n a l y s i s Of Primers Done By N o n - p o l i t i c a l  periods  group  stories  the  that  i s r e s p o n s i b l e for economic g r o w t h . to tap achievement m o t i v a t i o n  3  He  in two  1920-1929, c e n t e r i n g around 1925 and 1946-1955,  c e n t e r i n g around 1 9 5 0 . S t o r i e s were c o l l e c t e d from 23 c o u n t r i e s for  the e a r l y p e r i o d and from 40 c o u n t r i e s  for  the s e c o n d . " He  noted that high achievement l e v e l s were a s s o c i a t e d with more r a p i d economic development.  5  The o v e r a l l  achievement imagery was highest  1  2  3  frequency  of  in readers from c o u n t r i e s  R.R.Woodsworth, "A Content A n a l y s i s of Two Elementary Grade One Readers" , p . 1 . Ibid,  p.8.  D.C.McClelland, 1961)p.36.  fl  Ibid,  p.72.  5  Ibid,  p.93.  The A c h i e v i n g S o c i e t y  (New York:  The Free P r e s s ,  d e v e l o p i n g more r a p i d l y e c o n o m i c a l l y . however, to note that more f r e q u e n t l y  rather  than " g o a l "  s t o r i e s were most frequent  that oriented.  in c o u n t r i e s  managed to overcome o b s t a c l e s to economic  achievement.  2  Blom,Waite, et a l ( 1968 to i n v e s t i g a t e the  only appear  in more r a p i d l y developing c o u n t r i e s but  "means" o r i e n t e d  which had  It i s i n t e r e s t i n g ,  achievement imagery d i d not  t h e i r s t o r i e s were "means" o r i e n t e d The  1  the  content Of  primers and  1960s in the United S t a t e s .  variables  and  a study Of  the  ) undertook a p r o j e c t  3  designed  pre-primers used in  A c o r r e l a t i o n of a number of  interactions  showed three  dimensions ( r e a l l i f e with p o s i t i v e emotions, a c t i v e p l a y , pets) to account for 47 percent of the out  Of  1307  d e p i c t e d a r e l i g i o u s s e t t i n g . The  concerned a pet. and  and  ( c h i l d r e n and  mother and The  settings or  to readers used i n the  animals, c h i l d r e n  f a t h e r ) made up  i n d e f i n i t e . Urban s e t t i n g s  2  I b i d , pp.104 &  past, moral  and  mother,  53 percent of a l l the rated  in terms of  children  stories.  r a r e l y appeared  (1  I b i d , p.319.  5  environmental rural,  percent).  105.  G.E.Blom, R.R.Waite, et a l , "Content of f i r s t grade reading books", The Reading Teacher ( v o l . 21, No. 4, 1968) p.317.  • I b i d , p.318. 5  main theme  a c c o r d i n g to whether they were: urban, suburban,  I b i d , p.103.  story -  appear. In terms of a c t o r s three  s t o r i e s were a l s o  1  3  In c o n t r a s t  e t h i c a l v a l u e s d i d not  categories  s t o r i e s . " Only one  and  -8-  Suburban s e t t i n g s accounted for accounted for  38 percent while  20 percent of the s t o r i e s .  widely with the a c t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n  rural  Such f i g u r e s  of p o p u l a t i o n  settings contrast  in the  United  S t a t e s d u r i n g the mid 1960s which was 33 percent suburban, 36 percent rarely  rural,  and 31 percent u r b a n .  1  Urban s e t t i n g s appear  i n school primers used in North America. Suburban and  r u r a l areas are thought development of  for  the  (1970) d i d a c r o s s - n a t i o n a l study of  in primers used in the 1960s in the U . S .  countries  overall  children.  Wiberg content  to be h e a l t h i e r  attitude  and 20 other  from North and South America, Europe, A s i a , a n d  Australia.  They d i d r a t i n g s and p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s e s of 60  randomly s e l e c t e d s t o r i e s  in primers from f i v e c o u n t r i e s :  the  United S t a t e s , South K o r e a , England, West Germany, and R u s s i a . Attitudes  such as c u l t u r a l  v a l u e s , war,  weaponry and m i l i t a r i s m  appeared with very low frequency or were absent i n a l l except South K o r e a . security for  patriotism,  2  3  Ibid,  countries  i s so because of South K o r e a ' s issue i n n a t i o n a l  life  three decades. On a r a t i n g of n a t i o n a l i s m and South Korea scored high with Russia f o l l o w i n g  statistically  1  Perhaps t h i s  concern which has been a c r u c i a l  the l a s t  United  3  2  not higher  States.  than West Germany, England, or  but  the  4  p.321.  J . L . W i b e r g , G . E . B l o m , "A C r o s s - N a t i o n a l Study Of A t t i t u d e Content In Reading P r i m e r s " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of Psychology ( v o l . 5 , N o . 2 , 1970) p . 1 1 2 . Ibid, p.115.  "Idem.  -9-  Blom and Wiberg (1973) d i d another c r o s s n a t i o n a l of a t t i t u d e  contents  in p r i m e r s .  of primers from the U . S . , Italy,  1  study  Russia,  Although the a t t i t u d e  well. for  2  It  appeared that  s c a l e was  the  researchers  India and South Korea used t h e i r f a r more f r e q u e n t l y  religiousness,  primers  than d i d the  i s not s u r p r i s i n g  such  r e c o g n i t i o n of death or  while the United S t a t e s was lowest  p r e s e n t a t i o n of those c u l t u r a l It  and  originally  I s r a e l d i s p l a y e d a high frequency of a t t i t u d e s  traditionalism,  infirmity,  Israel,  c o u l d be a p p l i c a b l e to other c o u n t r i e s as  s o c i a l i z a t i o n of a t t i t u d e s  remainder. as  it  India,  South K o r e a , Turkey,  c o n s t r u c t e d on the b a s i s of American p r i m e r s , maintained that  r a t i n g s were done  F r a n c e , Great B r i t a i n ,  Japan, Mexico, Norway,  West Germany.  In that  study  attitudes.  in the  3  that South Korea and India are high  on t r a d i t i o n a l i s m while the United S t a t e s and Russia are strikingly  low;  or t h a t  I n d i a ..and' I s r a e l  r e l i g i o u s n e s s while R u s s i a , France and Turkey and  s c o r e h i g h l y on  the United S t a t e s , South Korea,  scored low.  p l a y i n g were compared, i t  When the f r e q u e n c i e s of  working  appeared that Russia and I s r a e l  s t r e s s e d work over play while other c o u n t r i e s were e i t h e r more equal or s t r e s s e d play over w o r k .  4  Perhaps t h i s  i s so because of  ' G . E . B l O m , J . L . W i b e r g , " A t t i t u d e Contents in Reading Primers" J . Downing, Comparative Reading (New York: M a c m i l l a n , 1973) p.87. 2  3  Ibid, Idem.  "Idem.  p.103.  in,  -10-  the r i g o r and a u s t e r i t y  of communist l i f e  style  in the case of  the former and the heavy task of b u i l d i n g a new s t a t e in case of the  latter.  De Charms and M o e l l e r  ( 1962 ) d i d a remarkable content  a n a l y s i s of American c h i l d r e n ' s t e s t e d four hypotheses: w i l l decrease over imagery w i l l decrease;  the  readers from 1800 to  1950. They  the i n c i d e n c e of achievement imagery  the time p e r i o d ;  the i n c i d e n c e of  affiliation  i n c r e a s e ; the i n c i d e n c e of moral t e a c h i n g  will  the i n c i d e n c e of achievement imagery w i l l be  positively  r e l a t e d to the number of patents i s s u e d .  The f i r s t  1  hypothesis p r e d i c t e d a c o n s i s t e n t decrease in  achievement imagery. T h i s was v e r i f i e d a f t e r  1890. P r i o r  to  that,  a steady i n c r e a s e , from 1800 to the peak at about 1890,was  noted.  2  A consistent  i n c r e a s e in a f f i l i a t i o n  in the second hypothesis was not v e r i f i e d . consistent  i n c r e a s e but on the c o n t r a r y  an unexpected drop in 1950 to the hypothesis,  imagery  The data showed no  a general decrease with  1890 l e v e l . The  achievement  third  p r e d i c t i n g a decrease in moral t e a c h i n g , was  confirmed by the d a t a . The data a l s o confirmed the hypothesis  predicted  fourth  that p r e d i c t e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the amount of imagery during a s p e c i f i c p e r i o d and the index  of  patents i s s u e d per p o p u l a t i o n . In e x p l a i n i n g the f i n d i n g s , W.W.Rostow's a s s e r t i o n that  1  2  the author  quoted  in the United S t a t e s the  traditional  R.De Charms, G . H . M o e l l e r , "Values Expressed In American C h i l d r e n ' s Readers; 1800-1950, p . 1 3 7 . Ibid,  p.139.  -11-  or a g r i c u l t u r a l  society  occurred from 1843 to p e r i o d for content).  lasted u n t i l  1860; i t  about  1840.  1  c o i n c i d e d with the  achievement o r i e n t a t i o n  A major change take-off  (as coded from the primer  During the next p e r i o d from 1860 to  1900, d e s c r i b e d by  Rostow as the d r i v e to m a t u r i t y ,  some ten to twenty percent  the n a t i o n a l income was s t e a d i l y  invested,  Output  regularly  to o u t s t r i p  allowing  of  industrial  the i n c r e a s e in p o p u l a t i o n .  Thus,  2  a c c o r d i n g to Rostow's data and r e a s o n i n g , the United S t a t e s reached t e c h n o l o g i c a l m a t u r i t y around 1900. It note that  is s t r i k i n g  t h i s data i s very c l o s e to the high p o i n t s  of  achievement imagery and patent measures. Here, one p o i n t worthy of c o n s i d e r a t i o n . M c C l e l l a n d (1960) observed achievement o r i e n t a t i o n o r i e n t e d rather  to  is  that  in n a t i o n s d e v e l o p i n g r a p i d l y  is  "means"  than " g o a l " o r i e n t e d . When the o b s t a c l e s to  development were overcome and the U . S .  economy was s t e a d i l y  growing on a s t r o n g f o u n d a t i o n , achievement imagery s t a r t e d decline.  T h i s e x p l a i n s why achievement o r i e n t a t i o n ,  in the contents of American c h i l d r e n ' s  as  to  reflected  r e a d e r s , began to d e c l i n e  a f t e r 1900. Thus, a survey of the l i t e r a t u r e  on content a n a l y s i s of  primers i n d i c a t e s that one can f r u i t f u l l y use primers to measure cultural  if  not s o c i e t a l e v o l u t i o n .  A v a r i e t y Of s t u d i e s ,  done in North America, measured v a r i a b l e s secularization, Orientation.  1  2  Ibid, 1dem.  p.141.  mostly  such as  e g a l i t a r i a n i s m , m i l i t a r i s m , and achievement  None of these v a r i o u s  s t u d i e s concluded that  the  -1 2-  primers were poor sources to measure the e v o l u t i o n society's  culture.  There  i s no guarantee,  w i l l be so in the case of B r i t i s h provide  some r e - a s s u r a n c e that  indicators  Our  of a  of c o u r s e ,  that  it  Columbia. But our survey does  school primers are  useful  of such an e v o l u t i o n .  Hypotheses Our hypotheses a r e :  increasingly  egalitarian  1) B.C.  society;  primers w i l l p i c t u r e an  2) B . C .  primers w i l l  an i n c r e a s i n g t o l e r a n c e of e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y ; w i l l picture  an i n c r e a s i n g l y  secular  3) B . C .  picture  primers  society.  Are the above hypotheses reasonable in the l i g h t of we know about B . C .  Historical  politics  what  and h i s t o r y ?  Background And I t s  R e l a t i o n To Our  Hypotheses  Equalitarianism Margaret Ormsby,  in her B r i t i s h Columbia: a H i s t o r y ,  t r a c e s c l a s s consciousness from as e a r l y as the well-trained  p r o f e s s i o n a l people appeared in the  l i n e s on Vancouver Victoria  1860s. When 1860s, c l a s s  I s l a n d had become s h a r p l y d e f i n e d , and  was c a l l e d the town of three e s t a t e s - " n o b s ,  flunkies".  1  She remarked on another o c c a s i o n , without  to any time p e r i o d ,  that  in B r i t i s h  snobs, and referring  Columbia, the backwoodsman,  'M.A.Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia: a H i s t o r y 1958) p . 1 4 3 .  (TorontoiMacmillan,  -13-  the s m a l l farmer, and the day labourer class privilege.  1  Hence, i t  instinctively  appears that  distasted  some segments of  B.C.'s  p o p u l a t i o n have c h e r i s h e d e g a l i t a r i a n values s i n c e the very days of  immigrant As  settlement.  early  as the  1910s, the r a d i c a l l e a d e r s of  the  B r i t i s h Columbia labor movement came under the i n f l u e n c e of  the  " I n d u s t r i a l Workers of the World" and of the "One Big U n i o n " . Those labor property.  l e a d e r s demanded the s o c i a l i z a t i o n During the l a t e  2  s t a t e d that property  of  private  1910s, the Federated Labour  the complete overthrow of the e x i s t i n g  and production was t h e i r  system of  ultimate o b j e c t i v e .  districts,  g e n e r a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the e x i s t i n g L i b e r a l s and the C o n s e r v a t i v e s , serving p r i v a t e , legislation,  rather  egalitarian  the  By 1920, s o c i a l  a Deserted Wives'  Pensions and the  extension  had been e n a c t e d . " These  steps taken by the B . C .  the l e s s p r i v i l e g e d  because of  dominant p a r t i e s ,  interests.  such as the Adoption A c t ,  Maintenance A c t , a system of Mothers'  practical  waterfront,  who were c o n s i d e r e d to be  than p u b l i c ,  Of the Minimum Wage l e g i s l a t i o n  Socialism  3  was g a i n i n g some ground in the l o g g i n g camps, on the i n the mining camps,and i n a g r i c u l t u r a l  Party  government  segment Of the s o c i e t y  for  the b e n e f i t  of  i n d i c a t e an emerging  trend in B r i t i s h Columbia.  'M.A.Ormsby, "Canada and the New B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , i n , J , F r i e s e n , H . K . R a l s t o n e d . , H i s t o r i c a l Essays on Br i t i sh Columbia T o r o n t o : Gage, 1980) p . 9 7 . 2  M.A.0rmsby, B r i t i s h  3  Ibid,  4  I b i d , p.428.  Columbia: a H i s t o r y pp.396 & 3 9 7 .  pp.408 & 4 0 9 .  -14-  In (C.C.F.),  1933, the C o - o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n a n a t i o n a l p a r t y r e p r e s e n t i n g labor and farm groups,  appeared in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  1  The f a c t that the C . C . F . ' s  call  f o r a planned s o c i a l i s t order had a wide appeal was evident the  1933 e l e c t i o n . In that e l e c t i o n ,  in  the completely new p a r t y  became the o f f i c i a l o p p o s i t i o n by c a p t u r i n g seven out of 44 seats. B.C.  2  The C . C . F .  legislature  lost  in  in B . C . ,  location,  o f f i c i a l opposition position  1937 but regained that p o s i t i o n  an attempt to e x p l a i n parties  their  in  in  1941.  3  In  r a d i c a l labor movements and p o l i t i c a l  Jamieson a s s e r t s that because of  its  special  topography and r e s o u r c e s , B r i t i s h Columbia has  remained a f r o n t i e r  region up to the present t i m e . And the  American f r o n t i e r s  have t r a d i t i o n a l l y  p l a c e and n u r t u r i n g radical p o l i t i c a l  ground of m i l i t a n t  been an important  North  birth-  labor movements and  parties."  P h i l i p Resnick maintains that to face the c h a l l e n g e of the l e f t ,  the p r o v i n c i a l  government of B . C .  working of a l i b e r a l economy from the e a r l y period  ).  5  r e s t r a i n e d the  free  1930s (the ~-i)u£f P a t t u l o  The subsequent government of l i b e r a l s and  1  Ibid,  p.452  2  I b i d , p.453.  3  I b i d , p.465.  *S.Jamieson, "Regional F a c t o r s in I n d u s t r i a l C o n f l i c t : The Case of B r i t i s h Columbia" i n , W.P.Ward, R . A . J . M c D o n a l d , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : H i s t o r i c a l Readings ( Vancouver: Douglas & M c l n t y r e , 1981) p . 5 0 5 . 5  P . R e s n i c k , " S o c i a l Democracy in Power: The Case of C o l u m b i a " , BC S t u d i e s ( No.34, Summer 1977) p . 7 .  British  -15-  conservatives,  which r u l e d B . C .  from 1941 to  1952, introduced  welfare measures, such as a l i m i t e d form of p r o v i n c i a l  health  insurance. But the trend of r a d i c a l p o l i t i c a l developments was d e r a i l e d by socio-economic developments d u r i n g World War During the e a r l y  II.  1940s, B r i t i s h Columbia entered a stage of  great economic growth.  By 1943 the boom was manifested in  B r i t i s h Columbia having the highest per c a p i t a income of a l l Canadian p r o v i n c e s .  The employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s  1  the  improved  enormously and simultaneously l e d to massive immigration to the province  from v a r i o u s p a r t s of the w o r l d .  Such developments  enhanced the p o p u l a r i t y  of the moderate and r i g h t i s t p a r t i e s  the c o s t of the l e f t i s t  ones. Along with these new popular  values and a t t i t u d e s appeared the S o c i a l C r e d i t wing p o p u l i s t  party.  slightly party  leader,  to the l e f t  that S o c i a l C r e d i t  policies  2  3  the present  is a populist  party  whereas the NDP i s a p o p u l i s t  of c e n t e r .  3  Elkins further  claimed  i n the 1950s and 1960s, such as the  government takeover of B . C . E l e c t r i c  1  Bennett,  that the S o c i a l C r e d i t  to the r i g h t of c e n t e r ,  slightly  a right  2  David E l k i n s agrees with B i l l Social Credit  Party,  at  and the B . C . F e r r y System,  M.A.Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia: a H i s t o r y  p.479.  T h i s paragraph i s based on my interview with P r o f . the Dept. of P o l i t i c a l Science at U . B . C .  LapOnce of  D . J . E l k i n s , " P o l i t i c s Makes Strange B e d f e l l o w s : The B . C . Party System in the 1952 and 1953 P r o v i n c i a l E l e c t i o n s " , BC S t u d i e s (No. 30, Su mmer 1976) p . 3 .  * Ibid,  pp.3 & 4.  -16-  could be c o n s i d e r e d s o c i a l i s t i c . " d e s c r i b e d the same p e r i o d a queer combination of intervention.  1  In c o n t r a s t ,  (W.A.C.Bennett's  "cowboy"  rule  1952 to  introduced important  in the 1960s: h e a l t h and h o s p i t a l  increasing educational  from a t h i r d p e r s p e c t i v e .  Credit  and the NDP represented two value s t r a i n s :  bent on the p r e s e r v a t i o n  He contends that  of p r i v a t e  enterprise,  imbued with the v a l u e s of c o l l e c t i v i s m . the two p a r t i e s moved c l o s e r of the o t h e r ' s  2  in power  the  former  latter admitted  in the 1960s, each absorbing a  the NDP p o l i c i e s ,  p o l i c i e s of the p r e c e d i n g decade. He argued growth in the c i v i l  Occurred not under the NDP (1972 to rule  the  policies.  the most s i g n i f i c a n t  Credit  the S o c i a l  (1972-1975), were not more welfare o r i e n t e d than  the S o c i a l C r e d i t that  1950s and  He, however,  P h i l i p Resnick attempted to show that while  insurance and  (the  1960s)  little  public  expenditures.  M a r t i n Robin d e s c r i b e s the same p e r i o d  that  1972) as  c a p i t a l i s m and s t a t e  W.A.C.Bennett f u r t h e r  welfare p o l i c i e s  P h i l i p Resnick  from 1964 to  1967.  3  s e r v i c e of  B.C.  1975) but under the S o c i a l  A major NDP p o l i c y was  "MincOme", guaranteeing pensioneers a minimum Of $20o a month." The NDP a l s o granted p r o v i n c i a l  1  2  3  P.Resnick, Columbia",  civil  servants the r i g h t to  " S o c i a l Democracy in Power: The Case of BC S t u d i e s p . 7 .  M.RObin e d . Canadian P r o v i n c i a l P o l i t i c s P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1972) p . 4 0 . P.Resnick, Columbia",  " Ibid,  p.10.  British  ( Scarborough,  " S o c i a l Democracy in Power: The Case of BC S t u d i e s p . 8 .  free  Ontario:  British  -17-  collective  bargaining.  1  Simultaneously,  they  introduced a new  Human Rights Code which was aimed at b a r r i n g a l l discrimination.  types of  job  Another welfare measure was the f u n n e l l i n g of a  c e r t a i n amount of money towards housing c o - o p e r a t i v e s  in  order  to provide adequate and good housing at reasonable p r i c e s .  2  In  h e a l t h c a r e , some small steps were taken towards a g r e a t e r degree of consumer p a r t i c i p a t i o n . J.H.Bradbury  argues t h a t ,  between 1950 and 1970, small  f i r m s a s s o c i a t e d with resource e x t r a c t i o n , lumber i n d u s t r y , corporations.  3  specially  in the  were taken over or absorbed by m u l t i n a t i o n a l  These changes in the p a t t e r n of  industrial  ownership c o i n c i d e d with the growth of new " i n s t a n t "  towns.  Bradbury c l a i m s that between 1965 and 1972 , m u l t i n a t i o n a l resource e x t r a c t i o n  companies and the p r o v i n c i a l  government  cooperated in the c r e a t i o n of  instant  company towns."  towns became s e r v i c e c e n t e r s  These i n s t a n t  resource towns to r e p l a c e for  nearby metropoles. Thus these towns f a c i l i t a t e d a r a p i d growth of s e r v i c e o r i e n t e d small b u s i n e s s . Hence, a c c o r d i n g to Bradbury's Credit  study,  small businesses d i d b e n e f i t  rule. Social Credit  p o l i c i e s can be s a i d to c o n t a i n elements  of e g a l i t a r i a n i s m in the sense of  1  Ibid,  p.14.  2  Ibid,  p.17.  3  from the S o c i a l  f a v o u r i n g the small business  J . H . B r a d b u r y , " C l a s s S t r u c t u r e and C l a s s C o n f l i c t s in "Instant"Resource Towns in B r i t i s h Columbia- 1965 to 1972", BC S t u d i e s ( No.37, Spring 1978 ) p . 7 .  " Ibid,  p.4.  -18-  over  the m o n o p o l i s t i c Or o l i g o p o l i s t i c  corporations. hospitals,  Secondly,  control  the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n  h e a l t h care and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  of  large  of wealth  through  f a c i l i t i e s measure the  e g a l i t a r i a n dimension of the S o c i a l C r e d i t  policies.  As f a r as the nOn-economic dimensions of  equalitarianism  are concerned, some important developments took p l a c e in the p o s t - W o r l d War II  p e r i o d . The Asian immigrants and Native  peoples were granted the f r a n c h i s e  in  1947 and the ban on  Chinese immigration was removed. Though many of the above h i s t o r i c a l our hypothesis that B . C .  observations  s o c i e t y has been g r a d u a l l y  towards a more e q u a l i t a r i a n o r d e r ,  support  tending  the issue i s not  fully  r e s o l v e d and there has been some disagreement. For example, some scholars,  particularly  David E l k i n s and DOnald B l a k e , saw  evidence of a trend towards e g a l i t a r i a n i n s m , while  Others,  particularly  P h i l i p Resnick and M a r t i n R o b i n , p o r t r a y e d a  culture  remained n o n - e g a l i t a r i a n .  that  Multi-ethnicity Our second hypothesis p r e d i c t s that B . C . primers p i c t u r e an i n c r e a s i n g e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y .  It  primers w i l l  in the a t t i t u d e  reflect  a marked e v o l u t i o n  i s assumed that  dominant group towards the t o l e r a n c e of e t h n i c  settling  in the p r o v i n c e ,  Of  the the  diversity.  A major theme of the h i s t o r y and p o l i t i c s Columbia s i n c e the mid 19th c e n t u r y ,  will  of  British  when the immigrants  has been One of r a c i a l  started  prejudice  -19-  towards the people of non-European o r i g i n . oriental  The  1  earliest  immigrants in B r i t i s h Columbia were mostly C h i n e s e , who  came with the f i r s t about 2000.  1  influx  of m i n e r s . In  1864 they numbered  A g i t a t i o n a g a i n s t the Chinese began in  1864 and  continued u n s u c c e s s f u l l y for more than twenty y e a r s . c l a i m s that and f e l l  this  racist  F.H.Howay  sentiment rose with economic r e c e s s i o n  in times of economic p r o s p e r i t y .  Peter Ward observes  that whiteness became the primary symbol of the homogeneous s o c i e t y which the people of the west coast t r i e d However,  to  foster.  2  with B r i t i s h Columbia's admission to C o n f e d e r a t i o n ,  the  nature of the " o r i e n t a l menace" changed from a q u e s t i o n of private  prejudice  to become a p u b l i c  issue.  3  Oriental  immigrants  were given a subordinate p l a c e in a white community that was being e s t a b l i s h e d by the f i r s t By the e a r l y  legislators  20th c e n t u r y ,  of the  province."  the Japanese and the East  Indian immigrants a l s o s e t t l e d in B r i t i s h Columbia. In 1923 Chinese immigration h a l t e d with the passage of the Chinese Immigration A c t .  1  5  exclusionist  Arrangements were a l s o made with the  The theme appears f r e q u e n t l y  in W.P.Ward's White Canada F o r e v e r .  'F.W.Howay, "The Settlement and Progress of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1871-1914" i n , J . F r i e s e n , H . K . R a l s t o n e d . H i s t o r i c a l Essays on B r i t i s h Columbia p . 3 9 . 2  3  W.P.Ward, White Canada Forever p. 1 9.  1978 )  Ibid, p.31.  " IBid. 5  ( Montreal:McGill-Queen's,  p.32.  P . E . R o y , " B r i t i s h Columbia's Fear of A s i a n s , 1900-1950" i n , W.P.Ward, R.A. J.McDonald, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : H i s t o r i c a l Readings p.659.  -20-  Japanese government to r e s t r a i n Japanese immigration to Canada. During the interwar p e r i o d the predominance of people of and Canadian descent was f u r t h e r  British  h e i g h t e n e d . A r e l a t i v e calm in  the realm of e t h n i c r e l a t i o n s during the interwar p e r i o d came to a halt  in the l a t e  1930s when J a p a n ' s a g g r e s s i v e p o l i c i e s were  p e r c e i v e d to have posed a t h r e a t to the s e c u r i t y of the West C o a s t . Three waves of r a c i a l v i o l e n c e swept a c r o s s B r i t i s h Columbia between 1937 and 1942. Thus, early  1940s,  for almost a c e n t u r y ,  from the l a t e  1850s to the  racism had been deeply rooted in B r i t i s h Columbia  to the extent  that  it  had become a c u l t u r a l norm.  1  The white  community had wanted a r a c i a l l y homogeneous s o c i e t y . that h e t e r o g e n e i t y would destroy t h e i r perpetuate t h e i r which were a l l  values, t r a d i t i o n s ,  They feared  c a p a b i l i t i e s to  laws and i n s t i t u t i O n s -  represented by the white Canada s y m b o l .  2  The  important developments in the immediate post-war p e r i o d were the following:  the p r o v i n c e was p r o s p e r i n g r a p i d l y ;  lack of w e l l - p a y i n g j o b s ; p a r t s of the w o r l d ;  there was no  immigrants s t a r t e d coming from v a r i o u s  there was l i t t l e danger"that Asians would  dominate the white p o p u l a t i o n ; Japan no longer pOsed any military threat;  the Japanese Canadians were no longer  concentrated p r i m a r i l y  in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  3  A l l these  developments together brought changes in p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s and  1  2  3  W.P.Ward, White Canada Forever Ibid,  p.142.  p.169.  P . E . R o y , " B r i t i s h Columbia's Fear of A s i a n s , 1900-1950" i n , W.P.Ward, R . A . J . M c D o n a l d , B r i t i s h Columbia: H i s t o r i c a l Readings p. 667.  -21-  government p o l i c i e s . The ban on Chinese immigration was and h o s t i l i t i e s Thus, history  II  towards the absent Japanese m i t i g a t e d .  our survey  and p o l i t i c s  the r e l a t i v e  lifted  of the l i t e r a t u r e  i n d i c a t e s that almost simultaneously with  decrease in r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e  period, multi-ethnic  concerning B . C .  in the p o s t - W o r l d War  immigration to B.C.  Although racism does s t i l l at l e a s t p r i v a t e l y  on B r i t i s h Columbia  exist,  if  s t a r t e d to i n c r e a s e .  not o f f i c i a l l y  c h e r i s h e d by some p e o p l e , our  recognized,  hypothesis  primers d e p i c t i n g an i n c r e a s i n g t o l e r a n c e  ethnic d i v e r i s i t y  i s supported by our survey of the  of  historical  literature.  D e c l i n e Of R e l i g i o u s n e s s Our t h i r d hypothesis concerning B.C. an i n c r e a s i n g l y the h i s t o r i c a l  primers  picturing  s e c u l a r s o c i e t y does not get p r e c i s e support literature.  The assumption that B . C .  been assuming a s e c u l a r c h a r a c t e r  in  s o c i e t y has  i s supported however by the  few content a n a l y s e s of B . C . and Canadian primers a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d (Snyder:1970), as w e l l as some s t u d i e s et a l : l 9 6 8 ;  (Blom, Waite,  Wiberg and Blom:1973) that were conducted on the  broader North American c o n t e x t .  Our D a t a , The Problems They Posed And The R e s o l u t i o n Of Those Problems Appendix  1 lists  the school primers that are used as our  c o r p u s . A major problem i s that the school t e x t s were changed at some p o i n t  in every decades and in other cases every  two  decades. So, we c a t e g o r i z e the primers by decade and gather data  -22-  by decade as w e l l ; f o r example, i f a primer was  used both i n the  1920s and the 1930s, our data f o r the 1920s and  1930s are the  same because they are coded (for  from the same primer. In some cases  example i n the 1980s) m u l t i p l e  i n t r o d u c e d . We grade  one  grade one primers were  took only the b a s i c primer, meaning standard  text, after consulting  have s c a l e s to determine  Primary Education experts  who  whether a reader i s a pre-primer or an  advanced primer Or a standard grade one t e x t . For some decades, we have only One  text and  f o r o t h e r s we have  two.  In b o t h t e x t s and p i c t u r e s , c o u n t i n g s t a r t s from page one  to the l a s t page enumerated (except those pages i n the end  where guidance  i s given to the i n s t r u c t o r s e x c l u s i v e l y and i s  not meant f o r c h i l d r e n ) . In cases Of m u l t i p l e  pictures (for  example, a school appearing at the top and a shopping center appearing at the bottom of the same page) which appear On a s i n g l e page, we counted  them as one p i c t u r e . A p i c t u r e which  covers two pages i s a l s o counted as One.  But  i f one  picture  covers two pages while there i s a separate p i c t u r e  (one Or more)  appearing i n e i t h e r of these pages,the  i s counted  two.  whole t h i n g  as  However, i f these a d d i t i o n a l p i c t u r e s are complementary  p a r t s of the main p i c t u r e , these a d d i t i o n a l s i d e p i c t u r e s not counted as being separate. Drawings are a l s o counted p i c t u r e s . But p i c t u r e s Of p i c t u r e s are not counted photograph  d o l l s , and toys are not counted. Any i d e n t i f i e d as to r e a l or pseudo (that  as  ( f o r example,  of a dog). Emblems of ...the. p u b l i s h i n g company  counted. Anthropomorphic f i g u r e s are not counted.  are  are not  Statues,  f i g u r e which cannot is a r t i f i c i a l ) ,  be  i s not  -23-  counted.  In J e r r y  And  Jane  w i t h a human f a c e i n two  (used  i n the  pictures  1940s) t h e moon  (pages  111  and  appears  113); . i t  i s not  counted.  The  M e r i t s And Our  of  Demerits  Our  Sources  s o u r c e s have c e r t a i n  limitations.  t h e p r i m e r s were not p r o d u c e d  intended  f o r use,  i f not  Canada as a whole o r foreign  origin,  explicit  a w a r e n e s s on  times  reflect  their  indicate  for cultural  o f B.C.  authorities find  the p a r t  (again to a l i m i t e d  looking  But  of a l l ,  f o r use  in English  o f B.C.  anything unacceptable  that  be  the  limited  particularly  of B.C.  owing t o a s m a l l m a r k e t , t h e r e i s no  Other  impediment  and  primers least that  i t s acceptance  reflect  B.C.  culture  i n a g e n e r a l way.  standard  dimensions of l i v i n g ,  i f not  do  n o t an  a high  by  that  exaggeration to are  free  similar  economic  B.C.  public  details,  such as h a v i n g almost  democracy,  cost to  the  suggest  in minutest  i n North America  of c u l t u r e , liberal  selection  the p u b l i c  It i s also  Anglophone communities  certain  by  not  that c o u l d . b e ^ g a i n s t . than  authority  i n the  p r i m e r s do  Other  s c h o o l p r i m e r s . The  use  the  attitudes.  i t s Own  primers  i n recent  of  t o remember t h a t  i n the primers  i n Other  negative  attitudes  selection  of  show much  except  t h e p r i m e r s may  v a l u e s and  and  d o e s not  e x t e n t ) . A l l these that  v a l u e s and  i n B.C.  the a u t h o r i t y  culture  i t i s important  producing  most  most o f them were  alone, at l e a s t  Of  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  cultural  But  p r o c e s s of s e l e c t i o n  the p o l i t i c a l  o b s e r v a t i o n s do  case  i n B.C.  t h e y were r e v i s e d  C a n a d a . The  should  i n B.C.  First  i n W e s t e r n C a n a d a . In c a s e s o f p r i m e r s  p a r t s Of  in  Of  the  the  at say in same  enterprise  -24-  secularism, primers likely  f e m i n i s m , and a h i g h l y  used  urbanized  i n Anglophone communities  t o be s i m i l a r i n many o f t h e i r  H y p o t h e s i s No.1:B.C• P r i m e r s W i l l Egalitarian  life.  i n North America a r e cultural  P i c t u r e An  manifestations.  Increasinqly  Society  "Equalitarianism"  i s m e a s u r e d by t h r e e  i n d i c a t o r s : a)  p e r c e n t a g e s of c h i l d r e n , a d u l t s  a n d lower  and  of a c t i v e a c t o r s  p i c t u r e s ; b) t h e p e r c e n t a g e  p e r c e n t a g e of a u t h o r i t y problems but the f i r s t If  this  a r e becoming  considered in  s y m b o l s . The l a s t two c r e a t e d  c h i l d r e n appear  than w i t h a d u l t s , society  i s taken  to represent  of s u p e r i o r The  of  species  and i n f e r i o r  p e r c e n t a g e s of lower  children  and s o c i e t y  assigned  both  is likely  rather  f a m i l y and  actors  increased  c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s  i s another  indicator to  a less hierarchical structure i n t h e number o f  and s o c i a l  a s an a d u l t  was d e t e r m i n e d  t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l . Those  increase  to indicate a  i s taken t o  structure.  p r o b l e m s were e n c o u n t e r e d  a) a n d b ) . S t a t u s  an  groups.  i n B.C. An i n c r e a s e  Numerous r e s e a r c h  i s not e x p l i c i t  groups,  group. Therefore  species,  denote a l e s s h i e r a r c h i c a l f a m i l y  it  i n peer  and a n i m a l s a p p e a r i n g as a c t i v e a c t o r s  indicators  and c ) t h e  i n t h e s e n s e o f an  the sub-hypothesis concerning  family  text  measure d i d n o t pose  t o mean t h a t  an i n f e r i o r  a p p e a r i n g a s a c t i v e and p a s s i v e test  i n both  l e s s h i e r a r c h i c a l . Lower s p e c i e s a r e  towards e q u a l i t a r i a n i s m  mingling  species  a few.  increasingly  the appearances of lower  trend  So, t h e  or c h i l d  on t h e b a s i s  regarding  i n cases  where  of the r o l e s  r e f e r r e d t o by t h e t i t l e  Mr.  -25-  or  M i s s , a r e t a k e n t o be a d u l t s .  considered toys,  t o be c h i l d r e n .  childish  names a p p e a r  animal,  child,  earlier line  Actions  without  or a d u l t ,  puzzling  references"  pages o f t e n  with  of c h i l d r e n . i d e n t i t y as  d i s c l o s e the  of " l a t e r  h e l p e d us i n d e c i d i n g  whose s t a t u s a s t o a d u l t  indistinct  that  not counted  identified).  their  d i s c l o s u r e of many  border-  a r e so s m a l l Or  s p e c i e s . They  a r e some s p e c i f i c  fishes,  include  spider,  border-line  and i n s e c t s lobsters,  c a s e s . I n Come A l o n g  f o r t h e 1960s and t h e 1 9 7 0 s ) ,  i n p a g e s 55, 56, and 57 a p p e a r  not n a t u r a l ) .  pictures  t o be a r t i f i c i a l  SO t h e y a r e n o t c o u n t e d . But t h e same  in  p a g e s 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66, 69, 70, and 71  to  be r e a l  adult  and a r e c o u n t e d .  appears;  identified  In  Fun W i t h D i c k And Jane  child active  as t o c h i l d r e n  of c h i l d r e n  Or a d u l t actor  (page  14). There  or a d u l t s ;  ( used  Or a d u l t s  cannot  figures appear  appears  also a  136 and 137) w i t h many p e o p l e who  be  (that  I n t h e same book, t h e arm o f an  i t i s counted  s h o p p i n g c e n t e r (pages  picture  they  f i g u r e s whose age c a n n o t be  of a n i m a l s , b i r d s ,  ( t h e primer used  animals  c a n n o t be  bees.  There W i t h Me  or c h i l d r e n  s p e c i e s o r age c a n n o t be i d e n t i f i e d ,  A l l sorts  flies,  If figures  ( f o r example, human  c o u n t e d as lower  snail,  is,  to their  playing  cases.  are not counted.  of  reference  but l a t e r  identified  are  t h e age o f 14 a r e  such as c r y i n g ,  o f t h o s e names. T h i s c r i t e r i o n  Those  are  under  speech, a r e c o n s i d e r e d a t t r i b u t e s  Certain  identity  Those  so t h e y a r e n o t c o u n t e d .  i n t h e 1950s) t h e r e i s a  i n a c a r (page  be a s c e r t a i n e d ;  i s one who t a l k s ,  cannot  3 9 ) . The c a t e g o r y -  t h e y a r e n o t c o u n t e d . An  moves, w a l k s  rather  t h a n One who  -26-  t a k e s an i n i t i a t i v e . undertaking  A passive actor  any i n i t i a t i v e .  i s one who i s n o t  A c t s such as s l e e p i n g , s t a n d i n g ,  sitting  a r e c o u n t e d a s p a s s i v e a c t i o n . However s t a n d i n g o r  sitting  and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t a l k i n g  or opening  up t h e mouth o r  moving any l i m b o f t h e body make one an a c t i v e  Our  Findings Our  reject  findings,  partially  hierarchical The  r e p r e s e n t e d i n Graphs  family  and s o c i a l  the  c o u n t i n g of a c t i o n s  i n two c a s e s  (Graph  over  increases  (Graphs  (Graph  as a c t i v e  1980s from what  not  actors declines  over  this  sharply  of a d u l t s  i t was i n t h e 1880s point  and s o c i e t y  evident  from  increases  i n t h e 1980s. of the  i s becoming  the fact  appear  i n t h e 1980s from what  increases  that  that  i n the  t h e i n d i c a t o r s do  the s t r u c t u r e of  less hierarchical.  This i s  the percentage of a d u l t s  i n t h e 1980s. O n l y  in greater  rapidly  (Graph 6 ) .  i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t  time, p a r t i c u l a r l y  children  actors  i s h i g h e r than that  u n i f o r m l y support the assumption  family  measuring  6 ) . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f l o w e r  was i n t h e 1880s a n d t h a t  At  over time and t h a t  1 and 4 ) . In c o u n t s  t h e r e i s a sudden d e c l i n e  s p e c i e s as a c t i v e it  from  1 and 4 ) , n o t c o n s i d e r i n g  species declines  However, even h e r e , t h e p e r c e n t a g e 1880s'  i n t h e 1980s  6) a t t h e moment. But a t t h e same  the p e r c e n t a g e of c h i l d r e n  time though  less  i n B.C.  increases  (Graphs  time the p e r c e n t a g e of lower  action,  structure  percentages of c h i l d r e n  1880s o n l y  adults  1, 3, 4, 5, and 6  the sub-hypothesis concerning a  the  of  actor.  percentages  increases  i n a few c o u n t s do  i n t h e 1980s t h a n  i nthe  Graph  No.1  L o w e r s p e c i e s , c h i l d r e n , a n d a d u l t s a p p e a r i n g i n p i c t u r e s o f B.C. to measure.equalitarianism ( s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y dimension) ( i n %)  primers  -Lower s p e c i e — Childr-en-  >> > > > v ' l IT I I I  Adults  \  C\J I  • \m  ;• MO  WO  VIO-  l%0  IJjO  Ifyp  >%d  •  flfD-rfft)  l%o  100%= t o t a l number o f c h a r a c t e r s ( i n c l u d i n g l o w e r s p e c i e s , c h i l d r e n , and a d u l t s ) F o r number o f c a s e s a n d e x a c t p e r c e n t a g e s s e e A p p e n d i x No.2.  Graph  No.2  C h i l d r e n a n d a d u l t s a p p e a r i n g i n p i c t u r e s o f B.C. p r i m e r s t o m e a s u r e equalit..arianism....(social h i e r a r c h y dimension), ( i n . % )  100%= t o t a l number o f c h a r a c t e r s ( i n c l u d i n g c h i l d r e n a n d a d u l t s ) F o r number o f c a s e s a n d e x a c t p e r c e n t a g e s s e e A p p e n d i x Wo., 2.1 A  Graph No.3 ^ I T o ^ e a s S ^  Lower'-' s p e c i e s — _ i > ) > > > > I I I  |  I  '-Children|  A d u l t s  i I  -'Wo—  m—Wo  ,y  ' ; r n u ™ " o n a I e s °  0  f  l^o  i°  3<)  .. Ws 0  fro<9w  a n f ^ p e r c e n t a g e s ^ see Appendix No. 3  Graph No.4 Lower s p e c i e s , c h i l d r e n , measure eqjualitarianism  and adults' appear i n g ' i n the", text" "of' B '."C". "primer si";to (so'cial h i e r a r c h y dimension)  •(in %). i  i  i  >>>>>>  . ..<  . Lower spee^&s Childr-en ! ; Adults ! j ;  i o i Ul  100%= t o t a l number o f c h a r a c t e r s ( i n c l u d i n g l o w e r s p e c i e s , c h i l d r e n , and a d u l t s ) F o r number o f c a s e s a n d e x a c t p e r c e n t a g e s s e e A p p e n d i x N o . 4 .  G r a p h No.5 l o w e r s p e c i e s , c h i l d r e n , and a d u l t s a p p e a r i n g i n t h e t e x t o f B C p r i m e r s t o measure e q u a l i t a r i a n i s m ( s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y d i m e n s i o n ) ' ( i n  Lower  species  i  few Ityo  fyo  fyo  • - / ? # > - -  fye  tfyi)  >9f0  —mo-!— t-  Ti 1>?..totai _numbex o f p a g e s For  number o f c a s e s a n d e x a c t  p e r c e n t a g e s s e e A p p e n d i x No.5  %)  G r a p h No.6 Lower s p e c i e s , c h i l d r e n , and a d u l t s a p p e a r i n g as a c t i v e a c t o r s i n p i c t u r e s o f B.C. p r i m e r s t o m e a s u r e e q u a l i t a r i a n i s m ( s o c i a l h i e r a r d i m e n s i o n ) ( i n %)  Lower s p e c i e s Y ChildrenI [ | I I | i - "Adults-  i CM  I  -.—.J  mo. mo ..tfoo  W.  .mo  i?}o  '%o  . Uso J9tt  lljo  Wo  ••%0&%-- t o t a l - number o f ' p i c t u r e s " " "'• : F o r numher o f c a s e s a n d e x a c t p e r c e n t a g e s s e e A p p e n d i x No.6. 1  -331880s. S i m u l t a n e o u s l y , we do not see that have been m i n g l i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y  the i n f e r i o r  with s u p e r i o r  groups  lower s p e c i e s m i n g l i n g with c h i l d r e n or a d u l t s )  (I  groups mean  with the passage  of t i m e . In Graphs 1, 3, 4, and 5 the percentage of lower s p e c i e s declines  in the  increases 3,  1980s from the 1880s. The percentage of  in the  4, and 5 ) .  active actors  If  1980s from the  1880s in a l l counts  we count a c t i o n s ,  i s much higher  (Graphs  i n the  1980s than the the s t r u c t u r e  1880s. of  All  family  i n B . C . p r o j e c t e d by the primers i s becoming l e s s  hierarchical.  Hence, the s u b - h y p o t h e s i s concerning a gradual  t r e n d toward e q u a l i t a r i a n i s m measured by a gradual d e c l i n e hierarchical structure  Of f a m i l y and s o c i e t y  To a s c e r t a i n whether important,  the absence of  in  i s not c o n f i r m e d . lower s p e c i e s  is  we e l i m i n a t e d the lower s p e c i e s from one count.  r e s u l t s as shown i n Graph 2 are a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t In Graph 1 (which i s based on the same c r i t e r i a except  that  and a d u l t s )  1,  the percentage of a d u l t s as  these data negate the assumption that and s o c i e t y  adults  The  from Graph 1.  as Graph 2  the lower s p e c i e s are counted along with c h i l d r e n the percentage of c h i l d r e n  in the  1980s does not  f a l l below that of the 1880. But i n Graph 2 the percentage of children  in the  1980s does f a l l  below that of the 1880s. In  the  case Of a d u l t s the r e s u l t s are s i m i l a r . Hence, Graph 2 r e j e c t s again the s u b - h y p o t h e s i s concerning a l e s s structure  hierarchical  Of f a m i l y and s o c i e t y .  Why i s the s u b - h y p o t h e s i s not confirmed? In primers of the p a s t , garden,  the r u r a l - p a s t o r a l  sky-line)  setting  occurred f r e q u e n t l y .  ( for example, farmland, In such r u r a l or  pastoral  -34-  settings, lower  none of the three c a t e g o r i e s of a c t o r s  s p e c i e s , and a d u l t s )  interaction. the  situations In  were allowed scope for much  The modern primers  1980s) f r e q u e n t l y ( i.e.  portray  (for  p u b l i c p l a c e s and r e a l  it  is likely  an i d e a l i s t i c past to a r e a l i s t i c (particularly  from  1980s). concerning a  i s measured by the f a c t  A policeman, a judge,  crown are c o n s i d e r e d to be p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y the percentage of p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y  time,  interact  that  f i g u r e s and symbols appear l e s s and l e s s  both text and p i c t u r e s .  If  airport).  present brought changes in the  The l a s t aspect of the f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s ,  public authority  in an  s p e c i e s . Hence, a s h i f t  in the  less authoritarian orientation,  life  that the a d u l t s w i l l  more than the c h i l d r e n or the lower  r a t i o of a c t o r s  example, the one used in  people boarding a bus, w a i t i n g  these s i t u a t i o n s  (children,  a k i n g , a queen, a  f i g u r e s and symbols.  figures declines  the hypothesis of a d e c l i n i n g a u t h o r i t a r i a n  u p h e l d . As f a r as i n d i c a t o r s to t e s t  this  in  over  orientation  is  s u b - h y p o t h e s i s are  concerned, we encountered no problem in coding from the text and pictures.  Public authority  f i g u r e s and symbols appearing in the  t e x t and p i c t u r e s of the primers were easy to i d e n t i f y . findings  represented in Graphs 7 and 8 v e r i f y t h i s  Our  sub-  hypothesis. A look at Graphs 7 and 8 shows a d e c l i n e in the percentage of symbols and f i g u r e s of p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y . r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y 1920s, except Textual  for a b r i e f  Pictorial  have been absent s i n c e the  reappearance in the 1950s (Graph 7)*  r e f e r e n c e s i n c r e a s e d markedly between 1910 and 1930 but  have s i n c e then disappeared (Graph 8 ) .  The s u b - h y p o t h e s i s  is  Graph No.7 P u b l i c a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s and symbols a p p e a r i n g i n p i c t u r e s o f B.C. primers to measure e q u a l i t a r i a n i s m ( a u t h o r i t a r i a n dimension) ( i n %)  • • -  - ro i  1  i  ; 9  . _i_  .I ;  I  vn —  -  -  •  /  :  !  Pi  j  .  i  ,  :.. !... L 1 _ L  - - I T *  i  |&<? ...Kfo  1^0  -  /?J0  /tytf  IISO -'9(6  • 1. L •' i j_ ' •  :  '  '  i  i  i  /9fo~  10O%- t o t a l number .of - p i c t u r e s -- • • • For number of cases and exact percentages see Appendix No.7  '  '  G r a p h No.8 P u b l i c a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s and symbols a p p e a r i n g i n t h e t e x t o f B.C. primers to measure E q u a l i t a r i a n i s m ( a u t h o r i t a r i a n dimension) ( i n %)  . Li..  i  I  ' ,Q a  : Wo  IJio •  l%o  J9JO Ifyo  Vsv-1?toWo  1G0%= - t o t a l number o f .-pages F o r number o f c a s e s a n d e x a c t p e r c e n t a g e s s e e A p p e n d i x No.»  j  Mo  -37-  therefore  clearly  this  i n d i c a t o r supports the sub-hypothesis  last  society  i n t h e s e n s e Of a d e c l i n e  figures  and  i t c a n be s t a t e d that  that  B.C.  i n the mid-twentieth  i n o r i e n t a t i o n to authority  and symbols. On  of  In c o n c l u s i o n  moved t o w a r d s e q u a l i t a r i a n i s m  century,  not  upheld.  t h e whole o u r h y p o t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g  clearly family  verified;  i n one d i m e n s i o n  and s o c i e t y )  i n another  the c u l t u r e  dimension  egalitarianism i s  (hierarchical structure  i s becoming  non-egalitarian  (authoritarian orientation)  i t  is  becoming e g a l i t a r i a n . P e r h a p s o u r i n d i c a t o r s do n o t a c c u r a t e l y measure e g a l i t a r i a n i s m ; o r M a r t i n contemporary reflected the  B.C. s o c i e t y a s b e i n g  i n Our c o n t e n t  split,  Or a l a c k  directions  R o b i n ' s O b s e r v a t i o n on split  On i d e o l o g i c a l l i n e s i s  a n a l y s i s . I f the l a t t e r  of u n a n i m i t y  then  i n i d e o l o g i c a l and p o l i c y  i n B.C. s o c i e t y make i t d i f f i c u l t  dimensional  i s true,  to obtain u n i -  r e s u l t s i n t e s t i n g Our h y p o t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g  B.C.  p r i m e r s p i c t u r i n g an i n c r e a s i n g l y e g a l i t a r i a n s o c i e t y .  H y p o t h e s i s No.2; B.C. P r i m e r s Wi11 P i c t u r e An Tolerance  Of E t h n i c  Our ethnic  Diversity  second h y p o t h e s i s c a l l s  heterogeneity,  this  diversification  f o r measures of t o l e r a n c e o f  i f n o t on t h e p a r t  whole, a t l e a s t on t h e p a r t Under  o f B.C.  t o mean t h a t  ethnic  the e l i t e  takes  reflect  multi-ethnic  society.  c a n be measured by t h e n a t u r e  appearing  should  increasing  that  composition  the primers  as a  elites.  second h y p o t h e s i s ,  i s taken  of the p o p u l a t i o n  consideration This  Increasing  a  into  of e t h n i c  i n t h e p r i m e r s . We have two i n d i c a t o r s  to  test  the h y p o t h e s i s :  other  percentages of non-Anglo-Saxon names or  r e f e r e n c e s to non-Anglo-Saxons  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of n o n - w h i t e s . distinction  in t e x t ,  In p i c t o r i a l  and p i c t o r i a l  representations,  between the whites and the non-whites  the  i s made on the  b a s i s of c o l o u r and f a c i a l f e a t u r e s . Those l o o k i n g b l a c k , coloured  (brown, y e l l o w ) ,  Oriental,native  Indian,  Chinese (or  L a t i n American),  Eskimo, are taken for n o n - w h i t e s .  non-whites appear in l a r g e numbers only the  The  in the primers used in  1980s. Most of these non-whites are b l a c k s who can e a s i l y be  identified. cases  (in  In p i c t o r i a l  p r e s e n t a t i o n s there are some b o r d e r l i n e  the primer used in the  1980s)  in which one  such as f a c i a l f e a t u r e or s k i n pigmentation a l o n e , to i d e n t i f y cases,  the subject  indicator,  i s not enough  as being white Or non-white.  In  such  f a c i a l f e a t u r e and s k i n pigmentation combined t o g e t h e r ,  enable us to i d e n t i f y primer f o r  the  a subject's  r a c i a l background. In  1980s, human f i g u r e s appearing in two  were not counted f o r not being d i s t i n c t  as to t h e i r  age (pp.16 & 17; p . 7 8 ) .  however,  This exclusion,  the  pictures number or  a p p l i e s only  to  Graphs 2 and 11. Though not a l l the white people in B . C . are A n g l o Saxons,  the t e x t u a l  r e f e r e n c e s to whites of  non-anglo-SaxOn  O r i g i n do not appear at a l l . T h i s perhaps i m p l i e s that AnglO- Saxon whites B.C.  in B . C . a c c u l t u r a t e q u i c k l y ;  the nOn-  Or the e l i t e  would l i k e to induce them to a c c u l t u r a t e by w i t h h o l d i n g  r e f e r e n c e to non-Anglo-Saxon whites attitude  in the school p r i m e r s .  of the e l i t e becomes more obvious when we n o t i c e  the t e x t u a l  in any  This that  r e f e r e n c e s to non-Anglo-saxons do not appear except  in two c a s e s :  the f i r s t  One i s an Indian (1900-1909 period)  and  -39-  the  second  i s an E s k i m o  Gingerbread occurs  is  as a white  (last)  t o be a w h i t e  the  text  they  t h e name "Kim P a r k s "  asked  two C a n a d i a n s ,  origins,  In t h e c a s e  woman  A n g l o - S a x o n name. But " P a r k s "  name. A l s o i n t h e p i c t u r e  woman. I  and t h e t e x t .  her  Our  as a female  the o t h e r of European  picture  So  i n the 1980s),  i n H e l i c o p t e r s And  i n p a g e s 40, 42, 43, 44, and 45. "Kim" c a n be  name a s w e l l  an A n g l o - S a x o n  appears and  ( b e i n g used  i n the text  a Korean  ( 1 9 1 0 s ) . However,  (American  identified  I decided to c l a s s i f y  to identify  "Kim P a r k s "  one o f o r i e n t a l  "Kim P a r k " i n  of the p i c t u r e or Canadian).  they  identified  In t h e case of  "Kim P a r k s " a s an A n g l o - S a x o n "Kim P a r k s " a s an  female.  Anglo-Saxon.  Findings The  findings,  r e p r e s e n t e d i n Graphs  the h y p o t h e s i s , whereas, t h o s e of graphs  11 and 12, v e r i f y  9 and 10 r e j e c t t h e  hypothesis. Our  findings  implications This w i l l  cases  i n the t e x t u a l  of d i f f e r e n t  and t h e p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s .  be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l  concerned, two  a r e not u n i f o r m because  s h o r t l y . As f a r a s t h e t e x t i s  t h e r e i s no r e f e r e n c e t o n o n - A n g l o - S a x o n s e x c e p t i n (Graphs  9 and 1 0 ) . T h i s d o e s n o t show any k i n d o f  evolutionary  change. T h i s ,  however, p o i n t s o u t t h a t  20th c e n t u r y  (particularly  the f i r s t  two d e c a d e s o f t h e 2 0 t h  c e n t u r y ) t h e r e were e l e m e n t s  of e t h n i c  in  the case  non-whites  in  t h e 1980s when t h e y  of the p i c t u r e s ,  s c o r e d an a b r u p t  T h u s , so f a r a s p i c t o r i a l hypothesis  i s upheld  i n the e a r l y  h e t e r o g e n e i t y i n B.C. But appeared  rarely  i n c r e a s e (Graphs  except 7 & 8).  p r e s e n t a t i o n i s concerned, the  i n t h e sense  that,  by t h e 1980s, B.C.  Graph  No.9  N o n - A n g l o - S a x o n s a p p e a r i n g i n t h e t e x t o f B.C. p r i m e r s t o m e a s u r e e t h n i c d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n ( i n 96)  100%= t o t a l number o f p e o p l e ' " " F o r number o f c a s e s a n d e x a c t p e r c e n t a g e s s e e A p p e n d i x  ' No.9  G r a p h Wo. 10 W o n - A n g l o - S a x o n s a p p e a r i n g i n t h e t e x t o f B.C. p r i m e r s t o m e a s u r e e t h n i c d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n ( i n %)  - to  r ..:Z~I.J;  ;  r4t  $  —i^..  V  T  ;  •  :  i  "  i  :  I j  i j  •  1  :  •  •  i •  i; i  1  i : :  !  ' ,  ;  ;  •  i  j i' •  1 : !.  ^ i  :  ;  •:i : | 1  >  -•--'•  :hti.j::>: ^...j.. -...  .-.  _•  1—|—f— ; i : 5 •J..._L_L ! 1 ; f  .  -  ;  :  1  l :  ....!,.  ~~t-f-  iW0_..__..U^—-/9«>0 . Qio.  dZo  I?3t>  l?</o.—i)s&~ I9fv  i  <??x>-  <9ro-  -100%= t o t a l number o f p a g e s i n w h i c h a t l e a s t one a d u l t ' o r c h i l d appears .... ' ' . ,. F o r number o f c a s e s a n d e x a c t p e r c e n t a g e s s e e A p p e n d i x N o . 1 0 1  n  G r a p h No. 11 Non-white people appearing i n p i c t u r e s e t h n i c d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n ( i n %)  -4  ..i  .1  o f B.C. " p r i m e r s t o m e a s u r e  . : ...  t  i  i  I  •1—\—I I  r  -Hr  i .  -\-ip "15  mo-  \V)0 . tfbo . '9/0 .. l%o_. '93o •.JS&...../9to-—tf?*>-UBro-.  100%= " t o t a l numher o f p e o p l e : •\ F o r numher o f c a s e s a n d e x a c t p e r c e n t a g e s s e e A p p e n d i x :  No.11  i.  _c Graph  No.12  Non-white people;appearing i n p i c t u r e s of B.C. primers to measure d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n ' (in. %) ';  ' 9  • r ! T  i  I  i  •  ethnic -A-  ] i "  i  !....!„  : i • i  !  J.  1  i  ii  i—I—-  i  ID  1_L —1 ..._ .._.;_J."«W.._I.IWfi J  J /^Of? ..  fllo.  mo  t%o-...J*t*..-..i9so.  .. ifa>. .  l??0-jJftb  • 1-0096-= t o t a l number o f p i c t u r e s i n w h i c h a t l e a s f o n e a d u l t " '"' or c h i l d appears F o r number o f c a s e s a n d e x a c t p e r c e n t a g e s s e e A p p e n d i x No.12  -44-  primers p i c t u r e a s o c i e t y more e t h n i c a l l y d i v e r s e than at any other  time under  study.  The discrepancy between t e x t u a l representations  results partly  from the f a c t that  appear in a l a r g e number of p i c t u r e s  only  they are mostly b l a c k . Since the primer produced in the context  r e f e r e n c e s to non-Anglo-Saxons  tolerate  in the  for the  1980s  the a b s o l u t e lack of  Of the dominant e t h n i c group i n B . C .  The e t h n i c d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n  the p o s t - W o r l d War II  the  selection  a multi-ethnic  Of B . C . primers i s  society.  correlated 15).  between non-white and white  the 1950s and 1960s. Since the 1970s the  of s u b s t a n t i a l o r i e n t a l  i m m i g r a t i o n . In the  r e s u l t e d in an increase to 7.5% non-white (excluding  In  p e r i o d , a huge European immigration to  percentage Of non-white p o p u l a t i o n has been i n c r e a s i n g as a result  to  in B . C . T h i s argument  p o p u l a t i o n composition (Appendix  Columbia a l t e r e d the r a t i o  population for  culture.  of Education does take i n t o account  the primers should r e f l e c t  to changes i n B . C . ' s  of  induced to a c c u l t u r a t e  r e c e i v e s reinforcement when we c o n s i d e r that process i n the B . C . M i n i s t r y  They  non-Anglo-Saxon  But they do not accept a p l u r a l i t y  the a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s  the f a c t that  is  in the text perhaps i n d i c a t e s a  The e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s are i n d i r e c t l y  British  1980s and that  the immigration of O r i e n t a l s and other  e t h n i c groups.  non-whites  of the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the black people  normally have Anglo-Saxon names. But,  subtle attitude  and p i c t o r i a l  the n a t i v e p e o p l e ) .  (Appendix  1980s  it  from 2.6% Of 1961 15)  -45-  Hypothesis N o . 3 : B . C . Secular  Primers W i l l  P i c t u r e An I n c r e a s i n g l y  used to t e s t  the hypothesis concerning a  Society The i n d i c a t o r  gradual s e c u l a r i z a t i o n .-'.of B . C .  culture  i s the percentage of  religious  f i g u r e s and symbols appearing in the text and  pictures.  A d e c l i n e in the percentages of r e l i g i o u s  symbols over time should c o n f i r m the h y p o t h e s i s . indicators  to t e s t  f i g u r e s and  As f a r as the  t h i s hypothesis are concerned, we had no  problem in coding from the text and p i c t u r e s .  Religious  symbols and themes appearing in the t e x t and p i c t u r e s primers were easy to  Our  figures,  of  the  identify.  Findings The f i n d i n g s presented in Graph 13 v e r i f y  hypothesis;  those of graph 14 p a r t i a l l y  verify  the  it.  Our f i n d i n g s are not uniform because of changes in forms and ways through which r e l i g i o u s m a n i f e s t e d . As f a r as p i c t o r i a l r e f e r e n c e s to r e l i g i o n the  symbols and themes have been representation  appear in low f r e q u e n c i e s from 1900 to  1930s and then disappear a l t o g e t h e r . (Graph  r e f e r e n c e s to r e l i g i o n the 1930s. For the are n o n - e x i s t e n t .  1940s and the 1950s, In the 1960s and the in the  presentation  h y p o t h e s i s . When both t e x t u a l combined, the i n d i c a t o r s towards  secularization;  13). In the  text,  appear in low frequency from the 1880s to  but disappear a l t o g e t h e r b a s i s Of t e x t u a l  i s concerned,  it  r e f e r e n c e s to  religion  1970s they appear again  1980s (Graph 14). On the s o l e i s thus d i f f i c u l t  and p i c t o r i a l  to uphold the  representations  f a i l again to show a gradual they show a c u l t u r e  are  evolution  fluctuating  between  Grph  No.13  R e l i g i o u s f i g u r e s and symbols a p p e a r i n g i n p i c t u r e s p r i m e r s t o m e a s u r e s e c u l a r i z a t i o n ( i n %}  Hio  .i i L .. •. L 4  . \%%  \%c  •;  ij/d •  >%b  J93t>  m<>.  . /fro  . ;  100%= total.-.number o f p i c t u r e s F o r number o f c a s e s and e x a c t p e r c e n t a g e s  of  B.C.  /fa  .  ^  _ J ' • -: see A p p e n d i x  No.  Graph  No.14  R e l i g i o u s f i g u r e s and symbols a p p e a r i n g i n t h e t e x t p r i m e r s t o m e a s u r e s e c u l a r i z a t i o n ( i n %)  Wto... \%^ . l?oo 0  i?/0-  1930  /%c  IHo  o f B.C.  —  -  1-10.0%=; t o t a l n u m h e r o f p a g e s !--• - --F o r ..-number o f c a s e s a n d e x a c t p e r c e n t a g e s s e e A p p e n d i x No", t-4—•• 4  -48-  the  s e c u l a r and t h e r e l i g i o u s . An  interesting  Canadian) s o c i e t y ingredient disappeared primers? divorce in  i n f l u e n c e d the s o c i e t y  i n the s o c i a l i z a t i o n  a s an  as h i g h communism  religious  f i g u r e s and themes w h i c h the Lord,  They a r e a l s o whether  Christmas,  Christ.  themes, s y m b o l s , and  non-denominational;  they  occur  a cross,  Samuel,  t r e e , Mary, baby J e s u s ,  a l l the r e l i g i o u s  possible to identify  such  ideologies,  a boy p r a y i n g , t h e i n f a n t  images a r e C h r i s t i a n .  B.C. s c h o o l  process.  symbols,  Claus, a Christmas  r e l i g i o n had  to r e i n s t i l l  a r e God, Noah,the B i b l e ,  Interestingly,  not  II experiences  r a t e s and t h e t h r e a t o f a t h e i s t i c  angels, a church, Santa  religion  (1940s and 1950s) from  P e r h a p s p o s t W o r l d War  the primers  D i d B.C. ( o r  i n t h e 1960s and 1970s a f t e r  Those r e l i g i o u s in  to part with  f o r two d e c a d e s  particular,  values  i n a s e c u l a r phase.  question a r i s e s here.  hesitate  of c u l t u r e  I t i s now  i t  is  are C a t h o l i c or  Protestant.  Summary  And C o n c l u s i o n As  and  data,  decline not  indicated  our s u b - h y p o t h e s i s  i n the h i e r a r c h i c a l  supported  hypothesis pictured  at a l l .  concerning  increasing  1, a s w e l l a s by p r e v i o u s  concerning  B.C. p r i m e r s  dimension  a decline in authoritarian  hypothesis  i s supported  picturing  a  concerning  o f t h e same o r i e n t a t i o n as  by two m e a s u r e s B.C. p r i m e r s  t o l e r a n c e of e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y  f o u r measures  graphs  s t r u c t u r e o f f a m i l y and s o c i e t y i s  However, a n o t h e r  i n B.C. p r i m e r s  1 ) . The s e c o n d  of  by F i g u r e  ( F i g u r e ! ) . The t h i r d  p i c t u r i n g an  i s supported  hypothesis  (Figure  by two o u t  concerning  Summary Of F i n d i n g s Measures: 2  3  5.  6  7  8 Hypothesis  concerning  egalitarianism  Hypothesis concerning tolerance of e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y SW S For SW  SW  Supported  F o r Weakly  Supported  B l a n k F o r Not S u p p o r t e d At A l l B l a c k o u t F o r Does N o t  Apply  Hypothesis concerning  secularization  * A p p l i e s to counts that excludes lower species. ** A p p l y t o a u t h o r i t y of e g a l i t a r i a n i s m .  dimension  -50-  B.C.  p r i m e r s p i c t u r i n g an  supported other  by  both measures,  weakly, The  (Figure  of  greater  our  pictures  are The  supported  since  on  because  realistic s u c h as past nor an  i n the  lower  both  text  8  idealistic  idyllic  indicators  d i m e n s i o n s of The using  on  cultural  receives  earlier, 1)  in  support  we  placed  which  and  in p i c t u r e s .  1)  public It  However, I put  t h a n on  the  ratio  f o r the  is  others,  was  affected  in public  w o r k - p l a c e . The  i n t e r a c t . It  a  p r i m e r s used  is easier  i t i s to  by  places,  i n which n e i t h e r  than  more  1980s r e f l e c t s  appearing  adults  well  species/children/adult  adult  environment  of  is least  text  in  the  adults to  picture  remove  adults  environment. l e t us  which depends the evolution  s i n g l e m i n d e d n e s s of  i n d i c a t o r s of  the  pictures.  m e a s u r e s of  Before drawing a c o n c l u s i o n the  the  our  primer  much s c o p e t o  social  by  on  (Figure  stops,  world devoid  realistic  in  i s best  egalitarianism  in pictures.  The  or  (Figure  lower  w o r l d w i t h many a d u l t s  had  4  species/children/  a i r p o r t s , bus  text  indicated  i n the  or  the  only  measure of  interference.  children  and  is  units.  i t is verified  r e f l e c t e d an  from a  content  the  strongly  diversity also  m e a s u r e s 3 and  m e a s u r e s 7 and  the  serious  ethnic  on  authority,  either  weight  i t by  m e a s u r e s . As  s u p p o r t e d by  ratio  a  measure  u s e d as  society  secularization  hypothesis concerning  symbols of not  case  four  reliance  secular  1).  hypothesis concerning  from two  i n one  hypothesis concerning  s u p p o r t e d whether we The  increasingly  measurement  we  are  the  egalitarianism  give  a of  last the  look  various  studying.  p r i m e r s p r e v e n t e d us  that  at  more s o p h i s t i c a t e d  from texts  -51-  would have e n a b l e d liberal;  blue c o l l a r / w h i t e  hierarchical indicator rather  us t o u s e - r i c h  structure  collar  of family  than c o u n t i n g  active  the f i r s t  and s o c i e t y ,  and p a s s i v e  option  when a c t o r s  belonging  participate  simultaneously  perhaps a  in initiating I could  a s I d i d . The  a s an i n d i c a t o r  an a c t i o n .  public  F o r example,  life  societies and  i n large  t o measure  participation transition  of e g a l i t a r i a n i s m .  adults  data.  family. about  In  could  indicated  society.  orientation,  the presence of  have been t a k e n a s s y m b o l s o f us v e r y  authority  orientation  not only  meaningful  figures within  that  i n the t e l l us  family  as a whole.  the case of s e c u l a r i z a t i o n , an e v o l u t i o n  the assumption that  (Chile  greater  the d i v i s i o n of a u t h o r i t y  t o use p u b l i c  but i n the s o c i e t y  Hence, a  those  may i n d i c a t e a  B u t t h i s would n o t have g i v e n  been c h o s e n t o measure under  life  an a u t h o r i t a r i a n  the authoritarian  structure  on t h i s ) .  in public  of c h i l d r e n  I preferred  modern  B u t t h i s does n o t p r o v e t h a t  f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l t o modern  I t m i g h t have  But t h i s  t o w a r d s a more e g a l i t a r i a n o r d e r  by f e m a l e s  i n front  authority.  numbers.  make a good c o n t r a s t  To measure  the r o l e of  i n L a t i n A m e r i c a women do p a r t i c i p a t e i n  are evolving  Pakistan  There i s a  t h e r a t i o of  would have been a r e f l e c t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l v e r s u s society.  initiators  and age g r o u p s  have c o u n t e d places  better  actions  i s one o f i d e n t i f y i n g  males and females a t p u b l i c  women i n s o c i e t y  actors,  to d i f f e r e n t species  high p r o b a b i l i t y of b i a s .  or  f o r example. To measure  w o u l d have been t o d e t e r m i n e who i n i t i a t e s  problem with  adult  or poor; conservative  indicators could  t o w a r d s a modern  the t r a d i t i o n a l i s l i n k e d  have  society t o the  -52-  religious.  I find  secularization using  i t preferable  by  indicators  means of such as,  however t o  measure  religious  symbols  male/female  roles  rather or  than  by  urban/rural  settings. In  conclusion  indicators  and  our  i t can  research  limitations  i n measuring  provide  us,  nevertheless,  precise  data.  Some of  adult/children/lower structure  of  family  the  our  other  religion,  the  measure of  on  satisfactory.  the  measure of  that  though  culture  such  and  indicatorsethnic  the  B.C.,  be  obvious they  relatively  as  hierarchical good as  symbols of  done,  I  had  authority  d i v e r s i t y - turned  I f work r e m a i n s t o egalitarianism.  of  have  as,  r a t i o t o measure were not  our  analysis-  interesting  society,  the  most  political  indicators  e x p e c t e d . But and  claimed  t o o l - content  with  species and  be  it is,  out  to  and be  primarily,  A p p e n d i x No.1 Primary  Sources  Bibliography o f primers (only primers o r advance p r i m e r s ) :  basic  primers, not pre-  1. C a n a d i a n R e a d e r s P r i m e r I Gage's E d u c a t i o n a l S e r i e s T o r o n t o & W i n n i p e g : W.J.Gage, 1.881. 2. C a n a d i a n R e a d e r s P r i m e r I I Gage's E d u c a t i o n a l S e r i e s T o r o n t o & W i n n i p e g : W.J.Gage, 1 8 8 1 . 3 . New C a n a d i a n R e a d e r s A F i r s t P r i m e r T o r o n t o ' & W i n n i p e g : W.J.Gage, 1901 . 4. New C a n a d i a n R e a d e r s A S e c o n d P r i m e r T o r o n t o & W i n n i p e g : W.J.Gage, 1901 . 5. T h e B r i t i s h  Columbia Readers  Beginners  Reader  6. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P h o n i c P r i m e r T o r o n t o : E d u c a t i o n a l Book, 1902. 7. The C a n a d i a n R e a d e r s Book I Toronto: M a c m i l l a n , 1927. 8. J e r r y A n d J a n e T o r o n t o : R y e r s o n ; M a c m i l l a n ; 1932, 1934. 9. F u n W i t h D i c k And J a n e T o r o n t o : W.J.Gage. 1 0 . O u r New F r i e n d s T o r o n t o : W.J.Gage, 1 9 3 8 . 1 1 . Come A l o n g W i t h Me V a n c o u v e r , T o r o n t o , M o n t r e a l : Copp C l a r k , 1 9 6 0 . 12. H e l i c o p t e r s A n d G i n g e r b r e a d C a n a d a : G i n n , 1978. The f i r s t t w o p r i m e r s w e r e u s e d i n t h e 1 8 8 0 s a n d 1 8 9 0 s ; t h e t h i r d a n d .the f o u r t h o n e s w e r e u s e d i n t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1900 t o 1 9 0 9 ; t h e f i f t h a n d t h e s i x t h o n e s w e r e u s e d in  1910s;  t h eseventh  o n e was u s e d  i n t h e 1920s  and 1930s;  t h e e i g h t h o n e was u s e d i n t h e 1 9 4 0 s ; t h e n i n t h a n d t h e t e n t h o n e s w e r e u s e d i n t h e 1 9 5 0 s ; t h e e l e v e n t h o n e was u s e d i n t h e 1960s a n d 1970s; and t h e t w e l v t h one i s b e i n g used i n t h e 1980s. S o u r c e : C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e o f B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n a n d A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s o f B.C.  ":  Appendix  Lower s p e c i e s , c h i l d r e n , a n d o f t h e B.C. hierarchy  primers  adults appearing  t o measure  dimension  No.2  equalitarianism ( social  )  Pictures  as c o n t e n t  Period  T o t a l number o f c h a r a c t e r s ( i n c l u d i n g lower s p e c i e s , children,and adults)  1880s 1 890s 19001909  on p i c t u r e s  units. % of.Lower species  203  203  ,  127  % of Children  '& o f Adults  61  24  14  61  24  14  49  37  12  1910s  309  55  33  11  1 920s  240  70  26  3  1 930s  240  26  3  1 940s  253  58  9  1 950s  101 4  24  1 960s  320  48  44  7  1 970s  320  48  44  7  1 980s  251  27  33  38  70 31  59  16  Appendix Children to measure  Period  and a d u l t s  No.2.1  a p p e a r i n g o n p i c t u r e s o f t h e B.C.  equalitarianism  ( social hierarchy  T o t a l number o f c h a r a c t e r s ( i n c l u d i n g c h i l d r e n - : and a d u l t s  dimension  )  % of children  primers )  % of adults  1880s  79  62  38  1890 s  79  62  38  1900-1909  64  73  27  73  27  1910s  139  1920s  72  86  14  1 930s  72  86  14  1940s  174  84  16  1 950s  770  78  22  1 960s  166  84  16  1 970s  166  84  16  1 980s  183  46  •54 I  \  .  -56. Appendix  Lower s p e c i e s , c h i l d r e n , a n d •v.  No.3  a d u l t s a p p e a r i n g cn p i c t u r e s  of" t h e B.C. p r i m e r s t o measure e q u a l i t a r i a n i s m ( s o c i a l hierarchy  dimension)  P i c t u r e .a as c o n t e n t u n i t s . Period  T o t a l numher of p i c t u r e s  At l e a s t one \t l e a s t one kt l e a s t lower species ? h i l d appears one a d u l t • appears, on one on one appears. picture picture on one •Dicture  1880s  77  63%  35%  18%  1890s  77  63%  35%  18%  19001909  98  30%  1 4%  65%  51%  20%  1910s  117  "  60%  1920s  90  63%  40%  10%  1930s  90  63%  40%  10%  1 940s  86  55%  79%  23%  1950s  322  43%  75%  32%  1960s  118  66%  51%  16%  1 970s  118  66%  51%  16%  1 980s  67  35%  32%  55%  Appendix Lower s p e c i e s , c h i l d r e n , a n d of  No.4  adults  appearing i n the text  t h e B.C.primers t o measure e q u a l i t a r i a n i s m  hierarchy  dimension  Words a,s c o n t e n t  )  units,  T o t a l number of characters 288  ( social  %of lower  species 58  % of children  % of adults  28  288  58  28  12  281  50  30  19  403  43  37  18  373  57  29  13  373  57  29  13  293  37  46  16  948  26  55  17  469  38  49  11  469  38  49  11  124  30  45  24  -58A-ppendix No. 5 Lower  species,children,and adults appearing i n the text  o f t h e B.C. p r i m e r s , t o m e a s u r e e q u a l i t a r i a n i s m hierarchy  dimension )  Words as c o n t e n t Period  ( social  unit  T o t a l number o f pages  1880s  96  1890s  96  1900-  P* At l e a s t one lower s p e c i e s a p p e a r i n g on one page  At l e a s t one At l e a s t " c h i l d a p p e a r i n g >ne a d u l t appearing on one page on one page 52%  25%  53%  52%  25%  1 31  59%  42%  25%  1910s  1 28  69%  61%  34%  1 920s  149  69%  44%  28%  1930s  149  69%  44%  28%  1 940s  1 20  57%  75%  34%  1 950s  346  43%  84%  37%  1 960s  153  64%  64%  23%  1 970s  153  64%  64%  23%  1 980s  78  48%  37%  32%  53%  1909  Appendix No.6 Lower s p e c i e s , c h i l d r e n , and a d u l t s appearing as a c t i v e a c t o r s i n p i c t u r e s of B.C. primers to measure e q u a l i t a r i a n i s m ( s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y dimension) P i c t u r e s as c o n t e n t u n i t s Feriod  Total number of pictures  At l e a s t one lower  a p e c l e s as  active ac t o r  A l l lower s p e c i e s as passive actors  At l e a s t one c h i l d as a c t i v e actor  All children as passive actors  At l e a s t one adult as active actor  All adults as passive actors  1880s  77  42%  20%  20%  9%  14%  3%  1890s  77  42%  20%  20%  9%  14%  3%  98  20%  39%  18%  12%  10%  4%  34%  31%  41%  10%  15%  5%  19001909  1 9 1 0 s  117  1 9 2 0 s  90  56%  6%  32%  7%  5%  4%  1 9 3 0 s  90  56%  6%  32%  7%  5%  4%  1940s  86  23%  32%  70%  8%  20%  2%  1 9 5 0 s  322  33%  10%  72%  3%  31%.  1%  1 9 6 0 s  118  43%  22%  48%  3%  16%  0%  1 9 7 0 s  118  43%  22%  48%  3%  16%  0%  28%  26%  7%  40%  7%  1 9 8 0 s  67  7%  .  -60Appendix Public of  authority  t h e B.C.  dimension  Period  »  f i g u r e s and symbols a p p e a r i n g on  primers  t o measure  equalitarianism  number o f  pictures  ( authoritarian  A t l e a s t one- p u b l i c .authority f i g u r e or . s y m b o l a p p e a r i n g .-or one p i c t u r e 2.5%  77  1890s  77  2.5%  19001909  98  2%  1910s  117  2.5%  1 920s  90  X  1 930s  90  X  1 940s  86  X  1950s  322  .3%  1 960s  11 8  1 970s  118  1 980s  67  I • i  pictures  )  Total  1880s  No.7  X X X  -61-  Appendix Public of  authority  t h e B.C.  dimension  primers  and symbols a p p e a r i n g  t o measure  equalitarianism  i n the  text  (authoritarian  )  Words a s c o n t e n t Period  figures  No.8  Total  units.  number.of  pages  A t l e a s t one p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e o r symbol a p p e a r i n g on o n e page.  1880s  96  3.1%  1890s  96  3.1%  19001909  1 31  2.2%  1910s  1 28  3.9%  1 920s  149  7.3%  1 930s  149  7.3%  1 940s  120  1 950s  346  1 960s  153  1970s  153  •  X X  I i  1 980s  78  X X  -62Appendix Non-Anglo-Saxons to measure e t h n i c Words a s c o n t e n t Period  appearing  No.9 .  i n t h e t e x t o f t h e B.C.  primers  diversification-' u n i t s . Count I .  T o t a l number of people (includning a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n )  Percentage of Non-Anglo-Saxons  Percentage of non-white p e o p l e o f B.C. according to census  1880s  119  X  60.7  1890s  119  X  45  19001909  140  .7  25.2  1910s  227  .4  12.9  1 920s  1 60  X  11 .8  1 930s  160  X  10.8  1940s  183  X  8.2  1950s  550  X  4.6  1 960s  ' 287  X  4.9  1 970s  287  X  6  1 980s  86  X  9.8  j  -63v Appendix Non-Anglo-Saxons appearing t o measure e t h n i c Words as c o n t e n t Period  No.10  i n the t e x t of the B.C.  primers  diversification units. Count I I .  T o t a l number o f pages i n w h i c h a t l e a s t one a d u l t or>a c h i l d appears  Percentage of pages i n w h i c h a t l e a s t one non-Anglo-Saxon adult or c h i l d appears  Percentage of non-whit population o f - B.C. according t census  1880s  55  1890s  55  X  45  19001909  72  1 .38  25.2  1910s  94  1  12.9  1920s  95  X  11 .8  1930s  95  X  10.8  1 940s  90  X  8.2  1950s  309  X  4.6  1 960s  102  X  4.9  1970s  102  X  6  1 980s  45  X  9.8  X  60.7  ,  • -64Appendix E.o. 11  Jtfon-white  p e o p l e a p p e a r i n g on  measure e t h n i c Pictures Period  p i c t u r e s o f t h e B.C. p r i m e r s t o  diversification"  as c o n t e n t u n i t s . Count I . T o t a l number of p e o p l e (including a d u l t s and children)  Percentage o f non-white  Percentage o f non-white p o p u l a t i o n o f B.C. a c c o r d i n g t o census  1880s  79  X  60.7  1890s  79  X  45  1 900- . 1909  66  1.5  25.2  2.94  12.9  1910s  136  1 920s  72  X  11 .8  1 950s  72  X  10.8 •  1 940s  174  X  8.2  1 950s  780  X  4.6  1960s  164  X  4.9  1970s  164  X  6  1980s  182  24.7  9.8  Appendix No. 1 2 'Non-white p e o p l e a p p e a r i n g on p i c t u r e s of t h e B.C. p r i m e r s t o measure e t h n i c Pictures  diversification  as c o n t e n t  units.Count I I .  P e r i o d J T o t a l numher o f i p i c t u r e s i n which ! a t l e a s t one a d u l t [ o r c h i l d appears  Percentage of p i c t u r e s i n . w h i c h a t l e a s t one non-white a d u l t or c h i l d appears  Percentage of non-white popul a t i o n of B.C. a c c o r d i n g t o .. census  1880s  |  36  1890s  J  36  X  45  19001909  | j  40  2.5  25.2  1910s  !  69  5.7  12.9  1920s  j  40  X  11.8  1930s  !  40  X  10.8  1940s  |  72  X  8.2  1950s  !  265  X  4.6  1960s  |  66  X  4.9  1970s  |  66  X  6  1980s  |  42  52.3  ,  x  60.7  9.8  -66-  Appendix No.13 R e l i g i o u s f i g u r e s and symbols a p p e a r i n g i n o f B.C. p r i m e r s t o m e a s u r e s e c u l a r i z a t i o n P i c t u r e s , as c o n t e n t Period  Total  units. number o f p i c t u r e s y  •  '  pictures  •  A t l e a s t one religious figure or symbol appearing i n one p i c t u r e  1880s  77  X  1890s  77  X  1900-1909  98  3%  910s  11 7  1 920s  90  1.1%  1 930s  90  1.1%  1 940s  86  X  1 950s  322  X  1960s  118  X  1 970s  118  X  1 980s  67  X  1  •  3.4%  Appendix No. 1 4 R e l i g i o u s f i g u r e s and symbols a p p e a r i n g B.C. p r i m e r s t o measure s e c u l a r i z a t i o n Words as c o n t e n t Period  units. T o t a l number of pages  At l e a s t one r e l i g i o u s f i g u r e o r symbol a p p e a r i n g i n one page  1880s  96  5.2%  1890s  96  5.2%  1900-1909  131  4.5%  1910s  1 28  6.2%  1 920s  149  2%  1930s  149  2%  1 940s  1 20  X  1 950s  346  X  1 960s  153  6.5%  1 970 s  153  6.5%  1980s  i n the text of  78  X  -68Appendix No.15.  Percentage  o f non-white p o p u l a t i o n o f B.C.  ( i n c l u d i n g A s i a n s , B l a c k s , N a t i v e Indians,Eskimos,West I n d i a n s , A f r i c a n s , L a t i n A m e r i c a n s , P a c i f i c I s l a n d e r s ): 1870  75.1  ( 7 0 . 8 N a t i v e I n d i a n s + 4.3 A s i a n s )  1881  60.7  ( 51.9 N a t i v e I n d i a n s + 8.8 A s i a n s )  1891  45  ( 35.9 N a t i v e I n d i a n s + 9.1 A s i a n s )  1901  25.2  (14.3  1911  12.9  (  5.1 N a t i v e I n d i a n s + 7.8 A s i a n s )  1921  11.8  (  4.3 N a t i v e I n d i a n s + 7.5 A s i a n s )  1931  10.8  (  3.5 N a t i v e I n d i a n s + 7.3 A s i a n s )  1941  8.2  (  3.0 N a t i v e I n d i a n s + 5.2 A s i a n s )  1951  4.6  (  2.4 N a t i v e I n d i a n s + 2.2 o t h e r non-white  1961  4.9  (  2.3 N a t i v e I n d i a n s + 2.6 o t h e r non-white  1971  6  ( 2 . 3 N a t i v e I n d i a n s + 3 . 6 o t h e r non-white  1981  9.8  (  N a t i v e I n d i a n s +10.9 A s i a n s )  2.3 N a t i v e Peoples  + 7.5 o t h e r non-white  A b s o l u t e f i g u r e o f non-white p o p u l a t i o n o f B.C. i n r e c e n t times  ( i t e x c l u d e s N a t i v e I n d i a n s and Eskimos,):  1961  41,311  "  The non-white p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d by  1971  79,915  I  almost  1981  203,525  I  and i t i n c r e a s e d by almost  five  from 1971 Sources:  times from 1961 t o 1981; three  times  t o 1981.  1) Census o f Canada 2)  Ward,W.P. " C l a s s and Race i n t h e S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e of  British  British  Columbia", i n Ward,W.P.,McDonald,R.A.J.  C o l u m b i a : H i s t o r i c a l Readings p.590.  -69Appendix Total  No.16  p o p u l a t i o n o f B.C.:  1871  36,247  1881  49,459  1891  98,173  1901  178,657  1911  392,480  1 921  524,582  1931  694,263  1941  817,861  1951  1,165,210-  1961  1,629,082  1971  2,184,620  1981  2,713,615  S o u r c e s : 1) M a c D o n a l d , N . , " P o p u l a t i o n  Growth and Change i n  S e a t t l e and V a n c o u v e r , 1 8 8 0 - 1 9 6 0 " , i n , P r i e s en,J.,Ralston,H.K.ed. Historical  E s s a y s on B r i t i s h  2) Census o f Canada.  Columbia  Bibliography - On C o n t e n t A n a l y s i s A s A  Methodology:  1. B u d d , R.W., T h o r p , R.K. e t a l C o n t e n t A n a l y s i s o f Communication New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 6 7 . 2. C a r n e y , T . F . 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