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The function of rhyme in Virginia Woolf’s prose McCahon, Jennifer Kristin 1984

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THE FUNCTION OF RHYME IN VIRGINIA WOOLF'S PROSE By JENNIFER KRISTIN MCCAHON B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of E n g l i s h We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1984 © J e n n i f e r K r i s t i n McCahon In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f E n g l i s h  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date A p r i l 24th, 1984 DE-6 (3/81) A b s t r a c t Through the c l o s e examination of rhyme (where rhyme i s co n s i d e r e d to mean a l l i t e r a t i o n , assonance, homoeoteleuton or the echo of word-endings, and p l o c e or the verbatim r e p e t i t i o n of an e n t i r e word) i n three of Woolf's novels^—Jacob's Room (1922), To the Lighthouse (1927), and Between the Acts (1941)--t h i s t h e s i s i s attempting t o p r o v i d e an i n s i g h t i n t o the s t r u c -t u r a l composition of Woolf's prose. I t loo k s at the mechanics i n v o l v e d i n w r i t i n g the n o v e l s — a s s p e c i f i c a l l y seen i n Woolf's use of rhyme techniques. The t h e s i s y i e l d s p o s i t i v e proof that Woolf s e l e c t e d the words i n her t e x t s w i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n not j u s t f o r t h e i r meaning, but f o r t h e i r sound: the way these sounds are arranged helps to h i g h l i g h t and draw a t t e n t i o n to v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s and themes w i t h i n the n o v e l s . In oth e r words, Woolf does not use rhyme merely t o ornament her no v e l s , but r a t h e r , employs i t as one of many d e v i c e s to help convey t o the reader impressions and s e n s a t i o n s about her c h a r a c t e r s and t h e i r surroundings. Table of Contents Page Abstract i i Introduction 1 Jacob ' s Room 15 To the Lighthouse 34 Between the Acts 51 Conclusion 70 Notes 79 Bibliography 8 4 Acknowledgement 87 IV A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k D r . L e e J o h n s o n , A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r , D e p a r t m e n t o f E n g l i s h , U . B . C , f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e and a d v i c e i n t h e c o n t e n t a n d p r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o D r . J . H u l c o o p and Mr. A. B u s z a , a l s o o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E n g l i s h , U . B . C , f o r t h e t i m e t h e y h a v e s p e n t i n r e v i e w i n g t h e t h e s i s i n i t s v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p -ment, a nd t o D r . J o h n G r e g g f o r h i s s u p p o r t a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t t h r o u g h o u t . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n Why c o n s i d e r the use of rhyme i n V i r g i n i a Woolf's novels and essays? She was, a f t e r a l l , a prose w r i t e r , and the q u e s t i o n of any s o - c a l l e d " l y r i c a l " passages i n her work might be r e l e -gated to c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of s t y l e . Why examine rhyme, other than perhaps to give i t a small chapter i n a v a r i e d c o l l e c t i o n of c r i t i c a l essays? L i k e the s i x t e e n t h , seventeenth and ei g h t e e n t h century prose w r i t e r s , Woolf f e l t t h a t rhyme was a d e v i c e a p p l i -c a b l e hot only to verse, but to prose. She proved that rhyme and prose need not be separated, but c o u l d be woven together to c r e a t e a u n i f i e d l i t e r a r y f a b r i c c o n t a i n i n g the best of both forms. For Woolf, "rhyme" meant something much more complex than the end-rhyme at the end of a l i n e of verse, a form of rhyme which " r e q u i r e s . . . a p e r f e c t vowel echo (where a consonant i s , involved).""'" I t a l s o meant homoeoteleuton--the r e p e t i t i o n of word s u f f i x e s ( i n c l u d i n g e n d - r h y m e ) — a l l i t e r a t i o n , assonance, and p l o c e — t h e verbatim r e p e t i t i o n of a word or phrase. T h i s t h e s i s w i l l attempt to demonstrate why Woolf i n t e r p r e t e d rhyme as br o a d l y as she d i d , and the way i n which she used i t i n her > novels and essays. Before s t u d y i n g rhyme i n Woolf's prose, we must c o n s i d e r the e v o l u t i o n of rhyme i n the E n g l i s h language, and thus the con-t e x t i n which she developed her own d e f i n i t i o n of rhyme. C l a s s i c a l v erse d i d not u t i l i z e rhyme as we know i t today, 2 b u t t h e c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c i a n s do s p e a k b r i e f l y o f i t s e q u i v a l e n t A r i s t o t l e ( 3 8 4 - 3 2 2 B.C.) d e s c r i b e s h o m o e o t e l e u t o n , and s u g g e s t s , a l t h o u g h d o e s n o t e x p r e s s l y s t a t e , " t h a t r i m e i s a k i n d o f a n t i -t h e s i s . I t b r i n g s , a s i t w e r e , two c o n t r a s t i n g i d e a s u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f one s o u n d . I n t h i s h a r m o n i z a t i o n o f t h e o p p o s i t e s 2 l i e s t h e a r t i s t i c e f f e c t a n d t h e power o f r i m e . " I n f a c t , a s w i l l be s e e n l a t e r i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n , W o o l f f r e q u e n t l y u s e d rhyme t o show t h e d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n two a p p a r e n t l y s i m i l a r i m a g e s o r i d e a s . Q u i n t i l i a n (A.D. 3 5-100) a d d s l i t t l e t o A r i -s t o t l e ' s r e m a r k s . I n Book I X o f h i s I n s t i t u t i o O r a t o r i a he d e f i n e s rhyme o r " v e r b a l r e s e m b l a n c e s " more e x a c t l y t h a n d i d A r i s t o t l e : T h e r e a r e some f o u r d i f f e r e n t f o r m s o f p l a y upon v e r b a l r e s e m b l a n c e s . The f i r s t o c c u r s when we s e l e c t some w o r d w h i c h i s n o t v e r y u n l i k e a n o t h e r . . . t h e w o r d s s e l e c t e d w i l l be o f e q u a l l e n g t h and w i l l h a v e s i m i l a r t e r m i n a t i o n s a s i n 'non  v e r b i s , s e d a r m i s ' . . . . The s e c o n d f o r m o c c u r s when c l a u s e s c o n c l u d e a l i k e , t h e same s y l l a b l e s b e i n g p l a c e d a t t h e e n d o f e a c h ; t h i s c o r r e s p o n d -e n c e i n t h e . e n d i n g o f two o r more s e n t e n c e s i s c a l l e d h o m o e o t e l e u t o n . 3 L i k e A r i s t o t l e , Q u i n t i l i a n d o e s h o t g i v e h i s o p i n i o n s on t h i s t y p e o f r h y m e — h e s i m p l y i n c l u d e s i t a s one o f many r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s . Any g r o u p o f w o r d s w h i c h c o n c l u d e w i t h t h e "same s y l l a b l e s , " i n c l u d i n g t e n s e i n d i c a t o r s s u c h a s t h e p a i r , " r u n n i n g and " s i t t i n g , " e m p l o y h o m o e o t e l e u t o n . I n E u r o p e a n p o e t r y , and i n E n g l i s h p o e t r y f r o m t h e E l i z a b e t h a n p e r i o d o n w a r d s , end-rhyme g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d h o m o e o t e l e u t o n . When we move f o r w a r d i n h i s t o r y t o t h e l a t e s i x t e e n t h c e n -3 t u r y , we f i n d a vehement debate r e v o l v i n g around the a c t u a l value of rhyme. In his Defence of P o e s i e , S i r P h i l i p Sidney v i n d i c a t e s " p o e s i e " i n g e n e r a l , but mentions rhyme s p e c i f i c a l l y i n a few c o n t e x t s . He judges i t f a v o u r a b l y : "verse f a r ) exceedeth Prose, i n the k n i t t i n g up pf the memorie, the reason i s m anifest, the words (b e s i d e s t h e i r d e l i g h t , which hathe a great a f f i n i t i e to memorie) b e i n g so set as one cannot be l o s t , but the whole woorke f a i l s : which a c c u s i n g i t s e l f e , c a l l e t h the remembrance back to i t s e l f e , and so most s t r o n g l y c o n f i r m e t h 4 i t . " Sidney uses "rime" and "measured v e r s e " i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . Although he i s i n f u l l favour of the use of rhyme, "being best f o r memorie . . . i t must be i n j e s t t h a t any man can speak 5 a g a i n s t i t , " he does q u a l i f y t h i s enthusiasm s l i g h t l y i n h i s c o n c l u d i n g paragraph by w i s h i n g that none of h i s readers, even the d u l l ones, "be rimed to death as i s s a i d t o be done i n I r e -6 l a n d . " The Defence of P o e s i e , then, does not recommend rhyme merely f o r i t s own sake as an ornament, but s t r e s s e s t h a t i t s value l i e s i n i t s a b i l i t y to l i n k our thoughts together, which thereby helps us remember r e l a t i o n s h i p s or statements which we might otherwise f o r g e t . In 1589, Sidney's contemporary, George Puttenham, produced The A r t e of E n g l i s h P o e s i e . Although i t d e a l s w i t h more aspects of poetry than does Sidney's Defence, and i n c l u d e s a long l i s t of r h e t o r i c a l terms, i t c o n t a i n s views on rhyme s i m i l a r to those h e l d by Sidney. Puttenham s t a t e s that " f o r wanting the c u r r a n t -nesse of the Greeke and L a t i n e f e e t e , i n s t e a d t h e r e o f we make 4 i n t h 1 ends, o f o u r v e r s e s a c e r t a i n e t u n a b l e s o u n d : w h i c h anon a f t e r w i t h a n o t h e r v e r s e r e a s o n a b l y d i s t a n t we a c c o r d t o g e t h e r i n t h e l a s t f a l l o r c a d e n c e : t h e e a r e t a k i n g p l e a s u r e t o h e a r e 7 t h e l i k e t u n e r e p o r t e d , and t o f e e l e h i s r e t u r n e . " B o t h S i d n e y a n d P u t t e n h a m s e e rhyme as m a i n l y a mnemonic d e v i c e , b u t w h e r e S i d n e y s t r e s s e s i t s a b i l i t y t o c o m b i n e two o p p o s i n g i d e a s , P u t t e n h a m s e e s i t e i t h e r a s p u r e l y o r n a m e n t a l , o r a s a c c e n t u a t i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s t a n z a "by m a r s h a l l i n g t h e m e e t r e s , and l i m i t i n g t h e i r d i s t a u n c e s h a v i n g r e g a r d t o t h e r i m e o r c o n c o r d e Q how t h e y go and r e t u r n e . " N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e two do a g r e e on t h e v u l g a r i t y o f p o o r rhyme, a s i s shown b y t h e P u t t e n h a m r e m a r k : " t h e r e c a n n o t be i n a m a ker [ p o e t ] a f o w l e r f a u l t , t h e n . . . by u n t r u e o r t h o g r a p h i e t o w r e n c h h i s w o r d s t o h e l p e h i s r i m e . F o l l o w i n g c l o s e b e h i n d P u t t e n h a m and S i d n e y w e r e Thomas Cam p i o n and S amuel D a n i e l . The f i r s t o f t h e s e was one o f t h e few w i l l i n g t o t a k e a s t a n d against t h e g e n e r a l c o n s e n s u s w h i c h f a v o u r e d rhyme. I n h i s O b s e r v a t i o n s , C a m p i o n r e p e a t s t h e d e f i n -i t i o n : "By r i m e i s u n d e r s t o o d e t h a t w h i c h ends i n t h e l i k e sound,"' 1' 0 b u t g o e s on t o d e n o u n c e i t , c l a i m i n g t h a t p o e s i e s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m i a m b s , t r o c h e e s , s p o n d e e s and o t h e r "numbers" o r t y p e s o f f e e t , and " t h a t t h e h e l p o f r i m e w e r e n o t o n l y i n them s u p e r f l o u s , b u t a l s o absurd."^"''" S a m u e l D a n i e l d e f e n d s t h e c a u s e o f rhyme a s w e l l as he c a n a g a i n s t Cam-p i o n , b u t he d o e s n o t o f f e r any new a r g u m e n t s f o r rhyme, m e r e l y r e s t a t i n g S i d n e y ' s and P u t t e n h a m ' s o p i n i o n s , t h a t rhyme c o n s i s t s H who d o e s t h i s i s n o t h a l f e h i s c r a f t s m a i s t e r . T1 9 5 " o f an a g r e e i n g s o u n d i n t h e l a s t s i l a b l e s o f s e v e r a l l v e r s e s , g i v i n g b o t h t o t h e E a r e an E c c h o o f a d e l i g h t f u l l r e p o r t & t o 1 t h e M e m o r i e a d e e p e r i m p r e s s i o n o f what i s d e l i v e r e d t h e r e i n . " B e f o r e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e s t u d y o f rhyme by V i r g i n i a W o o l f ' s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o d i s c u s s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f rhyme i n p r o s e " i n E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e . U n t i l t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , many e m i n e n t p o e t s a l s o w r o t e a d m i r a b l e p r o s e : S i r P h i l i p S i d n e y , J o h n Donne, J o h n M i l t o n , J o h n D r y d e n and A l e x a n d e r P o pe a l t e r n a t e d b e t w e e n t h e two f o r m s . T h a t t h e y d i d s o s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n v e r s e and p r o s e , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h t o t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , was n o t as a c u t e a s i t l a t e r p r o v e d t o be. Many o f t h e t e c h -niques w h i c h w e r e e m p l o y e d i n v e r s e w e r e a l s o e m p l o y e d i n p r o s e . I n o t h e r w o r d s , by u t i l i z i n g rhyme i n h e r own p r o s e , V i r g i n i a W o o l f was n o t c r e a t i n g a new g e n r e p e c u l i a r t o t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , b u t was, i n p a r t , r e v i v i n g a p r a c t i c e w h i c h was n o t uncommon o v e r a c e n t u r y b e f o r e . T h r e e e s s a y i s t s f r o m t h e s i x -t e e n t h a n d s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s e x e m p l i f y , f o r t h e p u r p o s e : o f t h i s t h e s i s , t h a t e a r l i e r p r a c t i c e . The f i r s t , J o h n L y l y , an E l i z a b e t h a n e s s a y i s t , d e m o n s t r a t e d v e r s e t e c h n i q u e s i n h i s p r o s e . The o p e n i n g p a r a g r a p h o f E u p h u e s : The Anatomy o f W i t ( 1 5 7 8 ) b e g i n s t h u s : T h e r e d w e l t i n A t h e n s a y o u n g g e n t l e m a n o f g r e a t p a t r i m o n y a n d o f s o c o m e l y a p e r s o n a g e t h a t i t was d o u b t e d w h e t h e r he w e r e more b o u n d t o N a t u r e f o r t h e l i n e a m e n t s o f h i s p e r s o n o r t o F o r t u n e f o r t h e i n c r e a s e o f h i s p o s s e s s i o n s . B u t N a t u r e , i m -p a t i e n t o f c o m p a r i s o n s , and a s i t w e r e d i s d a i n i n g a c o m p a n i o n o r c o p a r t n e r i n h e r w o r k i n g , a d d e d t o 6 t h i s c o m e l i n e s s o f h i s b o d y s u c h a s h a r p c a p -a c i t y o f m i n d t h a t n o t o n l y s h e p r o v e d F o r t u n e c o u n t e r f e i t b u t was h a l f o f t h a t o p i n i o n t h a t s h e h e r s e l f was o n l y c u r r e n t . T h i s y o u n g g a l l a n t , o f more w i t t h a n w r a t h , and y e t o f more w r a t h t h a n w i s d o m , s e e i n g h i m s e l f i n f e r i o r t o none i n s u c h p l e a s a n t c o n c e i t s t h o u g h t h i m s e l f s u p e r i o r t o a l l i n h o n e s t c o n d i t i o n s , i n s o m u c h t h a t he deemed h i m s e l f s o a p t t o a l l t h i n g s t h a t he g a v e h i m s e l f a l m o s t t o n o t h i n g b u t p r a c t i c i n g o f t h o s e t h i n g s commonly w h i c h a r e i n c i d e n t t o t h e s e s h a r p w i t s - - f i n e p h r a s e s , s m o o t h q u i p p i n g , m e r r y t a u n t i n g , u s i n g j e s t i n g w i t h o u t mean, a n d a b u s i n g m i r t h w i t h o u t m e a s u r e . T h i s p a s s a g e c o n t a i n s an e x a m p l e o f " a l i k e t u n e " — o n e o f t h e d e v i c e s d i s c u s s e d by S i d n e y , P u t t e n h a m and C a m p i o n — n a m e l y , " c o m p a n i o n " and " o p i n i o n . " H owever, i t a l s o e m p l o y s many o f t h e r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s P u t t e n h a m l i s t s i n Book I I I o f h i s A r t e o f E n g l i s h P o e s i e i n c l u d i n g h o m o e o t e l e u t o n : " q u i p p i n g , " " t a u n t i n g , " " j e s t i n g , " a n d a l l i t e r a t i o n on t h e " p ' s ; " " c ' s , " a nd "w's." The p a s s a g e a l s o u s e s p l o c e , an " i t e r a t i o n o f one w o r d , b u t w i t h some l i t t l e i n t e r m i s s i o n by i n s e r t i n g one o r two 14 w o r d s b e t w e e n e . " I n t h i s p a r a g r a p h , t h e n , r e p e a t e d s o u n d s o f many t y p e s a r e p r o m i n e n t , a n d w h i l e t h e y p r i m a r i l y s e r v e an o r n a m e n t a l p u r p o s e , t h e y a l s o u n d e r l i n e t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e h e r o a s a c a r e f r e e a n d w i t t y y o u n g r a k e . J o h n Donne p r o v i d e s a n o t h e r e x a m p l e . I n 1623 he w r o t e a s e r i e s o f e s s a y s c a l l e d D e v o t i o n s Upon E m e r g e n t O c c a s i o n s . C h a p t e r X V I I o f t h e D e v o t i o n s b e g i n : P e r c h a n c e hee f o r whom t h i s B e l l t o l l s , may be s o i l l , a s t h a t he knowes n o t i t t o l l s f o r h i m ; And p e r c h a n c e I may t h i n k e my s e l f e s o much b e t t e r t h a n I am, as t h a t t h e y who a r e a b o u t mee, and s e e my s t a t e , may h a v e c a u s e d i t t o t o l l f o r mee, 7 and I know n o t t h a t . The C h u r c h i s C a t h o l i k e , u n i v e r s a l l , s o a r e a l l h e r A c t i o n s ; A l l t h a t s h e d o e s , b e l o n g s t o a l l . When sh e b a p t i z e s a c h i l d , t h a t a c t i o n c o n c e r n e s mee; f o r t h a t c h i l d i s t h e r e b y c o n n e c t e d t o t h a t Head w h i c h i s my Head t o o , a n d e n g r a f f e d i n t o t h a t b o d y , w h e r e o f I am a member. Arid when sh e b u r i e s a Man, t h a t a c t i o n c o n c e r n e s me: A l l m a n k i n d e i s o f one A u t h o r , and i s one v o l u m e . 1 5 As w i t h L y l y ' s e s s a y , Donne's D e v o t i o n , i s s t r u c t u r e d w i t h homo-e o t e l e u t o n and w i t h a l l i t e r a t i o n . H o wever, i n c o n t r a s t t o L y l y ' s E u p h u e s , Donne u t i l i z e s p l o c e , n o t f o r o r n a m e n t , b u t -to o r g a n i z e h i s a r g u m e n t . Many o f Donne's s e n t e n c e s a r e q u i t e l o n g b e c a u s e t h e y a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n c o m p l e x t h o u g h t s o r r e l a t i o n -s h i p s . H i s r e p e t i t i o n o f "Head" a n d " c h i l d " i n t h i s p a s s a g e e s t a b l i s h e s a c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e n a r r a t o r , t h e c h i l d a nd t h e Head, w h i c h i s t h e c h u r c h . The r e p e t i t i o n o f " t h a t " e s t a b l i s h e s a s e n s e o f s e q u e n c e : " t h a t a c t i o n " i s l i n k e d w i t h " t h a t c h i l d , " " t h a t h e a d " and " t h a t b o d y . " I n t h e l a s t s e n t e n c e o f t h i s p a s s a g e , t h e " t h a t a c t i o n " p a t t e r n b e g i n s a g a i n . T h u s , p l o c e d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e p e a t o n l y t h o s e w o r d s w h i c h a r e r e l e v a n t t o t h e theme o f t h e e s s a y ; when "Head" a n d " c h i l d " and " t h a t " a r e r e p e a t e d , t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e s e w o r d s i s s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t f r o m , a l b e i t c l o s e l y t i e d t o , t h e s t r u c t u r a l f u n c t i o n w h i c h t h e y p e r f o r m . L a t e r i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i n 1658, S i r Thomas Browne w r o t e H y d r i o t a p h i a , U r n - B u r i a l . I n t h e p e n u l t i m a t e p a r a -g r a p h o f t h e f i f t h c h a p t e r , he s a y s : P i o u s s p i r i t s who p a s s e d t h e i r d a y s i n r a p t u r e s o f f u t u r i t y made l i t t l e more o f t h i s w o r l d t h a n t h e 8 w o r l d t h a t was b e f o r e i t , w h i l e t h e y l a y o b s c u r e i n t h e c h a o s o f p r e - o r d i n a t i o n , and n i g h t o f t h e i r f o r e - b e i n g s . And i f any h a v e b e e n s o h a p p y a s t r u l y t o u n d e r s t a n d C h r i s t i a n a n n i h i l a t i o n , e c s t a - ' s i e s , e x o l u t i o n , l i q u e f a c t i o n , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , t h e k i s s o f t h e s p o u s e , g u s t a t i o n o f God, and i n g r e s -s i o n i n t o t h e d i v i n e shadow, t h e y h a v e a l r e a d y h a d an handsome a n t i c i p a t i o n o f h e a v e n ; t h e g l o r y o f t h e w o r l d i s s u r e l y o v e r , and t h e e a r t h i n a s h e s u n t o them.16 The r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s , h o m o e o t e l e u t o n , a l l i t e r a t i o n , a s s o n a n c e , a n d p l o c e , i n h e r e n t i n t h e w h o l e e s s a y , o c c u r i n many o f t h e i n -d i v i d u a l p a r a g r a p h s . Browne c o m b i n e s t h e u s e s t h a t L y l y and Donne made o f them. He e m b e l l i s h e s and o r n a m e n t s h i s i d e a s a s L y l y d o e s , b u t he a l s o s t r u c t u r e s h i s a r g ument i n a manner s i m i l a r t o Donne. However, w h e r e a s Donne u s e s p l o c e o v e r a few s e n t e n c e s t o d i r e c t t h e r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n t o h i s a r g u m e n t , Browne u s e s i t l e s s p o i n t e d l y . He u s e s p l o c e t o a s s i s t i n s t r u c t u r i n g t h e i d e a s i n t h e e s s a y as a w h o l e , w h i l e a l s o e m p l o y -i n g h o m o e o t e l e u t o n and a l l i t e r a t i o n t o a c c e n t u a t e t h e a r g ument w i t h i n t h e p a r a g r a p h : t h a t i s , t h e s u f f i x " t i o n " on t h e w o r d s f o l l o w i n g " C h r i s t i a n " s e r v e s t o e m p h a s i z e w o r d s w h i c h t o g e t h e r c o n s t i t u t e a l i s t o f a l l t h e e x p e r i e n c e s l e a d i n g t o " a n t i c i p a -t i o n , " w h e r e a s o t h e r w o r d s w h i c h do n o t a p p e a r t o be i n v o l v e d i n rhyme, l i k e " g l o r y , " " a s h e s " arid " p i o u s " a r e r e p e a t e d f r o m t h e e a r l i e r p a r t o f t h e e s s a y and s o p r o v i d e a c o n n e c t i n g l i n k t h r o u g h o u t t h e e s s a y . W i t h t h e c l o s e o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e r e came a g r a d u a l s e p a r a t i o n o f p r o s e a n d p o e t r y ; t h e b o u n d a r i e s b e t w e e n them became s h a r p e r a n d more d i f f i c u l t t o c r o s s . I n f a c t , w i t h o n l y a few e x c e p t i o n s i n t h e f o r m o f James B e a t t i e ' s T h e o r y o f 9 L a n g u a g e ( 1 7 8 3 ) , J . S . S c h u l t z e ' s A D e f e n c e o f P o e t r y ( 1 8 0 2 ) and S h e l l e y ' s u n f i n i s h e d A D e f e n c e o f P o e t r y ( 1 8 4 0 ) , t h e d i s -c u s s i o n s u r r o u n d i n g h o t o n l y t h e u s e , b u t t h e v a l u e o f rhyme l a y more o r l e s s u n d i s t u r b e d f o r many y e a r s , d e s p i t e . i t s n a r r o w b u t b r i l l i a n t u s e by t h e A u g u s t a n s . However, when W o o l f was c o m p l e t i n g h e r e a r l y n o v e l s a nd s h o r t - f i c t i o n s i n t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s , a n o t h e r wave o f c r i t i c s was e m e r g i n g who w e r e r e e v a l u a t i n g t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f rhyme. I n 1919, J o h n L i v i n g s t o n Lowes t r i e d t o l o o k a t rhyme more s c i e n t i f i c a l l y t h a n h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s h a d done, b u t he a l s o came t o d e f i n e rhyme more b r o a d l y , i n c l u d i n g i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n o t h e r r h e t o r i c a l f o r m s . He s a y s t h a t rhyme " i s one o f t h e b i n d i n g e l e m e n t s i n b o t h t h e p r o d u c t i o n and t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l u n i t y . . . . C r e a t i v e e n e r g y i n i t s h i g h e s t e x e r c i s e i s m a g n i f i c e n t l y a r c h i t e c t o n i c , a nd i t i m p o s e s upon t h e l y r i c i m p u l s e an o r d e r e d s e q u e n c e and an o r g a n i c 17 u n i t y . " He d o e s n o t e x p e c t h o m o e o t e l e u t o n a l o n e t o p r o v i d e t h e " b i n d i n g e l e m e n t s " b u t a l s o c o n s i d e r s a l l i t e r a t i o n t o be rhyme, " t h a t i s t o s a y , i t i s i n i t i a l , a s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h e h d -18 rhyme." I n h i s C o n v e n t i o n a n d R e v o l t , Lowes e x p r e s s e d a s e n t i m e n t w h i c h was p r o b a b l y n o t u n i q u e t o h i m s e l f , a s i t h a s as i t s b a s i s t h e s e n s e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s e a r c h i n g w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n t h e p o s t - V i c t o r i a n , e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . He makes t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n p o e t r y a n d p r o s e , c a l l i n g t h e b o r d e r l a n d b e t w e e n them " t h e g r e a t u n c h a r t e d r e g i o n i n t h e r e a l m o f l e t t e r s . . . f o r c e n t u r i e s t h e D e b a t a b l e G r o u n d , t h e no Man's L a n d o f L i t e r a t u r e , c l a i m e d now by one s i d e , now by t h e o t h e r , a nd 10 s e c u r e l y h e l d by n e i t h e r . " As we h a v e s e e n , h o w e v e r , t h e two f o r m s , f a r f r o m b e i n g " u n c h a r t e d , " w e r e v e r y c l o s e l y r e l a t e d p r i o r t o t h e " c e n t u r i e s " d u r i n g w h i c h t h e y became s e p a r a t e d . I n a t t e m p t i n g t o b r i d g e t h e "No Man's L a n d " b e t w e e n them, W o o l f was, on t h e one h a n d , r e t u r n i n g t o t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f S i d n e y , Donne and D r y d e n ; on t h e o t h e r , s h e was m o d i f y i n g t h o s e t r a d i t i o n s t o i n c l u d e h e r own p s y c h o l o g i c a l n o v e l s . Lowes' v i e w s w e r e e x p a n d e d i n 1921 by S e l i n c o u r t i n h i s e s s a y , "Rhyme i n E n g l i s h P o e t r y . " A l t h o u g h t h e e s s a y c r i s p l y s t a t e s t h a t " t r u e rhyme i n E n g l i s h r e q u i r e s . . . a p e r f e c t 20 v o w e l echo ( w h e r e a c o n s o n a n t i s i n v o l v e d ) " i t a l s o a g r e e s w i t h Lowes t h a t " a l l i t e r a t i o n a nd rhyme a r e c l e a r l y members o f 21 t h e same g e n u s . " L i k e Lowes, S e l i n c o u r t i s a b l e t o move f r o m t h e r e s t r i c t e d v i e w o f rhyme t o make a r e m a r k w h i c h p r o v e s as much a p r e d i c t i o n a s a s t a t e m e n t : " p r o s e s h o u l d be a p e r f e c t medium f o r rhyme b e c a u s e i t h a s no s t r u c t u r a l f e t t e r s , b u t o f c o u r s e , t h e s e f e t t e r s p r o v i d e t h e d i r e c t i o n a l m o s t a l l a r t i s t s 22 n e e d t o w o r k u n d e r . " W o o l f u n d e r t a k e s t o meet S e l i n c o u r t ' s c h a l l e n g e : s h e a t t e m p t s t o o v e r c o m e t h e l a c k o f " f e t t e r s " b y u t i l i z i n g rhyme i n h e r p r o s e . W o o l f h e r s e l f o c c a s i o n a l l y comments on rhyme and p o e t r y i n e s s a y s w h i c h o s t e n s i b l y h a v e n o t h i r j g t o do w i t h rhyme. I n "The E l i z a b e t h a n Lumber Room" f o r i n s t a n c e , s h e n o t e s t h a t "Rhyme an d m e t r e h e l p e d t h e p o e t s t o k e e p t h e t u m u l t o f t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s i n o r d e r . B u t t h e [ E l i z a b e t h a n ] p r o s e w r i t e r , w i t h -o u t t h e s e r e s t r i c t i o n s , a c c u m u l a t e d c l a u s e s , p e t e r e d o u t i n 11 i n t e r m i n a b l e c a t a l o g u e s , t r i p p e d a n d s t u m b l e d o v e r t h e c o n v o -23 l u t i o n s o f h i s own r i c h d r a p e r i e s . " A t t i m e s , W o o l f a p p e a r s t o mock h e r c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s b y d e s c r i b i n g a n d p r a c t i s i n g t h e e x t r e m e f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h e l a n g u a g e — a f l e x i b i l i t y w h i c h t h e c r i t i c s c a n o n l y d i s c u s s i n t h e o r e t i c a l t e r m s . I n "On Not K n o w i n g G r e e k , " W o o l f c o m p a r e s E n g l i s h a n d G r e e k , and f i n d s t h e f o r m e r t h e c l e a r v i c t o r : "We c a n n e v e r hope t o g e t t h e w h o l e f l i n g o f a s e n t e n c e i n G r e e k as we do i n E n g l i s h . We c a n n o t h e a r i t , now d i s s o n a n t , now h a r m o n i o u s , t o s s i n g s o u n d f r o m l i n e t o l i n e a c r o s s a p a g e . We c a n n o t p i c k up i n f a l l i b l y one by one a l l t h o s e m i n u t e s i g n a l s b y w h i c h a p h r a s e i s made t o h i n t , t o t u r n , t o l i v e " (CR, p. 3 6 ) . V i r g i n i a W o o l f i n c l u d e d rhyme i n . h e r p r o s e t o e n h a n c e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f u n l i k e l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n p e o p l e o r o b j e c t s w i t h i n h e r n o v e l s . I n o r d e r t o compare c h a r a c t e r s a n d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , s h e h a d t o s e t up e c h o e s and r e m i n d e r s w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e . End-rhyme and a l l i t e r a t i o n , h a d s h e u s e d t h o s e two a l o n e , may h a v e p r o d u c e d a t e d i o u s n o v e l o r e s s a y . T h u s , W o o l f u s e d a v a r i e t y o f t h e d i f f e r e n t r h y m i n g • d e v i c e s a v a i l a b l e t o h e r t o p r o d u c e t h i s e c h o i n g e f f e c t . She u s e d end-rhyme and a l l i t e r a t i o n c e r t a i n l y , b u t s h e a l s o u s e d a s s o n a n c e , h o m o e o t e l -e u t o n , and when s h e w a n t e d e v e r y r e a d e r t o i d e n t i f y a n d a p p r e -c i a t e t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n one p a s s a g e and a n o t h e r , p l o c e . The d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n p l o c e , t h e v e r b a t i m r e p e t i t i o n o f a w o r d o r p h r a s e f o r a s t r u c t u r a l p u r p o s e — t h a t i s , t o c o n n e c t two o r more s e c t i o n s o f a n o v e l o r e s s a y — a n d t h e u s e o f r e p e t i t i o n t o 12 r e - e m p h a s i z e an i d e a o r image f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f d e v e l o p i n g themes a nd s y m b o l i c a l l u s i o n s , i s e a s i l y b l u r r e d . P e r h a p s i t w o u l d b e w r o n g t o t r y t o s e p a r a t e t h e s e two l i n g u i s t i c e n t i t i e s c o m p l e t e l y : a l t h o u g h t h e c o n t i n u a l r e c u r r e n c e o f a w o r d o r p h r a s e s e r v e s a s t r u c t u r a l f u n c t i o n - , t h a t w o r d o r p h r a s e i s : o f t e n c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e t h e m a t i c s u b s t a n c e o f t h e n o v e l o r e s s a y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o e x a m i n e t h e s t r u c t u r a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h r e e o f W o o l f ' s n o v e l s — a s .: s p e c i f i c a l l y s e e n i n h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f rhyme t e c h n i q u e s , i n ^ e l u d i n g h e r u s e o f p l o c e a s o p p o s e d t o t h e m a t i c r e p e t i t i o n — a n d t o r e l a t e t h a t s t r u c t u r e t o t h e themes and s y m b o l s o f t h o s e n o v e l s . I n t h i s t h e s i s , c o n c e r n w i t h themes and s y m b o l s i s s e c o n d a r y t o t h e c o n c e r n w i t h s t r u c t u r e . I n The E c h o e s E n s l a v e d , A l l e n M c L a u r i n s a y s t h a t t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e w o r d " s m e l l " i n F l u s h " i l l u s t r a t e s t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n s e n s a t i o n a n d l a n ^ ; 2 4 guage." T h i s t h e s i s w i l l t r y t o c o n c e n t r a t e on " l a n g u a g e " f i r s t , •••and t h e n compare " l a n g u a g e " t o " s e n s a t i o n . " The s t u d y w i l l . c e n t r e on t h r e e n o v e l s s e l e c t e d t o r e p r e -sent Woolf's career: h e r t h i r d — J a c o b ' s Room ( 1 9 2 2 ) , t h e l a s t — B e t w e e n t h e A c t s ( 1 9 4 1 ) , a n d t h e most h i g h l y a c c l a i m e d — T o The  L i g h t h o u s e ( 1 9 2 7 ) . I b e g i n w i t h J a c o b ' s Room b e c a u s e i n t h i s n o v e l , a s G u i g u e t n o t e s , s h e t r i e s t o suppress " a l l t h a t s h e c a l l e d t h e ' s c a f f o l d i n g , . ' f a c t s , a c t i o n s , e v e n t s p r e c i s e l y s i t u a t e d i n s p a c e a n d t i m e , f o r m i n g an i t i n e r a r y and a c h r o n o -l o g y w i t h o u t gaps o r b r e a k s , a c o n t i n u o u s m i l i e u whose c o n -2 <=> t i n u i t y i s i n o u r h a b i t s o f t h o u g h t . " W o o l f h e r s e l f c a l l s 13 Jacob 1s Room "a necessary step, for me, in working free." This i s not to say that she had not successfully experimented with her prose style e a r l i e r . Three remarkable short f i c t i o n s , "Kew Gardens," "The Mark on the Wall," and "An Unwritten Novel" were a l l published and had received generally favourable re-views before Woolf began writing Jacob's Room. In "The Mark on the Wall" for instance, she questions: And what i s knowledge? What are our learned men save the descendants of witches; :and hermits who crouched in caves and in woods brewing herbs, interrogating shrew-mice and writing down the language of the stars? And the less we honour them as our superstitions dwindle and our respect for beauty and health of mind increases...Yes, one could imagine a very pleasant world. A quiet, spacious world, with the flowers so red and blue in the open f i e l d s . A world without professors or s p e c i a l i s t s or house-keepers with the p r o f i l e s of policemen, a world which one could s l i c e with one's thoughts as a f i s h ^slices the water with his f i n , grazing the stems of the w a t e r - l i l i e s , 2 _ hanging suspended over nests of white sea eggs... This passage u t i l i z e s a l l i t e r a t i o n , assonance, homoeotel-euton and ploce. The f i r s t three devices focus on heightening and developing the images within the passage, within a few sen-tences. The l a t t e r underlines the p a r a l l e l arrangement of the argument: "what i s knowledge? What are our learned men" and "one could s l i c e . ... as a f i s h s l i c e s . " Furthermore, ploce connects t h i s passage with other parts of the essay. "Fish" i s repeated one page l a t e r ; "flowers" three pages previously; "house-keeper" four pages before. The r e p e t i t i o n of a word re-c a l l s i t s past usage and circumstances and so helps to unify 14 d i s p a r a t e s e c t i o n s o f t h e e s s a y . "The Mark on t h e W a l l , " "Kew G a r d e n s " a nd "An U n w r i t t e n N o v e l " h a v e no p l o t — e a c h o f them c o n s i s t s o f a s e r i e s o f s e n -s o r y i m p r e s s i o n s . They b e g i n , t e n t a t i v e l y , t o e x p l o r e t h e \) p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f i n c l u d i n g rhyme as a p a r t o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l f r a m e w o r k o f t h e e s s a y . They g e n e r a t e , as W o o l f n o t e s i n h e r d i a r y i n J a n u a r y 1 920, "some i d e a o f a new f o r m f o r a new n o v e l . S u p p o s e one t h i n g s h o u l d o pen o u t o f a n o t h e r . . . n o t o n l y f o r 10 p a g e s b u t 200 o r s o — d o e s n ' t t h a t g e t c l o s e r a n d y e t k e e p f o r m a nd s p e e d , a nd e n c l o s e e v e r y t h i n g , e v e r y t h i n g ? " (AWD, p. 2 3 ) . The i d e a g e r m i n a t i n g i n J a n u a r y 1920 became, t w e n t y - t w o months l a t e r , t h e p o p u l a r , c r i t i c a l l y a c c l a i m e d J a c o b ' s Room, and c o m p l e t e l y m a t u r e d a t t h e end o f h e r w r i t i n g c a r e e r w i t h B e t w e e n t h e A c t s . 15 J a c o b ' s Room J a c o b ' s Room was p u b l i s h e d i n 1922. The two n o v e l s w h i c h p r e c e d e d i t , The V o y a g e Out ( 1 9 1 5 ) a n d N i g h t a n d Day ( 1 9 1 9 ) c o n f o r m e d " i n s t r u c t u r e and e x t e r n a l p r e t e n s i o n s t o t h e t r a d i -t i o n s o f f i c t i o n w r i t i n g w h i c h t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y h a d b e -q u e a t h e d t o t h e t w e n t i e t h . " ^ I n t h e s e f i r s t two n o v e l s , " i t i s c l e a r t h a t V i r g i n i a W o o l f h a d n o t y e t d i s c o v e r e d a t e c h n i q u e w h i c h w o u l d e n a b l e h e r t o w r i t e a n o v e l i n w h i c h l u m i n o u s h a l o 2 and a c t u a l s t o r y w o u l d be c o e x t e n s i v e . " I n h e r t h i r d n o v e l , J a c o b ' s Room, W o o l f r a d i c a l l y c h a n g e d c o u r s e . H e r s t y l e , w h i c h now d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t " l u m i n o u s h a l o and a c t u a l s t o r y " c o u l d be c o e x t e n s i v e , a t t r a c t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e p r a i s e f r o m h e r p u b l i s h e r , h e r h u s b a n d a n d many c r i t i c s . J a c o b ' s Room, s a i d h e r p u b l i s h e r , i s " e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d a n d b e a u t i f u l . .You h a v e , o f c o u r s e , y o u r own m e t h o d , a n d i t i s n o t e a s y t o t e l l how many r e a d e r s i t w i l l h a v e " (AWD, p. 5 1 ) . W i t h t h i s "method," t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p l o t b e g a n t o r e c e d e , w h i l e s e n s a t i o n s and i m a ges a nd themes became more p r o m i n e n t . R a l p h F r e e dman i n c l u d e s J a c o b ' s Room i n h i s l i s t o f " l y r i c a l n o v e l s , " s a y i n g t h a t i t i s t o be a p p r o a c h e d i n " t h e way an o n l o o k e r r e g a r d s a p i c t u r e : he s e e s c o m p l e x d e t a i l s i n j u x t a p o s i t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e s 3 them a s a w h o l e . " The e y e c a n f o c u s on much o f a p a i n t i n g a t o n c e , w h e r e a s r e a d i n g i s a s t e p - b y - s t e p p r o c e s s . I n o r d e r t h a t t h e r e a d e r m i g h t s e e J a c o b ' s Room a s "a p i c t u r e , " W o o l f h a d t o r e c a l l a n d t o f o r e s h a d o w i m a g e s a n d s e n s a t i o n s a n d t h e m e s , w h i c h 16 she d i d w i t h rhyme, i n i t s s e v e r a l , v a r i o u s f o r m s . T h i s s t u d y w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e upon f o u r o f t h e rhyme f o r m s : a l l i t e r a t i o n , h o m o e o t e l e u t o n , a s s o n a n c e a n d p l o c e . The f i r s t t h r e e d e v i c e s a r e s u b t l e f o r m s o f rhyme; t h e y c a n c o n n e c t s e v -e r a l l i n e s , a p a r a g r a p h o r t w o , o r e v e n s e v e r a l p a g e s . H o w e v e r , t h e most o b v i o u s f o r m o f rhyme, p l o c e , o r v e r b a t i m r e p e t i t i o n , i s s o e v i d e n t t h a t i t c o n n e c t s s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s o f a n o v e l . What r o l e s do t h e more s u b t l e f o r m s o f rhyme i n f a c t p l a y i n J a c o b ' s Room? Do t h e y m e r e l y s t r e n g t h e n t h e p l o c e o r do t h e y p e r f o r m s e p a r a t e f u n c t i o n s i n t h e m s e l v e s ? A l l i t e r a t i o n , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s u s e d f a i r l y r e g u l a r l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l . I t makes i t s a p p e a r a n c e e a r l y when M r s . F l a n d e r s , s i t t i n g on a h i l l , l o o k s on t h e town b e l o w h e r , a n d i m a g i n e s i t when i t i s b u s y . I n t h e s p a c e o f two p a r a g r a p h s , s h e s e e s " g o a t s . . . [who] c a n t e r e d t h e i r c a r r i a g e s t h r o u g h t h e c r o w d s , " " p u r p l e b o n n e t s . . . [ O N J p i n k , q u e r u l o u s f a c e s on p i l l o w s " and t h i n k s o f g o i n g t o t h e A q u a r i u m "where t h e s a l l o w b l i n d s , t h e s t a l e 4 s m e l l o f s p i r i t s o f s a l t . . . r e m a i n e d i n t h e m i n d . " B e t t y F l a n d e r s s e e s i n h e r i m a g i n a t i o n what i s n o t i n f r o n t o f h e r i n r e a l i t y . I n h e r t h o u g h t s " s h e t r a n s f o r m s t h e t r a n q u i l s c e n e b e l o w h e r i n t o one o f b u s t l i n g a c t i v i t y . W o o l f u s e s a l l i t e r a t i o n t o c o n v e y t h e v i v i d n e s s o f t h i s i m a g i n a r y s c e n e t o t h e r e a d e r . L a t e r i n t h e n o v e l , W o o l f a g a i n u s e s a l l i t e r a t i o n i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f a h o l i d a y s c e n e - - J a c o b ' s s a i l i n g e x p e d i t i o n a l o n g t h e C o r n i s h c o a s t w i t h Timmy D u r r a n t . I n an i n t e r l u d e b e t w e e n a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e v o y a g e i t s e l f and t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e men 17 at the Durrant's home, Woolf interweaves two a l l i t e r a t e d sounds together. The interwoven sounds are both g l o t t a l s — t h e d i f f e r -ence i s that one sound i s voiced ("g") arid one unvoiced ("c"). Thus, although the two sounds are d i s t i n c t , they do have enough in common to give the impression of a continuing sound. The narrator describes the Cornish coastline where the "white Cornish cottages are b u i l t on the edge of the c l i f f ; the garden grows gorse more readi l y than cabbages; and for hedge, some primeval man has p i l e d granite boulders" (50). The pattern begins with a l l i t e r a t e d "c's," i s interrupted by a series of "g's," then i s followed by one "c" and f i n a l l y one "g." The interweaving has the e f f e c t of emphasizing in the actual sounds those i n t e r r e l a -tionships which are suggested by the meaning of the words. The intrusive "g's"—the "gorse" and the "granite" are constantly threatening, in t h e i r wildness, to overtake c i v i l i z a t i o n as i t is represented by the "Cornish cottages" and the "cabbages." The narrator's observation of the cottages i s made from close range. As the resident Mrs. Pascoe, for instance, or as the passing t o u r i s t s see them, the i r harshness amidst the granite boulders, inhospitable gorse, and cold winds i s a l l too apparent. A few pages e a r l i e r , however, Jacob and Timmy have seen the cottages from t h e i r sailboat. From the water, these same cot-tages "wore an extraordinary look of calm, of sunny peace, as i f wisdom and piety had descended upon the dwellers there" (46). The a l l i t e r a t i o n of the second description of the Cornish cottages draws attention to them, and therefore to the d i s p a r i t y 18 i n t h e two d e s c r i p t i o n s . The v i e w f r o m t h e s e a i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t on l a n d n o t j u s t b e c a u s e o f t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e b o a t a n d t h e c o t t a g e s . I t i s d i f f e r e n t i n an e f f o r t t o d e s c r i b e t h e e l a t i o n and e n j o y m e n t w h i c h t h e two y o u n g men a r e e x p e r i e n c -i n g f r o m t h e v o y a g e . W o o l f shows t h e i r p l e a s u r e n o t b y a t t e m p -t i n g t o l i s t t h e i r e m o t i o n s , b u t by d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . T h a t t h e y c a n see t h e c o t t a g e s and c a b b a g e f i e l d s r i s i n g " t o h e a v e n i n a k i n d o f e c s t a c y " ( 4 6 ) when M r s . P a s c o e knows t h a t t h e y "grow g o r s e more r e a d i l y t h a n c a b b a g e s " i m p l i e s t h a t t h e i r s p i r i t s a r e a l s o s o a r i n g . I n d e e d , t h e v o y a g e i s one w h i c h J a c o b n e v e r f o r g e t s ; he m e e t s Timmy's s i s t e r , C l a r a D u r r a n t , a t t h e end o f t h e c r u i s e , a nd r e c a l l s b o t h t h e v o y a g e and C l a r a on h i s G r e c i a n t r i p . V i r g i n i a W o o l f ' s most common u s e o f a l l i t e r a t i o n i n J a c o b ' s  Room i s f o r e m p h a s i s , t o h e i g h t e n o r s t r e n g t h e n an i m a g e . I n C a m b r i d g e , f o r i n s t a n c e , when P r o f e s s o r H u x t a b l e r e m o v e s h i s g l a s s e s , " t h e w h o l e f l e s h o f h i s f a c e t h e n f e l l i n t o f o l d s a s i f p r o p s w e r e r e m o v e d " ( 3 7 ) . I n G r e e c e , J a c o b w a l k s on t h e h i l l s , " composed, commanding, c o n t e m p t u o u s " ( 1 4 0 ) . I n t h e s e e x a m p l e s , t h e l a t e r a d j e c t i v e s a r e e n h a n c e d by t h e a l l i t e r a t i o n , t h e " h e a d -rhyme" i n t h e w o r d b e f o r e i t . A n o t h e r image e a r l y i n t h e n o v e l i s a l s o p u r p o s e l y t h r u s t i n t o p r o m i n e n c e by a l l i t e r -a t i o n — J a c o b ' s r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l . I t i n c l u d e s a " G r e e k d i c t i o n -a r y w i t h t h e p e t a l s o f p o p p i e s p r e s s e d t o s i l k b e t w e e n t h e p a g e s " ( 3 6 ) . The o t h e r b o o k s a r e s i m p l y l i s t e d : t h e G r e e k d i c t i o n a r y i s s i n g l e d o u t by t h e p r e s s e d f l o w e r s i t c o n t a i n s and by t h e way t h o s e f l o w e r s a r e d e s c r i b e d . Of a l l o f J a c o b ' s b o o k s , t h e 19 G r e e k d i c t i o n a r y i s t h e most s y m b o l i c . P o p p i e s a r e f l o w e r s o f r e membrance, remembrance e s p e c i a l l y o f t h o s e k i l l e d i n w a r . To p r e s s t h e f l o w e r s i s t o k i l l them, b u t t h e a c t o f s q u e e z i n g o u t t h e i r l i f e j u i c e s i s t h e a c t w h i c h p r e s e r v e s , a t l e a s t t w o - d i -m e n s i o n a l l y , t h e i r s h a p e arid c o l o u r f o r y e a r s t o come ( a s t h i s n o v e l i s t r y i n g t o p r e s e r v e r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f J a c o b a f t e r he i s d e a d ) . G r e e c e h o l d s an a l l u r e f o r J a c o b t h r o u g h o u t h i s s h o r t l i f e : he s t u d i e s G r e e k i n s c h o o l , he d i s c u s s e s t h e G r e e k s w i t h h i s s c h o o l a q u a i n t a n c e s , he l o o k s l i k e a G r e c i a n s t a t u e , and when he h a s a h u n d r e d p o u nds l e f t t o h i m i n a w i l l , he v i s i t s G r e e c e . However, when he i s i n G r e e c e , t h e t a l k o f war i n t e n -s i f i e s , a n d a f t e r r e t u r n i n g t o E n g l a n d he j o i n s t h e f o r c e s , and i s k i l l e d s o m e t i m e a f t e r w a r d s . T h u s , t h e G r e e k d i c t i o n a r y and t h e p o p p i e s become t a n g i b l e r e m i n d e r s o f h i s p r e s e n c e a f t e r he i s d e a d . The p r e v i o u s e x a m p l e s show a l l i t e r a t i o n p e r f o r m i n g a v a r -i e t y o f f u n c t i o n s r e l a t e d to; the rheightening o r strengthening o f an t . image. H o m o e o t e l e u t o n , t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f w o r d e n d i n g s , s e r v e s d i f f e r e n t p u r p o s e s . U n l i k e o t h e r rhyme f o r m s , i t i s r a r e l y u s e d f o r any o r n a m e n t a l p u r p o s e s . I t i s m o r e . o f t e n u s e d t o a s s i s t i n c r e a t i n g o r t o e m p h a s i z e a p a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r e . W i t h i n , a p a r a -g r a p h d e s c r i b i n g J a c o b a s C a p t a i n B a r f o o t s e e s h i m , V i r g i n i a W o o l f s a y s , " e i t h e r we a r e c o l d , o r we a r e s e n t i m e n t a l . E i t h e r we a r e y o u n g o r g r o w i n g o l d " ( 6 9 ) . I n t h e s e l i n e s , t h e " e i t h e r . . . c o l d , e i t h e r . . . o l d " rhyme s t r e n g t h e n s t h e b o n d b e t w e e n t h e l i n e s by s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e p a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i d e a s 20 w i t h i n t h o s e l i n e s . L a t e r i n t h e n o v e l , W o o l f d e s c r i b e s t h e museum: " s t o n e l i e s s o l i d o v e r t h e B r i t i s h Museum, as bone l i e s c o o l o v e r t h e v i s i o n s a n d h e a t o f t h e b r a i n " ( 1 0 5 ) . Once a g a i n , i n o r d e r t o i n t e n s i f y t h e m e t a p h o r s h e u s e s h o m o e o t e l e u t o n t o u n d e r l i n e t h e p a r a l l e l i s m , t o o r g a n i z e c l e a r l y and c o h e s i v e l y o u r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s h e i s t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h b e t w e e n t h e m o n o l i t h i c p i l l a r s d f t h e B r i t i s h Museum and t h e f r a i l s k u l l s h i e l d i n g t h e b r a i n . W h i l e h o m o e o t e l e u t o n h e l p s t o p r o d u c e p a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r e t h r o u g h o u t most o f J a c o b ' s Room, i t i s u s e d i n one o t h e r way i n t h e n o v e l . A t t h e D u r r a n t s ' p a r t y , C l a r a a n d J a c o b l i s t e n t o E l s b e t h S i d d o n s s i n g i n g . H e r s o n g i s f r o m S h a k e s p e a r e : "Who i s S i l v i a ? what i s s h e ? / T h a t a l l o u r s w a i n s commend h e r ? . . . Then t o S i l v i a l e t u s s i n g / T h a t S i l v i a i s e x c e l l i n g / She e x c e l s e a c h m o r t a l t h i n g / Upon t h e d u l l e a r t h d w e l l i n g / To h e r l e t u s g a r l a n d s b r i n g " ( 8 5 ) . The D u r r a n t s ' p a r t y , a t w h i c h E l s b e t h s i n g s , f o r e s h a d o w s M r s . D a l l o w a y ' s p a r t y a n d M r s . Ramsay's ' ;.\ d i n n e r . L i k e M r s . D a l l o w a y a n d M r s . Ramsay, C l a r a D u r r a n t i s t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f t h e p a r t y i n t h a t i t i s s h e who t r i e s , •'-'[• t h r o u g h s n i p p e t s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n and i n t r o d u c t i o n s , t o b r i n g t h e g u e s t s t o g e t h e r . They r e c o g n i z e C l a r a ' s s o c i a l g r a c e s , a n d a l -t h o u g h one o l d g u e s t , Mr. S a l v i n , f i n d s t h a t " C l a r a l a c k s h e r m o t h e r ' s s p i r i t . C l a r a i s a l i t t l e p a l e , " ( 8 3 ) o t h e r s comment t h a t s h e " l o o k s c h a r m i n g " ( 8 2 ) a n d a s k "who c o u l d r e s i s t h e r ? " ( 8 4 ) . A l t h o u g h C l a r a b u s t l e s a b o u t i n t r o d u c i n g p e o p l e , W o o l f d o e s n o t d e s c r i b e C l a r a ' s own i m p r e s s i o n s o f t h e p a r t y , w i t h 21 one exception—she i s absorbed by Elsbeth's song. The " S i l v i a " of whom Elsbeth sings and Clara Durrant are comparable figures. "What i s she?" could be asked as e a s i l y about Clara as S i l v i a . A l l the favourable comments about Clara, including the marriage proposal p r i o r to the party (82), suggest that " a l l our. swains commend" not just S i l v i a but Clara too. Most of the songiis advice to the swains: "to S i l v i a l e t us sing.. . . To her l e t us garlands bring." Jacob l i s t e n s to the music, applauds i t , then asks Clara to go with him "to have something to eat" (86). This is his garland, his present to her. He i s shy arid .embarrassed when with Clara, despite his experiences with Florinda, but has overcome his awkwardness enough to approach her s o c i a l l y . She i s waylaid by Mr. Pil c h e r ; Jacob considers himself deserted ("so Clara l e f t him" |_86j ) and they never do become reunited. Woolf's insertion of Shakespeare's song in t h i s novel gives the reader an opportunity to compare the t r a d i t i o n a l use of homoeo-teleuton , in t h i s case end-rhyme, with Woolf's own use of i t . Shakespeare's rhyme scheme i s very formal: ababa, whereas Woolf's rhyme follows no set rules; she uses i t where she f e e l s i t i s most suitable and e f f e c t i v e . Shakespeare's rhyme conforms to S i r P h i l i p Sidney's and George Puttenham's conceptions of i t ; i t i s a e s t h e t i c a l l y pleasing because of the echo of the sounds at the ends of the lines,and i t provides some of the structure of the verse by concluding alternating l i n e s a l i k e , and thus "binding" the l i n e s together. Woolf, on the other hand, while .. occasionally using homoeoteleuton to help structure metaphors 22 o r d i r e c t i o n s o f t h o u g h t , i s n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e s t a n z a i c p a t t e r n . She c a n , i f s h e w i s h e s , h a v e o n l y one r h y m i n g p a i r i n a p a r a g r a p h , w h i c h i s more u n e x p e c t e d , a n d t h e r e f o r e p e r h a p s more s a t i s f y i n g , t h a n a g r o u p o f f o r m a l l y a r r a n g e d e n d - r h y m e s i n a s t a n z a . A s s o n a n c e i s n o t q u i t e s o o b v i o u s as h o m o e o t e l e u t o n . P e r h a p s b e c a u s e o f t h i s , W o o l f f e l t a b l e t o u s e i t more f r e e l y t h a n s h e d i d h o m o e o t e l e u t o n . L i k e h o m o e o t e l e u t o n , s h e s o m e t i m e s u s e s i t t o h e l p t o o r g a n i z e a p h r a s e o r s e n t e n c e o r p a r a g r a p h ; h o w e v e r , i t i s n o t s o much t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p a r a g r a p h o r s e n t e n c e w h i c h i s b e i n g o r g a n i z e d , b u t r a t h e r , t h e t h o u g h t s i n a p a r a g r a p h , o r t h e i t e m s on a l i s t . J a c o b ' s r o o m i n C a m b r i d g e , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s a c o n f u s i n g j u m b l e o f f l a g s i n a j a r , p i p e s , p h o t o g r a p h s and c a r d s . However, "on t h e t a b l e l a y p a p e r r u l e d w i t h a r e d m a r g i n - - a n e s s a y " ( 3 6 ) . The a s s o n a n c e i n t h i s p h r a s e g i v e s t h e e s s a y a s e m b l a n c e o f n e a t n e s s , o f s t a b i l i t y a m i d s t t h e u n t i d i n e s s o f t h e r e s t o f t h e room. More f r e q u e n t l y t h a n f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s , h o w e v e r , W o o l f u s e s a s s o n a n c e t o m i m i c a c t i o n , and c o n s e q u e n t l y ; ;; makes' t h a t : a c t i o n l i v e l y a n d e m p h a t i c . ' . When J a c o b i s on a t r a i n , " t h e c a r r i a g e was t h i c k w i t h c i g a r smoke w h i c h f l o a t e d r o u n d t h e g l o b e , " ( 1 3 2 ) and when he v i s i t s t h e A c r o p o l i s a t n i g h t w i t h S a n d r a W e n t w o r t h W i l l i a m s , " t h e c l o u d s s o l i d i f i e d . . . t h e t r a i l i n g v e i l s s t a y e d and a c c u m u l a t e d " ( 1 5 5 ) . The smoke a n d t h e c l o u d s b o t h l i n g e r — l i n g e r i n f o r m a s w e l l a s i n J m e a n i n g — b e c a u s e o n e ' s r e a d i n g s p e e d d e c r e a s e s t o r e p e a t 23 and absorb the r e s p e c t i v e vowel sounds. The most prolonged example of assonance occurs as Woolf d e s c r i b e s Sopwith and the undergraduates. They t a l k "as i f e v e r y t h i n g c o u l d be t a l k e d — the s o u l i t s e l f s l i p p e d through the l i p s i n t h i n s i l v e r d i s k s which d i s s o l v e i n young men's minds l i k e s i l v e r , l i k e moonlight" (38). The assonance heightens the sense of the s o u l as wispy, e t h e r e a l , u n a t t a i n a b l e . The s o u l !is so wispy, i n f a c t , that i t seems i t might be uncovered i f t h e r e i s enough t a l k and a n a l y s i s , but i t can a l s o disappear and " d i s s o l v e " when i t appears j u s t w i t h i n reach. A l l i t e r a t i o n , assonance and homoeoteleuton are not uncommon i n Jacob's Room, but by f a r the most f r e q u e n t l y used and impor-tant rhyming device i s p l o c e , the verbatim r e p e t i t i o n of a word or a phrase. Woolf wrote Jacob's Room i n episodes, i n "a s e r i e s of p e r s p e c t i v e s i n which he [jacobj can be d i s c o v e r e d . " ^ The episodes had to have some,^relationship t o one another so that they c o u l d be read as a complete novel r a t h e r than as a s e r i e s of l o o s e l y connected short f i c t i o n s , such as those comprising A Haunted House. The episodes are not r e l a t e d to one another through a complex p l o t , f o r as David Daiches s t r e s s e s , " i n Jacob's Room experience i s not p a t t e r n e d by p l o t ; p l o t i s simply 6 the by-product of the r e c o r d of the flow of experi e n c e . " In-stead, " V i r g i n i a Woolf b u i l t a s t r o n g s t r u c t u r e to c r e a t e the 7 a e s t h e t i c whole that her theory of the novel r e q u i r e d . " P a r t of the " s t r o n g s t r u c t u r e " i s her use of p l o c e which can serve s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s . However, most examples of pl o c e 24 can be divided into two categories: that of using intervening sentences, paragraphs, or even a few pages, to a l t e r the mean-ing of a repeated word or words, and that of providing l i n k s between sections of the book. The l a t t e r category usually l i n k s t h i r t y pages or les s , but can conjoin the f i r s t with the l a s t section of the novel. For instance, when Jacob i s s t i l l a young boy, Woolf describes his mother being observed by Mrs. Cranch who i s "beating her mat against the wall" (14). When in Cambridge, Jacob envisions Turkey, where the women "beat linen on the stones" (42). F i n a l l y , at the close of the novel, when Jacob i s o f f f i g h t i n g in the war, Mrs. Flanders i s disturbed by a " d u l l sound, as i f nocturnal women were beating great carpets" (171, 172). The connection i s obviously there between the f i r s t and l a s t pages; "beat" i s repeated in each example,and the image brought to mind--that of the d u l l , r e p e t i t i v e movement of the women cleaning--is sustained throughout. Between the f i r s t , s p e c i f i c example of Mrs. Cranch and the l a s t example of the "nocturnal women" the image expands from the p a r t i c u l a r to the universal. So, too, the reader sees Jacob's l i f e move from the s p e c i f i c to the general. When Jacob i s l i t t l e , he has a spe-c i f i c i d e n t i t y — t h e second of Betty Flanders' three sons, . . , l i v i n g In Harrogate in Yorkshire. At Cambridge, he i s less an i n d i v i d u a l than one of many young men involved in growing up and getting an education both in and out of the lecture h a l l s . By the close of the novel, he i s no longer one of a select group — h e i s merely part of the distant, nameless, tra g i c machinery of war. 25 The f i r s t and l a s t s e c t i o n s of Jacob's Room are a l s o l i n k e d by the repeated c a l l i n g of Jacob's name. H i s b r o t h e r , Archer, shouts " ' J a — c o b ! J a — c o b ! ' " (6) three times i n the novel's f i r s t two pages. H i s shout serves c o n t i n u a l l y to r e f o c u s the reader's a t t e n t i o n on Jacob--the s u b j e c t of h i s c r y — a w a y from h i m s e l f , Archer, and away from t h e i r mother, Be t t y F l a n d e r s , with whom the novel opens. Thus, although the opening d e s c r i p -t i o n i s of Mrs. F l a n d e r s , Archer's c r y p o i n t s to Jacob, the r e a l s u b j e c t of the no v e l . At the c l o s e of the book, Be t t y F l a n d e r s i s once more present. She i s with R i c h a r d Bonamy s o r t i n g through Jacob's belongings a f t e r h i s death. Bonamy stands alone by the window and c a l l s "'Jacob! Jacob!'" (173). Because Jacob i s dead, the cry i s unanswered, and so has a l o n e -l i n e s s about i t , a d e s o l a t i o n which echoes the " e x t r a o r d i n a r y sadness" (6) with which Archer c a l l s out over the sand and rocks of the seashore. These despondent v o i c e s frame the f r a g -ments of Jacob's l i f e which are the substance of the book, thus i m p l y i n g that Jacob's demise l e a v e s an u n f i l l e d gap i n the l i v e s of h i s f r i e n d s and h i s mother. Although Woolf s t a t e s that " i t i s no use t r y i n g to sum people up " (28), the end of the novel echoes i t s beginning, so that the reader i s i n v i t e d to do j u s t t h a t - - t o t r y to review Jacob's l i f e and gain an over-a l l impression of the young man. The repeated words and phrases which j o i n the begi n n i n g of the novel t o i t s end are balanced by many s h o r t e r bonds i n the body of the t e x t . For i n s t a n c e , Woolf begins on page twenty-26 n i n e t o d e s c r i b e t h e l i g h t o f C a m b r i d g e . "Does C a m b r i d g e b u r n n o t o n l y i n t o t h e n i g h t , b u t i n t o t h e d a y ? " ( 2 9 ) s h e a s k s . E i g h t p a g e s l a t e r , s h e g o e s on t o s a y t h a t " i f any l i g h t b u r n s a b o v e C a m b r i d g e , i t must be f r o m t h r e e . . . ro o m s " ( 3 7 ) . "The l i g h t b u r n i n g t h e r e — t h e l i g h t o f C a m b r i d g e " ( 3 9 , 4 0 , 4 4 ) o c c u r s t h r e e t i m e s more i n t h e n e x t s e v e n p a g e s , and t h e n t h e image e n d s . T h r o u g h o u t t h e s e p a g e s W o o l f i s l a u n c h i n g a c r i t i c a l a t t a c k on t h e a r c h a i c , s t i f l i n g C a m b r i d g e t r a d i t i o n s a n d on t h e C a m b r i d g e l i f e s t y l e . B e r n a r d B l a c k s t o n e s t a t e s t h a t " t h e l i f e o f C a m b r i d g e . . . h a s n o t q u i t e t h e same s a c r o s a n c t q u a l i t y f o r V i r g i n i a W o o l f t h a t i t h a s f o r L e s l i e S t e p h e n o r E,M. F o r -s t e r . She l o v e s C a m b r i d g e , b u t s h e i s a woman, an o u t s i d e r ; s h e g c a n c o mpare a nd c r i t i c i s e . " Much o f h e r c r i t i c i s m c e n t r e s a r o u n d t h e e x c l u s i o n ' o f women f r o m f o r m a l p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c -a t i o n . She d e s c r i b e s J a c o b ' s n a r r o w a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s women, a t t e n d i n g a s e r v i c e a t K i n g ' s C o l l e g e C h a p e l : "No one w o u l d t h i n k o f b r i n g i n g a dog i n t o c h u r c h . F o r t h o u g h a dog i s a l l v e r y w e l l on a g r a v e l p a t h . . . a dog d e s t r o y s t h e s e r v i c e c o m p l e t e l y . So do t h e s e women" ( 3 0 ) . D e s p i t e W o o l f ' s r e s e n t -ment a t b e i n g e x c l u d e d f r o m C a m b r i d g e , s h e s t i l l a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e v a l u e o f t h e e d u c a t i o n p r o v i d e d by i t s C o l l e g e s . H e r v i e w s on C a m b r i d g e c a n be s u m m a r i z e d t h r o u g h h e r c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t P r o f e s s o r H u x t a b l e : " s t r a n g e p a r a l y s i s a n d c o n s t r i c t i o n — m a r v e l -l o u s ' i l l u m i n a t i o n " ( 3 8 ) . The " l i g h t o f C a m b r i d g e " r e f e r e n c e a r i s e s f i v e t i m e s i n f i f t e e n p a g e s , a n d s o i t u n i f i e s t h o s e p a g e s b y s i m u l a t i n g t h e r a y s o f l i g h t ( a m b i g u o u s a n d s e l e c t i v e 27 though they be) reaching out and touching the undergraduates. As has been shown, ploce can provide a connection between various sections of the book. However, i t s other function, one of a less s t r u c t u r a l n a ture—that of ins e r t i n g a page or para-graph between a given word or phrase to show how i t can become altered in meaning—-must also be studied. For instance, when Jacob and Timmy Durrani are s a i l i n g , they see the S c i l l y Isles " l y i n g l i k e mountain-tops almost a-wash in precisely the right place" (44). This same phrase i s repeated one page l a t e r . Its first occurrence immediately brings to mind a peaceful, i d y l l i c , untroubled setting. The page between the f i r s t and second use of the phrase explains that the two men are becoming bored with one another, the food i s poor, and Jacob has become sulky. Thus, by the second "mountain-tops almost a-wash" the i d y l l i c s e tting has become uncomfortable and tarnished. Woolf takes one f u l l page to show why the S c i l l y Isles are not as flawless as they at f i r s t appear. She takes less than a paragraph to show Mrs. Pascoe "alone in the house" (50) in two d i f f e r e n t moods. With the f i r s t "alone" she i s bored--"the summer's day may be wearing heavy" (50). With the second "alone" she i s l o n e l y — " t h e Weslyan minister came along and took the younger boy [her young son]" (50). Several times throughout the novel, words or phrases are repeated immediately after one another. Woolf allows the s i t u a -tion to determine the function of t h i s curious yet obvious rhyme form. For instance, while Jacob and three of his friends are dining at Mr. Plumer's home, we are t o l d that "Rhoda had i. 28 inherited her father's cold grey eyes. Cold grey eyes George Plumer had, but in them was an abstract l i g h t " (32). The sur--" rounding information shows that "cold grey eyes" can d i f f e r from from one another. George Plumer has "an abstract l i g h t , " an ambition, a v i s i o n or a personality which Rhoda has not inher-ite d with her.physical resemblance to. him. On the other hand, while in Greece, Jacob sees a statue which reminds him of Sandra Wentworth Williams. Because of the likeness, "he looked at her, then looked away. He looked at her, then looked away" (147). Unlike the Plumer's cold eyes, there i s no added information to al t e r the meaning of these i d e n t i c a l sentences. Here the immed-iate r e p e t i t i o n emphasizes the compulsion Jacob feels to f i n d in an inanimate statue something which reminds him of the woman with whom he i s f a l l i n g in love. Among i t s other functions, Woolf uses ploce to define 16ca-t i o n — s p e c i f i c a l l y , the location of Jacob's room in Cambridge. She begins a paragraph by describing the noise which can be !.\ heard i n the Great Court from the waiters at T r i n i t y , " s h u f f l i n g china plates l i k e cards" (36). She then t r i e s to explain the whereabouts of Jacob's room in T r i n i t y , and concludes the para-graph by remarking that even from Jacob's window, "you hear the plates" (36). Much more v i v i d than the c l i c h e , "a-stone's U throw," the sound of the plates serves the same f u n c t i o n — t h a t of giving the reader a spat i a l .'I awareness of Jacob's l i v i n g quarters. In another inte r e s t i n g paragraph, Woolf uses ploce to 29 e n h a n c e h e r p o r t r a y a l o f E r a s m u s Cowan who " h o l d s up i n h i s s n u g l i t t l e m i r r o r t h e image o f V i r g i l " ( 3 9 ) . He s e e s h i m s e l f , a t t h e o u t s e t o f t h e p a r a g r a p h , as " V i r g i l ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e among u s , " w h i c h becomes, by t h e end o f t h e p a r a g r a p h , " t h e r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e o f V i r g i l . " I n a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e l i g h t e m a n a t i n g f r o m C a m b r i d g e , W o o l f s a y s o f Cowan t h a t " s u c h i s t h e f a b r i c t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e l i g h t must s h i n e , i f s h i n e i t c a n — t h e l i g h t o f a l l t h e s e l a n g u a g e s " ( 3 9 ) . Cowan s e e s h i m s e l f a s a m i r r o r image o f V i r g i l , a n d W o o l f d e s c r i b e s h i m t h a t way, t o l t h e e x t e n t o f i n v e r t i n g t h e w o r d o r d e r i n r e p e a t e d p h r a s e s t o m i m i c t h i s m i r r o r i m age.. The r e a d e r , h o w e v e r , knows t h a t t h e l i g h t c a n n o t p o s s -i b l y s h i n e t h r o u g h s u c h an i n s t r u c t o r a s Cowan who s i m p l y r e -p e a t s what he knows r a t h e r t h a n e x p l a i n i n g o r e x p a n d i n g upon h i s k n o w l e d g e . One o f t h e more f a s c i n a t i n g t r e a t m e n t s o f rhyme i n J a c o b ' s  Room b e l o n g s t o t h o s e p a r a g r a p h s o r p a g e s w h i c h m i x t h e v a r i o u s rhyme f o r m s t o g e t h e r . B e t t y F l a n d e r s , f o r i n s t a n c e , a s s h e w r i t e s t o J a c o b , i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f m o t h e r s who " s c r i b b l e o v e r t h e f i r e w i t h t h e i r f e e t on t h e f e n d e r , when t e a ' s c l e a r e d away, and c a n n e v e r , n e v e r s a y , w h a t e v e r i t may b e ^ - p r o b a b l y t h i s — D on't go w i t h b a d women, do be a g o o d b o y ; w e a r y o u r t h i c k s h i r t s ; a n d come b a c k , come b a c k t o me" ( 8 7 ) . T h e s e few l i n e s c o n t a i n p l o c e , a l l i t e r a t i o n , h o m o e o t e l e u t o n , and a s s o n a n c e . The e f f e c t i s s t a r t l i n g l y l i k e t h e c h a n t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n u r -s e r y rhyme. L i k e a n u r s e r y rhyme, t h e w i s h t h a t t h e s e l i n e s e x p r e s s i s a s i m p l e o n e , and a p p e a r s i n n o c e n t and w e l l - m e a n i n g . 30 These l i n e s are, however, an example of Mrs. F l a n d e r s ' constant, n i g g l i n g i n t e r f e r e n c e i n Jacob's a f f a i r s . M i t c h e l l Leaska s t a t e s t h a t "although her words are few and widely s c a t t e r e d , her shadowy presence i s somehow f e l t on almost every page. P a r t of the reason may be that when she does occupy our a t t e n t i o n , what she says or does i s rendered w i t h such f o r c e and determin-ed) a t i o n . " Woolf u s u a l l y d e s c r i b e s B e t t y F l a n d e r s ' " f o r c e and d e t e r m i n a t i o n " o b l i q u e l y , making i t a l l the more i n t r u s i v e s i n c e i t i n t e r r u p t s the c u r r e n t thought or thread of c o n v e r s a t i o n . For i n s t a n c e , w h ile Jacob i s at C l a r a Durrant's p a r t y , we d i s -cover from a remark by Miss E l i o t that he was c a l l e d away from h i s e a r l i e r h o l i d a y at the Durrants' because "'you had t o go to j o i n your mother, I remember, at Harrogate'" (85). L a t e r , when Jacob takes F l o r i n d a ("Mrs. F l a n d e r s would have f l o u n c e d upon her" [88] ) to h i s room, Mrs. F l a n d e r s ' presence i s f e l t by a recent l e t t e r from her on the h a l l t a b l e (88). Thus, Betty F l a n d e r s , " s c r i b b l i n g over the f i r e " i s s t i f l i n g Jacob with her" p o s s e s s i v e n e s s and s e l f i s h n e s s r a t h e r than s u p p o r t i n g and g u i d -ing him. The c h i l d - l i k e tone of the chant, "never, never say . . . and come back, come back to me" (87) r e f l e c t s heir need to i n f l u e n c e Jacob r a t h e r than to encourage him. How, then, should we assess the r o l e of rhyme i n the e n t i r -ety of Jacob's Room? The c r i t i c s have n e i t h e r wholehearted . condemnation nor u n s t i n t e d p r a i s e f o r the n o v e l , nor can they agree upon i t s s p e c i f i c f a u l t s . In Time arid Timelesshess i n  V i r g i n i a Woolf, J i l l M o r r i s claims that " l a c k of u n i t y i s 31 actually the greatest weakness of the book.""^ Her view i s countered by Mitchell Leaska who says that "regardless of what-ever defects i t may have—and there appear on close reading to be very few--Jacob's Room has the unmistakable imprint of o r i g -i n a l and fastidious design . . . a design of c a r e f u l l y counter-poised pictures, sounds, rhythms." 1 1 Jane Novak considers Jacob's Room from the technical angle and decides that "to a high degree ^Woolf's] technical goals were achieved. In Jacob's Room,she did imitate the free movement of the mind, the eye, and 12 the fee l i n g s . " On the other hand, Novak states that despite the novel's continuity, " i t f a i l s to generate expectation or 13 sustained emotion." Jean Guiguet endorses t h i s c r i t i c i s m , but adds, "the kind of uneasiness, insecurity and f r u s t r a t i o n i t leaves with the reader, may perhaps be f a u l t s in r e l a t i o n to absolute standards in the art of f i c t i o n . But in r e l a t i o n to what the author had set out to express, i t must be acknowledged 14 that these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are q u a l i t i e s . " Ralph Freedman also distinguishes between Woolf's novels, and .novels in general: the "thematic resolution--inconclusive only at the l e v e l of dramatic p l o t — i s delivered in the . . . impressionistic manner Mrs. Woolf had admired i n Chekhov." 1 5 Guiguet, furthermore, praises Woolf's experiment with the structure of the novel: Jacob's Room "may claim a distinguished place immediately after the work of Joyce and Proust, in the series of novels which attempted to free the genre from the forms that had been deter-16 mined for i t by the great writers of the nineteenth century." 32 T h i s study has r e v e a l e d that a l l i t e r a t i o n can heighten : an ;image or focus upon the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of two d i f f e r e n t des-c r i p t i o n s of one scene. Homoeoteleuton, which can take the form of end-rhyme, u s u a l l y helps to u n d e r l i n e the p a r a l l e l nature of two a p p a r e n t l y d i s p a r a t e ideas or o b j e c t s . L i k e homoeoteleuton, assonance draws a t t e n t i o n to s i g n i f i c a n t ideas i n a paragraph or items on a l i s t , but can a l s o mimic a c t i o n . Although these t h r e e rhyme forms serve d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s , and do not depend upon one another or upon p l o c e to operate e f f e c t -i v e l y , a l l have one t h i n g i n common. They are a l l , i n a sense, short-term rhymes. With a l l i t e r a t i o n , f o r example, s e v e r a l words i n a sentence or over a few sentences begin with the same sound. However, th e r e are only t h i r t y or f o r t y i n i t i a l sounds i n the E n g l i s h language, so that although i n a given paragraph a s i g n i f i c a n t number of words may begin w i t h "d," we do not t h i n k t h a t a word f i v e paragraphs l a t e r i s s i g n i f i c a n t j u s t be-cause i t a l s o begins with "d." The same reasoning a p p l i e s to assonance and homoeoteleuton. These two d e v i c e s are l i k e a l l i t -e r a t i o n i n that i f only p a r t of the word i s repeated s e v e r a l pages l a t e r , i t s e a r l i e r o ccurrence w i l l have been f o r g o t t e n . T h i s does not d i m i n i s h the value or impact which a l l i t e r a t i o n , assonance, and homoeoteleuton have on i n d i v i d u a l paragraphs and pages i n Jacob's Room: : the paragraphs make up the fragments which comprise the d e s c r i p t i o n of Jacob and h i s surroundings. N e v e r t h e l e s s , although ' p l o t ' does not give the novel i t s coher-ence, symbols and themes which span the separate fragments do. 33 P a r t of the function of p l o c e i s to r e i n t r o d u c e the themes and symbols, which i s why i t j u s t i f i e s s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n ':'.>. t h i s n o v e l . Furthermore, although a l l i t e r a t i o n , assonance, and homoeoteleuton can only operate e f f e c t i v e l y over the span of a few sentences or perhaps over s e v e r a l paragraphs, and are inde-pendent of p l o c e , the novel needs a l l of these rhyme dev i c e s i f i t i s t o have the " f a s t i d i o u s d e s i g n " which' Leaska commends. In other words, while she does not f o l l o w set r u l e s , Woolf em-pl o y s a l l i t e r a t i o n , assonance and homoeoteleuton to draw a t t e n -t i o n to a word or phrase so t h a t , i f she wishes, she can repeat or a l l u d e to i t l a t e r i n the n o v e l . She has done t h i s i n her d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e o p r o f e s s o r s at Cambridge who form p a r t of the b a s i s f o r her a t t a c k on "the l i g h t of Cambridge," and i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of Jacob's and Timmy Durrant's v o y a g e — a t r i p which Jacob r e c a l l s at i n t e r v a l s throughout the n o v e l . Thus, while the novel i s e p i s o d i c by nature, i t s s t r u c t u r e i s such . that i t can w e l l be co n s i d e r e d a coherent, u n i f i e d whole. 34 To the Lighthouse V i r g i n i a Woolf completed the rough draft of To the Light-house in the autumn of 1926. Pr i o r to i t s completion, she noted in her diary that "the l y r i c portions of To the Light-house are coll e c t e d in the 10-year lapse and don't inte r f e r e with the text so much as usual'.' (AWD, p. 100). After the book was published she became "anxious about 'Time Passes.' Think the whole thing may be pronounced soft, shallow, i n s i p i d , sen-timental" (AWD, p. 107). Since t h i s study i s concerned with Woolf's use of rhyme, i t may be expected from these remarks that the bulk of t h i s chapter should concentrate on the "Time Passes" section of the novel. In fact, although there i s proportionately more rhyme in "Time Passes" than in "The Window" or "The Light-house" sections, these other sections also contain considerable a l l i t e r a t i o n , assonance, homoeoteleuton and ploce. The rhyming devices in To the Lighthouse are the same as those in Jacob's Room, and are often used for similar purposes, but are used more s e l e c t i v e l y and with more r e s t r a i n t than in the e a r l i e r novel.. There i s , for example, only s l i g h t l y more a l l i t e r a t i o n in To the Lighthouse than in the considerably short-er Jacob's Room. The basic function of a l l i t e r a t i o n i s to emphasize an image, concept, or personality t r a i t . Mr. Ramsay, for instance, likens his studies to the alphabet: he has reached "Q," but "A shutter, l i k e the leathern e y e l i d of a l i z a r d , f l i c k -ered over the intensity of his gaze and obscured the l e t t e r R."1 3 5 The a l l i t e r a t e d " l ' s " " f l i c k e r " over the phrase in an imitation of the metaphorical l i z a r d ' s eye which f l i c k e r s across Mr. Ram-say's mind, obscuring his v i s i o n with a " f l a s h of darkness" (40). In the paragraphs which explain Mr. Ramsay's studies, Woolf dwells upon the l e t t e r "Q" and his aspirations to reach "R." Not only i s Woolf using the simile of the l i z a r d ' s e y e l i d to describe his i n a b i l i t y to proceed to "R," she also ends two successive paragraphs with "R," and begins the following two paragraphs with the word " Q u a l i t i e s " : 'Then R He braced himself. He clenched himself. Q u a l i t i e s which would have saved a ship's company . . . ." (40) and: On to R, once more. R--Qu a l i t i e s that in a desolate expedi-tion . . . ."(41) By beginning two paragraphs with "Qualities;" Woolf shows Mr. Ramsay unalterably stuck at "Q." He i s composed of " Q u a l i t i e s " which he cannot consciously dismiss in order to achieve his academic goal of "R." Woolf also uses a l l i t e r a t i o n to draw attention to images or metaphors which she may wish subsequently to repeat. For exam-ple, L i l y Briscoe likens her own fascination with Mrs. Ramsay to that of a single bee for i t s hive: " l i k e a bee, drawn by some sweetness or sharpness in the a i r intangible to touch or taste, one haunted the dome-shaped hive, ranged the wastes of the a i r 36 . . . and then haunted the hives with t h e i r murmurs and s t i r -rings; the hives which were people" (60). The a l l i t e r a t e d "s's," " t ' s " and "h's" accentuate t h i s metaphor, and i n doing so, pre-pare the reader for i t s reintroduction l a t e r in the novel at Mrs. Ramsay's dinner party. Prio r to dinner, Rose Ramsay has arranged f r u i t in a bowl. During the meal, Augustus Carmichael "plunged i n , broke off a bloom there, a tassel here, and retur-ned, after feasting, to his hive" (112). Mr. Carmichael has previously avoided Mrs. Ramsay, and she resents his barely sub-merged h o s t i l i t y towards her. While Mrs. Ramsay could be com-pared to a hive--the centre of a c t i v i t y , attempting to bring others together i n matters as far apart as conversation during dinner and matchmaking—Mr. Carmichael i s neither vigorous nor sociable. However, he i s a poet with a busy introspective mind, and after reaching out and eating some of the f r u i t , returns to the "hive" of his own thoughts. Mrs. Ramsay and Mr. Carmichael being likened to,a "hive" implies that, despite t h e i r disagree-ments, they do have something in common. In fact, Woolf states t h i s d i r e c t l y . Both Carmichael and Mrs. Ramsay look at the bowl of f r u i t . He eats some; she doesn't: "That was his way of look-ing, d i f f e r e n t from hers. But looking together united them" At her dinner, Mrs. Ramsay and Mr. Carmichael share a moment of sympathy; so do Minta Doyle and Mr. Ramsay. Minta teases Mr. Ramsay, and he responds in kind, seeming again a young man, not worn by "his fame and f a i l u r e , but again as she Mrs. Ramsay (112). 37 had f i r s t known him, gaunt but g a l l a n t ; h e l p i n g her out of a boat, she remembered" (114). By a l l i t e r a t i n g the " f ' s " and "g's" Woolf heightens what h i s w i f e c o n s i d e r s h i s a s s e t s : "gaunt but g a l l a n t " and h i s weaknesses: "fame and f a i l u r e . " Consequent-that " h i s manner to Minta |jvasj so g a l l a n t , almost gay" (194). Mrs. Ramsay a s s o c i a t e s h i s g a l l a n t r y w i t h h i s h e l p i n g her out of a boat. T h i s f l e e t i n g r e c o l l e c t i o n of t h e i r c o u r t s h i p would be i n s i g n i f i c a n t were i t not t h a t L i l y a l s o mentions i t i n the t h i r d s e c t i o n , a f t e r Mrs. Ramsay i s dead. She r e c a l l s how Mr. Ramsay " s t r e t c h e d out h i s hand and r a i s e d her |jVIrs. Ramsayj from her c h a i r . . . as i f he had once bent i n the same way and r a i s e d her from a boat" (225). T h e r e f o r e , although L i l y has no know-ledge of Mrs. Ramsay's thoughts d u r i n g the dinner, she i s never-t h e l e s s , a l b e i t q u i t e u n c o n s c i o u s l y , keeping Mrs. Ramsay's mem-ory a l i v e through her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Mr. Ramsay's a c t i o n s . In To the Lighthouse, a l l i t e r a t i o n i s mainly used to emphasize images or metaphors, some of which w i l l be repeated l a t e r i n the novel. On the other hand, homoeoteleuton, the rep-e t i t i o n of word s u f f i x e s , i n c l u d i n g rhyme i n i t s c o n v e n t i o n a l sense, i s more f r e q u e n t l y employed to u n d e r l i n e and to help c r e a t e a p a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r e i n a thought p a t t e r n or throughout s e v e r a l images or o b j e c t s i n a paragraph. Mrs. Ramsay, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h i n k s of the books given to her by v a r i o u s admirers, " i n s c r i b e d by the hand of the poet h i m s e l f : 'For her whose wishes must be obeyed' ... 'The happier Helen of our day' ... i y , 38 disgraceful to say, she had never read them" (32). The ends of the two in s c r i p t i o n s "obeyed" and "day" rhyme with one another, and with part of her comment, "say." Woolf includes the i n s c r -i p t i o n from these books ostensibly to show that Mrs. Ramsay i s well thought of not only in the narrow c i r c l e of family and acquaintances in a cottage on the Hebrides, but has been known and praised by the famous and talented as well. The i n s c r i p -tions rhyme with one another because they are serving the same purpose—to summarize the poets' conclusions about Mrs. Ramsay. However, both i n s c r i p t i o n s are ambiguous. The f i r s t seems to praise Mrs. Ramsay for having the beauty to seduce others to obey her. In fact, the l i n e implies that the poet was subjected to that wilfulness complained of by another woman: "wishing to dominate, wishing to in t e r f e r e , making people do what she wished — t h a t was the charge against her" (67). The second could be seen to eulogize Mrs. Ramsay by taking her out of the Cambridge-Hebridean setting, and likening her to the women of c l a s s i c a l mythology. Mrs. Ramsay i s not just a bea u t i f u l woman: she resembles Helen of Troy. However, because of her beauty, Helen of Troy dominated many men, including her husband Menelaus. The f i r s t phrase of Mrs. Ramsay's comment on the in s c r i p t i o n s rhymes with them: "disgraceful to say." The close of the sen-tence, "she had never read them" does not rhyme. "Them" does not in any way rhyme with "obeyed," "day" and "say." The l a s t phrase i s almost a n t i - c l i m a c t i c . The reader i s forced to reject the c l a s s i c a l a l l u s i o n and return to the imperfect, earthly setting. Mrs. Ramsay may inspire poets, but she l i g h t l y and 39 perhaps c r u e l l y dismisses them by never reading the volumes which they have dedicated to her. In each of the novels studied, V i r g i n i a Woolf includes several verses which make use of a p a r t i c u l a r type of homoeo-teleuton--end-rhyme. In Jacob's Room, one of the verses i s a song from Shakespeare. In Between the Acts, they w i l l include popular tunes . and nursery rhymes;. In To the Lighthouse Woolf selects one of the verses from a Grimm's f a i r y t a l e . Mrs. Ram-say reads to James: "'Flounder, flounder, in the sea/ Come, I pray thee, here to me;/ For my wife, good I l s a b i l , / W i l l s not as I'd have her w i l l ' " (66). It i s natural that the motherly Mrs. Ramsay should be reading a simple story to her six-year old son. However, while she i s reading, we are t o l d that "she and James shared the same tastes and were comfortable together" (65). This may hint, i f d e l i c a t e l y , that Mrs. Ramsay i s in some ways almost c h i l d - l i k e , not p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e l l i g e n t , and that Mr. Ramsay's charge that "women are always l i k e that; the vagueness of t h e i r minds i s hopeless . . . . It had been so with h e r — h i s wife" (190) has, at least in regard to Mrs. Ramsay, some sub-stance to i t . Why has V i r g i n i a Woolf chosen the Grimm t a l e , "The Fisherman and His Wife" as James' bedtime story? The wife in t h i s t a l e tyrannizes her husband, i n s i s t i n g that he demand more and more t i t l e s and riches from the enchanted flounder. The husband, against his better judgement, always does as he i s t o l d , and t h i s i n e v i t a b l y ends in disaster for both. V i r g i n i a Woolf had more than two hundred Grimm tales to chose from, many 40 on such innocuous themes as crop rotation and spouse selec t i o n . She may have chosen the one about the dominating wife to under-l i n e further the readers' suspicions that Mrs. Ramsay i s not as humble and demure as she at f i r s t appears. Later in the novel, after Cam has been scared by the s k u l l "branching at her" in the nursery, Mrs. Ramsay soothes her by winding her shawl around the s k u l l , then t e l l i n g the g i r l that i t now looks " l i k e a beautiful mountain . . . with flowers and b e l l s ringing and birds singing" (132). Just as Woolf uses a l l i t e r a t i o n to convey the vividness of the seaside resort scene imagined by Mrs. Flanders early in Jacob's Room, so she uses homoeoteleuton in t h i s novel to ihten- : s i f y Mrs. Ramsay's i d y l l i c and peaceful p i c t u r e s — p i c t u r e s which act as a kind of v i s u a l l u l l a b y to help her children go to sleep. When she i s not r e c i t i n g nursery rhymes and f a i r y tales for her children's benefits, Mrs. Ramsay often appears to be creating her own fantasies. Her "mania for marriage" (199), for instance, seems in s a t i a b l e . No sooner has she pressed Paul and Minta into getting engaged than she u n i l a t e r a l l y decides "William must marry L i l y " (120). Her decision i s based on her assertion that "they have so much in common" (120). In t h i s case, however, the "so much in common" amounts to Lily's being, "so fond of flowers. They are both cold and aloof and rather s e l f - s u f f i c i n g " (120). In other words, they have very l i t t l e in common, but Mrs. Ramsay w i l l use any excuse to force her friends into marriage. Her det-ermination can have disastrous consequences. In "The Light- ; house," L i l y describes the woeful state of the Rayleys' l i v e s 41 and concludes, "the marriage had turned out rather badly" (196). As for Mrs. Ramsay's plans for L i l y and William Bankes, L i l y "had only escaped by the skin of her teeth" (200). Mrs. Ramsay i s aware of the influence she wields over others and the impli -cations of that power: "she was, she re f l e c t e d . . . making Minta marry Paul Rayley . . . she was driven on, too quickly she knew, almost as i f i t were an escape for her to07. to say that people must marry; people must have children" (70). Neverthe-less, her obsession overcomes her better judgement; she creates for herself a happy fantasy world similar to that which she creates for her children. In fact, much of To the Lighthouse i s in the f a i r y t a l e genre. "Time Passes," with i t s general des-c r i p t i o n of the changes to the cottage and in the Ramsay family over ten years, resembles the one-hundred-year sleep featured in f a i r y tales such as Rip Van Winkle and Sleeping Beauty. When the ten years have elapsed and the s p e l l i s broken with the " Ramsays' return to the cottage, the section ends with "Awake" (163). This single word jar s the reader out of the almost hyp-notic rhythms of "Time Passes." To the Lighthouse contains much more homoeoteleuton than Jacob's Room; i t also includes more assonance. However, the role of assonance i s much the same as in the e a r l i e r novel. Assonance helps to impose order upon scattered objects or emo-tions. Mr. Ramsay, an insecure man, needs constant reassurance from his wife. He can be reassured by theimere sight of her s i t t i n g with t h e i r young son, James. She i s a stable and 42 comforting object amidst the turmoil of Mr. Ramsay's thoughts. On one occasion, while wandering about the garden ta l k i n g to him-s e l f , "he broke o f f , turned, sighed, raised his eyes, sought the figure of his wife . . . f i l l e d h is pipe" (52). The assonated " I " sounds mean that a l l of Mr. Ramsay's actions have something in common. They are joined and put into order by the repeated " i ' s . " S i m i l a r l y , in "Time Passes," part ten begins: "peace had come. Messages of peace breathed from the sea to the shore" (162). The assonated "ee" sounds repeat the "ee" in "peace" and so emphasize that a l l i s in harmony. Order has been restored. Interestingly, the restoration of peace can only be accomplished with the return of human l i f e to the house. When Mrs. McNab and Mrs. Bast and her son go to the house to clean i t and to tend the garden, there i s a "half-heard melody . . . on the verge of harmonizing but.. . . never f u l l y harmonized" (161). Thus, simply v i s i t i n g the house i s not enough to restore peace to i t . It must be l i v e d i n , and so when L i l y , Mr. Carmichael, Mrs. Beck-with and the remaining Ramsays stay in the house, "then indeed peace had come" (162). In Jacob's Room, ploce i s commonly used to reintroduce themes which span the fragments, the glimpses into Jacob's l i f e . To the Lighthouse, on the other hand, i s not written in episodes, although i t i s divided into three d i s t i n c t sec-tions. In t h i s l a t e r novel, ploce serves not so much to show the recurrence of objects or themes, but to show how a s p e c i f i c theme undergoes changes as i t i s viewed f i r s t by one character 43 and then by another. For instance, when Mr. Ramsay and Charles Tansley dash James' hopes about a possible t r i p to the l i g h t -house the following day, Mrs. Ramsay i s annoyed because she knows "he w i l l remember that a l l his l i f e " (72). Later in the evening when she i s s i t t i n g alone, she chants to herself, " c h i l d -ren don't forget, children don't forget" (73). Once more, as the children prepare for bed, she knows "he would never forget" the incident (133). Ten years l a t e r , Mr. Ramsay f u l f i l l s his wife's desire by taking the children to the lighthouse. On the way, James r e c a l l s : " ' i t w i l l r a i n , ' he remembered his father saying. 'You won't be able to go to the Lighthouse'" (211). >A-Mrs. Ramsay's prophecy has come true. Mr..Ramsay was i n i t i a l l y r i g h t — i t did r a i n , and the expedition was cancelled. However, Mrs. Ramsay has the la s t word: James always remembers the un-pleasantness of the incident. In "The Lighthouse" section, many words or phrases are repeated over several pages. In each instance, Woolf gives the reader more information about the p a r t i c u l a r object or sensa4-tion in order to change our perception of i t , even i f only 1 s l i g h t l y . The reader begins "The Lighthouse" section with r. certain preconceptions but must change them by the end of the novel. As L i l y begins to paint her picture, for example, her thoughts naturally turn to i t s subject, Mrs. Ramsay, and the l a t t e r ' s name i s emphasized at several points throughout the section. When "'Mrs. Ramsay! Mrs. Ramsay!'" (183) f i r s t appears, L i l y i s r e c a l l i n g Mrs. Ramsay's attempts to make " l i f e stand s t i l l here," to make "of the moment something permanent" (183) 44 in the same way that she herself i s giving her greater permanence by f i n i s h i n g the p o r t r a i t . As L i l y continues to paint, she begins to miss Mrs. Ramsay: " i f they shouted loud enough Mrs. Ramsay would return. 'Mrs. Ramsay!' she said aloud, 'Mrs. Ram-say!' The tears ran down her face" (205). L i l y i s not so much weeping because Mrs. Ramsay i s dead as she i s because the memory reminds her of her own mortality, and in turn, the mortality of us a l l : "'you' and 'I' and 'she' pass and vanish" (204). As the novel approaches i t s end, the p o r t r a i t i s almost finished. L i l y sees a "wave of white" in the window. "'Mrs. Ramsay! Mrs. Ram-say!' she cried, f e e l i n g the old horror come b a c k — t o want and want and not to have. Could she i n f l i c t that s t i l l ? " (229). L i l y s t i l l f e e l s the loss of Mrs. Ramsay, but her anguish l e s s -ens to "ordinary experience" l i k e "the chair . . . the table" (230). By the novel's close, L i l y sees Mrs. Ramsay in a new perspective. The thought of her s t i l l arouses in L i l y an image of someone of "perfect goodness," (230) but with the completion of the painting, she i s also able to see Mrs. Ramsay as comple-2 mentary to Mr. Ramsay. His weaknesses are hidden by her strengths. So, too, Mrs. Ramsay's weaknesses—her exaggerations, her w i l f u l n e s s — a r e compensated for by Mr. Ramsay's s t r e n g t h s — his s t r i c t adherence to truth, and his admiration for her great beauty. Ploce has a much narrower function than providing a means of a l t e r i n g the perceptions of the c h a r a c t e r s — i t can itemize objects in a series. For example, L i l y looks at Mrs. Ramsay 45 and wonders at her appearance: "Was i t wisdom? Was i t knowledge? Was i t , once more, the deceptiveness of beauty?" (59). Mrs. Ramsay herself contemplates the success of her dinner and hopes that her guests and family w i l l "come back to t h i s night; t h i s moon; t h i s wind; t h i s house; and to her too" (130). In both of these examples, the iterated words l i s t a series, in apparently arbi t r a r y fashion. However, i t i s always the l a s t item on the l i s t which i s designed to linger longest with the reader. Hence, we are l e f t b elieving that L i l y decides that the quality most appropriate for Mrs. Ramsay i s the "deceptiveness of beauty," and that years a f t e r the dinner the guests w i l l return to the house, and to Mrs. Ramsay too, which of course, they do. Rarely, V i r g i n i a Woolf uses ploce simply to reinforce a p a r t i c u l a r statement or fac t . Three times in six l i n e s , L i l y reminds herself that Mrs. Ramsay has died: " i t was a l l Mrs. Ramsay's doing. She was dead. Here was L i l y , at forty-four, wasting her time . . . playing at painting . . . and i t was a l l Mrs. Ramsay's f a u l t . She was dead. The step where she used to s i t was empty. She was dead" (170). This r e p e t i t i o n of the unpleasant fact indicates that L i l y i s unwilling to come to terms with Mrs. Ramsay's death. L i l y herself claims that the r e p e t i t i o n i s her attempt "to bring up some fe e l i n g she had not got" (170). She finds that " f e e l i n g , " arid the rest of "The Lighthouse" describes her progress through the various stages of bereavement. Occasionally in Jacob's Room, V i r g i n i a Woolf uses a word 46 or phrase and then immediately repeats i t . In To the Light-house she employs t h i s very obvious form of ploce more freque-quently than in the e a r l i e r novel and for a more uniform purpose. This "immediate repetition"- usually stresses the disunited, the out-of-place. When L i l y Briscoe i s working on her f i r s t p o r t r a i t of Mrs. Ramsay, William Bankes i s admiring Mrs. Ramsay, and L i l y " f e l t herself praised" (56). She looks again at the p o r t r a i t only to fin d that " i t was bad, i t was bad, i t was i n f i n i t e l y bad" (56). L i l y feels that she i s the object of Mr. Bankes rapture as well as Mrs. Ramsay. Only her painting, which suddenly appears to her to be " i n f i n i t e l y bad," is out of place i n the peaceful, comfortable setting. In To the Lighthouse, again as in Jacob's Room, ploce, with the aid of additional information, changes the meaning df a par-t i c u l a r statement. When Mrs. Ramsay i s k n i t t i n g the stocking for the lighthouse keeper's boy, she measures i t against James' leg, and decides that i t ' i s too short. The narrator then says, "never did anybody look so sad" (34). This i s an unusual obser-vation; k n i t t i n g i s not a heart-rending task. The rest of the paragraph describes how " i n the darkness . . . [inj the depths, perhaps a tear formed; a tear f e l l " (34). F i n a l l y : "never did anybody look so sad" (34). The paragraph inserted between the repeated statement gives i t s i g n i f i c a n t , psychological propor-tions. Mrs. Ramsay's sadness seems to dwell within her; she gives no outward indicat i o n of g r i e f . The narrator guesses at the reason for such s a d n e s s — i s i t "nothing but looks" or i s i t 47 "love f o i l e d " (34)?—and concludes that Mrs. Ramsay "knew with-out having learnt" (34). She has not, in other words, the dark, Romantic past which the narrator envisions for her. In another example, Mr. Ramsay i s annoyed that his wife hopes, i r r a t i o n a l l y , that the next day may be f i n e . He swears at her and she bends her head "to l e t the pelt of jagged h a i l . . . bespatter her un-rebuked" (38). Mr. Ramsay, humbled by her silence,regrets his anger and offers to ask the coastguard for t h e i r forecast. Then follows, "There was nobody whom she reverenced as she reverenced him" (38). It i s noteworthy that Mrs. Ramsay "reverences" Mr. Ramsay only after he has t a c i t l y admitted his error in swearing at her, and has offered to talk to the coastguard. The para-graph which follows t h i s statement i s one which begins as though she did indeed f e e l chastised by her husband's c r i t i c i s m . She demurely t e l l s her husband that she i s "quite ready to take his word for i t " that i t w i l l rain (38). However, Mrs. Ramsay follows t h i s statement with a self-deluding pattern of thought: she often f e l t that she was nothing but a sponge sopped f u l l of human emotions. Then he said, Damn you. He said, It must r a i n . He said, It won't ra i n ; and ins t a n t l y a Heaven of security opened before her. There was nobody she rever-enced more . (38) Mr. Ramsay has not said,"It won't r a i n . " He has regretted his anger, but has not retracted his i n i t i a l prophecy. Nevertheless, Mrs. Ramsay has convinced herself that he has done so, assumes that he now agrees with her, and i s content. Only at t h i s point does she "reverence" her husband. Thus, although i t i n i t i a l l y 48 appears that Mrs. Ramsay i s almost masochistic to worship the man who has just sworn at her, the paragraph intervening between the repeated "she reverenced" shows that she i d o l i z e s her hus-band because she believes that he has given in to her point-of-view, has come around to her way of thinking. One of V i r g i n i a Woolf's more interesting uses of rhyme i n -volves a combination of two or more rhyme forms. The result of this combination of rhyme i s often to r i t u a l i z e the actions i t describes. For instance, as Mrs. McNab and Mrs. Bast clean the Ramsays' summer home, "some rusty laborious b i r t h seemed to be taking place, as the women, stooping, r i s i n g , groaning, singing, slapped and slammed, upstairs now now down in the c e l l a r s " (159). The a l l i t e r a t i o n , homoeoteleuton and ploce give the women's movements a rhythmical r e p e t i t i o n which c a l l s to mind the image of the women beating t h e i r carpets in Jacob's Room. Si m i l a r l y , just p r i o r to Mrs. Ramsay's dinner the gong sounds, announcing solemnly, authoritatively, that a l l those scat-tered about, in a t t i c s , in bedrooms, on l i t t l e perches of t h e i r own, reading, writing, putting the l a s t smooth to t h e i r hair, or fastening dresses, must leave a l l that, and the l i t t l e odds and ends on t h e i r washing-tables and dressing-tables, and the novels on the bed-tables, and the d i a r i e s which were so private, and assemble in the dining-room for dinner. (95) Although t h i s passage has no references to "laborious b i r t h " or to "stooping" and " r i s i n g , " which give the rhythmical move-ments, of ;the women cleaning in the previous example almost primitive connotations, i t does have an a i r of r i t u a l about i t . 49 The repeated word-endings and the repeated words echo one another and so i m i t a t e the sound of the gong. The sentence c l o s e s w i t h f i n a l i t y : "assemble i n the dining-room f o r d i n n e r . " The a l l i t -e r a t e d "d's" are the l a s t echoes of the sounding of the g o n g — the i m p l i c a t i o n being that the c o n c l u s i o n of the gong's sound and the a r r i v a l of everyone at the t a b l e must c o i n c i d e . At t h i s p a r t i c u l a r dinner, Paul Rayley and Minta Doyle do not obey the gong, do not appear on time f o r dinner, and because they break the r i t u a l , Mrs. Ramsay i s "uneasy" and "unable to s e t t l e to t h i n g s " (112). Because To the Lighthouse does not have as many separate s e c t i o n s as Jacob's Room, arid because c h a r a c t e r s ' and s i t u a t i o n s ' a c t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s i n the s t o r y are a l l interdependent, To  the Lighthouse does not need much rhyme t o r e l a t e themes through-out the book. T h i s i s not to say that To the Lighthouse does not have a c o n s i d e r a b l e q u a n t i t y of the d i f f e r e n t rhyme f o r m s — i t does. In both i t arid Jacob' s Room.; a l l i t e r a t i o n , assonance, and homoeoteleuton help to s t r u c t u r e , o r g a n i z e and p a t t e r n the i n d i v i d u a l sentences or paragraphs i n each episode. However, wh i l e i n Jacob's Room p l o c e i s one of: the f o r c e s which a s s i s t s i n l i n k i n g the episodes together, i n To the Lighthouse, the f u n c t i o n of p l o c e i s l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t . I t i s the v e h i c l e f o r showing how c h a r a c t e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s change, but i s no longer as necessary f o r h e l p i n g t o pr o v i d e the o b v i o u s — a n d i n Jacob's  Room the e s s e n t i a l — l i n k s between the book's separate s e c t i o n s . Between the Acts, V i r g i n i a Woolf's l a s t n o v e l , combines the 50 assets of both Jacob's Room and To the Lighthouse; i t s narrative i s continuous—more so even than To the Lighthouse—-and yet i t alternates between scenes in the pageant and glimpses of the audience watching the pageant. This alternation allows the various rhyme-forms to provide, as they did in Jacob's Room, an active, obvious role. However, Between the Acts takes the uses of rhyme in Jacob's Room and To the Lighthouse further. The l a s t novel incorporates rhyme as a theme--one of i t s charac-ters consciously uses rhyme in her thoughts, while another writes rhyme into her pageant. With Between the Acts, rhyme as one of Woolf's devices to help structure the novel, and rhyme as one of the novel's thematic concerns, become almost inextricably < entwined. 51 Between the Acts On November 23, 1940, a f t e r completing the f i r s t d r a f t of her l a s t n o vel, Between the A c t s , V i r g i n i a Woolf wrote i n her d i a r y , "I am a l i t t l e triumphant about the book. I t h i n k i t ' s an i n t e r e s t i n g attempt at a new method. I t h i n k i t s more q u i n t -e s s e n t i a l than the o t h e r s . More m i l k skimmed o f f . A r i c h e r pat, c e r t a i n l y f r e s h e r than that misery The Years'.' (AWD, p. 359). As with her other novels, c r i t i c s have, i n the i n t e r v e n i n g years, both p r a i s e d and c r i t i c i z e d the book f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons. Perhaps the most p e r c e p t i v e general comment on Between the Acts comes from Northrop Frye, who c a l l s i t V i r g i n i a Woolf's "most profound book" because i t has "a sense of c o n t r a s t between the course of a whole c i v i l i z a t i o n and the t i n y f l a s h e s of s i g n i -f i c a n t moments which r e v e a l i t s meaning." 1 In order to achieve the "sense df c o n t r a s t , " Woolf uses the v a r i o u s forms of rhyme to c r e a t e images, and to compare the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s i n the novel (such as those between Isa O l i v e r and Miss La Trobe, or between Isa and G i l e s O l i v e r ) so t h a t the reader can then con-t r a s t the images and the c h a r a c t e r s to the "course of c i v i l i -z a t i o n " as i t i s d e p i c t e d by Miss La Trobe's " H i s t o r y of England" pageant and by Mrs. Swithin's book, O u t l i n e of H i s t o r y . While the rhyme forms i n general c r e a t e or heighten images or themes or help to show the d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s between charac-t e r s , as w i t h the past novels each form of rhyme performs i t s 52 own t a s k s . In Between the Acts, Woolf changes the p r o p o r t i o n of rhyme forms from those i n the e a r l i e r n o v e l s . A s h o r t e r book by about t h i r t y pages than Jacob's Room, i t c o n t a i n s almost as much pl o c e , c e r t a i n l y more homoeoteleuton, but almost e l i m i n a t e s a l l i t e r -a t i o n and assonance. A s ' i n To the Lighthouse, the v a r i o u s types of rhyme occur together much more o f t e n i n t h i s l a s t novel than i n Jacob's Room i n which each type i s u s u a l l y separate. The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l f i r s t b r i e f l y c o n s i d e r a l l i t -e r a t i o n , i n Between the A c t s . In Jacob's Room and To the L i g h t -house , a l l i t e r a t i o n emphasizes or heightens images, as w e l l as performing a v a r i e t y of l e s s important, more i n d i v i d u a l and s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s . What does i t s near e l i m i n a t i o n i n Between  the Acts s i g n i f y ? Are the f u n c t i o n s that i t performs i n Jacob's  Room and To the Lighthouse now c o n s i d e r e d l e s s necessary, or are they t r a n s f e r r e d to homoeoteleuton and pl o c e ? The answer i n -cludes a l i t t l e of both. Where Woolf wants to c r e a t e sound p a t t e r n s w i t h words, she now uses homoeoteleuton almost e x c l u s -ively. On the o c c a s i o n s when she wishes simply to emphasize or heighten an image or p o r t r a y a l , which i s l e s s frequent than i n the e a r l i e r novels, she s t i l l employs a l l i t e r a t i o n . For i n s t a n c e , when "Old F l i m s y " Swithin goes to n a i l a p l a c a r d on the barn door, the pageant v o l u n t e e r s chuckle among themselves at the s i g h t of her, "with a wisp of white h a i r f l y i n g , [andj knobbed 2 shoes as i f she had claws corned l i k e a canary's." In Jacob's Room, and to some extent i n To the Lighthouse, 5 3 a l l i t e r a t i o n as a rhyming d e v i c e i s c u s t o m a r i l y used alone. How-ever, To the Lighthouse a l s o o c c a s i o n a l l y uses a l l i t e r a t i o n to emphasize images or metaphors i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e i r b e i n g repeated l a t e r i n the n o v e l . T h i s l a t t e r f u n c t i o n becomes more developed i n Between the Acts where a l l i t e r a t i o n most commonly a s s i s t s p l o c e , homoeoteleuton, or assonance. F u r t h e r , i n Between  the A c t s , two words are g e n e r a l l y a l l i t e r a t e d , i n s t e a d of the co n v e n t i o n a l three or more. For i n s t a n c e , we see Mrs. Sw i t h i n " c a r e s s i n g her c r o s s " (122, 142, 149) s e v e r a l times throughout the book. The two-word a l l i t e r a t i o n strengthens the image i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r i t s r e p e t i t i o n throughout the n o v e l . In another example, Isa O l i v e r makes her entrance i n t o a room f u l l of people " l i k e a swan swimming i t s way" ( 8 ) . The a l l i t e r a t e d " s ' s " i n "swan swimming," draws a t t e n t i o n to the unusual s i m i l e . Hence, l a t e r i n the same s e c t i o n , when Isa sees h e r s e l f and the g e n t l e -man farmer, Rupert Haines, " l i k e two swans [ f l o a t i n g down stream" ( 8 ) , the reader i n s t a n t l y r e c a l l s the "swan" i n i t s e a r l i e r context. A l l i t e r a t i o n works i n c o n j u n c t i o n with p l o c e so that two p o r t i o n s of one small s e c t i o n of the novel have be-come l i n k e d together. A s i m i l a r t r e n d continues f o r the e n t i r e book. In c o n t r a s t to a l l i t e r a t i o n which has dwindled c o n s i d e r a b l y i n Between the Acts from the two e a r l i e r n o v els, homoeoteleuton has i n c r e a s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y . In Jacob's Room and To the L i g h t -house homoeoteleuton serves two b a s i c purposes: i t draws^atten-t i o n to p a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r e and i t c o n t r a s t s the t r a d i t i o n a l use 54 of end-rhyme i n poetry with the f l u i d , f l e x i b i l i t y of homoeo-t e l e u t o n i n prose. In Between the Acts, the r o l e of homoeotel-euton , and s p e c i f i c a l l y end-rhyme, i s complicated by the f a c t that the v i l l a g e pageant c o n t a i n s homoeoteleuton and that i t i s being watched by Isa O l i v e r , who c o n s i d e r s h e r s e l f a poet, and who t r i e s , wherever p o s s i b l e , to make up end-rhymes. Both the pag-eant and the p l o t i t s e l f use nursery rhymes, while the omniscient n a r r a t o r i n c l u d e s homoeoteleuton i n her commentary on the whole. Furthermore, i n s e v e r a l p l a c e s , the nature and value of end-rhyme i s commented upon. In other words, rhyme becomes a theme i n Between the A c t s . In an e a r l y i n t r o d u c t i o n to Isa, or Mrs. G i l e s O l i v e r , we f i n d t h a t she keeps samples of her poetry " i n the book bound l i k e an account book i n case G i l e s suspected" (15). Throughout the r e s t of the novel we are given' s n i p p e t s of p o e t i c a l thoughts which, were she not watching the pageant, would no doubt be added to the l i t t l e notebook. She i n t o n e s : To what dark antre of the u n v i s i t e d e a r t h , or wind-brushed f o r e s t , s h a l l we go now? Or s p i n from s t a r to s t a r and dance i n the maze of the moon? (40) or: Where do I wander? Down what Where the e y e l e s s wind blows? nothing f o r the eye. No rose In some h a r v e s t l e s s dim f i e l d l e t s f a l l her mantle; nor sun „When c r i t i c s mention Isa's p o e t i c i z i n g at a l l , and many do not, draughty t u n n e l s : And there grows To i s s u e where? where no evening r i s e s . (109) 55 they tend to regard her as "the m e l a n c h o l i c poet" or to remark upon her " f l u e n t p o e t i c fancy . . . suggestive, symbolic, l y r i - . 4 c a i . " These c r i t i c s do not seem to understand her f o r what she i s o b v i o u s l y intended to be: one who enjoys a r t , who t r i e s to p r a c t i c e some form of a r t , and yet who has no n a t u r a l g i f t f o r :'. i t . The novel takes p l a c e on a June day i n 1939; yet I s a i s t r y i n g to i m i t a t e some of the dark, moody poetry of the Roman-" t i c s . Her verses are f u l l of r h e t o r i c a l q uestions and obscure symbolism. Of course, we cannot expect, i n the twenty-four hour time p e r i o d of the novel, to be shown how her p e r s o n a l i t y de-velops through a dramatic change i n her poetry. Why,then, does Woolf i n c l u d e Isa's s t r a i n e d and s t i l t e d p o etry? Woolf i s u s i n g I sa to draw s p e c i f i c a t t e n t i o n to her own use of rhyme throughout the no v e l . For i n s t a n c e , very e a r l y i n the book, Woolf shows Isa sta n d i n g at her m i r r o r i n her bedroom humming to h e r s e l f : 'Where we know not, where we go not, n e i t h e r know nor care . . . . F l y i n g , r u s h i n g through the ambient, incandescent, summer s i l e n t , . . ; ' The rhyme was ' a i r . ' She put down her brush. She took up the telephone . . . . 'There to l o s e what binds us here,' she mur-mured. 'Soles. F i l l e t e d . In time f o r lunch . • p l e a s e , ' she s a i d aloud. 'With a f e a t h e r , a blu e f e a t h e r ... f l y i n g mounting through the a i r ... there to l o s e what binds us here ...' (15) Woolf has I s a move f r e e l y ' and very c o n s c i o u s l y back and f o r t h from verse to prose as she h e r s e l f does f o r much of the r e s t of the novel i n c l u d i n g those p a r t s i n which Isa i s not present. In having I sa e x p r e s s l y s t a t e , "The rhyme was ' a i r , ' " Woolf i s 56 drawing her reader's a t t e n t i o n to her own d e l i b e r a t e i n t e n t to use rhyme. Furthermore, by c o n f e r r i n g the t r a i t of rhyming upon Isa, Woolf both i n v i t e s comparison between Isa's rhymes and her own s t y l i s t i c use of rhyme, while a l s o interweaving rhyme as a thematic instrument with rhyme as a s t y l i s t i c technique. Miss La Trobe w r i t e s the v i l l a g e pageant which p r o v i d e s the c e n t r a l focus of the n o v e l . She and Isa are c o u n t e r p a r t s : Isa wants to be an a r t i s t and f e e l s h e r s e l f becoming separated from her f a m i l y , e s p e c i a l l y her husband; Miss La Trobe i s a genuine, i f e c c e n t r i c a r t i s t , whose behaviour o s t r a c i z e s her from a l l s o c i e t y . In her pageant, although much of the d i a l o g u e i s writ^;; ten i n verse, Miss La Trobe uses homoeoteleuton s k i l f u l l y yet s p a r i n g l y . While other a c t o r s ' speeches do to some extent con-t a i n homoeoteleuton, a l l i t e r a t i o n and assonance w i t h i n the l i n e s , only the i n t r o d u c t o r y speaker, "the c h i l d England," and the policeman use homoeoteleuton c o n s i s t e n t l y and evenly throughout t h e i r speeches. The c h i l d p i p e s : Gentles and simples, I address you a l l Come h i t h e r f o r our f e s t i v a l  T h i s i s a pageant, a l l may see  Drawn from our i s l a n d h i s t o r y . (58) L a t e r i n the pageant, the policeman announces: I_ take under my p r o t e c t i o n and d i r e c t i o n the  p u r i t y and s e c u r i t y o f a l l Her Majesty's minions; i n a l l p a r t s of her dominions; i n s i s t t h a t they  Obey the laws of God and Man. (113) The c h i l d who p l a y s the young E n g l i s h n a t i o n i s o n l y "a small 57 g i r l " (57). In order to help her to remember her l i n e s , Miss La Trobe w r i t e s the c h i l d ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n to the pageant i n verse with an aabb rhyme scheme (which i s only p a r t i a l l y successful:.as the g i r l s t i l l needs s e v e r a l promptings). The policeman, on the other hand, t r a d i t i o n a l l y symbolizes p u b l i c order, and so Miss La Trobe imbues h i s l i n e s w i t h homoeoteleuton to give h i s speech the same o r d e r l i n e s s and s t a b i l i t y which he r e p r e s e n t s i n h i s r o l e i n the v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . Homoeoteleuton i s a s s o c i a t e d with other c h a r a c t e r s i n the n o v e l . Woolf uses i t i n one of her d e s c r i p t i o n s of o l d Mr..,Bart O l i v e r . E a r l y i n the n o v e l , he i s s i t t i n g i n the l i b r a r y drow-s i n g . He was not dead, on l y dreaming; d r o w s i l y , s e e i n g as i n a g l a s s , i t s l u s t r e s p otted, h i m s e l f a young man helmeted; and a cascade f a l l i n g . But no water; and the h i l l s , l i k e grey s t u f f p l e a t e d ; and i n the sand a hoop of r i b s ; a b u l l o c k maggot-eaten i n the sun; and i n the shadow of the rock, savages; and i n h i s hand a gun. (17) " B u l l o c k " and "rock," "sand" and "hand," "sun" and "gun" a l l rhyme with one another; t h i s example of homoeoteleuton operates as an a s s o c i a t i v e d e v i c e . When Mr. O l i v e r becomes drowsy and begins to f a l l i n t o a dream-like s t a t e , Woolf uses homoeoteleuton to i n d i c a t e to the reader that he i s dreaming. She p o r t r a y s h i s dream by mimicking the way i n which some dreams develop: one word i s a s s o c i a t e d with another which helps to c r e a t e a scene or s e r i e s of events i n the dreamer's subconscious. (Woolf's i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of Bart O l i v e r ' s dream i s r e m i n i s c e n t of her 58 use of homoeoteleuton i n To the Lighthouse to draw a t t e n t i o n to Mrs. Ramsay's t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the boar's s k u l l i n t o a "land-scape" f o r her daughter, Cam.) U n l i k e p l o c e , rhyming p a i r s are an imperfect r e f l e c t i o n o f one another; "hand" and "sand" r e c a l l one another i n sound and yet are not s i m i l a r i n meaning. Just as rhyming p a i r s r e c a l l one another, we can see t h i s dream as an imperfect r e c o l l e c t i o n of Mr. O l i v e r ' s adventurous l i f e as a younger man--imperfect because Woolf d e s c r i b e s him r e c a l l i n g only that which he wants to see, not n e c e s s a r i l y every scene and event that he a c t u a l l y experienced. While Woolf employs homoeoteleuton to d e s c r i b e the thoughts and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d i v i d u a l s i n the n o v e l , ..she weaves nursery rhymes and popular tunes throughout the pageant and i t s i n t e r m i s s i o n s . Nursery rhymes and popular tunes o f t e n use end-rhyme to help make them e a s i l y remembered. V i r g i n i a Woolf i n -cludes them because they are c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with the book's theme of rhymes and rhyming. In Between the Acts these nursery rhymes and popular tunes are u s u a l l y set to a mu s i c a l sc o r e . The i n t e r -m issions are supposed to g i v e the audience (and the a c t o r s ) a break from the c o n c e n t r a t i o n r e q u i r e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n , and understand the pageant. Thus, i t i s l o g i c a l t h a t Miss La Trobe would choose a simple melody with simple words to g i v e a s i g n a l to the audience that they no longer had to concentrate on the stage, but c o u l d wander o f f f o r t e a , or s t r e t c h t h e i r l e g s . I f there were no sounds emanating from the stage d u r i n g the i n t e r -m i s s i o n , the r e s u l t would be a l o s s of c o n t i n u i t y . Why,then, 59 does she p a r t i c u l a r l y s e l e c t "the pompous popular tune," "Armed  against f a t e / The v a l i a n t Rhoderick/ Armed and v a l i a n t / B o l d  and b l a t a n t / Firm e l a t a n t " (59, 70)? The pageant occurs i n June of 1 9 3 9 — a time f o l l o w i n g the Munich agreement when England was arming i t s e l f i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r almost i n e v i t a b l e war with Germany". T h i s tune r e f l e c t s the p r i d e which England had i n i t s armed f o r c e s . When Woolf wrote Between the A c t s , i n 1940, she was being ironic in. her choice of .this tune because France had been de-fe a t e d and B r i t a i n ' s f o r c e s were i n d i s a r r a y . Miss La Trobe uses the popular tune to s i g n a l an i n t e r m i s s i o n ; she uses a nursery rhyme to c a l l the audience back to t h e i r s e a t s or to i n d i c a t e a pause s e p a r a t i n g p a r t s of the program. The nursery rhyme, "The King i s i n h i s counting house/ Counting out h i s  money,/ The Queen i s i n her p a r l o u r / Eat i n g bread and honey . .." (88), causes the audience t o " s i n k down p e a c e f u l l y . . . [Miss La Trobej watched them f o l d t h e i r hands and compose t h e i r f a c e s " (88). T h i s nursery rhyme i s used e a r l y i n the pageant where i t works i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n to the tune of " v a l i a n t Rhoderick." The o r d e r l i n e s s and s i m p l i c i t y of the rhyme and the music d i r e c t the audience t o prepare themselves f o r the next a c t . The same nursery rhyme i s a l s o used twice i n Miss La Trobe's v i s i o n of " o u r s e l v e s " (126-28) where i t d i v i d e s "present time" i n t o t hree p a r t s : one, present time i n the " n a t u r a l " sense, as i t i s rep-r e s e n t e d by the cows, the swallows and the c l o u d - b u r s t framing the empty stage; two, present time i n the symbolic sense, when men and women of a l l races b u i l d the w a l l which i s the League of 60 Nations, and three, the most s p e c i f i c present t i m e — " o u r s e l v e s " which can be shown no more e x p l i c i t l y than by r e f l e c t i n g the audience i n m i r r o r s h e l d up by the a c t o r s and a c t r e s s e s on stage. A l l e n McLaurin says that the m i r r o r s , the " r e f l e c t i n g fragments [are] the form which V i r g i n i a Woolf chose f o r Between the Acts 5 i t s e l f , w ith i t s mixture of poetry, n a r r a t i v e and drama." Of a l l of the nursery rhymes a v a i l a b l e to her, why d i d Miss La . Trobe choose t h i s one with which to recover the audience's a t t e n t i o n or to s i g n a l an . i n t e r l u d e ? I t i s probably a symbolic c h o i c e ; G i l e s O l i v e r , the s t o c k b r o k e r , spends h i s weeks "counting out h i s money" wh i l e h i s w i f e , bored and u n f u l f i l l e d , spends her l i f e i n d oors, i f not e x a c t l y " e a t i n g bread and honey," c e r t a i n l y e q u a l l y u n p r o d u c t i v e l y t r y i n g to compose poetry . The a c t o r s i n the p a g e a n t . o c c a s i o n a l l y r e f e r s p e c i f i c a l l y to rhyme; t h e i r comments help c l a r i f y our thoughts on i t s use i n the novel as a whole. When S i r S p a n i e l L i l y l i v e r v i s i t s Lady Harpy Harraden i n the R e s t o r a t i o n comedy, Where t h e r e ' s a W i l l t h e r e ' s  a Way, f o r example, he begins h i s d i s c o u r s e by s i n g i n g , "What  favour c o u l d f a i r Chloe ask that Damon would not get her?" (91). He then breaks o f f , and says, "A done wi t h rhymes. Rhymes are  s t i l l - a - b e d . L e t ' s speak prose. What can A s p h o d i l l a ask of her p l a i n servant L i l y l i v e r ? " (91-92). L i l y l i v e r sees rhyme somewhat as Isa O l i v e r d o e s — a s the e l e v a t i o n of common thoughts from the s p e c i f i c i n s t a n t to a g e n e r a l , symbolic plane. He does not use homoeoteleuton f o r emphasis or to impose order upon h i s speech. For him, "rhyme" means removing an o r d i n a r y , everyday happening 61 from i t s surroundings, and p l a c i n g i t i n A r c a d i a with a l l the r e l e v a n t c l a s s i c a l a l l u s i o n s . By r e f e r r i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y t o "rhyme," he draws our a t t e n t i o n to h i s use of i t , which echoes that o f Spenser, R a l e i g h or Marlowe: that i s , of the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y — t h e p e r i o d which Miss La Trobe i s i m i t a t i n g i n her parody of a R e s t o r a t i o n comedy. She has L i l y l i v e r begin h i s speech i n the s t y l e of the s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y poets, but he makes the switch from verse to prose e a r l y i n the s k i t . He does t h i s not only t o prevent the a c t i o n of the pageant from d e t e r i o r a t i n g i n t o d u l l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , but a l s o because prose i s more appro-p r i a t e f o r the R e s t o r a t i o n p e r i o d when the e l a b o r a t e , ornate s t y l e s of the s i x t e e n t h and e a r l y seventeenth c e n t u r i e s were r e p l a c e d by "a c o n c i s e . . . prose s t y l e s u i t a b l e to . . . c l e a r 6 communication." In the R e s t o r a t i o n comedies, which Miss La Trobe i s parodying, t h i s "communication" c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y of a s a t i r i c a l c r i t i c i s m of elegant s o c i e t y and i t s exaggerated con-cern w i t h manners. L a t e r i n the novel, as the pageant comes to a c l o s e , and a l l the a c t o r s h o l d up m i r r o r s t o r e f l e c t " o u s e l v e s , " a v o i c e "mega-ph o n t i c , anonymous, loudspeaking" (130) booms from the bushes beyond the stage to say, "Before we p a r t , l a d i e s and gentlemen ... ': . l e t ' s t a l k i n words of one s y l l a b l e , without l a r d i n g , s t u f f i n g or cant. L e t ' s break the rhythm and f o r g e t the rhyme. And calmly c o n s i d e r o u r s e l v e s " (130). The i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s statement i s that rhyme i s not compressable to words "of• one s y l l a b l e " and i n i t s complexity may t u r n out to be merely " l a r d -62 i n g " or " s t u f f i n g . " The pageant's n a r r a t o r decides to e l i m i n a t e rhyme a l t o g e t h e r i n order to t r y , u s i n g unembellished prose, to get to the essence of the i s s u e (the i s s u e , i n t h i s case, being whether and how the " o r t s , s c r a p s , end fragments 1ike o u r s e l v e s " j l 3 l ] can b u i l d a s t r o n g League of N a t i o n s ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , even a f t e r c o n s c i o u s l y d e c i d i n g to e l i m i n a t e rhyme, the anonymous n a r r a t o r r u e f u l l y observes t h a t she i s r e t u r n i n g to i t : Do I escape my own r e p r o b a t i o n , s i m u l a t i n g i n d i g -n a t i o n , i n the bush, among the l e a v e s ? There's a rhyme to suggest, i n s p i t e of p r o t e s t a t i o n and  the d e s i r e f o r immolation, I_ too have had some, what's c a l l e d , education ... " (131) By r e t u r n i n g to rhyme when d e s c r i b i n g h e r s e l f , the n a r r a t o r may be t a c i t l y a d m i t t i n g that she,, l i k e rhyme i t s e l f , i s no more than " l a r d i n g , s t u f f i n g or c a n t . " Because her rhyme "suggest [s^j to the audience her "education," the n a r r a t o r i s , " i n s p i t e of  "protestat i o n " proud of her education, as Mr. M i s proud of h i s bungalow, and Mr. H of h i s "sixpenny fame" (130). The n a r r a t o r ' s " i n d i g n a t i o n " i s only "simulated" because she, l i k e her f e l l o w v i l l a g e r s i s g u i l t y of p r i d e - - a n d knows i t . Thus, she cannot escape her own " r e p r o b a t i o n . " The n a r r a t o r , an " o r t " or "scrap" no b e t t e r or worse than members of the audience,concludes her apparent d e n u n c i a t i o n with a p o s i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n : " t h e r e ' s some-t h i n g to be s a i d ; f o r our kindness to the c a t ; note too i n t o -day 's paper 'Dearly l o v e d by h i s w i f e ' " (131). Love, as i t i s manifested i n common almost un n o t i c e d a c t s of kindness, the nar-r a t o r i m p l i e s , w i l l be the v i l l a g e r s ' (and perhaps the world's) 63 s a l v a t i o n . Homoeote1euton i s a dominating f o r c e i n Between the A c t s . However, assonance, which f i g u r e s r e l a t i v e l y prominently i n the two e a r l i e r n o v e l s , i s used much l e s s f r e q u e n t l y i n Between the  Acts. I t r a r e l y appears on i t s own, but when i t does, i t has the same f u n c t i o n s that i t does i n Jacob's Room and i n To the  Lighthouse: to o r g a n i z e items i n a s e r i e s or to mimic a c t i o n . Both f u n c t i o n s occur i n one example. As the pageant concludes, the audience begins to comprehend i t s meaning: " L i k e q u i c k s i l v e r s l i d i n g , f i l i n g s magnetized, the d i s t r a c t e d u n i t e d " (131). Miss La Trobe has used the pageant to show t h a t a l l must u n i t e i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to c r e a t e a b e t t e r understanding between n a t i o n s . The assonance mimics the movements of the s p e c t a t o r s ' thoughts. Despite t h e i r v a r y i n g b e l i e f s and viewpoints, the audience, l i k e i r o n fragments s w i v e l l i n g towards the magnet, begin to share Miss La Trobe's v i s i o n of a u n i f i e d humanity. Although t h e r e i s a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n the use of homo-eot e l e u t o n i n Between the Acts from the e a r l i e r novels, i t s t i l l f a i l s t o form s t r o n g t i e s between the s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s of the n o v e l . Homoeoteleuton i n v o l v e s o n l y the l a s t few l e t t e r s of each word, and many l e t t e r s and s y l l a b l e s i n t e r v e n e between a word i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n and i t s rhyming companion i n the f i f t h --too great a space to draw any d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s about the author's i n t e n t i o n s . The only form of rhyme i n prose which can s a t i s f a c t o r i l y connect the f i r s t with the f i f t h , n i n t h , or even the l a s t s e c t i o n of the novel i s verbatim r e p e t i t i o n , or p l o c e . 64 In Woolf's l a s t n o vel, as i n To the Lighthouse, p l o c e i s used w i t h i n a s e c t i o n , d u r i n g a few s e c t i o n s , and throughout the whole n o v e l . The book i s s t r u c t u r a l l y u n i f i e d thanks i n p a r t t o . i t . In Jacob's Room and To the Lighthouse, p l o c e serves two f u n c t i o n s : i t p r o v i d e s l i n k s through s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s of the book, and i t a l s o shows how a p a r t i c u l a r word or phrase can a l t e r i t s meaning. These f u n c t i o n s are not changed i n Between  the Acts but are g r e a t l y improved upon. A l l t hree novels c o n t a i n many examples of a word or phrase being used and then repeated o n l y one or two paragraphs l a t e r . T h i s u s u a l l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t the reader i s to note the change of meaning i n that p a r t i c u l a r word or phrase. For i n s t a n c e , Mrs. Swithin i s i n the l i b r a r y w i t h her b r o t h e r , B a r t , and with I s a . When Isa looks at the o l d lady, she t h i n k s that "her gaze was f i x e d because she saw God t h e r e , God on h i s throne" (21). Sev-e r a l paragraphs l a t e r , however, when Bart looks at her, he a t h i n k s t h a t "she would have been . . . a very c l e v e r woman, had she f i x e d her gaze" (21). The repeated phrase shows Isa and her f a t h e r - i n - l a w i n d i s a g r e e m e n t — h e sees h i s s i s t e r as a shallow s c a t t e r b r a i n w h ile Isa t h i n k s Mrs. S w i t h i n i s somehow o t h e r -w o r l d l y and admires her f o r i t . S i m i l a r l y , when G i l e s O l i v e r r e t u r n s home from the c i t y , he sees that there i s company, and so changes h i s c l o t h e s f o r lunch. In one paragraph, the word "change" i s repeated f i v e times. I t begins simply enough: "he had gone to h i s room to change" ;(37). We are then t o l d t h a t convention demands that "he must change" (37). Although the world news th r e a t e n s to j a r him from h i s h a b i t s , "yet he changed" 65 (37). He then blames h i s aunt, Lucy Swi t h i n , f o r making him ; f e e l g u i l t y t h a t he does not want t o comply with t r a d i t i o n and concludes by blaming h i s wi f e , f o r whom he "changed," became a stockbroker i n s t e a d of a farmer. By the c l o s e of the paragraph, "change" no longer means a simple change of c l o t h i n g . The f i v e i n s t a n c e s of "change" show t h a t G i l e s i s r e b e l l i n g a g a i n s t t r a -d i t i o n , i s d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the change i n h i s career,and, i n h i s unhappiness, has changed h i s a t t i t u d e towards h i s w i f e . The v a r i a t i o n of meaning i n a word which i t s e l f means some k i n d of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i m p l i e s e v o l u t i o n of a s o r t ; e v o l u t i o n i s one of the u n d e r l y i n g themes of the no v e l . Thus, i n t h i s paragraph, Woolf i s s u b t l y comparing G i l e s ' t r a n s i t i o n s with those of the iguanadons i n the rhododendron f o r e s t s (10). V i r g i n i a Woolf's use of p l o c e t o i l l u s t r a t e d i f f e r e n t shades of meaning i n a word or phrase w i t h i n the short span of a s i n g l e paragraph i s used e f f e c t i v e l y i n a l l t h r e e novels i n t h i s study. The three novels a l s o repeat words or phrases throughout the t e x t , j o i n i n g s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s of the novel together; In Between  the A c t s , some phrases are repeated up touten times. For i n -stance, e a r l y i n the no v e l , " w i l d " i n n o c e n t l y appears i n the form of " w i l d p u r p l e o r c h i s " (12). L a t e r , i t i s B a r t ' s dog which has " w i l d yellow eyes" (17). F i n a l l y , Mrs. Manresa, the i n t r u d e r at the pageant, p r i d e s h e r s e l f on be i n g "the w i l d c h i l d of Nature" (33, 35, 39, 43, 59, 74, 124). While t h i s l i t t l e e p i t h e t which precedes Mrs. Manresa's name may remind the reader of her most dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i t a l s o serves to emphasize the under-66 l y i n g theme of the p r i m i t i v e o r i g i n s inherent i n each c h a r a c t e r . In Jacob's Room, the immediate r e p e t i t i o n of a word or phrase i s used o c c a s i o n a l l y , but r a t h e r i n d e t e r m i n a t e l y . I t appears more o f t e n and more p r e d i c t a b l y i n Between the A c t s . A l l e n McLaurin c a l l s Woolf's immediate repetition " t r i p l e melody" and says she uses i t to "enforce her p e r c e p t i o n of r e p e t i t i o n " — a p e r c e p t i o n which, a c c o r d i n g to McLaurin, both " g i v e s assurance and i s an a s s e r t i o n of humanity" while i s at the same time 7 "empty and mechanical, a t r u e r e f l e c t i o n of the machine." In the l i b r a r y , f o r i n s t a n c e , "the t o r t o i s e s h e l l b u t t e r f l y beat on the pane of the window; beat, beat, beat; r e p e a t i n g t h a t i f no human being came, never, never, never, the books would be mouldy . . . and the t o r t o i s e s h e l l b u t t e r f l y dead on the pane" (16). Here the repeated "beat" and "never" reproduce the s i g h t and sound of the b u t t e r f l y ' s f u t i l e attempts to escape (while the word "pane" i n v i t e s the reader to c o n s i d e r the homophone " p a i n " i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the b u t t e r f l y ' s p l i g h t ) . ; L a t e r , a l a r g e a l a b a s t e r vase i n the hallway at P o i n t z H a l l stands "empty, emp^/, ty, empty; s i l e n t , s i l e n t , s i l e n t " (30). The repeated words emphasize the s t i l l n e s s of the a i r , the l a c k of movement, and t h e r e f o r e the l a c k of sound i n s i d e the vase. Both of these ex-amples g i v e "an a s s e r t i o n of humanity" i n only a n e g a t i v e way--the l a c k of a human presence s i g n a l s the b u t t e r f l y ' s death, while the a l a b a s t e r vase i s empty because no one has d i s t u r b e d the s t i l l a i r i n s i d e i t . One of Woolf's more remarkable experiments with rhyme i s her 67 attempt to combine a l l of the rhyme forms w i t h i n the l e n g t h of a few sentences. In Jacob's Room these attempts are few, and only of l i m i t e d success. In To the Lighthouse, however, the combined rhyme forms o f t e n p r o v i d e a r h y t h m i c a l chant, as they do i n Between the A c t s . For example, assonance, a l l i t e r a t i o n , homoeoteleuton and p l o c e are a l l combined as the omniscient nar-r a t o r draws a t t e n t i o n to f a m i l y conventions w i t h i n the O l i v e r household: The r e p e t i t i o n of " s a y i n g , " the a l l i t e r a t e d "w's," the " l a t e " and "wait" rhyme, and the assonance of the "a" and "o" sounds, a l l make the i n s t r u c t i o n s to Candish sound l i k e a chant. The v o i c e s are not s t a r t l e d or s u r p r i s e d or wo r r i e d . They are ''im-p a t i e n t " and " p r o t e s t i n g " v o i c e s . G i l e s has been l a t e b e f o r e — h i s l a t e n e s s i s a s u r p r i s e t o no one. Hence,Candish's employers do not fuss over G i l e s ' l a t e n e s s , but merely announce, simply, "The t r a i n ' s l a t e . . . we won't wait." In an even more c o n c i s e example of the combination of rhyme forms, I sa O l i v e r d e s c r i b e s the antagonism between her husband and W i l l i a m Dodge: "somewhere, t h i s c l o u d , t h i s c r u s t , t h i s doubt, t h i s dust . . . would be c l e a r " (47). ( I s a , who i s u s u a l l y very conscious of rhymes i n her thoughts or speech,does not re c o g n i z e the l u c i d i t y and beauty c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s short d e s c r i p t i o n of the two men: "she waited f o r a rhyme, [but] i t f a i l e d her" [47] .) In t h i s l i n e , e i g h t T h e i r v o i c e s impetuously, i m p a t i e n t l y , p r o t e s t -i n g l y came across the h a l l s a y i n g : 'The t r a i n ' s l a t e ' ; s a y i n g : 'Keep i t hot': s a y i n g : 'We won't no Candish, we won't wait.' (30) 6 8 words i n c o r p o r a t e a l l of the forms of rhyme. " T h i s " i s repeated, " c l o u d " and "doubt" use assonance, " c r u s t " and "dust" rhyme, and the " c ' s " and "d's" are a l l i t e r a t e d . The e i g h t words, w h i l e not connected to any other p a r t of the novel, are so c l o s e l y woven together that they demonstrate the a n t i t h e s i s and yet the l i n k between two men who w i l l spend e s s e n t i a l l y the e n t i r e afternoon t o g e t h e r (both b e l o n g i n g to a group which has eaten lunch toge-ther and which w i l l watch the pageant tog e t h e r ) d e s p i t e t h e i r mutual animosity. How can we as readers assess rhyme i n the e n t i r e t y of Bet-ween the Acts? E a r l y i n the novel i t becomes obvious that rhyme as a : s t r u c t u r a l d e v i c e and rhyme as a thematic instrument are juxtaposed so c l o s e l y that they become almost i n s e p a r a b l e . Woolf draws the reader's a t t e n t i o n to her conscious use of rhyme f r e -q uently throughout the book. By l e a v i n g some of- her rhymes, i n c l u d i n g her nursery rhymes, incomplete, or u n f i n i s h e d , Woolf i n v i t e s the reader to complete them. Isa s u p p l i e s the f i r s t s o l u t i o n to her own u n f i n i s h e d rhyme: "The rhyme was ' a i r ! " (15). L a t e r i n the book, Woolf d e s c r i b e s how Lucy Swithin's words are " l i k e the f i r s t p e a l of a chime of b e l l s . As the f i r s t p e a l s , you hear the second, as the second p e a l s , you hear the t h i r d " (19). The metaphor of the chiming b e l l s suggests that the reader i s to watch f o r echoes, f o r second and t h i r d p e a l s as they occur throughout the n o v e l . By c o n s c i o u s l y l o o k i n g f o r rhyme, the reader becomes a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the book, a member of the audience watching the drama of the novel u n f o l d . (To 69 enhance our understanding of the novel as a drama, 'as a longer v e r s i o n of Miss La Trobe's pageant, Woolf concludes the book with "the c u r t a i n rose. They spoke" [l52| .) By i t s very nature, the study of rhyme i m p l i e s a search f o r u n i t y , f o r s i m i l a r i t i e s . Whether through a l l i t e r a t i o n , asson-ance or homoeoteleuton, we s i n g l e out rhymed words because they have something, be i t i n i t i a l , medial, or f i n a l sounds, i n com-mon. In To the Lighthouse, Mrs. Ramsay's view of l i f e , then the Ramsays' l i v e s without her, are s y n t h e s i z e d by L i l y B r i s c o e ' s completion of Mrs. Ramsay's p o r t r a i t and by Mr. Ramsay's r e a c h i n g the l i g h t h o u s e with h i s c h i l d r e n . Between the Acts, on the other hand, does not end with t h i s same sense of s y n t h e s i s . Instead, i t suggests p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between many of the charac-ters.:' The thematic and s t r u c t u r a l f u n c t i o n s of rhyme have per-meated the novel to the end. Through Miss La Trobe, Woolf • searches f o r s i m i l a r i t i e s , f o r something i n common between the c h a r a c t e r s . Lucy S w i t h in both understands Miss La Trobe's search and b e l i e v e s that she has been s u c c e s s f u l : " a l l i s harmony, c o u l d we hear i t . And we s h a l l " (122). Against the backdrop of the "pompous popular tune" g l o r i f y i n g England's armed f o r c e s and the "twelve aeroplanes i n p e r f e c t formation" (134) which f l y over the assembled audience, Miss La Trobe i s t r y i n g , w i t h every r e -source a v a i l a b l e t o her, to show her audience a l l the rhyme, the "harmony" which u n i t e s them. Miss La Trobe o f f e r s e v e r y t h i n g she can to r e p e l the d i s c o r d a n c e s , the d i s r u p t i o n , the fragment-a t i o n of almost c e r t a i n war. 70 Conclusion V i r g i n i a Woolf's prose and, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , the use of rhyme in her prose, does not "progress" in the sense of follow-ing a straight l i n e or becoming better with each novel. Each work i s to some extent a separate experiment and therefore uses rhyme i n di f f e r e n t ways and for d i f f e r e n t purposes. One of the ways to draw conclusions about Woolf's use of rhyme i s to examine a passage in The Common Reader ( F i r s t Series). Published in 1925, the f i r s t of the two-volume set has as i t s purpose "to write down a few of the ideas and opinions which, i n s i g n i f i c a n t in themselves, yet contribute to so mighty a resul t [the d i s t r i -bution of poetical honours]" (CR, p. 2). The Common Reader i s , in other words, a c r i t i c a l work. To establish the "few ideas and opinions," Woolf had to select those authors and l i t e r a r y periods which best i l l u s t r a t e the aim of The Common Reader. This book i s a c o l l e c t i o n of essays--it i s not a novel, not f i c t i o n . Nonetheless, Woolf's s t y l e in The Common Reader—and t h i s i s especially true of her use of rhyme—does not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t -l y from that in the novels studied in th i s thesis. In t h i s book one passage in pa r t i c u l a r enables us to assess and summarize the novels. Consider the conclusion from "On Not Knowing Greek": The Odyssey i s merely a story of adventure, the i n s t i n c t i v e s t o r y - t e l l i n g of a sea-faring race. So we may begin i t , reading quickly in the s p i r i t of children wanting amusement to fi n d out what happens next. But here i s nothing 71 immature; here are full-grown people, crafty , subtle, and passionate. Nor i s the world i t -s e l f a small one, since the sea which separ-ates island from island has to be crossed by l i t t l e hand-made boats and i s measured by the f l i g h t of sea-gulls. It i s true that the i s -lands are not t h i c k l y populated, and the people, though everything i s made by hand, are not clos e l y kept at work. They have had time to develop a very d i g n i f i e d , a very s t a t e l y s o c i -ety, with an ancient t r a d i t i o n of manners behind i t , which makes every r e l a t i o n at once orderly, natural, and f u l l of reserve. Pen-elope crosses the room; Telemachus goes to bed; Nausicaa washes her linen; and t h e i r actions seem laden with beauty because they do not know that they are b e a u t i f u l , have been born to t h e i r possessions, are no more s e l f -conscious than children, and yet, a l l those thousands of years ago, in th e i r l i t t l e islands, know a l l that i s to be known. With the sound of the sea in th e i r ears, vines, meadows, r i v -u lets about them, they are even more aware than we are of a ruthless fate. There i s a sadness at the back of l i f e which they do not attempt to mitigate. E n t i r e l y aware of t h e i r own stand-ing i n the shadow, and yet a l i v e to every tremor and gleam of existence, there they endure, and i t i s to the Greeks that we turn when we are sick of the vagueness, of the confusion, of the Christianity.and i t s consolations, of our own age. (CR, p. 38-39) This concluding paragraph contains the forms of rhyme, performing a variety of functions which were found in the novels. It has, for instance, several examples of a l l i t e r a t i o n . The a l l i t e r a t e d "s's" in "Nor i s the world i t s e l f a small one, since the sea which separates island from islan d has to be crossed by l i t t l e hand-made boats," perform what in Jacob's Room i s a l l i t e r a t i o n ' s most important f u n c t i o n — t o emphasize or strengthen an"image. Repeating each "s" sound slows down the reading process. The a l l i t e r a t e d words are "separated" from one another by a non-a l l i t e r a t e d word,thereby stressing the distance between them. 72 Thus, by both slowing the reader's speed and by extending the a l l i t e r a t i o n , Woolf creates in the structure of the sentence a d i v i s i o n , which i s echoed in the meaning: "the sea . . . separates." In each novel, Woolf includes several samples of verse which, apart from having meanings relevant to the text, i n v i t e the reader to compare her use of homoeoteleuton to the more wide-ly used end-rhyme. The concluding paragraph of "On Not Knowing Greek" does not contain a verse, but i t does employ homoeotel-euton. , The paragraph begins with " s t o r y - t e l l i n g , " "sea-faring," "reading," and "wanting." In a l l four of these words, the textual intent i s that we associate the "ing" s u f f i x with, in this case, the vibrant energetic a c t i v i t y of the ancient Greeks, associated with adventure and pride in th e i r ancestry, and, in this case, on the part of the reader,an eagerness to delve into the story of Odysseus. Although Between the Acts i s complicated by the fact that homoeoteleuton, in the name of "rhyme" i s a thematic as well as s t y l i s t i c concern, Jacob's Room and To the Lighthouse use homoeoteleuton for a more s p e c i f i c purpose. In these two e a r l i e r novels i t most frequently emphasizes a p a r a l l e l structure within a sentence or over a few sentences. It also serves t h i s purpose to a lesser degree i n the early part of the concluding paragraph of "On Not Knowing Greek"—-we, the readers, are equally "reading quickly" and "wanting amusement." This f i n a l paragraph contains not only alliteration..and homoeoteleuton but ploce. In the three novels, ploce can connect 73 two or more sections of the book or can provide the mechanism by which a p a r t i c u l a r word or phrase may be given a d i f f e r e n t meaning or connotation. The former purpose cannot pertain to t h i s i n d i v i d u a l paragraph, but i t i s worthy of note that Woolf does connect sections of even t h i s short essay with ploce. For example, she begins the essay by stating that when reading Greek "we do not know how the words sounded, or where precisely we ought to laugh" (CR, p. 24). Towards the end of the essay she asks, "where are we to laugh in reading Greek?" (CR, p. 37), and f i n a l l y , "Humour i s the f i r s t of the g i f t s to perish in a foreign tongue, and when we turn from Greek to Elizabethan l i t e r a t u r e i t seems . . . as i f our great age were ushered in by a burst of laughter" (CR, p. 38). What the concluding para"; graph alone does i l l u s t r a t e about ploce, however, i s that i t can signal the change of meaning in a word or phrase. "Island," for instance, f i r s t appears in "the sea which separates island from island." Later in the paragraph, the Greeks, " a l l those thoun sands of years ago, in t h e i r l i t t l e islands, know a l l that i s to be known." The information surrounding the f i r s t " i s l a n d " i n -dicates that we are to see the islands as i s o l a t e d in the ocean, in t h e i r natural state, inhabited by men, sea-gulls and l i t t l e else. The intervening sentences between the i n i t i a l and the f i n a l appearance of " i s l a n d " show that they are no longer to be considered as distant, dry patches in the ocean, but are the epi-centre, not just of t r a d i t i o n , but of a l l knowledge and culture — t h e Greeks "know a l l that i s to be known." Ploce i s the vehi-74 c l e through which we see " i s l a n d " changing from the n a t u r a l to the h i g h l y c i v i l i z e d . In t h i s l a s t paragraph, Woolf uses p l o c e i n another way. She uses i t as she has i n To the L i g h t h o u s e — t o i t e m i z e o b j e c t s i n a s e r i e s , or ideas i n a statement, which c o n t r i b u t e s to g i v -i n g the sentence i t s p a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r e . As "On Not Knowing Greek" ends, Woolf s t a t e s t h a t " i t i s to the Greeks t h a t we turn when we are s i c k of the vagueness, of the c o n f u s i o n , of the C h r i s t i a n i t y of our own age." Each " o f " l i s t s a d i f f e r e n t reason to be " s i c k . " With the p a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r e , c r e a t e d i n p a r t through the repeated " o f s , " Woolf i s s u g g e s t i n g a v a r i e t y of reasons f o r t u r n i n g to the G r e e k s — n o t i n s i s t i n g upon a s i n g l e , all-encompassing answer, although by t h e i r placement at the end of the sentence (and of the essay) " C h r i s t i a n i t y and i t s c o n s o l a -t i o n s " and "our own age" take precedence over "vagueness" and " c o n f u s i o n . " The c o n c l u d i n g paragraph from "On Not Knowing Greek" serves to do more than a s s i s t i n the summary of the three n o v e l s . . I t suggests, because i t i s an essay, that we should compare Woolf's e x p o s i t o r y prose s t y l e with those of the s i x t e e n t h and seven-teenth century e s s a y i s t s who a l s o used rhyme i n t h e i r prose. As the examples, from L y l y , Donne and Browne quoted i n the Introduction show, these e s s a y i s t s were g e n e r a l l y concerned with persuading t h e i r readers to accept t h e i r moral or p h i l o s o p h i c a l v i e w p o i n t s . Donne, f o r i n s t a n c e , " i s i n t e n t i n h i s Devotions upon d e s c r i b i n g h i s own stages of s i c k n e s s and recovery i n l i g h t of the part 7 5 God p l a y e d i n that recovery, i n order to persuade h i s readers to a p p r e c i a t e God's power and p e r v a s i v e n e s s . S i m i l a r l y , S i r Thomas Browne i n H y d r i o t a p h i a d i s c u s s e s the urn b u r i a l , death, and the r o l e which C h r i s t i a n i t y p l a y s i n both l i f e and death. V i r g i n i a Woolf, on the o t h e r hand, does not attempt to persuade her audience to accept C h r i s t i a n i t y or, i n f a c t , any other 'i.-; s i n g l e , r e s t r i c t i v e b e l i e f or c o n c l u s i o n . As e a r l y as 1919, she s t a t e s i n her d i a r y , "I . . l o a t h e any dominion of one over another; . . . any i m p o s i t i o n of the will""(AWD, p. 10). In "On Not Knowing Greek" she compares the d i f f e r e n c e s between the Greek and E n g l i s h c u l t u r e through an examination of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e l i t e r a t u r e . In the novels, she i s i n t e n t on d e s c r i b -in g as a c c u r a t e l y as she can, s i g n i f i c a n t moments i n one or s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r s ' l i v e s . Woolf's novels are p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n that they t r y to show how her heroes and heroines t h i n k , the c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e t h e i r development as charac-t e r s , and how others p e r c e i v e them. BothUthe s i x t e e n t h and seventeenth century e s s a y i s t s and V i r g i n i a Woolf show a devotion to accuracy and t r u t h . However, f o r the former group t r u t h comprises a m o r a l i s t i c c o n c l u s i o n whereas f o r Woolf i t means the unbiased d e s c r i p t i o n of an i n d i -v i d u a l complete w i t h f a u l t s as w e l l as v i r t u e s . The t r u t h which Woolf and the e s s a y i s t s seek to express d i f f e r s g r e a t l y ; yet the methods which they choose to d e s c r i b e i t are very s i m i l a r . Donne, L y l y and Browne borrow a l l i t e r a t i o n , assonance, homoeotel-euton and p l o c e from the c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c i a n s . However, where 76 these men a l s o borrowed the i n t e n t of the r h e t o r i c i a n s - - t o deve-lop an argument which persuades the audience to accept t h e i r p o i n t - o f - v i e w — V i r g i n i a Woolf put a s i d e the d i d a c t i c i n t e n t , and borrowed on l y p a r t of the s t y l e . Because Woolf adapted some of the s t y l i s t i c techniques o f the c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c i a n s , and i n t u r n those of the s i x t e e n t h and seventeenth century e s s a y i s t s , we must c o n s i d e r her a t t i t u d e towards rhyme and language. Rhyme i s , of course, o n l y a s m a l l part of Woolf's unique s t y l e , a n d t h e r e f o r e i t s study does not answer a l l our q u e s t i o n s about the meaning, the themes, or even the s t r u c t u r e of her novels and essays. T h i s d e t a i l e d examina-t i o n of her use of rhyme allows us, however, to draw some con-c l u s i o n s about Woolf's o b s e s s i o n with words, d i c t i o n , and l a n -guage as a whole. To begin with, we are able to say that Woolf does not use rhyme i n her novels merely as a p r e t t y and insub-s t a n t i a l ornament. In o t h e r words, u n l i k e some of the s i x t e e n t h and seventeenth century e s s a y i s t s , such as John L y l y 1 and to a l e s s e r extent, S i r Thomas Browne, Woolf i s not u s i n g rhyme to prove that she i s " w i t t y , " t h a t she can manipulate words to c r e a t e i n t r i c a t e , convoluted p a t t e r n s which overshadow r a t h e r than underscore the meaning of the t e x t . Rather, as she uses i t , rhyme i s j u s t one of the many dev i c e s which help convey to the reader impressions and s e n s a t i o n s about her c h a r a c t e r s and t h e i r surroundings. Secondly, t h i s study demonstrates how e x t r a o r d i n -a r i l y m eticulous and c o n s c i e n t i o u s Woolf i s with the minute de-t a i l s of her language and s t y l e . Woolf took no word f o r granted. 77 The meaning, the c o n n o t a t i o n and the sound of every word and phrase g i v e the impression of having been c a r e f u l l y probed p r i o r to i t s i n c l u s i o n i n the t e x t , and then u t i l i z e d f o r i t s f u l l e ffect;' That Woolf i s so p a r t i c u l a r with her words and word-ch o i c e i n d i c a t e s t h at her language i s reduced and r e f i n e d to i t s e s s e n c e — t h a t a l l s u p e r f l u o u s or extraneous words have been e x c i s e d from'..the f i n a l d r a f t . Rhyme i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of Woolf's prose. In f a c t , w h i le w r i t i n g The Waves she noted d e c i d e d l y i n her d i a r y : "Why admit anything to l i t e r a t u r e t h a t i s not p o e t r y — b y which I mean s a t -urated? . . . . The poets succeeding by s i m p l i f y i n g : p r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y t h i n g i s l e f t out. I want to put p r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y t h i n g i n : yet to s a t u r a t e " (AWD, p. 139). Woolf a p p r e c i a t e d rhyme and applauded those who c o u l d employ i t i n t h e i r prose as she was doing. In the penultimate paragraph of "On Not Knowing Greek" she s t a t e s : "there i s always about Greek l i t e r a t u r e t h a t which permeates an 'age' . . . . Thus we have . . . P l a t o d a r i n g ex-travagant f l i g h t s of poetry i n the midst of prose" (CR, p. 38). V i r g i n i a Woolf may have admired P l a t o ' s "daring," but she d i d not emulate h i s "extravagant f l i g h t s of p o e t r y . " Words to her were too p r e c i o u s to be used w i t h anything but economy and pre -c i s i o n . She, too, used poetry " i n the midst of prose" but . . expanded i t s f u n c t i o n to help c r e a t e and to strengthen images, to l i s t o b j e c t s and f a c t s , and to a s s i s t i n l i n k i n g s e c t i o n s of her nov e l s ; i n f a c t , to do whatever was necessary to " s a t u r -ate" her essays and novels, always s t r i v i n g t o make " t h i s book 78 b e t t e r than the others and get the most out of i t " (AWD, p. 54). 79 N o t e s I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 B. de S e l i n c o u r t , "Rhyme i n E n g l i s h P o e t r y , " E s s a y s a nd S t u d i e s b y Members o f t h e E n g l i s h A s s o c i a t i o n ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1921), V I I , 15. 2 A r i s t o t l e i n Henry Lanz!,s The P h y s i c a l B a s i s o f Rime. ( C a l i f o r n i a : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1931), p. 152. o Q u i n t i l i a n , The I n s t i t u t i o O r a t o r i a , t r a n s . H.E. B u t l e r ( L o n d o n : Wm H e i n e m a n n , 1921) , I.I I , 491. 4 S i r P h i l i p S i d n e y , The D e f e n c e o f P o e s i e (1595; f p t . E n g l a n d : S c o l a r P r e s s L t d , 1968), [p. 38-39], 5 S i d n e y , (p. 37|. . 6 S i d n e y , jp. 65J . 7 G e o r g e P u t t e n h a m , The A r t e o f E n g l i s h P o e s i e (1589; r p t . E n g l a n d : S c o l a r P r e s s , 1968), p. 63. ^ P u t t e n h a m , p. 69. 9 P u t t e n h a m , p. 67. Thomas C a m p i o n , O b s e r v a t i o n s i n t h e A r t o f E n g l i s h P o e s i e , ;ed. G.B. H a r r i s o n ( L o n d o n : R i c h a r d F i e l d , 1602; r p t . L o n d o n : B o d l e y Head, 1925), p. 11. H C a m p i o n , p. 35. 1 2 S a m u e l D a n i e l , A D e f e n c e o f Rhyme: A g a i n s t a P a m p h l e t  E n t i t u l e d O b s e r v a t i o n s i n t h e A r t o f E n g l i s h P o e s i e , e d . G.B. H a r r i s o n ( L o n d o n : R i c h a r d F i e l d , 1603; r p t . L o n d o n : B o d l e y Head, 1925), p. 7-8. 80 13 John Lyly, Euphues: The Anatomy of Wit, ed. Morris C r o l l et a l . (New York: Russell and Russell Inc., 1964), p.10. 14 Puttenham, p. 168. 15 John Donne, "Devotions Upon Emergent Occasions," Com-plete Poetry and Selected Prose, ed. John Hayward (London:; Nonesuch Press, 1962), p. 537. 16 S i r Thomas Browne, "Hydrlotaphia, Urn-Burial," 'Norton Anthology of English Literature, ed. M.H. Abrams et a l . , 3rd ed. (New York: Norton and Co., 1974), I, 1607. 17 John Livingston Lowes, Convention and Revolt in Poetry (New York: Riverside Press Cambridge, 1919), p. 251. 1 8 Lowes, p. 243. 19 Lowes, p. 269. 20 B. de Selincourt, "Rhyme in English Poetry," Essays and Studies by Members of the English Association (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1921), VII, 15. 21 Selincourt, p. 11. 22 Selincourt, p. 27. 23 V i r g i n i a Woolf, The Common Reader: F i r s t Series (New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1925), p. 44. A l l subsequent references to The Common Reader w i l l be to t h i s text and thi s edition and w i l l be made in the body of the thesis preceded by the abbreviation CR. 24 Allen McLaurin, The Echoes Enslaved (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1973), p. 46. 25 Jean Guiguet, V i r g i n i a Woolf and Her Works, trans. Jean Stewart (London: Hogarth Press, 1965), p. 215. 81 V i r g i n i a Woolf, A Writer's Diary: Being Extracts from  the Diary of V i r g i n i a Woolf, ed. Leonard Woolf (London: Hogarth Press, 1959), Saturday, October 14th, 1922, p. 52-53. A l l subsequent references to A Writer's Diary w i l l be to t h i s text and w i l l be made in the body of the thesis preceded by the abbreviation AWD. 9 7 V i r g i n i a Woolf, "The Mark on the Wall," in A Haunted  House (London: Hogarth Press, 1944; rpt. London: Granada Publishing, 1982), p. 47. Jacob's Room David Daiches, V i r g i n i a Woolf (New York: New Directions, 1963), p. 9. 2 Daiches, p. 33. 3 Ralph Freedman, The L y r i c a l Novel (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1963), p. 6. 4 V i r g i n i a Woolf, Jacob's Room (London: Hogarth Press, 1922; rpt. Triad/ Panther, 1976), p. 15. A l l subsequent r e f -erences to t h i s text w i l l be to t h i s edition and w i l l be made in the body of the thesis. 5 Howard Harper, Between Language and Silence: The Novels of V i r g i n i a Woolf (Louisiana: State Univ. Press, 1982), p. 85. 6 Daiches, p. 61. 7 Jane Novak, The Razor Edge of Balance: A Study of V i r g i n i a  Woolf ( F l o r i d a : Univ. of Miami Press, 1975), p. 97. 82 g Bernard Blackstone, V i r g i n i a Woolf: A Commentary (London: Hogarth Press, 1949), p. 60. 9 Mitc h e l l Leaska, The Novels of. V i r g i n i a Woolf from Begin-ning to End (New York: John Jay Press, 1977), p. 68. J i l l Morris, Time and Timelessness in V i r g i n i a Woolf (New York: Exposition Press, 1977), p. 31. 1 1 Leaska, p. 62. 1 9 Novak, p. 95. 13 Novak, p. 99. 14 Jean Guiguet, V i r g i n i a Woolf and Her Works, trans. Jean Stewart (London: Hogarth Press, 1965), p. 225. 15 Freedman, p. 213. 1 6 Guiguet, p. 227. To The Lighthouse 1 V i r g i n i a Woolf, To the Lighthouse (London: Hogarth Press, 1927; rpt. Penguin Books, 1975), p. 40. A l l subsequent r e f e r -ences to t h i s text w i l l be to t h i s edition and w i l l be made in the body of the thesis, o This view i s supported by Allen McLaurin, The Echoes  Enslaved (Cambridge: Univ. Press, 1973), p. 184. 83 Between the Acts 1 Northrop Frye, Anatomy of C r i t i e ism (New York: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1969), p. 61. 2 V i r g i n i a Woolf, Between the Acts (London: Hogarth P r e s s , 1941; r p t . Penguin Books,•1953), p. 23. A l l subsequent r e f e r -ences to t h i s t e x t w i l l be t o t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be made i n the body of the t h e s i s . 3 J i l l M o r r i s , Time and Timelessness i n V i r g i n i a Woolf (New York: E x p o s i t i o n P r e s s , 1977), p. 101. 4 David Daiches, V i r g i n i a Woolf (New York: New D i r e c t i o n s , 1963), p. 126. 5 A l l e n McLaurin, V i r g i n i a Woolf: The Echoes Enslaved (Cambridge: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973), p. 56. 6 "The R e s t o r a t i o n and the E i g h t e e n t h Century: I n t r o d u c t i o n , " The Norton Anthology of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , ed. M.H. Abrams et a l . , 3rd ed. (New York: W.W Norton and Co. Inc., 1974), I, 1690. 7 McLaurin, pp. 124, 128. Co n c l u s i o n 1 See the q u o t a t i o n from Euphues: The Anatomy of Wit i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n . 84 Bibliography Abrams, M.H. , et a l . "The Restoration and the Eighteenth Cen-tury: Introduction." Vol I of The Norton Anthology, of  English Literature. 3rd ed. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1974, pp. 1675-1701. Blackstone, Bernard. V i r g i n i a Woolf: A Commentary. London: Hogarth Press, 1949. Browne, S i r Thomas. "Hydriotaphia, Urn-Burial." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 3rd ed. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1974, pp. 1600-07. Campion, Thomas. Observations in the Art of English Poesie. Ed. G.B. Harrison. London: Richard F i e l d , 1602; rpt. London: Bodley Head, 1925. Daiches, David. V i r g i n i a Woolf. New York: New Directions, 1963. Daniel, Samuel. A Defense of Rhyme: Against a Pamphlet entituled Observations in the Art of English Poesie. Ed. G.B. Har-rison. London: Edward Blount, 1603; rpt. London: Bodley Head, 1925. Donne, John. "Devotions Upon Emergent Occasions." Complete  Poetry and Selected Prose. Ed. John Hayward. London: Nonesuch Press, 1962. Freedman, Ralph. The L y r i c a l Novel. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1963. Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m : Four Essays. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1969. 85 Guiguet, Jean. V i r g i n i a Wool f and Her Works. Trans. Jean Stew-a r t . London: Hogarth P r e s s , 1965. Harper, Howard. Between Language and S i l e n c e : The Novels of V i r g i n i a Woolf. L o u i s i a n a : S t a t e Univ. P r e s s , 1982. Lanz, Henry. The P h y s i c a l B a s i s of Rime. C a l i f o r n i a : S t a n f o r d Univ. Press, 1931. Leaska, M i t c h e l l . The Novels of V i r g i n i a Woolf from Beginning to End. New York: John Jay Pr e s s , 1977. Lowes, John L i v i n g s t o n . Convention and Revolt i n Poetry. New York: R i v e r s i d e Press Cambridge, 1919. L y l y , John. Euphues: The Anatomy of Wit. Ed. Mo r r i s C r o l l et a l . New York: R u s s e l l and R u s s e l l Inc., 1964. McLaurin, A l l e n . V i r g i n i a Woolf: The Echoes Enslaved. Cam-b r i d g e : Univ. Press, 1973. Mo r r i s , J i l l . Time and Timelessness i n V i r g i n i a Woolf. New York: E x p o s i t i o n P r e s s , 1977. Novak, Jane. The Razor Edge of Balance: A Study of V i r g i n i a Woolf. F l o r i d a : Univ. of Miami P r e s s , 1975. Puttenham, George. The Art e of E n g l i s h P o e s i e . 1589; r p t . England: S c o l a r P r e s s L t d , 1968. Q u i n t i l i a n . The I n s t i t u t i o O r a t o r i a . V o l . I I I . Trans. H.E,. Butler. London: Wm Heinemann, 1921. S e l i n c o u r t , B. de. "Rhyme i n E n g l i s h P oetry" V o l VII of Essays and S t u d i e s by Members of the E n g l i s h A s s o c i a t i o n . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1921, pp. 7-29. Sidney, S i r P h i l i p . The Defense of Poesie. 1595; r p t . England: 86 S c o l a r Press L t d . , 1968. Woolf, V i r g i n i a . Jacob's Room. London: Hogarth P r e s s , 1922; r p t . T r i a d / Panther, 1976. The Common Reader: F i r s t S e r i e s . New York: Har-c o u r t , Brace, Jovanovich, 1925. To the Lighthouse. London: Hogarth P r e s s , 1927; r p t . Penguin Books, 1975. Between the Ac t s . London: Hogarth Press, 1941; r p t . Penguin Books, 1953. "The Mark on the W a l l " A Haunted House. London: Hogarth Press, 1944; r p t . London: Granada P u b l i s h i n g , 1982, pp. 41-59. A W r i t e r ' s D i a r y : Being E x t r a c t s from the D i a r y of  V i r g i n i a Woolf. Ed. Leonard Woolf. London: Hogarth P r e s s , 1959. Works Consulted Brown, E.K. Rhythm i n the Novel. Univ. of Toronto P r e s s , 1950. Fleishman, Avrom. V i r g i n i a Woolf: A C r i t i c a l Reading. B a l t i -more: Johns Hopkins Univ. P r e s s , 1975. Preminger, Alex, et a l . , eds. The E n c y c l o p e d i a of Poetry and  P o e t i c s . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n Univ. Press, 1965. Reeves, James. Un de r stand i n g Poet r y. London: Wm Heinemann, 1965. Woolf, V i r g i n i a . F l u s h : A Biography. London: Hogarth P r e s s , 1933; r p t . Penguin Books, 1977. 

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