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The function of rhyme in Virginia Woolf’s prose McCahon, Jennifer Kristin 1984

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THE  FUNCTION OF RHYME IN VIRGINIA WOOLF'S PROSE By JENNIFER KRISTIN MCCAHON  B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,1981  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department  We a c c e p t to  THE  this  of English  t h e s i s as  the required  conforming  standard  UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H  COLUMBIA  A p r i l 1984 ©  Jennifer  K r i s t i n McCahon  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements  this thesis f o r an  of  British  it  freely available  agree that for  Library  shall  for reference  and  study.  I  for extensive  h i s or  be  her  shall  not  be  Date  DE-6  (3/81)  April  English  24th,  1984  of  Columbia  make  further this  thesis  head o f  this  my  It i s thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3  the  representatives.  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  f i n a n c i a l gain  Department o f  copying of  g r a n t e d by  the  University  the  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  understood that  the  I agree that  permission by  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree a t  Columbia,  department or for  in partial  written  Abstract  Through the c l o s e examination considered  t o mean a l l i t e r a t i o n ,  t h e echo o f w o r d - e n d i n g s , of  o f rhyme  (where rhyme i s  assonance, homoeoteleuton o r  and p l o c e o r t h e v e r b a t i m  repetition  an e n t i r e w o r d ) i n t h r e e o f W o o l f ' s n o v e l s ^ — J a c o b ' s  (1922), this  thesis  tural  i s attempting  composition  involved use  To t h e L i g h t h o u s e  just  a n d Between t h e A c t s  t o p r o v i d e an i n s i g h t  o f Woolf's prose.  i n writing  the n o v e l s — a s  o f rhyme t e c h n i q u e s .  Woolf s e l e c t e d  (1927),  specifically  The t h e s i s  sections  to highlight  and themes w i t h i n  does n o t u s e rhyme m e r e l y employs  yields  t h e words i n h e r t e x t s w i t h  helps  the s t r u c -  seen  positive  i n Woolf's proof  and draw a t t e n t i o n  the novels.  sounds  to various  In o t h e r words,  Woolf  t o ornament h e r n o v e l s , b u t r a t h e r , convey t o t h e r e a d e r  and s e n s a t i o n s a b o u t h e r c h a r a c t e r s and t h e i r  surroundings.  that  c o n s i d e r a t i o n not  s o u n d : t h e way t h e s e  i t a s one o f many d e v i c e s t o h e l p  impressions  (1941)--  I t looks at t h e mechanics  f o r t h e i r meaning, b u t f o r t h e i r  are arranged  into  Room  Table of Contents  Page Abstract Introduction  i i 1  Jacob ' s Room  15  To the Lighthouse  34  Between the Acts  51  Conclusion  70  Notes  79  Bibliography  8  Acknowledgement  87  4  IV  Acknowledgement  I would Department the  content I  of  like  t o thank  of English,  Dr. Lee Johnson,  U.B.C,  grateful  t h e Department  of English,  i n reviewing the thesis  ment,  and t o Dr. John  Gregg  and a d v i c e i n  thesis.  t o Dr. J . Hulcoop  spent  throughout.  f o rh i sassistance  and p r o d u c t i o n of t h i s  am a l s o  Associate Professor,  U.B.C,  a n d M r . A. B u s z a ,  f o rt h e time  they  also  have  i n i t s various stages of develop-  f o rh i s support  and encouragement  1  Introduction  Why  consider  and e s s a y s ? of  She was,  any s o - c a l l e d  gated  t h e u s e o f rhyme i n V i r g i n i a W o o l f ' s n o v e l s after  "lyrical"  all,  a prose writer,  passages  to considerations of style.  perhaps  to give  critical  i t a small  essays?  Like  century prose writers,  i n h e r work m i g h t Why  the sixteenth, felt  be  rele-  examine rhyme, o t h e r t h a n  chapter i n a varied  Woolf  and t h e q u e s t i o n  c o l l e c t i o n of  s e v e n t e e n t h and e i g h t e e n t h  that  rhyme was a d e v i c e  cable hot only  t o verse, but to prose.  and p r o s e need  n o t be s e p a r a t e d , b u t c o u l d be woven t o g e t h e r t o  create  a unified  literary  fabric  She p r o v e d t h a t  appli-  containing  the best  rhyme  of both  forms. For the  Woolf,  "rhyme" meant s o m e t h i n g much more complex  end-rhyme a t t h e end o f a l i n e  which  "requires  . . . a perfect  of verse,  vowel  echo  a f o r m o f rhyme  (where  involved).""'"  I t a l s o meant h o m o e o t e l e u t o n - - t h e  word s u f f i x e s  (including  ploce—the will  attempt  broadly  a consonant i s ,  r e p e t i t i o n of  end-rhyme)—alliteration,  verbatim r e p e t i t i o n  as s h e d i d , and t h e way  assonance,  o f a word o r p h r a s e .  t o d e m o n s t r a t e why W o o l f  interpreted  i n which  than  she used  This  and  thesis  rhyme as i t i n her  >  n o v e l s and e s s a y s . Before the text  studying  evolution i n which Classical  rhyme i n W o o l f ' s p r o s e , we must  o f rhyme i n t h e E n g l i s h she d e v e l o p e d h e r own v e r s e d i d not u t i l i z e  language,  definition  consider  and t h u s t h e c o n o f rhyme.  rhyme as we know i t t o d a y ,  2  but  the  classical  Aristotle  r h e t o r i c i a n s do  ( 3 8 4 - 3 2 2 B.C.)  although  does not  thesis.  It brings,  control  of  one  describes  expressly as  sound.  speak b r i e f l y  In  homoeoteleuton,  state, "that  i t were, this  of  two  rime  i t s equivalent and  suggests,  i s a kind of  contrasting ideas  harmonization  of  the  anti-  under  the  opposites  2 lies  the  will  be  artistic seen  rhyme t o  later  show t h e  images or stotle's defines  effect  and  i n the  power o f  rime."  d i s c u s s i o n , Woolf  dissimilarities  ideas.  Quintilian  remarks.  In Book  rhyme o r  the  between  (A.D.  IX of  In  fact,  frequently  two  his  used  apparently  35-100) adds l i t t l e Institutio  as  similar  to  Ari-  Oratoria  " v e r b a l r e s e m b l a n c e s " more e x a c t l y t h a n  he did  Aristotle: T h e r e a r e some f o u r d i f f e r e n t f o r m s o f p l a y u p o n verbal resemblances. T h e f i r s t o c c u r s w h e n we s e l e c t some w o r d w h i c h i s n o t v e r y u n l i k e a n o t h e r . . . t h e w o r d s s e l e c t e d w i l l be o f e q u a l l e n g t h and w i l l have s i m i l a r t e r m i n a t i o n s as i n 'non v e r b i s , sed armis' . . . . The s e c o n d f o r m o c c u r s when c l a u s e s c o n c l u d e a l i k e , t h e same s y l l a b l e s b e i n g p l a c e d at t h e end o f e a c h ; t h i s corresponde n c e i n t h e . e n d i n g o f two o r more s e n t e n c e s i s c a l l e d homoeoteleuton.3  Like  Aristotle,  type  of  rhyme—he  devices.  Any  syllables," and in  Quintilian  give  i t as  his opinions one  o f many  group of words which conclude w i t h i n d i c a t o r s such  employ homoeoteleuton.  English poetry replaced  When we  includes  i n c l u d i n g tense  "sitting,"  gradually  simply  does hot  from  the  Elizabethan  as  this  rhetorical  the  the  on  "same  pair,  "running  In European poetry, period  onwards,  and  end-rhyme  homoeoteleuton.  move f o r w a r d  i n h i s t o r y to  the  late  sixteenth  cen-  3  t u r y , we  find  a vehement d e b a t e r e v o l v i n g a r o u n d t h e a c t u a l  v a l u e o f rhyme. vindicates in  a few  "poesie"  i n g e n e r a l , but  contexts.  exceedeth  Prose,  i s manifest, great  In his Defence of P o e s i e ,  He  judges  i n the  m e n t i o n s rhyme  i t favourably:  knitting  up  t o memorie) b e i n g  but  t h e w h o l e woorke f a i l s :  the  remembrance b a c k t o  specifically  "verse  far  )  so  and  reason  delight,  which hathe  s e t as one  c a n n o t be  which a c c u s i n g  i t selfe,  Sidney  p f t h e memorie, t h e  t h e words ( b e s i d e s t h e i r  affinitie  Sir Philip  i t selfe,  a lost,  calleth  so most s t r o n g l y  confirmeth  4  it."  Sidney  Although  he  uses "rime"  is in full  f o r memorie  . . .  and  "measured v e r s e "  f a v o u r o f the use  i t must be  in jest  interchangeably.  o f rhyme, " b e i n g  t h a t any  man  can  best  speak  5  against  it,"  he  does q u a l i f y  concluding paragraph the d u l l  o n e s , "be  this  by w i s h i n g  rimed  enthusiasm  slightly  in his  t h a t none o f h i s r e a d e r s ,  to death  as  i s said  t o be  even  done i n I r e -  6 land."  The  merely value  f o r i t s own lies  thereby might  Defence of Poesie,  otherwise In 1589,  The  to l i n k our  of r h e t o r i c a l h e l d by  contemporary,  does S i d n e y ' s terms,  Sidney.  rhyme  together,  or statements  which  which  we  forget.  Sidney's  than  recommend  stresses that i t s  thoughts  remember r e l a t i o n s h i p s  Arte of E n g l i s h Poesie.  of poetry  does n o t  s a k e as an o r n a m e n t , b u t  in i t s ability  h e l p s us  then,  George P u t t e n h a m ,  Although  i t d e a l s w i t h more  Defence,  and  i t c o n t a i n s v i e w s on  aspects  includes a long rhyme s i m i l a r  Puttenham s t a t e s t h a t " f o r wanting the  n e s s e o f t h e G r e e k e and  produced  to  list those  currant-  L a t i n e f e e t e , i n s t e a d t h e r e o f we  make  4  in  t h ends, o f  after in  our  1  with  the  verses  another  last  fall  verse  or  a certaine tunable  sound: which  reasonably  we  cadence:  the  distant  eare  accord  anon  together  taking pleasure  to  heare  7  the  like  and  Puttenham see  Sidney  tune reported,  i t either  s t r u c t u r e of  limiting  their  to  feele  rhyme as m a i n l y  stresses i t s ability  Puttenham sees the  and  the  as  stanza  distaunces  his returne."  Sidney  a mnemonic d e v i c e , but  t o c o m b i n e two  opposing  purely ornamental, "by  Both  or  where  ideas,  as  accentuating  m a r s h a l l i n g the meetres,  having  regard  to  the  rime  or  and  concorde  Q  how  they  the  vulgarity  "there by  go  can  and  returne."  of  not  poor  be  Nonetheless,  rhyme,  as  i n a maker  i s shown by  [poet]  a fowler  close behind  Puttenham  and of  Campion and  Samuel D a n i e l .  The  few  to  against t h e  willing  favoured  be  0  rime but  carefully  other  pion,  only  restating  he  first  In h i s Observations, i s understoode  agree  on  Puttenham  fault,  or  then  was  remark: . . .  Campion r e p e a t s ends  i n the  trochees,  a l s o absurd."^"''"  and  rhyme as w e l l any  new  which  the  defin-  like  spondees  but  offer  the  claiming that poesie  i n them s u p e r f l o u s ,  does not  of  consensus  "that the  cause of  Thomas  one  and  Sidney's  of  iambs,  these  were  feet,  the  types  from  it,  Sidney  general  that which  t o denounce  constructed  defends but  a stand  g o e s on  "numbers"  were not Daniel  take  rhyme.  "By 1  the  do  o r t h od go re as p ht ih ei s t oi sw r en on tc h h ha il sf ew oh ri ds s c tr ao f th se l pmea i hs it se r .rT1i m e . who  Following  sound,"' '  two  9  u n t r uHee  ition:  the  as  arguments  he  help  can  and  of  rime Samuel  against  f o r rhyme,  Puttenham's o p i n i o n s , that  should  Cam-  merely  rhyme c o n s i s t s  5  "of  an  giving  agreeing both  sound  i n the  to the Eare  an  last  silables  Eccho of  of  severall  a delightfull  verses,  report &  to 1  the Memorie a deeper Before by  i m p r e s s i o n of what  c o n s i d e r i n g the  Virginia  Woolf's  contributions  contemporaries,  development  the  e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , many e m i n e n t p o e t s Sir Philip  and  Alexander  did  so  rhyme  Sidney,  that the  especially  during the  was  acute  not  as  niques w h i c h In  century,  not but  and  by  sixteenth  a new  in part,  thesis,  an  Elizabethan essayist,  (1578) begins  genre  John  peculiar  demonstrated  paragraph  verse  of Euphues:  they  prose,  centuries, the  tech-  in  prose,  prose.  Virginia  to the t w e n t i e t h which  Three e s s a y i s t s  The  That  employed  a practice  practice.  Dryden  and  Many o f  own  Until  admirable  forms.  eighteenth  rhyme i n her  reviving  that earlier  opening  two  t o be.  rhyme  to discuss  wrote  was  from  c e n t u r i e s exemplify, f o r the  this  The  also  between v e r s e  to the  proved  a century before.  seventeenth  the  of  literature.  i n v e r s e were a l s o  utilizing  of  prose.  between  distinction  i t later  creating was,  uncommon o v e r teenth  as  study  John Donne, John M i l t o n ,  were employed  o t h e r words,  W o o l f was  in prose"in English  Pope a l t e r n a t e d  suggests  to the  therein."  i t i s important  the  prose:  of  i s delivered  first,  the  six-  purpose : John  techniques  The  not  Lyly, in his  Anatomy o f  Wit  thus:  There dwelt i n Athens a young gentleman of great p a t r i m o n y a n d o f s o c o m e l y a p e r s o n a g e t h a t i t was d o u b t e d w h e t h e r he w e r e more b o u n d t o N a t u r e f o r the lineaments of h i s person or to Fortune f o r the increase of h i s possessions. But N a t u r e , imp a t i e n t o f c o m p a r i s o n s , and as i t were d i s d a i n i n g a companion or c o p a r t n e r i n her w o r k i n g , added t o  6  t h i s c o m e l i n e s s of h i s body such a sharp capa c i t y of mind t h a t not o n l y she p r o v e d F o r t u n e c o u n t e r f e i t b u t was h a l f o f t h a t o p i n i o n t h a t s h e h e r s e l f was o n l y c u r r e n t . T h i s young g a l l a n t , o f more w i t t h a n w r a t h , and y e t o f more wrath than wisdom, s e e i n g h i m s e l f i n f e r i o r t o none i n such p l e a s a n t c o n c e i t s thought h i m s e l f s u p e r i o r t o a l l i n honest c o n d i t i o n s , insomuch t h a t he deemed h i m s e l f so a p t t o a l l t h i n g s t h a t he g a v e h i m s e l f a l m o s t t o n o t h i n g b u t p r a c t i c i n g o f t h o s e t h i n g s commonly w h i c h a r e incident to these sharp w i t s - - f i n e phrases, smooth q u i p p i n g , merry t a u n t i n g , u s i n g j e s t i n g w i t h o u t mean, and a b u s i n g m i r t h w i t h o u t m e a s u r e .  This passage devices  c o n t a i n s an  d i s c u s s e d by  "companion"  and  the r h e t o r i c a l Arte  Sidney,  "opinion."  Poesie  "taunting,"  "jesting,"  and  The  word, but  However,  including and  passage  like and  tune"—one  lists  homoeoteleuton:  uses  the  p l o c e , an  intermission  by  the  e m p l o y s many  i n Book  on  of  Campion—namely,  i t also  alliteration  also  w i t h some l i t t l e  "a  Puttenham  devices Puttenham  of English  "w's."  example of  I I I of  of  his  "quipping," "p's;"  "c's,"  "iteration inserting  of  one  one or  two  14 words betweene." o f many t y p e s ornamental hero  as  Chapter  of  paragraph,  are prominent,  purpose,  they  a c a r e f r e e and  John series  In t h i s  also  witty  and  XVII  of  called  young  Devotions  the Devotions  while they  u n d e r l i n e the  Donne p r o v i d e s a n o t h e r essays  then,  repeated primarily  sounds serve  description  of  an the  rake.  example.  I n 1623  Upon Emergent  he  wrote  Occasions.  begin:  P e r c h a n c e h e e f o r whom t h i s B e l l t o l l s , may be so i l l , as t h a t he knowes n o t i t t o l l s f o r him; A n d p e r c h a n c e I may t h i n k e my s e l f e s o m u c h b e t t e r t h a n I am, a s t h a t t h e y who a r e a b o u t mee, and s e e my s t a t e , may h a v e c a u s e d i t t o t o l l f o r mee,  a  7 and I know not t h a t . The C h u r c h i s C a t h o l i k e , u n i v e r s a l l , so a r e a l l her A c t i o n s ; A l l t h a t she does, b e l o n g s t o a l l . When s h e baptizes a c h i l d , t h a t a c t i o n c o n c e r n e s mee; for that c h i l d i s t h e r e b y c o n n e c t e d t o t h a t Head w h i c h i s my H e a d t o o , a n d e n g r a f f e d i n t o t h a t b o d y , w h e r e o f I am a m e m b e r . A r i d w h e n s h e b u r i e s a Man, t h a t a c t i o n c o n c e r n e s me: A l l mankinde i s o f one A u t h o r , and i s one volume.15  As  with  Lyly's  eoteleuton Lyly's  e s s a y , Donne's Devotion,  and  with  alliteration.  E u p h u e s, Donne u t i l i z e s  organize  his  because they ships.  His  explain  complex  to  of  i s the  between  church.  sequence: and  "Head" and  "that  "that  body."  the  does not  necessarily repeat  are  the  theme o f  repeated,  from,  albeit  essay;  only  tied  last  to,  of  the  again.  the  child  "child"  "that  the  child,"  this ploce  are  relevant  and  "that"  i s separate  structural  and  establishes  Thus,  those words which  long  passage  "that" with  -to  relation-  sentence of  begins  these words  to  quite  in this  narrator,  when "Head" and  meaning of  closely  "child"  is linked  the  action" pattern  the  the  In  are  thoughts or  repetition  action"  passage,  to  "that  The  the  homo-  f o r ornament, but  attempt  repetition  head"  not  Donne's s e n t e n c e s  Head, w h i c h  "that  ploce,  with  in contrast  Many o f  a connection  sense of  However,  argument.  establishes  a  i s structured  function  and  distinct  which  they  perform. Later  i n the  seventeenth  Browne w r o t e H y d r i o t a p h i a , graph of  the  fifth  chapter,  century,  Urn-Burial. he  i n 1658, In  the  S i r Thomas penultimate  para-  says:  P i o u s s p i r i t s who p a s s e d t h e i r d a y s i n r a p t u r e s of f u t u r i t y made l i t t l e m o r e o f t h i s w o r l d t h a n t h e  8 w o r l d t h a t was b e f o r e i t , w h i l e t h e y l a y o b s c u r e i n t h e c h a o s o f p r e - o r d i n a t i o n , and n i g h t o f t h e i r fore-beings. And i f any h a v e b e e n so h a p p y as t r u l y to understand C h r i s t i a n annihilation, ecsta-' s i e s , e x o l u t i o n , l i q u e f a c t i o n , transformation, the k i s s o f t h e s p o u s e , g u s t a t i o n o f God, a n d i n g r e s s i o n i n t o the d i v i n e shadow, t h e y have a l r e a d y had an handsome a n t i c i p a t i o n o f h e a v e n ; t h e g l o r y o f t h e w o r l d i s s u r e l y o v e r , and t h e e a r t h i n a s h e s u n t o them.16  The  rhetorical  and  ploce,  dividual  inherent  similar  he  to  whole essay,  He  embellishes  direct  the  reader's  i t less pointedly.  structuring  the  ideas  homoeoteleuton  within  the  following  and  a  list  of  whereas other  rhyme,  like  throughout With gradual  of  the the  the  a  uses  that  Lyly  ornaments h i s  uses ploce  in a  as  serves  to  essay  to  accentuate  suffix  do  not  so  over  provide  are  as  a  few  argument, assist  the on  in  also  employ-  argument  the  leading to appear  and  ideas  emphasize words which  arid " p i o u s "  and  "tion"  in-  manner  a whole, while  experiences  words which  to  the  words together  "anticipa-  t o be  involved  repeated  from  a connecting  link  in  the  essay. close  separation  few  i s , the  a l l the  of of  them became s h a r p e r only  He  essay  " g l o r y , " "ashes"  part  i n many o f  attention to his  alliteration that  "Christian"  tion,"  earlier  i n the  paragraph:  constitute  and  assonance,  However, w h e r e a s Donne u s e s p l o c e  Browne uses  ing  occur  a l s o s t r u c t u r e s h i s argument  t o Donne.  sentences  alliteration,  Browne combines the  them.  does, but  homoeoteleuton,  i n the  paragraphs.  D o n n e made o f Lyly  devices,  exceptions  the  eighteenth  prose and  and  century,  poetry;  more d i f f i c u l t  i n the  form of  the to  there  came  boundaries cross.  In  a  between fact,  James B e a t t i e ' s T h e o r y  with of  9  Language and  (1783),  J.S. S c h u l t z e ' s  A Defence of Poetry  S h e l l e y ' s u n f i n i s h e d A Defence of Poetry  cussion  surrounding  hot only  lay  more o r l e s s u n d i s t u r b e d  but  brilliant  completing  use by  her early novels  (1840),  the use, but the value f o r many y e a r s ,  the Augustans.  (1802) the of  and s h o r t - f i c t i o n s e m e r g i n g who  I n 1919, John L i v i n g s t o n Lowes  a t rhyme more s c i e n t i f i c a l l y  d o n e , b u t h e a l s o came t o d e f i n e in  his definition  "is  other  one o f t h e b i n d i n g  perception highest upon  elements  of structural  exercise  the l y r i c  than  unity.  He  had  including  says that  rhyme  the production  . . . Creative  an o r d e r e d  tried  h i s predecessors  forms.  i n both  i s magnificently  impulse  were r e e v a l u a t i n g t h e  rhyme more b r o a d l y ,  rhetorical  was  i n t h e 1920's,  implications look  narrow  However, when W o o l f  was  to  rhyme  despite.its  a n o t h e r wave o f c r i t i c s o f rhyme.  dis-  energy  and t h e in i t s  a r c h i t e c t o n i c , and i t imposes sequence  and an  organic  17 unity." the  He  "binding  rhyme,  does not expect  homoeoteleuton  elements" but also considers  "that  i s to say, i t i s i n i t i a l ,  alone  to  provide  alliteration  as c o n t r a s t e d  t o be  with  ehd-  18 rhyme."  In h i s Convention  s e n t i m e n t w h i c h was  probably  and R e v o l t , not unique  as  i t s basis  in  the post-Victorian, early twentieth  connection between .  them  "the great  and prose,  uncharted  . . f o r centuries the Debatable  Literature,  claimed  now  expressed  to himself,  the sense of i n t e l l e c t u a l  between poetry  Lowes  searching century.  calling  region Ground,  b y o n e s i d e , now  the  a  as i t has  which  occurred  He m a k e s t h e borderland  i n the realm  of  letters  t h e no Man's L a n d o f by  the other,  and  10  securely forms, prior In  held  far to  by  from b e i n g  the  on  the  Donne and  to  one  traditions  to  during  bridge hand,  Dryden;  on  As  we  the  "No  the  other,  her  own  which  to  "Rhyme i n E n g l i s h  states  that  closely  t h e y became  the  she  the  was  separated.  modifying  i n 1921  Poetry."  rhyme i n E n g l i s h  by  two  related  t r a d i t i o n s of  psychological  Lowes' v i e w s were expanded essay,  however,  Man's L a n d " b e t w e e n them,  returning  include  "true  have seen,  " u n c h a r t e d , " were very  "centuries"  attempting  was,  neither."  Woolf  Sidney,  those  novels. Selincourt  Although  the  requires  ...  in  essay a  his  crisply  perfect  20 vowel with  echo  (where  Lowes t h a t  a consonant  "alliteration  i s involved)" and  i t also  rhyme a r e  agrees  c l e a r l y members  of  21 the  same g e n u s . "  Like  the  r e s t r i c t e d view of  much a p r e d i c t i o n  as  a  rhyme t o  these  need t o  work under."  challenge: utilizing Woolf in "The  rhyme i n her herself  Elizabethan  perceptions out  attempts  essays which  "Rhyme a n d  these  i t has  f e t t e r s provide 22  she  make a  statement:  medium f o r rhyme b e c a u s e course,  Lowes, S e l i n c o u r t  Woolf to  the  d i r e c t i o n almost  overcome the  to  meet  lack  of  comments on  have nothirjg to  L u m b e r Room" f o r  restrictions,  a  as  perfect but  of  a l l artists  Selincourt's "fetters"  by  prose.  ostensibly  i n order.  s h o u l d be  from  proves  structural fetters,  undertakes  occasionally  metre helped  t o move  remark which  "prose  no  i s able  the But  poets the  rhyme and do  instance, to  accumulated  she  keep the  [Elizabethan] clauses,  with  poetry  rhyme.  notes  tumult  In  that of  their  prose w r i t e r , p e t e r e d out  in  with-  11  interminable  catalogues,  tripped  and stumbled over t h e convo23  lutions to  o f h i s own r i c h  mock h e r c o n t e m p o r a r y  the  extreme  flexibility  the  critics  can only  Knowing  Greek,"  fling hear to  turn,  victor:  a c r o s s a page.  to live" Virginia  development within  by d e s c r i b i n g  "We  signals  Woolf  by which  pick  relationships  s h e h a d t o s e t up e c h o e s  a variety  a tedious  of the different  t o produce  this  certainly,  distinction  one by one to  between  people or objects and  and r e m i n d e r s had she used  She u s e d  their wherever  t h o s e two Thus,  Woolf  used  end-rhyme and  assonance,  every reader to i d e n t i f y one passage  ploce,  the  rhyming • d e v i c e s a v a i l a b l e t o  but she a l s o  fora structural  more s e c t i o n s  line  to hint,  novel or essay.  echoing effect.  t h e c o n n e c t i o n between  phrase  from  p r o s e t o enhance  I n o r d e r t o compare c h a r a c t e r s  e u t o n , and when s h e w a n t e d  or  cannot  sound  i s made  between  have produced  The  We  up i n f a l l i b l y  rhyme i n . h e r  alone,  ciate  tossing  a phrase  End-rhyme and a l l i t e r a t i o n ,  alliteration  and f i n d s t h e  a s we d o i n E n g l i s h .  possible.  her  I n "On N o t  c a n never hope t o g e t t h e whole  cannot  included  of unlikely  relationships,  used  terms.  which  (CR, p. 3 6 ) .  her novels.  may  and p r a c t i s i n g  and Greek,  now h a r m o n i o u s , We  appears  flexibility  i n theoretical  compares E n g l i s h  i t , now d i s s o n a n t ,  those minute  At t i m e s , Woolf  of the language—a  o f a sentence i n Greek  line  all  critics  discuss  Woolf  former the c l e a r  draperies."  homoeoteland appre-  and a n o t h e r ,  ploce.  the verbatim repetition  p u r p o s e — t h a t i s , t o connect  of a novel or essay—and  of a  word  two o r  the use of r e p e t i t i o n t o  12  re-emphasize  an i d e a o r image f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f d e v e l o p i n g  themes and s y m b o l i c  allusions,  i s easily  would be wrong t o t r yt o s e p a r a t e completely: phrase often  serves  related  Nevertheless,  structural  specifically eluding and  the continual  a structural  closely  essay. the  although  to relate  novels.  In this  secondary  t o t h e concern  McLaurin  says  Flush  "illustrates  entities  i s:  of the novel or  thesis  i s t o examine  o f t h r e e o f W o o l f ' s n o v e l s — a s .:  as opposed  structure  thesis,  Allen  substance  the objective of this  i n h e r development  that  two l i n g u i s t i c  t h a t word o r phrase  t o the thematic  her use of ploce  Perhaps i t  r e c u r r e n c e o f a word o r  function-,  composition  seen  these  blurred.  o f rhyme t e c h n i q u e s , i n ^ to thematic  repetition—  t o t h e themes and symbols o f those  concern  w i t h themes and symbols i s  with structure.  that the repetition the difference  I n The Echoes o f t h e word  Enslaved,  "smell" i n  between s e n s a t i o n and l a n ^ ;  2 4 guage."  This  thesis  f i r s t , •••and t h e n The  study  will  t r yt o concentrate  compare "language"  s e n t W o o l f ' s c a r e e r : h e r t h i r d — J a c o b ' s Room  Lighthouse  (1941),  (1927).  novel,  as Guiguet  called  the 'scaffolding,.'  situated  with  Jacob's  she t r i e s facts,  i n space and time,  logy without tinuity  notes,  selected to repre-  (1922),  and t h e most h i g h l y  I begin  gaps o r b r e a k s ,  the l a s t —  acclaimed—To  Room b e c a u s e  t o suppress  actions,  forming  "language"  to "sensation."  w i l l .centre on t h r e e n o v e l s  Between t h e A c t s  on  "all  events  an i t i n e r a r y  The  i n this  that she  precisely and a  chrono-  a c o n t i n u o u s m i l i e u whose c o n 2 <=> i s i n our h a b i t s of thought." Woolf h e r s e l f c a l l s  13  J a c o b s Room "a necessary 1  step, f o r me,  i n working  free."  T h i s i s not to say that she had not s u c c e s s f u l l y experimented with her prose s t y l e e a r l i e r . "Kew  Gardens," "The  Three remarkable short  fictions,  Mark on the W a l l , " and "An Unwritten  Novel"  were a l l p u b l i s h e d and had r e c e i v e d g e n e r a l l y f a v o u r a b l e r e views b e f o r e Woolf began w r i t i n g Jacob's Room. the W a l l " f o r i n s t a n c e , she  In "The  Mark on  questions:  And what i s knowledge? What are our l e a r n e d men save the descendants of witches; :and hermits who crouched i n caves and i n woods brewing herbs, i n t e r r o g a t i n g shrew-mice and w r i t i n g down the language of the s t a r s ? And the l e s s we honour them as our s u p e r s t i t i o n s dwindle and our r e s p e c t f o r beauty and h e a l t h of mind i n c r e a s e s . . . Y e s , one c o u l d imagine a very p l e a s a n t world. A quiet, spacious world, with the flowers so red and b l u e i n the open f i e l d s . A world without p r o f e s s o r s or s p e c i a l i s t s or house-keepers with the p r o f i l e s of policemen, a world which one c o u l d s l i c e with one's thoughts as a f i s h ^ s l i c e s the water with h i s f i n , g r a z i n g the stems of the w a t e r - l i l i e s , _ hanging suspended over n e s t s of white sea eggs... 2  T h i s passage u t i l i z e s a l l i t e r a t i o n , euton and p l o c e .  The  first  assonance, homoeotel-  t h r e e d e v i c e s focus on  heightening  and developing the images w i t h i n the passage, w i t h i n a few tences.  The  l a t t e r u n d e r l i n e s the p a r a l l e l arrangement of the  argument: "what i s knowledge? "one  could s l i c e  connects  sen-  What are our l e a r n e d men"  . ... as a f i s h s l i c e s . "  and  Furthermore, p l o c e  t h i s passage with other p a r t s of the essay.  "Fish" i s  repeated one page l a t e r ; " f l o w e r s " t h r e e pages p r e v i o u s l y ; "house-keeper" f o u r pages b e f o r e .  The  c a l l s i t s past usage and circumstances  r e p e t i t i o n of a word r e and so helps to u n i f y  14  disparate "The Novel" sory  s e c t i o n s o f t h e essay. Mark on t h e W a l l , "  h a v e no p l o t — e a c h  impressions.  possibilities  novel. only yet  tentatively,  o f i n c l u d i n g rhyme as a p a r t  i n January  They  generate,  1 9 2 0 , "some i d e a  Suppose one t h i n g s h o u l d  form  (AWD, p . 2 3 ) .  and speed, The i d e a  twenty-two months l a t e r , J a c o b ' s Room, career  with  Unwritten  germinating  Between t h e A c t s .  as Woolf  matured  that  t h e \)  notes  i n January  i n her  f o r a new . . . not  get c l o s e r and  everything,  the popular,  sen-  of the structural  open o u t o f another  and enclose  and c o m p l e t e l y  to explore  o f a new f o r m  f o r 10 p a g e s b u t 200 o r s o — d o e s n ' t keep  a n d "An  o f them c o n s i s t s o f a s e r i e s o f  They b e g i n ,  framework o f t h e essay. diary  "Kew G a r d e n s "  everything?"  1920 became,  critically  acclaimed  a t t h e end o f h e r w r i t i n g  15  Jacob's  Jacob's preceded  Room w a s p u b l i s h e d  " i n structure  of fiction  writing  which  to the twentieth."^  is  that  which would  Virginia  The two n o v e l s  a n d N i g h t a n d Day  and e x t e r n a l  queathed clear  i n 1922.  i t , The Voyage Out (1915)  conformed tions  Room  (1919)  pretensions to the tradi-  t h e n i n e t e e n t h century had beIn these f i r s t  Woolf  which  two n o v e l s , " i t  had not y e t d i s c o v e r e d  enable her t o write  a novel i n which  a technique  luminous  halo  2 and  actual  Jacob's  story  Room, W o o l f  now d e m o n s t r a t e d coextensive, her husband is  would  radically  that  changed  "luminous  attracted  own m e t h o d ,  how many r e a d e r s i t w i l l  have"  course.  praise  Jacob's  distinguished  o f course, your  In her third  Room, s a i d  (AWD, p . 5 1 ) . W i t h  images and themes became more p r o m i n e n t .  he s e e s  Room i n h i s l i s t  complex  to  this  tell "method,"  began t o recede, w h i l e s e n s a t i o n s  i t i s t o be approached  picture:  be  .You  and i t i s not easy  and  that  could  her publisher,  and b e a u t i f u l .  importance of the plot  Jacob's  story"  which  from h e r p u b l i s h e r ,  the  includes  novel,  Her s t y l e ,  h a l o and a c t u a l  considerable  a n d many c r i t i c s .  "extraordinarily  have,  be c o e x t e n s i v e . "  of " l y r i c a l  Ralph  Freedman  novels,"  saying  i n " t h e way a n o n l o o k e r r e g a r d s a  details  i n juxtaposition  and e x p e r i e n c e s  3  them a s a w h o l e . " once, the  whereas r e a d i n g i s a s t e p - b y - s t e p process.  reader might  recall  T h e e y e c a n f o c u s o n much o f a p a i n t i n g a t  see Jacob's  and t o foreshadow  Room a s " a p i c t u r e , "  In order Woolf  that  had t o  images and s e n s a t i o n s and themes,  which  16  she  d i dwith This  rhyme,  study  i n i t s several, various  will  concentrate  alliteration,  homoeoteleuton,  three  are subtle  eral the is  devices lines,  a paragraph  most o b v i o u s so evident  upon  forms o f rhyme; t h e y  i t connects  Jacob's  they for It  Room?  perform  separate  instance,  i s used  functions fairly  sections  looks  busy.  strengthen  bonnets  . .  going  .  [  O  N  carriages  J pink,  t o t h e Aquarium  she sees  faces  o r do  the novel. sitting  on a  i t when i t i s "goats  through t h e crowds,"  querulous  play  Alliteration,  r e g u l a r l y throughout  I n t h e s p a c e o f two p a r a g r a p h s , their  novel.  the ploce  i n themselves?  sev-  However,  forms o f rhyme i n f a c t  on t h e town b e l o w h e r , and i m a g i n e s  [who] c a n t e r e d  first  repetition,  of a  makes i t s a p p e a r a n c e e a r l y when M r s . F l a n d e r s ,  hill,  of  Do t h e y m e r e l y  The  pages.  or verbatim  several  forms:  can connect  o r two, o r even s e v e r a l  form o f rhyme, p l o c e ,  that  o f t h e rhyme  assonance and ploce.  What r o l e s do t h e m o r e s u b t l e in  four  forms.  . . .  "purple  on p i l l o w s " and t h i n k s  "where t h e s a l l o w  blinds, the stale 4  smell  of s p i r i t s  Flanders  sees  reality.  of salt  . . . remained  i n her imagination  In her thoughts"she  what  i n t h e mind."  Betty  i s not i n front of her i n  transforms  the t r a n q u i l scene  below h e r i n t o one o f b u s t l i n g a c t i v i t y .  Woolf  to  scene t o t h e  convey  the vividness  Later  of this  i n the novel,  description  of a holiday  the  coast  Cornish  with  Woolf  imaginary again  uses  scene--Jacob's  Timmy D u r r a n t .  a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e voyage  itself  uses  alliteration  sailing  alliteration reader. i n the  expedition  along  I n an i n t e r l u d e between  and t h e a r r i v a l  o f t h e men  17  at the Durrant's together.  The  home, Woolf interweaves  interwoven  ence i s that one  a l l i t e r a t e d sounds  sounds are both g l o t t a l s — t h e  sound i s v o i c e d ("g")  Thus, although the two  two  arid one unvoiced  differ("c").  sounds are d i s t i n c t , they do have enough  i n common to give the impression of a c o n t i n u i n g sound.  The  n a r r a t o r d e s c r i b e s the C o r n i s h c o a s t l i n e where the "white Cornish cottages are b u i l t on the edge of the c l i f f ;  the garden grows  gorse more r e a d i l y than cabbages; and f o r hedge, some primeval man  has p i l e d g r a n i t e b o u l d e r s " (50).  The p a t t e r n begins  with  a l l i t e r a t e d " c ' s , " i s i n t e r r u p t e d by a s e r i e s of "g's," then i s f o l l o w e d by one  " c " and f i n a l l y one  the e f f e c t of emphasizing  The  interweaving  i n the a c t u a l sounds those  t i o n s h i p s which are suggested intrusive "g's"—the  "g."  has  interrela-  by the meaning of the words.  The  "gorse" and the " g r a n i t e " are c o n s t a n t l y  t h r e a t e n i n g , i n t h e i r wildness, to overtake c i v i l i z a t i o n as i t i s represented by the " C o r n i s h c o t t a g e s " and the "cabbages." The n a r r a t o r ' s o b s e r v a t i o n of the cottages i s made from c l o s e range.  As the r e s i d e n t Mrs. Pascoe, f o r i n s t a n c e , or as the  p a s s i n g t o u r i s t s see them, t h e i r harshness  amidst  the g r a n i t e  boulders, i n h o s p i t a b l e gorse, and c o l d winds i s a l l too  apparent.  A few pages e a r l i e r , however, Jacob and Timmy have seen the c o t t a g e s from t h e i r s a i l b o a t .  From the water, these same c o t -  tages "wore an e x t r a o r d i n a r y look of calm, of sunny peace, as i f wisdom and p i e t y had descended upon the d w e l l e r s t h e r e " (46). The  a l l i t e r a t i o n of the second d e s c r i p t i o n of the C o r n i s h  cottages draws a t t e n t i o n to them, and t h e r e f o r e to the  disparity  18  in  t h e two  from t h a t boat  and  descriptions. on  land  elation  ing  from  and  to l i s t  That  they can  see  in a kind  never  are also  forgets;  Woolf  he  Cambridge, glasses,  and  Woolf's  "the whole  "composed,  examples,  describe  p l e a s u r e not by  describing  their  attitudes. "to  knows  implies  the voyage  attemp-  rising  Pascoe  than cabbages"  both  to  that  that  i s one  their  which  Clara Durrant, at  the voyage  the  are experienc-  cabbage f i e l d s  Indeed,  between  effort  y o u n g men  "head-rhyme"  the  novel i s also  ation—Jacob's with  and  Clara  is  singled  way  those  t o h e i g h t e n o r s t r e n g t h e n an  flesh  when P r o f e s s o r  Jacob the  on  his  (37).  adjectives  In Greece,  into  by  Of  In  folds on In  the  Another  the these  image e a r l y by  a "Greek between  the Greek  i t contains  as  alliteration,  prominence  are simply l i s t e d :  are described.  into  (140).  I t includes  the pressed flowers  Jacob's  image.  Jacob walks  of poppies pressed to s i l k  o t h e r books  flowers  fell  are enhanced  purposely thrust  in  H u x t a b l e removes h i s  of h i s face then  reading material.  o u t by  of a l l i t e r a t i o n  i n the word b e f o r e i t .  the petals  The  m o s t common u s e  commanding, contemptuous"  the l a t e r  the  (36).  i n an  ( 4 6 ) when Mrs.  recalls  for instance,  props were removed"  ary  b u t by  meets Timmy's s i s t e r ,  Room i s f o r e m p h a s i s ,  hills,  t h e two  t h e c o t t a g e s and  soaring.  different  of the distance  shows t h e i r  of ecstacy"  is  trip.  Virginia  if  which  emotions,  of the cruise,  Grecian  from the sea  because  "grow g o r s e more r e a d i l y  spirits  end  their  view  It i s different  enjoyment  the voyage.  ting  they  just  the cottages.  the  heaven  not  The  in  alliterdictionthe  pages"  dictionary  and  by  the  a l l of Jacob's books,  the  19  Greek d i c t i o n a r y remembrance, press  the  their  life  juices  life: his  he  when he  to preserve  killed  he  looks  of at  r e t u r n i n g to England Thus,  become t a n g i b l e r e m i n d e r s  squeezing  out  least  the  his  he  joins  the of  talk  this he  with  statue, he  and  visits  o f war the  is  short  Greeks  in a will, the  two-di-  after  throughout  t o him  i s i n Greece,  To  Jacob  a Grecian  of  i n war.  t o come ( a s  discusses  like  flowers  inten-  forces,  Greek d i c t i o n a r y h i s presence  and and  after  he  dead. The  iety  previous  Homoeoteleuton,  different for  e x a m p l e s show a l l i t e r a t i o n  any  purposes.  the  Unlike other  or  d e s c r i b i n g Jacob  as  Woolf  says,  are  young or  . . cold,  the  " e i t h e r we  a  lines  by  Captain cold,  structure.  Barfoot  var-  o r we  are  the  parallel  Within, a  lines, the  s t r u c t u r e of  used  assist  in  para-  Virginia  sentimental.  In these  t.  serves  i t i s rarely  s e e s him,  . . . o l d " rhyme s t r e n g t h e n s  strengthening  endings,  I t i s more.often used to  growing o l d " (69).  either  of word  rhyme f o r m s ,  to emphasize a p a r a l l e l  graph  are  repetition  ornamental purposes.  creating  we  performing  f u n c t i o n s r e l a t e d t o ; t h e r h e i g h t e n i n g o r s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f an  of  image.  .  act  of  are  killed  for years  i n s c h o o l , he  sometime a f t e r w a r d s .  poppies  the  f o r Jacob  a hundred pounds l e f t  after  those  recollections  allure  H o w e v e r , when he and  of  them, but  s h a p e arid c o l o u r  an  Poppies  act which preserves,  aquaintances,  has  sifies,  is  i s the  s t u d i e s Greek  Greece.  the  i s to k i l l  Greece holds  school  is  their  is trying  dead).  symbolic.  remembrance e s p e c i a l l y  flowers  mensionally, novel  i s t h e most  the bond the  Either "either between ideas  20  within  those  lines.  museum: " s t o n e cool in  over  order  to intensify  frail  over  pillars  novel.  Siddons  Silvia?  what  through guests  (85).  Like  Clara  again, to  cohesively to establish  Museum a n d t h e  the dull  point  Silvia earth  i s excelling/  of conversation  together.  They r e c o g n i z e  she "looks Although  Clara  does n o t d e s c r i b e  Clara's  at which  She  excels  Elsbeth ' ;.\  Clara Durrant i s  i t i s s h e who  Clara's  social  pale,"  tries,  about  graces,  "Clara  •'-'[•  could  comment  resist  introducing people,  impressions  anda l -  lacks her  (83) others  ( 8 2 ) a n d a s k "who  own  i s  . . .  and Mrs. Ramsay's  Salvin, finds that  Clara bustles  "Who  and i n t r o d u c t i o n s , t o b r i n g t h e  i s a little  charming"  to  d w e l l i n g / To h e r l e t u s  a n d M r s . Ramsay,  snippets  Mr.  commend h e r ?  party,  i n that  way i n  listen  i s from Shakespeare:  The D u r r a n t s '  of the party  structure  i n one o t h e r  and Jacob  a l l our swains  Mrs. Dalloway  mother's s p i r i t .  (84).  party,  Her song  That  t h i n g / Upon  though one o l d guest,  that  and  to produce p a r a l l e l  foreshadows Mrs. Dalloway's p a r t y  focal  Once  she i s t r y i n g  Room, i t i s u s e d  l e t us s i n g / That  bring"  dinner. the  singing.  i s she?/  Then t o S i l v i a  sings,  clearly  df the B r i t i s h  helps  At the Durrants'  Elsbeth  garlands  (105).  lies  shielding the brain.  t h r o u g h o u t most o f J a c o b ' s  each mortal  the  Museum, a s b o n e  of the brain"  of the correspondence  While homoeoteleuton  the  describes  the metaphor she uses homoeoteleuton  the monolithic  skull  Woolf  the B r i t i s h  the p a r a l l e l i s m , to organize  perceptions  between  solid  i n the novel,  t h e v i s i o n s and heat  underline our  lies  Later  of the party,  her?" Woolf with  21  one e x c e p t i o n — s h e i s absorbed by E l s b e t h ' s song.  The  "Silvia"  of whom E l s b e t h s i n g s and C l a r a Durrant are comparable  figures.  "What i s she?" c o u l d be asked as e a s i l y about C l a r a as S i l v i a . All  the f a v o u r a b l e comments about C l a r a , i n c l u d i n g the marriage  p r o p o s a l p r i o r to the p a r t y (82), suggest that " a l l our. swains commend" not j u s t S i l v i a but C l a r a too. advice t o the swains: "to S i l v i a garlands b r i n g . "  Most of the s o n g i i s  l e t us s i n g . .  . . To her l e t us  Jacob l i s t e n s to the music, applauds i t , then  asks C l a r a to go w i t h him "to have something to e a t " ( 8 6 ) . i s h i s garland, h i s present to her.  This  He i s shy arid .embarrassed  when w i t h C l a r a , d e s p i t e h i s e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h F l o r i n d a , but has overcome h i s awkwardness enough to approach her s o c i a l l y .  She  i s w a y l a i d by Mr. P i l c h e r ; Jacob c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f deserted ("so C l a r a l e f t him"  |_86j ) and they never do become r e u n i t e d .  Woolf's i n s e r t i o n of Shakespeare's song i n t h i s novel gives the reader an o p p o r t u n i t y to compare the t r a d i t i o n a l use of homoeot e l e u t o n , i n t h i s case end-rhyme, w i t h Woolf's own  use of i t .  Shakespeare's rhyme scheme i s very formal: ababa, whereas Woolf's rhyme f o l l o w s no  s e t r u l e s ; she uses i t where she f e e l s i t i s  most s u i t a b l e and e f f e c t i v e .  Shakespeare's rhyme conforms to  S i r P h i l i p Sidney's and George Puttenham's c o n c e p t i o n s of i t ; i t i s a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g because of the echo of the sounds at the  ends of the l i n e s , a n d i t p r o v i d e s some of the s t r u c t u r e of  the  v e r s e by c o n c l u d i n g a l t e r n a t i n g l i n e s a l i k e , and thus  "binding"  the l i n e s together.  Woolf, on the other hand, w h i l e  o c c a s i o n a l l y u s i n g homoeoteleuton  to help s t r u c t u r e  metaphors  ..  22  or  directions  pattern. in  of thought,  She  can,  in  a  Perhaps  than  a group  arranged  of  formally  stanzaic  rhyming  and  i s not  because  quite  of t h i s ,  so o b v i o u s as  Woolf  pair  therefore  perhaps  end-rhymes  i t to help to organize a phrase i t i s not  sentence which a paragraph,  photographs with  i s a c o n f u s i n g jumble  and  cards.  a red margin--an  gives  the essay  untidiness  uses  essay"  of the rest  assonance  makes' t h a t : a c t i o n train,  However,  a semblance  More f r e q u e n t l y Woolf  than  round  t h e g l o b e , " (132)  night  with  Sandra  meaning—because  action,  and  ruled  in this  phrase  amidst  with  s t a y e d and  When J a c o b  cigar  smoke w h i c h  visits  the  however, ;  accumulated" i n form  ;  ;  i s on  a  floated  the Acropolis  "the clouds  linger—linger  one's r e a d i n g speed  purposes,  consequently  emphatic.' .  and when he  the clouds both  l a y paper  room.  thick  veils  Cambridge,  i n a j a r , pipes,  assonance  for organizational  and  or  the thoughts i n roomin  the table  Wentworth W i l l i a m s ,  . . the t r a i l i n g  flags  The  paragraph;  of neatness, of s t a b i l i t y  t o mimic  lively  rather,  of  sometimes  of the paragraph  Jacob's  "on  (36).  of the  " t h e c a r r i a g e was  smoke a n d  a list.  freely  she  or sentence or  i s b e i n g o r g a n i z e d , but i t e m s on  i t more  homoeoteleuton,  so much t h e s t r u c t u r e  or the  instance,  Like  homoeoteleuton.  a b l e t o use  uses  however,  d i d homoeoteleuton.  felt  she  .  one  i s more u n e x p e c t e d ,  than  for  to the  stanza. Assonance  J  restricted  i f she w i s h e s , have o n l y  a paragraph, which  more s a t i s f y i n g ,  i s not  at  solidified (155). as w e l l  decreases to repeat  The as i n  23  and  absorb  t h e r e s p e c t i v e vowel s o u n d s .  example o f a s s o n a n c e o c c u r s undergraduates. the  They t a l k  soul i t s e l f  prolonged  a s W o o l f d e s c r i b e s S o p w i t h and t h e " a s i f e v e r y t h i n g c o u l d be t a l k e d — the l i p s  i n thin  silver  w h i c h d i s s o l v e i n young men's minds l i k e  silver,  like  (38).  slipped  The most  through  The a s s o n a n c e h e i g h t e n s  ethereal,  unattainable.  seems i t m i g h t be u n c o v e r e d but  i t can a l s o disappear  within  i s ploce,  the verbatim  [jacobj  just  loosely  repetition  as a complete novel  connected  A H a u n t e d House.  short  fictions,  The e p i s o d e s  a complex p l o t ,  J a c o b ' s Room e x p e r i e n c e  i n "a s e r i e s  t o one a n o t h e r r a t h e r than  such  as those  a r e not r e l a t e d  f o r as David  o f a word  c a n be d i s c o v e r e d . " ^  h a d t o have s o m e , ^ r e l a t i o n s h i p  c o u l d be r e a d  through  and a n a l y s i s ,  f r e q u e n t l y u s e d and i m p o r -  W o o l f w r o t e J a c o b ' s Room i n e p i s o d e s ,  p e r s p e c t i v e s i n w h i c h he  episodes  of  i s enough t a l k  that i t  a s s o n a n c e a n d h o m o e o t e l e u t o n a r e n o t uncommon  rhyming d e v i c e  or a phrase.  they  i n fact,  and " d i s s o l v e " when i t a p p e a r s  J a c o b ' s Room, b u t by f a r t h e most  tant  of  i fthere  as wispy,  reach.  Alliteration, in  moonlight"  t h e sense o f t h e s o u l  The s o u l ! i s s o w i s p y ,  disks  Daiches  so t h a t  as a s e r i e s comprising  t o one  another  stresses,  i s n o t p a t t e r n e d by p l o t ;  The  plot  "in i s simply  6 the by-product stead,  of the record o f the flow o f experience."  " V i r g i n i a Woolf b u i l t  In-  a strong structure to create the 7  a e s t h e t i c whole t h a t h e r t h e o r y of  of the novel  required."  Part  t h e " s t r o n g s t r u c t u r e " i s h e r use o f p l o c e which can serve  several  different  functions.  However, most examples o f p l o c e  24  can be d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : that o f u s i n g i n t e r v e n i n g sentences, ing  paragraphs, o r even a few pages, t o a l t e r the mean-  o f a repeated word o r words, and that o f p r o v i d i n g l i n k s  between s e c t i o n s of the book.  The l a t t e r category  usually links  t h i r t y pages o r l e s s , but can c o n j o i n the f i r s t with the l a s t section of the novel.  F o r i n s t a n c e , when Jacob i s s t i l l a  young boy, Woolf d e s c r i b e s h i s mother being observed by Mrs. Cranch who i s " b e a t i n g her mat against the w a l l " (14).  When i n  Cambridge, Jacob e n v i s i o n s Turkey, where the women "beat on the stones"  (42).  Finally,  at the c l o s e of the n o v e l , when  Jacob i s o f f f i g h t i n g i n the war, Mrs. F l a n d e r s  i s d i s t u r b e d by  a " d u l l sound, as i f n o c t u r n a l women were b e a t i n g great (171, and  172). The connection  l a s t pages; "beat"  linen  carpets"  i s o b v i o u s l y there between t h e f i r s t  i s repeated  i n each example,and the image  brought t o mind--that of the d u l l , r e p e t i t i v e movement of the women c l e a n i n g - - i s s u s t a i n e d throughout.  Between the f i r s t ,  s p e c i f i c example o f Mrs. Cranch and the l a s t example o f the " n o c t u r n a l women" the image expands from the p a r t i c u l a r t o the universal.  So, too, the reader  s p e c i f i c t o the g e n e r a l . cific  When Jacob i s l i t t l e ,  he has a spe-  i d e n t i t y — t h e second of B e t t y F l a n d e r s ' t h r e e sons,  living an  sees Jacob's l i f e move from the  In  Harrogate  i n Yorkshire.  .  . ,  At Cambridge, he i s l e s s  i n d i v i d u a l than one of many young men i n v o l v e d i n growing  up and g e t t i n g an education both i n and out of the l e c t u r e h a l l s . By t h e c l o s e of the novel, he i s no longer one of a s e l e c t —he  group  i s merely p a r t o f the d i s t a n t , nameless, t r a g i c machinery  of war.  25  The by  first  and l a s t  the repeated  shouts first  calling  "'Ja—cob!  s e c t i o n s o f Jacob's o f Jacob's  Ja—cob!'"  two p a g e s .  H i s shout  reader's  attention  himself,  Archer,  serves continually  and away f r o m  i s o f Mrs. F l a n d e r s , A r c h e r ' s  real  subject of the novel.  sorting stands  about  sadness"  that  all  after  Betty  R i c h a r d Bonamy  h i s death.  "'Jacob!  life  of h i s friends  calls  Bonamy  Jacob!'"  (173).  t h e sand and  v o i c e s frame t h e f r a g -  which are the substance  o f t h e book,  d e m i s e l e a v e s an u n f i l l e d  and h i s m o t h e r .  " i t i s no u s e t r y i n g  Although  t o sum p e o p l e  i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e young  gap i n t h e  Woolf s t a t e s  up " (28), t h e end o f  so t h a t t h e r e a d e r  t h a t - - t o t r y t o review  Jacob's  life  i s invited  and g a i n an o v e r -  man.  r e p e a t e d words and p h r a s e s  t h e n o v e l t o i t s end a r e b a l a n c e d body o f t h e t e x t .  out over  These despondent  implying that Jacob's  The  descrip-  c r y p o i n t s t o Jacob, t h e  belongings  (6) with which Archer  do j u s t  the opening  She i s w i t h  the n o v e l echoes i t s b e g i n n i n g , to  Flanders,  i t , a d e s o l a t i o n which echoes the " e x t r a o r d i n a r y  ments o f J a c o b ' s  lives  from  i s dead, t h e c r y i s u n a n s w e r e d , and s o h a s a l o n e -  rocks o f the seashore.  thus  although  a l o n e by t h e window and c a l l s  Because Jacob liness  Jacob's  to refocus the  A t t h e c l o s e o f t h e book,  i s o n c e more p r e s e n t . through  i n the novel's  t h e i r mother, B e t t y  Thus,  linked  Archer,  subject of h i s cry—away  tion  Flanders  His brother,  (6) three times  on J a c o b - - t h e  w i t h whom t h e n o v e l o p e n s .  name.  Room a r e a l s o  which j o i n  the beginning of  by many s h o r t e r b o n d s i n t h e  F o r i n s t a n c e , Woolf b e g i n s  on page  twenty-  26  nine not  to describe only  Eight  into  pages  the night,  later,  above Cambridge, "The  light  occurs  three  of  t h e day?"  on t o s a y t h a t  there—the  Throughout  lifestyle.  light  t h e s e pages stifling  Woolf  (29) she asks. " i f any l i g h t  o f Cambridge"  She l o v e s  Woolf  Bernard Blackstone  that  burns  (39, 40, 44) and t h e n t h e  i s launching traditions states  a  critical  and on t h e  that  "the l i f e  t h e same s a c r o s a n c t  i thas f o rL e s l i e  Cambridge,  burn  . . . rooms" ( 3 7 ) .  Cambridge  . . . has not q u i t e  Virginia  ster.  "Does C a m b r i d g e  t i m e s more i n t h e n e x t seven pages,  Cambridge  for  but into  i t must be f r o m t h r e e  on t h e a r c h a i c ,  Cambridge  o f Cambridge.  she goes  burning  image ends. attack  the light  quality  S t e p h e n o r E,M. F o r -  b u t s h e i s a woman, a n o u t s i d e r ; s h e g  can  compare and c r i t i c i s e . "  around ation.  t h e e x c l u s i o n ' o f women She d e s c r i b e s  attending think  a service  of bringing  very w e l l  the  Jacob's narrow  a dog i n t o path  excluded  Professor lous' arises pages  (30).  provided  five  by s i m u l a t i n g  Despite Woolf's she s t i l l  pages,  Her views about  and c o n s t r i c t i o n — m a r v e l o f Cambridge"  reference  and so i t u n i f i e s  the rays of light  resent-  acknowledges  through her conclusions  The " l i g h t  times i n f i f t e e n  the service  by i t s C o l l e g e s .  Huxtable: "strange paralysis (38).  C h a p e l : "No o n e w o u l d  . . . a dog destroys  can be summarized  illumination"  t o w a r d s women,  F o r though a dog i s a l l  from Cambridge,  value of the education  centres  post-secondary educ-  attitude  church.  S o d o t h e s e women"  at being  on C a m b r i d g e  from formal  at King's College  on a g r a v e l  completely. ment  Much o f h e r c r i t i c i s m  (ambiguous  those  and s e l e c t i v e  27  though they be) r e a c h i n g out and t o u c h i n g the undergraduates. As has been shown, p l o c e can p r o v i d e a connection between v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of the book. of  However, i t s o t h e r f u n c t i o n ,  a l e s s s t r u c t u r a l n a t u r e — t h a t o f i n s e r t i n g a page or p a r a -  graph between a given word or phrase to show how a l t e r e d i n meaning—-must a l s o be s t u d i e d .  i t can become  For i n s t a n c e , when  Jacob and Timmy D u r r a n i are s a i l i n g , they see the S c i l l y " l y i n g l i k e mountain-tops p l a c e " (44).  Isles  almost a-wash i n p r e c i s e l y the r i g h t  T h i s same phrase i s repeated one page l a t e r .  f i r s t occurrence immediately b r i n g s to mind a p e a c e f u l , untroubled s e t t i n g . of  The page between the f i r s t  the phrase e x p l a i n s that the two men  by the second "mountain-tops  and second use  are becoming bored w i t h  almost a-wash" the i d y l l i c  has become uncomfortable and t a r n i s h e d . page t o show why first  appear.  the S c i l l y  first  heavy"  Woolf  setting  takes one  full  I s l e s are not as f l a w l e s s as they  (50) i n two d i f f e r e n t moods.  "alone" she i s bored--"the summer's day may  (50).  Thus,  She takes l e s s than a paragraph to show Mrs.  Pascoe "alone i n the house" the  Its  idyllic,  one another, the food i s poor, and Jacob has become s u l k y .  at  one  be wearing  With the second " a l o n e " she i s l o n e l y — " t h e  m i n i s t e r came along and took the younger boy  With  Weslyan  [her young s o n ] "  (50). S e v e r a l times throughout the n o v e l , words or phrases are repeated immediately a f t e r one another.  Woolf a l l o w s the s i t u a -  t i o n to determine the f u n c t i o n of t h i s c u r i o u s yet obvious rhyme form.  For i n s t a n c e , w h i l e Jacob and t h r e e of h i s f r i e n d s are  d i n i n g at Mr. Plumer's home, we are t o l d that "Rhoda had i .  28  i n h e r i t e d her f a t h e r ' s c o l d grey eyes.  Cold grey eyes George  Plumer had, but i n them was an a b s t r a c t l i g h t "  (32).  The sur--"  rounding i n f o r m a t i o n shows that " c o l d grey eyes" can d i f f e r from one another.  from  George Plumer has "an a b s t r a c t l i g h t , " an  ambition, a v i s i o n o r a p e r s o n a l i t y which Rhoda has not i n h e r i t e d w i t h h e r . p h y s i c a l resemblance w h i l e i n Greece,  to. him.  On the o t h e r hand,  Jacob sees a s t a t u e which reminds  Wentworth W i l l i a m s . then looked away.  him of Sandra  Because of the l i k e n e s s , "he looked at h e r ,  He looked a t her, then looked away" ( 1 4 7 ) .  U n l i k e the Plumer's c o l d eyes, t h e r e i s no added i n f o r m a t i o n t o a l t e r the meaning o f these i d e n t i c a l sentences.  Here the immed-  i a t e r e p e t i t i o n emphasizes the compulsion Jacob f e e l s t o f i n d i n an inanimate s t a t u e something which reminds with whom he i s f a l l i n g  him of the woman  i n love.  Among i t s o t h e r f u n c t i o n s , Woolf uses p l o c e t o d e f i n e 16cation—specifically,  the l o c a t i o n of Jacob's room i n Cambridge.  She begins a paragraph by d e s c r i b i n g the n o i s e which can be ! . \ heard i n the Great Court from the w a i t e r s at T r i n i t y , china plates l i k e cards" ( 3 6 ) .  "shuffling  She then t r i e s to e x p l a i n the  whereabouts o f Jacob's room i n T r i n i t y ,  and concludes the p a r a -  graph by remarking that even from Jacob's window, "you hear the plates" (36).  Much more v i v i d than the c l i c h e ,  "a-stone's  U  throw," the sound o f the p l a t e s serves the same f u n c t i o n — t h a t of g i v i n g the reader a spat i a l .'I awareness of Jacob's  living  quarters. In another i n t e r e s t i n g paragraph, Woolf uses p l o c e t o  29  enhance her little the  portrayal  mirror  the  image o f V i r g i l "  outset of the paragraph,  us," which tative  becomes, by  of V i r g i l . "  Cambridge,  Woolf  which  the  these  languages"  of  o f E r a s m u s C o w a n who  light  Virgil,and  inverting image.. ibly  shine,  (39).  the paragraph,  Cowan s e e s  d e s c r i b e s him  such  light  "such  way,  an  knows t h a t  instructor  knows r a t h e r  than  the  as  fabric light  among  from through  of a l l  a mirror  image  extent  of  to mimic t h i s light  cannot  C o w a n who  explaining  at  emanating  tolthe  i n repeated phrases  snug  "the represen-  i s the  h i m s e l f as that  himself,  representative  i f shine i t can—the  r e a d e r , however,  o f t h e more f a s c i n a t i n g  Room b e l o n g s rhyme forms writes  fire  and  can  Don't  to those paragraphs together.  to Jacob,  the  with  mirror  poss-  simply re-  or expanding  upon  never,  never  go w i t h b a d and  contain  ploce,  effect rhyme.  express  or pages which  mix  Betty Flanders, for instance,  feet  on  the  women, do  be  is startlingly  i t may  t o me"  (87).  the chant  and  appears  These and  she  that  i n n o c e n t and  over away,  t h i s —  thick few  lines  assonance.  associated  a n u r s e r y rhyme, t h e w i s h  i s a s i m p l e one,  as  "scribble  wear your  homoeoteleuton,  like  the various  be^-probably  a good boy;  come b a c k  alliteration,  o f m o t h e r s who  Jacob's  f e n d e r , when t e a ' s c l e a r e d  say, whatever  come b a c k ,  Like  t r e a t m e n t s o f rhyme i n  i s representative  their  shirts;  sery  of  sees  in his  knowledge. One  The  must  Woolf  p e a t s what he  "Virgil's  s a y s o f Cowan t h a t  the word o r d e r  The  end  He  In a r e f e r e n c e to the  shine through  his  the  as  (39).  " h o l d s up  with  these  a  nur-  lines  well-meaning.  30  These  lines  niggling states her  a r e , however, an example o f Mrs.  interference  that  i n Jacob's a f f a i r s .  " a l t h o u g h h e r words a r e few  shadowy p r e s e n c e i s somehow f e l t  o f t h e r e a s o n may what she  be  Flanders' constant,  Mitchell  and w i d e l y  Leaska scattered,  on  almost  e v e r y page.  t h a t when she does  occupy  our  s a y s o r does  i s rendered w i t h such f o r c e  Part  attention, and  determin-  ed) ation."  Woolf  usually  describes Betty Flanders'  "force  and  determination" obliquely,  m a k i n g i t a l l t h e more i n t r u s i v e  it  thought  interrupts  For  i n s t a n c e , w h i l e Jacob  cover his join  the current  earlier  holiday  your mother,  letter  Flanders,  ("Mrs. F l a n d e r s w o u l d  "scribbling  The  .  come b a c k ,  influence How,  child-like  come b a c k  "'you  (88).  t o me"  The  had  faults.  from  t o go  Later,  is felt Thus,  when  by  a  Betty  J a c o b w i t h her"  t h a n s u p p o r t i n g and "never, never  (87) r e f l e c t s  guidsay  heir need  to  him. entir-  have n e i t h e r w h o l e h e a r t e d f o r the n o v e l ,  nor can  "lack of unity i s  .  they  In Time arid T i m e l e s s h e s s i n  Morris claims that  to  upon  a s s e s s t h e r o l e o f rhyme i n t h e critics  dis-  away  have f l o u n c e d  is stifling  than t o encourage  a g r e e upon i t s s p e c i f i c Jill  table  rather  nor u n s t i n t e d p r a i s e  Woolf,  called  presence  tone of the chant,  t h e n , s h o u l d we  e t y o f J a c o b ' s Room?  Virginia  the h a l l  over the f i r e "  Jacob r a t h e r  condemnation  Flanders'  selfishness  i n g him. . . and  he was  I remember, a t H a r r o g a t e ' " ( 8 5 ) .  f r o m h e r on  p o s s e s s i v e n e s s and  that  at the D u r r a n t s ' because  [88] ) t o h i s room, Mrs.  recent  conversation.  i s a t C l a r a D u r r a n t ' s p a r t y , we  f r o m a remark by M i s s E l i o t  Jacob t a k e s F l o r i n d a her"  or thread of  since  31  a c t u a l l y the g r e a t e s t weakness o f the book.""^  Her view i s  countered by M i t c h e l l Leaska who says that " r e g a r d l e s s of whatever d e f e c t s i t may h a v e — a n d t h e r e appear on c l o s e r e a d i n g t o be very few--Jacob's Room has the unmistakable i n a l and f a s t i d i o u s design  imprint of o r i g -  . . . a design of c a r e f u l l y  p o i s e d p i c t u r e s , sounds, r h y t h m s . "  11  counter-  Jane Novak c o n s i d e r s  Jacob's Room from t h e t e c h n i c a l angle and decides that " t o a high degree ^Woolf's] t e c h n i c a l goals were achieved.  In Jacob's  Room,she d i d i m i t a t e the f r e e movement o f the mind, the eye, and 12 the f e e l i n g s . "  On the other hand, Novak s t a t e s that d e s p i t e  the novel's c o n t i n u i t y , " i t f a i l s t o generate e x p e c t a t i o n o r 13 s u s t a i n e d emotion."  Jean Guiguet  adds, "the k i n d of uneasiness,  endorses  t h i s c r i t i c i s m , but  i n s e c u r i t y and f r u s t r a t i o n i t  leaves with the reader, may perhaps be f a u l t s i n r e l a t i o n to absolute standards i n the a r t o f f i c t i o n .  But i n r e l a t i o n t o  what t h e author had s e t out t o express, i t must be acknowledged 14 that these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are q u a l i t i e s . "  Ralph Freedman  a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e s between Woolf's n o v e l s , and .novels i n g e n e r a l : the "thematic r e s o l u t i o n - - i n c o n c l u s i v e o n l y at the l e v e l of dramatic p l o t — i s  d e l i v e r e d i n the . . . i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c manner  Mrs. Woolf had admired i  n  Chekhov."  p r a i s e s Woolf's experiment Jacob's  15  Guiguet,  furthermore,  with the s t r u c t u r e o f the n o v e l :  Room "may c l a i m a d i s t i n g u i s h e d p l a c e immediately  after  the work of Joyce and Proust, i n the s e r i e s of novels which attempted  t o f r e e t h e genre from the forms t h a t had been d e t e r 16 mined f o r i t by t h e great w r i t e r s of the n i n e t e e n t h century."  32  This  study  an ;image o r criptions  has  revealed that  f o c u s upon t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n  o f one  scene.  n a t u r e o f two  a paragraph  or  these  items  ively,  a l l have one  on  a list,  but  another  thing  i n common.  words i n a s e n t e n c e  or over  the E n g l i s h  a significant  so t h a t  sentences  i t also begins with  homoeoteleuton.  i n that  and  Nevertheless,  The  initial  paragraph  " d , " we  do  s y m b o l s and  'plot'  not just  of Jacob does not  beto allit-  several  have b e e n f o r g o t t e n . which  individual  Room: : t h e p a r a g r a p h s  same  sounds  devices are l i k e  impact  h o m o e o t e l e u t o n have on  although  the  same r e a s o n i n g a p p l i e s  occurrence w i l l  the d e s c r i p t i o n  sense,  several  is significant  T h e s e two  d i m i n i s h the value or  pages i n Jacob's which comprise  later  and  effect-  in a  i f o n l y p a r t o f t h e word i s r e p e a t e d  i t s earlier  does n o t  assonance,  "d."  functions,  i n a given  begin with  ideas  action.  begin with  or f o r t y  although  a word f i v e p a r a g r a p h s  pages l a t e r ,  ence,  a few  number o f words may  a s s o n a n c e and  This  language,  Like  a l s o mimic  f o r example,  However, t h e r e a r e o n l y t h i r t y  eration  parallel  They a r e a l l ,  With a l l i t e r a t i o n ,  cause  can  des-  the  o r upon p l o c e t o o p e r a t e  s h o r t - t e r m rhymes.  think that  take  to s i g n i f i c a n t  t h r e e rhyme f o r m s s e r v e d i f f e r e n t  depend upon one  in  different  helps to u n d e r l i n e the  a s s o n a n c e draws a t t e n t i o n  do not  sound.  o f two  heighten :  a p p a r e n t l y d i s p a r a t e ideas or o b j e c t s .  homoeoteleuton,  Although  can  Homoeoteleuton, which can  form o f end-rhyme, u s u a l l y  in  alliteration  make up and  alliteration, paragraphs  the  and  fragments  h i s surroundings.  give the novel  themes w h i c h s p a n t h e s e p a r a t e  i t s coher-  fragments  do.  33  Part  o f t h e function o f p l o c e  symbols, which this  novel.  i s t o r e i n t r o d u c e t h e themes and  i s why i t j u s t i f i e s  Furthermore,  although  homoeoteleuton can only operate few  sentences  o r perhaps over  pendent o f p l o c e , it  the novel  ploys tion  alliteration,  effectively  i f she wishes,  i n the novel.  that  commends. Woolf  em-  i n her  a t Cambridge who f o r m p a r t o f  at i n t e r v a l s  o f C a m b r i d g e , " and i n  throughout  i s e p i s o d i c by n a t u r e ,  i t c a n w e l l be c o n s i d e r e d  she can r e p e a t  She h a s done t h i s  d e s c r i p t i o n o f J a c o b ' s a n d Timmy D u r r a n t ' s  the novel  rhyme d e v i c e s i f  d e s i g n " which' L e a s k a  t h e b a s i s f o r h e r a t t a c k on " t h e l i g h t  while  and a r e i n d e -  s h e does n o t f o l l o w s e t r u l e s ,  of theoprofessors  which Jacob r e c a l l s  t h e span o f a  a s s o n a n c e and h o m o e o t e l e u t o n t o draw a t t e n -  or a l l u d e to i t l a t e r  the  over  a s s o n a n c e , and  s e v e r a l paragraphs,  t o a word o r p h r a s e s o t h a t ,  descriptions  alliteration,  needs a l l o f t h e s e  i s t o have t h e " f a s t i d i o u s  In o t h e r words, w h i l e  s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n ':'.>.  voyage—a  the novel.  trip Thus,  i t s s t r u c t u r e i s such  a coherent,  unified  whole.  .  34  To the Lighthouse  V i r g i n i a Woolf completed  t h e rough d r a f t o f To the L i g h t -  house i n the autumn of 1926. P r i o r t o i t s completion, she noted i n her d i a r y that "the l y r i c p o r t i o n s of To the L i g h t house are c o l l e c t e d i n the 10-year  l a p s e and don't  with the t e x t so much as usual'.' (AWD, p. 100). was  p u b l i s h e d she became "anxious about  the whole t h i n g may be pronounced  interfere  A f t e r the book  'Time Passes.'  Think  s o f t , shallow, i n s i p i d ,  sen-  t i m e n t a l " (AWD, p. 107). S i n c e t h i s study i s concerned with Woolf's use of rhyme, i t may be expected from these remarks that the bulk of t h i s chapter should c o n c e n t r a t e on the "Time Passes" s e c t i o n o f the n o v e l .  In f a c t , although t h e r e i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y  more rhyme i n "Time Passes" than i n "The Window" or "The L i g h t house" s e c t i o n s , these other s e c t i o n s a l s o c o n t a i n c o n s i d e r a b l e alliteration,  assonance,  The rhyming  homoeoteleuton  and p l o c e .  d e v i c e s i n To the Lighthouse are the same as  those i n Jacob's Room, and are o f t e n used f o r s i m i l a r  purposes,  but are used more s e l e c t i v e l y and w i t h more r e s t r a i n t than i n the e a r l i e r n o v e l . . There i s , f o r example, only s l i g h t l y more alliteration  i n To the Lighthouse than i n the c o n s i d e r a b l y s h o r t -  er Jacob's Room.  The b a s i c f u n c t i o n of a l l i t e r a t i o n  emphasize an image, concept, or p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t .  i s to Mr. Ramsay,  f o r i n s t a n c e , l i k e n s h i s s t u d i e s t o the alphabet: he has reached "Q," but "A s h u t t e r , l i k e t h e l e a t h e r n e y e l i d o f a l i z a r d , ered over t h e i n t e n s i t y o f h i s gaze and obscured the l e t t e r  flickR."  1  35  The  alliterated "l's"  " f l i c k e r " over the phrase  i n an  imitation  of the m e t a p h o r i c a l l i z a r d ' s eye which f l i c k e r s across Mr. Ramsay's mind, o b s c u r i n g h i s v i s i o n with a " f l a s h of (40).  In the paragraphs  which e x p l a i n Mr.  Woolf dwells upon the l e t t e r "Q" "R."  darkness"  Ramsay's s t u d i e s ,  and h i s a s p i r a t i o n s to reach  Not o n l y i s Woolf u s i n g the s i m i l e of the l i z a r d ' s  to d e s c r i b e h i s i n a b i l i t y to proceed to "R," s u c c e s s i v e paragraphs paragraphs  w i t h "R,"  eyelid  she a l s o ends  two  and begins the f o l l o w i n g two  with the word " Q u a l i t i e s " : 'Then R He braced h i m s e l f . He clenched himself. Q u a l i t i e s which would have saved a s h i p ' s company . . . ." (40)  and: On to R, once more. R-Q u a l i t i e s that i n a d e s o l a t e expedit i o n . . . ."(41) By b e g i n n i n g two  paragraphs  with " Q u a l i t i e s ; " Woolf shows Mr.  Ramsay u n a l t e r a b l y stuck at "Q." which he cannot academic goal of  He  i s composed of  "Qualities"  c o n s c i o u s l y d i s m i s s i n order to achieve h i s "R."  Woolf a l s o uses a l l i t e r a t i o n to draw a t t e n t i o n to images or metaphors which she may  wish subsequently  p l e , L i l y B r i s c o e l i k e n s her own to that of a s i n g l e bee sweetness or sharpness  to repeat.  For exam-  f a s c i n a t i o n with Mrs. Ramsay  f o r i t s h i v e : " l i k e a bee,  drawn by some  i n the a i r i n t a n g i b l e to touch or t a s t e ,  one haunted the dome-shaped h i v e , ranged  the wastes of the a i r  36  . . . and then haunted the h i v e s w i t h t h e i r murmurs and r i n g s ; the h i v e s which were people" " t ' s " and "h's"  accentuate  (60).  stir-  The a l l i t e r a t e d " s ' s , "  t h i s metaphor, and i n doing so, p r e -  pare the reader f o r i t s r e i n t r o d u c t i o n l a t e r i n the novel at Mrs.  Ramsay's dinner p a r t y .  arranged  fruit  "plunged  i n , broke o f f a bloom t h e r e , a t a s s e l here, and  ned,  i n a bowl.  P r i o r to dinner, Rose Ramsay has During the meal, Augustus  a f t e r f e a s t i n g , to h i s h i v e " (112).  p r e v i o u s l y avoided Mrs.  Carmichael  returhas  Ramsay, and she r e s e n t s h i s b a r e l y sub-  merged h o s t i l i t y towards her.  While Mrs.  pared to a h i v e - - t h e c e n t r e of a c t i v i t y , others t o g e t h e r i n matters  Ramsay c o u l d be comattempting  to b r i n g  as f a r apart as c o n v e r s a t i o n d u r i n g  dinner and matchmaking—Mr. Carmichael sociable.  Mr.  Carmichael  i s n e i t h e r vigorous  nor  However, he i s a poet w i t h a busy i n t r o s p e c t i v e mind,  and a f t e r r e a c h i n g out and e a t i n g some of the f r u i t , r e t u r n s to the " h i v e " of h i s own  thoughts.  Mrs.  Ramsay and Mr.  Carmichael  being l i k e n e d t o , a " h i v e " i m p l i e s t h a t , d e s p i t e t h e i r d i s a g r e e ments, they do have something i n common. this directly. of f r u i t .  Both Carmichael  and Mrs.  He eats some; she doesn't:  ing, d i f f e r e n t  from hers.  But  In f a c t , Woolf s t a t e s Ramsay look at the bowl  "That was  h i s way  of l o o k -  l o o k i n g together u n i t e d them"  (112). At her dinner, Mrs.  Ramsay and Mr.  of sympathy; so do Minta Doyle and Mr.  Carmichael Ramsay.  share a moment  Minta teases  Ramsay, and he responds i n k i n d , seeming again a young man, worn by " h i s fame and f a i l u r e , but again as she  Mrs.  Ramsay  Mr. not  37  had  first  boat,  known him,  she  gaunt  remembered"  but  (114).  gallant; By  helping  alliterating  her out of a  t h e " f ' s " and  " g ' s " W o o l f h e i g h t e n s what h i s w i f e c o n s i d e r s h i s a s s e t s : but  gallant"  and  h i s w e a k n e s s e s : "fame and  failure."  "gaunt  Consequent-  iy, that  " h i s manner t o M i n t a  Mrs.  Ramsay a s s o c i a t e s h i s g a l l a n t r y w i t h h i s h e l p i n g h e r o u t  a boat.  This  insignificant section,  fleeting  |jvasj  recollection  were i t n o t t h a t  a f t e r Mrs.  . . . as i f he had  h e r from  a boat"  l e d g e o f Mrs. theless, ory  alive In To  emphasize later  (225).  through her  images o r m e t a p h o r s , On  create  a parallel  wishes  has  third  her  raised no  know-  i s never-  actions.  i s mainly used will  be  Ramsay's mem-  Ramsay's  some o f w h i c h  including  be  to  repeated the r e p -  rhyme i n i t s c o n v e n t i o n a l  employed t o u n d e r l i n e and  structure  images o r o b j e c t s  must be  and  of  Ramsay  from  t h e o t h e r hand, h o m o e o t e l e u t o n ,  i s more f r e q u e n t l y  thinks  Mr.  d u r i n g t h e d i n n e r , she  the Lighthouse, a l l i t e r a t i o n  " i n s c r i b e d by  how  |jVIrs. Ramsayj  o f Mr.  (194).  i t i n the  i n t h e same way  interpretation  o f word s u f f i x e s ,  instance,  her  recalls  Therefore, although L i l y  sense,  several  a l s o mentions She  gay"  c o u r t s h i p would  q u i t e u n c o n s c i o u s l y , k e e p i n g Mrs.  i n the novel.  etition  once bent  Ramsay's t h o u g h t s  albeit  Lily  raised  almost  of t h e i r  Ramsay i s d e a d .  " s t r e t c h e d o u t h i s hand and chair  so g a l l a n t ,  i n a thought  i n a paragraph.  pattern or Mrs.  to help throughout  Ramsay, f o r  o f t h e b o o k s g i v e n t o h e r by v a r i o u s a d m i r e r s ,  t h e hand o f t h e p o e t obeyed'  ...  'The  h i m s e l f : 'For h e r whose  h a p p i e r H e l e n o f o u r day'  ...  38  d i s g r a c e f u l t o say, she had never read them" (32). the  two i n s c r i p t i o n s "obeyed"  The ends of  and "day" rhyme with one another,  and w i t h part of her comment, "say."  Woolf i n c l u d e s the i n s c r -  i p t i o n from these books o s t e n s i b l y t o show that Mrs. Ramsay i s w e l l thought o f not only i n the narrow c i r c l e o f f a m i l y and acquaintances i n a cottage on the Hebrides, but has been known and p r a i s e d by the famous and t a l e n t e d as w e l l . t i o n s rhyme with one another because  The i n s c r i p -  they are s e r v i n g the same  p u r p o s e — t o summarize the poets' c o n c l u s i o n s about Mrs. Ramsay. However, both i n s c r i p t i o n s are ambiguous.  The f i r s t  seems to  p r a i s e Mrs. Ramsay f o r having the beauty t o seduce o t h e r s t o obey her. to  In f a c t , the l i n e i m p l i e s that the poet was s u b j e c t e d  that w i l f u l n e s s complained of by another woman: "wishing t o  dominate, —that  w i s h i n g t o i n t e r f e r e , making people do what she wished  was the charge against her" (67).  The second could be  seen t o e u l o g i z e Mrs. Ramsay by t a k i n g her out of the CambridgeHebridean s e t t i n g , and l i k e n i n g her t o the women of c l a s s i c a l mythology.  Mrs. Ramsay i s not j u s t a b e a u t i f u l woman: she  resembles Helen o f Troy. of  Troy dominated  The f i r s t  However, because of her beauty,  many men, i n c l u d i n g her husband  The c l o s e of the sen-  tence, "she had never read them" does not rhyme. i n any way rhyme with "obeyed,"  phrase i s almost a n t i - c l i m a c t i c . the  Menelaus.  phrase of Mrs. Ramsay's comment on the i n s c r i p t i o n s  rhymes w i t h them: " d i s g r a c e f u l t o say."  not  Helen  "Them" does  "day" and "say."  The l a s t  The reader i s f o r c e d t o r e j e c t  c l a s s i c a l a l l u s i o n and r e t u r n to the i m p e r f e c t , e a r t h l y  setting.  Mrs. Ramsay may i n s p i r e poets, but she l i g h t l y and  39  perhaps c r u e l l y d i s m i s s e s them by never reading the volumes which they have d e d i c a t e d to her. In each of the n o v e l s s t u d i e d , V i r g i n i a Woolf i n c l u d e s s e v e r a l v e r s e s which make use of a p a r t i c u l a r teleuton--end-rhyme.  In Jacob's Room, one of the verses i s a  song from Shakespeare. popular tunes . and selects  type of homoeo-  In Between the A c t s , they w i l l i n c l u d e  nursery rhymes;.  In To the Lighthouse Woolf  one of the v e r s e s from a Grimm's f a i r y t a l e .  say reads to James: "'Flounder, pray thee, here to me;/ I'd have her w i l l ' "  Mrs. Ram-  f l o u n d e r , i n the sea/ Come, I  For my w i f e , good I l s a b i l , / W i l l s  (66).  not  I t i s n a t u r a l that the motherly  as  Mrs.  Ramsay should be r e a d i n g a simple s t o r y to her s i x - y e a r o l d son. However, while she i s r e a d i n g , we  are t o l d that "she and James  shared the same t a s t e s and were comfortable t o g e t h e r " (65). T h i s may almost  hint,  i f delicately,  that Mrs.  c h i l d - l i k e , not p a r t i c u l a r l y  Ramsay i s i n some ways  i n t e l l i g e n t , and that  Mr.  Ramsay's charge that "women are always l i k e t h a t ; the vagueness of t h e i r minds i s hopeless w i f e " (190) has,  at l e a s t  stance to i t . Why "The  . . . .  I t had been so with h e r — h i s  i n regard to Mrs.  Ramsay, some sub-  has V i r g i n i a Woolf chosen the Grimm t a l e ,  Fisherman and H i s Wife" as James' bedtime s t o r y ?  The  wife  i n t h i s t a l e t y r a n n i z e s her husband, i n s i s t i n g that he demand more and more t i t l e s and r i c h e s from the enchanted  flounder.  The husband, a g a i n s t h i s b e t t e r judgement, always does as he i s t o l d , and t h i s i n e v i t a b l y  ends i n d i s a s t e r f o r both.  Virginia  Woolf had more than two hundred Grimm t a l e s to chose from, many  40  on such  innocuous themes as crop r o t a t i o n and spouse s e l e c t i o n .  She may  have chosen the one  about the dominating  l i n e f u r t h e r the readers' s u s p i c i o n s that Mrs. humble and demure as she at f i r s t a f t e r Cam  Ramsay i s not  Ramsay soothes  then t e l l i n g the g i r l  her by winding that i t now  as  L a t e r i n the n o v e l ,  has been scared by the s k u l l "branching  nursery, Mrs. skull,  appears.  wife to under-  at her" i n the  her shawl around the  looks " l i k e a b e a u t i f u l  mountain . . . w i t h flowers and b e l l s r i n g i n g and b i r d s s i n g i n g " (132).  Just as Woolf uses a l l i t e r a t i o n to convey the v i v i d n e s s  of the s e a s i d e r e s o r t scene imagined  by Mrs.  Flanders early i n  Jacob's Room, so she uses homoeoteleuton i n t h i s novel t o s i f y Mrs.  Ramsay's i d y l l i c  ihten-  :  and p e a c e f u l p i c t u r e s — p i c t u r e s which  act as a k i n d of v i s u a l l u l l a b y to help her c h i l d r e n go to s l e e p . When she i s not r e c i t i n g nursery rhymes and c h i l d r e n ' s b e n e f i t s , Mrs. her own  fantasies.  seems i n s a t i a b l e .  Her No  f a i r y t a l e s f o r her  Ramsay o f t e n appears to be c r e a t i n g  "mania f o r marriage"  (199), f o r i n s t a n c e ,  sooner has she pressed Paul and Minta  into  g e t t i n g engaged than she u n i l a t e r a l l y decides " W i l l i a m must marry Lily"  (120).  Her d e c i s i o n i s based on her a s s e r t i o n that  have so much i n common" (120).  "they  In t h i s case, however, the  "so  much i n common" amounts to Lily's being, "so fond of f l o w e r s . are both c o l d and a l o o f and r a t h e r s e l f - s u f f i c i n g " other words, they have very l i t t l e  (120).  In  i n common, but Mrs. Ramsay  w i l l use any excuse to f o r c e her f r i e n d s i n t o marriage. ermination can have d i s a s t r o u s consequences. house," L i l y d e s c r i b e s the woeful  They  In "The  Her  Light-  s t a t e of the Rayleys'  lives  det;  41  and concludes, "the marriage  had turned out r a t h e r b a d l y "  (196).  As f o r Mrs. Ramsay's plans f o r L i l y and W i l l i a m Bankes, L i l y "had o n l y escaped by the s k i n o f her t e e t h " (200).  Mrs. Ramsay  i s aware o f the i n f l u e n c e she w i e l d s over o t h e r s and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of that power: "she was, she r e f l e c t e d Minta marry Paul Rayley knew, almost  . . . making  . . . she was d r i v e n on, too q u i c k l y she  as i f i t were an escape f o r her to07. t o say that  people must marry; people must have c h i l d r e n " (70).  Neverthe-  l e s s , her obsession overcomes her b e t t e r judgement; she c r e a t e s f o r h e r s e l f a happy fantasy world s i m i l a r t o that which she c r e a t e s f o r her c h i l d r e n . i n the f a i r y t a l e genre.  In f a c t , much o f To the Lighthouse i s "Time Passes," with i t s general  des-  c r i p t i o n of the changes t o the cottage and i n the Ramsay f a m i l y over ten years, resembles  the one-hundred-year s l e e p f e a t u r e d i n  f a i r y t a l e s such as Rip Van Winkle and S l e e p i n g Beauty. the t e n years have e l a p s e d and the s p e l l  When  i s broken with the "  Ramsays' r e t u r n to the c o t t a g e , the s e c t i o n ends with "Awake" (163).  T h i s s i n g l e word j a r s t h e reader out of the almost  hyp-  n o t i c rhythms of "Time Passes." To the Lighthouse c o n t a i n s much more homoeoteleuton than Jacob's  Room; i t a l s o i n c l u d e s more assonance.  However, the  r o l e o f assonance i s much the same as i n the e a r l i e r n o v e l . Assonance h e l p s t o impose order upon s c a t t e r e d o b j e c t s or emotions.  Mr. Ramsay, an i n s e c u r e man, needs constant  from h i s w i f e .  He can be reassured by theimere  s i t t i n g w i t h t h e i r young son, James.  reassurance  s i g h t o f her  She i s a s t a b l e and  42  c o m f o r t i n g o b j e c t amidst  the t u r m o i l of Mr.  Ramsay's thoughts.  On one o c c a s i o n , while wandering about the garden t a l k i n g to himself,  "he broke o f f , turned, sighed, r a i s e d h i s eyes, sought  f i g u r e of h i s w i f e "I"  . . . filled  sounds mean that a l l of Mr.  i n common. "i's." come.  h i s p i p e " (52).  They are j o i n e d and put i n t o order by the repeated  Similarly,  The  i n "Time Passes," p a r t ten begins: "peace had  assonated  from the sea to the  shore"  "ee" sounds repeat the "ee" i n "peace" and  so emphasize that a l l i s i n harmony.  Order has been r e s t o r e d .  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the r e s t o r a t i o n of peace can only be with the r e t u r n of human l i f e to the house. Mrs.  assonated  Ramsay's a c t i o n s have something  Messages of peace breathed  (162).  The  the  accomplished  When Mrs.  McNab and  Bast and her son go to the house t o c l e a n i t and to tend  the garden,  there i s a " h a l f - h e a r d melody  harmonizing  but..  simply v i s i t i n g  . . never  ...  on the verge of  f u l l y harmonized" (161).  Thus,  the house i s not enough to r e s t o r e peace to i t .  It must be l i v e d i n , and so when L i l y , Mr.  Carmichael, Mrs.  with and the remaining Ramsays stay i n the house, "then  Beck-  indeed  peace had come" (162). In  Jacob's Room, p l o c e i s commonly used to r e i n t r o d u c e  themes which span the fragments,  the glimpses  i n t o Jacob's  life.  To the Lighthouse, on the other hand, i s not w r i t t e n i n episodes, tions.  although  i t i s divided into three d i s t i n c t  sec-  In t h i s l a t e r n o v e l , p l o c e serves not so much to show  the r e c u r r e n c e of o b j e c t s or themes, but t o show how theme undergoes changes as i t i s viewed f i r s t  a specific  by one c h a r a c t e r  43  and  then by another.  For i n s t a n c e ,  when Mr. Ramsay and  Charles  Tansley dash James' hopes about a p o s s i b l e t r i p t o the l i g h t house the f o l l o w i n g day, Mrs. Ramsay i s annoyed because she knows "he w i l l remember that a l l h i s l i f e "  (72).  L a t e r i n the  evening when she i s s i t t i n g alone, she chants t o h e r s e l f , ren don't f o r g e t , c h i l d r e n don't f o r g e t " ( 7 3 ) .  Once more, as  the c h i l d r e n prepare f o r bed, she knows "he would never the i n c i d e n t  (133).  forget"  Ten years l a t e r , Mr. Ramsay f u l f i l l s h i s  w i f e ' s d e s i r e by t a k i n g the c h i l d r e n to the l i g h t h o u s e . way, James r e c a l l s : saying. Mrs.  On the  " ' i t w i l l r a i n , ' he remembered h i s f a t h e r  'You won't be able t o go to the Lighthouse'" ( 2 1 1 ) . >A-  Ramsay's prophecy has come t r u e .  right—it Mrs.  "child-  d i d r a i n , and the e x p e d i t i o n  Mr..Ramsay was  initially  was c a n c e l l e d .  However,  Ramsay has the l a s t word: James always remembers the un-  pleasantness o f the i n c i d e n t . In "The Lighthouse" s e c t i o n , many words or phrases are repeated over s e v e r a l pages. reader more i n f o r m a t i o n  In each i n s t a n c e ,  about the p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t  t i o n i n order t o change our p e r c e p t i o n slightly.  Woolf gives the or sensa4-  o f i t , even i f only  1  The reader begins "The Lighthouse" s e c t i o n with r.  c e r t a i n preconceptions but must change them by the end o f the novel.  As L i l y begins t o p a i n t her p i c t u r e , f o r example, her  thoughts n a t u r a l l y turn to i t s s u b j e c t ,  Mrs. Ramsay, and the  l a t t e r ' s name i s emphasized at s e v e r a l p o i n t s throughout the section. Lily still  When "'Mrs. Ramsay! Mrs. Ramsay!'" ( 1 8 3 ) f i r s t  i s r e c a l l i n g Mrs. Ramsay's attempts t o make " l i f e  appears,  stand  here," t o make " o f the moment something permanent" ( 1 8 3 )  44  i n the same way that she h e r s e l f i s g i v i n g her g r e a t e r permanence by f i n i s h i n g the p o r t r a i t .  As L i l y  continues t o p a i n t , she  begins t o miss Mrs. Ramsay: " i f they shouted Ramsay would r e t u r n . say!'  loud enough Mrs.  'Mrs. Ramsay!' she s a i d aloud,  The t e a r s r a n down her f a c e " (205).  Lily  'Mrs. Ram-  i s not so much  weeping because Mrs. Ramsay i s dead as she i s because the memory reminds her o f her own m o r t a l i t y , and i n t u r n , the m o r t a l i t y o f us a l l : "'you' and ' I ' and 'she' pass and v a n i s h " (204). novel approaches i t s end, the p o r t r a i t  i s almost  sees a "wave o f white"  "'Mrs. Ramsay!  say!' she c r i e d ,  still  Could she i n f l i c t  that s t i l l ? "  By the novel's c l o s e , L i l y  perspective.  The thought  Lily  Mrs. Ramwant and (229).  f e e l s t h e l o s s of Mrs. Ramsay, but her anguish  ens t o " o r d i n a r y experience" l i k e "the c h a i r (230).  finished.  f e e l i n g the o l d h o r r o r come b a c k — t o  want and not t o have. Lily  i n the window.  As the  less-  . . . the t a b l e "  sees Mrs. Ramsay i n a new  o f her s t i l l  arouses  inLily  an image  of  someone o f " p e r f e c t goodness," (230) but with the completion  of  the p a i n t i n g , she i s a l s o able to see Mrs. Ramsay as comple2  mentary t o Mr. Ramsay. strengths.  H i s weaknesses a r e hidden by her  So, too, Mrs. Ramsay's w e a k n e s s e s — h e r  exaggerations,  her w i l f u l n e s s — a r e compensated f o r by Mr. Ramsay's s t r e n g t h s — his  strict  adherence t o t r u t h , and h i s admiration f o r her great  beauty. P l o c e has a much narrower f u n c t i o n than p r o v i d i n g a means of  a l t e r i n g the p e r c e p t i o n s o f the c h a r a c t e r s — i t  objects i n a series.  F o r example, L i l y  can i t e m i z e  looks at Mrs. Ramsay  45  and wonders at her appearance: "Was Was  i t wisdom? Was  i t , once more, the deceptiveness of beauty?"  Ramsay h e r s e l f contemplates  i t knowledge?  (59).  the success of her dinner and hopes  that her guests and f a m i l y w i l l  "come back to t h i s n i g h t ; t h i s  moon; t h i s wind; t h i s house; and to her too" (130). these examples, the i t e r a t e d words l i s t arbitrary fashion. list we  Mrs.  a series,  However, i t i s always the l a s t  In both of  i n apparently item on  which i s designed to l i n g e r longest w i t h the reader.  the Hence,  are l e f t b e l i e v i n g that L i l y decides that the q u a l i t y most  a p p r o p r i a t e f o r Mrs.  Ramsay i s the "deceptiveness of  and that years a f t e r the dinner the guests w i l l house, and to Mrs.  beauty,"  r e t u r n to the  Ramsay too, which of course, they  do.  Rarely, V i r g i n i a Woolf uses p l o c e simply to r e i n f o r c e a p a r t i c u l a r statement  or f a c t .  reminds h e r s e l f that Mrs.  Three times i n s i x l i n e s ,  Ramsay has d i e d : " i t was  Ramsay's doing.  She was  wasting her time  . . . p l a y i n g at p a i n t i n g  all  Mrs.  dead.  Ramsay's f a u l t .  to s i t was  empty.  unpleasant  fact  terms with Mrs.  She was  She  She was  dead.  dead" (170).  i n d i c a t e s that L i l y Ramsay's death.  r e p e t i t i o n i s her attempt got" (170).  Here was  Lily,  a l l Mrs.  at f o r t y - f o u r ,  . . . and  The  Lily  i t was  step where she  used  T h i s r e p e t i t i o n of the  i s u n w i l l i n g to come t o  L i l y h e r s e l f c l a i m s t h a t the  "to b r i n g up some f e e l i n g she had  f i n d s t h a t " f e e l i n g , " arid the r e s t of  not  "The  Lighthouse" d e s c r i b e s her progress through the v a r i o u s stages of  bereavement. O c c a s i o n a l l y i n Jacob's  Room, V i r g i n i a Woolf uses a word  46  or phrase and then immediately repeats  it.  In To the L i g h t -  house she employs t h i s very obvious form of p l o c e more quently  than i n the e a r l i e r novel and f o r a more uniform  purpose.  T h i s "immediate r e p e t i t i o n " - u s u a l l y s t r e s s e s the  disunited, the out-of-place. her f i r s t Mrs.  freque-  When L i l y B r i s c o e i s working on  p o r t r a i t o f Mrs. Ramsay, W i l l i a m Bankes i s admiring  Ramsay, and L i l y  " f e l t h e r s e l f p r a i s e d " (56). She looks  again a t t h e p o r t r a i t o n l y t o f i n d that " i t was bad, i t was bad, i t was i n f i n i t e l y  bad" ( 5 6 ) . L i l y  f e e l s that she i s the o b j e c t  of Mr. Bankes r a p t u r e as w e l l as Mrs. Ramsay. which suddenly appears t o her t o be " i n f i n i t e l y p l a c e i n the p e a c e f u l , comfortable In To the Lighthouse,  Only her p a i n t i n g , bad," i s out o f  setting.  again as i n Jacob's Room, p l o c e ,  with  the a i d o f a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , changes the meaning d f a part i c u l a r statement. for leg,  When Mrs. Ramsay i s k n i t t i n g the s t o c k i n g  the l i g h t h o u s e keeper's boy, she measures i t against James' and decides  that i t ' i s  too s h o r t .  "never d i d anybody look so sad" (34). v a t i o n ; k n i t t i n g i s not a h e a r t - r e n d i n g  The n a r r a t o r then T h i s i s an unusual task.  paragraph d e s c r i b e s how " i n the darkness perhaps a t e a r formed; a t e a r f e l l "  says, obser-  The r e s t o f the  . . . [ i n j the depths,  (34). F i n a l l y :  "never d i d  anybody look so sad" (34). The paragraph i n s e r t e d between the repeated tions.  statement gives i t s i g n i f i c a n t , p s y c h o l o g i c a l  propor-  Mrs. Ramsay's sadness seems t o dwell w i t h i n her; she  gives no outward i n d i c a t i o n o f g r i e f . the reason  f o r such s a d n e s s — i s  The n a r r a t o r guesses at  i t "nothing but l o o k s " or i s i t  47  " lo ve f o i l e d "  (34)?—and  out having l e a r n t " (34).  concludes that Mrs.  Ramsay "knew w i t h -  She has not, i n other words, the dark,  Romantic past which the n a r r a t o r e n v i s i o n s f o r her. example, Mr.  Ramsay i s annoyed that h i s wife hopes,  that the next day may  be f i n e .  (38).  Mr.  irrationally,  He swears at her and she bends  her head "to l e t the p e l t of jagged h a i l rebuked"  In another  ...  b e s p a t t e r her  Ramsay, humbled by her s i l e n c e , r e g r e t s h i s  anger and o f f e r s to ask the coastguard f o r t h e i r f o r e c a s t . f o l l o w s , "There was him"  (38).  un-  nobody whom she reverenced as she  I t i s noteworthy  Then  reverenced  that Mrs. Ramsay "reverences" Mr.  Ramsay only a f t e r he has t a c i t l y admitted h i s e r r o r i n swearing at her, and has o f f e r e d to t a l k to the coastguard. graph which f o l l o w s t h i s statement  The  para-  i s one which begins as though  she d i d indeed f e e l c h a s t i s e d by her husband's c r i t i c i s m .  She  demurely t e l l s her husband that she i s " q u i t e ready to take h i s word f o r i t " that i t w i l l r a i n f o l l o w s t h i s statement  (38).  However, Mrs. Ramsay  with a s e l f - d e l u d i n g p a t t e r n of  thought:  she o f t e n f e l t that she was nothing but a sponge sopped f u l l of human emotions. Then he s a i d , Damn you. He s a i d , I t must r a i n . He s a i d , I t won't r a i n ; and i n s t a n t l y a Heaven of s e c u r i t y opened b e f o r e her. There was nobody she r e v e r enced more . (38) Mr.  Ramsay has not s a i d , " I t won't r a i n . "  He has r e g r e t t e d h i s  anger, but has not r e t r a c t e d h i s i n i t i a l prophecy. Mrs.  Nevertheless,  Ramsay has convinced h e r s e l f that he has done so, assumes  that he now  agrees w i t h her, and i s content.  does she "reverence" her husband.  Only at t h i s p o i n t  Thus, although i t i n i t i a l l y  48  appears that Mrs. man  who  has  Ramsay i s almost m a s o c h i s t i c  j u s t sworn at her,  the repeated "she  One volves  the  the paragraph i n t e r v e n i n g between  reverenced" shows that she  band because she b e l i e v e s that he has view, has  to worship  come around to her way  given  i d o l i z e s her i n to her  hus-  point-of-  of t h i n k i n g .  of V i r g i n i a Woolf's more i n t e r e s t i n g uses of rhyme i n -  a combination of two  or more rhyme forms.  The  r e s u l t of  t h i s combination of rhyme i s o f t e n to r i t u a l i z e the a c t i o n s i t describes.  For i n s t a n c e ,  as Mrs.  McNab and  Mrs.  Bast c l e a n  the  Ramsays' summer home, "some r u s t y l a b o r i o u s b i r t h seemed to taking place, slapped The  and  as the women, stooping,  slammed, u p s t a i r s now  now  rising,  be  groaning, s i n g i n g ,  down i n the c e l l a r s "  (159).  a l l i t e r a t i o n , homoeoteleuton and p l o c e give the women's  movements a r h y t h m i c a l of the women b e a t i n g j u s t p r i o r to Mrs.  r e p e t i t i o n which c a l l s to mind the image  t h e i r carpets  Ramsay's dinner  i n Jacob's Room.  Similarly,  the gong sounds, announcing  solemnly, a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y , that a l l those s c a t t e r e d about, i n a t t i c s , i n bedrooms, on l i t t l e perches of t h e i r own, reading, w r i t i n g , p u t t i n g the l a s t smooth to t h e i r h a i r , or f a s t e n i n g dresses, must leave a l l t h a t , and the l i t t l e odds and ends on t h e i r washing-tables and d r e s s i n g t a b l e s , and the novels on the bed-tables, and the d i a r i e s which were so p r i v a t e , and assemble in the dining-room f o r dinner. (95) Although t h i s passage has or to " s t o o p i n g "  and  no r e f e r e n c e s  to " l a b o r i o u s  birth"  " r i s i n g , " which give the r h y t h m i c a l  ments, of ;the women c l e a n i n g i n the previous p r i m i t i v e connotations,  move-  example almost  i t does have an a i r of r i t u a l about i t .  49  The  r e p e a t e d w o r d - e n d i n g s a n d t h e r e p e a t e d words echo one a n o t h e r  and  so i m i t a t e  finality: erated  t h e s o u n d o f t h e gong.  "assemble  "d's"  i n the dining-room  are the last  implication  being that  and  the arrival  o f everyone  gong, do n o t a p p e a r on t i m e  things"  actions  and M i n t a D o y l e  f o r d i n n e r , and b e c a u s e t h e y  Mrs. Ramsay i s " u n e a s y " and " u n a b l e  (112).  as J a c o b ' s  does n o t have a s many  and r e a c t i o n s i n t h e s t o r y  a r e a l l i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , To  t h e book.  T h i s i s not t o say that  not  have a c o n s i d e r a b l e q u a n t i t y o f t h e d i f f e r e n t does.  In both  sentences  w h i l e i n Jacob's linking  themes  To t h e L i g h t h o u s e rhyme  i t arid J a c o b ' s Room.; a l l i t e r a t i o n ,  homoeoteleuton help t o s t r u c t u r e ,  individual  separate  Room, arid b e c a u s e c h a r a c t e r s ' and s i t u a t i o n s '  out  in  break  to settle to  does n o t need much rhyme t o r e l a t e  and  At t h i s  do n o t obey t h e  the Lighthouse  it  allit-  of the gong—  a t t h e t a b l e must c o i n c i d e .  B e c a u s e To t h e L i g h t h o u s e sections  The  t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e gong's s o u n d  dinner, Paul Rayley  the r i t u a l ,  closes with  f o r dinner."  echoes o f t h e sounding  the  particular  The s e n t e n c e  o r paragraphs  function of ploce i s less  does forms—  assonance,  o r g a n i z e and p a t t e r n t h e  i n each  episode.  However,  Room p l o c e i s one of: t h e f o r c e s w h i c h  the episodes together,  through-  assists  i n To t h e L i g h t h o u s e , t h e  significant.  It i s the vehicle f o r  s h o w i n g how c h a r a c t e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s c h a n g e , b u t i s no l o n g e r as n e c e s s a r y  f o r helping to provide the obvious—and  Room t h e e s s e n t i a l — l i n k s  between t h e b o o k ' s s e p a r a t e  Between t h e A c t s , V i r g i n i a W o o l f ' s l a s t  i n Jacob's sections.  n o v e l , combines t h e  50  a s s e t s of both Jacob's Room and To the Lighthouse; i t s n a r r a t i v e i s continuous—more  so even than To the Lighthouse—-and yet i t  a l t e r n a t e s between scenes i n the pageant audience watching t h e pageant.  and glimpses of the  T h i s a l t e r n a t i o n allows t h e  v a r i o u s rhyme-forms t o p r o v i d e , as they d i d i n Jacob's Room, an a c t i v e , obvious r o l e .  However, Between the Acts takes the  uses of rhyme i n Jacob's Room and To the Lighthouse  further.  The l a s t novel i n c o r p o r a t e s rhyme as a theme--one of i t s charact e r s c o n s c i o u s l y uses rhyme i n her thoughts, w h i l e another w r i t e s rhyme i n t o her pageant. Woolf's  With Between the A c t s , rhyme as one of  d e v i c e s to help s t r u c t u r e the n o v e l , and rhyme as one o f  the n o v e l ' s thematic concerns, become almost entwined.  inextricably <  51  On her  last  diary, an  November 23,  Between t h e  Acts  1940,  completing  a little  interesting  attempt  essential  than  certainly  f r e s h e r than  both  the  first  her  triumphant  about  a t a new  method.  the o t h e r s .  More m i l k  that misery  other novels, c r i t i c s  p r a i s e d and  criticized  t h e book.  comes f r o m profound  Northrop  The have,  calls  book" b e c a u s e i t has  i n the  and  ficant  moments w h i c h r e v e a l i t s m e a n i n g . "  trast  and  the  the t i n y  as  pageant  and  between  df c o n t r a s t , "  Isa O l i v e r  and  Miss  "most the  signi-  Woolf  uses  t o compare  Mrs.  Miss  La Trobe, can  "course  La Trobe's  of  then  the  o r h e l p t o show t h e d i f f e r e n c e s as w i t h t h e p a s t  and  " H i s t o r y of  n o v e l s each  images o r  similarities form  or con-  civiliEngland"  S w i t h i n ' s book, O u t l i n e o f H i s t o r y .  t h e rhyme f o r m s i n g e n e r a l c r e a t e o r h e i g h t e n  ters,  Acts  1  the c h a r a c t e r s to the  i t i s d e p i c t e d by by  Woolf's  f l a s h e s of  G i l e s O l i v e r ) so t h a t t h e r e a d e r  images and  zation"  reasons.  d i f f e r e n c e s between v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e  ( s u c h as t h o s e I s a and  of  Between t h e  t h e v a r i o u s f o r m s o f rhyme t o c r e a t e images, and similarities  359).  o f c o n t r a s t between  o f a whole c i v i l i z a t i o n  "sense  p.  pat,  intervening years,  i t Virginia  "a s e n s e  A richer  Years'.' (AWD,  t h e book f o r a v a r i e t y  F r y e , who  In o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t h e  I think i t ' s  skimmed o f f .  course  between  of  I t h i n k i t s more q u i n t -  P e r h a p s t h e most p e r c e p t i v e g e n e r a l comment on  novel  draft  n o v e l , Between t h e A c t s , V i r g i n i a W o o l f w r o t e i n h e r  " I am  As w i t h  after  While themes  between  o f rhyme p e r f o r m s  characits  52  own t a s k s . In  Between t h e A c t s , W o o l f c h a n g e s t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f rhyme  forms from thirty  those  i n the e a r l i e r  pages than  Jacob's  novels.  A s h o r t e r book by a b o u t  Room, i t c o n t a i n s a l m o s t  c e r t a i n l y more h o m o e o t e l e u t o n , b u t a l m o s t ation  and a s s o n a n c e .  of  rhyme o c c u r  in  Jacob's The  A s ' i n To t h e L i g h t h o u s e ,  i n which each type  following discussion w i l l  e r a t i o n , i n Between t h e A c t s . house , a l l i t e r a t i o n performing specific  functions.  of l e s s  cludes  a little  first  In Jacob's  important,  alliter-  the various last  novel  of both.  briefly  consider  images, a s w e l l a s  elimination  now c o n s i d e r e d l e s s  i n Between i n Jacob's  necessary,  and p l o c e ?  an image o r p o r t r a y a l ,  the e a r l i e r  novels,  or are  The answer i n -  Where W o o l f wants t o c r e a t e sound  On t h e o c c a s i o n s when s h e w i s h e s s i m p l y  heighten  allit-  Room and To t h e L i g h t -  p a t t e r n s w i t h words, s h e now u s e s h o m o e o t e l e u t o n a l m o s t ively.  than  separate.  Are the f u n c t i o n s that i t performs  t o homoeoteleuton  types  more i n d i v i d u a l and  What does i t s n e a r  Room and To t h e L i g h t h o u s e transferred  i s usually  emphasizes o r h e i g h t e n s  a variety  the A c t s s i g n i f y ?  they  eliminates  t o g e t h e r much more o f t e n i n t h i s  Room  as much p l o c e ,  she s t i l l  which  i s less  employs  door,  t h e pageant v o l u n t e e r s c h u c k l e  sight  of her, "with  a wisp o f white  t o emphasize o r frequent  alliteration.  when " O l d F l i m s y " S w i t h i n goes t o n a i l  exclus-  than i n  For instance,  a p l a c a r d on t h e b a r n  among t h e m s e l v e s hair  flying,  [andj  at the knobbed  2 shoes as i f she had claws In  Jacob's  corned  like  a canary's."  Room, and t o some e x t e n t  i n To t h e L i g h t h o u s e ,  53  alliteration ever,  To t h e L i g h t h o u s e  emphasize repeated  assists  i n the novel.  This  latter  for their  being  f u n c t i o n becomes  homoeoteleuton, or assonance.  three  o r more.  " c a r e s s i n g her c r o s s " t h e book.  F o r i n s t a n c e , we  alliteration  for i t srepetition  I s a O l i v e r makes h e r e n t r a n c e  s e e Mrs.  i t s way"  (8).  Swithin  throughout  t h e image i n  the novel.  In another  i n t o a room f u l l  a swan  "swan  swimming,"  later  i n t h e same s e c t i o n , when I s a s e e s h e r s e l f and t h e g e n t l e -  draws a t t e n t i o n t o t h e u n u s u a l  farmer, Rupert Haines,  "like  stream"  ( 8 ) , the reader  earlier  context.  so  two p o r t i o n s o f one s m a l l  that  The a l l i t e r a t e d  of people  "like  man  swimming  i n Between  instead of the  strengthens  throughout  more  commonly  Further,  (122, 142, 149) s e v e r a l t i m e s  The two-word  preparation  How-  a l s o o c c a s i o n a l l y uses a l l i t e r a t i o n to  two words a r e g e n e r a l l y a l l i t e r a t e d ,  conventional  example,  used alone.  i n Between t h e A c t s where a l l i t e r a t i o n most  ploce,  Acts,  i s customarily  images o r m e t a p h o r s i n p r e p a r a t i o n later  developed  the  as a r h y m i n g d e v i c e  instantly  Alliteration  come l i n k e d t o g e t h e r .  two swans recalls  simile.  [floating t h e "swan"  works i n c o n j u n c t i o n  A similar  "s's"  continues  Hence,  down in i t s with  s e c t i o n of the novel trend  in  ploce  have b e -  f o r the e n t i r e  book. In c o n t r a s t  t o a l l i t e r a t i o n w h i c h has d w i n d l e d  i n Between t h e A c t s has  increased  f r o m t h e two e a r l i e r  substantially.  house h o m o e o t e l e u t o n s e r v e s tion  to p a r a l l e l  novels,  considerably  homoeoteleuton  I n J a c o b ' s Room and To t h e L i g h t -  two b a s i c p u r p o s e s :  i t draws^atten-  s t r u c t u r e and i t c o n t r a s t s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  use  54  of  end-rhyme i n p o e t r y w i t h  teleuton  i n prose.  the v i l l a g e  pageant  end-rhyme,  eant  narrator  itself  use nursery  a poet,  i t  is  and who  Both t h e pagthe omniscient  i n h e r commentary on t h e w h o l e . and v a l u e  I n o t h e r words, rhyme  o f end-  becomes a theme  Between t h e A c t s . In an e a r l y  find  i n t r o d u c t i o n t o I s a , o r Mrs. G i l e s O l i v e r ,  t h a t she keeps samples o f h e r p o e t r y  account  rest  book i n c a s e  Giles  suspected"  " i n t h e book bound (15).  the l i t t l e  notebook.  we like  Throughout t h e  o f t h e n o v e l we a r e g i v e n ' s n i p p e t s o f p o e t i c a l  w h i c h , were s h e n o t w a t c h i n g to  by t h e f a c t  rhymes, w h i l e  i n s e v e r a l places, the nature  rhyme i s commented upon.  an  i s complicated  who c o n s i d e r s h e r s e l f  i n c l u d e s homoeoteleuton  Furthermore,  in  o f homoeotel-  w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e , t o make up end-rhymes.  and t h e p l o t  o f homoeo-  c o n t a i n s h o m o e o t e l e u t o n and t h a t  being w a t c h e d by I s a O l i v e r , tries,  flexibility  I n Between t h e A c t s , t h e r o l e  e u t o n , and s p e c i f i c a l l y that  the f l u i d ,  thoughts  t h e p a g e a n t , w o u l d no doubt be added  She i n t o n e s :  To what d a r k a n t r e o f t h e u n v i s i t e d e a r t h , o r w i n d b r u s h e d f o r e s t , s h a l l we go now? Or s p i n f r o m s t a r t o s t a r and dance i n t h e maze o f t h e moon? ( 4 0 ) or: Where do I wander? Down what d r a u g h t y t u n n e l s : Where t h e e y e l e s s w i n d b l o w s ? And t h e r e grows To i s s u e where? n o t h i n g f o r t h e e y e . No r o s e where no e v e n i n g In some h a r v e s t l e s s dim f i e l d r i s e s . (109) l e t s f a l l h e r m a n t l e ; n o r sun  „When c r i t i c s  mention  Isa's p o e t i c i z i n g  a t a l l , and many do n o t ,  55  they  tend  t o r e g a r d h e r as " t h e m e l a n c h o l i c p o e t "  upon h e r " f l u e n t  p o e t i c fancy  o r t o remark  . . . suggestive, symbolic,  lyri- .  4 cai." is  These c r i t i c s  do n o t seem t o u n d e r s t a n d  o b v i o u s l y i n t e n d e d t o b e : one who e n j o y s  practice it.  some f o r m  a r t , who t r i e s t o  o f a r t , and y e t who has no n a t u r a l g i f t  f o r :'.  The n o v e l t a k e s p l a c e on a June day i n 1939; y e t I s a i s  trying  t o i m i t a t e some o f t h e d a r k ,  tics.  Her v e r s e s a r e f u l l  symbolism. time  h e r f o r what she  moody p o e t r y o f t h e Roman-"  of r h e t o r i c a l  Of c o u r s e , we c a n n o t  expect,  questions  and o b s c u r e  i n the twenty-four  hour  p e r i o d o f t h e n o v e l , t o be shown how h e r p e r s o n a l i t y d e -  velops  through  a dramatic  change i n h e r p o e t r y .  Woolf  include Isa's strained  using  I s a t o draw s p e c i f i c  throughout Woolf  the novel.  and s t i l t e d  attention  Why,then,  poetry?  does  Woolf i s  t o h e r own u s e o f rhyme  For instance, very  early  i n t h e book,  shows I s a s t a n d i n g a t h e r m i r r o r i n h e r bedroom humming t o  herself: 'Where we know n o t , where we go n o t , n e i t h e r know n o r c a r e . . . . F l y i n g , r u s h i n g t h r o u g h t h e a m b i e n t , i n c a n d e s c e n t , summer s i l e n t , . . ; ' The rhyme was ' a i r . ' She p u t down h e r b r u s h . She t o o k up t h e t e l e p h o n e . . . . 'There t o l o s e what b i n d s u s h e r e , ' s h e murmured. 'Soles. Filleted. In time f o r l u n c h . • p l e a s e , ' she s a i d a l o u d . 'With a f e a t h e r , a b l u e f e a t h e r ... f l y i n g m o u n t i n g t h r o u g h t h e a i r ... t h e r e t o l o s e what b i n d s u s h e r e ...' ( 1 5 ) W o o l f h a s I s a move f r e e l y ' and v e r y  c o n s c i o u s l y b a c k and f o r t h  from  does f o r much o f t h e r e s t o f  verse t o prose  the n o v e l having  including  as s h e h e r s e l f those  p a r t s i n which  Isa expressly state,  I s a i s not present.  "The rhyme was  'air,'"  Woolf i s  In  56  drawing  her r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n  u s e rhyme.  F u r t h e r m o r e , by c o n f e r r i n g  I s a , Woolf own  both i n v i t e s  stylistic  thematic  u s e o f rhyme, w h i l e a l s o  her f a m i l y ,  especially  eccentric  society.  artist,  sparingly.  and  upon  I s a ' s rhymes and  her  i n t e r w e a v i n g rhyme as a  She  feels  and  pageant  which  speeches.  The  speeches  alliteration  her from a l l  do  consistently  i s writ^;;  skilfully  yet  t o some e x t e n t c o n -  and a s s o n a n c e w i t h i n  speaker, "the c h i l d  child  i s a genuine,  a l t h o u g h much o f t h e d i a l o g u e  policeman use homoeoteleuton  Isa  h e r s e l f becoming s e p a r a t e d from  whose b e h a v i o u r o s t r a c i z e s  While other a c t o r s '  only the introductory  p r o v i d e s the  Isa are counterparts:  Miss La Trobe uses homoeoteleuton  homoeoteleuton,  their  to  of rhyming  h e r husband; M i s s L a T r o b e  In h e r p a g e a n t ,  i n verse,  tain  the v i l l a g e  focus of the novel. an a r t i s t  ten  the t r a i t  intent  i n s t r u m e n t w i t h rhyme as a s t y l i s t i c t e c h n i q u e .  wants t o be  if  deliberate  c o m p a r i s o n between  Miss La Trobe w r i t e s central  t o h e r own  E n g l a n d , " and  the  lines,  the  and e v e n l y t h r o u g h o u t  pipes:  G e n t l e s and s i m p l e s , I a d d r e s s y o u a l l Come h i t h e r f o r o u r f e s t i v a l T h i s i s a p a g e a n t , a l l may s e e Drawn f r o m o u r i s l a n d h i s t o r y . ( 5 8 ) Later  i n the pageant,  the policeman  announces:  I_ t a k e u n d e r my p r o t e c t i o n and d i r e c t i o n t h e p u r i t y and s e c u r i t y o f a l l Her M a j e s t y ' s m i n i o n s ; i n a l l p a r t s of her dominions; i n s i s t that they Obey t h e laws o f God and Man. (113)  The  c h i l d who  p l a y s t h e young E n g l i s h  nation  i s only  "a  small  57  girl"  (57).  In o r d e r  Trobe w r i t e s with  an  the  girl  other  the  to help  child's  her  i n t r o d u c t i o n to the  aabb rhyme scheme ( w h i c h still  hand, t r a d i t i o n a l l y  same o r d e r l i n e s s and  role  i n the  Woolf uses  Oliver. sing.  pageant  symbolizes  The  Miss  in  verse  successful:.as  policeman,  p u b l i c order,  and  on  so  w h i c h he  represents  the  Miss  homoeoteleuton to give h i s  stability  La  speech  in his  village society.  Homoeoteleuton novel.  lines,  i s only p a r t i a l l y  needs s e v e r a l p r o m p t i n g s ) .  La T r o b e imbues h i s l i n e s w i t h the  t o remember h e r  i s associated with i t i n one  E a r l y i n the novel,  of her he  other  characters  in  the  d e s c r i p t i o n s o f o l d Mr..,Bart  is sitting  i n the  library  drow-  He was not dead, o n l y d r e a m i n g ; d r o w s i l y , s e e i n g as i n a g l a s s , i t s l u s t r e s p o t t e d , h i m s e l f a young man h e l m e t e d ; and a c a s c a d e f a l l i n g . But no w a t e r ; and t h e h i l l s , l i k e g r e y s t u f f p l e a t e d ; and i n t h e s a n d a hoop o f r i b s ; a b u l l o c k m a g g o t - e a t e n i n t h e sun; and i n t h e shadow o f t h e r o c k , s a v a g e s ; and i n h i s hand a gun. (17)  "Bullock"  and  rhyme w i t h as  an  begins to  "rock,"  one  " s a n d " and  another;  this  a s s o c i a t i v e device. to f a l l  into  i n d i c a t e to the  dream by  mimicking  reader t h e way  of events  intensification  When Mr.  of Bart  "gun"  all operates  O l i v e r becomes drowsy  s t a t e , Woolf u s e s  t h a t he  i s dreaming.  She  which helps  and  homoeoteleuton portrays  i n w h i c h some dreams d e v e l o p :  another  i n the  and  example o f h o m o e o t e l e u t o n  a dream-like  word i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h or s e r i e s  "hand," " s u n "  to c r e a t e  dreamer's s u b c o n s c i o u s .  O l i v e r ' s dream i s r e m i n i s c e n t  a  one scene  (Woolf's of  her  his  58  use o f h o m o e o t e l e u t o n Mrs.  Ramsay's t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  scape"  reflection  a n o t h e r i n sound  as r h y m i n g p a i r s an i m p e r f e c t  Unlike ploce,  o f one  recall  one  recollection  a n o t h e r , we  o f Mr.  and  that  employs  and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  recall Just  dream  as  adventurous l i f e  as  describes  him  recalling  every scene  homoeoteleuton  of i n d i v i d u a l s  i n t h e n o v e l , ..she weaves  N u r s e r y rhymes and p o p u l a r t u n e s o f t e n  rhyme t o h e l p make them e a s i l y them b e c a u s e  remembered.  they are c l o s e l y  o f rhymes and r h y m i n g .  and i t s use  end-  V i r g i n i a Woolf i n -  associated  with the book's theme  In Between t h e A c t s t h e s e n u r s e r y set to a musical  missions  the audience (and the a c t o r s ) a  are supposed t o g i v e  break from the c o n c e n t r a t i o n  would  the pageant.  choose  Thus,  a s i m p l e melody  to the audience that  required  to p a r t i c i p a t e  i t is logical  that  mission,  the r e s u l t  t h e y no l o n g e r  emanating w o u l d be  The  Miss La Trobe  had t o c o n c e n t r a t e on their  from the s t a g e d u r i n g  a l o s s of c o n t i n u i t y .  inter-  i n , and  w i t h s i m p l e words t o g i v e a  s t a g e , b u t c o u l d wander o f f f o r t e a , o r s t r e t c h t h e r e were no sounds  score.  rhymes  and p o p u l a r t u n e s a r e u s u a l l y  understand  and  to describe the thoughts  rhymes and p o p u l a r t u n e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p a g e a n t  intermissions.  cludes  are  he a c t u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d .  W h i l e Woolf  nursery  to  "land-  i n meaning.  t h a t w h i c h he wants t o s e e , n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  event  a  "sand"  can see t h i s  Oliver's  b e c a u s e Woolf  into  rhyming p a i r s  a n o t h e r ; "hand"  and y e t a r e n o t s i m i l a r  a younger man--imperfect only  of the boar's s k u l l  f o r h e r d a u g h t e r , Cam.)  an i m p e r f e c t one  i n To t h e L i g h t h o u s e t o draw a t t e n t i o n  signal the  legs. the  If  inter-  Why,then,  59  does s h e p a r t i c u l a r l y against  fate/  and b l a t a n t / of  1939—a  arming  The v a l i a n t  time  " t h e pompous p o p u l a r t u n e , "  R h o d e r i c k / Armed and v a l i a n t /  Firm elatant"  itself  Germany".  select  following  (59, 70)?  The p a g e a n t  armed f o r c e s .  reflects  t h e p r i d e which  When W o o l f w r o t e  uses  and B r i t a i n ' s  rhyme t o c a l l  indicate  an i n t e r m i s s i o n ;  L a Trobej  the audience  w a t c h e d them f o l d  works i n a s i m i l a r The  orderliness  the  audience  fashion  their  Counting out h i s  E a t i n g b r e a d and honey  early  i n t h e pageant  Rhoderick."  act.  twice i n Miss La Trobe's  (126-28) where i t d i v i d e s  sense,  direct  T h e same vision of  "present time" into  i n the "natural"  faces"  where i t  o f t h e rhyme and t h e m u s i c f o r t h e next  . .."  . . . [Miss  hands a n d compose t h e i r  t o prepare themselves  one, p r e s e n t t i m e  The n u r s e r y  t o t h e tune o f " v a l i a n t  and s i m p l i c i t y  rhyme i s a l s o u s e d  "ourselves" parts:  seats or to  t o " s i n k down p e a c e f u l l y  T h i s n u r s e r y rhyme i s u s e d  nursery  she uses a  t h e audience back t o t h e i r  money,/ The Queen i s i n h e r p a r l o u r /  (88).  Miss La Trobe  a pause s e p a r a t i n g p a r t s o f t h e program.  causes  had i n i t s  F r a n c e had been de-  f o r c e s were i n d i s a r r a y .  rhyme, "The K i n g i s i n h i s c o u n t i n g house/  (88),  England  Between t h e A c t s , i n 1940, she was  t h e p o p u l a r tune t o s i g n a l  nursery  o c c u r s i n June  i n e v i t a b l e war w i t h  being i r o n i c in. her choice o f .this t u n e b e c a u s e feated  Bold  t h e M u n i c h agreement when E n g l a n d was  i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r almost  T h i s tune  "Armed  three  as i t i s r e p -  r e s e n t e d by t h e cows, t h e s w a l l o w s  and t h e c l o u d - b u r s t f r a m i n g  the  i n t h e s y m b o l i c s e n s e , when  empty s t a g e ; two, p r e s e n t t i m e  men a n d women o f a l l r a c e s b u i l d  t h e w a l l which  i s t h e League o f  60  Nations,  and  which can audience  be  three,  t h e most s p e c i f i c  shown no more e x p l i c i t l y  i n m i r r o r s h e l d up  Allen  McLaurin  [are]  the  says  by  the  present  time—"ourselves"  than  reflecting  by  a c t o r s and  that the m i r r o r s , the  the  a c t r e s s e s on  "reflecting  stage.  fragments  f o r m w h i c h V i r g i n i a W o o l f c h o s e f o r Between t h e  Acts 5  itself, all  with  of the  i t s mixture  nursery  Trobe choose t h i s attention choice; out  one  indoors,  equally  i f not  an . i n t e r l u d e ? the  stockbroker,  h i s wife, bored  trying  and  t o compose  comments h e l p c l a r i f y  our  d i d Miss  the  a  unfulfilled, and  spends  honey,"  certainly  refer  thoughts  specifically  on  i t s use  Harraden  i n t h e R e s t o r a t i o n comedy, Where t h e r e ' s a W i l l  could f a i r  He  still-a-bed.  L e t ' s speak p r o s e .  What c a n  plain  Lilyliver?"  Isa O l i v e r  specific  does—as  instant  says,  the  (91-92).  Lady  get  symbolic  plane.  Harpy  her?"  sees  He  (91).  Rhymes  are of  her  rhyme somewhat  e l e v a t i o n o f common t h o u g h t s  to a general,  the  there's  A s p h o d i l l a ask  Lilyliver  in  to  s i n g i n g , "What  rhymes.  h o m o e o t e l e u t o n f o r e m p h a s i s o r t o impose o r d e r F o r him,  visits  t h a t Damon w o u l d n o t done w i t h  servant  o f f , and  ask  h i s d i s c o u r s e by  "A  as  then breaks  Chloe  her  poetry.  When S i r S p a n i e l L i l y l i v e r  favour  .  "counting  a whole.  f o r example, he b e g i n s  La  symbolic  n o v e l as  a Way,  Of  audience's  s p e n d s h i s weeks  a c t o r s i n the p a g e a n t . o c c a s i o n a l l y  rhyme; t h e i r  why  drama."  It i s probably  e x a c t l y " e a t i n g bread  unproductively  The  to her,  with which to r e c o v e r  Oliver,  h i s money" w h i l e  life  n a r r a t i v e and  rhymes a v a i l a b l e  or to s i g n a l  Giles  of poetry,  from  does n o t  upon h i s  "rhyme" means r e m o v i n g an o r d i n a r y , e v e r y d a y  the use  speech.  happening  61  from  i t s surroundings,  relevant  classical  and p l a c i n g i t i n A r c a d i a w i t h  allusions.  By r e f e r r i n g  a l l the  specifically  "rhyme," he draws o u r a t t e n t i o n t o h i s u s e o f i t , w h i c h that  o f Spenser, R a l e i g h  century—the  i n the s t y l e  the  switch  not  only  into  i s , of the sixteenth  comedy.  She has L i l y l i v e r  of the sixteenth-century  from v e r s e  t o prevent  dull  echoes  p e r i o d which Miss La Trobe i s i m i t a t i n g i n her  parody of a R e s t o r a t i o n speech  o r Marlowe: t h a t  to  poets,  to prose e a r l y i n the s k i t .  the a c t i o n of the pageant  begin h i s b u t he makes He does  this  from d e t e r i o r a t i n g  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , b u t a l s o b e c a u s e p r o s e i s more  priate  f o r the Restoration  styles  o f t h e s i x t e e n t h and e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s were  r e p l a c e d by " a c o n c i s e  p e r i o d when t h e e l a b o r a t e ,  appro-  . . . prose s t y l e  ornate  s u i t a b l e to . . . c l e a r  6 communication."  In t h e R e s t o r a t i o n  Trobe i s parodying,  this  satirical  criticism  of elegant  cern with  manners.  Later the  i n the novel,  "communication" c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y  anonymous,  to reflect  loudspeaking"  comes  ... ': . l e t ' s t a l k  i n words o f one s y l l a b l e ,  And  calmly  a voice  "mega-  ( 1 3 0 ) booms f r o m t h e b u s h e s  t o say, "Before  or cant.  con-  t o a c l o s e , and a l l  "ouselves,"  beyond the stage  stuffing  of a  s o c i e t y and i t s e x a g g e r a t e d  as t h e p a g e a n t  a c t o r s h o l d up m i r r o r s  phontic,  comedies, which Miss La  we p a r t ,  l a d i e s and g e n t l e m e n without  larding,  L e t ' s b r e a k t h e r h y t h m and f o r g e t t h e rhyme.  consider  ourselves"  statement  i s that  rhyme  syllable"  and i n i t s c o m p l e x i t y  (130).  The i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s  i s n o t c o m p r e s s a b l e t o words "of• one may  t u r n o u t t o be m e r e l y  "lard-  62  ing"  or  "stuffing."  rhyme a l t o g e t h e r get  to  the  can  after  i n order  how  build  the  ruefully  to  to t r y , u s i n g unembellished issue  "orts,  a strong  consciously  narrator  pageant's n a r r a t o r decides  essence of the  w h e t h e r and jl3l]  The  (the  scraps,  issue, in this  end  case,  to  being  ourselves"  Nevertheless,  d e c i d i n g t o e l i m i n a t e rhyme, t h e she  prose,  fragments 1 i k e  League of N a t i o n s ) .  observes that  eliminate  even  anonymous  i s r e t u r n i n g to i t :  Do I e s c a p e my own r e p r o b a t i o n , s i m u l a t i n g i n d i g n a t i o n , i n t h e b u s h , among t h e l e a v e s ? There's a rhyme t o s u g g e s t , i n s p i t e o f p r o t e s t a t i o n and t h e d e s i r e f o r i m m o l a t i o n , I_ t o o have had some, what's c a l l e d , e d u c a t i o n ... " (131) By  r e t u r n i n g t o rhyme when d e s c r i b i n g h e r s e l f , t h e  be  tacitly  than  admitting  that  "larding, stuffing  to the  audience her  or cant."  "education,"  "protestat i o n " proud of her bungalow,  and  "indignation" villagers  own  rhyme i t s e l f , Because her  the  i s only  narrator  education,  H of h i s "sixpenny  is guilty  escape her no  Mr.  she,, l i k e  "simulated"  of p r i d e - - a n d  "reprobation."  The  as Mr.  thing  denunciation  t o be  day 's p a p e r manifested rator  with  s a i d ; f o r our 'Dearly  narrator,  implies, w i l l  be  the  M  i s proud of  his wife'"  villagers'  The  like  her  Thus, she an  cannot  " o r t " or  "scrap" her  "there's  Love,  perhaps the  some-  in to-  as  a c t s of kindness, (and  his  fellow  c a t ; note too  (131).  of  narrator's  audience,concludes  kindness to the  i n common a l m o s t u n n o t i c e d  more  i s , "in spite  b e c a u s e she, knows i t .  may  rhyme " s u g g e s t [s^j  a positive conclusion:  l o v e d by  i s no  fame" ( 1 3 0 ) .  b e t t e r o r w o r s e t h a n members o f t h e  apparent  narrator  i t is the  nar-  world's)  63  salvation. Homoeote1euton i s a d o m i n a t i n g f o r c e However, a s s o n a n c e , w h i c h two  earlier  Acts. the  the  that  example.  filings  magnetized,  efforts  to create  assonance mimics  Despite t h e i r iron  fragments  swivelling  fails novel.  --too  i n the f i r s t  author's  increase  and s y l l a b l e s  and  The  only  Miss  nations. thoughts. like  humanity.  involves only the l a s t  i t s rhyming definite  i n t h e u s e o f homonovels,  it still  s e c t i o n s of the few  letters  of  i n t e r v e n e between a companion  i n the  conclusions  about  f o r m o f rhyme i n p r o s e w h i c h  connect the f i r s t  section  (131).  a l l must u n i t e i n  t i e s between t h e s e v e r a l  a s p a c e t o draw any  satisfactorily last  united"  quicksilver  t h e magnet, b e g i n t o s h a r e  of a u n i f i e d  section  intentions.  action.  and v i e w p o i n t s , t h e a u d i e n c e ,  i s a substantial  Homoeoteleuton  great  t o show t h a t  towards  e a c h word, and many l e t t e r s word  i t s meaning: " L i k e  i n Between t h e A c t s f r o m t h e e a r l i e r  t o form s t r o n g  the  the pageant c o n c l u d e s ,  t h e movements o f t h e s p e c t a t o r s '  Miss La Trobe's v i s i o n  eoteleuton  As  i n To  o r t o mimic  the  i t has  a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g between  varying b e l i e f s  Although there  i n Between  b u t when i t d o e s ,  the d i s t r a c t e d  Trobe has used the pageant  The  frequently  to o r g a n i z e items i n a s e r i e s  Acts.  prominently i n the  i n J a c o b ' s Room and  a u d i e n c e b e g i n s t o comprehend  their  the  i t s own,  i t does  f u n c t i o n s o c c u r i n one  sliding, La  a p p e a r s on  same f u n c t i o n s  Both  relatively  n o v e l s , i s u s e d much l e s s  It rarely  Lighthouse:  figures  i n Between t h e  with the f i f t h ,  ninth,  of the novel i s verbatim r e p e t i t i o n ,  or  or  fifth the can even  ploce.  64  In W o o l f ' s l a s t within  a section,  whole n o v e l . to.it.  book, and  The  Room and  To  i t provides links i t also  the A c t s but  s e c t i o n s , and  book i s s t r u c t u r a l l y  shows how  i t s meaning.  All  i n To t h e L i g h t h o u s e ,  d u r i n g a few  In J a c o b ' s  functions:  alter  n o v e l , as  unified  a particular  improved  and  This usually  then  repeated  o n l y one  library  f i x e d b e c a u s e she  she  paragraphs  fixed  her  father-in-law  saw  with  gaze"  i s to note  The  . . .  for i t .  the c i t y ,  he  "change" i s r e p e a t e d  five  Swithin  times.  world  demands t h a t "he  I n one  from  with gaze  Isa. was  (21).  Seva  he  We  had  shows I s a and as  a  when G i l e s  her  shallow  simply  are then (37).  Oliver  i s company,  paragraph,  It begins  must c h a n g e "  news t h r e a t e n s t o j a r him  Mrs.  i s somehow o t h e r -  that there  gone t o h i s room t o c h a n g e " ;(37).  convention  change o f  a v e r y c l e v e r woman,  Similarly,  so c h a n g e s h i s c l o t h e s f o r l u n c h .  later.  looks at her,  sees h i s s i s t e r  sees  phrase  instance,  h i s throne"  repeated phrase  I s a t h i n k s Mrs.  admires her  on  however, when B a r t  (21).  For  the  t h i n k s t h a t "her  t h e r e , God  in disagreement—he  r e t u r n s home f r o m  had  can  paragraphs  h e r b r o t h e r , B a r t , and  w o u l d have b e e n  scatterbrain while and  God  later,  t h a t "she  worldly  the  c h a n g e d i n Between  o r two  i n d i c a t e s that the reader  i s i n the  two  upon.  When I s a l o o k s a t t h e o l d l a d y , she  thinks  ploce serves  word o r p h r a s e  meaning i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r word o r p h r a s e .  eral  in part  t h r e e n o v e l s c o n t a i n many examples o f a word o r  b e i n g used  Swithin  thanks  the  s e v e r a l sections of  T h e s e f u n c t i o n s a r e not  are g r e a t l y  throughout  the Lighthouse,  through  p l o c e i s used  and  t h e word  enough: told  Although  h i s h a b i t s , " y e t he  "he  that the changed"  65  (37). feel  He t h e n guilty  concludes  blames h i s aunt, Lucy S w i t h i n ,  t h a t he does n o t want t o comply w i t h  by b l a m i n g h i s w i f e ,  stockbroker  i n s t e a d of a farmer.  By t h e c l o s e o f t h e p a r a g r a p h , change o f c l o t h i n g .  i n s t a n c e s o f " c h a n g e " show t h a t G i l e s is dissatisfied  unhappiness, variation  with  o f m e a n i n g i n a word w h i c h  iguanadons i n t h e rhododendron Virginia  The  novels  joining  Acts,  stance, of  (33,  a l s o repeat  in this  to illustrate  of the  different  shades  span o f a s i n g l e in this  study.  words o r p h r a s e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e together;  up t o u t e n  times.  In Between For i n -  " w i l d " i n n o c e n t l y appears i n t h e form  (17). F i n a l l y ,  35, 39, 43, 59, 74, 1 2 4 ) .  i t i s Bart's  dog w h i c h has  Mrs. M a n r e s a , t h e i n t r u d e r a t  p a g e a n t , p r i d e s h e r s e l f on b e i n g  "the wild c h i l d  While t h i s  little  p r e c e d e s M r s . M a n r e s a ' s name may r e m i n d t h e r e a d e r dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  The  paragraph, those  i n a l l three novels  o r c h i s " (12). Later,  eyes"  in his  forests(10).  phrases are repeated  e a r l y i n the novel,  "wild purple  the  Thus,  several s e c t i o n s of the novel  some  "wild yellow  tra-  e v o l u t i o n i s one o f  i n a word o r p h r a s e w i t h i n t h e s h o r t i s used e f f e c t i v e l y  the  against  means some k i n d o f  t r a n s i t i o n s with  Woolf's use o f p l o c e  paragraph  text,  itself  implies evolution of a sort;  i s s u b t l y comparing G i l e s '  three  five  t h e change i n h i s c a r e e r , a n d ,  t h e u n d e r l y i n g themes o f t h e n o v e l .  o f meaning  i s rebelling  The  has c h a n g e d h i s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s h i s w i f e .  transformation  Woolf  t r a d i t i o n and  f o r whom he " c h a n g e d , " became a  " c h a n g e " no l o n g e r means a s i m p l e  dition,  f o r m a k i n g him ;  i t also serves  of Nature"  e p i t h e t which o f h e r most  t o emphasize t h e under-  66  lying  theme o f t h e p r i m i t i v e In J a c o b ' s  phrase  Room, t h e immediate  i s used o c c a s i o n a l l y ,  a p p e a r s more o f t e n Allen and  McLaurin  origins  repetition  rather  immediate  o f a word  repetition  "triple  i t to " e n f o r c e her p e r c e p t i o n of according to McLaurin, both  and  of humanity"  assertion  or It  i n Between t h e A c t s .  a p e r c e p t i o n which, i s an  character.  indeterminately.  and more p r e d i c t a b l y  c a l l s Woolf's  s a y s she u s e s  but  i n h e r e n t i n each  melody"  repetition"—  "gives assurance  w h i l e i s a t t h e same t i m e 7  "empty and m e c h a n i c a l , the l i b r a r y ,  a true r e f l e c t i o n  for instance,  of the machine."  "the t o r t o i s e s h e l l  t h e pane o f t h e window; b e a t , b e a t , b e a t ; human b e i n g came, n e v e r , .  . . and  never,  the t o r t o i s e s h e l l  butterfly  H e r e t h e r e p e a t e d " b e a t " and sound  of the b u t t e r f l y ' s  word "pane" i n v i t e s in  "never"  futile  vase  silent,  silent"  t h e l a c k o f sound assertion  the a l a b a s t e r  the s t i l l One  on  reproduce  the s i g h t  t o escape  vase  The  i n s i d e the vase.  o f humanity" signals  i f no mouldy  and  (while the  p l i g h t ) . ; Later,  (30).  a  "pain"  large  s t a n d s "empty, emp^/, r e p e a t e d words  Both  and  of these  i n only a negative  the b u t t e r f l y ' s  i s empty b e c a u s e  on  t h e pane" ( 1 6 ) .  o f t h e a i r , t h e l a c k o f movement,  t h e l a c k o f a human p r e s e n c e while  that  t h e r e a d e r t o c o n s i d e r t h e homophone  emphasize t h e s t i l l n e s s  amples g i v e "an  dead  i n the hallway at P o i n t z H a l l  empty; s i l e n t ,  therefore  repeating  beat  t h e b o o k s w o u l d be  attempts  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the b u t t e r f l y ' s  alabaster ty,  never,  butterfly  In  no one  has  exway--  death, disturbed  a i r inside i t . of Woolf's  more r e m a r k a b l e  experiments  w i t h rhyme i s h e r  67  attempt  t o combine a l l o f t h e rhyme forms w i t h i n  a few s e n t e n c e s . only  of limited  In Jacob's success.  i n Between t h e A c t s .  homoeoteleuton rator  Room t h e s e a t t e m p t s  a r e few, and  I n To t h e L i g h t h o u s e , however, t h e  combined rhyme forms o f t e n do  the length of  p r o v i d e a r h y t h m i c a l chant,  F o r example,  assonance,  as they  alliteration,  and p l o c e a r e a l l combined a s t h e o m n i s c i e n t  draws a t t e n t i o n  to family  conventions within  nar-  the Oliver  household:  T h e i r v o i c e s impetuously, i m p a t i e n t l y , p r o t e s t i n g l y came a c r o s s t h e h a l l s a y i n g : 'The t r a i n ' s l a t e ' ; s a y i n g : 'Keep i t h o t ' : s a y i n g : 'We won't no C a n d i s h , we won't w a i t . ' ( 3 0 ) The  repetition  and  " w a i t " rhyme, a n d t h e a s s o n a n c e  all  make t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s  voices  are not s t a r t l e d  patient" his  of "saying," the a l l i t e r a t e d  "The  t o Candish  voices.  lateness i s a surprise  do n o t f u s s o v e r G i l e s ' train's  late  this  contained for  Giles  crust,  this  doubt,  this  employers  announce,  simply,  I n an even more c o n c i s e Isa Oliver describes  dust  "somewhere,  . . . w o u l d be  v e r y c o n s c i o u s o f rhymes i n  not r e c o g n i z e t h e l u c i d i t y  short d e s c r i p t i o n  [but] i t f a i l e d  before—  Hence,Candish's  but merely  her"  The  They a r e ''im-  has been l a t e  o f rhyme f o r m s ,  o r speech,does  in this  a rhyme,  or worried.  . . . we won't w a i t . "  ( 4 7 ) . ( I s a , who i s u s u a l l y  her thoughts  a chant.  between h e r h u s b a n d and W i l l i a m Dodge:  cloud, this  clear"  sound l i k e  t o no o n e .  lateness,  example o f t h e c o m b i n a t i o n the antagonism  o f t h e " a " and "o" s o u n d s ,  or surprised  and " p r o t e s t i n g "  "w's," t h e " l a t e "  and b e a u t y  o f t h e two men: " s h e w a i t e d  [47] .)  In t h i s  line,  eight  68  words i n c o r p o r a t e a l l o f t h e "cloud" the  and  " d o u b t " use  " c ' s " and  connected  "d's"  t o any  together  men  are a l l i t e r a t e d .  who  will  (both belonging  The  spend e s s e n t i a l l y  watch the pageant  can we  as r e a d e r s Early  as a : s t r u c t u r a l  d e v i c e and  juxtaposed  and  e i g h t words, w h i l e  not  and  yet  eaten  woven  the  the e n t i r e  link  afternoon  lunch  together) despite  so c l o s e l y  a s s e s s rhyme i n t h e  i n the novel  toge-  their  quently  t h e book.  throughout  including invites  her  solution  to her By  n u r s e r y rhymes,  the reader to her  a thematic  t h a t t h e y become a l m o s t  attention  leaving  i n t h e book, Woolf d e s c r i b e s how  are " l i k e  the  peals,  you  third"  (19).  first  hear  the  The  second,  as t h e  i s t o watch f o r echoes,  they  throughout  occur  the novel.  By  watching  As  the  p e a l s , you bells  f o r second  Woolf fre-  rhymes,  first  'air!" words first hear  suggests  and  (15).  third  the that  peals  consciously looking for  rhyme, t h e r e a d e r becomes a p a r t i c i p a n t audience  rhyme was  a chime o f b e l l s .  metaphor o f t h e c h i m i n g  are  o f rhyme  Lucy S w i t h i n ' s  second  rhyme  o r u n f i n i s h e d , Woolf  peal of  the r e a d e r  that  Isa s u p p l i e s the  u n f i n i s h e d rhyme: "The  Bet-  inseparable.  some of- h e r  incomplete,  of  instrument  c o n s c i o u s use  t o c o m p l e t e them.  own  entirety  i t becomes o b v i o u s  rhyme as  draws t h e r e a d e r ' s  the  " d u s t " rhyme,  t o a g r o u p w h i c h has  ween t h e A c t s ?  of  and  animosity.  How  Later  "crust"  demonstrate the a n t i t h e s i s  t h e r and w h i c h w i l l mutual  assonance,  "This" i s repeated,  o t h e r p a r t o f t h e n o v e l , a r e so c l o s e l y  t o g e t h e r t h a t they between two  forms o f rhyme.  i n t h e book, a member  t h e drama o f t h e n o v e l u n f o l d .  (To  as  69  enhance our version with  of Miss  "the By  unity,  understanding  o f t h e n o v e l as a drama, 'as a l o n g e r  La Trobe's  curtain  rose.  p a g e a n t , Woolf c o n c l u d e s  They s p o k e "  i t s very nature,  Whether t h r o u g h  ance o r h o m o e o t e l e u t o n , we  mon.  In To  be  completion  single  it initial,  the Lighthouse,  Ramsays' l i v e s w i t h o u t o f Mrs.  it  suggests  t e r s . : ' The  thematic  and we  Lucy  and  structural  hear  i t .  And  "pompous p o p u l a r "twelve  has  glorifying  in perfect  audience,  available  to her,  Miss  t o show h e r  she  can  ation  to r e p e l  of almost  the d i s c o r d a n c e s , certain  war.  the  La Trobe,  Miss  other  per-  Woolf •  La Trobe's  the search  " a l l i s harmony, c o u l d of  the  armed f o r c e s and  (134)  which  audience  a l l the  La Trobe  every  re-  rhyme,  offers  the d i s r u p t i o n ,  the  f l y over  i s trying, with  Miss  the  charac-  i n common between  England's  La Trobe  "harmony" w h i c h u n i t e s them.  then  Instead,  A g a i n s t the backdrop  formation"  the  i n com-  f u n c t i o n s o f rhyme have  understands  they  Mr. Ramsay's r e a c h i n g  of s y n t h e s i s .  f o r something  (122).  asson-  Lily Briscoe's  Between t h e A c t s , on  been s u c c e s s f u l :  shall"  tune"  aeroplanes  the assembled source  she we  by  Through Miss  Swithin both  b e l i e v e s that  sounds,  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between many o f t h e  for similarities,  characters.  and  same s e n s e  meated t h e n o v e l t o t h e end. searches  final  a r e s y n t h e s i z e d by  with t h i s  possible  or  Ramsay's v i e w o f l i f e ,  Ramsay's p o r t r a i t  end  alliteration,  rhymed words b e c a u s e  medial,  Mrs.  her,  out  the l i g h t h o u s e with h i s c h i l d r e n . hand, does n o t  [l52| .)  t h e s t u d y o f rhyme i m p l i e s a s e a r c h f o r  for similarities.  have s o m e t h i n g ,  t h e book  the  everything fragment-  70  Conclusion  V i r g i n i a Woolf's prose and, rhyme i n her prose, ing a s t r a i g h t  more s p e c i f i c a l l y , the use of  does not "progress" i n the sense o f f o l l o w -  l i n e o r becoming b e t t e r with each n o v e l .  Each  work i s t o some extent a separate experiment and t h e r e f o r e uses rhyme i n d i f f e r e n t  ways and f o r d i f f e r e n t  purposes.  One  of the ways t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s about Woolf's use of rhyme i s t o examine a passage i n The Common Reader ( F i r s t S e r i e s ) . i n 1925,  the f i r s t  o f the two-volume s e t has as i t s purpose " t o  w r i t e down a few o f the ideas and o p i n i o n s which,  insignificant  i n themselves, yet c o n t r i b u t e t o so mighty a r e s u l t b u t i o n of p o e t i c a l  honours]"  [the  distri-  (CR, p. 2 ) . The Common Reader i s ,  i n other words, a c r i t i c a l work.  To e s t a b l i s h  and o p i n i o n s , " Woolf had t o s e l e c t p e r i o d s which best  Published  those  the "few ideas  authors  and l i t e r a r y  i l l u s t r a t e the aim of The Common Reader. T h i s  book i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f e s s a y s - - i t i s not a n o v e l , not f i c t i o n . Nonetheless, especially  Woolf's s t y l e  i n The Common R e a d e r — a n d t h i s i s  t r u e of her use o f rhyme—does not d i f f e r  l y from that i n the novels s t u d i e d i n t h i s In t h i s book one passage i n p a r t i c u l a r and summarize the n o v e l s .  Consider  significant-  thesis. enables  us t o assess  the c o n c l u s i o n from "On Not  Knowing Greek": The Odyssey i s merely a s t o r y of adventure, the i n s t i n c t i v e s t o r y - t e l l i n g of a s e a - f a r i n g race. So we may begin i t , reading q u i c k l y i n the s p i r i t of c h i l d r e n wanting amusement t o f i n d out what happens next. But here i s nothing  71  immature; here are f u l l - g r o w n people, c r a f t y , s u b t l e , and p a s s i o n a t e . Nor i s the world i t s e l f a s m a l l one, s i n c e the sea which separates i s l a n d from i s l a n d has to be c r o s s e d by l i t t l e hand-made boats and i s measured by the f l i g h t of s e a - g u l l s . I t i s t r u e that the i s lands are not t h i c k l y populated, and the people, though e v e r y t h i n g i s made by hand, are not c l o s e l y kept at work. They have had time to develop a very d i g n i f i e d , a very s t a t e l y s o c i ety, with an a n c i e n t t r a d i t i o n of manners behind i t , which makes every r e l a t i o n at once o r d e r l y , n a t u r a l , and f u l l of r e s e r v e . Penelope c r o s s e s the room; Telemachus goes to bed; Nausicaa washes her l i n e n ; and t h e i r a c t i o n s seem laden with beauty because they do not know that they are b e a u t i f u l , have been born to t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s , are no more s e l f conscious than c h i l d r e n , and y e t , a l l those thousands of years ago, i n t h e i r l i t t l e i s l a n d s , know a l l that i s to be known. With the sound of the sea i n t h e i r e a r s , v i n e s , meadows, r i v u l e t s about them, they are even more aware than we are of a r u t h l e s s f a t e . There i s a sadness at the back of l i f e which they do not attempt to m i t i g a t e . E n t i r e l y aware of t h e i r own standing i n the shadow, and yet a l i v e t o every tremor and gleam of e x i s t e n c e , t h e r e they endure, and i t i s to the Greeks that we t u r n when we are s i c k of the vagueness, of the c o n f u s i o n , of the C h r i s t i a n i t y . a n d i t s c o n s o l a t i o n s , of our own age. (CR, p. 38-39) T h i s c o n c l u d i n g paragraph c o n t a i n s the forms of rhyme, performing a v a r i e t y of f u n c t i o n s which were found i n the n o v e l s . for "s's"  i n s t a n c e , s e v e r a l examples of a l l i t e r a t i o n . i n "Nor  i s the world i t s e l f  a s m a l l one,  The  I t has,  alliterated  s i n c e the sea  which separates i s l a n d from i s l a n d has to be c r o s s e d by  little  hand-made b o a t s , " perform what i n Jacob's Room i s a l l i t e r a t i o n ' s most important f u n c t i o n — t o emphasize or strengthen an"image. Repeating each " s " sound slows down the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s .  The  a l l i t e r a t e d words are "separated" from one another by a nona l l i t e r a t e d word,thereby  s t r e s s i n g the d i s t a n c e between them.  72  Thus, by both slowing the reader's speed and by extending the a l l i t e r a t i o n , Woolf c r e a t e s i n the s t r u c t u r e of the sentence a d i v i s i o n , which i s echoed i n the meaning: "the sea . . . separates." In each n o v e l , Woolf i n c l u d e s s e v e r a l samples of verse which, apart from having meanings r e l e v a n t t o t h e t e x t , i n v i t e the reader t o compare her use of homoeoteleuton t o the more widel y used end-rhyme.  The c o n c l u d i n g paragraph of "On Not Knowing  Greek" does not c o n t a i n a verse, but i t does employ homoeoteleuton. , The paragraph begins with " s t o r y - t e l l i n g , " " s e a - f a r i n g , " " r e a d i n g , " and "wanting."  In a l l four o f these words, the  t e x t u a l i n t e n t i s t h a t we a s s o c i a t e the " i n g " s u f f i x with, i n t h i s case, the v i b r a n t e n e r g e t i c a c t i v i t y o f the ancient Greeks, a s s o c i a t e d with adventure and p r i d e i n t h e i r a n c e s t r y , and, t h i s case, on t h e p a r t of the reader,an the s t o r y o f Odysseus.  Although  eagerness to delve  in  into  Between the Acts i s complicated  by the f a c t that homoeoteleuton, i n the name of "rhyme" i s a thematic  as w e l l as s t y l i s t i c concern,  Lighthouse  Jacob's Room and To the  use homoeoteleuton f o r a more s p e c i f i c purpose.  these two e a r l i e r novels  In  i t most f r e q u e n t l y emphasizes a p a r a l l e l  s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n a sentence o r over a few sentences.  It also  serves t h i s purpose t o a l e s s e r degree i n the e a r l y p a r t o f the c o n c l u d i n g paragraph of "On Not Knowing Greek"—-we, the readers, are e q u a l l y " r e a d i n g q u i c k l y " and "wanting amusement." T h i s f i n a l paragraph c o n t a i n s not only homoeoteleuton but p l o c e .  alliteration..and  In the three novels, ploce can connect  73  two  or more s e c t i o n s of the book or can provide  by which a p a r t i c u l a r word or phrase may meaning or connotation.  The  be  the mechanism  given  a different  former purpose cannot p e r t a i n to  t h i s i n d i v i d u a l paragraph, but  i t i s worthy of note that Woolf  does connect s e c t i o n s of even t h i s short essay with p l o c e . example, she begins the essay by "we  do not know how  ought to laugh" (CR, asks, "where are we and  finally,  s t a t i n g that when r e a d i n g  For Greek  the words sounded, or where p r e c i s e l y we p. 24).  Towards the end  to laugh i n r e a d i n g  "Humour i s the f i r s t  f o r e i g n tongue, and when we  of the essay  Greek?" (CR,  p.  she  37),  of the g i f t s to p e r i s h i n a  t u r n from Greek to  Elizabethan  l i t e r a t u r e i t seems . . .  as i f our great age were ushered i n by  a b u r s t of l a u g h t e r "  p. 38).  (CR,  What the c o n c l u d i n g  para";  graph alone does i l l u s t r a t e about p l o c e , however, i s that i t can s i g n a l the change of meaning i n a word or phrase.  "Island," f o r  instance,  first  appears i n "the  island."  Later  i n the paragraph, the Greeks, " a l l those thoun  sands of years ago, be known."  The  d i c a t e s that we  sea which separates i s l a n d from  i n t h e i r l i t t l e i s l a n d s , know a l l that i s to  information  surrounding the  The  "island" in-  are to see the i s l a n d s as i s o l a t e d i n the ocean,  i n t h e i r n a t u r a l s t a t e , i n h a b i t e d by men, else.  first  s e a - g u l l s and  i n t e r v e n i n g sentences between the  little  i n i t i a l and  the  f i n a l appearance of " i s l a n d " show that they are no longer considered centre,  not  as d i s t a n t , dry patches i n the ocean, but j u s t of t r a d i t i o n , but  — t h e Greeks "know a l l that  Ploce  be  are the e p i -  of a l l knowledge and  i s to be known."  to  culture  i s the  vehi-  74  cle  t h r o u g h w h i c h we  the h i g h l y  in ing  uses  last  p a r a g r a p h , Woolf  i t as she has  a series,  i n To  ends,  uses p l o c e i n another  o r i d e a s i n a statement, which  Woolf  states  structure.  that  are s i c k of the vagueness,  Christianity  o f o u r own  "sick."  With  age."  reasons f o r t u r n i n g all-encompassing of the sentence and  Each  the p a r a l l e l  through the repeated " o f s , "  tions"  to  As  "On  structure,  Woolf  giv-  Knowing that  we of the  a different  created  reason  i n part  i s suggesting a variety  to the G r e e k s — n o t  insisting  their  take precedence  upon a  placement  (and o f the essay) " C h r i s t i a n i t y age"  to  of the confusion,  "of" l i s t s  answer, a l t h o u g h by  " o u r own  Not  way. objects  contributes  " i t i s t o t h e Greeks  t u r n when we  t o be  from the n a t u r a l  the L i g h t h o u s e — t o i t e m i z e  the sentence i t s p a r a l l e l  Greek"  changing  civilized.  In t h i s She  see " i s l a n d "  and  of  single,  at the  end  i t s consola-  over "vagueness"  and  "confusion." The  concluding paragraph  t o do more t h a n a s s i s t suggests, because expository teenth  f r o m "On  s h o u l d compare  prose s t y l e w i t h those of the s i x t e e n t h  c e n t u r y e s s a y i s t s who  and  a l s o u s e d rhyme i n t h e i r  serves  Woolf's  sevenprose.  As  Donne and Browne quoted i n the Introduction  show, t h e s e e s s a y i s t s were g e n e r a l l y  concerned with persuading  readers t o accept t h e i r moral or p h i l o s o p h i c a l v i e w p o i n t s .  Donne, f o r i n s t a n c e , " i s his  Knowing G r e e k "  i n t h e summary o f t h e t h r e e n o v e l s . . I t  i t i s an e s s a y , t h a t we  t h e examples, f r o m L y l y ,  their  Not  own  intent  stages of s i c k n e s s  and  i n h i s D e v o t i o n s upon recovery i n l i g h t  describing  of the  part  75  God  played  i n that recovery,  i n order  t o a p p r e c i a t e God's power and  to persuade h i s  pervasiveness.  readers  Similarly,  Sir  Thomas Browne i n H y d r i o t a p h i a d i s c u s s e s t h e u r n b u r i a l , and  the r o l e which C h r i s t i a n i t y  V i r g i n i a W o o l f , on her  audience  single, she over  restrictive  another;  In "On  Not  "I  and  can,  former  her  group t r u t h  methods  euton  and  faults  the e s s a y i s t s which they  Donne, L y l y  an  any  early  persuade  other as  she  heroes  and  one  p.  10).  between  of  i s intent  'i.-;  1919,  dominion of  examination  significant  seventeenth  their  on d e s c r i b -  moments i n one  or  are p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n  heroines  think,  development  and  century  to accuracy  comprises  the  as  charac-  truth.  as w e l l as v i r t u e s .  seek to express  classical  However,  conclusion  differs  The  which  yet  the  similar.  assonance,  rhetoricians.  indi-  truth  greatly;  c h o o s e to d e s c r i b e i t a r e v e r y  the  and  d e s c r i p t i o n o f an  Browne b o r r o w a l l i t e r a t i o n ,  p l o c e from  and  essayists  a moralistic  i t means t h e u n b i a s e d  complete w i t h  W o o l f and  to  o t h e r s p e r c e i v e them.  whereas f o r Woolf vidual  through  Woolf's novels  V i r g i n i a W o o l f show a d e v o t i o n the  As  death.  compares t h e d i f f e r e n c e s  In t h e n o v e l s ,  B o t h U t h e s i x t e e n t h and  for  in fact,  f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e t h e i r  how  and  i m p o s i t i o n of the will""(AWD,  t r y t o show how  contributing  life  attempt  . . l o a t h e any  English culture  literature.  or,  or c o n c l u s i o n .  characters' lives.  they  ters,  diary,  a c c u r a t e l y as she  several that  belief  Knowing G r e e k " she  respective as  Christianity  . . . any  t h e G r e e k and  ing  t h e o t h e r hand, does n o t  to accept  s t a t e s i n her  plays i n both  death,  homoeotel-  However, where  76  t h e s e men lop  an  a l s o borrowed the  argument w h i c h p e r s u a d e s  point-of-view—Virginia  classical  and  seventeenth  t o w a r d s rhyme and  answer a l l o u r  o f her use  clusions  prove create than  novels  rhyme i s j u s t  and  essays.  only a small does  This detailed  are a b l e t o say  essayists,  such  surroundings.  meticulous  tails  of her  even  examinacon-  and  lan-  t h a t Woolf and  as J o h n L y l y i s not  1  insub-  and  and  and  study  words t o  Rather,  as  she  style.  i s with  Woolf took  uses i t , to  c h a r a c t e r s and  d e m o n s t r a t e s how  c o n s c i e n t i o u s Woolf  l a n g u a g e and  a  p a t t e r n s which overshadow r a t h e r  s e n s a t i o n s about h e r this  to  u s i n g rhyme t o  o f t h e many d e v i c e s w h i c h h e l p c o n v e y  Secondly,  arily  as a p r e t t y  can manipulate  t h e meaning o f t h e t e x t .  impressions  not  however, t o draw some  novels merely  convoluted  one  attitude  t h e m e a n i n g , t h e themes, o r  i s " w i t t y , " t h a t she  intricate,  of  In o t h e r words, u n l i k e some o f t h e s i x t e e n t h  century  underscore  reader  must c o n s i d e r h e r  e x t e n t , S i r Thomas Browne, W o o l f t h a t she  and  of the s i x t e e n t h  Rhyme i s , o f c o u r s e ,  To b e g i n w i t h , we  ornament.  seventeenth  lesser  techniques  s t y l e , a n d t h e r e f o r e i t s study  rhyme i n h e r  their  intent,  a b o u t W o o l f ' s o b s e s s i o n w i t h words, d i c t i o n ,  does not u s e  and  we  o f rhyme a l l o w s u s ,  guage as a w h o l e .  stantial  i n turn those  essayists,  q u e s t i o n s about  the s t r u c t u r e of her tion  and  language.  of Woolf's unique  a s i d e the d i d a c t i c  some o f t h e s t y l i s t i c  rhetoricians, century  to accept  deve-  style.  Because Woolf adapted the  of the r h e t o r i c i a n s - - t o  the audience  Woolf put  borrowed o n l y p a r t of the  part  intent  the their  extraordin-  the minute  no word f o r  de-  granted.  77  The  meaning, t h e c o n n o t a t i o n  phrase to  g i v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f h a v i n g been c a r e f u l l y  i t s inclusion  effect;' choice  That  excised  i n the text,  Woolf  indicates  essence—that  writing  a l l superfluous or extraneous  urated?  i s left  forits full  and r e f i n e d  to i t s  words have been  p a r t o f Woolf's prose.  out.  In f a c t ,  decidedly i n her diary:  that i s not p o e t r y — b y  . . . . The p o e t s  everything  prior  draft.  The Waves s h e n o t e d to l i t e r a t u r e  probed  w i t h h e r words and word-  t h a t her language i s reduced  from'..the f i n a l  anything  and then u t i l i z e d  i s so p a r t i c u l a r  Rhyme i s an i n t e g r a l  yet  and t h e sound o f e v e r y word a n d  succeeding  "Why  which  I want t o p u t p r a c t i c a l l y  admit  I mean  by s i m p l i f y i n g :  while  sat-  practically everythingi n :  t o s a t u r a t e " (AWD, p. 1 3 9 ) . W o o l f a p p r e c i a t e d rhyme and  applauded doing. she  t h o s e who c o u l d employ  In t h e p e n u l t i m a t e  states:  "there  i t i n their  paragraph  i s always about  Virginia not  f l i g h t s of poetry  a s s h e was  o f "On Not Knowing  Greek l i t e r a t u r e  p e r m e a t e s an 'age' . . . . Thus we have travagant  prose  i n the midst  that  which  . . . P l a t o d a r i n g exof prose"  (CR, p. 3 8 ) .  W o o l f may have a d m i r e d P l a t o ' s " d a r i n g , " b u t s h e d i d  emulate h i s " e x t r a v a g a n t  were t o o p r e c i o u s t o be u s e d  f l i g h t s of poetry." with  a n y t h i n g b u t economy and p r e -  She, t o o , u s e d  expanded  i t s f u n c t i o n t o h e l p c r e a t e and t o s t r e n g t h e n  to  list  of  her novels;  poetry  Words t o h e r  cision.  ate"  Greek"  o b j e c t s and f a c t s ,  her essays  i n fact,  " i n the midst  and t o a s s i s t  of prose" but . .  in linking  t o do w h a t e v e r was n e c e s s a r y  and n o v e l s ,  always s t r i v i n g  images,  sections to "satur-  t o make " t h i s  book  78  better  than  t h e o t h e r s and  get  t h e most o u t  of  i t " (AWD,  p.  54).  79 Notes  Introduction  1  B. d e S e l i n c o u r t ,  Studies Press,  "Rhyme i n E n g l i s h  b y Members o f t h e E n g l i s h  Poetry,"  Association  E s s a y s and  (Oxford:  Clarendon  1921), V I I , 15.  2 A r i s t o t l e i n Henry Lanz!,s The P h y s i c a l B a s i s o f Rime. ( C a l i f o r n i a : Stanford  1931), p . 152.  University Press,  o Quintilian, ( L o n d o n : Wm 4  Heinemann,  S i rP h i l i p  England:  The I n s t i t u t i o  Scolar  1921) , I.I I ,  Sidney,  Press  Sidney,  ( p . 37|. .  6  Sidney,  jp. 65J .  7  George Puttenham, Scolar  69.  Puttenham,  p.  67.  Campion,  P o e s i e , ; e d . G.B. London: H  Campion,  p.  491.  of English  Observations  Harrison  B o d l e y Head,  Butler  (1595; f p t .  (1589; r p t .  Poesie  1968), p . 63.  Press, p.  Thomas  H.E.  1968), [ p . 38-39],  The A r t e  ^ Puttenham, 9  trans.  The D e f e n c e o f P o e s i e  Ltd,  5  England:  Oratoria,  i n the Art of English  (London: Richard  Field,  1602; r p t .  1925), p . 11. 35.  12  Samuel Entituled Harrison  Daniel,  Observations  A D e f e n c e o f Rhyme: A g a i n s t i n the Art of English  (London: Richard  1925), p . 7-8.  Field,  1603;  a Pamphlet  Poesie,  r p t .London:  ed.  G.B.  Bodley  Head,  80 13 et  John Lyly,  Euphues: The Anatomy of Wit, ed. M o r r i s  Croll  a l . (New York: R u s s e l l and R u s s e l l Inc., 1964), p.10. 14 Puttenham, p. 168. 15 John Donne, "Devotions Upon Emergent Occasions," Com-  p l e t e P o e t r y and S e l e c t e d Prose, ed. John Hayward (London:; Nonesuch Press, 1962), p. 537. 16 S i r Thomas Browne, " H y d r l o t a p h i a , U r n - B u r i a l , " 'Norton Anthology of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , ed. M.H. Abrams et a l . , 3rd ed. (New York: Norton and Co., 1974), I,  1607.  17 John L i v i n g s t o n Lowes, Convention and Revolt i n Poetry (New York: R i v e r s i d e P r e s s Cambridge, 1919), p. 251. 1  8  Lowes, p.  243.  19 Lowes, p. 269. 20 B. de S e l i n c o u r t , "Rhyme i n E n g l i s h P o e t r y , " Essays and S t u d i e s by Members o f the E n g l i s h A s s o c i a t i o n (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1921), V I I , 15. 21 S e l i n c o u r t , p. 11. 22 S e l i n c o u r t , p. 27. 23 V i r g i n i a Woolf, The Common Reader: F i r s t York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1925), p. 44.  S e r i e s (New A l l subsequent  r e f e r e n c e s t o The Common Reader w i l l be t o t h i s t e x t and t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be made i n the body of the t h e s i s preceded by  t h e a b b r e v i a t i o n CR. 24 A l l e n McLaurin, The Echoes E n s l a v e d (Cambridge Univ.  Press, 1973), p. 46. 25 Jean Guiguet, V i r g i n i a Woolf and Her Works, t r a n s . Jean Stewart (London: Hogarth P r e s s , 1965), p. 215.  81  V i r g i n i a Woolf, A W r i t e r ' s D i a r y : Being E x t r a c t s from the  D i a r y of V i r g i n i a Woolf, ed. Leonard Woolf (London: Hogarth  P r e s s , 1959), Saturday, October 14th, 1922, p. 52-53. A l l subsequent r e f e r e n c e s t o A W r i t e r ' s D i a r y w i l l be to t h i s  text  and w i l l be made i n the body o f the t h e s i s preceded by the abbreviation  AWD.  97  V i r g i n i a Woolf, "The Mark on the W a l l , " i n A Haunted House (London: Hogarth P r e s s , 1944; r p t . London:  Granada  P u b l i s h i n g , 1982), p. 47.  Jacob's Room David Daiches, V i r g i n i a Woolf  (New York: New D i r e c t i o n s ,  1963), p. 9. 2 Daiches, p. 33. 3 Ralph Freedman, The L y r i c a l Novel ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n Univ. P r e s s , 1963), p. 6. 4 V i r g i n i a Woolf, Jacob's Room (London: Hogarth P r e s s , 1922;  r p t . T r i a d / Panther, 1976), p. 15.  A l l subsequent  erences t o t h i s t e x t w i l l be t o t h i s e d i t i o n  ref-  and w i l l be made  i n the body of the t h e s i s . 5 Howard Harper, Between Language and S i l e n c e : The Novels of V i r g i n i a Woolf  ( L o u i s i a n a : S t a t e Univ. P r e s s , 1982), p. 85.  6 Daiches, p. 61. 7 Jane Novak, The Razor Edge of Balance: A Study of V i r g i n i a Woolf  ( F l o r i d a : Univ. of Miami P r e s s , 1975), p. 97.  82 g  Bernard Blackstone, V i r g i n i a Woolf: A Commentary  (London: Hogarth Press, 1949), p. 60. 9 M i t c h e l l Leaska, The Novels of. V i r g i n i a Woolf from B e g i n ning to End (New York: John Jay P r e s s , 1977), p. 68. Jill  M o r r i s , Time and Timelessness i n V i r g i n i a  Woolf  (New York: E x p o s i t i o n Press, 1977), p. 31. 1  1  Leaska, p. 62.  19  Novak, p. 95. 13 Novak, p. 99. 14 Jean Guiguet, V i r g i n i a Woolf and Her Works, t r a n s . Jean Stewart (London: Hogarth P r e s s , 1965), p. 225. 15 Freedman, p. 213. 1  6  Guiguet, p. 227.  To The Lighthouse  1  V i r g i n i a Woolf, To the Lighthouse (London: Hogarth Press,  1927; r p t . Penguin Books, 1975), p. 40.  A l l subsequent  ences to t h i s t e x t w i l l be to t h i s e d i t i o n the  refer-  and w i l l be made i n  body of the t h e s i s , o T h i s view i s supported by A l l e n McLaurin, The Echoes  E n s l a v e d (Cambridge: Univ. Press, 1973), p.  184.  83  Between t h e A c t s  1  Northrop Frye,  University Press,  Anatomy o f C r i t i e ism (New  1 9 6 9 ) , p.  York:  Princeton  61.  2 V i r g i n i a Woolf, 1941;  r p t . Penguin Books,•1953),  ences t o t h i s the  Between t h e A c t s  text  body o f t h e  will  (London: Hogarth  p. 23.  be t o t h i s  A l l subsequent  edition  and w i l l  Press, refer-  be made i n  thesis.  3 Jill (New  Morris,  Time and T i m e l e s s n e s s i n V i r g i n i a  York: E x p o s i t i o n P r e s s ,  1 9 7 7 ) , p.  Woolf  101.  4 D a v i d D a i c h e s , V i r g i n i a Woolf 1963), p.  (New  Y o r k : New  Directions,  126.  5  Allen (Cambridge:  McLaurin, V i r g i n i a Woolf: University  Press,  1 9 7 3 ) , p.  The E c h o e s E n s l a v e d 56.  6 "The  Restoration  and t h e E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y :  The N o r t o n A n t h o l o g y o f E n g l i s h al.,  3 r d ed. 7  (New  Y o r k : W.W  M c L a u r i n , pp.  124,  Literature,  N o r t o n and Co.  ed. M.H.  Introduction," Abrams e t  I n c . , 1974),  I,  1690.  128.  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