Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Complexity, moral reasoning, and attitudes toward capital punishment De Vries, Brian 1984

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1984_A8 D49.pdf [ 4.36MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0096288.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0096288-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0096288-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0096288-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0096288-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0096288-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0096288-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0096288-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0096288.ris

Full Text

COMPLEXITY, MORAL REASONING, AND ATTITUDES TOWARD CAPITAL PUNISHMENT by BRIAN DE VRIES B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN.PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Psychology)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1984 © B r i a n de V r i e s , 1984  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department or by h i s or her  be granted by the head of representatives.  my  It is  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department O f  Psychology  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (3/81)  26  September  1984  written  i i ABSTRACT T h i s study  examined  several  developmental  psychology:  conceptual and  integrative  between  conceptual  interrelated (a)  complexity  and  reasoning;  (e)  (b)  moral  toward  on  Participants  capital  and  (c) the  punishment  integrative  a  moral  were  problem  72  school) who  (i.e.,  and  complexity;  university  completed  punishment  students  the  opposing,  punishment).  (from f i r s t - y e a r  Paragraph  Completion  to  Test  issue composition  on  ( a s s e s s i n g i n t e g r a t i v e complexity and moral  reasoning), generated punishment  versus an  capital  ( a s s e s s i n g conceptual c o m p l e x i t y ) , wrote an  capital  relationship  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l e v e l s of moral reasoning  position  capital  the  between  reasoning;  that s u b j e c t s use to s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e i r own,  graduate  social-  (d) the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s toward  c a p i t a l punishment and conceptual and  in  relationship  complexity;  r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s moral  the  issues  statements  (assessing  punishment  moral  reasoning),  attitude  that the two measures  of  supporting and opposing  questionnaire.  complexity  equivalent--assessments  of  and  the  are  capital  responded  to  a  Results indicated  comparable--but  cognitive  structures  not in  information p r o c e s s i n g , and that conceptual complexity and moral reasoning are moderately attitudes  toward  related.  capital  punishment  manner with extreme a t t i t u d e s conceptual  simplicity  i n c r e a s i n g complexity.  and  related  attitudes  reasoning  and  complexity  and  in a c u r v i l i n e a r  (both pro and con) moderate  Moral  c a p i t a l punishment r e l a t e d  Integrative  characterizing characterizing  attitudes  toward  i n a l i n e a r manner with o p p o s i t i o n to  capital  punishment  subjects  did  substantiate rather they regardless  not their used  increasing always own higher  use  with moral stage. higher  attitude moral  or  moral  of t h e i r chosen p o s i t i o n .  reasoning  position  reasoning The  Furthermore,  on t h i s  when  to  issue,  opposing  it,  i m p l i c a t i o n s of these  f i n d i n g s f o r the t h e o r i e s of moral reasoning and conceptual  and  integrative  are  complexity  are  discussed  and  advanced f o r the d i r e c t i o n of f u t u r e r e s e a r c h .  suggestions  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract List  i i  of Tables  vi  L i s t of F i g u r e s  vii  Acknowledgements Introduction  viii 1  Moral Reasoning  2  Conceptual and I n t e g r a t i v e Complexity  9  Attitudes  15  Moral Reasoning and Conceptual Complexity  20  Moral Reasoning and C a p i t a l Punishment  23  Conceptual Complexity and C a p i t a l Punishment  29  Hypotheses  34  Method  36  Subjects  36  Measures  36  Paragraph Completion Test  36  C a p i t a l Punishment Issue Composition  37  Statements  Supporting and Opposing C a p i t a l Punishment ....37  C a p i t a l Punishment Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Scoring  38 38  Conceptual Complexity  38  I n t e g r a t i v e Complexity  40  Moral Reasoning  42  A t t i t u d e s toward C a p i t a l Punishment  46  V  Results Normative  47 Data  47  Conceptual and I n t e g r a t i v e Complexity  48  Complexity and A t t i t u d e s toward C a p i t a l Punishment  51  Conceptual Complexity and Moral Reasoning  55  Moral Reasoning  (Pro versus Con)  and A t t i t u d e s  toward  C a p i t a l Punishment  61  Discussion  68  Conceptual and I n t e g r a t i v e Complexity  68  Complexity and A t t i t u d e s toward C a p i t a l Punishment  71  Conceptual Complexity and Moral Reasoning  75  Moral Reasoning  (Pro versus Con)  C a p i t a l Punishment Conclusion  and A t t i t u d e s  toward 78 83  References  86  Footnote  95  Appendix A - Test M a t e r i a l s  96  vi LIST OF TABLES  1. Median S p l i t  of Scores on the PCT and Issue Composition  ...50  2. Summary of the A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r the Mean Complexity Scores  52  3. Summary of the A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r the Mean Complexity  Scores, I n c l u d i n g  Simple E f f e c t s and Trend  Analysis  53  4. Summary of the A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r T o t a l Weighted Average Scores 5. Median S p l i t  59  of Scores on the PCT and Moral Reasoning  60  6. Summary of the A n a l y s i s of Variance f o r Pro and Con Weighted Average Scores, I n c l u d i n g  Simple E f f e c t s  63  7. Mean Weighted Average Scores f o r Pro and Con P o s i t i o n s as a Function of A t t i t u d e toward C a p i t a l Punishment  64  8. Percentage of Subjects at each Moral Stage Who Oppose C a p i t a l Punishment  67  vi i LIST OF FIGURES  1. Mean Complexity Scores on the Issue Composition as a Function of A t t i t u d e  toward C a p i t a l Punishment  56  viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to many people the  roles  they  this thesis. supervisor  have  First, and  and foremost, I  friend,  academic and emotional project  played i n f a c i l i t a t i n g would  Larry  Walker.  support  and  guidance  consistently  demonstrated  how  the completion of  like  Dr.  for  to His  thank  my  unwavering  throughout  invaluable  this  a  good  s u p e r v i s o r and a good f r i e n d can be. I a l s o wish to Suedfeld  thank  my  committee  comments,  careful  analysis  g r a t i t u d e i s a l s o extended the s c o r i n g of t e s t would  also  f a m i l y , and f r i e n d s Pat)  who  Bob Knox and  Peter  for his  valuable  insightful  assistance.  to Susan Bluck f o r her a s s i s t a n c e  My in  materials. like  to express my g r a t i t u d e to my p a r e n t s ,  ( e s p e c i a l l y Debbie, Mick, Alma,  Bruce,  and  bestowed upon me a seemingly u n c o n d i t i o n a l c o n f i d e n c e  in my a b i l i t y  at times when I doubted  students  the  of  Psychology  me  with unending  which I w i l l always  i t most.  Annex--a  i n d i v i d u a l s i n emotional, as opposed provided  Dr.  f o r h i s h e l p f u l suggestions, expert knowledge and h i s  w i l l i n g n e s s to share i t ; and Dr.  I  members:  to  The  graduate  term now used to l o c a t e physical,  space--also  encouragement and moral support, f o r  be g r a t e f u l .  1  Introduct ion The c o g n i t i v e - d e v e l o p m e n t a l approach to m o r a l i t y (Kohlberg, 1973,  1976) p o s i t s stages of moral reasoning which are  develop  in  an  i n v a r i a n t and h i e r a r c h i c a l  r e p r e s e n t i n g a more sense,  complex  i s the a b i l i t y  of c a t e g o r i e s or kinds process  in  a  structure.  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e of  These  processing  by Schroder  Schroder,  Driver,  a  person  i s able  to  processes  theory  of  are  Streufert,  differentiated  hallmarks  conceptual  and others (Harvey, &  these  of  complexity,  Hunt, & Schroder,  1967),  the  and  as  parallel  such  as  1961;  form an  between  these  theories. The  issue  of  c a p i t a l punishment has been, and remains, a  c o n t r o v e r s i a l t o p i c and one that has been researched w i t h i n domain  of  attitudes  (an  information  processing  r e l e v a n t to measures of complexity) as w e l l as (as  this  ( r e f e r r i n g to the number  among  i n t e r e s t i n g and e m p i r i c a l l y v e r i f i a b l e two  in  given s i t u a t i o n ) and i n t e g r a t e ( r e f e r r i n g to the  characteristics).  proposed  to  sequence, each stage Complexity,  information  development of complex connections  information  held  it  is  included  in  Kohlberg's  structured  s c o r i n g manual, Colby et a l . , i n p r e s s ) . connective  tissue  between  some i n t e r e s t i n g hypotheses The  following  methodological  As such,  structure reasoning  i n t e r v i e w and i t forms  the  the above two t h e o r i e s and presents to investigate.  sections  accounts  moral  the  of  present the  brief  areas  of  theoretical moral  and  reasoning,  conceptual and i n t e g r a t i v e complexity, and a t t i t u d e s i n g e n e r a l , and an i n t e g r a t i o n of these three areas with the hypotheses such  interactions  generate.  that  2  Moral  Reasoning Kohlberg  moral  (1969, 1973, 1976) has presented  reasoning  developmental. cognitive Kohlberg  that Aligned  stages  as  stages  with  the  general  occur  sequence.  This  an  by  Piaget  of  (i960),  through a s e r i e s  of  stages, that the s t r u c t u r e of thought can  from  in  to  characteristics  presented  b e l i e v e s that development proceeds  distinguished  approach  best be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as c o g n i t i v e -  initially  qualitatively distinct be  can  an  i t s content, and that the developmental invariant,  hierarchical,  and  universal  approach i s s a i d to provide a v a l i d  conceptual  and methodological  framework w i t h i n which moral reasoning can be  developed  imposition  higher  without  of  specific  values.  That i s ,  stages of moral reasoning are p r e d i c a t e d on the types of  reasoning i n d i v i d u a l s provide as opposed to the values to individuals  adhere.  Kohlberg  claims  that  terms of conformity with remains  a  morality  the  philosophical  prevailing  rather  cannot  be  should  than  person's  morality  person's  p o i n t of view and i n t e n t i o n s .  disconnected  responses  N e v e r t h e l e s s , Kohlberg of  going  norm,  for i t  a b e h a v i o r a l concept; a without  knowing  that  Kohlberg maintains that  i t i s not an aggregate  triggered  by  external  (1978) has d i s c u s s e d beyond  not be d e f i n e d i n  group  assessed  behavior has an u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e ;  desirability  which  the  "cognitions"  behavior and towards such an end, B l a s i  (1980)  stimuli.  necessity  to  of  the  has  and  realm of  written  a  review a r t i c l e d e s c r i b i n g the r e l e v a n t research i n t h i s area. Before be  d e s c r i b i n g the Kohlbergian stage sequence, i t would  instructive  to  examine  more  fully  the  nature  and  3  characteristics press).  of  First,  between  there  different  underlying hierarchy  cognitive-developmental are  stages  these follows  distinct  development;  qualitative  differences.  logical  (Walker,  qualitative  of  a  stages  differences  there  is  That  a logic is,  individual  Cultural cause  f o l l o w s the same i n v a r i a n t  Second,  sequence of stages.  f a c t o r s and the nature of one's s o c i a l environment  the  rate  each  stage  represents  r e f l e c t s the way  in which an  structure  his/her  of  a s t r u c t u r e d whole.  reasoning.  A  response  Individuals  integrations  in  differentiated  (there are more p a r t s that are more complex)  critical  development  is  as  stage  hierarchical is  both  more and  ways).  importance the  to  the  demonstration sequence.  h i s l o n g i t u d i n a l study  (Colby,  stage that  notion  moral  stages  really  Kohlberg has addressed  t h i s in  Kohlberg,  the  of  Gibbs,  &  Lieberman,  r e p o r t i n g 6% r e g r e s s i o n s of stages and no s t a g e - s k i p p i n g ,  which i s l e s s than (1982)  seen  subsequent  represent an i n v a r i a n t  1983)  are  (the p a r t s are b e t t e r organized and capable of  being combined in new Of  stages  each  be  reasoning a c r o s s v a r y i n g contents  Fourth, that  the  should  and c o n t e x t s .  integrated  the  development.  i n d i v i d u a l o r g a n i z e s thoughts:  r e l a t i v e l y consistent in t h e i r  more  may  of development to vary or cause development to  cease, but are held not to change the sequence of Third,  the  sequence in which each s u c c e s s i v e  stage b u i l d s upon and e l a b o r a t e s on the preceding one. each  in  the  level  of  measurement  error.  has a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d t h i s c l a i m by attempting  e x p e r i m e n t a l l y r e g r e s s i o n and an i n v a r i a n c e c l a i m .  Walker to induce  s t a g e ~ s k i p p i n g - - b o t h v i o l a t i o n s of  Subjects were exposed  in  a  brief  role-  4  playing  situation  to  one  of  the  treatment  c o n d i t i o n s which  e n t a i l e d the p r e s e n t a t i o n of reasoning statements  a t , below,  or  above the stage of reasoning demonstrated by the s u b j e c t s during a  pretest interview.  R e s u l t s supported  the s e q u e n t i a l i t y c l a i m  as development was always to the next higher  stage,  regardless  of stage to which s u b j e c t s were exposed. Equally is  the  important  demonstration  s t r u c t u r e d whole.  In  al.  (1983) suggested  of  internal  internal  to t h i s stage notion of moral development the  logic  line  with  this  of  consistency  in  may  the  be  assigned stage s c o r e s .  noted  would  receive  through  a  stages.  modal  two  most  The mean percentage  of reasoning  frequently  used  stages  comes  from  a l s o reported i n Colby et a l . (1983).  more than one i n t e r p r e t a b l e  factor  of  reasoning  (which were always  a  Further factor  support analytic  They found  emerged,  leading  that no them  to  that moral judgment i s a s i n g l e , general domain.  Empirical developmental Walker,  at  stage was 67% f o r the three a l t e r n a t e forms  for c l a i m s of s t r u c t u r e d whole  conclude  of  In f a c t , t h i s i s what Colby et  adjacent) was 99% f o r the three forms combined.  study  distribution  that the m a j o r i t y  of the i n t e r v i e w combined and the mean percentage the  This  a l l of t h e i r scores at e i t h e r a s i n g l e  (1983) have r e p o r t e d .  individuals'  at  et  f o r each s u b j e c t , of p r o p o r t i o n of reasoning at each  stage or at two adjacent al.  Colby  to f i n d a high degree  of the f i v e stages, where one would expect subjects  each stage forms a  assumption,  that one would expect  consistency  analysis,  that  de  support  may  also  be  h i e r a r c h i c a l c l a i m of t h i s V r i e s , and B i c h a r d  found  f o r the c o g n i t i v e -  moral  stage  theory.  ( i n press) extended and improved  5  upon p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h (e.g.,  Rest,  1973)  demonstrating  that  s u b j e c t s p r e f e r , but f a i l  to understand, higher stage reasoning.  Walker  evaluation  stage  et  a l . assessed  prototypic  difficulty  of  hierarchical  statements  language pattern  of  p r o t o t y p i c statements were  preferred  and  had  been  equated  found  that  subjects displayed a  understanding  stage statements,  for  of  cumulative and higher stage  lower  moral  which  responding:  was  over  and understanding of  stage  statements  i f s u b j e c t s were  capable of r e c o g n i z i n g the d i f f e r e n c e . Kohlberg's reasoning  theory  about  two  stages.  the  stages  moral  The  initial  of  moral  suburban Chicago,  postulates  three  basic  study which l e d to the development  i n which  groups  example, should Heinz  wife from dying? were  was of  formulation  begun i n the boys  at  reinterviewed  reached middle adulthood. were  derived  (complete  of  1950's i n  different moral  age  issues.  s t e a l an o v e r p r i c e d drug to save h i s  Should Heinz be punished  subsequently  of  i s s u e s w i t h i n each of which are embedded  l e v e l s were a d m i n i s t e r e d lengthy i n t e r v i e w s about (For  levels  The  for  stealing?)  They  every 3 or 4 years u n t i l  stages of  moral  reasoning  they that  from these i n t e r v i e w s can be d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s  stage d e s c r i p t i o n s are found i n Kohlberg,  1981,  and i n  the s c o r i n g manual, Colby et a l . , in p r e s s ) . The p r e c o n v e n t i o n a l l e v e l what i s r i g h t power  and  i s l i m i t e d to f o l l o w i n g concrete r u l e s  punishment.  person.  considerations  The of  backed  that by  When not p r o h i b i t e d , r i g h t behavior i s  that which serves one's own other  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a b e l i e f  reasons avoiding  i n t e r e s t s , or the i n t e r e s t s of  some  f o r upholding what i s r i g h t i n c l u d e punishment,  deference  to  power,  6  serving  self-interests,  p e r s p e c t i v e here and/or  dimensions  Stage  obedience  in  exchanging f a v o r s .  i s predominantly  physical  behaviors.  and/or  1  which  i s an  centered  or  around  consequences  orientation  The s o c i a l  of  of  rules  and and  the p h y s i c a l consequences of an a c t i o n and right  and  Stage 2 i s an o r i e n t a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l i s m , instrumental  purpose,  and  exchange  where r i g h t  i s d e f i n e d as s e r v i n g one's  own i n t e r e s t s and d e s i r e s and c o o p e r a t i v e on  self  punishment  the d i c t a t e s of a u t h o r i t y d e f i n e what i s c o n s i d e r e d wrong.  the  terms of simple exchange.  typically  interaction  Reasoning at these  is  stages  based  i s most  found among c h i l d r e n , some a d o l e s c e n t s , and r e l a t i v e l y  few a d u l t s . At  the  conforms  to  conventional l e v e l ,  the  "right"  the e x p e c t a t i o n s concerning  i s that  which  "good" behavior  of the  l a r g e r s o c i e t y or some smaller segment of i t . One i s with  upholding  societal  rules,  should a c t p r o p e r l y i n these punishment  society.  The  loyalty,  regards, not  and  level  mutual  conformity  receiving the  the  of o t h e r s .  approval  highly  egoistic  interpersonal  social  for  opinion, In terms of  orientation  of the  to the views and opinions of  one  is a  member.  expectations,  and i s one i n which the emphasis i s  conscience  concern  l e v e l , but because  with  i s now subordinated  s t e r e o t y p e s and a concern and  of  i s concerned  the l a r g e r s o c i a l group of which entails  out  One  to do what i s approved of and expected by  reasoner  s o c i a l perspective, earlier  e x p e c t a t i o n s , and r o l e s .  or s e l f - i n t e r e s t , as the previous  of an inner m o t i v a t i o n  concerned  for approval.  Stage  3  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and on  good  person  Stage 4 — s o c i a l systems  maintenance--focuses on obeying  the law and doing  7  one's  duty i n an e f f o r t to maintain s o c i a l order, and f o l l o w i n g  r u l e s which are needed f o r the Reasoning also  larger  society  defined  the by  p o s t c o n v e n t i o n a l or p r i n c i p l e d l e v e l , general  which  obligated  or  universal  both  to uphold.  for the f u n c t i o n i n g  the  human  society  and  validity  lies  in  orientation  the  are  as necessary  see  that  rather  Social practice  than m o r a l i t y social  deriving  contract  or  should  be  the  designated  morality  rationally  chosen  society.  principles.  social of  group. the  utility  Stage  and  individual rights,  of a s o c i e t y , even  5  concrete  rules  reasoning  U.S. C o n s t i t u t i o n  i s the  based  upon  p r i n c i p l e s of j u s t i c e maximizing the welfare Stage  6  deals  with  universal  I t i s an e t h i c a l stance d e r i v e d  considerations.  upon  from s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s .  when doing so might be i n c o n f l i c t with c e r t a i n of  of  society  based  and what i s c o n s i d e r e d r i g h t i s to uphold b a s i c  laws  their  The s o c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e  i n d i v i d u a l i s one which precedes  attachments to i t .  the  individual  t h e i r acceptance by the members of s o c i e t y .  v a l u e s and the mutually agreed upon c o n t r a c t s  of  or  of s o c i e t y and to guarantee j u s t i c e , but one  level  Stage 5 supports  and  values,  i s not to r u l e s i n and of themselves, but to the  principled  rights,  is  Rules and laws are p e r c e i v e d  p r i n c i p l e s and purposes behind them.  morality,  right  rights,  must a l s o recognize t h e i r a r b i t r a r y nature and  and  whole.  at these stages i s most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a d u l t s , but  principles  the  a  found i n some a d o l e s c e n t s . At  The  as  from  ethical  philosophical  There are no concrete r u l e s f o r behavior and as  such, one must be guided by autonomous s e l f at e i t h e r of these two stages i s  relatively  judgment. rare  Reasoning  (i.e.,  less  8  than  10% of a d u l t s have a t t a i n e d Stage 5, Colby et a l . , 1983). These s i x stages e x i s t  practically is,  the  i n theory, but p r e s e n t l y Kohlberg i s  acknowledging  present  classification  the  scoring  of  five  e x i s t e n c e of f i v e stages.  manual stages  allows  for  the  stage  for current theorizing  remains  unclear as to whether Stage 6 i s  hierarchically  that  is  preceding  Kohlberg's  i t , and  there  l o n g i t u d i n a l data  no  consisting  of  to  a  individual's  punishment;  authority.  reasoning.  and  The  the second  the  third  S c o r i n g these responses  Several  other  measures  reasoning, but the one most  have  with  exist relevant  for  upon that response approach  an  to  with  conscience  matching  this  Rather  subjects  a  what  words.  study  has  containing  that  Reflection two  to answer.  The  is  than an i n t e r v i e w ,  "Social  a p p r o p r i a t e response  i n t h e i r own  dilemma d e a l s with  judgment.  problems are the standard Kohlberg dilemmas choosing  draw  f o r the assessment of moral  constructed  questions  attempt  effectively  deals  entails  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e " : a q u e s t i o n n a i r e booklet  involve  dilemmas  d e a l s with c o n t r a c t versus  advanced by Gibbs and Widaman (1982). authors  to  first  been recorded with an e x i s t i n g c r i t e r i o n  problems  structured  Subjects are read these  the issue of l i f e versus law;  these  of a  s e r i e s of probing q u e s t i o n s f o l l o w i n g each in an  the  versus  of Stage 6 i n  three h y p o t h e t i c a l dilemmas which put  a s c e r t a i n what should be done and why:  out  from  (Colby et a l . , 1983).  two moral i s s u e s i n c o n f l i c t . and  distinct  evidence  Kohlberg assesses moral development by way interview  That  and and  the  social  The  social  questions  then e l a b o r a t i n g  b e n e f i t of  such  an  to the measurement of moral reasoning i s the p o t e n t i a l  9  for group a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , indeed a and  Widaman  time-saving  device.  Gibbs  (1982) report a c o r r e l a t i o n of .85 between the  two  tests. Conceptual The  and  I n t e g r a t i v e Complexity  work  of  Kelly  foundation  and  the  theoretical  and  complexity  (Streufert  (1955)  has  subsequent  methodological &  been  heralded  inspiration  developments  Streufert,  of  1978).  c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n the area of p e r s o n a l i t y theory, his  Role  It  many  conceptual His  seminal  Construct Repertory G r i d , have formed the  theoretical  complexity.  b a s i c u n i t , upon which K e l l y has e l a b o r a t e d h i s theory,  individual's  which i s the  result  process of c o n s t r u i n g or i n t e r p r e t i n g  i s a c o g n i t i v e dimension  most  the  particular  i s the " c o n s t r u c t " : a b i p o l a r dimension an  the  in  b a s i s f o r the measure of conceptual The  for  as  rudimentary  events.  of s i m i l a r i t y and c o n t r a s t .  form,  a  construct  is  a  of  In  measure  its of  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n whereby, given three o b j e c t s or events, a person may  organize or i n t e r p r e t the r e l a t i o n s h i p among them such  two are s i m i l a r and The  work  the t h i r d  i s in contrast.  of B i e r i and o t h e r s ( B i e r i ,  B r i a r , Leaman, M i l l e r , & T r i p o d i , theoretical  propositions  1966)  of K e l l y .  h i s n o t i o n s of c o g n i t i v e complexity dealt  1968).  Higher  more  ability  v e r s a t i l e ways. to d i f f e r e n t i a t e  i s an e x t e n s i o n  to  the  degrees  Versatility independent  B i e r i , Atkins, of  the  B i e r i , however, r e s t r i c t e d  g r e a t e r numbers of a v a i l a b l e dimensions in  1969;  social  with i n d i v i d u a l s ' dimensional v e r s a t i l i t y  judgments ( B i e r i ,  that  realm  in their  and  social  of complexity come from that c o u l d be  r e f e r s to an  dimensions  (not  organized  individual's categories  10  or  concepts)  articulation, "refers  to  as  well  s i m i l a r to the  dimension r a t h e r  as  an  individual's  discrimination.  process  of  making  be a t t r i b u t e d to Zajonc  sorting  but  techniques;  systems theory and  extensions Suedfeld The stylistic  by  structure  of greater  a r t i c u l a t e d by  the  subsequent  Schroder,  Further  by  and  focus  of  the  modes  of  information  Harvey  organization.  and  et  this  trait-  and  Schroder  elaborations,  Streufert  al.  (1967)  (1961)  processing  They  directionality  a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s ) , way  of  to t h i s study i s  Hunt,  refinements,  Driver,  way  relevance  Harvey,  can  (1969), p r i m a r i l y  as  suggested  in  of  thought  work  and and  was on  dimensions  that,  viewing i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s from the point  the  within a  (1978).  personality  content  aspect  developments  (1960) and Scott  conceptual  (1961),  latter  for  than between dimensions, as i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n "  in the assessment of  the  This  discriminations  ( S t r e u f e r t & S t r e u f e r t , 1978, p. 20). also  capacity  of  rather view  of  processes  i t would be more p r o f i t a b l e  (such to  both  understanding  the  content  and  orientation  structure of  an  are  important  individual  to  than the as  examine  which i n d i v i d u a l s combine and use i n f o r m a t i o n .  extent,  of  To in  his/her  envi ronment. Harvey development  et  al.  along  (1961)  a  continuum  s t r u c t u r e from concrete defined  as  proposed  minimal d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  in  a  given  stage  complexity  to a b s t r a c t .  c a t e g o r i e s or kinds of information process  of  a  Concrete  sequence of  of  conceptual  structures  are  ( r e f e r r i n g t o the number of an  individual  s i t u a t i o n ) whereas a b s t r a c t  is  able  to  s t r u c t u r e s are  11  d e f i n e d as maximal d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and the  complex  connections  made  integration (referring  among  these  differentiated  characteristics).  P r o g r e s s i o n along t h i s continuum was  flow from r e l i a n c e  and  dependence  rebellion  and  again, but  t h i s time "upon a f i n i t e  rules  (as  al.,  systems to  [i.e.,  or  by  independence  others"  t r a i n i n g and of  to  "without  (p. 30).  upbringing.  and  not  two)"  negative  upon  (Harvey et  or  positive  or negative or p o s i t i v e  control,  Development i s h i g h l y dependent on  Development may  be a r r e s t e d at any  one  the four stages or at a p o i n t of t r a n s i t i o n between stages i f  the proper  c o n d i t i o n s for p r o g r e s s i o n are not  In 1967, of  authority  number of persons,  stages] one  dependency on e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i a of  external  seen to  avoidance of e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l to dependence once  in  p-. 30)  on  to  Schroder,  D r i v e r , and  S t r e u f e r t proposed a  i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g which r e f i n e d and  work of Harvey et a l . (1961). previous content  theory  evolving  variables  complexity.  were  That  terms of content primarily  in  of  al.  complexity  developmental leaps  in  of  (1967)  which  aspects  support,  in  development was  d e s c r i b e d in  on  external  spoke  while  also  stages.  The  of  a  authority,  relationships. the  continuous  d e s c r i b i n g discontinuous proposed  theory,  "the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p  then,  s a i d to lack  content-free  d i f f e r e n c e approach to i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g ; one to deal with  and  conceptual  interpersonal  of  the  of  (1961)  favor  saw  structural  abandoned t h i s developmental o r i e n t a t i o n , which was empirical  theory  e l a b o r a t e d upon the  et a l . in  dependence  realm  Furthermore, Harvey et dimension  conceptual as  the  one  interrelated  is, such  Schroder  into  met.  individual  that was  between  a  said person  12  and the o b j e c t s of h i s world" In  Schroder  integration continuum  remain  et  a l . ' s approach,  the  integral  of s i m p l i c i t y  Simplicity thinking.  (Schroder et a l . ,  differentiation  processes  mapped  i s characterized  by  black or  and white,  ambiguity  to problems are sought as a manner of  reducing  and there i s an i n a b i l i t y  to  as  resolutions  incongruity  S i n g l e or u n i d i m e n s i o n a l and f i x e d r u l e  u n d e r l i e thought  a  categorical  i s viewed  and i s warded o f f ; unambiguous and quick  dissonance.  onto  and  to complexity of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g .  Conflict, uncertainty,  unpleasant  1967, p. 9 ) .  or  structures  consider  another  person's p e r s p e c t i v e . A by  moderate p o s i t i o n on t h i s continuum  simultaneous  perceptions alternative noted their  generation  of  would be represented  alternate  of the same event demonstrating rule structures.  without  considering  different  the a v a i l a b i l i t y of  S i m i l a r i t i e s and their  and  differences  relationship,  are  or e x p r e s s i n g  i n t e r a c t i o n as a q u a l i f i c a t i o n as opposed to the emergence  of a comparison At  the  rule.  complex  end  of  the  continuum,  conflicting  a l t e r n a t i v e s are t o l e r a t e d and, i n f a c t , are seen as i n s t r u c t i v e in  that they may lead to new ways of o r g a n i z i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and  viewing the world. the  generation  Causal statements may be made stemming  of  f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s between a l t e r n a t i v e s .  The g e n e r a t i o n of new s o l u t i o n s i s made p o s s i b l e by antecedent  and  from  subsequent  events;  looking  at  a g r e a t e r "connectiveness"  between a l t e r n a t i v e s i s made p o s s i b l e by t h e o r i z i n g  as  to the  e x i s t e n c e of these reasons. The  test  most  typically  employed  to  examine  this  13  information p r o c e s s i n g v a r i a b l e i s the Paragraph (PCT) developed projective  by Schroder  et  a l . (1967).  t e s t designed with the b e l i e f  measured i n v e r b a l m a t e r i a l s . sentence  stems designed  already  them  sentences  and  to  the  dimensions  underlying  to  look  are c r e a t e d , examined, and  was  particular of  the  interactive  that  nature  complexity  but a l s o w i t h i n situation. 1967)  For  the  the  sentence or three  completions  content  and  combined. emphasis of  the  Schroder  l e v e l s of complexity of also  of environmental  processing.  That  a  and is,  recognition dispositional research  has  l e v e l s vary not only among i n d i v i d u a l s ,  same  individual  example,  it  that as environmental  a corresponding decrease  the  These  beyond  However, there was  f a c t o r s with i n f o r m a t i o n shown  six  the continuum d e s c r i b e d  to demonstrate c h a r a c t e r i s t i c individuals.  be  r u l e s t r u c t u r e and the manner i n which  As mentioned before, the primary group  semi-  with  w r i t e an a d d i t i o n a l two  in the 2 minutes a l l o t t e d per stem.  Scorers are t r a i n e d  examine  a  that complexity can  complete  are scored on a 7-point s c a l e r e f l e c t i n g above.  is  Test  to tap v a r i o u s domains of the d e c i s i o n -  They are asked  for  This  Subjects are presented  making environment. begun  Completion  as  a  function  of  the  has been shown (Schroder et a l . ,  s t r e s s and  in l e v e l s  t h r e a t i n c r e a s e , there i s  of  complexity  of  decision  makers in that environment. It work of  is this latter  l i n e of research that has s t i m u l a t e d the  Suedfeld  his  conceptual  and  complexity  as  colleagues. a  relatively  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , Suedfeld i n v e s t i g a t e s the information  Rather  than  stable cognitive  viewing  personality aspect  of  p r o c e s s i n g that i n t e r a c t s with the environment.  As  14  such,  the term " i n t e g r a t i v e  1979)  has  been  Suedfeld's  adopted  emphasis  differs  methodological  from  ways:  completions.  that formerly eluded  (a)  Tetlock,  previously  et a l . , 1967)  discussed  in two  i n v e s t i g a t i o n are now  decision  makers and p o l i t i c a l  communications  of  are than  hypotheses  p o s s i b l e , through the  national  and  international  f i g u r e s in h i s t o r y ,  f o r example.  s c o r i n g of t h i s a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l i s an a d a p t a t i o n  prepared  other,  The m a t e r i a l s to be scored  (b) Stemming from the f i r s t ,  of  be  &  (e.g., speeches, t e x t s ) rather  analysis  The  those  Schroder  drawn from a r c h i v a l sources sentence  (Suedfeld  to d i s t i n g u i s h the two o r i e n t a t i o n s .  ( i . e . , Harvey et a l . , 1961; more  complexity"  of  that  f o r the Paragraph Completion Test and has been found  to  a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a wide v a r i e t y of connected v e r b a l m a t e r i a l s  provided that they are of s u f f i c i e n t  length  It  to attempt to v a l i d a t e t h i s  is  one  o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study  c l a i m and provide an e m p i r i c a l demonstration between  materials  complexity  and  the  scored  under  the  (Suedfeld,  of the  rubric  of  1978).  relationship integrative  PCT.  A s e r i e s of s t u d i e s have been conducted by Suedfeld and coinvestigators  that  have demonstrated the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the environment and high  level  examined crisis  decision-makers.  the  crises  and  Tetlock  (1977)  r e l a t i o n s h i p between communication complexity that complexity  communications of major decision-makers during  i n t e r a c t i o n between  information p r o c e s s i n g in  Suedfeld  r e s o l u t i o n demonstrating  that  resolved p e a c e f u l l y .  ended  i n war  Similar  study by S u e d f e l d , T e t l o c k , and  his  levels  in  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  and the  lower  than d u r i n g c r i s e s that were  findings  resulted  Ramirez (1977).  from  another  15  Attitudes The the  study of a t t i t u d e s has  endeavors of s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s .  once  said  that  d i s t i n c t i v e and  "the  indispensible  popular  and  the  definition  internal  of  process)  (Zimbardo,  resolutions attitudes  contemporary  an  inquiry  attitude  into is  a  i s not  &  present  left  arisen  how  untouched  in  regards  i t d i f f e r s from a  t r a n s l a t i o n of an  not  a  have  attitude  or something that universally  Maslach,  to these c o n t r o v e r s i e s and  and  behavior  also  Ebbesen,  social  comes to expect however, such  Moreover, the  quantifiable externally process  in  Allport  i s probably the most  For example, c o n t r o v e r s y has  b e l i e f or an o p i n i o n . (an  one  important f i e l d of  by c o n t r o v e r s y . to  concept  As  i n t e g r a l r o l e in  In f a c t , Gordon  concept of a t t i t u d e s  psychology" (1958, p. 36). a  long played an  1977). shaped  accepted  The the  is  proposed study  a springboard i n t o a d i s c u s s i o n  of  of t h i s  topic. Attitudes mental  have g e n e r a l l y  readiness  or  general and  consistent  evaluative  responses.  i n t e r n a l and  1977).  internal  predisposition  influence  on  In  such  The  accordance  strictly latter  accuracy.  a  fairly sense  with  Kogan  one  that  This  i s not  can  a  form  that exert  of some  class  of  then, a t t i t u d e s  are  may  large  only  v e r b a l i z a t i o n of such an a t t i t u d e A b e l i e f , on  the  be  inferred  (Zimbardo et is  what  is  other hand  and  (1980), i s s a i d to represent a more  cognitive appraisal. is  a  as  or from some form of behavior  commonly c o n s i d e r e d an o p i n i o n . in  considered  p r i v a t e events whose e x i s t e n c e  through i n t r o s p e c t i o n al.,  been  The  difference  hypothetically  be  to suggest that b e l i e f s  lies  in  that  checked are  the  for i t s  necessarily  16  affectively  neutral;  it  is  that  stemming from a more consensually one  would  expect  less  and  any  instrument  in  components:  affective  component  this  of of  the  area  (e.g.,  some a  beliefs  object.  The  the person's overt  confusion  and  respectively. favorably  or  the  that  behavior.  has  The  behavioral  r e c e i v e d a great  is,  or  cognitive  deal  of  component object. attention  realm of a t t i t u d e change.  An  and,  possible  cognition  and  "implies  of  and  behavior,  that  a  belief  an  is  opinion  ( b e h a v i o r a l expression) with respect  Such i n t e r a c t i o n  that  one  is  toward the t a r g e t object  p. 301);  appraisal;  seems  terms a t t i t u d e , b e l i e f ,  attitude  disposed  1980,  It  affect,  an  unfavorably  generate c o n f u s i o n  The  about, or f a c t u a l  behavior toward the t a r g e t  components  That  cognitive  verbalization object.  on  from such a c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , however, stems  the a t t i t u d e " (Kogan, strictly  (belief  a t t i t u d e s as having  person's  c o u l d draw p a r a l l e l s between the  opinion  score  object.  from the d i s t i n c t i o n s l a i d out above. one  a  and  target  u t i l i z a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y in the  inherent  attitude.  Rosenberg & Hovland,  cognition,  target  This conceptualization and  what  on a  i s s a i d to c o n s i s t of a person's l i k i n g  consists  knowledge of, involves  population, of  as  Thus,  that confuses the two  issue of j u s t  affect,  emotional e v a l u a t i o n component  base.  measure  have found i t h e l p f u l to c o n c e p t u a l i z e  three  seen  signifies.  Investigators 1960)  a  best  data  in a given  would on  instrument  a t t i t u d e ) r a i s e s the  are  validated  variance,  measure of b e l i e f s than one Correspondingly,  beliefs  terminology  in understanding t h i s  can  area.  of  the  more  i s the  overt  to the  only  target  serve  to  17  Perhaps concerning  a  more  useful  the concept  of  Schroder et a l . (1967). described contents  in  terms  is,  content  from the  is  attitude  the  degree  s t r u c t u r a l processes, which  an  relevant d i s t i n c t i o n is  magnitude  of  item  endorsement).  however, should  conceptual  That  of  complex  structures  d i f f e r e n t i a t e and i n t e g r a t e  a  integration  of  dimensions  less  and expressed.  discussion  as  consequence  (Schroder  of  of  complexity,  structures.  the  Attitudes  differentiation  information  about  and  a domain of  et a l . , 1967, p. 126).  r e s u l t of such a l i n e of argument  t h a t concrete  Cognitive  s t r o n g l y a f f e c t the way i n  a s s i m i l a t e d , organized,  formed  The  by  and d i r e c t i o n of t h e i r  more complex i n f o r m a t i o n than do concrete  stimuli"  proposed  foregoing  "integratively  are  that  to make  They c l a i m that a t t i t u d e s are t y p i c a l l y  of  ( i . e . , the  and  is  the  expectation  a t t i t u d e s a r e : (a) based on l e s s i n f o r m a t i o n  information  tracking  occurs  associated  since  with  less  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n ; (b) more s t a b l e over time s i n c e l e s s information  i s sought and a s s i m i l a t e d or  are consequently  (c) more c a t e g o r i c a l .  On  the  other  hand,  complex  broader range of i n f o r m a t i o n as integrate  other  than  accomodated;  attitudes:  being  only the s a l i e n t  (a)  relevant;  Several developed  to  different  requested  to  those  to  l e s s extreme  (c) l e s s c a t e g o r i c a l .  measure a t t i t u d e s .  check  tend  items of information or  paper-and-penci1  the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a s e r i e s  perceive a  (b)  more than one dimension l e a d i n g to a more f l e x i b l e , a t t i t u d e ; and are t h e r e f o r e  and  of  tests  have  T y p i c a l l y , these statements  statements  with  and  been  tests entail subjects  which  they  are agree  18  (Thurstone's Method of Equal-Appearing Chane,  1929)  disagree  or  with  (Likert's  Intervals;  Thurstone  &  to i n d i c a t e the extent to which they agree or  each  statement  or  item  on  a  Method of Summated R a t i n g s ; L i k e r t ,  5-point  1932).  scale  Two  other  t e s t s that have a l s o been f a i r l y h i g h l y r e f i n e d and  extensively  used  i s measured  by  a r e : Guttman's Scalogram having  the  subject  unidimensional  scale  Osgood's Semantic  i n which the a t t i t u d e  check  that  on  a  are a c c e p t a b l e (Guttman, 1950),  and  Differential  all  the  i n which  statements  the procedure i s to have  s u b j e c t s judge a p a r t i c u l a r concept on a set of semantic which  are  verbal  steps (Osgood,  opposites  S u c i , & Tannenbaum,  The use of such s c a l e s they  are  separated  simple  is  by seven  scales  discriminable  1957).  understandably  widespread  to a d m i n i s t e r and easy to s c o r e .  They can be  given to l a r g e numbers of people f o r which a great deal of may  be c o l l e c t e d  i n a short space of time.  convenience of a neat continuum  of  employ  (Kogan, A  conventional  scores  1982,  statistics  that  for  will  methodological  conceptual simplicity  problem,  investigator  or her a n a l y s e s "  force  c l a s s or event. of Kogan (1979).  subjects  to  in  generalize  An example of t h i s problem  is  the  above  individuals  would  the  Attitude scales  about the s t i m u l u s i s found i n the work  He a d m i n i s t e r e d h i s s c a l e of A t t i t u d e s  People to a sample of e l d e r l y  that the e l d e r l y  however,  i n the use of such s c a l e s .  items or statements of the sort employed  Old  his  probably  p. 307).  serious  necessarily  data  "They a l s o have the  c l o s e l y resemble a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n e n a b l i n g the to  for  Toward  s u b j e c t s with the e x p e c t a t i o n respond  more  consistently  19  because  of  their  direct  a t t i t u d i n a l domain. consistent,  for  The  personal  involvement  response p a t t e r n s were  which  Kogan  (1982)  i n the t a r g e t generally  offered  the  less  following  explanat ion: Instead of the o v e r g e n e r a l i z e d , low likely will who  to be t y p i c a l of younger have  had  peers  to  older  view  will  not  have  of  In other words,  known  his  the  and such d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  cannot  attitude  older  age peers i s l i k e l y  more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d than that h e l d by younger  generalized  persons  engage i n behaviors or h o l d o p i n i o n s  expressed i n other items. respondent's  samples,  attitude  p e r s o n a l experience with o l d e r people  f i t some of the items, but  older  salient  scales,  be  to be  persons,  accommodated  and,  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r reducing the i n d i c e s  in  that  fact,  by is  make  such  that a t t i t u d e s c a l e s may  have  s c a l e s p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y adequate. I r a i s e d the p o s s i b i l i t y prompted  us  to  ask  the wrong q u e s t i o n .  asking about  the degree of p o s i t i v i t y or n e g a t i v i t y i n  views  about  held  profitably  ask  older  how  Perhaps the answer l i e s measure,  (p. in  in conjunction  item-endorsement would address  technique. the  using  might  more  i s a respondent's  no  single  or  unitary  i n which d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  with  Perhaps,  content-structure  et a l . (1967).  one  308)  but rather a combination  be d i s p l a y e d  Schroder  people,  differentiated  view of o l d e r persons.  may  Instead of  the  easily  views  administered  too, such a combination distinction  That i s , i n p r o v i d i n g  proposed  by  i n d i v i d u a l s with  20  the o p p o r t u n i t y to both d e s c r i b e t h e i r a t t i t u t d e - - i n words—and  indicate  their  agreement  r e l e v a n t a t t i t u d i n a l statements, the  structure  of  their  or  on t h i s  own  disagreement  one c o u l d more  thought  their  easily  with  examine  i s s u e and the  content  around which t h i s s t r u c t u r e i s formed. The and  three areas of moral reasoning,  attitudes  have  promote c l a r i t y .  conceptual  complexity  been d e s c r i b e d s e p a r a t e l y i n an attempt to  T h i s s e p a r a t i o n might be c o n s i d e r e d  artificial  on both conceptual and e m p i r i c a l grounds, however, f o r there a  common thread connecting  these t o p i c s .  A d i s c u s s i o n of  is  these  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s the purpose of the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s ; examination  of  these  interrelationships  an  i s the purpose of t h i s  study. Moral Reasoning and Conceptual Kohlberg judgment  (1981)  has  development  c o g n i t i v e complexity hierarchy  is  integrated. relationship  stated  that  represent in  more  Complexity  that  a  each  cognitively  Such r e f e r e n c e s suggest between  his  stages  his  stages  cumulative succeeding  stage  and  there  measures  moral  hierarchy  differentiated that  of  in  and  the  better  should of  be  The demonstrated r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n c r e a s e s  role-taking  ability  1976)  a l s o suggests  that  conceptual complexity.  moral maturity there  might  r u l e s and  Selman,  relationship (1968),  in  to  i n order  one must be able to d i s c r i m i n a t e  or d i f f e r e n t i a t e h i s or her r o l e progression  a  As d e s c r i b e d by F l a v e l l  to take on the r o l e of another,  The  (Walker, 1980; be  a  conceptual  complexity.  and  of  of the two  attributes. t h e o r i e s seems to develop  e x p e c t a t i o n s as being p e r c e i v e d  as  external  to  from the  21  self,  through  rules,  to  to  the  conventions.  the  self  self  as  Kohlberg  as i d e n t i f i e d or equated differentiated  (1976)  clearly  from  describes  with the  prevailing this  d e s c r i p t i o n of the three l e v e l s of moral reasoning as do et a l . (1961) i n t h e i r systems theory and Schroder in  their  analysis  of  ranges  in h i s Harvey  et a l . (1967)  along the s i m p l i c i t y - c o m p l e x i t y  continuum. Furthermore,  both t h e o r i e s emphasize form or s t r u c t u r e as a  b a s i s rather than structure  that  content. underlies  The  focus  thought,  is  on  the c o g n i t i v e  with the s t r u c t u r e becoming  i n c r e a s i n g l y complex as one moves up the h i e r a r c h y or along continuum.  In moral reasoning, higher stages are seen as being  more morally adequate than the lower higher  stages to the  extent  that  stages are more c o g n i t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d or capable of  handling more problems or moral c o n f l i c t s . an  the  increased d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  and  The stages represent  hierarchical  integration  of  moral v a l u e s . Given  t h i s conceptual b a s i s ,  relatively issue.  few  studies  have  Two s h a l l be reviewed  Sullivan, relationships conceptual judgment  McCullough, between  ego  addressed  adolescents.  Of  and  Stager  development (Harvey  (Kohlberg,  particular  this  interrelational  here.  systems development development  i t i s s u r p r i s i n g to note that  explored  (Loevinger,  with  a  areas  which  .62 was found.  commented  overall that  correlation  this  of  correlation  1966),  sample  of  to t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l a t t e r two an  the  et a l . , 1961), and moral  1973)  interest  (1970)  of  clearly  development—for The authors  represents  the  22  correspondence  between these two measures, but t h a t , even under  i d e a l measurement c o n d i t i o n s , one c o u l d not expect dimensions  would  be  somewhat  similar  perfectly yet  related  different  support moral  for  Thus,  they  dimensions  development" ( S u l l i v a n et a l . , 1970, not e q u i v a l e n t measures.  if  p. 410).  there  is  "that the are  personality  That  i s , they are  at  least  moderate  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between conceptual complexity  Bieri's  tendency  (1969)  support  measure  Falconer "the  to construe s o c i a l behavior i n a m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l  way  that a more c o g n i t i v e l y complex i n d i v i d u a l has a v a i l a b l e a f o r p e r c e i v i n g the behavior of others than  does a l e s s c o g n i t i v e l y complex person" t h i s sense,  et a l . (1967).  resultant  (p. 46).  Complexity,  in  only h a l f  of  i s a d i f f e r e n t i a t i v e a b i l i t y embracing  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n as  Schroder  was  to  which d e f i n e s complexity as  more v e r s a t i l e system  the  and  reasoning.  the hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two areas.  such  tapping  of  A study by F a l c o n e r (1973) a l s o lends q u a l i f i e d  used  ...  proposed  Perhaps,  by Harvey et a l . (1961) and  this,  moderate support generated.  in  part,  explains  A significant  the  difference  found on the B i e r i measure of complexity between the  lowest  and h i g h e s t stages of moral development evidenced i n the sample. There were no d i f f e r e n c e s found between adjacent stages of moral development; however, a n o n s i g n i f i c a n t trend was This  discussion  the present study: an conceptual  complexity  present study improves s e v e r a l reasons:  noted.  leads to the second proposed  o b j e c t i v e of  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p and  moral  upon the  (a) Complexity  reasoning.  two  studies  between  The design of the cited  above  for  i s d e f i n e d i n the terms provided  23  by  Schroder  et a l . (1967) encompassing both d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  integration cognitive  (as opposed to B i e r i ' s method) and ability  for  information  et  al.,  1961).  (b)  theory of  moral  development  resulting  in  more  1983).  a  has  of  .39  apparently f i n a l support present  for  and  theory  formulation.  t h i s proposed study  reworked  stage c r i t e r i a  the  and  and  refined  (Colby et a l . ,  one.  The  in  greatest  measure has come using t h i s  I t i s for these two i s seen as an  modest  s c o r i n g system (now  initial  the  by  Kohlberg's  (1982) have reported a  between the present  form)  the  been  stringent  the  sequence (as proposed  Throughout the years,  In f a c t , C a r r o l l and Rest  correlation  representing  p r o c e s s i n g as opposed to a  l e s s v a l i d a t e d c o g n i t i v e developmental Harvey  and  important  improvement and  reasons extension  that of  the work preceding i t . Moral Reasoning and C a p i t a l Punishment Capital  punishment  has been, and  remains, a c o n t r o v e r s i a l  issue i n t e n s e l y debated by both armchair scientists, main  focus  nature; effect,  t h e o l o g i a n s , and p o l i t i c i a n s around of  research  in p a r t i c u l a r , a  Sellin  deterrent.  (1959)  has  A  largely  remains (1959)  the  deterrent  unanswered. and  Phillips  examined a l a r g e mass of homicide  that the death p e n a l t y has  largely  failed  as  He c l a i m s that i t s use has e x e r c i s e d no i n f l u e n c e  on the extent of Phillips  that  world.  t h i s area has been of a f a c t u a l  research comes from S e l l i n  data and concludes a  into  the  r e s e a r c h e r s have examined  question  Representative (1980).  and p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l  the  (1980),  fluctuating however,  rates  sees  s o c i o l o g i c a l , a r c h i v a l a n a l y s i s suggests  of  it  capital  crimes.  differently.  that the  wrong  His metric  24  has  been  used  in examining  d e t e r r e n t e f f e c t s ; observing y e a r l y  murder r a t e s of c a p i t a l crimes penalty  clouds  or  obscures  deterrent e f f e c t s .  aspects  energy  for  that  has  observed  of  the  punishment  done  to  in  correlation and  authoritarian  other  pay  of  the  Frenkel-Brunswick,  between  attitudes  (Vidmar  attitudes  &  of  Levinson,  and  the  time or  the  moral-  The  research  toward  prejudice,  capital  such  Ellsworth,  as  1974),  the a  ethnocentrism,  conceived  Sanford  the  realm has o f t e n  measures  and E l f e n b e i n (1981) point out, however, i t  of  little  to  more a t t i t u d i n a l  conservatism, and a u t h o r i t y as i n i t i a l l y  more f r u i t f u l  left  attention  personality  personality  constellation  death  however, i s that t h i s r e s e a r c h on  i s s u e s (Kohlberg & E l f e n b e i n , 1981).  been  the  the demonstrated weekly or monthly  c a p i t a l punishment has  researchers  psychological  to  A d e f i n i t i v e answer has yet to be advanced.  What seems apparent, factual  i n correspondence  (1950). would  by  Adorno,  As  Kohlberg  probably  be  to examine c a p i t a l punishment from the p e r s p e c t i v e  an i n t e r a c t i o n between an i n d i v i d u a l ' s moral assumptions ( f o r moral  nature  seems i n t u i t i v e ) and  of  a  d e c i s i o n regarding c a p i t a l punishment  attitudes.  Such a c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n f i t s structure  distinction  whereby the content of a formed  and  in  moral stage  in  matter  is  with  the  content-  made  by  Kohlberg  attitude  or  judgment  reasoning is  the  the s t r u c t u r e i s the method of reasoning employed.  "Whether or not a subject approves of example,  well  a  matter  of s t r u c t u r e "  Without denying  capital  punishment,  for  of content; the r a t i o n a l e he adopts  is a  (Kohlberg & E l f e n b e i n , 1981,  p.  the e x i s t e n c e of s t r u c t u r e and  270). content  as  25  separable  and  separate concepts, Kohlberg and  admitted that there  is a  "probabilistic  Elfenbein  tendency  for  (1981) certain  stage s t r u c t u r e s to generate s p e c i f i c moral a t t i t u d e s " (p. This to  was  addressed by examining the r e l a t i o n s h i p of moral stage  opinion  about  subjects.  capital  Kohlberg  and  punishment Elfenbein  r e l a t i o n s h i p with o p p o s i t i o n with  stage  represents taking (1981)  of  moral  a formal  to  (1981)  reasoning.  conception  in  a  representation  30  longitudinal  predicted a  punishment  Since  linear  increasing  the p r i n c i p l e d l e v e l  of j u s t i c e  ( f o l l o w i n g from Rawls' theory claimed  using  capital  as  reversible  of j u s t i c e ,  role-  1971), Kohlberg  that the upper l e v e l p r i n c i p l e d t h i n k e r assumes  the p o s i t i o n of having an equal anyone  270).  (or  unknown)  p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t y and so that any  of  Elfenbein  penalty  less  being  thus s e t s up a f a i r mental  p r i n c i p l e s agreed upon w i l l be  For example, Kohlberg and person would r i s k a  chance  (1981) say harsh  just.  that any r a t i o n a l  than  death  (if  one  assumed the p o s i t i o n of o r d i n a r y  c i t i z e n or v i c t i m ) thus l e a d i n g  to  punishment.  the  rejection  of  capital  They found that at  Stage 3 and  below, almost a l l of the s u b j e c t s  was  to  right  give  the  death  d i v i d e d on t h i s i s s u e ; and the use  that  "on  Kohlberg  i n d i v i d u a l s progress in t h e i r about  moral  capital  g r a d u a l l y come to condemn i t as DeWolfe and  it  unanimously r e j e c t e d  and  Elfenbein  (1981)  the whole, the e a r l y stages of development  are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by moral approval  reservations  that  Stage 4 s u b j e c t s were  Stage 5 subjects  of c a p i t a l punishment.  concluded  penalty;  claimed  Jackson  (1984)  of the death penalty, development,  punishment immoral" (p. supported  their  multiply  and  but  as  moral they  271). this  finding  in  a  26  study  which  Rest's,  1979,  assessing to  found p r i n c i p l e d moral reasoning Defining  Issues  Test,  a  (as determined  questionnaire  p r e f e r e n c e f o r p r i n c i p l e d moral reasoning  measure  statements)  r e l a t e n e g a t i v e l y to a t t i t u d e s toward c a p i t a l punishment  -.41).  That  is,  preference  for  upper  level  by  (r_ =  reasoning  was  a s s o c i a t e d with i n c r e a s i n g o p p o s i t i o n to c a p i t a l punishment. The  conclusion  of both of these s t u d i e s i s congruent  other r e s e a r c h suggesting that higher stages of moral are  typically  a s s o c i a t e d with l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e s  F i s h k i n , K e n i s t o n , & MacKinnon, 1968). itself,  This  has  become  a  as i t has l e d others  Kohlberg's liberal  theory of moral  ideological  1973;  Haan,  somewhat  controversial  (i.e., Sullivan, development  bias.  on  In response,  1977) the  (as opposed to  relationship  and  structure  content  culture.  Thus,  they  phenomenon r a t h e r than a predominance theoretical It  of  suggest  bias  liberalism  is  a  to c r i t i c i z e  grounds  of  a  in  deterministic)  to the v a l u e s  of  this is a cultural the  theory.  Any  bias.  of  this  study  punishment. proposed  Rather  research  that  emerges: to examine the  between stage of moral reasoning and  the  issue in  s o c i e t a l f u n c t i o n and not a  i s from t h i s f o r e g o i n g body of  objective  that  inherent  Block,  as a f u n c t i o n of  f a c t u a l assumptions made by s u b j e c t s connected their  &  1976;  Kohlberg and E l f e n b e i n  (1981) p o i n t to the p r o b a b i l i s t i c between  reasoning  (Candee,  Smith,  with  attitudes  a  third  relationship  toward  capital  than r e p l i c a t i n g the work a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d ,  study d i f f e r s  i n a l e a s t three fundamental ways,  (a) Kohlberg d e r i v e d the content of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s reasoning by way  of the s u b j e c t ' s response  to the q u e s t i o n : "Is i t ever  right  27  to g i v e c a p i t a l  punishment?".  quantitatively responses, an  and  However,  qualitatively  valid  it  would  seem  to  allow  a range of  as opposed to only a dichotomy, in the assessment  attitude.  Hence,  an  attitude  responses from s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e to  a  In  conjunction  questionnaire  to s t r o n g l y agree  with  towards  Likert's  method  developed  by  Kohlberg's  capital of  Palys  method  punishment  summated (1981).  of  permitting in  response  is  ratings  assessment,  to  by  (b) Kohlberg  be  way and  study  will  (c) Kohlberg system.  and  This  study  be  present  uses the present  Given the changes  interesting  to  note  conceptualization  of  of  a  The  moral  (1981) of  females,  outdated  scoring  s c o r i n g system (Colby et  in the  now  measure  sample  numbers of males and  E l f e n b e i n (1981) used a  in p r e s s ) .  would  comprise equal  the  d e r i v e d from  Elfenbein  used an e x c l u s i v e l y male sample i n t h e i r study.  al.,  of  s e r i e s of statements s u r f a c e s as an a p p r o p r i a t e measure.  attitude  this  more  stage  descriptions,  relationship reasoning  it  between the  and  attitudes  toward c a p i t a l punishment. The  derivation  probably  best  discussion. reasoning  As  in  the  understood  which  relation  earlier,  comes two  f o u r t h o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study  in  mentioned  i s assessed  situation  of  from  them as to what should  situation.  Thus, a c h o i c e to  the  the  the manner i n which moral  presenting  subjects  the  i s always i n v o l v e d .  question,  affirmative  or  with  "Is  the  a  then  or should not be done in t h i s  i t ever  negative.  For example,  r i g h t to give  punishment?", a subject i s faced with the option in  foregoing  moral values are i n c o n f l i c t , and  questioning  response  to  is  of  in  capital  responding  This i s their  content  28  evaluation.  T h e i r moral stage, however, i s d e r i v e d  elaboration  of  this  q u e s t i o n s why or why answer  may  be  two responses  response not.  supplying  the  Structurally,  from  their  reasons  reasons  to the  for  either  i d e n t i c a l , but with respect t o the content, the  may be i n complete disagreement.  The disagreement  i s on the i s s u e , not on the reasoning. The the  s c o r i n g of a moral reasoning p r o t o c o l e n t a i l s  subject's  responses  s c o r i n g manual. across  ratio  responses  the favored or chosen  of  3:2).  reasoning  judgments provided  The p r o t o c o l stage score i s d e r i v e d by  stage-scored  weighting  to c r i t e r i o n  has  literature  summing  f o r both s i d e s of the issue and position  more  heavily  The u n d e r l y i n g assumption here  become  in  this  apparent,  in  reviewing  (by  a  i s that b e t t e r  and  the  nonchosen  positions  reasoning  In f a c t , the c l o s e s t approximation  task  the  been  study  by  Nisan  and  position.  Thus,  examine any d i f f e r e n c e s i n subjects  as  they  whole  the  consecutively  punishment.  structured  it  The  is level  by  of  moral  reasoning  of  notion  of  that reasoning on both s i d e s of the  somewhat  inconsistent the  versus  support and oppose the use of  be at comparable or e q u i v a l e n t stages.  and  a  (1982) who  chosen  cognitive-developmental  suggests  such  an i n t e n t of t h i s study to  issue w i l l  procedures  to  Kohlberg  examined stage scores a c r o s s i s s u e s , but not nonchosen  between  w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l s and w i t h i n  moral dilemmas. has  relevant  area, i s that there has been no systematic  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e v e l of  capital  i n the  i s provided f o r the chosen p o s i t i o n .  What  chosen  matching  with  underlying  the  This  aforementioned  rationale.  This  appears weighting  study  will  29  attempt to d e a l with t h i s i n c o n g r u i t y Conceptual Complexity and C a p i t a l As  outlined  i n Kohlberg's theory.  Punishment  above, Schroder et a l . (1967) have proposed a  most u s e f u l  d i s t i n c t i o n between the content and s t r u c t u r e  attitude.  An  processes  that  processing  i n f o r m a t i o n about a p a r t i c u l a r  content  is  attitude an  structure  individual  typically,  relevant  s a l i e n t information.  or  does  that  not  range of s t i m u l i .  is  perceived  the as  positions  are  comes  in  a  a  less  of  the  number  and  is and  correlated  range of -.25 to -.55 (as r e p o r t e d i n  The  occurrence  of  such  correlations simple persons  scorers.  Further support f o r t h i s p o s i t i o n Linville  the  theoretical  been  from the o v e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of c o g n i t i v e l y  among high F  such,  of  of experiments i n which the F  complexity  stems  range  information  above  with  Schroder et a l . , 1967).  As  abstract  categorical,  (as advanced by Adorno et a l . , 1950) has the  the  of  Scale  in  structurally  attitude.  substantiation  from  of  descrepant  The more  relevant.  typically  least p a r t i a l  is  broader  higher,  subsequently, l e s s extreme  range  i s only minimally  that  f o r i n c l u s i o n of d i s c r e p a n t u n i t s resulting  The  are based on a narrow range  expected to be more c a t e g o r i c a l .  that  and  i n terms of  particular  potential  At  organizing  Information that  however,  an  conceptual  of an a t t i t u d e  Hence, a t t i t u d e s  or complex the a t t i t u d e , information  the  f i t the e x i s t i n g a t t i t u d e  p e r c e i v e d or u t i l i z e d . are  to in  to a  As such, simple a t t i t u d e s  of h i g h l y  simple  employs  a description  i t s magnitude and d i r e c t i o n stimuli.  refers  of  others ( L i n v i l l e ,  exists  1982; L i n v i l l e  in  the  work  of  & Jones, 1980).  30  Linville  ( i n press) has proposed a model f o c u s i n g  between  cognitive  processing. the  the  link  f a c t o r s and a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s i n information  The c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r r e f e r s to  knowledge  on  structure  used  in  the  complexity  t h i n k i n g about a p a r t i c u l a r  domain, whereas the a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r r e f e r s to the extremity responses has  to  stimuli  noted that the  social  or information  majority  evaluation  overemphasize--the example,  Linville  have  of  i n that domain.  psychological  tended  unidirectional  to  effects  ( i n p r e s s ) has s t a t e d that  does not r e f e r to a c o n s i s t e n t  of  tendency  to  of  Linville  theories  about  emphasize--if  not  and  For  biases.  "greater rate  extremity  stimuli  more  extremely i n only one d i r e c t i o n , but rather to r a t e s t i m u l i more extremely  in  both  directions,  e i t h e r more p o s i t i v e l y or more  n e g a t i v e l y depending on the f a v o r a b i l i t y the as  stimulus"  (p. 5 ) .  of  information  about  Thus, the b a s i c premise of the model i s  follows: The  l e s s complex a person's r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  domain,  the  regarding the  of a  given  more extreme w i l l be the person's a f f e c t  s t i m u l i i n that domain.  representation  is  simple,  In other that  words,  if  i s , a person's  t h i n k i n g i s i n terms of fewer nonredundant f e a t u r e s or aspects,  affect will  representation  1980;  is  be r e l a t i v e l y extreme. more  (Linville,  A research  program conducted by L i n v i l l e  i n press, p. 5)  1982) has provided  complexity-extremity  the  complex, a f f e c t w i l l be more  moderate.  Linville,  When  hypothesis.  (Linville  & Jones,  support  f o r her  empirical Linville  c o r r e l a t e d an i n d i v i d u a l - d i f f e r e n c e measure  (1982), f o r example, of  complexity  (by  31  way  of a t r a i t - s o r t i n g technique,  extremity  of e v a l u a t i o n f o r the t a r g e t group  College-age  males  participated  shown that g r e a t e r complexity less  extreme  evaluations  evaluative  extremity  correlated  (r_. =  were  more  both  stimulus  and  stimulus. and  a f t e r S c o t t , 1962,  t h i s study  of  the  same.  were  the  to  complexity  significantly  toward  more unfavorable  and  and  negatively  favorable  subjects  older  toward the unfavorable reported  by  Jones (1980) t e s t e d the  directly  manipulating  i n s t r u c t i o n s which induced orientation  toward  male  o l d e r male using  race  several  features  (a strong or  (six  The  weak  features  in the low complexity  more extremely f a v o r a b l e and negative  compared  for  second  study  condition  essay) the  high  rating.  rated  the  results  where s u b j e c t s t a s t e d and ranging  were  evaluated  asked to terms  of  complexity  As p r e d i c t e d , strong  essay  more extremely  in the high complexity  Similar  types of c h o c o l a t e - c h i p cookies  in  task  or complex  subject was  rated the weak essay  to s u b j e c t s  were more moderate.  through  s u b j e c t s to adopt a simple  c o n d i t i o n ) p r i o r to making a f a v o r a b i l i t y those  complexity-extremity  complexity  a set of s t i m u l i .  think about a stimulus  condition  achieved five  in  a  different  i n q u a l i t y given  either  or s i x f e a t u r e s to c o n s i d e r . These  results  between complexity of  related  sex as ingroup-outgroup v a r i a b l e s .  hypothesis  two  males.  Moreover, c o g n i t i v e l y simple  favorable  with  in which i t was  The  S i m i l a r r e s u l t s have a l s o been  Linville  who  older  regarding o l d e r males  scores  -.65).  in  of  1969)  evaluation.  demonstrate the e x i s t e n c e of a r e l a t i o n s h i p of thought or c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s and  In  particular,  more  simplistic  styles  cognitive  32  structures  relate  cognitive  structures  Complexity, i s the  to more extreme e v a l u a t i o n s and more complex  however,  assessment  Although  relate  more  moderate  evaluations.  in the terms d e s c r i b e d by L i n v i l l e  of  Linville  to  discrimination,  likens  and  not  integration.  her measure of complexity  to that of  Schroder et a l . (1967), i t a c t u a l l y embraces only h a l f conceptualization  i n i t s f a i l u r e to assess  Tetlock  1984) has p r o v i d e d  realm  (1983b,  of complexity Tetlock  speeches  assessed  of  r e s u l t s e x p l o r i n g the t o t a l  the  ideology.  integrative  complexity  was assumed dogmatic  that right-wing  orientations  statements  of extremely c o n s e r v a t i v e of  the  the  senators were l e s s  moderate  however,  a n a l y s i s of c o g n i t i v e s t y l e and p o l i t i c a l British  House  parliamentarians,  of  Commons.  T e t l o c k ' was  to one of the f o l l o w i n g  extreme  socialist,  moderate  extreme c o n s e r v a t i v e .  socialists  are  seen  than extreme s o c i a l i s t s  four  a  or  liberal  political  Rokeach  i s Tetlock's  b e l i e f systems  sample  s o c i a l i s t , moderate  Following  to value  In  able to c l a s s i f y  adhering  and  more  (between whom there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ) .  More d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t to t h i s study,  in  generally  The r e s u l t s add credence to such a p o s i t i o n :  i n t e g r a t i v e l y complex than were those  (1984)  were  It  and i n t o l e r a n t of ambiguity than l e f t - w i n g or moderate  orientations.  senators  of  given by United S t a t e s senators who were known to have  l i b e r a l , moderate, or extremely c o n s e r v a t i v e v o t i n g r e c o r d s .  policy  this  integrative a b i l i t y .  i n i t s r e l a t i o n to p o l i t i c a l  (1983b)  (1982),  of  89  i n d i v i d u a l s as orientations: conservative,  (1973),  moderate  freedom and e q u a l i t y more h i g h l y  (who value  equality  freedom) or moderate or extreme c o n s e r v a t i v e s  more  highly  than  (who value freedom  33  more than e q u a l i t y ) .  T e t l o c k (1984) suggested that adherents to  i d e o l o g i e s that value both freedom  and e q u a l i t y h i g h l y are under  greater p r e s s u r e to c o n s i d e r p o l i c y complex  terms  greater weight value  than  complexity  advocates  on only one v a l u e .  pluralism  both extreme  are  model.  groups and  i s s u e s i n more  had  integratively  of i d e o l o g i e s that p l a c e a  He  refers  to  this  as  the  Results  supported t h i s model i n that  similar  low  significantly  levels  lower  of  levels  integrative  than  moderate  s o c i a l i s t s and moderate c o n s e r v a t i v e s . A final foregoing  o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study, then, that stems from  research,  is  to  address  complexity and e v a l u a t i o n  in  the  the  this  study  will  examine  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  important  a t t i t u d i n a l domain of c a p i t a l punishment.  the  and  controversial  Like L i n v i l l e  (1982),  complexity i n r e l a t i o n to r a t i n g s of  attitudinal  statements, but d i f f e r s  i n the measure of complexity  utilized.  Like  this  integrative  Tetlock  (1984),  study  will  examine  complexity, but a l s o i n c l u d e s conceptual complexity  and the examination of these two measures i n r e l a t i o n to c a p i t a l punishment with more analysis. of  of  moral,  as  opposed  Thus, the present study w i l l  complexity as d e f i n e d  predict  a  a  complexity.  by  curvilinear That  Schroder  to  political,  explore the t o t a l and  relationship  others,  between  realm  who  would  attitudes  and  i s , the more extreme the e v a l u a t i o n of c a p i t a l  punishment  (whether  i t be  opposition  t o , c a p i t a l punishment) the l e s s complex w i l l  s t r u c t u r e of that a t t i t u d e .  extremely  in  favor  of,  A more moderate a t t i t u d e  a s s o c i a t e d with a more complex  structure.  or  in  be the  would  be  34  .1  Hypotheses In  summary,  the  hypotheses  to be addressed  i n t h i s study  are: Hypothesis I.  It  is  expected  that  the  writings  of  i n d i v i d u a l s d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r a t t i t u d e towards c a p i t a l punishment (integrative  complexity)  complexity, Paragraph these  to  the  thought  correlation  Test  are  (albeit,  be  completions  Completion  measures  will  related,  of  sentence  (conceptual  assessing  the  in  terms  of  in  the  stems  complexity).  structural  Both of  complexity  of  i n d i f f e r e n t domains) and, as such, a moderate  ( i . e . , accounting f o r l e s s than 50% of the v a r i a n c e )  is predicted. Hypothesis I I . of  F o l l o w i n g from the t h e o r e t i c a l  descriptions  Schroder et a l . (1967) and S t r e u f e r t and S t r e u f e r t  w e l l as the work of L i n v i l l e expected  that  extreme  (1982) and T e t l o c k  attitudes  (both  pro  r e l a t e d to a more simple s t r u c t u r e and more will  be r e l a t e d to a more complex Hypothesis I I I .  It  is  (1978), as  (1984),  i t is  and con) w i l l be  moderate  attitudes  structure.  expected  that  there  will  be a  s i g n i f i c a n t , p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the measures of moral reasoning  and  conceptual  complexity,  both  assessing  the  s t r u c t u r e of thought. Hypothesis IV. Elfenbein  (1981)  relationship stage of moral  and  between  Following DeWolfe attitudes  reasoning i s  from and  the Jackson  toward  expected.  work of Kohlberg and (1984),  a  linear  c a p i t a l punishment and In  particular,  i t is  hypothesized that o p p o s i t i o n to c a p i t a l punishment w i l l i n c r e a s e with stage of moral r e a s o n i n g .  35  Hypothesis V. Kohlberg, is,  Although  never  explicitly  by  i t i s i m p l i e d that reasoning about the chosen p o s i t i o n  i n some  reasoning  way,  more  about  the  advanced nonchosen  and  better  position.  hypothesized that there w i l l be a d i f f e r e n c e of  addressed  formulated It  than  i s therefore  between  reasoning  the chosen p o s i t i o n and reasoning of the nonchosen p o s i t i o n .  Specifically, represented  it by  i s expected  higher  nonchosen p o s i t i o n .  levels  that the chosen p o s i t i o n w i l l be of  moral  reasoning  than  the  36  Method Subjects Participants drawn  in  were  equal  (introductory  36 male and 36 female students who were  numbers  and  from  senior  three  educational  undergraduate,  and  attempt to generate a range on s e v e r a l of conceptual graduate  complexity, students  theology,  in  moral the  graduate) i n an measures  development).  departments  of  (e.g.,  Specifically,  law,  philosophy,  and medicine were r e c r u i t e d under the assumption  such f i e l d s o f f e r t h e i r philosophical  and  students  moral  the  issues,  undergraduate  students  opportunity  perhaps  understanding and reasoning of such senior  the  levels  were  to  promoting  issues.  that  discuss advanced  Introductory  recruited  and  from f i r s t - and  t h i r d - y e a r psychology courses, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The mean age of the i n t r o d u c t o r y students was with  a  range  of  17  to 28 y e a r s .  18.9  The mean age of the s e n i o r  undergraduates was 24.7 years, with a range of 18 to 45 The  graduate  population  had  years,  "years.  a mean age of. 28.3 years, with a  range of 22 to 35 y e a r s . Measures P a r t i c i p a n t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d , e i t h e r groups,  the  approximately  following 1 hour.  individually  or i n  b a t t e r y of t e s t s i n a s i n g l e s e s s i o n of (The complete b a t t e r y  of  tests  can  be  found i n Appendix A.) 1.  The Paragraph Completion Test  (PCT).  This  test  c o n s i s t e d of s i x sentence stems tapping d i f f e r e n t domains of the decision-making Participants  were  environment  (Schroder  et  al.,  1967).  requested to complete the sentence which was  37  a l r e a d y begun f o r them, and then t o sentence  in  completion.  the  2  that  at  were  T h i s measure was comprised  (a) Rules  least  one  provided  more  f o r each  of the f o l l o w i n g stems:  . ..  (b) When I don't (c)  minutes  write  know what to do . . .  When I am c r i t i c i z e d  (d) Policemen  . ..  . ..  (e) When a f r i e n d a c t s d i f f e r e n t l y towards me . . . (f) Confusion . . . . These completions  were  scored  f o r the  level  of  conceptual  complexity. 2.  The C a p i t a l Punishment Issue Composition.  task, p a r t i c i p a n t s were requested to w r i t e composition  (i.e.,  5 to 10 paragraphs)  a  and  relatively  were  relevant.  include This  the d i s c u s s i o n  any  factors  punishment considered  task was scored both f o r l e v e l s of i n t e g r a t i v e  complexity and moral reasoning.  Moreover, i n d i v i d u a l s '  on the i s s u e of c a p i t a l punishment a l s o determined  of  brief  instructed  present t h e i r o p i n i o n and a t t i t u d e toward c a p i t a l to  this  d i s c u s s i n g the i s s u e of  c a p i t a l punishment as they p e r c e i v e d i t . They to  In  position  ( i . e . , e i t h e r pro or con) was  from t h i s measure.  T h i s procedure  i s not u n l i k e  that used by Kohlberg and E l f e n b e i n (1981) i n which a t t i t u d e was assessed by response  to the q u e s t i o n , "Is i t ever r i g h t  to use  c a p i t a l punishment?". 3.  Statements s u p p o r t i n g and opposing c a p i t a l  punishment.  T h i s task r e q u i r e d s u b j e c t s t o generate d e t a i l e d reasons t o both support  and  counterbalanced  oppose  the  f o r order of  use  of  capital  presentation.  These  punishment, statements,  38  along  with  the  preceding  issue  composition,  were scored f o r  moral development, to more f u l l y assess reasoning on both of  the  base an  issue.  This  sides  f o l l o w s from Colby et a l . ( i n press)  who  i n d i v i d u a l ' s moral reasoning p r o f i l e on scores from both  the chosen and preferred  nonchosen  position  on  the  issue  (i.e.,  and nonpreferred p o s i t i o n ) , both e x p l i c i t l y  the  addressed  in t h e i r s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w . 4.  The  Likert-type  C a p i t a l Punishment Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  questionnaire  ( P a l y s , 1981)  of o p i n i o n regarding c a p i t a l punishment punishment  direction  direction).  Subjects were asked  they agreed ranging  and  12  in  provided 24 (12  a  -3  opinion) to +3  (strongly  in  a  This  statements pro-capital  anti-capital  punishment  to i n d i c a t e the extent to which  or d i s a g r e e d with each statement  from  (CPQ).  disagree)  on a 7-point  through  scale  0 (neutral,  no  ( s t r o n g l y agree).  Scoring Conceptual  complexity.  The  complexity  came from the PCT,  thoroughly  validated  individual's processing were  of  a  as  integration  (previously  al.  directly  (1967),  University  tests  defined  from  in  for  described). manual  Manual  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia  style  The  terms  as w e l l as subsequent ("Princeton  or  1981). scale  the  designed  mode  7-point  complexity  follows  the  characteristic  on  of  conceptual  the most f r e q u e n t l y used and most  (Porter & Suedfeld,  scored  assessment  of  level of  tap  completions  of  conceptual  differentiation  The  scoring  provided  by  Guidelines",  an  information  paragraph  publications  ("UBC  to  and  procedure Schroder  from  undated)  G u i d e l i n e s f o r the  et  Princeton and  the  Scoring  39  of Conceptual  and  Schroder  I n t e g r a t i v e Complexity",  et  a l . (1967)  have  described  g r a d a t i o n s or scores that f i t onto the the  7-point  1 reflects  integration;  a  minimal  score  of  differentiation  with no r e a l  moderate  high  to  or  no  3  reflects  integration.  scale  transitional that  processing. and  moderate  and  of 2, 4, and  p o i n t s between adjacent  no  to  high  reflects  moderate  maximal  of  defining  i n t e g r a t i o n ; a score of 5  differentiation  Scores  number  differentiation  i n t e g r a t i o n ; and a score of 7 r e f l e c t s  to  high  differentiation  6 can be seen to represent levels.  I t should be  noted  t h i s system of s c o r i n g focuses on the u n d e r l y i n g c o g n i t i v e  s t r u c t u r e of thought p a t t e r n s and biased  for  not on  therefore  not  philosophy  (Suedfeld & Rank, 1976).  been w r i t t e n or i f the sentences (as  opposed  According found  to  evaluative),  to these c r i t e r i a ,  to be unscorable.  the  or a g a i n s t any  Completions were deemed unscorable were cliches,  only 9 of the 432  stems was  the  PCT  measure employed in subsequent The  PCT  completions  s u b j e c t , to prevent completions another  reliability  bias.  (the 6 PCT trained was  found  sentence  satire. were  were a p p r o p r i a t e  For each s u b j e c t ,  c a l c u l a t e d and  t h i s was  a the  analyses.  were b l i n d l y  scored by stem, and  In a d d i t i o n , a random  sample  stems f o r each of 16 s u b j e c t s ) was scorer  had  descriptive  completions  A l l other completions  is  political  q u o t a t i o n s , or  mean  of  and  particular  incoherent,  o u t l i n e d above.  score  content,  i f only one  f o r the s c o r i n g procedures  by  a  s i m p l i c i t y - c o m p l e x i t y continuum of information  A score of  and  undated).  to assess r e l i a b i l i t y .  to be r =  .79.  not  by  of  96  scored  Interjudge  40  I n t e g r a t i v e complexity.  The  issue  i n c l u d e d as a method of a s s e s s i n g coined  by  Suedfeld  and  Tetlock  between  the  characteristic  variable  of conceptual  approach  to  more  information  of the  in that the  former i s both longer,  and  specific  on  a  issue.  a r c h i v a l source and limited  to  in  void  theory  materials scored  from  along  basic  for  Further  in  scoring  differences  communications Suedfeld  eminent  by  & Tetlock,  public  figures  decision  1977)  situations.  The  of  from an  subjects  is  study.  emphasis  or  a  underlying  system.  That  are  is,  similarly  continuum  discussion  or  makers  personal  (Porter & Suedfeld,  press) which were w r i t t e n over time and and  i s not  the PCT  also  as  a  integration.  warrant  leading  PCT  rubric  f o r purposes of t h i s  at  A r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s have t y p i c a l l y been speeches  1976;  the  these  7-point s i m p l i c i t y - c o m p l e x i t y  f u n c t i o n of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and  the  issue composition under  both a r c h i v a l sources and  the  t h i s more  restrictions,  i n source rather than a d i f f e r e n c e in the  of complexity or the  of  Clearly,  that the composition  written  means  personality  time  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e , however, i s more of a s h i f t difference  was  from that of the  of  scored  therefore material  that which was  a  complexity and  However, the  typically  complexity  as  traditional  issue composition d i f f e r  d i f f e r s from m a t e r i a l integrative  (1977)  processing.  paramaters  task  i n t e g r a t i v e complexity, a term  distinguishing  novel  composition  and  this  diplomatic  (Suedfeld  & Rank,  correspondence  by  1981;  in  Suedfeld,  in a v a r i e t y of  m a t e r i a l used in t h i s  point.  analysis  settings  came  from  u n i v e r s i t y students w r i t i n g about c a p i t a l punishment at a s i n g l e point  in  time.  D i f f e r e n c e s between these p o p u l a t i o n s  and  the  41  parameters w i t h i n which mention.  First,  it  they could  were be  l e v e l p o l i t i c a l policy-makers, in  some  expect  significant  way  differences  individual  in  difference  the v a l i d i t y  reasonably  appear  worthy  suggested that  philosophers,  and  authors  from u n i v e r s i t y students.  performance variable,  measure.  between  One  would  on  an  jeopardizing studies  variable  over time  and  s i t u a t i o n s , whereas t h i s study examined i t at a s i n g l e point  in  time.  in  addressed  This  once  complexity  again  focus than i t i s of an system  to  is  as  a  a p a r t i c u l a r body of m a t e r i a l .  particular  The  on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  individuals,  addressed f l u c t u a t i o n s and  but  some  of  al.,  1967).  complexity  It  complexity  therefore,  suggested  that  on the former.  differences  i n d i v i d u a l s who  were supplying  in  were  the  study  individuals  lie  selected  in  Thirdly, the  the data.  requested  perhaps i t c o u l d be s a i d that those  appropriate  from a between- and/or w i t h i n - s u b j e c t s  T h i s study concentrated  level  for  were study  less in  that  motivation  speeches  are t y p i c a l l y  intended  considers  examine  could of  archival  that  be the  participants topic  motivated  a f f e c t s complexity).  argument weakens, however, when one  within  perspective.  motivation  w r i t i n g on more i n t e r n a l l y generated i s s u e s (with assumption  to  it  That i s ,  also  (Schroder  to w r i t e on a s p e c i f i c they  levels  t h e i r work has  v a r i a t i o n s of conceptual  is,  scoring  main emphasis of  i n d i v i d u a l s as a f u n c t i o n of the situation/environment et  have  more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a s h i f t  i n a p p r o p r i a t e a p p l i c a t i o n of the  the Schroder group was of  Second,  highdiffer  subjects  however, without  of  archival  typically  of the  studied  the  and than  analyses implicit  T h i s l i n e of letters  f o r c e r t a i n audiences and  and often  42  in  response  in  mind,  to other l e t t e r s , however,  the  were kept i n t e n t i o n a l l y  speeches,  not  elicit  t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , the scoring test,  system  this  i n e x p l i c i t and open-ended ("Discuss  any  so as not to favor any  particular  important  f o r the PCT  was  point  structure. is  the  particular  To summarize  that,  although  the  designed f o r the m a t e r i a l of the  i t has been found to be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a wide v a r i e t y  connected  verbal  sufficient  l e n g t h ( S u e d f e l d , 1978).  The  (Suedfeld,  "Sufficient  in  integrative  complexity  is  the  1978), d e f i n e d as two or more sentences.  l e n g t h " f o r t h i s m a t e r i a l i s c o n s i d e r e d to be  paragraphs.  S u b j e c t s generated an average  of 6.3  5  2 to 12.  The  PCT,  outlined  accordance  g u i d e l i n e s and r e s t r i c t i o n s above,,  are  equally  to  paragraphs  in t h e i r composition on c a p i t a l punishment, with a range of  as  of  m a t e r i a l s with the p r o v i s i o n that they are of  basic scoring unit  paragraph  10  With  i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the i s s u e composition  i s s u e of c a p i t a l punishment"), position,  or a c t i o n s .  from  f o r the s c o r i n g of the applicable  with these, only 2 of 453 paragraphs  here.  In  were c l a s s i f i e d  as u n s c o r a b l e . The paragraphs by paragraph at  a  this  and not by s u b j e c t , one  time. was  r a t e r who  be r =  measure  reliability  employed was  of 16 s u b j e c t s ) .  in  assessed  scored a random sample of  compositions to  randomly  chosen  For each s u b j e c t , a mean score was  the  Interjudge  of the issue composition were b l i n d l y scored  92  paragraph  calculated  and  subsequent  analyses.  by as second  independent  paragraphs  (the  Interjudge r e l i a b i l i t y  issue  was  found  .80.  Moral r e a s o n i n g .  Moral  reasoning  was  assessed  by  the  43  combined support  s c o r i n g of the i s s u e composition  the  issue  composition  d e r i v a t i o n of a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c does  not  explicitly  the  support  and  was  address  In  insufficient  score of moral  chosen and nonchosen p o s i t i o n s ) . with  the statements  f o r , and o p p o s i t i o n t o , c a p i t a l punishment.  itself,  it  and  and for  reasoning,  the since  When  scored  in  combination  reasoning on  both  s i d e s of the i s s u e c o u l d be obtained and a s u f f i c i e n t amount  The  measurement  of  After  a  moral  judgment  reasoning  using the  decade of r e v i s i o n s ,  (Colby et a l . , i n  press).  The  comes from a system  Standard  Form  i t i s now  in f i n a l  scoring  of  a  Scoring  typical  form moral  i n t e r v i e w e n t a i l s breaking the i n t e r v i e w i n t o d i s c r e t e  judgments which are matched to c r i t e r i o n counterparts  and  prototypes  found  judgments  judgment to be s c o r a b l e , i t  must  (conceptual  in the s c o r i n g manual) and  assigned scores on the b a s i s of these matches. provide  For an i n t e r v i e w  reasoning  which  c o n s i d e r e d v a l i d by the s u b j e c t ( i . e . , not discounted) is  of  for r e l i a b l e s c o r i n g .  advanced by Lawrence Kohlberg Manual.  of  both s i d e s of the i s s u e (the  o p p o s i t i o n statements,  reasoning c o u l d be provided  of  prescriptive  in nature  and  is  which  ( i . e . , what should be done, not what  would be done). Each judgment meeting assigned  a  stage  separated—by they  opposing  positions  to  criteria  These  described  scored  the b a s i s of the  (judgments  judgments  (WAS)  score.  subject—on  addressed  the  supporting  capital  be expressed  judgments side  capital  punishment).  above  This  was  were then  of  the  issue  punishment allowed  and both  i n terms of a weighted average score  and a g l o b a l stage score  (GSS).  The  WAS  is  a  weighted  44  average  of  stage  usage  and  i s c a l c u l a t e d by m u l t i p l y i n g the  percent usage of each stage by the summing  the products  (range  number  of  i s 100 to 500).  that  stage  and  Thus, two separate  WASs were d e r i v e d f o r each s u b j e c t , one e x p r e s s i n g the l e v e l reasoning  in  support  e x p r e s s i n g the l e v e l punishment  (con).  moral reasoning.  of c a p i t a l punishment of  reasoning  The  GSS  is  the  scores.  score  opposition  5).  to  capital  a more q u a l i t a t i v e measure of  pure  stage  form  of  was  pure  and  assigned  g r e a t e r than 25% of the scored responses 4,  (pro) and a second  GSSs were a s s i g n e d on the b a s i s of the p a t t e r n  of percent usage and took A  in  of  stage  i f one stage had  ( i . e . , Stages  A mixed stage score was assigned  g r e a t e r than 25% of the scored responses  mixed  1,2,  3,  i f two stages each had ( i . e . , Stages  1/2, 2/3,  3/4, 4/5).  Two separate GSSs were d e r i v e d f o r each s u b j e c t , one  expressing  the  punishment  (pro) and a second e x p r e s s i n g the l e v e l of reasoning  level  of  reasoning  in o p p o s i t i o n to c a p i t a l punishment  in  support  of  capital  (con).  To d e s c r i b e the o v e r a l l l e v e l of moral development, a t o t a l weighted average score and a t o t a l g l o b a l stage score were generated all  f o r each s u b j e c t .  reasoning  position  (both  pro  These composite scores encompassed con)  but  weighted  nonchosen,  and  1 f o r a guess score  These weights are those reflect  the  support a chosen p o s i t i o n .  that  2 for  (a score a s s i g n e d when  recommended by Colby et  assumption  chosen  The weights  are 3 f o r the chosen p o s i t i o n ,  i n t e r v i e w judgments do not meet a l l of the c r i t i c a l  and  the  more h e a v i l y than the nonchosen p o s i t i o n .  a p p l i e d i n t h i s procedure the  and  also  indicators).  a l . (in  b e t t e r reasoning  press)  i s used to  45  Thus, a t o t a l of derived  for  each  six  measures  subject:  a  (encompassing both pro and con reasoning  is  procedure this  capital  important  concerning  study  total  are  and  to  address  and  a  GSS  for  and a GSS  an  issue  for  at t h i s p o i n t a v a r i a t i o n  about  administered  capital  of three dilemmas).  from one dilemma  entire  of t h e i r  separately  punishment  found that s u b j e c t s ' stage  of  subjects  that  in  d i f f e r from t h e i r  only  10%  the  of t h e i r  reasoning  about  of  to  the  and E l f e n b e i n  on  d i d not d i f f e r g r e a t l y from t h e i r o v e r a l l  In f a c t , they r e p o r t e d  generated  compared  Kohlberg  from the r e s t  to  I t i s not u n l i k e  as  interview.  in in  I t would be reasonable  statements  (1981) scored the responses  s u b j e c t s ' GSS  WAS  a subsample of the reasoning statements  from  punishment  total  and a  the s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w t y p i c a l l y  examining the statements statements  were  the m a t e r i a l scored for moral reasoning  that the reasoning  actually  penalty  reasoning  punishment.  in an i n t e r v i e w (comprised  and  GSS  r e a s o n i n g ) , a WAS  in the assessment of moral reasoning. suggest  moral  supporting c a p i t a l punishment, and a WAS  reasoning opposing It  of  capital  interviews the  death  stage s c o r e .  the  cases  stage of reasoning about  did  capital  punishment, and  the d i f f e r e n c e was  never g r e a t e r than one  This  support  u t i l i z a t i o n of one dilemma or  provides  issue i n t h i s The blindly  the  study.  s c o r i n g of (i.e.,  other measures). second  for  stage.  the  without  moral  reasoning  knowledge  of  Interrater r e l i a b i l i t y  independent r a t e r  who  randomly s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t s .  blindly There  materials  was  done  s u b j e c t s ' scores on by  a  scored the m a t e r i a l s of  16  was  was  75%  established  the  agreement  in  GSS  46  scoring  (i.e.,  both  pure and mixed stages) and  the WASs was  r = .89.  in t h i s area  (Colby et a l . , 1983;  T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t with previous  punishment  Questionnaire of  were  (CPQ).  assessed  The  CPQ  a s k e p t i c i s m regarding  on  research  Walker, in p r e s s ) .  A t t i t u d e s toward c a p i t a l punishment. capital  reliability  was  by  Attitudes the  developed  toward  C a p i t a l Punishment by Palys  " f o r - o r - a g a i n s t " formats  (1981) of  out  questions  t y p i c a l l y asked in p u b l i c o p i n i o n p o l l s , which were p e r c e i v e d a potentially  f a l s e dichotomy.  Two  forms of  have  developed,  of  which  been  correlation  between  arbitrarily  on  (after L i k e r t , (extremely  reported  the  two  s e l e c t e d for use  Scores  (extremely  each  the 1932)  forms  in t h i s  questionnaire and  anti-capital  can  Palys  has  is  24  .95.  with a o v e r a l l mean of 7.42  analyses  variance),  of  that roughly i n t o one  Form  range  Initial  generated  t e s t s of  facilitate  was  the to  -72 +72 CPQ, +62,  and a standard d e v i a t i o n of 32.62.  analyses  (e.g.,  was c a l c u l a t e d . trend  analyses,  s u b j e c t s were formed i n t o groups, such  of f i v e q u i n t i l e s . 20.6,  from  a range from -66  20% of the s u b j e c t s ( i . e . , groups of 14 or  -51.4, -24.7, 4.7,  A  The  i n v o l v e summing the r a t i n g s  For each s u b j e c t , a t o t a l score on the CPQ to  items.  punishment) through 0 ( n e u t r a l ) to  (1981),  Furthermore,  questionnaire  study.  theoretically  p r o - c a p i t a l punishment). by  the  as  and  (Means f o r 41.8.)  the  five  15)  groups  fell were  47  Results Normative Data Participants  were  educational levels graduate)  to  examine these on  the  score  on  ranges,  a  range  level  numbers  from  undergraduate,  the v a r i o u s measures.  PCT  conducted  the t o t a l WAS of moral development, and  the  total  CPQ,  the  To  issue  the  of  were  a l l for educational l e v e l . were  direction  significant (i.e.,  and  graduate  introductory  Except  means  were  greater  f o r the i n the  than  senior  undergraduate).  ANOVA f o r mean scores on the PCT  f o r the  educational  v a r i a b l e , F(2, 69) = 18.786, £ < .0001, r e v e a l e d between1.49,  1.71,  and  3.5.  2.23  f o r the  introductory,  r e s p e c t i v e l y , with a range of 1.0  The ANOVA f o r mean scores on the i s s u e composition f o r  these three groups was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t , F ( 2 , 69) =  a  and  the  s e n i o r , and graduate students,  .03,  three  and  group means of  to  on  scores  undergraduate g r e a t e r than The  equal  four analyses of v a r i a n c e  complexity  last analysis, a l l predicted  in  ( i n t r o d u c t o r y and s e n i o r  generate  mean  composition,  drawn  with corresponding  range  of  1.17  to  3.50.  (1983a) has r e p o r t e d  ranging  These  are  theoretically  i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  For example,  means  means  of  integrative  complexity  from 1.83 to 2.61 f o r groups of undergraduates and mean  scores i n the range of 2.17 to 1981),  p_ <  group means of 1.91, 1.97, and. 2.30, and  c o n s i s t e n t with others r e p o r t e d Tetlock  3.87,  supreme  court  3.20  judges,  and  for presidents  (Tetlock,  parliamentarians  (Tetlock,  1984). Examining similarly  total  significant  WASs  for  educational  group  yielded  r e s u l t s , F ( 2 , 69) = 14.99, p_ < .001, with  48  means of 323.79, 342.50, and 379.96, and a range of 263 (or,  expressed in GSSs, Stage 2/3  to 4/5).  the ANOVA of t o t a l scores on the CPQ not  significant,  p_  =  .19.  to  As mentioned  440  above,  f o r e d u c a t i o n a l groups  T h i s , however, i s not  s i n c e there i s no t h e o r e t i c a l reason to  expect  was  surprising  differences  on  t h i s a t t i t u d e measure as a f u n c t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l . A  point  worthy  of  mention  at  this  time i s that  d i f f e r e n c e s a c r o s s e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s f o r some of the may  be  seen to represent a necessary "confound"  relationships objective  under  in  investigation.  the  selection  e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l was accomplished  subsequent  subjects  to generate ranges  t h i s and  theoretical  of  However,  because  interest,  a n a l y s e s , c o n s i s t e n t with  i n some of the  the  primary basis  i n performance.  educational  educational  variables  the  on  level  level was  previous  these  was  of  Having not  excluded research  of from  (e.g.,  Walker et a l . , i n p r e s s ) . Conceptual and I n t e g r a t i v e Hypothesis complexity and these  two  different,  I addressed the r e l a t i o n s h i p between conceptual i n t e g r a t i v e complexity.  measures  test was  are  dimensions  general as opposed moderately  Complexity  to  assessing  I t i s assumed that somewhat  similar,  of the decision-making environment specific  decision-making  since yet (i.e.,  processes)  s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l be found between them.  a  As a  of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , a Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c a l c u l a t e d betv/een the mean scores on the PCT and the  composition  yielding,  coefficient  of .33, p <  as  expected,  a  significant  issue  moderate  1  .002.  T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p can be i l l u s t r a t e d through an  examination  49  of the r e l a t i v e l e v e l s of complexity on both measures. split  of the scores on the PCT  summarized  in  Table  somewhat redundant,  1.  and  the  Although  issue  further  A median  composition  analyses might be  i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that a contingency  a n a l y s i s also revealed a s i g n i f i c a n t pattern, x ( 1 , N  =  2  4.50,  p_  <  .03,  is  indicating  that  63.8%  72)  of the s u b j e c t s were  c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r low or high on both measures. The above analyses demonstrate two  measures;  differ.  of the  The  contingency  analysis  d i s p l a y s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the PCT and the issue  composition i n i t s a n a l y s i s obscures this  nature  i t i s e q u a l l y important, however, to examine the  dimension(s) on which they clearly  the s i m i l a r  of  relative  levels;  however,  any p i c t u r e of t h e i r a b s o l u t e d i f f e r e n c e s .  issue,  a  2(Sex)  composition)  ANOVA  last  with  factor,  variable.  x  2(Complexity  was conducted mean  appropriate  to  scores  PCT/issue  as  the  dependent  here i s whether or not i t i s  use the complexity scores from the two measures  to represent the two l e v e l s of the dependent analysis.  To address  with repeated measures on the  complexity  An issue to be addressed  measures:  Although  a  moderate  variable  relationship  in  clearly  measures  of  procedures are i d e n t i c a l materials processes  of  suggests that these  two  the  same  variable.  Their scoring  length) structure  and  both  underlying  assess  the  thought).  i t i s d e f e n s i b l e to compare the scores y i e l d e d  measures;  they  ( i . e . , a s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s of w r i t t e n  sufficient  (i.e.,  the  this  between the two  measures was d e s c r i b e d above, i n d i c a t i n g some d i f f e r e n c e s , are  it  that  l e v e l s of a s i n g l e f a c t o r .  same This by  i s , to examine these measures as two The r e s u l t a n t ANOVA summary t a b l e i s  50  Table 1 Median S p l i t  of Scores on the PCT and Issue Composition  Issue Composition  PCT  Low  High  Low  23  13  High  13  23  51  presented The for  i n Table 2. only s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t  the  complexity  factor,  mean score on the i s s u e than of  .25  is  composition  significant, only  was  complexity  scale.  assessing  of  a  sizable,  scorable  T h i s f i n d i n g suggests  the  same  significantly  Although  i t i s not  one-half  analysis  was  F_(1, 70) = 11.231, p_ < .001. The  that on the PCT (2.06 v s . 1.81).  represents  be  r e v e a l e d by t h i s  processes,  this  higher  difference  given  that i t  interval  on the  that both measures  but  may  one i s a l l o w i n g f o r a  greater expression. Complexity  and A t t i t u d e s toward C a p i t a l Punishment  Hypothesis toward  II addressed  capital  including  punishment  both  Specifically,  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between and  conceptual a  complexity  and  curvilinear  the  relationship  x  PCT/issue  5(CPQ  quintile  composition)  measures on the l a s t dependent  groups) ANOVA  x  was  complexity).  was  hypothesized  Questionnaire  mean scores on the measures of complexity.  2(Sex)  the  (as a generic term  integrative  between the scores on the C a p i t a l Punishment  2(Complexity  calculated  and  To t e s t t h i s , a measures:  with  f a c t o r , and with mean complexity  variable.  attitudes  repeated scores  as  The r e s u l t a n t ANOVA summary t a b l e i s  presented as Table 3. Sex was not s i g n i f i c a n t e i t h e r interaction  with  other f a c t o r s .  as  a  main  effect  or i n  S i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s were  r e v e a l e d f o r the other two f a c t o r s , q u a l i f i e d by an between them, F(4, 62) = 11.917, p_ < .001.  interaction  To i s o l a t e the locus  of t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n , a t e s t of simple main e f f e c t s of CPQ groups was  performed  on  both measures of complexity.  R e s u l t s of the  52  Table 2 Summary of the A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e for the Mean Complexity Scores  Source of v a r i a n c e  1  Sex Error  df  (between)  Complexity  measures  Sex x Complexity E r r o r (within)  *p < .001.  measures  MS  F  0. 1 54  0.387  70  0.397  1  2.253  11 .231*  1  0.009  0.045  70  0.201  53  Table 3 Summary of the A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r the Mean Complexity Scores, I n c l u d i n g Simple E f f e c t s and Trend  Source of v a r i a n c e  df  Analysis  MS  F  Sex  1  0.134  0 .363  CPQ groups  4  1.010  2 .745*  Sex x CPQ groups  4  0.209  0 .567  62  0.368  Error  (between)  Complexity measures  1  1 .483  Sex x Complexity measures  1  0.119  CPQ groups  4  1 .502  4  0.331  x Complexity measures  1 1.767** 0 . 941 11 .917**  Simple main e f f e c t s CPQ groups  f o r PCT  67  E r r o r (within)  CPQ groups  f o r issue composition  1 .217  0.272  4  2. 1 06  1 0.060**  1  0.019  3  2.802  1 3. 387**  1  6.920  33 .057**  2  0.723  3 .456*  Trend a n a l y s i s Linear  function  Deviation Quadratic  from  linear  function  Deviation  from q u a d r a t i c  0 .089  (cont'd)  54  Table  3  Source of  (cont'd)  variance  Cubic  df  function  D e v i a t i o n from Error  Sex  x CPQ  Error  *p_ <  cubic  (within)  groups x Complexity  (within)  .05.  **2  <  .001 .  MS  F  1  0..611  2,.921  1  0..805  3,.847  67  0..209  measures 4  0,. 1 37  62  0,. 1 26  1 .090  55  t e s t on the  PCT  were  hypothesis  was  not  R e s u l t s of  the  test  significant  however,  examination analysis  as  on  issue  67)  =  10.06,  performed  that  were  highly  p_ < .0001. by  the  complexity.  composition  way  of  Further a  trend  and scores on the a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . various  which  best  functions  (linear,  proportion  .0001, f i t t i n g  what can  with  of best  7j = .61.  quadratic,  d e s c r i b e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  In t h i s case, the q u a d r a t i c f u n c t i o n  greatest  pattern,  f o r t h i s measure of  the  F(4,  indicating  a means of e x p l o r i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s  quartic)  variables. the  supported  a n a l y s e s examine  cubic,  significant,  of t h i s e f f e c t was  measure of complexity Trend  not  variance, be  as  1 displays this  R e s i d u a l v a r i a n c e was i n s u f f i c i e n t  to  for  F( 1 , 67) = 33.057, p_ <  described  Figure  accounted  provide  a  curvilinear  relationship. significant  F-  r a t i o s f o r any other f u n c t i o n . Figure  1 clearly  i l l u s t r a t e s the c u r v i l i n e a r nature  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n t e g r a t i v e complexity  issue  composition  as  a  of the  measure  and the c a p i t a l punishment q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  More extreme scores i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n on the CPQ correspond more  simplistic  capital  organization  punishment,  or  whereas  structure  more  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a greater complexity Conceptual  Complexity  Hypothesis conceptual that  there  III  complexity  case  of  moderate  to  thought about scores  are  of p r e s e n t a t i o n of i d e a s .  and Moral Reasoning addressed  the  and moral reasoning.  relationship  between  The e x p e c t a t i o n  was  would be a p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between mean scores  on the PCT and the t o t a l WAS. this  of  since  it  The PCT was the measure  used  in  i s the one t y p i c a l l y assumed t o represent  56  Figure  1.  Mean complexity  scores on the issue composition as a  f u n c t i o n of a t t i t u d e toward c a p i t a l  punishment.  2.S  A t t i t u d e T o w a r d C a p i t a l P u n i s h m e n t ( C P Q Groups)  58  characteristic moral  l e v e l s of complexity.  reasoning i s a composite  issue composition and  opposing  of  Moreover, the t o t a l WAS of scored  responses  as w e l l as from the statements capital  punishment.  It  composition) The  in this  would  therefore  (as assessed  between  reasoning was examined  by  product-moment  total  WAS).  i n c l u d e the  from  the  a  series  of  analyses.  First,  a  c o r r e l a t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d between mean  This  measure  yielded,  as  of  moral  expected,  reasoning  a significant  of + . 4 3 , p_ < . 0 0 1 , i n d i c a t i n g correspondence  coefficient  issue  c o n c e p t u a l complexity and moral  scores on the PCT and the o v e r a l l (the  be  analysis.  relationship  Pearson  the  both supporting  u n j u s t i f i e d - - b o t h c o n c e p t u a l l y and s t a t i s t i c a l l y — t o measure of i n t e g r a t i v e complexity  from  between  these two measures. T h i s correspondence median  split  was f u r t h e r examined  by  conducting  on the PCT v a r i a b l e , then a 2(Sex) x 2(Complexity:  high/low) ANOVA, with the t o t a l WAS as the dependent The  r e s u l t a n t ANOVA summary t a b l e There  was  were no main e f f e c t s nor i n t e r a c t i o n with sex, so i t  excluded  from subsequent a n a l y s e s .  A main e f f e c t was found, p_ < . 0 0 1 .  WAS f o r h i g h complexity  and  low  variable.  i n Table 4 .  i s presented  however, f o r complexity, F( 1 , 6 8 ) = 1 1 . 4 3 9 ,  for  a  complexity  s u b j e c t s was 3 6 4 . 9 4  subjects  was 3 3 2 . 5 6 ,  the  The t o t a l total  a difference  WAS  roughly  e q u i v a l e n t t o o n e - t h i r d of a stage. The  essence  of the above  two  results  a r e perhaps  most  g r a p h i c a l l y d e p i c t e d i n Table 5 which p r e s e n t s a median s p l i t on both  the  significant  PCT and t o t a l WAS.  A contingency a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d a  pattern, X ( 1 , N = 7 2 ) = 6 . 7 2 , p < 2  . 0 1 , indicating  59  Table 4 Summary of the A n a l y s i s of Variance f o r T o t a l Weighted Average Scores  Source of v a r i a n c e  df  MS  Sex  1  744.851  Complexity  1  18410.684  Sex x Complexity  1  518.949  68  1609.456  Error  (between)  *p_ < .001 .  F  0.463 11.439* 0.322  Table 5 Median S p l i t  of Scores on the PCT and Moral Reasoning  Moral Reasoning  PCT  Low  High  Low  24  12  High  12  24  61  that two-thirds of the s u b j e c t s were c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r high  on  both measures.  A l l these analyses c l e a r l y  r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two h i e r a r c h i c a l Moral Reasoning  low or  support the  theories.  (Pro versus Con) and A t t i t u d e towards C a p i t a l  Punishment The  final  two hypotheses are  both  addressed  reasoning  and  Hypothesis  IV p r e d i c t e d a p o s i t i v e ,  attitudes  toward  issues  i n moral  t h e r e f o r e probably best examined together. linear  c a p i t a l punishment  composition  and the CPQ) and moral  opposition  with  higher  level  i n c l u d e d t o examine d i f f e r e n c e s  relationship  between  (as d e r i v e d from the issue  reasoning,  reasoning.  with  increasing  Hypothesis  V  was  i n the reasoning of s u b j e c t s i n  t h e i r support o f , versus o p p o s i t i o n t o , c a p i t a l punishment--as a function  of  their  chosen  and  nonchosen  p o s i t i o n — w i t h the  e x p e c t a t i o n that higher reasoning would be a s s o c i a t e d  with  the  chosen p o s i t i o n . To was  examine these hypotheses,  conducted  (median  split  punishment punishment as  a  with on  three the  factor  (Incidentally, with pro and  to by  con  independent  design ANOVA  variables:  complexity  PCT), s u b j e c t s ' a t t i t u d e toward c a p i t a l  (pro/con), and (pro/con).  a between-within  position  on  The median s p l i t examine  any  the  issue  of  capital  on the PCT was i n c l u d e d  possible  interactions.  chance, there were equal numbers of s u b j e c t s attitudes  toward  capital  punishment.)  The  dependent v a r i a b l e i n t h i s a n a l y s i s was the WAS f o r both pro and con  positions  2(Complexity: 2(Position:  on  the  high/low) pro/con)  x  ANOVA  issue.  The  2(Subjects'  design, attitude:  then,  was  a  pro/con)  x  with repeated measures on the l a s t  62  factor.  The  r e s u l t a n t ANOVA summary t a b l e i s presented  i n Table  6. A main e f f e c t the  for complexity was  r e v e a l e d , as d i s c u s s e d  in  p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , with no i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h i s and  any  other f a c t o r , so the r e s u l t a n t p a t t e r n i s true f o r both high and low complexity highly  subjects.  significant,  The  but  main  effect  qualified  by  for  position  an i n t e r a c t i o n between  p o s i t i o n and a t t i t u d e , F( 1 , 68) = 4.716, p_ < .05. Hypothesis position However,  V  predicted  higher  ( e i t h e r pro or con) the  means,  as  moral  than on  presented  the  nonchosen  i n Table 7, both  attitude  subjects.  simple  position  for  both  significant,  Fs ( 1 ,  respectively. capital  Thus, s u b j e c t s , evidence  i t . This  subjects.  seems That  moral reasoning to support least,  and  the  "con"  when  that  position.  i n d i c a t e higher  "pro"  and  "con"  main e f f e c t s of  attitude  35) = 6.228, 2 < .02,  punishment,  they support attitude  "pro"  of  Recall  reasoning on the chosen  moral reasoning on the con p o s i t i o n f o r Analyses  was  subjects  were  and  27.021, 2 <  justifying  opposition  -001, to  higher moral reasoning than when especially  the  "con"  i s , s u b j e c t s do not always use  higher  t h e i r own  true  position;  for  in this  case  at  they use higher moral reasoning to j u s t i f y o p p o s i t i o n to  c a p i t a l punishment to Hypothesis V and  ( r e g a r d l e s s of the chosen p o s i t i o n ) , c o n t r a r y i m p l i c a t i o n s drawn from  Kohlberg's  scoring  system. In  addressing  the  cognitive-developmental  s t r u c t u r e d whole, the GSSs d e r i v e d from pro were examined.  and  assumption con  of  reasoning  R e c a l l that GSSs take the form of pure and mixed  stage s c o r e s , p r o v i d i n g a 9-point  scale  ( i . e . , Stages  1, 1/2,  2,  63  Table 6 Summary of the A n a l y s i s  of Variance f o r Pro and Con Weighted  Average Scores, Including  Simple Main E f f e c t s  Source of v a r i a n c e  df  MS  F  Complexity  1  28785. 543  A t t i tude  1  7015.,551  2.,267  1  6453.,328  2.,085  68  3094.,823  Position  1  34121 .,098  Complexity x P o s i t i o n  1  845.,555  Attitude  1  5529..996  4,.716*  1  6347..250  6,.228*  35  1019,.200  1  36137,.250  35  1 337.400 ,  1  1 906, .666  68  1 172, .706  Complexity Error  x Attitude  (between)  x Position  9.,301**  29.,096*** 0,.721  Simple main e f f e c t s Position Error  (within)  Position Error  f o r pro a t t i t u d e  f o r con a t t i t u d e  (within)  Complexity x A t t i t u d e Error  x Position  (within)  *p_ < .05.  **p_ < .01.  ***p_ < .001 .  27,.021***  1 .626  Table 7 Mean Weighted Average Scores f o r Pro and Con P o s i t i o n s as a F u n c t i o n of A t t i t u d e  toward C a p i t a l Punishment  A t t i t u d e toward Capital  Punishment  Position  Pro  Con  Pro  328.4  332.6  330.5  Con  347.2  377.4  362.3  337.8  355.0  65  2/3,  3,  3/4, 4, 4/5, 5 ) . On t h i s s c a l e ,  76.4% of the s u b j e c t s  used e i t h e r the same or an adjacent stage i n t h e i r reasoning support  of,  Surprisingly,  and  to,  capital  That  i n t h e i r reasoning on the  i s , almost  one-quarter  population supplied  reasoning  structured  assumption.  whole  in  loosely  structures be  assumed  The  evidencing  positions.  the  same  stage  in  on  these  two  positions  of  this  subject  violation  of the  . requirements  of  been presented. have  this It i s  cognitive  issues—subjects their  analysis  In t h i s study, almost 25% of the  reasoning  of one  total  individuals  across  sides  the  apparent  that  which are c o n s i s t e n t  two  of  assumption, however, have never f o r m a l l y rather  punishment.  23.6% of the s u b j e c t s evidenced d i f f e r e n c e s  stage or g r e a t e r issue.  opposition  of  should of  subjects  both  supplied  with at l e a s t a f u l l  stage  discrepancy. The  above  attitude variable  and  analysis moral  (pro/con).  examined  reasoning  with  An a l t e r n a t e  the  relationship  between  a t t i t u d e as a dichotomous  approach would  be  to  assess  t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p u t i l i z i n g a continuous measure of the a t t i t u d e variable  (such  as the CPQ).  the dichotomous measure of coefficient  yielded  As would be expected, the CPQ and  attitude  were  highly  related—the  by a p o i n t - b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n a l  analysis  was +.78, p < .001. To  test  reasoning,  a  the  relationship  between  the  CPQ  capital  moral  Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d  between t o t a l CPQ scores and t o t a l WASs, y i e l d i n g a correlation  and  of  -.38,  punishment  JD <  .001.  corresponds  to  significant  Thus, g r e a t e r o p p o s i t i o n higher  levels  of  to  moral  66  reasoning. This  finding  percentage capital  is illustrated  of males and  punishment.  females at each moral Also  presented  f i n d i n g s of Kohlberg and E l f e n b e i n male sample. female  i n Table 8 which d i s p l a y s the  (i.e.,  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was  table  had an  to  are the  exclusively male  capital  opposition  (means = -10.19 vs. 6.08,  and  punishment.  examined by conducting an ANOVA of the variable.  obtained, F( 1 , 70) = 4.354, p_  greater  oppose  g r e a t e r o p p o s i t i o n with higher s t a g e ) ,  scores with sex as the independent  showing  who  A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n i s evidenced f o r both  subjects  e f f e c t was  this  (1981) who  but females appear to be more opposed  CPQ  in  stage  to  capital  respectively).  <  .05,  total  A significant with  females  punishment than males  Table 8 Percentage of Subjects at each Moral Stage Who Oppose C a p i t a l Punishment  Sex Moral  Kohlberg & E l f e n b e i n  Stage  Males  Females  '( 1 981 ) - Males only  1 , 1/2  -  -  0  2  -  -  1 1  2/3  0  33.3  0  3  37.5  60.0  20  3/4  29.4  52.4  41  4  40.0  1 00.0  36  100.0  1 00.0  1 00  4/5 5  Note. that  —  —  100  A dash i n d i c a t e s that no s u b j e c t s were found at stage.  68  Discussion The p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n presented the r e s u l t s of t h i s In  particular,  a  significant,  moderate c o r r e l a t i o n was  between the comparable measures of complexity.  Integrative  c u r v i l i n e a r way significant and  was  and  integrative  found to r e l a t e i n a  found between the a t t i t u d e  complexity.  Conceptual  moderately  complexity  strong  measure and moral  relationship.  Moral  and a t t i t u d e s toward c a p i t a l punishment were found to  linearly,  substantiating than  complexity  r e l a t i o n s h i p was  reasoning evidenced a  relate  conceptual  found  to an a t t i t u d e measure of c a p i t a l punishment; no  conceptual  reasoning  study.  with  their  proponents.  opponents  position  Moreover,  of  capital  punishment  with higher l e v e l s of reasoning regardless  of  chosen  position,  s u b j e c t s used higher l e v e l s of moral reasoning to oppose c a p i t a l punishment  than  they  d i d to support  i t . T h i s present  more f u l l y d i s c u s s e s the i m p l i c a t i o n s of these Conceptual  and  complexity. particularly  Completion  measure  I t has in  of  been  Test an  is  a  thought  dispositional  variables  in  used  and  i n d i v i d u a l ' s l e v e l of conceptual  shown  to  relation  be  a  useful  to  other  structural  in integrative  assessment of the s t r u c t u r a l complexity  instrument,  characteristics  (Schroder et a l . , 1967).  o f f s h o o t of t h i s measure i s found  verbal  frequently  p e r s o n a l i t y r e s e a r c h examining  and s t y l e s of  and  findings.  I n t e g r a t i v e Complexity  The Paragraph well-validated  section  and  A productive  complexity—the  of thought  from  written  m a t e r i a l s and the subsequent stimulus of i n n o v a t i v e  research i n human d e c i s i o n making as a f u n c t i o n of and s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s .  environmental  Such an approach r e p r e s e n t s  a  real  69  advance  in  the  outside  the  social  confines  psychological of  the  laboratory.  s o c i o l o g i c a l , p o l i t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l of s o c i a l l y The written  significant  b a s i c premise or  verbal  sufficient  It  also  has  relevance i n i t s a n a l y s i s  events. of both of these measures i s that  material  length,  study of human behavior  on  decision-making  i n any  issues  of  i n d i v i d u a l s are p r o v i d i n g m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of  the s t r u c t u r e u n d e r l y i n g thought.  Even though the thoughts  originate  of sources (e.g., p o l i t i c a n s ,  from  a  wide  variety  may  authors, students) and the s t r u c t u r e may be s e n s i t i v e to  forces  in  remains  the  environment  unaltered.  (e.g.,  stress)  the basic premise  T h i s i s the conceptual base on which  both  theories  are grounded. Less  obvious  empirical  base  measures  of  in  or  This  "inaccessibility"  purpose  support  demonstrating  integrative  correspondent.  complexity  the l i t e r a t u r e , however, i s some form of  of  of  completing  i n c l u s i o n of the issue examination  of  the  complexity  is  not  in  and/or  the PCT.  are  studies  public  task  relationship  PCT and the composition on c a p i t a l  area  overlap.  in  which  these  found  two  the  structural  the  integrative f o r the  between  this  study:  the  conceptual  and  measures  of the  punishment. (r = .33) adequately d e f i n e s  i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g measures  What they share i s the way i n  characterize  given of  and  sufficiently  figures)  in  i n t e g r a t i v e complexity w i t h i n s u b j e c t s by the  an  PCT  T h i s i s the r a t i o n a l e f o r the  composition  The moderate c o r r e l a t i o n  the  surprising  subjects  (i.e., historical  that  which  underpinnings  both of  assess  or  thought--the  70  degree(s) of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and conceptual  and  empirical  however, t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n  integration.  interdependence  This  or  is  base.  i s l e s s than maximal  their  Clearly,  suggesting  that  these two measures are a l s o a c c e s s i n g separate p r o p e r t i e s ( i . e . , areas  in  apparent issue  which  there  i s no o v e r l a p ) .  i n the a n a l y s i s which  composition  were  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e became  indicated  that  scores  on  the  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than those on  the  PCT. These higher scores of function  of  completing  the  the  issue  characteristcs  the PCT,  of  composition the  2  minutes.  The  issue  i n an  composition,  be  That  i n d i v i d u a l s are presented with s i x  stems, each of which i s to be completed of  task.  may  i s , in sentence  imposed time  on  the  d i s c u s s , without  leads of  to  an  the  removing completion  limit  respond?  the  rigid  time  constraints  this  (i.e.,  could  time,  be  in  of  composition)  as  opposed  by  topics,  i n d i v i d u a l s respond  the stems as t o p i c s of d i s c u s s i o n (and hence e q u i v a l e n t issue  which  addressed  number  versus d i s c u s s i o n ) and having  This  the c o n s t r a i n t s  the l e v e l of complexity  Perhaps  asked  restrictions.  i n t e r e s t i n g e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n : Do  the PCT a r t i f i c i a l l y  individuals  same  limit  other hand,  i n v o l v e s the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a t o p i c which i n d i v i d u a l s are to  to  sentence  to  paragraph  stem would render  comprising the PCT. scores  on  the  Higher latter  to the  beginnings.  Conversely, perhaps the p r e s e n t a t i o n of " c a p i t a l punishment" a  a  as  i t e q u i v a l e n t to the other stems  scores would  on  the  support  former the  PCT  and  lower  constraint  hypothesis. Such an  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n focuses e x c l u s i v e l y on  the  finding  71  that the issue composition e l i c i t e d higher scores than the Certainly,  this  i s the major d i f f e r e n c e , but i t may  beyond t h i s .  That  i s , i f the  consistently  higher  on  score  of  every  was  was  the i s s u e composition than on the  PCT,  be  higher  (as i t represents the v a r i a t i o n of r e l a t i v e l e v e l s ) . not the case.  issue  The moderate c o r r e l a t i o n  composition may  stem; there may  moderate value  suggests  Such  that  the  be q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s as w e l l f o r even when  (r = .42).  the  That  correlation  still  retains  a  i s , the issue composition was  on  a t o p i c of c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o v e r s y , and one that may more  as  be more than j u s t a b e t t e r e l a b o r a t e d PCT  corrected for attentuation,  be  extend  individual  the c o r r e l a t i o n between these two measures would well  well  PCT.  personally  meaningful.  The PCT  be s a i d to  s t r i v e s to tap i s s u e s  r e l e v a n t to a more g e n e r a l i z e d realm of d e c i s i o n making, a realm t y p i c a l l y comprised considerations. more  To  spontaneous  complexity  of  may  more  this  extent,  responses; be  seen  mundane  to  and  less  the PCT may  the  measure  controversial be seen to draw  of  draw more d e l i b e r a t e d  integrative responses.  Perhaps h e r e i n l i e s a d i f f e r e n c e i n q u a l i t y . The  PCT and  siblings  from  the  measure  of  integrative  a common parentage.  i n h e r i t a n c e , but d i f f e r  in  their  complexity  are  They share the same g e n e t i c appearance,  orientation  and  intensity. Complexity  and A t t i t u d e s toward  Schroder structurally suggested  C a p i t a l Punishment  et a l . (1967) have proposed simple and s t r u c t u r a l l y  that  highly salient  a d i s t i n c t i o n between  complex  attitudes.  They  simple a t t i t u d e s are based on a narrow range of i n f o r m a t i o n and are consequently expected  to  be  72  more  categorical  and  extreme.  hand, are supposedly information  based  on  (encompassing  arguments) r e s u l t i n g in a  Complex a t t i t u d e s , on the a  broader  both less  range  consonant  categorical  of  relevant  and and  other  dissonant  less  extreme  i n press;  Linville  ( i . e . , more moderate) a t t i t u d e . L i n v i l l e and &  Jones,  1980)  colleagues have  (Linville,  provided  t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n using a f a v o r a b i l i t y and object.  They  r e l a t e d to  found  more  evaluations has  unfavorabi1ity  empirical trait  sorting  for  this  technique  with  r a t i n g s toward a s p e c i f i c evaluations  simplistic  support  structures  (both  of  a c u r v i l i n e a r pattern  parliamentarians  in  target  pro and  whereas  less  r e l a t e d to more complex s t r u c t u r e s .  a l s o reported  discourse  extreme  1982,  extreme  Tetlock  the  con)  (1984)  complexity  as a f u n c t i o n of t h e i r  of  political  ideologies. A similar curvilinear wherein  more  punishment  extreme  con)  two  employed  in  this  elaborates important  were a s s o c i a t e d with lower the  issue  composition)  in  t h i s study  (a)  Integrative  in at  complexity  was  structure  i n t e g r a t i o n ) , as opposed to Linville  as a f u n c t i o n of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and  l a t t e r being  Schroder  others  (the assessment of conceptual  the t r a i t - s o r t i n g technique employed by complexity  increasing  the c l a i m by  on the work of L i n v i l l e and ways:  study  a t t i t u d e s toward c a p i t a l  This substantiates  as a f u n c t i o n of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and  the  found  more moderate a t t i t u d e s were a s s o c i a t e d with  a l . and  least  and  (as determined by  l e v e l s of complexity. et  (pro  was  (as determined by the CPQ)  l e v e l s of complexity whereas  pattern  subsumed i n the p r e l i m i n a r y  who  assessed  differentiation,  processes  of  the  73  former.  (b) Even with t h i s a l t e r n a t e measure, the  e x t r e m i t y " e f f e c t , as L i n v i l l e c a l l s important  and  punishment. the  controversial  Moreover, t h i s  content-free  absence of any  nature  by  attitudinal  relationship of  the  supported  in  realm  capital  results  clearly  also  consistent  complexity  and  and policy-making p r o c e s s e s .  significantly  lower  those  levels levels  policy  T e t l o c k (1984) accounted  with  a value p l u r a l i s m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  that advocates  of i d e o l o g i e s i n which freedom and  h i g h l y valued  with  low  moderate s o c i a l i s t s and c o n s e r v a t i v e s on c u r r e n t  both  i n the  R e c a l l that T e t l o c k found extreme  s o c i a l i s t s and c o n s e r v a t i v e s to d i s p l a y s i m i l a r  findings  demonstrates  measure of complexity  are  T e t l o c k (1984).  integrative  of  the  u n i d i r e c t i o n a l e f f e c t or b i a s .  C l e a r l y , these reported  i t , was  "complexity-  of than  issues  f o r these  I t i s assumed equality  are  ( i . e . , moderate s o c i a l i s m ) are under g r e a t e r  pressure to c o n s i d e r such v a l u e s i n more  integratively  complex  terms than are advocates  of i d e o l o g i e s that p l a c e g r e a t e r weight  on only one value ( i . e . ,  freedom f o r c o n s e r v a t i v e s ) .  The in it  principles  accounting could  suggest these  be  with  said  this  that two  embedded values  assumption,  that extreme p o s i t i o n s on two  encompass  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n might w e l l apply  f o r the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study.  punishment are the through  of such an  values, both.  whereas That  is,  punishment might value law considerations)  a  in  of  the  life  it  more  extreme  is,  perhaps  issue  of  capital  and  would  this  That  law.  seem  issue  Following  reasonable to  embrace  moderate opponents  one  position of  would capital  (and perhaps to the e x c l u s i o n of  whereas extreme proponents  of  life  might value l i f e .  A  74  more moderate p o s i t i o n might embrace these and  thus  T h i s remains  e m p i r i c a l v a l i d a t i o n , but perspective  speculation  between was  complexity  generated  and  through  complexity)  complexity).  T h i s perhaps stems from  two  more  subject  global  composition, on  or  general  level  of  the other  in which an  • issue  controversial.  composition  through the PCT the  assessment conceptual  a  hypothesized  (conceptual  differences The  of  PCT  an  between  i s seen as  individual's  complexity.  The  issue  hand, i s more of a s p e c i f i c measure of  i n d i v i d u a l processes information  a p a r t i c u l a r domain, and,  capital  not  provides  to  a t t i t u d e s toward c a p i t a l  measures as p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d .  characteristic  the way  and  issue in  interpreted.  the  (integrative  the  and  i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that support f o r the  punishment  a  be  equally  this  such a model parsimoniously  i n which these r e s u l t s may  relationship  these  values  p r e v a i l upon such advocates to consider  more complex terms.  It  two  i n t h i s case, one  that  relevant  is  to  especially  That i s , because of t h i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l nature of  punishment, i t has  form of debates,  had  great  speeches,  and  exposure and articles  visibility  in  the  in  popular  press.  Moreover, part of what makes i t c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s that i t  is  issue  an  that  p h i l o s o p h i c a l , and strongly predisposes that  held one  proposed  calls  into  r e l i g i o u s ideology convictions  and  an  individual's  by  Harvey et a l .  and/or  of  beliefs  religious  (1961). an  and  These two  issue  is  which  idea  with  component, may  e f f e c t s to which the more mundane PCT  moral,  which l i e s at the core  to p a r t i c u l a r o r i e n t a t i o n s - - a n  combination, the high exposure philosophical  play  not  of  perhaps unlike  f a c t o r s in its  moral,  work to produce  insensitive.  It  is  75  perhaps  reasonable  to assume that c a p i t a l punishment l i e s on a  d i f f e r e n t plane of relevance than do stems such as "when I don't know what to do" Tetlock's here.  It  or " c o n f u s i o n " that form the  (1984) value p l u r a l i s m  could  be  proposed  i s s u e of c a p i t a l punishment are  brought  model  PCT. is  (and the ways i n which these i n some s u b s t a n t i a l way  v a l u e ( s ) encompassed i n the stems of the PCT.  contrast  to  these  That  values from the  is,  perhaps  stems has only a s i n g l e value attached to i t , i n  the  two  values of the i s s u e composition.  d i f f e r e n c e would manifest of  relevant  that the values inherent i n the  i n t o play) d i f f e r  each of the PCT  also  measures,  itself  Such a  i n the r e l a t i v e scores of  f o r i f the concurrent  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  i n d i v i d u a l to c o n s i d e r an  complex  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of only a s i n g l e i s s u e might  necessarily perhaps  the  precipitate  the  qualitiative  issue composition relation  and  simplistic  difference  the reason  thought.  between  This  the PCT  for the d i f f e r e n t i a l  and  more  is the  r e s u l t s in  to the c a p i t a l punishment q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  Conceptual  Complexity  Kohlberg  and Moral  successive  h i e r a r c h y of c o g n i t v e complexity  stage  integrated structure. processes  upon  formulation  integration,  which  of  characterizes continuum  Reasoning  (1981) has d e s c r i b e d h i s theory of moral  as being a cumulative each  more  in  two  values predisposes an terms,  issue  each  a  more  Schroder  lower  et  al.  the  of  the  the  in  that  and b e t t e r integral  have e l a b o r a t e d t h e i r  complexity.  range  represents  which  differentiated  These terms a l s o represent  conceptual  the  and  is  reasoning  Differentiation  simplicity-complexity  necessary  condition  for  i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the upper range.  Both  76  theories  focus  thought,  with  one  on  the  the  cognitive  structures  that  underlie  s t r u c t u r e s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y complex as  a t t a i n s subsequent stages or l e v e l s along the continuum. Conceptually,  themselves moderate  to  at  least,  similar  correlation  processes. reported  increasing  stages  levels  conceptual  of  these  of  stages  seem  to  address  T h i s i s demonstrated by the  earlier  (r_  =  .43),  moral reasoning correspond complexity.  The  where  to i n c r e a s i n g  subsequent  analyses  r e p o r t e d s i m i l a r l y d i s p l a y e d such a r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t with the r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d by S u l l i v a n et al.  (1970); what d i f f e r s  the  magnitude of the c o r r e l a t i o n .  overall  coefficient  conceptual  level.  several factors. method  of  development.  4  of  .62  This First,  scoring  S u l l i v a n et a l . presented an  between  moral  difference Sullivan  f o r both  may  et the  i n which responses  representing  stages  o r i e n t a t i o n or model.  of  moral  the now abandoned  an  to  older  reasoning  undergone  revision resulting  substantial  of many of the stage-typed  responses.  was formerly c l a s s i f i e d as Stages T h i s study  systems  moral reasoning. were drawn from  of  0  developmental  The moral reasoning p r o t o c o l s were scored (1958) procedure  recent  attributable  employed  and  and  were a s s i g n e d scores of  a c c o r d i n g t o Kolhberg's  as Stage 3.  be  al. PCT  development  The PCT was scored a c c o r d i n g to the 1964 manual of  Hunt and Halverson to  i s the s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p or  employed  coding  which has  subsequently  in a r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  For example, much of what  4 or 5 i s p r e s e n t l y c l a s s i f i e d the  better  validated,  f o r both conceptual complexity and  Second, s u b j e c t s i n the S u l l i v a n et a l . three  age  most  levels:  12,  14,  and  17  study  years.  77  Subjects  i n t h i s study were drawn from three e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s  with ages ranging from restrictive  sample  present study  and  punishment.  The  of  to  with  assessed  composition  work  17  45  years  moral  statements  reasoning on  the  et a l .  Given  and  Elfenbein  a departure  single  note  they  are  that e x i s t may,  are  i n p a r t , be due  scores  to  in  say  error  (paragraph  particular  is  Sullivan and  complexity interesting  increasing  the  relationship  complexity  and  Kohlberg's  rather be both  moral  a  reasoning  controversial  to the  For  in  the  example,  can claim  be of  differentiated  and  questions) of  for information loss  scores). exist  versus  calculation  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the  between  conceptual  seen  supporting  as  hierarchy.  s t r u c t u r a l h i e r a r c h y i n that each  better  The  inadequacies  completions  potential  does  a  between  measures.  dilemma i s s u e s and  fact  is  that  the d e r i v a t i o n of item scores  average  to  the  stories  measurement.  (mean scores versus weighted  stage  it  synonomous  j u s t as d i f f e r e n t methods are employed  appears  S u f f i c e i t to  of thought,  not  used  measurement  relevant  that  a  (1981) and Gibbs and Widaman  i n the methods of  methods  increasing  overall  from  both moral reasoning and conceptual  is,  and v a r i a b i l i l t y different  of  of c a p i t a l  that there i s l e s s than p e r f e c t correspondence  differences  answers  issue  this  sets of probing q u e s t i o n s .  that  That  less  basis  from the method employed by  assess the s t r u c t u r a l complexity  them.  the  which contained nine h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n f l i c t  corresponding  to  on  a  Third,  r a t i o n a l e f o r such an approach comes  Kohlberg  represents  in  a g r e a t e r range i n ages.  (1982) and has been d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . it  resulting  There  succeeding  integrated.  This  78  finding studies in  is  with  the  f i n d i n g s of other more d i r e c t  (e.g., Moran & Joniak, 1979;  press).  the  congruent  Rest,  1973;  Walker et a l . ,  The c o n t r o v e r s y , however, does not r e a l l y come from  hierarchy  claim.  hierarchy—the  notion  It  stems  from  a  claim  of  content  that some advanced stage i s more  "moral"  than that preceding i t . It should procedure,  be  mentioned,  although  useful  c o n s t r u c t s , f a i l s to  provide  c o n s t r u c t s are r e l a t e d .  however, in  that  examining  specific  the  the  correlation  r e l a t e d n e s s of  information  complexity operative  environment.  attempts in  the  how  Perhaps i t c o u l d be s a i d that reasoning  about moral i s s u e s r e p r e s e n t s a subset of the t o t a l decision-making  about  to  To  the  examine  total  extent  reasoning or  that conceptual  decision-making  processes  environment, perhaps i t c o u l d a l s o be  s a i d that moral reasoning i s a part of t h i s g r e a t e r  whole.  In  such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between moral reasoning and  conceptual  complexity  may  be  analogous  to a  c o r r e l a t i o n , d e s c r i b i n g domain s p e c i f i c ways of  part-whole  assessing  some  more g e n e r a l , yet i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Moral Reasoning  (Pro versus Con)  and A t t i t u d e towards C a p i t a l  Punishment Kohlberg has p r o v i d e d an e x t e n s i v e manual (Colby et a l . , i n press)  f o r the coding of reasoning about s e l e c t e d moral  of which c a p i t a l punishment i s one. based  on the responses  This  manual  sides  structure,  of and  primarily  from h i s l o n g i t u d i n a l sample, from which  he has been able to generate moral reasons both  is  issues,  all  issues.  not  the  These  content,  at  stages of  an  all are  stages based  individual's  for  on  the  moral  79  reasoning. judgments refers  Content  and b e h a v i o r a l  to  the  content.  is  to  one's  choices,  reasoning  Content  development. can  refers  that  a t t i t u d e s or b e l i e f s or  whereas underlies  irrelevant  in  and  In f a c t , opposing p o s i t i o n s regarding moral  would be of l i t t l e no  empirical  development much  judgments Thus,  t h e o r e t i c a l or s o c i a l  this of  issues  Thus,  form  However, the approach significance  if  there  r e l a t i o n s h i p between form and c o n t e n t .  The  of higher l e v e l s of moral reasoning would h a r d l y  consequence  aim  of  be  unless i t c o u l d be argued that i t produces  and behaviors that c o u l d be  an  form  stage  be defended at each stage of moral development.  were  or  justifies  determining  and content are c o n c e p t u a l l y independent.  of  structure  this  study  was  considered  more  moral.  to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between a t t i t u d e s toward c a p i t a l punishment  and l e v e l  of  moral  reasoning: between the form and content of moral r e a s o n i n g . Kohlberg and E l f e n b e i n a  study  with  30  males  and  almost a l l s u b j e c t s argued under  (1981) examined  t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p in  found that at Stage 3 and  that  capital  punishment  is  right  c e r t a i n circumstances; at Stage 4, s u b j e c t s were d i v i d e d ;  and at Stage 5, s u b j e c t s r e j e c t e d the use of c a p i t a l The  below,  results  of  demonstrate Kohlberg Elfenbein  a  and  such  Elfenbein  of  study,  as  (1981).  reported  Specifically,  used  an  exclusively  procedure  of  repeated  that  i n d i v i d u a l s ) , a now assessment  present  earlier,  s i m i l a r p a t t e r n while extending upon the work of  (1981)  questionable subjects  the  punishment.  105  data  points  male  sample  observations were  Kohlberg  (with the  on  single  presented  f o r 30  outdated moral stage s c o r i n g system, and  a t t i t u d e s regarding c a p i t a l punishment  and  an  by only a  80  single question. sample,  used  substantial  T h i s study  i n c l u d e d both men  and women i n  the most recent s c o r i n g manual ( i n c o r p o r a t i n g revisions  to  stage  definitions),  and  question)  and  continuous  c o r r e l a t i o n between the CPQ with  that  reported  substantiates opposition  the  to  and moral  by  and  finding  punishment  CPQ)  (i.e.,  measure.  reasoning  DeWolfe  previous  capital  (i.e.,  the  assessed  a t t i t u d e s toward c a p i t a l punishment by both a dichotomous single  the  is  The  consistent  Jackson  (1984)  indicating  and  increasing  with higher l e v e l s of moral  reason i ng. Thus, there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p content  of  moral  punishment.  reasoning,  Such a f i n d i n g  between  at l e a s t  the  form  and  the  i n the realm of c a p i t a l  i s congruent  with  those  of  other  s t u d i e s which i n d i c a t e that higher stages of moral reasoning are typically  associated  Emler, 1983; & Block, ways.  with  liberal  attitudes  (Candee,  F i s h k i n , Keniston, & MacKinnon, 1973;  1968).  T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p may  Haan,  be i n t e r p r e t e d  1976; Smith,  in several  For example, perhaps i t c o u l d be s a i d that w i t h i n student  populations  (the  subjects  in  all  of  the  cited  studies  a s s o c i a t i n g moral reasoning with l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e s ) there i s overrepresentation intuitive  appeal  curvilinear complexity  of the l i b e r a l until  one  relationship to  capital  the  pits  this  reported e a r l i e r punishment.  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s v o i d of any Perhaps  ideology.  liberal  relationship  T h i s has a c e r t a i n  finding  against  relating  Clearly,  this  latter  bias.  between a t t i t u d e s about  capital  the  of  i s , the  issue  of  the  integrative  punishment and moral reasoning i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the  an  c a p i t a l punishment i t s e l f .  That  nature two  81  s i d e s of the c a p i t a l punishment issue may be imbalanced; not a l l a l t e r n a t i v e p o i n t s of equally  well  view  known.  are  DeWolfe  equally  defensible,  and Jackson  many of the f a m i l i a r arguments thrown i n t o  or  (1984) suggest the  an  eye") i n c o n t r a s t  is  representative  Kohlberg's theory 1977).  This  A  of  a  with i t s focus  i s a more d i f f i c u l t  that cannot be discounted related  moral  reasoning  to  system,  the  way  position  substantiate  in  chosen  developmental  side  use a d i f f e r e n t  that,  level  versus the  somewhat  in  an  present  some  advanced,  of s u b j e c t s '  way, better  reasoning  than  (The weights are 3 and 2, from  that a stage represents  with the i m p l i c a t i o n that  own,  Within  i s more  on the nonchosen s i d e .  notion  findings.  their  implies  formulated, and more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  strays  defend,  which weights are a p p l i e d to the  on  This  in  was  reasoning  respectively).  bias  the realm of moral reasoning,  positions  reasoning  to  the present  nonchosen  is  ideological  too,  one  chosen and  the  Perhaps,  on i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s ( S u l l i v a n ,  opposing, p o s i t i o n on c a p i t a l punishment? scoring  "an eye  but  given  issue, within  liberal  a l s o addressed by t h i s study: Do s u b j e c t s of  in  to the upper l e v e l , more s o c i e t a l and  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o r i e n t e d arguments of o p p o s i t i o n . this  that  controversy  support of c a p i t a l punishment are at lower stages ( i . e . , for  even  the  cognitive-  a s t r u c t u r e d whole  i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l be c o n s i s t e n t and use  the same l e v e l of moral reasoning,  regardless  of the content and  context. The reasoning  a n a l y s i s reported used  by  e a r l i e r examined the l e v e l  subjects  of  moral  to both support and oppose c a p i t a l  punishment as a f u n c t i o n of t h e i r a t t i t u d e on  this  issue,  and  82  yielded  interesting  results.  d i s c u s s i o n , s u b j e c t s who  First,  r e l a t e d to the previous  oppose c a p i t a l  punishment  use  l e v e l s of moral reasoning o v e r a l l than do those who Equally  interesting,  attitude  toward  reasoning  in  however,  capital  to  drawn  from  always use higher moral position;  they  i t , than  d i f f e r e n c e of about o n e - t h i r d stage. implications  support i t .  i s that r e g a r d l e s s of s u b j e c t s '  punishment,  opposition  higher  in  higher  support  moral  of  i t ;a  Thus, i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n  Kohlberg's reasoning  use  system,  to  subjects  substantiate  do not  their  they use higher moral reasoning when opposing  to  own  capital  punishment, r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r chosen p o s i t i o n . T h i s r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s regarding scores  in  determining  procedures  for  weighting  o v e r a l l l e v e l of moral reasoning.  comment, though, must be somewhat q u a l i f i e d to the  extent  the measure of moral reasoning employed i n t h i s a n a l y s i s from that t y p i c a l l y used by Kohlberg The  important  addressed  similarity  and measured.  is  the  relationship  chosen  the  nonchosen  and  protocols  and  differences  other  are  a  positions  maintained  differs  that both s i d e s of the issue are  between  issues  that  i n ways a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d .  I t would be  investigate  This  reasoning on  (e.g., and/or  worthwhile  venture on  standard  both  to the  interview  a b o r t i o n ) to see i f these validate  the  weighting  regarding  the  cognitive-  procedure. This  also  developmental inherent  raises  assumption  i n Kohlberg's  questions of  stage model.  about o n e - t h i r d stage i s not differences  of  structured  up to two  in  wholeness  Although  itself  of  stages  the d i f f e r e n c e of  sufficiently  damaging,  stages were noted and over 23% of the  83  s u b j e c t s evidenced d i f f e r e n c e s i n stage. That  The  same  arguments  i s , perhaps the  imbalanced  where  moral  opposing  reasoning  of  at  least  presented before are v a l i d domain  of  capital  thought  staged  the  higher  opponents  punishment are more v i s i b l e and v e r b a l , s u p p l y i n g are  reproducible  but not n e c e s s a r i l y understood  s u b j e c t s whose reasoning might arguments  of  support.  is  arguments are more a c c e s s i b l e , more An extension of t h i s  that  here.  punishment  compelling and at higher stages. is  one  be  best  of  this  p o i n t to a l i b e r a l value b i a s i n Kohlberg's  of  capital  reasons  that  by lower  stage  represented  Additionally,  line  in  their  discrepancy might  theory and model.  Conclusion T h i s t h e s i s has addressed psychology.  Within  are  interrelated  issues  the realm of conceptual complexity,  been demonstrated that complexity  several  the  PCT  and  comparable--but  measures  of  in  i t has  integrative  not e q u i v a l e n t — a s s e s s m e n t s  of  the c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s an i n d i v i d u a l engages i n the p r o c e s s i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n . processes Schroder  of  They both adequately  differentiation  and o t h e r s ) , but d i f f e r  processes  are  situational  exposed  factors.  as It  and  expose  the  integration  i n the extent  a  function  of  is  suggested  (as proposed by to  and  the  issue  questionnaire. relationship; pattern  The the  (consistent  positions)  with  composition former  latter with extreme  on  that  the  yielded  yielded  a  previous attitudes  which  dispositional these  o p e r a t i v e f a c t o r s accounting f o r the d i f f e r e n t i a l PCT  complementary  no  are the  punishment  interpretable  significant,  relating  and  r e s u l t s of the  capital  research  these  and to  curvilinear theoretical conceptual  84  s i m p l i c i t y and more moderate a t t i t u d e s complexity.  of  to  increasing  Just as Suedfeld and others have demonstrated that  endogenous and extraneous level  relating  complexity,  s t r e s s can i n f l u e n c e  it  i s proposed  an  individual's  that i s s u e s a l i e n c e and  p e r s o n a l c o n v i c t i o n can f u n c t i o n i n a s i m i l a r c a p a c i t y . The  r e l a t i o n s h i p between conceptual  complexity  reasoning was a l s o examined, y i e l d i n g , as expected, high  correlation.  best i n t e r p r e t e d superordinate  I t i s suggested by  considering  classification  and  a moderately  that t h i s r e s u l t  conceptual  system  moral  i s perhaps  complexity  as  a  of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g  w i t h i n which c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the moral domain are embedded. One p a r t i c u l a r aspect of t h i s moral domain examined i n t h i s study  was  capital  research,  punishment.  i t was found  moral reasoning.  Consistent  they  issue.  Moreover, s u b j e c t s , when j u s t i f y i n g o p p o s i t i o n  supported  This  procedure moral  latter  higher  moral  reasoning  than  i t , r e g a r d l e s s of chosen p o s i t i o n on the finding  calls  into  question  Kohlberg's  f o r weighting scores i n determining o v e r a l l l e v e l of  reasoning,  assumption together  previous  that o p p o s i t i o n i n c r e a s e s with stage of  to c a p i t a l punishment, evidenced when  with  as  well  as  of s t r u c t u r e d whole. provide  the  basis  the  cognitive-developmental  Furthermore, f o r some  the f i n d i n g s  interesting  regarding the nature of m o r a l i t y i n general and  the  taken  questions nature  of  m o r a l i t y as d e f i n e d by Kohlberg. This  thesis  i s by no means the d e f i n i t i v e work about the  i s s u e s i n , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between, c o n c e p t u a l / i n t e g r a t i v e complexity, punishment.  moral  reasoning,  and  attitudes  I t does, however, address  toward  capital  some b a s i c dimensions of  85  these  separate,  provocative  yet  questions.  related  theories,  and  generate  some  86  References Adorno, R. , Frenkel-Brunswick, E., Levinson, D. , & Sanford, R. (1950).  The a u t h o r i t a r i a n p e r s o n a l i t y .  A l l p o r t , G. W.  (1958).  NJ: Doubleday Bieri,  J.  The nature of p r e j u d i c e .  Harper.  Garden C i t y ,  Anchor.  (1968).  inconsistent  New York:  C o g n i t i v e complexity and judgment of  information.  W. J . McGuire,  In R. P. Abelson, E. Aronson,  T. M. Newcomb, M. J . Rosenberg, &  P. H. Tannenbaum (Eds.), T h e o r i e s of c o g n i t i v e c o n s i s t e n c y (pp. 633-640). Bieri,  J.  Chicago: Rand McNally.  (1969).  Category width as a measure of  discrimination. Bieri,  J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y , 37, 513-521.  J . , A t k i n s , A. L., B r i a r , S., Leaman, R. L., M i l l e r , H.,  & T r i p o d i , T.  (1966).  Clinical  and s o c i a l  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of b e h a v i o r a l i n f o r m a t i o n . B l a s i , A.  (1980).  critical  judgment: The New York: Wiley.  B r i d g i n g moral c o g n i t i o n and moral a c t i o n : A  review of the l i t e r a t u r e .  Psychological  Bulletin,  88, 1-45. Candee, D.  (1976).  S t r u c t u r e and c h o i c e i n moral reasoning.  J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology, 34, 1293-1301. C a r r o l l , J . , & Rest, J .  (1982).  B. Wolman & G. S t r i e k e r psychology  Moral development.  In  (Eds.), Handbook of developmental  (pp. 434-451).  Englewood C l i f f s , NJ: P r e n t i c e -  Hall. Colby, A., Kohlberg, L., Gibbs, J . , Candee, D., Speicher-Dubin, B., Kauffman, K., Hewer, A., & Power, C.  (in press).  The  measurement of moral judgment: A manual and i t s r e s u l t s . York: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .  New  87  Colby, A., Kohlberg, L., Gibbs, J . , & Lieberman, l o n g i t u d i n a l study of moral judgment. Society  M.  (1983).  A  Monographs of the  f o r Research i n C h i l d Development, 48(1-2,  Serial  No.  200). DeWolfe, T. E., & Jackson, L. A.  (1984).  B i r d s of a b r i g h t e r  f e a t h e r : L e v e l of moral reasoning and s i m i l a r i t y of a t t i t u d e as determinants of i n t e r p e r s o n a l a t t r a c t i o n .  Psychological  Reports, 54, 303-308. Emler, N.  (1983).  dimension  M o r a l i t y and p o l i t i c s :  The i d e o l o g i c a l  i n the theory of moral development.  H. Weinreich-Haste & D. Locke  (Eds.), M o r a l i t y  Thought, a c t i o n , and the s o c i a l context (pp. Chichester, Falconer,  In i n the making: 47-71).  England: Wiley.  R. D.  (1973).  Moral judgments:  A methodological  study, u t i l i z i n g  Kohlberg's moral dilemmas and  repertory g r i d .  Unpublished master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of  New  Brunswick,  Fredericton,  F i s h k i n , J . , Keniston, K., reasoning and p o l i t i c a l S o c i a l Psychology, 27, F l a v e l l , J . H.  (1968).  communication Gibbs, J . C , Measuring  Bieri's  NB.  & MacKinnon, C. ideology.  (1973).  Journal  Moral  of P e r s o n a l i t y and  109-119. The development  s k i l l s in children.  & Widaman, K. F. the development  New  (1982).  of r o l e - t a k i n g and York: W i l e y . Social intelligence:  of sociomoral r e f l e c t i o n .  Englewood C l i f f s , NJ: P r e n t i c e - H a l l . Guttman, L.  (1950).  The b a s i s f o r scalogram a n a l y s i s .  In  S. A. S t o u f f e r , L. Guttman, E. A. Suchman, P. F. L a z a r s f e l d , S. A. S t a r , & J . A. Gardner  (Eds.), Measurement and  88  prediction  (pp. 60-90).  P r i n c e t o n , NJ: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y  Press. Haan, N.,  Smith, M. B.,  & Block, J .  (1968).  Moral reasoning of  young a d u l t s : P o l i t i c a l - s o c i a l behavior, family and p e r s o n a l i t y c o r r e l a t e s . Social  Psychology,  10,  background,  J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y  and  183-201.  Harvey, 0. J . , Hunt, D. E., & Schroder, H. N.  (1961).  Conceptual systems and p e r s o n a l i t y development.  New  York:  Wiley. Kelly,  G. A.  (1955).  The psychology of p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s : A  theory of p e r s o n a l i t y Kogan, N.  (1979).  people. Kogan, N.  ( V o l . 1).  Beliefs,  New  York:  Norton.  a t t i t u d e s and s t e r o e t y p e s about o l d  Research on Aging, J_, 11-36. (1979).  A study of age c a t e g o r i z a t i o n .  J o u r n a l of  Gerontology, 34, 358-367. Kogan, N.  (1982).  people. (pp.  Research on b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s about o l d  In G. Gutman (Ed.), Canada's changing age  297-325).  Kohlberg, L.  Burnaby, BC: SFU  (1969).  Publications.  Stage and sequence:  developmental approach to s o c i a l i z a t i o n . (Ed.), Handbook of s o c i a l i z a t i o n (pp. 347-480). Kohlberg, L. development  structure  The  cognitive-  In D. A. G o s l i n  theory and r e s e a r c h  Chicago: Rand McNally.  (1973).  C o n t i n u i t i e s i n c h i l d h o o d and a d u l t  revisited.  In P. B. B a l t e s & K. W.  Schaie  (Eds.), L i f e - s p a n developmental psychology: P e r s o n a l i t y socialization Kohlberg, L.  (pp. '179-204).  (1976).  New  and  York: Academic P r e s s .  Moral stages and m o r a l i z a t i o n :  c o g n i t i v e - d e v e l o p m e n t a l approach.  moral  The  In T. Lickona (Ed.), Moral  89  development (pp.  and behavior: Theory, research, and s o c i a l  31-53).  Kohlberg, L.  New  York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston.  (1978).  Humanist,  issues  Moral education r e a p p r a i s e d .  The  38(6), 13-15.  Kohlberg, L.  (1981).  Essays on moral development:  philosophy of moral development Harper &  ( V o l . 1).  The  San F r a n c i s c o :  Row.  Kohlberg, L., & E l f e n b e i n , D. moral development,  (1981).  Capital  and the c o n s t i t u t i o n .  punishment,  In L. Kohlberg,  Essays on moral development: The p h i l o s o p h y of moral development  ( V o l . 1, pp. 243-293).  San F r a n c i s c o : Harper &  Row. L i k e r t , R.  (1932).  attitudes. Linville,  P.  A technique f o r the measurement of  A r c h i v e s of Psychology, 140, (1982).  based s t e r e o t y p i n g . Psychology, 42, Linville,  P.  The c o m p l e x i t y - e x t r e m i t y e f f e c t and ageJ o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and  A f f e c t i v e consequences of complexity  r e g a r d i n g the s e l f and o t h e r s . (Eds.), A f f e c t and c o g n i t i o n :  Linville,  P.,  In M. S. C l a r k & S. T. F i s k e 17th Annual Carnegie Symposium  H i l l s d a l e , NJ: Erlbaum.  & Jones, E.  group members.  Social  193-211.  (in press).  on C o g n i t i o n .  1-55.  (1980).  P o l a r i z e d a p p r a i s a l s of out-  J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology,  38, 689-703. Loevinger, J . development.  (1966).  The meaning and measurement of ego  American P s y c h o l o g i s t , 21, 195-206.  Moran, J . J . , & J o n i a k , A. J .  (1979).  E f f e c t of language on  p r e f e r e n c e f o r responses to a moral dilemma.  Developmental  90  Psychology, Nisan, M.,  15, 337-338.  & Kohlberg, L.  in moral  (1982).  U n i v e r s a l i t y and  variation  judgment: A l o n g i t u d i n a l and c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l  in Turkey.  study  C h i l d Development, 53, 865-876.  Osgood, C. E., S u c i , G. J . , & Tannenbaum, P. H. measurement of meaning.  (1957).  Urbana, IL: U n i v e r s i t y of  The  Illinois  Press. P a l y s , T.  (1981).  C a p i t a l punishment q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  Unpublished manuscript, Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , Burnaby, Piaget, J .  (i960).  The g e n e r a l problems of the  p s y c h o b i o l o g i c a l development of the c h i l d .  In J . M. Tanner &  B. Inhelder (Eds.), D i s c u s s i o n on c h i l d development pp. 3-27).  BC.  ( V o l . 4,  London: T a v i s t o c k .  P h i l l i p s , D.  (1980).  punishment: New  The d e t e r r e n t e f f e c t of c a p i t a l  evidence on an o l d c o n t r o v e r s y .  J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y , 80, P o r t e r , C. A.,  & Suedfeld, P.  in the correspondence  Amer ican  139-148. (1981).  of l i t e r a r y  p e r s o n a l and s o c i e t a l s t r e s s .  I n t e g r a t i v e complexity  f i g u r e s : E f f e c t s of  J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y  and  S o c i a l Psychology, 40, 321-330. P r i n c e t o n manual g u i d e l i n e s . Princeton Rawls, J .  (undated).  P r i n c e t o n , NJ:  University.  (1971).  A theory of j u s t i c e .  Cambridge, MA:  Harvard  U n i v e r s i t y Press. Rest, J . R.  (1973).  The h i e r a r c h i c a l nature of moral  A study of p a t t e r n s of comprehension stages. Rest, J . R.  judgment:  and p r e f e r e n c e of moral  J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y , 41, 86-109. (1979).  Development i n judging moral  issues.  91  Minneapolis: Rokeach, M. Free  U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota  (1973).  Press.  The nature of human v a l u e s .  New York:  Press.  Rosenberg, M. J . , & Hovland, C. I. a f f e c t i v e , and b e h a v i o r a l  (1960).  Cognitive,  components of a t t i t u d e s .  In  M. J . Rosenberg, C. I. Hovland, W. J . McGuire, R. P. Abelson, & J . W. Brehm (Eds.), A t t i t u d e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n a l y s i s of c o n s i s t e n c y 14).  among a t t i t u d e components.  New Haven, CT: Yale U n i v e r s i t y  S e l l i n , T.  (1959).  and change: An (pp.  1-  Press.  The death p e n a l t y .  P h i l a d e l p h i a : American  Law I n s t i t u t e . Schroder, H. M., D r i v e r , M. J . , & S t r e u f e r t , S. information  processing.  (1967).  Human  New York: H o l t , Rinehart and  Winston. S c o t t , W. A.  (1962).  flexibility. S c o t t , W. A.  Cognitive  complexity and c o g n i t i v e  Soc iometry, 25, 405-414.  (1969).  Structure  of n a t u r a l c o g n i t i o n s .  Journal  of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology, 12, 261-278. Selman, R. L.  (1976).  to e d u c a t i o n a l  S o c i a l - c o g n i t i v e understanding: A guide  and c l i n i c a l p r a c t i c e .  In T. Lickona  Moral development and behavior: Theory, r e s e a r c h , issues  (pp. 299-316).  New York: H o l t , Rinehart  S t r e u f e r t , S., & S t r e u f e r t , S. C. complex environment. Suedfeld,  P.  (1978).  democracy  and s o c i a l  and Winston.  Behavior i n the  Washington, DC: Winston. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of d e c i s i o n making as a  f u n c t i o n of the environment. F. F i e l d l e r  (1978).  (Ed.),  In B. King, S. S t r e u f e r t , &  (Eds.), Managerial c o n t r o l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  (pp. 203-213).  Toronto: Wiley.  92  S u e d f e l d , P.  (in press).  I n t i m a t i o n s of m o r t a l i t y :  s i m p l i f i c a t i o n as a p r e c u r s o r of death. P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l S u e d f e l d , P., Long-term  J o u r n a l of  Psychology.  & Rank, A. D.  (1976).  Revolutionary leaders:  success as a f u n c t i o n of changes i n c o n c e p t u a l  complexity. 34,  Integrative  J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l  Psychology,  169-178.  Suedfeld, P.,  & T e t l o c k , P.  communications  I n t e g r a t i v e complexity of  in i n t e r n a t i o n a l c r i s e s .  R e s o l u t i o n , 21, Suedfeld, P.,  (1977).  J o u r n a l of C o n f l i c t  169-184.  T e t l o c k , P.,  & Ramirez, C.  (1977).  War,  peace  and i n t e g r a t i v e complexity: United Nations speeches on the Middle East problem.  J o u r n a l of C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n ,  21,  427-442. S u l l i v a n , E. V.  (1977).  A study of Kohlberg's  theory of moral development: science ideology.  social  & Stager, M.  (1970).  A  study of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o n c e p t u a l ,  ego, and moral development. T e t l o c k , P. E.  A c r i t i q u e of l i b e r a l  Human Development, 20, 352-376.  S u l l i v a n , E. V., McCullough, G., developmental  structural  (1981).  C h i l d Development, 41, 399-411.  Pre- to p o s t e l e c t i o n s h i f t s i n  p r e s i d e n t i a l r h e t o r i c : Impression management or c o g n i t i v e adjustment?  J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l  Psychology,  41 , 207-212. T e t l o c k , P. E. thought.  (1983a).  A c c o u n t a b i l i t y and complexity of  J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology,  74-83. T e t l o c k , P. E.  (1983b).  C o g n i t i v e s t y l e and  political  45,  93  ideology.  J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology,  45,  118-126. T e t l o c k , P. E. systems  (1984).  C o g n i t i v e s t y l e and p o l i t i c a l  i n the B r i t i s h House of Commons.  belief  J o u r n a l of  P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology, 46, 365-375. Thurstone, L. L., & Chane, E. J . attitude. UBC  (1929).  The measurement of  Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s .  g u i d e l i n e s f o r the s c o r i n g of conceptual and complexity,  "(undated)..  Vancouver,  integrative  BC: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia. Vidmar, N.,  & E l l s w o r t h , P.  death p e n a l t y . Walker,  L. J .  (1974).  S t a n f o r d Law  (1980).  P u b l i c o p i n i o n and the  Review, 26,  C o g n i t i v e and  1245-1270.  perspective-taking  p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r moral development.  C h i l d Development, 51,  131-139. Walker, of  L. J .  (1982).  The  moral development.  Walker,  L. J .  C h i l d Development, 53,  (in press).  model and the r e l i a b i l i t y In  s e q u e n t i a l i t y of Kohlberg's stages  The v a l i d i t y of the moral stage of the moral  judgment  L. Kohlberg & D. Candee (Eds.), Research  development. Walker,  Cambridge, MA:  L. J . , de V r i e s , B.,  Zajonc, R. B.  i n moral  & B i c h a r d , S.  (in press).  The  development.  Psychology.  (1960).  communication.  interview.  Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .  h e i r a r c h i c a l nature of stages of moral Developmental  1330-1336.  The process of c o g n i t i v e tuning i n  J o u r n a l of Abnormal and S o c i a l  Psychology,  61_, 159-167. Zimbardo,  P.,  Ebbesen,  E., & Maslach, C.  (1977).  Influencing  94  a t t i t u d e s and changing Addi son-Wesley.  behavior  (2nd e d . ) .  Don M i l l s ,  ON:  95  Footnote 1  was  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , s i n c e a moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p  hypothesized,  i t i s appropriate  in f a c t , what was accounting•for significant.  achieved.  to determine that t h i s i s ,  "Moderate" i s d e f i n e d here as  l e s s than 50% of the v a r i a n c e , but Testing for this entailed  c o r r e l a t i o n with one  variance  ( i . e . , a "strong" r e l a t i o n s h i p ) .  used in t h i s comparison.  transformation, -4.14, 2 < .001. integrative  still  the comparison of  obtained  was  i s what  accounting  for 50%  or more of  the  A c o e f f i c i e n t of  .71  Employing the F i s h e r  the r e s u l t a n t  the  Z-  n o r m a l l y - d i s t r i b u t e d Z value  was  Thus, the c o r r e l a t i o n between conceptual  and  complexity  can be s a i d to be moderate as i t i s  significantly  greater than a n u l l r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  significantly  l e s s than one  considered  to be  but  strong.  Appendix A  Test M a t e r i a l s  97  T h i s study a s s e s s e s the way i n which people d e s c r i b e p e r c e p t i o n s o f , or f e e l i n g s toward, s p e c i f i c will  social  their  issues.  You  be asked to perform v a r i o u s tasks throughout t h i s b o o k l e t :  w r i t e a couple sentences i n response to a word or phrase, w r i t e s e v e r a l paragraphs, complete a q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  The aim of t h i s  study i s to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p among these t a s k s . Please respond to a l l of the s e c t i o n s as completely as you can; however, you a r e f r e e to refuse to respond to any of the s e c t i o n s or to answer any of the q u e s t i o n s .  I f you complete  t h i s b o o k l e t , i t w i l l be assumed that your consent to participate  i n t h i s study has been g i v e n .  p a r t i c i p a t e or withdrawal at any time w i l l c l a s s standing i n any way. hour to complete.  R e f u s a l to not i n f l u e n c e your  T h i s booklet should take about one  Please complete  the s e c t i o n s i n the order i n  which they appear, without l o o k i n g forward through the b o o k l e t . All  i n f o r m a t i o n that you p r o v i d e w i l l  confidential.  Please complete - Sex:  M  Thank you f o r your  be kept completely  participation.  the f o l l o w i n g :  F  - Age ( i n y e a r s ) : - Number of years of post-secondary study:  98  Section I On each of the f o l l o w i n g pages, p l e a s e complete the sentence which  i s begun f o r you and then w r i t e at lease one more  sentence on the t o p i c .  A f t e r t h a t , you may--if you w i s h — w r i t e  two or three more sentences i f time p e r m i t s . TURN THE PAGE UNTIL ASKED TO DO SO.  PLEASE, DO NOT  99  When I am c r i t i c i z e d ...  PLEASE DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL ASKED TO DO SO.  100  Rules . . .  PLEASE DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL ASKED TO DO SO.  101  When I don't know what to do ...  PLEASE DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL ASKED TO DO SO.  102  Confusion  .. .  PLEASE DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL ASKED TO DO SO.  103  Policemen  .. .  PLEASE DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL ASKED TO DO SO.  1 04  When a f r i e n d a c t s d i f f e r e n t l y  towards me ...  PLEASE DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL ASKED TO DO SO.  105  S e c t i o n II The  execution of c r i m i n a l s f o r committing  s e r i o u s crimes or  o f f e n c e s , has been, and remains, a c o n t r o v e r s i a l t o p i c and i t s a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s has been i n t e n s e l y debated f o r many years i n many c o u n t r i e s .  The aim of t h i s study  i s to examine and  document the v a r i e t y of o p i n i o n s that e x i s t t o p i c of c a p i t a l punishment. requested  in relation  to t h i s  Towards such an end, you are  to w r i t e a b r i e f composition  ( i . e . f i v e to ten  paragraphs) d i s c u s s i n g the issue of c a p i t a l punishment as you p e r c e i v e i t . Please present your o p i n i o n and a t t i t u d e towards c a p i t a l punishment and i n c l u d e d i s c u s s i o n of any f a c t o r s that you c o n s i d e r r e l e v a n t .  Because t h i s t o p i c  i s a matter of  o p i n i o n , there a r e no r i g h t or wrong answers. Please begin w r i t i n g now.  Please use the remainder of t h i s  page and as much of the f o l l o w i n g two pages [two blank pages followed] as you r e q u i r e to w r i t e t h i s composition. take about 20 minutes to complete t h i s task.  You should  106  [The order of S e c t i o n s III and  IV was  counterbalanced.]  concerned  with a general  S e c t i o n III The  p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n was  d i s c u s s i o n of your o p i n i o n and a t t i t u d e towards c a p i t a l punishment. only one  T h i s s e c t i o n i s more s p e c i f i c a l l y concerned  s i d e of t h i s  i s s u e ; that i s , you are requested  p r o v i d e as many reasons  as you can think of to support  of c a p i t a l punishment.  Please e x p l a i n your reasons  (especially take about  why  to the  use  fully  you think' these reasons are important).  Please  10 minutes to complete t h i s s e c t i o n using the  remainder of t h i s page and followed].  with  the f o l l o w i n g page [one blank page  107  Section Now  IV adopt the other s i d e of t h i s  provide as many reasons c a p i t a l punishment. fully  ( e s p e c i a l l y why  i s s u e ; that i s , please  as you can think of to oppose the use of  Once again, p l e a s e e x p l a i n your you think these reasons  are  reasons  important).  Please take about 10 minutes to complete t h i s s e c t i o n using the remainder of t h i s page and followed].  the f o l l o w i n g page [one blank page  108  Section V L i s t e d below are a number of statements of o p i n i o n regarding c a p i t a l punishment.  Please read each statement and  then i n d i c a t e the extent to which you agree or d i s a g r e e with that statement by c i r c l i n g one of the numbers from -3 to +3 to the l e f t  of the statement, a c c o r d i n g to the f o l l o w i n g -3 -2 -1 00 +1 +2 +3  Because  = = = = = = =  scale:  strongly disagree moderately d i s a g r e e s l i g h t l y disagree n e u t r a l , or no o p i n i o n s l i g h t l y agree moderately agree s t r o n g l y agree  the statements are matters of o p i n i o n , there are no  r i g h t or wrong answers.  You w i l l probably f i n d that you agree  with some statements and d i s a g r e e with o t h e r s .  -3 -2 -1 00 +1  +2 +3  I f e e l that c a p i t a l punishment use in s o c i e t y .  has no  -3 -2 -1 00 +1  +2 +3  Each s e r i o u s o f f e n c e must be d e a l t with i n d i v i d u a l l y to decide whether c a p i t a l punishment should be used.  -3 -2 -1 00 +1 +2 +3  People who agree with c a p i t a l are s a d i s t i c .  -3 -2 -1 00 +1  +2 +3  C a p i t a l punishment puts the c o n t r o l of who s h a l l l i v e and d i e i n the hands of imperfect humans.  -3 -2 -1 00 +1  +2 +3  C a p i t a l punishment  -3-2-1  +2 +3  The "common good" r e q u i r e s that dangerous and v i o l e n t persons be destroyed.  -3 -2 -1 00 +1  +2 +3  C a p i t a l punishment i s the same as murdering a person.  -3 -2 -1 00 +1  +2 +3  C a p i t a l punishment i s u s e f u l i n some s o c i e t i e s but not i n o t h e r s .  -3 -2 -1 00 +1  +2 +3  Whether c a p i t a l punishment i s e n f o r c e d should depend on the circumstances of the i n d i v i d u a l case.  00+1  protects  punishment  society.  109  -3 -2 -1 00 +1 +2 +3  = = = = = = =  s t r o n g l y disagree moderately disagree s l i g h t l y disagree n e u t r a l , or no opinion s l i g h t l y agree moderately agree s t r o n g l y agree  -3 -2 -1  00 +1  +2  +3  C a p i t a l punishment i s an unjust method of d e a l i n g with c o n v i c t e d f e l o n s .  -3 -2 -1  00 +1  +2  +3  C a p i t a l punishment has no p l a c e i n a c i v i l i z e d society.  -3 -2 -1  00 +1  +2  +3  C a p i t a l punishment i s necessary out the scum of s o c i e t y .  -3 -2 -1 00 +1  +2  +3  C a p i t a l punishment i s n ' t p l e a s a n t , but n e i t h e r are the people who would be receiving i t .  -3 -2 -1  00 +1  +2  +3  C a p i t a l punishment i s a f a i r and j u s t way of d e a l i n g with s o c i e t y ' s worst offenders.  -3 -2 -1  00 +1  +2  +3  If we allow c a p i t a l punishment, some innocent people w i l l i n e v i t a b l y be killed.  -3 -2 -1  00 +1  +2  +3  C a p i t a l punishment e l i m i n a t e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and treatment, which should be the aims of sentenc i n g .  -3 -2 -1  00 +1  +2  +3  The k i l l i n g of another person i s b a s i c a l l y wrong and should never be done, even by the s t a t e .  -3 -2 -1  00 +1  +2  +3  C a p i t a l punishment for barbaric.  -3 -2 -1  00 +1  +2  +3  Murderers and executed.  -3 -2 -1  00 +1  +2  +3  C a p i t a l punishment should not be used under any circumstances.  -3 -2 -1 00 +1  +2  +3  Murderers should be murdered.  -3 -2 -1 00 +1  +2  +3  Capital  -3 -2 -1  +2  +3  An eye f o r an eye; people who o t h e r s should be k i l l e d .  00 +1  any  to c l e a r  reason i s  r a p i s t s deserve  to be  punishment i s a necessary kill  evil.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0096288/manifest

Comment

Related Items