Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The terra-cotta figures of Qin and human representations from the 5th century B.C. to the 3rd century… Wong, Saintfield S. F. 1984

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1984_A8 W65.pdf [ 16.4MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0096318.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0096318-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0096318-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0096318-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0096318-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0096318-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0096318-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0096318-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0096318.ris

Full Text

THE TERRA-COTTA FIGURES OF QIN AND HUMAN REPRESENTATIONS FROM THE 5TH CENTURY B.C. TO THE 3RD CENTURY A.D. By SAINTFIELD S.F. WONG B.A., The University of British Columbia, 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Fine Arts) We accept, this thesis as conforming :l i to!the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1984 © Saintfield S.F. Wong, 1984 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . « Department ofFine Arts  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date April 2?, 1984 DE-6 (3/81) i i ABSTRACT In 1974, an army of over 7,000 life size soldiers and horses sculpted in clay and equipped with actual bronze weapons and chariots was discovered in Lintong, Shaanxi Province, near the mausoleum of the First Emperor of China, Qin Shihuangdi. As a component part of the mausoleum, the army was produced between 246 - 209 B.C. Although made by the thousands, these figures were individually modelled. Great care was taken to depict and define the particulars, especially those of the facial features, hairstyles and armor. On the other hand, l i t t l e atten-tion was given to the representation of organic structures and anatomical details. The difference in concern for various parts of the body poses an interesting topic for investigation. In particular, the great care devoted to rendering details shown by the Qin figures signifies a new stage in the development of human representation, where human figures represented as independent subject matter were produced in l i fe size and with a concern for realism. Through stylistic analyses of the Qin figures and human representa-tions from the 5th Century B.C. to the 3rd Century A.D., one is not only able to define the artistic concerns of the Qin sculptors, but is also able to determine the significance of the Qin figures in the development of human representation. Moreover, through the study of the prevailing artistic trends, the sociological and ideological background of the Eastern Zhou and Qin periods, one discovers that the Qin figures closely relate to the bronze tradition in their method of modelling, concern for surface and clarity in representation; while the Qin sculptors' i i i attention for exactitude in details and variation within uniformity reflects the ideology of the Qin regime. Nevertheless, anatomical realism was never a primary concern of the Qin artists. The trend for abstraction and the northern and southern attitude towards art can also be traced through the development of human representation. The rising importance of depicting the human figure as an independent subject matter mirrored the rising value of man amidst political turmoil and social changes. i v Table of Contents Pa_e Abstract. i i List of Figures v I. Introduction 1 (a) Dating "of..'the Figures 11 II. The Terra-cotta Figures of Qin 17 (a) Technique 17 (b) Stylistic Analyses 22 (i) Infantry Officer 22 (ii) Striding Infantryman 31 (i i i ) Kneeling Archer 38 (iv) Coloring 40 (c) Summary 44 III. Development of Human Representations from the 5th Century B.C. to the 3rd Century A.D 45 (a) Bidwell' Figure (C. 550-450 B.C.) 48 (b) Figure from the ROM (C. 500-450 B.C.) . . . . 49 (c) Figure from the Tomb of Marquis Yi, Hubei Province (C. 433 B.C.) 50 (d) Figure from the State of Zhongshan, Hebei Province (C. 210-296 B.C.) 55 (e) Western Han Figure (C. 173-151 B.C.) 60 (f) Summary 66 IV. Social, Political and Ideological Atmosphere from the 5th Century to the 3rd Century B.C 77 Footnotes 90 Bibliography 97 V L i s t of F igures F igure No. Page 1 Map o f the Qin Empire: 221-206 B.C 2 2 Locat ions o f the Mausoleum of Qin Shihuang and the Te r r a co t t a Warr io r s and Horses 4 3 P lan of P i t No. 2 showing t e n t a t i v e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the arrangement of t e r r a c o t t a f i g u r e s and wood c h a r i o t s . Drawing by P h y l l i s Ward a f t e r Wenwu 1978/5, p. 2, f i g . 1 . . 5 4 Columns o f Vanguards i n m i l i t a r y format ion 6 5 D e t a i l o f c o i f f u r e a t back o f head, armored infantryman 7 6 Warr io r s i n Armours . 8 7 Stone Scu lp tu re before the Tomb o f Huo Qubing, d. 117 B.C 10 8a I n s c r i p t i o n s on po t te r y p ieces found west o f the Mausoleum of Qin Shihuang at Zha  Bei Hu V i l l a g . . . . 14 8b I n s c r i p t i o n s on po t te r y p ieces found west of the Mausoleum of Qin Shihaung at Zhao Bei Hu V i l l a g e . . . . 15 9 Rubbings o f i n s c r i p t i o n s from the f i g u r e s 18 10a I n s c r i p t i o n on a po t t e r y f i g u r e : "X ianyang" 19 10b I n s c r i p t i o n on a po t t e r y f i g u r e : "Xianyang Ke" 19 11a Excavat ion o f bronze horses and c h a r i o t s west of the b u r i a l mound o f the mausoleum of Qin Shihuang. H a l f o f l i f e - s i z e . 23 l i b Horses and c h a r i o t s a f t e r r e s t o r a t i o n . Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.) . Height 90.4 cm (horses) and 107 cm ( c h a r i o t ) , length 108-113.5 cm (horses) and 286.7 cm ( c h a r i o t s ) 24 12 I n fan t r y O f f i c e r , Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.) Height 196 cm (6 f t . , 5 i n . ) 25 13 D e t a i l , i n f a n t r y o f f i c e r 27 14 S t r i d i n g infantryman I. Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.) Height 178 cm (5 f t . , 10 i n . ) 33 v i F igure No. Page 15 D e t a i l , s t r i d i n g infantryman 34 16 S t r i d i n g infantryman I I . Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C. ) . . 36 17 S t r i d i n g infantryman I I I . Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.). . 37 18 De ta i l o f b e l t w i th b e l t hook, s t r i d i n g infantryman 39 19 Kneel ing a r che r . Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.) Height 122 cm (3 f t . , 11 i n . ) . . . 41 20 Knee l ing a r che r . Front view 42 21a Bronze knee l i ng se rvant . Front v iew. B idwe l l C o l l e c t i o n . (C. 550 B.C.) 27.9 cm (11 i n . ) 47 21b Bronze knee l ing se rvant . Back view 47 22a Bronze knee l ing se rvant . Front v iew. Royal Ontar io Museum C o l l e c t i o n . (C. 500-450 B.C.) 27.9 cm (11 i n . ) . . . • 47 22b Bronze knee l ing se rvant . Back view. Royal Ontar io Museum C o l l e c t i o n 47 23 Human f i g u r e s suppor t ing the frame of the b e l l set found i n the tomb o f Marquis Y i o f the State o f Zeng, Hubei Prov ince (C. 433 B.C.) 51 24 Support ing f i g u r e s . D e t a i l . Height 1.17 m (46 i n . ) . . 52 25 Support ing f i g u r e . Front view 53 26 Bronze lamp w i t h human rep re sen ta t i on excavated from the o l d s i t e o f the S tate o f Zhongshan, Hebei P rov ince (C. 296-310 B.C.) 57 27 Bronze human f i g u r e . De ta i l (C. 296-310 B.C.) 59 28 Drawing o f the design o f the lamp from the S tate of Zhongshan. (C. 296-310 B.C.) 57 29 G i l t - b r o n z e lamp. Western Han ( f i r s t h a l f 2nd Century B.C. ) . Height 48 cm (18 7/8 i n . ) , weight 15.85 kg (34 l b . , 14 oz . ) 61 v i i F igure No. Page 30 T e r r a c o t t a knee l i ng f i g u r e unearthed near the outer w a l l o f the mausoleum of Qin Shihuang, L ingtong X i a n , Shaanxi P rov ince . Height 64.5 cm. . . . 64 31 Wooden f i g u r e s from Chu, Changsha, Hunan Prov ince (C. 3rd C. B.C.) . Height 57.1 cm ( l e f t ) . Height 58.3 cm ( r i g h t ) 68 32 Wooden f i g u r e s of music ians from Mawangdui, Hunan Prov ince (C. 156 B.C.) 68 33a Han Dynasty dancer. Front v iew. O r i g i n a l l y pa i n ted . Han Dynasty (206 B . C . - 220 A .D. ) , Shaanxi Prov ince 72 33b Han Dynasty dancer. Back view 72 33c Han Dynasty dancer. L e f t view 73 33d Han Dynasty dancer. R ight view 73 34 Mus i c i an . Grey c l a y covered w i t h remains o f white s l i p and some red pigment. Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220 A.D. ) . Height 8.9 cm {3h i n . ) 75 35 Dance f i g u r e s excavated from Loyang, Henan P rov ince . Han Dynasty (206 B.C. - 220 A.D. ) . Height 14 cm 75 36 Drawing o f decor o f a "dou" bronze. Eastern Zhou Per iod (C. l a t e 6th C - e a r l y 5th C. B.C.) 78 37 Diagram of des ign on a "hu " bronze. Late Eastern Zhou Per iod (C. 5th C. B.C.) 78 38 Rubbing o f a po t t e r y tomb t i l e from Sichwan. Eastern Han Per iod (2nd C. A .D . ) . 79 1 I. I n t r oduc t i on A f t e r cen tu r i e s o f wa r f a re , China was f i n a l l y u n i f i e d f o r the f i r s t time i n h i s t o r y i n 221 B.C. The u n i f i c a t i o n was brought about by the Qin, a northwestern s t a t e i n Ch ina, through a combination of wa r f a re , diplomacy and i n t r i g u e . A n n i h i l a t i n g the l a s t of the s i x feudal s t a t e s tha t formed the Zhou Dynasty (1122 - 256 B.C.) i n 221 B.C., King Zheng of Qin procla imed h imse l f Qin Shi Huangdi, the " F i r s t Sovereign Emperor of Q in " (F igure 1 ) . Although the empire crumbled w i t h i n only f i f t e e n y ea r s , the u n i f i c a t i o n had the g rea te s t impact i n the h i s t o r y of China. During h i s r e i g n , the F i r s t Emperor not on ly u n i f i e d the country p o l i t i c a l l y i n order to con-s o l i d a t e the empire, he implemented p o l i c i e s that a l s o u n i f i e d China s o c i a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y . With the a i d of h i s L e g a l i s t m i n i s t e r , L i S i , he promulgated a uniform code o f law, s tandard i zed cu r rency , we igh t s , measures, c a r t a x l e s , and u n i f i e d the w r i t t e n language.^ To strengthen the northern f r o n t i e r s aga in s t the Huns, he ordered the l i n k i n g up of the sec t i on s o f wa l l b u i l t by prev ious k ings o f Zhao and Yen, forming a 2 continuous rampart t h a t was 1400 mi le s l o n g , namely the Great Wa l l . He a l s o put an end to feuda l i sm by governing through a non -he red i t a r y , c e n t r a l l y admin i s te red bureaucracy, l a y i n g the foundat ion f o r a regime which was to l a s t w i th comparat ive ly l i t t l e change u n t i l the e s t a b l i s h -3 ment o f the Chinese Republ ic i n 1912. Although of c r u c i a l h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , the a r t of Qin and i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n of China has never been f u l l y exp lored due to the s c a r c i t y of a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l s . In 1974, an army o f over 7000 l i f e s i z e s o l d i e r s and horses s cu lp tu red i n c l a y , pa inted i n b r i l l i a n t c o l o r s , and equipped w i t h r ea l c h a r i o t s and bronze weapons was d i scovered a t the east o f the mausoleum of the emperor T H E QIN E M P I R E with modern provinces NIN(.;.\IA AIM C INl 1M( HIS HI IN INNER M O N G O L I A A l l l l INl IMC ICS Kl (.11 IN Hi Ll Al IN INC, G A N S U S H A A N X I Beijing • OVkint:i HEBEI SHANX I S H A N D O N G Lintiing , 1 Xi.in X i.niy.in^ I IANGSL S ICHUAN HUBEI H U N A N Z H E J I A N G GUIZHOU A U T O N O M O U S K IK i lON JIANGXI Y U N N A N ZHUANGX I A U T O N O M O U S K h l i l O N FUJ IAN G U A N G D O N G [ H A I N A N / i bouiuLiry of I he Qiii Empire M.ip nl lIK- Q in empire: 221-206 BC. 3 i n L i n tong , Shaanxi Prov ince (F igure 2 ) . Po ised to symbol ize ga r r i s on troops s t a t i o n e d ou t s i de the c a p i t a l c i t y to p r o t e c t the c a p i t a l and up-5 hold the a u t h o r i t y o f the F i r s t Emperor i n e t e r n i t y , the s o l d i e r s , horses and c h a r i o t s are arranged accord ing to a s p e c i f i c m i l i t a r y format ion p re -s c r i b ed i n Q i n ' s contemporary t e x t s on m i l i t a r y s t r a tegy as the Qin hui  yao ding bu and L iu t ao : "Long range crossbows i n f r o n t , halberds beh ind , " "bows are the outer l a y e r , halberds and s h i e l d s the i n n e r , " and " s k i l l e d s o l d i e r s and s t rong bows on the f l a n k s " (F igures 3 , 4 ) . These f i g u r e s , made by the thousands, were i n d i v i d u a l l y model led. D i f f e r e n t pa r t s o f the body were modelled s epa ra te l y . Great care was taken to dep i c t p a r t i c u l a r s , e s p e c i a l l y those o f the f a c i a l f e a t u r e s , h a i r s t y l e s and armor. For example, e y e l i d s were shaped to suggest the eyeba l l s behind. Ears were formed to reveal the upper c a r t i l a g e and e a r -l obes . H a i r s t y l e s were represented to show d i s t i n c t manners of b r a i d i n g and of forming topknots (F igures 5 , 6 ) . The r e n d i t i o n of the armor was a l s o c a r r i e d to minute and i n t r i c a t e d e t a i l s , such as armor p l a t e s , s t r i p s , buck le s , ornaments and o ther accoutrements (F igure 6). In con-t r a s t , the a t t e n t i o n g iven to the r ep re sen ta t i on of o rgan ic s t r u c t u r e and anatomical d e t a i l s o f the body was not as in tense (F igure 13). There was n e i t h e r the i n t e n t i o n to de f i ne r e l a t i o n s between d i f f e r e n t parts o f the body, nor the i n t e r e s t to dep i c t d e t a i l s of each b o d i l y p a r t . For example, heads were at tached to the t o r s o by an e longated c y l i n d r i c a l neck. S i m i l a r l y , forearms were te le scoped i n s i d e r o l l e d - u p s l eeve s ; legs were s imply columns w i thout suggest ing the knees or ank l e s . The d i f f e r e n c e i n the concern f o r var ious part s o f the body poses an i n t e r e s t i n g t o p i c f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y when the army i s deemed 4 L O C A T E AF r u t MAUS^LCUM & Q i n s v u u UuMifr 4. THE TCRRACOTTA WfeRfciofci Hotaa )W. TeEgA-ClOTTft.,1/llflKR.iaQSd. rlokili AT THE TdMS ftiM 5Ml UuAUk, n.p-5 :9Sw wl \ 1 % M M i n mi Si s CMrVUDrf H&M . I HE METiiaPoLlTAM MttSeUM Of rt«T. THE 6 Of AT &«/>2g A66 &P CUim, rlC.lli. 6 PETAIL bP dDlffURt AT eAcJKof tfeAh. H&BN. Tut MtmPtUfMMuitu* 6tA*T. TUS 6fi£A7 BJiMZB A6£e>fa//*A 8 YUAN. J&iiiAcoTTn IOWM/DAS AN& tkast* AT T/JZ TOMA OP  _D«y sm Uu*i/J6rf pi. 74-. 9 not on l y to be the e a r l i e s t known l a r g e - s c a l e s cu lp tu re s i n China but a l s o the f i r s t group o f l i f e - s i z e human f i g u r e s d i scovered to da te . At the same t ime, the army i s a l s o o f c r u c i a l importance to the study of the development o f human r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Before Q in , human f i g u r e s had n e i t h e r been a major sub jec t f o r a r t i s t i c endeavour nor represented i n l i f e s i z e . I f they were rendered, they were there s o l e l y to serve a purpose ~ f o r example, as suppor t s , c a r y a t i d s or c a n d l e s t i c k ho l de r s . ^ In most cases , d e t a i l s o f costume and f a c i a l features were not as d e s c r i p t i v e as the Qin f i g u r e s . The astounding s p e c i f i c i t y i n the r ep re sen ta t i on o f the f a c i a l f e a t u r e s , c o i f f u r e s and uniforms o f the army s i g n i f i e s a new stage i n the development of human r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , where human f i g u r e s represented as independent s ub jec t matter were p ro -duced i n l i f e s i z e and w i th a concern f o r r e a l i s m . Before the d i s cove r y , h i s t o r i a n s be l i e ved t h a t the e a r l i e s t l i f e s i z e s cu l p tu re was the stone ca rv ing i n f r o n t o f the tomb o f the Western Han gene ra l , Huo Qubing, who 8 d ied i n 117 B.C. The stone f i g u r e , a ca rv ing o f a horse standing over a f a l l e n barbar ian s o l d i e r who attempts to k i l l the horse w i th h i s bow, was a l so be l i e ved to belong to the i n i t i a l stage of r e a l i s t i c s cu lp tu re 9 i n China (F igure 7 ) . With the d i s c o v e r y , i t i s now known t h a t l i f e s i z e s cu l p tu re s were produced before Western Han and t he re f o re the t rend o f r e a l i s t i c concern s t a r t e d much e a r l i e r . Although i t i s important to study these f i g u re s i n terms of t h e i r prominence i n the h i s t o r y o f Chinese s c u l p t u r e and human r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , the most recent l i t e r a t u r e concerning them are main ly a r chaeo l og i ca l repor t s which seldom analyze s t y l i s t i c a l l y or d i scus s t h e i r s i g n i f i -cance i n r e l a t i o n t o the development o f Chinese human r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . ^ 10 _)M SOlUilte IN f-RCNt OF THE TOMB Cf HUO &uB/N6,o(j/7B.C. SffAANX/, fd&fWi HAN tYMASTY. SullnMN. ARTS of CUDJA > p. 7z. ) 11 This paper w i l l examine the f i g u r e s through s t y l i s t i c analyses and de f i ne the a r t i s t i c concern of the Qin s cu l p t o r s i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n . I t w i l l a l s o t r a ce the development o f human rep re sen ta t i on before and a f t e r Q in, from the 5th Century B.C. to the 3rd Century A.D. i n the second s e c t i o n . F i n a l l y , i t w i l l d i scus s what these f i g u r e s r e f l e c t about the Qin s o c i e t y and i t s i deo logy . Before d i s cu s s i n g the above, an examinat ion o f the dates i n which the f i g u r e s were made w i l l be under-taken, as w e l l as an ana l y s i s o f t h e i r makers. Dating of the Figures The ac tua l date these f i g u r e s were made i s not recorded i n h i s t o r y . However, as they were made as a component par t of the F i r s t Emperor 's mausoleum, the date must be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the c on t r u c t i o n date o f the tomb. I t i s recorded i n Shi J i [ H i s t o r i c a l Records] t h a t : From the time the F i r s t Emperor f i r s t took the throne [ in 246 B.C.] work was begun [on h i s mausoleum] at Mount L i . A f t e r he had won the empire, more than 700,000 c o n s c r i p t s from a l l pa r t s o f the country labored there [Shi J i , 6, p. 2 5 6 ] . 1 1 One o f the Chinese sources which attempts t o date the f i g u re s be l i e ve s t h a t c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the mausoleum began i n 246 B.C. when the F i r s t Emperor ascended the throne and cont inued on a l a rge s c a l e a f t e r Qin Shi 12 Huang u n i f i e d the empire and con s c r i p ted 700,000 persons to work t he re . The c o n s t r u c t i o n d i d not h a l t u n t i l one year a f t e r the Emperor 's death (209 B.C.) when he was b u r i e d . There fo re , i t concludes t h a t i t took 38 years to b u i l d the Emperor 's mausoleum which i s desc r ibed by Shi J i to have i nc luded pa l ace s , cha i r s f o r c i v i l and m i l i t a r y o f f i c i a l s , r a r i t i e s 12 from d i f f e r e n t p l a ce s , a c e i l i n g rep re sen t i ng heavenly bodies i n con-s t e l l a t i o n s made o f b r i g h t p e a r l s , and a phy s i ca l map of China on the 13 f l o o r w i th streams o f mercury f o r r i v e r s . Yuan Zhongyi i n T e r r a - c o t t a Warr iors & Horses at the Tomb o f Qin Shi Huang, however, suggests t ha t the t e r r a - c o t t a wa r r i o r s were most l i k e l y made dur ing the same pe r i od as the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the tomb, a f t e r China became u n i f i e d , and t h a t a t o t a l o f 10 years was spent f o r the e n t i r e p r o j e c t . 1 1 I n s c r i p t i o n s on unearthed weapons i n d i c a t e t ha t " t he 3rd year o f the re i gn o f Qin Shi Huang" (248 B.C.) i s the e a r l i e s t date i n s c r i b e d and t h a t " the 19th yea r " (228 B.C.) i s the l a t e s t date i n -14 s c r i b e d . The weapons t he re f o re cou ld not have been bu r ied e a r l i e r than the 19th year (228 B.C.). U t i l i z i n g the same record i n Shi J i ( H i s t o r i c a l  Records) as the o ther source, which i n d i c a t e s tha t 700,000 persons were con s c r i p ted i n t o s e r v i c e f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the tomb a f t e r the u n i f i c a t i o n (221 B.C. ) , Yuan deduces t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the t e r r a -c o t t a wa r r i o r s l i k e l y began around 221 B.C. u n t i l i t was ha l t ed i n 209 B.C., i n v o l v i n g a t o t a l o f approx imately 10 y e a r s . Both sources u t i l i z e d the same record i n Shi J i and have concluded t h a t the t e rm ina t i on date f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the tomb and the product ion o f the f i g u r e s was 209 B.C., but each a r r i v e d a t d i f f e r e n t commencement dates : 246 - 209 B.C. f o r one and 221 - 209 B.C. f o r the o the r . Yuan seems to have assumed t ha t the weapons were made sepa ra te l y and before the w a r r i o r s ; t h e r e f o r e , he be l i e ve s tha t product ion of the f i g u r e s began from 221 B.C. However, i f the w a r r i o r s were made at the same time as the weapons, the i n s c r i b e d dates may prove t ha t product ion o f the f i g u re s began dur ing the 3rd year of Qin Shi Huang's r e i gn 13 (248 B.C.) and cont inued on i n the 19th year (228 B.C.) . S ince there i s no evidence to con f i rm t h a t the weapons were produced before the f i g u r e s , i t seems reasonable to be l i e ve t h a t the f i g u r e s were made from 246 B.C. to 209 B.C. Moreover, regard les s o f which date i s used, i t i s ev ident t h a t the f i g u r e s were f i r s t made dur ing the second h a l f o f the 3rd Century B.C. The c rea to r s o f these f i g u r e s were l i k e l y to be craftsmen and con-v i c t s from d i f f e r e n t reg ions o f the country . Remains o f l a r ge sheds which might once have been the l i v i n g quarters o f c o n s t r u c t i o n workers were d i s c o ve red , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a l a rge number o f workers were i n vo l v ed . Recent excavat ion a l s o revea led 17 a u x i l l i a r y tombs and 70 tombs o f p r i s o n e r s , two metres from the emperor ' s mausoleum. Among the po t te r y found i n the tombs, 18 p ieces are i n s c r i b e d . They can be d i v i d e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g fou r groups, accord ing to the content of the i n s c r i p t i o n s (F igures 8a, b ) : (1) i n s c r i p t i o n w i th the name o f a p lace and a per son ' s name (6 p ieces ) (2) i n s c r i p t i o n w i t h the name o f a p l a c e , an o f f i c i a l t i t l e and a per son ' s name (2 p ieces ) (3) i n s c r i p t i o n w i t h a p lace name, t i t l e o f a crime and a pe r son ' s name (1 p iece) (4) i n s c r i p t i o n wi th the name o f a p l a c e , t i t l e of a crime and a person ' s name (8 p i e c e s ) . The f i r s t type ..'.of i n s c r i p t i o n would seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t the person of the i n s c r i b e d name was a commoner. The second, t h i r d and f ou r th types o f i n s c r i p t i o n , w i th the charac te r s arranged i n a s tandard i zed format, i n d i c a t e t ha t the names belonged to some p r i s o n e r s , some of whom might .h6UKB | g t DiSmPrim M Perm*PIKES huub .UI&T tr TUB T*M* Df Qifi SMttUAHb AT ZHAO ie/ Hu ttUM maiif, /ftz/3,/>.7. tMSCRiPT/D/JS hDUNb ON POTT£tZYP/ECES blSCWZRZh lAfeST 0? THE TOMB DP zfi/A/ StilHUftNfr AT LHAA &EI h\u l/lLLQ6E . ImJskt (Mils, pJ. 16 be former government o f f i c i a l s . The names o f the p laces i nvo l ved r e f e r to ten prov inces ("-fa " or " X i an " ) and fou r hometowns (" £ " or " l i " ) . The prov inces (x ian) are as f o l l o w s : (1) Dongwu ( p re sen t l y Wucheng o f Shandong prov ince) (2) Pingyang (L i zhang, Hebei prov ince) (3) * ti P ingy in (Mengj in, Henan prov ince) (4) n% Bocheng (Bdx ing, Shandong prov ince) (5) Lan l i n g (Lanshan, Shandong prov ince) (6) Ganyu (Ganyu, J iangsu prov ince) (7) Yangmin ( N i n g j i n , Hebei p rov ince) (8) ** Zou (Zouxian, Shandong prov ince) (9) Wude (Wushe, Henan prov ince) (10) (the p iece i s too damaged to conf i rm the exact name) f ou r hometowns ( l i ) i n s c r i b e d a re : (1) Ybng l i (belongs to Bochang, p r e sen t l y Boxing i n Shandong prov ince) (2) B i a n l i ( L a n l i n g , Lcinshan, Shandong prov ince) (3) Dongjian (Dongwu, Wuchang, Shandong prov ince) (4) Beiyou ( P i n g y i n , Mengj in , Henan prov ince) During the Zhou p e r i o d , Dongwu, Pingyong, Yangmin, P i ngy in and Wude belonged to the kingdom o f J i n ; Bocheng belonged to the kingdoms o f d i and Lu r e s p e c t i v e l y ; wh i l e L a n l i n g , Zou and Ganyu belonged to the kingdom of 17 19 Chu. Workers and p r i soner s were t he re f o re brought from d i f f e r e n t defeated kingdoms to work on the c on s t r u c t i o n o f the tomb and the produc-t i o n o f the f i g u r e s . Sima "Qian.; i n Shi J i a l s o recorded tha t a f t e r the emperor had won the empire, more than 700,000 con s c r i p t s from a l l part s 20 o f the country laboured at the tomb. I n s c r i p t i o n s of s c u l p t o r s o f the f i g u r e s are found a t var ious places on d i f f e r e n t f i g u r e s : on the lower par t o f the s k i r t a t the back, the ?1 arms, the armor p ieces on the b rea s t , the h a i r b e l t and at o ther p l a ce s . Some i n s c r i p t i o n s are pure ly names o f c i t i e s (F igure 9 ) , such as "Xianyang 1 (the c a p i t a l c i t y o f Q i n ) ; (F i gure 10a); wh i l e some are combinations o f a name of a c i t y and an i n d i v i d u a l ' s name, f o r example, "Xianyang K i " " " (" % " o r " X i anyang " , the c i t y and " 'ff " or " K e " , 22 a per son ' s name) (F igure 10b). The i n s c r i p t i o n o f the maker ' s name 9 3 on b r i c k s and other po t t e r y products was a common p r a c t i c e a t the t ime. Lii Shi Chunqiu ( %JkJ&J$^ > Commentary on the Spr ing and Autumn L i Annuals by Lu): A r t i c l e s were stamped w i th names o f the craftsmen to 24 i n d i c a t e t h e i r a u t h e n t i c i t y . " PART I I : The T e r r a c o t t a Warr iors o f Qin a) How were the f i g u r e s made? The f i g u r e s were made from a grey p o t t e r y and f i r e d a t a high tempera-25 t u re between 800 - 6000 degrees C e l s i u s . Observat ion shows t ha t they were not made in molds, but were s cu lp tu red one by one. The heads, hands and bodies were made sepa ra te l y and j o i n e d together w i t h s t r i p s o f c l a y before f i r i n g . They are ho l low i n s i d e , whereas the f e e t , legs and hands are s o l i d . The procedure o f mode l l i ng seems to be t h a t f e e t and legs were 18 X * I B K i I. 2. " « » 3. « £ • 4. 5 "jR" 6. « » • 7. «. «rt«l* 9. "fll 10. ll. "«BS» 12 -«pnfc-fag 2 RubB/HGs FROM POTTBLY FI6URES 1m. Temarrrfl MIIRMS m mf&zi AT THE TOMS bf (Lai mi Huuto. pl.itz. 19 /^W. Temcom wm/oiis Mb Ht*s& Arte TOMB. of&itJ Stti.tiuM&. ph. 0,0,/hi. 20 made f i r s t . A f t e r they were d r y , c l a y c o i l s o f about 2 to 4 cm wide and 2 to 7 cm t h i c k were used to b u i l d up the trunk l a y e r by l a y e r . The w a l l s o f both the head and trunk were made up o f two l a y e r s : a t h i c k i nner l a y e r which c o n s t i t u t e d the i n i t i a l shape o f the to r so and a t h i n outer l a y e r which served as a f i n i s h e d su r f ace . The mode l l i ng was done by hand w i t h the use of hemp sacks , cords and t o o l s ; t h e i r marks were l e f t on the i n s i de and out s ide o f the f i g u r e . A f t e r the trunk was b u i l t , arms and shoulders were j o i n e d to i t . The head, which was made i n two melon-shaped p a r t s , and the a l ready made and f i r e d hands were then j o i n e d to the body wi th s t r i p s o f c l a y wh i l e the c l a y was s t i l l p l i a n t . D e t a i l s such as mouth, nose, eyes and d e t a i l s o f the uniform were s cu lp tu red a f t e r the second l a y e r was a p p l i e d . Ce r t a i n d e t a i l s such as e a r s , moustaches, n a i l s on armour, e t c . , were made sepa ra te l y and then stuck to the body. Subsequently, the whole f i g u r e was f i r e d at a high tempera-tu re and mounted onto a p r e f i r e d base. Each o f the f i g u r e s i s t h e r e f o r e an assembly o f p a r t s , made by the a d d i t i o n of d i f f e r e n t pa r t s to the main body. The method o f con s t r uc t i on d i f f e r e d very l i t t l e in p r i n c i p l e from the procedure o f c a s t i n g bronze ve s s e l s . Bronze ves se l s o f the l a t e Zhou per iod (Ca, 6 - 5 thC . B.C.) were most ly cas t w i th the piece-mould techn ique, although some ves se l s were cas t 27 by the l o s t wax techn ique. In c a s t i n g a v e s s e l , a c l a y model o f the bronze was f i r s t s c u l p t u r e d . Fo l lowing the necessary d i v i s i o n s , s labs o f c l a y were then pressed onto the sur face o f the model. They were the p iece-moulds. Mor t i se s and tenons were made on the un i t s f o r j o i n i n g them. A f t e r the p iece moulds were d r y , they were assembled wi th e x t r a 21 fea tu re s such as knobs and handles, prov ided by sub-moulds set i n carved niches i n the main mould. L a s t l y , appendages such as legs and other acces so r i e s which were p reca s t , were added to the mould assembly. Appen-dages were sometimes j o i n e d to the vesse l by a patch of h i g h - t i n , heat 28 softened bronze. In recent excava t i on s , bronze ob jec t s found i n the tomb of the Marquis o f Zeng and the tombs o f the Zhongshan kings i n Pingshan, H e i b e i , revea l t h a t many o f the ve s se l s were assembled by us ing 29 high q u a l i t y weld ing and r i v e t i n g . Bronze ves se l s were the re fo re a c t u a l l y an assembly o f piece-mould un i t s and appendages were added on l a t e r . In mode l l i ng the f i g u r e s , legs were made and f i r e d f i r s t before j o i n -ing the body trunk which served as the cen t r a l core where o ther u n i t s were assembled. The head was formed by two melon-shaped p a r t s , s i m i l a r to the j o i n i n g o f the piece-moulds o f the bronzes. D e t a i l s such as ea r s , moustaches, armor n a i l s , e t c . , were made sepa ra te l y and then added to the body w i th s t r i p s o f c l a y l i k e the j o i n i n g o f the appendages to bronze ves se l s w i th patches o f heat - so f tened bronze. The corresponding p r i n c i p l e i n the two techniques does not appear to be a mere co inc idence s ince the Qin s c u l p t o r s could have u t i l i z e d methods other than the assembly technique i n rep re sen t i ng the f i g u r e s . Never the le s s , as i t was the f i r s t time they s cu lp tu red l i f e - s i z e human f i g u r e s , they may have s imply adopted the bronze c a s t i n g techn ique , which was r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , common and prominent a t the t ime. Bronze horses, c h a r i o t s and cha r i o t ee r s d i scovered near the mausoleum reveal t h a t par t s o f the horses and c h a r i o t s were ca s t s epa ra te l y and 30 j o i n e d by we ld i ng , i n d i c a t i n g that the.bronze c a s t i n g technique of the 22 Late Zhou was s t i l l i n use and t h a t the p o s s i b i l i t y t ha t Qin s cu l p t o r s app l i ed the p r i n c i p l e of such techniques f o r mode l l i ng t h e i r f i g u r e s i s high (F igures 11a, b ) . Since the product ion o f the wa r r i o r s was on a l a rge sca le and i nvo l ved many workers, not a l l workers could p o s s i b l y have been s c u l p t o r s . One would expect some master s c u l p t o r s who produced the more important pe r -sonages and models of d i f f e r e n t types o f f i g u r e s and some minor a r t i s a n s and o rd ina ry workers who manufactured d i f f e r e n t b o d i l y pa r t s or d e t a i l s and assembled them accord ing t o the i n s t r u c t i o n s or models of the master s c u l p t o r s . Although shortcomings i n some par t s or a t d i f f e r e n t f i g u r e s were i n e v i t a b l e , the u n i f o r m i t y i n the f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e s a s t r i c t con t ro l i n the q u a l i t y o f p roduc t i on . b) S t y l i s t i c Analyses Posed as i f f o r an impe r i a l rev iew, most wa r r i o r s are shown at a t t e n t i o n towards the f r o n t . The he ight o f the wa r r i o r s ranges from 1.75 to 1.86 m f o r o rd i na r y f oo t s o l d i e r s , 1.90 m f o r c h a r i o t e e r s and 1.96 m 31 f o r the i n f a n t r y o f f i c e r . Maxwell Hearns suggests t h a t he ight may be a f u n c t i o n o f rank o r importance r a t h e r than v e r i s i m i l i t u d e . This i s c e r t a i n l y t rue i n the Han Dynasty ' s two dimensional f i g u r a l r ep re sen ta -t i o n , where important personages are f r e q u e n t l y shown in l a r g e r s ca l e 32 than s ub s i d i a r y cha r ac te r s , ( i ) I n f an t r y O f f i c e r Perhaps one o f the most d i s t i n c t i v e f i g u r e s i n the army so f a r excavated i s the i n f a n t r y o f f i c e r from P i t No. 2 (F igure 12). He i s d i s t i n c t i v e not on l y because he i s the t a l l e s t i n the army, but by h i s 23 BiCAMTibN 6f&Bm£HOMES ttfbQtokioTs M&r of THE Burnt MeuNh bf THk NAUSOLEUM op 6L1M <tiittuhtih. Hok&i CtiM/DTS Mb CUAA/nTZE&S &X£ HALF-LlPE'S(L£ 24 foftmYdffm. SUN bXmsrYCzzi-2o6s.c) HB6HT (96OK >CLit. SI'A. ) Umw. rut MmpbiMH MHSHW DP ART. 1M fagtiL Burnt tee t>P Cttw. pi. too. 26 prominence as shown by h i s f a c i a l e xp re s s i on , e l abo ra te h a i r d r e s s , ornate uniform and a u t h o r i t a t i v e pose. Face The f i g u r e i s s tand ing f r o n t a l l y . I t s face i s almost square i n shape. The long brows, almond-shaped eyes , f i n e l y shaped nose, goatee and whiskers are s ymmetr i ca l l y arranged o r c e n t r a l l y p l a c e d , composing a w e l l ba lanced, f r o n t a l face (F igures 1 2 , 1 3 ) . The brows are f i n e , i n c i s e d p a r a l l e l l i n e s to represent h a i r . The shape o f the brows moreover i s accentuated by d e l i n e a t i o n o f i n c i s e d l i n e s . The eyes are shaped by d e l i b e r a t e l y extend ing the corners o f the eyes w i th h e a v i l y i n c i s e d l i n e s . The e y e b a l l s are model led i n r e l i e f , p ro t rud ing s l i g h t l y from the eye socket s . Representat ion o f the nose i s n a t u r a l i s t i c , w i th the r idge of the nose g r adua l l y r i s i n g and f a l l i n g to form the t i p and wings. L ips are pursed and f i n e l y shaped to suggest a f a i n t sm i l e . The s ide whiskers are made by s t r i p s of c l a y j o i n e d to the cheeks. They are i n c i s e d w i th a mu l t i t ude o f f i n e l i n e s , rep re sent ing h a i r . However, l i k e the l i n e s rep re sen t i ng h a i r o f the brows, these l i n e s are so r e g u l a r l y spaced and p a r a l l e l t h a t they do not s imulate the ac tua l t e x t u r e o f h a i r when examined c l o s e l y . The goatee i s . formed by s imply s t i c k i n g a p iece of c l a y onto the ch in and consequently does not appear to be growing out o r g a n i c a l l y from the c h i n . Neve r the le s s , the f a c i a l f ea tu re s are natura l l ook ing i n gene ra l . Bes ides being f r o n t a l and we l l composed, the face i s a l so e xp re s s i v e . The f a i n t smi le suggests the f i g u r e ' s conf idence and ser iousness i n commanding h i s t roops . Furrows on h i s forehead r e f l e c t the great r e s p o n s i -b i l i t i e s t h a t he has to bear and h i s quickened aging due to the burden o f 27 ta#/L. LhJfMmr DTficm of ft6uRt 11 UtAfUl. THfrHlTODfiDUTAN Mu&tuM 3T-AR.7. Tlil AtoUTe AU Cf CJr/A/A . />/. 9?. 28 these d u t i e s . The r ep re sen ta t i on i s the p o r t r a y a l o f a d i g n i f i e d and d u t i f u l m i l i -t a r y o f f i c e r . There i s no s p e c i f i c cha rac te r t r a i t o r mark to i d e n t i f y him as any p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l . The execut ion of the brows, whiskers and goatee i n d i c a t e s t ha t the s c u l p t o r was not so much concerned wi th making them r e a l i s t i c than merely to dep i c t the general appearance o f h a i r . The f a c i a l expres s ion o f the f i g u r e moreover i s imp re s s i v e l y r e a l i s t i c . C o i f f u r e The c o i f f u r e o f the o f f i c e r i s f lamboyant and d e t a i l e d , i l l u s t r a t i n g a d i s t i n c t manner o f b r a i d i n g and forming topknots . The bonnet i s e l a b o r -a t e l y f o l ded and secured under the ch in by cap s t r i n g s t i e d i n a bow. I t i s modelled by f o l d i n g a t h i n s t r i p o f c l a y i n t o the shape o f the bonnet; the c l a y s t r i p i s f o l ded as i f i t were the ac tua l f a b r i c f o r making the bonnet (F i gu re 13). C o i l s o f h a i r a re s l abs of c l a y p laced on the head and to the s ide o f the forehead. The c l a y s labs remain independent on the head and bear no organ ic r e l a t i o n s h i p w i th the head, as no attempt seems t o have been made to make them look as i f they were growing out from the s c a l p or head. Aga in , f i n e p a r a l l e l l i n e s are i n -c i s e d on the s l ab to dep i c t s t rands o f h a i r . The l i n e s f o l l o w the d i r e c -t i o n o f where the s t rand i s p u l l e d o r combed. The accurate d e p i c t i o n i s probably a r e s u l t o f keen observat ion o f d e t a i l s i n r e a l l i f e . Compared w i t h the r e n d i t i o n s o f the brows and wh i ske r s , the e f f o r t o f the s c u l p t o r to po r t ray the c o i f f u r e i s more emphatic. The cap s t r i n g s which secure the bonnet extend downward from the bonnet on top to both s ides o f the head and are t i e d under the ch in (F igure 13). Looking c l o s e r a t the s i de o f the head, one d i scover s t ha t 29 the ears are p laced almost t h ree -qua r te r s back from the f a c e , by the s ide of the head. The cap s t r i n g s are l o ca ted where the ears should a c t u a l l y be. The Qin s c u l p t o r chose to n e i t h e r represent the cap s t r i n g s as going over the ears and cover ing them, nor to represent the s t r i n g s as being under the ea r s , but r a t he r chose to i l l u s t r a t e both the ears and cap s t r i n g s s i de by s ide on the same plane. With the keen observat ion tha t r e s u l t e d i n the accurate d e p i c t i o n o f the h a i r s t r and s , i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t the s c u l p t o r would have missed the accurate l o c a t i o n o f the ea r s , unless he intended to show the two fea tu re s s ide by s i d e . The approach revea l s a s e r i ou s concern to i l l u s t r a t e f ea tu re s i n c l a r i t y , even to the extent o f s a c r i f i c i n g the proper p o s i t i o n i n g of the f e a t u r e s . A s i m i l a r approach i s a l s o found i n the d e p i c t i o n of mot i f s on the " p i c t o r i a l bronzes" o f the l a t e Eastern Zhou per iod and might be the e a r l y development o f such a p r i n c i p l e . On the l a t e Eastern Zhou " p i c t o r i a l bronzes, " images are rendered w i thout ove r l app ing of component f e a t u r e s , showinga " r i go rou s i n s i s t e n c e upon an abso lute c l a r i t y and f u l l d e f i n i t i o n of f i g u r a l elements ' (F igure 37). The r e n d i t i o n of the c o i f f u r e demonstrates the keen observat ion o f l i f e ob jec t s by the s c u l p t o r and h i s concern f o r c l a r i t y o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Costume The f i g u r e wears a w ide- s leeved double robe and an i n t r i c a t e p l a t e -armor t u n i c . Flamboyant bows decorate i t s f r o n t , back and shou lder . Folds o f the bows are represented by s t y l i z e d , p a r a l l e l l i n e s o f s i m i l a r lengths (F igures 1 2 , 1 3 ) . The armor i s made up of ove r l app ing rec tangu la r 30 34 p l a te s (some 7.5 cm x 8.5 cm, some 10.5 cm x 7.8 cm). I t i s known from the d i s t i n c t manner of ove r l app ing t ha t the fou r h ighest rows over lap downward and the four lowest ones ove r l ap upward. Thus, the f ou r th row from the bottom i s covered a t the top and bottom edges. The armor p l a te s are connected by some s o r t o f thong, the number of po in t s o f attachment being i n d i c a t e d by the appearance of a knot of the thong as i t emerges from the unders ide and r e - e n t e r s . Even the sma l l e s t thong i s s cu lp ted complete ly w i th i t s head, stem and ho le . The number o f 35 knots i n each p l a t e d i f f e r s accord ing to the p o s i t i o n of the p l a t e . There appears to be no s i m p l i f i c a t i o n i n the r ep re sen ta t i on of the armor. In f a c t , the po r t r a ya l of the armor may f o l l o w the ac tua l making o f the 36 armor. Th i s met icu lous r e n d i t i o n sha rp l y con t ra s t s w i t h the s i m p l i f i e d and a b s t r a c t r ep re sen ta t i on o f the two l a y e r s of robe shown below the armor which are represented by two f l a t and smooth sheets of c l a y s l a b s . There i s no suggest ion o f f o l d s i n cu r r ed by the body beneath. The rep re sen ta t i on o f the lower part of the f i g u r e ' s body i s so abbrev iated t ha t i t can b a s i c a l l y be desc r ibed as resembl ing the shape o f a t r a p e z o i d . As the f i g u r e was o r i g i n a l l y p a i n t e d , the sur face was t he re f o re l e f t p l a i n and smooth to act as a p a i n t i n g s u r f a ce . Crude depress ions and creases are made to i n d i c a t e f o l d s on the 37 r o l l e d - u p s leeves and the k e r c h i e f around the neck. The p r e c i s e and met icu lous r e n d i t i o n o f the armor s i g n i f i e s an i n s i s t e n c e on the e xac t i t ude o f d e t a i l s as we l l as the s c u l p t o r ' s emphasis i n the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the armor. On the other hand, the d e p i c t i o n of the drapery i s n e i t h e r d e s c r i p t i v e nor p r e c i s e . Represent ing exact 31 d e t a i l s o f the robe and the contour beneath the drapery are not deemed as important. In the r e n d i t i o n of the costume, however, both the concern f o r d e s c r i p t i v e d e t a i l s and the use o f s i m p l i f i c a t i o n or s t y l i z a t i o n are observed. Hands and Legs The f i g u r e i s s tand ing w i t h hands coupled and legs s l i g h t l y a p a r t , assuming a balanced and f r o n t a l s tand (F i gu re 12). The forearms and hands are exposed from the r o l l e d - u p s l eeve s . They are not modelled w i th anatomical d e t a i l s . The legs a l s o have comparat i ve ly few d e t a i l s compared to the r ep re sen ta t i on o f the armor. They are represented by two round columns. Although there i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the f i g u r e i s wearing any l eg accoutrements,the width and bu lk ines s o f the legs suggests t ha t they are wearing t rouser s or pu t tees . The f e e t are represented to be i n s i d e a p a i r o f b o x - l i k e shoes. Ank le s , heels and the general shape of the f e e t are not suggested. From the way the hands and legs are p l a ced , i t can be assumed t h a t they fo rmer l y c lasped a sword. The execut i on of the hand and legs revea l s t ha t the s c u l p t o r was not i n t e r e s t e d i n d e s c r i b i n g anatomical d e t a i l s and tended to abbrev ia te them. i i ) S t r i d i n g Infantryman Not a l l f i g u r e s are s tand ing i n a f r o n t a l pose. Some are rendered knee l ing or s t r i d i n g , d r i v i n g a c h a r i o t , l ead ing a horse, o r poised f o r a hand-to-hand combat. The i r poses, moreover, are intended to correspond to the p o s i t i o n and f unc t i on o f the wa r r i o r s i n the army f o rmat i on . The s t r i d i n g infantryman has taken a pose f o r a c t i o n and assumes the most open form among a l l o ther f i g u r e s . He has h i s head turned 32 towards the l e f t ; h i s l e f t l e g a l s o bends towards the same d i r e c t i o n (F igure 14). The r i g h t l e g , however, remains f r o n t a l and seems to bear the weight o f the body. His l e f t arm extends away from the body towards the l e f t , wh i l e h i s r i g h t arm i s crooked.and a l s o po int s towards the l e f t . He i s f u l l y engaged to r eac t immediately to any a t t ack from the l e f t . Although the f i g u r e ' s posture i s recogn i zab le as a contrapposto* understanding o f the mechanism which i nvo l ve s other par t s of the body does not seem to be f u l l y grasped. Th i s i s proven by the f a c t t ha t as the head and l e f t l eg o f the f i g u r e tu rn s ideways, the h ips and shoulders remain f r o n t a l . The body o f the f i g u r e was not t r e a t ed and modelled as a u n i f i e d and f l e x i b l e m u s c u l o s k e l e t a l s t r u c t u r e whose movement i nvo l ve s a l l elements o f the body. Rather i t was t r ea ted as a s t r u c t u r e composed o f autonomous p a r t s . Although i t must have been r e l a t i v e l y easy and natura l f o r the maker o f t h i s f i g u r e to model the body i n such a way, as i t was cons t ruc ted by the adding on o f p a r t s , there appears to be no e f f o r t to r e c t i f y the s i t u a t i o n . I t appears, t h e r e f o r e , t ha t the maker n e i t h e r knew how or cared to po r t ray the proper r e l a t i o n s h i p between the shoulders and arms, as we l l as the cocked r i g h t arm. For example, the l e f t arm i s d i r e c t l y j o i n e d to the body w i thout mode l l i ng a shou lder . The r i g h t shou lder , moreover, i s u nna tu r a l l y s l a n t e d , w h i l e the bending o f the arm i s awkward and appears to be d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y shor t (F igure 14) . At the p lace where the r i g h t shoulder j o i n s the arm and where the upper arm j o i n s the forearm, are creases made to suggest f o l d s o f the garment i n cu r r ed by the bending o f the arm (F igure 15). These creases are c rude ly executed and are not intended to be r e a l i s t i c . They are HttSHT 17k <M. (5${. tOih > Hem. lH$m*tnhlHlUai€UM6fm. Tfcfaun&*Mi*At,t. AT- CMitIA. 3 4 FlMRtr l£ 35 probably there not to i m i t a t e ac tua l f o l d s but r a the r to i n d i c a t e the bending o f the arm. The primary, concern o f the maker l i e s more i n expres s -ing the pose o f a c t i o n than to a t tend to mode l l i ng the f o l d s l i t e r a l l y . Except f o r a few l i n e s rep re sent ing f o l d s , the sur face of the robe i s otherwise p l a i n and smooth. The rep re sen ta t i on o f the hands i s a l s o abb rev i a ted , suggest ing on ly t h e i r general shape and devoid of any anatomical d e t a i l . Moreover, the wa i s t and upper pa r t of the legs are unusua l ly long i n p ropo r t i on to the upper h a l f o f the body. Such d i s c repanc ie s do not occur i n the case of the commanding o f f i c e r . S ince the o f f i c e r was a more important personage, perhaps i t was executed by a master s c u l p t o r , wh i l e a r t i s a n s may have been appointed to produce f i g u r e s o f lower m i l i t a r y rank. Yuan Zhongyi, moreover, a f f i r m s t h a t w i t h the except ion o f ten f i g u r e s , most o f the 617 c l a y f i g u r e s examined by Chinese scho la r s are "we l l and 39 s u i t a b l y arranged i n b a s i c a l l y c o r r e c t p r o p o r t i o n . " The f i g u r e s tha t are found to be d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y modelled have " e i t h e r arms being too shor t or too l ong , o r w i t h one long arm and another arm s ho r t , or w i th 40 f e e t too smal l or hands too b i g . " Yuan suggests tha t t h i s i s due to the d i f f e r e n t standards i n a r t i s t i c achievement o f the makers o f the f i g u r e s . ^ 1 Although the ten f i g u r e s are not s p e c i f i c a l l y po inted out , i t i s h i g h l y probable t h a t the s t r i d i n g infantryman and two other f i g u r e s o f the same type (having one arm long and one arm s h o r t ) , are three o f the ten f i g u r e s (F igures 1 6 , 1 7 ) . I n f e r i o r i t y o f the a r t i s a n ' s execu-t i o n might have a f f e c t e d the product ion o f these two f i g u r e s ; a t the same t ime, r ep re sen ta t i on o f t h i s type o f w a r r i o r might a c t u a l l y be-a cha l lenge to the Qin s c u l p t o r s and a r t i s a n s , s ince the accurate por -36 PM/T/ON LbETfiiL) • JNfMtTRrmiJ I. QiNbflWy YtMI. T&MtoTTA hhuKti i Ut*&s AT Th& TOMB ofi gm Stti tfuAN*. />/. 4 7 . 38 t r a y a l o f the pose i nvo l ve s understanding the coo rd i na t i on of d i f f e r e n t b o d i l y par t s and the use of f o re sho r ten ing a t the r i g h t arm. The r ep re -sen ta t i on may be an e a r l y attempt to model a f i g u r e i n a c t i o n . There fo re , the mechanism i nvo l ved i n the a c t i o n was not f u l l y grasped or succes s -f u l l y rendered. The Mancheng f i g u r e of the Western Han per iod (206 B.C. -24 A .D. ) , which w i l l be d i scussed i n Pa r t I I I , demonstrates t ha t Han a r t i s t s were ab le to po r t ray a f i g u r e i n a c t i o n c o n f i d e n t l y (F igure 29) . D e t a i l s such as the hook and holes on the b e l t are not over looked. Creases made by c u t t i n g i n t o the u n f i r e d c l a y su r face w i th a s pa tu l a or blade are a l s o modelled at the b e l l y to represent f o l d s o f drapery 42 overhanging a t i g h t l y fastened b e l t . (F i gure 18). The unnatural p ropo r t i on i ng and awkward pose do not seem to a f f e c t the express iveness o f the f i g u r e . His a l e r t readiness i s shown by the tensed gesture of h i s hands and arms. With h i s head s l i g h t l y t i l t e d , ch in t h r u s t e d , mouth set and eyes wide open and s t a r i n g f e a r l e s s l y ahead, the f i g u r e i l l u s t r a t e s h i s bravery and readiness to f i g h t o f f any enemy. This i s the on l y f i g u r e whose pose i s not governed by the weapon t h a t he ho lds . I t prov ided a good oppor tun i t y f o r the Qin s c u l p t o r s to po r t ray a f i g u r e i n a dramatic a c t i o n and i n a comparat ive ly more open form. ( i i i ) . Kneel ing Archer In the case o f the knee l i ng a r che r , h i s pose i s comparat ive ly more n a t u r a l . Although the head, t o r s o and legs l i e i n two d i f f e r e n t p lanes , the t r a n s i t i o n from one plane to another i s smooth. However, the legs f a i l t o g ive an impress ion of the f l e x e d muscles requ i red to ma inta in 39 40 43' the tw i s t ed posture (F igures 1 9 , 2 0 ) . ( i v ) Co l o r i n g The po t te r y f i g u r e s were o r i g i n a l l y f u l l y p a i n t ed . That might be the reason why the sur faces of the robes o f the f i g u r e s remain r e l a t i v e l y p l a i n and smooth, w i t h on ly a few l i n e s to i n d i c a t e drapery f o l d s . D e t a i l s of the drapery might have been added by p a i n t i n g . Due to f i r e and co r ro s i on o f water and ear th through the c e n t u r i e s , on ly t races o f c o l o r now remain. So f a r i t has been d i scovered t h a t the f o l l o w i n g co l o r s were used: v e r m i l i o n , r e d , pu rp l e , p ink , deep green, l i g h t green, deep pu rp l e , b l ue , pa le b l ue , y e l l o w , orange y e l l o w , .black, wh i t e , e t c . 4 4 The use o f c o l o r s was intended to be o f high c o n t r a s t . The c h a r i o t e e r and h i s two a s s i s t a n t s from P i t No. 1 are good examples. The c h a r i o t e e r wears a green long j a c k e t , on top o f which i s an armor w i th b r i g h t red p l a t e s , white n a i l s and ve rm i l i o n . b e l t . There i s a p a i r o f l o n g , l i g h t purp le t r o u s e r s . The puttees are green. Reddish-b lack shoes are matched w i t h v e r m i l l i o n shoe s t r i n g s . A white turban w i th v e r m i l i o n , h a i r b e l t can be seen on the head. The f a c e , hands and f e e t are pa inted p ink . His white eyes are coupled w i th b lack p u p i l s . The eyebrows and beard 45 are pa inted w i t h l i n e s drawn i n b lack i n k . The a s s i s t a n t on the r i g h t wears a v e r m i l i o n long coa t , w i th pale green f r i n g e s and shor t b lue t r o u s e r s . A b ind ing f o r the shank i s redd i sh purpTe. The c o l o r o f the t u n i c , shoes and turban i s the same as tha t of the c h a r i o t e e r . The a s s i s t a n t on the l e f t , however, wears a long green j a c k e t and pa le purp le shor t t rouse r s w i th puttees t h a t are whi te on top and deep purp le a t the bottom. The co l o r s f o r o ther pa r t s are much the 46 same as those o f the other two. The armor p l a te s o f o ther f i g u r e s are 41 falZtUNti MCtitK , QlNbYNKTV till-£ g.CO HBttf/T :/2ZC»i . CAM. QIN&IUMN6 TUAACCSTTM biAMioks fim tta/KeS, P-Sf. 42 hleictir /LO CM. I Zfl. u fa •) 1-ifAtN. lilt MimP&LTAMMufutM6*MT. 7utQlttTAMtiZZMi oP CMMA fl.9f 43 u s u a l l y reddish-brown-b lack and con t r a s t w i th white or v e r m i l i o n armor n a i l s and v e r m i l i o n p l a t e s t r i n g . The army was a c t u a l l y v i b r a n t w i th b r i g h t c o l o r s . Co lors were app l i ed on the plain: su r face o f the f i g u r e s . I t was a l s o d i scovered t h a t the a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o l o r s d i d not show darkness or l i g h t n e s s nor changes i n l i g h t and shade. Concavity and convex i t y o f the f i g u r e ' s body are shown by the three dimensional mode l l i n g . Never-t h e l e s s , f ou r c l a y horses i n P i t No. 1 were found to be pa inted da te -red on the l i g h t s ide and deep green on the shaded s i d e s , such as the 47 b e l l y , the lower par t o f the neck and the i n s i d e pa r t o f the l imbs . Yuan a t t r i b u t e s these examples as demonstrat ion o f the a r t i s t s ' attempts to achieve l i g h t and shade, high and low and changes i n g radat ion by means o f c o l o r i n g . Hence, they have g reat s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the h i s t o r y of s c u l p t u r e . The experimentation., shown on ly by a few examples, seems to be s h o r t - l i v e d , never the le s s the attempt to pa i n t a s c u l p t u r a l sur face f o r s c u l p t u r a l e f f e c t was an end by i t s e l f . Moreover, the i n t e r e s t to exp lo re the p o t e n t i a l of a su r face by means o f p a i n t i n g cont inued. In the f o l l o w i n g c e n t u r i e s , Han a r t i s t s no longer experimented p a i n t i n g on a s c u l p t u r a l s u r f a ce . F l a t sur faces o f s i l k or w a l l became t h e i r f i e l d f o r adventure and hence began the development o f the a r t o f p a i n t -48 i n g . P a i n t i n g s on both s i l k and w a l l s are commonly found i n the tombs of the Han dynasty. The use of b r i g h t co l o r s and the i n t e n t i o n f o r s t rong con t r a s t o f c o l o r s po i n t towards the concern f o r v i s u a l e f f e c t . The same concern f o r v i s u a l appeal i s observed i n the Late Zhou i n l a i d bronzes where a r t i s t s i n l a i d the su r faces o f the bronzes with prec ious or semi-prec ious stones 44 to produce a lavish appearance, (c) Summary Although the commanding officer, striding infantryman and kneeling archer represent three types of warriors in different outfits and poses, they consistently spell out the common artistic concerns of the Qin sculptors. First, the representation of the figures exhibits the Qin sculptor's keen observation of real l i f e . Second, clarity in representation was emphasized. Exactitude in details was also aimed to illustrate the style of the coiffure and details of the armor. These features, as one can observe, were meant to distin-guish the military ranks of the warrior. Third, comparatively l i t t l e attention was paid to the depiction of anatomical details, the simulation of actual texture of drapery, and the imitation of drapery folds., as the surface of the drapery was prepared to be a painting surface where more details could be added. The Qin artisan, however, did not concern himself too much with realistically reproducing the body and its parts and was content with merely providing the general characteristics of the features. Even the drapery folds at the belly and armpits were modelled to indicate the action of the figure. Fourth, simplification and abstraction were used for features which may have been considered minor in importance to the sculptors. Fifth, although the representation of the figure as an organic unity was not fully successful, sculptors and artisans were aware of the plasti-city of the body. Nevertheless, they were more concerned with representing 45 different poses than with achieving anatomical realism. Sixth, the representation of facial features was essential as their variation produced different faces. By varying mustaches, hairstyles and facial features, the Qin sculptors created an infinite number of faces which were different in rank, age and character. Seventh, surfaces of the sculpture caught the special attention of the sculptors. Modelling of certain parts of the figures, such as the drapery, was simplified to provide a better painting surface for coloring. Of interest is the fact that color and incised lines, which are basically two-dimensional devices for depiction, were utilized to delineate features on three-dimensional objects. Lastly, besides the correspondence in principle between the bronze casting technique and the modelling of the figures, the Qin figures were linked to the tradition of bronzes by sharing the same principle for the clear depiction of the motifs and the concern for surface decoration and visual appeal.. PART III: Development of Human Representation from 5th Century B.C.  to 3rd Century A.D. In order to understand the historical position of the Qin figures in the tradition of human representation, i t is important that the develop-ment of human representation before and after Qin be studied. This section of the paper will analyse examples from this period in chrono-logical order, although this does not imply that these figures will automatically f a l l into a linear pattern of s t y l i s t i c development. 46 Figures s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s study are mostly dated because they were e xca -vated together w i th other a r t i f a c t s t h a t bear i n s c r i b e d dates . F igures such as the B idwe l l f i g u r e and the ROM f i g u r e are dated, though w i th quest ions remain ing. Before the Qin, human rep re sen ta t i on was o f minor a r t i s t i c concern. The f a c t t h a t they were human f i g u r e s d id not g ive them prominence as s ub jec t matter among the o the r m o t i f s , o the r than t h e i r r o l e as a m o t i f . The m a j o r i t y o f the e a r l y f i g u r e s excavated so f a r are e i t h e r s tand ing or knee l i ng f i g u r e s with ou t s t r e t ched arms to ho ld a shor t tube. The i r poses and costumes suggest t h e i r r o l e as se r van t s . The purpose of t h e i r 49 making was pure ly mortuary: to wa i t upon the dead, which was q u i t e u n l i k e the Qin w a r r i o r s whose f u n c t i o n was not on ly to serve the dead but a l s o to g l o r i f y the grandeur and m i l i t a r y prowess o f the Qin army. The knee l i ng f i g u r e s i n the B idwe l l C o l l e c t i o n and the Royal Ontar io Museum are two s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t examples among many other s i m i l a r f i g u r e s t h a t were excavated i n the 1930 's and were s a i d to have been excavated from the area nor theast of Luoyang i n Western Henan^ (F igures 21a, 22a). These f i g u r e s , made o f bronze, are u s u a l l y about 11" (27.9 cm) i n he ight and wear the same costume: a cap which would end i n a peak were i t not bent down and forward by a s t r a p running under the c h i n , and a t u n i c ending above the knees, c l o sed on the r i g h t and fastened by a b e l t . The lower pa r t s o f the f i gu re s a re p l a i n ; t h e i r legs appear to be covered 51 w i th a s k i r t . The B idwe l l f i g u r e ' s c r e a t i o n i s datab le to about 550 B.C. s i nce i t was found i n one o f the tombs near Luoyang where a bronze b e l l bear ing a year date o f the "22nd year of L ing Wang of the Zhou 52 Dynasty" was a l so found. The date i s equ i va l en t to 550 B.C. The f i g u r e 47 F-R0NT i/i&f $MtebFMM.> &\hlWL COLLBCTIDM :S&VMi HfHiHf Ola L EfibULl . S£CPNb HALF £>¥ SIXTH CmuQY B.C.. ' ' a imc ^ I f f l . n , 5*CUHcif£A. uBH0H££ P&uau *f TUB luTt mu PkAiob," mML&tMM' M./4-, /<W, T-i&. £,5\ from i/ieu vtei*r r . TOMTO , ZOYAL tmnio Mas tan o P kWlAub& Y: f E U > SB&MiT, J&MZB, TtRsr HALF SF ftPTM C&ftunf B.C. 48 i n the ROM c o l l e c t i o n i s dated to be made i n the Eastern Zhou dynasty. Warring S tates P e r i o d , between 480-222 B.C. Bachhofer moreover suggests the product ion date to be between 500-450 B.C., a f t e r comparing the f i g u r e w i th the B idwe l l f i g u r e , which he dates to have been produced 53 between 550-450 B.C. While there i s no f u r t h e r evidence to conf i rm t h e i r exact p roduct ion dates , there i s no doubt t h a t they are c l o s e l y l i n k e d i n t h e i r concept ion of mode l l i n g . (a) The B idwe l l F igure The f i g u r e i s executed in a summary f a s h i on . D i f f e r e n t pa r t s of the f i g u r e f low i n t o one another w i thout d i s t i n c t i o n o f each pa r t . For example, the head i s not d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from the neck which f lows smoothly down to form the arms w i thout mode l l i ng the shou lder . The lower par t of the body, represented as covered by the robe, i s merely a block w i t h no suggest ion o f the contour o f the legs underneath (F i gu re 21b). P ropo r t i on and d i s -t i n c t i o n o f b o d i l y par t s are not taken i n t o account i n the mode l l i n g . The main t h r u s t of r ep re sen ta t i on l i e s on the head which i s d i s p r opo r -t i o n a t e l y l a r ge and i s as broad as the body trunk (F igure 21a). I t i s represented i n d e t a i l w i th d r o p - l i k e eyes whose shapes are de l i nea ted by i n c i s e d l i n e s . E yeba l l s are modelled i n low r e l i e f . The stubby nose i s as wide as the mouth which i s rendered as a small groove. The mode l l ing o f the f i g u r e seems to aim at c r e a t i n g a c lo sed mass w i th as few o b t r u -s i ve d e t a i l s as p o s s i b l e . Except f o r the head and the ba re l y pe rce i vab le e l e v a t i o n s f o r the r ibbons o f the cap, hems of the coat at the neck, the b e l t and perhaps a k n i f e a t the back, there are few i n t e r r u p t i o n s on the su r face and mass o f the f i g u r e . A s l ab under the f i g u r e extends 49 wel l beyond the s ides and f r o n t o f the f i g u r e to i n d i c a t e the plane on which the f i g u r e knee l s . The f i g u r e represents the a r t i s t ' s attempt to po r t ray the appearance of a knee l i ng man. (b) F igure from the ROM Although the r ep re sen ta t i on o f the ROM f i g u r e s t i l l obeys the con-vent ion o f f r o n t a l i t y and aims at c l o sed mass f o r e f f e c t , i t revea l s n e g l i g i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n mode l l i ng (F igures 22a, b ) . B o d i l y par t s no longer f l ow l a z i l y i n t o one another and there i s more mode l l i ng of d e t a i l s . The head i s now d i s t i n c t i v e l y model led as a round mass r e s t i n g on a t h i n 54 neck and i s e f f e c t i v e l y se t o f f from the square and s t rong shou lder s . The arms are no longer two stumps emerging from nowhere but appear i n t h e i r proper p laces and are a l s o bent a t the elbows. The eyeba l l s now l i e i n modelled sockets . Cheeks are modelled and the mouth i s rendered w i th the upper and lower l i p . Even the groove running from nose to mouth i s c a r e f u l l y f a sh ioned. The hems o f the c o l l a r and the spatula-shaped b e l t hook are c l e a r l y shown i n low r e l i e f . The f i g u r e , l i k e the B idwe l l f i g u r e , i s a l s o represented as knee l i ng on a s l a b , however the s l ab i s much sma l l e r . In f a c t , i t i s so small t h a t the t i p s of the f i g u r e ' s crossed f e e t hang over and touch the edge (F igure 22b). The f i g u r e ' s cap i s conceived as an ob jec t i n i t s own r i g h t . The back o f the f i g u r e i s s t r a i g h t e r and f l a t t e r and the contour o f the body i s s imp le r and more even. The c l a r i t y o f i t s form i s accentuated by the h o r i z o n t a l l y ou t s t r e t ched arms and the f i g u r e ' s s t r a i g h t , v e r t i c a l body. The r e n d i -t i o n o f t h i s f i g u r e shows a more advanced understanding of form and a c l e a r e r concept ion about d e t a i l s of var ious part s o f the body. 50 (c) The F i f t h Century F igure from the Tomb o f Marquis Y i , Hubei Prov ince In 1978, 7000 b u r i a l ob jec t s i n c l u d i n g bronze a r t i c l e s , musical i n s t ruments , weapons, horse and c h a r i o t ornaments, a r t i c l e s of gold and j ade , l acquer ware, a r t i c l e s of wood and bamboo, and bamboo s t r i p s were excavated i n the County o f Sui Xian i n Hubei P rov ince . An i n s c r i p t i o n on the bronzes i d e n t i f i e s the occupant o f the tomb as Marquis Yi of the State o f Zeng. A bronze f u - b e l l g iven t o the Marquis by P r ince Hui Wang o f Chu i n the 56th year o f h i s r e i gn (433 B.C.) i n d i c a t e s t h a t the tomb 55 i s o f 433 B.C. or somewhat l a t e r . A set of s i x t y - f o u r bronze b i a n -b e l l s i s found together w i t h the F u - b e l l . They are arranged i n e i g h t groups accord ing to s i z e and p i t c h and hung i n three rows on a frame. The wooden beams of the frame are supported by s i x bronze human f i g u r e s . The o v e r a l l he ight o f these f i g u re s i s 46" (1.17 m) and the o v e r a l l weight i s 706 pounds (321 kg) (F i gure 2 3 ) . 5 5 The bronze f i g u r e s have t h e i r heads support ing round d i s k s , on top of which are v e r t i c a l , r e c t angu l a r s ha f t s t h a t were i n s e r t e d i n t o the lower s i de o f the h o r i z o n t a l beams upon which hang the b e l l s (F igures 24, 25). Both arms and hands o f these f i g u r e s extend outward and upward. The l e f t arm of the f i g u r e shown s t r e t che s h o r i z o n t a l l y outward and bends a t the elbow a t a r i g h t ang le , wh i l e the forearm extends v e r t i c a l l y upward. The upper par t o f the r i g h t arm, however, appears to be composed of two p a r t s : i t s r i g h t shoulder extends f a r t h e r than i t s normal length to form the upper par t o f the upper arm. The second part o f the upper arm begins a t the turn o f the extens ion o f the shoulder and s t r e t che s towards the f r o n t . At the elbow, the r i g h t forearm turns towards the back. Both hands have t h e i r palms s t r e t ched f l a t l y to support the beam. HuHM F(6URk$ SuPPMTMii TH* FttMi & THl BtrLL S£T. HGUZE 2±. hlTAil 0FSuffbKr/Aj6 F16UKE. HBI6>HT h/l/V) M,» ) SltM, CMti4 Ru. OutOT-CU/M< ZARTU: 53 54 The bending, t u r n i n g and s t r e t c h i n g o f the arms, forearms and hands not on ly i n d i c a t e s the a r t i s t ' s awareness o f the f l e x i b i l i t y o f arms and hands, but a l s o shows t ha t human f i g u r e s were molded i n t o shapes and poses to s u i t the f u n c t i o n , i . e . to support a s t r u c t u r e . Although r ep re -sented f r o n t a l l y as were the two fo rmer ly d i scussed f i g u r e s , t h i s f i g u r e has i t s arms and hands extended away from the body i n t o space and then turned and - tw i s ted i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s w i t h i n space. Th i s i nvo l ves a f a r more i n t r i c a t e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i n design and mode l l i ng than the former f i g u r e s . The f i g u r e has a square-jawed f a c e , s l i t eyes, squat nose and t h i n l i p s t h a t are t i g h t l y c l o s e d . They are not modelled i n d e t a i l but i n a conc i se and summary f a s h i on . The groove which runs from nose to mouth i s a l s o fa sh ioned. The f i g u r e wears a costume t h a t i s s i m i l a r to the former f i g u r e . I t has a f u l l l ength robe t ha t c lo se s on the r i g h t and i s fas tened by a b e l t . In t h i s f i g u r e , however, the b e l t i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d to be f a s t en i ng the robe by a nea t l y t i e d knot; i t s two ends drop from the two s ides a t the f r o n t . The b e l t i s p l a s t i c a l l y rendered on r e l i e f , as wel l as the sword which hangs on the l e f t s ide of the f i g u r e ' s wa i s t and p r o j e c t s f a r i n t o the space i n f r o n t and behind the f i g u r e (F igure 25) . The body i s model led i n an abbrev ia ted f a s h i o n . Both the upper and lower par t s o f the body taper towards the w a i s t . The upper body i s roughly t r i a n g u l a r i n shape, wh i l e the lower body, which i s covered by the robe, i s reduced i n t o an i n ve r t ed cone shape. The sur face of the lower body i s smooth and even, except f o r s l i g h t e l e v a t i o n s to i n d i c a t e f r i n ge s o f the c o l l a r and the end o f the h a l f length upper robe. There 55 i s no suggest ion o f the body contour beneath the robe nor drapery f o l d s . The r e s u l t i n g f i g u r e , i n c on t r a s t to the c lo sed b lock e f f e c t of the former f i g u r e s , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s open and s lender form, as we l l as a sharp and angular contour . Rather than knee l i ng i n a r i g i d pose, the f i g u r e stands up i n d i g n i t y . The s c u l p t o r o f t h i s f i g u r e appears to be a e s t h e t i c a l l y con f i den t and t e c h n i c a l l y competent. The reduct ion o f the body and head i n t o s imp le , geometric forms and the r ep re sen ta t i on o f the costume denote a b s t r a c t i o n . Moreover, the d e p i c t i o n of the groove between the nose and l i p s , and the r ep re sen ta t i on o f the b e l t and sword i n d i c a t e s t ha t i n t e r e s t i n showing d e t a i l s of f a c i a l features and c l o t h i n g acces so r i e s remains. (d) Human Representat ion from the E a r l y Fourth Century from the State  o f Zhongshan, Hebei Prov ince In 1977, Chinese a r c h a e l o g i s t s d i scovered a c i t y s i t e o f the Warring States pe r i od (475 - 221 B.C.) i n the Pingshan County, Hebei P rov ince . Evidence shows t h a t the c i t y s i t e found i s t h a t o f L ingshou, c a p i t a l of 57 Zhongshan a f t e r 406 B.C. The f i n d c on s i s t s o f a g reat number of gold and s i l v e r i n l a i d bronze works. Among them are i n s c r i b e d bronze vesse l s which prov ide the approximate date o f the s i t e and a bronze lamp w i th a human f i g u r e . The 469 -character i n s c r i p t i o n on a bronze cauldron found i n a tomb be l i e ved to be o f King Cuo of Zhongshan, records Zhongshan 1s 58 v i c t o r y over the s t a t e o f Yen i n 314 B.C. The Chinese s cho l a r Luo Fuyi suggests tha t the admonit ive tone o f the i n s c r i p t i o n was addressed to the succeeding k ings o f Zhongshan warning them o f the r e v i v a l of t h e i r enemy, Yen, and was made i n 310 B.C., f ou r years a f t e r Yen re s to red her 56 kingdom. Moreover, o ther bu r i ed ves se l s which s t i l l look new are be l i e ved to have been bu r ied not long a f t e r they were ca s t and used. Luo suggests t h a t they were bur ied three to f ou r years a f t e r they were made, i n approx imately 308 - 307 B . C . ^ In a d d i t i o n , the abundance o f b u r i a l ob jec t s found i n the tomb shows t ha t the tomb belonged to a k ing whose kingdom was s t i l l i n her heyday. Since the s t a t e o f Zhongshan was a n n i h i l a t e d by Zhao i n 296 B.C., the ves se l s and o ther b u r i a l ob jec t s fil must have been made before 296 B.C. and a f t e r 310 B.C. Some vesse l s were po s s i b l y made about 308 - 307 B.C. Among the bronze b u r i a l o b j e c t s , a bronze lamp w i t h a human f i g u r e as the c e n t r a l des ign was a l s o d i scovered i n one o f the tombs. The bronze lamp i s composed of three part s (F igures 26, 28) . The human f i g u r e occupied the most prominent and c r u c i a l p o s i t i o n i n the des i gn . Standing as the cen t r e -p i e ce o f the lamp, i t i s the focus o f a t t e n t i o n as we l l as the l i n k connect ing the other two par t s o f the lamp and u n i f y i n g them as a complete des i gn . In t h i s case, the human f i g u r e i s no longer merely a mo t i f i n a design o r s t r u c t u r e , but e x i s t s as the main sub ject matter . Th is i s a step forward to rep re sen t i ng human f i g u r e s independent ly i n t h e i r own r i g h t . The bronze f i g u r e ' s head i s made o f s i l v e r wh i l e i t s eyes are made o f b lack semi -prec ious s tones . I t wears a f u l l l ength outer robe, decor -ated wi th a s c r o l l pa t te rn and pa inted w i th b lack and red l acque r . The f i g u r e s t r e t che s both o f h i s arms to the two s i d e s . I t s l e f t forearm extends s l i g h t l y to the f r o n t and grasps the t a i l o f a t w i s t i n g se rpent , whose head turns upward a t a r i g h t angle to support a round d i s h . The t w i s t i n g serpent i s i n tu rn supported by another serpent which c o i l s i n -57 58 s ide and around a round d i s h a t the base. The r i g h t arm of the f i g u r e s t r e t che s h o r i z o n t a l l y out to the r i g h t . I t s hand c l a sp s a serpent whose mouth supports a po le . Along the po le c o i l s another serpent which chases a f t e r a monkey. The theme o f the r ep re sen ta t i on por t rays an acrobat d i s p l a y i n g h i s s k i l l i n p l a y i ng w i t h h i s monkey and se rpent s . Human rep re sen ta t i on i s no longer a minor m o t i f but has become a theme f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The f i g u r e i s r a t he r p l a s t i c a l l y model led (F igure 27). I t s head i s port rayed w i th a high temple. The almond-shaped eyes i n l a i d w i t h b lack semi-prec ious stones as p u p i l s , are l i f e - l i k e . The nose i s f l a t and t r i a n g u l a r , wh i l e the mouth, model l ed w i th the upper and lower l i p s , p r o -duces a g r i n . The muscles o f the two cheeks, represented to be p u l l e d back to the two s i d e s , are coord inated w i t h the g r i n . The f i g u r e ' s h a i r i s bundled up i n t o a knot a t the top of the head. The t e x tu re o f the h a i r , brows and mustache i s rendered as shor t and s t r a i g h t p a r a l l e l l i n e s , l i k e t h a t o f the Qin f i g u r e s , and appears added on r a the r than "growing" out of the f l e s h (F igure 27). Although the body of the f i g u r e i s com-p l e t e l y covered by the robe, the legs beneath the garment are suggested by the t ape r i ng contour below the w a i s t . The costume o f the f i g u r e has s leeves w i t h wide openings and con s i s t s o f three l a y e r s . Fr inges on the l a ye r s are shown a t the c o l l a r and at the f r o n t opening o f the outer robe. The f r i n g e s a t the c o l l a r are represented to be d i s t i n c t i v e l a y e r s apart from the neck. The robe i s t i e d a t the wa i s t by a b e l t w i th hook; however, no drapery f o l d i s por -t rayed by the f a s t e n i n g o f the b e l t . Although the f i g u r e i s made o f bronze, the s c r o l l pa t te rns on the costume are pa in ted i n d e t a i l w i th fkbtiH: £)u,MAH h£>m. 7>£JAiL. C. ^L-310 6.C. 60 black and red l acquer to produce a c o l o r f u l e f f e c t . The ornate and f a n c i -f u l pa t te rns of the costume a l s o echo the s c a l y bodies o f the serpents . A t t e n t i o n to the decora t ion o f the sur face i s obv ious . The animated g r i n o f the f i g u r e and v i v i d d e p i c t i o n o f the serpents and monkey at p lay g r e a t l y enhance the lamp. The i n t e n s i v e i n t e r e s t i n d e p i c t i n g d e t a i l s o f the c o i f f u r e , f a c i a l f ea tu res and costume, as we l l as the awareness of the p l a s t i c i t y o f the body and the s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n su r face d e c o r a t i o n , resemble the a r t i s t i c concerns o f the Qin s c u l p t o r s . The adding on of semi-prec ious stones f o r the pup i l s o f the eyes a l s o l i n k s i t w i t h the mode l l i ng techniques of the Qin f i g u r e s . The Zhongshan f i g u r e c l o s e l y connects w i th the Qin f i g u r e s i n the t r a d i t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . However, such concerns were not shared by the f i f t h century Hubei a r t i s t who was more i n t e r e s t e d i n the s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f form and a b s t r a c t i o n o f d e t a i l s . Despite such d i f f e r e n c e s , the Hubei f i g u r e a l s o e x h i b i t s the a r t i s t ' s a t t e n t i o n to the treatment o f f a c i a l f ea tu re s and costume. I n t e r e s t i n the treatment of f a c i a l f ea tu re s and costume seems to be shared by a r t i s t s from d i f -f e r e n t per iods and geographica l l o c a t i o n s . (e) Human Representat ion o f the Second Century B.C. The g i l t bronze lamp d i scovered i n L ingshan, Mancheng County, Hebei P rov i nce , e x e m p l i f i e s human rep re sen ta t i on i n the 2nd Century B.C. (F igure 29). I n s c r i p t i o n s by d i f f e r e n t owners o f the lamp are d i s t r i b u t e d through-out the sur face o f the lamp. The i n s c r i b e d cha rac te r s "Yang X in J i a " and the date " the seventh yea r " g ive h i n t s to the product ion date of the lamp. "Yang X in J i a " i s be l i e ved to be the name o f the household o f 62 a roya l r e l a t i v e en feo f fed i n 179 B.C. and s t r i p p e d o f the t i t l e i n 151 64 B.C. when the son was g u i l t y o f t rea son . The lamp can t he re fo re be dated between 179 and 151 B.C. Moreover, i f the date "seventh yea r " r e f e r s to the actua l date o f manufacture, the lamp would probably date to 173 B.C., s ince the seventh year of the re i gn o f Han Wen Di ( 1 7 9 -65 157 B.C.) i s e qu i v a l en t t o 173 B.C. The lamp i s 19" (48 cm) i n he ight and i s i n the shape o f a knee l ing young g i r l . The g i r l , who was probably a maid, holds a lamp i n f r o n t o f her i n her l e f t hand. Her r i g h t arm r a i s e s above her shoulder to cover the top o f the lamp w i th her f u l l s l eeve s . The r i g h t arm of the g i r l i s ho l l ow, a l l o w i n g smoke to r i s e through and thus keeping the room smoke f r e e . The des ign i s both f u n c t i o n a l and e l egan t . In t h i s case, the human f i g u r e i s not on ly pa r t o f a de s i gn , the des ign i s based on the shape o f the human f i g u r e . The young face o f the g i r l i s modelled w i th s e n s i t i v i t y . I t i s f u l l and smooth. Her h a i r i s smoothed back i n t o a chignon and t i e d w i th a t r a i l i n g sash. F a c i a l fea tu res are de f ined by s l i g h t l y r a i s e d l i n e s and the d e p i c t i o n i s a b s t r a c t , almost as i f rendered by g raph ic means. The brows are r idges o f l ong , f i n e l i n e s t h a t extend to the s ides of the temple. The s l i t eyes are not modelled but r a the r d e l i n e a t e d by engraved l i n e s i n t ea r -d rop shape. The nose and mouth are reduced i n t o s imple shapes executed w i th care and c o n t r o l , r i s i n g on ly s l i g h t l y from the surface o f the f a c e . The maid wears a s imple wrapped robe w i t h generous f l ow ing s l eeve s . The l e f t s leeve f lows n a t u r a l l y down w i th weight to cover par t o f the l e f t knee. Folds a t the c o l l a r are represented by l ong , s t y l i z e d l i n e s . The 63 f r i n g e s o f the robe are d i s t i n c t i v e l y rendered to be separate from the neck. Other drapery f o l d s and p l ea t s a t the s leeves and end o f the robe are represented by s l i g h t l y r a i s e d l i n e s . The r e n d i t i o n of the drapery f o l d s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s l i n e a r q u a l i t y . The knee l i ng pose o f the f i g u r e i s na tu ra l w i th f e e t represented to be nea t l y tucked behind her. The contour o f d i f f e r e n t part s o f the body i s evoked by the p l a s t i c mode l l i ng a t the shou lder , w a i s t , buttocks and l e g s . The t i m i d i t y o f the g i r l i s expressed by her s l i g h t l y downcast eyes and her humble pose. C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f a f i g u r e i s never f o r go t ten and i s c l e a r e r than a s i m i l a r f i g u r e o f a knee l i ng maid o f the Qin dynasty found i n 1964 near the mausoleum of the f i r s t Emperor i n L i n tong , Shaanxi ( F i gu re 30). Comparing the two f i g u r e s , one f i nd s t h a t the Qin g i r l appears to be s t ou t and r i g i d i n her f r o n t a l pose, wh i l e the Mancheng f i g u r e looks s l ender and f l e x i b l e i n her s l i g h t l y turned pose. The Western Han a r t i s t not on ly seemed to have a f u l l e r understanding o f the anatomical r e l a t i o n -sh ips o f d i f f e r e n t pa r t s of the body but was a l s o ab le to d e p i c t a t u r n -ing pose w i th s k i l l and conf idence. The r e n d i t i o n o f the f a c i a l f ea tu re s o f the Qin f i g u r e i s more s c u l p t u r a l than the Mancheng f i g u r e . While the Qin s c u l p t o r was more concerned w i th the mass o f the body, the contour o f the body i s ha rd l y suggested under the robe. The lower pa r t of the body i s b a s i c a l l y a r ec tangu l a r b lock . On the other hand, the contour o f the body o f the Mancheng f i g u r e i s f u l l y suggested under the drapery. The p r ope r t i e s of the form o f the body, f o r example, i t s roundness at c e r t a i n pa r t s and p l i a n c y , are taken i n t o account. 5o. T4£M £ ^ O U T /W 65 Moreover, wh i le the two f i g u r e s wear the same type of robe, the f o l d s o f t h e i r drapery are rendered w i th s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s . In both f i g u r e s , l i n e s are u t i l i z e d f o r the d e p i c t i o n o f drapery f o l d s . L ines i n c i s e d on the sur face of the robe o f the Qin f i g u r e are few and are made w i th c on s i de r a t i on to leave the sur face o f the robe as p l a i n and smooth as po s s i b l e to a l l ow f o r an even p a i n t i n g s u r f a ce . In the Mancheng f i g u r e , a t t e n t i o n to the su r face appearance i s a l s o observed. L ines are not d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the su r face ,a l though they are more numerous than on the Qin f i g u r e , but r a the r are r e s t r i c t e d main ly to c e r t a i n a rea s , such as a t the ends o f the s leeves and robe. The s c u l p t o r a l so seems to have attempted to r e t a i n the sur face o f the robe w i t h as much smooth and p l a i n areas as p o s s i b l e , so tha t the g i l d e d and g l i t t e r i n g su r face can shine w i t h i t s f u l l e s t g l o r y . The concern f o r the sur face i s s i m i l a r i n both f i g u r e s . Never the le s s , i n c i s e d l i n e s are d e l i b e r a t e l y but c rude l y made at the upper s leeves and at the chest to represent f o l d s i n cu r red by the bending o f arms and f r i n g e s o f the robe a t the chest i n the Qin f i g u r e . Drapery f o l d s at the s leeves are represented by depress ions of p a r a l l e l l i n e s , spaced at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s . Being p a r a l l e l and at equal d i s tance to one another , they appear to be r i g i d and monotonous (F igure 30) . In the Mancheng f i g u r e , however, s l i g h t l y r a i s e d l i n e s are used w i th f l u i d i t y and c o n t r o l . Ref ined and s inuous, they e f f e c t i v e l y desc r ibe the f l ow ing s leeves and the contour o f the body. Although many are p a r a l l e l l i n e s , they do not appear to be d u l l , as some are c l o s e l y spaced, some are w ide ly spaced and s t i l l others bend i n and out accord ing to the contours o f the body (F igure 29) . 66 C o n c l u s i v e l y , the r ep re sen ta t i on o f the Qin f i g u r e i s more s c u l p t u r a l and r e a l i s t i c i n i t s appearance but i s crude i n the execut ion of l i n e s . I t i s r i g i d i n form and has no concern f o r anatomical d e t a i l s . The Mancheng f i g u r e demonstrates an understanding o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between d i f f e r e n t b o d i l y p a r t s . Never the le s s , the a r t i s t d i d not dwell on represent ing anatomical d e t a i l s , but aimed to capture i n h i s execut ion the p rope r t i e s o f the out look o f a human body. L ines are c o n t r o l l e d and r e f i n e d . Although the r ep re sen ta t i on o f the Mancheng f i g u r e i s more s t y l i z e d and at the same time more a b s t r a c t than the Qin f i g u r e , i t i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i th the Qin f i g u r e s t y l i s t i c a l l y . ( f ) Summary Thus f a r , the Zhongshan f i g u r e o f the 4th Century B.C. (310 - 296 B .C. ) , the Qin f i g u r e s o f the 3rd Century B.C. (246 - 209 B.C.) and the Mancheng f i g u r e of the 2nd Century B.C. (173-151 B.C.) are not merely examples i n the development o f human r ep re sen ta t i on from 4th Century B.C. to 2nd Century B.C., they a l s o i n d i c a t e a step by step development. Moreover, they are not on ly s t y l i s t i c a l l y r e l a t e d but are a l s o c lo se i n geographical l o c a t i o n . Excavated from e i t h e r the Hebei Prov ince o r the Shaanxi P ro -v i n c e , the three f i g u r e s were produced i n reg ions north o f the Ye l low R i ve r (Huang He). The very s t y l i z e d f i g u r e found i n the tomb o f Marquis Yi was produced i n the middle o f the 5th Century B.C. i n Hubei P rov i nce , south o f the Yel low R i v e r . The f i g u r e , a lthough produced e a r l i e r than the three f i g u r e s mentioned a l r e ady , e x h i b i t s d i s t i n c t emphases on the s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of form and a b s t r a c t i o n of d e t a i l s . I t does not seem t o f i t as comfor t -67 ab ly i n t o the l i n e of s t y l i s t i c development as port rayed by the three f i g u r e s produced i n the no r th . In f a c t , as the a r t i s t s o f the north were execut ing t h e i r f i g u r e s , the a r t i s t s a t Changsha i n Hunan Prov ince were producing wooden f i g u r i n e s of a t tendant s . During the Eastern Zhou p e r i o d , Changsha belonged to the State o f Chu, a major and dominant f o rce among the o ther s t a te s a t the t ime. Chu was not on ly a p o l i t i c a l but a l s o a c u l t u r a l and e t h n i c e n t i t y . I t f l o u r i s h e d dur ing the Eastern Zhou (770 - 256 B.C.) and was f i n a l l y a n n i h i l a t e d by Qin i n 223 B.C. At the peak o f her power, her t e r r i t o r y extended as f a r nor th as Cent ra l Henan ( i n c l u d i n g Hubei) and south to northern Hunan. Wooden f i g u r e s were t y p i c a l products of Chu. They were excavated from tombs i n and near Changsha throughout the years beginning from the 1920 's (F igure 31). These f i g u r i n e s are c y l i n d r i c a l wooden s tatues o f men and women i n s t i f f , e r e c t poses. They show extreme s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f form. The i r heads and bodies are reduced i n t o the s imple geometric shape o f a t r i a n g l e and f a c i a l f ea tu re s are b r i e f l y dep i c t ed . The nose i s a t r i a n g l e i n r e l i e f and i s the on l y fea tu re t h a t i s c l e a r l y pe r ce i vab le to be i n r e l i e f on the nea r l y f l a t plane o f the f a c e . The s t r a i g h t ye t s l a n t i n g brows are s l i g h t l y r a i s e d from the sur face.and meet where „ the r idge o f the nose beg ins . The mouth i s small and i s as wide as the nose. A sha l low groove i s i n c i s e d to par t the upper l i p from the lower l i p . Eyes are not carved but pa in ted on. The c o l l a r o f the costume i s suggested by a r idge o f low r e l i e f a t the neck. The costume i s a long robe t h a t f l a r e s s l i g h t l y towards the base and i s d i s t i n c t i v e l y cut i n 68 Fl6UR£. 3 I 3«*C.9>.C. HBAHT 57-1 G H W ) , 69 f r o n t below the knee w i t h a s e m i - c i r c u l a r opening through which the inner l a ye r s and f o l d s o f the underc lo th ing as we l l as the square t i pped shoes can be seen. More d e t a i l s may have been rendered by pa i n t as the whole f i g u r e was o r i g i n a l l y p a i n t ed . The treatment o f these featu res i s more two-dimensional than t h ree -d imen s i ona l . Although se rv ing as a mourner of the dead and s tand ing i n a f r o n t a l and s t i f f pose, the f i g u r e appears to be casual and even mi sch iev ious w i t h i t s frowning brows and c y n i c a l g r i n , which i s qu i t e u n l i k e the solemn and modest a t t i t u d e expressed by the other f i g u r e s d i s cu s sed . The product ion o f t h i s type o f f i g u r i n e cont inued we l l i n t o the Western Han dynasty (206 B.C. - 24 A.D.) as i s e x e m p l i f i e d by wooden f i g u r i n e s d i scovered i n the Han tombs o f Mawangdui, two mi le s eas t o f the c i t y o f Changsha. Ins ide these tombs, f i g u r i n e s produced before 156 B.C. (almost the same time as the Mancheng f i g u r e ) rep re sent ing a wider scope o f charac te r s (e .g . dancers , mus i c i an s , l a d i e s - i n - w a i t i n g , 68 e t c . ) were found. The forms o f the f i g u r e s remain s t y l i z e d and a b s t r a c t . A l l f a c i a l f ea tu re s except the nose are pa inted on r a the r than represented by ca rv ing or mode 11 ing , (F i gu re 32) . The support ing f i g u r e from the tomb of Marquis Yi i n Hubei Prov ince (F igure 25) and the Chu f i g u r i n e s together suggest another t rend o f s t y l i s t i c development which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a b s t r a c t i o n . During the Eastern Zhou pe r i od (770 - 221 B.C. ) , the l o c a t i o n where the tomb of the Marquis was d i scovered belonged to the State o f S u i , a c lo se neighbour of Chu. The Hubei f i g u r e and the Hunan Chu f i g u r i n e s represent a s t y l i s -t i c t rend t y p i c a l o f the South. I t can a l s o be denoted tha t dur ing the 3rd Century B.C., a t l e a s t two reg iona l s t y l e s i n human rep re sen ta t i on 70 e x i s t e d : the ' n o r t he rn s t y l e ' and ' southern s t y l e ' . The northern s t y l e i s represented by the Zhongshan f i g u r e , Qin f i g u r e s and the Mancheng f i g u r e . They are t y p i f i e d by t h e i r concern f o r s c u l p t u r a l q u a l i t y , d e s c r i p t i v e d e t a i l s f o r the . c o i f f u r e , f a c i a l f ea tu re s and costume. F igures o f the northern s t y l e appear to be more r e a l i s t i c . The southern s t y l e represented by the Hubei f i g u r e and Changsha f i g u r i n e s i s c h a r a c t e r -i z ed by the s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and a b s t r a c t i o n o f form, s t y l i z e d , two-dimen-s i ona l and pa in ted r ep re sen ta t i on o f d e t a i l s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, Wai-Kam Ho a l s o proposes s i m i l a r d i s t i n c t i o n s between a northern and southern t r a d i t i o n i n f i g u r e p a i n t i n g i n the l a t e Ming pe r iod (16th - 17th 69 Century A.D.) i n h i s a r t i c l e , "Nan-Ch 'en P e i - T s ' u i " . The t r a d i t i o n o f Nan-Ch'en pe i -Ts 'uf, (Nan-Chen pe i -Cu i i n P i ny i n ) " ' o r the t r a d i t i o n o f Chen (Hong-shou) o f the south a n d T s ' u i or Cui (Zi-Chung) of the north were known i n concomitance by t h e i r contemporar ies. Ho observes tha t i n Chen Hong-shou 1s p a i n t i n g (1598-1652 A .D. ) , Chen besides being i n t e r e s t e d i n a u n i f i e d , c on s i s t en t sur face e f f e c t had " l i t t l e concern f o r the t ex tu re and s c u l p t u r a l q u a l i t i e s " o f the m a s s e s . ^ For example, the rocks are not t ex tu red but dep ic ted by d e l i n e a t i o n and l i g h t ink washes and are rendered "as merely planes o f i n d i v i d u a l shapes and p o t e n t i a l -i t i e s . " 7 1 On the other hand, Cui Z i -chung (d . 1644 A.D.) organ izes h i s landscape elements as " r o l l i n g masses." "By c a l c u l a t e d con t ra s t s o f both the b r i g h t and somber tones and o f the l i n e s and ink washes 72 between h i s f i g u r e s and landscape, " he c rea te s a s c u l p t u r a l space to conta in h i s f i g u r e s and f o r an event to take p l a c e . The concern f o r p i c t o r i a l r e a l i sm i s apparent. Hence, the t r a d i t i o n o f Nan-Chen pe i -Cu i i s p a r a l l e l to the northern and southern s t y l e s o f the 3rd Century B.C. 71 i n t ha t the northern s t y l e i s concerned more w i t h the s c u l p t u r a l and three-d imens iona l q u a l i t y and r e a l i sm wh i l e the southern s t y l e has no such concern. The d i s t i n c t i o n o f the two s t y l e s , however, should not be taken as ab so lu te , as t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s began to b l u r i n the Eastern Han per iod (24 - 220 A .D . ) . In the d e p i c t i o n o f the f a c i a l f e a t u r e s , drapery and drapery f o l d s o f the Mancheng f i g u r e , the t rend towards s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and a b s t r a c t i o n can a l ready be observed. The female dancer o f the Han dynasty (dated 206 - 220 A.D.) excavated i n X i ' a n , Shaanxi Prov ince f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e s the development o f the t rend (F igures 3 3 a , b , c , d ) . The body o f the dancer i s reduced to a narrow t ubu l a r shape t ha t f l a r e s a t the bottom. There i s no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f the f i g u r e ' s body and garment by p l a s t i c means, i f i t i s not the mode l l i ng of the l a y e r s of inner garment a t the ches t . The mode l l i ng moreover demonstrates a f l a t n e s s i n the mode l l i ng o f the f a c e , w i th the except ion of the s l i g h t l y p ro t rud ing l i p s and nose (F igure 33a). Although t ubu l a r i n form, the contour o f the body i s not even and the concept of mode l l i ng i s not s imp le . I t i s narrow at the knees and wide at the bottom to represent a costume t h a t i s t i g h t f i t t i n g a t the knees and f l a r i n g a t the bottom. The f i g u r e i s i n a dancing pose w i t h i t s upper body and both knees bent forward. The narrowing and widening o f the contour a t the knees and at the bottom f u r t h e r accentuates the bending pose. The long wide s leeve o f the r i g h t f l i p s to the back (F igure 33b). The s leeve i s as wide as the body and i s a t t e n t i o n c a t c h i n g . Viewing the f i g u r e a t var ious ang le s , one has a very s a t i s f y i n g v i s u a l exper ience as the dancing pose looks 72 73 74 d i f f e r e n t a t every ang le . The mode l l i ng o f the f i g u r e i s concentrated i n rep re sen t i ng the dancing pose (F igures 3 3 a , b , c , d ) . In another f i g u r e from the Shaanxi a r ea , a dancer of the Eastern Han pe r i od (24 - 220 A .D. ) , a b s t r a c t i o n i s c a r r i e d s t i l l f u r t h e r (F igure 34)'. Wi than almost f e a t u r e l e s s f a c e , extended arms and l i f t e d l e g s , the f i g u r e no doubt represents a,dancing movement. No d e t a i l i s rendered; however, sha l low depress ions and s l i g h t e l e v a t i o n s f a i n t l y suggest an o u t l i n e and f o l d s o f drapery o f some k i n d . I t i s obvious t ha t the purpose o f represen-t a t i o n i s to d e p i c t the movement r a t he r than a human f i g u r e . In the r ep re sen ta t i on of the Eastern Han dancing f i g u r e from Luoyang, Henan, the use o f a b s t r a c t i o n i s a l s o observed (F igure 35). The body of the f i g u r e , reduced i n t o an a b s t r a c t form, i s devoid of any d e t a i l s or suggest ion o f the d i s t i n c t i o n between d i f f e r e n t b o d i l y p a r t s . Two shor t extens ions from the s ide o f the body represent ou t s t r e t ched arms. F a c i a l features are suggested by crude depress ions and r a i s i n g areas. Compared to the Eastern Han dancer from Shaanx i , the Luoyang dancer i s more abbrev ia ted and ab s t r a c t i n form. Although the r ep re sen ta t i on o f the body o f the Shaanxi f i g u r e i s s i m p l i f i e d , the arms, body and legs are d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e and the o u t l i n e o f the drapery i s a l s o suggested. The Luoyang f i g u r e , however, does not have such d i s t i n c t i o n s o f b o d i l y part s and has almost no suggest ion o f drapery. Thus, i n the Eastern Han p e r i o d , a b s t r a c t i o n was the pr imary mode o f expres s ion adopted by a r t i s t s o f the north and south and d i f f e r e n c e s between them decreased as they began to share the same s t y l e . Yet , the northern a r t i s t s were s t i l l compara-t i v e l y more concerned w i th the r ep re sen ta t i ona l q u a l i t y Of t h e i r work than t h e i r southern coun te rpa r t s . 75 iAllTH & A WHlTl P16MM Am ffeb PIGMENT. £ASik&i UM bWAsrY. U. 3-k" C 8- ? o o £OlU>LL. TUEMfoP UA)J* fij. lb 8. 1)AHC£ fi6uR£S. umlXMay. h)*t#r Ibcm. BME 35, 76 Trac ing the development o f human rep re sen ta t i on from the 5th Century B.C. to the 3rd Century A.D., one observes the r i s i n g importance of human f i g u r e s as s ub jec t matter f o r d e p i c t i o n . Beginning as a secondary mo t i f i n l a r g e r s t r u c t u r e s , human f i g u r e s g r a d u a l l y emerged as an i n t e g r a l par t o f a des ign and e v e n t u a l l y became an independent sub jec t f o r po r -t r a y a l . However, through cen tu r i e s of development, the r o l e of the human f i g u r e remained f u n c t i o n a l : they were e i t h e r to support a s t r u c t u r e or to wa i t on the dead. By the t ime o f Q in , human f i g u r e s were port rayed independent ly as w a r r i o r s . Although t h e i r r o l e was s t i l l to wa i t on the dead, they were a l so made to g l o r i f y the m i l i t a r y might o f the F i r s t Emperor. E a r l y i n the development o f human r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , Chinese s cu l p t o r s pa id major a t t e n t i o n to the d e p i c t i o n o f f a c i a l f ea tu re s and costumes. The po r t r a ya l o f these fea tu re s p lays an important par t i n i d e n t i f y i n g the r o l e o f the f i g u r e and the v a r i a t i o n of the f a c i a l f ea tu res which i n d i v i d u a l i z e a f i g u r e . Accurate d e p i c t i o n o f anatomy had never been a major concern as they were not i n t e r e s t e d i n a f i g u r e ' s phy s i ca l r e a l i sm as much as i t s f u n c t i o na l r o l e and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c appearance. In the Eastern Han p e r i o d , a r t i s t s no longer merely r e p r e -sented human f i g u r e s but were preoccupied w i t h r ep re sen ta t i on o f the movement of the f i g u r e . The development o f the i n t e r e s t i n po r t r a y i n g a c t i o n or movement d i d not a c t u a l l y s t a r t i n Eastern Han. The t rend of such i n t e r e s t seems to begin i n Q in, when Qin s c u l p t o r s attempted to po r t ray the s t r i d i n g in fantrymen. The i n t e r e s t cont inued to develop i n Western Han, when the Mancheng f i g u r e was dep i c ted i n a t u rn i ng pose. Moreover, the development o f the r ep re sen ta t i on o f human f i g u r e s i n . s c u l p t u r a l form was a l s o p a r a l l e l e d by the development o f human represen -77 t a t i o n on a two-dimensional format - on the sur faces o f the s o - c a l l e d " p i c t o r i a l bronzes. " Human f i g u r e s began to appear on bronzes i n the l a t e 6th Century B.C. (F igure 36) . On the Eastern Han "dou" ( ca . l a t e 6th - e a r l y 5th Century B .C. ) , human f i g u r e s are randomly and l i b e r a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d across the sur faces w i th many kinds of an imal s . Man was t r e a t ed as one o f the mot i f s i n a mat r i x o f mot i f s f o r the decora t ion o f the sur faces o f the bronzes. On the l a t e Eastern Han "hu " ( c a . 5th Century B.C. ) , human f i g u r e s are dep i c ted i n h o r i z o n t a l r e g i s t e r s engaging i n * a c t i v i t i e s (F igure 37). The sub ject f o r r ep re sen ta t i on seems to be the human f i g u r e s . However, they on ly ac t as a deco ra t i ve pa t te rn on the s u r f a ce , as they appear not to focus on po r t r a y i n g a s p e c i f i c scene o r inc idence but r a the r to ar ray human f i g u r e s accord ing to t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s 73 i n an o r d e r l y pa t t e rn f o r v i s u a l e f f e c t . They are merely presented to compose the sur face des i gn . I t was not u n t i l Han t ha t p i c t o r i a l s u r -f a c e s , such as the rubbing found i n Szechwan, i l l u s t r a t e d man and h i s 74 / x a c t i v i t i e s as the major theme and sub jec t f o r d e p i c t i o n (F igure 38). PART IV: The S o c i a l , P o l i t i c a l and I deo l og i ca l Atmosphere o f the  5th - 3rd Century B.C. The development o f human r ep re sen ta t i on i n the 5th - 3rd Century B.C. corresponded to a Golden Age o f Chinese thought as we l l as a per iod o f p o l i t i c a l tu rmo i l and g reat s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . The correspondence was not s imply . i n c i d e n t a l , - f o r dur ing t h i s t ime p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and ideo logy i n f l uenced one another and s o c i a l m o b i l i t y came as a r e s u l t o f p o l i t i c a l changes. 78 So. TMlMm#t>U7AHMuS6UMaAKJ. rUe 6*£A7AJWll-Ml iraHto fifrr. 7)/A6MM BP Tut kStSH M A W. &0tJZB. EhuRiJn Kkh&tHk Of A hrtmloHi Tilt h.OH ^lailflfAf/. BtiTEIW HAH P&LBB, A-B.SECDW CMLTUKY. ^u}£LL. THZ Met of m ______ Ate bFCMiHA. ft<M. 80 P o l i t i c a l l y , the cen t r a l government o f Eastern Zhou (770 - 256 B.C.) was on an a c c e l e r a t e d d e c l i n e ; the per iod was a l s o marked by an increase i n power o f the feudal s t a te s and l o c a l p r i n c e s . The gradual f a i l u r e of the delegated a u t h o r i t y l ed to the format ion of independent s t a t e s . In the f i r s t h a l f of the Eastern Zhou pe r i od - the Spr ing and Autumn 75 pe r i od (770 - 476 B.C.) - there were more than a hundred of these s t a t e s . They competed w i th each other i n an un re l en t i n g s t r ugg l e f o r power and wars were cont inuous. S o c i o l o g i c a l l y , the p o l i t i c a l tu rmo i l l ed to great s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , marked by the r i s e of i n d i v i d u a l s . In the l a t t e r h a l f o f the Eastern Zhou per iod - the Warring States Pe r i od (475 - 221 B.C.) - power s t rugg le s between the feudal s t a te s r e s u l t e d i n a few o f the s t ronges t s t a te s e x t i n g u i s h i n g t h e i r s m a l l , weak ne i gh -bours and absorbing them. The feudal s t a te s i n the former pe r iod were 76 g r adua l l y ex t i ngu i shed or annexed, l e a v i n g on ly twenty-two s t a t e s . Members o f the upper s t r a t a o f the defeated s t a t e s , such as p r i n c e s , nob les , m i n i s t e r s and g reat o f f i c e r s , were summarily dropped to the bottom 76 of the s o c i a l s c a l e . S ince the re were scores o f ex t i ngu i shed p r i n c i -p a l i t i e s ; , n o b i l i t y was abased on a grand s c a l e . E l i m i n a t i o n by conquest a l s o went on i n s i de the s t a t e s . There were v i o l e n t s t rugg le s between the nobles and the r u l e r as we l l as among noble houses. The consequence o f such s t rugg le s was e i t h e r the eventual domination and s u r v i v a l by one or few a r i s t o c r a t i c f a m i l i e s , or the suppress ion o f some n o b i l i t i e s . The nobles who were defeated i n the s t rugg le f o r power faced complete s o c i a l abasement, as d i d a l l t h e i r kinsmen and a s s o c i a t e s . So i t was t h a t the upper c l a s se s i n the Spr ing and Autumn per iod were d i s i n t e g r a t e d and shrunken by the i n t e r nec i ne 81 warfare o f t h e i r members. On the other hand, the r i s e o f i n d i v i d u a l s from the lower to the upper c l a s se s was made po s s i b l e by these struggles,. In order to win the wars, new t a c t i c a l and s t r a t e g i c concepts o f warfare were needed and consequently new types o f s t r a t e g i s t s , f i e l d o f f i c e r s , and career s o l d i e r s were i n demand i n the Warring S ta tes p e r i o d . I nd i v i dua l s t he re f o re had comparat ive ly more o p p o r t u n i t i e s than ever before to c l imb up the s o c i a l l adde r . S imu l taneous ly , the concept t h a t noble descendants i n h e r i t e d d i v i n e s u p e r i o r i t y as we l l as s ta tu s was g r adua l l y d i s p l a ced by the b e l i e f t ha t capable and v i r t uou s persons should be s e l e c ted to ca r r y on govern-78 ment a f f a i r s . The concept came about w i t h an i d e o l o g i c a l bas i s which w i l l be d i scussed l a t e r . In the 5th and 6th Centur ies B.C. as w e l l , the wide c i r c u l a t i o n o f money, the s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f p r oduc t i on , progress i n technology and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t a t e d the p r o s p e r i t y o f commerce. Th i s brought the r i s e o f a c l a s s o f r i c h men i n the newly developed c i t i e s who w ie lded 79 p o l i t i c a l i n f l uence w i t h t h e i r wea l th . The most famous example i s Lu Pu-we i , a r i c h merchant and commoner who rose to power and became the c h i e f m i n i s t e r o f Qin. Human rep re sen ta t i on s o f the 5th to 3rd Centur ies B.C. promptly r e f l e c t these s o c i a l changes. Beginning w i th the r ep re sen ta t i on of the type o f cha rac te r s who were a t the bottom of the s o c i a l s c a l e ( s laves or servants ) t o the po r t r a ya l of charac te r s of a h igher s o c i a l rank ( a c r o b a t s , . s o l d i e r s and m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s ) , human rep re sen ta t i on d i d not \ 82 on ly encompass a wide spectrum o f r e a l l i f e c ha r a c t e r s , but a l so m i r ro red the r i s e o f i n d i v i d u a l s from the lower to the h igher s o c i a l s t r a t a . At the same t ime, as a pe r son ' s s o c i a l s ta tu s cou ld be i d e n t i f i e d by h i s costume and pose, the r ep re sen ta t i on o f these featu res became emphasized. Moreover, the d e p i c t i o n o f a wider spectrum of c h a r a c t e r s , i n c l u d i n g charac te r s o f h igher s o c i a l rank and the gradual ref inement i n p o r t r a y a l , i n d i c a t e s an i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t and importance of human rep re sen ta t i on i n Chinese s c u l p t u r a l a r t . The f o l l o w i n g d i s cu s s i on w i l l examine the i d e o l o g i c a l bas i s f o r such development. I d e o l o g i c a l l y , beginning from about the time of Confucius (b. 551 B.C.) and ending w i th the Qin conquest i n 221 B.C., a g reat v a r i e t y o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l ideas and views a rose, l ead ing to the use of the name "Hundred Schoo l s . " These schools were o f t r u l y fundamental importance f o r the shaping o f the Chinese c i v i l i z a t i o n . The reasons f o r t h e i r r i s e could not be exp l a i ned but by the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s . The f a c t t h a t the country was d i v i d e d i n t o a number of s t a te s c reated a s i t u a t i o n i n which a l ack o f u n i f o r m i t y o f thought p r e v a i l e d and no s t rong orthodoxy i n ideas was dominant. Thus more i n d i v i d u a l i t y , v a r i e t y 80 and v i t a l i t y o f ideas was p o s s i b l e . The presence o f d i f f e r e n t reg iona l s t y l e s i n a r t was t he re f o re not a s u r p r i s i n g phenomenon. Never the le s s , the most important cause probably l a y i n the cha rac te r of the age. The c r i s i s and decay o f the o l d feudal s o c i e t y l ed to the ques t i on ing of the values of the o l d system and the urgency to search f o r answers to deal w i th the e x i s t i n g problems i n the s o c i e t y and e s p e c i a l l y of man's p lace i n i t . The schools o f thought developed dur ing t h i s per iod d i d not r e a l l y deal w i t h any problem t h a t cou ld be cons idered c l o se to 83 r e l i g i o u s themes - cosomological or metaphys i ca l . The p r i n c i p a l ques-t i o n posed and the answers g iven r e l a t e d to the problem of o r gan i z i ng an i d e a l s o c i e t y . Th i s phenomenon was a l s o p a r t l y due to the f a c t t h a t the ph i lo sophers were s imu l taneous l y , o r s t rove to be, statesmen and p o l i -t i c i a n s , as we l l as t h i n k e r s . They were, i n f a c t , the prototypes of the 82 l a t e r Chinese phenomenon - the s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l s . In the a r t s , the change o f the r o l e o f bronze ve s se l s a l s o r e f l e c t s t h i s s o c i a l and i d e o l o g i c a l s i t u a t i o n . Beginning w i th the Western Zhou dynasty, bronze ve s se l s g r adua l l y departed from the solemn realm o f r i t u a l and became "more p o l i t i c a l than r e l i g i o u s i n f u n c t i o n " i n the Warring S tates p e r i o d . Contents o f i n s c r i p t i o n s on the bronze ve s se l s u s u a l l y commemorated e i t h e r p o l i t i c a l events or s i g n i f i c a n t marr iages between powerful houses. S i m i l a r l y , the product ion o f the wa r r i o r s was a l so p a r t l y , i f not 84 t o t a l l y , p o l i t i c a l i n nature . Among the many ph i losophy schoo l s o f the t ime , the g rea te s t schools were Confuc ian i sm, Mohism and Taoism. They dominated the i n t e l l e c t u a l 85 scene from the 5th to a t l e a s t the 3rd Century B.C. However, the L e g a l i s t doc t r i ne was the on ly doc t r i ne a c t u a l l y put i n t o p r a c t i c e , as e x e m p l i f i e d by i t s use i n Qin. Other famous t h i n k e r s were Mencius (371 - 289 B.C.) and Xun Zi (280 - 240 B.C.) . Despite t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s i n emphasis, t h e i r pr imary focus and concern was never the les s man's va lue and h i s p lace i n s o c i e t y . I t was Confucius who, perhaps wh i l e w i tne s s i ng the abrupt ascents and descents o f h i s contemporar ies , became aware of the i n e q u i t i e s of h i s s o c i e t y and began to teach t h a t . t h e most important aspect o f man was h i s moral c ha r ac te r . He d i d not care to t a l k about s p i r i t u a l beings 34 or even l i f e a f t e r death. His main concern was a good s o c i e t y based on good government and harmonious human r e l a t i o n s . To t h i s end, he advo-cated a government t h a t r u l e s by v i r t u e and moral example r a the r than by punishment and f o r c e . ^ More s p e c i f i c a l l y , he be l i e ved i n the p e r f e c t i b i l i t y of a l l men, and i n t h i s .connection he r a d i c a l l y changed a t r a d i t i o n a l concept, t ha t of the Zun Z i ( ), l i t e r a l l y "son o f r u l e r " , which acqu i red the meaning o f " s u p e r i o r man," on the theory t ha t n o b i l i t y was a q u a l i t y determined by s t a t u s , more p a r t i c u l a r l y a h e r e d i t a r y p o s i t i o n . I t was used by Confucius., however, to denote a mo ra l l y s upe r i o r man. To him, 87 n o b i l i t y was no longer a matter of b l ood , but of cha rac te r . His ideas were advocated, taught and developed by scho la r s o f h i s own s c h o o l , and a l s o by those who were i n s p i r e d by h i s thoughts and agreed w i th him i n general but who had var ious r e se r va t i on s and r e v i s i o n s - Moh i s t , L e g a l i s t and o the r s . The most se r i ous r i v a l to Confucianism i n the 5th and 4th Centur ie s B.C. was the school o f Mo Di - Mohism. Although an opponent o f Confuc ian-i sm, the school concerned i t s e l f , l i k e t ha t o f Confuc ius , p r i m a r i l y w i th the problems o f ach iev ing an i dea l s o c i e t y . Mo D i 1 s aim and v i s i o n were the enrichment o f the count ry , the increase o f p o p u l a t i o n , the p r e -88 s e r va t i on o f order and the assurance o f the peop le ' s w e l f a r e . He con-demned aggress ive wars waged by the feudal p r i n c e s , on both u t i l i t a r i a n and moral grounds, by c a s t i g a t i n g them as w a s t e f u l , unbro ther l y and 89 murderous. At the same t ime, he advocated defens ive warfare which served to make aggress ive war impos s i b l e . His f o l l o w e r s were renowned f o r t h e i r s k i l l s i n the a r t o f defence, e s p e c i a l l y f o r t i f i c a t i o n , and 85 offered their services to all the states and rulers who needed them. The principal doctrine of Mo Di's philosophy was that of Universal Love, which, he believed, i f extended to all people and states on an equal basis, would eliminate the basic sources of social conflict and 90 war. While the teachings of Confucius and Mo Zi emphasize social order and an active l i f e , Taoism "concentrates on individual life and tran-91 quility." The ideal life for one individual, the ideal order for society and the ideal type of government are all based and guided by Tao. Tao in Taoism is the One, which is "natural, eternal, spontaneous, name-92 less and indescribable." It is at once "the beginning of all things and 93 the way in which all things pursue their course." In advocating non-action' (wu wei -^ jsk ) or "taking no action that is contrary to Nature as the most important aspect of the way of l i f e , the school teaches man to follow Nature and allows Nature to take its own course. Moreover, the book of Lao Zi advocates not only non-action but also practical tactics. As Wing-tsit Chan suggests, the book "is not for the hermit, but for the sage-ruler, who does not desert the world but rules i t with 95 non-interference." "Taoism is therefore not a philosophy of with-drawal. Man is to follow Nature but in doing so he is not eliminated; 96 instead, his nature is fulfilled." Thus, the Taoist philosophy centra-lized the concept of Nature which, to Zhuang Zi, is not only spontaneity g but "nature in the state of constant flux and incessant transformation." Moreover, "this is the universal process that binds all things into one, 98 equalizing all things and all things." In this belief, while the Confucians teach full development of one's nature, fulfillment of 86 one's destiny, and participation in the creative work of Nature, Zhuang Zi advocates "nourishing nature, returning to destiny, and enjoying Nature. Whereas the Confucianists want people transformed through 99 education, Zhuang Zi leaves transformation to things themselves." Thus, although the emphases of the three schools of thought (Confucianism, Mohism and Taoism) vary, their ultimate concerns are the principles of an ideal person and an ideal government, the betterment of an individual and the society. All these point to the awareness of the value of man and the unwavering confidence in the potential of man. The Legalist School or "Fa-Chia" was the only school of philosophy whose doctrines were actually applied in the political system of China. The school rejected the moral standards of the Confucianists and the religious sanction of the Mohists in favor of p o w e r . T h e Confucian-ists were dedicated to the cultivation of virtue, the development of individual personality, government for the people, social harmony, and the use of moral principles, moral examples and moral persuasion. The Legalists, however, were primarily interested in the subjugation of the individual to the state, uniformity of their thoughts and culmination r w * 101 of power by force. The Legalist vision of an ideally organized society was one in which the people, deprived of any education, were not to engage in thinking or discussing affairs but obliged to show blind obedience to a powerful ruler. As they regarded human nature as incorrigibly evil and selfish, they achieved their total control of the.state through an intensive set of laws, backed up by generous rewards and severe punishr 87 merits. At the same t ime, s i nce t h e i r ba s i c aim was to b u i l d the s t ronges t p o s s i b l e m i l i t a r y s t a t e , they viewed the maintenance o f s t rong m i l i t a r y fo rce s and the development o f a g r i c u l t u r e , which was 103 i n t i m a t e l y bound up w i th the f i r s t , as important. Besides the above p r a c t i c a l means f o r ach iev ing t h e i r t o t a l i t a r i a n g o a l , the ideo logy o f the L e g a l i s t s was b a s i c a l l y o b j e c t i v e and r e a l i s t i c . In denouncing moral p l a t i t u d e s and va in t a l k s , they demanded actua l 103 accomplishments and concrete r e s u l t s . Moreover, they shared the Confucian concept t h a t ranks and dut ie s must be c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . The advocat ion t h a t laws must be w r i t t e n , un i fo rm, and p u b l i c l y procla imed to the people i n d i c a t e s a c l e a r and d e f i n i t i v e system of law t h a t cou ld be e a s i l y understood by the people. The recent d i s covery o f bamboo s l i p s r eco rd i ng Q in ' s s t a t u t e s i n the Yunmeng County o f the Hubei P ro -v ince proves t h a t the law o f Qin was met i cu l ou s , p r ec i s e and s t r i n g e n t . There were s t a tu te s ( ^ , l u ) and laws ( , l i n g ) f o r a l l walks o f l i f e ; there were r e gu l a t i on s f o r the f i e l d , s t a b l e , market, l a b o r , s e r v i c e , 104 money and c l o t h i n g , punishments f o r robbery, e t c . The s t a t u te s were a l s o i l l u s t r a t i v e . For example, i n a s e c t i on t i t l e d "Law i n Questions and Answers", s t a t u te s were l a i d out i n quest ions and answers. Th i s s e c t i o n con s i s t ed o f 167 s t a tu te s and conta ined a m a j o r i t y o f s t a t u te s on " r obbe r y " . D i f f e r e n t s t a tu te s were p re s c r i bed to the s t e a l -ing o f var ious i tems: oxen, horses, p i g s , sheep, c l o t h i n g , s i l k , c o i n s , 105 e t c . The Qin law was a l s o harsh i n t h a t i f a person committed a c r ime, h i s pa rent s , brothers and w i f e were a l so punished. The keenness f o r p a r t i c u l a r s permeated the thoughts o f the L e g a l i s t s and had a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on the people. In the. 3rd Century B.C. L e g a l i s t work, Han Fei 88 Z i , where L e g a l i s t doc t r i ne s are s yn the s i zed , the ph i l o sphe r , Han Fei (d. 233 B.C.) viewed t h a t ' Tao ' (the Way) i s not an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d continuum i n which a l l d i s t i n c t i o n s d i sappear l i k e other p r e v a i l i n g schools of thought c la imed. Tao, as he viewed i t , i s the very reason why th ings are s p e c i f i c and d e t e r m i n a t e . 1 ^ 7 In the r ep re sen ta t i on of the Qin w a r r i o r s , aspects o f the L e g a l i s t o r Q in ' s ideo logy are man i fe s ted : (1) The exact r e n d i t i o n o f the var ious s t y l e s o f c o i f f u r e and uniform and the o r d e r l y arrangement o f the wa r r i o r s s i g n i f y the concern f o r the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f ranks w i t h i n the e l abo ra te bu reauc ra t i c s t r u c t u r e o f Qin. (2) The aim f o r u n i f o r m i t y , as i s shown by the con t r o l of the o v e r a l l s i z e and pose o f the wa r r i o r s accord ing to t h e i r t ypes , corresponds to the p r e v a i l i n g p o l i t i c a l concern f o r s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and u n i f o r m i t y . (3) V a r i a t i o n sought w i t h i n un i fo rmly represented wa r r i o r s r e f l e c t s the ex i s t ence o f v a r i e t i e s w i t h i n an u n i f i e d s t r u c t u r e - - f o r example, the ex i s t ence o f va r ious c u l t u r e s , and people w i t h i n the newly u n i f i e d empire. (4) The concern f o r c l a r i t y and exac t i t ude f o r d e t a i l s e x h i b i t e d by the f i g u r e s was a l s o the major i d e o l o g i c a l concern of the time t h a t pervaded Q in ' s i l l u s t r a t i v e and p r e c i s e l y de f ined s t a t u t e s . (5) The po r t r a ya l of the Qin wa r r i o r s i s r e a l i s t i c i n t h a t , l i k e the Q in ' s i deo logy , every f ea tu re represented was f o r a cause. There was no wasted e f f o r t . 89 The Qin f i g u r e s were produced at an unique time i n h i s t o r y . They were made at a time when the s o c i e t y witnessed the r i s e o f the value of man, when China was f o r the f i r s t t ime u n i f i e d and when Lega l i sm, the on ly school o f ph i losophy whose doc t r i ne s were put i n t o p r a c t i c e f o r the f i r s t and l a s t t ime i n h i s t o r y . Prompted by the commission of an emperor who wanted to g l o r i f y h i s m i l i t a r y success and might, the Qin f i g u r e s were produced as a cha l lenge to the Qin a r t i s t s who modelled l i f e - s i z e f i g u r e s f o r the f i r s t t ime. In doing so, they had created an a r t t y p i c a l of i t s t ime. S i m i l a r to the r i s e of the Qin dynasty, these f i g u r e s emerged to represent t h e i r own t ime ; moreover, l i k e the many es tab l i shments t ha t Qin had accompl i shed, the t e r r a - c o t t a wa r r i o r s of Qin Shihuangdi stand f o reve r to symbolize the s p i r i t o f the Qin people. 90 FOOTNOTES Maxwell Hearn, "The Te r r a co t t a Army of the F i r s t Emperor of Qin (221 -206 B .C. ) , " i n The Great Bronze Age o f China (New York: Me t r opo l i t an Museum of A r t , 1980), p. 353. W i l t o l d Rodz i n s k i , A H i s t o r y o f Ch ina, V o l . I (Toronto: Pergamon P re s s , 1979), pp. 50-51. R o d z i n s k i , H i s t o r y , p. 49. Derk Bodde, "The L e g a l i s t Concept o f H i s t o r y , " The F i r s t Emperor  o f China (New York: I n t e r n a t i o n a l A r t s and Sc iences P re s s , 1975), p. 311. Yuan Zhongy i , Ter ra Cotta War r io r & Horses a t the Tomb o f Qin Shi  Huang (Pek ing: C u l t u r a l R e l i c s Pub l i s h i n g House, 1983), p. 56 (Ch inese) , p. 61 ( E n g l i s h ) . The s i z e o f the F i r s t Emperor 's mausoleum i s grand. The he ight o f i t s mound i s 47 m; i t s g i r t h i s 1,410 m. Under the mound, there are the Innter and Outer c i t y . The outer c i t y i s 6 km i n g i r t h . The i nne r c i t y i s 4 km in g i r t h . So f a r , 20 wooden c h a r i o t s , 100 t e r r a - c o t t a horse drawn c h a r i o t s and over 10,000 bronze weapons have been excavated from three t e s t p i t s , namely P i t No. 1, 2 and 3. I t i s es t imated t h a t a t l e a s t a t o t a l o f 130 c h a r i o t s , over 500 c l a y horses t h a t draw v e h i c l e s , 116 saddled horses, and 7,000 men i n c l u d i n g those guarding the c h a r i o t s , c a va l r y and foo t s o l d i e r s cou ld be bur ied i n the p i t s . Yuan, Te r ra Cotta Warr iors & Horses, p. 5 (Ch inese ) , p. 6 ( E n g l i s h ) . The g a r r i s on f o r ce s o f the impe r i a l c i t y of the F i r s t Emperor were roughly o f three k inds : (a) personal guards o f the emperor. T h e i r duty was to guard, pa laces and p lace gates . When the emperor l e f t the pa l a ce , they acted as c a va l r y to p r o t e c t the roya l c a r r i a g e . (b) guards posted out s ide palace gates . (c) guards of the c a p i t a l , r e c r u i t e d from the conquered s t a t e s . Accord ing to Yuan, the f i r s t two types o f guards have not been d i scovered h i t h e r t o s ince the excavat ion i s u n f i n i s h e d . But the three p i t s o f t e r r a c o t t a f i g u r e s o f wa r r i o r s and horses are assumed to symbol ize the c a p i t a l c i t y . Hearn, p. 363. Max Loehr, R e l i c s o f Anc ien t China from The C o l l e c t i o n of Dr. Paul  S inger (New York: The A s i a S o c i e t y , I n c . , 1965), p. 119. James 0. Ca swe l l , The A r t of Ch ina ' s Bronze Age ( V i c t o r i a : A r t G a l l e r y o f Greater V i c t o r i a , 1982), p. 52. 91 3. Ding Zhang, "Qin Te r r a -Co t t a F igures - Indigenous Chinese S c u l p t u r e , " i n Anc ient Chinese S cu l p t u r a l Works: Te r r a -Co t t a F igures From Qin  Shihuang 's Tomb (Shaanxi : Shaanxi Peop le ' s F ine A r t s Pub l i s h i n g House, 1983), p. 7. 9. E z e k i e l S ch lo s s , A r t o f the Han (New York: China House G a l l e r y / China I n s t i t u t e i n Amer ica, 1974), p. 13. 10. Most ma te r i a l s emphasize t h e i r d i s cu s s i on s on the c on s t r u c t i o n o f the tomb, arrangement o f the w a r r i o r s , making of the f i g u r e s , s t y l e s o f un i fo rm, armor and c o i f f u r e s of the w a r r i o r s . A recent p u b l i c a -t i o n pub l i shed by C u l t u r a l R e l i c s Pub l i s h i n g House i n 1983, w r i t t e n by Yuan Zhongyi and Anc ient Chinese S cu l p t u r a l Works: Te r r a -Co t t a  F igures from Qin Shihuang ' s Tomb by Shaanxi Peop le ' s F ine A r t s P u b l i s h i n g House, conta in s t y l i s t i c analyses on the f i g u r e s . Maxwell Hearn ' s chapte r , "The Ter ra Cotta Army o f the F i r s t Emperor of Q in " covers the f i g u r e s b r i e f l y but a l i t t l e more s p e c i f i c a l l y . The same i s t rue f o r Edmund Capon's Qin Shihuang: Ter ra c o t t a Warr iors and  Horses ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l C u l t u r a l Corporat ion o f A u s t r a l i a L t d . , 1983), A r t G a l l e r y o f New South Wales. 11. Hearn, pp. 356-7 and a l s o Sima Qian, " Ba s i c Annuals o f Qin Shihuang," i n Shi J i , 6th Juan ( B e i j i n g : Zhongguo Shuju, 1975), pp. 235-6. 12. Tu Pao-jen & Han Han, " A r t Treasure-Trove o f Ch ina , " New Archaeo- l o g i c a l Finds i n China ( I I ) ( B e i j i n g : Foreign Language P re s s , 1978), p. 61. Edmund Capon i n Qin Shihuang, T e r r a c o t t a Warr iors and Horses, p. 30, a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the mausoleum took 38 or 39 y e a r s . 13. Yuan, Te r r a -Co t t a Warr iors & Horses, p. 4; Sima Q ian, Shi J i , 6th Juan, p. 235. 14. Yuan, T e r r a - C o t t a Warr io r s & Horses, p. 4. 15. I b i d . 16. The a r chaeo l og i c a l Team at the P i t o f Qin Dynasty Po t te r y F i gu re s , Tombs o f Qin Dynasty C r im ina l s a t Zhao Bei Hu V i l l a g e West of Qin Shi Huang's Mausoleum", Wen Wu, 1982/83, pp. 1-12. 17. I b i d , p. 10. 18. I b i d . 19. I b i d . 20. Hearn, p. 356; Sima Q ian, Shi J i , 6th Juan, p. 236. 21. Museum o f Qin Shi Huang Po t t e r y F igures o f Warr iors and Horses, Qin Shi Huang Po t te r y F igures o f Warr iors and Horses: A Corpus of 92 Data No. 1 (Shaanxi : Museum of Qin Shi Huang Po t t e r y F igures of Warr io r s and Horses, 1981), p. 14. 22. Yuan, p l a te s 160-62. 23. #M'%,H#^'*^&Mte*4il-fFzl*k. 24. Edmund Capon, Qin Shihuang: Te r r a co t t a Warr iors and Horses, 2nd ed. ( A u s t r a l i a - I n t e r n a t i o n a l C u l t u r a l Corporat ion o f A u s t r a l i a L t d . , 1983), p. 38. 25. Museum, Qin Shi Huang Po t te r y F i gu re s , pp. 11-12; Capon, Qin Shihuang, p. 43 and a l s o Hearn, p. 367. 26. I b i d . 27. Cheng yuan Ma, "The Splendor o f Anc ient Chinese Bronzes, " The Great  Bronze Age o f China (New York: Me t r opo l i t an Museum of A r t , 1980), p. 16-17. 28. J .A . Pope, R. Gettens , T. C a h i l l and N. Barnard, The Freer Chinese  Bronzes I: Catalogue (Washington, D . C : The Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n , 1967). B.B. Johnson & Jonathon E. E r i c s o n , "Techn ica l Comments on the Lidow T i n g , " B u l l e t i n of the Los Angeles County Museum o f A r t , V o l . XXI I , 1976, p. 16. 29. Ma, pp. 16-17. 30. The horses , c h a r i o t s and c h a r i o t e e r s were d i scovered i n December, 1980, 20 metres away from the emperor ' s mausoleum. 31. Hearn, p. 367. 32. I b i d . 33. Ca swe l l , A r t o f Ch ina ' s Bronze Age, p. 11. 34. A l b e r t D ien, "A Study o f E a r l y Chinese Armor," A r t i bu s A s i ae , V o l . XL I I I , 1/2, 1982, pp. 7-10. Museum, Qin Shi Huang Po t t e r y F i gu re s , pp. 17-19. 35. D ien, p. 3. 36. I b i d . 37. I b i d . The k e r c h i e f was used to prevent abras ion o f the armor aga in s t the neck. 93 38. Hearn, p. 370. 39. Yuan, p. 16. 40. I b i d . 41. I b i d . 42. Hearn, p. 369. 43. Hearn, p. 370. 44. Yuan, p. 19. 45. I b i d . 46. Yuan, p. 19. 47. I b i d . 48. Ca swe l l , p. 12. 49. Loehr, R e l i c s of Ch ina, p. 119. 50. L. Bachhofer, "Bronze F igures of the Late Zhou P e r i o d , " The A r t  B u l l e t i n , XXIII/4 (1941), p. 317. 51. I b i d , p. 317. 52. W.C. White, Tombs o f Old Lo-Yang (Shanghai: K e l l y and Walsh L t d . , 1934), p. 2. 53. Bachhofer, pp. 319-22. 54. Bachhofer, p. 318. 55. Qian Hao, Heyi Chen, Suichu Ru, Out o f Ch ina ' s Ear th (New York: Harry N. Abrams, I nc . , B e i j i n g : B e i j i n g P i c t o r i a l ) , p. 45. 56. I b i d . 57. Q ian, p. 58. 58. y**»,"t*sJM*iUJ*'^i$n>fc&fi>1 . 59. y*&#. $S5i 60. I b i d . 94 61. I b i d . 63. Jenny So, "The Waning of the Bronze Age: The Western Han Per iod (206 B.C. - A.D. 8 ) , The Great Bronze Age o f China (New York: Me t r opo l i t an Museum of A r t , 1980), p. 328. 64. I b i d . 65. I b i d . 66. Kwang-chih Chang, The Archaeology of Anc ient China (Mew Haven and London: Ya le U n i v e r s i t y P re s s , 1963), p. 259. 67. J . Fonte in and T. Wu, Unearth ing Ch ina ' s Past (New York: Museum of F ine A r t s , 1973), pp. 72-74. 68. Q ian, Chen & Ru, Out of Ch ina ' s E a r t h , p. 124. 69. Wai-Kam Ho, "Nan-Ch'en P e i - T s ' u i , " The B u l l e t i n o f the C leve land  Museum of A r t , V o l . 45/No. 1, January 1962, pp. 1-11. 70. Ho, "Nan-Ch'en P e i - T s ' u i , " p. 7. 71. I b i d . 72. Ho, "Nan-Ch 'en P e i - T s ' u i , " p. 10. 73. Ca swe l l , p. 11. 74. Ca swe l l , p. 12 and p. 28. 75. J e s s i c a Rawson, Anc ient China - A r t and Archaeology (New York: Harper & Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 1980), p. 133. 76. I b i d . 77. Cho-yu Hsu, Anc ient China i n T r a n s i t i o n : An Ana l y s i s o f Soc i a l  M o b i l i t y , 722^222 B.C. ( S t an fo rd , C a l i f o r n i a : S tanford U n i v e r s i t y P re s s , 1965), pp. 175-76. 78. I b i d . 79. I b i d . 80. W i t o l d Rodz i n s k i , A H i s t o r y o f China (Toronto: Pergamon P re s s , 1979), p. 33. 81. I b i d . 95 82. I b i d . 83. Jenny So, "The I n l a i d Bronzes o f the Warring States P e r i o d , " The Great Bronze Age o f China (New York: Me t r opo l i t an Museum of A r t , 1980), p. 308. 84. I b i d . 85. Wing-Ts i t Chan, A Source Book i n Chinese Phi losophy ( P r i n ce t on : P r i nce ton U n i v e r s i t y P re s s , 1969), p. 211. 86. Chan, A Source Book, p. 15. 87. I b i d . 88. R o d z i n s k i , A H i s t o r y o f Ch ina , p. 40. 89. I b i d . 90. Chan, p. 211. 91. Chan, p. 136. 92. I b i d . 93. I b i d . 94. I b i d . 95. Chany p. 137. 96. I b i d . 97. Chan, p. 177. 98. I b i d . 99. I b i d . 100. Chan, p. 251. 101. I b i d . 102. R o d z i n s k i , p. 41. 103. I b i d . 104. l?JMm$Mf#t$£t^^ 105. I b i d 106. 107. Chan, pp. 260-61. 97 BIBLIOGRAPHY Bachhofer, L. "Bronze F igures of the Late Chou P e r i o d . " The A r t B u l l e t i n , XXI11/4 (1941), pp. 317-31. Bodde, D. Ch ina ' s F i r s t U n i f i e r . Le iden : E . J . B r i l l , 1938. Capon, E. Qin Shihuang: Te r r a co t t a Warr iors and Horses. 2nd ed. A u s t r a l i a : I n t e rna t i ona l C u l t u r a l Corporat ion of A u s t r a l i a . L t d . , 1983. C a s w e l l , J.O. The A r t o f Ch ina ' s Bronze Age. V i c t o r i a : A r t G a l l e r y of Greater V i c t o r i a , 1982. Chan, W.T. A Source Book i n Chinese Ph i lo sophy. P r i n ce ton : P r i nce ton U n i v e r s i t y P re s s , 1969. Chang, K.C. The Archaeology o f Anc ient Ch ina. New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P re s s , 13J6X D ien, A.E. "A Study o f Ea r l y Chinese Armor." A r t i bu s A s i a e , V o l . X L I I I , 1/2, pp. 5-66. Far Eastern Department, Royal Ontar io Museum. Chinese A r t i n the Royal  Ontar io Museum. Toronto: Royal Ontar io Museum, 1972. F leming, S.T. "Bronze Technology i n C h i n a . " Anc ient Chinese Bronzes from the S t o c l e t and Western C o l l e c t i o n . London: Foxglove House, vm:— Fong, W. Ed. The Great Bronze Age of China: _An E x h i b i t i o n from the Peop le ' s Republ ic of ChinlT New York: The Met ropo l i t an Museum of A r t , 1980. F o n t e i n , J . and Wu, T. Unearthing Ch ina ' s Pas t . New York: Museum of F ine A r t s , 1973. Ho, Wai-Kam, "Nan-Ch'en Pei T s ' u i . " The Bui 1e t i n of the CIeve!and Museum  of A r t , V o l . 45 , N o . . l , Jan . ~\9W. Hsu, C.Y. Anc ient China i n T r a n s i t i o n : An Ana l y s i s of Soc i a l M o b i l i t y , 722-222 B.C. S t an f o r d , C a l i f o r n i a : S tanford U n i v e r s i t y P res s , m Johnson, B.B. and E r i c s o n , J . E . "Techn ica l Comments on the Lidou T i n g . " Los Angeles County Museum of A r t B u l l e t i n , V o l . XX I I , 1976. pp. 16-29. Loehr, M. R e l i c s o f ' A n c i e n t X h i n a _ f r b m the_Co l1ect ion Of Dr. Paul S inger . New YoFRl The As i a S o c i e t y , I nc . , 1965. 98 Museum of Hubei. The Tomb o f the Marquis of Zeng. Pek ing: Wenwu P re s s , 1980. Museum of Qin Shi Huang Po t te r y F igures of Warr iors and Horses. Qin Shi  Huang Po t te r y F igures o f Warr iors and Horses: A Corpus of Data, No. 1. Shaanxi : Museum of Qin Shi Huang Po t te r y F igures of Warr iors and Horses, 1981. Museum of Qin Shi Huang Po t te r y F igures of Warr iors and Horses. T e r r a -Cotta F igures from the Imperial Tomb of Qin Shi Huang. Shaanxi : Shaanxi Peop le ' s F ine A r t s Pub l i s h i n g House, 1979. . Museum of the Te r r a -Co t t a F igures o f Qin Sh ihuangdi . Te r r a -Co t ta F igures from the Imperial Tomb o f Qin Shi Huang. Shaanxi F ine A r t s P re s s , JVTT. Museum of Qin Shihuang Te r r a -Co t ta F igures of Warr iors and Horses, A r chaeo log i ca l Team of the P i t s of Qin Te r ra -Co t ta F igures and Shaanxi Peop le ' s F ine A r t s Pub l i s h i n g House, ed. Anc ient Chinese  S cu l p tu r a l Works: T e r r a - c o t t a F igures from Qin Shihuang 's Tomb ~ Shaanxi: Shaanxi Peop l e ' s F ine A r t s Pub l i s h i n g House, 1983. Peop le ' s Republ ic of Ch ina. Fore ign Languages P res s . New A rchaeo log i ca l  Finds i n Ch ina , I I . Pek ing: FLP, 1978. Peop le ' s Republ ic of Ch ina. Wenwu 1964/7, pp. 35-38. Wenwu 1964/8, pp. 18-19. Wenwu 1964/9, pp. 42-45. Wenwu 1975/11 , pp. 47-51. Wenwu 1966/1 , pp. 10-18. Wenwu 1975/1 , pp. 44-51. Wenwu 1975/2, pp. 1-3. Wenwu 1975/7, pp. 2-4. Wenwu 1975/8, pp. 18-22. Wenwu 1975/9, pp. 1-8.. Wenwu 1975/10, pp. 55-67. Wenwu 1975/11 , pp. 1-30. Wenwu 1976/3, pp. 52-45. Wenwu 1976/5, pp. 1-6. Wenwu 1976/6, pp. 1-20. Wenwu 1976/7, pp. 1-19. WTMU 1976/9, pp. 51-61. Wenwu 1976/11 , pp. 31-40, pp. 65-71. Wenwu 1978/5, pp. 1-19, pp. 77-83. Wenwu 1979/5, pp. 43-50. Wenwu 1977/8, pp. 1-7. Wenwu 1980/5, p. 391 Wenwu 1980/9, p. 1, pp. 15-24". Wenwu 1981/1, pp. 24-48. Wenwu 1982/3, pp. 1-15. 99 Pope, J . A . , Get tens , R., C a h i l l , J . and Barnard, N. The F reer Chinese  Bronzes I: Cata logue. Washington, D . C : The Smithsonian I n s t i t u -t i o n , 1967. Qian, H., Chen, H. and Ru, S. Out of Ch ina ' s Ea r th . New York: Harry N. Abrams, I nc . , and B e i j i n g : China P i c t o r i a l , 1981. Rawson, J . Anc ient Ch ina: A r t and Archaeology. San F r anc i s c o : Harper & Row P u b l i s h e r s , 1980. R o d z i n s k i , W. A H i s t o r y of Ch ina , V o l . I. Toronto: Pergamon Pres s , 1979. S ch l o s s , E. A r t of the Han. New York: China House Ga l l e r y/Ch ina I n s t i t u t e i n Amer ica, 1974. Sima Qian. Shi J i ( H i s t o r i c a l Records) . 10 Vo l s . (130 j u a n ) . B e i j i n g : Zhongguo Shuju, 1959. S u l l i v a n , M. The A r t s of Ch ina. Rev. e d . , Be rke ley : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P res s , 1977. White, W.C. Tombs of Old Lo-yang. Shanghai: K e l l y and Walsh L t d . , 1934. " Yuan, Zhongyi. Te r r a -Co t ta Warr iors and Horses. B e i j i n g : C u l t u r a l R e l i c s Pub l i s h i n g House, 1983. M. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0096318/manifest

Comment

Related Items