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Growth, change, and land use patterning in strip commercial districts : a Vancouver case study Hudema, Blake Boyd 1984

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GROWTH, CHANGE, AND LAND USE PATTERNING IN STRIP COMMERCIAL DISTRICTS: A VANCOUVER CASE STUDY by BLAKE BOYD HUDEMA B.A., University Of Alberta, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School Of Community And Regional Planning We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1984 © Blake Boyd Hudema, 1984 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . S c h o o l O f C o m m u n i t y A n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2 0 7 5 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V 6 T 1W5 D a t e : J u n e 1 9 8 4 i i A b s t r a c t T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o g a i n a n i m p r o v e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s t r u c t u r e , d y n a m i c s a n d p l a n n i n g o f l a n d -u s e i n o f f - c e n t e r c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p d i s t r i c t s . I n t h e p u r s u i t o f t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s , t h i s t h e s i s c o m b i n e s a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w w i t h a c a s e s t u d y o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d u s e s o n C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y A v e n u e i n V a n c o u v e r . T h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i s d i v i d e d i n t o t w o s e g m e n t s . T h e o p e n i n g s e c t i o n a d d r e s s e s i s s u e s o f g e n e r a l l a n d - u s e , c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e , a n d t h e n f o c u s e s o n s t r i p c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s i n a n i n n e r c i t y c o n t e x t . A f t e r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e s t r u c t u r a l b a s i s f o r t h e t h e s i s , t h e r e m a i n i n g l i t e r a t u r e a d d r e s s e s t h e t o p i c s o f g r o w t h , c h a n g e a n d t h e p a t t e r n i n g o f l a n d - u s e . T h e d i s c u s s i o n l o o k s a t i n v a s i o n a n d s u c c e s s i o n a s w e l l • a s i n t e r n a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f l a n d - u s e s a s t e m p o r a l a s p e c t s o f l a n d - u s e . I n t e r m s o f l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n i n g , i s s u e s o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y , l i n k a g e s , a n d e x t e r n a l e c o n o m i e s a r e e x p l o r e d . I t i s c o n c l u d e d f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e , t h a t h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s e s o f g r o w t h a n d c h a n g e a s w e l l a s f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s a s d e f i n e d b y l i n k a g e s a n d e x t e r n a l e c o n o m i e s a r e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n s w i t h i n c o m m m e r c i a l s t r i p d i s t r i c t s . T h e c a s e s t u d y a p p l i e s s ome o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s a d d r e s s e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h r e e s t a t i s t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s , t h e M a r k o v t r a n s i t i o n p r o b a b i l i t y m a t r i x , t h e n e a r e s t - n e i g h b o u r a n a l y s i s , a n d t h e c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s a r e u s e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e g r o w t h , c h a n g e a n d s p a t i a l p r o x i m i t i e s / a f f i n i t i e s o f l a n d - u s e s . T h e s t u d y a r e a c o n s i s t s o f e i g h t e e n c o m m e r c i a l b l o c k s o f C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y A v e n u e i n t h e i n n e r c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . T h e d a t a b a s e u s e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s w a s c o m p r i s e d o f t h e l o c a t i o n s a n d t y p e s o f u s e s f o r a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s f r o n t i n g o n B r o a d w a y i n f i v e - y e a r i n t e r v a l s f r o m 1951 t o 1 9 8 1 . A n u m b e r o f c o n c l u s i o n s b e c o m e e v i d e n t f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w a n d c a s e s t u d y . F i r s t , i t w a s o b s e r v e d t h a t p l a n n i n g a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r , l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l h a s p l a y e d a l i m i t e d r o l e i n c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e d i s t r i c t s . I t i s o b s e r v e d t h a t p l a n n e r s h a v e b e e n h e s i t a n t t o i n t e r v e n e i n w h a t h a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n a m a r k e t a s p e c t o f t h e u r b a n e c o n o m y . S e c o n d , B r o a d w a y h a s e v o l v e d f r o m a l o w - o r d e r , c o n v e n i e n c e - n a t u r e d c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p t o a d i v e r s e a n d h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d c o m m e r c i a l c o m p l e x o f r e t a i l , s e r v i c e a n d o f f i c e u s e s . T h i r d , a s o b s e r v e d f r o m t h e M a r k o v m a t r i x , t h e a n a l y s i s w a s a b l e t o d e m o n s t r a t e s t a b i l i t i e s o f l o c a t i o n s . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t d e c a d e , 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 6 1 , e s t a b l i s h m e n t s g e n e r a l l y r e m a i n e d a t o n e l o c a t i o n l o n g e r t h a n w a s t h e c a s e o v e r t h e d e c a d e 1 9 7 1 - 1 9 8 1 . F o u r t h , v a r i o u s l i k e u s e s , a s d e f i n e d b y t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c h e m e , c l u s t e r a m o n g t h e m s e l v e s , w h i l e o t h e r u s e s e x h i b i t p a t t e r n s o f r e g u l a r i t y a n d r a n d o m d i s t r i b u t i o n . F i f t h , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t u s e s , i n d i c a t e s t h a t c e r t a i n u s e s a r e l o c a t e d i n p r o x i m i t y t o o t h e r u s e s w i t h m o r e r e g u l a r i t y t h a n c o u l d b e e x p l a i n e d b y r a n d o m p r o b a b i l i t y . I n t h e c a s e s t u d y , t h e l o c a t i o n o f r e t a i l a n d s e r v i c e u s e s i n a n d a r o u n d o f f i c e u s e s s u g g e s t s a s p i n - o f f e f f e c t b y o f f i c e d e v e l o p m e n t o n t o t h e o t h e r t w o c o m m m e r c i a l u s e s . F i n a l l y , i t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y , w i t h i n t h e b o u n d s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a i s c o m p o s e d o f f i v e d i s t i n c t s e g m e n t s , r a n g i n g f r o m a l o w d e n s i t y , r e t a i l s e c t i o n t o a m u l t i - s t o r e y o f f i c e n o d e . I t i s a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e " b l a n k e t " l a n d u s e c o n t r o l i n p l a c e may i v b e i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n l i g h t o f t h e s e d e l i n e a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . T h e i m p l i c a t i o n s t o p l a n n i n g a r e a d d r e s s e d f r o m b o t h a n a c a d e m i c a n d a p r a c t i c a l s t a n d p o i n t . F r o m a n a c a d e m i c v i e w p o i n t , c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e s h o u l d b e v i e w e d a s a n a g g r e g a t e o f s t r u c t u r e s a n d a c t i v i t i e s , c o n t i n u a l l y c h a n g i n g , b u t s t i l l a r r a n g e d i n t o p a t t e r n s o f l a n d - u s e . On t h e p r a c t i c a l s i d e , l a n d -u s e r e g u l a t i o n s s h o u l d r e f l e c t c o n t e m p o r a r y t r e n d s a n d p a t t e r n s o f l a n d - u s e . P l a n n e r s s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e t h e m a r k e t f o r c e s a t w o r k i n c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s a n d w o r k w i t h t h e s e i n g u i d i n g a n d c o n t r o l l i n g c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t . V T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S A B S T R A C T i i L I S T OF F I G U R E S v i i L I S T OF MAPS v i i i A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S i x C H A P T E R 1 P R O B L E M S T A T E M E N T AND BACKGROUND 1.1 P r o b l e m S t a t e m e n t 1 1 . 2 R e l e v a n c e 6 1.3 T h e s i s O b j e c t i v e s 7 1 .4 C a s e S t u d y A r e a 7 1 . 5 M e t h o d s 9 1.6 T h e s i s O r g a n i z a t i o n 11 C H A P T E R 2 L A N D U S E T H E O R Y AND C O N T E X T 2 .1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 14 2 . 2 G e n e r a l i z e d L a n d U s e T h e o r y 14 2 . 3 C o m m e r c i a l L a n d U s e T h e o r y 17 2 . 4 S t r i p C o m m e r c i a l D i s t r i c t s 22 2 . 5 I n n e r C i t y C o n t e x t 32 2 . 6 S u m m a r y 34 C H A P T E R 3 L A N D U S E D Y N A M I C S 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 36 3 . 2 L a n d U s e G r o w t h 37 3 . 3 C h a n g e i n L a n d U s e s 39 3 . 3 . 1 R e d e v e l o p m e n t 40 3 . 4 L a n d U s e P a t t e r n i n g 42 3 . 4 . 1 A c c e s s i b i l i t y 43 3 . 4 . 2 L i n k a g e s a n d E x t e r n a l E c o n o m i e s . . 44 3 . 4 . 3 S p a t i a l P r o x i m i t y 4 9 3 . 5 Z o n i n g R e g u l a t i o n s 55 3 . 6 S u m m a r y 61 C H A P T E R 4 C A S E S T U D Y : C E N T R A L BROADWAY 4 .1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 64 4 . 2 H i s t o r i c a l D e s c r i p t i o n 64 4 . 3 P l a n n i n g R e g u l a t i o n o n B r o a d w a y 71 4 . 4 M a r k e t R e v i e w 7 5 4 . 5 A n a l y s i s o f t h e R e s u l t s 78 4 . 5 . 1 P r e a m b l e 78 4 . 5 . 2 G r o w t h a n d C h a n g e 78 4 . 5 . 3 M a r k o v A n a l y s i s 8 6 4 . 5 . 4 L a n d U s e P a t t e r n i n g 9 5 4 . 5 . 5 C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s 111 v i C H A P T E R 5 C O N C L U S I O N S AND I M P L I C A T I O N S FOR P L A N N I N G 5 . 1 C o n c l u s i o n s 117 5 . 2 L i m i t a t i o n s 122 5 . 3 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P l a n n i n g 122 5 . 4 F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 124 B I B L I O G R A P H Y 126 A P P E N D I C E S A D a t a A . 1 D a t a S o u r c e s 140 A . 2 D a t a F o r m a t 144 A . 3 D a t a C o d i n g 144 B M e t h o d s B . 1 M a r k o v C h a i n s 146 B . 2 N e a r e s t - N e i g h b o u r A n a l y s i s 147 B . 3 C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s 150 C C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r B y - L a w S e c t i o n s C . 1 C - 2 a n d C - 3 o f B y - L a w # 3 5 7 5 153 C . 2 C - 3 A o f B y - L a w # 3 5 7 5 165 v i i L I S T OF F I G U R E S 2.1 H i e r a r c h y o f G o o d s a n d S e r v i c e s 20 2 . 2 M o d e l o f S h o p p i n g C e n t e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 21 2 . 3 S t r u c t u r a l M o d e l o f C e n t r a l A r e a R e t a i l i n g 23 2 . 4 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f U r b a n B u s i n e s s C o n f i g u r a t i o n s 24 2 . 5 L o c a t i o n a l & F u n c t i o n a l " S c r e e n i n g " 30 3.1 E x t e r n a l E c o n o m i e s 47 3 . 2 T h r e e - W a y S c r e e n i n g 52 4 .1 C o m m e r c i a l R e d e v e l o p m e n t o n C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y . . . 70 4 . 2 L a n d U s e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 79 4 . 3 L a n d U s e B r e a k d o w n o n B r o a d w a y 81 4 . 4 L a n d U s e T r a n s i t i o n M a t r i x : 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 5 6 87 4 . 5 L a n d U s e T r a n s i t i o n M a t r i x : 1 9 5 6 - 1 9 6 1 88 4 . 6 L a n d U s e T r a n s i t i o n M a t r i x : 1 9 6 1 - 1 9 6 6 89 4 . 7 L a n d U s e T r a n s i t i o n M a t r i x : 1 9 6 6 - 1 9 7 1 90 4 . 8 L a n d U s e T r a n s i t i o n M a t r i x : 1 9 7 1 - 1 9 7 6 91 4 . 9 L a n d U s e T r a n s i t i o n M a t r i x : 1 9 7 6 - 1 9 8 1 92 4 . 1 0 L a n d U s e b y L o c a t i o n M a t r i x : 1981 97 4 . 1 1 N e a r e s t - N e i g h b o u r R a n k o f C o m m e r c i a l A c t i v i t y . . 9 9 4 . 1 2 C l u s t e r a n d D i s t a n c e M a t r i x 113 4 . 1 3 R e l a t i v e C o n e , o f B u s i n e s s e s o n t h e S t r i p 115 A . 1 F r a m e w o r k o f M e t h o d s 146 A . 2 N e a r e s t - N e i g h b o u r A n a l y s i s 149 v i i i L I S T OF MAPS 4 .1 V a n c o u v e r C o n t e x t 6 5 4 . 2 S t u d y A r e a 6 6 4 . 3 Z o n i n g : 1951 - 1981 7 3 4 . 4 P o i n t P a t t e r n - R e t a i l ( F o o d , C l o t h i n g , H s e h o l d ) . . . 100 4 . 5 P o i n t P a t t e r n - R e t a i l ( M i s e , O f f i c e , A u t o m o b i l e ) . . 101 4 . 6 P o i n t P a t t e r n - S e r v i c e ( R e s t a u r , H a i r , P e r s o n a l ) . . 102 4 . 7 P o i n t P a t t e r n - S e r v i c e ( P e r s B u s , B u s i n e s s , B a n k ) . . 103 4 . 8 P o i n t P a t t e r n - S e r v i c e ( C o n t r a c t , A u t o , R e p a i r ) . . . 104 4 . 9 P o i n t P a t t e r n - O f f i c e ( G e n e r a l , P r o f . , M e d i c a l ) . . . 106 4 . 1 0 P o i n t P a t t e r n - O f f i c e ( G o v t , B u s A d v ) 107 4 . 1 1 F u n c t i o n a l A r e a s o f B r o a d w a y 1 0 9 i x A C K N O W L E D E M E N T S I w o u l d l i k e t o a c k n o w l e d g e my g r a t i t u d e t o D r s . P . J . S m i t h a n d D . B . J o h n s o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a f o r n u r t u r i n g my i n t e r e s t i n u r b a n p l a n n i n g a n d t o D r s . V . S . P e n d a k u r a n d T . H u t t o n f o r g u i d i n g me t h r o u g h my y e a r s a t t h e S c h o o l a n d f o r p r o v i d i n g me a n a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e f o r t h i s t h e s i s . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k t h e m a n y p e o p l e i n V a n c o u v e r f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e t h e s i s a n d e s p e c i a l l y , H u g h K e l l a s ( G V R D ) , C l a u d e P i e r c e ( M a C a u l a y , N i c o l l s , M a i t l a n d a n d C o . ) , G l e n C o o p e r ( C o m p u t i n g S c i e n c e , U B C ) , a n d my m a n y f r i e n d s a n d c o l l e g u e s a t U . B . C . A n d l a s t , b u t m o s t i m p o r t a n t , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k my p a r e n t s f o r t h e i r e n c o u r a g e m e n t a s w e l l a s f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t i n s e e i n g t h i s t h e s i s t o i t s f r u i t i o n . 1 C H A P T E R 1 P R O B L E M S T A T E M E N T AND BACKGROUND T h i s t h e s i s a d d r e s s e s o n e a s p e c t o f i n t r a - u r b a n c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e , t h a t o f l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n s w i t h i n c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s . T h e s t u d y e x a m i n e s r e l e v a n t t h e o r i e s a n d m o d e l s o f u r b a n l a n d - u s e , p l a c i n g e m p h a s i s o n c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e , a n d f i n a l l y f o c u s e s o n a c a s e s t u d y o f a s t r i p c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t . 1 . 1 P r o b l e m S t a t e m e n t A l t h o u g h a g r e a t d e a l o f w o r k h a s b e e n d o n e o n g e n e r a l l a n d - u s e t h e o r y , t h e s t u d y o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e s w i t h i n u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t s h a s f a i l e d t o p r o d u c e a t h o r o u g h l y s a t i s f a c t o r y t h e o r y o r t h e o r i e s o f u r b a n l a n d - u s e s t r u c t u r e . S i g n i f i c a n t w o r k s h a v e d e s c r i b e d c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e , b u t l i t t l e s u c c e s s h a s b e e n m e t i n e x p l a i n i n g i t s s t r u c t u r e . C l e a r l y , t h e f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e a r e m a n y a n d h i g h l y i n t e r r e l a t e d . H o w e v e r , e x i s t i n g u r b a n t h e o r y a n d m o d e l l i n g t e n d t o g r o u p a l l r e t a i l a n d o f f i c e a c t i v i t y i n t o a b r o a d c o m m e r c i a l c a t e g o r y , i g n o r i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e a n d d y n a m i c s . I n t h i s s t u d y , t h e p r o c e s s e s o f g r o w t h a n d c h a n g e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h i n s t r i p c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s a r e e x a m i n e d a n d r e l a t e d t o s p a t i a l p r o x i m i t i e s a n d o t h e r s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s . T h e c e n t r a l c o n c e r n o f t h e r e s e a r c h i n t h i s t h e s i s is. J l 2 e x p l o r e  t h e w a y i n w h i c h s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s h a v e e v o l v e d a n d t o w h a t  e x t e n t t h e y a r e a r e s u l t o f h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s e s a n d f u n c t i o n a l 2 a s s o c i a t i o n s . C o m p e t i t i o n a n d l o c a t i o n a l c e n t r a l i t y b e t w e e n u s e s a r e a m o n g t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h s h a p e v a r i o u s s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s . T h i s p a t t e r n i n g o f t h e l a n d s c a p e c o n v e y s b e n e f i t s t o l i k e u s e s a n d r e d u c e s c o n f l i c t s b e t w e e n i n c o m p a t i b l e u s e s . C o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t e s t a b l i s h m e n t s d o l o c a t e p r o x i m a t e t o o t h e r f u n c t i o n a l l y l i n k e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ( G e t i s , 1 9 6 8 ; G o d d a r d , 1 9 7 5 ; P a r k e r , 1 9 6 2 ; a n d R . L . D a v i e s , 1 9 7 2 ) . ( L i n k a g e s i n c l u d e t h e m o v e m e n t o f g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s a s w e l l a s i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w s a n d f l o w s o f c l i e n t e l e b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . ) E s t a b l i s h m e n t s l o c a t e t o m i n i m i z e c o s t s o f s u p p l y a n d t o m a x i m i z e c u s t o m e r v o l u m e s b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . T h e s e l o c a t i o n a l m o t i v e s l e a d t o s p a t i a l a f f i n i t i e s b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h i c h a r e r e f l e c t e d i n l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n s . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s t h e s i s , p r o x i m i t y i m p l i e s a f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d r e s e a r c h i n t o s u c h a s s o c i a t i o n i s s u p p o r t e d t h r o u g h a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f b u s i n e s s l o c a t i o n s i n t h e c a s e s t u d y o f C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y . G r o w t h a n d c h a n g e o f l a n d - u s e s w i t h i n d i s t r i c t s , l i k e t h i s o n e , c o n s t i t u t e i m p o r t a n t p l a n n i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w h i c h s h o u l d p r e c e d e t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n i n g . C o m m e r c i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d i n d u s t r y o f t e n o c c u p y t h e m o s t d e s i r a b l e a n d v a l u a b l e s i t e s w i t h i n t h e c i t y . C o m m e r c i a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s b e n e f i t b y b e i n g c l o s e t o m a j o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s a n d n e a r t o m a r k e t s , p o p u l a t i o n s , a n d l a b o r p o o l s . T h i s l e a d s t o a g g l o m e r a t i o n s o f b u s i n e s s e s i n t h e m o s t d e s i r a b l e a r e a s w h e r e t h e y f o r m t h e c o r e o f t h e " C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t " . H o w e v e r , d u e t o t h e d e s i r a b l e q u a l i t y o f 3 t h i s l o c a t i o n , c o m p e t i t i o n f o r s p a c e t h e r e i s i n t e n s e a n d l a n d i s e x p e n s i v e ; o n l y t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t e x p e c t t o g e n e r a t e a h i g h r e v e n u e c a n a f f o r d t o l o c a t e t h e r e . A s t i m e p a s s e s a n d t h e u r b a n a r e a s a t t r a c t g r e a t e r p o p u l a t i o n s , t h e p a t t e r n s o f l a n d - u s e c h a n g e . T e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e s a n d s o c i a l c h a n g e c o n t r i b u t e t o t h i s s h i f t . I n t h e T w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y i m p r o v e d f o r m s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n h a v e a l l o w e d t h e r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n t o m o v e f u r t h e r f r o m t h e c o r e ; t h e u r b a n h i n t e r l a n d h a s b e c o m e l a r g e r a n d l a r g e r . T h i s r e s i d e n t i a l e x o d u s t o t h e s u b u r b s h a s b e e n r a p i d l y f o l l o w e d b y o t h e r u r b a n l a n d - u s e s : i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s , i n s e a r c h o f a v a i l a b l e l a n d a t l o w e r c o s t s a n d p r o x i m i t y t o t h e w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n , l o c a t e d i n p e r i p h e r a l a r e a s ; c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e s f o l l o w e d i n o r d e r t o s e r v e t h e p o p u l a t i o n . C o m m e r c i a l e x p a n s i o n f r o m t h e c o r e o c c u r s i n t w o f o r m s : e i t h e r t h r o u g h a " l e a p f r o g g i n g " o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s t o p e r i p h e r a l s u b u r b a n l o c a t i o n s , o r t h r o u g h a r a d i a l e x t e n s i o n o f c o m m e r c i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a l o n g a r t e r i a l r o a d w a y s . T h i s l a t t e r f o r m o f d e v e l o p m e n t b e n e f i t s b o t h t h e r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n l o c a t e d p r o x i m a t e t o t h e s t r i p , a n d t h e t r a n s i e n t p o p u l a t i o n c o m m u t i n g t o i n n e r c i t y j o b s a l o n g t h e s e r o u t e s . I n m a n y c a s e s t h e s e s t r i p s d e v e l o p e d a s e x t e n s i o n s o f t h e c o r e ( f o r e x a m p l e G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t ) . O t h e r s e v o l v e d f r o m s m a l l c o m m e r c i a l n o d e s e x p a n d i n g a l o n g a r t e r i a l s w h i c h c o n n e c t e d t h e c o r e a n d s u b u r b s . C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y , t h e f o c u s o f t h i s t h e s i s , i s a p r i m e e x a m p l e o f t h i s s e c o n d t y p e o f a r t e r i a l . T h e s e c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p s e v o l v e d t o s e r v i c e t h e n e e d s o f b o t h l o c a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d s a n d t h e c o m m u t e r s u s i n g t h e r o a d w a y . 4 T h e d e p t h o f t h e s t r i p , n e v e r m o r e t h a n o n e b l o c k o n e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e a r t e r i a l , r e f l e c t s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e e a r l y m o d e s o f p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a n d t h e l a t e r i n f l u e n c e o f t h e a u t o m o b i l e i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e s e d i s t r i c t s . P r o p e r t y v a l u e s d e c r e a s e e x p o n e n t i a l l y w i t h d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e a r t e r y , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s t e n d t o o c c u p y t h e s i t e s b e h i n d t h e c o m m e r c i a l p r o p e r t i e s . C o m m e r c i a l s t r i p s d e r i v e t h e i r c h a r a c t e r f r o m t h e v a r i e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a l o n g t h e i r l e n g t h , w h i c h i n t u r n r e f l e c t t h e l a n d - u s e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e s t r i p : T h e n a t u r e o f t h e u s e s c o m p r i s i n g t h e c o n f o r m a t i o n d e p e n d s u p o n t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h i t i s t h e c o r e o r a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . T h e u s e o f t h e s t r e e t a s a t r a f f i c a r t e r y a t t r a c t s r e t a i l s h o p s s e r v i n g t h e t r a n s i e n t f i l l i n g s t a t i o n s , a c c e s s o r y s h o p s , a u t o s h o w r o o m s , q u i c k l u n c h e s , a n d r e f r e s h m e n t s t a n d s , f o o d m a r k e t s , a n d f r u i t s t a n d s . T h e p r o x i m i t y t o r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s e n c o u r a g e s c o n v e n i e n c e t y p e o u t l e t s d r u g s t o r e s , g r o c e r y s t o r e s , l a u n d r y a n d c l e a n i n g b r a n c h e s , h a r d w a r e s t o r e s , d e l i s , a n d p o o l h a l l s . ( R a t c l i f f e , 1 9 4 9 ) . W h i l e t h e r e may b e a w i d e r a n g e o f u s e s , t h e s e t e n d t o b e g r o u p e d s p a t i a l l y : . . . . t h e r i b b o n s a r e m u l t i f u n c t i o n a l i n s p a t i a l t e r m s i n t h a t p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e r i b b o n may h a v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f s u c h f u n c t i o n s a s m o t e l s w h i l e o t h e r p o r t i o n s may b e c o n c e n t r a t e d b y f o o d s t o r e s , d r u g s t o r e s a n d b e a u t y a n d b a r b e r s h o p s . ( B o a l a n d J o h n s o n , 1 9 6 8 : 3 3 0 ) . A u t o m o b i l e " r o w s " , f u r n i t u r e d i s t r i c t s a n d m o r e r e c e n t l y o f f i c e a g g l o m e r a t i o n s h a v e g r o w n o n c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p s . T h e q u o t a t i o n s a b o v e i l l u s t r a t e o n e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o f c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s i n g e n e r a l : w h i l e t h e y a r e d i s t r i c t s w h i c h s u p p l y g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s t o t h e p u b l i c , , t h e y a r e c o m p o s e d o f a v a r i e t y o f s t r u c t u r e s a n d a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r a n d o m l y d i s t r i b u t e d . F u n c t i o n a l l i n k a g e s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e f a c t t h a t 5 e a c h a r e a p o s s e s s e s s p a t i a l a f f i n i t i e s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e d i s t r i c t . T h e i m p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g t h e s e d i s t r i c t s w i t h t h e i r u n i q u e p a t t e r n s b e c o m e o b v i o u s . G e n e r a l i z e d s t a t e m e n t s i n t h e f o r m o f z o n i n g b y l a w s , r e g u l a t i o n s , g u i d e l i n e s a n d / o r p o l i c i e s a r e s i m p l y n o t a d e q u a t e t o e n s u r e a t t a i n m e n t o f c o m m u n i t y g o a l s i f t h e y i g n o r e t h e s e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s a l o n g t h e c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p s . W h i l e i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e f u n c t i o n a l n a t u r e o f t h e s t r i p c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s t h r o u g h t h e t y p e o f u s e s a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n u s e s , i t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s e s w h i c h h a v e s h a p e d t h e s t r i p s t o t h e i r p r e s e n t f o r m . D u e , i n p a r t , t o a h o s t o f f a c t o r s - - e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l , h i s t o r i c a l , a n d p o l i t i c a l c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p s h a v e d i s p l a y e d c o n s i d e r a b l e g r o w t h a n d c h a n g e . A l o n g t h e - m o r e s u c c e s s f u l s t r i p s , a b s o l u t e g r o w t h h a s a c c o m p a n i e d a n i n t e r n a l r e a r r a n g e m e n t o f u s e s . S m a l l e r b u i l d i n g s h a v e g i v e n w a y t o l a r g e r a n d h i g h e r s t r u c t u r e s , w h i c h h o u s e a n u m b e r o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . A s t h e s t r i p i n c r e a s e s i n d e n s i t y , t h e t y p e s o f u s e s g e n e r a l l y s h i f t t o t h o s e o r i e n t e d t o s p e c i a l i z e d c o n s u m e r n e e d s . W h i l e s t i l l r e t a i n i n g s e r v i c e s f o r t h e l o c a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d , t h e s t r i p now s e r v e s a l a r g e r t r a d e a r e a . T h e l e s s s u c c e s s f u l s t r i p s a r e c o n s p i c u o u s b y t h e i r d e c a y i n g a n d o u t o f d a t e b u i l d i n g s a n d a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s g e n e r a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n a n d o b s o l e s c e n c e h a s b e c o m e a c u t e i n i n n e r c i t y l o c a t i o n s . R e n e w a l a n d r e d e v e l o p m e n t m e a s u r e s , o f t e n c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e a n d i n m a n y c a s e s l i t t l e m o r e t h a n " c o s m e t i c " , h a v e t r i e d t o c o u n t e r t h i s b l i g h t . A m o r e e f f i c i e n t a n d e f f e c t i v e m e a s u r e w o u l d b e t o f i r s t u n d e r s t a n d t h e s t r u c t u r e a n d d y n a m i c s o f c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s 6 and then to harness and use market processes of growth and change in p l a n n i n g . 1 . 2 Relevance A number of aspects of p l a n n i n g f o r commercial land-use are evident over and above the n e c e s s i t y f o r general urban p l a n n i n g : • V a r i o u s s t r i p commercial d i s t r i c t s c l o s e to the core are showing c o n t i n u a l s i g n s of growth and p r o s p e r i t y , a v o i d i n g common b l i g h t and decay endemic to l e s s v i a b l e areas: determining why these s t r i p s continue to prosper c o u l d improve programs aimed at r e h a b i l i t a t i n g decaying areas. • While commercial d i s t r i c t s occupy a r e l a t i v e l y small percentage of the l a n d they p r o v i d e jobs f o r a high percentage of the p o p u l a t i o n , as w e l l generate v i t a l tax revenue. As important as they are, l i t t l e i n the way of comprehensive plann i n g has been aimed at ensuring p l a n n i n g g o a l s . • Market f o r c e s shaping commercial d i s t r i c t s must be understood and used i n c o n j u n c t i o n with r e g u l a t i o n s and p o l i c i e s to achieve community goals i n these areas. 7 • R e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g g o a l s f o r a t t r a c t i n g c o m m e r c i a l g r o w t h t o p e r i p h e r a l l o c a t i o n s may b e n e f i t f r o m a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s p a t i a l a f f i n i t i e s w h i c h e x i s t b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . • T h e d a t a b a s e c o l l e c t e d a n d t h e s t a t i s t i c a l m e t h o d s e x p l o r e d may f i n d a p p l i c a t i o n i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s i n t h e f i e l d o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e p l a n n i n g . 1 .3 T h e s i s O b j e c t i v e s T h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s t h e s i s a r e : [ 1 ] T o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e g r o w t h a n d c h a n g e o f l a n d - u s e s w i t h i n c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p d i s t r i c t s r e s u l t i n g f r o m h i s t o r i c a l t r e n d s a n d f u n c t i o n a l l i n k a g e s . [ 2 ] T o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n s r e f l e c t s p a t i a l a f f i n i t i e s r e s u l t i n g f r o m h i s t o r i c a l t r e n d s a n d f u n c t i o n a l l i n k a g e s . [ 3 ] T o s t a t i s t i c a l l y a n a l y z e a d a t a b a s e p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e a b o v e p r o b l e m s t a t e m e n t a n d r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n . [ 4 ] T o i d e n t i f y t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r t h e p l a n n i n g o f l a n d - u s e a l o n g c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p s . 1 . 4 C a s e S t u d y A r e a T h e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y i s c o n d u c t e d o n t h e C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y A v e n u e c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p d i s t r i c t i n V a n c o u v e r . A m a j o r 8 east-west a r t e r i a l , this s t r i p is located south of the downtown peninsula and False Creek. Over the eighteen block length from Ontario Street in the east, to Burrard in the west, the s t r i p bisects the Mount Pleasant, Fairview Slopes, and Granvilie/Burrard areas of the City. Residential land-uses are located both north and south of the s t r i p . Residential structures of higher density are being developed in the Fairview Slopes to the north, while a mix of single and multi-family structures are located to the south. Two important i n s t i t u t i o n a l uses d i s t o r t land-use in this area and make i t unusual among commercial s t r i p s . City Hall and Vancouver General Hospital are located within three blocks of Broadway. The combined daytime workforce associated with these two uses is immense and has a profound impact on Broadway both in terms of t r a f f i c generation and r e t a i l potential. In the past, Broadway was t y p i c a l of commercial s t r i p s , housing a variety of uses and . displaying nodes of special function uses. While i t is considered an inner c i t y commercial s t r i p , Central Broadway does not f i t the stereotype of a decaying a r t e r i a l commercial s t r i p . Due to i t s proximity to the hospi t a l , t h i s area has a predominance of thriving medical and health service f a c i l i t i e s . In addition, Broadway's "auto row", although declining, s t i l l occupies major tracts of frontage along Central Broadway. More recently, large o f f i c e establishments have located on the s t r i p . Rents are generally lower than downtown while access to the Central Business D i s t r i c t (CBD) is s t i l l good. The growing concentration of business-oriented uses has provided additional incentives to 9 these l a r g e o f f i c e developments. 1 . 5 Research Methods A documentary a n a l y s i s i s c a r r i e d out on commercial l a n d -use theory and i t s o r i g i n s in general land-use theory with a p a r t i c u l a r focus on s t r i p commercial d i s t r i c t s . T h i s a n a l y s i s i d e n t i f i e s and explores some of the i n t e r n a l dynamics of commercial land-use d i s t r i c t s , namely the growth, change, and p a t t e r n i n g of land-uses. Having e s t a b l i s h e d a t h e o r e t i c a l framework based upon the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n , the t h e s i s then turns to an. e m p i r i c a l study of a s t r i p commercial d i s t r i c t w i t h i n the inner c i t y of Vancouver. Using data gathered from C i t y D i r e c t o r i e s , the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t (GVRD) data f i l e s , and the C i t y of Vancouver's Planning Department data bases, a s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s i s undertaken. Three s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s are a p p l i e d to the data. These three, the Markov t r a n s i t i o n p r o b a b i l i t y t e s t , the nearest-neighbour a n a l y s i s , and the c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s were a l l chosen because i t was f e l t that they s a t i s f i e d two c r i t e r i a : g e n eral a p p l i c a b i l i t y to p l a n n i n g ; ease of use and more importantly the ease with which the r e s u l t s can be understood; i n a d d i t i o n the computer software was a v a i l a b l e . To demonstrate the e v o l u t i o n of the v a r i o u s land-use c a t e g o r i e s through time, a Markov t r a n s i t i o n p r o b a b i l i t y matrix i n d i c a t e s which uses succeed others (see Appendix A). The frequency t a b l e s i n d i c a t e the number of changes as w e l l as the r e l a t i v e percentage of change in land-uses. The s u p p o r t i n g Markov a n a l y s i s i l l u s t r a t e s f u n c t i o n a l t i e s between uses by i n d i c a t i n g the p r o b a b i l i t y use 10 " A " w i l l s u c c e e d u s e " B " a t a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n . T h e M a t r i x i s c o n s t r u c t e d f o r f i v e y e a r i n t e r v a l s o v e r t h i r t y y e a r s a n d i s l i m i t e d t o g r o u n d o r i e n t e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . T h e M a t r i x h a s c ommon a p p l i c a t i o n s w h e r e i t i s u s e f u l t o s h o w t h e d y n a m i c s o f l a n d - u s e c h a n g e ( S i m , 1 9 8 2 ; B o u r n e , 1 9 7 1 ; 1 9 7 6 ) . T h e s e c o n d s t a t i s t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n i s a " n e a r e s t - n e i g h b o u r " a n a l y s i s ( C l a r k a n d E v a n s , 1 9 5 4 ; P i n d e r a n d W i t h e r i c k , 1 9 7 3 ) . T h i s t e s t d e t e r m i n e s t h e a m o u n t o f c l u s t e r i n g t h a t a g r o u p o f d a t a d i s p l a y s . M o d i f i e d t o h a n d l e l i n e a r c a s e s t u d y a r e a s , t h i s a n a l y s i s i s u s e d o n g r o u n d o r i e n t e d c o m m e r c i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a l o n g C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y f o r t h e y e a r 1981 ( P i n d e r a n d W i t h e r i c k , 1 9 7 2 ) . T h i s t e s t c o m p a r e s t h e o b s e r v e d d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n n e a r e s t n e i g h b o u r s a s t h e y a c t u a l l y o c c u r w i t h t h e e x p e c t e d o r r a n d o m d i s t r i b u t i o n o f " n " n u m b e r o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o v e r t h e l e n g t h o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . A v a l u e o f c l u s t e r i n g i s c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h l a n d - u s e c a t e g o r y a n d t h e v a l u e s a r e c o m p a r e d . I f c l u s t e r i n g o f c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s o c c u r s i n c e r t a i n a r e a s , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f f u n c t i o n a l l i n k a g e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e s e s p a t i a l a f f i n i t i e s may b e i n f e r r e d ( G o d d a r d , 1 9 7 3 ; A l e x a n d e r , 1 9 7 2 ) . T h e t h i r d m e t h o d , u s e d t o i l l u s t r a t e s p a t i a l a f f i n i t i e s b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f l a n d - u s e , i s t h e c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s o p t i o n o f t h e BMDP ( 1 9 8 1 ) s t a t i s t i c a l s o f t w a r e p a c k a g e . T h i s o p t i o n g r o u p s s i m i l a r v a r i a b l e s ( e l e m e n t s ) i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l m a n n e r s u c h t h a t t h e l o w e s t l e v e l o f c l u s t e r i n g i n c l u d e s t w o e l e m e n t s a n d t h e h i g h e s t c l u s t e r i n c l u d e s a l l e l e m e n t s . T h e b a s i s o f m e a s u r e m e n t s f o r s i m i l a r i t y i s t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n e a c h s h o p a n d i t s c l o s e s t n e i g h b o u r ( s e e A p p e n d i x A ) . T h e " q u a n t u m l e a p " f r o m r a w d a t a t o t h e i n p u t f o r m a t n e c e s s a r y f o r 11 t h e BMDP r u n w a s h a n d l e d b y G l e n C o o p e r (UBC C o m p u t i n g C e n t e r ) , who c r e a t e d a p r o g r a m c a p a b l e o f m e a s u r i n g d i s t a n c e s b e t w e e n s h o p s a n d c o m p i l i n g t h e s e d i s t a n c e s i n t o t h e i n p u t m a t r i x . W i t h i n t h e m e t h o d , t h o s e s h o p s w h i c h h a v e a r r a y s o f s i m i l a r d i s t a n c e a r e a l s o c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y w i t h e a c h o t h e r , i n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e y d i s p l a y s p a t i a l a f f i n i t i e s . T h e s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s a r e n o t a i m e d a t d e f i n i t i v e c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; r a t h e r t h e y a r e u s e d t o i l l u s t r a t e l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n s , f r o m w h i c h i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s may b e d r a w n . A l t h o u g h a m u l t i t u d e o f o t h e r v a r i a b l e s may i n f l u e n c e l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n s t h e y a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d h e r e a s t i m e a n d r e s o u r c e s h a v e p r e c l u d e d a m o r e d e t a i l e d s t u d y . L i m i t a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o d a t a s o u r c e s a l s o c o n s t r a i n t h e d e p t h o f a n a l y s i s . I n s p i t e o f t h e s e s h o r t c o m i n g s , t h i s t h e s i s p r o v i d e s a f a i r l y c o m p r e h e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s t r i p c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n s a n d t h e t r e n d s a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h h a v e c r e a t e d t h e m . 1 . 6 T h e s i s O r g a n i z a t i o n T h i s t h e s i s p r e s e n t s t h e o r i e s o f l a n d u s e a s t h e y h a v e d e v e l o p e d o v e r t h e p a s t h a l f c e n t u r y , f o l l o w e d b y a n e m p i r i c a l s t u d y w h i c h i s t h e f o c u s o f t h i s w o r k . C h a p t e r O n e s e t s o u t t h e p r o b l e m s t a t e m e n t a n d r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n ; a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e t h e s i s i s a l s o i n c l u d e d h e r e . R e s e a r c h m e t h o d s a n d c a s e s t u d y a r e a a r e o u t l i n e d , w i t h a m o r e d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n l e f t t o l a t e r c h a p t e r s . T h e " r e l e v a n c e " s e c t i o n o f C h a p t e r O n e s u g g e s t s s o m e o f t h e i s s u e s w h i c h a r e 1 2 i m p o r t a n t t o t h e s t u d y , i s s u e s w h i c h s h o u l d h e l p t h e r e a d e r a p p r e c i a t e t h e d i r e c t i o n f r o m w h i c h t h e t h e s i s w a s w r i t t e n . C h a p t e r Two i s a c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h f o r m s t h e t h e o r e t i c a l a n d c o n t e x t u a l b a s i s f o r t h e t h e s i s . T h e f l o w i s e s s e n t i a l l y f r o m t h e g e n e r a l t o t h e s p e c i f i c : f r o m l a n d u s e t h e o r y t o t h a t o f c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n t h e i n n e r c i t y . C h a p t e r T h r e e a d d r e s s e s t h e t o p i c s o f g r o w t h , c h a n g e , a n d l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n i n g w i t h i n c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s a n d , i n p a r t i c u l a r , w i t h i n c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p d i s t r i c t s . T h i s s e c t i o n i s f o l l o w e d b y a s h o r t i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f l a n d - u s e r e g u l a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l a n d t h e n a s t h e y p e r t a i n t o z o n i n g . A s h o r t s u m m a r y o f C h a p t e r s Two a n d T h r e e c o n c l u d e s t h i s c h a p t e r . C h a p t e r F o u r a p p l i e s t h e t h e o r e t i c a l b a s e e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e e a r l i e r c h a p t e r s t o a n e x i s t i n g c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p i n t h e i n n e r c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . T h e o p e n i n g s e g m e n t s o f t h e c h a p t e r b r i e f l y d i s c u s s t h e s t r i p , how i t h a s b e e n a d m i n i s t e r e d f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f p l a n n i n g , a n d how t h e m a r k e t h a s r e s p o n d e d i n t h e a r e a . T h e b u l k o f t h e c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s a n d a n a l y z e s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a c t u a l s t u d y . C h a p t e r F i v e d r a w s t h e t h e s i s t o g e t h e r p r e s e n t i n g t h e c o n l u s i o n s , l i m i t a t i o n s , i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p l a n n i n g , a n d f i n a l l y s u g g e s t s a v e n u e s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . A p p e n d i c e s A a n d B d e s c r i b e t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n a n d a n a l y s i s , a n d t h e m e t h o d s u s e d . A p p e n d i x C c o n t a i n s t h e r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n s o f t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r z o n i n g b y - l a w s . 1 3 CHAPTER 2 1 4 C H A P T E R 2 L A N D U S E T H E O R Y AND C O N T E X T 2 . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n C o m m e r c i a l s t r i p l o c a t i o n t h e o r y i s a s m a l l s u b - s e c t i o n o f g e n e r a l l a n d - u s e t h e o r y a n d m o r e p a r t i c u l a r i l y o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e t h e o r y . T h e g e n e r a l i z e d t h e o r y p r o v i d e s t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n t e x t f o r c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p l i t e r a t u r e . T h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r b e g i n s b y d i s c u s s i n g l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e t h e o r y o f g e n e r a l l a n d - u s e , c o n t i n u e s w i t h t h a t d e a l i n g w i t h c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e a n d f i n a l l y c e n t e r s o n c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p d i s t r i c t s a s t h e f o c u s o f t h e t h e s i s . 2 . 2 L a n d U s e T h e o r y D e v e l o p m e n t o f u r b a n l a n d - u s e t h e o r y a n d m o d e l l i n g i s a r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t o c c u r r e n c e . C i t i e s h a v e e x i s t e d f o r o v e r t e n t h o u s a n d y e a r s a n d o v e r t h e c e n t u r i e s r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e s t u d i e d u r b a n s t r u c t u r e s a n d p r o c e s s e s . E a r l y m o d e l s o f u r b a n s t r u c t u r e s t r e s s t h e c o r e a s t h e d o m i n a n t c o m m e r c i a l c o m p o n e n t o f t h e c i t y . T h e t h r e e t h e o r i e s o f u r b a n f o r m w h i c h h a v e e m e r g e d h a v e g e n e r a l l y b e e n h e l d a s t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f c i t y f o r m . B u i l d i n g u p o n t h e w o r k o f H u r d ( 1 9 0 3 ) , B u r g e s s a n d t h e " E c o l o g i c a l " s c h o o l i n C h i c a g o p r o p o s e d a m o d e l o f c i t y f o r m w h i c h i s d e s c r i b e d a s t h e " C o n c e n t r i c Z o n e T h e o r y " ( B u r g e s s , 1 9 2 5 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e t h e o r y , v a r i o u s l a n d - u s e s o c c u p i e d h o m o g e n e o u s r i n g s a b o u t t h e c i t y c e n t r e . B u r g e s s s u g g e s t e d a c o m p e t i t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h s e c t o r s o f t h e 1 5 p o p u l a t i o n a l l o c a t e d t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e s e v a r i o u s r i n g s : i n n e r c i t y r e s i d e n t i a l z o n e s w e r e o c c u p i e d b y w o r k i n g c l a s s e s w h i l e m o r e p e r i p h e r a l z o n e s h o u s e d t h e w e a l t h i e r , a n d m o r e m o b i l e p o p u l a t i o n s . H o y t ' s " S e c t o r T h e o r y " , a l s o o f t h i s p e r i o d , r e c o g n i z e d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n m o d e s o n c i t y s t r u c t u r e ( H o y t , 1 9 3 9 ) . C o n c e n t r i c r i n g s , a d o p t e d f r o m t h e e a r l i e r B u r g e s s m o d e l , w e r e g i v e n d i r e c t i o n b y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s r a d i a t i n g o u t o f t h e c e n t r e o f t h e c i t y . E m p h a s i s w a s p l a c e d o n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s e c t o r w i t h l i t t l e m e n t i o n o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e o u t s i d e o f t h e c o r e c o m m e r c i a l a r e a . T h e t h i r d o f t h e s e e a r l y m o d e l s , t h e H a r r i s a n d U l l m a n m o d e l , s h o w e d s i g n i f i c a n t s t r i d e s t o w a r d s a m o r e r e a l i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e c i t y ( H a r r i s a n d U l l m a n , 1 9 4 5 ) . T h e i r " M u l t i p l e - N u c l e i " m o d e l r e c o g n i z e d t h e g r o u p i n g o f v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s a b o u t t h e u r b a n l a n d s c a p e . W h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e c o r e , t h e m o d e l a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f o t h e r n o d a l p o i n t s o r a g g l o m e r a t i o n s o f s i m i l a r l a n d - u s e s . H a r r i s a n d U l l m a n r e c o g n i z e d t h e s p e c i a l l o c a t i o n a l n e e d s o f c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s a n d t h e b e n e f i t s t h a t a c c r u e t o e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n s u c h a g g l o m e r a t i o n . B u i l d i n g u p o n t h e s e w o r k s , s e v e r a l m o d e l s h a v e b e e n p r o p o s e d e m p h a s i z i n g v a r i o u s f a c e t s o f u r b a n a g g l o m e r a t i o n s . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n t h e o r i e s a n d a c c e s s t h e o r i e s , p r o p o s e d b y W i n g o ( 1 9 6 1 ) a n d G u t t e n b e r g ( 1 9 6 0 ) r e s p e c t i v e l y , h a v e b r o u g h t f o r t h c o n t e m p o r a r y l o c a t i o n f a c t o r s a n d p a t t e r n s . W i n g o ( i 9 6 0 ) d e v e l o p e d a n e q u i l i b r i u m t h e o r y o f r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n w h i c h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s s u b s t i t u t e f o r s p a c e c o s t s . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h o u s e h o l d s r e s u l t s f r o m t h e 1 6 i n t e r p l a y o f r e n t p a y i n g a b i l i t i e s o f t h e h o u s e h o l d s a n d t h e p a r t i c u l a r s i t e - r e n t s a s a f u n c t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s a n d d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n w o r k a n d h o m e . H i s t h e o r y p l a c e d e m p h a s i s o n t h e l o c a t i o n o f h o u s e h o l d s i n r e l a t i o n t o l a n d v a l u e a n d a c c e s s i b i l i t y , a n d t h e e f f e c t t h e s e t w o h a v e o n l o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . G u t t e n b e r g ( i 9 6 0 ) , a l s o o n t h i s t h e m e , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e c o m m u n i t y d e s i r e i s t o o v e r c o m e d i s t a n c e a n d v i e w e d i n t e r n a l i n t e r a c t i o n a s t h e b a s i c d e t e r m i n a n t o f u r b a n s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e . G u t t e n b e r g c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t a s a c o m p l e x o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m s a n d f a c i l i t i e s . W h e r e t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m i s p o o r , f a c i l i t i e s w i l l b e r e l a t i v e l y e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e u r b a n l a n d s c a p e ; h o w e v e r , a n e f f i c i e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m a l l o w s c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s i n t o s p e c i f i c a r e a s i n t h e c i t y . L a b e l l e d a s t h e " C l a s s i c a l T h e o r y o f L a n d U s e " , A l o n s o ' s w o r k c o n c e n t r a t e d o n t h e u s e o f l a n d a n d t h e v a l u e o f t h a t l a n d . I n c o n s i d e r i n g r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o e m p l o y m e n t , A l o n s o ( 1 9 6 4 ) c o n s i d e r e d s u c h f a c t o r s a s s u p p l y o f l a n d , p r i c e o f l a n d a n d h o u s e h o l d b u d g e t i n g c o n s t r a i n t s . H i s t h e o r y c o n s i s t e d o f t h r e e p a r t s ( C h a p i n , 1 9 7 6 ) : ( a ) i n d i v i d u a l e q u i l i b r i u m i s r e a c h e d b y s e l e c t i n g t h a t c o m b i n a t i o n o f q u a n t i t y o f l a n d , d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e c i t y c e n t r e , a n d q u a l i t y o f t h e c o m p o s i t e g o o d t h a t a s a c o m b i n a t i o n w i l l m a x i m i z e i t s s a t i s f a c t i o n , b u t s t a y w i t h i n i t s c o n s t r a i n t s " ( p . 3 9 ) ; ( b ) b i d r e n t c u r v e s a r e c a l c u l a t e d , r e f l e c t i n g p a t t e r n s o f p r e f e r e n c e a s t o l o c a t i o n o f h o u s e h o l d s ; a n d ( c ) e q u i l i b r i u m i s e s t a b l i s h e d o v e r t h e a g g r e g a t e m a r k e t , w h e r e h o u s e h o l d s w i t h s t e e p b i d r e n t c u r v e s w i l l o c c u p y c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s . A l o n s o i n t r o d u c e d t h e n o t i o n o f c o m p e t i t i o n f o r l a n d a s i t r e l a t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l h o u s e h o l d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . C o m m e r c i a l 1 7 l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n s c a n a l s o b e e x p l a i n e d t h r o u g h t h i s l o g i c o f c o m p e t i t i v e b i d d i n g . 2 . 3 C o m m m e r c i a l L a n d U s e T h e o r e t i c a l w o r k r e l a t i n g t o c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e h a s p a r a l l e l e d t h e m o r e g e n e r a l i z e d l a n d - u s e t h e o r y a n d m o d e l l i n g , b o t h g a i n i n g f r o m t h e g e n e r a l c o n c e p t s a n d a t t h e s a m e t i m e p r o v i d i n g a n a r e a f o r m i c r o - a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e . I n m a n y c a s e s a n a l o g u e s a r e a d o p t e d f r o m t h e m o r e g e n e r a l t o t h e m o r e s p e c i f i c . A s R . L . D a v i e s ( 1 9 7 2 : 6 9 ) s t a t e d : " S i n c e a l l g e n e r a l l a n d - u s e m o d e l s e m b r a c e c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y a s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t , t h e r e a r e c l e a r l y s t r o n g l i n k s t o b e f o u n d b e t w e e n o v e r a l l p a t t e r n s o f l a n d - u s e i n t h e c i t y a n d t h e p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n o f s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s . T h e s e l i n k s b e c o m e m o r e e v i d e n t w h e n i t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t c ommon b u t v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y a r e o p e r a t i n g o n t h e u r b a n m a r k e t a s a w h o l e a n d o n t h e c o m m e r c i a l m a r k e t a s p a r t o f t h i s . " T h e s t u d y o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e g a i n e d s ome p r o m i n e n c e w i t h P r o u d f o o t ' s s t u d y o f s e v e r a l A m e r i c a n c i t i e s ( 1 9 3 7 ) . T h e k e y t o t h i s s t u d y w a s t h e d e l i n e a t i o n o f t h e u r b a n c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e : ( 1 ) C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t ( C B D ) - r e t a i l h e a r t o f t h e c i t y a n d l o c a t i o n o f t h e w i d e s t r a n g e a n d m o s t s p e c i a l i z e d s h o p s ; ( 2 ) O u t l y i n g B u s i n e s s C e n t e r s - s m a l l e r r e p l i c a s o f t h e C B D l o c a t e d a t i n t e r s e c t i o n s o f m a j o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s ; ( 3 ) P r i n c i p a l B u s i n e s s T h o r o u g h f a r e s - a m i x o f l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l a n d t r a f f i c o r i e n t e d d e m a n d s t o r e s ; ( 4 ) N e i g h b o u r h o o d B u s i n e s s S t r e e t s - a n e t w o r k o f c o n v e n i e n c e s t o r e s , l o c a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c i t y ; 18 ( 5 ) I s o l a t e d S t o r e C l u s t e r s - c o n v e n i e n c e s t o r e s o f a c o m p l e m e n t a r y n a t u r e ( d r u g s t o r e s , g r o c e r y s t o r e s , m e a t m a r k e t s , e t c . ) . A n e a r l i e r s t u d y o f B a l t i m o r e ( R o l p h , 1 9 2 9 ) , a n d s u b s e q u e n t s t u d i e s o f D e t r o i t ( R a t c l i f f e , 1 9 4 9 ) , a n d C h i c a g o ( G a r r i s o n e t a l , 1 9 5 9 ) r e i n f o r c e d t h i s f r a m e w o r k . A s e c o n d c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h e r e s e a r c h o f u r b a n c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e c e n t e r e d o n t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s ( B e r r y , 1 9 5 9 ) . T h e e m p h a s i s h e r e w a s p l a c e d o n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s i n t o l e v e l s a c c o r d i n g t o m a r k e t a r e a s a n d t h r e s h o l d s a l e s . W h i l e l o w e r - o r d e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o f a c o n v e n i e n c e n a t u r e g e n e r a l l y r e l y o n t h e i m m e d i a t e n e i g h b o u r h o o d f o r b o t h o f t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s , h i g h e r -o r d e r o r m o r e r e g i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s r e q u i r e a s o m e w h a t l a r g e r m a r k e t a r e a t o r e a l i z e t h r e s h o l d p o t e n t i a l s . T h e s t u d i e s d r e w a n a l o g i e s f r o m C e n t r a l P l a c e T h e o r y ( C P T ) ( C h r i s t a l l e r , 1 9 3 3 ) b y d i r e c t c o m p a r i s o n : a n i s o l a t e d s t o r e c l u s t e r w a s e q u a t e d w i t h t h e d e s i g n a t i o n h a m l e t i n C P T a t t h e l o w e s t l e v e l o f t h e h i e r a r c h y ; n e i g h b o u r h o o d s h o p p i n g w a s m a t c h e d t o t h e v i l l a g e l e v e l ; c o m m u n i t y s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s t o t o w n s ; r e g i o n a l s h o p p i n g c e n t e r s t o c i t i e s ; a n d f i n a l l y , a t t h e u p p e r - m o s t e n d o f t h e s c a l e , t h e CBD t o t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n ( B e r r y , G a r r i s o n , e t a l _ , 1 9 5 9 ) . R e f l e c t i n g t h e r e g i o n a l C P T , l o w e r - o r d e r c o m m e r c i a l l o c a t i o n s a t t h e i n t r a u r b a n s c a l e w e r e m o s t w i d e s p r e a d ; h i g h e r - o r d e r c e n t e r s h o u s e d a g r e a t e r a n d w i d e r r a n g e o f s t o r e s , p r o d u c e d g r e a t e r s a l e s v o l u m e s , a l a r g e r t r a d e a r e a , a n d e m p l o y e d g r e a t e r n u m b e r s w i t h i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n ( Y e a t e s a n d G a r n e r , 1 9 7 6 ) . H i g h e r o r d e r c e n t e r s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r d e s i g n a t e d h i g h e r - o r d e r f u n c t i o n s , a l s o p e r f o r m e d a l l t h e 19 f u n c t i o n s o f s u b s e q u e n t l o w e r - o r d e r c e n t e r s ( s e e F i g u r e 2 . 1 ) . G a r n e r ' s m o d e l o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e i n t r o d u c e d t h e v a r i a b l e o f l a n d v a l u e a s a f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t o f l a n d - u s e s w i t h i n c o m m e r c i a l n u c l e a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s m o d e l , b u s i n e s s e s s o u g h t l e v e l s o n t h e h i e r a r c h y b y t h r e s h o l d s i z e , w h e r e a h i g h t h r e s h o l d s i z e i n d i c a t e d a h i g h l e v e l o n t h e c o m m e r c i a l h i e r a r c h y . H i g h t h r e s h o l d l e v e l s a l s o r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e r e n t p a y i n g a b i l i t y o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t . T h o s e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o f l a r g e t h r e s h o l d s i z e s w e r e g e n e r a l l y a b l e t o p a y h i g h r e n t s f o r l o c a t i o n s ( G a r n e r , 1 9 6 6 ; Y e a t e s a n d G a r n e r , 1 9 7 6 ) . A s e x p e c t e d f o l l o w i n g t h i s a r g u m e n t , h i g h r e n t p a y i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s l o c a t e o n t h e h i g h e s t v a l u e s i t e s , s u c h a s t h o s e s i t e s c l o s e s t t o p e a k s t r e e t i n t e r s e c t i o n s ( s e e F i g u r e 2 . 2 ) . A l t h o u g h t h i s m o d e l g e n e r a t e s a r e a l i s t i c , a l b e i t s i m p l i f i e d , p a t t e r n f o r l o w e r -l e v e l n u c l e a t i o n s , i t p r o b a b l y d o e s n o t h o l d i n h i g h l y c o m p l e x n u c l e a t i o n s s u c h a s t h e CBD ( Y e a t e s a n d G a r n e r , 1 9 7 6 ) . E x p a n d i n g t h e w o r k o f G a r n e r a n d b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r t h e t h r e e g e n e r a l i z e d t h e o r i e s ( C o n c e n t r i c , S e c t o r , a n d M u l t i p l e -N u c l e i ) , R . L . D a v i e s ( 1 9 7 5 ) p r o p o s e d a c o m p o s i t e v i e w o f u r b a n c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e . H i s m o d e l a l l o c a t e d c o m m e r c i a l t y p o l o g i e s i n t o p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n s . T h e n e s t e d h i e r a r c h i c a l n a t u r e o f t h i s m o d e l f o l l o w e d G a r n e r ' s n o t i o n o f t h r e s h o l d s i z e s o f s h o p s a n d c o n c e n t r i c p a t t e r n o f l a n d - u s e . M a j o r a x i a l r o u t e s b i s e c t e d t h i s r e g u l a r p a t t e r n a n d g a v e r i s e t o v a r i o u s d i s t r i c t s a s w e l l a s t o c o m m e r c i a l r i b b o n d e v e l o p m e n t p r o x i m a t e t o t h e a x i a l s . S p e c i a l t y a r e a s o r n u c l e i d e v e l o p e d o n t h e u r b a n l a n d s c a p e i n r e s p o n s e t o a v a r i e t y o f s i t e a n d a c c e s s i b i l i t y a d v a n t a g e s ( s e e F i g u r e 2 . 3 ) . 2 0 NUCLEATIONS CORE NEIGHBOURHOOD FUNCTIONS FUNCTIONS ADDED AT THE COMMUNITY LEVEL NEIGHBOURHOOD ' G r o c e r l e s V a r i e t y s t o r e s Men's & Boys' c 1 o t h i ng Women's c l o t h e s E a t i n g p l a c e s D r i n k i n g p l a c e s D r u g s t o r e s L i q u o r s t o r e s Jewe1ry C u r r e n c y ex-changes L a u n d r l e s Beauty s a l o n s B a r b e r s h o p s COMMUNITY SHOPPING GOODS Supermarket Supermarket Yes Hardware Department S t o r e s Candy s t o r e s B a k e r i e s Fam11y shoes F u r n i t u r e Radio-TV Real E s t a t e Phys1c i ans Optometr1 s t s Yes MAJOR REGIONAL Supermarket Yes Yes Yes FUNCTIONS ADDED AT SMALLER SHOPPING GOODS NUCLEATIONS FUNCTIONS PERFORMED ONLY BY MAJOR REGIONAL NUCLEATIONS B u t c h e r s M i111nery Ch11dren's wear Men's shoes Women's shoes App11ances Music s t o r e s G i f t and N o v e l t y Banks Mov1es Dent 1sts Yes Fam i1y c l o t h 1ng Custom ta1 Tors D r a p e r y s t o r e s Home f u r n i s h i n g s S t a t l o n e r s F l o r i s t s Camera s t o r e s Adapted from • Yeates 8 Garner, 1976. M.A. THESIS - U.B.C. HIERARCHY OF GOODS 8 S ERV ICES BLAKE B. HUDEMA FIG 2.1 2 1 i V R P Q Distance COMMUNITY LEVEL i y Q Distance NEIGHBOURHOOD LEVEL Model of  Shopping Center Characteristics Adapted from • B. J. Garner, 1966. FIG 2.2 M.A. THESIS-UBC B L A K E HUDEMA 22 S t r u c t u r a l t y p o l o g i e s a n d h i e r a r c h i c a l d e l i n e a t i o n s a r e d r a w n t o g e t h e r i n t o a n e f f e c t i v e f o r m b y B . J . B e r r y ( 1 9 6 3 ) ( s e e F i g u r e 2 . 4 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e m o d e l i s a n e f f e c t i v e t o o l f o r d e l i n e a t i o n a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i t d o e s h a v e s e v e r a l s h o r t c o m i n g s . T h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e n u c l e a t e d c e n t e r s d r a w f o u n d a t i o n f r o m C e n t r a l P l a c e T h e o r y o f i n t e r - u r b a n g e o g r a p h i c a l t h e o r y , r i b b o n a n d s p e c i a l i z e d a r e a c o n f i g u r a t i o n s h a v e n o t b e e n s h o w n t o c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s . F o r t h i s a n d o t h e r r e a s o n s , r i b b o n a n d s p e c i a l i z e d a r e a c o n f i g u r a t i o n s h a v e b e e n d e a l t w i t h t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e i n u r b a n s t u d i e s . 2 . 4 S t r i p C o m m e r c i a l C o n f i g u r a t i o n s T h e b u l k o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y o u t s i d e t h e CBD o c c u r s a l o n g m a j o r a r t e r i a l t h o r o u g h f a r e s . B y i t s v e r y n a t u r e , t h e c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p e n c o m p a s s e s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f u s e s a l o n g a p r i n c i p a l a c c e s s r o u t e , d e r i v i n g i t s c h a r a c t e r f r o m b o t h t h e n a t u r e o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d i t s r o l e a s a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e . I n t e r m s o f l a n d - u s e s , c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s a r e u s u a l l y h i g h l y m u l t i f u n c t i o n a l . T h e m u l t i p l i c i t y o f u s e s e v o l v e d p r i n c i p a l l y i n r e s p o n s e t o a n i n c r e a s e i n s p e c i a l i z a t i o n a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c t o r s . C o m m e r c i a l s t r i p s h a v e g e n e r a l l y m e t w i t h d i s f a v o r a m o n g c i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f s , " d e v e l o p m e n t . . . w a s o f a l a i s s e z - f a i r e , o r u n p l a n n e d n a t u r e a n d f a c t o r s s u c h a s a n e f f e c t i v e r e t a i l i n g m i x a n d l o c a t i o n s o f b u s i n e s s a n c h o r s w e r e n o t t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t " ( S i l b e r b e r g e t a l , 1 9 7 6 ) . D e s p i t e t h i s a t t i t u d e , a v a r i e t y o f c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p s h a v e e v o l v e d o v e r t h e p a s t t h i r t y y e a r s a n d t o d a y a r e c o n s i d e r e d 23 NUCLEATED 1. Central Area A. Apparel Shops 2. Regional B. Variety Shops 3. Community C. Gift Shops 4. Neighbourhood 0. Food Shops SPECIAL AREA 1. High Quality H. Entertainment 2. Medium Quality J. Market 3. Low Quality K. Appliances L. Furniture THE COMPLEX MODEL Adapted from-R.L. Davies, 1972. Structural Model of Central Area Retailing M.A. THESIS F , G BLAKE HUDEMA 2.3 CENTERS Planned or Unplanned RIBBONS CONV NEIGHB D * — COMMUNITY REGIONAL METROPOLITAN C. B. D. r~ — i TRADITIONAL SHOPPING STREET URBAN ARTERIAL NEW SUBURBAN RIBBON HIGHWAY ORIENTED •Planned (Plaza) • Unplanned SPECIALIZED AREAS |M 1„„, - AUTOMOBILE ROW I PRINTING DISTRICTS 1 ' ENTERTAINMENT DISTRICTS 1 "1 EXOTIC MARKETS 1 J FURNITURE DISTRICTS • MEDICAL CENTERS --Planned - Unplanned Adapted from1 Berry, 1963. CLASSIFICATION OF URBAN BUSINESS CONFIGURATIONS M.A. THESIS UBC BLAKE B. HUDEMA FIG 2.4 2 5 s ome o f t h e m o s t p r o m i n e n t c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s i n t h e c i t y , o u t s i d e o f t h e c o r e . C o m m e r c i a l s t r i p d i s t r i c t s g r e w f i r s t i n r e s p o n s e t o i m p r o v e m e n t s t o p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t w i t h i n t h e c i t i e s a n d l a t e r t o t h e w i d e s p r e a d u s e o f t h e a u t o m o b i l e . I n c r e a s e d m o b i l i t y a l l o w e d t h e s p r e a d o f p o p u l a t i o n s a n d c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e s f u r t h e r f r o m t h e c o r e . A r t e r i a l s t r i p s g r e w o u t o f t h e c o r e a s l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n s o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e s . G r e a t e r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n a n d d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n p e r i p h e r a l r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s g a v e r i s e t o m o r e i s o l a t e d , l e s s c o n t i n u o u s s t r i p d i s t r i c t s . C o m m e r c i a l s t r i p s t u d i e s h a v e g e n e r a l l y d e a l t w i t h t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f b u s i n e s s t y p e s i n t o s t a n d a r d c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . B e r r y , i n h i s w o r k o n S p o k a n e , h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t b u s i n e s s t y p e s " f e l l i n t o o r d e r l y h i e r a r c h i c a l p a t t e r n s o f s h o p p i n g c e n t e r a n d b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s " a n d " t h a t t h e s e p a t t e r n s w e r e a p r o d u c t o f t h e a r e a l g r o u p i n g a n d d i s p e r s i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o r e s a n d b u s i n e s s t y p e s " ( B e r r y , 1 9 6 3 ) . E x a m i n i n g r i b b o n d e v e l o p m e n t s , h e r e c o g n i z e d f o u r c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f b u s i n e s s t y p e s a s t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e c o r e i n c r e a s e d . F i r s t w e r e t h e i n n e r c i t y s t r i p s w h i c h c a t e r e d t o c o n v e n i e n c e g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s a t t h e l o w e s t l e v e l , t y p i c a l l y i n c l u d i n g g r o c e r y s t o r e s , d r u g s t o r e s , l a u n d r i e s , b e a u t y a n d b a r b e r s h o p s . Y e a t e s a n d G a r n e r ( 1 9 7 6 : 2 8 2 ) s t a t e d t h a t : " a l t h o u g h t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s s h a r e c o m m o n l o c a t i o n s w i t h t h o s e o f o t h e r r i b b o n s , t h e y d i f f e r i n t h a t t h e y c a t e r t o home b a s e d t r i p s , w h i c h may b e o f a m u l t i p u r p o s e n a t u r e . H e n c e t h e r e a r e m o r e l i n k a g e s b e t w e e n b u s i n e s s t y p e s i n t h e s e k i n d s o f r i b b o n d e v e l o p m e n t s t h a n i n a n y o f t h e o t h e r s . " T h e s e c o n d t y p e o f r i b b o n , t h e u r b a n a r t e r i a l 26 s t r i p , c a t e g o r i z e d t h e b u l k o f c o m m e r c i a l r i b b o n s : a u t o m o b i l e r e p a i r s h o p s , f u r n i t u r e s t o r e s , a p p l i a n c e d e a l e r s , o f f i c e e q u i p m e n t s a l e s o u t l e t s , f u n e r a l p a r l o r s , l u m b e r y a r d s a n d f u e l d e a l e r s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d a s c o m m o n u s e s . T h e s e u s e s a r e g e n e r a l l y s p a c e - i n t e n s i v e a n d a s s u c h t h e y a t t r a c t c u s t o m e r s o n s p e c i a l -p u r p o s e t r i p s . L i n k a g e s b e t w e e n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w e r e w e a k , a n d e x i s t e d o n l y b y v i r t u e o f l o c a t i o n a l o n g t h e s a m e s t r i p . L a n d v a l u e s a n d h e n c e , s i t e r e n t s , w e r e l o w e r t h a n r e t a i l n u c l e a t i o n s ; t h u s , e s t a b l i s h m e n t s l i k e t h e o n e s l i s t e d , w h i c h n e e d e d g o o d a c c e s s a n d l o w e r r e n t s , w e r e a t t r a c t e d t o t h e s e s t r i p s ( B e r r y , 1 9 6 3 ) . New s u b u r b a n r i b b o n s f o r m e d t h e t h i r d ( a n d m o s t r e c e n t ) c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f c o m m e r c i a l r i b b o n s . S e t i n t h e n e w e s t r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s o f t h e c i t y , t h e s e , l i k e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s h o p p i n g s t r e e t s , s e r v e a l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n w i t h l o w e r o r d e r g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s ( Y e a t e s a n d G a r n e r , 1 9 7 6 ) . C h a i n s t o r e s a n d m o d e r n d r i v e - t h r o u g h s t o r e s a r e o f t e n f o u n d a l o n g t h e s e s t r i p s . T h e f o u r t h t y p e o f s t r i p d e s c r i b e d b y B e r r y ( 1 9 6 3 ) a n d f u r t h e s t f r o m t h e c o r e , i s t h e h i g h w a y o r i e n t e d r i b b o n . T h i s " n a t u r a l " f o r m o f s t r i p e v o l v e s s t r i c t l y i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e d e m a n d s o f h i g h w a y m o t o r i s t s . H i g h w a y d e v e l o p m e n t s a r e g e n e r a l l y u n c o n t r o l l e d a s t h e y o f t e n l i e j u s t o u t s i d e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e c i t y . S c a t t e r e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o c c u p y t r a c t s o f l a n d w h i c h a r e l a r g e b y u r b a n s t a n d a r d s . H i g h w a y - o r i e n t e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e p a t r o n i z e d p r i m a r i l y b y t r a n s i e n t m o t o r i s t s o n " o n e s t o p " s h o p p i n g t r i p s . M o s t o f t h e e n t e r p r i s e s a l o n g t h e s e s t r i p s s u p p l y a u t o m o b i l e s e r v i c e , f o o d , a n d / o r l o d g i n g ( G a r r i s o n e t a l , 1 9 5 7 ) . S u c h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f r i b b o n c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s i s 27 h i g h l y g e n e r a l i z e d . M o s t c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n t h e c i t y a r e h y b r i d s o f t h e s e a n d o t h e r c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . T h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e r i b b o n s may v a r y : t r a d i t i o n a l s h o p p i n g s t r e e t s may b e s i t u a t e d i n p e r i p h e r a l l o c a t i o n s w h i l e h i g h w a y o r i e n t e d s t r i p s may a p p r o a c h i n n e r c i t y l o c a t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , m a n y s t u d i e s c o n c e n t r a t i n g o n c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p s h a v e u s e d t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c h e m e . M e r r y ( 1 9 5 7 ) i n h i s s t u d y o f a c o m m e r c i a l r i b b o n i n D e n v e r l o o k e d a t l o c a t i o n h a b i t s o f b u s i n e s s e s a l o n g a h i g h w a y . H i s v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d t r a f f i c v o l u m e s , d i r e c t i o n s o f t r a f f i c f l o w , a n d t h e e x t e n t o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d a r o u n d t h e s t r i p . He f o u n d t h a t t h e d e n s i t y o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s d e c r e a s e d w i t h d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e CBD ( w i t h m i n o r p e a k s a t m a j o r i n t e r s e c t i o n s ) , a n d t h a t t h e i n - b o u n d h i g h w a y l a n e s w h i c h c a r r i e d g r e a t e r v o l u m e s o f t r a f f i c , w e r e l i n e d w i t h g a s s t a t i o n s a n d a u t o d e a l e r s . M e r r y i d e n t i f i e d p a t t e r n s o f c l u s t e r i n g a n d d i s p e r s i o n . S t o r e s a g g l o m e r a t i n g i n t o h i g h d e n s i t y c l u s t e r s i n c l u d e d b e a u t y a n d b a r b e r s h o p s , g r o c e r y s t o r e s , c l o t h i n g o u t l e t s , h a r d w a r e a n d d r y g o o d s s h o p s , a n d d r i n k i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . A u t o m o b i l e d e a l e r s , a u t o r e p a i r s h o p s , c h a i n g r o c e r y s t o r e s , a n d i c e c r e a m p a r l o r s o c c u p i e d a w i d e r m o r e d i s p e r s e d a r e a . R e s t a u r a n t s , c l e a n e r s , l a u n d r o m a t s a n d f u r n i t u r e s t o r e s s h o w e d l i t t l e a f f i n i t y t o h i g h o r l o w d e n s i t y c l u s t e r s ( B e r r y , 1 9 6 3 ; G a r r i s o n , 1 9 5 9 ) . I n a s t u d y o f b u s i n e s s r i b b o n s i n C a p e T o w n , D . H . D a v i e s ( 1 9 6 0 ) r e a f f i r m s t h e n e e d f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a s a n e c e s s a r y s t e p i n l o n g - t e r m u r b a n p l a n n i n g . D a v i e s s u g g e s t s t h a t u s e s a l o n g V o o r t r e k k e r R o a d i n C a p e T o w n f a l l i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s : 28 " r i b b o n u s e s p r o p e r " , " n u c l e a t i o n s o r b e a d u s e s " a n d " i n d i f f e r e n t u s e s " . T h e f i r s t g r o u p i n c l u d e s s e r v i c e s t a t i o n s , f u e l s e l l e r s , b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s u p p l y c e n t e r s , a n d v a r i o u s h o u s e h o l d s e r v i c e a n d r e p a i r s h o p s . T h e s h o p s i n t h i s g r o u p i n g r e l y u p o n t h e f l o w o f t r a f f i c , a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l a r g e s i t e s , a n d l o w e r s i t e v a l u e s a s n e c e s s a r y a d j u n c t s t o t h e c o n d u c t a n c e o f b u s i n e s s . H i s s e c o n d g r o u p , i s s u s t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e p a t r o n a g e o f t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s . T h i s g r o u p i n g o f r e t a i l a n d s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s c o m p l e m e n t t h e r i b b o n u s e g r o u p a n d " d e p e n d u p o n l i n k a g e s m u c h a s d o s i m i l a r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s " ( D . H . D a v i e s , 1 9 6 0 : 4 6 ) . R e s t a u r a n t s , b a r s , h a r d w a r e a n d a p p l i a n c e s t o r e s w h i c h f o r m t h e t h i r d g r o u p s h o w e d l i t t l e t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s n u c l e a t i o n s o r d i s p e r s i o n , i n s t e a d l o c a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t r i p . D a v i e s c o n c l u d e d t h a t s t r i p c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s c o n t a i n n u c l e a t i o n s o f u s e s a n d t h a t a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e u s e s " c a n a s s i s t i n r o u t e [ t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ] p l a n n i n g b o t h c o n t r i b u t i n g t o a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e l o c a l a r e a a n d b y a i d i n g i n t h e d e l i n e a t i o n o f i t s v a r i o u s c o m p o n e n t s t h e r e b y p o i n t i n g t o s u i t a b l e s i t e s . T h e k i n d o f m e t h o d a d o p t e d h e r e c a r r i e d t h r o u g h m o r e f u l l y , s h o u l d b e a b l e t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s o l v i n g o f a n u m b e r o f l o c a l p l a n n i n g p r o b l e m s , n o t m e r e l y t h o s e r e l a t e d t o r o a d s a n d t r a f f i c " ( D . H . D a v i e s , 1 9 6 0 : 4 8 ) . C r i t i c i s m o f e a r l y c o m m e r c i a l r i b b o n s t u d i e s h a s b e e n l e v e l l e d b y B o a l a n d J o h n s o n ( 1 9 6 5 ) . T h e a u t h o r s n o t e d a l a c k o f c o n s e n s u s a m o n g u r b a n r e s e a r c h e r s a s t o w h a t f u n c t i o n a l l y c o n s t i t u t e s c o m m e r c i a l r i b b o n s . I n t h e i r r e v i e w o f s i x s t u d i e s ( i n c l u d i n g t h e t h r e e c i t e d a b o v e ) , B o a l a n d J o h n s o n p o i n t o u t a 29 c e r t a i n a m b i g u i t y a s t o t h e t y p e o f u s e s f o u n d o n r i b b o n s , l i s t i n g t h i r t y - o n e t y p e s r a n g i n g f r o m s e r v i c e s t a t i o n s t o b o u t i q u e s . T h e y g o o n f u r t h e r t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s a m b i g u i t y i s i n c r e a s e d " b y t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a v a r i e t y o f d e f i n i t i o n s u s e d t o d e l i n e a t e s u c h s t r e e t s " ( B o a l a n d J o h n s o n , 1 9 6 5 : 1 5 5 ) . On t h e m o r e p o s i t i v e s i d e , B o a l a n d J o h n s o n i d e n t i f y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e o v e r l a p o f l o c a t i o n a l a n d f u n c t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s : " i t i s p o s s i b l e t o v i e w t h e T r a i l , o n o n e h a n d , a s a s e r i e s o f l o c a t i o n s w i t h v a r y i n g a t t r i b u t e s s u i t a b l e f o r a w i d e r a n g e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , a s a s e r i e s o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a v a r i e t y o f f u n c t i o n a l m i x e s " ( B o a l a n d J o h n s o n , 1 9 6 5 : 1 5 9 ) ( s e e F i g u r e 2 . 5 ) . T h e a u t h o r s s u g g e s t e d t h a t e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a l o n g s t r i p s a r e t h e r e s u l t o f b o t h t r a n s i t o r y c u s t o m e r s a n d t h o s e o f a l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l n a t u r e . T h e y r e c o m m e n d l i m i t i n g t h e l e n g t h o f s t r i p s i n g e n e r a l a n d t h e n u m b e r o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a l o n g t h e s e s t r i p s i n p a r t i c u l a r . T h e i r v i e w s g e n e r a l l y c o u n t e r t h e " p o p u l a r d i s f a v o r " c o m m e r c i a l r i b b o n s h a v e r e c e i v e d f r o m p l a n n e r s a n d c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ( B o a l a n d J o h n s o n , 1 9 6 5 ) . I n t h e i r s e c o n d a r t i c l e , B o a l a n d J o h n s o n ( 1 9 6 8 ) e x p l a i n s ome o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o n c o m m e r c i a l r i b b o n s i n C a l g a r y . U s i n g B e r r y ' s e s t a b l i s h m e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c h e m e a n d t h e i r o w n " t r i p " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , t h e y i n t e r p r e t e d t h e r e s u l t s f r o m a s e r i e s o f p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s . E i g h t e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s t r i p s o f v a r y i n g l o c a t i o n u s e d i n t h e s t u d y w e r e c h o s e n a s i n t e r v i e w s i t e s ; h e r e , s h o p p e r s w e r e q u e s t i o n e d o n t h e i r t r i p r o u t e , o n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s v i s i t e d a n d o n t h e i r m o d e o f t r a v e l . T h e r e s u l t s LOCATIONAL SUITABLE 'EXTENSIVE" SITES FUNCTIONAL PROVIDING "SPECIFIC FUNCTION" TO WIDE AREA (USED CAR SHOPPING) S C R E E N I N G L o c a t i o n a l & F u n c t i o n a l " S c r e e e n i n g " o f F i r m s o n C o m m e r c i a l R i b b o n s . ( B o a l & J o h n s o n , 1 9 6 8 ) M.A. THESIS U.B.C. BLAKE B. HUDEMA co o FIG. 2.5 31 w e r e s u b j e c t e d t o p r i n c i p a l c o m p o n e n t a n a l y s i s y i e l d i n g f i v e g r o u p s o f s i m i l a r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . T h e g r o u p i n g a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t b o t h t h e a c t u a l t y p e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d t h e p a r t i c u l a r r i b b o n i n f l u e n c e t h e f u n c t i o n s o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o n t h e r i b b o n ( B o a l a n d J o h n s o n , 1 9 6 8 ) . T h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e a r t i c l e d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e l i n k a g e s b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a s d e f i n e d b y c u s t o m e r t r i p b e h a v i o u r . T h e " i n n e r t a n g e n t a l " r i b b o n , i d e n t i f i e d a s h a v i n g a h i g h d e g r e e o f s h o p p i n g a n d s e r v i c e c l u s t e r i n g , w a s s u p p o r t e d b y h i g h v o l u m e s o f s h o p p e r s . T h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e " r a d i a l " s t r i p , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h e r e w e r e l e s s l i k e l y t o c l u s t e r a n d , t h e r e f o r e , s h o w e d l i t t l e s i g n o f a g g l o m e r a t i v e l i n k a g e s . B o a l a n d J o h n s o n ( 1 9 6 8 ) s ummed u p t h e i r a r t i c l e w i t h a p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g y f o r t h e l o c a t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o n t h e s t r i p t o p o s i t i o n s o n o r p r o x i m a t e t o t h e s t r i p , d e p e n d i n g u p o n t h e r e l i a n c e o f t h e s e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o n p a s s i n g t r a f f i c a n d / o r t h e l o c a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d . T h e a r t i c l e i s o n e o f v e r y f e w t o m e n t i o n l a n d - u s e a n a l y s i s a s a t o o l t o a c h i e v e " a l a y o u t c l o s e r t o s ome s p e c i f i e d o p t i m u m " . ( B o a l a n d J o h n s o n , 1 9 6 8 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e y b e g a n a s l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n s o f t h e CBD a n d t h e " n a t u r a l " h i g h w a y s t r i p s , c o m m e r c i a l r i b b o n s now a r e e v i d e n t i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y c i t y . I n t h i s t h e s i s , t h e e m p h a s i s i s o n t h o s e c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p s i n t h e i n n e r c i t y . T h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n b r i e f l y a d d r e s s e s t h i s c a t e g o r y o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p . 32 2 . 5 I n n e r C i t y A s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e i r l o c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e i n n e r c i t y , c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p s h a v e u n d e r g o n e b o t h d r a m a t i c d e c l i n e s a n d g r o w t h . T h e i n n e r c i t y w a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e h u b o f c o m m e r c i a l , i n d u s t r i a l a n d c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y f o r u r b a n a g g l o m e r a t i o n s . S i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s i n s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c , a n d t e c h n o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f s o c i e t y o v e r t h e p a s t h a l f c e n t u r y h a v e m a n i f e s t e d t h e m s e l v e s i n a n u p h e a v e a l o f t h e " t r a d i t i o n a l " c i t y . R e s i d e n t i a l l a n d - u s e s a b a n d o n e d t h e i n n e r c i t y f o r m o r e d e s i r a b l e l o c a t i o n s i n t h e s u b u r b s ; c o m m e r c i a l u s e s s e e k i n g p r o x i m i t y t o c u s t o m e r s a n d i n d u s t r i a l u s e s i n s e a r c h o f a v a i l a b l e a n d a f f o r d a b l e s i t e s w e r e q u i c k t o f o l l o w . T h i s d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n h a s l e f t a v o i d i n t h e i n n e r c i t y , m a n y b u i l d i n g s a r e v a c a n t , d e c a y i n g , o r b l i g h t e d . T h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f t h e i n n e r a r e a o f s o m e c i t i e s h a s d e c l i n e d t o a p o i n t w h e r e o n l y t h e l o w e s t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l a s s e s o c c u p y t h i s a r e a . W h e r e p r o s p e r o u s i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s o n c e f l o u r i s h e d , l i g h t m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d w a r e h o u s i n g now c o n s t i t u t e t h e b u l k o f n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l a c t i v i t y . T h e c o r e o f t h e c i t y , h o w e v e r , h a s l a r g e l y e s c a p e d t h i s d e c a y . D u e t o h i g h v a l u e / d e s i r a b i l i t y , i t h a s a t t r a c t e d m a j o r d e v e l o p m e n t , p r i m a r i l y i n t h e f o r m o f f i n a n c i a l a n d i n f o r m a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s ( N a i s b e t t , 1 9 8 4 ) . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n a n d r e v i t a l i z a t i o n p r o g r a m s o f t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s a n d t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s w e r e a i m e d a t a r r e s t i n g t h i s t r e n d o f d e c a y w i t h i n t h e i n n e r c i t i e s w h i c h w a s w i d e s p r e a d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n C a n a d a , o u r c i t i e s f a r e d b e t t e r ; d e c a y a n d a b a n d o n m e n t w i t h i n i n n e r a r e a s h a s b e e n m i n i m a l i n c o m p a r i s o n , l a r g e l y d u e t o c o n t i n u a l r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n n e r c i t y l o c a t i o n s 33 ( L e y , 1 9 8 1 ) . L e y g o e s o n t o p o i n t o u t t h a t n o t o n l y h a v e C a n a d i a n c i t i e s a v o i d e d d e c a y , t h e y h a v e a c t u a l l y i n c r e a s e d t h e i n t e n s i t y o f i n n e r c i t y l a n d - u s e s . T h e m o d e r n c i t y , w h e t h e r A m e r i c a n o r C a n a d i a n , i s t y p i f i e d b y a z o n e o f o f f i c e / r e t a i l a c t i v i t y s u r r o u n d e d b y a z o n e o f m i x e d c o m m e r c i a l , i n d u s t r i a l , a n d r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d - u s e s ( P r e s t o n a n d G r i f f i n , 1 9 6 6 ; H o r w o o d a n d B o y c e , 1 9 5 9 ) . W h i l e t h e c o r e h a s g e n e r a l l y b e e n s p a r e d t h e i n n e r c i t y b l i g h t a n d o b s o l e s c e n c e , t h e a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g i t h a s b e e n l e s s f o r t u n a t e . O n l y now a r e v a c a n t i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s u n d e r g o i n g r e d e v e l o p m e n t t o r e s i d e n t i a l a n d c u l t u r a l u s e s . A m o v e t o r e p o p u l a t e t h e i n n e r c i t y w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s h a s b o l s t e r e d t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i n n e r c i t y w i t h v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f s u c c e s s . M i d d l e a n d u p p e r s o c i o -e c o n o m i c g r o u p s a r e b e i n g a t t r a c t e d b a c k t o t h e i n n e r c i t y , c l o s e t o t h e o f f i c e c o m p l e x e s w h i c h e m p l o y m a n y o f t h e m . H i g h e r i n c o m e r e s i d e n t s w i t h s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s h a v e p u s h e d d e n s i t i e s a n d l a n d v a l u e s u p w a r d ( A l e x a n d e r , 1 9 7 1 ) . I n v e s t m e n t i n t h e s e a r e a s h a s now b e c o m e d e s i r a b l e a n d i n n e r c i t y r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s a r e f l o u r i s h i n g i n s ome c a s e s . A m o n g a l l t h i s c h a n g e , v a r i o u s u s e s h a v e p e r s i s t e d . T y p i c a l l y , h o s p i t a l s l o c a t e d i n i n n e r c i t y l o c a t i o n s h a v e h a d t o r e m a i n , d u e i n p a r t t o m a s s i v e c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t s i n l a n d a n d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . C i t y h a l l s , s p o r t s f a c i l i t i e s , a n d c u l t u r a l s i t e s h a v e a l s o m a i n t a i n e d i n n e r c i t y l o c a t i o n s . D u r i n g t h e l a s t d e c a d e o r s o , m a j o r h o t e l s , o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s , a n d c o m m e r c i a l c o m p l e x e s h a v e m o v e d b a c k i n t o t h e i n n e r c i t y . S p i l l o v e r o f d e v e l o p m e n t f r o m t h e c o r e h a s p u s h e d l a n d v a l u e s u p a n d h a s g e n e r a l l y e n c o u r a g e d i n v e s t o r c o n f i d e n c e 34 i n t h e i n n e r c i t y l o c a t i o n s . 2.6 Summary T h i s c h a p t e r h a s l o o k e d f i r s t a t g e n e r a l i z e d l a n d - u s e t h e o r i e s , and t h e n a t t h o s e r e l a t i n g t o c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e a n d t h e s t r i p c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t w i t h i n t h e i r i n n e r c i t y c o n t e x t . Much o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e g r o w t h w i t h i n t h e c i t y h a s been h a p a z a r d , a r e s u l t o f f r a g m e n t e d g r o w t h r a t h e r t h a n o f c o n c e r n e d p l a n n i n g . I n t e r n a l d y n a m i c s o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e s a r e i m p o r t a n t p l a n n i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a nd a r e e x p l o r e d i n more d e t a i l i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . C H A P T E R T H R E E 36 C H A P T E R T H R E E L A N D U S E D Y N A M I C S 3 . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n T h e g e n e r a l i z e d l a n d - u s e m o d e l s e x a m i n e d i n C h a p t e r Two d e v e l o p a n a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e c i t y a n d i t s v a r i o u s d i s t r i c t s , b u t d o v e r y l i t t l e i n t h e w a y o f i l l u s t r a t i n g o r e x p l a i n i n g s ome o f t h e d y n a m i c p r o c e s s e s a c t u a l l y t a k i n g p l a c e . A m i c r o - a n a l y s i s o f t h e l a n d - u s e s t r u c t u r e s a n d a c t i v i t i e s i s n e c e s s a r y . C l e a r l y , e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g r e l i e s o n a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o c e s s e s o f l a n d - u s e c h a n g e . C o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s a r e t y p i f i e d b y a v a s t r a n g e o f b u i l d i n g s o c c u p i e d b y a n e v e n g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s . P a t t e r n s o f a c t i v i t y d i c t a t e t h e s h a p e s a n d s i z e s o f b u i l d i n g s , a l t h o u g h , a t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a r e c o n s t r a i n e d b y t h e r a n g e o f e x i s t i n g p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e s . L a n d u s e s t r u c t u r e r e s u l t s f r o m t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e t w o e l e m e n t s . S p a t i a l f o r m a r i s e s o u t o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n a c t i v i t y a n d s t r u c t u r e . I n t h i s s t u d y , o n e a c t i v i t y i n a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d a s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t , w h i l e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t w o o r m o r e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s d e f i n e l i n k a g e s . T h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d l i n k a g e g i v e s r i s e t o c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n . L o o k i n g a t t h e h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s e s o f g r o w t h a n d c h a n g e o f l a n d - u s e s , t h i s c h a p t e r e x a m i n e s t h e e f f e c t o f t h e s e p r o c e s s e s o n p a t t e r n s o f u s e . I s s u e s o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y , l i n k a g e s a n d e x t e r n a l e c o n o m i e s , a n d s p a t i a l p r o x i m i t y w i l l b e 37 c o n s i d e r e d . 3 . 2 L a n d U s e G r o w t h C o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e s t r u c t u r e a s i t s t a n d s t o d a y i s a " l e g a c y f r o m t h e p a s t a n d a p r o d u c t o f t h e p r e s e n t " ( P r e s t o n a n d G r i f f i n , 1 9 6 6 ) . I n c o n s t a n t c h a n g e , a n y a r e a r e p r e s e n t s o n l y a t r a n s i t o r y s t a g e i n i t s d e v e l o p m e n t ; e q u i l i b r i u m i s n e v e r r e a c h e d ( A l l p a s s , 1 9 6 8 ) . S u p p l y a n d d e m a n d s h i f t t h e b a l a n c e s o t h a t c u r r e n t l a n d - u s e s t r u c t u r e i s p e r e n n i a l l y o u t o f d a t e . G r o w t h t o w a r d s t h e e q u i - o p t i m u m i n v o l v e s t w o f a c t o r s : a n i n c r e a s e i n s i z e , a n d a n i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e t o b u i l d i n g s t o c k a n d u s e . G r o w t h i n v o l v e s t h e a l t e r a t i o n o f l a n d - u s e , l a n d v a l u e s , a n d t h e i n t e n s i t y o f u s e i n v a r i o u s l a n d - u s e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . U r b a n g r o w t h r e s u l t s i n t h e m a i n , f r o m t h e p r o c e s s e s o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n a n d d e c o n c e n t r a t i o n . A l t h o u g h o p p o s i t e i n f o r c e , t h e s e t w o y i e l d n e t g r o w t h d i f f e r e n t l y o v e r s p a c e : c o n c e n t r a t i o n b r i n g s a b o u t a n i n c r e a s e d d e m a n d f o r e x i s t i n g l a n d a n d b u i l d i n g s ; d e c o n c e n t r a t i o n t e n d s t o r e l i e v e t h i s c o m p e t i t i v e p r e s s u r e f o r l o c a t i o n . C o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d v a r i o u s f a t e s t h r o u g h t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e s e p r o c e s s e s . I n t h e p o s t - w a r y e a r s , d e c o n c e n t r a t i o n a c c o m p a n i e d b y s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n h a s h a d a d r a m a t i c e f f e c t u p o n i n n e r c i t y c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s . C o r e a r e a s h a v e l o s t r e t a i l a n d c u l t u r a l f u n c t i o n s t o t h e s u b u r b s , w h i l e s ome c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p s t r e e t s h a v e b e c o m e s u b j e c t t o d e c a y a n d b l i g h t . I n n e r c i t y s t r i p s h a v e s u f f e r e d i n a v a r i e t y o f w a y s . B l i g h t a n d d e c a y h a v e r e n d e r e d s ome s t r i p s u n d e s i r a b l e , w h i l e o t h e r s , h a v i n g w e a t h e r e d c o n t e m p o r a r y t r e n d s 38 i n c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , h a v e f l o u r i s h e d . P r o m o t i o n o f i n n e r c i t y h o u s i n g a n d o t h e r r e d e v e l o p m e n t e f f o r t s h a v e r e j u v e n a t e d m a n y o f t h e s e a r e a s - - f r e s h u s e s a r e o c c u p y i n g e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s a n d , w h e r e p r o f i t a b l e , new s t r u c t u r e s a r e b e i n g b u i l t . T h e m o s t v i s i b l e g r o w t h o f t h e s e d i s t r i c t s o c c u r s w h e n o n e l a n d - u s e i s " i n v a d e d " a n d g i v e s w a y t o a m o r e c o m p e t i t i v e o n e . D i s t r i c t s o f l o w i n t e n s i t y u s e s s u c h a s r e s i d e n t i a l a n d l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l a r e o f t e n s u b j e c t t o t h e e x p a n s i o n o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e s . E x p a n s i o n o c c u r s a l o n g p e r i p h e r a l l o c a t i o n s w h e r e t h e l a n d v a l u e s a r e l o w , w h e r e t h e r e a r e a v a i l a b l e s i t e s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d w h e r e t h e r e i s r e d u c e d r e s i s t a n c e t o d e v e l o p m e n t . A t t e m p t s b y u r b a n r e s e a r c h e r s t o e x p l a i n t h e i n v a s i o n a n d s u c c e s s i o n p r o c e s s e s h a v e g e n e r a l l y r e l i e d o n t h e m e t h o d s o f t h e p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s , o f t e n w i t h d u b i o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s . O r i g i n a l l y d e v e l o p e d b y p l a n t a n d a n i m a l e c o l o g i s t s t o d e s c r i b e t h e e v o l u t i o n o f p l a n t a n d a n i m a l c o m m u n i t i e s , i n v a s i o n a n d s u c c e s s i o n p r o c e s s e s h a v e f o u n d s o m e a p p l i c a b i l i t y i n u r b a n r e s e a r c h . I n t h e u r b a n s e t t i n g , i n v a s i o n a n d s u c c e s s i o n o f f e r o n e e x p l a n a t i o n o f l a n d - u s e s t r u c t u r e . B o u r n e ( 1 9 7 1 : 2 ) i d e n t i f i e d t h e m e c h a n i s m d r i v i n g t h e p r o c e s s , " i n t h e o r y e a c h a r e a w i t n e s s e s a s e l e c t i v e a d a p t a t i o n o f t h o s e f u n c t i o n s f o r w h i c h i t i s b e s t s u i t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e w h i c h a r e c a p a b l e o f o u t b i d d i n g o t h e r s i n t h e c o m p e t i t i o n f o r l o c a t i o n " . W o r k b y G r i f f i n a n d P r e s t o n ( 1 9 6 8 ) o n t h e i n n e r c i t y h a v e s h o w n t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e p r o c e s s e s . O u t w a r d e x p a n s i o n i s n o t , h o w e v e r , a s m o o t h p r o c e s s . D e v e l o p m e n t u s u a l l y o c c u r s o n a s i t e - b y - s i t e 39 b a s i s , r e s u l t i n g i n s u c e s s i o n b e i n g a v e r y s p o r a d i c p r o c e s s ( S i m , 1 9 8 2 ) . A s B o u r n e ( 1 9 7 1 ) s t a t e s , " s u c c e s s i o n t e n d s t o b e c o m p l e x , • d i s c o n t i n u o u s i n b o t h s p a c e a n d t i m e , s l o w i n p a c e a n d t o c o n t a i n a s t r o n g p r o b a b l i s t i c b a s i s . " I n v a s i o n a n d s u c c e s s i o n , w h i l e s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e m o r e c o m p e t i t i v e u s e s , h a v e t h e e f f e c t o f b r e a k i n g t r a d i t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n a n d l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n s . P e r i p h e r a l g r o w t h i s a m o r e d r a m a t i c p r o c e s s , t h o u g h m u c h s l o w e r t h a n t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f u s e s w i t h i n e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s . 3 . 3 L a n d U s e C h a n g e T h e c h a n g e o f u s e w i t h i n c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s i s o n e o f t h e m o s t c o m m o n f o r m s o f u r b a n c h a n g e . T h i s e v o l u t i o n o f u s e s i n e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s i s o f t e n o v e r l o o k e d , b e c a u s e o f t h e l a c k o f i m m e d i a t e d i s r u p t i o n t h a t t h e s e c h a n g e s i m p o s e o n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . W h e r e t h e e c o n o m y i s h e a l t h y , t h e s e c h a n g e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y q u i c k . R a t e s o f c h a n g e c a n b e p h e n o m e n a l . C o w a n ( 1 9 6 7 ) s h o w s t h a t f i f t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h i n F i t z r o y S q u a r e i n L o n d o n h a d o c c u p i e d t h e i r p r e m i s e s f o r l e s s t h a n t h e t w o y e a r s p r i o r t o h i s s t u d y . C h a n g e s o c c u r a s u s e s b e c o m e l e s s s u i t e d t o l o c a t i o n s a n d o t h e r , m o r e s u i t a b l e u s e s , d i s p l a c e t h e m . C h a n g e s , h o w e v e r , a r e n o t a l w a y s a b r u p t . F o r a n u m b e r o f r e a s o n s , u s e s o p e r a t e u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a r e n o t t o t h e i r b e s t a d v a n t a g e : s h o p o w n e r s may m a i n t a i n a l o c a t i o n i n h o p e s o f a m o r e p r o s p e r o u s f u t u r e o r t h e y may b e w a i t i n g t o o c c u p y a new s i t e . L a n d - u s e c h a n g e s , o n t h e w h o l e , r e s u l t f r o m m a r k e t f o r c e s a n d p u b l i c p o l i c y e f f e c t s : 40 ( a ) f u n c t i o n a l o b s o l e s c e n c e - w h e r e a n o p t i m u m f i t b e t w e e n b u i l d i n g o r s i t e a n d e s t a b l i s h m e n t d i v e r g e s s o m u c h s o a s t o c a u s e a m o v e o n t h e p a r t o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t ( S i m , 1 9 8 2 ) ; ( b ) c o m m u n i t y o b s o l e s c e n c e - w h e r e t h e b u s i n e s s v o l u m e d r o p s i n r e s p o n s e t o a c o m m u n i t y w i d e a l t e r a t i o n o f i t s t r a d e b a l a n c e , p e d e s t r i a n o r t r a f f i c f l o w s ( S i m , 1 9 8 2 ) ; ( c ) e x p a n s i o n o f t h e CBD - w h e r e i n v a s i o n a n d s u c c e s s i o n a r e o p e r a t i v e p r o c e s s e s ( S i m , 1 9 8 2 ) ; ( d ) r e z o n i n g - w h e r e u p z o n i n g a n d d o w n z o n i n g h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t u p o n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f g r o w t h a n d c h a n g e i n l a n d - u s e s ; a n d ( e ) c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e d e v e l o p m e n t - w h e r e z o n i n g i s s u e s may s e t p r e c e d e n t s a n d r e s u l t i n l a n d - u s e c h a n g e s i n s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s . B o u r n e ( 1 9 7 1 ) a n d S i m ( 1 9 8 2 ) h a v e s h o w n t h a t l a n d - u s e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e i n t r a d i t i o n a l c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s w h e r e e x i s t i n g r e t a i l i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v e r e t a i n e d l o c a t i o n s . T h e i n v a s i o n o f o f f i c e d e v e l o p m e n t i n t o t h e s e t r a d i t i o n a l r e t a i l i n g d i s t r i c t s i s o n e o f t h e m a j o r i s s u e s o f c o n t e m p o r a r y c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e p l a n n i n g . C h a n g e h e r e i s s p o r a d i c a n d d i s c o n t i n u o u s i n b o t h t i m e a n d s p a c e . A r e a s o f l o w e r a c c e s s i b i l i t y , a n d , t h e r e f o r e , o f g r e a t e r u n c e r t a i n t y a s t o p r o f i t a b i l i t y , t e n d t o u n d e r g o a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f c h a n g e ( S i m , 1 9 8 2 ) . 3 . 3 . 1 R e d e v e l o p m e n t T h e m o s t d r a m a t i c f o r m o f i n t e r n a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t h e r e p l a c e m e n t o f e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s . C o n s t r u c t i o n o f new b u i l d i n g s f o l l o w c l o s e l y t h e t r e n d s i n l o c a l a n d n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c c y c l e s , o c c u r r i n g t o w a r d s l a t t e r s t a g e s o f u p s w i n g s w h e n t h e m o n e y s u p p l y i s p l e n t i f u l . O n c e f e a s i b l e , c o n s t r u c t i o n g e n e r a l l y p r o c e e d s u n d e r a p r o f i t m o t i v e b y t h e o w n e r . R e p l a c e m e n t s t r u c t u r e s , w h i c h a r e u s u a l l y l a r g e r a n d o f g r e a t e r 41 i n t e n s i t y o f u s e t h a n t h e o n e s t h e y h a v e s u p p l a n t e d , f a c i l i t a t e a g r e a t e r r a n g e o f c o m m e r c i a l f u n c t i o n s . S t r u c t u r e s a n d a c t i v i t i e s a r e s e l d o m c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e o r i e s o f u r b a n l a n d - u s e . , e v e n t h o u g h t h e y h a v e s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s u p o n t h e a c t i v i t i e s a n d r a t e s o f g r o w t h a n d c h a n g e w i t h i n t h e u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t . O n c e b u i l d i n g s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d , t h e y a r e c o n t i n u a l l y m o d i f i e d i n r e s p o n s e t o c o n c e r n s o f g e n e r a l m a i n t e n a n c e a n d c h a n g i n g u s e . W h e r e b u i l d i n g s c a n n o t b e a l t e r e d w i t h i n s e t p e r f o r m a n c e p a r a m e t e r s t o a c c o m m o d a t e t h e n e e d s o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t , a u s e c h a n g e i s i m m i n e n t . T a k e n t o t h e e x t r e m e , d e m o l i t i o n a n d r e p l a c e m e n t w i l l b e c o m e v i a b l e o p t i o n s . L e a n a n d G o o d a l l ( 1 9 6 8 ) s u m m a r i z e t h e l i f e o f a b u i l d i n g : T h e e c o n o m i c l i f e o f s o m e t h i n g a s d u r a b l e a s a b u i l d i n g v a r i e s w i d e l y i n p r a c t i c e a n d e n d s n o t b e c a u s e t h e s t r u c t u r e i s p h y s i c a l l y w o r n o u t b u t b e c a u s e o f c h a n g e i n d e m a n d , r e f l e c t i n g a l t e r a t i o n s i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l m e r i t s , i n e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l , a n d t e c h n o l o g i c a l s t a n d a r d s , a n d i n m a t e r i a l s u s e d a n d s e r v i c e s e x p e c t e d i n m o d e r n b u i l d i n g s . S i n c e c h a n g e i s c o n t i n u a l l y t a k i n g p l a c e , a n y b u i l d i n g c a n o n l y b e i n l i n e w i t h c u r r e n t s t a n d a r d s d u r i n g t h e e a r l i e s t y e a r s o f i t s e c o n o m i c l i f e a n d w i l l b e c o m e l e s s w e l l a d a p t e d t o t h e h i g h e s t p e r f o r m a n c e o f i t s f u n c t i o n s a s t i m e p a s s e s . A l l b u i l d i n g s t h e r e f o r e , b e c o m e p r o g r e s s i v e l y o b s o l e t e , a l t h o u g h t h e p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g i t s e l f a n d i t s b a s i c e q u i p m e n t i s s e l d o m a p r i m a r y c r i t e r i o n o f o b s o l e s c e n c e . T h e p h y s i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c l i f e s p a n o f b u i l d i n g s a r e n o t t h e s a m e , f o r t h e e c o n o m i c l i f e o f b u i l d i n g s i s d e t e r m i n e d p r i m a r i l y b y t h e e a r n i n g p o w e r o f t h a t b u i l d i n g r a t h e r t h a n b y i t s s t r u c t u r a l d u r a b i l i t y . T h e p h y s i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c l i v e s o f b u i l d i n g s w o u l d o n l y b e i d e n t i c a l i n s u c h c a s e s a s s o u n d b u i l d i n g s a r e c o m p l e t e l y d e s t r o y e d b y f i r e , e t c . S o o n e r o r l a t e r t h e d e c i s i o n h a s t o b e t a k e n t o e n d t h e u s e o f t h e b u i l d i n g a n d r e d e v e l o p i n t h e m o s t p r o f i t a b l e w a y . R e d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h r e p l a c e m e n t d e p e n d s u p o n a n u m b e r o f f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g t h e a g e o r o b s o l e s c e n c e o f t h e s t r u c t u r e , o w n e r s h i p p a t t e r n s , p o t e n t i a l f o r f u t u r e g a i n a n d t h e o v e r a l l 42 g r o w t h i n v a r i o u s s e c t o r s o f t h e e c o n o m y ( B o u r n e , 1 9 7 1 ) . A g e a n d o b s o l e s c e n c e , t h o u g h i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s , d o n o t n e c e s s a r i l y d i c t a t e r e p l a c e m e n t . O l d e r b u i l d i n g s c o n t i n u e t o b e u s e d w h i l e n e w e r b u i l d i n g s may b e r e p l a c e d ( C o w a n , 1 9 6 7 ) . W h e r e p r o p e r t i e s a r e o w n e d b y a n u m b e r o f i n t e r e s t s , r e p l a c e m e n t b e c o m e s d i f f i c u l t . P o t e n t i a l f o r f u t u r e g a i n f r o m t h e s t r u c t u r e , w h e r e r e p l a c e m e n t r e l i e s o n a n i n c r e a s e i n b u s i n e s s d e m a n d , i s i n d i c a t i v e o f , o r p r o j e c t e d f r o m , g e n e r a l e c o n o m i c t r e n d s . D e l a y s i n r e p l a c e m e n t may o c c u r w h e r e i n t e r v e n i n g u s e s o c c u p y t h e b u i l d i n g b e y o n d i t s e x p e c t e d e c o n o m i c l i f e . 3 . 4 L a n d U s e P a t t e r n i n g T h e n e t e f f e c t o f p a s t a n d p r e s e n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d l a n d -u s e c h a n g e h a s b e e n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d l a n d - u s e d i s t r i c t s . A t a m a c r o l e v e l , c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s a r e d i s c e r n a b l e f r o m i n d u s t r i a l , w h i c h a r e i n t u r n d i s c e r n a b l e f r o m r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . P a t t e r n s o f l a n d u s e a r e a l s o e v i d e n t a t i n t r a - d i s t r i c t l e v e l s . T h u s , w i t h i n c o m m e r c i a l , i n d u s t r i a l a n d r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , p a t t e r n s o f v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s a n d s t r u c t u r e s a r e i d e n t i f i a b l e . U p t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , t h e o r e t i c a l w o r k o n t h e s e p a t t e r n s i s s c a n t , a n d , w h e r e a v a i l a b l e , s h o w l i t t l e c o n s e n s u s . A n u m b e r o f f a c t o r s c a u s e t h e c l u s t e r i n g o f l a n d - u s e s w i t h i n c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s . P r i m a r y a m o n g t h e s e i s t h e f a c t t h a t e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h e n l o o k i n g f o r a s i t e a r e m o t i v a t e d b y p r o f i t . T h e y s e e k a l o c a t i o n w h i c h w i l l e n h a n c e r e v e n u e s , o n e a c c e s s i b l e t o c u s t o m e r s a n d t o s u p p l i e s , i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e c o s t s . B e c a u s e s m a l l s p e c i a l i z e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e a f f e c t e d b y 43 a n e t w o r k o f l i n k a g e s w i t h c u s t o m e r s , s u p p l i e r s , a n d c o m p e t i t o r s , p r o x i m a t e l o c a t i o n s b e c o m e n e c e s s a r y . C l u s t e r i n g r e s u l t s f r o m t h i s d e s i r e b y f i r m s , l i n k e d b y t h e m o v e m e n t o f p e o p l e , g o o d s , s e r v i c e s , a n d i n f o r m a t i o n , t o l o c a t e i n p r o x i m i t y . C l e a r l y a c c e s s i b i l i t y a n d l i n k a g e s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e e x t e r n a l e c o n o m i e s , a r e m a j o r d e t e r m i n a n t s o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n i n g . 3 . 4 . 1 A c c e s s i b i l i t y A c c e s s i b i l i t y a f f e c t s t h e c o s t o f m o v i n g p e o p l e , g o o d s , a n d i n f o r m a t i o n b e t w e e n l o c a t i o n s . T h e t i m e n e c e s s a r y f o r t r a v e l b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d t h e c o s t o f t h a t t i m e c l e a r l y o u t w e i g h t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e i n c o n v e n i e n c e o f d i s t a n c e i s t h e o n l y a c c e s s i b i l i t y v a r i a b l e . A c c e s s i b i l i t y c o n f e r s b e n e f i t s u p o n b o t h c u s t o m e r s a n d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , a n d i n a d d i t i o n , h i g h l y a c c e s s i b l e s i t e s c a n s e r v e t h e g r e a t e s t n u m b e r o f c u s t o m e r s . S e r v i c e d b y e f f i c i e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m s , a c c e s s i b l e s i t e s a r e g e n e r a l l y c l o s e t o h i g h v o l u m e r o u t e s a n d k e y i n t e r s e c t i o n s . L e a n a n d G o o d a l l ( 1 9 6 8 ) s u g g e s t t h a t t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f t h e c i t y c o r e i s t h e k e y f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g u r b a n l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n . T h e g r e a t e r t h e n e e d f o r m o v e m e n t o f g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , t h e g r e a t e r t h e r o l e a c c e s s i b i l i t y p l a y s i n t h e u r b a n p a t t e r n . I n c r e a s e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y a l s o a l l o w s g r e a t e r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n b e c a u s e a l a r g e r t r a d e a r e a i s a v a i l a b l e . 44 3 . 4 . 2 L i n k a g e s a n d E x t e r n a l E c o n o m i e s Two f u r t h e r c o n c e p t s , l i n k a g e s a n d a g g l o m e r a t i o n e c o n o m i e s , c o m b i n e w i t h a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o g i v e a c o m p r e h e n s i v e v i e w o f l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s a s t h e y r e l a t e t o l a n d - u s e . L i n k a g e s r e f e r t o t h e c o r r i d o r s o f m o v e m e n t o f g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , w h i l e a g g l o m e r a t i o n e c o n o m i e s r e f e r t o t h e c o s t r e d u c t i o n s w h i c h a r e a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f l o c a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o T o w n r o e ( 1 9 7 0 : 1 8 ) , " T h e c o n c e p t s o f ' l i n k a g e ' a n d ' e x t e r n a l e c o n o m i e s ' h a v e b e e n u s e d t o s t r e s s b o t h t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s i z e a n d t h e p a t t e r n s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n u r b a n a r e a s . . . . " W h i l e T o w n r o e i s s p e a k i n g i n r e f e r e n c e t o i n d u s t r i a l l a n d - u s e s , i t i s g e n e r a l l y h e l d t h a t l i n k a g e s a n d a g g l o m e r a t i o n e c o n o m i e s a r e i m p o r t a n t t o c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e s ( A . J . S c o t t , 1 9 8 3 , 1 9 8 2 ; F e r n i e , 1 9 7 7 ; a n d G o d d a r d , 1 9 7 3 ) . A l e x a n d e r ( 1 9 7 4 : 1 5 ) s u p p o r t s t h i s v i e w , m a k i n g r e f e r e n c e s t o c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e s i n t h e CBD o f P e r t h , A u s t r a l i a . " [ T h e ] s i g n i f i c a n c e o f l i n k a g e s ( o r i n n o n -j a r g o n t e r m s , c o n n e c t i o n s ) b e t w e e n a c t i v i t i e s f o r p u r p o s e s o f t h e i r o p e r a t i o n h a s a l r e a d y b e e n p o i n t e d t o a g e n e r a l l o c a t i o n f a c t o r w h i c h d r a w s a c t i v i t i e s t o t h e c i t y c e n t e r . B u t l i n k a g e s may a l s o b e i m p o r t a n t o n a m o r e d e t a i l e d l e v e l a s t h e y a p p e a r t o a f f e c t c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e c e n t r a l a r e a . " L i n k a g e s i n v o l v e t h e t r a n s f e r o f p e o p l e , g o o d s , s e r v i c e s , a n d i n f o r m a t i o n b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . L i n k a g e s i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g o r i n d u s t r y m u s t f a c i l i t a t e t h e h a n d l i n g o f t a n g i b l e g o o d s ( i . e . r a w m a t e r i a l s a n d f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s ) . O f f i c e l i n k a g e s d i f f e r ; o f f i c e s d e a l i n i n t a n g i b l e s a n d s e r v i c e s a n d d e p e n d o n c o m m u n i c a t i o n l i n k a g e s f o r t h e t r a n s f e r o f i n f o r m a t i o n ( i . e . t e l e p h o n e s , t e l e p r i n t e r s , a n d o t h e r 45 t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m s ) . S e r v i c e a n d r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s r e q u i r e a v a r i e t y o f b o t h t a n g i b l e ( p r o d u c t - o r i e n t e d ) a n d i n t a n g i b l e ( i n f o r m a t i o n ) g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s . M u c h o f t h e s t u d y o f t h e s e l i n k s b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a s b e e n b a s e d o n i n d u s t r i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . A s i g n i f i c a n t b o d y o f l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d i n A . J . S c o t t ( 1 9 8 3 , 1 9 8 2 ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t l i n k a g e s t e n d t o a f f e c t e s t a b l i s h m e n t l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s i n i n d u s t r i a l a n d o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . T h e r e i s a g e n e r a l c o n s e n s u s t h a t t h e s e l i n k s a r e a l s o f o u n d i n t h e r e t a i l a n d s e r v i c e c o m p o n e n t s o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d u s e ( A l e x a n d e r , 1 9 7 4 ; R a n n e l l s , 1 9 5 6 ) . R a n n e l l s h a s p r o v i d e d o n e o f t h e b e t t e r t a x o n o m i e s o f l i n k a g e s w i t h i n t h e u r b a n c o n t e x t : ( i ) C o m p e t i t i v e l i n k a g e s - e a c h e s t a b l i s h m e n t s t r i v e s t o h o l d o r i n c r e a s e i t s own s h a r e o f t h e m a r k e t , f o r g o o d s a s w e l l a s s e r v i c e s , d e a l i n g e i t h e r w i t h a g e n e r a l i z e d p u b l i c , w i t h g r o u p s o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , o r w i t h a s i n g l e e s t a b l i s h m e n t . C o m p e t i t i o n i s s o a l l -p e r v a s i v e t h a t e x a m p l e s a r e l e g i o n , f r o m n e w s t a n d s t o p u b l i s h e r s , f r o m p e d d l a r s t o d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e s . i i ) C o m p l e m e n t a r y l i n k a g e s - b o t h e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s u p p l y t h e s a m e m a r k e t o r a s i n g l e c u s t o m e r - e s t a b l i s h m e n t w i t h g o o d s o r s e r v i c e s w h i c h a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d . T h e p r o d u c t s o f b o t h e s t a b l i s h m e n t s may b e m u t u a l l y i n t e r d e p e n d e n t ; o r t h e p r o d u c t o f o n e e s t a b l i s h m e n t may s u p p l e m e n t t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e o t h e r . E x a m p l e s o f b o t h k i n d s a b o u n d a m o n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s u p p l y i n g t h e " b i t s a n d p i e c e s " a n d s u b a s s e m b l i e s o f m a n u f a c t u r e d g o o d s o f a l l s o r t s t o t h e p r i m e m a n u f a c t u r i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , f r o m m e n s c l o t h i n g t o m o t o r c a r s . i i ) C o m m e n s a l l i n k a g e s - b o t h e s t a b l i s h m e n t s u s e t h e s a m e f a c i l i t i e s o r d e p e n d u p o n t h e s a m e s u p p l i e r o r t h e s a m e m a r k e t . T h e r e may b e n o d i r e c t b u s i n e s s r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s c o m m e n s a l l y 1 i n k e d . i v ) A n c i l l a r y l i n k a g e s - s e r v i c e s a r e e s p e c i a l l y c o m m o n i n m a j o r b u s i n e s s c e n t r e s w h e r e c a f e t e r i a s , c i g a r s t o r e s , a n d v a r i o u s " c o n s u m e r s e r v i c e " e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s e r v e t h e w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n ( p . 2 9 ) . 46 L i n k a g e s w i t h i n v a r i o u s s e c t o r s o f t h e e c o n o m y a r e n o t u n i f o r m ; r a t h e r t h e y d e p e n d u p o n p r o d u c t i o n a n d m a r k e t i n g p r a c t i c e s , t h e i n v e n t o r y o f o t h e r l a n d - u s e s w i t h i n t h e a r e a a n d t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f t h e s e l i n k e d u s e s w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t . A c c o r d i n g t o T o w n r o e ( 1 9 7 0 : 1 9 ) , " l i n k a g e s w i t h i n v a r i o u s s e c t o r s o f t h e e c o n o m y t e n d t o b e f o u n d m o r e s t r o n g l y i n p r o c e s s e s t h a t a r e f a i r l y s p e c i a l i z e d b y t h e s k i l l r a t h e r t h a n t h e c a p i t a l m a c h i n e r y i n v o l v e d , a n d w h i c h p r o d u c e n o n - u n i f o r m a n d c u s t o m b u i l t g o o d s . T h e p r o c e s s h a s t o b e s p e e d i l y a d a p t a b l e a n d s e n s i t i v e t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e . T h e s t r o n g l y l i n k e d f i r m t e n d s t o b e s m a l l i n s i z e , t o b e h o u s e d i n a s i n g l e p l a n t , a n d t o h a v e a n o w n e r - m a n a g e r , w i t h a h i g h l e v e l o f d i r e c t m a n a g e m e n t i n v o l v e m e n t i n p r o d u c t i o n [ m a r k e t i n g ] . " T h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f u r b a n l a n d - u s e s a n d t h e f l o w o f l i n k a g e s i m p l i e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f e x t e r n a l e c o n o m i e s o f s c a l e ( S e e F i g u r e 3 . 1 ) . T h e s e e c o n o m i e s a c c r u e t o e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e i t h e r a s a l o w e r i n g o f p r o d u c t i o n o r m a r k e t i n g c o s t s o r a s a n i n c r e a s e i n r e v e n u e o f o u t p u t , c a u s e d b y i n t e r n a l o r e x t e r n a l f o r c e s w i t h i n t h e e c o n o m y . A g g l o m e r a t i o n e c o n o m i e s a r e o n e t y p e o f e x t e r n a l e c o n o m y w h i c h t r y t o e x p l a i n l o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ( W e b e r , 1 9 0 9 ) . A g g l o m e r a t i o n e c o n o m i e s a r e o f f o u r t y p e s ( T o w n r o e , 1 9 7 0 ) : ( a ) I n t e r n a l S c a l e s o f E c o n o m y - a r e d u c t i o n i n c o s t s p e r u n i t a s a r e s u l t o f a n i n c r e a s e i n s i z e o f p r o d u c t i o n i n p u t s o r p l a n o f a n e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y . ( b ) E c o n o m i e s o f L o c a l i z a t i o n - a g g r e g a t i o n o f c o m p l e m e n t a r y o r r e l a t e d r a n g e o f i n d u s t r i e s b e n e f i t d u e t o : ( i ) a p o o l i n g o f s p e c i a l i z e d l a b o r ; ( i i ) a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s ; a n d ( i i i ) a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f b u y e r s . ( c ) E c o n o m i e s o f U r b a n i z a t i o n - e x t e r n a l e c o n o m i e s w h e r e u n l i k e p l a n t s c o n g r e g a t e , u s i n g c ommon f a c i l i t i e s o f c o m m e r c e a n d b a n k i n g , t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s , e d u c a t i o n , s u b c o n t r a c t i n g , a n d w i d e r a n g e o f a d a p t a b l e s k i l l s . EXTERNAL ECONOMIES MAJOR FUNCTIONAL LINKAGES OF ESTABLISHMENTS SERVICE PROVIDER CUSTOMERS SUPPLIER ESTABLISHMENT Tt ORIGINATOR OF SUBCONTRACT WORK FIRMS SUBCONTRACTING FOR EST FROM' LLOYD AND DICKEN . 1972:131 E x t e r n a l E c o n o m i e s ( L l o y d & D i c k e n s , 1 9 7 2 ) ' M.A. THESIS U.B.C. BLAKE B. HUDEMA FIG. 3.1 48 " T h e s e l a t t e r t y p e s o f e c o n o m i e s a r e s o m e t i m e s c a l l e d e c o n o m i e s o f s p a t i a l j u x t a p o s i t i o n " , ( d ) T r a n s f e r E c o n o m i e s - t h e s a v i n g s i n t r a n s p o r t c o s t s t o e a c h f i r m a s a r e s u l t o f l o c a t i n g a d j a c e n t t o o n e a n o t h e r ( p . 1 8 ) . S m a l l e r f i r m s , a s i d e n t i f i e d a b o v e , o p e r a t i n g i n a n u n s t a b l e o r u n p r e d i c t a b l e m a r k e t c o n s i d e r e x t e r n a l e c o n o m i e s a n i m p o r t a n t l o c a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a ( Y a v i t z a n d S t a n b a c k , 1 9 7 3 ) . T h e s e f i r m s m u s t m a i n t a i n c l o s e t i e s ( d i s t a n c e ) w i t h m a r k e t s , c u s t o m e r s , s u p p l i e r s , a n d c o m p e t i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f l i n k a g e a n d a g g l o m e r a t i o n e c o n o m i e s h a s d i r e c t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e s p a t i a l a r r a n g e m e n t o f l a n d - u s e s w i t h i n u r b a n a r e a s ( A . J . S c o t t , 1 9 8 3 ; F e r n i e , 1 9 7 7 ; a n d T o w n r o e , 1 9 7 0 ) . A s S c o t t s u g g e s t s , E v e n t h o u g h c o n s i d e r a b l e c a u t i o n i s i n o r d e r i n a n y a t t e m p t t o a r g u e d i r e c t l y f r o m e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e t o s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e [ i e . L i n k a g e s t o l o c a t i o n ] , t h e s e l a t t e r f i n d i n g s a l l s u g g e s t t h a t s o m e k i n d s o f e n t e r p r i s e , a t c e r t a i n l e v e l s o f t h e t e c h n i c a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r [ s p e c i a l i z a t i o n ] , s e e m t o b e h i g h l y i n t e r d e p e n d e n t i n b o t h f u n c t i o n a l a n d g e o g r a p h i c a l t e r m s ( p . 1 5 ) . C o s t s o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d r e l o c a t i o n c a n b e e x c e s s i v e i n r e l a t i o n t o o u t p u t . E s t a b l i s h m e n t s g e n e r a l l y s e e k i n g t o r e d u c e t h e c o s t s o f d i s t a n c e t h r o u g h s p a t i a l c l u s t e r i n g ( A . J . S c o t t , 1 9 8 3 ) . S u p p l i e r s w i l l w a n t t o l o c a t e c l o s e t o d e m a n d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , w h i l e d e m a n d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i l l w a n t t o l o c a t e c l o s e t o s u p p l i e r s t o e n s u r e s u p p l y . S c o t t ( 1 9 8 3 : 2 0 ) s u m m a r i z e s t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f e c o n o m i e s a n d l o c a t i o n a s f o l l o w s , " i n d u s t r y a n d o f f i c e s t h a t a r e s m a l l i n s c a l e , u n s t a n d a r d i z e d , l a b o r i n t e n s i v e , a n d f u n c t i o n a l l y i n t e r r e l a t e d f i n d t h e m s e l v e s u n d e r h e a v y p r e s s u r e t o l o c a t e c l o s e t o o n e a n o t h e r i n g e o g r a p h i c a l s p a c e . " T h r e e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s e 49 r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d p a t t e r n s ( S c o t t , 1 9 8 3 ) : ( a ) T r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e n e f i t s o f c l u s t e r i n g r e p r e s e n t a n e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y i m p o r t a n t a g g l o m e r a t i o n e c o n o m y f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . ( b ) S p e c i a l i z e d a g g l o m e r a t i o n e f f e c t s a r e , a m o n g o t h e r s , ( i ) s m a l l u n s t a n d a r i z e d f i r m s f a c i n g c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g s e t s o f i n p u t a n d o u t p u t r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; a n d ( i i ) c l u s t e r i n g a l l o w s a m o r e e f f i c i e n t d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f m a r k e t i n f o r m a t i o n . ( c ) S p e c i a l i z e d r o l e o f s u b c o n t r a c t i n g o c c u r s i n t w o f o r m s : ( i ) c o m p l e m e n t a r y , w h e r e w o r k i s s u b c o n t r a c t e d b e c a u s e i t c a n n o t b e d o n e i n - h o u s e ? a n d ( i i ) c u r r e n t , w h e r e o v e r f l o w w o r k m u s t b e s u b c o n t r a c t e d . T h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f l i n k a g e s t h u s b e c o m e i m p o r t a n t a n d c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n a n d s p a t i a l a f f i n i t i e s . T h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e c h a p t e r w i l l r e v i e w s o m e o f t h e r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e o n t h i s s u b j e c t . 3 . 4 . 3 S p a t i a l P r o x i m i t y C l u s t e r i n g o f c o m p l e m e n t a r y e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i s a c o m m o n f e a t u r e o f c o m m e r c i a l m a r k e t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d . P . S c o t t ( 1 9 7 0 ) c i t e s e x a m p l e s f r o m A f r i c a a n d S o u t h e r n A s i a w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s p a t i a l p r o x i m i t i e s o f r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . T h e s p e c i f i c e x a m p l e o f a s h o p p i n g s t r e e t i n P a d r a , I n d i a i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s t r o n g p r o x i m a l l o c a t i o n s . O f t h r e e h u n d r e d s h o p s a l o n g t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e s t r e e t , f o r t y -s e v e n w e r e c l o t h i n g , t h i r t y - s i x w e r e g o l d s m i t h s , t h i r t y - f i v e w e r e g r a i n d e a l e r s a n d t w e n t y - f i v e w e r e t a i l o r s , a n d " n o l e s s 50 t h a n e i g h t y - f i v e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v e a s h o p o f t h e s a m e t y p e n e x t d o o r " ( p . 2 7 ) . T h e b u l k o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e s t u d y , a n d m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y t h a t o f s p a t i a l l i n k a g e s , w a s p i o n e e r e d b y H a i g d u r i n g t h e T w e n t i e s . I n h i s s t u d y o n M a n h a t t a n o f f i c e l a n d - u s e s , H a i g ( 1 9 2 3 ) p o i n t e d o u t t h a t c l u s t e r s o f o f f i c e s e m e r g e d a s a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e n e e d f o r p e r s o n a l e x c h a n g e t h r o u g h f a c e - t o -f a c e c o n t a c t . O v e r t w o d e c a d e s l a t e r , R a t c l i f f e ( 1 9 4 9 ) e x a m i n e d r e t a i l c l u s t e r s i n t w e n t y - f o u r A m e r i c a n c i t i e s . T a b u l a t i n g t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f b l o c k f r o n t s o f a p a r t i c u l a r u s e , h e w e n t o n t o p r e s e n t t h e a g g l o m e r a t i v e t e n d e n c i e s h e f o u n d . S h o e s h o p s , f u r n i t u r e s t o r e s a n d v a r i e t y g o o d s t o r e s t e n d e d t o c l u s t e r a m o n g t h e m s e l v e s , w h i l e j e w e l l e r y s t o r e s s h o w e d o n l y m o d e r a t e t e n d e n c i e s t o w a r d s a g g l o m e r a t i o n . O n e o f t h e m o s t c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t u d i e s o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d -u s e s w a s u n d e r t a k e n b y R a n n e l l s i n P h i l a d e l p h i a i n t h e m i d F i f t i e s . R a n n e l l s , i n h i s b o o k T h e C o r e o f t h e C i t y ( 1 9 5 6 ) , l o o k e d a t t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , t h e i r c e n t e r s o f g r a v i t y a n d d i s p e r s i o n , a n d f i n a l l y t h e l i n k a g e s b e t w e e n v a r i o u s l a n d - u s e s . D e p a r t i n g f r o m p o p u l a r d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s o f t h i s e r a , R a n n e l l s e x p l o r e d t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r o c e s s o f c h a n g i n g l a n d -u s e p a t t e r n s . " R a n n e l s w a s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r e s e n t i n g t h e CBD [ C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t ] i n a new l i g h t , n o t a s a n a r e a t o b e d e f i n e d b u t a s a p r o d u c t o f a c o m p l e x w h i c h d e t e r m i n e d l o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s , a c o m p l e x w h i c h h a s t o b e u n r a v e l l e d b e f o r e a n y t h i n g u s e f u l c o u l d b e s a i d a b o u t t h e a r e a " ( C a r t e r , 1 9 8 0 : 2 3 1 ) . U s i n g v e r y b r o a d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f l a n d - u s e , R a n n e l l s s u c c e s s f u l l y d e s c r i b e s l i n k a g e s b e t w e e n l a n d - u s e s . H i s 51 p r i m a r y c o n c l u s i o n s w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 3 . 2 t a k e t h e f o r m o f a t h r e e - w a y s c r e e n i n g p r o c e s s r e l a t i n g t h e t w o v a r i a b l e s o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y a n d l i n k a g e s w i t h a t h i r d , a v a i l a b i l i t y . A c c e s s i b i l i t y a n d a v a i l a b i l i t y a r e " r e c i p r o c a l a n d d y n a m i c , t h a t i s a s a c c e s s i b l e s p a c e i s u s e d , m o r e i n t e n s i v e l y , l e s s o f i t i s a v a i l a b l e a n d i t s c o s t r i s e s . " ( R a n n e l l s , 1 9 5 6 : 1 5 0 ) . L i n k a g e s p r o v i d e t h e c o n t a c t s b e t w e e n a c c e s s i b l e a n d a v a i l a b l e l o c a t i o n s . C o m p a t a b i l i t y b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r c l u s t e r i n g : u s e s m u s t b e n e f i t f r o m p r o x i m i t y w h i l e m i n i m i z i n g c o m p e t i t i o n . N e l s o n (1958) d e l i n e a t e s h i s " r u l e o f r e t a i l c o m p a t i b i l i t y " f r o m e i g h t p r i n c i p l e s o f r e t a i l l o c a t i o n : ( a ) A d e q u a c y o f p r e s e n t t r a d i n g a r e a p o t e n t i a l . ( b ) A c c e s s i b i l i t y o f s i t e t o t r a d i n g a r e a . ( c ) G r o w t h p o t e n t i a l . ( d ) B u s i n e s s i n t e r c e p t i o n . ( e ) C u m u l a t i v e a t t r a c t i o n . ( f ) C o m p a t i b i l i t y . ( g ) M i n i m i z i n g c o m p e t i t i v e h a z a r d . ( h ) S i t e e c o n o m i c s - s i z e , s h a p e , t o p o g r a p h y , e t c . N e l s o n i s m o r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h i n d i v i d u a l f i r m s a n d t h e i r p h y s i c a l n e e d s t h a n w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n f i r m s ; b u t , b e c a u s e l o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s a r e m a d e b y i n d i v i d u a l f i r m s , h i s e i g h t p r i n c i p l e s a r e r e l e v a n t t o t h i s s t u d y . L o o k i n g a t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n t e r m s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , W e b e r ( 1 9 6 4 ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e c o r e o f t h e c i t y o f f e r s t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y w h i c h e n c o u r a g e s c l u s t e r i n g o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . C l u s t e r i n g i n c r e a s e s c o n t a c t a n d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y r e d u c e s c o s t s o f d i s t a n c e a n d t i m e a n d a l l o w s t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f e x t e r n a l e c o n o m i e s ( S i m , 1 9 8 2 ) . D u n n i n g a l s o h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t , i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e c o s t s o f i n t e r a c t i o n , e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w o u l d a g g l o m e r a t e . He l i s t e d f o u r a d v a n t a g e s o f c l u s t e r i n g ( S i m , 52 BUSINESS; PUBLIC LINKAGES T h r e e Way S c r e e n i n g . M.A. THESIS UB.C. ( R a n n e l l s , 1 9 5 7 ) BLAKE B. HUDEMA FIG. 3.2 53 1 9 8 2 : 7 4 ) : ( i ) t h e n e e d f o r r a p i d t r a n s m i s s i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n , ( i i ) t h e n e e d f o r p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t t o p r o m o t e m u t u a l t r u s t , ( i i i ) a s a v i n g s i n t i m e f o r m a n a g e r s a n d d i r e c t o r s c o n n e c t e d w i t h m u l t i p l e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , ( i v ) e a s e o f p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t b e t w e e n j u n i o r m e m b e r s o f f i r m s , a i d i n g m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . S p a t i a l a f f i n i t y o f c o m m e r c i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i s t h e c e n t r a l t h e m e o f a s t u d y b y G e t i s a n d G e t i s ( 1 9 6 6 ) . T h e y a r g u e t h a t s p a t i a l a f f i n i t i e s c a n b e c o n s i d e r e d a s a f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g l o c a t i o n i n c a s e s w h e r e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e g r o u p e d o r c l u s t e r e d . U s i n g h e t e r o g e n e o u s a n d h o m o g e n e o u s d a t a s e t s , G e t i s a n d G e t i s a p p l i e d a t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n , c o m p a r i n g e x p e c t e d ( r a n d o m ) a n d o b s e r v e d r e s u l t s ( G e t i s , 1 9 6 7 ) . T h e y c o n c l u d e d t h a t , w h i l e r e t a i l s t o r e a f f i n i t i e s e x i s t , t h e n u m b e r a n d m a g n i t u d e a r e s m a l l . R . L . D a v i e s ( 1 9 7 2 ) , i n a s t u d y o f t h e r e t a i l p a t t e r n s i n C o v e n t r y , a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r s p a t i a l a f f i n i t i e s a m o n g s h o p s : E x c e p t f o r t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f f o o d s h o p s a n d s p e c i a l i s t s h o p s , a l l o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s o f r e t a i l i n g f a c i l i t i e s a r e m o r e c o m m o n l y r e l a t e d w i t h t h e i r own f u n c t i o n a l k i n d t h a n w o u l d b e e x p e c t e d u n d e r r a n d o m c o n d i t i o n s . . . . T h i s m e a n s t h e r e i s a s p a t i a l a f f i n i t y i n t e r m s o f a t t r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m , c l o t h i n g s t o r e s l o c a t e n e a r o t h e r c l o t h i n g s t o r e s , l e i s u r e s e r v i c e s l o c a t e n e a r o t h e r l e i s u r e s e r v i c e s , e t c . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t i n t u r n f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e f o r s p e c i a l i z e d c l u s t e r i n g s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c e n t r a l a r e a a n d t h r o u g h t h e o v e r a l l r e t a i l d i s t r i b u t i o n may a p p e a r m i x e d , t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e o r d e r i n l i n k a g e s u n d e r l y i n g s u c h d i v e r s i t y ( p . 2 1 ) . U s i n g h i s t o r i c a l d a t a , V a r l e y ( 1 9 6 8 ) i d e n t i f i e d c l u s t e r s a n d r e l a t e d t h e s e t o r e c o r d e d c l u s t e r i n g s o f s i m i l a r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . I n t h i s w a y , h e w a s a b l e t o t r a c e e m e r g i n g s p a t i a l l i n k a g e s . V a r l e y ' s s t u d y o f M a n c h e s t e r i l l u s t r a t e d t h e c l o s e t i e s o f t r a d i t i o n a l u s e s , s u c h a s s t o c k b r o c k e r s t o t h e i r " a n c h o r s " — i n t h i s c a s e , t h e s t o c k e x c h a n g e . M o r e c o n t e m p o r a r y 54 u s e s s u c h a s t r a v e l a g e n t s s e e m e d t o b e m o r e d i s p e r s e d a n d l a c k e d a c e n t r e o f g r a v i t y o r " a n c h o r " . G r o u p i n g a n d i n d e x d i s p e r s i o n t e c h n i q u e s w e r e f o l l o w e d b y a c o m b i n a t i o n a n a l y s i s o f l a n d - u s e d a t a . B l o c k s w e r e r a n k e d a n d g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f v a r i o u s l a n d - u s e s . T h e r e s u l t s y i e l d e d a m a p o f d o m i n a n t l a n d - u s e d i s t r i c t s , i n c l u d i n g w h a t w a s t e r m e d , " s t r o n g r e t a i l a g g l o m e r a t i o n s " a n d t h e " t r a d i t i o n a l o f f i c e a r e a " . T h e a g g l o m e r a t i o n s o f o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n l a r g e c i t i e s h a v e b e e n t h e s u b j e c t o f a n u m b e r o f e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s . O f f i c e s a s a c l a s s a r e u n i q u e : t h e i r p r o d u c t i s p r i m a r i l y i n f o r m a t i o n a n d , t h e r e f o r e , d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e w i t h m e a s u r e m e n t o f o u t p u t . O f f i c e s g e n e r a l l y l o c a t e i n u p p e r f l o o r s p a c e a s o p p o s e d t o r e t a i l r e l i a n c e o n g r o u n d f l o o r l o c a t i o n s . G o d d a r d h a s c o n d u c t e d s ome o f t h e m o s t i n t e n s i v e s t u d i e s o f o f f i c e l i n k a g e s a n d l o c a t i o n . I n h i s L o n d o n s t u d i e s , G o d d a r d d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e f u n c t i o n a l l i n k a g e s b e t w e e n t h e m ( G o d d a r d , 1 9 7 3 ) . F a c e - t o - f a c e c o n t a c t w a s c o n s i d e r e d t h e i m p o r t a n t i n t e r a c t i v e m o d e , w i t h o v e r a t h i r d o f a l l b u s i n e s s j o u r n e y s m a d e o n f o o t a n d l a s t i n g l e s s t h a n t e n m i n u t e s . P r o x i m i t y o f o t h e r f u n c t i o n a l l y l i n k e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i s s u g g e s t e d a s a f a c t o r i n o f f i c e l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s . A s G o d d a r d c o n c l u d e s , " t h e a n a l y s i s h a s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e c e n t e r o f t h e l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n c i t y c o n s i s t s o f a s e r i e s o f o v e r - l a p p i n g s p a t i a l s u b - s y s t e m s t h a t c a n b e d e f i n e d i n t e r m s o f b o t h m o v e m e n t s a n d l o c a t i o n p a t t e r n s . U n d e r p i n n i n g t h i s i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e b e t w e e n m o v e m e n t a n d s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e i s a c o m p l e x n e t w o r k o f f u n c t i o n a l c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n a r e a b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s . " 55 3 . 5 L a n d U s e R e g u l a t i o n : Z o n i n g S o f a r i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e i s s u e s o f l a n d - u s e g r o w t h , c h a n g e a n d p a t t e r n i n g h a v e b e e n d i s c u s s e d e s s e n t i a l l y f r o m a m a r k e t p e r s p e c t i v e . C o m p e t i t i o n , c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y , a c c e s s i b i l i t y , a n d p r o x i m i t y b e t w e e n u s e s h a v e b e e n r e c o g n i z e d a s s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e s o n u r b a n l a n d - u s e s t r u c t u r e . H o w e v e r , a s e c o n d m a j o r g r o u p o f i n f l u e n c e s a c t i n g o n l a n d - u s e s w a r r a n t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n : t h e p u b l i c r e g u l a t i o n s i m p o s e d b y l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a g e n c i e s . C h a p i n ( 1 9 7 9 : 4 9 ) a r g u e s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f u r b a n l a n d - u s e p l a n n i n g : A n o r m a t i v e t h e o r y o f l a n d - u s e w o u l d p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s o n w h i c h a l o c a l i t y c o u l d e s t a b l i s h w h a t i t s p a t t e r n o f l a n d - u s e o u g h t t o b e . I n t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , u r b a n s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e i s a c o n j u n c t i v e o u t c o m e o f t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e m a r k e t a n d p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s , t h e o n e p r o v i d i n g t h e m e a n s b y w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s , f i r m , a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s p u r s u e t h e i r s e l f i n t e r e s t , a n d t h e o t h e r , t h e m e a n s b y w h i c h g o v e r n m e n t a r t i c u l a t e s a n d p u r s u e s t h e common i n t e r e s t . Z o n i n g h a s p e r m e a t e d n e a r l y e v e r y s e c t o r o f m o s t c i t i e s o v e r i t s r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t s e v e n t y y e a r h i s t o r y . E x t e n d i n g b e y o n d t h e o b v i o u s p h y s i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n h e r e n t i n c i t i e s , i t h a s h a d s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s u p o n h o u s i n g a n d e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s , a s w e l l a s o n t h e l o c a l t a x b a s e ( L i s t o k e n , 1 9 7 4 ) C i t y p l a n n i n g a s we k n o w i t t o d a y r e l i e s h e a v i l y o n z o n i n g . T h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n b r i e f l y o u t l i n e s t h e h i s t o r i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g s o f z o n i n g , i t s e v o l u t i o n o v e r s e v e n t y y e a r s , i t s r a t i o n a l e a s a d e v i c e o f l a n d - u s e r e g u l a t i o n a n d f i n a l l y c o n t e m p o r a r y f o r m s o f z o n i n g . L a n d - u s e r e g u l a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l h a v e b e e n i n p l a c e o n l y a s h o r t t i m e b y c i t y s t a n d a r d s . E m e r g i n g i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e c e n t u r y a s a l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n o f p u b l i c n u i s a n c e l a w s , z o n i n g 56 had i t s f o u n d a t i o n s i n the case of V i l l a g e of E u c l i d v. Ambler R e a l t y Co. (Babcock, 1966). In the c a s e , the c o u r t r e j e c t e d the proposed development of an apartment b u i l d i n g i n an e s t a b l i s h e d r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhood by the R e a l t y Co. The r e j e c t i o n i n d i c a t e d the c o u r t ' s f e e l i n g t h a t the development was m i s p l a c e d , and, l i k e a n u i s a n c e : "may be merely a r i g h t t h i n g i n the wrong p l a c e , l i k e a p i g i n the p a r l o r i n s t e a d of the b a r n y a r d " (Babcock, 1966:4). Zoning emerged from the d e s i r e t o p r e v e n t change w i t h i n e x i s t i n g neighbourhoods ( i n t h i s c a s e , h i g h e r d e n s i t y h o u s i n g ) . I t grew a l s o i n response t o the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l - s c a l e ownership and development of l a n d , which l e d t o both a v a r i e t y of uses and the need f o r some u n i f o r m i t y . In t h i s p e r i o d of e a r l y c i t y development, l a n d ownership and development was g e n e r a l y on a l o t - b y - l o t s c a l e : "... r e g u l a t i o n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s among l a n d uses r e q u i r e d r e g u l a t i o n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s among l a n d u s e r s as w e l l " ( L i s t o k i n , 1974:24). In terms of the c o n f l i c t between u n i f o r m d i s t r i c t s and v a r i e t y of use, z o n i n g was thought t o be a compromise and one which would d i s t r i b u t e u n i f o r m d i s t r i c t s t hroughout the c i t y . As L i s t o k i n i n d i c a t e s , however, "the p r i c e of t h i s u n i f o r m i t y was a s i g n i f i c a n t o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of the complex p o t e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among b u i l d i n g and a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n s m a l l a r e a s . " Such o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n has c l e a r l y become an a c u t e problem today and the complex i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e s and a c t i v i t i e s of land-use zones a r e o f t e n n e g l e c t e d under g e n e r a l or vague z o n i n g d e s i g n a t i o n s , as has happened, f o r example, i n the a r e a s of G r a n v i l l e M a l l and Gastown i n Vancouver. The p e r s u a s i v e n e s s of the l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n s t o enact such a 57 new a n d b o l d r e g u l a t i o n h a d d e f i n i t e r a m i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r o f z o n i n g . I n i t s e a r l y f o r m , t h e s c o p e o f z o n i n g , e x t e n d e d o n l y w i t h i n t h e t e r r i t o r i a l b o u n d s o f t h e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t . I t s p a r o c h i a l n a t u r e s t e m m e d f r o m t h e l e g i t i m a c y t h e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t d e r i v e d t h r o u g h c h a r t e r s a n d e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n c o n f e r r e d b y h i g h e r f o r m s o f g o v e r n m e n t . E a r l y z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s w e r e f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s b e i n g " s e l f -e x e c u t i n g , n o n - c o m p e n s a t i v e , a n d n e g a t i v e " ( L i s t o k i n , 1 9 7 4 : 2 3 ) . I n o t h e r w o r d s , z o n i n g d i s t r i c t s w e r e c r e a t e d i n a d v a n c e a n d e x p e c t e d t o b e s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g t h e r e a f t e r ; n o c o m p e n s a t i o n w o u l d b e made t o o w n e r s f o r l o s s e s c r e a t e d b y t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s . T h e n e g a t i v e n e s s o f t h e e a r l y r e g u l a t i o n s s t e m m e d f r o m t h e d e v i c e w h i c h p r o h i b i t e d u s e s a n d c o n t r o l l e d d e v e l o p m e n t s t a n d a r d s . F i n a l l y , e a r l y z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s , w h i c h p e r m i t t e d a w i d e r a n g e o f a c t i v i t y i n m a n y a r e a s o f t h e c i t y , w e r e t y p i f i e d b y t h e i r g e n e r a l l a c k o f d e f i n i t i v e c o n t r o l . T h e s u b s e q u e n t " o v e r z o n i n g " o f v a s t a r e a s o f t h e c i t y r e f l e c t e d t h e l i m i t e d r o l e o f p l a n n i n g a n d t h e d e s i r e n o t t o d e p r e s s p r o p e r t y v a l u e s ( L i s t o k i n , 1 9 7 4 ) . T h e e v o l u t i o n o f z o n i n g h a s s e e n s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e . A g e n e r a l s w i n g h a s b e e n f e l t i n a p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n a s m o r e c o n t e m p o r a r y d e v i c e s e m p h a s i z e p e r m i t t e d u s e s a s o p p o s e d t o p r o h i b i t e d o n e s . T h e p r o c e s s e s o f r e g u l a t i o n h a v e a l s o b e c o m e m o r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d , c r e a t i v i n g d i s t r i c t s r e f l e c t i n g a w i d e r r a n g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( l a n d s c a p i n g , s c r e e n i n g p r o v i s i o n s , a p p e a r a n c e o f b u i l d i n g s , e c o n o m i c c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f u s e s p e r m i t t e d , e t c . ) . P e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s now d i c t a t e z o n a l u s e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t . I n c o n t r a s t , c u m u l a t i v e z o n i n g , a n e a r l y d e v i c e t h r o u g h w h i c h e a c h s u c c e s s i v e l y l o w e r u s e a l l o w e d a l l 58 u s e s a n d s t a n d a r d s o f h i g h e r u s e s ( s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g z o n e s o c c u p i e d t h e a p e x o f s u c h s c h e m e s ) , e n s u r e d n o i n t r u s i o n o f o t h e r l a n d - u s e s . T h e r e f i n e m e n t o f d i s t r i c t i n g h a s i m p o s e d i n c r e a s e d r e s t r i c t i o n s o n l a n d - u s e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t , a t t r i b u t e d b y L i s t o k i n ( 1 9 7 4 ) t o t h e g r e a t e r p u b l i c a c c e p t a n c e o f l a n d - u s e r e g u l a t i o n s . A s t h e s e c h a n g e s i n d i c a t e , z o n i n g a n d l a n d - u s e p l a n n i n g , o p e r a t e w i t h i n t h e p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c s e c t o r s o f t h e c i t y f o r t h e g o o d o f t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . T h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i s b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f r o m C h a p i n ( 1 9 7 9 ) : ( a ) H e a l t h a n d S a f e t y - i n j u r i o u s a n d h a r m f u l c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e c i t y m u s t b e m i n i m i z e d . I s s u e s r e l a t e d t o n o i s e , p o l l u t i o n , p r o t e c t i o n , p r i v a c y , a n d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l i g h t a n d a i r b e c o m e i m p o r t a n t . ( b ) C o n v e n i e n c e - t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t i m e / d i s t a n c e b r i n g u p i s s u e s o f t h e c i r c u l a t i o n s y s t e m s , a r r a n g e m e n t o f l a n d - u s e s a n d t h e f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n l a n d - u s e s . ( c ) E f f i c i e n c y a n d E n e r g y C o n s e r v a t i o n - f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f l a n d - u s e , e f f i c i e n c y r e l a t e d t o l e a s t c o s t a l t e r n a t i v e s o f l a n d - u s e . E n e r g y c o n s e r v a t i o n h a s r e s p o n d e d t o c o n c e r n s o v e r t h e s c a r c i t y o f r e s o u r c e s . 59 ( d ) E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y - t h e t r e n d o f t h e S e v e n t i e s h a s r a i s e d c o n c e r n s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r a d a t i o n ( p r i m a r i l y t h e l o s s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d t o u r b a n u s e s a n d t h e p o l l u t i o n o f a i r a n d w a t e r ) a n d t h e e f f e c t s o n h u m a n h e a l t h . ( e ) S o c i a l E q u i t y a n d S o c i a l C h o i c e - e q u a l a c c e s s t o a n d a f r e e c h o i c e o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d t o l i f e i n t h e c i t y . ( f ) A m e n i t y - t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o l i v e , w o r k , a n d p l a y i n a p l e a s a n t e n v i r o n m e n t . T h e i s s u e s h e r e r a n g e f r o m t a n g i b l e s t o p e r c e p t u a l a t t r i b u t e s o f u r b a n d e s i g n . W h i l e t h e s e g r o u p s o f f e r a s i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , s i g n i f i c a n t o v e r l a p o c c u r s w h e n s p e c i f i c i s s u e s a r e a d d r e s s e d i n a n y g r o u p . C o n f l i c t s may a l s o a r i s e i n t h e a b o v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , w h e n e f f i c i e n c y i n c r e a s e s t o t h e p o i n t w h e r e c o n v e n i e n c e i s s a c r i f i c e d . T h e e m p h a s i s o n e n v i r o n m e n t a l a n d a m e n i t y i s s u e s h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l z o n i n g d e v i c e s . S i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t s i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s h a v e y i e l d e d t o w h a t L i s t o k i n ( 1 9 7 8 ) c a l l s t h e " w a i t a n d s e e " a p p r o a c h e s t o l a n d - u s e r e g u l a t i o n s . B u i l d i n g o n e a r l y a p p r o a c h e s o f v a r i a n c e s a n d c o n d i t i o n a l l a n d - u s e s , w h e r e l o t s w i t h i n z o n e s c o u l d b e g r a n t e d s p e c i a l u s e s ( o u t s i d e t h e l i t e r a l u s e s s p e c i f i e d ) , i n c r e a s i n g l y i m a g i n a t i v e a n d c o m p l e x d e v i c e s h a v e t y p i f i e d m o d e r n z o n i n g . T h e s e m o r e c o n t e m p o r a r y d e v i c e s e m e r g e d i n a n a t t e m p t t o o f f s e t m e t r o p o l i t a n e x p a n s i o n a n d t h e e v o l u t i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f d e v e l o p m e n t t e c h n i q u e s . C o n t e m p o r a r y l a n d - u s e r e g u l a t i o n s a r e o f t h r e e t y p e s : l o w 60 d e n s i t y zoning, c o n d i t i o n a l zoning, and the "planned u n i t development" or "PUD". Low d e n s i t y zoning i n v o l v e s d e s i g n a t i n g underdeveloped t r a c t s to very low d e n s i t i e s . Subsequent development proposals f o r higher d e n s i t i e s (rezonings) are subjected to review i n accordance with l o c a l plans and p o l i c i e s . The d evice allows f o r an incremental growth i n times of u n c e r t a i n t y and market f l u c t u a t i o n s . C o n d i t i o n a l zoning i s s i m i l a r to low d e n s i t y zoning, but p r o v i d e s the f l e x i b i l i t y of demanding s p e c i f i c development standards as a c o n d i t i o n of ap p r o v a l . A recent trend has been towards the p r o v i s i o n of p u b l i c a menities through a "bonus system". Developers are allowed g r e a t e r h e i g h t s and/or d e n s i t y i n r e t u r n f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of p u b l i c amenities i n t o the development. P o t e n t i a l problems c o u l d a r i s e with abuses of t h i s d i s c r e t i o n a r y d e v i c e . In a d d i t i o n , i t i s only v i a b l e i n p e r i o d s and p l a c e s of r e l a t i v e l y high development p r e s s u r e . The f i n a l d e v i c e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s the PUD; redevelopment o c c u r r i n g at t h i s s c a l e i s r e f e r r e d to as s p e c i a l d i s t r i c t zoning. T h i s device a l l o w s f o r a v a r i e t y of uses and standards on s i t e which are not p o s s i b l e with t r a d i t i o n a l zoning. Comprehensive development plans allow g r e a t e r d e n s i t i e s while encouraging i n n o v a t i v e design ( s i t e and b u i l d i n g ) and i n c r e a s e d open green space. These de v i c e s have found widespread use i n North America, notably i n New York with i t s s p e c i a l d i s t r i c t i n g f o r t h e a t r e s , and i n Vancouver with the development of the B r i t i s h Columbia Place l a n d s . R e g u l a t i o n has shown a gradual growth over the l a s t seventy years, but s t i l l r e t a i n s much of i t s t r a d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r . 6 1 Innovative devices are attempted in only the larger c i t i e s , while smaller c i t i e s c l i n g to conventional forms of zoning as an approach to development control. Nevertheless, i t becomes cle a r , through the investigation of market dynamics and land-use regulations, that current zoning methods are not adequate in the maintenance and growth of the commercial land-uses in the c i t y . Contemporary zoning regulations should r e f l e c t an appreciation for land-use structure and dynamics within commercial d i s t r i c t s . 3.6 Summary Land use theory has been approached from number of dif f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s , so that today we have no d e f i n i t i v e theory of urban land-use. The l i t e r a t u r e i s , therefore, d i f f i c u l t to synthesize. Concentrating on a few directions in land-use theory, the l a s t two chapters have looked at commercial land-uses from both a market perspective and a public regulation point of view. The focus of t h i s thesis is on the commercial s t r i p d i s t r i c t s within the inner c i t y as one type of commercial configuration. This d i s t r i c t , present in most c i t i e s , has always been subject to a great amount of change, either growing and prospering or declining in cycles. Emphasis has been placed in those d i s t r i c t s which have shown the more prosperous evolution from " t y p i c a l " commercial s t r i p s to specialized s t r i p s characterized by o f f i c e and service commerical land-uses. Within this thesis, the investigation i s directed to the internal structure and dynamics of the commercial d i s t r i c t s , with s p e c i f i c reference to s t r i p s where possible. The work concentrates on the s p a t i a l locations of commerical 62 e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d r e l a t e s t h e s e t o h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s e s a n d f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . G r o w t h a n d c h a n g e a s h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s e s i n c l u d e t h e e x p a n s i o n o f d i s t r i c t s i n t o n e i g h b o u r i n g o n e s , c h a n g i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s e a n d t h e i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f l a n d - u s e s w i t h i n e x i s t i n g d i s t r i c t s . T h i s l a t t e r t y p e o f c h a n g e i s e x a m i n e d i n t h e c a s e s t u d y . F u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s i m p l i e d b y t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n i n g , s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o x i m i t y , e n c o m p a s s a n u m b e r o f a s p e c t s o f w h i c h a c c e s s i b i l i t y , l i n k a g e s a n d e x t e r n a l e c o n o m i e s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l . T h e s e p r o c e s s e s , w h i c h o p e r a t e i n t h e u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t , a r e t h o u g h t t o a r i s e f r o m a n d g i v e r i s e . t o s p a t i a l p r o x i m i t i e s . T h e l i t e r a t u r e , r e v i e w e d a b o v e , d o e s l e n d s u p p o r t t o t h i s p r e m i s e . 63 CHAPTER FOUR 64 CHAPTER 4 CASE STUDY 4.1 Introduct ion The theore t i c a l basis of t h i s study has been discussed in the previous two chapters. Research has shown that h i s t o r i c a l trends and functional associations may lead to s p a t i a l proximities between commercial establishments. In this chapter, a physical description of the Broadway s t r i p is followed by a brief history of the land-use regulations and the market forces affe c t i n g the study area. The bulk of the chapter i s a presentation and analysis of the results of the s t a t i s t i c a l tests applied to the data. (A discussion of the data and methods used can be found in Chapter One and in the Appendices). 4.2 The Case Study Area Broadway Avenue is one of the major east-west transportation routes spanning Vancouver and Burnaby. Connected at i t s eastern end with the Lougheed Highway, Broadway provides good access to the highways and suburbs to the east; i t s Vancouver segment begins at Boundary Road. Although East Broadway i s predominantly fronted by warehouses to the south, i t is r e s i d e n t i a l along the rest of the route to Main Street. Two a c t i v i t y nodes have formed along this stretch of Broadway, the Vancouver Community College and the intersection of Broadway and Commercial Drive. From Main Street west to Alma Road, approximately forty blocks, Broadway i s primarily a commercial 65 66 ] g g [ O D S t u d y A r e a M.A. THESIS UB.C. BLAKE B. HUDEMA M A P 4.2 67 s t r e e t , w i t h t w o m a i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f a c t i v i t y : o n e l o c a t e d i n w h a t i s r e f e r r e d t o a s W e s t B r o a d w a y , ( f r o m A r b u t u s S t r e e t t o A l m a S t r e e t ) a n d t h e s e c o n d , t h e C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p b e t w e e n M a i n a n d B u r r a r d S t r e e t s . T h i s l a t t e r s e c t i o n i s t h e f o c u s o f t h e s t u d y . T h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h i s a r e a a r e s e t a t O n t a r i o S t r e e t i n t h e e a s t ( d i v i s i o n o f e a s t a n d w e s t s t r e e t a d d r e s s e s i n V a n c o u v e r ) a n d B u r r a r d i n t h e w e s t , c r e a t i n g a n e i g h t e e n b l o c k a r e a w i t h s t r e e t a d d r e s s e s r a n g i n g f r o m 0 0 0 1 W e s t B r o a d w a y t o 1 7 9 5 W e s t B r o a d w a y . T h e C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y s t r i p h a s s h o w n s u b s t a n t i a l r e d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t y o v e r t h e p a s t t w o d e c a d e s a n d p r o v i d e s a w e a l t h o f a c t i v i t y t o s t u d y . A d d i n g t o t h e a r e a ' s p o t e n t i a l i s t h e p r o x i m i t y o f C i t y H a l l a n d t h e p r o v i n c e ' s l a r g e s t h o s p i t a l , V a n c o u v e r G e n e r a l . B o t h o f t h e s e l a n d - u s e s g e n e r a t e l a r g e v o l u m e s o f d a y t i m e c u s t o m e r s f o r t h e C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y c o m m e r c i a l c o m p l e x . W h i l e t h i s s t u d y f o c u s e s o n l y o n t h o s e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h i c h f r o n t o n B r o a d w a y a n d e x t e n d a m a x i m u m o f a b l o c k o n e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e a r t e r y , t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e s e t w o l a r g e l a n d - u s e s a r e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . T h e a r e a s s u r r o u n d i n g C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y r e s i d e n t i a l , a l t h o u g h w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t i n d u s t r i a l e n c l a v e s , e s p e c i a l l y n o r t h o f B r o a d w a y . M o u n t P l e a s a n t , t o t h e e a s t a n d s o u t h o f t h e s t r i p a n d w h i c h i s m a i n l y s i n g l e - f a m i l y o r i e n t e d , h a s n o t e x p e r i e n c e d t h e h i g h d e n s i t y r e d e v e l o p m e n t a s o f r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s i n t h e i n n e r c i t y t o t h e w e s t . S o u t h o f B r o a d w a y a n d w e s t o f C a m b i e , t o t h e l i m i t o f t h e s t u d y a r e a , s i n g l e - f a m i l y l a n d - u s e s g i v e way t o m u l t i - f a m i l y a p a r t m e n t s . N o r t h o f t h e s t r i p i n t h e e a s t , a p r e d o m i n a n c e o f i n d u s t r i a l a n d w a r e h o u s i n g h a s p r e v e n t e d a n y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s i d e n t i a l 68 d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e o n l y r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a n o r t h o f B r o a d w a y i s F a i r v i e w S l o p e s , b e t w e e n W i l l o w a n d H e m l o c k , e x t e n d i n g n o r t h t o F a l s e C r e e k . A r e a s w e s t o f H e m l o c k a n d n o r t h o f t h e s t r i p a r e a l s o l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l a n d w a r e h o u s i n g d i s t r i c t s . B r o a d w a y A v e n u e c a r r i e s l a r g e v o l u m e s o f t r a f f i c , i n t h e o r d e r o f 1 8 0 0 c a r s p e r h o u r d u r i n g p e a k h o u r s a n d a n a v e r a g e o f 1 2 0 0 c a r s p e r h o u r o v e r a t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r p e r i o d o n i t s f o u r l a n e s . T h e f l o w i s s t e a d y b u t b e c o m e s c o n g e s t e d a t r u s h h o u r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y n e a r m a j o r i n t e r s e c t i o n s o f d i s s e c t i n g r o u t e s . T h e b u l k o f t h e t r a f f i c i n t h e a r e a s t a y s o n t h e m a j o r n o r t h / s o u t h r o u t e s t o a n d f r o m t h e d o w n t o w n p e n i n s u l a . B u r r a r d , G r a n v i l l e , O a k , C a m b i e a n d M a i n c a r r y t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e t r a f f i c f r o m t h e s o u t h . P r i o r t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f p u b l i c t r a n s i t a n d t h e w i d e s p r e a d u s e o f t h e a u t o m o b i l e a s a p r i m a r y m e a n s o f t r a n s p o r t , C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y w a s p r e d o m i n a n t l y a m i x o f r e s i d e n t i a l a n d l o w - o r d e r c o m m e r c i a l g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e l a n d -u s e s . C o m m u t e r t r a f f i c a l o n g t h e e a s t / w e s t s t r i p w a s l o w , r e i n f o r c i n g t h e l o c a l n a t u r e o f r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . T h e d o m i n a n c e o f t h e CBD o v e r t h e C i t y , a s t h e c o m m e r c i a l , i n d u s t r i a l , a n d c u l t u r a l h u b s u b d u e d t h e p r o f i l e o f C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y a s a c o m m e r c i a l n o d e . H o w e v e r , w i t h t h e a d v e n t o f p u b l i c t r a n s i t a l o n g B r o a d w a y a n d t h e g r o w i n g u s e o f p r i v a t e a u t o m o b i l e s , C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y ' s r e t a i l p r o m i n e n c e e x p a n d e d . A c c e s s i b i l i t y a n d e l i g i b i l i t y o f l o c a t i o n s a l o n g B r o a d w a y p r o m o t e d t h e a r e a a s a v i a b l e , g r o w i n g c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p . B u i l d i n g h e i g h t s r a r e l y r o s e a b o v e o n e o r t w o s t o r e y s u n t i l t h e e a r l y 7 0 ' s , w i t h t h e o n l y m u l t i - s t o r e y o f f i c e / r e t a i l c o m p l e x 69 b e i n g t h e F a i r m o n t M e d i c a l B u i l d i n g . B u i l t p r i m a r i l y a s a m e d i c a l c o m p l e x , t h e b u i l d i n g i s s t r a t e g i c a l l y l o c a t e d w i t h i n t w o b l o c k s o f t h e h o s p i t a l . T h e f o u r t e e n f l o o r s o f o f f i c e s r e l a t e d t o h e a l t h s e r v i c e s l e d t o t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e S t r i p b e i n g d e s i g n a t e d a s a " m e d i c a l n o d e " . D u r i n g t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s , b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y c a t a p u l t e d C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y i n t o t h e s e c o n d l a r g e s t o f f i c e c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h e r e g i o n , n e x t t o t h e C B D . O f f i c e s p a c e i n 1971 t o t a l l e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 .0 m i l l i o n s q u a r e f e e t ; t e n y e a r s l a t e r w e l l o v e r 2 . 0 m i l l i o n s q u a r e f e e t e x i s t e d . O v e r t h a t d e c a d e , r e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s r a n g e d f r o m t w o s t o r e y s a n d 2 0 , 0 0 0 s q u a r e f e e t t o e i g h t e e n s t o r e y s a n d 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 s q u a r e f e e t ( S e e F i g u r e 4 . 1 ) . B y 1 9 8 1 , t h e S t r i p h a d t e n b u i l d i n g s o v e r f i v e s t o r e y s . T h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e l a r g e s c a l e p r o j e c t s i n c l u d e d s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s t o t h e r e t a i l f l o o r s p a c e a t g r o u n d - o r i e n t e d l o c a t i o n s . A n i n f l u x o f c h a i n s t o r e s r e p l a c e d l o c a l f i r m s . I n t e r m s o f o f f i c e s p a c e , t h e s h i f t w a s a w a y f r o m m e d i c a l o f f i c e s t o w a r d s b u s i n e s s a n d b u s i n e s s - s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . I n t h e h e a r t o f t h e m e d i c a l d i s t r i c t b e t w e e n C a m b i e a n d O a k , o f f i c e t o w e r s a t 601 a n d 9 9 9 W e s t B r o a d w a y , a n d o n e p r o p o s e d f o r t h e 5 0 0 b l o c k , h o u s e a n u m b e r o f n o n - m e d i c a l o f f i c e f u n c t i o n s . G e n e r a l a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l b u s i n e s s e s , i n c l u d i n g a c c o u n t a n t s , l a w y e r s , m a n a g e m e n t a n d f i n a n c i a l c o n s u l t i n g s e r v i c e s , a r e l o c a t i n g h e r e . Some p r o f e s s i o n a l o f f i c e s a r e a l s o l o c a t i n g f u r t h e r t o t h e w e s t a l o n g t h e B u r r a r d / A r b u t u s s e g m e n t o f B r o a d w a y . F o r e x a m p l e , s o m e i n s u r a n c e o f f i c e s h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d h e a d o r r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s t h e r e . B r o a d w a y c o n t a i n s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 p e r c e n t o f t h e C i t y ' s COMMERCIAL REDEVELOPMENT ALONG CENTRAL BROADWAY YEAR ADDRESS DESCRIPTION OFFICE SQ. FT. RETAIL SQ. FT. PARKING/RES. UNITS ' 1984 1585* OFFICE/RETAIL 6 s t . 92,000 7,525 220/ 1363* OFFICE/RETAIL 9 s t . 64,130 5,760 /12 1305* OFFICE/RETAIL 9 s t . 120,000 18,000 /25 525* . OFFICE/RETAIL 175,000 30,000 1983 I3I2 * OFFICE/RETAIL 6 s t . 27,000 5,000 1285* OFFICE/RETAIL 8 s t . 79.7^0 14,000 /I? I I 9 5 * OFFICE/RETAIL 6 s t . 34,000 2,000 /15 950* OFFICE/RETAIL 62,200 6,300 147/ 1982 1727 OFFICE/RETAIL 4 s t . 19,370 5,366 37/ OFFICE/RETAIL 9 s t . 43,000 8,000 210 OFFICE/RETAIL 6 s t . 22,000 3,000 601 OFFICE/RETAIL lO s t . 205,724 600 OFFICE/RETAIL 2 s t . 23,000 1212 OFFICE/RETAIL 5 s t . 47,000 1420 OFFICE/RETAIL 3 s t . 3^.500 1665 OFFICE/RETAIL 6st. 42 ,300 197^ 805 OFFICE/RETAIL 18st. 171,500 1972 999 OFFICE/RETAIL 9 s t . 40 ,000 I969 I070 OFFICE/RETAIL 3 s t . 21,000 1962 750 OFFICE/RETAIL 14st. * Proposed, approved or under-con s t r uc t l on as of Dec. I 9 8 I . C o m m e r c i a l R e d e v e l o p m e n t o n B r o a d w a v . M.A. THESIS U.B.C. ( M a C a u l a v , N i c o J I s . M a i t l a n d a n d C O . L t d . ) BLAKE B.HUDEMA FIG. 4.1 71 o f f i c e s p a c e r e p r e s e n t i n g 11 p e r c e n t o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n ' s c o m m e r c i a l o f f i c e i n v e n t o r y . G r o w t h w i t h i n t h e B r o a d w a y a r e a h a s s u r p a s s e d a l l e s t i m a t e s o f t h e GVRD u n d e r t h e i r " L i v e a b l e R e g i o n " p r o g r a m . A s a c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t B r o a d w a y o f f e r s b u s i n e s s a l o c a t i o n w h i c h i s c l o s e t o d o w n t o w n , w i t h g o o d a c c e s s a n d a h i g h p r o f i l e . I n v e s t o r c o n f i d e n c e h a s b e e n h i g h i n t h e a r e a , a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t i n u e s . 4 . 3 P l a n n i n g A l o n g C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y Z o n i n g h a s p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y a s a c o m m e r c i a l n o d e . L a n d u s e r e g u l a t i o n s a l o n g t h e s t r i p p r i o r t o 1 9 7 5 w e r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y t r a d i t i o n a l . B u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y i n t h e d e c a d e p r e c e e d i n g 1 9 7 5 , t o g e t h e r w i t h a r e a s s e s s m e n t o f c o m m u n i t y g o a l s , p r o m p t e d t h e c i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o i m p l e m e n t a z o n i n g c h a n g e a l o n g B r o a d w a y . T h e m a j o r d e v e l o p m e n t s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e t r a n s f o r m e d B r o a d w a y i n t o a m a j o r o f f i c e d i s t r i c t a t a t i m e w h e n t h e c i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w a s e v a l u a t i n g n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d - u s e s o u t s i d e t h e C B D . I n a d e s i r e t o d o w n z o n e t h e C B D , v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r n o n - C B D g r o w t h w e r e e x p l o r e d . B r o a d w a y , a t t h a t t i m e , d e m o n s t r a t e d m a n y o f t h e s y m p t o m s o f d o w n t o w n g r o w t h a n d d e n s i f i c a t i o n a n d f o r t h i s , a n d o t h e r r e a s o n s , r e g u l a t i o n s t h e r e w e r e r e v a m p e d t o r e d u c e t h e h e i g h t a n d f l o o r s p a c e r a t i o s o f t h e b u i l d i n g s . D i s c r e t i o n a r y u s e s a n d c o n d i t i o n s w e r e b u i l t i n t o t h e new z o n i n g d e v i c e s u c h t h a t b u i l d i n g s c o u l d n o t now " a u t o m a t i c a l l y " r i s e a b o v e t h e t w o s t o r e y l i m i t . D i s c r e t i o n a r y z o n i n g a l s o a l l o w e d t h e c i t y a d m i n s t r a t i o n t o e x t r a c t s o c i a l a n d o t h e r c o n c e s s i o n s o f a m e n i t y f r o m t h e d e v e l o p e r s . T h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h i s a r e a u n d e r 72 t h e new z o n i n g w a s u n i q u e t o B r o a d w a y . O t h e r c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s h a v e b e e n d e a l t w i t h i n o t h e r w a y s r e f l e c t i n g l o c a l g o a l s . M a n y o f t h e b u i l d i n g s a l o n g B r o a d w a y a r e o f p o s t - 1 9 6 5 s t o c k , i n d i c a t i n g t h e l a c k o f b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y b e f o r e t h e e a r l y 1 9 7 0 ' s . F r o m 1 9 5 6 t h r o u g h t o t h e m i d 7 0 ' s , C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y w a s c o v e r e d u n d e r a C - 2 a n d C - 3 z o n i n g d e s i g n a t i o n ( S e e M a p 4 . 3 ) . L a n d u s e s w e r e g e n e r a l l y c o m m e r c i a l a n d r e s i d e n t i a l w i t h a v a r i e t y o f l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l , c u l t u r a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l a n d p u b l i c u s e s b u t a l m o s t a n y u s e w a s t o l e r a t e d u n d e r s e c t i o n 2 ( 3 4 ) o f B y -l a w # 3 5 7 5 , 1 9 5 6 . ( see A p p e n d i x C ) : A n y o t h e r b u i l d i n g o r u s e w h i c h i s n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y l i s t e d i n a n y s c h e d u l e o r t h i s B y - l a w a n d w h i c h i s s i m i l a r t o t h e f o r e g o i n g b u i l d i n g s o r u s e s , [may b e p e r m i t t e d ] . U n d e r t h e C - 2 d e s i g n a t i o n , b u i l d i n g h e i g h t s w e r e r e s t r i c t e d t o t h r e e s t o r e y s a n d f l o o r s p a c e r a t i o s t o t h r e e . C - 3 d e s i g n a t i o n s a l l o w e d g r e a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t p o t e n t i a l b y p e r m i t t i n g u p t o e i g h t s t o r e y s a n d f l o o r s p a c e r a t i o s o f f i v e . H e i g h t s a n d f l o o r s p a c e r a t i o s a b o v e t h e s e w e r e a l l o w a b l e t h r o u g h t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d . T h e l o o s e r e s t r i c t i o n s p l a c e d o n t h e a r e a e n c o u r a g e d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s e v e r a l l a r g e c o m p l e x e s o f o f f i c e a n d r e t a i l u s e s ; t h e e a r l y 1 9 7 0 ' s s a w t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a t l e a s t h a l f a d o z e n m a j o r o f f i c e / r e t a i l c o m p l e x e s . B r o a d w a y ' s s h a r e o f t h e C i t y ' s o f f i c e s p a c e i n c r e a s e d f r o m 2 . 5 p e r c e n t i n 1 9 6 7 t o 1 2 . 8 p e r c e n t i n 1 9 7 4 . T h e b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y a n d t h e r e s u l t i n g c o n c e r n s o f n e i g h b o u r i n g r e s i d e n t s , c o m p l i c a t e d b y t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r m a j o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o b l e m s a l o n g B r o a d w a y , p r o m p t e d t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t t o r e - e v a l u a t e t h e z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s f o r 73 CENTRAL BROADWAY STRIP i i i i i p ^ < C-3A £ w | r> _ — cc CO Q- LL O 2 s cc o UJ 3 Q CC * -I 0. < < w o Zoning 1974- 1981 Z0NINT3 1951 - 1981 M.A. THES IS U B C M A P B L A K E B. H U D E M A 4.3 74 t h e C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y s t r i p . C o n c e r n s w e r e a l s o e x p r e s s e d t h a t c o n t r o l s o n d o w n t o w n s p a c e m i g h t c a u s e s ome d e v e l o p m e n t t o s p i l l o v e r o n t o B r o a d w a y . S ome p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e s o f g r o w t h , s u c h a s i n c r e a s e d p e d e s t r i a n f l o w s a n d t h e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f B r o a d w a y a s a s t r i p w i t h i n t e r e s t i n g , w e l l - d e s i g n e d a n d p r o p e r l y - s p a c e d s t r u c t u r e s , w e r e a l s o c i t e d ( V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1 9 7 5 ) . H o w e v e r , c o n c e r n s o v e r t r a f f i c o v e r r u l e d t h e s e l e s s t a n g i b l e p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s . A t t h i s t i m e , t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t w h i c h h a d j u s t d e v e l o p e d i t s " L i v e a b l e R e g i o n " c o n c e p t s a n d p l a n s , f e l t t h a t c o n t i n u e d g r o w t h a l o n g C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y c o u l d j e o p a r d i z e t h e g o a l s o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a i m e d a t d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . B y 1 9 7 6 , a n e w z o n i n g d i s t r i c t h a d b e e n c r e a t e d f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o n B r o a d w a y . T h e n e w C - 3 A d e s i g n a t i o n , c o v e r i n g B r o a d w a y f r o m P r i n c e A l b e r t S t r e e t i n t h e e a s t t o V i n e S t r e e t i n t h e w e s t , i n c l u d e d t h e m a j o r i t y o f u s e s f r o m t h e C - 2 a n d C - 3 s e c t i o n s o f t h e p r e - 1 9 7 5 z o n i n g B y - l a w . O n e m a j o r c h a n g e t o t h e new z o n e s a w b u i l d i n g h e i g h t s r e d u c e d f r o m t h r e e a n d e i g h t s t o r e y s t o a m a x i m u m o f t w o . F l o o r s p a c e r a t i o s w e r e a l s o l i m i t e d t o a m a x i m u m o f o n e . I n f u r t h e r s e c t i o n s o f t h i s new B y -l a w , l a r g e s c a l e d e v e l o p m e n t i s p e r m i t t e d a t t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d . A s p a r t o f i t s d u t y i n r e v i e w i n g p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n s , t h e D P B : " s h a l l a l s o h a v e d u e r e g a r d t o : ( a ) t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e B y - l a w , t h e a m o u n t o f o p e n s p a c e , v i e w s , p l a z a s , p e d e s t r i a n n e e d s a n d i n t e r e s t s , t h e h e i g h t a n d b u l k o f b u i l d i n g s , a n d i t s r e l a t i o n t o t h e s i t e a n d s u r r o u n d i n g s t r e e t s a n d b u i l d i n g s , t h e e f f e c t o f t r a f f i c , t h e p r o v i s i o n o f o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g a n d l o a d i n g , i t s o v e r a l l d e s i g n , p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r a n d g e n e r a l a m e n i t y d e s i r e d f o r t h e B r o a d w a y a n d S o u t h G r a n v i l l e a r e a s . ( V a n c o u v e r B y - L a w # 3 5 7 5 ) 7 5 T h e new z o n i n g d e s i g n a t i o n c l e a r l y r e f l e c t s t h e g r o w i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f u r b a n d e s i g n i s s u e s i n C i t y p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s . Now t h a t t h e new B y - l a w h a s b e e n s e t , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t r e d e v e l o p m e n t s w i l l h a v e t o p r o c e e d t h r o u g h t h e D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d . M u l t i - s t o r e y s t r u c t u r e s w i l l s t i l l b e a l l o w e d b u t u n d e r g r e a t e r c o n t r o l a n d s c r u t i n y b y t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t t h a n b e f o r e . 4 . 4 M a r k e t R e v i e w T h e c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e a n d l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n s a l o n g C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y a r e a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f d e c i s i o n s o f p r i v a t e i n v e s t o r s m a d e u n d e r a n u m b e r o f l o c a t i o n a l , s p a t i a l a n d f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s a s w e l l a s t h o s e i m p o s e d b y p u b l i c a g e n c i e s s u c h a s t h e C i t y ' s P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . T h a t i n v e s t o r c o n f i d e n c e h a s b e e n h i g h i n t h i s a r e a i s d e m o n s t r a t e d b y t h e b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y o v e r t h e p a s t t w o d e c a d e s . I n g e n e r a l , C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y e x p e r i e n c e d o n l y m i n o r d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s a n d 1 9 6 0 ' s ; t h e m e d i c a l b u i l d i n g a t 7 5 0 W. B r o a d w a y c a n b e c o n s i d e r e d t h e o n l y m a j o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d . T o w a r d s t h e l a t e S i x t i e s a n d i n t o t h e S e v e n t i e s , r e d e v e l o p m e n t f l o u r i s h e d . C a r d e a l e r s h i p s b e c a m e m a j o r h o r i z o n t a l , s p a c e - e x t e n s i v e u s e s a l o n g t h e s t r i p , w h i l e o f f i c e t o w e r s a d d e d a v e r t i c a l , s p a c e - i n t e n s i v e d i m e n s i o n . R e c e n t o f f i c e d e v e l o p m e n t i s o v e r s h a d o w i n g t h e h o r i z o n t a l u s e s t o s u c h a n e x t e n t t h a t r e p l a c e m e n t b y t h e " e f f i c i e n t " m u l t i -s t o r e y b u i l d i n g s s e e m s i n e v i t a b l e . U s i n g t h e s e l o c a t i o n s f o r s p a c e - e x t e n s i v e u s e s s u c h a s a u t o m o b i l e d e a l e r s h i p s i s n o l o n g e r e c o n o m i c a l l y s o u n d , a n d a t r e n d i s b e g i n n i n g w h e r e b y t h e s e u s e s 76 a r e l o c a t i n g t o K i n g s w a y , M a r i n e D r i v e , a n d s u b u r b a n l o c a t i o n s . T h e v a c a t e d l o c a t i o n s p r o v i d e p r i m e s i t e s o f a s s e m b l e d l a n d f o r m o r e i n t e n s i v e r e d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e m o v e m e n t t o w a r d s h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e u s e s h a s r e c e n t l y b e e n a u g m e n t e d b y t h e i n f l u x o f b u s i n e s s o r i e n t e d o f f i c e s . T h i s l a t t e r t r e n d may w e l l d e t e r m i n e t h e c h a r a c t e r o f C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y f o r s o m e t i m e . A t p r e s e n t , m a j o r o f f i c e c o m p l e x e s a r e c l u s t e r e d b e t w e e n C a m b i e a n d O a k S t r e e t s a n d i n t h e a r e a w e s t o f G r a n v i l l e . O v e r t h e n e x t d e c a d e , p r o p o s a l s , a p p r o v e d p l a n s a n d b u i l d i n g s a l r e a d y u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n , w i l l o c c u p y t h e l o w - d e n s i t y s i t e s c u r r e n t l y b e t w e e n h i g h - d e n s i t y b u i l d i n g s . T h e r e s u l t s , i f p r e s e n t t r e n d s o f g r o u n d - f l o o r r e t a i l s p a c e c o n t i n u e , w i l l b e a c o n t i n u o u s s t r i p o f c o m m e r c i a l / r e t a i l s h o p s a t g r o u n d l e v e l , a s t h e o f f i c e t o w e r s t y p i c a l l y d e d i c a t e t h e i r g r o u n d f l o o r s t o r e t a i l u s e s . T h e r e t a i l c o m p o n e n t o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e a l o n g W e s t B r o a d w a y o c c u r s i n o l d e r b u i l d i n g s o r g r o u n d f l o o r l o c a t i o n s o f new o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s . R e d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e t a i l l o w - r i s e b u i l d i n g s h a s b e e n l i m i t e d t o r e n o v a t i o n s a n d r e t r o f i t s . M a j o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s i t e s w i t h o l d l o w - r i s e b u i l d i n g s w i t h n e w , l o w - r i s e b u i l d i n g s w o u l d p r o b a b l y b e u n e c o n o m i c a l i n v i e w o f t h e p r e s e n t p o t e n t i a l t o u s e t h e p r o p e r t y f o r m o r e p r o f i t a b l e u s e s . R e t a i l u s e s a l o n g t h e s t r i p h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e l i e d o n p e d e s t r i a n a n d a u t o t r a f f i c f o r c u s t o m e r s , b u t w i t h t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s i t e s i n t o m a j o r o f f i c e c o m p l e x e s , l a r g e o f f i c e p o p u l a t i o n s p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y c l i e n t e l e . R e t a i l o u t l e t s may now o n l y h a v e t o r e l y o n a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l n u m b e r o f b u i l d i n g s t o s t a y i n b u s i n e s s . G r o w t h a l o n g C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y h a s b e e n p o s i t i v e , 77 d e v e l o p m e n t h a s , h o w e v e r , o c c u r r e d i n a s p o r a d i c a n d d i s p e r s e d m a n n e r o v e r t h e l a s t d e c a d e a n d a h a l f . W i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f a b o u t t e n p e r c e n t p e r a n n u m o f o f f i c e s p a c e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e s t r i p i s t h e f a s t e s t g r o w i n g d i s t r i c t i n t h e R e g i o n ( M a C a u l a y , N i c o l l s , M a i t l a n d a n d C o . L t d , 1 9 8 3 ) . A s o f 1 9 8 1 , C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y ' s o v e r 3 m i l l i o n s q u a r e f e e t o f o f f i c e f l o o r s p a c e g i v e i t a 15 p e r c e n t s h a r e o f t h e V a n c o u v e r o f f i c e s p a c e a n d a n 11 p e r c e n t s h a r e a c r o s s t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e g i o n . C o n s t r u c t i o n a n d a b s o r p t i o n r a t e s h a v e k e p t p a c e w i t h o n e a n o t h e r o v e r t h e l a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s . L a n d v a l u e s a n d r e n t a l r a t e s b o t h p e a k e d i n 1 9 8 1 , s e t a t f i f t y d o l l a r s p e r d e v e l o p a b l e s q u a r e f o o t a n d s i x t e e n d o l l a r s p e r s q u a r e f o o t p e r a n n u m g r o s s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . L a n d v a l u e s i n C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y h a v e l a g g e d b e h i n d t h o s e o f d o w n t o w n b y a f a c t o r o f a b o u t 0 . 6 5 , w h i l e r e n t a l r a t e s h a v e d i v e r g e d f r o m a n o n p a r v a l u e i n t h e e a r l y S e v e n t i e s t o a 2 5 p e r c e n t p o i n t s p r e a d i n 1 9 8 1 . R e n t a l r a t e s f o r t o p d o w n t o w n s p a c e w a s a b o u t t w e n t y - s e v e n d o l l a r s p e r s q u a r e f o o t p e r a n n u m g r o s s i n 1 9 8 1 . V a c a n c y r a t e s o n C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y h a v e f l u c t u a t e d f r o m a h i g h o f 8 . 0 p e r c e n t i n 1 9 7 7 t o a l o w o f 1 o r 2 p e r c e n t i n 1 9 8 0 - 8 1 . T h e s l o w i n g o f c o n s t r u c t i o n d u r i n g t h e e a r l y E i g h t i e s h a s h e l p e d t o k e e p t h e s e f i g u r e s a t a l o w l e v e l . A n u m b e r o f l o c a t i o n a l a d v a n t a g e s i n h e r e n t i n t h e C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y s t r i p m a k e i t a t t r a c t i v e t o r e d e v e l o p m e n t . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e l a r g e a s s e m b l e d s i t e s , g o o d a c c e s s i b i l i t y a n d p r o x i m i t y t o d o w n t o w n , C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y i s g a i n i n g a r e p u t a t i o n a s a d i s t r i c t o f p r e s t i g i o u s o f f i c e s . ( P i e r c e , 1 9 8 4 , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) . T h e s t r i p , p a r t i c u l a r l y o n t h e n o r t h s i d e , o f f e r s v i e w s o f F a l s e C r e e k a n d B . C . P l a c e , t h e d o w n t o w n 78 p e n i n s u l a a n d t h e m o u n t a i n s b e y o n d . B r o a d w a y a l s o o f f e r s p a r k i n g a d v a n t a g e s : m a j o r s t r u c t u r e s o n B r o a d w a y h a v e o n - s i t e p a r k i n g a t a r a t e o f o n e s t a l l p e r 5 0 0 s q u a r e f e e t o f f l o o r s p a c e , i n c o n t r a s t t o d o w n t o w n s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h a r e r e s t r i c t e d t o o n e s t a l l p e r 1 0 0 0 s q u a r e f e e t . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e f a c t o r s a n d t h e new c o n s t r u c t i o n e x p e c t e d o v e r t h e n e x t f e w y e a r s , C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y s h o u l d i n c r e a s e i t s s h a r e o f o f f i c e u s e s w i t h i n t h e R e g i o n . 4 . 5 A n a l y s i s o f R e s u l t s 4 . 5 . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n T h e f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s o f r e s u l t s i s b r o k e n i n t o a n u m b e r o f s e g m e n t s . T h e f i r s t s e c t i o n a d d r e s s e s t h e c o n c e p t s o f g r o w t h a n d c h a n g e f o r r e t a i l , s e r v i c e , a n d o f f i c e s u b - c a t e g o r i e s o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e ( S e e F i g u r e 4 . 2 ) , l o g i c a l g r o u p s i n l i g h t o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m u s e d i n t h e t h e s i s . A s y n t h e s i s o f g r o w t h a n d c h a n g e f o l l o w s . T h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e c l u s t e r i n g a n a l y s i s , u s i n g t h e s a m e s u b -c a t e g o r i e s a s b e f o r e . A s y n t h e s i s o f t h e c o n c e p t s o f g r o w t h , c h a n g e , a n d l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n i n g c o n c l u d e s t h e w o r k . 4 . 5 . 2 G r o w t h a n d C h a n g e T h e r e t a i l s e c t o r o f C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y h a s g r o w n a n d s h i f t e d f r o m a p r e d o m i n a n t l y l o w o r d e r g o o d s f u n c t i o n t o o n e o f a h i g h l y d i v e r s e a n d s p e c i a l i z e d n a t u r e i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r n o n - C B D u s e s . I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e a b s o l u t e g r o w t h o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e s a l o n g t h e s t r i p a n d t h e i n c r e a s e d r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s COMMERCIAL LAND USE CLASSIFICATION* RETAIL SERVICE OFFICE Food Restaurant, cafe Distributors Clothing Barber General business o f f i c e s Department store Beauty salon Insurance companies Hardware & paint Gleaners Shipping companies Appliances & e l e c t r i c a l Tailor Accountants Furniture Dressmaker Architects/Engineers Chemist Shoe repair Doctors Jewellery & g i f t s Real estate agents Dentists F l o r i s t Travel agents ,Legal Stationery Undertakers Professional o f f i c e s Office machines, etc. Opticians Governmental o f f i c e s Music & musical i n s t r . Jewellery repairs Management consultants Motor-vehicle dealer Business service Advertising agents Motor tyre service Branch bank Marine r e t a i l Building contractors ) Builder's hardware Auto repair garages Dental mechanics Hire service *5ee Appendix A Land Use C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . ( A l e x a n d e r . 1 9 7 3 ) M.A. THESIS U.B.C BLAKE B. HUDEMA FIG. 4.2 80 a r e a t o t h e C i t y , r e t a i l l a n d - u s e s r e f l e c t t h e e v o l v i n g n a t u r e o f t h e s t r i p ( s e e F i g u r e 4 . 3 ) . T h e 1951 l a n d - u s e d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a c c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t 15 p e r c e n t o f t h e s h o p s a l o n g t h e s t u d y a r e a . T h e f i f t y - s i x s h o p s c a t e r e d t o t h e c o n v e n i e n c e o r d a y - t o -d a y n e e d s o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s a n d t o t h e r e s i d e n t i a l c o m m u n i t y t h e n l i v i n g o n t h e s t r i p i n s i n g l e a n d m u l t i - f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s i n t e r s p e r s e d a m o n g t h e c o m m e r c i a l l a n d -u s e s . T h e m a j o r i t y o f r e t a i l s h o p s w e r e o n e s w i t h s m a l l f r o n t a g e a n d e x t e n d i n g t h e d e p t h o f t h e b l o c k . M a j o r u s e s i n c l u d e d f o o d s t o r e s , d r u g s t o r e s , a p p l i a n c e o r h a r d w a r e s h o p s a n d s h o p s d e a l i n g i n i n d u s t r i a l e q u i p m e n t . O v e r t h i r t y y e a r s t h e s h i f t i n r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a s b e e n d r a m a t i c . H i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d r e t a i l s t o r e s , a b l e t o p a y h i g h e r r e n t s , a n d r e l i a n t u p o n t h e l o c a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s o f C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y h a v e r e p l a c e d t h e c o n v e n i e n c e , l o w - o r d e r g o o d s s t o r e s . T h e m o s t o b v i o u s s h i f t s h a v e b e e n t h e e m e r g e n c e o f " a u t o m o b i l e r o w " , t h e b u i l d i n g o f a h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d m e d i c a l s u p p o r t r e t a i l p r e s e n c e , a n d t h e m o s t r e c e n t i n f l u x o f b u s i n e s s r e l a t e d r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . S o o n a f t e r 1951 m a j o r a u t o d e a l e r s m o v e d o n t o t h e s t r i p a n d o p e n e d l a r g e , s p a c e - e x t e n s i v e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s p e c i a l i z i n g i n new c a r s a l e s . E n t i r e b l o c k s w e r e t a k e n u p b y a h a l f d o z e n d e a l e r s . A c c o m p a n y i n g t h i s i n f l u x w e r e a n u m b e r o f s m a l l e r u s e d c a r d e a l e r s . T h e s e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s l o c a t e d i n p r o x i m i t y t o m a j o r new c a r d e a l e r s f o r c o m p a r i s o n s h o p p i n g ( c o m p e t i t i o n ) a n d o t h e r f u n c t i o n a l l i n k a g e s . T h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e t w o t y p e s o f r e t a i l a u t o u s e s h a s c h a r a c t e r i z e d C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y a s a t y p i c a l 8 2 " a u t o m o b i l e r o w " s t r i p . P a r a l l e l t o t h i s g r o w t h o f t h e a u t o o r i e n t e d r e t a i l s e c t o r h a s b e e n t h e e m e r g e n c e o f i n c r e a s e d n u m b e r s o f m e d i c a l s u p p o r t r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . P h a r m a c i s t s a n d o p t i c i a n s f o u n d i t a d v a n t a g e o u s t o l o c a t e n e a r t h e g r o w i n g m e d i c a l c o m p l e x . T o d a y , t h e m e d i c a l r e t a i l s h o p s a n d t h e m e d i c a l s e r v i c e u s e s h a v e e v o l v e d i n t o a h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e n e t w o r k . T h e r e c e n t e m e r g e n c e o f d i s c o u n t o p t i c a l s h o p s h a s f u e l e d t h e a l r e a d y c o m p e t i t i v e c l i m a t e o f t h e s e u s e s o n t h e s t r i p . D e s p i t e t h e s e s h i f t s a n d t r e n d s , t h e c u r r e n t m o v e o n t h e s t r i p i s t o w a r d s o f f i c e r e l a t e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . O f f i c e s u p p l y s h o p s , w i t h e m p h a s i s o n c o m p u t e r a n d e l e c t r o n i c b u s i n e s s e q u i p m e n t , a r e g r o w i n g a s m a j o r u s e s a l o n g t h e c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p . A l t h o u g h t h e s e u s e s a r e l a r g e l y l i n k e d t o b u s i n e s s s a l e s , a l a r g e n u m b e r a r e b e g i n n i n g t o c a t e r t o p e r s o n a l b u s i n e s s m a c h i n e s a n d c o m p u t e r s . S p e c i a l i z e d r e t a i l s h o p s a r e c ommon a l o n g C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y . C a m e r a , a u d i o / v i s u a l , a n d h i g h - f a s h i o n c l o t h i n g s h o p s a c c o u n t f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f t h e r e t a i l u s e s . M u s i c s h o p s a n d f u r n i t u r e s h o p s c l o s e t o G r a n v i l l e r e a l l y d o n o t r e f l e c t t h e p a t t e r n s o f t h e s t r i p , i n s t e a d t h e y a p p e a r t o b e a s p i l l - o v e r f r o m t h e h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t a l o n g G r a n v i l l e . W h i l e t h e s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ( p e r s o n a l a n d b u s i n e s s ) h a v e r e m a i n e d a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s t r i p , t h e y t o o h a v e c h a n g e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . T h e a b s o l u t e n u m b e r o f s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a s g r o w n b y a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 5 0 p e r c e n t , w h i l e s i z e s o f s h o p s h a v e s h o w n l i t t l e i n c r e a s e . T h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a s s h i f t e d o v e r t h e l a s t t h i r t y 83 y e a r s f r o m p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s t o m o r e b u s i n e s s o r i e n t e d o n e s . S e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n 1 9 5 1 , l i k e t h e r e t a i l o u t l e t s , w e r e o r i e n t e d t o r e s i d e n t s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e s t r i p a n d t o t h o s e p a s s i n g i n a u t o m o b i l e s a l o n g t h e s t r i p . C l e a n e r s , t a i l o r s , s h o e m a k e r s a n d r e p a i r s h o p s w e r e p r e d o m i n a n t u s e s . A u t o - r e l a t e d s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n c l u d e d t h e g a r a g e s , t i r e s h o p s a n d i n d u s t r i a l / m a c h i n e s h o p s . T h e i n c r e a s e i n s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a p p a r e n t l y , h a s b e e n i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e i n c r e a s e s i n b o t h t h e s u r r o u n d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n s a n d t h e g r o w t h i n d a y - t i m e o f f i c e w o r k e r s o n t h e s t r i p . R e s t a u r a n t s h a v e i n c r e a s e d i n n u m b e r s f r o m 15 i n 1951 t o o v e r 60 i n 1 9 8 1 . T h e y r a n g e f r o m c o n v e n i e n c e s a n d w i c h s h o p s a n d d e l i s t o f i r s t c l a s s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . H a i r s a l o n s f o r b o t h men a n d women h a v e p a r a l l e l e d t h i s g r o w t h i n s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . L a d i e s ' s a l o n s o u t n u m b e r m e n ' s s h o p s f o u r t o o n e . R e a l e s t a t e a n d t r a v e l s h o p s h a v e f o u n d t h i s s t r i p a t t r a c t i v e ; b o t h h a v e s h o w n m a r k e d i n c r e a s e s i n n u m b e r s o v e r t h e t h r e e d e c a d e s . H e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v e g r o w n i n n u m b e r s a l o n g C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y . O p t i c i a n s a n d d e n t a l m e c h a n i c s o c c u p y a n u m b e r o f l o c a t i o n s , p r o b a b l y i n o r d e r t o b e n e f i t f r o m t h e e x i s t i n g m e d i c a l o f f i c e s o n t h e s t r i p . O f f i c e s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s r e l a t e d t o b u s i n e s s r a t h e r t h a n t o p e o p l e h a v e i n c r e a s e d t e n f o l d o v e r t h e l a s t t h i r t y y e a r s . E m p l o y m e n t a g e n c i e s , c o m p u t e r a c c o u n t i n g a n d a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s h a v e e m e r g e d a s p e r i p h e r a l s t o t h e o f f i c e s o n t h e s t r i p . B y f a r , t h e g r e a t e s t g r o w t h a l o n g C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y h a s b e e n t h e o f f i c e s e c t o r . I n 1 9 5 1 , f e w e r t h a n s e v e n t y o f f i c e 84 e s t a b l i s h m e n t s l o c a t e d h e r e , c o m p a r e d t o o v e r 4 5 0 i n 1 9 8 1 . B y t h i s d a t e t h e o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a c c o u n t e d f o r o v e r 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a l o n g B r o a d w a y . A g g r e g a t e o f f i c e c a t e g o r i e s i n c r e a s e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x f o l d o v e r t h e t h i r t y y e a r s . G e n e r a l o f f i c e u s e s ( s e e A p p e n d i c e s f o r a d e t a i l e d l i s t ) , h a v e b e c o m e t h e s e c o n d l a r g e s t g r o u p o f o f f i c e u s e s o n t h e s t r i p . T h e r i c h d i v e r s i t y o f o f f i c e s i n d i c a t e s t h e w e a l t h o f r e s o u r c e s a n d s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e . T h e i n c r e a s e i n i n s u r a n c e o f f i c e s , a s w e l l a s t h e i n c r e a s e i n t r a v e l a g e n t s a n d r e a l e s t a t e a g e n t s i s p r o b a b l y d u e m o r e t o s o c i e t a l f a c t o r s , n o t a d d r e s s e d i n t h i s p a p e r , t h a n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f l o c a t i o n . One i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t i s t h e p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f l a r g e i n s u r a n c e f i r m s o n t h e s t r i p : s e v e r a l f i r m s h a v e l o c a t e d r e g i o n a l a n d h e a d o f f i c e s h e r e ( t h i s t r e n d w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n t h e s e c t i o n o n l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n i n g ) . L a w y e r s a n d a c c o u n t a n t s h a v e b e e n s l o w t o m o v e o n t o t h e s t r i p . T h i s may b e a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e s t r o n g t i e s e a c h g r o u p h a s t o r e s p e c t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s o n t h e d o w n t o w n p e n i n s u l a . T h e i n c r e a s e d p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e s t r i p a s a n e l i g i b l e a n d p r e s t i g i o u s a r e a may l e a d t o a n i n f l u x o f l e g a l a n d a c c o u n t i n g f i r m s . Some p r o f e s s i o n a l s , n o t a b l y a r c h i t e c t s a n d e n g i n e e r s , h a v e m o v e d t h e i r o f f i c e s t o t h e s t r i p i n t h e l a s t d e c a d e . B u s i n e s s a d v i s o r y g r o u p s s p e c i a l i z i n g i n m a n a g e m e n t a n d f i n a n c i a l c o n s u l t i n g h a v e c r e a t e d t h e m o s t r e c e n t t r e n d i n o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ; t h e s e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e l o c a t i n g t o t h e b u s i n e s s s e c t o r o f t h e s t r i p , w h e r e t h e y a r e r e i n f o r c e d b y b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s a l r e a d y l o c a t e d t h e r e . 85 T h e d o m i n a n t u s e o n t h e s t r i p i s t h e h e a l t h c a r e s e r v i c e s . M e d i c a l d o c t o r s , d e n t i s t s a n d o t h e r h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s o n B r o a d w a y h a v e i n c r e a s e d o v e r s i x h u n d r e d p e r c e n t o v e r t h e l a s t t h r e e d e c a d e s - - m e d i c a l d o c t o r s o u t n u m b e r t h e o t h e r s b y t w o t o o n e . M e d i c a l p r a c t i c e s h a v e b e e n , a n d c o n t i n u e t o b e , r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l ; d e n t a l p r a c t i c e s o n t h e o t h e r h a n d s h o w m u c h m o r e g r o u p i n g i n t o c o - o p e r a t i v e o f f i c e s p a c e . T h r o u g h t h i s i n f o r m a l " c l i n i c " s y s t e m , e f f i c i e n t u s e c a n b e m a d e o f r e c e p t i o n i s t s , h y g e n i s t s a n d d e n t a l e q u i p m e n t . M o r e o v e r , a r a n g e o f s p e c i a l i s t s c a n o p e r a t e o u t o f a s i n g l e o f f i c e . M e d i c a l d o c t o r s a r e m u c h l e s s l i k e l y t o o c c u p y s h a r e d p r e m i s e s a n d t h e m a j o r i t y o f d o c t o r s who p r a c t i c e o n t h e s t r i p d o s o i n s e p a r a t e o f f i c e s . A s h a s b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d , t h e i n c r e a s e i n r e t a i l , s e r v i c e , a n d o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a s b e e n s u b s t a n t i a l . T h e s h i f t a w a y f r o m c o n v e n i e n c e a n d l o w o r d e r g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s t o s p e c i a l i z e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o v e r t h e l a s t t h i r t y y e a r s h a s b e e n o b s e r v e d . T r e n d s a l o n g C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y r e f l e c t t h e m u c h l a r g e r t r e n d s i n h e r e n t i n t h e m a t u r i n g o f a m a j o r m e t r o p o l i s . D u r i n g t h e S i x t i e s , C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y , a s p a r t o f t h e i n n e r c i t y , a t t r a c t e d m a j o r a u t o u s e s who w a n t e d t o c e n t r a l i z e i n h i g h l y a c c e s s i b l e l o c a t i o n s . N e x t c a m e a c o m p l e x n e t w o r k o f m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s . T h i s h i g h l y i n t e r r e l a t e d g r o u p o f u s e s h a s g r o w n , a n d C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y h a s b e e n l a b e l l e d a s t h e c i t y ' s " m e d i c a l n o d e " . T h e m o s t r e c e n t g r o w t h a n d c h a n g e o f l a n d - u s e s h a s b e e n t o w a r d b u s i n e s s o f f i c e , s e r v i c e a n d r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . T h e s e u s e s a r e g r o w i n g i n p r o m i n e n c e a s new s t r u c t u r e s a r e b u i l t t o a c c o m o d a t e t h e m . 8 6 4 . 5 . 3 M a r k o v A n a l y s i s o f L o c a t i o n S p e c i f i c C h a n g e T h e M a r k o v a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e s s ome v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e t r e n d s o f l a n d - u s e c h a n g e o n a s i t e s p e c i f i c b a s i s . T h e a n a l y s i s c o m p a r e s t h e l a n d - u s e s o f o n e s i t e o v e r t w o t i m e p e r i o d s , i n t h i s c a s e f i v e y e a r s a p a r t . T h e a g g r e g a t e m a t r i c e s ( s e e F i g u r e s 4 . 4 - 4 . 9 ) s h o w t h e p e r c e n t a g e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t a u s e w i l l b e t h e s a m e o r w i l l c h a n g e t o a n o t h e r u s e o v e r t h e t i m e p e r i o d . D u e , i n p a r t t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f d e a l i n g w i t h u p p e r f l o o r d a t a a n d t h e s c a r c i t y o f t h i s d a t a , t h e a n a l y s i s h a s b e e n r e s t r i c t e d t o g r o u n d l e v e l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . C h a n g e s t o t h e r e t a i l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s t u d y a r e a o v e r t h e l a s t t h i r t y y e a r s i n d i c a t e a d e c r e a s i n g s t a b i l i t y f o r r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . L a n d u s e s i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e s t u d y w e r e m u c h m o r e l i k e l y t o s t a y a t t h e i r l o c a t i o n f o r l o n g e r p e r i o d s o f t i m e t h a n s i m i l a r l a n d - u s e s w o u l d t o d a y . O v e r t h e t i m e p e r i o d 1951 t o 1 9 6 1 , r e t a i l u s e s a t s p e c i f i c s i t e s g e n e r a l l y r e m a i n e d c o n s t a n t . O v e r t h e d e c a d e , f o o d s t o r e l o c a t i o n s w e r e s t i l l f o o d s t o r e s a t t h e e n d o f t h e d e c a d e ; t h e r e t a i l u s e s d i d n o t c h a n g e . T h i s p a t t e r n o f s t a b i l i t y i s s u p p o r t e d f o r a l l s u b - c a t e g o r i e s o f r e t a i l u s e s b y t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d f o r t h i s t h e s i s . O v e r t h e s u b s e q u e n t t w o d e c a d e s , 1961 t o 1 9 8 1 , t h e s t a b i l i t y o f l a n d -u s e s a t s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s d i m i n i s h e d . T h e s t a b i l i t y p e r c e n t a g e s s t i l l h o v e r e d a r o u n d f i f t y , b u t n o t i c e a b l e s h i f t s w e r e e v i d e n t a s r e t a i l ' e s t a b l i s h m e n t s g a v e w a y t o s e r v i c e s h o p s . R e t a i l -h o u s e h o l d a n d r e t a i l - m i s c e l l a n e o u s l o c a t i o n s w e r e r e p l a c e d b y a v a r i e t y o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s : p r i m a r i l y s e r v i c e a n d t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t o f f i c e - b a s e d . T h i s r e p l a c e m e n t b y s e r v i c e u s e s m i g h t b e e x p l a i n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s e a s i e r t o r e t r o f i t a n e x i s t i n g 3 6'i RESIDENTIAL RETAIL POOD RETAIL CLOTHING RETAIL HSHLD RETAIL MISC RETAIL OFFICE RETAIL AUTO SERVICE RESTAUR SERVICE HAIR SERVICE PERSONAL • SERVICE PERSBUS " SERVICE BUSINESS SERVICE BANK SERVICE CONTRACT SERVICE AUTO SERVICE REPAIR OFFICE GENERAL OFFICE PROF OFFICE MEDICAL OFFICE GOVT OFFICE BUSADV WHOLESALE MANUFACTURE PUBLIC PARKING CULTURE/REC UNDERCONSTRUCT VACANT BLDG VACANT LAND 1? 73 to B M a £ s S a 9 5 o o @ s CO CO to to 100 -87 8 77 1 1 59 17 83 - 6 -6s. 13 73 10 50 100 13 60 10 7 50 20 20 100 60 o S £ e s s Cd Cd w 20 87 1 0 0 -85 12 i @ E E E E E s 100 10 15 17 100 71 100 100 • 90 3 < > 2 39 50 L a n d Use T r a n s i t i o n M a t r i x : 1951-1956. M.A. THESIS U.B.C. BLAKE B. HUDEMA FIG. 4.4 r1 a a a> >i 3 O D ; 3 rt X I ON c7i c CD o o o a s § § 3 3 o C/l w g s g s s s s a o w w w § I § < < < M W W o o o W P3 K K *TJ M & s s W W W Z td O B 5 ? w w rc a 5 3 a a a a M § a e > > M M M O IT- tn g 3 3 8 P O ON • -P" -t^  ON f ON E-ON rb RESIDENTIAL RETAIL ROOD RETAIL CLOTHING RETAIL HSHLD - RETAIL MISC • RETAIL OFFICE RETAIL AUTO - ^ SERVICE RESTAUR SERVICE HAIR SERVICE PERSONAL ~ SERVICE PERBUS — SERVICE BUSINESS u SERVICE BANK - i- SERVICE CONTRACT u> SERVICE AUTO - SERVICE REPAIR -o OFFICE GENERAL OFFICE PROF OFFICE MEDICAL — OFFICE GOVT OFFICE BUSADV WHOLESALE MANUFACTURE PUBLIC PARKING *~ CULTUR/REC UNDERCONSTR. VACANT LAND i- VACANT BLDG 88 r OJ 3 D J G c/i fp OJ 3 in O 3 S OJ rt > H I m 05 c CD b n »r> >r$ £ £ S H ^ t-1 m o O O 10 ~ 3 s 8 ^ ^ ?I-H W M g s n tx) td a @ a s o n Pa n @ s W CO td -Oft-'r-'c-'r'r-'M " p " > o 6? S 6 0 3 U IT1 I ! g RESIDENTIAL ^ — RETAIL FOOD RETAIL CLOTHING RETAIL HSHLD g £ ^ RETAIL HISC < RETAIL OFFICE ^ RETAIL AUTO — .c- — • ro SERVICE RESTAUR SERVICE HAIR ' SERVICE PERSONAL o SERVICE PERBUS ' = SERVICE BUSINESS SERVICE BANK SERVICE CONTRACT SERVICE AUTO ' SERVICE REPAIR ON o o OFFICE GENERAL o 1 '•— OFFICE PROF i OFFICE MEDICAL : OFFICE GOVT OFFICE BUSADV WHOLESALE . MANUFACTURE PUBLIC PARKING CULTUR/REC UNDERCONSTR. ro VACANT LAND ro VACANT BLDG 68 f 3 a a in -3 OJ D in O D s 0) •1 •-»• cn I vo — i CD s X m c b O h3 h3 F % S 3 3 M M »r) 3 S O -*3 t -1 H f—1 Y—i I-H hH w o o o O O w ra K t»3 P3 M CD o cc o o < S PI M 50 > to D >tf s a> M cn w a H z to o > R S > i CO f* tr" c-* f t-i § 3 S P ro CN RESIDENTIAL <=> (RETAIL ROOD RETAIL CLOTHING RETAIL HSHLD RETAIL MISC RETAIL OFFICE RETAIL AUTO SERVICE RESTAUR SERVICE HAIR SERVICE PERSONAL SERVICE PERBUS SERVICE BUSINESS SERVICE BANK SERVICE CONTRACT SERVICE AUTO SERVICE REPAIR OFFICE GENERAL OFFICE PROF OFFICE MEDICAL OFFICE GOVT OFFICE BUSADV WHOLESALE MANUFACTURE PUBLIC PARKING CULTUR/REC UNDERCONSTR. VACANT LAND VACANT BLDG 06 3 RESIDENTIAL RETAIL FOOD RETAIL CLOTHING RETAIL HSHLD RETAIL MISC RETAIL OFFICE —_ RETAIL AUTO SERVICE RESTAUR _ SERVICE HAIR SERVICE PERSONAL-SERVICE PERSBUS SERVICE BUSINESS SERVICE BANK SERVICE CONTOACT-SERVICE AUTO SERVICE REPAIR OFFICE GENERAL OFFICE PROF OFFICE MEDICAL OFFICE GOVT OFFICE BUSADV WHOLESALE MANUFACTURE S o 79 | PUBLIC PARKING CULTURE^ EC — UNDERCONSTRUCT VACANT BLDG VACANT LAND 50 13 -54 4 It 58 10 - 60 25 8 4 1 13 10 86 10 I 93 10 10 50 13 13 2 5 1? 33 13 2 3 o s a in in 9 CQ U 4 75 60 40 70 33 80 50 S g io 10 10 100 50 G , a H 9 o o Sr B e i 8 g CxJ w w w 0 0 0 0 S E I I 0 0 0 0 3 50 4 5 3 17 10 50 67 17 33 100 79 33 ? - 7 -25 1? 9 - 7 1? 9 g 3 2 50 17 80 50 100 64 25 14 13 4 10 3 17 13 2 20 27 25 L a n d U s e T r a n s i t i o n M a t r i x : 1 9 7 1 - 1 9 7 6 . M.A. THESIS U.B.C. BLAKE B. HUOEMA FIG. 4.8 tr1 cu D a a ti» n 0) D in O s OJ rr i-l cn I VO CO CD r-> 03 X c o m 3 > H X m w W c a b o o a p*; tr* c t-o m o "3 *3 w ui cn i/> O O t-t t-H l-H M W U W W M I i s e g 33 SO 33 =0 to o 2 *g o w D a: a S § § 5 Q M CO CO 33 H 2 td O > R t73 > § > > p p 3 s E3 o u> -o W O CO C- f t- g S p 3 3 g o e > H t) tr1 ^ R E S I D E N T I A L g RETAIL ROOD CJ ^ o RETAIL CLOTHING & £ RETAIL HSHLD jr o RETAIL MISC RETAIL OFFICE ^ RETAIL AUTO SERVICE RESTAUR tr a SERVICE HAIR SERVICE PERSONAL g ;SERVICE PERBUS £ SERVICE BUSINESS SERVICE BANK SERV ICE CONTRACT ;SERVICE AUTO JSERVICE REPAIR .p- lOFFICE GENERAL lOFFTCE PROF JOFFICE MEDICAL flmCK GOVT iOFFICE BUSADV <r :—jVHOLESALE JMANUFACTURE PUBLIC PARKING CULTUR/REC UNDERCONSTR. co ^ 5 VACANT LAND viniNT m.Tir, 36 93 b u i l d i n g f o r s e r v i c e - r e l a t e d u s e s t h a n f o r o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e r e l a t i v e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e r e t a i l s e g m e n t s , t h e s e r v i c e s e g m e n t o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e d i s p l a y s a r a n g e o f s t a b i l i t y . T h e g r e a t e s t s t a b i l i t y o f u s e i s m a i n t a i n e d b y r e s t a u r a n t s . R e s t a u r a n t s r e l y o n a n e s t a b l i s h e d l o c a t i o n a s a f o u n d a t i o n f o r b u s i n e s s . T h e l o w p e r c e n t a g e o f c h a n g e r e f l e c t s t h e s p e c i a l i z e d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e n e c e s s a r y t o c a r r y o u t b u s i n e s s . A n o t h e r p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s l o w r a t e o f c h a n g e m i g h t b e t h a t r e s t a u r a n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t s r e p l a c e o n e a n o t h e r , w h i c h i s q u i t e a c o m m o n o c c u r r e n c e . D u e t o t h e l i m i t e d s c o p e o f t h e t h e s i s , t h i s w a s n o t e x a m i n e d . G e n e r a l l y , r e s t a u r a n t l o c a t i o n s c h a n g e o n l y a s a r e s u l t o f r e d e v e l o p m e n t . B a n k s d e m o n s t r a t e a s i m i l a r s t a b i l i t y ( v a l u e s o f < 8 5 p e r c e n t ) , d u e a l s o i n p a r t t o s p e c i a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s u c h a s v a u l t s a n d i n t e r i o r d e s i g n . B a n k c u s t o m e r s d e s i r e a n d e x p e c t s t a b l e l o c a t i o n s f o r t h e i r c o n v e n i e n c e . H a i r d r e s s i n g s a l o n s a r e s l i g h t l y l e s s s t a b l e ( v a l u e s o f b e t w e e n 70 a n d 8 5 p e r c e n t ) i n t e r m s o f l e n g t h o f s t a y , b u t a p p e a r t o n e e d t h e i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o t h e l o c a l b u s i n e s s c o m m u n i t y t h a t c o m e s w i t h t i m e . T h e r e m a i n i n g s e r v i c e l o c a t i o n s , p e r s o n a l , p e r s o n a l - b u s i n e s s , a n d r e p a i r , s h o w a f l e x i b i l i t y o f l o c a t i o n . F o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s , i n c l u d i n g e a s e o f a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r i o r s p a c e , t h e s e u s e s h a v e s h o w n t h e g r e a t e s t a m o u n t o f i n s t a b i l i t y o r c h a n g e ( p r o b a b i l i t y v a l u e s o f l e s s t h a n 50 p e r c e n t ) . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a n y b u s i n e s s l a s t i n g f i v e t o t e n y e a r s a t a s i n g l e l o c a t i o n i s l o w . W h e r e a s m o s t o f t h e s e s m a l l s e r v i c e u s e s c h a n g e s i t e s w i t h o u t a p p a r e n t p a t t e r n , a u t o s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h a t 94 t h e y a r e m o s t o f t e n r e p l a c e d b y a u t o r e t a i l . T h i s a p p e a r s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t b o t h r e l y o n s i m i l a r l i n k a g e s w i t h i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l c o m m u n i t y . T h e c h a n g e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a t o f f i c e l o c a t i o n s a p p e a r c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e o f f i c e c o m m u n i t y . G e n e r a l b u s i n e s s o f f i c e s h a v e r e m a i n e d g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s o f f i c e s o v e r t h e l a s t t h i r t y y e a r s . A s m a l l n u m b e r o f b u s i n e s s e s m o v i n g o u t o f o f f i c e l o c a t i o n s w e r e r e p l a c e d b y a v a r i e t y o f r e t a i l a n d s e r v i c e l a n d - u s e s . H o w e v e r , a s o n l y g r o u n d l e v e l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d , i t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o a s s u m e t h a t c h a n g e s o f o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s t o r e t a i l a n d s e r v i c e s h o p s a r e p o s s i b l e . M e d i c a l o f f i c e l o c a t i o n s h a v e r e m a i n e d m e d i c a l o f f i c e s o v e r t h e l a s t t h r e e d e c a d e s . T h e f e w m e d i c a l o f f i c e s w h i c h h a v e c h a n g e d a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n r e p l a c e d b y o t h e r o f f i c e u s e s . A g a i n , t h e n a t u r e o f a m e d i c a l p r a c t i c e r e l i e s o n s t a b i l i t y o f l o c a t i o n a n d i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o t h e c o m m u n i t y ; t h e r e f o r e , l i t t l e m o v e m e n t s h o u l d b e e x p e c t e d . I n s o m e l o c a t i o n s , d o c t o r s h a v e o c c u p i e d t h e s a m e o f f i c e s t h r o u g h s e v e r a l t i m e p e r i o d s o f t h e s t u d y . T h e a n a l y s i s o f g o v e r n m e n t a l a n d b u s i n e s s a d v i s o r y o f f i c e s p r o v e d d i f f i c u l t d u e t o t h e s m a l l n u m b e r o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s . G e n e r a l s t a b i l i t y i s p r o b a b l e , i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e t r e n d s u g g e s t e d b y o t h e r o f f i c e r e p l a c e m e n t u s e s . T h e M a r k o v a n a l y s i s h a s b e e n s u c c e s s f u l i n d e m o n s t r a t i n g how t h e C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p h a s c h a n g e d o n a l o c a t i o n b y l o c a t i o n b a s i s . T h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n w i l l i n c o r p o r a t e t h i s a n a l y s i s i n t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f how t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l c h a n g e s h a v e l e d t o t h e l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n s e v i d e n t i n 1981 . 9 5 4 . 5 . 4 L a n d U s e P a t t e r n i n g T h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n h a s p r o v i d e d s ome v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e g r o w t h a n d c h a n g e o f l a n d - u s e s a l o n g B r o a d w a y o v e r t h e l a s t t h i r t y y e a r s . T h e r e s u l t o f t h e s e c o n t i n u a l a d j u s t m e n t p r o c e s s e s h a s b e e n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n s . T h e p a t t e r n s o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e a r e c o n s i d e r e d f r o m t w o d i r e c t i o n s : i n i t i a l l y t h e a n a l y s i s l o o k s a t how i n d i v i d u a l l a n d -u s e t y p e s c l u s t e r a m o n g t h e m s e l v e s ; t h e n , t h e a n a l y s i s a d o p t s a m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e a p p r o a c h a n d f o c u s e s o n t h e r e a s o n s f o r w h i c h c e r t a i n l a n d - u s e s h a v e l o c a t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r u s e s . L a n d u s e s a l o n g B r o a d w a y h a v e c l e a r l y e v o l v e d i n t o a v a r i e t y o f i d e n t i f i a b l e p a t t e r n s , r a n g i n g f r o m c l u s t e r i n g t o d i s p e r s i o n . A l o n g t h e s t r i p , c l u s t e r i n g o r s p a t i a l p r o x i m i t i e s a r e e v i d e n t b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t l a n d - u s e t y p e s . T h i s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f u s e s p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e o f s o m e o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a e m p l o y e d b y e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ( s e e C h a p t e r 2). A t t h e m a c r o l e v e l , e s t a b l i s h m e n t s l o c a t e i n r e s p o n s e t o a n e e d f o r l a n d , b u i l d i n g , a c c e s s a n d e q u i t a b l e f i n a n c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s . W h i l e t h e s e f a c t o r s o v e r - r i d e m o s t l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s , i t i s c o n t e n d e d t h a t , i m p l i c i t l y o r e x p l i c i t l y , e s t a b l i s h m e n t s l o c a t e w i t h a r a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h o t h e r u s e s i n t h e a r e a . T h e r e f o r e , g i v e n a c h o i c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o l o c a t i o n s b o t h w h i c h m e e t m i n i m u m i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l a t t r i b u t e s , a n e s t a b l i s h m e n t w i l l c h o o s e t h a t l o c a t i o n w h i c h o f f e r s b e n e f i c i a l e x t e r n a l e c o n o m i e s o f l o c a t i o n . A s o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r , t h e s e i n c l u d e p r o x i m a l l o c a t i o n t o c o m p e t i t i o n , s u p p l i e r s a n d t h e p u b l i c , w i t h l i n k a g e s o f a c o m p e t i t i v e , c o m p l e m e n t a r y , c o m m e n s a l a n d a n c i l l a r y n a t u r e ( s e e 96 Chapter 3). T h i s next s e c t i o n i n v e s t i g a t e s the p h y s i c a l p a t t e r n s of land-use. As demonstrated i n the l i t e r a t u r e , evidence suggests that proximal l o c a t i o n s imply f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s i l l u s t r a t e s the land-use p a t t e r n s along C e n t r a l Broadway. Growth along Broadway has r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t changes to the stock of b u i l d i n g s and the types of uses occupying t h i s stock. As noted above, growth has occurred in a s p o r a d i c and d i s p e r s e d p a t t e r n c o n c e n t r a t i n g i n two segments of the s t r i p (see F i g u r e 4.10). The area between Oak S t r e e t and Cambie S t r e e t accounts f o r the bulk of the o f f i c e space along the study area, while the area between F i r S t r e e t and Burrard S t r e e t at the western edge of the s t r i p c o n s i s t s of a s m a l l e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n of o f f i c e uses. The r e t a i l and s e r v i c e uses co n c e n t r a t e d here have c r e a t e d a complex network of commercial land-uses. The r e t a i l component of commercial land-use along the s t r i p has grown and today accounts f o r about 40 percent of the ground f l o o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s along Broadway. The m a j o r i t y of t h i s component occupies o l d e r premises, with newer esta b l i s h m e n t s l o c a t i n g i n space p r o v i d e d by major o f f i c e complexes. R e t a i l c o n t i n u i t y i s i n t e r r u p t e d by l a r g e - s c a l e automobile l o t s and a l a r g e number of vacant l o t s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n respect to the r e t a i l component, r e t a i l food o u t l e t s have remained a minor use along Broadway and have continued to show a d i s p e r s e d p a t t e r n . Changing p r a c t i c e s of grocery shopping and f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the surrounding r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n s may account f o r t h i s lack of growth. In c o n t r a s t , r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s of household and c l o t h i n g goods have evolved i n t o a complex s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p 97 M p Q H Cd K H S m z n <; M = Cd o • a H Z J ffl ^ S s= < o 3 5 < a s: o < >- o RESIDENTIAL 2 1 1 6 1 4 7 1 8 14- 4 24 4 16 28 4 RETAIL FOOD 1 1 4 1 2 1 RETAIL CLOTHING 5 5 5 32 5 23 5 5 RETAIL HSHLD 1 1 1 6 5 5 3 1 RETAIL ICSC <Z ,2 1 . 2 5 1 4 1 1 2 24 5 lg 5 5 10 RETAIL OFFICE 1 2 1 3 2 2 9 18 9 27 18 18 HER o j - § s 5 o 6 " l 4 7 24 4 16 28 1 2 10 20 1 5 1 1 5 23 5 5 5 3 17 10 RETAIL AUTO SERVICE RESTAUR 2 2 2 1 1 1 4 2 6 9 9 9 5 5 5 18 9 27 4 2 2 1 6 6 9 3 5 5 3 1 6 3 3 1 7 3 3 2 10 10 15 5 . 8 8 5 2 10 5 5 2 SERVICE HAIR J 3 1 1 5 3 2 1 1 3 4 11 4 4 18 11 7 4 4 11 SERVICE PERSONAL 1 1 2 17 17 33 3 1 1 1 2 7 5 5 3 3 1 1 1 5 2 2 2 4 13 9 9 5 5 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 3 1 1 9 9 9 4 4 4 13 4 4 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 9 18 9 18 9 18 9 2 1 1 1 1 2 25 13 13 13 13 25 a > a GRAr FIR 1 1 4 4 4 18 2 4 1 7 13 3 4 1 1 19 5 5 1 5     5 5 3 2 2 11 7 7 1 1 17 17 2 8 4 8 15 SERVICE PERBUS 3 1 1 1 2 7 5 5 3 3 1 1 1 4 5 9 SERVICE BUSINESS ' } 2 2 2 1 1 1  1 1 2 6 SERVICE BANK  2 2  1 9 SERVICE CONTRACT SERVICE AUTO 1 100 SERVICE REPAIR 2 3 2 1 2 2 4 2 1 5 3 7 11 7 4 7 7 15 7 4 19 11 OFFICE GENERAL 3 6 2 5 14 8 16 6 6 14 27 10 2 1 7 3 12 23 2 4 1 3 9 5 10 4 4 9 16 6 1 1 4 2 7 14 OFFICE PROF 1 3 1 3 9 23 1 3 3 8 2 5 2 5 3 8 3 8 10 26 4 10 OFFICE MEDICAL 2 1 1 1 8 4 149 33 65 14 2 1 1 1 19 8 2 1 14 6 OFFICE GOVT 1 10 2 20 3 30 2 20 2 20 OFFICE BUSADV 1 6 4 25 2 12 1 6 2 12 1 6 1 6 3 18 1 6 WHOLESALE 2 40 2 40 1 20 MANUFACTURE 3 21 1 7 4 29 1 7 1 7 1 7 2 14 1 7 PUBLIC 1 20 1 20 1 20 1 20 1 20 PARKING 1 10 2 20 1 10 1 10 1 10 2 20 2 20 CULTUR/REC 1 6 3 17 1 6 2 11 2 11 2 11 4 22 1 6 2 11 UNDERCONSTRUCT 1 100 . VACANT LAND 1 1 2 1 9 12 3 2 12- 2 5 3 1 5 ' 4 2 2 3 2 14 19 5 3 19 3 8 5 2 8 6 VACANT BLDG 4 1 80 20 L a n d U s e b y L o c a t i o n M a t r i x - 1 9 8 1 . M.A. THESIS UBC. BLAKE B. HUDEMA FIG. 4.10 98 a m o n g t h e m s e l v e s a n d w i t h o t h e r l a n d - u s e s w i t h i n t h e a r e a . T h e s e s h o p s h a v e c l u s t e r e d b o t h a m o n g t h e m s e l v e s ( n e a r e s t - n e i g h b o u r v a l u e s o f l e s s t h a n 0 . 9 0 [ s e e F i g u r e 4 . 1 1 a n d M a p s 4 . 4 & 4 . 5 ] ) a n d i n a r e a s p r o x i m a l t o m a j o r o f f i c e f u n c t i o n s . T h e i n c r e a s i n g s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e s e s h o p s may a c c o u n t f o r t h e i r n e e d f o r l i n k a g e s w i t h o t h e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . G r o w i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f r e t a i l s t o r e s a r e c r e a t i n g a n i d e n t i t y f o r t h e s e c l u s t e r s . F o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e a r e a o f G r a n v i l l e a n d B r o a d w a y , h o u s e h o l d r e t a i l s h o p s a p p e a r t o be e x t e n s i o n s o f t h e G r a n v i l l e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s i m i l a r l a n d - u s e s . O t h e r r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s h o w l e s s o f a p a t t e r n t o w a r d s s u p p o r t i n g p r o x i m i t y a n d i m p l i e d l i n k a g e s . R e t a i l o f f i c e s u p p l y l o c a t i o n s d o a p p e a r t o b e l e a s t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . M o s t o f t h e s e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e l o c a t e d e a s t o f C a m b i e S t r e e t i n a n a r e a o f l o w e r d e n s i t y r e t a i l u s e s . F r o m t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d s o f a r i n t h i s t h e s i s , a p r o x i m a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e s e r e t a i l u s e s t o t h e o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w o u l d b e e x p e c t e d . T h e r e t a i l n a t u r e o f t h e s e s h o p s , a s o p p o s e d t o t h e w h o l e s a l e u s e s o n w h i c h m o s t o f f i c e s r e l y , may a c c o u n t f o r t h e p a t t e r n . O c c u p y i n g t h e l a r g e s t s i t e s a n d p r o b a b l y l e a s t r e l i a n t o n s u r r o u n d i n g u s e s a r e t h e r e t a i l a u t o m o b i l e u s e s . T h e s e u s e s , l o c a t e d p r i m a r i l y i n t h e 2 0 0 , 3 0 0 , 9 0 0 , a n d 1 0 0 0 b l o c k s o f W e s t B r o a d w a y , l i k e s i m i l a r u s e s a l o n g t h e s t r i p , w i l l p r o b a b l y g i v e way t o m o r e i n t e n s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t s o v e r t h e n e x t f e w y e a r s . S e r v i c e c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e s a l o n g B r o a d w a y d i s p l a y a m u c h m o r e d i s p e r s e d p a t t e r n t h a n t h e r e t a i l u s e s ( S e e M a p s 4 . 6 - 4 . 8 a n d t h e i n d i c e s o f t h e n e a r e s t - n e i g h b o u r a n a l y s i s , F i g u r e 4 . 1 1 ) . T h e s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d a r e v e r y d i v e r s e a n d s h o w l i t t l e t e n d e n c y RANKING OF COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY OVER THIRTY YEARS ( i n d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r o f N e a r e s t N e i g h b o r V a l u e ) 1981 1971 I 9 6 I I 9 5 I SERVICE CONTRACTORS 0.30* OFFICE BUSINESSADV 0 . 3 7 * SERVICE PERSONAL 0 . 4 4 SERVICE BUSINESS 0.03* OFFICE GOVERNMENT 0.33 SERVICE REPAIR 0.45 RETAIL HOUSEHOLD 0.62 SERVICE BANK 0 . 0 6 * SERVICE PERSONAL 0.35 SERVICE BUSINESS 0 . 4 9 • SERVICE CONTRACTOR 0.63 RETAIL CLOTHING 0.08* SERVICE REPAIR 0.48 SERVICE BANK 0.64 SERVICE BUSINESS 0.64 OFFICE PROFESSIONAL 0 . 0 9 * RETAIL OFFICE SUPPLY 0.52 OFFICE GOVERNMENT O . 6 9 * SERVICE PERSBUSINESS 0 . 6 7 SERVICE PERSBUSINESS 0 . 2 7 OFFICE BUSINESSADV O.63 RETAIL OFFICE SUPPLY 0 . 7 6 SERVICE REPAIR 0 . 7 1 SERVICE REPAIR 0.41 SERVICE HAIRDRESSER 0 . 6 9 OFFICE GENERAL 0 . 7 9 SERVICE RESTAURANT 0 . 7 2 SERVICE PERSONAL 0 . 4 4 SERVICE RESTAURANT 0 . 7 6 OFFICE PROFESSIONAL 0.81 OFFICE PROFESSIONAL 0 . 7 7 RETAIL HOUSEHOLD 0.46 RETAIL CLOTHING 0.80 ' OFFICE MEDICAL 0 . 8 5 RETAIL FOOD 0 . ? 8 * SERVICE HAIRDRESSER 0 . 4 9 SERVICE BANK 0.82* RETAIL MISC O . 8 9 RETAIL OFFICE SUPPLY 0.82 OFFICE MEDICAL 0.50 RETAIL HOUSEHOLD 0.84 RETAIL FOOD 0 . 9 0 * RETAIL MISC 0.83 SERVICE AUTO 0 . 6 0 * OFFICE MEDICAL 0 . 8 6 SERVICE HAIRDRESSER 0.91 OFFICE BUSINESSADV 0.85* RETAIL AUTO 0 . 7 3 OFFICE PROFESSIONAL 0.9I RETAIL HOUSEHOLD 0.94 SERVICE BANK 0.91 OFFICE GENERAL 0 . 7 8 SERVICE PERSBUSINESS O.98 RETAIL AUTO 0.95 OFFICE MEDICAL 1 . 0 0 RETAIL MISC 0.84 OFFICE GENERAL 1.04 SERVICE PERSONAL 0 . 9 9 OFFICE GENERAL 1 . 0 2 ! SERVICE CONTRACTOR 0 . 8 8 * RETAIL AUTO 1.07 SERVICE RESTAURANT 1.02 RETAIL AUTO 1.04 I RETAIL FOOD 0 . 9 8 SERVICE BUSINESS 1.13 SERVICE CONTRACTOR 1.08* SERVICE HAIRDRESSER 1.35* SERVICE RESTAURANT 1.13 RETAIL MISC 1 .1? SERVICE PERSBUSINESS 1.18 SERVICE AUTO 1 . 5 4 RETAIL FOOD 1.37 SERVICE AUTO I . 6 9 * * v a l u e s w i t h l e s s t h a n SERVICE AUTO . t e n o b s e r v a t i o n s . N e a r e s t - N e i g h b o r R a n k o f C o m m e r c i a l A c t i v i t y . M.A. THESIS U.B.C. BLAKE B. HUDEMA FIG. 4.11 1 0 0 TYPE: | 1951 i RET AIL ' FC )OD • • •1 1961 • • 1971 • 1" 1981 , « co a. u. c > a a ) < 1 V 1 c •> _J £ X < o > • <* c > 2 i ! O TYPE:p 1951 i ML C L OTh IING • • 1961 • 1971 • • • * 1981 , • ft* A m o_ t <s. > X CD < to o f -J 5 X < < 1 o TYPE: F 1951 • j IEV ML' HO • • USE •HO LD • * • • 1 1961 ... • 1 ff t • 1971 , • * • 1981 • BURRARD _ PINE J OS -.14. GRANVILLE. HEMLOCK. BIRCH \ ac UJ o _ g z> or a. to 1 -J UJ or < < —o_ 1 J = HEATHER i • ASH 1 CAMBIE z o > ALBERTA ! COLUMBIA . MANITOBA ONTARIO M.A. THESIS UBC POINT PATTERN - RETAIL B I ^ K F R H u n F M A M A P 4.4 101 TYPE: R 1951 i E T AIL - h AIS( :EL LA NEC )US m * • t 1 1961 m 1971 mm » 1981 * • » u. a X CO < CO o j 5 f • X < a > < c w > 2 1 o TYPE : F 1951 i tET AIL OFF rICl T ( 3UF •PD f 1 1961 • • 1971 1981 , • •« CO 0. u. o X m < o _ i • V : < c > > < t- 1 o TYPE: RET AIL - / OM OBI LE • « • 1 1961 1 mt 1971 « • • IQRI * ff mm • * < < BURRARD PINE J cc b. U «• i < cc c HEMLOCK. BIRCH i ALDER . UJ o CC a. to < o LAUREL_ s i f i 5 • ui - X < CAMBIE z 2 3 < i -c c C CC ! § ! I ONTARIO J M.A. THESIS UBG POINT PATTERN - RETAIL M A P 4.5 102 TYPE' S I95I 1 • ER^ v*ICE - mm L - l R E S >TA UR> <\NT * • -1961 • • i mm 1971 • mm t |". m 1 1981 . . * - J 1 m * i • m a. X CD < CO • < o > • < c > 2 i o TYPE: < 1951 i S E P • :E -• HA S A L O f • 1 1961 • • m 1971 • m • i • • • • 1981 • " • • mm • m > • a r i — I CO D_ •\ L L . > < CO o _ l X < o > < c t 2 1 o TYPE : < 1951 i S E R r v i c E - P E • RS< ON; mm • 1 1961 • a -SM- ... JL, , 1971 1981 • BURRARD. PINE J • cc LL. GRANVILLE. HEMLOCK BIRCH . ALDER . SPRUCE . < < LAUREL . WILLOW CC Ul X u X ASH CAMBIE . z c > ALBERTA COLUMBIA J MANITOBA ONTARIoJ M.A. THESIS UBC P O I N T P A T T E R N - S E R V I C E BLAKE B. HUDEMA M A P 4 . 6 1 0 3 TYPE: SERVICE - PERSONAL BUSINESS 1951 1961 1971 1981 1 • m • TV * 1 1 m m • m. * m mm mm m mm • f V 1 ffi CO ^ I < O >- < o TYPE . SERVICE - BUSINESS 1951 u _ 1961 _ 1971 1981 f l > | | t t CD m —ft CO »» | Mil -r £ X < -r" O >- < o "1 o T Y P E : SERVICE - BANK 1951 1961 1971 1981 • • I • • f » T" • 1 1 • f — • 1 1—*- — * i Q CC < cr LU (E, z cc m CL u. _ J > z < cc o o o _ l UJ X X o cc CO cc LU Q LU O 3 CC a. CO < o LU CC < O - J CC X LU X X CO < o £ z < 2 g cc 1 o POINT PATTERN - SERVCE Z^JZ * % 104 TYPE: SERVICE - CONTRACTOR I95I 1 • • i 1961 a • 1971 * m - ««« 1981 , • 1 • w 1 m a Ix. z CD < CO o 3 : < o >-• < o 2 : o TYPE: SERVICE - AUTOMOBILE 1951 1961 1971 1981 • at 1 • 11 * r ' 1 CO o_ u. o CD < CO O 5 X < o >- < o TYPE* SERVICE - REPAIR 1181 1971 1981 1 •a • • • * • - *• ... ~1 t l T i n m • a> 1 • • at 1 • • 1 1 • I • i < 4 i or o Q 2 £ £ < | or tu £ z or x o or CD or ui o UJ or o, CO CC 9 X T § < 3 * I O _l * Ul < CD o P m E or a I s i h o POINT RCTTERN - SERVICE M.A. THESIS UBC M A P BLAKE B. HUDEMA 105 t o c l u s t e r . T h i s may b e a r e s u l t o f t h e g r e a t e r n u m b e r o f p r e a r r a n g e d c o n t a c t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e s e u s e s a s o p p o s e d t o t h e l e s s f o r m a l " s h o p p i n g " b e h a v i o u r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f r e t a i l u s e s . P e r s o n a l - b u s i n e s s a n d b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , f o r e x a m p l e , h a v e n e a r e s t - n e i g h b o u r v a l u e s o f o n e a n d s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r t h a n o n e , r e s p e c t i v e l y ( F i g u r e 4 . 1 1 ) , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t p r o x i m a l l o c a t i o n s may n o t b e i m p o r t a n t t o t h e s e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . R e s t a u r a n t s a n d h a i r d r e s s i n g s a l o n s , d e s p i t e b e i n g s p r e a d o v e r t h e w h o l e s t r i p , c l u s t e r a r o u n d t h e m a j o r o f f i c e c o m p l e x e s . A l a r g e n u m b e r o f t h e s e s h o p s a r e l o c a t e d b e t w e e n Y u k o n S t r e e t a n d W i l l o w S t r e e t , w i t h a s e c o n d a r y n o d e a d j a c e n t t o t h e G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t i n t e r s e c t i o n . A g a i n , t h e p r o x i m i t y o f t h e G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t c o m m e r c i a l c o m p l e x i s s u s p e c t e d a s a n i n f l u e n c e o v e r l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n s a l o n g t h i s s e c t i o n o f B r o a d w a y . O f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e x h i b i t t h e g r e a t e s t c l u s t e r i n g o f c o m m e r c i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a l o n g B r o a d w a y ( s e e M a p s 4 . 9 & 4 . 1 0 ) . G r o u n d f l o o r o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n d i c a t e t h i s c l u s t e r e d p a t t e r n , w h i l e t h e a d d i t i o n o f u p p e r f l o o r d a t a ( t h o u g h b e y o n d t h e s c o p e o f t h i s s t u d y ) , s o l i d i f i e s t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d h e a l t h s e r v i c e c o m p l e x o n t h e s t r i p d i s t r i b u t e s i t s e l f a m o n g t w o n o d e s , o n e p r o x i m a l t o t h e G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l , b e t w e e n A s h S t r e e t a n d O a k S t r e e t , a n d a s e c o n d , s m a l l e r n o d e b e t w e e n F i r S t r e e t a n d B u r r a r d S t r e e t i n t h e w e s t e r l y m o s t p o r t i o n o f t h e s t u d y s t r i p . R e c e n t o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o c c u p i e d w i t h h e a l t h s e r v i c e u s e s h a v e r e i n f o r c e d e s t a b l i s h e d m e d i c a l u s e s i n t h e s e t w o a r e a s . G e n e r a l o f f i c e s a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l o f f i c e s h a v e , h o w e v e r , s h o w n a t e n d e n c y t o d i s p e r s e . B u s i n e s s o f f i c e s a r e b e c o m i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y a b u n d a n t i n 1 0 6 TYPE: OFFICE - GENERAL 1951 1961 1971 • • - J * WW • _ 1 • -mm* V TYPE: OFFICE - PROFESSIONAL 1951 1961 1971 1981 1 | mm m • • *- • •mmm • • m - a — 1 CD Q - U . O X CQ < CO O _J ^ X < 0 > - < 0 TYPE: OFFICE-MEDICAL 1951 1961 1971 1981 o cc < cr 1 ~* • J -r . • r - 1 " • ../ - • 1 =1 o ~ o UI z a. g _ cr ^ 5 g ui £ ° x to < UJ o cr ac 3 a. < < co o _ i cr UJ x Ui X X CO < " z ca o o >-ERTA MBIA OBA Old ERTA MBIA WIT < 9 3 WIT z < 8 o POINT PATTERN - OFFICE M.A. THESIS UBC M A P BLAKE B. HUDEMA 4.-9 1 07 TYPE: OFFICE- GOVERNMENT 1951 1961 1971 1981 | • • 1 • 1 CD CO £ X < o >- < o 2 O TYPE: OFFICE - BUSINESS ADVISORY 1951 U 1961 -1971 -1981 r- - V -cc < or or 3 LU or CL LL. i 3 < 5 LU X X o pr m or Q UJ u z> or CL to Q x LU * Zi ^ H X < < _J 5 to O _J £ UJ < co 0 or on o o CO O i s 1 £ 2 O POINT PATTERN - OFFICE _ 4 1 0 M.A. THESIS UBC M A P BLAKE B. HUDEMA 108 t h e w e s t , b e t w e e n F i r S t r e e t a n d B u r r a r d S t r e e t ( a n d b e y o n d t o t h e A r b u t u s s e g m e n t o f B r o a d w a y ) , a s w e l l a s i n t h e a l r e a d y c o n c e n t r a t e d o f f i c e d i s t r i c t b e t w e e n C a m b i e S t r e e t a n d Oak S t r e e t . F r o m t h e a n a l y s i s o f l o c a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l u s e s , p a t t e r n s d o b e c o m e e v i d e n t . T h e s t r i p , r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g a h o m o g e n e o u s c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t a s s u g g e s t e d b y i t s " b l a n k e t " z o n i n g c o v e r a g e , i s c o m p o s e d o f f i v e d i s t i n c t s e g m e n t s ( s e e M a p 4 . 1 1 ) . I n t h e e a s t , b e t w e e n O n t a r i o a n d C a m b i e , i s a u n i q u e s e g m e n t b e c a u s e o f t h e p r e d o m i n a n c e o f l o w b u i l d i n g s , a g i n g s t r u c t u r e s , a n d d e c a y i n g r e t a i l l a n d u s e s . T h e a r e a i s m a r k e d b y a c o m p l e t e a b s e n c e o f h i g h e r d e n s i t y o f f i c e s p a c e a n d r e p r e s e n t s a l m o s t a p r e - d e v e l o p m e n t s t a t e o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e . T h e l a r g e n u m b e r o f s m a l l s h o p s h a s p r o b a b l y h a m p e r e d r e d e v e l o p m e n t e f f o r t s . T h e s e c o n d s e g m e n t o f t h e s t r i p i s t h e a n t i t h e s i s o f t h e f i r s t . T h e a r e a , b e t w e e n C a m b i e S t r e e t a n d Oak S t r e e t i s h i g h l y r e d e v e l o p e d t o p r o v i d e i n t e n s e u s e s i n m u l t i - s t o r e y b u i l d i n g s . W i t h i n t h i s s e g m e n t a r e t h e b u l k o f o f f i c e u s e s . I n r e s p o n s e t o a n u m b e r o f f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g p r o x i m i t y t o n o d e s ( C i t y H a l l a n d V G H ) , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s i n t o a n d o u t o f t h e d o w n t o w n p e n i n s u l a a n d t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l a r g e a s s e m b l e d s i t e s , o f f i c e u s e s h a v e l o c a t e d h e r e a n d c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s s e g m e n t . T h i s s e g m e n t o f B r o a d w a y a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s t h e d i s p a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e n o r t h a n d s o u t h s i d e s o f t h e s t r i p : f i v e o f s e v e n m u l t i - s t o r e y b u i l d i n g s ( a b o v e n i n e s t o r e y s ) a r e l o c a t e d o n t h e n o r t h s i d e , w h i l e o n t h e s o u t h s i d e , v a c a n t l o t s r e m a i n u n d e v e l o p e d . I n d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h t h e r e a l e s t a t e i n d u s t r y , a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n t o t h e v i e w s o f f e r e d a l o n g FUNCTIONAL AREAS - BROADWAY M.A. THESIS U.B.C. BLAKE B. HUOEMA MAP 4.11 1 10 t h e n o r t h s i d e ( P i e r c e , 1 9 8 4 ) . R e t a i l a n d s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s l o c a t i n g i n g r o u n d l e v e l l o c a t i o n s o f t h e s e o f f i c e c o m p l e x e s a r e u s u a l l y o f f s e t f r o m t h e s t r e e t b y p l a z a s , c r e a t i n g a c o m p l e x s e c o n d " d i m e n s i o n " t o t h e c o m m e r c i a l c o n t i n u i t y a l o n g B r o a d w a y . T h e t y p e s o f r e t a i l a n d s e r v i c e u s e s l o c a t i n g i n t h e o f f i c e c o m p l e x e s a p p e a r t o b e d o i n g s o a s a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e p o t e n t i a l o f l a r g e v o l u m e s o f c u s t o m e r s f r o m d a y t i m e w o r k p o p u l a t i o n s i n t h e a r e a . W e s t o f t h i s s e g m e n t i s a n a r e a t y p i f i e d b y v a c a n t l o t s a n d b u i l d i n g s . O n c e a p r e d o m i n a n t a u t o m o b i l e r e t a i l i n g n o d e , t h i s a r e a s h o w s e v i d e n c e o f t h e e x o d u s o f t h e s e s p a c e - e x t e n s i v e u s e s . T h i s s e g m e n t o n l y o c c u p i e s t h r e e b l o c k s , b u t d o e s m u c h t o d i s r u p t t h e c o m m e r c i a l c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e s t r i p . T h e l a c k o f r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d t h e m a n y a c c e s s a n d e g r e s s p o i n t s d e t r a c t f r o m t h e g r o w i n g c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s t r i p . T h i s s e c t i o n , h o w e v e r , w i t h i t s l a r g e s i t e s , m a n y o f w h i c h a r e c l e a r e d o f s t r u c t u r e s , i s p r i m e f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t . A p p l i c a t i o n s h a v e b e e n made o n a n u m b e r o f l o c a t i o n s a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n h a s p r o c e e d e d o n t h e n o r t h s i d e o f B r o a d w a y b e t w e e n S p r u c e a n d B i r c h S t r e e t s . T h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f G r a n v i l l e c r e a t e s t h e f o u r t h s e g m e n t o f t h e s t r i p . H e r e , t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e G r a n v i l l e c o m m e r c i a l c o r r i d o r i s m o s t e v i d e n t . P e d e s t r i a n o r i e n t e d s h o p p i n g u s e s o n G r a n v i l l e h a v e c o n t i n u e d a b l o c k e a s t a n d w e s t a l o n g B r o a d w a y . T h e c o n n e c t i o n i s e n h a n c e d b y t h e o r i e n t a t i o n o f s h o p s a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n w h i c h e n c o u r a g e t h e c o n t i n u i t y . H o u s e h o l d , c l o t h i n g , a n d a r t - r e l a t e d u s e s a r e t y p i c a l o f t h i s s e g m e n t o f B r o a d w a y , r e f l e c t i n g s i m i l a r u s e s o n G r a n v i l l e . T h e m o s t w e s t e r l y s e g m e n t o f B r o a d w a y i s t h e a r e a o f t h e s e c o n d o f f i c e 111 c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n t h e s t r i p . T h i s s e g m e n t , w e s t o f F i r S t r e e t , h a s a t t r a c t e d o f f i c e s o f t h e h e a l t h - s e r v i c e s e c t o r , a n d , m o r e r e c e n t l y , s t r o n g b u s i n e s s o f f i c e g r o u p s . S e p a r a t i o n o f ' t h e t w o t y p e s o f o f f i c e s a r e e v i d e n t h e r e , w i t h m e d i c a l u s e s l o c a t i n g p r e d o m i n a n t l y o n t h e s o u t h s i d e o f B r o a d w a y a n d b u s i n e s s o f f i c e s t o t h e . n o r t h s i d e o f t h e A v e n u e . A l t h o u g h t h e s t u d y a r e a e n d s a t B u r r a r d S t r e e t i n t h e w e s t , i t i s f e l t t h a t a l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s o f f i c e n o d e h a s d e v e l o p e d i n a f o u r b l o c k a r e a t o t h e w e s t o f t h e s t u d y a r e a a n d may b e a m o r e p r o m i n e n t o f f i c e n o d e t h a n i s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e s t u d y . D e l i n e a t i o n o f B r o a d w a y i n t o t h e a b o v e s e g m e n t s e v o l v e d o u t o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f n e a r e s t - n e i g h b o u r s a n d t h e s p a t i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s o f s p e c i f i c u s e s . T h e d i s c u s s i o n now t u r n s t o a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n - o f t h e s p a t i a l a f f i n i t i e s b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d w i t h i n t h e i d e n t i f i e d l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n s . A c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e w a s u s e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e s e s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n u s e s . 4 . 5 . 5 C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s h a s b e c o m e a p o p u l a r t o o l i n t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f s p a t i a l a n d f u n c t i o n a l l i n k a g e s w i t h i n g e o g r a p h i c a l s t u d i e s ( A l e x a n d e r , 1 9 7 4 ; B o u r n e , 1 9 7 1 ; a n d G o d d a r d 1 9 7 1 , 1 9 7 3 ) . V a r i a t i o n s o f t h e t e c h n i q u e t a k e t h e f o r m o f f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , p r i n c i p a l c o m p o n e n t a n a l y s i s , a n d i n f o r m a t i o n a n a l y s i s . D u e t o t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e s o f t w a r e , c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s i s u s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . T h e a n a l y s i s i s b a s e d o n t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n e a c h s h o p a n d i t s c l o s e s t n e i g h b o u r o f a l l t y p e s o f l a n d - u s e . T h e d i s t a n c e s a r e a g g r e g a t e d i n t o a m a t r i x o f 1 12 l a n d - u s e t y p e s a n d s u b j e c t e d t o a c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s t h r o u g h t h e BMDP ( 1 9 8 1 ) s t a t i s t i c a l p a c k a g e . B r i e f l y , t h e BMDP s t a t i s t i c a l p a c k a g e g r o u p s l a n d - u s e s i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l m a n n e r a c c o r d i n g t o s i m i l a r i t y o f c l u s t e r i n g t r e n d s . I n t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e t e c h n i q u e , r e a l d i s t a n c e s a r e u s e d a s t h e c r i t e r i o n o f s i m i l a r i t y . T h e r e f o r e , t h o s e l a n d - u s e t y p e s , w i t h s i m i l a r s p a t i a l a f f i n i t i e s , w h i c h c l u s t e r , d e m o n s t r a t e p a t t e r n s o f s i m i l a r d i s t a n c e . A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s t h r o u g h BMDP i s t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h e l e m e n t s a r e t r e a t e d o n c e g r o u p e d . O n c e a s i n g l e e l e m e n t ( l a n d - u s e t y p e ) h a s b e e n c o m m i t t e d t o a g r o u p , i t r e m a i n s t h e r e o v e r t h e e n t i r e p r o c e s s a n d c a r r i e s o n l y a p r o p o r t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e g r o u p o v e r s u b s e q u e n t l e v e l s o f c l u s t e r i n g . T h e t r e e - d i a g r a m i n F i g u r e 4 . 1 2 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e c l u s t e r i n g o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e s a l o n g B r o a d w a y . T h e r e s u l t s r e i n f o r c e t h e l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n s a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d b y s h o w i n g s t r o n g a f f i n i t i e s b e t w e e n c e r t a i n r e t a i l , s e r v i c e a n d o f f i c e u s e s . T h e d i a g r a m i n d i c a t e s t h e s t r o n g t i e s t h a t r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v e f o r o n e a n o t h e r . A t t h e l o w e s t l e v e l o f c l u s t e r i n g , r e t a i l c l o t h i n g , a n d r e t a i l h o u s e h o l d c a t e g o r i e s c l u s t e r i n t h e s a m e m a n n e r a s d o m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e t a i l a n d o f f i c e r e t a i l . T h e n e x t l e v e l o f a g g r e g a t i o n b r i n g s a l l f o u r o f t h e s e i n t o a s i n g l e g r o u p . T h i s s e e m s t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e t a i l l a n d - u s e s a r e l o c a t i n g i n p r o x i m i t y a n d t h a t s o m e s p a t i a l , i f n o t f u n c t i o n a l , r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s . T h e s e r v i c e l a n d - u s e s a l s o a p p e a r t o l o c a t e a m o n g s e r v i c e l a n d - u s e s m o r e o f t e n t h a n a m o n g r e t a i l o r o f f i c e u s e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e a n d p e r s o n a l - b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e u s e s l i n k a t t h e l o w e s t l e v e l o f c l u s t e r i n g , a n d VAR 1 ABLE NAME NO. RFOOO RFOOD OBUSADV RCLU TH RHSHOLD ( 1) O/O 4/6 7/2 2/8 7 3 3/ 3 11 13 5/ 6 10/10 17/ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I OBUSADV ( 20)/ O 0/ 0 0/ 0 0/ 0 O 0 0/ 0 0 O 0/ 0 0/ 0 01 I I I /. I l l / / / / I I I RCIOTM ( 2) 01 3 6/ 7 5/(7 6 7 5/ 8 11 7 3/12 10/26 40/ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I RHSHOLO ( 3)/ 0 4/ 8 6/16 3 11 5/13 9 7 4/17 9/31 46/ / / / I I I / / / I I I RHISC ( 4) 0/10 8/1 1 4.9 4/13 7 7 3/15 6/30 39/ / / / I I I I I I I I I ROFFICE ( 5)/ 8 10/ 6 22 6 7/ 0 12 23 11/ 3 19/ b 12/ / / I I I / / I I I OMEDIC ( 18) 0/10 2 5 10/11 21 8 4/18 0/12 12/ / / I I I I I I I I OGOVT ( 19)/ 6 2 4 20/15 17 6 14/13 4/29 13/ / I I I / I I I SPERBUS ( 10) 01 9 6/10 33 IS 0/30 4/57 77/ I I I I I I I I I I SBUS ( .11)/ 0 4/ 9 6 4 23/ 9 11/12 16/ / I I I / / / / BANK ( 1 2 ) 0/10 21 9 6/ 7 7/14 20/ / I I I I I I I CONTRACT( 13)/ 7 10 4 10/ 3 59/ O 1/ I I I / / / AUTOHRO ( 6) 0/10 7/19 7/35 4 5 / / / / / / / / / RESTAUR!( 7)/ 0 5/35 5/69 99/ I I I / / / HA1RQRESI a) 0/15 4/29 42/ / / / / / / SPER ( 9)1 5 29/ 3 41 I I / / OGENRAL ( 16) 01 5 01 I I I I OPROf ( 171/81 29/ / / SAUTO ( 1 4 ) 01 I I REPAIR ( 15)/ -/ RMISC ROFFICE OMEDIC OGOVT SPERBUS SBUS BANK CONTRACT AUTOHRD RESTAURT HAIRDRES SPER OGENRAL OPROF SAUTO REPAIR C l u s t e r a n d D i s t a n c e M a t r i x . M.A. THESIS U.B.C. BLAKE B. HUDEMA FIG. 4.12 1 14 s u b s e q u e n t c l u s t e r i n g b r i n g s s e r v i c e u s e s t o g e t h e r b e f o r e o f f i c e o r r e t a i l u s e s a r e i n c l u d e d . O f f i c e u s e s s h o w s t r o n g a f f i n i t i e s f o r o n e a n o t h e r a s d e m o n s t r a t e d b y l o w l e v e l c l u s t e r i n g o f g e n e r a l o f f i c e s t o p r o f e s s i o n a l o f f i c e s a n d g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c e s t o m e d i c a l o f f i c e s . S u b s e q u e n t c l u s t e r i n g a t t r a c t s s e r v i c e a n d r e t a i l u s e s w h i c h f o r m a n e t w o r k o f s p a t i a l a f f i n i t i e s b e t w e e n c o m m e r c i a l u s e s . T h e d i s t a n c e - m a t r i x i n F i g u r e 4 . 1 2 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s t r o n g s i m i l a r i t y o f p a t t e r n s w h i c h m o s t l a n d - u s e s h a v e w i t h o n e a n o t h e r . T h e g e n e r a l l y l o w v a l u e s o n t h i s m a t r i x c l e a r l y s u p p o r t t h e p r e m i s e t h a t p r o x i m a l l o c a t i o n s a n d s p a t i a l a f f i n i t i e s a r e i d e n t i f i a b l e a n d i n d e e d o c c u r m o r e r e g u l a r l y t h a n w o u l d b e e x p e c t e d b y c h a n c e a l o n e . T h e s y n t h e s i s o f c l u s t e r i n g a n d t h e d i s t a n c e - m a t r i x i n d i c a t e s t h a t o v e r t h e s t r i p , v a r i o u s c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e s l o c a t e d . w i t h a r e g u l a r i t y a s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 4 . 1 3 . BURRARD ST. GRANVILLE ST. OAK sr. CAMBIE SV ONTARIO ST RELATIVE CONCENTRATION OF BUSINESSES B L A K E ^ ' H U O ^ R G 4 I 3 " " 1 1 6 CHAPTER FIVE 1 1 7 C H A P T E R F I V E C O N C L U S I O N S AND I M P L I C A T I O N S 5 . 1 C o n c l u s i o n s T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e l a n d - u s e s o f i n n e r c i t y c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p d i s t r i c t s . T h e r e v i e w o f a b o d y o f l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o g e n e r a l l a n d - u s e , c o m m e r c i a l l a n d -u s e a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r s t r i p c o m m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s a n d a c a s e s t u d y o f C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y A v e n u e , h a v e r e v e a l e d a n u m b e r o f o b s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t t h e t h e o r y o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e a n d t h e r e a l i t y o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e i n s t r i p d i s t r i c t s . I n i t i a l l y , t h e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e h a s r e v e a l e d t h e f r a g m e n t a r y n a t u r e t h a t c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e a s s u m e s i n t h e b r o a d e r t h e o r y o f u r b a n l a n d - u s e s . A l t h o u g h t h e s t u d y o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e b y B e r r y , G o d d a r d , a n d G o t t m a n h a s r e s u l t e d i n p o s i t i v e s t r i d e s f o r p l a n n i n g , t h e b u l k o f w o r k p e r t a i n i n g t o c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e h a s o r i e n t e d i t s e l f t o t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f l a n d - u s e s . I n t h e e l a b o r a t i o n o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , o n l y c u r s o r y a t t e n t i o n h a s b e e n g i v e n t o t h e u n d e r l y i n g f o r c e s a n d p r o c e s s e s i n h e r e n t i n c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e d i s t r i c t s . T h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c h e m e p r o p o s e d b y B e r r y g r o u p s c o m m e r c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o n t h e b a s i s o f p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e i n t o n o d e s , s t r i p s , a n d i s o l a t e d c l u s t e r s . G a r n e r , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , p r o p o s e s a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n b a s e d o n t h e f u n c t i o n a l m i x o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h i n c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s , b u i l d i n g a h i e r a r c h y o f n e i g h b o u r h o o d , c o m m u n i t y a n d r e g i o n a l s h o p p i n g c o m p l e x e s . W h i l e i t i s g e n e r a l l y t r u e t h a t p l a n n i n g w i t h i n c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s i s c o n s p i c u o u s b y i t s " l a c k o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n " , 1 1 8 p l a n n i n g w i t h i n i n n e r c i t y l o c a t i o n s d o e s a p p e a r t o b e t h e e x c e p t i o n . H i s t o r i c a l l y , i n n e r c i t y l o c a t i o n s w e r e c o m p r i s e d o f r e s i d e n t i a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l l a n d - u s e s , b u t t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s e s o f d i s p e r s i o n a n d d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , t h e s e a r e a s h a v e b e e n s u b j e c t e d t o c h a n g e , d e c a y , a n d b l i g h t . T h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e i n n e r c i t y h a v e r e s u l t e d i n r e n e w a l , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , a n d r e d e v e l o p m e n t e f f o r t s a s c o u n t e r m e a s u r e s . E f f o r t s t o d a t e h a v e , i n m a n y o r m o s t c a s e s , b e e n l e s s t h a n s u c c e s s f u l i n a r r e s t i n g t h e s e p r o b l e m s . I t i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t l a n d - u s e r e g u l a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g z o n i n g , h a v e n o t b e e n a i m e d a t t h e u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r s c a u s i n g d e c a y a n d b l i g h t . G r o w t h , a s a f o r m o f c h a n g e , o p e r a t e s w i t h i n c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s . E v o l u t i o n o f l a n d - u s e s w i t h i n t h e s e d i s t r i c t s h a s o c c u r r e d t h r o u g h a n e x p a n s i o n o f l a n d - u s e s a t t h e p e r i p h e r y a n d t h r o u g h a n i n t e r n a l r e o r g a n i z a t o n o f u s e s w i t h i n d i s t r i c t s . C h a n g e s o f u s e a r e i n c r e m e n t a l a d d i t i o n s t o t h e s t r u c t u r a l a n d f u n c t i o n a l n a t u r e o f t h e d i s t r i c t , a n d r a n g e f r o m t h e r e p l a c e m e n t o f u s e t o m a j o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s . C o n c l u s i o n s w i t h i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e a g g r e g a t e o f i n c r e m e n t a l c h a n g e m a y l e a d t o u n p l a n n e d a n d u n d e s i r a b l e l a n d - u s e s t r u c t u r e . Two c o m p o n e n t s o f l a n d - u s e s t r u c t u r e a n d f u n c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r a r e t h e e x t e r n a l e c o n o m i e s a n d t h e l i n k a g e s b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . I n t h i s t h e s i s , e x t e r n a l e c o n o m i e s a r e e x p r e s s e d a s b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g t o e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h i c h l o c a t e i n p r o x i m i t y t o o t h e r " l i n k e d " e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . L i n k a g e s a r e d e f i n e d a s t h e m o v e m e n t o f g o o d s , s e r v i c e s , i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d p e o p l e w h i c h c o n v e y t h e s e b e n e f i t s . T h e l i t e r a t u r e s h o w s t h a t e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e l i n k e d b y n e c e s s i t y f o r s u p p l i e r s a n d a n c i l l a r y s e r v i c e s a n d 1 19 b y a d e s i r e t o c a p i t a l i z e o n t h e s h a r i n g o f c u s t o m e r s t h r o u g h c o m p l e m e n t a r y a n d c o m p e t i t i v e f o r c e s . T h e r e s u l t s o f l i n k a g e s a n d b e n e f i t s t h r o u g h e x t e r n a l e c o n o m i e s h a s p r e c i p i t a t e d l a n d -u s e p a t t e r n s w i t h i n u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t s . T h e m o s t e v i d e n t c l u s t e r i n g i s t h a t o f i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s , b u t s i m i l a r p r o c e s s e s a n d p a t t e r n s a p p e a r t o o p e r a t e i n t h e r e t a i l , s e r v i c e a n d o f f i c e c o m p o n e n t s o f c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e s . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , c o n c l u d e d t h a t r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g h o m o g e n e o u s a g g r e g a t i o n s o f " c l o s e d s t a t e " , r a n d o m l y - o r i e n t e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s a r e c o m p o s e d o f a v a r i e t y o f s t r u c t u r e s a n d a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n a n e t w o r k a n d c o n s p i c u o u s b y t h e i r l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n s . T h e c a s e s t u d y o f C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y A v e n u e h a s p r o d u c e d s o m e a f f i r m a t i o n s o f l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n s t h r o u g h h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s e s o f g r o w t h a n d c h a n g e a n d t h r o u g h w h a t i s b e l i e v e d t o b e f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . O v e r t h e c o u r s e o f t h e t h r e e d e c a d e s , 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 8 1 , C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y h a s e v o l v e d f r o m a l o w - o r d e r , c o n v e n i e n c e n a t u r e d c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p t o a h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d a n d s p e c i a l i z e d c o m m e r c i a l a r e a . R e s i d e n t i a l u s e s o n c e o c c u p i e d o v e r a q u a r t e r o f t h e l o c a t i o n s a l o n g B r o a d w a y ; t o d a y t h e y h a v e b e e n r e p l a c e d b y a c o m p l e x n e t w o r k o f o f f i c e s , r e t a i l a n d s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . A l s o e v i d e n t o v e r t h e t h r e e d e c a d e s i s t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f l o c a t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y . I n t h e e a r l i e s t t i m e s e g m e n t o f t h e s t u d y , c h a n g e s o f u s e a t p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n s w e r e m i n i m a l : s h o p s g e n e r a l l y o c c u p i e d a l o c a t i o n f o r f i v e t o t e n y e a r s . T h e e v i d e n c e f o r t h e f i n a l t i m e s e g m e n t o f t h e s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t c h a n g e s w e r e m u c h m o r e n u m e r o u s a n d t h a t s h o p s i n g e n e r a l r e m a i n e d o n t h e s t r i p f o r s h o r t e r p e r i o d s o f t i m e , i n 120 t h e o r d e r o f l e s s t h a n f i v e y e a r s . T h e p a t t e r n s o f l a n d - u s e s o n t h e s t r i p w e r e i n v e s t i g a t e d f r o m t w o a n g l e s , f i r s t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n s i m i l a r u s e s w e r e e x a m i n e d a n d s e c o n d , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t u s e s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f s i m i l a r u s e s i n d i c a t e d a b r o a d r a n g e o f p a t t e r n s . U s e s , s u c h a s r e t a i l a u t o m o b i l e a n d s e r v i c e a u t o m o b i l e a s w e l l a s r e t a i l f o o d o u t l e t s l a c k e d c l u s t e r i n g a n d w e r e d i s p e r s e d o v e r t h e s t r i p . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s t e n d e d t o c l u s t e r . T h e b u l k o f t h e r e m a i n i n g u s e s s h o w e d l i t t l e t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s c l u s t e r i n g o r r e g u l a r i t y , b u t r a t h e r , w e r e r a n d o m l y d i s t r i b u t e d . C o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t u s e s a r e m o r e d e f i n i t i v e . R e t a i l l a n d - u s e s t e n d t o b e l o c a t e d c l o s e r t o o t h e r r e t a i l u s e s t h a n s e r v i c e o r o f f i c e u s e s . T h e s a m e i s t r u e o f s e r v i c e a n d o f f i c e u s e s , l o c a t i n g c l o s e r t o s e r v i c e a n d o f f i c e u s e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e d i s t a n c e m a t r i x e n h a n c e s t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s f u r t h e r b y s h o w i n g t h a t i n t e r m s o f s i m i l a r i t y o f d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n e a c h e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d i t s n e a r e s t - n e i g h b o u r o f o t h e r t y p e s , t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s o f r e t a i l , s e r v i c e , a n d o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r . A s F i g u r e 4 . 1 4 s h o w s , t h e h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s b e t w e e n O a k a n d C a m b i e i s m i r r o r e d b y a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f r e t a i l a n d s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . C o n v e r s e l y , b e t w e e n O a k a n d G r a n v i l l e , a l o w n u m b e r o f " o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e a c c o m p a n i e d b y a p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l o w n u m b e r o f s e r v i c e a n d r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . A ' s p i n - o f f e f f e c t a p p e a r s t o e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e n u m b e r o f 1 2 1 o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d s e r v i c e a n d r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . R e t a i l a n d s e r v i c e u s e s a l i g n t h e m s e l v e s s p a t i a l l y w i t h o f f i c e u s e s : r e t a i l a n d s e r v i c e u s e s c a t e r i n g t o h e a l t h s e r v i c e s a r e l o c a t e d c l o s e t o m e d i c a l o f f i c e s , w h i l e b u s i n e s s a n d p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s h o w s o m e a f f i n i t y t o b u s i n e s s o f f i c e s . T h e a n a l y s i s o f g r o w t h , c h a n g e a n d p a t t e r n i n g o f l a n d - u s e s a l o n g C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y h a s l e d t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e s t u d y s t r i p i s n o t a h o m o g e n e o u s s t r i p n o r r a n d o m l y s o r t e d , b u t r a t h e r a s t r i p c o m p o s e d o f f i v e d i s t i n c t i v e s e g m e n t s . T h e s e g m e n t o f h i g h e s t r e d e v e l o p m e n t i n t e n s i t y a n d t h a t o f g r e a t e s t r e d e v e l o p m e n t i s t h e s e g m e n t b e t w e e n C a m b i e a n d O a k . T h e p r o x i m i t y t o t h e H o s p i t a l h a s a t t r a c t e d t h e m e d i c a l o f f i c e s a n d a s s o c i a t e d r e t a i l a n d s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . T h e i n t e n s i t y o f u s e a n d t h e d e n s i t y o f b u i l d i n g s d e c r e a s e t o t h e w e s t a n d t o t h e e a s t o f t h i s s e g m e n t . E a s t o f C a m b i e t o O n t a r i o S t r e e t , l o w b u i l d i n g s a n d a p r e d o m i n a n c e o f r e t a i l u s e s g i v e s t h i s s e g m e n t i t s d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r . W e s t o f O a k S t r e e t , t h e i n t e n s i t y o f u s e a l s o d i m i n i s h e s ; i n t h i s s e g m e n t t h e h i g h v a c a n c y r a t e o f b u i l d i n g s a n d l a n d m a k e s t h i s a r e a p r i m e f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t d e r i v e s i t s c h a r a c t e r f r o m t h e G r a n v i l l e c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p w i t h i t s s p e c i a l t y r e t a i l a n d s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . T h e w e s t e r n m o s t s e g m e n t o f t h e s t u d y s t r i p l i e s t o t h e w e s t o f P i n e S t r e e t a n d r e p r e s e n t s t h e s e c o n d a r y o f f i c e n o d e o f t h e s t r i p . T h i s s e g m e n t a p p e a r s t o b e s p a t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u s e s t o t h e w e s t o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . I n g e n e r a l , t h e c a s e s t u d y h a s p r o v i d e d s o m e s u p p o r t f o r t h e i d e a s a n d c o n c l u s i o n s a r r i v e d a t i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . T h e r e s u l t s m u s t b e v i e w e d w i t h c a u t i o n a s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e 1 22 f o l l o w i n g l i m i t a t i o n s . 5 . 2 L i m i t a t i o n s T h r o u g h t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s t h e s i s a n u m b e r o f l i m i t a t i o n s h a v e b e c o m e e v i d e n t , w h i c h c a u t i o n t h e r e a d e r f r o m d r a w i n g d e f i n i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s o r c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h e l i m i t a t i o n s a r e o f a g e n e r a l n a t u r e a n d a r e c o m m o n t o m o s t s t u d i e s o f s u c h new m a t e r i a l a n d o f s u c h n a r r o w a f o c u s . T h e g r e a t e s t l i m i t a t i o n w a s t h e b o u n d a r i e s u s e d f o r t h e s t u d y . T h e l i m i t s w e r e s e t a r o u n d a n e i g h t e e n b l o c k a r e a , s o m e -w h a t a r b i t r a r i l y , a s t h e s t u d y i n t e n d e d t o u n c o v e r s p a t i a l a n d f u n c t i o n a l l a n d - u s e a r r a n g e m e n t s . I t i s now a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e a r e a s h o u l d h a v e b e e n e x t e n d e d t w o b l o c k s t o t h e w e s t . T h e l a c k o f d a t a b a s e s h a s l i m i t e d t h e s t u d y t o c o n s i d e r i n g o n l y t h e t y p e a n d n u m b e r o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , g i v i n g n o w e i g h t t o s i z e , n u m b e r o f e m p l o y e e s , o r s a l e s v o l u m e s . S u i t a b l e d a t a r e c o r d s f o r l a n d - u s e a n a l y s i s a r e o f t e n n o t a v a i l a b l e , a n d w h e r e t h e y a r e , t h e y t e n d t o b e f r a g m e n t a r y . T i m e a n d r e s o u r c e l i m i t a t i o n s p r e c l u d e d t h e e x p l o r a t i o n o f o t h e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m s . A s i s t h e c a s e f o r a l m o s t a l l t a x o n o m i e s , w e a k n e s s e s d o a r i s e . T h e s y s t e m u s e d , h o w e v e r , i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e m o s t a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e s t u d y d a t a . 5 . 3 I m p l i c a t i o n s T h e e x i s t e n c e a n d r o l e o f c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s h a v e b e e n a c k n o w l e d g e d i n m o s t t h e o r i e s o f u r b a n i z a t i o n a n d t h e l o c a t i o n o f l a n d - u s e s , b u t l i t t l e i n t h e w a y o f s t r u c t u r e a n d f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s h a v e b e e n e x t e n d e d . T h i s t h e s i s h a s i m p l i c a t i o n s 1 2 3 w i t h i n t h e r e a l m o f a c a d e m i c s i n p u r s u i n g a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e a n d f u n c t i o n , a n d w i t h p r a c t i o n e r s o f u r b a n p l a n n i n g i n t h e i r q u e s t t o c o n t r o l a n d g u i d e l a n d - u s e . F r o m a n a c a d e m i c s t a n d p o i n t , i t i s s e e n t h a t c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s a r e c o m p o s e d o f a w i d e v a r i e t y o f u s e s , a l l f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h i n a n e t w o r k o f c o m p a t i b i l i t y , c o o p e r a t i o n , c o m p e t i t i o n a n d c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y . I n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e n o t " c l o s e d " s t a t e s b u t r a t h e r , a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a m a s s o f l i n k a g e s w i t h o t h e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . T h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e s e c o n n e c t i o n s a p p e a r s t o p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e s p a t i a l a f f i n i t i e s a n d p r o x i m i t i e s t h e s e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a s s u m e . C o m p l e m e n t i n g t h i s v i e w p o i n t i s t h e c o n s t a n t i n t e r n a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f l a n d - u s e s w i t h i n c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s . D u e , i n p a r t , t o t h e b e n e f i t s o f p r o x i m a l l o c a t i o n s ( e x t e r n a l e c o n o m i e s ) a n d a w h o l e h o s t o f o t h e r f a c t o r s , l a n d - u s e s a r e c o n s t a n t l y m o v i n g i n a n d o u t o f c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s . A s h a s b e e n o b s e r v e d i n t h e s t u d y , t h e l o c a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s o n s m a l l s p e c i a l i z e d r e t a i l a n d s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a p p e a r s t o d e v e l o p f r o m l a r g e r t r e n d s , i n t h i s c a s e f r o m t h e l o c a t i o n o f o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . T h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , t h e r e f o r e , a p p e a r s t o h a v e s o m e e f f e c t u p o n t h e s t r u c t u r e a n d f u n c t i o n i n g o f a c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t . F r o m a p o l i c y o r i e n t a t i o n , t h i s t h e s i s h a s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e i m p r o v e d r e c o g n i t i o n o f l a n d - u s e d y n a m i c s a n d u l t i m a t e l y t o a n i m p r o v e d s e n s e o f p l a n n i n g o f c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s . H i s t o r i c a l l y , c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s h a v e e v o l v e d p r i m a r i l y a s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f m a r k e t f o r c e s ; r e c e n t w e a k n e s s e s i n t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e m a r k e t h a v e f o r c e d p l a n n e r s t o t a k e a c t i v e 1 2 4 r o l e s i n t h e c o n t r o l a n d g u i d a n c e o f l a n d - u s e s . T h e u r b a n r e n e w a l e f f o r t s o f t h e S i x t i e s a n d S e v e n t i e s h a v e i n d i c a t e d t h a t u r b a n d e s i g n i s s u e s a l o n e a r e n o t t h e a n s w e r t o t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e . C l e a r l y , t h e s o l u t i o n m u s t b e b a s e d u p o n a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e t r e n d s o f g r o w t h a n d c h a n g e a n d o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s . P o l i c i e s g o v e r n i n g t h e s e d i s t r i c t s s h o u l d r e f l e c t a k n o w l e d g e o f d y n a m i c s a n d f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s i n a t t a i n i n g c o m m u n i t y g o a l s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r u s e i n r e a c t i v e p l a n n i n g , t h e i d e a s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e t h e s i s may h a v e s o m e a p p l i c a b i l i t y i n p r o a c t i v e p l a n n i n g . T h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s p a t i a l a n d f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e p l a n n i n g o f l a r g e s c a l e d e v e l o p m e n t s . L i m i t e d s u c c e s s i n t h e p l a n n i n g o f new t o w n s a n d o t h e r r e g i o n a l g r o w t h n o d e s may b e o v e r c o m e t h r o u g h a n i m p r o v e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s t r u c t u r e a n d f u n c t i o n a n d a n e x p r e s s i o n o f t h i s k n o w l e d g e i n l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l d e v i c e s . A s i s e v i d e n t i n t h e c a s e s t u d y , l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l s , a n d z o n i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r , m u s t r e f l e c t t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l g r o w t h n o d e s o f c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s . R a t h e r t h a n t r y i n g t o ' s w i m u p s t r e a m ' , p l a n n i n g s h o u l d c o o p e r a t e w i t h a n d c o o r d i n a t e i t s e f f o r t s t o t h e m a r k e t f o r c e s w h i c h h a v e s u c h a d o m i n a n t i n f l u e n c e i n c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s . 5 . 4 F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h T h r o u g h t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s t h e s i s , i t w i l l h a v e b e c o m e a p p a r e n t t h a t l a n d - u s e c h a n g e a n d p a t t e r n s a r e a r e s u l t o f t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f a m y r i a d o f f a c t o r s . T h i s t h e s i s h a s l o o k e d 1 2 5 a t a f e w , a s w e l l a s a t t h e s p a t i a l o u t c o m e o f m a n y . T h e c o u r s e f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h m u s t , t h e r e f o r e , b r i n g t o g e t h e r t h e s e o t h e r f a c t o r s a n d a s s e s s t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e f a c t o r s . T h e m o s t o b v i o u s b e g i n n i n g , i n l i g h t o f t h i s t h e s i s , w o u l d b e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a c t u a l r o l e o f l i n k a g e s i n t h e l o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d , u l t i m a t e l y , o f s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s . S e v e r a l s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n c o n d u c t e d w h i c h u s e m o v e m e n t d a t a o f p e o p l e , g o o d s , s e r v i c e s , a n d i n f o r m a t i o n b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . G o d d a r d ' s s t u d y o f o f f i c e l o c a t i o n s i n w h i c h h e a s s e s s e d t h e m a g n i t u d e o f b u s i n e s s m e e t i n g s b e t w e e n e x e c u t i v e s o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i s a p r i m e e x a m p l e . T h i s s o r t o f s u r v e y c a n b e m o d i f i e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e m o v e m e n t o f g o o d s / s e r v i c e s o r c u s t o m e r s b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . A s e c o n d a s p e c t , w h i c h w o u l d c o m p l e m e n t t h i s t h e s i s , w o u l d b e a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y w i t h t h o s e o f o t h e r c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s , p a r t i c u l a r i l y s t r i p s w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n a n d b e t w e e n s t r i p s o f o t h e r c i t i e s . A " C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y " e x i s t s i n m o s t c i t i e s , f o r e x a m p l e , B l o o r S t r e e t i n T o r o n t o , W h y t e A v e n u e i n E d m o n t o n , a n d M a c L e o d T r a i l i n C a l g a r y , a n y o f w h i c h c o u l d p r o v i d e a n i n t e r e s t i n g c o m p a r i s o n . O n e f u r t h e r c o n t i n u a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a , w h i c h w o u l d c o n t r i b u t e d i r e c t l y t o t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s t u d y , w o u l d i n v o l v e t h e u s e o f d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m s a n d t h e u s e o f h i g h e r q u a n t i t i e s a n d q u a l i t i e s o f d a t a . W i t h i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , i t h a s b e c o m e a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e a r e a s m a n y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m s a s t h e r e a r e s t u d i e s . T h e i m p r o v e d r a n g e o f d a t a m i g h t i m p r o v e t h e c h o i c e o f a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m . 1 2 6 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 27 B I B L I O G R A P H Y A b l e r , R. e t a l , 1 9 7 2 , S p a t i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n ; T h e G e o g r a p h e r s  V i e w o f t h e W o r l d , P r e n t i c e H a l l , L o n d o n . A l e x a n d e r , I . C . , 1 9 7 4 , T h e C i t y C e n t e r : P a t t e r n a n d P r o b l e m s , U n i v e r s i t y o f W e s t e r n A u s t r a l i a P r e s s , P e r t h . A l l p a s s , J . , 1 9 6 8 , " C h a n g e s i n t h e S t r u c t u r e o f U r b a n C e n t e r s " , J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s . 3 4 : 3 . A l o n s o , W . , 1 9 6 0 , " A T h e o r y o f U r b a n L a n d R e n t " , P a p e r s a n d  P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e R e g i o n a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , 6 : 1 4 9 - 1 5 9 . A l o n s o , W. , 1 9 6 4 , L o c a t i o n a n d L a n d U s e , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , C a m b r i d g e . A r m s t r o n g , R. B . , 1 9 7 2 , T h e O f f i c e I n d u s t r y ; P a t t e r n s o f G r o w t h  a n d L o c a t i o n , M I T P r e s s , C a m b r i d g e . B a b c o c k , R . F . , 1 9 6 6 , T h e Z o n i n g G a m e , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , M i l w a u k e e . B a b c o c k , R . F . , 1 9 7 9 , " Z o n i n g " , i n T h e P r a c t i c e o f L o c a l  G o v e r n m e n t P l a n n i n g ( e d F . S . S o e t a l . ) , I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y M a n a g e m e n t A s s o c i a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . B a c h i , R . , 1 9 6 3 , " S t a n d a r d D i s t a n c e M e a s u r e s a n d R e l a t e d M e a s u r e s i n S p a t i a l A n a l y s i s " , P a p e r s o f t h e R e g i o n a l  S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , ( 1 0 ) : 8 3 - 1 3 2 . B a n n o n , M . J . , 1 9 7 3 , O f f i c e L o c a t i o n i n I r e l a n d , A n F o r a s F o r b a r t h a , D u b l i n . B e r r y , B . J . L . , 1 9 5 9 , " R i b b o n D e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e U r b a n B u s i n e s s P a t t e r n " , A n n a l s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n  G e o g r a p h e r s ( 4 9 ) : 1 4 5 - 1 5 5 . B e r r y , B . J . L . , 1 9 6 3 , C o m m e r c i a l S t r u c t u r e a n d C o m m e r c i a l B l i g h t , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o g r a p h y , R e s e a r c h P a p e r N o . 8 5 . B e r r y , B . J . L . , 1 9 6 7 , T h e G e o g r a p h y o f M a r k e t C e n t e r s a n d R e t a i l  D i s t r i b u t i o n . , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y . 1 28 B e r r y , B . J . L . , 1 9 8 0 , " I n n e r C i t y F u t u r e s : A n A m e r i c a n D i l e m n a R e v i s i t e d " , T r a n s a c t i o n s , I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h G e o g r a p h e r s , N S ( 5 ) . B e r r y , B . & J . H o r t o n . , 1 9 7 0 , G e o g r a p h i c P e r s p e c t i v e s o n U r b a n  S y s t e m s , M c G r a w - H i l l , New Y o r k . B e r r y , B . J . L . & D . F . M a r b l e , 1 9 6 8 , S p a t i a l A n a l y s i s : A R e a d e r i n  S t a t i s t i c a l G e o g r a p h y . P r e n t i c e - H a l l , New J e r s e y . B h a r u c h a - R e i d , A . T . , 1 9 6 0 , E l e m e n t s o f t h e T h e o r y o f M a r k o v  P r o c e s s e s a n d T h e i r A p p l i c a t i o n s New Y o r k : M c G r a w H i l l . BMDP S t a t i s t i c a l S o f t w a r e , 1 9 8 1 , D e p a r t m e n t o f B i o M a t h e m a t i c s , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s : U . O f C a l i f . P r e s s . B o a l , F . W . & D . B . J o h n s o n , 1 9 6 8 , " N o n d e s c r i p t S t r e e t s " , T r a f f i c  Q u a r t e r l y ( 2 2 ) : 3 2 9 . B o a l , F . W . & D . B . J o h n s o n , 1 9 6 5 , " T h e F u n c t i o n o f R e t a i l a n d S e r v i c e E s t a b l i s h m e n t s o n C o m m e r c i a l R i b b o n s " , C a n a d i a n G e o g r a p h e r ( 4 ) : 1 5 7 . B o r c h e r t , J . R . , . 1 9 7 8 , " M a j o r C o n t r o l P o i n t s i n A m e r i c a n E c o n o m i c G e o g r a p h y " , A n n a l s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n  G e o g r a p h e r s 6 8 : 2 1 4 - 2 3 2 . B o u r n e , L . , 1 9 6 7 , P r i v a t e R e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e C e n t r a l C i t y , R e s e a r c h P a p e r N o . 1 1 2 , D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o g r a p h y , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s . B o u r n e , L . 1 9 6 8 , " C o m m e n t s o n t h e T r a n s i t i o n Z o n e C o n c e p t " , P r o f e s s i o n a l G e o g r a p h e r 2 0 : 2 3 - 3 5 . B o u r n e , L . , 1 9 7 1 , " P h y s i c a l A d j u s t m e n t P r o c e s s a n d L a n d U s e S u c c e s s i o n : A C o n c e p t u a l R e v i e w a n d C e n t r a l C i t y E x a m p l e " , E c o n o m i c G e o g r a p h y , 4 7 : 1 - 1 6 . B o u r n e , L . ( e d . ) , 1 9 7 1 b , I n t e r n a l S t r u c t u r e o f t h e C i t y , , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . B o u r n e , L . S . , 1 9 8 2 , I n t e r n a l S t r u c t u r e o f t h e C i t y : R e a d i n g s o n  U r b a n F o r m , G r o w t h a n d P o l i c y . O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k . B o w d e n , M . , 1 9 7 1 , " D o w n t o w n T h r o u g h T i m e : D e l i m i t a t i o n , E x p a n s i o n a n d I n t e r n a l G r o w t h " , E c o n o m i c G e o g r a p h y 4 7 : 1 2 1 - 3 6 . 1 29 B o y c e , R . R . , 1 9 6 0 , " M e a s u r e m e n t o f U r b a n R e t a i l A f f i n i t y : A F u r t h e r A p p l i c a t i o n o f L i n k a g e A n a l y s i s " , A n n a l s o f  t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n G e o g r a p h e r s ( 5 0 ) : 3 0 5 . B r o w n , L . A . , 1 9 7 0 , " O n t h e U s e o f M a r k o v C h a i n i n M o v e m e n t R e s e a r c h , E c o n o m i c G e o g r a p h y 60 ( s u p p l e . ) : 3 9 3 - 4 0 3 . B r o w n , L . A . & F . E . H o r t o n , 1 9 7 0 , " F u n c t i o n a l D i s t a n c e : A n O p e r a t i o n a l A p p r o a c h " , G e o g r a p h i c a l A n a l y s i s , ( 2 ) : 7 6 -8 3 . B u r g e s s , E . W . , 1 9 2 5 , " G r o w t h o f t h e C i t y " : A n I n t r o d u c t i o n t o a R e s e a r c h P r o j e c t i n R . E . P a r k a n d E . W. B u r g e s s ( e d s ) : T h e C i t y , C h i c a g o . B u r g h a r d t , A . F . , 1 9 5 9 , " L o c a t i o n o f R i v e r T o w n s i n t h e C e n t r a l L o w l a n d s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s " , A n n a l s o f t h e  A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r c i a n G e o g r a p h e r s , ( 4 9 ) : 3 0 5 - 3 2 3 . C a r o l , H . , 1 9 6 0 " T h e H i e r a r c h y o f C e n t r a l F u n c t i o n s W i t h i n t h e C i t y " , A n n a l s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n  G e o g r a p h e r s : 5 0 : 4 1 9 - 3 8 . C a r t e r , H . & G . R o w l e y , 1 9 6 6 , " T h e M o r p h o l o g y o f t h e C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t o f C a r d i f f " , T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e  I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h G e o g r a p h e r s 3 8 : 1 1 9 - 3 4 . C a r t e r , H . , 1 9 8 0 , T h e S t u d y o f U r b a n G e o g r a p h y , A r n o l d , L o n d o n . C h a p i n , F . S . , 1 9 6 5 , U r b a n L a n d U s e P l a n n i n g , U r b a n a , I l l i n o i s . C l a r k , W . A . V . , 1 9 6 5 , " M a r k o v C h a i n A n a l y s i s i n G e o g r a p h y : A n A p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e M o v e m e n t o f R e n t a l H o u s i n g A r e a s " , A n n a l s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n G e o g r a p h e r s ( 5 5 ) : 3 5 1 . C l a r k , P . J . & F . C . E v a n s , 1 9 5 4 , " D i s t a n c e t o N e a r e s t N e i g h b o u r a s a M e a s u r e o f S p a t i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s i n P o p u l a t i o n s " E c o l o g y 3 5 ( 4 ) : 4 4 5 - 4 5 3 . C l i f f A . , P . H a g g e t t , J . K . O r d , K. B a s s e t t , a n d R. D a v i e s , 1 9 7 5 , E l e m e n t s o f S p a t i a l S t r u c t u r e . A Q u a n t i t a t i v e  A p p r o a c h . C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . C o o k , R . S . , 1 9 8 0 , Z o n i n g f o r D o w n t o w n U r b a n D e s i g n , L e x i n g t o n B o o k s , L e x i n g t o n , M a s s . C o w a n , P . , 1 9 6 7 , " O n t h e P a t t e r n o f B u i l d i n g s " , i n U r b a n C o r e  a n d I n n e r C i t y e d . D r . M . H . V a n H u l t e n , U n i v e r s i t y o f A m s t e r d a m , L e i d e n N e t h e r l a n d s . C o w a n , P . e t a l , 1 9 6 9 , T h e O f f i c e - A F a c e t o f U r b a n G r o w t h 1 30 H e i n e m a n n , L o n d o n . C o w a n , P . & D. F i n e , 1 9 6 9 , " O n t h e N u m b e r s o f L i n k s i n a S y s t e m " , R e g i o n a l S t u d i e s ( 3 ) : 2 3 5 - 2 4 2 . C r o w t h e r , D. & M . E c h e n i q u e , 1 9 7 2 , " D e v e l o p m e n t o f a M o d e l o f U r b a n S p a t i a l S t r u c t u r e " i n L . M a r t i n a n d L . M a r c h , U r b a n S p a c e a n d S t r u c t u r e L o n d o n : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . D a c e y , M . F . , 1 9 6 0 , " S p a c i n g o f R i v e r T o w n s " , A n n a l s o f t h e  A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n G e o g r a p h e r s , ( 5 0 ) : 5 9 - 6 1 . D a m e s i c k , P . , 1 9 6 9 , " A R o l e f o r O f f i c e s i n t h e I n n e r C i t y " , T h e  R e g i o n a l S t u d i e s A s s o c i a t i o n , L o n d o n . D a n i e l s , P . W . , 1 9 7 9 , S p a t i a l P a t t e r n s o f O f f i c e G r o w t h a n d  L o c a t i o n , J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , C h i c h e s t e r . D a n i e l s , P . W . 1 9 8 2 , " A n E x p l o r i t o r y S t u d y o f O f f i c e L o c a t i o n B e h a v i o u r i n G r e a t e r S e a t t l e " , U r b a n G e o g r a p h y , 3 : 5 8 - 7 8 . D a v i e s , D . H . , 1 9 6 0 , " T h e H a r d C o r e o f C a p e T o w n s C B D " , E c o n o m i c  G e o g r a p h y ( 3 6 ) : 5 3 - 6 9 . D a v i e s , D . H . , 1 9 6 5 , L a n d U s e i n C e n t r a l C a p e T o w n : A S t u d y i n  U r b a n G e o g r a p h y , J o h a n e s b u r g : L o n g e h a m s . D a v i e s , R . L . , 1 9 7 2 , " T h e R e t a i l P a t t e r n o f t h e C e n t r a l A r e a o f C o v e n t r y " , I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h G e o g r a p h e r s O c c a s s i o n a l P a p e r #1 , D e c e m b e r , 1 9 7 2 . D a v i e s , R . L . , 1 9 7 2 b , " S t r u c t u r a l M o d e l s o f R e t a i l D i s t r i b u t i o n s : A n a l o g u e s w i t h S e t t l e m e n t a n d U r b a n L a n d - U s e T h e o r i e s " , T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h  G e o g r a p h e r s ( 5 7 ) : 5 9 - 8 2 D a v i e s , R . L . , 1 9 7 5 , " N u c l e a t e d a n d R i b b o n C o m p o n e n t s o f t h e U r b a n R e t a i l S y s t e m i n B r i t a i n " , T o w n P l a n n i n g R e v i e w ( 4 6 ) : 9 1 - 1 1 1 . D a v i s . 0 . & A . 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J . , 1 9 8 3 , " L o c a t i o n a n d L i n k a g e S y s t e m s : A S u r v e y a n d R e a s s e s s m e n t " , A n n a l s o f R e g i o n a l S c i e n c e M a r c h , 1 9 8 3 : 1 - 3 9 . S c o t t , P . , 1 9 7 0 , G e o g r a p h y a n d R e t a i l i n g , H u t c h i n s o n U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , L o n d o n . . S i l l e r b e r g , T . e t a l . , 1 9 7 6 , A G u i d e f o r . . . . T h e R e v i t a l i z a t i o n  o f R e t a i l D i s t r i c t s , T o r o n t o . S i m D . , 1 9 8 0 , C e n t r a l A r e a R e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d i t s E f f e c t s o n  O f f i c e L i n k a g e s : t h e E x a m p l e o f G l a s g o w P o l y t e c h n i c D i s c . P a p e r i n G e o g r a p h y N o . 1 1 , L o n d o n . 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Weiss, S., 1957, The CBD in Transition, City and Regional  Planning Studies, research paper 1, Chapel H i l l , Dept. Of City & Regional Planning, University of North 1 38 C a r o l i n a . W e l c h , K . C . , 1 9 4 8 , " T h e R e l o c a t i o n o f C o m m m e r c i a l A r e a s " , P l a n n i n g A S P O , C h i c a g o , 111. W h i t e h a n d , J . W . R . , 1 9 7 2 , " B u i l d i n g C y c l e s a n d t h e S p a t i a l P a t t e r n s o f G r o w t h " , T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e I n s t i t u t e o f  B r i t i s h G e o g r a p h e r s 5 6 . W h i t e h a n d , J . W . R . , 1 9 7 8 , " L o n g T e r m C h a n g e s i n t h e F o r m o f t h e C i t y C e n t e r : T h e C a s e o f R e d e v e l o p m e n t " , G e o g r a f i s k a  A n n a l e r , S e r i e s B 6 0 . W i n s t o n , D. e t a l 1 9 6 5 U r b a n R e d e v e l o p m e n t i n I n n e r C i t y A r e a s , P l a n n i n g R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , S y d n e y . W o o d b u r y , C ( e d ) , 1 9 5 9 , U r b a n R e d e v e l o p m e n t : P r o b l e m s a n d  P r a c t i c e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , C h i c a g o , 111. Y a v i t z , B . & T . S t a n b a c k , 1 9 6 7 , E l e c t r o n i c D a t a P r o c e s s i n g i n  New Y o r k C i t y : L e s s o n s f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n E c o n o m i c s , New Y o r k , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Y e a t e s , M . & B . G a r n e r , 1 9 7 6 , T h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n C i t y , H a r p e r a n d R o w , New Y o r k , N . Y . 1 3 9 APPENDIXES 1 4 0 A P P E N D I X A D A T A A . 1 D a t a T h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d f o r t h e t h e s i s c a m e p r i m a r i l y f r o m t h e C i t y D i r e c t o r i e s . T h e d i r e c t o r i e s p r o v i d e d a n e a r l y c o m p l e t e r e c o r d o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a o v e r t h e p a s t t h i r t y y e a r s . T h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s u p p l i e d a p r i n t o u t o f b u i l d i n g s i n t h e a r e a w h i c h a i d e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a c t u a l l o c a t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . R o u n d i n g o u t t h e d a t a s o u r c e s , t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t s u p p l i e d a d e t a i l e d l i s t i n g o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a l o n g B r o a d w a y . T h e y e a r 1981 w a s u s e d a s a b a s e y e a r , w i t h a d d i t i o n a l d a t a c o l l e c t e d a t f i v e y e a r i n t e r v a l s b a c k t o 1 9 5 1 . B u s i n e s s t y p e s w e r e d e t e r m i n e d a n d c o d e d w i t h t h e t h r e e - d i g i t c o d e i l l u s t r a t e d b e l o w . G r o u n d f l o o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v e c o m p l e t e l i s t i n g s b a c k t o 1 9 5 1 . W h e r e m u l t i - s t o r e y b u i l d i n g s h a v e r e p l a c e d s i n g l e s t o r e y c o m m e r c i a l o r r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s , t h e u p p e r f l o o r s o f m o r e r e c e n t s t r u c t u r e s a r e n o t g i v e n t e m p o r a l d a t a d a t i n g p r i o r t o c o n s t r u c t i o n . I t w o u l d b e e r r o n e o u s t o l i s t t h e p r e v i o u s u s e o f a n u p p e r s t o r e y o f f i c e a s r e s i d e n t i a l w h e n t h e h o u s e o n l y c o v e r e d a s t o r e y o r t w o . T h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a h a s g e n e r a l l y b e e n l i m i t e d t o t h e g r o u n d - f l o o r o r i e n t e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s f o r a l l m e t h o d s . 1 4 1 T h e land-use code 0 R E S I D E N T I A L IM» Dwellings 001 S i n g l e - f a m i l y h o u s e 0 0 2 S e m i - d e t a c h e d h o u s e 0 0 3 T e r r a c e h o u s e s i l l Flats and Home Units 0 1 0 I n v e s t m e n t f l a t It l o c k s 2 -6 u n i t s 011 I n v e s t m e n t H u t b l o c k * 7-14 u n i t s 0 1 2 I n v e s t m e n t f l a t b l o c k s a b o v e •15 u n i t s 0 1 3 " B e d s i t t i n g - r o o m s 0 1 5 H o m e u n i t s 2 -6 u n i t s 0 1 6 H o m e u n i t s 7-14 u n i t s 0 1 7 H o m e u n i t s a b o v e 15 u n i t s 0 2 Transient residence 0 2 0 P r i v a t e h o t e l , l t o a r d i n g h o u s e , e t c . 021 L i c e n s e d h o t e l , g u e s t r o o m s 0 2 2 M o n a s t e r i e s , c o n v e n t s 0 2 3 O r p h a n a g e 0 2 4 M o t e l 0 2 5 N u r s e s ' h o m e 0 2 6 H a l l s o f r e s i d e n c e 0 2 7 O l d - p e o p l e ' s h o m e 02ft O i l i e r c o m m e r c i a l r e s i d e n -t i a l b u i l d i n g s 0 3 Flats associated with commercial premises 0 3 0 F l a t s b e h i n d s h o p s s h o p s 031 F l a t s o v e r i 0 3 2 F l a t s w i t h o f f i c e s 0 3 3 C a r e t a k e r ' s D a t 0 3 4 F l a t s w i t h o t h e r c o m m e r c i a l uses 1 R E T A I L 10 Food 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 I I Supermarkets 110 F o o d o n l y 111 V a r i e t v s t o r e — f o o d G r o c e r y M e a t F r u i t fc v e g e t a b l e s B r e a d Jt c a k e s C o n f e c t i o n e r y D e l i c a t e s s e n F i s h s h o p s S n a c k b a r D r i n k s ( n o n - a l c o h o l i c ) F o o d s h o p s ( N E C ) * M Department V « 1311 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 131) Frxni C l o t h i n g <• di;ijR"iy F o u l * eat H a r d w a r e A p p l i a n c e s ,v h a r d w a r e F i n n i u n c .v: (MI i m l i i n ^ s B o o k * \- summery C h e int s i t Per n t u a l sel s k c G o o d , i N K C ) I'aiiety Stoir I III V a r i e t s f o o d >toie M l V a i i e n c l o t h i n g s t o r e 112 V j t i e t s s to re h o u s e h o l d I{uuulttAd CuuiL 150 D o m e s t i c h a r d w a r e <• p u i u l 151 A p p l i a n c e s .v e l e c t r i c a l 152 F u r n i t u r e Jt l l o o r e n t e r i n g , a n t i q u e s 153 N e w s p a j t e r s i - b o o k s 154 (Chemis t 153 S p o t t i n g , t u c l . b i c y c l e s 156 J e w e l l e r y Jfc g i f t s i d h a n d . 112 V a r i e t y s t o r e — c l o t h i n g 113 V a r i e t y s t o r e — o t h e r 12 Clothing 120 M e n ' s c l o t h i n g 121 W o m e n ' s c l o t h i n g 122 D r a p e r y 123 G e n e r a l f o o t w e a r 124 M e n ' s f o o t w e a r 125 W o m e n ' s f o o t w e a r 126 C h i l d r e n ' s fc b a b y ' s w e a r i n c l . s h o e s 127 W o m e n ' s l i n g e r i e 128 W o m e n ' s h a t s 129 C l o t h i n g s h o p s ( N E C ) 161 O t f i c e m a c h i n e * , e t c . 165 G u l d e n s h o p 166 I'et s h o p 167 M u s i c & m u s i c a l i i i s i r t i i n e u i s l l i tt S e w i n g m a c h i n e s 169 R e t a i l ( N E C ) 1" liiputr 170 H o i c k — b a n o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s 171 L i q u o r s t o r e s 172 W i n e slio[« IH Automotive and Maihineiy I HO M o t o r - v e h i c l e d e a l e r ( i n b u i l d i n g s ) 181 C a r - s a l e s Jut 1.12 M o t o r a c c e s s o r i e s , p a i l s 16-1 P e t r o l f i l l i n g s t a t i o n If* I A g r i c . i m p l e m e n t d e a l e r M o t o r is, re s e r v i c e M o t o r c y c l e s , m o w e r s , c h a i n saws M a r i n e c r a f t fc a c c e s s o r i e s IHH l n d i i s i r i a l c i | i i i p m c n t | H 9 M u i h i u c r y ( N F . C ) 18 j 1*6 IH7 157 D i s p o s j , |>awn s h o p 1 158 Toys 139 H a n d b a g s ) • i r ; i e l g o o d s Min ellttneous 160 T o b a c c o n i s t 161 F l o r i s t 162 P h o t o g r a p h i c e q u i p m e n t 163 S t u t i o n e r v 19 Heavy Hatdware 190 B u i l d e r s ' h a r d w a r e 191 P r o d u c e s t o r e s 192 T i m b e r y a r d s l ! ' 3 B u i l d e r s ' s u p p l y y a r d s 191 G l a s s m e r c h a n t s (05 B u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s s h o w -r o o m s 196 W o o d v a r d 2 S E R V I C E 208 S h o e r e p a i r , b o o t m a k e r 2 0 0 R e s t a u r a n t , c a i e 2**9 H e a l t h fc s l i m m i n g s m d i o 201 M i l k b a r 2 0 2 B a r b e r 21 Penonnl Business 2 0 3 B e a u t y s a l o n 2 1 0 R e a l e s t a t e a g e n t s 204 D r y c l e a n e r , l a m i d r e t t c 211 T r a v e l a g e n t s 2 0 5 P h o t o g r a p h e r 212 S t o c k b r o k e r s 2 0 6 T a i l o r 213 A u c t i o n r o o m s ft a u c t i o n e e r 2 0 7 D r e s s m a k e r , m i l l i n e r 214 E i H j u i r y a g e n t s T h e c o d e u s e d b y t h e P e n h C i t y C o u n c i l i n t h e i r 1968 l a n d - u s e s u r v e y l i s t e d b e l o w . T h e c o d e l i a s b e e n a p p l i e d i n a f e w o t h e r s t u d i e s (see C i t y o f H o h a r t 1968) i n r e c e n t y e a r s , a n d w a s d e v i s e d by C l a r k G a / / a i d a n d A s s o c i a t e s o f M e l b o u r n e . I n t h i s l i s t i n g a f e w m o d i f i c a t i o n s h a v e b e e n e f f e c t e d . A n y l a n d - u s e c l a s s i l i c a t i o u .system h a s c e r t a i n m e r i t s a n d f a u l t s . T h e m a j o r j K t s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e P e i t h C i t y C o u n c i l c o d e a r e : 1. A D V A N T A G E S 1. I t is a f l e s i b l e t h r e e - d i g i t c o d e , a n d t h u s c a n b e v i e w e d at t h r e e l e v e l s . 2 . I t is m u c h m o r e d e t a i l e d t h a n c o d e s o f t e n e m p l o y e d i n c e n t r a l - a r e a s t u d i e s (e.g. M u r p h y & V a n c e 1 9 5 4 b , 1955 . D a v i e s 1965) ; t h i s e n a b l e s a f i n e l e v e l o f s c r u t i n y o f a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s . 3. I t is e a s i l y a d a p t a b l e f o r c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m i n g . 4. T h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m is g e n e r a l l y ( a i r l y w e l l c a t e g o r i z e d w i t h m i n i m u m o v e r -l a p . I t is b a s e d o n c o n v e n t i o n a l a c t i v i t y - s e t s , a n d t h u s m a k e s c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s e a s i e r . 2. D I S A D V A N T A G E S 1. M a n y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a r e q u e s t i o n a b l e . T h e m o s t n o t a b l e a r e : (a) t h e 'public c a t e g o r y — i n m a n y cases i l i e a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d a r e n o t public at a l l , b u t a r e r a t h e r g o v e r n m e n t - o w n e d s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s o f a r e s t r i c t e d access n a t u r e (e.g. u t i l i t i e s , m i l i t a r y ) . O t h e r s a r e m o r e a k i n t o c o m m e r c i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s t h a n t o ' p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s ' a n d a r e • o n l y i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y b e c a u s e o f g o v e r n m e n t o w n e r s h i p — e . g . g o v e r n m e n t d e p o t s ( "14) s h o u l d r e a l l y be i n c l u d e d u n d e r ' w h o l e s a l e a n d s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s ' ; (6) i n t h e 'cultural and recreational' c a t e g o r y c e r t a i n uses, e .g . l o t t e r y sa les ( 8 5 6 ) . b i l l i a r d s a l o o n s ( 8 6 7 ) , e t c . a t e o p e r a t e d o n a c o m m e r c i a l basts a n d t h u s d i s p l a y f u n c t i o n a l l i n k a g e s a n d l o c a t i o n p a t t e r n s m o r e a k i n t o r e t a i l - s e r v i c e p r e m i s e s t h a n t o r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s ; (c) t h e 'office' c a t e g o r y : m a n y tises i n t h i s c a t e g o r y i n fact p e r f o r m s e r v i c e s . T h a t t h e a c t i v i t i e s a t e c a r r i e d o u t i n a n o f f i c e is r e a l l y i n c i d e n t a l , f o r t h e i r m a j o r f u n c t i o n is m o r e a k i n t o s e n i c e a c t i v i t i e s (e.g. p r o f e s s i o n a l o f f i c e s ) . T h e 'service' c a t e g o r y is as i t s t a n d s , s o m e w h a t u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s i n c e i t is n o t r e a l l y c o m p l e t e . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d i t c o u l d b e a r g u e d t h a t c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s , e . g . ' p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e * a r e i n fact q u a s i - r e t a i l a c t i v i t i e s a n d s h o u l d t h u s be i n c l u d e d i n o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s . 2 . T h e a b o v e p o i n t s r a i s e t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e c o d e ' s bas is . It is, g e n e r a l l y , b a s e d o n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l a c t i v i t y - s e t s , i .e. r e s i d e n t i a l , r e t a i l e i c . A s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , t h i s f a c i l i -t a t e s s o m e c o m p a r i s o n * ( a l t h o u g h q u i r k s f r u s t r a t e o t h e r s ) . H o w e v e r , s o m e a t t e m p t h a s a p p a r e n t l y b e e n m a d e t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e functional b a s i s o f a c t i v i t i e s (cf. R a n n e l l s 1957) i n t o t h e s y s t e m — w i t n e s s t h e ' s e r v i c e ' c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . A s p l a u s i b l e as t h i s g o a l m a y b e , i t h a s r e s u l t e d i n a s o m e w h a t c o n f u s i n g s y s t e m , s i n c e t h e t w o a p p r o a c h e s d o n o t r e a d i l y c o i n c i d e a n d t h u s s o m e a m b i g u i t i e s a r e e v i d e n t . 215 H i i e c u t s . l e u t ' U - c a r 2 14 R o o t i n g c o n t r a c t o r 2 1 6 U n d e r t a k e r s , f u n e r a l p a r l o u r s 2 1 5 P l a s t e r i n g & f i l i n g c o u t r a u o i s 217 C a t e r e r s 2 4 6 F l o o r i n g c o n t r a c t o r s 218 O p t i c i a n s 247 Pest e x t e r m i n a t o r s 2 1 9 W a t c h , j e w e l l e r y t e p a i v s 2 4 8 C l e a n i n g c o n t r a c t o r s 2 4 9 S p e c i a l t r a d e c o n t r a c t o r s Hnsiness ( N E C ) 2 2 0 T y p i n g , d u p l i c a t i n g s e r v i c e 221 E m p l o y m e n t a g e n c i e s 2.) Automotive j Machinery 2 2 2 C o m p u t a t i o n c e n t r e 2 5 0 M o t o r - v e h i c l e r e p a i r g a r a g e s . 223 P l a n p r i n t e r s m e c h a n i c a l & e l e c t r i c a l 221 D r a f t i n g s e r v i c e 251 M o t o r - v e h i c l e r e p a i r garage**. 225 ' T e l e p h o n e a n s w e r i n g s e r v i c e p a n e l b e a t i n g , s p r a y p a i n t i n g 2 2 6 B u s i n e s s s e r v i c e ( N E C ) 252 M o t o r - v e h i c l e r e p a i r w o r k ( N E C ) /tanks. Financial 2 5 3 M a c h i n e r y r e p a i r 2 3 0 B r a n c h b a n k 235 D e b t c o l l e c t o r s 27 tlepai, and Miscellaneous 2 3 6 C r e d i t r e f e r e n c e b u r e a u 2 7 0 E l e c t r i c a l r e p a i r i n c l . ' T V & Contractors 2 1 0 G e n e r a l b u i l d i n g c o n t r a c t o r s , o f f i c e & y a r d E l e c t r i c a l c o n t r a c t o r s P l u m b i n g - d r a i n i n g - g a v f i t t i n g c o n t r a c t o r s P a i n t i n g c o n t r a c t o r s 241 2 4 2 243 r a d i o 271 U p h o l s t e r y fc F r e n c h p o l i s h r e p a i r 2 7 2 D e n t a l m e c h a n i c s 2 7 3 . R e f r i g e r a t o r r e p a i r 2 7 4 F u r n i t u r e r e m o v a l s 275 S e r v i c e ( N E C ) 2 7 6 H i r e s e n - i c e J O F F I C E 3 0 General and Financial 3 0 0 M a n u f a c t u r e r s , w h o l e s a l e r s , d i s t r i b u t o r s 301 ( G e n e r a l b u s i n e s s o f f i c e s 3021 U n i o n s , l o d g e s , c h a r i t y , r e l i -g i o u s , p o l i t i c a l , c o - o p e r a t i v e 303 M e d i c a l b e n e f i t s , h o s p i t a l f u n d s 304 I n s u r a n c e c o m p a n i e s 305 B a n k s , f i n a n c e c o m p a n i e s 306 S h i p p i n g , a i r l i n e , i r a n q w m c o m p a n i e s 307 I m p o r t e i - s . c u s t o m s a g e n t s :KW B u s i n e s s o f f i c e s ( N E C ) 31 Professional 310 A c c o u n t a n t s 311 A r c h i t e c t s 312 E n g i n e e r s 313 S u r v e y o r s 3 1 4 D o c t o r s 315 D e n t i s t s 3 1 6 O t h e r h e a l t h s e n i c e s ; c h i r o -p r a c t o r s , o p t o m e t r i s t s 317 V e t e r i n a r y s u r g e o n s 318 L e g a l ( b a r r i s t e r s , s o l i c i t o r s ) 3 1 9 P r o f e s s i o n a l o f f i c e * ( N E C " ) (luvrvnmental 3 2 0 C o m m o n w e a l t h g o v e r n m e n t 321 S t a t e g o v e r n m e n t Q u a s i g o v e r n m e n t L o c a l g o v e r n m e n t C o n s u l s , l e g a t i o n s P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 3 2 2 323 321 3 2 5 1 4 2 4 W H O L E S A L E A N D S T O R A G E 4 0 0 S a l e s o f f i c e s w i t h o u t s t o c k s * •II Wholesale—Sulci and storage 4 1 0 F o o d 411 T e x t i l e s , s o f i g o o d * 4 1 2 B u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , h a r d w a r e , p a i n t 4 1 3 S p i r i t s 4 1 4 T o b a c c o 4 1 5 C r o c k e r y , g l a s s / s i l v e r / j e w e l l e r y 4 1 6 C l o t h i n g 4 1 7 F o o t w e a r 4 1 8 L e a t h e r g o o d s 4 1 9 S p o r t i n g g o o d s 12 Wholesale—Sates and storage 4 2 0 S t a t i o n e r y , p a p e r / b o o k s 421 M a c h i n e r y ; h o s p i t a l e q u i p -m e n t / s t e e l 4 2 2 P h a r m a c e u t i c a l , c o s m e t i c s 4 2 3 C h e m i c a l s 4 2 4 F u r n i s h i n g s , f u r n i t u r e 4 2 3 S c i e n t i f i c / m u s i c a l / p l i o t o -g r a p h i c / s u r g i c a l / o p t i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s 4 2 6 E l e c t r i c a l 4 2 7 P r o d u c e , f r u i t S; v e g e t a b l e m a r k e t s 4 2 8 D o m e s t i c a p p l i a n c e s , b a t h s , s i n k s 4 2 9 G e n e r a l w h o l e s a l e r s ( N E C ) 4.1 Storage H O F o o d s 431 T e x t i l e * , s o f t g o o d s 4.12 B u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , h a r d w a r e . p a i n t s 133 S p i r i t s 4.14 T o b a c c o 1.15 C r o c k e r y , g lass s i l v e r ' j e w e l l e r y 5 a n d 6 M A N U F A C T U R E 5 0 Mineral Processing 5 0 0 C o k e fc c o a l p r o c e s s i n g 501 L i m e , p l a s t e r , f i b r o u s p l a s t e r 5 0 2 B i t u m e n , a s p h a l t p r o d u c t * 5 0 3 S t o n e & s l a t e p r o c e s s i n g 3 0 4 P o r t l a n d c e m e n t fc c e m e n t g o o d s 505 A s b e s t o s c e m e n t 5 0 6 B r i c k s fc t i l e s 507 E a i t h c n w a i e . c h i n a . (»orcc-l a i n 508 C l a s s , b o t t l e s , e t c . 5 0 9 O t h e r m i n e r a l p r o c e s s i n g ( N E C ) 51 Chemical Product! 5 1 0 I n d u s t r i a l , h e a v y c h e m i c a l s , a c i d s 511 D r u g s , d i s i n f e c t a n t s , d e t e r -g e n t s 5 1 2 P h a r m a c e u t i c a l & t o i l e t r i e s 5 1 3 E x p l o s i v e s & f i r e w o r k s 5 1 4 W h i t e - l e a d p a i n t s , v a r n i s h e s 5 1 5 C h e m i c a l f e r t i l i z e r s 5 1 6 I n k s , p o l l sites, e t c 5 1 7 M a t c h e s 5 1 8 C h e m i c a l p r o d u c t s ( N E C ) 5 2 Soaps and Oils 5 2 0 V e g e t a b l e o i l s 521 M i n e r a l o i l s , b y - p r o d u c t s 5 2 2 A n i m a l o i l s 5 2 3 B o i l i n g d o w n w o r k s , t a l l o w 524 S o a p fc c a n d l e m a n u f a c t u r e r 5 3 Engineering and Metal Working 5 3 0 I r o n fc s t e e l s m e l l i n g , r o l l i n g 531 I r o n f o u n d r i e s 5 3 2 H e a v y m a c h i n e r y , s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l 5 3 3 M a c h i n e r y , m o t o r s , s t e e l f u r n i t u r e , n u t s , e t c 4 3 6 C l o t h i n g 437 F o o t w e a r 438 L e a t h e r g o o d s 4 3 9 S p o r t i n g g o o d s 14 Storage 4 4 0 S t a t i o n e r y , d r a w i n g fc p r i n t -i n g , p a p e r , b o o k s 441 M a c h i n e r y , h e a v y e q u i p m e n t , s t e e l 4 4 2 P h a r m a c e u t i c a l , c o s m e t i c s 443 C h e m i c a l s 4 4 4 F u r n i s h i n g s , f u r n i t u r e 445 S c i e n t i f i c / i n u s i c a l / p h o t o * g r a p h i c / s u r g i c a l / o p t i o l i n s t r u m e n t s 4 4 6 E l e c t r i c a l 447 P r o d u c e , f r u i t Ik v e g e t a b l e s 4 18 D o m e s t i c a p p l i a n c e s , e t c 4 4 9 G e n e r a l s t o r a g e ( N E C ) fc b o n d 45 Bulk Storage 4 5 0 W o o l s t o r e s •16 Bulk Storage 4 6 0 P e t r o l e u m fc p e t r o l e u m p r o d u c t t a n k s 461 C r a i n s i l o s 462 S t o c k y a r d s it s a l e y a r d s 4 6 3 C o l d s t o r e s 47 Open Storage 4 7 0 C o a l 471 S a n d 472 M i n e r a l o r e s 4 7 3 S c r a p y a r d s i t m o t o r w r e c k e r s 4 7 4 O p e n s t o r a g e ( N E C ) 534 J o b b i n g e n g i n e e r s 5 3 5 N o n - f e r r o u s m e t a l r e f i n i n g N o n - f e r r o u s m e t a l r o l l i n g N o n - f e r r o u s m e t a l c a s t i n g / p r o c e s s i n g E l e c t r i c a l / m a c h i n e r y c a b l e s R a d i o fc c l c c t i o n i c e i i u i p -i n e n t 5.16 5 3 7 5.18 54 Metal Working 5 4 0 C o n s t r u c t i o n fc r e p a i r r a i l w a y • o i l i n g s t o c k 541 V e h i c l e , a c c e s s o r i e s , c o n s t r u c -t i o n fc a s s e m b l y 5 4 2 • A e r o p l a n e fc p a r t s m a n u f a c -t u r i n g 5 4 3 S h i p b u i l d i n g fc m a i n t e n a n c e 5 1 4 C u t l e r y a n d s m a l l h a n d t o o l s 5 4 5 A g r i c u l t u r a l " m a c h i n e s a n d i m p l e m e n t s 5 4 6 S h e e t m e t a l w o r k i n g , g a l -v a n i z i n g 5 4 7 P i p e s , t u b e s & f i t t i n g s 5 4 8 W i r e , w i r e w o r k i n g a m i n a i l s 5 4 9 M e t a l w o r k s ( N E C ) 55 Textiles 5 5 0 C o t t o n , s p i n n i n g fc w e a v i n g 551 W o o l , s p i n n i n g fc w e a v i n g 5 5 2 H o s i e r y fc k n i t t e d g o o d s 5 5 3 S i l k 5 5 4 S y n t h e t i c f i b r e s 5 5 5 R o p e fc c o r d a g e 5 5 6 C a n v a s , g o o d s , t a r p a u l i n s , t e n t s 5 5 7 B a g s 8c s a c k s 5 5 8 T e x t i l e p r i n t i n g 5 5 9 T e x t i l e ( N E C ) 5 6 Clothing 5 6 0 K e a d y m n d e c l o t h i n g 561 W a t e r p r o o f c l o t h i n g 5 6 2 W o m e n ' s c l o t h i n g 5 6 3 M i l l i n e r y 564 S h i r t s , u n d e r c l o t h i n g , t i e s , e t c . 565 F o u n d a t i o n g a r m e n t s 5 6 6 H a t s , c a p s 567 F o o t w e a r m a n u f a c t u r e r s 3 6 8 D r y - c l e a n i n g p l a n t s , l a u n d r y , d y e i n g 5 6 9 A p p a r e l ( N E C ) 57 t'uod Processing 5 7 0 F l o u r m i l l i n g , c e r e a l s fc s t a r c h 571 A n i m a l fc b i r d f o o d s 5 7 2 B a k e r i e s 5 7 3 S u g a r m i l l s fc r e f i n i n g 5 7 4 C a n n i n g fc f r e e z i n g 5 7 5 D a i r y fc r e l a t e d p r o d u c t s 5 7 6 P i c k l e s , s a u c e * , v i n e g a r , e t c . 5 7 7 M e a t fc f i s h p r e s e r v i n g 5 7 8 M a r g a r i n e , s h o r t e n i n g , e t c 5 7 9 T e a , c o f f e e , s p i c e s , e t c . 58 Food Processing 5 8 0 S o f t d r i n k s 581 B r e w e r i e s 5 8 2 D i s t i l l e r i e s 5 8 3 W i n e r i e s 5 8 4 O t h e r d r i n k s 5 8 5 B o t t l i n g p l a n t s 5 8 6 C o n f e c t i o n e r y , c h o c o l a t e s , e t c 587 T o b a c c o , c i g a r e t t e s , e t c 5 8 8 D e h y d r a t e d f r u i t s fc v e g e t a b l e s 5 8 9 F o o d p r o c e s s i n g ( N E C ) 5 9 I.father Goods 5 9 0 W o o l s c o u r i n g 591 F u r r i e r s 5 9 2 T a n n i n g 5 9 3 S a d d l i n g , h a r n e s s fc w h i p s 5 9 4 M a c h i n e b e l t i n g 5 9 5 B a g s , t r u n k s , l e a t h e r g o o d s ( N E C ) 5 9 6 G o o d s o f l e a t h e r s u b s t i t u t e s 6 5 / iscetla n eo us 6 5 0 T o y s fc s p o r t i n g g o o d s 651 M a n u f a c t u r i n g ( N E C ) 655 I c e p r o d u c t i o n 6 6 Mines and Quarries 6 6 0 U n d e r g r o u n d m i n e s 661 O p e n c u t m i n e s 6 6 2 C l a y p i t s 6 6 3 S a n d fc g r a v e l p i t s 664 Q u a r r i e s 6 0 Sawmills and Furniture 6 0 0 S a w m i l l s 601 P l y w o o d , w a l l b o a r d , e tc . . 6 0 2 J o i n e r y , b o x e s , cases 6 0 3 W o o d t u r n i n g fc c a r v i n g 604 B a s k e t w a r e , c a n e f u r n i t u r e 605 P e r a m b u l a t o r s 6 0 6 W o o d w o r k ( N E C ) 61 Furniture 6 1 0 C a b i n e t fc f u r n i t u r e m a k i n g 611 B e d d i n g fc m a t t r e s s e s 6 1 2 F u r n i s h i n g s , d r a p e r y 6 1 3 P i c t u r e f r a m e s 6 1 4 B l i n d s 615 F u r n i t u r e , e t c . ( N E C ) 6 2 Printing and Publishing, Paper 6 2 0 N e w s p a p e r s fc p e r i o d i c a l s 621 P r i n t i n g g e n e r a l 6 2 2 P r i n t i n g fc b o o k b i n d i n g 6 2 3 S t a t i o n e r y m a n u f a c t u r e 624 S t e r e o t y p i n g fc e l e a r o t y p i n g 625 P r o c e s s fc p h o t o - e n g r a v i n g 6 2 6 P a p e r m a k i n g 6 2 7 C a r d b o a r d b o x e s , c a r t o n s e t c 6 2 8 P a p e r b a p 6 2 9 P e n c i l s , c r a y o n s , p a p e r t r e a t m e n t ( N E C ) 6 3 Rubber Goods 6 3 0 R u b b e r g o o d s 631 T y r e r e t r e a d i n g , e t c 6-1 Miscellaneous 6 4 0 G r a m o p h o n e s fc r e c o r d s 641 P i a n o s , m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s , e t c . 6 4 2 J e w e l l e r y 6 4 3 W a t c h e s , c l o c k s , e t c 644 L i n o l e u m fc r e l a t e d p r o d u c t s 645 P l a s t i c m o u l d i n g s & p l a s t i c p r o d u c t s 6 4 6 B r o o m s fc b r u s h e s 647 S u r g i c a l fc s c i e n t i f i c i n s t r u -m e n t s 618 P h o t o g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l s & p r o c e s s i n g 6 4 9 S p e c t a c l e m a k e r s 6 6 5 O r e c o n c e n t r a t i n g 6 6 6 O i l w e l l s 667 N a t u r a l gas w e l l s 6 6 8 S a l t p a n s 67 Meatworks 6 7 0 A b a t t o i r s 671 K n a c k e r i e s 6H Railway Workshops 6 8 0 R a i l w a y w o r k s h o p s 70 Public Utilities 7 0 0 E l e c t r i c i t y - g e n e r a t i n g s t a t i o n 701 E l e c t r i c i t y s u b - s t a t i o n 7 0 2 G a s w o r k s 703 G a s o m e t e r fc s u b - s t a t i o n 7 0 4 W a t e r - s u p p l y d a m 705 W a t e r - s u p p l y r e s e r v o i r 7 0 6 W a t e r - s u p p l y p u m p i n g s t a t i o n 707 S e w a g e - t r e a t m e n t w o r k s 7 0 8 S e w a g e - p u m p i n g s t a t i o n 7 0 9 P o w e r e a s e m e n t s , w a t e r p i p e s , e t c 71 Special Public Uses 7 1 0 T e l e p h o n e e x c h a n g e 711 R a d i o fc T V s t a t i o n 7 1 2 F i r e s t a t i o n 7 1 3 A m b u l a n c e s t a t i o n 714 G o v t , w o r k s d e p o t 715 M u n i c i p a l g o v t , w o r k s d e p o t 7 1 6 G a r b a g e i n c i n e r a t o r , d u m p , e t c 7 1 7 S a n i t a r y d e p o t s 718 O t h e r s p e c i a l uses ( N E C ) 7 1 9 P u b l i c c o n v e n i e n c e s , c h a n g e r o o m s 7 2 Public Service Facilities 7 2 0 P o l i c e s t a t i o n 721 C o u r t h o u s e 722 P o s t o f f i c e 723 B a b v h c n l t h c e n t i e 73 Hospitals 7 3 0 G e n e r a l h o s p i t a l 731 732 733 734 7 3 5 7 3 9 P r i v a t e h o s p i t a l s R e s t h o m e S p e c i a l c l i n i c s M e n t a l h o s p i t a l H o s p i t a l s ( N E C ) A n i m a l h e a l t h 74 Prisons 7 4 0 P r i s o n s 741 P r i s o n f a r m 742 C h i l d r e n ' s c o r r e c t i o n h o m e 743 C o r r e c t i o n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ( N E C ) 75 Military 7 5 0 A r m y c a m p fc b a r r a c k s 751 A i r f o r c e b a s e 7 5 2 M i l i t a r y a e r o d r o m e 7 5 3 N a v a l s t a t i o n 754 N a v a l d o c k y a r d i 76 Cemeteries 7 6 0 C e m e t e r i e s 761 L a w n c e m e t e r y 7 6 2 C r e m a t o r i a 77 Transport Termini 7 7 0 B u s s t a t i o n 771 R a i l w a y s t a t i o n 772 R a i l w a y p a s s e n g e r t e r m i n a l 7 7 3 A i r w a y s t e r m i n a l 774 F c r r v w h a r v e s 7 7 5 H e l i p o r t 7 7 6 A i r p o r t s 78 Transport Termini 7 8 0 R a i l w a y - g o o d s t e r m i n a l 781 O c e a n w h a r v e s 7 8 2 T r u c k - f r e i g h t t e r m i n a l s 7 8 3 B u s g a r a g e 784 T r u c k g a r a g e & d e p o t 785 R a i l w a y l i n e s 7 8 6 R a i l w a y m a r s h a l l i n g y a r d s 787 P a r c e l s o f f i c e 79 Car Parking 7 9 0 C a r p a r k o p e n , f r e e X; p u b l i c 791 C a r p a r k o p e n , f r e e & p r i v a t e 792 C a r p a r k i n b u i l d i n g , c o m -m e r c i a l p u b l i c 7 9 3 C a r p a r k i n b u i l d i n g , p r i v a t e 79-1 C a r p a r k o | « n . c o m m e r c i a l p u b l i c 795 R o a d s , s t ree ts , l a n e 7 9 6 C a r p a r k s o p e n , c o m m e r c i a l p r i v a t e 797 C a r p a r k i n b u i l d i n g , c o m -m e r c i a l p r i v a t e 798 C a r p a r k i n g i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g 8 C U L T U R A L A N D R E C R E A T I O N A L 8 0 Educational: Primary and Secondary 8 0 0 K i n d e r g a r t e n , n u r s e r y s c h o o l 801 S t a t e p r i m a r y s c h o o l 8 0 2 S t a t e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l 8 0 3 R o m . C a t h o l i c p r i m a r y s c l i o o l 8 0 4 R o m . C a t h o l i c s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l 8 0 5 O t h e r p r i m a r y s c h o o l s 8 0 6 O t h e r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s 8 0 7 S c h o o l s f o r h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n 8 0 8 C o a c h i n g c o l l e g e s 81 Educational: Tertiary 8 1 0 T e c h n i c a l c o l l e g e s 811 U n i v e r s i t i e s 8 1 2 T e a c h e r s ' c o l l e g e s 8 1 3 S e m i n a r i e s 8 1 4 B u s i n e s s a n d c o m m e r c i a l c o l l e g e s 8 1 5 O t h e r t e r t i a r y e s t a b l i s h m e n t s 8 1 6 G o v e r n m e n t r e s e a r c h e s t a b -l i s h m e n t s 8 2 Educational: Special 8 2 0 M u s i c s c h o o l s 821 D a n c i n g s c h o o l s 8 2 2 D r e s s m a k i n g s c h o o l 8 2 3 D r i v i n g s c h o o l s 8 2 1 C o o k e r y s c h o o l 8 2 5 O t h e r t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s 8 2 6 D r a m a s c h o o l 8 2 7 M o d e l l i n g s c h o o l 8 3 Worship 8 3 0 C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d 831 R o m a n C a t h o l i c 8 3 2 M e t h o d i s t " 8 3 3 P r e s b y t e r i a n 8 3 4 C o n g r e g a t i o n a l 8 3 5 B a p t i s t 8 3 6 S e v e n t h D a y A d v e n t i s t 8 3 7 S a l v a t i o n A r m y 8 3 8 S y n a g o g u e 8 3 9 O t h e r c h u r c h e s 84 Entertainment 8-10 A r t g a l l e r i e s 841 T h e a t r e s 8 4 2 C o n c e r t h a l l s 8 1 3 C h u r c h h a l l s 8 4 4 O t h e r p u b l i c h a l l s 8 4 5 C o m m e r c i a l l i b r a r y 8 4 6 P u b l i c l i b r a r y 8 4 7 C i n e m a s 8 1 8 T o u r i s t i n f o r m a t i o n c e n t r e s 8 4 9 M u s e u m s h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s 8 5 Private Clubs 8 5 0 L i c e n s e d c l u b s 851 R e c e p t i o n h o m e s 8 5 5 I n d o o r a m u s e m e n t c e n t r e 8 5 6 L o t t e r y - s a l e s k i o s k 8 5 7 T A B b e t t i n g s h o p 8 5 8 G a m i n g h o u s e 8 5 9 B r o t h e l 8 6 Indoor Amusement 8 6 0 C l u b r o o m s 861 G y m n a s i u m 8 6 2 S t a d i u m 8 6 3 D a n c e h a l l s , b a l l r o o m s 8 6 4 B o w l i n g a l l e y s 8 6 5 S k a t i n g r i n k s 8 6 6 S q u a s h fc i n d o o r c o u r t g a m e s 8 6 7 B i l l i a r d r o o m s , t a b l e t e n n i s , e t c . 8 6 8 I n d o o r s p o r t s ( N E C ) 87 Outdoor Entertainment Facilities 8 7 0 A m u s e m e n t p a r k s 871 D r i v e - i n t h e a t r e s 8 7 2 S h o w g r o u n d s 8 7 3 S p o r t s f i e l d s , o v a l s 8 7 4 R a c e t r a c k 8 7 5 S p e e d w a y 8 7 6 O u t d o o r c u l t u r a l e n t e r t a i n -m e n t 88 Outdoor Recreation Facilities 8 8 0 T e n n i s c o u r t s 881 P u b l i c s w i m m i n g p o o l s 8 8 2 R e s t r i c t e d s w i m m i n g p o o l s 8 8 3 B o w l i n g g r e e n s 8 8 4 G o l f d r i v i n g r a n g e s , m i n i -g o l f HH5 P l a y g r o u n d s 8 8 6 B a s k e t b a l l c o u r t s 887 T r a m p o l i n e s 8 8 9 O p e n s p a c e a m o n g f r e e w a y s 8 9 Public Open Space 8 9 0 P u b l i c g o l f c o u r s e 891 P r i v a t e g o l f c o u r s e 8 9 2 B e a c h r e s e r v e s 8 9 3 P a r k s & r e s e r v e s 8 9 4 N a t i o n a l p a r k 8 9 5 B o t a n i c a l g a r d e n s 8 9 6 Z o o l o g i c a l g a r d e n s 8 9 7 R i f l e r a n g e 9 V A C A N C Y A N D C O N S T R U C T I O N * 9 / 2 6 Vacant Premises 9 / 2 6 0 V a c a n t f l a t i n c o m m e r c i a l p r e m i s e s 9 / 2 6 1 V a c a n t s h o p 9 / 2 6 2 V a c a n t o f f i c e s p a c e 9 / 2 6 3 V a c a n t w a r e h o u s e s p a c e 9 / 2 6 4 V a c a n t f a c t o r y s p a c e 9 / 2 6 5 V a c a n t h o u s e 9 / 2 6 6 V a c a n t f l a t 9 / 2 6 7 V a c a n t s p a c e ( N E C ) 9 / 2 6 8 V a c a n t s h o w r o o m s 9 . 2 8 Vacant Land 9 / 2 8 0 V a c a n t c o m m e r c i a l l a n d 9 / 2 8 1 V a c a n t i n d u s t r i a l l a n d 9 / 2 8 2 V a c a n t r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d 9 / 2 8 3 V a c a n t g o v t , l a n d 9 / 2 8 4 V a c a n t e d u c a t i o n a l l a n d 9 / 2 8 5 V a c a n t i n s t i t u t i o n a l l a n d 9 / 2 9 Buildings under Construction 9 / 2 9 0 F l a t s u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n 9 / 2 9 1 H o u s e u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n 9 / 2 9 2 S h o p u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n 9 / 2 9 3 O f f i c e u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n 9 / 2 9 4 W a r e h o u s e u n d e r c o n s t r u c -t i o n 9 / 2 9 5 F a c t o r y u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n 9 / 2 9 6 I n s t i t u t i o n a l b u i l d i n g u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n 9 / 2 9 7 R e c r e a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n 9 / 2 9 8 E d u c a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n 9 / 2 9 9 O t h e r b u i l d i n g u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n 1 44 A . 2 F o r m a t T h e f o r m a t o f d a t a c o d e d o n c o m p u t e r d i s c s p a c e i s a s f o l l o w s : 1 -- 4 s t r e e t a d d r e s s . 6 -- 9 s u i t e n u m b e r 1 1 -- 1 1 f l o o r n u m b e r m 13 -- 13 n o r t h o r s o u t h s i d e o f s t r e e t . 15 -- 18 l o c a t i o n i n f e e t f r o m O n t . S t . 20 -- 23 a r e a i n s q . f t . o f t h e b u s i n e s s 2 5 -- 27 l a n d u s e i n 1 981 . 28 -- 30 l a n d u s e i n 1 9 7 6 . 31 -- 33 l a n d u s e i n 1 971 . 34 -- 36 l a n d u s e i n 1 9 6 6 . 37 -- 39 l a n d u s e i n 1 961 . 40 -- 42 l a n d u s e i n 1 9 5 6 . 43 -- 45 l a n d u s e i n 1 951 . T h e s t r e e t a d d r e s s , s u i t e n o . , a n d f l o o r n o . a r e a l l l i s t e d a s i s . A n y f l o o r a b o v e n i n e ( 9 ) i s l i s t e d a s ( 9 ) . T h e s i d e o f t h e s t r e e t v a r i a b l e l i s t s t h e n o r t h s i d e o f t h e s t r e e t a s a o n e ( 1 ) a n d t h e s o u t h s i d e a s a z e r o ( 0 ) . T h e l o c a t i o n v a r i a b l e g i v e s e a c h e s t a b l i s h m e n t a p o i n t l o c a t i o n o n a l i n e . S t a r t i n g f r o m O n t a r i o S t . t h e l i n e e x t e n d s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 3 0 0 f e e t t o B u r r a r d S t r e e t i n t h e w e s t . D i s t a n c e s a c r o s s s t r e e t s a r e o m i t t e d i n t h e m e a s u r e m e n t . A . 3 C o d i n g T h e c o d i n g o f l a n d - u s e s f r o m 1951 t o 1981 f o l l o w s t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m u s e d b y A l e x a n d e r ( 1 9 7 2 ) . T h e l a r g e n u m b e r o f c a t e g o r i e s a r e r e c o d e d i n t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 m o r e g e n e r a l i z e d g r o u p s f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s t h e s i s : 001 - 0 3 4 R e s i d e n t i a l . 1 00 - 113 R e t a i l - F o o d . 1 20 - 129 R e t a i l - C l o t h i n g . 1 30 - 159 R e t a i l - H o u s e h o l d . 1 6 0 - 1 6 3 , 1 6 5 - 1 6 9 R e t a i l - M i s c e l l a n e o u s . 164 R e t a i l - O f f i c e S u p p l i e s . 180 - 196 R e t a i l - A u t o / H a r d w a r e . 1 45 2 0 0 S e r v i c e -- R e s t a u r a n t s . 2 0 2 , 2 0 3 S e r v i c e -- H a i r d r e s s e r s . 2 0 4 - 2 0 9 S e r v i c e -- P e r s o n a l . 2 1 0 - 2 1 9 S e r v i c e -- P e r s o n a l B u s i n e s s . 2 2 0 - 2 2 6 S e r v i c e -- B u s i n e s s . 2 3 0 - 2 3 6 S e r v i c e -- F i n a n c i a l a n d B a n k i n g . 2 4 0 - 2 4 9 S e r v i c e -- B u i l d i n g C o n t r a c t o r s . 2 5 0 - 2 5 3 S e r v i c e -- A u t o m o b i l e . 2 7 0 - 2 7 6 S e r v i c e -- R e p a i r . 3 0 0 - 3 0 8 O f f i c e - G e n e r a l . 3 , 3 1 8 , 3 1 9 O f f i c e - P r o f e s s i o n a l . 3 1 4 - 3 1 7 O f f i c e - M e d i c a l . 3 2 0 - 3 2 5 O f f i c e - G o v e r n m e n t . 3 3 0 - 3 3 2 O f f i c e - B u s i n e s s A d v i s o r y . 4 0 0 - 4 8 2 W h o l e s a l i n g . 5 0 0 - 6 9 9 M a n u f a c t u r i n g . 7 0 0 - 7 8 9 P u b l i c . 8 0 0 - 8 9 7 C u l t u r a l / R e c r e a t i o n a l . 7 9 0 - 7 9 8 P a r k i n g . 2 6 0 - 2 6 8 V a c a n t - B u i l d i n g . 2 8 0 - 2 8 5 V a c a n t - L a n d . 2 9 0 - 2 9 9 U n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h e c o m p l e t e l i s t i n g o f l a n d u s e c o d e s u s e d i n t h e t h e s i s w a s t a k e n f r o m A l e x a n d e r ( 1 9 7 2 ) , T h e C i t y C e n t r e . 146 Appendix B Methods Three s t a t i s t i c a l methods were chosen for t h i s thesis, as outlined in the introductory chapter, for their a p p l i c a b i l i t y , ease of use and interpretation, and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of software for the computer. Figure A.1 outlines the sequence of application. Data Col l e c t i o n I Coding I Frequency Markov Analysis Nearest-Neighbor Cluster Analysis Growth & Change Land Use Patterns Figure A.1 Framework of Methods. B. 1 Markov Chain Models Despite the potential for Markov chain models in geographical studies, these have found limited use over the last twenty years (Rose, 1970). Both Rose and Clark (1965) have employed these methods in r e s i d e n t i a l land-use studies, while Bourne (1971) has used the technique over a wider range of land use successions in Toronto. The process analyzes the changes in states over a given 1 47 t i m e p e r i o d a n d i s s u m m a r i z e d i n C l a r k ( 1 9 6 5 ) : A M a r k o v c h a i n p r o c e s s i s d e t e r m i n e d b y s p e c i f y i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n : T h e r e i s a g i v e n s e t o f s t a t e s ( S 1 , S 2 , . . . . S r ) . T h e p r o c e s s c a n b e i n o n e a n d o n l y o n e o f t h e s e s t a t e s ( o r c l a s s e s ) a t a g i v e n t i m e , a n d i t m o v e s s u c c e s s i v e l y f r o m o n e s t a t e t o a n o t h e r . E a c h m o v e i s c a l l e d a s t e p . T h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e p r o c e s s m o v e s f r o m S i t o S j d e p e n d s o n l y o n t h e s t a t e " s " t h a t i s o c c u p i e d b e f o r e t h e s t e p . T h e t r a n s i t i o n p r o b a b i l i t y P i j w h i c h g i v e s t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e p r o c e s s w i l l m o v e f r o m S i t o S j i s g i v e n f o r e v e r y o r d e r e d p a i r o f s t a t e s . A l s o a n i n i t i a l s t a r t i n g s t a t e i s s p e c i f i e d a t w h i c h t h e p r o c e s s i s a s s u m e d t o b e g i n . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s t h e s i s , t h e s t a t e s a r e t h e r e c o r d e d l a n d - u s e c a t e g o r i e s , t h e s t e p s a r e f i v e y e a r i n t e r v a l s f r o m 1951 t o 1 9 8 1 , a n d t h e p r o b a b i l i t i e s a r e e x p r e s s e d a s p e r c e n t a g e s . W h i l e t h i s m o d e l c a n b e u s e d f o r p r e d i c t i v e p u r p o s e s , i t i s o n l y i n t e n d e d a s a d e s c r i p t i v e t o o l i n t h i s t h e s i s . F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e g e n e r a l m a t h e m a t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e m o d e l , r e f e r t o B h a r u c h a - R e i d ( 1 9 6 0 ) a n d , w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s m o d e l t o g e o g r a p h i c a l w o r k , r e f e r t o B r o w n ( 1 9 7 0 ) i n a d d i t i o n t o R o s e ( 1 9 7 0 ) a n d C l a r k ( 1 9 6 5 ) . B . 2 N e a r e s t - N e i g h b o u r A n a l y s i s T h e u s e o f t h e n e a r e s t - n e i g h b o u r a n a l y s i s t o d e s c r i b e p o i n t p a t t e r n d i s t r i b u t i o n s h a s b e e n p r o v e n s u c e s s f u l b y a n u m b e r o f r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h e v a r i o u s s t u d i e s o f u r b a n g e o g r a p h y ( C l a r k a n d E v a n s , 1 9 5 4 ; D a c e y , 1 9 6 0 ; P i n d e r a n d W i t h e r i c k , 1 9 7 2 ) . T h e a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e s d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a v e r a g e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n a p o i n t a n d i t s n e a r e s t n e i g h b o u r i n a s e t o f p o i n t s , a n d c o m p a r i n g t h i s d i s t a n c e o b s e r v e d w i t h a p r e d i c t e d o r " e x p e c t e d " d i s t a n c e i f t h e s e p o i n t s w e r e r a n d o m l y d i s t r i b u t e d . 1 48 N e a r e s t n e i g h b o u r a n a l y s i s w a s d e v e l o p e d t o m e a s u r e t h e d e g r e e o f c l u s t e r i n g o r r e g u l a r i t y b e t w e e n p o i n t s d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r a t w o d i m e n s i o n a l p l a n e ( C l a r k a n d E v a n s , 1 9 5 4 ) . F r o m t h e i r s t a t i s t i c a l f o r m u l a e a n R v a l u e w a s d e r i v e d f o r a s e t o f p o i n t s . T h e R v a l u e r a n g e d f r o m R = 0 . 0 ( C l u s t e r e d ) t o R = 2 . 1 5 ( R e g u l a r ) . D a c e y ( i 9 6 0 ) a n d B u r g h a r d t ( 1 9 5 9 ) u s e d a s i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h e n e a r e s t n e i g h b o u r a n a l y s i s , m o d i f i e d t o h a n d l e d a t a a l o n g a l i n e a r p o i n t p a t t e r n . R a t h e r t h a n u s e a c t u a l d i s t a n c e m e a s u r e s b e t w e e n p o i n t s , D a c e y a n d B u r g h a r d t d e t e r m i n e d t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f r e f l e x i v e p a i r s w i t h i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n . R e f l e x i v e p a i r s w e r e d e f i n e d a s a n y t w o p o i n t s w h i c h a r e e a c h o t h e r ' s n e a r e s t n e i g h b o u r . T h e n u m b e r o f r e f l e x i v e p a i r s a r e e x p r e s s e d a s a p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l p o i n t s , a n d c o m p a r e d t o a c o n s t a n t o r p r e d i c t e d v a l u e . I n t h i s a n a l y s i s a p r e d i c t e d v a l u e o f ( 2 / 3 ) i s u s e d f o r t h e f i r s t n e a r e s t n e i g h b o u r , ( 2 / 3 ) i s u s e d f o r t h e s e c o n d n e a r e s t n e i g h b o u r a n d s o o n . T h e a n a l y s i s i s a s o u n d s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t , b u t d o e s s u f f e r b y v i r t u e o f i t s s i m p l i c i t y a n d w h e r e t h e n u m b e r o f p o i n t s a r e s m a l l . A m o r e r i g o r o u s d e r i v a t i o n o f t h e n e a r e s t n e i g h b o u r f o r m u l a w a s p u t f o r t h b y P i n d e r a n d W i t h e r i c k ( 1 9 7 3 ) . T h e y p r o p o s e d a m e t h o d f o r t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f d i s t a n c e s b e t w e e n r a n d o m l y d i s t r i b u t e d n e a r e s t n e i g h b o u r s , a s e c o n d f o r m u l a t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t a n o b s e r v e d a v e r a g e n e a r e s t n e i g h b o u r d i s t a n c e d i f f e r s f r o m a r a n d o m o r p r e d i c t e d d i s t a n c e a n d f i n a l l y a g r a p h i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f o b s e r v e d a n d p r e d i c t e d v a l u e s . B u i l d i n g o n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m u l a f o r t h e p r e d i c t e d a v e r a g e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n n e a r e s t n e i g h b o u r s 0 . 5 a / n w h e r e N e a r e s t - N e i g h b o r A n a l y s i s ( P i n d e r & W i t h e r i c k , 1 9 7 3 ) M.A. THESIS U.B.C. BLAKE B. HUOEMA FIG. A.2 1 50 a = a r e a a n d n = t h e n u m b e r o f p o i n t s , P i n d e r a n d W i t h e r i c k ( 1 9 7 3 ) m o d i f i e d t h i s m e t h o d t o a c c e p t l i n e a r p o i n t p a t t e r n s . T h e o u t c o m e a n d t h e f o r m u l a u s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i s a s f o l l o w s : 0 . 5 ( l / n - 1 ) w h e r e L = l i n e l e n g t h a n d n = t h e n u m b e r o f p o i n t s a l o n g t h e l i n e . A p p l y i n g t h i s " p r e d i c t e d " v a l u e t o t h e l i n e a r n e a r e s t n e i g h b o u r s t a t i s t i c ( L R n ) , t h e w h o l e f o r m u l a b e c o m e s : L R n = D o b s / 0 . 5 ( L / n - 1 ) V a l u e s o f L R n r a n g e f r o m 0 . 0 , a c l u s t e r e d p o i n t d i s t r i b u t i o n t o 2 . 0 a p e r f e c t l y r e g u l a r p o i n t p a t t e r n . A v a l u e o f 1 .0 w o u l d i n d i c a t e a p o i n t p a t t e r n r a n d o m l y d i s t r i b u t e d . F i g u r e A . 2 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s m e t h o d . N o t e t h a t t h e 9 5 p e r c e n t s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l e n d s a t 10 p o i n t s o n t h e l e f t . E r r o r l e v e l s b e c o m e t o g r e a t a n d t h e r e s u l t s m e a n i n g l e s s a t t h e s e l o w l e v e l s . V a l u e s l y i n g o u t s i d e t h e c r o s s h a t c h e d a r e a a r e c o n s i d e r e d n o n - r a n d o m t o t h e 9 5 p e r c e n t l e v e l a n d a r e e i t h e r c l u s t e r e d o r r e g u l a r l y d i s t r i b u t e d . B . 3 C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s T h e c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s u s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i s t h e BMDP s o f t w a r e p a c k a g e d e v e l o p e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , u t i l i z i n g a m a t r i x d a t a i n p u t c r e a t e d f r o m t h e p r i m a r y d a t a b a s e . M r . G l e n C o o p e r o f t h e C o m p u t i n g S c i e n c e C e n t e r a t U n i v e r s i t y B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w a s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n d r a f t i n g a F o r t r a n p r o g r a m w h i c h t r a n s f o r m e d t h e r a w d a t a i n t o a n i n p u t f o r m a t . T h e p r o g r a m c a l c u l a t e s t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m e v e r y e s t a b l i s h m e n t , a t g r o u n d l e v e l , t o i t s c l o s e s t n e i g h b o u r o f 151 e v e r y o t h e r l a n d - u s e t y p e ( 2 8 r e c o d e d l a n d - u s e t y p e s , s e e A p p e n d i x A ) . I n o r d e r t o c o m p a r e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o n e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e s t r e e t , a v a l u e o f 3 0 f e e t i s a d d e d t o t h o s e d i s t a n c e s b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o n o p p o s i t e s i d e s o f t h e s t r e e t . T h e d i s t a n c e s b e t w e e n a l l 3 8 0 e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d t h e i r n e a r e s t n e i g h b o u r o f t h e o t h e r 28 l a n d - u s e t y p e s a r e a g g r e g a t e d i n t o a 2 9 b y 29 m a t r i x . O n l y o n e h a l f o f t h e m a t r i x i s n e c e s s a r y a s d i s t a n c e s a r e r e a l , s u c h t h a t d i s t a n c e AB i s e q u a l t o d i s t a n c e B A . T h i s d i s t a n c e m a t r i x w a s i n p u t t e d i n t o t h e c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s o p t i o n o f t h e BMDP s o f t w a r e . T h e c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s c r e a t e s s u b g r o u p i n g s o f e l e m e n t s ( a m i n i m u m o f t w o ) w h i c h s h o w t h e h i g h e s t d e g r e e o f s i m i l a r i t y . I n t h i s t h e s i s , t h e v a r i a b l e s ( l a n d - u s e s ) a r e c o m p a r e d t o t h e d i s t a n c e s b e t w e e n a l l o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . T h e c l u s t e r i n g p r o c e e d e d s e q u e n t i a l l y u n t i l a l l e l e m e n t s c o m p r i s e d a s i n g l e g r o u p . D u r i n g t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l p r o c e s s , t h e s u b g r o u p i n g o f g r o u p s i s p o s s i b l e a s o n c e a n e l e m e n t i n c o m m i t t e d t o a g r o u p , i t i s c o n f i n e d t o t h a t g r o u p . T h e i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s o f e l e m e n t s a r e a l s o a l t e r e d a n d t h e i r i n f l u e n c e i n s u b s e q u e n t c l u s t e r i n g i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o o t h e r e l e m e n t s i n t h e g r o u p . T h e u p p e r c l u s t e r s o f t h e h e i r a r c h y , t h e r e f o r e , c a n b e m i s l e a d i n g , a s i n d i v i d u a l e l e m e n t s may n o t s h o w t r u e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h o t h e r e l e m e n t s o f o t h e r g r o u p s . T o c o m p e n s a t e f o r t h i s l i m i t a t i o n , a d i s t a n c e m a t r i x i s i n c l u d e d w h i c h g i v e s a s c a l e d v a l u e ( 0 - 1 0 0 ) f o r e v e r y g r o u p o f t w o e l e m e n t s ( l a n d - u s e t y p e s ) r e g a r d l e s s o f how t h e y c l u s t e r . T h e u s e o f t h e s e t w o o u t p u t s p r o v i d e s a n c l e a r p i c t u r e i n t o t h e s p a t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f s p a t i a l p r o x i m i t y o f v a r i o u s l a n d - u s e t y p e s . F o r a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s 1 52 and BMDP, see BMDP (1981). 1 53 A p p e n d i x C S e c t i o n s C - 2 , C - 3 , C - 3 A o f C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r B y - L a w # 3 5 7 5 . (C-2) COMMERCIAL DISTRICT SCHEDULE: (Suburban) 1. Uses permitted, conditions and regulations: A. Uses: Subject to all other provisions of this By-law, on any site, in any district denned, designated, or described in this By-law as a (C-2) Commercial District, development permits will be issued only for development comprising retail stores, businesses, or undertakings catering for the day-to-day needs of residents of several neighbourhoods and comprising a large district of the City, namely: (1) Advertisements, billboards and signs subject to the provisions of Section 10(21) and Section 11(9) of this By-law. (1G/7/56—*3583) (2) Auction room. (3) Bakeries retailing on the premises only, not exceeding a total of 2,200 sq. ft. of floor area. (4) Billiard and pool hall. (5) Cleaning and dyeing shop. (6) Frozen food lockers. (7) Garage, public (storage). (8) Gasoline filling station. (9) Office building. (10) Parking area (public). (11) Radio and television broadcasting and receiving masts and antennae (commercial). (12) Radio broadcasting and receiving station for motor vehicles, trains, watercraft and aircraft. (13) Restaurant (excluding a drive-in). (14) Retail store, business or undertaking catering for the day-to-day needs of resi-dents of several neighbourhoods and comprising a large district of the City. (15) School (business or commercial). (16) Steam baths. (17) Swimming pool (commercial). (18) Dwelling units in conjunction with and in addition to any of the above uses pro-vided that no portion of the first storey of a building to a depth of 35 feet from the front building line and extending across the full width of the building shall be used for residential purposes except lor entrances to such residential part. (12/3/57—*3622) (19) The keeping of not more than two boarders or lodgers or not more than four foster children in each dwelling unit. (20) A building or use which is customarily accessory to the above principal buildings or uses, except for a building or use which is only listed as a principal use in the (M-l) or (M-2) schedules, provided that: (a) All accessory buildings are located in a rear yard; (b) All accessory buildings shall occupy an area of not greater than ten percent of the area of the site; (c) No accessory building shall exceed one storey or 12 feet in height; (C-2) 1 5 5 (d) No accessory building shall obstruct the daylight access as required by this by-law for any residential use; (e) All accessory uses of the type which v/ould not be permitted as principal uses under Section 1 of this schedule shall occupy an area of not more than 25 percent of the ?ross Hour area of the principal use, and shall be located within the principal building. B. Conditions of Use: Every business, or undertaking shall be conducted wholly within a completely enclosed building except for parking and loading facilities, a service station, and signs and advertisements. C. Front Yard: No front yard shall be required. D. Side Yard: No side yard shall be required provided, however, that where a (C-2) Commercial District adjoins any R district without the intervention of a street or lane, the follow-ing side yards shall be provided: (a) Three feet in the case of an RA, RS or R T district. (b) Five feet in the case of an RM district. If a side yard in a (C-2) district be provided where not required by the provisions of this By-law, the said side yard shall be not less than three feet in width. E. Rear Yard: A rear yard shall be provided of not less than 10 feet; provided however that where a building contains residential uses, the building shall be set back not less than 25 feet over its full width from the rear line of the site, but such setback need not extend below the lowest storey containing residential uses; and provided further that where the rear line of a site adjoins a dedicated lane the minimum depth of the rear yard or setback, as the case may be, may be reduced by an amount equal to the distance from the ultimate centre line of the lane to the rear line of the site. F. Height: The height of a building shall not exceed 40 feet nor three storeys. G. Horizontal Light Angle for Residential Use: (for illustrations see Appendix "G") Where part of a building is used for residential purposes: (1) The window of every habitable room shall be not less than 10 feet from the interior side boundary of the site onto which it faces. (2) Every window shall permit of an unobstructed view for a distance of not less than 80 feet, measured horizontally from its centre at sill level. Such view shall extend through either a continuous horizontal arc of not less than 50 degrees, or through two or more horizontal arcs which in the aggregate contain an arc of not less than 70 degrees; provided however the above arcs may be reduced from 50 degrees to 40 degrees, and 70 degrees to 60 degrees, respectively, in the case of buildings of two storeys or less in height; for the purpose of this subsection the following shall be considered as obstructions: (a) The theoretically equivalent buildings if located on any adjoining sites in any R district in a corresponding position by rotating the plot plan of the pro-posed building 180 degrees about a horizontal axis located on the property lines of the proposed site. 1 5 6 (b) Part of the same building including permitted projections. (c) Accessory buildings located on the same site as the principal building. (d) The maximum size building permitted under the appropriate C or M schedule if the site adjoins a C or M site. (3) Where a window is greater in area than the minimum required under the Building By-law, the above conditions may be tested against the least restrictive portion of of the window equal in area to the required minimum. For the purpose of this subsection, a kitchen shall not be counted as a habitable room unless its area is greater than ten percent of the total floor area of the dwelling unit in which it is situated, or 70 square feet, whichever is the greater. H. Floor Space Ratio: The floor space ratio shall in no case exceed 3.00 provided however that where a building is used in part for residential purposes every square foot of the floor area used for residential purposes shall be counted as the equivalent of 2'/* square feet for the purposes of this section. J. Off-street Parking Spaces: Off-street parking spaces shall be provided and maintained as required by, and in accordance with the provisions of Section 12 of this By-law. K. Off-street Loading Spaces: Loading and unloading spaces shall be provided and maintained as required by, and in accordance with the provisions of Section 13 of this By-law. 2. Uses which may be permitted subject to special approval by the Technical Planning Board: Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 1 of this schedule, development permits may be issued for development comprising the following uses subject" to such uses first of all being approved by the Technical Planning Board. If a development permit is granted it shall be subject to such conditions and regulations or relaxations as the Technical Plan-ning Board may decide: Uses: (1) Ambulance headquarters. (12/3/57-*3622) (1A) Animal hospital. (2) Automotive repair shop. (3) Automobile and parts showroom. (4) Bakery (manufacturing of bread, pies, and confectionery), other than as provided for in Section 1 of this schedule. (5) Bowling alley. (6) Building or use required by a public authority. (7) Car sales lot. (8) Church. (9) Club, or lodge (fraternal). (10) Community centre. (11) Deposit or extraction of material so as to alter the configuration of the land. (C-2) 1 5 7 (12) Hall. (13) Home craft or occupation. (14) Hospital, sanitorium, convalescent home, excluding a mental hospital. (15) Hotel provided it conforms to the daylight access provisions of Section 1 of the (C-2) schedule. (16) Institution of a religious, philanthropic, charitable or philozoic character. (17) Kennels, or the keeping, breeding, raising, training or boarding of dogs or cats. (18) Lithographing. (19) Motel provided it conforms to the daylight access provisions of Section 1 of the (C-2) schedule. (20) Park or playground. (21) Pet shop. (22) Public utility. (23) Restaurant (drive-in). (24) School (public or private), kindergarten, day-care school, creche or day nursery. (25) School (trade). (26) Sign and showcard writing. (27) Stadium, curling rink, ice rink, roller rink, race track, gymnasium, or similar place of assembly. (28) Stamp shop (rubber and metal). (29) Theatre (excluding a drive-in). (30) Tires (retreading and rebuilding). (31) Tourist court subject to the provisions of Section 11(5). (32) Undertaking establishment. (33) Wholesale business (only to serve local or district needs). (34) Any other building or use which is not specifically listed in any schedule of this By-law, and which, is similar to the foregoing buildings or uses; before granting a development permit for such building or use the Technical Planning Board shall have regard to the types of buildings and uses which specifically may be permitted in this schedule. (12/3/57—*3622) (35) The use of a site for purely residential purposes, if, the site has unusual peculiarities of location, such use to include one and two-family dwellings, apartments, boarding or lodging houses, and fraternity or sorority houses. (36) The conversion into dwelling units of an existing building other than one granted a development permit in accordance with Section 1 of this schedule; before granting a development permit for such conversion the Technical Planning Board shall have regard to the regulations of Section 1 of this schedule and also to the amenity of the neighbourhood. (37) The conversion of an existing building into housekeeping units in any case where such existing building, by reason of its age and size, is deemed to be unsuitable for 1 58 its present use; before granting a development permit for such conversion the Tech-nical Planning Board shall have regard to the regulations of Section 1 of this schedule and also to the amenity of the neighbourhood. (38) The conversion of an existing building into a boarding or lodging-house in any case where such existing building, by reason of its age and size, is deemed to be unsuit-able for its present use; before granting a development permit tor such conversion the Technical Planning Board shall have regard to the regulations of the RM sche-dules and also to the amenity of the neighbourhood. (39) A dwelling unit or housekeeping unit other than one granted a development permit in accordahce with this schedule which has been installed or used prior to June 18th, 1956, with or without one or more of the required City permits may be granted a development permit limited in time. (11/12/56—*3610) (40) A building which has been altered or used for a boarding or lodging house, other than one granted a development permit in accordance with this schedule, which has been installed or used pior to June 18th, 1956, with or without one or more of the required City permits may be granted a development permit limited in time. (11/12/56—*3610) (41) Any building or use which can be considered as accessory to the above uses and to the uses listed in Section 1 of this schedule, other than those accessory buildings or uses for which provision is made in such Section, subject to: (a) All accessory buildings occupying an area of not greater than ten percent of the area of the site. (b) All accessory uses occupying an area of not greater than one third the total gross floor area of all the buildings on the site. (C-2) (C-3) Commercial District Schedule: (Medium Density) 1. Uses permitted, conditions and regulations: A. Uses: Subject to all other provisions of this By-law, on any site, in any district defined, desig-nated, or described in this By-law as a (C-3) Commercial District, development permits will be issued only for development comprising the following: (1) Advertisements, billboards and signs subject to the provisions of section 10(21) of this by-law. (2) Auction room. (3) A u t- o m°bile and parts showroom. (4) Bakeries retailing on the premises only, not exceeding a total of 2,200 sq. ft. of floor area. (5) Billiard and pool hall. (6) Book bindery. (7) Cleaning and dyeing shop. (8) Club, or lodge (fraternal). (9) Community Centre. (10) Film exchange. (11) Frozen food lockers. (12) Garage, public (storage). (13) Gasoline filling station. (14) Hall. (15) Institution of a religious, philanthropic, charitable or philozoic character. (16) Laboratory. (17) Office building. (18) Parking area (public). (19) Pet shop. (20) Radio and television broadcasting and receiving masts and antennae (commercial). (21) Radio broadcasting and receiving station for motor vehicles, trains, watercraft, and air craft. (22) Restaurant excluding a drive-in. (23) Retail store, business, or undertaking. (24) School (business or commercial). (25) School (trade). (26) Sign and showcard writing. (27) Steam baths. (28) Swimming pool (commercial). 1 6 0 (29) Theatre (excluding a drive-in). (30) Tires (retreading or rebuilding-) (31) Dwelling Units in conjunction with and in addition to any of the above uses pro-vided that no portion of the first storey oi a building to a depth of 35 feet from the front building line and extending across the full width of the building shall be used for residential purposes except for entrances to such residential part. (12/3/57—*3622) (32) The keeping of not more than two boarders or lodgers or not more tnan four foster children in each dwelling unit. (33) A building or use which is customarily accessory to the above principal buildings or uses, except for a building or use which is only listed as a principal use in the (M-l) or (M-2) schedules, provided that: (a) All accessory buildings are located in a rear yard. (b) All accessory buildings shall occupy an area of not greater than ten percent of the area of the site. (c) No accessory building shall exceed one storey or 12 feet in height. (d) No accessory building shall obstruct the daylight access as required by this by-law for any residential use. (e) All accessory uses of the type which would not be permitted as principal uses under Section 1 of this schedule shall occupy an area of not more than 25 percent of the gross floor area of the principal use, and shall be located within the principal building. B. Conditions of Use: Every business or undertaking shall be conducted wholly within a completely enclosed building except for parking and loading facilities, a service station, and signs and advertisements. C. Front Yard: No front yard shall be required. D. Side Yard: Up to a height of three storeys or 40 feet whichever is the lesser, no side yard shall be required except in the following cases: (1) Where a (C-3) Commercial District adjoins any R District without the intervention of a street or lane the following side yards shall be provided: (a) Three feet in the case of an RA, RS, or RT District. (b) Five feet in the case of an RM District. (2) Where a side yard in any such district be provided where not required by the pro-visions of this By-law, the said side yard shall be not less than three feet in width. For the next three storeys above a height of three storeys or 40 feet, whichever is the lesser, no part of the building shall be nearer than five feet to the side lines of the site and this distance shall be increased by one foot for every additional storey, provided however that this requirement need not apply on a flanking street of a corner site. E. Rear Yard: A rear yard shall be provided of not less than 10 feet; provided however that where a building contains residential use, the building shall be set back not less than 25 feet over its full width from the rear line of the site, but such setback need not extend below (C-3) 16.1 the lowest storey containing residential use; and provided further that where the rear line of a site adjoins a dedicated lane the minimum depth of the rear yard or setback, as the case may be, may be reduced by an amount equal to the distance from the ulti-mate centre line of the lane to the rear line of the site. F. Height: The height of a building shall not exceed eight storeys nor 100 feet. G. Vertical Light Angle for all uses: (for illustrations see Appendix "G") In the case of a building of more than three stories or 40 feet in height no part of such building above the third storey or above 40 feet shall project above lines extending toward the building at right angles from: (12/3/57—*3622) (1) All points along the ultimate centre line of the street (or streets) in front of the site and inclined at an angle of 60 degrees to the horizontal; (2) All points along the rear boundary line of the site or the ultimate centre line of the lane where one has been dedicated, and inclined at an angle of 60 degrees to the horizontal; (3) All points along the interior side boundary (or boundaries) of the site at ground level and inclined at an angle of 70 degrees to the horizontal; (4) In the case of a corner site all points along the ultimate centre line of a flanking street or lane and inclined at an angle of 60 degrees to the horizontal; Provided however that any part of a building shall be exempt from the appropriate vertical angle control above, if the exempt part of the building: (a) has a horizontal dimension of 60 feet or less .measured parallel to the street, lane, or boundary of the site, as the case may be, from which the said vertical angle is measured; and (b) is not less than 80 feet from any part of the same building similarly exempt, measured in the same direction as the 60 feet specified in clause (a) of this proviso. H. Horizontal Light Angle for Residential Use: (for illustrations see Appendix "G") Where part of a building is used for residential purposes: (1) The window of every habitable room shall be not less than ten feet from the interior side boundary of the site onto which it faces. (2) Every window shall permit of an unobstructed view for a distance of not less than 80 feet, measured horizontally from its centre at sill level. Such view shall extend through either a continuous horizontal arc of not less than 50 degrees, or through two or more horizontal arcs which in the aggregate contain not less than 70 degrees, provided however the above arcs may be reduced from 50 degrees to 40 degrees, and 70 degrees to 60 degrees, respectively, in the case of buildings of two storeys or less in height; for the purpose of this subsection the following shall be considered as obstructions: fa) The theoretically equivalent buildings located on any adjoining sites in any R District in a corresponding position by rotating the plot plan of the proposed building" 180 degrees about a horizontal axis located ©n the property lines of the proposed site. (b) Part of the same building including permitted projections. (c) Accessory buildings located on the same site as the principal building. (d) The maximum size building permitted under the appropriate C or M sche-dule if the site adjoins a C or M site. 162 (3) Where a window is greater in area than the minimum required under the Building By-law, the above conditions may be tested against the least restrictive portion of the window equal in area to the required minimum. For the purpose of this sub-section, a kitchen shall not be counted as a habitable room unless its area is greater than ten percent of the total floor area of the dwelling unit in which it is situated, or 70 square feet, whichever is the greater. J. Floor Space Ratio: The floor space ratio shall in no case exceed 5.00 provided, however, that where a building is used in part for residential purposes every square foot of the floor area used for residential purposes shall be counted as the equivalent of 1% square feet for the purpose of this subsection. K. Off-street Parking Spaces: Off-street parking spaces shall be provided and maintained as required by, and in accordance with the provisions of Section 12 of this By-law. L. Off-street Loading Spaces: Loading and unloading spaces shall be provided and maintained as required by, and in accordance with the provisions of Section 13 of this By-law. 2. Uses which may be permitted subject to special approval by the Technical Planning Board: Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 1 of this schedule, development permits may be issued for development comprising the following uses subject to such uses first of all being approved by the Technical Planning Board. If a development permit is granted it shall be subject to such conditions and regulations or relaxations as the Technical Plan-ning Board may decide: Uses: (1) Ambulance Headquarters. (12/3/57—*3622) (1A) Animal hospital. (2) Automotive repair shop. r-(3) Bakery (manufacturing of bread, pies, confectionery), other than as provided for in Section 1 of this schedule. (4) Bottling plant (milk or carbonated beverages). (5) Bowling alley. (6) Broom and brush manufacturing. (7) Building or use required by a public authority. (8) Candy manufacturing. (9) Car sales lot. (10) Church. (11) Clothing and garment manufacturing. (12) Dairy products manufacturing (except cheese). (13) Deposit or extraction of material so as to alter the configuration of the land. ••(C-3) (14) Food products manufacturing, processing and packaging excluding fish and a cannery. (15) Home craft or occupation. (16) Hospital, sanitarium, convalescent home, excluding a mental hospital. (17) Hotel provided it conforms to the daylight access provisions of Section 1 of the (C-3) schedule. (18) Ice manufacturing. (19) Jewellery manufacturing. (20) Kennels or the keeping, breeding, raising, training or boarding of dogs or cats. (21) Lithographing. (22) Motel provided it conforms to the daylight access provisions of Section 1 of the (C-3) schedule. (23) Motion picture and television studio. (24) Park or playground. (25) Printing shop. (26) Public utility. (27) Radio and television broadcasting and receiving station (commercial). (28) Restaurant (drive-in). (29) School (public or private), kindergarten, day-care school, creche, or day nursery. (30) Sheet metal or tinsmith shop. (31) Stadium, curling rink, ice rink, roller rink, race track, gymnasium, or similar place of assembly. (32) Stamp shop (rubber and metal). (33) Taxidermy. (34) Tourist court subject to the provisions of Section 11(5) of this Bylaw. (35) Toy and novelty manufacturing. (36) Undertaking establishment. (37) Warehouse (general). (38) Wholesale business. (39) Any other building or use which is not specifically listed in any schedule of this By-law, and which is similar to the foregoing buildings or uses; before granting a development permit for such building or use the Technical Planning Board shall have regard to the types of buildings and uses which specifically may be permitted in this schedule, ' (J273/57-35022) (10) Buildings of more than eight storeys or !00 feet in height, subject to all other regula-tions of Section 1 of this schedule. (41) The use of a site for purely residential purposes if the site has unusual peculiarities of location, such use to include one and two-family dwellings, apartments, boarding or lodging houses, and fraternity or sorority houses. 1 6 4 (42) The conversion into dwelling units of an existing building other than one granted a development permit in accordance with Section 1 of this schedule; before granting a development permit for such conversion the Technical Planning Board shall have regard to the regulations of Section 1 of this schedule and also to the amenity of the neighbourhood. (43) .The conversion of an existing building into housekeeping units in any case where such existing building, by reason of its age and size, is deemed to be unsuitable for its present use; before granting a development permit for such conversion the Technical Planning Board shall have regard to the regulations of Section 1 of this schedule and also to the amenity of the neighbourhood. (44) The conversion of an existing building into a boarding or lodging house in any case where such existing building by reason of its age and size, is deemed to be unsuit-able for its present use; before granting a development permit for such conversion the Technical Planning Board shall have regard to the regulations of the RM sched-ules and also to the amenity of the neighbourhood. < (45) A dwelling unit or housekeeping unit other than one granted a development permit in accordance with this schedule, which has been installed or used prior to June 18th, 1956, with or without one or more of the required City permits may be granted a development permit limited in time. (11/12/56—*3610) (46) A building which has been altered or used for a boarding or lodging house other than one granted a development permit in accordance with this schedule which has been installed or used prior to June 18th, 1956, with or without one or more of the required City permits may be granted a development permit limited in time. (11/12/56—*3610) (47) Any building or use which can be considered as accessory to the above uses and to the uses listed in Section 1 of this schedule other than those accessory buildings or uses for which provision is made in such section, subject to: (a) All accessory buildings occupying an area of not greater than ten percent of the area of the site. (b) All accessory uses occupying an area of not greater than one-third the total gross floor area of all the buildings on the site. (C-3) 1 6 5 . G3A (C*3A) Commercial District Schedule ( 2 4 / 6 / 7 5 - N o . 4 8 7 7 ) Uses p e r m i t t e d , c o n d i t i o n s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s : Sub jec t t o al l the p rov i s ions o f th is B y - l a w o n any s i te w i t h i n a n y d i s t r i c t d e f i n e d , des ignated o r desc r ibed in th is B y - l a w as a ( C - 3 A ) D i s t r i c t , the o n l y uses p e r m i t t e d , and the o n l y uses f o r w h i c h d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t s m a y be i ssued , are those c o n t a i n e d in S e c t i o n s 1, 2 and 3 hereof . A . Uses: (1) A u c t i o n r o o m . (2) B a k e r i e s re ta i l i ng o n the p remises o n l y , n o t e x c e e d i n g a t o t a l o f 2 , 2 0 0 square feet o f f l o o r area. (3) B i l l i a r d and p o o l h a l l . (4) B o o k b i n d e r y . (5) C l e a n i n g and d y e i n g s h o p . (6) C l u b , o r lodge ( f ra terna l ) . (7) C o m m u n i t y cen t re . (8) F i l m exchange . (9) F r o z e n f o o d l o c k e r s . (10) H a l l . (11) I n s t i t u t i o n o f a re l ig ious , p h i l a n t h r o p i c , c h a r i t a b l e o r p h i l o z o i c c h a r a c t e r . (12) L a b o r a t o r y . (13) O f f i c e b u i l d i n g . (14) P a r k i n g area ( p u b l i c ) . (15) Pet s h o p . (16) R a d i o and te lev is ion b r o a d c a s t i n g a n d r e c e i v i n g masts a n d a n t e n n a e ( c o m m e r c i a l ) . (17) R a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g and rece iv ing s t a t i o n f o r m o t o r v e h i c l e s , t r a i n s , w a t e r -c r a f t a n d a i rc ra f t . (18) R e s t a u r a n t ( e x c l u d i n g a drive- in) . . C-3A 1 6 6 • (19) R e t a i l s t o r e , b u s i n e s s , o r u n d e r t a k i n g . (20) S c h o o l (bus iness o r c o m m e r c i a l ) . (21) S c h o o l ( t rade) . (22) S i g n a n d s h o w c a r d w r i t i n g . (23) S t e a m b a t h . (24) S w i m m i n g p o o l ( c o m m e r c i a l ) . (25) T h e a t r e ( e x c l u d i n g a d r i v e - i n ) . (26) D w e l l i n g u n i t s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h and in a d d i t i o n to a n y o f t h e a b o v e uses p r o v i d e d t h a t n o p o r t i o n o f the f i rs t s t o r e y o f a b u i l d i n g t o a d e p t h o f 3 5 f e e t f r o m the f r o n t w a l l o f the b u i l d i n g a n d e x t e n d i n g ac ross the fu l l w i d t h o f the b u i l d i n g sha l l be used f o r r e s i d e n t i a l p u r p o s e s e x c e p t fo r e n t r a n c e s t o s u c h r e s i d e n t i a l par t . (27) T h e k e e p i n g o f n o t m o r e t h a n t w o b o a r d e r s o r l odge rs o r n o t m o r e t h a n f ive f o s t e r o r d a y - c a r e c h i l d r e n in each d w e l l i n g u n i t . (28) A b u i l d i n g o r use w h i c h is c u s t o m a r i l y a c c e s s o r y t o the a b o v e p r i n c i p a l b u i l d i n g s o r uses, e x c e p t f o r a b u i l d i n g o r use w h i c h is o n l y l i s ted as a p r i n c i p a l use in t h e ( M - 1 ) o r (M -2 ) s c h e d u l e s , p r o v i d e d t h a t : (a) A l l a c c e s s o r y b u i l d i n g s are l o c a t e d in a rear y a r d . (b) A l l a c c e s s o r y b u i l d i n g s sha l l o c c u p y an area o f n o t g reater t h a n ten p e r c e n t o f t h e area o f the s i te . (c) N o a c c e s s o r y b u i l d i n g sha l l e x c e e d o n e s t o r e y o r 1 2 feet in h e i g h t . (d) N o a c c e s s o r y b u i l d i n g sha l l o b s t r u c t the d a y l i g h t access as r e q u i r e d by th i s B y - l a w f o r r e s i d e n t i a l use. (e) A l l a c c e s s o r y uses o f the t y p e w h i c h w o u i d n o t be p e r m i t t e d as p r i n c i -pal uses u n d e r S e c t i o n 1 o f th is s c h e d u l e sha l l o c c u p y an area o f n o t m o r e t h a n 2 5 p e r c e n t o f the gross f l o o r area o f the p r i n c i p a l use , a n d sha l l be l o c a t e d w i t h i n the p r i n c i p a l b u i l d i n g . B. C o n d i t i o n s o f U s e : E v e r y bus iness o r u n d e r t a k i n g sha l l be c o n d u c t e d w h o l l y w i t h i n a c o m p l e t e l y e n c l o s e d b u i l d i n g e x c e p t f o r p a r k i n g a n d l o a d i n g f a c i l i t i e s , a gaso l i ne serv ice s t a t i o n , s u b j e c t t o the p r o v i s i o n s o f S e c t i o n 1 1 . 1 0 o f th i s B y - l a w . C . F r o n t Y a r d : N o f r o n t y a r d sha l l be r e q u i r e d . D. S i d e Y a r d : N o s ide y a r d shal l be r e q u i r e d , e x c e p t i n the f o l l o w i n g " c a s e s : (1) W h e r e a ( C - 3 A ) D i s t r i c t a d j o i n s any R D i s t r i c t , w i t h o u t the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f a s t reet o r l ane , the f o l l o w i n g s ide y a r d sha l l be p r o v i d e d : (a) 3 f ee t in the case o f an R A , R S o r R T D i s t r i c t ; C3A 167 (b) 5 feet in the case o f an R M D i s t r i c t . (2) Where a s ide y a r d in any such d i s t r i c t be p r o v i d e d , where not r equ i r ed by the p rov i s i ons o f this B y - l n w , the said s ide y a r d shal l be not less t han 3 feet in width.. £ Rear Y a r d : ' A rear yard shal l be p r o v i d e d o f no t less t han 10 f ee t ; p r o v i ded h o w e v e r that where a b u i l d i n g c o n t a i n s r e s i den t i a l use, the b u i l d i n g shal l be set back n o t less than 25 feet over its f u l l w i d t h f r o m the rear l i ne o f the s i te, b u t such se tback need not e x tend b e l o w the l owes t s t o r e y c o n t a i n i n g re s i den t i a l use; and p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r that where the rear l i ne o f a s ite ad jo i n s a d e d i c a t e d lane the m i n i m u m d e p t h o f the rear y a r d o r s e tback , as the case m a y be, m a y be r educed by an a m o u n t equal t o the d i s t ance f r o m the u l t i m a t e c e n t r e l i ne o f the lane t o the rear l ine o f the site. F. He i gh t : T h e he ight o f a b u i l d i n g sha l l n o t e x c e e d t w o s to rey s , o r 30 feet. T h e D e v e l o p -ment Pe rm i t B o a r d m a y , in its d i s c r e t i o n , increase the he i gh t set f o r t h h e r e i n , p r o v i ded that the said b u i l d i n g c o m p l i e s in a l l o t h e r respects w i t h the regu l a t i on s c o n t a i n e d in this s e c t i o n . G . H o r i z o n t a l L i g h t A n g l e f o r R e s i d e n t i a l U se : Where part o f a b u i l d i n g is used f o r r e s i den t i a l pu rpo se s : (1) T h e w i n d o w o f every h a b i t a b l e r o o m sha l l be n o t less t han ten fee t f r o m the i n t e r i o r s ide b o u n d a r y o f the site o n t o w h i c h it faces. (2) E ve ry w i n d o w shal l p e r m i t o f an u n o b s t r u c t e d v i ew o f n o t less t han 80 feet, measured h o r i z o n t a l l y f r o m , its c e n t r e at s i l l level. S u c h v i e w sha l l e x t end t h r o u g h e i t he r a c o n t i n u o u s h o r i z o n t a l arc o f n o t less t h a n 50 degrees, o r t h r o u g h t w o o r m o r e h o r i z o n t a l arcs w h i c h in the aggregate c o n t a i n no t less t han 70 degrees, p r o v i d e d h o w e v e r the above arcs m a y be reduced f r o m 50 degrees t o 40 degrees, a n d 70 degrees t o 60 degrees, re spect i ve ly , in the case o f bu i l d i n g s o f t w o s to rey s o r less in he i gh t ; f o r the pu rpo se o f th i s s u b s e c t i o n the f o l l o w i n g sha l l be c o n s i d e r e d as o b s t r u c t i o n s : (a) T h e t h e o r e t i c a l l y e q u i v a l e n t bu i l d i n g s l o c a t e d on any a d j o i n i n g s ites in any R D i s t r i c t in a c o r r e s p o n d i n g p o s i t i o n b y r o t a t i n g the p l o t p l a n o f the p r o p o s e d b u i l d i n g 180 degrees a b o u t a h o r i z o n t a l ax i s l o c a t e d o n the p r o p e r t y l ines o f the p r o p o s e d s i te. (b) Part o f the same b u i l d i n g i n c l u d i n g p e r m i t t e d p r o j ec t i on s . (c) A c c e s s o r y b u i l d i n g l o c a t e d o n the same s i te as the p r i n c i p a l b u i l d i n g . (d) T h e m a x i m u m size b u i l d i n g p e r m i t t e d u n d e r the a p p r o p r i a t e C o r M s chedu le i f the site ad jo i n s a C o r M s i te. (3) Where a w i n d o w is g reater in area than the m i n i m u m requ i r ed u n d e r the B u i l d i n g B y - l aw , the above c o n d i t i o n s m a y be tested against the least res-C-3A~ 1 6 8 t r i c t i vc p o r l i o n o f the w i n d o w equa l in area to the requ i red m i n i m u m . For ihe pu rpose o f this s u b s e c t i o n , a k i t c h e n shal l not be c o u n t e d as a habit-able r o o m unless its area is greater than ten per cent o f the tota l f l o o r area o f the d w e l l i n g un i t in w h i c h it is s i t ua ted o r 7 0 square feet, wh ichever i * the greater. H. F l o o r Space R a t i o : (1) Sub jec t t o (2) b e l o w , the f l o o r space r a t i o shal l no t exceed 1.00. (2) T h e D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d m a y , in its d i s c r e t i o n , p e r m i t a b u i l d i n g ,u var iance w i t h sub sec t i on s F and H (1) o f S e c t i o n 1 o f this D i s t r i c t Schedule. In the exerc i se o f its d i s c r e t i o n , the D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t Boa rd shal l also have due regard t o : (a) T h e p rov i s i on s o f the B y - l a w , the a m o u n t o f o p e n space, v iews, plazas, pedes t r i an needs and interests , the he i gh t and bu l k o f the bu i ld ing, and its l o c a t i o n in r e l a t i o n to the s ite and s u r r o u n d i n g streets and buil-d ings, the e f f e c t on t r a f f i c , the p r o v i s i o n o f o f f - s t reet p a r k i n g and l oad i ng , its overa l l des i gn , p re se r va t i on o f the characte r , and general a m e n i t y des i red f o r the B r o a d w a y and S o u t h G r a n v i l l e areas. (b) F o r bu i l d i n g s a p p r o v e d u n d e r th i s c lause o n l y , the D e v e l o p m e n t Permit B o a r d shal l d e t e r m i n e the m a x i m u m F l o o r area w h i c h shall be a l l owed, hav ing p a r t i c u l a r regard t o the f a c t o r s n o t e d above. In n o case, how-ever, shal l the f l o o r space r a t i o e x c e e d 3.00. (3) F o r the purposes o f th i s s chedu le , in c o m p u t i n g the f l o o r space rat io , the f l o o r area o f the b u i l d i n g sha l l i n c l u d e the t o t a l area o f al l the f l oo r s o f all bu i l d i ng s o n the site i n c l u d i n g accessory bu i l d i ng s (measured to the e x t r eme ou te r l i m i t s o f the b u i l d i n g ) , e x c e p t f o r the f o l l o w i n g : (a) A rea s o f f l o o r s used f o r o f f - s t r ee t p a r k i n g and l oad ing , heat ing and mechan i ca l e q u i p m e n t o r uses w h i c h in the o p i n i o n o f the Deve lop-m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d are s i m i l a r t o the f o rego i ng , where such f l oo r s are be l ow the l owes t b u i l d i n g grade o f the a b u t t i n g streets o r lanes as establ i shed b y the C i t y Eng i nee r . (b) Ba l con ie s , c anop i e s , s u n d e c k s and o t h e r appu r tenance s w h i c h , in the o p i n i o n o f the D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d , are s im i l a r to the forego ing, may be e x c l u d e d f r o m the f l o o r area mea su r emen t , p r o v i ded that the to ta l f l o o r area o f a l l s uch e x c l u d e d i t ems does no t exceed 8 p e r c e n t o f the p e r m i t t e d f l o o r area. (c) A n c i l l a r y f a c i l i t i e s f o r s oc i a l and r e c rea t i ona l amen i t i e s p r i m a r i l y f o r the e n j o y m e n t o f res idents a n d e m p l o y e e s , such as fac i l i t i e s f o r phys i -cal f i tness, genera l r e c r e a t i o n , o r p r o v i d i n g a serv ice to the p u b l i c , may be e x c l u d e d f r o m the f l o o r area m e a s u r e m e n t p r o v i d e d tha t : i) the areas o f such e x c l u d e d f a c i l i t i e s c o n t a i n e d in this sec t i on does not e x c e e d 2 0 per c e n t o f the a l l o w a b l e f l o o r space ra t io or 10.000 square feet, w h i c h e v e r is the lesser; C-3A i i) that the need f o r a d a y ca re c e n t r e b e e s tab l i shed in a pa r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n s a t i s f a c t o r y t o the D i r e c t o r o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g . Where a need f o r any p u b l i c , s oc i a l o r r e c r ea t i ona l f a c i l i t y has been demon s t r a t ed to the s a t i s f a c t i on o f the D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d , the B o a r d m a y a u t h o r i z e f o r any one b u i l d i n g , w h i c h i n c l ude s one or m o r e o f such f ac i l i t i e s , an increase in the p e r m i t t e d f l o o r space rat io or den s i t y o f a b u i l d i n g , sub jec t t o p r i o r a p p r o v a l b y C i t y C o u n c i l . In d e t e r m i n i n g the increase in f l o o r area o r d e n s i t y t ha t m a y be au tho r -i z ed , the D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d sha l l c o n s i d e r : a) the c o n s t r u c t i o n cos t o f the f a c i l i t y , and b) any costs t o the deve l ope r o f c o n t i n u i n g m a i n t e n a n c e requ i red f o r the f a c i l i t y ; c) the renta l va lue o f the inc reased f l o o r area; d) the va lue o f any a u t h o r i z e d r e l a x a t i o n o f o t h e r r e s t r i c t i on s . If a p p r o p r i a t e , such f a c i l i t i e s sha l l be preserved in the p u b l i c d o m a i n b y way of a reg istered a g r eemen t and o p e r a t e d b y the C i t y or its delegates. ( 14/12/76 - N o . 5050 ) j . Off-street P a r k i n g Spaces : O f f - s t ree t p a r k i n g spaces sha l l be p r o v i d e d and m a i n t a i n e d as r e q u i r e d by, and in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the p rov i s i on s o f S e c t i o n 1 2 o f th i s B y - l aw . K. Off-street L o a d i n g Spaces : L o a d i n g and u n l o a d i n g spaces shal l be p r o v i d e d and m a i n t a i n e d as requ i red by, and in a c co rdance w i t h the p r o v i s i o n s o f S e c t i o n 13 o f th i s B y - l a w . Uses w h i c h m a y be p e r m i t t e d sub jec t t o spec ia l a p p r o v a l b y the D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d : W i t h the app rova l o f the D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d , d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t s may be issued f o r the f o l l o w i n g uses. If the d e v e l o p m e n t is g r an ted , it sha l l be subject to such c o n d i t i o n s and regu la t ions as the D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d m a y dec ide . Uses: (1) A i r c r a f t l a n d i n g p lace . (2) A m b u l a n c e headquar te r s . (3) A n i m a l h o sp i t a l . (4) A u t o m o b i l e and parts s h o w r o o m s . (5) A u t o m o t i v e repa i r s hop . (6) B a k e r y ( m a n u f a c t u r i n g o f b read , pies, c o n f e c t i o n a r y ) , o t h e r t han as pro-v i ded f o r in S e c t i o n 1 of th is s chedu le . C-3A 1 7 0 7) B o t t l i n g p l a n t ( m i l k o r c a r b o n a t e d beverages). 8) B o w l i n g a l l e y . 9) B r o o m and b ru sh m a n u f a c t u r i n g . 10) B u i l d i n g o r use r e q u i r e d by a pub l i c a u t h o r i t y . 11) C a n d y m a n u f a c t u r i n g . 12) C a r sales l o t . ; i 3 ) C h u r c h . |14) C l o t h i n g and g a r m e n t m a n u f a c t u r i n g . ( 1 4A ) C o m m u n i t y R e s i d e n t i a l F a c i l i t y , p r o v i ded that such ad jacen t p roper ty o w n e r s as m a y be d e e m e d necessary by the D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g be n o t i f i e d . (15/3/77 - N o . 5061) 15) D a i r y p r o d u c t s m a n u f a c t u r i n g (except cheese). 16) D e p o s i t o r e x t r a c t i o n o f ma te r i a l so as to a l ter the c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f the l a n d . 17) F o o d p r o d u c t s m a n u f a c t u r i n g , p rocess ing and p a c k a g i n g e x c l u d i n g fish and a c a n n e r y . 18) G a s o l i n e se rv ice s t a t i o n , sub jec t to the p rov i s i on s o f S e c t i o n 11 .10 . 19) H o m e c r a f t o r o c c u p a t i o n . 120) H o s p i t a l o r pe r s ona l care h o m e , e x c l u d i n g a m e n t a l h o s p i t a l . 21) H o t e l , o r M o t e l , p r o v i d e d al l s leep ing un i t s and d w e l l i n g un i t s c o n f o r m to the d a y l i g h t access p r o v i s i o n s o f S e c t i o n 1 o f this s chedu l e . 22) Ice m a n u f a c t u r i n g . '23) J e w e l l e r y m a n u f a c t u r i n g . [24) K e n n e l s o r the k e e p i n g , b reed ing , ra is ing, t r a in ing o r b o a r d i n g o f dogs or cats. [25) L i t h o g r a p h i n g . 26) M o t i o n p i c t u r e and t e l e v i s i o n s t ud i o . 27) Pa rk o r p l a y g r o u n d . [28) P a r k i n g garage. 29) P r i n t i n g s h o p . |30) P u b l i c u t i l i t y . [3\) R a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g and rece iv ing s t a t i on ( c o m m e r c i a l ) . ' 32) R e s t a u r a n t : D r i v e - i n (Car - serv ice) . 33) Re s t au r an t : D r i ve - i n (Se l f - serv ice) . [34) S c h o o l ( p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e ) , k i n d e r g a r t e n , day-care s c h o o l , c r eche or day nur se ry . 1 7 1 (35) Sheet metal o r tinsmith shop. (36) S t a d i u m , c u r l i n g r i n k , ice r i nk , ro l l e r r i nk , race t rack, g y m n a s i u m , o r s i m i -la r p l ace o f a s sembly . (37) S t a m p s h o p ( r u b b e r a n d meta l ) . (3S) T a x i d e r m y . (39) T e m p o r a r y p a r k i n g area ( p u b l i c ) . (40) T i r e s ( r e t read ing o r r e b u i l d i n g ) . (41) T o u r i s t c o u r t sub jec t t o the p rov i s i on s o f S e c t i o n 11.12 o f th i s B y - l a w . (42) T o y and n o v e l t y m a n u f a c t u r i n g . (43) U n d e r t a k i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t . (44) Warehouse (genera l ) . (45) Who le sa le bus iness. (46) A n y o t h e r b u i l d i n g o r use w h i c h is n o t s pec i f i c a l l y l i s ted in any s chedu l e o f this B y - l a w , and w h i c h is s im i l a r t o the f o rego i ng bu i l d i n g s o r uses; be fo re g r an t i n g a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t f o r such b u i l d i n g o r use the D e v e l o p -m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d sha l l have regard t o the types o f bu i l d i n g s and uses w h i c h s p e c i f i c a l l y m a y be p e r m i t t e d in th i s schedu le . (47) T h e use o f a s i te f o r p u r e l y re s ident i a l purposes i f the s ite has unu sua l pecu l i a r i t i e s o f l o c a t i o n , such use to i n c l u d e one and t w o - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s , a p a r t m e n t s , b o a r d i n g o r r o o m i n g houses, and f r a t e r n i t y o r s o r o r i t y houses. (48) T h e c o n v e r s i o n i n t o d w e l l i n g un i t s o f an ex i s t i n g b u i l d i n g o t h e r t h a n one g ran ted a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h S e c t i o n 1 o f th i s sche-d u l e ; be fo re g r a n t i n g a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t f o r such c o n v e r s i o n the Deve l -o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d sha l l have regard to the regu la t i on s o f S e c t i o n 1 o f th i s s chedu le and a l so t o the a m e n i t y o f the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . (49) T h e c o n v e r s i o n o f an e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g i n t o h o u s e k e e p i n g or s l eep ing u n i t s in any case whe re s u c h e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g , by reason o f its age and s ize, is d e e m e d t o be u n s u i t a b l e f o r its p resent use; be fo re g r an t i n g a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t f o r such c o n v e r s i o n the D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d sha l l have regard t o the r e gu l a t i o n s o f S e c t i o n 1 o f this s chedu l e and a l so t o the a m e n i t y o f the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . (50) T h e c o n v e r s i o n o f an e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g i n t o a b o a r d i n g o r r o o m i n g hou se in any case w h e r e s uch e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g by reason o f its age and s ize, is d e e m e d to be u n s u i t a b l e f o r its p resent use; be fo re g r a n t i n g a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t f o r such c o n v e r s i o n the D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d sha l l have regard t o the r e gu l a t i o n s o f the R M schedu les and a l so to the a m e n i t y o f the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . (51) A d w e l l i n g u n i t o r h o u s e k e e p i n g o r s l eep ing un i t o t h e r t han o n e g ranted a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h this s chedu le , w h i c h has been in s ta l l ed or used p r i o r t o June 1 8 t h , 1 956 , w i t h or w i t h o u t one o r m o r e o f the r equ i r ed C i t y p e r m i t s m a y be g ranted a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t l i m i t e d in t ime . C-3A 1 7 2 (52) A b u i l d i n g w h i c h has been a l t e r ed o r used f o r a b o a r d i n g o r r o o m i n g house o t he r than one g ranted a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t in a c co rdance w i t h this s chedu le w h i c h has been i n s t a l l ed o r used p r i o r t o June 18 th , 1956 , w i t h or w i t h o u t one o r m o r e o f t he r equ i r ed C i t y p e r m i t s may be g ranted a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t l i m i t e d in t i m e . (53) A n y b u i l d i n g o r use w h i c h c an be c o n s i d e r e d as accessory to the above uses and to the uses l i s ted in S e c t i o n 1 o f th i s s chedu l e o the r than those accessory bu i l d i n g s o r uses f o r w h i c h p r o v i s i o n is m a d e in such s e c t i o n , subject t o : . (a) A l l accessory b u i l d i n g s o c c u p y i n g an area o f n o t greater than ten per-cen t o f the area o f the s i te. (b) A l l accessory uses o c c u p y i n g an area o f n o t greater t han one - th i r d the to ta l gross f l o o r area o f a l l the b u i l d i n g s o n t he s i te. 3. Uses w h i c h m a y be p e r m i t t e d s ub jec t t o spec i a l a p p r o v a l b y t he C i t y C o u n c i l : (1) E l d e r l y C i t i z e n s ' M u l t i p l e D w e l l i n g U n i t D e v e l o p m e n t ( A p a r t m e n t B u i l d -ing). A b u i l d i n g to be o c c u p i e d a n d used s o l e l y as a re s idence f o r e l de r l y c i t i -zens may be a p p r o v e d as a c o n d i t i o n a l use s ub jec t t o such c o n d i t i o n s , regu la t ions or r e l a x a t i o n s as t he C o u n c i l m a y d e e m app rop r i a t e , hav ing due regard t o the he i gh t , b u l k , d e n s i t y , over -a l l s ize o f de ve l opmen t , o r any o t he r f ea tu re w h i c h , in t he o p i n i o n o f the C o u n c i l , may a f fec t the general a m e n i t y and w e l f a r e o f the area, and a f t e r C o u n c i l has received a r epo r t rega rd ing the p r o p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t f r o m the D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d p r o v i d e d the d e v e l o p m e n t meets t he f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s : (a) that the d e v e l o p m e n t c o m p r i s e s o n l y l o w ren ta l hou s i n g un i t s f o r the exc lu s i ve use o f e l d e r l y c i t i z e n s o f l o w i n c o m e w h o are unab le t o pur-chase adequa te a c c o m m o d a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t he i r needs; (b) that the o w n e r and o p e r a t o r o f the p r o j e c t is a n o n - p r o f i t c o r p o r a t i o n , w i t h i n the m e a n i n g o f the " E l d e r l y C i t i z e n s ' H o u s i n g A i d A c t " ; (c) that the d e v e l o p m e n t q u a l i f i e s f o r a g rant - in -a id f r o m the P rov i nce o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a u n d e r t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f the " E l d e r l y C i t i z e n s ' Hous -ing A i d A c t " . B e f o r e a p p r o v i n g the i s suance o f a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t f o r an e l de r l y c i t i -zen s ' m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g u n i t d e v e l o p m e n t , t he C o u n c i l sha l l h o l d a spec ia l p u b l i c m e e t i n g t o hear r ep r e s en t a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the p ropo sed deve lop-m e n t f r o m such ad j a cen t o w n e r s o f real p r o p e r t y as the C o u n c i l deems are l i k e l y t o be a f f e c t e d ; and the C o u n c i l sha l l d i r e c t t ha t due no t i ce o f the spec ia l p u b l i c m e e t i n g sha l l be g iven to such ad j a cen t owners . C-3A 

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