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A design for the evaluation of neighbourhood design guidelines Goldburn, Christine Mary 1983

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A DESIGN FOR THE EVALUATION OF NEIGHBOURHOOD DESIGN GUIDELINES By CHRISTINE MARY GOLDBURN B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a ,  1973  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( S c h o o l o f Community & R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g )  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December,  1983  C h r i s t i n e Mary G o l d b u r n  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be granted by the head o f  department or by h i s o r her  representatives.  my  It is  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be  allowed without my  permission.  School SfiiSa&fcBgiRit  o  f  Community and  Keginnal  Planning  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia . 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  February 6.  1984  written  ii  ABSTRACT In  1982,  after  c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n and n e g o t i a t i o n , the C i t y  Edmonton m u n i c i p a l  council  of  a s e t o f Design  i t s components  perceived which  negative  the p l a n  effects  proposed.  approved  a neighbourhood p l a n which had as one Guidelines  o f the h i g h As w e l l ,  crime and w i t h  a s t r o n g sense  intended  density  t o m i t i g a t e the  residential  the d e v e l o p e r s '  promoted the c r e a t i o n o f a h i g h l y i n t e r a c t i v e of  of  concept  environment f o r the a r e a  and c o h e s i v e community,  of identity  as promoted i n Oscar  free  Newman's  book D e f e n s i b l e Space. As  y e t the neighbourhood  developed  and o c c u p i e d ,  has n o t been  i t i s expected  built,  that  but once  the C i t y  Administration w i l l  conduct  an e v a l u a t i o n o f the Neighbourhood t o determine  concept  as e x p r e s s e d  manner i n i t i a l l y This  thesis  examining  i n the G u i d e l i n e s was e f f e c t i v e ,  the area i s  whether the d e s i g n  and e f f e c t e d ,  i n the  proposed. will  undertake  the i n i t i a l  stages  of this  e v a l u a t i o n , by  the theory o f neighbourhoods and n e i g h b o u r i n g as w e l l as the p a s t  e x p e r i e n c e o f o t h e r c i t i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o neighbourhood development. part  o f the t h e s i s  takes  the form  of extensive  literature  review,  This and  r e s u l t s i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f o u r major and s e v e r a l minor t o p i c s which should be examined i n the e v e n t u a l e v a l u a t i o n o f T e r r a L o s a . The  thesis  then  Design G u i d e l i n e s . review,  the i m p l i c i t  I n a d i s c u s s i o n based  and e x p l i c i t  goals  o f the  on the r e s u l t s o f the l i t e r a t u r e  the r e l e v a n c e and f e a s i b i l i t y o f the g o a l s i s examined.  Finally, studies,  identifies  and a g a i n  based  on  the l i t e r a t u r e ,  an e v a l u a t i o n o f the D e f e n s i b l e Space  suggestions  a r e made  as t o the procedures  c o n d u c t i n g a neighbourhood e v a l u a t i o n .  particularly  concept  the case  i s p r e s e n t e d and  t o be f o l l o w e d  i n eventually  iii  The  the  developers'  concept i s l a u d a b l e ,  t h a t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p h y s i c a l d e s i g n  i n creation  of  community  a  t h e s i s concludes that  strong  social  a l t h o u g h the  i s limited,  intentions of  though  i t appears  e x p e r i e n c e t h a t the G u i d e l i n e s , i f p r o p e r l y implemented, would be i n achieving t h i s limited residential  satisfaction.  l e v e l o f i n f l u e n c e and  from  past  effective  r e l a t i v e l y high l e v e l s  of  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER ONE  INTRODUCTION  Rationale f o r the Proposal Scope of the Study Organization CHAPTER TWO The The The The The The  1 1 2 3  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY  5  Site Plan and I t s History Design Guidelines Development Concept Present Status of Terra Losa Defensible Space Concept  5 5 8 10 12 13  CHAPTER THREE  PROPOSED CONTENTS OF THE EVALUATION  Residential S a t i s f a c t i o n Physical Variables Social and Psychological Variables Sense of Control Sense of Belonging Social Interaction CHAPTER FOUR  OTHER CONSIDERATIONS  Charaoteristies of the Resident Population Other Problems Density and Crowding Perception of Crime Recreation F a c i l i t i e s A Sense of Place Pattern of Work The Design Guidelines and the I n d u s t r i a l Area Inventory CHAPTER FIVE  EVALUATION OF THE GUIDELINES AND THE PROGRAM  Approach f o r the Evaluation C r i t i q u e of the Defensible Space Concept Goal I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and Evaluation Conclusion CHAPTER SIX  REGARDING METHODOLOGY  Data C o l l e c t i o n Suggestions for Measures Analysis Threats to V a l i d i t y Matters Not Discussed  17 18 19 25 29 37 42 53 53 57 57 60 61 62 64 65 65 67 68 69 69 82 86 86 89 90 91 93  V Page CHAPTER SEVEN  CONCLUSION  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX I  Terra Losa S i t e Design, Landscape and Architectural Guideline (82-05-03)  96 99 109  vi LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1  Terra Losa Neighbourhood Structure Plan  Figure 2  D e s c r i p t i v e Model - Factors A f f e c t i n g and I n d i c a t o r s of R e s i d e n t i a l S a t i s f a c t i o n  20  Figure 3  D e s c r i p t i v e Model - Factors A f f e c t i n g and I n d i c a t o r s of "Sense of C o n t r o l "  33  D e s c r i p t i v e Model - Factors A f f e c t i n g and I n d i c a t o r s of "Sense of Belonging"  39  Figure 5  D e s c r i p t i v e Model - Factors A f f e c t i n g Social Interaction  45  Figure 6  I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of Major Topics and Relative P o t e n t i a l f o r Influence of Design  52  Figure 7  Model of the Program E v o l u t i o n and Evaluation of the Program  70  Figure 4  9  vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I express Halchanski thesis.  my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o my f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s H. Hightower and D. f o r t h e i r g u i d a n c e and encouragement d u r i n g p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e  I n p a r t i c u l a r I thank my p a r e n t s f o r t h e i r unending s u p p o r t not o n l y d u r i n g my y e a r o f s t u d y , b u t a l w a y s .  and a s s i s t a n c e  1  CHAPTER ONE  INTRODUCTION This  thesis  will  design  an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the  d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s p l a c e d on t h e T e r r a L o s a Neighbourhood i n west Edmonton. While a l l o w i n g a r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y o f 79.0 persons acre  (185/ha),  considered  by t h e C i t y  area, the C i t y r e q u i r e d the developer on  the concepts  o f D e f e n s i b l e Space  Through E n v i r o n m e n t a l  t o prepare  high  developable  f o r a peripheral  d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s , based  (Newman, 1973) and Crime  D e s i g n i n an attempt  associated with high density l i v i n g . provide, at t h e i r  t o be v e r y  per gross  Prevention  t o a v o i d t h e problems g e n e r a l l y  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e d e v e l o p e r s agreed t o  expense, a r e c r e a t i o n a l  c e n t r e i n t h e neighbourhood t o  a c t a s a f o c u s f o r t h e community. Rationale f o r the Proposal The purpose o f t h e t h e s i s i s t o s e t t h e s t a g e f o r an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e T e r r a Losa g u i d e l i n e s , once t h e neighbourhood i s b u i l t and  occupied. On a s c i e n t i f i c l e v e l , t h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be t o d e r i v e  from t h e c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e a r e s e a r c h d e s i g n which c o u l d guide  subsequent  e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t s o f p a r t i c u l a r d e s i g n elements on human b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s and r e s i d e n t i a l  satisfaction.  From a more p r a c t i c a l neighbourhood i s b u i l t ,  p e r s p e c t i v e , the design  as t h e f i r s t  can be used, once the  s t a g e i n p r e p a r i n g a response  r e q u e s t o f s e v e r a l C i t y aldermen t h a t t h e a r e a be m o n i t o r e d  to  t o the  determine  the e f f e c t s o f t h e g u i d e l i n e s on t h e neighbourhood and t h e " s u c c e s s " o f t h e development  concept.  2  The  P l a n n i n g Department s h o u l d f i n d the r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y u s e f u l i n  several other respects. preparation similar  of  an  nature  F i r s t , the s u b s t a n c e o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l a l l o w the  evaluation  and  instrument  especially  " D e f e n s i b l e Space", w h i c h was  on  based  literature  on  classic  published  studies after  of  Newman's  the f o u n d a t i o n o f the g u i d e l i n e s .  S e c o n d l y , the P l a n n i n g Department c o u l d use the e v a l u a t i o n o f the o f the neighbourhood concept as of s i m i l a r approving  proposals bodies.  and  a  the  an i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e i n t h e i r  goals  evaluation  f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e i r recommendations t o  I t is p o s s i b l e that other developers,  having  the  seen  the  d e n s i t y approved f o r T e r r a Losa and f a c e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g c o s t s f o r u t i l i t y service  extensions,  elsewhere.  Indeed,  intensification agricultural informed The the  will the  of  land.  in  future  C i t y ' s own  land The  the  use  General  and  Planning  the  review  of  policy  i n this  relating  r e s i d e n t i a l d e s i g n and p l a n  to  similar  Municipal  reduction  Department  recommendations r e g a r d i n g these i n f o r m a t i o n presented  propose  should  Plan  in be  neighbourhoods supports  the  consumption prepared  to  of make  proposals. t h e s i s c o u l d be  high  density  adapted f o r use  residential  land  in  uses,  implementation.  F i n a l l y , the r e s u l t s o f an e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w may  a i d the  City  s t a f f i n t h e i r r e v i e w o f d e t a i l e d development p r o p o s a l s , not o n l y i n T e r r a Losa but throughout the C i t y , by i d e n t i f y i n g elements o f d e s i g n w h i c h have been shown t o a f f e c t r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , s e c u r i t y and so  on.  Scope o f the S t u d y The  area  under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s the  Losa Neighbourhood. Place  Outline  Plan  residential  p o r t i o n o f the  I t s b o u n d a r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the as  being  100  Avenue on  the  north,  95  West  Terra Jasper  Avenue on  the  3  south, 170 Street on the east and 178 Street on the west. not  Though these may  conform to the eventual residents' perception of t h e i r neighbourhood's  boundaries, they w i l l be used here since they prescribe the area covered by the  design guidelines being evaluated. No construction has taken place i n the neighbourhood as yet and timing  of  development w i l l depend on the economic climate.  The thesis therefore  recommends a design f o r the evaluation, but does not undertake i t .  It  includes recommendations  about the timing of the actual evaluation, based  on the number of units  occupied, the types of units  available  and  the  length of occupancy of the eventual residents. Organization Chapter Two  will  describe  the neighbourhood,  the d e r i v a t i o n  of the  guidelines, the eontent of the guidelines and a description of the owners' group's concept f o r the neighbourhood. Chapter Three w i l l consist of an examination of current l i t e r a t u r e on medium  and  high  density  housing, d e f e n s i b l e  space,  neighbourhoods,  neighbouring, community cohesiveness and r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , with a view  to i d e n t i f y i n g  the  aspects of  the  neighbourhood  which  should  be  studied i n the evaluation and what r e s u l t s have been obtained from previous studies of these subjects which might be used i n comparison of r e s u l t s . Chapter Four w i l l continue the l i t e r a t u r e review begun i n Chapter Three and discusses other information of a l e s s subjective nature which should be collected  during  the  evaluation  i n order to provide the most  complete  picture possible of the neighbourhood being studied. Chapter  Five  will  identify  the  stated  and  implicit  neighbourhood of both the landowners' group and the City.  goals  f o r the  These w i l l  be  4  discussed  i n l i g h t of the i n f o r m a t i o n  d i s c l o s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e  i n o r d e r t h a t t h e i r v a l i d i t y and r e l e v a n c e  review,  can be a s c e r t a i n e d .  I n Chapter S i x , s u g g e s t i o n s w i l l be made f o r t h e methodology t o be used in  subsequent  suggestions  stages  of  f o r measurement  included, together  the e v a l u a t i o n . o f obscure  or  Threats  to v a l i d i t y  sensitive variables  will  and be  w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f aspects which a r e not i n c l u d e d i n  the e v a l u a t i o n d e s i g n and t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r d e l e t i o n . The c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e t h e s i s w i l l s u g g e s t whether o r n o t t h e e v a l u a t i o n should  continue  and t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r amendments  t h e y a r e implemented.  t o the g u i d e l i n e s  before  5  CHAPTER  TWO  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l e x p l a i n the c o n t e x t i n which the e v a l u a t i o n d e s i g n i s being  considered.  together with well,  A d e s c r i p t i o n o f the neighbourhood's s i t e  a d e s c r i p t i o n of i t s planning  development  s h o r t summaries o f the d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s imposed  the D e f e n s i b l e Space concept The  and  history.  As  on the a r e a and o f  are included.  Site T e r r a Losa  i s a neighbourhood o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y  west Edmonton, A l b e r t a , l o c a t e d between 95 and 100 Streets.  Development  West J a s p e r and  i s provided,  partly  layers  of  unstable the  of t h i s  area  has l a g g e d  Place Outline Plan area, because peat  fill  eventual  o f the v e r y  nearly  3  m  deep  and poor d r a i n a g e . plan  f o r the  poor  partly soil  Avenues  behind  170 and  because o f ownership  places  latter  neighbourhood.  and  As  was  178  the remainder o f the  conditions.  i n some This  62 h e c t a r e s i n suburban  and  There  well,  are s e v e r a l  extensive  a major  problems  areas  of  determinant  of  f o r years  ownership  i n t e r e s t s had been d i v i d e d and i n d i s p u t e . As a first  point of i n t e r e s t ,  Italian  pioneers  of  the Neighbourhood was  the a r e a ,  v i c i n i t y and was i n v o l v e d i n community  Victor  Losa,  named a f t e r one  o f the  who  i n the  owned  land  affairs.  The P l a n and i t s H i s t o r y As i n o t h e r this  p a r t s o f suburban Edmonton,  case, West J a s p e r  provided  Place)  there  i s an O u t l i n e P l a n ( i n  c o n t a i n i n g a number o f neighbourhoods which  g e n e r a l i z e d g u i d e l i n e s f o r development.  These  are f u r t h e r  expanded i n the Neighbourhood S t r u c t u r e P l a n (as T e r r a L o s a ) , which s e t the  6 density,  road  pattern, land use  mix  usually based on public elementary  and  servicing  concept  f o r an  school catchment area boundaries.  area These  Neighbourhood Structure Plans (NSP's) are prepared by the landowner, reviewed  by Planning, amended as necessary and forwarded  to the Municipal  Planning Commission, an advisory body and thence with a recommendation to City  Council, who  until  this  consider the Plan i n the form of a Bylaw.  Bylaw has  I t i s not  received Third Reading that a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r more  detailed development and f o r zoning can be considered. In March,  1981,  the  owners  1  group  presented  a  draft  Neighbourhood  Structure Plan f o r the consideration of the City Planning Department. owners proposed a mixture of r e s i d e n t i a l uses at a density of 78.4 per  gross  developable  acre  (190  persons/ha),  ranging  i n form  housing to high r i s e apartments and commercial/office and l i g h t development.  After  extensive  major points of difference,  review  the  and, negotiation f a i l e d  Planning  Department  The  persons from  row  industrial to resolve  recommended  to  the  Municipal Planning Commission that the plan not be recommended to Council for approval.  The basis of the non-support was the poor t r a n s i t i o n between  t h i s neighbourhood's high density r e s i d e n t i a l uses and the lower densities of surrounding neighbourhoods, the misuse of the commercial/office zone i n the suburban area ( i t was designed f o r use i n the fringe areas of downtown) and non-conformance with several General Municipal Plan p o l i c i e s regarding commercial uses i n general.  I t should be noted that although the density  proposed was very high i n comparison to other approved neighbourhood plans, this  proposal was  not  rejected because of i t s density.  recommendation, proposing tabling pending  An  alternative  r e v i s i o n of the plan to provide  solutions to these problems, was also placed before Commission, but on July  7  9, 1981, the M u n i c i p a l  Planning  non-support of the a p p l i c a t i o n .  Commission  unanimously  The owners decided  recommended  to proceed to Council  i n spite of t h i s and on September 22, 1981, the Plan was presented to them. The Bylaw was l a i d over u n t i l October 13, 1981 when the public hearing was held.  At that time, and for the f i r s t time, the owners* representative  suggested  that  they  had intended  guidelines derived from The  representative  to develop  the "Defensible  a l s o suggested  the neighbourhood  Space" concept  that  under  of Oscar Newman.  the owners were prepared  to  construct a community centre f o r the neighbourhood which would provide a focus f o r the neighbourhood community l i f e . It  should  numerous  be noted  that  City  Council  had been  asked  applications f o r increasing densities i n other  to consider  neighbourhoods  throughout the C i t y , and e s p e c i a l l y i n West Jasper Place, f o r the past two or  three  years.  These  applications were  residents on the basis of perceived  usually  opposed  by  adjacent  problems accompanying an increase i n  density, including among other things potential increases i n crime rates, vandalism, undesirable residents, area i n s t a b i l i t y and the l i k e . was therefore understandably  Council  hesitant about accepting so dense a plan and  t h i s was obvious from t h e i r questions  of both  Planning  and the owners'  representative. The Bylaw was referred to the Planning Department f o r further negotiat i o n and f o r response to several questions. A very preliminary draft of the guidelines was submitted t o Planning i n November, 1981.  Discussions continued and the guidelines were continually  expanded and refined u n t i l  May, 1982.  Simultaneously,  a myriad of l e g a l  agreements were being drawn up by which the guidelines would be imposed on  8 all  developments i n Terra Losa,  subsequent owner.  originally reduced  the  design  expressed  at  those  the  Similar complex agreements regarding  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for and Changes to  whether proposed by  by  initial  the  neighbourhood  Planning  edges of  the  were also  responding  adjacent  r e s i d e n t i a l areas and the very intense commercial/office amended to l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l .  The  to  undertaken.  neighbourhood  any  construction of,  membership i n the community centre were of  or  prepared.  the  concerns  Densities were to  lower  density  developments were  f i n a l version of the plan i s shown i n  Figure 1. Council considered the Bylaw again and gave i t Third Reading on May 1982  11,  (City of Edmonton, 1981-2).  The Design Guidelines The  Guidelines began as very  general,  almost self-evident statements  categorized under f i v e main headings: a)  boundary d e f i n i t i o n ;  b)  neighbourhood d e f i n i t i o n (or i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ) ;  c)  r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l features;  d)  a r c h i t e c t u r a l requirements;  e)  energy features (City of Edmonton, 1981).  and  Having been directed to negotiate with the owners, the Planning Department advised  them that considerably more d e t a i l would have to be  provided  i n order that future development proposals could be f a i r l y and consistently evaluated.  Several  comments from  other  Systems Design, and  more detailed d r a f t s were subsequently affected departments such as Water and  draft of the Guidelines was Appendix I.  3, 1982.  and  P o l i c e , Transportation  Sanitation were incorporated.  received on May  reviewed  The  final  This i s included i n  9  o  OJ ffl  mm E  ROW HOUSING MEDIUM DENSITY MULTIPLE-FAMILY LOW R I S E APARTMENT MEDIUM R I S E APARTMENT HIGH R I S E APARTMENT NEIGHBOURHOOD CONVIENIENCE COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIAL BUSINESS P U B L I C PARK URBAN RESERVE URBAN SERVICE DIRECT DEVELOPMENT CONTROL LAKE L I M I T OF NEIGHBOURHOOD  STRUCTURE PLAN  COMMUNITY RECREATIONAL CENTRE  FIGURE 1 TERRA LOSA Neighbourhood Structure Plan  A N  S O U R C E : THE CITY O F E D M O N T O N PLANNING  DEPARTMENT  10 The  objectives of  applicable  to  the  Guidelines  a l l sites,  i n d i v i d u a l i t y , v a r i e t y and  which the  are  stated  stress  the  i n General need  consideration of  for  adjacent  Provisions,  human  scale,  developments i n  designs f o r i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s . Relating philosophy  to  of  Defensible  the  concept and  f e l t would implement i t . public,  semi-private)  increased  explained  the  general  s t a t e Design P r o v i s i o n s which i t s authors  S p e c i f i c a l l y , d e f i n i t i o n o f spaces ( p u b l i c , semi-  for  s u r v e i l l a n c e of  semi-public  and  spaces,  semi-private interior  Signage and l a n d s c a p i n g a r e t o be used as a  f a c t o r i n the  territory.  The  encouraging  variety i n  unifying  Guidelines  encouragement o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n through d e s i g n o f  spaces a r e mentioned. "unifying"  the  to allow residents to i d e n t i f y with " t h e i r "  opportunity  spaces and  Space,  neighbourhood and  a l s o to provide  definition  A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r o v i s i o n s expand on the G e n e r a l unit  e l e m e n t s i n terms o f  size,  height,  shape  and  and  earth  sloping roofs  of  Provisions,  massing  but  with  tone  and  natural  community c e n t r e i s a l s o d e s c r i b e d i n the G u i d e l i n e s .  The  concept  material exterior finishes. The  p l a n f o r the c e n t r e s t r e s s e s the f l e x i b i l i t y to  o f the i n t e r i o r space w h i c h i s  c o n t a i n s e v e r a l rooms w h i c h c o u l d be used f o r day  care, meetings, s m a l l  group f u n c t i o n s , a l i m i t e d number o f i n d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s (games, etc.),  change and  looker  rooms, k i t c h e n  centre i s designed  t o be  The  agreements r e q u i r e  owners' l e g a l  the f o c a l  t r u c t e d by the t i m e the f i r s t 100  and  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e space.  p o i n t o f community s o c i a l that  the  interaction.  Community C e n t e r be  r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s are  The  cons-  occupied.  The Development Concept Since  their  first  submission  of  the  Neighbourhood  Structure  Plan  11 proposal  to  the  Planning Department, the developers have emphasized  unique nature of t h i s Neighbourhood. conditions and  As stated previously, the poor s o i l  the costs of remedial measures required special  ation i n the design. hood, e s p e c i a l l y  The  the  owners therefore suggested  consider-  that the Neighbour-  i n the areas with the worst s o i l conditions, be developed  with high density uses which would i n any case require deep excavations f o r foundations and would provide increased return on t h i s i n i t i a l A mix proposed  of  land  uses  (residential  f o r several reasons.  First,  and  light  both 100  investment.  industrial/office)  Avenue and  was  170 Street are  major a r t e r i a l roadways which would require i n s t a l l a t i o n of noise attenuation  devices  residential. traffic  the  developer's  expense  i f adjacent  land  uses were  Light i n d u s t r i a l uses could be employed as a buffer between  noise  Secondly,  at  and  residential  the owners saw  an  uses,  while  advantage  still  bringing i n revenue.  i n providing opportunity for  development of a high q u a l i t y o f f i c e park (a t y p i c a l development under Edmonton's l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l zoning) taking advantage of the good access to the  area,  the  proximity  neighbourhood and I t was  suggested  of  an  industrial  the City's policy that the r e s i d e n t i a l  employment and l i v i n g space  area  encouraging  to  the  office  north  of  the  decentralization.  and o f f i c e park areas would provide  i n the same neighbourhood, making i t a  truly  "urban" community. The owners' group envisioned that the eventual residents of the Neighbourhood would i n the main be c h i l d l e s s households dwelling individual  units  would  not  be  ground-related  access to ground l e v e l ) .  and the majority of the  ( i . e . not  Since the remainder  having  direct,  of West Jasper  12  P l a c e i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be a m i d d l e t o upper-middle c l a s s a r e a , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h i s Neighbourhood w i l l be o f a s i m i l a r The  Neighbourhood w i l l  projects  on  individual  p r o j e c t s but w i l l likely  to  be  likely  provide  parcels;  between them.  owner-occupied  a mixture  ownership The  than  lower  the  type  nature. of r e n t a l  will  not  and  owned  vary  within  d e n s i t y developments a r e more  high  density  projects, with  the  p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f a l u x u r y h i g h r i s e condominium t o be b u i l t , i f e v e r , i n the l a t e s t a g e s o f development. Once the D e s i g n G u i d e l i n e s were i n t r o d u c e d , the owners emphasize identity  the  efforts  and  a  "sense  they of  would  community"  e f f o r t i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n two a)  the  p r o v i s i o n of  signage, finishes; b)  make  high  create  among t h e  a  p h y s i c a l community  future residents.  This  areas:  a  "theme"  landscaping  and  i n the  roof  area,  lines  and  through  uniformity i n  similarity  in  exterior  and  t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a p o t e n t i a l f o c a l p o i n t f o r the Neighbourhood i n the shape o f the m u l t i - p u r p o s e  The  to  group began t o  1  marketing  level  of  community c e n t r e .  s t r a t e g y f o r T e r r a Losa  neighbourhood  involvement  will  and  definitely  interaction  emphasize  t h a t the  the  owners  f e e l the Neighbourhood's D e s i g n G u i d e l i n e s w i l l encourage. The P r e s e n t S t a t u s o f T e r r a Losa The  Neighbourhood  remains undeveloped,  pending  execution  of  the  agreements p e r t a i n i n g t o the community c e n t r e by a l l owners w h i c h must t a k e place  before  the  plan  of  s u b d i v i s i o n can  be  registered.  The  entire  Neighbourhood has been g i v e n d e t a i l e d z o n i n g . Due  t o the p r e s e n t economic c l i m a t e i n A l b e r t a , the n a t i o n - w i d e  slump  13 in construction and the added problem of a glut of rental accommodations i n Edmonton, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to estimate when construction w i l l begin.  The  original timetable for development had construction commencing i n 1983 and first  occupancy  later  the same year.  The  residential  area was  to be  developed f i r s t with the business park gradually coming on stream.  The  present economic situation has required that the business park be developed first,  for reasons of cash flow.  The developers expect that the f i r s t  residential projects to develop w i l l be the row housing sites, with the medium and high rise projects likely developing last.  Full development i s  expected to occur i n three to five years. The owners feel, i n spite of the large number of built and vacant units and a similarly large number of subdivided and zoned sites available for immediate construction both i n West Jasper Place and elsewhere i n the City, that Terra Losa can be developed and marketed as a "unique" and w i l l not be competing with these standard projects.  neighbourhood  The owners expect  the Neighbourhood to be, in fact, a leader i n the market. The Defensible Space Concept The Terra Losa Guidelines were drawn up following the principles of Defensible Space as expressed by Oscar Newman i n his book of the same name (1973).  This section provides an overview of this work so that the l i t e r a -  ture review which follows can be considered with the concept i n mind. Newman's work dealt almost exclusively with lower income residents of public housing sites i n the central areas of major American cities where both vandalism and crimes against persons were serious problems.  It was  his belief that one of the causes of these problems was the physical environment, specifically the size of the projects, their height and the lack  14 of opportunity f o r neighbours surveillance of non-private areas (Porteous, 1  1977, 298). to  occur,  The designs of the structures were o f f e r i n g places f o r crimes especially  Newman argued encourage  that  relatively architecture  unpremeditated  crimes  could  encounters  prevent  of opportunity. as w e l l as  them (1973, 12) and he derived both an a r c h i t e c t u r a l concept,  defensible  space,  and g u i d e l i n e s  f o r d e s i g n which  would  allow i t s  implementation. Newman defines "Defensible Space" as a surrogate term f o r the range of mechanisms - r e a l and symbolic b a r r i e r s , strongly defined areas of influence and improved opportuni t i e s for surveillance - that combine to bring an environment under the control of i t s residents. (1973, 3) This control i s e s s e n t i a l l y a form of t e r r i t o r i a l expression (see Chapter Three) and i t i s as important as a method security  i n the residents  toward  their  of engendering a sense of  home and environs as i t i s  an  approach to deterring the potential criminal from v i o l a t i n g that t e r r i t o r y . The  guidelines  which  Newman derived  are intended to encourage i n  residents a proprietary attitude toward t h e i r environment which i s intended to  result  i n physical  manifestations  of that a t t i t u d e .  These  w i l l be  recognized by the potential criminal, who w i l l perceive the environment as hostile.  In turn,  environment perceives  the resident who has developed an attachment to  and a f e e l i n g i t as l e s s  of concern  hostile  the  f o r i t and f o r h i s neighbours,  and h i s sense  of personal  security i s  enhanced. Newman proposes  four  "design elements"  t o a i d i n the creation of  "Defensible Spaces": a)  clear  definition  of t e r r i t o r i e s  and t h e i r  boundaries  and the  15 responsibilities semi-private appropriate  f o r them, c r e a t i n g a h i e r a r c h y  and p r i v a t e s p a c e s . spaces  t e r r i t o r i a l behavior, b)  provision  and  of  semi-public,  R e s i d e n t s would t h e n adopt the  "defend"  them  ( f o r explanation  of  see Chapter T h r e e ) ;  i n the design  the opportunity  i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r n o n - p u b l i c  f o r surveillance of  spaces by t h e r e s i d e n t s ,  through  use o f b u i l d i n g forms and f i n i s h e s w h i c h do n o t s i g n i f y  t o the  placement o f windows and d o o r s ; c)  o b s e r v e r t h e " i s o l a t i o n and v u l n e r a b i l i t y " o f t h e r e s i d e n t s ; and d)  placement o f h o u s i n g developments i n s u i t a b l e l o c a t i o n s away from a r e a s o f t h r e a t o r i n s u f f i c i e n t s e r v i c e s (Newman, 1973, 9).  Newman's concept i s c l e a r l y t h a t o f an a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t e r m i n i s t . f a c t , he s t a t e s i n a book on which " D e f e n s i b l e  In  Space" was based t h a t  ... we a r e now c e r t a i n t h a t the p h y s i c a l c o n s t r u c t o f r e s i d e n t i a l environments c a n e l i c i t a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r on t h e p a r t o f r e s i d e n t s which c o n t r i b u t e t o a major way toward i n s u r i n g t h e i r s e c u r i t y ; t h a t the form o f b u i l d i n g s and t h e i r g r o u p i n g s e n a b l e i n h a b i t a n t s t o u n d e r t a k e a s i g n i f i c a n t p o l i c i n g f u n c t i o n ... which a c t ( s ) as (an) i m p o r t a n t c o n s t r a i n t a g a i n s t a n t i s o c i a l b e h a v i o r . (Newman 1973, x i i ) T h i s a t t i t u d e i s s t r o n g l y e x h i b i t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e body o f h i s work b u t i n the summary Newman i n c l u d e s a c a v e a t : We a r e concerned t h a t some might r e a d i n t o o u r work t h e i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n c a n have a d i r e c t c a u s a l e f f e c t o n s o c i a l interactions. A r c h i t e c t u r e o p e r a t e s more i n t h e a r e a o f " i n f l u e n c e " than c o n t r o l . I t can create a s e t t i n g conducive t o r e a l i z i n g the p o t e n t i a l o f mutual c o n c e r n . I t does n o t and cannot m a n i p u l a t e people towards t h e s e f e e l i n g s b u t r a t h e r a l l o w s m u t u a l l y b e n e f i t t i n g a t t i t u d e s t o s u r f a c e (Newman, 1973, 207). A c r i t i q u e o f t h i s concept i s p r o v i d e d  i n Chapter F i v e .  Summary This  chapter  has s e t t h e scene  f o r the e v a l u a t i o n  of  the D e s i g n  16 Guidelines.  Through t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n of  Guidelines  and  identified  f o r further  review.  t h e D e f e n s i b l e Space  the g o a l s t a t e m e n t s o f the D e s i g n  concept,  consideration i n  areas  of  interest  t h e next c h a p t e r , t h e  can  be  literature  17 CHAPTER THREE  PROPOSED CONTENTS OF THE EVALUATION The  purpose  of t h i s  chapter i s t o i d e n t i f y  t h e major  topics  which  s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n a post-occupancy e v a l u a t i o n o f T e r r a L o s a . Each t o p i c w i l l be examined from two p o i n t s o f view: constructs  which  make i t i m p o r t a n t i n e v a l u a t i n g  the t h e o r e t i c a l  t h e Neighbourhood, and  which j u s t i f y i t s i n c l u s i o n i n f u r t h e r s t u d i e s ; and i n terms o f t h e r e s u l t s of  s t u d i e s o f o t h e r neighbourhoods  o r p r o j e c t s as a b a s i s f o r comparison  w i t h the e v e n t u a l r e s u l t s o f the T e r r a Losa e v a l u a t i o n . The  major  appearance  topics  were  identified  i n t h e body o f l i t e r a t u r e  on  the b a s i s  dealing  with  of their  neighbourhoods.  t o p i c s a r e h i g h l y i n t e r r e l a t e d - one may be p o s t u l a t e d contributing,  factor  i n the occurrence  repeated  o f another;  The  as a c a u s a l , or a almost  a l l o f the  neighbourhood and r e s i d e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a f f e c t more t h a n one t o p i c . F o r t h a t r e a s o n , t h e s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r d e a l i n g w i t h each s p e c i f i c t o p i c will  deal with  t h a t t o p i c a s a dependent v a r i a b l e ; i n o t h e r c h a p t e r s t h a t  same t o p i c may be c i t e d a s an independent v a r i a b l e i n t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f neighbourhood  satisfaction.  An i l l u s t r a t i v e  model o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between each t o p i c and t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h a f f e c t i t w i l l be p r o v i d e d . The planning,  literature  surveyed  includes  selections  from  the f i e l d s  of  s o c i o l o g y , s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g y , and c r i m i n o l o g y .  "Classic" studies, critiques, f i e l d j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s were i n c l u d e d  s u r v e y s , t e x t book summaries and r e c e n t  t o p r o v i d e a s broad a view a s p o s s i b l e o f  the t h e o r e t i c a l background and p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f each o f t h e t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d and neighbourhood e v a l u a t i o n o v e r a l l .  18 Residential Satisfaction Residential satisfaction has been defined as "...the absence of complaint when opportunity for complaint i s provided" (Schorr,  1970,  713).  It  relates to residents' opinions of their total living environment, using their  own  standards i n the  evaluation.  It i s an  entirely subjective  measure, since i t presents a view of the objective reality of the physical environment through the residents' perceptions,  which are colored by  non-  physical parameters such as values, needs, attitudes and expectations.  It  has  been suggested  that  both  the  objective  indicators and  assessments of residential environments should be studied,  subjective  so that human  meaning i s added to strict facts (Lansing and Rodgers, 1975, 302-303). Residential satisfaction has come to be studied at two micro-neighbourhood, or  area  neighbourhod, a larger area. within one  of  immediate  concern, and  The  former has  been defined  block (Coleman, 1978,  Rodgers, 1975,  331)  3) or within 5 - 6  scales: the  the  macro-  as the  area  houses (Marans and  for single family housing forms, and within the same  building, the same wing, or the same floor for apartment-dwellers (Coleman, 1978,  ty).  It i s the area where most residents have daily experiences,  where young children are raised, where informal where l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s  are  pursued.  interaction occurs and  As well,  i t i s where most  homeowners' investments are centered (Marans and Rodgers, 1975,  331).  At the larger scale, interests are more generalized and less personal, and  are  based more on  convenience  accessibility,  (Marans and  Rodgers, 1975,  services available, security, 325).  Studies have found  and that  overall satisfaction i s more closely related to the attitude toward the micro-environment than to the macro neighbourhood or the community at large (Marans and Rodgers, 1975,  300).  These two types of "neighbourhoods" are defined by individuals on the basis of experiences, perceptions and behavior patterns and therefore their boundaries vary considerably among a population. It i s necessary to keep these two scales of reference i n mind when evaluating residents' satisfactions, so that the relative importance of factors are judged with the same weight that the residents would place on them. In an explanatory  model, resident satisfaction can be viewed as being  dependent on two classes of variables:  those relating to the physical  environment, and those related to the social and psychological makeup of the resident population  (see Figure 2). These are roughly equivalent to  the objective and subjective aspects discussed above. PHYSICAL VARIABLES A review of the case studies i n the literature has found that the single most significant physical factor i n determining overall satisfaction is a high standard  of physical appearance and maintenance for both the  neighbourhood and individual properties  (Marans and Rodgers, 1975, 333;  Zehner, 1971, 383; Galster and Hesser, 1981, 7^8; Lansing and Marans, 969, 1978;  Great Britain, Dept. of Environment, 1972, 26; Norcross and Hysom,  1968,  30; Becker, 1974, 13; Norcross, 1973, 15).  Appearance, for this  purpose, could be defined to include factors such as the color and size of buildings, level,  landscaping,  spaciousness, variety of building, maintenance  bulk and relationships of buildings, and the nature of spaces  created (Great Britain, Dept. of Environment, 1972, 4). In some studies, this high quality of environment has been correlated to pride i n the neighbourhood (Coleman, 1978, 5-6; Great Britain, Dept. of Environment, 1972, 26).  SOCIAL/PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES (Subjective)  PHYSICAL VARIABLES (Objective)  Appearance  Management  F r i e n d l i n e s s of Neighbours (perceived and actual) Degree of Control/Choice i n c l u d i n g - privacy - personalization - security  Maintenance Level Degree to which Nhbd. i s planned  RESIDENTIAL SATISFACTION  Resident C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - class/status - education l e v e l - age - l i f e c y c l e stage - length of residence  S i t e Design Recreation Facilities  Dwelling Unit Type  o  Tenure Type \  most i n f l u e n t i a l factor  l e v e l of maintenance management w i l l i n g n e s s to continue residence sense of s a f e t y / s e c u r i t y  FIGURE 2 - DESCRIPTIVE MODEL - FACTORS AFFECTING AND INDICATORS OF RESIDENTIAL  SATISFACTION  21 Another physical variable could be c a l l e d the "planning a t t r i b u t e s " of the neighbourhood.  Several studies have found that residents of f u l l y -  planned neighbourhoods are more s a t i s f i e d than those i n l e s s planned areas (Zehner, 1971, 384; Marans and Rodgers, 1975, 323), and the residents of fully-planned  neighbourhoods  are more l i k e l y  to r e c o g n i z e  a macro-  neighbourhood than those i n less-planned suburbs (Zehner, 1971, 383). The design of the s i t e i s i n d i r e c t l y related to o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n , since by d e f i n i t i o n i t i s a major contributing factor to the environment's appearance. residents  Coleman  felt  that  (1978,  10-13) found  items related  neighbourhoods; t h i s factor was  that  to "good  upper  and  design"  middle  were  class  desirable i n  not mentioned by working and lower c l a s s  residents. Some of the design features s a t i s f a c t i o n are good  significantly  related  to high  views from units, e s p e c i a l l y from l i v i n g  overall room and  kitchen windows, provision of adequate play space (Great B r i t a i n , Dept. of Environment, 1972,  26) and d i f f e r e n t  play spaces suited to d i f f e r e n t  groups, e s p e c i a l l y at higher densities (Becker, 1974, 16). al  (1975a,  156)  found  in a  projects throughout the U.S.,  large that  survey of  private  f a c i l i t i e s were not related to o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n . (1969,  198)  character, outdoor  i n studying  communities  proximity to adjacent structures,  space, o f f s t r e e t  significant  planned  effect  parking  on r e s i d e n t i a l  townhouse developments,  found  and  housing  recreational  Lansing and Marans that  the  land  use  setbacks, amount of useable  provisions,  and  satisfaction.  Norcross (1973,  Francescato et  multiple  parking arrangements  age  9) stated  tree  cover had  no  However, i n a study of that  residents wanted  space available around and near t h e i r unit, pleasant views, parking areas  22 relieved  with  landscaping,  Becker, 1974,  7) and  and  adequate  space  between  clusters  short rows of units rather than long l i n e s .  (also Recre-  a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s were sources of s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the projects surveyed by Norcross.  The lack of consistency between survey r e s u l t s may  be due to the  differences i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r e s i d e n t i a l populations (further  explained  later  in  this  section  and  in  Chapter  differences i n the l o c a t i o n of the s i t e s surveyed, suggesting natural vegetation and the l i k e may Marans and  Rodgers  (1975, 333)  a f f e c t residents' found  that  on  surveyed  Four),  and  that climate,  expectations. a  micro-neighbourhood  scale, residents were l e s s s a t i s f i e d i f the area was  judged to have too  l i t t l e outdoor space, too much t r a f f i c , and few trees. Sanoff and unit  Sawhney point out that f o r both neighbourhood and  a t t r i b u t e s , respondents'  preferences  toward  the  "most  dwelling  important"  factors i n an i d e a l environment were not necessarily ( i n f a c t mostly  not)  factors unsatisfactory i n t h e i r e x i s t i n g environments (1972, 13-8-4).  Care  must therefore  obviously  be  taken to i d e n t i f y  to which environment,  the  real or the i d e a l , the responses r e f e r . Some studies (Great B r i t a i n , Dept. of Environment, 1972, Hesser, 1981,  748)  showed that r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n was  2; Galster and not affected by  unit type occupied, though Francescato (1975b, 6) showed that the factors determining s a t i s f a c t i o n varied with unit type.  Marcus and  Hogue (1975,  34) contend that a l l high r i s e dwellers carry a memory of or a s p i r a t i o n to a single family dwelling.  Michelson (1969, 20)  self-contained the unit the greater .persons surveyed aspired walkups).  also found that the more  the s a t i s f a c t i o n , and  to a single family  dwelling  that 85% of the  (no one  aspired  to  These seemingly contradictory r e s u l t s are explained by Michelson  (1977, 365):  23 what s a t i s f i e s families i n high r i s e apartments i n the short run i s not what would s a t i s f y them i n the long run, nor i n the short run either i f they could not move elsewhere i n the long run. F i n a l l y , several studies have revealed that variety i n the evidenced through changes i n height, setback, roof l i n e s ,  environment,  shape, pattern  and form, are important sources of s a t i s f a c t i o n (Norcross, 1973, B r i t a i n , Dept. of Environment, On  a  smaller scale,  satisfaction  considered to have a f a i r l y overall  satisfaction  (Great  Michelson, 1969, 20).  1972, 4, 26; Becker, 197^, with  the  9; Great  13).  dwelling unit  itself  is  s i g n i f i c a n t relationship with expressions of Britain,  Dept.  of  Environment,  1972,  26;  Rosow has stated that:  there i s l i t t l e evidence that s a t i s f a c t i o n with new housing i s related to l i v e a b i l i t y r e s u l t i n g from design per se except when there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n housing, e s p e c i a l l y where occupants are p a r t i c u l a r l y conscious of housing i n highly l i t e r a t e , sophisticated terms (1961, 129). The design of semi-public i n t e r i o r projects was sources  of  investigated by Becker satisfaction  pleasing, and  designed  relating  spaces i n multiple family housing  (1974; 16-20), and he i d e n t i f i e d some  to  them.  Lobbies  should  to allow f o r i n t e r a c t i o n and  ridors should be adequately l i t ,  quiet, and  be  visually  surveillance.  not used  Cor-  as children's play  spaces. Though density could be considered a component of the s i t e plan, i t has received  a  significant  amount of attention  as  a  factor  s a t i s f a c t i o n and so warrants i s o l a t e d consideration.  i n residential  (Density, defined as  the physical measure of number of people per unit area, as i t r e l a t e s to crowding,  defined as the perception of available  Chapter Four.)  space,  i s discussed i n  Marans, Lansing and Zehner (1970, 117) found that overall  s a t i s f a c t i o n i s lowest i n high density projects and  state that "the  site  24  plan  of neighbourhoods  density".  has  less  effect  on reported satisfaction  than  Another analysis of the same study revealed that the effects of  density were f e l t especially at the micro-neighbourhood scale (Marans and Rodgers, 1975, 339), and similar studies have identified low density as a source of satisfaction (Galster and Hesser, 1981, 148; Norcross, 1973, 9). Other studies, however, have found a negative relationship between density and satisfaction (Great Britain, Dept. of Environment, 1972, 2; Francescato, 1975b, 6) indicating that the specifics of a site may vary results obtained.  There seems to be a general tendency among studies such as those  of Marans, Rodgers,  Galster  and  Hesser  and  Norcross to equate "high  density" - a physical measure - with feelings of crowding - a perception (Schmidt et a l , 1979, 106).  Investigators as well as the neighbourhood  respondents may confuse density and crowding, as i n several cases authors conclude that density was the problem when respondents indicated a dislike for feeling either too close together or too crowded.  The inaccuracy of  this conclusion i s discussed i n Chapter Four. "Management" has been identified as a determinant of satisfaction i n several studies.  This factor i s particularly important i n multiple housing  developments, where non-private spaces exist and require maintenance. attitude of management towards  the residents, the maintenance  The level  achieved, and the responsiveness to complaints and requests for service are mentioned as measures of the adequacy of this factor (Francescato, 1975b, 8; Becker, 1974, 27; Michelson, 1977, 292). Very l i t t l e  appeared  i n the literature  levels of owners versus tenants.  comparing  the  satisfaction  Where findings did appear, i t seems  owners are more satisfied than renters (Schorr, 1970, 714) and that owners  25  do not like renters to be too close to them (Norcross, 1973, 8).  Both  these responses could be explained by the greater investment (both economic and psychological) which  the owner has i n the neighbourhood.  Lack of  attention to this factor i n the literature could be due to the types of sites chosen i n each particular survey - they tended to study either a l l owned or all-rental sites, so that comparison was not possible. SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES The single variable of any type which most significantly affects the l e v e l of r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n i s the f r i e n d l i n e s s of neighbours (Zehner, 1971,  383; Lansing and Marans, 1969,  199}  Norcross, 1973,  15;  Marans and Rodgers, 1975, 300, 333; Schorr, 1970, 714; Becker, 1974, 187). Surprisingly,  perception of  friendliness  i s sufficient  to  affect  satisfaction; i t does not necessarily have to be substantiated by frequent contacts (Zehner, 1972,  176) nor Is i t directly  related  number of friends or acquaintances i n the development  to the actual  (Becker, 1974, 180).  Coleman (1978, 10-11) has suggested this factor i s more important i n middle and working class neighbourhoods than those of the upper class. A second variable affecting the degree of satisfaction i s the degree of control  exercised  over his environment  by  the resident.  discussed i n detail in another section of this chapter.)  (Control i s In multiple  housing projects, the resident i s very often allowed direct control over only his private space, and there are rules which apply to that as well. Michelson (1977, 292) found that the degree of importance placed on items related to dissatisfaction might correspond to the amount of control the resident possesses to change them.  Kuper (1953, 165) likewise found that  negative comments regarding site design related to the removal of personal  26 choice from the decision to i n t e r a c t or come into contact with neighbours i n a word, privacy. Most  of  the  example, noise  case  1971, 26).  383;  Lansing  and  (1974,  directly 1972,  by  333;  Marans, 1969,  of  Norcross, 1973,  198;  17)  discovered  that  residents  correlated with  party  9;  122).  20;  Zehner,  features  were  1972,  not  as  and  management.  density  (Great  Lack of privacy has Britain,  Dept.  of  not  been  Environment,  outdoor space (Marans,  among upper classes, privacy rates as  desirable a t t r i b u t e (Coleman, 1978,  i s of  p a r t i c u l a r importance  especially high r i s e s (Francescato,  a  highly  10), while s i m i l a r value i s placed  i n the lower c l a s s , since i t can't be taken f o r granted Privacy  Lansing  Apparently, the s o c i a l c l a s s of residents a f f e c t s  the desire for privacy:  i n multiple  1975b, 6-8).  (Rosow, housing  on  1961, forms,  Lack of privacy ( i n t e r n a l  and external) has been c i t e d as a s i g n i f i c a n t reason f o r moving 1969,  walls,  Francescato,  Michelson, 1969,  design  for  5) though there i s evidence that the desire f o r lower density a r i s e s  and Zehner, 1970,  129).  privacy,  s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l s of privacy as the s o c i a l norms  out of a f e l t need for privacy, quiet and  it  aspects  10-13; Great B r i t a i n , Dept. of Environment,  important to maintaining established  listed  neighbours, outdoor privacy,  Rodgers, 1975,  Coleman, 1978,  Becker  reviewed  l e v e l s , hearing  and so on (Marans and 1975a, 156;  studies  (Michelson,  26).  Personalization - the i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n by residents of t h e i r space is  another  aspect  Becker (1974, 25)  of  control  which  enhances  residential  satisfaction.  found that nearly 70% of respondents desired the chance  to modify i n t e r i o r and  semi-private  of a c t i v i t y a f f e c t s the  pride and  outdoor space.  He suggested that type  involvement i n apartments and  develop-  ments and reduces management's maintenance costs and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  27 A  final  security  manifestation  of  residents,  and  to  control this  (Francescato, 1975b, 8; Marans and 1981,  746; The  Becker, 1974,  are  population.  In  (discussed  in  those spite  other  the  was  related of  Rodgers, 1975,  i n the  to  of  Zehner, 1971, factor.  literature.  383;  It  Galster and  should  be  the  characteristics  in  to  this  chapter),  social  Hesser, 1981,  received  746)  however,  case,  and  discussion  since  (1961, 136-138) has  there  is a  and  an  relationship  of  Hesser,  the  and  resident  interaction of  surprisingly  (Coleman, 1978,  the  little 10-16;  mention homogeneity as a  that  that  Gans' work r e l a t i n g resident  interaction  of  studies  homogeneity  most  residents  of  r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous i n the  prospective  s e l f - s e l e c t i o n process reinforces the developers' and t h i s regard.  Galster  attachment  Only three studies  noted,  any  sense  several  characteristics  neighbourhoods, p a r t i c u l a r l y suburban ones, are their  325;  a  economic variables a f f e c t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l  population as i t relates to s a t i s f a c t i o n has attention  in  of  56).  i t s importance  sections  importance  mentioned  21; Coleman, 1978,  t h i r d c l a s s of s o c i a l and  satisfaction  is  residents'  planners' e f f o r t s i n  homogeneity to high degrees of indirect between  connection  sense  of  to  this  control  and  social interaction levels. Some s t u d i e s  have r e l a t e d  specific characteristics  to  levels  of  s a t i s f a c t i o n , however, o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n has been shown to be highest i n the  upper and  (Coleman, 1978,  middle classes, 30).  since  residents'  aspirations  are  being  At the macro-neighbourhood l e v e l , Marans and  favored no r e l a t i o n between s a t i s f a c t i o n and  met  Rodgers  income, though at the micro-  l e v e l , those with high incomes were more s a t i s f i e d (1975, 327,  335).  The  same study showed those with lower education l e v e l s were more s a t i s f i e d at  28 the macro l e v e l ,  though r e s u l t s at the smaller scale were i n s i g n i f i c a n t  (1975, 335, 327).  Francescato (1975a, 157) suggested that the r e s u l t s h i s  study  obtained r e l a t i n g  a higher  level  of education to higher  overall  s a t i s f a c t i o n could be accounted f o r by the concentration of that group i n newer  and  better  maintained  housing.  Younger  adults  and  adolescent  residents have been shown to be least s a t i s f i e d with the neighbourhood whole and the older residents (45+) and Rodgers, 1975, 327, 335). of  tended to be highly s a t i s f i e d  as a  (Marans  Norcross found a s i m i l a r r e s u l t i n h i s study  townhouse projects, and suggested  that they may  be due to the younger  residents viewing the housing form as an interim step i n the attainment of goals (1973, 10).  Stage i n l i f e  influence on s a t i s f a c t i o n .  cycle has also been investigated f o r i t s  Becker  (1974, 28) found that although o v e r a l l  l e v e l s were high, families and married couples without children rated the high  density  residents. density  housing  projects  Marans and  planned  suburbs  he  surveyed  Rodgers (1975, 339) that  at  the  less  favorably  than  other  discovered i n studying medium  micro-neighbourhood  level,  married  couples with children under s i x were most s a t i s f i e d ; at the macro-level, older marrieds and couples with children rated higher (1975, 327). of  residence was  found  to be  p o s i t i v e l y associated with high l e v e l s  s a t i s f a c t i o n (1975, 327), l i k e l y because those who have a tendency to leave i t . studies, istics  the B r i t i s h  had  (1972, 26).  any  of  d i s l i k e an area would  In spite of the r e s u l t s of a l l these American  study reviewed  significant  Length  found  relationships  that none of these characterwith  residential  satisfaction  Francescato concludes that since s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s vary so  much between education l e v e l s , ages and sexes, housing must be matched to the needs of the prospective residents (1975a, 157).  This can  probably  29 best be achieved developers,  who  municipality  through close cooperation should  should  have a c l e a r idea of t h e i r intended be  involved  population have t h e i r needs met In  concluding  the  between building designers  to  assure  that  and  market.  a l l sectors  The  of  the  i n the housing supply.  discussion  of v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l  s a t i s f a c t i o n , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the comment made by  Clare Cooper  that when people are asked to mention t h e i r " l i k e s " , they are more l i k e l y to r e f e r to people; when  they r e f e r to " d i s l i k e s " , i t i s more usual  for  physical features, e s p e c i a l l y the spaces between the buildings, which are mentioned  (1975, 198-199).  In preparing  the  evaluation f o r Terra  then, i t w i l l be necessary to ask residents f o r both p o s i t i v e and opinions i n order  to avoid bias, and  Losa,  negative  f o r opinions on "spaces" as w e l l  as  "structures". Some of the studies proposed predictors of the existence of r e s i d e n t i a l satisfaction.  Marans, Lansing  and  Zehner suggested  that l e v e l  of main-  tenance w i l l most c l o s e l y i n d i c a t e s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s (1970,  132).  Francescato (1975b, 8) i d e n t i f i e d d i f f e r e n t predictors f o r d i f f e r e n t types of housing:  for high r i s e , management, privacy from neighbours, safety and  security are mentioned; f o r low  r i s e , management i s considered  important.  Perhaps the most common and u n i v e r s a l l y applicable measure, however, i s the willingness  of  Sawhney, 1972,  residents  to  continue  living  Kasarda and Janowitz, 1974,  in  a  place  33; Coleman, 1978,  (Sanofff  and  7-8).  Sense of Control The sense of control to be discussed i n t h i s section i s c l o s e l y related to the "sense of belonging"  described  elsewhere i n t h i s Chapter.  than i n d i c a t i n g attachment, however, i t can be described  Rather  as a proprietary  30 attitude  toward  the  neighbourhood  which  results i n  i n d i v i d u a l s either  f e e l i n g as i f they do or do not belong i n the area and  that the area does  or does not belong to them (Fitzhugh and Anderson, 1980, control" i s composed of two proprietary i n nature, and  parts:  the  psychological  2).  The "sense of  a t t i t u d e , which i s  the object of that a t t i t u d e , the physical area  or t e r r i t o r y i t i s displayed toward.  The  attitude i s therefore analagous  to what has been termed " t e r r i t o r i a l i t y " . A  number of  complex  d e f i n i t i o n s of  territoriality,  some rooted  studies of animal behavior, have been derived (Altman, 1975, (1976, 33)  has  described  the concept simply  of person(s) with a s p e c i f i c places  105)  in  but Edney  as the continuous association  Altman suggests that:  T e r r i t o r i a l behavior i s a self/other boundary regulation mechanism that involves personalization of or marketing of a place or object, and communication that i t i s "owned" by a person or group. (1975, 107) I t i s a s o c i a l control mechanism and  a behavioural  property  defense mechanism (Altman, 1975,  oriality  plays  interaction  a  stabilizing  (personal,  and  group and  108;  regulatory  Edney, 1976, r o l e at  community) and  providing cues f o r behavior and making status and 1975,  organizer as well as a 31).  several  Territl e v e l s of  i n several  roles explicit  ways  by  (Altman,  138).  Becker (1975, 5) sees t e r r i t o r i a l i t y as maximizing an i n d i v i d u a l s or group's "freedom activities  within  of  choice",  e s p e c i a l l y i n c o n t r o l l i n g "access i n t o  a  specific  micro-environment."  Brower  suggests  and that  since t e r r i t o r a l i t y deals with "behavior that d i r e c t l y a f f e c t s the security and maintenance of the physical environment" (1980, 183), concern to  i t should  be  of  planners.  To take the notion of control one step further, Altman (1975, 105)  sees  31  t e r r i t o r i a l i t y as the •means towards the end' of privacy, which he defines as " s e l e c t i v e  control of access to the s e l f or one's group"  (1976, 8).  Privacy i s a group-preserving function, through which continued  involvement  with others can be tolerated and continued (Schwartz, 1972, degree of privacy sought  varies with the people, the task, and  span involved (Altman, 1976, ified  153-154).  8).  three functions of privacy:  interface  between  the  self  the  time  The same author (1976, 24-25) has identthe regulation of i n t e r a c t i o n i n the  s o c i a l environment to provide s o c i a l and personal d e f i n i t i o n , the  The  and  the world  to  allow  control of  absorption  and  growth, and the protection of s e l f - i d e n t i t y , self-respect and d i g n i t y . Research  has  identified  three types  of t e r r i t o r y  (Altman,  1975,  111-129) distinguished by the degree of control and use by occupants, the r e l a t i v e duration of the users' claims. is  owned by  i n d i v i d u a l s or groups,  belonging to those owners. and very powerful.  and  The primary t e r r i t o r y , which  i s clearly  identified  by  others  as  Control i s r e l a t i v e l y permanent, highly valued  Lack of a sustained primary t e r r i t o r y can lead to lack  of self-esteem and i d e n t i t y , and personalization should be permitted. Secondary t e r r i t o r i e s are of two types. which "regular users have r e l a t i v e l y  free  others'  1975,  territory  use  of  the  place"  i s where s o c i a l  (Altman, interaction  The "home" t e r r i t o r y i s one i n access 114).  takes  place  habitual users and opportunities f o r use by others. that  the most confusion over  and  j u r i s d i c t i o n and  some control The  and  over  "interactional" again  there  I t i s i n these  responsibility  are  spaces  occur,  and  where c o n f l i c t s r e s u l t i n g from t h i s confusion can take place. "Public"  territory  i s held  only  temporarily,  complete freedom of access and occupancy r i g h t s .  and  there  is  almost  Madge ( i n Ska bur-ski s, 1974, 41) s u g g e s t s t h a t  t h e neighbourhood  i sa  t r a n s i t i o n zone w h i c h p r o v i d e s f o r g e o g r a p h i c l i n k s between n e i g h b o u r s but yet  i s a s a f e t r a n s i t i o n space between t h e w h o l l y p u b l i c and t h e p r i v a t e  lives of i t s residents. The  t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on c o n t r o l ,  be approached  from t h r e e p o i n t s o f view:  psychologically), (physically). the  o f t h e group  territoriality  from t h a t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ( o r  (sociologically)  Figure 3 i l l u s t r a t e s  and p r i v a c y c a n  and o f t h e  environment  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o n t r o l and  f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e i t . On a p e r s o n a l l e v e l , these c o n c e p t s a r e most c l e a r l y i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e  human need f o r s e c u r i t y , f o r a ' s a f e haven', and f o r a sense o f b e l o n g i n g (Altman, 1975, 13; Marcus and Hogue, 1976, 37-39).  Rainwater suggests t h a t  as t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n f i d e n c e i n s e c u r i t y w i t h i n t h e home i s a s s u r e d , he begins t o extend  the "area of safety"  further  afield  a l l o w s f o r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s and development  (1973, 104)  which  o f a s o c i a l network.  As  an a s i d e , Beck (1977, 9) found t h a t p e r s o n a l s e c u r i t y was n o t a s s i g n i f i c a n t a c o n c e r n i n Canada a s i n t h e U.S. At t h e l a r g e r group s c a l e  ( i n t h i s c a s e , based o n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d ) ,  t e r r i t o r i a l i t y has been s u g g e s t e d a s a method o f i n c r e a s i n g group c o h e s i o n through  development  o f a "sense  o f a common cause"  engendered  by t h e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s u r v e i l l a n c e o f common t e r r i t o r y ( R a i n w a t e r , 1973, 104) and i t s defense from i n t r u s i o n . for  whom t h e neighbourhood  involvement sharing  t o ensure  Wellman (1973, 13) found t h a t even  those  h a s few t i e s w i l l m a i n t a i n a m i n i m a l l e v e l o f  a minimum l e v e l  of social  control.  The s i m p l e  o f s p a c e , and a c o n c e r n f o r t h a t space, has been s u g g e s t e d as a  b a s i s f o r a l o o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h may be t h e b e g i n n i n g o f more e x t e n s i v e bonding (Edney, 1976, 37).  Length of Residence  D e f i n i t i o n of Spaces and R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  Personalization  SENSE OF CONTROL^p-  • Perception of Security  Social I n t e r a c t i o n and Community Involvement p r i v a c y / s o c i a l control sense of belonging high level of maintenance challenges to intruders  FIGURE 3 - DESCRIPTIVE MODEL - FACTORS AFFECTING AND INDICATORS OF "SENSE OF CONTROL"  LO LO  34 In this system, the individual i s perceived as having certain rights or control, including those of access, of (limited) freedom of action and behavior, and of the ability to resist the approaches of others, when on his own ground (Edney, 1976, 38-39).  When the group to which the indi-  vidual belongs recognizes these rights, a structure has been established around which the group's interactions and standards of behavior can be organized (Edney, 1976, 43; Galster and Hesser, 1981, 2 3 9 ; Becker, 1975, 23). Territoriality i s evidenced i n the physical environment by means of markers which are intended to both prevent intrusion and to be a reaction to intrusion.  Barriers need not be physical i n nature - they can be verbal  and non-verbal symbols as well (Altman, 1975, 123) - but they a l l are intended  to affect  others' physical  behaviors.  Most markers  are not  barriers to movement but rather are symbols which emphasize that the space marked belongs to someone (Becker, 1975, method of marking territory,  18).  Personalization i s one  particularly i n multiple housing projects  where the built environment does not provide a great deal of variety. Other markers are fences, hedges, placement of personal possessions (e.g. bicycles on the lawn, cars i n the driveway), and signs.  Brower (1980, 189)  points out, however, that signs of occupancy of a territory must continually be used and maintained i f they are to be convincing. Personalization allows a physical expression of attitudes, values and lifestyle without a more direct contact with neighbours.  In particular, a  concern about the environment evidenced by maintenance of a property, when shared by neighbours, can be the basis of the neighbourhood's social norms and incentive for more intensive social involvement (Becker, 1975, 22-23).  35 The r e s u l t s of case studies i n v e s t i g a t i n g the sense of control and i t s component parts i n neighbourhoood the  and housing projects may be h e l p f u l i n  evaluation of Terra Losa and so are presented below. As has been discussed above, t e r r i t o r i a l defense can be manifested i n a  high standard of maintenance of property (Galster and Hesser, 1981, 238-9). It  has been found that well-maintained and e s p e c i a l l y  deters  vandals  and  criminals,  reduces  management  personalized  costs  and  space  increases  security at minimum costs (Becker, 1975, 23) while expressing control over, and pride i n , the environment.  Personalization i s also an i n d i c a t i o n of  the  satisfaction,  existence of r e s i d e n t i a l  and a sense  of s e c u r i t y  (Fitzhugh and Anderson, 1980, 1). Beck  (1977,  9) has suggested  that  the lack  of c l e a r  d e f i n i t i o n of  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r private and public spaces i s one cause of maintenance problems.  Skaburskis (1974, 41) points out that complaints about lack of  privacy may be more the r e s u l t actual lack of space.  of inadequate d e f i n i t i o n  of spaces  than  Ambiguity of spaces has been suggested as the cause  of residents' f e e l i n g s of i n s e c u r i t y i n 'no-man's lands', since there i s no t e r r i t o r i a l defense, control, or surveillance (Becker, 1975, 20). Studies of the reactions to i n t r u s i o n are of i n t e r e s t also. are  apparently unwilling  to challenge intruders  (or those  Residents  perceived as  intruders) unless the boundaries of the t e r r i t o r y to be defended are welldefined.  The willingness to challenge and defend depends on the number of  neighbours known (perceived and actual numbers), as well as the depth of that friendship - i n other words, moral (Becker, 1975, 20-22). to  defend  support that  could  be expected  Altman (1975, 133) found that residents are w i l l i n g  neighbours' space  i f asked  to do so.  In a small study of  36  territorial  defense mechanisms, Edney (1972) found  that there i s a  significant relationship between defense and length of residence, and an even stronger one between defense and length of expected future residence. The study did not, however, provide enough detail to determine the way i n which the scale and value of this defensive reaction changed over time. Regarding feelings of security, Becker (1975, 18) found that people's perceptions of their safety are often more important than the reality (a similar result w i l l be discussed later i n Chapter Four, relating to the perception of crime). The same author found a negative correlation between having "no good friends" i n the area and feeling "very secure" (1975, 22). Weideman and Anderson also found that people felt safer i f they had friends nearby and i f the area was well maintained.  Conversely, perception of a  large number of people as strangers increased insecurity (1982, 717-718). The role of physical design i n achieving a sense of control was dealt with quite extensively i n the literature.  Some of these observations were  made as the result of case studies; others were based discussions.  on  theoretical  Clear definition of spaces and the responsibilities for them  was urged repeatedly (Skaburskis, 1974, 43; Cooper, 1975, 199; Weideman and Anderson,  1982, 721).  Control (and limitation) of non-resident activity  and through-traffic i n the area was stressed (Lansing, Marans and Zehner, 1970,  111; Cooper, 1975,  Anderson, 1982, 721). and  199; Marcus and Hogue, 1976, 38; Weideman and  Increasing the opportunities for social interaction  community involvement  through design was  probably the most widely  recommended solution, and i t i s seen as the 'next step' beyond the defensible space concept (Becker, 1975, 22; Weideman and Anderson,  1982,  719,  721; Skaburskis, 1974, 43; Lansing, Marans and Zehner, 1970, 116; Marcus and Hogue, 1976, 39-40; Brower, 1980, 192; Budgen, 1983, 10).  37 Sense of Belonging A "sense of belonging" i s defined here as the f e e l i n g of attachment i t s residents have f o r a neighbourhood, and their cohesion and s o l i d a r i t y as a group which r e s u l t s .  Sanoff and Sawnhey (1972, 13-8-6) have described t h i s  phenomena as the residents' "...perception  of s o c i a l  eohesiveness i n a  given area and the mutual concern of residents f o r each others' welfare". I t has been hypothesized that i n d i v i d u a l s ' commitments to their neighbourhoods and neighbours has two forms,  social  involvement  and subjective  f e e l i n g , which can take several forms and which may vary according to the needs, opportunities and resources of the i n d i v i d u a l , and to the place i n which  they  live.  Further  examination  of the l e v e l  of residents'  commitments can be approached from both the psychological and the sociol o g i c a l points of view (Gerson, 1977, 139-140). Several researchers have argued that the possession of l o c a l t i e s are essential  f o r an i n d i v i d u a l ' s well-being.  Hayward  (1977, 12-13) states  that the home i s an expression of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f - i d e n t i t y and i s a special setting where one makes commitments to r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  He states  that i t i s not only the house i t s e l f which influences t h i s perception, but also the people and the community l i f e of the neighbourhood i n which i t i s located.  Galster and Hesser agree that the neighbourhood i s viewed as an  extension of one's 239). its  home i n cases where an attachment i s present (1982,  Cooper (1977, 3-4) states that the house i s the "symbol of s e l f " f o r  inhabitants.  Depending  on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  perception of the world  (including the neighbourhood) as a h o s t i l e , threatening environment or as stable and a t t r a c t i v e , the home can be seen by that i n d i v i d u a l as either a fortress  f o r the defence of " s e l f " ,  or as a means of self-expression.  38 Different  people have different  needs, desires for, and perceptions of  t h e i r neighbourhood and t h e i r neighbourly r e l a t i o n s , based on t h e i r individual personality types, lifestyles, l i f e topic i s considered i n greater detail  stages and so on.  This  i n Chapter Four i n dealing with  residents' characteristics. From a sociological perspective, the degree of attachment i s based on the  types and intensity  associates with a place.  of social  relationships  which  an individual  The physical setting becomes less important over  time, except as an organizer, as other social (Gerson et a l , 1977, 140).  Smith  factors come into  (1970, 144) states  play  that attachment  engenders a feeling of solidarity among neighbours, which i n turn becomes a social control mechanism.  Galster and Hesser (1982, 239-240) conclude that  the stronger the cohesiveness, the greater the desire to conform to the "minimum acceptable" standards of the neighbourhood.  Greater neighbourhood  attachment leads to increased sensitivity to conformity, and a desire to increase the "neighbourhood good". If  "sense  variable,  of belonging" or commitment  there are several  i s viewed  as a  dependent  factors which, research shows, affect i t s  existence and i t s strength (see Figure 4). From the body of literature examined,  the majority of the research  undertaken has found that the length of residence i n the neighbourhood i s a major factor i n the development of neighbourhood attachments (Kasarda and Janowitz, 1974, 334; Biegel et a l , 1980, 117; Gerson et a l , 1977,  156).  Most researchers agree, however, that length of residence by i t s e l f i s insufficient reason to develop an attachment to place.  More often i t i s  the people i n that place and the relationships (especially voluntary ones)  Social Relationships - type - number  Length of Residence  L i f e cycle stage  SENSE OF BELONGING  Dwelling Unit Type'  Personal Perceptions, needs, desires  Tenure type VO  neighbourhood cohesiveness conformity with neighbourhood norms extension of area of concern use of nhbd. f a c i l i t i e s residential satisfaction increased s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n  -most i n f l u e n t i a l  factor  FIGURE 4 - DESCRIPTIVE MODEL - FACTORS AFFECTING AND INDICATORS OF "SENSE OF BELONGING  40 which the i n d i v i d u a l has with them that creates the attachment, even lead to long-term residence.  and  may  On the other hand, long-term residence  may increase the i n t e n s i t y of relationships, as w e l l (Kasarda and Janowitz, 1974, 335-336; Gerson, 1977, 148, 156; Biegel, 1980,  119).  Other factors are l e s s important i n explaining neighbourhood ments.  Life  involvement.  attach-  stage i s important, as those with children have more l o c a l Older people  (probably because  of length of residence and  reduced area of operation) and children (probably because of lack of other opportunities and experience and l o c a l i z e d need and t i e s ) tend to be more attached to their neighbourhoods features of forms,  1977,  the place are likewise  with  attachment  (Gerson, 1977,  their  attached  147,  significant.  "territories",  evoke  156).  Single a  The family  stronger  physical housing sense  of  (which as explained above extends to the neighbourhood) (Gerson,  149), than do high r i s e apartments, which are generally perceived as  less-than-the-ideal and as interim homes only (Cooper, 1977, 2; Michelson, 1969, 20).  Ownership, together with length of residence, has been found to  be highly correlated to existence of a sense of belonging (Biegel,  1980,  115). F i n a l l y , the manner i n which attachment has been found to be evidenced by residents i n past research i s worthy of note, since t h e i r appearance i n Terra Losa may give an i n d i c a t i o n of the effectiveness of the planning.  Smith  neighbourhood 1)  neighbourhood  (1970, 145-147) has suggested f i v e kinds of evidence of  attachment:  Most t y p i c a l l y , the number and l o c a t i o n of friends, the frequency of contact and the content of interactions of residents w i l l indicate to what degree t h e i r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are within the  neighbourhood.  41 2)  The intensity of use of physical f a c i l i t i e s reflects to orientation of local residents to an area.  3)  Psychological cohesion, or the personal identification of an individual with an area and i t s residents, i s evidenced by: and  towards, others; the expression  the friendliness of,  of " l i k i n g "  an area, the  satisfaction with the residential environment; and the recognition of the area's name and boundaries. 4)  Related to social interaction as well, Smith found that the frequency of  a positive perception of neighbours  may be greater than that of  actual physical contacts with them. 5)  Investigation of the degree of concensus among neighbours of acceptable values  and  behaviors,  i n the roles  and operations  of  local  institutions, and i n levels of maintenance, noise, borrowing and the like, can give a more complete picture of the residents' attitudes towards their neighbourhoods. Other authors have suggested participation  evidence of cohesion.  (but not involvement  i n local  formal  Informal  social  organizations) i s  considered an indication of a sense of belonging (Kasarda and Janowitz, 1974, 336).  Expressions of individuality, especially on the exterior of  dwellings (Brower, 1980, 193), indicates a desire for self-expression using the dwelling as a symbol of self (Cooper, 1977, 2). The level of neighbourhood solidarity has been shown to be related to a lack of desire to relocate (Sanoff and Sawhney, 1972, 13-8-6).  Finally, one might assume  that a similarly high standard of maintenance i n the neighbourhood (or a sub-unit), together with evidence of imitation of neighbours, might result from the cohesiveness described by Galster and Hesser above.  42 S o c i a l Interaction Neighbourhoods  are composed of two aspects:  and the s o c i a l community. ically,  the physical  environment,  This section w i l l examine the l a t t e r .  Specif-  the theories regarding the kinds of relationships that exist  and  how they develop w i l l be presented, followed by the r e s u l t s of case studies i d e n t i f y i n g the f a c t o r s which a f f e c t the s o c i a l community and the physical patterns of i n t e r a c t i o n which occur i n urban  neighbourhoods.  Four kinds of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s have been i d e n t i f i e d i n neighbourhood s i t u a t i o n s . The f i r s t , by.  that of the neighbour, involves those persons l i v i n g  Neighbours  are helpers i n time  of  need, and  a  source  of  close casual  s o c i a b i l i t y and information (Keller, 1968, 152) but the r e l a t i o n s h i p may no deeper than that.  go  Ties between neighbours are based on the t r a d i t i o n of  reciprocal o b l i g a t i o n rather than emotional feelings or l i k i n g . (1960, 7) suggests that because of the greater independence  Heberle  of households  today, most t i e s between neighbours are voluntary rather than obligatory. Smith (1970, 146) describes a concept c a l l e d "latent neighbouring" i n which there i s a predisposition to help neighbours i n time of need, but other contact.  little  Shulman (1967, 53-54) i d e n t i f i e d two other attitudes toward  neighbouring i n h i s Canadian study:  "manifest neighbouring" which involves  frequent contact and mutual a i d , and relationships almost l i k e an extended family; and "privacy oriented" i n which there was minimal i n t e r a c t i o n and neutral  feelings  towards  neighbours.  The  majority of  the population  surveyed displayed the "latent neighbouring" attitude (55?) while "privacy oriented" i n d i v i d u a l s comprised only 15$. Friendships within a neighbourhood are generally considered to be more  43 intense and  intimate, longer-lasting and  based on a more widely  shared  interest than simply living close together. Interaction can occur not only between individuals, as above, but also between individuals and various groups. be of two types:  Generally these are considered to  the informal group i n which membership i s voluntary and  the organization i s loose; and the formal organization, which requires some form of commitment to membership and which i s more rigidly structured.  An  example of the former would be a group which gathers to play tennis, and a church group or fraternal organization would be one kind of the latter. Regarding the manner in which social relationships are formed i n the neighbourhood, Festinger which he  (1950, 34-35) postulated  included both neighbouring  result of proximity  and  living close together.  and  the "passive  that friendships (in  friendships) were formed as a  contacts" occurring between those  Proximity was determined on the basis of physical  distance, an also of "functional distance" - the "positional relationships and features of design" which encouraged passive contacts. Gans and  others  suggested that  disagreed  with  though propinquity  this determinist explanation. i s important as an  initiator  They of  neighbouring and for the maintenance of less intense relationships such as latent neighbouring,  i t i s not strong enough to be the sole basis for more  intense relationships (Gans, 1961, 135).  Schorr (1970, 720) suggests that  in the short-term contacts are made through proximity, but in the longer run contacts through organizations and workplace are the predominant bases for relationships. This concept i s expanded further by Wellman (1973» 2-3) and Litwak (1970, 585) who state that with improved communication, greater residential mobility, and less dependence on neighbours for mutual aid,  44 t i e s are now more l i k e l y to be s p a t i a l l y d i f f u s e and the r e l i a n c e on the l o c a l neighbourhood as the areal base f o r i n t e r a c t i o n may be obsolete. If  an explanatory  model of neighbourhood r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s set up with  s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n as the dependent v a r i a b l e , the l i t e r a t u r e can provide a large number of independent variables by which i t i s affected (see Figure 5). Perhaps the most widely-accepted  influence  on the degree of s o c i a l  i n t e r a c t i o n i s the homogeneity of the resident population. the  first  to point  out that  micro-neighbourhood scale.  i t i s important,  Gans was one of  and e s p e c i a l l y so at the  He suggests that homogeneity of the population  promotes greater involvement i n the s o c i a l l i f e of the neighbourhood since it  also means that i t i s l i k e l y that people with s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t , values  and  attitudes w i l l  be located  homogeneity increases  the perception  (Gans, 1961, 136-138). its  initial  visible  signs  similarity. 1970,  stages,  near  each  other.  He also  states  that  of f r i e n d l i n e s s i n the neighbourhood  Carey and Mapes (1972, 79) have suggested that i n  social  of perceived  i n t e r a c t i o n i s dependent compatibility rather  than  on the outwardlyany  psychological  Other studies (Zehner, 1972, 176; K e l l e r , 1978, 8; Michelson,  184-185) found  that  perceived  similarity  of i n t e r e s t i s very  important to both r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n the middle and upper c l a s s .  In a study of a heterogeneous multiple housing  project, i t was found that friendships d i d form on the basis of s i m i l a r i t y and propinquity, but the greater the distance, the more friendships needed additional  s i m i l a r i t i e s i n s o c i a l c l a s s to be maintained  Yoshioka, 1973, 61).  (Athanasiou and  stage  most i n f l u e n t i a l  factor  FIGURE 5 - DESCRIPTIVE MODEL - FACTORS AFFECTING SOCIAL INTERACTION  46  In  r e l a t i o n to s p e c i f i c  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the population, the  following results have been found.  Residents with education above high  school levels are found to have a greater number of friends (Biegel, 1980, 118) especially at a distance (Athanasiou and Yoshioka, 1973, 55).  Gans  also saw education level as an important variable, with income and  life  cycle  stage, i n neighbouring activity  (1961,  137).  Several studies  (Yancey, 1972, 127; Fried and Gleicher, 1972, 147) found that friends among the  middle class were more dispersed than among the working class.  Young  adults, adolescents and children have been found to interact more than elderly people (Biegel, 1980, 116) and children often serve as catalysts for bringing adults together (Michelson, 1970, 180; Carey and Mapes, 1972, 51; Great Britain,  Dept. of Environment,  Fischer and Jackson, 1976, 294).  1972,  62; Wellman, 1973,  12;  Several studies have found that working  in the neighbourhood i s closely related to involvement i n the neighbourhood and neighbouring activity (Martin, 1956, 448-449; Lee, 1968, 260).  It has  also been shown that the degree and type of neighbouring i s significantly influenced by the degree of self-sufficiency of an individual or household. If  the resident  i s highly  autonomous,  neighbouring activity  i s very  selective and voluntary (Keller, 1968, 156; Heberle, 1960, 9; Gerson, 1977, 156).  The tendency to autonomy increases with urbanization and mobility  (Keller, 1968, 156; Zito, 1974, 262).  People also differ i n their natural  propensity to neighbour (as discussed elsewhere i n Chapter Four, and Great Britain, Dept. of Environment,  1972, 62), and i n some cases l i f e  style  chosen does not require the mutual aid offered by neighbours (Zito, 1974, 262; Michelson, 1970, 189).  Type of tenure has been variously shown to  affect neighbouring, with owners interacting more than renters (Biegel,  47 1980,  116),  and  not a f f e c t i n g i n t e r a c t i o n (Caplow and  Michelson, 1969, Finally,  Forman, 1950,  18).  length  residence  in a  neighbourhood  increase p a r t i c i p a t i o n (Michelson,  1969,  2; Litwak, 1970,  Janowitz, 1974,  360;  33 *) 1  of  has  been 594;  shown to  Kasarda and  though i t has been suggested that the number, rather  than the i n t e n s i t y , of t i e s increases with time (Caplow and Forman, 362).  It  formation  has  been  suggested  that  of s o c i a l t i e s (Heberle,  residential  1960,  mobility  1950,  impedes  the  7) and makes i t l e s s l i k e l y that  the l o c a l neighbourhood i s the major community i n which an i n d i v i d u a l i s involved by  (Wellman, 1973,  Kasarda  and  12).  Janowitz  The  (1974,  opposite 329)  who  view has  been taken, however,  suggest  that  highly  mobile,  advanced i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s have neighbourhoods of " l i m i t e d l i a b i l i t y " i n which: "people p a r t i c i p a t e extensively i n l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and develop community attachments yet (are) prepared to leave these communities i f l o c a l conditions f a i l to s a t i s f y t h e i r immediate needs or a s p i r a t i o n s . Studies have shown s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the way into the neighbourhoood.  that residents are  Immediately following the move i n t o the  bourhood the family i s wound up i n i t s e l f and i t s problems. problems are  s e t t l e d , families become involved i n the  c e r t a i n low  l e v e l very  quickly.  neigh-  Once immediate  neighbourhood to a  A period of s t a b i l i t y follows,  about f i v e years, a f t e r which involvement increases again Litwak, 1970,  integrated  lasting  (Lee, 1968,  590).  A number of authors have suggested, to varying degrees, that design influence into  three  259;  social main  between residents  i n t e r a c t i o n , and types.  First,  (Festinger,  these influences a  plan  1951,  156;  controls  can  have been summarized the  Gans, 1961,  physical 135;  distance  Schorr,  1970,  48 720;  Rosow, 1961,  physical  layout  supporting  131; Gutman, 1966, is  Gans*  only  106).  important  argument that  if  I t i s widely  shall  be  discussed  1968,  74-75; Rosow, 1961,  1966,  106).  as  later i n this  Third,  communication and (Cooper, 1974,  recognized  This  can  (such  32; Gutman, 1966,  can  a  more  detailed l e v e l  i n forming  as  either  enhance  contacts,  design,  156;  Keller,  720;  Gutman,  and  108; Cooper, 1974, unit  type  House dwellers  found to have more l o c a l i z e d contacts (Fischer and Jackson, 1976, apartment dwellers.  Zito  (1974, 249-261) i n studying New  residents, found that though there was friendships were formed and little  evidence  explained  by  of  the  informal  gatherings.  residents' desire  for  was  lack  privacy,  of  has  been  have been than  York high  rise  activity,  done elsewhere. The  31).  293)  l i m i t e d neighbouring  socializing  amenities)  78) or create b a r r i e r s  dwelling  investigated as a determinant of i n t e r a c t i o n .  as  potential for  common f a c i l i t i e s  108; K e l l e r , 1968,  of  contact,  termed orien-  135; Schorr, 1970,  to i t (such as roads, walls, etc.) (Gutman, 1966, On  also be  section (Festinger, 1951,  design  interaction  initiate  (1970, 186) agrees that a  significant  131; Gans, 1961,  the  may  i s homogeneous,  for physical determination of the  between residents.  tation.  population  Michelson  "strong and continued need" i s necessary distance  the  though propinquity  homogeneity maintains i t (1961, 135).  functional  K e l l e r (1969, 80) suggests that  few  There  was  friendships  was  freedom,  and  lack  of  obligation, and by l i f e s t y l e s which precluded maintenance of close f r i e n d ships.  Michelson  (1977, 173)  determined that apartment dwellers' friends  were generally not neighbours, though their perceptions of neighbours were generally p o s i t i v e .  49  Finally,  density has been seen by some to have an e f f e c t  interaction. situations,  Baldassare  the  (1977,  number of  109)  suggests  contacts between  that  on  i n high  residents  social density  i s increased, so  people are more selective of which ones w i l l be maintained and which ones limited. Having looked at some determinants of i n t e r a c t i o n , attention w i l l be  turned  to  the  significant  commonly occur i n neighbourhoods,  physical  patterns  of  interaction  now  which  as evidenced i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  With respect to orientation of structures, i n t e r a c t i o n seemed to occur when v i s u a l  contact could be made and maintained.  Kuper found  that i n  semi-detached units party-wall neighbours did not i n t e r a c t as much as those on  the other side  of units,  where windows were located.  Merton found  placement of doors to be important, and Whyte, steps, lawns, and driveways as well (Michelson, 1970,  175-176, 180).  Gans (1961, 158)  found that the  hundred-foot rear yards i n Levittown discouraged back-to-back neighbourly contact. that  In l i n e a r layouts of ground-oriented units,  whether  neighbours  have more  i t has been noted  contact side-to-side  than across the  street depends on o r i e n t a t i o n of i n t e r i o r rooms (e.g. i f the l i v i n g room i s at the front and i s not well used - not looked out from often) and (Kuper,  1953,  155-156; Rosow, 1961,  presents a b a r r i e r  (Cooper,  1975,  131) 33).  doors  and whether or not the roadway Rows of units were found to be  conducive to chance meetings but not sustained contacts (Cooper, 1975, 30). The  middle  units of rows were more i n t e r a c t i v e  than those at the  e s p e c i a l l y i f the end units are oriented d i f f e r e n t l y 1970;  Kuper, 1953,  157).  ends,  (Whyte i n Michelson,  Cul de sac arrangements were found to increase  casual i n t e r a c t i o n (Lansing, Marans and Zehner,  1970,  116).  Gans pointed  50 out  that  a  large  groups f o r m i n g , (1961,  138).  "court"  as  opposed t o a  The  dwellers,  interacted  usually resulted i n  s i n g l e group i f the  importance of formation (1951,  p o i n t e d out by F e s t i n g e r apartment  arrangement  (1974,  Zito  l e s s than  159)  those  and  258)  across  "court"  (1968,  Lee  that  hall,  164).  small  a l s o been  With r e s p e c t  side-by-side  because  small  were  o f s m a l l groups has  found  the  several  visual  to  neighbours contact  was  less. It  has  been found  housing  forms  private  spaces such as  Marcus and  meet  that  residents  outside  their  take p l a c e i n d o o r s  ground-oriented,  residences,  porches, yards  Hogue, 1 9 7 6 , 3 9 ) .  of  or  driveways  rises,  contact  Semi-public  i s u s u a l l y made between  (or  1 9 7 4 , 1 8 4 ) such as  (Great  Britain,  Dept. o f E n v i r o n m e n t , 1 9 7 2 , 6 2 ) , and  access areas,  s e m i - p r i v a t e and p u b l i c spaces ( B e c k e r ,  about  outdoor a r e a s  within)  the  1974, 184).  of  privacy  as  do  party  semi-public  laundry,  or  i n low r i s e , Apparently  m u l t i p l e h o u s i n g r e s i d e n t s can l e a d t o the lack  of  g r o u p s (Cooper, 1 9 7 5 , 3 2 ) .  (Becker,  frustration  semi-  1969, 9;  (Michelson,  spaces  o f open space by  their  c o u r t s o r f o o t p a t h s can a l s o become the c e n t e r s  f r i e n d s h i p p a t t e r n s f o r the s m a l l n e i g h b o u r i n g high  from  family  I n m u l t i p l e housing forms, contacts u s u a l l y  (Marcus and Hogue, 1 9 7 6 , 3 9 ) .  s u c h as p a r k i n g l o t s ,  In  usually  single  walls  the  shops  between sharing  same k i n d  (Michelson,  of  1969,  17-18).  Summary Chapter Three has o u t l i n e d f o u r major t o p i c s t y p i c a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the e v a l u a t i o n o f neighbourhoods and t o p i c t o such e v a l u a t i o n s , and  discusses  b o t h the r e l e v a n c e  the r e s u l t s w h i c h might be  on the f i n d i n g s o f o t h e r s t u d i e s .  o f each  e x p e c t e d , based  51 I t w i l l have been obvious from the discussion i n t h i s Chapter that each topic both a f f e c t s and i s affected by the others. them i s portrayed the  schematically  i n Figure  r e l a t i v e potential f o r influence  major topics.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between  6, which also attempts t o show  which  design features  have on the  The l a t t e r w i l l be discussed further i n Chapter F i v e .  The summary conclusion of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e review i s that design has the greatest  influence  on residents  1  s a t i s f a c t i o n , second-most  on residents'  sense of control over t h e i r environment, t h i r d on s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , and l e a s t on residents' sense of belonging.  Design  Design  RESIDENTIAL ^ SATISFACTION  ^ SENSE OF BELONGING  SENSE OF CONTROL  ^ SOCIAL •"INTERACTION  Design  i  Design  NOTE: THICKNESS OF ARROW BETWEEN "DESIGN" AND MAJOR TOPIC INDICATES THE RELATIVE POTENTIAL FOR INFLUENCE OF DESIGN ON THAT TOPIC. ALL OTHER ARROWS SHOW EXISTENCE OF AN INFLUENCE ONLY. FIGURE 6 - INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF MAJOR TOPICS AND RELATIVE POTENTIAL FOR INFLUENCE OF DESIGN  N3  53 CHAPTER FOUR  OTHER CONSIDERATIONS B o t h t h e l i t e r a t u r e and the s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n b e i n g s t u d i e d have s u g g e s t e d o t h e r m a t t e r s w h i c h a r e worthy o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e major t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Three. The  first  population  group o f f a c t o r s a r e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  o f t h e Neighbourhood,  seen  o f the r e s i d e n t  by many w r i t e r s a s an  i n f l u e n c e on t h e major t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Three.  important  I t i s recognized  t h a t , t o some e x t e n t , t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e Neighbourhood a r e i n f l u e n c e d by the m a r k e t i n g  s t r a t e g y o f the developers,  play a part i n determining  and t h a t s e l f - s e l e c t i o n w i l l a l s o  t h e r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n so t h a t t h e v a r i a t i o n  w i t h i n t h e range o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may n o t be as wide as i n l e s s - p l a n n e d areas. The  second group o f f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e those  cular  t o the Terra  part,  these  L o s a Neighbourhood and i t s s i t u a t i o n .  factors  have  received  less  attention  parti-  F o r t h e most  i n the  literature,  e s p e c i a l l y from t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f p l a n e v a l u a t i o n . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the R e s i d e n t i a l Population There a r e c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n s which a r e i d e n t i f i e d t i m e and a g a i n i n t h e case s t u d i e s d i s c u s s e d e l s e w h e r e i n t h i s thesis  as  satisfaction  having  significant  experienced.  This  effects  on  section w i l l  e s s e n t i a l f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the e v a l u a t i v e As  with  most s o c i a l  science  most common b a s i s o f a n a l y s i s .  the l e v e l s identify  of  neighbourhood  those  considered  survey.  s t u d i e s , demographic i n f o r m a t i o n  i s the  Age, s e x and h o u s e h o l d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  the r e s i d e n t s have u s u a l l y been c o l l e c t e d .  54 Likewise,  socio-economic  characteristics  such  as  education  level,  income, occupation and employment status have been described and are used to determine the " s o c i a l status" or " c l a s s " of the residents. Collectively, homogeneity  this  information i s used ' to 1  (or s i m i l a r i t y )  ascertain  of a r e s i d e n t i a l  the  degree  p o p u l a t i o n , which  of the  l i t e r a t u r e review has revealed has been shown to be a major determinant of i n t e r a c t i o n , s a t i s f a c t i o n and attachment. Less commonly, the psychological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of residents have been used (or suggested f o r use) as a basis f o r a "higher l e v e l " of homogeneity (Kuper, 1953, 162; K e l l e r , 1968,  81; Z i t o , 1974, 262, for example).  Some  authors have postulated that while some people tend to be s o c i a l and highly i n t e r a c t i v e , others tend to be (by choice) more s o l i t a r y or reserved.  This  propensity to "neighbour" can have an e f f e c t on the r e s u l t s obtained i n any study of the neighbourhood.  In order that the r e s u l t s i t a f f e c t s are not  misconstrued, the degree of i t s e f f e c t should be determined. Homogeneity  i n attitudes,  values, perceptions and  beliefs  have been  found useful i n some studies ( f o r example Galster and Hesser, 1982, Smith,  1970,  147;  Kuper,  1953;  Lansing and Zehner, 1970, 125). t h a t which habits,  Athanasiou  constitutes  a "good" neighbour)  p o l i t i c s , r e l i g i o n , and i n the U.S.,  behaviors  be more important  than  reality.  For  1973;  Marans,  ( f o r example, a c c e p t a b l e borrowing  general nature (attitudes toward and importance  can a c t u a l l y  Yoshioka,  The information c o l l e c t e d has varied from  i s neighbourhood-based  or what  and  239;  to subjects of a more  of the larger  race r e l a t i o n s ) .  determinants example,  of  community,  People's perceptions  their  perception of  satisfactions friendliness  and of  neighbours i s more important to s a t i s f a c t i o n than a high number of actual  55 contacts with  them (Becker,  1974, 187; Heberle,  1960, 3; Zehner, 1972,  176). Information on other variables can be collected t o further explain the responses received. i n many cases  Tenure type has been used i n some case studies, though  (e.g.  Festinger, 1950; Gans, 1967; and Cooper, 1975) the  projects studied had no v a r i a t i o n i n type of tenure a v a i l a b l e .  Since Terra  Losa i s expected t o have a mix of tenure types, evaluation r e s u l t s can be tested  to determine  whether s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s vary at a l l with  tenure  type. Residential history of the resident has been found t o have some e f f e c t s on l e v e l s of s a t i s f a c t i o n with present accommodation (Francescato, 1975b, 8).  Information regarding l a s t housing type l i v e d i n , s a t i s f a c t i o n with  it,  tenure type and length of residence i n previous residences have been  used as bases f o r analysis.  Determination of the mobility of residents i s  also important i n accounting f o r l e v e l s of s a t i s f a c t i o n (e.g. Kasarda and Janowitz,  1974, 333; Beigel,  1980, 115).  Data  needed f o r t h i s  type of  i n v e s t i g a t i o n include the resident's expectations regarding future moves (both when, and to what type of unit i n what type of neighbourhood), and actual length of tenure i n present accommodation. shown to have s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s on attachment s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s and attachments  This l a t t e r has been  and types and numbers of  (e.g. Litwak, 1970, 585; Wellman, 1973,  27; Caplow and Forman, 1950, 260; Schorr, 1970, 714). Though  not, s t r i c t l y  speaking,  a  characteristic  of the resident,  housing type presently occupied i s an important a t t r i b u t e which may affect a respondent's information  perceptions, attitudes and behaviors.  would  allow  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  Recording  of this  o f any d i f f e r e n c e s i n  56 s a t i s f a c t i o n by h o u s i n g t y p e . a r e s e t up i n the e v e n t u a l  The manner i n w h i c h c a t e g o r i e s o f u n i t t y p e s  s u r v e y would depend on the l e v e l  P l a n n i n g Department i s i n t e r e s t e d i n , or has At  the  minimum,  townhouse), low  the  classes  rise  should  the time and money t o  be  apartments ( s t a c k e d  single  family  rowhousing and  f o u r f l o o r s ) , and h i g h r i s e apartments (more t h a n f o u r In order hood, and  to discover  the  of d e t a i l  forms  the  achieve. (duplex,  apartments up  to  floors).  degree o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n the  t h e degree t o w h i c h the Neighbourhood c o m p r i s e s the  Neighbourenvironment  f o r i n d i v i d u a l s ' r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n f o r m a t i o n on the r e s p o n d e n t s ' i n v o l v e m e n t with  others  friendship contacts,  must be types  recorded.  In  ( f r i e n d s , neighbours,  l o c a t i o n of  those  friends/acquaintances,  contacts,  content  of  overall  length  p e r s o n was  of  time o f  known b e f o r e  or  or  data  l o c a t i o n of  information  on  collected  on  frequency  of  residences  consider  felt  that  this  the  Neighbourhood,  and  the  A l l s o c i a l c o n t a c t s , whether or not  they  to  each c o n t a c t ,  the  (Rather than o b t a i n i n g very  often only generalized  of  community, s u r r o u n d e d by  interaction  proportions know would  Though i n many cases  h e a v i l y i n v e s t i g a t e d as a type o f s o c i a l c o n t a c t , i t i s  type  i n a n t l y young and  meaningful  not  a f t e r moving  person),  as f r i e n d s / a c q u a i n t a n c e s / n e i g h b o u r s ? " ) .  s t u d i e d k i n s h i p was  these  whether or  1  a r e asked f o r - f o r example, "What p r o p o r t i o n o f the people you you  of  ( l e n g t h o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s as w e l l  l i v e i n the Neighbourhood, s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d . detailed  been  (pleasantries vs.  "knowing ' the  manner i n w h i c h they f i r s t met.  has  acquaintances),  contacts  conversation), duration of contacts as  general,  bond would new  be  a  significant  factor i n a  new  communities, whose t a r g e t market i s predom-  middle c l a s s .  i n lower  not  c l a s s and  K i n s h i p t e n d s t o have g r e a t e r e f f e c t s on w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d neighbourhoods  (Yancey,  57 1972,  127;  F r i e d and  Gleicher, 1972,  145;  Coleman, 1978,  20-21).  There-  fore, kinship r e l a t i o n s h i p s should be noted, but are treated no d i f f e r e n t l y from other forms of friendship or neighbourly r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Finally,  the resident's a f f i l i a t i o n s with  i z a t i o n s are important in his social Kasarda  and  formal  and  informal  organ-  i n ascertaining the importance of the neighbourhood  network (e.g. Biegel, 1980,  Janowitz,  1974,  335).  A  112,  119;  preponderance  Gerson,  154;  memberships  in  neighbourhood organizations would i n d i c a t e a l o c a l i z e d i n t e r e s t ; c i t y -  or  larger-scale organizations r e f l e c t a more cosmopolitan As well, these  r e s u l t s can  help  test  of  1977,  base of operations.  the effectiveness of the  Centre as a focus f o r the Neighbourhood.  Community  The propensity of the residents  to be involved i n such organizations must be considered i n conjunction with their  behavioral  residents of  pattern.  the  The  e f f e c t s on  the  self-selection  process  marketing strategy, which i s to emphasize high  tations f o r both formal  and  informal i n t e r a c t i o n should also be  of  expecinvesti-  gated. Other Questions This  section w i l l  included studies  (or l e s s found  in  discuss  fully the  several  explored) literature.  topics which  i n the  are  neighbourhood  Because  of  the  less  commonly  evaluation  goals  and  objectives i d e n t i f i e d f o r Terra Losa, however, i t i s suggested that  case  design they,  together with some s i t e - s p e c i f i c questions, be included i n the evaluation of the neighbourhood. DENSITY AND CROWDING As was  described i n Chapter Two,  a density of approximately  the approval of the Terra Losa plan at  75 persons per acre was a d r a s t i c departure from  58 the densities approved i n " t y p i c a l " suburban neighbourhoods, and i t was undertaken without considerable the Planning evaluation  Department and  would  be  to  h e s i t a t i o n and  C i t y Council.  determine whether  Neighbourhood are i n any serious way  doubt on  the  not  part of both  One  e s s e n t i a l function of  the  or  not  the  the  residents  of  affected by i t s high density, how  they  are affected, and to what degree. There i s a considerable the question  body of l i t e r a t u r e dealing  specifically  with  of r e s i d e n t i a l density, and most of i t begins with a c a r e f u l  d i s t i n c t i o n (not always made i n evaluative l i t e r a t u r e ) between density crowding.  Density  i s a physical q u a l i t y or measure (Altman, 1975,  Schmidt et  a l , 1979,  106)  subjective  reaction" and  1979,  Altman,  106;  1975,  while crowding a f e e l i n g of 150)  is a  too  of which  perception,  little  density  a  and 150;  "personal  space (Schmidt et a l , i s only  one  component.  Altman suggests that other factors a f f e c t i n g the perception of crowding are an excess of stimulation, and the  i n d i v i d u a l ' s desired  people who  perceive  contacts and  level  of privacy  crowding have l o s t  (1975, 151).  typical  In other words,  t h e i r sense of control over  t h e i r t e r r i t o r y (Freedman, 1975,  that crowding i n t e n s i f i e s that they may  the breakdown of mechanisms which preserve  reactions  123-124). to  become overwhelming (1975, 123).  Freedman suggests  s i t u a t i o n s (1975, 90) Therefore,  plan  of  Terra  Losa  on  i t s residents,  i t i s really  so  though density  i s a contributing f a c t o r , i f the i n t e r e s t i s i n examining the the  their  e f f e c t s of  the  crowding  phenomena which should be investigated. Factors which have been found to a f f e c t the perception of crowding i n other areas should also be examined i n the Terra Losa evaluation. et a l (1979, 119-120) has derived s i x scales s i g n i f i c a n t i n the  Schmidt  perception  59 of  neighbourhood  crowding:  traffic  i n the c i t y ,  perceived changes i n the neighbourhood  crowding i n the  city,  since moving i n , the attainment of  privacy, the importance of unit and yard space i n the choice of residence, and crowding i n shopping areas. tion  of  crowding  were  the  Physical measures s i g n i f i c a n t i n percep-  distances  from  residence to  commercial  and  i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s , to parks, to major roads, and to freeways.  The same  study  control,  found  that  insofar  as  i t limits  behavioral  density a f f e c t s crowding (1979, 106-107).  freedom  and  Loring and Schmidt both suggest  that perception of crowding i s greater and more a n t i s o c i a l behavior occurs when  physical  spaces  are  (Skaburskis, 1974, 41).  ambiguous  and  territory  is  ill-defined  Beck (1977, 9) reports that the sense of crowding  i s influenced by the views from unit windows, e s p e c i a l l y the heights and distances away from adjacent buildings, the number of children playing, and adequacy of community f a c i l i t i e s . some research attitudes,  has  found  expectations,  that and  Schmidt  et a l (1979, 43)  personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s past  experience  states  such  influence  the  as  that  values,  residents'  perceptions and evaluations of crowding. The r e s u l t s of a perception of crowding are also their  presence may  indicate  that  crowding e x i s t s  of interest  (though since  since  crowding  perceptions can r e s u l t from causes other than physical density, care must be taken not to a t t r i b u t e causes where i n s u f f i c i e n t j u s t i f i c a t i o n e x i s t s ) . Carson (1972, 156) discovered that residents of very low density ( l e s s than 6 units per acre) and high density (greater than 25 units per acre) areas perceived a threat of future population crowding more than those of middle density  areas.  The  'threats'  identified  with  crowding  population crowding, school crowding, playground crowding,  were general increased  low  60 rental  accommodation,  minor  t r a f f i c , and d e c r e a s e d are  taking place,  (Carson,  1972,  or  threatening  crowding sense  factors  of  are  clear  of  A l l o f these to  take  about the development and  the  problems,  increased  noise  and  a r e " v i s i b l e changes t h a t  p l a c e , i n t h e i r immediate  area"  P e r c e p t i o n o f crowding can r e s u l t i n a g r e a t e r number  p r i v a c y f e l t by the i n d i v i d u a l Some  drug  open space.  167).  of complaints  crime,  design  c o n t r o l and  neighbours,  reflecting  the l o s s  ( L a n s i n g , Marans and Zehner, 1970,  which  affect  definition  of  or  mitigate  territorial  s u r v e i l l a n c e (Skaburskis,  the  space  1974,  109).  perception  types  41;  of  to  of  enhance  Schmidt,  19791  128; Freedman, 1975, 123-124), d e s i g n o f s m a l l c l u s t e r s v s . l a r g e p r o j e c t s (Norcross, access  1973,  9;  Cooper, 1975,  t o open space,  (interior  and  Provision  of  variety  exterior) several  and  small  32),  i n layout, minimization protection  spaces  l a r g e space i s a l s o suggested  p r o v i s i o n of v i s u a l  for  of  privacy  interaction  (Freedman, 1975,  of  and f u n c t i o n a l noise  (Cooper, rather  intrusion 1975,  than  32).  a  single  124).  PERCEPTION OF CRIME The  determination  how  they  relate  and  reality  any  (both  special  Newman's concept It  would  be  the  differ  neighbourhoods without  to  o f what a r e  the  a c t u a l crime  substantially those  perceptions  r a t e , and  from  of " t y p i c a l "  design  the  parameters)  Neighbourhood as  discover  urban  crime  allow  the  i n Terra the  obtained of high the  can be reduced  whether  ' s p e c i a l ' i n t h i s regard,  dealing with  results  would  residents  has  Losa,  perception from  other  density  but  evaluation through  of  design.  perceive  though r e s u l t s would be  to depend on the m a r k e t i n g s t r a t e g y used and Literature  whether both  d e n s i t i e s and  t h a t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r crime  revealing to  o f crime  their  expected  length of residence. g e n e r a l l y supported  the  view  61 t h a t r e s i d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f crime i s o f g r e a t e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l importance to  them, and  with  crime  380).  One  influence their  and  actual  study  behavior  crime  rates  ( H a r t n a g e l , 1979)  were more  and  perceived izations  d i d not  relate  p e r c e p t i o n o f crime  and  who  slightly  felt  more  1979,  actual  179;  safer  i n social  (1979, 178).  but  1971,  s i n c e i t was neighbourhood  level  groups,  There was  experience  Conklin,  i n the  satisfied,  to p a r t i c i p a t i o n  or number o f f r i e n d s  their  i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t  In g e n e r a l , those very  than  (Hartnagel,  done i n Edmonton. trusting  more,  of  local  crime organ-  a d i f f e r e n c e i n the Though 85% o f  the f e a r o f p e r s o n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n .  the p o p u l a t i o n s t u d i e d p e r c e i v e d an i n c r e a s e i n crime, o n l y 1% f e a r e d i t i n their  neighbourhood  change  behavior  greatest 179)  -  a result  though  (1979, 189).  patterns  among females, except  for  hypothesized  the  poor,  the  first,  t o be  insufficiently  P e r c e p t i o n and  least these  educated groups  and are  fear the not  of  high  crime  elderly expected  to was  (1979, to  be  h i g h l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n T e r r a Losa. RECREATION FACILITIES A significant the  neighbourhood  component o f the d e v e l o p e r s ' concept from  a  c e n t e r , which i s i n t e n d e d bourhood.  very t o be  I t seems l o g i c a l ,  center i n t h i s function. when, how  o f t e n , and  by  early  stage  of  a  i s the i n c l u s i o n i n  multi-purpose  a f o c u s f o r community  life  community  i n the  Neigh-  t h e r e f o r e , t o e v a l u a t e the performance o f the  In p a r t i c u l a r , whom) and  the  p a t t e r n s o f use  degree of involvement  (what  uses,  o f r e s i d e n t s and  workers from T e r r a Losa and o f n o n - r e s i d e n t s s h o u l d be examined.  A compar-  ison hoods  of  these  and  high  results  with  similar  data  on  "typical"  suburban  neighbour-  d e n s i t y neighbourhoods w i t h  community  leagues,  and  h i g h d e n s i t y p r o j e c t s w i t h o n - s i t e community f a c i l i t i e s ,  other  s h o u l d be made.  62 The literature dealing with provision and use of recreational amenities i s f a i r l y extensive.  Norcross and Hysom (1968, 39-52) found that such  f a c i l i t i e s were important i n attracting residents and i n keeping them, but even so, they were used regularly by only a very residents and to levels well below capacity Zehner, 1970, 80; Brower and Williamson,  small proportion of  (also Lansing,  Marans and  1974, 339; Michelson, 1977, 355).  This was particularly true of apartment residents, a trend rationalized by the  type of people and lifestyles  involved, and their  distribution of friends (Homenuk, 1973, 2 3 ) . did  less localized  This pattern of (in)activity  not, however, stop residents from feeling that more f a c i l i t i e s were  required (whether or not some already existed) (Norcross, 1973, 10; Great Britain, Dept. of Environment, 1972, 62). Good access to the f a c i l i t i e s  (both physically and temporally) have  been shown to increase the likelihood of use of f a c i l i t i e s Williamson,  (Brower and  1974, 339; Lansing, Marans and Zehner, 1970, 80, 91; Homenuk,  1974, 24; Michelson, 1969, 13). The types of spaces which were used depended a great deal on climate. Tennis courts seem especially popular (Norcross, 1973, 10; Homenuk, 1974, 24).  All-purpose  recreation rooms were rarely used (Homenuk, 1974, 24;  Marcus and Hogue, 1976, 40) though meeting rooms were suggested as a means of facilitating social contacts (Marcus and Hogue, 1976, 40). A SENSE OF PLACE "Sense of Place" has been defined as: the pattern of reactions that a setting stimulates i n a person... a product of both features of the setting and aspects the person brings to i t . . . an interactional concept of social and physical settings... (R)eactions... include feelings, perceptions, behaviors and outcomes associated with one's being i n that location. (Steele, 1981, 12)  c  63 The creation  marketing of  a  of  unique  Terra  Losa  entity,  boundaries, and i n possession be  evidenced  leading  in a  into  the  i s expected  separate  to  from  strongly  the  neighbourhoods  of a character of i t s own.  physical  way  through the  Neighbourhood,  and  emphasize  fencing  consistency  on  the its  This concept w i l l around and  gateways  signage,  building  in  materials and roof l i n e s . Designers context  and  developers  a f f e c t i n g the  can  settings  have  to  little  influence  on  which i n d i v i d u a l s react,  physical component of the concept can be affected.  Steele  the  social  however  the  (1981, 184-185)  suggests several c r i t e r i a f o r creation of better physical settings: 1.  provision f o r choice and variety;  2.  reinforcement  of  patterns  and  sequences -  for  example gateways  and  successive degrees of marking of private areas; 3.  provision of a sense of i d e n t i t y , through recurring themes i n form, materials, arrangement and  4.  increased  visibility  of  symbolism;  the  opportunities  available i n a  place,  for  example improvements i n information and access; 5.  provision of appropriate and  scale, between elements and  between elements  users.  Similar  q u a l i t i e s of  a  place  are  likely  to  engender  a  "spirit  of  place", which Steele defines as the "personality of a place, an a t t r i b u t e that draws s i m i l a r reactions from d i f f e r e n t users (1981, 53). The  determination of whether the  e s p e c i a l l y a l a s t i n g one, 'their' the  neighbourhood w i l l  design  and  marketing  development concept has  on the residents' perceptions  any  effect,  of what comprises  provide an evaluation  of the effectiveness  strategy  a  in  creating  clearly  of  identifiable  64 neighbourhood unit.  Chapter Three has  already  discussed  the different  scales at which residents perceive their environment - the micro and macro scales.  A great deal of research has been done on the ability of residents  to identify their neighbourhood's boundaries, and the congruence, or lack of  i t , of  these  boundaries  boundaries (Lee, 1968,  263;  to  both  those  of  others  Haney and Knowles, 1978;  and Janowitz, 1974, 331; Porteous, 1977,  and  "official  Mann, 1970;  11  Kasarda  80-81; Steele, 1981, 60-61). Very  l i t t l e generalizable information has emerged from i t , however, other than to  say  process,  neighbourhood  definition  is a  highly  personal  and  subjective  though distinct physical edges do tend to give more consistent  boundary identification, and 'landmarks' aid i n retention of an image of a place. The degree of recognition of the neighbourhood name, after being highly publicized, would also reflect the effectiveness not only of the marketing strategy but also the planning designed to encourage attachment to place. PATTERN OF WORK Another component of the developers' concept was the desire to create a single neighbourhood i n which opportunities existed for both living working.  and  The City of Edmonton i s also interested i n this concept, though  perhaps not  at  (Objective 6F)  so small and  a scale, since i n i t s General Municipal  i t s Urban Growth Strategy,  the  Plan  decentralization of  employment areas and minimization of journey to work are promoted. The evaluation could be used to determine whether or not this part of the concept has i n fact been achieved.  It could be expected, however, that  this phenomena would only evolve after a considerable period of time, once both the residential area and office park are f u l l y developed and have been  65 i n o p e r a t i o n f o r some t i m e . priate  i f the  I n c l u s i o n o f the q u e s t i o n might be more appro-  e v a l u a t i o n were r e p e a t e d  several years  after  its initial  application. I f some r e s i d e n t s do work i n T e r r a L o s a , i t c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d their  satisfactions,  attachments  d i f f e r from those who of these l e v e l s employed THE  and  involvement  in  the  whether  neighbourhood  M a r t i n ( 1 9 5 6 , 4 4 8 - 4 4 9 ) suggests a l l  work e l s e w h e r e .  s h o u l d be h i g h e r f o r r e s i d e n t w o r k e r s t h a n f o r r e s i d e n t s  elsewhere.  DESIGN GUIDELINES AND  THE  All  to  of  this  residential  chapter  p o r t i o n of  c o v e r the e n t i r e  INDUSTRIAL AREA this  the  p o i n t has  d e a l t w i t h e v a l u a t i o n of  Neighbourhood.  Nevertheless,  Neighbourhood, and t h e i r e f f e c t s  the  the  Guidelines  on the o f f i c e park  should  a l s o be examined. Because o f t h e i r more t r a n s i t o r y in  i t might be  should s t i l l this  part  less  observant  be o b t a i n e d .  of  the  and  o c c u p a t i o n o f t h i s a r e a , the w o r k e r s critical  o f i t , though t h e i r  I t i s more l i k e l y ,  Neighbourhood  would  take  opinions  however, t h a t e v a l u a t i o n o f the  form  of  observation  and  i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d from p o l i c e  r e c o r d s o f crime i n t h e a r e a .  Residents'  perception  might  the  City,  'mixed  use'  especially  of  the  in  office  park  considering  neighbourhoods and  the  the t r e a t m e n t  also  be  of  development  interest  of  o f the b o u n d a r i e s  other  to  between the  residential  and i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s . INVENTORY Finally, having  i t i s suggested  precoded  indications  or  that  set responses)  o f f e a t u r e s and  open-ended be  questions  included to  design d e t a i l s  ( i . e . those  not  o b t a i n from r e s i d e n t s  o f t h e i r environment t h a t they  66 enjoy  or d i s l i k e .  architects, and  even  and  c o u l d h o p e f u l l y reduce the  enhance  environments.  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n would be  in  some s m a l l  way  the  o f use  to both planners  'mistakes' quality  of  made i n o t h e r future  and plans  residential  67 CHAPTER FIVE  EVALUATIONS OF THE GUIDELINES AND THE PROGRAM  What has been discussed i n Chapters Three and Four are b a s i c a l l y the components  of neighbourhood  satisfaction,  r e l a t e to Terra Losa s p e c i f i c a l l y .  both  i n general  and as they  Measurement of these components as they  e x i s t i n the Terra Losa Neighbourhood of the future w i l l provide an i n d i cation of the success of the neighbourhood obtained  elsewhere.  i n relation  In short, these figures w i l l  to s i m i l a r  data  a i d i n measuring the  degree to which the goals of the Guidelines have been achieved. Other  than the t y p i c a l examination of outcomes described above, there  i s another type of evaluation which involves the evaluation of the implementation of a program, i n this case, the Guidelines. describes i t as being composed of several parts:  Patton (1978, 152)  " e f f o r t evaluation", or  description of the q u a l i t y and quantity of a c t i v i t y i n the program (164); "process evaluation", revealing "treatment  i t s strengths and weaknesses  s p e c i f i c a t i o n " , which examines the causal assumptions  the theory behind the actions stated (167). three  (165); and  p a r t s a r e important  Though the f i r s t  i n p r o v i d i n g a complete  made and  two of these  picture  o f the  effectiveness of a program, i t i s c l e a r l y not possible to undertake them at t h i s stage, since the program has not yet commenced operation. part, however, dealing with i t s theoretical  basis,  The t h i r d  can be done at this  stage and could provide useful d i r e c t i o n i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of the Guidel i n e s or f o r amendments to them p r i o r to implementation.  68 APPROACH FOR THE EVALUATION Following Patton's suggestion,  this Chapter w i l l evaluate the Guide-  lines from the 'treatment specification' viewpoint. ment specification reveals the activity" (1978, 167).  causal  As he put i t , "treat-  assumptions undergirding  program  He further describes this approach as answering  several types of questions: What i s going to happen i n the program that i s expected to make a difference? How are program goals supposed to be attained? What theory do program staff hold about what to do i n order to accomplish the results they want (1978, 167)? In practice, at least i n the Terra Losa context, this means questioning at three levels the assumptions stated or implied by those guidelines.  The  first  level i s the  who  wrote the  conceptualization of the relevant  theory, on the basis, at least in part, of what i s i n the theoretical and empirical literature reviewed here i n Chapters Three and Four.  The second  level focusses on the linkages between this theory and the Guidelines, and the third on the linkages between the Guidelines and their implementation in the plans as executed when the neighbourhood i s developed.  This last  level i s , of course, related to another aspect of the analysis, namely the search for the existence in the Guidelines of implementation mechanisms to bring about the desired results expressed i n the goals, and an evaluation of the appropriateness of these mechanisms, based on the literature review. A descriptive model of this evaluation i s shown i n Figure 7. Before undertaking  this detailed evaluation, a short critique of the  Defensible Space concept i s necessary, since i t i s the basis of the Guidelines and much of the further discussion.  69 Next the i m p l i c i t  and e x p l i c i t goals of the Terra Losa Design Guide-  l i n e s and of the related documents and a c t i v i t y surrounding t h e i r w i l l be I d e n t i f i e d .  origin  The evaluation of the program as described above w i l l  be done i n the context of these goal statements. CRITIQUE OF THE DEFENSIBLE SPACE CONCEPT As  stated  i n Chapter  income, inner  city  Two, Newman  American  based  Defensible Space  neighbourhoods and projects.  on lower  He has been  c r i t i c i z e d f o r s e l e c t i v e i n c l u s i o n of projects t o substantiate h i s r e s u l t s , f o r not c o n t r o l l i n g f o r socioeconomic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and police recording methods which might bias h i s r e s u l t s , f o r errors i n c a l c u l a t i o n s , and for not establishing design as a (major) causative rates  (Altman,  1975, 116).  Other  factor i n explaining crime  c r i t i c i s m s of the work  include the  v a l i d i t y of the assumption that those who do not "belong" i n a place w i l l comprehend the meaning of the symbolic markers used to define and  that  1977,  territories,  the residents and criminals are two separate groups  299).  (Porteous,  F i n a l l y , an evaluation of a project designed on the basis of  Newman's concept  found  no evidence  of increased  control  or s o c i a l  interaction: while the defensible space changes may well have discouraged criminals or intruders from entering the development, there was no immediate adoption of proprietary attitudes by the residents. (Chenoweth, i n Fitzhugh and Anderson, 1980, 2). One  might also question  middle-class,  the v a l i d i t y  of the concept when applied to  suburban neighbourhoods i n Canada, where the l i t e r a t u r e has  revealed, there i s not the degree of concern for security, or the fear of crime that i s apparently experienced i n the U.S. GOAL IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION To help order  the analysis, the evaluation described  i n Figure  7 and  70 EVOLUTION (1)  EVALUATION  (2)  THEORY OF NBHD. SATISFACTION AND DEFENSIBLE SPACE  (interpretation)  GOALS ON WHICH GUIDELINES BASED  (assumptions r e g a r d i n g c a u s a l i t y and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f o r i g i n a t o r s )  GUIDELINES  ( i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by i m p l e m e n t o r s )  IMPLEMENTATION  (resident population)  V ANTICIPATED RESULTS  NOTE:  UNANTICIPATED RESULTS  (1)  Statements i n b r a c k e t s a r e the "sieves* o r screens through w h i c h t h e p r e v i o u s s t e p s p a s s o n t h e way t o accomplishment o f the next s t a g e .  (2)  The p o i n t s a t w h i c h t h e " e v o l u t i o n " o f t h e program w i l l be evaluated a r e noted. Beyond " G u i d e l i n e s " ( p r e s e n t s t a t u s o f the program), e v a l u a t i o n w i l l be o f p o t e n t i a l r e s u l t s .  1  FIGURE 7 - MODEL OF THE EVOLUTION AND EVALUATION OF THE PROGRAM  71 above will be f i r s t undertaken i n the context of the goals of the program. These include both the explicit  statements contained i n the Guidelines  themselves (see Appendix I) and the implicit intentions evidenced i n the documentation which accompanied the preparation and approval of the Guidelines and program (City of Edmonton, Planning Department, 1981-1982).  The  last part of this section w i l l deal with the Guidelines and the program in i t s totality. 1.  TO USE THE CONCEPT OF DEFENSIBLE SPACE TO ENCOURAGE TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOR AND A STRONG SOCIAL NETWORK IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOOD THROUGH THE USE OF PHYSICAL DESIGN STANDARDS. (Appendix I; 8-10)  a)  Interpretation of Theory The creation of the "sense of control" associated with  territorial  behavior and Defensible Space has been addressed i n the Guidelines through statements requiring boundary those of the Neighbourhhood  definition.  Three scales are identified:  (by peripheral fences and gateways to the  Neighbourhood), of the projects (by hedges, fences and signage), and of the unit (required but method unspecified).  Unfortunately, the requirements  for the most v i t a l of these scales, that of the unit, are mentioned only fleetingly as a part of "internal fences around separate developments", and do not receive the attention they deserve based on the importance of these spaces to the residents. private space, and  Territoriality has been shown to begin with the  to extend beyond the unit  only once this "primary  territory" i s judged to be secure. Several of the guidelines refer to design attention enhancing security and allowing for surveillance i n play areas, parking lots (above and below grade), landscaped open spaces and semi-private interior spaces.  These  guidelines follow f a i r l y and  their validity  c l o s e l y t h e o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n s o f Oscar Newman,  i s borne o u t by t h e l i t e r a t u r e  researched,  sense o f s e c u r i t y i s i m p o r t a n t t o an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r o p e n s i t y  i n that a  t o defend h i s  territory. The h i g h l e v e l o f maintenance proposed i n t h e G u i d e l i n e s from d e v e l o p e r s i n T e r r a  L o s a has been shown i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e  e f f e c t i v e way o f "marking" a t e r r i t o r y a g a i n s t expressing  and r e q u i r e d t o be an  unwanted i n t r u s i o n , and o f  c o n t r o l o v e r and p r i d e i n t h e environment.  The G u i d e l i n e s  a r e d e f i c i e n t i n two i m p o r t a n t r e s p e c t s  i n terms o f t h e  v a r i a b l e s which a r e known t o a f f e c t t h e degree o f c o n t r o l r e s i d e n t s b e l i e v e they have o v e r t h e i r environment.  F i r s t of a l l ,  p r i v a c y i s n o t mentioned.  The l i t e r a t u r e has shown t h a t t e r r i t o r i a l b e h a v i o r and p r i v a c y a r e c l o s e l y linked  - t h e f o r m e r i s an e x t e n s i o n  Guidelines  f o r the l a t t e r .  The  c o u l d w e l l be amended t o r e q u i r e c l o s e a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l s o f  the p r i v a t e and s e m i - p r i v a t e Secondly,  of the desire  the l i t e r a t u r e  spaces c r e a t e d b o t h w i t h i n and between u n i t s .  identified  t h e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n o f space by t h e  r e s i d e n t s a s one o f t h e most e f f e c t i v e ways o f m a r k i n g t h e t e r r i t o r y . Guidelines would  make no m e n t i o n o f t h e u s e f u l n e s s  be improved  by d o i n g  so.  of this  I n d i v i d u a l developers  concept, could  The  and they still,  of  c o u r s e , a l l o w f o r t h i s a t l a t e r s t a g e s o f development. One o f t h e G u i d e l i n e s concept.  i s i n d i r e c t opposition t o the defensible  I n s e v e r a l s t u d i e s i t was p o i n t e d  space  o u t t h a t one way o f d e s i g n i n g  f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t r o l was t o l i m i t t h e n o n - r e s i d e n t t r a f f i c t h r o u g h t h e area.  I n T e r r a L o s a , hwoever, i t i s e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e s h a l l be  walkway c o n n e c t i o n s between t h e b u s i n e s s park and t h e r e s i d e n t i a l  area.  W h i l e i t may be i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e w o r k e r s i n t h e b u s i n e s s park t o have easy  a c c e s s t o the community c e n t e r (and t o t h e i r homes i f t h e y l i v e t h i s need e x i s t s o n l y f o r a t most t e n hours a day. t i m e , and on weekends, the b u s i n e s s park w i l l will  be  no c o n t r o l s o v e r who  accessibility  many was  interaction  -  no  the boundary  call  definition  f o r designs which  l o n g and/or  - a l l o f w h i c h were mentioned f o r casual contacts.  of  the b u s i n e s s  park  opportunities  for  hours. enhance  monotonous b l o c k s o f  i n t e r i o r spaces i n m u l t i p l e h o u s i n g developments,  tunities  Perhaps the d e c i s i o n t o  f o r a few o v e r l i m i t a t i o n o f a c c e s s f o r p o t e n t i a l l y  made h o p i n g t h a t  Guidelines  there  t r a v e l s between the two p a r t s o f the n e i g h -  would d e t e r i n t r u d e r s i n non-working The  The remainder o f the  be u n s u p e r v i s e d , and  bourhood, and f o r what purposes, d u r i n g t h a t t i m e . choose  there),  buildings,  walkways,  small groupings of u n i t s  i n the l i t e r a t u r e as i n c r e a s i n g the Residents working i n t h e i r  oppor-  neighbourhoods  were found t o i n t e r a c t more t h a n r e s i d e n t s who d i d n o t , and the d e v e l o p e r s ' concept promotes T e r r a Losa as a l i v i n g and w o r k i n g environment. the Community C e n t e r i s proposed  t o p r o v i d e a space f o r more f o r m a l ,  group, i n v o l v e m e n t w h i c h based on the l i t e r a t u r e i t may b)  Finally, and  v e r y w e l l do.  Assumptions r e g a r d i n g c a u s a l i t y , and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f o r i g i n a t o r s The  major  failing  o f the G u i d e l i n e s  from  this  point  o f view  i s the  degree o f f a i t h p l a c e d on the p r e s u m p t i o n t h a t i n c r e a s e d i n t e r a c t i o n can be designed  for.  In fact,  and  as  s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d , a l l t h a t can be interaction.  d e s c r i b e d both  i n theory  and  the  case  c r e a t e d i s the p o t e n t i a l f o r i n c r e a s e d  The a c t u a l degree o f i n v o l v e m e n t w i l l depend v e r y much on t h e  r e s i d e n t s themselves - t h e i r p r o p e n s i t y t o n e i g h b o u r , t h e i r c i r c l e o f nonr e s i d e n t f r i e n d s , t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y t o o t h e r s i n T e r r a L o s a , t h e i r degree o f self-sufficiency,  and  their  mobility.  None o f  these  variables  can  be  74 c o n t r o l l e d through indirect  (and  p h y s i c a l d e s i g n , and  fallible)  c o n t r o l over  t h e d e v e l o p e r s have o n l y  limited,  the e v e n t u a l p o p u l a t i o n through  the  m a r k e t i n g s t r a t e g y and t e n a n t s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . I t i s u n l i k e l y , i n any c a s e , even i f the r e s i d e n t s ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e not o f the type  conducive  bourhood would be Edney have s a i d ,  totally  to formation of r e l a t i o n s h i p s , devoid  of  social  t h a t the  interaction.  s i m p l e s h a r i n g o f space can be  Neigh-  As Wellman  a basis for creation  t i e s , and even among the " u n i n v o l v e d " , a minimum l e v e l o f i n v o l v e m e n t be p r e s e n t t o m a i n t a i n s o c i a l All  that  b e h a v i o r and  i s s t a t e d as  of  a  goal  is  increased interaction.  proposition  the  type  the  encouragement  will  territorial  However, the tone i n which  o f Neighbourhood  i f the G u i d e l i n e s a r e  of  this goal  d e t e r m i n i s t i c , and makes  d e s i r e d sound much t o o d e f i n i t e  followed.  A l l the  field  research  t h e s e t o p i c s i n d i c a t e t h a t the e f f e c t o f d e s i g n on c o n t r o l , and of  of  control.  and most o f t h e G u i d e l i n e s a r e w r i t t e n i s f a i r l y creation  and  a on  especially  d e s i g n on i n t e r a c t i o n , i s one o f p o t e n t i a l enhancement a t b e s t , and t h a t  t h e i r a t t a i n m e n t i s f a r more dependent on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p o p u l a t i o n , which  cannot  As Kuper (1953, 27) by  the  physical  be m a n i p u l a t e d  (except v e r y i n d i r e c t l y )  has s a i d , "There i s no s i m p l e m e c h a n i c a l  environment."  The  goal  i n fact  by  designers.  determination  i s ambitious  since i t  i n c l u d e s n o t o n l y the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  o f the D e f e n s i b l e Space concept  also  numerous a u t h o r s  the  "next  step"  identified  by  r e v i e w , namely i n c r e a s i n g the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o c i a l  i n the  but  literature  interaction.  The G u i d e l i n e s have missed s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s w h i c h a r e i m p o r t a n t to  increasing potential for interaction.  utility  of  individualization  The  (especially  f i r s t o f t h e s e i s a g a i n the of  s e m i - p r i v a t e spaces)  as  75 p r o v i d i n g outwardly making  initial  manipulation  v i s i b l e s i g n s o f c o m p a t i b i l i t y which a r e i m p o r t a n t  casual  by  the  contact.  designer  between u n i t s t o enhance the  The  of  second  is  the  importance  in  of  the  the f u n c t i o n a l d i s t a n c e , or o r i e n t a t i o n ,  possibilities  for visual  contact  (meanwhile  r e t a i n i n g p r i v a c y ) and  t o c r e a t e an awareness o f o t h e r people w h i c h i s an  initial  intensive  step  i n more  interaction  and  in  the  recognition  of  neighbours v s . s t r a n g e r s . c)  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n by Implementors S i n c e f o r the most p a r t the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r e r r o r i n the stage o f the  program l i n k i n g  the w r i t t e n G u i d e l i n e s and  i n r e l a t i o n t o the  skills  and  abilities  their physical  o f the  implementation,  implementors, are  similar  for  a l l the g o a l s , they w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the l a s t p a r t o f t h i s C h a p t e r .  d)  Unanticipated The  Results  implementation  consequences f o r two which  were  mentioned  matters during  of  the  reasons: above,  Guidelines  may  result  in  unanticipated  the f a u l t y assumptions and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and  their derivation.  the  lack  of  consideration  These c o u l d be  of  certain  termed " i n t e r v e n i n g " or  "uncontrolled" variables. One  such m a t t e r i s the  local" traffic  the  amount o f  "non-  w h i c h c o u l d pass t h r o u g h the r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a because o f i t s  p r o x i m i t y t o the b u s i n e s s are l i k e l y  l a c k of c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  t o be  bourhood t o r e a c h  park*  Not o n l y w i l l " l e g i t i m a t e " employees,  s t r a n g e r s t o the r e s i d e n t s , be p a s s i n g t h r o u g h the  who  neigh-  the Community C e n t e r t o w h i c h they w i l l a l s o b e l o n g ,  but  due  t o the l i m i t e d hours o f o p e r a t i o n o f the o f f i c e - t y p e u s e s proposed f o r  the  area,  there  will  be  long  periods  unobserved e n t r y , t o the b u s i n e s s  when  park and  surveillance i s limited  and  t h r o u g h t o the r e s i d e n t i a l  area  76  w i l l be possible.  The effects of this free access i s not considered in the  Guidelines. Secondly, the success of the program could be limited i f the "marking" symbols related to t e r r i t o r i a l i t y are not understood or are ignored by nonresidents. e)  Anticipated Results The overall likelihood that this goal w i l l be achieved i s f a i r l y good,  though i t could be improved by attention to the deficiencies mentioned above.  This conclusion i s reached on the basis that the resident popu-  lation i s expected to be f a i r l y homogeneous, and that the self-selection process, combined with the marketing strategy, w i l l probably discourage the majority of intensely private individuals. 2.  TO CREATE A NEIGHBOURHOOD WITH ITS OWN STRONG IDENTITY, STRONG COMMUNITY SPIRIT AND A "SENSE OF PLACE" (Appendix I; 1). In discussion of this goal, the concepts of "identity" and "sense of  place" w i l l be defined as resulting i n a neighbourhood which i s a recognizable  entity, with  the probability that  residents  will  be able to  identify what i t s boundaries are, and whether or not they belong i n i t . "Spirit" i s defined as the sense of belonging or attachment discussed i n Chapter Three. a)  Interpretation of Theory The  Guidelines'  requirements f o r clear boundary d e f i n i t i o n and  entryways along the outer edges of the Neighbourhood coincide with "natural" barriers (the roadways, a l l of which are major) which have been shown to aid residents' recognition of their neighbourhood. Provision of standardized  street furniture and signage, and the  77 requirements f o r  common a r c h i t e c t u r a l and  landscaping  i n t r o d u c e a sense o f u n i t y i n t o the Neighbourhood, and gates  one  will  recognize  that  the  entire  elements  once one  project  was  will  enters  the  coordinated.  Appearance a l o n e s h o u l d s e t T e r r a Losa a p a r t from the neighbourhoods on i t s b o u n d a r i e s , and  the  b o t h r e s i d e n t s and  f e n c e s and  gates w i l l  r e i n f o r c e i t s separateness f o r  strangers.  I d e n t i t y i s b e i n g p l a n n e d f o r a t s e v e r a l s c a l e s , the l a r g e s t b e i n g of  the  Neighbourhood.  t h r o u g h the variety  At  smaller  variety required  should  safisfy  s c a l e s , uniqueness i s t o  between p r o j e c t s , and  residents'  desires  to  be  b)  Assumptions r e g a r d i n g Again,  degree  the  associated  of  attachment  manipulate. relationships discussed suit  In which  has  are  this are  a t t a c h m e n t , and  this  small  factor i s  revealed  not  case, the  one i t is  that  that  major  planners  types  uncontrollable  the  and  of o r i g i n a t o r s determinants  and  designers  i n t e n s i t y of  variable  and,  as  Length considering  of  residence  i s also  a  the " t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n "  factor and  in  of can  social  has  been  i s unfortunate  the  t u r n a f f e c t s the  w e l l as r e s i d e n t i a l  of  perception  tenure  mobile.  t h a t the achievement o f a sense o f b e l o n g i n g  the most p a r t beyond the i n f l u e n c e o f the d e s i g n e r , determinant of  determining  the mix  t y p e s p r o p o s e d , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t the r e s i d e n t s w i l l be f a i r l y  in  with  above, r e s i d e n t s w i l l e s t a b l i s h t h e i r p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n t o  themselves.  It  The  i n c r e a t i n g f e e l i n g s of involvement,  c a u s a l i t y , and t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s  literature  stressed  within projects.  groups (as opposed t o l a r g e r more anonymous ones) though more i m p o r t a n t l y r e c o g n i z a b l e  be  that  i s for  because i t i s a major  o f f r i e n d l i n e s s i n the Neighbourhood, which  propensities satisfaction.  t o defend t e r r i t o r y  and  t o i n t e r a c t , as  78 c)  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Implementors The  comments p r o v i d e d  i n the  last  section relating  a b i l i t i e s o f the implementors a l s o a p p l y t o t h i s g o a l Once a g a i n ,  the  Guidelines  are  deficient  t o the  visible  expression  of  pride  and  i n one  the  and  statement. major  respect  l a c k of a requirement a l l o w i n g p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n of semi-private would a l l o w  skills  -  the  space, which  norms t o w h i c h  involved  r e s i d e n t s d e s i r e t o conform. d)  Unanticipated The  Results  Planning  developers'  Department was  concept f o r a  neighbourhood, and  actually  concerned a t one  separate i d e n t i t y  would  stage t h a t  create  too  separate  part.  Some  major s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s , such as s h o p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s ,  social services,  large-scale  on  recreation  I t may  much "on  their  be  a  t h a t i t s r e s i d e n t s would not f e e l t h e m s e l v e s t o b e l o n g  t o the l a r g e r community, West J a s p e r P l a c e , o f w h i c h they a r e  basis.  the  facilities  that i f Terra  own",  they w i l l  b a s i c urban s e r v i c e s .  are  only  provided  Losa r e s i d e n t s feel  see  suggested  community-wide  themselves t o be  t h a t they a r e b e i n g  I t i s therefore  a  that  deprived the  and  too  o f some  community,  as  w e l l as the Neighbourhood, be s t r e s s e d i n the m a r k e t i n g s t r a t e g y . e)  Anticipated  Results  R e g a r d i n g the  design  elements i n t e n d e d  Neighbourhood, i t i s l i k e l y  that  Neighbourhood w i l l a i d i n t h i s . s c a l e , a sense o f b e l o n g i n g of  the  self,  increases. as  an  and  high  standard  to  the  o f appearance o f  the  I t w i l l be remembered t h a t a t i t s s m a l l e s t  b e g i n s w i t h attachment t o the home, as a symbol outward  to  the  Neighbourhood  as  security  I f the Neighbourhood p r o j e c t s an image w h i c h the r e s i d e n t s  attractive  develop.  extends  the  t o engender attachment  reflection  of  t h e m s e l v e s , attachment  i s more l i k e l y  see to  The C o m m u n i t y for  Centre w i l l ,  the Neighbourhood,  element  suggested.  residents, will  will  depend,  enhance  especially i f  Membership  also  set  however,  participation  i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , provide  of  the  them a p a r t .  not  the  in  its  on  its  residents  total,  identifiable hampered  it  is  unit.  likely The  (and perhaps  degree  which  The s u c c e s s o f  architectural  in  that  incorporates  Center,  it.  the p r o b a b i l i t y of t h e i r using  In  design  the of  it is  is  Again,  the  n  focus  landmark"  automatic  for  the Center as a  design  alone,  automatic  but  all focus  on  the  membership  may  it. Neighbourhood  residents'  will  be a w e l l - d e f i n e d ,  attachment  t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t encouraged)  be p r e d e t e r m i n e d , s i n c e  a physical  derived i n a purely  to  it,  while  by the d e s i g n ,  subjective  not  cannot  way.  3. TO CREATE A NEIGHBOURHOOD WHICH D E S P I T E I T S PHYSICAL DENSITY IS CONSIDER RED BY I T S RESIDENTS TO BE A GOOD PLACE TO L I V E ( C i t y o f E d m o n t o n , P l a n n i n g Department, 1981-1982) The high a)  desire  expressed  in  l e v e l s of r e s i d e n t i a l Interpretation of As  the  has  macro s c a l e a n d , particularly  been  found  explicit  every  which  ance,  appearance:  in  provision  of play  revealed, to  be  in  the  the  major  appearance  requiring  attention Chapter  human s c a l e ,  nature of spaces  Specifically  could  e s p e c i a l l y , a t the micro s c a l e .  Remarkably,  overall  goal  be  defined  as  that  for  Theory  maintenance. element  final  satisfaction,  l i t e r a t u r e review  satisfaction  are  this  high  is  Three  paid was  spaces  regards  of  to  open  the  described  structures space,  at  The T e r r a L o s a  standards in  determinant  the area  of  the  both  as  and  of the  Guidelines  appearance  Guidelines  project individuality,  created, massing of  with  physical  to  nearly  contributing variety,  and  to  mainten-  landscaping.  Guidelines  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on the b a s i s o f age,  require  w h i c h has  been  80 a  contributing factor  related  to  to  satisfaction.  the Guidelines but  amount of open space i n the acres of school and  rather  the  As  well,  Neighbourhood  Neighbourhood w i l l  park s i t e s , a 6.0  (though  be  not  directly  Plan) the  total  considerable - 24.75  acre lake, plus on-site open space.  Despite the physical density of the Neighbourhood, the amount of a v a i l a b l e open space i s higher than i n a t y p i c a l neighbourhood. so much open space, together with  the landscaping  vision  should  of  the  Community  Center,  desires f o r such f a c i l i t i e s ,  and  more  The a v a i l a b i l i t y of  required and  than  adequately  thus r e s u l t i n high l e v e l s of  the  pro-  meet  the  satisfac-  tion. Also related to s a t i s f a c t i o n are the Guidelines  1  references to careful  attention to the semi-private spaces i n multiple housing  projects and  the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of management (at least regarding e x t e r i o r spaces). On-site  f a c t o r s which have been  crowding are extent.  The  also dealt with adequacy  of  shown to  i n the  affect  Guidelines  open space has  to  already  a  the  perception  very  of  considerable  been discussed.  The  d e f i n i t i o n of spaces (semi-private, public, etc.) i s required, so that to some extent  privacy i s addressed.  ations on massing reduce the  Clustering of development and  perception of crowding.  The  limit-  perception i s  also related to the peception of distance from i n d u s t r i a l and  commercial  areas, but the interface between the r e s i d e n t i a l and o f f i c e park portions of  the Neighbourhood receive careful attention, and the design, s i t i n g and  landscaping of the o f f i c e park i s controlled to ensure i t i s not i n t r u s i v e to the r e s i d e n t i a l area. privacy, required,  particularly  Again though, greater attention to maintenance of  between units i n multiple housing  since deficiency i n t h i s area has  structures, i s  been shown to  significantly  affect both perceptions of crowding and r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n .  81 Personalization, again, i s important to s a t i s f a c t i o n since i t has been shown that  the  degree of importance  placed  on  items by  residents  might  correspond to the amount of control they have over them (Michelson,  1977»  292). b)  Assumptions regarding c a u s a l i t y and expectations of o r i g i n a t o r s Once again,  the  influence  The  literature  the intentions of the Guidelines are seriously l i m i t e d by that  physical factors can  shows that  l e v e l s i s the  perception  the of  have on l e v e l s of  s i n g l e most important  f r i e n d l i n e s s i n the  satisfaction.  influence on  these  neighbourhood, a factor  which cannot be planned i n t o a project. c)  Interpretation of Implementors and expectations of o r i g i n a t o r s This goal more than either of the other  skills  and  abilities  of  the  two  implementors  will  (see  be  next  affected by section  of  the this  Chapter). d)  Unanticipated Residential  Results satisfaction  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  the  has  resident  been  shown  population  to  be  as well, so  group to whom the Neighbourhood i s to be marketed may high l e v e l s can be expected. people have expectations,  typically  been  influenced  by  that knowing  the the  reveal whether or not  Residents are expected to be young, and young less  satisfied,  perhaps  due  to  unfulfilled  but on the other hand, they are also expected to be middle-  class and c h i l d l e s s , both groups with f a i r l y high l e v e l s of s a t i s f a c t i o n . e)  Anticipated Results Overall, except f o r the lack of control of peoples  prospects  1  perceptions,  the  seem good f o r the attainment of this goal, probably more than f o r  the other two since the major predictor of r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , a high l e v e l of maintenance, has been assurred.  82 CONCLUSION T h i s s e c t i o n i n c l u d e s comments, based o n t h e model i n F i g u r e apply  t o t h e program and G u i d e l i n e s  7, w h i c h  a s a whole, and a summation o f t h i s  part of the evaluation, a)  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Theory Throughout t h i s Chapter i t was r e p e a t e d l y  stated  that  provisions f o r  p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n o f space were n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e G u i d e l i n e s . w e l l be t h a t d e v e l o p e r s i n t e n d , a t l a t e r  I t may v e r y  stages i n the process,  to allow  f o r t h i s , s i n c e i t i s r e a l l y a management d e c i s i o n r a t h e r t h a n s t r i c t l y one of design.  I t i sfelt,  have w a r r a n t e d all,  however, t h a t  t h e f a c t o r i s i m p o r t a n t enough t o  some degree o f a t t e n t i o n i n t h e document t h a t was, a f t e r  t h e o v e r a l l s t r a t e g y f o r t h e Neighbourhood. Similar  comments  cannot  requirements  f o r privacy.  interaction,  involvement  be made  i n respect  The i m p o r t a n c e and s a t i s f a c t i o n  A t t e n t i o n must be p a i d t o i t a t t h e d e s i g n much by f u n c t i o n a l d i s t a n c e the d e s i g n e r . stages could  t o the inadequacy  of this  variable  has a l r e a d y stage,  of  to control,  been  discussed.  s i n c e i t i s a f f e c t e d so  ( o r o r i e n t a t i o n ) w h i c h c a n be m a n i p u l a t e d by  As w e l l , i n c l u s i o n o f p r o v i s i o n o f p r i v a c y  a t the i n i t i a l  be e x p e c t e d t o be l e s s c o s t l y ( i n terms o f b o t h economic and  p s y c h o l o g i c a l costs) than r e t r o f i t t i n g . I n e x a m i n i n g t h e e n t i r e concept b e h i n d t h e D e s i g n G u i d e l i n e s , i t c o u l d be s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e l e v a n c e in this situation.  First,  o f t h e D e f e n s i b l e Space concept i s d o u b t f u l  though t h i s Neighbourhood i s h i g h  density f o r  suburban Edmonton, i t i s n o t a s dense a s t h e p r o j e c t s examined b y Newman. Secondly, residential  i t i s not located uses  and " t h r e a t s "  i n t h e urban  core,  surrounded  t o s e c u r i t y , but r a t h e r  by  non-  by l o w d e n s i t y  83 r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhoods. of  Third, research  c r i m e and c o n c e r n s about p e r s o n a l  crime  rates)  originated.  a r e lower Fourth,  i n Canada  i t has been  s a f e t y and s e c u r i t y ( n o t t o mention than  i n t h e U.S.  where  t h e concept  the s o c i o e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n o f t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h i s  Neighbourhood w i l l be c o n s i d e r a b l y and  has shown t h a t t h e p e r c e p t i o n  suggested  d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f Newman's sample,  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  that  these r a t h e r  c o n d i t i o n s had an e f f e c t on crime r a t e s and f e e l i n g s o f s e c u r i t y .  adverse Finally,  the concept i s d e t e r m i n i s t i c i n n a t u r e , and i s t h e r e f o r e open t o c r i c i t i s m . Almost a l l t h e l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r onments s t a t e s a t one p o i n t ( i f n o t c o n t i n u a l l y ) t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e physical  environment  behaviors, also  be  i s limited.  Though  i t may  be  a  "catalyst" f o r  t h e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n considered  i n order  to derive  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f the  must total  environment. b)  Assumptions r e g a r d i n g c a u s a l i t y The most s i g n i f i c a n t a s s u m p t i o n made by t h e G u i d e l i n e s i s t h a t p h y s i c a l  design  has the a b i l i t y  validity  to influence  human b e h a v i o r s and a t t i t u d e s .  of the d e t e r m i n i s t i c viewpoint  this  C h a p t e r , however i t b e a r s r e p e a t i n g  only  a limited influence  increase  and t h a t  i n the p o t e n t i a l  Guidelines' creators. "potential"  nature  has been d i s c u s s e d again  the best  that  that  f o r the p o s i t i v e  The  repeatedly i n  p h y s i c a l design  has  can be hoped f o r i s an  behaviors  endorsed  by t h e  The G u i d e l i n e s would have g r e a t e r c r e d i b i l i t y i f t h e of  their  influence  were  more  strongly  stated  and  explicit. c)  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n by implementors and e x p e c t a t i o n s  of originators  On t h e whole, t h e program and i t s documents make a c o n s i d e r a b l e  number  84 of  assumptions r e g a r d i n g  mentors (who  the  skills,  decision-makers).  G u i d e l i n e s a r e w r i t t e n i n such a way implementors. groupings of  of  Though  the  in  statements  are  the  Planners,  be  marketing  the  specify  what  ( i . e . long  regarding  what so  physical  blocks, should  long  be  massing  and  rows),  few  designed  (for  on).  a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t the i m p l e m e n t o r s a r e c a p a b l e  i n t e n t of  designers  d e s i g n e d by  imple-  that t h e i r true i n t e n t i s c l e a r to  forbidden  made  second q u e s t i o n a b l e  t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n and  will  the  the  Guidelines  b u i l d i n g s are  c a r r y i n g out  stood.  powers o f  The f i r s t o f these i s t h a t  example, s m a l l c l u s t e r s , c u l s de s a c , and The  and  include planners, a r c h i t e c t s , designers, developers,  s t r a t e g i s t s and p o l i t i c a l  positive  abilities  and  the G u i d e l i n e s once they have been undera r c h i t e c t s , b e i n g human, v a r y  technical s k i l l s ;  its fair  considerably  the chances a r e t h a t T e r r a L o s a  s h a r e o f good  (or higher)  and  mediocre  (or  R e l a t e d t o t h i s a s p e c t i s the degree o f commitment or e f f o r t w h i c h  may  lower) standards of p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e .  be expended i n i m p l e m e n t i n g the program. As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y ( r e f . P a t t o n , the  program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n cannot be  fore,  can  the  1978)  an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h i s p a r t  c a r r i e d out  originators automatically  i n advance; nor,  assume the  enthusiastic  of  therepartici-  p a t i o n o f the i m p l e m e n t o r s . The  third  part  of  a  complete  evaluation  as  i n v o l v e d the e x a m i n a t i o n o f the program's p r o c e s s . of  the  p r o c e d u r e s t o be  followed  cannot be  identified Again,  evaluated  the  until  by  Patton  performance i t i s used,  however the o r i g i n a t o r s o f the G u i d e l i n e s have assumed t h a t the mechanisms for  their  implementation  i n i t i a l l y and  are  strong  o v e r the l o n g e r t e r m ) ,  enough and  to  ensure  compliance  (both  t h a t the p r o c e s s i t s e l f w i l l work  85 smoothly and w i t h minimum o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e r r o r . make these  kinds  of simplistic  when t h e l i v e s o f so many people  I t c a n be dangerous t o  ( p o s s i b l y naive)  assumptions,  particuarly  a r e i n v o l v e d and where t h e c o n t r o l s used  (agreements and z o n i n g ) a r e r e l a t i v e l y i n f l e x i b l e .  On t h e o t h e r hand, t h i s  program i s an i n n o v a t i v e one, and a l l new i d e a s can expect a c e r t a i n amount of f r i c t i o n during t h e i r i n i t i a l d)  stages,  Anticipated Results Though t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t  two g o a l s would seem t o i n d i c a t e a t  b e s t a l i m i t e d chance o f a t t a i n m e n t ,  i t would appear t h a t t h e t h i r d g o a l ,  which was, by c o i n c i d e n c e , e x p r e s s e d  implicitly  the C i t y , has a good chance o f b e i n g  accomplished.  and f o r t h e most p a r t by  86 CHAPTER SIX  REGARDING METHODOLOGY  It design  i s not the purpose o f t h i s  t h e s i s t o describe a research  for the evaluation o f the Terra Losa Guidelines.  since much of the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed  i n Chapters Three and Four i n -  volved  case s t u d i e s , i t seems appropriate  manner  i n which  gathered,  data  has been  However,  shown  to b r i e f l y  discuss the  to be most s u c c e s s f u l l y  and any problems which might a r i s e obtaining and analyzing  it. Data c o l l e c t i o n methods w i l l suggestions  regarding  appropriate  be discussed  first,  measures,  analysis  followed by of  data,  threats to v a l i d i t y and f i n a l l y , j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r omissions i n the information  presented  i n this  t h e s i s and areas  o f research not  pursued. DATA COLLECTION Almost a l l the f i e l d questionnaires  surveys  reported  i n the l i t e r a t u r e used  t o obtain the opinions, reactions and a t t i t u d e s o f  the resident populations toward t h e i r environment.  The approach can  be j u s t i f i e d i n that i t allows consistency i n data c o l l e c t e d as w e l l as an opportunity to acquire emotive information.  Decisions as to  whether questionnaires should be i n t e r v i e w e r - or s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r e d , depth  o f questioning,  size  o f sample  and format  seem  to have  depended a great deal on time and money a v a i l a b l e , though i n a l l cases,  statistical  considerations.  significance  and  representativeness  were  87 Other  methods  of  data  obtain o b j e c t i v e as w e l l as  acquisition  have  been  subjective measures.  suggested,  to  Observation  of  r e s i d e n t behaviors, demographic p r o f i l e s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t ing,  surveys  sources 1974,  of  management have  been  suggested  as  supplementary  of information i f time and money i s a v a i l a b l e (Francescato, 289)  Though the primary purpose of t h i s evaluation i s to assess  the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the g u i d e l i n e s as they have been applied i n Terra Losa, not to r e v e a l the l e v e l s of s a t i s f a c t i o n i n more conventional areas,  the  language of the  Guidelines  encourages a comparison  of  Terra Losa with other, l e s s r i g i d l y c o n t r o l l e d r e s i d e n t i a l areas i n the C i t y .  The same survey conducted i n Terra Losa could be applied  to other neighbourhoods i n Edmonton to determine t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y of d i f f e r e n c e s and  to provide a standard  t e s t the e f f e c t s of the Guidelines. hoods  of  two  types  be  selected  environment against which to  I t i s suggested that neighbourto  provide  the  most  comparison: suburban neighbourhoods of t y p i c a l density and  complete similar  age, and high density neighbourhoods (which by v i r t u e of h i s t o r i c a l development i n Edmonton are not suburban).  Each type of neighbour-  hood should be f u r t h e r categorized on the basis of the existence or absence of a community center w i t h i n i t s boundaries. Since the basis of the Defensible Space Concept i s a d e s i r e to reduce crime,  i t would be appropriate  mine the incidence and  for the evaluation to deter-  rate of crime,  by  type, w i t h i n Terra  Losa.  Data on other neighbourhood types as described above would also appropriate  even i f a f u l l  This  must  data  be  r e s i d e n t i a l survey  presented  in  a  matter  i s not c a r r i e d which  allows  be  out. true  88 comparisons; i . e . , a rate (per thousand or whatever) should be used rather than absolute numbers. In  terms  of  the  organization  of  the  questionnaire,  Cooper  (1975, 10) used an i n t e r e s t i n g method to assure that questions asked to cover a l l of the design measures being evaluated. up a chart  used, and is  not  She  for each goal, i d e n t i f y i n g the o b j e c t i v e s being  ( i . e . , i n t h i s case the Guideline statement),  were set  tested  the p h y s i c a l s o l u t i o n  the corresponding question(s) asked of the r e s i d e n t s . suggested  that  only  these  types  of  questions  It  be  asked,  most texts on questionnaire  appli-  however, as w i l l be discussed below. K e l l e r (1968, 110, cations  suggest  that  122) probing  responses i s required, discussed.  and  for  an  elaboration  of  generalized  e s p e c i a l l y when d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s are  For example, negative  being  comments about the u n i t often are  a c t u a l l y complaints about neighbours. Regarding the timing of the evaluation, most surveys required a minimum residence period of s i x months. the  Terra  types,  Losa evaluation  and  several  i s undertaken,  sites  Neighbourhood) should  that any  u n i t type can  be observed, and  By  too,  time  (hopefully  the  dispersed  through  the s e t t l i n g - i n e f f e c t s Center  unit the  occupied f o r at l e a s t  d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s u l t s by  Community  before  that a v a r i e t y of  have been developed and  that period, i n order  that  I t i s suggested that  will  be  dwelling  discounted.  built  and  in  operation, so i t s e f f e c t s can be seen. If  interest  within  Council warrants, and  the  time and  Planning  Department  and  from  City  money i s therefore a v a i l a b l e , i t i s  suggested that t h i s f i r s t study be  followed by another, some years  89  in  the future  development,  to determine  what the long-term e f f e c t s of the Guidelines has been.  Some of the  attitudes  and behaviors  time-dependent the  and c e r t a i n l y a f t e r f u l l  results.  discussed  i n Chapters Three and Four are  so changes over time could As well,  the mobility  be expected to occur i n  o f the population  could  be  determined for comparison with s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l s . Surveys of the physical environment can also play an important part  i n the evaluation  Guideline  of Terra  Losa.  A checklist compiled  statements could be used to see how completely the stated  intentions of their originators have been f u l f i l l e d . in  from  Chapter Five, the influence of physical design  part of the evaluation of any project should  As discussed  i s l i m i t e d , but  be the determination of  whether or not the "program" can be implemented, and whether were any problems i n either achieving  the design  objectives  there  stated,  or  i n understanding what i t was that was supposed to be achieved.  The  r e s u l t s of this survey would have to be c a r e f u l l y interpreted,  since  problems  of comprehension  and  implementation  could  be the  fault of the i n d i v i d u a l designer as well as of the Guidelines. SUGGESTIONS FOR MEASURES Many o f the case studies reviewed had derived major topics discussed. questions gated,  These were generally  d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y addressing  measures of the  composed  of several  the topic being  the responses to which were combined  i n some way  investiinto an  index or scale of that factor. These measures w i l l  A list  of those  which may be of use, and their source, i s presented below:  index of  cohesion  (Smith,  not be discussed  here.  1970, 152); measures o f neighbourhood  attachment  90 (Gerson, 111);  1977, 140); o v e r a l l r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n (Ermuth, 1974,  measure  scales  for psychological  community scale  of neighbouring  scales  (Caplow  crowding  (Schmidt,  and Forman,  behavior  of women  at  unit,  (Wallin,  neighbourhood  1979, 110); neighbourhood 1950, 358); index  1953); and  interaction  of ( d i s ) s a t i s f a c t i o n  (Michelson, 1969, 19); perception of crime (Hartnagel, 1979, 181). Samples of questionnaires used to evaluate  neighbourhoods are  very common i n the l i t e r a t u r e and most follow along s i m i l a r Many  questions  use Gutman  or Lickert  scales  lines.  for responses so  r e l a t i v e responses are obtained and differences i n the respondents' perceptions  o f the d e f i n i t i o n  minimized.  Stereotyping o f questions  avoided,  and meanings  i n the question i s  and set responses  should be  as well as imposition of the designer's values and biases  on the survey by selection o f questions and responses.  The p a r t i c u -  l a r s i t u a t i o n of Edmonton, i n terms of growth, culture, r e s i d e n t i a l opportunities and the l i k e ,  should  be considered  i n both deriving  questions and interpreting the r e s u l t s . ANALYSIS The  majority of cases reviewed used c o r r e l a t i o n and regression  to explain the relationships and differences among and between v a r i ables.  Often too some variables were controlled  for while  testing  relationships between others. The  organization  determining  which  results,  since  variable,  and  variables.  of Chapters  Three  r e l a t i o n s h i p s should  each  major  the factors  topic that  was  and Four be  tested  discussed  influenced  should  aid  in  i n evaluation as a  i t as  dependent  independent  91  Care must be taken however i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e s u l t s since i n many cases, research r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e an extremely complex cause and  e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between major t o p i c s .  results  should  also  keep  i n mind,  and consider,  patterns which would i n d i c a t e the existence trolled  variables  particular  to  Interpretation of  the  any  evolving  of intervening uncon-  Edmonton  or  Terra  Losa  situation. THREATS TO VALIDITY Any of  evaluation or research  the f a c t o r s which might  project i s open to c r i t i c i s m i f a l l  a f f e c t or bias  accounted for i n some way i n the design.  the r e s u l t s are not  To a i d the designer o f the  Terra Losa evaluation, some of the threats t o v a l i d i t y are discussed here. In reporting r e s u l t s , i t i s p o s s i b l e that p l a u s i b l e but inaccurate  results  complexity  will  be  presented,  particularly  o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s being  discussed.  t h i s , care must be taken to not over-generalize the responses received avoid values,  through probing  i n view To guard  o f the against  r e s u l t s , to v e r i f y  or repeated questioning, to  the b i a s i n g of r e s u l t s through the imposition of one's own and t o assure the appropriateness  Wellman and Leighton  o f any assumptions made.  (1979, 367) have stated that "When not found i n  the neighbourhood, community i s assumed not to e x i s t . "  That i s , i f  attachments t o place and t o people are not based on the geographic u n i t o f the neighbourhood, researchers  may assume that no a t t a c h -  ments e x i s t , while i n f a c t i t i s the u n i t on which they are based which has been wrongly i d e n t i f i e d . as  Attachments can also be based,  shown i n Chapters Three and Four, on areas  both  smaller and  92  larger  than  the neighbourhood.  The repeating o f r e s u l t s  of the  Terra Losa evaluation must take care that the same assumption i s not made unless v e r i f i e d . Since Edmonton,  Terra  Losa  the r e s u l t s  i s at least obtained  a t present  a unique area i n  i n the evaluation should  not be  generalized over other or l a r g e r areas without taking considerable care t o assure that such a procedure i s j u s t i f i e d . F i n a l l y , w i t h i n the experimental design, the designer must make explicit  the assumptions made, the area  f o r which  the evaluation  a p p l i e s , the c o n t r o l s placed on any a n a l y s i s , and the j u s t i f i c a t i o n for only l i m i t e d use o f c o n t r o l groups. In examining  the l i t e r a t u r e , a number of 'unknown' f a c t o r s were  discovered which should be i d e n t i f i e d i n the e v a l u a t i o n , since they may derive unexpected r e s u l t s .  The e f f e c t s of the s e l f - s e l e c t i o n  process due t o the market strategy ( i n the absence of the d e t a i l s o f that strategy) cannot be predetermined  with absolute c e r t a i n t y , nor  can the propensity of r e s i d e n t s t o engage i n r e c r e a t i o n a l or neighbouring  activity.  The change i n l i f e s t y l e s being experienced by  western s o c i e t y as a whole, e s p e c i a l l y factors such as working wives and  increased concerns with f i t n e s s , were not present f o r the most  part i n the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed from  those  documented.  so r e s u l t s i n Terra Losa may d i f f e r  The e f f e c t s  o f any other  non-physical  f a c t o r s ( c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l or personal) cannot be predetermined. sample surveyed  The  may i n c l u d e , f o r example, chronic complainers whose  responses w i l l skew r e s u l t s .  In some cases, people may only be made  aware o f inadequacies i n t h e i r environment once they are questioned about them.  As w e l l , use of American and t o a l e s s e r extent B r i t i s h  93  data  as  a  basis  of  comparison  with  questioned,  through i f the c u l t u r a l and  ween  groups  these  e f f e c t s may  the  presented  in this  v e r a c i t y of  could  attitudinal differences  mind  during  be bet-  interpretation, their  the  are  s e v e r a l unknowns which  evaluation  of  First,  timetables  the  the  goals  and  may  objectives  f o r commencement,  c o m p l e t i o n o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , the o r d e r o f development  the  exact timing  i t s programs (and the  in  work, t h e r e  i n Chapter Four.  d u r a t i o n and sites,  kept  results  be m i n i m a l .  Similarly, affect  are  Canadian  marketing  economic and  o f the  opening o f  what those w i l l be)  strategy  of  the  the  i s not  developers  Community C e n t e r  known.  are  h o u s i n g market c o n d i t i o n s a t the  not  The  and  details  known.  of  of  General  t i m e o f occupancy  and  the r e n t s t r u c t u r e o f the Neighbourhood are b o t h unknown. Finally, their  adherence t o  developers the  despite  high  to  the  the  initially  existence  Guidelines,  legal  the  level  contributing  q u a l i t y o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and  cannot be  of  to  and  agreements of  requiring  commitment o f  thereafter  maintenance o f the  the  continuing environment  predetermined.  MATTERS NOT This  DISCUSSED section  includes  justifications  f o r m a t t e r s not  examined  in this thesis. No  research  was  undertaken  regarding  r e s i d e n t s chose t o l i v e where they do decision-making. and  Terra  Losa w i l l  the  means  by  or the t r a d e - o f f s made i n t h i s  o p e r a t e i n a f r e e market economy,  i t i s assumed t h a t i t s r e s i d e n t s have made a f r e e c h o i c e  t h e r e , and  may  which  make s i m i l a r l y u n r e s t r i c t e d d e c i s i o n s t o move.  to  live  94  I t must be remembered that the scale a t which t h i s takes place i s that of the Neighbourhood.  evaluation  Not attempt has been made  to examine the l e v e l of resident s a t i s f a c t i o n with the dwelling u n i t i t s e l f , not the l e v e l of l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n of the resident except as these measures r e l a t e to neighbourhood s a t i s f a c t i o n . The  advantages and disadvantages o f high  developments are not discussed, high  density  i n Terra  debate or change.  since  Losa i s a f a i t  density  the (eventual) accompli,  residential presence o f  and not open t o  For s i m i l a r reasons, the need f o r and accepta-  b i l i t y of the various housing types t o be b u i l t are not considered. The  process by which  i s not discussed,  'perceptions'  are derived by i n d i v i d u a l s  though one of the assumptions made i n the t h e s i s  i s that people do have i n d i v i d u a l i z e d perceptions  which a f f e c t (or  perhaps are) the way they view t h e i r environment.  The importance of  privacy,  territoriality,  i n t e r a c t i o n and attachment to the i n d i v i -  dual's mental health i s l i k e w i s e not s t u d i e d . ested  i n the i n t e r f a c e between these  This t h e s i s i s i n t e r -  subjective  assessments and  design, not i n the psychological determinants alone. The how  this  discussed.  meaning o f 'neighbourhoods' to i n d i v i d u a l r e s i d e n t s , and meaning  varies  between  The frame of reference  them,  i s not researched  or  f o r t h i s t h e s i s was Terra Losa,  as defined by the Neighbourhood Structure Plan boundaries, since i t i s over that area that the Guidelines are to be a p p l i e d . F i n a l l y s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the resident population were not  included.  Kinship  i s not d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from other  types of  s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , since as stated previously the major e f f e c t of k i n s h i p i s f e l t i n older w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d neighbourhoods.  Cultural  95  differences  are  not  discussed,  Neighbourhood residents w i l l  since  be s i m i l a r  i t i s assumed  that  i n this  to those  already r e s i d i n g i n the r e s t o f West Jasper ings of c u l t u r a l groups have developed. race are not presented  respect  the  Place, where no group-  Finally,  the e f f e c t s of  since f o r the most part, r a c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n  Edmonton are not an issue.  96  CHAPTER SEVEN  CONCLUSION  The  foregoing t h e s i s has presented a method of approach f o r the  eventual evaluation  evaluation of the  of  the  Terra  Losa Neighbourhood, through  Neighbourhood Design Guidelines  and  the  the  program  which derived them. Many authors i n the  design  occupations have during  the  twenty years emphasized the importance of post-construction t i o n i n the design by  evaluating  process.  the  goals  past  evalua-  This t h e s i s has gone a "step f u r t h e r " of  the  project  before  construction.  I d e a l l y , the r e s u l t s of t h i s examination would be incorporated a revised version of the Design Guidelines, and development.  Due  thus the  into  eventual  to the fragmented ownership of the Neighbourhood,  the h i s t o r y of disagreement among those owners and  the  lack of  a  mechanism which would allow the C i t y to force the owners to change, i t i s very u n l i k e l y that t h i s w i l l ever occur.  In any case, i t i s  the basic premises on which the Guidelines are based - that can determine human behavior, is  appropriately  applied  in  and that the Defensible this  situation -  which  design  Space concept are  faulty.  Simple r e v i s i o n s to the Guidelines, then, would not accomplish much. On a more p o s i t i v e note, however, i t w i l l be remembered that as far as the achievement of r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n i s concerned, the Guidelines  as w r i t t e n do  include references  features which have been shown to indirectly  to a f f e c t the  other  influence  to most of the  design  i t s achievement  major t o p i c s discussed).  If  (and any  97  amendments were to be made to the Guidelines, i t i s suggested these  references be  expanded  upon and  given  that  greater emphasis  points to be looked for during design review.  as  This of course would  mean a major r e o r i e n t a t i o n of the whole development concept and  the  marketing scheme which the owners may not be w i l l i n g to undertake. While  the f i n d i n g s of t h i s work may  never be applied i n the  Guidelines for the area used as a case  study, they may  general  the  application  Specifically, reviewing  the  in  the  work  information t h i s  development  concepts  of  applications for sites.  c h e c k l i s t could be derived of those the  literature  application.  as  being  Department.  t h e s i s contains can be used i n  and  permits f o r high density areas and  Planning  f i n d more  development  To ease such reviews, a  design  d e s i r a b l e , to  features i d e n t i f i e d be  used  against  in each  On l a r g e r scale p r o j e c t s , the l i m i t a t i o n s of p h y s i c a l  design i n terms of i t s influence on human behavior should be kept i n mind while reviewing development concepts.  The  same caveat  should  be remembered when d e r i v i n g C i t y p o l i c y on r e s i d e n t i a l design. Returning to the case study area, i t has been stated that i t i s u n l i k e l y that the C i t y w i l l be able to force changes to the Guidelines as w r i t t e n . exercise  discretion  Design  However, the C i t y s t i l l r e t a i n s the power to in  reviewing  site  plans  i n the  development  permit process, and through t h i s d i s c r e t i o n can d i r e c t that c e r t a i n changes  be  made to  the  designs.  In  this  way,  the  City  might  implement the suggestions made above regarding a refocussing of the G u i d e l i n e s ' emphasis to one satisfaction. spent  by  City  encouraging  good design f o r r e s i d e n t i a l  Though t h i s approach means more time and a t t e n t i o n staff  on  what would  otherwise  be  fairly  routine  98  applications, the large size and density  of the Terra Losa project  (and therefore the large number of people affected), and the experimental  nature of the concept, would  seem to make t h i s additional  e f f o r t worthwhile. In sum, it  must  be  i f t h i s thesis can be said to have derived a " r e s u l t " , a  generally  p o s i t i v e expectation  that  the  Terra  Losa  neighbourhood  w i l l be one i n which i t s residents' basic physical and  psychological  needs as well  met,  not  though  as  necessarily  some of t h e i r as  a  result  aspirations w i l l of  the  be  factors  the  through  the  Guidelines' originators had suggested. This  judgement  implementation  can  only  be  of the evaluation,  verified, and  however,  i t i s hoped  that  the  civic  authorities and the developers involved w i l l view the next stage of the evaluation process as one which i s viable and necessary.  99  BIBLIOGRAPHY A i e l l o , J.R. and A. Baum (eds.). Residential Crowding and Design. York: Plenum Press, 1979.  New  A i e l l o , J.R. and D.E. Thompson. "Personal Space, Crowding and Spatial Behavior i n a Cultural Context" i n Altman, I., A. Rapoport and J.F. Wohlwill (eds.). 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Psychological Assoc., 1972.  109  APPENDIX I Terra Losa S i t e Design, Landscape and Architectural Guideline 1982 05 03  Source:  City of Edmonton, 1981.  Terra Losa Site Design, Landscape and Architectural Guideline AN INTERPRETATION AND RESOURCE GUIDE TO THE TERRA LOSA RESTRICTIVE COVENANT 82-05-01  THE TERRA LOSA  DEVELOPERS  USE OF TERRA LOSA, S I T E DESIGN, LANDSCAPE AND ARCHITECTURAL GUIDELINE CHATEAU DEVELOPMENTS LTD. The i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h e S i t e D e s i g n , L a n d s c a p e and Arcli i t e c t u r a l G u i d e l i n e document i s p r o v i d e d a s an aid to a s s i s t the Applicant to understand the o b j e c t i v e of Terra Losa. The D e v e l o p e r s a n d i t s d e s i g n a t e d " D e v e l o p e r ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e " assume no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the accuracy of the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d , o r f o r any l o s s e s o r damages r e s u l t i n g f r o m u s e t h e r e o f .  CITY LUMBER COMPANY  (1973) LTD.  CITY OF EDMONTON COLUMBUS INVESTMENT CORPORATION LTD. HOFFMAN  MANAGEMENT LTD.  INTEGRATED BUILDING CORP. LTD. MELCOR DEVELOPMENTS LTD. M.W.F.T. HOLDINGS LTD. R.S.F.T. HOLDINGS LTD.  T e r r a Losa has endeavored t o p l a n a n e i g h b o u r h o o d w i t h s t r o n g i d e n t i t y and i n c o r p o r a t e t h e p h i l o s o p h y and p r a c t i c e s o f crime p r e v e n t i o n through environmental design. The p l a n n i n g o f d e f e n s i b l e s p a c e w i l l be c a r e f u l l y examined i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f individual sites. The A p p l i c a n t s h o u l d t h o r o u g h l y r e v i e w the r e s t r i c t i v e c o v e n a n t and g u i d e l i n e s b e f o r e s t a r t i n g t h e d e s i g n o f any project.  (i)  Terra Losa TABLE OF CONTENTS I  OBJECTIVES  II  ADMINISTRATION  III  GENERAL DESIGN PROVISIONS  IV  DEFENSIBLE SPACE  V  LANDSCAPING  VI  GENERAL ARCHITECTURAL PROVISIONS  VII  THE DEVELOPERS  PROVISIONS  COMMITMENT  8 12  23 27  I Objectives T e r r a L o s a i s a s u b u r b a n community w i t h i n the Edmonton u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t . T e r r a Losa t a k e s t h e f o r m o f a h i g h q u a l i t y , mixed use development t h a t p r o v i d e s a r e s i d e n t i a l component and a b u s i n e s s p a r k . Special a t t e n t i o n t o the q u a l i t y of environment, the n e i g h b o u r h o o d i d e n t i t y and c r i m e p r e v e n t i o n through environmental planning w i l l enhance t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f T e r r a L o s a . The two e l e m e n t s , r e s i d e n t i a l and b u s i n e s s , a r e k n i t t o g e t h e r by boundary d e f i n i t i o n s , common l a n d s c a p e / a r c h i t e c t u r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , l i n k i n g walkways and c e n t r a l r e c r e a t i o n a l facilities. These e l e m e n t s w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o s t r o n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d i d e n t i t y f o r t h o s e who l i v e i n , work i n , and v i s i t t h e community. T e r r a Losa w i l l p r o v i d e a r e c o g n i z a b l e i d e n t i t y and sense o f p l a c e . The T e r r a L o s a n e i g h b o u r h o o d o u t l i n e p l a n s shows t h e p r o x i m i t y o f t h e v a r i o u s p r o p o s e d l a n d use d i s t r i c t s .  THE TERRA LOSA, S I T E DESIGN, LANDSCAPE AND ARCHITECTURAL GUIDELINES HAVE BEEN PREPARED WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF: CITY OF EDMONTON - Land Use a n d P l a n n i n g B r a n c h - Planning Section, PETER HEMINGWAY  Edmonton  Police  ARCHITECTS  HILLDALE DEVELOPMENTS LTD. IBI  GROUP  WITTEN VOGEL BINDER  & LYONS  The S i t e D e s i g n , L a n d s c a p e and A r c h i t e c t u r a l C o n t r o l g u i d e l i n e has been d e v e l o p e d t o a s s i s t i n achieving t h i s q u a l i t y of s p i r i t , s t r o n g i d e n t i t y , and sense o f p l a c e , w i t h an emphasis on d e f e n s i b l e s p a c e . A l l d e v e l o p m e n t s s h a l l be p l a n n e d and d e s i g n e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e p r o p o s e d s t r e e t scape and o v e r a l l d e v e l o p m e n t c o n c e p t o f Terra Losa. The T e n a L o s a n e i g h b o u r h o o d i d e n t i t y w i l l be e n s u r e d by c r e a t i v e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e concepts addressed i n t h i s S i t e Design, Landscape and A r c h i t e c t u r a l G u i d e l i n e and t h e r e s t r i c t i v e c o v e n a n t r e g i s t e r e d on e a c h p a r c e l of l a n d .  Terra Losa  Terra L o s a N e i g h b o u r h o o d  Structure Plan  AVENUE  Proposed Districts A B C D E F G H I J  two family dwellings row housing medium density multi family low rise apartment medium rise apartment high rise apartment business industrial parks schools • parks neighborhood commercial  POSSIBLE INTENSIFICATION aaa io storey f.a.r. 2:1 bbb 5 storey far. 21  ccc industrial service centre ddd community recreation centre  N o t e : P l a n t o be r e p l a c e d w i t h S u b d i v i s i o n p l a n s when r e y i s t e r c d and s p e c i f i c districting i s i n place.  Terra Losa  2  n Administration The S i t e D e s i g n , L a n d s c a p e a n d Architectural Guideline ( " G u i d e l i n e " ) w i l l be p r o v i d e d prospective builders .  The A p p l i c a n t w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e the D e v e l o p e r ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n d u p l i c a t e : to  The A p p l i c a n t s h a l l b e r e q u i r e d t o s u b m i t p l a n s f o r any p r o p o s e d p r o j e c t in Terra Losa t o the "Developer's R e p r e s e n t a t i v e " ( s h a l l mean t h a t p e r s o n o r f i r m a p p o i n t e d by t h e Developers) p r i o r t o a p p l y i n g t o the C i t y o f Edmonton f o r any p e r m i t s . The D e v e l o p e r ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e h a s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to review a l l plans t o e n s u r e t h e A p p l i c a n t s meet t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f T e r r a Losa as set out i n the r e s t r i c t i v e c o v e n a n t and the Guideline. The D e v e l o p e r ' s Represent a t i v e w i l l use p r o f e s s i o n a l assistance as necessary t o r e v i e w A p p l i c a n t ' s plans to ensure t h a t c r e a t i v e aspects of design are d u l y acknowledged r e l a t i v e to the t o t a l neighbourhood of Terra Losa. A p p l i c a n t s w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o a d d r e s s t h e e l e m e n t s o f g o o d d e s i g n p r a c t i c e s : human a c t i v i t i e s and d e f e n s i b l e space, as s e t o u t i n s e c t i o n IV o f t h i s G u i d e l i n e , b e h a v i o r , open s p a c e s , the s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s t r u c t u r e s and compatibility with neighbouring developments. W i t h i n t h i s framework, the b u i l d e r s are encouraged to s t r i v e for i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n each p r o j e c t .  a)  A s i t e p l a n showing the p r o v i s i o n s f o r f r o n t , r e a r and s i d e y a r d s , t h e provision for off street vehcile p a r k i n g , access from s t r e e t , p e d e s t r i a n ways from p a r k i n g , a m e n i t y a r e a s t o b u i l d i n g s and s i d e w a l k s . This plan w i l l be u s e d t o e v a l u a t e s i t i n g o f b u i l d i n g and the u s e s on the s i t e .  b)  P l a n s showing e l e v a t i o n s i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l to demonstrate a r c h i t e c t u r a l design and t o i d e n t i f y e x t e r i o r m a t e r i a l s and f i n i s h e s i n c l u d i n g s a m p l e s , c o l o u r c h i p s and other pertinent data to f u l l y i d e n t i f y a l l e x t e r i o r m a t e r i a l s and f i n i s h e s .  c)  A landscape plan s u f f i c i e n t i n d e t a i l i n c l u d i n g c o n t o u r s , and t o p o f s l a b o f ground f l o o r of each b u i l d i n g to a l l o w e v a l u a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s and t y p e s o f landscaping r e l a t i v e to environmental aspects of crime p r e v e n t i o n , plus the a e s t h e t i c features of the proposed project.  d)  P l a n s showing the i n t e r i o r h a l l s , p u b l i c spaces, entrances, parkade l a y o u t s , w a l k w a y s a n d t h e p e o p l e movement a r e a s from sidewalk to e n t r a n c e , b u i l d i n g t o p a r k i n g , b u i l d i n g to garbage e t c .  e)  P l a n s l o c a t i n g and showing n a t u r e o f a l l signage w i t h s u f f i c e n t d e t a i l s as t o graphics, size, colours.  f)  A w r i t t e n statement as  _»  t o proposed  use.  Terra Losa 3  ui  g) !  h)  An u n d e r t a k i n g t h a t the p l a n s a p p r o v e d by the Developer's Representative w i l l be t h e p l a n s s u b m i t t e d t o t h e C i t y f o r D e v e l o p m e n t and B u i l d i n g P e r m i t s a l s o a s t a t e m e n t as t o what i f any r e l a x a t i o n s of C i t y requirements w i l l be a s k e d f o r . For development a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r p a r c e l s owned by t h e C i t y o r p u r c h a s e d f r o m the C i t y , the A p p l i c a n t w i l l f o l l o w a s l i q h t y d i f f e r e n t procedure i n o b t a i n i n g a p p r o v a l , however, adherence t o the G u i d e l i n e w i l l be r e q u i r e d .  Developer's  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e can  be  reached  at:  in General Design Provisions A l l b u i l d i n g s m u s t be d e s i g n e d by o r in formal association with a registered architect. A l l l a n d s c a p e d e s i g n must be c a r r i e d o u t b y o r i n f o r m a l a s s o c i a t i o n with a c e r t i f i e d landscape a r c h i t e c t . 2)  3)  A l l d e v e l o p m e n t s must c o n f o r m w i t h the C i t y o f E d m o n t o n L a n d Use B y - L a w , ' t h e L a n d Use a n d D e v e l o p m e n t R e s t r i c t i v e Covenant C a v e a t and the S i t e D e s i g n Landscape and A r c h i t e c t u r a l G u i d e l i n e s . The r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T e r r a L o s a C o v e n a n t s h a l l be c o n s i d e r e d a s supplementary to the requirements of t h e Land Use B y - L a w .  5)  A human s c a l e f o r p r o j e c t s s h a l l be c r t i . i t e d through the e f f e c t i v e c o o r d i n a t i o n of n a t u r a l m a t e r i a l s , c o l o u r s , s i z e s and t e x t u r e s . L a n d s c a p i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t a i l s s h a l l be d e s i g n e d t o r e l a t e t o human s c a l e a c t i v i t i e s .  6)  I n d i v i d u a l i t y i s s t r o n g l y encouraged with a d e l i b e r a t e attempt to avoid uniformity. Entranceways s h a l l be easily identified.  7)  A l l b u i l d i n g p r o j e c t s s h a l l be d e s i q n e d to take i n t o account adjacent d e v e l o p ments. The v i s u a l mass o f a m u l t i -j f a m i l y p r o j e c t s h a l l be m i n i m i z e d b y -o c a r e f u l s i t i n g of u n i t c l u s t e r s , the use o f v e g e t a t i o n , berms, and f e n c e s . The s i t i n g o f l o n g b l o c k s d i r e c t l y a l o n g any s t r e e t f r o n t a g e , t h e use o f l a r g e monotonous b l o c k s o r a s e r i e s o f e s s e n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l u n i t s w i l l not be approved. S i g n i f i c a n t degrees of a r t i c u l a t i o n , in roof e l e v a t i o n forms, h e i g h t s a n d p r o d u c t s w i l l be e n c o u r a g e d to create compatible designs.  8)  S i g n a g e by t h e D e v e l o p e r s a t t h e v a r i o u s entranceways w i l l e s t a b l i s h c e r t a i n e l e m e n t s , such as t h e base and f r a m i n g t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d a s a common f e a t u r e .  Compliance w i t h the T e r r a Losa G u i d e l i n e s s h a l l n o t be t a k e n as a p p r o v a l o r c o m p l i a n c e w i t h C i t y , P r o v i n c i a l and/or F e d e r a l r e g u l a t i o n s , p o l i c i e s and/or standards. Responsibility for obtaining appropriate a p p r o v a l s f r o m Government a u t h o r i t i e s and complying with t h e i r various regulations, p o l i c i e s and s t a n d a r d s s h a l l a t a l l times be t h a t o f t h e A p p l i c a n t . The D e v e l o p e r ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e w i l l be the approving a u t h o r i t y for adherence to t h e T e r r a L o s a " L a n d Use and D e v e l o p m e n t R e s t r i c t i v e Covenant C a v e a t " , except f o r d e v e l o p a b l e p a r c e l s owned o r s o l d by t h e City. T h e C i t y w i l l be t h e a p p r o v i n g a u t h o r i t y and w i l l a c t as the D e v e l o p e r ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o r the purpose o f the Guideline.  Terra Losa 5  9) /  10)  Parking areas developed at grade, u n d e r g r o u n d o r i n s t r u c t u r e s s h a l l be designed with p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to s u r v e i l l a n c e methods, l i g h t i n g , p e d e s t r i a n a c c e s s and s a f e t y . U n o b s t r u c t i v e v i e w s must be m a i n t a i n e d i n o r d e r t o implement the p r i n c i p l e s of d e f e n s i b l e space. A l l b u i l d i n g s s h a l l be d e s i g n e d w i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e p r a c t i c e s and p h i l o s o p h y o f " D e f e n s i b l e S p a c e " and o u t l i n e d i n S e c t i o n IV.  due  Terra Losa 6  Signage S i g n a g e w i l l h e l p c r e a t e a common e l e m e n t tin niKjhout T e r r a Losa. There i s a standard s t r u c t u r a l system f o r a l l T e r r a Losa signage. Kach p r o j e c t has t h e freedom t o a p p l y i t s own g r a p h i c s t o i d e n t i f i c a t i i o n s i g n s , h o w e v e r , a l l information signs w i l l use standardized graphics. T h u s a common e l e m e n t w i l l b e c r e a t e d by s t r u c t u r e , a n d v a r i e t y c r e a t e d by individual graphics. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s i g n a g e s h a l l h a v e a b a s e e x p r e s s i n g t h e same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e signage a t ontranceways. The s i g n a g e c a n be f r e e s t a n d i n g on the base o r framed i n a fashion s i m i l a r to entrance signs. The frame t o be 7 5 m m p i p e o r t u b u l a r s t e e l channel, f i n i s h e d i n an e a r t h t o n e c o l o u r . The i n f o r m a t i o n s i g n a g e s h a l l be m o u n t e d on s i m i l a r pipe or tubular channel stand, the horizontal portion being the f u l l length of the i n f o r m a t i o n s i g n . In a l l c a s e s t h e l e t t e r i n g on i n f o r m a t i o n s i g n a g e w i l l be i n H e l v e t i c a B o l d o r Medium, b l a c k o n a w h i t e background. The s i z e a n d l o c a t i o n o f s i g n a g e s h o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e architechtural plans. For b u i l d i n g s i nthe IB D i s t r i c t s w i t h m u l t i t e n a n c i e s a n d CNC p r o j e c t s t h e s i g n a g e must be i n k e e p i n g with good a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r a c t i c e s . A l l s i g n s s h a l l be l o c a t e d on p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . On c o r n e r s i t e s , n o s i g n a g e w i l l b e a l l o w e d w i t h i n the t r i a n g u l a r area o f 8 m , on t h e p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . No t e m p o r a r y , m o v i n g o r f l a s h i n g s i g n s w i l l b e a l l o w e d  Terra Losa 7  IV Defensible Space "Defensible enhancement  s p a c e i s a l i v i n g / w o r k i n g e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h c a n be e m p l o y e d b y i n h a b i t a n t s f o r o f t h e i r l i v e s w h i l e p r o v i d i n g s e c u r i t y f o r f a m i l y , n e i g h b o u r s and f r i e n d s . " O s c a r Newman  £ °  GENERAL PHILOSOPHY T e r r a Losa i s a p l a n n e d mixed use neighbourhood based on the p r i n c i p l e s o f c r i m e p r e v e n t i o n through the use of d e f e n s i b l e space c o n c e p t s . T h e r e a r e two ways t o a d d r e s s d e f e n s i b l e space. A s i m p l e way o f a c h i e v i n g d e f e n s i b l e s p a c e by p h y s i c a l means a n d a m o r e c o m p l e x way b y p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l means. B o t h methods a r e v a l i d and they can i n t e r a c t . By p h y s i c a l m e a n s , s a f e , l i v a b l e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s c a n be c r e a t e d t h r o u g h a t t e n t i o n t o d e s i g n o f s t r e e t s , design of i n t e r i o r spaces in b u i l d i n g s , design of buildings i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s , use o f l a n d s c a p i n g , d e s i g n of recreational areas, etc. By p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d s o c i a l m e a n s , n e i g h b o u r h o o d s a r e made d e f e n s i b l e by p e o p l e d e v e l o p i n g a s e n s e o f t e r r i t o r y by c o g n i t i o n ( o r k n o w i n g ) and t h e n d e f e n d i n g o r p r o t e c t i n g t h a t s p a c e by b o n d i n g t o g e t h e r i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . P h y s i c a l s p a c e c a n be d e s i g n e d , b u t s o c i a l r e s p o n s e c a n n o t be f o r c e d . I t m u s t be allowed to develop f r e e l y without intervention or paternalism. However, d e f e n s i b l e space t h r o u g h s o c i a l means c a n b e s t i m u l a t e d b y p r o v i d i n g some f o r m o f t h e p h y s i c a l c o m m u n a l n e t w o r k as i n t h e c a s e o f T e r r a Losa t h r o u g h the p r o v i s i o n o f a community c e n t r e .  Some o f t h e i d e a s s u g g e s t e d b y d e f e n s i b l e space run c o u n t e r t o t r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g p h i l o s o p h i e s i n t h a t i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p an a t t a c h m e n t t o "home t u r f " , p e o p l e m u s t b e a b l to r e c o g n i z e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t T r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g through r e g u l a t i o n s has too o f t e n b e e n c o n c e r n e d w i t h e l i m i n a t i n g • differences. A c i t y p l a n n e d on d e f e n s i b l e ) space p r i n c i p l e s t h e r e f o r e , would appear t o be a c o l l e c t i o n o f d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t neighbourhoods w i t h each community e m p h a s i z i i i t s own i n d i v i d u a l i t y t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . In t h e c a s e o f T e r r a L o s a , t h e G u i d e l i n e dea: almost e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h the d e s i g n o f p h y s i c ; f e a t u r e s a s t h e y c a n be r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d and d e s c r i b e d . The i n c o r p o r a t i o n d o c u m e n t s p r e s e n t e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the community centre are concerned with d e s c r i b i n g the means b y w h i c h t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o T e r r a Losa can a l s o be encouraged t o develop. The G u i d e l i n e i s w r i t t e n t o m a i n t a i n h i g h a e s t h e t i c and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t a n d a r d s as they are important aspects of d e f e n s i b l e space. B u i l d i n g s and p u b l i c s p a c e s w h i c h do n o t have good d e s i g n and do n o t a p p e a r t o be w e l l m a i n t a i n e d , a r e n o t c a r e d f o r b y residents. T h i s i n t u r n may l e a d t o v a n d a l i s m and r e l a t e d u n d e s i r a b l e b e h a v i o u r patterns.  Terra Losa 6  Defensible Space - General Provisions The s i g n i f i c a n t p h y s i c a l a n d a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s o f T e r r a L o s a s u g g e s t e d by t h e p h i l o s o p h y of d e f e n s i b l e space and the reasons f o r t h e i r i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n the Guidelines are noted below. 1)  E x t e r n a l Boundary  Definition  T h i s i s n e c e s s a r y so t h a t r e s i d e n t s can recognize the l i m i t s of t h e i r neighbourhood o r " t e r r i t o r y " . This can help d e v e l o p a s e n s e o f community and t h e r e f o r e l e a d s t o s e l f - p o l i c i n g and s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n . B o u n d a r y d e f i n i t i o n c a n be a c h i e v e d b y berming, f e n c i n g and s i g n a g e . 2)  External  Gates  T h e s e h e l p t o d e f i n e when a r e s i d e n t p a s s e s i n t o h i s o r h e r t e r r i t o r y and thus e s t a b l i s h e d a zone where strangers o r i n t r u d e r s c a n be more r e a d i l y i d e n t i f e d . 3)  Internal  Fences  Around  Separate  Developments  I n t h i s way z o n e s o f i n f l u e n c e c a n b e e s t a b l i s h e d which i d e n t i f y p u b l i c , semip u b l i c , and p r i v a t e z o n e s . This achieves on a s m a l l e r s c a l e , what e x t e r n a l b o u n d a r i e s e s t a b l i s h on a n e i g h b o u r h o o d s c a l e . As a r e s u l t residents develop a protective f e e l i n g t o w a r d s t h e i r h o u s i n g and immediate confines. 4)  P r i v a t i z a t i o n of  Streets  To r e i n f o r c e a s e n s e o f c o m m u n i t y , p r i v a t i z a t i o n w i t h t h e use o f g a t e s , s t r e e t lamps and s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e o f a c o n s i s t e n t d e s i g n s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d .  Terra Losa  5)  j  D e f i n i t i o n o f M u l t i p l e Housing Apartment Developments  and  I t i s recommended t h a t i n d i v i d u a l h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s be c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d i n T e r r a L o s a by t h e use o f d i s t i n c t i v e f e n c i n g , hedges and s i g n s . F u r t h e r , f o r medium and h i g h r i s e b u i l d i n g s , g a t e s v i s i b l e from t h e main e n t r i e s s h o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d .  6)  Play  Areas  P l a y a r e a s s h o u l d be d e c e n t r a l i s e d wherever p o s s i b l e , w i t h a c l e a r h i e r a r c h y o f u s e s , i . e . - a d u l t and t e e n a r e a s , tot lots, etc. C h i l d r e n s ' play areas s h o u l d be o b s e r v a b l e from u n i t s , and should i n c l u d e areas f o r s e a t i n g to a l l o w a d u l t s t o s u p e r v i s e the c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g . 7)  Self  Policing  In p l a n n i n g h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s a v o i d d e s i g n i n g a r e a s t h a t c a n n o t be r e a d i l y o b s e r v e d o r o v e r l o o k e d by windows. P l a n t i n g s h o u l d be t r a n s p a r e n t and a r e a s s h o u l d be c l e a r l y v i s i b l e . 8)  Interior  Spaces  Common a r e a s i n h i g h e r d e n s i t y b u i l d i n g s s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d t o e n c o u r a g e s o c i a l interaction. e.g. l o b b i e s s h o u l d have s e a t i n g c l o s e t o t h e e n t r a n c e windows, laundry areas should a l s o include seating etc. Corridor design, elevator placement, lobby l a y o u t should take i n t o a c c o u n t the p r i n c i p l e o f o b s e r v a b i l i t y t o reduce o p p o r t u n i t y f o r crime.  9),  Parking Large a t grade p a r k i n g areas which c a n n o t be e a s i l y o b s e r v e d s h o u l d be avoided. P l a n t i n g s h o u l d be t r a n s p a r e n t in parking areas. Underground p a r k i n g s h a l l i n c l u d e a d e q u a t e l i g h t i n g and s e c u r i t y s u r v e i l l a n c e methods. E n t r a n c e s t o e l e v a t o r s and s t a i r s s h o u l d be c l e a r l y visible. Long c o r r i d o r s s h o u l d be avoided. Pathways from p a r k i n g a r e a s (at-grade or i n s t r u c t u r e s ) to d w e l l i n g u n i t s and t h e p a r k i n g a r e a s t h e m s e l v e s must be c l e a r l y l i t , and s h o u l d a l l o w a c l e a r l y v i s i b l e r o u t e to the u n i t entrance.  10)  P r o x i m i t y o f Work P l a c e s t o  j  r\  Residences  T h i s p r i n c i p l e w i l l be f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d by walkways b i c y c l e p a t h s e t c . , t h r o u g h s i t e s from t h e b u s i n e s s a r e a t o the r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a , and t h r o u g h r e s i d e n t i a l p a r c e l s t o t h e community c e n t r e and p a r k .  The f o l l o w i n g map i d e n t i f i e s a r e a s f o r s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o l a n d s c a p i n g and sketches s u g g e s t i n g the treatments f o r these areas.  Terra Losa 11  V Landscape Provisions I t i s t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s t o p r o v i d e an i d e n t i f i a b l e c o h e s i v e n e i g h b o u r h o o d , a n d c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e "home t e r r i t o r y " . L a n d s c a p i n g s h o u l d be used t o c r e a t e t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f e n c l o s u r e and boundary d e f i n i t i o n , r a t h e r than t o p r o v i d e heavy s c r e e n i n g . 1)  2)  3)  4)  E a c h s i t e s h a l l be l a n d s c a p e d i n accordance w i t h the plan approved by t h e D e v e l o p e r ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  5)  Specifically, a l l plant materials s h a l l be o f a s p e c i e s c a p a b l e o f h e a l t h y g r o w t h i n Edmonton and s h a l l conform to the standards of the Canadian Nursery Trades Association.  6)  The m i x t u r e o f t r e e s i z e s a t t h e t i m e o f p l a n t i n g s h a l l be e q u i v a l e n t t o a m i n i m u m o f 50 p e r c e n t l a r g e r trees. The minimum s i z e o f s m a l l d e c i d u o u s t r e e s s h a l l b e 60mm c a l i p e r and f o r l a r g e deciduous t r e e s , 90mm c a l i p e r . The minimum size for small coniferous trees shall be a h e i g h t o f 2.5 m e t e r s and f o r large coniferous trees a height of 3.5 m e t e r s . S h r u b s s h a l l be a m i n i m u m h e i g h t o r s p r e a d o f 600mm at the time of p l a n t i n g . Coniferous trees s h a l l comprise a m i n i m u m p r o p o r t i o n o f 1/3 o f a l l trees planted.  Wherever space p e r m i t s , t r e e s s h a l l be p l a n t e d i n g r o u p s , h a v i n g r e g a r d t o (12) b e l o w .  •  The " A " and " B " l a n d s c a p e m o d u l e s h e r e a f t e r s p e c i f i e d are f o r use i n s p e c i f i c areas.  ; ;  :  !  7)  B e r m s - Some b e r m s w i l l be r o u g h g r a d e d and shaped by t h e D e v e l o p e r . Where s u c h berms e x i s t p e r m i s s i o n f r o m t h e w Developer's Representative i s required before a l t e r i n g the berm. D e t a i l s on berms a r e a v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e D e v e l o p e r ' s Representative. The A p p l i c a n t w i l l be responsible f o r the f i n i s h e d landscaping of berms. A l l berms w i l l be s u b j e c t t o u t i l i t y c l e a r a n c e s a n d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e I; e n g i n e e r i n g r e p o r t s on d r a i n a g e .  8)  Where s i t e s a b u t e x t e r i o r b o u n d a r i e s o f : the T e r r a Losa p l a n a r e a , and f e n c i n g i s u s e d , a l l boundary f e n c e s w i l l be o f t h e . same d e s i g n a n d s t a i n o n wood a s s p e c i f i e d by t h e D e v e l o p e r ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e . 1  9)  Fencing which serves i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s and/ o r b u i l d i n g s s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d s o a s t o ; p e r m i t a balance between s e c u r i t y and v i s i b i l i t y consistent with the p r i n c i p l e s : of d e f e n s i b l e space.  Terra Losa  12  10) (  Where " V i s t a s " o c c u r a t "T" i n t e r s e c t i o n s the " V i s t a " w i l l r e q u i r e landscaping per illustration.  11)  Landscaped areas i n c l u d i n g boulevards s h a l l be m a i n t a i n e d by t h e l a n d o w n e r .  12)  L a n d s c a p i n g s h o u l d be t r a n s p a r e n t i n o v e r a l l a p p e a r a n c e and d e v e l o p e d so as t o avoid s h e l t e r e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r crime.  13)  The D e v e l o p e r / A p p l i c a n t w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r any c o s t s i n c u r r e d f o r i n s t a l l a t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e o f l a n d s c a p i n g on p u b l i c r i g h t of-ways.  14)  L i g h t i n g o f a l l non r e s i d e n t i a l p a r c e l s s h a l l be d e s i g n e d t o r e d u c e n e g a t i v e effects o nresidential parcels.  15)  In a l l c a s e s where berms a r e p r o p o s e d on, or adjacent t o , road rights-of-way the d i s t a n c e between t h e apex o f t h e berm and t h e edqe o f t h e c a r r i a g e w a y must be l e s s t h a n , o r e q u a l t o , 7.62 m. I f t h e d i s t a n c e i s g r e a t e r a s w a l e must be p r o v i d e d o n t h e r i g h t - o f - w a y s i d e o f t h e berm.  r\  The f o l l o w i n g map i d e n t i f i e s a r e a s f o r s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o l a n d s c a p i n g and s k e t c h e s s u g g e s t i n g the treatments f o r these areas.  Terra Losa  13  Terra Losa Supplementary Landscaping  Supplementary 1 2 3 4 5 6  Requirements  Lots Abutting 178th Street Lots Abutting 95 th Avenue Lots Abutting 170th Street Lake Edge Treatment A  ^S^S/Cornmercial  R^Stlai  Berm  Lois Abutting Business Roadway 7 8 Vista Lots Additional landscape information on the following drawings 9 Parking lots abutting streets 10 Landscaping Modules 11 Parking Lot Landscaping  1 o  r j  |  residential  |  |  b u s i n e s s • industrial park/ school  j/yj  An A p p l i c a n t w i l l b e r e q u x r e d to comply w i t h the Supplement a r y Landscaping Requirements when d e v e l o p i n g a s i t e w h i c h has one of the c o n d i t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d here.  commercial  Terra Losa 14  L o t s A b u t t i n g 178 Street  ©  The D e v e l o p e r s w i l l c o n s t r u c t a 1.0m h i g h berm a l o n g t h e e a s t s i d e o f 178th S t r e e t . The a p p l i c a n t s w i l l b e r e q u i r e d t o s u p p l y t o p s o i l , seed and l a n d s c a p i n g as p e r module "B".  T h e D e v e l o p e r s w i l l c o n s t r u c t a 1.5m h i g h berm a l o n g t h e n o r t h s i d e o f 9 5 t h A v e n u e . In the r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t the a p p l i c a n t s w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o s u p p l y t o p s o i l , seed and l a n d s c a p i n g as per module "B". The a p p l i c a n t s o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l / i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o l a n d s c a p e as per module " A " .  Terra L o s a 15  L o t s A b u t t i n g 170  Street  (5)  To improve the v i s u a l connection between the business park component of T e r r a Losa and 170th S t r e e t , the e x i s t i n g berm may be regraded, provided on s i t e s t r u c t u r e s and landscaping provide an e q u i v a l e n t sound b u f f e r (60dBA Ldn) f o r the r e s i d e n t i a l area. The a p p l i c a n t w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o s t s i n changing the berm, landscaping, or r e p l a c i n g landscaping and necessary t e s t i n g f o r conformance by an a c o u s t i c a l engineer. B u i l d i n g s w i l l be s e t back from the property l i n e as per the C i t y of Edmonton standards. Fencing w i l l be permitted on the rear yard property l i n e and parking w i l l be encouraged w i t h i n the r e a r yard setback.  L a k e E d g e Treatment  (4)  The s t o r m w a t e r r e t e n t i o n p o n d s e r v i n g the e n t i r e d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l be c o n s t r u c t e d consistent with City standards. In order t o p r o v i d e a p a r k s e t t i n g p e r i p h e r a l t o the p o n d , t h e " B " l a n d s c a p e m o d u l e w i l l be u s e d b e t w e e n b u i l d i n g s a n d t h e 100 y e a r storm l i n e . D o c k s , i f d e v e l o p e d , m u s t be a t l e a s t 20m a p a r t a n d o f a d e s i g n a p p r o v e d by the D e v e l o p e r ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e . _ i  The 3m s t r i p o f l a n d b e t w e e n t h e p r o p e r t y l i n e a n d t h e 100 y e a r s t o r m l i n e m u s t be m a i n t a i n e d by i n d i v i d u a l l o t o w n e r s . Views s h o u l d r e m a i n open t o t h i s l a k e , t h e r e f o r e dense p l a n t i n g a l o n g the s t r i p i s d i s c o u r a g e d .  Terra Losa  17  Pedestrian  Walkway  © P e d e s t r i a n w a l k w a y s w i l l be r e q u i r e d on s e v e r a l s i t e s and e n c o u r a g e d on o t h e r s where t h e y p r o v i d e p a r t of a p h y s i c a l communal n e t w o r k between t h e w o r k / l i v e community c e n t r e . The D e v e l o p e r w i l l p r o v i d e t h e b a s e f i l l f o r the berms where p e d e s t r i a n walkways a r e r e q u i r e d . The a p p l i c a n t w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e and m a i n t a i n a p p r o p r i a t e l a n d s c a p i n g , r e l a t i v e t o walkways and uses a b u t t i n g walkway r i g h t - o f - w a y s or easement.  o  Residential - B u s i n e s s / C o m m e r c i a l B e r m  CO  ©  In o r d e r t o e f f e c t i v e l y b u f f e r t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a from the b u s i n e s s p a r k a n d CNC s i t e , t h e d e v e l o p e r s w i l l r o u g h g r a d e a 2m h i g h b e r m a n d i n s t a l l a hedge a l o n g t h e p r o p e r t y line. The i n d i v i d u a l s i t e owner must t o p s o i l and s e e d t h e p o r t i o n o f t h e berm w i t h i n h i s s i t e and i n s t a l l p l a n t m a t e r i a l a l t e r n a t i n g between t h e A and B landscape modules. Fencing i s d i s c o u r a g e d i n t h i s z o n e b u t w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d a t a m i n i m u m d i s t a n c e o f 6.5m r'nty^t^yi m 3 from the p r o p e r t y l i n e a t the d i s c r e t i o n of the Developer's Representative. The h e i g h t o f 2m b e r m f r o m t h e b a s e w h i c h i s tv»«z!t>/ *~cH* construction engineering drawings. -co - S C A L E . Terra Losa 18 t  l  a  MCTT  fco  fae  e  s  t  a  b  l  i  s  h  e  d  l  n  t  n  e  p  r  e  Residential  Lots Abutting  Business Roadway  torn  ®  The D e v e l o p e r s w i l l c o n s t r u c t a 1.5ia berm w h i c h w i l l m i n i m i z e t h e i m p a c t o f the b u s i n e s s park on t h e r e s i d e n t i a l development.  t%!f> te*J*  The i n d i v i d u a l l o t o w n e r s w i l l b e .. r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f ,.?iJ,.',"jB, i t o p s o i l , s e e d i n g a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t * ^ ° , s t a n d a r d of t h e B landscape module. F i r e e x i t s w i l l be permitted i f required. 1  ^UVfj^^uM^ « U W  MPCWWO  B t d N C S S  o  f  n  e  b  e  r  m  t  h  e  R W W W  Vista tots (§)  0  T©  II  ©  Where " T " i n t e r s e c t i o n s o c c u r , a d d i t i o n a l : l a n d s c a p i n g w i l l be r e q u i r e d . Special building designs or a d d i t i o n a l s e t b a c k s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t o c r e a t e an effective vista. The c o m p l e t e v i s t a o f l a n d s c a p i n g a n d s t r u c t u r e s w i l l be e x a m i n e d ;  n r  0" =© Terra Losa 19  Parking L o t s Abutting Streets ( § )  The l a n d s c a p e t r e a t m e n t w i l l be a b a l a n c e o f a e s t h e t i c s a n d p r i n c i p l e s o f d e f e n s i b l e s p a c e planning. V i s i b i l i t y from s i d e w a l k s and e n t r a n c e s t o b u i l d i n g s must be p r e s e r v e d . The l a n d s c a p i n g s h o u l d n o t p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r u n d e s i r a b l e s t o h i d e o r commit c r i m e s . To p r o v i d e a e s t h e t i c s ,  v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e l a n d s c a p i n g m o d u l e s c a n be u s e d .  using Landscape Module B  using Landscape Module A  '  -  !  ^  LTV.  1  Retaining Wall, Berm & L a n d scaping Buffer A w a l l 1.0m maximum i n h e i g h t i s t o be u t i l i z e d with a berm s l o p e maximum o f 3:1.  Berm and Landscaping Buffer  ruexjc-  using Landscape Module A (with open type fencing)  using Landscape Module B  tax***  This option c o n s i s t s of a 1.2m berm w i t h 3:1 maximum s l o p e s on both sides. Planting d e n s i t y w i l l be as per the l i g h t module. The berm h e i g h t t o be measured from top to adjacent s t r e e t curb.  Terra Losa 20  Landscape  M o d u l e s (JO)  The l a n d s c a p e module "A" s h a l l of t h e f o l l o w i n g m a t e r i a l s :  be composed  The "B" l a n d s c a p e module s h a l l of t h e f o l l o w i n g m a t e r i a l s :  be c o m p r i s e d  5 decidous trees; p r e f e r a b l y green ash o r basswood, a minimum o f 8 5mm c a l i p e r  3 deciduous t r e e s ; p r e f e r a b l y green ash o r basswood, a minimum o f 85mm i n c a l i p e r  3 evergreen trees; p r e f e r a b l y white o r g r e e n s p r u c e , a minimum o f 2.5m i n h e i g h t  2 evergreen trees; p r e f e r a b l y white o r g r e e n s p r u c e , a minimum o f 2.5m i n h e i g h t  22 s h r u b s ; preferably a l l deciduous, a 600mm h e i g h t / s p r e a d minimum  10 s h r u b s ; preferably a l l deciduous, a minimum o f 6 00mm i n h e i g h t / s p r e a d  Terra Losa  P a r k i n g Lot  Landscaping  On r e c o g n i z i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f d e f e n s i b l e space f o r a t grade parking t h e c r e a t i v e u s e o f l a n d s c a p i n g w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o e s t a b l i s h an a e s t h e t i c a l l y pleasing parking area. For every ten p a r k i n g s t a l l s i n a row, an a r e a e q u i v a l e n t t o one s t a l l w i l l be u s e d for landscaping to provide v i s u a l r e l i e f . A l l a r e a s u s e d by v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c must be g r a d e d , p a v e d t o d r a i n and be maintained a t a l l times. E n t r y ways must have g a t e s o r l a n d s c a p i n g treatment t o d e f i n e t h e i r l o c a t i o n and p u r p o s e .  Terra Losa  VI General Architectural 1)  21  3)  4)  -The c r e a t i v e u s e o f b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s 'is encouraged to p r o j e c t a f e e l i n g of warmth. M a t e r i a l s of e a r t h tone f i n i s h e s such as t e x t u r e d c o n c r e t e , wood, b r i c k , s t o n e and s t u c c o w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e wood t r i m w i l l b e encouraged. Applicants are to incorporate sloping r o o f e l e m e n t s on e a c h b u i l d i n g . Townhouses c a n be d e s i g n e d w i t h s l o p e d r o o f s and on h i g h r i s e s and commercial b u i l d i n g s the sloping d e t a i l c a n be p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h s c r e e n i n g o f m e c h a n i c a l s y s t e m s and m e c h a n i c a l rooms, p l u s the use o f s l o p i n g d e t a i l s i n c a n o p i e s and d e t a i l at entranceways. C e r t a i n aspects of design are not e a s i l y p r e s c r i b e d by r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y such i n t a n g i b l e s as the s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s t r u c t u r e s and open s p a c e s , t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f b u i l d i n g s , t h e p a t t e r n s o f human a c t i v i t y and b e h a v i o u r . T h e r e f o r e , the Developer's R e p r e s e n t a t i v e w i l l use the s e r v i c e s of p r o f e s s i o n a l s to evaluate the c o m p a t i b i l i t y of each A p p l i c a n t s p r o p o s a l . I n d i v i d u a l i t y of encouraged w i t h n e i g h b o u r h o o d by l a n d s c a p i n g and  e a c h p r o j e c t w i l l be the v i s u a l t i e to the use of m a t e r i a l s , signage.  5)  Within each p r o j e c t , a mixture of r e s i d e n t i a l s i z e o f u n i t and t y p e s w i l l be e n c o u r a g e d .  6)  A l l a p p l i c a t i o n s w i l l be c l o s e l y r e v i e w e d and e v a l u a t e d a g a i n s t t h e d e s i g n c r i t e r i a s p e c i f i e d i n the General P r o v i s i o n s f o r D e f e n s i b l e Space S e c t i o n IV.  7)  The l o c a t i n g , s c r e e n i n g a n d o p e r a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f g a r b a g e c o l l e c t i o n w i l l be examined.  8)  The l o c a t i o n o f f a n s , m e c h a n i c a l s y s t e m s and e x t e r i o r l i g h t i n g must be d e s i g n e d t o have t h e minimum a d v e r s e a f f e c t on a d j a c e n t properties. A l l exterior mechanical s y s t e m s must be s c r e e n e d . V3J  9)  Business/Industrial b u i l d i n g s on s i t e s a d j a c e n t t o r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s w i l l have, e x t e r i o r w a l l s f a c i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s f i n i s h e d w i t h a minimum o f t e x t u r e d block or concrete.  10)  Applicants for residential project • p a r c e l s a d j a c e n t t o 178th S t r e e t w i l l provide a mixture of dwelling u n i t types to c r e a t e a t r a n s i t i o n i n h e i g h t and b u i l t f o r m , away f r o m t h e r o a d w a y .  The f o l l o w i n g s k e t c h e s a n d c o m m e n t s a r e u s e d a s e x a m p l e s t o i l l u s t r a t e how m a t e r i a l s and d e s i g n f e a t u r e s c o u l d be u s e d , a n d how v a r i o u s l a n d u s e s m i g h t relate.  Terra Losa 23  Architectural Examples Low RISE APARTMENTS  I t i s the i n t e n t i o n t o c r e a t e d i v e r s i t y of b u i l d i n g s t y l e s , not only through form, but through the use o f m a t e r i a l s .  The low r i s e t o medium r i s e t r a n s i t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s change of m a t e r i a l s , y e t r e t e n t i o n of a common element, the sloped r o o f .  Sloped r o o f s and f r o n t f a c i n g b u i l d i n g s w i l l encourage r e a r and s i d e yard parking t o p r o v i d e an i n t e r e s t i n g streetscape.  E l e v a t o r penthouses and mechanical rooms s h a l l be screened. The above example uses s l o p i n g e n c l o s u r e s which r e f l e c t the b u i l d i n g form o f the adjacent lower r i s e developments.  Terra Losa 24  Architectural Examples  k MEDIUM  RISE  A,<*_*J I -Tit** HIGH RISE  APARTMENTS  APARTMENTS  r-  Iff'*"*-"-|H  »6i <r|S*»-«S.  Cf WT- IS. •CHWLT-  A r e s i d e n t i a l q u a l i t y c a n be a c h i e v e d through use of m a t e r i a l s , s l o p i n g roofscapes, colour, coordination of m a t e r i a l , and t e x t u r e d f a c a d e s . The use o f s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l s w i l l m a i n t a i n common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h r o u g h t h e t r a n s i t i o n s of density or use.  Terra Losa 25  Architectural Examples RESIDENTIAL/BUSINESS  To c o m p l i m e n t t h e c h a r a c t e r i n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l developments adjacent to business d i s t r i c t s , business building f o r m s c a n assume and r e f l e c t r e s i d e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , such as s l o p e d m e c h a n i c a l e n c l o s u r e s a n d u s e o f b r i c k , wood a n d wood f r a m e d s t u c c o . The f a c e o f b u i l d i n g s i n t h e b u s i n e s s a r e a t o w a r d s r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s s h a l l be f i n i s h e d t o a minimum o f a t e x t u r e d c o n c r e t e o r textured concrete block. Parking, exterior l i g h t i n g , fans, outside s t o r a g e , g a r b a g e must be p l a n n e d f o r i n a manner t o r e d u c e n e g a t i v e i m p a c t on adjoining sites. BUSINESS  Terra Losa 26  VII  The Developers Commitment  The D e v e l o p e r s have committed t o s e t t h e mood f o r t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d by: 1)  D e v e l o p i n g and i n s t a l l i n g e n t r a n c e signage to i d e n t i f y the neighbourhood and e n c o u r a g e t h e s e n s e o f t e r r i t o r y .  2)  D e v e l o p i n g t h e berms a l o n g 95th Avenue and 178th S t r e e t and a l o n g t h e r e a r p r o p e r t y l i n e s between the r e s i d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s .  3)  D e v e l o p i n g and i n s t a l l i n g d i s t i n c t i v e s t r e e t l i g h t s , s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e and p l a n t e r s to " P r i v a t i z e " the T e r r a Losa s t r e e t s .  4)  D e v e l o p i n g the b a s i c walkway system which w i l l t i e the b u s i n e s s / i n d u s t r i a l , r e s i d e n t i a l and community c e n t r e together.  5)  As p a r t o f the s e r v i c i n g and s t o r m w a t e r management system the D e v e l o p e r s w i l l c r e a t e a l a k e w h i c h w i l l be an i d e n t i f i a b l e f e a t u r e o f the n e i g h b o u r h o o d .  6)  D e v e l o p i n g t h e Community C e n t r e as a focal point.  7)  D e v e l o p i n g the B o u l e v a r d s , which w i l l be g r a s s e d and mature t r e e s i n s t a l l e d a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10m s p a c i n g .  ^  ,,,, '  Terra Losa  27  Terra Losa - The Developer's Commitment L 1 Residential Entryway 2  B u s i n e s s Park E n t r y w a y s  3 Ftedestrian Walkway 4 Community Centre  c_  r |  | residential  |" . j  business • industrial Terra L o s a  28  Residential Entryway & Streetscape 1 A w e l l d e f i n e d entrance w i l l be developed a t each of the four entrances t o the r e s i d e n t i a l component. A l l r e s i d e n t i a l streetscapes w i l l c o n s i s t of separated sidewalks and boulevard s t r e e t t r e e p l a n t i n g , and r e s i d e n t i a l entrances w i l l have landscaped entryways with signage. The Developer w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the development and c o n s t r u c t i o n of the r e s i d e n t i a l entryways and s t r e e t s c a p e elements.  Terra Losa 29  Business Park Entryway & Streetscape 2 In o r d e r to e s t a b l i s h a c h a r a c t e r f o r the Business Park, an entryway e x h i b i t i n g s p a t i a l treatment w i l l be developed a t each of the f o u r entrances t o the Business Park. The b u s i n e s s entryways w i l l have s i n g l e sidewalks, landscaped medians to C i t y standards and landscaped signage. The Developers w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the development and c o n s t r u c t i o n of the business entryways.  V TL.  to  2>0  70  *3  Terra Losa 30  Pedestrian Walkway 3 A 1.5m p e d e s t r i a n walkway w i l l be p r o v i d e d by t h e Developers to l i n k the r e s i d e n t i a l and b u s i n e s s components o f T e r r a Losa. The walkway w i l l be d e v e l o p e d on p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y w i t h i n easements o r w i t h i n u t i l i t y c o r r i d o r s w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e , and w i l l be c u r v i l i n e a r w i t h i n t h e d e f i n e d r i g h t - o f - w a y . L i g h t i n g w i l l be t o t h e C i t y o f Edmonton s t a n d a r d s , b e r m i n g w i l l be e n c o u r a g e d , and f e n c i n g w i l l be d i s c o u r a g e d w i t h i n t h e s e t b a c k zone. I n d i v i d u a l l o t owners w i l l p r o v i d e c o n t i n u o u s landscaping a d j a c e n t t o the walkway a s p e r l a n d s c a p e module B. It is i m p o r t a n t from a s a f e t y p o i n t o f v i e w t h a t t h e t y p e o f l a n d s c a p i n g s h o u l d p r o v i d e f o r the p e r c e p t i o n o f a p u b l i c pathway, and t h a t p l a n t i n g s h o u l d n o t , a t m a t u r i t y , a l l o w p l a c e s f o r concealment.  Terra Losa Community Centre 4 The T e r r a Losa Community Centre i s designed t o r e i n f o r c e the i d e n t i t y and image o f the t o t a l community. The Community Centre w i l l , with a v e r t i c a l statement such as the tower, be the focus p o i n t of the community.  jot  r?7  [SI*  The Community Centre w i l l be c o n s t r u c t e d o f m a t e r i a l s and f i n i s h e s c o n s i s t e n t with the R e s t r i c t i v e Covenant. Located i n a park s e t t i n g with walkways, berms and the l a k e , c r e a t i n g an i n v i t i n g f o c a l p o i n t . The purpose o f the T e r r a Losa Community i s t o provide a m u l t i - u s e m e e t i n g / r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t y f o r r e s i d e n t s and tenants of the business park.  PLAN  The Community Centre i s p r o v i d e d t o g i v e a sense of community and to encourage r e s i d e n t s to develop s e l f - h e l p community p r o j e c t s such as neighbourhood watch, snow c l e a r i n g , c o n t r o l of garbage d i s p o s a l , daycare, and community involvement i n c l u d i n g both r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l groups. t u t o r , <r^  -a ELEVATON C O M M U N I T Y  C E N T R E O  5  lo  Terra Losa  32  -e-  Programme Objectives of Community Centre A.  A Place I /  B.  t o Meet:  Seating  Area  E.  t o Meet:  Main  Hall  - M u l t i - p u r p o s e s p a c e t o accomodate s o c i a l needs: a) b) c)  F.  f o r Recreation:  D.  Vollyball Halfcourt basketball F l o o r hockey Gymnastics, f i t n e s s c l a s s e s Table tennis Badminton  Change/Washroom  - Outdoor  Indoor  - M u l t i - p u r p o s e main h a l l p r o v i d e s f o r mixed i n d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s : a) b) c) d) e) f)  Landscaping  - The a r e a w i l l be f u l l y landscaped - Walkway l i n k a g e s w i l l c i r c l e through T e r r a Losa. They w i l l b e g i n and end a t t h e community centre building - Two o u t d o o r t e n n i s c o u r t s w i t h lighting  Community s p o n s o r e d d a n c e s Concerts - i n c l u d i n g stage f a c i l i t y M e e t i n g s r e g a r d i n g community a f f a i r s  A Place  Uses  E n c l o s e d a r e a t h a t c a n a l s o be used f o r meetings ( p r i v a c y ) while other functions are i n session - Daycare, p l a y s c h o o l c l a s s e s (indoor - outdoor p l a y area) - Craft classes  - Central in function C.  Related  -  - To c r e a t e an i n f o r m a l , i n t i m a t e gathering place - Small group f u n c t i o n s - R e l a x e d atmosphere w i t h v i e w t o l a k e - Area f o r d i s p l a y s - Minor r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s A Place  Educational  Facilities  - S m a l l l o c k e r room change room f a c i l i t y t o accommodate r e c r e a t i o n a l needs - P o s s i b l e c h a n g i n g a r e a f o r summer/ winter outdoor a c t i v i t i e s  G.  Administration  and  Functional  Areas  - Central control, reception, office area - K i t c h e n f a c i l i t i e s f o r minor food p r e p a r a t i o n and a b a s e f o r c a t e r e r s t o o p e r a t e from f o r larger functions - S u f f i c i e n t s t o r a g e area f o r the purpose of s t o r i n g c h a i r s , t a b l e s , i n d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l e q u i p m e n t and s t o r a g e o f d a y c a r e equipment - M e c h a n i c a l room and janitorial equipment s t o r a g e  Terra Losa  33  

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