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Heritage preservation : the case of downtown New Westminster Sleath, Eleanor Catherine 1984

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HERITAGE PRESERVATION: THE CASE OF DOWNTOWN NEW WESTMINSTER ELEANOR CATHERINE SLEATH B.A., Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Sc h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1984 E l e a n o r C a t h e r i n e S l e a t h , 1984 By MASTER OF ARTS In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s fo r scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date A p r i l 25, 1984 -6 (3/81) A b s t r a c t H e r i t a g e P r e s e r v a t i o n : The Case o f Downtown New Westmins ter P l a n n i n g , by i t s n a t u r e , i n v o l v e s the management o f change, but o f t e n t h a t change o c c u r s so r a p i d l y o r i n such a way t h a t people b e g i n to f e a r t h a t t h e i r community i s l o s i n g i t s sense o f p l a c e , t h a t e v e r y t h i n g f a m i l i a r o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s d i a p p e a r i n g . P r e s e r v a t i o n o f a community's h e r i t a g e o f f e r s a way to m a i n t a i n c o n t i n u i t y o f the pas t i n t o the f u t u r e . T h i s t h e s i s focuses on p l a n n i n g f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n a t the l o c a l l e v e l u s i n g the case o f Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r . The C i t y o f New Westminster i s c u r r e n t l y undergo ing a mas-s i v e redevelopment o f i t s downtown a r e a which w i l l p l a c e tremen-dous p r e s s u r e on the e x i s t i n g c h a r a c t e r o f the C i t y . New Westminster has a h i s t o r y o f 125 y e a r s which t r a c e s back to i t s b e g i n n i n g s as the f i r s t i n c o r p o r a t e d c i t y n o r t h o f San F r a n c i s c o and west o f the G r e a t L a k e s . The Downtown's urban p a t t e r n was d e l i b e r a t e l y p lanned by C o l o n e l Moody and has remained a lmost i n t a c t . The Downtown s t i l l c o n t a i n s many t u r n o f the c e n t u r y b u i l d i n g s and i t s h i s t o r i c sense o f p l a c e i s h i g h l y v a l u e d by i t s c i t i z e n s ; however, the c o r e has e x p e r i e n c e d a d e c l i n e i n i t s r e g i o n a l importance as a commerc ia l c e n t r e and i t s b u i l t space i s d e t e r i o r a t i n g . The redevelopment proposed f o r the a r e a i s a r e s u l t o f i t s d e s i g n a t i o n as a R e g i o n a l Town Centre to be s e r v i c e d by the ALRT l i n e . Because of the plans for redevelopment, i t i s important that New Westminster act quickly to ensure that i t s h i s t o r i c sense of place i s preserved and helps i n the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of the area. The Downtown i s i d e n t i f i a b l e as a d i s t r i c t within the larger c i t y due to i t s concentration of commercial uses, unique geography, and h i s t o r i c buildings, but within t h i s d i s t r i c t are nodes or concentrations of p a r t i c u l a r uses which possess a d i s t i n c t i v e physical and h i s t o r i c character. These nodes provide the basis for heritage areas or precincts within the d i s t r i c t . The heritage precincts e s t a b l i s h a framework for ef f e c -t i v e planning due to t h e i r consistency and limited s i z e . The case study of planning for preservation in Downtown New Westminster i s approached by f i r s t i d e n t i f y i n g the area's h i s t o r i c s i gnificance and the unique elements which make up i t s sense of place. A Plan for Preservation i s then presented. Heritage precincts are i d e n t i f i e d to act as planning units. A v a r i e t y of strategies are proposed to carry out preservation a c t i v i t y as i t relates to the goals and objectives of the Downtown's Plan for Preservation. F i n a l l y , the basic p r i n c i p l e s and strategies revealed by the case study are discussed in r e l a t i o n to t h e i r a p p l i -cation i n comparable situations. i v The Plan f o r P r e s e r v a t i o n has three b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s : 1) pl a n n i n g f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n manages change so t h a t the Downtown's e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r and f u n c t i o n remain i n t a c t ; 2) the t o t a l s e t t i n g or environment i s more s i g n i f i -cant than i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g s ; and 3) b u i l d i n g s must remain f u n c t i o n a l and economic to be a p o s i t i v e component i n the Downtown. The case study r e v e a l s t h a t h i s t o r y and sense o f p l a c e are important reasons to preserve a community's h e r i t a g e , but a l s o that p l a n n i n g f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n o f f e r s a way to manage change that i s eco n o m i c a l l y more e f f i c i e n t and s o c i a l l y l e s s d i s r u p t i v e . V Table o f Contents Page I . P l a n n i n g f o r P r e s e r v a t i o n — The Concept and i t s E v o l u t i o n Purpose o f T h e s i s 1 Reasons f o r H e r i t a g e P r e s e r v a t i o n 4 E v o l u t i o n o f P r e s e r v a t i o n A c t i v i t y i n Canada 10 Study Approach 16 I I . The Case o f Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r H i s t o r i c a l Background 20 The Community P l a n 3 2 The Downtown P l a n 3 5 R e l a t e d P l a n n i n g Documents 38 H e r i t a g e O r g a n i z a t i o n s 42 The Downtown and i t s Sense o f P l a c e 43 N a t u r a l S e t t i n g 44 R i v e r F r o n t a g e 45 Topography 47 Views 51 B u i l t Environment 61 B u i l d i n g s 62 B u i l d i n g Groups 74 S t r e e t P a t t e r n and H i s t o r i c P l a n 76 Open Spaces and L a n d s c a p i n g 79 Landmarks 82 I I I . A P l a n f o r P r e s e r v a t i o n H e r i t a g e P r e c i n c t s 85 G o a l s 121 O b j e c t i v e s 121 S t r a t e g i e s 122 Fundi n g 136 O r g a n i z a t i o n s 138 Imp l e m e n t a t i o n 13 9 E v a l u a t i o n 140 C o n c l u s i o n s 141 Re f e r e n c e s 148 v i L i s t o f F i g u r e s Page 1. V i c t o r i a n Symbolism i n Moody's P l a n o f New Wes t m i n s t e r 24 2. ALRT Route and L o c a t i o n s o f Proposed R e g i o n a l Town Ce n t r e s 31 3. Proposed Land Use f o r Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r 33 4. Main Elements o f t h e Downtown P l a n 36 5. C h a r a c t e r Areas, i n t h e Downtown P l a n 3 9 6. Topography and S t r e e t P a t t e r n 48 7. H e i g h t R e g u l a t i o n i n t h e Downtown 50 8. View C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t h e Downtown P l a n 52 9. Key V i e w p o i n t s 54 10. P o t e n t i a l H e r i t a g e B u i l d i n g s 66 11. An E a r l y P l a n o f New W e s t m i n s t e r by C o l o n e l Moody 77 12. Landmarks i n t h e Downtown 84 13. H e r i t a g e P r e c i n c t s 89 v i i L i s t o f Photographs Page 1. The f i r s t o c ean-going " v e s s e l t o e n t e r t h e F r a s e r R i v e r , c. 1860 23 2. The f i r s t t r e a s u r y , assay o f f i c e and mint i n New W e s t m i n s t e r 23 3. Columbia S t r e e t a f t e r t h e f i r e i n 1898 28 4. The f i r s t b r i d g e t o c r o s s the F r a s e r R i v e r was b u i l t i n 1904 28 5. The F r a s e r R i v e r , n o r t h from New W e s t m i n s t e r 46 6. V i e w p o i n t 1 53 7. V i e w p o i n t 2 55 8. Downriver v i e w from V i e w p o i n t 3 56 9. U p r i v e r view from V i e w p o i n t 3 56 10. View n o r t h from V i e w p o i n t 3 57 11. E i g h t h S t r e e t v i s t a 58 12. S i x t h S t r e e t v i s t a 58 13. I n c i d e n t a l v i e w from Carnarvon S t r e e t 59 14. View framed by Wosk's windows 60 15. Begbie Square 60 16. M o s a i c s , 43 9 Columbia S t r e e t 61 17. W e s t m i n s t e r T r u s t B u i l d i n g 69 18. W e s t m i n s t e r T r u s t B u i l d i n g 69 19. The B u r r B l o c k 72 20. The Guichon B l o c k 72 21. B u r r and Guichon B l o c k s , c. 1906 73 22. B u r r and Guichon B l o c k s i n 1984 73 23. 705 and 681 Columbia S t r e e t 75 24. Begbie Square 78 25. T i p p e r a r y Park 80 26. F r i e n d s h i p Gardens 80 27. B e g b i e Square 81 28. L a n d s c a p i n g a l o n g Columbia S t r e e t 82 29. Courthouse, a f t e r the f i r e , September 1898 90 30. Courthouse, J a n u a r y 1901 91 31. L i n k between Douglas C o l l e g e and Carnarvon S t r e e t 93 32. L i n k between Douglas C o l l e g e and Carnarvon S t r e e t 93 33. Top o f Begbie Square 94 34. Begbie Square 94 35. View d o w n r i v e r from Douglas C o l l e g e 95 36. S t . P a u l ' s Church 95 37. S i d e v i e w o f t h e Old Courthouse 96 38. Old Courthouse, Carnarvon S t r e e t facade 97 3 9. Old Land R e g i s t r y O f f i c e 97 40. 628 Carnarvon S t r e e t 98 41. C o l l e g e P l a c e H o t e l on Carnarvon S t r e e t 99 42. A d j a c e n t b u i l d i n g f r o n t i n g on Begbie S t r e e t 99 43. R o y a l C i t y G l a s s as i t stands today a t Carnarvon S t r e e t and Lorne S t r e e t 100 11 v i i i Page 44. R o y a l C i t y G l a s s as i t l o o k e d i n 1954 100 45. Bench and G a v e l R e s t a u r a n t 101 46. Douglas C o l l e g e 102 47. Queen's Court 102 48. The Law C o u r t s and Begbie Square 103 49. Carnarvon P l a c e 104 50. The Law C o u r t s f a c i n g Carnarvon S t r e e t 104 51. Columbia S t r e e t , c. 1903 106 52. CPR S t a t i o n a t E i g h t h and Columbia 107 53. Holy T r i n i t y C a t h e d r a l 108 54. South s i d e o f Columbia a t S i x t h S t r e e t 108 55. L a n d s c a p i n g a l o n g Columbia S t r e e t 109 56. B u r r and Guichon B l o c k s j u s t a f t e r 1898 f i r e 110 57. W e s t m i n s t e r T r u s t B u i l d i n g 110 58. Bank o f Commerce a t S i x t h and Columbia 111 59. 632 Columbia S t r e e t 111 60. 652 and 660 Columbia S t r e e t 112 61. The Trapp B l o c k 112 62. 716 Columbia S t r e e t 113 63. 681 Columbia S t r e e t 113 64. Spencers b u i l d i n g , 1940 114 65. Spencers b u i l d i n g , 1984 114 66. P r e - f i r e C i t y Market 116 67. C i t y Market, c. 1905 117 68. F r a s e r R i v e r Market 117 69. Access t o t h e r i v e r f r o n t 118 70. E n t r a n c e t o t h e Market 119 i x Acknowledgements I would l i k e t o g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge th e f o l l o w i n g f o r t h e i r h e l p : -- Dr. M i c h a e l Y. S e e l i g and Dr. H. P e t e r O b e r l a n d e r f o r t h e i r a d v i c e and g u i d a n c e i n p r e p a r i n g t h i s t h e s i s ; — my f a m i l y and f r i e n d s f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e and sup-p o r t t h r o u g h t h e v a r i o u s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f my ' t h e s i s n e u r o s e s ' ; -- J i m W i l s o n f o r h i s f r i e n d l y s m i l e , warm hug, and k i n d words t h a t h e l p e d me t o p i c k m y s e l f up and keep g o i n g . S p e c i a l thanks go t o my mother, M a r i l y n S l e a t h , f o r h e r s k i l l and p e r s e v e r a n c e i n p r e p a r i n g t h e t y p e s c r i p t . S e c t i o n I : a n n i n g f o r P r e s e r v a t i o n -- The Concept and i t s E v o l u t i o n Purpose o f T h e s i s The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o s t u d y p l a n n i n g f o r p r e s -e r v a t i o n a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l u s i n g t h e case o f Downtown New West-m i n s t e r . The emphases o f the s t u d y a r e : 1) p l a n n i n g f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n manages change ( r a t h e r than s t o p p i n g i t ) so t h a t t h e community's e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r and f u n c t i o n remain i n t a c t ; 2) t h e t o t a l s e t t i n g o r environment i s more s i g n i f i c a n t than i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g s ; and 3) b u i l d i n g s must remain f u n c t i o n a l and economic t o be a p o s i t i v e component i n t h e community. P l a n n i n g , by i t s n a t u r e , i n v o l v e s t h e management o f change, b u t o f t e n t h a t change o c c u r s so r a p i d l y o r i n such a way t h a t p e o p l e b e g i n t o f e a r t h a t t h e i r community i s l o s i n g i t s sense o f p l a c e , t h a t e v e r y t h i n g f a m i l i a r o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s d i s a p p e a r i n g (Lynch, 1972). P r e s e r v a t i o n o f a community's h e r i t a g e o f f e r s a way t o m a i n t a i n c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e p a s t i n t o t h e f u t u r e . I n t h e b r o a d sense, h e r i t a g e r e f e r s t o something w h i c h i s i n h e r i t e d from th e p a s t (Oxford 7American D i c t i o n a r y ) . I n t h e urban c o n t e x t , however, h e r i t a g e r e f e r s t o 'those s i t e s and neighbourhoods w h i c h by t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r a l , h i s t o r i c o r " f o l k " v a l u e , r e p r e s e n t t h e achievements o f t h e p a s t o r s i m p l y a l l e v i -a t e t h e monotony o f c u r r e n t u r b a n i z a t i o n ' (Denhez, 1976). Her-i t a g e can i n c l u d e s i t e s , s t r u c t u r e s , b u i l d i n g s , a r e a s , e n v i r o n -ments ,. and v i e w s . 2. F o r t he purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s , t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f h e r i t a g e w i l l be used : A community's h e r i t a g e i s t h a t w h i c h i s i n h e r -i t e d from i t s p a s t . H e r i t a g e thus encompasses a broad range o f c o n c e r n s . A b a s i c element i s the h i s t o r i c b u i l t environment, t h o s e b u i l d i n g s and works o f man a f f e c t i n g t h e l a n d s c a p e w h i c h remain from t h e p a s t . T h i s p o r t i o n o f h e r i t a g e i n c l u d e s d e s i g n e d l a n d s c a p e s , s i t e s o f h i s t o r i c e v e n t s w i t h o u t any s t r u c t u r e s , s t r u c t u r e s and e n g i n e e r i n g works t h a t a r e not d e s i g n e d f o r h a b i -t a t i o n , b u i l d i n g s , and groups o f i n d i v i d u a l elements and t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t s . I t a l s o i n -c l u d e s a r t i f a c t s , h i s t o r i c s k i l l s , b e h a v i o u r s and p a t t e r n s o f l i f e . More b r o a d l y , a commu-n i t y ' s h e r i t a g e t h u s encompasses i t s e n t i r e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n h e r i t a n c e . ( C i t y o f Ottawa, 1978) The use o f t h e term ' h i s t o r i c ' , w h i l e r e f e r r i n g t o an i n h e r i t a n c e , i n f e r s v a l u e , i m p o r t a n c e , o r fame due t o an o b j e c t ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h some s i g n i f i c a n t e v ent o r p e r s o n from t h e p a s t ; b u t h e r i t a g e can r e f e r t o o b j e c t s i n h e r i t e d from t h e r e c e n t p a s t w h i c h may not have had time t o d e v e l o p such a s s o c i a t i o n s . TThere i s a fundamental human need f o r a v i s i b l e sense o f t h e p a s t ; o f t h e p a s t , n o t n e c e s s a r i l y an a n c i e n t p a s t ' (Goopersmith, 1976). On many c i t y b l o c k s and v i l l a g e s t r e e t s i n Canada i t i s p o s s i b l e t o f i n d groups o f b u i l d i n g s t h a t may span one hundred y e a r s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n methods and s t y l e s . Y e t t h e y v i s u a l l y s u p p o r t and enhance each o t h e r , and i n a d d i t i o n t h e y p r o v i d e examples o f o u r c u l t u r e and our development. They may be as young as t h i r t y o r f o r t y y e a r s (or even l e s s ) , b u t i f t h e y ' f i t ' , i f t h e y a r e good s t r u c t u r e s , i f t h e y have any p o s s i b l e con-temporary use, they a r e a l s o p a r t s o f t h e p a s t t h a t we s h o u l d be s t r i v i n g t o r e t a i n . ( F a l k n e r , 1977) The p r o t e c t i o n o f h e r i t a g e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e b u i l t environment, g e n e r a l l y i n v o l v e s some degree o f i n t e r v e n t i o n 3. and t h e terms used t o i d e n t i f y t h e s e l e v e l s o f i n t e r v e n t i o n must be c l a r i f i e d . The H e r i t a g e Canada F o u n d a t i o n has c o m p i l e d a g l o s s a r y o f terms r e l a t e d t o h e r i t a g e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f w h i c h the f o l l o w i n g w i l l be used. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n : I s o f t e n used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y w i t h r e n o v a t i o n t o d e s c r i b e t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n o f an e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g . T h i s p r o c e s s extends t h e s t r u c t u r e ' s u s e f u l l i f e t h r o u g h a l t e r a -t i o n s and r e p a i r s w h i l e p r e s e r v i n g i t s impor-t a n t a r c h i t e c t u r a l , h i s t o r i c a l , and c u l t u r a l a t t r i b u t e s . R e m o d e l l i n g : A p r o c e s s w h i c h i n v o l v e s the up-g r a d i n g o r r e p l a c i n g o f i n t e r i o r components. R e n o v a t i o n : I s a g e n e r i c t e rm used t o d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f i n t e r v e n t i o n i n c l u d i n g remod-e l l i n g , r e c y c l i n g , and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . I t r e f e r s t o the improvement o f e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s o r neighbourhoods. R e s t o r a t i o n : The p r o c e s s o f r e t u r n i n g a b u i l d -i n g o r s i t e t o a p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d i n t i m e . The degree o f i n t e r v e n t i o n and the removal o r replacement o f p a r t s may be d e t e r m i n e d by an h i s t o r i c a l event a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e b u i l d i n g o r by a e s t h e t i c i n t e g r i t y . R e v i t a l i z a t i o n : D e s c r i b e s t h e p r o c e s s o f eco-nomic, s o c i a l , and c u l t u r a l redevelopment o f an a r e a o r s t r e e t . O f t e n t h e b u i l d i n g s i n t h e s e a r e a s a r e o f h e r i t a g e m e r i t d e s p i t e t h e i r s t a t e o f n e g l e c t p r i o r t o r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . A d a p t i v e Re-Use: The r e c y c l i n g o f an o l d e r s t r u c t u r e o f t e n f o r a new f u n c t i o n . E x t e n s i v e r e s t o r a t i o n o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f b o t h t h e i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r i s u s u a l l y i n v o l v e d . A r c h i t e c t u r a l C o n s e r v a t i o n : R e f e r s t o t h e p h y s i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i n a b u i l d i n g t o coun-t e r a c t d e t e r i o r a t i o n o r t o ensure i t s s t r u c -t u r a l s t a b i l i t y . Treatments o f t e n used i n t h i s p r o c e s s i n c l u d e t h e c l e a n i n g o f w a l l p a -p e r , r e a t t a c h m e n t o f l o o s e p l a s t e r , masonry r e p o i n t i n g , and c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f an e x i s t i n g f o u n d a t i o n . 4. H e r i t a g e A r e a : A synonym f o r a d e s i g n a t e d h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t o r c o n s e r v a t i o n a r e a w h i c h denotes a neighbourhood u n i f i e d by a s i m i l a r use, a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e and/or h i s t o r i c a l development. P r e s e r v a t i o n : A g e n e r i c t e rm f o r the broad range o f p r o c e s s e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r e s t o -r a t i o n , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and a d a p t i v e r e - u s e o f h i s t o r i c s t r u c t u r e s . Other a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , maintenance, and a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n o f h i s t o r i c r e s o u r c e s form an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e movement t o r e t a i n elements from the p a s t . ( O b e r l a n d e r , 1984) Some approaches t o the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e t r y t o r e v e r s e change o r t o s t o p i t a l t o g e t h e r , v i e w i n g any change as a t h r e a t t o t h e h i s t o r y , o r d e r , and s t a b i l i t y o f t h e community (New O r l e a n s , Bureau o f Governmental R e s e a r c h , 1968). But change i s i n e v i t a b l e and h i s t o r y i s c o n t i n u o u s and i r r e v e r s i b l e . The purpose o f p l a n n i n g f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be t o p r o v i d e a way t o a l l o w change t o o c c u r w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g t h e c o n t i n u i t y i n t h e environment o f t h e p a s t i n t o t h e f u t u r e . The most v i a b l e way o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g p r e s e r v a t i o n i s t h r o u g h r e t a i n i n g o l d b u i l d i n g s as a f u n c t i o n i n g component o f th e c i t y ( F i t c h , 1982). I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o c o n s i d e r t h e whole e f f e c t c r e a t e d by t h e way b u i l d i n g s r e l a t e t o each o t h e r and t h e i r environment (New O r l e a n s , Bureau o f Governmental Research, 1968). The case o f New W e s t m i n s t e r was chosen f o r t h i s s t u d y f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s . The C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r i s c u r r e n t l y u n d e r g o i n g a massive redevelopment o f t h e downtown a r e a w h i c h w i l l p l a c e 5. tremendous pressure on the e x i s t i n g c h a r a c t e r o f the C i t y . T h i s type o f l a r g e - s c a l e development should not occur a t the expense of the i n t e g r i t y o f the Downtown's unique and h i s t o r i c char-a c t e r . New Westminster i s the o l d e s t i n c o r p o r a t e d c i t y n o r t h o f San F r a n c i s c o and west o f the Great Lakes. I t began i t s h i s -t o r y i n 1858 as the new c a p i t a l o f the mainland colony o f B r i t -i s h Columbia on the s i t e which the present downtown s t i l l o c c u p i e s . It s urban p a t t e r n was d e l i b e r a t e l y planned by C o l o n e l Moody and has remained almost i n t a c t . The pl a n c o n t a i n s monu-mental c r o s s axes, w i t h the c a p i t a l b u i l d i n g s i n the ce n t r e , surrounded by a g r i d p a t t e r n o f long, s l i m b l o c k s . Although the c a p i t a l was moved to V i c t o r i a i n 1868 and the government b u i l d i n g s were never c o n s t r u c t e d i n New Westminster, the C i t y developed w i t h i n Moody's p l a n . The Downtown s t i l l c o n t a i n s many t u r n o f the c e n t u r y b u i l d i n g s and i t s h i s t o r i c sense of p l a c e i s h i g h l y 1 valued by i t s c i t i z e n s ; however, the core has experienced a d e c l i n e i n i t s r e g i o n a l importance as a commercial c e n t r e and i t s b u i l t space i s d e t e r i o r a t i n g . The redevelopment which i s proposed fo r the area i s a r e s u l t o f i t s d e s i g n a t i o n as a Regiona l Town Centre on the ALRT l i n e . Because of the plans f o r redevelopment, i t i s important t h a t New Westminster a c t q u i c k l y to ensure that i t s h i s t o r i c sense of p l a c e i s preserved and helps i n the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the area. The Downtown i s i d e n t i f i a b l e as a d i s t r i c t w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r c i t y due t o i t s c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f commercial uses, unique geography, and h i s t o r i c b u i l d i n g s , but w i t h i n t h i s d i s t r i c t a r e nodes o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f p a r t i c u l a r uses w h i c h pos s e s s a d i s -t i n c t i v e p h y s i c a l and h i s t o r i c c h a r a c t e r . These nodes p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r h e r i t a g e a r e a s o r p r e c i n c t s w i t h i n t h e d i s t r i c t . The h e r i t a g e p r e c i n c t s e s t a b l i s h a framework f o r e f f e c -t i v e p l a n n i n g due t o t h e i r c o n s i s t e n c y and l i m i t e d s i z e . The p r e s e r v a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e i n t h e form o f p r e c i n c t s p r o v i d e s a method o f p r e s e r v a t i o n w h i c h p r e s e r v e s t h e sense o f p l a c e and t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e environment from t h e p a s t i n t o t h e p r e s e n t and f u t u r e , r a t h e r t h a n m e r e l y p r e s e r v i n g i n d i v i d -u a l f e a t u r e s as i s o l a t e d remembrances o f some p a s t e r a . Reasons f o r H e r i t a g e P r e s e r v a t i o n A v a r i e t y o f reasons o r m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r s e x i s t f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s . 1) Sense o f p l a c e : T h i s term r e f e r s t o 1. . . t h e agglomera-t i o n o f s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h p e r m i t r e s i d e n t s t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e i r e n v i r o n s from o t h e r s , and t h e r e b y i d e n t i f y "home"' (Denhez, 1978A). The 'sense o f p l a c e ' o r c h a r a c t e r o f each community i s a r e s u l t o f h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n and the e v i d e n c e o f t h i s i s embodied i n i t s environment. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o p r e s e r v e t h i s e v i d e n c e so t h a t t h e C i t y can r e t a i n i t s unique 'sense o f p l a c e ' . 7. C o n t i n u i t y w i t h t h e P a s t : H i s t o r y i s v i t a l f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p r e s e n t and e v a l u a t i n g d i r e c t i o n s f o r t h e f u t u r e (Dobby, 1978). By c o n s e r v i n g h e r i t a g e elements i n t h e environment, a l i v i n g l i n k i s formed w i t h p a s t h i s t o r y and w i t h p r e -v i o u s s t y l e s o f development and l i v i n g . I n t h e r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g urban environment, o l d e r b u i l d i n g s and o t h e r c o n s t a n t elements add a sense o f permanence and p e r s p e c -t i v e t o our l i v e s ; t he environment can h e l p t o deepen a person's p e r c e p t i o n o f change, a l l o w i n g him t o connect t h e p a s t w i t h h i s p r e s e n t and f u t u r e (Lynch, 1972). Elements i n the environment w h i c h remain unchanged p r o v i d e a sense o f s e c u r i t y and s t a b i l i t y w h i c h adds t o the p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g o f the community ( S e e l i g , 1974). ' I t ' s when l o c a l t i m e , l o c a l p l a c e , and our own s e l v e s a r e s e c u r e t h a t we a r e ready t o f a c e c h a l l e n g e , c o m p l e x i t y , v a s t space, and the enormous f u t u r e ' (Lynch, 1972). V a r i e t y : The presence o f elements o f the p a s t adds c h a r a c -t e r and v i s u a l d i v e r s i t y t o t h e s t r e e t s c a p e , making t h e urban environment more v a r i e g a t e d and i n t e r e s t i n g (Lynch, 1981). O l d e r b u i l d i n g s p r o v i d e d i v e r s i t y i n s t y l e , c h a r -a c t e r , t e x t u r e , and s c a l e w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e s t o the c i t y ' s v i t a l i t y . The human s c a l e and r i c h n e s s o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t a i l p o ssessed by h e r i t a g e s t r u c t u r e s i s not o f t e n r e p e a t e d i n new developments (San F r a n c i s c o Department o f C i t y P l a n n i n g , 1971). 8. Landmarks: H e r i t a g e elements i n b o t h t h e n a t u r a l and b u i l t environment o f t e n a c t as landmarks o r f o c a l p o i n t s t o p r o -v i d e o r i e n t a t i o n and make the c i t y more d i s t i n c t i v e and ' r e a d a b l e ' (Fenton, 1977). E d u c a t i o n : H e r i t a g e elements p r e s e r v e d i n t h e i r s e t t i n g can s e r v e an e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e by making h i s t o r y more e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d and a p p r e c i a t e d . O f t e n , e x p e r i e n c i n g a c t u a l environments and f u n c t i o n i n g b u i l d i n g s can be a more r e w a r d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e t h a n s i m p l y l o o k i n g a t p i c t u r e s i n t e x t b o o k s o r a r t i f a c t s b e h i n d g l a s s i n muse-ums. H e r i t a g e s t r u c t u r e s i n t h e i r s e t t i n g can t e a c h 'something fundamental about t h e s o c i e t y w h i c h e r e c t e d th e s t r u c t u r e i n q u e s t i o n and thus about t h e dynamics o f our own s o c i e t y and o f c i v i l i z a t i o n i t s e l f ' (Denhez, 1978A). Energy C o n s e r v a t i o n : A n o t h e r case f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n i s energy: i m p o r t a n t i n t h e d e c i s i o n t o r e c y c l e i n s t e a d o f r e b u i l d . The r e s i d u a l v a l u e o f energy b u i l t i n t o o l d c i t i e s i s enormous, packed i n t o s t r e e t s , u t i l i t i e s , and b u i l d i n g s : 1) time energy — m a n i f o l d i n d i v i d u a l d e c i -s i o n s o v e r a p e r i o d o f development and use; 2) n a t u r a l and human energy i n v e s t e d i n m a t e r i a l s and a r t i s a n s h i p ; 3) k i n e t i c energy o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and f u e l r e q u i r e d . T h i s i s t h e energy c o n t e n t o f a c i t y . Energy i s wasted when any o l d b u i l d i n g i s p u l l e d down. (Weese, 1976). I t i s w a s t e f u l t o d e m o l i s h s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h can s t i l l be put t o good economic use and t o d e m o l i s h b e a u t i f u l o r unique s t r u c t u r e s when an abundant s u p p l y o f v a c a n t l o t s i s a v a i l a b l e . New b u i l d i n g s a r e b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h t h e e x p e c t a t i o n o f d e m o l i t i o n w i t h i n a g e n e r a t i o n , d i s -c o u r a g i n g p r o p e r c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance; t h u s , 'waste m u l t i p l i e s w a s t e ' (Denhez, 1978A). P r o j e c t C o s t s : I t has become ap p a r e n t , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h a t r e t a i n i n g o l d e r s t r u c t u r e s by a d a p t i n g them t o a new use has r e a l economic b e n e f i t s , i n c l u d i n g p o t e n t i a l c o s t s a v i n g s d u r i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d (Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , 1978). A d a p t i v e r e - u s e p r o j e c t s can be somewhat u n p r e d i c t a b l e i n c o s t i n g b u t t h e y can a l s o prove t o be e x c e p t i o n a l l y p r o f i t a b l e ( G a i t , 1976B)'; A d a p t i v e r e - u s e i s the term w h i c h r e f e r s t o f i n d i n g new uses f o r o l d b u i l d i n g s . These b u i l d i n g s a r e o f t e n s t r u c -t u r a l l y sound and because t h e i r main h e r i t a g e v a l u e i s i n t h e i r a e s t h e t i c r o l e i n the s t r e e t s c a p e , t h e i r i n t e r i o r can o f t e n be a l t e r e d e x t e n s i v e l y ( F i t c h , 1982). A c c o r d i n g t o a s t u d y o f t h e r e l a t i v e c o s t s o f o l d and new b u i l t space ( A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on H i s t o r i c P r e s e r v a -t i o n , 1976), a d a p t i v e r e - u s e o f f e r s s e v e r a l advantages o v e r new c o n s t r u c t i o n : a) a d a p t i v e r e - u s e p r o j e c t s g e n e r a l l y t a k e l e s s c a p i -t a l t o s t a r t and l e s s t i m e t o complete, thu s a s m a l l e r i n v e s t m e n t i s t i e d up f o r a s h o r t e r p e r i o d o f time b e f o r e r e t u r n s s t a r t t o come i n on t h e i n v e s t m e n t ; b) a d a p t i v e r e - u s e p r o j e c t s a r e l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e ( u s i n g l e s s heavy machinery and e x p e n s i v e s t r u c -t u r a l m a t e r i a l s ) , o f t e n r e d u c i n g c o s t s t o t h e 10. d e v e l o p e r and p r o d u c i n g s o c i a l b e n e f i t s t h r o u g h r e s o u r c e c o n s e r v a t i o n and employment o f a p r o p o r -t i o n a t e l y h i g h e r number o f w o r k e r s ; c) o l d e r b u i l d i n g s a r e o f t e n v e r y w e l l b u i l t and o f f e r a m e n i t i e s (such as t h i c k w a l l s , windows w h i c h open, h i g h c e i l i n g s , c a r e f u l c o n s t r u c t i o n , and l a v i s h d e c o r a t i o n ) w h i c h cannot u s u a l l y be o f f e r e d by new development. The s t u d y shows t h a t w h i l e t h e a d a p t i v e r e - u s e p r o j e c t s a r e n o t always l e s s c o s t l y t h a n new c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e average c o s t s o f b o t h t y p e s o f p r o j e c t f a l l i n t o t h e same range. B e n e f i t s t o P r i v a t e Owners : The b e n e f i t s t o t h e owner o f a h e r i t a g e p r o p e r t y a r e found i n : a) t h e i n c r e a s e d p r o p e r t y v a l u e s w h i c h r e s u l t from the p r o p e r t y b e i n g improved; b) t h e t a x c o n c e s s i o n s w h i c h t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y may g r a n t when t h e p r o p e r t y i s d e s i g n a t e d ; and c) t h e p r e s t i g e w h i c h may come from c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e c i t y ' s h e r i t a g e . A d j a c e n t owners a l s o b e n e f i t from r a i s e d p r o p e r t y v a l u e s and may be encouraged t o improve t h e i r own p r o p e r t y (Fenton, 1977). M u n i c i p a l Revenues and Expenses: R e n o v a t i o n o f o l d e r b u i l d -i n g s , r a t h e r t h a n d e m o l i t i o n and new c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t e n r e q u i r e s t h e p r o v i s i o n o f fewer s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y (Fenton, 1977). 11. In a d d i t i o n , the r i s e i n r e a l e s t a t e v a l u e s f o r r e n o -v a t e d p r o p e r t y w i l l r e s u l t i n an i n c r e a s e i n revenues from p r o p e r t y t a x e s ( C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t -ment, 1973). F o r example, 'tax revenue from Vancouver's Gastown, on t h e s o u t h s i d e o f Water S t r e e t where e x t e n s i v e r e n o v a t i o n was completed between 1965 and 1971, saw a b o o s t o f 8 1 % i n t h o s e s i x y e a r s ' ( G a i t , 1976B). By making some fundamental changes i n t a x laws, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s government has succeeded i n making r e n o v a -t i o n more e c o n o m i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e and has p r e c i p i t a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t upsurge i n t h e b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y . ' S t u d i e s s u g g e s t t h a t r e n o v a t i o n may p o t e n t i a l l y c r e a t e 66% more j o b s than new c o n s t r u c t i o n ' and t h a t l o n g - t e r m economic growth w i l l r e s u l t from and o f f s e t t h e s h o r t - t e r m c o n c e s -s i o n s t o r e n o v a t o r s (Denhez, 1983). The Canadian g o v e r n -ment has been s t u d y i n g p r o p o s a l s f o r c r e a t i n g s i m i l a r changes f o r o v e r f i v e y e a r s b u t has not y e t i n t r o d u c e d t a x i n c e n t i v e s f o r r e n o v a t i o n . 10) T o u r i s m : The p r e s ence o f h e r i t a g e s i t e s o r s t r u c t u r e s i n a community a t t r a c t s v i s i t o r s , w h i c h may s t i m u l a t e new b u s i -ness o p p o r t u n i t i e s and employment. In New O r l e a n s , f o r example, the V i e u x C a r r e , t h e c i t y ' s h i s t o r i c F r e n c h q u a r t e r , g e n e r a t e s a n n u a l t o u r i s t revenues e s t i m a t e d a t o v e r $200 m i l l i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e 1971 Canadian T r a v e l Survey, 29% o f Canadian t o u r i s t s p e n d i n g i s a t t r i b -u t a b l e t o t o u r i s t s whose main a c t i v i t y i s v i s i t i n g h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l s i t e s . T h i s i s by f a r the h i g h e s t o f t h e n i n e s p e c i f i c 12. c a t e g o r i e s l i s t e d i n the s u r v e y . . . Rough e s t i m a t e s o f t h e s p i n - o f f e f f e c t o f t o u r i s t d o l l a r s a r e u s u a l l y made w i t h m u l t i p l i e r s r a n g i n g from about 1.5 t o 2.5. Thus, $100,000 i n j e c t e d i n t o a l o c a l economy i n the t o u r i s t season can mean a t o t a l o f between $150,000 and $250,000 i n r e l a t e d s a l e s , wages and t a x e s . ( G a i t , 1976A) E v o l u t i o n o f P r e s e r v a t i o n A c t i v i t y i n Canada H e r i t a g e p r e s e r v a t i o n can t r a c e i t s r o o t s back t o a n c i e n t Europe. F o r example, i n t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y , t h e Roman Emperor M a j o r i a n p r o t e c t e d t h e monuments o f pagan Rome. A thousand y e a r s l a t e r , t h e Pope gave a d e c r e e t o p r e v e n t t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e g r e a t Roman temples and b a t h s (Fenton,. 1977). P r e s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n began t o appear more commonly i n Europe i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t h e second h a l f . American p r e s e r v a t i o n a c t i v -i t y f o c u s e d on p r o t e c t i n g b u i l d i n g s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g r e a t p e o p l e o r e v ents i n t h e c o u n t r y ' s h i s t o r y , such as t h e Mount Vernon r e s t o r a t i o n begun i n 1859 ( F i t c h , 1982). H i s t o r i c p r e s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t y i n Canada began i n t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . P r e s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t y a t t h i s t i me f o l l o w e d t h e American example by c o n c e n t r a t i n g on o b j e c t s o f o u t s t a n d i n g h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e and p l a c i n g them i n museum-like s e t t i n g s ( S e e l i g , 1983). In 1919, t h e H i s t o r i c S i t e s and Monuments board was e s t a b l i s h e d t o a d v i s e on p e o p l e , p l a c e s , and events o f n a t i o n a l h i s t o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e ( L a z e a r , 1981). 13 . A f t e r t h e second w o r l d war, i n t e r e s t i n h e r i t a g e p r e s e r v a -t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d an i n c r e a s e . T h i s i n c r e a s e was g r e a t e s t d u r i n g t h e 1960's. In t h e mid-1960's, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Congress passed s t a t u t e s r e l a t i n g t o h e r i t a g e and t h e n a t u r a l environment. The e n v i r o n m e n t a l movement was p r o v i d e d w i t h a l e g a l v e h i c l e f o r i t s a c t i v i t i e s and g a i n e d p o p u l a r s u p p o r t a c r o s s b o t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. T h e i r s u c c e s s encouraged h e r i t a g e fans who began t o come t o g e t h e r i n t h e e a r l y 1970's w i t h t h e common c o n c e r n f o r p r o t e c t i o n o f the b u i l t environment (Denhez, 1978A). The energy c r i s i s i n 1973 made apparent t h e need t o change Canadians' consumption h a b i t s and encourage r e c y c l i n g a c t i v i t i e s , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e c o n t i n u e d and r i s i n g c o n c e r n w i t h c o n s e r v a t i o n and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s (Coopersmith, 1976). The H e r i t a g e Canada F o u n d a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1973 f o r t he purpose o f : . . . h o l d i n g and p r e s e r v i n g b u i l d i n g s , n a t i o n a l a r e a s , and s c e n i c l a n d s c a p e s t h a t a r e p a r t o f t h e Canadian h e r i t a g e . Under the Canada C o r p o r a t i o n s A c t , p a r t 2, Her-i t a g e Canada has t h e a u t h o r i t y t o a c q u i r e t h r o u g h purchase, d o n a t i o n , exchange, o r l e a s e h e r i t a g e b u i l d i n g s , s t r u c t u r e s , a r t i f a c t s , and l a n d s . ( F a l k n e r , 1977) At t h e ti m e o f H e r i t a g e Canada's i n c o r p o r a t i o n , Only one p r o v i n c e (Quebec) had h e r i t a g e l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d e d t o b a s i c i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e ; s i n c e then, t h e n i n e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s have passed a t l e a s t some k i n d o f h e r i t a g e l e g i s l a t i o n . Some p r o v i n c e s , such as Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a , c o n f e r r e d p r o t e c t i v e powers upon p r o v i n c i a l 14. m i n i s t e r s ; others (such as Newfoundland, P.E.I., Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, and B.C.) gave new p r o t e c t i v e powers to some of t h e i r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . (Denhez, 1978B) In B r i t i s h Columbia, not a l l of the h e r i t a g e preserva-t i o n - r e l a t e d powers were delegated to the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . For example, the province has r e t a i n e d the r i g h t t o waive b u i l d i n g and f i r e code requirements i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of h e r i t a g e b u i l d i n g s . The province a l s o requires that m u n i c i p a l i t i e s pay-some form of compensation to property owners who s u f f e r a poten-t i a l l o s s due to h e r i t a g e d e s i g n a t i o n (Lazear, 1981). The d e l e g a t i o n of these powers to the municipal l e v e l represents r e c o g n i t i o n of the streng t h of l o c a l concern f o r the pre s e r v a t i o n of i t s h e r i t a g e . Local concern and a c t i v i t y have grown tremendously over the past decade. Concern f o r neighbourhood p r e s e r v a t i o n grew as a response against massive urban renewal p r o j e c t s and the d i s l o c a t i o n of r e s i d e n t s (Carlson, 1978). P r e s e r v a t i o n a c t i v -i t y was ofte n i n i t i a t e d by l o c a l communities as a p r o t e s t of the i n t r u s i o n of roadways or h i g h r i s e development i n t o t h e i r neighbourhoods. Examples of t h i s type of a c t i o n are provided by Toronto, where the /Annex neighbourhood was saved from an expressway be c i t i z e n a c t i o n (Coopersmith, 1976) and by Van-couver, where the Gastown and Chinatown areas were saved as he r i t a g e d i s t r i c t s when threatened by a massive redevelopment p r o j e c t (Denhez, 1978A). The 1970's brought the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t h e r i t a g e i s more meaningful when preserved i n i t s n a t u r a l s e t t i n g r a t h e r than i n a museum. 15. T h i s r e a l i z a t i o n has c a r r i e d i n t o t h e 1980's and ta k e n a s t e p f u r t h e r t o f o c u s p r e s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t y on t h e c o n t i n u e d u t i l i t y o f h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s so t h a t t h e y can f u n c t i o n as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e environment ( H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n Branch, 1980). As t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n movement has become more s o p h i s t i c a t e d , t h e b e l i e f t h a t e v e r y t h i n g o l d i s good and so s h o u l d be saved i s b e i n g g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d w i t h t h e concept t h a t i t i s neces-s a r y t o make an inf o r m e d c h o i c e as t o what s h o u l d be saved ( B a r n e t t , 1982). The p a s t few y e a r s have a l s o b r o u g h t o ut t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the f u t u r e o f an i n d i v i d u a l s i t e o r monument cannot be i s o -l a t e d from i t s e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t e x t . I t i s e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o p r e s e r v e t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e s e t t i n g w h i c h frames the s i t e ( F i t c h , 1982). Thus, the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a r e a s o r d i s t r i c t s has become a major a s p e c t o f many l o c a l h e r i t a g e p l a n s . To i l l u s t r a t e t h e p o t e n t i a l o f c r e a t i n g h e r i t a g e a r e a s i n urban c o r e s , examples w i l l be used from San F r a n c i s c o , New O r l e a n s , and Vancouver. San F r a n c i s c o ' s Urban D e s i g n P l a n (San F r a n c i s c o D e p a r t -ment o f C i t y P l a n n i n g , 1971) i s p a r t o f the C i t y ' s comprehensive p l a n and o u t l i n e s ways t o a p p l y p r i n c i p l e s o f urban d e s i g n t o produce l o g i c and c o h e s i o n i n t h e p h y s i c a l form o f San F r a n -c i s c o . The Urban D e s i g n P l a n emphasizes t h e importance o f r e s p e c t f o r t h e s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e unique c h a r a c -t e r o f t h e C i t y and i t s d i s t r i c t s . The elements w h i c h make up San F r a n c i s c o ' s c h a r a c t e r a re s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f G r e a t e r 16. Vancouver, i n c l u d i n g w a t e r , h i l l s and r i d g e s , open spaces and l a n d s c a p e d a r e a s , s t r e e t s and roadways, and b u i l d i n g s and s t r u c -t u r e s . San F r a n c i s c o emphasizes the need t o combine p r e s e r v a t i o n w i t h development so t h a t t h e C i t y can c o n t i n u e t o change and e v o l v e . To t h i s end, o u t s t a n d i n g and unique a r e a s r e q u i r e s p e c i a l p l a n n i n g . Some areas may be more f o r t u n a t e l y endowed t h a n o t h e r s , however, w i t h unique c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s f o r w h i c h t h e C i t y i s famous i n t h e w o r l d a t l a r g e . Where areas a r e so o u t -s t a n d i n g , they ought t o be s p e c i a l l y r e c o g -n i z e d i n urban d e s i g n p l a n n i n g and p r o t e c t e d , i f t h e need a r i s e s , from i n c o n s i s t e n t new development t h a t might up s e t t h e i r unique c h a r a c t e r . These a r e a s do not have b u i l d i n g s o f u n i f o r m age and d i s t i n c t i o n , o r i n d i v i d u a l f e a t u r e s t h a t can be r e a d i l y s i n g l e d out f o r p r e s e r -v a t i o n . I t i s t h e c o m b i n a t i o n and e l o q u e n t i n t e r p l a y o f b u i l d i n g s , l a n d s c a p i n g , t o p o g -raphy and o t h e r a t t r i b u t e s t h a t makes them o u t s t a n d i n g . For t h a t r e a s o n , s p e c i a l r e v i e w o f b u i l d i n g p r o p o s a l s may be r e q u i r e d t o a s s u r e c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h t h e b a s i c c h a r -a c t e r and s c a l e o f t h e a r e a . (San F r a n c i s c o Department o f C i t y P l a n n i n g , 1971) The V i e u x C a r r e i s the h i s t o r i c c o r e o f New O r l e a n s . I t o r i g i n a l l y formed the whole o f t h e C i t y l a i d o u t i n 1717 and i s now l o c a t e d i n t h e h e a r t o f t h e C i t y , i m m e d i a t e l y a d j o i n i n g t h e C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t . The V i e u x C a r r e has been p r o t e c t e d s i n c e 193 7 as an h i s -t o r i c d i s t r i c t , b u t u n t i l the 1960's no p l a n e x i s t e d f o r p r e -s e r v i n g t h e o l d F r e n c h Q u a r t e r . In 1968, a p l a n was d e s i g n e d i n response t o some s e r i o u s d i s r u p t i o n by t h e f o r c e s o f change. The p l a n proposes 'a system o f a n a l y s i s and a p r o c e s s o f h i s t o r i c p r e s e r v a t i o n t o accommodate th e V i e u x C a r r e t o change w h i l e i n s u r i n g t h e con-t i n u a t i o n o f the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t ' s i d e n t i t y , d i v e r s i t y , and a u t h e n t i c i t y ' (New O r l e a n s , Bureau o f Governmental R e s e a r c h , 1968) . Because 'the g e n i u s o f t h e V i e u x C a r r e i s t o be found i n i t s e n v i r o n m e n t a l u n i t y ' , the c o n c e p t o f 'tout ensemble' was adopted t o d i r e c t p r e s e r v a t i o n e f f o r t s a t the sum t o t a l e f f e c t ( b u i l d i n g s p l u s e n v i r o n m e n t ) . The i n t e r r e l a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s has more s i g -n i f i c a n c e t o t h e concept o f t h e t o u t ensemble t h a n t h e i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g s t h e m s e l v e s . The V i e u x C a r r e p o s s e s s e s r e l a t i v e l y few s t r u c -t u r e s o f o u t s t a n d i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l q u a l i t y . But a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o m b i n a t i o n s . . . c r e a t e a s e r i e s o f s t r o n g v i s u a l images t h a t c o n t r i b u t e q u a l i t y t o t h e Q u a r t e r ' s v i v i d sense o f p l a c e . (New O r l e a n s , Bureau o f Governmental R e s e a r c h , 1968).. The V i e u x C a r r e p l a n a l s o emphasizes the importance o f u s i n g p r e s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g t o c h a n n e l change, so t h a t h i s t o r y can be seen t o be .continuous, t h e p a s t c o n t i n u i n g i n t o t h e f u t u r e . I n Vancouver, t h e Gastown h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t i s l o c a t e d n e x t t o t h e downtown a r e a o f the C i t y . I t i s the l o c a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l s i t e o f a community formed i n 1867 around a s a l o o n owned by 'Gassy J a c k ' D e i g h t o n . The t o w n s i t e was surveyed i n 1870 and o f f i c i a l l y named G r a n v i l l e by t h e government bu t t h e community p e r s i s t e d i n c a l l i n g i t Gastown. As t h e C i t y expanded, t h e b u s i n e s s community c o n c e n t r a t e d i n what i s p r e s e n t l y t h e C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t and Gastown began t o d e t e r i o r a t e , g a i n i n g a r e p u t a t i o n f o r h o u s i n g Vancou-v e r 1 s ' s k i d - r o a d e r s ' . 18. When P r o j e c t 200 was proposed i n 1967 and t h r e a t e n e d Gas-town's replacement by a major commercial development ( L a z e a r , 1981), t h e p u b l i c r e a c t e d s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t t h e p r o p o s a l . T h i s r e a c t i o n e v e n t u a l l y c o n v i n c e d C i t y C o u n c i l t o r e q u e s t t h e Prov-i n c e t o d e s i g n a t e Gastown as an h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t i n 1971. Gastown r e p r e s e n t s t h e p i o n e e r b e g i n n i n g s o f Vancouver and i t s environment p r o v i d e s v i s u a l i n t e r e s t and v a r i e t y i n o l d b u i l d i n g s . Today, Gastown i s a t h r i v i n g c o mmercial a r e a , a t t r a c t i n g b o t h t o u r i s t s and l o c a l shoppers. The improvements c a r r i e d out on t h e b u i l d i n g s , l a n d s c a p i n g , and s t r e e t and s i d e w a l k d e s i g n have a l s o i n c r e a s e d p r o p e r t y v a l u e s i n the a r e a (Denhez, 1978A). Study Approach The case s t u d y o f p l a n n i n g f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n i n Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r i s approached by f i r s t i d e n t i f y i n g t h e a r e a ' s h i s t o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e and t h e unique elements w h i c h make up i t s sense o f p l a c e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o e s t a b l i s h what elements a r e ' f i x e d ' and what can be changed w i t h o u t t h r e a t e n i n g t h e e s s e n t i a l c h a r -a c t e r o f t h e a r e a . The e x t e n t and magnitude o f p o s s i b l e f u t u r e changes s h o u l d a l s o be examined t o d e t e r m i n e t h e b e s t way t o accommodate change w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g t h e a r e a ' s e s s e n t i a l c h a r -a c t e r . 19. H e r i t a g e p r e c i n c t s a r e i d e n t i f i e d t o a c t as t h e framework f o r managing change t h r o u g h p r e s e r v a t i o n . A v a r i e t y o f s t r a t e g i e s a r e proposed t o c a r r y out p r e s e r -v a t i o n a c t i v i t y as i t r e l a t e s t o t h e g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s o f the Downtown P l a n f o r P r e s e r v a t i o n . F i n a l l y , t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s and s o l u t i o n s r e v e a l e d by t h e case s t u d y a r e d i c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n i n comparable s i t u a t i o n s . S e c t i o n I I : The Case o f Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r 20. H i s t o r i c a l Background In 1858, the m a i n l a n d c o l o n y o f B r i t i s h Columbia was founded and i t s c a p i t a l e s t a b l i s h e d a t New W e s t m i n s t e r . T h i s d a t e a l s o marked th e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e g o l d r u s h w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n a l a r g e i n f l u x o f m iners i n t o t h e c o l o n y from San F r a n c i s c o . Governor James Douglas was u n d e r s t a n d a b l y concerned when thousands o f miners descended on V i c t o r i a on t h e i r way t o t h e F r a s e r R i v e r . He i m m e d i a t e l y gave d i r e c t i o n s f o r the l a y i n g o ut o f towns a t F o r t Hope and F o r t Y a l e i n an attempt t o p r e -v e n t s q u a t t i n g and e s t a b l i s h a permanent w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n . The Governor a l s o s e n t a d i s p a t c h t o t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e r e q u e s t i n g m i l i t a r y p r o t e c t i o n t o c o u n t e r b a l a n c e t h e Americans and t h e i r ' M a n i f e s t D e s t i n y ' (Wiesman, 1969). In response t o t h i s r e q u e s t , the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e s e n t a detachment o f c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d R o y a l E n g i n e e r s , headed by C o l o n e l R.C. Moody, t o a s s i s t i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e c o l o n y . I t was a p i c k e d body — s e l e c t e d out o f a l a r g e number o f v o l u n t e e r s f o r t h i s s e r v i c e ; and chosen w i t h t h e v i e w o f h a v i n g i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r r a nks e v e r y t r a d e , p r o f e s s i o n , and c a l l i n g w h i c h might be u s e f u l i n t h e c i r c u m -s t a n c e s o f a c o l o n y s p r i n g i n g so s u d d e n l y i n t o e x i s t e n c e as B.C. had done. (Howay, 1910) The detachment i n c l u d e d s u r v e y o r s , e n g i n e e r s , draughtsmen, a r c h i t e c t s , a c c o u n t a n t s , c a r p e n t e r s , masons, and members o f a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s (Wiesman, 1969). The i n t e n t i o n o f Moody and t h e R o y a l E n g i n e e r s was t o 21. c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h t h e B r i t i s h p resence i n the c o l o n i e s and t o e s t a b l i s h a new c a p i t a l , s e a p o r t , and m i l i t a r y h e a d q u a r t e r s on the mainland c o l o n y . P r i o r t o Moody's a r r i v a l , Douglas had u n o f f i c i a l l y s e l e c t e d L a n g l e y t o be the c a p i t a l b u t was o b l i g e d by t h e C o l o -n i a l O f f i c e t o a w a i t Moody's a d v i c e . Moody f e l t t h a t L a n g l e y ' s p o s i t i o n on the s o u t h s i d e o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r l e f t i t i n an exposed p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e Americans (who were t h e enemy a t t h a t t i m e ) . He a d v i s e d t h a t t h e new c a p i t a l be l o c a t e d on t h e h i g h ground f a r t h e r down the r i v e r on i t s n o r t h bank f o r m i l i t a r y reasons and f o r i t s s u i t a b i l i t y t o a c t as a s e a p o r t and s e a t o f government ( I r e l a n d , 1960). C o l o n e l Moody chose th e s i t e t o s e t up h i s m i l i t a r y head-q u a r t e r s and t o s e r v e as t h e new c a p i t a l . H i s reasons a r e sum-ma r i z e d i n h i s r e p o r t t o D o u g l a s : The s i t e w h i c h appears t o be b e s t adapted f o r t h e c a p i t a l o f B r i t i s h Columbia i s about t e n m i l e s below th e new town o f L a n g l e y , and on t h e n o r t h bank o f t h e F r a s e r . I t i s t h e f i r s t h i g h ground on t h e n o r t h s i d e a f t e r e n t e r i n g t h e r i v e r , and i s about twenty m i l e s above th e Sand Heads. There i s abundance o f room and c o n v e n i e n c e f o r e v e r y r e q u i s i t e i n a s e a p o r t and the c a p i t a l o f a g r e a t c o u n t r y . There a r e g r e a t f a c i l i t i e s f o r communication by w a t e r , as w e l l as by f u t u r e g r e a t t r u n k r a i l w a y s i n t o t h e i n t e r i o r . There i s good l a n d f o r garden ground, i f one may judge by the f o r e s t and r i c h meadow l a n d s s u r r o u n d i n g i t . I t i s r a i s e d above the p e r i -o d i c a l f l o o d s , and y e t t h e low l a n d s a r e c l o s e a d j o i n i n g and e a s i l y made a v a i l a b l e . (These w i l l be most c o v e t e d as c o m m e r c i a l s i t e s , docks, quays, e t c . ) As a m i l i t a r y p o s i t i o n i t i s r a r e t o f i n d one so s i n g u l a r l y s t r o n g by n a t u r e , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h i t s a d a p t a t i o n as t h e c a p i t a l o f a c o u n t r y . In r e f e r e n c e t o the a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e a c t u a l s p o t i t s e l f f o r a c i t y o f magni-tud e , I might add, t h a t t h e r e i s deep w a t e r 2 2 . c l o s e a l o n g an extended l i n e o f s h o r e ; ocean-g o i n g v e s s e l s o f any burden can moor c l o s e t o the bank, p l e n t y o f w a t e r f o r s u p p l y o f house-h o l d purposes, and good d r a i n a g e . (Woodland, 1973) Douglas/ g r u d g i n g l y agreed t o a c c e p t Moody's a d v i c e b u t when t h e new c a p i t a l was named, Queen V i c t o r i a was c a l l e d upon t o s e t t l e a d i s p u t e between Douglas and Moody (Queensborough v e r s u s Queenborough). In May 1859, t h e Queen p r o c l a i m e d t h a t t h e new c a p i t a l would be c a l l e d New W e s t m i n s t e r (Smith, 1958). C o l o n e l Moody planned t h e l a y o u t o f t h e new c a p i t a l w i t h a l a t i n c r o s s as t h e c e n t r a l f o c u s (see F i g u r e 1 ) . T h i s use o f monumental axes was common i n t h e d e s i g n o f c a p i t a l c i t i e s as an e x p r e s s i o n o f power. As New W e s t m i n s t e r was l a i d o u t , t h e major a x i s c u t s the topography, thus e m p h a s i z i n g t h e symbol and r e i n f o r c i n g t h e sense o f o r d e r , s t a b i l i t y , and awe. The axes and r e g u l a r g r i d p a t t e r n o f s t r e e t s d a t e s back t o urban s e t t l e -ments as e a r l y as 450 A.D., such a T e o t i h u a c a n i n Mesoamerica (Lynch, 1981). In many c o l o n i a l towns, the i n t e n t was t o p r o v i d e a s m a l l space o f f a m i l i a r o r d e r i n an a l i e n environment. The towns were d e l i b e r a t e l y p l a n n e d , q u i c k l y b u i l t , and s h a r p l y d e f i n e d from t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s ; t h e l a y o u t p r o v i d e d a s i m p l e o r d e r and was o f t e n f u l l o f c o n s e r v a t i v e symbols o f home. The common p a t t e r n was l o n g , s l i m b l o c k s , s e p a r a t e d by narrow f e e d e r s t r e e t s w h i c h j o i n e d w i d e r main s t r e e t s a t r i g h t a n g l e s . T h i s s i m p l e p a t t e r n a l s o f a c i l i t a t e d r a p i d l a n d development. Many N o r t h American c i t i e s b u i l t d u r i n g t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y e x h i b i t t h e s e f e a -t u r e s (Lynch, 1981). (1) The f i r s t ocean-going vessel to enter the Fraser River, c. 1860. (New Westminster Public Library) (2) The f i r s t treasury, assay o f f i c e and mint in New Westminster, 1862; these i n s t i t u -tions lasted only u n t i l the c a p i t a l moved to V i c t o r i a i n 1868. (New Westminster Public Library) F i g u r e 1; V i c t o r i a n Symbolism i n Moody's P l a n o f New Westminster ( M i l l e r , 1984). 2 5 . Moody's p l a n f o r New W e s t m i n s t e r i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e c o l o n i a l town p a t t e r n d e s c r i b e d above, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e way t h a t t h e r e p e t i t i v e g r i d p a t t e r n was a p p l i e d w i t h o u t r e g a r d f o r the topography. In Moody's o r i g i n a l p l a n f o r t h e c a p i t a l , as one approached the c i t y from t h e r i v e r , t h e A n g l i c a n Church was c e n t r a l w i t h gardens and o f f i c e s b e h i n d l e a d i n g up t h e h i l l t o t h e c a p i t a l b u i l d i n g s . Thus, t h e topography would a c t t o emphasize the dom-ina n c e o f t h e s e a t o f government and Anglo-Saxon home c h u r c h . The s e c t i o n o f the p l a n i n t h e lo w e r r i g h t c o r n e r o f t h e c r o s s (shown i n F i g u r e 1) was i n t e n d e d f o r 'upper c l a s s ' hous-i n g , l e a v i n g t h e west end o f t h e w a t e r f r o n t p a s t E l l i c e S t r e e t (now Tenth S t r e e t ) f o r t h e 'lower c l a s s ' and Chinese i n h a b i t a n t s . The c e n t r a l s e c t i o n was i n t e n d e d f o r comm e r c i a l uses and t h e o r i g i n a l docks and Customs House fo c u s e d a c t i v i t y i n f r o n t o f the Merchant Square (now t h e f o o t o f E i g h t h S t r e e t ) . The t a s k o f c l e a r i n g t h e l a n d and s u r v e y i n g and l a y i n g out t h e g r i d on t h e s t e e p topography was c a r r i e d out by Moody and t h e Sappers, a s s i s t e d by c i v i l i a n s u r v e y o r s . Of t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h a t l a b o u r , no one unac-q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f c l e a r i n g bush as i t e x i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia can form any a c c u r a t e c o n c e p t i o n . F e l l i n g t h e t r e e s forms b u t a s m a l l p a r t o f i t . When th e y a r e down they a r e too l a r g e t o be removed, and t h e y have t o be sawn and c u t up i n t o b l o c k s handy f o r removal o r b u r n i n g . That done, t h e h a r d e s t work remains. I n f o r e s t s such as t h e s e t h e r o o t s o f t h e g i a n t t r e e s have been s p r e a d i n g underground f o r ages, f o r m i n g a c l o s e and p e r f e c t network some e i g h t o r t e n f e e t beneath t h e s u r f a c e . (Woodland, 1973) 26. The New W e s t m i n s t e r M u n i c i p a l A c t o f 1860 p r o c l a i m e d the C i t y ' s i n c o r p o r a t i o n , t h e f i r s t i n t h e B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y west o f the G r e a t Lakes ( I r e l a n d , 1960). W i t h t h e boom caused by the g o l d r u s h , New W e s t m i n s t e r g r a d u a l l y became a ' b u s t l i n g l i t t l e town ' b u t when t h e boom began t o wane, th e mainland c o l o n y was f o r c e d t o u n i t e w i t h Vancouver I s l a n d i n 1866 t o reduce g o v e r n m e n t a l expenses ( I r e l a n d , 1960). The u n i t e d c o l o n y was c a l l e d B r i t i s h Columbia and New W e s t m i n s t e r was d e c l a r e d i t s f i r s t c a p i t a l . A f t e r two y e a r s o f b i t t e r d i s p u t e , t h e c a p i t a l was t r a n s -f e r r e d t o V i c t o r i a i n 1868 w i t h t h e main argument b e i n g t h a t 'the F r a s e r R i v e r was f u l l o f sandbars and snags and not s u i t a b l e f o r o ceangoing s h i p s , whereas V i c t o r i a had a f i n e open h a r b o u r ' (Woodland, 1973). Even though t h e c a p i t a l was moved i n 1868 and no major c a p i t a l b u i l d i n g s were e v e r c o n s t r u c t e d i n New W e s t m i n s t e r , t h e p a t t e r n o f s t r e e t s l a i d out by C o l o n e l Moody has remained a l m o s t i n t a c t . The p a t t e r n o f uses a l s o remained as t h e C i t y d e v e l o p e d and t h e commercial a r e a i s now commonly r e f e r r e d t o as t h e C i t y ' s downtown. In 1868, w i t h i t s p o p u l a t i o n o f 500, New W e s t m i n s t e r d i d not g i v e up and a f t e r 1871, C o n f e d e r a t i o n b r o u g h t t h e hope o f a t r a n s - c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l r o a d ; however, i n 1887, t h e Canadian P a c i -f i c R a i l w a y d e c i d e d t o bypass New W e s t m i n s t e r and l o c a t e d i t s t e r m i n u s on t h e B u r r a r d I n l e t a t Vancouver (Woodland, 1973). But New W e s t m i n s t e r c o n t i n u e d t o grow and by t h e 1890's i t had e s t a b l i s h e d a f i r m i n d u s t r i a l base. I t opened i t s f i r s t 27. p u b l i c market i n 1892 t o s e r v e as a m a r k e t i n g c e n t r e f o r farms t h r o u g h o u t t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y . I t s growth was f o s t e r e d i n 1891 by t h e e n t r y o f t h e G r e a t N o r t h e r n R a i l w a y and i n 1892 by t h e o p e ning o f t h e i n t e r u r b a n e l e c t r i c r a i l w a y l i n k w i t h Vancouver ( I r e l a n d , 1960). By t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , t h e C i t y a l s o had a p e n i t e n t i a r y and an i n s a n e asylum, b o t h marks o f n a t i o n a l d i s -i n c t i o n a t t h a t t i m e . I n 1898, however, t r a g e d y s t r u c k as f i r e d e s t r o y e d a l m o s t o n e - t h i r d o f t h e C i t y , i n c l u d i n g t h e e n t i r e b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t and c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a (Woodland, 1973). O f f e r s o f a s s i s t a n c e came from many areas o f t h e c o u n t r y and t h e C i t y began t o r e b u i l d i m m e d i a t e l y and w i t h amazing r a p i d i t y . The f i r s t decade o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y marked a f e v e r -i s h boom i n c o n s t r u c t i o n and b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y and New Westmin-s t e r c o n t i n u e d t o grow as a major c e n t r e o f t r a d e , s e r v i n g t h e i n t e r i o r and F r a s e r V a l l e y (New W e s t m i n s t e r P l a n n i n g Department, 1982). As Vancouver grew i t g r a d u a l l y took o v e r th e dominant p o s i t i o n i n t h e 1920's, b u t even i n t o t h e 1940's New Westmin-s t e r ' s Columbia S t r e e t was known as t h e 'Golden M i l e ' ( C h a s t e r , 1984). D u r i n g t h e 1950's, the Downtown began t o e x p e r i e n c e a d e c l i n e i n i t s r e g i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e . S e v e r a l f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t s d e c l i n e : 1) r e g i o n a l s hopping m a l l s such as M i d d l e g a t e , B r e n t -wood, and l a t e r G u i l d f o r d , began t o draw shoppers away from Columbia S t r e e t ; (3) Columbia S t r e e t a f t e r t h e f i r e i n 1898. (New W e s t m i n s t e r P u b l i c L i b r a r y ) (4) The f i r s t b r i d g e t o c r o s s t h e F r a s e r R i v e r was b u i l t i n 1904. (New Westminster P u b l i c L i b r a r y ) 29. 2) a f t e r 1955, Woodward's l o c a t e d i t s new s t o r e uptown ( S i x t h and S i x t h ) and o t h e r i n v e s t m e n t began t o con-c e n t r a t e i n t h i s a r e a ; 3) freeway a c c e s s r o u t e s bypassed New W e s t m i n s t e r com-p l e t e l y ; and 4) a c c e s s i b l e l a n d became a v a i l a b l e i n o t h e r a r e a s , such as N o r t h Burnaby, P o r t Moody, C o q u i t l a m , P o r t C o q u i t l a m , and S u r r e y , and t h e s e a r e a s began t o t a k e up t h e r e g i o n ' s p o p u l a t i o n growth (Hardwick, 1974). The d e c l i n e o f t h e Downtown has c o n t i n u e d and i s r e f l e c t e d by the e x i s t e n c e o f a major p r o p o r t i o n o f v a c a n t , underdeveloped, and d e r e l i c t p r o p e r t y . In 1976, t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t (GVRD) proposed i t s L i v e a b l e Region P l a n i n an attempt t o r a t i o n a l i z e the development i n t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a . The L i v e a b l e Region P l a n emphasizes t h e development o f s e v e r a l R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e s , t h e purpose b e i n g t o : . . . b r i n g j o b s , s h o p p i n g and c u l t u r a l oppor-t u n i t i e s c l o s e r t o where peop l e l i v e . Decen-t r a l i z a t i o n t o t h e s e c e n t r e s o f some o f t h e o f f i c e growth t h a t o t h e r w i s e w i l l l o c a t e i n downtown Vancouver w i l l g r e a t l y reduce t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n problems. The aim, t h e r e f o r e , i s t o c r e a t e l i v e l y and d i v e r s e urban p l a c e s w h i c h ar e a t t r a c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e s t o downtown. ( G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , 1976) Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r was d e s i g n a t e d by t h e GVRD as h a v i n g t h e h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y f o r development as a R e g i o n a l Town Cen t r e (New W e s t m i n s t e r C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, 1978) and t h e C i t y C o u n c i l has endorsed the c o n c e p t . New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s downtown was s e l e c t e d because i t i s 30. a l r e a d y c l o s e t o t h e s i z e o f a R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e as d e f i n e d by the GVRD — t h a t i s , i t i s c l o s e t o the s i z e o f s e l f - s u f f i -c i e n c y (GVRD, 1976). S i n c e i t i s t h e second l a r g e s t commercial c e n t r e i n t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver r e g i o n , t h e n e c e s s a r y i n f r a -s t r u c t u r e i s a l r e a d y i n p l a c e . The C i t y a l s o has a w e l l - d e v e l -oped sense o f community and po s s e s s e s a wide range o f community s e r v i c e s and a m e n i t i e s . The l o c a t i o n o f t h e C i t y was a l s o a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n i t s s e l e c t i o n as a R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e . I t i s l o c a t e d a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f major r e g i o n a l highways and i s t h e f o c a l p o i n t f o r t h e ALRT l i n e s from S u r r e y , Burnaby, and Vancouver. The Downtown's l o c a t i o n i s , t h e r e f o r e , p o t e n t i a l l y s t r a t e g i c t o r e g a i n some o f i t s p a s t importance as a major a c t i v i t y c e n t r e t o t he r e g i o n (see F i g u r e 2 ) . The r o u t e t h r o u g h New W e s t m i n s t e r w i l l run a l o n g t h e C o l u m b i a / F r o n t S t r e e t a x i s w i t h s t a t i o n s a t E i g h t h and Carnarvon and a t F o u r t h and C l a r k s o n . A 1977 s t u d y , e n t i t l e d A R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e f o r New  We s t m i n s t e r , r e v e a l e d t h a t the Downtown's unique w a t e r f r o n t l o c a t i o n p r o v i d e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r something d i f f e r e n t t o happen i n t h e a r e a . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f major r e s i d e n t i a l de-velopment a l o n g t h e w a t e r f r o n t , a l o n g w i t h t h e t r a n s i t l i n k , c o u l d expand t h e p o t e n t i a l market f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l downtown uses ( r e t a i l , s e r v i c e , o f f i c e ) . I t i s hoped t h a t t h e r e c e n t l y completed Law C o u r t s and Douglas C o l l e g e complex w i l l a c t as s t r o n g a t t r a c t i v e f o r c e s t o s t i m u l a t e t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s downtown c o r e and t o r e e s t a b l i s h i t as an i m p o r t a n t r e g i o n a l c e n t r e . LEGEND First and second phase. ALRT Elevated Tunnel At Grade Planned Extensions Possible Future Routes Stations: (U) — underground - 2 (E) = elevated • 12 18 total (G) = at grade - 4 This system will be acceslble to the handicapped with escalators and elevators at underground and elevated stations. R e g i o n a l Town Ce n t r e s F i g u r e 2 : ALRT Route and L o c a t i o n s o f Proposed R e g i o n a l Town Centres ( B . C . T r a n s i t , 1 9 8 4 ) 32. The downtown a r e a i s r i c h i n h i s t o r i c a l background and unique geography. I t s s t e e p h i l l s , w a t e r f r o n t v i e w s , and h e r -i t a g e b u i l d i n g s make i t an i n t e r e s t i n g and unique p l a c e . The downtown f r o n t s on t h e F r a s e r R i v e r , p r o v i d i n g views up and down, as w e l l as a c r o s s t h e r i v e r . The l a n d r i s e s s t e e p l y from Columbia S t r e e t and i s o v e r l a i d by a g r i d p a t t e r n o f s t r e e t s , c r e a t i n g a v i s u a l l y e x c i t i n g , 'San F r a n c i s c o - l i k e ' environment. Many b u i l d i n g s i n t h e downtown d a t e from t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , such as t h e o l d Courthouse and Land R e g i s t r y O f f i c e , and two p r e - f i r e b u i l d i n g s s t i l l s t a n d a t F o u r t h S t r e e t and Columbia. The Community P l a n The C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r adopted a Community P l a n i n 1982 t o e s t a b l i s h a s t r a t e g y f o r f u t u r e development (see F i g u r e 3 ) . In t h e g o a l s o f the p l a n , the community's c o n c e r n f o r t h e C i t y ' s c h a r a c t e r , i d e n t i t y , and l i v e a b i l i t y i s made c l e a r . These g o a l s form the b a s i s f o r t h e development s t r a t e g y : — improve and enhance the p h y s i c a l environment, t h e economic base, and the l i v e a b i l i t y o f t h e C i t y ; and a t t h e same t i m e — m a i n t a i n and p r e s e r v e t h e o v e r a l l c h a r a c t e r and i d e n -t i t y o f t h e C i t y ( C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , 1982). Many o f the o b j e c t i v e s o f the Community P l a n emphasize the C i t y ' s d e s i r e t o m a i n t a i n i t s unique c h a r a c t e r and t o c o n s e r v e elements o f i t s h e r i t a g e , i n t h e b u i l t environment, as w e l l as i n v iew c o r r i d o r s , topography, and the n a t u r a l environment. The 34. f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s a r e s e t out by t h e C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r (1982) and r e f l e c t t h e community's c o n c e r n w i t h t h i s i s s u e : — d e v e l o p the community as a unique c i t y by f u l l e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f i t s l o c a t i o n a l , p h y s i c a l and h i s -t o r i c a l r e s o u r c e s ; -- s u s t a i n and p r e s e r v e t h e b a s i c c h a r a c t e r o f t h e C i t y and i t s neighbourhoods; — p r o t e c t and s a f e g u a r d s i g n i f i c a n t h i s t o r i c and h e r -i t a g e b u i l d i n g s and s i t e s ; — encourage new and a l t e r n a t i v e uses o f v a c a n t , under-d e v e l o p e d and d e r e l i c t p r o p e r t i e s ; — p r o t e c t v i e w s , encourage c r e a t i v e i n n o v a t i v e a r c h i -t e c t u r e and p r o v i d e e x t e n s i v e l a n d s c a p i n g and i m a g i -n a t i v e s t r e e t , p l a z a and open space t r e a t m e n t s ; and — encourage the c o n s e r v a t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t r e e c o v e r w i t h i n t h e community. The development s t r a t e g i e s i n c l u d e r e f e r e n c e t o v i e w p r o -t e c t i o n by r e t a i n i n g v iews t o t h e r i v e r and mountains and by d e v e l o p i n g v i e w c o r r i d o r s w i t h i n l a r g e p r o j e c t s . P r e s e r v a t i o n programmes ar e seen t o enhance the e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y o f the C i t y and t h u s a r e encouraged. The removal o f t r e e s and t o p s o i l i s n ot a l l o w e d w i t h o u t C i t y p e r m i s s i o n and the use o f covenants i s urged t o r e g u l a t e t h e removal and c u t t i n g o f t r e e c o v e r . The p r e s e r v a t i o n , i n a l l developments, o f n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s , such as c r e e k s , s t r e ams, r o c k o u t c r o p s , t o p s o i l , t r e e s , and shrubs i s encouraged. The s t r a t e g i e s a l s o i n c l u d e r e f e r e n c e t o h e r i t a g e b u i l d i n g s and s i t e s : 35. — no development, redevelopment o r a l t e r a t i o n o f s i t e s w i t h known h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e s h o u l d be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t t h e a p p r o v a l o f C i t y C o u n c i l on a d v i c e from t h e H e r i t a g e A d v i s o r y Committee. In s p e c i a l c a s e s , or u n u s u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i d e n t i f i e d h e r i t a g e s i t e s s h o u l d be d e s i g n a t e d as development p e r m i t a r e a s i n o r d e r t o i n s u r e the p r o t e c t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h o s e a r e a s . — the r e n o v a t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f d e s i g n a t e d h e r i t -age b u i l d i n g s f o r i n n o v a t i v e and i m a g i n a t i v e uses s h o u l d be encouraged ( C i t y o f New Westminster, 1982). The Downtown P l a n The Downtown Community P l a n (see F i g u r e 4) was pr e p a r e d j o i n t l y by t h e C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r and t h e F i r s t C a p i t a l C i t y Development Company, a s u b s i d i a r y o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Development C o r p o r a t i o n . The P l a n i s i n t e n d e d t o e s t a b l i s h broad s o c i a l , economic, and e n v i r o n m e n t a l g o a l s t o d i r e c t t h e development o f t h e C i t y ' s downtown a r e a . L i k e t h e Community P l a n f o r t h e whole C i t y , t h e Community P l a n f o r Downtown empha-s i z e s t h e importance o f t h e Downtown's c h a r a c t e r and h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s . Elements such as l o c a t i o n , h i s t o r y , geography, a r c h i t e c t u r e , s c a l e , w a t e r f r o n t a c c e s s , v i e w s , and n a t u r a l environment a r e i d e n t i f i e d as v a l u a b l e components i n t h e o v e r -a l l o b j e c t i v e s f o r the Downtown's development. F i g u r e 4: Main Elements of the Downtown Plan (New Westminster C i t y Planning, 1978). 37. The s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s i n c l u d e : -- d e v e l o p the a r e a as a unique R e g i o n a l C i t y C e n t r e by f u l l e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f i t s l o c a t i o n a l , p h y s i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l r e s o u r c e s ; — p r o v i d e development on a human s c a l e ; and — d e v e l o p p u b l i c a c c e s s t o t h e F r a s e r R i v e r w a t e r f r o n t a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s and c o n s t r u c t and m a i n t a i n a pub-l i c e s p l a n a d e a l o n g t h e f u l l l e n g t h o f t h e w a t e r -f r o n t w i t h i n the a r e a (New W e s t m i n s t e r C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, 1978). The economic o b j e c t i v e s i n c l u d e : -- c r e a t e an environment w h i c h encourages new d e v e l o p -ment and the r e n e w a l and r e s t o r a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s ; and -- promote v i a b l e and p o s i t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e uses f o r v a c a n t , underdeveloped and d e r e l i c t p r o p e r t y ( I b i d . ) The e n v i r o n m e n t a l o b j e c t i v e s i n c l u d e : — r e i n f o r c e and p r e s e r v e t h e C i t y ' s h e r i t a g e b u i l d i n g s and a r e a s ; — p r e s e r v e , r e s t o r e and improve on t h e use o f the unique geography o f t h e a r e a ' s w a t e r f r o n t l o c a t i o n , i t s s o u t h e r n exposure and panoramic v i e w s , and encourage t h e development o f t h e c h a r a c t e r a r e a s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s p l a n ; and -- enhance the n a t u r a l environment by p r o t e c t i n g v i e w s . . . e n c o u r a g i n g c r e a t i v e , i n n o v a t i v e and unique a r c h i t e c t u r e ( I b i d . ) . 38. S e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r a r e a s ( c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f p a r t i c u l a r uses) a r e i d e n t i f i e d by t h e Downtown P l a n (see F i g u r e 5 ) . The i d e n t i f i e d Columbia S t r e e t a r e a i s c u r r e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d as a r e t a i l s t r e e t w i t h some o f f i c e , p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e , and e n t e r t a i n -ment uses. I t i s s t r e s s e d t h a t redevelopment i n t h i s a r e a , as w e l l as any a l t e r a t i o n s o r a d d i t i o n s , must be a c c o m p l i s h e d so t h a t i t i s s y m p a t h e t i c t o the c h a r a c t e r o f t h e more a t t r a c t i v e o l d e r b u i l d i n g s . The c h a r a c t e r a r e a s a l o n g t h e w a t e r f r o n t emphasize t h e importance o f p r e s e r v i n g b o t h v i s u a l and p h y s i -c a l a c c e s s t o t h e w a t e r f r o n t . Use and d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s a r e s e t out t o g i v e d i r e c t i o n t o Downtown development. The use g u i d e l i n e s r e c o g n i z e t h e importance o f m a i n t a i n i n g t h e d i v e r s i t y o f uses w h i c h has been a t r a d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the Downtown a r e a . The d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s r e i n f o r c e t h e C i t y ' s d e s i r e t o p r o t e c t v i e w s , main-t a i n human s c a l e , c o n s e r v e h e r i t a g e b u i l d i n g s and p l a c e s , and r e t a i n elements o f t h e n a t u r a l environment i n the- Downtown, such as l a n d s c a p i n g , w a t e r f r o n t , and topography. Through d e v e l -opment o f t h e C i t y ' s unique c h a r a c t e r and h e r i t a g e , an image o r theme i s p r o v i d e d t o g i v e u n i t y t o b o t h t h e downtown a r e a and the r e s t o f t h e C i t y . R e l a t e d P l a n n i n g Documents The New W e s t m i n s t e r C i t y P l a n n i n g Department p u b l i s h e d The P r e s e r v a t i o n o f H i s t o r i c S i t e s i n 1973. T h i s document 40. o u t l i n e s the arguments f o r t h e importance o f h e r i t a g e , reasons f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n , and m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r s f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n and r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a r e a s . A r e v i e w i s p r e s e n t e d o f European, U n i t e d S t a t e s ' , and Canadian h i s t o r i c p r e s e r v a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e . The document does not d e a l w i t h New W e s t minster s p e c i f i c a l l y , b u t i s meant t o i n t r o d u c e the concept o f p r e s e r v a -t i o n so t h a t i t can be d i s c u s s e d a t a g e n e r a l l e v e l i n t h e com-munity. In A p r i l o f 1977, i n a J o i n t A c t i o n P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s , r e p -r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and the C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r met t o d i s c u s s t h e C i t y ' s p o t e n t i a l and d i r e c t i o n f o r f u t u r e changes. Important c o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i v e n t o v i e w p r e s e r v a t i o n t o t h e r i v e r , h i l l s , and mountains, h e r i t a g e p r e s e r v a t i o n i n t h e form o f h i s t o r i c s i t e s and a d a p t i v e uses o f o l d e r b u i l d i n g s , and w a t e r f r o n t a c c e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n b o t h i n v i s u a l and p h y s i c a l terms ( C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , 1977). Recommendations r e g a r d i n g a h e r i t a g e programme f o r New Westmin-s t e r were as f o l l o w s : 1) a p p o i n t a h e r i t a g e committee t o make an i n v e n t o r y and p o l i c y recommendations on h i s t o r i c s i t e s ; 2) have the p l a n n i n g department o r a c o n s u l t a n t p r e -p a r e drawings and p r e s e r v a t i o n g u i d e l i n e s f o r each s e l e c t e d h i s t o r i c s i t e ; 3) d e v e l o p a programme o f economic i n c e n t i v e s and a l e g a l framework t o ensure th e p r e s e r v a t i o n and enhancement o f s e l e c t e d s i t e s ; and 4) w r i t e and enact a p p r o p r i a t e l e g i s l a t i o n t o c o n s e r v e 41. d e s i g n a t e d s i t e s ( C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , 1977). In 1980, the C i t y p u b l i s h e d The B.C. P e n i t e n t i a r y S i t e  P r o p o s a l w h i c h p r e s e n t s some o f the co n c e p t s and i s s u e s r e g a r d -i n g t h e aims f o r the development o f t h e P e n i t e n t i a r y s i t e . The r e p o r t i d e n t i f i e s t h e h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t s o f b o t h t h e s i t e and i t s b u i l d i n g s . The s i t e was t h e o r i g i n a l campground f o r t h e Ro y a l E n g i n e e r s , l e d by C o l o n e l Moody, when they were s u r v e y i n g the t o w n s i t e and e x p l o r i n g t h e new f r o n t i e r . The P e n i t e n t i a r y b u i l d i n g s were c o n s t r u c t e d i n 1878 and gave t h e a r e a l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l and n a t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e . The H e r i t a g e A d v i s o r y Com-m i t t e e has d e s i g n a t e d t h i s s i t e t o be a h i g h p r i o r i t y a r e a and has s u b m i t t e d a n o n - p r i o r i z e d l i s t o f s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h s h o u l d be saved. I t i s hoped t h a t t h e h e r i t a g e b u i l d i n g s w i l l form th e n u c l e u s o f a f u t u r e ' c u l t u r a l - h i s t o r i c a l - c o m m e r c i a l com-p l e x ' (New We s t m i n s t e r C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, 1980). The importance o f h e r i t a g e f o r t h e community i s a l s o men-t i o n n e d i n a 1982 r e p o r t , A N o n - R e s i d e n t i a l Development S t r a t e g y  f o r New W e s t m i n s t e r . The r e p o r t i n c l u d e s i n i t s g o a l s t h a t each a r e a i n t h e C i t y has a c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r w h i c h must be r e t a i n e d and t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s c r e a t e d by t h e w i d t h o f s t r e e t s , b u i l d i n g facades and h e i g h t , type o f l a n d s c a p i n g , and r e n o v a t i o n o f o l d e r b u i l d i n g s w h i c h p r o v i d e l i n k s w i t h the p a s t . R e f e r e n c e i s a l s o made t o t h e C i t y ' s h e r i t a g e o f an e s t a b l i s h e d urban form, u n l i k e i t s suburban n e i g h b o u r s . The compactness o f t h e n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a , the m i x t u r e o f b u s i n e s s t y p e s , the h i e r a r c h y o f a r e a s , and the s c a l e o f b u i l d i n g s a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o New We s t m i n s t e r ' s urban c h a r a c t e r (New W e s t m i n s t e r C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, 1982). 42. H e r i t a g e O r g a n i z a t i o n s A f t e r t h e a d o p t i o n o f the Downtown P l a n , the New Westmin-s t e r C i t y C o u n c i l a p p o i n t e d a H e r i t a g e A d v i s o r y Committee i n 1979 t o a d v i s e C o u n c i l on h e r i t a g e m a t t e r s . The Committee i s composed o f n i n e members: one Chairman, who i s an alderman on C o u n c i l ; t h r e e s t a f f , i n c l u d i n g t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e P l a n n i n g Department, the C i t y L i b r a r i a n , and t h e C u r a t o r o f I r v i n g House H i s t o r i c C e n t r e ; f i v e c i t i z e n s from the community. In 1981, t h e Committee p r e s e n t e d t o C o u n c i l a d e s c r i p t i v e h i s t o r y o f t w e n t y - f o u r o f t h e 'most h i s t o r i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t b u i l d i n g s and p l a c e s ' i n New W e s t m i n s t e r . These h e r i t a g e e l e -ments were s e l e c t e d from t h e e n t i r e C i t y and c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e p e r i o d from 1890 t o 1930. The Committee a l s o c o n s u l t e d on t h e B.C. P e n i t e n t i a r y s i t e p r o p o s a l s , recommending t h a t many o f the b u i l d i n g s be p r e s e r v e d . A s t u d y o f p o t e n t i a l h e r i t a g e b u i l d -i n g s i n t h e C i t y has r e c e n t l y been completed. I t p r o v i d e s a v i s u a l a p p r a i s a l o f t h e C i t y ' s h e r i t a g e p o t e n t i a l and i s i n -tended t o a c t as a r e s o u r c e f o r f u t u r e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g by t h e H e r i t a g e A d v i s o r y Committee. Items i n t h e s t u d y a r e l i s t e d by t h e i r s t r e e t address and g e n e r a l appearance. A t a r e c e n t meeting, t h e H e r i t a g e A d v i s o r y Committee d e c i d e d t h a t i t s prime r o l e ( o t h e r than a d v i s i n g C o u n c i l ) was t o encourage, not l e g i s l a t e , h e r i t a g e p r e s e r v a t i o n i n New W e s t m i n s t e r . I t s main emphasis w i l l be on b u i l d i n g p u b l i c awareness, and e n c o u r a g i n g maintenance and r e - u s e o f o l d s t r u c -t u r e s ( C h a s t e r , 1984). No c l e a r d i r e c t i o n o f what t o save o r how t o save i t has 43. been e s t a b l i s h e d . The Committee d e a l s w i t h s i t u a t i o n s as t h e y a r i s e , c r i s i s by c r i s i s . Two p r i v a t e s o c i e t i e s a r e i n v o l v e d i n r e s t o r a t i o n work i n New W e s t m i n s t e r . The H e r i t a g e P r e s e r v a t i o n S o c i e t y o f New West-m i n s t e r has completed r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e Grey House on F o u r t h S t r e e t and i t i s now up f o r r e s a l e . The S o c i e t y p u b l i s h e s a s m a l l n e w s l e t t e r and o f f e r s t h e s e r v i c e o f r e s e a r c h i n g t h e h i s -t o r y o f any house i n the community and making a p l a q u e w i t h t h e name o f t h e o r i g i n a l owner and t h e d a t e when the house was b u i l t . The Hyack F e s t i v a l A s s o c i a t i o n has r e c e n t l y completed r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e Samson V steamboat w h i c h w i l l be used as a ' f l o a t i n g museum'. The A s s o c i a t i o n r e c e i v e d a g r a n t o f $48,000 from th e B.C. H e r i t a g e T r u s t t o r e s t o r e and c o n v e r t t h e b o a t . I t i s c u r r e n t l y b e r t h e d near t h e new F r a s e r R i v e r Market i n t h e downtown a r e a . The I r v i n g House H i s t o r i c C e n t r e i s the o n l y d e s i g n a t e d h e r i t a g e s t r u c t u r e i n New W e s t m i n s t e r . I t has been r e s t o r e d t o the p e r i o d o f i t s o r i g i n a l owner and i s now run as a museum and a r c h i v e s . Two o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s — t h e Grey House and S t . P a u l ' s Church ( a t Seventh and Royal) — have r e q u e s t e d d e s i g n a t i o n and the bylaw i s c u r r e n t l y b e f o r e C o u n c i l . The Downtown and i t s Sense o f P l a c e An a r e a ' s 'sense o f p l a c e ' i s found i n i t s i d e n t i t y o r 'the e x t e n t t o w h i c h a p e r s o n can r e c o g n i z e o r r e c a l l a p l a c e as b e i n g d i s t i n c t from o t h e r p l a c e s — as h a v i n g a v i v i d , o r 44. unique, o r a t l e a s t a p a r t i c u l a r , c h a r a c t e r o f i t s own' (Lynch, 1981). Each community has unique f e a t u r e s w h i c h s e t i t a p a r t from a l l o t h e r s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o e s t a b l i s h what elements comprise t h e a r e a ' s e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r so t h a t change may o c c u r w i t h o u t damaging t h e sense o f p l a c e . The elements w h i c h make up Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s sense o f p l a c e a r e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n the b a s i c d i v i s i o n s o f n a t u r a l s e t t i n g and b u i l t environment. N a t u r a l S e t t i n g Each c i t y has i t s own unique g e o g r a p h i c s e t t i n g w h i c h d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i t from o t h e r c i t i e s and p r o v i d e s i t w i t h an image a l l i t s own. In New W e s t m i n s t e r , t h e n a t u r a l s e t t i n g i s an i m p o r t a n t element i n t h e C i t y ' s image and i t s h e r i t a g e , e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e downtown a r e a . The predominant elements i n t h e Downtown's n a t u r a l s e t -t i n g a r e t h e F r a s e r R i v e r and i t s s t e e p banks upon w h i c h the C i t y was f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d . L i n k s w i t h t h i s n a t u r a l o r geo-g r a p h i c s e t t i n g a r e p r o v i d e d by t h r e e elements i n the Downtown envir o n m e n t : 1) r i v e r f r o n t a g e ; 2) topography; and 3) views O f t e n t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e n a t u r a l image i s c r e a t e d by t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e s e elements, b u t f o r t h e purpose 45. o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t h e y w i l l be p l a c e d i n t o t h e above c a t e g o r i e s as an o r d e r l y way t o r e c o r d t h e i r p r e s e n c e . The emphasis f o r h e r i t a g e p r e s e r v a t i o n i s on t h e l i n k s t o the C i t y ' s n a t u r a l s e t t i n g p r o v i d e d by r e t a i n i n g v i s u a l , s p a t i a l , and p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t t o r e i n f o r c e the Downtown's image and h i s t o r y . R i v e r F r o n t a g e The C i t y ' s l o c a t i o n on the banks o f t h e F r a s e r i s v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e C i t y ' s sense o f p l a c e , not o n l y o f i t s n a t u r a l s e t t i n g but a l s o o f i t s h i s t o r y . H i s t o r i c a l l y , the F r a s e r R i v e r was t h e C i t y ' s ' f r o n t door' t o t h e w o r l d . New W e s t m i n s t e r grew as t h e main t r a d i n g c e n t r e on t h e west c o a s t and t h e main w a t e r l i n k t o V i c t o r i a , u n t i l Vancouver took o v e r t h a t r o l e i n t h e 1920's. D i r e c t a c c e s s t o t h e R i v e r i s p r e s e n t l y l i m i t e d due t o r a i l w a y and p o r t f a c i l i t i e s . The p o r t f a c i l i t i e s have become i n c r e a s i n g l y i n a d e q u a t e and t h e d e c i s i o n has been made f o r them t o be moved (New W e s t m i n s t e r C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, 1978) . Due t o t h e presence o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l and r a i l u s es, t h e h i s t o r i c p h y s i c a l l i n k a g e w i t h t h e F r a s e r R i v e r has been des-t r o y e d , and t h e v i s u a l l i n k a g e d i s r u p t e d . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h i s l i n k a g e w i t h t h e R i v e r be r e - e s t a b l i s h e d and r e i n -f o r c e d as the n a t u r a l p h y s i c a l boundary o f t h e C i t y and as a dominant element i n t h e Downtown's h i s t o r i c sense o f p l a c e (Photo 5 ) . 46. (5) The F r a s e r R i v e r , n o r t h from New W e s t m i n s t e r The Community P l a n f o r Downtown New Westminster (1978) seeks t o t a k e advantage o f t h e unique o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d by the w a t e r f r o n t l o c a t i o n . The Downtown P l a n e s t i m a t e s t h a t n e a r l y 20,000 new r e s i -d e n t i a l u n i t s w i l l be b u i l t i n t h e a r e a by 1997. A l a r g e p r o -p o r t i o n o f t h i s h o u s i n g w i l l be developed on w a t e r f r o n t s i t e s , bounded by t h e h a r b o u r h e a d l i n e up t o T e r m i n a l Avenue i n the w e s t e r n s e c t i o n and F r o n t S t r e e t i n t h e e a s t e r n s e c t i o n . The r e s i d e n c e s w i l l f a c e the R i v e r i n a stepped c o n f i g u r a t i o n w i t h some v a r i a t i o n i n h e i g h t s . The h i g h e r b u i l d i n g s a r e not t o exceed t e n s t o r e y s and a r e t o be few i n number so t h a t views from h i g h e r ground w i l l not be ob s c u r e d . The r e s i d e n t i a l con-s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d be underway by 1986 ( C h a s t e r , 1984) and i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t o a t t r a c t o t h e r uses i n t o the a r e a , such as r e s -t a u r a n t s , h o t e l s , p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e , r e t a i l , and c u l t u r a l 4 7 . f a c i l i t i e s . The development concept a l s o i n c l u d e s a s e r i e s o f s m a l l parks and a c o n t i n u o u s w a t e r f r o n t e s p l a n a d e . The w a t e r f r o n t redevelopment, however, i s a l o n g - t e r m p r o -p o s i t i o n . I f i t proves t o be s u c c e s s f u l , i t w i l l s t r o n g l y r e -e s t a b l i s h the l i n k a g e between t h e R i v e r and t h e community by p r o v i d i n g p h y s i c a l and v i s u a l a c c e s s . The R i v e r w i l l a l s o become the major f a c t o r i n t h e sense o f p l a c e f o r t h e new w a t e r -f r o n t h o u s i n g . In t h e s h o r t - t e r m , s t e p s s h o u l d be t a k e n t o r e - e s t a b l i s h t h e h i s t o r i c l i n k a g e s . I n d u s t r i a l uses have a l r e a d y been phased out a l o n g t h e w a t e r f r o n t and t h e o b s o l e t e p o r t f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be moved. The r a i l uses s t i l l p r e s e n t a problem because t h e y run between F r o n t S t r e e t and t h e R i v e r . U n r e s t r i c t e d p u b l i c a c c e s s c o u l d prove dangerous — f o r example, t o r e a c h the new F r a s e r R i v e r Market people must c r o s s the r a i l w a y t r a c k s , s t e p p i n g on l o o s e and r o t t i n g t i e s and over p o t e n t i a l l y s l i p p e r y r a i l s . The Market i s a p o s i t i v e s t e p toward th e r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f l i n k a g e s t o t h e r i v e r . The a r e a around th e market w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n more depth as a ' h e r i t a g e p r e c i n c t ' . Topography One o f t h e most d i s t i n c t i v e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e Downtown i s i t s s t e e p h i l l s , superimposed by a r i g i d g r i d p a t t e r n o f s t r e e t s (see F i g u r e 6 ) . Moody's o r i g i n a l p l a n a p p l i e d t h e r e g u l a r r e c t a n g u l a r g r i d p a t t e r n w i t h o u t r e g a r d f o r topography. The o r i g i n a l town was 49. s h a r p l y d e f i n e d from i t s s u r r o u n d i n g s . The extreme v a r i a t i o n i n e l e v a t i o n was a l s o i n t e n d e d t o emphasize t h e dominance o f the c a p i t a l b u i l d i n g s , and, a l t h o u g h t h e s e were never b u i l t , t h e C i t y H a l l , w i t h i t s gardens, has o c c u p i e d t h i s p o s i t i o n s i n c e t h e 1950's. The c o m b i n a t i o n o f s t e e p topography and s i m p l e g r i d p a t -t e r n o f s t r e e t s a l l o w s panoramic views from p o i n t s on t h e h i l l -s i d e and i n c i d e n t a l and c o r r i d o r v iews down t h e s t r e e t s t o t h e F r a s e r R i v e r . The d i s t i n c t i v e topography c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e Downtown's sense o f p l a c e by c r e a t i n g a v i s u a l l y e x c i t i n g , San F r a n c i s c o -l i k e environment. The c u r r e n t z o n i n g bylaw f o r New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s downtown a r e a r e g u l a t e s b u i l d i n g h e i g h t as shown i n F i g u r e 7. The h e i g h t r e g u l a t i o n s c o n t r a d i c t t h e topography i n p l a c i n g t h e t a l l e s t b u i l d i n g s a t the bottom o f t h e s l o p e and a l o n g t h e w a t e r f r o n t . The v i s u a l impact o f t h e topography i s an i m p o r t a n t e l e -ment i n t h e Downtown, b u t , i f t h e c u r r e n t z o n i n g were t o be implemented, t h i s element would l o s e i t s v i s u a l d i s t i n c t i v e -n ess. The b u i l t form c o u l d be used t o a c c e n t u a t e t h e to p o g -raphy by d e c r e a s i n g b u i l d i n g h e i g h t s down t h e s l o p e . T h i s v a r i a t i o n a l s o i n c r e a s e s t h e v i e w p o t e n t i a l f o r the e n t i r e s l o p e . 51. Views The r i g i d g r i d p a t t e r n o f t h e Downtown s t r e e t s s u p e r i m -posed on t h e s t e e p l y r i s i n g topography c r e a t e s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r v i e w p o i n t s and v i s t a s t h r o u g h o u t t h e a r e a . The v i e w s i d e n t i f i e d as i m p o r t a n t i n t h e Downtown P l a n (New We s t m i n s t e r C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, 1978) a r e : 1) t h e f o r e g r o u n d v i e w o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r and s h i p -p i n g a c t i v i t y ; 2) t h e m i d d l e d i s t a n c e v i e w o f t h e wooded b l u f f s o u t h o f t h e r i v e r i n S u r r e y and D e l t a ; 3) t h e v i e w up the r i v e r , i n c l u d i n g b o t h f l a t v a l l e y l a n d and Coast Range mountains; 4) t h e v i e w down the r i v e r and a c r o s s t h e d e l t a t o the S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a and t h e i s l a n d beyond; and 5) Mount Baker and r e l a t e d mountains. To p r o t e c t t h e s e f i v e major p u b l i c v i e w s , t h e Downtown P l a n i d e n t i f i e s two v i e w p o i n t s where t h e s e views w i l l be p r o -t e c t e d : — C i t y H a l l and t h e r e l a t e d park a r e a ; and -- Douglas C o l l e g e Campus. Views w i l l a l s o be p r o t e c t e d wherever p o s s i b l e from e x i s t -i n g and proposed b u i l d i n g s . A system o f h e i g h t c o n t r o l i s s e t up i n t h e z o n i n g bylaw t o o p t i m i z e t h e v i e w p o t e n t i a l from t h e C i t y H a l l and Douglas C o l l e g e a l o n g t h e l i n e shown i n F i g u r e 8. In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e panoramic v i e w p o i n t s , v i s t a s o c c u r t o the R i v e r down t h e n o r t h - s o u t h s t r e e t s and i n c i d e n t a l views o c c u r 5 3 . where t h e r e a r e b r e a k s between b u i l d i n g s . Views i n the Downtown can be i d e n t i f i e d i n t h r e e b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s . A) Major P u b l i c V i e w p o i n t s : A v i e w p o i n t i s a wide o r panoramic o v e r a l l v i e w o f the a r e a . T h i s type o f v i e w i s g e n e r a l l y seen from h i l l s , b r i d g e s , t a l l b u i l d i n g s , o r a c r o s s l a r g e open spaces o r w a t e r c o u r s e s . F i g u r e 9 shows the l o c a t i o n o f t h e v i e w p o i n t s w h i c h a r e d e s c r i b e d below. The v i e w s u p r i v e r from t h e C i t y H a l l ( V i e w p o i n t 1) have the gardens as t h e i r f o r e g r o u n d , w i t h t h e b u i l d i n g s a l o n g R o y a l Avenue f r a m i n g t h e mountains (Photo 6 ) . T h i s v i e w i s not a v a i l a b l e from t h e e n t i r e C i t y H a l l s i t e and i n many p l a c e s i s b a r e l y v i s i b l e above the b u i l d i n g s on R o y a l Avenue. (6) V i e w p o i n t 1. 55. Douglas C o l l e g e (Viewpoint 2) p r o v i d e s i t s b e s t view down the F r a s e r R i v e r i n the s o u t h e r l y d i r e c t i o n . The v i e w p o i n t i s much h i g h e r up the s l o p e than the b u i l d i n g s i n the foreground (some o f which are t h r e e to four s t o r e y s t a l l ) r e s u l t i n g i n a l o n g , u n i n t e r r u p t e d panorama o f the F r a s e r R i v e r i n the midground and the S u r r e y h i l l s beyond (Photo 7 ) . (7) V i e w p o i n t 2 . V i e w p o i n t 3 a t the nor thwes tern end o f Columbia p r o v i d e e x c e l l e n t views up and down the r i v e r , as w e l l as to the mountains to the n o r t h . The d o w n r i v e r view i s l ong and u n i n t e r r u p t e d , w i t h the r i v e r e x t e n d i n g from the foreground to the h o r i z o n (Photo 8). From h e r e , one can watch the boats r u n n i n g up and down the r i v e r . (8) Downriver v i e w from V i e w p o i n t 3. (9) U p r i v e r v i e w from V i e w p o i n t 3. The u p r i v e r v i e w (Photo 9) i s composed o f d o c k i n g f a c i l -i t i e s i n the f o r e g r o u n d , w i t h the P a t u l l o B r i d g e i n the m i d d l e and mountains a t t h e h o r i z o n . From t h i s p o i n t , one can e n j o y b o t h a p a s s i v e v i e w o f t h e n a t u r a l s e t t i n g and an a c t i v e v i e w o f boats on t h e r i v e r and motor v e h i c l e s on the b r i d g e . The mountains t o t h e n o r t h can a l s o be seen from V i e w p o i n t 3 (Photo 10). The f o r e g r o u n d o f t h i s v i e w i s o b s t r u c t e d by the P a t u l l o B r i d g e on-ramp and by the w i d e n i n g o f Columbia S t r e e t a t t h i s p o i n t . The t a l l t r e e s on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e roadway a c t t o frame the view, f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n on the h i g h e s t peak. (10) View n o r t h from V i e w p o i n t 3. V i s t a s : A v i s t a i s a narrow, d i r e c t e d view, sometimes c a l l e d a v i e w c o r r i d o r . These views g e n e r a l l y o c c u r down s t r e e t s l i n e d w i t h b u i l d i n g s , p r o v i d i n g a framed v i e w o f some e l e -ment i n t h e C i t y ' s s e t t i n g . E i g h t h S t r e e t p r o v i d e s a f a i r l y wide v i s t a , framed by the b u i l d i n g s and p o s t s on e i t h e r s i d e (Photo 11). The view i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e downtown a r e a , w i t h the for e g r o u n d 58. composed o f the r i v e r and i t s barges f i l l e d w i t h sawdust, and t h e h o r i z o n o f the S u r r e y h i l l s . The v i s t a i s r e l a -t i v e l y u n i n t e r r u p t e d , w i t h o n l y t h e i n t r u s i o n o f the o v e r -head w i r e s c r o s s i n g t h e s t r e e t . (11) E i g h t h S t r e e t v i s t a . (12) S i x t h S t r e e t V i s t a . S i x t h S t r e e t frames i t s v i s t a more n a r r o w l y than E i g h t h S t r e e t (Photo 12). The b u i l d i n g s a r e more massive and, because o f t h e i r h e i g h t and s e t b a c k , t h e y s h a r p l y d i r e c t the v i e w t o the r i v e r . The f o r e g r o u n d o f t h i s v i s t a i s p a r t i a l l y o b s t r u c t e d by b u i l d i n g s on Columbia S t r e e t . I n c i d e n t a l o r Unusual V i e w s : I n c i d e n t a l v iews o c c u r ' a c c i -d e n t a l l y ' when a b r e a k o c c u r s between b u i l d i n g s o r w i t h i n a development, p r o v i d i n g a g l i m p s e o f s c e n e r y . T h i s break between two b u i l d i n g s on Carnarvon S t r e e t p r o v i d e s an example o f an i n c i d e n t a l v i e w (Photo 13). The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v i e w t o the r i v e r and S u r r e y h i l l s i s n a r -r o w l y framed by t h e b u i l d i n g s . In t h i s c a s e , the f o r e g r o u n d i s o b s t r u c t e d by a p a r k i n g ramp. (13) I n c i d e n t a l v i e w from Carnarvon S t r e e t The second example o f an i n c i d e n t a l v i e w i s more unique. The l a r g e windows o f Wosk's on Columbia S t r e e t p r o v i d e a 60. v i e w t h r o u g h t h e s t o r e t o t h e r i v e r (Photo 14). T h i s v i e w i s s t r o n g l y framed by t h e s t o r e windows. (14) View framed by Wosk's windows. Unusual views a r e s h o r t range, s h a r p l y d e f i n e d views o f l i m i t e d s c a l e w h i c h r e v e a l a un-i q u e o r u n u s u a l scene. Begbie Square o f f e r s such a v i e w (Photo 15) w i t h i t s stepped p l a z a , w a t e r f a l l , and s t a t u e o f Judge Begbie. T h i s v i e w p r o v i d e s v i s u a l and h i s t o r i c i n t e r e s t and t h e Square o f f e r s (15) Begbie Square 61. a p l a c e t o s i t and r e s t . Some u n u s u a l views may be v e r y s m a l l and v e r y u n u s u a l . T h i s Columbia S t r e e t b u i l d i n g i s d e c o r a t e d w i t h c o l o u r f u l mosaics (Photo 16). U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the lower mosaic on the r i g h t s i d e has been cov e r e d by a canopy, b u t t h i s s i t u a t i o n c o u l d be e a s i l y remedied and t h e shopkeeper would have the b e n e f i t o f a v e r y unique f e a t u r e f o r h i s s t o r e f r o n t . B u i l t Environment The Downtown's b u i l t environment o r b u i l t form i s the o t h e r major component o f t h e a r e a ' s image. The f e a t u r e s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e b u i l t environment a r e : 1) h i s t o r i c o r a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t b u i l d i n g s ; (16) M o s a i c s , 439 Columbia S t r e e t . 62. 2) h i s t o r i c o r a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t b u i l d i n g g r oups; 3) s t r e e t p a t t e r n and h i s t o r i c p l a n ; 4) open spaces and l a n d s c a p i n g ; and 5) landmarks. These f e a t u r e s a r e a l l the r e s u l t o f t h e growth o f t h e C i t y t h r o u g h human i n i t i a t i v e . They r e p r e s e n t t h e d i r e c t i o n s w h i c h t h a t growth has t a k e n from t h e e a r l y decades o f the C i t y ' s p a s t up t o i t s r e c e n t developments and f u t u r e e x p e c t a -t i o n s . The i n v e n t o r y o f t h e urban environment o f t h e Downtown s h o u l d i d e n t i f y t h e r e s o u r c e s o r p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e s o f t h e a r e a w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e q u a l i t y and uniqueness o f i t s image. B u i l d i n g s Downtown New Wes t m i n s t e r has one o f t h e h i g h e s t concen-t r a t i o n s o f t u r n o f the c e n t u r y b u i l d i n g s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. These o l d e r b u i l d i n g s add a sense o f permanence and c o n t r a s t t o t h e urban environment; t h e y p r o v i d e d i v e r s i t y i n s t y l e , c h a r a c t e r , t e x t u r e , and s c a l e . The human s c a l e and r i c h n e s s o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t a i l w h i c h many o l d e r b u i l d i n g s possess i s not o f t e n r e p e a t e d i n v new developments. A m e n i t i e s , such as t h i c k w a l l s , windows w h i c h open, h i g h c e i l i n g s , c a r e f u l c o n s t r u c t i o n , and l a v i s h d e c o r a t i o n 7 can be p r o h i b i t i v e l y e x p e n s i v e i n new c o n s t r u c -t i o n . 63. C e r t a i n b u i l d i n g s may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p e o p l e o r events w h i c h a r e i m p o r t a n t i n t h e l o c a l h i s t o r y . An i n v e n t o r y o f b u i l d i n g s can be much more p r e c i s e than some o f t h e o t h e r elements w o r t h y o f p r e s e r v a t i o n because b u i l d i n g s have many t a n g i b l e f e a t u r e s w h i c h can be r e c o r d e d i n a r e a s o n a b l y c o n s i s t e n t manner. Kalman (1980) has de v e l o p e d a l i s t o f c r i t e r i a based on b u i l d i n g f e a t u r e s w h i c h s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t o d e t e r m i n e h e r -i t a g e p o t e n t i a l . The l i s t i s f a i r l y comprehensive and a l l o w s l o c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o be dominant. The m a j o r i t y o f what i s det e r m i n e d t o be h e r i t a g e w i l l be p r i m a r i l y o f l o c a l i n t e r e s t o r c h a r a c t e r ( F a l k n e r , 1977). Kalman's l i s t i n c l u d e s t h e f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s : A. A r c h i t e c t u r e : 1) s t y l e — n o t a b l e , r a r e , u n i que, o r e a r l y example o f a p a r t i c u l a r a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e , t y p e , o r c o n v e n t i o n ; 2) c o n s t r u c t i o n — n o t a b l e , r a r e , unique, o r e a r l y example o f a p a r t i c u l a r m a t e r i a l o r method o f c o n s t r u c t i o n ; 3) age — c o m p a r a t i v e l y o l d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f i t s r e g i o n ; 4) a r c h i t e c t — d e s i g n e d o r b u i l t by an a r c h i t e c t o r b u i l d e r who has made a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e community, p r o v i n c e , o r n a t i o n ; 5) d e s i g n — a p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e o r unique b u i l d i n g because o f the e x c e l l e n c e , a r t i s t i c m e r i t , o r uniqueness o f i t s d e s i g n , c o m p o s i t i o n , c r a f t s m a n s h i p , o r d e t a i l s ; 6) i n t e r i o r — i n t e r i o r arrangement, f i n i s h , c r a f t s m a n s h i p , and/or d e t a i l i s / a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e o r unique. B. H i s t o r y : 7) p e r s o n -- a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l i f e o r a c t i v i t i e s o f a pe r s o n , group, o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t has made a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the community, prov-i n c e , o r n a t i o n ; 0) 64. 8) event -- a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an event t h a t has made a s i g n i -f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e community, p r o v i n c e , o r n a t i o n ; 9) c o n t e x t -- a s s o c i a t e d w i t h , and e f f e c t i v e l y i l l u s t r a t i v e o f , b r o a d p a t t e r n s o f c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , m i l i -t a r y , economic, o r i n d u s t r i a l h i s t o r y . C. Environ m e n t : 10) c o n t i n u i t y — c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e c o n t i n u i t y o r c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s t r e e t , neighbourhood, o r a r e a ; 11) s e t t i n g — s e t t i n g and/or l a n d s c a p i n g c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e c o n t i n u i t y o r c h a r a c t e r o f the s t r e e t , neighbourhood, o r a r e a ; 12) landmark -- a p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t v i s u a l landmark. D. U s a b i l i t y : 13) c o m p a t i b i l i t y -- p r e s e n t use i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the c u r -r e n t l a n d use o r z o n i n g o f t h e s i t e , s t r e e t , o r n e i g h -bourhood ; 14) a d a p t a b i l i t y -- p o t e n t i a l l y a d a p t a b l e t o c o m p a t i b l e r e - u s e w i t h o u t harm t o t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l elements w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e ; 15) p u b l i c — c a p a c i t y f o r needed p u b l i c , e d u c a t i o n a l , o r museum use; 16) s e r v i c e s — a d e q u a t e l y s e r v i c e d and p r o t e c t e d f o r con-temporary use; 17) c o s t -- c o s t o f p r e s e r v a t i o n , r e s t o r a t i o n , maintenance, and/or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s r e a s o n a b l e . E. I n t e g r i t y : 18) s i t e -- o c c u p i e s i t s o r i g i n a l s i t e ; 19) a l t e r a t i o n s — has s u f f e r e d l i t t l e a l t e r a t i o n , and r e -t a i n s most o f i t s o r i g i n a l m e t e r i a l s and d e s i g n f e a t u r e s ; 20) c o n d i t i o n -- b u i l d i n g i s i n good s t r u c t u r a l c o n d i t i o n . (Kalman, 1980) These c r i t e r i a can be used t o e v a l u a t e t h e f e a t u r e s o f a b u i l d i n g b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d f o r i t s h e r i t a g e v a l u e . N u m e r i c a l s c o r e s o r v e r b a l grades ( e x c e l l e n t , v e r y good, good, f a i r / p o o r ) 65. a r e used t o a s s i g n judgements o f q u a l i t y t o f e a t u r e s r e l a t i v e t o the c r i t e r i a . The r e s u l t s o f the b u i l d i n g e v a l u a t i o n a r e used t o p l a c e each b u i l d i n g i n t o a c a t e g o r y o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . By c a t e g o r i z i n g the i n v e n t o r y , i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g s can a l s o be judged i n r e l a -t i o n t o o t h e r b u i l d i n g s . F o r example, the C i t y o f Vancouver uses t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : Categ o r y A — b u i l d i n g s w h i c h have o u t -s t a n d i n g h e r i t a g e v a l u e , c o n s i d e r e d t o make a l a r g e r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the C i t y than any a l t e r n a t i v e use o f t h e s i t e ; C a t e g o r y B -- b u i l d i n g s w h i c h have con-s i d e r a b l e h e r i t a g e v a l u e , b u t p r o p o s a l s f o r a l t e r a t i o n s o r d e m o l i t i o n would be e n t e r t a i n e d ; C a t e g o r y C — b u i l d i n g s w h i c h have some h e r -i t a g e v a l u e , and where marked c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f t h e s e b u i l d i n g s o c c u r , t h e H e r i t a g e A d v i -s o r y Committee may suggest a r e a d e s i g n a t i o n . (Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, 1975) B u i l d i n g s i n Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r s h o u l d be e v a l u a t e d w i t h emphasis on t h e l o c a l and r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t and p a r t i c u l a r w e i g h t s h o u l d be g i v e n t o t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g u t i l i t y . A c a t e g o r i z e d i n v e n t o r y p r o v i d e s the b a s i s f o r d e c i s i o n -making i n areas such as h e r i t a g e p o l i c y , d e s i g n a t i o n , d e m o l i -t i o n and a l t e r a t i o n s , and so on. F i g u r e 10 shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o t e n t i a l h e r i t a g e s t r u c t u r e s i n t h e Downtown. P o t e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e s were v i s u -a l l y a p p r a i s e d b u t a more i n - d e p t h s t u d y w i l l p r o b a b l y r e v e a l t h a t some s t r u c t u r e s have been c o v e r e d o v e r ; f o r example, t h e o l d tram s t a t i o n may s t i l l be under t h e Wosk's e x t e r i o r 67. ( M i l l e r , 1984), and more e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d t o v e r i f y . Three i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g s i n t h e Downtown a r e p r e s e n t e d as examples o f s i g n i f i c a n t h e r i t a g e v a l u e — t h e W e s t m i n s t e r T r u s t B u i l d i n g , and the B u r r and Guichon B l o c k s . The e v a l u a t i o n method i s demonstrated u s i n g b o t h v e r b a l grades and n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s . (For an i n - d e p t h d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e v a l u a t i o n method f o r a s s i g n i n g v e r b a l grades and n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s see Kalman, H a r o l d , 1980, The E v a l u a t i o n o f H i s t o r i c B u i l d i n g s . ) 68. ButtcUng Evaluation 9 i M W E S T M I N S T E R T R U S T s i / iLPiNei R*)ferenc« Number A ArcnHectura 1 Styi. g ^ L s J C , W N 9 C . £ A r P e « . 0 VG G F/P 2 Construction g ^ ^ y ^ VlPSSOrO'RN E s G F/P © VG G F/P E G F/P 5 Design E VG G F/P 6 Interior E VG G F/P History 7 Person E VG G F/P 8 Event E VG G F/P VG G F/P C Environment 10 Continue /V,£p;/V O F L ^X- A- S T O R E ^ . E (VG) G F/P 11 Sert.ng C O M P A T I B L E G F/P 12Unomar« V l S U A l - l . ^ M M l M / W T VG G F/P UtabilKy 0) 13 Compl.bl.ty C £ > K l M ^ R . C j / \ L . O P ^ l ^ G VG G F/P 14 Adaptability E VG G F/P 15 Public E VG G F/P 16 Services VG G F/P 17 Cost LOV/0 VG G F/P lnt#^ rtty is ate ofc\&irsU\i_ 5 \ T 6 VG G F/P 19 Alteratnn. Re^ r - p , , ^ yXf^ 0(Z. 0 R f e | N A L 'DESl fof-J G F/P 20 Condition yj " M P\| KJ TA 1 (V) E D> VG G F/P Evaluated by g Recommendation -J • — ———> • eft€^>€iQ.VFD I » S J T A , C T j A L M O S T c^Kj-n <vJ U . C u s e A s *S». Reviewed by 1 Date Comments Approved by Date ConwTvortu (18) W e s t m i n s t e r T r u s t B u i l d i n g Building EnluMt— SnMl Qufi . ' R S L O C K  N E W U J K S r r ^ V l l M S T e R . ; ft.C , Reference Number A Ai iltJlsctun* E WGJ G F/P 1 Style V < C - T Q f t l A » ~ 0 _ lO-Wrucl.- Bft\CV< faftPVrsJir, E © G F/P 3 * 0 « (?) VG G F/P 4 Architect fa. W . I q R f t r N ) T © VG G F/P 5 0 m i ^ T_-Ryg.<X c _ > T T A VMtNJC>OU> D E T f t l L E © G F/P «'manor U 6 , g f a g OPEN) S T M C l A S e ', N T C M u K © V G G F / P U T f t S ; K S U 6 H T P g f V j e r f t P f T g S T O S E C O K J P P L O Q g  B Hlitory 9 Cornea E VG F/P VG G F/P VG G F/P C EjnHronmtnl to continutY p o v M K j ^ t x j y C H f t R f t C r e R . E < © G F / p 11 Setting C O t ^ P l V T ^ B L g r\ 0 12Landrnar» O K / g ; _ , p T U > 0 P g f i - F l g g B L X ^ © V G G F / P D llMbiHty 13 Co-|-io,lity P e e S e i M T ^ v f t C A M T E © G F/P 15 Public E VG G F/P I«S«Y«~ N>eeD3 I A P & P - ^ tc-jei E V G G © * 1 7 C o a A f i o i A T BivMLW\oisj VAJVTVH ^ u i O t o M d u . _ECf?E V G © fr.PA.~OVe ftg-USC C f t S l c e P T O S E - C C (PA»g&~ C A P I T A L C i n i E Mean* o e ^ e c o p M e i s j - ) id Site 0 g \ ( a i N J A L . -5.1 r g F/P 10 AMeratione E X T g f t l Q g A T S T f t € E T L e s i g L --Concwoi STUCTUf2AL\_S SOUfNjta ; VG G F/P E G F/P 0 VG G F/P F N C A t > e JKI E x c . e u L . e s j T co<\>mviooj Evaiuetefltt, _ . C . S L C O I T ^ M P t f t . q T - . i q ^ V Reco-r~no««, ^ C O M C f . P T PROPOS6T<, U Q ^ J g C ^ ^ L O Q » g & AS  fterPsvL^ u»?fg«. F L O O D S Af. ^ \ D E M T I N \ _ ^ Reviewed by ^ -: Date Comment* Approved by Date Cornmarrti 71. BuOrJng ErotufOon Shod 4-CU COL-UNAe/zX S T f t F E T R«(omoco Number A Architecture 2 Construction ^ WbO M f t S 3 Ao. 4 Architect fa.vJ, fctgfi.f^r 5 Design 6 Intenor (Maximum 35t 20 10 « 0 © 5 (£) 4 8 4 4 2 4 2 2 2 1 31 B History 7 Person (Maximum 2SI 25 10 S 8 Em« SuRviuet) IS-fl? P\e£ gAftTHQUP,KC (5/ 1 0 9 Context 0P.V6A)Mr\V-U>, QUegNi'S HOTgt 2 0 1 0 15" o 5 0 © 0 Environment (Maximum lOt »0 10 Cont;nurty POrA IM fVK) T CM AVJACTE (?- io CD 2 0 11 Setting C O W P A T V B L . C 5 <D 1 0 12 Landman* Q ^ g O P TU> O Pfce-fMCe . 2 0 Usabilty (Maximum 15) 14-13 Compatibility P f teSeW V\_S VA£A«vH « CD 2 0 14 Adaptability vx i»oe . v / A & l F T N O P U S € S A L L © v O & 5 > © * 2 0 15 Public 8 4 2 0 i« services N j £ e o S uPfca«2. A T » M €» 8 4 2 © 1 7 ^ N S O U T *t M i u r i o r o « J \ T H B U R R B L . P O < 2 8 4 © 0 frDfrPTAV/g fee-US^ COKJCgPT S S P l C Q f2VEmPMv?tQT c o f i . * 0 . E Integrity (Maximum 15) *s"« oe\fe,ir-JAL <.irE <D 3 1 19 Alterations COQKJ\Cg fcEMO\/eD ; S T g g E T L & ^ U P A / A D g 5 3 (?) 20 Condition STft.uc.rugA LIS S Q U M P cov/etteD © \2. ToUl Score Group A B C 0 £ Evaiuaiod&y C-. 6 LSArTM Reviewed by Comments Appro*«d by Data 0«t« Comments 72. (20) The Guichon Block 73 . (21) The B u r r and Guichon B l o c k s , c. 1906. (New W e s t m i n s t e r P u b l i c L i b r a r y ) (22) The B u r r and Guichon B l o c k s , 1984. 74. B u i l d i n g Groups When viewed as a group, b u i l d i n g s can produce a t o t a l e f f e c t w h i c h g i v e a s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r t o t h e a r e a . D i s t i n c t i v e b u i l d i n g groups a r e formed when a d j a c e n t b u i l d i n g s a r e c o n s i s t e n t i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e and d e t a i l , and when t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o one a n o t h e r i s harmonious and complementary. Because o f t h e complementary s t y l e s w h i c h have been b u i l t o v e r t h e y e a r s , t h e s e b u i l d i n g groups add a homogeneous q u a l i t y t o t h e s t r e e t s c a p e , w h i l e minor v a r i a t i o n s i n c o l o u r and mate-r i a l h e l p t o p r e v e n t monotony. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between b u i l d i n g s i s e s t a b l i s h e d by s i m i l a r i t i e s o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n a v a r i e t y o f d e s i g n c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s , such a s : — s e t b a c k from the s t r e e t ; — s p a c i n g from a d j o i n i n g b u i l d i n g s ; — massing ( c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e main volumes o f b u i l d i n g s ) ; — h e i g h t ; — facade p r o p o r t i o n s and d i r e c t i o n a l i t y ; — shape and s i l h o u e t t e ; — arrangement o f windows and d o o r s ; — s i z e s and p r o p o r t i o n s o f windows and d o o r s ; — m a t e r i a l s and t e x t u r e ; — c o l o u r ; — rhythm ( s y s t e m a t i c o c c u r r e n c e o f b u i l d i n g e l e m e n t s ) ; 75. -- s c a l e (how t h e b u i l d i n g i s p e r c e i v e d i n r e l a t i o n t o human s i z e ) ; and — a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e . The c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g groups i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n because i t g i v e s r e c o g n i t i o n t o s t r e e t s c a p e s c r e a t e d by t h e g r o u p i n g o f r e l a t i v e l y anonymous b u i l d i n g s . T h i s b u i l d i n g group a t Columbia and Lorne S t r e e t s shows a complementary r e l a t i o n s h i p o f b u i l d i n g f e a t u r e s (Photo 2 3 ) . (23) 705 and 681 Columbia S t r e e t . The windows a r e t h e same s i z e and shape. The lower window s i l l s o f the second f l o o r a r e even and t h i s h o r i z o n t a l l i n e c o n t i n u e s t h r o u g h t h e t h r e e b u i l d i n g s . The l e s s e r a r ches a r e even w i t h t h e upper window s i l l s o f ' R i c k i ' s ' and w i t h t h e c o r n i c e o f 'Kresge's'. The c o r n i c e s o f t h e s e b u i l d i n g s a r e 76. similar, as are the colours and materials used. The o r i g i n a l d e t a i l of the lower facades has been covered over. Street Pattern and H i s t o r i c Plan Streets provide a stable and unifying component of c i t y pattern. The street pattern of Downtown New Westminster was d e l i b -erately designed by Colonel Moody for reasons outlined previ-ously in this section. The layout consisted of long, slim blocks, separated by narrow feeder streets which joined wider main streets at right angles (Figure 11). This rectangular gr i d pattern was applied without regard for the topography, r e s u l t i n g i n extremely steep streets down to the Fraser River. The street pattern of the Downtown represents the tremen-dous physical e f f o r t by the Royal Engineers c l e a r i n g and sur-veying the land and has remained v i r t u a l l y intact as Moody l a i d i t out i n 1858. The gri d pattern which overlays the steep topography cre-ates a v i s u a l l y exciting environment, with the opportunity for views to the River and unique streetscapes. The width of the Downtown streets was determined by the length of the surveyor's chain (lanes are one chain wide, c o l -l e c t o r streets are two chains, and major streets are three chains). Many of the streets are quite narrow, bringing 78. b u i l d i n g s and a c t i v i t i e s c l o s e r t o g e t h e r and c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e area's human s c a l e . Some o f the h i l l s a r e so s t e e p t h a t buses o f t e n get s t u c k ; the h i l l s can a l s o c r e a t e problems f o r c a r s and p e d e s t r i a n s . The h i l l s w h i c h a r e too s t e e p can be c l o s e d t o v e h i c u l a r t r a f -f i c and t e r r a c e d f o r more c o m f o r t a b l e p e d e s t r i a n use. Mackenzie S t r e e t has been adapted i n t o an urban park w i t h s t e p s e x t e n d i n g from Agnes S t r e e t t o Carnarvon (Photo 24). Such parks o r p l a z a s p r o v i d e a t t r a c t i v e and u s e f u l open space w h i l e p r e s e r v i n g t h e p a t t e r n o f the h i s t o r i c p l a n . (24) Begbie Square. S t r e e t names a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o the h i s t o r i c c h a r a c t e r o f t h e Downtown. F o r example, M e r i v a l e S t r e e t i s named f o r the u n d e r - s e c r e t a r y o f s t a t e and L y t t o n Square f o r the s e c r e -t a r y o f s t a t e f o r t h e c o l o n i e s when t h e C i t y was e s t a b l i s h e d ; 79. Begbie S t r e e t was named f o r t h e f i r s t judge i n t h e c o l o n y , S i r Matthew B a i l l i e B e g b i e ; V i c t o r i a S t r e e t and A l b e r t C r e s c e n t a r e , o f c o u r s e , named f o r Queen V i c t o r i a and P r i n c e A l b e r t . Open Spaces and L a n d s c a p i n g Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r p r e s e n t l y has o n l y a s m a l l amount o f p u b l i c open space. E x i s t i n g 'green space' c o n s i s t s o f T i p -p e r a r y Park and t h e F r i e n d s h i p Gardens w h i c h a r e l o c a t e d above R o y a l Avenue, a d j a c e n t t o t h e C i t y H a l l . Mackenzie S t r e e t has been r e c e n t l y c l o s e d o f f between Carnarvon and Agnes S t r e e t s t o c r e a t e an urban park w i t h s t e p s , benches, l a n d s c a p i n g , and a w a t e r f a l l . L a n d s c a p i n g i n t h e Downtown i s q u i t e m i n i m a l . T i p p e r a r y Park and t h e F r i e n d s h i p Gardens p r o v i d e a p l e a s a n t c o n t r a s t a t the edge o f t h e Downtown w i t h t h e i r l a r g e t r e e s and b e a u t i f u l gardens. T i p p e r a r y Park (Photo 25) was conveyed t o t h e C i t y i n 1908 and was s e l e c t i v e l y c l e a r e d i n 1909 t o p r e s e r v e t h e n a t i v e t r e e s and p r o v i d e a r e s t a r e a . The name comes from t h e use o f th e park by s c h o o l b o y s t o s e t t l e t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s and t h e r e s u l t i n g a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h f i g h t i n g . The park remains today i n i t s i n t e n d e d use. The F r i e n d s h i p Gardens (Photo 26) were b u i l t i n 1963 as a t r i b u t e t o New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s s i s t e r c i t y o f M o r i g u c h i i n Japan. The s i t e was chosen because i n 1962, h u r r i c a n e 'Freda' I (25) T i p p e r a r y Park. (26) F r i e n d s h i p Gardens. blew down most o f the t r e e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n o f T i p p e r a r y Park. The gardens combine f e a t u r e s o f the b a s i c Japanese garden and 81 the Canadian i n f o r m a l s t y l e (New W e s t m i n s t e r Parks and R e c r e a -t i o n Department, 19" 76). Begbie Square, l o c a t e d on Mackenzie S t r e e t between Agnes and Carnarvon, i s a r e c e n t l y c o n s t r u c t e d urban park (Photo 27) I t i s l o c a t e d on a s t e e p s t r e e t , w i t h l a r g e - s c a l e l a n d s c a p i n g (such as s t e p s and major p l a n t i n g ) c o n t r i b u t i n g t o i t s promi-nence. (27) Begbie Square. The park a l s o has an h i s t o r i c a l f ocus w i t h a s t a t u e o f S i r Matthew B a i l l i e Begbie l o c a t e d i n a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n . Beg b i e a r r i v e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1858 t o a c t as judge i n t h e new c o l o n y . He was s u c c e s s i v e l y t h e C h i e f J u s t i c e o f t h e main^ l a n d c o l o n y , the u n i t e d c o l o n y , and t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Begbie i s commonly known as t h e 'Hanging Judge' due t o h i s r e p u t a t i o n f o r toughness i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f c r i m i n a l law. 82. L a n d s c a p i n g can be used t o t i e an a r e a t o g e t h e r by p r o -v i d i n g a common element, such as p l a n t i n g , p a v i n g , o r lamp p o s t s . An attempt has been made i n t h i s r e g a r d a l o n g Columbia S t r e e t (Photo 28) b u t t h e m a t e r i a l s and d e s i g n used do not b r i n g out the a r e a ' s h i s t o r i c c h a r a c t e r . (28) L a n d s c a p i n g a l o n g Columbia S t r e e t . Landmarks Landmarks a r e elements i n t h e n a t u r a l o r b u i l t e n v i r o n -ment w h i c h a c t as r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s t o make t h e c i t y more l e g -i b l e t o i t s u s e r s . Landmarks may be n a t u r a l r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s , such as h i l l s and w a t e r , o r they may be elements i n the urban environment, such as s t r u c t u r e s , s i t e s , o r p a r k s . 83. In some i n s t a n c e s , n a t u r a l and b u i l t combine t o c r e a t e a landmark. F o r example, a s t r u c t u r e may become prominent due t o i t s l o c a t i o n on a r i d g e o r h i l l t o p . The q u a l i t i e s o f a landmark r e l a t e t o t h e reasons f o r i t s prominence o r i t s b e i n g s i n g l e d out from an a r r a y o f p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s . These q u a l i t i e s i n c l u d e : 1) dominance - - s i z e , l o c a t i o n , form; 2) s y m b o l i c o r h i s t o r i c i mportance — a s s o c i a t i o n o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f event, p e r s o n , f u n c t i o n , o r s e t o f v a l u e s ; 3) n a t u r a l -- l a n d and w a t e r f e a t u r e s , i n c l u d i n g t o p o g -raphy, w a t e r b o d i e s o r c o u r s e s , t r e e s o r o t h e r v e g e t a t i o n , s p e c i a l o r u n u s u a l v i e w s . F i g u r e 12 p r e s e n t s the l o c a t i o n o f some o f the Downtown's major landmarks. FOURTH S e c t i o n I I I : A P l a n f o r P r e s e r v a t i o n 85. S e c t i o n II d e s c r i b e s the p o t e n t i a l and problems i n Down-town New Westminster and forms a base from which t o develop the Plan f o r P r e s e r v a t i o n presented i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The Plan provides a framework to achieve p r e s e r v a t i o n through combining p u b l i c and p r i v a t e investment. The Plan i s presented as f o l l o w s : A. H e r i t a g e P r e c i n c t s B. Goals C. O b j e c t i v e s D. S t r a t e g i e s E. Funding F. O r g a n i z a t i o n s G. Implementation H. E v a l u a t i o n I. Conclusions A. Heritage P r e c i n c t s The v a s t m a j o r i t y o f b u i l d i n g s , e s p e c i a l l y commercial and i n d u s t r i a l , w i l l not have gr e a t h i s t o r i c or a r c h i t e c t u r a l s i g n i -f i c a n c e ( F i t c h , 1982); however, a t t e n t i o n has s h i f t e d t o areas or p r e c i n c t s because a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f these b u i l d i n g s may make them important as a group (Vancouver C i t y Planning Department, 1975). A c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f o l d e r s t r u c t u r e s o f t e n r e t a i n s the c h a r a c t e r and f e e l i n g o f the time p e r i o d i n which they were con-s t r u c t e d ; a p r e c i n c t may be u n i f i e d by a s i m i l a r use, a r c h i t e c -86. t u r a l s t y l e , t y p e o f b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l , o r s c a l e . H e r i t a g e p r e c i n c t s a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s e t t i n g as a whole; they possess a u n i t y i n t h e i r s h a red c h a r -a c t e r and components. Because o f t h e i r c o n s i s t e n c y and l i m i t e d s i z e , p r e c i n c t s can be more e f f e c t i v e l y planned and managed ( C i t y o f Ottawa, 1978). A d a p t i v e r e - u s e p r o v i d e s a means o f m a i n t a i n i n g b o t h t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e s t r e e t s c a p e and t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e b u i l d i n g s . T h i s form o f i n t e r v e n t i o n c a l l s f o r e x t e r i o r c o n s e r v a t i o n and o f t e n major i n t e r i o r r e n o v a t i o n . S i n c e t h e r o l e o f the b u i l d -i n g s i n t h e s t r e e t s c a p e i s 'more u r b a n i s t i c than n a r r o w l y a r c h i t e c t u r a l ' and few o f t h e i n t e r i o r s w i l l have s p e c i a l m e r i t , a d a p t i v e r e - u s e p l a y s a major r o l e i n t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f h e r -i t a g e p r e c i n c t s ( F i t c h , 1982). To d e t e r m i n e t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f h e r i t a g e p r e c i n c t s , t h e N a t i o n a l T r u s t f o r H i s t o r i c P r e s e r v a t i o n (1976) deve l o p e d a comprehensive s e t o f c r i t e r i a f o r d e f i n i n g edges o f h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s . These c r i t e r i a can be used i n d i v i d u a l l y o r i n com-b i n a t i o n depending on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r e c i n c t . 1) H i s t o r i c f a c t o r s a) b o u n d a r i e s o f an o r i g i n a l s e t t l e m e n t o r an e a r l y planned community; b) c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f e a r l y b u i l d i n g s and s i t e s . 2) V i s u a l f a c t o r s a) edges d e t e r m i n e d o r i n f l u e n c e d by an a r c h i t e c -t u r a l s u r v e y ; b) edges r e l a t e d t o development i n s t a g e s r a t h e r t h a n o v e r a c o n t i n u o u s p e r i o d ; 87. c) edges based on t o p o g r a p h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ; d) edges drawn t o i n c l u d e gateways, e n t r a n c e s and v i s t a s t o and from a d i s t r i c t . 3) P h y s i c a l f a c t o r s a) r a i l r o a d s , expressways and major highways; b) major open s p a c e s ; c) r i v e r s , marshlands and o t h e r n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s ; d) major changes i n l a n d use; e) w a l l s , embankments, fe n c e l i n e s ; f ) l i m i t s o f a s e t t l e d a r e a . 4) Surveyed l i n e s and l i n e s o f c o n v e n i e n c e a) l e g a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d boundary l i n e s ; b) s t r e e t s and o t h e r l o c a l r i g h t s o f way; c) p r o p e r t y l i n e s ; d) u n i f o r m s e t b a c k l i n e s ; e) l i n e s o f c o n v e n i e n c e , f o r example, c o n n e c t i n g two p o i n t s d e t e r m i n e d by o t h e r edge f a c t o r s . 5) P o l i t i c a l , economic and s o c i a l f a c t o r s a) p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , f o r example, p u b l i c l y owned p r o p e r t y ; b) s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s . S i g n i f i c a n t h e r i t a g e p r e c i n c t s a r e o f t e n l o c a t e d i n a c i t y ' s c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t and t h e s u r r o u n d i n g i n n e r c i t y a r e a s because t h e c o r e i s g e n e r a l l y t h e s i t e o f t h e o r i g i n a l s e t t l e m e n t . These c o r e a r e a s have c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f o l d e r b u i l d i n g s , and i n s m a l l e r urban c e n t r e s a r e o f t e n s u b j e c t t o d e t e r i o r a t i o n due t o c o n g e s t i o n , economic problems, and poor maintenance ( S t e w a r t , 1983). 8 8 . The h i s t o r y o f Canada i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e o l d e r b u i l d i n g s and neighbourhoods l o c a t e d i n o r near t h e downtown c o r e o f our c i t i e s . These o l d b u i l d i n g s and neighbourhoods, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l and s o c i a l i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e p e o p l e who use and l i v e i n them, o f t e n c o m prise i r r e p l a c e a b l e and o u t s t a n d i n g symbols o f our n a t i o n ' s h i s -t o r y and h e r i t a g e . Some may be o f n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , o t h e r s p r o v i n c i a l , o t h e r s l o c a l . ( M a c N e i l l , 1 9 7 1 ) Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r p o s s e s s e s many unique f e a t u r e s w h i c h i d e n t i f y i t as a d i s t r i c t w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r C i t y , b u t w i t h i n t h i s d i s t r i c t h e r i t a g e a r e a s o r p r e c i n c t s can be i d e n -t i f i e d due t o t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e p h y s i c a l , f u n c t i o n a l , and h i s -t o r i c c h a r a c t e r . The f e a t u r e s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n i n t e r -r e l a t e t o c r e a t e a d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r f o r each H e r i t a g e P r e -c i n c t i n t h e Downtown. These P r e c i n c t s a r e i d e n t i f i e d a s : 1) C o l l e g e / C o u r t s P r e c i n c t 2) Columbia S t r e e t P r e c i n c t ; and 3 ) F r a s e r R i v e r Market P r e c i n c t . T h e i r l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e Downtown a r e shown i n F i g u r e 1 3 . 90. 1) C o l l e g e / C o u r t s P r e c i n c t The C o l l e g e / C o u r t s P r e c i n c t i d e n t i f i e s t h e a r e a i n d i c a t e d oppo s i t e , r o u g h l y between S i x t h and E i g h t h S t r e e t s from t h e s o u t h s i d e o f R o y a l Avenue t o the n o r t h s i d e o f Carnarvon S t r e e t . T h i s P r e c i n c t has h i s t o r i -c a l l y c o n t a i n e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l uses The Old Courthouse was f i r s t c o n s t r u c t e d i n 1891, designed by G.W. G r a n t . I t was g u t t e d i n t h e 1898 f i r e (Photo 29) and • r e s t o r e d i n 1899. (29) Courthouse a f t e r t h e f i r e , September 1898. (New W e s t m i n s t e r P u b l i c L i b r a r y ) I t remains on Carnarvon S t r e e t (Photo 30) as t h e o n l y major Courthouse on the m a i n l a n d where S i r Matthew B a i l l i e Begbie passed judgement i n B.C.'s e a r l y days (Chambers, 1979) 91. (30) Courthouse, January 1901 (New W e s t m i n s t e r P u b l i c L i b r a r y ) The C a r n e g i e L i b r a r y was a l s o l o c a t e d i n t h i s P r e c i n c t u n t i l i t was t o r n down i n t h e 1950's. I t was l o c a t e d on t h e s i t e now o c c u p i e d by t h e new Law C o u r t s and t h i s s i t e i s s t i l l r e f e r r e d t o as 'the o l d C a r n e g i e L i b r a r y s i t e ' by many l o n g -t i me r e s i d e n t s . The new s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e Law C o u r t s and Douglas C o l l e g e complex a r e now t h e dominant i n s t i t u t i o n a l uses i n t h e C o l l e g e / C o u r t s P r e c i n c t and Ihave begun t o s t r o n g l y e s t a b l i s h i t s a c t i v -i t y c h a r a c t e r . New and complementary uses have moved i n t o the C o l l e g e / C o u r t s P r e c i n c t . The ' C o l l e g e P l a c e H o t e l ' now o c c u p i e s the r e n o v a t e d b u i l d i n g w h i c h was p r e v i o u s l y known as the R u s s e l l H o t e l . ' C o l l e g e P l a c e ' , w i t h i t s b a r and d i s c o , has q u i c k l y become one o f the C i t y ' s most p o p u l a r n i g h t s p o t s . The P r e -c i n c t c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l o t h e r r e s t a u r a n t s and n i g h t c l u b s . 92. i n c l u d i n g 'The Bench and G a v e l 1 r e s t a u r a n t l o c a t e d n e x t t o t h e Law C o u r t s . New o f f i c e and r e t a i l space has a l s o l o c a t e d i n t h e C o l -l e g e / C o u r t s P r e c i n c t i n t h e form o f t h e b u i l d i n g s known as 'Queen's C o u r t ' and 'Carnarvon P l a c e ' . The remainder o f t h e P r e c i n c t i s g e n e r a l l y i n a s t a t e o f t r a n s i t i o n . S e v e r a l o f the s t o r e s and o f f i c e s a r e p r e s e n t l y v a c a n t and some o f the uses w h i c h have become i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r appear t o be moving (such as R o y a l C i t y G l a s s ) . The P r e c i n c t c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l s u r f a c e p a r k i n g and v a c a n t l o t s . The edges o f t h e C o l l e g e / C o u r t s P r e c i n c t a r e d e f i n e d by R o y a l Avenue on t h e n o r t h and E i g h t h S t r e e t on t h e west, b o t h w ide and h e a v i l y used s t r e e t s . The o t h e r edges o f the P r e -c i n c t a r e l e s s s h a r p l y d e f i n e d by p h y s i c a l b o u n d a r i e s , b u t r a t h e r a r e d e t e r m i n e d by uses and a s p e c t ; t h e C o l l e g e / C o u r t s P r e c i n c t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s i n s t i t u t i o n a l and r e l a t e d uses and by i t s e n c l o s e d , i n w a r d - l o o k i n g n a t u r e . F o r example, th e b u i l d i n g s a l o n g Carnarvon S t r e e t f a c e i n t o the P r e c i n c t and a r e s p a t i a l l y as w e l l as f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l a n c hors. On t h e o t h e r hand, t h o s e b u i l d i n g s w h i c h f a c e onto R o y a l Avenue and S i x t h S t r e e t a r e not t i e d s p a t i a l l y o r f u n c -t i o n a l l y t o t h e P r e c i n c t and a r e not i n c l u d e d . W i t h i n t h e P r e c i n c t , i n d i v i d u a l elements a r e l i n k e d t o g e t h e r s p a t i a l l y and v i s u a l l y . The l i n k between Carnarvon S t r e e t and t h e Douglas C o l l e g e complex i s shown i n Photos 31 and 32. (32) L i n k between Douglas C o l l e g e and Carnarvon S t r e e t . 94 T h i s l i n k c o n t i n u e s r e i n f o r c e d by the p a v i n g p a t t e r n and o t h e r l a n d -scape d e t a i l s , t o t h e t o p o f Begbie Square and the Law C o u r t s (Photo 3 3 ) . (33) Top o f Begbie Square^ The p a v i n g m a t e r i a l s and t e x t u r e change i n Begbie Square b u t o t h e r elements remain c o n s t a n t -- such as r a i l i n g s , s tepped c o n f i g u r a t i o n , and p l a n t i n g -- t o l i n k Agnes t o Carnarvon S t r e e t t h r o u g h the Square (Photo 34) . (34) Begbie Square. (3 5) View d o w n r i v e r from Douglas C o l l e g e Views a l s o h e l p t o t i e t h e P r e c i n c t t o g e t h e r . Panoramic views o f t h e R i v e r can be o b t a i n e d from the v i e w p o i n t a t t h e southwest c o r n e r o f t h e Douglas C o l l e g e Complex (Photo 3 5 ) . An u n u s u a l v i e w w i t h i n t h e P r e c i n c t i s a v a i l a b l e up Seventh S t r e e t t o S t . P a u l ' s Church (Photo 3 6 ) . (36) S t . P a u l ' s Church. 96. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c v iews o f the F r a s e r R i v e r a r e a v a i l a b l e down the n o r t h - s o u t h s t r e e t s . Examples o f t h e s e c o r r i d o r v iews can be seen i n Photos 3 2 and 34. The C o l l e g e / C o u r t s P r e c i n c t c o n t a i n s s i g n i f i c a n t h i s t o r i c b u i l d i n g s w h i c h h e l p t o e s t a b l i s h i t s v i s u a l c h a r a c t e r . The r e d d i s h b r i c k e x t e r i o r o f t h e Old Courthouse and Land Registry-O f f i c e , a l o n g w i t h t h e c a r v e d s t o n e d e t a i l s and h i p r o o f dom-i n a t e t h e v i s u a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e Carnarvon s t r e e t s c a p e (Photos 37, 38, and 3 9 ) . (37) S i d e v i e w o f t h e O l d Courthouse. (39) Old Land R e g i s t r y O f f i c e . 98. S e v e r a l o t h e r o l d b u i l d i n g s i n t h e P r e c i n c t o c c u r a l o n g Carnarvon S t r e e t and, a l t h o u g h not h i s t o r i c a l l y o r a r c h i t e c -t u r a l l y o u t s t a n d i n g , they h e l p t o c r e a t e a s t r e e t s c a p e w h i c h i s h i s t o r i c and unique i n t h e C i t y . The p a t t e r n o f b r i c k and sto n e i s c o n t i n u e d i n s e v e r a l n e i g h b o u r i n g b u i l d i n g s . Photo 40 shows t h e use o f v e r y s i m i l a r c o l o u r s , m a t e r i a l s , and d e t a i l s . (40) 628 Carnarvon S t r e e t . Photos 41 and 42 show s t y l e s , m a t e r i a l s , c o l o u r s , and o t h e r d e t a i l s w h i c h p r o v i d e a c o n t r a s t b u t remain complemen-t a r y t o the s t r e e t s c a p e . The b u i l d i n g p r e s e n t l y o c c u p i e d by R o y a l c i t y G l a s s com-b i n e s elements from t h e two d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s (Photo 4 3 ) . T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n was more apparent b e f o r e t h e upper facade was a l t e r e d and ground f l o o r covered (Photo 4 4 ) . 99. (41) C o l l e g e P l a c e H o t e l on Carnarvon S t r e e t . (42) A d j a c e n t b u i l d i n g f r o n t i n g on Begbie S t r e e t . (44) R o y a l C i t y G l a s s as i t l o o k e d i n 1954. (New W e s t m i n s t e r P u b l i c L i b r a r y ) 101. Most o f t h e new s t r u c t u r e s i n t h e C o l l e g e / C o u r t s P r e -c i n c t have attempted t o f o l l o w t h e r e d d i s h b r i c k o r p a l e s t o n e theme s e t by t h e o l d b u i l d i n g s . Photo 45 shows a new b u i l d i n g w h i c h i m i t a t e s t h e s t y l e o f the Old Courthouse w i t h i t s a r c h e d windows and h i p r o o f . (45) Bench and G a v e l R e s t a u r a n t . The Douglas C o l l e g e complex a l s o uses r e d d i s h b r i c k i n t h e main s t r u c t u r e and as a d e t a i l i n i t s l a n d s c a p i n g (Photo 46) . The b r i c k d e t a i l i n t h e p a v i n g h e l p s t o l i n k t h e complex w i t h Begbie Square and w i t h t h e 'Queen's C o u r t ' o f f i c e s (Photo 47) . Begbie Square i s paved w i t h p a l e s t o n e s i m i l a r i n c o l o u r t o t h e C o l l e g e P l a c e H o t e l and t h e s t o n e d e t a i l s i n s e v e r a l o f t h e o t h e r b u i l d i n g s i n t h e P r e c i n c t (Photo 4 8 ) . 102. The p a l e c o l o u r t i e s t h e Law C o u r t s and 'Queen's C o u r t ' t o g e t h e r and t o t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e a r e a (Photos 47 and 48). 103 (48) The Law C o u r t s and Begbie Square. The use o f g l a s s i n t h e t h r e e major new s t r u c t u r e s a l s o p r o v i d e s c o n s i s t e n c y t o t h e P r e c i n c t ' s b u i l t form (Photos 46, 47, and 4 8 ) . In g e n e r a l , the C o l l e g e / C o u r t s P r e c i n c t has a human s c a l e . Most o f t h e b u i l d i n g s a r e two t o t h r e e s t o r e y s h i g h and t h e facade l i n e s a r e b r o k e n up e i t h e r by d i s t i n c t s t r u c -t u r a l s e p a r a t i o n o r by a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t a i l . Most b u i l d i n g s a r e not s e t back from t h e s i d e w a l k . The Carnarvon P l a c e mixed-use b u i l d i n g i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e s c a l e o f the P r e c i n c t . I t s g r o u n d - l e v e l s t o r e f r o n t s a r e s e t back from t h e s i d e w a l k and i t p r e s e n t s a s t r o n g l y h o r i z o n t a l unbroken t h r e e s t o r e y facade t o the s t r e e t w i t h i t s r e m a i n i n g seventeen s t o r e y s s e t back s l i g h t l y (Photo 4 9 ) . The h e i g h t o f t h i s b u i l d i n g i s d i s r u p t i v e t o t h e e n t i r e P r e c i n c t , 104. not j u s t t h e Carnarvon s t r e e t -scape. I t b l o c k s views and v i s u a l l y i n t r u d e s i n t o t h e e n t i r e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a . The Law Courts i s a l s o r a t h e r massive b u t i t s h e i g h t a t any one l e v e l i s l i m i t e d t o f o u r s t o r e y s . I t s facades a r e b r o k e n up by v e r t i c a l d e t a i l s and windows. The l a n d s c a p i n g i n i t s stepped c o n f i g u r a t i o n a l s o h e l p s t o reduce th e p e r c e p t i o n o f the b u i l d i n g ' s mass (Photo 50) (49) Carnarvon P l a c e . (50) The Law Courts f a c i n g Carnarvon S t r e e t . 105. The mass o f t h e Law C o u r t s and Douglas C o l l e g e complex i s a l s o b r o k e n up by t h e topography. These s t r u c t u r e s a r e b u i l t i n a stepped c o n f i g u r a t i o n w h i c h responds t o t h e topography. Thus, a t any one l e v e l , t h e h e i g h t o f t h e s t r u c t u r e i s not g r e a t e r t h a n f o u r s t o r e y s . The C o l l e g e / C o u r t s P r e c i n c t s h o u l d a t t r a c t i n s t i t u t i o n -r e l a t e d u ses, such as o f f i c e , p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e , and some r e t a i l . The ALRT l i n e i s i n t e n d e d t o run on an e l e v a t e d t r a c k down Car-narvon S t r e e t w i t h a s t a t i o n l o c a t e d a t E i g h t h and Carnarvon. The p r e s e n c e o f t h e e l e v a t e d t r a c k w i l l l i k e l y be v i s u a l l y d i s -r u p t i v e t o t h e Carn a r v o n s t r e e t s c a p e , b u t t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e ALRT s t a t i o n a d j a c e n t t o t h e P r e c i n c t c o u l d prove b e n e f i c i a l t o th e h e r i t a g e p r e s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s . I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e s t a t i o n w i l l a t t r a c t i n v e s t m e n t t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a . H i g h e r d e n s i t y development c o u l d be d i r e c t e d t o l o c a t e a c r o s s E i g h t h S t r e e t from t h e C o l l e g e / C o u r t s P r e c i n c t , thus a l l e v i a t -i n g p r e s s u r e f o r redevelopment t o a h i g h e r use w i t h i n t h e P r e -c i n c t . The P r e c i n c t o f f e r s a unique o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d e v e l o p -ment c o m p a t i b l e w i t h i t s c h a r a c t e r and t h e ALRT may h e l p t o a t t r a c t such i n v e s t m e n t . The C o l l e g e / C o u r t s P r e c i n c t d e r i v e s i t s e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c -t e r from i t s dominant i n s t i t u t i o n a l uses and s i g n i f i c a n t h i s -t o r i c b u i l d i n g s ; t h e t o t a l environment communicates t h e P r e -c i n c t 's c h a r a c t e r t h r o u g h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between b u i l d i n g s i n t h e s t r e e t s c a p e and t h e l i n k a g e s c r e a t e d by l a n d s c a p i n g . 106. 2) Columbia S t r e e t P r e c i n c t S IM efc 3£ if 9 0 4 Columbia S t r e e t i s one o f the l o n g e s t 'main s t r e e t s ' i n B r i t i s h Columbia, s t r e t c h i n g from th e CPR s t a t i o n eastward a l o n g t h e f l a t l a n d n e x t t o t h e F r a s e r R i v e r . The Columbia S t r e e t P r e c i n c t was h i s t o r i c a l l y t h e p r i n c i p a l shopping a r e a i n t h e Downtown (Photo 51). (51) Columbia S t r e e t , c. 1903. (New W e s t m i n s t e r P u b l i c L i b r a r y ) A c t i v i t i e s a l o n g Columbia c o n t i n u e t o be p r i m a r i l y r e t a i l and s e r v i c e o r i e n t e d . I t c o n t a i n s e n t e r t a i n m e n t f a c i l i t i e s , such as t h e a t r e s , r e s t a u r a n t s , and n i g h t c l u b s , as w e l l as sev-e r a l banks, t h e f e d e r a l p o s t o f f i c e , and numerous shops and b u s i n e s s e s . Columbia S t r e e t i s l o n g and s t r a i g h t . I t s ends are d e f i n e d by t h e o l d CPR s t a t i o n ('Keg a t t h e S t a t i o n ' r e s t a u -r a n t . Photo 52) t o t h e southwest and F o u r t h S t r e e t t o the n o r t h e a s t . The s h o p p i n g n a t u r e o f the s t r e e t changes a t F o u r t h 107. ( r e f l e c t i n g C o l o n e l Moody's o r i g i n a l p l a n ) and t h i s change i n use marks the edge o f t h e Columbia S t r e e t P r e c i n c t . (52) CPR S t a t i o n a t E i g h t h and Columbia. The P r e c i n c t i s f u r t h e r d e f i n e d by i t s l o c a t i o n on t h e f l a t l a n d n e x t t o t h e R i v e r . Columbia S t r e e t runs between t h e w a t e r f r o n t and t h e s t e e p s l o p e s o f t h e R i v e r bank. The Holy T r i n i t y C a t h e d r a l i s v i s u a l l y p a r t o f Columbia S t r e e t P r e c i n c t because o f t h e v i e w o f i t w h i c h i s a v a i l a b l e up Church S t r e e t (Photo 53). Panoramic views up and down t h e R i v e r a r e a v a i l a b l e from the v i e w p o i n t a t t h e f o o t o f F o u r t h S t r e e t where Columbia b e g i n s t o r i s e and t h e R i v e r t o c u r v e . The c h a r a c t e r o f the Columbia S t r e e t P r e c i n c t i s prima-r i l y due t o i t s b u i l d i n g s and f u n c t i o n s w h i c h g i v e i t a t r a d i -t i o n a l 'main s t r e e t ' f l a v o u r . 108 (53) Holy T r i n i t y C a t h e d r a l . The b u i l d i n g h e i g h t s range from one t o e i g h t s t o r e y s but most of t h e b u i l d i n g s a r e between two and f o u r s t o r e y s . S t o r e f r o n t s a r e g e n e r a l l y f a i r l y narrow (Photo 54). (54) South s i d e o f Columbia and S i x t h S t r e e t . 109. Columbia S t r e e t has two l a n e s o f t r a f f i c w i t h d i a g o n a l p a r k i n g on b o t h s i d e s w h i c h h e l p s t o reduce t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f i t s w i d t h . S i d e w a l k s a r e a l s o wide and p e d e s t r i a n c r o s s i n g s a t each i n t e r s e c t i o n h e l p t o f a c i l i t a t e p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c . An attempt has been made t o t i e t h e s t r e e t t o g e t h e r t h r o u g h t h e use o f l a n d s c a p i n g . P l a n t e r s , t r e e s , and lamp s t a n d a r d s a r e p l a c e d a t i n t e r v a l s down the l e n g t h o f Columbia S t r e e t b u t t h e m a t e r i a l s and d e s i g n used do not r e f l e c t t h e h i s t o r i c c h a r a c t e r o f the s t r e e t s c a p e (Photo 55) and they a r e not w e l l - m a i n t a i n e d . (55) L a n d s c a p i n g a l o n g Columbia S t r e e t . The Columbia S t r e e t P r e c i n c t c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l s i g n i f i -c a n t h e r i t a g e b u i l d i n g s and many o t h e r b u i l d i n g s w h i c h d a t e back t o t h e e a r l y decades o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . The o l d e s t b u i l d i n g s , t h e B u r r and Guichon B l o c k s , a r e t h e o n l y b u i l d i n g s 110. (56) B u r r and Guichon b l o c k s j u s t a f t e r 1898 f i r e . (New W e s t m i n s t e r P u b l i c L i b r a r y ) w h i c h s u r v i v e d the 18 98 f i r e (Photo 56). The We s t m i n s t e r T r u s t B u i l d -i n g was t h e C i t y ' s f i r s t s k y s c r a p e r (Photo 57). The o l d Bank o f Commerce i s w e l l - m a i n t a i n e d and c o n t i n u e s i t s b a n k i n g f u n c t i o n (Photo 58). Other b u i l d i n g s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e Colum-b i a S t r e e t P r e c i n c t ' s c h a r a c t e r a r e shown i n Photos 59 t h r o u g h 63. (57) W e s t m i n s t e r T r u s t B u i l d i n g . (58) Bank o f Commerce a t S i x t h and Columbia. (59) 632 Columbia S t r e e t . 114. R e n o v a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s a l o n g Columbia S t r e e t has mostly-o c c u r r e d a t s t r e e t l e v e l w h i l e t h e upper f l o o r s o f t e n remain untouched. F o r example, Photos 64 and 6 5 show the r e n o v a t i o n s o f t h e b u i l d i n g p r e s e n t l y o c c u p i e d by Z e l l e r s . (64) Spencers b u i l d i n g , 1940. (Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y ) (65) Spencers b u i l d i n g , 1984. Note removal o f c o r n i c e and c o v e r i n g o f lower f a c a d e . 115. The Downtown P l a n (1978) proposes t h a t Columbia S t r e e t remain as a p r i n c i p a l l y r e t a i l s t r e e t , w i t h some o f f i c e , p e r -s o n a l s e r v i c e , and e n t e r t a i n m e n t f u n c t i o n s . I t i s hoped t h a t t h e ALRT system w i l l r e i n f o r c e t h i s f u n c t i o n , b u t i f e f f o r t s a r e n o t made t o r e v i t a l i z e t h e Columbia S t r e e t P r e c i n c t , t h e t r a n s i t l i n k t o S u r r e y may r e s u l t i n growth a t t r a c t e d t h e r e i n s t e a d o f i n t o New W e s t m i n s t e r . The a n t i c i p a t e d new i n v e s t m e n t i n r e t a i l , s e r v i c e , and r e l a t e d uses a t t r a c t e d by t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e two ALRT s t a t i o n s a d j a c e n t t o t h e Columbia S t r e e t P r e c i n c t c o u l d be managed w i t h i n t h e P r e c i n c t ' t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e h i s t o r i c c h a r a c t e r and main s t r e e t f u n c t i o n . 116. 3) F r a s e r R i v e r Market P r e c i n c t |sauAfce[ New We s t m i n s t e r ' s o r i g i n a l C i t y Market, b u i l t i n 1892 and r e b u i l t a f t e r t h e f i r e i n 1898, was l o c a t e d on t h e w a t e r -f r o n t o p p o s i t e L y t t o n Square. T h i s market s e r v e d as t h e major t r a d e c e n t r e f o r the farmers o f t h e lower F r a s e r V a l l e y (Photos 66 and 6 7 ) . (66) P r e - f i r e C i t y Market. ( P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , V i c t o r i a ) In 192 5, the w a t e r f r o n t b u i l d i n g was d e s t r o y e d and t h e Market moved a c r o s s F r o n t S t r e e t t o L y t t o n Square. The market moved a g a i n i n the 1940's t o the s i t e near E l e v e n t h S t r e e t w h i c h i s c u r r e n t l y o c c u p i e d by the Farmer's Market. (67) C i t y Market, c. 1905. ( P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , V i c t o r i a ) The new F r a s e r R i v e r Market was r e -c e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e o r i g i n a l 1892 s i t e o p p o s i t e L y t t o n Square. I t i s housed by a l o n g warehouse between t h e R i v e r and the r a i l r o a d t r a c k s (Photo 6 8 ) . The F r a s e r R i v e r Market i s a p u b l i c mar-k e t where s t a l l s a r e s e t up by l o c a l b u s i n e s s people t o s e l l goods. (68) F r a s e r R i v e r Market. 118 The a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e s t a l l s i s d e l i b e r a t e l y planned and the market o p e r a t e s d u r i n g t h e day on F r i d a y , S a t u r d a y , and Sunday On t h e w a t e r f r o n t , a d j a c e n t t o t h e Market b u i l d i n g , p i c -n i c benches and some p o t t e d t r e e s have been p r o v i d e d where p a t r o n s can s i t and e n j o y panoramic views up and down the F r a s e r and a c r o s s t o t h e S u r r e y h i l l s . The P a t u l l o and r a i l -way b r i d g e s can be seen from h e r e w i t h t h e moun-t a i n s beyond (Photo 6 9 ) . Tugboats, b a r g e s , and o t h e r r i v e r t r a f f i c can a l s o be viewed from t h i s w a t e r f r o n t vantage p o i n t . Dock f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e Samson V steam-b o a t museum a r e a c c e s s e d from t h e Market s i t e . The F r a s e r R i v e r Market P r e c i n c t i s s i g -n i f i c a n t as a h e r i t a g e (69) Access t o the r i v e r f r o n t . a r e a due t o i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h h i s t o r i c events and a c t i v i -t i e s . The Market s i t e i s p r e s e n t l y e n c l o s e d by a fence t o l i m i t t h e p o t e n t i a l dangers a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e R i v e r and the a d j a c e n t r a i l r o a d uses. The P r e c i n c t i s v i s u a l l y s e p a r a t e d from F r o n t S t r e e t by t h e columns and s t r u c t u r e o f t h e parkade. 119. Access from t h e Downtown i s a c r o s s F r o n t S t r e e t t o a narrow 'path' a c r o s s t h e r a i l r o a d t r a c k s and t h r o u g h an e q u a l l y narrow opening i n t h e c h a i n - l i n k f e n c e . The p a t h i s unmarked and r a t h e r awkward s i n c e one must w a l k o v e r r u s t y r a i l s and s p l i t , uneven, r o t t i n g t i e s (Photo 70; no t e t h e e n t r a n c e i s between t h e two s i g n s (70) E n t r a n c e t o t h e Market. hung on t h e f e n c e ) . The w a t e r f r o n t p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the r e d e v e l o p -ment p r o p o s a l s f o r Downtown New We s t m i n s t e r . I t i s i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e a unique l o c a t i o n f o r new medium- t o h i g h - d e n s i t y h o u s i n g . C o n s t r u c t i o n i s a n t i c i p a t e d t o b e g i n b e f o r e 1986 and s h o u l d a t t r a c t a v a r i e t y o f r e t a i l and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e uses t o t h e a r e a . The Market P r e c i n c t s h o u l d become a d i s t i n c t i v e element i n t h e w a t e r f r o n t redevelopment p r o p o s a l s and w i l l p r o v i d e i m p o r t a n t p u b l i c a c c e s s t o the w a t e r f r o n t . The p u b l i c market use on i t s h i s t o r i c s i t e on t h e F r a s e r R i v e r c r e a t e s the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r unique shopping and t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n w i t h i n the Downtown and p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h i n t h e proposed w a t e r f r o n t 120. r e s i d e n t i a l development. Thus, the Fraser River Market i s defined by i t s a c t i v i -t i e s and t h e i r h i s t o r i c associations; however, for the area to develop as a strong precinct within the City, i t s h i s t o r i c ' associations should be preserved and i t s environment and acces-s i b i l i t y improved. For example, the h i s t o r i c character can be promoted through the use of inter p r e t i v e signs and pamphlets, staging of events, or a r t i c l e s and advertising i n l o c a l news-papers. Access can be improved by providing a paved path across the ra i l r o a d tracks to prevent accidents and make the Precinct more phy s i c a l l y accessible. Through the use of d i s -t i n c t i v e paving materials, fencing, and signage the entry can be emphasized to increase i t s v i s i b i l i t y and help to orient v i s i t o r s . When the r e s i d e n t i a l development begins the Market Precinct can provide an a c t i v i t y focus for the waterfront. 121. B. Goal The goal of the Downtown's Plan for Preservation i s : -- improve and enhance the physical environment, the economic base, and the l i v e a b i l i t y of the City through maintaining and preserving the ov e r a l l character and i d e n t i t y of the City. C. Objectives The s p e c i f i c objectives of the Downtown's Plan for Pres-ervation are: 1) to manage change so that the Downtown's esse n t i a l character and function remain i n t a c t ; 2) to emphasize the sig n i f i c a n c e of the t o t a l setting or environment rather than i n d i v i d u a l buildings; 3) to encourage continued use or re-use of old b u i l d -ings so that they remain as functional and economic components i n the Downtown; and 4) to develop and enhance the Downtown's potential as an economic and h i s t o r i c place. 122. D. S t r a t e g i e s The f o l l o w i n g s t r a t e g i e s are proposed to achieve the o b j e c t i v e s f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n i n the Downtown. 1) E s t a b l i s h h e r i t a g e p r e c i n c t s as u n i t s f o r preserva-t i o n planning. W i t h i n the Downtown, nodes or concentrations of p a r t i c -u l a r uses occur which possess a d i s t i n c t i v e p h y s i c a l and h i s -t o r i c character. By preserving these nodes or h e r i t a g e pre-c i n c t s , the t o t a l s e t t i n g or environment i s recognized as being more s i g n i f i c a n t than i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g s . The p r e c i n c t s are composed of a s e r i e s of p r o p e r t i e s which group l o g i c a l l y together and are u n i f i e d by t h e i r shared character. The College/Courts, Columbia S t r e e t , and Fraser R i v e r Market P r e c i n c t s have been i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n Downtown New Westminster. These three P r e c i n c t s form the b a s i c u n i t s f o r preserva-t i o n planning i n the Downtown. Each P r e c i n c t i s c o n s i s t e n t i n character and manageable i n s i z e and so provides a u n i t which enables more e f f e c t i v e planning to take place. Consistent and s p e c i f i c concepts can be developed f o r each P r e c i n c t a l l o w i n g each to e s t a b l i s h i t s own d i s t i n c t i v e character. The Heritage P r e c i n c t s should be e s t a b l i s h e d under the C i t y ' s Zoning Bylaws to provide a framework w i t h i n which pres-e r v a t i o n and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n can be undertaken. This type of r e s t r i c t e d area r e g u l a t i o n recognizes t h a t the area's character may be dis r u p t e d by the a l t e r a t i o n or removal and replacement 123. o f one o r more o f a group o f b u i l d i n g s whose c h a r a c t e r comes from the t o t a l p i c t u r e (Cook, 1980). I t a l s o a l l o w s t h e re g u -l a t i o n o f c e r t a i n elements. such as l o c a t i o n , s e t b a c k , and b u i l d i n g h e i g h t and mass, w h i c h a r e e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t s i n the P r e c i n c t ' s o v e r a l l c h a r a c t e r . D e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s s h o u l d a l s o be i n c l u d e d t o c o n t r o l e x t e r i o r facade changes w h i c h c o u l d prove v i s u a l l y d i s r u p t i v e t o the s t r e e t s c a p e as a whole. 2) R e i n f o r c e t h e f u n c t i o n a l elements w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e  t o t h e i d e n t i t y and u n i t y o f t h e Downtown's H e r i t a g e  P r e c i n c t s . a) B u i l d i n g s i n t h e P r e c i n c t s s h o u l d c o n t a i n uses and t e n a n t s w h i c h r e f l e c t t h e n a t u r e o f the P r e c i n c t . The q u a l i t y o f t h e environment s h o u l d be improved t h r o u g h t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f i n c o m p a t i b l e and u n d e s i r a b l e uses and s t r u c -t u r e s . Each P r e c i n c t has a d i s t i n c t i v e f u n c t i o n w h i c h must be r e i n f o r c e d . C e r t a i n uses s h o u l d be phased out and r e p l a c e d w i t h uses w h i c h a r e more c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e n a t u r e o f t h e P r e c i n c t . b) Space s h o u l d be used more e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h i n t h e P r e c i n c t s . New development s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d toward v a c a n t , ' underdeveloped, o r d e r e l i c t p r o p e r t y . O f t e n t h e f l o o r s above s t r e e t l e v e l a r e u n d e r - u t i l i z e d o r not o c c u p i e d a t a l l and more e f f e c t i v e use c o u l d be made o f t h i s space f o r o f f i c e and r e s i -d e n t i a l uses. T h i s use would p r o v i d e a w i d e r v a r i e t y o f s e r -v i c e s w i t h i n a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l a r e a w h i l e r e t a i n i n g t h e e s s e n -t i a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e P r e c i n c t . c) H i s t o r i c o r s i m p l y o l d e r b u i l d i n g s s h o u l d be a l i v i n g , f u n c t i o n n i n g p a r t o f the Downtown. A d a p t i v e r e - u s e i s t he p r o c e s s by w h i c h s t r u c t u r a l l y sound o l d e r b u i l d i n g s a r e developed f o r e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e new uses (Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , 1978). The main h e r i t a g e v a l u e o f t h e s e b u i l d i n g s i s i n t h e i r a e s t h e t i c r o l e i n t h e s t r e e t s c a p e , t h u s the e x t e -r i o r i s g e n e r a l l y s u b j e c t t o more c o n s e r v a t i v e measures w h i l e the i n t e r i o r can o f t e n be a l t e r e d e x t e n s i v e l y ( F i t c h , 1982). Other p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s o f a d a p t i v e r e - u s e i n c l u d e : -- t h e q u a l i t y and i n h e r e n t c h a r a c t e r o f t h e o r i g -i n a l s t r u c t u r e i s r e t a i n e d ; — t h e r e e x i s t s t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r c o s t s a v i n g s d u r i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d ; -- o f t e n u n d e r u t i l i z e d p r o p e r t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e w h i c h have s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n s ; — p r o p e r t y v a l u e s on s u r r o u n d i n g l a n d uses may r i s e ; and — awareness, u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and c o o p e r a t i o n o f v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t groups may i n c r e a s e . (Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , 1978) 3) Ensure t h a t t h e p h y s i c a l changes w h i c h o c c u r w i t h i n  t h e H e r i t a g e P r e c i n c t s a r e i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e c h a r -a c t e r o f t h e o r i g i n a l facades and s u r r o u n d i n g h i s - t o r i c b u i l d i n g s . R e n o v a t i o n s w h i c h a r e undertaken i n d i v i d u a l l y can some-ti m e s have u n f o r t u n a t e r e s u l t s . P h y s i c a l changes a r e made i n the name o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n w h i c h a r e not i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r o f the o r i g i n a l f a c a d e s . I n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t s a r e r a r e l y c o o r d i n a t e d t o produce a u n i f i e d e f f e c t i n t h e s t r e e t -scape. 1 2 5 . The H e r i t a g e P r e c i n c t s i n Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r o f f e r an o p p o r t u n i t y t o c a p i t a l i z e on t h e i r uniqueness and h i s t o r i c c h a r a c t e r and t o promote themselves as s t r o n g a c t i v i t y c e n t r e s i n t h e C i t y . a) M i s g u i d e d improvements — such as c o v e r i n g t h e lower facade o f a b u i l d i n g w i t h aluminum s i d i n g -- can need-l e s s l y h i d e and d i m i n i s h t h e c h a r a c t e r and s t y l e o f Downtown's b u i l d i n g s and P r e c i n c t s . A l t e r a t i o n s o r improvements t o b u i l d -i n g s i n H e r i t a g e P r e c i n c t s s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e i r o r i g i n a l f e a t u r e s and c h a r a c t e r . P r o p e r t y owners s h o u l d a l s o be encouraged t o r e s t o r e o l d b u i l d i n g d e t a i l s and t o d e s i g n and l o c a t e s i g n s , c a n o p i e s and o t h e r f e a t u r e s t o r e i n f o r c e t h e s t y l e , s c a l e , and h i s t o r i c c h a r a c t e r o f t h e b u i l d i n g and i t s P r e c i n c t . b) O r i g i n a l b u i l d i n g s s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d i n t h e Her-i t a g e P r e c i n c t s where p o s s i b l e , w i t h new c o n s t r u c t i o n d i r e c t e d toward v a c a n t and underdeveloped s i t e s . New b u i l d i n g s s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y d e s i g n e d t o be c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g s t r e e t -scape. There s h o u l d be s i m i l a r i t y o r s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s i t i o n i n s c a l e , b u i l d i n g form and p r o p o r t i o n ; new b u i l d i n g s s h o u l d r e p e a t o r complement f e a t u r e s o f t h e o l d b u i l d i n g s , such as d e t a i l , t e x t u r e , c o l o u r , and m a t e r i a l s . New c o n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d a l s o r e s p e c t and emphasize t h e edges and n a t u r e o f t h e H e r i t a g e P r e c i n c t s . c) A D e s i g n Committee s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h j u r i s -d i c t i o n o v e r t h e Downtown's H e r i t a g e P r e c i n c t s t o approve p r o -p o s a l s f o r new c o n s t r u c t i o n and a l t e r a t i o n s t o b u i l d i n g s w i t h i n 126. the P r e c i n c t s . D e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s s h o u l d a l s o be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r each P r e c i n c t t o be used i n the r e v i e w o f p r o p o s a l s b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e Committee. These g u i d e l i n e s w i l l h e l p t o judge how s e n s i t i v e l y the p r o p o s a l s w i l l f i t i n t o t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e P r e c i n c t . The g u i d e l i n e s s h o u l d a l l o w c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s i m i l a r i t y o r c o m p a t a b i l i t y o f t h e b u i l d i n g ' s -- s e t b a c k from t h e s t r e e t ; — h e i g h t and s c a l e ; — c o m p o s i t i o n o f main volumes; — f a c a d e p r o p o r t i o n and d i r e c t i o n ; — p a t t e r n , s i z e and p r o p o r t i o n o f windows and e n t r a n c e s ; — m a t e r i a l ; -- t e x t u r e ; — c o l o u r ; — d e t a i l s ; and -- o r n a m e n t a t i o n ( B r o l i n , 1980). d) The C i t y s h o u l d p r o v i d e a programme o f t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e r e g a r d i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l c o s t s and r e s u l t s o f reno-v a t i o n s . T h i s a s s i s t a n c e would h e l p t o ensure t h a t e x t e r i o r r e n o v a t i o n s w i l l n o t d e s t r o y t h e o r i g i n a l d e s i g n q u a l i t i e s o f t h e b u i l d i n g . The r e q u i r e d e x p e r t i s e c o u l d be p r o v i d e d by h i r i n g a c o n s u l t a n t o r by c o n v i n c i n g v a r i o u s p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o donate t h e i r t i m e f o r t h e cause o f p r e s e r v a t i o n . 127. 4) Dev e l o p and enhance the Downtown's amenity p o t e n t i a l . The q u a l i t y o f the e n t i r e Downtown's environment s h o u l d be improved by d e v e l o p i n g t h e amenity p o t e n t i a l o f t h e n a t u r a l and b u i l t environment. a) The h i s t o r i c l i n k a g e between t h e r i v e r f r o n t and the a r e a o f the C i t y ' s o r i g i n a l s e t t l e m e n t s h o u l d be r e e s t a b -l i s h e d , thus r e i n f o r c i n g t h e F r a s e r R i v e r as t h e n a t u r a l phys-i c a l boundary o f t h e C i t y . To t h i s end, a system o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e open spaces s h o u l d be developed w i t h i n t h e p r o -posed r i v e r f r o n t h o u s i n g t o c r e a t e a v i s u a l and p h y s i c a l l i n k w i t h t h e R i v e r . Access o p p o r t u n i t i e s s h o u l d a l s o be c r e a t e d between t h e r i v e r f r o n t and t h e Downtown. b) The s h a r p v a r i a t i o n s i n e l e v a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e Down- i  town s h o u l d be a c c e n t u a t e d by th e b u i l t form. B u i l d i n g s can enhance t h e topography s i m p l y by no t t r y i n g t o c o n t r a d i c t i t ; t a l l e r b u i l d i n g s s h o u l d be p l a c e d on t h e h i l l t o p s w i t h s h o r t e r b u i l d i n g s near t h e bottom. V a r y i n g b u i l d i n g h e i g h t s emphasize t h e topography and a l s o i n c r e a s e t h e vi e w p o t e n t i a l f o r t h e e n t i r e s l o p e . To p r e s e r v e t h e v i s u a l sense o f p l a c e c r e a t e d by t h e Down-town's topography, the c u r r e n t z o n i n g bylaw s h o u l d be rev i e w e d i m m e d i a t e l y . The c u r r e n t bylaw p l a c e s t h e t a l l e s t b u i l d i n g s a t t h e bottom o f t h e s l o p e and a l o n g t h e w a t e r f r o n t . The h e i g h t r e g u l a t i o n s s h o u l d be r e d e s i g n e d t o a c c e n t u a t e , n o t 128. c o n t r a d i c t , t h e s l o p e . F o r example, t h e zoned b u i l d i n g h e i g h t s down E i g h t h S t r e e t s t a r t a t R o y a l Avenue w i t h a maximum h e i g h t o f 40 f e e t and i n c r e a s e down t h e h i l l t o 100 f e e t a t Columbia S t r e e t and 120 f e e t a l o n g t h e w a t e r f r o n t . These r e g u l a t i o n s s h o u l d be r e v e r s e d w i t h h e i g h t s o f 100 f e e t a t R o y a l Avenue d e c r e a s i n g down t h e h i l l t o h e i g h t s o f 40 f e e t a l o n g t h e w a t e r f r o n t . c) A system o f h e i g h t c o n t r o l i s s e t up i n t h e z o n i n g bylaw t o o p t i m i z e t h e v i e w p o t e n t i a l from two major v i e w p o i n t s l o c a t e d a t C i t y H a l l and Douglas C o l l e g e . S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d a l s o be g i v e n t o p r e s e r v i n g i n c i d e n t a l v i e w s and v i s t a s w h i c h r e f l e c t t h e C i t y ' s n a t u r a l s e t t i n g and p r o v i d e a con-t r a s t t o t h e b u i l t form. V i s t a s s h o u l d be p r e s e r v e d by p r e v e n t i n g development from o c c u t t i n g a t t h e bottom o f major n o r t h - s o u t h s t r e e t s ( F o u r t h , S i x t h , E i g h t h , and Tenth S t r e e t s ) w h i c h would o b s t r u c t v iews t o t h e F r a s e r R i v e r . I n c i d e n t a l v i e w s , because o f t h e i r n a t u r e , a r e more d i f -f i c u l t t o p r e s e r v e i n s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s i n p e r p e t u i t y ; how-ev e r , new development s h o u l d be encouraged t o i n c l u d e b r e a k s i n t h e b u i l d i n g mass o r spaces between s t r u c t u r e s t o a l l o w v i e w s t o p e n e t r a t e . d) The Downtown s t r e e t p a t t e r n has remained a l m o s t i n t a c t from when i t was l a i d o u t by C o l o n e l Moody and t h e R o y a l E n g i n e e r s . Because o f i t s h i s t o r i c a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e r e c t a n g u -l a r g r i d p a t t e r n s h o u l d be p r e s e r v e d . The h i l l s w h i c h a r e t o o s t e e p t o be u s e f u l ( o r p r a c t i c a l ) f o r v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c s h o u l d 129. be c l o s e d o f f and t e r r a c e d f o r more c o m f o r t a b l e p e d e s t r i a n use and l a n d s c a p e d as urban p a r k s . The c r e a t i o n o f t h e s e park's w i l l p r o v i d e u s e f u l p u b l i c open space w h i l e p r e s e r v i n g t h e C i t y ' s h i s t o r i c s i t e p l a n . S t r e e t names w i t h h i s t o r i c a s s o c i a t i o n s s h o u l d a l s o be r e t a i n e d t o commemorate i n d i v i d u a l s who made i m p o r t a n t con-t r i b u t i o n s t o the C i t y ' s h i s t o r y . e) L a n d s c a p i n g i n t h e Downtown s h o u l d be s e l e c t e d and d e s i g n e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r o f each P r e c i n c t . M a t e r i a l s and c o l o u r s can be used t o h i g h l i g h t t h e f e a -t u r e s o f t h e h i s t o r i c b u i l d i n g s . Utban par k s can be made more prominent t h r o u g h l a r g e -s c a l e l a n d s c a p i n g such as t e r r a c e s , l a r g e t r e e s , and major p l a n t i n g . L a n d s c a p i n g such as t r e e - l i n e d s t r e e t s can a l s o p r o v i d e a p l e a s a n t f o c u s f o r views a l o n g s t r e e t s . The H e r i t a g e P r e c i n c t s s h o u l d be made more prominent and have t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r r e i n f o r c e d t h r o u g h t h e d e s i g n o f a common theme f o r t h e l a n d s c a p e u s i n g s t r e e t and s i d e w a l k f e a t u r e s , such as p l a n t i n g and p l a n t e r s , l i g h t i n g f i x t u r e s and q u a l i t y , p a v i n g m a t e r i a l , t e x t u r e , c o l o u r , and s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e . 5) Promote t h e concept o f h e r i t a g e p r e s e r v a t i o n . P u b l i c awareness and s u p p o r t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e suc -c e s s o f any p r e s e r v a t i o n p l a n . Most p e o p l e a r e not f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e i r C i t y ' s h e r i t a g e p o t e n t i a l o r how th e y can become i n v o l v e d i n p r e s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t y (Fenton, 1977). The Downtown's P l a n f o r P r e s e r v a t i o n w i l l r e q u i r e sup-p o r t from l o c a l merchants, p r o p e r t y owners, banks and l e n d i n g 130. i n s t i t u t i o n s , r e a l t o r s , as w e l l as t h e community 'at l a r g e ' . P u b l i c e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be u ndertaken by p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g l o c a l h i s t o r y and h e r i t a g e p r e s e r v a t i o n . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n can t a k e a v a r i e t y o f forms. a) B r o c h u r e s and p u b l i c a t i o n s can be used t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about p r e s e r v a t i o n (what i t i s , why i t i s i m p o r t a n t , how i t can be a c h i e v e d ) and t o a l l o w t h e exchange o f i d e a s and e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h i n and between communities. These b r o c h u r e s o r p u b l i c a t i o n s s h o u l d be d i s t r i b u t e d t o a p p r o p r i a t e b u s i n e s s f i r m s and h e r i t a g e p r o p e r t y owners, and s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e from th e C i t y H a l l , P u b l i c L i b r a r y , t o u r i s t o f f i c e s , h o t e l s , and o t h e r p u b l i c p l a c e s . I n f o r m a t i o n can a l s o be p r o v i d e d u s i n g l o c a l newspaper and t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s . b) Plaques can be p l a c e d on h i s t o r i c b u i l d i n g s and s i t e s t o commemorate and i n t e r p r e t t h e i r h e r i t a g e v a l u e . The p laque h e l p s t o b r i n g p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n t o t h e b u i l d i n g o r s i t e , t h e r e a s o n f o r i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n , and t h e agency w h i c h awarded t h e p l a q u e . An added b e n e f i t t o t h e p r o p e r t y owner may come from t h e p r e s t i g e o f owning a h e r i t a g e s t r u c t u r e and t h e i n c r e a s e d customer patronage w h i c h can r e s u l t . The p l a q u e s can a l s o be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t o u r programmes. c) H e r i t a g e t o u r s p r o v i d e an e f f e c t i v e method f o r b o t h promotion and e d u c a t i o n . Tours can be e i t h e r s e l f - g u i d e d t h r o u g h t h e use o f b r o c h u r e s and p l a q u e s o r s t r e e t markers, o r g u i d e d t o a l l o w d i a l o g u e about p r e s e r v a t i o n and t h e a r e a ' s h i s t o r y . Tours and o t h e r programmes can be p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h l o c a l s c h o o l s b o t h f o r s t u d e n t s and f o r the community. 131. d) D e m o n s t r a t i o n P r o j e c t s can be c a r r i e d out by t h e C i t y t o p o i n t out t h e economic and a e s t h e t i c p o t e n t i a l o f p r e s e r v a t i o n . By c h o o s i n g s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n s f o r p r o j e c t s , t h e p r o f i l e o f p r e s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t y i s r a i s e d . The p r o j e c t s can be used t o demonstrate t e c h n i q u e s and may s e t an example t o encourage s u r r o u n d i n g p r o p e r t y owners t o r e h a b i l i t a t e t h e i r b u i l d i n g s . 6) P r o v i d e a programme o f i n c e n t i v e s t o s t i m u l a t e p r i -v a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p r e s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t y . E x p e r i e n c e i n many N o r t h American c i t i e s o v e r the p a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s has shown t h a t t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e p r e -c i n c t s has o f t e n proved t o be t o t h e p r o p e r t y owner's economic advantage (Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, 1975). L o c a t i o n w i t h i n h e r i t a g e p r e c i n c t s can r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d p r o p e r t y v a l u e s due t o t h e c o o r d i n a t e d improvement e f f o r t s . Both t o u r i s t s and l o c a l p e o p l e w i l l a p p r e c i a t e t h e unique and d i s t i n c t i v e atmosphere i n t h e p r e c i n c t , t h u s i t s a b i l i t y t o a t t r a c t customers w i l l r i s e . In t h e p a s t , however, c e r t a i n problems have been a s s o c i -a t e d w i t h t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e p r o p e r t i e s , such as l o s s o f o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e d e v e l o p t o a more p r o f i t a b l e use, i n a b i l i t y t o o b t a i n mortgage f i n a n c i n g on t h e terms a v a i l a b l e t o unen-cumbered p r o p e r t y , l o s s o f income due t o i n a b i l i t y t o upgrade space t o compete w i t h newer b u i l d i n g s , and d i f f i c u l t y i n main-t a i n i n g t h e b u i l d i n g as i t c o n t i n u e s t o age ( C o s t o n i s , 1974). G e n e r a l l y , h e r i t a g e p r o p e r t i e s a r e s t r u c t u r a l l y sound and 132. can be improved t o g e n e r a t e s u f f i c i e n t income t o o p e r a t e a t a p r o f i t . Because o f t h e s t i g m a a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h e r i t a g e d e s i g n a -t i o n , a programme o f i n c e n t i v e s w i l l l i k e l y be n e c e s s a r y i n Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r t o s t i m u l a t e p r i v a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p r e s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t y i n t h e H e r i t a g e P r e c i n c t s . The i n c e n t i v e programme s h o u l d o f f e r a v a r i e t y o f o p t i o n s t o d e v e l o p e r s and p r o p e r t y owners w i t h i n t h e P r e c i n c t s . a) P u b l i c works programmes can be used t o encourage p r e s e r v a t i o n . Through t h e p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c a m e n i t i e s , such as p a v i n g , l i g h t i n g , s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e , and p l a n t i n g , t h e h e r -i t a g e p r e c i n c t can be enhanced, t h e v a l u e and v i a b i l i t y o f h e r i t a g e p r o p e r t y i n c r e a s e d , and t h e i n v e s t m e n t c l i m a t e improved. The c o s t s f o r t h e improvements can be borne by t h e C i t y a l o n e o r i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e p r o p e r t y owners. b) B u i l d i n g codes and h e a l t h , f i r e , and o t h e r s a f e t y r e g u l a t i o n s can pose problems i n the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f o l d b u i l d -i n g s . Modern code r e q u i r e m e n t s may be d i f f i c u l t t o meet i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n w i t h o u t s e v e r e l y a l t e r i n g a b u i l d i n g ' s c h a r a c -t e r and i m p o s i n g l a r g e c o s t s on t h e p r o p e r t y owner. The C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r s h o u l d h e l p t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n t h e s h o r t - r u n by making s t a f f a v a i l a b l e t o g i v e a d v i c e about a l t e r n a t i v e and l e s s c o s t l y ways t o meet t h e r e g u l a t i o n s . In t h e l o n g - r u n , t h e C i t y c o u l d f o l l o w Vancouver's example o f a d o p t i n g a l t e r n a -t i v e s t o the N a t i o n a l B u i l d i n g Code w h i c h a r e d e s i g n e d t o f a c i -l i t a t e r e n o v a t i o n and u p g r a d i n g by p r o v i d i n g more f e a s i b l e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r o l d e r b u i l d i n g s ( O b e r l a n d e r , 1980). 133. c) Where a p r o p e r t y s u f f e r s a l o s s o f o p p o r t u n i t y t o be r e d e v e l o p e d t o a h i g h e r use, some form o f compensation may be r e q u i r e d i f economic l o s s i s proved. T r a n s f e r o f d e v e l o p -ment r i g h t s (TDR) p r o v i d e s a means o f compensation w h i c h p e r -m i t s owners t o t r a d e development r i g h t s i n exchange f o r f i n a n -c i a l compensation (Demmings, 1977). TDR i s based on t h e con-c e p t t h a t a p r o p e r t y ' s development p o t e n t i a l may be s e p a r a t e d from the l a n d and t r a n s f e r r e d t o a n o t h e r p a r c e l o f l a n d w h i c h may n o t be c o n t i g u o u s o r i n the same ownership. TDR i s most e f f e c t i v e i n a r e a s zoned f o r h i g h d e n s i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c i n g h i g h demands f o r space. I t i s a l s o more a p p l i c a b l e t o i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s . TDR does not p r e s e n t t h e b e s t a l t e r n a t i v e f o r Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r a t t h i s t i m e b u t i t i s p r e s e n t e d as an a l t e r n a t i v e w h i c h may become u s e f u l i f demand changes i n t h e f u t u r e , p l a c i n g p r e s s u r e o f t h e H e r i t a g e P r e c i n c t s . d) I n c e n t i v e f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n and compensation f o r economic l o s s can a l s o be p r o v i d e d t o t h e owners o f h e r i t a g e p r o p e r t y t h r o u g h t h e use o f t a x i n c e n t i v e s . These i n c e n t i v e s c o u l d be used e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h e H e r i t a g e P r e c i n c t s because th e y can promote r e n o v a t i o n w h i l e l e a v i n g t h e p r o p e r t y under p r i v a t e ownership. I t i s w i d e l y b e l i e v e d among p r e s e r v a t i o n i s t s t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t a x laws promote the d e s t r u c t i o n o f h e r i t a g e b u i l d -i n g s . Owners a r e encouraged t o upgrade t h e i r b u i l d i n g s b u t a f t e r t h e improvements a r e complete t h e p r o p e r t y v a l u e r i s e s and m u n i c i p a l p r o p e r t y t a x e s a r e i n c r e a s e d ; thus t h e t a x 134. system may a c t t o d i s c o u r a g e u p g r a d i n g o f p r o p e r t y . M u n i c i p a l governments a r e h i g h l y dependent on l o c a l p r o p e r t y t a x a t i o n as a major revenue s o u r c e and t h e C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r i s no e x c e p t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , t o a v o i d f i n a n -c i a l d i s a s t e r f o r t h e C i t y , i n c e n t i v e s s h o u l d n o t be o v e r l y generous. Three methods do e x i s t w h i c h can be a p p l i e d w i t h i n r e a s o n -- t a x i ncrement f i n a n c i n g , d e m o l i t i o n t a x e s , and t a x b e n e f i t s f o r easement d o n a t i o n (Fenton, 1977). Tax i n c r e m e n t f i n a n c i n g a s s i s t s i n t h e r e n o v a t i o n and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e b u i l d i n g s . The C i t y f r e e z e s t a x e s on a p r o j e c t u n t i l t h e s p e c i f i e d c o m p l e t i o n d a t e . When the improvements a r e completed, th e p r o p e r t y i s r e a s s e s s e d and i t s t a x e s i n c r e a s e d . The new revenue w h i c h w i l l a c c r u e t o t h e C i t y i s a l l o c a t e d t o a s p e c i a l fund f o r o t h e r h e r i t a g e p r e s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t y . D e m o l i t i o n t a x e s a r e f i n a n c i a l d i s i n c e n t i v e s w h i c h can be used t o d i s c o u r a g e t h e d e m o l i t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s w i t h i n t h e H e r i t a g e P r e c i n c t s . A l l b u i l d i n g s t o be d e m o l i s h e d would be a s s e s s e d and t h e r a t e o f t a x a t i o n would i n c r e a s e w i t h t h e h e r -i t a g e v a l u e o f t h e b u i l d i n g . Thus, th o s e b u i l d i n g s w i t h o u t h e r i t a g e v a l u e would r e c e i v e o n l y n o m i n a l assessments. The money r a i s e d t h r o u g h d e m o l i t i o n t a x e s would a l s o be a l l o c a t e d t o a fund f o r h e r i t a g e p r e s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t y . Tax b e n e f i t s c o u l d be g i v e n t o p r o p e r t y owners who donate easements t o t h e C i t y . A p r e s e r v a t i o n easement i s 'an a g r e e -ment between a p r o p e r t y owner and a p r e s e r v a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n g i v i n g t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e l e g a l l y e n f o r c e a b l e 13 5. r i g h t t o p r o t e c t the n a t u r a l o r h i s t o r i c c h a r a c t e r and s i g n i f -i c a n c e o f t h e p r o p e r t y ' (Landmark P r e s e r v a t i o n C o u n c i l o f I l l i n o i s , 1981). Easements can a p p l y t o t h e whole b u i l d i n g o r j u s t a p a r t o f i t , such as t h e f a c a d e . P r e s e r v a t i o n easements may reduce th e v a l u e o f the prop-e r t y because t h e y r e s t r i c t f u t u r e changes. The easement i s v a l u e d by comparing th e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e p r o p e r t y v a l u e b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e easement. That v a l u e i s then s u b t r a c t e d from the a s s e s s e d p r o p e r t y v a l u e and a n n u a l p r o p e r t y t a x e s a r e reduced. The more r e s t r i c t i v e t h e easement, the g r e a t e r t h e t a x b e n e f i t t o t h e owner upon i t s d o n a t i o n ( L a z e a r , 1981). The p r e s e r v a t i o n easement c o u l d a l s o be purchased o u t -r i g h t by t h e C i t y b u t a l l o w i n g t a x b e n e f i t s tends t o be l e s s c o s t l y . e) To ensure i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n , t h e C i t y can purchase the b u i l d i n g , b u t t h i s method tends t o be e x t r e m e l y e x p e n s i v e and r e q u i r e s c o n t i n u e d funds f o r maintenance. Even upon r e s a l e o f the p r o p e r t y w i t h r e s t r i c t i v e covenants on t h e t i t l e , n o t a l l o f t h e c o s t i n c u r r e d can be r e t r i e v e d ( S e e l i g , 1983). f) H e r i t a g e p r e s e r v a t i o n can be encouraged t h r o u g h t h e use o f a programme o f l o a n s o r g r a n t s . These funds a r e t i e d s t r i c t l y t o t h e s u b s i d i z a t i o n o f n e c e s s a r y s t r u c t u r a l r e p a i r s o r s y m p a t h e t i c r e n o v a t i o n s . Loan and g r a n t programmes a r e r a t e d as h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e i n o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n Canada ( L a z e a r , 1981). 136. E. Funding Funds can be derived from the private sector through many private foundations with an interest i n preservation. Money i s also available from the public sector through loans and grants from a l l three levels of government and from the revenue from demolition taxes and other measures discussed previously. Downtown New Westminster has access to the grants and loans available under the Pro v i n c i a l Downtown R e v i t a l i z a t i o n Programme. Of p a r t i c u l a r importance to the Downtown's Plan for Preservation i s the facade improvement programme which offers grants of twenty per cent of the cost or up to $200 per metre (Thomas, 1984). If the funds are not ti e d to a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y , such as facade treatment, they should be placed i n a fund earmarked for preservation a c t i v i t y . This fund should take the form of a revolving fund so that the money may be used to purchase and renovate endangered buildings, or to make loans to other par-t i e s who wish to carry out preservation-related renovations on th e i r property. When the properties are sold or the loans repaid, the proceeds return to the fund to be used for other preservation a c t i v i t y . Thus, the fund revolves as money flows in and out (Ziegler, 1975). The fund should be comprised of cash or other e a s i l y mar-ketable s e c u r i t i e s and should be administered by a non-profit foundation. It i s important to remember that the purpose of 13 7. the fund i s n o t t o make money but t o promote p r e s e r v a t i o n i n t h e Downtown. T h e r e f o r e , t h e fund w i l l tend t o r e v o l v e down-ward and w i l l need c o n s t a n t r e p l e n i s h i n g from p u b l i c and p r i -v a t e s o u r c e s (Fenton, 1977). The advantages o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a r e v o l v i n g fund f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t y i n Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r a r e ; -- t h r o u g h a c c e s s t o t h e fund, i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups can u n d e r t a k e p r e s e r v a t i o n themselves r a t h e r than r e l y i n g on o t h e r s t o do i t ; — an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n p r e s e r v a t i o n i s demonstrated, t h u s h e l p i n g t o g e n e r a t e r e s p e c t f o r h e r i t a g e p r e s -e r v a t i o n as an economic f o r c e i n t h e Downtown; -- s p i n - o f f s may r e s u l t as a c t i v e p r e s e r v a t i o n demon-s t r a t e s t h a t r e n o v a t i o n and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n can be p r o f i t a b l e and r e w a r d i n g . Because p r e s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t y and p a r t i c u l a r l y a d a p t i v e r e - u s e i s a r e l a t i v e l y new concept i n New W e s t m i n s t e r , h i g h v i s i b i l i t y i s i m p o r t a n t and t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n fund can h e l p a c h i e v e i n c r e a s e d awareness i n the community. V i s i b i l i t y i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o keep and a t t r a c t donors t o t h e fund because i t s h o u l d be r e a d i l y a p p arent t h a t t h e money i s b e i n g put t o good use. A p r o f e s s i o n a l s h o u l d be h i r e d t o d i r e c t t h e s e a r c h f o r f u n d i n g s o u r c e s f o r t h e v a r i o u s programmes. V o l u n t e e r s a r e v a l u a b l e i n h e l p i n g w i t h t h i s f u n c t i o n b u t a p r o f e s s i o n a l w i l l have th e n e c e s s a r y time commitment w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l t o s u c -c e s s f u l l y d i r e c t f u n d i n g e f f o r t s . 138. F. O r g a n i z a t i o n s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n fund s h o u l d be c a r r i e d out by a p r i v a t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d f o u n d a t i o n who w i l l a c t i n accordance w i t h t h e Downtown's P l a n f o r P r e s e r v a t i o n . T h i s f o u n d a t i o n s h o u l d be a b l e t o a c t s e p a r a t e l y from C o u n c i l t o a v o i d s u s p i c i o n from c i t i z e n s and c o m p l i c a t i o n s due t o changes i n C o u n c i l ' s p o l i t i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n . A H e r i t a g e A d v i s o r y Committee i s a l r e a d y i n p l a c e t o a d v i s e C o u n c i l on t h e g r a n t i n g o f d e m o l i t i o n p e r m i t s and o t h e r h e r i t a g e - r e l a t e d m a t t e r s . W i t h the a s s i s t a n c e o f a s t a f f member t r a i n e d i n a r c h i t e c t u r e o r urban d e s i g n t h e Committee s h o u l d a l s o r e v i e w p r o p o s a l s f o r a l t e r a t i o n o r new development w i t h i n t h e t h r e e H e r i t a g e P r e c i n c t s i n t h e Downtown t o ensure t h a t t h e d e s i g n s a r e c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e P r e c i n c t ' s c h a r a c t e r . B u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s i n t h e Downtown a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by the Downtown New We s t m i n s t e r A s s o c i a t i o n and t h e Chamber o f Commerce. To promote c o o p e r a t i o n between t h e s e two groups and t h e groups mentionned p r e v i o u s l y , a Downtown P r e s e r v a t i o n Committee s h o u l d be formed. T h i s committee s h o u l d i n c l u d e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the C i t y and F i r s t C a p i t a l C i t y D evelop-ment C o r p o r a t i o n , merchants and owners from w i t h i n t h e H e r i t -age P r e c i n c t s , and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . The main concerns o f the committee s h o u l d be t o d i s c u s s and p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g i s s u e s and concerns r e l a t e d t o t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n p l a n and t o c o o r d i n a t e promotion o f t h e P r e c i n c t s . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the committee w i l l depend on t h e members' energy and a b i l i t y t o c o o p e r a t e . 139. G. I m p l e mentation The s t r a t e g i e s and f u n d i n g and o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n s i d e r a -t i o n s o u t l i n e d above p r o v i d e a framework f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t y i n Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r . The s u c c e s s o f t h e s e p r o p o s a l s depends on e f f e c t i v e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t o t r a n s l a t e them i n t o a c t i o n . The n a t u r e o f t h e P l a n f o r P r e s e r v a t i o n i s t o p o i n t out t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n i n t h e Downtown and t o p r o -pose ways f o r b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t t o p a r t i c i p a t e f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f b o t h and o f s o c i e t y . T h e r e f o r e , because o f i t s n a t u r e , t h e P l a n must be i m p l e -mented as a c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t between t h e i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s o f t h e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r . The i n c e n t i v e s proposed s h o u l d a t t r a c t p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t t h r o u g h programmes p r o v i d e d by the C i t y . The C i t y has the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l power t o s e t up p r o -grammes f o r t h e i n c e n t i v e mechanisms o u t l i n e d (such as p r op-e r t y t a x i n c e n t i v e s , l o a n s and g r a n t s , p u b l i c works) and t o adopt the n e c e s s a r y bylaws t o e s t a b l i s h , f o r example, t h e Her-i t a g e P r e c i n c t s and d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s . A c o o r d i n a t o r s h o u l d be found t o a d m i n i s t e r a l l p r o -grammes r e l a t e d t o t h e P l a n t o ensure e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n i n terms o f c o s t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and a l s o t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e t i m i n g and p h a s i n g o f p r e s e r v a t i o n and development a c t i v i t y w i t h i n t h e P r e c i n c t s . Each P r e c i n c t c o u l d i n i t i a l l y u n d e r t a k e a p i l o t p r o j e c t w h i c h i s h i g h l y v i s i b l e o r a number o f s m a l l e r 140. p r o j e c t s d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e a r e a t o s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t i n t h e P l a n o r t h e p r o j e c t s c o u l d be timed c a r e f u l l y so t h a t t h e y o v e r l a p t o m a i n t a i n c o n t i n u i t y and s u s t a i n i n t e r e s t . The amount o f work c a r r i e d out i n i t i a l l y w i l l depend on t h e amount o f f u n d i n g w h i c h i s a v a i l a b l e . The i n c e n t i v e p r o -grammes ( p a r t i c u l a r l y the l o a n s and g r a n t s ) w i l l l i k e l y be r e l i e d on h e a v i l y d u r i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r s o f t h e P l a n ' s o p e r a -t i o n . Once the b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s become apparent (such as i n c r e a s e d r e t a i l s a l e s ) , f u n d i n g s o u r c e s may become more r e a d -i l y a v a i l a b l e , e s p e c i a l l y t h r o u g h t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . The Downtown P r e s e r v a t i o n Committee p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the p l a n f o r P r e s e r v a t i o n . The Committee w i l l b r i n g t o g e t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e groups (both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e ) who w i l l h e l p t o i n i t i a t e a c t i o n t h r o u g h p r o m o t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n . H. E v a l u a t i o n Once the programmes t o implement t h e s t r a t e g i e s a r e i n p l a c e and p r e s e r v a t i o n and improvement a c t i v i t i e s have begun, an e v a l u a t i o n s h o u l d be c a r r i e d out t o r e v i e w t h e impacts o f each p r o j e c t . The e v a l u a t i o n i n v o l v e s r e v i e w i n g t h e p r o j e c t ' s p e r f o r m -ance t o d e t e r m i n e i f i t meets w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f the P l a n f o r P r e s e r v a t i o n and how t h e i n c e n t i v e programmes worked. By e v a l u a t i n g each p r o j e c t , t h e programmes can be r e f i n e d by t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f s u c c e s s o f f a i l u r e . 141. The e v a l u a t i o n s h o u l d emphasize: -- use and abuse o f i n c e n t i v e s ; — c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f v i s u a l appearance ( a l s o compar-i s o n o f the a c t u a l f i n i s h e d appearance and t h e ex p e c t e d appearance from the d e s i g n drawings would be u s e f u l ) ; — d u r a b i l i t y o f m a t e r i a l s and q u a l i t y o f workmanship; -- maintenance problems; and -- c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance c o s t ( P r o j e c t P l a n n i n g Branch, 1980). The e v a l u a t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t component o f t h e P l a n because i t p r o v i d e s a measure o f programme e f f e c t i v e n e s s and i n s i g h t i n t o how the programmes c o u l d be improved. 1• C o n c l u s i o n s Some o f t h e reasons f o r h e r i t a g e p r e s e r v a t i o n have been i l l u s t r a t e d by New We s t m i n s t e r b u t not a l l a r e l i m i t e d i n a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o t h a t case a l o n e . New W e s t m i n s t e r i s f a i r l y u nique i n Western Canada because o f i t s 125 y e a r h i s t o r y and i t s i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e e a r l y days o f B r i t i s h Columbia. I t i s t h i s s e t t l e m e n t h i s -t o r y w h i c h g i v e s New We s t m i n s t e r ' s l o c a t i o n , s t r e e t p a t t e r n , and o l d e r b u i l d i n g s t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e as h e r i t a g e f e a t u r e s . Sense o f p l a c e , c o n t i n u i t y w i t h the p a s t , and v a r i e t y a l s o make New We s t m i n s t e r unique and d i s t i n c t i v e , b u t as r e a -sons t o p r e s e r v e , t h e y can a p p l y e l s e w h e r e . Each community 142. has f e a t u r e s w h i c h s e t i t a p a r t from a l l o t h e r s and t h r o u g h p r e s e r v a t i o n i t can enhance t h e s e f e a t u r e s t o s t r e n g t h e n i t s sense o f p l a c e . Many communities r e t a i n e v i d e n c e o f t h e p a s t i n t h e i r environment w h i c h h e l p s t o connect t h e p a s t t o t h e p r e s e n t and f u t u r e . Elements from the p a s t , e s p e c i a l l y h i s -t o r i c b u i l d i n g s , p r o v i d e v a r i e t y and v i s u a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e s t r e e t s c a p e and t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t a i l s a r e n o t o f t e n r e -peated i n new development. The economic and f u n c t i o n a l reasons t o p r e s e r v e a r e t h e most c r u c i a l i n New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s case and i n e v e r y o t h e r community w h i c h po s s e s s e s a s t o c k o f s t r u c t u r a l l y sound o l d e r b u i l d i n g s . In t h e p r e s e n t economic e r a , we can no l o n g e r a f f o r d t o t e a r down our c i t i e s e v e r y g e n e r a t i o n . B u i l d i n g s must be main-t a i n e d t o l a s t l o n g e r and remain a f u n c t i o n a l component i n t h e c i t y . P r e s e r v a t i o n p r o j e c t s , such as t h e r e n o v a t i o n o r adap-t i v e r e - u s e o f a b u i l d i n g , o f f e r a means o f l e n g t h e n i n g the b u i l d i n g ' s f u n c t i o n a l l i f e . The p r e s e n t e r a i s a l s o marked by r e s t r a i n t i n govern-ment s p e n d i n g and p r e s e r v a t i o n p r o j e c t s g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e fewer a d d i t i o n s t o the community's p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l i n f r a -s t r u c t u r e . T h e r e f o r e , a p l a n f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n p r e s e n t s an i n s t r u m e n t t o manage change so t h a t the community's e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s r e t a i n e d and so t h a t change o c c u r s more g r a d u a l l y . P r e s -e r v a t i o n i s o f t e n an e c o n o m i c a l l y more e f f i c i e n t and s o c i a l l y l e s s d i s r u p t i v e way o f managing change i n c i t i e s . 143. The P l a n f o r P r e s e r v a t i o n f o r Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r w h i c h i s proposed i n t h i s s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s a framework t o f o c u s p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t and energy i n c o o p e r a t i o n f o r t h e i r m u t u a l b e n e f i t . I t i s i n t e n d e d t h a t t h e C i t y adopt the p l a n upon c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e Downtown community and t h a t i t be implemented as a c o o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t t o improve the q u a l -i t y o f t h e p h y s i c a l environment and t o p r o v i d e a more e f f i -c i e n t and economic way t o use t h e Downtown's r e s o u r c e s . I f s u p p o r t from the community i s not g r e a t i n i t i a l l y , the C i t y s h o u l d adopt th e P l a n f o r P r e s e r v a t i o n and a c t on i t s own b e h a l f f o r the p u b l i c good. F o r example, the C i t y can i m p l e -ment p u b l i c works programmes and o t h e r i n t e r v e n t i o n s t o upgrade the p h y s i c a l environment o f the P r e c i n c t s . I t c o u l d a l s o u n d e r t a k e d e m o n s t r a t i o n p r e s e r v a t i o n p r o j e c t s and a c t i v e l y promote p r e s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t y . A f o r m a l commitment s h o u l d be made by the C i t y t o s u p p o r t the H e r i t a g e P r e c i n c t s and t h i s commitment s h o u l d be h i g h l y v i s i b l e t o encourage th e s u p p o r t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e community. The P l a n emphasizes t h r e e b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s f o r p r e s e r v a -t i o n i n t h e Downtown: 1) p l a n n i n g f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n manages change so t h a t t h e Downtown's e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r and f u n c t i o n remain i n t a c t ; 2) t h e t o t a l s e t t i n g o r environment i s more s i g n i f -i c a n t than i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g s ; and 3) b u i l d i n g s must remain f u n c t i o n a l and economic t o be a p o s i t i v e component i n t h e Downtown. 144. The n a t u r e and d i r e c t i o n s o f the P l a n f o r P r e s e r v a t i o n proposed h e r e can a p p l y beyond t h e case o f New We s t m i n s t e r because o f t h e importance p l a c e d by our s o c i e t y on economic and f u n c t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The p r e c i n c t approach t o p r e s e r v a t i o n a l l o w s t h e concept t o be d e f i n e d i n the c o n t e x t o f t h e c i t y , r a i s i n g i t above the l e v e l o f i n d i v i d u a l o r i s o l a t e d e l ements. The importance o f p r e s e r v a t i o n l i e s i n the community's e n t i r e environment, t o p r e s e r v e i t s e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r and f u n c t i o n . The p r e c i n c t o f f e r s a frame w i t h i n w h i c h t o p r e s e r v e the e f f e c t o f t h e t o t a l s e t t i n g o r environment. The p r e c i n c t can s e r v e a d u a l f u n c t i o n . I t p r e s e n t s a t o o l o f a n a l y s i s , a way o f l o o k i n g a t t h e c i t y t o show the o p p o r t u n i t i e s and p o t e n t i a l w h i c h e x i s t . I t a l s o a c t s as a method f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n by p r o v i d i n g a u n i t w i t h i n w h i c h t o p l a n t o r e a l i z e the C i t y ' s p o t e n t i a l . As a u n i t , the p r e c i n c t can be more e f f e c t i v e l y planned due t o i t s l i m i t e d s i z e and c o n s i s t e n t c h a r a c t e r . New d e v e l o p -ment can be d i r e c t e d t o v a c a n t and underdeveloped l a n d and de s i g n e d t o harmonize w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s and t h e i r environment. The s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r and f u n c t i o n o f t h e p r e -c i n c t can be s t r o n g l y d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h p r e c i n c t - s p e c i f i c programmes and d e s i g n c o n c e p t s r a t h e r than t h r o u g h g u i d e l i n e s w h i c h have t o a p p l y g e n e r a l l y . The l i m i t e d n a t u r e o f t h e p r e -c i n c t a l s o h e l p s i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f p r o -grammes by c r e a t i n g a g r o u p i n g o f s i m i l a r needs and o b j e c t i v e s . Programmes can be f i n e - t u n e d t o t h e needs o f each p r e c i n c t . 145. The case o f Downtown New We s t m i n s t e r i l l u s t r a t e s t h e use o f t h e p r e c i n c t approach t o p l a n n i n g f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n b u t i t s p o t e n t i a l i s not l i m i t e d t o t h a t case. P o t e n t i a l has a l s o been demonstrated i n o t h e r a r e a s , such as t h e examples p r e s e n t e d i n S e c t i o n I o f San F r a n c i s c o , New O r l e a n s , and Gastown. The v a l u e o f h e r i t a g e tends t o be c r e a t e d , not by one b u i l d i n g ' s i n d i v i d u a l i m p o r t ance, b u t by t h e c o m b i n a t i o n s and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f p l a c e f e a t u r e s and t h e economic and f u n c t i o n a l sense o f p r e s e r v a t i o n . F e a t u r e s s h o u l d n o t be saved s i m p l y t o a c t as monuments t o some p a s t e r a ; t h e i r impor-t a n c e l i e s i n t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l r o l e i n t h e C i t y . The P l a n f o r P r e s e r v a t i o n f o r Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r proposes v a r i o u s s t r a t e g i e s t o a c h i e v e p r e s e r v a t i o n . The s t r a t e g i e s t o p r e s e r v e s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s o f t h e a r e a , such as the r i v e r f r o n t l i n k a g e , h i s t o r i c p l a n , and unique topography, a r e s i t e s p e c i f i c ; however?, t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e beyond the case l i e s i n the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h e s e s p e c i a l p l a c e f e a t u r e s a r e a s s e t s t o t h e community and s h o u l d be developed, and enhanced t o improve the q u a l i t y o f t h e whole environment. The i n c e n t i v e mechanisms o u t l i n e d i n t h e P l a n have t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r w i d e r a p p l i c a t i o n . P r o m o t i o n a l measures a r e i m p o r t a n t when p r i v a t e i n v e s t -ment i s d e s i r e d . The p o t e n t i a l o f p r e s e r v a t i o n and methods to r e a l i z e t h a t p o t e n t i a l must g a i n w i d e s p r e a d a c c e p t a n c e as a means t o manage change i n a way w h i c h i s e c o n o m i c a l l y e f f i -c i e n t . 146. M a i n t a i n i n g t h e f u n c t i o n a l u t i l i t y o f b u i l t space i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t beyond t h e case o f New We s t m i n s t e r . As mentionned p r e v i o u s l y , new c o n s t r u c t i o n i s p r i c i n g i t s e l f out o f the mar-k e t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n many s m a l l e r urban a r e a s , and t h e a d a p t i v e re-use s t r a t e g y o f f e r s a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e . The economic i n c e n t i v e s , such as p u b l i c works, r e l a x a -t i o n o f r e g u l a t i o n s , and t a x i n c e n t i v e s , a r e c e r t a i n l y not s i t e - s p e c i f i c . . In f a c t , any community w h i c h chooses t o s e t up the n e c e s s a r y programmes can o f f e r t h e s e i n c e n t i v e s . The r e l a x a t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g code i s a u s e f u l i n c e n t i v e f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n because i t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t and e x p e n s i v e t o b r i n g o l d b u i l d i n g s up t o modern s a f e t y s t a n d a r d s . Reasonable a l t e r n a t i v e s and a d a p t a t i o n s can be suggested by t h e C i t y w h i c h make u p g r a d i n g e a s i e r and l e s s c o s t l y . The Canadian f e d e r a l t a x laws do not a t p r e s e n t p r o v i d e i n c e n t i v e s f o r r e n o v a t i o n . U n t i l 1981, t h e t a x laws a c t u a l l y encouraged d e m o l i t i o n b u t t h e s e i n c e n t i v e s have been l a r g e l y e l i m i n a t e d . The U n i t e d S t a t e s has made fundamental changes t o i t s t a x laws w h i c h have made r e n o v a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n t o one o f the most a t t r a c t i v e i n v e s t m e n t s a v a i l a b l e . T h i s change has p r e c i p i t a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t upsurge i n the b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y and an i n c r e a s e i n j o b - c r e a t i o n ; l o n g - t e r m economic growth w i l l r e s u l t from (and o f f s e t ) s h o r t - t e r m c o n c e s s i o n s f o r r e n o v a t i o n (Denhez, 1983). The Canadian F e d e r a l government has been s t u d y i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n i t i a t i n g s i m i l a r changes but no a c t i o n has r e s u l t e d i n t h i s r e g a r d . The H e r i t a g e Canada F o u n d a t i o n 147. proposes t h a t the f o l l o w i n g changes be made to o f f e r Canadians the b e n e f i t s which can be a t t a i n e d as demonstrated by the United States tax model: 1) A new r a t e of C a p i t a l Cost Allowance on renovations t o designated h e r i t a g e prop-e r t i e s , amounting t o 33 1/3 per cent o f r e n o v a t i o n c o s t s per year computed on a s t r a i g h t l i n e b a s i s over three y e a r s . 2) A new r a t e of C a p i t a l Cost Allowance on renovations t o p r o p e r t i e s over 50 years o l d , amounting t o 20 per cent o f renova-t i o n c o s t per year computed on a s t r a i g h t l i n e b a s i s over f i v e y e ars. 3) P r o v i s i o n t h a t the C a p i t a l Cost Allow-ance could be deducted a g a i n s t income other than income from the property, i n order t o have a s h e l t e r i n g e f f e c t . (Denhez, 1983) By p r o v i d i n g these i n c e n t i v e s f o r re n o v a t i o n , the f e d e r a l government co u l d make p r e s e r v a t i o n even more f i n a n c i a l l y a t t r a c -t i v e and i n a d d i t i o n , c o u l d c r e a t e more jobs and s t i m u l a t e long-term economic growth i n communities across the country. The case o f Downtown New Westminster pro v i d e s the oppor-t u n i t y to examine p l a n n i n g f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n a t the l o c a l l e v e l but many o f the concepts and s t r a t e g i e s can be a p p l i e d i n com-parable s i t u a t i o n s elsewhere. Planning f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n o f f e r s communities the oppor-t u n i t y to manage f u t u r e changes without s a c r i f i c i n g t h e i r e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r and f u n c t i o n and to use t h e i r b u i l t e n v i -ronment more e f f i c i e n t l y . 148. 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