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Growth, change, and land use patterning in strip commercial districts : a Vancouver case study Hudema, Blake Boyd 1984

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GROWTH, CHANGE, AND LAND USE PATTERNING IN STRIP COMMERCIAL DISTRICTS: A VANCOUVER CASE STUDY by BLAKE BOYD HUDEMA B.A., U n i v e r s i t y Of A l b e r t a , 1981  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  School Of Community And Regional  Planning  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1984  ©  Blake Boyd Hudema, 1984  In  presenting  requirements  for  Columbia,  I  available  for  permission  this an  agree  advanced  School  without  Of  study.  I  extensive granted  by  this  thesis  my  written  Community  And  June  1984  copying the .  Head  It for  is  this  of  my  Regional  thesis  Planning  Columbia  gain  the  of  B r i t i s h  it  freely  agree for  Department  understood  permission.  make  further  of  financial  of  University  and  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date:  the  reference  representatives.  allowed  at  shall  or  of  degree  fulfilment  Library  may  publication  p a r t i a l  the  purposes her  in  that  for be  thesis  that  that  scholarly  or  by  copying  shall  not  his or be  i i  Abstract The  purpose  understanding use  in  of  off-center objectives,  a  study  in  opening  inner  and  city  then  the  to  dynamics  gain and  d i s t r i c t s .  combines  land  of  uses  external  a  on  an  improved  planning In  the  of  land-  pursuit  literature  Central  external  s t r i p  case  analysis,  review  Broadway  of with  Avenue  growth,  change  study  Broadway  area  the  well aspects  of  topics  of  land-use.  It  is  from  growth  change  by  land-use  and  In  linkages,  concluded  defined of  for  internal  explored.  as  basis  • as  accessibility,  of  an  discussion  of  processes  in  The  issues  determinants  applies  the  some  of  cluster spatial  in  of  the  the  three  probability  consists  Avenue  as  temporal  Specifically,  and  structural  land-use.  The  commercial  d i s t r i c t s  addresses of  segments.  land-use,  commercial the  two  linkages patterns  the as and  within  d i s t r i c t s .  transition and  as  into  general  succession  are  are  study  l i t e r a t u r e . Markov  patterning  associations  economies  commmercial  strip  h i s t o r i c a l  functional  of  literature  patterning,  that  divided  establishing  land-uses  economies  literature,  The  the and  of  on  After  invasion  is  issues  focuses  and  land-use  as  review  remaining  change at  terms  The  is  strip  thesis  addresses  reorganization  the  this  context.  thesis,  looks  the  structure,  commercial  section  growth,  well  the  literature  land-use,  and  thesis  Vancouver. The  the  of  this  commercial  these case  of  principles s t a t i s t i c a l  matrix,  analysis  are  the used  inner  c i t y  commercial of  in  applications,  nearest-neighbour to  demonstrate  proximities/affinities eighteen  addressed  of  blocks  Vancouver.  The  the  land-uses. of  Central  data  base  used  in  the  uses  for  a l l  intervals A  from  and  been  1951 of  case  from  aspect a  and  service matrix,  the  locations. generally  is  density, also  at  the  onto that  composed retail  recognized  played  has  Fourth,  of  of  other  proximity  two  a  section  to  a  "blanket"  land  use  the  as  uses.  a  Markov of  case  over  defined while  by  other  distribution.  indicates uses  ranging office  control  and  office it  the  from node. in  the  in  by  of  more  In  Finally,  bounds  that  with  uses  effect  multi-storey  to  retail,  probability.  the  segments,  evolved  of  the  service  commmercial  distinct  other  spin-off  within  was  uses,  and  a  establishments  random  random  have  strip  from  in  been  has  themselves,  to  role  s t a b i l i t i e s  uses,  and  and  planners  complex  than  different  Broadway,  five  the  among  retail  limited  Broadway  like  by  planning  1951-1961,  regularity  suggests  Central  that  literature  that  observed  longer  various  in  a  demonstrate  explained  location  of  the  commercial  as  decade,  between  be  uses  to  cluster  located  the  of  five-year  t r a d i t i o n a l l y  Second,  location  scheme,  could  types  in  that  observed  Third,  f i r s t  one  from  commercial  able  the  are  than  development  area  was  patterns  office  concluded  uses.  relationship  uses  around  is  what  specialized  1971-1981.  study,  It  has  convenience-natured  remained  regularity case  urban  analysis  exhibit  certain  control  economy.  During  the  observed  was  the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  Fifth,  i t  of  the uses  First,  in  office  and  Broadway  evident  intervene  decade  on  locations  become  to  the  the  1981.  d i s t r i c t s .  highly  and  of  fronting  land-use  low-order,  diverse  comprised  conclusions  land-use  hesitant  market  to  study.  particular,  commercial  was  establishments  number  review in  analysis  is study  a  low It  place  is may  iv  be  inappropriate  in  light  of  these  delineations  of  the  study  area. The academic  implications and  a  p r a c t i c a l  commercial  land-use  structures  and  arranged use of in  into  c o n t r o l l i n g  should  Planners  commercial  planning  are  standpoint.  From  should  be  a c t i v i t i e s ,  patterns  regulations land-use.  to  of  commercial  land-use.  should  an as  continually  reflect  d i s t r i c t s  viewed  addressed  On  contemporary  recognize  and  land-use  the  work and  from  academic an  both  an  viewpoint,  aggregate  of  changing,  but  s t i l l  p r a c t i c a l  side,  land-  trends  the  market  with  these  development.  and forces in  patterns at  guiding  work and  V  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  ABSTRACT L I S T OF F I G U R E S L I S T OF M A P S ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER  1  PROBLEM 1.1 1 .2 1.3 1.4 1 .5 1.6  CHAPTER  2  3  3.4  3.5 3.6 CHAPTER  4  USE  USE  BACKGROUND  THEORY  AND  1 6 7 7 9 11  CONTEXT 14 14 17 22 32 34  DYNAMICS  Introduction Land Use Growth Change in Land Uses 3.3.1 Redevelopment Land Use P a t t e r n i n g 3.4.1 Accessibility 3.4.2 L i n k a g e s and E x t e r n a l 3.4.3 Spatial Proximity Zoning Regulations Summary  CASE 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5  AND  Introduction G e n e r a l i z e d Land Use Theory C o m m e r c i a l Land Use Theory S t r i p Commercial D i s t r i c t s Inner City Context Summary  LAND 3.1 3.2 3.3  STATEMENT  Problem Statement Relevance Thesis Objectives Case Study Area Methods Thesis Organization  LAND 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6  CHAPTER  i i v i i v i i i ix  STUDY:  CENTRAL  Economies  ..  36 37 39 40 42 43 44 49 55 61  BROADWAY  Introduction H i s t o r i c a l Description P l a n n i n g R e g u l a t i o n on B r o a d w a y Market Review A n a l y s i s of the R e s u l t s 4.5.1 Preamble 4.5.2 Growth and Change 4.5.3 Markov A n a l y s i s 4.5.4 Land Use P a t t e r n i n g 4.5.5 C l u s t e r Analysis  64 64 71 75 78 78 78 86 95 111  vi  CHAPTER  5  CONCLUSIONS  AND  IMPLICATIONS  5. 1 C o n c l u s i o n s 5.2 L i m i t a t i o n s 5.3 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r 5.4 F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h  FOR  PLANNING  Planning  BIBLIOGRAPHY  117 122 122 124 126  APPENDICES A  B  C  Data A. 1 Data A.2 Data A. 3 Data  Sources Format Coding  Methods B. 1 Markov Chains B.2 Nearest-Neighbour B. 3 Cluster Analysis City C. 1 C.2  140 144 144  Analysis  of Vancouver By-Law Sections C-2 a n d C-3 of By-Law #3575 C-3A of By-Law #3575  146 147 150  153 165  v i i  LIST  OF  FIGURES  2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5  H i e r a r c h y of Goods and S e r v i c e s Model of Shopping C e n t e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s S t r u c t u r a l Model of C e n t r a l Area R e t a i l i n g C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Urban B u s i n e s s C o n f i g u r a t i o n s Locational & Functional "Screening"  20 21 23 24 30  3.1 3.2  E x t e r n a l Economies Three-Way Screening  47 52  4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13  C o m m e r c i a l R e d e v e l o p m e n t on C e n t r a l B r o a d w a y ... 70 Land Use C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 79 L a n d Use B r e a k d o w n on Broadway 81 Land Use T r a n s i t i o n M a t r i x : 1951-1956 87 Land Use T r a n s i t i o n M a t r i x : 1956-1961 88 Land Use T r a n s i t i o n M a t r i x : 1961-1966 89 Land Use T r a n s i t i o n M a t r i x : 1966-1971 90 Land Use T r a n s i t i o n M a t r i x : 1971-1976 91 Land Use T r a n s i t i o n M a t r i x : 1976-1981 92 L a n d Use by L o c a t i o n M a t r i x : 1981 97 Nearest-Neighbour Rank of C o m m e r c i a l A c t i v i t y .. 99 C l u s t e r and D i s t a n c e M a t r i x 113 R e l a t i v e C o n e , of B u s i n e s s e s on t h e S t r i p 115  A.1 A.2  Framework of Methods Nearest-Neighbour Analysis  146 149  v i i i  LIST  4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11  OF  MAPS  Vancouver Context Study Area Zoning: 1951 - 1981 Point Pattern - R e t a i l (Food, C l o t h i n g , Hsehold) ... Point Pattern - R e t a i l (Mise, Office, Automobile) .. Point Pattern - Service (Restaur, Hair, Personal) .. Point Pattern - Service ( P e r s B u s , B u s i n e s s , Bank) .. Point Pattern - Service (Contract, Auto, Repair) ... Point Pattern - Office (General, Prof., Medical) ... Point P a t t e r n - O f f i c e (Govt, BusAdv) F u n c t i o n a l A r e a s of Broadway  65 66 73 100 101 102 103 104 106 107 109  ix  ACKNOWLEDEMENTS  I and  would  D.B.  Johnson  interest Hutton  like  in  for  at  acknowledge the  urban  guiding  providing  me  like  thank  to  to  an  through  advisory many  the  thesis  to  Claude  (MaCaulay,  (Computing U.B.C. parents seeing  And  Science, last,  for this  but  their thesis  most  and my  and  and  its  for  Drs. at  my  this  many  fruition.  I  School  for  and  friends  well  as  Pendakur  Hugh  would  P.J.  I  my  and  T.  and  for  would  also  their  valuable  Kellas  (GVRD),  Co.), and  like  Smith  nurturing  thesis.  Vancouver  important, as  for  the  Maitland  Drs.  V.S.  especially,  N i c o l l s ,  encouragement to  to  in  to  Alberta  years  people  UBC),  gratitude of  committee  the  contributions Pierce  University  planning me  my  Glen  Cooper  collegues to  financial  at  thank  my  support  in  1  CHAPTER PROBLEM  This  thesis  structure,  urban  The  study  works  has  in  In  tend  and  establishments related central  the  way  in  a  within  commercial  and  commercial  strip  commercial  models  of  land-use,  and  commercial  d i s t r i c t .  to  been  commercial a  land-use  commercial  land-use,  its  structure.  of  group  a l l  but  Clearly,  and  ignoring  Significant success the  land-use  office  urban  satisfactory  l i t t l e  urban  general  within  structure.  existing retail  on  land-uses  commercial  However,  done  thoroughly  urban  category,  study,  the  within  strip  to  spatial  concern which  they  has  factors  are  many  theory  in  and and  a c t i v i t y  differences  has  into  a  internal  dynamics.  this  The  of  produce  structure  commercial  extent  of  interrelated.  structure  intra-urban  theories  on  work  of  to  explaining the  of  study  failed  described  modelling  relevant  study  deal  the  have  highly  of  patterns  emphasis  case  great  theories  affecting  BACKGROUND  aspect  land-use  examines  a  or  met  broad  a  theory,  environments theory  on  AND  Statement  Although land-use  one  placing  focuses  1 . 1 Problem  and  of  land-use,  finally  been  addresses  that  d i s t r i c t s .  STATEMENT  1  are  of  processes commercial  proximities  the  research  spatial  patterns  a  of  result  of  and in  and  d i s t r i c t s  are  examined  spatial  patterns.  other  this  have  h i s t o r i c a l  growth  thesis  evolved processes  change  is. J l 2 and and  of  explore to  what  functional  2  assoc iat ions. Competition among  the  of  the  has  other  1975;  include  the  flows  establishments.) and  to  These  locational  establishments of  locations  which  is in  the  planning  the  and  labor  pools.  most  desirable  Business  through  an  study  of  of  firms routes  This  leads areas  D i s t r i c t " .  in  land-use  and to  However,  due  well  as  between  minimize  costs  of  establishments.  a f f i n i t i e s  between  patterns. a  the  functional  research  into of  Broadway. this  For  one,  such  business Growth  and  constitute which  should  patterning. industry within being to  to  1968;  (Linkages  as  considerations  by  they  (Getis,  implies  like  and  proximate  1972).  land-use  often the  form the  of  the  occupy  city.  close  markets,  agglomerations  where  locate  to  Central  sites  near  uses  Considerable  investigation  and  benefit  This  clientele  and  d i s t r i c t s ,  valuable  do  spatial  considerations,  and  industrial  to  patterns. like  between  proximity  establishments  desirable  transportation  lead  within  discussion  Commercial  volumes  are  services  locate  establishments  case  important  and  uses  uses.  of  reflected  supported  land-uses  most  are  to  Davies,  flows  thesis,  of  precede  R.L.  goods  customer  between  association  of  motives  this  association  and  and  maximize  benefits  establishments  Establishments  supply  spatial  establishments  1962;  between  incompatible  linked  movement  information  purposes  that  Parker,  various  conveys  between  functionally  centrality  shape  landscape  suggested  Goddard,  change  which  c o n f l i c t s  research to  locational  factors  patterning reduces  and  Commercial to  major  populations,  businesses core  the  of  desirable  the  in  and the  "Central  quality  of  3  this is  location,  expensive;  high  revenue As  competition  only can  time  populations,  afford passes  the  and  Twentieth  century  to  the  land-uses: lower  peripheral serve  has  suburbs  the  and  through  suburban  a  or  along  the  to  inner  city  Granville  jobs  to  land a  shift.  the  This  search  of  working  have  from  larger.  greater  Technological  this  further  and  In  the  allowed core;  the  residential  by  other  available  population, followed  along  urban  land  at  located  in  order  to  in  These local  type  radial  the  the  transient  of  of  this  to  core small the  thesis,  forms:  peripheral  of  commercial  population  the  connected  two  form  population  In  from  in  latter  routes. of  evolved  focus  This  residential  these  which  occurs  extension  roadways. the  Others  commercial  a  core  establishments  extensions  a r t e r i a l s  Broadway, second  and  the of  through  along  as  Street).  expanding  both  attract  followed  from  both  strip,  developed  this  and  generate  change.  land-uses  arterial  proximate  of  areas  rapidly  the  "leapfrogging"  benefits  Central  to  expansion  development  strips  in  commercial  locations,  establishments  to  firms,  to  transportation  move  been  intense  population.  Commercial either  of  to  is  expect  contribute  larger  has  proximity  areas;  urban  forms  become  that  land-use  change  industrial  costs  of  there  there.  the  population  hinterland  exodus  locate  improved  residential  urban  to and  social  space  a c t i v i t i e s  patterns  advances  the  those  for  many  located  commuting cases  (for  these  example  commercial  core  and  is  prime  a  of  nodes  suburbs. example  a r t e r i a l . strips  neighbourhoods  evolved and  the  to  service  commuters  the  using  the  needs  of  roadway.  4  The of  depth the  the  the  than  later  of  the of  the  the  the  either  side  modes  of  automobile  values  artery,  occupy  on  early  Property  from to  block  influence  d i s t r i c t s .  tend  one  importance  distance  uses  with  sites  in  decrease the  result  behind  the  properties.  Commercial establishments land-uses  more  the  these  with  residential  commercial  and  of  exponentially  never  reflects  transport  evolution  that  strip,  arterial,  public the  of  strips along  surrounding  derive  their the  their  length,  character  which  in  from  turn  the  varied  reflect  the  strip:  The nature of the uses comprising the conformation depends upon the e x t e n t t o w h i c h i t i s the c o r e or a residential area. The use of t h e s t r e e t as a t r a f f i c a r t e r y a t t r a c t s r e t a i l shops serving the transient f i l l i n g stations, accessory shops, auto showrooms, q u i c k l u n c h e s , and r e f r e s h m e n t s t a n d s , food markets, and fruit stands. The proximity to residential d i s t r i c t s encourages convenience type outlets drugstores, grocery stores, laundry and cleaning branches, hardware stores, delis, and pool halls. (Ratcliffe,1949). While  there  grouped  may  Automobile  ribbons proporti i o n s of may be beauty  "rows",  agglomerations i l l u s t r a t e  general: services  a  wide  range  of  uses,  these  tend  to  be  spatially:  .... the in that concentrat portions s t o r e s and 1968:330).  above  be  while to  structures distributed.  the and  are m u l t i f u n c t i o n a l in s p a t i a l terms ons of the ribbon may have such f u n c t i o n s as m o t e l s w h i l e o t h e r concentrated by food stores, drug and barber shops. (Boal and Johnson,  furniture  have one  grown  d i s t r i c t s on  important  they  are  public,,  a c t i v i t i e s  Functional  commercial fact  of  d i s t r i c t s  they  and  are which  linkages  more  strips.  The  commercial which  composed are  recently  not  contribute  quotations  d i s t r i c t s  supply of  a  the  in  goods  and  variety  of  necessarily to  office  randomly  fact  that  5  each  area  d i s t r i c t . with  possesses The  and/or  unique  in  the  policies  community  While the  it  historical  commercial  Due,  of  and  and  generally  the  less  strips  buildings  obsolescence and cases  l i t t l e A  understand  to  has  more  more the  a  are  host  Generalized guidelines  attainment  of  along  measures, than  the  and  structure  --  which in  serves  This inner  often  a by  larger their  city  dynamics  of  -more  way  to  number  of  types  of  the  consumer  the  trade  local  area.  decaying  The  and  out  deterioration  and  capital-intensive tried  have  internal  locations.  e f f e c t i v e measure and  an  a  for  general  have  the  specialized  services  their  strips  given  density, to  to  economic,  Along  house  and  consider  factors  have  nature uses  to  accompanied  oriented  "cosmetic",  e f f i c i e n t  has  of  strips  change.  conspicuous  in  type  commercial  increases  acute  the  the  buildings  now  functional  necessary  of  and  a c t i v i t i e s .  become  the  shaped  growth  those  s t r i p  and  redevelopment  blight.  ensure  the  d i s t r i c t s  specializations  also  retaining  the  date  to  p o l i t i c a l  s t r i p  s t i l l  successful  to  Smaller  shift  While  is  structures,  neighbourhood,  of  obvious.  through  have  absolute  uses.  As  it  growth  higher  establishments.  d i s t r i c t s  part,  considerable  rearrangement  needs.  adequate these  these  regulations,  understand  which  in  strips,  to  uses,  processes  successful  uses  characterize  planning  bylaws,  ignore  important  h i s t o r i c a l ,  larger  not  in  become  zoning  they  between  form.  displayed  of  simply  if  is  s t r i p  social,  involved  which  strips.  relationships  present  are  a f f i n i t i e s  patterns  form  goals  commercial  of  implications  their  statements  spatial  to  Renewal  and  in  counter  would  be  commercial  to  many this f i r s t  d i s t r i c t s  6  and  then  change  to harness  and  use  market  processes  of  growth  and  land-use  are  in planning.  1 . 2 Relevance A  number  evident  of  over  • Various showing common  aspects and  above t h e  continual blight  While  signs  and  why  percentage  of  the  the p o p u l a t i o n ,  important  as  districts of  they  endemic  strips  districts  as  generate  are,  little  • Market  f o r c e s shaping  commercial  and  in conjunction  with  i n these  in  to prosper  jobs  core  are  vital the  improve  relatively  small  planning  districts  tax  way  areas:  could  for a high  r e g u l a t i o n s and  areas.  the  viable  a  provide  well  less  occupy  l a n d they  planning:  prosperity, avoiding  areas.  been aimed a t e n s u r i n g  goals  to  urban  to  decaying  has  community  and  continue  planning  used  close  growth  rehabilitating  commercial  f o r commercial  necessity for general  decay  these  p r o g r a m s aimed a t  of  planning  s t r i p commercial  determining  •  of  of  percentage  revenue.  As  comprehensive  goals.  must be policies  understood to  achieve  7  •  Regional  peripheral  planning locations  spatial  a f f i n i t i e s  •  data  may  The  goals  find  base  may  land-use  1.3  Objectives  objectives  To  investigate  functional  [2]  To  To  for  the  1.4  Case  identify  The Broadway  understanding  of  to the  establishments.  s t a t i s t i c a l methods studies  in  the  explored  field  of  thesis  are:  growth  and  resulting  change from  of  land-uses  h i s t o r i c a l  within  trends  and  whether  commercial  resulting  from  land-use  patterns  h i s t o r i c a l  reflect  trends  and  linkages.  statement  [4]  the  growth  linkages.  s t a t i s t i c a l l y  problem  between  future  this  the  a f f i n i t i e s  functional  To  of  d i s t r i c t s  determine  spatial  [3]  strip  in  an  commercial  planning.  The  commercial  exist  from  c o l l e c t e d and  commercial  [1]  attracting  benefit  which  application  Thesis  for  planning  Study  and  the of  a  research  data  pertaining  to  the  above  question.  implications land-use  base  of  along  these  internal  commercial  relationships  strips.  Area  research Avenue  analyze  methodology  commercial  strip  is  conducted  d i s t r i c t  in  on  the  Vancouver.  Central A  major  8  east-west  arterial,  this s t r i p  i s l o c a t e d south of the downtown  p e n i n s u l a and F a l s e Creek. Over the eighteen block Ontario  Street  bisects  in  the  length  from  the east, to Burrard i n the west, the  strip  Mount  Pleasant,  G r a n v i l i e / B u r r a r d areas of the Residential  land-uses  Fairview  in  the  are l o c a t e d both north and density  area  important  i n s t i t u t i o n a l uses d i s t o r t  two in  combined daytime workforce  uses i s immense and has a profound terms of t r a f f i c In  the  housing a v a r i e t y function  uses.  Broadway of  uses  was  retail  Broadway  not  fit  a r t e r i a l commercial s t r i p . Due  service  facilities.  although d e c l i n i n g , along  Central  establishments lower  than  District  still  on  (CBD)  occupies  nodes  is  business-oriented  still uses  access  good. has  The  provided  both  special  commercial  stereotype  tracts  recently,  to  these  of  a  to i t s p r o x i m i t y to the  have l o c a t e d on the s t r i p . while  of  strips,  of  inner c i t y the  major  More  and  Broadway  medical  In a d d i t i o n , Broadway's "auto  Broadway.  downtown  this  blocks  t y p i c a l of commercial  and . d i s p l a y i n g  does  three  h o s p i t a l , t h i s area has a predominance of t h r i v i n g health  in  potential.  While i t i s c o n s i d e r e d an  s t r i p , Central decaying  generation and  past,  land-use  a s s o c i a t e d with  impact  of  south.  among commercial s t r i p s . C i t y H a l l  Vancouver General H o s p i t a l are l o c a t e d w i t h i n The  being  Fairview Slopes to the north, while a mix  and make i t unusual  Broadway.  south of  are  s i n g l e and m u l t i - f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s are l o c a t e d to the Two  and  City.  the s t r i p . R e s i d e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e s of higher developed  Slopes,  Rents the  growing  of  Central  row",  frontage  large are  and  office  generally Business  concentration  additional  of  i n c e n t i v e s to  9  these  1.5  large  office  Research  developments.  Methods  A documentary a n a l y s i s use  theory  particular  and  its  f o c u s on  identifies  and  commercial patterning  of  strip  districts,  turns  to  an.  within  the  inner c i t y  Vancouver's analysis  is  the  question,  of  a strip  from  City  all  chosen  undertaken.  general  because  Three  data  the  importantly in  addition  the  succeed the  others  that  bases,  planning;  software  was  probability  changes  ties  between  as  well  as  the C i t y  a  statistical  probability  results  be  by  and  demonstrate  c a t e g o r i e s through  frequency the  indicating  time,  which  tables  relative  more  understood;  To  indicates  were  criteria:  use  can  available.  two  to  test,  analysis  satisfied of  of  are a p p l i e d  s u p p o r t i n g Markov a n a l y s i s uses  Greater  and  tests  ease  matrix  ( s e e A p p e n d i x A ) . The  of  then  district  the  the c l u s t e r  they  w i t h which the  i n l a n d - u s e s . The  functional  and  the v a r i o u s land-use  transition  number  change  of  felt  to  t h e computer  the e v o l u t i o n Markov  i t was  ease  thesis  commercial  files,  statistical  analysis,  applicability  and  theoretical  Directories,  (GVRD) d a t a  Department  nearest-neighbour  of  change, a  a  analysis  dynamics  growth,  t h e d a t a . T h e s e t h r e e , t h e Markov t r a n s i t i o n the  This  established  land-  theory with  internal  namely t h e  Having  District  Planning  commercial  Vancouver.  gathered  Regional  of  study  of  on  districts.  research  empirical  data  Vancouver  some  upon t h e  out  in general land-use  commercial  land-uses.  framework b a s e d  Using  origins  explores  land-use  is carried  a  uses  indicate  percentage  of  illustrates  the p r o b a b i l i t y  use  10  "A"  w i l l  succeed  constructed limited  to  for  use  "B"  five  ground  at  year  applications  where  it  change  1982;  Bourne,  (Sim,  The  second (Clark  This  determines  data  displays.  analysis  is  Central  1972).  This  on  as  distribution study  they  of  "n"  area.  certain  a c t i v i t i e s linkages  method,  between  different  types  option  of  the  option  groups  manner  such  elements basis each  of shop  "quantum  and  BMDP  similar that the  of  highest  leap"  its  these  to  raw  and  with  has of  the  is  common land-use  is  group areas,  and  of this  Witherick,  between  expected the  nearest or  If  random  length  calculated  areas,  1973).  establishments  over  spatial  for  of each  clustering  the  existence  a f f i n i t i e s  may  of of be  1972). i l l u s t r a t e  level  is  of  the  spatial  the  in  a  (see input  a l l the  analysis  package.  includes  elements. distance  Appendix format  This  hierarchical  clustering  is  a f f i n i t i e s  cluster  software  includes  neighbour to  a  study  compared.  s i m i l a r i t y  data  that  distance  (elements)  cluster for  and  Witherick,  (Pinder  s t a t i s t i c a l  lowest  closest  from  1981  certain  variables  the  is  "nearest-neighbour"  commercial  land-use,  (1981)  measurements and  are  in  used  Matrix  case  clustering  Alexander,  third  a  establishments  underlying 1973;  year  values  occurs  is  linear  occur  of  Matrix  years  dynamics  clustering  observed  of  value the  of  the  the  number  and  (Goddard,  The  the  Pinder  oriented  for  The  The  1976).  handle  actually  A  category  inferred  to  compares  land-use  functional  show  1954;  amount  ground  Broadway  test  neighbours  to  1971;  Evans, the  thirty  establishments.  useful  Modified  used  along  the  and  location.  over  s t a t i s t i c a l application  analysis test  particular  intervals  oriented is  a  two The  between A).  necessary  The for  11  the  BMDP  who  run  was  handled  a  program  created  shops  and  Within  the  distance other,  compiling  in  also  other  The  patterns, may  be  drawn.  resources  pertaining In  spite  to  of  data  these  comprehensive patterns  and  are  a  precluded sources  a  also  shortcomings,  investigation the  trends  and  have  input  arrays  are more  at  to  about  similar  with  definitive  i l l u s t r a t e  of  other  each  detailed  here  depth  of  thesis  provides  of  strip  commercial which  may  as  time  Limitations  this  relationships  land-use  variables  study.  the  causal  associations  considered  constrain  matrix.  of  functional  not  between  a f f i n i t i e s .  aimed  multitude they  distances  the  spatial  used  inferences  Center),  geographically  not  are  patterns  have  into  which  display  Computing  measuring  associated  they  Although  land-use  shops  tests  which  of  (UBC  distances  they  rather  from  influence and  closely  words,  Cooper  capable  those  s t a t i s t i c a l  relationships;  Glen  these  method,  are  by  analysis. a  fairly land-use  have  created  them.  1.6  Thesis  This  thesis  developed study  over  which  problem the  Organization  theories  past  century,  the  focus  and  and  Chapter  of  this  research  case  discussion of  half  presented  methods  detailed section  is  statement  concepts  Research  the  presents  One  left  in  of  followed  work.  study to  suggests  thesis  area  are  later some  use by  Chapter  question; the  land  a  of  One  also  the  have  empirical  sets  out  the  discussion  of  included  outlined,  chapters.  they  an  brief is  as  with  The  issues  a  here. more  "relevance" which  are  12  important  to  the  appreciate  the  direction  Chapter the  Two  theoretical  essentially to  city.  Chapter  that  by  general  and  Chapters  Two  a  the  Four  city  of  the  view  area.  applies  The  of  of  together  presenting  for  planning,  Appendices and of  the  the the  A  methods City  of  the  actual  and and  specific:  topics  strip  to  this  how  and  how  chapter study.  describe  the  Appendix  C  Vancouver  zoning  flow land  the  inner  and,  and in  section  regulations short  is use  change,  This  base  summary  established  commercial  been the  of  has  and  Five  data  by-laws.  for  the  in  is in of  in the  chapter from  responded analyzes the  the in the  thesis  implications  further  collection  contains  the  draws  limitations,  avenues  strip  administered  market  Chapter  suggests  forms  chapter.  presents  f i n a l l y  A  segments  has  conlusions,  used.  zoning.  existing  it  from  d i s t r i c t s  theoretical  opening  The  growth,  land-use  reader  which  within  d i s t r i c t s .  of  the  B  of  the  written.  thesis.  d i s t r i c t s  commercial  an  The  strip,  of  results  the  to  the  the  planning,  bulk  the  pertain  to  Vancouver.  discuss  for  concludes  chapters  of  basis  investigation  Three  was  literature  commercial  they  thesis  help  the  strip  within  the  should  of  general  addresses  as  which  which  contextual  Three  and  from  commercial  short  earlier  point  of  issues  compilation  the  then  Chapter  briefly  and  within  followed  inner  a  patterning  particular,  the  is  from  theory  land-use  study,  research.  and  analysis,  relevant  sections  13  CHAPTER 2  1 4  CHAPTER LAND  2.1  THEORY  AND  CONTEXT  Introduction Commercial  general  strip  land-use  land-use  theory.  The  for  commercial  begins  by  discussing  general  land-use,  land-use  and  the  focus  of  2 .2  Land  urban  urban  of  and  structures  commercial which  foundation  of  Burgess  the  and  city  theory  literature.  with  centers  small  sub-section  p a r t i c u l a r i l y  literature  urban  of  provides The  to  dealing  commercial  the  necessary  the  with strip  of  commercial  following  pertaining  that on  form  over  chapter theory  of  commercial d i s t r i c t s  as  the  of  Cities  centuries  urban  and  have  modelling  existed  researchers  structure  component  form.  is  (Burgess,  1925).  occupied  homogeneous  suggested  a  of  emerged  have  school  described  According  competitive  the  Building  "Ecological"  which  theory  for  is  over  have  a ten  studied  processes.  have  city  land-use  occurrence.  and  models  form  strip  a  Theory  years  dominant  more  is  thesis.  recent  Early  theory  generalized  continues  the  Development  thousand  and  finally  Use  relatively  location  theory  context  of  USE  2  rings  to  as the  about  environment  stress  city.  The  generally upon in  the  work  the in  of  as  theories  held  as  Hurd  proposed  "Concentric  theory,  core  three  been  Chicago  the  the  Zone  various  the of the  (1903), a  model Theory"  land-uses  city  centre.  Burgess  which  sectors  of  the  15  population  allocated  city  residential  more  peripheral  populations.  earlier routes  the  model  the  of  the  early  landscape. model  and  the  similar  special  benefits  the a  more  of  that  of  land-uses.  locational accrue  to  from  was  mention  of  area.  model,  The showed of  "Multiple-Nuclei"  a c t i v i t i e s  other  of  the  Emphasis  of  about the  nodal  Harris  needs  city  representation  importance  existence  on  transportation  Ullman  various  mobile period,  modes  commercial  Their  the  this  by  r e a l i s t i c  while  more  l i t t l e  and  1945).  and  city.  with  Harris  maintaining the  the  inner  classes  adopted  direction  core  rings:  of  rings,  of  the  grouping  While  of  of  Ullman,  the  also  sector  towards  acknowledged  recognized  centre  models,  strides  (Harris  the  outside  working  wealthier,  given  residential  land-use  these  the  various  transportation  were  of  by  Theory",  model, out  these  the  Burgess  agglomerations  and  "Sector  influence  recognized  urban  housed  Concentric  significant city  occupied  1939).  commercial  the  to  (Hoyt,  on  of  were  zones  radiating  placed  third  zones  Hoyt's  recognized structure  themselves  core,  points  and  certain  the  or  Ullman  a c t i v i t i e s  establishments  in  such  have  been  agglomeration. Building proposed  upon  emphasizing  Transportation (1961)  and  developed which  an  the  works,  access  of  of  theories,  and  of  agglomerations. proposed  have  patterns.  residential  substitute  distribution  models  urban  respectively,  theory  costs  several  facets  factors  equilibrium  that  and  (1960)  location  transportation  suggested  various  theories  Guttenberg  contemporary  these  for  households  by  Wingo  brought Wingo  forth (i960)  development space  costs.  results  from  in He the  16  interplay  of  particular  site-rents  distance the  rent  between  location  decisions.  as  interaction  and  Guttenberg  the  is  to  basic  system  f a c i l i t i e s  the  urban  transportation specific  work In  in as  the the  concentrated considering  employment,  on  land,  price  of  theory  consisted  urban  w i l l  allows  on  two  this  be  theme,  distance of  and  urban  Where  relatively  locational  viewed  a  the  internal  structure. complex  evenly  e f f i c i e n t  f a c i l i t i e s  "Classical  Theory  the  land  use  land  and  land-use  considered  and  three  of  of  parts  the  Use",  value  patterns  such  household  Land  (Chapin,  with  that  land.  respect  to  supply  of  constraints.  His  factors  budgeting  of  as  1976):  i n d i v i d u a l equilibrium is reached by selecting that combination of quantity of land, d i s t a n c e from the c i t y c e n t r e , and q u a l i t y of the c o m p o s i t e good t h a t as a c o m b i n a t i o n w i l l maximize i t s s a t i s f a c t i o n , but stay within its constraints" (p.39);  (b)  bid rent curves are c a l c u l a t e d , r e f l e c t i n g patterns p r e f e r e n c e as to l o c a t i o n of h o u s e h o l d s ; and  (c)  e q u i l i b r i u m is e s t a b l i s h e d over where households with steep occupy c e n t r a l locations.  related  introduced to  the  into  Alonso's  (a)  Alonso  of  distributed  an  of  that  transportation  however,  concentration  on  and  indicated  as  on  value  spatial  environment  and  emphasis  land have  the  costs  placed  to  and  city.  (1964)  of  these  f a c i l i t i e s .  residential  Alonso  relation  also  households  theory  landscape;  system  areas  Labelled  and  the  transportation  His  overcome  the  of  of  determinant  systems  throughout  in  (i960),  characterized  poor,  home.  effect  transportation is  function  and  the  desire  as  a b i l i t i e s  households  Guttenberg  community  a  work  of  accessibility,  the  paying  notion  individual  of  household  the bid  of  aggregate market, rent curves will  competition  for  characteristics.  land  as  it  Commercial  17  land-use  patterns  competitive  2.3  can  Land  Theoretical  both  the  are  specific. land-use there  As  of  shopping realized  with key  R.L.  embrace  this  the  part  of  study  of  study  but  urban  city  theory  logic  of  and  a c t i v i t y  as  to  be  the  an  found  more  varying  levels  of  whole  same  many  time cases  the  a l l  more  general  integral between  particular  become  a  the  to  "Since  has  modelling,  In  stated:  and  as  at  general  links  market  land-use and  these.  more  links  the  These  of  the  commercial  in  commercial  concepts  (1972:69)  land-use  on  this  from  strong  Proudfoot's to  through  land-use  micro-analysis  Davies  common  to  general  clearly  that  as  The  for  centers.  operating market  the  adopted  models  are  patterns  area  relating  generalized  from  an  analogues  explained  Use  work  more  gaining  providing  be  bidding.  Commmercial  paralleled  also  part,  overall  pattern  evident  when  it  accessibility  and  on  the  of is are  commercial  this." commercial study was  the  of  land-use several  delineation  gained  American of  the  some c i t i e s  prominence (1937).  urban  commercial  structure: (1)  Central Business D i s t r i c t (CBD) - r e t a i l h e a r t of the city and location of the widest range and most specialized shops;  (2)  Outlying Business Centers CBD l o c a t e d a t i n t e r s e c t i o n s routes;  (3)  Principal Business Thoroughfares a mix of r e s i d e n t i a l and t r a f f i c o r i e n t e d demand stores;  (4)  Neighbourhood Business Streets a network convenience stores, located throughout the city;  - smaller of major  The  r e p l i c a s of the transportation  local  of  18  (5)  An  Isolated Store Clusters complementary nature (drug meat m a r k e t s , etc.). earlier  studies a l ,  of  1959) A  of  Detroit  second  the  this  on  d i s t r i c t s  according  to  market  establishments  of  order  more  somewhat  market  drew  1933)  cluster  equated  was  lowest  level  matched towns;  to  (Berry,  area,  and  and  stores,  designated  The  of  of  et  these  centers  1959).  higher-order produced greater  1976).  to  at  centers  order  functions,  in  The  in  CPT  at  the  shopping  the  the  a  store  at  and  larger  population addition  performed  the  CPT,  scale  greater  to  region  regional  a  was  centers  finally,  volumes,  also  require  isolated  intraurban  centers  higher-  metropolitan  a  the  (CPT)  shopping  housed  within  on  Theory  hamlet  the  the  sales  numbers  lower-order  potentials.  an  Reflecting  greater  Higher  higher-order  CBD  levels  rely  Place  and  of  placed  into  While  threshold  c i t i e s ;  locations  was  establishments  community  the  here  neighbourhood  to  commercial  requirements,  designation  level;  scale,  sales.  Central  hierarchy;  al_,  et  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  comparison:  the  urban  generally  realize  from  of  d i s t r i c t s  nature  both  to  with  the  subsequent  (Garrison  emphasis  threshold  direct  shopping  employed  Garner,  by  commercial  widespread; of  area  village  Garrison,  range  for  the  the  end  lower-order most  of  regional  upper-most  and  analogies  (Christaller,  and  Chicago  research  regionally-oriented  larger  studies  and  commercial  convenience  neighbourhood  or  the  1959).  of  immediate  1929),  hierarchical  (Berry,  areas  a  1949),  in  the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  (Rolph,  framework.  concentration  centered  commercial  Baltimore  (Ratcliffe,  reinforced  land-use  on  study  convenience s t o r e s of a stores, grocery stores,  were wider trade  (Yeates to  their  a l l  the  19  functions  of  subsequent  Garner's variable  lower-order  model  of  land  arrangement  of  of  value  this  hierarchy  by  threshold  indicated  a  threshold  levels  a b i l i t y  the  threshold  on  the  this  level  a  such  work  generalized  Nuclei),  R.L.  commercial  concentric regular  pattern  commercial or  variety  nuclei  of  and  ribbon  of  Garner  and  The  notion  gave  rise  development  and  on  to  of  a  1976).  paying  of  large  in  Garner,  axial  expected  to  peak  this  model  highly  complex  1976). together and  view  of  routes  in (see  of  this  shops  and  bisected as  axials.  landscape  advantages  of  urban  typologies  nature  sizes  the  Multiple-  commercial  the  locate  lower-  d i s t r i c t s to  for  for  Sector,  threshold  urban  As  bringing  various  rents  closest  hierarchical  Major  accessibility  rent  high  composite  proximate the  High  pattern  allocated  nested  land-use.  developed  site  model  hierarchy.  Although  (Concentric, proposed  size  pay  hold  the  threshold  the  sites  not  of  Garner's  pattern  does  on  establishments  2.2).  and  locations.  followed  those  (Yeates  His  to  paying  CBD  (1975)  structure.  as  to  simplified,  theories  Davies  physical  model  a  the  high  Garner,  Figure  probably  levels  establishments  able  rent  albeit  the  nucleations.  directly  and  such  (see  it  as  high  sites,  nucleations,  three  Yeates  argument, value  Expanding  areas  1966;  commercial  a  Those  the  hierarchical  commercial  generally  r e a l i s t i c ,  nucleations  into  were  intersections  generates  related  establishment.  highest  street  also  2.1).  the  sought  where the  Figure  introduced  affecting  businesses  on  (see  land-use  within  size,  level  (Garner,  following  factor  model,  high  sizes  locations  a  land-uses  to  of  commercial  as  According  centers  well  this as  to  Specialty  response Figure  to 2.3).  20  NUCLEATIONS NEIGHBOURHOOD  COMMUNITY  'Grocerles Variety stores Men's & B o y s ' c 1 o t h i ng Women's c l o t h e s Eating places Drinking places Drugstores Liquor stores Jewe1ry Currency exchanges Laundrles Beauty salons Barbershops  CORE NEIGHBOURHOOD FUNCTIONS  REGIONAL  Supermarket  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Butchers M i111nery C h 1 1 d r e n ' s wear Men's s h o e s Women's s h o e s App11ances Music s t o r e s G i f t and N o v e l t y Banks Mov1es Dent 1 s t s  FUNCTIONS PERFORMED ONLY BY MAJOR REGIONAL NUCLEATIONS  HIERARCHY  MAJOR  Supermarket  FUNCTIONS ADDED AT SMALLER SHOPPING GOODS NUCLEATIONS  from •  GOODS  Supermarket  Hardware Department Stores Candy s t o r e s Bakeries Fam11y s h o e s Furni ture Radio-TV Real Estate Phys1c i ans Optometr1 s t s  FUNCTIONS ADDED AT THE COMMUNITY LEVEL  Adapted  SHOPPING  Yes  Yes  Fam i 1 y c l o t h 1ng Custom ta1 T o r s Drapery stores Home f u r n i s h i n g s Stat loners Florists Camera s t o r e s  Yeates  8  Garner,  O F GOODS  8  1976.  SERVICES  M.A. THESIS - U.B.C. BLAKE B. HUDEMA  FIG  2.1  21  i  V  R  P  COMMUNITY  Q  Distance  LEVEL  i  y  Q  NEIGHBOURHOOD  Distance  LEVEL  Adapted  Shopping  Model Center  of Characteristics  from • B. J. Garner,  1966.  M.A. T H E S I S - U B C B L A K E HUDEMA  FIG  2.2  22  Structural drawn  together  Figure  2.4).  into  and  shortcomings.  theory, shown this  The  from  ribbon  to  an  the  form  model  representation  Central and  Place  by  is  to  their  have  been  of  an  the  area  Berry  of  to  for  draw  geographical not  been  patterns.  For  specialized  lesser  see  several  have  settlement  a  (  centers  inter-urban  and  are  tool  have  configurations  with  (1963)  effective does  ribbon  dealt  delineations  nucleated  respective  reasons,  B.J.  it  Theory  specialized  other  configurations  hierarchical  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  correspond  and  and  effective  Although  delineation  foundation  typologies  degree  area  in  urban  CBD  occurs  studies.  2.4  Strip The  along  Commercial  Configurations  bulk  commercial  major  commercial principal nature route. highly  arterial  access  of  in  response  development... factors business  such  was  as  an  Despite over  of  this the  and  not  increase  of  role  as  a  d i s t r i c t s  in  of  retailing  taken  into  thirty  a  or  have  and  account"  years  and  along  both  of  the  are  usually  uses  evolved and  generally staffs,  met "  nature  and  locations  of  (Silberberg commercial  today  a  transportation  unplanned  mix  variety  uses  the  specialization  strips  laissez-faire,  nature,  from  administrative  attitude, past  its  the  very  m u l t i p l i c i t y  c i t y a  its  character  commercial  an  effective  were  its  The  outside  combination  Commercial  among  anchors  evolved  to  factors.  disfavor  1976).  land-uses,  By  a  deriving  multifunctional.  transportation  have  encompasses  establishments  terms  a c t i v i t y  thoroughfares.  route,  the  principally  with  the  strip  of In  of  are  et  a l ,  strips  considered  23  NUCLEATED 1. Central Area 2. Regional 3. Community 4. Neighbourhood  A. Apparel Shops B. Variety Shops C. Gift Shops 0. Food Shops  SPECIAL AREA 1. High Quality  H. Entertainment  2. Medium Quality 3. Low Quality  J. Market K. Appliances L. Furniture  THE  COMPLEX MODEL  Adapted  Structural  Model of Central  Area  Retailing  from-R.L.  Davies, 1972.  M.A. THESIS BLAKE HUDEMA  F  ,  G  2.3  CENTERS  RIBBONS  SPECIALIZED  AREAS  Planned or Unplanned  r~  TRADITIONAL SHOPPING STREET URBAN ARTERIAL  CONV  -  |M  AUTOMOBILE  1„„,I  PRINTING  DISTRICTS 1  NEIGHB D * —  NEW  COMMUNITY  SUBURBAN  ' ENTERTAINMENT DISTRICTS  RIBBON  1  REGIONAL METROPOLITAN  ROW  C. B. D.  —  i  HIGHWAY ORIENTED •Planned (Plaza) • Unplanned  "1  EXOTIC  MARKETS 1  J  FURNITURE  DISTRICTS •  MEDICAL  Adapted  CLASSIFICATION OF URBAN BUSINESS  CONFIGURATIONS  from  1  Berry,  M.A. THESIS  CENTERS --Planned - Unplanned  1963.  UBC  BLAKE B. HUDEMA  FIG  2.4  25  some of  of  the  the  most  prominent  improvements  to  the  widespread  the  spread  the  core.  of  strip  d i s t r i c t s  grew  public  transport  within  use  of  of  more  Berry,  work  his  into  orderly  on  the  grouping  and  types  as  inner  city  services stores,  drug  types  in  city,  types"  outside  which lowest  stores,  locations cater  nature.  business  types  in  of  others."  The  those home  Hence  these  that:  kinds second  of  were  other  are  ribbon  type  of  a  of  ribbon,  were  goods  their  the and  grocery Yeates  businesses  they may  linkages  the  of  ribbon  shops.  developments  and  business  First  which  types  individual  of  ribbons,  more  the  product  including  barber  trips,  with  Examining  "although  based  there of  and  gave  center  convenience  typically  beauty  logical  business  shopping  increased.  to  as  from  configurations.  configurations  catered  further  dealt  that  1963).  core  allowed  specialization  characteristics  the  to  later  d i s t r i c t s .  patterns  (Berry,  and  d i s t r i c t s  standard  these  stated  to  Greater  of  to  core  into  level,  with  the  generally  patterns  laundries,  (1976:282)  structures  strip  response  mobility  residential  four  from  c i t i e s  have  dispersion  distance  the  hypothesized  "that  recognized  the  they  multipurpose  the  and  and  strips  at  common  that  he  the  Garner  share  f i r s t  of  continuous  Spokane,  business  developments,  and  the  land-uses.  hierarchical  d i s t r i c t s "  stores  out  studies  business  business areal  grew  less  strip of  " f e l l  in  Increased  commercial  peripheral  isolated,  classification in  and  commercial  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n in to  automobile.  strips  the  Commercial  in  the  populations  A r t e r i a l  extensions  rise  areas  core.  Commercial  and  commercial  than  urban  differ be  of  a  between in  any  arterial  26  strip,  categorized  repair  shops,  equipment dealers  outlets,  trips.  and  existed  Land  values  good  strips  (Berry,  newest  lower stores these and  and  1963).  furthest  demands  of  form  the  of  core,  strip  highway as  they  boundaries  the  city.  of  land  which  establishments on  "one  these  Such  are  stop"  strips  (Garrison  are  et  shopping  a l ,  stores  s t r i c t l y  l i e  by  just  of  service,  strip. retail  listed,  these  third  like  local  by  oriented  the the  the  with Chain  found  along  Berry  (1963)  ribbon.  response are  This  to  the  generally  administrative occupy  tracts  Highway-oriented  transient the  in  1976).  often  in  (and  population  Garner, are  which  to  these,  standards.  Most  same  Set  outside  by  weak,  ribbons.  developments  primarily  were  the  establishments  urban  t r i p s .  automobile  formed  special-  than  ones  described  highway  Highway  patronized  supply  the  Scattered  large  and  strip  evolves  often  a  (Yeates  is  on  the  fuel  generally  attracted  city,  serve  of  motorists.  uncontrolled of  ribbons  drive-through type  the  were  the  services  fourth  from  like  office  and  are  lower  commercial  streets,  and  The  of  along  were  rents,  of  uses  customers  location  suburban  areas  modern  strips.  "natural"  New  yards  establishments  rents,  configuration  goods  and  site  lower  shopping  order  the of  These  automobile  dealers,  lumber  attract  establishments  residential  traditional  uses.  they  virtue  hence,  access  recent)  such  ribbons:  appliance  parlors,  common  between  by  thus,  commercial  funeral  as  Linkages  and  needed  most  and  only  nucleations;  of  stores,  i d e n t i f i e d as  space-intensive purpose  bulk  furniture  sales  were  the  motorists  enterprises  food,  and/or  along lodging  1957).  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  of  ribbon  commercial  d i s t r i c t s  is  27  highly are the  generalized.  hybrids ribbons  situated may  of  these  may  in  Most  commercial  and  vary:  inner  concentrating  on  city  locations  The  shopping  while  locations.  commercial  within  configurations.  t r a d i t i o n a l  peripheral  approach  other  d i s t r i c t s  highway  have  used  city  location  streets  may  oriented  Nevertheless,  strips  the  be  strips  many  this  of  studies  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  scheme. Merry looked  at  (1957) location  variables and  the  with  He  carried and  dispersion. included  Stores  beauty  outlets,  grocery  area.  showed  (Berry,  1963;  In (1960)  and  a  of  dry  step  in  along  Voortrekker  of the  long-term  auto parlors  high  gas  which stations  density  clothing  and  repair  drinking  shops,  occupied  a  and  clusters  stores,  laundromats or  major  chain  wider  more  and  furniture  low  density  clusters  Cape  Town,  1959).  business need urban  Road  to  at lanes  shops,  the  decreased  clustering  high  His flow,  around  with  of  grocery  cleaners,  a f f i n i t y  t r a f f i c  peaks  lined  goods  cream  of  highway  into  dealers,  ice  Garrison,  reaffirms  were  shops,  Restaurants,  study  minor  Denver  highway.  establishments  in-bound  t r a f f i c ,  and  l i t t l e  of  in  a  neighbourhood  (with  the  barber  and  along  identified patterns  Automobile  stores,  dispersed  CBD  ribbon  directions  density  agglomerating  hardware  establishments.  stores  Merry  commercial  volumes,  that  volumes  a  businesses  the  the  and  dealers.  of  of  residential  that  from  greater  auto  the  found  intersections),  study  t r a f f i c  of  distance  his  habits  included  extent  strip.  in  in  for  ribbons further  planning. Cape  Town  in  research Davies f a l l  as  D.H. a  suggests  into  three  Davies  necessary that  uses  groups:  28  "ribbon  uses  "indifferent fuel  proper",  uses".  sellers,  household rely  upon  the  lower  site  values  of  the  and  flow  His  as  and  group  and  second  the  form  third  dispersion,  concluded uses  that  and  strip  the  suitable more  roads  of and  to  the  local  and  local  levelled consensus  Boal among  kind  be  of  able  (D.  H.  early and  urban  constitutes  commercial  (including  the  three  Davies,  not  ribbon  (1965).  The  researchers  as  cited  nucleations  assist  Davies  in  of  route  understanding  by  aiding  in  the  pointing  to  carried  the  merely  which  nucleations  an  here  Davies,  through  solving those  of  a  related  to  1960:48).  commercial  ribbons.  to  H.  stores  thereby  adopted  problems,  Johnson  area  contribute  (D.  use  similar  strip.  "can  components method  to  planning  t r a f f i c "  by  various  uses  of  ribbon  do  contain  contributing  The  of  d i s t r i c t s  patronage  grouping the  the  both  should  Criticism  throughout  these  the  towards  planning of  of  as  of  its  sites.  fully,  number  of  located  conductance  appliance  tendency  grouping and  d i s t r i c t s " and  various  sites,  This  much  and  large  through  analysis  functioning  delineation  of  and  stations,  this  complement  l i t t l e  commercial  in  d i s t r i c t s .  hardware  showed  instead  [transportation] of  bars,  service  the  sustained  business  uses"  centers,  to  linkages  central  group  that  is  bead  shops  adjuncts  group,  upon  Restaurants,  or  The  establishments  "depend in  supply  a v a i l a b i l i t y  residential  1960:46). the  t r a f f i c ,  or  includes  shops.  necessary  service  establishments  group  material  repair  of  neighbouring  retail  f i r s t  building  service  business.  The  "nucleations  In  above),  their Boal  studies  authors to  and  noted  what  review  has  of  Johnson  a  been  lack  of  functionally six point  studies out  a  29  certain  ambiguity  l i s t i n g  They  increased  "by  delineate  the  positive  of  range  of  is  the  commercial  ribbons  administrators  of  the  commercial  ribbons  used  in  were  establishments  other  variety  article,  on  study  were  questioned and  on  as  2.5).  local  of  strips  along  these  the  the  a  wide  series  of  mixes" authors  result  of  residential in  general  strips  "popular  planners  as  a  The  the  and  Johnson  Berry's  Using  own  of  hand,  functional  Calgary.  each  On  in  disfavor"  and  c i v i c  (1968)  explain  1965). Boal  a  one  a  a  to  functional  hand,  of  from  used  for  of  from  is  suitable  characteristics  results  ambiguity  and  are  length  received  to  characteristics  on  Figure  counter  stations  1965:155).  of  strips  the  ribbons,  definitions  Trail,  those  Johnson,  in  visited  the  (see  and  their  the  a  this  identify  the  along  and  establishments  shoppers  and  scheme  the  on  by  of  attributes  generally  functional  interpreted  location  and  have  second  classification  Eight  varying  that  locational  view  on  service  Johnson,  establishments  views  (Boal  their  and  of  limiting  of  Their  variety  1965:159)  recommend  particular.  some  to  customers  number  a  found  from  indicate  overlap  with  uses  Johnson  establishments  transitory  In  and  characterized  that  They  of  possible  Johnson,  to  (Boal  establishments  suggested  and  the  locations  and  nature.  further  Boal  of  ranging  streets"  " i t  type  existence  side,  establishments (Boal  the  types on  with  attributes: series  go  such  associated  both  to  thirty-one  boutiques.  more  as  " t r i p "  series the  on their  of  as  mode  personal strips  interview  their  t r i p of  on  establishment  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,  three  chosen  establishments  interviews. of  varying  sites;  route,  travel.  they  The  here,  on  the  results  FUNCTIONAL  LOCATIONAL  PROVIDING  SUITABLE 'EXTENSIVE"  Locational on  & Functional Commercial  SITES  SCREENING  "Screeening"  Ribbons.  of  Firms (Boal  "SPECIFIC  FUNCTION"  TO WIDE AREA (USED CAR SHOPPING)  M.A. THESIS  & Johnson,  1968)  U.B.C.  BLAKE B. HUDEMA  co o  FIG. 2.5  31  were  subjected  groups  of  to  similar  indicated  that  particular  ribbon  the  (Boal  ribbon The  between  the  of  shopping  volumes  of  and  likely  to  half  of as  shoppers.  The  linkages.  article  a  establishments depending  passing one  of  upon  t r a f f i c very  few  achieve  "a  Johnson,  1968) .  the  "natural"  in  a l l  parts is  following commercial  on  the  to  they  began  highway of  Boal  those  section strip.  by  of  and  to  the  the  establishments  on  the  some  logical  here  were  less  l i t t l e  sign  of  or  these  summed  proximate  strips  addresses  in  establishments  on  The as  of  ribbons  the this  of the  article a  optimum".  city.  their  to  extensions  contemporary  up  location  analysis  commercial  commercial  the  strip,  the on  degree  on  (1968)  specified  high  high  neighbourhood.  land-use  behaviour.  by  "radial"  for  of  a  linkages  supported  showed  positions  the  trip  having  was  Johnson  local  to  b r i e f l y  and  establishments  reliance  as  of  five  analysis  establishment  customer  strategy  strips,  the  of  demonstrated  therefore,  mention closer  grouping  i d e n t i f i e d as  that  strip  and/or  layout  Although  emphasis  the  a r t i c l e  analysis  planning on  type  clustering,  and,  agglomerative  strip,  the  i l l u s t r a t e d cluster  The  yielding  1968).  ribbon,  service  analysis  functions  defined  and  with  the  Johnson,  tangental"  hand,  actual  influence  establishments  "inner  component  establishments.  both  second  The  other  principal  In  (  the now  this inner  are  is  tool  to  Boal  and  CBD  and  evident  thesis,  the  city.  The  category  of  the  32  2.5  Inner As  City  a  consequence  commercial  strips  growth.  inner  The  industrial  and  of  their  have city  undergone  was  in  aspects  society  over  themselves  in  Residential desirable  to and  are  the  area  lowest  prosperous and  has  of  some  core  of  Due  to  development,  informational  States.  1970's  In  abandonment largely  due  were  inner  the  or  has  once  high  (Naisbett,  and  declined  at  c i t i e s our  within  inner  to  to  a  c i t i e s areas  many  of  where  of  only  area.  Where  manufacturing non-residential  largely i t  of  has  escaped attracted  financial  and  1984). programs  arresting  which  This  city,  point  light  form  of  d e s i r a b i l i t y  flourished,  has  seeking  follow.  this  bulk  more  search  inner The  city.  for  in  occupy  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n  aimed  continual  blighted.  the  manifested  uses  uses  the  however,  in  technological  city  value/desirability,  primarily  commercial,  have  inner  in  and  agglomerations.  and  quick  the  declines  of  commercial  classes  city,  " t r a d i t i o n a l "  the  void  city,  Canada,  to  the  were  constitute  services  Rehabilitation  the  c i t i e s  firms  now  major  within  sites a  hub  century  industrial  decaying,  industrial  decay.  the  and  socio-economic  The  of  inner  urban  half  suburbs;  left  vacant,  this  and  the  customers  warehousing  activity.  in  the  economic,  past  the  dramatic  for  abandoned  affordable  buildings  the  the  upheaveal  locations  decentralization  inner  social,  land-uses  proximity available  an  both  a c t i v i t y  changes  within  traditionally  cultural  Significant of  location  was  this  been  redevelopment  the  1960's  trend  of  decay  the  United  widespread  fared has  of  of  in  better; minimal inner  decay in  city  and  comparison, locations  33  (Ley,  1981).  Canadian  c i t i e s  intensity  by  a  of  the  zone  of  cultural  city  varying  groups  to  the  income  residents  has  now  in  Among Typically,  smaller  this  to  maintained  inner land  c i t y . values  halls,  last  and  the  1971). inner  of  (Preston  obsolescence,  the  core  Only  to  of  and the of  pushed  has  now  are  residential  inner  Investment city  zone  and  many  have  a  the  to  employ  typified  While  Middle  back  is  land-uses  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n  families  has  various in  inner  city  with  the  inner  upper  socio-  inner  c i t y ,  them.  Higher  densities  in  these  residential  inner  uses  city  capital  sports  decade  commercial Spillover  up  increased  fortunate.  repopulate  which  massive  sites  and  less  success.  and  located  City  buildings,  have  by  redevelopment  the  change,  part  the  1959). blight  attracted  infrastructure.  During  only  and areas  areas  are  cases.  hospitals  also  not  Canadian,  surrounded  c i t y  of  desirable  in  actually  or  Boyce,  (Alexander,  some  that  residential  to  complexes  with  a l l  due  have  have  been  move  being  upward  flourishing  has  degrees  office  become  and  bolstered  are  close  and  undergoing  A  has  out  American  inner  it  uses.  uses  remain,  the  sites  residential  values  they  whether  surrounding  land  point  land-uses.  Horwood  spared  industrial  economic  decay,  industrial,  1966;  been  with  to  o f f i c e / r e t a i l a c t i v i t y  G r i f f i n ,  area  on  city  c i t y ,  commercial,  vacant and  inner  modern  generally  goes  avoided  The  mixed and  Ley  have  locations  investments  f a c i l i t i e s ,  c i t y  persisted. have in  land  and  and  locations. so,  major  hotels,  complexes  have  moved  back  development  generally  to  cultural  or  of  had  from  encouraged  the  core  investor  office  into has  the pushed  confidence  34  in  2.6  the inner c i t y  Summary This  chapter  theories,  and then  the  locations.  strip  has  looked  at those  first  relating  at  generalized  to commercial  commercial  district  within  their  Much o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l  land-use  growth  within  hapazard, planning. important detail  a result  of fragmented  Internal planning  dynamics  growth of  considerations  i n the following  chapter.  the c i t y than  commercial and  are  land-use  inner c i t y  rather  land-use  of  context. has  been  concerned  land-uses  explored  and  in  are more  CHAPTER  THREE  36  CHAPTER LAND  3. 1  develop but  do  generalized an  very  l i t t l e  the  dynamic  of  the  land-use  effective  results arises  of  this  at of  of  study,  the  more  establishment  the  examined  and  its  taking  an  in  Chapter  various  i l l u s t r a t i n g  or  place.  a c t i v i t i e s  on  existing the the one  and  is  Two  d i s t r i c t s ,  explaining A  some  micro-analysis  necessary.  understanding  the  time  in  while  shapes  of  of  at  the this  patterns  these  two  Clearly,  the  processes  rise  to  and  Land  Issues  and  of  spatial  a c t i v i t i e s .  of  buildings,  Spatial  form  structure. is  In  considered two  or  combination  of  commercial  the  by  structure  between  The  of  of  use  processes  examines  range  constrained  location  linkages.  chapter  economies,  are  a c t i v i t y  h i s t o r i c a l  use.  sizes  relationships  gives  vast  elements.  particular  the  of  and  a c t i v i t i e s  between a  a  variety  structures.  define  linkage  by  greater  these  physical  a c t i v i t y  land-uses,  typified  even  interaction  change  external  an  combination  Looking  on  are  dictate  same  pattern.  and  by  establishments  processes  of  and  d i s t r i c t s  establishment,  of  city  actually  relies  a c t i v i t y  from out  the  way  structures  occupied  range  the  models  change.  buildings  although,  for  processes  Commercial  the  in  planning  land-use  Patterns  land-use  appreciation  of  as  DYNAMICS  Introduction The  of  USE  THREE  of  land-use growth  effect  accessibility, proximity  of  and these  linkages w i l l  be  37  considered.  3.2  Land  Use  Growth  Commercial "legacy  from  G r i f f i n ,  that  the  1966).  transitory reached  past In  stage  (Allpass,  current  Growth  land-use  in  product  of  constant  change,  any  in  development;  stock  use.  the  size,  its  Supply  and  and  structure  the  an  internal  involves  the  intensity  it  the  is  stands  today  present"  area  represents  shift  the  perennially  involves  two  alteration  of  in  and  is  a  never  balance of  so  date.  factors:  change  use  a  only  out  structural  of  is  (Preston  equilibrium  demand  equi-optimum  Growth  and  as  a  land-use  increase  values,  and  1968).  towards  and  structure  to  an  building  land-use,  various  land  land-use  configurations. Urban  growth  concentration these  two  brings  and  yield  about  buildings;  results  net an  in  the  deconcentration. growth  tends  pressure  for  various  fates  through  post-war  years,  deconcentration  has  had  a  Core  areas  suburbs, to  while  decay  variety  have  of  and  Blight  while  upon  retail  inner  city  cultural streets  city  strips  decay  others,  having  have  experienced  processes.  have  rendered  weathered  In  the  suburbanization d i s t r i c t s .  functions have  and  competitive  commercial  strip  and  this  by  force,  land  have  these  in  of  concentration  existing  accompanied  and  Inner  space:  relieve  of  processes  opposite  d i s t r i c t s  effects  commercial  blight.  ways.  undesirable,  effect  lost some  the  for to  Commercial  the  Although  demand  deconcentration location.  from  d i f f e r e n t l y over  increased  dramatic  main,  become  to  subject  suffered some  contemporary  the  in  a  strips trends  38  in  commercial  city  development,  housing  many  of  and  these  structures  other  areas  and,  have  redevelopment  --  where  flourished.  fresh  efforts  uses  profitable,  Promotion  are new  of  have  inner  rejuvenated  occupying  existing  structures  are  being  built. The  most  land-use  is  Districts  of  industrial  low  values  of  low,  gives  where  such to  there  occurs  when  one  to  competitive  one.  a  more  as  residential  and  the  expansion  commercial  are is  urban  of  locations  available reduced  researchers  processes  physical  d i s t r i c t s  peripheral  there  by  succession  way  along  where  the  these  subject  Attempts  and  of  uses  occurs  and  development.  methods  often  are  development,  and  intensity  Expansion  invasion  growth  "invaded"  are  land-uses. land  visible  have  where  the  sites  for  resistance to  generally  sciences,  light  often  to  explain relied  the  on  with  the  dubious  consequences. Originally describe and  the  evolution  succession  research. one  which  the  explanation the  witnesses i t  is  of  processes  In  identified area  developed  have  best  selective suited, in  G r i f f i n  Preston  (1968)  a  smooth  of  these  process.  some  the  the  and  of  Bourne  those  those  inner  in  which  for  processes.  Outward  expansion  theory  each  functions  for  are  Development  usually  occurs  on  have is a  offer  (1971:2)  capable  location".  city  urban  succession  "in  to  invasion  a p p l i c a b i l i t y  process,  competition  ecologists  communities,  structure.  adaptation  on  animal  invasion  driving  the  and  animal  particularly  others  validity  found  land-use  outbidding and  and  setting,  mechanism a  plant  plant  urban of  by  Work  shown  not,  of by the  however,  site-by-site  39  basis, (Sim,  resulting 1982).  As  in  sucession  Bourne  (1971)  complex, • discontinuous to  contain  a  succession, the  of  patterns. much  strong  while  effect  in  states,  both  than  the  and  the  is  a  time,  more  process  tends  slow  in  to  be  pace  and  Invasion  and  dramatic  process,  of  and  competitive uses,  population  more  conversion  sporadic  basis."  t r a d i t i o n a l  growth  very  "succession  space  strengthening  Peripheral  a  probablistic  breaking  slower  being  uses  have  land-use  within  though existing  structures.  3.3  Land  Use  The most  Change  change  common  existing  of  use  forms  within  of  structures  is  commercial  urban often  disruption  that  surrounding  environment.  Where  changes  r e l a t i v e l y quick.  Cowan  (1967)  within less  shows  Fitzroy  than  the  become  uses,  displace  For  a  number  not  to  in  hopes  their of  occupy  a  new  market  forces  Square  two  uses  that  years  less  of  a  and  to  uses  advantage:  more  site.  prior  Changes,  reasons,  best  the  to  public  occupied  his  study.  operate  are  future  may  or  on  effects:  the  be  the  uses lack  in of  on  the these  phenomenal.  establishments  their  premises  Changes other,  for  occur  as  more  suitable  always  abrupt.  conditions maintain  they  the  of  of  healthy,  the  not  under  owners  changes,  policy  and  of  can  of  had  however,  prosperous  Land-use  percent  one  impose  is  change  locations  shop  because changes  of  is  evolution  economy  Rates  London  suited  them.  these  fifty-four in  This  overlooked,  immediate  are  change.  d i s t r i c t s  may  whole,  be  which a  are  location  waiting  result  to  from  40  (a)  f u n c t i o n a l o b s o l e s c e n c e - where an optimum f i t between b u i l d i n g or s i t e and e s t a b l i s h m e n t d i v e r g e s so much so as to cause a move on t h e p a r t o f t h e establishment (Sim, 1982);  (b)  community drops in its trade 1982) ;  (c)  expansion of are operative  (d)  rezoning where upzoning and downzoning have a significant effect upon the d i r e c t i o n of growth and change in land-uses; and  (e)  comprehensive redevelopment set precedents and result surrounding areas. Bourne  relatively existing  obsolescence where the business volume response to a community wide a l t e r a t i o n of b a l a n c e , p e d e s t r i a n or t r a f f i c flows (Sim,  t h e CBD - w h e r e processes (Sim,  (1971)  and  stable  in  r e t a i l i n g  Sim  (1982)  t r a d i t i o n a l  invasion  of  office  development  d i s t r i c t s  is  one  the  land-use  planning.  both  time  and  therefore, undergo  3.3.1  a  Change  space.  of  Areas  greater  greater  have  into  degree  of  these of  d i s t r i c t s  lower  and  where The  r e t a i l i n g commercial  discontinuous  accessibility,  to  are  locations.  contemporary  of  as  land-uses  t r a d i t i o n a l  sporadic  change  that  retained  is  uncertainty  issues may changes in  commercial  issues  here  shown  succession  in and,  p r o f i t a b i l i t y , tend  (Sim,  to  1982).  Redevelopment The  most  replacement  dramatic of  buildings  follow  economic  cycles,  when  major  and  where z o n i n g in land-use  have  establishments  of  invasion 1982);  the  money  form  of  existing closely  is  generally  proceeds  Replacement  structures,  reorganization  is  the  Construction  of  new  structures. the  occurring  supply  internal  trends towards  p l e n t i f u l .  under which  a are  in  local  latter  Once  profit usually  and  stages  feasible, motive larger  of  national upswings  construction  by  the  and  of  owner. greater  41  intensity a  greater  of  use  range  Structures of  urban  of  land-use.,  the  urban  environment.  maintenance set  and  and  changing  a  demolition  and  supplanted,  seldom  they of  growth are  Where  facilitate  theories  significant  effects  and  to  the  change  within  the  they  are  constructed, to  is  replacement summarize  in  concerns  buildings  parameters change  considered  have  response  use.  use  (1968)  are  rates  in  have  functions.  buildings  performance  Goodall  they  though  Once  establishment,  extreme, Lean  even  modified and  ones  a c t i v i t i e s  a c t i v i t i e s  continually  the  the  commercial  and  upon  within  than  cannot  accommodate imminent.  w i l l  become  l i f e  of  a  of  general  be  altered  the  needs  Taken  to  viable  of the  options.  building:  The economic l i f e of something as durable as a building varies widely in practice and ends not because the structure is physically worn out but because of change i n demand, r e f l e c t i n g a l t e r a t i o n s in accessibility in environmental merits, in economic, s o c i a l , and t e c h n o l o g i c a l s t a n d a r d s , and in materials used and s e r v i c e s e x p e c t e d in modern b u i l d i n g s . Since change i s c o n t i n u a l l y t a k i n g p l a c e , any building can only be in line with current standards during the e a r l i e s t years of i t s economic l i f e and w i l l become less well adapted to the h i g h e s t performance of its f u n c t i o n s as t i m e passes. A l l buildings therefore, become progressively obsolete, although the physical condition of the building i t s e l f and its basic equipment is seldom a primary c r i t e r i o n of o b s o l e s c e n c e . The p h y s i c a l and economic l i f e span of buildings are not t h e same, f o r t h e economic l i f e of buildings i s d e t e r m i n e d p r i m a r i l y by t h e e a r n i n g power of that building rather than by its structural durability. The physical and economic lives of b u i l d i n g s w o u l d o n l y be i d e n t i c a l in such cases as s o u n d b u i l d i n g s a r e c o m p l e t e l y d e s t r o y e d by f i r e , etc. Sooner or later t h e d e c i s i o n has t o be t a k e n t o end the use of the b u i l d i n g and redevelop in the most profitable way. Redevelopment factors, ownership  including  through the  patterns,  age  replacement or  potential  depends  obsolescence for  future  upon  of  the  gain  and  a  number  of  structure, the  overall  42  growth  in  various  obsolescence, dictate  though  buildings  are  owned  d i f f i c u l t .  by  Delays  of,  building  3.4  Land  Use  The  net  its  effect  of  has  been  At  a  from  residential  areas.  intra-district  are  1967).  be  used  while  properties becomes  structure,  business  general  where  demand,  economic  intervening  economic  and  necessarily  Where  the  in  where  to  Age  replacement  from  from, occur  not  continue  increase  expected  past  the  industrial, Patterns  areas,  patterns  is  of  is  trends.  uses  occupy  and  land-  l i f e .  of  the  scant,  of  highly  are  land  in  use  within  structured  present  turn are  are  discernable  from  also  a c t i v i t i e s  time,  evident  at  industrial  and  and  structures  theoretical  where  land-use  d i s t r i c t s  commercial,  various  and,  redevelopment  commercial  which  Thus,  to  present  level,  levels.  patterns  and  evolution  macro  i d e n t i f i a b l e . Up  these  an  gain  1971).  Patterning  discernable  residential  on  projected  beyond  do  interests,  future  may  (Bourne,  factors,  (Cowan,  of  for  replacement  the  d i s t r i c t s .  or  economy  buildings  replaced  number  relies  in  change  a  the  Older  be  Potential  replacement indicative  may  of  important  replacement.  newer  use  sectors  available,  work  show  on  l i t t l e  consensus. A within that  number  of  factors  commercial  establishments  profit.  They  accessible costs.  to  d i s t r i c t s . when  seek  a  small  the  and  to  clustering  Primary  looking  location  customers  Because  cause  for which  a  site w i l l  supplies,  specialized  among  in  of  these are  is  the  fact  motivated  enhance  revenues,  order  establishments  land-uses  are  to  by one  minimize  affected  by  43  a  network  of  competitors, results  with  this  customers,  land-use  become  firms,  suppliers,  necessary.  linked  and  accessibility  external  commercial  by  services,  Clearly  the  with locations  desire  goods,  proximity.  3.4.1  proximate  from  people,  linkages  by  the  information,  and  economies,  are  information  major  affects  between  the  locations.  cost  of  The  time  necessary  the  inconvenience  of  variable.  Accessibility  confers  accessibility customers  accessible Serviced  sites by  and  between the  greater  The  and can  close  Goodall  core  that  is  serve  to  greater  high  key the  volume  of  need  for  in  Increased  because  a  of  upon  role  trade  highly  customers.  urban and  of  also is  the  land-use services  a c c e s s i b i l i t y  area  sites  intersections.  goods  a c c e s s i b i l i t y  larger  benefits  accessible  determining  the  the  accessibility  movement  greater  clearly is  of  key  and  travel  addition,  systems,  the  time  distance  in  and  goods, for  that  number  routes  that  factor  the  pattern.  specialization  greatest  suggest  establishments, urban  the  of  and  transportation  (1968) the  cost  establishments,  e f f i c i e n t  generally  pattern.  in  conjunction  people,  the  notion  the  moving  outweigh  city  in  patterning.  and  Lean  locate  determinants  establishments  are  of  in  between  both  movement  Accessibility Accessibility  only  Clustering  to  linkages,  and  plays allows  available.  44  3.4.2  Linkages Two  and  further  Economies  concepts,  combine  with  location  decisions  the  External  linkages  accessibility  corridors  as  of  they  to  agglomeration  give  relate  movement  and  to  of  a  comprehensive  land-use.  goods  Linkages  and  while  agglomeration  economies  reductions  are  direct  of  Townroe  (1970:18),  economies' and  the  Townroe  have  is  Fernie,  of  view,  Perth,  their  making  which  draws  involve  of  or  goods  and  information  been  on  a  more  to  raw  differ  depend (i.e.  on  the  transfer  industry  a  of  deal  communication  telephones,  economies  are 1982;  supports  in (or  for  as  the  CBD  in  non-  purposes  location  But  they  of  linkages appear  to  area."  f a c i l i t a t e  offices  While is  center.  people,  and  size  1983,  goods,  establishments. must  of  general  level  to  it  linkages  central  materials ;  city  detailed  within  the  the  to  cost  'external  (1974:15)  a c t i v i t i e s  pointed  between  (i.e.  linkages  between  the  land-uses,  land-uses  of  to  areas...."  Scott,  Alexander  commercial  to  and  agglomeration  significance  a c t i v i t i e s  a c t i v i t i e s  manufacturing  services  1973). to  urban  (A.J.  refer  between  importance  industrial  land-uses  already  information  Office  and  "[The]  important  certain  tangible  linkages  connections) has  be  to  references  the  within  of  According  'linkage'  both  reference  refer  location.  of  stress  Goddard,  Australia.  Linkages and  and  operation  also  affect  in  commercial  terms,  factor  to  relationships  that  1977;  jargon  may  to  result  concepts  used  of  speaking held  important  "The  been  patterns  generally  this  a  view  services  establishments, which  economies,  services,  Linkages  the  handling  finished in  linkages  teleprinters,  of  products).  intangibles for  in  the and  and  transfer other  45  telecommunication require  a  variety  intangible of  systems). of  both  (information)  these  links  between  reviewed  A.J.  to  affect  office links  establishment  establishments. are  also  commercial has  provided  urban (i)  ii)  ii)  iv)  found  land one  use of  in  A  (1983,  1982)  location There  services.  the  a  retail  better  general  1974;  in  of  and study  based  on  literature  linkages  tend  industrial  and  consensus  Rannells,  the  of  that  service  taxonomies  of  been  body  indicates  and  Much  has  decisions  is  establishments  (product-oriented)  significant  (Alexander, the  and  retail  establishments  establishments. Scott  and  tangible  goods  industrial in  Service  that  these  components 1956).  linkages  of  Rannells  within  context: Competitive linkages - each establishment strives to hold or increase its own share of the market, for goods as w e l l as services, dealing either with a generalized p u b l i c , w i t h g r o u p s of e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , or with a single establishment. Competition is so a l l pervasive that examples are l e g i o n , from newstands to publishers, from p e d d l a r s to department stores. Complementary linkages both establishments supply the same market or a s i n g l e customer establishment w i t h goods or s e r v i c e s which are interrelated. The products of both establishments may be mutually interdependent; or the product of one establishment may supplement the p r o d u c t of the o t h e r . Examples of b o t h k i n d s a b o u n d among e s t a b l i s h m e n t s supplying the "bits and pieces" and subassemblies of manufactured goods of a l l sorts to the prime manufacturing establishments, f r o m mens c l o t h i n g t o m o t o r cars. Commensal l i n k a g e s - b o t h e s t a b l i s h m e n t s u s e t h e same f a c i l i t i e s or depend upon t h e same supplier or the same market. There may be no direct business relationship between establishments commensally 1 inked. A n c i l l a r y l i n k a g e s - s e r v i c e s a r e e s p e c i a l l y common in major b u s i n e s s c e n t r e s where c a f e t e r i a s , c i g a r stores, and various "consumer service" establishments serve the working p o p u l a t i o n (p. 29).  the  46  Linkages uniform;  rather  practices, the  the  the  are  to  f a i r l y  machinery built  involved,  sensitive  to  to  to  have  (See  in  (a)  (b)  (c)  in  external  of  a  four  change.  size,  the  revenue the  of  of  of  than  that  the  capital  and  custom  be  speedily  adaptable  The  strongly  linked  in  level  a  single  of  direct  land-uses of  economies production  output,  which  sectors  processes  non-uniform  housed  high  existence  (Townroe,  caused  external accrue or  to  by  explain  (Weber,  1909).  and  and firm  plant,  the  economies to  marketing  Agglomeration  try  establishments types  a  urban  economy.  economy  be  and  establishment. various  in  rather  area  and  management  [marketing]."  These  lowering  to  with  production  3.1).  within  individual are  in  concentration  as  increase  of  small  produce to  within  not  marketing  the  the  strongly  are  and  within  with  s k i l l  has  technological  Figure  forces  process  implies  either  which  uses  more  the  economy  production  "linkages  found by  owner-manager,  involvement  linkages  be  the  land-uses  linked  (1970:19), to  of  upon  other  these  and  The  be  an  The  tend  of  specialized  goods.  tends  of  sectors  depend  inventory  Townroe  economy  various  they  juxtaposition  According of  within  flow of  of  scale  establishments costs  or  as  an  internal  or  external  economies  are  one  locational  decisions  Agglomeration  type of  economies  1970):  I n t e r n a l S c a l e s of Economy - a r e d u c t i o n i n c o s t s per unit as a r e s u l t of an i n c r e a s e i n s i z e of production i n p u t s or p l a n of an economic a c t i v i t y . Economies of Localization aggregation of complementary or r e l a t e d range of i n d u s t r i e s benefit due t o : ( i ) a pooling of specialized labor; (ii) a v a i l a b i l i t y of specialized services; and ( i i i ) a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of buyers. Economies of U r b a n i z a t i o n - e x t e r n a l economies where unlike plants congregate, u s i n g common f a c i l i t i e s of commerce and b a n k i n g , technical services, education, subcontracting, and wide range of a d a p t a b l e s k i l l s .  EXTERNAL MAJOR  FUNCTIONAL  ECONOMIES LINKAGES  OF  ESTABLISHMENTS  SUPPLIER SERVICE  PROVIDER  ORIGINATOR  OF SUBCONTRACT WORK  ESTABLISHMENT Tt  FIRMS  SUBCONTRACTING FOR  EST  CUSTOMERS  FROM'  External (Lloyd  Economies  & Dickens,  1972)'  LLOYD AND DICKEN . 1972:131  M.A. THESIS  U.B.C.  BLAKE B. HUDEMA  FIG. 3.1  48  "These l a t t e r t y p e s of economies are sometimes called economies of s p a t i a l j u x t a p o s i t i o n " , Transfer Economies - the savings in transport costs to each firm as a result of l o c a t i n g a d j a c e n t t o one another (p.18).  (d)  Smaller  firms,  unstable  or  important  locational  firms  must  customers, The direct within  as  unpredictable  maintain  and of  implications  1970).  As  ties  linkage the  (A.  J .  Scott  consider and  operating  external  in  an  economies  Stanback,  (distance)  competing  for  areas  above,  (Yavitz  close  suppliers,  urban  market  c r i t e r i a  relationship  Townroe,  identified  1973).  with  an  These  markets,  establishments.  and  agglomeration  spatial Scott,  economies  arrangement  1983;  of  Fernie,  has  land-uses 1977;  and  suggests,  Even though considerable c a u t i o n i s i n o r d e r i n any attempt to argue d i r e c t l y from economic structure to spatial structure [ie. Linkages to l o c a t i o n ] , these latter findings a l l suggest that some kinds of enterprise, at certain levels of the technical d i v i s i o n of l a b o r [ s p e c i a l i z a t i o n ] , seem t o be highly interdependent in both functional and geographical terms (p.15). Costs  of  establishment  relation  to  output.  the  of  distance  costs  1983).  Suppliers  establishments, to  these  relationships  "industry labor under  suppliers  and  heavy  geographical  through w i l l  to  ensure of  and  space."  supply.  functionally  pressure  to  Three  locate  establishments  are  be  Scott and  small  in  important  (  w i l l  factors  to  demand  to  locate  (1983:20)  scale,  to  reduce Scott,  want  location  close  to  in  A.J.  close  interrelated  locate  excessive  seeking  clustering  to  economies that  can  generally  spatial  want  demand  offices  intensive,  relocation  Establishments  while  close  and  summarizes  as  follows,  unstandardized, find one  themselves another  contribute  to  in these  49  relationships (a)  and  patterns  Transportation clustering  Specialized (i)  (ii) of (c)  forms:  (i)  because  it  role  and  w i l l  some  feature  of  (1970)  cites  be  must  constantly and  dissemination  be  occurs  work  in-house?  is  and  linkages  thus  two  subcontracted (ii)  current,  become  relationship  relevant  in  subcontracted.  a f f i n i t i e s .  markets  examples  the  hundred  grain  others,  relationships;  efficient  where  The  important  between remainder  literature  complementary  commercial  example  were  the  of  specific  were  facing  output more  done  the  of  spatial  seven  firms  among  subcontracting  of  spatial  illustrate  illustrates  a  are,  on  and  functional of  this  the  chapter  subject.  Proximity  Clustering  three  of  work  establish  Spat i a l  effects  complementary,  overflow  review  important  establishments.  and  allows  cannot  association  3.4.3  input  implications  clearly  for  of  information.  Specialized  The  of  benefits  extraordinarily  unstandarized  clustering  where  an  agglomeration  sets  market  1983):  communication  economy  small  changing  and  represent  agglomeration (b)  (Scott,  throughout  from  Africa  proximities of  a  significance shops  clothing, dealers  along  of  of  strong  this  the  and  retail  shopping  t h i r t y - s i x and  establishments  were  twenty-five  common  P.  Scott  Asia  which  establishments. in  proximal of  the  The  Padra,  India  locations. street,  goldsmiths, were  a  world.  Southern  street  section  is  t a i l o r s ,  Of  forty-  t h i r t y - f i v e and  "no  less  50  than  eighty-five  next  door"  bulk  specifically  Haig  the  face  of  Over  of  towards the  looked  the  land-uses.  for  fronts  of  variety  in  use  patterns.  type  and  more  by  Haig  office  offices  exchange  use,  he  good  tended  stores  stores  emerged  as  a  face-to-  (1949)  examined  c i t i e s .  particular  land-uses,  through  Ratcliffe  tendencies  the  Tabulating  he  went  found. to  showed  D i s t r i c t ]  defined  but  a  the  on  Shoe  only  to  shops,  cluster  useful  successfully  very  The  Core  among  moderate  the  new  of  a  complex be  broad  describes  the  City  their  studies  for  light,  of  complex  about  as  to  the  classifications linkages  an  which  has  between  (1956), of  various of  changing  presenting  not  mid  centers  descriptive process  land-  the  between  which  said  in  linkages  responsible a  commercial  of  establishments,  in  could  of  Philadelphia  popular  product a  in  finally  was  Business  decisions,  studies  underlying  [Central  Using  of  and  "Rannels  anything  of  American  book  from  explored  as  later,  a  his  dispersion,  Rannells  Rannells  same  pioneered  Manhattan  clusters  Rannells  concentration  era,  on  comprehensive  by  Departing  1980:231).  the  study,  was  personal  decades  most  Rannells,  before  of  agglomeration.  F i f t i e s .  and  that  jewellery  undertaken  locational  shop  land-use  study  twenty-four  and  was  gravity  out  two  while  of  at  a  linkages,  agglomerative  themselves,  One  his  need  in  stores  tendencies  In  block  the  furniture  spatial  the  clusters  proportion  uses  of  pointed  contact.  present  commercial  Twenties.  result  retail  of  that  (1923)  direct  have  (p.27).  The  during  establishments  this land-  the  area  to  CBD be  determined be  area" of  unravelled (Carter, land-use,  land-uses.  His  51  primary form of  of  conclusions  which  three-way  screening  a  a c c e s s i b i l i t y  Accessibility is is  as  and  the  and  Compatability  Nelson  compatibility"  (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)  from  is  more  needs  because  locational  from  two  variables  dynamic,  a  that  less  available  is  the  a v a i l a b i l i t y .  and  of  his  locations.  while  for  minimizing  "rule  retail  it  Linkages  prerequisite  proximity  of  take  1956:150).  and  delineates  principles  3.2  intensively,  (Rannells,  benefit  at  the  the  the  of  retail  location:  a c c e s s i b i l i t y  distance  order  to  of  economies  that,  in  to  would  agglomerate.  He  l i s t e d  and  1982).  costs four  by  of  and  their  firms;  individual  but,  firms,  establishments that  the  encourages  increases  (Sim,  between  suggested  time  firms  his  study.  between  which  and  minimize  made  this  (1964)  reduces  external  are  interaction Weber  individual  relationship  relevant  Clustering  costs  with  decisions  are  communication, offers  with  establishments.  of  third,  establishments  eight  than  principles Looking  city  more  accessible  concerned  physical  of  a  the  "reciprocal  used,  (1958)  Figure  Adequacy of p r e s e n t t r a d i n g a r e a p o t e n t i a l . A c c e s s i b i l i t y of s i t e to t r a d i n g area. Growth p o t e n t i a l . Business interception. Cumulative a t t r a c t i o n . Compatibility. Minimizing competitive hazard. S i t e economics - s i z e , shape, topography, etc.  Nelson  eight  between  must  are  in  relating  with  rises."  between  uses  competition.  is  cost  contacts  clustering:  linkages  space  its  presented  process  a v a i l a b i l i t y  accessible  available  provide  and  are  contact  and  allows  the  Dunning  also  interaction,  advantages  of  in  core  terms of  the  clustering  of  simultaneously exploitation has  suggested  establishments clustering  (Sim,  52  BUSINESS; PUBLIC  LINKAGES  Three  Way  M.A. THESIS  Screening. (Rannells,  1957)  UB.C.  BLAKE B. HUDEMA  FIG.  3.2  53  1 982:74) : (i) (ii) ( i i i )  the need for r a p i d t r a n s m i s s i o n of information, the need for p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t to promote mutual trust, a s a v i n g s i n t i m e f o r managers and d i r e c t o r s c o n n e c t e d with multiple establishments, ease of p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t between j u n i o r members of f i r m s , a i d i n g mutual understanding.  (iv)  Spatial central that  theme  a  and  comparing They  number  and  the  Getis  and  a f f i n i t i e s  can  be  cases  where  a  test  while  magnitude  are  and retail  small.  patterns  significance  in for  establishments  Getis  (1966).  considered  and  of  store R.L.  Coventry,  spatial  a  grouped  data  (Getis,  (1972  sets,  1967).  exist, ),  also  a f f i n i t i e s  factor  association,  a f f i n i t i e s  Davies  argue  are  significant results  the  They  homogeneous  observed  is  as  establishments  heterogeneous  (random)  that,  r e t a i l  s t a t i s t i c a l  in  applied  expected  concluded  commercial  by  Using  Getis  of  study  location  clustered.  Getis  of  of  spatial  influencing or  a f f i n i t y  in  a  the study  demonstrated  among  shops:  Except for the c a t e g o r i e s of food shops and s p e c i a l i s t s h o p s , a l l o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s of r e t a i l i n g f a c i l i t i e s are more commonly related with t h e i r own f u n c t i o n a l k i n d t h a n w o u l d be e x p e c t e d under random c o n d i t i o n s .... This means there is a spatial a f f i n i t y i n terms of a t t r a c t i o n between them, c l o t h i n g stores locate near other clothing stores, leisure services locate near other leisure services, etc. This suggests that in turn further evidence for s p e c i a l i z e d clusterings throughout the c e n t r a l area and through the overall retail distribution may appear mixed, there is c o n s i d e r a b l e order in linkages underlying such d i v e r s i t y (p. 21). Using and  h i s t o r i c a l  related  these  establishments. spatial close  In  linkages. ties  "anchors"  —  data, to  this  Varley's  Varley  recorded way,  he  study  of  of  t r a d i t i o n a l uses,  in  this  case,  (1968)  the  clusterings was  able  Manchester  such  stock  identified  as  to  of trace  similar emerging  i l l u s t r a t e d  stockbrockers  exchange.  clusters  More  to  the their  contemporary  54  uses  such  lacked  as  a  centre  dispersion land-use  data.  dominant  as  a  gravity  Blocks  of  ranked  and  agglomerations  of  class  are  unique:  their  location.  locate  on  ground  most  In  his  linkages  contact  was  considered  a  of  than  a l l  ten  minutes.  decisions.  As  center  is  of  over-lapping  of  both  complex  the  network  a c t i v i t i e s . "  journeys  large  and  between of  them  as  other  location movement  functional  as  of  and  in  city  that  can  patterns. and  connections  output.  opposed has  the  with  lasting  of  defined  over less  linked location  revealed  consists be  and  Face-to-face  office has  to  conducted  linkages  1973).  analysis  metropolitan  Offices  functionally  factor  "the  c i t i e s  demonstrates  foot  of  information  i n t e r a c t i v e mode,  of  sub-systems  large  o f f i c e  (Goddard,  on  map  "strong  studies.  Goddard  Goddard  made  a  in  space  of  a  the  area".  measurement  floor  of  to  termed,  primarily  with  studies  concludes,  spatial  movements  interdependence  is  important  suggested  was  index  analysis  yielded  empirical  studies,  the  what  and  and  according  results  locations.  Proximity  Goddard of  upper  between  business  establishments  of  product  floor  London  combination  establishments  number  intensive  functional  third  in  dispersed  Grouping  grouped  The  d i f f i c u l t i e s arise  generally  the  a  more  "traditional office  office  of  of  and  a  including  the  subject  reliance  by  land-uses.  d i s t r i c t s ,  be  "anchor".  were  the  retail  or  followed  various  therefore,  to  were  agglomerations"  Offices  the  seemed  been  and,  some  of  land-use  The have  agents  techniques  percentage  retail  travel  a  that series  in  terms  Underpinning  this  spatial between  structure area  is  a  business  55  3.5  Land So  and  Use far  Regulation: in  this  patterning  perspective.  Zoning  study,  have  the  been  Competition, uses  influences  on  land-use  the  of  influences  public  Chapin  (1979:49)  have  acting  regulations  land-use  on  in  market  a  warrants  local  the  from  as  However,  land-uses by  change  a  a c c e s s i b i l i t y ,  recognized  structure.  imposed  argues  been  growth,  essentially  complementarity,  between  group  of  discussed  proximity  urban  issues  significant  second  major  consideration:  administrative  context  and  of  agencies.  urban  land-use  plann ing: A n o r m a t i v e t h e o r y of l a n d - u s e would p r o v i d e the basis on which a l o c a l i t y c o u l d e s t a b l i s h what i t s pattern of l a n d - u s e o u g h t t o b e . In this perspective, urban spatial structure is a conjunctive outcome of the f u n c t i o n i n g of the market and p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s , the one p r o v i d i n g t h e means by which individuals, firm, and institutions pursue t h e i r s e l f i n t e r e s t , and the o t h e r , t h e means by w h i c h g o v e r n m e n t articulates and p u r s u e s t h e common interest. Zoning over the  its  has  relatively  obvious  had  permeated short  physical  significant  opportunities, City  planning  as as  of  its  zoning,  device  of  effects  we  section  seventy  as  know  b r i e f l y  evolution  land-use  the  and  tax  relies the  seventy  regulation  in  of  most  c i t i e s  Extending  beyond  c i t i e s ,  housing  outlines  over  history.  local  today  sector  inherent  upon  on it  every  year  relationships  well  following  nearly  and  base  employment  on  its  1974)  zoning.  h i s t o r i c a l  finally  has  (Listoken,  heavily  years,  it  The  underpinnings  rationale  contemporary  as  a  forms  of  only  a  zoning. Land-use short century  time as  regulations  by a  city  logical  in  general  standards. extension  have  Emerging of  public  been  in  the  in  place  early  nuisance  part  laws,  of  the  zoning  56  had  i t s f o u n d a t i o n s i n t h e case of V i l l a g e  R e a l t y Co. ( B a b c o c k , proposed  1966). I n t h e c a s e , t h e c o u r t r e j e c t e d  development  residential  o f an a p a r t m e n t  neighbourhood  indicated  the  of E u c l i d v. Ambler  by  court's  the  building Realty  feeling  that  i n an e s t a b l i s h e d  Co. the  The  rejection  development  m i s p l a c e d , a n d , l i k e a n u i s a n c e : "may be m e r e l y a r i g h t t h e wrong p l a c e , barnyard"  like  a  (Babcock,  pig  in  the  parlor  instead  of  (in this  higher  grew  response  led  housing).  It  to both a v a r i e t y  o f u s e s a n d t h e need  In t h i s p e r i o d of e a r l y c i t y  of  relationships  among  development,  zoning  land  uses  between  land  ownership  however,  "the p r i c e  significant  over-simplification  of of  this the  regulation  today and t h e complex  has  clearly  internal  of  1974:24). I n  and  variety  city.  As  complex  of  would  Listokin  uniformity  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among b u i l d i n g a n d a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n over-simplification  and  "... r e g u l a t i o n  (Listokin,  throughout the  which  f o r some u n i f o r m i t y .  uniform d i s t r i c t s  indicates,  Such  t o the  was t h o u g h t t o be a c o m p r o m i s e a n d one w h i c h  uniform d i s t r i c t s  case,  of land,  required  among l a n d u s e r s a s w e l l "  terms of t h e c o n f l i c t  distribute  in  was g e n e r a l y on a l o t - b y - l o t s c a l e :  relationships  use,  also  s m a l l - s c a l e ownership and development  development  the  1 9 6 6 : 4 ) . Z o n i n g emerged f r o m t h e d e s i r e t o neighbourhoods  relatively  was  thing i n  p r e v e n t change w i t h i n e x i s t i n g density  the  was  a  potential  small areas."  become an a c u t e p r o b l e m  structures  and  activities  of  l a n d - u s e zones a r e o f t e n n e g l e c t e d under g e n e r a l o r vague z o n i n g designations,  as  has  happened,  f o r example,  i n the a r e a s of  G r a n v i l l e M a l l a n d Gastown i n V a n c o u v e r . The p e r s u a s i v e n e s s o f t h e l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n s t o e n a c t s u c h a  57  new  and  bold  character  of  extended  zoning.  only  government. local  regulation  zoning  conferred  nature  by  words,  be  made  to  negativeness which  of  early  a c t i v i t y  general of  vast  and  the  in  development  the  control.  r e f l e c t e d the property  evolution  of  zoning  has  has  been  devices ones.  emphasize  The  which  values  of  of  Performance contrast, each  wide  range  by  their  of  planning 1974).  change.  direction as  regulation  device  "overzoning"  role  uses  d i s t r i c t s  buildings,  a  (Listokin,  positive  The  standards.  significant  characteristics  etc.). In  a  would  the  t y p i f i e d  limited  permitted  creativing  appearance  through  in  processes  development  development.  felt  from  subsequent  seen  and  regulations.  permitted  were  The  depress  permitted,  device  city,  to  of  and  city  the  not  provisions, uses  of  of  sophisticated,  range  use  controlled  areas  these  which  advance  compensation  and  regulations,  "self-  1974:23).  in  stemmed  areas  prohibited  no  the  Early  being  regulations  d e f i n i t i v e  contemporary  as  early  uses  by  government.  created  thereafter;  local  enabling  (Listokin,  were  zoning,  the  and  the  zoning  swing  of  of  the  legitimacy  losses  many  desire  the  charters  negative"  created  of  for  of  general  and  d i s t r i c t s  lack  The  more  of  prohibited  Finally,  through  self-regulating  owners  from  characterized  In  be  stemmed  for  scope  bounds  further  non-compensative,  to  the  forms  were  zoning  form,  higher  executing,  expected  early  ramifications  t e r r i t o r i a l  derived  regulations  other  definite  its  the  parochial  government  legislation  In  within  Its  had  as  more  opposed  have  also  reflecting  (landscaping,  a  to  become wider  screening  economic  compatibility  standards  now  cumulative  successively  dictate  zoning,  lower  use  A  an  of  zonal early  allowed  a l l  58  uses  and  standards  occupied other  the  apex  land-uses.  increased by  regulat  of  The  (1974)  uses  such  (single  schemes),  refinement  to  on  the  family  of  land-use  greater  ensured  dwelling no  intrusion  d i s t r i c t i n g and  has  development,  public  zones  acceptance  these  operate  within  imposed  attributed  of  land-use  for  the  changes the  good  indicate,  physical, of  i l l u s t r a t e d  the  by  social  public  the  zoning and  land-use  planning,  economic  interest.  following  and  The  sectors  public  of  the  interest  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  from  Health within  and the  noise,  (b)  Safety city  injurious  must  be  pollution,  a v a i l a b i l i t y  of  Convenience  -  up  the  issues  -  of  land-uses  and  light the  and  minimized.  Issues  protection, and  air  circulation  of  related  to and  important.  time/distance  systems,  functional  conditions  privacy,  become  relationship  the  harmful  arrangement  relationships  bring of  between  land-uses. (c)  Efficiency  and  perspective cost  of  alternatives  responded  to  Energy  Conservation  land-use, of  concerns  efficiency  land-use. over  the  Energy  -  from  related  to  conservation  scarcity  of  is  Chapin  (1979) : (a)  of  ions.  As  best  higher  restrictions  Listokin  city  of  the least has  resources.  59  (d)  Environmental raised  concerns  (primarily and  the  human (e)  (f)  of  agricultural  air  and  choice  and of  Social  the  Choice  -  -  the  opportunity  to  and  to  urban  the  uses  effects  access  offered  live,  The  tangibles  to  attributes  these  perceptual  groups  offer  significant  addressed  in  any  where  for  to  contributed  to  Significant  on  to  and  l i f e  in  regulations.  conditional special  increasingly  uses  modern  zoning.  attempt  to  offset  variety  of  development  Contemporary  These  the  of  and  from  design. of  specific  arise  public  issues  in  the  increases  on  where  and  more  amenity  t r a d i t i o n a l  "wait  process and  early lots  (outside  imaginative  a  are above  to  the  sacrificed.  Building  land-uses,  in  range  version  efficiency  administrative  c a l l s  play  urban  when  also  environmental  in  (1978)  may  when  transformation  shifts  Listokin  land-use  on  the  Conflicts  is  of  occurs  and  here  simplified  example,  convenience  emphasis  a  work,  issues  overlap  group.  interpretation,  granted  has  degradation  equal  opportunities  environment.  The  Seventies  land  water)  pleasant  point  the  environmental  of  of  trend  city.  interest,  and  loss  Equity  Amenity  While  what  the  health.  free  the  the  -  of  pollution  Social a  Quality  the  l i t e r a l  expansion  have  are  of  of  uses  to to  variances could  be  specified),  have  devices the  devices.  yielded  zones  devices  and  have  approaches  approaches  contemporary  metropolitan  zoning  see"  within  complex  issues  typified  emerged  in  an  evolution  of  a  techniques.  land-use  regulations  three  types:  low  60  density  zoning,  development"  or  underdeveloped development subjected The  tracts  t o review  and  public  A recent  allowed  incorporation Potential device.  this  are  heights of  public  high in this scale  allows not  plans  innovative  design  allow  space. These d e v i c e s notably  i n New  in  Place  with  (site have  York w i t h  Vancouver  with  of  zoning  is  flexibility  of  a  c o n d i t i o n of provision  Developers  in  return the  pressure.  are  f o r the  development.  and p l a c e s  The  final  redevelopment district  o f u s e s and s t a n d a r d s traditional  densities  occurring  zoning.  on s i t e  zoning.  widespread  i t s special  the development  This which  Comprehensive  while  encouraging  use i n N o r t h  districting  of  device  and b u i l d i n g ) and i n c r e a s e d open found  of  abuses of t h i s d i s c r e t i o n a r y  viable in periods  greater  are  times  the  into  i s r e f e r r e d t o as s p e c i a l  possible  as  system".  s e c t i o n i s t h e PUD;  for a variety  the  density  with  in  Conditional  amenities  development  development  and  and/or  Subsequent  and p o l i c i e s .  growth  towards  "bonus  In a d d i t i o n , i t i s only  considered  device  a  unit  (rezonings)  plans  standards  been  problems c o u l d a r i s e  relatively  at  has  through  greater  local  but p r o v i d e s  development  "planned  involves designating  densities  incremental  zoning,  the  densities.  fluctuations.  trend  amenities  low  higher  an  market  specific  approval.  very  for  for  t o low d e n s i t y  demanding  to  and  zoning  i n accordance with  allows  uncertainty  zoning,  "PUD". Low d e n s i t y  proposals  device  similar  conditional  for  green  America, theatres,  of the B r i t i s h  Columbia  lands. Regulation  years,  but s t i l l  has shown a g r a d u a l retains  much  of  growth over  the l a s t  i t s traditional  seventy  character.  61  Innovative  devices  are  attempted  while smaller c i t i e s c l i n g  in  only the l a r g e r  to c o n v e n t i o n a l forms of zoning as an  approach to development c o n t r o l . N e v e r t h e l e s s , through  the  cities,  investigation  of  market  i t becomes c l e a r ,  dynamics  and  land-use  r e g u l a t i o n s , that c u r r e n t zoning methods are not adequate i n the maintenance  and growth of the commercial land-uses  Contemporary zoning r e g u l a t i o n s should r e f l e c t for land-use  3.6  appreciation  s t r u c t u r e and dynamics w i t h i n commercial  use  theory  different disciplines, theory  of  difficult land-use land-uses point  urban  has so  been  that  land-use.  approached  today The  we  literature  to s y n t h e s i z e . C o n c e n t r a t i n g on a theory, the l a s t  two  districts.  of  no  definitive  is,  therefore,  few  directions  in  from both a market p e r s p e c t i v e and a p u b l i c r e g u l a t i o n  of  view.  The  focus of t h i s t h e s i s i s on the commercial  subject  to  a  districts  commercial  this  thesis,  strips  reference on  the  to  always  placed  the i n v e s t i g a t i o n  to  of  the  strips  spatial  locations  in  strips  land-uses. i s d i r e c t e d to the  commercial  where  and  evolution  specialized  s e r v i c e commerical  i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e and dynamics  concentrates  i n most c i t i e s , has  i n c y c l e s . Emphasis has been  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by o f f i c e and  specific  commercial  which have shown the more prosperous  "typical"  Within  type of  great amount of change, e i t h e r growing  p r o s p e r i n g or d e c l i n i n g those  number  chapters have looked at commercial  c o n f i g u r a t i o n . T h i s d i s t r i c t , present been  from  have  s t r i p d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n the inner c i t y as one  with  city.  Summary Land  from  an  in the  districts,  p o s s i b l e . The of  work  commerical  62  establishments functional change  h i s t o r i c a l  d i s t r i c t s  into  these  the  d i s t r i c t s . study.  of  which  in  detail. are  proximities. to  this  of  premise.  and  Growth  and  the  expansion  of  changing  the  character  of  of  land-uses  change  is  and  processes, arise  l i t e r a t u r e ,  within  examined by  from  in  a  external which and  reviewed  existing the  the  encompass  linkages  to  processes  include  implied  These  thought The  h i s t o r i c a l  proximity,  a c c e s s i b i l i t y ,  environment,  support  ones,  associations  s p e c i f i c a l l y  discussed  spatial  processes  type  to  establishments.  organization  latter  Functional  aspects  urban  internal  these  between  neighbouring  This  patterning,  are  relates  associations  as  and  and  spatial number  above,  of  economies  operate give  case  in  the  rise  .to  does  lend  63  CHAPTER FOUR  64  CHAPTER 4 CASE STUDY  4.1  Introduct ion The  the  t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s of t h i s study has been  previous  trends  and  two  c h a p t e r s . Research  functional  proximities  has  associations  may  lead  to  spatial  between commercial e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . In t h i s chapter,  h i s t o r y of the land-use  affecting  in  shown that h i s t o r i c a l  a p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the Broadway s t r i p i s brief  discussed  the  presentation  study and  area.  analysis  followed  by  a  r e g u l a t i o n s and the market f o r c e s The  of  bulk the  of  the  chapter  r e s u l t s of the  is  a  statistical  t e s t s a p p l i e d to the d a t a . (A d i s c u s s i o n of the data and methods used can be found  4.2  Avenue  transportation  and  i n the  Appendices).  is  one  of  the  major  east-west  routes spanning Vancouver and Burnaby. Connected  i t s e a s t e r n end with the Lougheed Highway, Broadway  good  access  Vancouver  to  the  segment  highways  begins  Broadway i s predominantly is  One  The Case Study Area Broadway  at  i n Chapter  residential  at  and  suburbs  Boundary  to  Road.  provides  the east; i t s Although  East  f r o n t e d by warehouses to the south, i t  along the r e s t of the route to Main S t r e e t . Two  a c t i v i t y nodes have formed along t h i s s t r e t c h of  Broadway,  the  Vancouver Community C o l l e g e and the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Broadway and Commercial approximately  Drive.  From  Main  Street  west  f o r t y b l o c k s , Broadway i s p r i m a r i l y  to  Alma a  Road,  commercial  65  66  ] g g [ O D  Study  Area  M.A. THESIS  UB.C.  BLAKE B. HUDEMA  M A P 4.2  67  street, what  is  Alma  and  between  Ontario  of  in  eighteen  to  in  land-uses Central  generate  a  maximum  of  these The  a  residential,  south  the  not  block  of  areas  Broadway  west  North  of  and  the  warehousing  of  strip has  are  high  the  Cambie,  in  the  to  limit  the way  east,  a  to  past  two  Hall  and  Both  of  the these  for  study  to  the  focuses extend  artery,  the  effects  account. are  predominantly  industrial to  enclaves,  the  east  to of  the  west.  the  of  significant  as South  study  multi-family  and  oriented,  redevelopment  predominance  any  has  Adding  single-family  city  s t r i p  and  Pleasant,  inner  an  Broadway  into  density  give  prevented  this  street  0 0 0 1 West  customers  the  mainly  study.  General.  Broadway  Mount  from  is at  creating  the  City  on  of  taken  is  to  set  west  Broadway  While  significant  which  land-uses  side  to  section  and  over  daytime  Street  are  west,  of  front  Central  the  in  of  either  with  east  a c t i v i t y  complex.  Broadway.  s t r i p  of  which  land-uses  area  a c t i v i t y  volumes  on  this  Central  in  commercial  latter  ranging  Vancouver  commercial  residential  single-family  The  located  Arbutus  This  the  proximity  hospital,  experienced  and  the  although  north  has  is  in  one  Broadway  of  addresses  wealth  surrounding  especially of  a  of  (division  street  large  large  areas  Streets.  Burrard  establishments  of  two  east  (from  Central  redevelopment  largest  those  the  Broadway.  provides  a c t i v i t y :  boundaries  and  West  Broadway  on  The  of  Broadway,  Burrard  with  potential  province's  West  the  area 1795  and  area's  only  study.  substantial  decades  and  Vancouver)  block  Broadway  as  second,  Main  the  concentrations  to  the  Street  addresses  shown  main  referred  focus  the  two  Street)  strip the  with  of of  area,  apartments.  industrial  and  residential  68  development. Fairview False also  The  Slopes,  Creek. light  1200  cars  lanes.  per  The  particularly bulk  of  routes Oak,  Avenue  1800  to  cars hour  and  per  is  near  major  a  and  from  Main  the  peak  downtown carry  the  of  of  the  is  north  to  strip  are  t r a f f i c ,  hours  hour  becomes  area  Broadway  extending  north  volumes  during  but  and  of  d i s t r i c t s .  intersections  in  the  Hemlock  large  north  Hemlock,  twenty-four  steady  traffic  and  area  warehousing  hour  over  flow  and  of  carries  the  Cambie  Willow  west  industrial  of  residential  between  Areas  Broadway order  only  and  period  stays  at  dissecting on  the  the  average  on  congested  of  an  in  its  of four  rush  hours,  routes.  The  major  north/south  peninsula.  Burrard,  Granville,  majority  the  of  t r a f f i c  from  the  and  the  south. Prior  to  widespread  use  transport,  reinforcing dominance  as  the and  a  along  and  promoted  the  area  Building  heights with  City,  subdued  and  e l i g i b i l i t y as  a  only  r e t a i l of  viable,  rose  the  above  multi-storey  mix  of  service  s t r i p  as  the  land-  was  low,  the  growing  use  of  Central  advent of  prominence  two  The  commercial,  p r o f i l e  with  growing or  of  a  and  locations  one  means  establishments.  the  However,  Broadway's  rarely the  node.  primary  goods  retail  the  hub  a  east/west  of  Broadway  Central  as  transit  predominantly  the  over  commercial  Accessibility  70's,  CBD  public  commercial  nature  cultural  transit  was  along  local  of  automobile  Broadway  t r a f f i c  of  automobiles,  early  the  low-order  the  industrial,  public  of  and  Commuter  Broadway  introduction  Central  residential uses.  the  Broadway  commercial  o f f i c e / r e t a i l  private  expanded.  along  storeys  of  strip.  until  the  complex  69  being  the  medical two  Fairmont  complex,  blocks  related being  to  health  the  into  region,  next  approximately million  projects  1981,  from  of  increases  of  the  to  locations.  had  the  An  office  block,  General  and  house  a  locating  here.  Broadway. head  or  the For  999  Broadway,  number  Some  and  west  some  at  the  to  4.1).  By The  substantial  local  firms.  medical  and  one  In  Oak,  office  including  In  offices  proposed  consulting  the  office for  the  functions. accountants,  services,  are  also  Burrard/Arbutus  insurance  feet  establishments.  offices  over  ground-oriented  from  non-medical  financial  well  storeys.  included  and  the  redevelopment  five  Cambie  businesses,  along  offices  contains  of  professional  example,  regional  Broadway  between  Central  totalled  Figure  replaced  away  d i s t r i c t West  Strip  in  square  (See  space  business-service  professional  management  to  floor  later  decade,  projects  was  lawyers,  further  scale  years  over  shift  601  offices  the  1971  feet  the  medical  and  square  space, and  of  in  20,000  stores  the  500  and  chain  heart  at  that  of  business  towers  Over  buildings  retail  of  concentration  ten  influx  towards of  200,000  large  floors  a  within  catapulted  space  feet;  storeys  ten  a c t i v i t y  Office  square  two  as  located  section  office  existed.  and  Strip  majority  CBD.  feet  primarily  node".  building  million  square  fourteen  this  largest  the  storeys  the  terms  1.0  to  "medical  second  to  ranged  eighteen  a  Built  strategically The  led  1970's,  the  is  hospital.  services as  Building.  building  the  designated  Broadway  2.0  the  of  During  Medical  offices  have  percent  of  are  locating  segment  of  established  there.  approximately  15  the  City's  COMMERCIAL REDEVELOPMENT ALONG CENTRAL BROADWAY  '  YEAR  ADDRESS  1984  1585*  OFFICE/RETAIL 6 s t .  Commercial  7,525  /12 /25  OFFICE/RETAIL 9 s t .  64,130  1305*  OFFICE/RETAIL 9 s t .  120,000  18,000  OFFICE/RETAIL  220/  175,000  30,000  I3I2 *  OFFICE/RETAIL 6 s t .  27,000  5,000  1285*  OFFICE/RETAIL 8 s t .  79.7^0  14,000  /I?  II95*  OFFICE/RETAIL 6 s t .  34,000  2,000  /15  .  1727  OFFICE/RETAIL  62,200  6,300  147/  OFFICE/RETAIL 4 s t .  19,370  5,366  37/  OFFICE/RETAIL 9 s t .  43,000  8,000  210  OFFICE/RETAIL 6 s t .  22,000  3,000  601  OFFICE/RETAIL l O s t .  205,724  600  OFFICE/RETAIL 2 s t .  23,000  1212  OFFICE/RETAIL 5 s t .  47,000  1420  OFFICE/RETAIL 3 s t .  3^.500  1665  OFFICE/RETAIL 6st.  42,300 171,500  805  OFFICE/RETAIL 1 8 s t .  999  OFFICE/RETAIL 9 s t .  40,000  I969  I070  OFFICE/RETAIL 3 s t .  21,000  1962  PARKING/RES. UNITS  92,000  1972  197^  RETAIL SQ. FT.  1363*  950* 1982  OFFICE SQ. FT.  5,760  525* 1983  DESCRIPTION  OFFICE/RETAIL 1 4 s t .  750  R e d e v e l o p m e n t on  * Proposed, approved or underc o n s t r u c t l o n as o f Dec. I 9 8 I .  Broadwav.  (MaCaulav,  NicoJIs. M a i t l a n d  M.A. THESIS  a n d CO.  U.B.C.  L t d . ) BLAKE B.HUDEMA  FIG.  4.1  71  office  space  region's  commercial  area  has  representing  surpassed  "Liveable  business  access  and  a  the  area,  4.3  Planning  As  a is  which  high  p r o f i l e .  Investor  construction  has  as  strip  a c t i v i t y  reassessment  a  in  the  to  1975  decade  mentioned  above  major  office  growth of  the  were  explored.  symptoms  of  this,  and  other  reduce  the  height  Discretionary  uses  device  that  above the of  such the  city amenity  a  two  storey  from  the  at  growth  with  been  good  high  in  space  conditions  buildings limit. to  1975,  together  the  city  alternatives  for  time,  and  densification  not  were  of into  the  treatment  of  this  many for  revamped  to  buildings. new  also  other  a  non-CBD  zoning  "automatically"  and  was  and  the  extract  social  a  In  demonstrated  there  now  into  CBD.  that  built  The  administration  zoning  The  Broadway.  the  a  city  Broadway  outside  ratios  with  the  along  Discretionary  developers.  of  t r a d i t i o n a l .  were  could  development  predominantly  regulations  floor  the  transformed  when  Broadway,  adminstration  Broadway  regulations  change  various  reasons,  and  their  use  land-uses  CBD,  downtown  and  has  prompted  zoning  time  non-residential the  d i s t r i c t  Land  goals,  developments  downzone  Broadway  under  downtown,  in  preceeding  major  to  to  role  were  a  desire  close  node.  implement  evaluating  GVRD  commercial  significant  to  at  the  the  Broadway  community  d i s t r i c t  of  Metropolitan  within  confidence  commercial  prior  of  administration  a  the  continues.  Central  played  of  Growth  estimates  location  Broadway  Building  inventory.  program.  Along  the  percent  a  and  Zoning  along  a l l  Region"  offers  Central  office  11  rise  allowed  concessions area  under  72  the  new  zoning  d i s t r i c t s  was  have  unique  been  dealt  to  Broadway.  with  in  other  Other  ways  commercial  reflecting  local  goals. Many stock,  of  the  indicating  1970's.  From  covered  under  Land  uses  variety uses law  buildings  1956 a  almost  #3575,  1956  of  building  through  to  the  and  C-3  use  .(see  was  70's,  tolerated  of  and  the  early  Broadway  (See  Map  with  and  section  was 4.3).  residential  recreational under  post-1965  before  Central  designation  cultural,  Appendix  are  a c t i v i t y  commercial  industrial, any  mid  zoning  generally  light  Broadway  lack  C-2  were  of  but  the  along  a  public  2(34)  of  By-  C):  Any other building or use which i s not s p e c i f i c a l l y l i s t e d in any s c h e d u l e or t h i s By-law and which is similar to the f o r e g o i n g b u i l d i n g s o r u s e s , [may be permi t t e d ] . Under  the  three  C-2  storeys  allowed  ratios  and  greater  storeys  floor  floor  space  above  these  were  Planning  The  loose  construction uses;  the  dozen  major  City's  in  concerns  of  major  space  heights  were  restricted  ratios  to  three.  potential  by  permitting  ratios  of  allowable  five.  C-3  Heights  through  the  to  designations up  and  to  eight  floor  discretion  space  of  the  Board.  restrictions several  early  large  1970's  saw  office/retail  office  percent  Planning  of  building  development  and  Technical  for  designation,  space  1974.  The  the  the  area  of  office  construction  complexes. from  building residents,  transportation to  on  complexes  increased  neighbouring  Department  placed  problems  re-evaluate  of  encouraged  at  Broadway's 2.5  percent  a c t i v i t y  along the  in  Broadway,  zoning  1967  the by  retail  least  share  and  complicated  and  the  the  half  a  of  the  to  12.8  resulting potential  prompted  regulations  the for  73  CENTRAL BROADWAY STRIP  iiiiip^ C-3A  <  £ w r> _ CO  Zoning  Q-  | — cc LL  2s  O  cc  o  -I  0.  UJ Q  <  3  CC  *  <  w o  1974- 1981  Z0NINT3  1951 - 1981  M.A. T H E S I S BLAKE  UBC  B. H U D E M A  M A P 4.3  74  the  Central  controls over  on  onto  Broadway downtown  Broadway.  space Some  increased  pedestrian  as  with  a  strip  structures,  Vancouver  planning By  Region"  at  1976,  a  the  from  west,  sections new  on  zone  new  Prince  saw a  maximum  limited  to  a  maximum  the  Development  permit  (a)  scale  over At  growth,  and  which  had  plans,  felt  such  of  as  Broadway  Planning  overruled  time, just that  the  s p i l l  properly-spaced  traffic  this  the  of of  new  the  these  Greater  developed continued  goals  applications,  of  its  growth  regional  two.  Board. DPB:  of  As  from  space  permitted  "shall  also  at  its  for  Street  C-2  three  of  the  due  the  covering  change  duty  have  the provisions of the By-law, the space, v i e w s , p l a z a s , p e d e s t r i a n needs the h e i g h t and b u l k of b u i l d i n g s , and the s i t e and s u r r o u n d i n g streets and e f f e c t of t r a f f i c , the p r o v i s i o n of o f and loading, its overall design, pre c h a r a c t e r and g e n e r a l amenity d e s i r e d and South G r a n v i l l e a r e a s . (Vancouver  the  ratios  sections  of  Vine  major  reduced  part  created  to  from  One  further is  east  uses  Floor  In  been  designation,  the  By-law.  heights  one.  the  in  majority zoning  had  C-3A  Street  development  Permit  d i s t r i c t  The  Albert  building  to  large  to  (Vancouver  jeopardize  zoning  pre-1975  storeys  law,  could  Broadway.  the  of  that  decentralization.  included  of  cited  and  expressed  development  well-designed  aspects.  also  characterization  concerns  concepts  some  features  the  D i s t r i c t  Broadway  aimed  development Broadway  However,  positive  Central  and  also  Regional  "Liveable along  flows  were  cause  positive  were  tangible  Concerns  might  interesting,  Department,1975). less  strip.  in  and  C-3  to  the  and  eight  were  also  this  new  discretion in  Byof  reviewing  regard  to:  amount of open and interests, i t s r e l a t i o n to buildings, the f-street parking s e r v a t i o n of the for the Broadway By-Law #3575)  75  The  new  zoning  importance Now  that  of  the  urban  new  redevelopments Permit  Board.  under  greater  than  4.4  designation design  By-law w i l l  has  been  have  to  Multi-storey control  issues  in  City  set,  would  through  will  scrutiny  the  planning  it  proceed  structures  and  reflects  by  the  practices.  appear  the  s t i l l  growing  be  that  Development allowed  Planning  but  Department  before.  Market The  Review commercial  Central  Broadway  structure a  direct  under  a  number  made  financial  constraints  agencies  such  confidence building In  as  the  has  through  at  Broadway  W.  redevelopment into  the  became while Recent  major  office  such  storey  during  Seventies,  office  an  towers  period.  that  seems  sound,  and  a  Towards  by  Using  automobile is  and  public  That  investor by  only  medical  the  the  the  late  the the  major  along  the  strip,  dimension.  "efficient"  uses multi-  locations  dealerships  and  dealerships  horizontal  these  beginning  building  Sixties  Car  uses  minor  only  space-intensive  overshadowing  trend  the  flourished.  replacement  as  by  demonstrated  considered  inevitable.  such  1960's;  v e r t i c a l ,  is  spatial  experienced  space-extensive a  is  private  decades.  and  that  added  area  along  of  imposed  Department.  two  be  decisions  those  this  redevelopment  extent  uses  as  can  of  patterns  locational,  Broadway  1950's  development  space-extensive  in past  horizontal,  buildings  economically  the  of  Planning  Central  development 750  the  land-use  result  well  high  over  general,  as  City's  been  a c t i v i t y  and  are  investors  to  clearly  is  whereby  no these  for longer uses  76  are  locating  The  vacated  more  intensive  medical of  At  the  next  towers  of  Oak  major  Streets  proposals, w i l l  Broadway  occurs  older  new  office  buildings.  has  been  limited  redevelopment  of  sites  to  now to  only stay  of  sites  have  in  Growth  the  auto  to  the  rely  of  the  for  major  necessary on  a  to  r e t a i l  office uses. West  locations  Major  with  in  view  new, of  profitable  the uses.  relied  but  complexes,  of  buildings  r e t r o f i t s .  more  small  trends  along  low-rise  customers,  relatively  already  the  buildings  clientele.  Over  continuous  t r a d i t i o n a l l y  office  between  currently  a  as  floor  and  for  have  t r a f f i c  be  uneconomical  property  strip  into  be  time.  land-use  retail  well  present  level,  ground  low-rise  probably  use  and  provide  or  old  potential  populations  buildings  may  sites  w i l l  commercial  with  present  redevelopment  of  and  influx  buildings  if  floors  renovations  would  pedestrian  ground  for  Granville.  and  ground  the  clustered  low-density  to  buildings  along  at  some  of  results,  Redevelopment  low-rise  uses  their  are  plans  by  trend  for  west  land  health  augmented  continue,  shops  component in  The  assembled  latter  area  locations.  towards  Broadway  the  space  dedicate  been  approved  commercial/retail  r e t a i l  the  buildings.  suburban of  complexes  occupy  retail  t y p i c a l l y  Retail  office in  sites  This  Central  and  and  movement  recently  character  high-density  The  The  offices.  decade,  of  has  Drive,  prime  oriented  ground-floor  strip  provide  uses  construction,  between  Marine  redevelopment.  present, and  under  of  locations  business  Cambie  Kingsway,  service  determine  the  to  with  large  on the  office  Retail  outlets  number  of  may  buildings  business. along  Central  Broadway  has  been  positive,  77  development manner  over  about  ten  the  has, the  is  (MaCaulay,  space and  last  percent  strip  Central  however,  the  it  11  another  15  and  over  the  peaked  square  foot  and  of  have  diverged  25  percent  space  from  in a  1981.  helped A  factor  in  1981.  keep of  rates  percent of  these  make  to  large  assembled  downtown,  d i s t r i c t  Central  of  communication). offers  views  i t  1977  figures  locational  the  to  at  a  sites,  Broadway  to  good is  of  False  Creek  and  while  rental  rates  Seventies  for  top  square  foot  of  have  1 or  a  (Pierce,  B.C.  on  per  fluctuated  the  Central  In  addition  and  proximity  1984,  Place,  in  Eighties  reputation  the  a  annum  2 percent  in  a c c e s s i b i l i t y  to  downtown  early  redevelopment.  particularly  strip,  developable  behind  inherent  The  rental  lagged  level.  offices.  one  have  low  prestigious  with  gross,  the  gaining  space  Region.  and  per  during  advantages  attractive  floor  office  per  Broadway low  1981,  office  early  per  a  of  annum  rates  Central  construction  s t r i p  to  in  on  foot  0.65,  dollars  As  pace  dollars  Broadway  Rental  Region  values  square  in  the  1983).  kept  Land  about  period,  in  of  of  this  Metropolitan  f i f t y  value  twenty-seven  Broadway the  of  dispersed  addition  Vancouver  have  Central  spread  8.0  number  in  the the  per  par  slowing  to  at  on  Vacancy  of  The  a  feet  years.  an  about  high  1980-81.  by  from  point  was  gross  has  downtown  square  rates  set  the  d i s t r i c t  of  and  during  Ltd,  share  dollars  values  space  Co.  across  1981,  sixteen  Land  those  and  sporadic With  o f f i c e  fifteen  a  half.  3 million  share  in  in  growing  percent  last  both  respectively.  of  absorption  rates  a  Maitland  percent  Construction  annum  over  a  and  fastest  Nicolls,  give an  decade  per  Broadway's  occurred  a  personal  north the  as  side,  downtown  78  peninsula  and  advantages: a  rate  mountains  major  s t a l l  contrast  to  downtown  s t a l l  1000  per  per  square  construction  Broadway  should  beyond.  structures  one  new  of  the  on  500  Broadway  Broadway  square  feet.  which  Considering  expected  increase  have  feet  structures  its  over  the  share  of  also  offers  on-site  parking  parking  at  of  floor  space,  in  are  r e s t r i c t e d to  one  factors  the  these next  few  office  and  years,  uses  Central  within  the  Region.  4.5  Analysis  4.5.1  following  segments.  and  The  change  commercial the  Results  Introduct ion The  of  of  analysis  first  for  section  retail,  land-use  the  and  change  results  categories change,  4.5.2  from  as  and  Growth The a  of  (See  Figure  land-use  r e t a i l  in  A  the  logical  of  groups  the  A  the  analysis,  of  in  growth  light  chapter  using  the  number  synthesis  the  concepts  concludes  a  sub-categories  thesis. of  into  concepts  office  remainder  synthesis  patterning  the  and  4.2),  broken  of of of  presents same  sub-  of  growth,  and  shifted  work.  Change sector  predominantly  diverse  and  uses.  In  response  along  the  of  low  to  and  the the  Central order  specialized  s t r i p  The  is  addresses  clustering  before.  and  used  follows. the  results  service,  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system  growth  of  Broadway  goods  nature absolute  increased  in  has  function  grown to  relation  growth  of  relative  one to  of  other  a  highly non-CBD  commercial  land-uses  importance  of  this  COMMERCIAL LAND USE CLASSIFICATION* SERVICE  RETAIL  OFFICE  Food  Restaurant, cafe  Distributors  Clothing  Barber  General business o f f i c e s  Department store  Beauty salon  Insurance companies  Hardware & p a i n t  Gleaners  Shipping companies  Appliances & e l e c t r i c a l  Tailor  Accountants  Furniture  Dressmaker  Architects/Engineers  Chemist  Shoe r e p a i r  Doctors  Jewellery & g i f t s  Real estate agents  Dentists  Florist  Travel agents  ,Legal  Stationery  Undertakers  Professional o f f i c e s  O f f i c e machines, e t c .  Opticians  Governmental o f f i c e s  Music & musical i n s t r .  Jewellery r e p a i r s  Management consultants  Motor-vehicle  Business service  A d v e r t i s i n g agents  dealer  Motor tyre service  Branch bank  Marine r e t a i l  B u i l d i n g contractors  B u i l d e r ' s hardware  Auto r e p a i r garages  )  Dental mechanics Hire service *5ee Appendix A Land Use  Classification.  M.A. THESIS  (Alexander.  1973)  U.B.C  BLAKE B. HUDEMA  FIG.  4.2  80  area of  to  the  the  strip  The  day  (see  1951  accounted area.  City,  for  The  needs  retail  Figure  data  about  percent  15  the  reflect  shops  indicates of  catered  surrounding  to  then  multi-family  structures  interspersed  and  majority  extending  stores,  drug  dealing  in  the  stores,  thirty  dramatic. rents,  Central  Broadway  stores.  The  "automobile support  Soon  car  most  retail  sales.  dealers. car  dealers  functional retail  auto  1951  areas  the  the  the  ones  or  day-to-  in  to  small  uses  the  single  commercial  with  Major  study  and  strip  hardware  shift  replaced  in  the  the  building and  and land-  frontage  included  shops  and  food shops  establishments  stores,  have a  been  highly  most  able  locational  convenience,  of the  retail  retail  shifts  major  auto  space-extensive blocks  this  These  along  to  pay  attributes  low-order the  emergence  influx  of  goods  organized  recent  has  of  medical  of  business  establishments.  Entire  Accompanying  or  establishments  convenience  among  were  upon  obvious the  on  block.  specialized  presence,  after  large,  the  reliant  have  r e t a i l  related  opened  and  nature  equipment.  years  row",  the  appliance  Highly  higher  shops  of  shops the  l i v i n g  retail  depth  industrial  Over been  of  evolving  retail  residential  community  The  that  the  residential  uses.  the  4.3).  land-use  f i f t y - s i x of  land-uses  were  influx  comparison  linkages. uses  has  The  moved  establishments taken  were  establishments for  dealers  up  a  by  number  located  in  shopping  combination  characterized  a  onto  the  specializing half  dozen  of  smaller  proximity  to  (competition) of  Central  strip  these  two  Broadway  as  in  and new  dealers. used  major and  new other  types a  car  of  typical  82  "automobile  row"  Parallel has  been  the  retail  to  medical  growth of  a  discount of  these  is  shops,  these  towards  with  equipment, Although large  are  a  and  as  of  from  highly  While  the  remained  the  strip,  major  support  service  The  the  found  complex.  already  i t  Today,  uses  recent  the  current  have  emergence competitive  move  establishments. and  uses  the  linked  to  cater  are  common  on  Office  electronic  along  largely  the supply  business  commercial  to  to  business  strip.  sales,  a  personal  business  Central  Broadway.  these  to  too  the  they  uses. really  have  of  of  changed  shops  establishments  the  has have  has  do  to  not  be  functional considerably.  shown  shifted  by  account  shops  and  reflect  the  a  spill-over  along  (personal  grown  shops  Music  d i s t r i c t  establishments part  clothing  appear  commercial  establishments sizes  r e t a i l  Granville  instead  important  service  nature  of  service  along  high-fashion  specialized  they  while  and  portion  strip,  an  percent, of  fueled  computer  shops  close  the  have  of  medical medical  trends,  beginning  retail  shops  patterns the  medical  opticians  network.  related  are  audio/visual,  furniture  and  sector  strip.  and  on  of  retail  computers.  significant  number  shifts  oriented  numbers  the  has  the  office  are  Specialized Camera,  on  uses  auto  growing  and  shops  growing  these  the  competitive  emphasis  number  machines  uses  the  Pharmacists  shops  highly  of  increased  near  optical  Despite strip  locate  retail  into  climate  for  this  establishments.  evolved of  to  emergence  advantageous the  strip.  Granville.  and  business)  character The  absolute  approximately  l i t t l e over  the  increase. last  of  250 The  t h i r t y  83  years  were  from  personal  Service  establishments  oriented  to  passing  in  shoemakers service  residents  automobiles and  repair  The  to  populations  in  the  and  the  Restaurants  over  in  delis and  to  Ladies'  have  salons  travel  shown  Health numbers occupy the  a  from  this men's found  in  this  numbers  of  on  the  far,  office  in  shops  number  locations,  have  the  uses.  those  t a i l o r s ,  Auto-related tire  shops  offices  and  agencies, services  salons  three  Opticians  the  in  15  for  1951  to and  both  Real  men  estate  both  have  decades. grown  dental  order  the  shops  have  and  on  in  attractive;  the  been  establishments.  one.  establishments  ten  to  in  mechanics  benefit  from  strip. related  fold  computer have  from  to  strip  over  workers  service  four  has  residential  sandwich  Hair  in  establishments increased  surrounding office  probably on  apparently,  numbers  growth  Broadway.  business  to  Cleaners,  convenience  Central  other  outlets,  and  garages,  day-time  along  service  By  both  service  Office  offices  in  medical  Employment  the  establishments.  have  increases  people  strip.  ones.  retail  s t r i p  establishments  in  range  outnumber  medical  to  the  predominant  increased  paralleled  years.  the  have  existing  than  oriented  like the  the  were  service  class  and  1951,  included  growth  shops  marked  business  surrounding  shops  They  f i r s t  women  and  1981.  in  increases  strip. 60  more  shops.  increase  response  to  along  establishments  industrial/machine  in  services  to  over  the  accounting  emerged  as  business  and  last a  rather t h i r t y  variety  peripherals  to  of the  strip.  the  greatest  sector.  In  growth  along  1951,  fewer  Central than  Broadway seventy  has  been  office  84  establishments  located  this  office  date  percent office  the of  the  become  strip.  increased  office the  The  uses  second  rich  (see  largest  six  for  1981.  By  over  50  Aggregate  fold  diversity  group  office  of  as  well  the  estate  agents  addressed  in  interesting the  is  probably  this  paper,  point  strip:  offices  on  and  This  increased may  over  professionals, offices  the  to  financial office  of  the  consulting  business  services  travel  agents  societal  of  of  large  of  in  as  strip,  already  the  on  the  wealth  of  insurance and  real  factors,  not  location.  One  insurance  regional  firms  and  further  the  an  strong  and  last  ties  head in  onto  the  each  the group  peninsula. and  accounting engineers,  The  prestigious firms. have  Some moved  decade.  specializing the  most  establishments  located  move  e l i g i b l e  and  where  to  downtown  legal  created  these  to  slow  the  groups  have  the  on  architects  s t r i p  establishments; of  in  discussed  been  strip  influx  advisory  sector  have  attributable  an  the  business  increase  located be  uses  l i s t ) ,  patterning).  notably  Business  w i l l  detailed  the  considerations  have  communities  to  to  a  indicates  in  preponderance  trend  perception lead  to  firms  be  respective  more  than  accountants  may  The  increase  due  the  (this  land-use  Lawyers strip.  is  several  here  section  as  of  offices  offices,  their  in  Broadway.  for  available.  area  450  Appendices  services  to  along  approximately  and  has  over  accounted  establishments  resources  on  to  years.  General have  compared  establishments  total  categories  thirty  here,  they  there.  in  management  recent are are  trend  locating  and in  to  the  reinforced  by  85  The Medical  dominant  one.  have  increased  over  Medical  --  medical  practices  dental into  hygenists  and  out  likely  of  to  occupy  doctors  who  practice  As  has  been  and  office  from  convenience  on  low  establishments  over  Trends  Central  inherent  in  Sixties, major  the  Central  who  locations.  Next  came  most  interrelated has  recent  business are  wanted  been  growing  accomodate  in  them.  as to  group  service  prominence  retail as  the  of has  inner in  shift  observed.  the  attracted accessible  services.  grown,  and  "medical  structures  trends  During  highly  land-uses  away  specialized  city,  medical  of  service,  larger  This  Central  node".  has  establishments.  new  majority  been  much  much  offices.  metropolis. the  are  r e t a i l ,  services  c i t y ' s of  specialists  to  network  change  of  and  of  more  receptionists,  separate  the  to  informal  doctors  has  two  much  this  The  centralize  the  show  substantial.  reflect  uses  r e l a t i v e l y  be,  of  in  last  to  range  years  the  by  and  in  major  of  and  a  increase  part  complex  and  so  goods  a  l a b e l l e d as  growth  office,  a  do  thirty  of  made  Medical  been  Broadway  Broadway,  uses  Broadway  last  maturing  auto  highly  the  order  be  over  on  others  Through  premises  the  has  the  hand  Moreover,  strip  demonstrated,  and  can  shared  establishments  along  use  services.  professionals  continue  space.  care  percent  other  office.  the  health  and  office  single  health  hundred  the  equipment.  a  the  outnumber  been,  efficient  dental  six  on  co-operative  system,  operate  have  is  other  doctors  practices  " c l i n i c "  less  s t r i p  and  grouping  can  the  dentists  decades  small;  on  doctors,  Broadway three  use  been  The toward  These are  built  uses to  86  4.5.3  Markov The  the  Markov  trends  analysis  (see  in  will  Specific  analysis  provides  some  land-use  4.4 the  Due,  data  and  restricted  the  this  be  period.  to  Changes last  Location  of  Figures  floor  of  compares  periods,  use  Analysis  thirty  -  years  4.9)  show  the  w i l l  change  or  part  the  scarcity  ground  level  to  r e t a i l  the  much  more  likely  to  time  than  similar  1951  to  the  This  at  pattern  retail the  of  uses  at  s t i l l  r e t a i l  household variety extent  of  a  this  of  the  in  the  early  uses  decade,  at  specific  food  store  decade; is  the  decades,  locations  1961  but  the  a  time upper  has  been  is  were  periods  remained  s t i l l  did  not  food change.  gathered  for  this  1981,  the  The  way  to  easier  s t a b i l i t y  shifts service  locations  by  thesis.  s t a b i l i t y  were  of  of Over  land-  percentages  were  evident  shops.  Retail-  replaced  service  and  service  uses  to  of  period  sub-categories  primarily  it  study  generally  uses  retail  time  were  the  a l l  replacement  that  the  the  sites  over  for  longer  Over  noticeable  retail-miscellaneous  area  for  to  gave  of  for  retail  diminished.  f i f t y ,  study  locations  supported  information  fact  that  with  analysis  years  today.  This  dealing  time  matrices  over  s t a b i l i t y  would  the  of  The  two  probability  the  land-uses  around  the  data,  decreasing  establishments:  by  complexity  over  use  into  basis.  aggregate  another  location  office-based.  explained  The  percentage  structure  'establishments and  apart.  to  specific  site  their  the  two  one  at  s t a b i l i t y  specific  hovered  stay  of  by  subsequent  uses  as  end  of  uses  retail the  the  site  insights  establishments.  indicate Land  stores  to  valuable a  of  five  establishments.  Over  land-uses  in  1961,  on  case  same  years  constant.  change  Change  retrofit  to  a  by  lesser  might an  a  be  existing  3  S  to B M  a  6'i  RESIDENTIAL  £  s 1  a  CO1  CO  9 5  o  S  £  o  o  Cd  Cd  w  @  s  E  E  E  e s s  @  E  i 3  s  E  <  >  to to  2  73  RETAIL POOD  100  RETAIL CLOTHING  -87 8 77  RETAIL HSHLD RETAIL MISC RETAIL OFFICE  59  RETAIL AUTO SERVICE RESTAUR  17  SERVICE HAIR  SERVICE PERSBUS  83  - 6 -6s.  SERVICE PERSONAL •  13 73  13  "  50  SERVICE BUSINESS  50  100  SERVICE BANK  60  SERVICE CONTRACT  20  20  100  SERVICE AUTO  10  SERVICE REPAIR  10  7  OFFICE GENERAL  60  20 87  100-  OFFICE PROF  85  OFFICE MEDICAL OFFICE GOVT OFFICE BUSADV  100  WHOLESALE  71  12  MANUFACTURE  100  PUBLIC  100  PARKING  100  UNDERCONSTRUCT  Land  39  15  VACANT BLDG VACANT LAND  • 90  10  CULTURE/REC  Use T r a n s i t i o n M a t r i x :  50  17  1?  1951-1956.  M.A. THESIS  U.B.C.  BLAKE B. HUDEMA  FIG. 4.4  r  1  a a a> >i  3  o  o  O  o  a  s § §  C/l  w  w w w  I §< 3 3 g s g s s § < < s a  D ;  s  o  M  o  W  o P3  K  K  *TJ  M  &s  3  W  W  W W W Z td  o  w  w  5 3  rc  a  a  a a  a  M  § a e  > M  IT-  s  > M  M O  tn g  3 3 8 P  O  B5?  rt  rb  RESIDENTIAL R E T A I L ROOD  X  RETAIL O  I  R E T A I L HSHLD  ON •  ON  -P"  CLOTHING  R E T A I L MISC  •  RETAIL  OFFICE  - ^  S E R V I C E RESTAUR  R E T A I L AUTO  S E R V I C E HAIR SERVICE PERSONAL ~  -t^ —  S E R V I C E PERBUS S E R V I C E BUSINESS  u - i-  S E R V I C E BANK S E R V I C E CONTRACT  u> SERVICE AUTO  ON ON  -  f E-  SERVICE REPAIR  -o O F F I C E GENERAL O F F I C E PROF  ON  O F F I C E MEDICAL —  O F F I C E GOVT O F F I C E BUSADV  c7i  c CD  o  WHOLESALE MANUFACTURE PUBLIC PARKING *~ CULTUR/REC UNDERCONSTR. VACANT LAND i- VACANT BLDG  88  r OJ 3 DJ  G c/i fp n  »r> >r$  H  ^  O  £ £ S OJ 3 in  m  o  t-  1  8  O  10  g s a @ a s  ^ ~ ^? 3 s  I-H W M  o Pa  n  tx)  td  @ s  W td  O  n n  S 6  CO -  Oft-'r-'c-'r'r-'M >  o  " p"  6?  U  3  S  IT  1  I !g  RESIDENTIAL  —  R E T A I L FOOD  ^  OJ  rt  RETAIL  CLOTHING  R E T A I L HSHLD  03  g  £  ^ < ^  —  RETAIL  HISC  RETAIL  OFFICE  R E T A I L AUTO  — • ro S E R V I C E RESTAUR  .c-  S E R V I C E HAIR '  S E R V I C E PERSONAL S E R V I C E PERBUS  o '  =  S E R V I C E BUSINESS S E R V I C E BANK S E R V I C E CONTRACT S E R V I C E AUTO  ' ON  o o  S E R V I C E REPAIR O F F I C E GENERAL  o  '•— O F F I C E PROF  1 i  O F F I C E MEDICAL :  O F F I C E GOVT O F F I C E BUSADV  > H I  m 05  c CD b  WHOLESALE . MANUFACTURE PUBLIC PARKING CULTUR/REC UNDERCONSTR. ro VACANT LAND ro VACANT BLDG  68  f 3  a a in  O h3 h3 O -*3 F M% MS »r) t H  -3  -1  w w  OJ D in  3 S  o ra  3 3  — f1 o K  o <  Y—i  o  I-H  hH  O O  t»3 P3  M  PI 50  M >  tr"  >tf s a> M cn w a H z to o > R S > i  to  D  c-*  f  t-i  S  § 3 S P  CO f*  RESIDENTIAL  O D  <=>  s  (RETAIL ROOD  0)  R E T A I L CLOTHING  •1 •-»•  R E T A I L HSHLD R E T A I L MISC R E T A I L OFFICE  cn  R E T A I L AUTO  I  CD  o  S E R V I C E RESTAUR  cc o  vo —i  S E R V I C E HAIR S E R V I C E PERSONAL S E R V I C E PERBUS S E R V I C E BUSINESS S E R V I C E BANK S E R V I C E CONTRACT SERVICE AUTO SERVICE REPAIR  ro  CN  O F F I C E GENERAL O F F I C E PROF O F F I C E MEDICAL O F F I C E GOVT  CD  s X  m  O F F I C E BUSADV WHOLESALE MANUFACTURE PUBLIC  c  PARKING  b  CULTUR/REC UNDERCONSTR. VACANT LAND VACANT BLDG  06  3  o  3  9  S o  s 79 RESIDENTIAL RETAIL FOOD RETAIL CLOTHING RETAIL HSHLD RETAIL MISC RETAIL OFFICE —_ RETAIL AUTO SERVICE RESTAUR _ SERVICE HAIR SERVICE PERSONALSERVICE PERSBUS SERVICE BUSINESS SERVICE BANK SERVICE CONTOACTSERVICE AUTO SERVICE REPAIR OFFICE GENERAL OFFICE PROF OFFICE MEDICAL OFFICE GOVT OFFICE BUSADV WHOLESALE MANUFACTURE PUBLIC PARKING CULTURE^EC — UNDERCONSTRUCT VACANT BLDG VACANT LAND  Land  Use T r a n s i t i o n  in  | 50  a  G,  o  9  H  o  Sr  w  w  B  e i 8 g  CQ U  CxJ  a  0  S 0  io 1g 0 S  in  0  E  0  0  0  g  w  I0 I 0  14  13  25  13  -54  It  4  58  8  4  1  10 - 60 86  4  4  13  10  10  10 10  I  4  93 10  5  75 60  40  3  70  17  17  10  80  10  3  3 17  33  50  50  50  50 13  13  13  2  5  2  1?  33  13 2  50  3  67  2  17 33 79  100 100  50  50  20  80  100 64  - 7  ? - 7 -  33  1?  1?  9  9  27 25  25  Matrix:  1971-1976.  M.A. THESIS  25  U.B.C.  BLAKE B. HUOEMA  FIG.  4.8  tr cu 1  D  a  a  ti» n 0) D  in  o o a o  p*;  m o  tr*  c  t-  w  "3 *3 to  o  O  2  *g  O  o  ui  cn i/>W  t-t t-H l-H  U  W  w M 2  D  CO  td  CO  O  R t73 >  s  O ri-rlJ  M  M  S § §  O  W  I i se g a: a 5Q  33  H >  33  >  p p C-  3  SO  33  f  t-  >  sS p g  g  3 3  o  e >  H  t)  §  tr  1  ^RESIDENTIAL  CJ ^ &  g  R E T A I L ROOD  o  RETAIL  £  CLOTHING  R E T A I L HSHLD  jr  cn I  =0  E3  o R E T A I L MISC RETAIL ^  OFFICE  R E T A I L AUTO  VO CO  SERVICE RESTAUR  tr o  u>  a SERVICE HAIR S E R V I C E PERSONAL  -o g  ;SERVICE PERBUS £ SERVICE BUSINESS S E R V I C E BANK S E R V I C E CONTRACT ;SERVICE AUTO JSERVICE REPAIR  W O CO  .p-  lOFFICE GENERAL lOFFTCE PROF JOFFICE MEDICAL flmCK GOVT  CD 3 r> > H X 03 m w X c W o m c a b  iOFFICE BUSADV <r  :—jVHOLESALE JMANUFACTURE PUBLIC PARKING CULTUR/REC UNDERCONSTR.  co ^  5 VACANT LAND  viniNT m.Tir,  36  93  building  for  establi  service-related  contrast  to  segments,  the  range  s t a b i l i t y .  of  foundation  be  for  quite  a  change  common  similar  was  as  a  not  (values  of  but  of  appear  such  and  to  70  personal,  personal-business,  location.  For  of  interior  lasting most  space,  i n s t a b i l i t y  percent).  of  pattern,  as  the  In five  these auto  with  variety  <  and  need  comes  to  low  the  office  85  of  are  and  reasons,  these  uses  remaining  repair,  show  including  have  shown  or  change  (probability  other  words,  the  to  ten  small  years  service  service  at  of  the  in  of  to Bank  their stable  length  local  locations,  f l e x i b i l i t y  ease the  of  of  less any  is  of  adaptation  greatest of  of  business  a  single  location  uses  change  sites  without  are  interesting  establishments  a  part  for  service  values  probability  locations  less  terms  a  the  design.  slightly  into  is  demonstrate  locations  in  might  which  restaurant  also  a  business.  scope  interior  percent)  The  out  another,  due  as  reflects  change  Banks  stable  integration  time.  one  a  maintained  location  of  limited  and  retail  displays  is  carry  percent),  vaults  the  change  rate  Generally,  85  use  of  to  replace  salons  that  the  this  expect  community  of  percentage  of  of  of  established  redevelopment.  (values  between  an  necessary  Due  Hairdressing  a  low  examined.  result  desire  convenience.  The  on  of  land-use  s t a b i l i t y  establishments  infrastructure  customers  rely  explanation  s t a b i l i t y  special  stay,  for  s t a b i l i t y  commercial  greatest  occurrence.  this only  The  of  infrastructure  restaurant  thesis,  segment  business.  plausible  that  relative  Restaurants  specialized  Another  the  service  restaurants.  the  than  shments.  In  by  uses  low.  amount than  50  business Whereas apparent in  that  94  they  are  most  consistent within  with  the  The  change  business  replaced  the  fact  commercial  consistent  last  often  of  the  offices  have  years.  A  s t a b i l i t y remained small  were  service  land-uses.  However,  considered,  last  office  three  appear  of  have a  medical  integration should  be  of  d i f f i c u l t categories. trend  the  Markov Central  location incorporate individual 1981 .  by  by  The  few  practice  In  the  office  community.  General  of  the  businesses  moving  out  of  retail  and  a  by  on  business  small  has  been  basis.  led  to  the  a  of  have  periods  of  strip  changed the  location  and  movement  occupied  the  keeping  the  study.  offices  The  proved in  these  with  the  uses. in  has  following discussion  land-use  the  Again,  establishments in  over  l i t t l e  successful  The  into  uses.  of  possible.  have  doctors  replacement  commercial  analysis  office  probable,  office  are  which  s t a b i l i t y  of  changes  offices  advisory  number is  that  shops  therefore,  time  establishments  assume  medical  other  of  level  offices  locations,  and  variety  to  remained  several  location  have  over  service  relies  s t a b i l i t y  Broadway  offices  ground  community; some  business  by  medical  analysis  changes  linkages  appear  and  replaced  other  this  similar  locations  d i f f i c u l t  have  the  General  suggested The  retail  governmental to  on  appears  office  only  to  through  due  as  not  the  expected.  offices  analysis  how  into  rely  This  at  general  is  been  of  replaced  locations  decades.  to  nature  same  it  establishments  Medical  both  number  locations  office  that  r e t a i l .  community.  office  were  auto  establishments  with  thirty  by  demonstrating changed  on  section of  patterns  how  a  w i l l these  evident  in  95  4.5.4  Land The  into  Patterning  preceding  the  last  Use  growth  thirty  processes patterns  and  years. has  of  directions:  been  more  comprehensive  cluster  land-uses  Land variety  uses of  fundamental  of  At  to  a  decisions,  their  given  a  that  orientation  and  between  external  location  location. to  establishments  choice  internal  i t  As  outlined  competition,  competitive,  which  with the  two  offers  suppliers  complementary,  with  a  uses  locations an  these  and  of  into  a  clustering  to  proximities  some  the  establishments  (see  the  commensal  and  which  external  public, and  equitable most  ancillary  Therefore,  meet  minimum  w i l l  choose  economies  proximal with  or  consideration  area.  establishment  include  in  implicitly  rational the  locate  over-ride  that,  both  This of  access  in  which  types.  factors  beneficial  earlier,  by  contended  attributes,  evolved from  a  uses.  spatial  building,  other  other  adopts for  establishments  these  locate  land-  reasons  evidence  level,  is  individual  land-use  employed  While  two  the  or  The  from  analysis  to  the  patterns.  the  ranging  provides  land,  how  clearly  different  for  location  relation  clustering  macro  need  on  have  c r i t e r i a  at  over  adjustment  considered  focuses in  Broadway  land-use  then,  patterns,  uses  arrangements.  of  and  insights  continual  of  looks  strip,  the  these  themselves;  valuable  along  analysis  located  financial  e x p l i c i t l y ,  of  Broadway  location  2).  land-uses  are  approach  the  some  land-use  between  interrelationship  response  among  along  evident  Chapter  the  have  Along  of  formation  identifiable  dispersion. are  the  i n i t i a l l y  provided  result  commercial  types  has  change  The  use  certain  section  of  location  linkages nature  of  a  (see  96  Chapter of  3 ) . T h i s next  land-use.  suggests The  As  stock  s t o c k . As  Broadway has  accounts  pattern  f o r the  the  western  grown and  the  literature,  evidence  land-use  strip  retail  locating  association. patterns  today  is  along  Broadway and  Changing  retail  practices  surrounding  residential  g r o w t h . In c o n t r a s t , clothing  land-use 40  area, the  here  have  the  strip  The  t o show a and  ground  of  complexes.  in  this  Retail  lots  respect  and  to  remained a minor dispersed  of  for this  the use  i n the l a c k of  household  spatial  a  pattern.  fluctuations  account  establishments  the  establishments  automobile  have  i n t o a complex  of  majority newer  Specifically,  shopping  along  percent  office  p o p u l a t i o n s may  goods have e v o l v e d  study  Burrard S t r e e t at  with  food o u t l e t s  retail  the  land-uses.  large-scale  of g r o c e r y  strip  Cambie S t r e e t  uses c o n c e n t r a t e d  major  have c o n t i n u e d  the  and  of a s m a l l e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n of  Broadway.  i n t e r r u p t e d by  component,  along  this  sporadic  S t r e e t and  f o r about  p r o v i d e d by  a  segments of  S t r e e t and  premises,  lots.  in  two  of c o m m e r c i a l  older  changes  of u s e s o c c u p y i n g  space  service  along  number of v a c a n t  retail  in  consists  accounts  significant  occurred  network of c o m m e r c i a l  occupies  continuity  types  office  Fir  and  component  i n space  in  between Oak  of t h e  establishments  component  along  The  retail  area  between  a complex  The  large  bulk  area  uses.  the  concentrating  edge of t h e  created  floor  patterns  functional  resulted  above, g r o w t h has  (see F i g u r e 4 . 1 0 ) . The  has  imply  illustrates  of b u i l d i n g s and  noted  dispersed  office  the  the p h y s i c a l  Broadway.  the  while  in  locations  analysis  Growth a l o n g to  investigates  demonstrated  that proximal  following  Central  section  and  relationship  97  H m ffl  Cd n S  z ^  = Cd o • a s= < a s: o o 3 < 5 >- < o  RESIDENTIAL  2  1  1  4  1 4 -  8 RETAIL FOOD  1  1  4  RETAIL CLOTHING  5 RETAIL HSHLD RETAIL ICSC  1  <  ,  Z  RETAIL O F F I C E  2  SERVICE RESTAUR  4 7  3  J  1  4  11 17 17 3 31 1 1 1 1  SERVICE PERBUS  5  2  2 2 9  1  SERVICE BUSINESS '  }  2  1 1  SERVICE REPAIR  2  18 1 1 4 2 6 5 5 18 9 27 2  7  5 8  1  1  4  3 5  1 2  1 2 2 7 7 5 5 55 33  13 22 9  2 9  9  9  5  1 11 11  1  4  4  4  3 3 11 11 2 2 5  2  1  1  33  13  13  13  13  1  3 3 55 2 7  3  3  2 33 4  1  3  5 6 10 10  4 11  11  11 1 1 17 17 22 4  4  8  1  1  4  1 1 22 1 2 1 2 18 9 18 9 18 1 1 1 1  2 25  SERVICE CONTRACT 1  2  3  4 13  4 4 1 1 11 2 19 5 lg 55 5 10  3 3 55 2 7  1 1  1 2  8  5  2  6  8  15  4  2  9  SERVICE AUTO  2  5  2 7  2  18  18 11  4  18  5  5  4  4  1  1  1  1  11  SERVICE PERSONAL  5  1 1  4  4  1  2 1 6 6 9 3 5 3 2 10 10 15 5 . 8  3  4  2  27  a 1  5 5 5 5  24  2 9 2 3  2  >  17 10 5 3  5 .  1  5 23 3 55 23  5 32  1  9 18 9  2 2 9 9  SERVICE BANK  2  1  RETAIL AUTO  SERVICE HAIR  5 16  1  a  o j -§ s 5 o 6 6 1" l 4 4 7 7 24 24 44 16 16 28 28 1 2 1 2 10 20 1 5 1 1  FIR  Q S J  GRAr  p H M Z  HER  M K <; H  9  1  9  9  2 25  13  100 7 OFFICE GENERAL  OFFICE PROF  3  2 1  11  7  6 2 2 4 1 1 3  5 3  1 3  3  9 23  2 1  OFFICE MEDICAL  8 1 4 2 1  1  O F F I C E GOVT  WHOLESALE MANUFACTURE  3 21  1  2 40  7  1  PUBLIC PARKING CULTUR/REC UNDERCONSTRUCT  1 10 1 6  20  VACANT BLDG  1 1  8  27 16  10  2 5  2 5 2  3  6  .  2 1 9 3 2 14  2 3  12-  19  2  by  L o c a t i o n  2  20  2 3  20  4 1 2 22 6 11 5  8  3 5  1 5 '4 2 8 6  1  20  M.A. THESIS Use  20  1  2 11  4  80  Land  10 4 26 10 19 2 14 8 1 6 2 2  20  1  3 5  14  7  10  10  23  1  2 14  20  1  12 19  12 7  1 1 3 1 6 6 18 6  12  20  1  11  20  1  1 2 2 6 11 11  8 1 1  2  7  10  3  8  1  1  2 1  3  19  2 1 7 3 6 1 1 4 2  14 9  3 30 1  7  7  3 17 100  12  2 1 40 20 4 1 1  20  1 1 2 2  VACANT LAND  25  3  1 5  4  7  149 33 65 14  4 2  1 6  29 20  1 3  20  10 O F F I C E BUSADV  2  2 2 4  4 7 7 15 14 8 16 6 6 9 5 10 4 4  M a t r i x  -  1981.  UBC.  BLAKE B. HUDEMA  FIG. 4.10  98  among  themselves  shops  have  values and  and  with  clustered  both  of  in  less  areas  retail  in  appear  be  similar  land-uses.  pattern  towards  Retail with  office  the  lower this  thesis,  these  offices  proximal  as  rely,  may  and  retail  automobile  200,300,900, along  the  developments Service  and  the  The  services  1000  over  the  next  of  the  offered  uses,  few  than  give  very  The  less  of  in  an  retail  to  a  area  of  far  in  to  the  nature  which the  of  most largest  uses  are  the  in  the  similar  uses  primarily like  of  these  so  uses  on  of  consistent  Most  Occupying  way  retail  linkages.  least  surrounding  more  intensive  years.  the  along r e t a i l  Broadway uses  nearest-neighbour  are  show  presented  Broadway,  For  concentration  Street  located  West  land-uses  pattern  on  clusters.  household  uses  pattern.  probably  of  retail  wholesale  of  concentrations  thesis.  these  reliant  blocks  for  be  evidence  4.5])  increasing  implied  to  Cambie  &  their  these  and  this  These  need  Broadway,  expected.  the  These  commercial  indices  for  w i l l  of  be  for  Granville  of  the  the  least  uses.  strip,  dispersed  and  would  account  probably  east  From  to  for  appear  in  location  opposed  sites  more  presented  uses.  account  4.4  The  establishments  do  area.  Maps  functions.  proximity  locations  located  retail  the  retail  supporting  establishments shops,  of  and  Growing  and  the  (nearest-neighbour  4.11  identity  Granville  Other  are  a  may  an  extensions  relationships  density  office  of  supply  establishments  office  shops  creating  area  to  Figure  establishments.  are  the  major  within  themselves  [see  these  other  stores  example, shops  with  of  to  land-uses  among  0.90  proximal  specialization linkages  than  other  diverse  and  display  (See  analysis, show  Maps  4.6  Figure  l i t t l e  a  much -  4.8  4.11). tendency  RANKING OF COMMERCIAL A C T I V I T Y OVER THIRTY ( i n descending 1981  0.30*  O F F I C E BUSINESSADV  0.37*  O F F I C E GOVERNMENT  0.33  SERVICE REPAIR  0.45  SERVICE  0.35  SERVICE BUSINESS  0.49  0.48  SERVICE BANK O F F I C E GOVERNMENT  SERVICE REPAIR  R E T A I L OFFICE SUPPLY 0.52 O F F I C E BUSINESSADV  O.63  Value) I95I  I96I  1971  S E R V I C E CONTRACTORS  PERSONAL  order o f Nearest Neighbor  YEARS  PERSONAL  0.44  S E R V I C E BUSINESS  0.03*  RETAIL HOUSEHOLD  0.62  S E R V I C E BANK  0.06*  SERVICE CONTRACTOR  0.63  R E T A I L CLOTHING  0.08*  0.64  SERVICE BUSINESS  0.64  O F F I C E PROFESSIONAL  0.09*  O.69*  SERVICE PERSBUSINESS 0 . 6 7  R E T A I L OFFICE SUPPLY 0 . 7 6  SERVICE  •  SERVICE REPAIR  0.71  S E R V I C E PERSBUSINESS 0 . 2 7 0.41  SERVICE REPAIR  SERVICE HAIRDRESSER  0.69  O F F I C E GENERAL  0.79  SERVICE RESTAURANT  0.72  SERVICE  PERSONAL  0.44  SERVICE RESTAURANT  0.76  O F F I C E PROFESSIONAL  0.81  O F F I C E PROFESSIONAL  0.77  R E T A I L HOUSEHOLD  0.46  0.?8*  SERVICE HAIRDRESSER  0.49  R E T A I L CLOTHING  0.80 '  O F F I C E MEDICAL  0.85  RETAIL FOOD  S E R V I C E BANK  0.82*  R E T A I L MISC  O.89  RETAIL O F F I C E SUPPLY 0.82  O F F I C E MEDICAL  0.50  R E T A I L HOUSEHOLD  0.84  R E T A I L FOOD  0.90*  RETAIL MISC  0.83  SERVICE AUTO  0.60*  O F F I C E MEDICAL  0.86  SERVICE HAIRDRESSER  0.91  OFFICE BUSINESSADV  0.85*  R E T A I L AUTO  0.73  O F F I C E PROFESSIONAL  0.9I  R E T A I L HOUSEHOLD  0.94  SERVICE BANK  0.91  O F F I C E GENERAL  0.78  RETAIL AUTO  0.95  OFFICE MEDICAL  1.00  R E T A I L MISC  0.84  0.99  OFFICE GENERAL  1.02  SERVICE CONTRACTOR  0.88*  SERVICE PERSBUSINESS O.98 O F F I C E GENERAL  1.04  SERVICE  R E T A I L AUTO  1.07  SERVICE RESTAURANT  1.02  R E T A I L AUTO  1.04 I  R E T A I L FOOD  0.98  SERVICE BUSINESS  1.13  SERVICE CONTRACTOR  1.08*  SERVICE HAIRDRESSER  1.35*  SERVICE RESTAURANT  1.13  RETAIL MISC  1.1?  SERVICE PERSBUSINESS 1.18  SERVICE AUTO  1.54  RETAIL FOOD  1.37  SERVICE AUTO  SERVICE AUTO  Nearest-Neighbor  PERSONAL  I.69*  * values w i t h l e s s than ten observations.  Activity.  M.A. THESIS  .  Rank  of  Commercial  !  U.B.C.  BLAKE B. HUDEMA  FIG.  4.11  100  TYPE: |RET A I L ' FC)OD 1951 i 1961 1971 1981 , co a.  TYPE:p  •  •  a ) <1 V1  c> a  u.  ML  1951 i 1961 1971 1981 ,  C L OTh IING  t  > X <s.  CD  c•> _ J £  •1  •  1"  «  X  <  o >•  c>  <*  i O  2!  •  •  •  • •  m o_  • •  • • to o  <  *  ft* A  f  -J  5  X  1  <  <  o  TYPE: FIEVM L ' HO USE•HO L D • ff t  POINT P A T T E R N - R E T A I L  1  J  =  z  o  >  M.A. THESIS U B C ^  B I  K F R  H  u  n  F  M  A  •  ONTARIO  or <  1  -J  UJ  ALBERTA ! COLUMBIA .  o _  g  z> or a. < to —o_  ASH CAMBIE  ac UJ  •  •  1  \ BIRCH  HEMLOCK.  OS -.14.  GRANVILLE.  •*  • 1 •  MANITOBA  •*  1  HEATHER i  ••  •  J PINE  BURRARD _  1951 • j 1961 ... 1971 , 1981  MAP 4.4  101  TYPE: R E T AIL 1951 i 1961 1971 1981  hAIS(:EL LA NEC)US  a  CO  X  <  OFF I C l T r  CO o  5  <  f•  X  X  <  m  o  i < cc c  o  i  mm  •1  •« mt  ALDER .  PINE  «•  1  <t-  c> >  : <  OM OBI L E  BIRCH  J  U  HEMLOCK.  * ff  •V  _i  UJ  o CC a. to  < o  «  LAUREL_  o  1  i  •  s f  i 5 • ui - X  <  *  z 2  M.A. THESIS POINT  1  o  1  TYPE: R E TAIL - /  cc b.  <  2  • •«  1961 1971  w  c>  >  3UF •PD f  •  u.  a  (  •  CO 0.  BURRARD  j  PATTERN -  RETAIL  •  <C  • CC  i -! § 3 cc! I  UBG  ONTARIO J  1951 i 1961 1971 1981 ,  <  »  CAMBIE  »  TYPE : FtET A I L  <  t1  mm  •  *  u.  IQRI  •  *  m m  MAP 4.5  102  TYPE'  I95I 1961 1971 1981  S E R ^ v*ICEL - l R E S > T A U R > <\NT  • • • ..  1  i • m  -  *  •  •  <  CD  <  •  o  >•  1  m  *  m  < c>  2i  o  S A LOf  •  ••  •  m  > <  CO  1 m  i  • • > •a  m  mm •  •\  -  |". 1  - J  CO  ••  ri—I D_  t  : E - HA • •  "  •  mm  X  i  CO  *  •i  mm  a.  T Y P E : <S E P  1951 1961 1971 1981  mm  _l  o  X  <  o  >  •  < ct  • 2  o  1  LL.  •  mm  1  a -SM- ... JL, ,  M.A. THESIS POINT  P A T T E R N  - SERVICE  BLAKE  UBC  B. HUDEMA  ONTARIoJ  MANITOBA  u X  z c >  ALBERTA COLUMBIA J  Ul X  CAMBIE .  CC  ASH  WILLOW  < <  LAUREL .  .  SPRUCE .  LL.  ALDER .  cc  HEMLOCK  •  GRANVILLE.  •  J  BURRARD.  1981  P E RS< ON;  • •  i  PINE  1951 1961 1971  <S E R r v i c E -  BIRCH  TYPE:  M A P 4.6  103  SERVICE - PERSONAL BUSINESS  TYPE: 1951  1  1961 1971 1981  TV  •  •m  V  ffi  1951 1961 1971  ^  I  •  m  •  m mm  mm  1  <  O  >-  O  >-  f  1  < o  BUSINESS  u _  _  1981  f  l  >  | | t t  TYPE:  »» | Mil -r  —ft  m  CD  1951 1961 1971 1981  m  m mm  CO  SERVICE -  TYPE.  *  m.  1  *  CO  £  X  <  -r"  o  SERVICE - BANK •  •  I •  • »  f Q CC <  cr (E, m  "1 <o  _J  LU  z cc CL u.  POINT  > z <  cc o  o  o _l  UJ X  X o cc CO  PATTERN -  1• f —  •1  T" cc LU Q  LU O 3 CC  a. CO  LU CC  < o  <  SERVCE  •  CC O -J  1—*-  1  X LU X  X CO  <  Z^JZ  1  — * i  £  g cc  2  o  z < o  * %  104  TYPE: I95I 1 1961 1971 1981 , 1 m  SERVICE - CONTRACTOR • *  - «««  m •  Ix.  z  TYPE: S E R V I C E 1951 1961 1971 1981  •  •  a  i  •  a  •  CD  <  CO o  <  o  •  w  2:  <o  >-  1  o  AUTOMOBILE 1  at  11  •  3:  *  r CO  o_  TYPE*  u.  CD  o  SERVICE -  1 1181 1971 1981 or or tu £ z  or  2  £  £  POINT  <  CO  O  5  X  <  o  •  •a  Q  <  |  1  REPAIR • •  *  o  '  <o  >-  x o or CD  or ui o  UJ  or o, CO  ~11  tl T i n •I • i  1  § <3* I O  RCTTERN - SERVICE  CC  9  X  T  _l  *  Ul  <  m  -  • a>  <  CD o  P  m  ... 41 i or  • • at 1 • •  a I si  M.A. THESIS  •  *•  o  UBC  BLAKE B. HUDEMA  E  h  MAP  105  to  cluster.  prearranged the  may  contacts  less  uses.  This  formal  be  a  result  characteristic  "shopping"  Personal-business  and  of  of  these  behaviour  business  the  greater  uses  service  nearest-neighbour  values  of  greater  than  one,  (Figure  4.11),  proximal  locations  Restaurants  and  the  strip,  whole  large  number  Willow Street Street  these with  commercial  a  commercial Ground pattern,  salons,  are  along  office  while  scope  the  of  exhibit  along  addition  this  of  study),  health  service  itself  nodes,  one  between between  two  Ash Fir  portion occupied medical  Street  of with uses  professional disperse.  Street  the  and  and  in  uses  these  offices  Business  service  two  have,  offices  are  an  to  the  and  Granville  influence  over  a  clustering  this  strip  second, the  clustered beyond  a  The  distributes Hospital,  smaller  westerly  node most  establishments established  General  shown  of  4.10).  relationship.  reinforced  areas.  &  (though  office  have  4.9  General  in  Recent  becoming  A  Granville  the  Maps  this  the  and  however,  over  Street  the  of  data  on  Street  strip.  Yukon  to  (see  floor  Street,  Burrard  study  health  Oak  complexes.  indicate  complex  proximal  that  establishments.  greatest  s o l i d i f i e s  long-established among  Broadway  upper  indicating  Broadway.  the  establishments  slightly  office  proximity as  for  spread  between  of  retail  being  adjacent  section  and  these  major  suspected  this  establishments  the  the  is  one  despite  node  Again,  to  located  secondary  establishments  floor  important  around  shops  complex  patterns  Office  the  cluster  intersection.  land-use  be  hairdressing  of  Street,  not  of  to  establishments,  have  may  of  opposed  characteristic  example,  respectively  as  number  offices  and  tendency  to  increasingly  abundant  in  106  OFFICE - GENERAL  TYPE:  •  •  -J *  _ 1  WW  OFFICE - PROFESSIONAL  1  mm  Q-U.O  X  CQ <  •  •mmm a —  CO O _J ^ X  |  • •  <  1  0>-<0  OFFICE-MEDICAL  ~*  • J  r r  1  .  •  UI  z  a.  POINT  ~  g  •  o ^o  _  cr  ui  5 £  g °  x  to <  cr  UJ o cr a. co  ac 3 < < o _ i  PATTERN - OFFICE  UJ x  "  X Ui CO X <  z  ca  o  o  >-  93 8 <  M.A. THESIS UBC BLAKE B. HUDEMA  1  Old  =1  •  - 1 "  ../ -  o  cr  •  m -  TYPE:  cc <  *-  •  CD  1951 1961 1971 1981  m  WITOBA  1951 1961 1971 1981  •  -mm*  V  TYPE:  •  ERTA MBIA  1951 1961 1971  < z o  M A P 4.-9  1  TYPE:  OFFICE- GOVERNMENT  1951 1961 1971 1981  |  • •  1 •  OFFICE -  TYPE: U r-  cc < o orr 3  -V-  LU CL  £  CO  CD  1951 1961 1971 1981  07  i or <  LL.  5  X  <  o  >- < o  1  2  O  CO  O  i 1  s £  BUSINESS ADVISORY  UJ  or u z> 3 X o Q or r CL LU p X m to  POINT PATTERN - OFFICE  LU  * < O  Q Zi ^ < _J _J £  x  H X 5 to UJ <  co  0  or on o o  M.A. THESIS UBC  _  BLAKE B. HUDEMA  2  O  M A P 4  1  0  108  the  west,  between  Fir  the  Arbutus  segment  of  concentrated  office  Street  and  Broadway), d i s t r i c t  Burrard as  Street  well  between  as  (and  in  Cambie  beyond  the  to  already  Street  and  Oak  Street. From do  the  analysis  of  location  of  become  evident.  The  strip,  commercial  d i s t r i c t  as  suggested  coverage, In  is the  segment  complete  almost  a  number  and  the  of  The  The  Within  response  a  to  Hall  sites,  and  office  segment. between  This the  of  VGH),  peninsula  segment  north  and  density of  has of  have of  Broadway  south  sides  north  while  the  on  undeveloped.  In  great  consideration  uses  in  bulk  also of  nine  south  discussions is  here  of  into of  the  given  to  the  of  Street  uses. to  and  out  nodes of  the  views  this  disparity of  located lots  estate  In  assembled  the  five  are  is  multi-storey  vacant  real  by  large  characterize  s t r i p :  storeys)  with  Oak  large  and  side,  The  office  i l l u s t r a t e s  the  marked  represents  proximity  routes  aging  antithesis  and  the  unique  redevelopment  the  including  located  (above  of  are  is  and  Street  a v a i l a b i l i t y  buildings  deal  is  intense  a  land-use.  the  Cambie  is  area  space  commercial  transportation the  The  office  4.11).  buildings,  hampered  segment  multi-storey side,  uses.  zoning  Map  Cambie, low  strip  homogeneous  (see  probably  factors,  and  uses  land  of  a  patterns  "blanket"  and  provide  this  its  Ontario  between  to  number  by  uses,  being  segments  state  segment  area,  buildings.  downtown  higher  than  distinct  retail  shops  second  rather  predominance  decaying  small  five  between  redeveloped  (City  of  pre-development  f i r s t .  highly  of  absence  of  efforts. the  east,  because  structures, a  composed  individual  seven on  remain  industry,  offered  the  a  along  FUNCTIONAL  AREAS -  BROADWAY  M.A. THESIS  U.B.C.  BLAKE B. HUOEMA  MAP 4.11  1 10  the  north  side  (Pierce,  locating  in  usually  offset  second The  ground  level  from  "dimension"  types  complexes  of  of  populations West  to  the  this  Once  area  evidence  This  and  be  segment  volumes  of  the  commercial  retail  establishments  detract  from  with  structures, made the  on  a  north  prime  number side  intersection Here,  is  evident.  have  is  intersection clothing, Broadway, westerly  an  and  a  a  along  locating direct  are  complex  Broadway.  in  the  result  from  office of  the  daytime  work  block  and  between creates of  east  by  similar  Broadway  is  of  and  Granville  west  uses the  are  on  area  cleared  of  on  along of  of  the  on The the  corridor Granville  Broadway. shops  this  of  been  Streets.  Granville. of  section,  segment  uses  of  proceeded  Birch  to  points  have  continuity.  typical  lack  commercial  shopping  much  egress  has  fourth  the  are  The  This  which  orientation  encourage  does  and  construction  and  the  but  Applications  the  the  uses.  s t r i p .  Spruce  and  space-extensive  strip.  the  many  oriented  a r t - r e l a t e d uses  of  of  lots  this  access  redevelopment.  Pedestrian  reflecting  the  many  vacant  node,  blocks,  of  sites,  by  r e t a i l i n g  these  three  locations  enhanced  of  character  for  typified  automobile  the  influence  a  segment  uses  complexes  creating  continuity  area  continuity  large  which  and  plazas,  establishments  office  customers  exodus  Broadway  the  continued  connection  the  Granville  strip. most  of  of  of  is  growing its  is  by  as  of  occupies  disrupt  however,  so  predominant  only  the  these  service  doing  service  of  commercial  segment  a  street  and  area.  buildings. shows  the  large  in  of  to  Retail  locations  the  retail  appear  potential  1984).  at  The the  Household, segment The  second  of most  office  111  concentration has  on  types  strong  of  the. n o r t h  Burrard this  west  is  the  technique between  by of  the  was  Although  may  in be  a  into  the  that four  more  the  uses.  spatial  to  offices  area  logical  ends  at  extension  area  prominent  two  locating  business  block  more  of' the  uses  study a  above  segments  nearest-neighbours The  demonstrate  and  to  the  office  node  now  between  patterns. these  evolved  the  discussion  a f f i n i t i e s  i d e n t i f i e d land-use  used  a  and  Street,  and,  Separation  medical  felt  Fir  sector,  Broadway  is  of  study.  specific the  west  A  out  spatial  turns  to  an  establishments cluster  spatial  analysis  relationships  uses.  Cluster Cluster  Analysis analysis  demonstration  of  has  spatial  geographical  studies  1971,  Variations  1973).  analysis,  Due  to  analysis  is  used  the  distance  between  types  land-use.  become  and  in  each The  of  the  1974;  thesis. and  distances  take  its are  of The  the  1971; the  in  of  into  factor  cluster  based  neighbour  aggregated  Goddard  information  software, is  the  within  and  form  and  analysis  closest  tool  linkages  analysis,  a v a i l a b i l i t y  shop  popular  Bourne,  technique  component  this  a  functional  (Alexander,  principal  analysis.  of  and  with  of  it  Broadway of  of  side  Avenue.  the  groups.  here,  developed  area  segment,  health-service  west,  has  study  investigation-of within  the  the  node  analysis  arrangements  4.5.5  south  indicated  the  and  the of  This  office  evident  in  Delineation of  the  are  side  office  of  than  on  Street  of  business  offices  predominantly  of  strip.  attracted offices  recently,  to  the  a  on of  matrix  the a l l of  1 12  land-use BMDP  types  (1981)  package  and  subjected  s t a t i s t i c a l package.  groups  similarity  of  land-uses  clustering  technique,  real  similarity.  Therefore,  spatial  BMDP  distance.  is  Once  a  i t  remains  of  The of  a f f i n i t i e s  have  in  patterns  between  the  another.  clothing,  and  retail  as  group. locating  do  manner  as  the  according  with  the  similar  once  and  group  grouped. to  carries  over  of  through  committed  process  of  patterns  treated  the  of  analysis  been  to  c r i t e r i o n  types,  has  the  s t a t i s t i c a l  application  are  entire  This  seems  in  proximity exists.  among  service  uses.  Specifically, uses  At  brings  a  only  subsequent  to and The  service more  business at  the  of  of  these  than  service lowest  office  strong  uses.  if  The  establishments  in  into  not  retail  the  r e t a i l .  retail  spatial,  land-uses  often  showing  cluster  the  reinforce  clustering,  o f f i c e  that  some  and  and  four  suggest that  level  clustering  results  r e t a i l  categories retail  the  by  service that  lowest  a l l  The  discussed  ties  the  i l l u s t r a t e s  Broadway.  r e t a i l ,  household  land-uses  link  4.12  already  miscellaneous  aggregation  relationship  service  BMDP  cluster  within  along  strong  one  of  of  type)  the  through  demonstrate  elements  Figure  certain  for  level  used  cluster,  over  land-uses  indicates  manner  this  land-use  representation  tree-diagram  land-use  diagram  In  (land-use  there  the  hierarchical  are  which  analysis  clustering.  commercial  the  a  those  in  cluster  Briefly,  characteristic  element  proportional  levels  A  a  trends.  which  manner  single  group, a  the  in  distances  a f f i n i t i e s ,  similar  to  same  The a  next single  land-uses  are  functional,  also  appear  to  locate  among  retail  or  office  and  level  personal-business of  clustering,  and  VAR 1 ABLE NAME NO. RFOOO  (  1)  O/O  I  OBUSADV ( 2 0 ) / O RCIOTM  (  2)  3)/ 0  RHISC  4)  (  ROFFICE (  0/ 0  I  RHSHOLO (  I I  I /  01 3  I  4/6  I  I  I  / /  /  I  0/ 0  /  6/ 7  4/ 8  0/10  I  I  I  / /  8/1 1  5 ) / 8 10/ 6 22  / /  OMEDIC  ( 18)  0/10  OGOVT  ( 19)/ 6  I  SPERBUS ( 10)  /  2  I  I  4/ 9  6  BANK  / ( 1 2 ) 0/10 21  9  /  I  I I  13)/ 7 10  / /  I I  I I  8  I I  O  7  7  I  I I  I I  3/15  REPAIR  (  I  I I  0/ 0  01  I  l  l  I I  I I  9/31 46/  I I  6/30 39/  I I  I I  I I  I I  0/12 12/  I I  4/29 13/  I I  4/57 77/  I I  I I  / 6/ 7  I I  I  I  I  / / 7/14 20/  I  I I  1/  I  RFOOD OBUSADV RCLU TH RHSHOLD RMISC ROFFICE OMEDIC OGOVT SPERBUS SBUS BANK CONTRACT AUTOHRD RESTAURT  /  01  HAIRDRES  I I  SPER OGENRAL  /  ( 1 4 ) 01  0/ 0  I I  4/17  ( 171/81 29/ /  SAUTO  I I  3/12 10/26 40/  I  /  01 5  -/  5/ 6 10/10 17/  I I  / / 4/29 42/ / / / / / 9)1 5 29/ 3 41  OGENRAL ( 16) OPROf  7  I I  0/30  a)  (  I I  4/18  6 14/13  HA1RQRESI SPER  I I  9  I I  I I  RESTAUR!(  I  0  4 23/ 9 11/12 16/  I  I  7  / I  4 10/ 3 59/ O  / 0/15 /  I I  I I  I  5/ 8 11  4/13  / / / 6) 0/10 7/19 7/35 4 5 / / / / / / / / / 7 ) / 0 5/35 5/69 99/  AUTOHRO (  0/ 0  /. /  5/13  / /  6/10 33 IS  /  3/ 3 11 13  I I  7/ 0 12 23 11/ 3 19/ b 12/  6  / /  I  3  0  7  3 11  4.9  7  O  6  / I  ( .11)/ 0  I  5/(7  5 10/11 21  SBUS  CONTRACT(  /  4 20/15 17  01 9  I  2  2/8  I I  0/ 0  I  6/16  /  I  7/2  I I  I  OPROF SAUTO  15)/  REPAIR  Cluster  and Distance  Matrix.  M.A. THESIS  U.B.C.  BLAKE B. HUDEMA  FIG. 4.12  1 14  subsequent or  retail  for  to  uses  one  general  clustering  another offices  medical  retail  uses  the  strong  one  another.  support  and  be  are  a  of  premise  land-uses  4.13.  that  i d e n t i f i a b l e and by  of  patterns low  chance  low  which  values proximal indeed  alone.  The  indicates  located.with  a  4.12  occur  more  synthesis  illustrates  over  regularity  have  the as  with  clearly  and  spatial  regularly of  and  between  matrix  locations  that  service  land-uses  this  of  offices  a f f i n i t i e s  most on  clustering  attracts  Figure  office  a f f i n i t i e s  government  spatial in  before  strong level  and  clustering  network  generally  together show  by  distance-matrix  distance-matrix  commercial Figure  The  similarity  uses  offices  Subsequent  uses.  expected  the  professional  form  The  Office  uses  demonstrated  which  the  a f f i n i t i e s  as  to  service  included.  offices.  commercial  would  are  brings  than  clustering  strip,  various  i l l u s t r a t e d  in  BURRARD ST.  RELATIVE  GRANVILLE ST.  OAK sr.  CONCENTRATION OF BUSINESSES  CAMBIE SV  BLAKE^'HUO^  ONTARIO ST  R  G  4  I  3  " "  116  CHAPTER F I V E  11 7  CHAPTER CONCLUSIONS  5. 1  of  AND  IMPLICATIONS  Conclusions The  of  FIVE  purpose  inner  city  literature  use  and  study  commercial  Central  of  fragmentary  the  theory  that  of  of  the  land-use  in  strides  for  planning,  commercial  land-use  has  oriented  land-uses.  In  attention  has  inherent  in  the  proposed  basis  of  been  by  Garner,  based  the  on  d i s t r i c t s ,  Berry  is  is  the  a  other mix  revealed  and  bulk to  underlying  into hand,  hierarchy  has  a  body land-  a  case  number and  revealed assumes the  Gottman of  work  the  of the  nodes,  in  the  study  of  has  resulted to  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  of  only  cursory  and  The  processes  classification  configurations strips,  proposes  the  pertaining  forces  establishments of  and  land-use  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,  commercial  of  a  Although  itself  of  d i s t r i c t s .  d i s t r i c t s .  groups  the  the  of  structure  on  building  it  to  d i s t r i c t s  land-use  Goddard,  land-use  functional  shopping  While d i s t r i c t s  given  physical  clusters.  regional  elaboration  commercial  scheme  Berry,  land-uses  commercial  literature  land-uses.  commercial positive  strip  the  review  commercial  commercial  urban by  land-use,  have  in  of  The  commmercial  theory  land-use  investigate  d i s t r i c t s .  Avenue,  review  nature  to  general  strip  the  commercial  is  strip  to  Broadway  about  I n i t i a l l y ,  broader  thesis  particular  observations reality  this  pertaining  in  of  of  a  and  the  isolated  classification  within  neighbourhood,  on  commercial  community  and  complexes. generally  conspicuous  true by  that its  planning "lack  of  within  commercial  sophistication",  1 18  planning  within  exception.  H i s t o r i c a l l y ,  residential of  and  dispersion  subjected inner  to  city  many  these  causing  Growth, d i s t r i c t s .  through  an  Changes  blight.  as  a  use  functional  an  of  use  of  the  to  major  the  l i t e r a t u r e  change  may  lead  are  the  establishments. as  benefits  to  other  are  of  these  linked  this  by  to  establishments.  goods,  services,  benefits. necessity  The for  to  l i t e r a t u r e shows  from  and the  Conclusions  of  incremental structure. functional  linkages  locate  and  between  are  expressed  in  proximity  defined  that  and  d i s t r i c t s .  and  are  has  structural  economies  information,  factors  periphery  land-use  which  have,  d i s t r i c t s  the  the  and  commercial  range  and  and  the  arresting  projects.  Linkages  suppliers  of  regulations,  the  structure  establishments  in  aggregate  external  been  date  within  and  economies  thesis,  to  within  at  uses  the  have  underlying  undesirable  land-use  external  accruing  "linked"  movement convey  In  of  of  processes  problems  these  additions  and  The  the  redevelopment  unplanned  the  land-use  land-uses  that  of  areas  operates  d i s t r i c t ,  indicate  components  character  of  comprised  Efforts  within  incremental  within  Two  land-uses  at  to  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ,  that  change,  expansion  are  to  of  the  successful  aimed  reorganizaton  nature  replacement  been  form  internal  of  not  of  these  than  be  through  renewal,  less  appear were  blight.  indicated  and  through  but  countermeasures.  is  have  and  in  does  locations  land-uses,  been  It  Evolution  occurred  as  cases,  zoning,  decay  city  resulted  problems.  including  inner  decay,  efforts  most  locations  decentralization,  change, have  or  city  industrial and  redevelopment in  inner  as  people  the which  establishments  ancillary  services  and  1 19  by  a  desire  to  complementary  and  c a p i t a l i z e on competitive  benefits  through  external  use  patterns  within  urban  and  is  patterns  components that  are  appear  of  to  than  network  and  The  of  affirmations  functional Over  study of  and  their  and  course  has  of  the  evolved  from  area.  Residential  of  the  locations  by  a  complex  along  Also  disintegration  of  and  office  concluded of  "closed  d i s t r i c t s  a c t i v i t i e s  within  has  produced  h i s t o r i c a l  what  is  minimal:  shops  The  a  some  processes  believed  to  be  that  changes  remained  on  were the  the much strip  Central  convenience  natured  they  have  offices, the  use  more for  In  at  time  specialized over  a  been  retail  three  occupied final  and  occupied  s t a b i l i t y .  generally for  once  today  over  of  1951-1981,  structured  of  changes  evidence  decades,  uses  locational  study,  general  processes  service  Avenue  low-order,  Broadway;  evident  the  indicates  similar  patterns.  through  highly  network  establishments.  years.  a  a  commercial  ten  Broadway  three  to  were  evident  commercial and  land-  most  therefore,  land-use  through  strip  of  linkages  aggregations  structures  commercial  segment  is,  of  associations. the  Broadway  of  patterns  change  but  retail,  It  through  precipitated The  establishments,  Central  land-use  the  homogeneous  by  of  has  plants,  land-uses.  variety  conspicuous  case  growth  a  in  customers  results  environments.  operate  being  of  The  economies  industrial  randomly-oriented  composed  of  of  commercial  rather  state",  that  sharing  forces.  and  clustering  the  replaced  and  the  is  the  earliest  time  location segment  numerous shorter  service  decades  particular a  quarter  and  of  locations for the  that  periods  five  of  to  study  shops  in  time,  in  120  the  order The  from  of  less  than  patterns  two  of  angles,  f i r s t  the  second,  the  examined  uses  were  considered.  The  relationships  patterns.  automobile were  Uses,  the  relationships  were  as  retail  indicated  over  the  strip.  On  the  establishments  tended  to  cluster.  regularity,  but  rather,  Conclusions are  more to  same  is  true  service  and  enhances  these  other of  service  office  distance  r e t a i l ,  and  service, Figure  establishments  of"  high  low  effect  by  Oak  and  appears  of  clustering  or  be  office  located uses.  The  closer  to  distance that  spatial  in  is  and are  and  matrix terms and  of  and  office by  a  service  Granville, accompanied  between  of  remarkably  mirrored  r e t a i l  of its  patterns  are  r e t a i l  Oak  exist  different  concentration  of  service to  the  establishment  high  establishments number  or  The  Cambie  between  of  locating  the  concentration  bulk  to  showing  each  the  and  personal  between  establishments  shows,  Conversely,  office  proportionately ' s p i n - o f f  4.14  uses,  types,  office  service  hand,  tend  respectively.  between  range  distributed.  service  further  broad  clustering  towards  land-uses than  uses  different  and  The  relationships  office  other  between  establishments. number  and  uses  of  relatively  uses  relationships  of  As  the  lacked other  tendency  Retail  retail  outlets  randomly  regarding  nearest-neighbour  similar.  were  d e f i n i t i v e .  closer  similarity  l i t t l e  a  automobile  dispersed  showed  food  similar  between  as  uses  retail  uses  investigated  between  relationships  similar  such  strip  well  remaining  A  of  on  as  service  uses  years.  land-uses  were  of  and  five  a  low by  a  establishments. the  number  of  121  office  establishments  Retail  and  service  uses:  retail  uses  and  close  service  establishments  Central  strip  is  a  strip  not  segment  greatest  proximity  and  associated  of  use  the  east  and of  buildings  use  also  the  a  node  the  associated  the  ideas  results  and must  West  of  this  segment  Street with  western  Pine  Street  uses  This to  the  west  case  viewed  and  with  rather  to  the  the  offices  intensity west  this  vacancy  retail  from  and  study  represents  the  secondary  study  to  s t r i p  be  The the  lies  spatially  area. some  at  in  l i t e r a t u r e .  as  of  office  provided  caution  of  service  has  the  low  rate  character  appears  to  intensity  the  the  and  segment  of  of  Oak.  redevelopment.  its  of  Street,  gives  specialty  segment  that  and  The  high  for  and  medical  Ontario  the  derives  study  arrived  but  Street,  prime  segment  the  conclusions  Oak  its  most  sorted,  Cambie  decrease  uses  strip  study  establishments.  area  land-uses the  the  retail  The  be  attracted  of  this  of  that  between  predominance  makes  personal offices.  intensity  to  in  are  segments.  buildings  Granville  general,  randomly  Cambie  strip.  with  service  of  patterning  of  commercial  of  In  and  has  services  business  East  land  of  nor  office  and  conclusion  segment  Hospital  diminishes;  west  the  health  to  redevelopment  the  character.  establishments.  to  with  business  and  d i s t i n c t i v e  segment.  surrounding  the  the  to  a f f i n i t y  strip  is  density  this  and  led  establishments.  spatially  while  change  highest  retail  d i s t i n c t i v e  Granville  to  five  of  to  and  buildings area  has  redevelopment  The  its  of  some  growth,  retail  catering  offices,  homogeneous  composed  The  of  and  themselves  uses  show  Broadway a  align  medical  analysis  along  service  service  located  The  to  and  support  indicated  by  for The the  1 22  following  5.2  limitations.  Limi tat ions Through  have  the  become  course  evident,  definitive  conclusions  are  general  new  of  a  material The  study. what  and  this  which or  nature  of  greatest The  of  such  were  and  a r b i t r a r i l y , as  the  the  around  area  have  been  extended  data  bases  only  of  the  type  and  number  of  size, records they  other  for  are,  they  Time  and  to  resource  weaknesses the  most  be  drawing  limitations  studies  of  such  used  for  the  to  uncover  is  now  blocks  or  to  the  sales often  block  apparent  the  some-  spatial  and  that  the  west.  study  to  giving  volumes. not  area,  considering  no  weight  Suitable  available,  and  to data  where  fragmentary.  limitations precluded  the  systems.  As  is  case  do  The  system  arise.  applicable  the  to  the  study  of  commercial  exploration  used,  for  of  almost  a l l  however,  is  data.  Implications The  existence  acknowledged of  tend  It  limited  are  from  The  most  establishments,  analysis  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  considered  of  employees,  land-use  taxonomies,  5.3  number  two  has  to  eighteen  intended  arrangements.  lack  limitations  reader  boundaries  an  land-use  The  of  focus.  functional should  the  common  a  was  study  number  relationships.  are  narrow  set  a  caution  causal  limitation  limits  thesis  in  land-uses,  associations  and  most but  have  role  theories  l i t t l e been  in  of the  extended.  urbanization way This  of  d i s t r i c t s and  structure thesis  has  the and  have  been  location functional  implications  1 23  within  the  commercial planning  realm structure  in  From  of  their  an  academic are  functioning  within  not  states  "closed"  with  a f f i n i t i e s  and  whole  a  moving in  the  retail trends,  the  in  of  to  study, and  out the  this  of  commercial  have  some  From the an  Individual  of  upon  the  of  structure  a  of  of  these spatial  assume. internal  d i s t r i c t s .  (external  As  are has  to  develop  office  Due,  in  economies) constantly  been  small  observed  specialized from  larger  establishments.  therefore,  and  are  mass  the  on  establishments,  the  in  land-uses  location  by  constant  commercial  appears  a l l  cooperation,  strength  role  influences  uses,  establishments  The  locations  urban  commercial  of  characterized  d i s t r i c t s .  establishments  interrelationship  that  variety  is  of  of  land-use.  compatibility,  factors,  the  practioners  establishments  proximal  from  understanding  seen  significant  within  locational  effect  is  wide  are  these  other  case  guide  viewpoint  of  The  commercial  a  land-uses  service  in  play  this  of  and  establishments.  benefits host  with  of  rather,  proximities  and  a  network  but  Complementing  to  of  an  and  it  complementarity.  appears  reorganization  pursuing  control  standpoint,  other  and  part,  to  a  and  in  function,  composed  competition  connections  and  quest  d i s t r i c t s  linkages  academics  appears  functioning  to  of  a  d i s t r i c t . a  policy  improved improved  orientation,  recognition sense  Historically,  of  commercial  consequence  of  market  functioning  of  the  of  this  land-use  planning  forces; have  has  dynamics  of  d i s t r i c t s  market  thesis  have  recent forced  implications and  ultimately  commercial evolved  to  to  d i s t r i c t s .  primarily  weaknesses planners  for  in take  as  a  the active  124  roles  in  the  The  urban  indicated the  control  and  renewal  that  urban  efforts  design  disintegration  solution growth  must and  be  d i s t r i c t s  in  in  in  planning.  The  associations  scale  new  towns  and  expression  is  evident  commercial planning  have  should  have  such  the  the of  between  governing  dynamics  and  these  functional  planning,  of  spatial is  of  essential success nodes structure  land-use  this  thesis,  planning be  of  overcome  function  and  control  devices.  As  controls,  and  growth to  coordinate  dominant  planning  and  trying  a  proactive  the  the  may  ideas  functional  to  in  the  in  and  d i f f e r e n t i a l  and  to  trends  associations  a p p l i c a b i l i t y  than  with  answer  Policies  land-use  Rather  have  Clearly,  some  in  the  the  of  reactive  growth  study,  cooperate  which  of  Limited  knowledge  reflect  not  Seventies  goals.  in  understanding  d i s t r i c t s .  forces  use  and  structure.  d i s t r i c t s .  regional  case  are  functional  establishments  this  must  alone  community  may  the  Sixties  knowledge  thesis  other  of  the  investigation  the  developments.  in  particular,  a  their  improved  an  of  to  between  large  an  an  understanding  of  through  and  attaining  the  land-uses.  commercial  upon  reflect  of  of  issues  commercial  addition  presented  market  based  should  associations In  of  change  establishments  guidance  'swim  its  zoning  in  nodes  of  upstream',  efforts  influence  in  to  the  commercial  d i s t r i c t s .  5.4  Further Through  apparent  Research the  that  course  of  land-use  interrelationship  of  a  change  myriad  of  and  it  patterns  factors.  will are  This  a  have result  thesis  has  become of  the  looked  125  at  a  for  few,  further  factors  to  well  as  at  research  and  The be  as  assess  most  decisions  must,  the  the  of  actual  studies  data  people,  goods,  establishments. assessed of  the  A be  magnitude  to  customers  a  and in  Whyte  Avenue  One would  the  literature,  i t  data  might  this in  course  these  the  which  locations  meetings This  of  of  would  locational of  spatial  use  movement between  in  between sort  other  thesis,  information  office  which  he  executives  survey  can  goods/services  and  this  c i t i e s . Bloor  MacLeod  interesting  continuation  has  other  example,  Edmonton,  of  of  of  be or  research  improve  the  the  apparent  choice  that  are of  A  "Central  in  those  of  within  the  Broadway"  in  Toronto,  Calgary,  this  v a l i d i t y  qualities  there  strips  in  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  as  with  would  any  of  comparison.  different  systems  study  Trail  to  and  thesis,  Street  d i r e c t l y  become  this  p a r t i c u l a r i l y  of  for  an  complement  findings  strips  quantities  classification of  in  use  of  The  factors.  ultimately,  movement  would  the  cities,  provide  higher  which  d i s t r i c t s ,  further  these  and  example.  the  of  conducted  of  business  prime  of  contribute  involve of  most  could  a  aspect,  between  exists  of  been  study  together  linkages and,  many.  establishments.  commercial  region  of  light  services,  determine  comparison  other  which  is  between  second  have  Goddard's  establishments  modified  role  in  of  bring  importance  establishments  Several  outcome  therefore,  beginning,  patterns. of  spatial  relative  obvious  determine  the  of  systems  of  there The  which  study,  would  and  data.  studies. a  the  area,  the  use  Within  the  are  as  many  improved  range  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  system.  1 26  BIBLIOGRAPHY  1 27  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A b l e r , R. 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The  North  American  City,  the  in  Harper  139  APPENDIXES  140  APPENDIX  A  DATA  A.1  Data The  City  data  Directories.  record  of  years.  actual  a  sources,  detailed  were  to  storey  been  coded  floor  structures  upper a  to  the  the  in  are  not be  Planning along  base  the  back  two.  given  The  the  l i s t  ground-floor  of  oriented  a the  out  the  supplied  additional  data  Business  types  1951.  code  have  residential analysis  supplied  Rounding  complete  temporal to  thirty  determining  with  three-digit  sites,  past  Broadway.  to  have  the  complete  Department  year,  buildings  erroneous as  aided  establishments.  a  the  which  intervals with  over  from  nearly  D i s t r i c t  Vancouver  as  a  Regional  area  residential  office or  study  establishments  would  storey  limited  methods.  It  storey  area  the  multi-storey or  primarily  in  used  and  Where  construction.  covered  was  came  provided  establishments  year  commercial  recent  of  five  Ground  thesis  directories  individual  of  1981  at  in  City  l i s t i n g  year  1951.  an  the  determined  below.  of  the  Vancouver  buildings  locations  collected  The  Greater  of  The  for  establishments  The  printout  data  collected  data  floors  back single  of  more  dating  prior  to  previous  use  of  when  the  listings  replaced  upper  the  i l l u s t r a t e d  data  the  house  has  establishments  only  generally for  a l l  141 T h e land-use code 0  RESIDENTIAL  IM»  Dwellings 001  ill  Single-family  house  002  Semi-detached  003  Terrace  Flats and Home Units Investment  011  Investment  flat  L i c e n s e d h o t e l , guest  022  Monasteries,  023  house  houses  010  021  It l o c k s 2 - 6  units  rooms  convents  The  code used b y t h e P e n h  The  c o d e lias b e e n a p p l i e d  •15  flat  blocks  years, a n d was devised b y C l a r k G a / / a i d a n d Associates o f M e l b o u r n e .  Motel  few m o d i f i c a t i o n s h a v e Any  026  H a l l s o f residence  027  Old-people's  02ft  Oilier tial  02  units  commercial  residen-  1.  buildings  015  Home  016  H o m e u n i t s 7-14 u n i t s  030  Flats b e h i n d  017  H o m e units above  031  F l a t s o v e r is h o p s  032  Flats w i t h offices  033  Caretaker's Dat  15 u n i t s  Transient residence 020  Private  hotel,  ltoarding  034  house, etc.  Flats w i t h  RETAIL  10  Food  I t isa f l e s i b l e three-digit code, a n d thus c a n b e v i e w e d at three levels. I t is m u c h  shops  101  Meat F r u i t fc v e g e t a b l e s  102  II  more detailed  & Vance  1954b,  other  I t is e a s i l y a d a p t a b l e  4.  T h e classification system  2.  commercial  112  Variety  store—clothing  113  Variety  store—other  Many  Men's  104  121  Women's  105  Delicatessen  122  Drapery  106  Fish  123  General  107  Snack b a r  108  Drinks  109  Food shops  shops (non-alcoholic) (NEC)*  Supermarkets Food  only  111  Varietv  store—food  only  many  included  depots  clothing  cases i l i e  Frxni  (867),  Men's  Women's  126  C h i l d r e n ' s fc b a b y ' s w e a r  footwear  to commercial establishments  i n this  category  etc. a t e operated  127  Women's  lingerie  128  Women's  hats  129  C l o t h i n g shops  131  Clothing  132  F o u l * eat  133  Hardware  134  A p p l i a n c e s ,v h a r d w a r e  135  <• di;ijR"iy  Finniunc  .v: ( M I i m l i i n ^ s  136  B o o k * \ - summery  137  C h e int s i t  138  Per n t u a l  131)  Good,  sel s k c iNKC)  I'aiiety Stoir I III  1"  IH  Variets  food  >toie  Ml  Vaiien  clothing  112  Vjtiets  store  store  Domestic  A p p l i a n c e s .v e l e c t r i c a l  hardware  152  Furniture  Jt l l o o r  akin  <• p u i u l entering,  154  Newspajters (Chemist  153  Spotting,  156  J e w e l l e r y Jfc g i f t s  157  Disposj, |>awn  158 139  tucl. bicycles id  shop  hand.  19  2.  (NEC)  T h e above some  Toys goods  Min ellttneous  Music & musical iiisirtiineuis  169  Retail  (NEC)  170  Hoick—ban  171  Liquor  172  Wine  other  facilities  slio[«  Automotive and Maihineiy Motor-vehicle  dealer ( i n  C a r - s a l e s Jut  1.12  Motor  16-1  Petrol filling station  If* I  Agric. implement  18 j  Motor  is, r e s e r v i c e  1*6  Motor  cycles,  been  (although  made  dealer  IH7  Marine  chain  t o incorporate  IHH  lndiisirial ci|iiipmcnt  |H9  Muihiucry  190  Builders'  191  Produce  stores  Undertakers, funeral  217 218  Opticians  219  Watch,  192  Timber  yards  (05  Building  162  Photographic  163  Stutionerv  yards  merchants materials  show-  205  Photographer  salon  cleaner,  206  Tailor  207  Dressmaker,  lamidrettc  milliner  duplicating  service  Employment  agencies  Computation  centre  223  Plan  221  Drafting  225  'Telephone  226  Business  others).  major  T h e  'service'  service* a r e i n fact  above,  However,  based o n  this  some  facili-  attempt  as this goal m a y d o not  2 14  Rooting  215  Plastering & filing coutrauois  246  Flooring  247  Pest  248  Cleaning  249  Special  2.)  250 251  answering  Shoe  H e a l t h fc s l i m m i n g  repair,  bootmaker  service ( N E C )  Debt collectors  236  Credit  210  R e a l estate agents  211  Travel  212  Stockbrokers  213  Auction  rooms  214  EiHjuiry  agents  agents ft a u c t i o n e e r  Motor-vehicle  garages. garage**.  panel beating, spray  painting  252  Motor-vehicle  work  253  Machinery  repair  bank  27  reference  tlepai, and Miscellaneous 270  bureau  repair  Electrical  repair  incl.  'TV &  radio 271  General  building  contractors,  U p h o l s t e r y fc F r e n c h  272  Dental  Electrical  273.  Refrigerator  242  Plumbing-  274  Furniture  275  Service  276  Hire  contractors draining- gav  contractors  Painting  contractors  J  OFFICE  30  General and Financial Manufacturers,  312 wholesalers,  General  business  offices  lodges,  charity,  Unions,  political,  reli-  co-operative  M e d i c a l benefits,  hospital  funds 304  Insurance  companies  305  Banks, finance  306  Shipping,  airline,  Importei-s.  :KW  Business offices  mechanics repair  removals  (NEC)  sen-ice  Engineers  313  Surveyors  314  Doctors  315  Dentists  316  Other  317  Veterinary  318  Legal  319  Professional office*  health  practors,  s e n ices;  customs  surgeons  (barristers, solicitors)  iranqwm agents  (NEC")  (NEC)  (luvrvnmental 320  Commonwealth  321  State g o v e r n m e n t  322  government  Quasi  government  323  Local  government  310  Accountants  321  Consuls,  311  Architects  325  Public  31 Professional  chiro-  optometrists  companies  companies 307  polish  repair  office & yard  303  repair  Motor-vehicle  241  (  contractors  (NEC)  Branch  smdio  Penonnl Business  contractors  trade  repair  service  distributors  2**9  contractors  exterminators  mechanical & electrical  service  235  vard  208  contractor  Automotive j Machinery  printers  230  gious,  Dry  services.  f o r their  system, since t h e t w oapproaches  tepaivs  221  300  SERVICE  Beauty  confusing  parlours  222  243  rooms  21  perform  offices).  (NEC)  Typing,  3021  204  jewellery  fitting  hardware  Florist  203  frustrate  H i i e cuts. l e u t ' U - c a r  210  Heavy Hatdware  161  Barber  functional  to recreational  ambiguities are evident.  Caterers  (NF.C)  Builders' supply  202  i n fact  incidental,  i n  billiard  t h e functional b a s i s o f a c t i v i t i e s ( c f . R a n n e l l s  Contractors  c r a f t fc a c c e s s o r i e s  Glass  Milk bar  quirks  /tanks. Financial  mowers,  191  caie  display than  certain activities, e.g. 'personal  accessories, p a i l s  l!'3  201  is really  (6)  (856).  p o i n t s raise t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e code's basis. I t is, g e n e r a l l y ,  216  220  Tobacconist  Restaurant,  a n d thus  (e.g. professional  Hnsiness  stores  160  200  basts  sales  i n t o t h esystem—witness t h e 'service' classification. A s p l a u s i b l e  301 2  a n d are  government  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s i n c e i t is n o t r e a l l y c o m p l e t e . O n t h e  that  it has resulted i n a somewhat  215  machines  liiputr  Wood  ownership—e.g.  tises i n t h i s c a t e g o r y  activities  military).  facilities'  shop  Sewing  196  (e.g. u t i l i t i e s ,  to 'public  machine*, etc.  llitt  equipment  a r e : ( a ) t h e 'public  activity-sets, i.e. r e s i d e n t i a l , r e t a i l e i c . A s m e n t i o n e d  comparison*  has a p p a r e n t l y  1  H a n d b a g s ) • ir;i el  over-  previous  at a l l , b u t a r e rather  uses, e . g . l o t t e r y  saws  i - books  minimum  'wholesale a n d storage facilities';  certain  many  t o s e n ice  it could b e argued  the conventional tates  167  181  antiques 153  I'et s h o p  o fscrutiny of  quasi-retail activities a n d s h o u l d thus b e i n c l u d e d i n o t h e r categories.  buildings)  I{uuulttAd CuuiL 150  166  I HO  household  151  Gulden  than  of government  under  o n a commercial  (c) t h e 'office' c a t e g o r y : is more  other hand  shoes  Otfice  because  really be included  c a t e g o r y is as i t s t a n d s , s o m e w h a t  footwear  165  with  notable  a r e n o t public  t h e activities ate carried o u t i na n office  function  125  161  level  well categorized  T h e most  activities included  readily coincide a n d thus some  1311  (airly  s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s o f a r e s t r i c t e d access n a t u r e  ("14) should  facilities;  1957)  Department V «  a fine  programming.  is g e n e r a l l y  'cultural and recreational' c a t e g o r y  That footwear  be,  M  i n central-area studies (e.g.  linkages a n d location patterns more a k i n t o retail-service premises  clothing  124  incl.  forcomputer  classifications a r e questionable.  aremore akin  saloons  120  employed  1965) ; t h i s e n a b l e s  DISADVANTAGES  the  B r e a d Jt c a k e s  110  •  Clothing  Confectionery  codes often  patterns.  3.  1.  103  than  1955. Davies  studies easier.  uses  12  jKtsitive  lap. I t is based o n c o n v e n t i o n a l activity-sets, a n d thus makes c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h  Others Grocery  T h emajor  2.  government-owned  100  merits a n d faults.  ADVANTAGES  category—in 1  c l a s s i l i c a t i o u .system h a s c e r t a i n  1.  activity  Flats associated with commercial premises  2-6 units  effected.  and negative attributes of the Peith City C o u n c i l code are:  Murphy  03  013 " B e d sitting-rooms  land-use  been  home  above  units  I n this listing a  Orphanage Nurses'  home  listed below. 1968) i n r e c e n t  025  H u t b l o c k * 7-14  Investment  1968 l a n d - u s e s u r v e y (see C i t y o f H o h a r t  024  units 012  City C o u n c i l i n their i n a few other studies  legations  utilities  1 42  4  WHOLESALE AND 400  •II  STORAGE  Sales offices  without  stocks*  Food  411  Textiles,  412  B u i l d i n g materials, hardware,  sofigood*  paint Spirits  414  Tobacco  415  Crockery, glass/silver/  Footwear  438  Leather  439  Sporting  Machinery, heavy  443  Chemicals  Sporting  444  Furnishings,  445  Machinery;hospital  equip-  P h a r m a c e u t i c a l , cosmetics  423  Chemicals  424  Furnishings,  426  Electrical  427  Produce,  S; v e g e t a b l e  markets Domestic  appliances,  •16  wholesalers  (NEC)  HO  Foods  431  Textile*,  4.12  B u i l d i n g materials,  softgoods hardware.  47  paints 133  Spirits  4.14  Tobacco  1.15  C r o c k e r y , glass s i l v e r ' jewellery  5 and 6  C a n n i n g fc f r e e z i n g D a i r y fc r e l a t e d  576  Pickles,  577  M e a t fc f i s h  501  Lime,  502  Bitumen,  503  Stone  304  Portland  processing  plaster, fibrous asphalt  & slate  plaster  product*  4 18  Domestic appliances, e t c  578  Margarine,  General  579  T e a , coffee, spices, etc.  Asbestos  B r i c k s fc t i l e s E a i t h c n w a i e . c h i n a . (»orcc-  509  Other  S t o c k y a r d s it s a l e y a r d s Cold  mineral  54  470  Coal  471  Sand  472  Mineral  473  Scrap yards it motor  474  Open  59 ores  processing  storage  heavy  chemicals,  disinfectants,  deter-  512  Pharmaceutical & toiletries  513  Explosives & fireworks  514  White-lead  515  Chemical  534  Jobbing  535  Non-ferrous  610  C a b i n e t fc f u r n i t u r e  611  B e d d i n g fc m a t t r e s s e s  612  Furnishings,  613  Picture  614  Blinds  615  Furniture,  drinks  Confectionery,  plants chocolates,  587  T o b a c c o , cigarettes, e t c  588  Dehydrated  5.16  Non-ferrous  metal  rolling  537  Non-ferrous  metal  casting/  drapery  frames etc. ( N E C )  Printing and Publishing, Paper 620  N e w s p a p e r s fc p e r i o d i c a l s  621  Printing  622  P r i n t i n g fc b o o k b i n d i n g  623  Stationery  624  Stereotyping  625  P r o c e s s fc p h o t o - e n g r a v i n g  general manufacture  626  Paper  627  Cardboard  628  Paper b a p  fc  elearotyping  making boxes, cartons e t c  Pencils, crayons,  paper  (NEC)  Rubber Goods 630  Rubber  631  Tyre  goods  retreading, e t c  6-1 Miscellaneous  f r u i t s fc  processing  making  640  G r a m o p h o n e s fc r e c o r d s  641  Pianos, musical  instruments,  etc.  (NEC)  642  I.father Goods scouring  Jewellery  643  Watches,  644  L i n o l e u m fc r e l a t e d  clocks, e t c  645  Plastic  646  B r o o m s fc b r u s h e s  647  S u r g i c a l fc s c i e n t i f i c i n s t r u -  618  Photographic  mouldings  products  & plastic  products  Furriers  592  Tanning  593  Saddling,  h a r n e s s fc w h i p s  594  Machine  belting  595  Bags,  596  Goods  trunks,  ments  leather  goods  materials &  processing o f leather  substitutes  649  Spectacle  makers  engineers metal  refining  65  Electrical/machinery  cables eiiuip-  / iscetla n eo us 650  T o y s fc s p o r t i n g  651  Manufacturing  655  Ice production  660  Metal Working 540  C o n s t r u c t i o n fc r e p a i r  541  V e h i c l e , accessories, c o n s t r u c -  665  Ore  goods  666  O i l wells  (NEC)  667  N a t u r a l gas wells  668  Salt  6 6 Mines and Quarries  railway  67  Underground  mines  661  Open  662  Clay  663  S a n d fc g r a v e l  664  cut mines pits  6H  pits  Quarries  concentrating  pans  Meatworks 670  Abattoirs  671  Knackeries  Railway Workshops 680  Railway  workshops  manufac-  paints,  55  Soaps and Oils 520  Vegetable oils  521  M i n e r a l oils,  by-products  A n i m a l oils  523  Boiling down  524  S o a p fc c a n d l e  works,  tallow  manufacturer  I r o n fc s t e e l s m e l l i n g ,  531  Iron  532  Heavy  rolling  foundries machinery,  structural  steel Machinery,  motors, nuts, e t c  steel  maintenance  514  Cutlery a n d small hand  545  Agricultural" machines a n d  70  tools  Sheet  metal  working,  gal-  547  Pipes, tubes & fittings  548  Wire, wire working a m i nails  549  Metal  works  (NEC)  C o t t o n , s p i n n i n g fc w e a v i n g  551  Wool,  552  H o s i e r y fc k n i t t e d  553  Silk  554  Synthetic  s p i n n i n g fc w e a v i n g  Canvas,  goods,  56  Electricity  702  G a s works  station  sub-station  tarpaulins,  733  Special  clinics  dam  734  Mental  hospital  reservoir  735  Hospitals  706  Water-supply  pumping  739  Animal  74  works  Sewage-pumping  station  740  Prisons  709  P o w e r easements,  water  741  Prison  farm  742  Children's  743  Correction  Special Public Uses  correction  home  establishments  (NEC)  710  Telephone  711  R a d i o fc T V s t a t i o n  exchange  712  Fire  713  Ambulance  714  Govt,  75  station station  715  M u n i c i p a l govt,  (NEC)  716  Garbage  works  depot works  incinerator,  depot  dump,  Military 750  Army  751  A i r force  c a m p fc b a r r a c k s base  752  Military  753  Naval  aerodrome  754  Naval dockyard  station i  7 6 Cemeteries  etc 717  Sanitary  718  Other  719  Public  depots  s p e c i a l uses  (NEC)  conveniences,  rooms  72  Prisons  Sewage-treatment  708  printing  clothing  (NEC)  health  707  Textile  clothing  hospital  home  G a s o m e t e r fc s u b - s t a t i o n  Textile  Keadymnde  Rest  Water-supply  559  Waterproof  Private hospitals  732  Water-supply  558  561  General  731  705  B a g s 8c s a c k s  560  730  703  557  Clothing  Hospitals  704  pipes, e t c  fibres  R o p e fc c o r d a g e  556  701  goods  71  555  Electricity-generating  station  Textiles 550  73  Public Utilities 700  tents  Engineering and Metal Working 530  fc  vanizing  fertilizers  (NEC)  Shipbuilding  546  varnishes  products  543  implements  I n k s , p o l l sites, e t c  furniture,  586  591  (NEC)  Furniture  t i o n fc a s s e m b l y  gents  Matches  63  Bottling  Wool  (NEC)  turing  Industrial,  Chemical  Wineries Other  585  furniture  Perambulators  treatment  584  590  wreckers  • o i l i n g stock  acids  518  Distilleries  Food  Basketware, cane Woodwork  629  Breweries  582  589  5 4 2 • A e r o p l a n e fc p a r t s  517  drinks  vegetables  R a d i o fc c l c c t i o n i c  (NEC)  Drugs,  Soft  etc  stores  Open Storage  Chemical Product!  533  silos  inent  Class, bottles, etc.  522  Crain  tanks  shortening, e t c  581 583  P e t r o l e u m fc p e t r o l e u m  463  5.18  lain  516  stores  462  cement  508  511  Wool  preserving  Food Processing 580  Bulk Storage  goods 506  510  products  Produce,  58  62  sauce*, vinegar, etc.  447  processing  processing  c e m e n t fc c e m e n t  505 507  m i l l s fc r e f i n i n g  Electrical  ( N E C ) fc  w a l l board, etc. b o x e s , cases  W o o d t u r n i n g fc c a r v i n g  (NEC)  Mineral Processing C o k e fc c o a l  foods  446  MANUFACTURE  500  m i l l i n g , c e r e a l s fc  575  461  4.1 Storage  Flour  574  product  General  t'uod Processing  instruments  storage  606  61  graphic/surgical/optiol  Ik v e g e t a b l e s  Plywood,  605  laundry,  (NEC)  Sugar  460  sinks  Apparel  573  Bulk Storage  baths,  plants,  Scientific/inusical/photo*  450 fruit  Dry-cleaning  Bakeries  Scientific/musical/pliotoinstruments  368  A n i m a l fc b i r d  fruit  Sawmills  601  604  572  furniture  600  603  manufacturers  starch  bond  45  Hats, caps  571  449  furniture  garments  Footwear  Pharmaceutical, cosmetics  paper/books  422  429  57  Sawmills and Furniture  . 602 Joinery,  Foundation  567  570  419  428  equipment,  steel  graphic/surgical/optical  53  books  442  421  ties,  dyeing  Footwear Leather goods  Stationery,  underclothing,  566  569  d r a w i n g fc p r i n t -  Clothing  423  52  goods  416  ment/steel  51  goods  417 418  goods  Shirts,  60  clothing  etc.  Stationery,  441  420  Millinery  565  ing, paper,  Wholesale—Sates and storage  50  Clothing  437  440  jewellery  12  436  14 Storage  413  Women's  563 564  Wholesale—Sulci and storage 410  562  change  77  Public Service Facilities  760  Cemeteries  761  Lawn  762  Crematoria  cemetery  Transport Termini 770  B u s station  720  Police station  771  Railway  721  Court  772  Railway  passenger  722  Post office  773  Airways  terminal  723  Babv  774  Fcrrv  house hcnlth  centie  station  wharves  terminal  78  79  775  Heliport  791  C a r p a r k o p e n , free & p r i v a t e  776  Airports  792  C a r park  780  Railway-goods  781  Ocean  782  Truck-freight  783  Bus  784  Truck  785  Railway  lines  786  Railway  marshalling  787  Parcels office  garage  Car  & depot  State primary  school  802  State secondary  school  803  Rom.  Catholic  primary  Catholic  secondary  Rom.  school  83  Other  primary  806  Other  secondary  807  Schools  for  schools schools  handicapped  children Coaching  colleges  Technical  colleges  811  Universities  812  Teachers'  84  Business a n d  815  Other  816  Government  commercial  tertiary  820  Music  821  Dancing  establishments research  estab-  Dressmaking  9  schools school  851  Reception  855  Indoor  85  homes  Lottery-sales  857  T A B  858  Gaming  859  Brothel  88  Gymnasium Stadium  863  Dance  864  Bowling  865  Skating  S q u a s h fc i n d o o r Billiard  court  rooms,  tennis,  (NEC)  Outdoor Entertainment Facilities Amusement  VACANCY AND  Congregational  835  Baptist  836  Seventh  837  Salvation  Day  Adventist  Army  Synagogue Other  churches  Entertainment Art  galleries  Theatres  842  Concert  813  Church  844  Other  845  Commercial  846  Public  halls halls  public  halls library  library  Cinemas Tourist  information  Museums  centres  historical  Private Clubs Licensed  clubs  Speedway Outdoor  cultural  entertain-  Outdoor Recreation Facilities 880  Tennis  881  Public swimming  882  Restricted swimming  883  Bowling  884  Golf  parks  theatres  grounds fields,  ovals  track  CONSTRUCTION*  9 / 2 6 Vacant Premises Vacant  flat  889  games  table  I n d o o r sports  Race  834  courts pools pools  greens  driving  ranges,  mini-  Playgrounds Basketball  887  867  874  Presbyterian  886  alleys  866  Sports  Methodist"  833  HH5  ballrooms  rinks  873  Catholic  832  golf  halls,  Drive-in  of England  Roman  ment  shop  rooms  Show  Church  831  876  Indoor Amusement  872  830  875 centre  house  862  schools  school  Worship  kiosk  betting  871  school  850  amusement  856  9/260  building  societies  school  Driving  Club  training  849  Cookery  870  residential  Modelling  schools  etc.  87  com-  i n association  Drama  818  schools  821  868  i n building,  Other  847  823  861  commercial  private  parking  827  841  Educational: Special  860  park  Car  826  8-10  colleges  Seminaries  lishments  86  lane  open,  825  839  Educational: Tertiary  822  streets,  parks  Car  838  colleges  82  Car  with  school  814  private  o|«n. commercial  RECREATIONAL  801  813  Roads,  796  o p e n , f r e e X; p u b l i c  nursery  810  795  797  scliool  81  i n building,  park  mercial  Kindergarten,  808  Car  private yards  800  805  com-  public  Educational: Primary and Secondary  804  Car park  79-1  798 park  i n building, public  793  terminals  garage  CULTURAL AND  80  terminal  wharves  Car Parking 790  8  mercial  Transport Termini  i n commercial  premises  89  space  Vacant  shop  9/262  Vacant  office  9/263  Vacant  warehouse  9/264  Vacant  factory  9/265  Vacant  house  9/266  Vacant  flat  9/267  Vacant  space  9/268  Vacant  space space  space  (NEC)  890  P u b l i c golf  891  Private golf  892  Beach  893  P a r k s & reserves  894  National  895  Botanical  896  Zoological  897  Rifle  course  park gardens gardens  range  9/284  Vacant  educational  9/285  Vacant  institutional  9/290  Flats  9/291  House  9/292  Shop  9/293  Office  9/294  Warehouse under  9/280  Vacant  commercial  9/281  Vacant  industrial residential land  under  land land  construction  under under  construction construction  under  9/295  Factory  9/296  Institutional  9/297  Recreational under  V a c a n t govt,  course  reserves  under  9 . 2 8 Vacant Land  Vacant  freeways  construction construc-  tion  showrooms  9/283  among  Public Open Space  9 / 2 9 Buildings under Construction  9/261  9/282  courts  Trampolines Open  land  building  construction  Educational  9/299  Other  under  construction building  construction  9/298  land land  under  building  construction building  construction  under  1 44  A.2  Format The  format  of  data  coded  on  computer  disc  space  4 9 1 1 13 18 23 27 30 33 36 39 42 45  street address. suite number floor number north or south side of s t r e e t . location in feet from Ont. St. area in s q . f t . of the business l a n d use i n 1 981 . l a n d use in 1 976. l a n d use i n 1 971 . l a n d use in 1966. l a n d use i n 1 961 . l a n d use in 1 956. l a n d use i n 1 951 .  is  as  follows: 1 6 11 13 15 20 25 28 31 34 37 40 43  The  street  is.  Any  street  --------------  address,  suite  no.,  floor  above  nine  variable  l i s t s  the  and  the  each  establishment  Ontario Street  m  south  St. in  side  the  the  a  a  point  line  west.  as  and  (9)  is  floor l i s t e d  north  side  of  zero  (0).  The  location  extends  no.  on  as the  across  a l l  (9).  The  street  l i s t e d side  as  a  of  as the  one  (1)  location  variable  gives  line.  Starting  from  a  approximately  Distances  are  streets  8300 are  feet  to  omitted  Burrard in  the  measurement.  A.3  Coding The  coding  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of  categories  groups  for  the  of  system are  land-uses used  recoded  purposes  001 - 0 3 4 100 - 113 120 - 129 130 - 159 160-163, 165-169 164 180 - 196  by  Alexander  into  of  from  de il il il il il il  to  (1972).  approximately  this  Resi Reta Reta Reta Reta Reta Reta  1951  30  1981 The more  thesis: nt -  ial. Food. Clothing. Household. Miscellaneous. Office Supplies. Auto/Hardware.  follows large  the  number  generalized  1 45  200 202,203 204 - 209 210 - 219 220 - 226 230 - 236 240 - 249 250 - 253 270 - 276  The  complete  taken  from  -- R e s t a u r a n t s . -- H a i r d r e s s e r s . -- P e r s o n a l . Business. -- P e r s o n a l -- B u s i n e s s . Banking. -- F i n a n c i a l a n d Contractors. -- B u i l d i n g -- A u t o m o b i l e . -- R e p a i r .  Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service Service  308 319 317 325 332  Office Office Office Office Office  400 500  -  482 699  Wholesaling. Manufactur ing.  700 800  - 789 - 897  Public. Cultural/Recreat  790 260 280 290  - 798 - 268 - 285 - 299  Parking. Vacant - Building. Vacant - Land. Underconstruct ion.  l i s t i n g  Alexander  of  -  General. Professional. Medical. Government. Business Advisory.  300 3,318, 314 320 330 -  land  use  codes  (1972),  The  City  ional.  used  in  Centre.  the  thesis  was  146  Appendix B Methods  Three outlined  statistical  i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r , f o r  ease of use and for  methods were chosen  the  f o r t h i s t h e s i s , as  their  applicability,  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of software  computer.  Figure  A.1  outlines  the  sequence  of  models  in  application. Data  Collection I  Coding I  Frequency Markov A n a l y s i s  Growth & Change  Nearest-Neighbor Cluster F i g u r e A.1  Land Use Patterns  Analysis  Framework of Methods.  B. 1 Markov Chain Models Despite  the  potential  for  Markov  chain  g e o g r a p h i c a l s t u d i e s , these have found l i m i t e d use over the l a s t twenty  years  (Rose,  1970).  Both  employed these methods i n r e s i d e n t i a l Bourne  Rose  and C l a r k (1965) have  land-use  studies,  while  (1971) has used the technique over a wider range of land  use s u c c e s s i o n s i n Toronto. The process a n a l y z e s the changes i n  states  over  a  given  1 47  time  period  and  is  summarized  in  Clark  (1965):  A Markov chain process i s d e t e r m i n e d by s p e c i f y i n g the following i n f o r m a t i o n : There i s a g i v e n set of states ( S 1 , S 2 , . . . . S r ) . The p r o c e s s c a n be i n one a n d o n l y one of t h e s e s t a t e s (or c l a s s e s ) at a given time, and it moves successively from one state to another. Each move i s called a step. The probability that the process moves f r o m S i t o S j d e p e n d s o n l y on t h e state "s" that is occupied before the step. The transition probability Pij which gives the p r o b a b i l i t y that the p r o c e s s w i l l move f r o m S i t o S j is given for every o r d e r e d p a i r of s t a t e s . A l s o an i n i t i a l s t a r t i n g state is s p e c i f i e d at which the process i s assumed to b e g i n . For  the  purposes  of  land-use  categories,  to  and  1981,  While  this  intended  as  (1970)  B.2  in  to  of  pattern  in  1954;  model to  the  the  involves  point  i t s  this  distance  these  year  predictive  tool  in  (1960)  (1970)  and  the  as  recorded from  thesis.  i t  is  For  with  Clark  of  regard  refer  only  further  foundations  work,  1951  percentages.  purposes,  and,  geographical  are  intervals  this  mathematical  has  been  the  to  to  the  Brown  (1965).  studies  1960;  Pinder  determining neighbour  observed  with  a  randomly  analysis  proven  various  were  states  expressed  nearest-neighbour  nearest  points  five  are  for  to  Rose  the  Analysis  Dacey,  analysis and  are  Bharucha-Reid  distributions  researchers Evans,  of  used  general  this  addition  use  steps  descriptive  Nearest-Neighbour  The  if  be  the  refer  application  can  a on  the  thesis,  probabilities  model  information model,  the  this  of  the in  a  sucessful  urban  and  predicted  describe by  Witherick,  of or  distributed.  a  geography  average set  to  number (Clark  1972).  distance  point of and The  between  a  points, and  comparing  "expected"  distance  1 48  Nearest degree  of  over  two  a  neighbour  clustering  R  or  dimensional  s t a t i s t i c a l The  analysis  formulae  value  regularity plane  an  ranged  was  R  between  (Clark  value  from  and  was  R  developed  =  0.0  measure  points  Evans,  derived  to  distributed  1954).  for  a  the  From  set  of  (Clustered)  their  points.  to  R  =  2.15  (Regular). Dacey of a  the  (i960)  nearest  linear  between  pairs as  The  proportion  of  predicted  value.  for  second  the  nearest  s t a t i s t i c a l and  where A  was  more  put  method  distributed the  number  by  graph  values. average  of  nearest  differs  distance  are of  neighbours,  a  from  on  an a  the  the  pairs  to  a  value is  of  were nearest as  a  constant  or  of  (2/3)  used  analysis  nearest (1973).  distances second  is its  is  for a  the  sound  simplicity  average  of  neighbour They  to  a  randomly  demonstrate  nearest  observed  neighbours  proposed  distance  formula  formula  between  formula  predicted  t r a d i t i o n a l  nearest  percentage  expressed  of  along  measures  other's  are  virtue  data  small.  relationship  the  between  or  the  (2/3)  by  version  distance  compared  The  observed  random  handle  each  predicted  Witherick of  i l l u s t r a t i n g Building  a  prediction  that  and  on.  derivation and  are  suffer  points  to  Reflexive  neighbour, so  simplified  actual  pairs  points,  does  Pinder  the  which  analysis  a  determined  reflexive  and  but  use  d i s t r i b u t i o n .  nearest  neighbour  probability  distance a  first  rigorous  forth for  this  test,  the  of  total  In  than  points  number  used  modified  Burghardt  the  two  the  Rather  and  within  any  neighbour.  used  Dacey  (1959)  analysis,  pattern.  points,  defined  Burghardt  neighbour  point  reflexive  and  neighbour  and  and  finally  predicted  for  the  predicted  0.5  a/n  where  Nearest-Neighbor  M.A. THESIS  Analysis (Pinder  &  Witherick,1973)  U.B.C.  BLAKE B. HUOEMA  FIG. A.2  1 50  a  =  area  (1973)  and  n  modified  outcome  and  =  this  the  the  number  method  formula  to  used  L  line.  =  line  length  Applying  neighbour  and  this  s t a t i s t i c  in  (LRn),  2.0  of  a  LRn  perfectly  indicate  a  level  ends  great  and  the  at  10  percent  on  / a  Witherick  patterns.  as  The  follows:  points  to  the  along  linear  the  nearest  becomes:  0.5(L/n-1) clustered  point  pattern.  randomly Note  that  the  left.  are  of  formula  the  95  value  of  are  either  low  would A.2  significance  levels  these  1.0  to  Figure  percent  Error at  area  A  distribution  distributed.  meaningless  and  is  value  whole  crosshatched  level  point  thesis  number  point  method.  results  the  the  0.0,  pattern  points  the  =  Dobs  regular  this  outside  95  from  point  illustrates  lying  range  and  (l/n-1)  the  =  Pinder  linear  this  "predicted"  LRn Values  n  points,  accept  0.5 where  of  become  levels.  to  Values  considered  non-random  clustered  or  to  regularly  distributed.  B. 3  Cluster The  Analysis  cluster  software  package  u t i l i z i n g  a  analysis developed  matrix  data  used at  in  the  input  this  thesis  University created  from  is  of  the  BMDP  California,  the  primary  data  Science  Center  at  base. Mr.  Glen  University  Cooper  British  Fortran  program  format.  The  establishment,  which  of  Columbia  Computing was  transformed  program at  the  ground  instrumental the  calculates level,  to  in  raw  data  the  distance  its  closest  into  drafting  a  an  input  from  every  neighbour  of  151  every  other  land-use  Appendix  A).  of  street,  the  between  order a  between  neighbour by  of  29  the  matrix. are  BA.  distance  This of  The minimum this  real,  the  of  which  the  until  the  hierarchical  as  once  an  group.  and  proportional of  the  may  not  other  groups.  matrix  is  group  of  cluster. into  the  land-use  The  use  to  the  those  the  AB  is  was  inputted  into  street. their  is  equal the  side  distances The  nearest  aggregated  matrix  see  either  and  are  distance  creates  show  the  into  a  necessary  as  to  distance  cluster  elements  in  other  To  the  analysis  For  in  a  a  group,  a  detailed  i t  outputs of  The  possible  are  upper as  is  clusters individual  elements a  of  clear  cluster  of  of  distance  for  proximity of  to  also  clustering  (0-100)  an  During  confined  regardless  provides  description  is  other  value  the  proceeded  group.  limitation,  spatial  to  elements  with  types)  In  is  misleading,  scaled  (land-use two  of  this  s i m i l a r i t y .  groups  group.  be  (a  single  the  can  elements  compared  subsequent  for  gives  of  in  association  association a  to  of  clustering  of  characters  compensate  these  The  subgrouping  elements  which  are  comprised  committed  true  degree  variables.  influence  elements of  highest  therefore,  show  subgroupings  (land-uses)  individual  spatial types.  of  half  on  of  that  process,  included two  one  a l l  heirarchy,  elements  sides  types  other  their to  added  land-use  a l l  element The  is  establishments  variables  between  sequentially  feet  types,  software.  analysis  distances  altered  Only  cluster  thesis,  that  28  land-use  establishments  30  380  such  recoded  opposite  matrix  BMDP  two)  of  on  a l l  (28  compare  value  other  distances  option  to  establishments  distances  29  In  type  every  how  they  picture various analysis  1 52  and BMDP, s e e BMDP (1981).  1 53  Appendix Sections City  of  C C-2,  C-3,  Vancouver  C-3A By-Law  of #3575.  (C-2) COMMERCIAL DISTRICT SCHEDULE: (Suburban) 1. Uses permitted, conditions and regulations: A. Uses: Subject to all other provisions of this By-law, on any site, in any district denned, designated, or described in this By-law as a (C-2) Commercial District, development permits will be issued only for development comprising retail stores, businesses, or undertakings catering for the day-to-day needs of residents of several neighbourhoods and comprising a large district of the City, namely: (1) Advertisements, billboards and signs subject to the provisions of Section 10(21) and Section 11(9) of this By-law. (1G/7/56—*3583) (2) Auction room. (3) Bakeries retailing on the premises only, not exceeding a total of 2,200 sq. ft. of floor area. (4) Billiard and pool hall. (5) Cleaning and dyeing shop. (6) Frozen food lockers. (7) Garage, public (storage). (8) Gasoline filling station. (9) Office building. (10) Parking area (public). (11) Radio and television broadcasting and receiving masts and antennae (commercial). (12) Radio broadcasting and receiving station for motor vehicles, trains, watercraft and aircraft. (13) Restaurant (excluding a drive-in). (14) Retail store, business or undertaking catering for the day-to-day needs of residents of several neighbourhoods and comprising a large district of the City. (15) School (business or commercial). (16) Steam baths. (17) Swimming pool (commercial). (18) Dwelling units in conjunction with and in addition to any of the above uses provided that no portion of the first storey of a building to a depth of 35 feet from the front building line and extending across the full width of the building shall be used for residential purposes except lor entrances to such residential part. (12/3/57—*3622) (19) The keeping of not more than two boarders or lodgers or not more than four foster children in each dwelling unit. (20) A building or use which is customarily accessory to the above principal buildings or uses, except for a building or use which is only listed as a principal use in the (M-l) or (M-2) schedules, provided that: (a) All accessory buildings are located in a rear yard; (b) All accessory buildings shall occupy an area of not greater than ten percent of the area of the site; (c) No accessory building shall exceed one storey or 12 feet in height; (C-2)  155  (d) No accessory building shall obstruct the daylight access as required by this by-law for any residential use; (e) A l l accessory uses of the type which v/ould not be permitted as principal uses under Section 1 of this schedule shall occupy an area of not more than 25 percent of the ?ross Hour area of the principal use, and shall be located within the principal building. B. Conditions of Use: Every business, or undertaking shall be conducted wholly within a completely enclosed building except for parking and loading facilities, a service station, and signs and advertisements. C. Front Yard: No front yard shall be required. D. Side Yard: No side yard shall be required provided, however, that where a (C-2) Commercial District adjoins any R district without the intervention of a street or lane, the following side yards shall be provided: (a) Three feet in the case of an RA, RS or R T district. (b) Five feet in the case of an RM district. If a side yard in a (C-2) district be provided where not required by the provisions of this By-law, the said side yard shall be not less than three feet in width. E. Rear Yard: A rear yard shall be provided of not less than 10 feet; provided however that where a building contains residential uses, the building shall be set back not less than 25 feet over its full width from the rear line of the site, but such setback need not extend below the lowest storey containing residential uses; and provided further that where the rear line of a site adjoins a dedicated lane the minimum depth of the rear yard or setback, as the case may be, may be reduced by an amount equal to the distance from the ultimate centre line of the lane to the rear line of the site. F. Height: The height of a building shall not exceed 40 feet nor three storeys. G. Horizontal Light Angle for Residential Use: (for illustrations see Appendix "G") Where part of a building is used for residential purposes: (1) The window of every habitable room shall be not less than 10 feet from the interior side boundary of the site onto which it faces. (2) Every window shall permit of an unobstructed view for a distance of not less than 80 feet, measured horizontally from its centre at sill level. Such view shall extend through either a continuous horizontal arc of not less than 50 degrees, or through two or more horizontal arcs which in the aggregate contain an arc of not less than 70 degrees; provided however the above arcs may be reduced from 50 degrees to 40 degrees, and 70 degrees to 60 degrees, respectively, in the case of buildings of two storeys or less in height; for the purpose of this subsection the following shall be considered as obstructions: (a) The theoretically equivalent buildings if located on any adjoining sites in any R district in a corresponding position by rotating the plot plan of the proposed building 180 degrees about a horizontal axis located on the property lines of the proposed site.  1 56  (b) Part of the same building including permitted projections. (c) Accessory buildings located on the same site as the principal building. (d) The maximum size building permitted under the appropriate C or M schedule if the site adjoins a C or M site. (3) Where a window is greater in area than the minimum required under the Building By-law, the above conditions may be tested against the least restrictive portion of of the window equal in area to the required minimum. For the purpose of this subsection, a kitchen shall not be counted as a habitable room unless its area is greater than ten percent of the total floor area of the dwelling unit in which it is situated, or 70 square feet, whichever is the greater. H. Floor Space Ratio: The floor space ratio shall in no case exceed 3.00 provided however that where a building is used in part for residential purposes every square foot of the floor area used for residential purposes shall be counted as the equivalent of 2'/* square feet for the purposes of this section. J. Off-street Parking Spaces: Off-street parking spaces shall be provided and maintained as required by, and in accordance with the provisions of Section 12 of this By-law. K. Off-street Loading Spaces: Loading and unloading spaces shall be provided and maintained as required by, and in accordance with the provisions of Section 13 of this By-law. 2. Uses which may be permitted subject to special approval by the Technical Planning Board: Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 1 of this schedule, development permits may be issued for development comprising the following uses subject" to such uses first of all being approved by the Technical Planning Board. If a development permit is granted it shall be subject to such conditions and regulations or relaxations as the Technical Planning Board may decide: Uses: (1) Ambulance headquarters. (12/3/57-*3622) (1A) Animal hospital. (2) Automotive repair shop. (3) Automobile and parts showroom. (4) Bakery (manufacturing of bread, pies, and confectionery), other than as provided for in Section 1 of this schedule. (5) Bowling alley. (6) Building or use required by a public authority. (7) Car sales lot. (8) Church. (9) Club, or lodge (fraternal). (10) Community centre. (11) Deposit or extraction of material so as to alter the configuration of the land. (C-2)  1 57  (12) Hall. (13) Home craft or occupation. (14) Hospital, sanitorium, convalescent home, excluding a mental hospital. (15) Hotel provided it conforms to the daylight access provisions of Section 1 of the (C-2) schedule. (16) Institution of a religious, philanthropic, charitable or philozoic character. (17) Kennels, or the keeping, breeding, raising, training or boarding of dogs or cats. (18) Lithographing. (19) Motel provided it conforms to the daylight access provisions of Section 1 of the (C-2) schedule. (20) Park or playground. (21) Pet shop. (22) Public utility. (23) Restaurant (drive-in). (24) School (public or private), kindergarten, day-care school, creche or day nursery. (25) School (trade). (26) Sign and showcard writing. (27) Stadium, curling rink, ice rink, roller rink, race track, gymnasium, or similar place of assembly. (28) Stamp shop (rubber and metal). (29) Theatre (excluding a drive-in). (30) Tires (retreading and rebuilding). (31) Tourist court subject to the provisions of Section 11(5). (32) Undertaking establishment. (33) Wholesale business (only to serve local or district needs). (34) Any other building or use which is not specifically listed in any schedule of this By-law, and which, is similar to the foregoing buildings or uses; before granting a development permit for such building or use the Technical Planning Board shall have regard to the types of buildings and uses which specifically may be permitted in this schedule. (12/3/57—*3622) (35) The use of a site for purely residential purposes, if, the site has unusual peculiarities of location, such use to include one and two-family dwellings, apartments, boarding or lodging houses, and fraternity or sorority houses. (36) The conversion into dwelling units of an existing building other than one granted a development permit in accordance with Section 1 of this schedule; before granting a development permit for such conversion the Technical Planning Board shall have regard to the regulations of Section 1 of this schedule and also to the amenity of the neighbourhood. (37) The conversion of an existing building into housekeeping units in any case where such existing building, by reason of its age and size, is deemed to be unsuitable for  1  its present use; before granting a development permit for such conversion the Technical Planning Board shall have regard to the regulations of Section 1 of this schedule and also to the amenity of the neighbourhood. (38) The conversion of an existing building into a boarding or lodging-house in any case where such existing building, by reason of its age and size, is deemed to be unsuitable for its present use; before granting a development permit tor such conversion the Technical Planning Board shall have regard to the regulations of the RM schedules and also to the amenity of the neighbourhood. (39) A dwelling unit or housekeeping unit other than one granted a development permit in accordahce with this schedule which has been installed or used prior to June 18th, 1956, with or without one or more of the required City permits may be granted a development permit limited in time. (11/12/56—*3610) (40) A building which has been altered or used for a boarding or lodging house, other than one granted a development permit in accordance with this schedule, which has been installed or used pior to June 18th, 1956, with or without one or more of the required City permits may be granted a development permit limited in time. (11/12/56—*3610) (41) Any building or use which can be considered as accessory to the above uses and to the uses listed in Section 1 of this schedule, other than those accessory buildings or uses for which provision is made in such Section, subject to: (a) All accessory buildings occupying an area of not greater than ten percent of the area of the site. (b) All accessory uses occupying an area of not greater than one third the total gross floor area of all the buildings on the site.  (C-2)  58  (C-3) Commercial District Schedule: (Medium Density) 1. Uses permitted, conditions and regulations: A. Uses: Subject to all other provisions of this By-law, on any site, in any district defined, designated, or described in this By-law as a (C-3) Commercial District, development permits will be issued only for development comprising the following: (1) Advertisements, billboards and signs subject to the provisions of section 10(21) of this by-law. (2) Auction room. (3) A - °bile and parts showroom. ut  om  (4) Bakeries retailing on the premises only, not exceeding a total of 2,200 sq. ft. of floor area. (5) Billiard and pool hall. (6) Book bindery. (7) Cleaning and dyeing shop. (8) Club, or lodge (fraternal). (9) Community Centre. (10) Film exchange. (11) Frozen food lockers. (12) Garage, public (storage). (13) Gasoline filling station. (14) Hall. (15) Institution of a religious, philanthropic, charitable or philozoic character. (16) Laboratory. (17) Office building. (18) Parking area (public). (19) Pet shop. (20) Radio and television broadcasting and receiving masts and antennae (commercial). (21) Radio broadcasting and receiving station for motor vehicles, trains, watercraft, and air craft. (22) Restaurant excluding a drive-in. (23) Retail store, business, or undertaking. (24) School (business or commercial). (25)  School (trade).  (26) Sign and showcard writing. (27) Steam baths. (28) Swimming pool (commercial).  160  (29) Theatre (excluding a drive-in). (30) Tires (retreading or rebuilding-) (31) Dwelling Units in conjunction with and in addition to any of the above uses provided that no portion of the first storey oi a building to a depth of 35 feet from the front building line and extending across the full width of the building shall be used for residential purposes except for entrances to such residential part. (12/3/57—*3622) (32) The keeping of not more than two boarders or lodgers or not more tnan four foster children in each dwelling unit. (33) A building or use which is customarily accessory to the above principal buildings or uses, except for a building or use which is only listed as a principal use in the (M-l) or (M-2) schedules, provided that: (a) All accessory buildings are located in a rear yard. (b) All accessory buildings shall occupy an area of not greater than ten percent of the area of the site. (c) No accessory building shall exceed one storey or 12 feet in height. (d) No accessory building shall obstruct the daylight access as required by this by-law for any residential use. (e) All accessory uses of the type which would not be permitted as principal uses under Section 1 of this schedule shall occupy an area of not more than 25 percent of the gross floor area of the principal use, and shall be located within the principal building. B. Conditions of Use: Every business or undertaking shall be conducted wholly within a completely enclosed building except for parking and loading facilities, a service station, and signs and advertisements. C. Front Yard: No front yard shall be required. D. Side Yard: Up to a height of three storeys or 40 feet whichever is the lesser, no side yard shall be required except in the following cases: (1) Where a (C-3) Commercial District adjoins any R District without the intervention of a street or lane the following side yards shall be provided: (a) Three feet in the case of an RA, RS, or R T District. (b) Five feet in the case of an RM District. (2) Where a side yard in any such district be provided where not required by the provisions of this By-law, the said side yard shall be not less than three feet in width. For the next three storeys above a height of three storeys or 40 feet, whichever is the lesser, no part of the building shall be nearer than five feet to the side lines of the site and this distance shall be increased by one foot for every additional storey, provided however that this requirement need not apply on aflankingstreet of a corner site. E. Rear Yard: A rear yard shall be provided of not less than 10 feet; provided however that where a building contains residential use, the building shall be set back not less than 25 feet over its full width from the rear line of the site, but such setback need not extend below (C-3)  16.1  the lowest storey containing residential use; and provided further that where the rear line of a site adjoins a dedicated lane the minimum depth of the rear yard or setback, as the case may be, may be reduced by an amount equal to the distance from the ultimate centre line of the lane to the rear line of the site. F. Height: The height of a building shall not exceed eight storeys nor 100 feet. G. Vertical Light Angle for all uses: (for illustrations see Appendix "G") In the case of a building of more than three stories or 40 feet in height no part of such building above the third storey or above 40 feet shall project above lines extending toward the building at right angles from: (12/3/57—*3622) (1) All points along the ultimate centre line of the street (or streets) in front of the site and inclined at an angle of 60 degrees to the horizontal; (2) All points along the rear boundary line of the site or the ultimate centre line of the lane where one has been dedicated, and inclined at an angle of 60 degrees to the horizontal; (3) All points along the interior side boundary (or boundaries) of the site at ground level and inclined at an angle of 70 degrees to the horizontal; (4) In the case of a corner site all points along the ultimate centre line of a flanking street or lane and inclined at an angle of 60 degrees to the horizontal; Provided however that any part of a building shall be exempt from the appropriate vertical angle control above, if the exempt part of the building: (a) has a horizontal dimension of 60 feet or less .measured parallel to the street, lane, or boundary of the site, as the case may be, from which the said vertical angle is measured; and (b) is not less than 80 feet from any part of the same building similarly exempt, measured in the same direction as the 60 feet specified in clause (a) of this proviso. H. Horizontal Light Angle for Residential Use: (for illustrations see Appendix "G") Where part of a building is used for residential purposes: (1) The window of every habitable room shall be not less than ten feet from the interior side boundary of the site onto which it faces. (2) Every window shall permit of an unobstructed view for a distance of not less than 80 feet, measured horizontally from its centre at sill level. Such view shall extend through either a continuous horizontal arc of not less than 50 degrees, or through two or more horizontal arcs which in the aggregate contain not less than 70 degrees, provided however the above arcs may be reduced from 50 degrees to 40 degrees, and 70 degrees to 60 degrees, respectively, in the case of buildings of two storeys or less in height; for the purpose of this subsection the following shall be considered as obstructions: fa) The theoretically equivalent buildings located on any adjoining sites in any R District in a corresponding position by rotating the plot plan of the proposed building" 180 degrees about a horizontal axis located ©n the property lines of the proposed site. (b) Part of the same building including permitted projections. (c) Accessory buildings located on the same site as the principal building. (d) The maximum size building permitted under the appropriate C or M schedule if the site adjoins a C or M site.  162  (3) Where a window is greater in area than the minimum required under the Building By-law, the above conditions may be tested against the least restrictive portion of the window equal in area to the required minimum. For the purpose of this subsection, a kitchen shall not be counted as a habitable room unless its area is greater than ten percent of the total floor area of the dwelling unit in which it is situated, or 70 square feet, whichever is the greater. J. Floor Space Ratio: The floor space ratio shall in no case exceed 5.00 provided, however, that where a building is used in part for residential purposes every square foot of the floor area used for residential purposes shall be counted as the equivalent of 1% square feet for the purpose of this subsection. K. Off-street Parking Spaces: Off-street parking spaces shall be provided and maintained as required by, and in accordance with the provisions of Section 12 of this By-law. L. Off-street Loading Spaces: Loading and unloading spaces shall be provided and maintained as required by, and in accordance with the provisions of Section 13 of this By-law.  2. Uses which may be permitted subject to special approval by the Technical Planning Board: Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 1 of this schedule, development permits may be issued for development comprising the following uses subject to such uses first of all being approved by the Technical Planning Board. If a development permit is granted it shall be subject to such conditions and regulations or relaxations as the Technical Planning Board may decide: Uses: (1) Ambulance Headquarters. (1A) Animal hospital.  (12/3/57—*3622)  (2) Automotive repair shop.  -  r  (3) Bakery (manufacturing of bread, pies, confectionery), other than as provided for in Section 1 of this schedule. (4) Bottling plant (milk or carbonated beverages). (5) Bowling alley. (6) Broom and brush manufacturing. (7) Building or use required by a public authority. (8) Candy manufacturing. (9) Car sales lot. (10) Church. (11) Clothing and garment manufacturing. (12) Dairy products manufacturing (except cheese). (13) Deposit or extraction of material so as to alter the configuration of the land.  ••(C-3)  (14) Food products manufacturing, processing and packaging excluding fish and a cannery. (15) Home craft or occupation. (16) Hospital, sanitarium, convalescent home, excluding a mental hospital. (17) Hotel provided it conforms to the daylight access provisions of Section 1 of the (C-3) schedule. (18) Ice manufacturing. (19) Jewellery manufacturing. (20) Kennels or the keeping, breeding, raising, training or boarding of dogs or cats. (21) Lithographing. (22) Motel provided it conforms to the daylight access provisions of Section 1 of the (C-3) schedule. (23) Motion picture and television studio. (24) Park or playground. (25) Printing shop. (26) Public utility. (27) Radio and television broadcasting and receiving station (commercial). (28) Restaurant (drive-in). (29) School (public or private), kindergarten, day-care school, creche, or day nursery. (30) Sheet metal or tinsmith shop. (31) Stadium, curling rink, ice rink, roller rink, race track, gymnasium, or similar place of assembly. (32) Stamp shop (rubber and metal). (33) Taxidermy. (34) Tourist court subject to the provisions of Section 11(5) of this Bylaw. (35) Toy and novelty manufacturing. (36) Undertaking establishment. (37) Warehouse (general). (38) Wholesale business. (39) Any other building or use which is not specifically listed in any schedule of this By-law, and which is similar to the foregoing buildings or uses; before granting a development permit for such building or use the Technical Planning Board shall have regard to the types of buildings and uses which specifically may be permitted in this schedule, ' (J273/57-35022) (10) Buildings of more than eight storeys or !00 feet in height, subject to all other regulations of Section 1 of this schedule. (41) The use of a site for purely residential purposes if the site has unusual peculiarities of location, such use to include one and two-family dwellings, apartments, boarding or lodging houses, and fraternity or sorority houses.  1 64  (42) The conversion into dwelling units of an existing building other than one granted a development permit in accordance with Section 1 of this schedule; before granting a development permit for such conversion the Technical Planning Board shall have regard to the regulations of Section 1 of this schedule and also to the amenity of the neighbourhood. (43) .The conversion of an existing building into housekeeping units in any case where such existing building, by reason of its age and size, is deemed to be unsuitable for its present use; before granting a development permit for such conversion the Technical Planning Board shall have regard to the regulations of Section 1 of this schedule and also to the amenity of the neighbourhood. (44) The conversion of an existing building into a boarding or lodging house in any case where such existing building by reason of its age and size, is deemed to be unsuitable for its present use; before granting a development permit for such conversion the Technical Planning Board shall have regard to the regulations of the RM schedules and also to the amenity of the neighbourhood. < (45) A dwelling unit or housekeeping unit other than one granted a development permit in accordance with this schedule, which has been installed or used prior to June 18th, 1956, with or without one or more of the required City permits may be granted a development permit limited in time. (11/12/56—*3610) (46) A building which has been altered or used for a boarding or lodging house other than one granted a development permit in accordance with this schedule which has been installed or used prior to June 18th, 1956, with or without one or more of the required City permits may be granted a development permit limited in time. (11/12/56—*3610) (47) Any building or use which can be considered as accessory to the above uses and to the uses listed in Section 1 of this schedule other than those accessory buildings or uses for which provision is made in such section, subject to: (a) All accessory buildings occupying an area of not greater than ten percent of the area of the site. (b) All accessory uses occupying an area of not greater than one-third the total gross floor area of all the buildings on the site.  (C-3)  165.  G3A (C*3A) Commercial District  Schedule (24/6/75-No.  4877)  Uses p e r m i t t e d , c o n d i t i o n s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s : Subject t o all the provisions o f this B y - l a w o n a n y site w i t h i n a n y d i s t r i c t d e f i n e d , d e s i g n a t e d o r d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s B y - l a w as a ( C - 3 A ) D i s t r i c t , t h e o n l y uses p e r m i t t e d , and t h e o n l y uses f o r w h i c h d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t s m a y b e i s s u e d , a r e t h o s e c o n t a i n e d in S e c t i o n s 1, 2 a n d 3 h e r e o f .  A.  Uses: (1) (2)  A u c t i o n room. Bakeries retailing o n the premises o n l y ,  not exceeding a total o f 2,200  s q u a r e feet o f f l o o r area. (3)  Billiard and pool hall.  (4)  Book  (5)  Cleaning and dyeing shop.  (6)  C l u b , o r lodge  (7)  Community  (8)  F i l m exchange.  (9)  Frozen food lockers.  (10)  Hall.  (11)  Institution o f a religious, p h i l a n t h r o p i c , charitable o r p h i l o z o i c character.  (12)  Laboratory.  bindery.  (fraternal).  centre.  (13)  Office building.  (14)  P a r k i n g area ( p u b l i c ) .  (15)  Pet shop.  (16)  R a d i o and television (commercial).  (17)  R a d i o broadcasting and receiving station f o r m o t o r vehicles, trains, watercraft a n d aircraft.  (18)  R e s t a u r a n t ( e x c l u d i n g a drive-in)..  broadcasting  and receiving  masts  and  antennae  C-3A  1 66  •  (19)  Retail store, business, or  undertaking.  (20)  S c h o o l (business or c o m m e r c i a l ) .  (21)  S c h o o l (trade).  (22)  Sign and showcard writing.  (23)  Steam bath.  (24)  Swimming pool  (25)  Theatre (excluding a drive-in).  (26)  D w e l l i n g u n i t s in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h and in a d d i t i o n to a n y o f the above uses p r o v i d e d t h a t n o p o r t i o n o f t h e f i r s t s t o r e y o f a b u i l d i n g t o a d e p t h o f 3 5 feet f r o m the f r o n t w a l l o f the b u i l d i n g and e x t e n d i n g across the full w i d t h o f t h e b u i l d i n g s h a l l be u s e d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l p u r p o s e s e x c e p t f o r entrances to s u c h residential part.  (27)  T h e keeping o f not m o r e than t w o boarders or lodgers or not m o r e than  (commercial).  five f o s t e r o r d a y - c a r e c h i l d r e n in each d w e l l i n g u n i t . (28)  A b u i l d i n g o r u s e w h i c h is c u s t o m a r i l y a c c e s s o r y t o t h e a b o v e p r i n c i p a l b u i l d i n g s o r u s e s , e x c e p t f o r a b u i l d i n g o r use w h i c h is o n l y l i s t e d as a p r i n c i p a l use i n t h e ( M - 1 ) o r ( M - 2 ) s c h e d u l e s , p r o v i d e d t h a t : (a)  A l l a c c e s s o r y b u i l d i n g s are l o c a t e d i n a rear y a r d .  (b)  A l l a c c e s s o r y b u i l d i n g s shall o c c u p y an area o f n o t greater t h a n  ten  p e r c e n t o f the area o f the site.  B.  (c)  N o accessory b u i l d i n g shall e x c e e d one s t o r e y or 12 feet in height.  (d)  N o a c c e s s o r y b u i l d i n g s h a l l o b s t r u c t t h e d a y l i g h t a c c e s s as r e q u i r e d t h i s B y - l a w f o r r e s i d e n t i a l use.  (e)  A l l a c c e s s o r y u s e s o f t h e t y p e w h i c h w o u i d n o t be p e r m i t t e d as p r i n c i p a l uses u n d e r S e c t i o n 1 o f t h i s s c h e d u l e s h a l l o c c u p y a n a r e a o f n o t m o r e t h a n 2 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e gross f l o o r a r e a o f t h e p r i n c i p a l u s e , a n d s h a l l be l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e p r i n c i p a l b u i l d i n g .  by  Conditions of Use: E v e r y b u s i n e s s o r u n d e r t a k i n g s h a l l be c o n d u c t e d w h o l l y w i t h i n a c o m p l e t e l y enclosed b u i l d i n g e x c e p t f o r p a r k i n g and loading facilities, a gasoline service station, subject to the provisions o f S e c t i o n 11.10 o f this B y - l a w .  C.  Front Yard: N o f r o n t y a r d s h a l l be r e q u i r e d .  D.  Side Y a r d : N o s i d e y a r d s h a l l be r e q u i r e d , e x c e p t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g " c a s e s : (1)  Where a ( C - 3 A ) D i s t r i c t adjoins any  R D i s t r i c t , w i t h o u t the  o f a s t r e e t o r l a n e , t h e f o l l o w i n g s i d e y a r d s h a l l be p r o v i d e d : (a)  C3A  3 f e e t in t h e case o f a n R A , R S o r R T D i s t r i c t ;  intervention  167 (b) 5 feet in t h e case o f a n R M (2)  £  District.  W h e r e a side y a r d i n a n y s u c h d i s t r i c t be p r o v i d e d , w h e r e n o t r e q u i r e d b y the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s B y - l n w , t h e said s i d e y a r d s h a l l be n o t less t h a n 3 f e e t in width..  Rear Y a r d : ' A rear y a r d s h a l l be p r o v i d e d o f n o t less t h a n 10 f e e t ; p r o v i d e d h o w e v e r t h a t w h e r e a b u i l d i n g c o n t a i n s r e s i d e n t i a l use, t h e b u i l d i n g s h a l l be set b a c k n o t less t h a n 25 feet o v e r its f u l l w i d t h f r o m t h e rear l i n e o f t h e s i t e , b u t s u c h s e t b a c k need not e x t e n d b e l o w the l o w e s t s t o r e y c o n t a i n i n g residential use; and p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r t h a t w h e r e t h e rear l i n e o f a site a d j o i n s a d e d i c a t e d lane t h e m i n i m u m d e p t h o f t h e rear y a r d o r s e t b a c k , as t h e case m a y b e , m a y be r e d u c e d b y a n a m o u n t equal to the distance f r o m the u l t i m a t e centre line of the lane to the rear l i n e o f t h e site.  F.  Height: T h e h e i g h t o f a b u i l d i n g s h a l l n o t e x c e e d t w o s t o r e y s , o r 30 f e e t . T h e D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d m a y , i n i t s d i s c r e t i o n , i n c r e a s e t h e h e i g h t set f o r t h h e r e i n , p r o v i d e d that the said b u i l d i n g c o m p l i e s in all o t h e r respects w i t h the regulations c o n t a i n e d in t h i s s e c t i o n .  G.  Horizontal Light Angle for Residential Use: W h e r e p a r t o f a b u i l d i n g is u s e d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l p u r p o s e s : (1)  T h e w i n d o w o f e v e r y h a b i t a b l e r o o m s h a l l b e n o t less t h a n t e n f e e t f r o m the i n t e r i o r s i d e b o u n d a r y o f t h e site o n t o w h i c h i t faces.  (2)  E v e r y w i n d o w s h a l l p e r m i t o f a n u n o b s t r u c t e d v i e w o f n o t less t h a n 80 feet, m e a s u r e d h o r i z o n t a l l y f r o m , its c e n t r e at s i l l l e v e l . S u c h v i e w s h a l l e x t e n d t h r o u g h e i t h e r a c o n t i n u o u s h o r i z o n t a l a r c o f n o t less t h a n 50 degrees, o r t h r o u g h t w o o r m o r e h o r i z o n t a l a r c s w h i c h i n t h e a g g r e g a t e c o n t a i n n o t less t h a n 70 d e g r e e s , p r o v i d e d h o w e v e r t h e a b o v e a r c s m a y b e r e d u c e d f r o m 50 d e g r e e s t o 40 d e g r e e s , a n d 70 d e g r e e s t o 60 d e g r e e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n t h e case o f b u i l d i n g s o f t w o s t o r e y s o r less i n h e i g h t ; f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s u b s e c t i o n t h e f o l l o w i n g s h a l l b e c o n s i d e r e d as obstructions: (a) T h e any the the  t h e o r e t i c a l l y e q u i v a l e n t b u i l d i n g s l o c a t e d on a n y a d j o i n i n g sites in R District in a c o r r e s p o n d i n g p o s i t i o n by rotating the p l o t plan o f p r o p o s e d b u i l d i n g 180 d e g r e e s a b o u t a h o r i z o n t a l a x i s l o c a t e d o n p r o p e r t y lines o f the p r o p o s e d site.  (b) P a r t o f t h e s a m e b u i l d i n g i n c l u d i n g p e r m i t t e d p r o j e c t i o n s . (c) A c c e s s o r y b u i l d i n g l o c a t e d o n t h e s a m e s i t e as t h e p r i n c i p a l b u i l d i n g . (d) T h e m a x i m u m s i z e b u i l d i n g p e r m i t t e d u n d e r the a p p r o p r i a t e C o r s c h e d u l e i f t h e site a d j o i n s a C o r M s i t e . (3)  M  W h e r e a w i n d o w is g r e a t e r in a r e a t h a n t h e m i n i m u m r e q u i r e d u n d e r t h e B u i l d i n g B y - l a w , t h e a b o v e c o n d i t i o n s m a y be t e s t e d a g a i n s t t h e least res-  C-3A~  1 68  t r i c t i v c p o r l i o n o f the w i n d o w e q u a l i n area t o the r e q u i r e d m i n i m u m . F o r i h e p u r p o s e o f this s u b s e c t i o n , a k i t c h e n s h a l l not b e c o u n t e d as a habitable r o o m u n l e s s its a r e a is g r e a t e r t h a n t e n p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l f l o o r area o f the d w e l l i n g u n i t i n w h i c h it is s i t u a t e d o r 7 0 s q u a r e feet, w h i c h e v e r i * the greater. H.  F l o o r Space R a t i o : (1)  S u b j e c t t o (2) b e l o w , t h e f l o o r s p a c e r a t i o s h a l l n o t e x c e e d  1.00.  (2)  T h e D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d m a y , i n its d i s c r e t i o n , p e r m i t a b u i l d i n g ,u v a r i a n c e w i t h s u b s e c t i o n s F a n d H (1) o f S e c t i o n 1 o f t h i s D i s t r i c t S c h e d u l e . In the e x e r c i s e o f its d i s c r e t i o n , t h e D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d s h a l l also have d u e r e g a r d t o : (a) T h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e B y - l a w , t h e a m o u n t o f o p e n s p a c e , v i e w s , plazas, pedestrian needs and interests, the height and bulk of the building, a n d its l o c a t i o n in r e l a t i o n t o t h e s i t e a n d s u r r o u n d i n g s t r e e t s a n d build i n g s , t h e e f f e c t o n t r a f f i c , t h e p r o v i s i o n o f o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g and l o a d i n g , its o v e r a l l d e s i g n , p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r , a n d general a m e n i t y d e s i r e d f o r t h e B r o a d w a y a n d S o u t h G r a n v i l l e areas. (b) F o r b u i l d i n g s a p p r o v e d u n d e r t h i s c l a u s e o n l y , t h e D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d s h a l l d e t e r m i n e t h e m a x i m u m F l o o r a r e a w h i c h shall be a l l o w e d , h a v i n g p a r t i c u l a r regard t o t h e f a c t o r s n o t e d a b o v e . In n o case, h o w ever, s h a l l t h e f l o o r s p a c e r a t i o e x c e e d 3 . 0 0 .  (3)  F o r the p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s c h e d u l e , in c o m p u t i n g t h e f l o o r space r a t i o , the f l o o r area o f t h e b u i l d i n g s h a l l i n c l u d e t h e t o t a l a r e a o f all t h e f l o o r s o f all b u i l d i n g s o n t h e site i n c l u d i n g a c c e s s o r y b u i l d i n g s ( m e a s u r e d t o the extreme outer l i m i t s o f the b u i l d i n g ) , e x c e p t f o r the f o l l o w i n g : (a) A r e a s o f f l o o r s u s e d f o r o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g a n d l o a d i n g , h e a t i n g and m e c h a n i c a l e q u i p m e n t o r uses w h i c h i n the o p i n i o n o f t h e D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d are s i m i l a r t o t h e f o r e g o i n g , w h e r e s u c h f l o o r s are b e l o w t h e l o w e s t b u i l d i n g g r a d e o f t h e a b u t t i n g streets o r lanes as established b y the C i t y Engineer. (b) B a l c o n i e s , c a n o p i e s , s u n d e c k s a n d o t h e r a p p u r t e n a n c e s w h i c h , in the o p i n i o n o f t h e D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d , are s i m i l a r t o the f o r e g o i n g , m a y be e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e f l o o r a r e a m e a s u r e m e n t , p r o v i d e d t h a t the total f l o o r area o f all s u c h e x c l u d e d items d o e s not exceed 8 p e r c e n t o f the p e r m i t t e d f l o o r area. (c) A n c i l l a r y f a c i l i t i e s f o r s o c i a l a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l a m e n i t i e s p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e e n j o y m e n t o f r e s i d e n t s a n d e m p l o y e e s , s u c h as f a c i l i t i e s f o r p h y s i cal f i t n e s s , g e n e r a l r e c r e a t i o n , o r p r o v i d i n g a s e r v i c e t o t h e p u b l i c , m a y be e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e f l o o r a r e a m e a s u r e m e n t p r o v i d e d t h a t : i)  C-3A  t h e areas o f s u c h e x c l u d e d f a c i l i t i e s c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n does not e x c e e d 2 0 per c e n t o f the a l l o w a b l e f l o o r space ratio or 10.000 s q u a r e f e e t , w h i c h e v e r is t h e lesser;  ii)  that the need f o r a d a y care c e n t r e b e established in a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n satisfactory t o the D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g .  Where a need f o r any demonstrated  p u b l i c , s o c i a l o r r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t y has b e e n  to the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f the D e v e l o p m e n t  Permit Board,  the B o a r d m a y a u t h o r i z e f o r a n y one b u i l d i n g , w h i c h i n c l u d e s one or m o r e o f s u c h f a c i l i t i e s , a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e p e r m i t t e d f l o o r space r a t i o or d e n s i t y o f a b u i l d i n g , s u b j e c t t o p r i o r a p p r o v a l  by City Council.  In d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i n c r e a s e i n f l o o r a r e a o r d e n s i t y t h a t m a y be a u t h o r ized, the D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d shall c o n s i d e r : a)  the c o n s t r u c t i o n cost o f the f a c i l i t y , a n d  b)  any costs to the developer o f c o n t i n u i n g m a i n t e n a n c e required for the f a c i l i t y ;  c)  the rental value o f the increased f l o o r area;  d)  the value of any a u t h o r i z e d r e l a x a t i o n of o t h e r restrictions.  If a p p r o p r i a t e , s u c h f a c i l i t i e s s h a l l be p r e s e r v e d i n t h e p u b l i c d o m a i n b y w a y of a r e g i s t e r e d a g r e e m e n t a n d o p e r a t e d b y t h e C i t y o r its delegates. (14/12/76 - No. 5050) j.  Off-street P a r k i n g S p a c e s : O f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g spaces s h a l l be p r o v i d e d a n d m a i n t a i n e d as r e q u i r e d b y , a n d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the provisions o f S e c t i o n 1 2 o f this B y - l a w .  K.  Off-street L o a d i n g S p a c e s : L o a d i n g a n d u n l o a d i n g s p a c e s s h a l l be p r o v i d e d a n d m a i n t a i n e d as r e q u i r e d b y , a n d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f S e c t i o n 13 o f t h i s B y - l a w .  U s e s w h i c h m a y be p e r m i t t e d s u b j e c t t o s p e c i a l a p p r o v a l b y t h e D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t Board: W i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d , d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t s m a y be issued f o r the f o l l o w i n g uses. If t h e d e v e l o p m e n t is g r a n t e d , it s h a l l be s u b j e c t t o s u c h c o n d i t i o n s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s as t h e D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d m a y d e c i d e . Uses: (1)  A i r c r a f t landing place.  (2)  Ambulance  (3)  A n i m a l hospital.  (4)  A u t o m o b i l e and parts s h o w r o o m s .  (5)  A u t o m o t i v e repair shop.  (6)  B a k e r y ( m a n u f a c t u r i n g o f b r e a d , p i e s , c o n f e c t i o n a r y ) , o t h e r t h a n as p r o v i d e d f o r i n S e c t i o n 1 of t h i s s c h e d u l e .  headquarters.  C-3A  1 70  7)  B o t t l i n g p l a n t ( m i l k o r c a r b o n a t e d beverages).  8)  Bowling alley.  9)  B r o o m and brush manufacturing.  10)  B u i l d i n g o r use r e q u i r e d b y a p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y .  11)  Candy manufacturing.  12)  C a r sales l o t .  ;i3)  Church.  |14)  C l o t h i n g and garment manufacturing.  (14A) C o m m u n i t y owners  R e s i d e n t i a l F a c i l i t y , provided that such adjacent property  as m a y  be  deemed  necessary  by  the D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g be  notified. 15) 16)  (15/3/77 -  N o . 5061)  D a i r y p r o d u c t s m a n u f a c t u r i n g (except cheese). Deposit  o r e x t r a c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l so as t o a l t e r t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f the  land. 17)  Food products and a cannery.  18)  G a s o l i n e service s t a t i o n , subject to the provisions o f  19)  H o m e craft or o c c u p a t i o n .  120) 21)  m a n u f a c t u r i n g , p r o c e s s i n g a n d p a c k a g i n g e x c l u d i n g fish  Section 11.10 .  H o s p i t a l or personal care h o m e , excluding a mental hospital. H o t e l , o r M o t e l , p r o v i d e d a l l s l e e p i n g u n i t s a n d d w e l l i n g u n i t s c o n f o r m to the d a y l i g h t access p r o v i s i o n s o f S e c t i o n 1 of this schedule.  22) '23) [24)  Ice m a n u f a c t u r i n g . Jewellery manufacturing. K e n n e l s o r t h e k e e p i n g , b r e e d i n g , r a i s i n g , t r a i n i n g o r b o a r d i n g o f d o g s or cats.  [25)  Lithographing.  26)  M o t i o n picture and television studio.  27)  Park or p l a y g r o u n d .  [28)  P a r k i n g garage.  29)  Printing shop.  |30)  Public utility.  [3\)  R a d i o and television broadcasting and receiving station ( c o m m e r c i a l ) .  '32)  Restaurant: Drive-in (Car-service).  33)  Restaurant: Drive-in (Self-service).  [34)  School nursery.  ( p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e ) , k i n d e r g a r t e n , d a y - c a r e s c h o o l , c r e c h e o r day  171  (35)  Sheet metal o r tinsmith shop.  (36)  S t a d i u m , c u r l i n g r i n k , i c e r i n k , r o l l e r r i n k , race t r a c k , g y m n a s i u m , o r s i m i lar p l a c e o f a s s e m b l y .  (37)  Stamp shop (rubber and metal).  (3S)  Taxidermy.  (39)  T e m p o r a r y p a r k i n g area ( p u b l i c ) .  (40)  Tires (retreading or rebuilding).  (41)  T o u r i s t c o u r t subject t o the provisions o f Section 11.12 o f this By-law.  (42)  T o y and novelty manufacturing.  (43)  Undertaking establishment.  (44)  Warehouse  (45)  Wholesale  (46)  A n y o t h e r b u i l d i n g o r use w h i c h is n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y l i s t e d i n a n y o f t h i s B y - l a w , a n d w h i c h is s i m i l a r t o t h e f o r e g o i n g b u i l d i n g s b e f o r e g r a n t i n g a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t f o r s u c h b u i l d i n g o r use t h e m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d s h a l l have r e g a r d t o t h e t y p e s o f b u i l d i n g s w h i c h s p e c i f i c a l l y m a y be p e r m i t t e d in this schedule.  (47)  T h e use o f a s i t e f o r p u r e l y r e s i d e n t i a l p u r p o s e s i f t h e s i t e has u n u s u a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f l o c a t i o n , s u c h use t o i n c l u d e o n e a n d t w o - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s , apartments, b o a r d i n g or r o o m i n g houses, and fraternity or s o r o r i t y houses.  (48)  T h e c o n v e r s i o n i n t o d w e l l i n g u n i t s o f an e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g o t h e r t h a n o n e granted a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h S e c t i o n 1 o f this sched u l e ; before granting a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t for such conversion the Develo p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d s h a l l h a v e r e g a r d t o the r e g u l a t i o n s o f S e c t i o n 1 o f this schedule and also to the a m e n i t y of the n e i g h b o u r h o o d .  (49)  T h e c o n v e r s i o n o f an e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g i n t o h o u s e k e e p i n g or sleeping units in a n y case w h e r e s u c h e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g , b y r e a s o n o f its age a n d s i z e , is d e e m e d t o b e u n s u i t a b l e f o r its p r e s e n t use; b e f o r e g r a n t i n g a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t f o r such c o n v e r s i o n the D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d shall have regard t o the r e g u l a t i o n s o f S e c t i o n 1 of this s c h e d u l e and also t o the a m e n i t y o f the n e i g h b o u r h o o d .  (50)  T h e c o n v e r s i o n o f an e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g i n t o a b o a r d i n g o r r o o m i n g house in a n y case w h e r e s u c h e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g b y r e a s o n o f i t s age a n d s i z e , is d e e m e d t o be u n s u i t a b l e f o r its p r e s e n t use; b e f o r e g r a n t i n g a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t f o r such c o n v e r s i o n the D e v e l o p m e n t P e r m i t B o a r d shall have regard t o the r e g u l a t i o n s o f the R M schedules and also to the a m e n i t y o f the n e i g h b o u r h o o d .  (51)  A d w e l l i n g unit or housekeeping or sleeping unit other than one granted a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h this s c h e d u l e , w h i c h has b e e n installed or used p r i o r to June 1 8 t h , 1956, w i t h or w i t h o u t one or m o r e o f the r e q u i r e d C i t y p e r m i t s m a y b e g r a n t e d a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t l i m i t e d i n time.  (general). business. schedule o r uses; Developa n d uses  C-3A  1 72  (52)  A b u i l d i n g w h i c h has b e e n a l t e r e d o r u s e d f o r a b o a r d i n g o r r o o m i n g h o u s e o t h e r than one granted a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h this s c h e d u l e w h i c h has b e e n i n s t a l l e d o r u s e d p r i o r t o J u n e 1 8 t h , 1 9 5 6 , w i t h o r w i t h o u t o n e o r m o r e o f t h e r e q u i r e d C i t y p e r m i t s m a y be g r a n t e d a development p e r m i t l i m i t e d in time.  (53)  A n y b u i l d i n g o r use w h i c h c a n b e c o n s i d e r e d as a c c e s s o r y t o the a b o v e uses a n d t o t h e uses l i s t e d i n S e c t i o n 1 o f t h i s s c h e d u l e o t h e r t h a n t h o s e a c c e s s o r y b u i l d i n g s o r uses f o r w h i c h p r o v i s i o n is m a d e i n s u c h s e c t i o n , subject t o : . (a) A l l a c c e s s o r y b u i l d i n g s o c c u p y i n g a n a r e a o f n o t g r e a t e r t h a n t e n p e r cent o f the area o f the site. (b) A l l a c c e s s o r y uses o c c u p y i n g a n a r e a o f n o t g r e a t e r t h a n o n e - t h i r d t h e t o t a l gross f l o o r a r e a o f a l l t h e b u i l d i n g s o n t h e s i t e .  3.  Uses w h i c h m a y be p e r m i t t e d s u b j e c t t o s p e c i a l a p p r o v a l b y t h e C i t y C o u n c i l : (1)  Elderly Citizens' Multiple Dwelling Unit Development (Apartment Building). A b u i l d i n g t o be o c c u p i e d a n d u s e d s o l e l y as a r e s i d e n c e f o r e l d e r l y c i t i z e n s m a y b e a p p r o v e d as a c o n d i t i o n a l use s u b j e c t t o s u c h c o n d i t i o n s , r e g u l a t i o n s o r r e l a x a t i o n s as t h e C o u n c i l m a y d e e m a p p r o p r i a t e , h a v i n g d u e regard t o t h e h e i g h t , b u l k , d e n s i t y , o v e r - a l l s i z e o f d e v e l o p m e n t , o r a n y o t h e r f e a t u r e w h i c h , i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e C o u n c i l , m a y a f f e c t the g e n e r a l a m e n i t y a n d w e l f a r e o f t h e a r e a , a n d a f t e r C o u n c i l has r e c e i v e d a report regarding the proposed d e v e l o p m e n t f r o m the Development Permit Board provided the d e v e l o p m e n t meets the f o l l o w i n g conditions: (a) t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t c o m p r i s e s o n l y l o w r e n t a l h o u s i n g u n i t s f o r the e x c l u s i v e use o f e l d e r l y c i t i z e n s o f l o w i n c o m e w h o are u n a b l e t o p u r chase a d e q u a t e a c c o m m o d a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r n e e d s ; (b) t h a t t h e o w n e r a n d o p e r a t o r o f t h e p r o j e c t is a n o n - p r o f i t c o r p o r a t i o n , w i t h i n the m e a n i n g o f the " E l d e r l y C i t i z e n s ' H o u s i n g A i d A c t " ; (c) t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t q u a l i f i e s f o r a g r a n t - i n - a i d f r o m t h e P r o v i n c e o f British C o l u m b i a under the provisions o f the " E l d e r l y Citizens' Housing A i d A c t " . B e f o r e a p p r o v i n g t h e i s s u a n c e o f a d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t f o r an e l d e r l y c i t i zens' m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g u n i t d e v e l o p m e n t , the C o u n c i l shall h o l d a special public meeting t o hear representations c o n c e r n i n g the proposed developm e n t f r o m s u c h a d j a c e n t o w n e r s o f real p r o p e r t y as t h e C o u n c i l d e e m s are l i k e l y t o be a f f e c t e d ; a n d t h e C o u n c i l s h a l l d i r e c t t h a t d u e n o t i c e o f the special p u b l i c m e e t i n g shall be given t o s u c h a d j a c e n t owners.  C-3A  

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