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Reduplication in Nisgha Thompson, Wendy 1984

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REDUPLICATION IN  NISGHA  by WENDY  THOMPSON  THESIS SUBMITTED IN  PARTIAL  FULFILMENT  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M.A.  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES L i n g u i st i c s  We a c c e p t t h i s to the  thesis  required  as  conforming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September  :©  1984  Wendy Thompson,  1984  In  presenting  requirements  this for  Columbia,  freely  available  permission  scholarly  agree for  understood  that gain  by  that  partial  may his  copying  shall  the  reference  extensive  purposes or  financial  I  for  Department  in  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e  British  that  thesis  not  be or  of  this  granted  by  the  September  1984  Columbia  the  make  further  Head  of  this  without  of It  thesis my  of it  agree  thesis  representatives.  allowed  Linguistics  Date:  I  copying  or p u b l i c a t i o n be  shall  and s t u d y .  her  of  the The U n i v e r s i t y  Library  permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 2075.Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  at  fulfilment  for my is for  written  ABSTRACT Nisgha displaying  exhibits  diverse  consonant  investigates  and v o w e l v a r i a t i o n .  the p h o n o l o g i c a l  reduplication  types  autosegmental  framework.  types "Re  are  examined  In  for  skeletal  type  thesis  an reduplication  as  presented  in  (1982). principles,  r e d u p l i c a t i o n as  Certain  approach,  each  these  the  framework,  reduplication  and f o r  these,  this  the a f f i x a t i o n  morpheme t o w h i c h a copy of  associated.  of  them i n  particular,  accordance with Marantz's  represents Nisgha  this  and a c c o u n t s  types, This  properties  in Marantz's  Reduplication" In  reduplication  thesis of  a  t h e phonemic melody  types  are problematic  an a l t e r n a t i v e  approach  is for  is  discussed. In of  general,  the  Nisgha phonology  reduplication comparison  types  with  autosegmental  thesis (ii)  covers  a brief  description  a d e s c r i p t i v e account  and t h e  relevant  the a n a l y s i s  treatment  (i)  of  of  rules  Tarpent  of  (iii)  (1983)  a (iv)  r e d u p l i c a t i o n , using  an  Marantz's  framework. Two r e d u p l i c a t i o n t y p e s One of  these  types  C—V s k e l e t o n consisting  type,  various  without  its  instead  empty s e q u e n t i a l  Lowenstamm and Kaye  a problem for  c a n be h a n d l e d by a b a n d o n i n g  and e m p l o y i n g  of  present  (1983).  approaches  problems.  In  are  a skeletal  points,  For  the  second  suggested,  fact,  this  i i  as  Marantz.  Marantz's  tier  proposed  by  reduplication  none of  which  type proves  t o be  is  problematic as  a  not  only  to Marantz  whole.  iii  but  to autosegmental  theory  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My s i n c e r e s t C a r o l e Moraes, Stewart, their  thanks  Sadie  Scarrott  W i l f r e d Stevenson  co-operation,and I  would a l s o  like  American P h i l o s o p h i c a l responsible Also, of  t o my c o n s u l t a n t s  in part I  would  for like  very  grateful  willingly  Desmond, writing  Nicole of  this  and S a r a h  Picard.  I  Ron  appreciate  willingness. to express Society the  my g r a t i t u d e  (Philips  funding  t o thank  typed t h i s  thesis.  and J a n e l l e f o r  of  Fund) this  I  the  which  was  and t h e  rest  benefited greatly. and C a t h y Howett  Finally  all  to  research.  my s u p e r v i s o r  to E l l e n L i v i n g s t o n  thesis.  Nyce,  Angus, W i l l a r d M a r t i n ,  my c o m m i t t e e from whose comments  am a l s o  Harry  their  I  want  support  to  I  who  thank  during  the  Table I.  Outline  of  Nisgha  II.  III.  Contents  Phonology  A.  Phonetic  Inventory  B.  Phonemic  Inventory  1. O b s t r u e n t  of  1 1  of  Consonants  2  Voicing  3  2.  Aspiration  4  3.  Spirantization  5  4.  Rounding  and P a l a t a l i z a t i o n  5.  Resonant  Devoicing  6.  The B e h a v i o r  of  C.  Phonemic  D.  S t r e s s Assignment  E.  Behavior  F.  Concluding  Patterns  of  Inventory  of  10  the G l o t t a l of  6  Vowels  Fricative  11  ...i  14 ....18  Uvular  Consonants  Remarks t o C h a p t e r  21 1  .'  24  Reduplication  A.  Surface  B.  Underlying  Patterns  C.  Underlying  Pattern  Ci  31  D.  Underlying  Pattern  CiC  33  E.  Underlying  pattern Cix  41  F.  Patterns  G.  Summary  Examination Tarpent A.  Brief  Patterns  of of of  of  25  Reduplication  27  of  28  Reduplication  Reduplication Chapter  and P r o d u c t i v i t y  2  44 51  the R e d u p l i c a t i o n  Analysis  in 53  Outline  of  Tarpent's  Treatment  of  Reduplication  53  1.  Partial  53  2.  Full  Reduplication  Reduplication v  54  B.  Problems  With T a r p e n t ' s  1. Arguments Analysis 2. 3. C.  Against  D. IV.  of  and  to T a r p e n t ' s  Epenthesis 59  from 63  the G e n e r a l Mechanics  of  the .64  in Analysis  of  Reduplication 67  Chapter  to  Consonant 71  III  72  T r e a t m e n t of ;  Nisgha 74  O v e r v i e w of t h e T h e o r e t i c a l T r e a t m e n t Reduplication  B.  Nisgha R e d u p l i c a t i o n  C.  Implications Conclusion  in M a r a n t z ' s  for Marantz's  of  Framework  Theory  74 ....75  and 91  BIBLIOGRAPHY  94  VI . APPENDIX I  VII.  Epenthesis  Analysis  Differs  Differences Pertaining Deglottalization  An A u t o s e g m e n t a l Reduplication A.  V.  Differences Types  Summary  and  58  Analysis  1. D i f f e r e n c e s i n two A p p r o a c h e s  3.  to a D e l e t i o n  Internal  How t h e P r e s e n t Tarpent' s  2.  a Deletion  55 55  An A l t e r n a t i v e Analysis Problems  Analysis  96  A.  Consonant  Feature Matrices  B.  Vowel F e a t u r e M a t r i x  APPENDIX II  96 ,  97 96  vi  INTRODUCTION Nisgha,  a member of  the Tsimshian  spoken a l o n g  t h e Nass R i v e r  The a n a l y s i s  presented  language data of  addition,  some d a t a  Kincolith,  family,  in Northern B r i t i s h  in t h i s  paper  e l i c i t e d from n a t i v e  the areas  language  is  based  speakers  G r e e n v i l l e , Canyon C i t y  1  Columbia.  on a body of  Nisgha  and A i y a n s h .  were u s e d m a i n l y  for  of from  In  were c o l l e c t e d from a s p e a k e r  and t h e s e d a t a  is  from  comparative  purposes. Reduplication manifests will  itself  investigate  patterns  according  will  (i)  rules  accounting  (iii)  a comparison  which w i l l  See  will  reduplication at  account  these of  the t h e s i s  which w i l l  outline of  for  the  of  be  them i n  an  will  as  be  largely  Nisgha,  reduplication  types  and  them,  with  the a n a l y s i s  offer  given  in  a t h e o r e t i c a l treatment  i n an a u t o s e g m e n t a l  an o u t l i n e prove  of  thesis  (1983).  The f o u r t h c h a p t e r  now l o o k  of  This  and  offer  a presentation  Tarpent  Nisgha  integrated  three chapters,  patterns.  properties  The f o r m a t  a phonological  (ii)  a w i d e s p r e a d phenomenon  to d i v e r s e  a more  framework.  The f i r s t  descriptive  is  the p h o n o l o g i c a l  and p r o p o s e  autosegmental follows.  in Nisgha  of  framework.  Nisgha phonological  t o be r e l e v a n t  Acknowledgements. vii  to  of  Let  processes  reduplication.  us  I.  A.  OUTLINE OF NISGHA  PHONOLOGY  PHONETIC INVENTORY: The p h o n e t i c  Stops  inventory  t  p P  E j e c t ive  of  h  t  consonants k* k*  h  k  b  d  g  P'  t'  k ' dz  dz^(or  Eject.  ts'  tr  tr  s  i  X  w  w  X  X  w  n  1  y  w  Glott.  m  ft  1'  y  w  ill  ft  1'  y  $  t h e most p a r t ,  phonetic  inventory  the p l a i n  stops,  counterparts case  of  respect  the  but  r  rather  quite  is  relatable  e  to  not  the It to  the homorganic  series  with  will  stop,  occurring  1  G  G  q'  q  X  X  1  >/  w  K  in  the  W  w,  the  h  respect  to  voiceless In  imbalance  and g l o t t a l  the with  fricatives  be shown t h a t  and t h a t  [j]  counterparts [E]is  relatable  resonants  the g l o t t a l i z e d at  wh  v o i c e d and  voiceless  of  '  W  articulation.  later  their  both  of  of  uvular  q  With  an a p p a r e n t  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  symmetrical,  non-glottalized  is  h  consonants  symmetrical.  points  there  — only  of  uniformity  the v a r i o u s  realizations.  to / h / . F i n a l l y , entirely  there  to v o i c i n g  a  seems  fricatives,  have v o i c e d and  at  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  q  d3)  m  For  q  w  Resonants Res.  follows:  q  k -  1  y  J  as  wh  g  k  Y  ts  Fricatives  R  h  g  V  Affricates Affr.  k  k  h  is  the v a r i o u s  is  and points  of  2  articulation. The  f o l l o w i n g are the vowels that occur  i n the phonetic  inventory of the language. i(:)  u(:)  L  V  e(:)  o(:)  e (: ) ae(  : )  s  o ( :)  a (:)  a( : )  The vowels p a t t e r n u n i f o r m l y , with both long and short vowels o c c u r r i n g throughout  the vowel a r e a . We w i l l  examine  the range of. p r o n u n c i a t i o n of these vowels when the phonemic s t a t u s of the vowels i s d i s c u s s e d .  B. PHONEMIC INVENTORY OF CONSONANTS The  consonants  comprising  the phonemic system of Nisgha  are: Stops  P  Ejective  Stops P'  t  k*  k  t'  k?«  k-  Affricates  ts  Eject.  ts'  tr  s  i  X*  Affr.  Fricatives Resonants  m  n  1  y  G l o t t . Res.  m  n  1'  5 >  w  w  X  w  q  9  q'  X  h  w w  The phonemicization given above would imply the e x i s t e n c e of q u i t e a few r u l e s i n order that we might r e l a t e the phonetic and phonemic i n v e n t o r i e s . Let us look at these  rules.  3  1. OBSTRUENT With  respect  difference the  lack  VOICING: to  between t h e p h o n e t i c  of  voiced obstruents  obstruents,  immediately  phonetically  and phonemic  in  the  latter.  striking inventories,  is  Of  of  precede a vowel.  represented  2  the c l a s s  Consider  the  (house)  ' D o e s he have a  wilb-a  become  examples.  'house'  1 (a) w d p (b)  t h e most  t h e n o n - e j e c t i v e s t o p s and a f f r i c a t e s  v o i c e d when t h e y following  the consonants,  house?'  (house-Q) 2(a)  q  (b)  q  3(a) (b) 4(a) (b)  'ots  'cut'  3  w, > _ 'od3-tn  G 5:t w  'you  h  G o:d-ty W  ,w , . wh xsk u n e : x k W  W  r  une:x~g  (cut-2s)  cut'  'heart'  (heart)  'my  (heart-1s)  heart'  (cold-STATIVE)  'cold'  -  xsk  (cut)  ~vm  ws>ne:x^  ' c o l d food' ( c o l d - STAT-ATTRIB  5(a) (b)  2  The  data  * w ^asno^ — uiti  'we  ">Een5 : q ^ - d i t ^  'they  w  given  phonetically  in the  rules  presented  i n phonemic  Note  that  v o i c e d but vowel.  in  part  (like-lp)  like'  of  has  been e s t a b l i s h e d ,  the case  also  (like-3p)  the paper  r e p r e s e n t e d . Once t h e phonemic  necessary  3  first  1i ke'  food)  will  be  inventory  the data  will  with  then  form. of  example  palatalized  2(b),  because  it  ts  is  not  precedes a  only front  be  4 From t h e above examples we  see  that: b d  P t k q ts Very  generally,  9  /  V  G dz  we  may  r e p r e s e n t t h e above n o t e d  phenomenon  as: 6.  Obstruent [-cont]  2.  Voicing:" —>  aspirated 7(a)  +voc -cons  stops occur w o r d - f i n a l l y  stops. This i s i l l u s t r a t e d nsg 5:htk w  (b) n 8 g 5 : h t - t w  can  "For  h  h  t h e r e f o r e account  postulating  of  /  ASPIRATION: Aspirated  We  [+voice]  that  convenience the Standard  where t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e should then  be  Theory.  'father'  (father)  'his father'  (father-3s)  for a l l aspirated  rules w i l l  Theory  before other  i n 7 below.  t h e y o c c u r a t a word  the  and  (SPE and that  be a u t o s e g m e n t a l i z e d —  any  be  stops  by  boundary.  r e p r e s e n t e d i n the  subsequent  format  work) e x c e p t  particular feature(s)  i n which case  p r e s e n t e d a c c o r d i n g to the  format  of  the  rules  will  Autosegmental  5 The r u l e 8.  is:  5  Aspiration: —>  -cont +del r e l  3.  [+aspirated]  /  SPIRANTIZATION: In  Section A it  fricative s t o p has  was  was m e n t i o n e d t h a t  relatable  a tendency to  We d e s c r i b e consonant  it  as  does  to  in  a tendency s i n c e  not  occur  in a l l  position,  all  Some e x a m p l e s  9(a)  homorganic  spirantize  inter-vocalic speakers.  its  it  (b)  lu-2o:da  'empty'  (c)  lu-;yat-G5:da  ' empty ( p l u r a l ) '  10(a)  GaGetk -f w  following  g idex y  of  tg un w  uvular  position. this  the  spirantization  'no more'  the  The  occur c o n s i s t e n t l y  Go:da  there are also  uvular  s p i r a n t i z a t i o n of  instances  nor d o e s of  stop.  intervocalic  '(no  with  are:  more)  (in-no  (in-REDUP-no but  the v o i c e d  more)  more)  examples. 'This  question  is  difficult' (difficult-CONN  question  this)  5  Note  that  this  thesis  employs  t h e n o t i o n of  p r o p o s e d by K i p a r s k y  (1982);  employed  a mnemonic d e v i c e t o  occurring  in at  rules  as  the f i n a l  cyclic  levels  however the symbol  level.  #  indicate  as  is processes  (b)  g^idax  Gajetk™-i  tg un " 'This  question  w  is  difficult' (difficult-CONN  question  this) It  appears  11.  then that  there  is  an o p t i o n a l  rule  of  the  form:  Spirantization: -cont +back -high  >  By a p p e a l i n g  to  Spirantization allophones  of  [+cont]  the (11  rules  /  of  above),  + VOC  + VOC  -cons  -cons  Obstruent  Voicing  we c a n c l a s s i f y  (c_f.  [j] and  6)  and  [2 ] W  6  as  /q/.  4. ROUNDING AND PALATALIZATION The phenomena of treated  jointly  rounding  because  of  and p a l a t a l i z a t i o n  certain parallelisms  will  Note  that  as  we work  through  this  rounding  to uvulars  whereas  palatalization  the a l v e o - p a l a t a l environment  of  affricate.  round vowels  Uvulars  below,  affricate  with  compare that  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  6  For  _2  of  of  later.  front  vowels.  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  of  In  the  the p l a i n  uvular  rule  with  of  that  refers in  to  the  affricate the  plain  the p a l a t a l i z e d a f f r i c a t e ,  ] we need an a d d i t i o n a l  be d e s c r i b e d  rounded  and the a l v e o - p a l a t a l  becomes p a l a t a l i z e d when b e f o r e examples  section.  are  be  which  become a p p a r e n t refers  will  of  rounding  as  well  as  the  which  will  7 rounded  uvular.  Alveo-palatal  Africate:  12.  q 6:ts  'cut'  (cut)  13.  q 6d3-iy  ' I  (cut-1s)  14.  dz £k  'kill'  w  w  v  w h  cut  (kill)  Uvulars: , , h ,h 15. G o : t - t •i r  16.  Gan  17.  laxah  'his 1  (heart-3s)  tree'  (tree)  ' sky'  ' w ,h 18. nox - t i o  This  heart'  'his  (sky) mother'  (mother-3s)  p r e d i c t a b i l i t y c a n be c a p t u r e d by r u l e s 19.  the  form:  Rounding:  +cons -voc +back + lo 20.  of  [+round]  -cons +voc +round  /  9  Palatalization: -cont +strid +del r e l  Note consonants  that  aside  which are  respectively,  there  and r o u n d e d v e l a r s . palatalization  —>  [+hi]  -cons +voc -back  /  from t h e u v u l a r subject is  to  a series  Consider  and r o u n d i n g  and  rounding of  these cannot  alveopalatal and  palatalization  underlyingly examples  in  palatalized which  be a t t r i b u t e d t o  the  8  environment. Rounded V e l a r  Series:  21.  ts'i:k  22.  t'abk  23.  t'g £ntk  24.  t'&xw  w h  w h  w  w h  Palatalized Velar  to  leak'  (leak)  to  twist'  (twist)  to  fall'  (fall)  to  sweep'  (sweep)  Series:  25.  k' 6ts  'yesterday'  (yesterday)  26.  h6g ax  'to  (right,  27.  sae*>6nsk  If  y  y  we must  right  that  the u n d e r l y i n g v e l a r  t h e p a l a t a l i z e d and t h e  account  consonants.  for  these  28. m i l k s a x  the p l a i n  'sour'  (sour)  'to  (out  ksi-t'ak  30.  Tasks  'water'  (water)  31.  dak.  'to  (tie)  wring'  tie'  would l e a d us  velar  the v a r i a n t  consonant  is  We would t h e r e f o r e want  32.  k  33.  duk .inx  w  On t h e b a s i s  U w  of  also  velar  found  It  can o c c u r 'all 'to  b e l i e v e that  this  to  variant  out  t h e above e x a m p l e s ,  (all  For  example:  over)  rule  basis  the  (drown) we can  either  on t h e  that  in c l u s t e r s .  drown'  plain  clusters.  turns  over'  the  in consonant  labialized series  complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n . series  to  to a t t r i b u t e  the u n d e r l y i n g p a l a t a l i z e d or  labialized  then  of-twist)  29.  w h  is  examples.  The above e x a m p l e s  of  series  rounded c o n s o n a n t s ,  t h e o c c u r r e n c e of  Consider  correct)  (paper)  'paper'  yh  we p r o p o s e  composed of  be  out  9 classifying  [k]  distribution  34. w £ k  [k ]  #t  following  h  dsei i : s k ^ # t ^ y  36. w £ k # g - i y y  us c o n s i d e r Note  examples  37. d z u x - d 3 < £ k - - l -  where  w h  If  eagle  [k ] y  we c a n  see t h a t  can o n l y  cluster  boundaries  relevant.  (brother-3s)  'her  stocking'  ( stocking-3s)  sk £ek #* Y  y h  k i l l e d the  [k]  word  brother'  (brother-PL-1s)  las^us REDUP-dog)  dogs'  we compare t h e above e x a m p l e s  31,  the  'his  (REDUP-kill-CONN eagle-CONN 'the  that  'my b r o t h e r s '  w  w  let  in c l u s t e r s .  y  the y h  but  w  of  a r e marked i n  35.  with / k / ,  clusters  where t h e r e  with those  cited  i n 28  to  m o r p h e m e - i n t e r n a l l y whereas is  an i n t e r v e n i n g  word  boundary. In  addition, consider  38.  t'ix-t'ak  the  'to  y h  following  forget  examples:  (plural)'  (REDUP-forget) 39.  dix-dik'  'to  y  be shy  (plural)'  (REDUP-shy) Note  that  whereas  C  instance  C  [k]  7  The  as  of  2  of  occurring  7 2  of  the  the root  is.  Here t o o ,  in c l u s t e r s . of  spirantization 2.  It  /k /. y  of  seems,  is  we have  the u n p a l a t a l i z e d v e r s i o n  a variant  in Chapter  reduplicative prefix  then,  of  not  palatalized  another  the v e l a r  that  we c a n  consonant classify  We c a n w r i t e a morphophonemic  this  consonant  will  be a c c o u n t e d  rule  for  10  to  the e f f e c t  of:  40. V e l a r  Depalatalization  +cons -voc +high -back This  rule  words,  does  the  of  in examples  velar  not a p p l y  affixes  34 t o  that  across  at of  +cons -voc  /  a word b o u n d a r y .  an e a r l i e r the  level  In  other  than does  type b e f o r e which  [k ] v  the occurs  37.  t h e p r e c e d i n g argument  fricatives  the v e l a r  [+back]  r u l e occurs  attachment  Note  —>  also holds  and t h e e j e c t i v e v e l a r  consonants  consist  of  series.  the u n d e r l y i n g  p a l a t a l i z e d and l a b i a l i z e d p l a i n  stops,  for  the  Therefore, series  of  e j e c t i v e stops  and  fricatives.  5.  RESONANT DEVOICING Glottalized  occur the  resonants  in word-final  fully  are  position.  partially Compare  d e v o i c e d when  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  v o i c e d and t h e d e v o i c e d g l o t t a l i z e d  the examples  resonants  below.  41.  'canoe'  (canoe)  42.  ^ n o :G -urti  'we  like'  (like-1p)  43.  m&:y-iy  'my  berry'  (berry-1s)  44.  m£:y  'berry'  (berry)  45.  Gan&:#  'frog'  (frog)  46.  Gan£:v>-iy  'my  (frog-1s)  w  frog'  they of in  11  The  rule 47.  would  therefore  Resonant  Devoicing:  +sonorant +glottal  6.  be:  —>  [-voice]  /  THE BEHAVIOR OF THE GLOTTAL F R I C A T I V E It  that  was  mentioned e a r l i e r  [E] i s  relatable  distribution  in  to  these  that  / h / . Let  it us  is  examine  hinadzax  'to  spank'  49.  h£t-*>n  'to  stand  show  their  (spank) something'  (stand-CAUS)  [hit'cn]  'to  hat-hirt-^n  glue  something'  (REDUP-stick-CAUS)  [hat-hi:t'an] 51.  to  data  48.  50.  possible  'to  t'ip-hok' ilt w  roll  something  down'  (down-roll) 52.  hap-hapk  wh  'to  c a t c h an  animal'  (REDUP-catch) From t h e above  examples,  it  word-initially,  and m e d i a l l y  distribution  [E]  of  53.  E6g ax  54.  Eit-y&ti'iksk  55.  k H-Eis-y£ts  y  wh  w  is  clear  that  [h]  occurs  in c l u s t e r s .  Let  us  'to  be r i g h t '  (to  'to  slip'  (REDUP-slip)  'to  beat  (all 56.  sta-Ei.aq-^n [ s t a - E i _aq'an]  compare  'to (one  be  up  over-REDUP-hit) break  on one  side'  side-break-CAUS)  the  right)  12 57.  fii-Kitk ^  'to  w  s t a n d down o n '  (straight We can  see  initially, Unlike  from t h e s e e x a m p l e s ,  that  and m e d i a l l y  intervocalic  [h],  It  is  it  for  these  case  possible these  of  in  we may get In  position.  a word. With  clear  that  items with both  variation  only  [E] occurs  word  position.  clusters.  position.  word-initial  of  never  clear  word-initial lexical  down-stand)  fact,  [ E ] and It  seems  sounds  respect  voicing.  [ E ] or  consultants [h]  occurring  that  [h]  gave  out  to d e l e t e the consonant  single  we c a n c l a i m  free  the  intervocalic position, turns  in  in  when t h e y a p p e a r a t  to It  either  however t h a t  between v o w e l s .  beginning we have a  it  is  also  Compare  examples; 58.  ni-itk  'to  stand  (straight 59.  k .i-aks  'to  w  something  down  '  down-stand)  thoroughly  insult'  (all  over-insult) 60.  k H-ix-haks  'to  w  thoroughly  (all Whether / h / v o i c e s not appear that  niitk  or d e l e t e s  t o be c o n t i n g e n t w  and n i E i t k  w  and  in  between  turn  [E] i s  vowels.  subject  over-REDUP-insult)  inter-vocalic position  on p h o n o l o g i c a l  occur  can t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e t h a t  in  insult (plural) '  in the  / h / is  factors.  does  Note  i d e n t i c a l c o n t e x t . We  v o i c e d between  t o an o p t i o n a l  r u l e of  vowels, deletion  1 3 Let  us  f u r t h e r examine t h e b e h a v i o r  of  examples  to  follow.  the examples  an a  intermediate surface  position  Note  (rather  that than  underlying)  representation are of  the g l o t t a l  i n e a c h of  given  [dam-is-y2edz -iy ] v  'I  8  dam-hasa7~ay  below,  representation  in order  to  show  and  the  will  chop  (plural)'  (FUT-need-1s)  [dsm-as&y-ay]  'I  tq'al-hi:t-^n  will  need'  (against-stick-CAUS)  [tq'al-i:t'-an] 64.  the  (FUT-REDUP-chop-1s)  v  63.  in  fricative.  61.dsm-hi s - y £ d z - i y  62.  /h/  'to  t q ' a l - h a t - h i :t-*>n  stick  something  against'  (against-REDUP-stick-CAUS)  [tq'al-at-hi:t'-en]  'to  stick  something  against(plural)' 65.  waHn-hu-wilp  [wafin-u-wilp* The  above  after rule  examples  (old-REDUP-house )  h  'old  1  indicate  / m / , / n / and / l / . T h i s of 66.  the  that  houses'  /h/  is  observation  consistently  can be c a p t u r e d by a  form;  'h'  Deletion:  +cons -voc +cont + lo  -> 0  Compare a\Bm-y&a\z^— i y  'I  /  will  lost  +cons -voc +sonor +ant  chop( s i n g . ) ' .  1 4  C.  PHONEMIC INVENTORY OF VOWELS It  appears  pronunciation, overlap.  that  often r e s u l t i n g  The f i g u r e  the v a r i o u s  the vowels  below  e n j o y a r a t h e r wide range of i n a great  illustrates  v o w e l s may r a n g e .  d e a l of  the areas  The p h o n e t i c  surface  over  inventory  which is  again c i t e d below.  The vowel v a r i a t i o n does a p p e a r limits.  In t h e c a s e o f t h e h i g h v o w e l s ,  variation example,  to occur w i t h i n  a r e p r o v i d e d by t h e u v u l a r a single  speaker  gives  certain  t h e c o n s t r a i n t s on  consonants. For  the f o l l o w i n g  pronunciations . 9  67.  g ibu:  68.  *?us /  y  / g ibo: y  '6s  69. q ' 6 t s / q ' 6 t s w  w  (not  9  Note  that  'wolf  (wolf)  'dog'  (dog)  'cut'  (cut)  *q 'uts) w  the v a r i a t i o n given  occur with a l l speakers,  i n t h e examples was f o u n d t o  and a s i n g l e  word w o u l d be  p r o n o u n c e d d i f f e r e n t l y i n t h e i d e n t i c a l u t t e r a n c e . The e x a m p l e s c i t e d a r e a few of a g r e a t the v a r i a t i o n  many words  i n vowel p r o n u n c i a t i o n .  exhibiting  15 70. G a G e t k " * (not  / GaGitk ^  1  *GaGitk  71.  yen /  72.  xsk unexk ^ /  w h  w  w  w  'walk'  (walk)  xsk una;xk ^ ' c o l d '  (cold)  'camp'  (camp)  W  w  dz6q ^ w  74 .masdzaGale:  / madzaGale:  'flower'  us p r o p o s e t h e  /  madzaGale:  (flower)  A system which a l l o w s pronunciation presents  (expensive)  )  yen  73. d z S q ^ /  Let  'expensive'  w  so much v a r i a t i o n  no s m a l l  following  in  vowel  problem for p h o n e m i c i z a t i o n .  f i v e vowel  system.  i(:)  u(:)  e(:)  o(:) a(:)  There in  is  evidence to  t h e above phonemes  i d e n t i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . However w i t h i n  system,  there  (consider propose of  show t h a t  is  a great  the examples  the  following  d e a l of  in  67 t o  allophonic  a t e n d e n c y than a r u l e ,  variation), residue. long  as  w e l l as  Note t h a t  74).  seems  distribution there is  vowels.  / i / —>  [t]  / Uvular  / u / —>  [v]  / Uvular  / a / —>  [as] / V e l a r  /a/  [a]  —>  It  certain constraints  the  five  vowel  o v e r l a p between phonemes  the o b s e r v a t i o n s  c o u n t e r p a r t s of 75.  since  this  contrast  / Uvular  that  we can  (which  is  more  so much to handle  below a l s o a p p l y  the to  the  1 6  In  addition:  76.  /i/  -  /e/  (but  *i  / Uvular  )  77.  /u/  * /o/  (but  *u / U v u l a r  )  We must a l s o uvulars  and  b o t h sounds With been a b l e predict  note that  [a]  o c c u r s most  [as] w i t h t h e p a l a t a l i z e d v e l a r  r e s p e c t t o t h e mid v o w e l s to  f i n d any c o n d i t i o n i n g [e]  o r [ e ] , or  predictability  would seem t o  treat  sounds  for  four  the v a r i a t i o n s  is  as  as  between t h e v a r i o u s analysis  as the  [e]  free  although  [e]  variants  factors [o]  or  [o].  i n examples  67 t o  free  of  /o/.  >  [ i] /  >  [i]  have  not  would  This  74 by  phonemes. My argument  as  that  I  lack  of  i n w h i c h we  i n d e p e n d e n t phonemes and a c c o u n t  b a s e d on symmetry  and  / e / and / o / ,  f o r c e an a n a l y s i s  in the r e s t  namely between the h i g h v o w e l s . treat  series  do o c c u r e l s e w h e r e .  when we get  the  frequently with  It  variants  seems, of  Altogether  overlap  against of  the  then,  / e / , and  this  this system,  that [o]  we must  and  [o]  analysis  proposes  following: 78.  / i /  /u/  />/  /of  Uvular  —>  [ i> ] / U v u l a r  —>  [u]  —>  [e]  —>  [e]  — >  [o]  —>  [o]  where  [e]  and  [e]  are  free  variants  where  [o]  and  [o]  are  free  variants  1 7  /a/  In  addition  statements With  to  [a]  —>  [as]  —>  [a]  78,  respect  / /  Uvular_ Palatalized velars  we need t o a c c o u n t  s u c h as  may r e d u c e t o occurs  —>  1 0  those to  schwa  previously  schwa,  it  most o f t e n when t h e r e  syllable.  See e x a m p l e  is  the o v e r l a p  given  seems  when a d j a c e n t  for  in  that  76 and  any  a long  74 and a l s o  vowel  compare  77.  short  to a s t r e s s e d  vowel  vowel.  i n an  79 and  80.  g il£h  'blanket'  (blanket)  80.  g i:lah  'blankets'  (blanket(plural))  w  An a l t e r n a t i v e a t h r e e vowel  solution  seems  possible.  Let  This  adjacent  79.  w  by  us  consider  system. i(:)  u(:) a(: )  We would need t o c l a i m down t o  [e(:)]  analysis uvular  for  This  because  of  suggests  may have  that  heavy there  is  same as  system  very  the vowels. in  that  freely a l l  t h e way down t o  seems  r e l i a n c e on  distinctions,  statement  all  varies  and t h e c o n s t r a i n t s  t h r e e vowel  of  /i(:)/  w o u l d be t h e  some m e r i t  underlying  This  /a(:)/  its  pronunciation  1 0  and / u ( : ) /  consonants  system.  that  if  the  highly  five  systematicity  this  there are  only  three  of  vowel  to  sense,  range  The  the  and  another  then the  this the analysis  pronunciation  r e p r e s e n t s a tendency rather  way  undesirable  free variation,  little In  [D(:)].  p r o v i d e d by in  the  than a  of  rule.  18 the vowels  does  We a r e  have  some  plausibility.  therefore l e f t  w h i c h seems  readily  with  a c c e p t a b l e . However,  enlightenment,  I  seems  more c o n s t r a i n e d  somewhat Having  language,  opt  phonemically. assignment  for  established  we w i l l 1 1  of  two a n a l y s e s  the the  the  t h e phonemic  us  stress,  second  all  of  further  system  inventory  henceforth represent  Let  pending  five-vowel than  — neither  since  it  analysis. of  the  data  now t u r n o u r  attention  a phonological  process  to  the  relevant  to  reduplication.  D.  STRESS ASSIGNMENT Typically,  of  the  root.  majority  of  primary  It  should  Nisgha vowels  stress  is  are monosyllabic.  hand,  long  do a t t r a c t  vowel  is  present  in a p o l y s y l l a b i c  receives  primary  stress.  hanctq'  82.  •>am-'>6:-k it y  stress;  Consider  by  that  long  the  following  'woman'  (woman)  84.  ta:*e:t  'sleet'  (sleet)  85.  q'ap'alu:  ' gun'  (gun)  See A p p e n d i x  I.  then:  other a  long vowel  examples:  for-cover-person) (ghost)  vowel  the  'clothes'  'ghost'  is  far  if  lu:laq  rule  last  On t h e  83.  The s t r e s s  1  the  therefore  root,  (good  1  to  h e r e be m e n t i o n e d t h a t  roots  81.  assigned  19 86.  Stress  the  rightmost  otherwise The s t r e s s of  cases  r u l e as  but  not  stress stated  of  pattern  of  dicussed,  we s h a l l  invoke  (1982),  t h e need t o d e f i n e as At  e.g.  of  stress  root  use as  closed vs. vs.  may  of  rule  let  of  is  sensitive  at  of  framework  87.  Rule:  Project  (ii) (iii)  Start  vs.  Gather  word  tree.  t h e domain  the  will of  proposed  then  the  is  obviate  stress  Level  I.  of  In  general,  syllable  the  the case  stress  structure  represented) of  Nisgha,  branching/ In  other  vowels.  words,  the  The s t r e s s  rule  nucleus  from t h e  all  of  as  type  is:  Construct  (iv)  In  short  the  particular  (metrically  to  right  a left  i n w h i c h t h e dominant  that  rule.  the n u c l e u s .  long  in a m e t r i c a l  Stress  stress  rimes.  majority  a metrical  to c e r t a i n aspects  nature  looks  (i)  us c o n s i d e r  non-branching  on  Levels  Levels  root.  vast  reduplication  of  or  root;  the  fall  one  t h e domain  open s y l l a b l e s  assignment  non-branching  Note  the  true of,the  the n o t i o n  the Nisgha  sensitive  branching  stess  the  vowel  exhibiting  and t h i s  t h e moment,  are  stress  is  of  t h e domain may t h e n be s p e c i f i e d as  representation rules  final  since  i n words  vowel  r e d u p l i c a t i o n . When t h i s  by K i p a r s k y  rule,  the above  all,  reduplicated prefix  long  dominant node must  syllables  the  margin  stress  into a  rule  is  unbounded f o o t  (F)  branch right-dominant  all  Level  I  input  20 (justification D). that  for  this  The r u l e a p p l i e s  claim  is  given  in Chapter  t o examples  81 t o  85 as  t h e unmarked l a b e l l i n g  dominant  nodes  are  l a b e l l e d S and t h e  88.  hanaq'  89.  '?am''6:k it  A  w  A I  lu:laq  91.  ta:.e:t  stress  recessive  i.e.  nodes  the  W):  'clothes'  'ghost'  'sleet'  ! A  92. q ' a p ' a l u : Primary  assumed,  (Note  .  90.  I  is  follows  Section  'woman'  y  s  convention  2,  is  'gun' assigned  by S — hence t h e s t r e s s  to  those  assignment  nodes in  dominated  88 t o  92.  solely  21 We w i l l  r e t u r n to a d i s c u s s i o n  when we d i s c u s s bears  E.  primary  the p a r t i c u l a r  stress  on t h e  of  stress  in Section  reduplication pattern  2  which  prefix.  BEHAVIOR OF UVULAR CONSONANTS In  uvular Their  this  section,  consonants behaviour  addressed  we w i l l  outside  within  in Chapter  consider  the c o n t e x t  the c o n t e x t  2 where  the b e h a v i o r of  of  of  reduplication.  reduplication will  reduplication  types  are  be  dealt  with. In  Section  t o weaken  in  consonants  are  following  forms  vowel  there  is  intervocalic lost  in  (b)  i.e.  position.  other  compensatory is  pax w  pax~y  In  lengthening  'I  yuk -J w  pa:-y  'I  the  optional.  d e l e t e d . The e x a m p l e s  am  are:  (run)  run-1s)  running'  (ASP-CON  run-1s)  94(a)  pax-n  'run!'  (run-2s)  (b)  pa:-n  'run!'  (run-2s)  n6x  'mother'  (mother)  (b)  nox~y  'my m o t h e r '  (mother-1s)  (c)  no:-y  'my m o t h e r '  (mother-1s)  95(a)  Note  preceding  am r u n n i n g '  (ASP-CON (c)  is  when  these  Consider  on t h e  run'  consonants  spirantize  addition,  deletion  'to  yuk -i  they  uvular  environments.  i n which u v u l a r  when t h e u v u l a r 93(a)  t e n d e n c y of  in c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s ,  they occur  that  B we n o t e d t h e  22  96. Uvular  *?an-lu:-to: s  loss  in  the  t h e p r e s e n c e of plural  form  consonant  root  the  last  in the  taxto:s.  It  for-in-put' example  We can w r i t e  appears  97. U v u l a r  a rule  is  (drawer)  affirmed  reduplicated prefix  t h e c o d a may o p t i o n a l l y  a consonant.  to  that  a  by  of  the  uvular  d e l e t e when f o l l o w e d t h e e f f e c t of  by  97.  Deletion:  +cons -high -low  -> 0 /  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , this  of  the u v u l a r  'anlu:  in  'place  R  0  \  ) X \\ x  there are  several  counter-examples  to  rule: 98(a)  nax  (b)  'snowshoe'  nax y _  [nax~ay]  'my  (snowshoe)  snowshoe'  (snowshoe-1s) but 99(a)  *na:y  fax  (b)  t'ax-y but  100(a) (b)  uvular  _  Gax Gax-ylGax-y]  to account  between t h e  phonologically the  (vest-1s)  'rabbit'  (rabbit)  'my  rabbit'  similar  by p h o n o l o g i c a l  forms  d e l e t i o n and t h o s e  see t h a t  'my v e s t '  (rabbit-Is)  *Ga:y  like  difference  [tax ay]  (vest)  *t'a:y  but One would  'vest'  that  conform to  w h i c h do n o t .  nax  r u l e may a p p l y  means  (snowshoe) optionally  If  the  the  rule  we compare  w i t h nox to  for  the  of the  (mother), latter  but  we not  23 to  the  does  f o r m e r . The d i f f e r e n c e  not  seem t o be a c o n t r i b u t i n g  may a p p l y nax  t o pax  (snowshoe), It  uvular also  is  not  speakers  examples  to  1 2  deletion  98 t o  one  in  the  stage  the  only  although  those  Tarpent  t o be a g e n e r a l  application  outside  of  wider  variety  of  of  earlier  this  listed  in  (i.e.  younger  93 t o  (of  to  e v i d e n c e of in d e r i v e d of  the  deletion  is  (those of  part  but  it  of is  within the  96).  data  Curiously  of  speakers,  reduplicative pattern  forms.  data  speakers.  rule  the p r o c e s s  older  because  roots  this  speakers  items  96.  However,  uvular  language,  of  one f o r  roots"  93 t o  deletion  the r u l e  grammar  considers  "within  in the  of  on a few l e x i c a l items  in  who  t o T a r p e n t ) . On t h e b a s i s  an e a r l i e r in  of  older  that  been l e f t  c a n be f o u n d  s p e e c h of  speakers  in contrast  rule  of  which  (in  uvular  is  96, we c a n c o n c l u d e  the a p p l i c a t i o n  has  the  in  forms.  speakers  100. T h i s that  to that  cited  (a)  do we f i n d  the  specify  12  I  of  of  61),  (1983:168)  productive  collected, enough,  54 t o  the  rule  apply.  by o l d e r  forms  older  1940, a c c o r d i n g  93 t o  no l o n g e r  roots  age  general  t h e grammar  Evidence  t h e s p e e c h of  forms  forms  the  identical  the  (a)  give  since  r u l e cannot  that  the  consistently  Tarpent  born p r i o r  is  a p p l i e d are given  i n examples  a very  to note  alternatives,  even w i t h i n  c l a i m of is  as  vowel  between t h e s e  factor,  a form t o w h i c h t h e  speakers  occurring  whose  interesting  give,  set,  (run)  d e l e t i o n has  Younger  i n vowel  uvular she  the  cites  rule  environments) a  somewhat  24  only  three roots  ones  given  in  exhibiting  93 t o  To s u m m a r i z e , of  t h e grammar,  one.  (ii)  applies  we a r e c l a i m i n g :  the r u l e of  For o l d e r  uvular  speakers,  it  i n a l i m i t e d number of the  the p r i o r  e x i s t e n c e of  found o n l y  rule  is  e v i d e n c e of  supporting  the  its  rule  the c l a i m that  is  an e a r l i e r  (iii)  the  (v)  r u l e was  Evidence  forms  Reduplication  number of  which  younger  (iv)  in c e r t a i n  stage  general  rule  For  in non-derived  greater  a  an o p t i o n a l  productive,  terms,  the  At  d e l e t i o n was  existence  in a s l i g h t l y  (i)  roots,  no l o n g e r  i n a few l e x i c a l  environments  d e l e t i o n and t h e y a r e  96.  speakers,  provide  uvular  of  can be will  derived forms,  formerly  possibly  more  general.  F.  CONCLUDING REMARKS TO CHAPTER This  Its  chapter presented a sketch  intention  was  t o g i v e an o v e r a l l  N i s g h a and t o h i g h l i g h t which p l a y will  next  1.  a part be  some of  in Nisgha  addressed.  of  Nisgha  phonology.  phonological  t h e more p e r v a s i v e  reduplication,  the  picture  of  processes  topic  which  II. Within serves (i)  two  PATTERNS  the corpus  of  OF REDUPLICATION  data  under  study,  reduplication  functions:  To mark  plurality  — For  example:  101. qan  'tree'  (tree)  102. q a n - q a n  'trees'  (REDUP-tree)  (ii)  To mark  aspect,  indicating  a progressive  action  -  For  example: 103. q a - q o : l Reduplication however adopt only  of  plurality,  patterns.  This as  the  reduplication  pattern  one of  the p a t t e r n s  occurs  establish  find  on p r e d i c a t e s  mostly is  the t r a n s i t i v e  Note  that  suppletive  the  will  root  plural,  of  marking  the  an a s p e c t  is  pattern;  appears  to  plurality,  aspect  is  the  same  plurality. of  reduplication,  reduplication.  (one  less  of  and by t h e  this  one  be c o n c e r n e d  t o mark  a number  of  subject  which  therefore clearly  marker.  25  of  form is not  let  of  is  of  the  itself  /pax/. a  of  number  the o b j e c t of  We  methods of  us  marking  on n o u n s .  The m a r k i n g  particular  singular  Plural  often  d e t e r m i n e d by t h e number  reduplicated prefix rather  serves  in p r e d i c a t e s .  predicate  only  reduplication  on p r e d i c a t e s ,  reduplication  pluralization)  follows  the p a t t e r n s  what t r i g g e r s  most commonly  therefore  it  marking  discussing  (PROG-run)  discussion  reduplication  first  but  marker  with  Before  1 3  an a s p e c t  a marker  diverse  since as  as  as  'running'  1 3  a  The  pluralizer  26 intransitive transitive  predicate.  predicate  p r e d i c a t e are  the  In  other  words,  and a p l u r a l  triggers  of  subject  plurality  There  is  a definite  preference for  predicates  as  opposed  nouns.  found  (though  noun c a n  it  to  may o c c u r )  be d e t e r m i n e d  104.  on nouns  forgot  105. h i s - y a t s - s  her  In  t h e above  indicates  that  plurality  is  For  often  on  not of  the  example:  meri-f  rabin-f  Robin-CONN  chopped the  ta*£:sk-t  stockings~3s  are  qan log  logs'  reduplication  the nouns  a  stockings'  [hisyad3is]  examples,  of  intransitive  the p l u r a l i t y  Mary-CONN  REDUP-chop-CONN 'Robin  marking  if  y  REDUP-forget-CONN  an  Reduplication  [t'ixt'ag is]  y  of  object  marking.  from the c o n t e x t .  t'ix-t'ak -s  'Mary  a plural  plural.  on t h e  predicates  Consider  also  this  example: 106.  kil'pil-t  wilp-tit  two-CONN  house-3p  ' T h e y have In  this  last  example,  two  houses'  plurality  d e t e r m i n e d by t h e n u m e r i c a l Having  established  reduplication, patterns  of  the  t h e noun c a n  word p r e c e d i n g factors  that  we can p r o c e e d t o a n a l y z e  reduplication  pluralization.  of  be  it. trigger  the  various  employed by N i s g h a as  a method  of  27 A.  SURFACE  PATTERNS  Reduplication directly affix will  to  that  OF REDUPLICATION is  done by a f f i x i n g  root.  f o l l o w e d by t h e  Therefore, root,  root.  'drawer'  a  root  made up of  reduplicated  and t h e  *>an-lu:-to: s  of  1  a form i s  then the  be added between t h e a f f i x 107.  if  some p a r t "  an  prefix  For  example:  (place  for-in-put) 108.  ^an-lu:-tax t6:s  'drawers'  -  (place The v a r i a b i l i t y of  C  2  in  the  reduplication present  number of  patterns  types.  unlike  the p r e f i x  is  (iii)  "The  1 5  The  part  CV  and  1 f  cause  the  so d i v e r s e at  of  they  of  surface  vowels  the  minimal  manifestations  the nature  independent  that  t o be t h e  following  and r o o t  surface  taxonomic  on s u r f a c e  the  particularly  are of  root  not  indexed  the vowel vowel.  in  The  are: 2  + C .VC 2  1 5 2  + C,VC  2  t o be p r e f i x e d w i l l  subscripts  consonants  C  what seems  based  Within  totally  C,VC  is  the p r e f i x  C, V + C! VC  (ii)  of  any a t t e m p t  the c o n s o n a n t s ,  classifications  1  for  Given below,  classifications,  (i)  to appear  classifications  reduplication  because,  the vowel,  reduplicative prefix,  a challenge  presentation.  of  for-in-REDUP-put)  ' i ' and  differ.  be s p e c i f i e d  ' j ' are  later.  used to emphasize  that  the  28  (vi)  C,V: + C,VC  The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a heuristic  basic  therefore  given  d e v i c e . It  surface patterns three  patterns  will  s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d m e r e l y as  later  be shown t h a t  a l l the  o f C i , C i C and C i x r e d u p l i c a t i o n . I am  that  with the allomorphs,  general  above  of r e d u p l i c a t i o n c a n be subsumed under  claiming  categories,  2  C i , C i C and C i x . W i t h i n  a l l apparent  phonological  t h e r e i s a r e d u p l i c a t i v e morpheme  anomalies  will  the three  be a c c o u n t e d f o r by  processes.  B. UNDERLYING PATTERNS OF REDUPLICATION Reduplication root.  1 6  vowel  takes  The examples  p l a c e by c o p y i n g C, and C  to follow  neither copied  the p r e f i x this  that  of t h e r o o t vowel  is  i n t o the r e d u p l i c a t i v e p r e f i x .  109.  si:pk  110.  t'erst  sipsi:pk  w  t s ' i : kw  112. q*6ts  Both  e x a m p l e s w h i c h show  t h e l e n g t h nor t h e q u a l i t y  111.  will  show t h a t  of t h e  i s n o t c o p i e d f r o m t h e r o o t v o w e l . E v i d e n c e of  c a n be f o u n d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  1 6  will  2  C, a n d C  2  ' t o be h u r t i n g '  w  t'ist'e:st  ' t o push  ts'ux ts'i:k w  'to  q'asq'6ts  'to cut'  w  may u n d e r g o  leak'  subsequent  be a c c o u n t e d f o r i n t h e s e c t i o n s  something'  to  modifications follow.  which  29 Further found  In  evidence against  i n e x a m p l e s whose 113.  sqik sk  114.  lusq'e:xk  Y  Y  s  Note  t h e s e c o n d of  C  2  of  prefix.  However,  that  is  examples strong the  C  2  C  and t h i s  root.  of  3  root  the is  y  root  that  i n an A u t o s e g m e n t a l  constitutes  Autosegmental  to C  saxsqik sk ,  vowel e n t a i l s  ambiguous, This  copied  into  we w i l l  w  is  framework  of  of  assume  provide  association  the t e n e t s  t h e o r y . The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  the  c o p i e d . These  vowel c o p y b e c a u s e  the c r o s s i n g  a violation  which  2  is  of  a r u l e of  C  two e x a m p l e s  on t h e b a s i s  the  hurt'  reduplicative prefix.  the  of  get  'dark'  w  of  3  1 7  2  'to  2  evidence against  root  equal C  1  w  in the  is  form C C V C .  and q or q _ i s  t h e above  and not  3  and not C  analysed  C,  change  the p r e f i x  c o u l d mean t h a t  it  is  v o w e l c o p y c a n be  the  lusaxsq'e:xk  w  subsequent  that  of  a r e of  saxsqik sk  undergoes  in  roots  w  t h e above examples  that  an a n a l y s i s  copying  lines,  1 8  of  vowel copy  would  be:  1 7  Tarpent  prefix  (1983:136)  vowel  is  cites  not a  these cases  "reduced version  vowel".  However  deleted  from t h e p r e f i x and a new vowel  unclear  t o me how t h e s e  In  they  1 8  fact  The  she c l a i m s  a later  chapter.  evidence that  or a c o p y of  the o r i g i n a l  examples  seem t o a r g u e  p r i n c i p l e s of  that  as  support  against  Autosegmental  vowel  inserted. s u c h an  the  the root  is It  is  analysis.  it. Theory w i l l  be o u t l i n e d  in  30  115.  *sqik sk y  w  +  sqik sk Y  nil//  I  c~ Instead,  te  +  ccvccc  1 ,•»'  it  can be shown  that  predictable  on t h e b a s i s  of  prefix.  Note  occurring the  that  vowel  natural  rule acounting  reduplicative  to  the p r e f i x .  r e d u p l i c a t i v e morpheme,  very  the vowel q u a l i t y  the a d j a c e n t  / i / seems  in  w  consonants  be t h e most If  then for  is  its  in  the  part  of  commonly  we r e g a r d it  is  / i / as  possible  surface  to write a  variation  in  the  prefix.  116. Vowel  Variation:  + VOC  + VOC  -cons +high -back  + low +back  — >  -cons -high -ant  9 /  9  + VOC  -cons +high -back Independent by  IV  +round + bac k motivation  p r e f i x a t i o n , a method of  f o l l o w e d by a vowel r e g a r d / i / as these  for  is  t h e above  la-xsk ine:k s PL- c o l d 'They are  y  3P cold'  ftidit  rule  pluralization  t h e unmarked v o w e l  w  [+round]  p r e f i x e d to a stem.  examples: 117.  /  of  is  provided  whereby / l /  Here t o o we can  the p r e f i x .  Consider  31  118.  lu~x ti:tix  y  P L - hungry  1P  w  'We a r e 1 19.  hungry'  l i - t ' e : q num PL-  eat  quickly  'We a t e  examples  the vowels  of  r u l e can a c c o u n t  IV  to  in a l l  follow. . 1  C. UNDERLYING PATTERN Under  1 9  In  this  Type  (i)  120.  k at  +  types  come s u r f a c e  C,VC  types  qaq6:t  'heart'  122. p 6 : t  pipo:t  'boat'  ts'ak  124.  ''alazn  125.  *>ali:sk  all  the  These  w  of  (i)  and  (ii).  'bowl'  y  ?alila:n  'slow'  ^alilirsk"  'weak'  singular/plural  examples  breakdown  will  to  2 0  follow,  a  be o m i t t e d so as  to  presentation.  r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  by T a r p e n t whose  resonants  y  ts'its'ak  y  handle  2  121. q 6 : t  Y  123.  also  the  9  'man'  facilitate  cited  surface  k ik at  y  morpheme-by-morpheme  2 0  the  in  Ci  pattern  C,V  f o r , t h e vowels  p r e f i x a t i o n . The r u l e w i l l  appearing  reduplication  1P  quickly'  The Vowel V a r i a t i o n above  nuiii  in  this  data  p a t t e r n of  (124, do not  125)  differ  from  show a vowel  reduplication.  those  between  32 Type  (i)  e x a m p l e s can be s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l y  t h e vowel v a r i a t i o n in  this  rule.  There are  accounted for  no c o n s o n a n t a l  changes  type.  Type  (ii)  126.  wa  huwa /wuwa/  'name'  127.  wa:x  huwax /wuwarx/  'oar'  CV  + C^VC  huwilp /wuwilp/  'house'  128. w i l p Note  by  that  when C,  i n e a c h of  of  the root  instances  of  the  relevant  rules  Ci  2  these is  examples  /w/.  If  C,  of  we r e g a r d  the p r e f i x  these examples  r e d u p l i c a t i o n the d e r i v a t i o n to t h i s  discussion)  is  is  as  (citing  [h] as  only  follows:  /wa/ Ci  Redup.  wi+wa  Vowel V a r i a t i o n At  this  s t a g e of  data c o l l e c t e d , It  seems  that  phonotactics  t h e d e r i v a t i o n , we have t h e r e a r e no i n s t a n c e s  the of  form *wuwa would be  vowels  This  the c a s e ,  r e a l i z e d as glottal  2 1  It  later  front  glide  /vim/  'to  and g l i d e s  either  fricative  will  Among  [h]  or  [K]  in Chapter  in v i o l a t i o n  (c_f.  I  have  183)  of  to  the  permit  position.  becomes h w h i c h may be (see  1).  be shown t h a t  the  t h e s e q u e n c e wu.  in w o r d - i n i t i a l  2 1  the g l i d e  and v o w e l .  sniff  of  *wuwa.  t h e l a n g u a g e w h i c h do not a p p e a r  homorganic being  u  the d i s c u s s i o n  of  the  The c o m p l e t e d e r i v a t i o n  the  same h o l d s  for  f o u n d one e x c e p t i o n ,  the  for  high,  namely  33  Type  (ii)  forms  would  be: /wa/  Ci  Redup.  wi+wa  Vowel V a r i a t i o n  u  Stress Glide  to h  h [huwa]  Reduplication  Types  accounted  according  for  (i)  and  or  (ii)  [Euwa] have  t h e r e f o r e been  t o an u n d e r l y i n g  Ci  pattern  of  reduplication.  D.  UNDERLYING PATTERN Under  this  p a t t e r n come s u r f a c e C,VC  (iii)  129.  t'is  t'ist'is  'large'  130. mux  mux mux  'ear'  w  2  C,VC  w  ''us  w  and C  type,  identical  t o C,  variation  rule predicts  2  of  to  (v).  ' dog'  qalts'ipts'ap  reduplication  (iii)  2  ''as'us  132. q a l t s ' a p this  +  Types  Type  131.  In  CiC  C,  the  'village'  and C root.  the n a t u r e  of  2  the p r e f i x  Here t o o , of  the  the vowel  are  vowel  in  the  prefix.  This  Type  (iv)  type  includes  different  C VC 1  i  examples  underlying  and C i x .  In  this  examples  which  +• C , V C j w h i c h must be h a n d l e d by  patterns  section,  of  we w i l l  two  r e d u p l i c a t i o n , namely deal  reduplicate according  only  with  CiC  those  to u n d e r l y i n g  pattern  34  CiC.  In  all  differ.  Type  (iv)  Consider  consonants 133.  as  first  2  cases  of  the  root  involving  and  prefix  uvular  2  su:qsk  saxsu:qsk  w  'sleep'  135.  lusq'e:xk  136.  I6:q  these  examples,  is  r e d u p l i c a t e d as  waxwoq  'bat'  lusaxsq'e:xk  w  when C  2 2  of  2  'wake  the  spirantize  root  outside  T h i s may o c c u r  word-final  position  consonant;  both these  environments  the  is  up  following  early'  a uvular  stops  also  stop,  it  exhibit  a  the c o n t e x t  when t h e u v u l a r  or when i m m e d i a t e l y  Consider  'dark'  w  a f r i c a t i v e . Uvular  tendency to  reduplication.  'dive'  w  faxt6:q  In  position.  these  C  C .  134. woq  sporadic  examples,  of  stop  is  f o l l o w e d by a  generalize  phonetically  to  the coda  represented  examples. 137(a)  Tan5:q -dit  'they  like'  (like-3p)  (b)  •>ano:x -dit  'they  like'  (like-3p)  t'5:q  'scratch'  (scratch)  'scratch'  (REDUP-scratch)  138(a) (b) We can  w  w  w  t'ort'ax  therefore write a rule  behavior  of  C  sporadic  spirantization  2  in  139. U v u l a r  2 2  Dunn  (1983)  syllables 2 3  Recall  in  examples  that  133 t o  of  uvulars  Spirantization  also  notes  this  would r e f l e c t 136, as  well  as  the the  elsewhere.  II:  2 3  phenomenon  for  uvular  Tsimshian.  that  uvulars  also  spirantize  in  in  intervocalic  35  -cont +back -high The s e c o n d s e t c a s e s where C 140.  Note as  C  k 'atsk y  the y  y  w  'to  arrive'  'to  slip'  of  only  the  second element  the p r e f i x .  of  sounds.  143.  ts'i:k  144.  t'ak  145.  ts'ak  cut'.  is  function  in which C  of  Chapter  types  Type  a velar  t'ux t'ak w  w  in C  for  2  (cf.  this  The f i r s t  is  w  position  as  that  ts  is  due t o  an  pertain  to  those  'to  leak'  'to  twist'  'to  kill'  do t h e u v u l a r s ;  singular  t h a n an a f f r i c a t e ,  conclude  alternative  p r o v i d e d by an example  person  isolation;  than  we  will  11).  sequence  in  since  be p r o p o s e d .  w  is  occurring  copied  rather  2  an  w  (palatalization rather  units *  is  consonant.  ts'ux ts'ak  w  especially  examples  w  w  4,  will  (iv)  involves  2  the a f f r i c a t e  striking,  ts'ux ts'i:k  w  of  i n N i s g h a as  In  these  is  2  behave  Evidence  This  C  affricate.  Ki.y_.t-'  (cont'd)position  'to  an  142. y a t t '  The v e l a r s  *  is  cut'  The t h i r d s e t  2  root  * X  with d i f f e r i n g  k 'isk 'atsk  w  approach a n a l y z i n g  2 3  examples  /  1  'to  sequences  forms  of  [+cont]  \  q'asq'ots  these a f f r i c a t e s as  ->  w  141. q ' 6 t s  that 2  of  2  r  it  is  the vowel  does  [ q ' o d z i y J . If w  y  following  c_f.20)  we would e x p e c t  not.  affricate.  s u c h as  We can  to  therefore  q'ots dz  y  were a find z  36 later  see t h a t  t h e Type  (vi)  the u v u l a r s p a t t e r n of  The n e x t forms  In  set  in which C  and v e l a r s  is  includes  a glottalized Jimilm6:l'  'to  wrap'  147.  .ipal'  Hpilpal'  'to  massage'  148. q ' i n  q'anq'in  'to  chew'  149.  ts'ilts'al'  'face'  examples,  reduplicated Type  in  (v)  the g l o t t a l i z e d  t h e p r e f i x as  CVCz  According  to  different  from C,  this  + C_jVC  of  the  resonants  of  non-glottalized  the  root  consonants.  of  the  reduplicated prefix  w  hinyank  w  /yinyank /  'mouldy'  151. y a * k  w  hi*ya*k  w  /yifya*k /  'slippery'  w  w  hi*yatt'ik s  /yityat*'ik s/  w  w  'to 153. y a t s Type  the root  (ii) is  hisyats examples,  a glide,  The same e x p l a n a t i o n examples.  2 5  Note t h a t  slip'  /yisyats/ of  the p r e f i x  homorganic as  f o r Type  with  the phonetic  is  'to  chop'  [h]  w h i l e C,  the f o l l o w i n g  (ii)  One can w r i t e a s i n g l e  holds  rule  for  but  in these cases,  these  to handle  the g l i d e  epenthetically  i n s e r t e d between v o w e l s  e.g.  of  vowel.  both  s e q u e n c e y_i may o c c u r  word-medially,  (find-EPEN-ERG-CONN).  is  root.  150. y a n k  w  are  2  p a t t e r n , C,  152. y a t t ' i k s  2 5  resonant.  .imo:l'  ts'al'  in  reduplicated  146.  these  Like  behave a l i k e  reduplication.  t o be d i s c u s s e d  2  also  is wa-y-i-J  front  37 and back  glides.  154. G l i d e  to  'h':  +cons + lo -back -rd  -cons -voc +hi /3back Example  153 can be d e r i v e d as  /  -cons +voc +hi j3back  —  below: /yats/  C i C Redup  yis+yats  Vowel V a r i a t i o n Glide  i  to h  2 6  (applies  vacuously)  h [hisyats]  Type  (vi)  The examples c o p y C,  of  C^:+C^VC  exhibiting  the root  The most s t r i k i n g  2  this  and f o l l o w  roots  In  than  position  2 6  C  2  in the  root.  participating  Chapter  of  it  stress  r e d u p l i c a t i o n appear  by a l o n g  d i f f e r e n c e about  v o w e l and t h e p r e s e n c e of rather  t y p e of  this  in the  The e x a m p l e s  i n Type  (vi)  type  stressed is  the  vowel. long  reduplicative  below  show t h a t  reduplication  is  a  155. h i - r a q ' a n  hifa:laq'an  'to  156. maqs  ma:maqs  'pants'  prefix C  2  break'  n6x  no:nax  'mother'  158.  t'oq  t'6:t'ax  'to  scratch'  159.  woq  w6:waq  'to  sleep'  along  E,  the  loss  with compensatory  t h e p r e f i x has  of  a uvular  lengthening  been a c c o u n t e d f o r  in was  of  uvular.  157.  1 Section  to  coda discussed.  under Type  (iv).  38 If  we assume t h a t  rule for  C  ( c i t e d e a r l i e r as the u v u l a r  t h e Type  (iv)  in  (vi)  forms  fact  occurs  r u l e whereas it  was  a productive  that  productive. examples, positing  argued  so  would  a general In  velar  t h e r e were  imply  whose  C  2  Types  o c c u r r e n c e of  in  exhibiting  t h e n Type uvular In  is  (vi)  Chapter no with  the  (vi) no  longer  and Type  (iv)  c a n be r e c o n c i l e d by  spirantization the  along  Type  pattern  (vi)  we assume  the  This  In  uvular  and  u v u l a r - d e l e t i o n was  this  of  If  would n o t .  a spirant,  loss  account  of  (iv)  loss,  t h e grammar.  that  same  the p r e f i x .  instances  some way.  forms  that  is  in  participating  few forms  d e l e t i o n and t h e c u r r e n t as  vowel  The d i f f e r e n c e between Type  those the  long  (iv)  r u l e of  there are  reduplication,  Type  then the  invoked here to  before uvular  c a n be marked f o r  E,  copied,  c a n be  2 7  be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n  spirantization  Section  is  t h e same e n v i r o n m e n t .  that  longer  97),  root  classification,  would need t o  deletion  the  d e l e t i o n and t h e  spirantization  1,  of  2  prior  rule  of  to  uvular  uvular deletion  rule.  addition,  note the  and w h i c h a l s o  following  examples  reduplicate according  to  whose C  2  is  t h e Type  a  (vi)  pattern.  2 7  The r u l e w i l l  compensatory the  be r e f o r m u l a t e d t o  lengthening  Theory,  I  is  will  into  when an A u t o s e g m e n t a l  r e d u p l i c a t i o n process  lengthening  take  is  given.  problematic  for  not  to  attempt  Since  treatment  of  compensatory  the n o t a t i o n formulate  account  the  of  the  rule  Standard  here.  160. naks  ni:niksk  161. p l a k s k An argument  pli:*iksk  w  parallel  to  that  of  In  why t h e l a t e r a l  f r i c a t i v e appears  Tarpent  (1983:206),  The c h a n g e forms The is the  is  of  another  fact  that,  always  the  the case  same as  the case  of  of  vowel  is  vowels  the  p r o p e r t y of  have no  the  root  (vi)  stress  vowel,  vowel  suggests  that  l a t t e r . T h i s may have been a reduplication. is  In  e x a c t l y what we of  root  for.  attract  always  unstressed  I  stated  stress.  falls  L e t us compare Type  examples c o n t a i n i n g  idea  examples.  the p r e f i x  am u n c e r t a i n h o w . t h e change  usually  for  reduplicated  Type  the u v u l a r s ,  p r e f i x vowel. Chapter  in a root  mentioned.  I  d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  stressed  the c l a i m t h a t  some of  the p r e f i x vowel  t o be a c c o u n t e d  The f i n a l the  I  c a n be made  161,  e a r l i e r p a t t e r n of  the v e l a r s ,  would e x p e c t , b u t  tired'  i n t h e r e d u p l i c a t e d form  the o r i g i n a l  this  be  example  in  of  f o r m e r may be a c o p y of  'to  married'  50).  vowel  outstanding  in  characteristic  is  root  of  note  get  the u v u l a r s  these examples.  (cf.  the case  w  'to  Type  that  (vi)  long  The i n a c c u r a c y  within  a root  (vi)  examples  long  vowels  was  with  outside  of  also  other of  the  root. 162.  *?an-lu:-to: s  163.  lu:-six-sitye:x  'drawer' w  (place  for-in-put)  'trade,change' (in-REDUP-change)  164. In  lu:-qats  examples  162 t o  'pour' 164, t h e l o n g  (in-pour)  vowels  occurring  outside  40  the  roots  never a t t r a c t  regardless the  of  the  length  of  away  the  from t h e  root vowel.  root, Consider  also  following: 165.  Example long  ta:fe:t  'sleet'  163 shows t h a t  vowel,  stress  when a r o o t  falls  The d i f f e r e n c e i n and t h o s e as  stress  i n Type  stress  (vi)  examples,  the  the  therefore it  takes  of  in  these  all  stage  is  that  t h a n does  d e l e t i o n does  occurs  the  not  (town)'  168.  lax si:ltah  'ocean'  (on-?)  that  in a l l  in  Type  Level  people  (on-lake)  position  I,  (vi)  and  o c c u r , but  at  level,  a later  reduplicative  r e d u p l i c a t i o n . If  the a d d i t i o n  is  stress  is  in  we assume  d e l e t i o n and of  then we c a n e x p l a i n  prefix  t h e o c c u r r e n c e of  the u v u l a r  live)  i n a d e r i v e d e n v i r o m e n t as  reduplication, uvular  assignment  earlier  apply.  'lake'  preconsonantal  the  attached d i r e c t l y to on t h e l o n g  vowel of  it  is  that  at  stress  proclitics (i)  of  following  lax-t'ax  these examples,  to  the attachment  'Greenville  _  levels  reduplication  167.  of  cases  attached d i r e c t l y  deletion rule also  lax-qal-ts'ap  the case  vowels.  reduplicated  (on-around-where  Note  one  t h e above  p r o c l i t i c s . Consider  in which u v u l a r  166.  In  c a n be a r g u e d  an e a r l i e r  than the attachment  more t h a n  of  assignment  (1982).  t h e p r o c l i t i c s . The u v u l a r  examples  rightmost  reduplicative prefix  p l a c e at  contains  c a n be e x p l a i n e d by t h e use of  p r o p o s e d by K i p a r s k y  root;  on t h e  (sleet)  takes  fact the  place  that  root,  the p r e f i x  the (ii) and  41 t h e n o n - o c c u r r e n c e of  stress  proclitics,  fact  (iii)  the  in d e r i v e d environments d e r i v e d environments In  addition,  of  the  there  stress  automatically other  words,  stress an  in  follows place  E.  in  the  Level I  must  a need t o Level I  the  stress  t h e domain  of  (vi)  Type this  from t h e  type,  which c o n s t i t u t e s  C,  reduplicative  of  the  in  domain  will  the  examples  is  rule.  rule.  In  The  therefore  t y p e but  assignment  y  Y  not  rather  r u l e and  is  root of  the u n d e r l y i n g  is  c o p i e d and  the C i x  it  its  'button'  really  Cix*  but  x  rule outlined  The e x a m p l e s  are  represented without was  Ci,  is  in Chapter  claimed that  the a l l o m o r p h s  y  the  the  C i C and  (iv)  pattern  Cix.  is  followed of  by  the  examples.  qaxqanmala"?  y  Type  allomorph  'brother  y  the  it  2 8  these  to  that  surface  to  Consider  29  under  k ixk imx t y  170. qanmala'?  The a l l o m o r p h  appearing  part  morpheme.  k imx t  morpheme has  the  assignment of  not  proclitics.  state  input  occurs  but  of  reduplication  stress  belonging  ix  Recall  deletion  Cix  the examples  this  2 9  of  grammar.  In  according  all  to  p r o p e r t y of  be t r e a t e d as  169.  the u v u l a r  defines  UNDERLYING PATTERN Some o f  2 8  no l o n g e r  be s u b j e c t  naturally  vowel  c r e a t e d by r e d u p l i c a t i o n  , since  the p r e f i x  intrinsic  that  long  c r e a t e d by t h e a d d i t i o n  is  rule  on t h e  (of  female)'  3 0  depalatalized 1:Sect.  B,  Part  palatalization.  reduplicative Cix.  4.  171. q ' a l t e : x k  q'axq'alte:xk  W  'to 172.  si:pk  sixsi:pk  w  173. h 6 k a x 174.  shiver' w  haxhok ax  y  y  t'iphok' ilt  of  this  evidence that  in  116.)  / i / —>  when a d j a c e n t  before  / i / —>  prefix  v o w e l of  roll  rule also  t y p e . Note  is  be  hurting'  'to  be  right'  w  'to  prefix  'to  t'iphax hok' ilt  w  The v o w e l v a r i a t i o n  W  something  accounts  for  example  174  that a  w  down' the vowel w  or U v u l a r s  u b e f o r e a rounded c o n s o n a n t ; this  example would be u.  the  t'iphax h6k' ilt  (see Vowel V a r i a t i o n  to G l o t t a l s  in  w  rule  is  given  ordered  otherwise  Now compare  the  these  cases. 175. y6"?ok s  hixy6Tok s  'to  wash'  hixyat*'ik s  'to  slip'  we a c c o u n t e d f o r  /h/  i n C,  y  y  176. y a t . ' i k s w  In  these  examples  rule  given  rule  applies  prefix  in  154. T h e s e examples after  of  the root  addition,  the  is  it  is  position  in  rule;  otherwise  the p r e v i o u s  examples  should 'to  spank'  178. h a k s  hixhak s  'to  insult'  (cont'd)  y  hix'amqo: k i t  y  3 0  Tarpent  the  be n o t e d .  hixhinatsax  "?amq6:k it  this  examples  177. h i n a t s a x  179.  by a  /h/.  following  y  3 0  as  3 1  provide evidence that  t h e Vowel V a r i a t i o n  v o w e l would be a ,  where In  w  y  (1983)  cites  'beautiful'  qanmi l m a l a *>.  3 1  Also  r e d u p l i c a t e s as  hiJyatt'ik s.  3 2  Also  r e d u p l i c a t e s as  *?ax*?amq6: k i t .  w  y  3 2  43 In  these  latter  t o be a , cases  given  cannot  examples.  examples, that  we would e x p e c t t h e p r e f i x  is  a glottal  be a c c o u n t e d f o r  Tarpent(1983:158)  as  consonant.  Clearly  we d i d t h e p r e v i o u s  claims  that  hix  hix^amqd: k i t  appears  v  since a g l o t t a l  stop  reduplicates  a glottal  as  i n C,  c i t e d e l s e w h e r e and a l s o form,  i.e.  (1983)  account means.  this for  CiC pattern  not  last  this  claim,  always  T h i s c a n be seen  in  examples  reduplicated  that  a great  seem t o be any c l e a r belonging  position  2  in which C  2  of  to  of  pattern appears  the v e l a r  many of  the  roots  r e d u p l i c a t i o n are b i - s y l l a b i c .  t y p e as  x in C  The C i x  prefix,  a root  in the a l t e r n a t i v e  notes  in Cix  however,  classify  stop.  of  the  f r i c a t i v e x*  c  There  way whereby one  the CiC p a t t e r n ,  the p r e f i x  by  phonological  to bear  some a f f i n i t y  root  a velar  2  is  of t h e C i x  In support  classifiable addition, for  with the v e l a r  the  following  t r e a t i n g C i C and C i x  and C  to 2  examples  the  of  distinct  it  strong  patterns  of  reduplication. 180. q a q e t k  In  qaxqaqetk  w  w  181.  sq'anis  sixsq'anis  182.  sq'alisa"?  sixsq'alisa?  these  examples C  2  is  a uvular  'expensive,  difficult'  'mountain' . 'curtain' consonant.  It  was  the  does  consonant.  examples p r o v i d e as  can  and  seem t o have any common f e a t u r e s w h i c h would make  readily  of  y  participating not  substantiate  position  set  *?ax ^amqo: k i t .  Tarpent  does  to  these  c a n be  c o n s i d e r e d an i n d e p e n d e n t p l u r a l m a r k e r . The v e r y example,  vowel  shown  44  earlier, C  2  under T y p e s  position  spirants (in  of  2  of  PATTERNS  the  the  the Ci to  pattern.  Tarpent  (vi)  altogether. root  is  We a r e  of  of  data  of  a uvular)  It  under  study  is  also  not  likely  data  since  forward very E of  prefix  reduplicative  prefixes,  Vowel V a r i a t i o n  in neither  set  claim.  been a b l e  chapter  its  vowel  a c o p y of the hix  was  unlike not  noted that C,  of  the  C  t  root.  p r e f i x apart  If  this  no  suggestion  prefix  were t h e c a s e ,  other to  the  prefix  Both  these other  Tarpent  independent  that  may h o l d  hix  the  from t h e  be c o n s i d e r e d an  The t e n t a t i v e  the  of  hix  the h i x  these  the  subject  suggests  that  in  exception  we d i s c u s s e d  and we n o t e d t h a t  might  than  to detect  one p o s s i b l e  CiC  attributed  Among  As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r ,  difference.  Cix  the  presented  prefixes.  that  that  can be  reduplicative  is  a  of  more common  this  this  have  r u l e . We a l s o  necessarily  characteristics  forward  examples  tentatively.  this  reduplicative  I  far  the data  substantiate  reduplication,  Section  pluralizer.  as  t h e above  indicates  that  d i f f e r e n c e , with perhaps  not  in  morpheme.  semantic  was  uvulars  t h e r e f o r e forced to p o s i t  of  In  that  the p r e f i x  fall  r e d u p l i c a t i o n are  these  (1983)  put  in  Clearly  patterns  which I  patterns,  reduplicate  reduplicative  patterns  skewness  and  OF REDUPLICATION AND PRODUCTIVITY  The c o r p u s and C i x  root  lost  categories.  allomorph  F.  the  or a r e  which C  these  of  (iv)  I  some  wish  to  put  semantic  t h e n we might  have made a  45 step  in  t h e d i r e c t i o n of  anomalous  behavior.  which the hix 183(a).  Let  prefix  accounting us c o n s i d e r  its  apparently  some o t h e r  forms  in  appears.  yim-yim-f  'as-'us-.  REDUP-sniff-CONN  ts'i-ts'i:p  REDUP-dog-CONN  ' T h e dogs s n i f f (b).  for  hix-yim-}  the  REDUP-bone  bones'  'as-'us-.  REDUP-sniff-CONN  ts'i-ts'i:p  REDUP-dog-CONN  ' T h e dogs s n i f f  the bones'  REDUP-bone (sniffed  one bone a t  a  t ime) 184(a).  'ax-'amqd:k it y  REDUP-remember  six-sq'anis  REDUP-mountain  'The mountains  are b e a u t i f u l  (or  worth  (or  worth  remembering)' (b).  hix-^amqd:k it y  REDUP-remember  six-sq'anis  REDUP-mountain  'The mountains  are b e a u t i f u l  remember i n g ) ' Note  that  the  (a)  and  (b)  e x a m p l e s were g i v e n  by o n l y  one c o n s u l t a n t  Another  consultant  and  him t h e s e were t h e o n l y  for  e x p l a n a t i o n given of  e a c h example  gives  it:  sniffed the  In  the  gave t h e  oldest (a)  is  cited  (b)  were a l l  consultant,  version  for  of  one bone a t together  the  first  a time.  In  the  The versions  consultant  example, the  60+).  examples,  who gave b o t h  below e x a c t l y as  version  age  both  possibilities.  by t h e c o n s u l t a n t  the bones,  bones  (the  spontaneously  (a)  and t h e dogs s n i f f e d  the  dogs  version the  whole  46  g r o u p of range  bones.  In  the second example,  of m o u n t a i n s  wishes to  remark  beautiful,  and i n  that  whereas  the mountains  as  tendency  the  that  the  p r e d i c a t e . If  use  of  this  not  synchronically  prefix  was c o n s i s t e n t l y  regular  or  this  to  is  made of  language,  or  states  to  The p o s s i b i l i t y  consultants. given  by my  each case  (be  it  this of  other  the is  its  use  roots  One might  also  oldest  p r e f i x was p o s s i b l e ,  reduplicative pattern  used  we would e x p e c t  f u n c t i o n on a number of  the data  is  one  i n d i c a t e d by a  be more w i d e s p r e a d . However,  r e j e c t e d by a l l  In  reflects a  on p r e d i c a t e s  were t h e c a s e ,  wherever the h i x  not v i c e v e r s a .  is  remark  in the  prefix  substantiated.  according  full  speaker  the group the  earlier)  the h i x  w i t h t h e same s e m a n t i c  consultant,  version  individual actions  plural  note t h a t ,  (a)  a whole  the  t h e above e x p l a n a t i o n  (present  may w i s h t o c l a i m t h a t to emphasize  version,  is  group.  To t h e e x t e n t general  (b)  e a c h m o u n t a i n of  in  a  the  there  so was  C i C or C i x ) ,  she m a i n t a i n e d t h e  the  but  semantic  distinction. The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n most,  that  the hix  p r e f i x with  allows its  us  particular  f u n c t i o n was p e r h a p s more p r o d u c t i v e a t What we have now i s lexical  items.  justification pattern  In for  except,  of  t h e C i x p a t t e r n of  a relic  fact,  left  course,  offer  p r e f i x as  for  apparent  reduplication.  stage.  l i m i t e d number  the hix its  at  semantic  an e a r l i e r  on a v e r y  the p r e s e n t data  treating  to conclude,  of  no  a reduplicative affinity  with  47 We c l a i m e d  in  the  t h e r e were no s e m a n t i c Cix of  first  paragraph  the p a t t e r n  particular  lexical  pattern  reduplication  of  processes possible  185.  of  i t e m . Note  roots  follow In  I  fact  that  is  the C i x many  sip-si:p-k -i  t e e t h are  six-si:p-k -_  t e e t h are  188.  pattern),  is  most  these  do  not to  Consider:  tooth-EPEN-1s  tooth-EPEN-1s  broken'  m£:l-i-y  REDUP-break-CONN  canoe-EPEN-1s are  broken'  k' is-k' as-.  we:n-i-y  REDUP-break-CONN  tooth-EPEN-1s  w  examples  It  the  hurting'  are  w  w  the  difference.  k' ix-k'"as-*  canoes  not  (e.g. but  is  reduplicate according  canoe-EPEN-1s  'My The above  tendencies  REDUP-break-CONN canoes  it  pattern.  mfc.l-i-y  w  'My 189.  a given  k' is-k' as~*  'My  that  we:n-i-y  w  w  way  hurting'  REDUP-hurt-STAT-CONN  187.  t o be no c l e a r  we:n-i-y  w  'My  and  unpredictable,  forms  REDUP-hurt-STAT-CONN  186.  that  CiC  am c l a i m i n g  one p a t t e r n w i t h no s e m a n t i c  'My  section,  r e d u p l i c a t i o n a d o p t e d by a  to note c e r t a i n general  hold throughout. more t h a n  T h e r e seems  w h i c h do o c c u r w i t h i n  bi-syllabic  this  d i f f e r e n c e s between the C i ,  reduplicative patterns. predicting  of  t e e t h are can a l s o  broken' be a d d u c e d as  evidence that  the  48 phonological p a t t e r n of the  not  semantic  that  that  that  each l e x i c a l in which  according  the  latter This  questions:  (i)  productive  than  diachronic  shift  Is  c a n be shown the  i t e m may b e l o n g  marked  for  the  (ii)  which  one p a t t e r n w i l l  to address  the p a t t e r n s  the o t h e r ?  pattern  The i t e m s  we have e s s e n t i a l l y us  to.  less-than-desirable  participates.  leads  that  Is  t h e n be  freely.  proposed  free  certain  in question  t h e r e any  more  sense  in  t h e d i r e c t i o n of  one p a t t e r n  at  an answer  first  of  as  a  opposed  other?  In  arriving  at  loans  which a r e  phonetically  represented  191.  six-swets  that  c_f.[bud3iy]  the  final  'my b o o t ' .  ts  24 w h i c h c l a i m s  provides  evidence that the  lack  of  it  tool  let  us  for  following  'boot'  3 3  'sweater'  behaves  Also,  footnote  the  question,  examples.  bixbuts  Note  the  Consider  190. b u t s sweta  to  often a convenient  determining p r o d u c t i v i t y .  Note  the  the  between w h i c h t h e y v a r y  cases,  one of  it  a lexical  t o more t h a n  notion  determine  d e t e r m i n e d by  item i s  it  both p a t t e r n s ,  variation.  the  class  we must come t o  reduplication  In  3 4  not  is  marked f o r  3 3  does  reduplicative pattern  seems  look  root  addition,  reduplicate  to  the  In  conclusion of  of  reduplication.  particular It  shape  recall  that is  voicing  as  an  3 4  affricate,  the d i s c u s s i o n  in  the v o i c e d c o u n t e r p a r t an  of  t_s  affricate.  on t h e t and t h e E n g l i s h  stress  49 192. p e n d - i - y  bixpend-i-y  The above  examples,  according  to  which c l e a r l y  the Cix was  loans  words  t h e r e f o r e suggests  at  C i C and  that  the q u e s t i o n  the behavior  of  was c l a i m e d t h a t  directly  to  roots.  regardless  This  of  of  also  that  is  reduplicate for  none  Evidence  of  from  t h e more p r o d u c t i v e  diachronic  is  pattern.  according  true  for of  by  loan of  Earlier  let in  the Cix  far  us  this attach  the m a j o r i t y  of  r e d u p l i c a t i o n . There a r e ,  d e r i v e d forms, to  shift,  reduplicative prefixes  the p a t t e r n  some d e v i a n t  reduplicate  Cix  the Cix  it  however,  loans,  Cix.  chapter,  forms  paint'  the C i C p a t t e r n p o s s i b l e .  Addressing look  are  p a t t e r n . Note  these  the p a t t e r n s  'I  3 5  all  of  which  pattern. Consider  the  following: 193. q a n - t ' i m i s  qax-qan-t'imis  stick-writing 'pencil' 194. qan-mala ? stick-fasten  REDUP-stick-fasten  'button'  3 5  'pencils' qax-qan-malai  1  3 4  REDUP-stick-writing  'buttons'  (cont'd)assignment. Note  the  discussion, example  is  following but  is  nevertheless  voiced  pre-vocalic  which  tangential  to  worth n o t i n g :  in p r e - v o c a l i c  position,  _t o c c u r r i n g m o r p h e m e - i n t e r n a l l y  unvoiced.  Also,  voiceless  like  in b i x - p e n d i y , E n g l i s h but  t h e p_ of  voiced  in  the  the  the  The t but in  present of  this  the sweta  root  prefix.  is  remains  50  In  e a c h of  these  a copy,  not  lexical  proclitic.  pattern  is  roots  stages  to  built  that  process that at  C,  as  are  a level  of  later  deletion  processes  3 6  I  for  our  process  for  in Chapter  not  they are adopt  the  Cix from  there  is  has  three  distinct  is  a stage  built  the Cix whole  represents  where  on  they  entire  pattern,  words,  and  leads  an open c l a s s  us as  1,  we c o u l d p e r h a p s  of  that  t h e one a t  of  earlier  reduplication.  proclitics  which Cix  reduplication Cix  analysis,  the m o t i v a t i o n  attached  of  and  may  This the  is  not  crucial  reduplication deletion,  a Level  copy  reduplication  since  and u v u l a r  as  were  I Note  3 6  reduplication  the p r o c l i t i c s .  reduplication  argue  t o be c o n s i d e r e d a L e v e l  patterns  were s t r e s s  1.  the  by a s t a g e where  t h e n we must o r d e r  in  of  is  that  there  include  occurred. Since  involved  Arguments  given  is  the a d d i t i o n  problematic  Level  than  that  Levels,  in Chapter  a proclitic, than  of  the other  later  claims  prefix  class.  terms  reduplication  it  formation  words  pattern  C,  applies  followed  to  of  to which  finally,  CiC  rather  that  She c l a i m s  loan  reduplicative  be t h e c a s e  plural  appears  in  we c l a i m e d  uvular  that  that  to a closed  Cix  t h e base  the Cix  Looked at  the  but  to  on r o o t s ,  pattern that  root,  seems  on stems and  this  of  Tarpent(1983:194)  The f a c t  opposed  It  suggest  are  think  the  evolution.  built  words.  of  broadening  to  of  plurals  that  C,  to words.  evidence  are  of  examples,  I  none  process  as of  were  a  51 which  interact Placing  Cix  grammar  tells  to  that  of  at  an e a r l i e r  irregular  with Cix  r e d u p l i c a t i o n at  us  something  level.  plurals  variants(the  Evidence  G.  pattern  its  markedness  Level  I,  whereas  process.  relation  totally  of  pluralization)  consistent  placed The  are  the a d d i t i o n  Similarly,  3 7  is  markers.  we can  r e d u p l i c a t i o n t h e unmarked is  in  a closed class  p r o d u c t i v e method of  from l o a n s  the  r e d u p l i c a t i o n , which  which r e p r e s e n t  of  l e v e l of  s_ or is consider  pattern.  with  this  claim.  SUMMARY OF CHAPTER 2 In  this  chapter  manifestations fewer p a t t e r n s . types  of It  was  can be a c c o u n t e d  variations  within  phonological and o t h e r s  these  processes  the  In  t h e many types  shown t h a t for  types  some of  of  entirely  predictable  Ci,  surface  were r e d u c i b l e  these  by p o s i t i n g  a  reduplicative  C i C and C i x .  1983.  for  the c o n t e x t  we c l a i m e d t h a t  The  by  w h i c h were p e r v a s i v e  r e d u p l i c a t i v e morpheme, and through  to  diverse'surface  were a c c o u n t e d  r e s t r i c t e d to  addition,  was p a r t  Kiparsky  that  the allomorphs  rules,  reduplication.  See  we saw  reduplication  morpheme w h i c h has  3 7  of  a later  Compare E n g l i s h p l u r a l  c o n s i d e r e d a L e v e l II the Cix  about  the C i C p a t t e r n  c o n s i d e r e d t o be a t its  reduplication.  processes  of  t h e vowel / i / its  t h e Vowel V a r i a t i o n  alternation rule.  52 Finally,  we a d d r e s s e d  respect  to p a t t e r n  follow,  we w i l l  account  for  types.  of  notion  reduplication.  discuss  the p r e f i x  the  how T a r p e n t vowel  and  of In  productivity the c h a p t e r  (1983)  proposes  the v a r i o u s  with  to to  reduplication  III.  A.  EXAMINATION OF THE REDUPLICATION ANALYSIS IN  BRIEF OUTLINE OF TARPENT'S Tarpent,  Plural  i n her a r t i c l e  Formation" types  of  being  t h e more common). forms  pattern  that  Within  which d e v i a t e they appear Examples  according  to  sections,  the mechanics  1.  claims  that  reduplication — partial  classification.  proposed  OF REDUPLICATION  "Morphophonemics  (1983:133)  major  certain  TREATMENT  the Cix  by T a r p e n t  sufficiently  are  or CV:  will  of  those  a  patterns.  be  Nisgha exhibits  full  (the  types,  latter  there  from the  two  are  regular  separate  forms  the major  of  Nisgha  and  t h e major  to warrant  TARPENT  In  which the  reduplicate  following  reduplication  two  types  as  discussed.  PARTIAL REDUPLICATION The  Tarpent  formula  for  (1983:133)  partial  reduplication  as  given  in  is:  # d . . . # — > # c ( v ) C , . . .# where c rule, that  is  a copy of  C,  and v p r e d i c t a b l e the vowel  Tarpent  of  (1983:133)  the presence  of  Vowel two  the  root  vowel.  Insertion:  these  resonants,  or  relatable  from t h e a d j a c e n t  therefore gives  this  If  the  reduplicative  identical  word.  of  She  prefix  is  consonants  at  the  identical  53  Note  governing  states: inserted  no  by  optional.  the c o n d i t i o n s  is  is  it  consonants.  A vowel  there  to  beginning  consonants  vowel:  between  are  of  both  the a  54 0 —>  v /  #C —  C  [-res] Tarpent  (1983:134)  specification The r u l e  is  as _>  v —>  proposes  to  rules  Reduction  a  /  c"3  this  are  not  detail  later.  by a  vowel  the n a t u r e  of  the  vowel.  8 _  a / —  7  a / —  C"  u / —  C  w  3  9  otherwise  t h e Vowel S p e c i f i c a t i o n of  Consonant  to h to account  prefix  2.  follows  follows:  i/ addition  then  r u l e which p r e d i c t s  v  In  [-res]  rule,  Deglottalization  for  and  c a s e s where C,  i d e n t i c a l . These  rules  will  Tarpent  of  Glide the  root  be c o n s i d e r e d  and in  FULL REDUPLICATION Tarpent  (1983:133)  gives  this  general  formula  for  full  reduplication. #C,VC ...#—>#C vc C,VC ...# 2  1  2  2  where: c  is  to  a consonant  the o r i g i n a l  predictable  3 8  C  3 9  C  is W  is  any any  uvular  i d e n t i c a l to or consonant  and where v  from the c o n s o n a n t a l  or g l o t t a l  labiovelar.  r e l a t e d by  consonant.  is  rule  a vowel  environment...  55 Tarpent prefix in  (1983:136) by  rules  the p r e f i x ,  of  for  t h e vowel About  in  the  the  vowel  says:  vowel  the  to account  d e l e t i o n and e p e n t h e s i s .  she  This of  proposes  is  root  not  then a reduced v e r s i o n  vowel;  instead  the o r i g i n a l  or a c o p y vowel  been d e l e t e d by a r u l e  of Vowel D e l e t i o n ,  new,  i n s e r t e d as  u n s p e c i f i e d vowel  in  has  and a  partial  reduplication. The Vowel  Specification  r u l e which a p p l i e s  reduplication  also  consonants  the p r e f i x  given.  of  The r u l e s  and G l i d e  applies  Fricativization  to  affecting  Reduction  here. Rules  to h.  those d  of  in  relating  the  root  a r e Resonant  Consonant  and D e a f f r i c a t i o n  partial the  are  also  Deglottalization  Deglottalization,  are  the  rules  Velar  affecting  C . 2  B.  PROBLEMS WITH TARPENT'S Tarpent's  doubt  analysis  of  v e r y d e t a i l e d . She  treatment  of  processes  affecting  however,  the  remain  ANALYSIS Nisgha  succeeds  reduplication  reduplication in giving  types  a  and t h e  them. Some a s p e c t s  of  is  without  comprehensive phonological  her  analysis,  problematic.  1. ARGUMENTS AGAINST A DELETION AND EPENTHESIS ANALYSIS The d e l e t i o n and e p e n t h e s i s Tarpent for  in  full  t h e change  reduplication of  root  vowel  is  analysis also  e m p l o y e d by  employed  in  accounting,  i n one r e d u p l i c a t i v e t y p e  (cf.  56 Tarpent for  1983:169).  In  principle,  d e l e t i o n and e p e n t h e s i s  environment,  e x c e p t , of  learnability environment for  her  In  seem u n d e s i r a b l e . of  to  C,  by t h e  prefix  not  is  analysis, insert  fact  a vowel  is  attractive  especially  since  elsewhere  i n t h e grammar  consonant  clusters.  hierarchy  is  a o  Note  applies,  that  accounts  for  the  can be a r g u e d  -  about  of  Tarpent provides  no  motivation  same  t h e r e b y making  approach,  root.  root  her a n a l y s i s  with the d e l e t i o n  for  in  the  her  a r u l e of  an e p e n t h e s i s namely  in  some  through  these  of  this  in  modified  the  to prefix.  epenthesis  seems  rule.exists word-final  the  sonori.ty  the c l u s t e r a  and  be  rule  suffixation,  examples:  t h e vowel v a r i a t i o n the q u a l i t y  of  can  reduplicative  an e p e n t h e s i s  that  rule  Such a move c a n  v o w e l . Under  thereby causing  Consider  view  the  When a v i o l a t i o n  brought  of  and  in  between t h e c o p i e d c o n s o n a n t s  it  resyllabify.  can be c l e a r l y  from t h e p o i n t  the vowel  need o n l y  Initially,  epenthesis  the  that  a c o p y of  there  same  hoc.  of  2  in the  occurring  by d i s p e n s i n g  and C  justified  rules  rules  remedy T a r p e n t ' s  be a l t e r e d somewhat only  the  counter-intuitive  occur  d e l e t i o n and e p e n t h e s i s ,  seem r a t h e r ad order  copying  such  seems  to  Certainly  and o p a c i t y ,  rules  approach  rules  course,  independently motivated.  it  the  rule  of  to  o  r u l e proposed  the e p e n t h e t i c  in Chapter 1  vowel.  57  195. m i t - T i  [ m i f in]  full-CAUS '•fill' 196.  ^us-n  [*>usin]  dog-2S 'your  dog'  197. w e : n - y  [werniy]  tooth-1s 'my  tooth'  In  examples  193 t o  ny  respectively.  195 t h e o f f e n d i n g  The r u l e of  clusters  epenthesis  are  breaks  T i , sn  up  and  these  clusters. When one c o n s i d e r s the  reduplicative prefix,  somewhat  diminished.  f u n c t i o n does  not  latter  is  whereas, onsets.  to in  Branching previously 198.  break  is  cited  example:  One c a n a r g u e  so  for  parallel  no  outside  do e x i s t  reduplicates y  that  plausibility  seems  two r e a s o n s : that  in  of  above.  clusters  in  Consider  its  the  codas,  evidence of  in  otherwise  the c l u s t e r s  the context roots.  the  first,  The f u n c t i o n of  independent  w  sax~sqik sk  rule  reduplication,  onsets  example 199.  of  there  in onsets  y  is  the e p e n t h e s i s  initial  up i m p e r m i s s i b l e  the case  sqik sk  its  rule discussed  Secondly,  epenthesis  This  exactly  needed e p e n t h e s i s  This  more c l o s e l y  occur for  reduplication. the  following  'to  be  injured'  'to  be  injured'  as:  w  in the case  of  example  199,  epenthesis  in  58 applies  to break  given  that  three  consonants  there exist  justification #C—CCC, It  as  for  C  2  epenthesis does  3  argument  not  simply  an a n a l y s i s  2.  should  Given  On t h e o t h e r  the d e l e t i o n  partial full  of  the  part  of  in codas. rules  the  rule  adopting since  hand,  of  in  The a n a l y s i s  to  of  C,,  as  it  (as  to  deletion  cannot  be  argument  opposed to  epenthesis.  with  after The  the p l a u s i b i l i t y  cannot treat  the  this  be m o t i v a t e d , the vowel  reduplicative  approach, for  this  of  of  it  the  morpheme.  the  rule  we need o n l y surface is  for  for the  shape  of  the  needed elsewhere  p l u r a l i z a t i o n and t o a c c o u n t  for  the  applies  rule  of  epenthesis  which  proposed here e l i m i n a t e s  d e l e t i o n and e p e n t h e s i s ;  reduplication  no  position  both  t h e above  r u l e out  rule  to account  method of  t h e vowel  is  r e d u p l i c a t i v e morpheme w o u l d be C i  As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r ,  another  shape  in  r e d u p l i c a t i o n , and t h e y w o u l d be C i C and C i x  vowel v a r i a t i o n  for  as  r e d u p l i c a t i o n . With  vowel.  there s t i l l  TO A DELETION AND EPENTHESIS ANALYSIS  prefix  The a l l o m o r p h s  and  epenthesis.  would seem much more p l a u s i b l e reduplicative  198),  two  #CCC—C.  occurring after  a question  However,  made up of  a vowel  be a b a n d o n e d ,  employing  that  of  an a n a l y s i s  convincingly  consonants.  onsets  #CC—CC or  raises  AN ALTERNATIVE  four  4 and  insertion  that  motivated.  or C )  examples  the  clear  and e p e n t h e s i s  against  (cf.  of  branching  opposed t o  seems  plausibly  up a c l u s t e r  t h e use  of  thus  fewer  t h e need  we c a n a c c o u n t  rules.  the  for  for  59 3.  PROBLEMS INTERNAL TO TARPENT'S This  section  will  Tarpent's  analysis  prefix  accounted  is  specific rule.  problems  immediately  for  of  becomes  two p a r t i c u l a r  that  rule  is  with  at  is  for  prose  statement  of  consonants  for  attempting  to a l i g n  applies  fl1  Although  t o words  [iresonant], Chomsky-Halle  it  is  of  [-res]"  to  chapter,  identical  The  formulated  1  formulated  the  does  latter  r u l e and not  the  index  does.  the  Before  particular,  consider  rule  of  Vowel  of  I n s e r t i o n with  (1983:135)  partial  claims  not  feature  the that  reduplication  w i t h w. The f o r m u l a  explicitly  h e r e assumed  (1.968)  a word.  The f o r m e r  Tarpent  does  two  this  In  beginning  Tarpent  1 of  the d a t a .  rule  a general  Part  rule,  of  is  it  see how t h e  interaction  latter  to apply  us  to  to h.  Tarpent,  let  applies  Reduction  by  epenthesis  C  two,  formulated,  this  A,  whereas  the  the  The  types.  rule.  identity  of  proposed  between t h e  the  reduplicative  convenience.  #C —  a discrepancy  the  of  and e p e n t h e s i s .  i n s e r t e d between  [-res] is  of  when we a t t e m p t  the b e g i n n i n g  V /  as  in Section  r e s t a t e d here  There  inadequacies  formulation  rule,  reduplication  0 —>  Glide  the  apparent  a vowel  non-resonants  by d e l e t i o n  this  The r u l e q u o t e d states  some  i n w h i c h t h e vowel  lie  The f a i l i n g  examine  ANALYSIS  rule  t o be e q u i v a l e n t  the of  the  which  she g i v e s  d e f i n e her  [isonorant].  as  feature to  the  is:  60 #w...—>#huw... Tarpent  t h e n adds t h a t  the vowel  Specification  r u l e which  this  Note  after lies cases  chapter. the r u l e  rule  in Section  of Vowel  Insertion  (epenthesis).  The p r o b l e m  o f t h e Vowel  Insertion  Reduction  rule,  as  Redup.  —  (cannot  derivation:  Output  *[hwilp]  the a l t e r n a t i v e  Redup.  apply;  Red.  h  Vowel  insert.  —  Output  derivation.  both  consonants  'house'  (cannot  apply;  at l e a s t is a  one o f  resonant)  *[hwilp] is  rule apply.  the relevant  2  w  Glide  Only  *  ordering:  the consonants  2  the  resonants)  /wilp/  *  Consider  those  w  h  Insertion  in  'house'  G l i d e Red.  In n e i t h e r o r d e r i n g  rule  applies  f o r m u l a t e d and t h e  in the f o l l o w i n g  insert.  Partial  Insertion  r e d u p l i c a t i o n where C , = [ h ] .  are  Consider  1 of  rule  /wilp/  Vowel  A, P a r t  Specification  o f t h e Vowel  Partial  t h e Vowel  t h e Vowel  of p a r t i a l  of G l i d e  given  u through  that  in the a p p l i c a t i o n  ordering  is  is  i t possible The Vowel  rules  t o have  t h e Vowel  Specification  are considered  in  rule  this  which  61 Tarpent  claims  huwilp,  presupposes  rule  w h i c h we have  Vowel  Insertion,  the presence It of  was  this  with  with  will it  the  holds  clearly  two  forms If  rule,  because  after  prefix,  d  for  insert  right  of  the  the  rule  Note  if  the  rule  for  still  of  of  not  the p r e f i x  is  if  the  the  be s o l v e d .  The  proposed,  Insertion.  vowel  is  rule  the  in  can no more This  than  is  were marked  only  for  the  case  reduplicated  t h e n become t h e is  to  statement  potential under  t h e y w o u l d be i d e n t i c a l . rule  full  formulation  from a f u l l y  as  discrepancy  the p r o s e  It  original  inserted  crucial  rule  full  what  Vowel  does  respectively.  that  identity,  ([-resonant]  the p r e f i x .  deleted  chance c i r c u m s t a n c e s of  in  the  as  formulated  contexts  the consonants  that  becomes  intends  identity,  is  formalization  reduplication,  rule  for  of  a solution  full  account  statement  [-sonorant]  rule  of  huwilp.  The a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d  a vowel  a vowel 2  of  Tarpent's  would  this in  Tarpent  then the  and C  cannot  the consonants  Before  that  the consonant  and  rule  that  feature  reduplication.  fortuitously  left  Tarpent's  be e x a m i n e d t o d e t e r m i n e  states  reduplication.  the  apply.  the p r e f i x  huwilp  of  Insertion  d e l e t e d and a new u n s p e c i f i e d  in p a r t i a l  reflect  the  the p r e f i x  t h e Vowel  identity.  index  of  to Tarpent)  Tarpent  between  in  in  of  from h e r p r o s e  to  the case  consequences  is  the vowel  so as  reduplication  vowel  formulated,  to consonant  problem l i e s according  shown c a n n o t  differs  respect  in  the vowel  mentioned e a r l i e r  rule  problem  for  the a p p l i c a t i o n  as  of  were amended  of  accounts  Note  identity,  that the  62 rule the  would s i m i l a r l y form sCVC o r  fully  consonant  C .  seems  that  contexts  of  despite  specifies  [-resonant] of  In  all  the  that  and t h e  the cases  of  full  constituting  they  forms c i t e d  of  roots  the  the prose  of  claims,  following  reduplication,  r u l e cannot  that  left  and  right  be marked statement  it  as of  the  are.  now t h e s e c a s e s  partial  (1983:136)  C,  fact  a l s o proves  the case  t as  t h e Vowel I n s e r t i o n  Consider  case  w i t h s or  the consonants  identical, rule  2  in  JCVC w h i c h , T a r p e n t  reduplicates as  be i n a p p l i c a b l e  for  which T a r p e n t ' s  t o be p r o b l e m a t i c , as  r e d u p l i c a t i o n . Tarpent  it  feature did  (1983:136)  in  the  gives  the  below:  200. man  minman"  'to  3  smear  a  substance' 2 0 1 . mal  milmal  'to  fasten,  button  something' In  these examples,  prefix rule is  since  also  glide  a v o w e l c a n n e v e r be i n s e r t e d  b o t h C,  fails  and C  i n c a s e s of  r e d u c t i o n t o h,  the g l i d e  y_, as  2  are  resonants.  full  In  in  the  addition,  the  r e d u p l i c a t i o n where t h e r e  resulting  in these examples  from r o o t s taken  beginning  with  from T a r p e n t  (1983:137). 202.  U 3  The  lu:yaltk  lack  examples  is  of  w  lu:hilyaltk  glottalization  accounted for  Deglottalization  rule.  on C,  w  of  by T a r p e n t ' s  'to  turn  the p r e f i x Consonant  around'  of  these  63 203. y a n k It  has  hinyank  w  been shown t h a t  the  problematic  on two c o u n t s :  discrepancy  mentioned above,  the  [-resonant].  feature  discrepancy, formulated c a s e s of rule  full  than  vowel  problematic  cases  like  it  identical take  place  resonants.  the Vowel  resonants. in a l l  rule  in In  to  the  Insertion  It  except  for  crucially  two  Tarpent  differ  examine  some of  presented  strikingly the major  in  the  in stated  non-resonants rule  is  [-resonant] that  everything  if  in  we  between  identical  in  this  the  then glide  insertion.  TARPENT'S  thesis  and t h a t  some ways. T h i s  d i f f e r e n c e s of  will  way w i l l  provided that  it  except  insertion  o r d e r e d b e f o r e vowel  in t h i s  the  we need t o amend  C. HOW THE PRESENT ANALYSIS DIFFERS FROM The a n a l y s i s  in  vowel  the d a t a  to  work  instead  seems  rule,  words,  respect  then the  environment,  other  the  not  feature  approach m o d i f i e d  account is  we change  is  the  r u l e does  and h u w i l p .  its  with  between any  respect  instances  Tarpent's  observationally reduction  with  includes  If  to  the consonants  non-resonants),  minman,milmal  were t o a d o p t that  then the  mouldy' Insertion  respect  rectify  indexing  insertion  identical  still  so  we d o ,  to  be  Vowel  and s e c o n d l y  reduplication.  to allow  (rather  If  with  order  we c a n p r o p o s e  rule.  r u l e of  first  In  'to  w  section  t h e two  of will  approaches.  64 1. DIFFERENCES IN  THE GENERAL MECHANICS OF THE TWO  APPROACHES One of analysis  t h e p r i n c i p a l d i f f e r e n c e s between  and t h e p r e s e n t  accounting  for  the vowel  the o v e r a l l mechanics altogether both to  different  full  In  reduplication,  prefix)  of is  template This  Ci,  is  problems Vowel less  and C i C  this  internal  Insertion efficient  of  in  partial of  only  are  applies  partial a  the  reduplicative  Aside  was  are  surface  shown t h a t  analysis  from t h i s  with  fact,  t h e one p r e s e n t e d h e r e  the  reduplication. copied  form of  from t h e Vowel V a r i a t i o n it  full  reduplication  full  the  and  reduplicative  consonants  to Tarpent,  to T a r p e n t ' s  than  of  appear  that  chapter,  rule.  This  proposes  in the case  Comparable  in  analysis  (to  the case  predictable  Earlier  r e d u p l i c a t i o n proceeds  analysis  then proposes  root.  As a c o n s e q u e n c e ,  reduplication.  the present  In  t h e method of  t h e two a p p r o a c h e s .  to T a r p e n t ' s  a part.  is  the vowel  in  in  the p r e f i x .  whereby  w h i c h t h e vowel  analysis  from t h e  in  and p a r t i a l  contrast  template  one l i e s  Tarpent's  rule.  there  respect  are to  her a n a l y s i s in  the  ]  the is  following  ways. First,  Tarpent  consonants  in  to capture  the  reduplicated  all  r e d u p l i c a t i o n as fact  forms.  deglottalization within  states  that In  modifications general  some of  these  particular,  and d e a f f r i c a t i o n  the c o n t e x t  of  rules, rules  on  the  thus apply  t h e phenomena are observable  r e d u p l i c a t i o n and  it  failing only  of only  would be .  in  65 desirable t h e use  to c a p t u r e  of  features,  generalization, unique  make  to  remains  an  pattern,  Chapter  template is  that  for  infix  i_x. In  although  In  handling in  treats  Note  on C .  This  2  that,  will  according  to capture a  Chapter  some  Cix  of 4,  consonants we w i l l  reduplicative analysis, of  the  the  of  c o p i e d and case,  it  is  addition  differences of  is  preattached  revealing.  study.  Tarpent  This  the data  divergence  (1983:159)  which r e d u p l i c a t e a c c o r d i n g 204. q a q i t k  with  i_x. In the  cites  to  k ixqaqitk  w  y  the  alone  'to  latter  there  are  is  w  206. q ' a m k i : t k w  k ixqaq'itk y  w  w  following  examples  pattern. be d i f f i c u l t ,  'to  k ixq'amk i:tk y  'to  w  bless,  howl' w  baptize  and  very  expensive' 205. q a q ' i t k  is  consonants.  in data  the Cix w  C,  means  c i t e d by T a r p e n t  the  4.  Cix  former,  t h e above d i f f e r e n c e s ,  between some of  this  infix  copied along  to  the  as  Cix  in Chapter  analysis,  In  f o l l o w e d by an  t h e vowel In  those  CVC r e d u p l i c a t i o n .  the  reduplicative  template with  be made e x p l i c i t  to T a r p e n t ' s  types  r e d u p l i c a t i o n must p r o c e e d by c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t  also  respects.  allomorph  morpheme, can be h a n d l e d by a C i C features  by  d e a f f r i c a t i o n , although  the p r e s e n t  a separate  show t h a t  certain  deglottalization  problematic  Tarpent  4 will  with  possible  r e d u p l i c a t e d forms.  Secondly, having  it  namely  some p r o p o s a l s  analysis  fact.  a reduplication  pre-attached  is  this  somebody'  66 According w i t h an  to T a r p e n t ,  i_ of  the  infix  jjc i s  i n i t i a l g or gj_. T h e r e f o r e i n s t e a d  adjusting uvular  the  as  it  fronts  does  so as  in  t h e Vowel  incompatible  of  the  Specification  t o be c o m p a t i b l e  with  the  vowel  rule,  the  following  vowel. Consider  now t h e s e  examples  which  form p a r t  of  this  study: 207. q ' a l t e : x k  q'axq'alte:xk  w  208. qanmala'?  qaxqanmala ? *  209. q ' a m k i : t k w  Note  that  The f a c t  Tarpent's  data,  vowel  in  w  that  but,  instances  of  data  the p r e f i x  instead  w  permit  incompatibility,  this  not  consonants hand, of  Cix  as  in  the data  and  t h e Vowel  is  is  likewise  4 5  Tarpent cf.  cites  example  qanmilmala'?.  206.  study  to  different  this  types.  rule.  suggest  f r o m t h e vowel  subject  rule.  4 4  makes  Specification  no d i f f e r e n t  baptize'  adjusts  c o n d i t i o n e d by t h e  from t h e p r e s e n t  plurals  patterns  is  some v e r y  the consonant  from t h e o t h e r  t h e vowel  'to  5  vowel never v a r i e s  reduplication different case,  shiver'  'button'  4  q'axq'amk i:tk "  w  t h e two s e t s of  analyses.  'to  w  t h e Vowel  Note  in  to  the  type  of  that  in  adjacent On t h e that of  other  the  C i C or  Variation  vowel Ci  67 2. DIFFERENCES IN Consider  ANALYSIS OF REDUPLICATION TYPES  first  the p a r t i a l  w h i c h r e d u p l i c a t e w i t h C, partially fully  begin  wa  b e g i n w i t h y_."  211. w i l p  Euwilp  'house'  212. y a t s  Eisyats  'to  The a n a l y s i s  hi.yalk  w  result  gives  of  a Glide  She a l s o  —>  claims  reduplication Tarpent's  glides  become [h].  (1983:135)  Reduction  claims  that  C,  t o h r u l e . The f o r m u l a  is  she  to  analysis  'h'  both cases.  #huw...  that  for  the p a r t i a l  Glide  that  is #w...  for  chop'  vowels.  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , T a r p e n t the  examples,  'slippery'  w  o f f e r e d here proposes  when f o l l o w e d by h o m o r g a n i c  of  cited. 'name'  ya.k  of  Below a r e  6  Euwa  213.  roots  types  w i t h w and t h e r o o t s  w h i c h have been p r e v i o u s l y  210.  reduplication  h o r E when t h e  r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  some of  as  and f u l l  a similar  words the  beginning formula"  and f u l l  rule  in  formula e x i s t s  7  w i t h y_a. N o t e has  The p r o p o s e d r u l e  is  full that  t o be s t a t e d  r e d u p l i c a t i o n forms,  the p r e s e n t  in  analysis  in  separately  whereas  the  can t a k e c a r e  r e s t a t e d here  of  for  reference:  " According 6  " Tarpent 7  to Tarpent  does  reduplication  not  ya.  e x p l i c i t l y state  forms.  the  formula  for  the  full  68  -cons -voc  —>  +hi  /3back  In a d d i t i o n , applies  only  + lo  + VOC  data  aspectual  reduplication  /—  -back -rd  t o y_a forms  that  +hi  0back  t o have a f o r m u l a  i s not e n t i r e l y a c c u r a t e .  (c_f. n o t e  ye:  -cons  i t appears  Tarpent's  214.  +cons  20) i s  the f o l l o w i n g  that Among  form i n w h i c h  occurs.  'go, walk'  hiye:  ' t o be  going,  walking' It  seems  from t h e above  be l i m i t e d t o forms  example  beginning  Glide  to ' h ' r u l e proposed  above  example as w e l l  root  that  the formula  w i t h ya_ ( a s T a r p e n t d o e s ) . The  in this  thesis  as the o t h e r s ,  (and not t h e r o o t  vowel)  s h o u l d not  can handle the  since  i s part  only  C, o f t h e  of the context  of t h e  rule. The d i f f e r e n c e s forcefully formula  in the a n a l y s i s  given CVK*  In the  this  type,  in Tarpent 8  —>  she c l a i m s  K=Velars,  rule.  for this  come o u t t y p e s . The  type  is:  f l 9  that  the root  vowel  and t h e o r i g i n a l inserted  is copied  vowel  into  is  into  deleted  t h e r o o t . The  and G l o t t a l s .  " v = a n e p e n t h e t i c vowel 9  (1983:167)  and a new v o w e l  Uvulars  also  o f CV: r e d u p l i c a t i o n  CV:CvK  reduplicative prefix  from the root  u 8  i n t h e two a p p r o a c h e s  s p e c i f i e d by t h e Vowel  Specification  69 original  C  s p i r a n t i z e s and t h r o u g h a s e r i e s  deletes,  leaving  2  processes  l e n g t h on t h e p r e c e d i n g v o w e l .  account  f o r t h e p r e s e n c e of s t r e s s  Tarpent  (1983:168)  in which u v u l a r  of  In o r d e r t o  on t h e p r e f i x  vowel,  compares t h e r e d u p l i c a t e d forms  d e l e t i o n takes  place.  to others  She c i t e s t h e  following: 215.  *pax n _  pa:n  'run!'  —>  n6:n  'your  —>  no:y  —>  run-2s 216.  *nox n -  mother'  mother-2s 217.  *n6x~y  'my m o t h e r '  mother-1s 218.  **>an-lu:-t6xs  — —> >  *>anlu:to:s 'drawer' place  She  then  of-in-put  states:  Note  that  stressed showing  i n t h e s e examples  the rule a f f e c t s  vowel, as i n the p r e s e n t p l u r a l that  stress  x  5 0  after  examples,  a s s i g n m e n t on t h e f i r s t  syllable  must have o c c u r r e d b e f o r e f r i c a t i v i z a t i o n . The e s s e n c e of T a r p e n t ' s argument examples vowel,  the uvular  then t h i s  assignment  fricative  provides  on t h e f i r s t  i s that  since  is deleted after  evidence that  syllable  i n t h e above a  stressed  the s t r e s s  o f t h e CV: r e d u p l i c a t i o n  t y p e must have o c c u r r e d b e f o r e f r i c a t i v i z a t i o n and  5 0  x=x,  the uvular  fricative.  70 consequently problems  b e f o r e d e l e t i o n . T h e r e seem t o be a t  with  First,  this  given  vowel  However  the p l u r a l  vowel that  is is  comes  c i r c u l a r . Tarpent  at  examples,  it  the t i m e of that  to the  states  that  the d e l e t i o n r u l e a f f e c t s  in the p r e s e n t  the v e r y p o i n t  therefore must  "as  stressed  is  above,  a stressed in  two  argument.  t h e argument  t h e examples  least  plural is  needs  that  deletion;  the  in  fact  t o be p r o v e d . T a r p e n t  ill-founded conclusion  have been p r e s e n t on t h e  x after  examples".  not c l e a r  uvular  in  first  syllable  that  stress  before  f r i c a t i v i z a t i o n occurred. Secondly, is  deficient  assigned shifted  on t o  case,  is  t r e a t m e n t of  in that  on t h e  conditions stress  her  it  first  the  rather  as  reduplication how s t r e s s  other words,  and i f  so,  is  what  type  is stress  are  Another p o s s i b i l i t y  d i r e c t l y to  the q u e s t i o n a r i s e s  state In  syllable  the s h i f t ?  assigned  the p r e f i x  not  syllable.  first  causing  does  t h e CV:  the  is  that  the p r e f i x .  If  this  t o why s t r e s s  is  assigned  than to the  root  as  happens  in  is  the to  other  cases. Consider, reduplication as  a form of  deletion  in contrast,  o f f e r e d , in t h i s CiC  applies  vowel.  The m a j o r  within  this  the  first  the a n a l y s i s thesis.  reduplication to C , 2  analysis,  syllable,  nothing  since  it  CV:  length  CV:  types  in which the  causing  d i f f e r e n c e in  of  rule  of  t o r e m a i n on  t h e two a n a l y s e s need be s a i d  falls  are  out of  about  is  treated uvular the that  stress  the general  on stress  71 rule  (as  rule  will  Level  was  shown  assign  in chapter  stress  to  2).  the  Recall  that  the  rightmost  long  vowel of  a  1 string.  3. DIFFERENCES PERTAINING TO CONSONANT Tarpent rule  stress  of  posits  Consonant  partially  three rules  Deglottalization  r e d u p l i c a t e d forms as  219. m a : l 220.  A s e c o n d r u l e of  fully  only  t o C,  of  5 1  'plate,  Y  deglottalization  of  applies  One  'canoe'  tsits'ak'  y  deglottalization.  in:  mma:1  ts'ak'  i n CT p o s i t i o n  of  DEGLOTTALIZATION  applies  dish' only  r e d u p l i c a t e d words  as  to in  resonants the  following: 221.  man  minman  'to  smear  222. mal  milmal  'to  fasten,  The t h i r d r u l e a p p l i e s  to a l l  a  consonants  substance' button in C  something'  position.  2  For  example: 223.  tarn  timt'am  'to  224.  ts'al'  ts'ilts'al'  'face,  225.  hit'  hathit'  'to  The d a t a  c o l l e c t e d in t h i s  Resonant  Deglottalization  Although  Tarpent claims  deglottalized  5 1  Unless  in C  2  otherwise  are c i t e d a c c o r d i n g  in C  that  2  study  all  eyes'  support  only  of  the  consonants  are  her examples  i n d i c a t e d t h e examples to Tarpent  something'  stick'  position  all  position,  press  (1983).  in  a rule  prefix.  with  this  the  section  of  72  exception  of  example  resonant.  Neither  deglottalization study.  In  relevant  the  nor  in which C  second  the examples  consonants.  Consider:  rule  ts'its'ak  'dish,  227.  Hm6:l'  Hmilm6:l'  'to  y  milmalk ek sk  w  y  SUMMARY OF CHAPTER  Tarpent's tabulate Redup.  strategies  F u l l Redup. (C, and C of and p r e f i x ident i c a l ) 2  Note  that  such as  in  w  this on  the  plate'  wrap  something'  'heavy'  of  the  two  differences one.  In  between  summary,  let  us  approaches.  Tarpent  Redup.  in  III  examined t h e m a j o r  Types.  Partial  y  a p p r o a c h and t h e p r e s e n t the  a  show g l o t t a l i z a t i o n  ts'ak  III  is  2  of  226.  Chapter  Present  Study  Copy C, and i n s e r t Use C i t e m p l a t e and v o w e l under c e r t a i n Vowel V a r i a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s and rule s p e c i f y by Vowel Spec r u l e . Copy CVC; d e l e t e v o w e l ; i n s e r t new v o w e l s p e c i f i e d by Vowel S p e c . r u l e .  root  this  [hi:t'an]  If  the u n d e r l y i n g  C  of  2  first  ones  each case  y  5 2  are  5 2  can be c o r r o b o r a t e d by t h e d a t a  228. m a l k e k s k  D.  225  the p r e f i x  study  this  morpheme a p p e a r s  which r e s u l t s  from / h ^ t - ^ n /  representation will  not  show  Use C i C t e m p l a t e and Vowel V a r i a t i o n rule.  is  as  in a  form  (st ick-CAUS) .  indicated here,  glottalization.  then  73 CV:  Copy C, and C and root vowel; i n s e r t new vowel s p e c i f i e d by Vowel S p e c , rule. C s p i r a n t i z e s then deletes. Unclear whether s t r e s s s h i f t s t o p r e f i x or is assigned there originally.  Use C i C t e m p l a t e and Vowel V a r i a t i o n rule. C s p i r a n t i z e s and deletes.  Copy C, of r o o t and f o l l o w i t by i n f i x i x . When C, i s u v u l a r i t becomes  Use C i C t e m p l a t e with preattached f e a t u r e s on C and Vowel V a r i a t i o n rule.  2  2  Cix  It  is  this the  worth  r e i t e r a t i n g here that  thesis  employs  reduplication  essentially surface  types,  employs  the a n a l y s i s  strategies  whereas  a different  2  in accounting  Tarpent's strategy  offered  in for  analysis  for  each  different  type.  Chapter in Chapter we o f f e r  two b a s i c  2  4 will  3 account  show e x a c t l y for  an a u t o s e g m e n t a l  how t h e t e m p l a t e s  the v a r i o u s treatment  reduplication of  proposed types  reduplication.  as  IV.  A.  AN AUTOSEGMENTAL TREATMENT OF NISGHA REDUPLICATION  OVERVIEW OF THE THEORETICAL In  of  this  section,  the p r o c e s s  of  we w i l l  TREATMENT OF REDUPLICATION summarize t h e  recent  r e d u p l i c a t i o n . Such an a c c o u n t  cannot  be e x h a u s t i v e ,  points  w h i c h have p r o v e d t o be most c r u c i a l t o  advancement In  of  but w i l l  a t h e o r y of  the p a s t ,  simply  r e d u p l i c a t i o n was  process,  accounted for  in the t r a d i t i o n a l  by t h e use of  However,  in  treatment  necessarily the  salient  the  reduplication.  concatenative  Theory  highlight  treatment  r e g a r d e d as  a purely  and r e d u p l i c a t i v e p r o c e s s e s framework  transformational  of  rule  were  the  Standard  notation.  the r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e , the problems w i t h  of  r e d u p l i c a t i o n have been p o i n t e d t o and  have been made t o  f o r m u l a t e a more a d e q u a t e  reduplication.  I  Marantz  and L e v i n  (1982)  refer  in p a r t i c u l a r (1982)  as  theory  to McCarthy  this attempts  of  (1981),  recent sources  on  this  topic. According for that  to Marantz,  the major problem i n  r e d u p l i c a t i o n by means of this  patterns  d e v i c e p r e d i c t s many t y p e s (e.g.  do a c t u a l l y  mirror-image  occur. This  reduplication  Marantz  of  to  reduplicative which never  for a theory  for a l l  reduplication attested McCarthy's  74  is  d e v i c e t h e r e f o r e seemed  search  w h i c h would a c c o u n t  t h e r e f o r e adapts  of  notation  reduplication rules)  notational  t o o p o w e r f u l and l e d M a r a n t z  patterns  transformational  accounting  and o n l y  of the  cross-linguistically. t r e a t m e n t of  the  Arabic'  75  verbal  system  (McCarthy  processes  since  excessive  power of  reduplication claims are is  it  this  as  is).  the  analyzes itself  Adopting  this  a morpheme, to  will  theory  the Nisgha  hold  of  for  be g i v e n  the  below  Recall  that  was  Chapter  For  2 proposed  5  "Note  the C i  a r e v i e w of M c C a r t h y ' s  Marantz  which  skeleton) of  phonemic  a C-V  therefore skeleton,  autosegmental of  Marantz's  autosegmental to apply  implications  the  these  MARANTZ'S FRAMEWORK  claimed that  h a n d l e d by t h e use of  5 3  words  theory.  5  it  one of  when we a t t e m p t  morpheme had t h r e e a l l o m o r p h s " 3,  of  Marantz  that  Marantz  of  hence the  and see what  NISGHA REDUPLICATION IN  Chapter  skeleta,  principles  data  claims  consisting  the a f f i x a t i o n  t o a stem -  phonology  data  notion  relevant  (which  ( h e n c e f o r t h C-V tier  the  treating  tiers,  r e d u p l i c a t i o n . The m e c h a n i c s  a p p r o a c h and t h e  to  while  Marantz of  reduplication  lacks  affixation  consisting  r e d u p l i c a t i o n as  approach  of  Following McCarthy,  skeleton  for  he c l a i m s ,  rule  connected to another  melodies.  to account  transformations,  a normal  a consonant-vowel is  5 3  approach,  t o be r e p r e s e n t e d a s  which  B.  1981)  that  — Ci,  the  reduplicative  C i C and C i x .  these allomorphs  and C i C  templates.  treatment  of  Arabic  In  can  be  The  latter  verbs,  see  (1982:440). these  allomorphs  they a r e m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y  are  not  relatable  conditioned  phonologically;  allomorphs.  76 would have p r e a t t a c h e d c a s e s of  Cix  Marantz's  the a f f i x a t i o n  templates for  into  partial  proposed  partial below:  5  and  to account  2  for  Cix  that  Very  full  let  us  for  the  so  2  the 2  by t h e  skeleton. as  Just use  as  (i),  a  These  / i / and  t h e n , we may  these  be CV and CVC  respectively.  d e f i n e V and C  reduplication  translate  t o o can we p r o p o s e  on V of  generally,  reduplication  would  reduplication  on C ,  features  regarding  The s k e l e t a  reduplication  features  features  of  skeleton,  skeleta.  to account  respectively.  approach  a C-V  full  pre-attached  be t h e  of  C-V  and  pre-attached of  on C  reduplication.  Following as  features  and  t h e C-V  tier  we  of complex would  /x/  represent  (ii)  as  Nisgha  (iii)  5  (i)  C V +  X Y Z I II C V C  i X Y Z (ii)  5 5  Note  is  C V C +  that  attached  in  and Z.  (iii)  C V C  (ii)  to another  E a c h member of features  (i),  I iI  that the  and  tier,  t h e phonemic comprise  (iii) namely tier  consists  a particular  f e a t u r e complexes  t h e phonemic  are  of  phoneme.  of  the  stem  melody.  t h e complex In  (i),  r e p r e s e n t e d as  X,Y  of  (ii) and  77  X Y  (iii)  Z  I II  C V C +  C V C  I I  i Since  x  the  reduplicative affix  phonemic melody entire  left  melody the  is  stem, Marantz of  the  side  in the case  then l i n k e d to four  of  proposes  is  Nisgha.  t o copy  This  The c o p i e d skeleton  conditions  the  same s i d e  attached.  the a f f i x e d  general  d e p e n d e n t on  stem on t h e  to which the a f f i x  following  Marantz  the  phonemic melody  stem melody the  of  is  taken  the  of  would  the be  phonemic  according  directly  to  from  (1982:446).  Condition feature  A: U n l e s s  complexes  containing  c a n be l i n k e d o n l y feature  complexes  o v e r r i d d e n by a s p e c i a l the  to C s l o t s containing to V s l o t s  Condition  as  linked  After  t o C—V s l o t s  conditions  phonemes  Condition  t o C-V  C:  one t o  There i s slots  in  one  the  the  and  [+syllabic]  skeleton.  possible  are  in accordance with  other  e x t r a phonemes and C-V  slots  C-V  i n a C-V  preattached to d i s t i n c t i v e  [-syllabic]  skeleton,  feature  no m u l t i p l e  or of  The s l o t s  take precedence over  the  many phonemes as  and p r i n c i p l e s ,  are d i s c a r d e d .  in the  can be l i n k e d o n l y  B:  feature  proviso,  attachment  slots  to  skeleton  features.  features  of  of  phonemes.  may be  These  features  any phonemes  from  78 a phonemic melody  C o n d i t i o n D:  (i)  reduplicating phoneme of in  the  of  t h e melody  to  either linking  from l e f t  from r i g h t  in  to  right, (ii)  fundamental  constraint  association  lines  of  slot  us  now a p p l y  Marantz,  to  the Nisgha d a t a .  actually  consists  derivations,  the  the with  affixes  of is  e a c h phoneme or  from r i g h t  for  to  the  association  A.  there  is  the  phonology  principles,  Note  that  that  symbols are for  as  proposed  t h e phonemic  feature complexes,  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and p a r t l y  of  cross.  t h e above  t h e phonemic  for  right  autosegmental  Let  phoneme  The a s s o c i a t i o n  eligible  conditions,  proceeds  associate  procedure scans along  may n e v e r  of  In  slot  reduplicating  that to  C-V  slot  left.  the  leftmost  A and  C-V  reduplicating  sense  the  to  rightmost  prefixes  from l e f t  f i n d a C-V  t o t h e above  the  to  t h e phoneme under C o n d i t i o n  addition  slots.  leftmost  rightmost  left,  the  the a s s o c i a t i o n  skeleton with  to  to  and C-V  encountered l i n k i n g left,  the  from r i g h t  their  "phoneme—driven"  of  the  reduplicating  phonemic m e l o d i e s  to  under C o n d i t i o n  to  and p r o c e e d s  these  begins with  or b e g i n s w i t h  linking  melodies  to  t h e phonemic melody  unmarked c a s e ,  suffixes  In  of  eligible  right  t h e melody  skeleton  Linking  skeleton  skeleton  from l e f t  w h i c h may l i n k  but  in  the  used p a r t l y  t h e i r mnemonic  by  melody following  for  value.  ease  79 Unless  otherwise  linking  is  indicated,  employed  rules  will  1) C i  Reduplication  229.  in  be assumed  the  unmarked d i r e c t i o n  the d e r i v a t i o n s ; but  not  detailed  Root  Affix  also, in  CV s k e l e t o n  I  II  c  VC  allophonic  the  ts'ak  of  derivations.  'dish'  CV +  I  i Copy phonemic melody  ts'ak  of  stem  Association  ts'ak  c  +  V  ts'ak  I  II  c  vc  i Stress Output  ts'its'ak  According C-V  to C o n d i t i o n  skeleton  t h e v o w e l /if case  override in  the  C, the  B,  discarded;  any  on  features  hence  rule applies  u n a t t a c h e d phonemes  therefore /k/  of  2)  CiC  slot  with which to  Note  that  vacuously. or C-V  in  Also,  slots  surface  because  it  the  this by  are  t h e c o p i e d phonemic melody  d i s c a r d e d and u n r e a l i z e d on t h e skeletal  -from t h e m e l o d y ,  reduplicative affix.  t h e Vowel V a r i a t i o n  Condition  the p r e - a t t a c h e d f e a t u r e s  has  is no  associate.  Reduplication  C a s e s where C, can be a c c o u n t e d  for  and C  2  of  prefix  and r o o t  straightforwardly.  are  The c a s e s  identical in  which  80 consonant  modification  derivations (a)  C  will  be c o n s i d e r e d  in  the  follow,  Spirantization  2  In  Chapter  discussed. and v e l a r prefix.  2,  Recall  cases that  In  us  of  C  spirantization  2  t h e r e were examples  spirantization  Let  process. the  to  occurs,  in C  position  2  examine a d e r i v a t i o n  this  form C C V . . .  derivation  were  of  of  both  the  reduplicative  exemplifying  we w i l l  also  uvular  this  see how r o o t s  of  reduplicate.  230.Root  sqi k s k y  'to  w  be  injured'  CCVC CC Affix  skeleton  Copy  CVC  v w sqik-^sk +  phonemic melody  +  of  stem  Assoc i a t ion  sqik sk +  s q i k s kw  i \  t i l l It  y  w  CVC  y  + CCVC CC  A  -glott constr Vowel  Variation  Uvular  Spirantiz.  Stress s a x s q i ksk w  Output Note  that  associate would  t h e v o w e l of  with the V s l o t  involve  the c r o s s i n g  to Autosegmental (b)  C  2  t h e c o p i e d phonemic melody of of  the  skeletal  association  Theory, a s s o c i a t i o n  Deglottalization  lines  tier  cannot  because  lines.  this  According  may n e v e r  cross,  81 In  Chapter  consonant of  3 we n o t e d t h a t  was a phenomenon o b s e r v e d o n l y  r e d u p l i c a t i o n and t h a t  this  observation.  pre-attached use  this  the d e g l o t t a l i z a t i o n  Since  features  a feature  on members of of  the  t h e C-V  consonant  [-glottal  feature w i l l  accordance with C o n d i t i o n  This  CiC  r e d u p l i c a t i o n whether or  glottalized  consonant.  a glottalized redundant. 231.  In  consonant,  Consider  the  C  prevail  of  2  c a s e s where C the  2  c a n be p o s i t e d not  2  of  feature w i l l ,  following  Root  CVC  \ l \  C V C  the the of  melody  of  Assoc i a t ion  face,  ts'al' stem + +  ts'al' I M c vc  l \ -glott constr Vowel Stress  Variation  i  by  in  is  a  is  course,  +  ts'al' \ \\ c vc  we c a n  the  root  -glott constr phonemic  of  root  l.\  Copy  having  be  example: ts'al'  skeleton  of  pervasively  C V C Affix  capture  skeleton,  on C  a  context  deglottalization  constriction]  C.  to  facility  r e d u p l i c a t i n g morpheme. T h i s  for  the  would be d e s i r a b l e  there e x i s t s  to handle cases  proposing  it  within  of  (applies  vacuously)  eye'  not  82 Output (c)  C  ts'ilts'al* Affricate  2  These are reduplicated. These c a s e s Let as  us  Split  the c a s e s  where C  deaffricates  2  F o r example q ' 6 t s / q ' a s q ' 6 t s ;  seem t o be p r o b l e m a t i c  examine  t h e outcome  in the p r e v i o u s  example.  if  when  yatX  '/hiJyati'.  for Marantz's  we a t t e m p t  approach.  a derivation  The form below  such  reduplicates  as  [q'asq'6ts]. 232. Root  q'ots'  'to  I I I  cut'  C V C Affix  CVC  skeleton  C V C  +  l . \  .  -glott constr Copy  phonemic melody  q'ots'  of  stem  Assoc i a t ion  q'ots  + q'ots  [ !I c vc +  \ \ l c vc  -glott constr Vowel V a r i a t i o n  a  Stress Output Clearly Let  t h e above d e r i v a t i o n y i e l d s  us c o n s i d e r The  the  *q'atsq'6ts  fact  prefix  some o t h e r  that  seems  incorrect  output.  options.  the a f f r i c a t e  to suggest  the  that  splits  in C  2  the a f f r i c a t e  position is  of  83 functioning Let  as  a s e q u e n c e of  us e n t e r t a i n t h i s  sounds  possibility  t h e c o p i e d phonemic melody w i l l The r u l e s  of  vowel v a r i a t i o n  Association  t h a n as  a  unit.  t e m p o r a r i l y and see how  associate  with  and s t r e s s a r e  q'ots  j  rather  the  skeleton,  assumed.  + q'ots  i in  n  c vc  + c vcc  l> -glott constr Output  *q'atq'6ts  The above a s s o c i a t i o n  follows  linking  right)  (i.e.  C o n d i t i o n D. association would  left If  to  we p r o p o s e  for prefixes  t h e unmarked d i r e c t i o n as  proposed  instead  in  of  Marantz's  t h e marked d i r e c t i o n  (i.e.  right  to  q'ots  + q'ots  left),  the  of  outcome  be:  Association  St  I IM + c vcc  c vc  I -\g l o t t  constr  Output  *tsq'6ts  Given c o n d i t i o n D which s t a t e s phoneme-driven, a l s o produces the p r e f i x prefix this  has  then a r i g h t  t h e above  involve  Alternatively,  to  linking  left  is  d i r e c t i o n of  incorrect output.  Note  link  t o V of  the c r o s s i n g  we c o u l d p r o p o s e  the of  skeletal  tier,  association  that  linking  linking  that  no s k e l e t a l member t o w h i c h t o l i n k ,  vowel cannot  would  that  is  C,  of  and  the  since  lines. right  to  84  left  and s k e l e t a l l y  departure linking  from M a r a n t z ' s  is  that  this  driven  constraints  is  in  on l i n k i n g  a right  to  that  keeping w i t h the (c_f. G o l d s m i t h  left,  Association  represents a  C o n d i t i o n D which s t i p u l a t e s  p h o n e m e - d r i v e n . The p r o p o s a l  skeletally  consider  d r i v e n . Note  skeletally  linking  driven  + q'ots  c VC  + c vcc  be  original  (1976)).  q'ots  that  Let  us  association.  -glott constr Output Note  q'asq'ots  that  possibly  this  approach y i e l d s  be a d o p t e d  skeletally  t h e d i r e c t i o n a l i t y of  driven association  throughout. following  if  t h e c o r r e c t ouput  It  turns-out  held for  that  it  form w h i c h r e d u p l i c a t e s as  Association  sqiksk  (right to l e f t and s k e l e t a l l y driven)  ' ' / C  is  obvious  correct  and  the  reduplication not.  Consider  the  [saxsqiksk ]. w  sqiksk  ' ' ' * i V C (  that  -glott constr  t h e above a s s o c i a t i o n  cannot  produce  the  form.  Even skeletally left  +  linking  could  / i f  1  It  does  and  with  if  a right  to  left  driven association the  d i r e c t i o n of  linking  were p o s s i b l e ,  fundamental problem that  such  and a  we a r e  still  association  85 assumes t h a t  the a f f r i c a t e  that  a unit.  Elsewhere  (cf.  footnote If  in  functions  the phonology  a sequence  rather  it  as  behaves  a  unit  24).  indeed the a f f r i c a t e  then perhaps  as  the a f f r i c a t e  is  t o be t r e a t e d as  split  in C  position  2  a  unit,  of  the  prefix  c a n be v i e w e d f r o m a somewhat  different perspective.  Recall  that  some t y p e  in Chapter  2,  S e c t i o n D,  involved  t h e s p i r a n t i z a t i o n of  position  of  uvulars  the p r e f i x .  and v e l a r s  It  became  identical  the a f f r i c a t e s  and v e l a r s  cases  in  was c l a i m e d t h e r e , t h a t [+continuant]  when f o l l o w e d by a c o n s o n a n t . claim that  uvulars  (iv)  Likewise,  become  i n coda  e n v i r o n m e n t . The c l a i m would t h e n be R q k ts  —>  [+cont]  2  the  position  we c o u l d  [+continuant]  C  possibly  in  the  that:  0 X  tr  There a r e , the  input  however, to  as  a natural  is  that  some p r o b l e m s  t h e above  r u l e cannot  feature c l a s s .  d e a f f r i c a t i o n has  application  t h a n does  deaffrication There e x i s t  is  forms  is  consonant.  This disparity  compelling  argument  single  rule.  s p i r a n t i z a t i o n . Note the context  q'6ts~tit,  i n domain of merging  of  problem of  that  reduplication.  'they c u t ' ,  in coda p o s i t i o n  against  First,  be r e a d i l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d  a much more l i m i t e d domain  uvular  such as  approach.  A s e c o n d and more g r a v e  r e s t r i c t e d to  in which the a f f r i c a t e  with t h i s  (cut-3pl)  and a d j a c e n t  application  the p r o c e s s e s  is  a  into a  to a  86  Since the  the  affricate  was done  in  as  the  need a n o n - a d quality this,  in  (d)  a unit, initial  the  or V e l a r  occurred.  after  of  getting  of  the  release]  below of  reduplicates  this  +  A . -glott constr  Copy  phonemic melody  of  Association  laqs stem laqs  +  laqs  !,'/ M i l CVC + c v c c  l\  -glott constr Vowel  Variation  we  stop  Perhaps on C  2  a  of  the  implementation  future  research,  surface  as  C  2  as  has  [la:laqs]  Let  form.  C V C  as  achieving  d e l e t i o n of  laqs  skeleton  for  the  of  2  or v e l a r  Root  CVC  The  w h i c h r e d u p l i c a t e on t h e uvular  link  in a d d i t i o n ,  theory.  an avenue C  we must  r i d of  a solution.  of  a treatment  no way of  MM cvcc Affix  that  but,  [+delayed  Deletion  The example  examine a d e r i v a t i o n 233.  status  supports  seems  know of  clearly  These a r e c a s e s + C...),  for  I  feature  is  it  derivation,  some p r o m i s e  mechanism  Uvular  (CV:  then  hoc mechanism  of  holds  this  the phonology  the c u r r e n t  prohibition  of  of  the a f f r i c a t e .  given  prefix  rest  'to  bathe'  us  87 At  this  stage  compensatory assignment. uvular  In  would o c c u r , however,  L e t us a t t e m p t to Marantz's  order  lags  + lags  CVC  + cvcc  f o l l o w e d by  lies  principles.  for  At  and  stress  with accounting  lengthening  to account  to d e l e t e the u v u l a r line  in  these  for  Marantz's phenomena  the present  stage  of  linking  it  in the p r e f i x ,  to  the  skeletal  we e r a s e  the  tier.  The  result  lengthening  can  be  therefore: lags  + lags  CVC  + cvcc  Mil  Autosegmental  accounted for associate .Note,  theory,  compensatory  by s p r e a d i n g ,  with the  however,  Condition  slot  that  i.e.  skeleton.  the  this  In  feature  order  is  not  use  A)  [+syllabic]  f o r Marantz  of  to permit  precisely  empty s k e l e t a l utilized  the  to account  t y p e of  a special  of  was  given  for  linking  a series  (1983).  proviso,  to  deleted.  Marantz's  a feature  a special  s u c h ad hoc p r o v i s o s  tier.consisting  of  of  spread  with a C slot  invoke  by Lowenstamm and Kaye  implementation  possible,  the l i n k i n g  phenomenon, he would need t o Condition  the vowel w i l l  from w h i c h t h e u v u l a r  A which d i s a l l o w s  containing  the  deletion  d e r i v a t i o n we h a v e :  association is  lengthening  the u v u l a r  d e l e t i o n and c o m p e n s a t o r y  according  In  the d e r i v a t i o n ,  The p r o b l e m ,  framework.  the  of  in  complex the  this proviso  necessary. that  argue  of  points,  Even w i t h  the a n a l y s i s  (cf. It  is  for  an  as  the is  not  88 possible  for Marantz,  attachment Let  of  us  slots  Condition  t o phonemes  examine how u v u l a r  lengthening consisting  C-V  since  B prohibits  and v i c e  d e l e t i o n and  can be h a n d l e d by e m p l o y i n g of  a series  of  points  multiple  versa. compensatory  a skeletal  which are  tier  represented  as  XXX. Uvular  Deletion:  We a r e  then  uvular  was  this  left  Length.:  of  subject  to  the assignment  Section  D and C h a p t e r  correct  output  i.e.  as  The  2:  The v o w e l  is  laqs  +  from w h i c h  now f r e e  the  to  spread  is  now  to  XXX  + XXXX  slots  on t h e of  primary  rule  stress  (cf_.  D,  Type  is  not p o s s i b l e  there are skeletal  long  (vi)),  Chapter yielding  1: the  of  [+long]  in  d e t e r m i n e d by l a n g u a g e - s p e c i f i c  that  for  for  multiple  the p r e f i x  are a  represents  or by t h e use  on a s i n g l e  representation  or  Marantz  two V s  within  no p r o v i s i o n s  tier  vowels  framework.  either a series  particular  lengthening  account  since  These c a s e s  feature  of  laqs  Section  t h e above  framework,  preattached  5 6  slot  [la:laqs].  problem for Marantz's vowels  + XXXX  the compensatory  that  empty  linking.  XXX  w i t h an u n a t t a c h e d  The o u t p u t  either  laqs  slot.  Compensatory  Marantz's  +  disassociated.  empty  Note  laqs  V.  5 6  of  Neither  he c h o o s e s  parameters.  long  is  a of  real  89  these approaches reduplication possible  if  t r e a t e d as  is  possible  in q u e s t i o n .  the  root  for  the p a t t e r n  The f i r s t  contains  of  approach  a long  is  only  vowel w h i c h  a series  of  two v o w e l s  t h e phonemic melody  is  c o p i e d . The s e c o n d a p p r o a c h  predict  that  all  c o n t a i n a long  A final template, Clearly, treats  the o t h e r p a t t e r n s  vowel  evidence against  in  both  full  to  be  s u c h when would  reduplication  The d a t a  provide  approaches. would be t o p r o p o s e  namely C V [ + l o n g ] C  t o h a n d l e CV:  5 7  adds n e e d l e s s  uvular  of  the p r e f i x .  possibility  this  and c o p i e d as  is  complication  d e l e t i o n and v o w e l  length  a  separate  reduplication.  to  t h e grammar,  in these cases  as  i n d e p e n d e n t and u n r e l a t e d phenomena. We have e v i d e n c e t o contrary  outside  1:  Section  E).  of  a preattached  can be f o u n d deletion  the c o n t e x t  of  reduplication  Even more c o m p e l l i n g feature  [+long]  i n an e x a m i n a t i o n  and c o m p e n s a t o r y  lengthening  cases,  we would have  in  l e x i c o n by two a l l o m o r p h s ,  the  to a s k e l e t a l tier  of  the  tier  to propose  of  form C V : .  these allomorphs  the  roots  that  the  the  skeletal  in which  o c c u r . For  one of  root which  tier  uvular these represented  is  attached skeletal  We would t h e n have no way of  relating  lexicon,  the other  is  use  to a  in the  form CVC,  the  the  Chapter  evidence against  on V of  of  (cf_.  and  thereby missing  a  generalization.  5 7  Note  since  that it  C  2  must be  conditions  i n c l u d e d as  the vowel  part  of  the  template,  i n t h e Vowel V a r i a t i o n  rule.  90 (3)  Cix  Reduplication  Forms  reduplicating  essentially that  C  like  of  2  234.  employing  the a f f i x e d  t h e complex following  those  of  according  that  this  the CiC  skeletal  features  to  tier  pattern  pattern,  has  behave except  preattached to  comprise  /x /.  t s ' o?  'to  y  5 8  Consider  it the  derivation:  Root  skin  (an  animal)' C Affix  skeleton CVC  Copy  VC  +  phoneme ts'o ? 1  melody of  stem  +  Assoc i a t ion ts'o ? 1  vc  c  Vowel  Variation  +ts'C  I  I!  IX'  c vc  i  (applies  vacuously)  Stress Output  ts'ixts'6'  Note  that  tier  prevail  5 8  Note  as  [x].  the p r e a t t a c h e d over  that/x / y  This  Chapterl:  is  the  features  surfaces due t o  Section  B,  features  in C  2  of  C  2  of  f r o m t h e phonemic  of  the  4.  skeletal melody.  reduplicative  the d e p a l a t a l i z a t i o n  Part  the  rule  prefix  given  in  91 C.  IMPLICATIONS FOR MARANTZ'S THEORY AND CONCLUSION Nisgha  left  provides  unresolved  since,  o v e r any f e a t u r e s  t o a member of  adopt  features.  such  allowing  items,  out that  predictions able CiC  to f i n d  tier  Condition  in real-language  data.  just  2 and 3, we a r g u e d  vowel  is  t r e a t e d as p a r t  being  the case,  that  features  take  of not l i n k i n g  hand,  a phoneme set of  we may s t i l l  C t o come i n t o  situations,  Chapters  issue  states  w h i c h has a f u l l  t h e two a p p r o a c h e s  reduplication provides  an  from t h e phonemic m e l o d y , we  On t h e o t h e r  for certain  Marantz  D, p r e a t t a c h e d  the approach  the s k e l e t a l  preattached  for deciding  (1982:449).  to Condition  could plausibly  points  examples  in Marantz  according  precedence  clear  make v e r y  play.  link  Marantz  different  none o f w h i c h he was It  turns  such d a t a .  f o r an a n a l y s i s  out t h a t  Recall  Nisgha  that  in  i n which the  o f t h e r e d u p l i c a t i v e morpheme.  This  the vowel  of  t h e r e d u p l i c a t i v e morpheme was  r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e V s l o t  of  the a f f i x e d  p r e a t t a c h e d complex o f the type of c a s e s  features  cites  illustrate  t h e two a p p r o a c h e s . 235.  on V . T h i s ,  to which Marantz  (1982:450)  the f o l l o w i n g  tasidu t i i\ CVCCV +  tasidu I I I I Ii CVCVCV  skeleton  refers.  then,  tasidu M \ »  tasidu  CVCCV +  CVCVCV  n  is  Marantz  h y p o t h e t i c a l data  tani-tasidu  n 236.  as a  tansi-tasidu  to  exactly  92 Now c o n s i d e r  a Nisgha CiC  reduplication 'to  tsap H I  +  i  238.  tsip  in the  t h e phonemic  tier  +  tsap  Ml  =*ts-tsap  CVC -glott constr  second c a s e , to V w i t h  if  the  we do not full  features,  t h e n t h e vowel  in  discarded  because  no s k e l e t a l  link.  only  Not  it  will  following  consonant,  is  to  unable  therefore case, not of  C  2  will  the c a s e . linking  In  for  since  will  be  to which but  to  so w i l l  this  is  evidence  with a f u l l  set  will  the  reduplicate. Clearly,  therefore provides  the  when a phoneme  member. The c o n s o n a n t If  on  in  this  is  favour  of  features.  addition,  It  tier  ceases  to a s s o c i a t e .  a phoneme t o a s l o t  the vowel  preattached  element  association  to  link  of  be d i s c a r d e d ,  to a s k e l e t a l  Nisgha  set  t h e phonemic  the vowel  n e v e r be a b l e  deaffrication  theory.  has  n e v e r be a l l o w e d  preattached  of  link  buiId'  -glott constr  i  that  make,  =tsip-tsap  CVC  CVC  Note  case.  turns  Autosegmental  my k n o w l e d g e ,  we saw, of out  C  2  in Section  B above,  were p r o b l e m a t i c  that  these  t h e o r y as  for  examples  a whole,  the  cases  Marantz's  present  since,  no c u r r e n t l y a r t i c u l a t e d  that  a  problem  to the best  framework  can  of  handle  these cases. insight  These cases  from f u r t h e r  I  leave  research.  unresolved,  awaiting  V.  Boas,  F r a n z . 1911. Languages V o l  BIBLIOGRAPHY  " T s i m s h i a n " , Handbook of A m e r i c a n I, e d . F r a n z B o a s , 2 8 5 - 4 2 2 .  Chomsky, N and M. H a l l e 1968.The Sound P a t t e r n of H a r p e r and Row, New Y o r k .  Indian  English,  Dunn, John A. 1979. A R e f e r e n c e Grammar f o r t h e C o a s t T s i m s h i a n L a n g u a g e , N a t i o n a l Museum of Man M e r c u r y S e r i e s , C a n a d i a n E t h n o l o g y S e r v i c e . Paper N o . 5 5 . Dunn,  John A. and R. A. H a y s . 1983 " T s i m s h i a n S y l l a b l e s , " U A L 49, 4 6 - 6 3 .  Uvular  G o l d s m i t h , J . 1976. "An O v e r v i e w of A u t o s e g m e n t a l P h o n o l o g y , " L i n g u i s t i c A n a l y s i s 2, 2 3 - 6 8 . H a l l e , M. and J . R. V e r g n a u d . 1980. " T h r e e D i m e n s i o n a l P h o n o l o g y , " J o u r n a l of L i n g u i s t i c R e s e a r c h I , . 8 3 - 1 0 5 . H a y e s , B r u c e P. 1981 A M e t r i c a l T h e o r y of S t r e s s Rules,Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , Yale U n i v e r s i t y . R e p r o d u c e d by t h e I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y L i n g u i s t i c s Bloomington I n d i a n a . K i p a r s k y , P. 1983. "Some C o n s e q u e n c e s of ms, MIT, C a m b r i d g e , Massachusetts.  Lexical  Club,  Phonology",  K i p a r s k y , P. 1982. " F r o m C y c l i c P h o n o l o g y t o L e x i c a l P h o n o l o g y " , The S t r u c t u r e of P h o n o l o g i c a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s P a r t I, e d . H u l t z and S m i t h . Lowenstamm, J and J . D . K a y e . 1983 " C o m p e n s a t o r y L e n g t h e n i n g i n T i b e r i a n Hebrew: T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s , " ms., U n i v e r s i t e du Quebec a M o n t r e a l . Levin, Juliette. Structure,"  1982. " R e d u p l i c a t i o n and P r o s o d i c m s . , MIT, C a m b r i d g e , Massachusetts.  94  95 M c C a r t h y , J . 1981. "A P r o s o d i c T h e o r y of N o n c o n c a t e n a t i v e P h o n o l o g y , " L i n g u i s t i c I n q u i r y 12, 3 7 3 - 4 1 8 . Marantz, A l e c . 435-482.  "Re R e d u p l i c a t i o n , "  Linguistic  Inquiry  13,  T a r p e n t , M a r i e L. 1983. " M o r p h o p h o n e m i c s of N i s g h a P l u r a l F o r m a t i o n , " K a n s a s W o r k i n g P a p e r s i n L i n g u i s t i c s , 8, 123-214.  VI.  A.  APPENDIX  I  CONSONANT FEATURE MATRICES  Conson. Vocalic Sonorant Nasal Contin. Voice Del.Rel. Strident Back Coronal Round Low High Glot.Const. Anterior  p p' t + + + _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ + _ _ _ - ' _ _ _ + + + +  Conson. Vocalic Sonorant Nasal Contin. Voice Del.Rel. Strident Back Coronal Round Low High Glot.Constric. Anterior  m + + + _ + _ _ _ _ +  t' k k + + + _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ + _ _ _ _ _ + + + _ + y  m n n + + _ _ _ + + + + _ _ + + _ _ _ _ +  _ _  + -  _ _  +  _  k ' q + + _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ + + + _ _ _ _ + + _ -• + + + _ + + _ -  y  '  1 +  + + _ +  +  -  -  +  k +  _ _  -  + -  +  _ _  + +  w  _  _  _ _  -  _ _ _ _ + + _ + + + + +  96  '  _ _  + +  +  _  l  +  -  q' + _ _ _ _ _ _ + _ _ +' _ + -  w  _ + + + -  _  y y _ _ + + + _  _  _  _  _  _  + -  + + -  w _ + + +  t  + _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ + _ _ w _ + + +  _  + + + + _ _ + + _ + -  97  Conson. Vocalic Sonorant Nasal Contin. Voice Del.Rel. Strident Back Coronal Round Low High Glot.Constric. Anterior B.  s  + +  + -  i  +  + -  _  x  y  +  _  + -  x  w  +  + -  _  -  x  +  + -  +  -  h  +  -  -  + -  + -  -  + +  +  -  + -  + -  i:  e  e:  u  u:  + +  + +  +  -  + + -  + + +  -  +  ts + + +  -  ts' + + +  tt' +  +  + +  + +  o  o:  a  a:  + + +  + + +  +' + +  + + +  + + +  +  +  VOWEL FEATURE MATRIX  Conson. Vocalic Sonorant Back High Round  i + + + -  -  +  +  -  -  +  -  -  VII. The f o l l o w i n g appear  6.  in the  Obstruent  —>  [+voice]  —>  numbered  /  as  +voc -cons  [+aspirated]  /  #  Spirantization:  >  [+cont]  /  + VOC  + VOC  -cons  -cons  Rounding: +cons -voc +back + lo  20.  rules  Aspiration:  -cont +back -high 19.  of  Voicing:  -cont +del r e l 11.  a list  II  text.  [-cont]  8.  is  APPENDIX  [+round]  /  -cons +voc +round  Palatalization: -cont +strid +del r e l ,  —>  [+hi]  98  /  -cons +voc -back  99  40. V e l a r  Depalatalization:  +cons -voc •high -back 47. R e s o n a n t  —>  [+back]  Devoicing: —>  +sonorant +glottal 66.  'h'  [-voice]  /  Deletion:  +cons -voc +cont + lo 87.  +cons -voc  /  Stress  —>  0  +cons -voc +sonor +ant  /  Rule: (i)  Project  (ii)  Start  (iii)  the  nucleus  from t h e  Construct  right  a left  i n which the dominant  97. U v u l a r  (iv)  Gather a l l  word  tree.  R +cons -high -low  —>  dominant node must  syllables  Deletion:  0/ \ i  0  margin  into a  unbounded f o o t branch right-dominant  (F)  100  116. Vowel V a r i a t i o n : +voc -cons +high -back  + low +back  +voc -cons +high -back  +round +back  + VOC  -cons -high -ant  /  /  [+round]  139. Uvular S p i r a n t i z a t i o n I I : R  -cont +back -high 154. G l i d e  0  \  —>  [+cont]  /  / N  X  to 'h': -cons -voc +hi 0back  +cons + lo -back -rd  /  -cons +voc +hi 0back  

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