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The development of a model for a multicultural preschool centre in British Columbia Fraser, Susan 1984

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MODEL FOR A MULTICULTURAL PRESCHOOL CENTRE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA by SUSAN FRASER B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVEP^SITi) OF BRITISH COLUMBIA • September, 198 4 (c) Susan F r a s e r , 1984 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of EoAy ICIKOOQI ( Q O ) The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 i i ABSTRACT This study i s designed to provide a t h e o r e t i c a l base fo r the development of a c u r r i c u l u m f o r a model m u l t i c u l t u r a l p reschool i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. The l i t e r a t u r e ' i n c u l t u r a l research and l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h as a second language i s reviewed. M u l t i c u l t u r a l programs i n the U.S.A. and Canada are i n v e s t i g a t e d to g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about c u r r i c u l u m s p e c i f i c a l l y designed f o r c h i l d r e n from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l backgrounds. The two formal research s t u d i e s t h a t were conducted i n the f i r s t two years of the three year p r o j e c t are d e s c r i b e d . In the f i r s t year the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l competency and the a b i l i t y to speak E n g l i s h was i n v e s t i g a t e d . Although there was no c o r r e l a t i o n between these two f a c t o r s , the s o c i a l s t r a t e g i e s ESL c h i l d r e n use to i n t e r a c t w i t h each other i n a m u l t i l i n g u a l / m u l t i c u l t u r a l group are i d e n t i f i e d . The t e s t i n g procedure used w i t h ESL c h i l d r e n to measure s o c i a l competency and second language development i s o u t l i n e d . In the second year two p r e s c h o o l groups w i t h high and low a b i l i t y l e v e l s of E n g l i s h were presented w i t h f i v e t y p i c a l p r e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m a c t i v i t i e s . T h e i r responses to each of the f i v e a c t i v i t e s was compared. As a r e s u l t of the i i i comparison i t became tha t c e r t a i n c u r r i c u l u m a c t i v i t i e s need m o d i f i c a t i o n f o r m u l t i c u l t u r a l preschool groups. The r o l e of the teacher i s c a r e f u l l y observed throughout the two years of the study. S t r a t e g i e s f o r teaching E n g l i s h as a second language and f o s t e r i n g c u l t u r a l adjustment i n ESL c h i l d r e n are i d e n t i f i e d . In c o n c l u s i o n recommendations are di s c u s s e d f o r program p l a n n i n g , f o s t e r i n g the r e t e n t i o n of f i r s t language and c u l t u r e , developing c u l t u r a l awareness and teaching E n g l i s h as a second language. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Vij_ CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER 11: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ....5 S o c i o C u l t u r a l f a c t o r s 5 L e a r n i n g E n g l i s h as a second language 9 Review of M u l t i c u l t u r a l P r e s c h o o l Programs i n U.S.A....22 D i s c u s s i o n o f the f o u r models i n r e l a t i o n t o c o n -s t r u c t i n g the framework f o r the B.C Model 27 M u l t i c u l t u r a l Programs i n Canada 29 CHAPTER 111: TEACHING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE 35 CHAPTER IV: TESTING PROCEDURES 40 T e s t i n g E n g l i s h Second Language C h i l d r e n 40 T e s t i n g the S o c i a l Competence of ESL P r e s c h o o l e r s . . . . . . 42 CHAPTER V: FORMAL RESEARCH STUDY 4 4 I n t r o d u c t i o n 44 Purpose o f the Study 44 H y p o t h e s i s 45 Method 45 S u b j e c t s 47 A n a l y s i s of the d a t a 47 D i s c u s s i o n of the r e s u l t s 49 C o n c l u s i o n . 52 V Table 1 54 Table 2 5 5 Table 3 56 Table 4 57 Table 5 58 CHAPTER VI: INFORMAL OBSERVATIONS 59 C o l l e c t i o n of the data 60 Subjects 60 D i s c u s s i o n of the Re s u l t s 60 a. E a r l y Entry Behaviours 60 b. C u l t u r a l Adjustment . 63 c. S o c i a l s t r a t e g i e s used by ESL c h i l d r e n 69 d. Development of language and play 70. e. Learning to speak E n g l i s h and i t s e f f e c t on the group 72 f. I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g a second language - 7 3 CHAPTER V l l : RESEARCH 1983 - 1984 ,...75 A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN TWO PRESCHOOL GROUPS WITH HIGH AND LOW ABILITY LEVELS OF ENGLISH ..75 1. S t r u c t u r e d s m a l l group a c t i v i t y 76 2. Hallowe'en C i r c l e 79 3. Freeplay time 82 4. Finger p a i n t i n g 84 5. Outdoor p l a y 8 7 Conclusion 89 v i T a b l e 6 93 Ta b l e 6a 94 Tab l e 7 9 5 T a b l e 8 96 CHAPTER V l l l : CONCLUSIONS 97 C u l t u r a l f a c t o r s 97 a. A d j u s t i n g the program . 97 b. R e t e n t i o n of f i r s t c u l t u r e and language 101 c. D e v e l o p i n g c u l t u r a l awareness 103 E n g l i s h as a second language 10 4 The r o l e of the t e a c h e r i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g . . . 108 BIBLIOGRAPHY 112 APPENDIX A: Peer I n t e r a c t i o n , Q u a l i t y E f f e c t i v e n e s s S c a l e . 1.1.6 APPENDIX B: Key E x p e r i e n c e s E v a l u a t i o n C h e c k l i s t 117 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to express my thanks to a l l those who have worked' wi t h me on the Sexsmith M u l t i c u l t u r a l P r e s c h o o l P r o j e c t f o r t h e i r c o-operation and support p a r t i c u l a r l y to my a d v i s o r , Glen Dixon who provided me wit h the means and a s s i s t a n c e t o c a r r y out the research. S p e c i a l thanks go to Pat Wakefield whose e x p e r t i s e and enthusiasm made working on the P r o j e c t such a rewarding experience. 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The f i e l d of e a r l y childhood education i n Canada i n the past decade has had to make major adjustments to i n c l u d e the growing number of c h i l d r e n from non-English speaking f a m i l i e s i n p r e s c h o o l programs. In B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r i n s t a n c e , about one quarter of the p o p u l a t i o n do not speak e i t h e r of the two o f f i c i a l languages of Canada as t h e i r f i r s t language (Canadian Census, 1981). Teachers, t h e r e f o r e , need a s s i s t a n c e i n adapting t h e i r programs to meet the c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c needs of l a r g e numbers of c h i l d r e n from d i v e r s e c u l t u r a l backgrounds who do not speak E n g l i s h . The presch o o l years may be the optimum time f o r these c h i l d r e n to l e a r n E n g l i s h and be exposed to the mainstream c u l t u r e . During these e a r l y years they can make c u l t u r a l adjustments and l e a r n how to communicate i n E n g l i s h a t t h e i r own r a t e without the pressure of meeting a r e q u i r e d standard of achievement as i s r e q u i r e d w i t h i n the school system. Daphne Brown s t a t e s t h a t the f l e x i b i l i t y of the prescho o l program, together w i t h the simple l e v e l of language used by the teachers, provides an i d e a l l e a r n i n g environment f o r the second language l e a r n e r (Brown, 1979). C h i l d r e n , who have r e c e i v e d t h i s e a r l y exposure to 2 preschool w i l l enter the school system probably on a more equal f o o t i n g w i t h t h e i r E n g l i s h speaking peers and be able to take advantage of the l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s without the need f o r s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s . L i l y Wong F i l l m o r e notes t h a t some non-native E n g l i s h speakers (ESL c h i l d r e n ) l e a r n E n g l i s h q u i c k l y whereas f o r o t h e r s , who l e a r n more sl o w l y i n a b i l i t y to speak E n g l i s h w e l l i s a major e d u c a t i o n a l b a r r i e r and may have l a s t i n g emotional, s o c i a l and academic conseq-uences (Wong F i l l m o r e , 1982). In accordance, t h e r e f o r e , w i t h the apparent need i n the f i e l d of e a r l y c h i l d h o o d education f o r the development of a m u l t i c u l t u r a l p r e s c h o o l model, a three year p i l o t p r o j e c t was s t a r t e d at Sexsmith Community school i n south east Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia i n the September of 1982. I t was sponsored by the Vancouver School Board, the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia C h i l d Study Centre, the B r i t i s h Columbia Pres c h o o l E n g l i s h as a Second Language Committee (PRESL) amd the Immigrant Resources P r o j e c t (IRP). The purpose of the p r o j e c t was two-f o l d , to develop and implement a model presc h o o l program s p e c i f i c a l l y designed t o meet the needs of ESL c h i l d r e n and to research and evaluate t h i s model as a p o s s i b l e prototype f o r s e r v i n g ESL c h i l d r e n . 3 The purpose of t h i s paper i s to d e s c r i b e the two year research component of the program. In the f i r s t year of the p r o j e c t (1982-1983) the research focussed on the i n d i v i d u a l ESL c h i l d ' s s o c i a l and l i n g u i s t i c experiences i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l group of preschool c h i l d r e n i n order, through i n t e n s i v e o b s e r v a t i o n , to d i s c o v e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between the c h i l d ' s l e v e l of s o c i a l development and h i s a b i l i t y to speak E n g l i s h . I t was hoped to uncover u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r s t h a t would provide i n s i g h t i n t o c o n d i t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those l i n k e d to v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n , necessary f o r s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l adjustment. Simultaneously, an ongoing r e c o r d was kept of teacher s t r a t e g i e s unique to a m u l t i c u l t u r a l - m u l t i l i n g u a l s e t t i n g . These teacher s t r a t e g i e s and observations of the c h i l d r e n were evaluated and served as a g u i d e l i n e f o r implementing the program i n the f o l l o w i n g year. In the second year of the Sexsmith P r o j e c t , the research moved from studying i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n to i n v e s t i g a t i n g how a m u l t i c u l t u r a l group of p r e s c h o o l e r s f u n c t i o n e d as a whole. A comparative study was made of the two preschool c l a s s e s , one of which c o n s i s t e d of mainly E n g l i s h speaking c h i l d r e n , and the other of mainly non-English speakers. The teacher's r o l e i n working w i t h each group was compared and analysed to d i s c o v e r ways i n which she adjusted or 4 modified her s t r a t e g i e s i n order to meet the unique needs of each of the two groups of c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n ' s responses and behaviours were a l s o compared and analysed to d i s c o v e r the s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s and l i n g u i s t i c needs of the c h i l d r e n as they worked w i t h m a t e r i a l s , equipment and f o l l o w e d procedures commonly found i n most preschool programs. I t i s hoped th a t the f i n d i n g s of the research component of the Sexsmith P r o j e c t w i l l be of a s s i s t a n c e i n p r o v i d i n g a t h e o r e t i c a l base on which to b u i l d the framework f o r other m u l t i c u l t u r a l programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 5 CHAPTER 11 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Previous research i n the area of second language a c q u i s i t i o n and s o c i o c u l t u r a l adjustment was reviewed and used as a guide f o r implementing the p r o j e c t and f o r m u l a t i n g the r e s e a r c h design. Tough, i n d i s c u s s i n g the ESL c h i l d ' s adjustment to school and the need to be able to communicate i n the new s e t t i n g , recommends tha t a l l e f f o r t s must be d i r e c t e d at making the c h i l d f e e l secure and at ease and h e l p i n g him make r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h others before pressure i s placed on the c h i l d to l e a r n a second language (Tough, 1977). Socio C u l t u r a l F a c t o r s Previous s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l experiences are important f a c t o r s i n shaping each i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the world. This p e r s p e c t i v e i n t u r n e f f e c t s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s o c i a l , e motional, p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l development (Kagan, 1979, L u r i a , 1976). C h i l d r e n from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l backgrounds, t h e r e f o r e , demonstrate many d i v e r s e behaviours and responses i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s . Those who have experienced d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l i z a t i o n s t y l e s i n t h e i r homes develop d i f f e r e n t c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s p a r t i c u l a r l y ' i n t h e i r approach to l e a r n i n g . C h i l d r e n f o r i n s t a n c e , who are f a m i l i a r w i t h being questioned by an a d u l t at home w i l l be more responsive to being questioned at school (Laosa, 1977). 6 Two d i s t i n c t l e a r n i n g s t y l e s , f i e l d independent and f i e l d s e n s i t i v e , have been i d e n t i f i e d . F i e l d independent c h i l d r e n tend to value m a t e r i a l t h i n g s , have a strong i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y and f u n c t i o n best i n a s e t t i n g which encourages independence. F i e l d s e n s i t i v e c h i l d r e n , on the other hand, tend to value people more h i g h l y than m a t e r i a l t h i n g s , have a strong group i d e n t i t y and f u n c t i o n best i n a more a u t h o r i t a r i a n s i t u a t i o n (Castanenda et a l , 1975, Ramirez, 1973). C h i l d r e n who are r e q u i r e d to adopt a second c u l t u r e when they enter school may r e j e c t p a r t s of t h e i r own n a t i v e c u l t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y when there i s a c o n f l i c t between the r u l e s and values of the two c u l t u r e s . When c h i l d r e n loose t h e i r own c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y they s u f f e r emotional s t r e s s and are l e f t w i t h f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y (anomie) (Castanenda e t a l , 1975). A c o n f l i c t i n values between c u l t u r e s may have a profounnd e f f e c t on a c h i l d ' s e d u c a t i o n a l experience. A c h i l d who has been encouraged to behave p a s s i v e l y and c o - o p e r a t i v e l y at home may not be s u c c e s s f u l i n a school s i t u a t i o n where he i s re q u i r e d t o be a s s e r t i v e and c o m p e t i t i v e . S o c i a l c l a s s , 7 whether a c h i l d l i v e s i n an urban or r u r a l environment and the amount of value placed on own group membership are a l l f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the c h i l d ' s response to an e d u c a t i o n a l experience ( S a v i l l e T r o i k e , 1976). Brown l i s t s the f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s as ones t h a t may present d i f f i c u l t i e s to c h i l d r e n from m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e s . 1. "Many m i n o r i t y group c h i l d r e n w i l l not have met c l a y , junk, m o d e l l i n g , p a i n t and other messy or group a c t i v i t i e s before and f i n d the i n i t i a l f e e l of them repugnant. They may need to watch other c h i l d r e n u s i n g them before g a i n i n g the necessary confidence and d e s i r e to experiment f o r themselves. 2. Some c h i l d r e n w i l l want to dabble or experiment wholeheartedly w i t h the m a t e r i a l s , but w i l l not know how to set about i t - they have to be shown what the paste i s f o r or how to hold a brush. 3. Many m i n o r i t y group c h i l d r e n do not l i k e g e t t i n g t h e i r c l o t h e s d i r t y , and s u i t a b l e aprons must be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e where the c h i l d can reach one f o r h i m s e l f - he should a l s o be shown how to f a s t e n and unfasten i t . 4. These p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e the c h i l d r e n to t h i n k f o r themselves r a t h e r than being t o l d e x a c t l y what to do -t h i s i s sometimes very d i f f i c u l t i n the e a r l y stages when the c h i l d r e n do not understand what i s expected of them. 8 5. Group a c t i v i t i e s such as the sand or home corner f r e q u e n t l y give r i s e t o v e r b a l communication between E n g l i s h and non-English speaking c h i l d r e n - the l a t t e r are placed at a disadvantage which may f r u s t r a t e them. 6. Handling and p i e c i n g together c o n s t r u c t i o n a l toys or p u z z l e s may prove t o be strange and confusing to the m i n o r i t y group c h i l d who has no previous experience of s i m i l a r equipment. Do not push him i n t o these a c t i v i t i e s , but ensure t h a t he has the o p p o r t u n i t y to s e l e c t them i f he so wishes. A d u l t a s s i s t a n c e i s sometimes necessary at f i r s t , and time should a l s o be allowed f o r the c h i l d to watch others u s i n g the equipment u n t i l he f i n a l l y shares i n the a c t i v i t y of h i s own accord" (Brown, 1972 p. 135). S o c i o / c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s are a fundamental p a r t of a c h i l d ' s t o t a l development. A c h i l d ' s c u l t u r a l background a f f e c t s the way he approaches and responds to others and the manner i n which he approaches the l e a r n i n g t a s k . In pre-s c h o o l , i n p a r t i c u l a r , i t a f f e c t s the way the c h i l d approaches m a t e r i a l s , a c t i v i t i e s and p l a y equipment. C u l t u r a l f a c t o r s are i n s t r u m e n t a l i n shaping an i n d i v -i d u a l ' s s e l f concept and sense of i d e n t i t y . Aaron Wolfgang s t r e s s e s the importance of teachers being " c u l t u r a l l y f l e x -i b l e " and having a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e and expectancy toward 9 t h e i r e t h n i c students i n order to promote t h e i r s e l f -worth, personal growth, competence and higher l e v e l of achievement (Wolfgang, 1981). E a r l y childhood education programs designed to i n c l u d e c h i l d r e n from many d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l backgrounds should i n s u r e t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs, such as s a f e t y , s e c u r i t y and p e r s o n a l esteem are met f i r s t before the c h i l d r e n can be expected to l e a r n a second language. Learning E n g l i s h as a second language ESL c h i l d r e n are a t d i f f e r e n t stages i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to speak E n g l i s h on t h e i r entry i n t o p r e s c h o o l . A few of the c h i l d r e n may have grown up i n b i l i n g u a l homes and have learned t h e i r n a t i v e language and E n g l i s h c o n c u r r e n t l y . The development of language i n these c h i l d r e n (co-ordinate b i l i n g u a l s ) has been documented i n many s i n g l e case s t u d i e s by people such as Leopold (1970) and V o l t e r r a and Taeschner (1977). Other c h i l d r e n , however, begin to l e a r n a second language when they are at a three or four year o l d stage of language development i n t h e i r f i r s t language (compound b i l i n g u a l s ) . Very l i t t l e i s known about the e f f e c t t h i s exposure to a second language has upon the c h i l d ' s t o t a l language development. Most of the s t u d i e s d e a l s o l e l y w i t h i t s e f f e c t on c o g n i t i v e development ( I a n c o - W o r r a l l , 1972, Keats, 1974 and Oren, 1981). 10 An a n a l y s i s of the task of l e a r n i n g to speak E n g l i s h as a second language i n c l u d e s ; being able to d i s t i n g u i s h the E n g l i s h sounds, reproduce them i n t o pronounceable sequences, a t t a c h i n g sounds to a work, r e c o g n i s i n g the i n t e r s e c t i o n s between words and how words acquire meaning i n sentences and phrases (McLaughlin, 1982). Simultaneously the c h i l d i s l e a r n i n g the pragmatic f u n c t i o n of language, or how to use language i n communicative s e t t i n g s . V e n t r i g l i a i d e n t i f i e d three d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s of l e a r n i n g a second language; beaders, b r a i d e r s and o r c h e s t r a t o r s . The beaders were those c h i l d r e n who f i r s t l earned words as d i s c r e t e elements which they r e l a t e d to concrete o b j e c t s i n the environment. They l a t e r organised and c l a s s i f i e d t h e i r vocabulary according to meaning. These c h i l d r e n p a i d a t t e n t i o n to content r a t h e r than form and appeared to d i s r e g a r d language p a t t e r n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . B r a i d e r s , however, focussed t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on form r a t h e r than content. They used chunks or phrases and p r a c t i s e d these u n i t s of unprocessed language i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s 11 V e n t r i q l i a d e s c r i b e d t h i s as a " v e r t i c a l p r o c e s s " i n which p a t t e r n s are ov e r l a p p e d and woven t o g e t h e r and e v e n t u a l l v i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a b r a i d o r complete l i n g u i s t i c system. C h i l d r e n who are b r a i d e r s depend upon i m i t a t i o n and s u b s t i t u t i o n of modelled p a t t e r n s . O r c h e s t r a t o r s , on the o t h e r hand, pay a t t e n t i o n t o the sounds o f the second language. They s t r i n g meaningless sequences of sounds t o g e t h e r which are l a t e r " o r c h e s t r a t e d " i n t o words -and sentences. V e n t r i g l i a s t a t e s t h a t those c h i l d r e n who can be termed headers should be exposed t o language i n a meaningful c o n t e x t where they can make numerous a s s o c i a t i o n s between elements i n o r d e r to c o n s t r u c t concepts f o r them-s e l v e s i n a l o g i c a l manner. B r a i d e r s , however, need s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n o r d e r to hear language modelled. O r c h e s t r a t o r s l e a r n b e s t when language i s i n t r o d u c e d t o them through songs, rhythms and chants ( V e n t r i g l i a , 1982). Wong F i l l m o r e a l s o noted the i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s p r e s e n t when c h i l d r e n l e a r n a second language. She i d e n t i f i e d the language l e a r n i n g and s o c i a l s t y l e s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d s u c c e s s f u l second language l e a r n e r s . V e r b a l memory, f l u e n c y and f l e x i b i l i t y i n p r o d u c i n g language as w e l l as s e n s i t i v i t y to l i n g u i s t i c forms and language p a t t e r n s 12 were l i s t e d as c o g n i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s n e c e s s a r y f o r e f f e c t i v e second language l e a r n i n g . A h i g h l e v e l o f s o c i a b i l i t y and s k i l l i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s , t o g e t h e r w i t h a s t r o n g d r i v e t o communicate w i t h o t h e r s e n a b l e d t h e s u c c e s s f u l second language l e a r n e r t o g e t t h e maximum i n p u t from E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s . I n i d e n t i f y i n g t h e o p t i m a l s i t u a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s f u l second language l e a r n i n g , Wong F i l l m o r e s t a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n l e a r n e d b e s t i n n a t u r a l i s t i c c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g s where "communication r a t h e r t h a n c o r r e c t n e s s o f form was emphasised". She s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f h a v i n g s u f f i c i e n t E n g l i s h models p r e s e n t t o communicate w i t h t h e ESL c h i l d r e n - (Wong F i l l m o r e , 1982). C h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g t o speak E n g l i s h i n p r e s c h o o l , w i l l have a l r e a d y l e a r n e d t o some degree t o speak i n t h e i r n a t i v e l a n g u a g e . T h i s means t h a t t h e y w i l l be f i l t e r i n g t h e i r second language t h r o u g h t h e i r f i r s t . T h i s may a f f e c t t h e i r a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e and produce t h e E n g l i s h sounds. Werker e t a l c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y i n w h i c h H i n d i and E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g a d u l t s and seven month o l d i n f a n t s were exposed t o two p a i r s o f n a t u r a l H i n d i sounds. The E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g a d u l t s c o u l d n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e between t h e p a i r e d sounds whereas t h e H i n d i s p e a k i n g a d u l t s and i n f a n t s were a b l e t o d i s c r i m i n a t e t h e sounds. T h i s d e c r e a s e i n 13 speech p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t i e s w i t h e i t h e r age or l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t y may, however, have minimum e f f e c t on c h i l d r e n as young as three and four years o l d (Werker et a l , 1981). Once the c h i l d has begun to d i s t i n g u i s h the E n g l i s h speech sounds, he can combine them i n t o words. When the morphological r u l e i s absent i n the f i r s t language, however, such as the i n f l e c t e d p l u r a l i n Chinese and P u n j a b i , the c h i l d may be slower i n a p p l y i n g the r u l e i n the second language (Hakuta, 1976, Wode, 1978). I n . l e a r n i n g a second language the ESL p r e s c h o o l c h i l d has the advantage of being able to t r a n s f e r meaning from h i s n a t i v e language to the new language, however, the c h i l d has much work s t i l l to do on developing meaning. The c h i l d who has learned the meaning f o r ' c i r c l e ' i n one context may not, f o r i n s t a n c e , understand i t i n a d i f f e r e n t context, e.g. the c h i l d may recognise the c i r c l e shape but not know how to respond to the teacher's d i r e c t i o n to form a c i r c l e w i t h other c h i l d r e n i n the gym. Oren s t a t e s t h a t "In the case of compound b i l i n g u a l s the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of one symbol i n one language corressponds to the same symbol i n the second language by the means of t r a n s l a t i o n . " (Oren, 1981, p. 164). This process may not be as evident i n c h i l d r e n 14' as young as three and four who may develop meaning i n the second language i n much the same way as i n the f i r s t language. I f c h i l d r e n do t r a n s f e r meaning from t h e i r f i r s t to t h e i r second language through d i r e c t t r a n s l a t i o n , t h i s may cause misunderstandings because the concept u n d e r l y i n g a l a b e l may not have the same meaning across d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s . The word ' f a m i l y 1 f o r i n s t a n c e , may not denote the same meaning f o r a c h i l d l i v i n g i n a nuclear or s i n g l e parent f a m i l y as i t does f o r a c h i l d l i v i n g i n a la r g e extended f a m i l y ( S a v i l l e T r o i k e , 1976). The c h i l d , i n l e a r n i n g to c o n s t r u c t grammatical sentences i n the second language, may however, f o l l o w the same development i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of negative sentence s t r u c t u r e and qu e s t i o n formation as i s f o l l o w e d i n f i r s t language a c q u i s i t i o n ( S l o b i n , 1973, Chen, 1979). The ESL c h i l d i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l p r e s c h o o l i s l e a r n i n g to use the second language i n a communicative s e t t i n g . As the pragmatic f u n c t i o n f o r language v a r i e s from c u l t u r e to c u l t u r e so he w i l l have t o become f a m i l i a r w i t h the new pa t t e r n s of using language i n the second language and c u l t u r e . S a v i l l e T r o i k e s t a t e s t h a t misunderstandings o f t e n occur between t e a c h e r s , c h i l d r e n and parents because the use of vo i c e l e v e l , s t r e s s , p i t c h and i n t o n a t i o n convey d i f f e r e n t emotional s t a t e s i n d i f f e r e n t languages and c u l t u r e s . 15 F a m i l i a r modes of e s t a b l i s h i n g eye contact as w e l l as a p p r o p r i a t e forms of address depending on the age and sex of the l i s t e n e r may create b a r r i e r s to communication across c u l t u r e s . C h i l d r e n a l s o have to l e a r n how to conform to the s o c i a l conventions of using language i n d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s such as who should t a l k and when, and what m i t i g a t i o n techniques are acceptable. ( S a v i l l e Troike,1976). Wolfgang s t a t e s t h a t the s m i l e , eyebrow f l a s h , coy behaviour and the f a c i a l e xpressions (e.g. happiness, sadness, f e a r etc) which r e f l e c t the b a s i c emotions are u n i v e r s a l human exp r e s s i o n s , and can be understood r e g a r d l e s s of c u l t u r e (Wolfgang, 1981). In l e a r n i n g a second language ESL c h i l d r e n have to a d j u s t t h e i r own i n t e r n a l system of language to f i t i n t o the e x t e r n a l system they are hearing (Hakuta, 1976). Before they have achieved communicative competence i n the second language they develop s t r a t e g i e s , such as the use of f o r m u l a i c speech, or language chunks, t o enable them to f u n c t i o n i n a s o c i a l s e t t i n g . L i l y Wong F i l l m o r e , i n studying f i v e language l e a r n e r s p a i r e d 'with E n g l i s h speakers, s t a t e d t h a t there was "a s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y among the f i v e s u b j e c t s i n a c q u i s i t i o n and use of f o r m u l a i c e x p r e s s i o n s . " (Wong F i l l m o r e , 1979,p.211). C h i l d r e n acquired expressions such as " I wanna p l a y " , "Gimme", and " l e t ' s go" which enabled 16 them t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n p l a y and g e t e s s e n t i a l f e e d b a c k from t h e i r p e e r s . She s t a t e s t h a t "the s t r a t e g y o f a c q u i r i n g f o r m u l a i c speech i s c e n t r a l t o t h e l e a r n i n g of l a n g u a g e ; Indeed i t i s t h i s s t e p t h a t p u t s t h e l e a r n e r i n a p o s i t i o n t o p e r f o r m t h e a n a l y s i s w h i c h i s n e c e s s a r y f o r language l e a r n i n g " (p.212) T h i s p r o c e s s may r e p r e s e n t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e ' i n . " ' f i r s t " , l a f i g a a g e a c q u i s i t i o n when c h i l d r e n use h o l o p h r a s e s (e.g. a l l gone) to communicate i d e a s i n t h e i r f i r s t l anguage. The f o r m u l a i c e x p r e s s i o n s used i n second language a c q u i s i t i o n p r o v i d e b o t h a s o c i a l and c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n . C h i l d r e n use them s o c i a l l y t o e n t e r t h e p l a y g r o u p . C o g n i t i v e l y , t h e y a n a l y z e them i n two ways, f i r s t c h i l d r e n o b s e r v e how E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s v a r y t h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h changes i n t h e speech s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e y o c c u r . S e c o n d l y , c h i l d r e n compare f o r m u l a i c e x p r e s -s i o n s t o d i s c o v e r w h i c h p a r t s a r e i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e and can be v a r i e d . I n t h i s way t h e y a r e a b l e t o f r e e c o n s t i t u e n t s of t h e f o r m u l a w h i c h t h e n become u n i t s i n new c o m b i n a t i o n s of s e l f c o n s t r u c t e d speech. " F i n a l l y when a l l o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n t s o f t h e f o r m u l a have become f r e e d from t h e o r i g i n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , what t h e l e a r n e r has l e f t i s an 17 a b s t r a c t s t r u c t u r e c o n s i s t i n g of pa t t e r n s or r u l e s by which he can c o n s t r u c t l i k e u t t e r a n c e s " (Wong F i l l m o r e , 1979, p.213). Before c h i l d r e n develop enough language they are l i m i t e d i n what they can t a l k about. They can, however, extend t h e i r f o r m u l a i c expression to perform the communicative f u n c t i o n they have i n mind. One c h i l d was able t o use "gotcha" as the verb " k i l l " . "Hey look, you gotcha one cowboy", (You have k i l l e d one cowboy) (Wong F i l l m o r e , 1979, p.216) . C h i l d r e n , without a common language w i t h which to communicate, o f t e n use a concrete o b j e c t (e.g. a toy gun) as a s t i m u l a s f o r a pla y sequence. A s i n g l e key l a b e l such as "bang, bang" i s introduced and used r e p e a t e d l y as a means of v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n . Tough s t a t e s t h a t some m a t e r i a l s w i l l provide a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l b a s i s i n the i n i t i a l stages, but ideas are extended and words alone become the means of making the extension to the scene" (Tough, 1977, p.59). Whereas a l l c h i l d r e n are motivated to l e a r n t h e i r f i r s t language, t h i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the case i n l e a r n i n g a second language. Wong F i l l m o r e s t a t e s t h a t personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as "language h a b i t s , m o t i v a t i o n s , s o c i a l needs and h a b i t u a l approaches t o problems" are 18 f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the a c q u i s i t i o n of the second language (Wong F i l l m o r e , 1979, p.220). The l e a r n i n g of the second language may depend on the l e a r n e r ' s d e s i r e to become p a r t of the e t h n o l i n g u i s t i c group t h a t speaks the t a r g e t language (Gardener and Lambert, 1972). Wong F i l l m o r e a l s o found t h a t c h i l d r e n who were s u c c e s s f u l l e a r n e r s of the second language a c t i v e l y sought out E n g l i s h f r i e n d s and appeared to want to become p a r t of the E n g l i s h speaking group. They appeared to be a b l e t o s t r u c t u r e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s t o g a i n maximum second language i n p u t . The ESL l e a r n e r , t h e r e f o r e , had to p r o v i d e t h e i r f i r s t language peers wi t h s o c i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t to keep t h e i r i n t e r e s t and a t t e n t i o n l o n g enough to enable them to produce the i n p u t f o r the second language l e a r n e r . She found t h a t the most s u c c e s s f u l second language l e a r n e r s e n t e r e d the p l a y group p r e t e n d i n g they knew what was going on, made the maximum use of f o r m u l a i c e x p r e s s i o n s and were ab l e t o use t h e i r E n g l i s h speaking f r i e n d s f o r h e l p (Wong F i l l m o r e , 1979). Strong, i n a study c a r r i e d out w i t h o l d e r ESL c h i l d r e n , d i s a g r e e d t h a t i t was the d e s i r e t o become p a r t of the t a r g e t language group t h a t was important, but r a t h e r the a b i l i t y t o make more a c t i v e use of the E n g l i s h the ESL l e a r n e r was exposed to t h a t mattered. He found p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , such as 19 t a l k a t i v e n e s s , r e s p o n s i v e n e s s and g r e g a r i o u s n e s s were h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h success i n l e a r n i n g a second language (Strong, 1983). When a c h i l d l e a r n s t o speak a second language he a l s o a c q u i r e s a second c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . Berryman s t r e s s e s the importance of the p a r e n t ' s r o l e i n s u p p o r t i n g the c h i l d d u r i n g t h i s p r o c e s s . He s t a t e s t h a t i t i s e s s e n t i a l , f o r the c h i l d to be s u c c e s s f u l , • t h a t ^parents model p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards the second c u l t u r e and language (Berryman, 19 82). In summary, the c h i l d ' s success i n l e a r n i n g a second language i s dependent upon a number of f a c t o r s and the i n t e r a c t i o n between them. Of f i r s t importance i s what the c h i l d , h i m s e l f , b r i n g s to the t a s k of l e a r n i n g a second language. The c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l i t y , h i s s o c i a b i l i t y , t a l k a t i v e n e s s , s e l f c o n f i d e n c e and s o c i a l competence have a d i r e c t e f f e c t on h i s a b i l i t y t o s t r u c t u r e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s to g i v e him the n e c e s s a r y amount of second language i n p u t . The c h i l d ' s c h o i c e of a c t i v i t y i s a l s o important. I f the c h i l d chooses group a c t i v i t i e s over i n d i v i d u a l ones (such as p u z z l e s ) h i s need to communicate w i l l be g r e a t e r , r e s u l t i n g i n a h i g h l e v e l of m o t i v a t i o n to l e a r n the second language. The match between the c h i l d ' s s t y l e of l e a r n i n g the sec6nd language and the k i n d of environmental exposure to the second language t h a t the c h i l d r e c e i v e s a f f e c t s a c q u i s i t i o n . 20 I f t h e c h i l d l e a r n s t h e second language by making use of u n p r o c e s s e d chunks o f language as d e s c r i b e d by V e n t r i g l i a , t h e optimum e n v i r o n m e n t f o r l e a r n i n g language f o r t h i s c h i l d w i l l be one w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e c h i l d w i t h language i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n a l or n a t u r a l i s t i c s e t t i n g . T h i s means t h a t E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s must be a v a i l a b l e t o t h e c h i l d t o p r o v i d e him w i t h language i n p u t . L i n g u i s t i c awareness, p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r c e p t u a l awareness of the sounds, p a t t e r n s and rhythms of the second language i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t f o r s u c c e s s f u l second language a c q u i s i t i o n . P r e v i o u s awareness f o form and f u n c t i o n i n t h e f i r s t language and the r o l e o f i n n a t e systems of language p r o c e s s i n g (language a c q u i s i t i o n d e v i c e ) need t o be c o n s i d e r e d . V e r y l i t t l e i s known, however, about t h e r o l e they p l a y i n second language a c q u i s i t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the v e r y young c h i l d . C o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s , such as v e r b a l and a u d i t o r y memory, a b i l i t y t o make a s s o c i a t i o n s , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , t o g e t h e r w i t h the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o o b s e r v e second language i n t e r a c t i o n s and make hy p o t h e s e s and i n f e r e n c e s a r e i m p o r t a n t . F i n a l l y s o c i o -c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s , such as t h e s t a t u s of t h e n a t i v e language i n t h e community and f a m i l y a t t i t u d e s towards t h e second l a n g -uage and c u l t u r e a f f e c t t h e c h i l d ' s m o t i v a t i o n and e v e n t u a l s u c c e s s i n l e a r n i n g the second l a n g u a g e . 21 I n c o n c l u s i o n , the p r o c e s s o f second language a c q u i s i t i o n i n the v e r y young c h i l d i s as y e t not f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d . I t appears t o be a v e r y complex p r o c e s s i n w h i c h the i n t e r a c t i o n of the l e a r n e r , t o g e t h e r w i t h s o c i a l , l i n g u i s t i c and c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s i n t e r a c t w i t h each o t h e r and w i t h e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s i n the e n v i r o n m e n t t o i n f l u e n c e the c h i l d ' s s u c c e s s i n l e a r n i n g the second language. 22 Review of M u l t i c u l t u r a l P r e s c h o o l Programs i n the U.S.A. E a r l y , c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n programs i n t h e U.S.A. t h a t were d e s i g n e d t o meet the needs of m u l t i c u l t u r a l and m u l t i l i n g u a l g r oups of c h i l d r e n were r e v i e w e d and e v a l u a t e d as p a r t of the p r o c e s s of c o n s t r u c t i n g the model f o r a m u l t i c u l t u r a l p r e s c h o o l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Un Marco A r b i e t o , A l e r t a , Amanecer and Nuevas F r o n t e r a s de A p p r e n d i z a j e , f o u r H e a d s t a r t m o d e l s , s p e c i f i c a l l y d e v e l o p e d f o r c h i l d r e n from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l b ackgrounds were examined f o r a p o s s i b l e s o u r c e o f i d e a s and i n f o r m a t i o n . "Each c u r r i c u l u m model was t o : (a) be based on sound e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y ; (b) embody an appr o a c h t o e a r l y e d u c a t i o n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h c h i l d development t h e o r y ; and (c) be a c c e p t a b l e by t h e e t h n i c community and u s a b l e by H e a d s t a r t programs w i t h o u t need f o r e x t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g . " Each c u r r i c u l u m model was t o be based on sound e a r l y c h i l d development p r i n c i p l e s and a b i l i n g u a l b i c u l t u r a l enhancement p h i l o s o p h y . The models were n o t t o be based on a d e f i c i t a p p r o a c h . Each c u r r i c u l u m model was t o p r o v i d e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o r t he development of b a s i c s k i l l s i n the a r e a s of c o g n i t i v e , s o c i o e m o t i o n a l , p s y c h o m o t o r , and language ( E n g l i s h and Spa n i s h ) development. Each c u r r i c u l u m model was t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e H e a d s t a r t P e r formance S t a n d a r d s and had t o p r o v i d e f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n of a l l component a r e a s ( i . e . p a r e n t i n v o l v e m e n t , s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , h e a l t h s e r v i c e s / and e d u c a t i o n ) wherever p o s s i b l e . Each c u r r i c u l u m development e f f o r t was t o i n c l u d e a p l a n f o r i n v o l v i n g H e a d s t a r t s t a f f , p a r e n t s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n the development, i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and v a l i d a t i o n of the c u r r i c u u m model. 23 Each c u r r i c u l u m model was t o be r e p l i c a b l e and u s a b l e i n a v a r i e t y of p r e s c h o o l s e t t i n g s such as H e a d s t a r t Daycare and N u r s e r y s c h o o l . Each c u r r i c u l u m model was t o p r o v i d e s p e c i f i c i n f o r -m a t i o n on the p r o c e d u r e t o be used i n d e c i d i n g w h i c h language would be used when, by whom and f o r what pur p o s e . G r o u p i n g of c h i l d r e n by language dominance was a l s o t o be a d d r e s s e d . Each c u r r i c u l u m was t o have an e x p l i c i t d e f i n i t i o n of b i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n as i t would be implemented i n the c u r r i c u l u m model. T h i s would i n c l u d e a d e s c r i p t i o n of the c u l t u r a l g o a l s and sample l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . " ( A r e n a s , 1980). Un Marco A r b i e t o , d e v e l o p e d by the High/Scope R e s e a r c h F o u n d a t i o n i n Y p s i l a n t i , M i c h i g a n , was based on t h e c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y o f J e a n P i a g e t . The e n v i r o n m e n t , r o u t i n e s and t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a r e a l l p l a n n e d t o promote c o g n i t i v e growth i n c h i l d r e n . M a t e r i a l s i n the e n v i r o n m e n t a r e a r r a n g e d t o encourage the c h i l d r e n as they i n t e r a c t w i t h them, t o l e a r n t o match, sequence, c l a s s i f y and use s y m b o l i c t h o u g h t . C h i l d r e n a r e t a u g h t i n the " p l a n - d o - r e v i e w " sequence t o make r e s p o n s i b l e c h o i c e s and f o l l o w t h r o u g h . I m p l i c i t w i t h i n t h i s sequence a r e the g o a l s of f o s t e r i n g s e l f m o t i v a t i o n and i n n e r d i r e c t i o n . C h i l d r e n a r e a l s o h e l p e d t o o r g a n i s e t h e i r t h i n k i n g , t h i n k b e f o r e a c t i n g , r e c a l l a c t i o n s , a s s e s s and s o l v e p r o b l e m s . The l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e program a r e s t a t e d i n the form of seven key e x p e r i e n c e s ; d i r e c t a c t i o n , e x p l o r i n g u s i n g a l l f i v e s e n s e s , d i s c o v e r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , m a n i p u l a t i n g ^ c h a n g i n g and c o m b i n i n g m a t e r i a l s , m e e t i n g i n d i v i d u a l needs, 24 o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r making c h o i c e s and i n c o r p o r a t i n g b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e s . Each a c t i v i t y p r e s e n t e d i n t h e program i s e v a l u a t e d i n terms o f the l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s as s t a t e d i n the seven key e x p e r i e n c e s . The language program i n t h i s model i s based upon P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y of language development w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t language d e v e l o p s o u t of c h i l d r e n ' s ' i n t e r a c t i o n i n the e n v i r o n m e n t . The t e a c h e r ' s r o l e , t h e r e f o r e , i s t o promote language i n a n a t u r a l s e t t i n g , e x p a n d i n g and e x t e n d i n g t h e c h i l d r e n ' s v e r b a l : : r e s p o n s e s . B o t h f i r s t and second languages a r e g i v e n e q u a l w e i g h t i n t h e c l a s s r o o m and c h i l d r e n a r e encouraged t o make use of each o t h e r as language models and t r a n s l a t o r s (Un Marco A r b i e t o , 1976). The p h i l o s o p h y of the B r i t i s h I n f a n t S c h o o l was an i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e i n the development of t h e A l e r t a model. The model was b u i l t upon programs i n the community t h a t had p r o v e n s u c c e s s f u l . A l e r t a emphasises the t o t a l development o f the c h i l d and r e c o g n i s e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f f a m i l y background and p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n p l a n n i n g a program f o r c h i l d r e n . The t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r t h e model i s t h e s o c i o - p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y of E r i k s o n and t h e c o g n i t i v e t h e o r y o f P i a g e t and Susan I s a a c s . I t a l s o acknowledge t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o g n i t i v e s t y l e . The t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n o f t h i s model i s , t h e r e f o r e , more b r o a d l y based t h a n t h a t o f Un Marco A r b i e t o . The c u r r i c u l u m i n A l e r t a i s d e s c r i b e d as " e v e r y t h i n g t h a t 25 goes on i n a c h i l d ' s l i f e . " Goals are s t a t e d f o r each area of development, f o l l o w e d by a l i s t of b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s . Suggested a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e e v a l u a t i o n q u e s t i o n s t o check t h a t the a c t i v i t y meets the s t a t e d g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s of the program. Teachers are r e q u i r e d t o show i n i t i a t i v e and f l e x i b i l i t y i n p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s so t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l needs of each c h i l d are met. The language program i s p r e s e n t e d to the c h i l d r e n i n a n a t u r a l way so t h a t the ex p e r i e n c e i s e n j o y a b l e and based on the c h i l d ' s own i n t e r e s t s . S o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s are encouraged and c h i l d r e n are g i v e n many o p p o r t u n i t i e s to i n t e r a c t w i t h peers and a d u l t s i n d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g s so they can develop both f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l language codes. Concepts and v o c a b u l a r y , taught i n s t r u c t u r e d s e s s i o n s , a r e r e - i n t r o d u c e d i n f o r m a l l y and expanded or extended d u r i n g f r e e p l a y ( A l e r t a , 1976). The authors of Nuevas F r o n t e r a s b e l i e v e t h a t i t " s h o u l d be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of educators to p r o v i d e a " c u l t u r a l l y d e mocratic a d u c a t i o n . . . which s t r e s s e s the r i g h t of every c h i l d to remain i d e n t i f i e d w i t h h i s own c u l t u r e as expressed i n the home and community." They b e l i e v e t h a t the c h i l d ' s p r e v i o u s s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s a f f e c t s the way he communicates, r e l a t e s to a d u l t s and pee r s , o r g a n i z e s , c l a s s i f i e s and a s s i m i l a t e s the environment. The s o c i a l i z a t i o n p rocess a l s o has an i n f l u e n c e on the c h i l d ' s l e v e l of m o t i v a t i o n f o r s c h o o l t a s k s . 26 I n d e v e l o p i n g a p h i l o s o p h y f o r e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n from m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e s , d i f f e r e n c e s due t o the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s must be g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n . C h i l d r e n s h o u l d be g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o use t h e i r own l e a r n i n g s t y l e i n s c h o o l as w e l l as d e v e l o p new s t y l e s of l e a r n i n g . I n t h i s way c h i l d r e n w i l l be a b l e t o f u n c t i o n i n b o t h t h e m i n o r i t y and m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . T h i s model r e c o g n i s e s the d i f f e r e n c e i n v a l u e systems between t h e m i n o r i t y and m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e s . C h i l d r e n from the m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e may be c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h f a m i l y , community and e t h n i c group. They may h o l d s t r o n g r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s and f u n c t i o n b e s t when th e y can e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e t e a c h e r . The c h i l d w i l l p r o b a b l y p l a c e g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e on t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f the f a m i l y and f e e l h e s i t a n t t o t r y new t h i n g s f o r f e a r o f f a i l i n g and l e t t i n g the f a m i l y down. These c h i l d r e n grow up i n - an e n v i r o n m e n t where p e o p l e a r e e x c e p t i o n a l l y s e n s i t i v e t o t h e needs and f e e l i n g s o f o t h e r s . They may, t h e r e f o r e , a n t i c i p a t e t h a t o t h e r s w i l l s a t i s f y t h e i r needs r a t h e r t h a n a c h i e v e t h i s on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e . They may a l s o see c o m p e t i t i o n as a form o f b e h a v i o u r t h a t i s i n s e n s i t i v e t o o t h e r s and may be more c o m f o r t a b l e i n a c o - o p e r a t i v e atmosphere. C h i l d r e n g r o w i n g up i n f a m i l i e s who show a g r e a t d e a l of r e s p e c t f o r t h o s e i n a u t h o r i t y may r e t a i n many sex s t e r e o t y p e d a t t i t u d e s . A h i g h p r i o r i t y among t h e s e f a m i l i e s i s the 27 " s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n of the c h i l d " which s t r e s s e s the c h i l d ' s f i r s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s towards the f a m i l y and i t s w e l l being (Nuevas F r o n t e r a s de A p p r e n d i z a j e , 1976). The v a l u e s and behaviours of m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n d e s c r i b e d . i n the above model are based on s t u d i e s of Mexican c h i l d r e n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , however, they may a l s o be t y p i c a l of other m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e s and deserve c o n s i d e r a t i o n when dev-e l o p i n g a p r e s c h o o l program f o r c h i l d r e n from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l backgrounds. F i n a l l y , t h e f o u r t h model, Amanecer, was developed i n A u s t i n , Texas. I t i s based on a "theory of i n c o m p a t i b i l i t i e s ' which s t a t e s t h a t i f e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s are to make an a p p r o p r i a t e response t o H i s p a n i c c h i l d r e n they must c o n s i d e r f a c t o r s such as c u l t u r e , economic s t a b i l i t y , m o b i l i t y and the s o c i e t a l p e r c e p t i o n s of the c h i l d r e n ' s f a m i l i e s . The authors s t r e s s the importance of p e r s o n a l i z i n g the c u r r i c u l u m , i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g i n s t r u c t i o n and i n c o r p o r a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e s from the c h i l d r e n ' s homes and environment i n t o the d a i l y program (Amanecer, 1976). D i s c u s s i o n of the fou r models i n r e l a t i o n to d e v e l o p i n g a  model m u l t i c u l t u r a l p r e s c h o o l f o r B r i t i s h Columbia Stud y i n g the four- models d e s c r i b e d above proved to be very u s e f u l i n d e v e l o p i n g the c u r r i c u l u m f o r the Sexsmith P r o j e c t . Although they were designed to meet the needs of Spanish American c h i l d r e n i n b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s many id e a s c o u l d be used In a m u l t i l i n g u a l / m u l t i c u l t u r a l 28 p r e s c h o o l . The arrangement o f t h e room t o f o s t e r i n t e l l e c t u a l development d e s c r i b e d i n Un Marco A r b i e t o p r o v e d p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l a t S e x s m i t h . I s i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t c h i l d r e n who a r e un a b l e t o use a common language a re a b l e t o s t r u c t u r e t h e i r t h i n k i n g t h r o u g h t h e arrangement of the m a t e r i a l s and t h e r o u t i n e s i n the program. C h i l d r e n were g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o work w i t h s y m b o l i z a t i o n and move from t h e c o n c r e t e t o the a b s t r a c t as th e y matched o b j e c t s and l a b e l s on s h e l v e s . C h i l d r e n were a l s o encouraged t o make c h o i c e s , e v a l u a t e them and d e v e l o p i n n e r m o t i v a t i o n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own a c t i o n s . T h i s however i s more d i f f i c u l t i n a program where the t e a c h e r i s u n a b l e t o communicate w i t h the c h i l d r n i n t h e i r f i r s t l a n g u a g e . The key e x p e r i e n c e s used t o e v a l u a t e c u r r i c u l u m i n Un Marco A r b i e t o were a l s o used i n e v a l u a t i n g c u r r i c u l u m a t S e x s m i t h . A l e r t a p r o v i d e d the S e x s m i t h P r o j e c t w i t h an e x c e l l e n t example o f how t o o r g a n i z e c u r r i c u l u m so t h a t t h e r e i s a c o n t i n u i t y between t h e p h i l o s o p h y , t h e o r y , g o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s and a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e s of t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e program. I t a l s o p r o v i d e d many u s e f u l examples of m u l t i c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t were n o t a d d i t i v e b u t i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i n t h e e n t i r e framework' of the model. Nuevas F r o n t e r a s de A p p r e n d i z a j e s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e of c u l t u r a l awareness and s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e c h i l d r e n ' s 29 l e a r n i n g s t y l e when p l a n n i n g p r e s c h o o l programs. T h i s may r e q u i r e a t t i t u d i n a l changes on the p a r t o f t e a c h e r s w o r k i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s . C l a s s , c u l t u r a l background and s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s , w h i c h were p r e s e n t e d as i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g programs, were a l s o t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e S e x s m i t h c u r r i c u l u m . P a r e n t i n v o l v e m e n t was an i m p o r t a n t component o f a l l f o u r models. I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , m u l t i g e n e r a t i o n a l f a m i l i e s a r e common and t h e r e f o r e , programs w i l l have t o be adapted t o e n a b l e e x t e n d e d f a m i l i e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e . The models used a v a r i e t y of p l a n n i n g , assessment and e v a l u a t i o n c h e c k l i s t s w h i c h were h e l p f u l i n d e s i g n i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r the S e x s m i t h P r o j e c t . M u l t i c u l t u r a l Programs i n Canada The Immigrant R e s o u r c e s P r o j e c t (I.R.P) p r o v i d e s n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g f a m i l i e s , many of whom a r e newly a r r i v e d i m m i g r a n t s ^ w i t h t r a i n i n g i n t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . An i m p o r t a n t component o f I.R.P. i s t h e p r e s c h o o l program - w h i c h i s c o m p r i s e d of seven p r e s c h o o l g r o u p s . C h i l d r e n a t t e n d t h e s e programs w h i l e t h e i r c a r e g i v e r s a r e i n E n g l i s h language c l a s s e s . The f i r s t o b j e c t i v e of t h e p r o j e c t i s t o o f f e r f a m i l i e s a b a s i c knowledge o f E n g l i s h . C h i l d r e n i n 30 t h e p r e s c h o o l a r e c o n s t a n t l y exposed t o E n g l i s h i n t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h e p r e s c h o o l t e a c h e r . V o l u n t e e r s , who speak s e v e r a l l a n g u a g e s , w i l l o f t e n use E n g l i s h b u t w i l l a l s o r e s p o n d t o a c h i l d i n a n a t i v e language when necessary.* C h i l d r e n l e a r n E n g l i s h by l e a r n i n g t o f o l l o w t h e t e a c h e r ' s d i r e c t i o n s , l i s t e n i n g t o s t o r i e s and i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h o t h e r s i n t h e group. C u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t , f o r t h e i m m i g r a n t c h i l d and h i s f a m i l y , i s o f e q u a l i m p o r t a n c e as l e a r n i n g t o speak E n g l i s h . The I.R.P. p r o v i d e s t h e f a m i l y w i t h t h e i r f i r s t e n c o u n t e r w i t h t h e Can a d i a n c u l t u r e . F a m i l i e s , p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t o f a p r e s c h o o l l e a r n t o a d j u s t t o t h e l i v i n g s t y l e s o f t h e new c u l t u r e . They adapt t o d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s of c l o t h i n g and e a t i n g and o t h e r , more s u b t l e v a l u e s t h a t l i e beneath t h e s u r f a c e o f e v e r y d a y l i v i n g i n Canada. Immigrant f a m i l i e s may a l s o have t o a d j u s t t o d i f f e r e n t t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g s t y l e s . The p r e s c h o o l t e a c h e r may have t o e x p l a i n t o p a r e n t s , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e v a l u e o f p l a y as a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . In t h e p r e s c h o o l , c h i l d r e n b e g i n t o become f a m i l i a r w i t h s o c i a l frames i m p o r t a n t f o r l a t e r s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e I.R.P. program, t h e r e f o r e , p r o v i d e s many b e n e f i t s f o r i m m i g r a n t c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s b e s i d e s l e a r n i n g to.Speak E n g l i s h ( F r a s e r and C o u l t h a r d , 1982) 31 E a r l y exposure t o E n g l i s h , i t i s argued, may thre a t e n the r e t e n t i o n of the c h i l d ' s f i r s t language. The I n t e r -c u l t u r a l A s s o c i a t i o n i n V i c t o r i a sponsored a p r o j e c t designed to strengthen the c h i l d ' s f i r s t language. The p r o j e c t made an assessment of community needs based on a model de s c r i b e d by Neuber (Neuber, 1980). They gathered demographic data, conducted i n t e r v i e w s w i t h key informants, i n t h i s case p r o v i d e r s r o f c h i l d care s e r v i c e s who were f a m i l i a r w i t h community p a t t e r n s and problems, and observed immigrant pr e s c h o o l e r s i n daycare and homecare. The r e s u l t s of the survey showed t h a t immigrant f a m i l i e s p r e f e r home based c a r e g i v i n g arrnagements w i t h i n t h e i r own e t h n i c group because t h i s p r o v i d e s the c h i l d r e n w i t h the opp o r t u n i t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r own n a t i v e language p r i o r to being exposed to E n g l i s h . Refugee f a m i l i e s , however, expressed a d e s i r e to become p a r t of the mainstream c u l t u r e immediately and l e a r n E n g l i s h as soon as p o s s i b l e . Based on these r e s u l t s , the I n t e r c u l t u r a l A s s o c i a t i o n developed a Mums and Tots'program f o r the Punja b i community i n V i c t o r i a . In t h i s program parents and o l d e r members of the Hindu and Sik h communities learned E n g l i s h w h i l e a b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l preschool program was provided f o r the c h i l d r e n . The goal o f t h e p r e s c h o o l program was to encourage the harmonious 32 development o f both the home language and E n g l i s h by o f f e r i n g p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e s i n both languages. A b i l i n g u a l community p a r t i c i p a n t worked w i t h the p r e s c h o o l group to a c t as a c l a s s i n t e r p r e t e r f o r songs and s t o r i e s . The r e s u l t s of the program showed t h a t c h i l d r e n , a f t e r an i n i t i a l u n w i l l i n g n e s s to use t h e i r home language, p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i r own c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e s or a c c e p t o l d e r p a r t i c i p a n t s from the P u n j a b i community i n t o the group, were l a t e r p r o d u c i n g much more P u n j a b i d u r i n g f r e e p l a y time, and appeared to be f u n c t i o n i n g c o m f o r t a b l y i n a b i c u l t u r a l / b i l i n g u a l s e t t i n g . The ESL C u r r i c u l u m Development P r o j e c t i n Manitoba has a wider scope of s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s than e i t h e r the IRP or I n t e r c u l t u r a l A s s o c i a t i o n p r o j e c t s . I t s ' s t a t e d aims were to develop a c u r r i c u l u m guide based on an e v a l u a t i o n of an e x p e r i m e n t a l m u l t i c u l t u r a l c u r r i c u l u m i n a p r e s c h o o l , and t o improve the r e s o u r c e s and s k i l l s of p e r s o n n e l working i n day c a r e s w i t h a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of ESL c h i l d r e n . In d e v e l o p i n g the c u r r i c u l u m the i n v e s t i g a t o r s f i r s t observed c i r c l e time i n the p r e s c h o o l and then adapted the format to meet the needs of ESL c h i l d r e n . Based on these o b s e r v a t i o n s they f i n a l l y compiled a manual f o r use i n m u l t i c u l t u r a l preschoc 33 The a u t h o r s o f t h e manual s t a t e d t h a t t h e ESL c h i l d needed a " m u l t i t u d e o f e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h w h i c h t o p l a c e any new c o n c e p t l e a r n e d i n c o n t e x t . " E x p e r i e n c e s t h a t were most e f f e c t i v e , t h e y found < : f o r h e l p i n g t h e c h i l d r e n l e a r n E n g l i s h , were t h o s e p r e s e n t e d t o a v e r y s m a l l group i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e maximum o p o r t u n i t y f o r c h i l d r e n t o re s p o n d i n d i v i d u a l l y , t o speak and be u n d e r s t o o d . They recommended u s i n g t h e Peabody Language K i t and a program f o r E n g l i s h e x p e r i e n c e s d e v e l o p e d by Gonzalez-Mena as su p p l e m e n t a r y a i d s i n s t i m u l a t i n g language development (Wylynko, 1983). I n O n t a r i o , t h e M i n i s t r y o f C i t i z e n s h i p and C u l t u r e , Newcomer S e r v i c e s B r a n c h , has d e v e l o p e d a r e s o u r c e book f o r t e a c h e r s , The Newcomer P r e s c h o o l " ^ f o r t h o s e w o r k i n g w i t h i m m i g r a n t c h i l d r e n . I t p r o v i d e s a p r a c t i c a l g u i d e f o r p r e p a r i n g t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , h a n d l i n g problems such as s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y and p r o v i d i n g a p p r o p r i a t e m a t e r i a l s and a c t i v i t i e s f o r i m m i g r a n t c h i l d r e n . M u l t i c u l t u r a l p r e s c h o o l programs . i n Canada a r e d e s i g n e d t o meet t h e needs o f i m m i g r a n t c h i l d r e n from many c o u n t r i e s . They a r e much l e s s a r t i c u l a t e d t h a n t h o s e d e v e l o p e d i n t h e U.S.A. A l l programs i n t h e U . S .A.; ( d e s c r i b e d . h e r e i n ) a r e "'"Julie D o t s c h , Jane M c F a r l a n e , The Newcomer P r e - S c h o o l : A R e s o u r c e Book f o r T e a c h e r s , M i n i s t r y o f C i t i z e n s h i p and C u l t u r e , 77 B l o o r S t r e e t West, T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o , 1981. 34 based on a b i l i n g u a l / b i c u l t u r a l model, whereas as t h o s e i n Western Canada a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e a m u l t i l i n g u a l / m u l t i c u l t u r a l model. A l t h o u g h The Newcomer P r e s c h o o l p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l and p r a c t i c a l r e s o u r c e book i n Canada, no c o m p r e h e n s i v e , w e l l c o n s t r u c t e d program, based on a sound t h e o r e t i c a l base,has as y e t been produced i n Western Canada f o r m u l t i c u l t u r a l E a r l y C h i l d h o o d Educ-a t i o n . 35 CHAPTER 111 TEACHING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE Most of the p r e s c h o o l programs reviewed i n the p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n favoured p r e s e n t i n g second language l e a r n i n g i n a n a t u r a l i s t i c s e t t i n g . Research appears to support t h i s p o i n t of view. When c h i l d r e n f e e l the need to communicate, they develop s t r a t e g i e s t o l e a r n the second language. The t e a c h e r ' s main concern i s t o p r o v i d e s i t u a t i o n s i n which the c h i l d r e n f e e l m o t i v a t e d t o communicate i n E n g l i s h (McLaughlin, 1982). S h a r i Nedler d e s c r i b e s t h r e e programs and t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n t o speak E n g l i s h . O b s e r v a t i o n s i n a t r a d i t i o n a l p r e s c h o o l program, c o n s i s t i n g of a group of Spanish American c h i l d r e n and t e a c h e r s , b i l i n g u a l i n Spanish and E n g l i s h , showed t h a t the c h i l d r e n were not mo t i v a t e d to l e a r n E n g l i s h i n t h i s program. She s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e appeared to be no " i n t r i n s i c m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r " f o r u s i n g or p r a c t i s i n g the second language. In a second program, where the major g o a l was to teach accent f r e e E n g l i s h , a very s t r u c t u r e d program r e s u l t e d i n the c h i l d r e n d e v e l o p i n g a fragmented v o c a b u l a r y and a l a c k of f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h . A t h i r d program, based on B e r e i t e r Englemann t e c h n i q u e s , p r e s e n t e d E n g l i s h t o s m a l l groups of c h i l d r e n , u s i n g t h e i r s y s t e m a t i c , c o n t r o l l e d approach. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n boredom 36 and the c h i l d r e n were unable to g e n e r a l i z e or t r a n s f e r the s t r u c t u r e s l e a r n e d . A r e v i s e d program was then i n t r o d u c e d whereby language was taught through i n f o r m a l games, songs, s t o r i e s and a c t i v i t i e s which f o s t e r e d s e l f -e x p r e s s i o n . In a d d i t i o n s h o r t i n f o r m a l l e s s o n s were i n c l u d e d i n which the b a s i c E n g l i s h s t r u c t u r e s were taught. In e v a l u a t i n g t h i s program i t was found t h a t although the t e a c h e r s were uncomfortable t e a c h i n g the s t r u c t u r e d l e s s o n s , c h i l d r e n had l e a r n e d what was taught and were able to use E n g l i s h spontaneously to communicate wi t h each other and the t e a c h e r s (Nedler, 1975) . J a n e t Gonzalez-Mena s t a t e s t h a t a second language program sh o u l d be based.on the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e p r i n c i p l e s : 1. C h i l d r e n are m o t i v a t e d to l e a r n a second language because of language r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The t e a c h e r , t h e r e f o r e , must e s t a b l i s h an E n g l i s h language r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the c h i l d r e n so t h a t they are m o t i v a t e d to communicate wi t h her i n E n g l i s h . She advocates t h a t c h i l d r e n should be educated i n a b i l i n g u a l medium ot h e r w i s e , she f e e l s t h a t c h i l d r e n " who o n l y speak E n g l i s h i n s c h o o l w i l l come to a s s o c i a t e i t w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s and the n a t i v e language w i l l l o o s e i t s power. 2. Her second p r i n c i p l e s t a t e s t h a t c h i l d r e n need a t o t a l 37 development program w i t h i n a language program. 3. Her t h i r d p r i n c i p a l s t a t e s t h a t c h i l d r e n l e a r n by d o i n g . The language p r e s e n t e d t o ESL c h i l d r n s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , be o f f e r e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h have immediate r e f e r e n c e i n t h e p r e s e n t (Gonzalez-Meha, 1976). Tough d e f i n e s f o u r language f u n c t i o n s f o r an ESL c h i l d : l anguage f o r s e l f h e l p , j o i n i n g i n , f i n d i n g out and e x t e n d i n g l e a r n i n g . She f e e l s t h a t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e on a s m a l l range o f p h r a s e s , encourage c h i l d r e n t o l i s t e n , i m i t a t e and r e p e a t them and be c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e v o c a b u l a r y t h e y use. The t e a c h e r s h o u l d a l s o e x t e n d t h e c h i l d ' s language by r e p l a c i n g o r e l a b o r a t i n g t h e e l e m e n t s and o f f e r i n g a l t e r n a t e p h r a s e s (Tough, 1977). T h i s r e q u i r e s t h a t t e a c h e r s be w e l l o r g a n i s e d and a b l e t o i d e n t i f y ahead o f t i m e t h e l anguage s t r u c t u r e s n e c e s s a r y f o r each a c t i v i t y . V e n t r i g l i a a g r e e s w i t h b o t h Gonzalez-Mena and Tough t h a t c h i l d r e n need t o be p r e s e n t e d w i t h new words p a i r e d w i t h c o n c r e t e o b j e c t s or p i c t u r e s . She a d v o c a t e s u t i l i z i n g a l l t h e c h i l d ' s s enses i n t e a c h i n g v o c a b u l a r y . She r e c o g n i s e s t h a t c h i l d r e n have d i f f e r e n t language l e a r n i n g s t y l e s and s h o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d t o new v o c a b u l a r y t h r o u g h a v a r i e t y o f means such as s t r u c t u r e d c o n v e r s a t i o n s , c h a n t s , rhythms and songs. She a l s o s t r e s s e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f h a v i n g numerous 38 E n g l i s h models a v a i l a b l e t o p r o v i d e enough o p p o r t u n i t e s f o r i m i t a t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n . ( V e n t r i g l i a , 1982). Brown n o t e d t h r o u g h e x t e n s i v e o b s e r v a t i o n o f ESL c h i l d r e n t h a t t h e y do n o t j u s t ' p i c k up 1 E n g l i s h from t h e i r p e e r s w i t h o u t a c t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e t e a c h e r . She f o l l o w e d t h e language development o f s e v e r a l ESL c h i l d r e n i n t h e B r i t i s h i n f a n t s c h o o l . She found t h a t t h e y were i s o l a t e d from t h e i r p e e r s t h r o u g h t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o communicate. She recommends t h a t t h e s e c h i l d r e n be w i t h d r a w n f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s d u r i n g t h e day and p l a c e d i n s m a l l groups o f same c u l t u r e and langauge c h i l d r e n i n an e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t more c l o s e l y r e f l e c t s t h e i r homes. In t h i s way she f.eels t h a t c u l t u r e shock i s l e s s e n e d t h r o u g h a more g r a d u a l t r a n s i t i o n t o t h e new c u l t u r e (Brown, 1975). T e a c h i n g E n g l i s h as a second language i n t h e p r e s c h o o l p r e s e n t s t h e e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t o r w i t h t h e dilemma o f c h o o s i n g t h e most e f f e c t i v e a p p r o a c h : a f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e d language program, i n f o r m a l e x p o s u r e i n a n a t u r a l i s t i c s e t t i n g , o r u s i n g a c o m b i n a t i o n o f b o t h f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l methods. Both f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l a pproaches appear t o have d i s a d -v a n t a g e s when e i t h e r i s used e x c l u s i v e l y . I n t e r v e n t i o n may be most s u c c e s s f u l when t h e t e a c h e r c r e a t e s a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d r e n a r e m o t i v a t e d t o l e a r n E n g l i s h , and 39 are g i v e n o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n i t i n s i t u a t i o n s t h a t a s s o c i a t e language w i t h c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e . The second language s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d t o c h i l d r e n i n an o r d e r l y , s y s t e m a t i c manner, however, d i f f e r e n t l e a r n i n g s t y l e s amongst the c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d and language i n t r o d u c e d i n a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t ways. A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e advantages i n o f f e r i n g a b i l i n g u a l program i n s c h o o l s , t h i s i s n o t always p o s s i b l e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a where p r e s c h o o l groups a r e o f t e n c o m p r i s e d of c h i l d r e n from a v a r i e t y o f language b a c k g r o u n d s . The p r i n c i p l e o f e n c o u r a g i n g the use o f t h e c h i l d ' s f i r s t l a n g u a g e , however, i s ' - r e c o g n i s e d as i m p o r t a n t f o r the development of a p o s i t i v e s e l f c o n c e p t . M a s t e r y of E n g l i s h , however, i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t as i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t c h i l d r e n l e a r n E n g l i s h t o be s u c c e s s f u l l a t e r i n s c h o o l . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , a major g o a l of t h e m a j o r i t y o f p r e s c h o o l programs w i t h a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of ESL c h i l d r e n . I n t e a c h i n g E n g l i s h as a second l a n g u a g e , th e g r e a t e s t c h a l l e n g e f o r t h e e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t o r l i e s i n . i m p l e m e n t i n g a p l a n n e d language program w i t h o u t j e o p a r d i z i n g the f r e e p l a y p h i l o s o p h y of a t r a d i t i o n a l p r e s c h o o l program. 40 CHAPTER IV TESTING PROCEDURES T e s t i n g E n g l i s h Second Language C h i l d r e n In u n d e r t a k i n g a study of language l e a r n i n g , the q u e s t i o n of s u i t a b l e methods of t e s t i n g a t the p r e s c h o o l l e v e l must be addressed. Formal measures have the advantage of b e i n g r e l i a b l e / o b j e c t i v e and can produce -'a measurable s c o r e . On the other hand, they have the disadvantage of not being f l e x i b l e enough to assess the c h i l d ' s r e a l a b i l i t y t o communicate. Three and f o u r year o l d c h i l d r e n are r e l u c t a n t to produce language i n a s i t u a t i o n t h a t makes them f e e l i l l a t ease due to the u n f a m i l i a r i t y of the t e s t e r , the environment and the procedure (Cazden,1981, B l a c k , 1979 and Laosa, 1977). Many t e s t s are u n s u i t a b l e due to the u n r e a l i s t i c demands p l a c e d on the p r e s c h o o l c h i l d , e.g. l e n g t h of a t t e n t i o n span, d i s t r a c t a b i l i t y , c o n s t r a i n t s about answering q u e s t i o n s and proneness on the p a r t of young c h i l d r e n f o r h y p e r - c o r r e c t i o n (Black, 1979). C u l t u r a l b i a s embedded i n the t e s t i t s e l f i s a l s o a concern i n u s i n g s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s w i t h ESL c h i l d r e n (Cazden, 1981). I n f o r m a l t e s t i n g , s'uch as i s done by c o l l e c t i n g spon-taneous speech samples i n a n a t u r a l s e t t i n g , has the advantage of v a l i d i t y , b e i n g a more complete and a c c u r a t e measure of a c h i l d ' s v e r b a l a b i l i t y (Tough, 1977, B l a c k , 1979). Disadvantage s c o r e r u n r e l i a b i l i t y , s u b j e c t i v i t y and d i f f i c u l t y i n o r g a n i s i n g t h e d a t a i n t o a q u a n t i f i a b l e s c o r e . In c h o o s i n g a method f o r m e a s u r i n g p r e s c h o o l l a n g u a g e , t h e r e f o r e , the r e s e a r c h e r has t o weigh v a l i d i t y v e r s u s r e l i a b i l i t y , s u b j e c t i v i t y v e r s u s o b j e c t i v i t y , q u a l i t y v e r s u s q u a n t i t y and o t h e r v a r i a b l e s such as t h e n a t u r e of the ESL p r e s c h o o l c h i l d and t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s and demands o f t h e t e s t . I t would seem a d v i s a b l e , t h e r e -f o r e , t o t e s t b o t h f o r m a l l y and i n f o r m a l l y so t h a t as many o f t h e above p o i n t s a r e c o v e r e d as p o s s i b l e . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r o f t h e S e x s m i t h s t u d y b o t h f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l measures were used t o a s s e s s second language a b i l i t y . I n f o r m a l o b s e r v a t i o n s of spontaneous speech samples were c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r and t h e ' P r e s c h o o l Language S c a l e by Zimmerman, S t e i n e r and Pond (1969) was a d m i n i s t e r e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g and end o f t h e y e a r as a f o r m a l - t e s t . The P r e s c h o o l Language S c a l e was s e l e c t e d because i t p r o v i d e s a good t e s t o f c ommunicative competence and i t accomodates i n f o r m a l o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t h e c h i l d ' s n a t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c e n v i r o n m e n t . I t y i e l d s an a u d i t o r y , v e r b a l and a c t u a l language age f o r each c h i l d . I t i s s i m p l e t o a d m i n i s t e r , c omprehensive enough t o measure t h e wide scope 42 p r e s e n t i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s of language l e a r n i n g ( C o u l t h a r d , 1 9 8 3 ) . A d i s a d v a n t a g e i n u s i n g the P r e s c h o o l Language S c a l e p r o v e d t o be t h a t i t was d e s i g n e d t o d e t e c t language s t r e n g t h s and d e f i c i e n c e s i n young c h i l d r e n who spoke E n g l i s h as t h e i r f i r s t l a n g u a g e . T h e r e f o r e , i t p r o v e d n o t t o be an e n t i r e l y s u i t a b l e measure f o r ESL p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . T e s t s , however, d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o measure second language a c q u i s i t i o n , such as t h e B i l i n g u a l S y n t a x Measure by Dulay and Burt,, were r e j e c t e d as b e i n g more e f f e c t i v e a t the k i n d e r g a r t e n l e v e l t h a n a t the t h r e e and f o u r y e a r o l d l e v e l . The r e v i s e d Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t (Dunn & Dunn, 1981) and the E x p r e s s i v e One Word T e s t ( G a r d i n e r , 1979) were a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t h e second y e a r o f the p r o j e c t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g and end of t h e s c h o o l y e a r . These t e s t s ' were chosen because th e y were q u i c k t o a d m i n i s t e r and seemed more s u i t a b l e f o r ESL p r e s c h o o l e r s . The PPVT (.R) y i e l d e d a r e c e p t i v e l a n g u a g e , s c o r e f o r each c h i l d and the E x p r e s s i v e One Word T e s t y i e l d e d and e x p r e s s i v e s c o r e f o r each c h i l d . • ;> T e s t i n g t h e S o c i a l Competence o f ESL P r e s c h o o l C h i l d r e n There a r e v e r y few i n s t r u m e n t s a v a i l a b l e f o r m e a s u r i n g s o c i a l competence a t the p r e s c h o o l l e v e l and none a t a l l d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r ESL p r e s c h o o l e r s . I t was d e c i d e d , t h e r e f o r e , t o use the Peer I n t e r a c t i o n , Q u a l i t y -43 E f f e c t i v e n e s s S c o r e (PI,Q-ES) d e v e l o p e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Western O n t a r i o by Mary W r i g h t . T h i s measure o f a p r e s c h o o l e r ' s s o c i a l competence i s based on c h i l d / c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n r a t h e r than i n t e r a c t i o n between c h i l d and a d u l t . The more competenct a c h i l d becomes s o c i a l l y t h e l e s s i n t e r a c t i o n he i n i t i a t e s w i t h an a d u l t ( W r i g h t , 1983). F r e q u e n c y and q u a l i t y o f t h e s e a t t e m p t s were n o t found t o be as i m p o r t a n t as e f f e c t i v e n e s s . W r i g h t s t a t e s t h a t " . . . t h e v a r i a b l e w h i c h most c o n s i s t e n t l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e most from t h e l e a s t competent c h i l d r e n was t h e s u c c e s s f u l n e s s o f t h e i r a t t e m p t t o i n f l u e n c e t h e b e h a v i o u r o f a p e e r . " ( W r i g h t , >P.174). A l l e l e v e n i t e m s (see appendix A) on t h e PI,Q-ES c h e c k l i s t a r e g i v e n e q u a l w e i g h t and can o n l v be s c o r e d i f t h e y have a s u c c e s s f u l outcome. ( T h i s t e s t was o n l y a d m i n i s t e r e d i n the f i r s t y e a r o f t h e s t u d y ) . 44 CHAPTER V FORMAL RESEARCH STUDY 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n The p r e s c h o o l chosen f o r the s t u d y i s a p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d s c h o o l s i t u a t e d i n a p o r t a b l e c l a s s r o o m i n t h e grounds of S e x s m i t h Community S c h o o l . The s c h o o l i s i n a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d m i d d l e c l a s s community s e r v i n g f a m i l i e s from many d i v e r s e c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s . One p r e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s u p e r v i s e s b o t h morning and a f t e r n o o n groups w i t h v o l u n t e e r and p a r e n t h e l p . The p r e s c h o o l i s a d v e r t i s e d i n t h e l o c a l community newspaper and f i f t e e n c h i l d r e n a r e e n r o l l e d i n each group on a f i r s t come f i r s t s e r v e b a s i s . Each group a t t e n d s f o r two hours a day, f o u r t i m e s a week. A l l c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n t h e program a r e t h r e e o r f o u r y e a r s o l d . 2. Purpose o f t h e Study The r e s e a r c h was d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e a t h e o r e t i c a l base f o r making d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g m u l t i c u l t u r a l c u r r i c u l u m development f o r e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n programs i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n the f i r s t y e a r o f t h e s t u d y (1982-1983) t h e r e s e a r c h f o c u s s e d on i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l and l i n g u i s t i c e x p e r i e n c e s i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l group of p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n t o d i s c o v e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between the c h i l d ' s l e v e l o f s o c i a l development and h i s a b i l i t y t o speak E n g l i s h . C o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h the f o r m a l r e s e a r c h s t u d y , i n f o r m a l o b s e r v a t i o n s of the ESL c h i l d r e n were k e p t f o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . 45 3. Hypothesis In d e s i g n i n g the r e s e a r c h (1982-1983) i t was f e l t t h at the most important r e l a t i o n s h i p would be i n the one e x i s t i n g between a c h i l d ' s s o c i a l competency and h i s a b i l i t y to communicate i n E n g l i s h when E n g l i s h was e s t a b l i s h e d as the medium of communication of the group. S t a t i n g t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the form of a n u l l h y p o t h e s i s , t h e r e f o r e , ESL c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n a preschool program where E n g l i s h i s e s t a b l i s h e d as the medium of communication w i l l not r e q u i r e E n g l i s h language a b i l i t y , as measured on the P r e s c h o o l Language Scale (P.L.S) i n order t o achieve s o c i a l competence as measured on a s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s c a l e (PI,Q-ES). 4. Method Formal measurements of language were obtained u s i n g the Preschool Language Scale (P.L.S) from a l l c h i l d r e n i n the sample group i n October, 1982 and May, 1983. Two weeks were spent observing i n the classroom before the data c o l -l e c t i o n began. In t h i s way the t e s t e r got to know the c h i l d r e n and they became accustomed to her presence. When the formal t e s t i n g began, a low t a b l e w i t h two c h a i r s was set a g a i n s t the w a l l and the t e s t b o o k l e t , score sheets, s m a l l coloured b l o c k s , sand paper, pieces of money were set out as they were needed. A p o r t a b l e c a s s e t t e tape w i t h 46 an e x t e n s i o n microphone was s e t up t o r e c o r d t h e i n t e r v i e w . Each c h i l d i n t u r n was a s k ed t o s i t and l o o k a t t h e t e s t b o o k l e t . Q u e s t i o n s were th e n asked u n t i l t h e c h i l d was n o t a b l e t o answer c o r r e c t l y o r s u f f i c i e n t l y . M a i n t a i n i n g good r a p p o r t w i t h the c h i l d r e n was e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n i n t h i s t a s k . A few c h i l d r e n were r e l u c t a n t t o come t o the t a b l e so t h e i r language a b i l i t i e s had t o be .scored o ver s e v e r a l s e s s i o n s . Some c h i l d r e n were v e r y e a s i l y d i s t r a c t e d so a p r o t e c t i v e b a r r i e r was p u l l e d round the t a b l e . ( T a b l e 1 & 2 l i s t s t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l age (C.A.) of the s u b j e c t s , t h e i r a u d i t o r y a b i l i t y (A.A.) and v e r b a l a b i l i t y (V.A.) as measured i n months on t h e P.L.S.) ( C o u l t h a r d , 1983). F o r m a l measurements of s o c i a l competency were o b t a i n e d u s i n g t h e Peer I n t e r a c t i o n , Q u a l i t y E f f e c t i v e n e s s S c a l e (PI,Q-ES) ( W r i g h t , 1983). . Data f o r s c o r i n g s o c i a l competency was o b t a i n e d by t a k i n g a t e n minute v i d e o f i l m o f each s u b j e c t twice- (on separate' days) d u r i n g t h e i r f r e e p l a y t ime b o t h i n t h e F a l l and i n t h e S p r i n g . C h i l d r e n were f i l m e d i n random o r d e r , w h i c h meant t h a t t h e e p i s o d e on f i l m c o u l d be o b t a i n e d w h i l e the s u b j e c t s were p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n any of t h e f r e e c h o i c e a c t i v i t i e s such as p l a y i n g i n the b l o c k s or w i t h w a t e r , sand or p l a y d o u g h . Each v i d e o t a p e was s c r i p t e d 47 and l a t e r scored on the PI,Q-ES s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s c a l e by a team of f o u r independent o b s e r v e r s . T a b l e 3 l i s t s the s c o r e s of each of the s u b j e c t s , the mean and standard d e v i a t i o n . In o r d e r t o t e s t f o r a' c o r r e l a t i o n between E n g l i s h language development and s o c i a l competence l e v e l a Pearson r was conducted. The f i n a l s c o r e s o b t a i n e d i n May on the language measure (P.L.S.) i n both v e r b a l (V.A.) and a u d i t o r y a b i l i t y (A.A.) were each c o r r e l a t e d s e p a r a t e l y w i t h the f i n a l t o t a l o f both s e t s of sc o r e s o b t a i n e d i n October- and May on the measure of s o c i a l com-petence (PI,Q-ES) t o o b t a i n c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . 5. S u b j e c t s Once e n r o l l m e n t had been completed i n the F a l l the names o f a l l ESL c h i l d r e n i n both -the morning and a f t e r n o o n groups were put i n a hat and s i x t e e n names were drawn t o form the r e s e a r c h sample. U n f o r t u n a t e l y e i g h t of these c h i l d r e n were withdrawn from the program i n December due to an i n c r e a s e i n the f e e s . The r e s e a r c h c o n t i n u e d w i t h the e i g h t remaining s u b j e c t s . (See Tab l e 1) 6. A n a l y s i s of the data In the F a l l the s c o r e s on the P.L.S. y i e l d e d a mean age i n a u d i t o r y a b i l i t y of 27.8 months (S.D. 15.7), 22 months below the' C A . mean of 49 months (S.D. 4.7). 48 I n t h e S p r i n g the mean f o r a u d i t o r y a b i l i t y (A.A.) r o s e t o 3 3.3 months (S.D. 1 7 . 9 ) , 23 months below t f e C . A . mean. The mean age i n v e r b a l a b i l i t y (V.A.) was 21 months (S.D. 16.7) i n the F a l l (28months below the C A . mean). I n the S p r i n g the mean f o r v e r b a l a b i l i t y r o s e t o 32 months (S.D. 22.2). One of t h e e i g h t s u b j e c t s ( s u b j e c t 8) s c o r e d z e r o i n a u d i t o r y a b i l i t y i n t h e F a l l and two s u b j e c t s ( s u b j e c t s 8 and 2) s c o r e d z e r o i n the S p r i n g . T h i s a c c o u n t s f o r t h e . w i d e s p r e a d i n s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h e s c o r e s . The above mean s c o r e s i n language a b i l i t y i n ESL c h i l d r e n i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y a r e s t i l l a bout two y e a r s b e h i n d t h e i r E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g p e e r s i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o speak E n g l i s h a f t e r seven months i n P r e s c h o o l . The s i x s u b j e c t s who showed an i n c r e a s e i n b o t h a u d i t o r y and v e r b a l a b i l i t y a l s o i n c r e a s e d t h e i r s o c i a l competency s c o r e s on the PI,Q-ES d u r i n g the same p e r i o d ( T a b l e 4 ) . The s o c i a l competency s c o r e y i e l d e d a mean of 10.75 (S.D. 9.7) i n the F a l l and 16.7 (S.D. 12.4) i n t h e S p r i n g . I n c o n d u c t i n g the P e a r s o n r on s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on t h e language measure i n b o t h v e r b a l and a u d i t o r y a b i l i t y and on t h e t o t a l s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on the s o c i a l competency measure a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f r = .516 (A.A. & PI,Q-ES) and r = .428 (V.A. & PI,Q-ES) was o b t a i n e d . These c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l o f 49 s i g n i f i c a n c e (df = 2) and t h e r e f o r e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s c a n n o t be r e j e c t e d . ESL CHILDREN ENROLLED IN A PRESCHOOL PROGRAM WHERE ENGLISH IS ESTABLISHED AS THE MEDIUM OF ' COMMUNICATION WILL NOT REQUIRE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ABILITY AS MEASURED ON THE PRESCHOOL LANGUAGE SCALE (P.L.S) IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE SOCIAL COMPETENCE AS MEASURED ON A SOCIAL INTERACTION SCALE (PI,Q-ES). T h i s i s a t f i r s t a s u r p r i s i n g r e s u l t b u t f u r t h e r s c r u t i n y o f the r e s u l t s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i n f o r m a l o b s e r v a t i o n s of the s u b j e c t s p o i n t t o o t h e r f a c t o r s a t work b e s i d e s a b i l i t y t o communicate i n E n g l i s h as b e i n g i n s t r u m e n t a l i n e n a b l i n g a c h i l d t o de m o n s t r a t e s o c i a l competency i n peer i n t e r a c t i o n . 7. D i s c u s s i o n o f the R e s u l t s I n comparing i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e s on the P.L.S. and PI,Q-ES, a h i g h s c o r e i n a u d i t o r y and v e r b a l a b i l i t y i n the F a l l d i d n o t a u t o m a t i c a l l y c o r r e s p o n d w i t h a h i g h s c o r e i n s o c i a l competence. S u b j e c t 3, f o r i n s t a n c e , s c o r e d h i g h i n language a b i l i t y and low on the s o c i a l competence s c a l e . O b s e r v a t i o n s i n t h e i n f o r m a l s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t h e r E n g l i s h was measured a t an a b i l i t y l e v e l o f 42 months (X = 28 months). S u b j e c t 2, on the o t h e r hand s c o r e d z e r o i n language a b i l i t y and a c h i e v e d a h i g h s c o r e on the s o c i a l competency measure i n the S p r i n g (PI,Q-ES = 3 7 , X = 27. 5 ) . 50 He was v e r y s o c i a b l e and d e m o n s t r a t e d many p o s i t i v e (as w e l l as n e g a t i v e ) i n t e r a c t i o n s t h r o u g h f a c i a l g e s t u r e s and non v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n s . In s c r u t i n i z i n g t h e d a t a on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s i t became o b v i o u s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s such as s o c i a b i l i t y , m o t i v a t i o n and need t o communicate a f f e c t e d l e v e l s on b o t h measures. In r e l a t i n g each i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t ' s s c o r e t o d a t a o b t a i n e d from i n f o r m a l o b s e r v a t i o n s i t became a p p a r e n t how i m p o r t a n t t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s were t o each c h i l d ' s s u c c e s s i n l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h and h i s l e v e l o f s o c i a l competence. S u b j e c t 1 was v e r y dependent a l l y e a r on a c l o s e f r i e n d from a b i l i n g u a l home who spoke good E n g l i s h . She f o l l o w e d her a r o u nd, showing l i t t l e i n i t i a t i v e h e r s e l f i n c o m m unicating. Her s c o r e s r e f l e c t e d her b e h a v i o u r , showing l i t t l e i n c r e a s e i n s o c i a l competence and v e r b a l " a b i l i t y and:a b i g i n c r e a s e i n r e c e p t i v e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . S u b j e c t 4 a l s o p r e f e r e d t o spend most o f her t i m e as a p a s s i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n a t i g h t group o f t h r e e c h i l d r e n from th e same l i n g u i s t i c background as h e r s e l f . She showed l i t t l e g a i n i n e i t h e r s o c i a l competence or a b i l i t y t o communicate i n E n g l i s h . S u b j e c t 5 was t h e most s o c i a l and v e r b a l l y competent c h i l d o f t h e e i g h t s u b j e c t s i n t h e sample. S u b j e c t 7 was f o r t u n a t e i n 51 making f r i e n d s w i t h him. They d i d n o t sh a r e a common language and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e was g r e a t i n c e n t i v e f o r b o t h s u b j e c t s t o l e a r n E n g l i s h . ( S u b j e c t 7's s c o r e i n c r e a s e d on a l l measures, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n v e r b a l a b i l i t y , V.A. = 24 i n Oc t o b e r and V.A. = 42 i n May). S u b j e c t 5 a l s o showed a d r a m a t i c i n c r e a s e from a V.A. s c o r e of 42 i n O c t o b e r t o 60 i n May (T a b l e 2 ) . S u b j e c t 6 was the most f r i e n d l y and a c c e p t i n g o f c h i l d r e n from o t h e r c u l t u r a l groups of a l l t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e sample. She a c h i e v e d a f a i r l y low s c o r e i n a u d i t o r y and v e r b a l a b i l i t y i n the F a l l , A.A. & V.A. = 2 4 (X = 28 & 2 1 ) . She overcame her i n a b i l i t y t o speak E n g l i s h by r e l y i n g h e a v i l y on f o r m u l a i c or key e x p r e s s i o n s t o s t i m u l a t e and s u s t a i n p l a y s i t u a t i o n s amongst h e r many f r i e n d s . She a c h i e v e d a h i g h s c o r e i n s o c i a l competency i n b o t h the F a l l and S p r i n g ( F a l l = 16, X = 10.75, S p r i n g = 27, X = 16.5). Her i n a b i l i t y t o a c h i e v e h i g h s c o r e s on the P.L.S. ( S p r i n g = A.A. = 30, X = 33.3) was e x p l a i n e d i n t h a t she produced a g r e a t amount o f language i n p l a y s i t u a t i o n s b u t i t never p r o g r e s s e d f u r t h e r t h a n f o r m u l a i c speech. A p p a r e n t l y h er s u c c e s s w i t h t h i s form o f speech b l o c k e d f u r t h e r language development. T h i s s u b j e c t p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e f o r t h e non s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r e s u l t s . 52 8. C o n c l u s i o n The s o c i o - l i n g u i s t i c f a c t o r s a t work i n a m u l t i -c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g depend upon the c o m p o s i t i o n o f the group, i . e . the r a t i o o f E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g t o ESL c h i l d r e n , amount of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l f r i e n d s h i p s t h a t d e v e l o p w i t h i n t h e group and i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , such as m o t i v a t i o n , s o c i a b i l i t y , dependence o r p a s s i v i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s t o t a k e r i s k s i n u s i n g E n g l i s h . I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group E n g l i s h q u i c k l y became e s t a b -l i s h e d as t h e medium f o r c ommunication f o r t h e most s o c i a l c h i l d r e n . A l l c h i l d r e n , w i t h one e x c e p t i o n ( S u b j e c t 2), who a c h i e v e d an above average s c o r e on t h e s o c i a l competency s c a l e (see T a b l e 3) were a b l e t o use E n g l i s h as a means o f c ommunication (as i n d i c a t e d i n t h e i r s c o r e s on the P r e s c h o o l Language S c a l e ) . O v e r a l l s c o r e s , h o w e v e r , s u p p o r t e d the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e i s no c o r r e l a t i o n between b e i n g a b l e t o communicate e f f e c t i v e l y i n E n g l i s h and s o c i a l competency. The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s a r e p r o b a b l y t h a t ESL c h i l d r e n use s t r a t e g i e s s u c h as f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , p h y s i c a l g e s t u r e s and t h e use o f f o r m u l a i c speech p a t t e r n s t o communicate i n s o c i a l g r o u p s . L e a r n i n g t o speak E n g l i s h , i n f a c t , d i d n o t appear t o be a p r i o r i t y f o r any o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e sample. They appeared t o be more i n t e r e s t e d i n making f r i e n d s w i t h o t h e r s who had s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s and p r o v e d t o be r e w a r d i n g companions. L e a r n i n g t o speak E n g l i s h become o n l y one means o f a c h i e v i n g t h i s goal. Children showed many i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the way they approached the task of learning to speak E n g l i s h . Some c h i l d r e n spent a long time processing language before they produced i t (e.g. subject 1), whereas other c h i l d r e n (e.g. subject 6) took r i s k s with language, using s t r i n g s of unprocessed E n g l i s h language long before they could produce grammatically c o r r e c t sentences. In conclusion, therefore, i t appears that there i s no d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between lear n i n g to speak E n g l i s h and a b i l i t y to i n t e r a c t s o c i a l l y . Children f i n d other e f f e c t i v e means of communicating with each other before they become competent i n E n g l i s h , i n order to be e f f e c t i v e in i n t e r a c t i n g s o c i a l l y with each other. Recommendations for further research Further research needs to be c a r r i e d out to compare the di f f e r e n c e i n the s t r a t e g i e s ESL and E n g l i s h speaking c h i l d r e n use i n order to be e f f e c t i v e i n i n t e r a c t i n g s o c i a l l y with each other. In order to do t h i s a comparison group would be required of matched E n g l i s h speaking c h i l d r e n with an ESL group. A s i m i l a r research design as described above could then be undertaken using two matched groups of preschool c h i l d r e n . 54 Table 1 S u b j e c t F i r s t language C h r o n o l o g i c a l Age, 82.10.31 i n months. 1. - Cantonese 4 5 2. Cantonese 4 8 3 Cantonese 57 4 Cantonese 54 5. ' " P u n j a b i 5 3 6 Cantonese 48 7 Tagalog 45 8 Cantonese 4 5 T o t a l 395 X 49.4 S.D. - ~ 4.7 55 Table 2 Preschool Language Scale (P.L .S. ) Auditory Age Level (A.A) in months Subject C A . A.A. A.A./C -A. C A . A.A. A .A./CA Inc 82.10.31 82.10. 31 Difference 82.5.31 82.5. 31 Difference 1 45 18 -17 52 542 -10 24 2 48 0 -48 55 18 -37 18 3. 5 7 42 -15 6(4 48 -16 6 4. 54 24 -30 61 30 -31 6 5 . 53 48 - 5 60 56 - 4 8~ 6 48 24 -26 55 30 -25 k 7 /D 45 24 -21 52 42 -10 18 8 7F 45 42 - 3 52 0 -52 42 Total 395 222 -165' 451 265 -185 X 49. 4 27. 8 20.6 56.4 33. 3 2 3.1 S.D. 4. 7 15. 7 14.5 4 . 7 17. 9 16. 3 56 Table 3 P r e s c h o o l Language S c a l e (P.L.S.) V e r b a l Age L e v e l (V.A.) i n months S u b j e c t C.A. V.A. v.A./C.A. C.A. y.A. v.A./C.A. In c r e a s e 82.10.31 82.10.31 D i f f e r e n c e 82.5. 31 82.5.31 D i f f e r e n c e 1. 45 18 -17 52 30 -22 12 2 . 48 0 -48 55 0 -55 3. 57 42 -15 64 54 -10 12 4. 54 30 -24 61 36 -25 6 5. 53 42 -11 60 60 0 18 6. 48 24 -24 55 36 -19 12 7./D 45 12 -33 52 42 -10 18 8./F 45 0 -45 52 0 -52 T o t a l 395 168 217 451 258 193 X 49. 3 21 27.1 56. 4 32 . 2 24.1 S. D. 4. 7 16. 7 13.7 4. 7 22 . 2 19.8 57 T a b l e 4 Peer I n t e r a c t i o n , Q u a l i t y - E f f e c t i v e n e s s S c a l e PI,Q-ES S u b j e c t F a l l S p r i n g T o t a l D i f f e r e n c e 1. 9 13 21 + 4 2. 20 17 37 -3 3. 2 17 19 + 15 4. 6 7 15 + 1 5. 28 40 69 + 12 6. 16 27 43 + 11 7 /D 4 11 15 + 7 8. / F 1 0 1 -1 T o t a l 86 132 220 X 10. 75 16. 5 27.5 S.D. 9.7 12. 4 21.3 58 Table 5 Comparison of Scores on P.L.S. and PI,Q-ES Subject P.L.S. A.A. P.L.S. V.A. PI,Q-ES 1. 42 30 21 2. 18 0 37 3. 48 54 19 4 . 30 36 15 5. 56 60 69 6. 30 36 43 7/D 42 42 15 8/F 0 0 1 Total 266 258 220 X 33 32 27.5 Co r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s 1. P.L.S. (A.A.) X PI,Q-ES n = 8 df = 2 l e v e l of confidence = .05 r = .516 2. P.L.S. (V.A.) X Pi,Q-ES n = 8 df = 2 l e v e l of confidence = .05 r = .428 RESULT = neither c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence, therefore the n u l l hypothesis i s not rejected. 59 CHAPTER V l INFORMAL OBSERVATIONS I n a d d i t i o n t o the f o r m a l r e s e a r c h s t u d y w h i c h l o o k e d s p e c i f i c a l l y a t the s o c i o / l i n g u i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p a t work i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l / m u l t i l i n g u a l s e t t i n g , d a t a was c o l l e c t e d from i n f o r m a l o b s e r v a t i o n s o f the ESL c h i l d r e n i n the group. T h i s d a t a from o b s e r v a t i o n s , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h a t t a k e n from the s c r i p t s of the v i d e o t a p e d e p i s o d e s used i n the f o r m a l r e s e a r c h s t u d y were t r a n s c r i b e d on t o a c a r d f o r each s u b j e c t . A t t h e end of t h e y e a r t h e s e c a r d s were a n a l y s e d t o a c q u i r e f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e t y p i c a l b e h a v i o u r of ESL c h i l d r e n i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g . I t was hoped t h a t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n would p r o v i d e answers t o the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. What a r e t h e t y p i c a l e n t r y b e h a v i o u r s o f ESL c h i l d r e n ? 2. What f a c t o r s a r e i m p o r t a n t i n a c h i e v i n g c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t ? 3. What s t r a t e g i e s do c h i l d r e n use when they have t o i n t e r -a c t w i t h o u t the medium o f a common language? 4. What i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e a r n i n g t o speak E n g l i s h and t h e l e v e l o f p l a y ? 5. How does the i n c r e a s i n g a b i l i t y o f the c h i l d r e n t o speak E n g l i s h a f f e c t t h e f u n c t i o n i n g of the group? 6. A r e t h e r e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e way c h i l d r e n cope w i t h t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o communicate i n . a p l a y s i t u a t i o n ? 60 Answers t o the above q u e s t i o n s were n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e the development o f a m u l t i c u l t u r a l c u r r i c u l u m f o r e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n programs c o u l d p r o c e e d . 1. C o l l e c t i o n o f the d a t a The a u t h o r c a r r i e d o u t an e t h n o g r a p h i c s t u d y o f the p r e s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m . She s p e n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y two s e s s i o n s a week f o r t h e f i r s t two months (September and October) a c t i n g as an a s s i s t a n t t o the t e a c h e r and t h e n g r a d u a l l y w i t h d r a w i n g from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program t o ob s e r v e and r e c o r d . A r u n n i n g r e c o r d of language and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n was r e c o r d e d d u r i n g f r e e p l a y time and i n f o r m a l s t o r y t i m e . The o b s e r v a t i o n s were t h e n f i l e d under the c h i l d ' s name, d a t e o f o c c u r r e n c e , a r e a where t h e i n t e r a c t i o n took p l a c e and the k i n d of a c t i v i t y i n whi c h the c h i l d was i n v o l v e d a t the t i m e . 2. Subj e c t s The o b s e r v a t i o n s were c a r r i e d o u t on t h e f i f t e e n ESL c h i l d r e n i n b o t h the morning and a f t e r n o o n group. (see T a b l e 5 f o r the breakdown o f f i g u r e s f o r s e x , age and home l a n g u a g e ) . 3. D i s c u s s i o n o f the R e s u l t s a. E a r l y E n t r y B e h a v i o u r s For many o f the c h i l d r e n who were e n r o l l e d i n a p r e s c h o o l 61 f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , t h i s was t h e i r i n i t i a l e x p o s u r e t o u n f a m i l i a r p e o p l e , d i f f e r e n t b e h a v i o u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and a language t h e y c o u l d n o t comprehend. T h e i r t y p i c a l b e h a v i o u r was t o e i t h e r scream when t h e i r mothers l e f t them b e h i n d , t a k e r e f u g e i n a s o l i t a r y a c t i v i t y w i t h w h i c h t h e y were p r o b a b l y a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r , l i k e w o r k i n g on a j i g s a w p u z z l e , o r f i n d one o r two c h i l d r e n from t h e same c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c background and hudd l e t o g e t h e r . P a r e n t s a l s o had d i f f i c u l t y a d j u s t i n g t o a new s e t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s w i t h o u t t h e h e l p o f a common language f o r commun i c a t i o n . Some were u n c e r t a i n how t o h a n d l e s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y ; whether t o s t a y w i t h t h e c h i l d o r d a r t o u t o f t h e room when t h e c h i l d was n o t l o o k i n g . O t h e r s d i d not under-s t a n d t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t o be on t i m e and e i t h e r b r o u g h t t h e i r c h i l d t o s c h o o l o r p i c k e d them up e a r l y o r l a t e . ESL c h i l d r e n , t h e r e f o r e , e n t e r i n g a p r e s c h o o l f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e have needs t h a t r e q u i r e s p e c i a l knowledge and s k i l l on t h e p a r t o f t h e p r e s c h o o l t e a c h e r . Her t a s k i s e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t because i n t h i s c a s e " t h e r e a r e no c l u e s f o r p r o -j e c t i n g i n t o t h e c h i l d ' s meaning" (Tough, 1977). W i t h o u t a common language o r c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e , t h e t e a c h e r must f i n d other- approaches t o e s t a b l i s h t r u s t i n t h e c h i l d . The t e a c h e r ' f i r s t s t r a t e g y was, t h e r e f o r e , t o e s t a b l i s h t r u s t and s e c u r i t y 62 i n the p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n t h r o u g h n o n - v e r b a l means. She warmly welcomed each p a r e n t and c h i l d , d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h r o u g h g e s t u r e s and f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s t h a t they were a l l welcome t o become p a r t of the group. The t e a c h e r p l a n n e d t h e program c a r e f u l l y and p r e p a r e d the room b e f o r e h a n d so t h a t i t was r e a d y f o r the c h i l d r e n when th e y a r r i v e d . I n t h i s way she c o u l d g r e e t each a r r i v a l and d e a l i m m e d i a t e l y w i t h i n d i v i d u a l needs. Her second s t r a t e g y was t o d e v e l o p a c o n s i s t e n t , r e g u l a r r o u t i n e w i t h s p e c i f i c n o n - v e r b a l c u e s , such as a r e c o r d t o s i g n a l time f o r a change of a c t i v i t y . I n t h i s way c h i l d r e n knew e x a c t l y what they were supposed t o do n e x t and c o u l d f o l l o w the r o u t i n e b e f o r e they u n d e r s t o o d t h e E n g l i s h d i r e c t i o n s . Key p h r a s e s i n E n g l i s h were used c o n s i s t e n t l y i n the f i r s t few weeks u n t i l t h e c h i l d r e n became f a m i l i a r w i t h the words. Tough s t a t e s t h a t the t e a c h e r must use language t o speak t o an ESL c h i l d e i t h e r by p a i r i n g t h e l a b e l s w i t h the c o n c r e t e o b j e c t they r e p r e s e n t o r use language w i t h i n a c o n t e x t t o h e l p t h e c h i l d r e n u n d e r s t a n d the meaning o f the words used (Tough, 1977). I t soon became a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n needed b a s i c s u r v i v a l words f o r t h e i r own s a f e t y and t o f u n c t i o n c o m f o r t a b l y i n the p r e s c h o o l s e t t i n g . ESL C h i l d r e n on e n t e r i n g t h e p r e s c h o o l , d e m o n s t r a t e d many t y p i c a l 63 b e h a v i o u r s w h i c h needed s p e c i a l s k i l l and knowledge on t h e p a r t o f t h e t e a c h e r t o e n a b l e them t o a c h i e v e a smooth t r a n s i t i o n from home t o s c h o o l , b. C u l t u r a l A d j u s t m e n t The c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n met i n t h e p r e s c h o o l v a r i e d from t h e ones t h e y were f a m i l i a r w i t h - a t home. Among t h e c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e s o c i a l c o n v e n t i o n s t h a t d i f f e r from c u l t u r e t o c u l t u r e , such as how t o g r e e t o t h e r s , who s h o u l d t a l k and when and many s u b t l e n o n - v e r b a l means o f communication ( S a v i l l e T r o i k e , 1976). The t e a c h e r needed s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e v a l u e s o f o t h e r c u l t u r e s t o e n a b l e h e r t o s e t b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s t h a t were f l e x i b l e ' enough, t o be a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l groups r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p r e s c h o o l . P a r e n t s , f o r i n s t a n c e , may have d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s o f boys and g i r l s (Tough,1977). One E a s t I n d i a n boy, on b e i n g asked t o pack up h i s t o y s , s t a t e d t h a t h i s s i s t e r d i d i t f o r him a t home. A common b e h a v i o u r a t th e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e y e a r among t h e C h i n e s e c h i l d r e n was t o mock a c h i l d who c r i e d . A mother i n f o r m e d t h e t e a c h e r t h a t C h i n e s e c h i l d r e n g e t s i c k when th e y p l a y o u t s i d e i n t h e c o l d w e a t h er. There were a l s o q u e s t i o n s as t o whether i t were r e a l l y n e c e s s a r y t o c e l e b r a t e t h e f e s t i v a l s o f o t h e r c u l t u r e s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e group, such as C h i n e s e New Y e a r , Thanks-g i v i n g o r D i w a l i . The t e a c h e r had t o use c o n s i d e r a b l e t a c t and p a t i e n c e i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s e a t t i t u d e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h e r e was no m u t u a l language f o r e x p l a i n i n g and d i s c u s s i n g 64 p r o b l e m s . To e n a b l e t h e c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n new b e h a v i o u r s , t h e t e a c h e r m o d e l l e d t h e k i n d o f b e h a v i o u r s and a t t i t u d e s she wished t o encourage. She d e m o n s t r a t e d a c c e p t a n c e o f o t h e r c u l t u r e s by warmly welcoming p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n and i n c l u d i n g t h e i r c u l t u r a l f e s t i v a l s and foods i n t h e program. The room was d e c o r a t e d w i t h p i c t u r e s and f u r n i s h e d w i t h m a t e r i a l s t h a t r e f l e c t e d t h e c u l t u r a l mix o f t h e community i n w h i c h t h e p r e s c h o o l was s i t u a t e d . The t e a c h e r a l s o m o d e l l e d a p p r o p r i a t e ways of b e h a v i n g i n t h e new c u l t u r e . By s i t t i n g a t t h e t a b l e a t snack t i m e , she d e m o n s t r a t e d a c c e p t a b l e t a b l e manners and by c o n v e r s i n g w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n , she exposed them t o a c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s e t t i n g w i t h w h i c h t h e y may n o t have been f a m i l i a r . In s p e a k i n g t o each c h i l d as an' i n d i v i d u a l , t h e t e a c h e r m o d e l l e d new ways o f r e l a t i n g t o c h i l d r e n t o t h e a d u l t s who were a s s i s t i n g i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . I n t h i s way she h e l p e d t h e c h i l d r e n b u i l d a b r i d g e between t h e i r own and t h e new c u l t u r e . C h i l d r e n , i n t u r n began t o model t h e i r b e h a v i o u r on t h a t o f t h e t e a c h e r . They g r e e t e d her p o l i t e l y i n E n g l i s h , "Good m o r n i n g , t e a c h e r ". They asked f o r snack by r e p e a t i n g t h e key p h r a s e "Pass t h e p l a t e , p l e a s e , " and l i s t e n e d p a t i e n t l y t o a peer " r e a d " t h e group a f a v o u r i t e s t o r y as t h e y had o b s e r v e d t h e t e a c h e r d o i n g . 65 In t h i s way the c h i l d r e n l e a r n e d the s o c i a l frames r e q u i r e d i n the s c h o o l and i n the E n g l i s h language and c u l t u r e . The s m a l l , t i g h t groups of c h i l d r e n from the same c u l t u r e t h a t had formed a t the b e g i n n i n g of the year remained i n t a c t f o r the f i r s t few months. These c h i l d r e n , t h e r e f o r e , d i d not get as much exposure to the E n g l i s h language as o t h e r c h i l d r e n who had begun to i n t e r a c t much sooner w i t h the E n g l i s h models i n the group. As a r e s u l t they remained i s o l a t e d i n t h e i r own language and c u l t u r a l environment. A d u l t i n t e r v e n t i o n met w i t h l i t t l e s u c c e s s , and may even have had harmful e f f e c t s . The t e a c h e r t r i e d i n t e r v e n i n g by s e p a r a t i n g the c h i l d r e n a t snack and i n s i s t i n g upon them u s i n g E n g l i s h a t t h i s time. T h i s , however, was i n d i r e c t c o n f l i c t w i t h the major g o a l s of the program which s t r e s s e d the importance of e n c o u r a g i n g v e r b a l f l u e n c y i n b o t h f i r s t and second language and g i v i n g e q u a l r e s p e c t t o a l l languages used i n the p r e s c h o o l . N e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards a language v e r y e a s i l y d e v e l o p ( S a v i l l e T r o i k e , 1976). Indeed one C h i n e s e g i r l was heard to say to another- s p e a k i n g C h i n e s e , "I don't know what you say, you dummy." , Feedback from s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a p o t e n t f o r c e i n d e v e l o p i n g a t t i t u d e s towards language usage ( S a v i l l e T r o i k e , 1976). In o r d e r t o h e l p the c h i l d r e n become more a c c e p t i n g of o t h e r s , s m a l l group a c t i v i t i e s were i n t r o d u c e d t h a t c a l l e d f o r a 66 a c o - o p e r a t i v e group e f f o r t . T h i s e n a b l e d c h i l d r e n t o s h a r e t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r f o r a common g o a l . I t a l s o gave c h i l d r n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n t e r a c t w i t h new f r i e n d s , t o f o l l o w s i m p l e d i r e c t i o n s i n E n g l i s h and t r y u s i n g a few E n g l i s h words t h e m s e l v e s . . Tough s t r e s s e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p r o v i d i n g s t r u c t u r e d s m a l l group e x p e r i e n c e s f o r ESL c h i l d r e n t o g i v e them maximum e x p o s u r e t o E n g l i s h and a l l o w t h e t e a c h e r t o e l i c i t l a n a u a g e from them (Tough,1977). A c t i v i t i e s w h i c h p r o v i d e d c h i l d r e n w i t h e x p e r i e n c e s o f work-i n g t o g e t h e r i n mixed c u l t u r a l g r o u p s soon t r a n s f e r e d t o b e i n g a b l e t o p l a y t o g e t h e r and t h e c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s i n t h e group began t o b r e a k down. L e a r n i n g t o communicate i n ' E n g l i s h e n a b l e d some o f the c h i l d r e n t o make c r o s s - c u l t u r a l f r i e n d s h i p s . Two boys v i s i t e d each o t h e r s ' homes and t h e E a s t I n d i a n c h i l d r e p o r t e d , _ I know how C h i n e s e e a t . . . b ecause I went and had l u n c h t h e r e . They had some o f t h e s e s t i c k s ' ( c h o p s t i c k s ) and d i d t h i s . " He d e m o n s t r a t e d by h o l d i n g two c h o p s t i c k s i n h i s r i g h t hand. O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o m m u n i c a t i n g and l e a r n i n g about each o t h e r i n c r e a s e d as t h e c h i l d r e n began i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h f r i e n d s from a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e t h a n t h e i r own. In p r o v i d i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e c h i l d r e n t o use i n t h e i r d r a m a t i c p l a y , t h e t e a c h e r had a t t e m p t e d t o make t h e room r e f l e c t t h e v a r i o u s 67 c u l t u r e s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the group. The s a r i s and c h o p s t i c k s i n t h e h o u s e k e e p i n g c o r n e r had more meaning t o t h e C h i n e s e and E a s t I n d i a n c h i l d r e n a f t e r t h e y had v i s i t e d each o t h e r s ' homes. D u r i n g t h e s c h o o l y e a r f e s t i v a l s from t h e d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l groups were c e l e b r a t e d . The c h i l d r e n r e a c t e d i n u n expected ways t o t h e c e l e b r a t i o n s . H a l l o w e ' e n and C h r i s t m a s s t i m u l a t e d t h e most r e s p o n s e , whereas a d i s p l a y t o c e l e b r a t e t h e E a s t I n d i a n f e s t i v a l o f D i w a l i g o t a mixed r e c e p t i o n . One E a s t I n d i a n g i r l , whose f a m i l y appeared t o be a d o p t i n g t h e European l i f e s t y l e r e a c t e d t o t h e D i w a l i d i s p l a y by s t a t i n g , "Yuk, do you s t i l l have t h a t t h e r e ! " On t h e whole t h e c h i l d r e n r e l a t e d t o some a s p e c t o f t h e f e s t i v a l t h a t had p e r s o n a l meaning t o them. The c a n d l e s i n t h e D i w a l i d i s p l a y reminded a C h i n e s e g i r l o f b i r t h d a y p a r t i e s , " I have some l i t t l e ones a t home, happy b i r t h d a y ! " A Hindu boy t r i e d t o f i t S a n t a C l a u s i n t o h i s c o n c e p t u a l framework when he s a i d , " S a n t a C l a u s d i e d , he r e a l l y d i d . My Mom s a i d . " C e l e b r a t i n g t h e f e s t i v a l s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e group p r o v i d e d t h e c h i l d r e n w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . D u r i n g t h e D i w a l i c e l e b r a t i o n t h e same Hindu boy e x p l a i n e d how t h e y pu t o u t c a n d l e s a t n i g h t f o r t h e " l a d y god". 68 A l l t h e f e s t i v a l s c e l e b r a t e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r i n t h e p r e s c h o o l s t i m u l a t e d a g r e a t d e a l o f language development. A t t h e s e t i m e s , i t appeared, t h a t m o t i v a t i o n was h i g h t o l e a r n new v o c a b u l a r y . C h i l d r e n , who knew no E n g l i s h when t h e y began s c h o o l , used some o f t h e i r f i r s t E n g l i s h words when t a l k i n g about H a l l o w e ' e n . One g i r l p o i n t e d t o her l i p s , " l i p s t i c k " she s a i d . D u r i n g t h e D i w a l i c e l e b r a t i o n , A Hindu boy announced t h a t , " i f you t a l k n i c e t h e God w i l l n o t d i e you." As c h i l d r e n became aware t h a t t h e y were d i f f e r e n t i n some ways from o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n t h e group t h e y began t o use E n g l i s h t o s t a t e t h e i r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . " I have b l a c k eyes because I am C h i n e s e and C h i n e s e have b l a c k eyes. '"I'm a P u n j a b i p e o p l e and P u n j a b i p e o p l e e a t r o t i s . " "(We) don't e a t meat, i t ' l l choke you and t u r n you i n t o a monster." " I know how t o w r i t e C h i n e s e and speak C h i n e s e . A Lee i s my C h i n e s e name, you c a l l me A Lee." As c h i l d r e n became more c o n f i d e n t i n t h e i r , own c u l t u r a l . I d e n t i t y t h e y became more a c c e p t i n g o f o t h e r s d i f f e r e n t from t h e m s e l v e s . "Hey, t e a c h e r (he) i s pla_ying w i t h me now. He knows how t o p l a y ! " 69 c. S o c i a l S t r a t e g i e s used by ESL C h i l d r e n The c h i l d r e n soon a c c e p t e d E n g l i s h as the medium o f communication i n the c l a s s r o o m . The Cantonese s p e a k e r s c o n t i n u e d t o use t h e i r f i r s t language t o communicate w i t h each o t h e r b u t as they began t o l e a r n a few E n g l i s h words they used them t o t a l k t o the t e a c h e r and o t h e r non Cantonese s p e a k e r s . I n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f the y e a r , when the c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o speak E n g l i s h was v e r y l i m i t e d , t hey used non v e r b a l means t o make s o c i a l c o n t a c t s . They s h o u t e d , g e s t u r e d or 'a c t e d s i l l y ' i n o r d e r t o a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n . One c h i l d t r i e d t o make c o n t a c t w i t h a n o t h e r by f o l l o w i n g him around the room p o i n t i n g a t a t o y and s a y i n g "me g o t " f o l l o w e d by l o t s o f n o i s e and a c t i o n . He the n t r i e d t o a t t r a c t t h e o t h e r c h i l d ' s a t t e n t i o n by b a n g i n g r o l l i n g p i n s on the t a b l e , and when s t i l l u n s u c c e s s f u l , he s h o u t e d " l o o k i t " and "boo" from b e h i n d t h e s h e l v e s . I n a b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s f e e l i n g s and•needs o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n temper ta n t r u m s o r a c t s o f a g g r e s s i o n towards o t h e r s . One E a s t I n d i a n boy, angry a t b e i n g s e p a r a t e d from h i s mother and u n a b l e t o e x p r e s s h i s f e e l i n g s i n words, screamed and s t r i p p e d o f f a l l h i s c l o t h i n g i n t h e f i r s t two weeks o f s c h o o l . W i t h no m u t u a l language c h i l d r e n o f t e n used i n t e r n a t i o n a l 70 words such as " p i z z a " , "hot dog" or 'pancake" as a means of i n v o l v i n g o t h e r s i n t h e i r p r e t e n d p l a y w i t h h o u s e k e e p i n g m a t e r i a l s . Key p h r a s e s such as " l e t ' s go" were used t o c a l l o t h e r s t o j o i n i n an a c t i v e r u n n i n g game. O b j e c t s such as th e c a s h r e g i s t e r , d o c t o r ' s k i t , t o y guns o r a camera were used w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e n o i s e s and g e s t u r e s t o i n v o l v e o t h e r s i n t h e game and s e t t h e theme f o r t h e p l a y . M a n i p u l a t i v e m a t e r i a l s o f f e r e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i m a g i n a t i v e p l a y and c h i l d r e n used them w i t h o u t n e e d i n g much language. P l a y dough was p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n s e t t i n g a "frame" i n t o w h i c h an i m a g i n a t i v e game, such as a b i r t h d a y p a r t y , c o u l d be p r o j e c t e d . C h i l d r e n , u n a b l e t o communicate w i t h each o t h e r , found ways o f i n t e r a c t i n g s o c i a l l y by u s i n g g e s t u r e s , i n t e r n a t i o n a l words, key p h r a s e s or o b j e c t s as a means o f com m u n i c a t i o n , d. • The Development o f Language and P l a y In t h e f i r s t few weeks o f s c h o o l many c h i l d r e n chose t o p l a y a l o n e i n s o l i t a r y p l a y a c t i v i t i e s such as w o r k i n g on p u z z l e s o r b u i l d i n g l e g o c o n s t r u c t i o n s . A few c h i l d r e n p l a y e d i n p a r a l l e l p l a y - s i t u a t i o n s u s i n g a common m a t e r i a l such as pla y d o u g h t o c r e a t e a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n . W i t h o u t a common langu a g e , however, an i d e a f o r a more complex;, c o - o p e r a t i v e game c o u l d n o t be f u r t h e r e d . One boy was o b s e r v e d t o p l a c e 71 t h e l a d d e r s o f t h e f i r e t r u c k a g a i n s t t h e s h e l v e s , b u t w i t h no m u t u a l l a n g u a g e , he g o t no r e s p o n s e from t h e o t h e r s . L a t e r i n t h e y e a r , however, by u s i n g t h e words " c l i m b up h e r e , see t h a t . . . " h i s f r i e n d s u n d e r s t o o d t h e y were supposed t o t a k e on t h e r o l e o f f i r e m a n . They were th e n a b l e t o d e v e l o p q u i t e a complex p l a y sequence w i t h a v e r y l i m i t e d a b i l i t y t o speak E n g l i s h . A group o f between s i x and e i g h t c h i l d r e n were a l s o a b l e t o d e v e l o p an i n v o l v e d p l a y sequence f o r h o l d i n g a b i r t h d a y p a r t y w i t h a minimum amount of E n g l i s h words. The p l a y extended o v e r most o f t h e f r e e p l a y t i m e and l a s t e d f o r s e v e r a l weeks. Three key l a b e l s , "happy b i r t h d a y " , " c a n d l e " and "cake" were used t o i n i t i a t e and. s u s t a i n t h e p l a y . L a t e r i n t h e y e a r when the c h i l d r e n began t o p r o c e s s chunks of language o r key p h r a s e s i n t o c o mmunicative s e n t e n c e s t h e i r p l a y d e v e l o p e d i n t o t r u e c o - o p e r a t i v e p l a y . They now had enough f a c i l i t y i n u s i n g E n g l i s h and more s o c i a l m a t u r i t y t o be a b l e t o p l a y t o g e t h e r i n a group. They were a b l e t o a s s i g n r o l e s t o each o t h e r , "He i s h o r s e y , y o u ' r e batman and I am Spiderman." They showed many examples o f u s i n g language t o e n r i c h t h e i r i m a g i n a t i v e p l a y . One g i r l , f o r i n s t a n c e , r o l l e d p l a y d o u g h i n t o o v a l shaped b a l l s and d e m o n s t r a t e d how t o c r a c k eggs, s a y i n g , " b a l l . . . l i k e t h i s . . . o n e , two, t h r e e c r a c k . She t h e n b r o k e t h e b a l l and h e l d each h a l f i n e i t h e r 72 hand. I n the b l o c k c o r n e r a cone shaped b l o c k and a c y l i n d e r were j o i n e d by one c h i l d t o form a p r e t e n d i c e cream cone, "Here i s an i c e cream, I e a t , " he s a i d , l i c k i n g the cone. e. L e a r n i n g t o speak E n g l i s h and i t s e f f e c t on the group I n the e a r l y p a r t o f the y e a r i n a b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s f e e l i n g s and needs o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n temper t a n t r u m s o r a c t s o f a g g r e s s i o n towards o t h e r s . The t e a c h e r had t o h e l p the c h i l d r e n l e a r n t h e E n g l i s h words t o e n a b l e them t o cope w i t h c o n f l i c t s . The c h i l d r e n g r a d u a l l y l e a r n e d t o s u b s t i t u t e words f o r a c t i o n s and the n the t e a c h e r c o u l d spend l e s s time h e r s e l f i n managing t h e i r b e h a v i o u r . As c h i l d r e n d e v e l o p e d t h e i r second language and were a b l e t o g a i n b e t t e r c o n t r o l o ver the e n v i r o n m e n t , the r e q u e s t , "Can I have some p l a y d o u g h , p l e a s e , " r e s u l t e d i n someone p a s s i n g a c r o s s a lump o f dough. "no, t h a t ' s mine, I u s i n g t h a t , " e n a b l e d a c h i l d t o c o n t i n u e r o l l i n g her p l a y d o u g h w i t h the r o l l i n g p i n . "Don't make pancakes l i k e t h a t " and "You need t o t a k e one o f f and t h e n i t w i l l s l i d e " s e r v e d as i n s t r u c t i o n s t o f e l l o w w o r k e r s . C h i l d r e n , l a t e r i n the y e a r , began t o t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r group d i s c i p l i n e ; "No more w a t e r , I s a i d , do you know how I know i t , she s p l a s h w a t e r h e r e . " The group began t o f u n c t i o n much more smoot h l y once c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o use E n g l i s h t o c o n t r o l 73 each o t h e r ' s b e h a v i o u r . f. I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n L e a r n i n g a Second Language In o b s e r v i n g t h e c h i l d r e n i t became a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e i r f i r s t p r i o r i t y was t o i n t e r a c t s o c i a l l y w i t h each o t h e r and t h a t l e a r n i n g t o communicate i n E n g l i s h was o n l y one means o f a c h i e v i n g t h i s . The c h i l d r e n , however, d i d use a v a r i e t y of s t r a t e g i e s t o communicate w i t h each o t h e r i n E n g l i s h . Some c h i l d r e n made use o f chunks o f l a n g u a g e , such as t h e p h r a s e "happy b i r t h d a y " i n o r d e r t o i n t e r a c t v e r b a l l y and s o c i a l l y w i t h each o t h e r . O t h e r c h i l d r e n o r e f e r e d t o soend l o n g p e r i o d s of t i m e l i s t e n i n g b e f o r e t h e y produced any E n g l i s h v o c a b u l a r y a t a l l . One c h i l d , a l t h o u g h he was a good p a r t -i c i p a n t i n t h e s o c i a l group, r e l i e d on o t h e r s t o do t h e t a l k i n g f o r him. A l l t h e s e c h i l d r e n appeared t o need and be a b l e t o use c h i l d r e n who c o u l d speak E n g l i s h t o g i v e them t h e r e q u i r e d i n p u t . Two c h i l d r e n i n t h e group were heard r e p e a t i n g E n g l i s h words and p h r a s e s and a n a l y z i n g t h e i r sounds and meaning e.g " s i n e , s i n k , same?" and " t h e c o o k i e T"on = t«r co?? under t h e mountai n , o v e r t h e m o u n t a i n , under t h e m o u n t a i n , he's wrong, he d i d n ' t go around t h e m o u n t a i n " . The good E n g l i s h l e a r n e r s i n t h e sample were c h i l d r e n who l i k e d j o i n i n g i n s o c i a b l e a c t i v i t i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n from 7 4 d i f f e r e n t l i n g u i s t i c backgrounds t h a n t h e m s e l v e s , or q u i e t e r m o r e . a n a l y t i c c h i l d r e n who seemed t o spend time l i s t e n i n g and f i g u r i n g t h i n g s o u t . They, u n l i k e the v e r y s o c i a b l e c h i l d r e n , may have r e l i e d more h e a v i l y on' a d u l t i n p u t t h a n on t h e i r E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g p e e r s f o r E n g l i s h language i n p u t . The p o o r e s t l e a r n e r s of E n g l i s h were t h o s e c h i l d r e n who remained i s o l a t e d i n t h e i r own l i n g u i s t i c groups and c h i l d r e n who had b e h a v i o u r problems t h a t i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h e i r a b i l i t y t o l e a r n ' E n g l i s h . I n c o n c l u s i o n , c h i l d r e n e n t e r e d th e p r e s c h o o l group a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s i n t h e i r a b i l i t y - t o speak E n g l i s h . They were o b s e r v e d t o employ a v a r i e t y o f language l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s t o l e a r n E n g l i s h and depending on t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s , m o t i v a t i o n , c h o i c e o f a c t i v i t i e s and a b i l i t i e s , were more .or l e s s s u c c e s s f u l . 75 CHAPTER V l l RESEARCH 1 9 8 3 - 1 9 8 4 A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN TWO PRESCHOOL GROUPS -WITH HIGH AND LOW ABILITY LEVELS OF ENGLISH A c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d o f two groups of p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , one o f whom had a predominance o f E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n , w h i l e the o t h e r c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y o f non E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s . The purpose o f the s t u d y was t o compare the b e h a v i o u r o f each p r e s c h o o l group i n r e s p o n s e t o f i v e t y p i c a l c u r r i c u l u m a c t i v i t i e s p r e s e n t e d t o each of the two c l a s s e s . The r o l e of t h e t e a c h e r was a n a l y s e d t o d i s c o v e r the s t r a t e g i e s and s k i l l s needed t o work w i t h c h i l d r e n who were able;,.to speak E n g l i s h and w i t h t h o s e who c o u l d n o t . I n s t u d y i n g the b e h a v i o u r o f b o t h groups and the r o l e of the t e a c h e r , i t was hoped t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n would be g a i n e d f o r d e v e l o p i n g a c u r r i c u l u m f o r m u l t i c u l t u r a l p r e s c h o o l s . S u b j e c t s F i f t e e n p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , aged t h r e e and f o u r , were e n r o l l e d i n each of t h e two c l a s s e s , one o f whom a t t e n d e d i n t h e morning and the o t h e r i n the a f t e r n o o n . The morning group c o n s i s t e d o f f i v e c h i l d r e n who spoke E n g l i s h w e l l , seven who had some E n g l i s h and one c h i l d who had no E n g l i s h a t a l l . The a f t e r n o o n group c o n s i s t e d o f two b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n , t e n who had v e r y l i t t l e E n g l i s h and two w i t h no E n g l i s h ( s e e T a b l e 6) Two c h i l d r e n were w i t h d r a w n i n t h e morning and one i n the a f t e r -noon t o g i v e a t o t a l o f t h i r t e e n and f o u r t e e n r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r each c l a s s . One t r a i n e d p r e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s u p e r v i s e d b o t h the morning and a f t e r n o o n c l a s s w i t h the o c c a s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e o f v o l u n t e e r s o r s t u d e n t s . 76 Method The Peabody Receptive Language Test (PPVT (R) ) (Dunn and Dunn, 1981) and the Expressive One Word Test (Gardiner, 1979) were administered to a l l s u b j e c t s i n both morning and afternoon groups i n the F a l l (1983) and the Spring (1984) to assess t h e i r entry and e x i t l e v e l i n r e c e p t i v e and e x p r e s s i v e E n g l i s h (see Table 6 & 7). The f o l l o w i n g f i v e c u r r i c u l u m a c t i v i t i e s were s e l e c t e d as being t y p i c a l experiences o f f e r e d i n most pre s c h o o l s . 1. S t r u c t u r e d a c t i v i t y (making apple sauce)which was presented to a small group (October 1983) 2. Teacher d i r e c t e d c i r c l e (Hallowe,en theme)(October 1983) 3. Free p l a y (November 19 83) 4. F i n g e r p a i n t i n g (January 1984) 5. Outdoor p l a y (February 1984) Each of the above a c t i v i t i e s was.- presented to each of the two groups, f i l m e d on video tape and then r a t e d by independent observers on a c h e c k l i s t of e i g h t key experiences. This system was based on a s i m i l a r one used to evaluate c u r r i c u l u m experiences i n the Headstart Model, Un Marco A r b i e t o . (See Table 8 and Appendix B) D i s c u s s i o n of the R e s u l t s 1. Making Apple Sauce: A teacher worked w i t h s i x or seven c h i l d r e n p r e p a r i n g apple sauce to share w i t h the c l a s s . 77 The a c t i v i t y was a f r e e c h o i c e a c t i v i t y p r e s e n t e d d u r i n g t h e t i m e s e t a s i d e f o r f r e e p l a y . The t e a c h e r and c h i l d r e n s a t a t a t a b l e c u t t i n g t h e a p p l e s and p l a c i n g them i n an e l e c t r i c f r y i n g pan t o cook. The c h i l d r e n h e l p e d add s u g a r , cinnamon and w a t e r t o t h e a p p l e s , t h e n t h e y s t i r r e d them w h i l e t h e y cooked i n t h e pan. The a p p l e sauce was t h e n s i e v e d and spooned i n t o cups t o s h a r e w i t h t h e group. The t e a c h e r ' s o b j e c t i v e s i n p r e s e n t i n g t h e a c t i v i t y were as f o l l o w s : - t o i n t r o d u c e c h i l d r e n t o the i d e a o f w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r i n a s m a l l group t o a c h i e v e a common g o a l . - t o i n t r o d u c e t h e c h i l d r e n t o some new E n g l i s h v o c a b u l a r y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h c o n c r e t e and s e n s o r y e x p e r i e n c e s . - t o p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o r e p e a t , e x t e n d and expand th e language t h e c h i l d r e n p r o d u c e d . - t o e l i c i t language from i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n . - t o i n t r o d u c e a new c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e (making a p p l e sauce) t o c h i l d r e n from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l backgrounds who may not have had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f e x p e r i e n c i n g i t b e f o r e . - t o i n t r o d u c e c o n c e p t s o f sweet and s o u r , b l u n t and s h a r p , and t h e h a r v e s t i n g o f f o o d t o c e l e b r a t e T h a n k s g i v i n g . I n c o m p a r i n g th e r e s p o n s e s of the c h i l d r e n i n b o t h t h e morning and a f t e r n o o n group, no d i f f e r e n c e was found i n t h e i r l e v e l o f e n t h u s i a s m t o j o i n i n t h e a c t i v i t y . The c h i l d r e n i n 78 t h e morning g r o u p , however, a t e t h e a p p l e sauce more r e a d i l y t h a n t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e a f t e r n o o n . Whereas the c h i l d r e n i n the a f t e r n o o n w a i t e d f o r the t e a c h e r t o d e m o n s t r a t e what t o do, t h e morning group s e t t o work w i t h o n l y a few v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s . C h i l d r e n from b o t h groups s t a y e d w i t h t h e a c t i v i t y r i g h t t h r o u g h t o t h e end. L i t t l e i n t e r a c t i o n o c c u r r e d between th e c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s i n e i t h e r group. The t e a c h e r i n i t i a t e d most o f t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n . I n comparing th e t e a c h e r ' s r o l e i n each o f t h e c l a s s e s , t h e s m a l l s t r u c t u r e d group p r o v e d t o be an e x c e l l e n t e n v i r o n m e n t t o work w i t h a s m a l l group i n o r d e r t o i n t r o -duce new c o n c e p t s , e x t e n d , r e p e a t and expand th e c h i l d r e n ' s v o c a b u l a r y . In t h e a f t e r n o o n c l a s s t h e r e were l o n g p e r i o d s o f s i l e n c e due t o t h e c h i l d r e n ' s i n a b i l i t y t o communicate i n E n g l i s h . t h e t e a c h e r f i l l e d t h e s e w i t h t a l k about Thanks-g i v i n g t u r k e y s , pumpkin p i e e t c . w h i c h e l i c i t e d few a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s e s from t h e c h i l d r e n p r o b a b l y because th e i d e a s were i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t o them due t o t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d E n g l i s h and l a c k o f p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e t o p i c . I n e v a l u a t i n g t h e a c t i v i t y i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e e i g h t key e x p e r i e n c e s e v a l u a t i o n c h e c k l i s t , making a p p l e sauce r a n k e d h i g h i n b e i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i v i t y t o p r e s e n t t o ESL p r e s c h o o l e r s (see T a b l e 8 ) . An e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r 79 o b j e c t i v e s showed t h a t a l l of t h e s e were met e x c e p t f o r the l a s t one. The m a j o r i t y of the c h i l d r e n were u n a b l e t o g r a s p the c o n c e p t o f h a r v e s t i n g f o o d t o c e l e b r a t e T h a n k s g i v i n g . .2. Teacher d i r e c t e d c i r c l e ( H a l l o w e ' e n theme): A v i s i t i n g t e a c h e r p r e s e n t e d a c i r c l e based on a H a l l o w e ' e n theme t o b o t h the morning and a f t e r n o o n g r o u p s . She i n t r o d u c e d the theme by showing p i c t u r e s , o f c h i l d r e n i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s ( C h i n a , I n d i a and A f r i c a ) who were d r e s s e d up i n f a n c y costumes and w e a r i n g masks. She emphasised t h a t the c h i l d r e n i n the p i c t u r e s were p r e t e n d i n g t o be something e l s e . The t e a c h e r t h e n c a r r i e d the theme of p r e t e n d i n g t h r o u g h to. the pumpkin w h i c h was s e t up on the f e l t b o a r d and w h i c h , she s a i d , ' p r e t e n d s ' t o have a f a c e . The book Where the W i l d  T h i n g s Are"*" i n t r o d u c e d t h e c h i l d r e n t o monsters who were s c a r y . F i n a l l y t h e c h i l d r e n t r i e d on masks and p r e t e n d e d t o be s c a r y t h e m s e l v e s . A t snack the c h i l d r e n t a s t e d pumpkin, f e n n e l , s u n f l o w e r and watermelon seeds. The t e a c h e r ' s main o b j e c t i v e s were t o : - form a b r i d g e between t h e c h i l d ' s c u l t u r e and t h e custom "''Maurice Sendak, Where the W i l d T h i n g s A r e , Harper Row P u b l i s h i n g Co., New Y o r k , 1963 80 o f c e l e b r a t i n g H a l l o w e ' e n . - t o h e l p l e s s e n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s f e a r o f masks and d r e s s up costumes a t H a l l o w e ' e n . - t o i n t r o d u c e c o n c e p t s f o r shape, s i z e , c o l o u r , number and l a b e l s f o r p a r t s o f the f a c e . - t o p r e s e n t s e n s o r y e x p e r i e n c e s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e c o n c e p t s f o r sweet and s a l t y . - t o p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f r e e e x p r e s s i o n ( d a n c i n g w e a r i masks) and t o o f f e r a l t e r n a t i v e means of r e s p o n d i n g f o r ESL c h i l d r e n o t h e r t h a n v e r b a l l y . I n comparing t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e two g r o u p s , t h e E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n i n t h e morning were more a s s e r t i v e , i n a. l a r g e group and a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e more o f t e n due t o t h e i r a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e t e a c h e r ' s v e r b a l cues. The n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s took a more p a s s i v e r o l e and a few o f them wandered o f f and became i n v o l v e d i n o t h e r t h i n g s . The E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s were i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s t o r y Where the W i l d T h i n g s A r e whereas i t appeared t o be t o o complex and f u l l o f a b s t r a c t i d e a s t o be s u i t a b l e f o r t h e ESL c h i l d ' s l e v e l o f comprehension i n E n g l i s h . They appeared c o n f u s e d as t o what was h a p p e n i n g i n t h e s t o r y and what was e x p e c t e d o f them i n t h e d r a m a t i c p l a y sequence. 81 I n comparing t h e r o l e o f the t e a c h e r as she d i r e c t e d t h e c i r c l e w i t h each c l a s s , i t became o b v i o u s how h a r d i t i s t o meet t h e needs o f a l l c h i l d r e n i n groups where t h e r e i s such a wide range o f a b i l i t i e s and p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e . The c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d t o t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c i r c l e , may o n l y have been u n d e r s t o o d by t h e v e r y a b l e c h i l d r e n who c o u l d speak E n g l i s h . The t e a c h e r l o s t many o f t h e non E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s who c o u l d not f o l l o w h e r p r e s e n t a t i o n . The a t t e m p t t o make a b r i d g e between the c h i l d r e n ' s own c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e and t h e new Can a d i a n one by showing p i c t u r e s o f c h i l d r e n i n I n d i a and C h i n a was t o o remote from t h e i r e v e r y d a y e x p e r i e n c e f o r them t o make t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . The s c o r e on t h e key e x p e r i e n c e s e v a l u a t i o n check-l i s t was low f o r b o t h groups and p r o b a b l y shows t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n d e v i s i n g s u i t a b l e c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e s f o r m u l t i c u l t u r a l p r e c s c h o o l programs (see T a b l e 8 ) . C u r r i c u l u m a c t i v i t i e s d e v e l o p e d by a d u l t s t h a t a r e t h o u g h t t o be a p p r o p r i a t e m u l t i c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s age l e v e l , may n o t match t h e c h i l d ' s l e v e l o f a b i l i t y o r r e l a t e t o h i s r e a l e x p e r i e n c e o f l i f e . I n o r d e r t o a v o i d p r e s e n t i n g c h i l d r e n w i t h c o n t r i v e d e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t do n o t have any p e r s o n a l meaning f o r them, t h e t e a c h e r has t o b u i l d e x p e r i e n c e s 82 o u t o f e v e n t s t h a t o c c u r n a t u r a l l y i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . F o r t h i s t o happen, however, t h e e n v i r o n m e n t must be c a r e f u l l y p r e p a r e d t o f o s t e r c r o s s c u l t u r a l s h a r i n g and c ommunication on an e v e r y day b a s i s . The t e a c h e r ' s main o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n were not met i n f u l l when a l l t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e group were c o n s i d e r e d . The c o m p l e x i t y and amount o f new m a t e r i a l o f f e r e d p r o h i b i t e d t h e non- E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c h i l d from p a r t i c i p a t i n g f u l l y . 3. F r e e p l a y t i m e : C h i l d r e n i n b o t h c l a s s e s were f i l m e d f o r about h a l f and hour d u r i n g t h e i r f r e e p l a y t i m e when t h e y were a b l e t o choose from a v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s , s uch as sand and w a t e r p l a y , c a r p e n t r y , p l a y d o u g h , b l o c k s , a r t p u z z l e s , d r e s s up c l o t h e s and h o u s e k e e p i n g equipment. They c o u l d a l s o p l a y w i t h any o f t h e t o y s a v a i l a b l e , such as t h e d o c t o r ' s k i t , l e g o and t r a i n s e t . The t e a c h e r and a - v o l u n t e e r ( i n t h e a f t e r n o o n ) were a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e c h i l d r e n i f t h e y needed a s s i s t a n c e . I n c omparing th e r e s p o n s e s o f b o t h c l a s s e s t o the f r e e p l a y t i m e , t h e most n o t i c e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e was i n t h e amount o f c h i l d r e n who c o u l d p l a y s u c c e s s f u l l y t o g e t h e r i n t h e m o r n i n g group-and t h e speed w i t h w h i c h t h e y moved 83 from one a c t i v i t y t o t h e n e x t . The pace i n t h e a f t e r n o o n was much s l o w e r , c h i l d r e n e i t h e r p l a y e d f o r l o n g p e r i o d s o f t i m e on t h e i r own w i t h t o y s such as t h e t r a i n s e t o r p a r a l l e l t o o t h e r s w i t h sand, w a t e r o r p l a y d o u g h . One o f t h e two c h i l d r e n w i t h good E n g l i s h s p e n t h e r t i m e w i t h the same c h i l d a l l a f t e r n o o n , a p a t t e r n w h i c h has been m a i n t a i n e d a l l y e a r . The n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s were o b s e r v e d t o spend l o n g p e r i o d s o f t i m e o b s e r v i n g o t h e r s . The room was v e r y q u i e t , e x c e p t f o r two P u n j a b i y c h i l d r e n , who a r e c o u s i n s , who spoke t o each o t h e r i n P u n j a b i as t h e y worked w i t h l e g o . The t e a c h e r p l a y e d a f a i r l y p a s s i v e r o l e i n b o t h c l a s s e s . I n t h e morning she h e l p e d d r e s s a d o l l , p l a y e d a game w i t h one o f t h e n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s i n t h e group w h i l e a second one watched, and h e l p e d one boy r e s o l v e a c o n f l i c t by m o d e l l i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l a n g u a g e , " t e l l him, I am u s i n g t h a t . " She a l s o s p e n t t i m e c o m f o r t i n g a g i r l who seemed u n u s u a l l y w i t h d r a w n . Very few a d u l t / c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s were o b s e r v e d i n t h e a f t e r n o o n . The v o l u n t e e r i n i t i a t e d a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h one boy who was d r a w i n g a p i c t u r e and he l a t e r d e m o n s t r a t e d h i s l a r g e monkey puppet f o r t h e c h i l d r e n . 84 I n e v a l u a t i n g f r e e p l a y on the key e x p e r i e n c e c h e c k l i s t , i t r a n k e d h i g h as an a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i v i t y f o r b o t h g r o u p s , b u t t h e l o w e r s c o r e f o r t h e a f t e r n o o n c l a s s may i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e f o r m a t o f f r e e p l a y may need some a d a p t i o n t o meet the needs o f a group o f n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n (see T a b l e 8) . 4. F i n g e r P a i n t i n g : I n b o t h the morning and a f t e r n o o n c l a s s , a s m a l l group o f s i x o r seven c h i l d r e n chose t o work t o g e t h e r a t a t a b l e u s i n g b l u e and y e l l o w f i n g e r p a i n t . The t e a c h e r encouraged the c h i l d r e n t o mix t h e c o l o u r s , draw shapes i n t h e p a i n t w i t h t h e i r f i n g e r s and t a k e p r i n t s o f t h e i r p i c t u r e s . She a l s o i n i t i a t e d a game o f "hunt f o r lumps" i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d r e n c h a sed lumps i n the f i n g e r p a i n t a round t h e t a b l e w i t h t h e i r f i n g e r s . The group o f c h i l d r e n who p a i n t e d i n the m o rning showed no h e s i t a t i o n i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a messy a c t i v i t y . They began a t once t o mix t h e c o l o u r s and t h e p a i n t was soon s p r e a d o v e r t h e whole t a b l e . When t h e t e a c h e r began t o d e m o n s t r a t e how t o draw a f i g u r e i n t h e f i n g e r p a i n t , t h e c h i l d r e n r e sponded a t once, c a l l i n g o u t c o n f i d e n t l y i f t h e y needed more p a i n t o r paper t o t a k e a p r i n t . They e n t e r e d i n t o t h e game o f "hunt f o r lumps" w i t h e n t h u s i a s m . The a f t e r n o o n c l a s s , on t h e o t h e r hand, were v e r y much 85 more r e l u c t a n t about p u t t i n g t h e i r hands i n t h e f i n g e r p a i n t . Only two o f the s i x c h i l d r e n a t t h e t a b l e began t o work t e n t a t i v e l y with:, t h e p a i n t . The o t h e r s j u s t watched and c a l l e d o u t "yuk" a l t h o u g h no-one a t t e m p t e d t o l e a v e t h e t a b l e . The t e a c h e r t r i e d a number o f s t r a t e g i e s t o g e t t h e c h i l d r e n t o b e g i n w o r k i n g w i t h t h e f i n g e r p a i n t , She m o d e l l e d e n t h u s i a s m , t o u c h e d t h e i r hands w i t h h e r own messy ones, t r i e d t o g e t them i n t e r e s t e d i n m i x i n g c o l o u r s and d r a w i n g p i c t u r e s w i t h t h e i r f i n g e r s i n t h e p a i n t . F o u r o f t h e s i x c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d r e f u s e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e f o r about the f i r s t f i f t e e n m i n u t e s . The t e a c h e r f i n a l l y a s k e d one c h i l d t o show the o t h e r s what t o do and t h e o t h e r s i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w e d h e r example and began t o f i n g e r -p a i n t . A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e two groups showed t h a t i n t h e morning c l a s s t h e t e a c h e r d i d n o t h i n g more t h a n p u t t h e f i n g e r p a i n t on t h e t a b l e t o i n i t i a t e t h e a c t i v i t y . C h i l d r e n needed no g u i d a n c e , t h e y responded q u i c k l y and w i t h e n t h u s i a s m . I n t h e a f t e r n o o n , however, t h e y were e x t r e m e l y r e l u c t a n t t o b e g i n t o f i n g e r p a i n t and t h e t e a c h e r had t o t r y a number o f s t r a t e g i e s t o m o t i v a t e t h e c h i l d r e n t o s t a r t t h e a c t i v i t y . The t e a c h e r f i l l e d t h e l o n g p e r i o d s o f s i l e n c e i n t h e a f t e r n o o n w i t h t e a c h e r t a l k about m i x i n g c o l o u r s as happened 86 d u r i n g the f i r s t a c t i v i t y - making a p p l e sauce (page 7 6 ) . The s c o r e f o r f i n g e r p a i n t i n g on the key e x p e r i e n c e e v a l u a t i o n c h e c k l i s t ( T a ble 8) c o n f i r m e d t h a t a messy a r t a c t i v i t y was a more s u c c e s s f u l a c t i v i t y f o r the morning group. T h i s group c o n t a i n e d f o u r C a u c a s i a n c h i l d r e n who m o d e l l e d p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards the messy a c t i v i t y . The m o d e l l i n g of t h i s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e appeared t o be i n s t r u m e n t a l i n e n a b l i n g the r e m a i n i n g ESL c h i l d r e n t o j o i n i n t h e a c t i v i t y . The a f t e r n o o n c h i l d r e n ' s r e l u c t a n c e t o g e t i n v o l v e d i n the a c t i v i t y may have been because they were d i s c o u r a g e d from g e t t i n g d i r t y a t home. I n w o r k i n g w i t h ESL c h i l d r e n , t h e r e f o r e , t h e t e a c h e r needs t o t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e v a l u e s o f t h e home and t h e p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s of t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e group b e f o r e i n t r o d u c i n g them t o u n f a m i l i a r m a t e r i a l s . S p e c i a l c a r e needs t o be t a k e n t o p r e p a r e t h e c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s b e f o r e -hand f o r e x p e r i e n c e s , t h a t may cause problems f o r t h e c h i l d r e n due t o c o n f l i c t i n g v a l u e s , such as f i n g e r p a i n t i n g . 87 5. Outdoor P l a y : A t t h e end o f t h e morning and a f t e r n o o n s e s s i o n t h e whole c l a s s goes o u t s i d e t o t h e p l a y g r o u n d . The c h i l d r e n f o l l o w t h e t e a c h e r i n s i n g l e f i l e a c r o s s a p l a y c o u r t and c r o s s a l a n e t o t h e p a r k . I n t h e p l a y g r o u n d t h e y a r e a b l e t o p l a y i n t h e sand, r u n amongst t h e t r e e s , c l i m b , s w i n g , s l i d e and seesaw. A f t e r about h a l f an hour t h e c l a s s f o l l o w s t h e t e a c h e r back t o t h e c l a s s r o o m t h e same way t h e y came. The morning and a f t e r n o o n group responded t o t h e o u t d o o r p l a y e x p e r i e n c e v e r y d i f f e r e n t l y . The morning c l a s s showed more independence and i n i t i a t i v e i n t h e i r a p p r o a c h t o t h e p l a y g r o u n d . T h e i r energy l e v e l appeared t o be h i g h e r as w e l l , a l t h o u g h t h i s may be due t o t h e c h i l d r e n b e i n g l e s s t i r e d i n t h e morning t h a n i n t h e a f t e r n o o n . The c h i l d r e n i n t h e a f t e r n o o n r esponded t o o u t d o o r p l a y v e r y d i f f e r e n t l y t h a n t h e y d i d t o i n d o o r p l a y . Outdoors t h e y t e n d e d t o c l u s t e r i n a l a r g e group around th e p r e s e n c e o f t h e t e a c h e r . She remarked t h a t t h e a f t e r n o o n c h i l d r e n o f t e n o r g a n i s e d a game o f c a t c h i n w h i c h most o f t h e group j o i n e d . The m orning group on t h e o t h e r hand, used t h e o u t d o o r s i n a more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c way. Whereas t h e y had p l a y e d i n f a i r l y l a r g e groups i n d o o r s t h e y now s p e n t t h e i r t i m e u s i n g t h e s l i d e , swings and c l i m b i n g frame i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f each o t h e r . 88 The t e a c h e r ' s r o l e v a r i e s o u t d o o r s when w o r k i n g w i t h each group. I n the morning she seems t o have more time t o s t a n d back and o b s e r v e the c h i l d r e n and be a v a i l a b l e t o them i f they need h e l p . I n the a f t e r n o o n , however, the c h i l d r e n t e n d t o p l a c e her i n the r o l e of l e a d e r and much of t h e i r p l a y i s c e n t e r e d around her p r e s e n c e . A t one time d u r i n g t h e a f t e r n o o n , they l i n e d up b e h i n d her f o r no a p p a r e n t r e a s o n , and she l e a d them i n a game of f o l l o w - m y - l e a d e r around the p l a y g r o u n d . The c h i l d r e n i n the morning group seem t o be o b l i v i o u s of the t e a c h e r ' s p r e s e n c e u n l e s s they need h e r a s s i s t a n c e . I n e v a l u a t i n g the o u t d o o r p l a y on the key e x p e r i e n c e e v a l u a t i o n c h e c k l i s t , the h i g h e r s c o r e f o r the morning group i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s e c h i l d r e n a r e more a b l e t o use the p l a y g r o u n d i n the ways i d e n t i f i e d on the c h e c k l i s t ( T a b l e 8 ) . They a r e more a c t i v e , more a b l e t o make i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e s , more e x p l o r a t i v e and show more i n i t i a t i v e i n u s i n g the equipment. The a f t e r n o o n group used the p l a y g r o u n d i n a d i f f e r e n t way. They appeared t o be e x p e c t i n g t h e t e a c h e r t o o r g a n i s e them. On many o c c a s i o n s she was o b s e r v e d h e l p i n g them s e t up a s t r u c t u r e d game i n w h i c h t h e whole group j o i n e d . 89 C o n c l u s i o n : I n comparing r e s p o n s e s t o a l l f i v e c u r r i c u l u m a c t i v i t i e s , t he group who were more p r o f i c i e n t i n E n g l i s h responded on t h e whole more i n d e p e n d e n t l y and more a s s e r t i v e l y as t h e y p a r t i c -i p a t e d i n each o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s . The group o f n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n appeared t o be more h e s i t a n t i n t h e i r a p proach t o t h e a c t i v i t y . T h i s may have been because t h e y o f t e n seemed t o be w a i t i n g f o r t h e t e a c h e r t o i n i t i a t e an a c t i v i t y o r model th e a c t i o n s f o r them b e f o r e t h e y began t o p a r t i c i p a t e . Whether t h i s was due t o t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o r e s p o n d t o v e r b a l d i r e c t i o n s , u n c e r t a i n i t y due t o l a c k o f p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e o r because o f c o n f l i c t o f c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , i s n o t known. I n c o m p a r i n g the p l a y b e h a v i o u r o f each group- b o t h i n d o o r s and o u t d o o r s t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n each group v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . I n d o o r s t h e c h i l d r e n who c o u l d communicate w e l l w i t h each o t h e r were a b l e t o f u n c t i o n i n f a i r l y l a r g e groups. They were a b l e . t o d e v e l o p p l a y sequences t h a t p r o g r e s s e d t h r o u g h a wide v a r i e t y o f themes. The p l a y b e h a v i o u r i n t h e group c o n s i s t i n g o f m a i n l y n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n appeared t o be bound w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e frame s e t by t h e m a t e r i a l , t o y o r game w i t h w h i c h t h e y were p l a y i n g . I f , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e c h i l d r e n were c o n s t r u c t i n g r a i l w a y t r a c k s , making c o o k i e s w i t h t h e 90 p l a y d o u g h o r p l a y i n g a game o f c a t c h o u t s i d e , t h e p l a y remained s t a t i c , l i m i t e d by the p o s s i b i l i t i e s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o r s e t t i n g i n w h i c h t h e p l a y was t a k i n g p l a c e . What was needed i n o r d e r f o r t h e p l a y t o become more open ended, c r e a t i v e and c h a l l e n g i n g f o r t h e c h i l d r e n ? I s t h e o n l y m i s s i n g i n g r e d i e n t a common language f o r communi c a t i o n o r a r e t h e i r o t h e r f a c t o r s a t work t h a t a r e unknown? The t e a c h e r ' s r o l e changed t o meet t h e d i f f e r i n g needs of t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e morning and a f t e r n o o n g r o u p s . The wide range o f a b i l i t i e s and p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e p r e s e n t i n the morning group emphasised t h e d i f f i c u l t y t e a c h e r s have i n m e e t i n g t h e needs o f c h i l d r e n w i t h i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l p r e s c h o o l who come from many d i f f e r e n t backgrounds and have d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f a b i l i t y i n s p e a k i n g E n g l i s h . The c h i l d r e n ' s r e c e p t i v e language s c o r e s ranged from z e r o t o 126 on t h e Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t (Revised) , (See T a b l e 6 ) . The p r o f i c i e n t E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s appeared w e l l a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o n c e p t s and themes i n t r o d u c e d by the t e a c h e r and p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s p r e s e n t e d . The n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s ' p a s s i v i t y i n t h e c l a s s r o o m may have been caused by t h e i r bewiderment a t what was hap p e n i n g and t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e v e r b a l cues o f f e r e d . 91 In t h e morning t h e t e a c h e r was a b l e t o t a k e on t h e r o l e o f a f a c i l i t a t o r . She p r e p a r e d t h e envionment and most o f t h e c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o t a k e advantage o f t h e l e a r n i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n i t . I n t h e a f t e r n o o n , however, she had t o t a k e a more a c t i v e , d i r e c t i v e r o l e i n o r d e r t o g e t t h e c h i l d r e n t o i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and w i t h each o t h e r . The program o f f e r e d i n t h e morning d i d n o t come i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s l e a r n e d from home. I n the a f t e r n o o n , however, many o f t h e a c t i v i t e s r e q u i r e d t h e c h i l d r e n t o change t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s i n o r d e r f o r them t o be a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e c o m f o r t a b l y i n t h e e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s meant t h a t i f i t was t o be a s u c c e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e f o r b o t h groups t h e t e a c h e r had t o change her. method of, p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r each group. A g r e a t d e a l o f knowledge, s k i l l and u n d e r s t a n d i n g was needed f o r t h e t e a c h e r t o make t h i s a d j u s t m e n t . Whereas t h e language t h e t e a c h e r used i n t h e morning c o u l d be f a i r l y s p o n t a n e o u s , i n t h e a f t e r n o o n i t had t o be c a r e f u l l y p l a n n e d because t h e t e a c h e r p r o v i d e d a language model f o r t h e c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n e s s e n t i a l words f o r 92 f u n c t i o n i n g c o m f o r t a b l y i n t h e room. The t e a c h e r s i m p l i f i e d h e r language t o meet th e l e v e l o f comprehension i n t h e room and used many n o n - v e r b a l means o f e x p r e s s i o n t o convey meaning. The language e n v i r o n m e n t i n t h e a f t e r n o o n was much q u i e t e r t h a n i n the morning and t h e t e a c h e r needed t o c o n s c i o u s l y use language i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e enough language e x p o s u r e f o r t h e ESL c h i l d r e n . I t was n o t i c e a b l e how o f t e n t h e t e a c h e r f i l l e d t h e s i l e n c e s w i t h d i d a c t i c language i n an a t t e m p t t o communicate w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n . I n t h e c i r c l e t h e t e a c h e r i n t r o d u c e d t h e c h i l d r e n t o rhythms and c h a n t s t o h e l p them l e a r n t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . S t o r i e s chosen f o r t h e E s l c h i l d r e n had t o be w r i t t e n i n s i m p l e E n g l i s h w i t h c l e a r i l l u s t r a t i o n s t o h e l p t h e c h i l d r e n u n d e r s t a n d t h e meaning o f t h e words. Where th e W i l d T h i n g s A r e p r o v e d t o be t o o a b s t r a c t f o r t h e l e v e l o f comprehension o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f ESL c h i l d r e n i n t h e group. I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h e r e f o r e , groups o f m u l t i c u l t u r a l c h i l d r e n , w h e t h e r h e t e r o g e n o u s c o n s i s t i n g o f a wide range o f a b i l i t i e s as i n t h e morning group o r homogenous as i n the a f t e r n o o n g r o u p , p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h a g r e a t c h a l l e n g e t o a d j u s t , d i v e r s i f y and r e v i s e t h e i r programs t o meet th e needs o f t h e c h i l d r e n . 93 Table 6 The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (R) MOPPING GROUP F a l l 1983 Spring 1984 SUBJECT C.A. M. A. Dif. PPVT(R) C.A. M.A. Dif PPV A (ENG) 4.6 6.4 + 1.10 126 4. 11 7.2 + 2.3 131 B (ENG) 1.9 5.2 + .5 107 5.2 5.6 + .4 105 C (ENG) A.5 4.9 + .4 106 4.9 4.7 - .2 99 D/7(ESL) 4.3 3.5 - .10 84 4.9 4.4 - .5 96 E (ESL) 4.3 3.5 -1.0 77 3.6 3.10 + .4 107 F/8(ESL) 4.10 3.5 - .7 75 5.3 3.6 -1.9 71 G (F.NG) 3.4 3.0 - .4 93 3.10 4.2 + .4 107 H (ESL) 4.9 3.11 - .10 86 5.2 4.2 -1.0 85 I (ESL) 3.11 2.2 -1.9 49 4.4 3.3 -1.1 76 J (ESL) 4.2 2.10 -1.4 73 4.7 3.5 -1.2 76 K (ENG) 4.11 5.2 + .3 107 5.3 5.7 + .4 106 L (ESL) 4.2 2.2 -2.0 54 4.7 2.6 -2.1 52 M (ESL) 4.6 0 -4.6 0 5.1 2.6 -2.7 44 X 4.4 3.6 - . 935m 79.8 4.8*5 4.2 - .6*5111 88 *D/7 & F/8 = returning children see Table 2,3,4 & 5 for 1982/83 scOres. 94 T a b l e 6 (a) The Peabodv P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r v T e s t (R) AFTERNOON GROUP F a l l 1983 Sprinq 1984 SUBJECT C. A. M. A. Dif. PPVT (R) C. A. M. A. Dif. PPV r N (ESL) 4.5 3.8 -1.2 85 5.0 4.3 - . 9 90 0 (ESL) 3.11 4.2 - . 3 107 4.4 3. 11 - . 5 91 P (ESL) 4.2 2.5 -1.9 54 4.9 2 . 8 -2.1 54 Q (FSL) 4.5 2. 10 -1.7 35 4. 10 3.5 -1.5 73 P. (ESL) 4.7 2 . 2 -2. 5 0 5.0 2.10 -2.2 55 S (ESL) 4.0 2.2 -1.10 46 4.6 3.3 -1. 3 74 T (ESL) 4.9 3.0 -1.9 63 5.2 2.9 -2 . 3 51 U (ESL) 4.3 2.4 -1.11 52 4.8 3.3 -1.5 69 V (ESL) 3.8 2 . 0 -1 .8 50 4.1 2.7 -1.6 67 W (ESL) 3.3 2.0 -1.3 50 3.8 2.2 -1.6 56 X (ESL) 3.2 1.11 -1.3 53 3.6 2.4 -1.2 70 Y (ESL) 4.3 2.5 -1.2 54 4.8 2.5 -2 . 3 44 Z (ESL) 3.3 0 -3.3 0 3.8 2.6 -1.2 68 A1 (ESL) 4.8 3.0 -1 .8 61 5.3 2.10 -2. 5 54 X = 4.0 2.5 -1.7 4.6 2.11 -1.7 65.4 95 Tabl e 7 E x p r e s s i v e One Word P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t MORNING GROUP F a l l 1983 S p r i n g 1984 SUBJECT C A . M.A. I .Q. C A . M.A. I.Q A 4.8 10 . 6 145 * B 4.9 6 . 8 124 5.4 . 7.3 122 C 4.5 6 . 3 122 * D/7 4.3 4.9 104 4.11 5.9 110 E 4.3 4.8 10 3 4.10 5.4 105 F/8 4.10 3.3 75 5.6 4.1 85 G 3.7 4 . 1 98 4.0 4.5 101 H 4.9 3.11 88 5.4 4.9 95 I 3.11 2.2 79 5.6 3.6 64 J 4.2 3.5 97 * K 4.11 6.5 116 5.5 7.4 125 L 4.2 2.5 67 4.9 3.7 9 0 M 4-. 6 0 0 5.3 3.4 69 X 4.5 4.6 93.69 5,.0 4.11 96.1 * * S u b j e c t s withdrawn p r i o r t o the end of the s c h o o l year 95a T a b l e 7b E x p r e s s i v e One Word P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t AFTERNOON GROUP SUBJECT F a l l 1983 S p r i n g 1984 C.A. M.A. I.Q C.A. M.A. I.Q N 4.10 5.0 100 5.2 5.4 110 0 3. 11 4.7 107 4.6 5.9 110 P 4.7 3.9 91 4.11 3.7 84 Q 4.5 3.6 87 5.0 5.0 97 R 4.7 2.4 60 5.2 2.1 0 S 4.0 3.5 88 4.7 4.11 102 T 4.9, 2.9 62 5.4 4.0 82 U 4.10 1.11 0 * V 3.8 1.5 0 4.3 2.6 68 W 3.3 0 0 3.10 • 2.0 57 X 3.3 1.2 14 * Y 4.3 0 0 4 . 10 3.0 74 Z 3.3 0 0 3. 10 1.9 0 A l 4.5 3.5 85 5.0 4.0 90 X 4.2 2.4 49.57 4.8 3.7 72. S u b j e c t s withdrawn p r i o r to the end of the s c h o o l year 96 Co cn NJ O U l o NJ CO CO CO NJ O CO O o NJ I o O NJ CO o NJ CO o NJ -^1 NJ co CO NJ NJ NJ CO O co o o cn NJ NJ NJ cn NJ o co NJ NJ NJ cn o CO CO lb cn co co CO cn cn o CO NJ 00 cn a oo CO cn NJ NJ cn o co CO cn oo CO cn NJ o NJ cn NJ CO CO CO NJ NJ CO o co o CO r-1 cn o CO cn co o NJ NJ O NJ CO NJ cn co o CO co CO VO r—1 cn M co co co o NJ NJ cn NJ VO cn NJ cn cn o a vc -J NJ cn O NJ NJ cn o CO co CO NJ CO Apple Sauce Hallowe'en C i r c l e F r e e p l a y F i n g e r P a i n t i n g § Outdoor P l a y A.M. TOTAL Hallowe'en C i r c l e > • fD s m o X to o CD c H -fD 3 O i-3 fD 0> D* W }-> < fD tu M CO c pj . f t H -e 0 3 O 3" ro o • 2 M-• H -U) r t o G F i n g e r P a i n t i n g Outdoor p l a y P.M. TOTAL f H S n 3 D w D w O ft) 3 c 3" DJ H - X K 3 O, 0 3 U) > vQ f t H - H - O fD W C < o TJ 0 o n X 0> o fD C < rl ri-vQ a c in r-> fD H - w fD c M di r< 3 OJ r t r t H - vQ n M w M C H - 3 rt- w X 3 z r t 3 a> b n CD fD 3 w 3 fD cn 05 & H - in 0 3 96 97 CHAPTER V l l l CONCLUSION I n t h e f i r s t y e a r of the s t u d y the r e s e a r c h f o c u s s e d on the s o c i a l and , U n g u i s t i c b e h a v i o u r of i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l p r e s c h o o l s e t t i n g . I n t h e second y e a r o f the p r o j e c t the r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t e d how c h i l d r e n as a group responded t o f i v e c u r r i c u l u m a c t i v i t i e s p r e s e n t e d t o two c l a s s e s , one o f whom c o n s i s t e d of m a i n l y c h i l d r e n who c o u l d speak E n g l i s h and the o t h e r of a l l ESL c h i l d r e n , o n l y two of whom were b i l i n g u a l and the r e s t were a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s i n l e a r n i n g t o speak E n g l i s h . C o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h the r e s e a r c h the r o l e o f the t e a c h e r was o b s e r v e d i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c s t r a t e g i e s n e c e s s a r y f o r w o r k i n g w i t h m u l t i c u l t u r a l groups o f c h i l d r e n . F i n d i n g s from the r e s e a r c h a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h r e e main a r e a s , c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s , E n g l i s h as a second language and t h e r o l e of the t e a c h e r i n m u l t i c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s . 1. C u l t u r a l F a c t o r s : I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e r o l e o f c u l t u r e i n the m u l t i c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g t h e r e a r e t h r e e a s p e c t s t o c o n s i d e r : i a. A d j u s t i n g t h e program t o meet the needs o f c h i l d r e n from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l backgrounds t o ens u r e t h a t they o b t a i n the maximum b e n e f i t , s o c i a l l y , e m o t i o n a l l y , p h y s i c a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y from t h e i r p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e . 98 b. E n a b l i n g c h i l d r e n t o r e t a i n t h e i r f i r s t c u l t u r e and language t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r s e l f c o n c e p t and sense of b e l o n g i n g t o ensure h e a l t h y p e r s o n a l i t y development, c D e v e l o p i n g c u l t u r a l awareness amongst p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n t o broaden t h e i r w o r l d v i e w and promote r a c i a l t o l e r a n c e , r e s p e c t and an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n o t h e r s from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l back-grounds . a. The S e x s m i t h P r o j e c t r esponded t o a l l t h r e e p o i n t s above w i t h v a r y i n g degrees of s u c c e s s . Many a s p e c t s of the program, such as o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , room p r e p a r a t i o n and p a r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the program were r e v i s e d d u r i n g the f i r s t two y e a r s o f t h e p r o j e c t . I n the second y e a r , f o r i n s t a n c e , due t o improvements made i n t h e i n i t i a l e n t r y p r o c e d u r e s t h e r e was f a r l e s s s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y e x p e r i e n c e d by the c h i l d r e n on e n t r y i n t o the program. The c o m p a r i s o n of r e s p o n s e s o f each o f the c l a s s e s t o t h e f i v e c u r r i c u l u m a c t i v i t y p r e s e n t a t i o n s ( T a b l e 8) showed t h a t c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e program d i d n o t meet the needs o f ESL c h i l d r e n as w e l l as was e x p e c t e d . A c t i v i t i e s t h a t need f u r t h e r a d j u s t m e n t t o meet the needs of ESL c h i l d r e n , a c c o r d i n g t o the key e x p e r i e n c e e v a l u a t i o n c h e c k l i s t , a r e f r e e p l a y t i m e , c i r c l e and 99 f i n g e r p a i n t i n g . D u r i n g f r e e p l a y t i m e (see page 82 f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a c t i v i t y ) t h e ESL c h i l d ' s l e a r n i n g s t y l e • a ppears t o l i m i t them from t a k i n g f u l l advantage o f t h e t y p i c a l u n s t r u c t u r e d p r e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h o u t some a s s i s t a n c e from t h e t e a c h e r , a t l e a s t i n t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s . Un Marco A r b i e t o H e a d s t a r t model overcame t h i s p r o b l e m by s t r u c t u r i n g t h e e n v i r o n m e n t t o promote c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p -ment i n c h i l d r e n from m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e s . (Un Marco A r b i e t o , 1976). To p r e p a r e an e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t promotes t h e t o t a l development o f t h e ESL c h i l d w i t h o u t j e o p a r d i z i n g t h e b e n e f i t o f l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h p l a y i s a c h a l l e n g i n g t a s k f o r p r e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . A s o l u t i o n m i g h t be t o use some o f t h e i d e a s s u g g e s t e d i n Un Marco A r b i e t o as w e l l as t o i n c l u d e w e l l p l a n n e d t e a c h e r d i r e c t e d s m a l l group a c t i v i t i e s s i m i l a r t o t h e a p p l e sauce a c t i v i t y d e s c r i b e d on page 76 w i t h i n t h e framework o f t h e f r e e p l a y p e r i o d . O b s e r v a t i o n s o f b o t h groups d u r i n g f r e e p l a y t i m e showed t h a t t h e l e v e l o f p l a y was more complex and e x p a n s i v e amongst the c h i l d r e n i n t h e morning group. T h i s may have been because t h i s group c o n t a i n e d more E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n who had p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e o f f r e e p l a y s i t u a t i o n s , and who were a b l e t o model a h i g h e r l e v e l o f p l a y . When t h e t e a c h e r , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n t r o d u c e d a m e d i c a l theme i n t o t h e 1 0 0 program, the h o u s e k e e p i n g c o r n e r was changed i n t o a d o c t o r ' s o f f i c e . The c h i l d r e n i n t h e morning expanded t h e p l a y o u t -wards t o o t h e r a r e a s such as b u i l d i n g an ambulance and r i d i n g t o t h e h o s p i t a l . The a f t e r n o o n c h i l d r e n , however, used t h e d o c t o r ' s o f f i c e as a desk f o r w r i t i n g numbers and l e t t e r s and t h e p l a y n e v e r p r o g r e s s e d f u r t h e r . What i s t h e m i s s i n g i n g r e d i e n t ? I s i t l a c k o f b e i n g a b l e t o communicate i n E n g l i s h , absence o f E n g l i s h models, c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s , no p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h s i m i l a r p l a y s i t u a t i o n s o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f a number o f f a c t o r s ? I t seems e s s e n t i a l i f i n c r e a s i n g l y complex forms o f p l a y a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r a c h i l d ' s t o t a l development t h a t t h e t e a c h e r w i l l have t o t a k e some measures t o f u r t h e r d r a m a t i c p l a y . Maybe the c h i l d r e n i n t h e a f t e r n o o n need more i n f o r m a t i o n t o f u r t h e r t h e theme on t h e i r own? The t e a c h e r c o u l d e i t h e r do t h i s by r e a d i n g them s i m p l e s t o r i e s based on t h e theme o r become i n v o l v e d h e r s e l f and i n i t i a t e f u r t h e r a c t i o n . The t e a c h e r would have t o be c a r e f u l n o t t o make t h e c h i l d r e n dependent on h e r t o l e a d t h e i r p l a y on o t h e r o c c a s i o n s . A c o m b i n a t i o n o f f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g c u l t u r a l v a l u e s l e a r n e d a t home were p r o b a b l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a f t e r n o o n c h i l d r e n ' s h e s i t a n c y t o f i n g e r p a i n t (see page 8 4 ) . I n 101 t h i s case c a r e f u l p r e p a r a t i o n b e f o r e h a n d of the c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s i s n e c e s s a r y t o change a t t i t u d e s towards p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n messy a c t i v i t i e s . An e v a l u a t i o n of t h e t e a c h e r d i r e c t e d c i r c l e , based on a H a l l o w e ' e n theme, i n d i c a t e d t h a t when ESL c h i l d r e n a r e b e w i l d e r e d and u n c e r t a i n of what i s e x p e c t e d of them a t y p i c a l r e s p o n s e i s p a s s i v i t y . I n a d j u s t i n g t h e program t o meet the needs of t h e s e c h i l d r e n , t h e r e f o r e , c i r c l e p r e s e n t a t i o n s have t o be c a r e f u l l y p l a n n e d t o a l l o w the c h i l d r e n w i t h l i m i t e d E n g l i s h the o p p o r t u n i t y of r e s p o n d i n g n o n - v e r b a l l y . M a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d t o l a r g e groups of ESL c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be g e a r e d t o t h e i r l e v e l o f comprehension and r e l a t e d t o t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e . A d j u s t i n g the program t o meet the needs of c h i l d r e n from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l backgrounds r e q u i r e s s e n s i t i v i t y and u n d e r s t a n d i n g on t h e p a r t o f the t e a c h e r as w e l l as c a r e f u l m o n i t o r i n g of changes made t o e n s u r e t h a t t hey t r u l y promote the t o t a l development of a l l c h i l d r e n i n t h e group, b. R e s e a r c h has shown the i m p o r t a n c e of r e t a i n i n g the f i r s t l anguage and c u l t u r e f o r the growth of a p o s i t i v e s e l f c o n c e p t i n m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e c h i l d r e n . D u r i n g the f i r s t y e a r p r e s s u r e on the c h i l d r e n 102 t o l e a r n t o speak E n g l i s h r e s u l t e d i n n e g a t i v e comments about a c h i l d u s i n g 'his:..~. f i r s t language i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . Educ-a t i o n a l m o t i v e s , however w o r t h y , may sometimes be h a r m f u l f o r the c h i l d ' s s e l f image. G r e a t e r c a r e was t a k e n a f t e r t h i s i n c i d e n t happened t o encourage f i r s t language and c u l t u r e i n t h e p r e s c h o o l . L a b e l s and n o t i c e s were w r i t t e n i n a l l l a n g u a g e s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e c l a s s and p a r e n t s were encouraged, w i t h o n l y l i m i t e d s u c c e s s , t o s h a r e t h e i r c u l t u r e w i t h t h e group. Many p a r e n t s f e l t t h a t t h i s was n o t i m p o r t a n t because t h e i r c h i l d r e n were b e i n g s e n t t o s c h o o l t o become f a m i l a r w i t h C a n a d i a n ways and l e a r n to speak E n g l i s h . The t e a c h e r was l e f t t o d e v i s e ways o f i n t r o d u c i n g c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n t o t h e c l a s s r o o m by c e l e b r a t i n g t h e f e s t i v a l s o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e c l a s s and i n t r o d u c i n g a r t p r o j e c t s based on c u l t u r a l themes such as making money e n v e l o p e s a t C h i n e s e New Y e a r . A t S e x s m i t h , e n a b l i n g t h e c h i l d r e n t o r e t a i n a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t owards t h e i r own c u l t u r e / p r o b a b l y o c c u r r e d i n more s u b t l e t h a n o v e r t ways. The t e a c h e r m o d e l l e d a c c e p t a n c e o f o t h e r s i n h e r own b e h a v i o u r . She t o o k c h i l d r e n w i t h h e r t o v i s i t each o t h e r s ' homes. I n t h i s way she encouraged c r o s s -c u l t u r a l f r i e n d s h i p s and i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s d i f f e r e n t from t h e m s e l v e s . 103 c. D e v e l o p i n g c u l t u r a l awareness i n p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n t o broaden t h e i r w o r l d view may be t o o a m b i t i o u s a g o a l t o a c h i e v e i n i t s e n t i r e t y i n the p r e s c h o o l y e a r s . D e v e l o p i n g a w o r l d v i e w i s a g r a d u a l p r o c e s s founded upon c o n c e p t s t h a t are b u i l t l i t t l e by l i t t l e from e v e r y d a y e x p e r i e n c e s i n the c h i l d ' s e n v i r o n m e n t . L i l l i a n K a t z s t a t e d t h a t " t e a c h i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m i n the p r e s c h o o l t u r n s c h i l d development t h e o r y u p s i d e down" and t h a t v e r y young c h i l d r e n need t o f e e l t h e i r own c u l t u r e i s the b e s t . L a t e r w i t h m a t u r i t y , t h e c h i l d w i l l be a b l e t o go beyond t h i s and see h i s own c u l t u r e i n r e l a t i o n t o others.''" T h i s p r o c e s s can be f u r t h e r e d i n t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s by e x p o s i n g c h i l d r e n t o c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e s i n v o l v i n g o t h e r c u l t u r e s , such as v i s i t i n g each o t h e r s homes. O b s e r v a t i o n s o f c u l t u r a l c e l e b r a t i o n s i n the p r e s c h o o l show t h a t c h i l d r e n a b s o r b what i s m e a n i n g f u l t o them from an e x p e r i e n c e . I n a d i s p l a y f o r D i w a l i , f o r i n s t a n c e , a C h i n e s e c h i l d r e s ponded t o the c a n d l e s , s a y i n g t h a t she had some a t home, happy b i r t h d a y ! D u r i n g the H a l l o w e ' e n c i r c l e the c h i l d r e n d i d n o t r e s p o n d t o t h e pumpkin's s c a r y f a c e b u t asked why t h e pumpkin d i d n o t have a stem. C u l t u r a l awareness i n p r e s c h o o l p r o b a b l y has t o t a k e the form of s i m p l e r e a l e x p e r i e n c e s such as v i s i t i n g each o t h e r s homes and becoming L e c t u r e g i v e n a t U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , May, 1984. 104 aware t h a t t h e r e a r e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s amongst p e o p l e and i t i s a l l r i g h t t o be d i f f e r e n t i n some ways. 2. E n g l i s h as a second language: A c h i l d ' s s u c c e s s i n l e a r n i n g a second language i s dependent upon a number of f a c t o r s and how t h e s e i n t e r a c t w i t h each o t h e r . F i r s t , what the c h i l d h i m s e l f , b r i n g s t o the t a s k o f l e a r n i n g a second language i s i m p o r t a n t . The c h i l d ' s own p e r s o n a l i t y , t r a i t s such as s o c i a b i l i t y , t a l k a t i v e n e s s and s e l f c o n f i d e n c e have a d i r e c t e f f e c t on h i s a b i l i t y t o s t r u c t u r e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s t o g i v e him t h e n e c e s s a r y amount of second language i n p u t . H i s p r e f e r e n c e s a r e i m p o r t a n t , i f t h e c h i l d chooses group a c t i v i t i e s o v e r i n d i v i d u a l ones, such as p u z z l e s , h i s need t o communicate w i l l be g r e a t e r and h i s m o t i v a t i o n t o l e a r n the second language w i l l i n c r e a s e . The match between the c h i l d ' s l e a r n i n g s t y l e and what k i n d o f i n p u t i s p r o v i d e d by t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i s c r u c i a l f o r s u c c e s s . I f the c h i l d ' s s t y l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s t o use f o r m u l a i c speech w i t h w h i c h t o communicate, the optimum e n v i r o n m e n t w i l l be one i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d h e a r s l o t s of language i n a n a t u r a l i s t i c s e t t i n g . S e c o n d l y , l i n g u i s t i c f a c t o r s must be c o n s i d e r e d , the c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t u a l awareness o f t h e sound, p a t t e r n s and rhythms of t h e second language i s e s s e n t i a l f o r s u c c e s s f u l 105 l e a r n i n g t o t a k e p l a c e . T h i r d l y , s o c i a l f a c t o r s have t o be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r -a t i o n , such as the p e r c e i v e d s t a t u s of the f i r s t language i n t he community and the s o c i a l demands made upon t h e c h i l d t o l e a r n t h e second l a n g u a g e . F i n d i n g s from the f i r s t y e a r ' s r e s e a r c h c o n f i r m t h a t i n d i v i d u a l , l i n g u i s t i c and s o c i a l f a c t o r s a l l p l a y a p a r t i n second language l e a r n i n g i n the p r e s c h o o l . I t became apparent,however, t h a t c h i l d r e n do n o t r e l y s o l e l y on v e r b a l means t o communicate w i t h each o t h e r . They use a v a r i e t y o f methods, i n c l u d i n g key p h r a s e s , p h y s i c a l g e s t u r e s , i n t e r n a t i o n a l words, such as p i z z a , pancake, bang bang and o b j e c t s i n the room, such as t h e t o y f i r e e n g i n e , t o i n i t i a t e i n t e r a c t i o n s . The r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s a l s o c o n f i r m e d t h a t t h e r e a r e many i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the way c h i l d r e n learn-" a second language. The good l e a r n e r s t e n d e d t o be e i t h e r s o c i a b l e , o u t g o i n g c h i l d r e n who chose a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h demanded v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n , o r c h i l d r e n who were l e s s o u t g o i n g b u t s p e n t time w a t c h i n g , l i s t e n i n g and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t e a c h e r d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s . Poor l e a r n e r s were o f t e n t h o s e c h i l d r e n who p r e f e r r e d t o r e m a i n o n l y i n t h e i r own c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c g r o u p s , c h i l d r e n who were h a v i n g b e h a v i o u r p r o b l e m s , or c h i l d r e n who were dependent on o t h e r s t o do the t a l k i n g f o r the The language t e s t s i n the f i r s t and second y e a r o f t h e 106 study show t h a t ESL c h i l d r e n are on an average between e i g h t e e n to twenty f o u r months behind t h e i r E n g l i s h speaking peers on e n t e r i n g p r e s c h o o l . Three out of e i g h t c h i l d r e n i n the f i r s t year ( t a b l e 2 &3) and seven out of twenty one c h i l d r e n i n the second year ( t a b l e 6 & 6a) improved t h i s l a g a f t e r a year i n p r e s c h o o l . Some c h i l d r e n , however, dropped f u r t h e r behind (two our of e i g h t i n the f i r s t year and two out of twenty one i n the second year) The m a j o r i t y of ESL c h i l d r e n , however, m a i n t a i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n ( i . e . approximately e i g h t e e n to twenty f o u r months behind t h e i r E n g l i s h speaking peers on e x i t ) . Of the f o u r E n g l i s h speaking c h i l d r e n i n the sample i n the second y e a r , two improved t h e i r s c o r e s and two remained' the same ( t a b l e 6). S u b j e c t M and Z ( t a b l e 6 & 6a) had no E n g l i s h on e n t e r i n g the program but managed to a c h i e v e a low s c o r e on the Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t (r) i n the S p r i n g . A l l the ESL c h i l d r e n i n the sample / except f o r S u b j e c t E i n both f i r s t and second year of the study were s t i l l behind t h e i r E n g l i s h speaking peers i n the S p r i n g a f t e r seven or more months i n p r e s c h o o l . Teaching E n g l i s h as a second language a t Sexsmith Demonstration P r e s c h o o l took the form of p r o v i d i n g the c h i l d r e n w i t h an u n s t r u c t u r e d language environment except 107 f o r about f i f t e e n m i n u t e s each s e s s i o n when t h e c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a t e a c h e r d i r e c t e d c i r c l e . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e th e c h i l d r e n sang songs, l i s t e n e d t o t h e t e a c h e r r e a d a s t o r y , f i l l e d i n a c a l e n d a r and p l a y e d language games i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d r e n were exposed t o l anguage f o r m s , p a t t e r n s and rhythms. I n l i g h t o f t h e r e s u l t s from t h e two language t e s t s , however, an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e language program seems n e c e s s a r y . The amount o f u n s t r u c t u r e d t i m e v e r s u s s t r u c t u r e d t ime may n o t p r o v i d e th e ESL c h i l d r e n w i t h enough language s t i m u l a t i o n t o e n a b l e them t o l e a r n t h e E n g l i s h t h e y w i l l need t o e n t e r t h e s c h o o l system on a more e q u a l l e v e l w i t h t h e i r E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g p e e r s . R e s e a r c h shows t h a t ESL c h i l d r e n do n o t j u s t ' p i c k up" E n g l i s h w i t h o u t some e x t r a i n t e r v e n t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e t e a c h e r (Brown, & N e d l e r ) . A program, however, t h a t c o n t a i n s t o o much s t r u c t u r e does n o t promote co m m u n i c a t i v e competence ( N e d l e r ) . C h i l d r e n appear t o l e a r n b e s t i n n a t u r a l i s t i c s e t t i n g s where t h e r e i s a b a l a n c e between o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g (Wong F i l l m o r e , Tough, Wylnka and Nedler)-. Many r e s e a r c h e r s recommend t h a t language be t a u g h t i n s m a l l groups d u r i n g w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r can c o n t r o l language i n p u t and c h i l d r e n can p r a c t i s e t a l k i n g i n a non t h r e a t e n i n g s e t t i n g . 108 The s m a l l group t i m e s a l s o g i v e t h e t e a c h e r the o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n t r o d u c e new v o c a b u l a r y p a i r e d w i t h c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e . Words and p h r a s e s i n t r o d u c e d can then be expanded and r e p e a t e d f u r t h e r a t o t h e r t i m e s d u r i n g the program. A language program d e v e l o p e d around themes t h a t are f o l l o w e d t h r o u g h i n many o f the c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s , a l l o w s f o r g r e a t e r impact on- l e a r n i n g . C a r e f u l p l a n n i n g i s e s s e n t i a l i n i n t r o d u c i n g E n g l i s h as a second language i n p r e s c h o o l programs. T e a c h e r s need s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d the l i n g u i s t i c needs o f the ESL l e a r n e r and i n d e v e l o p i n g language programs t h a t promote optimum l e a r n i n g . 3. The r o l e o f the t e a c h e r i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l p r e s c h o o l s e t t i n g : The t e a c h e r ' s f i r s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s t o implement a sound e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n program f o r t h e c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s i n t h e p r e s c h o o l . D u r i n g t h e two y e a r s o f o b s e r v a t i o n a t S e x s m i t h D e m o n s t r a t i o n P r e s c h o o l i t became a p p a r e n t t h a t many s t r a t e g i e s and s k i l l s need t o be a d j u s t e d o r m o d i f i e d f o r w o r k i n g w i t h m u l t i c u l t u r a l p r e s c h o o l g r o u p s . Communication w i t h f a m i l i e s from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l b ackgrounds i s p r o b a b l y the a r e a t h a t p r e s e n t s t h e t e a c h e r w i t h most d i f f i c u l t y . Because t h e r e i s o f t e n no common la n g u a g e , t h e t e a c h e r must convey t o p a r e n t s t h r o u g h g e s t u r e s , f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s and body language t h a t t h e y a r e welcome t o become 109 p a r t of the p r e s c h o o l group. Problems i n communication a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o a r i s e i f the t e a c h e r can e s t a b l i s h f e e l i n g s o f t r u s t i n the p a r e n t s . I t was n o t i c e a b l e a t S e x s m i t h t h a t once the f a m i l i e s a c c e p t e d the t e a c h e r , the c h l d r e n s e t t l e d down much more q u i c k l y i n the p r e s c h o o l . T h i s f a c t o r , t o g e t h e r , w i t h the r e f i n e m e n t s made i n the o r i e n t a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s a c c o u n t e d f o r much l e s s s e p a r a t i o n a n x i e t y amongst the c h i l d r e n a t e n t r y i n the second y e a r . I n comparing the t e a c h e r ' s communication s t r a t e g i e s as she worked w i t h the morning m u l t i l i n g u a l group and the a f t e r n o o n ESL group, i t 'became o b v i o u s how she had t o a d j u s t her l e v e l o f language t o meet the needs of t h e c h i l d r e n . W i t h t h e a f t e r n o o n g r o u p , she s i m p l i f i e d h e r l a n g u a g e , a r t i c u l a t e d h e r words more c l e a r l y and changed h e r tone o f v o i c e . She a l s o f i l l e d the i n e v i t a b l e p e r i o d s of s i l e n c e w i t h d i d a c t i c l anguage. She a l s o made a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t t o t e a c h the a f t e r n o o n c l a s s words t o h e l p them f u n c t i o n more c o m f o r t a b l y i n t h e room. A d j u s t i n g c u r r i c u l u m t o p r o v i d e the ESL c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e maximum o p p o r t u n i t y f o r l e a r n i n g a l s o p r o v e d t o be a d i f f i c u l t t a s k f o r the t e a c h e r . A c t i v i t i e s t h a t were p r e s e n t e d t o b o t h c l a s s e s p r o v e d n o t t o be e n t i r e l y s u i t a b l e f o r t h e ESL c l a s s a c c o r d i n g t o the key e x p e r i e n c e 110 E v a l u a t i o n C h e c k l i s t (Table 8 ) . T h i s may have been due t o c o n f l i c t i n v a l u e s l e a r n e d a t home, d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t y l e s o f l e a r n i n g , l a c k o f p e e r models who were f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e a c t i v i t y and a b l e t o d e m o n s t r a t e p r o c e d u r e s , o r a c o m b i n a t i o n of a l l o f the above f a c t o r s . I n c o n c l u s i o n , t e a c h e r s w i l l have t o m o d i f y c u r r i c u l u m a c t i v i t i e s t o meet t h e needs o f groups o f ESL c h i l d r e n i n p r e s c h o o l . I n c a s e s where t h e r e may be a c o n f l i c t i n v a l u e s , such as messy a r t a c t i v i t i e s , t h e c h i l d r e n may need a s l o w e r i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e a c t i v i t y and t h e f a m i l i e s may r e q u i r e p r e p a r a t i o n b e f o r e h a n d t o e n a b l e them t o u n d e r s t a n d th e purpose o f t h e a c t i v i t y . Reassessment of t h e b a l a n c e o f s t r u c t u r e d and u n s t r u c t u r e d t ime may a l s o be needed i n o r d e r t o match the l e a r n i n g s t y l e o f t h e ESL c h i l d r e n more c l o s e l y . T e a c h e r s s h o u l d a l s o be s e n s i t i v e t o what happens t o t h e ESL c h i l d i n l a r g e group c i r c l e s , as i n a b i l i t y t o r e s p o n d v e r b a l l y may r e i n f o r c e t h e ESL c h i l d ' s p a s s i v i t y . The t e a c h e r p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e ESL c h i l d ' s s u c c e s s i n l e a r n i n g t o speak a second l a n g u a g e . Much w i l l depend on t h e t e a c h e r ' s a b i l i t y t o s t r u c t u r e t h e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t t o promote language l e a r n i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e s e a r c h , c h i l d r e n do n o t a c q u i r e language i n t h e c l a s s r o o m by o s m o s i s and t e a c h e r i n t e r v e n t i o n i n some form i s n e c e s s a r y (Brown, 19 79) The t e a c h e r has t o s t r i k e a b a l a n c e between I l l s t r u c t u r e d and u n s t r u c t u r e d t i m e t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e c h i l d i s exposed t o language i n a n a t u r a l i s t i c s e t t i n g as w e l l as be p r e s e n t e d w i t h language i n an o r g a n i s e d , s y s t e m a t i c manner. The optimum e n v i r o n m e n t f o r language l e a r n i n g appears t o be one i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d has many E n g l i s h models, a d u l t s and p e e r s , who a r e a b l e t o p r o v i d e t h e r i g h t k i n d o f language i n p u t i n t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e way t o meet the c h i l d ' s needs. 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" I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n Second Language A c q u i s i t i o n . " I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n Language A b i l i t y  and Language B e h a v i o u r , ed. F i l l m o r e , Academic P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1979. Wong F i l l m o r e , L i l y . "The Language L e a r n e r as an I n d i v i d u a l : I m p l i c a t i o n s of R e s e a r c h on I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s f o r the ESL Te a c h e r . " On TESOL '82: P a c i f i c P e r s p e c t i v e s on  Language L e a r n i n g and T e a c h i n g , ed. M.A. C l a r k e and J . Handscombe. Washington, 1982. W r i g h t , Mary. Compensatory E d u c a t i o n i n the P r e s c h o o l . H i g h scope R e s e a r c h F o u n d a t i o n , Y p s i l a n t i , 1983. Wylynko, P. " P r o p o s a l f o r ESL C u r r i c u l u m Development" Knox Day N u r s e r y , INC. W i n n i p e g , 1983. Zimmerman, I.L., V. S t e i n e r and R. Pond. P r e s c h o o l Language S c a l e C h a r l e s E. M e r r i l l Co., Columbus, Ohio. 1969. 115a APPENDIX "A" 116 PI,Q-ES CHECKLIST S u b j e c t Date Time S e t t i n g Observer Event P o s i t i v e (or n e u t r a l ) and s u c c e s s f u l 1. Seeks Support from P 2. Seeks Help from P 3. Seeks I n f o r m a t i o n from P 4. D i r e c t s P v e r b a l l y 5. D i r e c t s P p h y s i c a l l y 6. A c t s S i l l y t o P 7. S t a r t s C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h P 8. Shows Something t o P 9. C a l l s P 10 Touches P 11 Moves toward P • TOTAL SCORE Comments 116a APPENDIX "B" 117 KEY EXPERIENCE EVALUATION CHECKLIST D i r e c t A c t i o n on M a t e r i a l s E x p l o r i n g u s i n g a l l 5 senses D i s c o v e r i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p s M a n i p u l a t i n g , c h a n g i n g and c o m b i n i n g m a t e r i a l s M e e t i n g I n d i v i d u a l Needs O p p o r t u n i t i e s t o make C h o i c e s ' I n c o r p o r a t i n g M u l t i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i e n c e s Language E x t e n s i o n TOTAL ( 

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