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A design for the evaluation of neighbourhood design guidelines Goldburn, Christine Mary 1983

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A DESIGN FOR THE EVALUATION OF NEIGHBOURHOOD DESIGN GUIDELINES By CHRISTINE MARY GOLDBURN B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Community & Regional Planning) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1983 C h r i s t i n e Mary Goldburn In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. School SfiiSa&fcBgiRit o f Community and K e g i n n a l P l a n n i n g The University of B r i t i s h Columbia . 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date February 6. 1984 i i ABSTRACT In 1982, a f t e r considerable d i s c u s s i o n and negotiation, the C i t y of Edmonton municipal council approved a neighbourhood plan which had as one of i t s components a set of Design Guidelines intended to mitigate the perceived negative e f f e c t s of the high density r e s i d e n t i a l environment which the plan proposed. As w e l l , the developers' concept f o r the area promoted the c r e a t i o n of a highly i n t e r a c t i v e and cohesive community, free of crime and with a strong sense of i d e n t i t y as promoted i n Oscar Newman's book Defensible Space. As yet the neighbourhood has not been b u i l t , but once the area i s developed and occupied, i t i s expected that the C i t y Administration w i l l conduct an evaluation of the Neighbourhood to determine whether the design concept as expressed i n the Guidelines was e f f e c t i v e , and effected, i n the manner i n i t i a l l y proposed. This t h e s i s w i l l undertake the i n i t i a l stages of t h i s evaluation, by examining the theory of neighbourhoods and neighbouring as well as the past experience of other c i t i e s with respect to neighbourhood development. This part of the thesis takes the form of extensive l i t e r a t u r e review, and re s u l t s i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of four major and several minor topics which should be examined i n the eventual evaluation of Terra Losa. The thesis then i d e n t i f i e s the i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t goals of the Design Guidelines. In a discussion based on the r e s u l t s of the l i t e r a t u r e review, the relevance and f e a s i b i l i t y of the goals i s examined. F i n a l l y , and again based on the l i t e r a t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y the case studies, an evaluation of the Defensible Space concept i s presented and suggestions are made as to the procedures to be followed i n eventually conducting a neighbourhood evaluation. i i i The t h e s i s concludes t h a t although the i n t e n t i o n s of the developers' concept i s l a u d a b l e , that the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p h y s i c a l d e s i g n i n c r e a t i o n of a s t r o n g s o c i a l community i s l i m i t e d , though i t appears from past experience t h a t the G u i d e l i n e s , i f p r o p e r l y implemented, would be e f f e c t i v e i n a c h i e v i n g t h i s l i m i t e d l e v e l of i n f l u e n c e and r e l a t i v e l y high l e v e l s o f r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1 Rationale for the Proposal 1 Scope of the Study 2 Organization 3 CHAPTER TWO BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 5 The Site 5 The Plan and Its History 5 The Design Guidelines 8 The Development Concept 10 The Present Status of Terra Losa 12 The Defensible Space Concept 13 CHAPTER THREE PROPOSED CONTENTS OF THE EVALUATION 17 Residential Satisfaction 18 Physical Variables 19 Social and Psychological Variables 25 Sense of Control 29 Sense of Belonging 37 Social Interaction 42 CHAPTER FOUR OTHER CONSIDERATIONS 53 Charaoteristies of the Resident Population 53 Other Problems 57 Density and Crowding 57 Perception of Crime 60 Recreation F a c i l i t i e s 61 A Sense of Place 62 Pattern of Work 64 The Design Guidelines and the Industrial Area 65 Inventory 65 CHAPTER FIVE EVALUATION OF THE GUIDELINES AND THE PROGRAM 67 Approach for the Evaluation 68 Critique of the Defensible Space Concept 69 Goal Identification and Evaluation 69 Conclusion 82 CHAPTER SIX REGARDING METHODOLOGY 86 Data Collection 86 Suggestions for Measures 89 Analysis 90 Threats to Validity 91 Matters Not Discussed 93 V Page CHAPTER SEVEN CONCLUSION 96 BIBLIOGRAPHY 99 APPENDIX 109 I Terra Losa Site Design, Landscape and Architectural Guideline (82-05-03) v i LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1 Terra Losa Neighbourhood Structure Plan 9 Figure 2 Descriptive Model - Factors Affecting and Indicators of Residential S a t i s f a c t i o n 20 Figure 3 Descriptive Model - Factors Affecting and Indicators of "Sense of Control" 33 Figure 4 Descriptive Model - Factors Affecting and Indicators of "Sense of Belonging" 39 Figure 5 Descriptive Model - Factors Affecting Social Interaction 45 Figure 6 Interrelationships of Major Topics and Relative Potential f o r Influence of Design 52 Figure 7 Model of the Program Evolution and Evaluation of the Program 70 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I express my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o my f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s H. Hightower and D. Halchanski f o r t h e i r guidance and encouragement during p r e p a r a t i o n of the t h e s i s . I n p a r t i c u l a r I thank my parents f o r t h e i r unending support and a s s i s t a n c e not only during my year o f study, but always. 1 CHAPTER ONE  INTRODUCTION This t h e s i s w i l l design an e v a l u a t i o n of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the design g u i d e l i n e s placed on the Terra Losa Neighbourhood i n west Edmonton. While a l l o w i n g a r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y of 79.0 persons per gross developable acre (185/ha), considered by the C i t y t o be very high f o r a p e r i p h e r a l area, the C i t y r e q u i r e d the developer t o prepare design g u i d e l i n e s , based on the concepts of De f e n s i b l e Space (Newman, 1973) and Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design i n an attempt to avoid the problems g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h high d e n s i t y l i v i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , the developers agreed t o provide, at t h e i r expense, a r e c r e a t i o n a l centre i n the neighbourhood t o act as a focus f o r the community. Rationale f o r the Proposal The purpose of the t h e s i s i s t o s e t the stage f o r an e v a l u a t i o n of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the Terra Losa g u i d e l i n e s , once the neighbourhood i s b u i l t and occupied. On a s c i e n t i f i c l e v e l , the o b j e c t i v e of t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be t o d e r i v e from the c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e a research design which could guide subsequent examination of the e f f e c t s of p a r t i c u l a r design elements on human behavior patterns and r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . From a more p r a c t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , the design can be used, once the neighbourhood i s b u i l t , as the f i r s t stage i n preparing a response to the request of s e v e r a l C i t y aldermen t h a t the area be monitored to determine the e f f e c t s o f the g u i d e l i n e s on the neighbourhood and the "success" o f the development concept. 2 The Planning Department should f i n d the r e s u l t s of t h i s study u s e f u l i n s e v e r a l other r e s p e c t s . F i r s t , the substance of t h i s t h e s i s w i l l a l l o w the p r e p a r a t i o n of an e v a l u a t i o n instrument based on c l a s s i c s t u d i e s of a s i m i l a r nature and e s p e c i a l l y on l i t e r a t u r e published a f t e r Newman's "Defensible Space", which was the f o u n d a t i o n of the g u i d e l i n e s . Secondly, the Planning Department could use the e v a l u a t i o n of the goals of the neighbourhood concept as an i n f o r m a t i o n source i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n of s i m i l a r proposals and the f o r m u l a t i o n of t h e i r recommendations t o the approving bodies. I t is p o s s i b l e that other developers, having seen the d e n s i t y approved f o r Terra Losa and faced w i t h i n c r e a s i n g c o s t s f o r u t i l i t y s e r v i c e extensions, w i l l i n the f u t u r e propose s i m i l a r neighbourhoods elsewhere. Indeed, the C i t y ' s own General M u n i c i p a l Plan supports the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f l a n d use and the r e d u c t i o n i n c onsumption of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . The Planning Department should be prepared t o make informed recommendations regarding these proposals. The i n f o r m a t i o n presented i n t h i s t h e s i s could be adapted f o r use i n the review of p o l i c y r e l a t i n g t o high d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l land uses, r e s i d e n t i a l design and p l a n implementation. F i n a l l y , the r e s u l t s of an extensive l i t e r a t u r e review may a i d the C i t y s t a f f i n t h e i r review of d e t a i l e d development proposals, not o n l y i n Terra Losa but throughout the C i t y , by i d e n t i f y i n g elements of design which have been shown to a f f e c t r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , s e c u r i t y and so on. Scope of the Study The area under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s the r e s i d e n t i a l p o r t i o n of the Terra Losa Neighbourhood. I t s boundaries were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the West Jasper Place O u t l i n e Plan as being 100 Avenue on the north, 95 Avenue on the 3 south, 170 Street on the east and 178 Street on the west. Though these may not conform to the eventual residents' perception of their neighbourhood's boundaries, they w i l l be used here since they prescribe the area covered by the design guidelines being evaluated. No construction has taken place i n the neighbourhood as yet and timing of development w i l l depend on the economic climate. The thesis therefore recommends a design for the evaluation, but does not undertake i t . It includes recommendations about the timing of the actual evaluation, based on the number of units occupied, the types of units available and the length of occupancy of the eventual residents. Organization Chapter Two w i l l describe the neighbourhood, the derivation of the guidelines, the eontent of the guidelines and a description of the owners' group's concept for the neighbourhood. Chapter Three w i l l consist of an examination of current literature on medium and high density housing, defensible space, neighbourhoods, neighbouring, community cohesiveness and residential satisfaction, with a view to identifying the aspects of the neighbourhood which should be studied i n the evaluation and what results have been obtained from previous studies of these subjects which might be used i n comparison of results. Chapter Four w i l l continue the literature review begun i n Chapter Three and discusses other information of a less subjective nature which should be collected during the evaluation i n order to provide the most complete picture possible of the neighbourhood being studied. Chapter Five w i l l identify the stated and implicit goals for the neighbourhood of both the landowners' group and the City. These w i l l be 4 discussed i n l i g h t of the i n f o r m a t i o n d i s c l o s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e review, i n order t h a t t h e i r v a l i d i t y and relevance can be a s c e r t a i n e d . In Chapter S i x , suggestions w i l l be made f o r the methodology t o be used i n subsequent s t a g e s o f the e v a l u a t i o n . T h r e a t s t o v a l i d i t y and suggestions f o r measurement of obscure or s e n s i t i v e v a r i a b l e s w i l l be i n c l u d e d , together w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of aspects which are not in c l u d e d i n the e v a l u a t i o n design and the reasons f o r t h e i r d e l e t i o n . The c o n c l u s i o n of the t h e s i s w i l l suggest whether or not the e v a l u a t i o n should continue and the n e c e s s i t y f o r amendments t o the g u i d e l i n e s before they are implemented. 5 CHAPTER TWO BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY This chapter w i l l explain the context i n which the evaluation design i s being considered. A d e s c r i p t i o n of the neighbourhood's s i t e i s provided, together with a d e s c r i p t i o n of i t s planning and development h i s t o r y . As we l l , short summaries of the design guidelines imposed on the area and of the Defensible Space concept are included. The S i t e Terra Losa i s a neighbourhood of approximately 62 hectares i n suburban west Edmonton, Alberta, located between 95 and 100 Avenues and 170 and 178 Streets. Development of t h i s area has lagged behind the remainder of the West Jasper Place Outline Plan area, p a r t l y because of ownership problems and p a r t l y because of the very poor s o i l conditions. There are several layers of peat nearly 3 m deep i n some places and extensive areas of unstable f i l l and poor drainage. This l a t t e r was a major determinant of the eventual plan f o r the neighbourhood. As w e l l , f o r years ownership i n t e r e s t s had been divided and i n dispute. As a point of i n t e r e s t , the Neighbourhood was named a f t e r one of the f i r s t I t a l i a n pioneers of the area, V i c t o r Losa, who owned land i n the v i c i n i t y and was involved i n community a f f a i r s . The Plan and i t s History As i n other parts of suburban Edmonton, there i s an Outline Plan ( i n t h i s case, West Jasper Place) containing a number of neighbourhoods which prov i d e d g e n e r a l i z e d g u i d e l i n e s f o r development. These are f u r t h e r expanded i n the Neighbourhood Structure Plan (as Terra Losa), which set the 6 density, road pattern, land use mix and servicing concept for an area usually based on public elementary school catchment area boundaries. These Neighbourhood Structure Plans (NSP's) are prepared by the landowner, reviewed by Planning, amended as necessary and forwarded to the Municipal Planning Commission, an advisory body and thence with a recommendation to City Council, who consider the Plan i n the form of a Bylaw. It i s not until this Bylaw has received Third Reading that applications for more detailed development and for zoning can be considered. In March, 1981, the owners1 group presented a draft Neighbourhood Structure Plan for the consideration of the City Planning Department. T h e owners proposed a mixture of residential uses at a density of 78.4 persons per gross developable acre (190 persons/ha), ranging i n form from row housing to high rise apartments and commercial/office and light industrial development. After extensive review and, negotiation failed to resolve major points of difference, the Planning Department recommended to the Municipal Planning Commission that the plan not be recommended to Council for approval. The basis of the non-support was the poor transition between this neighbourhood's high density residential uses and the lower densities of surrounding neighbourhoods, the misuse of the commercial/office zone in the suburban area ( i t was designed for use i n the fringe areas of downtown) and non-conformance with several General Municipal Plan policies regarding commercial uses in general. It should be noted that although the density proposed was very high i n comparison to other approved neighbourhood plans, this proposal was not rejected because of i t s density. An alternative recommendation, proposing tabling pending revision of the plan to provide solutions to these problems, was also placed before Commission, but on July 7 9, 1981, the Municipal Planning Commission unanimously recommended non-support of the application. The owners decided to proceed to Council i n spite of this and on September 22, 1981, the Plan was presented to them. The Bylaw was la i d over unt i l October 13, 1981 when the public hearing was held. At that time, and for the f i r s t time, the owners* representative suggested that they had intended to develop the neighbourhood under guidelines derived from the "Defensible Space" concept of Oscar Newman. The representative also suggested that the owners were prepared to construct a community centre for the neighbourhood which would provide a focus for the neighbourhood community l i f e . It should be noted that City Council had been asked to consider numerous applications for increasing densities i n other neighbourhoods throughout the City, and especially i n West Jasper Place, for the past two or three years. These applications were usually opposed by adjacent residents on the basis of perceived problems accompanying an increase i n density, including among other things potential increases i n crime rates, vandalism, undesirable residents, area i n s t a b i l i t y and the l i k e . Council was therefore understandably hesitant about accepting so dense a plan and this was obvious from their questions of both Planning and the owners' representative. The Bylaw was referred to the Planning Department for further negotia-tion and for response to several questions. A very preliminary draft of the guidelines was submitted to Planning i n November, 1981. Discussions continued and the guidelines were continually expanded and refined until May, 1982. Simultaneously, a myriad of legal agreements were being drawn up by which the guidelines would be imposed on 8 a l l developments in Terra Losa, whether proposed by the i n i t i a l or any subsequent owner. Similar complex agreements regarding construction of, responsibility for and membership i n the community centre were prepared. Changes to the design of the neighbourhood responding to the concerns originally expressed by Planning were also undertaken. Densities were reduced at those edges of the neighbourhood adjacent to lower density residential areas and the very intense commercial/office developments were amended to light industrial. The f i n a l version of the plan i s shown i n Figure 1. Council considered the Bylaw again and gave i t Third Reading on May 11, 1982 (City of Edmonton, 1981-2). The Design Guidelines The Guidelines began as very general, almost self-evident statements categorized under five main headings: a) boundary definition; b) neighbourhood definition (or identification); c) recreational and social features; d) architectural requirements; and e) energy features (City of Edmonton, 1981). Having been directed to negotiate with the owners, the Planning Depart-ment advised them that considerably more detail would have to be provided in order that future development proposals could be f a i r l y and consistently evaluated. Several more detailed drafts were subsequently reviewed and comments from other affected departments such as Police, Transportation Systems Design, and Water and Sanitation were incorporated. The f i n a l draft of the Guidelines was received on May 3, 1982. This i s included i n Appendix I. 9 o mm E ROW HOUSING MEDIUM DENSITY MULTIPLE-FAMILY LOW RISE APARTMENT MEDIUM RISE APARTMENT HIGH RISE APARTMENT NEIGHBOURHOOD CONVIENIENCE COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIAL BUSINESS PUBLIC PARK URBAN RESERVE URBAN SERVICE DIRECT DEVELOPMENT CONTROL LAKE LIMIT OF NEIGHBOURHOOD STRUCTURE PLAN COMMUNITY RECREATIONAL CENTRE FIGURE 1 OJ ffl T E R R A L O S A N e i g h b o u r h o o d S t r u c t u r e P l a n A N S O U R C E : T H E C ITY O F E D M O N T O N P L A N N I N G D E P A R T M E N T 10 The o b j e c t i v e s of the G u i d e l i n e s are s t a t e d i n General P r o v i s i o n s , a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l s i t e s , w h i c h s t r e s s the need f o r human s c a l e , i n d i v i d u a l i t y , v a r i e t y and the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of adjacent developments i n designs f o r i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s . R e l a t i n g t o D e f e n s i b l e Space, the G u i d e l i n e s e x p l a i n e d the general philosophy of the concept and s t a t e Design P r o v i s i o n s which i t s authors f e l t would implement i t . S p e c i f i c a l l y , d e f i n i t i o n of spaces ( p u b l i c , semi-p u b l i c , semi-private) to a l l o w r e s i d e n t s t o i d e n t i f y w i t h " t h e i r " spaces, increased o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s u r v e i l l a n c e of semi-public and s e m i - p r i v a t e spaces and encouragement of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n through design of i n t e r i o r spaces are mentioned. Signage and landscaping are to be used as a " u n i f y i n g " f a c t o r i n the neighbourhood and a l s o to provide d e f i n i t i o n of t e r r i t o r y . The A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r o v i s i o n s expand on the General P r o v i s i o n s , encouraging v a r i e t y i n u n i t s i z e , h e i g h t , shape and massing but w i t h u n i f y i n g elements i n terms of s l o p i n g r o o f s and e a r t h tone and n a t u r a l m a t e r i a l e x t e r i o r f i n i s h e s . The community centre i s a l s o described i n the G u i d e l i n e s . The concept plan f o r the centre s t r e s s e s the f l e x i b i l i t y of the i n t e r i o r space which i s to c o n t a i n s e v e r a l rooms which could be used f o r day care, meetings, s m a l l group f u n c t i o n s , a l i m i t e d number of indoor r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s (games, e t c . ) , change and l o o k e r rooms, k i t c h e n and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e space. The centre i s designed t o be the f o c a l p o i n t of community s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . The owners' l e g a l agreements r e q u i r e that the Community Center be cons-t r u c t e d by the time the f i r s t 100 r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s are occupied. The Development Concept Since t h e i r f i r s t submission of the Neighbourhood S t r u c t u r e Plan 11 proposal to the Planning Department, the developers have emphasized the unique nature of this Neighbourhood. As stated previously, the poor s o i l conditions and the costs of remedial measures required special consider-ation i n the design. The owners therefore suggested that the Neighbour-hood, especially i n the areas with the worst s o i l conditions, be developed with high density uses which would i n any case require deep excavations for foundations and would provide increased return on this i n i t i a l investment. A mix of land uses (residential and light industrial/office) was proposed for several reasons. F i r s t , both 100 Avenue and 170 Street are major arterial roadways which would require installation of noise atten-uation devices at the developer's expense i f adjacent land uses were residential. Light industrial uses could be employed as a buffer between t r a f f i c noise and residential uses, while s t i l l bringing i n revenue. Secondly, the owners saw an advantage i n providing opportunity for development of a high quality office park (a typical development under Edmonton's light industrial zoning) taking advantage of the good access to the area, the proximity of an industrial area to the north of the neighbourhood and the City's policy encouraging office decentralization. It was suggested that the residential and office park areas would provide employment and l i v i n g space i n the same neighbourhood, making i t a truly "urban" community. The owners' group envisioned that the eventual residents of the Neigh-bourhood would i n the main be childless households and the majority of the dwelling units would not be ground-related (i.e. not having direct, individual access to ground level). Since the remainder of West Jasper 12 Place i s g e n e r a l l y considered t o be a middle t o upper-middle c l a s s area, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h i s Neighbourhood w i l l be of a s i m i l a r nature. The Neighbourhood w i l l l i k e l y provide a mixture of r e n t a l and owned p r o j e c t s on i n d i v i d u a l p a r c e l s ; ownership type w i l l not vary w i t h i n p r o j e c t s but w i l l between them. The lower d e n s i t y developments are more l i k e l y to be owner-occupied than the high d e n s i t y p r o j e c t s , w i t h the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n of a l u x u r y high r i s e condominium t o be b u i l t , i f ever, i n the l a t e stages of development. Once the Design G u i d e l i n e s were int r o d u c e d , the owners 1 group began t o emphasize the e f f o r t s they would make to create a p h y s i c a l community i d e n t i t y and a "sense of community" among the f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s . This e f f o r t i s concentrated i n two areas: a) the p r o v i s i o n of a "theme" i n the area, through u n i f o r m i t y i n signage, landscaping and r o o f l i n e s and s i m i l a r i t y i n e x t e r i o r f i n i s h e s ; and b) the p r o v i s i o n of a p o t e n t i a l f o c a l p o i n t f o r the Neighbourhood i n the shape of the multi-purpose community centre . The marketing s t r a t e g y f o r Terra Losa w i l l d e f i n i t e l y emphasize the h i g h l e v e l of neighbourhood involvement and i n t e r a c t i o n that the owners f e e l the Neighbourhood's Design G u i d e l i n e s w i l l encourage. The Present Status of Terra Losa The Neighbourhood r e m a i n s u n d e v e l o p e d , pending e x e c u t i o n o f the agreements p e r t a i n i n g to the community centre by a l l owners which must take place before the plan of s u b d i v i s i o n can be r e g i s t e r e d . The e n t i r e Neighbourhood has been given d e t a i l e d zoning. Due t o the present economic c l i m a t e i n A l b e r t a , the nation-wide slump 13 in construction and the added problem of a glut of rental accommodations in Edmonton, i t is difficult to estimate when construction will begin. T h e original timetable for development had construction commencing in 1983 and first occupancy later the same year. The residential area was to be developed f i r s t with the business park gradually coming on stream. The present economic situation has required that the business park be developed fi r s t , for reasons of cash flow. The developers expect that the first residential projects to develop will be the row housing sites, with the medium and high rise projects likely developing last. Full development is expected to occur in three to five years. The owners feel, in spite of the large number of built and vacant units and a similarly large number of subdivided and zoned sites available for immediate construction both in West Jasper Place and elsewhere in the City, that Terra Losa can be developed and marketed as a "unique" neighbourhood and will not be competing with these standard projects. The owners expect the Neighbourhood to be, in fact, a leader in the market. The Defensible Space Concept The Terra Losa Guidelines were drawn up following the principles of Defensible Space as expressed by Oscar Newman in his book of the same name (1973). This section provides an overview of this work so that the litera-ture review which follows can be considered with the concept in mind. Newman's work dealt almost exclusively with lower income residents of public housing sites in the central areas of major American cities where both vandalism and crimes against persons were serious problems. It was his belief that one of the causes of these problems was the physical envi-ronment, specifically the size of the projects, their height and the lack 14 of opportunity for neighbours1 surveillance of non-private areas (Porteous, 1977, 298). The designs of the structures were offering places for crimes to occur, especially relatively unpremeditated crimes of opportunity. Newman argued that architecture could prevent encounters as well as encourage them (1973, 12) and he derived both an architectural concept, defensible space, and guidelines for design which would allow i t s implementation. Newman defines "Defensible Space" as a surrogate term for the range of mechanisms - real and symbolic barriers, strongly defined areas of influence and improved opportun-i t i e s for surveillance - that combine to bring an environment under the control of i t s residents. (1973, 3) This control i s essentially a form of t e r r i t o r i a l expression (see Chapter Three) and i t i s as important as a method of engendering a sense of security i n the residents toward their home and environs as i t i s an approach to deterring the potential criminal from violating that territory. The guidelines which Newman derived are intended to encourage i n residents a proprietary attitude toward their environment which i s intended to result i n physical manifestations of that attitude. These w i l l be recognized by the potential criminal, who w i l l perceive the environment as hostile. In turn, the resident who has developed an attachment to the environment and a feeling of concern for i t and for his neighbours, perceives i t as less hostile and his sense of personal security i s enhanced. Newman proposes four "design elements" to aid i n the creation of "Defensible Spaces": a) clear definition of territories and their boundaries and the 15 r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r them, c r e a t i n g a h i e r a r c h y of semi-public, semi-private and p r i v a t e spaces. Residents would then adopt the a p p r o p r i a t e spaces and " d e f e n d " them ( f o r e x p l a n a t i o n o f t e r r i t o r i a l behavior, see Chapter Three); b) p r o v i s i o n i n the design the opp o r t u n i t y f o r s u r v e i l l a n c e of i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r non-public spaces by the r e s i d e n t s , through placement o f windows and doors; c) use of b u i l d i n g forms and f i n i s h e s which do not s i g n i f y t o the observer the " i s o l a t i o n and v u l n e r a b i l i t y " of the r e s i d e n t s ; and d) placement of housing developments i n s u i t a b l e l o c a t i o n s away from areas of t h r e a t or i n s u f f i c i e n t s e r v i c e s (Newman, 1973, 9). Newman's concept i s c l e a r l y t h a t of an a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t e r m i n i s t . I n f a c t , he s t a t e s i n a book on which " D e f e n s i b l e Space" was based that ... we are now c e r t a i n t h a t the p h y s i c a l c o n s t r u c t of r e s i d e n t i a l environments can e l i c i t a t t i t u d e s and behavior on the part of r e s i d e n t s which c o n t r i b u t e t o a major way toward i n s u r i n g t h e i r s e c u r i t y ; t h a t the form of b u i l d i n g s and t h e i r groupings enable i n h a b i t a n t s t o undertake a s i g n i f i c a n t p o l i c i n g f u n c t i o n ... which a c t ( s ) as (an) important c o n s t r a i n t a g a i n s t a n t i s o c i a l behavior. (Newman 1973, x i i ) This a t t i t u d e i s s t r o n g l y e x h i b i t e d throughout the body of h i s work but i n the summary Newman i n c l u d e s a caveat: We are concerned t h a t some might read i n t o our work the i m p l i c a t i o n that a r c h i t e c t u r a l design can have a d i r e c t causal e f f e c t on s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . A r c h i t e c t u r e operates more i n the area of " i n f l u e n c e " than c o n t r o l . I t can create a s e t t i n g conducive t o r e a l i z i n g the p o t e n t i a l of mutual concern. I t does not and cannot manipulate people towards these f e e l i n g s but r a t h e r a l l o w s mutually b e n e f i t t i n g a t t i t u d e s to surface (Newman, 1973, 207). A c r i t i q u e of t h i s concept i s provided i n Chapter F i v e . Summary This chapter has set the scene f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of the Design 16 G u i d e l i n e s . Through t h i s examination G u i d e l i n e s and the D e f e n s i b l e Space i d e n t i f i e d f o r f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n review. of the goal statements of the Design concept, areas of i n t e r e s t can be i n the next chapter, the l i t e r a t u r e 17 CHAPTER THREE PROPOSED CONTENTS OF THE EVALUATION The purpose of t h i s chapter i s t o i d e n t i f y the major t o p i c s which should be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n a post-occupancy e v a l u a t i o n o f Terra Losa. Each t o p i c w i l l be examined from two po i n t s of view: the t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s which make i t important i n e v a l u a t i n g the Neighbourhood, and which j u s t i f y i t s i n c l u s i o n i n f u r t h e r s t u d i e s ; and i n terms of the r e s u l t s of s t u d i e s of other neighbourhoods or p r o j e c t s as a b a s i s f o r comparison with the eventual r e s u l t s of the Terra Losa e v a l u a t i o n . The major t o p i c s were i d e n t i f i e d on the b a s i s of t h e i r repeated appearance i n the body of l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h neighbourhoods. The t o p i c s are h i g h l y i n t e r r e l a t e d - one may be pos t u l a t e d as a c a u s a l , or a c o n t r i b u t i n g , f a c t o r i n the occurrence of another; almost a l l of the neighbourhood and r e s i d e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a f f e c t more than one t o p i c . For tha t reason, the s e c t i o n s of t h i s chapter d e a l i n g w i t h each s p e c i f i c t o p i c w i l l d eal w i t h that t o p i c as a dependent v a r i a b l e ; i n other chapters that same t o p i c may be c i t e d as an independent v a r i a b l e i n the e x p l a n a t i o n of neighbourhood s a t i s f a c t i o n . An i l l u s t r a t i v e model of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between each t o p i c and the f a c t o r s which a f f e c t i t w i l l be provided. The l i t e r a t u r e s u r v e y e d i n c l u d e s s e l e c t i o n s from the f i e l d s o f planning, s o c i o l o g y , s o c i a l and environmental psychology, and cr i m i n o l o g y . " C l a s s i c " s t u d i e s , c r i t i q u e s , f i e l d surveys, t e x t book summaries and recent j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s were in c l u d e d t o provide as broad a view as p o s s i b l e of the t h e o r e t i c a l background and p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of each of the t o p i c s discussed and neighbourhood e v a l u a t i o n o v e r a l l . 18 Residential Satisfaction Residential satisfaction has been defined as "...the absence of complaint when opportunity for complaint is provided" (Schorr, 1970, 713). It relates to residents' opinions of their total living environment, using their own standards in the evaluation. It is an entirely subjective measure, since i t presents a view of the objective reality of the physical environment through the residents' perceptions, which are colored by non-physical parameters such as values, needs, attitudes and expectations. It has been suggested that both the objective indicators and subjective assessments of residential environments should be studied, so that human meaning is added to strict facts (Lansing and Rodgers, 1975, 302-303). Residential satisfaction has come to be studied at two scales: the micro-neighbourhood, or area of immediate concern, and the macro-neighbourhod, a larger area. The former has been defined as the area within one block (Coleman, 1978, 3) or within 5 - 6 houses (Marans and Rodgers, 1975, 331) for single family housing forms, and within the same building, the same wing, or the same floor for apartment-dwellers (Coleman, 1978, ty). It is the area where most residents have daily experiences, where young children are raised, where informal interaction occurs and where leisure activities are pursued. As well, i t i s where most homeowners' investments are centered (Marans and Rodgers, 1975, 331). At the larger scale, interests are more generalized and less personal, and are based more on accessibility, services available, security, and convenience (Marans and Rodgers, 1975, 325). Studies have found that overall satisfaction is more closely related to the attitude toward the micro-environment than to the macro neighbourhood or the community at large (Marans and Rodgers, 1975, 300). These two types of "neighbourhoods" are defined by individuals on the basis of experiences, perceptions and behavior patterns and therefore their boundaries vary considerably among a population. It is necessary to keep these two scales of reference in mind when evaluating residents' satisfactions, so that the relative importance of factors are judged with the same weight that the residents would place on them. In an explanatory model, resident satisfaction can be viewed as being dependent on two classes of variables: those relating to the physical environment, and those related to the social and psychological makeup of the resident population (see Figure 2). These are roughly equivalent to the objective and subjective aspects discussed above. PHYSICAL VARIABLES A review of the case studies in the literature has found that the single most significant physical factor in determining overall satisfaction is a high standard of physical appearance and maintenance for both the neighbourhood and individual properties (Marans and Rodgers, 1975, 333; Zehner, 1971, 383; Galster and Hesser, 1981, 7^ 8; Lansing and Marans, 969, 1978; Great Britain, Dept. of Environment, 1972, 26; Norcross and Hysom, 1968, 30; Becker, 1974, 13; Norcross, 1973, 15). Appearance, for this purpose, could be defined to include factors such as the color and size of buildings, landscaping, spaciousness, variety of building, maintenance level, bulk and relationships of buildings, and the nature of spaces created (Great Britain, Dept. of Environment, 1972, 4). In some studies, this high quality of environment has been correlated to pride in the neigh-bourhood (Coleman, 1978, 5-6; Great Britain, Dept. of Environment, 1972, 26). PHYSICAL VARIABLES (Objective) Appearance Maintenance Level Degree to which Nhbd. i s planned S i te Design Recreation F a c i l i t i e s Dwelling Unit Type Management SOCIAL/PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES (Subjective) Fr iendl iness of Neighbours (perceived and actual) RESIDENTIAL SATISFACTION Tenure Type Degree of Control /Choice including - privacy - personal izat ion - secur i ty Resident Character is t ics - c l ass / s ta tus - education leve l - age - l i f e cycle stage - length of residence o \ most i n f l uen t ia l factor level of maintenance management wi l l ingness to continue residence sense of sa fe ty / secur i t y FIGURE 2 - DESCRIPTIVE MODEL - FACTORS AFFECTING AND INDICATORS OF RESIDENTIAL SATISFACTION 21 Another physical variable could be called the "planning attributes" of the neighbourhood. Several studies have found that residents of f u l l y -planned neighbourhoods are more satisfied than those i n less planned areas (Zehner, 1971, 384; Marans and Rodgers, 1975, 323), and the residents of fully-planned neighbourhoods are more l i k e l y to recognize a macro-neighbourhood than those i n less-planned suburbs (Zehner, 1971, 383). The design of the site i s indirectly related to overall satisfaction, since by definition i t i s a major contributing factor to the environment's appearance. Coleman (1978, 10-13) found that upper and middle class residents f e l t that items related to "good design" were desirable i n neighbourhoods; this factor was not mentioned by working and lower class residents. Some of the design features significantly related to high overall satisfaction are good views from units, especially from l i v i n g room and kitchen windows, provision of adequate play space (Great Britain, Dept. of Environment, 1972, 26) and different play spaces suited to different age groups, especially at higher densities (Becker, 1974, 16). Francescato et al (1975a, 156) found i n a large survey of private multiple housing projects throughout the U.S., that parking arrangements and recreational f a c i l i t i e s were not related to overall satisfaction. Lansing and Marans (1969, 198) in studying planned communities found that the land use character, proximity to adjacent structures, setbacks, amount of useable outdoor space, o f f s t r e e t parking provisions, and tree cover had no significant effect on residential satisfaction. However, i n a study of townhouse developments, Norcross (1973, 9) stated that residents wanted space available around and near their unit, pleasant views, parking areas 22 relieved with landscaping, and adequate space between clusters (also Becker, 1974, 7) and short rows of units rather than long lines. Recre-ation f a c i l i t i e s were sources of satisfaction i n the projects surveyed by Norcross. The lack of consistency between survey results may be due to the differences i n the characteristics of the residential populations surveyed (further explained later i n this section and i n Chapter Four), and differences i n the location of the sites surveyed, suggesting that climate, natural vegetation and the like may affect residents' expectations. Marans and Rodgers (1975, 333) found that on a micro-neighbourhood scale, residents were less satisfied i f the area was judged to have too l i t t l e outdoor space, too much t r a f f i c , and few trees. Sanoff and Sawhney point out that for both neighbourhood and dwelling unit attributes, respondents' preferences toward the "most important" factors i n an ideal environment were not necessarily (in fact mostly not) factors unsatisfactory i n their existing environments (1972, 13-8-4). Care must therefore obviously be taken to identify to which environment, the real or the ideal, the responses refer. Some studies (Great Britain, Dept. of Environment, 1972, 2; Galster and Hesser, 1981, 748) showed that residential satisfaction was not affected by unit type occupied, though Francescato (1975b, 6) showed that the factors determining satisfaction varied with unit type. Marcus and Hogue (1975, 34) contend that a l l high rise dwellers carry a memory of or aspiration to a single family dwelling. Michelson (1969, 20) also found that the more self-contained the unit the greater the satisfaction, and that 85% of the .persons surveyed aspired to a single family dwelling (no one aspired to walkups). These seemingly contradictory results are explained by Michelson (1977, 365): 23 what satisfies families i n high rise apartments i n the short run i s not what would satisfy them i n the long run, nor i n the short run either i f they could not move elsewhere i n the long run. Finally, several studies have revealed that variety i n the environment, evidenced through changes i n height, setback, roof lines, shape, pattern and form, are important sources of satisfaction (Norcross, 1973, 9; Great Britain, Dept. of Environment, 1972, 4, 26; Becker, 197^, 13). On a smaller scale, satisfaction with the dwelling unit i t s e l f i s considered to have a f a i r l y significant relationship with expressions of overall satisfaction (Great Britain, Dept. of Environment, 1972, 26; Michelson, 1969, 20). Rosow has stated that: there i s l i t t l e evidence that satisfaction with new housing i s related to l i v e a b i l i t y resulting from design per se except when there i s a significant improvement i n housing, especially where occupants are particularly conscious of housing i n highly literate, sophisticated terms (1961, 129). The design of semi-public interior spaces i n multiple family housing projects was investigated by Becker (1974; 16-20), and he identified some sources of satisfaction relating to them. Lobbies should be visually pleasing, and designed to allow for interaction and surveillance. Cor-ridors should be adequately l i t , quiet, and not used as children's play spaces. Though density could be considered a component of the site plan, i t has received a significant amount of attention as a factor i n residential satisfaction and so warrants isolated consideration. (Density, defined as the physical measure of number of people per unit area, as i t relates to crowding, defined as the perception of available space, i s discussed i n Chapter Four.) Marans, Lansing and Zehner (1970, 117) found that overall satisfaction i s lowest i n high density projects and state that "the site 24 plan of neighbourhoods has less effect on reported satisfaction than density". Another analysis of the same study revealed that the effects of density were felt especially at the micro-neighbourhood scale (Marans and Rodgers, 1975, 339), and similar studies have identified low density as a source of satisfaction (Galster and Hesser, 1981, 148; Norcross, 1973, 9). Other studies, however, have found a negative relationship between density and satisfaction (Great Britain, Dept. of Environment, 1972, 2; Frances-cato, 1975b, 6) indicating that the specifics of a site may vary results obtained. There seems to be a general tendency among studies such as those of Marans, Rodgers, Galster and Hesser and Norcross to equate "high density" - a physical measure - with feelings of crowding - a perception (Schmidt et al, 1979, 106). Investigators as well as the neighbourhood respondents may confuse density and crowding, as in several cases authors conclude that density was the problem when respondents indicated a dislike for feeling either too close together or too crowded. The inaccuracy of this conclusion is discussed in Chapter Four. "Management" has been identified as a determinant of satisfaction in several studies. This factor is particularly important in multiple housing developments, where non-private spaces exist and require maintenance. The attitude of management towards the residents, the maintenance level achieved, and the responsiveness to complaints and requests for service are mentioned as measures of the adequacy of this factor (Francescato, 1975b, 8; Becker, 1974, 27; Michelson, 1977, 292). Very l i t t l e appeared in the literature comparing the satisfaction levels of owners versus tenants. Where findings did appear, i t seems owners are more satisfied than renters (Schorr, 1970, 714) and that owners 25 do not like renters to be too close to them (Norcross, 1973, 8). Both these responses could be explained by the greater investment (both economic and psychological) which the owner has in the neighbourhood. Lack of attention to this factor in the literature could be due to the types of sites chosen in each particular survey - they tended to study either a l l -owned or all-rental sites, so that comparison was not possible. SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES The single variable of any type which most significantly affects the level of residential satisfaction i s the friendliness of neighbours (Zehner, 1971, 383; Lansing and Marans, 1969, 199} Norcross, 1973, 15; Marans and Rodgers, 1975, 300, 333; Schorr, 1970, 714; Becker, 1974, 187). Surprisingly, perception of friendliness i s sufficient to affect satisfaction; i t does not necessarily have to be substantiated by frequent contacts (Zehner, 1972, 176) nor Is i t directly related to the actual number of friends or acquaintances in the development (Becker, 1974, 180). Coleman (1978, 10-11) has suggested this factor is more important in middle and working class neighbourhoods than those of the upper class. A second variable affecting the degree of satisfaction is the degree of control exercised over his environment by the resident. (Control is discussed in detail in another section of this chapter.) In multiple housing projects, the resident is very often allowed direct control over only his private space, and there are rules which apply to that as well. Michelson (1977, 292) found that the degree of importance placed on items related to dissatisfaction might correspond to the amount of control the resident possesses to change them. Kuper (1953, 165) likewise found that negative comments regarding site design related to the removal of personal 26 choice from the decision to interact or come into contact with neighbours -in a word, privacy. Most of the case studies reviewed l i s t e d aspects of privacy, for example, noise levels, hearing neighbours, outdoor privacy, party walls, and so on (Marans and Rodgers, 1975, 333; Norcross, 1973, 9; Francescato, 1975a, 156; Lansing and Marans, 1969, 198; Michelson, 1969, 20; Zehner, 1971, 383; Coleman, 1978, 10-13; Great Britain, Dept. of Environment, 1972, 26). Becker (1974, 17) discovered that design features were not as important to maintaining satisfactory levels of privacy as the social norms established by residents and management. Lack of privacy has not been directly correlated with density (Great Britain, Dept. of Environment, 1972, 5) though there i s evidence that the desire for lower density arises out of a f e l t need for privacy, quiet and outdoor space (Marans, Lansing and Zehner, 1970, 122). Apparently, the social class of residents affects the desire for privacy: among upper classes, privacy rates as a highly desirable attribute (Coleman, 1978, 10), while similar value i s placed on i t i n the lower class, since i t can't be taken for granted (Rosow, 1961, 129). Privacy i s of particular importance i n multiple housing forms, especially high rises (Francescato, 1975b, 6-8). Lack of privacy (internal and external) has been cited as a significant reason for moving (Michelson, 1969, 26). Personalization - the individualization by residents of their space -i s another aspect of control which enhances residential satisfaction. Becker (1974, 25) found that nearly 70% of respondents desired the chance to modify interior and semi-private outdoor space. He suggested that type of activity affects the pride and involvement in apartments and develop-ments and reduces management's maintenance costs and responsibilities. 27 A f i n a l manifestation of control is the importance of a sense of security to residents, and t h i s was mentioned i n several studies (Francescato, 1975b, 8; Marans and Rodgers, 1975, 325; Galster and Hesser, 1981, 746; Becker, 1974, 21; Coleman, 1978, 56). The third class of social and economic variables affecting residential satisfaction are those related to the characteristics of the resident population. In spite of i t s importance to attachment and interaction (discussed i n other sections of t h i s chapter), homogeneity of the population as i t relates to satisfaction has received surprisingly l i t t l e attention i n the literature. Only three studies (Coleman, 1978, 10-16; Zehner, 1971, 383; Galster and Hesser, 1981, 746) mention homogeneity as a factor. I t should be noted, however, that most residents of neighbourhoods, particularly suburban ones, are relatively homogeneous i n their characteristics i n any case, and that the prospective residents' self-selection process reinforces the developers' and planners' efforts i n this regard. Gans' work relating resident homogeneity to high degrees of social interaction (1961, 136-138) has an indirect connection to this discussion since there i s a relationship between sense of control and social interaction levels. Some studies have related s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to l e v e l s of satisfaction, however, overall satisfaction has been shown to be highest in the upper and middle classes, since residents' aspirations are being met (Coleman, 1978, 30). At the macro-neighbourhood level, Marans and Rodgers favored no relation between satisfaction and income, though at the micro-level, those with high incomes were more satisfied (1975, 327, 335). The same study showed those with lower education levels were more satisfied at 28 the macro level, though results at the smaller scale were insignificant (1975, 335, 327). Francescato (1975a, 157) suggested that the results his study obtained relating a higher level of education to higher overall satisfaction could be accounted for by the concentration of that group i n newer and better maintained housing. Younger adults and adolescent residents have been shown to be least satisfied with the neighbourhood as a whole and the older residents (45+) tended to be highly satisfied (Marans and Rodgers, 1975, 327, 335). Norcross found a similar result i n his study of townhouse projects, and suggested that they may be due to the younger residents viewing the housing form as an interim step i n the attainment of goals (1973, 10). Stage i n l i f e cycle has also been investigated for i t s influence on satisfaction. Becker (1974, 28) found that although overall levels were high, families and married couples without children rated the high density housing projects he surveyed less favorably than other residents. Marans and Rodgers (1975, 339) discovered i n studying medium density planned suburbs that at the micro-neighbourhood level, married couples with children under six were most satisfied; at the macro-level, older marrieds and couples with children rated higher (1975, 327). Length of residence was found to be positively associated with high levels of satisfaction (1975, 327), l i k e l y because those who dislike an area would have a tendency to leave i t . In spite of the results of a l l these American studies, the British study reviewed found that none of these character-i s t i c s had any significant relationships with residential satisfaction (1972, 26). Francescato concludes that since satisfaction levels vary so much between education levels, ages and sexes, housing must be matched to the needs of the prospective residents (1975a, 157). This can probably 29 best be achieved through close cooperation between building designers and developers, who should have a clear idea of their intended market. The municipality should be involved to assure that a l l sectors of the population have their needs met i n the housing supply. In concluding the discussion of variables a f f e c t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l satisfaction, i t i s interesting to note the comment made by Clare Cooper that when people are asked to mention their "likes", they are more l i k e l y to refer to people; when they refer to "dislikes", i t i s more usual for physical features, especially the spaces between the buildings, which are mentioned (1975, 198-199). In preparing the evaluation for Terra Losa, then, i t w i l l be necessary to ask residents for both positive and negative opinions i n order to avoid bias, and for opinions on "spaces" as well as "structures". Some of the studies proposed predictors of the existence of residential satisfaction. Marans, Lansing and Zehner suggested that level of main-tenance w i l l most closely indicate s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s (1970, 132). Francescato (1975b, 8) identified different predictors for different types of housing: for high rise, management, privacy from neighbours, safety and security are mentioned; for low rise, management i s considered important. Perhaps the most common and universally applicable measure, however, i s the willingness of residents to continue l i v i n g i n a place (Sanofff and Sawhney, 1972, Kasarda and Janowitz, 1974, 33; Coleman, 1978, 7-8). Sense of Control The sense of control to be discussed i n this section i s closely related to the "sense of belonging" described elsewhere i n this Chapter. Rather than indicating attachment, however, i t can be described as a proprietary 30 attitude toward the neighbourhood which results i n individuals either feeling as i f they do or do not belong in the area and that the area does or does not belong to them (Fitzhugh and Anderson, 1980, 2). The "sense of control" i s composed of two parts: the psychological attitude, which i s proprietary i n nature, and the object of that attitude, the physical area or territory i t i s displayed toward. The attitude i s therefore analagous to what has been termed " t e r r i t o r i a l i t y " . A number of complex definitions of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y , some rooted i n studies of animal behavior, have been derived (Altman, 1975, 105) but Edney (1976, 33) has described the concept simply as the continuous association of person(s) with a specific places Altman suggests that: Territorial behavior i s a self/other boundary regulation mechanism that involves personalization of or marketing of a place or object, and communication that i t i s "owned" by a person or group. (1975, 107) It i s a social control mechanism and a behavioural organizer as well as a property defense mechanism (Altman, 1975, 108; Edney, 1976, 31). Territ-o r i a l i t y plays a stabilizing and regulatory role at several levels of i n t e r a c t i o n (personal, group and community) and i n several ways by providing cues for behavior and making status and roles explicit (Altman, 1975, 138). Becker (1975, 5) sees t e r r i t o r i a l i t y as maximizing an i n d i v i d u a l s or group's "freedom of choice", especially i n controlling "access into and act i v i t i e s within a specific micro-environment." Brower suggests that since t e r r i t o r a l i t y deals with "behavior that directly affects the security and maintenance of the physical environment" (1980, 183), i t should be of concern to planners. To take the notion of control one step further, Altman (1975, 105) sees 31 t e r r i t o r i a l i t y as the •means towards the end' of privacy, which he defines as "selective control of access to the self or one's group" (1976, 8). Privacy i s a group-preserving function, through which continued involvement with others can be tolerated and continued (Schwartz, 1972, 153-154). The degree of privacy sought varies with the people, the task, and the time span involved (Altman, 1976, 8). The same author (1976, 24-25) has ident-i f i e d three functions of privacy: the regulation of interaction i n the social environment to provide social and personal definition, control of the interface between the self and the world to allow absorption and growth, and the protection of self-identity, self-respect and dignity. Research has i d e n t i f i e d three types of t e r r i t o r y (Altman, 1975, 111-129) distinguished by the degree of control and use by occupants, and the relative duration of the users' claims. The primary territory, which i s owned by individuals or groups, i s clearly identified by others as belonging to those owners. Control i s relatively permanent, highly valued and very powerful. Lack of a sustained primary territory can lead to lack of self-esteem and identity, and personalization should be permitted. Secondary territories are of two types. The "home" territory i s one in which "regular users have relatively free access and some control over others' use of the place" (Altman, 1975, 114). The "interactional" territory i s where social interaction takes place and again there are habitual users and opportunities for use by others. It i s i n these spaces that the most confusion over jurisdiction and responsibility occur, and where conflicts resulting from this confusion can take place. "Public" territory i s held only temporarily, and there i s almost complete freedom of access and occupancy rights. Madge ( i n Ska bur-ski s, 1974, 41) suggests that the neighbourhood i s a t r a n s i t i o n zone which provides f o r geographic l i n k s between neighbours but yet i s a safe t r a n s i t i o n space between the wholly p u b l i c and the p r i v a t e l i v e s of i t s r e s i d e n t s . The t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on c o n t r o l , t e r r i t o r i a l i t y and p r i v a c y can be approached from three p o i n t s of view: from that of the i n d i v i d u a l (or p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y ) , of the group ( s o c i o l o g i c a l l y ) and of the environment ( p h y s i c a l l y ) . F i g u r e 3 i l l u s t r a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o n t r o l and the f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e i t . On a personal l e v e l , these concepts are most c l e a r l y i n d i c a t i v e of the human need f o r s e c u r i t y , f o r a 'safe haven', and f o r a sense of belonging (Altman, 1975, 13; Marcus and Hogue, 1976, 37-39). Rainwater suggests t h a t as the i n d i v i d u a l ' s confidence i n s e c u r i t y w i t h i n the home i s assured, he begins t o extend the "area of s a f e t y " f u r t h e r a f i e l d (1973, 104) which allow s f o r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h others and development of a s o c i a l network. As an a s i d e , Beck (1977, 9) found t h a t personal s e c u r i t y was not as s i g n i f -i c a n t a concern i n Canada as i n the U.S. At the l a r g e r group s c a l e ( i n t h i s case, based on the neighbourhood), t e r r i t o r i a l i t y has been suggested as a method of i n c r e a s i n g group cohesion through development of a "sense of a common cause" engendered by the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s u r v e i l l a n c e of common t e r r i t o r y (Rainwater, 1973, 104) and i t s defense from i n t r u s i o n . Wellman (1973, 13) found t h a t even those f o r whom the neighbourhood has few t i e s w i l l maintain a minimal l e v e l of involvement t o ensure a minimum l e v e l of s o c i a l c o n t r o l . The simple sharing of space, and a concern f o r that space, has been suggested as a ba s i s f o r a loose a s s o c i a t i o n which may be the beginning o f more extensive bonding (Edney, 1976, 37). Length of Residence Def in i t ion of Spaces and Responsib i l i t ies Personalization SENSE OF CONTROL^p- • Perception of Security Social Interaction and Community Involvement pr ivacy /soc ia l control sense of belonging high level of maintenance challenges to intruders LO LO FIGURE 3 - DESCRIPTIVE MODEL - FACTORS AFFECTING AND INDICATORS OF "SENSE OF CONTROL" 34 In this system, the individual is perceived as having certain rights or control, including those of access, of (limited) freedom of action and behavior, and of the ability to resist the approaches of others, when on his own ground (Edney, 1976, 38-39). When the group to which the indi-vidual belongs recognizes these rights, a structure has been established around which the group's interactions and standards of behavior can be organized (Edney, 1976, 43; Galster and Hesser, 1981, 239; Becker, 1975, 23). Territoriality is evidenced in the physical environment by means of markers which are intended to both prevent intrusion and to be a reaction to intrusion. Barriers need not be physical in nature - they can be verbal and non-verbal symbols as well (Altman, 1975, 123) - but they a l l are intended to affect others' physical behaviors. Most markers are not barriers to movement but rather are symbols which emphasize that the space marked belongs to someone (Becker, 1975, 18). Personalization is one method of marking territory, particularly in multiple housing projects where the built environment does not provide a great deal of variety. Other markers are fences, hedges, placement of personal possessions (e.g. bicycles on the lawn, cars in the driveway), and signs. Brower (1980, 189) points out, however, that signs of occupancy of a territory must contin-ually be used and maintained i f they are to be convincing. Personalization allows a physical expression of attitudes, values and lifestyle without a more direct contact with neighbours. In particular, a concern about the environment evidenced by maintenance of a property, when shared by neighbours, can be the basis of the neighbourhood's social norms and incentive for more intensive social involvement (Becker, 1975, 22-23). 35 The results of case studies investigating the sense of control and i t s component parts i n neighbourhoood and housing projects may be helpful i n the evaluation of Terra Losa and so are presented below. As has been discussed above, t e r r i t o r i a l defense can be manifested i n a high standard of maintenance of property (Galster and Hesser, 1981, 238-9). It has been found that well-maintained and especially personalized space deters vandals and criminals, reduces management costs and increases security at minimum costs (Becker, 1975, 23) while expressing control over, and pride in, the environment. Personalization i s also an indication of the existence of r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , and a sense of security (Fitzhugh and Anderson, 1980, 1). Beck (1977, 9) has suggested that the lack of clear definition of responsibility for private and public spaces i s one cause of maintenance problems. Skaburskis (1974, 41) points out that complaints about lack of privacy may be more the result of inadequate definition of spaces than actual lack of space. Ambiguity of spaces has been suggested as the cause of residents' feelings of insecurity i n 'no-man's lands', since there i s no t e r r i t o r i a l defense, control, or surveillance (Becker, 1975, 20). Studies of the reactions to intrusion are of interest also. Residents are apparently unwilling to challenge intruders (or those perceived as intruders) unless the boundaries of the territory to be defended are well-defined. The willingness to challenge and defend depends on the number of neighbours known (perceived and actual numbers), as well as the depth of that friendship - in other words, moral support that could be expected (Becker, 1975, 20-22). Altman (1975, 133) found that residents are willing to defend neighbours' space i f asked to do so. In a small study of 36 t e r r i t o r i a l defense mechanisms, Edney (1972) found that there i s a significant relationship between defense and length of residence, and an even stronger one between defense and length of expected future residence. The study did not, however, provide enough detail to determine the way in which the scale and value of this defensive reaction changed over time. Regarding feelings of security, Becker (1975, 18) found that people's perceptions of their safety are often more important than the reality (a similar result will be discussed later in Chapter Four, relating to the perception of crime). The same author found a negative correlation between having "no good friends" in the area and feeling "very secure" (1975, 22). Weideman and Anderson also found that people felt safer i f they had friends nearby and i f the area was well maintained. Conversely, perception of a large number of people as strangers increased insecurity (1982, 717-718). The role of physical design in achieving a sense of control was dealt with quite extensively in the literature. Some of these observations were made as the result of case studies; others were based on theoretical discussions. Clear definition of spaces and the responsibilities for them was urged repeatedly (Skaburskis, 1974, 43; Cooper, 1975, 199; Weideman and Anderson, 1982, 721). Control (and limitation) of non-resident activity and through-traffic in the area was stressed (Lansing, Marans and Zehner, 1970, 111; Cooper, 1975, 199; Marcus and Hogue, 1976, 38; Weideman and Anderson, 1982, 721). Increasing the opportunities for social interaction and community involvement through design was probably the most widely recommended solution, and i t is seen as the 'next step' beyond the defens-ible space concept (Becker, 1975, 22; Weideman and Anderson, 1982, 719, 721; Skaburskis, 1974, 43; Lansing, Marans and Zehner, 1970, 116; Marcus and Hogue, 1976, 39-40; Brower, 1980, 192; Budgen, 1983, 10). 37 Sense of Belonging A "sense of belonging" i s defined here as the feeling of attachment i t s residents have for a neighbourhood, and their cohesion and solidarity as a group which results. Sanoff and Sawnhey (1972, 13-8-6) have described this phenomena as the residents' "...perception of social eohesiveness i n a given area and the mutual concern of residents for each others' welfare". It has been hypothesized that individuals' commitments to their neighbour-hoods and neighbours has two forms, social involvement and subjective feeling, which can take several forms and which may vary according to the needs, opportunities and resources of the individual, and to the place i n which they l i v e . Further examination of the l e v e l of residents' commitments can be approached from both the psychological and the socio-logical points of view (Gerson, 1977, 139-140). Several researchers have argued that the possession of local ties are essential for an individual's well-being. Hayward (1977, 12-13) states that the home i s an expression of an individual's self-identity and i s a special setting where one makes commitments to relationships. He states that i t i s not only the house i t s e l f which influences this perception, but also the people and the community l i f e of the neighbourhood i n which i t i s located. Galster and Hesser agree that the neighbourhood i s viewed as an extension of one's home i n cases where an attachment i s present (1982, 239). Cooper (1977, 3-4) states that the house i s the "symbol of self" for i t s inhabitants. Depending on the individual's perception of the world (including the neighbourhood) as a hostile, threatening environment or as stable and attractive, the home can be seen by that individual as either a fortress for the defence of "self", or as a means of self-expression. 38 Different people have different needs, desires for, and perceptions of their neighbourhood and their neighbourly relations, based on their individual personality types, lifestyles, l i f e stages and so on. This topic i s considered in greater detail in Chapter Four in dealing with residents' characteristics. From a sociological perspective, the degree of attachment is based on the types and intensity of social relationships which an individual associates with a place. The physical setting becomes less important over time, except as an organizer, as other social factors come into play (Gerson et al, 1977, 140). Smith (1970, 144) states that attachment engenders a feeling of solidarity among neighbours, which in turn becomes a social control mechanism. Galster and Hesser (1982, 239-240) conclude that the stronger the cohesiveness, the greater the desire to conform to the "minimum acceptable" standards of the neighbourhood. Greater neighbourhood attachment leads to increased sensitivity to conformity, and a desire to increase the "neighbourhood good". If "sense of belonging" or commitment is viewed as a dependent variable, there are several factors which, research shows, affect its existence and its strength (see Figure 4). From the body of literature examined, the majority of the research undertaken has found that the length of residence in the neighbourhood is a major factor in the development of neighbourhood attachments (Kasarda and Janowitz, 1974, 334; Biegel et al, 1980, 117; Gerson et al, 1977, 156). Most researchers agree, however, that length of residence by itself is insufficient reason to develop an attachment to place. More often i t is the people in that place and the relationships (especially voluntary ones) Length of Residence L i f e cycle stage Social Relationships - type - number SENSE OF BELONGING Dwelling Unit Type' Personal Perceptions, needs, desires Tenure type neighbourhood cohesiveness conformity with neighbourhood norms extension of area of concern use of nhbd. f a c i l i t i e s res ident ia l sa t i s fac t i on increased socia l pa r t ic ipa t ion VO -most i n f l u e n t i a l factor FIGURE 4 - DESCRIPTIVE MODEL - FACTORS AFFECTING AND INDICATORS OF "SENSE OF BELONGING 40 which the individual has with them that creates the attachment, and may even lead to long-term residence. On the other hand, long-term residence may increase the intensity of relationships, as well (Kasarda and Janowitz, 1974, 335-336; Gerson, 1977, 148, 156; Biegel, 1980, 119). Other factors are less important i n explaining neighbourhood attach-ments. Life stage i s important, as those with children have more local involvement. Older people (probably because of length of residence and reduced area of operation) and children (probably because of lack of other opportunities and experience and localized need and ties) tend to be more attached to their neighbourhoods (Gerson, 1977, 147, 156). The physical features of the place are likewise significant. Single family housing forms, with their attached "t e r r i t o r i e s " , evoke a stronger sense of attachment (which as explained above extends to the neighbourhood) (Gerson, 1977, 149), than do high rise apartments, which are generally perceived as less-than-the-ideal and as interim homes only (Cooper, 1977, 2; Michelson, 1969, 20). Ownership, together with length of residence, has been found to be highly correlated to existence of a sense of belonging (Biegel, 1980, 115). Finally, the manner i n which attachment has been found to be evidenced by residents i n past research i s worthy of note, since their appearance i n Terra Losa may give an indication of the effectiveness of the neighbourhood planning. Smith (1970, 145-147) has suggested five kinds of evidence of neighbourhood attachment: 1) Most typically, the number and location of friends, the frequency of contact and the content of interactions of residents w i l l indicate to what degree their social relationships are within the neighbourhood. 41 2) The intensity of use of physical facilities reflects to orientation of local residents to an area. 3) Psychological cohesion, or the personal identification of an individual with an area and its residents, is evidenced by: the friendliness of, and towards, others; the expression of "li k i n g " an area, the satisfaction with the residential environment; and the recognition of the area's name and boundaries. 4) Related to social interaction as well, Smith found that the frequency of a positive perception of neighbours may be greater than that of actual physical contacts with them. 5) Investigation of the degree of concensus among neighbours of acceptable values and behaviors, in the roles and operations of local institutions, and in levels of maintenance, noise, borrowing and the like, can give a more complete picture of the residents' attitudes towards their neighbourhoods. Other authors have suggested evidence of cohesion. Informal social participation (but not involvement in local formal organizations) is considered an indication of a sense of belonging (Kasarda and Janowitz, 1974, 336). Expressions of individuality, especially on the exterior of dwellings (Brower, 1980, 193), indicates a desire for self-expression using the dwelling as a symbol of self (Cooper, 1977, 2). The level of neigh-bourhood solidarity has been shown to be related to a lack of desire to relocate (Sanoff and Sawhney, 1972, 13-8-6). Finally, one might assume that a similarly high standard of maintenance in the neighbourhood (or a sub-unit), together with evidence of imitation of neighbours, might result from the cohesiveness described by Galster and Hesser above. 42 Social Interaction Neighbourhoods are composed of two aspects: the physical environment, and the social community. This section w i l l examine the latter. Specif-i c a l l y , the theories regarding the kinds of relationships that exist and how they develop w i l l be presented, followed by the results of case studies identifying the factors which affect the social community and the physical patterns of interaction which occur i n urban neighbourhoods. Four kinds of social relationships have been identified i n neighbour-hood situations. The f i r s t , that of the neighbour, involves those persons l i v i n g close by. Neighbours are helpers i n time of need, and a source of casual sociability and information (Keller, 1968, 152) but the relationship may go no deeper than that. Ties between neighbours are based on the tradition of reciprocal obligation rather than emotional feelings or l i k i n g . Heberle (1960, 7) suggests that because of the greater independence of households today, most ties between neighbours are voluntary rather than obligatory. Smith (1970, 146) describes a concept called "latent neighbouring" i n which there i s a predisposition to help neighbours i n time of need, but l i t t l e other contact. Shulman (1967, 53-54) identified two other attitudes toward neighbouring i n his Canadian study: "manifest neighbouring" which involves frequent contact and mutual aid, and relationships almost like an extended family; and "privacy oriented" i n which there was minimal interaction and neutral feelings towards neighbours. The majority of the population surveyed displayed the "latent neighbouring" attitude (55?) while "privacy oriented" individuals comprised only 15$. Friendships within a neighbourhood are generally considered to be more 43 intense and intimate, longer-lasting and based on a more widely shared interest than simply living close together. Interaction can occur not only between individuals, as above, but also between individuals and various groups. Generally these are considered to be of two types: the informal group in which membership is voluntary and the organization is loose; and the formal organization, which requires some form of commitment to membership and which is more rigidly structured. An example of the former would be a group which gathers to play tennis, and a church group or fraternal organization would be one kind of the latter. Regarding the manner in which social relationships are formed in the neighbourhood, Festinger (1950, 34-35) postulated that friendships (in which he included both neighbouring and friendships) were formed as a result of proximity and the "passive contacts" occurring between those living close together. Proximity was determined on the basis of physical distance, an also of "functional distance" - the "positional relationships and features of design" which encouraged passive contacts. Gans and others disagreed with this determinist explanation. They suggested that though propinquity is important as an i n i t i a t o r of neighbouring and for the maintenance of less intense relationships such as latent neighbouring, i t is not strong enough to be the sole basis for more intense relationships (Gans, 1961, 135). Schorr (1970, 720) suggests that in the short-term contacts are made through proximity, but in the longer run contacts through organizations and workplace are the predominant bases for relationships. This concept is expanded further by Wellman (1973» 2-3) and Litwak (1970, 585) who state that with improved communication, greater residential mobility, and less dependence on neighbours for mutual aid, 44 ties are now more l i k e l y to be spatially diffuse and the reliance on the local neighbourhood as the areal base for interaction may be obsolete. If an explanatory model of neighbourhood relationships i s set up with social interaction as the dependent variable, the literature can provide a large number of independent variables by which i t i s affected (see Figure 5). Perhaps the most widely-accepted influence on the degree of social interaction i s the homogeneity of the resident population. Gans was one of the f i r s t to point out that i t i s important, and especially so at the micro-neighbourhood scale. He suggests that homogeneity of the population promotes greater involvement i n the social l i f e of the neighbourhood since i t also means that i t i s l i k e l y that people with similar interest, values and attitudes w i l l be located near each other. He also states that homogeneity increases the perception of friendliness i n the neighbourhood (Gans, 1961, 136-138). Carey and Mapes (1972, 79) have suggested that i n i t s i n i t i a l stages, social interaction i s dependent on the outwardly-visible signs of perceived compatibility rather than any psychological similarity. Other studies (Zehner, 1972, 176; Keller, 1978, 8; Michelson, 1970, 184-185) found that perceived s i m i l a r i t y of i n t e r e s t i s very important to both residential satisfaction and interaction, especially i n the middle and upper class. In a study of a heterogeneous multiple housing project, i t was found that friendships did form on the basis of similarity and propinquity, but the greater the distance, the more friendships needed additional similarities i n social class to be maintained (Athanasiou and Yoshioka, 1973, 61). stage most i n f luent ia l factor FIGURE 5 - DESCRIPTIVE MODEL - FACTORS AFFECTING SOCIAL INTERACTION 46 In relation to specific characteristics of the population, the following results have been found. Residents with education above high school levels are found to have a greater number of friends (Biegel, 1980, 118) especially at a distance (Athanasiou and Yoshioka, 1973, 55). Gans also saw education level as an important variable, with income and l i f e cycle stage, in neighbouring activity (1961, 137). Several studies (Yancey, 1972, 127; Fried and Gleicher, 1972, 147) found that friends among the middle class were more dispersed than among the working class. Young adults, adolescents and children have been found to interact more than elderly people (Biegel, 1980, 116) and children often serve as catalysts for bringing adults together (Michelson, 1970, 180; Carey and Mapes, 1972, 51; Great Britain, Dept. of Environment, 1972, 62; Wellman, 1973, 12; Fischer and Jackson, 1976, 294). Several studies have found that working in the neighbourhood is closely related to involvement in the neighbourhood and neighbouring activity (Martin, 1956, 448-449; Lee, 1968, 260). It has also been shown that the degree and type of neighbouring is significantly influenced by the degree of self-sufficiency of an individual or household. If the resident is highly autonomous, neighbouring activity is very selective and voluntary (Keller, 1968, 156; Heberle, 1960, 9; Gerson, 1977, 156). The tendency to autonomy increases with urbanization and mobility (Keller, 1968, 156; Zito, 1974, 262). People also differ in their natural propensity to neighbour (as discussed elsewhere in Chapter Four, and Great Britain, Dept. of Environment, 1972, 62), and in some cases l i f e style chosen does not require the mutual aid offered by neighbours (Zito, 1974, 262; Michelson, 1970, 189). Type of tenure has been variously shown to affect neighbouring, with owners interacting more than renters (Biegel, 47 1980, 116), and not affecting interaction (Caplow and Forman, 1950, 360; Michelson, 1969, 18). Finally, length of residence i n a neighbourhood has been shown to increase participation (Michelson, 1969, 2; Litwak, 1970, 594; Kasarda and Janowitz, 1974, 331*) though i t has been suggested that the number, rather than the intensity, of ties increases with time (Caplow and Forman, 1950, 362). It has been suggested that residential mobility impedes the formation of social ties (Heberle, 1960, 7) and makes i t less l i k e l y that the local neighbourhood i s the major community i n which an individual i s involved (Wellman, 1973, 12). The opposite view has been taken, however, by Kasarda and Janowitz (1974, 329) who suggest that highly mobile, advanced industrial societies have neighbourhoods of "limited l i a b i l i t y " i n which: "people participate extensively in local institutions and develop community attachments yet (are) prepared to leave these communities i f local conditions f a i l to satisfy their immediate needs or aspirations. Studies have shown similarities i n the way that residents are integrated into the neighbourhoood. Immediately following the move into the neigh-bourhood the family i s wound up i n i t s e l f and i t s problems. Once immediate problems are settled, families become involved i n the neighbourhood to a certain low level very quickly. A period of s t a b i l i t y follows, lasting about five years, after which involvement increases again (Lee, 1968, 259; Litwak, 1970, 590). A number of authors have suggested, to varying degrees, that design can influence social interaction, and these influences have been summarized into three main types. F i r s t , a plan controls the physical distance between residents (Festinger, 1951, 156; Gans, 1961, 135; Schorr, 1970, 48 720; Rosow, 1961, 131; Gutman, 1966, 106). Keller (1969, 80) suggests that physical layout i s only important i f the population i s homogeneous, supporting Gans* argument that though propinquity may i n i t i a t e contact, homogeneity maintains i t (1961, 135). Michelson (1970, 186) agrees that a "strong and continued need" i s necessary for physical determination of the functional distance between residents. This can also be termed orien-tation. It i s widely recognized as significant i n forming contacts, as shall be discussed later i n this section (Festinger, 1951, 156; Keller, 1968, 74-75; Rosow, 1961, 131; Gans, 1961, 135; Schorr, 1970, 720; Gutman, 1966, 106). Third, the design can either enhance potential f o r communication and interaction (such as common f a c i l i t i e s and amenities) (Cooper, 1974, 32; Gutman, 1966, 108; Keller, 1968, 78) or create barriers to i t (such as roads, walls, etc.) (Gutman, 1966, 108; Cooper, 1974, 31). On a more detailed level of design, dwelling unit type has been investigated as a determinant of interaction. House dwellers have been found to have more localized contacts (Fischer and Jackson, 1976, 293) than apartment dwellers. Zito (1974, 249-261) in studying New York high rise residents, found that though there was limited neighbouring activity, few friendships were formed and socializing was done elsewhere. There was l i t t l e evidence of informal gatherings. The lack of friendships was explained by the residents' desire for privacy, freedom, and lack of obligation, and by l i f e s t y l e s which precluded maintenance of close friend-ships. Michelson (1977, 173) determined that apartment dwellers' friends were generally not neighbours, though their perceptions of neighbours were generally positive. 49 Finally, density has been seen by some to have an effect on social i n t e r a c t i o n . Baldassare (1977, 109) suggests that i n high density situations, the number of contacts between residents i s increased, so people are more selective of which ones w i l l be maintained and which ones limited. Having looked at some determinants of interaction, attention w i l l now be turned to the significant physical patterns of interaction which commonly occur i n neighbourhoods, as evidenced i n the literature. With respect to orientation of structures, interaction seemed to occur when visual contact could be made and maintained. Kuper found that i n semi-detached units party-wall neighbours did not interact as much as those on the other side of units, where windows were located. Merton found placement of doors to be important, and Whyte, steps, lawns, and driveways as well (Michelson, 1970, 175-176, 180). Gans (1961, 158) found that the hundred-foot rear yards i n Levittown discouraged back-to-back neighbourly contact. In linear layouts of ground-oriented units, i t has been noted that whether neighbours have more contact side-to-side than across the street depends on orientation of interior rooms (e.g. i f the l i v i n g room i s at the front and i s not well used - not looked out from often) and doors (Kuper, 1953, 155-156; Rosow, 1961, 131) and whether or not the roadway presents a barrier (Cooper, 1975, 33). Rows of units were found to be conducive to chance meetings but not sustained contacts (Cooper, 1975, 30). The middle units of rows were more interactive than those at the ends, especially i f the end units are oriented differently (Whyte i n Michelson, 1970; Kuper, 1953, 157). Cul de sac arrangements were found to increase casual interaction (Lansing, Marans and Zehner, 1970, 116). Gans pointed 50 out t h a t a l a r g e " c o u r t " arrangement u s u a l l y r e s u l t e d i n s e v e r a l small groups forming, as opposed t o a s i n g l e group i f the " c o u r t " were s m a l l ( 1 9 6 1 , 1 3 8 ) . The importance of formation of small groups has a l s o been pointed out by F e s t i n g e r ( 1 9 5 1 , 1 5 9 ) and Lee ( 1 9 6 8 , 1 6 4 ) . With respect t o apartment d w e l l e r s , Z i t o ( 1 9 7 4 , 2 5 8 ) found that s i d e - b y - s i d e neighbours i n t e r a c t e d l e s s than those across the h a l l , because v i s u a l contact was l e s s . I t has been found t h a t r e s i d e n t s of ground-oriented, s i n g l e f a m i l y housing forms meet outside t h e i r r e s i d e n c e s , u s u a l l y from t h e i r semi-p r i v a t e spaces such as porches, yards or driveways (Michelson, 1 9 6 9 , 9 ; Marcus and Hogue, 1 9 7 6 , 3 9 ) . I n m u l t i p l e housing forms, contacts u s u a l l y take place indoors (Marcus and Hogue, 1 9 7 6 , 3 9 ) . Semi-public outdoor areas such as parking l o t s , c o urts or f o o t paths can a l s o become the centers of f r i e n d s h i p p a t t e r n s f o r the s m a l l neighbouring groups (Cooper, 1 9 7 5 , 3 2 ) . I n high r i s e s , contact i s u s u a l l y made between (or w i t h i n ) semi-public spaces (Becker, 1 9 7 4 , 1 8 4 ) such as access areas, the laundry, or shops (Great B r i t a i n , Dept. of Environment, 1 9 7 2 , 6 2 ) , and i n low r i s e , between semi-private and p u b l i c spaces (Becker, 1 9 7 4 , 1 8 4 ) . Apparently the s h a r i n g of open space by m u l t i p l e housing r e s i d e n t s can l e a d to the same k i n d of f r u s t r a t i o n about l a c k of p r i v a c y as do party w a l l s (Michelson, 1 9 6 9 , 1 7 - 1 8 ) . Summary Chapter Three has o u t l i n e d four major t o p i c s t y p i c a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the e v a l u a t i o n of neighbourhoods and d i s c u s s e s both the relevance of each t o p i c t o such e v a l u a t i o n s , and the r e s u l t s which might be expected, based on the f i n d i n g s of other s t u d i e s . 51 It w i l l have been obvious from the discussion i n this Chapter that each topic both affects and i s affected by the others. The relationship between them i s portrayed schematically in Figure 6, which also attempts to show the relative potential for influence which design features have on the major topics. The latter w i l l be discussed further i n Chapter Five. The summary conclusion of this literature review i s that design has the greatest influence on residents 1 satisfaction, second-most on residents' sense of control over their environment, third on social interaction, and least on residents' sense of belonging. Design RESIDENTIAL ^ SATISFACTION SENSE OF CONTROL Design ^ SENSE OF BELONGING ^ SOCIAL •"INTERACTION N 3 i Design Design NOTE: THICKNESS OF ARROW BETWEEN "DESIGN" AND MAJOR TOPIC INDICATES THE RELATIVE POTENTIAL FOR INFLUENCE OF DESIGN ON THAT TOPIC. ALL OTHER ARROWS SHOW EXISTENCE OF AN INFLUENCE ONLY. FIGURE 6 - INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF MAJOR TOPICS AND RELATIVE POTENTIAL FOR INFLUENCE OF DESIGN 53 CHAPTER FOUR OTHER CONSIDERATIONS Both the l i t e r a t u r e and the s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n being s t u d i e d have suggested other matters which are worthy of c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i n a d d i t i o n t o the major t o p i c s discussed i n Chapter Three. The f i r s t group of f a c t o r s are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n of the Neighbourhood, seen by many w r i t e r s as an important i n f l u e n c e on the major t o p i c s discussed i n Chapter Three. I t i s recognized t h a t , to some ex t e n t , the r e s i d e n t s of the Neighbourhood are i n f l u e n c e d by the marketing s t r a t e g y of the developers, and t h a t s e l f - s e l e c t i o n w i l l a l s o play a pa r t i n determining the r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n so that the v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n the range of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may not be as wide as i n less-planned areas. The second group of f a c t o r s considered i n t h i s chapter are those p a r t i -c u l a r t o the Terra Losa Neighbourhood and i t s s i t u a t i o n . For the most p a r t , these f a c t o r s have r e c e i v e d l e s s a t t e n t i o n i n the l i t e r a t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y from the poi n t of view of p l a n e v a l u a t i o n . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the R e s i d e n t i a l P o p u l a t i o n There are c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e s i d e n t i a l populations which are i d e n t i f i e d time and again i n the case s t u d i e s discussed elsewhere i n t h i s t h e s i s as having s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s on the l e v e l s of neighbourhood s a t i s f a c t i o n experienced. This s e c t i o n w i l l i d e n t i f y those considered e s s e n t i a l f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the e v a l u a t i v e survey. As w i t h most s o c i a l science s t u d i e s , demographic i n f o r m a t i o n i s the most common b a s i s of a n a l y s i s . Age, sex and household c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r e s i d e n t s have u s u a l l y been c o l l e c t e d . 54 Likewise, socio-economic characteristics such as education level, income, occupation and employment status have been described and are used to determine the "social status" or "class" of the residents. Collectively, this information i s used1' to ascertain the degree of homogeneity (or s i m i l a r i t y ) of a r e s i d e n t i a l population, which the literature review has revealed has been shown to be a major determinant of interaction, satisfaction and attachment. Less commonly, the psychological characteristics of residents have been used (or suggested for use) as a basis for a "higher level" of homogeneity (Kuper, 1953, 162; Keller, 1968, 81; Zito, 1974, 262, for example). Some authors have postulated that while some people tend to be social and highly interactive, others tend to be (by choice) more solitary or reserved. This propensity to "neighbour" can have an effect on the results obtained i n any study of the neighbourhood. In order that the results i t affects are not misconstrued, the degree of i t s effect should be determined. Homogeneity in attitudes, values, perceptions and beliefs have been found useful i n some studies (for example Galster and Hesser, 1982, 239; Smith, 1970, 147; Kuper, 1953; Athanasiou and Yoshioka, 1973; Marans, Lansing and Zehner, 1970, 125). The information collected has varied from that which i s neighbourhood-based (for example, acceptable borrowing habits, or what constitutes a "good" neighbour) to subjects of a more general nature (attitudes toward and importance of the larger community, pol i t i c s , religion, and i n the U.S., race relations). People's perceptions can actually be more important determinants of their satisfactions and behaviors than rea l i t y . For example, perception of friendliness of neighbours i s more important to satisfaction than a high number of actual 55 contacts with them (Becker, 1974, 187; Heberle, 1960, 3; Zehner, 1972, 176). Information on other variables can be collected to further explain the responses received. Tenure type has been used i n some case studies, though i n many cases (e.g. Festinger, 1950; Gans, 1967; and Cooper, 1975) the projects studied had no variation i n type of tenure available. Since Terra Losa i s expected to have a mix of tenure types, evaluation results can be tested to determine whether satisfaction levels vary at a l l with tenure type. Residential history of the resident has been found to have some effects on levels of satisfaction with present accommodation (Francescato, 1975b, 8). Information regarding last housing type lived i n , satisfaction with i t , tenure type and length of residence i n previous residences have been used as bases for analysis. Determination of the mobility of residents i s also important i n accounting for levels of satisfaction (e.g. Kasarda and Janowitz, 1974, 333; Beigel, 1980, 115). Data needed for this type of investigation include the resident's expectations regarding future moves (both when, and to what type of unit i n what type of neighbourhood), and actual length of tenure i n present accommodation. This latter has been shown to have significant effects on attachment and types and numbers of social interactions and attachments (e.g. Litwak, 1970, 585; Wellman, 1973, 27; Caplow and Forman, 1950, 260; Schorr, 1970, 714). Though not, s t r i c t l y speaking, a characteristic of the resident, housing type presently occupied i s an important attribute which may affect a respondent's perceptions, attitudes and behaviors. Recording of this information would allow the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of any differences i n 56 s a t i s f a c t i o n by housing type. The manner i n which c a t e g o r i e s of u n i t types are set up i n the eventual survey would depend on the l e v e l of d e t a i l the Planning Department i s i n t e r e s t e d i n , or has the time and money to achieve. At the minimum, the c l a s s e s should be s i n g l e f a m i l y forms (duplex, townhouse), low r i s e apartments (stacked rowhousing and apartments up t o f o u r f l o o r s ) , and high r i s e apartments (more than f o u r f l o o r s ) . I n order to d i s c o v e r the degree of i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n the Neighbour-hood, and the degree to which the Neighbourhood comprises the environment f o r i n d i v i d u a l s ' r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n f o r m a t i o n on the respondents' involvement with others must be recorded. I n g e n e r a l , data has been c o l l e c t e d on f r i e n d s h i p types ( f r i e n d s , neighbours, or acquaintances), frequency of contacts, l o c a t i o n of those c o n t a c t s , l o c a t i o n of residences of these fri e n d s / a c q u a i n t a n c e s , content of contacts ( p l e a s a n t r i e s v s . meaningful c o n v e r s a t i o n ) , d u r a t i o n of contacts (length of i n d i v i d u a l contacts as w e l l as o v e r a l l l e n g t h of time of "knowing 1' the person), whether or not the person was known before or a f t e r moving t o the Neighbourhood, and the manner i n which they f i r s t met. A l l s o c i a l c o n t a c t s , whether or not they l i v e i n the Neighbourhood, should be i n c l u d e d . (Rather than o b t a i n i n g very d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on each contact, o f t e n only g e n e r a l i z e d p r o p o r t i o n s are asked f o r - f o r example, "What p r o p o r t i o n of the people you know would you consider as friends/acquaintances/neighbours?"). Though i n many cases stud i e d k i n s h i p was h e a v i l y i n v e s t i g a t e d as a type of s o c i a l contact, i t i s f e l t t h a t t h i s type of bond would not be a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n a new community, surrounded by new communities, whose t a r g e t market i s predom-i n a n t l y young and middle c l a s s . K i n s h i p tends t o have g r e a t e r e f f e c t s on i n t e r a c t i o n i n lower c l a s s and w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d neighbourhoods (Yancey, 57 1972, 127; Fried and Gleicher, 1972, 145; Coleman, 1978, 20-21). There-fore, kinship relationships should be noted, but are treated no differently from other forms of friendship or neighbourly relationships. Finally, the resident's a f f i l i a t i o n s with formal and informal organ-izations are important i n ascertaining the importance of the neighbourhood in his social network (e.g. Biegel, 1980, 112, 119; Gerson, 1977, 154; Kasarda and Janowitz, 1974, 335). A preponderance of memberships in neighbourhood organizations would indicate a localized interest; city- or larger-scale organizations reflect a more cosmopolitan base of operations. As well, these results can help test the effectiveness of the Community Centre as a focus for the Neighbourhood. The propensity of the residents to be involved i n such organizations must be considered i n conjunction with their behavioral pattern. The effects on the self-selection process of residents of the marketing strategy, which i s to emphasize high expec-tations for both formal and informal interaction should also be investi-gated. Other Questions This section w i l l discuss several topics which are less commonly included (or less f u l l y explored) i n the neighbourhood evaluation case studies found i n the literature. Because of the goals and design objectives identified for Terra Losa, however, i t i s suggested that they, together with some site-specific questions, be included i n the evaluation of the neighbourhood. DENSITY AND CROWDING As was described i n Chapter Two, the approval of the Terra Losa plan at a density of approximately 75 persons per acre was a drastic departure from 58 the densities approved i n "typical" suburban neighbourhoods, and i t was not undertaken without considerable hesitation and doubt on the part of both the Planning Department and City Council. One essential function of the evaluation would be to determine whether or not the residents of the Neighbourhood are i n any serious way affected by i t s high density, how they are affected, and to what degree. There i s a considerable body of literature dealing specifically with the question of residential density, and most of i t begins with a careful distinction (not always made i n evaluative literature) between density and crowding. Density i s a physical quality or measure (Altman, 1975, 150; Schmidt et a l , 1979, 106) while crowding i s a perception, a "personal subjective reaction" and a feeling of too l i t t l e space (Schmidt et a l , 1979, 106; Altman, 1975, 150) of which density i s only one component. Altman suggests that other factors affecting the perception of crowding are an excess of stimulation, and the breakdown of mechanisms which preserve the individual's desired level of privacy (1975, 151). In other words, people who perceive crowding have lost their sense of control over their contacts and their territory (Freedman, 1975, 123-124). Freedman suggests that crowding intensifies typical reactions to situations (1975, 90) so that they may become overwhelming (1975, 123). Therefore, though density i s a contributing factor, i f the interest i s i n examining the effects of the plan of Terra Losa on i t s residents, i t i s really the crowding phenomena which should be investigated. Factors which have been found to affect the perception of crowding in other areas should also be examined i n the Terra Losa evaluation. Schmidt et al (1979, 119-120) has derived six scales significant i n the perception 59 of neighbourhood crowding: t r a f f i c i n the city, crowding i n the city, perceived changes i n the neighbourhood since moving in, the attainment of privacy, the importance of unit and yard space i n the choice of residence, and crowding i n shopping areas. Physical measures significant i n percep-tion of crowding were the distances from residence to commercial and industrial a c t i v i t i e s , to parks, to major roads, and to freeways. The same study found that insofar as i t limits behavioral freedom and control, density affects crowding (1979, 106-107). Loring and Schmidt both suggest that perception of crowding i s greater and more antisocial behavior occurs when physical spaces are ambiguous and t e r r i t o r y i s i l l - d e f i n e d (Skaburskis, 1974, 41). Beck (1977, 9) reports that the sense of crowding i s influenced by the views from unit windows, especially the heights and distances away from adjacent buildings, the number of children playing, and adequacy of community f a c i l i t i e s . Schmidt et a l (1979, 43) states that some research has found that personal characteristics such as values, attitudes, expectations, and past experience influence the residents' perceptions and evaluations of crowding. The results of a perception of crowding are also of interest since their presence may indicate that crowding exists (though since crowding perceptions can result from causes other than physical density, care must be taken not to attribute causes where insufficient j u s t i f i c a t i o n exists). Carson (1972, 156) discovered that residents of very low density (less than 6 units per acre) and high density (greater than 25 units per acre) areas perceived a threat of future population crowding more than those of middle density areas. The 'threats' identified with crowding were general population crowding, school crowding, playground crowding, increased low 60 r e n t a l accommodation, minor crime, drug problems, increased noise and t r a f f i c , and decreased open space. A l l of these are " v i s i b l e changes that are taking place, or threatening to take place, i n t h e i r immediate area" (Carson, 1972, 167). Perception of crowding can r e s u l t i n a greater number of complaints about the development and neighbours, r e f l e c t i n g the l o s s of privacy f e l t by the i n d i v i d u a l (Lansing, Marans and Zehner, 1970, 109). Some f a c t o r s of design which a f f e c t or mitigate the perception of crowding are the c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of t e r r i t o r i a l space types to enhance sense of control and s u r v e i l l a n c e (Skaburskis, 1974, 41; Schmidt, 19791 128; Freedman, 1975, 123-124), design of small c l u s t e r s vs. large projects (Norcross, 1973, 9; Cooper, 1975, 32), p r o v i s i o n of v i s u a l and f u n c t i o n a l access to open space, v a r i e t y i n layout, minimization of noise i n t r u s i o n ( i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r ) and protection of privacy (Cooper, 1975, 32). Provision of several small spaces f o r i n t e r a c t i o n rather than a s i n g l e large space i s also suggested (Freedman, 1975, 124). PERCEPTION OF CRIME The determination of what are the perceptions of crime i n Terra Losa, how they r e l a t e to the actual crime r a t e , and whether both the perception and r e a l i t y d i f f e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y from the r e s u l t s obtained from other neighbourhoods (both those of " t y p i c a l " d e n s i t i e s and of high density but without any s p e c i a l design parameters) would allow the evaluation of Newman's concept that opportunity f o r crime can be reduced through design. It would be r e v e a l i n g to discover whether the residents perceive t h e i r Neighbourhood as ' s p e c i a l ' i n t h i s regard, though r e s u l t s would be expected to depend on the marketing strategy used and length of residence. L i t e r a t u r e dealing with urban crime has generally supported the view 61 that r e s i d e n t s ' perceptions of crime i s of greater psychological importance to them, and influence t h e i r behavior more, than t h e i r a c t u a l experience with crime and actual crime rates (Hartnagel, 1979, 179; Conklin, 1971, 380). One study (Hartnagel, 1979) i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t since i t was done i n Edmonton. In general, those who f e l t safer i n the neighbourhood were more t r u s t i n g and very s l i g h t l y more s a t i s f i e d , but l e v e l of crime perceived d i d not r e l a t e to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l groups, l o c a l organ-i z a t i o n s or number of f r i e n d s (1979, 178). There was a d i f f e r e n c e i n the perception of crime and the f e a r of personal v i c t i m i z a t i o n . Though 85% of the population studied perceived an increase i n crime, only 1% feared i t i n t h e i r neighbourhood - a r e s u l t hypothesized to be i n s u f f i c i e n t l y high to change behavior patterns (1979, 189). Perception and fear of crime was greatest among females, the poor, l e a s t educated and the e l d e r l y (1979, 179) though except f o r the f i r s t , these groups are not expected to be highly represented i n Terra Losa. RECREATION FACILITIES A s i g n i f i c a n t component of the developers' concept i s the i n c l u s i o n i n the neighbourhood from a very e a r l y stage of a multi-purpose community center, which i s intended to be a focus f o r community l i f e i n the Neigh-bourhood. I t seems l o g i c a l , therefore, to evaluate the performance of the center i n t h i s function. In p a r t i c u l a r , the patterns of use (what uses, when, how often, and by whom) and degree of involvement of residents and workers from Terra Losa and of non-residents should be examined. A compar-is o n of these r e s u l t s with s i m i l a r data on " t y p i c a l " suburban neighbour-hoods and high density neighbourhoods with community leagues, and other high density projects with on-site community f a c i l i t i e s , should be made. 62 The literature dealing with provision and use of recreational amenities is fairly extensive. Norcross and Hysom (1968, 39-52) found that such facilities were important in attracting residents and in keeping them, but even so, they were used regularly by only a very small proportion of residents and to levels well below capacity (also Lansing, Marans and Zehner, 1970, 80; Brower and Williamson, 1974, 339; Michelson, 1977, 355). This was particularly true of apartment residents, a trend rationalized by the type of people and lifestyles involved, and their less localized distribution of friends (Homenuk, 1973, 2 3 ) . This pattern of (in)activity did not, however, stop residents from feeling that more facilities were required (whether or not some already existed) (Norcross, 1973, 10; Great Britain, Dept. of Environment, 1972, 62). Good access to the facilities (both physically and temporally) have been shown to increase the likelihood of use of facilities (Brower and Williamson, 1974, 339; Lansing, Marans and Zehner, 1970, 80, 91; Homenuk, 1974, 24; Michelson, 1969, 13). The types of spaces which were used depended a great deal on climate. Tennis courts seem especially popular (Norcross, 1973, 10; Homenuk, 1974, 24). All-purpose recreation rooms were rarely used (Homenuk, 1974, 24; Marcus and Hogue, 1976, 40) though meeting rooms were suggested as a means of facilitating social contacts (Marcus and Hogue, 1976, 40). A SENSE OF PLACE "Sense of Place" has been defined as: cthe pattern of reactions that a setting stimulates in a person... a product of both features of the setting and aspects the person brings to i t . . . an interactional concept of social and physical settings... (R)eactions... include feelings, perceptions, behaviors and outcomes associated with one's being in that location. (Steele, 1981, 12) 63 The marketing of Terra Losa i s expected to strongly emphasize the creation of a unique entity, separate from the neighbourhoods on i t s boundaries, and i n possession of a character of i t s own. This concept w i l l be evidenced i n a physical way through the fencing around and gateways leading into the Neighbourhood, and consistency in signage, building materials and roof lines. Designers and developers can have l i t t l e influence on the social context affecting the settings to which individuals react, however the physical component of the concept can be affected. Steele (1981, 184-185) suggests several c r i t e r i a for creation of better physical settings: 1. provision for choice and variety; 2. reinforcement of patterns and sequences - for example gateways and successive degrees of marking of private areas; 3. provision of a sense of identity, through recurring themes i n form, materials, arrangement and symbolism; 4. increased v i s i b i l i t y of the opportunities available i n a place, for example improvements i n information and access; 5. provision of appropriate scale, between elements and between elements and users. Similar qualities of a place are l i k e l y to engender a " s p i r i t of place", which Steele defines as the "personality of a place, an attribute that draws similar reactions from different users (1981, 53). The determination of whether the development concept has any effect, especially a lasting one, on the residents' perceptions of what comprises 'their' neighbourhood w i l l provide an evaluation of the effectiveness of the design and marketing strategy in creating a clearly identifiable 64 neighbourhood unit. Chapter Three has already discussed the different scales at which residents perceive their environment - the micro and macro scales. A great deal of research has been done on the ability of residents to identify their neighbourhood's boundaries, and the congruence, or lack of i t , of these boundaries to both those of others and "official 1 1 boundaries (Lee, 1968, 263; Haney and Knowles, 1978; Mann, 1970; Kasarda and Janowitz, 1974, 331; Porteous, 1977, 80-81; Steele, 1981, 60-61). Very l i t t l e generalizable information has emerged from i t , however, other than to say neighbourhood definition is a highly personal and subjective process, though distinct physical edges do tend to give more consistent boundary identification, and 'landmarks' aid in retention of an image of a place. The degree of recognition of the neighbourhood name, after being highly publicized, would also reflect the effectiveness not only of the marketing strategy but also the planning designed to encourage attachment to place. PATTERN OF WORK Another component of the developers' concept was the desire to create a single neighbourhood in which opportunities existed for both living and working. The City of Edmonton is also interested in this concept, though perhaps not at so small a scale, since in its General Municipal Plan (Objective 6F) and its Urban Growth Strategy, the decentralization of employment areas and minimization of journey to work are promoted. The evaluation could be used to determine whether or not this part of the concept has in fact been achieved. It could be expected, however, that this phenomena would only evolve after a considerable period of time, once both the residential area and office park are fully developed and have been 65 i n o p e r a t i o n f o r some time. I n c l u s i o n of the q u e s t i o n might be more appro-p r i a t e i f the e v a l u a t i o n were repeated s e v e r a l years a f t e r i t s i n i t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n . I f some r e s i d e n t s do work i n Terra Losa, i t could be determined whether t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n s , attachments and involvement i n the neighbourhood d i f f e r from those who work elsewhere. M a r t i n ( 1 9 5 6 , 4 4 8 - 4 4 9 ) suggests a l l of these l e v e l s should be higher f o r r e s i d e n t workers than f o r r e s i d e n t s employed elsewhere. THE DESIGN GUIDELINES AND THE INDUSTRIAL AREA A l l of t h i s chapter to t h i s p o i n t has d e a l t w i t h e v a l u a t i o n of the r e s i d e n t i a l p o r t i o n of the Neighbourhood. Nevertheless, the G u i d e l i n e s cover the e n t i r e Neighbourhood, and t h e i r e f f e c t s on the o f f i c e park should a l s o be examined. Because of t h e i r more t r a n s i t o r y occupation of t h i s area, the workers i n i t might be l e s s observant and c r i t i c a l of i t , though t h e i r o p i nions should s t i l l be obtained. I t i s more l i k e l y , however, that e v a l u a t i o n of t h i s part of the Neighbourhood would take the form of o b s e r v a t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d from p o l i c e records of crime i n the area. Residents' perception of the o f f i c e park might a l s o be of i n t e r e s t to the C i t y , e s p e c i a l l y i n c o n s i d e r i n g the development o f o t h e r 'mixed use' neighbourhoods and the treatment of the boundaries between the r e s i d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l areas. INVENTORY F i n a l l y , i t i s suggested t h a t open-ended questions ( i . e . those not having precoded or set responses) be i n c l u d e d to o b t a i n from r e s i d e n t s i n d i c a t i o n s o f f e a t u r e s and design d e t a i l s of t h e i r environment t h a t they 66 enjoy or d i s l i k e . T his i n f o r m a t i o n would be of use to both planners and a r c h i t e c t s , and could h o p e f u l l y reduce the 'mistakes' made i n other plans and even enhance i n some sm a l l way the q u a l i t y of f u t u r e r e s i d e n t i a l environments. 67 CHAPTER FIVE EVALUATIONS OF THE GUIDELINES AND THE PROGRAM What has been discussed i n Chapters Three and Four are basically the components of neighbourhood satisfaction, both in general and as they relate to Terra Losa specifically. Measurement of these components as they exist i n the Terra Losa Neighbourhood of the future w i l l provide an indi-cation of the success of the neighbourhood i n relation to similar data obtained elsewhere. In short, these figures w i l l aid i n measuring the degree to which the goals of the Guidelines have been achieved. Other than the typical examination of outcomes described above, there i s another type of evaluation which involves the evaluation of the imple-mentation of a program, i n this case, the Guidelines. Patton (1978, 152) describes i t as being composed of several parts: "effort evaluation", or description of the quality and quantity of activity i n the program (164); "process evaluation", revealing i t s strengths and weaknesses (165); and "treatment specification", which examines the causal assumptions made and the theory behind the actions stated (167). Though the f i r s t two of these three parts are important i n providing a complete picture of the effectiveness of a program, i t i s clearly not possible to undertake them at this stage, since the program has not yet commenced operation. The third part, however, dealing with i t s theoretical basis, can be done at this stage and could provide useful direction i n the application of the Guide-lines or for amendments to them prior to implementation. 68 APPROACH FOR THE EVALUATION Following Patton's suggestion, this Chapter will evaluate the Guide-lines from the 'treatment specification' viewpoint. As he put i t , "treat-ment specification reveals the causal assumptions undergirding program activity" (1978, 167). He further describes this approach as answering several types of questions: What is going to happen in the program that is expected to make a difference? How are program goals supposed to be attained? What theory do program staff hold about what to do in order to accomp-lish the results they want (1978, 167)? In practice, at least in the Terra Losa context, this means questioning at three levels the assumptions stated or implied by those who wrote the guidelines. The f i r s t level is the conceptualization of the relevant theory, on the basis, at least in part, of what is in the theoretical and empirical literature reviewed here in Chapters Three and Four. The second level focusses on the linkages between this theory and the Guidelines, and the third on the linkages between the Guidelines and their implementation in the plans as executed when the neighbourhood is developed. This last level i s , of course, related to another aspect of the analysis, namely the search for the existence in the Guidelines of implementation mechanisms to bring about the desired results expressed in the goals, and an evaluation of the appropriateness of these mechanisms, based on the literature review. A descriptive model of this evaluation is shown in Figure 7. Before undertaking this detailed evaluation, a short critique of the Defensible Space concept is necessary, since i t is the basis of the Guide-lines and much of the further discussion. 69 Next the implicit and explicit goals of the Terra Losa Design Guide-lines and of the related documents and activity surrounding their origin w i l l be Identified. The evaluation of the program as described above w i l l be done i n the context of these goal statements. CRITIQUE OF THE DEFENSIBLE SPACE CONCEPT As stated i n Chapter Two, Newman based Defensible Space on lower income, inner city American neighbourhoods and projects. He has been cr i t i c i z e d for selective inclusion of projects to substantiate his results, for not controlling for socioeconomic characteristics and police recording methods which might bias his results, for errors i n calculations, and for not establishing design as a (major) causative factor i n explaining crime rates (Altman, 1975, 116). Other criticisms of the work include the validi t y of the assumption that those who do not "belong" in a place w i l l comprehend the meaning of the symbolic markers used to define territories, and that the residents and criminals are two separate groups (Porteous, 1977, 299). Finally, an evaluation of a project designed on the basis of Newman's concept found no evidence of increased control or s o c i a l interaction: while the defensible space changes may well have discouraged criminals or intruders from entering the development, there was no immediate adoption of proprietary attitudes by the residents. (Chenoweth, i n Fitzhugh and Anderson, 1980, 2). One might also question the validity of the concept when applied to middle-class, suburban neighbourhoods i n Canada, where the literature has revealed, there i s not the degree of concern for security, or the fear of crime that i s apparently experienced i n the U.S. GOAL IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION To help order the analysis, the evaluation described i n Figure 7 and 70 EVOLUTION (1) EVALUATION (2) THEORY OF NBHD. SATISFACTION AND DEFENSIBLE SPACE ( i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) GOALS ON WHICH GUIDELINES BASED (assumptions regarding c a u s a l i t y and expectations o f o r i g i n a t o r s ) GUIDELINES ( i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by implementors) IMPLEMENTATION ( r e s i d e n t population) V ANTICIPATED RESULTS UNANTICIPATED RESULTS NOTE: (1) Statements i n brackets are the "sieves* 1 or screens through which the previous steps pass on the way t o accomplishment of the next stage. (2) The p o i n t s a t which the " e v o l u t i o n " o f the program w i l l be evaluated are noted. Beyond " G u i d e l i n e s " (present s t a t u s of the program), e v a l u a t i o n w i l l be of p o t e n t i a l r e s u l t s . FIGURE 7 - MODEL OF THE EVOLUTION AND EVALUATION OF THE PROGRAM 71 above will be fi r s t undertaken in the context of the goals of the program. These include both the explicit statements contained in the Guidelines themselves (see Appendix I) and the implicit intentions evidenced in the documentation which accompanied the preparation and approval of the Guide-lines and program (City of Edmonton, Planning Department, 1981-1982). The last part of this section will deal with the Guidelines and the program in its totality. 1. TO USE THE CONCEPT OF DEFENSIBLE SPACE TO ENCOURAGE TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOR AND A STRONG SOCIAL NETWORK IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOOD THROUGH THE USE OF PHYSICAL DESIGN STANDARDS. (Appendix I; 8-10) a) Interpretation of Theory The creation of the "sense of control" associated with territorial behavior and Defensible Space has been addressed in the Guidelines through statements requiring boundary definition. Three scales are identified: those of the Neighbourhhood (by peripheral fences and gateways to the Neighbourhood), of the projects (by hedges, fences and signage), and of the unit (required but method unspecified). Unfortunately, the requirements for the most vital of these scales, that of the unit, are mentioned only fleetingly as a part of "internal fences around separate developments", and do not receive the attention they deserve based on the importance of these spaces to the residents. Territoriality has been shown to begin with the private space, and to extend beyond the unit only once this "primary territory" is judged to be secure. Several of the guidelines refer to design attention enhancing security and allowing for surveillance in play areas, parking lots (above and below grade), landscaped open spaces and semi-private interior spaces. These g u i d e l i n e s f o l l o w f a i r l y c l o s e l y the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n s of Oscar Newman, and t h e i r v a l i d i t y i s borne out by the l i t e r a t u r e researched, i n th a t a sense of s e c u r i t y i s important t o an i n d i v i d u a l ' s propensity to defend h i s t e r r i t o r y . The high l e v e l of maintenance proposed i n the G u i d e l i n e s and r e q u i r e d from developers i n Terra Losa has been shown i n the l i t e r a t u r e to be an e f f e c t i v e way of "marking" a t e r r i t o r y against unwanted i n t r u s i o n , and of expressing c o n t r o l over and p r i d e i n the environment. The G u i d e l i n e s are d e f i c i e n t i n two important respects i n terms o f the v a r i a b l e s which are known t o a f f e c t the degree of c o n t r o l r e s i d e n t s b e l i e v e they have over t h e i r environment. F i r s t of a l l , p r i v a c y i s not mentioned. The l i t e r a t u r e has shown that t e r r i t o r i a l behavior and p r i v a c y are c l o s e l y l i n k e d - the former i s an exte n s i o n of the d e s i r e f o r the l a t t e r . The Gu i d e l i n e s could w e l l be amended t o r e q u i r e c l o s e a t t e n t i o n to d e t a i l s of the p r i v a t e and semi-p r i v a t e spaces created both w i t h i n and between u n i t s . Secondly, the l i t e r a t u r e i d e n t i f i e d the p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n of space by the r e s i d e n t s as one of the most e f f e c t i v e ways of marking the t e r r i t o r y . The Gu i d e l i n e s make no mention of the usefu l n e s s of t h i s concept, and they would be improved by doing so. I n d i v i d u a l developers could s t i l l , of course, a l l o w f o r t h i s a t l a t e r stages of development. One of the G u i d e l i n e s i s i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o the d e f e n s i b l e space concept. I n s e v e r a l s t u d i e s i t was pointed out that one way of designing f o r environmental c o n t r o l was t o l i m i t the non-resident t r a f f i c through the area. I n Terra Losa, hwoever, i t i s e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d t h a t there s h a l l be walkway connections between the business park and the r e s i d e n t i a l area. While i t may be important f o r the workers i n the business park t o have easy access t o the community center (and t o t h e i r homes i f they l i v e t h e r e ) , t h i s need e x i s t s o n ly f o r at most ten hours a day. The remainder of the time, and on weekends, the business park w i l l be unsupervised, and there w i l l be no c o n t r o l s over who t r a v e l s between the two p a r t s of the neigh-bourhood, and f o r what purposes, during t h a t time. Perhaps the d e c i s i o n t o choose a c c e s s i b i l i t y f o r a few over l i m i t a t i o n of access f o r p o t e n t i a l l y many was made hoping t h a t the boundary d e f i n i t i o n of the business park would deter i n t r u d e r s i n non-working hours. The G u i d e l i n e s c a l l f o r d e s i g n s w h i c h enhance o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n t e r a c t i o n - no l o n g and/or monotonous blocks of b u i l d i n g s , walkways, i n t e r i o r spaces i n m u l t i p l e housing developments, s m a l l groupings of u n i t s - a l l of which were mentioned i n the l i t e r a t u r e as i n c r e a s i n g the oppor-t u n i t i e s f o r casual c o n t a c t s . Residents working i n t h e i r neighbourhoods were found to i n t e r a c t more than r e s i d e n t s who d i d not, and the developers' concept promotes Terra Losa as a l i v i n g and working environment. F i n a l l y , the Community Center i s proposed t o provide a space f o r more f o r m a l , and group, involvement which based on the l i t e r a t u r e i t may very w e l l do. b) Assumptions regarding c a u s a l i t y , and e x p e c t a t i o n s of o r i g i n a t o r s The major f a i l i n g of the G u i d e l i n e s from t h i s p o i n t of view i s the degree of f a i t h placed on the presumption t h a t increased i n t e r a c t i o n can be designed f o r . I n f a c t , and as described both i n theory and the case s t u d i e s reviewed, a l l that can be created i s the p o t e n t i a l f o r increased i n t e r a c t i o n . The a c t u a l degree of involvement w i l l depend very much on the r e s i d e n t s themselves - t h e i r propensity t o neighbour, t h e i r c i r c l e of non-r e s i d e n t f r i e n d s , t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y to others i n Terra Losa, t h e i r degree of s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , and t h e i r m o b i l i t y . None of these v a r i a b l e s can be 74 c o n t r o l l e d through p h y s i c a l design, and the developers have only l i m i t e d , i n d i r e c t (and f a l l i b l e ) c o n t r o l over the eventual p o p u l a t i o n through the marketing s t r a t e g y and tenant s e l e c t i o n process. I t i s u n l i k e l y , i n any case, even i f the r e s i d e n t s ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are not of the type conducive to formation of r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h a t the Neigh-bourhood would be t o t a l l y devoid of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . As Wellman and Edney have s a i d , simple s h a r i n g of space can be a b a s i s f o r c r e a t i o n of t i e s , and even among the "uninvolved", a minimum l e v e l of involvement w i l l be present to maintain s o c i a l c o n t r o l . A l l t h a t i s s t a t e d as a goal i s the encouragement of t e r r i t o r i a l behavior and increased i n t e r a c t i o n . However, the tone i n which t h i s g o a l and most of the G u i d e l i n e s are w r i t t e n i s f a i r l y d e t e r m i n i s t i c , and makes c r e a t i o n of the type of Neighbourhood d e s i r e d sound much too d e f i n i t e a p r o p o s i t i o n i f the G u i d e l i n e s are f o l l o w e d . A l l the f i e l d r esearch on these t o p i c s i n d i c a t e t h a t the e f f e c t of design on c o n t r o l , and e s p e c i a l l y of design on i n t e r a c t i o n , i s one of p o t e n t i a l enhancement at best, and t h a t t h e i r attainment i s f a r more dependent on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the popul-a t i o n , which cannot be manipulated (except very i n d i r e c t l y ) by designers. As Kuper (1953, 27) has s a i d , "There i s no simple mechanical determination by the p h y s i c a l environment." The g o a l i n f a c t i s ambitious since i t i n c l u d e s not only the implementation of the D e f e n s i b l e Space concept but a l s o the "next step" i d e n t i f i e d by numerous authors i n the l i t e r a t u r e review, namely i n c r e a s i n g the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . The G u i d e l i n e s have missed s e v e r a l important points which are important to i n c r e a s i n g p o t e n t i a l f o r i n t e r a c t i o n . The f i r s t of these i s again the u t i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n ( e s p e c i a l l y o f s e m i - p r i v a t e spaces) as 75 p r o v i d i n g outwardly v i s i b l e s i g n s of c o m p a t i b i l i t y which are important i n making i n i t i a l c asual contact. The second i s the importance of the manipulation by the designer of the f u n c t i o n a l d i s t a n c e , or o r i e n t a t i o n , between u n i t s t o enhance the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r v i s u a l contact (meanwhile r e t a i n i n g p r i v a c y ) and to create an awareness of other people which i s an i n i t i a l step i n more i n t e n s i v e i n t e r a c t i o n and i n the r e c o g n i t i o n of neighbours vs. s t r a n g e r s . c) I n t e r p r e t a t i o n by Implementors Since f o r the most part the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r e r r o r i n the stage of the program l i n k i n g the w r i t t e n G u i d e l i n e s and t h e i r p h y s i c a l implementation, i n r e l a t i o n t o the s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s of the implementors, are s i m i l a r f o r a l l the g o a l s , they w i l l be discussed i n the l a s t part of t h i s Chapter. d) U n a n t i c i p a t e d R e s u l t s The implementation of the G u i d e l i n e s may r e s u l t i n u n a n t i c i p a t e d consequences f o r two reasons: the f a u l t y assumptions and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s which were mentioned above, and the l a c k of c o n s i d e r a t i o n of c e r t a i n matters during t h e i r d e r i v a t i o n . These could be termed " i n t e r v e n i n g " or " u n c o n t r o l l e d " v a r i a b l e s . One such matter i s the l a c k of c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the amount of "non-l o c a l " t r a f f i c which could pass through the r e s i d e n t i a l area because of i t s proximity to the business park* Not only w i l l " l e g i t i m a t e " employees, who are l i k e l y to be strangers to the r e s i d e n t s , be passing through the neigh-bourhood t o reach the Community Center to which they w i l l a l s o belong, but due to the l i m i t e d hours of o p e r a t i o n of the o f f i c e - t y p e uses proposed f o r the area, there w i l l be long periods when s u r v e i l l a n c e i s l i m i t e d and unobserved e n t r y , to the business park and through t o the r e s i d e n t i a l area 76 will be possible. The effects of this free access is not considered in the Guidelines. Secondly, the success of the program could be limited i f the "marking" symbols related to territoriality are not understood or are ignored by non-residents. e) Anticipated Results The overall likelihood that this goal will be achieved is fairly good, though i t could be improved by attention to the deficiencies mentioned above. This conclusion is reached on the basis that the resident popu-lation is expected to be fairly homogeneous, and that the self-selection process, combined with the marketing strategy, will probably discourage the majority of intensely private individuals. 2. TO CREATE A NEIGHBOURHOOD WITH ITS OWN STRONG IDENTITY, STRONG COMMUNITY SPIRIT AND A "SENSE OF PLACE" (Appendix I; 1). In discussion of this goal, the concepts of "identity" and "sense of place" will be defined as resulting in a neighbourhood which is a recog-nizable entity, with the probability that residents will be able to identify what its boundaries are, and whether or not they belong in i t . "Spirit" i s defined as the sense of belonging or attachment discussed in Chapter Three. a) Interpretation of Theory The Guidelines' requirements for clear boundary definition and entryways along the outer edges of the Neighbourhood coincide with "natural" barriers (the roadways, a l l of which are major) which have been shown to aid residents' recognition of their neighbourhood. Provision of standardized street furniture and signage, and the 77 r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r common a r c h i t e c t u r a l and l a n d s c a p i n g e l e m e n t s w i l l i n t roduce a sense of u n i t y i n t o the Neighbourhood, and once one enters the g a t e s one w i l l r e c o g n i z e t h a t the e n t i r e p r o j e c t was c o o r d i n a t e d . Appearance alone should s e t Terra Losa apart from the neighbourhoods on i t s boundaries, and the fences and gates w i l l r e i n f o r c e i t s separateness f o r both r e s i d e n t s and s t r a n g e r s . I d e n t i t y i s being planned f o r at s e v e r a l s c a l e s , the l a r g e s t being t h a t of the Neighbourhood. At smaller s c a l e s , uniqueness i s t o be s t r e s s e d through the v a r i e t y r e q u i r e d between p r o j e c t s , and w i t h i n p r o j e c t s . The v a r i e t y should s a f i s f y r e s i d e n t s ' d e s i r e s to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h small groups (as opposed t o l a r g e r more anonymous ones) though t h i s f a c t o r i s more i m p o r t a n t l y r e c o g n i z a b l e i n c r e a t i n g f e e l i n g s of involvement, b) Assumptions regarding c a u s a l i t y , and the expectations of o r i g i n a t o r s Again, the l i t e r a t u r e has r e v e a l e d that the major determinants of degree o f attachment a r e not one t h a t p l a n n e r s and d e s i g n e r s can m a n i p u l a t e . I n t h i s c a s e , i t i s t y p e s and i n t e n s i t y o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which are the u n c o n t r o l l a b l e v a r i a b l e and, as has been discussed above, r e s i d e n t s w i l l e s t a b l i s h t h e i r p a t t e r n s of i n t e r a c t i o n t o s u i t themselves. Length of residence i s a l s o a f a c t o r i n determining attachment, and c o n s i d e r i n g the " t a r g e t population" and the mix of tenure types proposed, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t the r e s i d e n t s w i l l be f a i r l y mobile. I t i s unfortunate that the achievement of a sense of belonging i s f o r the most part beyond the i n f l u e n c e of the designer, because i t i s a major determinant of the perception of f r i e n d l i n e s s i n the Neighbourhood, which i n t u r n a f f e c t s the p r o p e n s i t i e s t o defend t e r r i t o r y and t o i n t e r a c t , as w e l l as r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . 78 c) I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Implementors The comments provided i n the l a s t s e c t i o n r e l a t i n g t o the s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s of the implementors a l s o apply to t h i s goal statement. Once again, the G u i d e l i n e s are d e f i c i e n t i n one major respect - the l a c k of a requirement a l l o w i n g p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n of semi-private space, which would a l l o w v i s i b l e expression of p r i d e and the norms to which i n v o l v e d r e s i d e n t s d e s i r e to conform. d) Unanticipated R e s u l t s The Planning Department was a c t u a l l y concerned a t one stage t h a t the developers' concept f o r a separate i d e n t i t y would create too separate a neighbourhood, and t h a t i t s r e s i d e n t s would not f e e l themselves t o belong to the l a r g e r community, West Jasper Place, of which they are p a r t . Some major s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s , such as shopping f a c i l i t i e s , s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , and l a r g e - s c a l e r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s are only provided on a community-wide b a s i s . I t may be t h a t i f Terra Losa r e s i d e n t s see themselves t o be too much "on t h e i r own", they w i l l f e e l that they are being deprived of some ba s i c urban s e r v i c e s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e suggested t h a t the community, as w e l l as the Neighbourhood, be s t r e s s e d i n the marketing s t r a t e g y . e) A n t i c i p a t e d R e s u l t s Regarding the design elements intended t o engender attachment t o the Neighbourhood, i t i s l i k e l y t hat the high standard of appearance of the Neighbourhood w i l l a i d i n t h i s . I t w i l l be remembered t h a t a t i t s smallest s c a l e , a sense of belonging begins w i t h attachment t o the home, as a symbol o f the s e l f , and e x tends outward t o the Neighbourhood as s e c u r i t y i n c r e a s e s . I f the Neighbourhood p r o j e c t s an image which the r e s i d e n t s see as an a t t r a c t i v e r e f l e c t i o n of themselves, attachment i s more l i k e l y t o develop. The Community C e n t r e w i l l , i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , p r o v i d e a p h y s i c a l f o c u s f o r t h e N e i g h b o u r h o o d , e s p e c i a l l y i f i t s d e s i g n i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e n l a n d m a r k " e l e m e n t s u g g e s t e d . Membersh ip i n t h e C e n t e r , w h i c h i s a u t o m a t i c f o r a l l r e s i d e n t s , w i l l a l s o s e t them a p a r t . The s u c c e s s o f t h e C e n t e r a s a f o c u s w i l l depend , however , n o t on i t s a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n a l o n e , bu t o n t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e r e s i d e n t s i n i t . A g a i n , a u t o m a t i c membersh ip may enhance t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f t h e i r u s i n g i t . I n t o t a l , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e Ne i ghbou rhood w i l l be a w e l l - d e f i n e d , i d e n t i f i a b l e u n i t . The d e g r e e o f r e s i d e n t s ' a t t a c h m e n t t o i t , w h i l e n o t hampered (and p e r h a p s t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t e n c o u r a g e d ) by t h e d e s i g n , c a n n o t be p r e d e t e r m i n e d , s i n c e i t i s d e r i v e d i n a p u r e l y s u b j e c t i v e way. 3. TO CREATE A NEIGHBOURHOOD WHICH DESPITE ITS PHYSICAL DENSITY IS CONSIDER RED BY ITS RESIDENTS TO BE A GOOD PLACE TO L I V E ( C i t y o f Edmonton, P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1981-1982) The d e s i r e e x p r e s s e d i n t h i s f i n a l g o a l c o u l d be d e f i n e d a s t h a t f o r h i g h l e v e l s o f r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , a ) I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Theo r y As t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w r e v e a l e d , t h e m a j o r p h y s i c a l d e t e r m i n a n t o f s a t i s f a c t i o n ha s been f o u n d t o be t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e a r e a a t b o t h t h e macro s c a l e a n d , e s p e c i a l l y , a t t h e m i c r o s c a l e . The T e r r a L o s a G u i d e l i n e s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y e x p l i c i t i n r e q u i r i n g h i g h s t a n d a r d s o f a p p e a r a n c e and m a i n t e n a n c e . R e m a r k a b l y , a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d i n t h e G u i d e l i n e s t o n e a r l y e v e r y e l e m e n t w h i c h i n C h a p t e r Th ree was d e s c r i b e d a s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o o v e r a l l a p p e a r a n c e : human s c a l e , p r o j e c t i n d i v i d u a l i t y , v a r i e t y , m a i n t e n -a n c e , n a t u r e o f s p a c e s c r e a t e d , m a s s i n g o f s t r u c t u r e s and l a n d s c a p i n g . S p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h r e g a r d s t o o p e n s p a c e , t h e G u i d e l i n e s r e q u i r e p r o v i s i o n o f p l a y s p a c e s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f a g e , w h i c h has been 80 a contributing factor to satisfaction. As well, (though not directly related to the Guidelines but rather the Neighbourhood Plan) the total amount of open space i n the Neighbourhood w i l l be considerable - 24.75 acres of school and park sites, a 6.0 acre lake, plus on-site open space. Despite the physical density of the Neighbourhood, the amount of available open space i s higher than i n a typical neighbourhood. The availability of so much open space, together with the landscaping required and the pro-vision of the Community Center, should more than adequately meet the desires for such f a c i l i t i e s , and thus result i n high levels of satisfac-tion. Also related to satisfaction are the Guidelines 1 references to careful attention to the semi-private spaces i n multiple housing projects and the responsibilities of management (at least regarding exterior spaces). On-site factors which have been shown to affect the perception of crowding are also dealt with i n the Guidelines to a very considerable extent. The adequacy of open space has already been discussed. The definition of spaces (semi-private, public, etc.) i s required, so that to some extent privacy i s addressed. Clustering of development and limi t -ations on massing reduce the perception of crowding. The perception i s also related to the peception of distance from industrial and commercial areas, but the interface between the residential and office park portions of the Neighbourhood receive careful attention, and the design, siting and landscaping of the office park i s controlled to ensure i t i s not intrusive to the residential area. Again though, greater attention to maintenance of privacy, particularly between units i n multiple housing structures, i s required, since deficiency i n this area has been shown to significantly affect both perceptions of crowding and residential satisfaction. 81 Personalization, again, i s important to satisfaction since i t has been shown that the degree of importance placed on items by residents might correspond to the amount of control they have over them (Michelson, 1977» 292). b) Assumptions regarding causality and expectations of originators Once again, the intentions of the Guidelines are seriously limited by the influence that physical factors can have on levels of satisfaction. The literature shows that the single most important influence on these levels i s the perception of friendliness i n the neighbourhood, a factor which cannot be planned into a project. c) Interpretation of Implementors and expectations of originators This goal more than either of the other two w i l l be affected by the s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s of the implementors (see next section of this Chapter). d) Unanticipated Results Residential satisfaction has been shown to be influenced by the characteristics of the resident population as well, so that knowing the group to whom the Neighbourhood i s to be marketed may reveal whether or not high levels can be expected. Residents are expected to be young, and young people have typically been less satisfied, perhaps due to un f u l f i l l e d expectations, but on the other hand, they are also expected to be middle-class and childless, both groups with f a i r l y high levels of satisfaction. e) Anticipated Results Overall, except for the lack of control of peoples 1 perceptions, the prospects seem good for the attainment of this goal, probably more than for the other two since the major predictor of residential satisfaction, a high level of maintenance, has been assurred. 82 CONCLUSION This s e c t i o n i n c l u d e s comments, based on the model i n F i g u r e 7, which apply to the program and G u i d e l i n e s as a whole, and a summation of t h i s part of the e v a l u a t i o n , a) I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Theory Throughout t h i s Chapter i t was repeatedly s t a t e d t h a t p r o v i s i o n s f o r p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n of space were not i n c l u d e d i n the G u i d e l i n e s . I t may very w e l l be t h a t developers i n t e n d , a t l a t e r stages i n the process, to a l l o w f o r t h i s , s i n c e i t i s r e a l l y a management d e c i s i o n r a t h e r than s t r i c t l y one of design. I t i s f e l t , however, t h a t the f a c t o r i s important enough t o have warranted some degree of a t t e n t i o n i n the document th a t was, a f t e r a l l , the o v e r a l l s t r a t e g y f o r the Neighbourhood. S i m i l a r comments cannot be made i n respect t o the inadequacy o f requirements f o r p r i v a c y . The importance of t h i s v a r i a b l e t o c o n t r o l , i n t e r a c t i o n , involvement and s a t i s f a c t i o n has already been di s c u s s e d . A t t e n t i o n must be paid t o i t a t the design stage, s i n c e i t i s a f f e c t e d so much by f u n c t i o n a l d i s t a n c e (or o r i e n t a t i o n ) which can be manipulated by the designer. As w e l l , i n c l u s i o n of p r o v i s i o n of p r i v a c y a t the i n i t i a l stages could be expected to be l e s s c o s t l y ( i n terms of both economic and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o s t s ) than r e t r o f i t t i n g . In examining the e n t i r e concept behind the Design G u i d e l i n e s , i t could be suggested t h a t the relevance of the Def e n s i b l e Space concept i s d o u b t f u l i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n . F i r s t , though t h i s Neighbourhood i s high d e n s i t y f o r suburban Edmonton, i t i s not as dense as the p r o j e c t s examined by Newman. Secondly, i t i s not l o c a t e d i n the urban core, surrounded by non-r e s i d e n t i a l uses and " t h r e a t s " to s e c u r i t y , but r a t h e r by low d e n s i t y 83 r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhoods. T h i r d , research has shown t h a t the pe r c e p t i o n of crime and concerns about personal s a f e t y and s e c u r i t y (not t o mention crime r a t e s ) are lower i n Canada than i n the U.S. where the concept o r i g i n a t e d . Fourth, the socioeconomic s i t u a t i o n of the r e s i d e n t s of t h i s Neighbourhood w i l l be con s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of Newman's sample, and i t has been suggested i n the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t these r a t h e r adverse c o n d i t i o n s had an e f f e c t on crime r a t e s and f e e l i n g s o f s e c u r i t y . F i n a l l y , the concept i s d e t e r m i n i s t i c i n nature, and i s th e r e f o r e open to c r i c i t i s m . Almost a l l the l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h the e v a l u a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r -onments s t a t e s a t one point ( i f not c o n t i n u a l l y ) that the i n f l u e n c e of the p h y s i c a l environment i s l i m i t e d . Though i t may be a " c a t a l y s t " f o r behaviors, the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l aspects of the r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n must a l s o be considered i n order t o d e r i v e an understanding of the t o t a l environment. b) Assumptions regarding c a u s a l i t y The most s i g n i f i c a n t assumption made by the G u i d e l i n e s i s t h a t p h y s i c a l design has the a b i l i t y t o i n f l u e n c e human behaviors and a t t i t u d e s . The v a l i d i t y of the d e t e r m i n i s t i c viewpoint has been discussed repeatedly i n t h i s Chapter, however i t bears r e p e a t i n g again that p h y s i c a l design has only a l i m i t e d i n f l u e n c e and th a t the best that can be hoped f o r i s an incr e a s e i n the p o t e n t i a l f o r the p o s i t i v e behaviors endorsed by the Gu i d e l i n e s ' c r e a t o r s . The Gu i d e l i n e s would have g r e a t e r c r e d i b i l i t y i f the " p o t e n t i a l " nature of t h e i r i n f l u e n c e were more s t r o n g l y s t a t e d and e x p l i c i t . c) I n t e r p r e t a t i o n by implementors and expe c t a t i o n s o f o r i g i n a t o r s On the whole, the program and i t s documents make a considerable number 84 of assumptions regarding the s k i l l s , a b i l i t i e s and powers of the imple-mentors (who i n c l u d e planners, a r c h i t e c t s , designers, developers, marketing s t r a t e g i s t s and p o l i t i c a l decision-makers). The f i r s t of these i s t h a t the G u i d e l i n e s are w r i t t e n i n such a way that t h e i r true i n t e n t i s c l e a r t o the implementors. Though the G u i d e l i n e s s p e c i f y what p h y s i c a l massing and groupings of b u i l d i n g s are f o r b i d d e n ( i . e . long b l o c k s , l o n g rows), few p o s i t i v e statements are made regarding what should be designed ( f o r example, small c l u s t e r s , c u l s de sac, and so on). The second questionable assumption i s t h a t the implementors are capable of c a r r y i n g out the i n t e n t of the G u i d e l i n e s once they have been under-stood. Planners, designers and a r c h i t e c t s , being human, vary con s i d e r a b l y i n t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s ; the chances are that Terra Losa w i l l be designed by i t s f a i r share of good (or higher) and mediocre (or lower) standards of p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e . Related t o t h i s aspect i s the degree of commitment or e f f o r t which may be expended i n implementing the program. As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y ( r e f . Patton, 1978) an e v a l u a t i o n of t h i s part of the program implementation cannot be c a r r i e d out i n advance; nor, there-f o r e , can the o r i g i n a t o r s a u t o m a t i c a l l y assume the e n t h u s i a s t i c p a r t i c i -p a t i o n of the implementors. The t h i r d p a r t of a complete e v a l u a t i o n as i d e n t i f i e d by Patton i n v o l v e d the examination of the program's process. Again, the performance of the procedures t o be f o l l o w e d cannot be evaluated u n t i l i t i s used, however the o r i g i n a t o r s of the G u i d e l i n e s have assumed th a t the mechanisms f o r t h e i r implementation are strong enough t o ensure compliance (both i n i t i a l l y and over the longer term), and that the process i t s e l f w i l l work 85 smoothly and w i t h minimum opp o r t u n i t y f o r e r r o r . I t can be dangerous t o make these kinds of s i m p l i s t i c ( p o s s i b l y naive) assumptions, p a r t i c u a r l y when the l i v e s of so many people are i n v o l v e d and where the c o n t r o l s used (agreements and zoning) are r e l a t i v e l y i n f l e x i b l e . On the other hand, t h i s program i s an i n n o v a t i v e one, and a l l new ideas can expect a c e r t a i n amount of f r i c t i o n d u r i n g t h e i r i n i t i a l stages, d) A n t i c i p a t e d R e s u l t s Though the e v a l u a t i o n of the f i r s t two go a l s would seem t o i n d i c a t e a t best a l i m i t e d chance of attainment, i t would appear that the t h i r d g o a l , which was, by coincidence, expressed i m p l i c i t l y and f o r the most part by the C i t y , has a good chance of being accomplished. 86 CHAPTER SIX REGARDING METHODOLOGY It i s not the purpose of t h i s thesis to describe a research design for the evaluation of the Terra Losa Guidelines. However, since much of the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed i n Chapters Three and Four i n -volved case studies, i t seems appropriate to b r i e f l y discuss the manner i n which data has been shown to be most successfully gathered, and any problems which might arise obtaining and analyzing i t . Data c o l l e c t i o n methods w i l l be discussed f i r s t , followed by suggestions regarding appropriate measures, analysis of data, threats to v a l i d i t y and f i n a l l y , j u s t i f i c a t i o n s for omissions i n the information presented i n t h i s thesis and areas of research not pursued. DATA COLLECTION Almost a l l the f i e l d surveys reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e used questionnaires to obtain the opinions, reactions and attitudes of the resident populations toward t h e i r environment. The approach can be j u s t i f i e d i n that i t allows consistency i n data collected as well as an opportunity to acquire emotive information. Decisions as to whether questionnaires should be interviewer- or self-administered, depth of questioning, size of sample and format seem to have depended a great deal on time and money available, though i n a l l cases, s t a t i s t i c a l significance and representativeness were considerations. 87 Other methods of data acquisition have been suggested, to obtain objective as well as subjective measures. Observation of resident behaviors, demographic p r o f i l e s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t -ing, surveys of management have been suggested as supplementary sources of information i f time and money i s available (Francescato, 1974, 289) Though the primary purpose of this evaluation i s to assess the effectiveness of the guidelines as they have been applied i n Terra Losa, not to reveal the levels of s a t i s f a c t i o n i n more conventional areas, the language of the Guidelines encourages a comparison of Terra Losa with other, less r i g i d l y controlled r e s i d e n t i a l areas i n the City. The same survey conducted i n Terra Losa could be applied to other neighbourhoods i n Edmonton to determine t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y of differences and to provide a standard environment against which to test the effects of the Guidelines. I t i s suggested that neighbour-hoods of two types be selected to provide the most complete comparison: suburban neighbourhoods of t y p i c a l density and s i m i l a r age, and high density neighbourhoods (which by virtue of h i s t o r i c a l development i n Edmonton are not suburban). Each type of neighbour-hood should be further categorized on the basis of the existence or absence of a community center within i t s boundaries. Since the basis of the Defensible Space Concept i s a desire to reduce crime, i t would be appropriate for the evaluation to deter-mine the incidence and rate of crime, by type, within Terra Losa. Data on other neighbourhood types as described above would also be appropriate even i f a f u l l r e s i d e n t i a l survey i s not carried out. This data must be presented i n a matter which allows true 88 comparisons; i . e . , a rate (per thousand or whatever) should be used rather than absolute numbers. In terms of the organization of the questionnaire, Cooper (1975, 10) used an interesting method to assure that questions were asked to cover a l l of the design measures being evaluated. She set up a chart for each goal, identifying the objectives being tested ( i . e . , i n this case the Guideline statement), the physical solution used, and the corresponding question(s) asked of the residents. I t i s not suggested that only these types of questions be asked, however, as w i l l be discussed below. Ke l l e r (1968, 110, 122) and most texts on questionnaire a p p l i -cations suggest that probing for an elaboration of generalized responses i s required, especially when d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s are being discussed. For example, negative comments about the unit often are actually complaints about neighbours. Regarding the timing of the evaluation, most surveys required a minimum residence period of s i x months. I t i s suggested that before the Terra Losa evaluation i s undertaken, that a variety of unit types, and several s i t e s (hopefully dispersed through the Neighbourhood) should have been developed and occupied for at least that period, i n order that any differences i n results by dwelling unit type can be observed, and the s e t t l i n g - i n effects discounted. By that time too, the Community Center w i l l be b u i l t and i n operation, so i t s effects can be seen. I f interest within the Planning Department and from City Council warrants, and time and money i s therefore available, i t i s suggested that t h i s f i r s t study be followed by another, some years 89 in the future and certainly after f u l l development, to determine what the long-term effects of the Guidelines has been. Some of the attitudes and behaviors discussed in Chapters Three and Four are time-dependent so changes over time could be expected to occur in the results. As well, the mobility of the population could be determined for comparison with satisfaction levels. Surveys of the physical environment can also play an important part in the evaluation of Terra Losa. A checklist compiled from Guideline statements could be used to see how completely the stated intentions of their originators have been f u l f i l l e d . As discussed in Chapter Five, the influence of physical design is limited, but part of the evaluation of any project should be the determination of whether or not the "program" can be implemented, and whether there were any problems in either achieving the design objectives stated, or in understanding what i t was that was supposed to be achieved. The results of this survey would have to be carefully interpreted, since problems of comprehension and implementation could be the fault of the individual designer as well as of the Guidelines. SUGGESTIONS FOR MEASURES Many of the case studies reviewed had derived measures of the major topics discussed. These were generally composed of several questions directly or indirectly addressing the topic being investi-gated, the responses to which were combined in some way into an index or scale of that factor. These measures w i l l not be discussed here. A l i s t of those which may be of use, and their source, i s presented below: index of cohesion (Smith, 1970, 152); measures of neighbourhood attachment 90 (Gerson, 1977, 140); overall residential satisfaction (Ermuth, 1974, 111); measure of neighbouring behavior of women (Wallin, 1953); scales for psychological crowding at unit, neighbourhood and community scales (Schmidt, 1979, 110); neighbourhood interaction scale (Caplow and Forman, 1950, 358); index of (dis)satisfaction (Michelson, 1969, 19); perception of crime (Hartnagel, 1979, 181). Samples of questionnaires used to evaluate neighbourhoods are very common in the literature and most follow along similar lines. Many questions use Gutman or Lickert scales for responses so relative responses are obtained and differences in the respondents' perceptions of the definition and meanings in the question i s minimized. Stereotyping of questions and set responses should be avoided, as well as imposition of the designer's values and biases on the survey by selection of questions and responses. The particu-lar situation of Edmonton, in terms of growth, culture, residential opportunities and the like, should be considered in both deriving questions and interpreting the results. ANALYSIS The majority of cases reviewed used correlation and regression to explain the relationships and differences among and between v a r i -ables. Often too some variables were controlled for while testing relationships between others. The organization of Chapters Three and Four should aid in determining which relationships should be tested in evaluation results, since each major topic was discussed as a dependent variable, and the factors that influenced i t as independent variables. 91 Care must be taken however i n interpretation of results since i n many cases, research results indicate an extremely complex cause and effect relationship between major topics. Interpretation of results should also keep i n mind, and consider, any evolving patterns which would indicate the existence of intervening uncon-t r o l l e d variables p a r t i c u l a r to the Edmonton or Terra Losa s i t u a t i o n . THREATS TO VALIDITY Any evaluation or research project i s open to c r i t i c i s m i f a l l of the factors which might affect or bias the results are not accounted for i n some way i n the design. To aid the designer of the Terra Losa evaluation, some of the threats to v a l i d i t y are discussed here. In reporting r e s u l t s , i t i s possible that plausible but inaccu-rate results w i l l be presented, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n view of the complexity of the relationships being discussed. To guard against t h i s , care must be taken to not over-generalize r e s u l t s , to v e r i f y the responses received through probing or repeated questioning, to avoid the biasing of results through the imposition of one's own values, and to assure the appropriateness of any assumptions made. Wellman and Leighton (1979, 367) have stated that "When not found i n the neighbourhood, community i s assumed not to e x i s t . " That i s , i f attachments to place and to people are not based on the geographic unit of the neighbourhood, researchers may assume that no attach-ments e x i s t , while i n fact i t i s the unit on which they are based which has been wrongly i d e n t i f i e d . Attachments can also be based, as shown i n Chapters Three and Four, on areas both smaller and 92 larger than the neighbourhood. The repeating of results of the Terra Losa evaluation must take care that the same assumption i s not made unless v e r i f i e d . Since Terra Losa i s at least at present a unique area i n Edmonton, the results obtained i n the evaluation should not be generalized over other or larger areas without taking considerable care to assure that such a procedure i s j u s t i f i e d . F i n a l l y , within the experimental design, the designer must make e x p l i c i t the assumptions made, the area for which the evaluation applies, the controls placed on any analysis, and the j u s t i f i c a t i o n for only limited use of control groups. In examining the l i t e r a t u r e , a number of 'unknown' factors were discovered which should be i d e n t i f i e d i n the evaluation, since they may derive unexpected r e s u l t s . The effects of the s e l f - s e l e c t i o n process due to the market strategy (in the absence of the d e t a i l s of that strategy) cannot be predetermined with absolute certainty, nor can the propensity of residents to engage i n recreational or neigh-bouring a c t i v i t y . The change i n l i f e s t y l e s being experienced by western society as a whole, especially factors such as working wives and increased concerns with f i t n e s s , were not present for the most part i n the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed so results i n Terra Losa may d i f f e r from those documented. The effects of any other non-physical factors ( c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l or personal) cannot be predetermined. The sample surveyed may include, for example, chronic complainers whose responses w i l l skew r e s u l t s . In some cases, people may only be made aware of inadequacies i n th e i r environment once they are questioned about them. As wel l , use of American and to a lesser extent B r i t i s h 93 data as a b a s i s of comparison with Canadian r e s u l t s could be questioned, through i f the c u l t u r a l and a t t i t u d i n a l d i f f e r e n c e s bet-ween these groups are kept i n mind during i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e i r e f f e c t s may be minimal. S i m i l a r l y , i n t h i s work, there are s e v e r a l unknowns which may a f f e c t the v e r a c i t y of the e v a l u a t i o n of the goals and o b j e c t i v e s presented i n Chapter Four. F i r s t , the t i m e t a b l e s f o r commencement, du r a t i o n and completion o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , the order of development of s i t e s , the exact t i m i n g of the opening of the Community Center and i t s programs (and what those w i l l be) i s not known. The d e t a i l s of the marketing s t r a t e g y of the developers are not known. General economic and housing market c o n d i t i o n s at the time of occupancy and the rent s t r u c t u r e of the Neighbourhood are both unknown. F i n a l l y , d e s p i t e the existence of l e g a l agreements r e q u i r i n g t h e i r adherence to the G u i d e l i n e s , the l e v e l o f commitment of the developers t o i n i t i a l l y c o n t r i b u t i n g to and t h e r e a f t e r c o n t i n u i n g the high q u a l i t y of c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance of the environment cannot be predetermined. MATTERS NOT DISCUSSED This s e c t i o n i n c l u d e s j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r matters not examined i n t h i s t h e s i s . No research was undertaken regarding the means by which r e s i d e n t s chose to l i v e where they do or the t r a d e - o f f s made i n t h i s decision-making. Terra Losa w i l l operate i n a free market economy, and i t i s assumed that i t s r e s i d e n t s have made a free choice to l i v e t here, and may make s i m i l a r l y u n r e s t r i c t e d d e c i s i o n s to move. 94 I t must be remembered that the scale at which t h i s evaluation takes place i s that of the Neighbourhood. Not attempt has been made to examine the l e v e l of resident s a t i s f a c t i o n with the dwelling unit i t s e l f , not the l e v e l of l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n of the resident except as these measures relate to neighbourhood s a t i s f a c t i o n . The advantages and disadvantages of high density r e s i d e n t i a l developments are not discussed, since the (eventual) presence of high density i n Terra Losa i s a f a i t accompli, and not open to debate or change. For si m i l a r reasons, the need for and accepta-b i l i t y of the various housing types to be b u i l t are not considered. The process by which 'perceptions' are derived by individuals i s not discussed, though one of the assumptions made i n the thesis i s that people do have individualized perceptions which affect (or perhaps are) the way they view t h e i r environment. The importance of privacy, t e r r i t o r i a l i t y , interaction and attachment to the i n d i v i -dual's mental health i s likewise not studied. This thesis i s i n t e r -ested i n the interface between these subjective assessments and design, not i n the psychological determinants alone. The meaning of 'neighbourhoods' to i n d i v i d u a l residents, and how th i s meaning varies between them, i s not researched or discussed. The frame of reference for this thesis was Terra Losa, as defined by the Neighbourhood Structure Plan boundaries, since i t i s over that area that the Guidelines are to be applied. F i n a l l y several characteristics of the resident population were not included. Kinship i s not differentiated from other types of so c i a l i nteraction, since as stated previously the major effect of kinship i s f e l t i n older well-established neighbourhoods. Cultural 95 differences are not discussed, since i t i s assumed that the Neighbourhood residents w i l l be s i m i l a r i n t h i s respect to those already residing i n the rest of West Jasper Place, where no group-ings of c u l t u r a l groups have developed. F i n a l l y , the effects of race are not presented since for the most part, r a c i a l r e lations i n Edmonton are not an issue. 96 CHAPTER SEVEN CONCLUSION The foregoing thesis has presented a method of approach for the eventual evaluation of the Terra Losa Neighbourhood, through the evaluation of the Neighbourhood Design Guidelines and the program which derived them. Many authors i n the design occupations have during the past twenty years emphasized the importance of post-construction evalua-t i o n i n the design process. This thesis has gone a "step further" by evaluating the goals of the project before construction. Ideally, the results of t h i s examination would be incorporated into a revised version of the Design Guidelines, and thus the eventual development. Due to the fragmented ownership of the Neighbourhood, the history of disagreement among those owners and the lack of a mechanism which would allow the City to force the owners to change, i t i s very unlikely that t h i s w i l l ever occur. In any case, i t i s the basic premises on which the Guidelines are based - that design can determine human behavior, and that the Defensible Space concept i s appropriately applied i n t h i s situation - which are faul t y . Simple revisions to the Guidelines, then, would not accomplish much. On a more positive note, however, i t w i l l be remembered that as far as the achievement of r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n i s concerned, the Guidelines as written do include references to most of the design features which have been shown to influence i t s achievement (and i n d i r e c t l y to affect the other major topics discussed). I f any 97 amendments were to be made to the Guidelines, i t i s suggested that these references be expanded upon and given greater emphasis as points to be looked for during design review. This of course would mean a major reorientation of the whole development concept and the marketing scheme which the owners may not be w i l l i n g to undertake. While the findings of t h i s work may never be applied i n the Guidelines for the area used as a case study, they may find more general application i n the work of the Planning Department. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the information t h i s thesis contains can be used i n reviewing development concepts and applications for development permits for high density areas and s i t e s . To ease such reviews, a checklist could be derived of those design features i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e as being desirable, to be used against each application. On larger scale projects, the l i m i t a t i o n s of physical design i n terms of i t s influence on human behavior should be kept i n mind while reviewing development concepts. The same caveat should be remembered when deriving City policy on r e s i d e n t i a l design. Returning to the case study area, i t has been stated that i t i s u n l i k e l y that the City w i l l be able to force changes to the Design Guidelines as written. However, the City s t i l l retains the power to exercise discretion i n reviewing s i t e plans i n the development permit process, and through t h i s discretion can direct that certain changes be made to the designs. In t h i s way, the City might implement the suggestions made above regarding a refocussing of the Guidelines' emphasis to one encouraging good design for r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . Though th i s approach means more time and attention spent by City s t a f f on what would otherwise be f a i r l y routine 98 applications, the large size and density of the Terra Losa project (and therefore the large number of people affected), and the experi-mental nature of the concept, would seem to make this additional effort worthwhile. 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Psychological Assoc., 1972. 109 APPENDIX I Terra Losa Site Design, Landscape and Architectural Guideline 1982 05 03 Source: City of Edmonton, 1981. Terra Losa Site Design, Landscape and Architectural Guideline AN INTERPRETATION AND RESOURCE GUIDE TO THE TERRA LOSA RESTRICTIVE COVENANT 82-05-01 USE OF TERRA LOSA, SITE DESIGN, LANDSCAPE AND ARCHITECTURAL GUIDELINE The information contained i n the S i t e Design, Landscape and Arcli i t e c t u r a l G u i d e l i n e document i s provided as an a i d to a s s i s t the A p p l i c a n t to understand the o b j e c t i v e of Terra Losa. The Developers and i t s designated "Developer's Representative" assume no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the accuracy of the information provided, or f o r any l o s s e s or damages r e s u l t i n g from use thereof. Terra Losa has endeavored to plan a neighbourhood with strong i d e n t i t y and incorporate the philosophy and p r a c t i c e s of crime prevention through environmental design. The planning of d e f e n s i b l e space w i l l be c a r e f u l l y examined i n the development of i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s . The A p p l i c a n t should thoroughly review the r e s t r i c t i v e covenant and g u i d e l i n e s before s t a r t i n g the design of any p r o j e c t . THE TERRA LOSA DEVELOPERS CHATEAU DEVELOPMENTS LTD. CITY LUMBER COMPANY (1973) LTD. CITY OF EDMONTON COLUMBUS INVESTMENT CORPORATION LTD. HOFFMAN MANAGEMENT LTD. INTEGRATED BUILDING CORP. LTD. MELCOR DEVELOPMENTS LTD. M.W.F.T. HOLDINGS LTD. R.S.F.T. HOLDINGS LTD. ( i ) Terra Losa TABLE OF CONTENTS I OBJECTIVES II ADMINISTRATION III GENERAL DESIGN PROVISIONS IV DEFENSIBLE SPACE V LANDSCAPING PROVISIONS VI GENERAL ARCHITECTURAL PROVISIONS VII THE DEVELOPERS COMMITMENT 8 12 23 27 I Objectives Terra Losa i s a suburban community w i t h i n the Edmonton urban environment. Te r r a Losa takes the form of a high q u a l i t y , mixed use development t h a t provides a r e s i d e n t i a l component and a business park. S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to the q u a l i t y of environment, the neighbourhood i d e n t i t y and crime p r e v e n t i o n through environmental planning w i l l enhance the d e s i r a b i l i t y of T e r r a Losa. The two elements, r e s i d e n t i a l and business, are k n i t together by boundary d e f i n i t i o n s , common l a n d s c a p e / a r c h i t e c t u r a l requirements, l i n k i n g walkways and c e n t r a l r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . These elements w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to strong neighbourhood i d e n t i t y f o r those who l i v e i n , work i n , and v i s i t the community. Terr a Losa w i l l provide a r e c o g n i z a b l e i d e n t i t y and sense of p l a c e . The T e r r a Losa neighbourhood o u t l i n e plans shows the proxim i t y of the v a r i o u s proposed land use d i s t r i c t s . The S i t e Design, Landscape and A r c h i t e c t u r a l C o n t r o l g u i d e l i n e has been developed to a s s i s t i n a c h i e v i n g t h i s q u a l i t y of s p i r i t , strong i d e n t i t y , and sense of p l a c e , with an emphasis on d e f e n s i b l e space. A l l developments s h a l l be planned and designed as an i n t e g r a l part of the proposed s t r e e t -scape and o v e r a l l development concept of Terra Losa. The T e n a Losa neighbourhood i d e n t i t y w i l l be ensured by c r e a t i v e implementation of the concepts addressed i n t h i s S i t e Design, Landscape and A r c h i t e c t u r a l G u i d e l i n e and the r e s t r i c t i v e covenant r e g i s t e r e d on each p a r c e l of land. THE TERRA LOSA, SITE DESIGN, LANDSCAPE AND ARCHITECTURAL GUIDELINES HAVE BEEN PREPARED WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF: CITY OF EDMONTON - Land Use and Planning Branch - Planning S e c t i o n , Edmonton P o l i c e PETER HEMINGWAY ARCHITECTS HILLDALE DEVELOPMENTS LTD. IBI GROUP WITTEN VOGEL BINDER & LYONS Terra Losa Terra L o s a Ne ighbourhood Structure Plan A V E N U E Proposed Districts A two family dwellings B row housing C medium density multi family D low rise apartment E medium rise apartment F high rise apartment G business industrial H parks I schools • parks J neighborhood commercial POSSIBLE INTENSIFICATION aaa io storey f.a.r. 2:1 bbb 5 storey far. 21 ccc industrial service centre ddd community recreation centre Note: P l a n t o be r e p l a c e d w i t h S u b d i v i s i o n p l a n s when r e y i s t e r c d and s p e c i f i c d i s t r i c t i n g i s i n p l a c e . Terra Losa 2 n Administration The S i t e D e s i g n , L a n d s c a p e and A r c h i t e c t u r a l G u i d e l i n e ( " G u i d e l i n e " ) w i l l be p r o v i d e d t o p r o s p e c t i v e b u i l d e r s . The A p p l i c a n t s h a l l be r e q u i r e d t o s u b m i t p l a n s f o r any p r o p o s e d p r o j e c t i n T e r r a L o s a t o t h e " D e v e l o p e r ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e " ( s h a l l mean t h a t p e r s o n o r f i r m a p p o i n t e d by t h e D e v e l o p e r s ) p r i o r t o a p p l y i n g t o t h e C i t y o f Edmonton f o r any p e r m i t s . The D e v e l o p e r ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e ha s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o r e v i e w a l l p l a n s t o e n s u r e t h e A p p l i c a n t s meet t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f T e r r a L o s a a s s e t o u t i n t h e r e s t r i c t i v e c o v e n a n t and t h e G u i d e l i n e . The D e v e l o p e r ' s R e p r e s e n -t a t i v e w i l l u s e p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e a s n e c e s s a r y t o r e v i e w A p p l i c a n t ' s p l a n s t o e n s u r e t h a t c r e a t i v e a s p e c t s o f d e s i g n a r e d u l y a c k n o w l e d g e d r e l a t i v e t o t h e t o t a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d o f T e r r a L o s a . A p p l i c a n t s w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o a d d r e s s t h e e l e m e n t s o f good d e s i g n p r a c t i c e s : human a c t i v i t i e s and d e f e n s i b l e s p a c e , a s s e t o u t i n s e c t i o n IV o f t h i s G u i d e l i n e , b e h a v i o r , open s p a c e s , t h e s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s t r u c t u r e s and c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h n e i g h b o u r i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s . W i t h i n t h i s f r a m e w o r k , t h e b u i l d e r s a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o s t r i v e f o r i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n e a c h p r o j e c t . The A p p l i c a n t w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e t h e D e v e l o p e r ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n d u p l i c a t e : a) A s i t e p l a n s how ing t h e p r o v i s i o n s f o r f r o n t , r e a r and s i d e y a r d s , t h e p r o v i s i o n f o r o f f s t r e e t v e h c i l e p a r k i n g , a c c e s s f r om s t r e e t , p e d e s t r i a n ways f r om p a r k i n g , a m e n i t y a r e a s t o b u i l d i n g s and s i d e w a l k s . T h i s p l a n w i l l be u sed t o e v a l u a t e s i t i n g o f b u i l d i n g and t h e u s e s on t h e s i t e . b) P l a n s s how ing e l e v a t i o n s i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l t o d e m o n s t r a t e a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n and t o i d e n t i f y e x t e r i o r m a t e r i a l s and f i n i s h e s i n c l u d i n g s a m p l e s , c o l o u r c h i p s and o t h e r p e r t i n e n t d a t a t o f u l l y i d e n t i f y a l l e x t e r i o r m a t e r i a l s and f i n i s h e s . _» c ) A l a n d s c a p e p l a n s u f f i c i e n t i n d e t a i l ui i n c l u d i n g c o n t o u r s , and t o p o f s l a b o f g r o u n d f l o o r o f e a c h b u i l d i n g t o a l l o w e v a l u a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s and t y p e s o f l a n d s c a p i n g r e l a t i v e t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l a s p e c t s o f c r i m e p r e v e n t i o n , p l u s t h e a e s t h e t i c f e a t u r e s o f t h e p r o p o s e d p r o j e c t . d) P l a n s s how ing t h e i n t e r i o r h a l l s , p u b l i c s p a c e s , e n t r a n c e s , p a r k a d e l a y o u t s , wa l kway s and t h e p e o p l e movement a r e a s f r o m s i d e w a l k t o e n t r a n c e , b u i l d i n g t o p a r k i n g , b u i l d i n g t o g a r b a g e e t c . e) P l a n s l o c a t i n g and s h o w i n g n a t u r e o f a l l s i g n a g e w i t h s u f f i c e n t d e t a i l s a s t o g r a p h i c s , s i z e , c o l o u r s . f ) A w r i t t e n s t a t e m e n t a s t o p r o p o s e d u s e . Terra Losa 3 g) An u n d e r t a k i n g t h a t the p l a n s approved by the Developer's R e p r e s e n t a t i v e w i l l ! be the p l a n s s u b m i t t e d to the C i t y f o r Development and B u i l d i n g P e r m i t s -a l s o a statement as t o what i f any r e l a x a t i o n s of C i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s w i l l be asked f o r . h) For development a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r p a r c e l s owned by the C i t y o r purchased from the C i t y , the A p p l i c a n t w i l l f o l l o w a s l i q h t y d i f f e r e n t procedure i n o b t a i n i n g a p p r o v a l , however, adherence t o the G u i d e l i n e w i l l be r e q u i r e d . Developer's R e p r e s e n t a t i v e can be reached a t : 2 ) 3 ) in General Design Provisions A l l b u i l d i n g s must be d e s i g n e d by o r i n f o r m a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a r e g i s t e r e d a r c h i t e c t . A l l l a n d s c a p e d e s i g n must be c a r r i e d o u t by o r i n f o r m a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a c e r t i f i e d l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t . A l l d e v e l o p m e n t s must c o n f o r m w i t h t h e C i t y o f Edmonton Land Use B y - L a w , ' t h e Land Use and D e v e l o p m e n t R e s t r i c t i v e C o v e n a n t C a v e a t and t h e S i t e D e s i g n L a n d s c a p e and A r c h i t e c t u r a l G u i d e l i n e s . The r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T e r r a L o s a C o v e n a n t s h a l l be c o n s i d e r e d as s u p p l e m e n t a r y t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e Land Use B y - L a w . C o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e T e r r a L o s a G u i d e l i n e s s h a l l n o t be t a k e n a s a p p r o v a l o r c o m p l i a n c e w i t h C i t y , P r o v i n c i a l a n d / o r F e d e r a l r e g u l a t i o n s , p o l i c i e s a n d / o r s t a n d a r d s . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o b t a i n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e a p p r o v a l s f r o m Gove rnmen t a u t h o r i t i e s and c o m p l y i n g w i t h t h e i r v a r i o u s r e g u l a t i o n s , p o l i c i e s and s t a n d a r d s s h a l l a t a l l t i m e s be t h a t o f t h e A p p l i c a n t . The D e v e l o p e r ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e w i l l be t h e a p p r o v i n g a u t h o r i t y f o r a d h e r e n c e t o t h e T e r r a L o s a " L a n d Use and D e v e l o p m e n t R e s t r i c t i v e C o v e n a n t C a v e a t " , e x c e p t f o r d e v e l o p a b l e p a r c e l s owned o r s o l d by t h e C i t y . The C i t y w i l l be t h e a p p r o v i n g a u t h o r i t y and w i l l a c t a s t h e D e v e l o p e r ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e G u i d e l i n e . 5) A human s c a l e f o r p r o j e c t s s h a l l be c r t i . i t e d t h r o u g h t h e e f f e c t i v e c o o r d i n a -t i o n o f n a t u r a l m a t e r i a l s , c o l o u r s , s i z e s and t e x t u r e s . L a n d s c a p i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t a i l s s h a l l be d e s i g n e d t o r e l a t e t o human s c a l e a c t i v i t i e s . 6 ) I n d i v i d u a l i t y i s s t r o n g l y e n c o u r a g e d w i t h a d e l i b e r a t e a t t e m p t t o a v o i d u n i f o r m i t y . E n t r a n c e w a y s s h a l l be e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d . 7 ) A l l b u i l d i n g p r o j e c t s s h a l l be d e s i q n e d t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t a d j a c e n t d e v e l o p -m e n t s . The v i s u a l mass o f a m u l t i -j f a m i l y p r o j e c t s h a l l be m i n i m i z e d by -o c a r e f u l s i t i n g o f u n i t c l u s t e r s , t h e u se o f v e g e t a t i o n , b e r m s , and f e n c e s . The s i t i n g o f l o n g b l o c k s d i r e c t l y a l o n g any s t r e e t f r o n t a g e , t h e u se o f l a r g e monotonous b l o c k s o r a s e r i e s o f e s s e n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l u n i t s w i l l n o t be a p p r o v e d . S i g n i f i c a n t d e g r e e s o f a r t i c u l a t i o n , i n r o o f e l e v a t i o n f o r m s , h e i g h t s and p r o d u c t s w i l l be e n c o u r a g e d t o c r e a t e c o m p a t i b l e d e s i g n s . 8 ) S i g n a g e by t h e D e v e l o p e r s a t t h e v a r i o u s e n t r a n c e w a y s w i l l e s t a b l i s h c e r t a i n e l e m e n t s , s u c h a s t h e ba se and f r a m i n g t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d a s a common f e a t u r e . Terra Losa 5 9) P a r k i n g a r e a s developed at grade, underground or i n s t r u c t u r e s s h a l l be / designed w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o s u r v e i l l a n c e methods, l i g h t i n g , p e d e s t r i a n a c c e s s and s a f e t y . U n o b s t r u c t i v e views must be m a i n t a i n e d i n o r d e r t o implement the p r i n c i p l e s of d e f e n s i b l e space. 10) A l l b u i l d i n g s s h a l l be d e s i g n e d w i t h due c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the p r a c t i c e s and p h i l o s o p h y of " D e f e n s i b l e Space" and o u t l i n e d i n S e c t i o n IV. Terra Losa 6 S i g n a g e S i g n a g e w i l l h e l p c r e a t e a common el e m e n t t i n n i K j h o u t T e r r a L o s a . T h e r e i s a s t a n d a r d s t r u c t u r a l s y s t e m f o r a l l T e r r a L o s a s i g n a g e . Kach p r o j e c t has the freedom t o a p p l y i t s own g r a p h i c s t o i d e n t i f i c a t i i o n s i g n s , however, a l l i n f o r m a t i o n s i g n s w i l l use s t a n d a r d i z e d g r a p h i c s . Thus a common e l e m e n t w i l l be c r e a t e d by s t r u c t u r e , and v a r i e t y c r e a t e d by i n d i v i d u a l g r a p h i c s . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s i g n a g e s h a l l have a base e x p r e s s i n g t h e same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the s i g n a g e a t o n t r a n c e w a y s . The s i g n a g e c a n be f r e e s t a n d i n g on the base o r framed i n a f a s h i o n s i m i l a r t o e n t r a n c e s i g n s . The frame t o be 7 5 m m p i p e o r t u b u l a r s t e e l c h a n n e l , f i n i s h e d i n an e a r t h t o n e c o l o u r . The i n f o r m a t i o n s i g n a g e s h a l l be mounted on s i m i l a r p i p e o r t u b u l a r c h a n n e l s t a n d , the h o r i z o n t a l p o r t i o n b e i n g t h e f u l l l e n g t h o f the i n f o r m a t i o n s i g n . In a l l c a s e s t h e l e t t e r i n g on i n f o r m a t i o n s i g n a g e w i l l be i n H e l v e t i c a B o l d o r Medium, b l a c k on a w h i t e b a c k g r o u n d . The s i z e and l o c a t i o n o f s i g n a g e s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the a r c h i t e c h t u r a l p l a n s . F o r b u i l d i n g s i n the IB D i s t r i c t s w i t h m u l t i t e n a n c i e s and CNC p r o j e c t s t h e s i g n a g e must be i n k e e p i n g w i t h good a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r a c t i c e s . A l l s i g n s s h a l l be l o c a t e d on p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . On c o r n e r s i t e s , no s i g n a g e w i l l be a l l o w e d w i t h i n the t r i a n g u l a r a r e a o f 8 m , on the p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . No temporary, moving o r f l a s h i n g s i g n s w i l l be a l l o w e d Terra Losa 7 IV Defensible Space " D e f e n s i b l e s p a c e i s a l i v i n g / w o r k i n g e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h c a n be e m p l o y e d by i n h a b i t a n t s f o r enhancement o f t h e i r l i v e s w h i l e p r o v i d i n g s e c u r i t y f o r f a m i l y , n e i g h b o u r s and f r i e n d s . " £ O s c a r Newman ° GENERAL PHILOSOPHY T e r r a L o s a i s a p l a n n e d m i x e d u se n e i g h b o u r h o o d b a s e d o n t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f c r i m e p r e v e n t i o n t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f d e f e n s i b l e s p a c e c o n c e p t s . T h e r e a r e two ways t o a d d r e s s d e f e n s i b l e s p a c e . A s i m p l e way o f a c h i e v i n g d e f e n s i b l e s p a c e by p h y s i c a l means and a more c o m p l e x way by p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l means . B o t h methods a r e v a l i d and t h e y c a n i n t e r a c t . By p h y s i c a l means , s a f e , l i v a b l e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s c a n be c r e a t e d t h r o u g h a t t e n t i o n t o d e s i g n o f s t r e e t s , d e s i g n o f i n t e r i o r s p a c e s i n b u i l d i n g s , d e s i g n o f b u i l d i n g s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s , u se o f l a n d s c a p i n g , d e s i g n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a r e a s , e t c . By p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l means , n e i g h b o u r h o o d s a r e made d e f e n s i b l e by p e o p l e d e v e l o p i n g a s e n s e o f t e r r i t o r y by c o g n i t i o n ( o r k n o w i n g ) and t h e n d e f e n d i n g o r p r o t e c t i n g t h a t s p a c e by b o n d i n g t o g e t h e r i n commun i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . P h y s i c a l s p a c e c a n be d e s i g n e d , b u t s o c i a l r e s p o n s e c a n n o t be f o r c e d . I t must be a l l o w e d t o d e v e l o p f r e e l y w i t h o u t i n t e r v e n t i o n o r p a t e r n a l i s m . Howeve r , d e f e n s i b l e s p a c e t h r o u g h s o c i a l means c a n be s t i m u l a t e d by p r o v i d i n g some f o r m o f t h e p h y s i c a l communal n e t w o r k a s i n t h e c a s e o f T e r r a L o s a t h r o u g h t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a commun i t y c e n t r e . Some o f t h e i d e a s s u g g e s t e d by d e f e n s i b l e s p a c e r u n c o u n t e r t o t r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g p h i l o s o p h i e s i n t h a t i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p an a t t a c h m e n t t o "home t u r f " , p e o p l e must be a b l to r e c o g n i z e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t T r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g t h r o u g h r e g u l a t i o n s ha s too o f t e n been c o n c e r n e d w i t h e l i m i n a t i n g • d i f f e r e n c e s . A c i t y p l a n n e d on d e f e n s i b l e ) s p a c e p r i n c i p l e s t h e r e f o r e , w o u l d a p p e a r t o be a c o l l e c t i o n o f d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w i t h e a c h commun i ty e m p h a s i z i i i t s own i n d i v i d u a l i t y t h r o u g h t h e u se o f p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I n t h e c a s e o f T e r r a L o s a , t h e G u i d e l i n e d e a : a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h t h e d e s i g n o f p h y s i c ; f e a t u r e s a s t h e y c a n be r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d and d e s c r i b e d . The i n c o r p o r a t i o n documen t s p r e s e n t e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e commun i t y c e n t r e a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e s c r i b i n g t h e means by w h i c h t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o T e r r a L o s a c a n a l s o be e n c o u r a g e d t o d e v e l o p . The G u i d e l i n e i s w r i t t e n t o m a i n t a i n h i g h a e s t h e t i c and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t a n d a r d s a s t h e y a r e i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f d e f e n s i b l e s p a c e . B u i l d i n g s and p u b l i c s p a c e s w h i c h do n o t have good d e s i g n and do n o t a p p e a r t o be w e l l m a i n t a i n e d , a r e n o t c a r e d f o r by r e s i d e n t s . T h i s i n t u r n may l e a d t o v a n d a l i s m and r e l a t e d u n d e s i r a b l e b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s . Terra Losa 6 Defensible Space - General Provisions The s i g n i f i c a n t p h y s i c a l and a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s o f T e r r a L o s a s u g g e s t e d by t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f d e f e n s i b l e s p a c e and the r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t h e G u i d e l i n e s a r e n o t e d b e l o w . 1) E x t e r n a l B o u n d a r y D e f i n i t i o n T h i s i s n e c e s s a r y so t h a t r e s i d e n t s c an r e c o g n i z e t h e l i m i t s o f t h e i r n e i g h b o u r -hood o r " t e r r i t o r y " . T h i s c a n h e l p d e v e l o p a s e n s e o f commun i t y and t h e r e f o r e l e a d s t o s e l f - p o l i c i n g and s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n . B o u n d a r y d e f i n i t i o n c a n be a c h i e v e d by b e r m i n g , f e n c i n g a n d s i g n a g e . 2) E x t e r n a l G a t e s The se h e l p t o d e f i n e when a r e s i d e n t p a s s e s i n t o h i s o r h e r t e r r i t o r y and t h u s e s t a b l i s h e d a zone whe re s t r a n g e r s o r i n t r u d e r s c a n be more r e a d i l y i d e n t i f e d . 3) I n t e r n a l F e n c e s A r o u n d S e p a r a t e D e v e l o p m e n t s I n t h i s way z o n e s o f i n f l u e n c e c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d w h i c h i d e n t i f y p u b l i c , s e m i -p u b l i c , and p r i v a t e z o n e s . T h i s a c h i e v e s on a s m a l l e r s c a l e , what e x t e r n a l b o u n d a r i e s e s t a b l i s h on a n e i g h b o u r h o o d s c a l e . As a r e s u l t r e s i d e n t s d e v e l o p a p r o t e c t i v e f e e l i n g t o w a r d s t h e i r h o u s i n g and i m m e d i a t e c o n f i n e s . 4) P r i v a t i z a t i o n o f S t r e e t s To r e i n f o r c e a s e n s e o f c o m m u n i t y , p r i v a t i z a t i o n w i t h t h e u se o f g a t e s , s t r e e t l amps and s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e o f a c o n s i s t e n t d e s i g n s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d . Terra Losa 5) D e f i n i t i o n of M u l t i p l e Housing and Apartment Developments I t i s recommended that i n d i v i d u a l housing developments be c l e a r l y j i d e n t i f i e d i n T e r r a Losa by the use of d i s t i n c t i v e f e n c i n g , hedges and s i g n s . F u r t h e r , f o r medium and high r i s e b u i l d i n g s , gates v i s i b l e from the main e n t r i e s should be i n c o r p o r a t e d . 6) Play Areas Play areas should be d e c e n t r a l i s e d wherever p o s s i b l e , with a c l e a r h i e r a r c h y of uses, i . e . - a d u l t and teen areas, t o t l o t s , e t c . C h i l d r e n s ' play areas should be observable from u n i t s , and should i n c l u d e areas f o r s e a t i n g to allow a d u l t s to supervise the c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g . 7) S e l f P o l i c i n g In planning housing developments avoid de s i g n i n g areas that cannot be r e a d i l y observed or overlooked by windows. P l a n t i n g should be transparent and areas should be c l e a r l y v i s i b l e . 8) I n t e r i o r Spaces Common areas i n higher d e n s i t y b u i l d i n g s should be designed to encourage s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . e.g. l o b b i e s should have s e a t i n g c l o s e to the entrance windows, laundry areas should a l s o i n c l u d e s e a t i n g e t c . C o r r i d o r design, e l e v a t o r placement, lobby layout should take i n t o account the p r i n c i p l e of o b s e r v a b i l i t y to reduce opportunity f o r crime. 9), Parking Large a t grade parking areas which cannot be e a s i l y observed should be avoided. P l a n t i n g should be transparent i n parking areas. Underground parking s h a l l i n c l u d e adequate l i g h t i n g and s e c u r i t y s u r v e i l l a n c e methods. Entrances to e l e v a t o r s and s t a i r s should be c l e a r l y v i s i b l e . Long c o r r i d o r s should be avoided. Pathways from parking areas (at-grade or i n s t r u c t u r e s ) to d w e l l i n g u n i t s and the parking areas themselves must be c l e a r l y l i t , and should allow a c l e a r l y v i s i b l e route to the u n i t entrance. j r\ 10) Proximity of Work Places to Residences T h i s p r i n c i p l e w i l l be f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d by walkways b i c y c l e paths e t c . , through s i t e s from the business area to the r e s i d e n t i a l area, and through r e s i d e n t i a l p a r c e l s to the community centre and park. The f o l l o w i n g map i d e n t i f i e s areas f o r s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to landscaping and sketches suggesting the treatments f o r these areas. Terra Losa 11 V Landscape Provisions I t i s t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s t o p r o v i d e an i d e n t i f i a b l e c o h e s i v e n e i g h b o u r h o o d , and c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e "home t e r r i t o r y " . L a n d s c a p i n g s h o u l d be u sed t o c r e a t e t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f e n c l o s u r e and b o u n d a r y d e f i n i t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n t o p r o v i d e h e a v y s c r e e n i n g . 1) E a c h s i t e s h a l l be l a n d s c a p e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p l a n a p p r o v e d by t h e D e v e l o p e r ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e . 2) S p e c i f i c a l l y , a l l p l a n t m a t e r i a l s s h a l l be o f a s p e c i e s c a p a b l e o f h e a l t h y g r o w t h i n Edmonton and s h a l l c o n f o r m t o t h e s t a n d a r d s o f t h e C a n a d i a n N u r s e r y T r a d e s A s s o c i a t i o n . 3) The m i x t u r e o f t r e e s i z e s a t t h e t i m e o f p l a n t i n g s h a l l be e q u i v a l e n t t o a minimum o f 50 p e r c e n t l a r g e r t r e e s . The minimum s i z e o f s m a l l d e c i d u o u s t r e e s s h a l l be 60mm c a l i p e r and f o r l a r g e d e c i d u o u s t r e e s , 90mm c a l i p e r . The minimum s i z e f o r s m a l l c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s s h a l l be a h e i g h t o f 2 .5 m e t e r s and f o r l a r g e c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s a h e i g h t o f 3.5 m e t e r s . S h r u b s s h a l l be a minimum h e i g h t o r s p r e a d o f 600mm a t t h e t i m e o f p l a n t i n g . 4 ) C o n i f e r o u s t r e e s s h a l l c o m p r i s e a minimum p r o p o r t i o n o f 1/3 o f a l l t r e e s p l a n t e d . 5) Whereve r s p a c e p e r m i t s , t r e e s s h a l l • be p l a n t e d i n g r o u p s , h a v i n g r e g a r d t o (12) b e l o w . : 6) The " A " and " B " l a n d s c a p e m o d u l e s ; h e r e a f t e r s p e c i f i e d a r e f o r u s e i n ; s p e c i f i c a r e a s . ! 7) Berms - Some berms w i l l be r o u g h g r a d e d and shaped by t h e D e v e l o p e r . Where s u c h berms e x i s t p e r m i s s i o n f r o m t h e w D e v e l o p e r ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e i s r e q u i r e d b e f o r e a l t e r i n g t h e b e r m . D e t a i l s on berms a r e a v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e D e v e l o p e r ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e . The A p p l i c a n t w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e f i n i s h e d l a n d s c a p i n g o f be rms . A l l berms w i l l be s u b j e c t t o u t i l i t y c l e a r a n c e s and t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e I; e n g i n e e r i n g r e p o r t s on d r a i n a g e . 8) Where s i t e s a b u t e x t e r i o r b o u n d a r i e s o f : t h e T e r r a L o s a p l a n a r e a , and f e n c i n g i s u s e d , a l l bounda r y f e n c e s w i l l be o f t h e . same d e s i g n and s t a i n on wood a s s p e c i f i e d by t h e D e v e l o p e r ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e . 1 9) F e n c i n g w h i c h s e r v e s i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s a n d / o r b u i l d i n g s s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d s o a s t o ; p e r m i t a b a l a n c e b e t w e e n s e c u r i t y and v i s i b i l i t y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e s : o f d e f e n s i b l e s p a c e . Terra Losa 12 10) Where " V i s t a s " occur at "T" i n t e r s e c t i o n s ( the " V i s t a " w i l l r e q u i r e landscaping per i l l u s t r a t i o n . 11) Landscaped areas i n c l u d i n g boulevards s h a l l be maintained by the landowner. 12) Landscaping should be transparent i n o v e r a l l appearance and developed so as to avoid s h e l t e r e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r crime. 13) The Developer/Applicant w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r any c o s t s i n c u r r e d f o r i n s t a l l a t i o n and maintenance of landscaping on p u b l i c r i g h t -of-ways. r\ 14) L i g h t i n g of a l l non r e s i d e n t i a l p a r c e l s s h a l l be designed to reduce negative e f f e c t s o n r e s i d e n t i a l p a r c e l s . 15) In a l l cases where berms are proposed on, or adjacent t o, road rights-of-way the d i s t a n c e between the apex of the berm and the edqe of the carriageway must be l e s s than, or equal t o , 7.62 m. If the d i s t a n c e i s g r e a t e r a swale must be provided o n the right-of-way s i d e of the berm. The f o l l o w i n g map i d e n t i f i e s areas f o r s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to landscaping and sketches suggesting the treatments f o r these areas. Terra Losa 13 Terra Losa Supplementary Landscaping Supplementary Requirements j | r es iden t ia l | | b u s i n e s s • indust r ia l p a r k / s c h o o l j/yj c o m m e r c i a l Lots Abutting 178th Street Lots Abutting 95 th Avenue Lots Abutting 170th Street Lake Edge Treatment A ^ S ^ S / C o r n m e r c i a l Berm R^Stlai Lois Abutting Business Roadway Vista Lots 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Additional landscape information on the following drawings 9 Parking lots abutting streets 10 Landscaping Modules 11 Parking Lot Landscaping 1 o r An A p p l i c a n t w i l l be r e q u x r e d t o c o m p l y w i t h t h e S u p p l e m e n -t a r y L a n d s c a p i n g R e q u i r e m e n t s when d e v e l o p i n g a s i t e w h i c h ha s one o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d h e r e . Terra Losa 14 L o t s Abutt ing 178 Street © The D e v e l o p e r s w i l l c o n s t r u c t a 1.0m h i g h berm a l o n g t h e e a s t s i d e o f 1 78 th S t r e e t . The a p p l i c a n t s w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o s u p p l y t o p s o i l , s eed and l a n d s c a p i n g a s p e r modu le " B " . The D e v e l o p e r s w i l l c o n s t r u c t a 1.5m h i g h berm a l o n g t h e n o r t h s i d e o f 9 5 t h A v e n u e . In t h e r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t t h e a p p l i c a n t s w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o s u p p l y t o p s o i l , seed and l a n d s c a p i n g a s p e r modu le "B". The a p p l i c a n t s o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l / i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o l a n d s c a p e as p e r modu le " A " . Terra Losa 15 L o t s A b u t t i n g 170 S t r e e t (5) To improve the visual connection between the business park component of Terra Losa and 170th Street, the existing berm may be regraded, provided on s i t e structures and landscaping provide an equivalent sound buffer (60dBA Ldn) for the r e s i d e n t i a l area. The applicant w i l l be responsible for the costs in changing the berm, landscaping, or replacing landscaping and necessary testing for conformance by an acoustical engineer. Buildings w i l l be set back from the property l i n e as per the City of Edmonton standards. Fencing w i l l be permitted on the rear yard property l i n e and parking w i l l be encouraged within the rear yard setback. L a k e Edge Treatment (4 ) The s t o r m w a t e r r e t e n t i o n pond s e r v i n g the e n t i r e d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l be c o n s t r u c t e d c o n s i s t e n t w i t h C i t y s t a n d a r d s . I n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a p a r k s e t t i n g p e r i p h e r a l to the p o n d , t h e " B " l a n d s c a p e modu le w i l l be u s e d be tween b u i l d i n g s and t h e 100 y e a r s t o r m l i n e . D o c k s , i f d e v e l o p e d , must be at l e a s t 20m a p a r t and o f a d e s i g n a p p r o v e d by t h e D e v e l o p e r ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e . _ i The 3m s t r i p o f l a n d be tween t h e p r o p e r t y l i n e and t h e 100 y e a r s t o r m l i n e mus t be m a i n t a i n e d by i n d i v i d u a l l o t o w n e r s . V i e w s s h o u l d r e m a i n open t o t h i s l a k e , t h e r e f o r e den se p l a n t i n g a l o n g t h e s t r i p i s d i s c o u r a g e d . Terra Losa 17 Pedest r ian Walkway © P e d e s t r i a n wa l kway s w i l l be r e q u i r e d on s e v e r a l s i t e s and e n c o u r a g e d on o t h e r s where t h e y p r o v i d e p a r t o f a p h y s i c a l communal n e t w o r k be tween t h e w o r k / l i v e commun i ty c e n t r e . The D e v e l o p e r w i l l p r o v i d e t h e b a s e f i l l f o r t h e berms where p e d e s t r i a n wa l kway s a r e r e q u i r e d . The a p p l i c a n t w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e and m a i n t a i n a p p r o p r i a t e l a n d s c a p i n g , r e l a t i v e t o wa l kway s and u s e s a b u t t i n g wa l kway r i g h t - o f - w a y s o r e a s e m e n t . o CO Residential - B u s i n e s s / C o m m e r c i a l B e r m © I n o r d e r t o e f f e c t i v e l y b u f f e r t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a f r om t h e b u s i n e s s p a r k and CNC s i t e , t h e d e v e l o p e r s w i l l r o u g h g r a d e a 2m h i g h berm and i n s t a l l a hedge a l o n g t h e p r o p e r t y l i n e . The i n d i v i d u a l s i t e owner must t o p s o i l and s e e d t h e p o r t i o n o f t h e berm w i t h i n h i s s i t e and i n s t a l l p l a n t m a t e r i a l a l t e r n a t i n g be tween t h e A and B l a n d s c a p e m o d u l e s . F e n c i n g i s d i s c o u r a g e d i n t h i s zone b u t w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d a t a minimum d i s t a n c e o f 6.5m r'nty^t^yitml3 f r om t h e p r o p e r t y l i n e a t t he d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e D e v e l o p e r ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e . The h e i g h t o f 2m berm f r o m t h e ba se w h i c h i s tv»«z!t>/a*~cH*fco fae e s t a b l i s h e d l n t n e p r e c o n s t r u c t i o n e n g i n e e r i n g d r a w i n g s . MCTT -co -SCALE. Terra Losa 18 Residential Lo ts Abutt ing Bus iness Roadway ® torn t%!f> te*J* The D e v e l o p e r s w i l l c o n s t r u c t a 1.5ia berm w h i c h w i l l m i n i m i z e t h e i m p a c t o f t h e b u s i n e s s p a r k on t h e r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . The i n d i v i d u a l l o t owne r s w i l l be .. r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f ,.?iJ,.',"jB,1i t o p s o i l , s e e d i n g and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t ^UVfj^^uM^ o f * n e b e r m ^ ° , t h e s t a n d a r d of t h e B l a n d s c a p e m o d u l e . F i r e e x i t s w i l l be p e r m i t t e d i f r e q u i r e d . « U W M P C W W O B t d N C S S R W W W Vista tots (§) 0 T© II © n r 0" =© Where " T " i n t e r s e c t i o n s o c c u r , a d d i t i o n a l : l a n d s c a p i n g w i l l be r e q u i r e d . S p e c i a l b u i l d i n g d e s i g n s o r a d d i t i o n a l s e t b a c k s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t o c r e a t e an e f f e c t i v e v i s t a . The c o m p l e t e v i s t a o f l a n d s c a p i n g and s t r u c t u r e s w i l l be examined; Terra Losa 19 P a r k i n g L o t s A b u t t i n g S t r e e t s ( § ) using Landscape Module A The landscape treatment w i l l be a balance of a e s t h e t i c s and p r i n c i p l e s o f d e f e n s i b l e space pl a n n i n g . V i s i b i l i t y from sidewalks and entrances to b u i l d i n g s must be p r e s e r v e d . The landscaping should not provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r u n d e s i r a b l e s to hide o r commit c r i m e s . To provide a e s t h e t i c s , v a r i o u s combinations of the landscaping modules can be used. using Landscape Module B ' - R e t a i n i n g Wall, Berm & Land-! s c a p i n g B u f f e r A w a l l 1.0m maximum i n h e i g h t i s to be u t i l i z e d with a berm slope maximum of 3:1. ^ LTV.1 Berm and Landscaping Buffer  This option consists of a 1.2m berm with 3:1 maximum slopes on both sides. Planting density w i l l be as per the l i g h t module. The berm height to be measured from top to adjacent street curb. Terra Losa 20 ruexjc- tax*** using Landscape Module A (with open type fencing) using Landscape Module B L a n d s c a p e M o d u l e s (JO) The landscape module "A" s h a l l be composed of the f o l l o w i n g m a t e r i a l s : 5 decidous t r e e s ; p r e f e r a b l y green ash or basswood, a minimum of 8 5mm c a l i p e r 3 evergreen t r e e s ; p r e f e r a b l y white or green spruce, a minimum of 2.5m i n height 22 shrubs; p r e f e r a b l y a l l deciduous, a 600mm height/spread minimum The "B" landscape module s h a l l be comprised of the f o l l o w i n g m a t e r i a l s : 3 deciduous t r e e s ; p r e f e r a b l y green ash or basswood, a minimum of 85mm i n c a l i p e r 2 evergreen t r e e s ; p r e f e r a b l y white or green spruce, a minimum of 2.5m i n h e i g h t 10 shrubs; p r e f e r a b l y a l l deciduous, a minimum of 6 00mm i n h e i g h t / s p r e a d Terra Losa P a r k i n g Lot L a n d s c a p i n g On r e c o g n i z i n g the p r i n c i p l e s of d e f e n s i b l e space f o r a t grade parking the c r e a t i v e use of landscaping w i l l be r e q u i r e d to e s t a b l i s h an a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g p a r k i n g a r e a . For every ten parking s t a l l s i n a row, an area e q u i v a l e n t to one s t a l l w i l l be used f o r l a n d s c a p i n g to p r o v i d e v i s u a l r e l i e f . A l l areas used by v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c must be graded, paved t o d r a i n and be maintained a t a l l times. Entry ways must have gates o r landscaping treatment to d e f i n e t h e i r l o c a t i o n and purpose. Terra Losa VI General Architectural 1) -The c r e a t i v e u se o f b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s ' i s e n c o u r a g e d t o p r o j e c t a f e e l i n g o f wa rmth . M a t e r i a l s o f e a r t h t o n e f i n i s h e s s u c h a s t e x t u r e d c o n c r e t e , wood, b r i c k , s t o n e and s t u c c o w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e wood t r i m w i l l be e n c o u r a g e d . 21 A p p l i c a n t s a r e t o i n c o r p o r a t e s l o p i n g r o o f e l e m e n t s on e a c h b u i l d i n g . Townhouses c a n be d e s i g n e d w i t h s l o p e d r o o f s and on h i g h r i s e s and c o m m e r c i a l b u i l d i n g s t h e s l o p i n g d e t a i l c a n be p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h s c r e e n i n g o f m e c h a n i c a l s y s t e m s and m e c h a n i c a l r ooms , p l u s t h e u se o f s l o p i n g d e t a i l s i n c a n o p i e s and d e t a i l a t e n t r a n c e w a y s . 3) C e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f d e s i g n a r e n o t e a s i l y p r e s c r i b e d by r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y s u c h i n t a n g i b l e s a s t h e s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s t r u c t u r e s and open s p a c e s , t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f b u i l d i n g s , t h e p a t t e r n s o f human a c t i v i t y and b e h a v i o u r . T h e r e f o r e , t h e D e v e l o p e r ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e w i l l u s e t h e s e r v i c e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o e v a l u a t e t h e c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f e a c h A p p l i c a n t s p r o p o s a l . 4) I n d i v i d u a l i t y o f e a c h p r o j e c t w i l l be e n c o u r a g e d w i t h t h e v i s u a l t i e t o t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d by u se o f m a t e r i a l s , l a n d s c a p i n g and s i g n a g e . 5) W i t h i n e a c h p r o j e c t , a m i x t u r e o f r e s i d e n t i a l s i z e o f u n i t and t y p e s w i l l be e n c o u r a g e d . 6) A l l a p p l i c a t i o n s w i l l be c l o s e l y r e v i e w e d and e v a l u a t e d a g a i n s t t h e d e s i g n c r i t e r i a s p e c i f i e d i n t h e G e n e r a l P r o v i s i o n s f o r D e f e n s i b l e Space S e c t i o n I V . 7) The l o c a t i n g , s c r e e n i n g and o p e r a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f g a r b a g e c o l l e c t i o n w i l l be e x a m i n e d . 8) The l o c a t i o n o f f a n s , m e c h a n i c a l s y s t e m s and e x t e r i o r l i g h t i n g must be d e s i g n e d t o have t h e minimum a d v e r s e a f f e c t on a d j a c e n t p r o p e r t i e s . A l l e x t e r i o r m e c h a n i c a l s y s t e m s must be s c r e e n e d . V3J 9) B u s i n e s s / I n d u s t r i a l b u i l d i n g s on s i t e s a d j a c e n t t o r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s w i l l have , e x t e r i o r w a l l s f a c i n g t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s f i n i s h e d w i t h a minimum o f t e x t u r e d b l o c k o r c o n c r e t e . 10) A p p l i c a n t s f o r r e s i d e n t i a l p r o j e c t • p a r c e l s a d j a c e n t t o 1 7 8 t h S t r e e t w i l l p r o v i d e a m i x t u r e o f d w e l l i n g u n i t t y p e s t o c r e a t e a t r a n s i t i o n i n h e i g h t and b u i l t f o r m , away f r o m t h e r o a d w a y . The f o l l o w i n g s k e t c h e s and comments a r e u sed a s e x a m p l e s t o i l l u s t r a t e how m a t e r i a l s and d e s i g n f e a t u r e s c o u l d be u s e d , and how v a r i o u s l a n d u s e s m i g h t r e l a t e . Terra Losa 23 Architectural Examples Low RISE APARTMENTS It i s the intention to create d i v e r s i t y of building s t y l e s , not only through form, but through the use of materials. Sloped roofs and front facing buildings w i l l encourage rear and side yard parking to provide an int e r e s t i n g streetscape. The low r i s e to medium r i s e t r a n s i t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s change of materials, yet retention of a common element, the sloped roof. Elevator penthouses and mechanical rooms s h a l l be screened. The above example uses sloping enclosures which r e f l e c t the building form of the adjacent lower r i s e developments. Terra Losa 24 Architectural Examples r-MEDIUM RISE APARTMENTS Cf WT- IS. •CHWLT-k A,<*_*J I -Tit** HIGH RISE APARTMENTS Iff'*"*-"-|H »6i <r|S*»-«S. A r e s i d e n t i a l q u a l i t y c a n be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h u se o f m a t e r i a l s , s l o p i n g r o o f s c a p e s , c o l o u r , c o o r d i n a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l , and t e x t u r e d f a c a d e s . The use o f s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l s w i l l m a i n t a i n common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h r o u g h t h e t r a n s i t i o n s o f d e n s i t y o r u s e . Terra Losa 25 Architectural Examples R E S I D E N T I A L / B U S I N E S S To c o m p l i m e n t t h e c h a r a c t e r i n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s a d j a c e n t t o b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s , b u s i n e s s b u i l d i n g f o r m s c a n assume and r e f l e c t r e s i d e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s u c h as s l o p e d m e c h a n i c a l e n c l o s u r e s and u se o f b r i c k , wood and wood f r amed s t u c c o . The f a c e o f b u i l d i n g s i n t h e b u s i n e s s a r e a t o w a r d s r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s s h a l l be f i n i s h e d t o a minimum o f a t e x t u r e d c o n c r e t e o r t e x t u r e d c o n c r e t e b l o c k . P a r k i n g , e x t e r i o r l i g h t i n g , f a n s , o u t s i d e s t o r a g e , g a r b a g e must be p l a n n e d f o r i n a manner t o r e d u c e n e g a t i v e i m p a c t on a d j o i n i n g s i t e s . B U S I N E S S Terra Losa 26 VII The Developers Commitment The Developers have committed to set the mood f o r the neighbourhood by: 1) Developing and i n s t a l l i n g entrance signage to i d e n t i f y the neighbourhood and encourage the sense of t e r r i t o r y . 2) Developing the berms along 95th Avenue and 178th S t r e e t and along the rear property l i n e s between the r e s i d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l areas. 3) Developing and i n s t a l l i n g d i s t i n c t i v e s t r e e t l i g h t s , s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e and p l a n t e r s to " P r i v a t i z e " the T e r r a Losa s t r e e t s . 4) Developing the b a s i c walkway system ^ which w i l l t i e the b u s i n e s s / i n d u s t r i a l , r e s i d e n t i a l and community centre together. 5) As p a r t of the s e r v i c i n g and storm water management system the Developers w i l l c r e a t e a lake which w i l l be an i d e n t i f i a b l e f e a t u r e of the neighbourhood. 6) Developing the Community Centre as a f o c a l p o i n t . 7) Developing the Boulevards, which w i l l ,,  be grassed and mature t r e e s i n s t a l l e d ' at approximately 10m spacing. Terra Losa 27 Terra Losa - The Developer's Commitment | | residential |" . j business • industrial L 1 Residential Entryway 2 Business Park Entryways 3 Ftedestrian Walkway 4 Community Centre c_ r Terra Losa 28 Residential Entryway & Streetscape 1 A well defined entrance w i l l be developed at each of the four entrances to the r e s i d e n t i a l component. A l l r e s i d e n t i a l streetscapes w i l l consist of separated sidewalks and boulevard street tree planting, and r e s i d e n t i a l entrances w i l l have landscaped entryways with signage. The Developer w i l l be responsible for the development and construction of the r e s i d e n t i a l entryways and streetscape elements. Terra Losa 29 Business Park Entryway & Streetscape 2 In order to e s t a b l i s h a character for the Business Park, an entryway exhib i t i n g s p a t i a l treatment w i l l be developed at each of the four entrances to the Business Park. The business entryways w i l l have single sidewalks, landscaped medians to City standards and landscaped signage. The Developers w i l l be responsible for the development and construction of the business entryways. V TL. to 2>0 70 *3 Terra Losa 30 Pedestrian Walkway 3 A 1.5m p e d e s t r i a n walkway w i l l be provided by the Developers to l i n k the r e s i d e n t i a l and business components of T e r r a Losa. The walkway w i l l be developed on p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y w i t h i n easements or w i t h i n u t i l i t y c o r r i d o r s wherever p o s s i b l e , and w i l l be c u r v i l i n e a r w i t h i n the d e f i n e d r i g h t - o f - w a y . L i g h t i n g w i l l be to the C i t y of Edmonton standards, berming w i l l be encouraged, and f e n c i n g w i l l be d i s c o u r a g e d w i t h i n the setback zone. I n d i v i d u a l l o t owners w i l l provide continuous l a n d s c a p i n g adjacent to the walkway as per landscape module B. I t i s important from a s a f e t y p o i n t of view t h a t the type of landscaping should provide f o r the p e r c e p t i o n of a p u b l i c pathway, and that p l a n t i n g should not, a t m a t u r i t y , a l l o w p l a c e s f o r concealment. Terra Losa Community Centre 4 j o t r ? 7 [SI* P L A N t u t o r , <r^ ELEVATON -a The Terra Losa Community Centre i s designed to reinforce the i d e n t i t y and image of the t o t a l community. The Community Centre w i l l , with a v e r t i c a l statement such as the tower, be the focus point of the community. The Community Centre w i l l be constructed of materials and f i n i s h e s consistent with the Rest r i c t i v e Covenant. Located in a park setting with walkways, berms and the lake, creating an i n v i t i n g f o c a l point. The purpose of the Terra Losa Community i s to provide a multi-use meeting/recreational f a c i l i t y for residents and tenants of the business park. The Community Centre i s provided to give a sense of community and to encourage residents to develop se l f - h e l p community projects such as neighbourhood watch, snow c l e a r i n g , control of garbage disposal, daycare, and community involvement including both recreational and s o c i a l groups. -e-C O M M U N I T Y C E N T R E O 5 lo Terra Losa 32 Programme Objectives of Community Centre A. A Place to Meet: Seating Area I - To c r e a t e an i n f o r m a l , i n t i m a t e / g a t h e r i n g place - Small group f u n c t i o n s - Relaxed atmosphere with view to lake - Area f o r d i s p l a y s - Minor r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s B. A Place to Meet: Main H a l l - Multi-purpose space to accomodate s o c i a l needs: a) Community sponsored dances b) Concerts - i n c l u d i n g stage f a c i l i t y c) Meetings regarding community a f f a i r s - C e n t r a l i n f u n c t i o n C. A Place f o r Recreation: Indoor - Multi-purpose main h a l l provides f o r mixed indoor r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s : a) V o l l y b a l l b) H a l f c o u r t b a s k e t b a l l c) F l o o r hockey d) Gymnastics, f i t n e s s c l a s s e s e) Table t e n n i s f) Badminton D. Change/Washroom F a c i l i t i e s - Small l o c k e r room change room f a c i l i t y to accommodate r e c r e a t i o n a l needs - P o s s i b l e changing area f o r summer/ winter outdoor a c t i v i t i e s E. E d u c a t i o n a l Related Uses - Enclosed area t h a t can a l s o be used f o r meetings (privacy) w h i l e o t h e r f u n c t i o n s are i n s e s s i o n - Daycare, p l a y s c h o o l c l a s s e s (indoor - outdoor p l a y area) - C r a f t c l a s s e s F. Landscaping - Outdoor - The area w i l l be f u l l y landscaped - Walkway l i n k a g e s w i l l c i r c l e through T e r r a Losa. They w i l l begin and end a t the community c e n t r e b u i l d i n g - Two outdoor t e n n i s c o u r t s w i t h l i g h t i n g G. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and F u n c t i o n a l Areas - C e n t r a l c o n t r o l , r e c e p t i o n , o f f i c e area - K i t c h e n f a c i l i t i e s f o r minor food p r e p a r a t i o n and a base f o r c a t e r e r s to operate from f o r l a r g e r f u n c t i o n s - S u f f i c i e n t s torage area f o r the purpose of s t o r i n g c h a i r s , t a b l e s , indoor r e c r e a t i o n a l equipment and storage of daycare equipment - Mechanical room and j a n i t o r i a l equipment storage Terra Losa 33 

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