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A pilot study of recall of stories presented in signed English Clarke, Mary Ellen 1984

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A PILOT STUDY OF RECALL OF PRESENTED  IN SIGNED  STORIES  ENGLISH  By MARY ELLEN CLARKE B.A.,  Saint  Francis  A THESIS SUBMITTED  Xavier  University,  1976  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR  THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS in  THE FACULTY artment  OF GRADUATE  of E d u c a t i o n a l  Psychology  We  thesis  accept to  this  the r e q u i r e d  THE UNIVERSITY  and S p e c i a l  conforming  standard  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  October, ©  as  STUDIES  Mary E l l e n  1984 Clarke,  1984  Education  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department o r by h i s or her  be granted by  the head o f  representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  written  permission.  Department o f  Educational Psychology and Special Education  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (3/81)  October 9,  1984  ii Abstract  This research  pilot  study i n v e s t i g a t e d  r e l a t e d to the r e c e p t i o n  skills  by deaf  review  of the l i t e r a t u r e  did  students i n t o t a l  not seem to be used  students i n the way English  that  sign system  English-like  that  an E n g l i s h  language was  to the deaf  tended  in a pidgin  signing  biological  fashion  American Sign Language (ASL)  system  models f o r deaf  d e s i g n e d — t o make student.  tendency  The  users of  despite  appeared  constraints.  suggestion that deaf students themselves  signing  sign  to be  There  was  might be  the claims of some that  i s the n a t u r a l  language  of the  deaf. This  study s p e c i f i c a l l y  questions: retell  (a) how  of a short  retelling  of t h i s  Three  addressed  much s t o r y  itself  to  two  content does a deaf  story r e c e i v e d  what i s the p r e f e r r e d  student  i n Signed E n g l i s h , and  (b)  s i g n i n g usage of the student i n the  story?  deaf students p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study.  watched a videotape of a short  Each  story i n Signed E n g l i s h ,  retold  The  three s t o r i e s over three consecutive days.  The  the same story while being  and  then immediately students saw  A  to sign i n a p i d g i n  this  of p o s s i b l e  expression of s i g n i n g  communication classrooms.  the system  manner, and  more a r e s u l t  and  by the adult  completely v i s i b l e  an E n g l i s h  also  revealed  the need f o r f u r t h e r  students' performances  i n the r e t e l l i n g  filmed.  of the  iii s t o r i e s were analyzed s i g n usage. of  the  60%  The  recall  to 66%,  This related material  their  and  that  the  that  the  students signed  average percentage  stories  ranged from  usage was  Pidgin  study demonstrated the need f o r more  (a) to deaf students'  reception  of various  d e l i v e r e d i n an E n g l i s h s i g n system and and  PSE,  for  (PSE).  pilot  differences ASL,  r e s u l t s revealed  of story content and  for the main events of the  and  Sign Language  for r e c a l l  similarities  as w e l l as the  respective  usage.  research  school  (b)  the  between an E n g l i s h sign system, educational  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  iv Table  of Contents  Abstract List  11  of Tables  vi  Acknowledgement Chapter 1:  vii  Introduction  1  Research Problem  6  Definition  7  Chapter 2:  of Terms....  Review of the L i t e r a t u r e  10  Sign Systems  10  The E f f e c t i v e n e s s of Sign Systems for Learning E n g l i s h The P r o c e s s i n g  18  of Sign Systems  Sign - word p r o c e s s i n g Signing and speaking Sign - word  simultaneously  rate of production  American Sign Language....  23 ....24 26 28 31  L i n g u i s t i c D e s c r i p t i o n of ASL  32  P s y c h o - S o c i a l L i n g u i s t i c D e s c r i p t i o n of ASL  35  P i d g i n Sign E n g l i s h  .....39  E m p i r i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s of PSE  41  Characteristics  of a P i d g i n  43  PSE - The F i r s t  Language of the Deaf?  44  Chapter 3: Sample  Research Design  and Methodology....  49 49  Research  Procedures...  Development  55  o f the T h r e e  Readability Syntactic  Stories  level  56  structure  58  Signability Placing  for  Each  Measures  4:  Recall Signing of Chapter  5:  72  f o r the S u b j e c t ' s  of a S t o r y  75  f o r E v a l u a t i n g the  Subject's Chapter  Measures  Story.  Procedures  65 69  o f the R e t e l l i n g  Retelling The  on V i d e o t a p e  the Data.  Development  Scoring  61  the S t o r i e s  Collecting  55  Signing  Skills  77  R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n  79  of the S t o r i e s  79  Skills  Used  i n the R e t e l l i n g  the S t o r i e s Summary  Implications  .87  and C o n c l u s i o n s  and S u g g e s t i o n s  f o r Future Research  99 100  References.....  103  Appendix  A............  113  Appendix  B  115  Appendix  C  118  Appendix  D  123  Appendix  E  124  vi List  Loss  of T a b l e s  1.  Hearing  Information  2.  Family  Information  Re: S u b j e c t s  53  3.  School  Information  Re: S u b j e c t s  54  4.  Readability Level  5.  S y n t a c t i c Complexity  6.  Number  of F i n g e r s p e l l e d Words i n Each  7.  Number  of S i g n M a r k e r s  8.  Differences  Differences  of Each  Story  Order P r e s e n t a t i o n  11.  Number  12.  Subjects'  of Main  15.  Raw  Percentage  Story  63 64  Teller's  Story  V e r s i o n . . . . 67  Between the Teller's f o r Each i n Each  and P e r c e n t a g e  V e r s i o n . . . . 68 Subject  Story  f o r Main E v e n t s  82  of Main E v e n t s  of the S u b j e c t s '  85 Signing  Story  of the S u b j e c t s  Agreement  83  of R e c a l l  f o r Main Events  f o r Each  Judges' Ratings  Based on  Between S c o r e r s f o r  Recall  Percentage  Judges' Ratings  75  Recalls  Agreement  Subjects'  70  80  of Agreement  The S u b j e c t s '  SE  Markers  of Each  Scores  Scorer  Skills 17.  61  Story  and M i n o r E v e n t s  Over Time 16.  i n Each  Story  the S t o r i e s  Subjects'  the  of Each  and the S t o r y  Mean S c o r e s  Full 14.  58  and t h e S t o r y  Story  10.  13.  Story  Value  i n the S i g n  Original  of  53  i n the F i n g e r s p e l l e d Words Between the  Original 9.  Re: S u b j e c t s  88 f o r ASL and 92  vii  Acknowledgement  I all  would  those  response me  to  thanks can  like  who to  helped  both  complete to  Dr.  offer  to  to  my  this Bryan  a  that  other  of  Margaret my  Csapo  friends  collector,  who  my  me  this  my  work.  I  Clarke,  he  the gave  played  thanks  and would  my  me.  I Dr.  roles  transcriber  of of  appreciation Their  intellectual like  to  mentor.  insightful the  and  thesis.  knowledge,  committee,  f o r her  English  with  emotional  student  encouragement members  express  also  I  hope  wisdom, wish  David  story signs,  enabled  special  that  one  day  I  and  to  thank  Kendall  comments.  positive  needs  extend  to  Many  teller, scorers,  and  the Dr.  thanks  to  data and  judges.  M.E.C.  1984  1  Chapter  One  Introduction  and  currently  practised  communication  i n the  education  of  North  i s the  total  America  1984). a  popular  1:  A  teacher  multi-sensory  and  expressive  audition, signing, in  in a  to  language.  pantomime, reading,  the  The  writing  impaired  of  combines  to  encourage  adopts  receptive the  simultaneously  in  (Arnold,  classroom  development  teacher  of  approach  communication  gestures,  and  hearing  communication  total  approach  the  method  use  of  speaking  language  and  growth  students. The  the  use  spoken  of  an  words  appears theory there  majority  English of  two  there  input  must  given  these  actively  system  and,  sound  must  two  at  first  acquisition.  be  full  in a  to  language  social  the  approach  glance,  states  learning  of  environment.  He  of  of the  language the  a  practice (1967) that  language:  second, infers  learners  target  skilled  the  this  Lenneberg's  and  the  specify  accompanies  input,  rules  those  programs  Lenneberg the  prerequisites,  internalize  which  according  prerequisites  occur  rules  communication  sign  speech,  language  are  their  total  educationally of  first,  of  this that will  language  native  until  language  users. If rules must  the  of have  hearing  English, complete  impaired  the  learner  language  input  of  the  of  i s to  society  English  internalize at  large,  language.  the  s/he  2  Unfortunately, via  a hearing  loss  precludes f u l l  the  auditory  channel.  It  hearing  impaired  person  fully  speechreading discernible Language North  on  America,  English  of  assist  format  English deaf  English  however,  signed  use  Lenneberg's  of  classroom  of  input  one  second  i s not  to  occur  of  the  of  from  sounds  the  deaf  a  in  English,  of  are  Sign  English.  to  and,  Written  English;  conversational  early  seventies,  devised  i n order  complete  base  in a to  the  deaf  his  system of  visual  Lenneberg's  social  be  a  to  input  of  begins  choice one  community  of  to  of  need  for  The  educational  which  of  informal  Lenneberg  and  refers.  i s , yet, unresolved.  sign  would  the  environment.  and  fulfill  second  environment  exchanges  to  learning;  that  formal  social  then  appears  language  acquisition,  dilemma  prerequisite,  language  a  sign  fulfill  communication  were  were  by  English  input  i n the  f o r the  American  language  receive  English  not  the  1969).  conducive  systems,  language  and  of  input  format.  not  to  60%  visual  Thus,  to  English  represent  complete  i s considered  i s where  to  impossible  language  prerequisite  i t does  environment, intimate  an  first  prerequisite language  sign  students  in a  The  If  used  a  to  sign  different  be  see  (Vernon,  communication.  several  40%  native  is a  offer  this  only  lips  the  cannot  does  however,  Here  the  (ASL),  therefore,  mode  because  to  i s also  English  use  select  (Baker  on  Lenneberg's  ASL,  & Padden,  the 1978;  3 Erting, see,  1978; Stokoe, 1981; Kannapell, 1982).  neither  an E n g l i s h  Language s a t i s f y  sign system nor American  Sign  both aspects of Lenneberg's theory of  language a c q u i s i t i o n . English  As one can  The problem of how best  to teach  to the deaf and to educate deaf students to  communicate and read most e f f e c t i v e l y  i n English  remains  unanswered. A decade a f t e r the acceptance and implementation of English  sign systems i n t o t a l  communication programs, the  results  of research  English  sign system to f a c i l i t a t e  both support and question  the use of an  the l e a r n i n g of E n g l i s h .  On the p o s i t i v e s i d e , some improvement i n E n g l i s h skills  seems to occur with the use of an E n g l i s h  system, although t h i s non-significant  ( B r a s e l & Q u i g l e y , 1977; R a f f i n , Davis &  & Saulnier,  English  and 1979; use  fashion,  using  & Hamilton, 1980;  On the negative  impaired  i n signs  sign system they use. pidgin  Saulnier  1981).  teachers of the hearing represent  sign  improvement i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y  Gilman, 1978; B o r n s t e i n , Bornstein  language  side,  do not appear to f u l l y  as i s proposed by the E n g l i s h  Instead, they tend to sign i n a some features  of the E n g l i s h  language  some of the American Sign Language (Marmor & P e t i t t o , Kluwin, 1981a). of signs The  as P i d g i n  Woodward (1973) coined Sign  teacher's input  to educators.  English  this  (PSE).  of PSE should be of great  I f the only  pidgin  reason f o r using  concern  an E n g l i s h  sign  4  system i s to make E n g l i s h f u l l y deaf  student  limited do not find  full  visible,  so as to give  input of the E n g l i s h language, and  research done i n t h i s area i n d i c a t e s that use  the system as proposed, then  out what are the reasons  E n g l i s h and method of One  the  the  teachers  there i s a need to  for sigining  in pidgin  what are the e d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of  this  communication. possible explanation  for the use  of P i d g i n Sign  E n g l i s h by teachers  of the hearing impaired  the work of B e l l u g i  and  1979b) who  can be found  F i s h e r (1972) and Grosjean  propose that i t might be b i o l o g i c a l l y  to speak and  sign c o n t i n u o u s l y  is  then  the case,  (1979a, impossible  at the same time.  the m a j o r i t y of hearing  in  If this  impaired  students  i n a t o t a l communication program would be exposed most o f t e n In t h e i r preteen  years, at school and  P i d g i n Sign E n g l i s h and  not  at home, to a  to the E n g l i s h language, nor to  the American Sign Language, the native language f o r less than  10%  of the p o p u l a t i o n of deaf  Woodward & T u l l y , does t h i s PSE of E n g l i s h and  1976).  The  critical  questions  exposure e f f e c t  the deaf  students' l e a r n i n g  why  exposure has  each other  How  how  on the kind of i n f l u e n c e t h i s  on the e x p r e s s i v e  the m a j o r i t y of deaf program.  become  i s an E n g l i s h s i g n system used?  Research a l s o needs to focus PSE  children (Bornstein,  students  do the students  sign language s k i l l s  in a total  communication  sign when communicating  and with a d u l t s both  of  i n a formal  with  ( i . e . school)  5 and  an i n f o r m a l  school)?  Do  (PSE)?  setting  they  sign  (i.e. social  ASL o r a m i x t u r e  I f i t i s a mixture,  English?  Are the s t u d e n t s '  the  and s e q u e n c e  scope  signing  in  additional  system  making  English enough short  sign  system.  impaired.  This and  much i s with  goals f o r  whole  o f what  which sign  sign  system  transfers  f o r future  programs  have  i n an to  store  i n visual of  recall  and u s e  be  that  approach  i s most pilot will  Sign  Language  worthy study  an E n g l i s h  challenge  to  of  attention.  will  hopefully  o r what  further sign  a most  hearing claim  others  In the classroom.  stimulate  system  of the  of ASL, w h i l e  to support  sign  i s currently  of American  i s an e x c i t i n g  following  information  i s received  and t h e u s e o f an E n g l i s h  should  ecologically  children  n o t be a b l e  i n the education  continue  area  memory  proponents  a bilingual makers  might  English  1979).  topic  Some  that  meaningful  communication  a l l signing  The  area  curriculum  of  English  compatible  impaired  an E n g l i s h  term  effectiveness  controversial  hearing  person  t o make  to long  i n total  promote  A  from  & Bellugi,  The  policy  skills  o f t h e u s e o f an  of communication  memory  information  that  signing  o f ASL a n d  i s A S L a n d how  of the school's  i s the problem  sense  term  system  much  disadvantage  information  (Klima  how  outside  skills?  An sign  activities  Meanwhile  sign  system.  researchers,  uncover  research  language  i n the  should  be  6  used to improve communication and the l e a r n i n g of E n g l i s h in  the classroom. Research Problem This  research  present study addresses a small issue  of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  part  of using  s i g n system i n the education of the hearing is  a descriptive exploratory  pilot  The  skills  sign  2.  i n Signed The  two  of a short  story  signed  system)?  What s i g n i n g method i s p r e f e r r e d  by profoundly  of a short  story  r a t i o n a l e and e c o l o g i c a l reasoning f o r t h i s  predicated  on the f a c t  Signed E n g l i s h  that  system i n the various  The first  do not f u l l y  f a c t o r i s that  total including  research  of a p o l i c y .  arose as a r e s u l t research  the use of  the Province,  support t h i s kind  second question  study  the M i n i s t r y of Education  the P r o v i n c i a l School f o r the Deaf; whereas, findings  received  English?  communication programs throughout  The  questions:  i n Signed E n g l i s h (an  i n the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia p r e s c r i b e s the  further  of students i n the classroom.  deaf students i n t h e i r r e t e l l i n g  are  It  How much do profoundly deaf students understand i n  reception  English  impaired.  sign system and the  study attempts to answer the f o l l o w i n g 1.  the  signing  an E n g l i s h  study to r e v e a l  i n s i g h t s about the use of an E n g l i s h expressive  of the  of two f a c t o r s .  findings indicate  that  7 the m a j o r i t y of language  r o l e models f o r hearing impaired  students seem to use P i d g i n Sign E n g l i s h . likely If  that  this  the students would be l e a r n i n g and using PSE.  i s so, then, how  English?  The  second  does t h i s e f f e c t  of the deaf and,  education of the deaf n a t u r a l language  concerned  ( K a n n a p e l l , 1974).  I f ASL  i t i s not used  preferred i n the i s the i n the  d e p r i v i n g our deaf students of a It i s imperative that  these questions and  with s i g n i n g  educational p o l i c i e s  American  as such, should be used  b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n a l environment? research address  of  i s the n a t u r a l and  of the deaf and  s c h o o l s , then are we  the l e a r n i n g of  f a c t o r i s that proponents  Sign Language state that ASL language  Thus i t seems  the many others  i n the classroom so that  can be  sound  implemented.  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Hearing impaired i s a term used who  has any  degree  which i n c l u d e s  of hearing l o s s .  to d e s c r i b e a person I t i s g e n e r i c term  both deaf and h a r d - o f - h e a r i n g persons.  Deaf person i s one whose hearing d i s a b i l i t y s u c c e s s f u l p r o c e s s i n g of l i n g u i s t i c  i n f o r m a t i o n through  a u d i t i o n with or without a hearing a i d ( F r i s i n a , Sign language e x p r e s s i o n , and  i s the v i s u a l  body language  the general g l o b a l term that the world j u s t  as the term,  language  used  precludes  1975).  of s i g n s ,  by deaf people.  facial It is  includes a l l sign languages spoken languages,  of  includes a l l  8 spoken sign  languages of the world.  There are many d i f f e r e n t  languages i n the world as there are many d i f f e r e n t  spoken  languages.  American  Sign Language (ASL) i s the language of the  deaf community i n North America. different  hand movements, c a l l e d  The  language  c o n s i s t s of  s i g n s , which are  with f a c i a l expression and body movement. The  combined  language i s a  v i s u a l , n o n - s e q u e n t i a l language which uses the communicator's signed not  p h y s i c a l space i n f r o n t  e x p r e s s i o n and i s r e c e i v e d  of h i s body for  v i a the eyes.  ASL  does  yet have a w e l l adopted uniform w r i t t e n format,  although work i s c u r r e n t l y underway to design a w r i t t e n system f o r t h i s  language.  Sign system i s a system of signs and sign which has been conceived to represent language the  i n a v i s i b l e format.  spoken  language.  fully  markers  a spoken  I t i s a t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n of  I t s grammar i s that of the spoken  language. Signed E n g l i s h  i s the sign system devised by  B o r n s t e i n , Hamilton, S a u l n i e r , and Roy the It  (1975) to represent  spoken E n g l i s h language i n a complete v i s i b l e manner. i s the sign system p r e s c r i b e d  programs  in total  communication  i n the Province of B r i t i s h , Columbia, Canada.  P i d g i n Sign E n g l i s h  (PSE) Is the c a t c h - a l l phrase used  to d e s c r i b e the sign communication  that  grammar from both ASL and E n g l i s h .  The  incorporates syntax of PSE  can  9 vary from being more l i k e ASL to being more l i k e It  English.  can be seen as a continuum with ASL at one extreme and  English  at the other.  T o t a l communication education  i s a communication approach i n the  of the hearing impaired.  I t encompasses  and a u d i t o r y methods of communication audition,  speechreading,  and pantomime.  signing  visual  simultaneously:  and speaking,  gestures,  10  Chapter 2 :  This findings  Review of the L i t e r a t u r e  chapter presents i n f o r m a t i o n and from the l i t e r a t u r e  systems, American  related  research  to E n g l i s h  sign  Sign Language, and P i d g i n Sign E n g l i s h . Sign Systems  Sign systems which are used i n e d u c a t i o n a l communication  environments  sign languages. spoken  language.  total  f o r the hearing impaired are not  Rather, they are t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n s  of a  In North America, these sign systems are  another form of the E n g l i s h  language because  the syntax i s  isomorphic with the rules of E n g l i s h . Prior English  to the f o r m u l a t i o n of E n g l i s h sign systems, the  language had two  listening  and reading, and two  speaking and w r i t i n g . English  forms of r e c e p t i o n , that of forms of expression,  However with the i n c e p t i o n of  sign systems, a d i f f e r e n t  e x p r e s s i o n i s now  possible,  form of r e c e p t i o n and  that of watching and  signing.  In North America, during the normal process of learning English,  the hearing  child  l e a r n s E n g l i s h through l i s t e n i n g language  learning  communication  to age 4 or 5 )  and speaking.  This  takes place through meaningful  with other s k i l l e d  parents, r e l a t i v e s , social  (birth  environment.  siblings, The  child  users of E n g l i s h ( i . e  neighbors) i n the c h i l d ' s g r a d u a l l y becomes a  11 competent language the  language user through a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e a r n i n g process (Lenneberg, 1967).  However, for  profoundly hearing impaired p r e s c h o o l e r , who  hear speech sounds, listening Without child  of E n g l i s h  cannot  through  and speaking i s an almost impossible task.  the a u d i t o r y r e c e p t i o n of speech sounds,  must r e l y  discerned said  the l e a r n i n g  i n the  on those speech sounds which  the deaf  can be  visibly  on the l i p s and mouth, and only 25% of what i s  can be seen (Hazard, At  1971).  age 5 or 6 the hearing c h i l d  commences formal  education at a school and learns a second form of E n g l i s h r e c e p t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n , that of reading and  writing.  This second form of the E n g l i s h language, that of being literate, society  i s considered necessary i n our North America  to l i v e  linguistic  a full  competence appears  becoming l i t e r a t e child  and s u c c e s s f u l l i f e .  Unfortunately,  to be a p r e r e q u i s i t e to  (Doehring, 1976), and  has yet to develop l i n g u i s t i c  the school age deaf  competence i n E n g l i s h .  Hence, the hearing impaired student does not r e a d i l y success i n h i s attempts  to l e a r n E n g l i s h through the  reading and w r i t i n g mode when s/he One  starts  school.  can, t h e r e f o r e , w e l l imagine the excitement  amongst educators of the deaf when E n g l i s h sign were devised i n the e a r l y a completely v i s i b l e  systems  seventies to represent E n g l i s h i n  manner.  This meant that every spoken  E n g l i s h word and meaningful morpheme could now  i  find  be expressed  12 with the hands i n a f u l l It  was  hoped  system would deaf c h i l d for  format f o r the deaf  facilitate  English  i n the same way  language  that  learning  listening  f o r the  and speaking did  child.  should always bear i n mind that  an a l t e r n a t e  form of expressing  the  as a code, such as morse.  same way  child.  that watching and s i g n i n g E n g l i s h v i a a sign  the hearing One  visual  a sign system i s  a spoken language i n much I f a person uses a  s i g n system s/he  i s not using  using  language f o r which the sign system  the spoken  a sign language.  S/he i s was  fashioned. The  four major North American E n g l i s h  Seeing E s s e n t i a l E n g l i s h Signing  Exact E n g l i s h  (SEE I) by David Anthony  of V i s u a l E n g l i s h  Dennis Wampler (1971), and Signed E n g l i s h  there are  Hamilton, S a u l n i e r  and Roy  are more than four E n g l i s h  the most often used i n t o t a l  i n North America Williams, These English  (Bornstein,  and  (LOVE) by  (SE) by  (1975).  Although  sign systems, these four communication  1973;  classrooms  Gustason c i t e d i n  1976). four  sign systems were devised  in a f u l l  v i s u a l mode by using  E n g l i s h word and a sign marker and  (1971),  (SEE II) by Gustason, P f e t z i n g  Zawolkow (1972), L i n g u i s t i c s  Bornstein,  sign systems are  beginnings.  Their  to  represent  a sign f o r each  f o r a f f i x e s , word endings  differences  acceptance or r e j e c t i o n of native  relate ASL  chiefly  signs,  their  to t h e i r degree  13 of dependence on a root word s i g n , and the extent of t h e i r use  of d e r i v a t i o n a l and i n f l e c t i o n a l  cited  i n Williams,  1976).  Seeing E s s e n t i a l E n g l i s h used with a l l age groups. of l e x i c a l selected  I t has by f a r the l a r g e s t number  e n t r i e s - 6,000 SEE I words.  every E n g l i s h  These signed desired  (SEE I) was designed to be  from ASL or invented  represent  word.  so that  I t s signs are  there  representations I t contains  are combined to form any over 100 a f f i x e s i n i t s usage. the user must be capable of  E n g l i s h words i n t o t h e i r most basic  words plus  p r e f i x e s and s u f f i x e s ) to be able  accurately  the SEE I system.  process i n v o l v e d  forms  (root  to use  Another problem i s that the  i n s e l e c t i n g a SEE I s i g n often  a sign l e x i c o n that  results in  c o n f l i c t s with ASL.  In SEE I, the process of d e c i d i n g English  i s a sign to  root word, p r e f i x and s u f f i x .  One problem with SEE I i s that analyzing  a f f i x e s (Gustason  what sign to use f o r  p a i r s of words which are s i m i l a r i n meaning, sound,  and/or s p e l l i n g requires  the signer  E n g l i s h words i n terms of the three  to analyze the p a i r of basic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of meaning, sound, and s p e l l i n g , and then to decide many of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s both words share.  how  I f the  E n g l i s h words share two of these three c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , then the same sign i s used f o r the d i f f e r e n t E n g l i s h words. If  the E n g l i s h words only  characteristics,  share one of the three  then a d i f f e r e n t sign i s used f o r each  14 word.  For example, the noun bear, meaning the animal, and  the verb bear, meaning to endure, and  pronounced  are both s p e l l e d  the same  the same; t h e r e f o r e , i n SEE I they would  have the same s i g n . In ASL these two words would be signed differently  because  t h e i r meanings are d i f f e r e n t .  In See I  the words, b i g and enormous, only share the meaning characteristic,  so they would be signed  differently.  However, i n ASL these two words use the same basic because  they are synonyms, and any intended  difference facial SEE  e x p r e s s i o n and sign modulation.  The d i f f e r e n c e s i n child, i n ASL  school.  system,  i s an o f f s h o o t  (SEE I I ) , another popular sign  of SEE I.  I t has 2,100 signs (61%  these signs are borrowed from ASL), 70 a f f i x e s , and  seven  contractions.  three c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s SEE  by a v a r i a t i o n i n  i f s/he does not have formal i n s t r u c t i o n  Signing Exact E n g l i s h  of  subtle  I signs and ASL signs could confuse the deaf  especially in  i n meaning would be i n d i c a t e d  sign  I t , too, uses the same two out of f o r determining sign usage as does  I, consequently r e s u l t i n g  signs.  in conflict  with some ASL  However, the authors of SEE II lessened i t s  complexity  f o r the user by o m i t t i n g the need to f i n d the  root word, and by having fewer  affixes  Nonetheless, the number of a f f i x e s user s t i l l  compared to SEE I.  is s t i l l  high, and the  has to analyze E n g l i s h words i n t o smaller  m o r p h o l o g i c a l u n i t s to o b t a i n the c o r r e c t  combination of  15 sign  usage. Linguistics  use  of V i s u a l E n g l i s h  with preschoolers  consists  of 500  and  (LOVE) was  kindergarten  its  sign for morphemes on  the  three  the  I t , too,  basis  meant to p a r a l l e l  the  syllablification  s i g n morphemes, and  the  fourth  contains  different  study. The  ASL  s i g n s , 317  from SEE two  are  I, SEE  Sign E n g l i s h  I I , and  LOVE.  and  255  markers, and  There are  sign marker can  s i g n word, u n l i k e  the  other three  no  sign to represent  fingerspelled.  the  sign  are  are  borrowed  modified borrowed  consists  of  A sign  mother, t a l k ) ,  prefixes ( i . e .  14 d i f f e r e n t  one  on  two.  a sign marker.  only  limitation  sign  Dictionary  Signed E n g l i s h  an E n g l i s h word ( i . e . g i r l ,  no  the  slightly  signs  a s i g n word and  un + happy).  other  signs  a sign marker i n d i c a t e s s u f f i x e s and  t a l k + ed,  they  With so many  than the (SE),  of  LOVE  combinations, t h i s  s i g n words are  invented,  kinds of s i g n s :  word represents and  134  of two  spelling.  2,200 s i g n words of which 1,353  unchanged from ASL,  combined  distinguishes  of E n g l i s h words.  system i s Sign E n g l i s h  system used i n t h i s  be  speech rhythm i n that  system appears even more complicated The  It  of s i m i l a r i t y  f a c t o r s of sound, meaning and  are  follow  children.  morphemes which supposedly can  to form over 2,000 E n g l i s h words.  signs  designed for  sign  be added to any  one  sign systems which have  a d d i t i o n of sign markers.  If there  the E n g l i s h word, then the word i s  is  16 The  14 s i g n markers represent the most f r e q u e n t l y  meaningful E n g l i s h s t r u c t u r a l ed, i r r e g u l a r ing,  adverb  plural 's,  affixes  used  ( r e g u l a r past verb -  past verb, verb p a r t i c i p l e - en, verb form -  form - l y , a d j e c t i v e form - v_j_ p l u r a l - s^  irregular,  comparative  p r e f i x e s - un,  t h i r d person s i n g u l a r - s_^ possessive -  - e r , s u p e r l a t i v e - e s t , agent - e r , i n , and i_m ).  Despite the fact  that  14 markers do not show a l l E n g l i s h word changes, authors of t h i s  sign system  the  f e e l that to have more sign  markers would make the system They even suggest  these  too cumbersome f o r the user.  that i f 14 are too many f o r the user,  then the user can s t a r t with seven of the sign markers (irregular  past, i r r e g u l a r  person s i n g u l a r - s_^ and  p l u r a l , verb form - i n g , t h i r d  the a d v e r b i a l , a d j e c t i v a l ,  possessive  forms) .  I f seven  difficult,  then a minimum of three sign markers are  recommended f o r the beginner plural  and  sign markers are s t i l l  (irregular  the " i n g " verb form).  past,  Although  Signed E n g l i s h permit the user f l e x i b i l i t y the sign markers,  and too  irregular  the c r e a t o r s of i n the use of  they do. advise that the best s t r a t e g y i s  to use a l l of the markers a l l of the time.  ASL,  The  s e l e c t i o n of t h i s system's sign l e x i c o n i s from  and  the authors even advise using one's l o c a l deaf  community signs whenever p o s s i b l e . differentiated  T h e i r signs are  according to word meaning.  there would be two  signs to depict  For example  the E n l g i s h words,  17 l i g h t , meaning not heavy, and l i g h t , meaning not dark. Unlike  the other systems, E n g l i s h homonyms are signed  differently. conceptual very  SE has adopted the ASL l e x i c a l  differentiation.  rule of  They have also maintained  some  common s i n g l e ASL signs that are e q u i v a l e n t to two  E n g l i s h words ( i . e . one s i g n f o r Santa Claus, one sign f o r of course  ).  SE o r i g i n a l l y was intended elementary  students  as were most of the other sign systems.  However, B o r n s t e i n (1982), presently  f o r use with preschool and  the p r i n c i p a l proponent of SE,  recommends SE f o r use with adolescents  to a s s i s t  them i n the l e a r n i n g of s p e c i f i c E n g l i s h grammar r u l e s . does say, though, that i t i s not necessary sign  system i n i t s exact  internalized with  this  format  to f o l l o w the  once the student has  the grammar r u l e s of E n g l i s h .  suggestion  later,  The problem  i s that the teacher would continuously  have to i n d i v i d u a l i z e h i s / h e r use of Signed each student  He  i n the classroom.  the already present  English for  This paper w i l l  difficulties  discuss  involved i n  c o n s i s t e n t l y using a s i g n system i n one way, l e t alone adding use  to the problems by asking the teacher  to vary the  of the s i g n system f o r each of the students. A great advantage i n using the Signed E n g l i s h system  is  that there are supplemental  reading m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e  which have been published f o r the classroom This makes t h i s  or home u s e /  system more consumer appealing than the  18 other three.  The  SE  use  than the  its  r u l e of only  its  conceptual basis  sign system i s c e r t a i n l y  other three  adding one  sign marker to a sign word,  s i g n system represent that  the  deaf c h i l d  A  f o r sign formation.  i t s users;  to be  however, the  easily  and  simpler  better  question  enough E n g l i s h can  to  because of i t s fewer sign markers,  expandable sign system i s l i k e l y adopted by  simpler  liked  and  does a simple  in a v i s i b l e  learn English  format  so  remains  unanswered. For  f u r t h e r reading  recommends the dictionary  The  sign system  (1973), Meadow (1975), Gustason  1976), C r y s t a l and Griffith  Effectiveness  Craig  (1978), Reimer  Systems f o r Learning  p o l i c y makers assume that  i s l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h v i a an E n g l i s h  yet,  there  this  assumption.  (cited  (1980).  of Sign  Educators and student  to the  writer  themselves, mentioned above, or to read  reviews by B o n r s t e i n  (1979), and  these sign systems, the  reader to r e f e r  texts  i n Williams,  on  is insufficient  empirical  It i s now  the  deaf  sign system;  data to  14 years since  English  substantiate  the  implementation of E n g l i s h  sign systems, and  the w r i t e r  able  research  that  to f i n d  evaluate  the  few  relevant  sign systems to see  articles  i f they are  was  attempt  doing what  educators expect them to do.  There are  that  communication methods with  compare the  use  of t o t a l  several  studies  to  19 o r a l methods and achievement do not c l e a r l y and  their One  indicate  gains; however, these studies  i f an E n g l i s h sign system was used,  area of focus i s not on E n g l i s h language  gains.  study which does support the use of an E n g l i s h  s i g n system i n developing E n g l i s h  language a b i l i t y  B r a s e l and Quigley (1977) study.  This study looked at the  influence  of a c h i l d ' s e a r l y  environment  on l a t e r  i s the  language and communication  syntactic  language a b i l i t y .  Brasel  and Quigley sent a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , designed to i d e n t i f y the language and communication early  method used during infancy and  childhood, to a target  selected  p o p u l a t i o n from which they  subjects to f i t i n t o four experimental groups.  Two of the groups were from a manual communication  home  environment, and two were from an o r a l environment. group had 18 s t u d e n t s , ages 10 to 18.  Each  The subjects of one  of the manual groups had deaf parents, who had a good command of E n g l i s h , and who used a signed E n g l i s h method with t h e i r  child  from i n f a n c y .  The parents of the other  manual group were a l s o deaf, but used American Language i n the home. were h e a r i n g .  Both of the o r a l groups' parents  The parents of one o r a l group had worked  i n t e n s i v e l y and c o n t i n u o u s l y with t h e i r the hearing  Sign  l o s s was discovered  child  from the time  to the commencement of  s c h o o l ; the others had not. The experimenters gave the subjects  the Stanford Achievement  Test  (SAT) on paragraph  meaning, word meaning, language, and s p e l l i n g , and the Test  20 of S y n t a c t i c A b i l i t y  (TSA).  groups s i g n i f i c a n t l y  out  measures.  o r a l groups on  f o r the  interpreting  several  the  f o r many v a r i a b l e s i s unclear  cautions  the  i f the  could  a lack of  the  have i n f l u e n c e d  key  the  other manual group.  factor in their children's  to conclude that an E n g l i s h their  the  English  during  the  For  performance than  example, i t seems reasonable  that  parents, themselves, had growing years,  c h i l d r e n to experience the  instill  a desire  was  these deaf parents must have chosen to  t h e i r own  learning English.  sign  for their  better  sign system because they f e l t  that  findings.  Perhaps these  i t would  c h i l d r e n to become s k i l l e d E n g l i s h users.  possible  their  language goals  subjects  parents' behavior towards these goals  the  on  control  deaf parents used an E n g l i s h  parents emphasized E n g l i s h  the  scores.  Selecting  system e x c l u s i v e l y or i f they also used ASL.  and  than  reader must take i n  c e r t a i n l y involves that  better  used  equivalent  r e s u l t s of t h i s study.  via a questionnaire  children  both  aspect of r e l a t i v i z a t i o n  f o r which both manual groups had  There are  It  the  sign system did s i g n i f i c a n t l y  manual group except  the TSA  performed  both manual  They also found 'that the manual group who  the E n g l i s h ASL  They found that  and  use help  It i s  struggled  with  did not want  same d i f f i c u l t i e s  in  These parents might also have t r i e d  to  to read i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n by exposing them  to books at a very e a r l y  age.  A second study a c c r e d i t i n g the  use  of an E n g l i s h  sign  21  system  i s that of R a f f i n , Davis, and Gilman  (1978).  s t u d e n t s , ages 5 to 11, who  had  system  syntax, were asked  right  representing English  been exposed  versus wrong E n g l i s h sentences.  presented signing  The  Deaf  to a sign to i d e n t i f y  sentences were  to the s u b j e c t s v i a a videotape of a person  the sentences  i n an E n g l i s h sign system.  c h i l d r e n , ages 4 to 6, were also asked sentences  by l i s t e n i n g  Hearing  to i d e n t i f y their  scores  were compared to those of the deaf students.  The  results  showed that deaf students performed  to the  hearing group, performance  and  that  to the sentences, and  the  there was  similarly  a consistent  increase in  as a f u n c t i o n of years of experience with the  E n g l i s h sign  system.  Recently, B o r n s t e i n , S a u l n i e r , and Hamilton B o r n s t e i n and S a u l n i e r on a f i v e year and English  system  reserchers 4,  (1981) p u b l i s h e d t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s  c o n t i n u i n g program i n which a signed  i s being used.  In the f a l l  of 1974,  these  s e l e c t e d 20 h e a r i n g impaired p r e s c h o o l e r s , age  to p a r t i c i p a t e  in a longitudinal  program using an E n g l i s h sign system Annually the experimenters E n g l i s h language  skills  study of an e d u c a t i o n a l for  communication.  evaluated the development of  by these c h i l d r e n .  r e c e p t i v e and e x p r e s s i v e E n g l i s h s k i l l s children  (1980) and  They assessed  by g i v i n g  the  the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test, the  Northwestern  Syntax  Screening T e s t , and  Morphology Test which had  the Signed E n g l i s h  been s p e c i f i c a l l y  developed to  22 test  11 i n f l e c t i o n a l word endings  noun p l u r a l - s_j_ i r r e g u l a r 's,  comparatives  noun p l u r a l , noun possessive -  appraised 4-point The  person  singular - Sj^ adjective  - e_r and e s t , verb p a r t i c i p l e - en, and agent  marker - e_r ). each  rating  At the end of the f i f t h child's scale.  c o n c l u s i o n s of t h i s  s i g n method.  year, the teachers  e x p r e s s i v e use of these markers on a  p o s i t i v e , and they do support  long term  study are very  the use of an E n g l i s h  The c h i l d r e n demonstrated  their English  skills,  indicating  annual  that  investigators reached  that  Test as another  The  findings  encouraging use  children remains find  study  group of deaf  students who had  morphological  system  earlier.  of these three s t u d i e s are most  and s u p p o r t i v e of an E n g l i s h sign system f o r  i n the classroom.  improvement  in this  The  on the Peabody P i c t u r e  been exposed to an E n g l i s h based s i g n , but many years  improvement  language.  the c h i l d r e n  the same vocabulary l e v e l  Vocabulary not  also noted  based  they were  developing some competence i n the E n g l i s h  of  (regular  verb ending - i n g , r e g u l a r verb past - ed, i r r e g u l a r  verb past, verb t h i r d  in  and word changes  However, d e s p i t e the marked  i n E n g l i s h , i t must be s t r e s s e d  still  lagged behind  that  t h e i r hearing peers.  these It  f o r researchers to continue to probe t h i s area to  the answers to many q u e s t i o n s .  which the E n g l i s h  language  Is there a l e v e l at  gains seem to plateau?  Is there  23  a difference is  i n E n g l i s h gains when the E n g l i s h  used i n i t s e n t i r e t y and when It i s not?  c h i l d r e n who do not use an E n g l i s h catch  up i n t h e i r E n g l i s h  ah E n g l i s h itself,  sign system?  skills  Do the  sign system  eventually  to t h e i r peers who do use  Is i t the E n g l i s h  which causes the E n g l i s h  sign system  sign  system,  improvement, or i s i t  another v a r i a b l e or some combination of v a r i a b l e s that i s responsible?  How easy i s i t to l e a r n to use an E n g l i s h  s i g n system, both r e c e p t i v e l y and e x p r e s s i v e l y ?  These and  many more questions need to be explored.  Some  r e s u l t s which r e l a t e to the l a s t  and which lead to  some i n t e r e s t i n g i n f e r e n c e s in The  the f o l l o w i n g Processing The  receive retrieve  question  research  about sign systems are discuss  pages.  of Sign  processing  Systems  of language concerns i t s e l f  with how we  language, how we c o g n i t i v e l y process i t , and how we i t f o r expression.  area of research  as that  The l i t e r a t u r e  of i n f o r m a t i o n  r e f e r s to t h i s  processing.  understand how sign systems are processed  To  requires an  understanding of how sign language and spoken language are processed, how they are s i m i l a r and how they are d i f f e r e n t . Both languages, sign and spoken, are complete  lingustic  systems, and, y e t , both are quite modality s p e c i f i c . spoken language i s a u d i t o r y - v o c a l , visual-manual.  A  and a sign language i s  24  If  a s i g n language and an o r a l  differently  then  questionable. concern  language are processed  the use of a sign system to teach E n g l i s h i s  Fenn (1976) and S t u c k l e s s (1978) both  as to whether a simple  parallel  can be drawn between  an a u d i t o r y - v o c a l mode of communication and a mode of communication.  visual-manual  The ear appears to be designed f o r  the a n a l y s i s of temporal i n f o r m a t i o n , and, the eye, spatial  Studies  (Neville  & Bellugi,  P a i v i o , 1978) on i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g with  people  for  Information.  Sign - word p r o c e s s i n g . 1978;  express  hearing  have revealed the f o l l o w i n g :  1.  The l e f t  hemisphere i s s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d  processing  (language input) and the r i g h t  non-verbal  processing  2. stored  i n the l e f t  visual  stimulus  resolved  and motor i n p u t ) .  a visual  language hemisphere.  being  hemisphere, to  (i.e. visual-spatial  The p r i n t e d word, although  stored i n the l e f t  to v e r b a l  stimulus, i s  The c o n f l i c t  of a  hemisphere was  by t h e o r i z i n g that the r e c e i v e r of the v i s u a l  input  changed the message i n t o an a u d i t o r y code before t r a n s f e r occurred 3.  to long term memory. I f the input stimulus  non-verbal  storage  areas,  then  a c t i v a t e s both  the v e r b a l and  the input would be e a s i e r to  recall. In l i g h t  of the above research f i n d i n g s , researchers  were i n t r i g u e d with how deaf using sign language, a v i s u a l  students  process  language i n p u t .  information Are the signs  25 given a r i g h t linguistic  hemispheric preference even though  input?  Do deaf people process i n f o r m a t i o n i n the  same manner as hearing people? revealed 1. left in  they are a  Studies i n t h i s area have  the f o l l o w i n g : Deaf asphasics and deaf people who had a damaged  hemisphere due to a stroke were communicatively  using signs ( K e l l y , 2.  There  impaired  1978).  is a left  b r a i n hemispheric preference f o r  signs which are l i n g u i s t i c  visual  stimuli  (Neville  & Bellugi,  1978). 3. for  recall 4.  of  Signs f o r a deaf person render words more meaningful ( C o n l i n & Pavio,  1975).  The deaf use a s t r a t e g y of v i s u a l manual r e h e a r s a l  sign input i n short term memory before storage i n long  term memory (Klima & B e l l u g i , It  appears  t h a t , f o r both the hearing and the deaf, the  p r o c e s s i n g of l i n g u i s t i c hemisphere. and  1979).  Perhaps  i n f o r m a t i o n takes place i n the l e f t  the b r a i n p u l l s out the message content  stores i t i n I t s l i n g u i s t i c  irrespective  abode, the l e f t  of mode of t r a n s m i s s i o n .  Indeed,  hemisphere, Levelt  (1980)  advises a g a i n s t concern f o r the nature of the input s i g n a l because  i t does not need to c o i n c i d e with what i s i n the  process. On the whole, none of these s t u d i e s negate s i g n system use  for acquiring English.  of an E n g l i s h sign system  the use of a  In f a c t , they support the  i n that they i n d i c a t e  that  26 signs and  words are both  processed  signs p o s s i b l y help f a c i l i t a t e deaf  linguistically,  and  that  the remembering of words f o r  subjects. S i g n i n g and  speaking  simultaneously.  The  o r i g i n a t o r s of  s i g n systems have taken great care to invent sign a f f i x e s to convey the important  meaningful  morphemes of E n g l i s h , and  where there i s no sign to represent speaker-signer themselves, yet,  i s advised  1981a).  that they  say ( M a n o r & P e t i t o ,  analysis.  It i s important  to note  s t u d i e s c l a s s for that the teachers i n  by the school's a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to  routine exemplified a t y p i c a l variety teacher  the sign systems  the E n g l i s h signed  during a s o c i a l  the best users of the s i g n system.  interaction:  method of  t h i s method appears even  (1979) videotaped  study were considered  prepared  Kluwin,  1977).  communication of teachers  be  1979;  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of complete E n g l i s h than  Marmor and P e t i t t o  this  sign systems,  systems, a p p a r e n t l y , are not s i g n i n g  each spoken word, and  (Reich & B i c k , 1976,  later  The  This i s , a l s o , the case with the Rochester  fingerspelling less  to f i n g e r s p e l l .  are complete r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of E n g l i s h , and,  the users of these  everything  a word, the  lecture  and  A l s o , the of  class  classroom  questions; reading from a  chart; spontaneous question and  comments from the  students. The  a n a l y s i s revealed that the teachers  as spoken only 5% to  8%  of the time.  The  signed e x a c t l y  signed e r r o r s  27  consisted  of omitting  E n g l i s h words and E n g l i s h  word endings, and the signed  inflectional  sentences were ungrammatical In  both E n g l i s h and ASL. Kluwin's (1981a) study revealed f u r t h e r noted  that  similar  deaf teachers deleted  used more elements of ASL than hearing words, the deaf teachers' English  and ASL b e t t e r  teachers,  signing  results.  f a r fewer signs and  teachers.  followed  than the s i g n i n g  He  In other  the grammar of  of the hearing  although s i m i l a r grammatical e r r o r s were made by  both groups of teachers. These two studies English  imply that  language behavioural  the consistency  model i s i n serious  Kluwin (1981b) proposes that we re-evaluate conventional  sign systems not only  difficulties  i n signing  written  the use of  and speaking simultaneously, but, representing  English,  question  than the spoken E n g l i s h of current  of what are the e f f e c t s  of E n g l i s h  an i n c o n s i s t e n t model may r e s t r a i n  development of deaf A possible  language I t could be  the E n g l i s h  language  students.  explanation  f o r this  lack of one-to-one  correspondence i n simultaneously s i g n i n g inferred  every day  Schools f o r the deaf need to s e r i o u s l y address  development from an i n c o n s i s t e n t E n g l i s h model. that  spoken  A sign system, i t appears i s more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  common usage. the  question.  because of the  a l s o , because they are flawed i n t r u l y English.  of the  from studies  and. speaking can be  d e a l i n g with the s i m i l a r i t i e s and  28 differences  between s i g n i n g and  to b i o l o g i c a l Dalgleisch, Bellugi,  constraints  1977;  speaking and  (Bellugi & Fischer,  These aspects are  articulation  for words was  articulation  f o r ASL  i n production the  signs.  r a t e s , the  researchers  found that  nearly  double the  rate of  perhaps there  c o n t r o l s the  an optimal  range of time i n which l i n g u i s t i c  If t h i s were so, then there  users of s i g n languages and  special linguistic  (auditory-vocal of productions optimal  range.  and  devices  because the  possible  of language w i t h i n  However, the  would  be  for each modality length  central neurological  processing  special linguistic  spoken language ( B e l l u g i ,  simultaneously  specific  this  of  o r a l languages would  T h e o r e t i c a l l y , there would be no  to have i d e n t i c a l  was  processing  visual-manual) so as to keep the  rate problem i n simultaneously ASL  produced  rate of output  information.  create  difference  is a neurological  linguistic  The  this  From these f i n d i n g s , the  language system that  occurs.  production  rate of  number of p r o p o s i t i o n s  i n f e r r e d that  Fischer  the  However, despite  same i n each language.  central  B e l l u g i and  Grosjean (1979a, 1979b) compared the  of speech to s i g n s , and  1979;  examined below.  Sign ~ word rate of p r o d u c t i o n .  rates  1972;  Grosjean, 1979a, 1979b; Wilbur,  1980).  (1972) and  their allusion  devices  production  spoken E n g l i s h of ASL  and  make i t  p r o p o s i t i o n rates with that  of  1980).  problem occurs when one  tries  to  process spoken E n g l i s h i n a one-to-one sign  29 correspondence.  In t h i s s i t u a t i o n  a temporal-sequential  one i s t r y i n g  input (spoken  English),  i n a v i s u a l - s e q u e n t i a l mode with the f u l l of E n g l i s h which are designed Is t h i s  found  linguistic  devices  f o r a temporal-sequential mode.  (1980) work gives i n s i g h t  that i t took  proposition ASL.  simultaneously,  b i o l o g i c a l l y possible?  Bellugi's She  to represent  into  this  twice as long to express  question.  an u n d e r l y i n g  i n a sign system as i t d i d i n spoken E n g l i s h or  T h e r e f o r e , i n a given period of time, the  signer-speaker  of E n g l i s h w i l l  process meaningful  content  have to somehow b i o l o g i c a l l y  i n which the rate of production  f o r an u n d e r l y i n g p r o p o s i t i o n i n signs and words We can i n f e r to handle Either  this  from the l i t e r a t u r e  discrepancy  conflict.  that our system seems  of production i n one of two ways.  the speech i s slowed down i n order  to accommodate the  manual E n g l i s h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s (Grosjean, 1979b), or signs and  inflectional  Kluwin, is  are omitted  ( M a n o r & P e t i t t o , 1979;  1981a); n e i t h e r of which seems adequate.  purposely  uncomfortable and  endings  slowed, i t i s c o g n i t i v e l y f o r the sender  s i g n markers are omitted  When speech  and b i o l o g i c a l l y  and the r e c e i v e r , and when signs then E n g l i s h i s not being  represented. The  lengthy time  i t takes  to produce an u n d e r l y i n g  p r o p o s i t i o n with a s i g n system p o s s i b l y creates problems i n processing memory.  i n f o r m a t i o n from short term memory to long term  S t u c k l e s s (1978) cautions that i c o n i c memory i s so  30 short  that a temporal-sequential  input  (spoken  English)  through the eyes ( s i g n systems and f i n g e r s p e l l i n g ) i s often lost  before  that  r e c e i v e r s of a sign system are not g e t t i n g enough sign  information processing  meaning i s attached  i n short  to input.  It i s possible  term memory f o r clause  i n t o long term memory.  This  and sentence  inference  from the the r e s u l t s of the f o l l o w i n g three  i s made  studies.  s t u d i e s were on the p r o c e s s i n g  of signs and words.  and  (1979) found that  P a i v i o (1975) and P a r a s n i s  subjects for  had b e t t e r r e c a l l  signs.  offered  The t h i r d  f o r the b e t t e r r e c a l l  shorter  how much message content  subjects.  The question  of a sign system i s retained i n  i n auditory  to c o n s i d e r .  short  According  term v i s u a l memory i s an important to these s t u d i e s , the maximum  v e r b a l message i n a u d i t o r y memory w i l l v i s u a l memory I f there  What kind of semantic sense does  b r a i n make of these d i f f e r e n c e s ?  meaning i s perhaps  not e n t i r e l y f i t i n t o  i s a one to one correspondence between  spoken words and the s i g n s . the  signs f o r deaf  term v i s u a l memory as compared to the i d e n t i c a l message  retained one  of the hearing.  than the memory span f o r  comparable E n g l i s h words f o r hearing  short  hearing  study by Klima and B e l l u g i (1979)  an e x p l a n a t i o n  i s one item  Conlin  f o r words than deaf subjects had  They noted that the memory span f o r l e x i c a l subject  Two  What kind of semantic  lost.  Research needs to c l a r i f y about E n g l i s h sign systems.  these b i o l o g i c a l  concerns  I f i t i s not f e a s i b l e f o r a  31 person to speak and alter Its  the E n g l i s h  new  sign system  form might  fullness  might  sign s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , then perhaps  not f u l l y  English  to be more e d u c a t i o n a l l y represent E n g l i s h , but  not be necessary f o r the c h i l d  understanding of E n g l i s h .  assist  b e t t e r than i t s current non-standard This study i n v e s t i g a t e s  Signed E n g l i s h  further  does a deaf student  i s because  sixties  by asking the simple  retell?  language  cultural  value.  (1960), and,  by  today, Is  there are  study of ASL  with the work of Stokoe  used  Although ASL,  as a true language,  the l i n g u i s t i c  r u l e s governing ASL  child  Sign Language  s k e p t i c s as to i t s l i n g u i s t i c and this  the deaf  Sign Language i s the v i s u a l  by l i n g u i s t s  to grasp a good  the e d u c a t i o n a l  the deaf community i n North America. accepted  then  much of a short story presented i n  American American  sound.  application.  of an E n g l i s h sign system  e x p l o r a t o r y q u e s t i o n , how  can  Consistency i n the use of an  sign system w i l l no doubt  implications  we  still Perhaps,  only began i n the the  are not as w e l l understood  linguistics  as those of  English. American language  Sign Language i s not a u n i v e r s a l form of sign  (Bellugi  Mayberry, 1978). different dispel  & Klima, 1975; People  sign languages.  other myths about  B a t t i s o n & Jordon,  of d i f f e r e n t Researchers ASL  (Bellugi  1976;  g e o g r a p h i c a l areas have have also proceeded & Klima, 1975;  to  Mandell,  32  1977; ASL  Battison,  1978; S i p l e , 1978; Klima & B e l l u g i , 1979).  i s not a derived  limited  expression,  representations,  form of E n g l i s h , i t i s not a language of and i t s signs  are not i c o n i c  but a r b i t r a r y symbols.  I t has i t s own  l e x i c o n and grammatical p r i n c i p l e s , and i t has the l i n g u i s t i c means to express d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of a b s t r a c t i o n s . Linguistic Description The  following  linguistics  of ASL  i s a b r i e f summary of the important  features  of ASL.  Stokoe (1960, 1972, 1976, 1978) was the f i r s t to d e s c r i b e  ASL i n a l i n g u i s t i c manner.  d i v i d e d ASL i n t o three added:  (a) the place  configuration; orientation  researcher  He o r i g i n a l l y  elements, and l a t e r  a f o u r t h was  where the sign occurs;  (b) the hand  ( c ) the movement of the hand; and (d) the  of the hand i n r e l a t i o n to the body.  These  elements combine i n d i f f e r e n t ways to form the l e x i c o n (signs)  of ASL i n the same way that  word (Wilbur, there  1979).  sounds combine to form a  Signs have meanings as do words, and  i s no i d e n t i c a l one-to-one correspondence between the  l e x i c o n of signs The  and the l e x i c o n of E n g l i s h words.  morphological processes i n ASL seem to be a r e s u l t  of modifying a b a s i c sign along with f a c i a l expression body movement, rather sign  (Wilbur,  derivational  than by adding a marker to the basic  1979; Baker & Cokely, 1980). affix  and  The one known  i s the agent sign marker, person, which  33 changes the verb to the doer The through  (teach to t e a c h e r ) .  m o d i f i c a t i o n of a basic sign can be (a) changes of hand movement and  accomplished  orientation  Herrmann, 1977), (b) r e d u p l i c a t i o n of a sign Hoemann, 1978), and 1976; case  i n ASL  uses  affixes.  analyzing frequency,  T h i s way  i s quite d i f f e r e n t In ASL,  of changing  nouns are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  (b) d i r e c t i o n a l i t y , An ASL  but d i f f e r  and  grammar  from verbs  noun and  nouns may  (a)  verb u s u a l l y have the same  i n frequency and manner.  to the verb form.  by  (c) manner (Baker &  With  few  r e s t r a i n e d movements i n  Some examples of these noun -  verb signs are c h a i r - s i t , food - eat, and In ASL,  (Friedman,  from that of E n g l i s h which  e x c e p t i o n s , nouns have repeated and comparison  1973;  the changes i n movement on three dimensions:  Cokely, 1980). direction,  (Fischer,  (c) the manipulation of space  Edge & Herrmann, 1977).  (Edge &  be p l u r a l i z e d  f l y - airplane.  by r e p e a t i n g the  sign.  However, i f the noun i s a l r e a d y modified by a p l u r a l a d j e c t i v e marker ( i . e . many + noun), then the a d j e c t i v e marker becomes the i n d i c a t o r is  no need to repeat the noun s i g n .  plural  f o r number, and  there  In E n g l i s h , however,  p l u r a l i z a t i o n most o f t e n occurs by adding an s^ to the noun (i.e.  boy + s ) , and  adjective s).  still  In ASL,  imaginary  a noun which i s modified by a p l u r a l  r e q u i r e s a p l u r a l morpheme ( i . e . many boy +  time aspect i s p r i m a r i l y manifested  time l i n e extending forward and  body at the shoulder.  The  by an  backward from  the  s i g n e r points to a place somewhere  34 on  this  imaginary  time l i n e  does not  have d i f f e r e n t  English.  Instead, ASL  to e s t a b l i s h time r e f e r e n c e .  signs to represent  conversation,  a signer assigns  an object or a person. established signer  an area  i n space to  Throughout the discourse  space with his index  p o s i t i o n with  represent  this  relations.  and  (1975)  this  However, ASL  time by o r d e r i n g  Friedman, 1976; 1980;  contrary.  This i n f l e c t i o n a l  (Baker,  Liddell,  1978;  seem to think that  ASL  system for grammatical  f o r freedom of word  body posture.  order.  In d i s c o u r s e , these  non-sign channels combine together sender's  sign  to give unambiguous  utterances.  continues  come to a p p r e c i a t e especially  the  system c o n s i s t s of m o d i f i c a t i o n of hands,  eyes, f a c e , head, and  research  in  Fischer  More researchers  M c l n t i r e , 1983)  allows  most of  sequence, although  Baker & Padden, 1978;  r e l a t i o n s , which thereby  As  assuming  grammatical  appears unexplainable  depends on a complex i n f l e c t i o n a l  meaning to the  the  for words to be ordered  o r d e r i n g determines  r u l e s of l i n e a r  would argue the  Baker & Cokely,  f i n g e r or by  The  his body.  syntax of E n g l i s h allows  a c e r t a i n way,  and  of a  r e f e r s to the r e f e r e n t by e i t h e r p o i n t i n g to  The  1976;  At the s t a r t  reference  l o c a t i o n i n space r e f e r s to the r e f e r e n t .  pre-established the  pronouns as does  e s t a b l i s h e s pronominal  through r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n space.  ASL  to d e s c r i b e ASL,  a l l of the  linguistic  i t s non-sign f e a t u r e s .  we  should  devices  of  clearly ASL,  35  Psycho-Social  L i n g u i s t i c D e s c r i p t i o n of ASL  In d e s c r i b i n g any language i t i s a l s o important to include  information  language occurs.  on the s o c i a l  According  s i t u a t i o n i n which the  to Hymes (1971) a person's  communicative  competence r e q u i r e s a twofold  an u n d e r l y i n g  knowledge of s o c i a l  underlying  appropriateness  knowledge of grammatical s t r u c t u r e .  (1967) theory will  knowledge:  (a)  and (b) an Lenneberg's  of language a c q u i s i t i o n s t a t e s that the c h i l d  l e a r n the language r u l e s only  through a c t i v e  social  interaction. ASL,  the language of the deaf community, i s not acquired  by a l l members of the deaf community i n the same manner (Cicourel  & Boese, 1972a, 1972b; Stokoe, 1960, 1970).  There  appear to be two groups of native ASL s i g n e r s , and a group of non-native s i g n e r s w i t h i n are  the deaf community.  Some members  true n a t i v e signers who learned ASL as a f i r s t  language,  and, t h e r e f o r e , know the s u b t l e t i e s of s i g n i n g f o r the appropriate (Circourel the  & Boese,  of intimacy,  1972a).  emotion, and humour  True native  signers are u s u a l l y  c h i l d r e n born to deaf parents and who have had ASL  language  input  acquisition the  communications  since i n f a n c y .  Studies  of deaf c h i l d r e n born to deaf parents p a r a l l e l s  a c q u i s i t i o n of language i n hearing  Bellugi, 1975;  on ASL language  1964; B e l l u g i ,  c h i l d r e n (Brown &  1971; Olson, 1972;  B o n v i l l i a n , Nelson, & Charrow, 1976).  Col1ins-Ahlgren, The c h i l d  36 initially to  expresses one word phrases and  i n c r e a s e the s y n t a c t i c a l  c o m p l e x i t i e s utterances u n t i l  u t t e r a n c e s match those of the adult The  the home. people.  born to hearing parents who  This group comprises I t has been suggested  community learned ASL peers and  of  ASL  not from b i r t h .  that  d i d not use ASL i n  ASL  these members of the deaf the playground with  their  i s t h e i r n a t i v e language,  Their s k i l l  i s dependent on t h e i r  community are  of the great m a j o r i t y of deaf  in school—on  i n the dormitory.  the  user.  other ASL n a t i v e s i g n e r s of the deaf  the,deaf c h i l d  albeit,  over time continues  i n using the  school l i f e  subtleties  e i t h e r as a  residential  student or n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l  involvement  i n the deaf community as young adults and i n  later  life.  adult  language r o l e models f o r the new  student, and  their  The m a j o r i t y of these deaf people become the  ASL  generation of deaf  children. The  non-native s i g n e r s , on the other hand, are the  s i g n e r s who  find  it difficult  to express the s u b t l e t i e s of  Intimacy, emotion, and humour i n ASL, of  ASL  hearing  signs and E n g l i s h  Meadow (1972) noted the l i f e  into  residential  until  their  later  adulthood. that  there were three time periods  of a person that may  the deaf  use a mixture  Often these deaf signers had  parents and were not exposed to ASL  years i n school or u n t i l  in  signs.  and who  mark h i s or her entrance  community: (a) i n f a n c y , (b) enrollment i n a  school f o r the deaf, and  (c) the period  following  37 graduation.  It i s l i k e l y  competence of the ASL periods of i n i t i a l Stokoe situation one  that  the l i n g u i s t i c  user i s also c o r r e l a t e d  affiliation  (1970) found that  with the deaf there was  i n the deaf community.  i n which  language,  and  to these community.  A diglossic  situation is  of the same  according to status  Stokoe  the  described  varieties  of the deaf community i n terms  continuum  with ASL at one end of the continuum,  the other end.  varied  their  Stokoe  felt  more E n g l i s h - l i k e  , ASL, was  family. coined  English  The high v a r i e t y , a  l e c t u r e s , and the  such  low  found i n conversations with f r i e n d s  and  Woodard (1973) e l a b o r a t e d on Stokoes's i d e a s , and the term P i d g i n Sign E n g l i s h  in-between language It  varieties  usage i n the deaf i s unfortunate that  than that of E n g l i s h American  community. the deaf people i n Stokoe's  signs.  as a lower status  The  believe  language  former e d u c a t i o n a l d e n i a l of  Sign Language as a language  rejection  (PSE) to describe these  (on the ASL-English continuum) of  (1970) s t u d i e s looked upon ASL  to  and  used f o r formal s i t u a t i o n s  as church sermons and u n i v e r s i t y variety  two-dimensional  on the formalness or  situation.  s i g n i n g was  of a  language  that members of the community  sign use dependent  informalness of the s o c i a l  language  are ranked  by the members of the s o c i e t y .  at  social  a diglossic  there i s more than one v a r i e t y these v a r i e t i e s  and  and i t s current  from the school curriculums can lead deaf students that American  Sign Language i s something  less  than  38 E n g l i s h , and that by using ASL, they are something a normal that  person.  Kannapell (1974) and B e l l u g i  to deny ASL as a language  person's  less  (1975) f e e l  of the deaf i s to deny a  deafness.  F o r t u n a t e l y , deaf people are now openly d e c l a r i n g in  their  than  language,  and they would l i k e  pride  to see ASL i n c l u d e d i n  the school c u r r i c u l u m (Stewart, 1982).  This pride i n ASL  goes hand i n hand with recent trends i n human r i g h t s , n a t i v e language  r i g h t s , and l i n g u i s t i c ASL s t u d i e s .  education i s being suggested use  of an E n g l i s h  Bilingual  as an a l t e r n a t i v e  sign system  to the sole  ( K a n n a p e l l , 1974; B e l l u g i ,  1975). The  argument f o r b i l i n g u a l  education i s based  e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o - s o c i a l development of the deaf  on the person.  Not  only are there e d u c a t i o n a l problems with the r e c e p t i o n  and  e x p r e s s i o n of an E n g l i s h  sign system  as discussed i n the  previous s e c t i o n , but sign systems are not used interaction  of the deaf community (Stewart, 1982).  (1978) s t r e s s e d to p a r t i c i p a t e hearing  that fully  Cohen  the deaf adolescent should be encouraged i n h i s or her community be i t the  or the deaf community.  encouraging  i n the s o c i a l  the deaf c h i l d  community, but what about  The schools are c e r t a i n l y  to p a r t i c i p a t e  i n the hearing  the deaf community?  Pronovost  (1978) a s s e r t e d that i t i s e s s e n t i a l  that members of an  adolescent  accept and support  communicative  whatever communicative  environment style  s/he uses.  I f deaf students are  39 s i g n i n g ASL, school p o l i c i e s have shown that deaf  chidren of deaf  the home have o v e r a l l deaf ASL  do not r e f l e c t  this.  parents  Studies  who use ASL i n  b e t t e r school performance than  c h i l d r e n (Vernon & Koh, 1970; Balow & B r i l l , helps  should  students  b e t t e r , then  be teaching ASL to a l l of t h e i r  The  second question  on the e x p r e s s i v e recall  to perform  signing s k i l l s  of a short s t o r y .  signing  in this  continuum?  study  1975).  perhaps  deaf  other  schools  students.  probes f o r i n f o r m a t i o n  of the students  i n the  Where are the students  on the  Are t h e i r  If  signing s k i l l s  more l i k e ASL or  more l i k e E n g l i s h ? " P i d g i n Sign E n g l i s h Woodward  (1973) f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d Stokoe's (1970)  d e s c r i p t i o n of the d i g l o s s i c community, and concluded concern:  i n the deaf  that there were three elements of  two languages, ASL and E n g l i s h , and a p i d g i n  linguistic coined  language s i t u a t i o n  system which bridges  the phrase,  two languages.  He  " P i d g i n Sign E n g l i s h " (PSE) to describe  the communication used to bridge (1973) named the same signed combination  these  the two languages.  Bragg  communication, "Ameslish" (a  of the words Ameslan and E n g l i s h ) .  P i d g i n Sign E n g l i s h (PSE) i s the term used to d e s c r i b e a signed and  communication that c o n s i s t s of some grammar from ASL  some grammar from E n g l i s h .  I t s scope i s wide i n that  sometimes PSE communication i n c l u d e s more ASL f e a t u r e s , and  40 at other times i t has more English, f e a t u r e s . Mclntire PSE  (1980) compared the features  and found both s i m i l a r i t i e s  that  a l l signed  completely  following  signed  examples to help  us appreciate  The target  (SE) i t i s signed TO  THE  P-A-T-rt  explanation).  In Signed  me-GIVE-you + PAST  B00K+-rt  THE  In ASL i t i s  SECRETARY-lf  P-A-T-rt  BOOK+rt  L i s t e d below are a few examples of the  i n PSE v a r i a t i o n s and t h e i r approximations to  and E n g l i s h .  similar  yesterday".  i s "Pat  SECRETARY-lf" ( r e f e r to Appendix A f o r sign  same utterance ASL  the range of sign  YESTERDAY" .  pat-GIVE-secretary or YESTERDAY  gloss  us the  sentence i n E n g l i s h  "P-A-T  SECRETARY  "YESTERDAY  pat-GIVE-lf  sign system format i s  Baker and Cokely (1980, p. 76) give  gave the books to the s e c r e t a r y  BOOK + S  I t appears  communication which does not f o l l o w  v a r i a t i o n of PSE.  English  of ASL with those of  and d i f f e r e n c e .  an ASL format or an E n g l i s h  c a l l e d PSE.  R e i l l y and  The d i t t o marks (") show that  to the SE and/or the ASL s i g n .  (') means that  the sign i s  The s i n g l e d i t t o mark  the PSE sign i s almost i d e n t i c a l  s i g n or the ASL s i g n ; however, some l i n g u i s t i c  to the SE aspect has  been m o d i f i e d , added, or omitted from the SE or ASL s i g n . The  x. mark means that  ASL  s i g n or that  the sign i s not s i m i l a r to the SE or  the sign i s i n the wrong word order  position. A  1. p--A--T •« SE i ASL  G-A-V'-E  THE BOOK+S TO THE SECRETARY YESTERDAY  i  tt  X  X  it  X  X  X  2. P -A--T •• SE ASL i  me-GIVE-you THE BOOK+S TO THE SECRETARY YESTERDAY  3. P-'A--T •« SE ASL •  me-GIVE--you THE BOOK+ TO  it  X X  X X  In  it  X  X  4. P'A--T-rt pat-GIVE- -If i SE X ASL " x  tt  X  X  it  X  it  tt  i  X  SECRETARY YESTERDAY ••  X  X  X  BOOK+ TO X  "  It  X  X  SECRETARY YESTERDAY ti  X  "  x  it  •i  1  "  II  x  the l a s t example, number 4, the verb i s marked wrong  f o r ASL because  i t i s i n the wrong word order p o s i t i o n ,  although the sign i s p e r f e c t l y executed. these examples how many d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b l e , and how nebulous PSE  I  X  i s definitely  One can see from  variations  of PSE are  and undefined i t s scope  really i s .  an area of communication that needs much  more r e s e a r c h . E m p i r i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s of PSE Woodward (1973) f e l t in  that PSE was used  the classroom, and L i v i n g s t o n ' s  suspicions. this  Other  case.  Livingston  s c h o o l , and that  (1983) study supported h i s  r e s e a r c h which w i l l  s e c t i o n has also i n d i c a t e d (1983) found  by deaf students  be mentioned  that t h i s might  w e l l be the  that deaf students used PSE i n  the older deaf students" used more ASL  grammatical  devices as w e l l as more grammatical  the E n g l i s h  sign system  PSE  later in  devices of  than the younger deaf students. I f  i s the main mode of communication i n the classroom,  then  42  educators  need to answer t h i s very important  q u e s t i o n , "What  are i t s e d u c a t i o n a l b e n e f i t s and/or i t s negative Higgins  (1973) concluded  students who performed  a study which claimed that  r e c e i v e d i n f o r m a t i o n i n a PSE  significantly  fingerspelling  compared  one  of the three methods, and  method.  The  the ASL  students  advantage over had  (b)  ASL,  students were assigned to  later  answered 10 p r i n t e d Higgins  found  group scored higher than  the  students  PSE  better  to measure  a m u l t i p l e choice test w r i t t e n students  students  students  could have had  i n that the test  in recall.  might have expected  than  study performed  because of the method used  The  the ASL  i n this  and  an the  PSE  more language s i m i l a r i t i e s which could have  the PSE  better  factual  then they watched a videotape  students  Higgins used  i n standard E n g l i s h .  one  The  study  groups.  comprehension.  then  The  by a competent signer of that  i n the PSE  Perhaps the PSE  probably  Method  of three  (a) PSE,  choice questions on each passage.  the students  aided  Method.  passages d e l i v e r e d  particular  than  i n one  signed communication methods:  (c) the Rochester  other two  or i n the Rochester  been presented  and  that  r e c e i v e d the  three groups of students' comprehension of  different  multiple  of s i g n i n g  a l l spoken communication).  i n f o r m a t i o n which had  of two  form  b e t t e r than students who  same i n f o r m a t i o n i n e i t h e r ASL (i.e.  effects?".  the PSE  I f t h i s were the  the Rochester  case,  group to have done  group because one might have thought  that  43 the Rochester method would have been a more representation by Reich and  of E n g l i s h  Bick  than PSE.  (1976, 1977)  method of f i n g e r s p e l l i n g was spoken E n g l i s h  than that  appears to be expressed straight English  However, l a t e r  showed that  Rochester students.  the  in a pidgin fashion  the PSE  students out  scores  students.  any  other  PSE  empirical  comprehension of  rather  research  The  than  performed  A s i m i l a r study by Murphy and  and  of  Kluwin, 1981a).  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  find  Rochester  of an E n g l i s h sign system which  (1977), however, found no of the ASL  studies  even l e s s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  ( M a n o r & P e t t i t o , 1979;  T h i s would e x p l a i n why  accurate  the  Fleischer  comprehension  w r i t e r was  data on PSE  unable to  and  information.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a P i d g i n Some general now  be  presented  information to help  the  about a p i d g i n language w i l l reader appreciate  involved.  M i t c h e l l (1978) reminded us that the  linguistic  research  accorded given  linguistic  the  prestigous  F i s c h e r , (1978), and the  following  differentiate 1. limited  defines  issues  literature  on  a p i d g i n as a f u n c t i o n a l system  communication c r e d i b i l i t y , title  the  of language.  Newport and  although  Woodward  Supalla  not  (1973),  (1980) have  listed  s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a p i d g i n which i t from a language:  A p i d g i n form of communicati on i n t e r a c t i o n s with s o c i e t i e s at  serves large.  the  purpose of  44 2. for  It i s used p r i m a r i l y  communicative  integrative  first  of n a t i v e speakers, and i s , language.  It has no s p e c i a l  morphology,  situation  functions.  I t has no h i s t o r y  t h e r e f o r e , no one's 4.  social  purposes, and not f o r s o c i a l l y  and p e r s o n a l l y e x p r e s s i v e 3.  in restricted  inflectional  and no s p e c i f i e d  or d e r i v a t i o n a l  system of grammar  relations.  Word order appears to be i t s only grammar. 5.  Its lexical  base i s normally based on the language  of the more powerful s o c i e t y . 6.  It contains a p a r t i a l mixture of the s t r u c t u r e of  the languages i n the two structure  s o c i e t i e s , but, a l s o ,  common to n e i t h e r  contains  of these languages.  PSE ~ The F i r s t Language of the Deaf? The above c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s describe  seem to  the s i g n i n g model f o r deaf students i n classrooms  when one r e c a l l s communication Pettito,  of a p i d g i n c e r t a i n l y  1979;  teacher's  the s t u d i e s that described  the signed  of teachers of the hearing impaired (Marmor & Kluwin, 1980a).  s i g n i n g , P i d g i n Sign  It makes sense to c a l l  the  English.  Cokely and Gawlick (1974) noted that many parents and educators, i n c l u d i n g p r o f i c i e n t ASL users, did not understand  the communication  of deaf c h i l d r e n .  c h i l d r e n often had a language that d i f f e r e d  fully  These  from ASL  E n g l i s h , and the researchers claimed that i t was  a  and  45 c h l l d r e n e s e , another name f o r a c h i l d  based p i d g i n .  Charrow  (1975) and Jones (1979), who studied  the w r i t i n g of deaf  students,  stated  written  a l s o very  much l i k e  It  that deaf students'  seems that  expressions are  a PSE. the majority  exposed to PSE as a f i r s t  of deaf c h i l d r e n might be  language, despite  some that ASL i s the deaf c h i l d ' s f i r s t p i d g i n i s no one's f i r s t  language.  c h i l d r e n born to ASL deaf parents,  the claims of  language, and a  Naturally, ASL i s t h e i r  f o r those deaf first  language, but what about the 90%-95% born to hearing ( B o r n s t e i n , Woodward, & T u l l y , 1976)? children that  struggle  the majority  E n g l i s h users.  We know that  parents deaf  g r e a t l y with the l e a r n i n g of E n g l i s h , and deaf c h i l d r e n do not become "competent"  We, a l s o , know that not a l l members of the  deaf community are "competent" ASL users,  and that  there  appears to e x i s t a continuum of s i g n i n g s k i l l s with ASL at one  end and E n g l i s h at the other.  for  the f i r s t  Perhaps, PSE i s the model  language of most deaf  students.  A p i d g i n i s normally not recognized language because u s u a l l y a c h i l d a language which the c h i l d  t h e i r hearing  loss.  a p i d g i n as a f i r s t child  first  i s born to parents who have  learns.  c h i l d r e n are i s o l a t e d from t h e i r  as a c h i l d ' s  However, most deaf  parents'  language because of  In the case of a c h i l d who i s exposed to language, l i n g u i s t s  b e l i e v e that the  a p p l i e s r u l e formations to the ungrammatical p i d g i n and  creates  a new language, c a l l e d  a creole  (Newport & S u p a l l a ,  46  1980).  This  same process could  deaf students and t h e i r might w e l l  very  w e l l be o c c u r r i n g  l e a r n i n g of signed  be that deaf students create  communication.  a creole  language from the P i d g i n Sign E n g l i s h input  with It  sign  that  they  receive. This  c r e a t i o n of a c r e o l e language from a p i d g i n  communication Input f i t s (1967) theory programmed  i n b e a u t i f u l l y with Lenneberg's  of language a c q u i s i t i o n .  to make sense of l i n g u i s t i c  sense by c r e a t i n g r u l e s of grammar. is our  input, and we make  I f the l i n g u i s t i c  input  a language with i t s own grammar, then we e v e n t u a l l y  refine  c h i l d - c r e a t e d r u l e s to conform t o , and d u p l i c a t e the  existing  established  each generation in  We are b i o l o g i c a l l y  r u l e s of the language.  does c o n t r i b u t e  Nevertheless,  some new r u l e change, e i t h e r  the form of an a d d i t i o n or d e l e t i o n to the e x i s t i n g  language. time.  This  i s one way i n which a language changes over  It i s thought that  i f the l i n g u i s t i c  have a grammar ( i . e . PSE), the c h i l d however, there  i s no refinement  still  input  does not  creates  rules;  towards a target grammar of a  language ( i . e . E n g l i s h or ASL). The c h i l d ' s grammatical rules  remain, and the new language created  i s called a  creole. Fischer  (1978) b e l i e v e d  was r e c r e a t e d basis  for this  similar  that ASL i s r e a l l y  with each generation claim rested  of deaf students.  on the fact  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with other  a creole  that  Her  that ASL shared  c r e o l e languages such as  47  borrowing  lexical  items from the  power ( i . e E n g l i s h ) , and  the manner of expressing  content by grammatical form. of e x p l a i n i n g the  the  varieties  deaf community.  n a t i v e ASL signers.  users,  had  a p i d g i n input  PSE  to communicate.  majority  of the  because only input  describes the  from b i r t h . ASL  and  a third  who  theory  as  second generation Yet,  the  that  and  ASL  had  received  that  who  a who  still  use  i s c o r r e c t , then be  true ASL  deaf who  a creole.  they use  suggestion  of  i n turn created  linguistic  a language, not  i n s u l t e d by the  way  true  group would be those  from an older age  deaf community i n s i s t  feel  those deaf who  If Fischer's  are  one  group of signers would be the  deaf community would not  a few  semantic  of sign usage among the deaf i n  from an e a r l y age  s i g n language, and  s o c i e t y of  provides  those second or more generation  had  ASL  Such a theory  A second group would be  a p i d g i n input Creole  One  language of the  the  users  have  had  literature Deaf adults i n  ASL,  they are  and  would  using a  likely C r e o l e .  Andersen's (1981) work on p i d g i n i z a t i o n and d e p i d g i n i z a t i o n o f f e r s f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o the language process that that  i s taking  second language l e a r n e r s go  p i d g i n i z a t i o n and  the  users.  learners  are  Anderson  believed  through a process of  depidginization.  movement towards the n a t i v e if  place.  possible  target  The  depidginization is  language, and  must occur  to become a s u c c e s s f u l second language  However, d e p i d g i n a t i o n  will  l e a r n e r s have ample access to native  only  occur when the  speaker-input, and  have  48 a f e e l i n g of s o c i a l , the  target  psychological,  deaf c h i l d r e n i n school  s i g n language from PSE mature and  associate  input.  more and  more l i k e ASL,  the  develop and  hearing  The the  PSE  community, but  be  a creole  deaf c h i l d r e n deaf  change to become If the  target  successful  do  and  have a combined s p e c i a l p h y s i c a l proximity  so f o r the  deaf  with  community  1976). secondary question  students sign the  indeed  deaf.  Deaf people do not  of s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l ,  (Bolton,  to  seem to lack almost a l l of  Anderson's (1981) requirements for depidginization.  create  more with members of the  language of the  language were E n g l i s h , we  do  However, as the  community, t h e i r language w i l l  the  p h y s i c a l proximity  language.  Perhaps the  feeling  and  i n t h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e s  retelling  of a short  i n t e r e s t i n g to d i s c o v e r  story.  It w i l l  whether t h e i r signs  form of communication which i s what one  how  are  might expect.  a  49  Chapter  As  stated  descriptive following 1.  3:  Research  earlier,  pilot  this  Design  study i s an e x p l o r a t o r y  study, designed  to i n v e s t i g a t e the  two q u e s t i o n s : How much of a short story presented  E n g l i s h does a profoundly deaf student 2. deaf  What sign language  student p r e f e r  presented The support  and Methodology  i n Signed  retell?  or sign system  does a profoundly  to use i n the r e t e l l i n g  of a short story  i n Signed E n g l i s h ? experimenter  had i n s u f f i c i e n t  an hypothesis f o r the f i r s t  the s u b j e c t s ' r e c a l l  performance.  research data to  question which dealt  with  However, f o r the second  q u e s t i o n , there were three p o s s i b l e expectations which arose from  the l i t e r a t u r e  review  would use Signed E n g l i s h because t h i s schools; (ASL)  i n chapter 2:  (a) the subjects  (SE) when r e t e l l i n g  the s t o r i e s  i s the signed communication p o l i c y i n the  (b) the s u b j e c t s would use American Sign Language  because i t i s claimed to be t h e i r n a t u r a l language; or  (c) the s u b j e c t s would use P i d g i n Sign E n g l i s h the m a j o r i t y of language  (PSE) because  models f o r deaf students seem to be  people who use PSE. Sample This p i l o t hearing  study i n v o l v e d 3 s u b j e c t s from a group of 25  impaired students i n a secondary  off-campus program  50 of the p r o v i n c i a l  school f o r the deaf.  This off-campus  program i s l o c a t e d i n a r e g u l a r secondary  school which  grades 8 to 12 f o r a p o p u l a t i o n of approximately students.  The m a j o r i t y of the deaf  academic courses  students  offers  1300  take  their  i n s e l f - c o n t a i n e d c l a s s e s with a teacher of  the hearing impaired,  and i n t e g r a t e into  regular classes for  non-academic c l a s s e s with the a s s i s t a n c e of a teacher of the h e a r i n g impaired selection  of the 3 s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s  convenience  and a c c e s s i b i l i t y  experimenter, impaired  who acts as i n t e r p r e t e r - t u t o r .  For t h i s  study was based on  of s u b j e c t s and the  who i s one of the teachers  at t h i s  The  of the hearing  location.  study,  the experimenter  i d e a l l y wanted 3  s u b j e c t s who were matched on the f o l l o w i n g s i x c r i t e r i a : profound  hearing  l o s s , (b) p r e l i n g u a l l y deaf, ( c ) hearing  parents, (d) l i v i n g four years English with  at home with  in a total  f a m i l y , (e) a minimum of  communication program using  (SE), and ( f ) a minimum of one year of  the l o c a l  (a)  deaf  Signed  involvement  community sports o r g a n i z a t i o n which meets  weekly f o r v a r i o u s team s p o r t s . The pilot  reasons  f o r these  study was about deaf  profound  hearing  loss.  c r i t e r i a were as f o l l o w s .  This  students, meaning those with a  A p r e l i n g u a l deaf  child  does not have  the o p p o r t u n i t y to l e a r n an o r a l language during the e a r l y critical  years  of language l e a r n i n g ( b i r t h to age 2) because  of h i s or her hearing l o s s .  On the other hand, the •  51  postlingual age  deaf c h i l d , whose hearing  l o s s occurs a f t e r the  of 2, might w e l l have an advantage over the  deaf c h i l d  i n the  l e a r n i n g of an E n g l i s h sign system.  advantage might occur because of the opportunity  years of language l e a r n i n g .  give  p o s t l i n g u a l deaf c h i l d  This  p o s t l i n g u a l deaf c h i l d ' s  to access spoken E n g l i s h a u d i t o r i l y  critical the  prelingual  This  during  the  opportunity  would  a chance to e s t a b l i s h an  E n g l i s h language base which would n a t u r a l l y f a c i l i t a t e learning  of an E n g l i s h s i g n system, another form of  E n g l i s h language. parents, years.  and The  the majority study was  Signed E n g l i s h have had four  Most deaf students are  (SE),  live  at home during  about the E n g l i s h so i t was  year minimum allowed  and  Signed E n g l i s h for most of the last  criterion—involvement  because the social was  so that  the  for the  experience ASL. state  that  the  that  that ASL  i s the  consistency  subjects  The  school  It  to  proponents language,  criterion  students as  some  was,  occasion  deaf c h i l d ' s n a t u r a l This  added  opportunity  remembered that  it.  The  experiment  so d e s i r e d . had  A  in  to have had  would have the  students had  to use  the j u n i o r high  to  as p o s s i b l e .  deaf community—was  i f s/he  It must also be  students p r e f e r  eliminiated  subjects  the  subjects  students i n t h i s program.  i n the  s t o r i e s i n ASL  t h e r e f o r e , important  and  called  exposure to adult models using ASL.  to r e t e l l  of ASL  sign system  longest  experimenter wanted the  designed  hearing school  f o r as long  f o r the  the  their  important  equal exposure to SE  born to  the  subjects  52 because these students were o f t e n too young to p a r t i c i p a t e i n these s p o r t s events. students had occurred  joined  On  the other hand, most of the s e n i o r  these evening  sports events which o f t e n  twice weekly.  To o b t a i n the 3 s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s p i l o t experimenter total,  and  approached  asked  students that  the grade  for volunteers.  her u n i v e r s i t y M.A.  students  that  volunteered.  experimenter  degree.  She  then sign the same s t o r y , and  of the s t o r y would be f i l m e d . It was  noted  that  The  gave the v o l u n t e e r s consent  experimenter  parental approval. forms.  a sibling  to another  s u b j e c t had  two  years, and  one was  volunteer.  forms f o r  e l i m i n a t e d because he  Of the four l e f t ,  exposure  testing  for  this  i t was  c r i t e r i o n was  student who  listed  two  of  above.  been only using the Signed E n g l i s h system f o r the other had  Signed E n g l i s h ,  expressed  F i v e of the s i x students returned the  Of these f i v e ,  One  that  being videotaped.  the s u b j e c t s did not meet a l l of the c r i t e r i a  the study was  the  Six students  the non-volunteers  s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s about  was  the  i n order to  also informed  some concern and  consent  told  the v o l u n t e e r s would be r e q u i r e d to watch a  s t o r y on videotape and signing  The  the  12 s t u d e n t s , 11 i n  she needed v o l u n t e e r s f o r a p r o j e c t  complete  their  11 and  study,  become deaf at age 5.  for r e c a l l felt  that  of a short s t o r y r e c e i v e d i n the minimum four year  most important.  became deaf at age 5 was  s e l e c t i o n was  Because  T h e r e f o r e , the  selected.  The  made e a s i e r by the fact  that  decision the  53 family their  of t h i s  student had used E n g l i s h i n the home during  son's preschool years.  E n g l i s h was not the n a t i v e  language of t h i s f a m i l y . Tables 1, 2, and 3 summarize some important  information  about the s u b j e c t s . Table 1 Hearing Loss Information Re: Subjects Age of Onset  Cause  105dB+  birth  genetic  19  119dB+  5 yrs.  17  90dB+  Subj ect  Gender  Age  1  F  19  2  M  3  M  Hearing Loss  birth  Wears Hearing A i d no  meningitis genetic  no no  Table 2 Family Information Re : Subjects Other Deaf R e l a t i v e s  Subj ect  Parents  1  hearing  yes - o l d e r  2  hearing  none  3  hearing  yes - o l d e r  sibling  Parental Use of Signs yes yes  sibling  yes  54 Table 3 School Information Re: Subjects  Secondary School  Elementary School  Subj ect 1  Grade 12  5.8  -same as above  11  6.3  -same as above  11  6.3  - s c h o o l for the - s c h o o l f o r the deaf, off-campus deaf, off-campus in a regular in a regular school, special school, special class and r e g u l a r classes of cued -T.C. and T.C.  -mixture speech, 2  -regular school, r e g u l a r clas s -oral  ' 3  program  program  -same as Subj. 1  Note. T.C. means t o t a l  communication  These 3 s u b j e c t s had also p a r t i c i p a t e d school a c t i v i t i e s  at the school f o r the deaf  high school years. year  Furthermore,  i n many a f t e r throughout  a d u l t s and other deaf students who  more ASL exposure to the s u b j e c t s .  indeed  by t h e i r  Gallaudet  offered  The three students were  teachers to be good academic students and,  , f u t u r e G a l l a u d e t candidates,.  who graduated  used  some of the students who attended the  off-campus program were n a t i v e ASL u s e r s , which again  thought  their  T h e r e f o r e , they had had more than one  exposure to deaf  ASL.  Reading Level SAt-HI'84  t h i s year  In f a c t , Subject 1,  (1984), was planning on attending the  preparatory year i n London, O n t a r i o .  55 The study  experimenter  due  was  aware of the l i m i t a t i o n s  to small sample s i z e which does not  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of the r e s u l t s  to other deaf  limitation  who  permit  to probe for  Sample s i z e i s u s u a l l y a  of research with  the small p o p u l a t i o n and  the hearing impaired  the d i f f i c u l t y  because of  of f i n d i n g  subjects  match on a number of v a r i a b l e s . Research The  design  Procedures  r e q u i r e d that a deaf  i n Signed E n g l i s h , and  student  view a short  story  signed  story  to the camera i n h i s or her p r e f e r r e d method of  signing.  The  different  stories.  teachers and  student was  asked  R e c a l l was  score the student's  minor p o i n t s .  mixture deaf  this  students.  However, the major purpose of the study was other r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s .  of  of both  The  to do t h i s  the same  f o r three  measured by having  retelling  three  of each s t o r y f o r main  kind of sign language, s i g n system, or  the student  used was  a d u l t s to rate the student's  a 7-point  then r e t e l l  s c a l e with ASL  at one  measured by asking  five  s i g n i n g of each s t o r y along  end  and  Signed  E n g l i s h at the  other. Development of the Three S t o r i e s The  experiment r e q u i r e d three s t o r i e s  compatible  i n theme, r e a d a b i l i t y ,  s t r u c t u r e , and  signability.  that were  length, syntactic  I t was  known that i t would be  56  very d i f f i c u l t  to f i n d  three s t o r i e s , i n t h e i r  original  format, that would meet these c r i t e r i a .  Hence, the  experimenter  s t o r i e s with a  similar  decided to f i n d  theme, and then through a process of r e w r i t i n g and  r e v i s i n g make the s t o r i e s syntactic The  comparable f o r r e a d a b i l i t y ,  length,  s t r u c t u r e , and s i g n a b l l i t y . experimenter s e l e c t e d  C h i l l e r s and T h r i l l e r s : All  three short  three short  Scope/Reading  stories  from  S k i l l s 4 (Claro,  1974).  three s t o r i e s dealt with the t o p i c of the s u p e r n a t u r a l ,  which the experimenter  felt  might  s u b j e c t s of t h i s  stories  followed that of a close procedure with every seventh  The fill  The o r i g i n a l  to the  teenage  word l e f t  study.  be of high i n t e r e s t  blank. first  step i n the process of story r e v i s i o n was to  i n the blank spaces with a p p r o p r i a t e words that would  flow with the content of the s t o r i e s . and  format of the  Then the experimenter  a teacher c o l l e a g u e , independently, proceeded  stories  and to make a l i s t  necessary f o r each s t o r y ' s details.  to read the  of the most basic key concepts plot while o m i t t i n g  Upon completion of t h i s task,  unnecessary  the experimenter and  c o l l e a g u e met to compare, d i s c u s s , and agree upon a basic key concept l i s t  f o r each  story.  Readability level. experimenter the  Using the basic concept l i s t , the  rewrote each s t o r y .  The experimenter's goal i n  ^rewrite was to keep each s t o r y at as low a reading l e v e l  as p o s s i b l e due to the d i f f i c u l t i e s many deaf students  57 experience reading m a t e r i a l s above a grade 4 l e v e l 1966;  Gallaudet  C o l l e g e , 1971).  each r e w r i t t e n s t o r y was readability  test  T h i s computer  different  readability  program  tests  not used because  levels level during  Spache  Computing  of which only two were The other  t e s t , the  i t i n c l u d e d the c r i t e r i o n of calculation  f o r deaf students.  and t h i s  The  of 2.6  to 3.  comparable f o r  s t r u c t u r e and s i g n a b i l i t y , and the s t o r i e s Spache  readabiltiy  as shown i n Table 4 which readability  grade  However, the s t o r i e s were f u r t h e r r e v i s e d  the process of making the s t o r i e s  with f i n a l  was  readability  of the r e w r i t t e n s t o r i e s ' ranged from a Spache  snytactic  the  the  o f f e r e d a choice of s i x  in i t s readability  to be i n a p p r o p r i a t e  l e v e l for  "Finding Readability  f o r grade four and below.  syllabification felt  a s c e r t a i n e d by using  (1982) t i t l e d ,  Levels".  F r y , was  readability  from the Minnesota E d u c a t i o n a l  Consortium Program  appropriate  The  (Furth,  levels  levels  summarizes  of each s t o r y .  ranging  from 2.4  information  ended to  up  2.8.  concerning  58 Table 4 R e a d a b i l i t y L e v e l of Each  Story  Story A  Story B  Story C  2.8  2.4  2.8  Number of Sentences  37  37  37  Number of Words  390  399  393  10.5  10.8  10.6  S pache Grade L e v e l  Average Sent.Length  Syntactic structure. much as p o s s i b l e syntactic hearing 1970;  The next step was to c o n t r o l as  f o r syntax because  i t i s known that the  s t r u c t u r e s of the reading text  can i n f l u e n c e the  impaired student's reading comprehension  (Hargis,  H a r g i s , Evans, & Masters, 1973; R u s s e l , Quigley, &  Power, 1976; Hart, 1975, 1978; Anken & Holmes, 1977; Layton, Schmucker, & Holmes, 1979). to achieve.  At f i r s t ,  This task was the most  the experimenter t r i e d  to analyze the  stories  by c l a s s i f y i n g  of f i v e  basic sentence p a t t e r n s , or combinations  based  end  thereof,  The experimenter ended up  examples of combinations so that the  r e s u l t s were c o n f u s i n g .  the sentences was based and  the sentences of each story i n t o one  on Streng's (1972) work.  with too many i s o l a t e d  difficult  Another attempt  at c l a s s i f y i n g  on grouping the sentences into simple  complex sentences, but there were too many combinations  59  of complex sentences f o r t h i s method to prove Finally, Formula  the experimenter used  useful.  the S y n t a c t i c  by B o t e l , Dawkins, and Granowsky (1973) to analyze  each s t o r y ' s  syntactic  level.  This formula assigns a count  v a l u e , ranging from 0 to 3, to the sentence and structures. and  passage.  i t s various  Thus, each sentence i s given a complexity r a t i n g  a numerical value can be c a l c u l a t e d  al.'s  Complexity  The  experimenter  complexity r a t i n g  entire  followed and accepted Botel et  except  noun clause of d i a l o g u e .  f o r an  f o r one  s t r u c t u r e , that of the  B o t e l et a l . chose  to treat  a noun  clause of dialogue as a basic sentence and gave a 0 count to this  type of noun clause i n s t e a d  gave other nominal said  clauses.  of the 2 count  sentences, John s a i d something  therefore  sentence, which to 0.  of two  the t o t a l  included  basic  and Mary went to the s t o r e .  to B o t e l et a l each basic sentence was  count and,  they  For example the sentence, John  that Mary went to the s t o r e , c o n s i s t e d  According  rating  complexity r a t i n g  equal to a 0 for this  a noun clause of d i a l o g u e , added up  However other noun clauses were awarded two  points.  For example, the sentence, He asked me what I d i d , c o n s i s t e d of the b a s i c sentence, He asked me and  which was  worth 0 p o i n t s ,  the added noun c l a u s e , what I d i d , which was  points.  Thus, the e n t i r e  equal to 2  sentence had a complexity r a t i n g or  count value equal to 2 p o i n t s .  In t h i s  study, the  experimenter decided to score a noun clause of dialogue as equal to 2 p o i n t s , the same count value awarded other noun  60 clauses. Once a complexity r a t i n g was  calculated,  overview that  i t was  f o r each sentence i n each  relatively  of each s t o r y ' s  easy to tabulate an  r a t i n g and  to r e v i s e  a l l three s t o r i e s were comparable  syntactic  complexity.  The  first  column i n d i c a t e s  rating  awarded each sentence w i t h i n  titled  Sent. Number i n d i c a t e s  which  have a value e q u i v a l e n t  Count  column. The  with r e s p e c t s to  w r i t t e n v e r s i o n of each the t o t a l complexity the s t o r i e s .  of  to that noted i n the  The  column t i t l e d  count At  The  least  Tot. Sent.  that a primary reading program may  two  story  from a count value of 0 to a high  i n the 3 to 5 sentence count value.  level  and progress to an average  story  B o t e l et a l . begin at a 0  complexity count of 4.  t h i r d s of the sentences i n a l l three s t o r i e s  were valued at count 4 and  by  complexity  7 w i t h the m a j o r i t y of the sentences f o r each  suggested  story  Sentence  the t o t a l number of sentences w i t h i n each  per sentence ranged  falling  column  the sentences w i t h i n each  that have the same sentence count value. rating  The  sentences i n each story were i d e n t i f i e d  c o n s e c u t i v e rank order number. represents  sentences so  Table 5 g i v e s a breakdown of each  sentence's count value i n the f i n a l story.  story  below.  61 Table 5 S y n t a c t i c Complexity Value of Each  Sent. Number  Story C  Story B  Story A Sent. Count  Story  Tot. Sent.  Sent. Number  Tot. Sent.  Sent. Number  Tot. Sent.  0  5,21  2  7,11  2  19,31  2  1  4,25,31, 34  4  9,13,21, 36  4  3,16,20,36  4  2  9,16,19, 24  4  17 ,32 ,33, 37  4  8,10,25,9  4  3  1,2,6,11, 12,22,28, 30,32  9  3,5,8,10, 15,18,19, 28,31  9  7,11,13,17 24,26,27, 32,35  9  4  3,13,17, 20,26,29, 35  7  2,6,12,14 25,29,30  7  4,6,12,15 21,23,30  7  5  7,10,15, 18 ,27 ,33 , 36,37  8  1 ,4, 16,20 24,27,34, 35  8  1,2,5,18, 28,29,33, 34  8  6  8  1  26  1  22  1  7  14,23  2  22,23  2  14,37  2  Note.  The  total syntactical  Signability stories  comparable  similarities  It was not r e a l l y p o s s i b l e to make the i n sligns  because to analyze the signs f o r  would have meant using  of ASL and the experiment best  count for each s t o r y equals 127.  the experimenter  the l i n g u i s t i c knowledge  focused on E n g l i s h i n s i g n s .  The  could do was to discuss the use of s i g n  l e x i c o n and to note the number of sign markers used i n each story.  62  The teller  s t o r i e s were read by the experimenter  who  a retired stories'  and  the  story  i s a current teacher of the hearing impaired, deaf  teacher to note and  discuss s i g n a b i l i t y  vocabulary i n the Signed E n g l i s h  system.  and  of the  A l l of the  Signed E n g l i s h word endings were i n c l u d e d as p r e s c r i b e d by B o r n s t e i n , Hamilton, was  more than one  which was chosen. taught  felt  S a u l n i e r , and Roy  When there  sign l e x i c o n f o r an E n g l i s h word, the  to be most f a m i l i a r  to the students  This recommendation came from the s u b j e c t s .  individual  (1975).  The  experiment  was  the experimenter  was  sign  not concerned  sign vocabulary usage, but with the f u l l  who with  visual  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of spoken E n g l i s h . Where p o s s i b l e , the three e v a l u a t o r s of the  signability  of  the s t o r i e s made vocabulary changes i n the w r i t t e n v e r s i o n  of  the s t o r i e s  an ASL  so that  the signed vocabulary would adhere to  vocabulary r u l e of signs which f o l l o w s a conceptual  b a s i s f o r sign formation.  For example, the words heavy snow  were changed to deep snow and a year l a t e r Care was  taken so that none of these changes i n f l u e n c e d  syntactic  complexity  were s e v e r a l sign.  rating  or the r e a d a b i l i t y  s i n g l e E n g l i s h words that  For example, c o i n was  classifier right  (a small c i r c l e  hand index f i n g e r ) ;  classifiers represent  to one year  (B-shaped  signed  level.  later. the There  r e q u i r e d more than  one  as money + hand  drawn on the l e f t  palm with the  f o o t p r i n t s as foot + hand  hands, palms f a c i n g downward, moved to  the feet walking  and making f o o t p r i n t s  i n the snow)  63 + s ( p l u r a l sign  marker).  Table 6 summarizes the number of f i n g e r s p e l l e d words, and  Table 7, the number of occurrences of the d i f f e r e n t sign  markers In the w r i t t e n  version  of each  story.  Table 6 Number of F i n g e r s p e l l e d Story  Words i n Each  Story  Story B  A  Story  C  Word  No.  Word  No.  Word  No  J-i-m B-i-1-1 j-o-b d-i-d o-f s-o a-n o-u-1 d-o  25 18 3 5 3 1 1 2 1  B-i-1-1 K-e-n J-o-h-n d-i-d o-f s-o m-i-l-e-s  9 11 6 3 8 2 1  B-o-b S-u-e b-a-n-k d-i-d o-f s-o a-n  11 18 2 2 4 1 1  Total:  59  The  differences  fIngerspelled  between the t o t a l  words In each story  number of times a character's actual  number of  can be accounted f o r by the  name appears i n the s t o r y .  In  f a c t the t o t a l number of d i f f e r e n t f i n g e r s p e l l e d words  f o r each story the  39  40  other two.  i s almost the same:  9 f o r Story  A, and 7 f o r  64 Table 7 Number of Sign Markers i n Each Story Story A  Story B  Story C  No.  No.  No .  's (poss. )  8  4  5  s_ ( r e g . p i . )  3  11  17  -  3  -.  3  5  3  -  -  23  27  21  19  23  19  1  3  2  1  -  3  Sign Marker  repeated ing  sign  (irreg.pl.)  (verb)  s (verb-3rd  person)  d^ ( r e g . verb,  past)  past marker ( i r r e g . p a s t ) n  (participle)  person  (agent)  y_ ( a d j e c t i v e )  -  er (comparative)  -  -  -  est  -  -  -  3  1  2  -  -  -  61  77  72  ly un,  (superlative) (adverb) i n , im ( p r e f i x ,  not)  Total:  For  each of the three w r i t t e n s t o r i e s  s i g n markers were for the r e g u l a r and tense, and  C.  followed  the m a j o r i t y of  irregular  verb  past  by the r e g u l a r noun, p l u r a l s_ for S t o r i e s B  65 Placing  the S t o r i e s on Videotape  When the three s t o r i e s were made s i m i l a r readability,  l e n g t h , and syntax  i n content,  (see Appendix B f o r the  w r i t t e n v e r s i o n of the three s t o r i e s used i n t h i s then  the experimenter  placed the s t o r i e s  The  had the s t o r y t e l l e r  experimenter  s t o r i e s while  reading them from a s c r i p t  study),  on videotape. voice and s i g n the  i n order to o b t a i n  as much of a one-to-one correspondence  between the spoken  word and the signed word as p o s s i b l e .  This d e c i s i o n was  based on research which suggested teacher  of the hearing-impaired  simultaneously Pettito  that i t was rare f o r a  to speak and s i g n  i n a one-to-one correspondence  1979; Kluwin,  1981a).  In these  (Marmor &  s t u d i e s the  communication utterances of the speaker-signer resembled  a spoken p i d g i n - l i k e E n g l i s h and a signed  p i d g i n - l i k e E n g l i s h with  little  However, a g r e a t e r , although correspondence  d i d occur  when the speaker-signer signed  simultaneously  The of  story t e l l e r  correspondence.  not 100%, one-to-one  between the spoken and signed word orally  read  from a w r i t t e n text and 1979).  i n t h i s experiment was a deaf  The f i l m i n g  s u b j e c t s ' classroom.  classroom  teacher  who worked at the school f o r the  The three s t o r i e s were placed on videotape  three night p e r i o d . the  one-to-one  (Marmor & P e t t i t o ,  the hearing impaired  deaf.  often  of the s t o r i e s  over a  occurred i n  There was no s p e c i a l l i g h t i n g  d i v i d e r was used as background f o r the s t o r y  and a teller  66 who  wore a dark colored long sleeve t u r t l e neck to enhance  the  viewing The  of the s i g n e r ' s face and  experimenter used a Panosonic VHS  camera, #WV-3100, a NV-8410 VHS Scotch  T-120  story  teller.  story  t e l l e r was  to the  with  magnetic VHS The  centred  a focused  tape  iris  i n the view f i n d e r ,  The overhead  story t e l l e r  set.  kept  the wide angle the c o l o r  of the  at the s t o r y t e l l e r ' s  the s t o r y t e l l e r After  directly  camera operator. eye  simultaneously  and  filming. from hand p r i n t e d  t r a n s p a r e n c i e s which were p r o j e c t e d by a 3M  of the  (W)  There were no camera  the s t o r i e s  P r o j e c t o r onto a white screen right  (T) and  dot)  c o l o r adjustment, to balance;  the s t a r t read  waist  away from the camera  set to automatic;  switch was  the  teller  knob set at 3/5th's (the t h i r d  lens was  adjustments made a f t e r  from her  This r e s u l t e d i n the s t o r y  temperature, to indoor; the the white balance  a  f o r the v i d e o t a p i n g of the  the d i s t a n c e between the c l o s e up The  II  p o r t a b l e r e c o r d e r , and  d i s t a n c e of 7 f e e t  the zoom r i n g and  picture.  Omnivision  experimenter set up the camera so that  top of her head.  standing  hands.  The  i n l i n e and  script  level  Overhead  to the  f o r each s t o r y  during i t s reading  signed  and  was while  voiced the s t o r y .  the s t o r i e s were placed on videotape,  the  experimenter made a sign gloss t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the s t o r y teller's  signed  written version. VHS  v e r s i o n of each s t o r y for comparison with The  the  experimenter used an RCA S e l e c t a v i s i o n  r e c o r d e r , #VJT500, to analyze  the videotape  of the s t o r y  67  teller.  Three d i f f e r e n t palyback speeds were used i n t h i s  analysis:  (a) normal playback speed, (b)  playback speed, and subtle  (c) frame by  the  normal  frame f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n  of  sign r e l a t e d hand movements.  Tables 8 and  9 show the  f i n g e r s p e l l e d words and signed each story Tables 6 and in  l/30th  the  that  occurred i n the  sign markers when the  compared to the w r i t t e n  7 f o r the  original  differences  story  teller  versions.  f i n g e r s p e l l e d words and  (See  sign markers  stories.)  Table 8 Differences Story  and  the  Story Word  3  2  story  teller  teller,  fingerspelled except  and  due  can  to her  Story Teller 10 1 1  11 -  —  C  Word  Orig. Story  Story Teller  t-o i-f u-p  •— —  -  1 1 1  number of words f i n g e r s p e l l e d  the words f i n g e r s p e l l e d i n the  minimal. be  Story  B  Orig. Story  between the  s t o r i e s was  to words that  story  Word  K-e-n s-o-o -n i-f  difference  original due  Story  A Story Teller  The the  Story T e l l e r ' s V e r s i o n  Orig. Story  o-f  by  i n the F i n g e r s p e l l e d Words Between the O r i g i n a l  These d i f f e r e n c e s were mainly  e i t h e r signed or f i n g e r s p e l l e d . signing  habits,  these small words i n s t e a d  for the word o-f, which she  automatically of s i g n i n g  preferred  them,  to s i g n .  In  The  68 Story B, on one to  the  story t e l l e r  occasion.  did not  fingerspell  the word  K-e-n  This word i n the w r i t t e n v e r s i o n happened  be redundant, and  i t s d e l e t i o n was  accepted.  Table 9 D i f f e r e n c e s i n the Sign Markers Between the O r i g i n a l Story and  the Story T e l l e r ' s  Version  Story A Orig. Story  Sign Markers  7  23  24  past marker ( i r r e g . past)  19  20  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  teller's  v e r s i o n s and  story t e l l e r  s i g n markers, and English  The other  4  3  11  9  the o r i g i n a l  omitted  the  17  13  -  2  4  cases,  story  s t o r i e s were also minimal.  some p l u r a l s^  i n a few  Story Teller  Orig. Story  sign markers between the  p l u r a l s^ marker with  repeating  Story Teller  5  (verb)  The  Story C  1  ji ( reg. verb-past)  The  Orig. Story  pi. )  repeated s i g n ( i r r e g . pi.) ing  Story Teller  8  ' s (poss.) j3 ( reg.  Story B  and  possessive  s u b s t i t u t e d the  the i r r e g u l a r  's  regular  p l u r a l marker of  sign.  experimenter also noted that the s t o r y t e l l e r made  signed  e r r o r s such as (a) the placement of the s i g n ,  69 (b) the use of one hand i n s t e a d of two, ( c ) s l i g h t in  sign formation, and (d) incomplete  several  of  these  similar  The experimenter  of the signed s t o r i e s .  to those  the semantic Collecting  felt  that none  of reading miscues, and they d i d not a l t e r  meaning of the signs i n the s t o r i e s .  the Data  English stories  viewing  showed the videotaped  to the s u b j e c t s i n three  of the s t o r i e s  subjects' r e t e l l i n g  sittings.  and the v i d e o t a p i n g of the  of the s t o r i e s  took place i n the  s u b j e c t s ' s c h o o l i n a room attached  to the school  Only  collected  the subject and the person  present.  who  The data c o l l e c t o r , hearing  former teacher subjects  his active  i n the deaf  over  s c h o o l days during the morning hours.  h i m s e l f , was a  and known to the  involvement  The data were c o l l e c t e d  library.  the data were  impaired  of the hearing impaired  through  community.  three  consecutive  On each day, each  s u b j e c t viewed one of the three s t o r i e s and was asked to retell  the s t o r y while  arranged  the  Most of these e r r o r s were  A colleague of the experimenter  The  throughout  signed e r r o r s were s e r i o u s enough to warrant  refilming  Signed  fingerspelling for  small words that were o f t e n repeated  story, i . e . d - i for d-i-d .  variations  i n the viewing  being  filmed.  The s t o r i e s were  order as shown i n Table  10.  70 Table  10  Order P r e s e n t a t i o n of Each Story f o r Each Day  Subj ect  Day  1  Subject 2  Day  3  1  Story A  Story B  Story C  2  Story B  Story C  Story A  3  Story C  Story A  Story B  When the greeted chair  by  subject entered  the data  that was  camera.  The  subject  collector  data  collector  t h a t , with  equipment and  later the  ring  and  varied  and  asked to have a seat i n a i n f r o n t of  was  the  then proceeded to inform  filming  of the s u b j e c t .  The  camera s e t t i n g s were i d e n t i c a l the  variation  knob.  room, s/he  the  h e r / h i s a s s i s t a n c e , he would set up  that were used during a slight  library  located 6 feet d i r e c t l y  camera f o r the  for  the  The  between 6.75  filming  i n the  focus  camera to  those  of the s t o r y t e l l e r ,  focus  d i s t a n c e and  d i s t a n c e used f o r the  f e e t and  the  7 f e e t and  except  the zoom subjects  the zoom r i n g  and  knob were set at 4/5th of the distance between the close up and  wide angle  picture.  s u b j e c t s v a r y i n g heights sitting the  for the  filming.  These d i f f e r e n c e s were due and  to the  fact  completed, the data  collector  instructions  subject  to the  the  that they were  f i l m i n g , whereas, the story t e l l e r  A f t e r a l l of the  to  stood  camera adjustments were then gave the f o l l o w i n g  i n P i d g i n Sign E n g l i s h :  "YOU  for  71  WILL SEE STORY ON T.V. SAME STORY.  WHEN YOU FINISH SEE STORY, YOU SIGN  I WILL FILM YOU.  HAVE-TO D-O?'"  NOW, TELL ME, 'WHAT YOU  (See Appendix A f o r a sign  transcription  explanation.) The  experimenter had to use one of the three  signed  communication methods (SE, ASL or PSE) f o r g i v i n g the instructions  to the s u b j e c t s , and was aware that the  communication method chosen could i n f l u e n c e the way the subjects  signed  the s t o r i e s .  i n s t r u c t i o n s were signed to  respond i n ASL.  because i t was f e l t subjects  In other words, i f the  i n ASL, t h i s might lead the students  The experimenter chose a PSE format that PSE i n s t r u c t i o n s would give the  an o p t i o n of s i g n i n g the s t o r i e s  i n e i t h e r one of  the  three  communication methods because PSE also i n c l u d e s SE  and  ASL.  Therefore,  instructions  the experimenter considered PSE  to be the most n e u t r a l form of s t i m u l u s .  Although the f i l m i n g colour,  of the s t o r y t e l l e r was done i n  the subjects viewed  the s t o r i e s  on a black and white  Electrohome t e l e v i s i o n , Model #ETV3B, with screen.  a 19 x 15 i n c h  This choice was based on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of  equipment and not on the experimenter's preference.  The  t e l e v i s i o n was p o s i t i o n e d 6 f e e t away from the s u b j e c t , slightly  to the s u b j e c t ' s  When the subject collector and  turned  left  finished  and next to the camera. viewing  o f f the t e l e v i s i o n ,  put i n the subject  filming  tape.  the s t o r y , the data  took out the story tape Then the subject was  72 given  the f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s i n P i d g i n Sign E n g l i s h :  "YOU SIGN SAME STORY.  USE YOUR LANGUAGE.  r a i s i n g hand), YOU START.  WHEN I (mimes  NOW, TELL ME, 'WHAT YOU HAVE-TO  D-0?'" The the  experimenter i n s t r u c t e d the data  subjects  stories time. data  during  collector  the f i l m i n g of the r e t e l l i n g  i f the subjects  c o l l e c t o r had only to use t h i s prompt three  had f i n i s h e d r e t e l l i n g  was i n s t r u c t e d not to t e l l because other later  times  subject's  date.  students The data  the s t o r y , s/he  the s t o r y to her or h i s peers  would be viewing collector  the same s t o r y at a  thanked the subject  and t o l d  or him that s/he would see another story the next day.  Development of the R e t e l l i n g Measures f o r Each Originally retelling  the experimenter devised  of the signed  Story  a s c o r i n g system f o r  s t o r i e s by f o l l o w i n g Goodman and  Burke's (1971) procedure o u t l i n e d i n t h e i r reading manual. points  and  with  of each s t o r y .  When the subject  30  long  The prompt words were "Can you remember more?" The  retelling  the  of the  seemed to pause f o r an unseemly  each s u b j e c t , and t h i s was at the end of each  her  to prompt  Goodman and Burke suggested that a t o t a l be a l l o t t e d  points  f o r character  character  points  f o r the r e t e l l i n g  miscue of 100  of s t o r y m a t e r i a l :  a n a l y s i s which would include  development, (b) 30 p o i n t s  f o r p l o t , and (d) 20 p o i n t s  f o r events,  f o r theme.  (a)  recall ( c ) 20  73  However, the experimenter  found  s e v e r a l s c o r i n g problems  with  the Goodman and Burke measure f o r the s t o r i e s used i n  this  study,  The  and subsequently  developed  a different  measure.  problems occurred because of the point value Goodman and  Burke assigned  f o r the d i f f e r e n t  which seemed unreasonable study.  c a t e g o r i e s of s t o r y r e c a l l  f o r the s t o r i e s  involved i n this  For example, Goodman and Burke allowed 30 p o i n t s f o r  c h a r a c t e r a n a l y s i s and the three short s t o r i e s used i n t h i s study  contained  development. to  very l i t t l e  m a t e r i a l on character  They revolved around events.  To give 30 p o i n t s  a subject because s/he mentioned a c h a r a c t e r ' s name seemed  excessive.  Another problem was with the 20 p o i n t s  for  the theme of the s t o r y .  for  theme, "and, thus, i t was f e l t  not  be scored f o r t h i s area of r e c a l l without  To  infer  The experimenter  recall  of e x p l i c i t  the experimenter Due  was i n t e r e s t e d  to these  impaired  such a prompt.  independently  than  that of  In t h i s  i n the l a t t e r  study  skill. devised her own  Because the s t o r i e s  the experimenter  used a system that  each s t o r y ' s main and minor  experimenter  main events.  of s k i l l  problems, the experimenter  around events,  would represent The  that the subjects should  story informtion.  measures f o r s c o r i n g each s t o r y . revolved  d i d not prompt  a theme f o r a s t o r y i s a reading a c t i v i t y which  r e q u i r e s a deeper c o g n i t i v e l e v e l simple  allowed  and four teachers  events.  of the hearing  read each s t o r y and u n d e r l i n e d i t s  Each event  that was u n d e r l i n e d by at l e a s t  74  three of the f i v e All  teachers was  classified  as a main event.  of the other events, those not u n d e r l i n e d and  underlined  by l e s s  than three of the f i v e  classified  as minor.  The  experimenter  i n f o r m a t i o n and made a s c o r i n g  those  teachers, were  then c o l l a t e d  checklist  this  f o r each story  based  on main and minor events. The  experimenter  needed f u r t h e r  revision  i n f o r m a t i o n , and understood Bill's  felt  said  terrible  happened was  redundant  Jim had k i l l e d  that  had  that Jim had k i l l e d h i m s e l f . teachers l i s t e d  separate s c o r e a b l e events. felt  implicitly  For example, i n Story A,  something  three out of the f i v e  experimenter  two  that  the p o l i c e  events as two  police said  context.  checklists  redundant  i n f o r m a t i o n that would be  wife informs him  Originally,  these s c o r i n g  i n order to d e l e t e  from the story  happened—that  that  these  However, the  the event something  terrible  had  to the event that the p o l i c e s a i d  himself.  The  something  t e r r i b l e was  that Jim h a d . k i l l e d h i m s e l f , and  events should be scored as one  event.  s t o r y , the events Jim never phoned B i l l wasn't going to work were o r i g i n a l l y  two  that  that the  t h e r e f o r e the  A l s o , i n t h i s same  and to e x p l a i n why  listed  as  two  independent  events.  e x p l a i n why  he wasn't going to work need not be expressed i n  the r e t e l l i n g understood go to  of t h i s  However, the exprimenter  he  s t o r y because  from the two  felt  t h i s event was  that to  implicitly  previous story e v e n t s — Jim d i d not  work and Jim never phoned B i l l  ( h i s boss).  To  resolve  75 the problem assigned  of unnecessary points that had  been  to the events that were d u p l i c a t e d  originally  i n the  stories,  the experimenter gave the three s c o r i n g  c h e c k l i s t s of major  and minor  person whose task  events to a s i x t h  to omit redundant implicitly  independent  i n f o r m a t i o n and  understood  i n f o r m a t i o n that  was  was  from story context.  Thus, the experimenter a r r i v e d  at three f i n a l  scoring  measures f o r the r e t e l l i n g  of main events and minor  events  f o r each s t o r y .  number of main and minor  events  The  total  f o r each story are represented i n Table 11, and a d e t a i l e d listing Appendix  of these events f o r each story can be found i n C.  Table 11 Number of Main and Minor Events i n Each Story Story A  Story B  Story C  Main Events  27  29  37  Minor  28  22  23  Events  Scoring The  Procedures f o r the Subject's R e t e l l i n g of a Story experimenter made a w r i t t e n E n g l i s h t r a n s c r i p t i o n of  each s u b j e c t ' s s i g n i n g per s u b j e c t . scoring The  These  of each s t o r y :  a total  t r a n s c r i p t i o n s were to be used  of the s u b j e c t ' s r e c a l l  of main and minor  t r a n s c r i p t i o n s were given to a r e t i r e d  skilled  i n ASL  of nine, three i n the events.  deaf teacher,  and E n g l i s h , f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n  and/or  76  correction. story, the  viewed each subject's  signed  compared i t to the E n g l i s h t r a n s c r i p t i o n , and e d i t e d  t r a n s c r i p t i o n wherever needed. The  experimenter then gave the nine v e r i f i e d and  corrected  E n g l i s h t r a n s c r i p t i o n s and the corresponding  checklists hearing the  The deaf teacher  of main and minor events to three  impaired  teachers  for scoring.  to read  of the  The experimenter i n s t r u c t e d  through the s t o r i e s and check o f f each  main and minor event that  the subject  point was equal to one p o i n t . teachers  teachers  story  retold.  Each check  The experimenter gave the  the f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e s  to a s s i s t  them i n the  scoring: 1.  Check each point  expressed 2. that  that  i f you f e e l  that  the subject  point.  I t i s not important  the idea being  that  expressed  the words be the same, only  i s the same as that on the  checklist. 3.  It i s possible  of the i d e a .  that  the subject  In t h i s instance  only  expressed  give her or him h a l f  part  points  (1/2).  4. but  I f the subject  i s consistent  names the c h a r a c t e r ( s ) i n c o r r e c t l y ,  throughout  the s t o r y , give  the subject  full  points. The and  experimenter t a l l i e d  minor points  scorer.  the scores  f o r each subject  f o r both main  f o r each story as per  These f i n d i n g s are presented and discussed i n  points  77 4.  chapter  The Measure f o r E v a l u a t i n g the Subject's S i g n i n g The  Skills  experimenter needed a way to evaluate the sign  language  (ASL), or Signed E n g l i s h  ( S E ) , or combination of  both (PSE) of the s u b j e c t ' s signed e x p r e s s i o n In the retelling  of the s t o r i e s .  to make a d e t a i l e d retelling  The i d e a l way to do t h i s would be  sign gloss t r a n s c r i p t i o n  of each s t o r y , and then to analyze the  transcriptions  f o r ASL f e a t u r e s and Signed E n g l i s h  However, due to the lack of e x p e r t i s e such an a n a l y s i s , rating Two  of each s u b j e c t ' s  the experimenter  of the s u b j e c t ' s s i g n i n g  of the judges were s k i l l e d  u s e r s , and one was s k i l l e d the exprimenter  commented  available  settled  skills  features.  to perform  f o r a general  by f i v e  deaf judges.  SE u s e r s , two were s k i l l e d ASL  i n both ASL and SE.  In a d d i t i o n ,  on the s u b j e c t ' s use or lack of use  of both Signed E n g l i s h and on some well-documented  ASL  f e atures. The rate  experimenter gave the judges a scale on which to  the s u b j e c t ' s s i g n i n g  skills  and a r a t i n g guide to help  the judges understand how to use the s c a l e for  the r a t i n g  consisted end  scale and r a t i n g g u i d e ) .  of a continuum  of the s c a l e which  other end, at number 7. subject  by marking  (see Appendix D  The r a t i n g  scale  from numbers 1 to 7, with ASL at the  corresponded  to number 1 and SE at the  The judges were asked  the point on t h i s  to rate  scale which  they  each felt  78 most a c c u r a t e l y  represented  The judges were permitted numbers  the subject's  signing  skills.  to mark i n between the scale  as w e l l as at the s c a l e  numbers.  The f i v e judges, two at two d i f f e r e n t times and three at another time, viewed the videotapes of the s u b j e c t s ' retelling  of the s t o r i e s .  retelling  of a s t o r y , they independently rated  signing  skills  f o r that  Immediately a f t e r watching each  retelling.  nine s t o r i e s i n one s i t t i n g . chapter  4.  the subject's  They did t h i s  for a l l  The f i n d i n g s are discussed i n  79 Chapter 4:  The  Results  in two  sections.  subjects'  recall  of the  signed  their  The  first  s t o r i e s , and  retelling  Before d i s c u s s i n g in this  various  encoding and  researchers  and  (c) the  reader  reader i s reminded that  l i s t e n e r , (b)  still  quite  i s advised  confounded by how  that  story,  amount of r e c a l l  of the  s t o r i e s for  story  subjects  understood.  The  subjects  comprehended more than they expressed. to c l e a r l y  show the  skills  v e r b a l memory s k i l l s recall  several variables:  can  and  these v a r i a b l e s  i n Table 12,  does not make a statement about how  subjects  in  together  scores  subjects,  The  (a)  the o r a l  the  the  and  the  w h o l i s t i c a l l y . With t h i s i n mind,  represent  the  the  the  c o g n i t i v e processes i n v o l v e d  much a person r e c a l l s of a short  are  the  stories.  These f a c t o r s alone and  operate i n d i v i d u a l l y and the  second with how  of a story by a person i s a f u n c t i o n of  decoding.  i n f l u e n c e how  the  of s t o r y events f o r  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  prose i t s e l f ,  are  Stories  recall  study, the  amount of r e c a l l the  the  study  s e c t i o n deals with  of the  R e c a l l of the  subjects  Discussion  r e s u l t s of t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e p i l o t  discussed  subjects  and  could  (a) t h e i r  the  much of  the  might have  Researchers have yet  r e l a t i o n s h i p between v e r b a l  scores  which  comprehension  ( P a r i s & L i n d a u e r , 1977 ). have been i n f l u e n c e d  expository  skills,  (b)  by the  80 story material i t s e l f ,  and (c) v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n the s u b j e c t .  Table 12 presents the f o l l o w i n g score and (b) r e c a l l and minor average the  data:  (a) the mean raw  percentage of each subject  f o r the main  events of each s t o r y , and (c) the s u b j e c t ' s t o t a l  percentage of r e c a l l  three s t o r i e s .  f o r main and minor  (Table E - l i n Appendix  scores of each subject  events over  E records the raw  per scorer f o r each of the s t o r i e s . )  Table 12 S u b j e c t s ' Mean Scores and Percentage R e c a l l s of the S t o r i e s  Story A Subj ect  Events Main  1  2  3  M  a  14. 7  % 54  Minor  9  32  Main  19.5  72  Minor  17  61  Main  17 . 8 66  Minor  11.8  42  Story B M  Story ' C M  %  b  19  23.8  66 44  9.8 18.3  4.8  64  61  21  32  21.3  58  66  6.6  30  5  22  38  20. 2  70  16.3  44  60  11  50  12  35  2.7  a  main events equals 29; minor,  Tot. Av.%  63  Maximum main events equals 27; minor , 28.  Note.  %  C  Story A+B+C  22.  Maximum  D  Maximum main events  equals 37; minor, 23. For recall similar  each of the s t o r i e s , each subject  of main events than on minor  scored higher on  events.  to the f i n d i n g s on o r a l prose r e c a l l  This  finding i s  by other  81 r e s e a r c h e r s who  have noted  that  the more important  information  i s often r e c a l l e d  information  (Meyer & McConkie, 1973;  Johnson, will  1977;  b e t t e r than the l e s s  Thorndyke, 1977).  Meyer, 1975;  The  focus on the s u b j e c t s ' r e c a l l  important Mandler  d i s c u s s i o n on  &  results  of the main events of the  s t o r i e s , which represent the more important i n f o r m a t i o n i n oral  prose  that educators hope students attend to,  understand, The subject  total  for  average  retell.  recall  over the three s t o r i e s  Table 12). recall  remember, and  of the main events for each ranged  It i s not known i f these average  represent "good", "average",  the story m a t e r i a l used  remembered teachers  from 60%  that  in this  the r e c a l l  presented  experimenter  amount of r e c a l l  of the  PSE  would recommend that  form of p r e s e n t a t i o n .  Do  "less"  stories.  these s t o r i e s  be  much they r e c a l l  I t would also be i n t e r e s t i n g of these s t o r i e s  their  It would be  performance  to hearing teenagers to see how  the main events.  skills  study, but i t should be  academic deaf students f o r these Signed E n g l i s h The  (see  percentages of  the s u b j e c t s were considered by  to note  66%  or "weak" r e c a l l  to be "good" academic students.  interesting  to  of  to compare the  between a SE, ASL,  and a  deaf students r e c a l l more  i n f o r m a t i o n of m a t e r i a l presented i n one  of these  sign  communication methods than the same i n f o r m a t i o n presented i n the other two? These average  percentages  of r e c a l l  f o r main events f o r  82 each the  subject were based experimenter used  evaluators.  Each  on a l i b e r a l way of scoring i n that  the average  raw scores of a l l three  s u b j e c t ' s r e c a l l would have been reduced by  approximately 10% i f the experimenter had based recall  the s u b j e c t ' s  score on only those s t o r y events f o r which  e v a l u a t o r s were i n t o t a l  a l l three  agreement as shown In Table .13.  Table 13 S u b j e c t s ' Raw Scores f o r Main Events Based  on F u l l Scorer  Agreement  Story A Subj e ct  Score  a  Story B Score  %  b  Story A+B+C  Story C %  Score  0  Tot. Av. %  %  1  11  41  16.5  57  21  57  52  2  17  63  17.5  60  18  49  57  3  14  52  18  62  13  35  50  Note.  Maximum main events equals 27.  equals 29.  Q  Maximum main events  Maximum main events equals 37  Table 14 shows the percentage of main events i n each s t o r y which be seen that  received full  credit  from a l l three s c o r e r s .  agreement between the three scorers  I t can ranged  from a low of 74% f o r Subject 1 (Story A) to a high of 93% for  Subject 2 (Story B).  83 Table 14 Percentage of Agreement Between Scorers f o r the  Subjects'  R e c a l l of Main Events Story B  Story C  %  No.  No .  Story A No .  Subj ects  a  %  b  %  C  1  20  74  24  83  32  86  2  23  85  27  93  29  78  3  22  81  24  83  29  78  Note.  Maximum main events equals 27. Maximum main events c 29. Maximum main events equals 37.  equals  In examining the d i f f e r e n c e s among the s c o r e r s , i t appeared  that  subject's  the most  retelling  of c e r t a i n events.  subjects  the  s c o r e r s d i d not have the opportunity  in  f o r c l a r i f i c a t i on.  a situation  story  teller's  Subject this  to give e x p l i c i t l y  In s e v e r a l  the  subjects  failed  l i k e l y cause was the ambiguity of the  i n which they intended  l's retelling  i n f o r m a t i o n , and  to question the  This ambiguity l e f t the s c o r e r s had to make a d e c i s i o n as to the  meaning.  The f o l l o w i n g examples of  of Story A w i l l serve  to i l l u s t r a t e  point. In Story A, the scorers disagreed  1 included Subject his  clear  instances  the event B i l l  Subject  o f f e r e d Jim back h i s o l d j o b .  1 d i d not e x p l i c i t y  o l d j o b , but said  as to whether  s t a t e that B i l l  that B i l l  o f f e r e d J i m back  thought to himself  that Jim  84 had  been a good worker and  again.  It was  r e h i r e d Jim  up  to the  thought that he wanted to h i r e Jim  scorer to decide  or only thought about i t , and  s c o r e r s a r r i v e d at d i f f e r e n t disagreed  on the  the p a r t y . talked  but  Subject  the dream was  to the  1 s t a t e d that there was  a party. subject  taken out  implied  These were  a dream, two  to t h i s p o i n t , a l l scorers  of the story  p o l i c e found out  that Jim  had  information  retelling,  that Jim This  gone to a party.  A scorer who  to the e a r l i e r had  should  did not mentioned the event Jim went  used the new  event as s/he  at the end  had new  Therefore, of  the  did not  event would leave  originally  scored  relate the  i t ( i . e . not  now  this  new  earlier included in  recall). The  above examples i l l u s t r a t e  evaluators  of the  experienced  i n the  story material in this  have scored had  party.  a party and  then  at a  to mark the event Jim went to a party would  information  the  about the  stated that the  remark i t as i n c l u d e d .  the  i n which Jim was  s t o r y there was  Thus, up  subject  had  However, towards the end  a scorer who  scorers also  a party and  a b o t t l e of a l c o h o l from the party.  information  retelling  not  events.  agree that the  The  the  s u b j e c t ' s mention of the event Jim went to  In the o r i g i n a l  separate  obviously  conclusions.  about a dream that B i l l  party.  i f B i l l actually  the  some of the  difficulties  s c o r i n g of the  study.  free  recall  Perhaps a b e t t e r way  to  s u b j e c t s ' r e t e l l i n g would have been to have  the e v a l u a t o r s  meet to discuss  their  independent s c o r i n g  85 and  to attempt The  to r e s o l v e t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s .  total  average percentage of r e c a l l  over s u b j e c t s was for  Story C.  effect two,  f o r Story A, 66%  for Story C.  Story C was  similar  recall  p o s s i b l y be accounted  Story two,  C was  can  low  score  percentages.  over time when Day  of two  of Day  3.  score  for t h i s  Table  15  other  3 on Story over time.  C. It  improved i n  compared with  those  for a l l three days are  3 showed c o n s i s t e n t r e c a l l  Because Subject  time of viewing  are  (a)  than the  f o r the 3 s u b j e c t s  However, when r e s u l t s  examined only Subject  factors:  by Subject  1 results  other  This d i f f e r e n c e  s t o r y to r e c a l l  obtained  scores  recall  The  55%  l e s s than the  15 shows the percentage of r e c a l l  be seen that the  over time.  recalled  f o r by one  a more d i f f i c u l t  or (b) the Table  f o r Story B, and  It appears that there might be a p o s s i b l e s t o r y  which had  can  64%  of main events  improvement  3 viewed Story C on Day  could have c o n t r i b u t e d to his low  1,  the  recall  story.  S u b j e c t s ' Percentage of R e c a l l Over Time f o r Main Events Day  Day  1 %  Story  Day  2 %  Story  3 %  Subj ect  Story  1  A  54  B  66  C  64  2  B  63  C  58  A  72  3  C  44  A  66  B  70  86  One teacher  aspect  of the r e t e l l i n g  of the hearing  impaired,  the  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  and  that of the o r i g i n a l  took the  story.  Story A, Jim went to the  party, B i l l Bill  attending  mansion.  In Story C,  a party.  contained  a letter  letter  had  Sue  that i t was  found i n the  and  lawyer, so his ghost returned valuables  and  the l e t t e r . . .  Another subject  letter  which informed  said her  dream  and  One  John  subject  car another box  Sue  subject  which  diamonds.  The  that he  to have and  had  not  his  to his  where to f i n d stated that Bob  given his lawyer a paper, a l i s t , which the Sue.  retelling  g i v i n g the l e t t e r  to t e l l One  telling  a fancy house, a  i t explained  died before  go  the  i n the  In Story B, Ken  as w e l l as more money and  However, Bob  didn't  that B i l l ' s  hidden his v a l u a b l e s which he wanted Sue relatives.  Bill  for d i r e c t i o n s .  said  been w r i t t e n by Bob  For example, i n  i n which Jim was  s t o r y by saying  on the house and  subjects  same night as  of the s u b j e c t s  stopped at a huge house to ask elaborated  additions.  a dream about Jim  of h i s innocence... Two  about Jim  by the  was  Many of these d i f f e r e n c e s  However, the  of Story A d i s t o r t e d the was  given  company party, and  too busy.  had  found most i n t e r e s t i n g  s t o r y content  form of d i s t o r t i o n s and  because he was  which the experimenter, as a  his had  lawyer gave to  that i n s i d e the box,  Sue  found a  of the h i d i n g place of the diamonds  and  money.  In Story C, Bob's r e l a t i v e s  the  country  a f t e r Bob's death, and  Sue  ordered  Sue  to leave  went to England.  One  87  subject  stated  death, and  that Bob's r e l a t i v e s were upset about his  t h e r e f o r e moved out to the country.  A d d i t i o n s and oral  distortions  are expected  i n the r e c a l l of  prose but they only become a concern when they a l t e r  original  intended meaning of the key events i n a the  the  story.  Some r e s e a r c h e r s claim that a d d i t i o n s and d i s t o r t i o n s are a f u n c t i o n of the story m a t e r i a l , i t s e l f , organized  a story i s i n s t r u c t u r e and  the number of a d d i t i o n s and (Rumelhart, Mandler,  1975;  1978).  readability, interesting  Although  the b e t t e r  i n the s t o r y  Mandler  the experimenter  l e n g t h , syntax, and  that  syntax, then the lower  distortions  Thorndyke, 1977;  and  & Johnson,  recall 1977;  controlled for  signed l e x i c o n , i t would  to analyze these s t o r i e s according to the  be  story  schemas of these r e s e a r c h e r s to see i f they have weak ambiguous s t r u c t u r e s which could have i n f l u e n c e d  recall.  Signing S k i l l s Used i n the R e t e l l i n g of the S t o r i e s Originally, five  the experimenter  American  skills.  Three judges were to evaluate the s i g n e r s  Sign Language (ASL) s k i l l s  e v a l u a t e Signed E n g l i s h would be used  and  (SE) s k i l l s .  twice, once f o r ASL  considered to have both ASL  judge's of  on using a l l of the  e v a l u a t o r s i n the a n a l y s i s of each s u b j e c t ' s r a t i n g of  signing  was  planned  and  three were to  One  judge's  once f o r SE because  and SE s k i l l s .  r a t i n g s were so d i f f e r e n t  rating she  However, t h i s  from the other two members  each grouping, that the experimenter  did not included  her  88 ratings  i n the r e s u l t s of the study.  evaluators* Table  r a t i n g s f o r analyses 16 represents  each subject subject's  This l e f t  four  and d i s c u s s i o n .  the r a t i n g s f o r s i g n i n g s k i l l s  f o r each s t o r y by the evaluators  t o t a l mean r a t i n g  given  and the  by each r a t e r over the three  stories. Table  16  Judges' Ratings  of the S u b j e c t s '  Signing S k i l l s  f o r Each  Story  Subject  Judges ASL SE  1  1 2  2  1 2  3  1 2  Note.  The r a t i n g  1 to 7. equals  A rating  Story A  Story B  Story C  Stories A+B+C M  3 4  5 3 5.5 4.3  4.3 3 4 3.4  4.3 4 4.7 4.3  4.6 3.3 4.7 4  3 4  5.3 3 2.5 4.5  4.3 3 3 3.3  4.4 4 4 3.3  4.7 3.3 3.2 3.7  3 4  6.3 4 5.5 3.7  4.4 3 2.5 3.5  6.3 5 4 3.3  5.7 4 4 3.5  s c a l e c o n s i s t e d of a continuum of 1 equals  100% ASL usage.  from numbers  A r a t i n g of 7  100% SE usage.  Judges 1 and 2, the ASL r a t e r s , evaluated subjects' signing s k i l l s  as having  a rating  a l l - of the  of 3 or more.  89 This  corresponded to l e s s than 65%  indicated  on  the Rating Guide that  Appendix D f o r Rating Guide). evaluators,  rated a l l of the  having  a r a t i n g of 5.5  70%  skills.  that  SE  the  judges nor fully  the  the  in a s l i g h t l y  that was  not  r a t i n g s c a l e for PSE "pure" ASL  This  first  i n the  expression  c l a s s i f i e d , as PSE.  signer's  t h i s kind  of s t r i c t  real  situations.  English, w i l l  ratings  17,  which i n c l u d e d  For  on  following  a l l signing "pure" SE  little  The  error  or SE before  experimenter f e l t  i s often not  example, a s k i l l e d  the  user  the E n g l i s h expression the  or lack of ASL,  and  the that  case i n  of of a  foreigner's  l e x i c o n usage, and  the experimenter rearranged ASL  by  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s c a l e  that of E n g l i s h despite  to represent  It  PSE.  than by  usage of ASL  numerous e r r o r s i n p r o n o u n c i a t i o n , In Table  the  have c a l l e d  other  error limitation  often perceive  f o r e i g n e r as being  felt  of s i g n i n g s k i l l s  i n that there was  margin allowed  life  as  SE judges  (above s c a l e point 1) nor  quite l i m i t i n g  was  SE  to i n t e r p r e t the r a t i n g  d i f f e r e n t way,  (below s c a l e point 7). p o i n t s was  the  expressed  i n t o that area  experimenter also decided  original  the  s u b j e c t s ' s i g n i n g s k i l l s , as defined  the ASL-SE continuum which researchers  results  4,  (see  subjects' signing s k i l l s  the ASL  judges' r a t i n g s , f e l l  The  used  was  language for which they were judged.  would appear that the  they had  as  or l e s s which corresponds to l e s s than  Neither  of the  skills  Judges 3 and  subjects' signing s k i l l s  features  ASL  the ASL  syntax. judges'  similarly,  the  90 SE judges' r a t i n g s judge's  r a t i n g of s i g n i n g  followng the  way:  subject  that  to represent  SE or lack of SE.  s k i l l s was i n t e r p r e t e d  d i d not use ASL, and (c) a scale r a t i n g of be e i t h e r ASL or not  ASL.  I f an ASL judge rated  four,  then the judge was making a statement  a s i m i l a r fashion: subjects  mean e i t h e r  less  above the s c a l e  and not about  A SE judge's  number  about the the subject's  r a t i n g was i n t e r p r e t e d i n  (a) a s c a l e r a t i n g from 4 to 7 meant  used SE, (b) a scale  the subject  below four  a subject  lack of ASL s k i l l s ,  command of SE s k i l l s .  that  that  used ASL, (b) a s c a l e r a t i n g from 4 to 7 meant  4, the mid-point i n the s c a l e , could  the  in^the  (a) a s c a l e r a t i n g between 1 and 4 meant  the subject  subject's  An ASL  that  r a t i n g from 1 to 4 meant  d i d not use SE, and (c) a r a t i n g of 4 could  (a) or ( b ) . I f a SE judge rated  a subject  as  on the s c a l e , then the judge was i n d i c a t i n g that  than 50% of the s u b j e c t ' s  s i g i n i n g s k i l l s were l i k e SE,  but t h i s r a t i n g d i d not mean that  the s i g n i n g  s k i l l s were  l i k e ASL. It was assumed that ASL judges  rated  the subject  the subject's  was s i g n i n g ASL, i f both  signing  as having 50% or more ASL f e a t u r e s  of one of the s t o r i e s  (1 to 4 ) , and both SE  judges gave a r a t i n g of l e s s than 50% f o r SE s k i l l s for  the same subject  judges rated signs  and s t o r y .  a subject's  L i k e w i s e , i f the two SE  story as c o n t a i n i n g  (4 to 7 ) , and the two ASL judges rated  subject's  (1 to 4)  50% or more SE the same  story as having 50% or l e s s ASL signs  (4 to 7 ) ,  91 then the subject was considered was thought  to be s i g n i n g SE.  to be using ASL or SE only when there was 100%  agreement of t h i s kind between the e v a l u a t o r s . name given at  least  A subject  to the s i g n i n g s k i l l s  one of the judges  of those  disagreed.  PSE was the  subjects  f o r which  92 Table 17 Judges' Ratings of the Subjects f o r ASL and SE Agreement Stories Subj ects  Judges  A  B  ASL 1 2  A  C  3  1  4_  5 4  5.5 4.3  4 3.4 A  1 2  S  3  2  4_  5.3 4_  Not SE 2.5  3 4  3 3.3  iL  4 3.3  Note.  A scale  4.4  4.5  6.3 4_  4.4 SE  4 3.3  5.5  6.3 5 —  — 4_  r a t i n g; of 4 i s u n d e r l i n e d to i n d i c a t e  that i t  a Not SE equal s c a l e category. ASL and SE and Not ASL equal scale r a t i n g s between 1 to 4.  can belong ratings  2.5 3.5  3.7  4.3  4  Not SE 3 4  4.7 4.3  Not ASL  3  3  4  SE-  ASL 1 2  4.3  Not ASL  L  3  4.3  b  SE  Not SE3 4  C  -Not ASL  3  3  B  to e i t h e r  b  between 4 to 7. Judge 1, an ASL r a t e r , f e l t  that  a l l of the  subjects'  -  93 signed 2,  stories  contained  the other ASL  demonstrated ASL used more ASL without  rater,  felt  than 50%  an SE s t o r y .  Therefore  fully one  one  ASL  that Subject  felt 3's  story—Subject  1 used SE  and This  of t h i s  that i t was  ASL.  then there was  of s i g n i n g s k i l l s  not  If we  full  SE; but include  subject  Once again  the SE judges recognized form of s i g n i n g has The  both ASL  both SE and  been termed  experimenter would l i k e  about two  and  the  and  for  one  i t appears  from which at  non-ASL f e a t u r e s  non-SE f e a t u r e s .  PSE.  study  to d e l i n e a t e a s u b j e c t ' s  the mesasure, i t s e l f ,  only  to discuss s e v e r a l concerns  variables involved in this  which attempt  Both SE  agreement as to  on only one  f o r Story A.  judges recognized  subject  C; however,  ASL.  subjects used a form of s i g n i n g s k i l l s  times the ASL  3 d i d not  Both SE judges agreed  Story B was  classification  the  2  judges  to sign Story A and  judge thought that i t was  s c a l e point number 4,  that  Both ASL  1 and  SE judge rated t h i s s t o r y as  as PSE.  and  Judge  subjects  Subjects  signing s k i l l s  1 used SE  judge disagreed  judges agreed  the  classified  that Subject  ASL  3.  skills.  agreed that Story C by Subject  however, only one  Story C was  although  than Subject  resemble ASL;  for  of ASL  that a l l of the  signing s k i l l s ,  in total  question  less  and  other  studies  signing s k i l l s :  (b) the e v a l u a t o r s .  (a)  In future  s t u d i e s a b e t t e r procedure for o b t a i n i n g a measure for signing signer  skills  would be to ask  on s p e c i f i c  the evaluators  features of the  to rate  language, such as  the the  lexicon, this for  syntax, and semantics.  However, the problem with  procedure i s the d i f f i c u l t y ASL.  linguistic  in finding  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the deaf are not f o r m a l l y taught the f e a t u r e s of ASL, so how can they be asked to judge  these features?  The best ASL judges would be n a t i v e born ASL  users and they are few i n number. skilled  competent judges  SE judges.  Another problem i s f i n d i n g  Native E n g l i s h users can competently  judge spoken E n g l i s h , but t h i s does not mean that they can do the  same f o r E n g l i s h i n s i g n s .  How do we judge a s k i l l e d SE  user? If  a rating  continuum  only represent one s i g n i n g English  sign system.  i s used, then the scale, should skill  The e v a l u a t o r should only be asked to  make a statement about  the s k i l l s or lack of s k i l l s of one  language, and that language e v a l u a t o r ' s language.  should be the same as the  The e v a l u a t o r s , i r r e s p e c t i v e of the  measurement used, should c o n s i s t judges, s k i l l e d  at a time, e i t h e r ASL or an  of two separate groups:  ASL users themselves, and  SE judges,  ASL  skilled  SE users themselves. As stated e a r l i e r what kind of s i g n i n g  i n chapter 3, the i d e a l way of knowing  s k i l l s the subjects used i n t h i s study  was to make a d e t a i l e d  signed gloss t r a n s c r i p t i o n  f o r each  s u b j e c t ' s s i g n i n g of each s t o r y , and then to analyze the transcription  f o r ASL f e a t u r e s and E n g l i s h  features.  However, the experimenter was unable to do t h i s due to her of expertise  i n t h i s area and the lack of a s k i l l e d resource  95 person.  Nevertheless,  videotapes  the experimenter  d i d view the  of the s u b j e c t s i n a search f o r d e f i n i t e SE  f e a t u r e s , and f o r some general ASL f e a t u r e s as described i n the l i t e r a t u r e  (Baker  & Cokely,  i n s i g h t s are shared with  1980).  the reader  The  experimenter's  i n the f o l l o w i n g  paragraphs. Although  none of the s u b j e c t s ' s i g n i n g was a true SE  form, a l l of the s u b j e c t s d i d e x h i b i t  some SE f e a t u r e s .  At  times  the s u b j e c t s followed E n g l i s h word order but at other  times  d i d not.  they  Subjects 2 and 3, mouthed and voiced words as  signed, while  voice.  Subject  1 j u s t mouthed the words with no  The f o l l o w i n g examples of E n g l i s h sign usage by the  s u b j e c t s are not a l l i n c l u s i v e , nor are they used consistently Subject and,  throughout  1 used the E n g l i s h adverb so, the c o n j u n c t i o n  some E n g l i s h verb  English  forms such as i s , was, have been, the  pronouns I, she, him, h i s , he, the o c c a s i o n a l  article, Subject  the s u b j e c t s ' s i g n i n g of the s t o r i e s .  a_^ and nominal clauses beginning with 1 also i n i t i a l i z e d  some s i g n s , i . e . house, v a l u a b l e .  Subject 2 sometimes used the r e l a t i v e article  the word t h a t .  pronoun who, the  a, the verbs was , should be, the possessive sign  marker 's, the adverb so, the c o n j u n c t i o n and, the pronoun her, and i n i t i a l i z e d 3 used  some s i g n s , i . e . house, decide.  Subject  the c o n j u n c t i o n and, the possessive sign marker 's,  the verbs  i s , be, the adverb so, the r e l a t i v e  the a r t i c l e  the, and the i n i t i a l i z e d  pronoun who,  sign k i l l .  As w e l l as  96  these SE s k i l l s , subjects, their  one  of the judges commented that  e s p e c i a l l y 2 and 3, seem to be t r y i n g to follow  speech which made t h e i r  order.  the  The  experimenter  of the s u b j e c t s '  signs  felt  f o l l o w E n g l i s h word  that a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s  signing s k i l l s  would undoubtly have  revealed  more E n g l i s h sign usage than those presented above. The  s u b j e c t s ' s i g n i n g also contained  As with SE, the ASL throughout Subject ASL  features  the s u b j e c t s '  d i d not appear  or r i g h t .  reference  f o r pronouns,  by p o i n t i n g  During dialogue,  the subject  a s i g n and  expression This  indicated a subject  of meaning as w e l l as  made use of space  left  new sometimes  combined the sign r e p e t i t i o n with  to show degree  subject  she also used  used her body to  by changing her body p o s i t i o n . The  repeated  Although  to the space to her  assume the p o s i t i o n of the speaker, and speaker  features.  consistently  s i g n i n g of the s t o r i e s .  1 used many E n g l i s h signs  pronominal  some ASL  facial  duration.  to e s t a b l i s h r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between people and o b j e c t s , used mime to r e s t a t e old information,  and used hand c l a s s i f i e r s  performing an a c t i o n .  Subject  2 used more of the ASL  of p o i n t i n g  i n space f o r pronominal  Subject  He  the  1.  than did  dialogue  as w e l l as using  space to  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between people and o b j e c t s .  reduplication for  reference  feature  too s h i f t e d h i s body to assume the p o s i t i o n of  speaker during  establish  to show people  of a sign to express p l u r a l i t y .  s t a t i n g a p r o p o s i t i o n which  added new  He  He  used  used mime  information  to old  97 information.  He used  the f a c i a l  expression of r a i s e d  eyebrows combined with a forward body movement from the waist to  indicate  an i n t e r r o g a t i v e  statement.  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y with a negative f a c i a l shake to show negative aspect.  of ASL pronominal  establish  sign  expresion and head  Subject 3 used many of the  same ASL f e a t u r e s as Subjects 1 and 2. use  He used a verb  There was a strong  r e f e r e n c e and the use of space to  relationships.  Subject 3 used  hand c l a s s i f i e r s f o r  people and o b j e c t s , and mime to emphasize o l d i n f o r m a t i o n . He repeated signs to show degree p r o g r e s s i v e verb tense.  of meaning as w e l l as  He executed  d i r e c t i o n a l verb  showing an awareness of the combination r e f e r e n c e and verb movement to e s t a b l i s h a c t i o n and the r e c e i v e r . the speaker  of pronominal the agent  features in their  the l i t e r a t u r e  He, too, used h i s body to i n d i c a t e  refers  that a l l three s u b j e c t s used signing  of the s t o r i e s .  to as PSE.  agree with those of L i v i n g s t o n study of the spontaneous  both SE and  This i s what  These f i n d i n g s seem to  (1983) who d i d a d e t a i l e d  signed expressions of seven  s t u d e n t s , ages 6 to 16, over a 15 month p e r i o d . found  of the  in a dialogue.  It would appear ASL  signs,  She, too,  that her deaf students used PSE which e x h i b i t e d  f e a t u r e s of both ASL and E n g l i s h . It was i n t e r e s t i n g commented that  to note that one of the judges  two of the s u b j e c t s ' s i g n i n g  stories differed  markedly  skills  of the  from the way they sign o u t s i d e of  98 school. and  Outside of s c h o o l , they d i d not use as much E n g l i s h ,  they d i d not use a l o t of l i p movements f o r E n g l i s h  speech sounds, features.  but used l i p movements r e l a t e d  I t would  be i n t e r e s t i n g  to examine the signed  e x p r e s s i o n s of these students i n a s o c i a l of school to note the s i m i l a r i t i e s skills  i n the two environments.  to ASL  environment  outside  and d i f f e r e n c e s of s i g n i n g  99  Chapter  This p i l o t of  5:  Summary and  study i n v e s t i g a t e d  a short story presented  students  recall  students use English?  two  Conclusions  questions:  how  much  i n an E n g l i s h Sign System do  and what kind of s i g n i n g s k i l l s  i n the r e t e l l i n g  do  deaf  deaf  of a short story presented i n  Three profoundly deaf  students  from  the  provincial  school  f o r the deaf's off-campus program i n a r e g u l a r high  school  participated  videotape  i n the study.  of three d i f f e r e n t  Signed E n g l i s h system: c o n s e c u t i v e days. were asked language, recall,  one  while being videotaped.  over  three  each s t o r y , the  students  To measure the  the number of main and minor s t o r y events  The  they had  retelling  sign students' that the  of each story were  measure f o r determining what kind of s i g n i n g used was  based  continuum s c a l e by judges The  f i n d i n g s of t h i s  1.  The  on r a t i n g s on a ASL-SE 7-point  skilled  i n ASL  and  SE.  study were as f o l l o w s :  s u b j e c t s r e c a l l e d more story main events  than  events. 2.  The  s t o r i e s was 3. and  s t o r y per day,  signed i n the  to sign the same s t o r y , using t h e i r own  tabulated.  minor  students viewed a  short s t o r i e s  A f t e r viewing  students' included in their  skills  The  The  average  of the s u b j e c t s ' r e c a l l  between 60%  - 66%  f o r the main events.  students' s i g n i n g s k i l l s  c o n s i s t e d of both ASL  and  score across  reflected  SE grammatical  that of  features.  PSE  100  I m p l i c a t i o n s and Suggestions The  percentage  of the r e c a l l  s t o r y leaves the experimenter, impaired, valid  questions  material  related  as simple  able to r e c a l l  as the s t o r i e s  academic students?  recall  to note  of Signed  i n this  study,  E n g l i s h presented  and (b) what are  between the b e t t e r , average and I t must be remembered that the  I t was i n t e r e s t i n g  that one of the s c o r e r s , while  subject's r e t e l l ,  particular English the  (a) how much i n f o r m a t i o n  scores i n t h i s study were the scores of "good"  academic students.  one  pedagogically  to various school t o p i c s , many of which are  the d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e c a l l less  as a teacher of the hearing  f o r the classroom:  students  Research  by the s u b j e c t s i n t h i s  curious about two other important  are deaf  not  f o r Future  thought  students  attempting  that the r e t e l l i n g  s t o r y must have belonged  skilled  f o r the experimenter to score of that  to one of the l e s s  i n the program, which was indeed not  case. So much of school l e a r n i n g i n v o l v e s r e c a l l i n g  presented  of signed  i n f o r m a t i o n , that we as teachers need to be aware  of the strengths and weaknesses of l e a r n i n g t h i s way f o r our students. increase 1979;  I t i s known that r e h e a r s a l of m a t e r i a l helps recall  Petros  encouraged students  of o r a l l y  presented  m a t e r i a l (Dunham & L e v i n ,  & Hoving, 1980); hence, hearing students are  to make notes  need t h e i r  during o r a l l e c t u r e s .  The deaf  eyes to watch the s i g n s , and cannot  take  101 advantage of t h i s r e h e a r s a l hearing  impaired  such as asking the  signed  generally questions  that  to chunk the  a f t e r each chunking period own  The  other  fact that  that  the  the  same (Marmor & P e t i t t o ,  concern should the  their 1979;  environment.  be  This  that  the  time to make  only  doing  Kluwin, 1981a) should communication  be  of  programs.  form of blame, but aspects of  to suggest  strictest  that  f o l l o w the format.  the  form  this  school current  communicative some form of  than none!  to prepare our  school  impaired,  we  are  students to become members of  It seems timely  i n the  policy  Biologically,  in a natural  as educators of the hearing  have ASL  signing  language models are  teachers  p o s s i b l e to do  deaf community.  not  i s not  would be b e t t e r  responsible  a right  student  for  stopping  However, i t s u r e l y would seem that  Further,  not  for  i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the development of  insist  t h i s might not  do  take the  Signed E n g l i s h i n the  also  the  possible educational  skills.  administrators  the  not  especially  consistency  to look  lecture material,  to give  i t appears that  of q u e s t i o n i n g  of  student to process  Another s t r a t e g y  concern to a l l educators i n t o t a l  linguistic  the  strategies  deaf students themselves are  and  situation  rehearsal  the  notes.  PSE  The  Teachers of  require  relationships.  might be  his/her  use  m a t e r i a l more deeply and  interconnecting teacher  strategy.  to ask  curriculum.  to l e a r n E n g l i s h but  ourselves, Our  why  we  students have  also American  Sign  102  Language, and serve the The  to know that  same communicative  solution  i s now,  ASL,  and  this  pilot  PSE  following  and  not  and  the  language.  there  are  no  easy  time to attempt a  Good s o l u t i o n s  area of E n g l i s h  demands f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . shown the  both  can  sign  be  derived  systems,  Specifically  need f o r more research  In  the  areas: To  ascertain  the  of a short  differences  s t o r y presented  and/or s i m i l a r i t i e s  in  i n Signed E n g l i s h ,  ASL  PSE. 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E a r l y manual communication and deaf c h i l d r e n ' s achievement. American Annals of the Deaf, 115, 527-536. Wampler, D. (1971). L i n g u s t i c s of v i s u a l E n g l i s h . Santa Rosa: A u r a l l y Handicapped Programs, Santa Rosa C i t y Schools. W i l b u r , R.B. (1979). American s i g n language and sign systems. B a l t i m o r e , MD: U n i v e r s i t y Park Press. W i l l i a m s , C.H. ( E d . ) . (1976). Language and communication r e s e a r c h problems. Proceeding of the Second Gallaudet Symposium on Research i n Deafness (pp. 3-6). Washington, DC: Gallaudet C o l l e g e . (ERIC Documentation Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ED 138 020) Woodward, J . (1973). Some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of P i d g i n English. Sign Language S t u d i e s , 3, 39-46.  Sign  113 Appendix A  Sign T r a n s c r i p t i o n Symbols  1  Symbol  Example  Explanation  CAPITAL LETTERS  YESTERDAY  An E n g l i s h word i n c a p i t a l l e t t e r s represents an ASL s i g n ; t h i s word i s c a l l e d a gloss.  P-A-T  An E n g l i s h word that has hyphenated c a p i t a l l e t t e r s represents an E n g l i s h word that i s f i n g e r s p e l l e d .  HAVE-TO  Two E n g l i s h words that are represented by one s i g n .  BOOK+  When a plus sign follows a g l o s s , t h i s i n d i c a t e s that sign i s repeated. In t h i s example the r e p e t i t i o n shows plurality.  BOOK+S  A plus sign followed by a c a p i t a l l e t t e r ( s ) or a word i n d i c a t e s the a d d i t i o n of an E n g l i s h sign marker.  P-A-T-rt  The symbol r t means the space to the Signer's r i g h t , and l_f , the space to the Signer's l e f t . When a sign i s made toward a p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n , that place i s i n d i c a t e d a f t e r the g l o s s . These symbols can also be w r i t t e n before a gloss to show where the sign begins.  +  -rt -If  SECRETARY-lf  From Baker and Cokely, 1980, p. 3 and 9.  114  lower case words  me-GIVE-you pat-GIVE-lf  Lower case words connected to a verb gloss i n d i c a t e where the verb sign begins and ends. These s p e c i f i c words are not used u n t i l the t h i n g s that they represent have been given a s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n .  115 Appendix B  The  Written Versions  of the Three S t o r i e s  Story A Jim worked at B i l l ' s store f o r three years. Then one Jim decided to quit h i s job at the s t o r e . About a year l a t e r , B i l l was walking down a s t r e e t when he saw a young man. The man seemed depressed and s i c k . He was very t h i n and his c l o t h e s were o l d . He looked l i k e he might be broke. Suddenly, B i l l r e a l i z e d that the young man was Jim. B i l l o f f e r e d Jim his old job back because Jim had been a good worker. Jim was very t h a n k f u l and accepted the job. Every year B i l l had a party f o r the people who worked i n B i l l ' s s t o r e . B i l l was too busy to attend but Jim went to the big p a r t y . The same night as the party, B i l l had a strange dream. He dreamed that Jim was t a l k i n g to him about something very important. Jim said that people blamed him for something, but that he did not do i t . Jim did not want B i l l to think that he was g u i l t y of i t . Jim said that he was innocent. A f t e r the party, Jim did not go to work f o r s e v e r a l days. He never phoned B i l l to e x p l a i n why he wasn't coming to work. F i n a l l y , B i l l began to worry about Jim. He t r i e d to contact Jim but was not s u c c e s s f u l . He phoned the p o l i c e . He asked the p o l i c e to f i n d out what had happened to Jim. When B i l l a r r i v e d home from work, h i s wife informed him that something t e r r i b l e had happened. The p o l i c e said that Jim had k i l l e d h i m s e l f . I t happened r i g h t a f t e r the party. B i l l thought about the dream that he had the night of the party. B i l l t o l d his wife that the p o l i c e were wrong about Jim's death. B i l l did not b e l i e v e that Jim k i l l e d h i m s e l f . B i l l t o l d the p o l i c e to i n v e s t i g a t e Jim's death more. The p o l i c e l a t e r found out that they had made a mistake. Jim's death had been an a c c i d e n t . Jim l e f t the party with a b o t t l e and went home. He thought that i t was a b o t t l e of a l c o h o l , but i t was r e a l l y poison. Jim had a drink from the b o t t l e and the poison k i l l e d him. When the p o l i c e found his body, they thought that he had k i l l e d h i m s e l f . So, on the night of Jim's death, his ghost came back i n B i l l ' s dream. Jim's ghost t o l d B i l l that Jim did not k i l l h i m s e l f . day  See  C l a r o , 1974,  f o r the o r i g i n a l  source  of the  stories.  116  Story B B i l l i n v i t e d h i s f r i e n d s , John and Ken, to v i s i t him. While John and Ken were d r i v i n g to B i l l ' s , i t began to snow. John and Ken became l o s t i n the deep snow. Ken noticed a l i g h t a few miles away, so they drove toward i t . They soon came to a large metal gate. A huge house was behind the metal gate, at the top of a h i l l . Some l i g h t s were on i n the house. They opened the gate and drove up to the house. Ken went to ask f o r d i r e c t i o n s and John stayed i n the c a r . Ken went to the f r o n t door and rang the d o o r b e l l . A man answered the door. When Ken f i n i s h e d t a l k i n g to the man, he gave the man something. Then Ken went back to the c a r . The man had _ e x p l a i n e d how they could get to B i l l ' s house. John asked Ken what he had given the man. Ken t o l d John that he had given the man a coin f o r h i s help. The two men followed the man's d i r e c t i o n s . They a r r i v e d at B i l l ' s house l a t e that n i g h t . They explained to B i l l what had happened. They t o l d B i l l about g e t t i n g l o s t , the house, the man, and the c o i n . B i l l l i s t e n e d to a l l of t h e i r s t o r y . When they had f i n i s h e d , B i l l t o l d them that he did not b e l i e v e a word of i t . B i l l said that they couldn't have v i s i t e d that house because i t burned to the ground 20 years ago. So the next morning, the three of them drove to the house to see i f i t was there. When they reached the gate, i t was locked. I t looked l i k e i t had not been opened f o r y e a r s . The men looked up the driveway, but d i d not see a house at the top of the h i l l . They only saw the house that had burned down. Then they n o t i c e d car t i r e tracks that continued up the driveway. The gate was locked, but the tracks d i d go up to the house. The t r a c k s , a l s o , went back down to the gate. The tracks proved that a car had been there. The three men ran to the top of the h i l l . They found c l e a r f o o t p r i n t s that went to the house and away from i t . They found the most s u r p r i s i n g thing of a l l at the door of the burned house. Something was b r i g h t l y s h i n i n g i n the snow. I t was the coin that Ken had given the man. Story C Bob loved Sue very much but h i s family did not want him marry her. His r e l a t i v e s would take away a l l of h i s money he married her. Bob and Sue married anyway. A f t e r the wedding, they went to v i s i t Bob's r e l a t i v e s i n France. They wanted h i s family to meet Sue, but h i s family was not nice to Sue. His r e l a t i v e s thought that Sue d i d not r e a l l y love Bob. They s a i d that she only wanted h i s money. Then one day a t e r r i b l e thing happened. Bob had a heart to if  117  a t t a c k and d i e d . His family ordered Sue to leave the country. Sue kept the jewelry and clothes that she was wearing. Bob's family permitted Sue to keep nothing e l s e . Sue decided to go to England and a lucky thing happened to her there. One day she was t a l k i n g to a woman when the woman suddenly sat up s t r a i g h t and became very s t i f f . The woman t o l d Sue that she had a message f o r her. The message was from her dead husband. The woman began w r i t i n g very f a s t on a piece of paper. The woman wrote the address of a bank, a man's name, and a number on the paper. Sue went to the bank and she asked for the man. She showed the man the number. He gave her a s p e c i a l box that matched the number. She found money, diamonds, car keys, and the address of a garage i n s i d e the box. She went to the garage and gave the car keys to a mechanic. The mechanic went to get the car that matched the keys. She found another box i n s i d e the c a r . There were more money, more diamonds, and a l e t t e r i n s i d e t h i s box. Sue's husband had w r i t t e n the l e t t e r before he d i e d . The l e t t e r explained that Bob knew that h i s r e l a t i v e s would cheat Sue. They would keep h i s money and diamonds and give Sue nothing. But Bob wanted Sue to have h i s money and v a l u a b l e diamonds. Bob had an i d e a . He decided to hide h i s money and diamonds from h i s r e l a t i v e s . He would t e l l Sue where he had hidden h i s money and diamonds. This way Sue would be able to have h i s money and diamonds. But Bob died before he gave the l e t t e r to h i s lawyer. So Bob's ghost returned from the dead. His ghost t o l d Sue where she would f i n d the money, the v a l u a b l e diamonds, and the l e t t e r .  118 Appendix C  Main and Minor Events - R e c a l l C h e c k l i s t s Story A Minor Events  Main events 1. 2. 3. 4.  Jim worked at a store the s t o r e was B i l l ' s Jim quit h i s job Later  5.  Bill  saw  a man  1.  f o r three years  2. 3. 4. 5.  about a year l a t e r B i l l was walking down a s t r e e t the man seemed poor (seemed broke, c l o t h e s old) the man- seemed s i c k (thin) the man seemed depressed  6. 7. 6. 7. 8. 9.  B i l l r e a l i z e d that the man was Jim B i l l o f f e r e d Jim back h i s old job Jim accepted the job There was a party  10.  Jim went to the party  11.  The same night as the party B i l l had a dream The dream was about Jim In the dream Jim s a i d that people blamed him for something In the dream Jim s a i d that he d i d not do i t  12. 13. 14. 15.  8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.  14.  Jim was t a l k i n g about something important  15.  Jim did not want B i l l to think that he was guilty A f t e r the party (time i n d i c a t o r ) He was away from work for s e v e r a l days Jim never phoned B i l l t r i e d to contact Jim  16. 16.  Jim did not go to work  17.  Bill Jim  began to worry  about  because Jim had been a good worker Jim was t h a n k f u l It was B i l l ' s party f o r the people who worked i n h i s store B i l l didn't attend because he was too busy  17. 18. 19.  119  18.  Bill  phoned the p o l i c e  20. 21. 22.  19. 20. 21 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27,  that the p o l i c e s a i d that Jim k i l l e d himself B i l l d i d not b e l e i v e that Jim k i l l e d himself because of h i s dream about Jim B i l l t o l d the p o l i c e to further investigate Jim's death The p o l i c e found out that Jim's death had been an accident Jim l e f t the party with a bottle He thought that i t was a b o t t l e of a l c o h o l but i t was r e a l l y poison Jim's ghost t o l d B i l l that Jim d i d not k i l l himself  23. 24.  B i l l was not s u c c e s s f u l B i l l asked the p o l i c e to f i n d out what happened to Jim When B i l l a r r i v e d home from work h i s wife informed him r i g h t a f t e r the party  25.  B i l l t o l d h i s wife that the p o l i c e were wrong  26.  He went home  27.  On the night of Jim's death Jim's ghost appeared i n B i l l ' s dream  28.  Story B Minor Events  Main Events 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  B i l l invited his friends to v i s i t H i s f r i e n d s were John and Ken While John and Ken were driving I t was snowing (or i n the snow) Ken and John became l o s t Ken n o t i c e d a l i g h t The l i g h t was a few miles away So they drove toward i t They came to a large metal gate There was a house  1,  driving  to B i l l ' s  2,  the  3, 4  the house was huge At the top of a h i l l  snow was deep  120 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.  Some l i g h t s were on i n the house They drove up to the house Ken went to the f r o n t door A man answered the door and explained how to get to B i l l ' s house Ken gave the man a coin  5, 6,  They opened the gate and rang the d o o r b e l l  7.  11.  12. 13.  twenty years ago So the next morning  24,  They a r r i v e d at B i l l ' s hous e They t o l d B i l l about getting lost the house the man and the coin B i l l t o l d them that he d i d not b e l i e v e a word of because the house burned to the ground the three of them drove to the house The gate was locked  f o r h i s help Then Ken went back to the car John asked Ken what had given the man Ken t o l d John that he had given the man a coin l a t e that night  14,  25,  They d i d not see a house  15.  26,  Then they n o t i c e d car t i r e tracks  16.  It looked l i k e i t had not been opened f o r years They only saw the house that had burned down the tracks went to and from the house The tracks proved that a car had been"there The three men ran to the top of the h i l l that went to the house and away from i t at the door of the burned house b r i g h t l y shining i n the snow  8, 9, 10, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22 23,  17. 18.  27. 28.  They found c l e a r footprints They found a coin  19. 20. 21. 22.  29.  I t was the coin that Ken had given the man  121 Story C Main Events  Minor Events  1. 2.  Bob loved Sue His f a m i l y did not want him to marry her  3.  Bob and Sue married anyway They went to v i s i t relatives The r e l a t i v e s were Bob's  1. 2.  4. 5. 6.  His family was to Sue  7.  His r e l a t i v e s thought that Sue only wanted Bob's money Bob had a heart attack and died  8. 9. 10.  not  nice  Bob's family permitted Sue to keep very l i t t l e  3. 4. 5. 6.  7. 8. 9. 10.  11.  One day she to a woman  12.  The woman t o l d Sue that she had a message for her The message was from her dead husband The woman wrote the address of a bank a man's name and a number She went to the bank She showed the man the number He gave her a s p e c i a l box She found money diamonds car keys and the address of a  13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.  was  talking  11.  12.  His r e l a t i v e s would take away a l l of his money i f he married Sue A f t e r the wedding i n France Bob wanted his family to meet Sue His r e l a t i v e s thought that Sue did not r e a l l y love Bob  His family ordered Sue to leave the country Sue kept her jewelry and clothes that she was wearing Sue decided to go to England A lucky thing happened to her there When the woman suddenly sat up s t r a i g h t and became s t i f f  13.  The woman began w r i t i n g fast on a piece of paper  14.  She  15.  that matched the number  16.  inside  asked f o r the  the  box  man  122  24.  garage She went to the garage  17. 18.  25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31.  32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37.  I n s i d e the car She found another box with more money more diamonds and a l e t t e r Sue's husband had w r i t t e n the l e t t e r The l e t t e r explained that Bob knew that h i s r e l a t i v e s would cheat Sue Bob wanted Sue to have his money and v a l u a b l e diamonds He decided to hide h i s money and diamonds He would t e l l Sue where he had hidden h i s money and diamonds But Bob died So Bob's ghost returned from the dead to inform Sue where she could f i n d the money, the v a l u a b l e diamonds, and the l e t t e r  She gave the car keys to a mechanic The mechanic went to get the car  19.  inside  20.  They would keep h i s money and diamonds They would give Sue nothing  21.  t h i s box  22.  from h i s r e l a t i v e s  23.  before he gave the l e t t e r to h i s lawyer  123 Appendix D  Rating Scale and Rating Guide  Directions: Mark on the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e what kind of sign language the student uses.  Rating  Scale  Subj.  , Day  , Story  1 ASL  2  3  4  5  7 SE  Rating Guide 1 =  90 to 100% ASL  7 =  90 to 100% Signed  2 =  75% ASL  6 =  75% SE  3 =  65% ASL  5 -••  65% SE  4 -  50% ASL + 50% SE  E n g l i s h (SE)  124 Appendix E  Table E - l S u b j e c t s ' Raw R e t e l l Scores For Each Story By Each Scorer Story A Subjects  Events Main  1  Minor  2  3  Note.  3  1  Scorers 2  14 9.5  14 8.5  b  3  Story C  Story B 3 16 9  1  Scorers 2  18.5 9  3  24  24  23.5  5  4  1  17.5  21  10  10.5 19  19.5  18.5  19  21  17.5  18.5  Minor  17  17  17  6  6  Main  17.5  18  18  19  20  21.5  Minor  12  10  13.5  11  10  12  Maximum main events equals 27; minor,28  equals 29; minor, 22.  Scorers 2  3  Main  5.5  8  C  22 4.5  5.5 22.5 5  16  15  18  3  2  3  ^Maximum main events  c Maximum main events equals 37; minor,23.  

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