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Some problems with the concept of literary influence : the case of Virginia Woolf and Garcia Marquez Dolhanty, Joanne Marie 1984

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SOME PROBLEMS WITH THE CONCEPT OF LITERARY INFLUENCE: THE CASE OF VIRGINIA WOOLF AND GARCIA MARQUEZ  by JOANNE MARIE B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  DOLHANTY  Of Br i t i sir C o l u m b i a , 1980  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER  OF ARTS in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE Programme  In Comparative  We a c c e p t t h i s to  thesis  the r e q u i r e d  STUDIES Literature  as conforming standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April  ©  Joanne  1984  M a r i e D o l h a n t y , 1984  In  presenting  this  thesis  in  partial  fulfilment  of  the  requirements for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y  of  British  Columbia,  I  it  freely  available  for  permission  agree  her  the  Library  shall  reference  and  study.  I  for  extensive  be  granted by  purposes may or  that  representatives.  p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s allowed without my  Department of  written  Date:  26 A p r i l  1984  further  agree  that  copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y the Head of my It for  is  Department or  understood  financial  permission.  Comparative L i t e r a t u r e  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  make  Columbia  gain  that  by  his  copying  or  shall  not  be  ii  Abstract The  concept of l i t e r a r y  i n f l u e n c e has been f o r some time a  t o p i c of c o n f u s i o n and c o n t r o v e r s y .  I t s i l l - d e f i n e d methods and  o b j e c t i v e s as well as i t s  tenuous  conclusions  scholars  concept  and  to  approaches as  a  reject  the  to the study of l i t e r a t u r e .  valuable  means  of  studying  literary  relationships.  debate,  the  persist,  t h e i r authors presumably  the  fact  to  have  propose  Still both  led  alternative  others  defend  that  it  i n d i v i d u a l works and  In the midst of, or in s p i t e  remains  many  influence undaunted  of,  studies by the  this  themselves  problems  in  field. This  literary  thesis  is  an attempt  to i n v e s t i g a t e the q u e s t i o n of  i n f l u e n c e not through the r e j e c t i o n or support  of  its  c l a i m s but rather through an exposure of i t s p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s and i t s predetermined c o n c l u s i o n s . the of  area a  Examination of the l i t e r a t u r e i n  shows these p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s to i n c l u d e the  traditional  necessarily  chronological  system  i m p l i e s c a u s a l i t y , sequence  in  assumption  which  linearity  meaning, and  originality  worth. The  hypothesis  that G a b r i e l G a r c i a Marquez was  influenced  by V i r g i n i a Woolf i s s t u d i e d here i n the l i g h t of t h i s of  the assumptions  discussions critics,  of  this  whether  (unconsciously)  of i n f l u e n c e theory.  A review of the v a r i o u s  p o s s i b l e case of i n f l u e n c e shows that the supporting  adhere  to  the  or  denying  assumptions  the  as by the presence or absence  claim,  of the theory and  allow t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s to be (pre)determined as much assumptions  exposure  of t e x t u a l  by  those  parallels.  Furthermore, i t i s demonstrated the the n a r r a t i v e e f f o r t Woolf  and  Garcia  of  Marquez has been to subvert, or d e c o n s t r u c t ,  that same system of assumptions.  texts  by  these two authors has as i t s purpose n e i t h e r the "proof" nor  the  denial  of  an  influence  deconstructive e f f o r t influence  theory  but  My  i m p o s i t i o n of a c o n v e n t i o n a l  of  r a t h e r the demonstration  and hence of the which  comparison  would  prescriptive  ignore  reading.  that  of that  nature  effort  in  of its  iv  Table of Contents Abstract Acknowledgement  i i v  Chapter I INTRODUCTION  1  Chapter II THE CONCEPT OF LITERARY INFLUENCE  5  Chapter I I I WOOLF'S INFLUENCE ON GARCIA MARQUEZ: THE CRITICS' VIEWS ..35 Chapter IV WOOLF AND GARCIA MARQUEZ: TEXTUAL PARALLELS Chapter V CONCLUSION  110  BIBLIOGRAPHY  125  54  V  Acknowledgement  I would Czetwertynski, work p o s s i b l e .  like who  to  extend  heartfelt  thanks  to  Elizabeth  i n so many ways made the completion of t h i s  1  I.  INTRODUCTION  G a b r i e l G a r c i a Marquez i s a ( s e l f - c o n f e s s e d ) or V i r g i n i a Woolf. was  influenced  T h i s has l e d some c r i t i c s  by  her  in  his writing.  avid  reader  to suggest  that he  Many  reject  this  p o s s i b i l i t y and maintain t h a t , i n a l l u d i n g to i t , the author has q u i t e simply, and c o n s c i o u s l y , c o n t r i b u t e d others  have  pursued  depth  support  to the h y p o t h e s i s .  study of the matter  exists,  the comparison m e r i t s f u r t h e r  which,  While  that a r e a . engendered  theory  The  one  more  maintain,  i s no simple of  the d i s c u s s i o n s  to r e v e a l the myriad  reads  of  the  matter.  problems i n  numerous  arguments  the s u b j e c t , the more one becomes d i s i n c l i n e d to  embark on a study influence.  they  study.  influence  by  But  i n the o p i n i o n of some c r i t i c s  It r e q u i r e s only a s u p e r f i c i a l examination on  "myth."  to my knowledge no i n -  However, to proceed with such a study  written  a  the suggestion, and i n comparing works by  the two have found c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t i e s lends  to  Not  intended to prove only  the  or d i s p r o v e an hypothesis of  methodological  inconsistencies  and  s h o r t f a l l i n g s of the approach but a l s o the very assumptions upon which  influence  proof untenable  theory  is  based  make the very n o t i o n of such  and make the e n t i r e approach p r o b l e m a t i c .  But n e i t h e r i s an o u t r i g h t r e j e c t i o n of the of  the e n t i r e concept  a  satisfactory  of  these, but t h i s has'done l i t t l e  insight  into  resolution  and  of i n f l u e n c e as an approach to l i t e r a t u r e ,  conclusion.  the  proposal,  problem.  Many c r i t i c s  And  have done one or both  t o r e s o l v e or even t o provide the  need  i s made evident simply by the f a c t  for  insight  and  that the approach  2  persists. to  set  S t u d i e s of i n f l u e n c e p e r s i s t . out upon proving or denying  Critics will  continue  the i n f l u e n c e of a V i r g i n i a  Woolf upon a G a r c i a Marquez. The evidence was  purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s , t h e r e f o r e , to  not  to  provide  support or deny the hypothesis that G a r c i a Marquez  i n f l u e n c e d by V i r g i n i a Woolf.  Rather  i t i s to  examine  ground, more fundamental and more i n need of examination, very  notion  of l i t e r a r y  influence.  In  spite  of  the  particularly  styles  by  is  and  many a g a i n s t any p o s s i b l e  sensibilities,  immediately  in  part  "obvious" case one When one  is in order.  and  apt for the purposes  that one does not  given.  reaction  i n the comparison of these two authors, given  different  influence  examination  of some aspects of the problem.  fruitfulness very  of the  The case of V i r g i n i a Woolf  and G a r c i a Marquez w i l l provide an example f o r illustration  the  And  what  of t h i s study.  accept makes  i s more i n c l i n e d i s less  their  inclined  i t as an it to  so  The  case  is  very  fact  obvious apt.  accept  their  case  of  For with an  the  matter  as  to so so, f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n i n g  i t i s the i n t e r r o g a t i o n of t h i s  method  which  i s our purpose here. Furthermore,  the  case  of  these authors  s u i t a b l e because of the very nature narrative  intentions,  it  of  their  of  d e c o n s t r u c t ion  the theory.  The  notion  writing.  is  Their  can be shown, are q u i t e at odds with  the very assumptions of i n f l u e n c e theory, and implicit  in p a r t i c u l a r  of those assumptions, of  fitting  their  thus  provide  an  and by extension works  into  the  3  framework  prescribed  p r o b l e m a t i c , i f not  . by  ironic,  influence in t h i s  theory  becomes  more  light.  As the exposure of i n f l u e n c e theory i t s e l f  i s the  intention  here, t h i s study w i l l begin with an examination  of the  concept.  In  the  first  chapter  characteristics and  of  alternatives  I  the to,  shall  look  at  definitions'  and  n o t i o n , at c r i t i c i s m s and defences this  approach,  as  well  as  at  of, the  assumptions which inform i t . In  the  second  chapter  I  views on the p a r t i c u l a r case of discover,  for  one,  look at v a r i o u s c r i t i c s '  Woolf  and  Garcia  Marquez  on what b a s i s they compare the two,  as on what b a s i s they deny prove  shall  the  influence.  This  to  as w e l l  latter  will  to be as much on preconceived conceptions of the n o t i o n of  influence  as  on  textual  differences.  s h a l l examine d i s c u s s i o n s of the mentioned  by  critics  two  A l s o i n t h i s chapter I  predominant  similarities  - the m a n i p u l a t i o n of n a r r a t i v e time  and  the d e p i c t i o n of "the moment." In the t h i r d chapter by  I s h a l l attempt  a comparison of  texts  the two authors, s t a r t i n g with a general comparison and  f o c u s i n g on two Garcia light  texts in p a r t i c u l a r ,  Marquez's  La h o j a r a s c a .  theory  manipulation  of  assumptions,  will  and  in  narrative  One  Chapter time  Mrs.Dalloway  T h i s comparison,  of the d i s c u s s i o n s i n Chapter  influence  Woolf's  of  Two is  a  then  the  and  viewed i n the  assumptions  of the way  of  i n which the  subversion  of  those  r e v e a l the d e c o n s t r u c t i o n of i n f l u e n c e theory  i m p l i e d by these t e x t s through  their  r e j e c t i o n of  the  premises  4  upon w h i c h  with  that  However,  it  those  deny  who  influences. is  of  be  is  avail. of  based.  must be any  In  stressed  i f such  fact,  a  conventions  of c h r o n o l o g i c a l  narrative study,  and  to  of  influence Through  literary  textual  of  refuted.  linear  t h e o r y and that  time  For  time  on  of)  is,  critical  both  of  inform the  of  of  the  influence  dispute attest  the c o n v e n t i o n , are  shown  traditional  texts  hand, t h e y  of t h i s  be  the  notion  approach  these  can  of  attitude  refutation  i t s refutation,  we  conclude study  that  the  t h e argument a g a i n s t i t a r e  assumptions  the  t h e o r y can  which govern  Thus b o t h  of t h e a s s u m p t i o n s  texts.  That  t h e one  to  m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of  influence  while  deconstruction  those  to  unequivocable  traditional  convention  understanding which  and  its inevitability.  alternative  in  the  is itself  supremacy other  final  i s not  whatever  deconstructionist.  achieving  this  studies persist,  the  the c o n v e n t i o n s  doubly  that  validity  Once a g a i n ,  little  subversion to  theory  the  on  the  and  (the  refuted.  Both  deconstructed.  achieve t h e o r y , and r e a d i n g and  a of  better the  ways  placing  of  5  II.  THE CONCEPT OF LITERARY INFLUENCE  The concept of i n f l u e n c e has become or  distinctly  unpopular,  out of f a s h i o n , among many s c h o l a r s of contemporary  c r i t i c i s m and theory.  However, s t u d i e s  continue  and  to  appear,  p a r t i c u l a r method literary  alleged  thus the assumptions  continue  studies.  of  to  Given  inform  this  a  fact,  underlying this  A more f r u i t f u l  not  they should, but rather why  or  not  approach  The  number  of  of  cannot  be  would be to  p e r s i s t , and to q u e s t i o n the i n t e n t i o n and the a s s e r t i o n or the d e n i a l of an  portion  issue  ( p r o f i t a b l y ) ignored. whether  influences  certain the  literary  these  outcome  ask  studies of  the  influence.  discussions,  not  of  p a r t i c u l a r cases of  i n f l u e n c e but of the concept  itself,  is  a c o n t i n u i n g preoccupation with the  further  indication  notion of i n f l u e n c e . influence,  the  of  that t h i s  As i n the case of  authors  of  these  topic  actual  studies  the  v a l i d i t y of the concept.  i s s u e s , o b j e c t i o n s or defenses have  raised,  concluded. - with  they  That  admonitions  conclude  But, a f t e r  that as,  to s p e c i f i c  the method, or they r e j e c t  an  heated  debate  r a i s i n g the same  countless  other  scholars  a g a i n , c o u n t l e s s o t h e r s have  i s , they e i t h e r defend as  of  d i s c u s s i o n s acknowledge the  myriad problems that have l e d to the lengthy and over  generates  influence  studies,  if  o b j e c t i v e s or a p p l i c a t i o n s of  i t in favour of a l t e r n a t i v e concepts.  But r a r e l y do they pose  questions  that  would  alter  the  course  of the debate or that would p r o v i d e new  insight  i n t o the  field.  They do not examine the nature of  debate  and  assumptions  inherent  in  the  the  arguments on both s i d e s .  Nor  the do  6  they question positing  the  yet  fruitfulness,  another  claim  or  on  rather  one  the  futility,  s i d e or the other  of  of the  argument. For any  i t becomes obvious, in the  possibility  matter has defend  not,  of  "proving"  occurred  influence  that an  is  studies  lay  are  it  still  to question the  and and  other  claim  both  of  of  i n f l u e n c e theory.  and  Yet  a  those  And  as  those  influence  And  a  theory  of  secondly, by  literature  influence, same  that  operative they remain  assumptions  allegedly  than to r e s o l v e the  i n t e n t i o n here i s not  to hold  in that debate and  with  in.the concept of  i t i s to examine the notions  the  study  influence,  and  replacements i n s o f a r as they f a i l influence  theory  understanding, and  which  proposed to  find  one  side  to  s i t u a t i n g of l i t e r a r y  or  as  implicit As  alternatives  to  inadequate  as  assumptions  of  these  inform texts.  the  studies  influence i t s e l f .  to expose the  continue  notion  problem.  d i s c u s s i o n of the assumptions  well  of  inform  "transcend"  Rather i t i s to review the debate over i n f l u e n c e  to attempt a c r i t i c a l  we  failing  Thus a d i s r e g a r d or a d i s m i s s a l of the  to obscure r a t h e r  who  studies  form a part of the ways in which literature.  who  method which w i l l  influence.  of the degree to which those  The  to  that  or f o r that  understand thoroughly the assumptions  theories  other.  indeed.  fact that, f i r s t l y ,  classify,  application  ignorant  serves  the  common they s t i l l  understand,  in  ignore  debate,  i n f l u e n c e has,  dubious  " t r u l y " prove the occurrence of an reject  l i g h t of t h i s  the  reading,  7  The begin  p r o b l e m s and  with  the  terminology  Certain terms  is  different  finds  of  in fact  a  place  f o r the  latter  fact,  literary  influence, over  the  of  the  has  been  use  of  the  the  t e r m does l i t t l e  after  given  to,  the  Harold  word  to  the  received Brandt  stars." the  i n The  i t s root  "prime m e a n i n g " as from  "an 2  s e n s e of  Corstius  define  to  the  classify with third  concepts  i n f l u e n c e , and  find  no  of  influence  and  to as  and  the  notion  than  uneasiness  that  of  the  resolve  that  misuse  concept.  1  ambiguity,  a l t e r n a t i v e s or  meanings a l r e a d y  its  of  Mere and  replacements  taken  from,  or  "influence."  Bloom,  "influence"  the  of  issue.  more c o n c e r n e d  debate over  ambiguity  considered  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  are  discussion  term,"  avoidance  only  the  terms  l e s s disagreement  overall  be  term  i n the  the  c o n c e p t s can  of  amount  related practices. ' A  i n her  to  other  small  The  studies.  contributes of  it.  t o o u t l i n e and  others  in l i t e r a r y  finds that  cavalier  no  influence  t h e s e a l t e r n a t i v e t e r m s or  Anna B a l a k i a n ,  "there  with  and  various  from o t h e r  replacement  fortune,  lengths  some use  or more of  literary  discussions  influence,  influence one  in  to great  these,  be  In  this  to  associated  means s t a n d a r d i z e d ,  go  of  in regard  language  given  types  distinguishing  to  no  scholars  involved;  group  very  i s by  consideration  confusions  gives  By  Anxiety  meaning  of  emanation  or  the  time of  'having the  a  following  of  Influence, "inflow"  traces  and  f o r c e coming Aquinas, power  definition  word  defines  its  i n upon mankind  Bloom  over  the  says,  it  another.'" of  the  3  "had Jan  concept:  8  The term ' i n f l u e n c e ' i s o f t e n used i n a general sense to denote the i d e a t i o n a l and formal consequences that c e r t a i n e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s have had on a work of l i t e r a t u r e or of c r i t i c i s m or on an entire period. "  Says J.T.Shaw, "an author may be considered influenced  by  an  effect  his  native  development do not e x p l a i n . "  literary  which  textual  and/or  his  borrowings  may  have  level  of  influence  misinterpretation, Writes  Claudio  influences,  prepared  it for  inextricably  Guillen:  "As  myself,  in  no  denies  and  by  than  at  "poetic  causality  tied of  the  that  to  or  7  i s the  misreading,  earlier  student  misreadings,  other  verbal  works.  theorist  literature  of  breeds  legends,  delusions  or  mirages, f a i l u r e s of  6  fact  on  Bloom  opposite  views on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t are well,  Morize thus  seems apparent that the w r i t i n g of new works i s  While G u i l i e n ' d i f f e r s from are  of  misrepresentation  ...  mistranslations, communication."  as  and  including  literature,  (they  6  " i n f l u e n c e presupposes some manner of c a u s a l i t y . "  of  as  In a l l of the above views, i t i s g e n e r a l l y  In keeping as w e l l with t h i s notion concept  influence  no p a r t .  i n f l u e n c e more at the l e v e l of i n s p i r a t i o n the t e x t .  artistic  something l e s s t a n g i b l e , "  places  held that  been  t r a d i t i o n and personal  Andre Morize d e f i n e s  5  "something more profound and g e n e r a l l y in  have  a f o r e i g n author when something from without can  be demonstrated to have produced upon him works  to  on  many  other  points,  s i d e s of the argument), t h e i r comparable.  For  i n f l u e n c e - when i t i n v o l v e s two strong,  Bloom  as  authentic  9  poets act  -  always  of c r e a t i v e  proceeds correction  misinterpretation." studies, any  by a m i s r e a d i n g of t h e p r i o r that  i s actually  He makes t h i s  9  and goes on t o p r o p o s e  a p r e c u r s o r poem o r o f p o e t r y  of  poetry  since so  i s f o r Bloom  as  to  clear  that  history  would  1 0  from  poetic  a more d e t a i l e d  study  of  history  influence,  one  for themselves."  "read  as a p o e t ,  The v e r y  by m i s r e a d i n g  i m a g i n a t i v e space  the n o t i o n f u r t h e r ,  which  in g e n e r a l . "  a  of i n f l u e n c e  misinterpretation,  "indistinguishable  s t r o n g p o e t s make  necessarily  t h e v e r y banner  a criticism  poem as i t s p o e t ' s d e l i b e r a t e  of  and  p o e t , an  another, To d e f i n e  1 1  i t s elements  is  necessary.  The According in  possible t o Shaw,  newspapers,  well  as  sources  artistic  being,  works."  "non-literary  knowledge o f  understood.  Another  differentiates otherwise)  by  the  He d i s t i n g u i s h e s  (e.g.  f o r p l o t ) and t h o s e 1  According  w h i c h a r e by n a t u r e Marx) a r e u s u a l l y  numerous.  the  by  nature  their  borrowing  reviews,  sources,"  o f t h e meaning o f t h e  poem  cannot  be  fully  i s drawn by Shaw,  nature  of t h e i r  as  distinguishes  and l i t e r a r y  of d i s t i n c t i o n  not  work.  effect. "  are  F.W.Bateson  causes  which  axis  sources  but  1 2  i n h i s opinion, a "part  poem," w i t h o u t 1 3  influence  reported conversations, in c r i t i c a l  within  latter  an  "one may d i s c o v e r t h e ' s o u r c e ' of a  among t h e s e between the  of  (literary  relation  who or  t o the l a t e r  two t y p e s : t h o s e w h i c h p r o v i d e m a t e r i a l s  to  w h i c h have an " a r t i s t i c , "  or  formal,  U l r i c h W e i s s t e i n , s o u r c e s of i n f l u e n c e  non-artistic  manifested  (he g i v e s as examples F r e u d and  i n t h e new work a t t h e l e v e l  of the  1 0  former of Shaw's types, that of  form.  the  l e v e l of  content,  rather  than  at  1 5  Hassan l i s t s as  "the  sources of p l a u s i b l e  influences:"  ...the c l i m a t e , mores, or l o c a l e of a people...a h i s t o r i c a l event...some p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e or literary convent ion ... a social and cultural tradition...a p a r t i c u l a r theory or idea...a thinker...a .literary movement... an author ... some s p e c i f i c l i t e r a r y w o r k . 16  He  attributes  method  of  the  approach  "heterogeneity"  of  as  i n f l u e n c e , which tradition,  a  susceptible "the  be,  to the  are  "need  be  highly word."  a  i n t r i c a t e pattern  type  to  r e c i p i e n t s of "an  single  author,  affect  this  know  what As  1 8  on  to  age,  a  [or]  a  reception,  Shaw  puts  l e v e l of Shaw,  i t may  rather  between than  an  two  it,  land."  "in  form  and  style,  a l s o be shown  However, Rene Wellek i n s i s t s  parallel  an  made a w r i t e r  fallow  then, at both the  1 9  of  that  works must be  isolated  'motif'  "a or  20  The may  a  themes, mannerisms, and  significant,  this  Hassan:  shown," according  in content, thought, i d e a s . " to  to  i n f l u e n c e must f a l l  be  to  possible  i n f l u e n c e of a n o t h e r . "  " I t may  images, c h a r a c t e r s ,  the  movement,  i s detected,  a systematized  field.  according  the  seed of l i t e r a r y  of c o n t e n t .  studies  V a r i o u s f a c t o r s can  stresses  Influence  i n the  literary 17  in discovering  influence  well  may  p a r t i c u l a r work." Hassan  to  ideas  Heterogenous  and  difficulties  kinds  of  influence  be v a r i e d as w e l l .  influences,  an  example  Shaw  r e s u l t i n g from these r e l a t i o n s h i p s speaks  of the  of  direct  and  indirect  l a t t e r being the case of a work  11  influential  i n t r a n s l a t i o n , where  adaptation  from the o r i g i n a l .  or a r r e s t e d  influences,  the  there  has  necessarily  Andre Morize speaks of  2 1  former  delayed,  the  been  retarded  latter  cut  short, and  of negative i n f l u e n c e s , where an e f f e c t i s manifested  as  reaction  the  Weisstein  gives  against  as  a  phenomenon  known as  popularized  by Brecht...  i t s opposite, thrust. "  as  particular  "variant  of  (literary)  negative  force.  influence  'counter-design,' a term coined  influence  or at l e a s t  Here, a l i t e r a r y model i s changed i n t o  i t were, through  have  been  made  a  reversal  to  study by d e f i n i n g the  s t r e s s e d that the  of  the  polemic  value to the method i n s i s t  restructure  i n f l u e n c e has  that  i t be  used as  i t , by which i n s i g h t may  individual  of  a  work  an  grant  the  and/or i n t o the q u a l i t y of  the  this  the abuses of the method,...it  l e g i t i m a t e method  against  in  spite  the n o t i o n ,  and of  cannot the  recognizes  be  any  be gained i n t o  Wellek maintains t h a t ,  "whatever  "is  "instrument,"  r e l a t i o n s h i p between works. potential,  to  It i s  occurred  Rather, the c r i t i c s who  2 3  as Rene Wellek c a l l s quality  approaches  o b j e c t i v e s of such study.  knowledge that an  s i g n i f i c a n t in i t s e l f . "  Guillen,  the  2 2  Attempts  not  a  rejected  general  in  attack  because  toto." " 2  which he  some value in i n f l u e n c e  of is a Even  launches studies:  ...[influences] open, by means of the extensive examination of unmediated w r i t e r - t o - w r i t e r or work-towork c o n t a c t s t h e doors of the w r i t e r ' s workshop and the endlessly complex process of artistic creat i o n . 2 5  Others  consider  the  method  valuable  as  an  aid  to  12  interpretation hunting...is  of  works.  clearly  justifiable,  grounds, because i t can naive,  untutored  Bateson  serve  to  responses."  writes on  provides  our  a check a g a i n s t  But  the  For  26  maintain that  toward  certain  value  importance thought."  to  to  the  the  i n f l u e n c e as  has  a  in  simple  and  "there  trivial exist."  be,  are  too  attempts to demonstrate c a u s a l  literary  Even  those  to point  end  granting  a  i s "of l e s s  was  formerly  where  it  frequently  literary  out  the  should  influence as  the  creation."  2 9  many examples of v a i n or r e l a t i o n s h i p s where  none  3 0  Furthermore, may  and  2 7  simple-minded way  As  says,  of  it  than  "too  unique source of a  he  whole  its parts."  that  "an  determining cause and well,  the  for " i t  defends the concept, upholds  he continues,  employed  the  rife."  states  have been a means, and," been  well,  as  concept  literature  also  o b j e c t i o n to the study of  our  approach are quick  concept,  who  correct  C o r s t i u s , in s p i t e of  comparative  Block,  28  field.  or  of  m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  i t is a valid  the weaknesses in the  literary  to us as readers,  i n f l u e n c e are, as Hassan puts i t , " e q u a l l y who  strictest  Stallman  interpretation  "aversions"  "source-  authenticate  knowledge of such a source i s v a l u a b l e c o r r e c t s or r e i n f o r c e s  the  that .  the  emphasis  as o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r ,  either  leads  subservience  to the n o n l i t e r a r y that was  3 1  to  on these sources,  literary  literature,  studies."  Guillen  placed  his c r i t i c i s m  G u i l l e n i s o b j e c t i n g not  or  which  external  to  of "the  automatic  the burden of  influence  only  to  the  nonliterary  13  nature  of  influence  the  occurs.  influences  the  case  at  a  one.  of  "l'intere't  but  Thus by  occur  than a l i t e r a r y in  source  assertion  that  means the  pointed of  value  entire  gaining  influence  of  offers  This  notion  though  upheld,  disparaged studies detail."  studies.  us c l u e s  he  "One  we  emphasis  to this  l'interelt on  but, to a that  have Like  seen,  Guillen,  forced  the large  Guillen  however,  as a  some  place  finds  this  sanctum o f g e n i u s " in  regarding  of the g e n e t i c  process...  Hassan  to  wonder,"  Anna B a l a k i a n ,  while to  of  an  influence,  by some s c h o l a r s ,  dependent  influence."  well  that  " i s wrong  as  data  biographical  genesis  evidence  of  as  que  3  accumulation  objects  another,  type of i n f l u e n c e . " "  not  3 6  upon  "pure c h a n c e when t h e b i o g r a p h y  b i o g r a p h y . . . does  approach,  on  is  rather  i t i s in i t s capacity  component  b e c a u s e he s e e s them 3 5  that  out that  processes,"  feels,  biographical  by o t h e r s .  level,  basis,  literary  to the inner  he c o n t i n u e s ,  as  this  also  points  grand  Weisstein,  "penetrating  of  not  however,  as a r e c o g n i z a a b l e  a poet  means  writer  on  into a r t i s t i c  Guillen,  i s , in fact,"  is  i n w h i c h an  3 3  insight  of  it  biographical  of i n f l u e n c e  notion  one  i c i plus  are  out e a r l i e r ,  impracticable.  It  or  to the method.  As  And  influences  "genetic  he  or p s y c h o l o g i c a l  of  est  3 2  t o t h e manner  Van Tieghem, a s w e l l ,  psychologique 1itteraire."  objects  genetic  influence  proprement  extent,  well  "nonliterary"  Paul  an  as  objects  to influence  upon  "biographical  says Hassan,  give  sanction  as e q u i v a l e n t she  sees  extensive  h a s been  " i f the to  t o a proof  validity  the of  i n the  use o f b i o g r a p h i c a l  1 4  m a t e r i a l which, she "tended to engulf thereby art."  veered  maintains, i s o f t e n m i s l e a d i n g  a l a r g e part of our us  which  tendency  Hassan  constant,  that  author."  3 8  It  i s not  expressed critics  experience  being  experience.  only  in, find  constant  of  or  the  idea  transferred  objectionable.  to  art,  the  f a c t o r of  to  rearrangement of l i t e r a r y  another,"  which  viewpoint  of  modern  existence  of  aesthetics."  is,  he  of  of of  literature  of  experience  into, As  well  being  literary as  directly  terms that some  the  transfer  "An  influence,"  forms and  claims,  says  of  idea, was  the  themes from one  Guillen, transfer work  to  "not  only untenable from  the  but  inimical  to  the  - experience in l i f e  and  the product of  d i f f e r e n t "orders  is transferred directly  work, Hassan p o i n t s out  of  artistic  existence.""  from an author's l i f e  that t h i s view of i n f l u e n c e  between  which i s analogous to the  the  very  It i s untenable, he would contend,  As w e l l as the problems d e r i v i n g from t h i s assumption  relationship  the  3 9  aesthetics,  endeavour - belong to two  experience  the  'expression'  t h i s notion  to the o l d nineteenth-century  because the two  is  the concept of i n f l u e n c e seems to assume a  t r a n s f e r between works of a r t . "according  raises  t h e i r works as more or l e s s  T . S . E l i o t also attacked  as the expression  a  and  in i n f l u e n c e s t u d i e s to consider  r e l a t i o n s h i p between authors and  and  activities  has  away from d i r e c t communion with the work of  objection  "'expressionist'  its  which  3 7  Another  a  research  and  "influenced"  the  that to h i s  presupposes  author and  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  0  h i s work  influencing  1 5  author  and  his  work.  He  claims  that these r e l a t i o n s h i p s must  needs d i f f e r , which f a c t would preempt the p o s s i b i l i t y influence.  Henri  Peyre as w e l l a s s e r t s that  caused by the ambition of l i t e r a r y conceive  literature  Studies...of advised  to give up  Another  network  in  most  major  causal  in  i s with regard  i s not  the  search  process.  to the question an  that  aesthetic  it  is  by  define  the  historicity  lines.  On  Hassan  with  which  study  of  the  he  study  creative  there  is  no  as  contradiction  i s equally c o n t r o v e r s i a l , a  the manner in which i n f l u e n c e s t u d i e s a l l e g e d l y of a work i s questioned along  the one  hand the  means  of  study of i n f l u e n c e can  linking  i n t e r n a t i o n a l , temporal scheme. maintaining as  For  some a n t i t h e t i c a l to a e s t h e t i c study, by others And  history  the  of b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l  it.  view,  study?  for G u i l l e n i t i s concerned with psychology  part of  valuable  of  two.  use  considered  or  of a e s t h e t i c s .  Elsewhere i t i s deemed a e s t h e t i c  opposed to a e s t h e t i c s , f o r  The  causes  because, as he sees i t , i t i s more concerned  reason  Where  between the  well  the argument over the place  influence  textuality.  for the very  to  relations.  for  with the c r e a t i v e process than with a e s t h e t i c s , associates  and  or more w r i t e r s would be  cases  concern  study of l i t e r a r y it  of  science  been  1  influence studies  Guillen  a  "much harm has  study to ape  r e l a t i o n s between two  influences.""  Is the  as  of d i r e c t  that  works But  or  Guillen  be seen as  movements objects  ordered  and  causally  in to  i t c r e a t e s a f a l s e concept of  diachronically  the same a an this  literary  propelled,  16  dependent upon l i t e r a r y Many  attribute  fortune r a t h e r than a e s t h e t i c v a l u e . "  the problems i n the f i e l d  systematic methodology, and the ambiguity abound  in  criticism  the of  establishment  field  the of  are  lack  a  of  with the lack  other,  separate  of  kinds  distinction  notions  of  of  such  as  to the lack of a  and  confusion  this lack.  distinction  different  concern  result  in  method  which  There i s in  the  i n f l u e n c e , as w e l l as a between  literary  influences  and  f o r t u n e , a problem  which Anna B a l a k i a n a t t r i b u t e s to the "confusion of research.""  2  methods  of  3  However, a more recent, and e x t e n s i v e , study of the concept of  i n f l u e n c e has addressed  that very problem.  in A r t and L i t e r a t u r e , Goran survey  of the conceptual  Hermeren  In h i s Influence  provides  a  framework used by c r i t i c s  "systematic and s c h o l a r s  when they d i s c u s s problems of i n f l u e n c e , " as w e l l as the o u t l i n e for  a d e f i n i t i v e methodology f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g an i n f l u e n c e . " " In  other words, while he d i s c u s s e s the v a r i o u s against it in  influence  in particular  cases,"  order to e s t a b l i s h what he c o n s i d e r s to be "genuine  artistic  differs  the evidence  5  However, very  Hermeren's little  influence scholars.  He  f o r and  study, he does so with the purpose of making  " e a s i e r to weigh and s i f t  influence.""  of  arguments  method,  from  the  approaches  is  systematized,  outlined  from those o u t l i n e d  p r o v i d e a systematic overview  But he p r o v i d e s no  it  by other  Neither are h i s c o n c l u s i o n s as to the worth  influence studies d i f f e r e n t does  while  further  by  others.  of i s s u e s i n the f i e l d .  understanding  of  the  fundamental  1 7  problems  with  "better"  the  influence  The  concept,  of  ends i n s t e a d with a guide to  studies.  f a i l u r e to s p e c i f y  concept  and  influence  the  assumptions  allows  for  inherent  nothing  more  i n the  than  r e i t e r a t i o n s of one side or the other of the argument. because  assumptions,  explicit,  become  influence  "obvious."  the  structures  absent.""  or  incorporated  as  norms.  The  6  As Barthes says, "everything one  looks  A discussion  discourse  for  appear  of l i t e r a r y  conspires  either  commonly  diachronic (vulgar) one  structure.  coming  down  beneath i t the notion  past."*  notion  Edward  in  of  Said  the  o f , as  implications "absent",  theory.  influence  describes  implies  this  work of a n o t h e r . " *  Guillen  puts  7  i t , the  to " r e j o i n the flow of p r o c e s s , of time passing 8  basis,  G u i l l e n objects for  to  account  necessary "to turn biographical  once  phenomena"  to  influence  for  that  more  to  study  of  study  largely  passage the  a  "linear of  There i s need,  or  and time on  this  of time i t becomes  study  of  genetic  and  and to p r o v i d e "a symbol of h i s t o r y as  diachrony and as n a r r a t i v e . " " The  or  i n f l u e n c e can go no f u r t h e r  s t r u c t u r e of i n f l u e n c e  understood  to make  idea of ' i n f l u e n c e ' " as "a crude idea of the weight  writer  drive,  of  innocent  study of l i t e r a t u r e , which form the seemingly  "innocent", u n d e r l y i n g  The  is  when they remain as such and are not made  without a d i s c l o s u r e of the assumptions, and t h e i r the  This  theory c o n c e a l s c e r t a i n assumptions under the guise of  the  in  such  9  influences,  therefore,  both  implies,  and  18  requires, obvious, that  a strictly  "dynastic"  activity,  lineal  "source"  of  other  "bound  to  sources  Inherent,  50  (a term o f t e n used to r e f e r to an  implied  in  this  system  of  i s an assumption of a c a u s a l process.  they  take  them  as  such.  requirement"  in  the  finds d i f f i c u l t y an extreme.  the  to c o m p l i c a t i o n s extent  came  f o r granted  influence),  chronological While s c h o l a r s  Hermeren study  relationships  calls  this  of an hypothesis  the  does  not  question,  on  a r i s i n g out of t h i s n o t i o n , nature  manner to  of l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y .  of those  in  which,  of i n f l u e n c e .  after  the  contrary  read  he  While he admits  and  discusses  to  or  the  reasons  in l i t e r a r y  f o r which,  r e l a t i o n s , nor study  5 1  between consecutiveness  being  He  c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s , he does not  be an assumption  Roland Barthes d i s m i s s e s  "confusion  does  "causal  does he f i n d the notion of c a u s a l i t y i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n the  But  in  that i n f l u e n c e theory  b a s i c assumption of c a u s a l i t y .  the  the  causality  then,  with t h i s assumption only when i t i s c a r r i e d to  But he  reaffirms,  question  and  " v i s i o n s . . . o f pure c o n t i n u i t y ,  on the value or place of d e f i n i n g l i t e r a r y  define  notions  s u c c e s s i o n , p r o g r e s s i o n , and, n e c e s s a r i l y , end.  causal,  some  filiation,  and even a c h i e v e m e n t . "  Furthermore, succession  f a c t appears  s t r u c t u r e , i s an adherence to a c h r o n o l o g i c a l order  continuity,  as  While t h i s  I t i s based, as Said puts i t , on the  i n which are permitted  progress,  implying  implies.  principle  origins,"  differ  structure.  i t i s , again, e s s e n t i a l to make e x p l i c i t  lineality  the  lineal  in  a  such c a u s a l e x p l a n a t i o n s and consequence,  narrative  as  as a  what-comes-  what-is-caused-by."  52  19  Barthes' d i s c u s s i o n p e r t a i n s s p e c i f i c a l l y "narrative" and  of l i t e r a r y  history reflects  presuppostions s i m i l a r to those of n a r r a t i v e  fact and  or d i s c o u r s e  to n a r r a t i v e , but  allows will  be  Virginia  us to d i s c u s s c e r t a i n notions relevant  Woolf  and  later  Garcia  Marquez  in  processes  itself.  as o p e r a t i v e  in the d i s c u s s i o n  the  of  the  terms  of  This  in both, texts  of  a possible  influence. Barthes goes on to s t a t e process, the  "narrative  logical  'post  hoc,  ergo  possibility  order  hoc.'"  of  assumed  a  causal  a p p l i c a t i o n of  s c h o l a s t i c i s m under the 53  It  succession  follows  that  can  conceive  one  of the ownership of t e x t s , as  formula in  this of  i t i m p l i e s an  the  origin,  to o r i g i n a t e , or beget something i s ( n e c e s s a r i l y ) to assume  i t s ownership. out,  propter  having  then be a systematic  f a l l a c y denounced by  chronological  and  would  that,  i s an  The  very  notion  of "authoring,"  " ' a u t h o r i t y i n the sense of that  as  Said  implicit  points power to  generate another word that w i l l belong to the w r i t i n g as a whole (Vico's  etymology  is  auctor:  autos:  suis  ipsius:  propsius:  property)." • 5  Thus S a i d l i n k s the very and  a  origin  lineal  while i n f l u e n c e theory, the  hypothesis  "originality" text(s). the  The  denial  of "author" to  s t r u c t u r e of s u c c e s s i o n  (or the p o s s i b i l i t y  origin,  notion  of  a  of an  the  Ironically  author,  or  i n f l u e n c e , in other  originality,  or the  this  i n question  rather  to  though,  structure, also implies  influence places  particular  a s s e r t i o n of an of  in turn l i n k s property  of o r i g i n a t i n g ) .  as a l i n e a l  "property,"  of  words,  the  their implies  i n d i v i d u a l i t y , of  the  20  "influenced" "fear"  There  i s , as  o f t h e d e c l a r a t i o n o f an  Such upon  author.  fear  i s the e f f e c t  the quality  Andre  influence  Gide  for this  of the high  of o r i g i n a l i t y .  points  reason.  artistic  Hermeren  points  out,  value  a  5 5  placed  out that,  due  to:  ...the strong connection, or indeed the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , between the c o n c e p t s of a r t i s t i c value and o r i g i n a l i t y ... - statements to the effect that the creation of one work o f a r t was i n f l u e n c e d b y another are tied to attribution of praise or blame. 5 6  While  Hermeren  hypothesis simply "is  o f an  However,  we  this  "supreme  have  a  points  movement  linking  recognizes,  has not always  to  Gide,  fear  as  as a  he  Furthermore, capitalist originality, texts,  speaks  that  authors moyen i s , he  with  makes  says, 5 7  have  conception."  prevailed.  He  of  new  This,  and a t d i f f e r e n t  their  he  times  5 8  Earlier,  influences,  according  "une p e u r  the Romantic  i t s valuing  as the  of culmination  d'enrichissement says,  he  influence."  and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e .  saw  he  of o r i g i n a l i t y  personnel." toute but the  5 9  6 0  concurrent and of  of the ownership  of t e x t u a l borrowing  The  moderne."  of the individual  possible the notion  and the c o n c e p t i o n  of  Romantic  the case,  i t i s not only  context,  notion  as the p e r i o d  been  theory,  of t h i s , "  view  i n the  prevails.  "basically  influence  threat,  "un h e u r e u x  of which  this  implicit  of the  "The m o r a l  still  originality  a t t i t u d e s towards than  view  is a  tendencies  rather  judgement,  moralistic  out that  in art"  the Romantic  i t .  less  "moralistic"  value  value  i n f l u e n c e , a s an a s s u m p t i o n  should  Hermeren  other  this  recommends o v e r c o m i n g  that  names  recognizes  of  as a p p r o p r i a t i o n .  21  Thus implies  while  the notion  existence the  the  of  denial  of  originality. by  must needs avert  writes Nietzsche,  This  in  lui.'"  and  too c l o s e  poet  an  that  the very  with a  "'Socrate,'"  precursors.  Discussions  "the covert  centuries."  63  in  forefathers."  According  6 2  "what  surrender  himself  of  i s more v a l u a b l e . self-sacrifice,  subject  i s nothing  protest  left  of i n f l u e n c e , " which of most poetry  happens  [ t o the  to be  of  struggles against  has  been,  f o r the l a s t  three  poet]  continual  an  artist  extinction  is a  Talent," continual  literary  tradition.  such surrender  is a  continual  of p e r s o n a l i t y . "  implies that the poet steps q u i t e w i l l i n g l y name  It i s  as he i s at the moment to something which  The progress of a  with  to Bloom, the  h i s " T r a d i t i o n and the I n d i v i d u a l  maintains that  of  language they employ, are fraught  "no proper work remains f o r him to perform."  T.S.Eliot,  en  of the  or " r e b e l l i o u s sons [ r i s i n g ] i n  literary  he c l a i m s ,  the  association  between i m i t a t o r s and the legacy  t h i s that he c a l l s the "anxiety  in  imitator,  presupposes a r e l a t i o n s h i p of  i s r i d d l e d with the fear that there  said,  the  or oppose that t h r e a t .  therefore,  images of such r i v a l r y , their  the c l a i m of an i n f l u e n c e i s  Furthermore,  handed down to them by t h e i r  against  of the  6 1  structure,  influence,  i t s assumption  theory  "'m'est s i proche, que je s u i s constamment  s t r u g g l e , or of r i v a l r y , past  s t r u c t u r e of i n f l u e n c e  originality  threatened  l u t t e avec  lineal  source or o r i g i n ,  of  necessarily precursor,  a  very  to  this  6 4  He  surrender,  But f o r Bloom, the poet  and s t r i v e s t o  break  free  of  22  the shadow of h i s p r e c u r s o r s . that the i n f l u e n c e d author Thus blessing."  Bloom  regards  obsessive  Blake,  reasoning  self-consciousness." and  son  crossroads."  6 7  as  f e a r , as Balakian puts  i t , is  "drown" in the i n f l u e n c e .  6 5  i n f l u e n c e as "more of a b l i g h t any  " i s to be  precursor's  inhibited  than a  system,"  he  from c r e a t i v i t y  and comparing, presumably of one's  works to the p r e c u r s o r ' s .  father  will  "To be enslaved , by  6 6  says, paraphrasing an  The  by own  P o e t i c I n f l u e n c e i s thus a disease of  It i s a "battle  between  strong  equals,  mighty o p p o s i t e s , L a i u s and Oedipus at the  6 8  Bloom h i m s e l f makes e x p l i c i t  f u r t h e r assumptions,  not only in the theory of i n f l u e n c e but  embedded  in the c o n v e n t i o n a l view  of the t r a d i t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e ,  r e g a r d i n g the h i e r a r c h y of t e x t s  or  structure.  authors  (that  fixed  into a l i n e a l  i s , swerving  from the o r i g i n a l ) ,  "Poetic m i s p r i s i o n , "  says Bloom,  ...historically a health, is individually a sin against c o n t i n u i t y , against the only a u t h o r i t y that matters, property or the priority of having named something first. Poetry i s p r o p e r t y , as p o l i t i c s i s property. 6  In  other  9  words,  hierarchy,  Bloom  (i.e.,  he  acknowledges the new continuity,  that  he  f a t h e r something i s to ownership  of  does  not  assumes  poet's might name  argue its  need,  and  the  validity), right,  himself  become  it  thus  and  terms  to  of  but  simply  break  an owner. to  have  the  For to  automatic  i t , and he cannot f a t h e r a work u n t i l he  the s t r u g g l e with h i s own  this  resolves  poetic father.  In summary, the concept  of i n f l u e n c e presupposes  a  lineal  23  structure, source).  inherent Form  development  and  this  in  originality  in  which  origin  an  order  is  the  emerges of  notion  a  of  o r i g i n (or  chronological,  succession,  (both i n the sense of to have  causal  where o r i g i n one's  implies  unique  origin  thus i n d i v i d u a l i t y as well as t o o r i g i n a t e and thus to own).  Originality  Many  i n turn  would  i s given  have  aesthetic  the  pursuit  value.  7 0  of i n f l u e n c e s abandoned i n  favour of other focuses of study, and throughout d i s c u s s i o n s the  topic  there  a r i s e a number of proposed a l t e r n a t i v e s to the  concept of i n f l u e n c e . replacements  While  some  of  these  other a c t i v i t i e s that confusion  mentioned e a r l i e r ,  fall  erroneously  between  as  among others,  Without r e j e c t i n g the v a l i d i t y  example  of i n f l u e n c e  studies,  maintains that we must separate the l a t t e r "What  influence,"  r e l a t e d , but hardly  interests she  says,  synonymous.  and  from the study of  impresses  granting In  71  r a i s e d , as  i s an  she  fortune.  from  heading.  and fortune,  this.  necessarily  offered  influence  under that  influence  by Anna Balakian  of  of  literary  are  f o r the concept of i n f l u e n c e , others are proposed  for the purpose of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the study  The  of  the  does  not  that the two are  same  vein,  Morize  d i s t i n g u i s h e s between success and i n f l u e n c e and Shaw between the latter fortune,  and  reception.  Guillen  also  notes t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n ;  he says, has to do with the career  influence,  or impact, as he c a l l s  of the  book,  i t , i s to be d i s c e r n e d  while at the  l e v e l of the genesis of the new poem. The  i n t e n t i o n i s not simply to  distinguish  between  these  24  notions,  but  to provide  to separate them, in both theory  an a l t e r n a t i v e l a b e l and  although commonly, and influence,  is  in  and  practice,  methodology f o r that  o f t e n ambiguously, c l a s s i f i e d as  fact  the  fortune  and  which, literary  or success of a w r i t e r , a  work, or a movement. The  concept of " i m i t a t i o n "  Weisstein  and  Shaw  influence  is  better  phenomenon, the  receives  maintain  that  described  involving  as  imitation,  are  field  and  within  strictly  separate  a degree of consciousness on the part considered  of  "unconscious  the approaches, methods, and  goals  in  of the  e i t h e r d i s c a r d the concept of i n f l u e n c e or c o n f i n e i t  previously  defined  included  classified  as at  a f f i n i t i e s not  families  a  s i m i l a r e n t r e a t i e s throughout the d i s c u s s i o n s  i n f l u e n c e to s o r t out  conscious  considered  7 2  There  discerned  treatment;  much of what i s  i m i t a t o r , while i n f l u e n c e might he  imitat i o n . "  analogous  in  studies the  the of  level  For example, much  domain  minds,  but  of  influence  parallelisms. of the  due  common  Such  t e x t , might be  necessarily resulting  imitation of  boundaries.  from  rather  an  to  sources  activity would  parallelisms, similarities  influence  fortuitous of  be  or  or a  analogy,  ideas,  literary  conventions, or i n t e r n a t i o n a l l i t e r a r y movements, by which "more or  less  nation at  similar once."  not  in  are  found to develop in more than  one  73  Many s c h o l a r s parallels  ideas  share the o p i n i o n  itself  may  be  that  fruitful,  while  the  the p a r a l l e l  study "may  go back to a common s o u r c e . " " G u i l l e n i n s i s t s as w e l l 7  or  of may upon  25  the  existence  of  " n o n i n f l u e n t i a l echoes and p a r a l l e l i s m s " and  bemoans the " c o n s i s t e n t c o n f u s i o n between i n f l u e n c e s and t e x t u a l similarities"  and  the  assumption  p a r a l l e l i s m s are i n d i v i s i b l e . " There to  are  it.  Claudio literature of  well  v a r i o u s other concepts proposed  account  either  C u l l e r puts  Guillen,  f o r example, proposes  i t , to  While  conventions  that the study of and  traditions,  G u i l l e n concedes that "genuine and  i n f l u e n c e s may occur," he i n s i s t s upon the  existence  " r e c u r r e n t techniques and conventions" which would  for large  conventions  directly  7 6  influences.  of  and  7 5  should be the study of  convincing as  "influences  r e p l a c e i n f l u e n c e theory, o r , as Jonathan  "transcend"  not  that  he  number  includes  of in  textual  what  instrument" a v a i l a b l e t o a poet.  he  similarities. calls  the  These  7 7  "linguistic  "This 'vocabulary,'" he says,  . . . i s the sum of the elements preserved i n the memory or the s e n s i b i l i t y of the poet before the genesis of a particular poem begins, and which a r e a v a i l a b l e i n d i f f e r e n t l y to a l l h i s l a t e r w r i t i n g . It contains potential vehicles of s e n s i b i l i t y , reminiscences, self-contradictions. And i t i n c l u d e s a l s o linguistic or formal procedures, preserved i n the t e c h n i c a l memory of the a r t i s t , and of the s o r t covered by the terms 'conventions' and ' t e c h n i q u e s . ' 78  Guillen  insists  entirely  unrelated  implying states,  upon to  the  existence  any  notion  a degree of c a u s a l i t y . "cannot  of  these conventions as  influence,  Conventions  be regarded as causes  the emergence of the poem."  of  the  latter  and techniques, he  unless they touch  directly  79  Linked with the idea of conventions  i s that  of  literary  26  traditions,  the  l a t t e r d e f i n e d by G u i l l e n as "conventions  out as sequences (conventions, one might say, with This  view  would  place  a  text  within  a  a  tradition, "sounder  adds the  the two  alternative  comprehensive  scheme  concept  of  development  together,  in  his  to  the  of  .literature,"  d e f i n i t i o n of t r a d i t i o n as a s i m i l a r to G u i l l e n ' s , and e x p l a n a t i o n of t e x t u a l Guillen's  the psychology  concept  "aesthetic," alternative  "developed  of  which  providing  Influence  which  in  would  a any  afford  relationships." system  of  of  8 1  a His  norms"  is  i t as an  similarities.  view,  focus he  that  s i m i l a r l y as w e l l he proposes  i n f l u e n c e theory focuses p r i m a r i l y  of the author.  should  instead  offers would  this move  In h i s i n s i s t e n c e on  that  concept  which of  that he  on  literary deems  "tradition"  away from the psychology  author and toward a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the reader.  not  conventions  to  opinion,  " r e a d i e r access to the problem of l i t e r a r y  study  8 0  tradition.  Hassan  In  past)."  tradition,  d i a c h r o n i c a l l y , but rather in terms of the system of of the  laid  participation  There are synchronic p a t t e r n s in l i t e r a t u r e , he  the  as  an  of the of  the  says,  ...known to a l l i n s o f a r as they enter the reading experience. Formal and semantic r e l a t i o n s p l a y a p a r t in the apprehension and e v a l u a t i o n of the individual l i t e r a r y work... In Saussure's terms, the 'langue' of u n i v e r s a l l i t e r a t u r e becomes, as we read, the 'parole' of remembered s y s t e m s . 82  But  by  thus p l a c i n g the "reading experience" i n a framework of  the memory of past reading, i t psychological  function  appears  as  hardly  less  of  a  than the process by which one w r i t e r i s  27  i n f l u e n c e d by another.  Nor would such an approach be any  from  operative  the  assumptions  i n i n f l u e n c e theory, as these  same assumptions are embodied by the t r a d i t i o n necessarily  take  part,  and  freer  by  which  i n which  readers  their  responses  are  fact,  to  such  governed. Reader  response  subjectivity tradition  on  the  theory part  seems, of  in  the reader  take  f o r granted, and the  i n which that reader has been schooled determines  subjectivity.  that  Says Jane Tompkins:  Reader-response c r i t i c s would argue that a poem cannot be understood apart from i t s r e s u l t s . I t s 'effects,' psychological and otherwise, are e s s e n t i a l to any accurate description of i t s meaning, since that meaning has no e f f e c t i v e e x i s t e n c e o u t s i d e of i t s r e a l i z a t i o n i n the mind of a r e a d e r . 8 3  Thus a r e a d e r - o r i e n t e d approach does not the  necessarily  transcend  assumptions inherent i n i n f l u e n c e theory, but t r a n s f e r s the  o p e r a t i o n of those assumptions from the author The concept  of i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y  i s another  as an a l t e r n a t i v e to i n f l u e n c e theory. Culler,  "designed  and p o s i t i v i s t i c defined  by  and Jonathan influence theory.  8 5  to the reader.  It  approach  was,  according  8  intertextuality,  such authors as Roland  Barthes, Michael  Culler,  does than  move does,  further  from  f o r example,  T h i s i s so because i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y ,  as  texts actually  to C u l l e r ,  read.  the  limits  reader  work's  of  response  i n the d e f i n i t i o n s  Instead, i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y  " l e s s a name f o r a  i t is  Riffaterre,  of those authors mentioned, i s not the simple or p r e c i s e of  to  to t r a n s c e n d . . . source study of a t r a d i t i o n a l  k i n d . " " In f a c t ,  theory  proposed  relation  memory  i s , according to  particular  28  prior  texts  than  an  discursive  space."  from  concept  the  assertion  Thus the concept  8 6  of  influence,  particular prior texts" But  in  operative  in  in  literary  which  those  function  describe in  the  a study  question,  as  well  certain existing structures  system,  exclusively  male,  some f e m i n i s t Sandra  critics. Gilbert  such a d e s c r i p t i o n  prescriptive  - in  literature,  on the r e c e p t i o n  and  maintenance of  i n the t r a d i t i o n .  poet  as  f o r t h i s reason has i n v i t e d attack  from  particular  order  aspects  of  depicts  as  a  the  description  influence  of any theory that  tradition."  theory of i n f l u e n c e  8 8  Diehl,  theory.  of the  According to  seeks to come to terms  as " d e s c r i p t i v e " rather  underlies  and  G i l b e r t and Gubar a l s o view h i s  a "recommendation f o r but an  poetics...which  to  of the  there i s a d i s t i n c t i o n "between the d e s c r i p t i v e  with a p r e e x i s t i n g  not  of the  and i t s  But o t h e r s , such as Joanne F e i t  8 7  still  and Susan Gubar, f i n d h i s theory u s e f u l as  patriarchal  Feit Diehl,  of  are  method  as on the u l t i m a t e  f o r example,  and  some  to unravel  discussion  critical  work  Bloom's  address  assumptions  Thus f u r t h e r  the e f f e c t of i t s a p p l i c a t i o n  in  " r e l a t i o n to  importance.  ascertain  overtly  the  theory, notably those p e r t a i n i n g to  studies.  i s necessary to  prescriptive  di'stiguished  upon o r i g i n and chronology, i t f a i l s  s u f f i c i e n t l y the ways  and  which  while the n o t i o n of i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y does  insistence  concept  is clearly  i s of primary  of the problems of i n f l u e n c e the  of a work's p a r t i c i p a t i o n in a  our  analysis  than of  culture's  "prescriptive," the chief  patriarchal literary  29  movements." The of  8 9  a p p l i c a t i o n , however, of Bloom's theory,  i n f l u e n c e theory,  with  its  i s highly p r e s c r i p t i v e .  attendant  assumptions, has  Benveniste s a i d of language: "the separable  from  the  method  r e a l i t y of the object chosen  to  influence i s  define  "define  of the works in question  indeed  t h i s p a r t i c u l a r method rather than by the themselves. placed  The  within  with the  system i s d e f i n e d it,  or  r e s u l t that  predetermined describes  by  studied  the the  outcome  Bloom's theory  of  and  an  As  was  it."  not The  9 0  attempt  to  by the terms of  terms  a priori  in the  method  theory,  a normative f u n c t i o n .  of  reality"  version  Influence  a p p l i c a t i o n of a theory the  or any  of  - the  the  texts  t e x t s are  then  framework i t p r e s c r i b e s , that  its  as doing e x a c t l y  study  is  largely  assumptions.  Culler  that:  The f u n c t i o n of Bloom's theory of i n f l u e n c e , c e r t a i n l y the f u n c t i o n of the Freudian a n a l o g i e s which s t r u c t u r e it, is to keep everything in the family. Intertextuality i s the family archive; when one explores i t one stays wholly within the traditional canon of major poets... There are o r i g i n s a f t e r a l l ; the precursor i s the great o r i g i n a l , the intertextual authority. 9 1  It theory  is  just  this  notion  that I wish to emphasize.  particular, will yield,  and  of the For  the  or rather produce, c e r t a i n  words.  meaning rather signification.  influence  superimposition  of  a  s e t , framework of i n q u i r y upon a work or works  Such a p p l i c a t i o n of a method ends by Said's  " f u n c t i o n " of  Thus  the  than, for The  function example,  function  of  predetermined  results.  "producing meaning," to i s to produce, or to the  decode  the  application  use  construct, process  of  of Bloom's  30  theory  i s to produce a system whereby t e x t s are  strict  order  of  patriarchal  l i n e a g e and r i v a l r y .  s t a t e d , Bloom merely makes e x p l i c i t long  this  all"  provides  method. origin  sardonic  statement that  a good example of the f u n c t i o n  A system based upon l i n e a l i t y f o r any given  creation,  "there  of  a  text.  a  given  9 2  which  has  studies. are o r i g i n s a f t e r  fulfilled  by  this  Furthermore, that establishment,  source i n i t s e l f  a  i s bound to c o n s t r u c t an or  f u r t h e r produces meaning.  Said puts i t , "meaning [ i s ] produced as beginning."  into  As already  function,  informed much of the t r a d i t i o n of l i t e r a r y Culler's  locked  a  result  of  a  As  given  T h i s would imply that to e s t a b l i s h , i n r e t r o s p e c t ,  beginning  i s to place  new meaning on, f o r example, a  text. This  has  influence  studies.  "discovery" reader had  certainly  occurred  Influence  in  numerous  scholars  of the sources o f , f o r example, a  to grasp the " t r u e " meaning of i t .  the true source of the poem remained  true  meaning  misunderstood. meaning  will  of  i t would  to  claim poem  that the  allows  the  I t would f o l l o w  that  forever  been  of  lost,  obscure, and  the  the poem  C l e a r l y the d e s i r e t o e s t a b l i s h true or absolute  (and the b e l i e f  effort  have  instances  reveal  that t h i s  the  i s possible) rather  process  by  which  than  the  signification  is  many  to  generated, f u r t h e r l i m i t s t h i s approach. A f u r t h e r problem i s i n the recognize  beginnings,  or  failure  o r i g i n s , as designated,  i n s i s t e n c e i n s t e a d upon the " l o g i c a l Barthes: "post  by  hoc, ergo propter  critics  and i n t h e i r  fallacy" cited earlier  hoc," which t h i s notion  from  of the  31  retrospective  creation  of  a  source  irrevocably  Cynthia Chase c a l l s t h i s process, whereby the an o r i g i n produces meaning in r e t r o s p e c t , notion  which  concept of  The  is,  cause."  study  influenced  by  as  she  puts  it,  The  opinions  of  the  the  hypothesis  writings  of c r i t i c s who  influence  agreement and  influence  that  I t has  have  further  of  rupture  tradition  shown,  of  in  a  literature.  is  much  traditional  rupture  causality.  As  has  the  Marquez  with  was  on  a  alleged  or  t h i s assumption: both  For  equally  reveal  the a s s e r t i o n of  chronologically  part  that  influence.  this  hypothesis  And  an  i t s denial  the  (causally) i s upheld  - a concept which,  of a s e q u e n t i a l  on as  (causal)  influence.  concepts  authors w i l l  reveal  of n a r r a t i v e sequence,  conventional  narrative  adherence  a and to  i n f l u e n c e theory does l i n k meaning to sequence,  the a p p l i c a t i o n of been  meaning produced by texts.  as  i s the a s s e r t i o n of an  with  of  been e s t a b l i s h e d  illustrate  study of the t e x t s of these two  thereby a  meaning  Garcia  written  a causal process.  l o c k s both authors  process as But  causality," a  a "deconstruction  the b a s i s of G a r c i a Marquez's o r i g i n a l i t y already  of  of V i r g i n i a Woolf w i l l provide  disagreement with the  assumption  ordered  "reverse  i s a primary assumption of the concept of  suggested  the  establishment  9 3  example of such a d e c o n s t r u c t i o n . causality  confuses.  it  to  texts  necessarily the method  in  which  the  a l t e r e d , i s the of  study  rather  production imposition than  by  of of a the  32  However, one must heed Chase's warning a g a i n s t such  a  deconstruct ion  any  "more  authority  claiming for  than the r e f u t e d  c o n c e p t . " " The s e l f - d e f e a t i n g nature of the arguments  f o r and  9  against It  i n f l u e n c e theory  is ironic,  bases  are  concept. very and  i l l u s t r a t e the f o l l y  f o r example, that  used  of  whole  "anxiety,"  originality.  concept  Both  of  sides  Rivalry, convention  opposite  the  argument  effect,  are  based  of the other  f o r example,  poised  in literature.  side a s s e r t s the other  of an o r i g i n ,  they  cancel  operative  each  of  i f not  on  the  i s merely another as  rebellion,  is  The two s i d e s c l a i m to be ultimate  out.  authority.  But  refutation In  I t i s , f o r example, i n  of a u t h o r i t y , and i n value  same  r e j e c t s so that they appear as  other  their  implicit  but  judgements, that the r e f u t a t i o n s of  the concept of i n f l u e n c e c o n t a i n refutat ion.  i s thus a  e x c l u s i v i t y , and with i t of t h e i r a u t h o r i t y .  t h e i r dogmatic claims nonetheless  i s the  validity  s i d e s of the same c o i n , and as such are the  of each other's  the  for " o r i g i n a l i t y . "  mutually e x c l u s i v e , to have each the one  originality:  And the d e n i a l of the  assumptions, and one's subversion  what  of  i . e . , the r e s u l t i n g f u n c t i o n of such d e n i a l ,  convention.  same  has the unmistakable undertone of i n f l u e n c e  i s to allow  a  issue  The d e n i a l of the i n f l u e n c e  i t s motivation,  itself  the  But the c l a i m of an i n f l u e n c e  r e a s s e r t i o n of o r i g i n a l i t y . the  arguments  i n f l u e n c e i m p l i e s the e x i s t e n c e  hence of o r i g i n a l i t y . of  those  both to deny and t o a s s e r t the v a l i d i t y of the  R e c a l l , f o r example, the  concept  denial  in  of such a c l a i m .  the p o s s i b i l i t y  of  their  own  33  Similarly  it  V i r g i n i a Woolf and assumptions etc.).  of  would  be  Garcia  folly  Marquez  influence  theory  read  simple  in  the t e x t s of  refutation  ( i . e . , chronology,  of  the  causality,  Such a reading would, l i k e the arguments f o r and a g a i n s t  i n f l u e n c e theory, open i t s e l f subjective attempt  dogmatism.  to  narrative  obscure  too r e a d i l y to  the  complexity  time which l i e not  impossibility.  later,  is  depicted  the  limits  of  a  It would i n f a c t be a c l o s e d reading, an of  in a simple  but, as I hope to show, a r e j e c t i o n own  to  for  n a r r a t i v e escape the f a t a l i t y  alterations  in  r e j e c t i o n of c a u s a l i t y  that c o n t a i n s i m p l i c i t l y i t s  This impossibilty, in,  the  to be d i s c u s s e d in  example,  the  of chronology,  attempt of the  depth  to  passage  have of  time, d e p i c t e d u l t i m a t e l y as i n e s c a p a b l e . Again,  the i m p l i c a t i o n s of such a reading of the t e x t s can  be r e f l e c t e d may  allow  in the broader a  d i s c u s s i o n of i n f l u e n c e theory,  d e c o n s t r u c t i o n of that theory which c o n t a i n s both  the r e f u t a t i o n of i t s assumptions and that  refutation.  In  other  i n turn the r e f u t a t i o n  words,  the  study  p r o p e r t i e s which subvert the n a r r a t i v e conventions and  causality  conventions itself  will  provide  principles  by  of of  textual  chronology  which  i n c r i t i c i s m are subverted, while in both  of  similar subversion  i s (an a l t e r n a t i v e form o f ) convention.  The  remainder  of  this  work,  d i s c u s s i o n of the hypothesis of an by  and  therefore,  i n f l u e n c e on  while  i t is a  Garcia  Marquez  the w r i t i n g s of V i r g i n i a Woolf, has not as i t s i n t e n t i o n  proof or the d e n i a l of that i n f l u e n c e . to r e t h i n k that hypothesis and  Rather,  the  the i n t e n t i o n i s  i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s i n the l i g h t  of  34  the and this  above  discussion  assumptions particular  influence  of  operative case  studies  in  of  the  d e c o n s t r u c t i o n of  i n the  claim  i n f l u e n c e , as  general.  and well  the as  the  conventions  denial of  the  both  validity  of of  35  III.  WOOLF'S INFLUENCE ON GARCIA MARQUEZ: THE CRITICS' VIEWS The  purpose i n t h i s chapter  i s to d i s c u s s the hypothesis  that G a r c i a Marquez was i n f l u e n c e d in h i s w r i t i n g Woolf.  by  Virginia  I s h a l l o u t l i n e and d i s c u s s the o p i n i o n s h e l d by v a r i o u s  critics  on  this  question.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of indicate  the  parallels  As  writing  between  well of  them,  some as the sign of an i n f l u e n c e .  I s h a l l examine c e r t a i n  these  two  authors  which  and which have been seen by These are t h e i r treatment  of  n a r r a t i v e time and t h e i r d e p i c t i o n of "the moment." The  question  will  arise  t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case of After  a l l , while  - why choose these two authors,  alleged  there  are  influence, critics  who  for this believe  that  i n f l u e n c e d i d occur, many others are quick to deny i t . some  scholars  basis  are  puzzled  f o r comparison  sensibilities  of  in  the  the  required,  hypothesis. as  obvious.  to  very  different  authors.  wished f o r i n the present study.  or  the  Indeed,  at the very suggestion, f i n d i n g no  two  and/or u n i v e r s a l l y accepted  study?  But t h i s  styles  i s e x a c t l y to be  For i n cases of  more  " i n f l u e n c e s , " one i s l e s s  question  These "accepted"  the  very  readily  compelled,  fundamentals  i n f l u e n c e s are indeed  As such, as i l l u s t r a t e d  and  of the  often  seen  e a r l i e r by Barthes' words,  the very s t r u c t u r e s one looks f o r appear "absent"  or "innocent."  In the case of i n f l u e n c e s t u d i e s , the s t r u c t u r e s that go t o make up the theory of l i t e r a r y  i n f l u e n c e remain u n d i s c l o s e d and t h e i r  outcome assumed. The  purpose of t h i s work  occurrence  of  the  influence  i s not  to  prove  or  deny  i n q u e s t i o n , but to study  the those  36  u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e s and assumptions of their  function  the normative  influence  i n the study of l i t e r a t u r e .  theory  I t i s to a s c e r t a i n  f u n c t i o n of i n f l u e n c e theory as a c r i t i c a l method.  P r e c i s e l y because t h i s case of i n f l u e n c e i s not regarded obvious  one  i t i s necessary  Why,  critics  an  such  a  given the d i f f e r e n c e s between these authors, have  suggested  an i n f l u e n c e ?  Why  have  These q u e s t i o n s can only be answered f u l l y of  as  to q u e s t i o n f u r t h e r the hypothesis  in order to seek the m o t i v a t i o n and the consequences of claim.  and  others  denied i t ?  through a q u e s t i o n i n g  the assumptions of i n f l u e n c e theory.  The  fact  that  there  i s not  strong  defence  of  hypothesis of i n f l u e n c e i s not to say that the c h o i c e V i r g i n i a Woolf and G a r c i a Marquez i s an a r b i t r a r y Many  critics  do  regard  her  as  9 5  Sophocles,  one of h i s p r e c u r s o r s , among  Marquez,  George McMurray would add to t h i s l i s t Cervantes,  says  Defoe,  Hemingway,  and  Mann,  and  the names of  Camus.  Garcia  McMurray, "has acknowledged h i s admiration f o r -  and p o s s i b l e indebtedness North American  study  or random one.  others such as Faulkner, Joyce, Proust, Kafka, Gide, Rabelais.  to  this  authors.  to "  these  and  other  European  and  9 6  However, i t i s Faulkner and Woolf, whom, Mario Vargas L l o s a tells  us,  Garcia  Marquez  predominant on t h i s l i s t .  9 7  read  "con  avidez,"  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  his first  h o j a r a s c a , shows, a c c o r d i n g to McMurray, "thematic parallels" possible  with  the  who emerge as novel,  La  and s t y l i s t i c  works of Woolf and Faulkner, and " r e v e a l s  i n f l u e n c e s " of the t w o .  98  37  G a r c i a Marquez himself his  having  read  has  Woolf.  on numerous occasions According  99  to  discussed  Vargas  Llosa,  f r e q u e n t l y c i t e s her as among h i s f a v o u r i t e a u t h o r s . both  Rodriguez  Monegal  and  Ernesto  Marquez acknowledges her  as an  states  un autor  that:  "Yo  seria  Esteva  of  capriciousness  a of  undergone, and  myth  of  authors  of the  Mrs.Dalloway  filiation, confessing  reliability  approaching  Garcia  generated by  the question  will  to  serve  author  ."  to  A  himself  soy,  s i a los  But  1 0 2  Gustavo  the  author's  warns  admittance.  of  of  the  1 0 3  i n f l u e n c e as a  review  of the  of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case possible  Garcia  to i n f l u e n c e s they have  of  means  discussion influence  p o i n t s of comparison, both  d i f f e r e n c e s , between the two  demonstrate  authors,  as  well  ways in which those d i s c u s s i o n s  c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and influence.  and  of that  Marquez.  introduce  s i m i l a r i t i e s and as  The  d i s t i n t o d e l que  Others, however, defend the notion of  1 0 1  i n s i s t s that t h i s acknowledgement i s merely the  perpetuation  well  Schoo maintain that  influence.  v e i n t e anos no hubiese l e i d o . . .  As  1 0 0  assumptions of the  Both a s s e r t i o n and  he  d e n i a l of the  very  reveal  notion  influence w i l l  of show  themselves e q u a l l y to be based upon those assumptions.  Esteva,  as s t a t e d e a r l i e r , maintains that G a r c i a Marquez's  own  admission of reading  the  "myth" of that r e l a t i o n s h i p .  draw  further  Ernesto  parallels  V i r g i n i a Woolf i s merely to  between  He  i n s i s t s that any  them  V o l k e n i n g i s f a r more adamant  perpetuate attempt  would be a b s u r d . " 1 0  in  his  insistence  to And  that  38  there part of  i s no case here of any from h i s o b j e c t i o n  influence.  arbol  particular  qualities.  In  to " i n v e n t "  genealogico,"  addition  rather  than  to t h i s problem of the  game of e s t a b l i s h i n g ("inventing," genealogies, I  originality. propensity  possibility  there  refer  As  are  of  of  influenced  a  study  his  out  lack  of  to the  the  first  originality  merely  as Volkening has  to  in the  motive in t h i s  being  objections  specifically  pointed  its  to intend and/or i n t e r p r e t claims  indication  a it)  r e s u l t s of  question  of  chapter, there  is a  of  i n f l u e n c e as  on  the  part  an  influence  an  of  the  author.  Because motivated  of  this,  more  by  than by t e x t u a l not  the  unclear  literary  study.  to  "un  1 0 5  influence,  such  claims  for G a r c i a Marquez  c l a i m of  literary  i n s i s t e n c e stems in  to the apparent motive behind the  i n f l u e n c e , which would be  venerable  His  only  influences  for  Certainly  in  a  (and  the  the  of  d e s i r e to a s s e r t an author's  possibly biographical)  artists this  the  denial  themselves  reason,  case  of  but  who their  Garcia  Marquez,  And  their  critics  be  originality  "proof." deny  may  it  is  alleged  as  well.  his c r i t i c s  find  numerous reasons - other than t e x t u a l ones (or b i o g r a p h i c a l ,  as  it  in  has  been adequately shown that an  that he d i d insisting  read  Woolf's  that he was  Volkening,  for  not  work  influenced  which  the  great  interest)  not  only  of o r i g i n a l i t y but  claim  of  possible -  for  by V i r g i n i a Woolf.  example, o b j e c t s  G a r c i a Marquez's r e p u t a t i o n nationality  with  i n f l u e n c e was  foreign  to the  threat  to  a l s o to  that  of  influences  poses.  39  Emphasizing Marquez and  his " c r i o l l o "  has  the  s t a t u s , V o l k e n i n g argues  r i g h t to be "judged"  as an  Garcia  individual  secondly in regard to others of the "same o r i g i n , " and  lastly  in  regard  to  the  rest  p o s s i b i l i t y of an i n f l u e n c e by analogy las  firstly  that  Woolf  with, as he f a c e t i o u s l y  letras  anglosajonas."  of the world. because  s t a t e s , any  He he  only  rejects rejects  any the  "admirado modelo de  1 0 6  Volkening o b j e c t s , furthermore, to the extreme emphasis  in  such study on the l i t e r a r y , as opposed to the " r e a l " or w o r l d l y , aspect  of  Garcia  Marquez's  work.  Thus i t i s not only the  1 0 7  defence of the r e p u t a t i o n of the a r t i s t  but a l s o the  critical  lead to the d e n i a l of an  alleged the  style  and approach  influence.  Another  q u e s t i o n of l i t e r a r y  which may  critic  would c e r t a i n l y not  consider  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t r a d i t i o n s  "literary  in the extreme," where " l i t e r a r y " It  becomes  clear  that  the  e q u a l l y as present or absent as in the works Vargas influences  for  valid  opposed to l i t e r a r y , two,  means  finding  in  of g a i n i n g i n s i g h t  reality.  the  value  be  critic  real  que  culturales.  o r i g i n a l i t y , he maintains  that  1 0 8  As  for  of  author's life,  as  i n value between  "es mas  a p a r t i r de una  study  i n t o an  of  This d i s t i n c t i o n  he m a i n t a i n s , would imply that  the  original ...el  realidad vivida  r e a l i d a d l e i d a , aquel cuyos demonios son mas  hist6ricos  sense.  in the mind of the reader or  example,  que e r i g e sus f i c c i o n e s mas de una  derogatory  occurrence of an i n f l u e n c e may  works, d i f f e r s on t h i s p o i n t of  the  implies a  themselves.  Llosa, a  particular  the  que  personales e question  of  40  . . . l a o r i g i n a l i d a d en l i t e r a t u r a no es un punto de partida: es un punto de l l e g a d a . . . No c o n s i s t i r a , pues, en t r a t a r de e v i t a r l a s i n f l u e n c i a s tematicas y formales, sino, mas b i e n , en a p r o v e c h a r l a s de t a l manera que dejen de ser ' i n f l u e n c i a s . ' En literatura el f i n m o d i f i c a l o s medios y l a o r i g i n a l i d a d es retroact i v a . 1 0 9  He  s e t s out to examine G a r c i a Marquez's i n f l u e n c e s or  culturales"  with  utilization  the  purpose  of them in h i s own  of  G a r c i a Marquez, Vargas  of  Llosa  Virginia  importantes que  expressed  las semejanzas."  by c r i t i c s ,  are based  no systematic comparison  of  Woolf's  f e e l s that  [no] deberian s u g e r i r un p a r e c i d o grande, mas  110  ...las diferencias These  two  vague  authors.  of  each  author's  Woolf, he maintains, remains  Nor  do  they  influence. through a  r e l a t i o n s h i p with the reader:  detached  and  leaves  the  reader  alone, while G a r c i a Marquez "takes the reader by the h a n d . " Esteva  finds  the  major  But he o v e r - s i m p l i f i e s these  both,  subordination  in  Woolf  a  p s y c h o l o g i c a l process of one c h a r a c t e r , and i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s to the p l o t , approaches the  are mutually e x c l u s i v e .  efforts  of  1 1 1  d i f f e r e n c e between them in t h e i r  c r e a t i o n and use of c h a r a c t e r . finding  as  and provide  f o r example, d i s t i n g u i s h e s between the two  notion  son  differences,  on d i v e r s e c r i t e r i a  the  influence  "lascoincidencias  p r o v i d e c o n v i n c i n g "proof" of the d e n i a l of an Alone,  the author's  work.  As to the p a r t i c u l a r case upon  demonstrating  "demon'ios  and 1 1 2  of  plot  to  in the  i n G a r c i a Marquez of  implies  that  the  two  His c o n c l u s i o n s t r i v i a l i z e  these authors to p o r t r a y the complexity of the  41  function and  of  character,  narrative.  character  over  In  and  the  neither  plot,  or  plot  relationship is  there  a  between simple  over  character,  basis  for d i s t i n c t i o n  character  supremacy  as  of  Esteva  would  i s that  found  between  them  have i t . An by  entirely  Alone.  lies  in  present do  He  different  maintains  the  presence  in Garcia  not  wish  influence, writing,  that or  major  to  insist  indicates a  difference  absence  Marquez, absent  i t i s a great  and  a  upon  of  humour  in W o o l f .  1 1 3  similarities  oversight l a c k of  texts -  However, w h i l e as  to miss the  extensive  in their  proof  humour of  familiarity  of  I any  Woolf's  with  her  work. Vargas L l o s a other, which,  finds that  "astronomically he  says,  referencia volcanica."  1  1  '  But  e  "en  again,  and  presence  s e x u a l i t y i n the  style and But  of  less  need  Take W o o l f ' s own  sign  of  of The  staightforward  es  not  l e a d one  i n the  Virginia  Vargas  that  less  is Llosa  differs  to conclude  that  n a r r a t i v e or does not  presencia as  implies.  The  more  in  the  i n the  one,  i n the  other.  sexuality is  inform  female w r i t e r  i n which u n s p e a k a b i 1 i t y ,  como  hardly  explicitly  recognizably  had  dashed  itself  against  any  i t s reading. shaken  from a  or a b s e n c e ,  presence:  imagination  any  i s "sex,"  Woolf  en Macondo una  authors  words, d e s c r i b i n g a  imagination,  authors  difference as  two  two  de  i t s representation, manifested  l e s s a presence  trance  y  this  c o n v e n t i o n a l l y , hence  this  these  l a novela  inocente  simplistic of  d i f f e r e n c e w h i c h , more t h a n  distances"  appears  lejana  the  something  is a  42  hard. The g i r l was roused from her dream. She was indeed i n a s t a t e of the most acute and d i f f i c u l t distress. To speak without f i g u r e , she had thought of something, something about the body, about the passions which i t was u n f i t t i n g f o r her as a woman to say. Men, her reason t o l d her, would be shocked. The consciousness of what men w i l l say of a woman who speaks the t r u t h about her p a s s i o n s had roused her from her a r t i s t ' s s t a t e of unconsciousness... T h i s I b e l i e v e to be a very common experience with women writers they are impeded by the extreme c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y of the other s e x . 1 1 5  It may i n f a c t both  be the c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y of many of these  in their  views  toward  approaches, that d i s a l l o w s  a  influence  critics,  and i n t h e i r  reading-in-common  of  critical  these  two  authors. Futhermore, distinction from the  throughout  these  discussions  i s found i n e v e r y t h i n g from  the b a s i s f o r  the author's  distance  the reader, t o the c r e a t i o n and f u n c t i o n of c h a r a c t e r , t o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of humour, t o  sexuality.  These  represent  technique, to s t y l e , only  their  to theme.  conventional  the presence  a range of c r i t e r i a It  reading  becomes but  acknowledge the c o m p l e x i t i e s of i n f l u e n c e adopt  consciously  a  or  formulated  absence  from tone, t o  apparent  also  their  theory,  methodology  that  The occur. may  same  or  even  to  t o determine the which  adopt with such apparent c o n f i d e n c e .  i s true  i n t h e i r c l a i m s that an i n f l u e n c e d i d  They do not attempt to s p e c i f y the manner  have  not  f a i l u r e to  occurrence of an i n f l u e n c e , predetermines the c o n c l u s i o n s these c r i t i c s  of  occurred,  i n which i t  nor the type of i n f l u e n c e i t was, i . e . ,  language, s t y l e , theme, e t c . .  in  43  Vargas L l o s a , of  Woolf's  f o r example, sees some imprint,  work  in  the  writing  if  limited,  of G a r c i a Marquez.  Certain  " c o i n c i d e n c e s " with the l a t t e r ' s work can be found, he says,  in  Mrs.Dalloway  In  and  i n Orlando,  p a r t i c u l a r , he f i n d s i n Orlando Woolf's  but  of minor s i g n i f i c a n c e .  "less subtle" contributions  w r i t i n g to the f i c t i o n a l world of Cien anos de soledad.  Both n o v e l s , he p o i n t s out, c o n s t i t u t e  a  journey  "real"  through  history.  f i c t i o n a l events.  Both  of  mix  condensed,  fantastic  ( h i s t o r i c a l ) with  And i n both " l o a n e c d o t i c o , " " l o e x o t i c o " and  " l o p i n t o r e s c o " predominate. anos  from  He compares the  episode  i n Cien  insomnia and amnesia with that of the "Great F r o s t " i n  Orlando, both of which are " d e s c r i t o con l a misma n a t u r a l i d a d el  mismo  ironically,  humor  que  l a s calamidades  i n the presence or  de M a c o n d o . "  absence  of  humour  116  y  (It i s ,  that  Alone  d i s t i n g u i s h e s between the two.) The two authors share i n common, Vargas L l o s a maintains, t h e i r use of e x a g g e r a t i o n , which i n both "convierte  l a materia ...  imaginaria.'"  1 1 7  de ' r e a l i d a d o b j e t i v a ' en ' r e a l i d a d  H i s comparison,  i n other  v a r i e t y of both thematic and s t y l i s t i c Rodriguez of  Garcia  suggested Woolf's It Schoo  ecompasses  a  elements.  Monegal a l s o f i n d s p a r a l l e l s between the w r i t i n g  Marquez also  words,  by  and  Orlando.  Vargas  Llosa,  For  him  lies  in  the  connection,  the passage  which  novel a f f o r d s to " l a n a r r a c i o n f a n t a s t i c a . "  11 8  i s a l s o i n Orlando, as w e l l  as  sees the sources of an i n f l u e n c e .  to both theme and s t y l e , Schoo transformation  of  Orlando  maintains  i n Mrs.Dalloway,  that  Again making r e f e r e n c e that  i t i s i n the  i n t o a woman i n the one, and i n the  44  " i r o n i c humor, tempered with melancholy" one understands Alone, latter  how  again  comparing  that both novels represent injustice.  Mrs.Dalloway,  Orlando  and Cien anos, c a l l s  For him,  1 2 0  similar  attacks  on  has  also  been  found  to  political  have  (Vargas L l o s a a l s o compares i t to Mrs.Dalloway "the  reveals possible Woolf."  and  "stylistic writing.  in  particular.)  v i s i o n of Macondo set f o r t h  i n Leaf Storm  i n f l u e n c e s of  William  Faulkner  and  Virginia  1 2 2  It  is  critics  the  they are s i m i l a r in  s i m i l a r i t i e s , " a c c o r d i n g to George McMurray, to Woolf's  McMurray:  119  1 2 1  La h o j a r a s c a  Says  that  these works i n f l u e n c e d G a r c i a M a r q u e z .  "heredera" of the f o r m e r .  social  of  again  apparent  to c o n s i d e r  formulate  the  consciously  that  problem a  due of  to the f a i l u r e of these influence  methodological  and  hence  approach,  to  their  c o n c l u s i o n s are l a r g e l y predetermined  by  unstated  assumptions,  and  s e l e c t i o n of  (unconscious)  are  based  criteria. attempt light  on  too  diverse  Thus these c o n c l u s i o n s can be of l i t t l e to  compare  texts  of i n f l u e n c e theory.  conclusions,  by  value  in  an  Woolf and G a r c i a Marquez i n the  However, while we can  ignore  their  they do p o i n t out c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t i e s between the  two authors which merit f u r t h e r their  a  treatment  of  narrative  study.  These  are.,  primarily,  time and t h e i r d e p i c t i o n of the  "moment."  Vargas L l o s a and compared  the  Rodriguez  treatment  Monegal,  among  others,  have  of n a r r a t i v e time i n the two authors.  45  Says Rodriguez Monegal: . . . e l tiempo n a r r a t i v o es t r a t a d o en ...esos libros con l a misma l i b e r t a d con que se t r a t a l a materia o e l espacio, l a memoria o e l o l v i d o , l a ley de c a u s a l i d a d o l a e x i s t e n c i a (o i n e x i s t e n c i a ) de l o s angeles. El tiempo en esas obras es tambien magico y no esta sometido a l a servidumbre de la cronologia. Es un tiempo a l margen d e l tiempo que, a veces, se i n s e r t a en e l tiempo de l o s r e l o j e s y l o s c a l e n d a r i o s . Es un tiempo vivo y caprichoso que a veces se vuelve sobre s i , mordiendose rabiosamente l a c o l a , y o t r a s se echa a dormir en una t o t a l i n m o v i l i d a d . Es un tiempo que confunde e p i s o d i o s l e j a n o s , s i n t e t i z a un mismo d e s t i n o en l a p e r i p e c i a de v a r i a s personas d i s t i n t a s o hace posible encuentros entre seres que han v i v i d o en d i s t i n t a s ondas c r o n o l o g i c a s . Es e l tiempo totalmente libre. E l tiempo de l a f a b u l a . 1 2 3  In the works of both authors, of  history,  is  preoccupation. distorted,  not  only  a  time, and formal  and  made  " c o n s t i t u t e s a ...  while  he  a  function,  As  says,  rather  well,  struggle  and  he  thematic  than  a controlling  to McMurray, time  frame  vastly  expanded  Garcia  Marquez. "  temporal  realms  Marquez  explodes  ordered  Babilonia  says,  of  his  1 2 5  the  sequence the  myth o f time and  portrays  f i c t i o n of order,  McMurray's comparison of Jose Arcadio  of  and  "compresses c l o c k time w i t h i n a l i m i t e d  a natural,  Aureliano  a  manipulated  According in  between n a t u r a l chaos and  illustration  also  notion  The  Garcia  of f i c t i o n .  family,  theme"  i t the  12  minds."  h i s t o r y having  order  major  e x p l o r i n g the  characters'  but  In both, c h r o n o l o g i c a l time i s  f a c t o r , of the n a r r a t i v e d i s c o u r s e .  author,  with  this is  in  struggle. like  a  Cien aftos de The  soledad  history  labyrinth,  and  or  and the the  Buendia is  an  of the Buendia he  notes  the  46  difference quest  the two  of Jose Arcadio  Aureliano origin  Babilonia  and  maintains, Jose  in  his lies  Arcadio,  unpredictable Babilonia  Buendia ends in  destiny."  The  reason  tackles and  spatial  the  fashioned,  real  to d i s o r d e r and  of the  family l i n e  sterility,  Timeless,  i n s t a n t , they are the revealed. History  not  fundaciones  y  The  least  end  of the  also  a  the  theme  "una  of i t .  treatment into  1 2 6  " d i s c o v e r y " of  discovery  of  of  a l l in an the  fiction  casi  whole  order.  Cien afios.  historia  their  Carlos  biblica  l a s generaciones y l a s degeneraciones,  only a h i s t o r y of "generations"  interrogation  perhaps  " s t o r y , " and  " f i c t i t i o u s paradigm" in which  is  of  history  an  I t i s as w e l l a  h i s t o r i a d e l o r i g e n y d e s t i n o d e l tiempo h u m a n e "  the author's  of  s i g n i f i e s not only death,  non-linear, c y c l i c a l , expressing  Fuentes d e s c r i b e s that novel as  una  nothingness."  H i s t o r y , i t seems, i s chaos, and itself  Aureliano  complexities  as i s o f t e n h e l d .  at  While  a l l its  incoherence,"  i t of the Buendia f a m i l y , c o i n c i d e s with the  meaning.  of  McMurray  f i c t i t i o u s paradigm of r e a l i t y ,  Melquiades' parchments, or  las  this,  life,  artificial  sign of the a s s e r t i o n of n a r r a t i v e .  is  for  "with  says,  end  The  that  he  decomposition, and  with  while  fiction.  temporal  the  madness,  in the o p p o s i t i o n of r e a l i t y and  man's only p e r f e c t f o i l Thus  i n t o the maze.  ends in the d i s c o v e r y of "both h i s unknown  "unravels  artistically  c h a r a c t e r s ' journeys  1 2 7  It  but of "degenerations," as  theme  constitutes  the t r a d i t i o n a l understanding  de ... is and an  and p o r t r a y a l  47  There i s a s i m i l a r  interrogation  i n Woolf's w r i t i n g .  Naremore maintains that Woolf conveys an "ambivalence life  process  death." and  And  In  by  a  more  immediate  ambivalence  about  1 2 8  her  writing  there  chronology and thus d i s r u p t DiBattista  linear n a t u r e . " split  the  i n The Years, he says, that ambivalence i s "doubled  is  a  constant  "fragmentariness" and l i n e a r time.  Maria  over  - the passing of time that leads us a l l c l o s e r to  intensified  history."  James  points  1 2 9  between  In s p i t e of e f f o r t s to break  the passage out,  struggle  of  time,  reality,  i s shown to have an  as  "inexorably  As Naremore says, "the c o n t i n u i t y of l i f e  is  up by the n e c e s s i t i e s of time and space, which cut people  off  from one another and e v e n t u a l l y lead to d e a t h . "  He  goes  on  to c i t e comments by B a s i l d e Senancourt, who  notes that  Woolf  1 3 0  " i s always c h a l l e n g i n g her view of u n i t y and c o n t i n u i t y experience by choosing to passing  time,  itself."  by  render  death,  or  the  dislocations  i n human  caused  by  by the mind's c o n v e r s a t i o n s with  1 3 1  Gillian continuity  Beer suggests t h a t , due to and  r e g i s t e r of r e a l i t y "  "plot  on  origins,  e x c l u s i o n and c l o s u r e . " "alternative  struggle  rupture, Woolf came to " d i s t r u s t  as a s u f f i c i e n t insists  this  ...fictive  1 3 2  and  to  the day-to-day  reject  sequence, consequences, Beer  patterns  surpass the d e t e r m i n i s t i c ones  suggests  that  [which]  [ i n which]  between  plot,  as  discovery,  Woolf  creates  q u e s t i o n , d i l a t e or  ...there i s no  no i n t e r r u p t i o n , no moment, which can escape from  space,  sequence."  133  48  In  both  authors, r e p e t i t i o n  i s a key formal device and an  example of such " a l t e r n a t i v e f i c t i v e p a t t e r n s " which convey  the  impossibility  the  inevitability time.  of  continuity  of the ( l i n e a r ,  Allen  McLa.urin  and  i.e.,  notes  at  the  toward  same  death)  time passage  the use of r e p e t i t i o n  of  i n Woolf's  work, which i s , he maintains, a r e f l e c t i o n of "her p e r c e p t i o n of repetition  in  inevitability  human  things,  especially  the  repetitive  of d e a t h . " And McMurray says of G a r c i a Marquez: 1 3  ...the repetitive p a t t e r n s and rhythmic momentum generated by m y t h i c a l time create a mytho-poetic atmosphere that b l u r s s o r d i d r e a l i t y and t h r u s t s the reader i n t o a kind of temporal v o i d where the laws of cause and e f f e c t tend to become m e a n i n g l e s s . 1 3 5  Thus whose  repetition  cycle  alleviates thought  of the  creates a c y c l i c a l , mythical narrative,  renewal, "terror  according and  and l i n e a l h i s t o r y . "  cyclical  nature  of  solitude 1 3 6  Vargas  used as  This well  image to  engendered Llosa,  partially by  also,  rational  notes  the  s e l f - c o n t a i n e d u n i t beginning  and ending i n the same spot, episodes 1 3 7  McMurray,  n a r r a t i v e time i n Cien anos de soledad, in  which every episode i s a c i r c u l a r ,  cola."  to  of  describe  which  "se  (the serpent) b i t i n g the  structure  of  muerde[n]  la  i t s own  tail is  Woolf's  To the  Lighthouse : [The] mythic recovery of the i r r e c o v e r a b l e past i s a r t i c u l a t e d by the shape of the novel itself - a circle that c o n t a i n s i t s end w i t h i n i t s beginning. The form of To the Lighthouse images f a t e as the ouroboros, the snake with the t a i l in i t s mouth, the p s y c h i c symbol, as E r i c h Neumann has argued, "of the o r i g i n and of the o p p o s i t e s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n i t . " 1  3  8  49  This (mythical)  depiction  of  time as c y c l i c a l p r e s e n t s a p o s s i b l e  resolution  of  the  (irresolvable)  contradiction  between c o n t i n u i t y and d i s r u p t i o n and the u l t i m a t e of  passage  and  death.  Contained  within  inevitability  i t i s not only the  f a t a l i t y of time, or the renewal of the c y c l e , but as exposure pattern  of o r i g i n and d e s t i n y by which d e s t i n y  narrative  In  a  to  provides  traditional "ese  i s determined by o r i g i n  the  use  another  chronology.  destino  explicacion possible  by  of  repetition  virtue  of  "alternative  It i s in t h i s ,  and c y c l e s , the  fictive  pattern"  y  humano, fuente  ese de  inasible  Nilita  estado  veloz  y orden que  Vientos  Gaston,  "lectora  una  coincidencia  y l a obra de l a n o v e l i s t a  Marquez.  139  inteligente de  He de  intencion  inglesa":  Toda l a ambicion de l a primera novela de G a r c i a Marquez r e s i d i r i a en l a c a p t a c i o n de un momento a l g i d o y luminoso de l a v i d a de l o s t r e s personajes atrapados en ese espacio c l a u s t r a l donde velan a l medico, en ese tiempo encerrado y c a s i inmovil que son l a s pocas horas que dura l a a c c i o n . A l i i , s i l e n c i o s o s , quietos, secuestrados, bajo l a incertidumbre y l a amenaza, o b l i g a d o s a pensar en s i mismos y en quienes tienen a l f r e n t e , viven un i n s t a n t e de a u t e n t i c i d a d , a l a luz del cual sus v i d a s pasadas, y, q u i z a , futuras, encuentran s e n t i d o . La i n t e n c i o n d e l d e i c i d a habria sido en esta novela l a r e v e l a c i o n de "the moment" woolfiano, de esa e s c u r r i d i z a , evanescente materia que es l a v i d a . 1 f t 0  es  l a v i d a , " that Vargas L l o s a admits a  V i r g i n i a Woolf, [que] ha v i s t o La hojarasca  to  i n Woolf's d e p i c t i o n of  i n f l u e n c e by V i r g i n i a Woolf upon G a r c i a  paraphrases  entre  as mutually bound to the f i c t i v e  i n s t a n t e v e r t i g i n o s o y p r i v i l e g i a d o , que da sentido  un  the  requirement.  addition  "moment"  well  50  Both  Woolf  and  "fragmentariness,"  Garcia  the  Marquez  capsule  or  use  the  expression  the "moment," "broken away  from sequence," as Beer says, as a means of d e p i c t i n g time. " 1  Sequence  1  r e p l a c e d by anecdotas."  loses  "una *  1  vision  "Lo  2  its de  association la  realidad  fragmentario,"  says  narrative  with meaning and i s como  una  Volkening,  suma  1  narrative  history  meaningful  but undramatic  daily  life." "" 1  in  a  a  Years," we are given not so montage,  an  irregular  moments which r e v e a l  "Humanly series  decisive  of  events,"  parentheses  which  1  The  Woolfian  the f a l s e and perception  rigid  of  sequence of one  the  the  quality  she  from  order  of  single  5  chronological  narration.  moment," says McLaurin,  t h i n g f o l l o w i n g another,  events  to  f a s h i o n , the moment i s an  be  "The  " makes the  l i k e s t o r y , seem f a l s e . 6  It i s  an extension of the r e p e t i t i o n mentioned e a r l i e r .  recurrence, of the whole. would  the  "moment" i s a n a r r a t i v e device which exposes  while r e p e t i t i o n causes spiral,  "are  typographically  1  sense  seen  without a sense  by  of  i n To  says,  T h i s i s a constant theme i n V i r g i n i a Woolf's work." " a  a  s u c c e s s i o n of  enclose and thus preserve h i s t o r i c a l or human moments chaos of u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d e x i s t e n c e . " "  And  3  much  D i B a t t i s t a d e s c r i b e s a s i m i l a r occurrence  the Lighthouse. recorded  as  de  "en G a r c i a  Marquez forma parte de su v i s i o n de un mundo i n c o n c l u s o . " " Naremore s t a t e s that i n The  of  One  looking  recur  in  a  in For  cyclical,  or  instantaneous occurrence,  and  might think of i t as down  of depth p e r c e p t i o n .  upon a s p i r a l  that  which  staircase,  but  51  In her essay "How Should One description  of  Read  a  Book,"  Woolf's  own  a "moment" d e p i c t s a suspension of time, and as  w e l l of s p a t i a l elements, an i n t e n s i t y that seems glimpse of e t e r n i t y .  in  itself  a  " R e c a l l , " she i n v i t e s the reader,  some event that has l e f t a d i s t i n c t impression on you - how at the corner of the s t r e e t , perhaps, you passed two people t a l k i n g . A t r e e shook; an e l e c t r i c light danced; the tone of the t a l k was comic, but a l s o t r a g i c ; a whole v i s i o n , an e n t i r e c o n c e p t i o n , seemed contained i n that moment. " 1  And  7  she d e s c r i b e s another: How s t i m u l a t i n g the scene i s , i n i t s unconsciousness, i t s i r r e l e v a n c e , i t s p e r p e t u a l movement - the c o l t s galloping round the f i e l d , the woman f i l l i n g her p a i l at the w e l l , the donkey throwing back h i s head and emitting h i s long, a c r i d moan. The g r e a t e r part of any l i b r a r y i s nothing but the r e c o r d of such f l e e t i n g moments i n the l i v e s of men, women, and d o n k e y s . " 1  Woolf then goes on t o d e s c r i b e the d i f f i c u l t y a form capable of e x p r e s s i n g that  Woolf succeeds making once,  time  of  those  to stop, as though  rather than i n the necessary  requires.  words, you conflicting emphasized; l grasp upon,  9  in capturing a l l appear  in attaining  moment:  But when you attempt to r e c o n s t r u c t i t i n will find that i t breaks i n t o a thousand impressions. Some must be subdued; others in the process you w i l l l o s e , probably, a l the emotion i t s e l f . " 1  8  impressions  and i n  e v e r y t h i n g were t o l d at  succession  which  narration  In Moments of Being she d e s c r i b e s the memory of such  a moment: It s t i l l  makes me f e e l warm;  as  i f everything  were  52  r i p e ; humming; sunny; s m e l l i n g so many smells at once; and a l l making a whole that even now makes me stop as I stopped then going down to the beach; I stopped at the top to look down at the gardens. They were sunk beneath the road. The apples were on a level with one's head. The gardens gave o f f a murmur of bees; the apples were red and g o l d ; there were a l s o pink f l o w e r s ; and grey and s i l v e r l e a v e s . The buzz, the croon, the s m e l l , a l l seemed to press v o l u p t u o u s l y a g a i n s t some membrane; not to burst i t ; but to hum round one such a complete rapture of p l e a s u r e that I stopped, smelt; l o o k e d . 1 5 0  Thus Woolf and G a r c i a Marquez r e j e c t  the t r a d i t i o n a l  linear  notion of n a r r a t i v e time and present a l t e r n a t i v e s to i t i n t h e i r use of  repetition  Implicit  in  historical  that  and  and  chronology,  their  rejection  narrative  modelled)  in  (after  of  the  moment.  is a  refutation  of t r a d i t i o n a l  which  fictional  narrative  is  linearity,  the  of  i t s assumptions  and c a u s a l i t y .  depiction  of  Furthermore, those  order  assumptions  are  the same ones u n d e r l y i n g i n f l u e n c e theory. In  view  of  this,  the  notion  of  applying  i n f l u e n c e to these authors, who have i n t h e i r the  premises  a theory of  writing  of that theory, becomes i r o n i c .  rejected  But, as was seen  in the d i s c u s s i o n s of t h i s case of i n f l u e n c e , c r i t i c s draw t h e i r conclusions  as  much  assumptions  of  the method as from t e x t u a l s i g n s .  those  assumptions  example,  that  undone, through  from  are  unconscious  repudiated  repudiation  can  be  in  adherence  a  the  Thus even i f  literary  overlooked  to  work, f o r  or ignored, and  (conventional reading by) the c r i t i c s .  In the next chapter,  I s h a l l compare t e x t u a l  qualities  in  53  the  works  of  Woolf  and  G a r c i a Marquez w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e  subversion  of those assumptions a s s o c i a t e d  conception  of n a r r a t i v e  sequence,  w i t h the  causality,  and  the  traditional  meaning.  54  IV.  WOOLF AND GARCIA MARQUEZ: TEXTUAL PARALLELS  Throughout t h i s work i t has been s t r e s s e d here  i s not  instead, I  to  conduct  an  t o study i n f l u e n c e  shall  examine  actual  that  the purpose  i n f l u e n c e study.  theory i t s e l f .  Yet i n t h i s  s i m i l a r i t i e s between the w r i t i n g s  hojarasca  i n p a r t i c u l a r , which might be read as the signs of a  or  the d e n i a l  working  This  of  material  that  influence.  f o r the  for the  It i s , rather,  illustration  of  and La  claim  to provide  some  of  the  theory.  t h i s purpose I s h a l l take Woolf and G a r c i a Marquez as a  sample  case.  himself  has a l l u d e d  his  Mrs.Dalloway  i s not t o provide proof  i m p l i c a t i o n s of i n f l u e n c e For  between  of V i r g i n i a  Garcia  influence.  and  chapter  Woolf and  possible  Marquez,  Iti s ,  own.  It  comparison purpose  The  two  i s the  shall  t h e i r works.  Marquez  to the p a r t i c u l a r e f f e c t her w r i t i n g had on  i s possible  I  have been compared, and G a r c i a  intention and  explore  from  here what  to  question  why t h i s  i t derives.  To  this  c e r t a i n p a r a l l e l s which e x i s t between similarities  found  between them, and seen as the i n d i c a t i o n of an i n f l u e n c e ,  imply,  ironically, theory.  But these p a r a l l e l s ,  a  deconstruct ion  For the  thematic  resulting  characteristics  of  the very  the very notion  function present  of  certain  that  inevitably This  very  refutation  textual  and  i n both i s the r e f u t a t i o n of  t r a d i t i o n a l chronology, and with i t a redoubling of  of i n f l u e n c e  through  the  or  refutation  reassertion  of the  l i n e a r nature of the passage of time. i s f u r t h e r reason why the p a r t i c u l a r case of Woolf and  G a r c i a Marquez i s e s p e c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e  f o r t h i s study.  For i n  55  t h i s comparison intention,  r a t h e r than t r y t o demonstrate  sensibility,  b a s i s upon which t h i s similarity  or  style,  a  similarity  I s h a l l show that the very  i n f l u e n c e has been proposed  i n the n a r r a t i v e  demonstrates  a  f u n c t i o n of c e r t a i n aspects of t h e i r  work, that f u n c t i o n being the r e f u t a t i o n of the chronological  in  assumptions  h i s t o r y and hence of the assumptions  of  of i n f l u e n c e  theory.  If one were, then, possible  to  set  upon  the  study  of  the  i n f l u e n c e of Woolf upon G a r c i a Marquez, one would have  to begin by asking what makes comparison prove  out  possible.  the  occurrence  necessary  As  even  the  of  a  the  purpose  "genuine"  beginning here  of  influence,  for such study o u t l i n e d by i n f l u e n c e s c h o l a r s . with those  a  i s not a c t u a l l y to it  to comply with a l l of the methodological  and at l e a s t a p a r t i a l compliance  such  i s not  stipulations  But an awareness stipulations  will  provide a framework w i t h i n which to begin the comparison. It  i s , f o r example,  i n f l u e n c e to be s t u d i e d .  necessary  That  to  specify  the type of  i s , the i n t e r e s t here  i s with  an  i n f l u e n c e l i m i t e d to that of one author upon another, as opposed to  upon  a  possibility  group, of t h i s  or  a  group  upon  one  as  well  the  biographical  " i n f l u e n c e d " author this  to  be  case  requirement:  familiar  with  considered. do the  we works  There  know  the  of  the  precursor?  In  this  We know that Borges t r a n s l a t e d works by Woolf  i s so.  The  i n f l u e n c e having occurred through other than  d i r e c t , author to author, means w i l l not be is  author, e t c . .  i t has a l r e a d y been e s t a b l i s h e d  that into  56  Spanish, read  and  that  G a r c i a Marquez  himself  spoke  of  having  Woolf. Another  objectives purpose  stipulation  of  the  other  establishment  study.  than of  made  by  They  the  influence insist  mere  filiation.  study  of  as  nature  interrelatedness.  the  of  does  have  other  The  comparison  fruitful,  with  influence. works  will  be  no  texts  the  texts need  by  the  study  both  they  these  of  the  individual  divulgence  specifically  when  rejection  exist  of  theory,  texts  The  than  And  influence  the  their  are  implicitly  two  of  those  as  refute  those  traditional  narrative  most  important  stipulation  influence. consider  These the  comparison  of  similarities  have  been  question  of  these  authors'  exist  which,  a  as  a  case  be  very  the  as  to  well  purpose.  valid,  and  for  between  an  their  assumptions  inform  of  a  seek  search  the  be  comparison  its  will  the  and  works  relationship  a  of  reading  influence,  and  assumptions  in  of as  their  chronology. i s , of  which  would  found  by  this  source  present  of  of  must  instead,  source  assumptions  studied  similarities  a  light  of  textual  The  authors  the  a  author's  pretext  i n the  as  of  of  should,  characteristics  concerns  there  divulgence  Such  the  scholars  that  reveal  the  often  course, indicate  critics  influence,  works. while  We they  that a  there  possible  sufficient  and  to  maintain,  to  provoke  a  then,  that  "prove"  nothing,  merit  manner  in  comparison. Furthermore, influence this  case  is the  one  should  expressed, comparison  specify  the  i . e . , i n form, by  critics  as  style,  outlined  which  theme, in  etc..  the  the In  second  57  chapter  is  indicative  influence studies. narrative of  and  comparisons  of  vagueness  comparison,  be  first  moment. in  As  however,  the  stated  similarity  Mrs.Dalloway  of  i n the  Later  Chapter  Throughout  of  my  own  f u n c t i o n , or the  I  shall  do  a  nature,  that  the works of Woolf and closer  comparison  of  and La h o j a r a s c a .  preoccupation  Two  i t was  e s t a b l i s h e d that time i s a major  i n the w r i t i n g of both Woolf and G a r c i a  Marquez.  t h e i r works t h i s preoccupation i s manifested both as  theme and as n a r r a t i v e technique. are  a  number  of  Thematically,  motifs  express t h i s concern with time.  common  history,  Among these a r e m o t i f s of power of  origins,  a l l of which are r e l a t e d to the passage i s expressed  disruption  of  the  formally  in  forms,  the  as  of  their  and of  of time.  works  through  This a  t r a d i t i o n a l n o t i o n of n a r r a t i v e time and an  e x p l o r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e expression  f o r example,  to both authors which  (the m i l i t a r y , the n a t i o n ) , of the notion  concern  is  earlier,  d i s c u s s p a r a l l e l s of a g e n e r a l  which may be found throughout  G a r c i a Marquez.  there  characteristic  of that e x p r e s s i o n .  I shall those  the  will  consequences,  In  The main  the  e x p r e s s i o n , both as theme and as form, of the notions  time  is,  of  time  such as the use of r e p e t i t i o n ,  circular  or  cyclical,  and the  d e p i c t i o n of the moment. Moreover,  the  narrative  styles  r e l a t i o n to m y t h o l o g i c a l n a r r a t i v e .  of both bear  Again, t h i s  significant  i s manifested  both as theme, f o r example i n the p l a y of f a t e and prophecy, and  58  as  form,  i n the e p i s o d i c ,  Garcia his  own  related  structure  Marquez h i m s e l f s e e s t h e  in  the d e p i c t i o n  to fate,  and  death  t h e n o t i o n of p o w e r . from  cyclical  Mrs.Dalloway  1 5 1  He  , which  in  h i s c a r e e r as a w r i t e r .  on  him,  "impact"  o f t i m e , and or  of t h e  of W o o l f ' s  specifically  " d e c o m p o s i t i o n , " and  cites  one  line  sentence  as  work  on  i n time  as  related  to  in p a r t i c u l a r ,  he m a i n t a i n s e f f e c t e d The  narrative.  had  a  line  a turning  point  such a g r e a t  effect  he m a i n t a i n s :  ... [ p j o r q u e t r a n s f o r m o por c o m p l e t o mi sentido del tiempo. Q u i z a s me p e r m i t i o v i s l u m b r a r en un i n s t a n t e t o d o e l p r o c e s o de d e s c o m p o s i c i o n de Macondo, y su destino final. Me pregunto ademas s i no s e r i a e l o r i g e n remoto de E l Otofio d e l P a t r i a r c a , que es un libro sobre e l enigma humano del poder, sobre su s o l e d a d y su m i s e r i a . 1 5 2  In t h i s  line  particular  of W o o l f ' s aspect  which  he  cites,  of h e r m a n y - f a c e t e d  there and  predominates  complex  a  portrayal  of  time: "Pero no h a b i a duda de que dentro ( d e l coche) se sentaba algo g r a n d e : g r a n d e z a que p a s a b a , e s c o n d i d a , a l a l c a n c e de l a s manos v u l g a r e s que por primera y ultima v e z se e n c o n t r a b a n t a n c e r c a de l a m a j e s t a d de I n g l a t e r r a , e l perdurable simbolo d e l Estado que los acusiosos arqueologos habian de i d e n t i f i c a r en l a s e x c a v a c i o n e s de l a s r u i n a s d e l t i e m p o , c u a n d o Londres no fuera mas que un c a m i n o c u b i e r t o de h i e r b a s , y cuando l a s g e n t e s que andaban por sus calles en a q u e l l a manana de m i e r c o l e s f u e r a n apenas un monton de huesos con algunos a n i l l o s matrimoniales, revueltos con su propio polvo y con l a s emplomaduras de innumerables d i e n t e s c a r i a d o s . " 1 5 3  It  is  c a s e of  a linear  time,  s y m b o l i z e d by  royalty,  a march w h i c h  t h e march of power, i n  in i t s inevitable  progress  this leads  59  to death both  and  ends  authors  i n n o t h i n g more t h a n  this  connection  power, r e p r e s e n t e d v a r i a b l y the m i l i t a r y ,  i s common.  says  Dalloway  Clarissa  between  in figures  "'I can't  t o her  the  r u i n s of h i s t o r y .  the  p a s s a g e of  of power, t h e  time  and  nation,  and  h e l p t h i n k i n g of  husband  i n The  In  England,'"  Voyage Out  :  'One t h i n k s of a l l we've done, and our n a v i e s , and t h e the p e o p l e i n I n d i a and A f r i c a , and how we've gone on century a f t e r century.'... ' I t ' s the continuity,' said Richard sententiously. A vision of English h i s t o r y , King f o l l o w i n g King, Prime Minister Prime M i n i s t e r , and Law Law had come o v e r him w h i l e h i s w i f e spoke. He r a n h i s mind a l o n g t h e l i n e of c o n s e r v a t i v e policy, which went steadily from L o r d S a l i s b u r y t o A l f r e d , and g r a d u a l l y e n c l o s e d , as t h o u g h i t were a lasso that opened and c a u g h t t h i n g s , enormous c h u n k s of t h e h a b i t a b l e g l o b e . " 1 5  And  "la patria,"  patriarca "La  patria,"  Woolf  are  eternity. by  to  symbols  bands the  -  says  the d i c t a t o r  h i s mother,  "es  i n G a r c i a Marquez  symbols This of  of  concept  Of  l o mejor que and  the  se ha  "Empire"  t h r e a d of c o n t i n u i t y of n a t i o n  the m i l i t a r y :  the e t e r n a l  military.  the  of c e n t u r i e s i n  wars,  march of t i m e  and  E l otoho d e l inventado." in  soldiers seen  marching,  i n the  eternal  t h e d i c t a t o r - g e n e r a l i n E l Otono  Virginia  of a v i s i o n  i s often represented  it  1 5 5  in  of  both  military march of is  said  that  ... ningun mortal l o h a b i a v i s t o desde l o s t i e m p o s d e l v o m i t o n e g r o , y s i n embargo s a b i a m o s que e l e s t a b a a h i , l o sabiamos porque e l mundo seguia, la vida seguia, el c o r r e o l l e g a b a , l a banda m u n i c i p a l t o c a b a l a r e t r e t a de v a l s e s bobos de los sabados bajo las palmeras polvorientas y los faroles m u s t i o s de l a P l a z a de Armas, y o t r o s m u s i c o s v i e j o s r e e m p l a z a b a n en l a banda a l o s m u s i c o s m u e r t o s . (OP; p. 9)  Similarly  i n Woolf c h a r a c t e r s a r e  reassured  by  these  symbols  60  that  "life  goes  on,"  and s i m i l a r l y as w e l l there i s an  between that reassurance and passage flight "the  leads  to death.  i t s attendant  Sandra,  guarantee  that  the  i n Jacob's Room, ponders  "the  of time which h u r r i e s us so t r a g i c a l l y a l o n g . "  r o y a l band marching  rings  of emotion,  by with the n a t i o n a l  and l i f e  mount and r i d e out to sea But again t h i s  became something  on."  irony  flag  But  then  stirred  wider  that the  courageous  1 5 6  image i s made i r o n i c and  is  robbed  of  the  n o b i l i t y of courage: The battleships ray out over the North Sea, keeping t h e i r s t a t i o n s a c c u r a t e l y a p a r t . At a given signal a l l the guns are t r a i n e d on a t a r g e t which (the master gunner counts the seconds, watch i n hand - at the sixth he looks up) flames into splinters. With nonchalance a dozen young men in the prime of l i f e descend with composed faces i n t o the depths of the sea; and there i m p a s s i v e l y (though with perfect mastery of machinery) suffocate uncomplainingly t o g e t h e r . L i k e blocks of t i n s o l d i e r s the army covers the cornfield, moves up the h i l l s i d e , s t o p s , r e e l s s l i g h t l y t h i s way and t h a t , and f a l l s f l a t , save t h a t , through f i e l d - g l a s s e s , i t can be seen that one or two pieces still agitate up and down l i k e fragments of broken m a t c h - s t i c k . These a c t i o n s , together with the incessant commerce of banks, laboratories, c h a n c e l l o r i e s , and houses of b u s i n e s s , are the s t r o k e s which oar the world forward, they say. (JR; p. 155) There aspects  of  i s a constant the  state  death and d e s t r u c t i o n . symbol  of  struggle and  between  these  conflicting  m i l i t a r i s m as both c o n t i n u i t y ,  Both authors  c o n t i n u i t y and the passage  depict  power  both  as  and a  of time as w e l l as of i t s  d i s r u p t i o n and of death and s t a g n a t i o n .  In the  sentence  cited  by G a r c i a Marquez, the stopping of the car h o l d i n g the important personage  causes  everything  to "come to a s t a n d s t i l l . "  g e n e r a l i n h i s car i n E l otono has a s i m i l a r  effect:  1 5 7  The  61  ... a t r a v e s de l o s v i d r i o s n u b l a d o s de l a carroza presidencial habia visto e l tiempo i n t e r r u m p i d o por o r d e n suya en l a s c a l l e s a b a n d o n a d a s . (OP; p. 246)  This  struggle  constant  theme.  order.  The  between l i n e a r  There  i s a need  narrator  o f The  time  and  i t s disruption  for continuity  Voyage Out  in order  is  a  t o have  says of M r s . E l l i o t  that  she: ... depended so i m p l i c i t l y upon one thing following another t h a t t h e mere g l i m p s e of a w o r l d where d i n n e r c o u l d be d i s r e g a r d e d , or t h e t a b l e moved one i n c h from i t s accustomed p l a c e , f i l l e d her w i t h fears for her own s t a b i l i t y . (VO; p. 129) The  disruption  the  myth  Rachel's  of  of such c o n t i n u i t y causality,  as  obliterates  occurs  later  the  reassurance  in that  of  novel during  illness:  the outer world was so f a r away that the d i f f e r e n t sounds, s u c h as t h e sounds o f p e o p l e p a s s i n g on the stairs, and the sounds of people moving o v e r h e a d , c o u l d o n l y be a s c r i b e d t o t h e i r c a u s e by a g r e a t e f f o r t of memory ... H o u r s and h o u r s would p a s s t h u s , w i t h o u t g e t t i n g any f u r t h e r t h r o u g h t h e m o r n i n g , or a g a i n a few m i n u t e s w o u l d l e a d from b r o a d d a y l i g h t t o t h e d e p t h s of t h e n i g h t . (VO; pp. 329-30) That  loss  of c o n t i n u i t y  eventually But in  war  narrator's progreso  linear,  causality  i t does  must  to i n t e r r u p t its  machine  description  linear  which  for in this  nature the of  to  is  and  i s shown  that  to depict  time  inevitable.  world "el  chaos  case.  continuity,  "oars  i n E l Otono  dentro d e l orden,"  lead  i n Rachel's  is irresolvable,  of e f f o r t s  than  Woolf's  as  the c o n f l i c t  spite  other  to death,  and  forward"  coche  Like i s the  funebre  p r o g r e s s being the v e h i c l e  of  as  del death  62  (OP; p. 6).  In s p i t e of the t o t a l  c h a r a c t e r i z e s the n a r r a t i o n of that  rupture with chronology novel,  life,  "solo camina para un s o l o lado" (OP; p. 21). well  of  E l c o r o n e l no t i e n e quien  nonetheless,  T h i s i s a theme as  le escriba,  que l l e g a con seguridad es l a m u e r t e . "  which  where  " l o unico  1 5 8  These m o t i f s of power, m i l i t a r i s m , and Empire or p a t r i a are closely  linked  i n both authors to the notion of h i s t o r y .  Voyage Out, we f i n d  In The  Hirst:  ... reading the t h i r d volume of Gibbon's H i s t o r y of the D e c l i n e and F a l l of Rome by candle 1 i g h t . . . [ A] whole p r o c e s s i o n of s p l e n d i d sentences entered h i s capacious brow and went marching through h i s b r a i n i n order. I t seemed likely that this process might continue f o r an hour or more, u n t i l the e n t i r e regiment had s h i f t e d i t s q u a r t e r s . . . (VO; p. 106) History both  i n the works of both Woolf and G a r c i a Marquez  in  the  preoccupation Orlando  representation with  it  as  of  it  narrative  as  theme  model.  in  the  Certainly  both  and Cien anos de soledad are f i c t i o n a l h i s t o r i e s as w e l l  as r e f l e c t i o n s on the f i c t i o n historical  narrative.  Both  of h i s t o r y and question  the  model of h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e f o r the w r i t i n g the  and  is central  reliability  in  particular  of  assumptions of the of  fiction,  and  of the dependence upon c a u s a l i t y as r e l a t e d to  meaning. T h i s r e l a t i o n of meaning and sequence, which we have to  be  related  throughout the  theme  to  the  t h e i r works. of  history  establishment of o r i g i n ,  shown  i s questioned  In The Voyage Out i t i s i n r e l a t i o n that  the  to  c h a r a c t e r s seek knowledge of  63  origins.  I t i s Rachel, t h i s time, reading of marching armies in  Gibbon: Never had any words been so v i v i d and so beautiful Arabia Felix - Aethiopia. But those were not more noble than the o t h e r s , hardy b a r b a r i a n s , f o r e s t s , and morasses. They seemed to d r i v e roads back to the very beginnings of the world, on e i t h e r s i d e of which the populations of a l l times and c o u n t r i e s stood in avenues, an by passing down them a l l knowledge would be hers, and the book of the world turned back to the very f i r s t page. (VO; p. 175) "'After  all  we  are  founded  on  Mrs.Thornbury i n the same n o v e l . there p.  is  still  the "'My  past, aren't we?'" soldier  son  says  a great deal to be l e a r n e d from Hannibal'"  says that (VO;  114).  Both the search f o r o r i g i n s and importance  of  questioning authors.  the  of In  the  firm  belief  in  the  establishment of " f i l i a t i o n , " or rather the  both  of  The Years,  these, North  are  preoccupations  of  both  l i s t e n s to a c o n v e r s a t i o n at a  party: T h i s i s the c o n s p i r a c y , he s a i d to h i m s e l f ; t h i s is the steam roller that smooths, o b l i t e r a t e s ; rounds into i d e n t i t i y ; r o l l s into b a l l s . He l i s t e n e d . Jimmy was i n Uganda; L i l y was in L e i c e s t e r s h i r e ; my_ boy - my_ girl ... they were s a y i n g . But they're not interested i n other.people's c h i l d r e n , he observed. Only i n t h e i r own; t h e i r own p r o p e r t y ; t h e i r own f l e s h and blood... 1 5  In attempting narrative,  to  9  revise  the  insistence  upon  chronology  in  these authors thus q u e s t i o n the i n s i s t e n c e upon t h i s  r e l a t i o n between o r i g i n and meaning.  For with such a  state  of  64  things,  "how  then  Garcia derives while  origin.  there  obscures origin  is  the the  and  we  be  civilised?"  Marquez a l s o t o y s  from  paternity,  can  In  with  Cien  throughout  this  a  asks  soledad,  preoccupation  of  the  issue  renders  himself.  c o n v i c t i o n that  anos de  complexity and  North  family's  for  with  example,  establishing  incestuous  ambiguous t h e  meaning  relations  relation  between  identity:  A t o r m e n t a d o por l a c e r t i d u m b r e de que e r a hermano de su mujer, Aureliano se dio una e s c a p a d a a l a c a s a cural para buscar en los archivos rezumantes y apolillados alguna p i s t a c i e r t a de su f i l i a c i o n ... V i e n d o l o e x t r a v i a d o en l a b e r i n t o s d e sangre, tremulo de incertidumbre, el parroco artritico que lo o b s e r v a b a d e s d e l a hamaca l e pregunto compasivamente c u a l e r a su nombre. - A u r e l i a n o Buendia - d i j o e l . Entonces no t e mates b u s c a n d o - e x c l a m o e l p a r r o c o con una c o n v i c c i o n t e r m i n a n t e -. Hace muchos anos hubo aqui una c a l l e que se l l a m a b a a s i , y por e s o s e n t o n c e s l a g e n t e t e n i a l a c o s t u m b r e de ponerles a l o s h i j o s l o s nombres de l a s c a l l e s . 1 6 0  But  of  course  named a f t e r  the  his direct  Furthermore, father  children  with  the  are  incapable i s the  Segundo.  This  up  birth;  and  continue  notion  the  of  case,  and  the  the  originate,  family l i n e ,  A u r e l i a n o s , on  But  even  Aureliano  identity  recalls  there  to  the  is attributed,  This  play  so.  with  thus  where  ability  Arcadio;  fact  causality, on  very  case  i s the  street  was  ancestors.  of d o i n g  opposite  reestablished.  reverse  the  name J o s e  at  very  Segundo  as  the  other  and  Jose  those  for  the  Arcadio mixed  origin of  c a u s e of a p a s t refutes  to  hand,  being  to  Chase's n o t i o n  which  to  i s confused,  connected  i s a present  is,  belongs  however, t o t h e i r  Cynthia  causality  this  that  the  is  reverse effect,  a  absolute  65  validity  of  the  Segundo, and procreate  latter.  For  the  the a b i l i t y of h i s brother  of Jose  Aureliano  Arcadio  Segundo,  to  are a t t r i b u t e d to the l a t e r event of t h e i r being mixed  up at b i r t h .  The  mix  up  i s given as the cause of a past  In E l otono d e l p a t r i a r c a there o r i g i n s , and relation  inability  the lack t h e r e o f , and  of  origin  "todo r a s t r o de su  to meaning. origen  effect.  i s a l s o t h i s obsession  with  with  i t an u n r a v e l l i n g of  I t i s s a i d of the general  habia  desaparecido,"  and  the that  that  he  himself consideraba que nadie era h i j o de nadie mas que de su madre, y s o l o de ella. Esta certidumbre parecia valida inclusive para e l , pues se sabia que era un hombre s i n padre como l o s despotas mas i l u s t r e s de la historia... (OP; pp. 50-1) His  mother  incierto"  as  (OP;  Both  of  departures  i n e v i t a b l e and  i s d e s c r i b e d as  use  the  is  other  r a r a mujer de  from  traditional  often  portrayed  f u t i l e destiny.  f a i t h i n chronology of  means,  addition  end.  strictly  chronological as  But  as a means of a  in  origen  that  that f u t i l i t y I t expresses portraying  linear,  causal  while  c o n t i n u a l renewal.  back  upon  It i s , as Woolf expresses  leads to an  i s not only  reality  which  turns  in t h e i r  an  a l s o the l o s s of  i s r e p l a c e d by a p a t t e r n of r e p e t i t i o n , a forever  this  narrative.  which  latter  it  to  s i g n i f i c a n c e p l a c e d upon o r i g i n s ,  of s t a g n a t i o n and  impossibility  "una  51).  away  time  expression  p.  authors  questioning  Linear  well  and  narrative. cyclical  the The time  itself  is  also a  it  The  Years,  in  66  "like  Cien se  a serpent While,  as  anos de  soledad  muerden  ends w i t h the  that  page of  the  have a c i r c u l a r  cola"),  the  novel.  The  beginning,  the  development  of  and  destroy  the  notion  the  Buendia  end  the  past  of  the  of  effect  of  end  of  t o be  the  out,  the  structure  the  the  episodes  family  que It  which  tell  from the  first  been p r e s e n t  since  told  thus brought I t does  to pass  indeed  by  rupture  clear  that  i s a n a r r a t i v e requirement;  it is  cause.  the  of  ("episodios  c a u s a l i t y , f o r i t becomes  present  Aureliano  100).  parchments  f a m i l y has  d e c o d e d and  p.  is also circular.  e x a c t l y as  narrative itself. of  (Y;  a l l of  e n t i r e novel  family  parchments r e q u i r e s  made c l e a r as he  only  tail"  of M e l q u i a d e s '  Buendia  the  the  the  deciphering  h i s t o r y of  i t s own  Vargas L l o s a p o i n t s  la  the  swallowed  That  i s , the  deciphering  d e s t r u c t i o n of Macondo.  Babilonia deciphers  h i s own  This  destiny  is as  lives i t :  S61o e n t o n c e s d e s c u b r i o que Amaranta U r s u l a no e r a su hermana, s i n o su tia, y que Francis Drake habia asaltado a R i o h a c h a s o l a m e n t e p a r a que e l l o s p u d i e r a n b u s c a r s e por l o s l a b e r i n t o s mas intrincados de la s a n g r e , h a s t a e n g e n d r a r e l a n i m a l m i t o l o g i c o que habia de p o n e r t e r m i n o a l a e s t i r p e . (CA; p. 447)  Thus  it  is  not  "mythological is  to  present  be  are  the  animal"  can  engendered  cause  narrative  because  of  the  purpose  narrative  Drake be  that  past has  itself.  attacked  e n g e n d e r e d , but he  attacks.  effect, been The  which  to decipher circle  The was  Riohacha rather  that because  engendering the  these  the  is  it the  attack.  The  parchments  which  i s complete.  67  As  well  this  circular  to  d e s c r i b e the notion  de  soledad  tells  time  i s closely  of t h e moment.  related  t o and  helps  The n a r r a t o r of C i e n  anos  us t h a t  Melquiades no h a b i a o r d e n a d o l o s h e c h o s en e l t i e m p o c o n v e n c i o n a l de l o s hombres, sino que c o n c e n t r o un siglo de episodios c o t i d i a n o s , de modo que t o d o s c o e x i s t i e r a n en un i n s t a n t e . (CA; p. 447) For  that  within  i s one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c it  depiction  past  of t i m e ,  Aureliano lucidity  both  sits  and p r e s e n t ,  the weight  in  the  su alma e l p e s o abrumador de in  realizes, longer!  fain  capsules  authors  of t h e p a s t  not  is  tanto Betty  pasado" Flanders  of e t e r n i t y "  in  a  Woolf  but  time  de  description  o f t h e way  occasional de  permitio vislumbrar  descomposicion  soledad,  de  Macondo."  moments o f s i m i l a r after  f l a s h of  "sighed longer  sobre  pp. 4 4 5 - 6 ) . like  one who  - oh, a  little  a s e r i e s of  line.  As  well  i n G a r c i a Marquez  intense  illumination  and s p a c e a r e s u s p e n d e d .  by M r s . D a l l o w a y , G a r c i a Marquez "me  (CA;  also  in  moment:  As  de r e s i s t i r  continuous  "moments" - moments of b r i e f ,  In h i s v e r y  In s u c h a  the n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e i s l i k e  only  contains  (JR; p. 160 ) .  Woolfian-type which both  it  ever-present.  "que e r a i n c a p a z  o r moments r a t h e r t h a n  occur  -  end and e t e r n i t y .  ward o f f a l i t t l e  - the oppression  In b o t h  there  J a c o b ' s Room  b u t would  moment"  house he r e c e i v e s a l i g h t n i n g  i n w h i c h he r e a l i z e s  Similarly  of " t h e  seeing  utilizes  this  affected  notion  of  the  en un i n s t a n t e t o d o e l p r o c e s o And  lucidity.  the ants  i n w h i c h he was  his  characters  At t h e end o f C i e n  c a r r y away t h e baby,  have anos  Aureliano  68  ... no pudo m o v e r s e . No p o r q u e l o h u b i e r a p a r a l i z a d o el estupor, s i n o p o r q u e en a q u e l i n s t a n t e p r o d i g i o s o se l e r e v e l a r o n l a s c l a v e s d e f i n i t i v a s de Melquiades ... Aureliano no h a b i a s i d o mas l u c i d o en . . . s u vida... (CA; p. 446)  And  i n the last  the c o l o n e l  lines  of  experiences  E l c o r o n e l no t i e n e q u i e n  le escriba,  a moment o f l u c i d i t y :  "Y m i e n t r a s t a n t o que comemos", p r e g u n t o , y a g a r r o a l c o r o n e l p o r e l c u e l l o de l a f r a n e l a . Lo s a c u d i o con energ i a . - Dime, que comemos. El c o r o n e l n e c e s i t o s e t e n t a y c i n c o anos de su v i d a , minuto a minuto - para l l e g a r a ese instante. Se sinti6 p u r o , e x p l i c i t o , i n v e n c i b l e , en e l momento de r e s p o n d e r : - Mierda. (CT; p. 92) In W o o l f ' s n o v e l s moment  i s indeed  t h e r e a r e many, many s u c h  an i m p o r t a n t  T h e r e a r e moments o f q u i c k ,  formal  clear  technique  illumination.  Voyage Out has " t h e whole meaning o f l i f e flash"  (VO;  p. 3 1 2 ) .  remembers a l e a f revelation." At every is  no  indeed  Briscoe  the  i n her w r i t i n g . Hirst  in  The  r e v e a l e d t o [him] i n a in  To t h e L i g h t h o u s e  p a t t e r n "which she h a d l o o k e d  a t i n a moment o f  1 6 1  other  aspect  Lily  moments;  t i m e s Woolf  gives a longer d e s c r i p t i o n  o f t h e moment a n d g i v e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n  linear  succession  are narrated,  but  that  which  holds  that  there  a l l t h e p o i n t s e x i s t , and  simultaneously:  ...owing t o t h e b r o a d s u n s h i n e a f t e r s h a d e d passages, and t o t h e s u b s t a n c e o f l i v i n g p e o p l e a f t e r dreams, the group appeared w i t h s t a r t l i n g i n t e n s i t y , as though the dusty s u r f a c e h a d been peeled o f f everything, leaving o n l y t h e r e a l i t y and t h e i n s t a n t . I t had t h e l o o k o f a v i s i o n p r i n t e d on t h e d a r k a t n i g h t . White and grey and p u r p l e figures were s c a t t e r e d on t h e g r e e n ; round w i c k e r t a b l e s ; i n t h e m i d d l e t h e f l a m e o f  69  the t e a - u r n made t h e a i r waver l i k e a f a u l t y s h e e t of glass; a m a s s i v e g r e e n t r e e s t o o d o v e r them as i f i t were a moving f o r c e h e l d at rest... for a moment nothing seemed t o happen; i t a l l s t o o d s t i l l . . . (VO; p. 259)  T h i s moment this  is like  same s t y l e  t h e n e g a t i v e of a p h o t o g r a p h .  of h o l d i n g  w i t h a warmth and  colour,  all,  t i m e and  a quivering  of  space,  Others  have  i n suspense,  yet  life:  "Marmaduke B o n t h r o p S h e l m e r d i n e ! " she c r i e d , s t a n d i n g by t h e oak t r e e . The b e a u t i f u l , g l i t t e r i n g name f e l l out of t h e sky l i k e a s t e e l - b l u e f e a t h e r . She watched it f a l l , turning and twisting like a slow-falling arrow that c l e a v e s t h e deep a i r b e a u t i f u l l y . He was c o m i n g , as he a l w a y s came, i n moments of dead calm; when the waves rippled and t h e s p o t t e d l e a v e s f e l l s l o w l y o v e r her f o o t i n t h e autumn woods; when the leopard was still; the moon was on the w a t e r s , and n o t h i n g moved between sky and s e a . Then he c a m e . 1 6 2  Here a l l i s s t i l l cleaves,  though  without  Such v i s i o n s time now  portrayed bursting  among  conscious knowing world" "is  fiery  flame  g i v e s way  p.  127).  this  than a c o n t i n u o u s l i n e , these a u t h o r s .  p.  152).  The of  reality  p.  of  drudge  and  drone,  balls  of  yellow  perpetual  71).  as a s e r i e s  informs the n a r r a t i v e  narrative  myth of c o n t i n u o u s ,  says the n a r r a t o r (JR;  and  t h e moment.  from moment t o moment as  seeing"  through  a vision  those b r i e f  t o "a s t a t e  of  falls  t h e a i r and  illustrate  like  "Such,"  vision  which  I t i s "the e t e r n a l  (JR;  t h e manner of our  seeing,  disturbing,  nothing, leaping (VO;  name,  of t h e moment  leaves"  time  the  by W o o l f .  into  green  except  uncertainty, from  world  of J a c o b ' s This  style  Room,  manner  of c a p s u l e s of  to  of  rather  each  of  70  This  narrative  mythological  style  narrative.  themselves  in a  structure.  authors  individually of  The  s t u d y , and  compared.  In  Episodes  relation  which  are  the  works  and  the  of  each  i n an  works of  or  that  within  e a c h of  has  two  parallels  them  bear  these  in fact  been  a  may  be  between  them  c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to  of  of  ever-repeating,  upon w h i c h t h e  similarities here are  with  contained  mythology  i t is a point  fact,  the  of  to c l a s s i c a l  w h i c h have been d i s c u s s e d in  similarities  story-tel1ing fashion  cyclical  subject  has  the  ways  reference  to  the  Classics. Mythological Although units  narrative  s t o r i e s are  of  Throughout,  the  characters  tell  The  well  t o one  structure  continued  death,  p a s s a g e of  time  stories  a burden.  The  very  device  is  as  i n Woolf  an  episodic  another,  as  well  r e n e w a l , and  metamorphosis.  of and  they are  a structure  i s marked by  act  structure.  is cyclical,  to pass the  lighten  thus,  as  connected  in themselves.  repetition,  has  narration  time,  Garcia  itself;  to assuage  narration  as  of  fear,  a  to  temporal  Marquez, h i g h l y  self-  consc i o u s . Furthermore, mythology  not  impossibility fate  as  t h e s e works  a  of  only  written  word t o b r i n g  close,  like  predictions in  the  escaping  narrative  that  a l l of  common  inevitability  i t , but  as  well The  narrative  Cien  of M e l q u i a d e s ,  mythology,  in  requirement. the  in  have  anos de  is like  which are  -the  fate,  and  the of  n o r m a t i v e power of  the  soledad  to  a  predestined  determined  power of  fulfilled,  classical  fulfillment  circle  the  of  with  the  a l l attempts  by  the  prophecies to  escape  71  w h i c h a r e not o n l y Woolf  t h w a r t e d but  herself,  Greek  l a n g u a g e and  essay  "On  Not  well-known  literature,  Knowing  lead  directly  f o r her  to Fate's door.  familiarity  makes r e f e r e n c e  to  with Ancient this  in  her  Greek":  ... a l l t h o s e t h o u s a n d s of y e a r s ago, i n t h e i r little islands, [ t h e G r e e k s ] know a l l t h a t i s t o be known. W i t h t h e sound of the sea in their ears, vines, meadows, r i v u l e t s a b o u t them, t h e y a r e even more aware t h a n we a r e of a r u t h l e s s f a t e . There i s a sadness at the back of life which they do not attempt to mitigate. E n t i r e l y aware of t h e i r own s t a n d i n g i n t h e shadow, and y e t a l i v e t o e v e r y tremor and gleam of existence, t h e r e t h e y e n d u r e , and i t i s t o t h e G r e e k s t h a t we t u r n when we a r e s i c k of t h e v a g u e n e s s , of t h e c o n f u s i o n , o f t h e C h r i s t i a n i t y and i t s consolations, of our own age. 1 6 3  She  finds  Greeks which writing.  clarity,  the  in characters  and  h e r use of t h e moment h e l p s The  "vagueness," instead  a  moment  allows  the " e t e r n a l balls  of  the  drudge  "fiery  in situations,  to achieve in  narrative  and  drone,"  flame" which  more of an e s s e n c e t h a n t h e r e c o r d  to  of  i n the  her  own  bypass  the  to  depict  are, in their  purity,  events  and  from  Monday  to  Saturday. There with  the Greeks.  establishing Greeks. that  i s throughout Woolf's w r i t i n g  And  In The Voyage Out  origins  which  there  inevitably  is  leads  Gerhard Joseph's d i s c u s s i o n  novel's relation  a certain  of  the  proccupation concern  with  t o t h e s t u d y of t h e The  Years  outlines  t o the Antigone :  A chronicle novel describing the fortunes of.the u p p e r - m i d d l e - c l a s s P a r g i t e r f a m i l y as i t moves from the 1880s to the early 1930s, The Y e a r s uses elliptical repetition of image and incident to establish the deeper p a t t e r n that u n d e r l i e s the d r i f t of t h e p e r i o d ' s s o c i a l history. More specifically,  72  the recurrent allusions to the Antigone, with i t s theme o f b e i n g " b u r i e d a l i v e , " c o n s t i t u t e one o f t h e leitmotivs intended t o e x e m p l i f y t h e c y c l i c a l rhythm t h e book's t i t l e offers as the paradigm of human exper i e n c e . 16 4  It  i s , of  course,  also  chooses h i s epigraph there  are  opening,  In  fact,  particular,  addition novels  the  related  reflect t o bear  comparison with  w h i c h G a r c i a Marquez  relation  of  Sophocles'  allusions  of b o t h  literature  and t h e m a t i c  i s portrayed  play  La h o j a r a s c a  Greek  the  and g i v e meaning  the r e l a t i o n  and t o c l a s s i c a l  to c l a s s i c a l  this  which  the reader  Mrs.Dalloway can begin in  from  t o La h o j a r a s c a , and t h r o u g h o u t  references  and c a u s e  the Antigone  novel  to that  i n mind.  and  Woolf's  to the Antigone in general.  parallels,  i n the n o t i o n of  In  i n both  language  as  t o p r o p h e c y and i n t h e p l a y o f f a t e .  The  epigraph  in  which Antigone  of  Polyneices:  t o La h o j a r a s c a bewails  i s the passage  the proclamation  from  Antigone  f o r b i d d i n g the b u r i a l  But P o l y n e i c e s ' c o r p s e who d i e d i n p a i n t h e y s a y he has p r o c l a i m e d t o t h e whole town t h a t none may bury him and none b e w a i l , but l e a v e him unwept, untombed, a r i c h sweet for the hungry b i r d s ' b e h o l d i n g . Such o r d e r s t h e y s a y t h e w o r t h y C r e o n g i v e s t o y o u and me - y e s , y e s , I s a y t o me and t h a t h e ' s coming t o p r o c l a i m i t c l e a r t o t h o s e who know i t n o t . F u r t h e r : he has t h e m a t t e r so a t h e a r t t h a t anyone who d a r e s a t t e m p t t h e a c t w i l l d i e by p u b l i c s t o n i n g i n t h e t o w n .  sight  1 6 5  The Marquez's  possible novel  has  significance been  of  considered  the  passage  to  Garcia  by  critics,  among them  73  George McMurray.  He  f i n d s that  the similarities between the ancient tragedy and Garcia Marquez's novel stem from the f a c t that both the c o l o n e l and Antigone p l a c e the d i c t a t e s of their own consciences above the decrees of civil author i t i e s . 1 6  6  Pedro L a s t r a , as w e l l , maintains that " e l c o r o n e l actua misma  entereza; como Antigona, p o d r i a d e c i r :  compartir odio, s i n o a m o r . ' " T h i s i s , however, a connection most  between  definitely  According  to  over-simplified  differ  between  i s not c l e a r , him  authorities." her  sister  in  the  colonel  of  Antigone Ismene  consequences  and  Antigone.  1 6 8  T h i s i s made i r o n i c  defiance  he  of  insists  the  that  "decrees  of  civil  not  have  i s not as  fully  i s sure of her task, and w i l l  take  part  i t out.  alone.  if  the  Antigone  While  latter i s not  Isabel  afraid  to  of  the  impending  c o n v i c t i o n of h i s own The  "nobility"  undermined.  His  i s always  full  consequences render ambiguous the  conscience. of  wife's  his  attitude  reaction,  for  is  more  than  instance,  is  f r u s t r a t i o n with h i s c o o l d e t e r m i n a t i o n and h i s smug that he  take  the c o l o n e l maintains that he  i n s i s t s on I s a b e l ' s coming out of c h a r i t y , h i s doing so in knowledge  the  are not so w e l l - d e f i n e d .  f o r example, why his  committed to c a r r y i n g the  view  Woolf, the c h a r a c t e r s of Greek tragedy are d r i v e n  by the c o l o n e l , whose motives  accompany  para  works, as the " d i c t a t e s of c o n s c i e n c e "  by pure and v i o l e n t emotion to act n o b l y .  It  he nacido  la  167  rather  the  'No  con  right:  once one of  conviction  74  ... se observaba que mas que a r r e p e n t i d o estaba s a t i s f e c h o de su o b r a , como s i h u b i e r a s a l v a d o su alma o p o n i e n d o a l a s c o n v e n i e n c i a s y l a h o n r a de e s t a casa su proverbial tolerancia, su comprension, su liberalidad. Y h a s t a un poco de i n s e n s a t e z . 1 6 9  And  when I s a b e l remembers her  with  him  t o the  funeral,  she  father  insisting  upon  her  going  thinks:  ... llegada la hora, no ha tenido e l v a l o r para h a c e r l o s o l o y me ha obligado a participar de ese intolerable compromiso que debio de c o n t r a e r mucho a n t e s de que yo t u v i e r a uso de razon... me dijo: "Tiene que acompanarme." ... Y d e p u e s , a n t e s de que yo t u v i e r a t i e m p o de p r e g u n t a r , g o l p e a n d o e l p i s o con el b a s t o n : "Hay que s a l i r de e s t o como s e a , h i j a . El d o c t o r se a h o r c o e s t a madrugada." (pp. 17,21)  Lastra  goes much f u r t h e r i n h i s c o m p a r i s o n  and  t h e Ant i g o n e  He  maintains  clue of  to the "la  this  social  here  present. promise  this  of  well,  and  other  the  reference that  attributes as  in  the  a prohibition  done a g a i n s t  among  of  similarities  hojarasca,  burial  the  the  city  minor  between  earlier  hojarasca  hojarasca them.  work p r o v i d e s  on  the  or  of  sociological  nor  of  aspects  t o t h e Ant i g o n e . Lastra  points  t o them, a r e Ant i g o n e , that  town.  parallels,  a  phenomenon  It i s neither provable  1 7 0  notion  t h e meaning he  In La  fatalidad."  The  i n La  colombiana."  the  of  injustice  The  r e f e r e n c e t o the  work as a l l u d e d t o by  regardless  as  numerous s i m i l a r i t i e s  commentary  to pursue  However,  of  finds  t h a t the  violencia  interest of  and  of La  undoubtedly there  burial Lastra  "la  out,  as a  is  a  result  points  p r e s e n c i a de  out la  1 7 1  theme of b u r i a l  i s , of c o u r s e ,  n a r r a t i v e a c t i o n takes  place  central  exclusively  t o La in  the  hojarasca. doctor's  75  house, is  referred  t o o f t e n as  in progress.  small  son,  present. circles the  Only  the  along  with  four  This,  we  into  town  the  has  past  of  town d u r i n g an  The against  colonel,  doctor's corpse,  h i s corpse  for this  the  will  of  the for  monologues, doctor  is  her are  because  t h a t he  r e f u s e d to a s s i s t  of m i l i t a r y  to reap  I s a b e l , and  t h r e e main c h a r a c t e r s draw  upon t h e He  outburst  where h i s "wake"  work f o r t h e c o l o n e l ,  interior  rots.  day  who the  curse  however,  request once  a  vault,  h i s daughter  Indians  through  placed  before  have w a i t e d  colonel,  d i s c o v e r as  buried the  a tomb-like  the  violence,  not  be  wounded  and  they  f o r h i s h a b i t of  going  vengeance.  well-known  m a j o r i t y , has  promised  burial.  i n the A n t i g o n e ,  As  to  fulfill  the  where  the  buried:  ... was h i d d e n , not i n s i d e a tomb, l i g h t d u s t upon him, enough t o t u r n t h e c u r s e , no w i l d b e a s t ' s t r a c k , nor t r a c k of any hound h a v i n g been n e a r , nor was t h e body t o r n , 1 7 2  the  doctor  encima  un  necesito  asks  poco de para  While, been  drawn  Mrs.Dalloway The  the c o l o n e l ,  theme  que  there of  imminence,  the  of  and  the  lure,  hojarasca,  but  i t in  significance  overwhelming  the  to  and  of d e a t h .  f a v o r , echeme l o unico  The  ever-present  non-descript  in  particular. and  man  is  theme  theme has  i s more e x p l i c i t l y  example, a " s e e d y - l o o k i n g  have  Years,  in i t s e l f  (The  que  125).  comparisons  Woolf's  subtle allusion scant  Es  (p.  extensive  Ant i g o n e  has  indeed  f u n c t i o n i n La For  earlier,  i s but  extension  tieso.  coman l o s g a l l i n a z o s "  burial  of  there.)  me  between  an  same  no  cuando amanezca  as m e n t i o n e d  rather the  tierra  " s i q u i e r e hacerme un  the  developed carrying  76  a  leather  bag"  standing  on  the  steps  of  St.Paul's  Cathedral,  thinks: . . . w i t h i n was what balm, how g r e a t a welcome, how many tombs w i t h b a n n e r s waving o v e r them,... the c a t h e d r a l o f f e r s company, he t h o u g h t , i n v i t e s you t o membership of a society; great men b e l o n g t o i t ; m a r t y r s have d i e d f o r i t ; why not e n t e r i n , he t h o u g h t . . . (p. 41)  And cool  i n M r s . D a l l o w a y ' s house, we as  a  vault,"  house a s her Yet the  tomb  there  Greeks.  tragedy  (p.  own  a c t i n g out  of  of  the  "the  hall  ...  was  to p i c t u r e her  42). allusion  description "real"  adherence  superficiality  told,  r e f e r e n c e among o t h e r s  i s frequent Her  Dalloway's  one  are  of a more  of  emotion  to,  general  the  c h a r a c t e r s of  is  reflected  yet  to  classical  in  frustration  c h a r a c t e r s around  sort  Clarissa  with,  the  her:  ... but a f t e r a l l i t was what other people felt, that; f o r , t h o u g h she l o v e d i t and f e l t i t t i n g l e and s t i n g , s t i l l these semblances, these triumphs (dear old Peter, for example, t h i n k i n g her so b r i l l i a n t ) , had a h o l l o w n e s s ; a t arm's l e n g t h t h e y were, not in the heart; and i t might be t h a t she was g r o w i n g o l d but t h e y s a t i s f i e d her no l o n g e r as they used; and suddenly, as she saw t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r go down the s t a i r s , t h e g i r l w i t h a muff b r o u g h t back K i l m a n with a rush; K i l m a n her enemy. T h a t was s a t i s f y i n g ; t h a t was r e a l . Ah, how she h a t e d h e r - h o t , hypocritical, c o r r u p t ; w i t h a l l t h a t power; E l i z a b e t h ' s s e d u c e r ; the woman who had c r e p t i n t o s t e a l and d e f i l e ( R i c h a r d would say, What n o n s e n s e ! ) . She h a t e d h e r : she loved her. I t was enemies one wanted, not f r i e n d s ... (pp. 265-6)  As  well  references  t o the  of  hurting,  old  woman's song  there  are  Greeks,  thwarting  to the  and  imploring  in  Mrs.Dalloway "Gods, who  spoiling  numerous  never  human l i v e s "  " t h e Gods t o l a y by  her  other  lost  a  (p.  117),  side a  chance the  bunch  77  of p u r p l e  heather, there  the  smashed  "all  the appearance  conference "being  plaster  of  still  haunting beyond  on h e r h i g h  cast  of s e t t l e d  gods  the  ...  where t h e dead  In b o t h M r s . D a l l o w a y  prophecies that  of t h e i r (p.  of the o r a c l e s ,  (p.  assembled  vehicle  In  underworld,  of t h i s  explosion  ...  Kilman a  soul  (p. 36).  there  both r e q u i r i n g  i s , as w e l l ,  a  and a l l o w i n g f o r  a n d m i s r e a d i n g of s i g n s a s of t h e  a power p l a c e d  Mrs.Dalloway  to  f o r the  210), t o M i s s  i n language  o f t h e n o r m a t i v e power o f t h e words of f a t e  oracles.  123),  129), t o c l o u d s h a v i n g  and L a h o j a r a s c a  a reading  (p.  2 0 3 ) , t o " t h e meadow o f l i f e  walk"  as prophecy,  (mis)interpretation,  place"  habitations  territory"  of l a n g u a g e  (p.  above t h e w o r l d "  on t h e t h r e s h o l d  a river  notion  of Ceres  burial  Septimus  d e c r e e d by  Warren-Smith  of the f u n c t i o n  similar to the  i s the primary  of language:  T h i s was now r e v e a l e d t o S e p t i m u s ; t h e message hidden in t h e b e a u t y o f words. The s e c r e t s i g n a l w h i c h one g e n e r a t i o n p a s s e s , under disguise, t o t h e next i s loathing, h a t r e d , d e s p a i r ; Dante t h e same. A e s c h y l u s t h e same. ( p . 134)  T h e r e a r e numerous i n s t a n c e s the  incomprehensibility  toward  disjointedness  rectify there sky  The  and  appears  and  t o be  are  and  discontinuity  language, and  the  writing  letters,  sense cannot  disjointed,  emphasize  the tendency attempt  to  from c h a o s , and t h e enormous room  A g r o u p o f o n l o o k e r s watch  t o p u t them t o g e t h e r , letters  words  draw s e n s e  for misreading.  that  tries  that  of  i n t h e n o v e l which  and  but,  a plane i n the while  be made, words  everyone formed.  t h r o u g h t h e r u p t u r e i n what  78  would be "They  a readable  are  signalling  Regent's Park, fashion  code S e p t i m u s to  thinking  characteristic  finds  me," in  he  the  t o him,  (alternative)  thinks  short,  Septimus  (p.  meaning.  31).  detached,  Again  in  disjointed  interprets wildly:  He listened. A sparrow perched on the railing opposite chirped Septimus, Septimus, four or five t i m e s o v e r and went on, d r a w i n g i t s n o t e s o u t , t o s i n g freshly and p i e r c i n g l y i n Greek words how t h e r e i s no c r i m e and, j o i n e d by a n o t h e r sparrow, they sang in v o i c e s p r o l o n g e d and p i e r c i n g i n Greek words ... (pp. 35-6)  Septimus' effort,  with  psychiatrist words  of  clearly to  a  task,  agony,  to  Sir William symbolical  such  death.  as  l o s s of The  he  Bradshaw:  kind.  "He  A serious  prescribes  without  books, w i t h o u t  The  l o s s of  absolute  passage  (p.  c o n t i n u i t y must  doctor  i t , i s to  mankind"  friends,  the  sees  103).  meanings  (p.  l e a d to chaos,  rest  145). to  his to For  madness,  i n a home, " r e s t  without  (p.50).  in language  Walsh h e a r s the  "with  Says  attaching  symptom"  messages"  meaning  i n which P e t e r  was  interpret  is  epitomized  in  o l d woman's s o n g :  A sound interrupted him, a f r a i l q u i v e r i n g sound, a v o i c e b u b b l i n g up w i t h o u t d i r e c t i o n , v i g o u r , beginning or end, r u n n i n g w e a k l y and s h r i l l y and w i t h an a b s e n c e of a l l human meaning i a t o ee urn f a h urn so f o o swee t o o eem oo the v o i c e of no age o r sex, t h e v o i c e of an ancient s p r i n g s p o u t i n g from the e a r t h . (p. 122) In rather son  at  La than  the  hojarasca  as  well  vessels  of  absolute  wake:  words a r e  r i d d l e s t o be  meaning.  deciphered  Isabel describes  her  79  Permanece s i l e n c i o s o , p e r p l e j o , como s i e s p e r a r a alguien l e e x p l i q u e e l s i g n i f i c a d o de t o d o e s t o ; si aguardara ... que a l g u i e n le descifre espantoso a c e r t i j o . (p. 1 8 ) And  where  understood friend  language codes.  is intelligible  The boy u t t e r s  i t i s by v i r t u e  nonsensical  que como este  of mutually  phrases  to h i s  Abraham:  -  Incomploruto. Abraham me entendio. palabras. ( p . 54) He  recognizes  a  similar  code  Solo  el  between  his  e n t i e n d e mis  mother  and h i s  grandfather: Ellos entienden sus p a l a b r a s . Hablan s i n m i r a r s e ... P e r o aun a s i se e n t i e n d e n sus p a l a b r a s , como nos entendemos Abraham y yo ... ( p . 107). At  other  times  intelligibilty,  altogether.  correspondencia  entre  And  esas  n e i t h e r c a n she f i n d  words  lose  their  meaning,  Says I s a b e l : "no e n c o n t r a b a palabras  y la  any r e a l i t y  realidad"  or  ninguna  (p.  74).  i n t h e name o f h e r f i a n c e :  Me decia a mi misma: " m a r t i n , m a r t i n , m a r t i n " . Y el nombre examinado, s a b o r e a d o , desmontado en s u s p i e z a s e s e n c i a l e s , p e r d i a p a r a mi t o d a su s i g n i f i c a c i o n . (p. 75) Again,  there  Martin  reads  colonel  especially  describing  one  metido  el  en  profeticas"  i s a relation  Isabel's is  fortune given  particular corazon  (p. 94).  de  between in  almost  l a n g u a g e and p r o p h e c y .  the  prophetic  presentiment, una  coffee  inmensa  he  (p.  74).  powers. says:  galeria  de  The  After  "Me  sentia  imagenes  80  Such is  i s i n v a r i a b l y the  p r e d i c t i o n of  play  of  f a t e which  i s most n o t i c e a b l y  reminiscent  of  the  i n b o t h La  In  the  prophecy  La  hojarasca  a n t e s de  mi  Greeks Isabel  nacimiento"  says  "mi  21).  (p.  and  hojarasca  f a t e , and  it  significantly  and  Mrs.Dalloway.  c a s t i g o estaba  e s c r i t o desde  The  colonel  tells  that  a l g o me i n d i c a b a ' que e r a i m p o t e n t e a n t e e l curso que i b a n tomando l o s a c o n t e c i m i e n t o s . No e r a yo q u i e n disponia las cosas en mi hogar, sino otra fuerza misteriosa, que ordenaba el curso de nuestra existencia y de la c u a l no eramos o t r a c o s a que un docil e i n s i g n i f i c a n t e instrumento. Todo parecia obedecer entonces a l n a t u r a l y eslabonado cumplimento de una p r o f e c i a . (p. 99)  The  doctor,  he  implacables inability de  bestias  very  ordenado  it,  While references  of  encauzar  of  its  the  i n La to  overwhelming time.  of  Isabel  fact  Macondo  los  the  outcome of  fate, this  as  "otro  (p.  101).  parecia  que,  paso  the  122).  paso,  nos  These  are  power of  c a u s e , and  "esa  dispuesto,  a  impossibility  his  capitulo  a t t r i b u t e d to  (p.  que  explains  that  is  por  of  not  fate. escaping  merely  the  events.  there  are  is further  inevitability understands  He  i n s i s t e n c e upon t h e the  sabe  ...  miercoles"  function  hojarasca  todo  hechos  its inevitability,  indeed  the  "quien 100).  (p.  f a t a l i d a d ; ...  examples of  emphasize  prediction,  the  de  up  empezado a c u m p l i r s e "  fatalmente a este  few  and  himself  profeticas"  destruction  para  conducirian a  shut  t o change a s i t u a t i o n by  amarga m a t e r i a  All  had  l a f a t a l i d a d habia The  but  says,  of,  and  these  frequent  illustrated regret  t h r o u g h Meme t h a t  for,  i n the the  specific text  by  passage  81  ... n u e s t r a s v i d a s habian cambiado, l o s tiempos eran buenos y Macondo un p u e b l o r u i d o s o en e l que e l d i n e r o a l c a n z a b a h a s t a p a r a d e s p i I f a r r a r l o l o s s a b a d o s en l a noche, pero Meme v i v i a a f e r r a d a a un p a s a d o rnejor. (p. 41) Meme, I s a b e l  says:  ... r e c o r d a b a con t r i s t e z a . Se t e n i a l a i m p r e s i o n de que c o n s i d e r a b a e l t r a n s c u r s o d e l tiempo como una perdida personal, como s i a d v i r t i e r a con e l c o r a z o n l a c e r a d o p o r l o s r e c u e r d o s que s i e l t i e m p o no h u b i e r a transcurrido, aun estaria ella en aquella p e r e g r i n a c i o n ... ( p p . 39-40)  In the  Mrs.Dalloway as w e l l  inevitability  inevitablly  of f a t e  linear  there  i s an o v e r w h e l m i n g  i n the frequent  nature  of  time's  o f t h e " a s t o n i s h i n g and r a t h e r solemn  rest  of  them  up  matter  that  There  i s among  this  "She  inevitably  cease  Clarissa  i s not  future"  dead!  of death. I  am  as i f there r o l l e d  Clarissa  progress  completely"  cries  o l d , he c r i e d ,  down t o him,  the  "did i t  (p.  a constant  No!"  has a  with  12).  regret f o r  a g i n g as r e f l e c t e d  "No!  not  of the  1 4 ) . She wonders,  and h e r f r i e n d s  an a w a r e n e s s o f t h e i r  faces, a fear  Whitehall, his  (p.  she must  passage,  other's  Bond S t r e e t "  reiterations  passage.  sense  sense o f  Peter  in  each  Walsh.  and marched up  vigorous,  unending,  ( p . 7 5 ) . And C l a r i s s a :  ... feared time itself, a n d r e a d on Lady B r u t o n ' s f a c e , a s i f i t had been a d i a l c u t i n i m p a s s i v e s t o n e , t h e d w i n d l i n g o f l i f e ; how y e a r by y e a r h e r s h a r e was sliced; how little the margin that remained was c a p a b l e any l o n g e r o f s t r e t c h i n g , o f a b s o r b i n g , a s i n the youthful years, the c o l o u r s , salts, tones of existence. ( p . 44)  The  parallels  i n the treatment  o f time  between  Mrs.Dalloway  82  and  La  the of  hojarasca  extend  classics. time  in  There  their  hojarasca,  the  whistle  and  related  time  are  the  these  which  s t e r i l i t y ,  In marked on. the  as  both by  frequent same.  of  the  and  on  the  the  Palace"  one  of  at  once  is  (p.  6),  and  the  car  state on  the  passes  within  to  be,  it  f a l l s  upon  the  and  Woolf  the  and the  march  majesty  of  other of  of  the  the an  "pale  onlookers  known  there  (p.  s t e r i l i t y .  structures  of and  in  La  uses  is  of  of 26).  of  the  and  the  ...  For  were  at  "enduring  relation One  (p.  figure  once  antiquaries"  death.  Empire"  do  theme at  Queen  is  the  death.  curious  and  alerts  common  sure  a  tick  train  symbolizing  always  is  hojarasca  her  England to  passage  repeatedly  "King  important light  an Also  irrevocably  toward  Empire  flag;  of  Ben  ironically  the  be  present  time's  whistle  also  the  w i l l  La  discontinuity  of  Big  because  a  of  in  death.  the  which  well  which is  of  both  and  in  portrayal  (and,  of  of  renewal.  clocks  clock  march  dead;  notions  booming  and  the  theme  reflected  military,  which  military  "of  to  Mrs.Dalloway  a l l  marriage  and  thematic  well,  of  passing,  the  the  As  i n e v i t a b i l i t y  time's  and  But  is  reminiscent  clocks  the  repetition  the  to  to  of  p a r a l l e l  continuity,  the  the  time  themes  further  train).  themes  the  hand  23).  which  in  Empire  s t a b i l i t y  thought  to  And  the  references  reference  the  between  of  Mrs.Dalloway  characters  (p.  of  books,  frequent  In  symbol  as  addition  portrayal  convey  well  these  references  the  theme  beyond  in  of  varied  Furthermore, works,  is  frequent  overwhelming to  far  thinks  25), of  immortal  drawn  and  state  as is  presence"  83  The novels "we  inevitably by  tumbled  passage  and  just  It i s  hurled  is constantly  And  nature  as  marked  inevitability surrounds their  of death,  toward  their  in  both  certainty  that  characters  were  end.  Time,  by c l o c k s  so the p r e s e n c e  of t i m e .  There  of t i m e w h i c h and  this  the  i s marked  of d e a t h ,  and  the n a r r a t i v e  the  of  invades t h e i r  w i t h a sense  and  whose  in  other  imminence  i t , but lives  of  trains  of d e a t h i n  i s not,  implies  generates a fear  characters  and  though  time's progress  a passage  the  lives  is reiterated  i n the n o v e l s , b r i n g s death.  t h e s e books marks t h e p a s s a g e merely  as  headlong  i s a c o n s t a n t reminder  words,  of t i m e  c o n s t a n t a w a r e n e s s of d e a t h ,  must d i e " ( p . 2 6 7 ) .  being  and  this  linear  and  and  death riddles  destruction  and  decay. In la  La h o j a r a s c a one  muerte que  hacian  amarillos"  (p.106).  ruins  a  of  others.  trains,  de  el  boy, olor  has  un  "me  He  i s as  hombre"  progresos  time  debe (p.  ha d i c h o que  singing  goes on  (p.  duros  And,  like  de  ojos the  of d e a t h i n  tremendo  que  the c l o c k s  los and  But  t h e y do  not  itself.  "Ada,"  says  l o s alcaravanes cantan  cuando  sienten  132).  of t h e s e b i r d s  a t the  e p i s o d e of La h o j a r a s c a .  throughout  sus  a fear  mas  of d e a t h  " l o s germenes  n o t h i n g more t h a n  incites  ser  111).  en  i n La h o j a r a s c a mark t i m e .  been p r o g r e s s i n g t o w a r d ,  clock  i n the d o c t o r  t i m e ' s p a s s i n g , but  a muer.to"  The final  of  visibles  e s t e mundo  the curlews  sing merely  see  thus h i s presence  "Nada en  escombros  the  man,  can  ticks  what  s m e l l of d e a t h marks  I t i s what  the e n t i r e  t h e town has  impossibly  slowly,  waited seems  the  narrative for.  The  to  stop  84  e n t i r e l y , c r a w l i n g a g o n i z i n g l y towards three o ' c l o c k . boy  hears the curlew  to. to  deben  ser l a s t r e s "  (p.  132).  as though i t were a c l o c k she should have heard.  finally  three o ' c l o c k .  But i t i s the b i r d the boy i s  The doctor i s f i n a l l y rot.  the  s i n g i n g he asks h i s mother: "' Lo oyes?' Y  e l l a d i c e que s i , que answers  When  "dead" - that  Death i s the very t o l l i n g  She It i s  referring  i s , h i s body has begun  of time, and i s r e q u i r e d f o r  the n a r r a t i v e to conclude. In  Mrs.Dalloway  as  w e l l there i s a n a r r a t i v e p r o g r e s s i o n  which r e q u i r e s death f o r i t s f u l f i l l m e n t .  The c l o c k s  toll  for  death, t h e i r aging t e l l s the c h a r a c t e r s they must d i e ; and while Clarissa  Dalloway's  celebration, died. love  day  ends  f o r her, of l i f e ,  i n the success of her p a r t y - a a love of  And While C l a r i s s a ' s thoughts of  life,  they  are as  well  life  throughout like  -  Septimus'  death.  in  while C l a r i s s a  generated  r a t i o n a l and calm.  his  chaos,  H i s are  - driving enveloped  i s outwardly  But he does n e v e r t h e l e s s represent a sort of  "other" of C l a r i s s a . young  by  has  are o f t e n of her  f e v e r i s h l y and u n c o n t r o l l a b l y toward madness,  Septimus  She h e r s e l f  "felt  somehow l i k e him  - the  man who had k i l l e d h i m s e l f " (p. 283). When she hears of  death she separates h e r s e l f  from the o t h e r s at the p a r t y :  The c l o c k began s t r i k i n g . The young man had k i l l e d himself; but she d i d not p i t y him; with the c l o c k s t r i k i n g the hour, one, two, t h r e e , she d i d not p i t y him, with a l l t h i s going on. There! the o l d lady had put out her l i g h t ! the whole house was dark now with t h i s going on, she repeated, Fear no more the heat of the sun. She must go back t o them. (p. 283) Clarissa  and  Septimus are both c o n s t a n t l y drawn to envy  85  t h e dead or w i s h seduction.  To  for death.  Death  is  like  a  command,  or  a  Septimus:  ... the whole w o r l d was c l a m o u r i n g : k i l l y o u r s e l f , k i l l y o u r s e l f .... now that he was quite alone, condemned, d e s e r t e d , as t h o s e who a r e a b o u t t o d i e a r e alone, t h e r e was a l u x u r y i n i t , an i s o l a t i o n f u l l of s u b l i m i t y ; a freedom which the attached can never know. (p. 140)  And  for Clarissa  wonders:  "did  " t h e r e was it  not  ended a b s o l u t e l y ? "  as  an  embrace  become she  in death"  (p.  281).  c o n s o l i n g to b e l i e v e  that  She death  reads:  F e a r no more t h e h e a t o' t h e sun Nor t h e f u r i o u s w i n t e r ' s r a g e s . (pp.12-13) This novel. o'  refrain  "'Fear  the  sun;  without  And  wall  which  t h e body;  f o r the  spell  fear  (p.  repetition  requirement In the  doctor;  (p.  has  has  of  "Fear  the n o v e l s death  the  Fear  no more t h e  heat  had  he  "was  as can  stood shiver"  watching  has not  line  (p.  211).  i n the c h o i c e of d e a t h , i n La h o j a r a s c a , a  the The and  narrative  fulfill.  i s as w e l l  an  In La h o j a r a s c a d e a t h  i n the v e r y opening  Dr.Holmes  h i m s e l f from  afraid"  the  the h e a r t i n  coward!'" flung  (p.  p a t t e r n s on  no more, s a y s "'The  i t s climax  created,  are present.  sofa,  that  For Septimus  throughout  asking Richard to lunch  she  211).  which o n l y the death  each  dead  the  out m e s s a g e s :  refrain  Bruton  i n which on  times  Clarissa.-  of Lady  lies  no more"  226).  numerous  said  before r e a l i z i n g  rhythm o f t h e its  shock  as S e p t i m u s  of him,  window  no more,'  her made t h e moment  44).  says  i s repeated  t h e boy  tells  actual  presence;  i s present us:  "Por  i n the primera  86  vez  he  visto  throughout the  un  cadaver  112). the  In  of  the past, the c o l o n e l  as w e l l  there  as  an  everyday  they  receives  "messages from  in  (p.  are  of  his  party,  here's  of  los  death,  death"  shadows  of  (p.  ojos"  (p.  (p. 53). dead  i s not  o c c u r r e n c e as i n G a r c i a Septimus  "sing  behind  140).  she t h i n k s "Oh!  in  n i g h t s i t s on  the  present.  t h e d e a d " who  w i t h him  only  rhododendron  Evans,  And  ...  not  who  when  died  Clarissa  i n the middle  o f my  (p. 279).  indications  childbirth,  natural  even  d e s c r i b e s the d o c t o r as  2 4 4 ) , b u t h i s commander and f r i e n d ,  hears  Even  and  i s present  And  i s a dead man who e v e r y  nonetheless  t h e war, i s o f t e n  in  action.  while the presence  Marquez,  bushes"  The c o r p s e  by t h e s t o v e and l o o k s a t t h e a s h e s  Mrs.Dalloway,  treated  11).  a l que t o d a v i a no se l e han muerto  But  stool  (p.  the d u r a t i o n of the n a r r a t i v e  accounts  "un  cadaver"  or r e a s s e r t i o n s  death.  of l i f e  are told,  or  end,  In La h o j a r a s c a I s a b e l ' s mother d i e s i n  and t h e p r e g n a n c y  i s a growth of death  within her:  ... e l h i j o que l e c r e c i o en e l v i e n t r e durante l a travesia ... l e i b a dando muerte p r o g r e s i v a m e n t e a medida que se a c e r c a b a l a h o r a d e l p a r t o . (p.40) Giving both  birth  Isabel's  beginning, Isabel: trece 81).  i s " e l u l t i m o a c t o de su v i d a "  of l i f e ,  "En  anos, When  the ghost  and  un  Clarissa's of c r e a t i o n ,  setiembre  mi m a d r a s t r a she  puts  weddings,  (p.43). normally  have shadows  abrasante  of  As  well,  taken  as a  death.  y muerto como e s t e ,  empez6 a c o s e r mi t r a j e  de n o v i a "  t h e d r e s s on i t becomes a s h r o u d ,  of her mother:  Says hace (p.  herself  87  Me v e i a p a l i d a y l i m p i a f r e n t e a l e s p e j o , e n v u e l t a en la nube de p o l v o r i e n t a e s p u m i l l a que me r e c o r d a b a a l fantasma de mi madre ... Y me d e s c o n o c i a a mi misma; me s e n t i a d e s d o b l a d a en e l r e c u e r d o de mi madre m u e r t a ... despues de mi n a c i m i e n t o , mi madre f u e v e s t i d a con s u s p r e n d a s n u p c i a l e s y c o l o c a d a en e l a t a u d . Y a h o r a , viendome en e l e s p e j o , yo v e i a l o s h u e s o s de mi madre cubiertos por e l v e r d i n s e p u l c r a l , e n t r e un monton de espuma r o t a y un apelmazamiento de polvo amarillo. Yo e s t a b a f u e r a d e l e s p e j o . Adentro estaba mi madre, viva o t r a v e z , mirandome, e x t e n d i e n d o l o s b r a z o s d e s d e su e s p a c i o h e l a d o , t r a t a n d o de tocar l a muerte que p r e n d i a l o s p r i m e r o s a l f i l e r e s de mi c o r o n a de novia. Y detras, en e l c e n t r o de l a a l c o b a , mi p a d r e s e r i o , p e r p l e j o : 'Ahora e s t a e x a c t a a e l l a , con ese t r a j e ' . ( p . 89)  In t h e c h u r c h ,  says  Isabel:  ... algunas mujeres se v o l v i e r o n a mirarme cuando a t r a v e s e l a nave c e n t r a l como un mancebo s a g r a d o h a c i a l a p i e d r a de l o s s a c r i f i c i o s . ( p . 90) Clarissa the  Dalloway  also  "embrace o f d e a t h "  were now t o d i e , 'twere herself  once,  In  fact  children continue can  t h i n k s o f h e r wedding a s she after  both  i n white"  line  novels the c o n t r a s t  on t h e o t h e r ,  a parallel  illustration  time  which  inevitably  leads to death,  with,  and i n a d e c u a c i e s o f c h r o n o l o g i c a l linear  In M r s . D a l l o w a y  said  i t to  between m a r r i a g e and  and  the  i s an i m p o r t a n t  be seen  to a s t r i c t l y  "'If  (p. 281).  on t h e one hand, and s t e r i l i t y the  death:  now t o be most happy,' she had  coming down  in  h e a r i n g of Septimus'  contemplates  inability theme.  of the s t e r i l i t y and t h u s  of  to  In i t linear  the d i f f i c u l t i e s  narrative  which  adheres  n o t i o n of t i m e . marriage  i s that  which breaks  the otherwise  88  continuous, cited  by  the  state."  Yet  majesty  of  and  generation.  has  populace,  a sense  she  car  And  of  of h i s t o r y . passes  i s "the  find  and  which  symbol of and  will  the  the  bones  speak  i s walking  o n l y a p a r t of  line  "greatness  i n the dust  when C l a r i s s a  being  In the  with  enduring  r i n g s mixed  "curious antiquaries" w i l l  Street  time,  of E n g l a n d  i t i s t h e wedding  them of a p a s t  the  flow  G a r c i a Marquez where t h e  within,"  which  monotonous  up  to Bond  progress  of  has:  ... the oddest sense of being herself invisible; u n s e e n ; unknown; t h e r e b e i n g no more m a r r y i n g , no more h a v i n g of c h i l d r e n now... (p. 14) It  is  marrying  o n e ' s mark, b r e a k Like  in  The  and  having  Years,  a  procreate  establish  Walsh,  like  called irony  her of  makes vain  (p.  are  wife, 289).  through  i n The  fixation  linked  on  to  Peter  Clarissa  children.  But  p r o c r e a t i o n i s shown as  fate  of d e a t h ,  than Years,  This  having  and  with death. any  as m a r r i a g e  of them, S a l l y  the  f u n of  necessity  any  and  a  having  children,  Seton  to  the  sterility  no  tells  measure  i s p o r t r a y e d as  to grasp  this  indicates For  P e t e r Walsh, w i t h  in i t s i n a b i l i t y makes  need  marriage  t h e c o n t i n u i n g of one's l i n e  Peter ' Walsh  in  property.  i s a n n o y e d by 73).  this  is  (p.  the  i n The  as  nihilation.  there  hand, of  offspring  Years,  and  leave  Elizabeth on  l o o k s younger  outmoded, s t e r i l e  i s b e l i e v e d to  earlier,  the o t h e r  impossible.  to escape  Like  mentioned  one's  "my"  continuation  children no  daughter  attempt  as  criticism,  North  this  that  t h e monotony, work a g a i n s t end  Mrs.Dalloway and  children  him time  inadequate,  essence.  proccupation  with  marriage  89  and  children.  Peter  told  "'Everybody her,  except  i n the  h i m s e l f " (p.  the c h a r a c t e r s are d e f i n e d i n Whitbread  are  Warren-Smith thinks. and  these  u n f o r t u n a t e because  longs  "She  room has  must  for a c h i l d . have a boy"  have no c h i l d r e n ! "  (p.  six  289).  sons And  terms.  they  at  i n d e e d most  Hugh  have no  Eton,'  and  Evelyn  children.  Rezia  "They must have c h i l d r e n , " (p.134).  136)  But  "She  c o u l d not  Septimus  of  she  grow o l d  thinks:  One c a n n o t b r i n g c h i l d r e n i n t o a w o r l d l i k e t h i s . One cannot p e r p e t u a t e s u f f e r i n g , or i n c r e a s e t h e b r e e d o f t h e s e l u s t f u l a n i m a l s ... (p. 135) In  both  Clarissa, friend Seton, she  has  290).  have o n l y one  who  has  a child, And  and  Martin,  child  many.  Clarissa's  from  characters, Isabel  are set in c o n t r a s t  youth.  While  P e t e r Walsh as  since  among them two  brood.  She  t o an  enormous b o y s , ' "  hojarasca Isabel's friend  six children,  has  female  five  her  i s d e s c r i b e d by  happy among her who  and  " ' I have  friend  i n La  Macondo w i t h fat  n o v e l s the p r i n c i p a l  says  comments on  old Sally  Clarissa,  though  unmaternal  (p.  Genoveva  sets  and  returns to  of t w i n s , and  is  I s a b e l ' s husband  left:  " Y no t e d e j o mas que e s t e ? " ... Genoveva r i 6 ... "Se n e c e s i t a s e r b i e n f l o j o p a r a no h a c e r s i n o un h i j o en c i n c o a n o s , " d i j o ... (p. 115) She  had  been  him  at  the  Isabel seeming As  suspicious wake  i s , like  of  him,  of M a r t i n h e r s e l f a child.  And  because  indeed  a shadowy, m y s t e r i o u s ,  they  t h e one empty  son  had  met  he  left  or  sterile-  the  relation  person. well  in  La h o j a r a s c a ,  in  addition  to  90  between m a r r i a g e and Isabel  and  her  similar  terms.  mother, Her  becomes p r e g n a n t has  an  birth,  abortion,  whether a c h i l d  the  life,  twice  was  the the  born,  sterility Indian  says  by  and  and  or  girl  death,  But  outcome  of  i f i t was  both  Meme i s d e s c r i b e d  Isabel, is s t e r i l e doctor.  in  the the  whether  in  (p.  41).  She  first  time  she  second pregnancy  i t died -  is  -  never  disclosed. There  is  also  the  said  t o have c o n c e i v e d  miel  s o l i t a r i a y muerta"  itself  i n the  "static,"  the  There  novel  a  contrast  between of  the  attempt  to erode  as  the  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  question  that  continued  l i n e a g e at  family  line  signify  the  allow  break  Thus soledad  and  the  But with  -  (p.  also  many in  lover during  Macondo  the  the  in  this  luna  is de  Time  present  is  thematic  between  theme  and  depiction  of  the  c o n t i n u i t y i s an represent  illustration  any  "reality"  of and  supremacy of c h r o n o l o g i c a l n a r r a t i v e  that  reality.  If these  i t follows that  level  only  of  the  theme i s one  novels  are  to  impossibility  of  which  in Cien  a n o s de  through  s u c h ends can  traditional  hojarasca,  reflects  soledad,  narrative  where  these  a the  novels  chronology  and  alternatives.  d e s c r i b e Macondo's t i m e , La  "una  never g i v e s b i r t h .  in  e x p l o r a t i o n of p o s s i b l e  while  d a u g h t e r , who  110).  and  It i s l i k e  ends.  f o r the  the  barber's  She  n a r r a t i v e to  supremacy,  i n form.  80).  in  sterility  of  the  relation  For  linear  of  invisible  (p.  strong  technique.  parallel  an  f u t u r e empty  is  inability  by  is sterile  narrative  the  case  as  strictly  in Cien  anos  stagnant  de and  91  sterile,  that  failure,  sterility  and t h u s  "reality,"  destroyed  Both the  two  of  Mrs.Dalloway linear  novels.  of  structure,  t o vague  similarities  has  the e x t r a o r d i n a r y  the of  the  Said  expression.  metionned  a rupture  structures,  of the notions  which  and  earlier,  have  have made  of time,  the  i n simple motifs  with  s i m i l a r i nthe  in their depiction  p a r a l l e l s between  i t , is  1 7 3  continuity  i s strikingly  as  nihilistic  calls  present  depict  two  none  novels.  of time but i n  i n themselves  of time e x p r e s s e d  convey  at the  level  theme. In  both  time  that  narrative lasts  novels, passes  one d a y .  hojarasca action  the a c t u a l  only the  party  on  one h a l f  whistle  both,  then,  while  short,  the  narrative  story.  That  i s , neither  action,  Mrs.Dalloway  of the  that  span  i n t h e m o r n i n g a n d ends  evening  hour p a s s e s .  a t t h e end i t i s t h r e e In  In  begins  the  span of n a r r a t i v e  between t h e b e g i n n i n g  i s short.  The " a c t i o n "  train  time  i n the "story"  to i t s close,  Mrs.Dalloway's  And  narrative  interrogation  as  of the  to  cynical,  narrative  These p a r a l l e l s e x i s t n o t m e r e l y complex  narrative  as  means o f  which  critics,  reference  their  it  and La h o j a r a s c a  form  While  linear  narrative,  t o make way f o r o t h e r  a cyclical  noted  of  seeing  Time-bound  strictly  instead  rejection,  instead  destruction.  c a n be seen a s t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n  o f t h e same d a y .  Near t h e b e g i n n i n g  i s heard which  signifies  with In La  of  the  two-thirty.  o'clock. the actual  does b e g i n i s told  story-time  which passes  at a c e r t a i n point  from one p o i n t  is  within the  b e f o r e which a l l  92  of  the events  have o c c u r r e d ,  past,  but  rather  from  a  events  t o be n a r r a t e d p r e c e d e  ahead a p e r i o d of a c t i o n , occur.  Already  this  story  point  w h i c h w h i l e most o f t h e  from  the opening  a series  g i v e s some p i c t u r e  Rather  which  begin  at a point  point,  there  i s one p r o g r e s s i o n o f t i m e  events  to  closing  completion  at  of t h e n o v e l ,  day, has passed  various histories, In the  events  told in  the  past  told past  tense.  there  perfect.  tense,  living.  clock's  This  (past)  from  the  necessarily  completion  with the  o n l y one h a l f  hour, or  of the h a l f  while  of  history,  indeed  hour w h i c h  passes,  in  division  narrators,  Mrs.Dalloway  the  difference time,  past, often told  i n the  situation  serves  to  which t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e  emphasized  and o v e r  events i s  present  i n temporal  i s further  are  the d i s t i n c t i o n  by a s t r i c t  between  of the time  over  the  the n a r r a t i o n of past  t h e s u s p e n d e d moments b e f o r e  by t h e t e l l i n g  events  recounted.  This distinction  presently  to  which t e l l s of  "times"  entire  and t h e d i s t a n t  t h e slow p r o g r e s s  hojarasca  an  i s not m a n i f e s t e d  emphasize  Mrs.Dalloway  attain  While  i s a clear  i n the past  to  and t h e t h o u g h t s  t h e two " t i m e s "  tense,  rates  f o r a t one l e v e l  tense,  yet  of  passes  and a n o t h e r two  the " s t o r y "  which occur  i n the present  between in  La h o j a r a s c a  tells  which  The  have been  t h e r e does l i e  o f t h e d i s t o r t i o n s of  past.  and a t a n o t h e r  completed  and end a t some l a t e r  episodes,  different  a  which a r e  of n a r r a t i o n t h a t  i n the past  i n t h e more d i s t a n t  "progress"  one  the  one l i n e  in  action,  of e v e n t s ,  time.  opening  than  the e n t i r e  by t h e c l o c k s - i n  their  c h i m e , and i n La  o f t h e same t i m e ,  barely perceptible progression.  The i m p r e s s i o n  and t h e i n both  93  is  of a s u s p e n d e d  At  one  point  Isabel  crawls at a s n a i l ' s  i n La h o j a r a s c a someone a s k s  three-thirty, 4).  p r e s e n t , where t i m e  but  the c l o c k  s a y s o n l y two  i f i t mustn't  pace.  be  about  f o r t y - s e v e n (pp.  63-  thinks:  Si e l tiempo de a d e n t r o t u v i e r a e l mismo r i t m o d e l de a f u e r a , a h o r a e s t a r i a m o s a p l e n o s o l , con e l a t a u d en la mitad de l a c a l l e . A f u e r a s e r i a mas t a r d e : s e r i a de noche. (p. 60) Futhermore, the  opening  linear  one.  events  and  and  the  the there  and  This multiple first  then  the  back, e a c h  and  father  interior  In  alternates  person La  throughout.  the  entirely  narrative omniscient  Mrs.Dalloway and  slightly both  t a k e s on  narrates  thoughts.  The  from  narrator  the  story  use  of  i s i n the  h i s mother  Isabel,  of a s e r i e s  of  three characters.  v o i c e i s that very  of  the  similar  alternations  person  narrative  narrator  novel c o n s i s t s  in  is,  narrator,  t h e p e r s p e c t i v e of one that  by  same clocks  forward.  boy,  That  by  further  between t h e  perspective.  over  move t h e  novels,  effect  the  which  the  the n a r r a t i v e  third  and  of  cyclical  La h o j a r a s c a  h o j a r a s c a i s achieved through  call  over  time  However, an  strictly  retelling  i n t h e minds o f t h e s e  In M r s . D a l l o w a y  i s not a  and  circles  The  between  novels  overlapping,  in  occur  both  of  the c o l o n e l .  monologues  w h i c h does  same t i m e  an  means  narrators.  her  o f the  results by  of  telling  i s achieved, again  person  of t i m e  close  telling  progresses  forward  and  and  Through  trains  which  the p a s s a g e  the  to that  what  rather  third  I  by  will  than  an  narrator  of  c h a r a c t e r at a  character's viewpoint  of  telling  changes p e r s p e c t i v e , a l i g h t i n g  now  time their upon  94  one  character, In  are  now  both  another.  novels,  n a r r a t e d through  telling  of  the  event  of  Septimus,  and  retold.  same e v e n t  (p.280). scene the  Both  by  the event.  i n Mrs.Dalloway,  the  on  death  strikingly  (p.  similar  Then  i s told,  down it  on  is  to  140),  thoughts Then  the n a r r a t o r  g i v e i t y o u ! ' he c r i e d ,  violently  death  I n v a r i o u s ways i t i s t o l d  musings  death  "'I'll  226).  into  Each  p e r s p e c t i v e and  i n many ways a s an embrace.  actual  vigorously, (p.  own  characters.  a different  of i n s i g h t  Clarissa's  see d e a t h  Septimus'  railings"  i s from  importance  are h i s  mind o f S e p t i m u s .  himself  different  i s an example o f t h i s .  later  of  degree  of p r i m a r y  There  reflected  o c c u r s when t h e same e p i s o d e s  t h e m i n d s of  provides a different An  repetition  the  first in  and  flung  Mrs.Filmer's area  told  through  Rezia's  perception: She must be b r a v e and d r i n k s o m e t h i n g , he [ D r . H o l m e s ] s a i d (what was i t ? S o m e t h i n g s w e e t ) , f o r h e r husband was h o r r i b l y m a n g l e d ... It seemed t o h e r a s she d r a n k t h e sweet s t u f f t h a t she was o p e n i n g l o n g windows s t e p p i n g o u t into some g a r d e n . But where? ( p . 227) The  opening  recalls  of  the f i r s t  the  long  windows  onto the garden  page o f t h e n o v e l  opening  the  French  doors  garden.  Thus C l a r i s s a  and  a t Bourton  Clarissa's  explicitly memory  of  and s t e p p i n g o u t i n t o t h e  i s a l r e a d y drawn  into  the event  "carry  him away"  of  this  death. At The a  t h e end o f t h i s  opening  of the next  ( t h e ) ambulance.  This  episode they  h a s P e t e r W a l s h musing i s a good  example  (p.228).  on t h e p a s s i n g o f  of  the  change  in  95  narrator, novel. and  or n a r r a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e , which occurs throughout the  The "omniscience" i s l i m i t e d to one c h a r a c t e r at a  the  reader  has  no  p e r p e c t i v e at a time. ironically  more  than  time  one c h a r a c t e r ' s ( l i m i t e d )  Thus P e t e r ' s thoughts on the o c c a s i o n are  inappropriate.  For Septimus  dead, and " h o r r i b l y mangled."  has j u s t been taken away  Yet Peter t h i n k s :  It i s one of the triumphs of c i v i l i s a t i o n , as the light high b e l l of the ambulance sounded. Swiftly, c l e a n l y the ambulance sped to the h o s p i t a l , having picked up i n s t a n t l y , humanely, some poor devil; someone h i t on the head, struck down by d i s e a s e , knocked over perhaps a minute or so ago at one of these c r o s s i n g s , as might happen to o n e s e l f . (p. 229) Thus h i s i s an i r o n i c Then  r e t e l l i n g of the a f f a i r .  the s t o r y reemerges at Mrs.Dalloway's  W i l l i a m Bradshaw, who had arrived  late  because  simply r e t o l d here, Septimus'  treated  of  but  a  Septimus,  suicide.  given  p a r t y , when S i r  explains  The event  further  he  has  i s again not  significance.  It is  death as i t occurs f o r C l a r i s s a :  What b u s i n e s s had the Bradshaws to t a l k of death at her p a r t y ? A young man had k i l l e d h i m s e l f . And they talked of i t at her p a r t y - the Bradshaws t a l k e d of death. He had k i l l e d h i m s e l f - but how? Always her body went through i t first, when she was told, suddenly, of an a c c i d e n t ; her d r e s s flamed, her body burnt. He had thrown h i m s e l f from a window. Up had f l a s h e d the ground; through him, b l u n d e r i n g , b r u i s i n g , went the r u s t y s p i k e s . There he l a y with a thud, thud, thud i n h i s b r a i n , and then a s u f f o c a t i o n of blackness. So she saw i t . (p. 280)  There are other examples of through  different  this  repetition  of  episodes  n a r r a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e s , such as the scene i n  96  Regent's Park, paths  and  While  Rezia  believes two  each  one's  thinks  (pp.  three  sense  tense.  narrative  are  to  repeatedly  narrative.  i s given.  man,"  Septimus  l o o k i n g on a t t h e  lovers squabbling  p a s s a g e o f time  of  from  within that  events  actually  events  i n an e t e r n a l are of  under  a  many  tense,  is  the h a l f in a  same s p o t , w h i l e at least and t h e n  in  some  at are  t o occur  the  hour  i n the  later  point  b r i n g s the  degree.  back a g a i n earlier  point  to the c l o s e of  the  i n Mrs.Dalloway,  We  t o t h e same in  which occur  numerous t i m e s ,  even  i n the p r e v i o u s  t o some  the events  an  because  i tvirtually  forward  only  instances same  of the c o l o n e l  spill  today  of t h i s  event.  occur  are told  tells  the  i n the  narrative  but t h e same  n a r r a t e d as they  retelling  For  by a l l t h r e e  example,  different  i n t h e d o c t o r ' s house between I s a b e l  three  times.  Each  saying that the r i c e  i n t h e h o u s e s o f Macondo a  of  is  (same) p r e s e n t .  which  the c o l o n e l  This  i s retold,  span, a s o c c u r s  the  conversations  very  the opening  appear  repetition  structure.  the  were not  retold  of  effect  had p r o g r e s s e d  we  Thus  narrators  the  brought  time  There  "nice  And P e t e r  ...  i n the present  the a c t i o n  true  that  Thus when an e v e n t  back  "present"  the  recount  t h e book, a g a i n  telling  as  young  of a c i r c u l a r  narrators  present  is  Peter  cross  106-7).  La h o j a r a s c a  stronger  and  of  Walsh  of the s i t u a t i o n  him t o be t h e dead E v a n s .  In  are  perception  thinks "that i s being  tree"  in  where S e p t i m u s and R e z i a , and P e t e r  conversation  they  will  of  the  burn  narrators  and t h e m i l k  (pp.  64,67,122).  have  about  The same  the p r i e s t , " E l  97  Cachorro." latter  having  funeral (pp.  boy,  then  s a i d of  that:  the  I s a b e l , then  the  t o w n s p e o p l e who  " ' E l Cachorro  los habria  colonel  remembers  the  hadn't  come  the  hecho v e n i r  a  to  correazos'"  109,14,121). Again,  her  The  father  as  they wait  i n the  doctor's  house,  Isabel  tells  of  falling:  ... l u e g o m i r o h a c i a donde mi padre que acaba de decir: "Cataure", llamando al mas viejo de los g u a j i r o s ... que a l o i r su nombre l e v a n t a la cabeza ... Pero cuando mi p a d r e va a h a b l a r de nuevo, se oyen en e l c u a r t i t o de a t r a s l a s p i s a d a s del alcalde que e n t r a en l a h a b i t a c i o n , t a m b a l e a n d o . (p. 116)  Her  monologue  is  resumes some p a g e s  i n t e r r u p t e d h e r e by  that  of  the  colonel,  and  later:  Mi p a d r e se d e t i e n e con e l c u e l l o e s t i r a d o , oyendo l a s p i s a d a s c o n o c i d a s que a v a n z a n por e l c u a r t o de a t r a s . E n t o n c e s o l v i d a l o que p e n s a b a d e c i r l e a Cataure, y trata de d a r una v u e l t a s o b r e s i mismo, a p o y a d o en e l b a s t o n , p e r o l a p i e r n a i n u t i l l e f a l l a en l a v u e l t a , y e s t a a p u n t o de i r s e de bruces ... recobrando el equilibrio por e l apoyo que l e p r e s t a e l a l c a l d e ... (p. 119)  Some p a g e s l a t e r  is  the  colonel's  version  of  the  event: "Cataure", digo, l l a m a n d o a l mayor de mis hombres, y e l a p e n a s ha t e n i d o tiempo de levantar la cabeza, cuando oigo l a s p i s a d a s d e l a l c a l d e a v a n z a n d o por l a pieza vecina. Se que v i e n e d i r e c t a m e n t e h a c i a mi, y trato de girar rapidamente sobre mis t a l o n e s , a p o y a d o en e l b a s t o n , p e r o me f a l l a l a p i e r n a enferma y me voy h a c i a a d e l a n t e , s e g u r o de que voy a c a e r y a romperme la c a r a c o n t r a e l b o r d e d e l a t a u d , cuando t r o p i e z o con su brazo y me a f e r r o s o l i d a m e n t e a e l , y o i g o su voz de pacifica estupidez, diciendo: "No se preocupe, coronel. Le aseguro que no s u c e d e r a n a d a " . (pp.  same  98  124-5) And  later  t h e boy t e l l s  i t again:  " C a t a u r e " , o i g o ... En e s t o e n t r a , p o r l a p u e r t a de atras, otra v e z e l hombre d e l r e v o l v e r . A l aparecer en e l vano de l a p u e r t a se q u i t a e l sombrero y camina con cautela, como s i temiera despertar e l cadaver. P e r o l o ha hecho p a r a a s u s t a r a mi abuelo, que cae hacia adelante empujado p o r e l hombre, y t a m b a l e a , y logra agarrarse d e l brazo d e l mismo hombre que ha t r a t a d o de t u m b a r l e . ( p . 130)  The details  three  and even  perceptions. forgotten himself  does  mayor  not  occurs  narrative  This  rather  the  order  linear  having  and manner  impression  which  historical  and  while he  the c o l o n e l turns  away  still,  and  i n the  provides  a  the  vehicle  same  story  telling  they  occur.  chronological  attempts  as the s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d ,  for  pattern. retold  has i n a d d i t i o n t h e  i n which  The use  t i m e and shows t h e n a r r a t i v e  of events  traditional fictional,  their  h e r f a t h e r has  i n both novels.  in a c i r c u l a r  impression  that  in  a c t u a l l y pushes the c o l o n e l  perspectives  of  that  i s f a r more c o l o u r e d  narrative perspectives  disallowing  believes  o v e r and o v e r  and b a c k - t r a c k technique  But t h e y d i f f e r  i s evident.  which m a n i p u l a t e s  to progress  "natural"  but  The d i s t o r t i o n  different  different  so  h i s revolver)  pattern  repetition  say  n o t e many o f t h e same  t o say t o C a t a u r e ,  The b o y ' s a c c o u n t  (with  This  presented  f o r example,  what he was a b o u t  boy's eyes.  of  use t h e same words.  Isabel,  deliberately. the  d e s c r i p t i o n s of the event  to give.  objective  from  effect  of  themselves  i n the  For that  i s the  narrative,  both  The n a r r a t i v e i s  record  of e v e n t s  as  99  they  occur  different retold,  in  narrators and  retelling, (version  "natural"  the i m p o s s i b i l i t y  i t s different  repetition  La h o j a r a s c a  supplied  through  beginning  t h e boy t h i n k s :  entierro.  later  mi  other The  a  are  as e a c h  different  abuelo"  the reason,  the  past.  provided  each  is  Near t h e  venido  With  t o be  that  nadie  mama y l o s c u a t r o  al  guajiros  successive  t h r o u g h memories  unknown t o t h e boy, f o r no one  be d i s c l o s e d t h r o u g h  happens  earlier.  interrupted  intimates  having  life  the  to  be  information  information  into  (p.14).  will  has i n a d d i t i o n  the  monologues  of  characters. same  described  going  mi a b u e l o ,  information  Eventually  often  "No se p o r q u e no ha  venido  t o t h e wake w i l l  Then we r e t u r n colonel  is  perspectives  retelling,  characters  para  more  provoked.  then  a  Hemos  trabajan  telling  the  events  of o b j e c t i v i t y ,  the f u n c t i o n of foreshadowing  in  coming  r e t e l l i n g by  as  perspective,  from d i f f e r e n t  disclosed  que  This  both d i s r u p t s the sequence,  exposes from  sequence.  o f t h e same) s t o r y .  This in  their  falling  in  the  example o f t h e c o l o n e l ' s  I s a b e l ' s account by  a  been  ill  doctor,  monologue three  years  of  episode  the c o l o n e l  earlier,  and  and hence owing t h e l a t t e r  t o I s a b e l ' s monologue resumes.  of the  is  begun,  i n w h i c h he owing  this  i n which t h e episode  " E s t a a p u n t o de i r s e  fall,  his  burial. of the  de b r u c e s , "  says: como se f u e hace t r e s anos cuando c a y o en e l c h a r c o de l i m o n a d a e n t r e l o s r u i d o s d e l j a r r o que rodo p o r e l s u e l o y l o s z u e c o s y e l mecedor y e l l l a n t o d e l n i n o que f u e l a u n i c a p e r s o n a que l o v i o c a e r . Desde e n t o n c e s c o j e a , d e s d e e n t o n c e s a r r a s t r a l a  she  100  p i e r n a que se l e e n d u r e c i o d e s p u e s de e s a semana de amargos p a d e c i m i e n t o s , de l o s c u a l e s c r e i m o s no v e r l o r e p u e s t o jamas. A h o r a ... p i e n s o que en e s a p i e r n a inhabil e s t a e l s e c r e t o d e l compromiso que se d i s p o n e a cumplir contra l a voluntad d e l pueblo. ( p . 119)  The memory  c o l o n e l ' s own v e r s i o n o f h i s  to  illness. that  his fall  three  H i s monologue s h e d s  time,  the involvement  compromise." him  of  from  The  fall  years  before  further light  of the doctor,  doctor  also  awakens h i s  and h i s  on  the  ensuing  events  of  and t h e " s e c r e t o f h i s  had come t o h i s b e d s i d e  and " r e s c u e d  death."  Yo h a b i a de p r e g u n t a r l e d o s d i a s d e s p u e s c u a l e r a mi deuda, y e l habia de r e s p o n d e r : " U s t e d no me debe nada, c o r o n e l . Pero s i quiere hacerme un favor, echeme encima un poco de t i e r r a cuando amanezco t i e s o . (p. 125) Thus n o t o n l y time told  span over  the events  of the novel's and  insight.  over.  Isabel  recalls tells  doctor  to  refused  action,  And  which t h e l a t t e r  and thoughts  but events  again,  each  her  (p.  f o r i t was h i m who had spoken  the  doctor  had  him,  i l l , but pregnant  novel  i s made o f t h e s e The  opinions  and  new  i l l and t h e  Later  the c o l o n e l the  events  to the doctor.  Meme,  needed no t r e a t m e n t  (p.101).  a t t h e c o l o n e l ' s house varying  was  But h i s memories e x p l a i n  passed,  with  provides  her stepmother i n  84).  that  doctor  the past, are  telling  h e r o f t h e n i g h t Meme  remembers t h e same n i g h t .  seriously  from  a conversation with  attend  told  o c c u r r i n g during the  The i n i t i a l  a s she was n o t arrival  of the  i salso  told  various  times  and  emphasis  (pp.  43,48).  The e n t i r e  repetitions.  same i s t r u e o f  Mrs.Dalloway.  While  the  first  few  101  sentences  of  party,  n a r r a t i v e then  the  Mrs.Dalloway  the  book  remembers  describe plunges  the  present,  immediately  the  into  day  of  the  the  past.  Bourton:  What a lark! What a plunge! F o r so i t had a l w a y s seemed t o h e r , when, with a little squeak of the hinges, which she c o u l d h e a r now, she had b u r s t open t h e F r e n c h windows and p l u n g e d at Bourton into the open air. How f r e s h , how c a l m , s t i l l e r t h a n t h i s of c o u r s e , t h e a i r was i n t h e e a r l y m o r n i n g ; ... looking a t the f l o w e r s , a t t h e t r e e s ... s t a n d i n g and l o o k i n g u n t i l P e t e r Walsh s a i d , "Musing among t h e v e g e t a b l e s ? : - was t h a t i t ? - "I p r e f e r men t o c a u l i f l o w e r s " - was t h a t i t ? He must have said i t at breakfast one m o r n i n g when she had gone out on t o t h e t e r r a c e - ... it was h i s s a y i n g s one remembered ... when m i l l i o n s of t h i n g s had u t t e r l y v a n i s h e d - how s t r a n g e i t was! - a few s a y i n g s l i k e t h i s a b o u t c a b b a g e s . (pp. 3-4) In t h e i r end  of  Peter  memories b o t h  the  novel  Clarissa  Sally  remembers t h e  Seton,  and  Peter  W a l s h , and  r e t u r n to such  same g a r d e n  and  scenes  towards at  the  Bourton.  a moment t h e r e w i t h  Sally:  There was a g a r d e n where t h e y u s e d t o w a l k , a w a l l e d i n - p l a c e , w i t h r o s e - b u s h e s and g i a n t c a u l i f l o w e r s - he c o u l d remember S a l l y t e a r i n g o f f a r o s e , stopping to exclaim at the beauty of t h e c a b b a g e l e a v e s i n t h e moonlight ( i t was e x t r a o r d i n a r y how vividly it a l l came back to him, things he h a d n ' t t h o u g h t of f o r y e a r s ) ... (p.114) There are Peter  and  other  Sally,  examples,  once t o M a r i e  different  memories of same  remember  in very  remembers she  had  had  the  a  brooch  Antoinette  Sally  occurs  (pp.  smoking  with  different time  as  remembering  belonging  The  such  (pp.  Septimus  ways t h e i r  Clarissa, of  home, and  Sally's  48-9,286),  later  allegedly and  their  90,48). and  Rezia.  meeting  as a. happy happy one:  a beautiful  then  t h e r e her  in  "she  They  Milan. had  sisters  each Rezia  been  happy;  lived  still,  1 02  making h a t s " of  (p.  madness,  interprets  98).  unable  While to  S e p t i m u s was  feel,  h i s manner e n t i r e l y  already  on  t o t a s t e , overcome  the  by  verge  fear,  she  differently:  "The E n g l i s h a r e so s i l e n t , " R e z i a said. She liked it, she said. She r e s p e c t e d t h e s e E n g l i s h m e n , and wanted t o see London, and t h e E n g l i s h h o r s e s , and the tailor-made suits, and could remember hearing how w o n d e r f u l t h e shops were, from an Aunt who had m a r r i e d and l i v e d i n Soho. (p. 133)  But their  S e p t i m u s ' memory of  marrying  simplicity.  his  friend.  longer  engagement  shows a s i d e t r a g i c a l l y  l o v e and best  their  He  He had  had  in  Milan  in o p p o s i t i o n to  come t h r o u g h  the  war,  distinguished himself.  Rezia's  though  But  he  and  losing  could  no  feel:  When p e a c e came he was i n M i l a n , b i l l e t e d i n t h e house of an i n n k e e p e r w i t h a courtyard, flowers in tubs, little t a b l e s i n t h e open, d a u g h t e r s making h a t s , and to L u c r e z i a , t h e y o u n g e r d a u g h t e r , he became engaged one e v e n i n g when t h e p a n i c was on him - t h a t he c o u l d not f e e l ... S t i l l , s c i s s o r s rapping, g i r l s laughing, h a t s b e i n g made protected him; he was assured of s a f e t y ; he had a r e f u g e . (p. 131) He  had  asked  "frivolous"  Lucrezia  (pp.  131-2).  one  of  his  "crimes":  her;  had  lied  to her;  Thus i n b o t h distinct  c y c l e s of  between  the  present,  as  through  t o marry him But "he  later  had  seduced her"  n a r r a t i v e time. and  close  i t were, p r o g r e s s i n g  extensive  repetition  this  married  M r s . D a l l o w a y and  opening  because  (p. La  becomes h i s wife  was  "gay"  in  his  without  and eyes  loving  137). hojarasca  One of  she  i s the the  there  time which  novel,  in a c i r c u l a r  are  or  the  two  passes  narrative  spiral  from v a r i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e s of  pattern events  1 03  of  the day.  have  This  time  come t o a s t a n d s t i l l ,  marking of the time which  show o n l y This  the  past  another  the  Yet  linear  and  put  memories  the  of  of the o t h e r  to  by t h e f r e q u e n t whistle  progression. r e c o u n t i n g of  narrative  scenes  repeatedly  aspect  of b o t h  n o t i o n of time  moments  temporal  appears  into  from  motion  the past  cause  t a k i n g t h e n - a r r a t i v e back  to  the  narrative  c y c l e form a s p i r a l  present,  w h i c h moves  forward.  another  strictly  emphasized  temporal  and b r i n g i n g i t a g a i n  circles  slowly)  These  to  p a t t e r n of c i r c l e s ,  while  an e f f e c t  often  i s i n t e r r u p t e d by f r e q u e n t  seems  These  the past  indeed  by t h e c l o c k s ' chime and t h e t r a i n ' s  present  which  into  slowly,  the s l i g h t e s t  still  temporarily.  (if  passes  are  devices  both  a t t h e same t i m e  at  times  of these  novels  which d i s r u p t s a  i s the d e p i c t i o n of the spatial  d e s c r i p t i o n s , at others  to disrupt l i n e a r i t y to contain past,  moment.  and h o l d  present,  time  still  and f u t u r e  i n one  instant. The  moments w h i c h a r e p r i m a r i l y  elements of a suspended described  present.  Although  the  the  cause  an  impression  one  impression  instant.  words, or images, were t r a n s p a r e n t  thinks:  of the s p a t i a l of  a  f e a t u r e s of the i n s t a n t a r e  i s a striking  existence at p r e c i s e l y  upon, r a t h e r t h a n Dalloway  instant  i n succession, there  instantaneous though  particular  descriptive  f o l l o w i n g , one a n o t h e r .  of t h e i r  It  is  as  and s u p e r i m p o s e d  F o r example,  Clarissa  In p e o p l e ' s e y e s , i n t h e s w i n g , tramp, a n d t r u d g e ; i n the b e l l o w and t h e u p r o a r ; t h e c a r r i a g e s , motor c a r s , o m n i b u s e s , v a n s , sandwichmen s h u f f l i n g and swinging; brass bands; barrel organs; i n t h e t r i u m p h and t h e j i n g l e and t h e s t r a n g e h i g h s i n g i n g o f some aeroplane o v e r h e a d was what she l o v e d ; l i f e ; London; t h i s moment of J u n e . ( p . 5) And  Peter Walsh  thinks:  ... r e a l l y , i t took one's b r e a t h away, t h e s e moments; there coming t o him by t h e p i l l a r - b o x o p p o s i t e t h e B r i t i s h Museum one o f them, a moment, i n w h i c h things came together; this ambulance; and l i f e and d e a t h , (p. 230)  In  l a hojarasca  moments.  He  interminable  i n t h e boy's m o n o l o g u e s t h e r e a r e  describes half  t h e room  i n which they  similar  a r e t o s p e n d an  hour:  E l c a l o r es s o f o c a n t e en l a p i e z a c e r r a d a . Se oye e l zumbido d e l s o l p o r l a s c a l l e s , p e r o nada mas. E l a i r e e s e s t a n c a d o , c o n c r e t e ; se t i e n e l a i m p r e s i o n de que p o d r i a t o r c e r s e l e como una l a m i n a de a c e r o . En l a h a b i t a c i o n donde han p u e s t o e l c a d a v e r h u e l e a b a u l e s , pero no l o s v e o p o r n i n g u n a p a r t e . Hay una hamaca en el rincon, colgada de l a argolla p o r uno de s u s extremos. Hay un o l o r a d e s p e r d i c i o s . ( p . 11) And  later  he r e c a l l s  another  moment, where a c t i v i t y  i s rendered  mot i o n l e s s : T o b i a s y G i l b e r t o caminaban h a c i a e l f i n a l de l a nave oscura. Como habia llovido d u r a n t e l a manana, s u s z a p a t o s r e s b a l a b a n en l a hierba enlodada. Uno de ellos silbaba y s u s i l b o d u r o y r e c t o r e s o n a b a en e l s o c a v 6 n v e g e t a l , como cuando uno se pone c a n t a r d e n t r o de un t o n e l . Abraham v e n i a a t r a s , c o n m i g o . E l con l a honda y l a p i e d r a l i s t a p a r a s e r d i s p a r a d a . Yo c o n l a navaja a b i e r t a . De r e p e n t e e l s o l rompi6 l a techumbre de hojas apretadas y duras y un c u e r p o de claridad cay6 a l e t e a n d o en l a h i e r b a , como un p a j a r o v i v o . ( p . 53)  105  The  "action"  falling  onto  preceding  of t h e  sun  the grass  function  conveyance of b r i e f , one  sees  Clarissa  a  (p.  Bourton, This  intensity.  momentary  "He  she  Lady  made t h e moment  would  Bruton  i n which  the r i v e r - b e d s f e e l s  so  she r o c k e d :  are  similar  siento  out  in a flash Walsh,  the  captured  Mrs.Dalloway  marry  " A l l this  light i n the  of l i g h t n i n g , "  remembering  Dalloway  -  spent  i s such  recall.  Peter  time.  (p. 9 2 ) .  "asking  Richard  [Clarissa]  to lunch  had s t o o d  (p.  44).  without her  s h i v e r , as a p l a n t  t h e shock of a p a s s i n g  f o r example, when t h e y the s t r e e t ,  c a r and  shivers:  In La h o j a r a s c a  that  they  a r e about  en e l v i e n t r e " memory  At t h e the  instante  (p. 133).  devices,  l e a v e an i m p r i n t , a l l o w i n g  W a l s h , on h e a r i n g  there  to carry  t h e boy t h i n k s : "En e s t e  verdaderamente e l temblor  intensity  at  blinding  moments of o v e r w h e l m i n g p h y s i c a l s e n s a t i o n .  into  saw  i s s a i d of  times  was  i s the  she  to r e v e l a t i o n s at that  T h e s e moments f u n c t i o n a l s o a s  of  in  illumination.  so she s h i v e r e d "  of t h e n o v e l ,  coffin  of  moments a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s e n s e o f g r e a t  on  end  and  the s t i l l n e s s  moment  was a p r e y  a t t h e moment"  w e l l these  the  And P e t e r  thinks:  overwhelming  of  landscape  53).  one - t h a t  As  intensifies  through  lines.  Another  as  breaking  the clock b e l l  as  their  for vivid  strike,  thinks  Clarissa: ... with a deep emotion, and an extraordinarily clear, y e t p u z z l i n g , r e c o l l e c t i o n of h e r , as i f t h i s b e l l had come i n t o t h e room y e a r s ago, where t h e y s a t a t some moment o f g r e a t i n t i m a c y ... ( p . 74)  And  he t h i n k s l a t e r :  "How  s i g h t s f i x t h e m s e l v e s upon t h e mind!  1 06  For  example,  remembers  the  a  vivid  certain  green moment  made on him a t t h e time  moss"  (p.  96).  The  colonel  a l s o because of the i m p r e s s i o n i t  of i t s o c c u r r e n c e :  Nada r e c u e r d o c o n t a n t a p r e c i s i o n como e s e i n s t a n t e en que i r r u m p i m o s en e l comedor y yo mismo me senti vestido c o n d e m a s i a d a d o m e s t i c i d a d p a r a una mesa como l a preparada por A d e l a i d a . ( p . 58) The time,  moment  as  capsules  well.  f u n c t i o n s as a d e v i c e The n o v e l s  r a t h e r than  narrative  a  to  are narrated  continuous  p r o g r e s s i o n to stop,  line.  to stand  manipulate  narrative  by means o f moments o r Each  moment  causes  still:  As a c l o u d c r o s s e s t h e s u n , s i l e n c e f a l l s on London; and f a l l s on t h e mind. E f f o r t ceases. Time f l a p s on the mast. T h e r e we s t o p ; t h e r e we s t a n d . R i g i d , the s k e l e t o n o f h a b i t a l o n e u p h o l d s t h e human f r a m e . ( p p . 73-4) In L a h o j a r a s c a  there  are  similar  instances  of  time  at  a  standstill: Hay un m i n u t o en que se a g o t a l a s i e s t a . Hasta l a secreta, r e c o n d i t a , minuscula actividad de los insectos c e s a en e s e i n s t a n t e p r e c i s o ; e l c u r s o de l a n a t u r a l e z a se d e t i e n e ; l a c r e a c i 6 n t a m b a l e a a l borde d e l c a o s y l a s m u j e r e s se i n c o r p o r a n , babeando, con l a flor de l a almohada b o r d a d a en l a m e j i l i a , sofocadas por l a t e m p e r a t u r a y e l r e n c o r ; y p i e n s a n : " T o d a v i a e s m i e r c o l e s en Macondo." ( p . 60) The  n a r r a t i v e progresses  skipping  from  moment  t o moment.  conjure  an image o f time  thinks  of  impression  his after  not as a continuous  visit another  as with  a  B o t h Woolf and G a r c i a  dripping  Clarissa  down i n t o  flow  liquid.  by  Marquez  Peter  Walsh  drip,  o f one  where t h e y  stood,  as "the d r i p ,  that c e l l a r  but  1 07  deep, d a r k " and  of  catch of  (p.  230).  t h e time  the f a l i n g  t h e moment,  hojarasca  that  And C l a r i s s a remains  drop,  there  t o be l i v e d  Clarissa  transfixed  ...  i t , there"  i s a moment  t h i n k s of the  year  i n i t : "and, a s i f t o  plunged (p.  coming  into  54).  the very  Similarly  heart in  La  when:  A dead clock on t h e b r i n k o f t h e next m i n u t e ... dives into the prodigious quiet o f t h e moment and comes out a f t e r w a r d d r i p p i n g with l i q u i d time, with e x a c t and r e c t i f i e d time. " 1 7  This well,  a  n a r r a t i o n i n moments o r d i s c o n n e c t e d means  characters. Peter  for  This  Woolf  of  rendering  f u n c t i o n o f t h e moment  Walsh's d e s c r i p t i o n  capsules  relationships is  of h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p  explained with  is,  as  between through  Clarissa:  Brief, broken, o f t e n p a i n f u l as t h e i r a c t u a l meetings had been what w i t h h i s a b s e n c e s and i n t e r r u p t i o n s ... t h e e f f e c t o f them on his life was immeasurable. T h e r e was a m y s t e r y a b o u t i t . You were g i v e n a s h a r p , acute, uncomfortable grain - the a c t u a l meeting; h o r r i b l y p a i n f u l as o f t e n as n o t ; y e t i n absence, i n the most u n l i k e l y p l a c e s , i t would f l o w e r o u t , open, shed i t s s c e n t , l e t y o u t o u c h , t a s t e , l o o k a b o u t y o u , get t h e whole feel of i t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g , after y e a r s of l y i n g l o s t . ( p . 232) And  Richard  [Clarissa]; quite  except  distinctly; But  need  thinks  there  how: in  their  " i t was  starts,  difficult  as a t luncheon,  whole l i f e "  (pp.  to  to maintain  of  when he saw h e r  174-5).  i s a s w e l l a d e s i r e f o r c o n t i n u i t y , an  f o r i t i n order  think  inevitable  order:  A l l t h e same, t h a t one day should follow another; Wednesday, T h u r s d a y , F r i d a y , S a t u r d a y ; t h a t one s h o u l d wake up i n t h e m o r n i n g ; s e e t h e s k y ; walk i n t h e p a r k ; meet Hugh W h i t b r e a d ; t h e n s u d d e n l y i n came P e t e r ; t h e n these roses; i t was enough. After that, how  1 08  unbelievable 185) In  the  case  continuity  of  narrative,  of  the  Septimus,  notion  loss seen  interruption hojarasca  of  as a s i g n  whose name i s n e v e r  These  i t must end  breakdown  thoughts  be  and  ...  of  (p.  that  images l e a d s  found  linear  of c o n t i n u i t y  d o c t o r , a man  ... en abulica su v i d a 68)  the  can  restrictions  the  is s t i l l  - that  flow to  of  chaos,  death.  similar  a l t h o u g h the  past  was!  into disjointed  t o madness, t o A  death  time  and  of chaos  La h o j a r a s c a  are  subverted  of a r e l a t i o n s h i p and  o f unknown o r i g i n  known,  in  end. and  The  where in  the  with  the  colonel  mysterious  says  identity  that  su rostro se advertia ... l a expresion y f a t i g a d a d e l hombre que no sabe que s e r a de n i t i e n e e l menor i n t e r e s en a v e r i g u a r l o . (p.  moments of  often  link  the c o n t i n u o u s  t h e boy  sits  this  f l o w of  stopping time,  of  time,  with death.  or  In  La  i n the d o c t o r ' s house:  A c o s a d o por e l c a l o r s o f o c a n t e , p o r e l m i n u t o que no transcurre, por e l zumbido de l a s moscas, s i e n t o como s i a l g u i e n me d i j e r a : " E s t a r a s a s i . E s t a r a s d e n t r o de un a t a u d l l e n o de moscas. (p. 22) And  the  s e n s a t i o n of t i m e  presence  of t h e  halted  i n t h e house  is related  to  the  corpse:  M i e n t r a s se mueva a l g o , puede s a b e r s e que e l t i e m p o ha t r a n s c u r r i d o ... Por e s o no t r a n s c u r r e e l tiempo p a r a el a h o r c a d o : p o r q u e aunque la-mano d e l n i n o se mueve, e l no l o s a b e . (p. 62)  Thus t i m e  i s not  g i v e n any  natural,  "real"  movement but  is  only  1 09  perceived In times  t o move w i t h  Mrs.Dalloway they  are  "buds on t h e t r e e this  case  life,  t o s t o p f o r the dead.  t h e s e moments h o l d b o t h  "like  the p u l s e of a p e r f e c t  of l i f e "  f o r Septimus,  life  (p.  visions  43).  and d e a t h .  heart"  At  (p. 82),  But t h e y a r e a l s o ,  as  in  of d e a t h :  ... this gradual drawing t o g e t h e r of e v e r y t h i n g t o one c e n t r e b e f o r e h i s e y e s , a s i f some h o r r o r had come a l m o s t t o t h e s u r f a c e and was about to burst into f l a m e s , t e r r i f i e d him. The w o r l d wavered and q u i v e r e d and t h r e a t e n e d t o b u r s t i n t o f l a m e s . ( p . 21)  Thus  it  narration  that  death, and  both  linear,  and t h e moment  past,  records  follow  is  and f r a n t i c a l l y  the  vehicle  h i s family's history  The  from  allows  for  restricted  the  passage  temporary by  the  of  to i t s f i n a l  chronology  and  l e a d s t o chaos  through  exist  the  without  while  of h i s church  i t . Yet  f o r i t l e a d s him t o  end i n h i s own  cannot  illumination,  decay  mad by t h e m y s t e r y  h i s death,  of time,  fragmented  a t t h e end o f C i e n afios de  searches  i t  to  sequence"  allow  death.  for ultimate  i t i s o n l y momentary,  and  for  of h i s t o r i c a l  w h i c h c a p t u r e a t once p a s t , p r e s e n t , and eternity.  leads  He c a n n o t  moment, however, w h i l e  escape  Like  i s driven  to d i s c o v e r the t r u t h .  truth  time  away from  to death.  Aureliano Babilonia  his origins,  the c o n c l u s i o n of such  causal  "broken  madness and t h u s  soledad,  the  i s i n one s e n s e  visions  narrative  future  -  not  b u t ones  visions  of  1 10  V. Clearly, supremacy offered  of  history  in  the  well  of  the  of  these  two  which the  two  Miller  fictional  p r o b l e m of events.  push  narrative  these  Hillis  debate over  it  has  questions  the  Marquez of i s by  authors.  points  out,  narrative-  facticity Neither,  validity  of  as  no  the  means  Writers  of  writers  of  is  vs.  modelled,  construction shown  influence  for reconsideration  the  been  will  questions.  is influence  given  as  Garcia  of  by  the  theory,  the  is  concept  new.  formulated nor:  Woolf and  unique to  past  i n t e r r o g a t i o n and  by  chronological  as,  confronted  However,  my  yield  hope t h a t  i f not  I have not  study v a l i d ?  implications  of  the  the  new  answers  a s k e d : was  Rather,  juxtaposition  there  then an  newly  influence?  I have a s k e d : what  imposition  of  influence  of  would  theory  upon  questions  was  underlying  the  works? In  the  first  begun  through  theory  of  applied  chapter  an  progressing  in  a  the  scholars  who  of  the  structure  m e a n i n g , and  critical attempt  the  I  to  these  assumptions inform  These  chronological,  second c h a p t e r  examination  of  texts.  a lineal  sequence c o n f e r In  approach  which n e c e s s a r i l y  t o a u t h o r s and of  the  exposition  influence  presupposition  and  or  after  recording  itself  be  new,  itself,  extent the  as  long  rejection  traditional  h e r e as  fiction,  have  the  CONCLUSION  implying  attempted on  to the  of  a  and  end  i n which  artistic show  it is  include  origin  order,  originality  question  method as  assumptions  causal  opinions  the  possible  and  origin  worth.  through  subject,  the  the  first,  how  case  of  111  influence  unwittingly  assumptions  in  conclusions of  their  are  influence  themselves.  display work  determined theory  by  denial  Marquez a p p e a r s  to d e r i v e  reputation  of  originality,  conviction  that  their texts  which might And  i n d i c a t e an secondly,  characteristics common,  to  they are  of  assumptions  is  reject In Woolf  that  conducting  an  between  refutation  of  no  assumptions,  a particular  assumptions  Woolf  to  on  texts Garcia  preserve  etc.,  second which  nature  critics  than  his  from  a  similarities  have  of  the  impose  For  on  while  and  framework  these  influence Garcia  p a r a l l e l s between  two  by  theory Marquez  i f one  study, of  were  serve  interested  as  in  their  chronological influence  a  point  t h e i r works w h i c h  were shown t o c o n t a i n  theory  texts  refutation  reading  by in of  indicate  implicitly of  a the  narrative.  theory,  being  a system  i s p r e s c r i p t i v e i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n and  (conventional)  in  works.  I studied  i s that  examined found  very  c h r o n o l o g y , Woolf and  texts  I  those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  would  influence  the  chapter, critics  of  influence.  traditional  contention  their  from t h e  significant  a contradiction  influence  of  by  those  is,  the  wrought  attempt  Marquez w h i c h m i g h t ,  actual  to  influence  However, t h o s e a s p e c t s  assumptions  are  nationality,  the  chapter  parallels  set  any  works  traditional  Garcia  they  the  their  which  third  departure.  My  of  t r a d i t i o n in t h e i r  the and  t h e i r adherence  bear  in  (ironically)  in  That  of  influence.  (or d e n y i n g ) an  rooted  performance  criticism.  more from an  understand  how  claiming  of  of  more t h a n  Thus the  the  upon t e x t s .  of  imposes  Approaching  any  1 12  given  work  inevitably  from prejudge  assumptions  of  What  this  the  I  perspective in  the  Such  contradictions  of  and  texts  the  have  of  texts,  a  reading,  been t o the  these  warning the  with  of  final For  texts  them  and  a  their  through  influence the  the  trap  of  the  will  terms  and  from  the  back on  to  the  reveals  the  narrative  theory.  influence through  the  texts.  attempt,  The  influence  structures  of  the  seeing  it  reading  can  merely  theory  of  the  theory  through  and  but  to  a  texts, the  outlines  therefore,  studies,  themselves, as  the  their  imposition  influence on  of  Whereas a theory  sheds l i g h t  premises of  time,  perspective  reading  landmarks, the  narrative  influence  of  the  instead  u n c o n v e n t i o n a l a s p e c t s of  texts  of  has  not  silhouette  theory.  while  were,  they which  contain  within  point  of  chronology,  contain  such  refutation  as  as  to  a  well  a  absolute,  as  word. the  display  in  of  particular characteristics,  p r e m i s e s of  w o r t h of  the  narrative  refutation  any  "absent"  However,  of  over,  texts  r e j e c t the  allegedly  them  read  position  differences  theory  looking  their  framework of  conventional  its  the  p r e m i s e s of  or  framework of  a  study  is  reversal  through the  reverse  with  innovation  between  the  of  outcome of  suggested  obliterate  the  perspective  theory.  case t h e i r  theory.  texts  the  as  refutation has  itself  well  subversion  of  reassertion  the the of  of  conventional  linearity  become a c o n v e n t i o n ,  signs  of  a  convention the  and  r e f u t a t i o n of of  rejecting  i m p o s s i b i l i t y of  one  that  which  these  can  trace  refutation,  chronology,  escaping  the  in  passage  1 1 3  of  time.  linear  They  reject  series  the  n e c e s s i t y of d e p i c t i n g  of e v e n t s  in their  unfolding  r e v e a l s meaning,  conclude  that unconventional,  stop  time.  longer is  no  Thus w h i l e  seen  Rather studies, as  texts  and  can  can  explicit  their  rolls  insistence  upon  the  a  as  they of  conclusions,  into identity  of of  smooths, that  as c o n n e c t e d  is  no  there  line."  are  of i n f l u e n c e as  they  prescriptive,  they  calls  might  origin.  not  texts.  Thus Years,  rounds  i s , the o b s e s s i o n  one  largely  i t i n The  obliterates;  are  situates  t h e method, w h i c h  with  to  actually  "reality,"  i n a p p r o p r i a t e r e a d i n g of  balls,"  can  a  gradual  narrative  insofar  that  as  temptation  method w h i c h d e f i n e s and  assumptions  that  whose  the v a l i d i t y  " c o n s p i r a c y , " as N o r t h  roller  identity;  of  usefulness  the  an  the  sense  entirely  insofar  inform  expose the  steam  of  any  "end  And  their  ("innocently")  "the  allow  authors.  make  can  eventual  denouncing  mock  conception  to express  descriptive  predetermine  one  the  than  one  taken  from  also  order  non-linear narrative  a linear  as a d e q u a t e  escape  but  "natural"  "history"  with  into and  11 4  NOTES  Anna B a l a k i a n , " I n f l u e n c e and L i t e r a r y F o r t u n e : The E q u i v o c a l J u n c t i o n of Two M e t h o d s , " YCGL, 11 ( 1 9 6 2 ) , 24. 1  H a r o l d Bloom, The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973), 2  3  Bloom, p.  Anxiety p~. 26.  of I n f l u e n c e  (New  York: Oxford  26.  " J a n B r a n d t C o r s t i u s , "The C o n c e p t of I n f l u e n c e , " i n h i s I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y of L i t e r a t u r e (New Y o r k : Random House, 1968), p. 179. J.T.Shaw, " L i t e r a r y I n d e b t e d n e s s and C o m p a r a t i v e L i t e r a r y S t u d i e s , " i n C o m p a r a t i v e L i t e r a t u r e : Method and P e r s p e c t i v e , e d . Newton P . S t a l l k n e c h t and H o r s t F r e n z ( n . p . : S o u t h e r n I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s t i y P r e s s , 1961), p. 91. 5  Andre M o r i z e , " Q u e s t i o n s of S u c c e s s and of I n f l u e n c e , " h i s P r o b l e m s and Methods of L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y ( B o s t o n : G i n n & Co., 1922), p. 228. 6  I h a b H.Hassan, "The P r o b l e m of I n f l u e n c e i n L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y : N o t e s Towards a D e f i n i t i o n , " J o u r n a l o f A e s t h e t i c s A r t C r i t i c i s m , 14 ( 1 9 5 5 ) , 68.  in  7  and  C l a u d i o G u i l l e n , "The A e s t h e t i c s of L i t e r a r y I n f l u e n c e , " i n h i s L i t e r a t u r e as System (New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971), p. 47. 8  9  Bloom, p.  30.  1 0  Bloom, p.  43.  1 1  Bloom, p.  5.  1 2  Shaw, p.  1 3  F.W.Bateson, E d i t o r i a l 436.  (1954), 1 4  Shaw, p.  89. Commentary, E s s a y s i n C r i t i c i s m  90.  U l r i c h W e i s s t e i n , " I n f l u e n c e and I m i t a t i o n , " i n h i s C o m p a r a t i v e L i t e r a t u r e and L i t e r a r y T h e o r y , t r a n s . W i l l i a m 1 5  4  115  Riggan  (Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y  1 6  Hassan  pp.  1 7  Hassan,  p.  67.  1 8  Hassan,  p.  73.  1 9  Shaw, p.  Press,  2 1  Shaw, p.  2 2  Weisstein,  2 3  Corstius,  2 4  Wellek  of L i t e r a t u r e  (New  94. p.  35.  p.  185.  and Warren, p.  258.  C l a u d i o G u i l l e n , "A Note on h i s L i t e r a t u r e as System, p.62. 2 5  I n f l u e n c e s and C o n v e n t i o n s , "  2 6  B a t e s o n , p.  2 7  R.W.Stallman, "The S c h o l a r ' s N e t : L i t e r a r y E n g l i s h , 17 ( 1 9 5 5 ) , 23.  2 8  45.  92.  Rene W e l l e k and A u s t i n Warren, T h e o r y Y o r k : Random House, 1968), p. 258.  College  p.  66-7.  2 0  in  1973),  Corstius,  437.  p.  178.  H a s k e l l M.Block, comparative L i t e r a t u r e , "  "The C o n c e p t o f I n f l u e n c e i n YCGL, 7 ( 1 9 5 8 ) , 36.  2 9  3 0  B l o c k , p.  3 1  Guillen,  Sources,"  34. "Aesthetics,"  p.  50.  P a u l Van Tieghem, " S u c c e s e t i n f l u e n c e s g l o b a l e s , " i n h i s La L i t t e r a t u r e comparee ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Armand C o l i n , 1931), p. 126. 3 2  3 3  Guillen,  "Note,"  3 4  Weisstein,  pp.  3 5  Hassan,  p.  76.  3 6  Hassan,  pp.  3 7  Balakian,  3 8  Hassan,  p.  p. 43-4.  68-9.  p.  30.  69.  58.  11 6  T . S . E l i o t , " T r a d i t i o n and the I n d i v i d u a l T a l e n t , " C r i t i c i s m i n A m e r i c a : I t s F u n c t i o n and S t a t u s (New York: H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and Company, 1924), p~. 223. 3 9  Guillen, "Aesthetics,"  4 0  in  p.31.  * H e n r i P e y r e , "Andre G i d e et l e s p r o b l e m e s d ' i n f l u e n c e l i t t e r a t u r e , " Modern Language N o t e s , 57 ( 1 9 4 2 ) , 7. 1  4 2  G u i l l e n , " A e s t h e t i c s , " p.  4 3  Balakian,  * Jersey: 4  *  5  en  46.  p.29.  Goran Hermeren. I n f l u e n c e i n A r t and L i t e r a t u r e P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975) , p~. x i v . Hermeren, pp.  (New  7,154.  R o l a n d B a r t h e s , "Par ou commencer?" i n Le Degre z"ero de l ' e c r i t u r e s u i y i de nouveaux e s s a i s c r i t i q u e s ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s du S e u i l , 1972) , p~! 146, as q u o t e d i n Edward S a i d , B e g i n n i n g s (New Y o r k : B a s i c Books, I n c . , P u b l i s h e r s , 1975), p. 16. 4 6  4 7  Said,  p.  4 8  G u i l l e n , " A e s t h e t i c s , " p.  42.  4 9  G u i l l e n , " A e s t h e t i c s , " p.  42.  5 0  Said,  5 1  Hermeren, pp.  pp.  15.  66,25. 93,5,105.  Roland B a r t h e s , " I n t r o d u c t i o n to the S t r u c t u r a l A n a l y s i s of N a r r a t i v e s , " i n h i s Image - M u s i c - T e x t , t r a n s . S t e p h e n H e a t h (New Y o r k : H i l l and Wang, 1977), p. 94. 5 2  5 3  Barthes,  5 4  Said,  p.  "Introduction,"  p.  94.  16.  Andre G i d e , "De 1 ' i n f l u e n c e en l i t t e r a t u r e , " i n O e u v r e s c o m p l e t e s d ' A n d r g G i d e ( P a - r i s : N o u v e l l e Revue F r a n c a i s e , 1932) , I I I , 258-9. 5 5  5 6  Hermeren, p.  132.  5 7  Hermeren, p.  130.  5 8  Hermeren, pp.  5 9  Gide,  p.  258.  6 0  Gide,  p.  264.  130-1,142-3.  1 1 7  6 1  Nietzsche,  as q u o t e d  6 2  Weisstein,  p.  6 3  Bloom, p.  148.  6 4  Eliot,  6 5  Balakian,  p.  6 6  Bloom, p.  50.  6 7  Bloom, p.  29.  6 8  6 9  pp.  Bloom, p.  i n P e y r e , p.  563.  34.  218-9. 29.  11.  Bloom, p.  78.  J . H i l l i s M i l l e r , i n h i s " N a r r a t i v e and H i s t o r y , " shows t h a t t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s a r e t h e same as t h o s e of b o t h h i s t o r i c a l and f i c t i o n a l n a r r a t i v e , h a v i n g been t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e f o r m e r to the l a t t e r . See J . H i l l i s M i l l e r , " N a r r a t i v e and H i s t o r y , " ELH, 41 ( 1 9 7 4 ) , 455-73. 7 0  7 1  Balakian,  pp.  7 2  Weisstein,  p.  24-5. 31.  7 3  Corstius,  p.  187.  7 4  Shaw, p .  90.  7 5  Guillen, "Aesthetics,"  pp.  33-4.  Jonathan C u l l e r , "Presupposition Modern Language N o t e s , 91 ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 1388. 7 6  7 7  Guillen, "Aesthetics,"  7 8  Guillen, "Aesthetics,"  p.  38.  7 9  Guillen, "Aesthetics,"  p.  38.  8 0  G u i l l e n , "Note,"  8 1  Hassan,  8 2  Guillen,  p.  51.  p.  p.  and I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y , "  p.34.  60.  74.  "Aesthetics,"  J a n e Tompkins, "An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Reader Response C r i t i c i s m , " i n Reader Response C r i t i c i s m : From F o r m a l i s m t o P o s t S t r u c t u r a l i s m , ed. Jane Tompkins ( B a l t i m o r e : The J o h n s H o p k i n s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1980), p. i x . 8 3  1 18  8 4  Culler,  p . 1388.  See R o l a n d B a r t h e s , "From Work t o T e x t , " i n Image Music - Text ; M i c h a e l R i f f a t e r r e , " S y l l e p s i s , " C r i t i c a l I n q u i r y , 7 ( 1 9 8 0 / 8 1 ) , 625-38. B a r t h e s , R i f f a t e r r e , and C u l l e r a l l t a k e p a i n s t o d i s t i n g u i s h between i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y a n d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t o f i n f l u e n c e , a n d C u l l e r goes t o some l e n g t h i n d i s c u s s i n g Bloom's t h e o r y i n p a r t i c u l a r . 8 5  8 6  Culler,  p . 1382.  That t h e poet i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be ( n e c e s s a r i l y ) male i s yet another assumption of i n f l u e n c e t h e o r y . The most c u r s o r y g l a n c e a t t h e m a t e r i a l w r i t t e n on t h e t o p i c r e v e a l s a s y s t e m d e e p l y r o o t e d i n what must needs be c a l l e d a male t r a d i t i o n . I t w i l l n o t s u f f i c e t o e x p l a i n t h i s phenomenon by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e male p r o n o u n i s used t o d e n o t e b o t h male and f e m a l e , o r "human," f o r i t goes f a r beyond t h a t . The m a t e r i a l i s o v e r w h e l m i n g l y bound i n a "male" l a n g u a g e , f r a u g h t w i t h p h a l l i c images, images of f a t h e r s a n d s o n s , o f r i v a l r y and b a t t l e , o f a p o e t ' s f o r e f a t h e r s a n d " h i s " own f a t h e r i n g o f poems. For feminist commentary on f e m a l e a u t h o r s and l i t e r a r y i n f l u e n c e , and on Bloom's t h e o r y i n p a r t i c u l a r , s e e L o u i s e B e r n i k o w , "Comment on Joanne F e i t D i e h l ' s 'Come S l o w l y Eden: An E x p l o r a t i o n of Women P o e t s and T h e i r Muse," S i g n s 4 ( 1 9 7 8 ) ; Joanne F e i t D i e h l , "'Come S l o w l y - E d e n ' : An E x p l o r a t i o n o f Women P o e t s and T h e i r Muse," S i g n s , 3 ( 1 9 7 7 / 7 8 ) , 572-87; S a n d r a G i l b e r t and Susan Gubar, "Towards a F e m i n i s t P o e t i c s , " i n t h e i r The Madwoman i n t h e A t t i c (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19797"^ 3-104; Susan Gubar, "'The B l a n k Page" and t h e I s s u e s o f Female C r e a t i v i t y , " C r i t i c a l I n q u i r y , 8 ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 243-63; Mary J a c o b u s , "The B u r i e d L e t t e r : F e m i n i s m and R o m a n t i c i s m i n V i l l e t t e , " i n Women W r i t i n g and W r i t i n g About Women, e d . Mary J a c o b u s ( L o n d o n : Croom Helm L t d . , 1979) . 8 7  8 8  Feit  Diehl,  8 9  Gilbert  p . 573.  and Gubar, P. 48.  Emile B e n v e n i s t e , Problems of General L i n g u i s t i c s , ( C o r a l G a b l e s , F l o r i d a : n. p. , 1971), p~! 101, a s q u o t e d i n B a r t h e s , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " p . 82. 9 0  9 1  Culler,  p p . 1386-7.  9 2  S a i d , p . 6.  C y n t h i a C h a s e , "The D e c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e E l e p h a n t s : D o u b l e - R e a d i n g D a n i e l D e r o n d a , " PMLA, 93 ( 1 9 7 8 ) , 217. 9 3  9 4  C h a s e , p . 220.  9 5  Alone,  " Orlando  and C i e n  anos de s o l e d a d , "  Cronica  1 19  Literaria,  E l Mercurio,  Santiago,  21  June  G e o r g e R.McMurray, G a b r i e l G a r c i a F r e d e r i c k Ungar P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1977), p. 9 6  9 7  deicidio 9 8  1970,  p.  Marquez 2.  3. (New  M a r i o V a r g a s L l o s a , G a r c i a M a r q u e z : H i s t o r i a de ( B a r c e l o n a : B a r r a l E d i t o r e s , 1971 ) , p~. 38~! McMurray, pp.  York: un  18,157  I t i s , f u r t h e r m o r e , s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t i t was J o r g e L u i s B o r g e s who t r a n s l a t e d works by V i r g i n i a Woolf i n t o S p a n i s h . His t r a n s l a t i o n of O r l a n d o a p p e a r e d i n 1937, t r a n s l a t e d , according t o R o d r i g u e z M o n e g a l , "con una p e r f e c c i o n t a l que l o c o n v i e r t e en un l i b r o c a p i t a l de l a s l e t r a s l a t i n o a m e r i c a n a s . " (p. 14) I t c a n n o t go w i t h o u t n o t i c e , t h e n , t h a t the t r a n s l a t i o n s of works by Woolf a v a i l a b l e t o G a r c i a Marquez were t h o s e of a s c h o l a r who was h i m s e l f an a l l e g e d i n f l u e n c e upon G a r c i a M a r q u e z . This f a c t , a l o n g w i t h Woolf and G a r c i a Marquez h a v i n g p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e s i n common ( s u c h as P r o u s t , among o t h e r s , named as p r e c u r s o r t o b o t h ) , may c a u s e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e two t o be v i e w e d by some as a c a s e of i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e . 9 9  1  o o Vargas  Llosa,  p.  159.  E m i r R o d r i g u e z M o n e g a l , "Novedad y a n a c r o n i s m o en C i e n arTos de s o l e d a d , " R e v i s t a N a c i o n a l de C u l t u r a , 24, No. 185 ( 1 9 6 8 ) , FT; E r n e s t o Schoo, "Los v i a j e s de Simbad G a r c i a M a r q u e z , " P r i m e r a P l a n a , Buenos A i r e s , 5, No. 234, 20-26 June 1967, p. 52. 1 0 1  G a b r i e l G a r c i a M a r q u e z , E l o l o r de l a g u a y a b a : C o n v e r s a c i o n e s con P l i n i o A p u l e y o Mendoza ( B o g o t a : E d i t o r i a l l a O v e j a N e g r a , 1982), p. 50. 1 0 2  G u s t a v o E s t e v a , "Un G a l e o n en 1967," E l G a l l o , S u p l e m e n t o D o m i n i c a l de E l D i a , M e x i c o , No. 266, 30 1967, p.1. 1 0 3  1 o a  Esteva,  de  Ilustrado July  p.1.  E r n e s t o V o l k e n i n g , " G a b r i e l G a r c i a Marquez o e l t r o p i c o d e s e m b r u j a d o , " i n Nueve a s e d i o s a G a r c i a MSrquez (Santiago: E d i t o r i a l U n i v e r s i t a r i a , 1969), p. 147. 1 0 5  1 0 6  Volkening,  p.  149.  1 0 7  Volkening,  p.  149.  1 0 8  Vargas L l o s a ,  p.  1 0 9  Vargas L l o s a ,  pp.  137-8.  1 1 0  Vargas L l o s a ,  p.  166.  135.  1 20  1 1 1  A l o n e , p . 3.  1  1  2  Esteva,  1  1  3  A l o n e , p . 3.  "  1 1  Vargas  1 1 5  Collected  p . 1.  Llosa,  p . 166.  V i r g i n i a Woolf, " P r o f e s s i o n s E s s a y s (London: The H o g a r t h  1 1 6  Vargas  Llosa,  pp. 162-3.  1 1 7  Vargas  Llosa,  p . 164.  1  1  8  R o d r i g u e z Monegal,  1  1  9  Schoo,  1  2  0  A l o n e , p . 3.  1 2 1  A l o n e , p . 3.  1  2  2  McMurray, p . 157.  1  2  3  R o d r i g u e z Monegal,  1 2  1  2  " 5  2  p . 14.  p . 53.  p . 15.  McMurray, p . 106. McMurray, p . 12. McMurray, p . 85.  1 2 6  1  f o r Women," i n h e r P r e s s , 1966), I I , 287-8.  7  Siempre! 78.  C a r l o s F u e n t e s , " G a r c i a M a r q u e z : C i e n anos de s o l e d a d , " N. 679, 29 June 1966, a s q u o t e d i n V a r g a s L l o s a , p .  James Naremore, " N a t u r e and H i s t o r y i n The Y e a r s , " i n V i r g i n i a W o o l f : R e v a l u a t i o n and C o n t i n u i t y , e d . R a l p h Freedman (Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1980), p . 244. 1  2  8  M a r i a D i B a t t i s t a , " To t h e L i g h t h o u s e : V i r g i n i a W o o l f ' s W i n t e r T a l e , " i n V i r g i n i a W o o l f : R e v a l u a t i o n and C o n t i n u i t y , p . 174. 1  2  9  1 3 0  1 3 1  Naremore, p. 243. Basilde  Senancourt, as quoted  i n Naremore, p . 247.  G i l l i a n B e e r , "Beyond D e t e r m i n i s m : G e o r g e E l i o t and V i r g i n i a W o o l f , " i n Women W r i t i n g and W r i t i n g About Women, e d . Mary J a c o b u s (London: Croom Helm, L t d . , 1979), p p . 90,94. Indeed, t h e n a r r a t i o n of p l o t , l i k e t h a t of h i s t o r y , f a r from 1 3 2  121  r e p r e s e n t i n g any n a t u r a l s e q u e n c e , has an i n t e r p r e t i v e function. For p l o t i s t h e embodiment o f s e q u e n c e , and hence a v e h i c l e f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of meaning. F o r f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e power o f p l o t , s e e J u r i j M.Lotman, "The O r i g i n o f P l o t i n t h e L i g h t o f T y p o l o g y , " P o e t i c s Today, 1 ( 1 9 7 9 / 8 0 ) , 16183. " P l o t , " s a y s Lotman, " r e p r e s e n t s a p o w e r f u l means o f making sense of l i f e . O n l y a s a r e s u l t o f t h e emergence o f n a r r a t i v e forms o f a r t d i d man l e a r n t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e p l o t a s p e c t o f r e a l i t y , t h a t i s , t o b r e a k down t h e n o n - d i s c r e t e f l o w of e v e n t s i n t o d i s c r e t e u n i t s , t o c o n n e c t them t o c e r t a i n meanings ( t h a t i s , t o i n t e r p r e t them s e m a n t i c a l l y ) and t o o r g a n i z e them i n t o r e g u l a t e d c h a i n s ( t o i n t e r p r e t them s y n t a g m a t i c a l l y ) . I t i s the i s o l a t i o n of e v e n t s - d i s c r e t e p l o t u n i t s - and t h e a l l o t t i n g t o them, on t h e one hand, o f a p a r t i c u l a r meaning, a n d , on t h e o t h e r , a p a r t i c u l a r t e m p o r a l , c a u s e - r e s u l t or o t h e r r e g u l a t e d n e s s t h a t makes up t h e e s s e n c e of p l o t " ( p p . 182-3). 1 3 3  B e e r , p. 80.  A l l e n M c L a u r i n , V i r g i n i a W o o l f : The E c h o e s E n s l a v e d ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973), p . 1 58 . 1 3 4  1 3 5  McMurray, p . 158.  1 3 6  McMurray, p . 106.  1 3 7  Vargas Llosa,  p . 550.  D i B a t t i s t a , p. 169. Note a s w e l l a s i m i l a r d e s c r i p t i o n by R o d r i g u e z M o n e g a l , c i t e d e a r l i e r , o f time i n t h e s e n o v e l s a s "mordiendose rabiosamente l a c o l a . " F o r a p a r t i c u l a r l y good i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h i s m o t i f t o n a r r a t i v e , see U r s u l a K . L e G u i n , " I t Was a Dark a n d Stormy N i g h t ; o r , Why A r e We H u d d l i n g about t h e C a m p f i r e ? " i n On N a r r a t i v e , e d . W . J . T . M i t c h e l l ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s t i y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1981), pp. 187-95. L e G u i n r e l a t e s t h e s t o r y o f t h e hoop s n a k e , who t a k e s i t s t a i l i n i t s mouth t o form a hoop a n d t h u s r o l l a l o n g , w i t h t h e drawback t h a t some hoop s n a k e s have r a t t l e s , and d i e o f t h e poison they i n j e c t i n t o themselves. "I d o n ' t know what t h e moral i s , " says LeGuin. " I t may be i n t h e end s a f e s t t o l i e p e r f e c t l y s t i l l w i t h o u t even c r a w l i n g . . . But t h e n no t r a c k s a r e l e f t i n t h e d u s t , no l i n e s drawn; t h e d a r k and stormy n i g h t s a r e a l l one w i t h t h e sweet b r i g h t d a y s , t h i s moment o f June - a n d you might a s w e l l n e v e r have l i v e d a t a l l . And t h e m o r a l o f t h a t i s , y o u have t o form a c i r c l e t o e s c a p e from t h e c i r c l e ... [and] v e r y few t h i n g s come n e a r e r t h e r e a l Hoop T r i c k t h a n a good s t o r y " ( p p . 189-90). 1 3 8  V a r g a s L l o s a , p. 160. V a r g a s L l o s a ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e moment a s " p r i v i l e g i a d o " r e c a l l s P r o u s t ' s "moment privilegie." However, t h e two c o n c e p t s have s i g n i f i c a n t differences. The i m p o r t a n c e o f P r o u s t ' s moment i s most p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n i t s r e l a t i o n t o memory, i n t h a t a memory i s r e c a l l e d by t h e p a r t i c u l a r s e n s a t i o n s o f a p r e s e n t moment. 1 3 9  1 22  E l i z a b e t h Shore has compared t h i s t o W o o l f ' s moments, and, w h i l e she m a i n t a i n s t h a t i n g e n e r a l t h e r e i s l i t t l e s i m i l a r i t y , t h e r e are c e r t a i n moments i n O r l a n d o w h i c h b e a r a g r e a t r e s e m b l a n c e t o the P r o u s t i a n moment. In f a c t , she c l a i m s t o s u b s t a n t i a t e the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t Woolf was i n f l u e n c e d by P r o u s t p r i m a r i l y on t h e b a s i s of t h a t s i m i l a r i t y . See E l i z a b e t h S h o r e , " V i r g i n i a W o o l f , P r o u s t , and O r l a n d o , " C o m p a r a t i v e L i t e r a t u r e , 31 ( 1 9 7 9 ) , 232-45. 1 4 0  Vargas  1 U 1  Beer,  1 4 2  Vargas  1 4 3  V o l k e n i n g , p.  1 4 4  Naremore, p.  1 4 5  DiBattista,  1 4 6  McLaurin,  1 4 7  V i r g i n i a Woolf, E s s a y s , I I , p.  Collected  Llosa, p.  p.  162.  p.  41.  80.  Llosa,  p.  163. 247.  p.  180.  160. "How 2.  S h o u l d One  1 4 8  Woolf,  "How  Should?"  p.  5.  1 4 9  Woolf,  "How  Should?"  p.  2.  Read a Book?"  in  V i r g i n i a W o o l f , Moments of B e i n g : U n p u b l i s h e d A u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l W r i t i n g s " e d . J e a n n e S c h u l k i n d (197 6; r p t . S t . A l b a n s : T r i a d P a n t h e r , 1978), p. 77. G e o r g L u k a c s uses v e r y s i m i l a r images i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e c o n c e p t of t h e moment and t h e form o f f i c t i o n . "Every w r i t t e n work," s a y s L u k a c s , " l e a d s t o w a r d s g r e a t moments i n w h i c h we c a n s u d d e n l y g l i m p s e t h e d a r k a b y s s e s i n t o whose d e p t h s we must f a l l one day; and t h e d e s i r e t o f a l l i n t o them i s t h e h i d d e n c o n t e n t of our l i v e s . Our c o n s c i o u s n e s s a l l o w s us t o evade them f o r as l o n g as we c a n , y e t t h e y a r e a l w a y s t h e r e , g a p i n g a t our f e e t when a v i e w o p e n i n g u n e x p e c t e d l y b e f o r e us f r o m a m o u n t a i n t o p g i v e s us a t o u c h of v e r t i g o , o r when r o s e s whose s c e n t s t i l l s u r r o u n d s us s u d d e n l y v a n i s h from our s i g h t i n t h e e v e n i n g m i s t . E v e r y w r i t t e n work i s c o n s t r u c t e d r o u n d a q u e s t i o n and p r o g r e s s e s i n s u c h a way t h a t i t c a n s u d d e n l y s t o p a t t h e edge of an a b y s s - s u d d e n l y , u n e x p e c t e d l y , y e t w i t h c o m p e l l i n g f o r c e . And even i f i t l e a d s us p a s t l u x u r i a n t palm g r o v e s or f i e l d s of glowing white l i l i e s , i t w i l l always l e a d t o the g r e a t abyss, and can n e v e r s t o p anywhere e l s e b e f o r e i t r e a c h e s t h e edge. T h i s i s t h e most p r o f o u n d meaning of form: t o l e a d t o a g r e a t moment o f s i l e n c e , t o mould t h e d i r e c t i o n l e s s , p r e c i p i t o u s , m a n y - c o l o u r e d s t r e a m of l i f e as t h o u g h a l l i t s h a s t e were o n l y f o r t h e sake of such moments." (pp. 113-4) See G e o r g L u k a c s , "The Moment and Form," i n h i s S o u l and Form, t r a n s . Anna B o s t o c k ( C a m b r i d g e , Mass.: The M i t P r e s s ^ 1974), pp. 107-23. 1 5 0  1 23  T h i s i s not t o s a y , i t must be s t r e s s e d , t h a t t h i s i s the more r e l i a b l e p o i n t of c o m p a r i s o n b e c a u s e t h e a u t h o r a c k n o w l e d g e s i t . T h a t an a u t h o r ' s a d m i s s i o n of an i n f l u e n c e i s d e f i n i t i v e p r o o f of i t s o c c u r r e n c e i s yet a n o t h e r u n f o r t u n a t e myth of i n f l u e n c e s t u d i e s . But i t i s a p a r a l l e l w h i c h , f o r one, c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h o s e drawn by c r i t i c s . And i t w i l l p r o v i d e c l u e s as t o how G a r c i a Marquez r e a d Woolf and how h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e a d i n g of h e r a f f e c t e d , i n h i s own mind, h i s w r i t i n g . 1 5 1  1 5 2  Garcia  Marquez,  Olor  de  l a guayaba,  pp.  50-1.  G a r c i a Marquez, O l o r de l a guayaba, p. 50. Note t h e g r e a t s i m i l a r i t y between t h i s s e n t e n c e and t h e f i r s t s e n t e n c e of C i e n afios de s o l e d a d , i n w h i c h t h e p e r s p e c t i v e i s a l s o t h a t of l o o k i n g back upon t h e p a s t from a p r o j e c t e d f u t u r e t i m e : "Muchos anos d e s p u e s , f r e n t e a l p e l o t 6 n de f u s i l a m i e n t o , e l c o r o n e l A u r e l i a n o B u e n d i a h a b i a de r e c o r d a r a q u e l l a t a r d e remota en que su p a d r e l o l l e v o a c o n o c e r e l h i e l o . " (p. 59) 1 5 3  V i r g i n i a W o o l f , The Voyage Out (London: H a r c o u r t B r a c e J o v a n o v i c h , 1920), pp. 50-1; h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as VO. A l l further r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s work a p p e a r i n t h e t e x t . 1 5 a  G a b r i e l G a r c i a Marquez, E l o t o n o d e l p a t r i a r c a (Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l S u d a m e r i c a n a , 1975) , p~. 22; h e r e a f t e r c i t e d a s OP. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s work a p p e a r i n t h e t e x t . 1 5 5  V i r g i n i a W o o l f , J a c o b ' s Room (1922; r p t . London: The H o g a r t h P r e s s , 1954), pp. 152-3; h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as JR. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s work a p p e a r i n t h e t e x t . 1 5 6  V i r g i n i a W o o l f , M r s . D a l l o w a y (London: H a r c o u r t B r a c e J o v a n o v i c h , 1925), p. 20. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s work appear i n the t e x t . 1 5 7  Gabriel Garcia e s c r i b a , 2nd e d . (1961; S u d a m e r i c a n a , 1968), p. r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s work 1 5 8  Marquez, E l c o r o n e l no t i e n e q u i e n l e r p t . Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l 60; h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as CT. A l l further appear i n the t e x t .  V i r g i n i a W o o l f , The Y e a r s (1937; r p t . London: G r a n a d a , 1979), p . 288; h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Y. A l l further references to t h i s work a p p e a r i n t h e t e x t . 1 5 9  G a b r i e l G a r c i a Marquez, C i e n anos de s o l e d a d , 3 r d e d . (1967; r p t . i n t r o d . J o a q u i n Marco. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1982), pp. 440-1; h e r e a f t e r c i t e d a s CA. A l l further references t o t h i s work a p p e a r i n t h e t e x t . 1  6  0  V i r g i n i a W o o l f , To t h e L i g h t h o u s e (London: H a r c o u r t B r a c e J o v a n o v i c h , 1927), p. 220; h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as T L . A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s work a p p e a r i n t h e t e x t . 1 6 1  1 24  1  6  V i r g i n i a Woolf, G r a n a d a , 1980)  2  London: 1  6  3  Essays  O r l a n d o : A B i o g r a p h y (1928; r p t .  V i r g i n i a W o o l f , "On Not Knowing G r e e k , " i n C o l l e c t e d ( L o n d o n : The H o g a r t h P r e s s , 1966), I , 13.  G e r h a r d J o s e p h , "The Ant i g o n e a s C u l t u r a l T o u c h s t o n e : Mathew A r n o l d , H e g e l , G e o r g e E l i o t , V i r g i n i a W o o l f , and M a r g a r e t D r a b b l e , " PMLA, 96 ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 28. 1  6  4  S o p h o c l e s , A n t i g o n e , t r a n s . E l i z a b e t h Wyckoff, i n S o p h o c l e s - I , e d . D a v i d Grene ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1954) , p . 160. 1  6  5  McMurray, p. 10.  1 6 6  P e d r o L a s t r a , "La t r a g e d i a como fundamento e s t r u c t u r a l de La h o j a r a s c a , " i n Nueve a s e d i o s a G a r c i a Marquez, p. 46. 1  6  7  1  6  8  Woolf,  "On Not Knowing," p. 4.  G a b r i e l G a r c i a Marquez, L a h o j a r a s c a , 3 r d e d . (1955; rpt. Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l S u d a m e r i c a n a , 1969), p. 87. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s work a p p e a r i n t h e t e x t . 1  6  9  1  7  0  Lastra,  p. 39.  1 7 1  Lastra,  p. 50.  1  7  2  S o p h o c l e s , A n t i g o n e , pp. 167-8.  1  7  3  Said,  p . 138.  " G a b r i e l G a r c i a Marquez, L e a f Storm and O t h e r S t o r i e s , trans. G r e g o r y R a b a s s a (1972; r p t . New Y o r k : H a r p e r C o l o p h o n Books, 1979), pp. 43-4. 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