UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Philosophical elements in Martin de Caretas Sheehy, Richard David 1984

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1984_A8 S54.pdf [ 7.97MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0096310.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0096310-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0096310-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0096310-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0096310-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0096310-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0096310-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0096310-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0096310.ris

Full Text

PHILOSOPHICAL ELEMENTS IN MARTIN DE CARETAS by RICHARD DAVID SHEEHY B. A . , U n i v e r s i t y Of V i c t o r i a , 1 9 7 7 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department Of H i s p a n i c And I t a l i a n S t u d i e s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d 'standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1984 © Richard David Sheehy, 1984 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. v Department of K i i - o a ^ l ^ &^~A ^4&Lt^. Q^Cle^ The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date 2-4 J^-rii IQ^H i A b s t r a c t Ma r t i n de Ca re ta s i s a t r i l o g y of nove l s r i c h l y endowed wi th l i t e r a r y and p h i l o s o p h i c a l e lements stemming from such v a r i e d sources as the O ld Testament, the p i c a r e s q u e , C e r v a n t e s , Gald6s and B a r o j a . In w r i t i n g M a r t i n de C a r e t a s , Sebas t i an Juan Arb6 a v a i l s h imse l f of c e r t a i n s u p e r f i c i a l l y p i c a r e s q u e f e a t u r e s which serve not so much to c o n s t i t u t e a modern a d a p t a t i o n of the p i c a r e s q u e nove l as to p o r t r a y c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r a un ique l y t w e n t i e t h cen tu ry p r o t a g o n i s t w i th t i m e l e s s human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The same can be s a i d f o r the a u t h o r ' s apparent recour se to O ld Testament wisdom from the book of E c c l e s i a s t e s which, l i k e the t rue p i c a r e s q u e , g i ve s us a p e s s i m i s t i c view of man's c o n d i t i o n on e a r t h . The u l t i m a t e e f f e c t of M a r t i n de Care tas i s one of t r a n s c e n d i n g such a p e s s i m i s t i c view of l i f e on e a r t h , i r o n i c a l l y w i th the a i d of e lements of the wisdom from E c c l e s i a s t e s and the gene ra l i d e o l o g i c a l c l i m a t e in which e x i s t e n t i a l i s m had come to exe r t c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e . Both the author of E c c l e s i a s t e s and the human i s t i c e x i s t e n t i a l i s t s were e s s e n t i a l l y o p t i m i s t i c about man's p o t e n t i a l f o r p s y c h i c w e l l - b e i n g in s p i t e of l i f e ' s nega t i ve q u a l i t i e s . T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i th A r b o ' s e a r l i e r C a t a l a n n a r r a t i v e s about harsh r u r a l l i f e and i t s d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r of r u s t i c p e o p l e , in which one sees on ly the s u p e r f i c i a l p e s s i m i s t i c q u a l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d wi th e x i s t e n t i a l i s m . Arb6, then , leads h i s young p r o t a g o n i s t through an extended s e r i e s of e p i s o d i c adventures through which he deve lops as a r e s p o n s i b l e , i i autonomous man over the impediments posed not so much by the i n s c r u t a b l e v i c i s s i t u d e s of l i f e , but by w e l l meaning a d u l t s seeking to guide him. An i d e o l o g i c a l / f o r m a l study of these mentors and t h e i r f u n c t i o n would embrace the aforementioned Old Testament wisdom, e x i s t e n t i a l thought and picaresque f e a t u r e s that c o n t r i b u t e t o the uniqueness of M a r t i n de C a r e t a s . The t r i p a r t i t e s t r u c t u r e of the work a f f o r d s f u r t h e r p o t e n t i a l f o r the study of time, space (landscape) and money as c o n s t i t u e n t elements of Arbo's p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n t e n t i o n . T h i s t h e s i s proposes that a study of such elements may r e v e a l that the author composed Mar t i n de  Caretas with a preconceived p h i l o s o p h i c a l scheme or t h a t , as a n o v e l i s t , he was merely responding to the e x i s t i n g p h i l o s o p h i c a l and l i t e r a r y c l i m a t e of the time. i i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t v C h a p t e r I A BR IEF SURVEY OF THE MODERN SPANISH NOVEL 1 A . NOTES TO CHAPTER I 20 C h a p t e r I I SEBAST IAN JUAN ARBO: HIS L I F E AND WORK 22 A . B I O - B I B L I O G R A P H Y OF SEBAST IAN JUAN ARBO 22 B. THE C R I T I C S ON SEBAST IAN JUAN ARBO 29 C. NOTES TO CHAPTER I I 4 1 C h a p t e r I I I EN EL PUEBLO 4 3 A . THE FUNCTION OF LANDSCAPE 43 B. ROQUE GALDA: H IS PHILOSOPHY 54 C . IDEOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES 65 D. NOTES TO CHAPTER I I I 82 C h a p t e r IV EN EL CAMPO 84 A . FUNCTION OF LANDSCAPE 84 B. ANTONIO CARDEN: H IS PHILOSOPHY 95 C. IDEOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES 104 D. NOTES TO CHAPTER I V 117 C h a p t e r V , EN LA CIUDAD '. , ." 118 A . THE FUNCTION OF LANDSCAPE 118 B. SENOR TORIO, H IS PHILOSOPHY 132 C. IDEOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES 141 D. NOTES TO CHAPTER V 161 i v Chapter VI CONCLUSION 163 A. NOTES TO CONCLUSION 180 BIBLIOGRAPHY 181 V Ac k n o w l e d g e m e n t My t h a n k s must go f i r s t t o my s u p e r v i s o r , D r . A r s e n i o P a c h e c o , f o r i n c i t i n g my i n t e r e s t i n C a t a l a n c u l t u r e a n d l e t t e r s , a nd f o r d i r e c t i n g me a l o n g s u c h a f a s c i n a t i n g p a t h o f e n q u i r y . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o D r . D e r e k C. C a r r , who g a ve f r e e l y o f h i s t i m e and r e n d e r e d v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n a v a r i e t y o f c a p a c i t i e s t o o n u m e r o u s t o m e n t i o n . I owe a g r e a t d e b t o f g r a t i t u d e t o L y n n e M a r i e Qua rmby , my t y p i s t a n d c o m p u t e r c o n s u l t a n t , w i t h o u t whose a s s i s t a n c e t h i s t h e s i s w o u l d n o t e x i s t i n i t s p r e s e n t f o r m . F i n a l l y , I w i s h t o t h a n k t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H i s p a n i c a n d I t a l i a n S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t i n t h e f o r m o f t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t s h i p s . 1 I . A BR I EF SURVEY OF THE MODERN SPANISH NOVEL I n s p i t e o f a c e r t a i n t h e m a t i c c o n t i n u i t y t h r o u g h o u t h i s e n t i r e l i t e r a r y e n d e a v o r , S e b a s t i a n J u a n A r b o h a s been a c h a l l e n g i n g s u b j e c t f o r l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s : a s a b i l i n g u a l w r i t e r , h i s work i s r a r e l y c o n s i d e r e d a s a w h o l e b o d y , t h e C a t a l a n n o v e l s b e i n g e v a l u a t e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f h i s f i c t i o n i n C a s t i l i a n and v i c e v e r s a . A l s o , h i s l o n g and d i s t i n g u i s h e d c a r e e r i n l e t t e r s h a s s p a n n e d s e v e r a l r e c o g n i z e d p e r i o d s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e S p a n i s h n o v e l i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , s h o w i n g s t y l i s t i c c o n s i s t e n c y t h r o u g h o u t . H i s d e v o t i o n t o r e a l i s m i s p a r t i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c r i t i c a l c o n t r o v e r s y r e g a r d i n g h i s p l a c e i n t h e l a n d s c a p e o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y n o v e l a nd n o v e l i s t s : r e a l i s m i s r e c o g n i z e d a s a movement o f s i n g u l a r and p r o f o u n d c o n s e q u e n c e f o r t h e t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y S p a n i s h n o v e l . A d o m i n a n t l i t e r a r y movement i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i t s e a r l y r e a p p e a r a n c e i n t h e 1 9 3 0 ' s u n d e r l i n e s i t s f u n c t i o n a s a r e a c t i o n t o t h e s t a t e o f c r e a t i v e f i c t i o n . G i v e n A r b o ' s r e a l i s t n a t u r e and h i s a f f i n i t y w i t h o t h e r n o v e l i s t i c t e n d e n c i e s o f t h e p r e v i o u s c e n t u r y , a r e v i e w o f m a j o r c u r r e n t s i n t h e n o v e l ' s d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h a n d t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y w o u l d h e l p us t o d e f i n e t h i s a u t h o r ' s u n i q u e p l a c e i n t h a t s c h e m e , and i n t u r n w o u l d a i d i n o u r e v a l u a t i o n o f h i s w o r k . The f o l l o w i n g s u r v e y i s by no means d e f i n i t i v e : i t i s a s e l e c t i v e , c o m p o s i t e d e s c r i p t i o n , d r a w n m a i n l y f r o m h i s t o r i c a l w o r k s by G o n z a l o T o r r e n t e B a l l e s t e r , E u g e n i o de N o r a a n d G o n z a l o S o b e j a n o , w h i c h m e r e l y s e e k s t o p r o v i d e b a c k g r o u n d and an 2 a p p r o p r i a t e p e r s p e c t i v e f o r a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f A r b o ' s f i c t i o n . G o n z a l o T o r r e n t e B a l l e s t e r , i n h i s P ano r ama de l a  l i t e r a t u r a e s p a f T o l a c o n t e m p o r a n e a , c i t e s t h e a d v e n t o f r e a l i s m i n S p a i n a s an e x c e p t i o n t o t h e n a t i o n ' s c u s t o m a r y t a r d i n e s s i n a s s i m i l a t i n g a n d r e s p o n d i n g t o c u l t u r a l t r e n d s f r o m E u r o p e : " E l r e a l i s m o d e c i m o n o n i c o a p a r e c e en E s p a n a , p r i m e r o como r e a l i s m o c o s t u m b r i s t a p u r o , y , mas t a r d e , como n a r r a c i o n r e a l i s t a ; e l r e t r a s o de e s a s p r i m e r a s rnani f e s t a c i o n e s en r e l a c i o n c o n e l r e a l i s m o e u r o p e o e s muy r e l a t i v o . " 1 A s e x a m p l e s he m e n t i o n s M e s o n e r o Romano s ' E s c e n a s m a t r i t e n s e s a n d F e r n a n C a b a l l e r o ' s L a  G a v i o t a , w h i c h r o u g h l y c o i n c i d e w i t h D i c k e n s ' P i c k w i c k P a p e r s and T h a c k e r a y ' s V a n i t y F a i r . H o w e v e r , T o r r e n t e B a l l e s t e r a d d s , " L o que s u c e d e e s que l o s f r u t o s v a l i o s o s de e s t e r e a l i s m o p r e m a t u r o se r e t r a s a n h a s t a d e s p u e s de 1870 , c u a n d o ya Z o l a ha p u b l i c a d o T h e r e s e R a q u i n ( 1 867 ) e s d e c i r , en p l e n o auge d e l n a t u r a l i s m o " ( p . 2 0 ) . T o r r e n t e B a l l e s t e r d i f f e r e n t i a t e s b e t w e e n t h i s " r e a l i s m o p r e m a t u r o " - - t h a t o f F e r n a n C a b a l l e r o , f o r e x a m p l e - - a n d what was l a t e r t o be p r a c t i c e d by t h e l i k e s o f G a l d o s a n d P e r e d a . He c h a r a c t e r i z e s L a G a v i o t a a s a " S p a n i s h " r e a l i s t n a r r a t i v e whose i n t e n t i o n i s t o p r e s e n t a c o n v i n c i n g and a c c u r a t e p o r t r a i t o f S p a n i s h l i f e a n d c u l t u r e . W h i l e t h i s m i g h t a p p e a r mere c o s t u m b r i s m o , T o r r e n t e B a l l e s t e r e m p h a s i z e s t h e p i o n e e r i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f " l a d e c i s i o n de t o m a r l a r e a l i d a d i n m e d i a t a como m a t e r i a l i t e r a r i a y , s o b r e t o d o , e l modo de t o m a r l a " ( p . 2 1 ) . To F e r n a n C a b a l l e r o , p s eudonym f o r C e c i l i a B o h l de F a b e r , 3 T o r r e n t e B a l l e s t e r a t t r i b u t e s t h e comment t h a t " l a n o v e l a no se i n v e n t a , se o b s e r v a . " T h i s r e m a r k i s t h e b a s i s f o r h i s c o m m e n t a r y on what he b e l i e v e s t o be a c r i t i c a l f l a w i n t h e b u r g e o n i n g o f S p a n i s h r e a l i s m l a t e i n t h e c e n t u r y . I n c o m p a r i n g F e r n a n C a b a l l e r o and G a l d o s , he s p e a k s o f t h e l a t t e r a s h a v i n g s u f f e r e d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p o s i t i v i s m : " E s un r e a l i s m o p o s i t i v i s t a , y e s t e m a t i z p e r m i t e d i f e r e n c i a r l o d e l r e a l i s m o e s p a n o l , que e s o t r a c o s a " ( p . 20). H i s c r i t i c i s m o f " p o s i t i v i s t r e a l i s m " i s c o u c h e d i n a d e f i n i t i o n o f " t r a d i t i o n a l r e a 1 i s m : " " L a n o v e l a no se i n v e n t a , se o b s e r v a . " He a q u i una f e r t i l p r o f e s i o n de f e . No l a s i g u e n a r a j a t a b l a , n i mucho menos , A l a r c o n o V a l e r a ; p e r o s i c o n b a s t a n t e r i g o r , P e r e d a , G a l d o s , y l o s demas r e a l i s t a s y l o s n a t u r a l i s t a s . C o n v i e n e d e c i r a q u i que l a f o r m u l a no c o r r e s p o n d e a l a d e l r e a l i s m o t r a d i c i o n a l , s i como t a l se e n t i e n d e e l de C e r v a n t e s . E l r e a l i s m o t r a d i c i o n a l , no s o l o no ha d e s c a r t a d o j a m a s l a i m a g i n a c i o n s i n o que ha h e c h o de e l l a l a c o l u m n a c e n t r a l d e l e d i f i c i o n o v e l e s c o . Tampoco ha t r a b a j a d o de p r e f e r e n c i a c o n m a t e r i a o b s e r v a d a (en e l s e n t i d o p o s i t i v i s t a ) , s i n o c o n m a t e r i a e x p e r i m e n t a d a , v i v i d a . . A l r e d u c i r s e a " l o o b s e r v a d o , " l a s e n o r a B. de F a b e r h i z o un f l a c o s e r v i c i o a l a s l e t r a s e s p a n o l a s . No se l e c u l p e , s i n e m b a r g o , de m a n e r a e x c l u s i v a : e l p r e j u i c i o l o r e c i b i o Gald6s, p r o b a b l e m e n t e , p o r o t r o s c o n d u c t o s . . . . " ( p . X) T o r r e n t e B a l l e s t e r g o e s on t o s a y i n a f o o t n o t e t h a t s t r i c t a d h e r e n c e t o o b s e r v e d phenomena a s n o v e l i s t i c m a t e r i a l w o u l d be i n s u f f i c i e n t t o p r o d u c e a g ood n o v e l , h e n c e h i s d i s a p p r o v i n g a t t i t u d e t o w a r d w r i t e r s w i t h p o s i t i v i s t t e n d e n c i e s . W i t h t h i s he t o u c h e s upon one o f t h e m a j o r c o n t r o v e r s i e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e a d v e n t o f r e a l i s m i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y n o v e l ; 4 t h a t i s , t h e manner o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f " r e a l i t y " a s f i c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l . The i d e a l i s t i c c o s t u m b r i s t a s e s c h e w e d t h e b a s e n e s s o f r e a l i t y t o o f f e r i n s t e a d some m o r a l e d i f i c a t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f u n i q u e l y S p a n i s h c u s t o m s . T h e y a l s o o b j e c t e d t o R o m a n t i c i s m t h e p r e v a i l i n g l i t e r a r y s c h o o l d u r i n g t h e i n c i p i e n c e o f c o s t u m b r i smo f o r i t s " i n d i f f e r e n c e t o o b s e r v e d c o n t e m p o r a r y r e a l i t y " , 2 i t s u n i v e r s a l c h a r a c t e r and i t s p e r c e i v e d i m m o r a l i t y . Of t h i s p e r i o d D . L . Shaw s a y s t h a t " t h e g e n e r a l v i e w was t h a t t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f u n e m b e l 1 i s h e d r e a l i t y w o u l d be d e p r e s s i n g , u n a r t i s t i c , a n d p r o b a b l y i m m o r a l . " 3 F o l l o w i n g t h i s r e a l i s m / i d e a l i s m p o l e m i c , t h e r e e m e r g e s a n o t h e r c o n c e r n i n g n a t u r a l i s m , w h i c h T o r r e n t e B a l l e s t e r seems t o r e f l e c t i n t h e a b o v e q u o t a t i o n . W h i l e he a p p e a r s t o i n d i c t G a l d o s a l o n g w i t h F e r n a n C a b a l l e r o f o r r e l y i n g t o o h e a v i l y on o b s e r v e d r e a l i t y , Shaw c r e d i t s G a l d o s ( a n d C l a r i n ) w i t h e f f e c t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t i n n o v a t i o n s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e a l i s m i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y n o v e l : I t i s c l e a r . . . t h a t b e f o r e a n d p e r h a p s d u r i n g t h e s e v e n t i e s , t h e i d e a o f d e p i c t i n g r e a l i t y a s o b j e c t i v e l y a s p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t e i t h e r m o r a l o r a e s t h e t i c e m b e l l i s h m e n t s . . . h a d h a r d l y been g r a n t e d s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . When i t was n o t d i s m i s s e d a s u n a r t i s t i c , i t was a t t a c k e d a s i m m o r a l . W i t h t h e a d v e n t o f t h e m a t u r e work o f G a l d o s and C l a r i n , t h i s i d e a l , w i t h o u t p e r h a p s p r e v a i l i n g c o m p l e t e l y , came a p p r e c i a b l y c l o s e r t o r e a l i s a t i o n . " T h u s , w h i l e G a l d o s may h a v e " s u f f e r e d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p o s i t i v i s m " , he t h o u g h t o f h i m s e l f " n o t a s a s p e c i a l i s t i n one b r a n c h o f human b e h a v i o r b u t a s t h e c r e a t o r o f a t o t a l f i c t i o n a l 5 w o r l d d r a w n f r o m d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n o f r e a l i t y " . 5 I n t h i s c a s e , t o o s t r i c t a c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h e p i o n e e r i n g r e a l i s t a n d t h e l i k e s o f F e r n a n C a b a l l e r o w o u l d seem i n a p p r o p r i a t e . I n h i s c h r o n o l o g y o f r e a l i s m a n d n a t u r a l i s m i n S p a i n , T o r r e n t e B a l l e s t e r l i m i t s t h e mos t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p r o d u c t s o f t h e movement t o a p e r i o d b e t w e e n 1874 a n d 1890 , a p e r i o d i n w h i c h he s e e s c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s o f R o m a n t i c i s m a n d i d e a l i s m c o e x i s t i n g w i t h w o r k s by G a l d o s a n d C l a r i n . ' W i t h t h e p r o x i m i t y o f t h e u r g e n t l i t e r a r y r e n o v a t i o n b r o u g h t a b o u t by m o d e r n i s m a n d t h e G e n e r a t i o n o f ' 9 8 , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h i s p e r i o d i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d one o f t h e mos t g l o r i o u s f o r S p a n i s h l i t e r a t u r e . As a movement o f s h o r t d u r a t i o n a n d d u b i o u s p u r i t y , a nd b e i n g i n s p i r e d e s s e n t i a l l y by s o u r c e s a l i e n t o H i s p a n i c e x p e r i e n c e , i t s t i l l e s t a b l i s h e d a c e r t a i n p r e c e d e n t f o r w r i t e r s o f t h e n e x t c e n t u r y . To c o m p l e t e t h e p i c t u r e o f t h e movemen t , T o r r e n t e B a l l e s t e r a s s e r t s t h a t t h e n a t u r a l i s t s we re so c a l l e d " c a p r i c i o u s l y , " a nd t h a t t h e y b o r e l i t t l e r e s e m b l a n c e t o t h e e x a m p l e o f Z o l a : J amas e s c r i b i o n a d i e en E s p a n a n o v e l a s e x p e r i m e n t a l e s , n i p a r t i o , p a r a c o n c e b i r l a s , de una t e s i s c i e n t i f i c a , n i c r e y o a s u s p e r s o n a j e s c o n d u c i d o s p o r una n e c e s i d a d p s i c o l o g i c a , f i s i o l o g i c a o m a t e r i a l , n i p o r una t a r a h e r e d i t a r i a , n i p o r n ada que s u p o n g a d e t e r m i n i s m o . ( p . 25) I n a d d i t i o n , he g i v e s us t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y r e a l i s t e n d e a v o r : E l p r o p o s i t o e s c o m u n i c a r l a r e a l i d a d en s u v e r d a d e r a c o n s i s t e n c i a p o r m e d i o de un a r t i f i c i o n o v e l e s c o ; n o , como en e l c a s o de " F e r n a n C a b a l l e r o , " p a r a o f r e c e r l o 6 a l " q u e d i r a n " e x t r a n j e r o , s i n o mas b i e n p a r a r e v e l a r l o que se o c u l t a b a j o l a a p a r i e n c i a mas s u p e r f i c i a l , p a r a d e s c u b r i r e l e n v e s de l a r e a l i d a d a p a r e n t e ; y no c o n p r o p o s i t o s m e t a f i s i c o s , s i n o , s e gun se d i j o , s o c i o l o g i c o s , h i s t o r i c o s y m o r a l e s . ( p . 24) T h e s e a s s e r t i o n s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y ge rmane t o t h e s u b j e c t o f t h i s t h e s i s . When we come t o c o n s i d e r t h e n a t u r e o f S e b a s t i a n J u a n A r b o ' s f i c t i o n , a nd M a r t i n de C a r e t a s i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e s e a s s e r t i o n s w o u l d c e r t a i n l y h e l p t o r e f u t e , o r a t l e a s t t e m p e r , c r i t i c a l a c c u s a t i o n s t h a t A r b o i s m e r e l y a m i m e t i c h o l d - o v e r f r o m t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A f t e r t h e m o n u m e n t a l r e n e w a l o f S p a n i s h l e t t e r s w r o u g h t by m o d e r n i s m and t h e G e n e r a t i o n o f ' 9 8 , t h e mos t d i r e c t c h a l l e n g e t o r e a l i s m a r r i v e d f r o m . a b r o a d a f t e r t h e F i r s t W o r l d War i n t h e f o r m o f v a n g u a r d i s m , a movement r e f e r r e d t o by G o n z a l o S o b e j a n o a s " e l t o r b e l l i n o de l a v a n g u a r d i a e u r o p e a , c u y o s i g n o e s e n e m i g o de t o d o r e a l i s m o . " 6 E u g e n i o de N o r a , whose s t u d y o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y n o v e l i s b a s e d p r i m a r i l y on t h e t h e o r y o f g e n e r a t i o n s a n d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f g e n e r a t i o n a l f a c t o r s , i n t r o d u c e s us t o t h e a w a k e n i n g o f t h i s p e r i o d i n a c h a p t e r o f h i s m a s t e r f u l L a n o v e l a e s p a n o l a c o n t e m p o r a n e a e n t i t l e d " A s p e c t o s de l a n o v e l a i n t e l e c t u a l . " T h i s c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h a g r o u p o f s e c o n d a r y a u t h o r s , b o r n a r o u n d 1880 , w h i c h i n c l u d e s t h e l i k e s o f E u g e n i o D ' O r s and S a l v a d o r de M a d a r i a g a . I n a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e m a j o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h i s movement , n a m e l y Ramon P e r e z de A y a l a , W e n c e s l a o F e r n a n d e z F l o r e z and G a b r i e l M i r o , N o r a c i t e s c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , some o f w h i c h a r e r e m i n i s c e n t o f p r e v i o u s g e n e r a t i o n s . When he 7 t e l l s us t h a t " l a p r o m o c i o n l i t e r a r i a t l p i c a y c r o n o l o g i c a m e n t e ' n o v e c e n t i s t a ' . . . o f r e c e en E s p a n a . . . un m a t i z m a r c a d a m e n t e i n t e l e c t u a l , o i n c l u s o i n t e l e c t u a l i s t a , " 7 we m i g h t c o n s i d e r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f U n a m u n o ' s l e g a c y . N o r a h i m s e l f d e s c r i b e s M i r o a s " u n a f i g u r a c a s i r e z a g a d a . . . d e l m o d e r n i s m o . " ( 1 1 , i ; p . 4 0 ) . T u r n i n g t h e n t o common f e a t u r e s o f t h e p r o s e o f t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d s e c o n d a r y w r i t e r s , we r e c o g n i z e q u a l i t i e s r e s e m b l i n g c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f m o d e r n i s m a n d n o v e n t a y o c h e n t i s m o , t o w i t : i m p e r a t i v e s i n t e l e c t u a l e s , m o r a l e s o p o l i t i c o s , se s o b r e p o n e n a q u i a l a " e s p o n t a n e i d a d " d e l r e l a t o [ e . g . U n a m u n o ' s N i e b l a ] ; B a p a r e c e n , en c o n s o n a n c i a , f o r m a s n a r r a t i v a s p o c o o nada " o r t o d o x a s " . . . [ y ] c i e r t o a l a r d e o c o m p l a c e n c i a en e l d o m i n i o de l a p r o s a p o r s i m i s m a , de l o s mas r e f i n a d o s r e c u r s o s l i t e r a r i o s , como s i l a narraci6n f u e r a un a l e g r e y d e p o r t i v o campo de v a c a c i o n y d e p o r t e de un c e r e b r o h a b i t u a l m e n r e mas g r a v e y mas a l t a m e n t e p r e o c u p a d o [ t h i s i s a t l e a s t m a r g i n a l l y r e l a t e d t o some m o d e r n i s t p r o s e ] . ( 1 1 , i ; p. 41 ) Much o f t h i s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e " f o r m a s n a r r a t i v a s p o c o o nada o r t o d o x a s " w o u l d seem a p p r o p r i a t e s t a g e s on t h e p a t h t o v a n g u a r d i s m . The a d v e n t a n d a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e a v a n t - g a r d e i n l i t e r a t u r e , w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d s i m i l a r i n n o v a t i o n s i n m u s i c a n d t h e p l a s t i c a r t s , was i n t e r p r e t e d a n d e x p o u n d e d upon by J o s e O r t e g a y G a s s e t i n L a d e s h u m a n i z a c i o n d e l a r t e a n d I d e a s s o b r e  l a n o v e l a . O r t e g a came t o be r e g a r d e d a s t h e s p o k e s m a n f o r t h e v a n g u a r d i s t movement i n S p a i n , a n d h i s l u c i d e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e "new a r t " i s c o n t r a s t e d by a g e n e r a l l y d i s a p p r o v i n g a t t i t u d e on t h e p a r t o f c e r t a i n c r i t i c s who r e g a r d e d t h e a v a n t - g a r d e a s c r e a t i v e l y a t a v i s t i c r a t h e r t h a n 8 p r o g r e s s i v e l y i n n o v a t i v e . I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t O r t e g a ' s a s s e r t i o n s s h o u l d r a n k l e c e r t a i n c r i t i c a l s e n s i b i l i t i e s . I n L a d e s h u m a n i z a c i o n d e l a r t e he a f f i r m s , among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h a t t h e new a r t i s d i r e c t e d a t a m i n o r i t y p u b l i c endowed w i t h e x t r a o r d i n a r y c r i t i c a l a c u m e n ; t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y , u n a b l e t o p e n e t r a t e " d e h u m a n i z e d a r t , " r e s p o n d s s c o r n f u l l y b e c a u s e i t i n t i m i d a t e s a n d p r o d u c e s f e e l i n g s o f i n f e r i o r i t y ; t h a t e v e r y d a y human c o n c e r n s a r e i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e a e s t h e t i c p r e o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e movemen t . I n I d e a s  s o b r e l a n o v e l a , O r t e g a p o s i t s t h a t t h e n o v e l a s a l i t e r a r y g e n r e w i l l s oon e x h a u s t i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r c r e a t i v i t y . P e r h a p s t i m e h a s y e t t o t e s t O r t e g a ' s a d m o n i t i o n s i n a d e f i n i t i v e f a s h i o n , b u t i n t h e m e a n t i m e t h e y seem t o h a v e l e f t n o v e l i s t s u n d a u n t e d . . I n any c a s e , t h e s e i d e a s a p p e a r a s c r e a t i v e l y d a r i n g a s t h e new a r t t h a t t h e y d e s c r i b e . W h i l e O r t e g a ' s i d e a s a r e s t i l l p e r t i n e n t t o an e v e r - p r e s e n t , a l b e i t m i n o r i t y a v a n t - g a r d e , t h e p r e m o n i t o r y v a l u e o f h i s I d e a s s o b r e l a n o v e l a seems t o h a v e a c c o m p a n i e d t h e v a n g u a r d i s t movement o f t h e t w e n t i e s i n t o a s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . S o b e j a n o r e f e r s t o I d e a s s o b r e l a n o v e l a a s " l a c u l m i n a c i o n d e l p r o c e s o de s u b j e t i v i z a c i o n y a n t i r r e a l i s m o que v e n i a d e s e n v o l v i e n d o s e d e s d e p r i n c i p i o s d e l s i g l o . " 9 He d e s c r i b e s t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e s e n o t i o n s a s n o t m e r e l y a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y r e a l i s m a n d n a t u r a l i s m , b u t a c o m p l a c e n t b o u r g e o i s o v e r e s t i m a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m . He a c c u s e s t h e b o u r g e o i s i e o f f o r g e t t i n g " l a f u n c i o n que l a n o v e l a puede d e s e m p e n a r como t r a s u n t o a r t i s t i c o de l a c o n c i e n c i a 9 c o l e c t i v a . " 1 0 U l t i m a t e l y , t h e phenomenon o f v a n g u a r d i s m was t o be a t e m p o r a l l y l i m i t e d o n e . E u g e n i o de N o r a s e e s a mode s t r e e m e r g e n c e o f r e a l i s m s t a r t i n g a b o u t 1928 , w h i l e v a n g u a r d i s m had n o t y e t e x h a u s t e d i t s e l f . I n a c h a p t e r e n t i t l e d " T e n t a t i v a s de n o v e l a i n t e l e c t u a l i s t a , l i r i c a y d e s h u m a n i z a d a , " N o r a s p e a k s o f t h e m i n o r i t y a v a n t - g a r d e movement a s so much " f r i v o l i t y " a nd i n d i c a t e s t h e c h a n g i n g d i r e c t i o n o f S p a n i s h l e t t e r s . The p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p o f n o v e l i s t s t h a t N o r a t r e a t s i n t h i s c h a p t e r o f f e r s l i t t l e t o comment on due t o t h e "Dispersi6n de t e n d e n c i a s ; " i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , e l s e n t i d o mismo de a q u e l l a s c o r r i e n t e s l i t e r a r i a s , d e s h u m a n i z a n t e s , a s e p t i c a s y a n t i r r e a l i s t a s , se o p o n i a , c a s i p o r d e f i n i c i d n , a t o d a p o s i b l e m a d u r e z d e n t r o d e l g e n e r o n o v e l e s c o , c o n d e n a n d o a l o s n a r r a d o r e s p o t e n c i a l e s a l f o r m a l i s m o y a l a e s t e r i l i d a d c r e a d o r a . (I.I , i ; p . 188) S e c o n d l y , N o r a p o i n t s o u t , o t h e r more t r a d i t i o n a l w r i t e r s s u c h a s P e d r o S a l i n a s a n d F r a n c i s c o A y a l a a r e c a p a b l e o f p r o d u c i n g " i n t e l e c t u a l i s t a " f i c t i o n w i t h o u t " f r i v o l i t y " , o t h e r s l e a n t o w a r d r e a l i s m a n d s t i l l o t h e r s t a k e up t h e s t a n d a r d o f humor . He goe s on t o wa rn us t h a t t h e t r u e r e s u r g e n c e o f r e a l i s m w a i t s f o r t h e p o s t - w a r p e r i o d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , N o r a s e e s t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f t h e r e a l i s t r e n o v a t i o n i n t h e s e p r e - w a r y e a r s a n d f u r t h e r , he p o i n t s o u t an e m e r g e n t d i c h o t o m y i n t h e r e a l i s t s c h o o l t h a t w i l l c o n t i n u e t o d i v e r g e a s t h e movement g a i n s momentum i n t h e f o r t i e s a nd f i f t i e s . On t h e one h a n d he s e e s a s c h o o l o f b o u r g e o i s r e a l i s t s h e a d e d by Z u n z u n e g u i ( t h i s g r o u p , i n N o r a ' s o p i n i o n , i n c l u d e s A r b o ) a n d on t h e o t h e r h a n d , a s o c i a l l y . c o n s c i o u s g r o u p o f " p r o l e t a r i a n " r e a l i s t s , w i t h Ramon 10 S e n d e r a s t h e i r s t a n d a r d b e a r e r ( 1 1 , i ; p p . 1 8 9 - 1 9 0 ) . And s o , i n t h i s p e r i o d p r i o r t o t h e C i v i l Wa r , N o r a s e e s t h e c o e x i s t e n c e o f t h e s e d i v e r g e n t s c h o o l s o f r e a l i s m w i t h a g r o u p o f s l i g h t l y c r i t i c a l h u m o r i s t s s u c h a s E n r i q u e J a r d i e l P o n c e l a a n d t h e r e m a i n i n g p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f " d e h u m a n i z e d " f i c t i o n . As f o r t h e w a n i n g o f v a n g u a r d i s m , we h a v e a l r e a d y h e a r d N o r a ' s i n d i c t m e n t o f t h e movement a s c o n d u c i v e t o " a r t i s t i c s t e r i l i t y . " T o r r e n t e B a l l e s t e r b l u n t l y a s s e r t s t h a t " E l a r t e n u e v o p r o d u c e i r r i t a c i o n , p o r i n c o m p r e n s i b l e o p o r i r r e s p e t u o s o , " ( p . 290) a n d a l s o c i t e s t h e l i m i t e d c o m m e r c i a l v i a b i l i t y o f a r t i s t i c f o r m s t h a t a r e by n a t u r e d e s i g n e d f o r a m i n o r i t y p u b l i c . He h i n t s t h a t t h e v a n g u a r d i s t s ' s t u d i e d a v o i d a n c e o f s e n t i m e n t a l i t y i n t h e i r p o e t r y a n d f i c t i o n c o u l d h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e b r e v i t y o f t h e m o v e m e n t ' s l i f e s p a n . The c r i t i c a l y e a r o f t r a n s i t i o n i s 1930 , when " l a o r i e n t a c i o n g e n e r a l de l a l i t e r a t u r a s u p o n e , e n t o n c e s , una r e c a i d a en l o humano, a s i como un a b o n d o n o de l a s p o s i c i o n e s e s t e t i z a n t e s o p u r a m e n t e i n t e l e c t u a l e s " ( p . 2 9 1 ) . The y e a r s 1931 t o 1936 saw t h e d i m i n i s h i n g i n f l u e n c e a n d u l t i m a t e c o l l a p s e o f v a n g u a r d i s m a s a v i a b l e l i t e r a r y m o v e m e n t a n d , a s T o r r e n t e B a l l e s t e r s a y s l y r i c a l l y , " e n e l n a u f r a g i o p e r e c e n t o d o s l o s q u e , a p r o v e c h a n d o l a c o n f u s i o n , h a b i a n f a l s i f i c a d o e l a r t e y l a p o e s i a " ( p p . 2 9 1 -292 ) . I t i s i n t h i s p e r i o d j u s t p r i o r t o t h e o u t b r e a k o f t h e C i v i l War t h a t p r e v a i l i n g l i t e r a r y s e n s i b i l i t i e s t a k e a d e c i s i v e t u r n t o w a r d r e a l i s m . The e x i s t i n g r e a l i s t movement , w h i c h N o r a h a s d i v i d e d i n t o " m o d e r a t e " a n d c r i t i c a l r e a l i s t s , b e t r a y e d 11 " r a s g o s r a d i c a l y l i t e r a l m e n t e a n t i t e t i c o s a l o s de l a e s c u e l a b a u t i z a d a p o r O r t e g a " ( 1 1 , i ; p . 1 9 1 ) . N o r a g o e s o n , i n a c h a p t e r e n t i t l e d " L a t r a n s i c i o n h a c i a e l n u e v o r e a l i s m o " , t o s p e a k o f t h i s new s c h o o l a s c o m p r i s i n g " d i s s i d e n t s " o p p o s e d , f o r s u n d r y r e a s o n s , t o t h e r i g o r o u s l y n a r r o w i n t e n t o f t h e a v a n t -g a r d e . The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s d i s s i d e n c e , s a y s N o r a , r u n t h e gamut f r o m p e r s o n a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e v i e w s o f some w r i t e r s t o c r e a t i v e h e s i t a n c e on t h e p a r t o f o t h e r s . I n a n y c a s e , t h e r e s u l t o f t h e s e v a r i e d m o t i v e s i s l e s s d i f f u s e . A b o u t t h e s e w r i t e r s N o r a s a y s : o se e s b o z a . . . y s e v a a f i r m a n d o p r o g r e s i v a m e n t e en l o s m e j o r e s , una r a p i d a r e c u p e r a c i o n d e l r e a l i s m o ; una m a n i f i e s t a r e h a b i l i t a c i o n de ' l o h u m a n o ' , d e l v a l o r t e s t i m o n i a l y de l a t r a s c e n d e n c i a m o r a l , s o c i a l y p o l i t i c a de l a l i t e r a t u r a ; una n u e v a c o n c i e n c i a de l a n e c e s i d a d - - y de l a f e r t i l i d a d - - d e l s e r v i c i o a unos- c u a n t o s v a l o r e s s u p r e m o s , t a l como c a d a e s c r i t o r l o s i n t e r p r e t s o c o n e i b e . ( 1 1 , i ; p . 281 ) C h o o s i n g H u m b e r t o P e r e z de l a O s s a , Ramon Lede sma M i r a n d a and J u a n A n t o n i o de Z u n z u n e g u i a s t h e l e a d i n g f i g u r e s o f t h i s movemen t , N o r a f u r t h e r a r g u e s t h a t t h e l a s t w o r k s o f t h e s e t h r e e a u t h o r s b e f o r e 1939 p r o v e d e f i n i t i v e l y t h a t t h e r a d i c a l c h a n g e i n a e s t h e t i c s e n s i b i l i t i e s s i g n a l e d by a new i n t e r e s t i n r e a l i s m was n o t p r o d u c e d by t h e C i v i l W a r . The c r i t i c c o n c l u d e s ^ t h a t t h e s e n o v e l i s t s l e a d a s c h o o l o f t r a n s i t i o n , t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f t h i s same t r a n s i t i o n c o n t i n u e d i n t h e p o s t - w a r y e a r s a n d , f r o m h i s p e r s p e c t i v e w h i l e w r i t i n g L a n o v e l a e s p a n o l a c o n t e m p o r a n e a , t h a t e l e s f u e r z o que m a r c a e s e ' n e o r r e a l i s m o ' e s , 1 2 en s u c o n j u n t o , a s c e n d e n t e , p e r o t o d a v i a i n s e g u r o h o y , t o d a v i a , h o y , de t a n t e o , de b u s q u e d a de un g r a n e s t i l o n a r r a t i v o , en c o r r e s p o n d e n c i a c o n l a s a s o m b r o s a s t r a n s f o r m a c i o n e s y e l n a c i m i e n t o de un mundo n u e v o a que a s i s t i m o s en e s t a m i t a d d e l s i g l o . ( I I , i ; p . 284 ) The i n t e r r u p t i o n o f l i t e r a r y e n d e a v o r i n S p a i n , e f f e c t e d by t h e C i v i l War , f a i l e d t o c u r b t h e t e n d e n c y t o w a r d r e a l i s m i n s p i t e o f t h e l o n g p e r i o d o f i n e r t i a . T h e r e w e r e , h o w e v e r , i n t h e y e a r s i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e C i v i l War " u n a d e s o r i e n t a c i o n y e s t a n c a m i e n t o c a r a c t e r i s t i c o s , " a n d , N o r a a d d s , " l a e s t e r i l i d a d y l a r e i t e r a c i o n m e d i o c r e c o n s t i t u y e n l a r e g l a g e n e r a l , h a s t a , a p r o x i m a d a m e n t e , 1 9 5 0 " ( 1 1 , i i ; p . 1 0 6 ) . The o u t s t a n d i n g a nd o b v i o u s e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s c o n d i t i o n a r e o f c o u r s e , C a m i l o J o s e C e l a ' s L a f a m i l i a d e ' P a s c u a l D u a r t e and Carmen L a f o r e t ' s N a d a . N o r a s p e a k s i n g e n e r a l t e r m s o f a " c r i s i s o f t h e n o v e l , " w h i c h was n o t , a s we h a v e s e e n , c a u s e d by t h e C i v i l War , n o r was i t l i m i t e d t o t h o s e y e a r s i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e c o n f l i c t . T h i s s o - c a l l e d c r i s i s b e g a n , i n N o r a ' s v i e w , w i t h t h e e x h a u s t i o n o f n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y r e a l i s m and e v i n c e d i t s e l f e v e n d u r i n g t h e f e r t i l e h e y d a y o f t h e G e n e r a t i o n o f ' 9 8 , l a t e r t o r e a c h i t s mos t c r i t i c a l d e g r e e d u r i n g t h e v o g u e o f v a n g u a r d i s m , i n s p i t e o f t h e s u c c e s f u l n o v e l i s t i c e x p e r i m e n t s o f t h a t movemen t . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e i n c i p i e n t s c h o o l o f r e a l i s m i s c r e d i t e d w i t h t a k i n g t h e f i r s t s t e p t o w a r d t h e n o v e l ' s r e j u v e n a t i o n . B o t h i d e o l o g i c a l l y d i v e r g e n t t e n d e n c i e s o f t h i s new s c h o o l o f r e a l i s m , s a y s N o r a , " s e n a l a n un c a m b i o de orientaci6n f e c u n d o h a c i a l a f u e n t e s i e m p r e v i v a d e l r e a l i s m o , s e n t a n d o a s i l a s b a s e s p a r a una r e c u p e r a c i o n , i n c i p i e n t e p e r o y a 1 3 e f e c t i v a , de l a n o v e l a " ( 1 1 , i i ; p . 1 0 7 ) . T h a t a p e r i o d o f " d e s o r i e n t a c i o n y e s t a n c a m i e n t o " s h o u l d f o l l o w t h e C i v i l War i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g , n o t o n l y f o r t h e t a n g i b l e a n d d i r e c t c o n s e q u e n c e s o f p r o l o n g e d and b l o o d y c o n f l i c t , b u t a l s o f o r t h e a m b i e n c e o f s u s p i c i o n a n d f e a r i n i t s a f t e r m a t h , n o t t o m e n t i o n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c e n s o r s h i p by a r e g i m e h o s t i l e t o many w r i t e r s f o r t h e i r u n a c c e p t a b l e i d e o l o g y . W i t h t h e a d v e n t o f C e l a ' s La f a m i l i a de P a s c u a l D u a r t e ( 1942 ) a n d L a f o r e t ' s Nada ( 1 9 4 4 ) , t h e c u r r e n t o f r e a l i s t n a r r a t i o n c o n t i n u e s , and as l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y i n c r e a s e d i n p o s t - w a r S p a i n , w i t h t h e h e l p o f c e r t a i n s u b t l e means o f s i d e s t e p p i n g c e n s o r s h i p , d i f f e r e n t t e n d e n c i e s w i t h i n t h e r e a l i s t s c h o o l began t o d e v e l o p a n d d i v e r g e . N o r a s e e s t h r e e t r e n d s e m e r g i n g i n t h e p o s t war n o v e l : some a u t h o r s , " d e n t r o de una l i n e a m a r c a d a m e n t e r e a l i s t a , m u e s t r a n un i m p u l s o de r e n o v a c i o n f o r m a l , o t i e n d e n a l p l a n t a m i e n t o de una p r o b l e m a t i c a i n t e l e c t u a l o m o r a l que l l e g a a d o m i n a r en e l r e l a t o ; " a n o t h e r g r o u p o f " n a r r a d o r e s p u r o s " a d h e r e s t o " l a c r e a c i o n n o v e l e s c a s e gun l a s f o r m u l a s mas o menos r e m o z a d a s d e l r e a l i s m o t r a d i c i o n a l ; " a n d f i n a l l y t h e r e a r e l o s e s c r i t o r e s q u e , f r e n t e a e s e c r i t e r i o de t r a d i c i o n r e a l i s t a , p o p u l a r i s t a y m a s i v a de l a n a r r a c i o n , o b e d e c e n mas o menos a b i e r t a m e n t e a un i m p e r a t i v o de s e l e c c i o n , y t i e n d e n a una n o v e l a e s t e t i c a , en l a que e l r e f i n a m i e n t o y l a c a l i d a d de l a p r o s a son v a l o r e s s u s t a n t i v o s . ( 1 1 , i i ; p . 177) W h i l e t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s we re t a k i n g p l a c e , n o v e l i s t s a c t i v e l y s o u g h t g r e a t e r c o n t a c t w i t h c u l t u r e o u t s i d e o f S p a i n a s 1 4 t h e s t a t e o f p o s t - w a r i s o l a t i o n began t o e a s e a r o u n d 1950 . T h i s g r o u p o f n o v e l i s t s came t o be known a s t h e " n u e v a o l e a d a . " A c h a p t e r d e v o t e d t o them i n N o r a ' s L a n o v e l a e s p a n o l a  c o n t e m p o r a n e a i s s u b t i t l e d " e n t r e e l r e l a t o l i r i c o y e l t e s t i m o n i a l o b j e t i v o . " N o r a c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e s e n o v e l i s t s a s more i n t u i t i v e t h a n t h e i r p r e d e c e s o r s , a nd w e a r y a l s o o f t h e i r " f a n a t i s m o c i e g o . . . e s c e p t i c i s m o a c r e . . . [ y ] c i n i c i s m o e n t r e f r i v o l o y d e s e p e r a d o " ( 1 1 , i i ; p . 2 8 7 ) . T h i s new movement o f " i n g e n u o u s r e a l i s t s , " i n f l u e n c e d by S a r t r e ' s n o t i o n o f " c o m m i t t e d l i t e r a t u r e " and p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h s o c i a l c o n c e r n s , " n o h a c e s i n o r e a n u d a r una t r a d i c i o n v i v a , r e p r i s t a n d o l a y p r o c u r a n d o s e p a r a r l a g anga d e l m e t a l p u r o . " 1 1 The b o u n t i f u l v a r i e t y and q u a l i t y o f w o r k s by s u c h n o v e l i s t s a s Ana M a r i a M a t u t e , . I g n a c i o A l d e c o a , R a f a e l S a n c h e z F e r l o s i o and L u i s M a r t i n S a n t o s e v i n c e a r e g e n e r a t i o n o f t h e S p a n i s h n o v e l t h a t s e r v e s t o c o u n t e r a c t many o f t h e h a n d i c a p s , i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l , t h a t p r o d u c e d t h e s o - c a l l e d " c r i s i s . " W i t h s u c h o p t i m i s t i c p o r t e n t s f o r t h e s t a t e o f t h e g e n r e , a f t e r a p e r i o d o f i n e r t i a , c o n f u s i o n and many s i n c e r e , a l b e i t t e n t a t i v e r e s p o n s e s t o s u c c e s s i v e c h a n g e s i n a e s t h e t i c o r i e n t a t i o n ( n o t t o m e n t i o n e x t e r n a l i m p e d i m e n t s ) , t h e n o v e l i n S p a i n c o n t i n u e d i t s g r o w t h t h r o u g h t h e f i f t i e s a n d s i x t i e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n t o c u r r e n t s i n w o r l d l i t e r a t u r e ( t h e F r e n c h n o u v e a u roman a n d t h e L a t i n A m e r i c a n " B o o m " , f o r e x a m p l e ) . I n c o n c l u s i o n , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e s u r g e n c e o f r e a l i s t n a r r a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s n o t o n l y a m a j o r and momentous d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e t r a j e c t o r y o f t h e S p a n i s h n o v e l i n t h i s c e n t u r y , b u t i s 15 even c r e d i t e d by some with beginning the r e s t o r a t i o n of i t s e r s t w h i l e degree of e x c e l l e n c e , i n v o k i n g the v e r i s i m i l i t u d e of Cervantes and the s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n of the p i c a r e s q u e . Given Arbo's preoccupation with r e a l i s m (which embraces an i n t e r e s t i n the picaresque and the r e a l i s t example of Cervantes), as we turn now to a b r i e f review of the author's l i f e and work, we might f u r t h e r c l a r i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the n o v e l i s t and h i s h i s t o r i c a l context with some a d d i t i o n a l , s p e c i f i c o b s e r v a t i o n s . The examples of N a r c i s O i l e r and Pio Baroja seem to p a r a l l e l Arbo's unique, seemingly a n a c h r o n i s t i c s i t u a t i o n r e l a t i v e to the main c u r r e n t of n o v e l i s t i c endeavor in h i s time. Both of these n o v e l i s t s p u z z l e d c r i t i c s by p r o f f e r i n g c e r t a i n f i c t i o n a l elements or p e r s p e c t i v e s that set them apart from the l i t e r a r y conventions of t h e i r time. At the same time, other broader c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t e s t i f y to the authors' contemporaneity with those same conventions. O i l e r , "primer n o v e l i s t a d e l seu temps" a c c o r d i n g to Joan Ruiz i C a l o n j a , 1 2 i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with N a t u r a l i s m . Having begun h i s l i t e r a r y c a r e e r by producing quadres de costums, O i l e r went on to w r i t e s e v e r a l important novels around the turn of the century. While the i n f l u e n c e of Emile Zola i s supposed in most c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of t h i s Catalan n o v e l i s t ' s f i c t i o n -- the French N a t u r a l i s t wrote a prologue f o r the French t r a n s l a t i o n of O i l e r ' s La Papallona --, O i l e r ' s novels transcend N a t u r a l i s m . Ruiz i Calonja observes: E l naturalisme d ' O l l e r , e l realisme podem d i r - n e m i l l o r seguint e l s seus c r i t i c s , es sobretot s o c i a l . La p i n t u r a d e l s ambients d i f e r e n t s on fa moure l e s 1 6 passions de les seves figures humanes es e l tret mes . caracter i st ic del nostre novel-lista; fets certs, reals, moites vegades viscuts, en un paisatge o escenari exacte, pero amb personatges que, malgrat l l u r sentit versemblant lleument i d e a l i z a t , reaccionen volent-ho o no conveneionalment en resoldre els c o n f 1 i c t e s . 1 3 S i m i l a r l y , Arthur Terry observes that, while Oiler is "compared with Zola himself, he i s more interested in individuals and much less in generalizations about society. Nothing could be further from Oiler than Zola's peculiar kind of determinism." 1" This repudiation of determinism, along with an a f f i n i t y for the perspective of the i n d i v i d u a l , r e c a l l s Arbo's posture in Martin de Caretas. Several of O i l e r ' s novels proffer intimate studies of an individual psyche, aided by the author's "do per a les situacions dramatiques i angoixoses." 1 5 In P i l a r  Prim, " l a introspecci6n psicologica domina tot el panorama del l l i b r e . " 1 6 La boqeria i s the story, t o l d in the f i r s t person, of a young man's advancing dementia and eventual suicide. There are, then, both broad and s p e c i f i c thematic a f f i n i t i e s shared by O i l e r and Arbo, in addition to their s i m i l a r l y anachronistic stance (Oiler clung to certain elements of Romantic idealism after i t s waning as a l i t e r a r y convention). F i n a l l y , Ruiz i Calonja says of O i l e r that "de cara a les modes l i t e r a c i e s de l'epoca hi afegeix una solucio personal dels esdeveniments i un desig moralitzador." 1 7 This observation, which strongly resembles the ideological culmination of Martin de Caretas, r e c a l l s an aspect of Pio Baroja's l i t e r a r y attitude germane to th i s discussion. Described by G.G. Brown as an " i r a s c i b l e , 1 7 u n c o u t h i n d i v i d u a l i s t " a nd " a mos t d i s c o n c e r t i n g phenomenon i n t h e l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y o f t h e p e r i o d , " 1 8 B a r o j a p o s s e s s e d a " s t e a d y , h o n e s t , p e s s i m i s t i c v i s i o n o f t h e w o r l d , w i t h [ a ] d e e p s e n s e o f c o m p a s s i o n and u r g e t o m o r a l j u s t i c e . " 1 9 B a r o j a t h e n o v e l i s t e m e r g e d d u r i n g a p e r i o d m a r k e d by an a n g u s t i a v i t a l , w i t h s u c h c o n t e m p o r a r i e s a s Unamuno a n d A z o r i n . W i t h t h e f u t i l i t y a nd a b s u r d i t y o f human e x i s t e n c e a d m i t t e d a s p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , B a r o j a c o n t i n u e s t o i n s i s t upon a m o r a l c o m m i t m e n t i n c u m b e n t on m a n k i n d . Much of. h i s work u n d e r l i n e s t h e s t r u g g l e i n h e r e n t i n a n y a t t e m p t t o r e c o n c i l e m a n ' s i n t r a n s i g e n t d e c a d e n c e and i l l - w i l l w i t h a n o t i o n o f s up reme m o r a l v a l u e s . W h i l e s u c h a s t r u g g l e m i g h t i t s e l f b r i n g on a s e n s e o f a n g u s t i a v i t a l , i t i s B a r o j a ' s i n s i s t e n c e on and p r e s u p p o s i t i o n o f m a n ' s c a p a c i t y f o r m o r a l t h o u g h t a n d b e h a v i o r t h a t s e t h i m a p a r t f r o m some o f h i s more p e s s i m i s t i c o r c a p r i c i o u s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . T h i s same " d e e p s e n s e o f c o m p a s s i o n and u r g e t o m o r a l j u s t i c e " r e c a l l s t h e s i n c e r e , i f i n g e n u o u s c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t o f M a r t i n de C a r e t a s . I t i s v i r t u a l l y i n c o n t e s t a b l e t h a t B a r o j a e x e r c i s e d e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e on t h e c r a f t o f S e b a s t i a n J u a n A r b o . The work o f t h i s C a t a l a n n o v e l i s t a b o u n d s i n B a r o j i a n q u a l i t i e s - -t h e m a t i c , s t y l i s t i c and i d e o l o g i c a l - - , some o f w h i c h a r e m e n t i o n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . I n s o f a r a s t h i s p r e f a t o r y d i s c u s s i o n i s c o n c e r n e d , i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o i n d i c a t e a p a r t i c u l a r , y e t b r o a d i d e o l o g i c a l e l e m e n t s h a r e d by t h e two a u t h o r s . D . L . Shaw a s s e r t s t h a t " t h e c h i e f f e a t u r e o f B a r o j a ' s p e r s o n a l i t y i s h i s i n a b i l i t y t o a c c e p t t h e c o m f o r t a b l e p a t t e r n o f i d e a s a n d b e l i e f s 18 on which the mass of people u n c r i t i c a l l y base their l i v e s . " 2 0 This attitude is exemplified in Baroja's f i c t i o n by Aurora Roja, f i n a l volume of the t r i l o g y La lucha por la vida. The novel's t i t l e derives from the name of a bar in which a group of anarchists fervently expound a gamut of ostensibly compatible b e l i e f s and conduct passionate p o l i t i c a l discussions about what to them are c l e a r l y viable panaceas for society's most glaring defects. By the narrative's conclusion, Baroja has betrayed his disillusionment with the mirage of p o l i t i c a l solutions, creeds that, in his view, demand the same f a i t h and suspension of c r i t i c a l thought required by r e l i g i o n . Manuel, the t r i l o g y ' s protagonist accepts r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for his existence along with the lim i t a t i o n s of his condition, having witnessed the f a i l u r e s wrought by his own brother's anarchist delusions. Here, apparently, i s an important- Barojian legacy to Arbo, at least with regard to Martin de Caretas. Just as Baroja disapproves of the masses' u n c r i t i c a l acceptance of certain "comfortable" but morally compromising values, so Arbo has his young protagonist learn to reject the dogmatic views of the nonchalant Antonio Carden and the imperious Roque Galda, in addition to his i n s t i n c t i v e d i s t r u s t of Caretas' a n t i s o c i a l milieu. And while Arbo eschews overtly p o l i t i c a l or r e l i g i o u s examples, he successfully emphasizes the superiority of personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , s e l f - r e l i a n c e and autonomous decision by means of more fundamental, universal examples. In addition to a provocative, though not uncommon interest in the individual's psyche shared by a l l three authors, the 1 9 examples of Pio Baroja and Narcis Oiler provide an analogy to Arbo's unique relationship with the l i t e r a r y conventions of his time. The very "unconventional" character of these two authors, p a r t i c u l a r l y their "anachronistic" q u a l i t i e s , exposes a dubious c r i t i c a l tendency which seems to i n s i s t upon an author's contemporaneity with prevailing l i t e r a r y practices. In the cases of Baroja and O i l e r , recourse to "out-moded" themes and techniques f a i l e d to undermine the quality of their a r t . The subsequent review of Arbo's l i f e and work w i l l , among other things, discuss how the author has suffered unjust relegation to secondary status because of c r i t i c s ' occasional, ironic lapses into u n c r i t i c a l and "comfortable pattern[s] of ideas." 20 A. NOTES TO CHAPTER I 1 Gonzalo Torrente Balles t e r , Panorama de la l i t e r a t u r a  espanola contemporanea, 2a edicion (Madrid: Ediciones Guadarrama, 1961), I, 20 . Further references to this work appear in the text. 2 Donald L. Shaw, A Literary History of Spain: The  Nineteenth Century (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1972), p. 44. 3 Shaw, p. 150. * Shaw, p. 151. 5 Shaw, p. 133. 6 Gonzalo Sobejano, Novela espanola de nuestro tiempo (Madrid: Prensa Espanola, 1970), p. 20. 7 Eugenio de Nora, La novela espanola contemporanea (Madrid: E d i t o r i a l Gredos, 1962), I I , i , 40. Further references appear in the text. 8 The parentheses are mine. 9 Sobejano, p. 21. 1 0 Sobejano, p. 21. 1 1 Sobejano, p. 170. 1 2 Joan Ruiz i Calonja, H i s t o r i a de la l i t e r a t u r a catalana (Barcelona: E d i t o r i a l Teide, 1954), p. 487. 1 3 Ruiz i Calonja, p. 488 1" Arthur Terry, A Li t e r a r y History of Spain: Catalan  Literature (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1972), p. 80. 1 5 Josep Vallverdu, H i s t o r i a de la l i t e r a t u r a catalana (Barcelona: E d i t o r i a l Miquel Arimany, 1978), p. 114. 1 6 Vallverdu, p. 114. 21 1 7 Ruiz i Calonja, p. 488. 1 8 G.G. Brown A Literary History of Spain: The Twentieth  Century (New York: Barnes and Nobles, 1972), p. 31. 1 9 Brown, p. 32. 2 0 Shaw, p. 166. 22 11. SEBASTIAN JUAN ARBO: HIS LIFE AND WORK A. BIO-BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SEBASTIAN JUAN ARBO Sebastian Juan Arbo was born October 28, 1902 in San Carlos de la Rapita, a small coastal town in the southern-most 'portion of Catalonia near the Ebro delta and the Valencian border. His family, employed as servants by a wealthy French family with a Sephardic background, moved with their employers to nearby Amposta in 1910. It was here, on the banks of the Ebro, that the young Arbo started working as an unpaid apprentice in the o f f i c e of his parents' employers. In his free time "devorava tots els l l i b r e s que queien a les sevasmans -- la B i b l i a , els c l a s s i c s grecs, Baroja, els r e a l i s t e s francesos, Blasco Ibanez, e t c . " 1 Such were the beginnings of " l a vocacion por las let r a s que habia de a r r a s t r a r l e a l f i n a la ciudad". 2 Before he l e f t home however, he pursued an interest in sports, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o o t b a l l , while he cul t i v a t e d his appreciation for l i t e r a t u r e . What developed into a passion for l e t t e r s was aided by the study of English, Latin and Portuguese. At the age of eighteen he had written his f i r s t novel. 3 Arbo's migration to Barcelona in 1927, while pertinent with regard to the conception of Martin de Caretas, was in i t s e l f not so s i g n i f i c a n t to his formation as a writer. Sergi Beser rela t e s : La seva biografia te poc valor per e l l a sola o com a il-luminacio de la seva obra; tan sols es destaquen unes quantes dates: l a de l'arribada a Barcelona i les de publicacio de les obres. Molt mes 23 important es l a seva experiencia v i t a l f i n s a 1'adolescencia, ja que es transforma en materia l i t e r a r i a de tots els seus r e l a t s . " According to Beser, the most formative experience for Arbo was his adolescence on the banks of the Ebro, during which he was imbued with a profound sense of the rel a t i o n s h i p between the delta region and i t s inhabitants. The impression made on the young 'Arbo by t h i s special r e l a t i o n s h i p was such that the theme of the Ebro delta and i t s people proved to be f r u i t f u l narrative material, predominating in most of his f i c t i o n . Aside from this contact with the impressive world of delta society, the would-be author, progeny of humble people, now found himself exposed to l i t e r a t u r e . Beser asserts that t h i s aspect of culture produced in the young Arbo a d i a l e c t i c a l tension that was to strongly influence his early l i t e r a r y endeavors: f i l l de pagesos, l'acces a la cultura e l va desplagant del seu medi s o c i a l ; viu entre e l l s , pero no es un d ' e l l s ; com a conseqiiencia de tot aixo l'aillament dins un mon, a l qual es unit per irrompibles lligams d'afecte. Aquesta posicio d'Arbo es r e f l e c t i r a en la tematica de les novel'les, les quals cal examinar sempre a p a r t i r d'aquest punt. La seva obra narrativa en catala, possiblement sigui 1'intent d'extravertir e l complex conjunt de vivencies i de processos subconscients originat en 1'experiencia v i t a l d'aquests anys. 5 Arbo, thus affected by the unique bond between man and earth evident in the Ebro delta, imbued with an almost e x i s t e n t i a l sense of i s o l a t i o n and with an intense personal enthusiasm for writing, l e f t for Barcelona in 1927 with 24 manuscripts of what were to be his f i r s t two published novels. L'inuti1 combat, considered one of his finest e f f o r t s , appeared in 1931. This was followed closely by Terres de L'Ebre in 1932. The effect of these two novels was such that "En dos anys Arbo havia passat d'esser un escriptor desconegut i inedit a esser la mes ferma esperanca de la novel-la catalana. Esperanqa que alhora era, pero, autentica r e a l i t a t . " 6 The author maintained an impressive momentum with the appearance in 1933 of Notes d'un estudiant que va morir boiq, a work that Arbo, as was his wont, subsequently subjected to several major revisions. The year 1935 saw the publication of Camins de n i t , which Federico Sainz de Robles refers to as " l a mas discutida de sus obras." 7 In the wake of such industry during the f i r s t half of the decade, there were 10 years of silence from Arbo, precipitated by Spain's C i v i l War of 1936-1939. His return to the l i t e r a r y scene was heralded by the „ appearance, in 1945, of his masterful biography of Miguel de Cervantes. The public success of Cervantes consolidated Arbo's reputation and set the stage for even wider public recognition for his f i c t i o n . The post-war climate was however not a c o r d i a l one for those writers of minority languages. Although Tino Costa, another of Arbo's highly regarded works, was published simultaneously in both Catalan and C a s t i l i a n in 1947, the author then turned to C a s t i l i a n as his medium of expression. This change, along with Arbo's penchant for revision, posed a unique problem for c r i t i c s and contributed to confusion about and 25 misappraisal of some of his work. Along with th i s change in his narrative medium came a s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t in his thematic emphasis. In Sobre las piedras grises (1949), Arbo's f i r s t work published o r i g i n a l l y in C a s t i l i a n , the author abandons his rural preoccupation in favor of an urban setting. Due to the strong presence of the rural landscape in his previous work, the change proved premature re l a t i v e to the author's s t i l l developing ab i l i t i ' e s . Many c r i t i c s agree, p a r t i c u l a r l y in retrospect, that Arbo's best work resulted from writing in his native Catalan about the ru s t i c l i f e he knew i n s i g h t f u l l y and intimately. In spite of t h i s , Sobre las piedras grises was awarded the Premio Nadal for 1948. Arbo continued to concern himself with the urban landscape in Maria Molinari, published in 1954. This melodramatic and a c t i o n - f i l l e d novel was composed, according to Juan Alborg, with an eye toward s t r i k i n g a balance between an entertaining adventure story with popular appeal and a moral statement with some i n t e l l e c t u a l appeal. Alborg declares: Maria Molinari parece encerrar una intencion moral. No se s i Arbo se habra propuesto deliberadamente e s c r i b i r una s a t i r a contra c i e r t a corrupcion de costumbres . . . . Pero los hechos, en efecto, parecen apuntar particularmente hacia una defensa de la integridad del matrimonio." 8 Alborg also mentions, rather te n t a t i v e l y , that "Creo recordar ahora -- aunque no puedo asegurarlo -- que Arbo confeso en unas declaraciones haber tenido este proposito deliberado." 9 If Alborg's memory serves, then a l l th i s -- that i s , an equilibrium 26 of popular thematic q u a l i t i e s and fodder for the i n t e l l e c t , plus a preconceived didactic intention -- i s s i g n i f i c a n t for i t s relation to the conception of Arbo's subsequent novel. Martin de Caretas i s recognized as a remarkable departure from Arbo's customary themes and preoccupations. The f i r s t volume of the t r i l o g y appeared in 1955, to be followed in 1959 by a single volume augmented with the second and t h i r d parts (each of the parts has been published independently in later e d i t i o n s ) . Perhaps the most thematically diverse of a l l Arbo's f i c t i o n a l works, the author here sustains his general interest in landscape as an e s s e n t i a l l y formative element in man's experience. In this case, however, Arbo contracts a marriage between the two sp a t i a l preoccupations of his previous work: the f i r s t volume of the t r i l o g y i s set in the asperity of a c u l t u r a l l y retarded, rural town of Aragon whence the protagonist ventures forth, to arrive (after a v i r t u a l odyssey through the country) in the awesome and cosmopolitan Barcelona. C r i t i c s , who variously describe the author as either imitative of obsolete nineteenth-century realism or a precursor of a new variety of r e a l i s t narration, also seem to have given Martin de Caretas unjustly short s h r i f t . Its marginal a f f i n i t i e s with the picaresque genre have caused some c r i t i c s to consider i t alongside such post-war picaresque adaptations as Camilo Jose Cela's La familia de Pascual TJuarte. Possessing none of the l a t t e r ' s q u a l i t i e s of profound sickness and rage, and even betraying a sense of gentle optimism and so c i a l j u s t i c e , Martin de Caretas was bound to appear l i g h t and 27 inconsequencial in comparison. A close reading reveals that picaresque motifs play an important, though subordinate role in the depiction of Martin's s o c i a l medium. These picaresque elements function in concert with many other l i t e r a r y influences, all u s i o n s and themes to complete a r i c h fabric of optimistic commentary on the human condition which suggests a deliberately metaphysical or transcendental intention. The interim between the f i r s t volume of Martin de Caretas and the appearance of i t s expanded t r i l o g y form produced another urban novel, Nocturno de alarmas, published in 1957. Several c r i t i c s noted Arbo's increasing f a c i l i t y with the portrayal of the urban landscape. Soon after t h i s , however, Arbo was to return to his o r i g i n a l , and one suspects favored, narrative theme: the landscape and people of the Ebro delta. The year 1962 saw the publication of Los hombres de la t i e r r a y e l mar, which bore the s u b t i t l e "Recuerdos de infancia." Sergi Beser quotes an interview conducted with the author by L. Gomis for Ateneo magazine, dating from 1 A p r i l 1959, in which Arbo states: he ido liberandome de una carga de preocupaciones y emociones nacidas en mi infancia a l contacto con la vida del pueblo. Siempre desee e s c r i b i r sobre los problemas de nuestro tiempo especialmente los suscitados en los ultimos anos, pero antes tenia que liberarme de aquel l a s t r e . 1 0 Los hombres de la t i e r r a y e l mar, a somewhat novelized, but mostly autobiographical work adumbrated the d i r e c t i o n taken by Arbo's subsequent f i c t i o n . In 1965, the author's only c o l l e c t i o n of short st o r i e s , Narracions del delta was published 28 in Catalan. Its appearance was greeted with enthusiasm, not only for the author's shrewd return to his accustomed rural landscape, but also for repairing to Catalan as his means of expression. The following year brought forth a novel in C a s t i l i a n with the almost predictable t i t l e of Entre la t i e r r a y  el mar. In his "Prologo Ex p l i c a t i v o " the author explains: Esta es la primera de una serie de novelas en las cuales pretendo volver y agotar, en lo posible, e l tema de las t i e r r a s del Ebro, o mejor, del delta del Ebro, entre Tortosa y e l mar. La serie estara constituida por tres, quiza por cuatro novelas, cada una de las cuales formara un volumen aparte. Estaran unidas, no obstante por los personajes centrales y por e l medio o ambiente. 1 1 Arbo did indeed produce several more novels on that theme: L'espera, published f i r s t in Catalan in 1968; La masia, also in Catalan, appeared in 1975; Cancion de noche (1973) and La  tempestad (1975) were published o r i g i n a l l y in C a s t i l i a n . There were in these novels the promised commonality of certain characters and the common element of landscape that so pervaded the author's consciousness that i t seems to have haunted him for most of his adult l i f e . 29 B. THE CRITICS ON SEBASTIAN JUAN ARBO C r i t i c a l reaction to the work of Sebastian Juan Arbo has ranged from enthusiastic praise from the l i k e s of Juan Alborg and Federico Sainz de Robles to Gonzalo Sobejano's curt dismissal of Arbo as a p r a c t i t i o n e r of "conveneionalismo decimononico." 1 2 Sebastian Juan Arbo i s almost universally regarded as an author of secondary standing, in spite of his patent and considerable talents. The inscrutable and perhaps arb i t r a r y c r i t e r i a that determine the world's greatest authors may some day, contingent upon the proverbial "test of time," exalt Arbo's work to the l e v e l of primary importance, but in the meantime c r i t i c a l appreciation of his better q u a l i t i e s as a novelist i s not unanimous. He i s reasonably, though not overwhelmingly p r o l i f i c and his work, considered as a body, is of inconsistent quality according to some. However, many c r i t i c s make note of the intensity of the author's commitment to his accustomed themes of the landscape and human passion (and their mutual r e l a t i o n s h i p ) , and to writing i t s e l f . Sergi Beser begins his introduction to Arb6's Obra catalana completa by saying "La carrera l i t e r a r i a de Sebastict Juan Arbo ha estat un dels casos de mes intensa vocacio donats a la nostra t e r r a . " 1 3 Joaquin de Entrambasaguas says in Las mejores novelas  contemporaneas, "No solo la vida sino la obra misma de Sebastian Juan Arbo, se han regido por una impulsiva vocacion l i t e r a r i a y una infatigable labor de e s c r i t o r . " 1 4 Testimonials of this type abound: Sainz de Robles goes so far as to say that Arbo is "uno de los mejores narradores espanoles de hoy, de los de formacion 30 mas entera, de los que poseen intuicion clara y certera de lo que debe ser la novela." 1 5 Such endorsements notwithstanding, attendant confusion about the nature of Arbo's writing seems to stem from his very independence of evolving l i t e r a r y tendencies. Misappraisal i s common in c r i t i c a l evaluations of Arbo's contribution to the l i t e r a t u r e . Frequent references to Martin de Caretas as a picaresque or neo-picaresque novel serve as examples, and further suggest a cursory or inadequate knowledge of that work. C r i t i c a l misapprehension, while no curious novelty, sometimes achieves comic proportions. Some c r i t i c s complain of the fastidious abuse of "ismos" as categories: others provide fodder for that very argument. For example, Sainz de Robles t e l l s us that "Arbo es, en Espana, uno de los cultivadores mas sostenidos del tremendismo; esto es, de la desnudez de la accion r e c t i l i n e a , de su e f i c a c i a de conmocion por su carencia de elementos edulcorantes." 1 6 While the very nature and existence of that movement has been polemicized, those of Arbo's works that could be considered tremendistas predated the vogue of that movement by roughly a decade. On the other hand, Antonio Iglesias Laguna, in his Treinta anos de novela espanola, sees a s i m i l a r i t y between Arbo and Bartolome Soler for their preoccupation with the landscape of Catalonia. Iglesias t e l l s us that "Entre Arbo y Soler existe, ademas, otra coincidencia: e l naturalismo, que en e l primero se eleva a veces a estetica y po e s i a . " 1 7 If we accept that the true n a t u r a l i s t believes in a form of determinism and posits man's helplessness before nature, 31 then t h i s i s true of Arbo only with certain q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Determinist views of l i f e are expressed or suggested in some of Arbo's major works ( Terres de 1'Ebre and Martin de Caretas, for example), but in others landscape functions as a determinant of man's c o l l e c t i v e condition, rather than his individual behavior. In turning now to s p e c i f i c c r i t i c a l evaluation of Arbo and his work, we hope to draw a clear p o r t r a i t of his unique contribution and determine his r i g h t f u l place among the other novelists of his time: attempts to categorize this author s t r i c t l y in terms of realism, naturalism or even tremendi smo can only be made with numerous reservations and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . C r i t i c a l confusion, and perhaps even his relegation to secondary status in the hierarchy of novelists, seems to result from incomplete attempts (or outright f a i l u r e ) to penetrate his very eclecticism. An overview of c r i t i c a l reaction to Arb6's« work should help to reveal the foundation of his ideology as i t i s pertinent to this study of Martin de Caretas. Such a survey should also aid us in ref i n i n g or correcting certain inaccurate notions about the author's creative orientation, while indicating, in addition, his wealth of eminent l i t e r a r y influences. Without seeking to resolve the polemic as to whether Arbo's narration is rooted in nineteenth- or twentieth-century realism, th i s thesis should in part be an attempt to vindicate the author of any stigma associated with his a f f i n i t y with outmoded l i t e r a r y tendencies. Resonances of naturalism and Romanticism in Arbo's work seem to have distracted c r i t i c s from subtler and 32 more provocative features of- his writing. While i t is probable that Arbo inherited some aesthetic s e n s i b i l i t i e s from the previous century, his work shows numerous other influences, among them the Bible, the picaresque and Cervantes. Of this period between the decline of realism at the end of the nineteenth century, and i t s resurgence in the twentieth, any e f f o r t to separate mimetic hacks from true precursors seems risky at best. Both Sergi Beser and Gonzalo Sobejano dispute R.M. Alberes' assertion that Arbo was a precursor of the new school of r e a l i s m . 1 8 Beser points out that the French c r i t i c knew only the C a s t i l i a n versions of Arbo's novels, ignorant not only of his importance to Catalan l e t t e r s but also of his inheritance of a Catalan t r a d i t i o n of rural r e a l i s t narration as practiced by Victor Catala in her Drames rural s. Sobejano, on the other hand, simply dismisses Arbo's writing as "convencionalismo decimon6nico." Beser however goes on to suggest that, i f Arbo was not a pioneer of new realism, he c e r t a i n l y anticipated another profoundly i n f l u e n t i a l l i t e r a r y movement: existentialism. In discussing Arbo's f i r s t published novel, L'inuti1 combat (1931) Beser says Cal situar aquesta primera obra d'Arbo a l costat i com digna companya de La Nausee de Sartre (1938) i L'Etranger de Camus (1942) '. 7 . Arbo, partint de l'emotivitat i 1'experiencia v i t a l , mostra a l seu l i b r e una concepcio de la vida semblant a la que trobem a les obres de Sartre i Camus . . . . 1 9 It i s not so surprising then, according to Beser, that Arbo should be able to share these views since existentialism as such is not a schematic, procedural philosophy but rather an 33 ineffable sort of attitude about l i f e . The modern variety of existentialism i s thought by many people to be a response to l i f e ' s unprecedented uncertainty and the h o r r i f i c potential for self-destruction manifested by man during the century's two World Wars. Torrente Ballester, in speaking of t h i s formative period for future novelists, says that with p o l i t i c a l c r i s e s in Spain and economic collapse throughout the world, the year 1930 "representa e l fracaso de toda la ideologia de l a posguerra; y no solo en Espana, sino en todo e l mundo, la vida cobra un tin t e acre y desagradable"(p. 286). Having written L'inuti1 combat at the age of eighteen, Arbo handily predates the work of the French e x i s t e n t i a l i s t novelists. Many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features of later e x i s t e n t i a l i s t f i c t i o n are present in Arbo's writings. Enumerated by Beser, these are "l'a'bsurd o manca de sentit de la vida i de les coses, e l 'sentiment t r a g i c ' , la sit u a c i o l i m i t , e l compromis, l'aillament o soledat de l ' i n d i v i d u , e l sentiment d'etranqete, la nostalgia de la puresa . . . ." 2 0 These s e n s i b i l i t i e s are of course not exclusive to the twentieth century. They are evident in l i t e r a t u r e throughout i t s history: the picaresque possesses certain e x i s t e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s , as do certain books of the Old Testament such as Job and Ecclesiastes, for example. Because of the ineffable nature of exis t e n t i a l i s m and i t s abundance of aspects, any c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of authors or works as e x i s t e n t i a l i s a r e l a t i v e one. Common, widespread misconceptions about ex i s t e n t i a l i s m notwithstanding, i t s expression in l i t e r a t u r e , especially in the twentieth century, 34 e n t a i l s certain broad contours familiar to many laymen. The aforementioned c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c i t e d by Beser are good examples. In Novela espanola de nuestro tiempo , Sobejano distinguishes two major currents in the contemporary Spanish novel: one he c a l l s " e x i s t e n t i a l " , the other " s o c i a l " . The leading c u l t i v a t o r s of the e x i s t e n t i a l novel are Cela, Laforet and Delibes. Among other novelists who "coinciden en ocuparse de la existencia del hombre espanol de su tiempo, revelando la perplejidad del individuo, su insolidaridad o muy d i f i c i l s olidaridad . . . la presion decisiva de c i e r t a s situaciones extremas y, en general, un clima de angustia," 2 1 Sobejano includes Sebastian Juan Arbo. In his introduction to Arbo's Obra catalana completa, Sergi Beser observes that a l l the protagonists of his Catalan novels are alienated in their own environment; quotations from Camins  de n i t and the autobiographical Los hombres de la t i e r r a y el mar sound remarkably similar to what is implied, i f not stated e x p l i c i t l y in works such as L'Etranger. Most c r i t i c s however, when speaking in general terms about Arb6 are more attuned to the works' o v e r a l l tone than the author's observations about man's existence. For example, Sainz de Robles writes: Arbo es novelista esencialmente duro y aspero, intenso y amargo; mas tales dureza y aspereza, intensidad y amargura, no afectan a su talento y a su sen s i b i l i d a d - f l e x i b l e s y delicadas -, sino a los temas elegidos. Temas recogidos en e l realismo angustioso de las clases rurales y artesanas. 2 2 Such terms as "duro," "amargo," "intenso," "violento" and "aspero" are frequently applied to Arbo's Catalan f i c t i o n . 35 Alborg, as well as other c r i t i c s , makes note of the almost t o t a l absence of humor in Arbo's rural n o v e l s . 2 3 This harsh p o r t r a i t of the human condition not only comprises a fundamental relationship between man and his dependence upon harsh and unpredictable environments, but also involves the themes of i n j u s t i c e and intense amorous passion. Arbo's preoccupation with l i f e ' s i n j u s t i c e (which Eugenio de Nora c a l l s "ingenuous"f11,i; p. 337 ]) w i l l find i t s most provocative and judicious treatment in Martin de Caretas. In Terres de l'Ebre, i t surfaces as a key element of the narrative trajectory: the protagonist, Joan, suffers a series of cruel misfortunes which have as their climax the a r b i t r a r y transfer of his tenant farm to another impoverished peasant. The loss of th i s land . that he worked obsessively, which had become the center of his universe after the death of his wife and estrangement from his son, causes him to attempt the murder of his landlord. A l l t h i s , coupled with his eventual suicide in prison, comprises a thematic whole which Joaquin de Entrambasaguas i d e n t i f i e s e s s e n t i a l l y as "lo fundamental de la vida, el amor, que reacciona casi instintivamente, ante el imperativo includible del paisaje, de la geografia misma, sobre los seres arraigados en e l l a . " 2 " Terres de L'Ebre, more than any other of his rural novels, features landscape as an imperative agent in the l i f e of the protagonist. The function of love, while not i n s i g n i f i c a n t , is more i m p l i c i t . In Arbo's other rural novels, l i k e Tino Costa and Camins de Nit, the landscape acts more as a determinant of 36 the c o l l e c t i v e condition of the delta's inhabitants, which in turn influences their behavior. And correspondingly, love becomes a more e x p l i c i t force in the relationships of main characters. It is a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of these early (and some later) novels by Arbo that the plot is composed of numerous (some c r i t i c s say gratuitous) melodramatic episodes. Here i s another reason why many c r i t i c s such as Nora and Sobejano identif y Arbo with realist/naturalist/Romantic tendencies of the 19th century. When Arbo i n i t i a l l y s h i f t s his emphasis on landscape from a rural to an urban setting, the c r i t i c s ' foremost observation i s that Arbo's a r t i s t i c command of the urban environment i s awkward at best, while his preoccupation with what we broadly refer to as " e x i s t e n t i a l " concerns remains the same; hence a less convincing novel in the form of Sobre las  piedras grises. With Maria Molinari, Arbo comes to better represent the urban ambience while s t i l l representing a world of melodramatic v i c i s s i t u d e s . Indeed, the majority of Arbo's f i c t i o n betrays remarkable thematic consistency. After producing a few f a i l e d dramas, some outstanding biographies and after b r i e f l y a l t e r i n g his n o v e l i s t i c orientation with Martin de  Caretas, Arbo f e l t compelled to return to his o r i g i n a l conception of creative f i c t i o n , which for him i s formed by certain s p e c i f i c elements; the powerful influence of landscape (in this case the Ebro delta), amorous passions and their intimate linkage to man's confusion, anguish and sense of alienation and absurdity. Martin de Caretas is the most outstanding exception to 37 Arbo's accustomed n o v e l i s t i c orientation, while i t retains certain of the author's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c preoccupations. It would seem to be a synthesis of Arbo's interest in landscape as an essential f i c t i o n a l element, since both . the ru r a l and urban ambience are represented. In addition, the t r i l o g y offers a kaleidoscopic wealth of l i t e r a r y influences and a l l u s i o n s , and an undeniably philosophical bent. The unique nature of the work demands that certain questions be confronted: what i s the true significance of i t s pa r t i c u l a r picaresque a f f i n i t i e s ? Are i t s philosophical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s the - result of a preconceived intention or simply a response to the prev a i l i n g " e x i s t e n t i a l " tone of l i t e r a t u r e during the f i f t i e s ? What role is played by landscape in this t r i l o g y ? What other l i t e r a r y influences are brought to bear upon the narrative? These questions arise in part' from Arb6's well-established n o v e l i s t i c tendencies: they are also suggested by certain uncharacteristic features present in Martin de Caretas. Primary among these t r a i t s to be accounted for is the t r i l o g y ' s manifest association with the picaresque. In an excellent a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d " Martin de Caretas: The Picaresque Myth Transformed", Christopher Eustis ably demonstrates that Arbo's t r i l o g y only s u p e r f i c i a l l y resembles the c l a s s i c picaresque form, and further that i t deviates from the current of post-war picaresque adaptations that were popular not only in Spain, but int e r n a t i o n a l l y . If we accept Eustis' thesis, which i s convincing and well-documented, what then is Arbo's purpose in borrowing certain elements from the picaresque genre? The 38 author presents a schematic, s t r u c t u r a l l y tidy commentary both on the nature of wisdom and the nature of human l i f e . The young protagonist, Martin, benefits from the guidance of three mentors, each corresponding to one volume of the t r i l o g y . Each mentor consistently and repeatedly holds forth on the essential sense (or absurdity) of l i f e (secondary characters make their contributions a l s o ) . Each mentor sums up his views on l i f e with one pithy phrase, and each becomes uniquely i d e n t i f i e d with his doctrine. Two of these three views of l i f e could be c a l l e d e x i s t e n t i a l in the pessimistic, commonly conceived sense. The t h i r d view, while no less e x i s t e n t i a l , corresponds to a lesser known aspect of modern exis t e n t i a l i s m that Jean Paul Sartre would c a l l "stern optimism". A l l three of these well-defined notions about the nature of l i f e are presented to the young protagonist (with more or less arrogance on the part of the mentor) as incontrovertible, time-tested, p r a c t i c a l wisdom. In the trajectory of the narrative each dogma is put to the test by the young protagonist's circumstances, where i t stands or f a l l s according to i t s p r a c t i c a b i l i t y . Arbo's commentary on the nature and p r a c t i c a b i l i t y of wisdom i s most sophisticated and penetrating in the case of Martin's f i r s t mentor, his grandfather. In the f i r s t volume of the t r i l o g y , Martin's grandfather appears as a repository of r u s t i c wisdom, frequently dispensing proverbs, aphorisms and f o l k t a l e s of l o c a l fame. His pretense to great wisdom, combined with certain other personal t r a i t s , invokes an image of the old man as a parody of the prodigiously wise Old 39 Testament King Solomon. While this might seem an arbitrary assertion at f i r s t , we know, according to Sergi Beser, that the Bible was one of the i n f l u e n c i a l books of the young Arbo's formative introduction to l i t e r a t u r e . Aside from various references to the Old Testament in the text, in the Epilogue of Martin de Caretas Arb6 twice c i t e s wisdom attributed to Solomon, quoting from the books of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes. This is provocative not only because these two books form part of a larger body of profound Hebrew Wisdom l i t e r a t u r e , but also because the wisdom presented to Martin by his mentors resembles, in some cases clo s e l y , s p e c i f i c aspects of the book of Ecclesiastes. In addition, t h i s Old Testament book in which l i f e is described as "vanity of v a n i t i e s " has clear a f f i n i t i e s with at least some modern conceptions of existentialism. Lest th i s assertion, that Arbo might have based his ideological intention on Ecclesiastes, sound far-fetched, we know that quotations from the Old Testament abound in many of his other novels: s p e c i f i c a l l y he makes use of epigraphs drawn from the pool of Solomonic wisdom which comprises the books of Proverbs, Psalms and Ecclesiastes. Aside from Arb6's a l l u s i o n to Ecclesiastes in Martin de Caretas and epigraphs from the same Old Testament book in Tino Costa, Cervantes and Verdaguer: e l  poeta, e l sacerdot i e l mon, the tone of the t r i l o g y suggests an intentional ideological a f f i n i t y between Ecclesiastes' and Mart in  de Caretas. Allusions to Ecclesiastes and i t s e x i s t e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s by Arbo's contemporaries Antonio Machado and Salvador Espriu demonstrate i t s timeless a p p l i c a b i l i t y and lend credence 40 to the l i k e l i h o o d of the 1 novelist's f a m i l i a r i t y with i t . 2 5 This thesis w i l l in part attempt to disentangle and analyze the complex interlocking pattern of these concepts: to wit, the function of picaresque elements and their e x i s t e n t i a l overtones; the role of landscape, i t s determinist function and support of picaresque and e x i s t e n t i a l undertones; the e x i s t e n t i a l aspects of Ecclesiastes and their r e l a t i o n s h i p to ideas presented by Martin's mentors; the view of wisdom, i t s p r a c t i c a b i l i t y and abuse; and vestiges of "modern" ex i s t e n t i a l i s m as they relate to the protagonist's personal growth. By undertaking a formally based study of the neatly t r i p a r t i t e scheme of Martin's mentors, this thesis hopes to reveal Arb6's ideological orientation and the presence or absence of a preconceived philosophical intention on the part of the author. 41 C. NOTES TO CHAPTER II 1 Sergi Beser, "Les novel-les de L'Ebre de Sebastia Juan Arbo," in Obra catalana completa by Sebastian Juan Arbo (Barcelona: Edicions 62, 1966), p. 8. 2 Federico Carlos Sainz de Robles, Escritores esparToles e  hi spanoamericanos, Tomo II of Ensayo de un diccionario de la 1i teratura (Madrid: Aguilar, 1964), p. 75. 3 Joaquin de Entrambasaguas, with Maria del P i l a r Palomo, Las mejores novelas contemporaneas, X (Barcelona: E d i t o r i a l Planeta, 1967), 3. " Beser, p. 7. 5 Beser, pp. 7-8. 6 Beser, p. 8. 7 Sainz de Robles, Escritores esparToles, p. 78. 8 Juan Alborg, Hora actual de la novela espanola (Madrid: Taurus, 1958), pp. 281-2. 9 Alborg, p. 281 1 0 Beser, p. 8. 1 1 Sebastian Juan Arb6, Entre la t i e r r a y e l mar (Valencia: Prometeo, 1966), p. 5. 1 2 Sobejano, p. 23 . 1 3 Beser, p. 7. 1" Entrambasaguas, p. 3. 1 5 Sainz de Robles, Novela espanola, p. 200. 1 6 Federico Carlos Sainz de Robles, La novela espanola en  el Siglo XX (Madrid: Pegaso, 1957), p. 200. 1 7 Antonio Iglesias Laguna, Treinta anos de novela espanola 42 (Madrid: Prensa Espanola, 1969), II, 105. 1 8 R. M. Alberes, Histoire du Roman Moderne (Paris: Albin Michel, 1962), p. 72. 1 9 Beser, p. 11. 2 0 Beser, p. 11. 2 1 Sobejano, p. 165. 2 2 Sainz de Robles, Novela espaTfola, p. 200. 2 3 Alborg, p. 276. 2 * Entrambasaguas, p. 5. 2 5 See XVIII (El poeta) in Antonio Machado's Poesias  completas (Madrid: Espasa Calpe, 1969), pp. 31-3. See also Joan Fuster's IntroducciS a la poesia de Salvador Espriu in Espriu's Obra poetica (Barcelona: Santiago A l b e r t i , 1963), pp. xx iv, xxv i i i . 43 III. EN EL PUEBLO A. THE FUNCTION OF LANDSCAPE Martin de Caretas en e l pueblo opens with an epigraph from Mateo Aleman's Guzman de Alfarache, which includes the observation that " l a t i e r r a es peligrosa".' While Aleman's statement is more succinct than Arbo's customary treatment of landscape, i t s use r e f l e c t s not only the author's preoccupation with the land as an integral factor in man's a f f a i r s , but also i t s negative q u a l i t i e s as such. The text i t s e l f begins with a description of Caretas and i t s environs, setting a tone similar to that of Arbo's e a r l i e r Catalan novels. Adjectives such as "duro","aspero" and "amargo" immediately come to mind: "El pueblo, Caretas, estaba situado en un paisaje rudo y montuoso, entre olivares, exiguos campos de t r i g o , pequenos cuadros de vinas y extensas zonas de matorrales" (p. 11). With th i s characterization of inhospitable, a r i d land and corresponding f l o r a , the tangible presence of the town i t s e l f i s ominous: "era oscuro, silencioso, de casas bajas y aplastadas, viejisimas" (p. 11). Accordingly, the c o l l e c t i v e psyche of the inhabitants is expressed in the narrator's observation that "era un pueblo de hambre, de rezos y de refranes; e l refran y l a estaca habrian tambien podido servir como emblemas vivos de su escudo" (p. 11). Christopher Eustis points out in his study that the town's inhabitants are under the yoke of a repressive t r a d i t i o n and i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y sanctioned poverty. 2 While this i s true -- Arbo gives examples of hardships ranging from poverty-induced hunger 44 to r e l i g i o u s hypocrisy and fear of the Guardia C i v i l -- the condition of Caretas' c i t i z e n s i s not merely t y p i c a l of small Spanish towns. The narrator's prejudiced representation of Martin's home town i s such that, although other towns may match i t s poverty and squalor, there is an added dimension of brutishness in the people's c o l l e c t i v e existence. Indeed, as the narrative trajectory develops through the f i r s t book and even through the rest of the t r i l o g y , the name Caretas becomes synonymous with brutish st u p i d i t y . Landscape i s a feature that functions in concert with the other environmental factors mentioned by Eustis to dis t i n g u i s h Caretas for i t s deeper dimensions of soc i a l retardation. The i n i t i a l descriptions of Caretas are unequivocally denunciatory: we have an image of a r i d land, scrubby f l o r a and squalid peasant homes. The sea is distant (a d e t a i l that perhaps betrays the writer's predilection) and the nearby highway "venia de las alturas y se alejaba hacia e l mar, como s i huyese. Tampoco hubiese sido de extranar" (p. 1 2 ) . In the opening pages, Arbo signals a durable r e l a t i o n s h i p between the coarse landscape and the men who inhabited i t : existian ruinas de viejos poblados ibericos; todos con su entrada labrada en roca, que podia abrirse y cerrarse; todos con su carcel y cerca siempre de un lugar pedregoso; prueba todo de la armonia que reinaba ya en aquellos tiempos entre los hombres. (p. 1 2 ) Such "harmony" confronts Martin from a l l sides: as he returns home each day from school (which he attends only as a matter of convenience) he must choose between the mad assault of 45 a goat belonging to the l o c a l butcher (who takes perverse pleasure in the misfortunes of i t s victims) and the p o s s i b i l i t y of a beating, threatened by the blacksmith's son who l i e s in wait along another route. Even these constituted not so much a formidable threat as that to be found "en la vara de Camandulas [his schoolmaster], en la alpargata de su madre, en la cayada de su abuelo . . . " (p. 15). With such routine dangers posed by domesticated animals, juvenile r i v a l s and even members of his own family, Arbo portrays the protagonist as having had to develop vi g i l a n c e , caution and s e l f - r e l i a n c e at a young age. This indispensable s e l f - i n t e r e s t is part of the near unanimity of Caretas' mean-spirited inhabitants and points to the recurring cycle of maliciousness attributed by.Arbo to harsh conditions from which most of the people, through ignorance or i n e r t i a , cannot escape. In a chapter e n t i t l e d "La familia entera," the narrator delivers t h i s description of the environment's effect on the people of Caretas: El campo, a l atardecer, era un campo de muerte; los olivos se erguian como fantasmas en ademanes si n i e s t r o s , con sus miembros mutilados levantados en e l crepusculo. Muchos ya no reverdecian. E l f r i o agrietaba las rocas; helaba e l r i o en los remansos; ahuyentaba a los animales, acobardaba a los hombres. (p. 60) Accordingly, an opposite extreme of harsh weather produces s t i l l more aggression and violent provocation among men. The sun's intensity seemed, among other things, to drive the cr i c k e t s to a manic frenzy: 46 Tambien los hombres, a veces, parecian enloquecer, y se producian disputas, rinas violentas que terminaban en sangre; se cometian crimenes. En ninguna parte las rirfas alcanzan la vi o l e n c i a que suelen alcanzar en Caretas. Pero cuando esto ocurre, no se trata ya del hombre: es su entorpecimiento vegetal, con e l denso sopor de l a t i e r r a ; es la soledad de los campos, batidos horas y horas por e l sol . . . ; es el sol de fuego, que se r i e en lo alto , que enloquece a las cigarras, que enciende los cerebros hasta bajo los sombreros de palma. (p. 61) Caretas, then, i s a c l e a r l y inhospitable environment and i t s people are uniquely malevolent. In the preceding passage, the narrator seems almost to exculpate men for such behavior, given nature's nettlesome incitement of i t . That these assertions should appear in a chapter about Martin's family and home l i f e i s not casual: descriptions of Martin's parents are couched in terms of vegetation, a r i d i t y and asperity. 'Of Martin's mother the narrator t e l l s us, "era seca, s i l e n c i o s a , con manos sarmentosas y dedos como garfios. Era un manojo de espinos secos" (p. 62). She, l i k e almost a l l of the characters described in thi s f i r s t volume, was always disposed to administer a beating to the young protagonist: she wore one of her sandals loosely, for ready access as an instrument of battery. Martin's father, according to the narrator, "era el de peor catadura; era al t o como un cipres y mas flaco que un eremita, pero tambien duro, a prueba de aguardiente y de inclemericias" (p. 62). He was likewise i l l - d i s p o s e d to beneficence or clemency: during a wheat harvest, in an ef f o r t to get Martin's attention, the father pitches a lump of dry sod at the boy which, " s i le acierta le deja sordo para siempre" (p. 47 48) . Aside from Martin's grandparents, we learn l i t t l e about "aquel negro retablo" (p. 62) that i s his family. Of his brothers, we learn that they discharge their frustrations on each other in descending order ending with Martin, the youngest and smallest who in turn has no one to release his anger upon. They also help to provide for the family by setting out rabbit traps in which the animals die an agonizing and horrible death. In spite of this cruelty, the family depends on the traps for i t s sustenance during the winter. Hence, another fundamental bond is shown between the exigencies of nature and the formation of man's character, another example for Martin of necessarily cruel responses e l i c i t e d from man by nature's inscrutable vagaries. The only family member represented in a pos i t i v e l i g h t i s Martin's s i s t e r Concha. She i s " e l garbanzo negro, e l trebol de cuatro hojas" (p. 63), whose goodness and kind disposition is as inexplicable as Martin's f i n e l y tuned sense of j u s t i c e . For a l l her well-disposed goodness however, she goes unnoticed, her p a c i f i c nature bland in comparison to the heated outbursts of her parents. The patent irony in a l l this i s that authority-figures who, during childhood, t r a d i t i o n a l l y represent protection, guidance, af f e c t i o n and caring are here the child' s enemy, a l l disposed to dispense swift and harsh corporal punishment with l i t t l e or no reason. Only Martin's grandfather upholds the pretense that such beatings serve to i n s t i l l valuable lessons that he himself learned through even more 48 rigorous experience, lessons that later prove conducive to a biased and spurious philosophy. Martin at least recognizes the tenuous connection between this kind of punitive battery and the desire to eff e c t an improvement in his behavior: "Maestros, padres, abuelos, vecinas: todos a punto para guiarle a uno por el buen ca.mino. iQue mundo, senor!" (p. 25). To sum up,the fearsome schoolmaster Camandulas administers s a d i s t i c beatings on the basis of s o c i a l c l a s s : the l o c a l priest manifests l i t t l e of Christ's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c forgiveness and pacifism when he catches Martin, nearly d e l i r i o u s with hunger, stealing f i g s from his orchard. It i s l i t t l e wonder, then, that the young protagonist possesses only one superstition, a l l the rest having been "perdido. . . con el palo" (p. 12). D i s i l l u s i o n e d by favorable treatment accorded the privileged children in school, the hypocrisy of the l o c a l p r i e s t and his own parents' antagonism toward him, his only i r r a t i o n a l fear is that of mortality. He is t e r r i f i e d by the town's cemetery which he avoids assiduously. It is here that Martin's deep-rooted dread i s manifested, embodied in the f l o r a and fauna of the nearby cemetery. Arb6 establishes t h i s essential c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Martin's personality on the second page of the text, in a reference to this mortal anxiety that mentions the protagonist by name for the f i r s t time. In thi s case, the narrator casually remarks on the eerie whistling of the owls in the cemetery at n i g h t f a l l , and observes that " los cipreses asomaban por encima de los muros como una procesion de encapuchados" (p. 12), a l l of which causes Martin profound psychic discomfort. 49 Notwithstanding the casual nature of this i n i t i a l reference to Martin, he i s strongly i d e n t i f i e d with his mortal anxiety which continues to unsettle him through most of the t r i l o g y . In subsequent references, Martin's fear of death is almost always manifested in apparitions in the cemetery's landscape. The reader quickly comes to recognize the primary manifestations of this fear; the otherworldly hissing of owls and the cypress trees' resemblance to an' ominous procession of "encapuchados". With Martin's ready disposition to such funereal imaginings, his spectral anxieties occasionally extend beyond the confines of the cemetery. On one occasion for example, just as Martin's grandfather is about to recount a ghost story of l o c a l fame, the boy's perceptions belie his t e r r o r : Habia unas nubes grandes, unas nubes negras cubriendo el horizonte; parecian monstruos, brujas con camisas hinchadas como velas, barcos extranos navegando, entre r e f l e j o s s i n i e s t r o s . . . . E l campo semejaba un cementerio, y los arboles fantasmas dispuestos a darle un susto a uno asi que se quedase solo. (p. 70) In t h i s passage, where the macabre presence of the cemetery extends to the countryside i t s e l f , and fellowship alone f o r e s t a l l s the attendant terror, the t h i r d person narrator i m p l i c i t l y describes Martin's perceptions of the landscape, which in t h i s case are appropriate to his grandfather's v i v i d t e l l i n g of a ghost story. S u p e r f i c i a l l y , such a description, in which features of landscape seem to respond to or r e f l e c t personal moods or conditions, evokes the so-called "pathetic f a l l a c y " , a popular feature of nineteenth-century Romanticism. 50 Judging from this passage, c r i t i c a l opinion of Arbo as an imitator of nineteenth-century tendencies i s understandable, given the dimensions of the author's credible portrayal of' Martin's t y p i c a l l y youthful anxieties expessed in the landscape. With respect to such anxieties, Martin i s not an abnormal boy. Fear of the dark, of ghosts, of solitude in darkness and the l i b e r t y taken by the imagination in such circumstances to interpret inanimate objects as ho s t i l e v i s i t o r s from the next world, are a l l common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of childhood. A child' s dependence on his or her parents,even in a secure and loving home, is enough to cause the dread of darkness or solitude, where protection from unseen dangers seems out of reach. In addition, as for other children, the ghost story or the mere prospect that ghosts exist holds a morbid fascination for Martin (p. 69). What is surprising, however, is the extent of Martin's shrewd rationalism and the absence of jaundiced i r a s c i b i l i t y . In the universe constituted by the small town of Caretas, a l l manner of environmental extremes (e.g. of weather, of a r i d countryside, of personal behavior) lead the inhabitants to an attitude of bitterness and h o s t i l i t y from which there is no quarter. The c i t i z e n s of Caretas in general show no w i l l to change or even to escape. Martin's ingenuous sense of justice and outrage at.the i n s e n s i t i v i t y and brutishness of his fellows i s , l i k e his fear of ghostly v i s i t a t i o n s and fascination for the ghost story, a seemingly innate c h a r a c t e r i s t i c common in childhood. These common elements notwithstanding, the kind of unrelenting, ubiquitous cruelty to which Martin i s subjected 51 normally serves to c u l t i v a t e i r r a t i o n a l l y a n t i - s o c i a l delinquents, l i k e the picaro. In an environment so overwhelmingly crue l , how i s one to preserve or develop such a sense of morality and justice as Martin posesses? The protagonist in t h i s case i s not delinquent or a n t i s o c i a l . He is aware of the inherent i n j u s t i c e of the retarded s o c i a l structure of his milieu: he understands, for example, that Camandulas can, with impunity, administer s a d i s t i c beating to the lower class children whereas he cannot do so to the p r i v i l e g e d ones. Since no amount of classroom d i s c i p l i n e a v a i l s to garner protest from Martin's parents, the boy routinely receives beatings which the public assumes are warranted and his fame as an i n c o r r i g i b l e spreads on the l i p s of l o c a l gossips. In fact, none of Martin's a n t i - s o c i a l behavior is w i l l f u l and o r i g i n a l . A l l of his misdemeanors are responses. He acts out of revenge, which i s directed by his sense of j u s t i c e , or merely in response to extreme hunger, a most powerful of motivators. Since, as the narrator states, a l l of Martin's i l l u s i o n s but one have been lost to the gratuitously d i s c i p l i n a r y cane, i t i s possible that Arbo i s suggesting a sublimation of the resultant anxiety, fear and stress into his one remaining superstition, f o r e s t a l l i n g a ctively h o s t i l e a n t i -s o c i a l behavior and instead causing deep psychic fear. While Martin displays surprising normality, his fear of death is exaggerated, bordering on the obsessive: mere mention of the word causes him worry and discomfort. The t r a n s l a t i o n by the protagonist's imagination of features of landscape into 52 t e r r i f y i n g , funereal images i s r e s t r i c t e d to thi s f i r s t volume of the t r i l o g y . Arbo's intention is not an esoteric one. Like the hermitage that Martin i s forced to see each time he leaves his home (an inescapable symbol, according to Eustis, of the town's devotion to oppressively t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ) , the cemetery is a morbidly int r i g u i n g , ever-present symbol of the town's c o l l e c t i v e attitude of h o s t i l i t y . "La t i e r r a era una t i e r r a sin piedad. Como los hombres. Estos, en su mayoria, eran pequenos, o s i altos, muy secos, como el t r i g o que crecia en los bancales, pero duros como las encinas; todos de piedra berroquena" (p. 60): this statement succinctly characterizes the relat i o n s h i p between the landscape, the town and i t s inhabitants. The weather in pa r t i c u l a r contributes to an environment inimical to l i f e in a l l i t s richness. The result is tenacious, r e s i l i e n t but perverse and limited l i f e forms such as the scrubby, spiny, dry bush and trees described by the narrator. The inhospitable environment likewise e l i c i t s a weathered and twisted l i f e form in the s p i r i t of the townspeople. In Caretas, where the quality of l i f e i s materially and psychically diminished, s p i r i t u a l growth i s stunted by sl a v i s h adherence to outmoded and oppressive t r a d i t i o n s . This psychic underdevelopment is a kind of s t a s i s , as predictable as the inevitably harsh weather, which stigmatizes the town as a place of l i v i n g death for i t s absence of variety, growth and clemency. It is a place where there is tr u l y "nothing new under the sun", and where what does exist i s painful and t e r r i f y i n g , at least to the protagonist. 53 In Caretas, with the ferocity of the weather, the asperity of the countryside and the b r u t a l i t y of the people, what distinguishes Martin from the rest of the populace is his unwillingness to accept the status quo. The townspeople are portrayed by Arbo as unwilling to or incapable of questioning the established so c i a l order, ignorant of more benevolent alt e r n a t i v e s . Martin, perhaps for motives as related to dramatic expedience as to psychology, decides to experience l i f e elsewhere. True, his grandfather has imbued him with the notion that Caretas is synonymous with cruelty and stupi d i t y , and that remote Barcelona is a cosmopolitan place of greatness. While i t sounds awesome in i t s own way, Martin expects a fundamental difference in the character of the people there. In addition to the attraction an urban landscape would offer to one who " v i v i a en contacto con la t i e r r a " (p. 137), another, more pragmatic motive based on s p a t i a l considerations causes Martin to flee his hometown: "El mundo siempre le habia infundido miedo, pero ahora mas miedo le infundia Caretas. Tenia que huir de a l i i ; cuanto antes mejor y aunque fuera a l mismo infierno" (p. 138). And so Martin leaves Caretas with a prejudiced view of l i f e and man which, while fostered by the biased pronouncements of his grandfather, more impl i c i t y and o r i g i n a l l y stems from harsh and diverse environmental elements. With such limited experience, narrow expectations of l i f e , and remembering his grandfathers advice, both cynical and romanticized, Martin's odyssey is bound to be an exercise in disillusionment and enlightenment. 54 B. ROQUE GALDA: HIS PHILOSOPHY Roque Galda, Martin's grandfather, is introduced as " e l unico que a Martin le trataba un poco bien, e l unico que t a l vez le queria" (p. 25). Such a lukewarm characterization of their relationship stems from the fact that Martin is beaten by his grandfather as much, i f not more so than by his "enemies." What di f f e r e n t i a t e s Roque Galda from Martin's other oppressors i s that the grandfather administers corporal punishment with a more reasonable pretense to imparting essential lessons to the boy. These lessons are p r a c t i c a l ones designed to prepare the boy for l i f e ' s abrasiveness rather than for i t s pleasant q u a l i t i e s . For example, when Martin is caught and beaten by the l o c a l p r iest for attempting to p i l f e r a few f i g s , Roque Galda's reaction is "no te digo que no cojas frutas; todo se puede hacer en este mundo, pero debe hacerse bien, y no dormir" (p. 83). In spite of the absence of moral dogma from the grandfather's admonitions, he is tru l y concerned about the boy's welfare, a l b e i t in a pragmatic, n o n - a l t r u i s t i c fashion rather than an ide a l l y moral one. The irony of Roque Galda's "protective" attitude about his grandson i s that they are not related by blood: Martin's grandmother was a young widow with an infant daughter (later to be the boy's mother) when Roque Galda married her primarily out of avarice. The circumstances leading up to the old man's i n s t a l l a t i o n as "rey de la casa" (p. 65) are humorous and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of his roguish and paradoxically immature nature. Roque Galda admits that he married Martin's grandmother (whom he describes 55 as immeasurably shrewish) for her wealth, which comprised a house, grapevines and o l i v e orchards. His motive, he explains, was that "a mi no me ha gustado nunca con exceso trabajar" (p. 96). With uncharacteristic humility, he allows that "me equivoque; tuve que s u f r i r l a y trabajar" (p. 96). After c o l l e c t i n g a modest inheritance from a hitherto unknown uncle, Roque Galda quarrels with his insufferable wife for the l a s t time and leaves with his fortune which he guards jealously in a sturdy trunk. Having given the world to believe that his inheritance i s enormous, Martin's parents appear in order to offer shelter and assistance to the old man. He accepts without d i s i l l u s i o n i n g them: he views their u l t e r i o r motives as license to exploit them in retribu t i o n for their mean-spirited avarice. In one of the novel's most comic sub-plots, Roque Galda imagines --with b l i s s f u l l y cruel p l e a s u r e — their rushing to open the trunk before his body is even cold, to find stones, lead weights and- an odd assortment of books and pamphlets. He feigns deafness while he hears d e t a i l s of their plans to spend his fortune. While he enjoys the meager but s i g n i f i c a n t p r i v i l e g e s the household reserves for him, he frustrates the avaricious couple whose greatest fear is that the old man w i l l outlive them, depriving them of a legitimate investment. Roque Galda has supreme confidence in his own discretion and wisdom, so much so that i t eventually proves his undoing. Such arrogance i s an essential element of his paradoxical character and figures as fodder for several tragicomically ironic episodes. For example, after cautioning Martin against 56 the sin of pride, pointing out that " l a becerra tnansa mama de su madre y de la ajena" (p. 104), the grandfather goes on to recount the exemplum of a one-eyed man, possessor of a fortune. By taking his wealth to the seashore, he reasoned, i t could be better guarded: since no one would approach from the sea, he need only watch the land. His rear flank unsupervised, a boat landed, he was overcome by the s a i l o r s and deprived of his fortune. Roque Galda f o i l s several attempts to break into his trunk. His vigilance notwithstanding, the old man himself f a l l s victim to his own machinations: the ruse i s exposed and Roque Galda i s run out of town in disgrace and humiliation. This bias, shortsightedness and egocentricity evident in the grandfather's personality figure e s s e n t i a l l y in his p r a c t i c a l philosophy, with which he t r i e s to imbue Martin for the boy's preparation for l i f e . The nature of the grandfather's personal doctrine, and his devotion to i t , i s exemplified by an episode from his own boyhood, which he anecdotally relates to Martin: as a young boy, Roque Galda was taken by his father to see the public hanging of a man convicted of murdering his wife. Witnessing the g r i s l y spectacle, the father reasoned, would discourage any misdemeanor on the boy's part and ensure his adherence to virtue and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Indeed, Roque Galda c r e d i t s the experience with saving him from the temptation of murdering his intolerable spouse. However, the ghastly excess of t h i s lesson sets the tone for the old man's notion of t u i t i o n : proverbs, exempla and aphorisms given emphasis by blows from his cane. The grandfather i s sternly credulous that only 57 such harsh instruction could a v a i l to save Martin from disgraceful perdition. In keeping with the paradoxical nature of Roque Galda's personality, i t is indisputable that in spite of the old man's bias and s e l e c t i v i t y regarding the application of his dogma, he possesses an impressive command of s t o r i e s , proverbs, f o l k t a l e s and other wisdom-related f o l k l o r e : his personal f a i l i n g s do not detract from the quality of the wisdom he utters. However, irony figures most prominently in his f a i l u r e to heed the very wisdom he confidently proffers. In Roque Galda's case, the wisdom he possesses is not so much to be practiced and heeded as i t i s to be displayed. As a man of modest means and accomplishments -- a f a i l u r e and seeming hypocrite, one might suggest -- the accumulated knowledge of f o l k l o r i c wisdom i s his one claim to dignity and self-respect. It is his most valued possession. Most of Roque Galda's repertoire is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y r u s t i c . For example, he entertains Martin with the story of Juan Lanas, the l o c a l shepherd to whom the V i r g i n Mary appears, constituting Caretas' own miracle and ef f e c t i n g the establishment of the l o c a l hermitage. This story, recounted contrapuntally to great effect with that of Martin's f i r s t wheat harvest (a miserable experience of unrelenting heat, dry asperity and cruel pranks), forms part of the old man's idealized notion of rustic l i f e . He often t e l l s Martin that the noblest profession i s that of shepherd. Aside from i t s appeal as a non-taxing vocation, there i s the added prestige of being 58 commissioned by God with the "finding of V i r g i n s . " One is reminded of don Quijote's l y r i c a l g l o r i f i c a t i o n of the Golden Age and the i m p l i c i t understanding that he would, with Sancho, eventually r e t i r e from knight errantry to take up the shepherd's staff . Aside from s p e c i f i c examples of l o c a l f o l k l o r e , Roque Galda respects and subscribes to rus t i c wisdom in general. He is an aficionado of the Hi s t o r i a de Bertoldo, Bertoldino y Cacaseno, an I t a l i a n t r i l o g y from the early seventeenth century. The premise of the f i r s t part of the t r i l o g y is the v i s i t of a lowly, unattractive peasant (Bertoldo) to the court of a mythical kingdom. Bertoldo engages the king -- a reputed sage, imposing in his ostentatious finery -- in debate and repartee in which they exchange esoteric, sometimes enigmatic proverbs and aphorisms. Bertoldo wins the friendly contest and thus demonstrates the superiority of ru r a l wisdom.3 H i s t o r i a de  Bertoldo, Bertoldino y Cacaseno is one of the select items in Roque Galda's trunk awaiting Martin's greedy parents. The old man included i t "para que aprendieran a precaverse contra las burlas" (p. 103). With proverbial wisdom figuring in Hi s t o r i a de Bertoldo,  Bertoldino y Cacaseno, i t i s not surprising that Roque Galda should use proverbs l i b e r a l l y as his preferred means of inst r u c t i o n . Popular in v i r t u a l l y every c u l t u r a l milieu for i t s pithiness and potency, the proverb normally enjoys a p r i v i l e g e d reputation as a profound and cherished form of expression, a t r a d i t i o n to be guarded, an enduring custom with the pedigree of 59 the b i b l i c a l King Solomon, whose r e s i l i e n c e as a figure of sagacity and judiciousness sustains his c u l t u r a l importance even in our time. While many of Roque Galda's proverbs reveal pragmatism and common sense, they are of a d i f f e r e n t category from what we usually expect of the proverb, p a r t i c u l a r l y from the Solomonic variety. In his address e n t i t l e d "The Humour of Spanish Proverbs", A.A. Parker makes the following observat ions: i t has often been pointed out that there is a strong stoic element in Spanish l i f e and culture. But on the whole I would prefer the term fatalism. Spanish proverbs show not so much an indifference to pain and suffering as a resigned acceptance of them. This submission to the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of everything that happens is fatalism rather than stoicism, and i t seems to me much more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Spain, than the self-conscious search for virtue through indifference." Arbo hastens to point out, on the f i r s t page of the text of Martin de Caretas en el pueblo, that Caretas "era un pueblo de hambre, de rezos y de refranes; e l refran y la estaca habrian tambien podido servir como emblemas vivos de su escudo" (p. 11). Eustis sees in t h i s observation the suggestion that the town's inhabitants subscribe to "a f a t a l i s t i c adherence to t r a d i t i o n a l attitudes"(p. 26). This equation of the proverb with a symbol of the townspeople's brutishness underlines how the two function as constituents of t h i s f a t a l i s t i c t r a d i t i o n . In t h i s case, the proverb is not so much an instrument of wisdom as a means for perpetuating this same resignation and fatalism which, while a common feature of Spanish l i f e , distinguishes 60 Caretas as especially backward. Martin's grandfather exemplifies this attitude in his use of proverbs, most of which betray a resigned or pessimistic attitude; "Quien bien te quiere, te hara l l o r a r " (p. 102); "Mientras hace s o l , calentemonos. Cuando truene, Dios nos valga" (p. 102); and "Si la envidia fuese tina, todo e l mundo rascaria" (p. 112). As for Martin, the old man's proverbs routinely e l i c i t an almost Pavlovian response in the boy. The narrator offers that " los refranes no le gustaban a Martin y e l se sabia e l por que" (p. 100). In this case, Roque Galda makes use of a proverb to quash the boy's legitimate c u r i o s i t y about the contents of the enigmatic trunk. The old man, who usually frustrates Martin's eager juvenile c u r i o s i t y with his anecdotal digressions, responds with h o s t i l i t y , saying "No seas curioso, Martin. No conviene saber demasiadas cosas; se han de saber las necesarias" and "Quien sabe mucho, mucha pena, y quien c a v i l a , poco vive. En boca cerrada no entran moscas" (p. 100). Unable to understand why his innocent c u r i o s i t y should be met with such resounding antagonism, and associating Roque Galda's use of proverbs with fr u s t r a t i o n and reproach, Martin views the proverb as one more element in the milieu of repression, a verbal cane, as the narrator suggests. The grandfather's p r a c t i c a l philosophy also betrays a sense of fatalism and resignation. With a pessimistic view of man and the world, his sincere e f f o r t s to prepare Martin for the t r a v a i l of human existence are of a cautionary nature. Certain phrases, which are repeated often in Martin's presence, typify Roque 61 Galda's view of the world. These phrases become recurrent, abstract points of reference for Martin even, and in some cases especially, when he is beyond the direct influence of his grandfather. For example, as Martin journeys through the country on his way to Barcelona, with almost every encounter with another person he r e c a l l s t h i s admonition: s i vas solo por e l camino y encuentras un perro, piensa que es un lobo. Si te equivocas_ no perderas nada. En cambio, s i piensas que es un perro y te equivocas estas perdido. Cuando se oye tronar, e l agua esta cerca . . . pero no olvides que a veces llueve sin tronar. iCuidado Martin! (p. 104) Hence Martin w i l l judge future encounters against the notion that "hay que pensar que todos son lobos" and the admonition "iCuidado Martin!" w i l l ring in his ears at most c r i t i c a l junctures. According to Roque Galda, the world i s a deceptive, menacing place in which justice i s ut t e r l y i d e a l . He agrees with the ironic r e f r a i n of his friend, Juanin de Lara, that "Reina una bondad en e l mundo . . . " (p. 35). This too recurs in the mind of the impressionable young Martin, who, when faced with the intransigent support of i n j u s t i c e in Caretas ( i . e . , his universe), occasionally r e c a l l s and concurs that "habia, s i , una gran bondad en e l mundo, como decia Juanin de Lara. S i , s i , habia una bondad que daba asco" (p. 123). However, Martin's grandfather himself proffers an i n t r i c a t e d e f i n i t i o n of l i f e expressed in the form of a r e f r a i n , which, although another example of folk wisdom in the public domain, i s uniquely his. The narrator t e l l s us that "toda la f i l o s o f i a del 62 abuelo parecia c i f r a r s e en el sentido de una v i e j a copla que siempre repetia: No olvides que este mundo es un golfo redondo. Quien no sabe nadar vase al fondo. Lo importante, segun e l , era saber nadar, 'nadar y guardar la ropa'" (p. 26). The multiple layers of significance of t h i s metaphor are es p e c i a l l y apropos of Roque Galda's view of l i f e as unpredictably and deceptively perilous. The notion that the world is a gulf that must be arduously negotiated by swimming is daunting enough: much of the metaphor's potency rests in the idea of death by drowning, a ghastly p o s s i b i l i t y for anyone to consider. Swimming, as a solution, is accessible to a l l , but only as a learned a b i l i t y . Thus learning (and, conversely, teaching) assumes c r i t i c a l importance. Further, the use of the term "gulf" bears even gloomier e x i s t e n t i a l implications: the word also has the sense of "abyss," "chasm," "whirlpool," "chaos," "confusion." The notion of sinking into such situations implies i r r e t r i e v a b l e perdition and hopelessness. There i s also an obvious, fundamental necessity to learn how to grapple with chaos and confusion, even though these, by their very nature, imply that man is helpless and unable to impose his w i l l on them. Roque Galda himself reveals another nuance to the metaphor's meaning. As he extols the magnificence of Barcelona to his grandson, the old man describes, with p a r t i c u l a r d e t a i l , the immense statue of Christopher Columbus at the c i t y ' s 63 harbour, that "esta a l i a arriba en la punta de una altisima columna: en la punta de la columna, hay una bola redonda que representa e l mundo, que como sabes, es una bola y redonda" (p. 108). When a puzzled Martin asks i f i t i s not a gulf, Roque Galda r e p l i e s , "Tambien es un golfo; es igual, pero siempre redondo, en cuesta siempre, para que no te duermas" (p. 108). Therefore, the mere learning of survival s k i l l s i s not s u f f i c i e n t : one must continually adjust one's approach according to the situ a t i o n , and one must be eve r - v i g i l a n t . The narrator t e l l s us that " a l abuelo debia Martin lo poco que sabia del mundo" (p. 26). As a t y p i c a l l y credulous and trusting youngster whose grandfather is the only adult w i l l i n g to instruct him in any way, i t i s not surprising that Roque Galda's pronouncements are taken to heart by Martin. Nonetheless, in spite of his condemnations of Caretas as a place of uncommon brutishness, the old man i s in fact the quintessence of the town's c o l l e c t i v e malaise: unable to recognize his own pa r t i c i p a t i o n in and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the town's s o c i a l retardation, he accepts the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c b i l e and h o s t i l i t y as routine, f a i l s to question i t s primacy and adheres s t r i c t l y to an unchanging dogma, indiscriminately applied. Even though Roque Galda singles out Caretas as a p a r t i c u l a r l y cruel place, his jaundiced view of l i f e (which he extends beyond the town's lim i t s ) suggests either limited experience or the i n a b i l i t y or unwillingness to recognize flaws in that view, flaws that experience would ce r t a i n l y expose. Recalling the observations made by Parker and Eustis with regard to a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y 64 Spanish variety of fatalism, the tragedy of such f a t a l i s t i c resignation i s i t s contribution to the perpetuation of oppressive t r a d i t i o n s and so c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Roque Galda i s , more than anything, resigned to man's internecine h o s t i l i t y . He indoctrinates Martin into the b e l i e f that to trust i s a" perilous game of chance, that people are marauding scavengers and that l i f e i s unrelentingly b i t t e r , a l l in the hope that i t w i l l f o r e s t a l l Martin's learning f i r s t 'hand through harsh experience. These notions, more than anything else, define Martin's perspective of the world and further act as a f o i l against which his f i r s t hand experiences contrast, eventually to cede to a more reasoned and balanced view of l i f e . 65 C. IDEOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES The s p e c i f i c a f f i n i t i e s between Martin de Caretas and the picaresque genre have been noted above. While the picaresque is not commonly distinquished for i t s philosophical features, the major effect of Arbo's borrowing from i t i s one of supporting and forming , part of a commentary on the nature of man's existence. Christopher Eustis ably put the relationship between the t r i l o g y and the picaresque into perspective in his a r t i c l e and, as we sh a l l see, the most patent borrowings from the genre are s u p e r f i c i a l and se l e c t i v e . Since the purpose of Eustis' a r t i c l e i s to examine Martin  de Caretas in the li g h t of a rigorous application of the term "picaresque," he offers only i m p l i c i t commentary on the work's philosophical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Nonetheless, many of his observations are helpful to our purpose. Because of the casual and often corrupt use of the term "picaresque," to say nothing of brisk polemics as to the more rigorous and accurate interpretations of i t , Eustis f i r s t sets out to present a precise, acceptable working d e f i n i t i o n of the c l a s s i c a l picaresque form. He goes on to use this d e f i n i t i o n , along with the modifications wrought by twentieth-century adaptations of the picaresque, to contrast with Arbo's t r i l o g y . The essential differences uncovered by Eustis are not only so numerous but in addition so fundamental that he handily succeeds in demonstrating the marginal a f f i n i t i e s between Martin de Caretas and the c l a s s i c a l form of the picaresque. Eustis asserts: 66 A consideration of the entire t r i l o g y as an attempt to reconcile the picaresque t r a d i t i o n with an e s s e n t i a l l y sympathetic and equitable view of mankind reveals an underlying state of mind and a vague so c i a l commitment which are a n t i t h e t i c a l not only to picaresque l i t e r a t u r e but also to the main currents of Spanish narrative since t h e c i v i l war.(p. 21) While t h i s observation is accurate enough in i t s e l f , Eustis f a i l s to do jus t i c e to the p o s s i b i l i t y that Arbo's intention was not necessarily to "reconcile the picaresque t r a d i t i o n with an es s e n t i a l l y sympathetic and equitable view of mankind." By means of a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t perspective, concentrating on the ideological implications of the author's picaresque predilections and s e l e c t i v e l y reviewing s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences between Martin de Caretas and the true picaresque form, we hope to shed some l i g h t on . Arbo.'s motives for presenting an optimistic view of mankind. The most patent s i m i l a r i t i e s are precisely that; patent and s u p e r f i c i a l . The t r i l o g y ' s t i t l e r e c a l l s L a z a r i l l o de Tormes and Guzman de Alfarache. Pithy summaries at the beginning of each chapter, often jocular adumbrations of what is to come, are similar to those found in the Guzman, not to mention many other prototypical narratives of the same period and l a t e r . Arbo even seems to allude to s p e c i f i c episodes from c l a s s i c a l l y picaresque works. When Martin, while on his f i r s t wheat harvest, is served "una boniga de burro" in his soup (p. 45), we are reminded of a s i m i l a r l y nauseating gustatory experience from the Guzman, in which the protagonist is served an omelet of nearly hatched eggs. The episode of Martin's stay with his grandmother also 67 contains such a l l u s i o n s . His temporarily successful p i l f e r i n g of f i g s , and his eventual seizure at the vengeful hands of his grandmother, i s similar to L a z a r i l l o ' s experience with the votive loaves. And the climax of the episode, when Martin sends the old woman sprawling down a f l i g h t of s t a i r s , r e c a l l s L a z a r i l l o ' s causing his f i r s t master to brain himself against a pi l i a r . Far more important than these s u p e r f i c i a l i t i e s is the presence of certain ideological features that can be f a i r l y described as picaresque, even though they are not applied rigorously according to the model of the c l a s s i c form. Eustis points to thi s imbalance: The world of Caretas i s picaresque not so much because i t exemplifies a d e c e i t f u l , h y p o c r i t i c a l society, but rather because of habitual i l l - w i l l and inj u s t i c e which p r e v a i l . Likewise, Martin does not resemble the picaro through r e f l e c t i n g in his own behavior the vices of society nor through conforming to his own environment, but rather in that he faces t h i s world alone and fends for himself by means of trick e r y and astuteness.(p. 24) This i s true: Caretas i s portrayed not as t y p i c a l , but as outstanding for i t s extreme brutishness. Also, Martin recognizes, inherently i t seems, his society's defects, and although the prevailing conditions push him toward certain forms of picaresque behavior, he does not espouse outright, i r r a t i o n a l h o s t i l i t y . In addition, the so c i a l conditions that force his behavior are augmented by his grandfather's urgent tutelage. In a sense, Martin is instructed to be a picaro. The purpose of Roque Galda's instruction of his grandson is 68 the . boy's self-preservation which, in the picaresque circumstances of Caretas, implies the need for constant vigilance and at least i n i t i a l suspicion of others. We are already familiar with some of the old man's accustomed refr a i n s ; "iCuidado Martin!", "Si ves un perro en tu camino, piensa que es un lobo y guardate. No perderas nada. En cambio . . . " (p. 147). Another of Roque Galda's expressions of the importance of shrewdness and caution is couched in the terminology of sleeping and waking. After Martin's i l l - f a t e d attempt to steal f i g s from the p r i e s t , his grandfather t e l l s him :"Hay que i r con cuidado, Martin. Despierto siempre, siempre sobre e l quien vive . y s i vas a un huerto a robar, que no sea e l del cura;" and: "Cuidado, Martin. Despierto siempre. No te digo que no cojas las frutas; todo se puede hacer en este mundo, pero debe hacerse bien, y no dormir" (p. 83). " In addition to the emphasis here on shrewd vigilance, there seems to be im p l i c i t in i t the notion that moral s t r i c t u r e s do not apply since, as i n . t h i s case, the t r a d i t i o n a l upholders of morality are just as g u i l t y of transgression as anyone. This i s , in a way, also reminiscent of the portrayal of the clergy in L a z a r i l l o de Tormes. While Roque Galda's status as Martin's teacher/protector i s one of the elements that d i s q u a l i f i e s the boy as a t r u l y picaresque protagonist (Eustis c i t e s Alexander Blackburn, who sees the "absence of a fellowship" as a picaresque prerequ i s i t e ) , what is implied by the old man's statements i s i s o l a t i o n , a voluntary estrangement from one's fellow man. In addition to t h i s , Martin achieves unhappy fame in Caretas as 69 "las ancas de Barrabas" (p. 118) and as "un demonio; era de la p i e l de Satanas" (p. 132). This reputation is unjust and undeserved: i t is determined and upheld by the same society that credulously adheres to oppressive t r a d i t i o n s . Martin "no sabia como se habia ganado esta fama. Ocurre como con las medallas; un dia se la cuelgan a uno en e l pecho sin que sepa muy bien que ha hecho para merecerla" (p. 25). Eustis elucidates: As long as he remains in the v i l l a g e he i s trapped in a t y p i c a l l y picaresque dilemma: he cannot live-outside society but neither can he exist within Caretas without being persecuted and abused. Upon, defending himself with t r i c k s and schemes, his only defensive weapons, he gives r i s e to a series of personal disasters c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of an i l l - f a t e d picaresque l i f e . ( p . 25) The alienation and solitude implied by t h i s and Roque Galda's admonitions, plus the absurdity of the so c i a l conditions to which Martin i s subjected, resemble in a broad sense certain features of modern e x i s t e n t i a l thought. It has been noted that the picaresque t r a d i t i o n , l i k e many other manifestations of l i t e r a t u r e and philosophy that predate what we accept as "existentialism," r e f l e c t s sundry timeless observations of human existence that have since come to be associated with modern existentialism. The c l a s s i c picaro, in the dilemma described above by Eustis, is f o r c i b l y estranged from his own s o c i a l milieu, alienated by the only experience of human community he has ever known. Compelled to fend for himself amid uniform h o s t i l i t y from a l l quarters, none of his actions garnering his acceptance by an approving society, i t is not surprising that 70 feelings of alienation and a sense of absurdity should follow. It i s true that, l i k e the picaresque form, the very nature of ex i s t e n t i a l i s m is disputed and polemicized, and in addition the term i s often abused or inaccurately employed in casual discourse. But judging from the l i t e r a r y manifestations of this philosophical school of thought, i t is safe to say that the solitude of the individual and the absurdity of man's condition are s i g n i f i c a n t , i f broad preoccupations for e x i s t e n t i a l n o v e l i s t s . Both of these problems, perhaps more i m p l i c i t l y than e x p l i c i t y , are present not only in examples of the c l a s s i c picaresque form, but in Martin de Caretas as well. In fact these are further manifestations of what we could broadly term e x i s t e n t i a l thought in Arb6's t r i l o g y . Martin is not only alienated within his own community and trapped in an- absurd sit u a t i o n , but he also evinces a kind of deep anguish that resembles the e x i s t e n c i a l i s t ' s preoccupation of the notion of le Neant. Death being the one experience common to a l l men, the end of an admittedly absurd and pain f u l , yet somehow compelling existence, Martin's fear of mortality r e f l e c t s t h i s same kind of e x i s t e n t i a l concern; that t h i s miserable existence, which we feel a fundamental, i n t u i t i v e compulsion to preserve, should end with an ominous, and even worse, unknown and unknowable experience. Martin, with his innate sense of ju s t i c e and log i c , struggles against his own dehumanization, and therefore struggles to make sense of his absurd existence. In the f i r s t volume of the t r i l o g y , stealing food out of urgent hunger, 71 standing up for his own innocence (when possible) and acting out of vengeance against oppressors were the extent of his s e l f -r e l i a n t , s e l f - d e f i n i n g actions. His decision to leave home is the f i r s t decision in a process which finds him gradually learning to be tru l y responsible for himself. It puts him in a position to be able to judge the vagaries of man's behavior for himself, according to his experiences, rather than simply accepting what he is told by authority figures. The view of l i f e represented by borrowings from the picaresque and the suggestions of e x i s t e n t i a l thought present in Martin de Caretas i s corroborated and expanded by yet another element of commentary on human existence. Many of the omniscient narrator's statements bear a s t r i k i n g resemblance to dolorous observations about man's existence found in the Old Testament book of Ecclesiastes. We have already seen that the Bible impressed Arbo as a boy, and that stories and quotations from the Old Testament appear frequently in his f i c t i o n . It should not surprise us then that a writer imbued with the B i b l i c a l ethos should betray some ideological aspects of i t , especially when these complement and dovetail, in a general sense, with the ideology of the picaresque and e x i s t e n t i a l thought. Since we intend to demonstrate the a f f i l i a t i o n of Arb6's t r i l o g y with Ecclesiastes, i t should be pointed out that this Old Testament book offers ideological features that transcend i t s obvious s i m i l a r i t i e s to the views of l i f e exemplified by the picaresque and e x i s t e n t i a l thought. However, Arbo seems to have 7 2 schematized the ideology of Qoheleth (the self-proclaimed author of Ecclesiastes) and u t i l i z e d complementary constituents of i t in each of the three volumes of his t r i l o g y . The result is an interpretation of v i r t u a l l y a l l the philosophical aspects of Ecclesiastes save one: the book's status as sacred writing. R.B.Y. Scott writes that the author of Ecclesiastes is "a r a t i o n a l i s t , an agnostic, a skeptic, a pessimist, and a f a t a l i s t (the terms are not used p e j o r a t i v e l y ! ) . " 5 Further, he comments on the unique nature of the book compared to the other sacred writings that constitute the Bible: In the case of Ecclesiastes, there is no p o s s i b i l i t y of a l l e g o r i z a t i o n to bring i t in l i n e with the tone and teaching of the rest of the Bible. It diverges too r a d i c a l l y . In fact, i t denies some of the things on which the other writers lay the greatest stress -- notably that God has revealed himself and his w i l l to man . . . . In Ecclesiastes, God i s not only unknown to man through revelation; he i s unknowable through reason, the only means by which the author believes knowledge i s attainable. Such a God i s . the mysterious, inscrutable Being whose existence must be presupposed as that which determines the l i f e and fate of man, in a world man cannot change, and where a l l his e f f o r t and values are rendered meaningless. 6 The pessimistic tone of the above analysis does not close the door on positive applications of Qoheleth's ideology: for example, proof of the evanescence of man's worldly a f f a i r s might encourage attention to godly matters. 7 However, the agnostic element of Ecclesiastes also makes i t the B i b l i c a l writing with the greatest potential for secular application.' This being the case, i t i s not inappropriate to examine Martin de Caretas in l i g h t of Qoheleth's ideology, especially given the s i m i l a r i t i e s 73 between the two. When Scott speaks of Qoheleth's "mood of disillusionment and . . . philosophy of resignation" and his espousal of "the necessity of caution and moderation before the inexplicable," we can recognize the vague contours of Roque Galda's philosophy. However, in Martin de Caretas en el pueblo, i t i s the narrator that most nearly approximates Qoheleth's declarations. One of Qoheleth's basic tenets is that man suffers e s s e n t i a l l y the same conditions as the dumb animal: 8 Dijeme tambien acerca del hombre: Dios quiere hacerles conocer que de s i son como las bestias; porque una misma es la suerte de los hijos de los hombres y la suerte de las bestias, y la muerte del uno es la muerte de las otras . . . y no tiene e l hombre ventaja sobre la bestia, pues todo es vanidad 9. Qoheleth further observes in a familiar passage that: no es de los agiles e l correr, ni de los valientes e l combate . . . sino que e l tiempo y el acaso salen a l encuentro de todos, y que ni aun su hora conoce e l hombre. Como pez que es capturado en una s i n i e s t r a red y como pajaro que se enreda en e l lazo, asi se enredan los hijos de los hombres en e l tiempo aciago cuando de improviso cae sobre e l l o s . (Eccl.ix.12 ) . There i s , in the following quotation from Martin de Caretas en  el pueblo, a s t r i k i n g p a r a l l e l i s m with the passages from Ecclesiastes c i t e d above. Todo eran matas y por rodar, todo trampas . pero eso se lo sabia de memoria. Lo que no sabia era donde la proxima s a l t a r i a . . . . Nadie sabe la piedra con que ha de tropezar . . . . La desgracia le viene a uno por donde menos puede esperar. Fue e l preludio de la desgracia mayor que habia de seguir a aquella; una y otra estaban ocultas en el tiempo, como los cepos en el campo en las sendas de los conejos. 74 Sale e l animal por su hierba; es de noche; los hombres duermen, duermen tambien los perros y todo esta en s i l e n c i o . <iQuien ha de pensar que puede pasarle algo? Sale e l animal por su hierba y izas!, ya esta cogido por la pata en e l cepo. Asi estaba e l peligro oculto en la senda de Martin, como una bestia a l acecho, y no habia prudencia ni aviso, no habia santo que le pudiese apartar. (pp. 15-16). In Martin de Caretas en e l pueblo, there are many such passages likening the protagonist to the hapless animal walking into a trap. Although these words are the narrator's, we know that the choice of metaphor i s for Martin's benefit because his own family depends upon his brothers' rabbit traps for sustenance during the winter: "En invierno, los hermanos de Martin salian a cazar; por la noche . . . armaban e l cepo en las sendas de los conejos" (p. 60). These traps, a gratuitously cruel recourse, are a disturbing aspect of Martin's daily r e a l i t y and a v i v i d , i f melodramatic p a r a l l e l to the boy's fear and sense of alienation; not so far-fetched i f we consider i t the product of an ingenuous 'and abused youth. The context of the lengthy c i t a t i o n above is a representation of the ubiquitous and unrelenting p e r i l faced by Martin, in the persons of his mother, grandfather and the sa d i s t i c Camandulas; in the form of Caretas i t s e l f . A key element of thi s recurring metaphor and i t s relationship to Qoheleth's philosophy is that of " e l tiempo aciago." In spite of Ecclesiastes' sacred character, Qoheleth, in his e f f o r t to portray man's helplessness before l i f e ' s inscrutable 75 v i c i s s i t u d e s , sometimes implies the influence of treacherous fortune. Given the essential mystery of God's w i l l posited by Qoheleth, he says such things as "una misma es la suerte de los hijos de los hombres y la suerte de las bestias . . • . " and "asi se enredan los hijos de los hombres en e l tiempo aciago cuando de improviso cae sobre e l l o s . " In the f i r s t volume of Martin de Caretas there i s a strong element of superstition, expressed by Roque Galda, Martin and the 'narrator. Martin's i l l - c o n c e i v e d foray into the pri e s t ' s orchard occurred on "un dia nefasto" (p. 79), about which his grandfather explained to him, ". . . muy serio, que aquel era un dia aciago . . . . Era 13 y viernes. El diablo, segun e l , estaba en tales dias de malhumor" (p. 83). Similar j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s given for other misfortunes that b e f a l l the protagonist. Eustis notes that, "Much l i k e Guzman or Pablos, he is under the influence of a pernicious mala e s t r e l l a , which leads him closer and closer to disaster"(p. 25). He goes on to quote the following from t Arbo's text: "Poco a poco los hechos fueron amontonandose en torno a Martin, convertidos en amenazas. E l , Martin, no se daba cuenta. Era la trampa en e l camino; solo que aqui eran diez, o eran mas . No habia escapatoria" (p. 115). This i s one of the most provocative of the many resonances of Ecclesiastes that we perceive in Martin de Caretas. It i s here that Arbo draws together the notions of man's b e s t i a l helplessness to control events and the influence of insidious fortune, much as Qoheleth does in chapter ix, verse 12. In addition, both authors point to the relationship between time and inevitable misfortune. In 76 Qoheleth, ". . . e l tiempo y e l acaso salen a l encuentro de todos:" in Arbo, "una y otra (las degracias) estaban ocultas en el tiempo, como los cepos en e l camino." Both imply intervention in a given trajectory. Be i t the transience of time i t s e l f , or the journey of an individual through the enigmatic t r a v a i l of l i f e , time is another component of the cosmos' pervasive structure of oppression against man. Arbo makes other, less systematic a l l u s i o n s to the philosophy of Qoheleth. These serve the purpose of corroborating that s p e c i f i c , f a t a l i s t i c world view that also comprises broadly defined elements of the picaresque and e x i s t e n t i a l thought. In these cases, Arbo's language does not resemble so closely that of Qoheleth, but the underlying ideology is c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d . For example, Qoheleth complains of the prevalence of i n j u s t i c e and the absence of commensurate redress: "De todo he v i s t o en mis fugaces dias: justo que muere en toda su j u s t i c i a e impio que con todas sus iniquidades campa largo tiempo" ( E c c l . v i i . 1 5 ) . Appropriately, Martin learns this fundamental lesson in school, where the difference between the pr i v i l e g e d and the underprivileged i s further exaggerated by the s a d i s t i c schoolmaster's prejudices: "a e l l o s , los p r i v i l e g i a d o s , no les alcanzaba la vara de Camandulas. A l i i la vara detenia; la colera del dios, ante aquellas cabezas bien peinadas, se desvanecia, o bien descargarse sobre las cabezas vecinas algo mas bajas y rapadas" (p. 19). In the case of Martin and his classmates, the dichotomy i s not as clear as Qoheleth declares. Martin, sometimes innocent, i s also at times g u i l t y of mischief, 77 however the misdemeanors for which he i s punished are always responses to urgent situations l i k e the b e l l i c o s e provocations of his classmates or the butcher's vicious goat (Camandulas takes the l i b e r t y of beating Martin for his having injured the goat with a stone he threw). The kind of i n j u s t i c e represented by t h i s license to oppress the underprivileged is also more broadly expressed: in addition to Martin's v i v i d , first-hand experience of i n j u s t i c e , a subtler, more metaphysical variety i s apparent. Roque Galda, to emphasize the moral of the above-mentioned ghost-story, expresses i t proverbially with "Muchas veces ocurre asi en la vida: que unos levantan la liebre y otros la cobran; unos llevan la fama y otros cardan la lana" (p. 93 ) . This is reminiscent of one of the most familiar verses from Ecclesiastes, which i s l i t e r a l l y proverbial in our time: ". .« . no es de los agiles e l correr, ni de los valientes e l combate, ni de los sabios e l pan, ni de los entendidos la riqueza, ni aun de los cuerdos e l favor . . . " ( E c c l . i x . 1 1 ) . With regard to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r theme, Arbo's approach i s s t r i c t e r and perhaps more consistent than that of Qoheleth, who allows that " e l tiempo y e l acaso salen a l encuentro de todos," but further complains that he has witnessed "justo que muexe en toda su j u s t i c i a e impio que con todas sus iniquidades campa largo tiempo." In the world constituted by Caretas and i t s people, there is no mention of the p r i v i l e g e d suffering: i l l - f o r t u n e , while described by the narrator as an apparently insidious, yet mysterious metaphysical force with some kind of perverse i n t e l l i g e n c e , seems in fact 78 s t r i c t l y to obey d i v i s i o n s of s o c i a l c l a s s . Qoheleth might seem i n c o n s i s t e n t f o r h i s apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , but h i s purpose in p o r t r a y i n g a world where the j u s t p e r i s h and the s i n f u l prosper i s to emphasize the f u t i l i t y of e x p e c t i n g one's v i r t u o u s n e s s to be rewarded i n t h i s l i f e . T h i s c l o s e l y resembles Arbo's message i n the f i r s t volume of the t r i l o g y , with the added dimension of h i s commentary on s o c i a l c l a s s . In Caretas, there i s no j u s t i c e i n reward and punishment: p r i v i l e g e i s not decided m e t a p h y s i c a l l y a c c o r d i n g to supreme values such as v i r t u e and goodness. On the c o n t r a r y , i t responds to u t t e r l y w o rldly circumstances and furthermore, i t i s a f u n c t i o n of the same a t t i t u d e s that s u s t a i n the town's c o l l e c t i v e b r u t i s h n e s s . . In s p i t e of the d i v e r s e nature of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l postures that compose the whole of t h i s p o r t r a i t of the world and man's e x i s t e n c e , there i s p u r i t y and a c u i t y i n Arbo's d e s i g n . He o f f e r s a comprehensive r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a mode of human e x i s t e n c e that knows no clemency or sweetness. The a b r a s i v e n e s s of t h i s e x i s t e n c e f i n d s p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n and c o r r o b o r a t i o n i n M a r t i n ' s mortal fear and Roque Galda's grim pronouncements on l i f e ' s t r e a c h e r y . Other f a c t o r s , i d e o l o g i c a l and thematic, lend a u t h e n t i c i t y to the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of the author's d e p i c t i o n of l i f e i n C a r e t a s : they f l e s h out Arbo's i d e o l o g i c a l concerns i n t o a coherent whole. The most b a s i c l e v e l of t h i s i d e o l o g i c a l whole i s the r e n d e r i n g of the c o n c r e t e , t a n g i b l e q u a l i t i e s of the l i f e of town. The f o r b i d d i n g landscape, the squalor and d i s r e p a i r of 79 the buildings and the customary h o s t i l i t y of the people are the most patent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of that stigmatized town. Insofar as the development of the protagonist is concerned, these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are confirmed, supported and expanded by the authors recourse to certain thematic borrowings from the picaresque: these borrowings also serve the depiction of the concrete, quotidian q u a l i t i e s of l i f e in Caretas and Martin's existence in p a r t i c u l a r . The boy's abysmal homelife, the parental neglect and poverty-induced hunger function in concert with the more general q u a l i t i e s of the town to catalyze his behavior and personal development. The unhappy results --perceived as malicious mischief and earning him his ill-fame in turn' e l i c i t Roque Galda's advice on acquiring the defensive s k i l l s in shrewdness, caution and tr i c k e r y , a l l resonant of the c l a s s i c picaresque protagonist. The alienation wrought by the town's persecution of Martin and his grandfather's counselling voluntary estrangement leads us to confront more abstract and intimate results of this punitive environment, results that resemble e x i s t e n t i a l concerns. Martin's i s o l a t i o n from the rest of the community is the result of the same persecution that marks his absurdly impossible predicament. Arbo v i v i d l y i l l u s t r a t e s that l i f e --vegetal, animal and human -- goes on by virtue of tenacity: i t is not encouraged by the environment. The special circumstances surrounding Martin a c t i v e l y frustrate his fundamental attempts to survive the h o s t i l i t y . Therefore i t is not surprising that the boy should perceive deathly manifestations in the l o c a l 80 landscape, and that the anguish expressed by these perceptions might support the notion that Caretas i s not only synonymous with brutal stupidity, but with death i t s e l f . Caretas as an autonomous world is "un golfo redondo," perceived by Martin as an abstract, terminal void: the absurd and senseless end of his personal trajectory. It is fear and despair that motivate his departure. While the apparent contributions of Qoheleth's philosophy to Arbo's portrayal of l i f e resemble certain resonances of existentialism, they provide an additional dimension to augment not only the l a t t e r ' s q u a l i t i e s of abstract intimacy but also the concrete realism supported by picaresque a f f i n i t i e s . The problems of i n j u s t i c e and man's helplessness to control his fate, among others, can be considered on a concrete l e v e l , but in this case, both Arbo and Qoheleth imply a treacherous metaphysical influence on daily a f f a i r s . The overa l l effect achieved by Arbo through a l l his a l l u s i o n s and borrowings could be characterized with a phrase used by R.B.Y. Scott to describe Qoheleth's v i t a l a t t i t u t e : "As l i f e i s cancelled by death, so a l l values are negated by their o p posites." 1 0 This i s the basis of Roque Galda's philosophy: the more s i g n i f i c a n t , more potent features of l i f e are the negative ones. They must be given precedence over the positive aspects, accorded greater attention. Hence his admonitory counsel, "Si ves un perro . piensa que es un lobo y guardate. No perderas nada. En cambio . . . " At the end of the f i r s t volume, as Martin is about to s a l l y forth on his own, he car r i e s with him a 81 psychic burden of fear, despair and an unhappy view of l i f e and man. Suffering from the ingenuous cr e d u l i t y of youth and Roque Galda's confidently expressed wisdom, his journey w i l l test the d i a l e c t i c tension between his own inherent good w i l l and judiciousness and the ominous, unsettling implications of his grandfather's insistent views. 82 D. NOTES TO CHAPTER III 1 Sebastian Juan Arbo, Martin de Caretas en el pueblo (Madrid: Espasa Calpe, 1972), p. 9. A l l subsequent references to this work are from the same edition and appear in the text. 2 Christopher Eustis, " Martin de Caretas: The Picaresque Myth Transformed," Revista canadiense de estudios hispanicos, 20, No.1 (Otono 1980), 23. Subsequent references appear in the text. 3 The f i r s t part of the t r i l o g y H i s t o r i a de Bertoldo,  Bertoldino y Cacaseno was based on an e a r l i e r , sixteenth-century I t a l i a n text e n t i t l e d Dyalogo di Salomon e Marcolpho. In this case, the humble peasant is Marcolpho and the sovereign in question, as the t i t l e indicates, i s the legendary Old Testament sage and king. With Arbo's patent interest in the Old Testament, the apparent a f f i n i t i e s of his t r i l o g y with Solomonic wisdom, and with certain of Roque Galda's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s seeming parodies of the prodigious q u a l i t i e s attributed to Solomon, closer scrutiny of both I t a l i a n texts might prove enlightening with regard to the f i r s t volume of Martin de  Caretas. * A.A. Parker, "The Humour of Spanish Proverbs," Canning House Ninth Annual Lecture, 16 May 1962, Diamante XIII, (London: The Hispanic and Luso-Brazi1ian Councils, 1963), p. 22. Several of the proverbs mentioned in Parker's address appear in Martin de Caretas in humorously expanded forms. 5 R.B.Y. Scott, introd., trans., and notes, The Anchor  Bible: Proverbs, Ecclesiastes (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 83 1965), p. 192. 6 Scott, p. 191. 7 Scott, p. 192. 8 There follow herewith several long quotations. They are reproduced at length in order to show their procedural p a r a l l e l i sm. 9 Ecclesiastes, i i i , 18-19. For the purposes of this study, the edition c i t e d i s Sagrada B i b l i a (Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1972). Subsequent references appear in the text. 1 0 Scott, p. 203. 84 IV. EN EL CAMPO A. FUNCTION OF LANDSCAPE Before Martin sets out from Caretas, his dilemma involves two inhospitable worlds; Caretas, of which his knowledge is certain, having experienced i t s inclemency first-hand; and the outside world, which his grandfather alleges to be uniformly treacherous. When the unfolding juggernaut of i l l fortune compels him to leave his hometown, he is f u l l y charged with Roque Galda's ideology. His "entrada en el mundo" is marked by fear and anxiety. After conferring with Roque Galda for a last time, the town s t i l l in excitement over his spectacular escape from his grandmother, Martin departs at night. In the f i r s t volume of the t r i l o g y , Arbo not only associates the boy's spectral imaginings with the cemetery's nocturnal aspect, but nearly a l l examples of the metaphor likening Martin to the hapless rabbits caught in traps include the phrase "es de noche." As the second volume opens, Martin's "miedo del nocturno" marks the inauguration of his uncertain journey. Wandering aimlessly, "se habia desviado desde e l p r i n c i p l e Con la noche, e l susto, los siseos del cementerio, habia doblado hacia l a derecha, en lugar de hacerlo hacia la izquierda." 2 Given the code of Caretas' synonymity with ignorance and h o s t i l i t y established in the f i r s t volume, and given the e x c l u s i v i t y of Martin's v i t a l experience, the town serves the protagonist as a measure of his encounters with the world at large. The town's function as a model is supported by the 85 consistency of Roque Galda's ideology (applicable beyond the world constituted by Caretas) with the condition of the town's brutish inhabitants. Furthermore, the association of the town with i t s landscape is sustained in the mind of the errant boy. A l l t h i s i s connoted in the f i r s t two pages of "Los caminos del mundo," the f i r s t chapter of Martin de Caretas en e l campo, to wit: Caminaba por un llano, por campos de o l i v o s , vinas escasas, t r i g a l e s raquiticos, malezas, en e l paisaje tan conocido de Caretas; aqui y a l i a surgian tambien pinos recortandose en las alturas y tambien los pinos eran pequenos, retorcidos. Doblo un recodo; ante e l se abrio un campo sin arboles, una amplia extension sobre la cual b r i l l a b a n las e s t r e l l a s altas en e l c i e l o a l t o . Martin se detuvo y respiro por primera vez. Hasta a l i i le habia perseguido la aprension de los cipreses, del cementerio, e l siseo de las lechuzas. Tenia miedo de que le persiguiesen . (pp. 11-12). Here, a fundamental change in the aspect of the landscape produces a fundamental change in the boy's psychic condition: the usually ominous and awesome darkness f a i l s to dampen his r e l i e f at tangible evidence of his escape. The unfamiliar character of the treeless p l a i n , which offers no opportunity for misperception, is enough to a l l e v i a t e the habitual anxiety about ghostly v i s i t o r s that is inexorably linked to darkness. This change of mood, while merely temporary, marks the incipience of Martin's true psychic autonomy. The trajectory of the protagonist's development in this second book obeys a learning 86 process in which he is progressively estranged from the q u a l i t i e s embodied in his hometown: b r u t a l i t y , superstition and s p i r i t u a l poverty as prevalent factors (the unquestioned norm in Caretas) are gradually challenged. Likewise, Roque Galda's ideology is in turn tested by events and openly challenged by Antonio Carden, the hedonist truck driver who serves as the boy's protector/mentor, and by several passing aquaintances. However, before these s p e c i f i c events occur, the process begins on a subtler, more profound l e v e l . Martin's adherence to Roque Galda's ideology i s strong; only d i r e c t , successive challenges to the boy's acquired prejudice a v a i l to open his mind. In the incipient stages of t h i s process his psychic estrangement from the values of Caretas i s preceded by evidence of physical, distancing from the place. The f i r s t outstanding, feature of this process is that Martin's mortal anxiety and fear of night is no longer manifested in apparitions in nature. For example, references to the owls' eerie hissing and the resemblance of cypress trees to hooded spectres now pertain only to Martin's memories. In fact, in the second book of the t r i l o g y landscape for the most part re a l i z e s a function d i s t i n c t from that of the f i r s t book. There i s some subtle suggestion of Nature's role in the determination of man's behavior. S p e c i f i c a l l y , there is the unhappy madman, one of Martin's f i r s t encounters en route to Barcelona, who lost his mind to grief over his son's drowning in the l o c a l r i v e r : his obsessive v i g i l at the riverbank necessitates regular v i s i t s from his wife and daughter, who bring him the food that serves as Martin's f i r s t 87 meal of the journey. In a more general sense, the protagonist has numerous unpleasant encounters with farmers along his way. Arbo portrays them almost uniformly as brutes, ingrates and ignoramuses, enslaved by their dependence upon a taxing and unrelentingly d i f f i c u l t vocation. Such determinism, described e x p l i c i t l y in the f i r s t book, has only limited a p p l i c a b i l i t y in the second book since events are no longer confined to the insular world of Caretas. In addition, what relevance i t has i s i m p l i c i t and understood, having seen i t s f u l l extension in Martin de Caretas en el pueblo. The p r i n c i p a l function of landscape in this second volume emerges out of the inextricable bond between the forbidding l o c a l landscape and the c o l l e c t i v e h o s t i l i t y of Caretas' denizens. The town i s more than merely synonymous with b r u t a l i t y and ignorance. I n i t i a l l y , any rational or i n t e l l e c t u a l boundary that distinguishes Caretas, i t s landscape and i t s people from similar countryside and human behavior elsewhere is v i r t u a l l y nonexistent for the protagonist. He i n t u i t s that a more hospitable landscape would signal greater clemency. On the f i r s t night of his f l i g h t , when he feels l i k e resting he notices that "El terreno no of r e c i a la menor senal de bondad. Era duro y aspero, despiadado. Los arboles se levantaban severos; las alturas parecian cenudas, malhumoradas .... Pero detras de e l estaba Caretas; Martin continuo hacia adelante" (p.13). In addition, his response to the good-natured teasing of two members of the Guardia C i v i l (who intercept him early in his journey) i s : "El mundo . . . esta lleno de 88 bandidos, ladrones, bromistas majaderos. Todo e l mundo es Caretas. iCuanta razon tenia e l abuelo!" (p. 25). Several other similar incidents move Martin to observe that "Todo e l mundo es Caretas." While these vexing episodes remind the protagonist of his p i t i a b l e hometown, the landscape, as i t s aspect changes in the course of Martin's wandering, works i t s influence in a nearly subliminal fashion. This is evinced in the passage c i t e d above in which Martin "respiro por primera vez" in response to a respite from the accustomed f l o r a of Caretas. There are even more e x p l i c i t examples of this kind of influence. In one case, just as Martin is mentally reinforcing his acceptance of Roque Galda's admonitory counsels, he i s unable to overcome sensations of well-being: Pasaba junto a unos arboles, con un riachuelo mas a l i a ; e l agua se v e r t i a a l i i cerca desde una al t u r a , saltaba entre las piedras; en los arboles cantaban los pajaros. Martin se paro, y acaso por primera vez en su vida le gusto e l ruido del agua; escucho con agrado e l canto de las aves. Habian cantado muchas veces en su vida, pero cualquiera se paraba entonces a escucharlas. Ahora les presto atencion y le gustaron. Despues mir6 los montes y e l c i e l o y le parecieron tambien hermosos. Tuvo ganas de hacer una zapateta en e l a i r e , de ponerse a cantar. (p. 41) There is no direct relationship between Martin's experience of g r a t i f y i n g landscape and improved relations with the rest of mankind. In the service of the narrative's v e r i s i m i l i t u d e , transformations in the aspect of the countryside are intermittent and do not obey a normative pattern: while much of what he sees pleases him, he occasionally passes through areas of wheat f i e l d s and olive groves reminiscent of Caretas. Those 89 episodes in which the protagonist responds with s a t i s f a c t i o n to changes in the landscape serve as a fundamental, abstract precedent for other more concrete challenges to his preconceptions about the nature of l i f e . Sensations of contentment or well-being are v i r t u a l l y non-existent in the f i r s t book and only s l i g h t l y more present in the second book. Nonetheless, such pleasant experiences open a breach in his jaundiced view of l i f e : they allow him, in conjunction with other processes such as his relationship with his mentor Antonio Carden, and his own independent experiences, to confront a hitherto unknown realm of experience. And having established the protagonist's sympathy with Nature's merciful face as manifested in the landscape, the narrator then subjects the precedent to a contortion that brings t h i s theme to conform with the rest of Martin's experience in this second volume of the t r i l o g y ; that i s , a progressive disillusionment with his grandfather's dogmatic ideology. As Martin approaches Barcelona with his mentor/protector, he r e c a l l s Roque Galda's l y r i c a l exhaltation of the river Ebro. Like his enthusiastic descriptions of the marvels of Barcelona, images of the Ebro's majesty act as goals for the young protagonist, f u e l l i n g his w i l l to continue the odyssey. When the truck-driver announces to Martin that the Ebro is nearby, the protagonist's response is almost predictable: Martin se sentia agitado ante la proximidad de aquel r i o . Desde su ninez habia oido hablar de e l y lo esperaba casi conmovido, con viva sensacion de gozo anticipado. Cada vez sentia crecer mas en e l el deseo 90 de ver e l famoso Ebro. (p. 204) I r o n i c a l l y , the protagonist's long anticipated encounter with the famous river comes on the heels of his separation from Antonio Carden, seized by the Guardia C i v i l . The truck driver's absence weighs heavily on the boy who, lonely and disheartened, struggles simply to reach his intended destination. The sight of the rive r "no le impresiono" (p. 225). The narrator eluc idates: La verdad era que e l famoso Ebro a l i i andaba de capa caida; causaba poca impresion; pasaba por a l i i estrecho y menguado, con caudal escaso, asomando aqui y a l i a manchas de t i e r r a , pobladas de hierbajos sucios, sin belleza, sin grandeza ninguna. Fue para el una decepcion. Se detuvo un momento en e l puente; desde a l i i estuvo mirando melancolicamente la sucia eorriente; formaba una curva cerrada y se perdia en seguida detras de unos arboles t r i s t e s , de unos canaverales raquiticos. (p. 225) The general tone of this passage, p a r t i c u l a r l y the characterization of "arboles t r i s t e s " and "canaverales raquiticos," r e c a l l s the descriptive motif employed by Arbo for representing Caretas' v i t a l poverty. The narrator subtly allows that Martin has happened upon an uninspiring part of the r i v e r ' s course. With more than a l i t t l e irony residing in i t s resemblance to the landscape of his own home, the protagonist's disillusionment is compounded by the apparent contradiction of his grandfather's tributes to the magnificence of the Ebro. By this time, between his own experiences (some of which gainsay 91 - Roque Galda's ideology) and others' denials of the old man's i n f a l l i b i l t y , Martin's confidence in Roque Galda has been shaken, yet s t i l l not thoroughly undermined. The boy's f i r s t sight of Barcelona serves to salvage- some of his grandfather's c redi b i 1 i t y . Martin's f i n a l approach to the c i t y i s condensed into the last four pages of the second volume. In the preceeding pages, after the truck driver's arrest at the hands of the Guardia  C i v i l and Martin's d i s i l l u s i o n i n g discovery of the Ebro, there i s a s h i f t in the tempo and emphasis of the narrative: the f i n a l stages of Martin's journey are narrated s e l e c t i v e l y . Arbo describes only a few episodic experiences, such as the boy's mistaking a smaller c i t y for Barcelona and his being defrauded during an unguarded moment in a bar. Also, temporal references are scant throughout the t r i l o g y and those few that frame the action in this last chapter are i n d e f i n i t e ; for example, "largos dias fue caminando con aquella pena" (p.224) and "continu6 caminando, siempre en aquel estado de pena, de semisonambulismo, y se acercaba dia en dia a Barcelona" (p.226). The vaguest of a l l these temporal references introduces the f i n a l episode of Martin de Caretas en el campo; Martin's a r r i v a l in the outskirts of Barcelona. The narrator t e l l s us "Pasaron las semanas. E l otono empezaba a dorar los campos y Martin continuaba su camino" (p. 228). The effect of such i n d e f i n i t e temporality and i t s correspondence to the protagonist's tedious but steady progress toward the c i t y is one of dramatic contrast when i t looms 92 suddenly before him: . . lo que vio a l i i le dej6 antonito. Martin se s i n t i o perdido como nunca, i n s i g n i f i c a n t e . Estaba en e l centro de un inmenso llano; delante de e l y por los lados no veia nada; se sentia perdido, desamparado .... Lo demas en todo lo que abarcaba la mirada, eran huertos, t r i g a l e s verdes, arboles fr u t a l e s ; casas aqui y a l i a , grandes e d i f i c i o s perdidos en el verdor; y por todas partes, postes sosteniendo h i l o s , torres de hierro, altas chimeneas . . . (p. 230) Christopher Eustis notes that Caretas i s so r i g i d l y stuck in c u l t u r a l retardation that i t has yet to feel "the influence of modern ideas and modern technology." 1 Indeed, prior to his f l i g h t from the town, Martin has only second-hand knowledge of such technological innovations: when, in th i s same approach to the metropolis, he sees and hears at close range a t r a i n crossing a bridge, "permanecio, sin moverse, aterrado, con miedo de que todo se fuera abajo" (p. 229). Thus the bridge, the t r a i n , the buildings and the telephone poles, a l l elements of the urban landscape, join the greenery and fruit-bearing trees as unaccustomed features that compound the protagonist's amazement. The author then makes e x p l i c i t what he merely implies at the beginning of the second volume: En su t i e r r a no se veian llanos como aquel; no los habia. A l i a eran todo montes, hondonadas, barrancos y montes otra vez, y los pueblos pequenos, sin poder asentarse bien subiendo y bajando, doblados, torcidos de costado, y lo mismo los c u l t i v o s , los bosques; todo como aguantandose de milagro. (p. 230) 93 This r e c a l l s the f i r s t night of Martin's f l i g h t from Caretas when, faced with "un campo sin arboles, una amplia extension" (p. 11), he breathes "por primera vez." In addition, the boy's amazement is compounded by the fact that "se s i n t i o perdido" and "se sentia perdido, desamparado" (p. 230). This also resembles Martin's psychic condition at the outset of his odyssey: the f i r s t words of the text of Martin de Caretas en  el campo are "Debia de estar muy lejos de Caretas; pero no sabia donde. Caminaba, en realidad, perdido" (p. 11). The c i r c u l a r i t y of the protagonist's humor suggests that his aquaintaince with the world is not yet complete: his diverse and sundry experiences en route to the c i t y , in spite of exposing him to various manifestations of rural contryside, f a i l to inure him to the novelty of the vi s i o n before him. So tenacious i s his memory of Caretas' a r i d i t y that verdure and fruit-bearing trees s t i l l form part of his amazement. More important however, while the imposing sight of the c i t y ' s skyline gilded by the setting sun produces a reaction of greater intensity than that experienced by Martin when he sees the treeless plain on the f i r s t night of his odyssey, the parallelism between the two episodes i s s t r i k i n g . It extends the function of landscape developed in this part of the t r i l o g y . The boy's response to landscape more gr a t i f y i n g than that of Caretas i s one of t r a n q u i l i t y and subtle joy. In this case, "El corazon le palpitaba con fuerza en e l pecho; se sentia lleno de maravilla; sentia a l e g r i a , pero tambien espanto" (p. 230). The irony of Martin's similar circumstances of abandonment 94 and trepidation at the beginning and end of his journey points to his incomplete education as to the nature of the world. As the protagonist regards the c i t y ' s dreamlike appearance, he notices that in a l l the phantasmagorical movement of trains and automobiles he sees no people. Here again the essential question of the landscape's influence on i t s inhabitants is raised again. Martin wonders: " A l i i habia hombres pero, tf'como serian?" (p. 231). While, in t h i s second volume, landscape has functioned mainly as a catalyst for Martin's intimate responses, i t s acknowledged relationship to the character of men was e x p l i c i t l y established in the f i r s t volume. As the most tangible and fundamental feature that separates Caretas from "the world," i t is not surprising that Barcelona's i n i t i a l l y phantasmagorical appearance should cause astonishment in the protagonist. Given his own implicit" acceptance of Nature's influence on human behavior as embodied in his hometown, i t is not surprising that he should wonder of Barcelona's residents "icomo serian?" 95 B. ANTONIO CARDEN: HIS PHILOSOPHY The interim between mentors i s , for Martin, one of vi c i s s i t u d e s unusual even in the semi-picaresque context constructed by Arbo. Roque Galda's prejudiced view of man, serving as the boy's only frame of reference, is neither confirmed nor d e f i n i t i v e l y contradicted by the course of events up to the appearance of Antonio Carden. The protagonist's attendant confusion is only compounded by the bewildering nature of those experiences that l i e beyond the l i m i t s of the old man's philosophy. Martin's f i r s t contact with people outside of Caretas poses no challenge to his preconceptions. He i s received with oaths and h o s t i l i t y when he seeks lodging at a ranch house late into the night, "pero como era de Caretas, no se extrano"(p. 15). His next encounter, on the other hand, causes him astonishment as well as anxiety. The morning after he seeks lodging at the ranch house, he is apprehended by the Guardia C i v i l . The fearsome reputation of Spain's national police force i s a popular commonplace: Arb6 refers to i t several times in the f i r s t volume of the t r i l o g y . Roque Galda, for example, t e l l s Martin that "La Guardia C i v i l no es una broma .... Hasta los fantasmas se ponen serios cuando se trata t d e l t r i c o r n i o " (p. 75). The Guardia's reputation, however accurate or inaccurate, conforms to Martin's previous experience of i n j u s t i c e and i n s t i t u t i o n a l oppression, and in turn forms part of the boy's psychic burden. Thus i t is not surprising that the protagonist's i n i t i a l reaction to being caught i s "debia de ser 96 viernes y trece .... Como en la tarde del huerto.'Mala hierba has pisado'"(p. 16). Martin's s k i l l f u l attempts to extricate himself from the guardias' i n q u i s i t i o n are to no a v a i l . His discomfort is increased manifold when they jokingly accuse him of having stolen "las vinajeras del cura" (p. 21). This, combined with the boy's youthful credulity produces the now familiar variety of resignation common in Caretas: when the guardias determine to take Martin to their makeshift station and resolve the matter the next day, the narrator t e l l s us: "Camino de Caretas otra vez. Mala suerte. Martin no opuso r e s i s t e n c i a , con la costumbre de perder" (p. 20). In fact, for Martin, the episode develops in such a way as to represent the aforementioned accumulation of i l l fortune: i t i s a reminder of the metaphysical mayhem indigenous to Caretas. Martin r e c a l l s the ballad that begins, "El dia 13 de j u l i o ..." (p. 21) as he beds down to plot his strategy. An already ominous predicament is compounded when Senor Remigio, (whom we know to be es s e n t i a l l y jocular and good-hearted, a sympathetic guardia ), makes use of a proverb that e l i c i t s a near-Pavlovian response from Martin: "Con los refranes le c o r r i a a l punto un temblor por el cuerpo; le parecla o i r en e l l o s un ruido de cayadas, la r i s a del abuelo ..." (p. 22). The boy's experience has shown him that proverbs augur i l l rather than well for his well-being. So i t i s that Martin's s i t u a t i o n , as he perceives i t , degenerates even further: as he feigns sleep, the guardias' conversation reveals their amusement at his cred u l i t y regarding "las 97 vinajeras del cura." Unable to appreciate their sense of humor, Martin becomes furious: "El mundo . . . esta lleno de bandidos, ladrones, bromistas, majaderos. Todo e l mundo es Caretas. iCuanta razon tenia e l abuelo!"(p. 25). Just as Martin is nearly apoplectic with rage and humiliation, Senior Remigio "Se quit6 la manta, como San Martin, y la alargo sobre e l , pero entera" (p. 26). The protagonist, whose entire view of l i f e could be seen as a result of c l a s s i c a l conditioning of the Pavlovian variety, is profoundly non-plussed by the guardia's act of kindness. Infused with resignation to disaster, the pattern of progressively unlucky portents shows the extent of Martin's bias: "No acababa de s a l i r de su asombro. A l i i fallaba la f i l o s o f i a del abuelo; caia por su base y con e l l a su fe en e l . No llegaba a concebir que alguien pudiese hace<_ aquello, pero sobre todo, que fuese un guardia c i v i l " (p. 26) . Impressive as the guardia's kindness was however, Martin is unable to overcome his accustomed responses: "Estaba . demasiado dolido de la broma; tenia aun la rabia en e l cuerpo. Ademas <iNo habria a l i i una trampa escondida? <JNo buscaria e l senor Remigio ablandarle para que cantase?" (p. 26). The boy continues to feign sleep, takes advantage of the guardias' slumbering and s l i p s away from them to continue his journey. His next independent encounter also results in kindness shown him by a stranger, again in peculiar circumstances. The hapless loco of the obsessive r i v e r s i d e v i g i l shares with Martin what is the most sumptuous meal of the boy's l i f e . Again the 98 protagonist's reaction i s one of bewilderment: "Se acordaba de tantos lances de su vida pasada y empezaba a pensar que acaso en e l debia uno acercarse a los locos y huir de los cuerdos, segun estos le habian tratado" (p. 36). The curious course of events once more causes Martin to question the dogma of Roque Galda: "dentro de e l empezaba a insinuarse un carnbio. 'No son todos sustos, pensaba" (pp. 40-41). He r e c a l l s Senor Remigio's astonishing kindness. Ultimately however, "tenia muchas experiencias en contrario para f i a r con exceso" (p. 41). Almost immediately after the episode with the v i g i l a n t loco, th i s attitude of caution i s confirmed and the previous displays of kindness toward Martin are thrown into the same jaundiced perspective espoused by the boy's grandfather. As the fatigued protagonist t r i e s to hitch a ride from a passing carriage, the driver reveals himself as one of the gratuitously cruel types so familiar to the boy. Any doubts that Martin may have had as to the v i a b i l i t y of Roque Galda's philophy are d i s p e l l e d : No, no habia motivo para entusiasmarse: por cada loco que te daba de comer, habia cien cuerdos que te ensenaban e l garrote. E l mundo estaba lleno de bromistas, de aficionados a l palo. Aqui podia acordarse tambien de Juanin. ' iReina una bondad en e l mundo! iQue bondad reina, no t i o Roque?'" (p. 43). The following day, memories of recent misfortunes evanescing with hunger, Martin makes use for the f i r s t time of some of the small cache of coins given him by Roque Galda. He enters a town that resembles Caretas: "parecia un cementerio" 99 (p. 47). When he locates a bar and t r i e s to buy some food, he is subject to the aggressive i n q u i s i t i o n s of the bartender. The timely intervention of the truck driver Antonio Carden prevents the bartender's exploitation of the defenseless boy. Martin dines in peace, after which the truck driver approaches him again. Fearful of the kind of predatory opportunism manifested by the bartender, Martin "no se s i n t i o tranquilo. '<iNo vendra por e l cambio?' Tanto interes en que no se lo quitase el tabernero, <ino seria para quitarselo e l ? " (p. 50). As they converse casually and Martin wonders who w i l l come to his defense should the truck driver take advantage of the s i t u a t i o n , Antonio Carden reveals that he does not represent conventional society and i t s oppressive features. He explains that he is in f l i g h t after wrecking the truck he had been dr i v i n g : the normal channels for resolving such problems he dismisses with the statement "No me gustan los l i o s " (p. 51). With l i t t l e interest in society's structure of regulations, his display of altruism toward Martin is genuine and sincere. Also, during their i n i t i a l , casual conversation, the truck driver makes a statement which has a familiar resonance for Martin: "El mundo es una mierda" 3 (p. 51). During the course of t h i s short dialogue, they r e a l i z e their kindred nature as well as the s i m i l a r i t y of their circumstances: they agree to travel together. So i t is that Martin's period without a guardian is ended, at least temporarily. The interim i t s e l f presents a hitherto impossible context for Martin's autonomous development; seeds of doubt as to the veracity of Roque Galda's 100 philosophy are planted, d i f f e r e n t perspectives on the nature of events emerge. The protagonist's youthful s u g g e s t i b i l i t y defines his relationship with his mentor/guardians. The strength of their convictions and confidence in their ideology command Martin's personal point of view. With the advent of Antonio Carden, Martin is again exposed to a jaundiced view of l i f e and man which in some ways resembles that of his grandfather. Like Roque Galda, Antonio Carden summarizes his view of l i f e in a single phrase and, in the course of the narrative becomes uniquely i d e n t i f i e d with i t . His repeated observation that "La vida es una mierda" serves to j u s t i f y the truck driver's "insouciant i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , " as Christopher Eustis c a l l s i t . " The phrase is most often used to convey the necessity of deriving the maximum enjoyment out of l i f e , since opportunities for g r a t i f i c a t i o n are rare and unpredictable. His carefree aplomb never ceases to astonish Martin. The narrator t e l l s us that "El mecanico le explicaba a Martin cosas de la vida. La conclusion siempre era la misma. El mundo era una mierda. Siempre lo mismo, pero e l hecho no parecia preocuparle demasiado" (p. 63). This insouciance and w i l l to enjoy l i f e i s further expressed when the truck driver, discussing the nature of things with a comically melodramatic, destitute actor, enquires, "Pero, <ique le pasa a usted? Desembuche. La vida, es verdad, es una mierda, pero no hay que hacer caso, no hay que tomarselo tan a pecho" (p. 68). His hedonistic ideology at times assumes a c r i t i c a l 101 perspective. Like Roque Galda, he eschews labor as f u t i l e , undignified and inimical to happiness: iHay que ver como trabajan los hombres! Todos con la azada, echando los bofes, y en dos dias a pudrir malvas, a alimentar a l cipres. La vida es una mierda, Martin. iHay que ver como trabajan! (p. 79) This observation suggests that Antonio Carden subscribes to a p a r t i c u l a r notion of personal autonomy, though i t i s c e r t a i n l y not the conventional one. He behaves irresponsibly in terms of his society's customs ( i . e . , he flees the scene of his accident with the truck rather than face opprobrium, and avoids returning to Barcelona for fear of an inevitable committment to marriage). However, he .satisfies his personal convictions by refusing to subscribe to f u t i l e labor for the sake of convention or t r a d i t i o n . He opts for a l i f e s t y l e that affords greater potential for enjoyment: that others should chose the more d i f f i c u l t path merely emphasizes his good judgement. Although the truck driver's hedonism -- i t gives rise to repeated urgings l i k e "Hay que beber. Hay que alegrarse, la vida es una mierda" (p. 110) -- i s the dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of his ideology, his excremental view of l i f e also e n t a i l s a kind of fatalism, the l i k e s of which is expressed in the f i r s t volume of the t r i l o g y . When he and Martin witness a farmer beating a boy of about Martin's age, the protagonist becomes enraged when the truck driver offers no assistance. Antonio Carden's response is "No quieras arreglar e l mundo .... La vida, Martin, es una mierda, es un asco" (p. 56). This 1 02 attitude, which implies that such intervention would be as f u t i l e as farm labor, i s the f i n a l complement of the truck driver's e d i f i c e of hedonism. Christopher Eustis points out that the period of Martin's tutelage under Antonio Carden i s , for the most part, one of clemency and enjoyment. He notes that "one never has the impression that they are involved in a struggle for l i f e . Hunger is not a problem, for whenever they cannot l i v e off the land they have money to f a l l back on." 5 In addition to t h i s , Martin need not suffer beatings as a part of his education. The truck driver, in his function' as mentor, presents a dramatic contrast to the pessimism of Roque Galda. Whereas both employ concise phrases of p a r a l l e l structure and l i k e s i m p l i c i t y to characterize the nature of the world, they are v i r t u a l l y diametrically opposed in their emphasis. In Roque Galda's world, only harshly administered lessons serve to impart the basic education of s u r v i v a l . When constant v i g i l a n c e , caution and suspicion are fundamental exigencies of s u r v i v a l , there can be l i t t l e hope of enjoyment. The truck driver's devotion to hedonism affords the protagonist a respite from the kind of omnipresent danger, of which his grandfather was a prime exponent, that served the burden of prejudice shouldered by Martin. The result is further progress, a l b e i t tentative and gradual, toward Martin's overcoming the pessimism and resignation fomented by his grandfather. While the boy's new mentor s t i l l proffers the familiar denunciation of l i f e as t r a v a i l , his emphasis on pleasure allows Martin, i f not to 103 unravel a l l the c o n f l i c t i n g views of l i f e and ultimately to understand i t s essential nature, then at least to come to grips with s i n c e r i t y and altruism without suspecting u l t e r i o r motives. 1 04 C. IDEOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES Picaresque elements in Martin de Caretas en el campo are less i n f l u e n c i a l than in the f i r s t volume. The epigraph from L a z a r i l l o de Tormes that begins the second volume i s appropriate to Martin's situation as he leaves home: "Verdad dice este, que me cumple avivar e l ojo y avisar, pues solo soy; y pensar como me sepa valer" (p. 9). Indeed, the i n i t i a l episodes, in spite of those that feature acts of kindness or altruism, emphasize Martin's solitude and necessary caution and s e l f - r e l i a n c e . The l a t t e r however, as Eustis points out, retain p r a c t i c a l l y none of their erstwhile significance as picaresque a l l u s i o n s with the advent of the protagonist's second mentor/protector. With these t y p i c a l l y picaresque features temporarily lost to the protagonist's character, very l i t t l e of the picaro's accustomed behavior is manifested by Martin. The causes for such a change in the protagonist reside as much in elements absent from his condition as in the presence of a new guardian. For example, there is the extraordinarily absurd world of Caretas, in which the boy's undeserved reputation causes his alienation from his native medium; a conundrum in the f i r s t volume, i t exists only as a memory or c r i t e r i o n in the second. It has no value as a catalyst for picaresque behavior. The absence of more t y p i c a l l y picaresque conditions to motivate delinquent behavior leaves only revenge as a catalyst for what could be viewed broadly as the playing of a picaresque sort of prank. On one occasion, Martin kicks a bucket of f r u i t into a well to avenge a farmer's beating a boy of Martin's age 1 05 (p. 58). Shortly thereafter, he sets f i r e to one of the farmer's haystacks (p. 61). Curiously, one sees perhaps more t y p i c a l l y picaresque c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s in Antonio Carden than in the protagonist himself. The truck driver shares Martin's predilection for such vengeful pranks, which even the protagonist feels are too extreme at times. In one case, the mecanico repairs a brokendown piece of farm equipment that a group of men are laboring over. When the farmer i s less than forthcoming with a commensurate, material display of gratitude ("Bueno, adios y gracias"), Antonio s u r r e p t i t i o u s l y undoes his repairs and jettisons an essential part, making further repairs v i r t u a l l y impossible. To Martin "La broma le parecia demasiado fuerte" (p. 88). Antonio Carden scarcely resembles a c l a s s i c a l l y picaresque amo, though neither could he be considered a c l a s s i c a l l y picaresque protagonist. His generally irresponsible attitude, evasion of rigorous labor and estrangement from society's mainstream do r e c a l l certain of the picaro's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . However, i t seems that personal w i l l , an i n t e l l e c t u a l decision, causes him to opt out of conventional society, rather than being forced into i s o l a t i o n by inhospitable circumstances. Also, his genuinely carefree nature denies that t y p i c a l l y picaresque tendency to struggle for s o c i a l acceptance and stature that, in r e a l i t y , l i e s beyond the picaro's merit and a b i l i t i e s . The truck driver shares none of Pablos' and L a z a r i l l o ' s obsession with creating in their appearance the i l l u s i o n of aristocracy or g e n t i l i t y . 106 Some of Antonio Carden's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s show an a f f i n i t y with those aforementioned, broadly defined features of existen t i a l i s m . F i r s t of a l l , the basic tenet of his philosophy, "La vida es una mierda," r e f l e c t s that popular conception of existentialism as a pessimistic, anguished view of l i f e . It is true that much of the expression that existentialism finds in l i t e r a t u r e represents a dolorously absurd l i f e and man's struggle -- l i k e l y a f u t i l e one -- to make sense of i t . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , in the case of Sartre for example, exis t e n t i a l i s m is a philosophy of altruism and "stern optimism" that presupposes man's freedom to direct his own existence and emphasizes his obligation to choose and act responsibly in order to l i v e in a worthy and exemplary fashion. 6 In sum, existentialism generally suggests, be i t in a pessimistic or optimistic manifestation, that the process of a man's struggle with the vagaries of his existence is on-going. In this sense, Antonio Carden stands apart. In spite of his estrangement from society, his s e l f - r e l i a n t independence and his responsible acceptance of his choice of l i f e - s t y l e , there is a complacency in his hedonism. He seems s a t i s f i e d , at least s u p e r f i c i a l l y , with his existence and, in addition, his admitted avoidance of certain r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s could be deemed cowardice. Martin on the other hand continues to grapple with the thorny question of the nature of human existence. Ingenuous in spite of his harsh, d i s i l l u s i o n i n g experience in Caretas, his ideological autonomy is s t i l l barely i n c i p i e n t . His perception of the various concise d e f i n i t i o n s of l i f e i s oddly l i t e r a l . 107 Most of these d e f i n i t i o n s express e s s e n t i a l l y the same sentiment, from varying perspectives; El comico extraviado ("La vida del hombre sobre la Tier r a es un drama," "Es una tragedia ...," "Es un sueno es una pesadilla . . . " p . 68) and E l viejo de Alfama ("Es un l i o " p. 154) for example. This applies also to the more familiar d e f i n i t i o n s : the image derived from the truck driver's metaphor for l i f e is less l y r i c a l and evocative than Roque Galda's, but the effect is s i m i l a r . At one point Martin expresses his bewilderment at the gamut of descriptions: Martin reflexiono: "Este [el comico], que es un sueno; e l abuelo, que un golfo redondo; e l mecanico, 'es una mierda.' iMenudo l i o ! " No se sacaba en claro que era la vida, pero s i que no era una f i e s t a . A todos le debia algo. (p. 68) The truck driver's guardianship of Martin, which f o r e s t a l l s the boy's active s e l f - r e l i a n c e , also e f f e c t i v e l y retards his development of a judicious, independent view of l i f e . The protagonist i s s t i l l exposed to a kind of jaundiced perspective on human existence familiar to him, l i t e r a l l y , since b i r t h . However, even with a l l those d e f i n i t i o n s that portray l i f e as senseless anguish and t r a v a i l , there is s t i l l enormous progress toward Martin's attaining that judicious perspective on l i f e . The absence of formerly urgent hunger and ubiquitous p e r i l s , Antonio's studied avoidance of s t r i f e and Martin's own independent experiences open as never before the p o s s i b i l i t y of the protagonist's defining the terms of his own existence. In 108 Caretas, there is l i t t l e hope of autonomous personal choice: in that environment of conformity and resignation to oppressive conventions, to choose and act independently is to risk Martin's fate. The mere absence of such prevalent oppression opens a breach in the biased perspective which, through no fault of his own, burdens the protagonist. While the course of events leads Martin to puzzle over the discrepancies among his own independent experiences, their attendant s i g n i f i c a t i o n s and the p o n t i f i c a t i o n s of mentors and strangers a l i k e , Qoheleth's philosophy again seems to leave i t s impression throughout Martin de Caretas en e l campo. We saw that in the f i r s t book, aside from Roque Galda's marginal a f f i n i t i e s with the Old Testament figure, i t is the narrator who adopts the grim fatalism of E c c l e s i a s t e s . The function of Qoheleth's ideology in t h i s second volume i s subtler s t i l l . In this case, owing to Arbo's apparent schematization of this philosophical material, we are presented with another, paradoxical component of the ide o l o g i c a l whole of Qoheleth's system of thought. In the second volume of the t r i l o g y , this p a r t i c u l a r aspect of Old Testament philosophy finds i t s expression in Antonio Carden's irresponsible hedonism. While this might seem far-fetched, and any comparisons between the two must necessarily involve certain q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , the two philosophers in question begin from a similar premise; the truck driver, that "La vida es una mierda;" Qoheleth, that a l l man's pursuits are a "Vanidad de vanidades" ( E c c l . i . 2 ) . And while Qoheleth's conclusions are 1 09 more demanding and numerous than those of Martin's mentor, they agree in at least some s i g n i f i c a n t respects. For example, Scott paraphrases Qoheleth by saying "Contentment i s l i f e ' s highest good." 7 The proverbial rub, with regard to Antonio's view of l i f e , becomes apparent when we examine Qoheleth's actual words. He observes that "No hay para e l hombre cosa mejor que comer y beber y gozar de su trabajo, y vi que esto es don de Dios" ( E c c l . i i . 2 4 ) , and, perhaps more appropriate to the truck driver's ideology, that "no hay para e l otro bien que alegrarse y procurarse e l bienestar en su vida, pues e l que uno coma, beba y se goce de su trabajo, don es de Dios" ( E c c l . i i i . 1 2 - 1 3 ) . Qoheleth's one condition for t h i s pleasure-seeking i s , of course, a responsible and humble attitude that Scott c a l l s "the capacity to find enjoyment in work."8 Both Antonio Carden and Qoheleth agree as to the f u t i l i t y of a l i f e of excessive or ambitious t o i l . Even their reasoning, which leads them both to conclude that enjoyment of l i f e i s e s s e n t i a l , shows a similar l o g i c a l proceedure. The truck driver, as we have seen, declares "Hay que alegrarse, la vida es una mierda" (p. 110) and further observes "iHay que ver como trabajan los hombres!.... Todos con la azada, echando los bofes y en dos dias a pudrir malvas, a alimentar a l cipres. La vida es una mierda, Martin" (p. 79). His equation of such t o i l with l i f e ' s sorrowful character, along with his resolve to enjoyment in spite of the attendant woe, r e c a l l s Qoheleth's exemplum of "un hombre solo que no tiene sucesor, que no tiene h i j o ni hermano y no cesa nunca de trabajar ni se hartan sus ojos de 1 10 riquezas. dPara quien trabajo yo y me someto a privaciones? Tambien esto es vanidad y duro trabajo" ( E c c l . i v . 8 ) . From th i s and other observations such as "nada podra tomar de sus fatigas para l l e v a r s e l o consigo," (Eccl.v.14). The author of Ecclesiastes concludes that "es bueno comer, beber y d i s f r u t a r , en medio de tantos afanes con que se afana el hombre debajo del sol los contados dias que Dios le concede" (Eccl.v.17). The fundamental difference between the two perspectives i s evident in Scott's summation of Qoheleth's attitude: "Thus the good of l i f e is in the l i v i n g of i t . The p r o f i t of work i s in the doing of i t , not in any p r o f i t or residue which a man can exhibit as his achievement or pass on to his descendents." 9 The c r i t i c a l element here of course is the Old Testament philosopher's presupposition that labor is an inevitable feature of man's existence. Moreover, problems reside not so much in the work i t s e l f , but rather in the individual's attitude toward i t . Antonio Carden, on the other hand , not only eschews labor as a conventional means of subsistence, but also f a i l s to see any abstract p r o f i t or e d i f i c a t i o n deriving from i t . His attitude lacks the equilibrium that characterizes the humility and dignity inherent in Qoheleth's thought. The truck driver's arrogantly irresponsible attitude i s exemplified in several episodes: for example, at one point he boldly enters a private orchard and, with no concessions to furtiveness begins to s t r i p a tree of i t s f r u i t . Confronted by a furious farmer, he extricates himself from the predicament with c h a r a c t e r i s t i c aplomb, with no apparent fear or remorse (pp. 54-55). The 111 episode of his "repairing" the crippled farm equipment and i t s aftermath could serve as another example. Antonio Carden is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y unrepentant of these p a r t i c u l a r events and of his attitude as a whole. His l y r i c a l exaltations of his chosen l i f e style corroborate t h i s : No hay nada en e l mundo que valga esta vida; no hay nada como esto . . . acostarse cuando uno tiene sueno . . . levantarse cuando uno quiere y andar a la buena de Dios; comer cuando uno tiene hambre . y tiene comida, claro esta; beber cuando uno tiene sed. No tener que dar las gracias a nadie del pan que uno come . . . cantar, comer, beber y caminar, y reirse del projimo y hasta de su sombra. (p.182) Later declarations of this kind, appearing in the th i r d volume, merely confirm Antonio's intransigence in thi s irresponsible hedonism. As for Martin, the f u l l significance of the contrast between Qoheleth's and Antonio's perspectives on t o i l and pleasure w i l l not be manifest u n t i l after the protagonist's a r r i v a l in Barcelona. Otherwise, the wisdom of Ecclesiastes i s scarcely present in the second volume. There are no metaphors likening Martin d i r e c t l y to hapless rabbits caught in traps, and only a few references to l i f e ' s treacherously hidden snares (p.94). In turning now to the psychic condition of our protagonist, we see that his misfortunes are s t i l l couched in terms of his being persecuted by a seemingly i n t e l l i g e n t and selective manifestation of adversity: ominous portents often precede personal disasters that involve incredible coincidences. When Martin enters a particular town in order to buy food, for 1 12 example, he is apprehended by a farmer, one of whose haystacks the boy burned out of revenge: on his way, un gatazo negro salto ante e l , salido de un oscuro p o r t a l . Detras del gato aparecio una v i e j a . Iba vestida tambien de negro .... La vieja le recordo a la v i e j a Manita y a su burro, de aquel dia infausto de su vida, y del momento en que el intento q u i t a r l e unas algorrobas. (p. 90) An already astonishing mischance is compounded when the guardia to whom the complaint i s registered turns out to be the selfsame Senor Remigio of Martin's previous experience. The episode reminds us of the protagonist's situation in the f i r s t volume, which Eustis likens to that of Pablos and Guzman, dogged by insidious adversity: "Todas las senales negras, todos los negros augurios se habian.acumulado sobre e l , como garrotes" (p. 92). The confirmation of such omens by events c l e a r l y encourages Martin's ingenuous superstitions. The furious protagonist "maldecia su mala e s t r e l l a que le habia metido en aquel tremedal" (p. 95). While Qoheleth's references to " e l tiempo aciago" and " e l acaso" emphasize the inscrutable and indiscriminate penalties i n f l i c t e d by Providence, the focus of such misfortune in Mart in  de Caretas is on the protagonist. So i t i s that Antonio Carden's arrest by the Guardia at the end of the second book is as much Martin's i l l fortune as the truck d r i v e r ' s . This episode of i l l fortune is also amply adumbrated by ominous signs: the two t r a v e l l e r s witness two funeral processions on their way into the town. These make a profound impression on 1 1 3 the protagonist, given his exaggerated mortal fear. In addition, the truck driver experiences vague forebodings and a compulsion to flee precipitously from the bar in which, at Martin's urging, they are l i s t e n i n g to a l o c a l character recount the seizure of a famous regional outlaw at the hands of the Guardia C i v i l . The irony is not lost on the reader when two guardias enter and casually remove the mecanico. The narrator offers that "Entonces se le aclaro todo e l malestar, toda la inquietud que le habia perseguido a lo largo de aquel dia" (p.217). The period of solitude that follows sees Martin arrive in Barcelona with a minimum of calamity, notwithstanding feelings of loss and one temporary lapse in his accustomed vig i l a n c e . Insofar as our protagonist's psychic condition i s concerned (and in p a r t i c u l a r , his view of l i f e and the world), we have seen that his general ambience since leaving Caretas, along with certain of his independent experiences, has given him pause concerning the dogmatic philosophical pronouncements of his grandfather. In spite of the broad s i m i l a r i t y to Roque Galda's thought evinced by Antonio's pithy view, in addition to those of secondary characters, Martin wonders which one of the d e f i n i t i o n s i s the right one, much as the sincere Christian worries over which sect proffers the correct dogma. The ultimate effect is that, while our protagonist "No se sacaba en claro que era la vida, pero s i que no era una f i e s t a , " his own experiences and the example of the mecan ico have shown him that l i f e i s not the unrelenting t r a v a i l characterized by Roque 114 Galda. In fact Antonio communicates th i s by more than example alone. Many times he challenges Martin's preconceptions, both o r i g i n a l ones and those owed to Roque Galda: of Martin's fear of death, for example he says, "no se por que tienes tanto miedo a la muerte .... Al f i n y a l cabo, <ique es morir? Morir es dormir, descansar" (p. 116). It i s here that we are told e x p l i c i t l y , perhaps for the f i r s t time, Martin's assessment of l i f e : " e l no estaba conforme con lo que decia e l mecanico; con s61o nornbrar a aquella senora temblaba todo e l , se helaba de t e r r o r . Le gustaba mucho la vida" (p. 117). These thoughts come on the heels of his successful escape (with Antonio's help) from the j a i l c e l l where he was kept for setting f i r e to the farmer's haystack. While they could be attributed to the euphoria attendant upon his l i b e r a t i o n , there i s more to the episode than just his escape: in hot career from the j a i l Martin i s again intercepted by the seemingly ubiquitous Senor Remigio. This time the sympathetic guardia gives the boy a sardine sandwich and counsels him to f l e e . In discussing the episode with the truck driver, Martin i n i t i a l l y f a i l s to mention Remigio's kindness. About his seizure, Martin remarks "iQue susto pase .... Susto aqui, susto a l i a . . . dSiempre es asi la vida?" (p. 115). After their aforementioned dialogue on death, the truck driver again allows that l i f e is not a l l disaster and adversity: "No nos pongamos serios; ahora, a v i v i r ... Es una mierda, pero a veces tampoco esta mal" (p. 117). This is a rare admission for Antonio Carden: the proposition that " l a vida es una mierda" and rarely tenders opportunities 115 for joy or g r a t i f i c a t i o n serves as his j u s t i f i c a t i o n for hedonistic i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . He takes f u l l advantage of his heightened capacity to enjoy l i f e , but he never verbally concedes that l i f e provides such opportunites. When Martin f i n a l l y reveals Senor Remigio's display of altruism to the mecanico, the response i s one of understandable in c r e d u l i t y . Antonio himself labors under an ingenuously s i m p l i s t i c , jaundiced view of l i f e . He t e l l s the boy "Esto solo pasa en Lourdes, Martin" (p. 119). Martin's ignorance of the famous grotto e l i c i t s the following explanation: Un lugar donde resucitan los muertos, andan los cojos, oyen los sordos, por la gracia de la madre de Dios; un lugar donde los c i v i l e s dejan marchar a los presos y les dan encima pan y una sardina. (p. 119) The truck driver subsequently establishes a d i a l e c t i c that p i t s Caretas, a v i r t u a l h e l l on earth, against Lourdes, the place of clemency, benevolence and miracles; in short, an earthbound paradise. He t e l l s Martin "Lo mejor sera que pasemos .... Estas cosas solo pasan en Lourdes y aqui, como quien dice, estamos aun en Caretas" (p. 120). The truth, and what Martin ultimately demonstrates to a l l ( p a r t i c u l a r l y to Roque Galda), i s that the real essence of man's lot resides for the most part in the proverbial happy medium. In the meantime however, he has yet to assimilate the balanced view of l i f e that experience pr o f f e r s . S t i l l , his experience in the second book, with and without the truck driver's guidance, signals enormous progress from his indoctrination at the hands of Roque Galda. In 1 1 6 addition to the aforementioned environmental factors, the boy's relationship with his mentor is of great importance. He experiences a kind of fellowship and warmth never afforded him even by members of his own family. There are moments in which Antonio's s i n c e r i t y , l i k e the p r a c t i c a b i l i t y of his wisdom, are cast into doubt. The ingenuous protagonist suffers b r i e f l y , but these episodes serve to i l l u s t r a t e to the boy the f a l l i b i l i t y of more "experienced" adults and the in e f f i c a c y of such sweeping notions as " l a vida es una mierda." Martin's successful relationship with Antonio Carden gainsays the grim solitude implied in Roque Galda's ideology. The truck driver's grudging concession that l i f e "a veces tampoco esta mal" signals the unfolding process of Martin's access to the truth of man's condition on earth, and i l l u s t r a t e s -to the protagonist the limitations of the broadly pessimistic assessments to which his f i r s t two mentors are given. The ultimate significance of a l l this is the boy's development of autonomous f a c u l t i e s of judgement. Toward the end of the second volume of the t r i l o g y , Martin reacts to Antonio's description of Lourdes by thinking "Este se burla" (p. 119). This, among other things, evinces the process of increasing autonomy, irregular and nearly imperceptible, which reaches f u l f i l l m e n t in Martin de Caretas en la ciudad. 1 17 D. NOTES TO CHAPTER IV 1 Eustis, p. 22. 2 Sebastian Juan Arbo, Martin de Caretas en el campo (Madrid: Espasa Calpe, 1972), p. 11. Subsequent references to this edition appear in the text. 3 In Arbo's text, the word mierda often , appears as an i n i t i a l rrr^  followed by e l l i p s i s . It i s so represented in every case in which the mecanico observes that " l a vida es una mierda." Curiously, in other contexts, the word mierda, along with other taboo words, i s reproduced in f u l l . Whether this i s the author's wish or an example of the vagaries of the censor, for the purpose of this study I have taken the l i b e r t y of reproducing i t s complete form. " Eustis, p. 29. 5 Eustis, p. 27. 6 See Jean Paul Sartre, "Existentialism is a Humanism" in Existe n t i a l i s m from Dostoevsky to Sartre, ed. Walter Kaufmann (New York: World, 1956), pp. 287-311. 7 Scott, p. 231. 118 V. EN LA CIUDAD A. THE FUNCTION OF LANDSCAPE We recognize that a key factor in Arbo's treatment of landscape i s the relationship between Caretas' harsh rural environment and the ignorant brutishness of i t s people. As we saw in the second volume of the t r i l o g y , the relevance of this bond was transformed and diminished r e l a t i v e to i t s function in the f i r s t volume. For example, we saw remnants of Martin's personification of morbidity in features of the rural countryside, among other vestiges of Arbo's treatment of landscape in the f i r s t volume. However, more important in Martin de Caretas en e l campo is the protagonist's gradual acquaintance with more g r a t i f y i n g landscape and more c i v i l behavior, which in turns wears away at his acquired prejudice. The e f f e c t , then, is one of subtle disillusionment with regard to his indoctrination at the hands of Roque Galda and, in a broader sense, through the influence of the benighted town i t s e l f . A similar process occurs in the t h i r d volume, although the relati o n s h i p between Caretas' physical environment and i t s inhabitants i s again of indirect pertinence. In Martin de  Caretas en la ciudad, a special relationship between the urban ambience and the people of Barcelona is pivotal insofar as the function of landscape is concerned. As in the second volume, the consequence of this function i s to counter an element of Roque Galda's prejudice and to offer the protagonist an 1 19 ideological a l t e r n a t i v e . At the beginning of Martin's odyssey through the country, he bears a weight of prejudices, inherited from his grandfather, that are relevant to his condition of errant solitude. As he enters Barcelona, he bears a burden of different misconceptions, likewise pertinent to his presence in the c i t y . Presupposing a relationship between urban people and their environment, these misconceptions have their o r i g i n in Roque Galda's exalted and idealized descriptions of the c i t y , which inspire Martin to go there. Appropriately, the th i r d volume opens with a memory of one of Roque Galda's descriptions of the c i t y , punctuated by Martin's astonished exclamations as he recognizes already familiar landmarks. The f i d e l i t y of the old man's portrayal of these physical features serves to rescue his reputation from the dis c r e d i t i t suffered on the protagonist's discovery of the Ebro. When the boy f i n a l l y confronts the statue of Christopher Columbus at Barcelona's harbor, "parecia que se conocieran de antiguo, que hubiese de bajar a l i i para saludarle. 'iHola!, Martin.' Y e l : 'iHola!, senor Colon!' Y e l senor Colon: 'Ya lo has visto Martin, soy yo. No te engano tu abuelo.'" 1 This fantastic conversation, the product of a youthful imagination, manifests the profound and durable influence of Roque Galda. The old man was l i t e r a l l y the only authority figure to take a personal interest in Martin during the boy's formative years, acting as both parent and teacher. Implicit trust in adults and the later experience of disillusionment at their f a l l i b i l i t y are common phenomena in the psychological development of young 1 20 people. Bound to Martin's love for his grandfather i s a w i l l to have f a i t h in his dogma: since the boy owes a l l his knowledge to the old man, to brook contempt for that knowledge i s to draw the nature of his very existence into question. Therefore, throughout the second volume, Martin reacts defensively to aspersions cast on Roque Galda's wisdom, even after immediate experience has begun to underscore i t s f a u l t s . With his journey through the country turning out to be an exercise in "desengano," this corroboration of Roque Galda's knowledge is welcomed by the protagonist, especially in t h i s time of insecurity and confusion. While the old man's l y r i c a l images of Barcelona seemed fantastic to the boy in the austere context of his hometown, his i n i t i a l experience of the urban landscape exceeds even the heightened expectations he owes to his grandfather: "Se sentia maravillado, emocionado. Todo lo que le habia dicho e l abuelo era exacto. Parecia que estuviese sonando" (p. 12). In the f i n a l pages of the second volume, the c i t y seen from afar is a dreamlike vi s i o n that causes amazement and trepidation in the protagonist. To t h i s now is added the vindication of Roque Galda and Martin's immersion in an overwhelming plethora of sensory stimuli that results in a kind of stupefaction, compounded at every turn by successively amazing sights. Las  Ramblas proffer "iCuantas f l o r e s , Dios! iCuanta gente!" (p. 12), an unaccustomed spectacle for a native of Caretas. Near the waterfront, seeing an enormous tr a i n at close proximity, "aqui en l a ciudad, en medio de la c a l l e , le hizo un efecto 121 formidable, le maravillo, y lo estuvo mirando absorto, fascinado" (p. 13). What the narrator c a l l s "aquel pasar de asombro en asombro" (p. 15) comprises, among other wonders, the boy's f i r s t glimpse of the sea, the kaleidoscopic aspect of myriad vessels in the harbor, a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of genteel-looking people, shops proffering exotic foodstuffs and conspicuous consumer goods, automobiles and a l l manner of buildings. One is tempted to invoke the term "culture shock" to describe the reaction of the boy from the natural, material and s p i r i t u a l desert that is Caretas. It i s i r o n i c a l l y appropriate,then,that the phantasmagorical culmination of Martin's f i r s t day in the c i t y i s Antonio Gaudi's Casa Mila, known popularly as "La Pedrera." Like Columbus' statue, i t holds a special fascination for the boy owing to Roque Galda's frequent references to i t . Barcelona offers several examples of Gaudi's unique st y l e , which f l i e s in the face of the symmetrical and r e c t i l i n e a r conventions of architecture. When Martin happens upon the house, i t s surreal appearance -- "Como un acordeon roto; como s i estuviera borracha" (p. 15) -- causes him to think that "En su vida habia v i s t o casa mas extrana, ni mas fea, segun las nociones que el tenia" (p. 16). Gaudi is considered one of the most daring and innovative of modern ar c h i t e c t s , and Martin's notions that the house i s strange and ugly underscores his aesthetic s i m p l i c i t y and earthy pragmatism. There is also some irony in the boy's opinion of the unorthodox structure: the house represents the extreme of Barcelona's opposition to the austere world of Caretas. Such examples of avant garde culture are usually 122 accessible only to urban populations and Roque Galda has told the boy that "'iCasas como aquella, Martin, solo se ven en Barcelona!'" (p. 16). Thus i t forms part of the old man's panorama of the c i t y ' s superiority. Further, i t serves the aforementioned purpose of reestablishing Roque Galda's c r e d i b i l i t y and in turn completes that e d i f i c e of misconceptions that gives r i s e to another round of d i s i l l u s i o n i n g episodes. At the end of Martin's f i r s t day amid the urban confusion, i t s intense and a l i e n character e l i c i t s a nostalgic response from the protagonist: Se sentia cansado; estaba ya harto de palacios; harto de luces, de movimiento y de ruidos, casi mareado. Sentia deseos de s a l i r de aquel maremagnum, de encontrarse solo, con e l c i e l o y las e s t r e l l a s , con e l campo donde cantaban los g r i l l o s , a l que estaba tan acostumbrado . . . . Estaba, sin embargo, en las Ramblas e iba en busca del campo . . . . (pp. 1 9 -20) His immersion in this a l i e n medium results in disorientation and a sense of abandonment. According to the narrator, at this juncture i t is the boy's b e l i e f in the imminent return of Antonio Carden that sustains him in spite of his misgivings. More to the point however i s his "fuerza de adaptacion maravillosa, fruto de su esplendida experiencia" (p. 22). On a most fundamental l e v e l , i t i s not surprising that the enormous gulf between the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l retardation of Caretas and the technological modernity of Barcelona should awe and dismay the protagonist. However,, when we learn that Martin "habia recobrado rapidamente el dominio de s i mismo" (p. 22), we 1 23 recognize the more abstract function of a key element in Arbo's conception of landscape, that i s , i t s influence on human behavior. As we have seen, in Martin's i n i t i a l , s u p e r f i c i a l exposure to the c i t y , the boy's esteem for his grandfather's sagacity is reconfirmed after the many challenges to i t on the journey through the countryside. Attendant upon the ideological whole that is Roque Galda's philosophy i s the notion, expressed frequently by Martin in the f i r s t and second volumes, that urban people ( i . e . those from Barcelona) are superior in p r a c t i c a l knowledge and so c i a l s k i l l s . The old man's apparent wisdom, and p a r t i c u l a r l y his confidently dogmatic pronouncements on the nature of l i f e and man, lead Martin to think "Era nada menos que de Barcelona. Parecia imposible que . . . desde aquella ciudad tan grande, tanchermosa, hubiese ido a parar a Caretas, y en aquella casa." 2 In the second volume of the t r i l o g y , Antonio Carden's example inspires a similar kind of near reverence. His insouciant audacity in p i l f e r i n g f i g ' s in the presence of their owner causes Martin to marvel " 'Debe de ser de Barcelona . cosas asi solo las saben hacer los de Barcelona; hay que ser de a l i i para saber andar por e l mundo.'"3 Notwithstanding t h i s association of savoir f a i r e with urban breeding, Martin is moved to wonder "dcomo serian?" of Barcelona's inhabitant's when he catches his f i r s t glimpse of the c i t y from afar: there are no signs of l i f e in the bustling resplendance and he has yet to see a native in his natural habitat. When he f i n a l l y sees these c i t y dwellers in the thick 124 of the chaotic urban milieu, his respect for their worldly wisdom i s compounded by their apparent g e n t i l i t y and refinement, q u a l i t i e s unknown in Caretas. By virtue of their elegant dress, th i s special class of people i s an integral factor in the sumptuous v i s i o n that accompanies Martin's introduction to the c i t y : Martin miraba ahora a las personas, a los "senores;" todos eran "senores" a l i i , o las senoras; todas eran tambien "senoras." iQue lujo! iQue finura Desde e l primer dia, la gente, los de Barcelona, le habian despertado admiracion; miraba con la boca abierta. Pasaban serios; pasaban con sus t r a j e s , sus estupendos abrigos -- iQue bien debian de i r para e l invierno! --, lejanos, como s i dijesen: "Soy de Barcelona." (p. 14) Thus the character of these people, as Martin imagines i t , is as worthy of admirat ion "as the material examples of the c i t y ' s grandeur: the gentry was a minority in Caretas, where the gap between upper and lower class was manifest. In t h i s case, the elegance and sophisticated mien of the people are even more impressive to the boy for their seeming uniformity and omnipresence. Perhaps the essential feature of Martin's observation above however i s his attention to their mode of dress. One detects a note of longing when the protagonist, a t t i r e d l i t e r a l l y in rags, observes "ique bien debian de i r para e l invierno!," no doubt r e c a l l i n g the brutal winters of Caretas. Martin concludes from this experience, in addition to his preconceptions, that these people constitute an admirably superior c l a s s . At no time does the narrator suggest that such 1 25 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s u p e r f i c i a l and deceptive as they are, cannot be acquired by the protagonist. Indeed, his f l i g h t from Caretas is predicated upon the promise of self-betterment. At this juncture Martin s t i l l perceives such s u p e r f i c i a l i t i e s as substantive. In addition, he has reason to believe that one's mere presence in Barcelona can allow for psychological as well as material improvements. Roque Galda cautiously t e s t i f i e s : Si ves a uno que camina y a cada dos pasos vuelve la cabeza, es de Caretas. Les ha quedado esto de los sustos pasados. Antes de acercarte a e l , asegurate de quien es; es verdad que a l i i se mudan, se ablandan; pero de todos modos, no te confies demasiado. (p. 1 1 ) In this observation we see another example of the d i a l e c t i c of these two a n t i t h e t i c a l realms. In other cases, contrasts are expressed solely in terms of physical dimensions, e.g. "'Hay una plaza que se llama "de Cataluna." En e l l a caben tres Caretas, con su i g l e s i a y todo, y aun sobra espacio.'"" In this case Roque Galda makes an i m p l i c i t but cogent commentary on the people of Caretas and Barcelona and their respective worlds. Given Caretas' well established ill-fame, and in spite of the old man's cautionary tone, to say that immigrants from Martin's hometown "se ablandan" is to t e s t i f y to Barcelona's salubrious character. In the same descriptive monologue, Roque Galda makes another casual observation that epitomizes one of the t r i l o g y ' s important themes, couched in a description of the Plaza de Cataluna: 1 26 En un angulo de la plaza, hay una mujer desnuda, agachada en un campo de f l o r e s ; parece de verdad; es de piedra. Esto ocurre a l i i en muchas cosas; parecen verdad y son mentira; son puras f i l f a s . No te dejes enganar . (p. 11) This statement appears on the f i r s t page of Martin de Caretas en  la ciudad and i t s service to Arbo's sense of irony could hardly be more e f f e c t i v e . F i r s t of a l l , for one who intimately knows the role of deceiver (e.g. his ruse • involving the trunk that contains his "fortune"), he has also contributed to Martin's s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to false appearances through idealized representations of Barcelona. Secondly, after having invoked th i s memory of the old man's monologue, the protagonist f a i l s to take heed of this timely admonition on his f i r s t day in the c i t y . In any case, having become accustomed to both encouraging and disheartening experiences of disillusionment, Martin's admiration for the residents of Barcelona is shortlived: "A los tres dias estaba decepcionado" (p. 21). In addition, his opinion of them s h i f t s to the opposite extreme. Rather than the d i g n i f i e d sophisticates he had imagined "eran, por e l contrario, unos grandes bobos, los mas simples que habia en e l mundo" (p. 22). For example, Martin witnesses a large and impassioned crowd congregated around a tree in which a cat has stranded i t s e l f . The crowd swells u n t i l the thoroughfare i s blocked, requiring police to remedy the congestion. In another case, a quarrel between two men becomes a comically chaotic furore, again drawing the attention of large numbers of i d l e passers-by: "Martin estaba asombrado, no lo comprendia. Habia vi s t o dos o tres casos parecidos; por cualquier boberia ya estaba la gente 127 amontonada inquiriendo . . . alborotando" (p. 22). As Martin begins to forge personal relationships in the c i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y with the l i t t l e golfo J u a n i l l o and sereno /mentor Senor Torio, he emerges from his prejudice -- the issue of extremes of opinion to a more balanced view of c i t y people. Before these personal relationships develop however, Martin does find a part of the c i t y whose inhabitants make him feel at home. Near the customs-house, the boy happens upon a l i v e l y street scene in which he witnesses, among other things: ninos que ensayaban ya en los trucos; mujeres pintadas, con vestidos de colores y mucho metal en las - munecas, que llamaban, a l pasar, a los hombres; parecia como s i estuviesen siempre un poco de f i e s t a , siempre en plan de viva la a l e g r i a ; estaban a todas horas a l acecho, a ver s i pasaba algun tonto. Eran como eazadores en invierno -- asi lo pens6 Martin preparando l i g a s , lazos, trampas. (p. 24) This scene, while stimulating Martin's senses in a fashion similar to that of his e a r l i e r experience with urban bustle, betrays a difference in the participants' attitude. The purposeful, well-dressed c i t i z e n s that Martin f i r s t saw were described as "serios." We also infer that these constituted the same urban class to be inordinately fascinated by i n s i g n i f i c a n t events. On the other hand, these street r e v e l l e r s not only show a joie de vivre, but their larcenous intriguing e l i c i t s empathy in Martin: t h i s urban underclass conducts i t s a f f a i r s according to the p r i n c i p l e s that guided Roque Galda in his education of Martin. In fact the boy is relieved to discover a segment of the urban population not given to gratuitous s i l l i n e s s . Arbo describes two swindles witnessed by Martin, to which 1 28 the boy has almost i d e n t i c a l reactions. The f i r s t i s a case of absurd street theater in which an already unhealthy looking man l i e s on the sidewalk with an enormous stone on his chest. Another man with a large hammer str i k e s the stone repeatedly "con brio, con a l e g r i a " (p. 25) for the purpose of breaking i t , thereby constituting a spectacle worthy of remuneration from a crowd of on-lookers. When the feat is accomplished, the boy charged with passing the hat dashes off with the receipts, leaving dejected participants. Martin has sympathy for them, "pero se reia tambien viendo l a ligereza del rapaz" (p. 26). The other swindle is the well-known "timo de las misas:" i t concerns an old woman who, f a l l i n g victim to her own greed ends up with an envelope f u l l of newspaper clippings which she had thought were bank notes. Again Martin feels p i t y , "pero le hacia r e i r e l truco; le hacia tambien r e i r la boberia de esta, que creia que iba a hacerse r i c a de golpe" (p. 28). Thus mitigated his disappointment at the existence of such foolishness in the c i t y , Martin concludes at thi s early juncture: iQue bien estaba Barcelona! Cada dia descubria cosas nuevas. Tambien aqui habia trampas a cada paso, y aqui era mas d i f i c i l descubrirlas; todos iban iqual, en sus traj e s . Aqui nadie podia adivinar donde estaban los p i l l o s , los ladrones, los granujas; pero no cabia duda que estaban; a veces, le parecia que lo eran todos. (p. 28) The above quotation reveals that the protagonist i s beginning to come to grips with the thorny problem of deceptive appearances. Also revealed i s a curious element that plays an important part 1 29 in Martin's perception of urban people. It must be born in mind that the protagonist goes about dressed l i t e r a l l y in rags, and must appear grievously impoverished to the objective observer. His tat t e r s are occasionly the source of humiliation for Martin, and are a constant reminder of his humble o r i g i n s . Although he i n i t i a l l y perceives a l l barceloneses as "senores," and later sees "marineros borrachos" and "mujeres pintadas" (p. 24), he seems to equate them a l l by virtue of the state of their a t t i r e , -as opposed to his p i t i a b l e t a t t e r s : "todos iban igual, en sus tr a j e s . " F a i l i n g to perceive class differences among these d i f f e r e n t segments of the urban population, Martin further associates the urbanites with the notion that "habia trampas a cada paso." In previous expressions of this idea, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the f i r s t volume, these snares in the boy's path are mainly a function of hos t i l e mischance. People , while often agents of the cosmic conspiracy, are usually aided by unlucky coincidence in their persecution of the protagonist. In the case of these c i t y folk, they are v i r t u a l l y synonymous with the proverbial traps along man's path. Worse s t i l l , their uniformity in the boy's eyes suggests to him that the workings of fortune are even more random: no one, Martin believes, can d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the criminals and the decent folk. S t i l l , the protagonist welcomes the notion that "no todos eran bobos en aquella ciudad" (p. 28). What this discovery s i g n i f i e s to Martin i s a familiar pattern of human behavior and a kind of so c i a l order to which he i s accustomed. This period, marked by the boy's condition of solitude, stongly resembles 1 30 Martin's state of abandonment at the beginning of the second volume. It is during these intervals without the guidance of a mentor that the function of landscape is most dynamic. To one who " v i v i a en contacto con la t i e r r a , " the suggestions of the physical aspects of landscape are an intimate factor in the boy's moods. In addition, a relat i o n s h i p between human behavior and these d i f f e r e n t faces of man's environment i s presupposed: Martin ingenuously accepts the notion that certain environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s guarantee a given pattern of behavior. In the second and th i r d volumes, these intervals in which landscape exercises i t s greatest influence on the protagonist coincide with an i n i t i a l consolidation of his bias: despite experiences of mixed character, some of which run counter to. his prejudice, the boy f i n a l l y resolves to be v i g i l a n t , suspicious and s e l f - r e l i a n t just at the moment he i s about to forge a relati o n s h i p with his next mentor. This bias, along with his experiences to the contrary, constitutes the c r u c i a l d i a l e c t i c through which the ideological foundation of the second and t h i r d volumes emerges. In Martin de Caretas en la ciudad, the protagonist is impressed by many experiences that contradict his acquired bias. His friendship with Jaime, an erstwhile enemy in Caretas, is an example. Another--the deciding factor in his genuine, f i n a l a c q u i s i t i o n of a balanced view of l i f e - - i s his protection and tutelage at the hands of Senor Torio, the humble sereno. With the advent of this mentor, the dynamic p a r t i c i p a t i o n of landscape i s displaced and i t s function thereafter is largely 131 i m p l i c i t . In the second and t h i r d volumes, the s u p e r f i c i a l value of landscape is one of contrast to the protagonists's benighted place of o r i g i n . This in turn is inextricably bound to landscape's supposed intimate determination of i t s inhabitants behavior. As a c r i t e r i o n for judging people, landscape f a i l s Martin. So i t is that the boy's concentration s h i f t s away from the ephemeral suggestions of, or acquired biases about landscape in i t s determinist function, and succumbs to the more tangible, protective presence of, in this case, Senor Torio. 1 32 B. SENOR TORIO, HIS PHILOSOPHY Senor Torlo is the humblest of a l l of Martin's mentors, and paradoxically, in the f i n a l analysis, the most i n f l u e n t i a l . His philosophy is one of pragmatism and moderation, and betrays none of the negative or f a t a l i s t i c overtones that characterize the ideologies of Roque Galda and Antonio Carden. With regard to Martin's previous two mentors, we saw that his grandfather's ideology comprised elements associated with the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the picaro: vigilance, caution, astute recourse to tri c k e r y for self-preservation. In the case of Antonio Carden, we recognize in his philosophy elements of a pessimistic, broadly interpreted view of l i f e from an e x i s t e n t i a l point of view; the vexing absurdity of l i f e , the f u t i l i t y of adhering to fatuous s o c i a l conventions and the ensuing condition of solitude wrought by such a view. In both mentors we saw a f f i n i t i e s with the philosophy presented in Ecclesiastes. Insofar as Senor Torio is concerned, his ideology i s so succinct, and so thoroughly resembles certain aspects of Qoheleth's ideology, that v i r t u a l l y a l l discussion of Ecclesiastes as i t relates to Martin de  Caretas en la ciudad w i l l gravitate around the observations and counsels of the humble sereno. This is the culmination of a process that spans the entire t r i l o g y : with each volume, Qoheleth's pragmatic cosmology becomes increasingly concentrated in the philosophy of the mentors. That is to say, in the f i r s t volume those assertions that resemble Qoheleth's very words, and their underlying ideas, belong mainly to the narrator. Roque Galda's a f f i n i t y with t h i s 1 33 Old Testament philosophy is marginal. In the second volume, the hedonism of Antonio Carden -- as well as certain other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s -- is expressed in terms that p a r a l l e l s p e c i f i c phrases from Ecclesiastes, but the underlying ideology lacks the moral conditions imposed by Qoheleth. In the philosophies of both mentors, there are likenesses to elements of existen t i a l i s m . The elements of Senor Torio's philosophy that distinguish i t for i t s resemblence to Ecclesiastes are those of clemency, a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and humility that are lacking in Martin's other two mentors. The "positive" nature of Senor Torio's ideology also evokes the Sartrian concept of existentialism as an instrument of man's betterment. The sereno r e f l e c t s several aspects of Qoheleth's wisdom: i t i s in Senor Torio that Arbo fleshes out his schematicized representation of Qoheleth's wisdom. The prime vehicle for thi s exposure of the more optimistic and moral face of Ecclesiastes is the sereno's " f i l o s o f i a del clavo." Soon after Senor Torio intervenes in Martin's v i t a l trajectory and offers him companionship and a nocturnal refuge, he proffers an unsol i c i t e d monoloque on the nature of existence for the protagonist's benefit just as previous mentors had done. This " f i l o s o f i a del clavo" epitomizes the sereno's humility and indifference to the ambitious struggle for wealth and s o c i a l status. This is not to equate him with Antonio Carden's sort of indifference, however: one of the sereno's f i r s t counsels to the protagonist is that he should work, a notion that we know would have h o r r i f i e d both Antonio Carden and Roque Galda. Senor Torio, l i k e Qoheleth, 1 34 speaks of one's underlying attitude toward labor as i t relates to excessive ambition or the temporal well-being of the s p i r i t : "Todos los o f i c i o s tienen sus pros y sus contras, Martin . . . . Hay que resignarse porque hay poco para escoger, y cada dia menos . . . . Hay mas hombres para los o f i c i o s que o f i c i o s para los hombres la mayoria tenemos que . . . coger lo que podemos, no lo que queremos. No se puede estar, Martin, esperando un poco a l a i r e , como los milanos; acaso a e l l o s los alimente Dios, asi lo cuentan por ahi, y yo no me meto en e l i o ; yo solo se que e l que espera de lo alto esta arreglado. Hay que asirse a un clavo, aun que sea tan vi e j o , tan oxidado, tan podrido como este mio. E l caso es no perderse, no i r por ahi a salto de mata . . . " (p. 72). When the sereno speaks of resignation, i t i s not a question of fatalism or cowardice but an eminently rat i o n a l sense of pragmatism. This attitude is further envinced when Senor Torio t e l l s Martin "hay que asirse a un clavo . . . Y no te creas que todo sean g l o r i a s . . . las apariencias enganan; no te f i e s de apariencias" (p. 73). In these statements, Senor Torio counsels the protagonist, rather i m p l i c i t l y , that the ambitious pursuit of unreasonable, idealized goals for the purpose of self-aggrandizement i s , to paraphrase Qoheleth, f u t i l i t y and grasping at the wind. The sereno l a t e r makes these sentiments more e x p l i c i t : "Me he convencido de que en esta perra vida solo es f e l i z e l que se conforma con lo que tiene. Veo muchos que tienen riquezas, que viven con l u j o ; cuando considero lo que les cuesta, dejo de tenerles envidia." (p. 213) While these declarations of Senor Torio's f a i l to show the 1 35 kind of s t r i k i n g , nearly l i t e r a l , p a rallelism with Ecclesiastes that i s apparent elsewhere in Arbo's t r i l o g y , the fundamental ideology shows a strong kinship with that of Qoheleth. Of the several aspects of this Old Testament wisdom re f l e c t e d by the sereno, the p r i n c i p a l ones are an exhortation to avoid the f u t i l e pursuit of wealth and the related notions of the vanity of ambition and the value of accepting one's true l i m i t a t i o n s . We have already cited R.Y.B. Scott's interpretation to the effect that "The p r o f i t of work i s in the doing of i t , not in any p r o f i t or residue which a man can exhibit as his achievement." Senor Torio admits that his vocation is a humble one, but he knows i t affords him a kind of dignity denied those whose s o c i a l status is derived from their wealth. He relates to Martin the story of the marquis whose friends abandoned him upon his f i n a n c i a l ruin: " ' E l ser pobre, Martin, tiene esta ventaja: que s i tienes un amigo sabes que lo es de verdad'" (p. 215). 5 Scott also summarizes Qoheleth by stating that man "can find serenity only in coming to terms with the unalterable conditions of his existence, and in enjoying i t s real but limited s a t i s f a c t i o n s . " 6 This evokes Qoheleth's repeated observation that "No hay para e l hombre cosa mejor que comer y beber y gozar de su trabajo" (Eccl.v.16). In Arbo's characterization of Senor Torio, enjoyment i s not an e x p l i c i t element of the sereno's vocation, i f our c r i t e r i o n i s a l i t e r a l approach to Ecclesiastes. The boy's guardian discharges his duties s t o i c a l l y (Martin as a representative of Spain's most depressed class sees irony in Senor Torio's voluntary vigilance 1 36 over the estates of the wealthy). There i s however no bitterness in his kind of resignation. His assertion that "solo es f e l i z e l que se conforma con lo que tiene" evokes the s p i r i t , rather than the l e t t e r of Ecclesiastes' text. Qoheleth underscores the absurdity of man's esteem for material wealth which is devoid of any transcendental value: he describes his own prodigious accomplishments and his accumulation of unprecedented wealth only to conclude that "mire todo cuanto habian hecho mis manos y todos los afanes que a l hacerlo tuve, y vi que todo era vanidad y apacentarse de viento" ( E c c l . i i . 1 1 ) . While Qoheleth uses his own example to emphasize the ephemeral value of wealth, Senor Torio provides examples from the l i v e s of people he has known through his vocation. The sereno recounts the story of a German family whose wealth provides no buffer for a c&ain of grievous calamities that culminate in madness and death. The destitute marquis, a familiar eccentric in Senor Torio's neighborhood, is another victim of fortune's indiscriminate i r e : " ' Ya lo ves, Martin: tenia millones y no le quedo ni un r e a l ; tenia amigos que, de escucharlos, se habrian matado por e l ; se fueron los reales, desaparecieron los amigos'" (p. 213). In these two examples, the r i c h are not g u i l t y by virtue of their wealth, nor is wealth the source of their misfortunes: i t merely f a i l s to serve a transcendental purpose commensurate with the esteem accorded i t . However, Senor Torio also acknowledges the sin of greed which in turn r e c a l l s Qoheleth's admonishments against consuming the precious g i f t of l i f e in pursuit of e s s e n t i a l l y valueless 1 37 wealth. In Ecclesiastes we are told "El que ama el dinero no se ve harto de e l , y e l que ama los tesoros no saca de e l l o s provecho alguno; tambien esto es vanidad" (Eccl.v.9). The sereno dispatches the subject with the concise observation that "La plata vuelve locos a todos" (p. 159). This brings us back to the notion, stated e x p l i c i t l y by Senor Torio, i m p l i c i t l y by Qoheleth, that i t is wise to recognize the reasonable li m i t a t i o n s of one's existence and function within them. We have noticed that Martin de Caretas comprises elements of a broadly and popularly understood interpretation of existentialism. Many of these same elements could be applied to Ecclesiastes, insofar as i t s "ideal moral . . . esta muy lejos de la revelacion evangelica," 7 implying that man must accept his r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for himself since God does not intervene dramatically on his behalf. It i s interesting to note at t h i s juncture, having established the empathetic ideologies of Qoheleth and Senor Torio, the d e f i n i t i o n given to the term "despair" by Jean Paul Sartre: "It merely means that we l i m i t ourselves to a reliance upon that which is within our w i l l s , or within the sum of the p r o b a b i l i t i e s which render our action f e a s i b l e . " 8 In the address from which this d e f i n i t i o n i s drawn, Sartre undertakes a defense of existentialism from popular' misconceptions and attempts to portray t h i s philosophical attitude as one with c o l l e c t i v e applications and benefits, rather than introversion or self-obsession. In any case, the "first steps in this process are the individual's accepting r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for his actions and choices, and also accepting 138 the vagaries of our existence on i t s rigorous terms, not our own. To quote the wisdom of Qoheleth, "Lo tuerto no puede enderezarse, y lo f a l t o no puede completarse" (Eccl.i.15); that i s , to attempt to impose our w i l l upon the inscrutable nature of our existence i s p i t i a b l e f o l l y . What relevance a l l t h i s has for the protagonist is not immediately apparent. Martin shows none of the i r r a t i o n a l expectations of personal greatness, rapacious ambition or lust for wealth that Senor Torio and Qoheleth warn against. It is in a d i f f e r e n t way that the boy tends toward the f u t i l e attempt to impose his w i l l on the ways of fortune. Martin has inherited behavioral standards and c r i t e r i a for judging men and situations from his previous two mentors. The consequences of this kind of bequest,' in addition to the harsh, one-sided lessons of his childhood, are the biased expectations of his fellow man and of his own existence that must be overcome i f he is to develop into the serene, content, responsible and s e l f - r e l i a n t model espoused by Qoheleth and Senor Torio. Aside from his ideological contributions to Martin's development as a person with a judicious sense of autonomy and a balanced view of l i f e , the sereno makes an impression on the boy with an act of unexpected altruism. When the sereno approaches Martin on a cold night and offers him shelter, the boy responds with his customary suspicion: a previous offer of lodging and food had disastrous results. In a comic episode shortly after Martin's a r r i v a l in Barcelona, a seemingly fr i e n d l y tabernero extracted hard labor from Martin in exchange for "free" room and 1 39 board. It turns out, however, that the sereno's introduction with a protective gesture p a r a l l e l s that of Antonio Carden, and the author observes that " E l senor Torio, a l reves de tantos, resulta mejor de lo que parecia" (p. 71, chapter summary). A nocturnal refuge for Martin in the c i t y i s in i t s e l f a s i g n i f i c a n t factor in his passage toward tranquil s e l f - r e l i a n c e : i t quells one element of urgency in his condition and sets him apart from the sympathetic but larcenous guild of golf i l l o s with which he i s already acquainted. The narrator plays on a l i t e r a r y and r e a l - l i f e commonplace; that of the youth in abandonment who f a l l s prey to the seamy r e a l i t i e s of the urban netherworld. The refuge offered by the sereno is optional: the fact that Martin eventually goes to stay w.ith his boyhood acquaintance Jaime and frequently returns to take Senor Torio's counsel t e s t i f i e s to the voluntary nature of the relationship. It i s no longer a question of the exigencies of s u r v i v a l . By the time Martin leaves the sereno's da i l y supervision, he i s no longer in danger of criminal perdition. Even i f he engages in minor mischief with the golfo J u a n i l l o , his path is decided. When Senor Torio i n i t i a l l y expounds on his " f i l o s o f i a del clavo," Martin is charmed but "en e l fondo no estaba muy conforme con lo que decia. El tenia algo de aventurero . . . " (p. 73). After the protagonist's f i r s t exposure to t h i s ideology of humility and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i t i s not long before Jaime arranges employment for Martin as a wandering vendor of cigarette l i g h t e r s , an unaccustomed and, for Martin, conventional l i f e s t y l e . As he opts for s t a b i l i t y in 1 40 this choice, i t i s a symptom of the conversion of his ideology. Other factors flesh out and elucidate, in a largely i m p l i c i t fashion, the evolution of Martin's conversion to a new ideology, one that Senor Torio espouses e x p l i c i t y . We turn now to an examination of these factors. 141 C. IDEOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES Leaving aside Senor Torio's " f i l o s o f i a del clavo" for the moment, there are other, more dramatic factors in the mitigation of Martin's ideological bias. These other processes i m p l i c i t l y serve the sereno's philosophy of humility and moderation, while they more e x p l i c i t y function to negate the mean s p i r i t of Roque Galda's view of man, which s t i l l a f f l i c t s the protagonist. There are numerous p o s s i b i l i t i e s for the tenacity of the old man's ideas as they influence Martin; he was the boy's dominant authority figure during a most formative period of childhood; the effect of experiences that gainsay Roque Galda's view is eclipsed with the advent of the second mentor, Antonio Carden, who holds opinions not unlike those of Martin's grandfather; and, there are also experiences that corroborate the prejudice of Roque Galda. As we have seen, these often occur at moments when Martin is beyond the direct protection of a mentor. It is during these periods of abandonment that he is arrested by the Guardia C i v i l and swindled out of money, for example. Before Senor Torio's protective intervention in Martin de  Caretas en la ciudad, the protagonist is chastened by an experience that results from a lapse in his v i g i l a n c e . The promise of free room and board entices the boy to accept a job in a bar. The episode develops into a comic series of duties better associated with indentured servitude. The scene culminates in " l a cocina del i n f i e r n o , " the deciding factor in' the boy's resolution to f l e e . At this juncture i t is germane to r e c a l l his e a r l i e r disillusionment with the foolishness of 1 42 "1 Barcelona's c i t i z e n r y and his subsequent admiration for the intrigues of the urban underclass he discovers near the customs-house. Martin is comforted by the existence of people who are astute by the standards he inherited from Roque Galda: i t suggests to him that the urban milieu holds a place for him. This lesson is brought home by his own succumbing to the impossible offer of free food and lodging. When Martin extricates himself from the bar after one day, he r e f l e c t s happily on the outcome: La experiencia . . . no.habia resultado perdida. Barcelona no era la que habia imaginado los primeros dias; tampoco era la que habia creido despues . Se sentia muy conformado en la idea de que tampoco aqui habia que dormirse; que, segun en que circunstancia, e l lecho malo era e l mejor; que habia, sobre. todo aqui, de guardarse de ofrecimientos demasiado agradables; mirar que no le sorprendiesen y no caer nunca en la tentacion de aceptar una cena de balde. (p. 35) Such i s Martin's mood when Senor Torio makes his appearance. The protagonist, having already met the l i t t l e golfo J u a n i l l o , has in the same s p i r i t successfully avoided losing money to the card-sharking urchin. The sereno's offer of nocturnal shelter arouses Martin's skepticism, but the urgency of his condition presses him to accept. The narrator i n t e r j e c t s : "Siempre le habia sorprendido l a bondad, pero ahora, despues de la experiencia del bar, todavia le sorprendia mas" (p. 44). Soon after their relationship i s forged, Martin recognizes the fundamental goodness of Senor Torio: from this new perspective the sereno's act of altruism i s no longer 1 43 questionable. Martin's prejudice, in turn, i s only p a r t i a l l y mitigated. Thus the protagonist is unprepared for another unexpected act of altruism, one of far greater consequence. Martin's reunion in Barcelona with Jaime, his erstwhile boyhood enemy, i s a c r i t i c a l turning point in the course of the th i r d volume, as well as in the t r i l o g y as a whole. In the e a r l i e s t chapters of Martin de Caretas en e l pueblo, Jaime as one of the priv i l e g e d youths in Martin's school i s the bane of the protagonist's existence. An abiding and intense d i s l i k e distinguishes Martin's feelings for "Jaimito." The nature of their reunion and subsequent relationship is so anomalous that, in order to introduce i t , Arbo resorts to an extension of his function as omniscient third-person narrator that he seldom invokes. The f i r s t two pages of the chapter in question are rendered e n t i r e l y in the t h i r d person. The' narration does not recount actions or events: rather i t describes omnisciently the "conversion" taking place in the protagonist's intimate attitude toward his existence and his fellow man. As with his pithy summaries that open each chapter, the narrator adumbrates without undermining the dramatic tension of unfolding events. This chapter c a r r i e s the d r o l l t i t l e "Martin tiene una sorpresa" and in the f i r s t sentence the narrator w i l l admit only that the protagonist "se topo con un antiguo conocido" (p. 96). What Arbo goes on to describe are the effects of t h i s meeting, observations of a general nature commensurate with the ideological background of the protagonist's v i t a l course: 1 44 M a r t i n se a l e g r o en g r a n m a n e r a , no s o l o p o r e l e n c u e n t r o ; t a m b i e n p o r q u e e l c a s o se a comodaba a una n u e v a d i s p o s i c i o n s u y a de e s p i r i t u , una m a n e r a n u e v a de p e n s a r , y h a s t a de s e n t i r , que i b a i n s i n u a n d o s e en e l d e s d e h a c i a a l g u n t i e m p o . . M a r t i n , en e f e c t o , p o c o a p o c o , s i n a p e n a s d a r s e c u e n t a , h a b i a i d o c e d i e n d o ; h a b i a i d o p a s a n d o a l b ando o p u e s t o . No e r a c o s a , c i e r t a m e n t e , de d e s c u i d a r s e , p e r o t a m p o c o de p a s a r s e l a v i d a c o n l a mano en l a l a n z a ; a demas , p a r a l o que t e n i a que p e r d e r , no v a l i a l a pena d e m a s i a d o . E s t o , l o s m i l l o n a r i o s . ( p . 96) T h i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d r a m a t i c e p i s o d e , i n s o f a r a s M a r t i n i s c o n c e r n e d , i s t h e d e f i n i t i v e r e f u t a t i o n o f Roque G a l d a ' s i d e o l o g y and b r i n g s t o a h e a d a p r o c e s s s u s t a i n e d by many s i m i l a r , t h o u g h l e s s e r e v e n t s t h a t m e r e l y n o n p l u s s e d , r a t h e r t h a n i m p r e s s e d t h e p r o t a g o n i s t . T h o s e e a r l i e r , m i n o r e p i s o d e s i n w h i c h M a r t i n was t h e b e n e f i c i a r y o f some a l t r u i s t i c a c t e l i c i t e d a r e s p o n s e l i k e "No son t o d o s s u s t o s , " e x p r e s s e d a s t h e p r o t a g o n i s t ' s own w o r d s . Nowhe re e l s e i n t h e n o v e l d o e s t h e n a r r a t o r a v a i l h i m s e l f so e x c l u s i v e l y o f M a r t i n ' s i n t i m a t e c o n d i t i o n . T h i s maximum e x t e n s i o n o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s o m n i s c i e n c e b r i n g s us t o c o n s i d e r A r b 6 ' s u s e o f t h e t h i r d p e r s o n p o i n t o f v i e w . On t h e s u r f a c e , we r e c o g n i z e t h e a u t h o r ' s u s e o f t h i r d -p e r s o n n a r r a t i o n a s p e r h a p s t h e s i n g l e f a c t o r t h a t s e r v e s mos t t o d i s t i n g u i s h M a r t i n de C a r e t a s f r o m t h e t r u e p i c a r e s q u e c o n v e n t i o n . I f we a c c e p t t h a t A r b o d i d n o t i n t e n d t o p r o d u c e a f a i t h f u l a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e p i c a r e s q u e n o v e l , b u t r a t h e r m e r e l y a v a i l e d h i m s e l f o f c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o s u i t h i s i d e o l o g i c a l p u r p o s e s , we n e e d n o t a c c o u n t f o r h i s u s e o f t h e t h i r d p e r s o n s t r i c t l y i n t e r m s o f t h e p i c a r e s q u e c o n v e n t i o n o f 1 45 first-person narration. Nonetheless, contrasts between the two can serve to shed l i g h t on the narrator's motives for choosing third-person omniscience. In the picaresque t r a d i t i o n , the narrator has a special, personal interest in imparting his experiences and their consequences to others. The confessional, first-person perspective is anchored in a fixed moment, the conclusion of the protagonist's course. The material of this trajectory is subject to a process of selection, which accounts for a sometimes episodic, though usually chronological arrangement. The center of ideological gravity naturally resides in the protagonist. The personal and exclusive nature of the narration f a i l s to serve any sense of r e l a t i v i t y with regard to supreme or prosaic values. Francisco Rico, with reference to L a z a r i l l o de  Tormes and Guzman de Alfarache, sums up as follows the nature of the picaresque novel's point of view: los ingredientes principales tendian a explicar la situacioh f i n a l del protagonista, de la que era elemento notabilisimo e l hecho de redactar una autobiografla: los nucleos mayores del conjunto daban cuenta del personaje como narrador, justificando la perspectiva que, a su vez, decidla l a existencia y e l contenido de las memorias, de suerte que la novela quedaba rigurosamente cerrada. En ambas obras, la autobiografia presentaba toda la realidad en funcion de un punto de v i s t a . 9 Although Martin de Caretas comprises a narrative course with a d i s t i n c t l y episodic tempo, only rarely does Arbo invoke the kind of vague temporal references that signal a chronological gap. This i l l u s i o n of temporal continuity, along 1 46 with the omniscient voice of the narrator, leaves no room for doubt in the reader's mind that Martin plays no role in the selection of events to be represented. Hence the work appears not to be so "rigurosamente cerrada." The omniscient narrator of Martin de Caretas i s of course selective in his own way: he chooses to represent actions and events to suit his pa r t i c u l a r purposes, just as the picaro /autobiographer does. Given Arbo's interest in demonstrating the superiority of certain ideological values over other, his purpose could only be served by t h i r d person narration, whereby the r e l a t i v i t y of these values could be established beyond the protagonist's a b i l i t y to know. The suggestion of o b j e c t i v i t y -- a device to weigh the d i f f e r e n t value systems against each other allows Arbo to elucidate and j u s t i f y his own bias. For example, in the f i r s t volume, Roque Galda's counsels seem appropriate to the protagonist's h o s t i l e circumstances. Having established that system of values, the protagonist then enters a new realm on his journey through the country where a different set of values begins to challenge the boy's acquired view of man and existence. Thus begins that process of the protagonist's philosophical conversion upon which the narrator's ideological intention i s based throughout the rest of the novel. The picaresque's t r a d i t i o n a l recourse to the style of memoirs fixes the protagonist's maturity as the point of departure and, as we have seen, tends toward an episodic format. In the case of Martin de Caretas, the advantage of the third person point of view is i t s penetration into the evolution of 1 47 the protagonist as i t i s influenced by extraneous factors. I n i t i a l l y Martin is a kind of tabula rasa, and as the dynamics of c o n f l i c t i n g ideologies give him pause, he begins his development toward true autonomy and self-determination. In the same way that Martin's s p i r i t u a l growth is better served in a l l i t s aspects by t h i r d person narration, so i s the novel's sense of linear development. The narrative begins in the protagonist's early adolescence and proceeds consistently and chronologically to represent about three years of Martin's l i f e . In other words, the novel comprises a coherent progression from a beginning to a conclusion. To summarize, the above quotation from Martin de Caretas epitomizes the service of t h i r d person narration to Arbo's apparent ideological goals. Whereas Martin often responds to events that challenge his prejudice with phrases l i k e "no son todos sustos" or "no tenia razon e l abuelo," his intimate perspective r e l a t i v e to this gradual conversion does not permit him to expound on i t e x p l i c i t l y and objectively in the way of the omniscient narrator. Since only the narrator knows at this juncture of Martin's ideological odyssey, his perspective allows the observation that the protagonist "habia ido pasando al bando opuesto:" there i s nothing to indicate that Martin himself views the s i t u a t i o n as a d i a l e c t i c of extremes. He i s aware of "una nueva disposicion suya de e s p i r i t u , " but the choice of verbs and progressive verbal constructions in the phrases "una nueva disposicion . . . que iba insinuandose en el desde hacia algun tiempo" and "habia ido pasando a l bando opuesto" denote 148 the i m p l i c i t , evolutionary development of Martin's conversion. Arbo's habit of vaguely or p a r t i a l l y d i s c l o s i n g in advance certain features of the narrative, to be f u l l y recounted l a t e r , i s another unique prerogative afforded by the omniscient perspective. In addition to practising t h i s technique to portray Martin's intimate transformation, the author also takes the l i b e r t y of addressing the reader d i r e c t l y . After having discussed the consequences of the grand reunion at some length, having revealed neither the identity of the "antiguo conocido" nor his kindnesses, Arbo suddenly s h i f t s his attention, as i f chastened by the kind of impatience Martin displayed at Roque Galda's digressions from otherwise good yarns: La vida . . . Pero acabemos, por San Ambrosio, charlador celeste, lloron sublime y defensor de grandes causas, que no vamos a terminar en un ano. Esto pensara tambien alguno escuchando esta monserga. "iVaya l a t a ! " exclamara para s i y no le f a l t a r a razon. Vayamos, de una a Martin y a l encuentro que tuvo aquella manana y no nos metamos en c a b a l l e r i a s . iPor e l santo santo! iNo volvamos! (p. 98) The narrator's abrupt reaction to his own sentimental sobriety is well served by the jocular and s e l f - e f f a c i n g tone of the paragraph. The r e f l e c t i v e and serious character of the preceding paragraphs, in l i g h t of the abundance of views on l i f e and man encountered consistently along Martin's v i t a l course, makes i t appear to the trusting reader that the narrator is about to proffer his own view. Arb6 shrewdly breaks the sp e l l of emotionalism and resumes his account of the protagonist's immediate experiences. We learn that Jaime, while s t i l l 1 49 imperious and arrogant, instantly takes an interest in Martin's welfare. He buys the protagonist a new suit of clothes, which a l l e v i a t e s another of Martin's urgent conditions (the boy keeps his rags however, to avoid alienating his good friend J u a n i l l o ) . Also, i t i s Jaime who introduces Martin to employment which, however modest, marks the f i n a l and d e f i n i t i v e phase of the protagonist's ideological development. And while Martin's renewed relationship with Jaime is d e f i n i t i v e proof of Roque Galda's f a i l i n g s as a philosopher, and also proves a kind of salvation for the boy faced with a formidable urban milieu, i t i s the l i t t l e golfo J u a n i l l o that offers true friendship: Jaime's intervention produces tangible improvements in Martin's l i v i n g conditions and heralds the consolidation of a balanced, view of l i f e , while the humble g o l f i l l o provides the protagonist with acheretofore unknown sort of fellowship, that of a peer. Aside from the humorously grotesque appearance of his i l l - f i t t i n g rags, the engaging g o l f i l l o t r i e s to lure Martin into a game of cards on their f i r s t meeting, soon after the protagonist's a r r i v a l in the c i t y . J u a n i l l o , a native of S e v i l l e , also sports an exaggerated form of his regional d i a l e c t , replete with a comical reverse ceceo that often confounds the protagonist to the point of incomprehension. In spite of causing the protagonist certain petty aggravations, J u a n i l l o is a thoroughly sympathetic character. As we have seen, soon after the two boys meet at the statue of Columbus, Martin sets out on a steady course of estrangement 150 from the l i f e s t y l e embodied by J u a n i l l o . Nonetheless, an empathy exists between the two that leads Martin to p a r t i c i p a t e in J u a n i l l o ' s i l l - a d v i s e d schemes, such as the repeated attempts to recover a legendary cache of s i l v e r from a mysterious abandoned house. This sustained subplot becomes another exemplary experience for the protagonist: Senor Torio offers the analysis of i t s moral consequences and Martin gains insight into the character of his friend and into the f u t i l i t y of i r r a t i o n a l ambitions. Martin is dubious from the outset about J u a n i l l o ' s proposal: "le parecio muy poco trabajo para la plata que prometia; penso que aquello debia de ser una fantasia, un sueno de J u a n i l l o , nacido de.. . . sus deseos de verse con 'parne' a poco precio, en lo cual se parecia a todo e l mundo" (p. 82). In spite of his reservations, the protagonist "acepta la proposicion por amor del riesgo" (p. 82). The mission is doomed to f a i l u r e by more than the apocryphal nature of the treasure. The house is guarded by a night watchman, and J u a n i l l o ' s i l l - h e a l t h and f r a i l t y threaten to expose the intruders. Their i n i t i a l foray sees them f i r s t t e r r i f i e d by a ghostly apparition -- the destitute marquis of Senor Torio's acquaintance -- and then surprised by the s a d i s t i c night watchman, also known to the sereno. Martin escapes unscathed only to see his companion, d e b i l i t a t e d by tuberculosis and malnutrition, beaten mercilessly by " e l gordo Anton." The l i t t l e golfo labors under a general delusion, one of entertaining fantastic and unreachable goals. J u a n i l l o ' s chosen 151 vocation, once he leaves his youthful cardsharping, i s that of b u l l f i g h t e r . When Martin, encouraged by his own easy success at s e l l i n g l i g h t e r s , suggests the same l i v e l i h o o d to his friend, "Juanillo . . . no manifesto ningun entusiasmo; no queria saber nada de compras y ventas, a e l solo le interesaban los toros; o seria 'torero o naa'" (p. 207). Thus divorced from r e a l i t y , his abstract longing for easy wealth i s compounded by an i n a b i l i t y , or lack of w i l l , to recognize the immediate li m i t a t i o n s that his poor health, poverty and condition of abandonment impose on his plans. Minutes after his drubbing at the hands of the s a d i s t i c Anton, J u a n i l l o resolves to return with Martin to the mystery house to extract revenge and recover the treasure, a l l to the protagonist's dismay. Their next attempt on the' house ends in nearly i d e n t i c a l fashion, with J u a n i l l o succumbing to his l i m i t a t i o n s and suffering another humiliating attack by the guard. In the end i t is Martin who, in l i g h t of their f a i l u r e to secure the treasure, at least extracts appropriate revenge. While the moral lesson of the experience i s lost on J u a n i l l o , i t serves to chasten Anton, who not only suffered physical i n j u r i e s as a result of Martin's j u s t i f i a b l e vengeance, but f a i l e d to extract payment for his services as guardian of the house. His delusions led him to undertake his vigilance of the property without making formal arrangements with the owner in the hope he would be paid out of appreciation for his good w i l l . Senor Torio chides him for acting thus out of greed: the entire episode prompts the sereno to observe that "La plata vuelve locos a todos." 1 52 In the example of J u a n i l l o , Martin has an object lesson in the f u t i l i t y of i r r a t i o n a l expectations. The l i t t l e qolfo embodies q u a l i t i e s that would appear an almost systematic synthesis of those that Jean Paul Sartre and Qoheleth warn us to avoid; f u t i l e ambitions, desires and expectations beyond our means, evasion of self-determination and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , among others, a l l interrelated notions. The protagonist is witness to the extreme consequences of such delusions when the g o l f i l l o , his closest friend, succumbs to tuberculosis. J u a n i l l o ' s last hours and the scene of his funeral are the novel's most somber and poignant moments. For one so t e r r i f i e d of mortality as Martin, the lesson is a powerful one. A desperate attempt to save J u a n i l l o by prevailing upon Jaime's father, a medical doctor, is greeted with incredible callousness: "<iTu crees que por un golfo cualquiera, por un perdido, ire yo a molestar a la gente?" (p. 248). With the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of death and his own impotence in the face of i t d e f i n i t i v e l y manifested, a l b e i t in melodramatic terms, Martin's changing view of l i f e receives s t i l l more impetus: "aparte de la pena que le causaba la perdida de J u a n i l l o , continuaba con su miedo a la muerte. No; con la muerte, nada. La vida era estupenda, se estaba bien aqui a pesar de los majaderos, de los granujas, de los ladrones, de los bromistas, etc." (p. 272). In concluding this discussion of the golfo J u a n i l l o and his relationship with Martin, i t i s germane to treat b r i e f l y the manifest a f f i n i t i e s the author shares with Pio Baroja. Baroja's influence on Arbo can hardly be overstated: the massive (some 1 53 ungenerous souls would say obsessive) biography, Pio Baroja y su  t i empo, is alone evidence of a prodigious preoccupation. S t y l i s t i c and thematic a f f i n i t i e s with the p r o l i f i c Basque abound in Arbo's f i c t i o n . To c i t e only a few broad examples, the anguished protagonists of Arbo's early Catalan novels r e f l e c t a view of an alienated, absurd existence in an i r r a t i o n a l world, l i k e that of Andres Hurtado in E l arbol de la ci e n c i a . Also, on the inside cover of the Austral edition of Martin de Caretas, the author is quoted as saying "creo que la se n c i l l e z y la claridad son las principales virtudes (del e s c r i t o r , en general, y del novelista, en p a r t i c u l a r ) , y son, en el fondo, e l atributo de los mas grandes." Similar convictions are espoused at length in Baroja's a r t i c l e "La int u i c i o n y e l e s t i l o . " 1 0 With regard to the question at hand, Martin de Caretas manifests certain special resonances of Baroja's diverse legacy to Arbo. In accounting for the numerous picaresque adaptations among post-war Spanish novels ( Martin de Caretas among them), Gonzalo Sobejano recognizes Baroja as an important intermediary: " . . . en la obra de Pio Baroja -- particularmente en La  lucha por la vida -- encontraban estos escritores un eslabon proximo" of the picaresque t r a d i t i o n . 1 1 La lucha por la vida, Baroja's t r i l o g y which comprises the novels La busca, Mala  hierba and Aurora roja, has par t i c u l a r relevance with regard to Martin de Caretas. Baroja's young protagonist Manuel Alcazar i s sent from a small town to Madrid, in order to rejoin his mother and "aprender un o f i c i o . " 1 2 Although the action of a l l three 1 54 novels is confined to a depressed section of the c i t y , the protagonist i s exposed to d i f f e r e n t media within the urban context, whose abstract or ideological dimensions are more pertinent than material considerations. Baroja convincingly depicts the horrors and degradation of urban indigents, prostitutes, qolfos and criminals in an u t t e r l y hopeless s i t u a t i o n . Manuel participates marginally in t h i s world when he befriends and sometimes accompanies a group of golfos who perpetrate occasional delinquent acts. The protagonist also sustains a picaresque succession of menial jobs, from which he gains insight into a di f f e r e n t kind of human misery. According to Beatrice Patt, Manuel i s "pessimistic and hopeless, . sees l i f e as sad and incomprehensible and is convinced that human motives are invariably v i l e and e g o t i s t i c a l . " 1 3 Robert Hasting, an odd sort of mentor "who unequivocally exemplifies the influence of Nietzche on Baroja's thinking at the time," 1" counsels the protagonist in the hope of ins p i r i n g some sort of decisive action on Manuel's part. The f i n a l volume of the t r i l o g y finds Manuel in close contact with a group of anarchists, one of whom i s his brother Juan, recently escaped from a Seminary. Their hopeful, millenarian speculations about a just and peaceful society are put in a d e f i n i t i v e perspective by Manuel and he speaks to his deceased brother: iTe has ido a l otro mundo -- y miraba e l cadaver de Juan -- con una be l l a i l u s i o n ! Ni los miserables se levantaran, ni resplandecira un dia nuevo, sino que p e r s i s t i r a la iniquidad por todas partes. Ni colec t i v a ni individualmente podran l i b e r t a r s e los humildes de la miseria, ni de la fa t i g a , ni del 1 55 trabajo constante y a n i q u i l a d o r . 1 5 In spite of the pessimistic tone of Manuel's remarks, bearing a certain resemblance to Ecclesiastes and coming as they do at the very conclusion of Baroja's t r i l o g y , both Patt and Arbo do not discount the undercurrent of hopefulness i m p l i c i t in the novel's outcome. Arbo describes the character of Juan as "el sueno de redencion . . . e l heroe de su l i b r o , que es el sueno del a u t o r . " 1 6 Patt observes that "although the t o t a l effect is dreary and pessimistic, each of the three novels ends on a note of hope . . . . Baroja is not yet ready to follow his own thinking to i t s l o g i c a l conclusion but seeks . . . to mitigate the consequences of his apparent n i h i l i s m . " 1 7 Manuel's personal trajectory i s , l i k e Martin's, one of gradually opting for a l i f e s t y l e of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and s t a b i l i t y : he " i s f i n a l l y integrated into the bourgeois society of his time to marry and to become an upstanding and respectable c i t i z e n . " 1 8 While both Manuel and Martin resemble the model of L a z a r i l l o in this regard, there should be no dishonor associated with their option, since they act out of reasoned pragmatism, the f r u i t of r e l a t i v e l y wide experience. In spite of numerous obvious a f f i n i t i e s between these two t r i l o g i e s , there are fundamental differences of conception. Baroja's preoccuptation with the problem of Spain and i t s atrasamiento i s well known. In his a r t i c l e s "Patologia del golfo" and "Mala hierba" he relates this national complex to the character of the golfo, and the issue of his observations is 1 56 p a r t i c u l a r l y germane to t h i s s t u d y . 1 9 In " P a t o l o g i a d e l g o l f o , " Baro ja se t s about d e f i n i n g the term g o l f o , which he admits i s a f o rmidab le t a sk . He a s s e r t s that g o l f e r i a e x i s t s in a l l s o c i a l c l a s s e s , not j u s t among the poor as the popu lar c o n c e p t i o n would have i t . Having e s t a b l i s h e d the u n i v e r s a l nature of t h i s phenomenon, Ba ro ja proceeds w i th an almost a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of i t s o r i g i n s : es una forma que ha nac ido de nues t ro r a q u i t i c o medio s o c i a l , es un t i p o separado por una causa c u a l q u i e r a de su medio ambiente y que reune en s i mismo todas l a s a s p i r a c i o n e s de su c l a s e . 2 0 The a s p i r a t i o n s tha t Baro ja r e f e r s to would seem to be those of on ly the most p e t t y v a r i e t y . The f r a i l s o c i a l f a b r i c tha t g i ve s r i s e to such i gnob le d e s i r e s i s in t u r n weakened by a r e l a t i v e l y new p o l i t i c a l system: democracy. In a l l , Baro ja seems not to i n d i c t the system as such, but r a t h e r condemns i t s p e c u l i a r m a n i f e s t a t i o n through the f i l t e r of Spanish s o c i e t y : Una de l a s causas de l a g o l f e r i a es l a democrac ia ; yo no soy enemigo de e l l a . . . pero l a democrac ia n u e s t r a , l a que gastamos en Espana . no ha s i d o mas que un camino a b i e r t o a todas l a s ambic iones pequenas, a todos l o s deseos mezquinos y malsanos. Ha hecho que e l hombre busque su progreso s o c i a l mas que su p e r f e c c i o n a m i e n t o mora l ; ha p roduc ido en todos l a ambic ion de r e p r e s e n t a r mas que l a d'e ser . 2 1 T h i s i s a c u r i o u s o b s e r v a t i o n when we r e c a l l the example of the impover i shed s q u i r e in L a z a r i l l o de Tormes, who seemed to man i fes t the same symptoms. Oddly , wh i le Baro ja d e c r i e s the 1 57 collapse of social classes due to the democratic system, in which people lose sight of the defining c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and respective morality of their c l a s s , in "Mala hierba" he laments that "Estamos dominados por la plutocracia mas absoluta. El dinero nos ha hecho perder una porcion de ideas, quiza falsas, pero que nos sostenian. Nos industrializamos para todo lo malo." 2 2 Whatever Baroja's opinions as to the causes of this g o l f e r i a , the effects that he underscores strongly resemble some of those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that Sartre, Qoheleth and Senor Torio caution us against; f u t i l e s t r i v i n g for s o c i a l status, i r r a t i o n a l materialism, ignorance of or disregard for our personal l i m i t a t i o n s . Some of these t r a i t s could be used to describe J u a n i l l o : he i s undeniably g u i l t y of u n r e a l i s t i c aspirations. However, while he corresponds to a general, popular conception of•the golfo -- a destitute, urban youth who earns his l i v i n g by means of shrewd, sometimes larcenous t r i c k e r y --, -his function in Martin de Caretas c a r r i e s him far beyond Baroja's anthropological d e f i n i t i o n : " . . . e l golfo es un hombre desligado por una causa cualquiera de su clase, sin las ideas ni las preocupaciones de esta, con una f i l o s o f i a propia, que es generalmente negacion de toda moral." 2 3 J u a n i l l o i s even further distinguished from t h i s concept of'the character of the golfo when Baroja elucidates on this " f i l o s o f i a propia:" En todas las clases e l golfo tiene la misma f i l o s o f i a , e l egotismo, la f i l o s o f i a del y_o. Al perder la moral de su medio ambiente, a l no tener u t i l i d a d para el los preceptos morales de su clase, desaparece de su e s p i r i t u toda relacion de deber para con los demas.2" 1 58 If we apply this d e f i n i t i o n rigorously as we search the pages of Martin de Caretas, the grandest golfo to be found therein is the character of Jaime's father, Caretas' former medical doctor. His callous response to the boy's pleas to help the dying J u a n i l l o epitomize this attitude of egotism and i n s e n s i t i v i t y toward others, even more absurdly ironic coming from a purported healer and servant of human welfare. If we accept Baroja's assertion that la g o l f e r i a occurs in a l l so c i a l strata, perhaps we should, for the purpose of this study, posit the obverse of t h i s notion and suggest that altruism and good-w i l l can also occur in a l l s o c i a l classes, even among the grievously destitute. J u a n i l l o ' s small acts of selflessness in Martin's favor are no less s i g n i f i c a n t for the g o l f i l l o ' s extremely modest means. The narrator, describing Martin's r e f l e c t i v e state in the aftermath of Jua n i l l o ' s death, makes use of the l i t t l e golfo's example to put Martin's ideological odyssey in r e l i e f : Ahora sabia que tambien en Barcelona hay gentes que viven en e l mayor abandono, gentes que perecen de hambre y f r i o . Como en Caretas, y mas aun que a l i i . Habia v i s t o casos que nunca habia podido imaginar; habia descubierto la bondad donde menos lo esperaba, y donde menos lo esperaba la maldad. Ahora sabia que en un golfo cualquiera, en un J u a n i l l o , en un Panda, despreciados, se oculta a veces un alma mas hermosa que en e l senor medico de Caretas, con todos sus t i t u l o s , todas sus amistades, rodeado de reverencias. (p. 256) It must be borne in mind that Baroja's perspective, insofar as "Patologia del golfo" and "Mala hierba" are concerned, is r a t i o n a l , nearly empirical. He i s preoccupied with what he 159 perceives as flaws in the Spanish character: t h i s i s reflected in his novels as well as essays. While his f i c t i o n , in p a r t i c u l a r , r e f l e c t s a tendency to view l i f e as absurd and tormenting, his emphasis on a pe c u l i a r l y Spanish form of perversity endows his work with a sense of concrete social commentary. This contrasts, in a general sense, with Arbo's brand of universal commentary on human existence. S t i l l , i t i s undeniable that Barojian concepts provided Arbo with an ideological foundation to be expanded and, to a certain extent, mitigated. In conclusion, the whole of this t h i r d volume of Martin de  Caretas i s directed toward the a l l e v i a t i o n of Martin's stern ideology of mistrust and i s o l a t i o n . The process herein i s one of disillusionment, of toppling preconceptions. The protagonist's experiences, even at the expense of his accustomed p r i n c i p l e s , are not wholly negative: lessons are imparted to him without accompanying blows. Landscape contributes to Martin's ideological equilibrium by virtue of i t s f a i l u r e to v e r i f y that preconception link i n g Barcelona with uniformly superior people. The character of Senor Torio corroborates the protagonist's amended, balanced view of urban man, or rather man in general. Of Martin's three mentors, the sereno lacks the authoritarian or dogmatic attitude that distinguishes his predecessors. His protection forms part of a complex that allows the protagonist to opt out of the l i f e s t y l e of the golfo, to which the boy could have been thoroughly susceptible given his i n i t i a l state of abandonment. F i n a l l y , we see unprecedented ideological 1 60 significance concentrated in the persons of two secondary characters. With Martin's acceptance of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and s t a b i l i t y , the chain of events represented by the harsh p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of his mala e s t r e l l a in Caretas and the very unpredictability of his rural odyssey is displaced by these unprecedented personal relationships. According to the protagonist's preconceptions, these two would have seemed unlikely a l t r u i s t s : ultimately, their contributions to Martin's r a t i o n a l l y balanced maturity are decisive. 161 D. NOTES TO CHAPTER V 1 Sebastian Juan Arbo, Martin de Caretas en la ciudad (Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1972), p. 12. Further references appear in the text. 2 Arbo, Martin de Caretas en e l pueblo, p. 95. In l i g h t of this discrepancy, Roque Galda wishes not to d i s i l l u s i o n Martin. He explains that "La suerte no me acompano . . . Me toco, en verdad, e l terno negro, la l o t e r i a de los grajos." 3 Arbo, Martin de Caretas en el campo, p.54. * Arbo, Martin de Caretas en e l pueblo, p. 105. 5 Senor Torio's repudiation of wealth in favor of peace of mind is interesting to note, especially in view of his vigilance of the homes and property of people more "fortunate" than he i s . While Martin is nonplussed by Senor Torio's willingness to protect the wealth ' of others, i t i s clear to the reader that Arbo's purpose in conceiving of the boy's t h i r d mentor as a sereno was not casual. 6 Scott, p.- 206. 7 Sagrada B i b l i a (Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1972), p. 797. 8 Jean Paul Sartre, "Existentialism i s a Humanism," in Existe n t i a l i s m from Dostoesvsky to Sartre, ed. Walter Kaufman (New York: World, 1956), p. 298. 9 Francisco Rico, La novela picaresca y el punto de v i s t a . (Barcelona: Seix Barral, 1970), p. 116. 1 0 See "La intuicion y e l e s t i l o " in Pio Baroja's Obras  completas, VII (Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva, 1949), 965-1099. 162 1 1 Sobejano, p. 219. 1 2 Pio Baroja, La busca, in Obras completas, I (Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva, 1946), 262. 1 3 Beatrice P. Patt, Pio Baroja (New York: Twayne, 1971), p. 95. 1 * Patt, p. 95 1 5 Pio Baroja, Aurora Roja, in Obras completas, I (Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva, 1946), 643. 1 6 Sebastian Juan Arbo, Pio Baroja y su tiempo (Barcelona: E d i t o r i a l Planeta, 1963), p. 350. 1 7 Patt, p. 97 1 8 Patt, p. 94 1 9 See Luis Maristany, "La configuracion barojiana de la figur-a del golfo," in B u l l e t i n of Hispanic Studies, 45 (1968), pp. 102-22. Maristany examines, among other things, the relationship of the a r t i c l e s "Patologia del golfo" and "Mala hierba" to the f i r s t two novels of the t r i l o g y La lucha por la  vida. 2 0 Pio Baroja, "Patologia del golfo," in Obras completas, V (Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva, 1948), 55. 2 1 Baroja, "Patologia del golfo," p. 56. 2 2 Pio Baroja, "Mala Hierba," in Obras completas, V (Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva, 1948), 42. 2 3 Baroja, "Patologia del golfo," p. 56. 2" Baroja, "Patologia del golfo," p. 57 1 63 VI. CONCLUSION A review of Sebastian Juan Arbo's f i c t i o n , as well as his non-fictional works, reveals preoccupations that are synthesized into the ideological foundation of Martin de Caretas. For example, Arbo's choice of Miguel de Cervantes and Oscar Wilde as biographical subjects underscores the author's interest in the effects of inscrutable fortune on man's view of his existence. In his foreward to Oscar Wilde, Arbo observes that "en pocos escritores como este se ensano con igual v i o l e n c i a la fortuna, una vez que lo hubo derribado del pedestal de triunfos sobre e l cual le habia alzado." 1 The biographer seeks, among other things, to emphasize the process of cause and eff e c t in the I r i s h poet's f a l l from grace. The l i f e of Cervantes, too, provides examples of extreme v i c i s s i t u d e s . While Martin de  Caretas does not represent circumstances of such sobering consequence, there is a manifest interest in the mysterious and t e r r i b l e forces that play upon our existence. This preoccupation is also evident in Arbo's early Catalan f i c t i o n , particulary Terres de L'Ebre, in which we also see the author's trademark portrayal of a close bond between man and the ter r a i n he inhabits. The presupposition of such a bond lends i t s e l f to the representation of the t e r r i f y i n g vagaries of fortune: depressed rural folk, e s p e c i a l l y farmers, in an already underdeveloped nation receive the f u l l brunt of nature's wrath. They are unable to escape i t s sometimes disastrous effect on their l i v e s . Arbo's interest in thi s intense relationship i s undeniable. We have seen in the f i r s t volume of Martin de 1 64 Caretas how dominant the harsh vagaries of nature are in the li v e s of the poor residents of Caretas, and how they effect the c o l l e c t i v e character of the people. To return to the example of Terres de L'Ebre, the protagonist's obsession with his sorry parcel of land is an ef f e c t , rather than cause of his personal disaster. After the accidental drowning of his young wife, leaving him to care for an infant son, " e l trabajo incesante, desesperado, es como una borrachera" for Juan, the protagonist. 2 This f u t i l e , a l l consuming e f f o r t , reminiscent of Qoheleth's warnings, accompanies a condition of alienation, solitude and a simmering, impotent rage at the absurd blows dealt by l i f e . Recalling the e x i s t e n t i a l portraiture of human l i f e that was to develop through the l i t e r a t u r e of the f o r t i e s and f i f t i e s , these elements f i l t e r through to Martin de Caretas as well, but again they lack the somber, pessimistic, grievous potential of their function in Arbo's early Catalan f i c t i o n . C r i t i c a l consensus favors these early novels in Arbo's native language for their compelling unity of conception. However, Martin de Caretas would seem equally impressive for i t s prodigious d i v e r s i t y , at least with regard to the selection and management of disparate ideological elements to form a unique philosophical manifesto. Some c r i t i c s have allowed the l i t e r a r y excellence of Martin de Caretas. Juan Alborg observes that " E l Arbo genuino -- dejando aparte e l Martin de Caretas, de calidad y especie singulares -- se encuentra en las novelas de la t i e r r a y de sus hombres . . . . " 3. In addressing the popularity of Terres de L'Ebre, Antonio Iglesias Laguna confesses that 1 65 "Personalmente, estimo que Martin de Caretas quedara como su obra c a p i t a l . " " While some, l i k e Alborg, recognize the t r i l o g y as "un l i b r o estupendo, un l i b r o d e l i c i o s o " , 5 few, i f any, have grappled with i t s philosophical features. The t r i l o g y , to judge from i t s diverse thematic borrowings and i t s neatly componential structure, betrays a systematically philosophical design, an analogy to the r e a l - l i f e process of learning to accept existence on i t s own, sometimes rigorous terms. The balanced view of l i f e attained by Martin at the end of the t r i l o g y is the result of a process of disillusionment, of learning by t r i a l and error. He proceeds from a condition of accepting views proffered to him to a more discretionary attitude in which he exercises his autonomy, rejecting those assertions that experience proves f a l l a c i o u s . Toward the end of the t h i r d volume we see, by means of the protagonist's maturing psyche, successive, almost systematic refutations of those biased notions and exaggerated conditions that would have crippled Martin's development toward psychic well-being. Landscape, as an integral component in the complex of Martin's development, i n i t i a l l y posits conditions that legitimize Roque Galda's philosophy. L i f e , seen as subject to natural calamities, is unrelentingly harsh and self-preservation depends on vigilance and caution. In turn, the meanness of human nature is implied as attendant upon the inhospitable conditions of Nature: hence Martin must always "pensar que todos son lobos." In other words, in the world of Caretas, men are subject to determinism. The influence of existentialism is 166 evident in the portrayal of the protagonist's disillusionment regarding the bond between Nature and man's character. One of the basic tenets of existentialism is that an individual can, and must assume f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for his existence and seek no excuses for f a i l u r e in events beyond the influence of his own powers. The Sartrian axiom that "existence precedes essence" further i n s i s t s that man's cowardice and evasion of responsiblity, rather than any extraneous happenings, are the architect of what we c a l l the " f r a i l t i e s of human nature." Presupposing that human beings have no a p r i o r i essence or nature, Sartre f l a t l y states that "there is no determinism." 6 It has been suggested that existentialism i s the l o g i c a l a n t ithesis of Naturalism, since the l a t t e r supposes man's helplessness before Nature as i t personifies the unforeseeable aggressions of fortune. Given Arbo's acknowledged conversance with the l i t e r a r y realism of the nineteenth century, i t is not surprising that he should a v a i l himself of t h i s concept as a f o i l for Martin's gradual conversion. While we see the effects of the boy's d i s i l l u s i o n i n g experiences and we suppose that he no longer adheres to any notion of determinism, the narrator makes i t e x p l i c i t in the t r i l o g y ' s f i n a l pages: " . . . despidamonos de Martin a l que dejamos en Barcelona . sonando t a l vez, a su pesar, con los campos de Caretas, porque los campos no tienen l a culpa de lo que hacen los hombres que viven e l e l l o s . " 7 It i s a gradually acquired perspective that allows Martin this kind of nostalgia. Before his exposure to the "other" world, the existence posited by Roque Galda and 167 v e r i f i e d by the boy's early experience of asperity -- in which determinism was given -- seemed utt e r l y plausible. What sets Martin apart from his fellows in Caretas is his resolve to seek a better medium. The brutish denizens of his home town can be seen as cowards in the e x i s t e n t i a l sense: their habitual fatalism, h o s t i l i t y and resignation to oppressive conventions are evidence of their cowardice. Existentialism espouses s e l f - d e f i n i n g choices as a means of assuming r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for one's existence. Martin's f i r s t step on the path to self-determination i s his f l i g h t from Caretas. What follows, as we have seen, i s progress along that same path as the protagonist learns to heed the lessons of experience, reject or modify erroneous notions urged on him by mentors, and give consideration to reasoned, balance observations from the l i k e s of Senor Torio. In l i t e r a r y expressions of e x i s t e n t i a l thought, we are often confronted with a protagonist engaged in a grim struggle to make sense of his absurd existence. Martin follows the e x i s t e n t i a l i s t ' s prescription, which serves not so much to render his existence sensible, but rather allows him to make peace with i t , to coexist, as i t were. Experiences of altruism, which open a breach in Martin's learned prejudice, are the foundation of this acceptance of the terms of r e a l i t y : prior to tempering his stern outlook, the boy's struggle with l i f e ' s apparent senselessness resembled the f u t i l e , obsessive labor condemned by Qoheleth. .When at last the protagonist comprehends the s i n c e r i t y of Senor Torio's selflessness, for example, or any 168 of several other acts of goodness, he concludes that "habia descubierto la bondad donde menos lo esperaba." His experience of Jaime's goodwill e l i c i t s a similar judgement: "las soluciones en la vida, vienen a s i : cuando uno las espera menos y, a veces, de quien menos se habria esperado." As the converse of a phrase used often to describe Martin's sit u a t i o n in Caretas, this is indicative of the extent of his s p i r i t u a l growth. Qoheleth's repeated warnings to the effect that misfortune c a l l s without notice or discrimination resound throughout Martin de Caretas en  e l pueblo. R.B.Y. Scott observes that "As l i f e i s cancelled by death, so a l l values are negated by their opposites" to summarize the nature of Qoheleth's world. To characterize Martin's attitude at the conclusion of Martin de Caretas en la  ciudad, we could assert that, while l i f e i s indeed cancelled by death, a l l i t s negative features are negated or a l l e v i a t e d by their opposites. Whereas Pio Baroja concludes that la g o l f e r i a , a grave so c i a l malady, exists in a l l classes, Martin learns that "en un golfo cualquiera, en un J u a n i l l o , en un Panda, despreciados, se oculta a veces un alma mas hermosa que en e l senor medico de Caretas, con todos sus t i t u l o s , todas sus amistades, rodeado de reverencias." Martin's conversion involves his passage from the absurd netherworld of Caretas, marked by terror and al i e n a t i o n , to the obverse realm of clemency and fellowship where i t i s proven that "los campos no tienen la culpa de lo que hacen los hombres que viven en e l l o s . " Mortality, a consistent motif throughout the t r i l o g y , is a key factor in Martin's conversion. While the protagonist f a i l s 1 69 to adopt the casual attitude of his grandfather or Antonio Carden, the death of J u a n i l l o affords Martin a new perspective. As we have seen, "aparte de la pena que le causaba la perdida de J u a n i l l o , continuaba con su miedo a la muerte. No; con la muerte, nada. La vida era estupenda . . . a pesar de los majaderos, de los granujas . . . . " Shortly after J u a n i l l o ' s death, the narrator gives us this insight: volvio a encontrar gusto a la vida, a distraerse con lo que veia a su paso. Tenia razon e l abuelo . . . . La vida, a veces, estaba muy bien. Hay que huir de los malos momentos; hay que s a l i r de estos negros tuneles. (p. 264) Arbo's use of the phrase "volvio a encontrar gusto a la vida" i s key in this passage. While Martin has gradually acquired a sense of l i f e ' s positive aspects, J u a n i l l o ' s death demonstrates to him that mortality, no less fearsome than before, has i t s inevitable place in the entirety of man's existence: the protagonist f i n a l l y comprehends an abstract d i s t i n c t i o n between l i f e and death. In r e a l i z i n g an appreciation for l i f e , Martin does not so much make . sense of an absurd existence, for which the e x i s t e n t i a l protagonist often struggles in vain. Rather, he makes peace with l i f e , much in the way that Qoheleth recommends. The absurd conundrum of his existence in Caretas has been v i r t u a l l y superseded: with the passing of the l i t t l e golfo manifesting the real sorrow of human mortality, and with a glimpse of l i f e ' s potential for contentment, Martin's existence ceases to be absurd. The two alternatives are no longer 170 d i f f e r e n t sides of the same coin. The protagonist has a c l e a r l y desirable option with which he can l i v e t r a n q u i l l y and happily. His choice to lead a stable and contented l i f e i s manifested outwardly by his resolution to continue s e l l i n g l i g h t e r s , at least temporarily. Martin's acceptance of, or inurement to a "bourgeois" l i f e s t y l e has been misunderstood in pa r t i c u l a r by Christopher Eustis. Eustis, whose a r t i c l e on Martin de Caretas c l e a r l y shows the t r i l o g y ' s marginal kinship to the picaresque, seems to betray a modicum of h o s t i l i t y when he concludes that Arbo reveals himself to be a " r e a l i s t a conveneional" not merely because he reverted to a t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a r y convention, but because he renounced the very essence of the picaresque novel -- i t s capacity for serving as .a sweeping testimonial and an unrelenting indictment of contemporary s o c i e t y . 8 It would seem, by virtue of Eustis' own conclusions,, that Mart in de Caretas bears so l i t t l e resemblance to the true picaresque that to judge i t rigorously by those standards would be unfair. The present study suggests that such c r i t i c i s m would seem less than f u l l y relevant. Of Martin's conversion to a l i f e s t y l e of s t a b i l i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , Eustis observes: Arbo does acknowledge so c i a l and economic i n j u s t i c e . . . but the c r i t i c a l dimension lacks conviction. It is v i r t u a l l y eclipsed by the pre v a i l i n g message of acceptance of the established order. Martin i s employed, a l b e i t s u p e r f i c i a l l y , as an agent for registering the callous ' impersonality, the hypocrisy and the shocking di s p a r i t y between the ri c h and the poor of Barcelona, but he remains detached and immune to these problems. In no way do they interfere with his pr i v i l e g e d assimilation into the dominant pattern of soc i a l and economic s t a b i l i t y . The primary purpose of Martin's exposure to the morally and materially deficient aspects of l i f e in 171 Barcelona i s to impel him toward safe, wholesome medi ocr i t y . 9 Many of the assertions in the preceeding quotation are founded on an oddly l i t e r a l approach to Arbo and his work. In short, Eustis interprets Martin de Caretas as an endorsement of free enterprise and bourgeois values. Had he taken into account the philosophical elements examined in this study, he might have concluded as we do in thi s case: that Arbo's t r i l o g y a v a i l s i t s e l f of ideological factors of a timeless, universal, abstract nature, adapted to a soc i a l medium familiar to his readership. While Arb6's purpose for doing so is not cle a r , i t is not unreasonable to think that i t is the same that motivated Jean Paul Sartre in the f i f t i e s to exhort men to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t heir own existence, to act within the means of their w i l l . Eustis does Arbo a disservice with such a prosaic interpretation of the t r i l o g y . In the passage quoted above, there are several examples of i n d i s t i n c t exegesis. To say that the protagonist is "detached and immune" to urgent so c i a l problems in the c i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y the "shocking di s p a r i t y between the r i c h and the poor" i s to efface the impact of Martin's entire experience of J u a n i l l o and his society of golfos, in some of whom he discovered the noblest of souls. Eustis accuses Martin -- and Roque Galda, who also takes up the sale of l i g h t e r s -- of having "the enterprising attitude c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the familiar bourgeois success s t o r y . " 1 0 By this statement, in addition to his assertion that the reason for the boy's "exposure to the morally and materially d e f i c i e n t 172 aspects of l i f e in Barcelona is to impel him toward safe, wholesome mediocrity," the c r i t i c reveals his f a i l u r e to see that, insofar as the t r i l o g y is concerned, the material aspects of l i f e are, as i t were, immaterial. The very word bourgeois implies materialism, a notion that Martin e x p l i c i t l y renounces. In spite of his "esperanza de mejoramiento" (p. 294), his attitude toward his employment i s modest and betrays no a f f i n i t y to the c l a s s i c a l notion of bourgeois values: Sin embargo, no abuso. Martin no s a l i o del justo medio. No era ambicioso, solo queria lo necesario. V i v i r sin necesidad . . . . Con esto le bastaba. Ganaba menos dinero, pero v i v i a mas tranquilo . (p. 148). This is scarcely the attitude of a devoted c a p i t a l i s t . One might infer Martin's t a c i t approval of free enterprise were i t not for the presence throughout the t r i l o g y of ideological elements, c u l l e d from thousands of years of l i t e r a r y and philosophical t r a d i t i o n , which have universal relevance to the condition of man on earth. Whereas Eustis attempts to show Arbo's retrograde c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as a novelist, i t i s more l i k e l y in view of the evidence at hand that he proposes a daring formula for s o c i a l betterment through individual r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Sartre refutes charges that existentialism is a n t i - s o c i a l introversion by c i t i n g the example we set for mankind by our actions: . . . when we say that man is responsible for himself, we do not mean that he is responsible only for his own i n d i v i d u a l i t y , but that he is responsible for a l l men . . . . Subjectivism means, on the one 173 hand, the freedom of the individual subject and, on the other, that man cannot pass beyond human su b j e c t i v i t y . It is the l a t t e r which is the deeper meaning of existentialism. When we say that man chooses himself, we do mean that every one of us must choose himself; but by that we also mean that in choosing for himself he chooses for a l l men. For in e f f e c t , of a l l the actions a man may take in order to create himself as he w i l l s to be, there is not one which i s not creative, at the same time, of an image of man such as he believes he ought to be. 1 1 The ideology espoused by Arbo, while detached from s p e c i f i c s o c i a l circumstances, supposes consequences of a more universal, but nonetheless concrete nature. Arbo's intention is to address the question of the very nature of our existence, and in doing so the author tenders an adaptation of ideological approaches designed to equip man for p o t e n t i a l l y rigorous encounters with his own existence. While both Sartre and Qoheleth use examples from their respective times and cultures, their didactic message is universal: there are no national, p o l i t i c a l , temporal, or s o c i a l bounds to i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y . Such i s Arbo's intention with regard to Martin de Caretas: his borrowings from l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n , for example, a l l have s p e c i f i c , i d e n t i f i a b l e functions. His thematic allus i o n s to the l i k e s of Cervantes, Calderon, Baroja and the picaresque are not capricious, nor are they intended as l i m i t s to or c r i t e r i a for a l i t e r a l judgement of the narrative; rather, they serve the author's ideological intention. The result i s , in fact, just the kind of universal didactic statement made by Sartre and Qoheleth -- to name only two examples -- couched in a framework of l i t e r a r y and s o c i a l media comprehensible to and known by a l l manner of Spaniards. 1 74 The philosophical path espoused by Arbo i s not one of p o l i t i c a l activism. It i s , on the contrary, one of an intimate, personal evolution, the protagonist's only r e l i a b l e basis for serving the betterment of his fellows. From the perspective of Martin's f i n a l condition, Roque Galda and Antonio Carden stand as examples of the s o c i a l l y impotent victims of those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s condemned by Sartre and Qoheleth. Martin's grandfather is duped by the i l l u s i o n of a human nature. Antonio Carden f i t s Sartre's description of a self-deceiver: "Since we have defined the situation of man as one of free choice, without excuse and without help, any man who takes refuge behind the excuse of his passions, or by inventing some deterministic doctrine, is a s e l f - d e c e i v e r . " 1 2 The truck driver, by means of his observation that "La vida es una mierda" excuses himself from the conventions and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s attendant upon his p a r t i c i p a t i o n in his society. Martin, on the other hand, shows himself to be something of an existential"protagonist in the sense that he must choose, along his v i t a l trajectory, from a confusing array of d e f i n i t i o n s and experiences of l i f e . This is made a l l the more s i g n i f i c a n t by virtue of his exposure, at a most formative age, to the brutal world constituted by Caretas, in addition to the imperious pedagogy of Roque Galda, his major authority figure. As we have seen, through a l l Martin's v i t a l course, the harsh lessons of his youth in Caretas are r e s i l i e n t ones. His f i n a l condition, while i t does not comprise an o r i g i n a l ideology, is the f r u i t of a process of rat i o n a l s e l f -1 75 determination: his condition on his a r r i v a l in Barcelona could have impelled Martin toward the l i f e s t y l e of a complacent, a n t i -s o c i a l delinquent. The function of his deciding and choosing conduces Martin to a modest, reasonable l i v e l i h o o d . This is not necessarily an endorsement of capitalism, free enterprise, or the status quo of Spanish society, nor is i t a question of the protagonist's opting for " s o c i a l and economic s t a b i l i t y " to the exclusion of his s o c i a l consciousness. Rather, t h i s s t a b i l i t y which admittedly signals Martin's pri v i l e g e d s o c i a l status, compared to his poor fellows -- i s a symtom of his modest, moderate and responsible ideology. This ideology, which in fact eschews many essential c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of bourgeois thought, is a sort of formula for personal contentment with s o c i a l ramifications after the fashion of Sartrian e x i s t e n t i a l i s m . At the conclusion of this study, certain of Irbo's ideological preoccupations are in clear resolution. His a f f i n i t y for landscape as a determinant of human behavior, the picaresque view of the world and Old Testament wisdom i s c l e a r l y demonstrable. As to whether or not Arbo read and emulated e x i s t e n t i a l i s t s such as Sartre or Albert Camus, there is no e x p l i c i t evidence to suggest so. However, r e c a l l i n g Sergi Beser's comparison of Arb6's early f i c t i o n to the work of the aforementioned French e x i s t e n t i a l i s t s , we can further see his kindred s p i r i t manifested through those same preoccupations that are more d i s t i n c t l y tangible. For example, the author establishes a deterministic world later to prove that the determinism resides only in the pusillanimous s p i r i t of Caretas' 176 f a t a l i s t i c inhabitants. E x i s t e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Ecclesiastes and the picaresque convention also serve the portrayal of this absurd, impossible environment. Those aspects of Qoheleth's wisdom that seem to resonate- through Sartre's address, "Existentialism i s a Humanism," in turn help to effect the amelioration of the protagonist's view of his existence. The result is a pragmatic attitude toward l i f e that confronts the p o s s i b i l i t y of calamity, yet allows for contentment and enjoyment, as per Qoheleth's pre s c r i p t i o n . Roque Galda, who in the end learns from the example of his grandson, gives an enlightening, personal interpretaion of t h i s v i t a l attitude: Y ya que no sabemos por donde andamos, ni s i por la derecha vamos bien, o por la izquierda tropezamos, hagamos como e l ; vayamos • sin cuidado ni preocupaciones, a ver que sale. Que cada cual se arregle y baile como sepa; que coma y beba, y duerma poco, que es saludable. (p. 291) Thus the message i s expressed in terms of the individual while i t retains universal relevance. In fact, the range of these ideological implications far exceeds Eustis' urge to s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m . Arbo not only manages a myriad of profound philosophical and f o l k l o r i c t r a d i t i o n s in his ideological synthesis, but does so with an eye toward optimism and clemency. Furthermore, the author displays a restrained but piquant wit throughout the t r i l o g y , commensurate with the character of the f o l k l o r i c forms that gave ri s e to Bertoldo, Bertoldino y Cacaseno. 1 77 In his epilogue, Arbo again assumes f u l l command of the narration, addresses the reader d i r e c t l y , undertakes a defense of l i t e r a r y realism, d i r e c t s harsh words toward the experimentalists and avant-guardists of l i t e r a r y endeavor and gives an overview of his characters' circumstances to draw the story to a close. In this address to the reader, the narrator makes a d r o l l reference to the ideology he espouses through the example of Martin, and at the same time acknowledges a s p i r i t u a l father: Suenos por suenos los de Salomon . . . que decia que la vida era un asco -- "todo vanidad de vanidades" --, pero que hacia lo que podia; no dejaba fruta por verde, sobre todo en cuestion de mujeres; suenos por suenos, s i , los de Salomon, a l lado del cual los don Juanes y Casanov'as de la h i s t o r i a fueron ninos de coro; el las tuvo rubias y morenas / gruesas y delgadas, altas y bajas; las tuvo nacionales y extranjeras, que en esto no reparaba en patriotismos, y aun en su vejez c o r r i a en pos de e l l a s con e l mismo entusiasmo, mientras aseguraba que estaba cansado de la vida -- y t a l vez fuera verdad --, que la vida era un asco, "todo vanidad de vanidades." Y basta de Salomon; volvamos a Martin, ya que se tr a t a , sobre todo, de Martin. (pp. 297-298) Arbo returns to the subject of the protagonist by means of a device similar to that used when the omniscient narrator described the amelioration of Martin's v i t a l a t t i t u d e . With that, however, the author makes no more mention of the protagonist's condition of s t a b i l i t y and contentment. Instead he proffers for the reader the virtues of his narrative, that i s , i t s realism: 1 78 Si eres sincero, lector querido, confesaras que has v i s t o a Martin de Caretas . . . . Confesaras que has vi s t o a l abuelo, sentado ante la puerta, con la cayada entre las manos Y a J u a n i l l o , l e c t o r , ino has v i s t o a J u a n i l l o acaso, vagando por e l puerto , fumando su c o l i l l a y parpadeando cuando veia acercarse a Martin como s i le doliese la luz en los ojos? iNo le has vi s t o acaso despues, con su traje de oro y azul, desplegando su c a p o t i l l o , toreando a . aquellos t o r i t o s negros de las plazas c e l e s t i a l e s . . . entre vitores y aplausos, en que el g o l f i l l o sonaba, se resarcia de las miserias de aqui abajo? Pues este es e l merito de la obra y de nuestro autor. Fuera de esto no busques, que no hay mas. (p. 300) In spite of Arbo's admonition, there is indeed much more. It i s true that the author presents a seemingly innocuous story with a happy ending, but i t s implications are by no means purely escapist. Martin achieves a v i t a l attitude that allows him to make the best of his tenuous s t a b i l i t y and s o c i a l position, just as Solomon under his own, more abstractly worrisome circumstances "hacia lo que podia." If we consider Arbo's readership at the time Martin de Caretas was published, we must take into account the freshness of the memory of a hideously f r a t r i c i d a l C i v i l War. With the major p o l i t i c a l forces behind that c o n f l i c t having run amok and, i f anything, having had a retrograde e f f e c t on the nation's s o c i a l progress, i t i s ' not surprising that the author should propose an inward-looking, almost Taoist response to such a p o l i t i c a l f a i l u r e . An eff e c t u a l , s o c i a l revolution would be too much to expect from any one person, p a r t i c u l a r l y a humble lad of sixteen years. Thus the narrator exhorts us "volvamos a lo nuestro y no 1 79 queramos arreglar e l mundo y menos esta parte tan danada del mundo" (p. 300). By thi s Arb6 does not mean to endorse a posture of quietism. Rather, he wishes to underscore the f u t i l i t y of man's mania for f o r c i b l y deciding the existence of others: his c a l l to personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and humility has bolder s o c i a l implication than any p o l i t i c a l doctrine. 180 A. NOTES TO CONCLUSION 1 Sebastian Juan Arbo, Oscar Wilde (Madrid: Ediciones Cid, 1960), p. 11. 2 Alborg, p. 273. 3 Alborg, p. 270. " Antonio Iglesias Laguna, Treinta anos de novela espanola (Madrid: Prensa Espanola, 1969), I, p. 105. 5 Alborg, p. 284. 6 Sartre, p. 295. 7 Sebastian Juan Arb6, Martin de Caretas en la ciudad (Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1972), p. 300. Subsequent references appear in the text. 8 Eustis, p. 32. 9 Eustis, p. 31. 1 0 Eustis, p. 31. 1 1 Sarte , p. 291. 1 2 Sarte, p. 311. 181 BIBLIOGRAPHY Alborg, Juan. Hora actual de la novela esparTola. Madrid: Taurus, 1958. Alberes, R.M. Histoire du Roman Moderne. Paris: Albin Michel, 1 962. Arbo, Sebastian Juan. Entre la t i e r r a y e l mar. Valencia: Prometeo, 1966. Martin de Caretas en e l pueblo. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1972. Martin de Caretas en e l campo. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1972. Martin de Caretas en la ciudad. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1972. Oscar Wilde. Madrid: Ediciones Cid, i960. Pio Baroja y su tiempo. Barcelona: E d i t o r i a l Planeta, 1963. Baroja, Pio. Obras completas. Vols. I,V,VII. Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva, 1946, 1948, 1949. Beser, Sergi, introd. Obra catalana completa. By Sebastia Juan Arbo. Barcelona: Edicions 62, 1966. Brown, G.G. A Literary History of Spain: the Twentieth Century. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1972. Entrambasaguas, Joaquin de, with Maria del P i l a r Palomo. Las  mejores novelas contemporaneas, 1940-1944. Tomo X. Barcelona: E d i t o r i a l Planeta, 1967. Eustis, Christopher. " Martin de Caretas: The Picaresque Myth Transformed." Revista canadiense de estudios hispanicos, 5, No.1 (Otono 1980), 19-35. Fuster, Joan, introd. Obra poetica. By Salvador Espriu, Barcelona: Santiago A l b e r t i , 1963. Iglesias Laguna, Antonio. Treinta anos de novela espanola,  1938-1968. Madrid: Prensa Espanola, 1969. Vol. I. Machado y Ruiz, Antonio. Poesfas completas. Madrid: Espasa Calpe, 1969. Nora, Eugenio de. La novela espanola contemporanea. Madrid: E d i t o r i a l Gredos, 1962. Vol. I I . 182 Parker, A.A. The Humour of Spanish Proverbs. Canning House Ninth Annual Lecture, 16 May 1962. London: The Hispanic and Luso-Brazi1ian Councils, 1962. Patt, Beatrice P. Pio Baroja. New York: Twayne, 1971. Ruiz i Calonja, Joan. H i s t d r i a de la l i t e r a t u r a catalana. Barcelona: E d i t o r i a l Teide, 1954. Sainz de Robles, Federico Carlos. Escritores espanoles e hispanoamericanos. Toma II of Ensayo de un diccionario  de la l i t e r a t u r a . Madrid: Aguilar, 1964. La novela espanola en e l s i g l o XX. Madrid: Pegaso, 1957. Sagrada B i b l i a . Madrid: Bi b l i o t e c a de Autores Cristianos, 1972. Sartre, Jean Paul. "Existentialism i s a Humanism." In Existentialism from Dostoevsky to Sartre. New York: World, 1 956, pp. 2.87-31 1 . Scott, R.B.Y. introd., trans., and notes. The Anchor Bible.  Proverbs. Ecclesiastes. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1965. Sobejano, Gonzalo. Novela espanola de nuestro tiempo. Madrid: Prensa*Espanola, 1970. Terry,. Arthur. A Literary History of Spain: Catalan Lite r a t u r e. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1972. Torrente Ballester, .Gonzalo. Panorama de la l i t e r a t u r a espanola contemporanea. Madrid: Ediciones Guadarrama, 1961. Vol.1. Vallverdu, Josep. H i s t o r i a de la l i t e r a t u r a catalana. Barcelona: Miguel Arimany, 1978. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0096310/manifest

Comment

Related Items