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Some problems with the concept of literary influence : the case of Virginia Woolf and Garcia Marquez Dolhanty, Joanne Marie 1984

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SOME PROBLEMS WITH THE CONCEPT OF LITERARY INFLUENCE: THE CASE OF VIRGINIA WOOLF AND GARCIA MARQUEZ by JOANNE MARIE DOLHANTY B.A., U n i v e r s i t y Of Br i t i sir Columbia , 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Programme In Comparative L i t e r a t u r e We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1984 © Joanne Marie Dolhanty, 1984 In presenting this thesis in p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t fr e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Comparative Literature The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date: 26 A p r i l 1984 i i Abstract The concept of l i t e r a r y influence has been for some time a topic of confusion and controversy. Its i l l - d e f i n e d methods and objectives as well as i t s tenuous conclusions have led many scholars to reject the concept and to propose alternative approaches to the study of l i t e r a t u r e . S t i l l others defend i t as a valuable means of studying both individual works and l i t e r a r y relationships. In the midst of, or in spite of, this debate, the fact remains that influence studies themselves p e r s i s t , their authors presumably undaunted by the problems in the f i e l d . This thesis is an attempt to investigate the question of l i t e r a r y influence not through the rejection or support of i t s claims but rather through an exposure of i t s presuppositions and i t s predetermined conclusions. Examination of the l i t e r a t u r e in the area shows these presuppositions to include the assumption of a t r a d i t i o n a l chronological system in which l i n e a r i t y necessarily implies causality, sequence meaning, and o r i g i n a l i t y worth. The hypothesis that Gabriel Garcia Marquez was influenced by V i r g i n i a Woolf i s studied here in the l i g h t of t h i s exposure of the assumptions of influence theory. A review of the various discussions of this possible case of influence shows that the c r i t i c s , whether supporting or denying the claim, (unconsciously) adhere to the assumptions of the theory and allow their conclusions to be (pre)determined as much by those assumptions as by the presence or absence of textual p a r a l l e l s . Furthermore, i t is demonstrated the the narrative e f f o r t of Woolf and Garcia Marquez has been to subvert, or deconstruct, that same system of assumptions. My comparison of texts by these two authors has as i t s purpose neither the "proof" nor the denial of an influence but rather the demonstration of that deconstructive e f f o r t and hence of the prescriptive nature of influence theory which would ignore that e f f o r t in i t s imposition of a conventional reading. iv Table of Contents Abstract i i Acknowledgement v Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1 Chapter II THE CONCEPT OF LITERARY INFLUENCE 5 Chapter III WOOLF'S INFLUENCE ON GARCIA MARQUEZ: THE CRITICS' VIEWS ..35 Chapter IV WOOLF AND GARCIA MARQUEZ: TEXTUAL PARALLELS 54 Chapter V CONCLUSION 110 BIBLIOGRAPHY 125 V Acknowledgement I would l i k e to extend h e a r t f e l t thanks to Elizabeth Czetwertynski, who in so many ways made the completion of thi s work possible. 1 I. INTRODUCTION Gabriel Garcia Marquez is a (self-confessed) avid reader or V i r g i n i a Woolf. This has led some c r i t i c s to suggest that he was influenced by her in his writing. Many reject t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y and maintain that, in alluding to i t , the author has quite simply, and consciously, contributed to a "myth." But others have pursued the suggestion, and in comparing works by the two have found certain s i m i l a r i t i e s which, they maintain, lends support to the hypothesis. While to my knowledge no i n -depth study of the matter e x i s t s , in the opinion of some c r i t i c s the comparison merits further study. However, to proceed with such a study is no simple matter. It requires only a s u p e r f i c i a l examination of the discussions written on influence theory to reveal the myriad problems in that area. The more one reads of the numerous arguments engendered by the subject, the more one becomes d i s i n c l i n e d to embark on a study intended to prove or disprove an hypothesis of influence. Not only the methodological inconsistencies and s h o r t f a l l i n g s of the approach but also the very assumptions upon which influence theory is based make the very notion of such proof untenable and make the entire approach problematic. But neither is an outright rejection of the proposal, and of the entire concept of influence as an approach to l i t e r a t u r e , a s a t i s f a c t o r y conclusion. Many c r i t i c s have done one or both of these, but thi s has'done l i t t l e to resolve or even to provide insight into the problem. And the need for insight and resolution is made evident simply by the fact that the approach 2 p e r s i s t s . Studies of influence p e r s i s t . C r i t i c s w i l l continue to set out upon proving or denying the influence of a V i r g i n i a Woolf upon a Garcia Marquez. The purpose of t h i s thesis i s , therefore, not to provide evidence to support or deny the hypothesis that Garcia Marquez was influenced by V i r g i n i a Woolf. Rather i t is to examine the ground, more fundamental and more in need of examination, of the very notion of l i t e r a r y influence. The case of V i r g i n i a Woolf and Garcia Marquez w i l l provide an example for examination and i l l u s t r a t i o n of some aspects of the problem. In spite of the reaction by many against any possible f r u i t f u l n e s s in the comparison of these two authors, given their very d i f f e r e n t styles and s e n s i b i l i t i e s , their case i s p a r t i c u l a r l y apt for the purposes of this study. The very fact that one does not immediately accept i t as an obvious case of influence i s in part what makes i t so apt. For with an "obvious" case one is more in c l i n e d to accept the matter as given. When one is less i n c l i n e d to so so, further questioning is in order. And i t i s the interrogation of t h i s method which is our purpose here. Furthermore, the case of these authors in p a r t i c u l a r i s suitable because of the very nature of their writing. Their narrative intentions, i t can be shown, are quite at odds with the very assumptions of influence theory, and thus provide an i m p l i c i t deconstruct ion of those assumptions, and by extension of the theory. The notion of f i t t i n g their works into the 3 framework prescribed . by influence theory becomes more problematic, i f not i r o n i c , in t h i s l i g h t . As the exposure of influence theory i t s e l f i s the intention here, this study w i l l begin with an examination of the concept. In the f i r s t chapter I s h a l l look at d e f i n i t i o n s ' and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the notion, at c r i t i c i s m s and defences of, and alternatives to, t h i s approach, as well as at the assumptions which inform i t . In the second chapter I s h a l l look at various c r i t i c s ' views on the pa r t i c u l a r case of Woolf and Garcia Marquez to discover, for one, on what basis they compare the two, as well as on what basis they deny the influence. This l a t t e r w i l l prove to be as much on preconceived conceptions of the notion of influence as on textual differences. Also in t h i s chapter I s h a l l examine discussions of the two predominant s i m i l a r i t i e s mentioned by c r i t i c s - the manipulation of narrative time and the depiction of "the moment." In the t h i r d chapter I s h a l l attempt a comparison of texts by the two authors, s t a r t i n g with a general comparison and then focusing on two texts in p a r t i c u l a r , Woolf's Mrs.Dalloway and Garcia Marquez's La hojarasca. This comparison, viewed in the l i g h t of the discussions in Chapter One of the assumptions of influence theory and in Chapter Two of the way in which the manipulation of narrative time is a subversion of those assumptions, w i l l reveal the deconstruction of influence theory implied by these texts through their rejection of the premises 4 upon which that theory i s based. However, i t must be s t r e s s e d that t h i s i s not to conclude with those who deny any v a l i d i t y whatever to the study of i n f l u e n c e s . Once again, i f such s t u d i e s p e r s i s t , that a t t i t u d e i s of l i t t l e a v a i l . In f a c t , the t e x t u a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the subversion of the conventions of i n f l u e n c e theory can be shown to be doubly d e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t . That i s , the n o t i o n of a c h i e v i n g a f i n a l and unequivocable r e f u t a t i o n of the conventions of c h r o n o l o g i c a l time which govern both t r a d i t i o n a l n a r r a t i v e and the t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c a l approach of i n f l u e n c e study, i s i t s e l f r e f u t e d . For while these t e x t s d i s p u t e the supremacy of l i n e a r time on the one hand, they a t t e s t on the other to i t s i n e v i t a b i l i t y . Thus both the convention, and (the a l t e r n a t i v e convention of) i t s r e f u t a t i o n , are r e f u t e d . Both i n f l u e n c e theory and the argument a g a i n s t i t are d e c o n s t r u c t e d . Through that d e c o n s t r u c t i o n we can achieve a b e t t e r understanding of the assumptions of t h i s theory, and of the ways in which those assumptions inform the reading and p l a c i n g of l i t e r a r y t e x t s . 5 II. THE CONCEPT OF LITERARY INFLUENCE The concept of influence has become d i s t i n c t l y unpopular, or out of fashion, among many scholars of contemporary l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m and theory. However, studies of alleged influences continue to appear, and thus the assumptions underlying this p a r t i c u l a r method continue to inform a certain portion of l i t e r a r y studies. Given t h i s fact, the issue cannot be (profitably) ignored. A more f r u i t f u l approach would be to ask not whether or not they should, but rather why these studies p e r s i s t , and to question the intention and the outcome of the assertion or the denial of an influence. The number of discussions, not of p a r t i c u l a r cases of influence but of the concept i t s e l f , that this topic generates is further indication of a continuing preoccupation with the notion of influence. As in the case of actual studies of an influence, the authors of these discussions acknowledge the myriad problems that have led to the lengthy and heated debate over the v a l i d i t y of the concept. But, after r a i s i n g the same issues, objections or defenses that countless other scholars have raised, they conclude as, again, countless others have concluded. That i s , they either defend influence studies, i f - with admonitions as to s p e c i f i c objectives or applications of the method, or they reject i t in favour of alt e r n a t i v e concepts. But rarely do they pose questions that would a l t e r the course of the debate or that would provide new insight into the f i e l d . They do not examine the nature of the debate and the assumptions inherent in the arguments on both sides. Nor do 6 they question the f r u i t f u l n e s s , or rather the f u t i l i t y , of positing yet another claim on one side or the other of the argument. For i t becomes obvious, in the l i g h t of t h i s debate, that any p o s s i b i l i t y of "proving" that an influence has, or for that matter has not, occurred is dubious indeed. Yet those who defend influence studies lay claim to a method which w i l l " t r u l y " prove the occurrence of an influence. And those who reject i t ignore the fact that, f i r s t l y , as influence studies are s t i l l common they s t i l l form a part of the ways in which we understand, and c l a s s i f y , l i t e r a t u r e . And secondly, by f a i l i n g to question and understand thoroughly the assumptions operative in the application of a theory of influence, they remain ignorant of the degree to which those same assumptions inform other theories of l i t e r a t u r e that allegedly "transcend" influence theory. Thus a disregard or a dismissal of the notion serves to obscure rather than to resolve the problem. The intention here is not to hold with one side or the other. Rather i t is to review the debate over influence studies and to attempt a c r i t i c a l discussion of the assumptions i m p l i c i t both in that debate and in.the concept of influence i t s e l f . As well i t is to examine the notions proposed as alternatives to the study of influence, and to find these inadequate as replacements insofar as they f a i l to expose the assumptions of influence theory which continue to inform the reading, understanding, and s i t u a t i n g of l i t e r a r y texts. 7 The problems and c o n f u s i o n s i n regard to l i t e r a r y i n f l u e n c e begin with the very language a s s o c i a t e d with i t . The terminology i s by no means st a n d a r d i z e d , and no small amount of c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s given t h i s i n d i s c u s s i o n s of the i s s u e . C e r t a i n s c h o l a r s go to great lengths to o u t l i n e and d e f i n e the terms i n v o l v e d ; of these, some use v a r i o u s terms to c l a s s i f y d i f f e r e n t types of i n f l u e n c e , others are more concerned with d i s t i n g u i s h i n g i n f l u e n c e from other r e l a t e d p r a c t i c e s . ' A t h i r d group f i n d s one or more of these a l t e r n a t i v e terms or concepts to be i n f a c t a replacement of the term i n f l u e n c e , and f i n d no p l a c e f o r the l a t t e r i n l i t e r a r y s t u d i e s . In f a c t , Anna B a l a k i a n , i n her d i s c u s s i o n of i n f l u e n c e and l i t e r a r y f o r t u n e , f i n d s that i n the debate over the notion of i n f l u e n c e , "there has been l e s s disagreement than uneasiness over the c a v a l i e r use of the term," and that i t s misuse c o n t r i b u t e s to the o v e r a l l ambiguity of the concept. 1 Mere avoidance of the term does l i t t l e to r e s o l v e that ambiguity, and other concepts can be c o n s i d e r e d as a l t e r n a t i v e s or replacements only a f t e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the meanings a l r e a d y taken from, or given to, the word " i n f l u e n c e . " Harold Bloom, in The A n x i e t y of I n f l u e n c e , t r a c e s the word " i n f l u e n c e " to i t s root meaning of " i n f l o w " and d e f i n e s i t s "prime meaning" as "an emanation or f o r c e coming in upon mankind from the s t a r s . " 2 By the time of Aquinas, Bloom says, i t "had r e c e i v e d the sense of 'having a power over a n o t h e r . ' " 3 Jan Brandt C o r s t i u s g i v e s the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n of the concept: 8 The term 'influence' is often used in a general sense to denote the ideational and formal consequences that certain external and internal relations have had on a work of l i t e r a t u r e or of c r i t i c i s m or on an entire period. " Says J.T.Shaw, "an author may be considered to have been influenced by a foreign author when something from without can be demonstrated to have produced upon him and/or his a r t i s t i c works an ef f e c t his native l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n and personal development do not explain." 5 Andre Morize defines influence as "something more profound and generally something less tangible," in which textual borrowings may have no part. 6 Morize thus places influence more at the l e v e l of inspiration than at the lev e l of the text. In a l l of the above views, i t i s generally held that "influence presupposes some manner of c a u s a l i t y . " 7 In keeping as well with t h i s notion of causality i s the concept of influence as inextricably t i e d to misreading, misinterpretation, and misrepresentation of e a r l i e r works. Writes Claudio G u i l l e n : "As no student or theorist of influences, including myself, denies that l i t e r a t u r e breeds l i t e r a t u r e , i t seems apparent that the writing of new works i s prepared for ... by misreadings, legends, mirages, mistranslations, and other verbal delusions or f a i l u r e s of communication." 6 While G u i l i e n ' d i f f e r s from Bloom on many other points, (they are in fact on opposite sides of the argument), their views on th i s p a r t i c u l a r point are comparable. For Bloom as well, "poetic influence - when i t involves two strong, authentic 9 poets - always proceeds by a misreading of the p r i o r poet, an act of c r e a t i v e c o r r e c t i o n that i s a c t u a l l y and n e c e s s a r i l y a m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . " 9 He makes t h i s the very banner of i n f l u e n c e s t u d i e s , and goes on to propose a c r i t i c i s m which would "read any poem as i t s poet's d e l i b e r a t e m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , as a poet, of a precursor poem or of poetry in g e n e r a l . " 1 0 The very h i s t o r y of poetry i s f o r Bloom " i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from p o e t i c i n f l u e n c e , s i n c e strong poets make that h i s t o r y by misreading one another, so as to c l e a r i m a g i n a t i v e space f o r t h e m s e l v e s . " 1 1 To d e f i n e the notion f u r t h e r , a more d e t a i l e d study of i t s elements i s necessary. The p o s s i b l e sources of an i n f l u e n c e are numerous. According to Shaw, "one may d i s c o v e r the 'source' of a borrowing in newspapers, r e p o r t e d c o n v e r s a t i o n s , in c r i t i c a l reviews, as w e l l as w i t h i n a r t i s t i c works." 1 2 F.W.Bateson d i s t i n g u i s h e s among these between " n o n - l i t e r a r y causes and l i t e r a r y sources," the l a t t e r being, i n h i s o p i n i o n , a "part of the meaning of the poem," without knowledge of which the poem cannot be f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d . 1 3 Another a x i s of d i s t i n c t i o n i s drawn by Shaw, who d i f f e r e n t i a t e s sources not by t h e i r nature ( l i t e r a r y or otherwise) but by the nature of t h e i r r e l a t i o n to the l a t e r work. He d i s t i n g u i s h e s two types: those which p r o v i d e m a t e r i a l s (e.g. f o r p l o t ) and those which have an " a r t i s t i c , " or formal, e f f e c t . 1 " A ccording to U l r i c h W e i s s t e i n , sources of i n f l u e n c e which are by nature n o n - a r t i s t i c (he g i v e s as examples Freud and Marx) are u s u a l l y manifested in the new work at the l e v e l of the 1 0 former of Shaw's types, the l e v e l of content, rather than at that of form. 1 5 Hassan l i s t s as "the sources of plausible influences:" ...the climate, mores, or locale of a people...a h i s t o r i c a l event...some p a r t i c u l a r style or l i t e r a r y convent ion ... a s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n . . . a p a r t i c u l a r theory or idea...a thinker...a .l i t e r a r y movement... an author ... some s p e c i f i c l i t e r a r y work. 1 6 He attributes the d i f f i c u l t i e s in discovering a systematized method of approach to influence studies to t h i s type of "heterogeneity" of ideas in the f i e l d . Heterogenous as well are the possible recipients of an influence, which may be, according to Hassan: "an age, a t r a d i t i o n , a l i t e r a r y movement, a single author, [or] a p a r t i c u l a r work." 1 7 Various factors can affect t h i s reception, and Hassan stresses the "need to know what made a writer susceptible to the influence of another." 1 8 As Shaw puts i t , "the seed of l i t e r a r y influence must f a l l on fallow land." Influence is detected, then, at both the l e v e l of form and of content. "It may be shown," according to Shaw, "in s t y l e , images, characters, themes, mannerisms, and i t may also be shown in content, thought, i d e a s . " 1 9 However, Rene Wellek i n s i s t s that to be s i g n i f i c a n t , a p a r a l l e l between two works must be "a highly i n t r i c a t e pattern rather than an isolated 'motif' or word." 2 0 The kinds of influence r e s u l t i n g from these relationships may be varied as well. Shaw speaks of d i r e c t and indirect influences, an example of the l a t t e r being the case of a work 11 i n f l u e n t i a l in translation, where there has necessarily been adaptation from the o r i g i n a l . 2 1 Andre Morize speaks of retarded or arrested influences, the former delayed, the l a t t e r cut short, and of negative influences, where an e f f e c t is manifested as the reaction against a p a r t i c u l a r ( l i t e r a r y ) force. Weisstein gives as a "variant of negative influence the phenomenon known as 'counter-design,' a term coined or at least popularized by Brecht... Here, a l i t e r a r y model i s changed into i t s opposite, as i t were, through a reversal of the polemic thrust. " 2 2 Attempts have been made to restructure approaches to influence study by defining the objectives of such study. It is stressed that the knowledge that an influence has occurred " i s not s i g n i f i c a n t in i t s e l f . " 2 3 Rather, the c r i t i c s who grant any value to the method i n s i s t that i t be used as an "instrument," as Rene Wellek c a l l s i t , by which insight may be gained into the individual quality of a work and/or into the quality of the relationship between works. Wellek maintains that, because of this p o t e n t i a l , "whatever the abuses of the method,...it is a legitimate method and cannot be rejected in t o t o . " 2 " Even Guillen, in spite of the general attack which he launches against the notion, recognizes some value in influence studies: ...[influences] open, by means of the extensive examination of unmediated writer-to-writer or work-to-work c o n t a c t s t h e doors of the writer's workshop and the endlessly complex process of a r t i s t i c creat i o n . 2 5 Others consider the method valuable as an aid to 12 interpretation of works. Bateson writes that . "source-hunting...is c l e a r l y j u s t i f i a b l e , on the s t r i c t e s t l i t e r a r y grounds, because i t can serve to authenticate or correct our naive, untutored responses." 2 6 For Stallman as well, the knowledge of such a source is valuable to us as readers, for " i t corrects or reinforces our interpretation of the whole and provides a check against misinterpretation of i t s p a r t s . " 2 7 But the "aversions" toward the concept of l i t e r a r y influence are, as Hassan puts i t , "equally r i f e . " Even those who maintain that i t i s a v a l i d approach are quick to point out the weaknesses in the f i e l d . Corstius, in spite of granting a certain value to the concept, states that i t is "of less importance to comparative l i t e r a t u r e than was formerly thought." 2 8 Block, who also defends the concept, upholds the objection to the study of influence as "an end where i t should have been a means, and," he continues, "too frequently influence has been employed in a simple and simple-minded way as the determining cause and unique source of a l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n . " 2 9 As well, he says, "there are too many examples of vain or t r i v i a l attempts to demonstrate causal relationships where none e x i s t . " 3 0 Furthermore, the emphasis placed on these sources, which may be, as outlined e a r l i e r , either l i t e r a r y or external to l i t e r a t u r e , leads Guillen to his c r i t i c i s m of "the automatic subservience to the nonliterary that was the burden of influence s t u d i e s . " 3 1 Guillen is objecting not only to the nonliterary 1 3 nature of the source but as w e l l to the manner in which an i n f l u e n c e o c c u r s . Thus by " n o n l i t e r a r y " he means a l s o that i n f l u e n c e s occur at a ge n e t i c or p s y c h o l o g i c a l l e v e l , r a ther than a l i t e r a r y one. Paul Van Tieghem, as w e l l , p o i n t s out that in the case of an i n f l u e n c e of one w r i t e r upon another, " l ' i n t e r e ' t psychologique est i c i plus grand que l ' i n t e r e l t proprement 1 i t t e r a i r e . " 3 2 And i t i s on t h i s b a s i s , on the a s s e r t i o n that i n f l u e n c e s are not l i t e r a r y but, to a l a r g e extent, "genetic or b i o g r a p h i c a l processes," that G u i l l e n o b j e c t s to the method. 3 3 As p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r , however, i t i s in i t s c a p a c i t y as a means of g a i n i n g i n s i g h t i n t o a r t i s t i c genesis that some place the value of i n f l u e n c e s t u d i e s . W e i s s t e i n , however, f i n d s t h i s e n t i r e n o t i o n of " p e n e t r a t i n g to the inner sanctum of genius" i m p r a c t i c a b l e . G u i l l e n , he f e e l s , " i s wrong i n regarding i n f l u e n c e as a re c o g n i z a a b l e component of the g e n e t i c p r o c e s s . . . It i s , i n f a c t , " he con t i n u e s , "pure chance when the biography of a poet o f f e r s us c l u e s to t h i s type of i n f l u e n c e . " 3 " T h i s n o t i o n of b i o g r a p h i c a l evidence of an i n f l u e n c e , though upheld, as we have seen, by some s c h o l a r s , has been disparaged by o t h e r s . L i k e G u i l l e n , Hassan o b j e c t s to i n f l u e n c e s t u d i e s because he sees them as dependent upon " b i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l . " 3 5 "One i s f o r c e d to wonder," says Hassan, " i f the emphasis on biography... does not give s a n c t i o n to the accumulation of b i o g r a p h i c a l data as e q u i v a l e n t to a proof of i n f l u e n c e . " 3 6 Anna B a l a k i a n , while she sees v a l i d i t y i n the approach, o b j e c t s as we l l to e x t e n s i v e use of b i o g r a p h i c a l 1 4 material which, she maintains, i s often misleading and which has "tended to engulf a large part of our research a c t i v i t i e s and thereby veered us away from d i r e c t communion with the work of a r t . " 3 7 Another objection which Hassan raises is to the "'expressionist' tendency in influence studies to consider the relationship between authors and their works as more or less of a constant, that constant being the factor of 'expression' of i t s author." 3 8 T.S.Eliot also attacked t h i s notion of l i t e r a t u r e as the expression of experience. 3 9 It i s not only the idea of experience being d i r e c t l y expressed in, or transferred into, l i t e r a r y terms that some c r i t i c s find objectionable. As well as the transfer of experience to a r t , the concept of influence seems to assume a transfer between works of a r t . "An influence," says G u i l l e n , "according to the old nineteenth-century idea, was the transfer and rearrangement of l i t e r a r y forms and themes from one work to another," which i s , he claims, "not only untenable from the viewpoint of modern aesthetics, but inimical to the very existence of aesthetics." It is untenable, he would contend, because the two - experience in l i f e and the product of a r t i s t i c endeavour - belong to two d i f f e r e n t "orders of existence."" 0 As well as the problems deriving from th i s assumption that experience i s transferred d i r e c t l y from an author's l i f e to his work, Hassan points out that t h i s view of influence presupposes a relationship between the "influenced" author and his work which is analogous to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the influencing 1 5 author and his work. He claims that these relationships must needs d i f f e r , which fact would preempt the p o s s i b i l i t y of direct influence. Henri Peyre as well asserts that "much harm has been caused by the ambition of l i t e r a r y study to ape science and to conceive l i t e r a t u r e as a network of causal r e l a t i o n s . Studies...of relations between two or more writers would be well advised to give up in most cases the search for causes or influences."" 1 Another major concern in the argument over the place of influence studies is with regard to the question of aesthetics. Is the study of l i t e r a r y influence an aesthetic study? For Guillen i t is not because, as he sees i t , i t is more concerned with the creative process than with aesthetics, with which he associates t e x t u a l i t y . Elsewhere i t is deemed aesthetic study for the very reason that i t is the study of the creative process. Where for Guillen i t is concerned with psychology as opposed to aesthetics, for Hassan there is no contradiction between the two. The use of biographical material is equally controversial, considered by some a n t i t h e t i c a l to aesthetic study, by others a part of i t . And the manner in which influence studies allegedly define the h i s t o r i c i t y of a work i s questioned along the same l i n e s . On the one hand the study of influence can be seen as a valuable means of l i n k i n g works or movements in an international, temporal scheme. But Guillen objects to t h i s view, maintaining that i t creates a false concept of l i t e r a r y history as diachronically ordered and causally propelled, 1 6 dependent upon l i t e r a r y fortune rather than aesthetic value." 2 Many attribute the problems in the f i e l d to the lack of a systematic methodology, and the ambiguity and confusion which abound in the f i e l d are a result of this lack. There is c r i t i c i s m of the lack of d i s t i n c t i o n in method in the establishment of diff e r e n t kinds of influence, as well as a concern with the lack of d i s t i n c t i o n between influences and other, separate notions such as l i t e r a r y fortune, a problem which Anna Balakian attributes to the "confusion of methods of research."" 3 However, a more recent, and extensive, study of the concept of influence has addressed that very problem. In his Influence  in Art and Literature, Goran Hermeren provides a "systematic survey of the conceptual framework used by c r i t i c s and scholars when they discuss problems of influence," as well as the outline for a d e f i n i t i v e methodology for establishing an influence."" In other words, while he discusses the various arguments for and against influence study, he does so with the purpose of making i t "easier to weigh and s i f t the evidence in pa r t i c u l a r cases," in order to establish what he considers to be "genuine a r t i s t i c i nfluence."" 5 However, Hermeren's method, while i t is systematized, d i f f e r s very l i t t l e from the approaches outlined by other influence scholars. Neither are his conclusions as to the worth of influence studies d i f f e r e n t from those outlined by others. He does provide a systematic overview of issues in the f i e l d . But he provides no further understanding of the fundamental 1 7 problems with the concept, and ends instead with a guide to "better" influence studies. The f a i l u r e to specify the assumptions inherent in the concept of influence allows for nothing more than such re i t e r a t i o n s of one side or the other of the argument. This i s because assumptions, when they remain as such and are not made e x p l i c i t , become incorporated as norms. The discourse of influence theory conceals certain assumptions under the guise of the "obvious." As Barthes says, "everything conspires to make the structures one looks for appear either innocent or absent."" 6 A discussion of l i t e r a r y influence can go no further without a disclosure of the assumptions, and their implications in the study of l i t e r a t u r e , which form the seemingly "absent", or "innocent", underlying structure of influence theory. The commonly understood notion of influence implies a diachronic structure. Edward Said describes this "linear (vulgar) idea of 'influence'" as "a crude idea of the weight of one writer coming down in the work of another."* 7 There i s beneath i t the notion of, as Guillen puts i t , the need, or drive, to "rejoin the flow of process, of time passing and time past."* 8 Guillen objects to influence study largely on th i s basis, for to account for that passage of time i t becomes necessary "to turn once more to the study of genetic and biographical phenomena" and to provide "a symbol of history as diachrony and as na r r a t i v e . " " 9 The study of influences, therefore, both implies, and 18 requires, a s t r i c t l y l i n e a l structure. While th i s fact appears obvious, i t i s , again, essential to make e x p l i c i t other notions that l i n e a l i t y implies. It i s based, as Said puts i t , on the "dynastic" p r i n c i p l e of f i l i a t i o n , "bound to sources and or i g i n s , " in which are permitted "visions...of pure continuity, progress, a c t i v i t y , and even achievement." 5 0 Inherent, then, in the l i n e a l structure, is an adherence to a chronological order implying "source" (a term often used to refer to an influence), continuity, succession, progression, and, necessarily, end. Furthermore, implied in thi s system of chronological succession is an assumption of a causal process. While scholars d i f f e r on the value or place of defining l i t e r a r y relationships as causal, they take for granted that influence theory does define them as such. Hermeren c a l l s t h i s the "causal requirement" in the study of an hypothesis of influence. He finds d i f f i c u l t y with t h i s assumption only when i t is carried to an extreme. But he does not question, on the contrary he reaffirms, the basic assumption of causality. While he admits to complications a r i s i n g out of thi s notion, and discusses to some extent the nature of those causal r e l a t i o n s , he does not question the manner in which, or the reasons for which, causality came to be an assumption in l i t e r a r y relations, nor does he find the notion of causality inappropriate in the study of l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y . 5 1 But Roland Barthes dismisses such causal explanations as a "confusion between consecutiveness and consequence, what-comes-after being read in a narrative as what-is-caused-by." 5 2 19 Barthes' discussion pertains s p e c i f i c a l l y to narrative, but the "narrative" or discourse of l i t e r a r y history r e f l e c t s processes and presuppostions similar to those of narrative i t s e l f . This fact allows us to discuss certain notions as operative in both, and w i l l be relevant later in the discussion of the texts of V i r g i n i a Woolf and Garcia Marquez in terms of a possible influence. Barthes goes on to state that, having assumed a causal process, "narrative would then be a systematic application of the l o g i c a l f a l l a c y denounced by scholasticism under the formula 'post hoc, ergo propter hoc.'" 5 3 It follows that in this chronological order of succession one can conceive of the p o s s i b i l i t y of the ownership of texts, as i t implies an o r i g i n , and to originate, or beget something is (necessarily) to assume i t s ownership. The very notion of "authoring," as Said points out, i s an " ' a u t h o r i t y i n the sense of that i m p l i c i t power to generate another word that w i l l belong to the writing as a whole (Vico's etymology is auctor: autos: suis i p s i u s : propsius: property)." 5• Thus Said l i n k s the very notion of "author" to "property," and a l i n e a l structure of succession in turn l i n k s property to o r i g i n (or the p o s s i b i l i t y of o r i g i n a t i n g ) . I r o n i c a l l y though, while influence theory, as a l i n e a l structure, also implies t h i s o r i g i n , the hypothesis of an influence places in question the " o r i g i n a l i t y " of a p a r t i c u l a r author, or rather of their t e x t ( s ) . The assertion of an influence, in other words, implies the denial of the o r i g i n a l i t y , or the i n d i v i d u a l i t y , of the 20 " i n f l u e n c e d " a u t h o r . T h e r e i s , as Andre G i d e p o i n t s o u t , a " f e a r " of t h e d e c l a r a t i o n of an i n f l u e n c e f o r t h i s r e a s o n . 5 5 Such f e a r i s t h e e f f e c t of t h e h i g h a r t i s t i c v a l u e p l a c e d upon t h e q u a l i t y o f o r i g i n a l i t y . Hermeren p o i n t s o u t t h a t , due t o : . . . t h e s t r o n g c o n n e c t i o n , or i n d e e d t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , between t h e c o n c e p t s of a r t i s t i c v a l u e and o r i g i n a l i t y ... - s t a t e m e n t s t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e c r e a t i o n of one work o f a r t was i n f l u e n c e d by a n o t h e r - a r e t i e d t o a t t r i b u t i o n of p r a i s e or b l a m e . 5 6 W h i l e Hermeren r e c o g n i z e s t h i s v a l u e judgement, i m p l i c i t i n t h e h y p o t h e s i s of an i n f l u e n c e , as an a s s u m p t i o n of t h e t h e o r y , he s i m p l y recommends o v e r c o m i n g i t . "The m o r a l of t h i s , " he s a y s , " i s t h a t we s h o u l d have a l e s s m o r a l i s t i c view of i n f l u e n c e . " 5 7 However, t h i s " m o r a l i s t i c " view s t i l l p r e v a i l s . Hermeren p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h i s n o t i o n of o r i g i n a l i t y a s t h e "supreme v a l u e i n a r t " i s a " b a s i c a l l y Romantic c o n c e p t i o n . " He names t h e Romantic movement as t h e p e r i o d o f c u l m i n a t i o n o f new t e n d e n c i e s l i n k i n g o r i g i n a l i t y and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e . T h i s , he r e c o g n i z e s , has not a l w a y s been t h e c a s e , and a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s o t h e r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s i n f l u e n c e have p r e v a i l e d . 5 8 E a r l i e r , r a t h e r t h a n a s a t h r e a t , a u t h o r s saw t h e i r i n f l u e n c e s , a c c o r d i n g t o G i d e , a s "un h e u r e u x moyen d ' e n r i c h i s s e m e n t p e r s o n n e l . " 5 9 The f e a r o f w h i c h he s p e a k s i s , he s a y s , "une peur t o u t e m o d e r n e . " 6 0 F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s not o n l y t h e Romantic but t h e c o n c u r r e n t c a p i t a l i s t c o n t e x t , w i t h i t s v a l u i n g o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l and of o r i g i n a l i t y , t h a t makes p o s s i b l e t h e n o t i o n of t h e o w n e r s h i p of t e x t s , and t h e c o n c e p t i o n of t e x t u a l b o r r o w i n g as a p p r o p r i a t i o n . 21 Thus while the very l i n e a l structure of influence theory implies the notion of o r i g i n a l i t y in i t s assumption of the existence of a source or o r i g i n , the claim of an influence is the denial of o r i g i n a l i t y . Furthermore, the imitator, necessarily threatened by too close an association with a precursor, must needs avert or oppose that threat. "'Socrate,'" writes Nietzsche, "'m'est s i proche, que je suis constamment en lutte avec l u i . ' " 6 1 This structure, therefore, presupposes a relationship of struggle, or of r i v a l r y , between imitators and the legacy of the past handed down to them by their precursors. Discussions of influence, and the very language they employ, are fraught with images of such r i v a l r y , or "rebellious sons [ r i s i n g ] in protest against their l i t e r a r y f o r e f a t h e r s . " 6 2 According to Bloom, the poet is riddled with the fear that there is nothing l e f t to be said, that "no proper work remains for him to perform." It is this that he c a l l s the "anxiety of influence," which has been, he claims, "the covert subject of most poetry for the last three centuries." 6 3 T.S.Eliot, in his "Tradition and the Individual Talent," maintains that "what happens [to the poet] i s a continual surrender of himself as he is at the moment to something which is more valuable. The progress of an a r t i s t i s a continual s e l f - s a c r i f i c e , a continual extinction of p e r s o n a l i t y . " 6 4 He implies that the poet steps quite w i l l i n g l y to t h i s surrender, in the name of l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n . But for Bloom, the poet struggles against such surrender and st r i v e s to break free of 22 the shadow of his precursors. The fear, as Balakian puts i t , is that the influenced author w i l l "drown" in the i n f l u e n c e . 6 5 Thus Bloom regards influence as "more of a blight than a b l e s s i n g . " 6 6 "To be enslaved , by any precursor's system," he says, paraphrasing Blake, " i s to be inhibited from c r e a t i v i t y by an obsessive reasoning and comparing, presumably of one's own works to the precursor's. Poetic Influence is thus a disease of self-consciousness." 6 7 It is a "battle between strong equals, father and son as mighty opposites, Laius and Oedipus at the crossroads." 6 8 Bloom himself makes e x p l i c i t further assumptions, embedded not only in the theory of influence but in the conventional view of the t r a d i t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e , regarding the hierarchy of texts or authors fixed into a l i n e a l structure. "Poetic misprision," (that i s , swerving from the o r i g i n a l ) , says Bloom, . . . h i s t o r i c a l l y a health, is i n d i v i d u a l l y a sin against continuity, against the only authority that matters, property or the p r i o r i t y of having named something f i r s t . Poetry is property, as p o l i t i c s is property. 6 9 In other words, Bloom does not argue the terms of t h i s hierarchy, ( i . e . , he assumes i t s v a l i d i t y ) , but simply acknowledges the new poet's need, and right, to break the continuity, that he might himself become an owner. For to father something is to name i t and thus to have automatic ownership of i t , and he cannot father a work u n t i l he resolves the struggle with his own poetic father. In summary, the concept of influence presupposes a l i n e a l 23 structure, inherent in which i s the notion of or i g i n (or source). Form this o r i g i n emerges a chronological, causal development in an order of succession, where or i g i n implies o r i g i n a l i t y (both in the sense of to have one's unique o r i g i n and thus i n d i v i d u a l i t y as well as to originate and thus to own). O r i g i n a l i t y in turn is given aesthetic v a l u e . 7 0 Many would have the pursuit of influences abandoned in favour of other focuses of study, and throughout discussions of the topic there arise a number of proposed alternatives to the concept of influence. While some of these are offered as replacements for the concept of influence, others are proposed for the purpose of distinguishing the study of influence from other a c t i v i t i e s that f a l l erroneously under that heading. The confusion between influence and fortune, raised, as mentioned e a r l i e r , by Anna Balakian among others, i s an example of t h i s . Without rejecting the v a l i d i t y of influence studies, she maintains that we must separate the l a t t e r from the study of l i t e r a r y fortune. "What interests and impresses does not necessarily influence," she says, granting that the two are related, but hardly synonymous.71 In the same vein, Morize distinguishes between success and influence and Shaw between the l a t t e r and reception. Guillen also notes t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n ; fortune, he says, has to do with the career of the book, while influence, or impact, as he c a l l s i t , is to be discerned at the lev e l of the genesis of the new poem. The intention is not simply to distinguish between these 24 notions, but to separate them, in both theory and practice, and to provide an alternative label and methodology for that which, although commonly, and often ambiguously, c l a s s i f i e d as l i t e r a r y influence, is in fact the fortune or success of a writer, a work, or a movement. The concept of "imitation" receives analogous treatment; Weisstein and Shaw maintain that much of what is considered influence is better described as imitation, a separate phenomenon, involving a degree of consciousness on the part of the imitator, while influence might he considered "unconscious imitat i o n . " 7 2 There are similar entreaties throughout the discussions of influence to sort out the approaches, methods, and goals in the f i e l d and either discard the concept of influence or confine i t within s t r i c t l y defined boundaries. For example, much a c t i v i t y previously included in the domain of influence would be c l a s s i f i e d as studies of parallelisms. Such parallelisms, discerned at the l e v e l of the text, might be s i m i l a r i t i e s or a f f i n i t i e s not necessarily r e s u l t i n g from an influence or a conscious imitation but due rather to fortuitous analogy, families of minds, common sources of ideas, l i t e r a r y conventions, or international l i t e r a r y movements, by which "more or less similar ideas are found to develop in more than one nation at once." 7 3 Many scholars share the opinion that while the study of p a r a l l e l s in i t s e l f may be f r u i t f u l , the p a r a l l e l "may or may not go back to a common source." 7" Gu i l l e n i n s i s t s as well upon 25 the existence of "noninfluential echoes and parallelisms" and bemoans the "consistent confusion between influences and textual s i m i l a r i t i e s " and the assumption that "influences and parallelisms are i n d i v i s i b l e . " 7 5 There are various other concepts proposed either d i r e c t l y to replace influence theory, or, as Jonathan Culler puts i t , to "transcend" i t . 7 6 Claudio Gui l l e n , for example, proposes that the study of l i t e r a t u r e should be the study of conventions and t r a d i t i o n s , not of influences. While Guillen concedes that "genuine and convincing influences may occur," he i n s i s t s upon the existence as well of "recurrent techniques and conventions" which would account for large number of textual s i m i l a r i t i e s . 7 7 These conventions he includes in what he c a l l s the " l i n g u i s t i c instrument" available to a poet. "This 'vocabulary,'" he says, . . . i s the sum of the elements preserved in the memory or the s e n s i b i l i t y of the poet before the genesis of a par t i c u l a r poem begins, and which are available i n d i f f e r e n t l y to a l l his later writing. It contains potential vehicles of s e n s i b i l i t y , reminiscences, s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . And i t includes also l i n g u i s t i c or formal procedures, preserved in the technical memory of the a r t i s t , and of the sort covered by the terms 'conventions' and 'techniques.' 7 8 Guillen i n s i s t s upon the existence of these conventions as ent i r e l y unrelated to any notion of influence, the l a t t e r implying a degree of cau s a l i t y . Conventions and techniques, he states, "cannot be regarded as causes unless they touch d i r e c t l y the emergence of the poem."79 Linked with the idea of conventions is that of l i t e r a r y 26 t r a d i t i o n s , the l a t t e r defined by Guillen as "conventions l a i d out as sequences (conventions, one might say, with a p a s t ) . " 8 0 This view would place a text within a t r a d i t i o n , not di a c h r o n i c a l l y , but rather in terms of the system of conventions of the t r a d i t i o n . Hassan adds the concept of development to that of t r a d i t i o n , the two together, in his opinion, providing a "sounder alternative to the concept of Influence in any comprehensive scheme of .l i t e r a t u r e , " which would afford a "readier access to the problem of l i t e r a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . " 8 1 His d e f i n i t i o n of t r a d i t i o n as a "developed system of norms" is similar to Guillen's, and s i m i l a r l y as well he proposes i t as an explanation of textual s i m i l a r i t i e s . In Guillen's view, influence theory focuses primarily on the psychology of the author. In his insistence that l i t e r a r y study should focus instead on that which he deems the "aesthetic," he offers this concept of " t r a d i t i o n " as an alternative which would move away from the psychology of the author and toward a consideration of the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the reader. There are synchronic patterns in l i t e r a t u r e , he says, ...known to a l l insofar as they enter the reading experience. Formal and semantic relations play a part in the apprehension and evaluation of the individual l i t e r a r y work... In Saussure's terms, the 'langue' of universal l i t e r a t u r e becomes, as we read, the 'parole' of remembered systems. 8 2 But by thus placing the "reading experience" in a framework of the memory of past reading, i t appears as hardly less of a psychological function than the process by which one writer i s 27 influenced by another. Nor would such an approach be any freer from the assumptions operative in influence theory, as these same assumptions are embodied by the t r a d i t i o n in which readers necessarily take part, and by which their responses are governed. Reader response theory seems, in fact, to take such s u b j e c t i v i t y on the part of the reader for granted, and the tr a d i t i o n in which that reader has been schooled determines that s u b j e c t i v i t y . Says Jane Tompkins: Reader-response c r i t i c s would argue that a poem cannot be understood apart from i t s r e s u l t s . Its 'effects,' psychological and otherwise, are essential to any accurate description of i t s meaning, since that meaning has no e f f e c t i v e existence outside of i t s re a l i z a t i o n in the mind of a reader. 8 3 Thus a reader-oriented approach does not necessarily transcend the assumptions inherent in influence theory, but transfers the operation of those assumptions from the author to the reader. The concept of i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y i s another approach proposed as an alternative to influence theory. It was, according to Cull e r , "designed to transcend... source study of a t r a d i t i o n a l and p o s i t i v i s t i c kind." 8" In fact, i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y , as i t is defined by such authors as Roland Barthes, Michael R i f f a t e r r e , and Jonathan C u l l e r , does move further from the l i m i t s of influence theory than does, for example, reader response theory. 8 5 This i s so because i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y , in the d e f i n i t i o n s of those authors mentioned, is not the simple or precise memory of texts actually read. Instead, i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y i s , according to C u l l e r , "less a name for a work's re l a t i o n to pa r t i c u l a r 28 prior texts than an assertion of a work's p a r t i c i p a t i o n in a discursive space." 8 6 Thus the concept i s c l e a r l y di'stiguished from the concept of influence, in which the "relation to par t i c u l a r prior texts" is of primary importance. But while the notion of i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y does address some of the problems of influence theory, notably those pertaining to the insistence upon o r i g i n and chronology, i t f a i l s to unravel s u f f i c i e n t l y the ways in which those assumptions are s t i l l operative in l i t e r a r y studies. Thus further discussion of the concept is necessary to describe a c r i t i c a l method and i t s prescriptive function in the study of l i t e r a t u r e , and to ascertain the effect of i t s application on the reception of the work in question, as well as on the ultimate maintenance of certain existing structures in the t r a d i t i o n . Bloom's system, for example, depicts the poet as exclusively male, and for this reason has invited attack from some feminist c r i t i c s . 8 7 But others, such as Joanne Feit Diehl, and Sandra G i l b e r t and Susan Gubar, fi n d his theory useful as such a description - in pa r t i c u l a r as a description of the overtly p a t r i a r c h a l order of influence theory. According to Feit Diehl, there is a d i s t i n c t i o n "between the descriptive and prescriptive aspects of any theory that seeks to come to terms with a preexisting t r a d i t i o n . " 8 8 G i l b e r t and Gubar also view his theory of influence as "descriptive" rather than "prescr i p t i v e , " not a "recommendation for but an analysis of the patriarchal poetics...which underlies our culture's chief l i t e r a r y 29 movements."8 9 The application, however, of Bloom's theory, or any version of influence theory, i s highly p r e s c r i p t i v e . Influence theory, with i t s attendant assumptions, has a normative function. As Benveniste said of language: "the r e a l i t y of the object was not separable from the method chosen to define i t . " 9 0 The application of a theory of influence is indeed an attempt to "define the r e a l i t y " of the works in question by the terms of th i s p a r t i c u l a r method rather than by the terms of the texts themselves. The system is defined a p r i o r i - the texts are then placed within i t , or studied in the framework i t prescribes, with the result that the outcome of that study i s largely predetermined by the method and i t s assumptions. Culler describes Bloom's theory as doing exactly that: The function of Bloom's theory of influence, c e r t a i n l y the function of the Freudian analogies which structure i t , i s to keep everything in the family. Inter t e x t u a l i t y i s the family archive; when one explores i t one stays wholly within the t r a d i t i o n a l canon of major poets... There are origins after a l l ; the precursor i s the great o r i g i n a l , the intertextual authority. 9 1 It is just t h i s notion of the "function" of influence theory that I wish to emphasize. For the superimposition of a p a r t i c u l a r , and set, framework of inquiry upon a work or works w i l l y i e l d , or rather produce, certain predetermined r e s u l t s . Such application of a method ends by "producing meaning," to use Said's words. Thus the function is to produce, or construct, meaning rather than, for example, to decode the process of s i g n i f i c a t i o n . The function of the application of Bloom's 30 theory is to produce a system whereby texts are locked into a s t r i c t order of patriarchal lineage and r i v a l r y . As already stated, Bloom merely makes e x p l i c i t this function, which has long informed much of the t r a d i t i o n of l i t e r a r y studies. Culler's sardonic statement that "there are origins after a l l " provides a good example of the function f u l f i l l e d by this method. A system based upon l i n e a l i t y i s bound to construct an or i g i n for any given text. Furthermore, that establishment, or creation, of a source in i t s e l f further produces meaning. As Said puts i t , "meaning [i s ] produced as a result of a given beginning." 9 2 This would imply that to establish, in retrospect, a given beginning is to place new meaning on, for example, a text. This has c e r t a i n l y occurred in numerous instances of influence studies. Influence scholars w i l l claim that the "discovery" of the sources of, for example, a poem allows the reader to grasp the "true" meaning of i t . It would follow that had the true source of the poem remained forever obscure, the true meaning of i t would have been l o s t , and the poem misunderstood. Clearly the desire to establish true or absolute meaning (and the b e l i e f that t h i s is possible) rather than the ef f o r t to reveal the process by which s i g n i f i c a t i o n i s generated, further l i m i t s this approach. A further problem is in the f a i l u r e by many c r i t i c s to recognize beginnings, or or i g i n s , as designated, and in their insistence instead upon the " l o g i c a l f a l l a c y " c i t e d e a r l i e r from Barthes: "post hoc, ergo propter hoc," which t h i s notion of the 31 retrospective creation of a source irrevocably confuses. Cynthia Chase c a l l s t h i s process, whereby the establishment of an o r i g i n produces meaning in retrospect, "reverse causality," a notion which i s , as she puts i t , a "deconstruction of the concept of cause." 9 3 The study of the hypothesis that Garcia Marquez was influenced by the writings of V i r g i n i a Woolf w i l l provide an example of such a deconstruction. It has been established that causality is a primary assumption of the concept of influence. The opinions of c r i t i c s who have written on t h i s alleged or suggested influence further i l l u s t r a t e this assumption: both agreement and disagreement with the hypothesis equally reveal the assumption of a causal process. For the assertion of the influence locks both authors in a chronologically (causally) ordered t r a d i t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e . And i t s denial is upheld on the basis of Garcia Marquez's o r i g i n a l i t y - a concept which, as already shown, is as much a part of a sequential (causal) process as is the assertion of an influence. But study of the texts of these two authors w i l l reveal a rupture with t r a d i t i o n a l concepts of narrative sequence, and thereby a rupture with conventional narrative adherence to causality. As influence theory does link meaning to sequence, the application of i t to texts in which the production of meaning has been necessarily altered, is the imposition of a meaning produced by the method of study rather than by the texts. 32 However, one must heed Chase's warning against claiming for such a deconstruct ion any "more authority than the refuted concept." 9" The self-defeating nature of the arguments for and against influence theory i l l u s t r a t e the f o l l y of such a claim. It i s i r o n i c , for example, that in those arguments the same bases are used both to deny and to assert the v a l i d i t y of the concept. Recall, for example, the issue of o r i g i n a l i t y : the very concept of influence implies the existence of an o r i g i n , and hence of o r i g i n a l i t y . But the claim of an influence is the denial of o r i g i n a l i t y . The denial of the influence is thus a reassertion of o r i g i n a l i t y . And the denial of the v a l i d i t y of the whole concept has the unmistakable undertone of influence "anxiety," i . e . , the resulting function of such denial, i f not i t s motivation, is to allow for " o r i g i n a l i t y . " Both sides of the argument are based on the same assumptions, and one's subversion of the other i s merely another convention. Rivalry, for example, poised as re b e l l i o n , i s i t s e l f a convention in l i t e r a t u r e . The two sides claim to be mutually exclusive, to have each the ultimate authority. But what one side asserts the other rejects so that they appear as opposite sides of the same coin, and as such are the refutation of each other's e x c l u s i v i t y , and with i t of their authority. In ef f e c t , they cancel each other out. It i s , for example, in their dogmatic claims of authority, and in their i m p l i c i t but nonetheless operative value judgements, that the refutations of the concept of influence contain the p o s s i b i l i t y of their own refutat ion. 33 S i m i l a r l y i t would be f o l l y to read in the texts of V i r g i n i a Woolf and Garcia Marquez simple refutation of the assumptions of influence theory ( i . e . , chronology, causality, e t c . ) . Such a reading would, l i k e the arguments for and against influence theory, open i t s e l f too readily to the l i m i t s of a subjective dogmatism. It would in fact be a closed reading, an attempt to obscure the complexity of the a l t e r a t i o n s in narrative time which l i e not in a simple rejection of causality but, as I hope to show, a rejection that contains i m p l i c i t l y i t s own i m p o s s i b i l i t y . This impossibilty, to be discussed in depth l a t e r , is depicted in, for example, the attempt to have narrative escape the f a t a l i t y of chronology, of the passage of time, depicted ultimately as inescapable. Again, the implications of such a reading of the texts can be r e f l e c t e d in the broader discussion of influence theory, and may allow a deconstruction of that theory which contains both the refutation of i t s assumptions and in turn the refutation of that refutation. In other words, the study of textual properties which subvert the narrative conventions of chronology and causality w i l l provide p r i n c i p l e s by which similar conventions in c r i t i c i s m are subverted, while in both subversion i t s e l f i s (an alternative form of) convention. The remainder of t h i s work, therefore, while i t i s a discussion of the hypothesis of an influence on Garcia Marquez by the writings of V i r g i n i a Woolf, has not as i t s intention the proof or the denial of that influence. Rather, the intention is to rethink that hypothesis and i t s implications in the l i g h t of 34 the above d i s c u s s i o n of the deconstruct ion of the conventions and assumptions o p e r a t i v e i n the c l a i m and the d e n i a l both of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case of i n f l u e n c e , as w e l l as of the v a l i d i t y of i n f l u e n c e s t u d i e s in g e n e r a l . 35 I I I . WOOLF'S INFLUENCE ON GARCIA MARQUEZ: THE CRITICS' VIEWS The purpose in this chapter i s to discuss the hypothesis that Garcia Marquez was influenced in his writing by V i r g i n i a Woolf. I s h a l l outline and discuss the opinions held by various c r i t i c s on thi s question. As well I s h a l l examine certain c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the writing of these two authors which indicate p a r a l l e l s between them, and which have been seen by some as the sign of an influence. These are their treatment of narrative time and their depiction of "the moment." The question w i l l arise - why choose these two authors, this p a r t i c u l a r case of alleged influence, for thi s study? After a l l , while there are c r i t i c s who believe that the influence did occur, many others are quick to deny i t . Indeed, some scholars are puzzled at the very suggestion, finding no basis for comparison in the very d i f f e r e n t styles and s e n s i b i l i t i e s of the two authors. But this i s exactly to be wished for in the present study. For in cases of more readily and/or universally accepted "influences," one is less compelled, or required, to question the very fundamentals of the hypothesis. These "accepted" influences are indeed often seen as obvious. As such, as i l l u s t r a t e d e a r l i e r by Barthes' words, the very structures one looks for appear "absent" or "innocent." In the case of influence studies, the structures that go to make up the theory of l i t e r a r y influence remain undisclosed and their outcome assumed. The purpose of thi s work i s not to prove or deny the occurrence of the influence in question, but to study those 36 underlying structures and assumptions of influence theory and their function in the study of l i t e r a t u r e . It is to ascertain the normative function of influence theory as a c r i t i c a l method. Precisely because this case of influence is not regarded as an obvious one i t is necessary to question further the hypothesis in order to seek the motivation and the consequences of such a claim. Why, given the differences between these authors, have c r i t i c s suggested an influence? Why have others denied i t ? These questions can only be answered f u l l y through a questioning of the assumptions of influence theory. The fact that there is not strong defence of this hypothesis of influence is not to say that the choice to study V i r g i n i a Woolf and Garcia Marquez i s an arb i t r a r y or random one. Many c r i t i c s do regard her as one of his precursors, among others such as Faulkner, Joyce, Proust, Kafka, Gide, Mann, and Ra b e l a i s . 9 5 George McMurray would add to this l i s t the names of Sophocles, Cervantes, Defoe, Hemingway, and Camus. Garcia Marquez, says McMurray, "has acknowledged his admiration for -and possible indebtedness to " these and other European and North American authors. 9 6 However, i t i s Faulkner and Woolf, whom, Mario Vargas Llosa t e l l s us, Garcia Marquez read "con avidez," who emerge as predominant on thi s l i s t . 9 7 In p a r t i c u l a r , his f i r s t novel, La  hojarasca, shows, according to McMurray, "thematic and s t y l i s t i c p a r a l l e l s " with the works of Woolf and Faulkner, and "reveals possible influences" of the two. 9 8 37 Garcia Marquez himself has on numerous occasions discussed his having read Woolf. 9 9 According to Vargas Llosa, he frequently c i t e s her as among his favourite a u t h o r s . 1 0 0 As well both Rodriguez Monegal and Ernesto Schoo maintain that Garcia Marquez acknowledges her as an i n f l u e n c e . 1 0 1 The author himself states that: "Yo seria un autor d i s t i n t o del que soy, s i a los veinte anos no hubiese l e i d o . . . Mrs.Dalloway . " 1 0 2 But Gustavo Esteva i n s i s t s that t h i s acknowledgement is merely the author's perpetuation of a myth of f i l i a t i o n , and warns of the capriciousness of authors confessing to influences they have undergone, and of the r e l i a b i l i t y of that admittance. 1 0 3 Others, however, defend the notion of influence as a means of approaching Garcia Marquez. A review of the discussion generated by the question of this p a r t i c u l a r case of influence w i l l serve to introduce possible points of comparison, both s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences, between the two authors, as well as to demonstrate the ways in which those discussions reveal certain c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and assumptions of the very notion of influence. Both assertion and denial of the influence w i l l show themselves equally to be based upon those assumptions. Esteva, as stated e a r l i e r , maintains that Garcia Marquez's own admission of reading V i r g i n i a Woolf is merely to perpetuate the "myth" of that relationship. He i n s i s t s that any attempt to draw further p a r a l l e l s between them would be absurd. 1 0" And Ernesto Volkening i s far more adamant in his insistence that 38 there is no case here of any influence. His insistence stems in part from his objection to the apparent motive behind the claims of influence, which would be to "invent" for Garcia Marquez "un venerable arbol genealogico," rather than to study his p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t i e s . 1 0 5 In addition to this problem of the unclear motive in this claim of influence, the p o s s i b i l i t y of i t s being merely a l i t e r a r y game of establishing ("inventing," as Volkening has i t ) l i t e r a r y genealogies, there are objections to the results of such study. I refer s p e c i f i c a l l y to the question of o r i g i n a l i t y . As pointed out in the f i r s t chapter, there is a propensity to intend and/or interpret claims of influence as an indication of a lack of o r i g i n a l i t y on the part of the influenced author. Because of t h i s , the denial of an influence may be motivated more by a desire to assert an author's o r i g i n a l i t y than by textual (and possibly biographical) "proof." And i t is not only the a r t i s t s themselves who deny their alleged influences for this reason, but their c r i t i c s as well. Certainly in the case of Garcia Marquez, his c r i t i c s find numerous reasons - other than textual ones (or biographical, as i t has been adequately shown that an influence was possible in that he did read Woolf's work with great interest) - for i n s i s t i n g that he was not influenced by V i r g i n i a Woolf. Volkening, for example, objects not only to the threat to Garcia Marquez's reputation of o r i g i n a l i t y but also to that of na t i o n a l i t y which the claim of foreign influences poses. 39 Emphasizing his " c r i o l l o " status, Volkening argues that Garcia Marquez has the right to be "judged" f i r s t l y as an individual and secondly in regard to others of the "same o r i g i n , " and only l a s t l y in regard to the rest of the world. He rejects any p o s s i b i l i t y of an influence by Woolf because he rejects the analogy with, as he facetiously states, any "admirado modelo de las letras anglosajonas." 1 0 6 Volkening objects, furthermore, to the extreme emphasis in such study on the l i t e r a r y , as opposed to the " r e a l " or worldly, aspect of Garcia Marquez's work. 1 0 7 Thus i t is not only the defence of the reputation of the a r t i s t but also the p a r t i c u l a r c r i t i c a l style and approach which may lead to the denial of an alleged influence. Another c r i t i c would ce r t a i n l y not consider the question of l i t e r a r y relationships and t r a d i t i o n s " l i t e r a r y in the extreme," where " l i t e r a r y " implies a derogatory sense. It becomes clear that the occurrence of an influence may be equally as present or absent in the mind of the reader or c r i t i c as in the works themselves. Vargas Llosa, for example, finding in the study of influences a v a l i d means of gaining insight into an author's works, d i f f e r s on t h i s point of the value of real l i f e , as opposed to l i t e r a r y , r e a l i t y . This d i s t i n c t i o n in value between the two, he maintains, would imply that "es mas o r i g i n a l . . . e l que erige sus ficciones mas a p a r t i r de una realidad vivida que de una realidad l e i d a , aquel cuyos demonios son mas personales e hi s t 6 r i c o s que c u l t u r a l e s . 1 0 8 As for the question of o r i g i n a l i t y , he maintains that 40 . . . l a o r i g i n a l i d a d en l i t e r a t u r a no es un punto de partida: es un punto de llegada... No c o n s i s t i r a , pues, en tratar de evitar las influencias tematicas y formales, sino, mas bien, en aprovecharlas de t a l manera que dejen de ser 'influencias.' En l i t e r a t u r a e l f i n modifica los medios y la o r i g i n a l i d a d es retroact i v a . 1 0 9 He sets out to examine Garcia Marquez's influences or "demon'ios cu l t u r a l e s " with the purpose of demonstrating the author's u t i l i z a t i o n of them in his own work. As to the pa r t i c u l a r case of V i r g i n i a Woolf's influence upon Garcia Marquez, Vargas Llosa feels that "las coincidencias [no] deberian sugerir un parecido grande, ...las diferencias son mas importantes que las semejanzas." 1 1 0 These differences, as expressed by c r i t i c s , are based on diverse c r i t e r i a and provide no systematic comparison of the two authors. Nor do they provide convincing "proof" of the denial of an influence. Alone, for example, distinguishes between the two through a vague notion of each author's relationship with the reader: Woolf, he maintains, remains detached and leaves the reader alone, while Garcia Marquez "takes the reader by the hand." 1 1 1 Esteva finds the major difference between them in their creation and use of character. But he over-simplifies these in both, finding in Woolf a subordination of plot to the psychological process of one character, and in Garcia Marquez of individual characters to the plot, and implies that the two approaches are mutually e x c l u s i v e . 1 1 2 His conclusions t r i v i a l i z e the e f f o r t s of these authors to portray the complexity of the 41 f u n c t i o n of c h a r a c t e r , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c h a r a c t e r and n a r r a t i v e . In n e i t h e r i s there a simple supremacy of c h a r a c t e r over p l o t , or p l o t over c h a r a c t e r , as Esteva would have i t . An e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t b a s i s f o r d i s t i n c t i o n i s that found by Alone. He maintains that a major d i f f e r e n c e between them l i e s i n the presence or absence of humour in t h e i r t e x t s -present i n G a r c i a Marquez, absent in W o o l f . 1 1 3 However, while I do not wish to i n s i s t upon s i m i l a r i t i e s as proof of any i n f l u e n c e , i t i s a great o v e r s i g h t to miss the humour of Woolf's w r i t i n g , and i n d i c a t e s a l a c k of e x t e n s i v e f a m i l i a r i t y with her work. Vargas L l o s a f i n d s that the d i f f e r e n c e which, more than any other, " a s t r o n o m i c a l l y d i s t a n c e s " these two authors i s "sex," which, he says, appears "en l a novela de V i r g i n i a Woolf como r e f e r e n c i a l e j a n a e inocente y es en Macondo una p r e s e n c i a v o l c a n i c a . " 1 1 ' But again, t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s h a r d l y as s i m p l i s t i c and s t a i g h t f o r w a r d as Vargas L l o s a i m p l i e s . The presence of s e x u a l i t y i n the two authors d i f f e r s more i n the s t y l e of i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , manifested e x p l i c i t l y i n the one, and l e s s c o n v e n t i o n a l l y , hence l e s s r e c o g n i z a b l y in the other. But t h i s need not l e a d one to conclude that s e x u a l i t y i s any l e s s a presence i n the n a r r a t i v e or does not inform i t s reading. Take Woolf's own words, d e s c r i b i n g a female w r i t e r shaken from a trance of imagination, i n which unspeakabi1ity, or absence, i s a sig n of that presence: The imagination had dashed i t s e l f a g a i n s t something 42 hard. The g i r l was roused from her dream. She was indeed in a state of the most acute and d i f f i c u l t d i s t r e s s . To speak without figure, she had thought of something, something about the body, about the passions which i t was u n f i t t i n g for her as a woman to say. Men, her reason told her, would be shocked. The consciousness of what men w i l l say of a woman who speaks the truth about her passions had roused her from her a r t i s t ' s state of unconsciousness... This I believe to be a very common experience with women writers - they are impeded by the extreme conventionality of the other s e x . 1 1 5 It may in fact be the conventionality of many of these c r i t i c s , both in their views toward influence and in their c r i t i c a l approaches, that disallows a reading-in-common of these two authors. Futhermore, throughout these discussions the basis for di s t i n c t i o n i s found in everything from the author's distance from the reader, to the creation and function of character, to the representation of humour, to the presence or absence of sexuality. These represent a range of c r i t e r i a from tone, to technique, to s t y l e , to theme. It becomes apparent that not only their conventional reading but also their f a i l u r e to acknowledge the complexities of influence theory, or even to adopt consciously a formulated methodology to determine the occurrence of an influence, predetermines the conclusions which these c r i t i c s adopt with such apparent confidence. The same i s true in their claims that an influence did occur. They do not attempt to specify the manner in which i t may have occurred, nor the type of influence i t was, i . e . , in language, s t y l e , theme, etc.. 43 Vargas Llosa, for example, sees some imprint, i f limited, of Woolf's work in the writing of Garcia Marquez. Certain "coincidences" with the l a t t e r ' s work can be found, he says, in Mrs.Dalloway and in Orlando, but of minor si g n i f i c a n c e . In pa r t i c u l a r , he finds in Orlando "less subtle" contributions from Woolf's writing to the f i c t i o n a l world of Cien anos de soledad. Both novels, he points out, constitute a condensed, fantastic journey through history. Both mix " r e a l " ( h i s t o r i c a l ) with f i c t i o n a l events. And in both "lo anecdotico," "lo exotico" and "lo pintoresco" predominate. He compares the episode in Cien  anos of insomnia and amnesia with that of the "Great Frost" in Orlando, both of which are "descrito con la misma naturalidad y el mismo humor que las calamidades de Macondo." 1 1 6 (It i s , i r o n i c a l l y , in the presence or absence of humour that Alone distinguishes between the two.) The two authors share in common, Vargas Llosa maintains, their use of exaggeration, which in both "convierte l a materia ... de 'realidad objetiva' en 'realidad i m a g i n a r i a . ' " 1 1 7 His comparison, in other words, ecompasses a variety of both thematic and s t y l i s t i c elements. Rodriguez Monegal also finds p a r a l l e l s between the writing of Garcia Marquez and Orlando. For him the connection, suggested also by Vargas Llosa, l i e s in the passage which Woolf's novel affords to " l a narracion fantastica . " 1 1 8 It i s also in Orlando, as well as in Mrs.Dalloway, that Schoo sees the sources of an influence. Again making reference to both theme and sty l e , Schoo maintains that i t i s in the transformation of Orlando into a woman in the one, and in the 44 " i r o n i c humor, tempered with melancholy" of Mrs.Dalloway, that one understands how these works influenced Garcia Marquez. 1 1 9 Alone, again comparing Orlando and Cien anos, c a l l s the l a t t e r "heredera" of the f o r m e r . 1 2 0 For him, they are similar in that both novels represent similar attacks on p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e . 1 2 1 La hojarasca has also been found to have " s t y l i s t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s , " according to George McMurray, to Woolf's writing. (Vargas Llosa also compares i t to Mrs.Dalloway in par t i c u l a r . ) Says McMurray: "the vis i o n of Macondo set forth in Leaf Storm reveals possible influences of William Faulkner and V i r g i n i a Woolf." 1 2 2 It i s again apparent that due to the f a i l u r e of these c r i t i c s to consider the problem of influence and hence to formulate consciously a methodological approach, their conclusions are largely predetermined by unstated assumptions, and are based on too diverse a selection of (unconscious) c r i t e r i a . Thus these conclusions can be of l i t t l e value in an attempt to compare texts by Woolf and Garcia Marquez in the l i g h t of influence theory. However, while we can ignore their conclusions, they do point out certain s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two authors which merit further study. These are., primarily, their treatment of narrative time and their depiction of the "moment." Vargas Llosa and Rodriguez Monegal, among others, have compared the treatment of narrative time in the two authors. 45 Says Rodriguez Monegal: . . . e l tiempo narrativo es tratado en ...esos l i b r o s con la misma l i b e r t a d con que se trata la materia o el espacio, la memoria o e l olvido, la ley de causalidad o la existencia (o inexistencia) de los angeles. E l tiempo en esas obras es tambien magico y no esta sometido a la servidumbre de la cronologia. Es un tiempo al margen del tiempo que, a veces, se inserta en e l tiempo de los relojes y los calendarios. Es un tiempo vivo y caprichoso que a veces se vuelve sobre s i , mordiendose rabiosamente la cola, y otras se echa a dormir en una t o t a l inmovilidad. Es un tiempo que confunde episodios lejanos, s i n t e t i z a un mismo destino en la peripecia de varias personas d i s t i n t a s o hace posible encuentros entre seres que han vivido en d i s t i n t a s ondas cronologicas. Es e l tiempo totalmente l i b r e . E l tiempo de la f a b u l a . 1 2 3 In the works of both authors, time, and with i t the notion of history, i s not only a formal but also a thematic preoccupation. In both, chronological time is manipulated and distorted, and made a function, rather than a c o n t r o l l i n g factor, of the narrative discourse. According to McMurray, time "constitutes a ... major theme" in Garcia Marquez. 1 2" The author, he says, "compresses clock time within a limited frame while exploring the vastly expanded temporal realms of his characters' minds." 1 2 5 As well, Garcia Marquez explodes the myth of time and history having a natural, ordered sequence and portrays the struggle between natural chaos and the f i c t i o n of order, or the order of f i c t i o n . McMurray's comparison of Jose Arcadio Buendia and Aureliano Babilonia in Cien aftos de soledad is an i l l u s t r a t i o n of this struggle. The history of the Buendia family, he says, is l i k e a labyrinth, and he notes the 46 difference in the two characters' journeys into the maze. The quest of Jose Arcadio Buendia ends in madness, while that of Aureliano Babilonia ends in the discovery of "both his unknown or i g i n and his destiny." The reason for t h i s , McMurray maintains, l i e s in the opposition of r e a l i t y and f i c t i o n . While Jose Arcadio, he says, tackles real l i f e , "with a l l i t s unpredictable temporal and s p a t i a l incoherence," Aureliano Babilonia "unravels the a r t i f i c i a l complexities of an a r t i s t i c a l l y fashioned, f i c t i t i o u s paradigm of r e a l i t y , perhaps man's only perfect f o i l to disorder and nothingness." 1 2 6 Thus the end of the family l i n e s i g n i f i e s not only death, decomposition, and s t e r i l i t y , as i s often held. It i s as well a sign of the assertion of narrative. The end of the "story," and with i t of the Buendia family, coincides with the "discovery" of Melquiades' parchments, or at least the discovery of their meaning. Timeless, non-linear, c y c l i c a l , expressing a l l in an instant, they are the " f i c t i t i o u s paradigm" in which the whole is revealed. History, i t seems, i s chaos, and f i c t i o n order. History i t s e l f is also a theme of Cien afios. Carlos Fuentes describes that novel as "una h i s t o r i a casi b i b l i c a de las fundaciones y las generaciones y las degeneraciones, ... una h i s t o r i a del origen y destino del tiempo humane" 1 2 7 It i s not only a history of "generations" but of "degenerations," and the author's treatment of history as theme constitutes an interrogation into the t r a d i t i o n a l understanding and portrayal of i t . 47 There i s a similar interrogation in Woolf's writing. James Naremore maintains that Woolf conveys an "ambivalence over the l i f e process - the passing of time that leads us a l l closer to death." And in The Years, he says, that ambivalence i s "doubled and i n t e n s i f i e d by a more immediate ambivalence about h i s t o r y . " 1 2 8 In her writing there is a constant struggle between "fragmentariness" and linear time. In spite of e f f o r t s to break chronology and thus disrupt the passage of time, r e a l i t y , as Maria DiBattista points out, i s shown to have an "inexorably linear n a t u r e . " 1 2 9 As Naremore says, "the continuity of l i f e i s s p l i t up by the necessities of time and space, which cut people off from one another and eventually lead to d e a t h . " 1 3 0 He goes on to c i t e comments by Basilde Senancourt, who notes that Woolf " i s always challenging her view of unity and continuity in human experience by choosing to render the dislocations caused by passing time, by death, or by the mind's conversations with i t s e l f . " 1 3 1 G i l l i a n Beer suggests that, due to this struggle between continuity and rupture, Woolf came to "distrust the day-to-day as a s u f f i c i e n t register of r e a l i t y " and to reject plot, as "plot i n s i s t s on origins, sequence, consequences, discovery, exclusion and c l o s u r e . " 1 3 2 Beer suggests that Woolf creates "alternative . . . f i c t i v e patterns [which] question, d i l a t e or surpass the deterministic ones [in which] ...there is no space, no interruption, no moment, which can escape from sequence." 1 3 3 48 In both authors, repetition is a key formal device and an example of such "alternative f i c t i v e patterns" which convey the impossibility of continuity and at the same time the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of the (linear, i . e . , toward death) passage of time. Allen McLa.urin notes the use of repetition in Woolf's work, which i s , he maintains, a r e f l e c t i o n of "her perception of rep e t i t i o n in human things, especially the r e p e t i t i v e i n e v i t a b i l i t y of death. 1 3" And McMurray says of Garcia Marquez: ...the r e p e t i t i v e patterns and rhythmic momentum generated by mythical time create a mytho-poetic atmosphere that blurs sordid r e a l i t y and thrusts the reader into a kind of temporal void where the laws of cause and ef f e c t tend to become meaningless. 1 3 5 Thus rep e t i t i o n creates a c y c l i c a l , mythical narrative, whose cycle of renewal, according to McMurray, p a r t i a l l y a l l e v i a t e s the "terror and solitude engendered by rational thought and l i n e a l h i s t o r y . " 1 3 6 Vargas Llosa, also, notes the c y c l i c a l nature of narrative time in Cien anos de soledad, in which every episode is a c i r c u l a r , self-contained unit beginning and ending in the same spot, episodes which "se muerde[n] la c o l a . " 1 3 7 This image of (the serpent) b i t i n g i t s own t a i l is used as well to describe the structure of Woolf's To the  Lighthouse : [The] mythic recovery of the irrecoverable past is a r t i c u l a t e d by the shape of the novel i t s e l f - a c i r c l e that contains i t s end within i t s beginning. The form of To the Lighthouse images fate as the ouroboros, the snake with the t a i l in i t s mouth, the psychic symbol, as Erich Neumann has argued, "of the o r i g i n and of the opposites contained within i t . " 1 3 8 49 This depiction of time as c y c l i c a l presents a possible (mythical) resolution of the (irresolvable) contradiction between continuity and disruption and the ultimate i n e v i t a b i l i t y of passage and death. Contained within i t is not only the f a t a l i t y of time, or the renewal of the cycle, but as well the exposure of or i g i n and destiny as mutually bound to the f i c t i v e pattern by which destiny is determined by or i g i n by virtue of narrative requirement. In addition to the use of repetition and cycles, the "moment" provides another "alternative f i c t i v e pattern" to t r a d i t i o n a l chronology. It is in t h i s , in Woolf's depiction of "ese instante vertiginoso y p r i v i l e g i a d o , que da sentido y orden a un destino humano, ese inasible estado veloz que es explicacion y fuente de l a vida," that Vargas Llosa admits a possible influence by V i r g i n i a Woolf upon Garcia Marquez. 1 3 9 He paraphrases N i l i t a Vientos Gaston, "lectora inteligente de V i r g i n i a Woolf, [que] ha v i s t o una coincidencia de intencion entre La hojarasca y la obra de la novelista inglesa": Toda l a ambicion de la primera novela de Garcia Marquez r e s i d i r i a en la captacion de un momento algido y luminoso de la vida de los tres personajes atrapados en ese espacio c l a u s t r a l donde velan a l medico, en ese tiempo encerrado y casi inmovil que son las pocas horas que dura la accion. A l i i , s i lenciosos, quietos, secuestrados, bajo la incertidumbre y l a amenaza, obligados a pensar en s i mismos y en quienes tienen a l frente, viven un instante de autenticidad, a la luz del cual sus vidas pasadas, y, quiza, futuras, encuentran sentido. La intencion del deicida habria sido en esta novela la revelacion de "the moment" woolfiano, de esa esc u r r i d i z a , evanescente materia que es la v i d a . 1 f t 0 50 Both Woolf and Garcia Marquez use the expression of "fragmentariness," the capsule or the "moment," "broken away from sequence," as Beer says, as a means of depicting narrative time. 1" 1 Sequence loses i t s association with meaning and i s replaced by "una vision de la realidad como una suma de anecdotas." 1 * 2 "Lo fragmentario," says Volkening, "en Garcia Marquez forma parte de su vision de un mundo inconcluso." 1" 3 And Naremore states that in The Years," we are given not so much a narrative history as a montage, an irregular succession of meaningful but undramatic moments which reveal the quality of dai l y l i f e . " 1 " " D i B a t t ista describes a similar occurrence in To  the Lighthouse. "Humanly decisive events," she says, "are recorded in a series of parentheses which typographically enclose and thus preserve h i s t o r i c a l or human moments from the chaos of undifferentiated e x i s t e n c e . " 1 " 5 The Woolfian "moment" i s a narrative device which exposes the false and r i g i d order of chronological narration. "The perception of the single moment," says McLaurin, " makes the sequence of one thing following another, l i k e story, seem f a l s e . This i s a constant theme in V i r g i n i a Woolf's work." 1" 6 It i s in a sense an extension of the repetition mentioned e a r l i e r . For while re p e t i t i o n causes events to recur in a c y c l i c a l , or s p i r a l , fashion, the moment i s an instantaneous occurrence, and recurrence, of the whole. One might think of i t as that which would be seen by looking down upon a s p i r a l staircase, but without a sense of depth perception. 51 In her essay "How Should One Read a Book," Woolf's own description of a "moment" depicts a suspension of time, and as well of sp a t i a l elements, an intensity that seems in i t s e l f a glimpse of eternity. "Recall," she invites the reader, some event that has l e f t a d i s t i n c t impression on you - how at the corner of the street, perhaps, you passed two people t a l k i n g . A tree shook; an e l e c t r i c l i g h t danced; the tone of the talk was comic, but also tr a g i c ; a whole v i s i o n , an entire conception, seemed contained in that moment.1"7 And she describes another: How stimulating the scene i s , in i t s unconsciousness, i t s irrelevance, i t s perpetual movement - the co l t s galloping round the f i e l d , the woman f i l l i n g her p a i l at the well, the donkey throwing back his head and emitting his long, ac r i d moan. The greater part of any l i b r a r y i s nothing but the record of such f l e e t i n g moments in the l i v e s of men, women, and donkeys. 1" 8 Woolf then goes on to describe the d i f f i c u l t y in attaining a form capable of expressing that moment: But when you attempt to reconstruct i t in words, you w i l l find that i t breaks into a thousand c o n f l i c t i n g impressions. Some must be subdued; others emphasized; in the process you w i l l lose, probably, a l l grasp upon, the emotion i t s e l f . 1 " 9 Woolf succeeds in capturing a l l of those impressions and in making time appear to stop, as though everything were to l d at once, rather than in the necessary succession which narration requires. In Moments of Being she describes the memory of such a moment: It s t i l l makes me f e e l warm; as i f everything were 52 ripe; humming; sunny; smelling so many smells at once; and a l l making a whole that even now makes me stop -as I stopped then going down to the beach; I stopped at the top to look down at the gardens. They were sunk beneath the road. The apples were on a l e v e l with one's head. The gardens gave off a murmur of bees; the apples were red and gold; there were also pink flowers; and grey and s i l v e r leaves. The buzz, the croon, the smell, a l l seemed to press voluptuously against some membrane; not to burst i t ; but to hum round one such a complete rapture of pleasure that I stopped, smelt; l o o k e d . 1 5 0 Thus Woolf and Garcia Marquez reject the t r a d i t i o n a l linear notion of narrative time and present alternatives to i t in their use of repetition and in their depiction of the moment. Implicit in that rejection is a refutation of t r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r i c a l narrative (after which f i c t i o n a l narrative is modelled) and i t s assumptions of l i n e a r i t y , the order of chronology, and causality. Furthermore, those assumptions are the same ones underlying influence theory. In view of t h i s , the notion of applying a theory of influence to these authors, who have in their writing rejected the premises of that theory, becomes i r o n i c . But, as was seen in the discussions of this case of influence, c r i t i c s draw their conclusions as much from unconscious adherence to the assumptions of the method as from textual signs. Thus even i f those assumptions are repudiated in a l i t e r a r y work, for example, that repudiation can be overlooked or ignored, and undone, through (conventional reading by) the c r i t i c s . In the next chapter, I s h a l l compare textual q u a l i t i e s in 53 the works of Woolf and G a r c i a Marquez which demonstrate the subversion of those assumptions a s s o c i a t e d with the t r a d i t i o n a l c o n ception of n a r r a t i v e sequence, c a u s a l i t y , and meaning. 54 IV. WOOLF AND GARCIA MARQUEZ: TEXTUAL PARALLELS Throughout t h i s work i t has been stressed that the purpose here i s not to conduct an actual influence study. It i s , instead, to study influence theory i t s e l f . Yet in this chapter I s h a l l examine s i m i l a r i t i e s between the writings of V i r g i n i a Woolf and Garcia Marquez, and between Mrs.Dalloway and La  hojarasca in p a r t i c u l a r , which might be read as the signs of a possible influence. This i s not to provide proof for the claim or the denial of that influence. It i s , rather, to provide working material for the i l l u s t r a t i o n of some of the implications of influence theory. For t h i s purpose I sh a l l take Woolf and Garcia Marquez as a sample case. The two have been compared, and Garcia Marquez himself has alluded to the pa r t i c u l a r effect her writing had on his own. It i s the intention here to question why this comparison i s possible and from what i t derives. To thi s purpose I sh a l l explore certain p a r a l l e l s which exist between their works. But these p a r a l l e l s , the very s i m i l a r i t i e s found between them, and seen as the indication of an influence, imply, i r o n i c a l l y , a deconstruct ion of the very notion of influence theory. For the resulting function of certain textual and thematic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s present in both is the refutation of t r a d i t i o n a l chronology, and with i t a redoubling or refutation of that very refutation through the reassertion of the inevitably linear nature of the passage of time. This i s further reason why the pa r t i c u l a r case of Woolf and Garcia Marquez is especially appropriate for t h i s study. For in 55 this comparison rather than try to demonstrate a s i m i l a r i t y in intention, s e n s i b i l i t y , or s t y l e , I sh a l l show that the very basis upon which this influence has been proposed demonstrates a s i m i l a r i t y in the narrative function of certain aspects of their work, that function being the refutation of the assumptions of chronological history and hence of the assumptions of influence theory. If one were, then, to set out upon the study of the possible influence of Woolf upon Garcia Marquez, one would have to begin by asking what makes even the beginning of such a comparison possible. As the purpose here is not actually to prove the occurrence of a "genuine" influence, i t i s not necessary to comply with a l l of the methodological stipul a t i o n s for such study outlined by influence scholars. But an awareness and at least a p a r t i a l compliance with those st i p u l a t i o n s w i l l provide a framework within which to begin the comparison. It i s , for example, necessary to specify the type of influence to be studied. That i s , the interest here i s with an influence limited to that of one author upon another, as opposed to upon a group, or a group upon one author, etc.. The p o s s i b i l i t y of this influence having occurred through other than d i r e c t , author to author, means w i l l not be considered. There is as well the biographical requirement: do we know the "influenced" author to be familiar with the works of the precursor? In this case i t has already been established that this i s so. We know that Borges translated works by Woolf into 56 S p a n i s h , and t h a t G a r c i a Marquez h i m s e l f o f t e n spoke of h a v i n g r e a d W o o l f . A n o t h e r s t i p u l a t i o n made by i n f l u e n c e s c h o l a r s c o n c e r n s t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s t u d y . They i n s i s t t h a t t h e r e must be a p u r p o s e o t h e r t h a n t h e mere d i v u l g e n c e of a s o u r c e and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of f i l i a t i o n . Such s t u d y s h o u l d , i n s t e a d , seek t o r e v e a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i n d i v i d u a l a u t h o r ' s works as w e l l as t h e n a t u r e of t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s . The p r e s e n t c o m p a r i s o n does have o t h e r t h a n t h e d i v u l g e n c e of a s o u r c e a s i t s p u r p o s e . The c o m p a r i s o n of t e x t s by t h e s e two a u t h o r s w i l l be v a l i d , and f r u i t f u l , w i t h no need of t h e p r e t e x t of a s e a r c h f o r an i n f l u e n c e . And t h e s t u d y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i r works w i l l be s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t h e l i g h t of t h e a s s u m p t i o n s of i n f l u e n c e t h e o r y , b o t h as t h o s e a s s u m p t i o n s i n f o r m a r e a d i n g of t h e t e x t s when t h e y a r e s t u d i e d as a c a s e of i n f l u e n c e , and as t h e t e x t s i m p l i c i t l y r e f u t e t h o s e v e r y a s s u m p t i o n s i n t h e i r r e j e c t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l n a r r a t i v e c h r o n o l o g y . The most i m p o r t a n t s t i p u l a t i o n i s , of c o u r s e , t h a t t h e r e e x i s t t e x t u a l s i m i l a r i t i e s w h i c h would i n d i c a t e a p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e . T h e s e have been f o u n d by c r i t i c s s u f f i c i e n t t o c o n s i d e r t h e q u e s t i o n of t h i s i n f l u e n c e , and t o p r o v o k e a c o m p a r i s o n of t h e s e a u t h o r s ' works. We m a i n t a i n , t h e n , t h a t s i m i l a r i t i e s e x i s t w h i c h , w h i l e t h e y " p r o v e " n o t h i n g , m e r i t c o m p a r i s o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , one s h o u l d s p e c i f y t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e i n f l u e n c e i s e x p r e s s e d , i . e . , i n f o r m , s t y l e , theme, e t c . . In t h i s c a s e t h e c o m p a r i s o n by c r i t i c s a s o u t l i n e d i n t h e s e c o n d 57 chapter is indicative of the vagueness c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of influence studies. The main comparison, however, is in the narrative expression, both as theme and as form, of the notions of time and of the moment. As stated e a r l i e r , my own comparisons w i l l be in the s i m i l a r i t y of function, or the consequences, of that expression. I s h a l l f i r s t discuss p a r a l l e l s of a general nature, that i s , those which may be found throughout the works of Woolf and Garcia Marquez. Later I s h a l l do a closer comparison of Mrs.Dalloway and La hojarasca . In Chapter Two i t was established that time is a major preoccupation in the writing of both Woolf and Garcia Marquez. Throughout their works this preoccupation is manifested both as theme and as narrative technique. Thematically, for example, there are a number of motifs common to both authors which express this concern with time. Among these are motifs of power (the m i l i t a r y , the nation), of the notion of or i g i n s , and of history, a l l of which are related to the passage of time. This concern is expressed formally in their works through a disruption of the t r a d i t i o n a l notion of narrative time and an exploration of alternative forms, such as the use of rep e t i t i o n , the expression of time as c i r c u l a r or c y c l i c a l , and the depiction of the moment. Moreover, the narrative styles of both bear s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n to mythological narrative. Again, t h i s i s manifested both as theme, for example in the play of fate and prophecy, and 58 as form, in the e p i s o d i c , c y c l i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the n a r r a t i v e . G a r c i a Marquez himself sees the "impact" of Woolf's work on h i s own in the d e p i c t i o n of time, and s p e c i f i c a l l y i n time as r e l a t e d to f a t e , and death or "decomposition," and as r e l a t e d to the n o t i o n of p o w e r . 1 5 1 He c i t e s one l i n e i n p a r t i c u l a r , a l i n e from Mrs.Dalloway , which he maintains e f f e c t e d a t u r n i n g p o i n t in h i s c a r e e r as a w r i t e r . The sentence had such a great e f f e c t on him, he m a i n t a i n s : ... [pjorque transformo por completo mi s e n t i d o d e l tiempo. Quizas me p e r m i t i o vislumbrar en un i n s t a n t e todo e l proceso de descomposicion de Macondo, y su d e s t i n o f i n a l . Me pregunto ademas s i no s e r i a e l o r i g e n remoto de E l Otofio d e l P a t r i a r c a , que es un l i b r o sobre e l enigma humano d e l poder, sobre su soledad y su m i s e r i a . 1 5 2 In t h i s l i n e of Woolf's which he c i t e s , there predominates a p a r t i c u l a r aspect of her many-faceted and complex p o r t r a y a l of time: "Pero no habia duda de que dentro (del coche) se sentaba a l g o grande: grandeza que pasaba, escondida, a l a lcance de l a s manos v u l g a r e s que por primera y u l t i m a vez se encontraban tan c e r c a de l a majestad de I n g l a t e r r a , e l perdurable simbolo d e l Estado que l o s a c u s i o s o s arqueologos habian de i d e n t i f i c a r en l a s excavaciones de l a s r u i n a s d e l tiempo, cuando Londres no fuera mas que un camino c u b i e r t o de h i e r b a s , y cuando l a s gentes que andaban por sus c a l l e s en a q u e l l a manana de m i e r c o l e s fueran apenas un monton de huesos con algunos a n i l l o s matrimoniales, r e v u e l t o s con su p r o p i o polvo y con l a s emplomaduras de innumerables d i e n t e s c a r i a d o s . " 1 5 3 It i s a l i n e a r time, symbolized by the march of power, i n t h i s case of r o y a l t y , a march which i n i t s i n e v i t a b l e progress leads 59 to death and ends in nothing more than the r u i n s of h i s t o r y . In both authors t h i s connection between the passage of time and power, represented v a r i a b l y in f i g u r e s of power, the n a t i o n , and the m i l i t a r y , i s common. "'I can't h e l p t h i n k i n g of England,'" says C l a r i s s a Dalloway to her husband in The Voyage Out : 'One t h i n k s of a l l we've done, and our navies, and the the people in I n d i a and A f r i c a , and how we've gone on century a f t e r c e n t u r y . ' . . . ' I t ' s the c o n t i n u i t y , ' s a i d R i c h a r d s e n t e n t i o u s l y . A v i s i o n of E n g l i s h h i s t o r y , King f o l l o w i n g King, Prime M i n i s t e r Prime M i n i s t e r , and Law Law had come over him while h i s wife spoke. He ran h i s mind along the l i n e of c o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i c y , which went s t e a d i l y from Lord S a l i s b u r y to A l f r e d , and g r a d u a l l y enclosed, as though i t were a l a s s o that opened and caught t h i n g s , enormous chunks of the h a b i t a b l e g l o b e . 1 5 " And " l a p a t r i a , " says the d i c t a t o r of c e n t u r i e s i n E l otoho d e l  p a t r i a r c a to h i s mother, "es l o mejor que se ha i n v e n t a d o . " 1 5 5 "La p a t r i a , " in G a r c i a Marquez and the "Empire" in V i r g i n i a Woolf are symbols of the thread of c o n t i n u i t y and of a v i s i o n of e t e r n i t y . T h i s concept of n a t i o n i s o f t e n represented i n both by symbols of the m i l i t a r y : wars, s o l d i e r s marching, m i l i t a r y bands - the e t e r n a l march of time seen i n the e t e r n a l march of the m i l i t a r y . Of the d i c t a t o r - g e n e r a l i n E l Otono i t i s s a i d t h a t ... ningun mortal l o habia v i s t o desde l o s tiempos d e l vomito negro, y s i n embargo sabiamos que e l estaba a h i , l o sabiamos porque e l mundo seguia, l a v i d a seguia, e l c o r r e o l l e g a b a , l a banda m u n i c i p a l tocaba l a r e t r e t a de v a l s e s bobos de l o s sabados bajo l a s palmeras p o l v o r i e n t a s y l o s f a r o l e s mustios de l a Plaza de Armas, y o t r o s musicos v i e j o s reemplazaban en l a banda a l o s musicos muertos. (OP; p. 9) S i m i l a r l y i n Woolf c h a r a c t e r s are reassured by these symbols 60 that " l i f e goes on," and s i m i l a r l y as well there is an irony between that reassurance and i t s attendant guarantee that the passage leads to death. Sandra, in Jacob's Room, ponders "the f l i g h t of time which hurries us so t r a g i c a l l y along." But then "the royal band marching by with the national f l a g s t i r r e d wider rings of emotion, and l i f e became something that the courageous mount and ride out to sea o n . " 1 5 6 But again this image i s made iron i c and i s robbed of the n o b i l i t y of courage: The battleships ray out over the North Sea, keeping their stations accurately apart. At a given signal a l l the guns are trained on a target which (the master gunner counts the seconds, watch in hand - at the sixth he looks up) flames into s p l i n t e r s . With nonchalance a dozen young men in the prime of l i f e descend with composed faces into the depths of the sea; and there impassively (though with perfect mastery of machinery) suffocate uncomplainingly together. Like blocks of t i n soldiers the army covers the c o r n f i e l d , moves up the h i l l s i d e , stops, reels s l i g h t l y this way and that, and f a l l s f l a t , save that, through f i e l d - g l a s s e s , i t can be seen that one or two pieces s t i l l agitate up and down l i k e fragments of broken match-stick. These actions, together with the incessant commerce of banks, laboratories, chancellories, and houses of business, are the strokes which oar the world forward, they say. (JR; p. 155) There is a constant struggle between these c o n f l i c t i n g aspects of the state and m i l i t a r i s m as both continuity, and death and destruction. Both authors depict power both as a symbol of continuity and the passage of time as well as of i t s disruption and of death and stagnation. In the sentence c i t e d by Garcia Marquez, the stopping of the car holding the important personage causes everything to "come to a s t a n d s t i l l . " 1 5 7 The general in his car in E l otono has a similar e f f e c t : 61 ... a t r a v e s de l o s v i d r i o s nublados de l a c a r r o z a p r e s i d e n c i a l habia v i s t o e l tiempo interrumpido por orden suya en l a s c a l l e s abandonadas. (OP; p. 246) T h i s s t r u g g l e between l i n e a r time and i t s d i s r u p t i o n i s a constant theme. There i s a need fo r c o n t i n u i t y i n order to have order. The n a r r a t o r of The Voyage Out says of M r s . E l l i o t that she: ... depended so i m p l i c i t l y upon one t h i n g f o l l o w i n g another that the mere glimpse of a world where dinner c o u l d be d i s r e g a r d e d , or the t a b l e moved one inch from i t s accustomed p l a c e , f i l l e d her with f e a r s for her own s t a b i l i t y . (VO; p. 129) The d i s r u p t i o n of such c o n t i n u i t y o b l i t e r a t e s the reassurance of the myth of c a u s a l i t y , as occurs l a t e r i n that novel d u r i n g Rachel's i l l n e s s : the outer world was so f a r away that the d i f f e r e n t sounds, such as the sounds of people passing on the s t a i r s , and the sounds of people moving overhead, c o u l d only be a s c r i b e d to t h e i r cause by a great e f f o r t of memory ... Hours and hours would pass thus, without g e t t i n g any f u r t h e r through the morning, or again a few minutes would l e a d from broad d a y l i g h t to the depths of the n i g h t . (VO; pp. 329-30) That l o s s of c o n t i n u i t y and c a u s a l i t y must l e a d to chaos and e v e n t u a l l y to death, as i t does i n Rachel's case. But the c o n f l i c t i s i r r e s o l v a b l e , f o r i n t h i s i s shown that in s p i t e of e f f o r t s to i n t e r r u p t c o n t i n u i t y , to d e p i c t time as other than l i n e a r , i t s l i n e a r nature i s i n e v i t a b l e . L i k e Woolf's war machine which "oars the world forward" i s the n a r r a t o r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n i n E l Otono of " e l coche funebre d e l progreso dentro d e l orden," progress being the v e h i c l e of death 62 (OP; p. 6). In spite of the t o t a l rupture with chronology which characterizes the narration of that novel, l i f e , nonetheless, "solo camina para un solo lado" (OP; p. 21). This is a theme as well of E l coronel no tiene quien le escriba, where "lo unico que llega con seguridad es la muerte." 1 5 8 These motifs of power, militarism, and Empire or patria are closely linked in both authors to the notion of history. In The  Voyage Out, we find H i r s t : ... reading the t h i r d volume of Gibbon's History of  the Decline and F a l l of Rome by candle 1ight... [ A] whole procession of splendid sentences entered his capacious brow and went marching through his brain in order. It seemed l i k e l y that this process might continue for an hour or more, u n t i l the entire regiment had shifted i t s quarters... (VO; p. 106) History in the works of both Woolf and Garcia Marquez is central both in the representation of i t as theme and in the preoccupation with i t as narrative model. Certainly both Orlando and Cien anos de soledad are f i c t i o n a l h i s t o r i e s as well as r e f l e c t i o n s on the f i c t i o n of history and in pa r t i c u l a r of h i s t o r i c a l narrative. Both question the assumptions of the model of h i s t o r i c a l narrative for the writing of f i c t i o n , and the r e l i a b i l i t y of the dependence upon causality as related to meaning. This r e l a t i o n of meaning and sequence, which we have shown to be related to the establishment of o r i g i n , is questioned throughout their works. In The Voyage Out i t i s in r e l a t i o n to the theme of history that the characters seek knowledge of 63 o r i g i n s . It is Rachel, this time, reading of marching armies in Gibbon: Never had any words been so v i v i d and so beautiful Arabia F e l i x - Aethiopia. But those were not more noble than the others, hardy barbarians, forests, and morasses. They seemed to drive roads back to the very beginnings of the world, on either side of which the populations of a l l times and countries stood in avenues, an by passing down them a l l knowledge would be hers, and the book of the world turned back to the very f i r s t page. (VO; p. 175) "'After a l l we are founded on the past, aren't we?'" says Mrs.Thornbury in the same novel. "'My soldier son says that there i s s t i l l a great deal to be learned from Hannibal'" (VO; p. 114). Both the search for origins and the firm b e l i e f in the importance of the establishment of " f i l i a t i o n , " or rather the questioning of both of these, are preoccupations of both authors. In The Years, North l i s t e n s to a conversation at a party: This i s the conspiracy, he said to himself; t h i s i s the steam r o l l e r that smooths, o b l i t e r a t e s ; rounds into i d e n t i t i y ; r o l l s into b a l l s . He lis t e n e d . Jimmy was in Uganda; L i l y was in Leicestershire; my_ boy - my_ g i r l ... they were saying. But they're not interested in other.people's children, he observed. Only in their own; their own property; their own flesh and blood... 1 5 9 In attempting to revise the insistence upon chronology in narrative, these authors thus question the insistence upon th i s r e l a t i o n between o r i g i n and meaning. For with such a state of 64 t h i n g s , "how then can we be c i v i l i s e d ? " North asks h i m s e l f . G a r c i a Marquez a l s o toys with t h i s c o n v i c t i o n that meaning d e r i v e s from o r i g i n . In Cien anos de soledad, f o r example, while there i s throughout a preoccupation with e s t a b l i s h i n g p a t e r n i t y , the complexity of the f a m i l y ' s incestuous r e l a t i o n s obscures the i s s u e and renders ambiguous the r e l a t i o n between o r i g i n and i d e n t i t y : Atormentado por l a certidumbre de que era hermano de su mujer, A u r e l i a n o se d i o una escapada a l a casa c u r a l para buscar en l o s a r c h i v o s rezumantes y a p o l i l l a d o s alguna p i s t a c i e r t a de su f i l i a c i o n ... V i e n d o l o e x t r a v i a d o en l a b e r i n t o s de sangre, tremulo de incertidumbre, e l parroco a r t r i t i c o que l o observaba desde l a hamaca l e pregunto compasivamente c u a l era su nombre. - A u r e l i a n o Buendia - d i j o e l . Entonces no te mates buscando - exclamo e l parroco con una c o n v i c c i o n terminante -. Hace muchos anos hubo aqui una c a l l e que se llamaba a s i , y por esos entonces l a gente t e n i a l a costumbre de ponerles a l o s h i j o s l o s nombres de l a s c a l l e s . 1 6 0 But of course the very reverse i s the case, and the s t r e e t was named a f t e r h i s d i r e c t a n c e s t o r s . Furthermore, the very a b i l i t y to o r i g i n a t e , that i s , to f a t h e r c h i l d r e n and continue the f a m i l y l i n e , belongs to those with the name Jose A r c a d i o ; the A u r e l i a n o s , on the other hand, are incapable of doing so. But even t h i s i s confused, f o r the opposite i s the case with A u r e l i a n o Segundo and Jose A r c a d i o Segundo. T h i s f a c t i s a t t r i b u t e d , however, to t h e i r being mixed up at b i r t h ; thus i d e n t i t y as connected to o r i g i n i s r e e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s r e c a l l s Cynthia Chase's n o t i o n of reverse c a u s a l i t y , where there i s a present cause of a past e f f e c t , a play on the n o t i o n of c a u s a l i t y which r e f u t e s the a b s o l u t e 65 v a l i d i t y of the l a t t e r . For the i n a b i l i t y of Jose Arcadio Segundo, and the a b i l i t y of his brother Aureliano Segundo, to procreate are attributed to the later event of their being mixed up at b i r t h . The mix up i s given as the cause of a past e f f e c t . In El otono del patriarca there i s also this obsession with or i g i n s , and the lack thereof, and with i t an unravelling of the r e l a t i o n of o r i g i n to meaning. It i s said of the general that "todo rastro de su origen habia desaparecido," and that he himself consideraba que nadie era h i j o de nadie mas que de su madre, y solo de e l l a . Esta certidumbre parecia valida inclusive para e l , pues se sabia que era un hombre sin padre como los despotas mas i l u s t r e s de la h i s t o r i a . . . (OP; pp. 50-1) His mother as well is described as "una rara mujer de origen i n c i e r t o " (OP; p. 51). Both authors use other means, in addition to t h i s questioning of the significance placed upon o r i g i n s , in their departures away from t r a d i t i o n a l chronological narrative. Linear time is often portrayed as that which leads to an inevitable and f u t i l e destiny. But that f u t i l i t y i s not only an expression of stagnation and end. It expresses also the loss of f a i t h in chronology as a means of portraying r e a l i t y and the impo s s i b i l i t y of a s t r i c t l y l i n e a r , causal narrative. The l a t t e r is replaced by a pattern of r e p e t i t i o n , a c y c l i c a l time which while i t forever turns back upon i t s e l f i s also a continual renewal. It i s , as Woolf expresses i t in The Years, 66 " l i k e a serpent that swallowed i t s own t a i l " (Y; p. 100). While, as Vargas L l o s a p o i n t s out, a l l of the episodes of Cien anos de soledad have a c i r c u l a r s t r u c t u r e ("episodios que se muerden l a c o l a " ) , the e n t i r e novel i s a l s o c i r c u l a r . I t ends with the d e c i p h e r i n g of Melquiades' parchments which t e l l the h i s t o r y of the Buendia f a m i l y e x a c t l y as t o l d from the f i r s t page of the n o v e l . The end of the f a m i l y has been present s i n c e the beginning, only to be decoded and thus brought to pass by the development of the n a r r a t i v e i t s e l f . I t does indeed rupture and d e s t r o y the notion of c a u s a l i t y , f o r i t becomes c l e a r that the end of the Buendia f a m i l y i s a n a r r a t i v e requirement; i t i s the past e f f e c t of the present cause. That i s , the d e c i p h e r i n g of the parchments r e q u i r e s the d e s t r u c t i o n of Macondo. This i s made c l e a r as A u r e l i a n o B a b i l o n i a d e c i p h e r s h i s own d e s t i n y as he l i v e s i t : S61o entonces d e s c u b r i o que Amaranta U r s u l a no era su hermana, s i n o su t i a , y que F r a n c i s Drake habia a s a l t a d o a Riohacha solamente para que e l l o s pudieran buscarse por l o s l a b e r i n t o s mas i n t r i n c a d o s de l a sangre, hasta engendrar e l animal m i t o l o g i c o que habia de poner termino a l a e s t i r p e . (CA; p. 447) Thus i t i s not because Drake a t t a c k e d Riohacha that the " m y t h o l o g i c a l animal" can be engendered, but r a t h e r because i t i s to be engendered that he a t t a c k s . The engendering i s the present cause of the past e f f e c t , which was the a t t a c k . The n a r r a t i v e purpose has been to decipher these parchments which are the n a r r a t i v e i t s e l f . The c i r c l e i s complete. 67 As w e l l t h i s c i r c u l a r time i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to and helps to d e s c r i b e the notion of the moment. The n a r r a t o r of Cien anos  de soledad t e l l s us that Melquiades no habia ordenado l o s hechos en e l tiempo convencional de l o s hombres, s i n o que concentro un s i g l o de e p i s o d i o s c o t i d i a n o s , de modo que todos c o e x i s t i e r a n en un i n s t a n t e . (CA; p. 447) For that i s one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of "the moment" - i t c o n t a i n s w i t h i n i t both past and present, end and e t e r n i t y . In such a d e p i c t i o n of time, the weight of the past i s ever-present. As A u r e l i a n o s i t s i n the house he r e c e i v e s a l i g h t n i n g f l a s h of l u c i d i t y i n which he r e a l i z e s "que era incapaz de r e s i s t i r sobre su alma e l peso abrumador de tanto pasado" (CA; pp. 445-6). S i m i l a r l y i n Jacob's Room Betty F l a n d e r s "sighed l i k e one who r e a l i z e s , but would f a i n ward o f f a l i t t l e longer - oh, a l i t t l e l onger! - the oppression of e t e r n i t y " (JR; p. 160 ). In both authors the n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e i s l i k e a s e r i e s of capsules or moments ra t h e r than a continuous l i n e . As w e l l there occur not only i n Woolf but a l s o i n G a r c i a Marquez Woolfian-type "moments" - moments of b r i e f , intense i l l u m i n a t i o n in which both time and space are suspended. In h i s very d e s c r i p t i o n of the way i n which he was a f f e c t e d by Mrs.Dalloway, G a r c i a Marquez u t i l i z e s t h i s n o t i o n of the moment: "me p e r m i t i o vislumbrar en un i n s t a n t e todo e l proceso de descomposicion de Macondo." And h i s c h a r a c t e r s have o c c a s i o n a l moments of s i m i l a r l u c i d i t y . At the end of Cien anos  de soledad, a f t e r seeing the ants c a r r y away the baby, A u r e l i a n o 68 ... no pudo moverse. No porque l o hubiera p a r a l i z a d o e l estupor, s i n o porque en aquel i n s t a n t e p r o d i g i o s o se l e r e v e l a r o n l a s c l a v e s d e f i n i t i v a s de Melquiades ... A u r e l i a n o no habia s i d o mas l u c i d o en . . . su v i d a . . . (CA; p. 446) And i n the l a s t l i n e s of E l c o r o n e l no t i e n e quien l e e s c r i b a , the c o l o n e l experiences a moment of l u c i d i t y : "Y mientras tanto que comemos", pregunto, y agarro a l c o r o n e l por e l c u e l l o de l a f r a n e l a . Lo sacudio con energ i a . - Dime, que comemos. E l c o r o n e l n e c e s i t o setenta y c i n c o anos de su v i d a , minuto a minuto - para l l e g a r a ese i n s t a n t e . Se s i n t i 6 puro, e x p l i c i t o , i n v e n c i b l e , en e l momento de responder: - Mierda. (CT; p. 92) In Woolf's novels there are many, many such moments; the moment i s indeed an important formal technique i n her w r i t i n g . There are moments of quick, c l e a r i l l u m i n a t i o n . H i r s t i n The Voyage Out has "the whole meaning of l i f e r e v e a l e d to [him] i n a f l a s h " (VO; p. 312). L i l y B r i s c o e in To the Lighthouse remembers a l e a f p a t t e r n "which she had looked at in a moment of r e v e l a t i o n . " 1 6 1 At other times Woolf g i v e s a longer d e s c r i p t i o n which holds every aspect of the moment and g i v e s the impression that there i s no l i n e a r s u c c e s s i o n but that a l l the p o i n t s e x i s t , and indeed are na r r a t e d , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y : ...owing to the broad sunshine a f t e r shaded passages, and to the substance of l i v i n g people a f t e r dreams, the group appeared with s t a r t l i n g i n t e n s i t y , as though the dusty s u r f a c e had been peeled o f f e v e r y t h i n g , l e a v i n g only the r e a l i t y and the i n s t a n t . I t had the look of a v i s i o n p r i n t e d on the dark at n i g h t . White and grey and pu r p l e f i g u r e s were s c a t t e r e d on the green; round wicker t a b l e s ; i n the middle the flame of 69 the tea-urn made the a i r waver l i k e a f a u l t y sheet of g l a s s ; a massive green t r e e stood over them as i f i t were a moving f o r c e h e l d at r e s t . . . f o r a moment nothing seemed to happen; i t a l l stood s t i l l . . . (VO; p. 259) T h i s moment i s l i k e the negative of a photograph. Others have t h i s same s t y l e of h o l d i n g a l l , time and space, i n suspense, yet with a warmth and c o l o u r , a q u i v e r i n g of l i f e : "Marmaduke Bonthrop Shelmerdine!" she c r i e d , standing by the oak t r e e . The b e a u t i f u l , g l i t t e r i n g name f e l l out of the sky l i k e a s t e e l - b l u e f e a t h e r . She watched i t f a l l , t u r n i n g and t w i s t i n g l i k e a s l o w - f a l l i n g arrow that c l e a v e s the deep a i r b e a u t i f u l l y . He was coming, as he always came, in moments of dead calm; when the waves r i p p l e d and the spotted leaves f e l l s lowly over her foot i n the autumn woods; when the le o p a r d was s t i l l ; the moon was on the waters, and nothing moved between sky and sea. Then he c ame. 1 6 2 Here a l l i s s t i l l except the name, which f a l l s through and c l e a v e s , though without d i s t u r b i n g , the a i r and the moment. Such v i s i o n s of the moment i l l u s t r a t e a v i s i o n of n a r r a t i v e time p o r t r a y e d by Woolf. I t i s "the e t e r n a l drudge and drone, now b u r s t i n g i n t o f i e r y flame l i k e those b r i e f b a l l s of yellow among green l e a v e s " (JR; p. 152). The myth of continuous, conscious time gives way to "a s t a t e of p e r p e t u a l u n c e r t a i n t y , knowing nothing, l e a p i n g from moment to moment as from world to world" (VO; p. 127). "Such," says the n a r r a t o r of Jacob's Room, " i s the manner of our s e e i n g " (JR; p. 71). T h i s manner of seeing, t h i s v i s i o n of r e a l i t y as a s e r i e s of c a p s u l e s rather than a continuous l i n e , informs the n a r r a t i v e s t y l e of each of these a u t h o r s . 70 T h i s n a r r a t i v e s t y l e has s i m i l a r i t i e s with that of m y t h o l o g i c a l n a r r a t i v e . Episodes are c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n themselves in a s t o r y - t e l 1 i n g f a s h i o n and i n an e v e r - r e p e a t i n g , c y c l i c a l s t r u c t u r e . The r e l a t i o n of the works of each of these authors i n d i v i d u a l l y to c l a s s i c a l mythology has in f a c t been a s u b j e c t of study, and i t i s a p o i n t upon which the two may be compared. In f a c t , the s i m i l a r i t i e s or p a r a l l e l s between them which have been d i s c u s s e d here are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the ways in which the works of each of them bear r e f e r e n c e to the C l a s s i c s . M y t h o l o g i c a l n a r r a t i v e has as w e l l an e p i s o d i c s t r u c t u r e . Although s t o r i e s are connected to one another, they are as w e l l u n i t s i n themselves. The s t r u c t u r e i s c y c l i c a l , a s t r u c t u r e of r e p e t i t i o n , of continued death, renewal, and metamorphosis. Throughout, the passage of time i s marked by n a r r a t i o n i t s e l f ; c h a r a c t e r s t e l l s t o r i e s to pass the time, to assuage f e a r , to l i g h t e n a burden. The very act of n a r r a t i o n as a temporal device i s thus, as i n Woolf and G a r c i a Marquez, h i g h l y s e l f -consc i o u s . Furthermore, these works have in common with c l a s s i c a l mythology not only the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of f a t e , and the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of escaping i t , but as w e l l -the f u l f i l l m e n t of f a t e as a n a r r a t i v e requirement. The normative power of the w r i t t e n word to b r i n g the n a r r a t i v e c i r c l e to a p r e d e s t i n e d c l o s e , l i k e that in Cien anos de soledad determined by the p r e d i c t i o n s of Melquiades, i s l i k e the power of the prophecies in mythology, a l l of which are f u l f i l l e d , a l l attempts to escape 71 which are not only thwarted but l e a d d i r e c t l y to Fate's door. Woolf h e r s e l f , well-known for her f a m i l i a r i t y with Ancient Greek language and l i t e r a t u r e , makes r e f e r e n c e to t h i s i n her essay "On Not Knowing Greek": ... a l l those thousands of years ago, in t h e i r l i t t l e i s l a n d s , [the Greeks] know a l l that i s to be known. With the sound of the sea i n t h e i r ears, v i n e s , meadows, r i v u l e t s about them, they are even more aware than we are of a r u t h l e s s f a t e . There i s a sadness at the back of l i f e which they do not attempt to m i t i g a t e . E n t i r e l y aware of t h e i r own standing i n the shadow, and yet a l i v e to every tremor and gleam of e x i s t e n c e , there they endure, and i t i s to the Greeks that we turn when we are s i c k of the vagueness, of the c o n f u s i o n , of the C h r i s t i a n i t y and i t s c o n s o l a t i o n s , of our own a g e . 1 6 3 She f i n d s a c l a r i t y , i n c h a r a c t e r s and in s i t u a t i o n s , i n the Greeks which her use of the moment helps to achieve i n her own w r i t i n g . The moment all o w s the n a r r a t i v e to bypass the "vagueness," the " e t e r n a l drudge and drone," and to d e p i c t i n s t e a d the b a l l s of " f i e r y flame" which are, i n t h e i r p u r i t y , more of an essence than the re c o r d of events from Monday to Saturday. There i s throughout Woolf's w r i t i n g a c e r t a i n proccupation with the Greeks. In The Voyage Out there i s the concern with e s t a b l i s h i n g o r i g i n s which i n e v i t a b l y leads to the study of the Greeks. And Gerhard Joseph's d i s c u s s i o n of The Years o u t l i n e s that novel's r e l a t i o n to the Antigone : A c h r o n i c l e novel d e s c r i b i n g the f o r t u n e s o f . t h e upper-middle-class P a r g i t e r f a m i l y as i t moves from the 1880s to the e a r l y 1930s, The Years uses e l l i p t i c a l r e p e t i t i o n of image and i n c i d e n t to e s t a b l i s h the deeper p a t t e r n that u n d e r l i e s the d r i f t of the p e r i o d ' s s o c i a l h i s t o r y . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , 72 the r e c u r r e n t a l l u s i o n s to the Antigone, with i t s theme of being " b u r i e d a l i v e , " c o n s t i t u t e one of the l e i t m o t i v s intended to exemplify the c y c l i c a l rhythm the book's t i t l e o f f e r s as the paradigm of human exper ience. 1 6 4 I t i s , of course, a l s o the Antigone from which G a r c i a Marquez chooses h i s epigraph to La h o j a r a s c a , and throughout the novel there are re f e r e n c e s which r e f l e c t and give meaning to that opening, and cause the reader to bear Sophocles' p l a y i n mind. In f a c t , the comparison of La hojarasca and Woolf's Mrs.Dalloway can begin with the r e l a t i o n of both to the Antigone in p a r t i c u l a r , and to c l a s s i c a l Greek l i t e r a t u r e in g e n e r a l . In a d d i t i o n to c l a s s i c a l a l l u s i o n s and thematic p a r a l l e l s , i n both novels t h i s r e l a t i o n i s p o r t r a y e d in the notion of language as r e l a t e d to prophecy and i n the p l a y of f a t e . The epigraph to La h o j a r a s c a i s the passage from Antigone i n which Antigone bewails the proclamation f o r b i d d i n g the b u r i a l of P o l y n e i c e s : But P o l y n e i c e s ' corpse who d i e d i n pain they say he has proclaimed to the whole town that none may bury him and none bewail, but leave him unwept, untombed, a r i c h sweet s i g h t for the hungry b i r d s ' b e h o l d i n g . Such orders they say the worthy Creon g i v e s to you and me - yes, yes, I say to me -and that he's coming to p r o c l a i m i t c l e a r to those who know i t not. F u r t h e r : he has the matter so at heart that anyone who dares attempt the act w i l l d i e by p u b l i c s t o n i n g i n the t o w n . 1 6 5 The p o s s i b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e of the passage to G a r c i a Marquez's novel has been c o n s i d e r e d by c r i t i c s , among them 73 George McMurray. He finds that the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the ancient tragedy and Garcia Marquez's novel stem from the fact that both the colonel and Antigone place the dictates of their own consciences above the decrees of c i v i l author i t i e s . 1 6 6 Pedro Lastra, as well, maintains that " e l coronel actua con la misma entereza; como Antigona, podria decir: 'No he nacido para compartir odio, sino amor.'" 1 6 7 This i s , however, a rather over-simplified view of the connection between the works, as the "dictates of conscience" most d e f i n i t e l y d i f f e r between the colonel and Antigone. According to Woolf, the characters of Greek tragedy are driven by pure and violent emotion to act n o b l y . 1 6 8 This i s made iron i c by the colonel, whose motives are not so well-defined. It is not clear, for example, why he i n s i s t s that Isabel accompany him in his defiance of the "decrees of c i v i l a u t h o r i t i e s . " Antigone i s sure of her task, and w i l l not have her s i s t e r Ismene take part i f the l a t t e r is not as f u l l y committed to carrying i t out. Antigone is not a f r a i d to take the consequences alone. While the colonel maintains that he i n s i s t s on Isabel's coming out of charity, his doing so in f u l l knowledge of the impending consequences render ambiguous the conviction of his own conscience. The " n o b i l i t y " of his attitude is more than once undermined. His wife's reaction, for instance, is one of fru s t r a t i o n with his cool determination and his smug conviction that he is always r i g h t : 74 ... se observaba que mas que a r r e p e n t i d o estaba s a t i s f e c h o de su obra, como s i hubiera salvado su alma oponiendo a l a s conveniencias y l a honra de e s t a casa su p r o v e r b i a l t o l e r a n c i a , su comprension, su l i b e r a l i d a d . Y hasta un poco de i n s e n s a t e z . 1 6 9 And when I s a b e l remembers her f a t h e r i n s i s t i n g upon her going with him to the f u n e r a l , she t h i n k s : ... l l e g a d a l a hora, no ha tenido e l v a l o r para h a c e r l o solo y me ha o b l i g a d o a p a r t i c i p a r de ese i n t o l e r a b l e compromiso que debio de c o n t r a e r mucho antes de que yo t u v i e r a uso de razon... me d i j o : "Tiene que acompanarme." ... Y depues, antes de que yo t u v i e r a tiempo de preguntar, golpeando e l p i s o con e l baston: "Hay que s a l i r de esto como sea, h i j a . E l doctor se ahorco esta madrugada." (pp. 17,21) L a s t r a goes much f u r t h e r in h i s comparison of La hojarasca and the Ant igone and f i n d s numerous s i m i l a r i t i e s between them. He maintains that the r e f e r e n c e to the e a r l i e r work prov i d e s a c l u e to the s o c i a l commentary in La h o j a r a s c a on the phenomenon of " l a v i o l e n c i a c o l o m b i a n a . " 1 7 0 I t i s n e i t h e r provable nor of i n t e r e s t here to pursue t h i s notion of the s o c i o l o g i c a l aspects of t h i s work as a l l u d e d to by the r e f e r e n c e to the Ant igone. However, the s i m i l a r i t i e s that L a s t r a p o i n t s out, r e g a r d l e s s of the meaning he a t t r i b u t e s to them, are undoubtedly pres e n t . In La h o j a r a s c a , as i n the Ant igone, there i s a promise of b u r i a l and a p r o h i b i t i o n of that b u r i a l as a r e s u l t of i n j u s t i c e done a g a i n s t the c i t y or town. L a s t r a p o i n t s out as w e l l , among other minor p a r a l l e l s , " l a p r e s e n c i a de l a f a t a l i d a d . " 1 7 1 The theme of b u r i a l i s , of course, c e n t r a l to La h o j a r a s c a . The n a r r a t i v e a c t i o n takes place e x c l u s i v e l y i n the d o c t o r ' s 75 house, r e f e r r e d to o f t e n as a tomb-like v a u l t , where h i s "wake" i s i n p r o g r e s s . Only the c o l o n e l , h i s daughter I s a b e l , and her small son, along with four Indians who work for the c o l o n e l , are p r e s e n t . T h i s , we d i s c o v e r as the three main c h a r a c t e r s draw c i r c l e s i n t o the past through i n t e r i o r monologues, i s because the town has placed a curse upon the doctor that he not be b u r i e d before h i s corpse r o t s . He r e f u s e d to a s s i s t the wounded of the town d u r i n g an outburst of m i l i t a r y v i o l e n c e , and they have waited f o r t h i s day to reap vengeance. The c o l o n e l , however, well-known for h i s h a b i t of going a g a i n s t the w i l l of the m a j o r i t y , has promised to f u l f i l l the d o c t o r ' s request f o r b u r i a l . As in the Antigone, where the corpse, once b u r i e d : ... was hidden, not i n s i d e a tomb, l i g h t dust upon him, enough to turn the c u r s e , no w i l d beast's t r a c k , nor t r a c k of any hound having been near, nor was the body t o r n , 1 7 2 the doctor asks the c o l o n e l , " s i q u i e r e hacerme un favor, echeme encima un poco de t i e r r a cuando amanezca t i e s o . Es l o unico que n e c e s i t o para que no me coman l o s g a l l i n a z o s " (p. 125). While, as mentioned e a r l i e r , e x t e n s i v e comparisons have been drawn between the Ant igone and Woolf's The Years, in Mrs.Dalloway there i s but s u b t l e a l l u s i o n to i t i n p a r t i c u l a r . The theme of b u r i a l has scant s i g n i f i c a n c e i n i t s e l f and i s rather an e x t e n s i o n of the overwhelming and ever-present theme of the imminence, indeed the l u r e , of death. (The theme has the same f u n c t i o n i n La h o j a r a s c a , but i s more e x p l i c i t l y developed there.) For example, a "seedy-looking non-descript man c a r r y i n g 76 a l e a t h e r bag" standing on the steps of S t . P a u l ' s C a t h e d r a l , t h i n k s : . . . w i t h i n was what balm, how great a welcome, how many tombs with banners waving over them,... the c a t h e d r a l o f f e r s company, he thought, i n v i t e s you to membership of a s o c i e t y ; great men belong to i t ; martyrs have d i e d f o r i t ; why not enter i n , he thought... (p. 41) And in Mrs.Dalloway's house, we are t o l d , "the h a l l ... was c o o l as a v a u l t , " one r e f e r e n c e among others to p i c t u r e her house as her tomb (p. 42). Yet there i s frequent a l l u s i o n of a more general s o r t to the Greeks. Her own d e s c r i p t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r s of c l a s s i c a l tragedy a c t i n g out of " r e a l " emotion i s r e f l e c t e d i n C l a r i s s a Dalloway's adherence to, yet f r u s t r a t i o n with, the s u p e r f i c i a l i t y of the c h a r a c t e r s around her: ... but a f t e r a l l i t was what other people f e l t , t h a t ; f o r , though she loved i t and f e l t i t t i n g l e and s t i n g , s t i l l these semblances, these triumphs (dear o l d Peter, f o r example, t h i n k i n g her so b r i l l i a n t ) , had a hollowness; at arm's l e n g t h they were, not in the heart; and i t might be that she was growing o l d but they s a t i s f i e d her no longer as they used; and suddenly, as she saw the Prime M i n i s t e r go down the s t a i r s , the g i r l with a muff brought back Kilman with a rush; Kilman her enemy. That was s a t i s f y i n g ; that was r e a l . Ah, how she hated her - hot, h y p o c r i t i c a l , c o r r u p t ; with a l l that power; E l i z a b e t h ' s seducer; the woman who had c r e p t in to s t e a l and d e f i l e (Richard would say, What nonsense!). She hated her: she loved her. I t was enemies one wanted, not f r i e n d s ... (pp. 265-6) As w e l l there are i n Mrs.Dalloway numerous other r e f e r e n c e s to the Greeks, to the "Gods, who never l o s t a chance of h u r t i n g , thwarting and s p o i l i n g human l i v e s " (p. 117), the o l d woman's song i m p l o r i n g "the Gods to l a y by her s i d e a bunch 77 of p u r p l e heather, there on her high b u r i a l p l a c e " (p. 123), to the smashed p l a s t e r c a s t of Ceres (p. 129), to cloud s having " a l l the appearance of s e t t l e d h a b i t a t i o n s assembled f o r the conference of gods above the world" (p. 210), to Miss Kilman "being s t i l l on the t h r e s h o l d of t h e i r underworld, ... a so u l haunting the ... t e r r i t o r y " (p. 203), to "the meadow of l i f e beyond a r i v e r where the dead walk" (p. 36). In both Mrs.Dalloway and La ho j a r a s c a there i s , as w e l l , a not i o n of language as prophecy, both r e q u i r i n g and a l l o w i n g f o r ( m i s ) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a reading and misreading of sign s as of the prophecies of the o r a c l e s , a power p l a c e d i n language s i m i l a r to that of the normative power of the words of f a t e decreed by the o r a c l e s . In Mrs.Dalloway Septimus Warren-Smith i s the primary v e h i c l e of t h i s e x p l o s i o n of the f u n c t i o n of language: T h i s was now r e v e a l e d to Septimus; the message hidden in the beauty of words. The s e c r e t s i g n a l which one gene r a t i o n passes, under d i s g u i s e , to the next i s l o a t h i n g , hatred, d e s p a i r ; Dante the same. Aeschylus the same. (p. 134) There are numerous i n s t a n c e s i n the novel which emphasize the i n c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y of words and language, the tendency toward d i s j o i n t e d n e s s and d i s c o n t i n u i t y and the attempt to r e c t i f y that and draw sense from chaos, and the enormous room there f o r misreading. A group of onlookers watch a plane in the sky that appears to be w r i t i n g l e t t e r s , but, while everyone t r i e s to put them together, sense cannot be made, words formed. The l e t t e r s are d i s j o i n t e d , and through the rupture i n what 78 would be a readable code Septimus f i n d s ( a l t e r n a t i v e ) meaning. "They are s i g n a l l i n g to me," he t h i n k s (p. 31). Again in Regent's Park, t h i n k i n g in the s h o r t , detached, d i s j o i n t e d f a s h i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c to him, Septimus i n t e r p r e t s w i l d l y : He l i s t e n e d . A sparrow perched on the r a i l i n g o p p osite c h i r p e d Septimus, Septimus, four or f i v e times over and went on, drawing i t s notes out, to s i n g f r e s h l y and p i e r c i n g l y in Greek words how there i s no crime and, j o i n e d by another sparrow, they sang i n v o i c e s prolonged and p i e r c i n g i n Greek words ... (pp. 35-6) Septimus' task, as he sees i t , i s to i n t e r p r e t "with e f f o r t , with agony, to mankind" (p. 103). Says h i s p s y c h i a t r i s t S i r W i l l i a m Bradshaw: "He was a t t a c h i n g meanings to words of a s y m b o l i c a l kind. A s e r i o u s symptom" (p. 145). For c l e a r l y such l o s s of c o n t i n u i t y must l e a d to chaos, to madness, to death. The doctor p r e s c r i b e s r e s t in a home, " r e s t without f r i e n d s , without books, without messages" (p.50). The l o s s of a b s o l u t e meaning in language i s epitomized i n the passage in which Peter Walsh hears the o l d woman's song: A sound i n t e r r u p t e d him, a f r a i l q u i v e r i n g sound, a v o i c e bubbling up without d i r e c t i o n , v i g o u r , beginning or end, running weakly and s h r i l l y and with an absence of a l l human meaning i a t o ee urn fah urn so foo swee too eem oo -the v o i c e of no age or sex, the v o i c e of an a n c i e n t s p r i n g spouting from the e a r t h . (p. 122) In La h o j a r a s c a as w e l l words are r i d d l e s to be deciphered rather than v e s s e l s of absolute meaning. I s a b e l d e s c r i b e s her son at the wake: 79 Permanece s i l e n c i o s o , p e r p l e j o , como s i esperara que a l g u i e n l e ex p l i q u e e l s i g n i f i c a d o de todo es t o ; como s i aguardara ... que a l g u i e n l e d e s c i f r e este espantoso a c e r t i j o . (p. 1 8 ) And where language i s i n t e l l i g i b l e i t i s by v i r t u e of mutually understood codes. The boy u t t e r s n o n s e n s i c a l phrases to h i s f r i e n d Abraham: - Incomploruto. Abraham me entendio. Solo e l entiende mis p a l a b r a s . (p. 54) He recognizes a s i m i l a r code between h i s mother and h i s gran d f a t h e r : E l l o s entienden sus p a l a b r a s . Hablan s i n mirarse ... Pero aun a s i se entienden sus p a l a b r a s , como nos entendemos Abraham y yo ... (p. 107). At other times words l o s e t h e i r meaning, or i n t e l l i g i b i l t y , a l t o g e t h e r . Says I s a b e l : "no encontraba ninguna correspondencia entre esas p a l a b r a s y l a r e a l i d a d " (p. 74). And n e i t h e r can she f i n d any r e a l i t y i n the name of her f i a n c e : Me d e c i a a mi misma: "martin, martin, m a r t i n " . Y e l nombre examinado, saboreado, desmontado en sus p i e z a s e s e n c i a l e s , p e r d i a para mi toda su s i g n i f i c a c i o n . (p. 75) Again, there i s a r e l a t i o n between language and prophecy. Mar t i n reads I s a b e l ' s fortune i n the c o f f e e (p. 74). The c o l o n e l e s p e c i a l l y i s given almost p r o p h e t i c powers. A f t e r d e s c r i b i n g one p a r t i c u l a r presentiment, he says: "Me s e n t i a metido en e l corazon de una inmensa g a l e r i a de imagenes p r o f e t i c a s " (p. 94). 80 Such prophecy i s i n v a r i a b l y the p r e d i c t i o n of f a t e , and i t i s the play of f a t e which i s most n o t i c e a b l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e miniscent of the Greeks in both La hojarasca and Mrs.Dalloway. In La h o j a r a s c a I s a b e l says "mi c a s t i g o estaba e s c r i t o desde antes de mi nacimiento" (p. 2 1 ) . The c o l o n e l t e l l s that algo me indicaba' que era impotente ante e l curso que iban tomando l o s a c o n t e c i m i e n t o s . No era yo quien d i s p o n i a l a s cosas en mi hogar, sino o t r a f u e r z a m i s t e r i o s a , que ordenaba e l curso de nuestra e x i s t e n c i a y de l a c u a l no eramos o t r a cosa que un d o c i l e i n s i g n i f i c a n t e instrumento. Todo p a r e c i a obedecer entonces a l n a t u r a l y eslabonado cumplimento de una p r o f e c i a . (p. 99) The doctor, he says, had shut himself up "quien sabe por que implacables b e s t i a s p r o f e t i c a s " (p. 1 0 0 ) . He e x p l a i n s h i s i n a b i l i t y to change a s i t u a t i o n by the f a c t that "otro c a p i t u l o de l a f a t a l i d a d habia empezado a c u m p l i r s e " (p. 1 0 1 ) . The very d e s t r u c t i o n of Macondo i s a t t r i b u t e d to "esa amarga materia de f a t a l i d a d ; ... todo ... p a r e c i a d i s p u e s t o , ordenado para encauzar l o s hechos que, paso a paso, nos c o n d u c i r i a n fatalmente a e s t e m i e r c o l e s " (p. 1 2 2 ) . These are but a few examples of the i n s i s t e n c e upon the power of f a t e . A l l emphasize i t s i n e v i t a b i l i t y , the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of escaping i t , and indeed i t s f u n c t i o n as the cause, and not merely the p r e d i c t i o n , of the outcome of events. While i n La h o j a r a s c a there are these frequent s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s to f a t e , t h i s i s f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d i n the text by the overwhelming i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f, and r e g r e t f o r , the passage of time. I s a b e l understands through Meme that 81 ... nuestras v i d a s habian cambiado, l o s tiempos eran buenos y Macondo un pueblo r u i d o s o en e l que e l din e r o alcanzaba hasta para d e s p i I f a r r a r l o l o s sabados en l a noche, pero Meme v i v i a a f e r r a d a a un pasado rnejor. (p. 41) Meme, I s a b e l says: ... recordaba con t r i s t e z a . Se t e n i a l a impresion de que consideraba e l t r a n s c u r s o d e l tiempo como una perdida p e r s o n a l , como s i a d v i r t i e r a con e l corazon lacerado por l o s recuerdos que s i e l tiempo no hubiera t r a n s c u r r i d o , aun e s t a r i a e l l a en a q u e l l a p e r e g r i n a c i o n ... (pp. 39-40) In Mrs.Dalloway as we l l there i s an overwhelming sense of the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of f a t e in the frequent r e i t e r a t i o n s of the i n e v i t a b l l y l i n e a r nature of time's passage. C l a r i s s a has a sense of the " a s t o n i s h i n g and rather solemn progress with the re s t of them up Bond S t r e e t " (p. 14). She wonders, " d i d i t matter that she must i n e v i t a b l y cease completely" (p. 12). There i s among C l a r i s s a and her f r i e n d s a constant reg r e t f o r t h i s passage, an awareness of t h e i r aging as r e f l e c t e d in each o t h e r ' s f a c e s , a fear of death. "No! No!" c r i e s Peter Walsh. "She i s not dead! I am not o l d , he c r i e d , and marched up W h i t e h a l l , as i f there r o l l e d down to him, vi g o r o u s , unending, h i s f u t u r e " (p. 75). And C l a r i s s a : ... f e a r e d time i t s e l f , and read on Lady Bruton's face, as i f i t had been a d i a l cut i n impassive stone, the d w i n d l i n g of l i f e ; how year by year her share was s l i c e d ; how l i t t l e the margin that remained was capable any longer of s t r e t c h i n g , of absorbing, as in the y o u t h f u l years, the c o l o u r s , s a l t s , tones of e x i s t e n c e . (p. 44) The p a r a l l e l s i n the treatment of time between Mrs.Dalloway 82 a n d L a h o j a r a s c a e x t e n d f a r b e y o n d t h e s e t h e m e s r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e c l a s s i c s . T h e r e i s i n a d d i t i o n f u r t h e r t h e m a t i c p o r t r a y a l o f t i m e i n t h e i r f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s t o c l o c k s ( a n d , i n L a  h o j a r a s c a , t h e w h i s t l e o f t h e t r a i n ) . A s w e l l , b o t h p r e s e n t a n o v e r w h e l m i n g a n d v a r i e d p o r t r a y a l o f t h e t h e m e o f d e a t h . A l s o r e l a t e d t o t i m e a r e t h e t h e m e s o f m a r r i a g e a n d o f s t e r i l i t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e t h e m e o f t i m e i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e s e w o r k s , w h i c h c o n v e y p a r a l l e l n o t i o n s o f d i s c o n t i n u i t y a n d s t e r i l i t y , a s w e l l a s o f r e p e t i t i o n a n d r e n e w a l . I n b o t h b o o k s , t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f t i m e ' s p a s s a g e i s m a r k e d b y f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s t o c l o c k s w h i c h i r r e v o c a b l y t i c k o n . I n M r s . D a l l o w a y t h e b o o m i n g o f B i g B e n r e p e a t e d l y a l e r t s t h e c h a r a c t e r s t o t i m e ' s p a s s i n g , a n d i n L a h o j a r a s c a t h e f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c l o c k a n d t h e w h i s t l e o f t h e t r a i n d o t h e s a m e . A n d i n M r s . D a l l o w a y W o o l f a l s o u s e s h e r c ommon t h e m e o f t h e E m p i r e a n d t h e m i l i t a r y , i r o n i c a l l y s y m b o l i z i n g a t o n c e s t a b i l i t y a n d c o n t i n u i t y , a n d t h e m a r c h t o w a r d s u r e d e a t h . F o r o n t h e o n e h a n d a l l i s w e l l b e c a u s e t h e " K i n g a n d Q u e e n w e r e a t t h e P a l a c e " ( p . 6 ) , a n d t h e m a j e s t y o f E n g l a n d i s t h e " e n d u r i n g s y m b o l o f t h e s t a t e w h i c h w i l l b e k n o w n t o c u r i o u s a n t i q u a r i e s " ( p . 2 3 ) . B u t o n t h e o t h e r t h e r e i s a l w a y s a r e l a t i o n d r a w n b e t w e e n t h e m i l i t a r y m a r c h o f t h e E m p i r e a n d d e a t h . O n e t h i n k s a t o n c e " o f t h e d e a d ; o f t h e f l a g ; o f E m p i r e " ( p . 2 5 ) , a n d a s t h e c a r p a s s e s w i t h i n w h i c h a n i m p o r t a n t f i g u r e o f s t a t e i s t h o u g h t t o b e , i t i s a " p a l e l i g h t o f . . . i m m o r t a l p r e s e n c e " w h i c h f a l l s u p o n t h e o n l o o k e r s ( p . 2 6 ) . 83 The i n e v i t a b l y l i n e a r nature of time i s r e i t e r a t e d i n both novels by t h i s constant awareness of death, t h i s c e r t a i n t y that "we must d i e " (p.267). It i s as though the c h a r a c t e r s were being tumbled and h u r l e d headlong toward t h e i r end. Time, whose passage i s c o n s t a n t l y marked in the novels, b r i n g s death. And j u s t as time's progress i s marked by c l o c k s and t r a i n s and i s a constant reminder of death, so the presence of death in these books marks the passage of time. There i s not, i n other words, merely a passage of time which i m p l i e s the imminence and i n e v i t a b i l i t y of death, and generates a fear of i t , but death surrounds the c h a r a c t e r s and invades t h e i r l i v e s and r i d d l e s t h e i r l i v e s and the n a r r a t i v e with a sense of d e s t r u c t i o n and decay. In La h o j a r a s c a one can see in the doctor " l o s germenes de l a muerte que hacian v i s i b l e s progresos en sus duros ojos a m a r i l l o s " (p.106). He i s as time goes on nothing more than the r u i n s of a man, thus h i s presence i n c i t e s a fear of death i n o t h e r s . "Nada en este mundo debe ser mas tremendo que l o s escombros de un hombre" (p. 111). And, l i k e the c l o c k s and t r a i n s , the curlews i n La h o j a r a s c a mark time. But they do not si n g merely of time's p a s s i n g , but of death i t s e l f . "Ada," says the boy, "me ha dicho que l o s a l c a r a v a n e s cantan cuando s i e n t e n e l o l o r a muer.to" (p. 132). The s i n g i n g of these b i r d s at the smell of death marks the f i n a l episode of La h o j a r a s c a . I t i s what the e n t i r e n a r r a t i v e has been p r o g r e s s i n g toward, what the town has waited f o r . The cl o c k throughout t i c k s i m p o s sibly slowly, seems to stop 84 e n t i r e l y , crawling agonizingly towards three o'clock. When the boy hears the curlew singing he asks his mother: "' Lo oyes?' Y e l l a dice que s i , que deben ser las tres" (p. 132). She answers as though i t were a clock she should have heard. It is f i n a l l y three o'clock. But i t i s the bird the boy is referring to. The doctor is f i n a l l y "dead" - that i s , his body has begun to rot. Death is the very t o l l i n g of time, and is required for the narrative to conclude. In Mrs.Dalloway as well there is a narrative progression which requires death for i t s f u l f i l l m e n t . The clocks t o l l for death, their aging t e l l s the characters they must die; and while C l a r i s s a Dalloway's day ends in the success of her party - a celebration, for her, of l i f e , a love of l i f e - Septimus has died. And While Cla r i s s a ' s thoughts throughout are often of her love of l i f e , they are as well l i k e Septimus' - driving feverishly and uncontrollably toward death. His are enveloped in madness, generated by chaos, while C l a r i s s a i s outwardly rational and calm. But he does nevertheless represent a sort of "other" of C l a r i s s a . She herself " f e l t somehow l i k e him - the young man who had k i l l e d himself" (p. 283). When she hears of his death she separates herself from the others at the party: The clock began s t r i k i n g . The young man had k i l l e d himself; but she did not pi t y him; with the clock s t r i k i n g the hour, one, two, three, she did not pity him, with a l l this going on. There! the old lady had put out her l i g h t ! the whole house was dark now with th i s going on, she repeated, Fear no more the heat of the sun. She must go back to them. (p. 283) Cl a r i s s a and Septimus are both constantly drawn to envy 85 the dead or wish f o r death. Death i s l i k e a command, or a s e d u c t i o n . To Septimus: ... the whole world was clamouring: k i l l y o u r s e l f , k i l l y o u r s e l f .... now that he was q u i t e alone, condemned, deserted, as those who are about to d i e are alone, there was a luxury i n i t , an i s o l a t i o n f u l l of s u b l i m i t y ; a freedom which the a t t a c h e d can never know. (p. 140) And f o r C l a r i s s a "there was an embrace i n death" (p. 281). She wonders: " d i d i t not become c o n s o l i n g to b e l i e v e that death ended a b s o l u t e l y ? " as she reads: Fear no more the heat o' the sun Nor the f u r i o u s winter's rages. (pp.12-13) Th i s r e f r a i n i s repeated numerous times throughout the n o v e l . "'Fear no more,' s a i d C l a r i s s a . - Fear no more the heat o' the sun; f o r the shock of Lady Bruton a s k i n g Richard to lunch without her made the moment i n which she had stood s h i v e r " (p. 44). And as Septimus l i e s on the s o f a , watching p a t t e r n s on the w a l l which s p e l l out messages: "Fear no more, says the heart i n the body; fear no more" (p. 211). "'The coward!'" Dr.Holmes says of him, before r e a l i z i n g that he has f l u n g himself from the window (p. 226). For Septimus "was not a f r a i d " (p. 211). The rhythm of the r e f r a i n has i t s climax i n the c h o i c e of death, and i t s r e p e t i t i o n has c r e a t e d , as i n La h o j a r a s c a , a n a r r a t i v e requirement which only the death can f u l f i l l . In each of the novels death i s as w e l l an a c t u a l presence; the dead are present. In La h o j a r a s c a death i s present i n the doctor; i n the very opening l i n e the boy t e l l s us: "Por primera 86 vez he v i s t o un cadaver" (p. 11). The corpse i s present throughout the d u r a t i o n of the n a r r a t i v e a c t i o n . And even i n the accounts of the past, the c o l o n e l d e s c r i b e s the doctor as "un cadaver a l que tod a v i a no se l e han muerto l o s o j o s " (p. 112). But as w e l l there i s a dead man who every night s i t s on the s t o o l by the stove and looks at the ashes (p. 53). In Mrs.Dalloway, while the presence of the dead i s not t r e a t e d as an everyday and n a t u r a l occurrence as i n G a r c i a Marquez, they are nonetheless present. Septimus not only r e c e i v e s "messages from the dead" who " s i n g behind rhododendron bushes" (p. 244), but h i s commander and f r i e n d , Evans, who d i e d in the war, i s o f t e n with him (p. 140). And when C l a r i s s a hears of h i s death, she t h i n k s "Oh! ... i n the middle of my pa r t y , here's death" (p. 279). Even i n d i c a t i o n s or r e a s s e r t i o n s of l i f e are t o l d , or end, in shadows of death. In La h o j a r a s c a I s a b e l ' s mother d i e s i n c h i l d b i r t h , and the pregnancy i s a growth of death w i t h i n her: ... e l h i jo que l e c r e c i o en e l v i e n t r e durante l a t r a v e s i a ... l e iba dando muerte progresivamente a medida que se acercaba l a hora d e l p a r t o . (p.40) G i v i n g b i r t h i s " e l ultimo acto de su v i d a " (p.43). As w e l l , both I s a b e l ' s and C l a r i s s a ' s weddings, normally taken as a beginning, of l i f e , of c r e a t i o n , have shadows of death. Says I s a b e l : "En un setiembre abrasante y muerto como e s t e , hace t r e c e anos, mi madrastra empez6 a coser mi t r a j e de n o v i a " (p. 81). When she puts the dress on i t becomes a shroud, h e r s e l f the ghost of her mother: 87 Me v e i a p a l i d a y l i m p i a f r e n t e a l espejo, envuelta en l a nube de p o l v o r i e n t a e s p u m i l l a que me recordaba a l fantasma de mi madre ... Y me desconocia a mi misma; me s e n t i a desdoblada en e l recuerdo de mi madre muerta ... despues de mi nacimiento, mi madre fue v e s t i d a con sus prendas n u p c i a l e s y colocada en e l ataud. Y ahora, viendome en e l espejo, yo v e i a l o s huesos de mi madre c u b i e r t o s por e l v e r d i n s e p u l c r a l , e ntre un monton de espuma r o t a y un apelmazamiento de polvo a m a r i l l o . Yo estaba fuera d e l espejo. Adentro estaba mi madre, v i v a o t r a vez, mirandome, extendiendo l o s brazos desde su es p a c i o helado, tratando de toca r l a muerte que prendia l o s primeros a l f i l e r e s de mi corona de n o v i a . Y d e t r a s , en e l c e n t r o de l a a l c o b a , mi padre s e r i o , p e r p l e j o : 'Ahora e s t a exacta a e l l a , con ese t r a j e ' . (p. 89) In the church, says I s a b e l : ... algunas mujeres se v o l v i e r o n a mirarme cuando atravese l a nave c e n t r a l como un mancebo sagrado h a c i a l a p i e d r a de l o s s a c r i f i c i o s . (p. 90) C l a r i s s a Dalloway a l s o t h i n k s of her wedding as she contemplates the "embrace of death" a f t e r h earing of Septimus' death: " ' I f i t were now to d i e , 'twere now to be most happy,' she had s a i d to h e r s e l f once, coming down i n white" (p. 281). In f a c t in both novels the c o n t r a s t between marriage and c h i l d r e n on the one hand, and s t e r i l i t y and the i n a b i l i t y to continue the l i n e on the other, i s an important theme. In i t can be seen a p a r a l l e l i l l u s t r a t i o n of the s t e r i l i t y of l i n e a r time which i n e v i t a b l y leads to death, and thus the d i f f i c u l t i e s with, and inadecuacies of c h r o n o l o g i c a l n a r r a t i v e which adheres to a s t r i c t l y l i n e a r n o t i o n of time. In Mrs.Dalloway marriage i s that which breaks the otherwise 88 continuous, monotonous flow of time, of h i s t o r y . In the l i n e c i t e d by G a r c i a Marquez where the car passes with "greatness w i t h i n , " the majesty of England i s "the enduring symbol of the s t a t e . " Yet i t i s the wedding r i n g s mixed in the dust and bones which " c u r i o u s a n t i q u a r i e s " w i l l f i n d and which w i l l speak to them of a past g e n e r a t i o n . And when C l a r i s s a i s walking up Bond S t r e e t and has a sense of being only a part of the progress of the populace, she has: ... the oddest sense of being h e r s e l f i n v i s i b l e ; unseen; unknown; there being no more marrying, no more having of c h i l d r e n now... (p. 14) It i s marrying and having c h i l d r e n that i s b e l i e v e d to leave one's mark, break the monotony, work a g a i n s t end and n i h i l a t i o n . L i k e i n The Years, as mentioned e a r l i e r , there i s in Mrs.Dalloway a c r i t i c i s m , on the other hand, of t h i s need to p r o c r e a t e and e s t a b l i s h one's o f f s p r i n g as p r o p e r t y . Peter Walsh, l i k e North i n The Years, i s annoyed by C l a r i s s a having c a l l e d her daughter "my" E l i z a b e t h (p. 73). T h i s i n d i c a t e s the i r o n y of t h i s f i x a t i o n on marriage and c h i l d r e n . For s t e r i l i t y makes c o n t i n u a t i o n i m p o s s i b l e . But p r o c r e a t i o n i s shown as a v a i n attempt to escape the f a t e of death, as marriage and having c h i l d r e n are l i n k e d with death. Peter Walsh, with no c h i l d r e n , no wife, looks younger than any of them, S a l l y Seton t e l l s him (p. 289). L i k e i n The Years, the n e c e s s i t y to measure time through the c o n t i n u i n g of one's l i n e i s p o r t r a y e d as inadequate, outmoded, s t e r i l e i n i t s i n a b i l i t y to grasp any essence. Peter ' Walsh makes fun of t h i s p r o c c u p a t i o n with marriage 89 and c h i l d r e n . "'Everybody in the room has s i x sons at Eton,' Peter t o l d her, except h i m s e l f " (p. 289). And indeed most of the c h a r a c t e r s are d e f i n e d in these terms. Hugh and Evelyn Whitbread are unfortunate because they have no c h i l d r e n . Rezia Warren-Smith longs for a c h i l d . "They must have c h i l d r e n , " she t h i n k s . "She must have a boy" (p.134). "She c o u l d not grow o l d and have no c h i l d r e n ! " (p. 136) But Septimus t h i n k s : One cannot b r i n g c h i l d r e n i n t o a world l i k e t h i s . One cannot perpetuate s u f f e r i n g , or i n c r e a s e the breed of these l u s t f u l animals ... (p. 135) In both novels the p r i n c i p a l female c h a r a c t e r s , I s a b e l and C l a r i s s a , have only one c h i l d and are set in c o n t r a s t to an o l d f r i e n d who has many. "'I have f i v e enormous boys,'" says S a l l y Seton, C l a r i s s a ' s f r i e n d from her youth. While C l a r i s s a , though she has a c h i l d , i s d e s c r i b e d by Peter Walsh as unmaternal (p. 290). And i n La hojarasca I s a b e l ' s f r i e n d Genoveva r e t u r n s to Macondo with s i x c h i l d r e n , among them two sets of twins, and i s f a t and happy among her brood. She comments on I s a b e l ' s husband M a r t i n , who has s i n c e l e f t : " Y no te dejo mas que e s t e ? " ... Genoveva r i 6 ... "Se n e c e s i t a ser bien f l o j o para no hacer s i n o un h i j o en c i n c o anos," d i j o ... (p. 115) She had been s u s p i c i o u s of Martin h e r s e l f because they had met him at the wake of a c h i l d . And indeed the one son he l e f t I s a b e l i s , l i k e him, a shadowy, mysterious, empty or s t e r i l e -seeming person. As w e l l i n La h o j a r a s c a , in a d d i t i o n to the r e l a t i o n 90 between marriage and b i r t h , and s t e r i l i t y or death, i n both I s a b e l and her mother, the Indian g i r l Meme i s d e s c r i b e d in s i m i l a r terms. Her l i f e , says I s a b e l , i s s t e r i l e (p. 41). She becomes pregnant twice by the d o c t o r . But the f i r s t time she has an a b o r t i o n , and the outcome of the second pregnancy -whether a c h i l d was born, i f i t was whether i t d i e d - i s never d i s c l o s e d . There i s a l s o the case of the barber's daughter, who i s s a i d to have conceived by an i n v i s i b l e l o v e r d u r i n g "una luna de miel s o l i t a r i a y muerta" (p. 80). She never g i v e s b i r t h . Time i t s e l f i n the novel i s s t e r i l e - i n Macondo the present i s " s t a t i c , " the f u t u r e empty (p. 110). There i s a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n i n t h i s between theme and n a r r a t i v e technique. For in the thematic d e p i c t i o n of the c o n t r a s t between s t e r i l i t y and c o n t i n u i t y i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the i n a b i l i t y of l i n e a r n a r r a t i v e to represent any " r e a l i t y " and of the attempt to erode the supremacy of c h r o n o l o g i c a l n a r r a t i v e as the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of that r e a l i t y . I f these novels are to q u e s t i o n that supremacy, i t f o l l o w s that the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of continued l i n e a g e at the l e v e l of theme i s one which r e f l e c t s a p a r a l l e l i n form. I t i s l i k e i n Cien anos de soledad, where the f a m i l y l i n e ends. But only through such ends can these novels s i g n i f y the break with t r a d i t i o n a l n a r r a t i v e chronology and allow f o r the e x p l o r a t i o n of p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s . Thus while many d e s c r i b e Macondo's time, i n Cien anos de  soledad and a l s o in La h o j a r a s c a , as s t r i c t l y stagnant and 91 s t e r i l e , that s t e r i l i t y can be seen as the i l l u s t r a t i o n of the f a i l u r e , and thus r e j e c t i o n , of l i n e a r n a r r a t i v e to d e p i c t " r e a l i t y , " i n s t e a d of seeing i t as c y n i c a l , n i h i l i s t i c d e s t r u c t i o n . Time-bound n a r r a t i v e , as Sa i d c a l l s i t , i s dest r o y e d to make way f o r other means of e x p r e s s i o n . 1 7 3 Both Mrs.Dalloway and La hojarasca present a rupture with the s t r i c t l y l i n e a r form of n a r r a t i v e c o n t i n u i t y and have i n s t e a d a c y c l i c a l s t r u c t u r e , which i s s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r i n the two novels. While c r i t i c s , as metionned e a r l i e r , have made ref e r e n c e to vague s i m i l a r i t i e s in t h e i r d e p i c t i o n of time, none has noted the e x t r a o r d i n a r y p a r a l l e l s between the two novels. These p a r a l l e l s e x i s t not merely in simple m o t i f s of time but i n t h e i r complex n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s , which i n themselves convey the i n t e r r o g a t i o n of the no t i o n s of time expressed at the l e v e l of theme. In both novels, the a c t u a l time span of n a r r a t i v e a c t i o n , the time that passes i n the " s t o r y " between the beginning of the n a r r a t i v e to i t s c l o s e , i s s h o r t . In Mrs.Dalloway that span l a s t s one day. The " a c t i o n " begins i n the morning and ends with Mrs.Dalloway's party on the evening of the same day. In La  hoja r a s c a only one h a l f hour passes. Near the beginning of the a c t i o n the t r a i n w h i s t l e i s heard which s i g n i f i e s t w o - t h i r t y . And at the end i t i s three o ' c l o c k . In both, then, while the a c t u a l s t o r y - t i m e which passes i s sh o r t , the n a r r a t i v e does begin at a c e r t a i n p o i n t w i t h i n the s t o r y . That i s , n e i t h e r i s t o l d from one p o i n t before which a l l 92 of the events have occurred, the e n t i r e s t o r y in a completed past, but rather from a p o i n t from which while most of the events to be n a r r a t e d precede the opening a c t i o n , there does l i e ahead a p e r i o d of a c t i o n , a s e r i e s of events, which are yet to occur. Already t h i s g i v e s some p i c t u r e of the d i s t o r t i o n s of time. Rather than one l i n e of n a r r a t i o n that t e l l s of events which begin at a p o i n t i n the past and end at some l a t e r (past) p o i n t , there i s one p r o g r e s s i o n of time which passes from the opening to the c l o s i n g episodes, and another which t e l l s of events i n the more d i s t a n t p a s t . The two "times" n e c e s s a r i l y "progress" at d i f f e r e n t r a t e s to a t t a i n completion with the completion of the novel, f o r at one l e v e l only one h a l f hour, or one day, has passed and at another an e n t i r e h i s t o r y , indeed v a r i o u s h i s t o r i e s , have been recounted. In La hojarasca the " s t o r y " of the h a l f hour which passes, the events which occur and the thoughts of the n a r r a t o r s , are t o l d i n the present tense, while the n a r r a t i o n of past events i s in the past tense. While i n Mrs.Dalloway the d i s t i n c t i o n between the two "times" i s not manifested by a s t r i c t d i f f e r e n c e in tense, there i s a c l e a r d i v i s i o n between the present time, t o l d i n the past tense, and the d i s t a n t past, o f t e n t o l d i n the past p e r f e c t . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n in temporal s i t u a t i o n serves to emphasize the slow progress of the time which the c h a r a c t e r s are p r e s e n t l y l i v i n g . T h i s i s f u r t h e r emphasized by the c l o c k s - in Mrs.Dalloway the suspended moments before t h e i r chime, and i n La  hoj a r a s c a by the t e l l i n g over and over of the same time, and the c l o c k ' s b a r e l y p e r c e p t i b l e p r o g r e s s i o n . The impression i n both 93 i s of a suspended present, where time crawls at a s n a i l ' s pace. At one p o i n t i n La h o j a r a s c a someone asks i f i t mustn't be about t h r e e - t h i r t y , but the c l o c k says only two f o r t y - s e v e n (pp. 63-4). I s a b e l t h i n k s : S i e l tiempo de adentro t u v i e r a e l mismo ritmo d e l de a f u e r a , ahora estariamos a pleno s o l , con e l ataud en l a mitad de l a c a l l e . Afuera s e r i a mas t a r d e : s e r i a de noche. (p. 60) Futhermore, the passage of time which does occur between the opening and the c l o s e of both novels i s not a s t r i c t l y l i n e a r one. Through the t e l l i n g and r e t e l l i n g of the same events and the t e l l i n g of the same time over and over by c l o c k s and t r a i n s there r e s u l t s an o v e r l a p p i n g , c y c l i c a l n a r r a t i v e which progresses by means of c i r c l e s which move the s t o r y forward and then back, each time s l i g h t l y f u r t h e r forward. T h i s i s achieved, again in both novels, by the use of m u l t i p l e n a r r a t o r s . In La h o j a r a s c a the n a r r a t o r i s i n the f i r s t person and a l t e r n a t e s between the boy, h i s mother I s a b e l , and her f a t h e r the c o l o n e l . The novel c o n s i s t s of a s e r i e s of i n t e r i o r monologues in the minds of these three c h a r a c t e r s . In Mrs.Dalloway the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e i s that of the t h i r d person throughout. However, an e f f e c t very s i m i l a r to that of La h o j a r a s c a i s achieved through a l t e r n a t i o n s i n what I w i l l c a l l the n a r r a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e . That i s , r a t h e r than an e n t i r e l y omniscient t h i r d person n a r r a t o r , the n a r r a t o r of Mrs.Dalloway takes on the p e r s p e c t i v e of one c h a r a c t e r at a time and n a r r a t e s from that c h a r a c t e r ' s viewpoint by t e l l i n g t h e i r thoughts. The n a r r a t o r changes p e r s p e c t i v e , a l i g h t i n g now upon 94 one c h a r a c t e r , now another. In both novels, r e p e t i t i o n occurs when the same episodes are n a r r a t e d through the minds of d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r s . Each t e l l i n g of the same event i s from a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e and pr o v i d e s a d i f f e r e n t degree of i n s i g h t i n t o the event. An event of primary importance in Mrs.Dalloway, the death of Septimus, i s an example of t h i s . In v a r i o u s ways i t i s t o l d and r e t o l d . There are h i s own musings on death (p. 140), r e f l e c t e d l a t e r by C l a r i s s a ' s s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r thoughts (p.280). Both see death i n many ways as an embrace. Then the scene of Septimus' a c t u a l death i s t o l d , the n a r r a t o r f i r s t i n the mind of Septimus. " ' I ' l l give i t you!' he c r i e d , and f l u n g h i m s e l f v i g o r o u s l y , v i o l e n t l y down on to Mrs.Filmer's area r a i l i n g s " (p. 226). Then i t i s t o l d through Rezia's p e r c e p t i o n : She must be brave and dr i n k something, he [Dr.Holmes] s a i d (what was i t ? Something sweet), f o r her husband was h o r r i b l y mangled ... It seemed to her as she drank the sweet s t u f f that she was opening long windows stepping out i n t o some garden. But where? (p. 227) The opening of the long windows onto the garden e x p l i c i t l y r e c a l l s the f i r s t page of the novel and C l a r i s s a ' s memory of opening the French doors at Bourton and stepping out i n t o the garden. Thus C l a r i s s a i s a l r e a d y drawn i n t o the event of t h i s death. At the end of t h i s episode they " c a r r y him away" (p.228). The opening of the next has Peter Walsh musing on the passin g of a (the) ambulance. T h i s i s a good example of the change i n 95 narrator, or narrative perspective, which occurs throughout the novel. The "omniscience" i s limited to one character at a time and the reader has no more than one character's (limited) perpective at a time. Thus Peter's thoughts on the occasion are i r o n i c a l l y inappropriate. For Septimus has just been taken away dead, and "horribly mangled." Yet Peter thinks: It is one of the triumphs of c i v i l i s a t i o n , as the lig h t high b e l l of the ambulance sounded. Swiftly, cleanly the ambulance sped to the hospit a l , having picked up instantly, humanely, some poor d e v i l ; someone h i t on the head, struck down by disease, knocked over perhaps a minute or so ago at one of these crossings, as might happen to oneself. (p. 229) Thus his is an iron i c r e t e l l i n g of the a f f a i r . Then the story reemerges at Mrs.Dalloway's party, when Sir William Bradshaw, who had treated Septimus, explains he has arrived late because of a suicide. The event i s again not simply retold here, but given further s i g n i f i c a n c e . It is Septimus' death as i t occurs for C l a r i s s a : What business had the Bradshaws to talk of death at her party? A young man had k i l l e d himself. And they talked of i t at her party - the Bradshaws talked of death. He had k i l l e d himself - but how? Always her body went through i t f i r s t , when she was told, suddenly, of an accident; her dress flamed, her body burnt. He had thrown himself from a window. Up had flashed the ground; through him, blundering, bruising, went the rusty spikes. There he lay with a thud, thud, thud in his brain, and then a suffocation of blackness. So she saw i t . (p. 280) There are other examples of t h i s repetition of episodes through d i f f e r e n t narrative perspectives, such as the scene in 96 Regent's Park, where Septimus and Rezia, and Peter Walsh c r o s s paths and each one's p e r c e p t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n i s given. While Rezia t h i n k s of Peter as that "nice man," Septimus b e l i e v e s him to be the dead Evans. And Peter l o o k i n g on at the two t h i n k s "that i s being young ... l o v e r s squabbling under a t r e e " (pp. 106-7). In La ho j a r a s c a the e f f e c t of r e p e t i t i o n i s an even stronger sense of a c i r c u l a r s t r u c t u r e . T h i s i s because the three n a r r a t o r s recount the events of the h a l f hour in the present tense. Thus when an event i s r e t o l d , i n a l a t e r p o i n t in the book, again in the present tense, i t v i r t u a l l y b r i n g s the n a r r a t i v e back to the very same spot, while i n the previous t e l l i n g the a c t i o n had progressed at l e a s t to some degree. We are re p e a t e d l y brought forward and then back again to the same "present" time we were i n at some e a r l i e r p o i n t in the n a r r a t i v e . Thus not only are the events which occur i n the passage of time from the opening to the c l o s e of the n a r r a t i v e r e t o l d w i t h i n that span, as occurs i n Mrs.Dalloway, but the same events a c t u a l l y appear to occur numerous times, n a r r a t e d as they are i n an e t e r n a l (same) pres e n t . There are many ins t a n c e s of t h i s r e t e l l i n g by a l l three n a r r a t o r s of the same event. For example, d i f f e r e n t c o n v e r s a t i o n s which occur in the d o c t o r ' s house between I s a b e l and the c o l o n e l are t o l d three times. Each of the n a r r a t o r s t e l l s of the c o l o n e l saying that the r i c e w i l l burn and the milk s p i l l today i n the houses of Macondo (pp. 64,67,122). The same i s true of a c o n v e r s a t i o n they have about the p r i e s t , " E l 97 Cachorro." The boy, then I s a b e l , then the c o l o n e l remembers the l a t t e r having s a i d of the townspeople who hadn't come to the f u n e r a l t h a t : " ' E l Cachorro l o s h a b r i a hecho v e n i r a c o r r e a z o s ' " (pp. 109,14,121). Again, as they wait in the d o c t o r ' s house, I s a b e l t e l l s of her f a t h e r f a l l i n g : ... luego miro h a c i a donde mi padre que acaba de d e c i r : "Cataure", llamando a l mas v i e j o de l o s g u a j i r o s ... que a l o i r su nombre levant a l a cabeza ... Pero cuando mi padre va a hablar de nuevo, se oyen en e l c u a r t i t o de a t r a s l a s pisadas d e l a l c a l d e que e n t r a en l a h a b i t a c i o n , tambaleando. (p. 116) Her monologue i s i n t e r r u p t e d here by that of the c o l o n e l , and resumes some pages l a t e r : Mi padre se detiene con e l c u e l l o e s t i r a d o , oyendo l a s pisadas conocidas que avanzan por e l c u a r t o de a t r a s . Entonces o l v i d a l o que pensaba d e c i r l e a Cataure, y t r a t a de dar una v u e l t a sobre s i mismo, apoyado en e l baston, pero l a p i e r n a i n u t i l l e f a l l a en l a v u e l t a , y e s t a a punto de i r s e de bruces ... recobrando e l e q u i l i b r i o por e l apoyo que l e p r e s t a e l a l c a l d e ... (p. 119) Some pages l a t e r i s the c o l o n e l ' s v e r s i o n of the same event: "Cataure", digo, llamando a l mayor de mis hombres, y e l apenas ha t e n i d o tiempo de l e v a n t a r l a cabeza, cuando oigo l a s pisadas d e l a l c a l d e avanzando por l a p i e z a v e c i n a . Se que viene directamente h a c i a mi, y t r a t o de g i r a r rapidamente sobre mis t a l o n e s , apoyado en e l baston, pero me f a l l a l a p i e r n a enferma y me voy h a c i a a d e l a n t e , seguro de que voy a caer y a romperme l a ca r a c o n t r a e l borde d e l ataud, cuando t r o p i e z o con su brazo y me a f e r r o solidamente a e l , y oigo su voz de p a c i f i c a e s t u p i d e z , d i c i e n d o : "No se preocupe, c o r o n e l . Le aseguro que no sucedera nada". (pp. 98 124-5) And l a t e r the boy t e l l s i t again: "Cataure", oigo ... En esto e n t r a , por l a puerta de a t r a s , o t r a vez e l hombre d e l r e v o l v e r . A l aparecer en e l vano de l a puerta se q u i t a e l sombrero y camina con c a u t e l a , como s i temiera d e s p e r t a r e l cadaver. Pero l o ha hecho para a s u s t a r a mi abuelo, que cae ha c i a adelante empujado por e l hombre, y tambalea, y l o g r a a g a r r a r s e d e l brazo d e l mismo hombre que ha t r a t a d o de tumbarle. (p. 130) The three d e s c r i p t i o n s of the event note many of the same d e t a i l s and even use the same words. But they d i f f e r i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s . I s a b e l , f o r example, b e l i e v e s that her f a t h e r has f o r g o t t e n what he was about to say to Cataure, while the c o l o n e l himself does not say so but r a t h e r that he turns away d e l i b e r a t e l y . The boy's account i s f a r more c o l o u r e d s t i l l , and the mayor (with h i s r e v o l v e r ) a c t u a l l y pushes the c o l o n e l i n the boy's eyes. The d i s t o r t i o n i s e v i d e n t . T h i s p a t t e r n occurs over and over in both n o v e l s . The use of d i f f e r e n t n a r r a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e s p r o v i d e s a v e h i c l e f o r r e p e t i t i o n which manipulates l i n e a r time and shows the n a r r a t i v e to progress and back-track in a c i r c u l a r p a t t e r n . T h i s technique of having the same s t o r y r e t o l d from d i f f e r e n t n a r r a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e s has i n a d d i t i o n the e f f e c t of d i s a l l o w i n g the impression of events t e l l i n g themselves i n the " n a t u r a l " order and manner in which they occur. For that i s the impression which t r a d i t i o n a l c h r o n o l o g i c a l n a r r a t i v e , both h i s t o r i c a l and f i c t i o n a l , attempts to g i v e . The n a r r a t i v e i s presented as the s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , o b j e c t i v e r e c o r d of events as 99 they occur in t h e i r " n a t u r a l " sequence. T h i s r e t e l l i n g by d i f f e r e n t n a r r a t o r s both d i s r u p t s the sequence, as events are r e t o l d , and exposes the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of o b j e c t i v i t y , as each r e t e l l i n g , from i t s d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e , i s a d i f f e r e n t ( v e r s i o n of the same) s t o r y . T h i s r e p e t i t i o n from d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s has in a d d i t i o n in La ho j a r a s c a the f u n c t i o n of foreshadowing i n f o r m a t i o n to be d i s c l o s e d in a l a t e r r e t e l l i n g , o f t e n i n f o r m a t i o n that i s s u p p l i e d through c h a r a c t e r s going i n t o the past. Near the beginning the boy t h i n k s : "No se porque no ha venido nadie a l e n t i e r r o . Hemos venido mi abuelo, mama y l o s cu a t r o g u a j i r o s que t r a b a j a n para mi abuelo" (p.14). With each s u c c e s s i v e t e l l i n g more in f o r m a t i o n w i l l be provided through memories provoked. E v e n t u a l l y the reason, unknown to the boy, f o r no one coming to the wake w i l l be d i s c l o s e d through the monologues of the other c h a r a c t e r s . The same happens i n the example of the c o l o n e l ' s f a l l , d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r . I s a b e l ' s account of the episode i s begun, then i n t e r r u p t e d by a monologue of the c o l o n e l i n which he in t i m a t e s having been i l l three years e a r l i e r , and owing h i s l i f e to the doct o r , and hence owing the l a t t e r t h i s b u r i a l . Then we re t u r n to I s a b e l ' s monologue in which the episode of the c o l o n e l f a l l i n g resumes. "Esta a punto de i r s e de bruces," she says: como se fue hace t r e s anos cuando cayo en e l charco de limonada entre l o s ru i d o s d e l j a r r o que rodo por e l suelo y l o s zuecos y e l mecedor y e l l l a n t o d e l nino que fue l a unica persona que l o v i o c a e r . Desde entonces c o j e a , desde entonces a r r a s t r a l a 100 p i e r n a que se l e endurecio despues de esa semana de amargos padecimientos, de l o s c u a l e s creimos no v e r l o repuesto jamas. Ahora ... pienso que en esa p i e r n a i n h a b i l e s t a e l s e c r e t o d e l compromiso que se dispone a cumplir c o n t r a l a voluntad d e l pueblo. (p. 119) The c o l o n e l ' s own v e r s i o n of h i s f a l l a l s o awakens h i s memory to h i s f a l l of three years before and h i s ensuing i l l n e s s . His monologue sheds f u r t h e r l i g h t on the events of that time, the involvement of the doct o r , and the " s e c r e t of h i s compromise." The doctor had come to h i s bedside and "rescued him from death." Yo habia de pr e g u n t a r l e dos d i a s despues c u a l era mi deuda, y e l habia de responder: "Usted no me debe nada, c o r o n e l . Pero s i q u i e r e hacerme un fa v o r , echeme encima un poco de t i e r r a cuando amanezco t i e s o . (p. 125) Thus not only the events and thoughts o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g the time span of the novel's a c t i o n , but events from the past, are t o l d over and over. And again, each t e l l i n g p r o v i d e s new i n s i g h t . I s a b e l r e c a l l s a c o n v e r s a t i o n with her stepmother i n which the l a t t e r t e l l s her of the night Meme was i l l and the doctor r e f u s e d to at t e n d her (p. 84). La t e r the c o l o n e l remembers the same n i g h t . But h i s memories e x p l a i n the events that passed, f o r i t was him who had spoken to the doc t o r . Meme, the doctor had t o l d him, needed no treatment as she was not s e r i o u s l y i l l , but pregnant (p.101). The i n i t i a l a r r i v a l of the doctor at the c o l o n e l ' s house i s a l s o t o l d v a r i o u s times and with v a r y i n g o p i n i o n s and emphasis (pp. 43,48). The e n t i r e novel i s made of these r e p e t i t i o n s . The same i s true of Mrs.Dalloway. While the f i r s t few 101 sentences of the book d e s c r i b e the present, the day of the p a r t y , the n a r r a t i v e then plunges immediately i n t o the p a s t . Mrs.Dalloway remembers Bourton: What a l a r k ! What a plunge! For so i t had always seemed to her, when, with a l i t t l e squeak of the hinges, which she c o u l d hear now, she had burst open the French windows and plunged at Bourton i n t o the open a i r . How f r e s h , how calm, s t i l l e r than t h i s of course, the a i r was in the e a r l y morning; ... l o o k i n g at the flowers, at the t r e e s ... standing and l o o k i n g u n t i l Peter Walsh s a i d , "Musing among the v e g e t a b l e s ? : - was that i t ? - "I p r e f e r men to c a u l i f l o w e r s " - was that i t ? He must have s a i d i t at b r e a k f a s t one morning when she had gone out on to the t e r r a c e - ... i t was h i s sayings one remembered ... when m i l l i o n s of t h i n g s had u t t e r l y vanished - how strange i t was! - a few sayings l i k e t h i s about cabbages. (pp. 3-4) In t h e i r memories both C l a r i s s a and Peter Walsh, and towards the end of the novel S a l l y Seton, r e t u r n to such scenes at Bourton. Peter remembers the same garden and a moment there with S a l l y : There was a garden where they used to walk, a w a l l e d -i n - p l a c e , with rose-bushes and g i a n t c a u l i f l o w e r s - he could remember S a l l y t e a r i n g o f f a rose, stopping to exclaim at the beauty of the cabbage leaves i n the moonlight ( i t was e x t r a o r d i n a r y how v i v i d l y i t a l l came back to him, t h i n g s he hadn't thought of f o r years) ... (p.114) There are other examples, such as C l a r i s s a , then l a t e r Peter and S a l l y , remembering a brooch of S a l l y ' s a l l e g e d l y belonging once to Marie A n t o i n e t t e (pp. 48-9,286), and t h e i r d i f f e r e n t memories of S a l l y smoking (pp. 90,48). The same occurs with Septimus and R e z i a . They each remember in very d i f f e r e n t ways t h e i r meeting in M i l a n . Rezia remembers the time as a. happy happy one: "she had been happy; she had had a b e a u t i f u l home, and there her s i s t e r s l i v e d s t i l l , 1 02 making hats" (p. 98). While Septimus was a l r e a d y on the verge of madness, unable to f e e l , to t a s t e , overcome by f e a r , she i n t e r p r e t s h i s manner e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t l y : "The E n g l i s h are so s i l e n t , " Rezia s a i d . She l i k e d i t , she s a i d . She respected these Englishmen, and wanted to see London, and the E n g l i s h horses, and the tailor-made s u i t s , and c o u l d remember hea r i n g how wonderful the shops were, from an Aunt who had married and l i v e d i n Soho. (p. 133) But Septimus' memory of t h e i r engagement in Milan and t h e i r marrying shows a s i d e t r a g i c a l l y in o p p o s i t i o n to Rezia's love and s i m p l i c i t y . He had come through the war, though l o s i n g h i s best f r i e n d . He had d i s t i n g u i s h e d h i m s e l f . But he c o u l d no longer f e e l : When peace came he was i n M i l a n , b i l l e t e d i n the house of an innkeeper with a c o u r t y a r d , flowers i n tubs, l i t t l e t a b l e s in the open, daughters making hats, and to L u c r e z i a , the younger daughter, he became engaged one evening when the panic was on him - that he c o u l d not f e e l ... S t i l l , s c i s s o r s rapping, g i r l s laughing, hats being made p r o t e c t e d him; he was assured of s a f e t y ; he had a refuge. (p. 131) He had asked L u c r e z i a to marry him because she was "gay" and " f r i v o l o u s " (pp. 131-2). But l a t e r t h i s becomes i n h i s eyes one of h i s "crimes": "he had married h i s wife without l o v i n g her; had l i e d to her; seduced her" (p. 137). Thus i n both Mrs.Dalloway and La h o j a r a s c a there are two d i s t i n c t c y c l e s of n a r r a t i v e time. One i s the time which passes between the opening and c l o s e of the n o v e l , the n a r r a t i v e present, as i t were, p r o g r e s s i n g in a c i r c u l a r or s p i r a l p a t t e r n through e x t e n s i v e r e p e t i t i o n from v a r i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e s of events 1 0 3 of the day. T h i s time passes slowly, indeed o f t e n appears to have come to a s t a n d s t i l l , an e f f e c t emphasized by the frequent marking of the time by the c l o c k s ' chime and the t r a i n ' s w h i s t l e which show only the s l i g h t e s t temporal p r o g r e s s i o n . T h i s s t i l l present i s i n t e r r u p t e d by frequent r e c o u n t i n g of the past which seems to put the n a r r a t i v e i n t o motion t e m p o r a r i l y . These memories of scenes from the past cause another p a t t e r n of c i r c l e s , r e p e a t e d l y t a k i n g the n-arrative back i n t o the past and b r i n g i n g i t again to the n a r r a t i v e present, while the c i r c l e s of the other c y c l e form a s p i r a l which moves ( i f slowly) forward. Yet another aspect of both of these novels which d i s r u p t s a s t r i c t l y l i n e a r n o t i o n of time i s the d e p i c t i o n of the moment. These moments are at times s p a t i a l d e s c r i p t i o n s , at others temporal d e v i c e s both to d i s r u p t l i n e a r i t y and hold time s t i l l and at the same time to c o n t a i n past, present, and f u t u r e i n one i n s t a n t . The moments which are p r i m a r i l y d e s c r i p t i v e of the s p a t i a l elements of a p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n t cause an impression of a suspended p r e s e n t . Although the f e a t u r e s of the i n s t a n t are d e s c r i b e d i n s u c c e s s i o n , there i s a s t r i k i n g impression of t h e i r instantaneous e x i s t e n c e at p r e c i s e l y one i n s t a n t . I t i s as though the words, or images, were transparent and superimposed upon, rather than f o l l o w i n g , one another. For example, C l a r i s s a Dalloway t h i n k s : In people's eyes, i n the swing, tramp, and trudge; i n the bellow and the uproar; the c a r r i a g e s , motor c a r s , omnibuses, vans, sandwichmen s h u f f l i n g and swinging; brass bands; b a r r e l organs; i n the triumph and the j i n g l e and the strange high s i n g i n g of some aeroplane overhead was what she loved; l i f e ; London; t h i s moment of June. (p. 5) And Peter Walsh t h i n k s : ... r e a l l y , i t took one's breath away, these moments; there coming to him by the p i l l a r - b o x opposite the B r i t i s h Museum one of them, a moment, i n which t h i n g s came together; t h i s ambulance; and l i f e and death, (p. 230) In l a h o j a r a s c a i n the boy's monologues there are s i m i l a r moments. He d e s c r i b e s the room i n which they are to spend an inter m i n a b l e h a l f hour: E l c a l o r es sofocante en l a p i e z a c e r r a d a . Se oye e l zumbido d e l s o l por l a s c a l l e s , pero nada mas. E l a i r e es estancado, c o n c r e t e ; se t i e n e l a impresion de que p o d r i a t o r c e r s e l e como una lamina de acero. En l a h a b i t a c i o n donde han puesto e l cadaver huele a baules, pero no l o s veo por ninguna p a r t e . Hay una hamaca en e l r i n c o n , colgada de l a a r g o l l a por uno de sus extremos. Hay un o l o r a d e s p e r d i c i o s . (p. 11) And l a t e r he r e c a l l s another moment, where a c t i v i t y i s rendered mot i o n l e s s : Tobias y G i l b e r t o caminaban h a c i a e l f i n a l de l a nave oscura. Como habia l l o v i d o durante l a manana, sus zapatos resbalaban en l a h i e r b a enlodada. Uno de e l l o s s i l b a b a y su s i l b o duro y r e c t o resonaba en e l socav6n v e g e t a l , como cuando uno se pone ca n t a r dentro de un t o n e l . Abraham venia a t r a s , conmigo. E l con l a honda y l a p i e d r a l i s t a para ser d i s p a r a d a . Yo con l a navaja a b i e r t a . De repente e l s o l rompi6 l a techumbre de hojas apretadas y duras y un cuerpo de c l a r i d a d cay6 aleteando en l a h i e r b a , como un p a j a r o v i v o . (p. 53) 105 The " a c t i o n " of the sun breaking through and of the l i g h t f a l l i n g onto the grass i n t e n s i f i e s the s t i l l n e s s captured in the prec e d i n g l i n e s . Another f u n c t i o n of the moment in Mrs.Dalloway i s the conveyance of b r i e f , momentary i l l u m i n a t i o n . " A l l t h i s she saw as one sees a landscape in a f l a s h of l i g h t n i n g , " i s s a i d of C l a r i s s a (p. 53). And Peter Walsh, remembering times spent at Bourton, t h i n k s : "He was a prey to r e v e l a t i o n s at that time. T h i s one - that she would marry Dalloway - was b l i n d i n g overwhelming at the moment" (p. 92). As w e l l these moments are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a sense of great i n t e n s i t y . Lady Bruton "asking Richard to lunch without her made the moment in which [ C l a r i s s a ] had stood s h i v e r , as a p l a n t on the r i v e r - b e d s f e e l s the shock of a passing car and s h i v e r s : so she rocked: so she s h i v e r e d " (p. 44). In La hojarasca there are s i m i l a r moments of overwhelming p h y s i c a l s e n s a t i o n . At the end of the novel, f o r example, when they are about to c a r r y the c o f f i n out i n t o the s t r e e t , the boy t h i n k s : "En este i n s t a n t e s i e n t o verdaderamente e l temblor en e l v i e n t r e " (p. 133). These moments f u n c t i o n a l s o as memory d e v i c e s , as t h e i r i n t e n s i t y i s such that they leave an imprin t , a l l o w i n g f o r v i v i d r e c a l l . Peter Walsh, on hearing the c l o c k b e l l s t r i k e , t h i n k s of C l a r i s s a : ... with a deep emotion, and an e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y c l e a r , yet p u z z l i n g , r e c o l l e c t i o n of her, as i f t h i s b e l l had come i n t o the room years ago, where they sat at some moment of great intimacy ... (p. 74) And he t h i n k s l a t e r : "How s i g h t s f i x themselves upon the mind! 1 06 For example, the v i v i d green moss" (p. 96). The c o l o n e l remembers a c e r t a i n moment a l s o because of the impression i t made on him at the time of i t s occurrence: Nada recuerdo con tanta p r e c i s i o n como ese i n s t a n t e en que irrumpimos en e l comedor y yo mismo me s e n t i v e s t i d o con demasiada domesticidad para una mesa como l a preparada por A d e l a i d a . (p. 58) The moment f u n c t i o n s as a de v i c e to manipulate n a r r a t i v e time, as w e l l . The novels are n a r r a t e d by means of moments or capsules r a t h e r than a continuous l i n e . Each moment causes n a r r a t i v e p r o g r e s s i o n to stop, to stand s t i l l : As a c l o u d c r o s s e s the sun, s i l e n c e f a l l s on London; and f a l l s on the mind. E f f o r t ceases. Time f l a p s on the mast. There we stop; there we stand. R i g i d , the sk e l e t o n of h a b i t alone upholds the human frame. (pp. 73-4) In La ho j a r a s c a there are s i m i l a r i n s t a n c e s of time at a s t a n d s t i l l : Hay un minuto en que se agota l a s i e s t a . Hasta l a s e c r e t a , r e c o n d i t a , minuscula a c t i v i d a d de l o s i n s e c t o s cesa en ese i n s t a n t e p r e c i s o ; e l curso de l a n a t u r a l e z a se d e t i e n e ; l a c r e a c i 6 n tambalea a l borde d e l caos y l a s mujeres se in c o r p o r a n , babeando, con l a f l o r de l a almohada bordada en l a m e j i l i a , sofocadas por l a temperatura y e l rencor; y piensan: "Todavia es mi e r c o l e s en Macondo." (p. 60) The n a r r a t i v e progresses not as a continuous flow but by s k i p p i n g from moment to moment. Both Woolf and G a r c i a Marquez conjure an image of time as a d r i p p i n g l i q u i d . Peter Walsh t h i n k s of h i s v i s i t with C l a r i s s a as "the d r i p , d r i p , of one impression a f t e r another down i n t o that c e l l a r where they stood, 1 07 deep, dark" (p. 230). And C l a r i s s a t h i n k s of the coming year and of the time that remains to be l i v e d in i t : "and, as i f to ca t c h the f a l i n g drop, C l a r i s s a ... plunged i n t o the very heart of the moment, t r a n s f i x e d i t , t h e r e " (p. 54). S i m i l a r l y in La  h o j a r a s c a there i s a moment when: A dead c l o c k on the brink of the next minute ... di v e s i n t o the p r o d i g i o u s q u i e t of the moment and comes out afterw a r d d r i p p i n g with l i q u i d time, with exact and r e c t i f i e d t i m e . 1 7 " T h i s n a r r a t i o n i n moments or disc o n n e c t e d capsules i s , as w e l l , a means f o r Woolf of rend e r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c h a r a c t e r s . T h i s f u n c t i o n of the moment i s e x p l a i n e d through Peter Walsh's d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with C l a r i s s a : B r i e f , broken, o f t e n p a i n f u l as t h e i r a c t u a l meetings had been what with h i s absences and i n t e r r u p t i o n s ... the e f f e c t of them on h i s l i f e was immeasurable. There was a mystery about i t . You were given a sharp, acute, uncomfortable g r a i n - the a c t u a l meeting; h o r r i b l y p a i n f u l as o f t e n as not; yet i n absence, i n the most u n l i k e l y p l a c e s , i t would flower out, open, shed i t s scent, l e t you touch, t a s t e , look about you, get the whole f e e l of i t and understanding, a f t e r years of l y i n g l o s t . (p. 232) And Richard t h i n k s how: " i t was d i f f i c u l t to thi n k of [ C l a r i s s a ] ; except i n s t a r t s , as at luncheon, when he saw her q u i t e d i s t i n c t l y ; t h e i r whole l i f e " (pp. 174-5). But there i s as w e l l a d e s i r e f o r c o n t i n u i t y , an i n e v i t a b l e need f o r i t i n order to maintain order: A l l the same, that one day should f o l l o w another; Wednesday, Thursday, F r i d a y , Saturday; that one should wake up i n the morning; see the sky; walk in the park; meet Hugh Whitbread; then suddenly i n came Peter; then these roses; i t was enough. A f t e r t h a t , how 1 08 u n b e l i e v a b l e death was! - that i t must end ... (p. 185) In the case of Septimus, the breakdown of that flow of c o n t i n u i t y i n t o d i s j o i n t e d thoughts and images leads to chaos, to madness, to death. A s i m i l a r notion can be found i n La h o j a r a s c a where although the r e s t r i c t i o n s of l i n e a r time are subverted i n the n a r r a t i v e , the l o s s of c o n t i n u i t y and of a r e l a t i o n s h i p with the past i s s t i l l seen as a sig n of chaos and end. The c o l o n e l says of the d o c t o r , a man of unknown o r i g i n and mysterious i d e n t i t y whose name i s never known, that ... en su r o s t r o se a d v e r t i a ... l a expresion a b u l i c a y f a t i g a d a d e l hombre que no sabe que sera de su v i d a n i t i e n e e l menor i n t e r e s en a v e r i g u a r l o . (p. 68) These moments o f t e n l i n k t h i s stopping of time, or i n t e r r u p t i o n of the continuous flow of time, with death. In La  h o j a r a s c a the boy s i t s i n the d o c t o r ' s house: Acosado por e l c a l o r sofocante, por e l minuto que no t r a n s c u r r e , por e l zumbido de l a s moscas, s i e n t o como s i a l g u i e n me d i j e r a : " E s t a r a s a s i . E s t a r a s dentro de un ataud l l e n o de moscas. (p. 22) And the s e n s a t i o n of time h a l t e d in the house i s r e l a t e d to the presence of the corpse: Mientras se mueva a l g o , puede saberse que e l tiempo ha t r a n s c u r r i d o ... Por eso no t r a n s c u r r e e l tiempo para e l ahorcado: porque aunque la-mano d e l nino se mueve, e l no l o sabe. (p. 62) Thus time i s not given any n a t u r a l , " r e a l " movement but i s only 1 0 9 p e r c e i v e d to move with l i f e , to stop f o r the dead. In Mrs.Dalloway these moments h o l d both l i f e and death. At times they are " l i k e the pulse of a p e r f e c t h e a r t " (p. 82), "buds on the t r e e of l i f e " (p. 43). But they are a l s o , as i n t h i s case f o r Septimus, v i s i o n s of death: ... t h i s gradual drawing together of e v e r y t h i n g to one cen t r e before h i s eyes, as i f some horror had come almost to the su r f a c e and was about to burst i n t o flames, t e r r i f i e d him. The world wavered and q u i v e r e d and threatened to burst i n t o flames. (p. 21) Thus i t i s i n one sense the c o n c l u s i o n of such fragmented n a r r a t i o n that both l i n e a r , c a u s a l time leads to decay and death, and the moment "broken away from sequence" leads to chaos and madness and thus to death. L i k e at the end of Cien afios de  soledad, A u r e l i a n o B a b i l o n i a i s d r i v e n mad by the mystery of h i s past, h i s o r i g i n s , and f r a n t i c a l l y searches through the church records to d i s c o v e r the t r u t h . He cannot e x i s t without i t . Yet the t r u t h i s the v e h i c l e of h i s death, f o r i t leads him to fo l l o w h i s f a m i l y ' s h i s t o r y to i t s f i n a l end in h i s own death. The moment, however, while i t cannot allow f o r u l t i m a t e escape from the passage of time, while i t i s only momentary, allows f o r temporary i l l u m i n a t i o n , and f o r v i s i o n s not r e s t r i c t e d by the chronology of h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e but ones which capture at once past, present, and f u t u r e - v i s i o n s of e t e r n i t y . 1 10 V. CONCLUSION C l e a r l y , the r e j e c t i o n by Woolf and G a r c i a Marquez of the supremacy of t r a d i t i o n a l c h r o n o l o g i c a l n a r r a t i v e i s by no means o f f e r e d here as new, or unique to these two authors. W r i t e r s of f i c t i o n , as w e l l as, as H i l l i s M i l l e r p o i n t s out, w r i t e r s of h i s t o r y i t s e l f , a f t e r which f i c t i o n a l n a r r a t i v e - i s modelled, have long confronted the problem of f a c t i c i t y vs. c o n s t r u c t i o n in the r e c o r d i n g of past events. N e i t h e r , as shown by the extent of the debate over the v a l i d i t y of i n f l u e n c e theory, i s the i n t e r r o g a t i o n and push f o r r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the concept i t s e l f new. However, i t has been my hope that the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of these two q u e s t i o n s w i l l y i e l d i f not new answers then newly formulated q u e s t i o n s . I have not asked: was there an i n f l u e n c e ? nor: i s i n f l u e n c e study v a l i d ? Rather, I have asked: what would be the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the i m p o s i t i o n of i n f l u e n c e theory upon given works? In the f i r s t chapter the approach to these que s t i o n s was begun through an e x p o s i t i o n of the assumptions u n d e r l y i n g the theory of i n f l u e n c e which n e c e s s a r i l y inform the method as i t i s a p p l i e d to authors and t e x t s . These assumptions i n c l u d e the p r e s u p p o s i t i o n of a l i n e a l s t r u c t u r e implying o r i g i n and end and p r o g r e s s i n g in a c h r o n o l o g i c a l , c a u s a l order, i n which o r i g i n and sequence confer meaning, and o r i g i n a l i t y a r t i s t i c worth. In the second chapter I attempted to show through the examination of c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n s on the s u b j e c t , f i r s t , how s c h o l a r s who attempt the q u e s t i o n of a p o s s i b l e case of 111 i n f l u e n c e u n w i t t i n g l y d i s p l a y the performance of those assumptions in t h e i r work of c r i t i c i s m . That i s , t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s are determined by t h e i r adherence to the assumptions of i n f l u e n c e theory more than they are wrought from the t e x t s themselves. Thus the d e n i a l of any i n f l u e n c e by Woolf on G a r c i a Marquez appears to d e r i v e more from an attempt to preserve h i s r e p u t a t i o n of o r i g i n a l i t y , n a t i o n a l i t y , e t c . , than from a c o n v i c t i o n that t h e i r t e x t s bear no s i g n i f i c a n t s i m i l a r i t i e s which might i n d i c a t e an i n f l u e n c e . And secondly, in the second chapter, I examined c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i r works which c r i t i c s have found i n common, to understand the nature of those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and how they are ( i r o n i c a l l y ) a c o n t r a d i c t i o n of the very framework of assumptions which c r i t i c s would impose on these two by c l a i m i n g (or denying) an i n f l u e n c e . For while i n f l u e n c e theory i s rooted i n t r a d i t i o n a l chronology, Woolf and G a r c i a Marquez r e j e c t that t r a d i t i o n i n t h e i r works. In the t h i r d chapter I s t u d i e d p a r a l l e l s between t e x t s by Woolf and G a r c i a Marquez which might, i f one were i n t e r e s t e d i n conducting an a c t u a l i n f l u e n c e study, serve as a p o i n t of d eparture. However, those aspects of t h e i r works which i n d i c a t e p a r a l l e l s between the t e x t s were shown to c o n t a i n i m p l i c i t l y a r e f u t a t i o n of i n f l u e n c e theory i n t h e i r r e f u t a t i o n of the assumptions of t r a d i t i o n a l c h r o n o l o g i c a l n a r r a t i v e . My c o n t e n t i o n i s that i n f l u e n c e theory, being a system of set assumptions, i s p r e s c r i p t i v e i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n and imposes a p a r t i c u l a r ( c o n v e n t i o n a l ) reading upon t e x t s . Approaching any 1 1 2 given work from the p e r s p e c t i v e of a theory of i n f l u e n c e w i l l i n e v i t a b l y prejudge the outcome of study through the terms and assumptions of the theory. What I have suggested i s l o o k i n g i n s t e a d from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the t e x t s , with t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n t h i s case t h e i r i n n o v a t i o n of n a r r a t i v e time, back on to the t heory. Such a r e v e r s a l of p e r s p e c t i v e r e v e a l s the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between the premises of the n a r r a t i v e of t h e i r t e x t s and the premises of i n f l u e n c e theory. Whereas a reading of t e x t s through the framework of i n f l u e n c e theory can merely o b l i t e r a t e or read over, through the i m p o s i t i o n of a c o n v e n t i o n a l r e a d i n g , any unconventional a s p e c t s of the t e x t s , the reverse p o s i t i o n of reading i n f l u e n c e theory through the framework of these t e x t s sheds l i g h t on the theory and o u t l i n e s i t s d i f f e r e n c e s with the t e x t s . The attempt, t h e r e f o r e , has not been to r e j e c t the worth of i n f l u e n c e s t u d i e s , but to s i l h o u e t t e the a l l e g e d l y "absent" s t r u c t u r e s of the theory. However, the t e x t s themselves, while they c o n t a i n w i t h i n them n a r r a t i v e landmarks, as i t were, which p o i n t to a r e f u t a t i o n of the premises of chronology, c o n t a i n as w e l l a warning of the t r a p of seeing such r e f u t a t i o n as a b s o l u t e , as the f i n a l word. For the r e f u t a t i o n of c o n v e n t i o n a l l i n e a r i t y which these t e x t s d i s p l a y has i t s e l f become a convention, and one can t r a c e in them as w e l l the s i g n s of a r e f u t a t i o n of that r e f u t a t i o n , and a subversion of the convention of r e j e c t i n g chronology, in t h e i r r e a s s e r t i o n of the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of escaping the passage 1 1 3 of time. They r e j e c t the n e c e s s i t y of d e p i c t i n g " h i s t o r y " as a l i n e a r s e r i e s of events i n t h e i r " n a t u r a l " order whose gradual u n f o l d i n g r e v e a l s meaning, but a l s o mock the temptation to conclude that u n c o n v e n t i o n a l , n o n - l i n e a r n a r r a t i v e can a c t u a l l y stop time. Thus while a l i n e a r conception of n a r r a t i v e i s no longer seen as adequate to express any sense of " r e a l i t y , " there i s no escape from the eventual "end of the l i n e . " Rather than denouncing e n t i r e l y the v a l i d i t y of i n f l u e n c e s t u d i e s , one can allow t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s i n s o f a r as they are taken as d e s c r i p t i v e of a method which d e f i n e s and s i t u a t e s t e x t s and authors. And i n s o f a r as they are p r e s c r i p t i v e , one can make e x p l i c i t the assumptions of the method, which l a r g e l y predetermine t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s , that they might not ("innocently") inform an i n a p p r o p r i a t e reading of t e x t s . Thus one can expose the " c o n s p i r a c y , " as North c a l l s i t in The Years, "the steam r o l l e r that smooths, o b l i t e r a t e s ; rounds i n t o i d e n t i t y ; r o l l s i n t o b a l l s , " that i s , the obsession with and i n s i s t e n c e upon i d e n t i t y as connected with o r i g i n . 1 1 4 NOTES 1 Anna B a l a k i a n , "Influence and L i t e r a r y Fortune: The E q u i v o c a l J u n c t i o n of Two Methods," YCGL, 11 (1962), 24. 2 Harold Bloom, The Anxiety of In f l u e n c e (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1973), p~. 26. 3 Bloom, p. 26. " Jan Brandt C o r s t i u s , "The Concept of I n f l u e n c e , " i n h i s I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Comparative Study of L i t e r a t u r e (New York: Random House, 1968), p. 179. 5 J.T.Shaw, " L i t e r a r y Indebtedness and Comparative L i t e r a r y S t u d i e s , " in Comparative L i t e r a t u r e : Method and P e r s p e c t i v e , ed. Newton P . S t a l l k n e c h t and Horst Frenz (n.p.: Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s t i y Press, 1961), p. 91. 6 Andre Morize, "Questions of Success and of I n f l u e n c e , " i n h i s Problems and Methods of L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y (Boston: Ginn & Co., 1922), p. 228. 7 Ihab H.Hassan, "The Problem of In f l u e n c e i n L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y : Notes Towards a D e f i n i t i o n , " J o u r n a l of A e s t h e t i c s and  Art C r i t i c i s m , 14 (1955), 68. 8 C l a u d i o G u i l l e n , "The A e s t h e t i c s of L i t e r a r y I n f l u e n c e , " in h i s L i t e r a t u r e as System (New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971), p. 47. 9 Bloom, p. 30. 1 0 Bloom, p. 43. 1 1 Bloom, p. 5. 1 2 Shaw, p. 89. 1 3 F.W.Bateson, E d i t o r i a l Commentary, Essays i n C r i t i c i s m 4 (1954), 436. 1 4 Shaw, p. 90. 1 5 U l r i c h W e i s s t e i n , " I n f l u e n c e and I m i t a t i o n , " i n h i s Comparative L i t e r a t u r e and L i t e r a r y Theory, t r a n s . W i l l i a m 1 1 5 Riggan (Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1973), p. 45. 1 6 Hassan pp. 66-7. 1 7 Hassan, p. 67. 1 8 Hassan, p. 73. 1 9 Shaw, p. 92. 2 0 Rene Wellek and A u s t i n Warren, Theory of L i t e r a t u r e (New York: Random House, 1968), p. 258. 2 1 Shaw, p. 94. 2 2 W e i s s t e i n , p. 35. 2 3 C o r s t i u s , p. 185. 2 4 Wellek and Warren, p. 258. 2 5 C l a u d i o G u i l l e n , "A Note on I n f l u e n c e s and Conventions," in h i s L i t e r a t u r e as System, p.62. 2 6 Bateson, p. 437. 2 7 R.W.Stallman, "The S c h o l a r ' s Net: L i t e r a r y Sources," C o l l e g e E n g l i s h , 17 (1955), 23. 2 8 C o r s t i u s , p. 178. 2 9 H a s k e l l M.Block, "The Concept of In f l u e n c e in comparative L i t e r a t u r e , " YCGL, 7 (1958), 36. 3 0 Block, p. 34. 3 1 G u i l l e n , " A e s t h e t i c s , " p. 50. 3 2 Paul Van Tieghem, "Succes et i n f l u e n c e s g l o b a l e s , " in h i s La L i t t e r a t u r e comparee ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Armand C o l i n , 1931), p. 126. 3 3 G u i l l e n , "Note," p. 58. 3 4 W e i s s t e i n , pp. 43-4. 3 5 Hassan, p. 76. 3 6 Hassan, pp. 68-9. 3 7 B a l a k i a n , p. 30. 3 8 Hassan, p. 69. 1 1 6 3 9 T . S . E l i o t , " T r a d i t i o n and the I n d i v i d u a l T a l e n t , " in C r i t i c i s m i n America: I t s Function and Status (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1924), p~. 223. 4 0 G u i l l e n , " A e s t h e t i c s , " p.31. * 1 Henri Peyre, "Andre Gide et l e s problemes d ' i n f l u e n c e en l i t t e r a t u r e , " Modern Language Notes, 57 (1942), 7. 4 2 G u i l l e n , " A e s t h e t i c s , " p. 46. 4 3 B a l a k i a n , p.29. 4* Goran Hermeren. I n f l u e n c e i n Art and L i t e r a t u r e (New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1975) , p~. x i v . * 5 Hermeren, pp. 7,154. 4 6 Roland Barthes, "Par ou commencer?" in Le Degre z"ero de  l ' e c r i t u r e s u i y i de nouveaux e s s a i s c r i t i q u e s ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s du S e u i l , 1972) , p~! 146, as quoted in Edward S a i d , Beginnings (New York: Basic Books, Inc., P u b l i s h e r s , 1975), p. 16. 4 7 Said, p. 15. 4 8 G u i l l e n , " A e s t h e t i c s , " p. 42. 4 9 G u i l l e n , " A e s t h e t i c s , " p. 42. 5 0 S a i d , pp. 66,25. 5 1 Hermeren, pp. 93,5,105. 5 2 Roland Barthes, " I n t r o d u c t i o n to the S t r u c t u r a l A n a l y s i s of N a r r a t i v e s , " i n h i s Image - Music - Text, t r a n s . Stephen Heath (New York: H i l l and Wang, 1977), p. 94. 5 3 Barthes, " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " p. 94. 5 4 S a i d , p. 16. 5 5 Andre Gide, "De 1 ' i n f l u e n c e en l i t t e r a t u r e , " i n Oeuvres  completes d'Andrg Gide (Pa-ris: Nouvelle Revue F r a n c a i s e , 1932) , I I I , 258-9. 5 6 Hermeren, p. 132. 5 7 Hermeren, p. 130. 5 8 Hermeren, pp. 130-1,142-3. 5 9 Gide, p. 258. 6 0 Gide, p. 264. 1 1 7 6 1 N i e t z s c h e , as quoted in Peyre, p. 563. 6 2 W e i s s t e i n , p. 34. 6 3 Bloom, p. 148. 6 4 E l i o t , pp. 218-9. 6 5 B a l a k i a n , p. 29. 6 6 Bloom, p. 50. 6 7 Bloom, p. 29. 6 8 Bloom, p. 11. 6 9 Bloom, p. 78. 7 0 J . H i l l i s M i l l e r , i n h i s " N a r r a t i v e and H i s t o r y , " shows that these assumptions are the same as those of both h i s t o r i c a l and f i c t i o n a l n a r r a t i v e , having been t r a n s f e r r e d from the former to the l a t t e r . See J . H i l l i s M i l l e r , " N a r r a t i v e and H i s t o r y , " ELH, 41 (1974), 455-73. 7 1 B a l a k i a n , pp. 24-5. 7 2 W e i s s t e i n , p. 31. 7 3 C o r s t i u s , p. 187. 7 4 Shaw, p. 90. 7 5 G u i l l e n , " A e s t h e t i c s , " pp. 33-4. 7 6 Jonathan C u l l e r , " P r e s u p p o s i t i o n and I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y , " Modern Language Notes, 91 (1976), 1388. 7 7 G u i l l e n , " A e s t h e t i c s , " p.34. 7 8 G u i l l e n , " A e s t h e t i c s , " p. 38. 7 9 G u i l l e n , " A e s t h e t i c s , " p. 38. 8 0 G u i l l e n , "Note," p. 60. 8 1 Hassan, p. 74. 8 2 G u i l l e n , " A e s t h e t i c s , " p. 51. 8 3 Jane Tompkins, "An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Reader Response C r i t i c i s m , " i n Reader Response C r i t i c i s m : From Formalism to Post  S t r u c t u r a l i s m , ed. Jane Tompkins (Bal t i m o r e : The Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1980), p. i x . 1 18 8 4 C u l l e r , p. 1388. 8 5 See Roland Barthes, "From Work to Text," i n Image - Music - Text ; Michael R i f f a t e r r e , " S y l l e p s i s , " C r i t i c a l I n q u i r y , 7 ( 1 9 8 0 / 8 1 ) , 625-38. Barthes, R i f f a t e r r e , and C u l l e r a l l take pains to d i s t i n g u i s h between i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y and the t r a d i t i o n a l concept of i n f l u e n c e , and C u l l e r goes to some l e n g t h i n d i s c u s s i n g Bloom's theory i n p a r t i c u l a r . 8 6 C u l l e r , p. 1382. 8 7 That the poet i s con s i d e r e d to be ( n e c e s s a r i l y ) male i s yet another assumption of i n f l u e n c e theory. The most curs o r y glance at the m a t e r i a l w r i t t e n on the t o p i c r e v e a l s a system deeply rooted i n what must needs be c a l l e d a male t r a d i t i o n . I t w i l l not s u f f i c e to e x p l a i n t h i s phenomenon by the f a c t that the male pronoun i s used to denote both male and female, or "human," fo r i t goes f a r beyond t h a t . The m a t e r i a l i s overwhelmingly bound in a "male" language, fraught with p h a l l i c images, images of f a t h e r s and sons, of r i v a l r y and b a t t l e , of a poet's f o r e f a t h e r s and " h i s " own f a t h e r i n g of poems. For f e m i n i s t commentary on female authors and l i t e r a r y i n f l u e n c e , and on Bloom's theory i n p a r t i c u l a r , see Louis e Bernikow, "Comment on Joanne F e i t D i e h l ' s 'Come Slowly Eden: An E x p l o r a t i o n of Women Poets and T h e i r Muse," Signs 4 (1978); Joanne F e i t D i e h l , "'Come Slowly - Eden': An E x p l o r a t i o n of Women Poets and T h e i r Muse," Signs, 3 (1977/78), 572-87; Sandra G i l b e r t and Susan Gubar, "Towards a Feminist P o e t i c s , " i n t h e i r The Madwoman i n the A t t i c (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 19797"^  3-104; Susan Gubar, "'The Blank Page" and the Issues of Female C r e a t i v i t y , " C r i t i c a l  I n q u i r y , 8 (1981), 243-63; Mary Jacobus, "The B u r i e d L e t t e r : Feminism and Romanticism i n V i l l e t t e , " in Women W r i t i n g and  W r i t i n g About Women, ed. Mary Jacobus (London: Croom Helm L t d . , 1979) . 8 8 F e i t D i e h l , p. 573. 8 9 G i l b e r t and Gubar, P. 48. 9 0 Emile Benveniste, Problems of General L i n g u i s t i c s , ( C o r a l Gables, F l o r i d a : n. p. , 1971), p~! 101, as quoted i n Barthes, " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " p. 82. 9 1 C u l l e r , pp. 1386-7. 9 2 S a i d , p. 6. 9 3 Cynthia Chase, "The Decomposition of the Elep h a n t s : Double-Reading D a n i e l Deronda," PMLA, 93 (1978), 217. 9 4 Chase, p. 220. 9 5 Alone, " Orlando and Cien anos de soledad," C r o n i c a 1 19 L i t e r a r i a , E l Mercurio, Santiago, 21 June 1970, p. 3. 9 6 George R.McMurray, G a b r i e l G a r c i a Marquez (New York: F r e d e r i c k Ungar P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1977), p. 2. 9 7 Mario Vargas L l o s a , G a r c i a Marquez: H i s t o r i a de un  d e i c i d i o (Barcelona: B a r r a l E d i t o r e s , 1971 ) , p~. 38~! 9 8 McMurray, pp. 18,157 9 9 I t i s , furthermore, s i g n i f i c a n t that i t was Jorge L u i s Borges who t r a n s l a t e d works by V i r g i n i a Woolf i n t o Spanish. His t r a n s l a t i o n of Orlando appeared in 1937, t r a n s l a t e d , a c c o r d i n g to Rodriguez Monegal, "con una p e r f e c c i o n t a l que l o c o n v i e r t e en un l i b r o c a p i t a l de l a s l e t r a s l a t i n o a m e r i c a n a s . " (p. 14) I t cannot go without n o t i c e , then, that the t r a n s l a t i o n s of works by Woolf a v a i l a b l e to G a r c i a Marquez were those of a s c h o l a r who was himself an a l l e g e d i n f l u e n c e upon G a r c i a Marquez. T h i s f a c t , along with Woolf and G a r c i a Marquez having p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e s i n common (such as Proust, among ot h e r s , named as p r e c u r s o r to both), may cause the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two to be viewed by some as a case of i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e . 1 o o Vargas L l o s a , p. 159. 1 0 1 Emir Rodriguez Monegal, "Novedad y anacronismo en Cien  arTos de soledad," R e v i s t a N a c i o n a l de C u l t u r a , 24, No. 185 (1968), FT; Ernesto Schoo, "Los v i a j e s de Simbad G a r c i a Marquez," Primera Plana, Buenos A i r e s , 5, No. 234, 20-26 June 1967, p. 52. 1 0 2 G a b r i e l G a r c i a Marquez, E l o l o r de l a guayaba:  Conversaciones con P l i n i o Apuleyo Mendoza (Bogota: E d i t o r i a l de l a Oveja Negra, 1982), p. 50. 1 0 3 Gustavo Esteva, "Un Galeon en 1967," E l G a l l o I l u s t r a d o , Suplemento Dominical de E l D i a , Mexico, No. 266, 30 J u l y 1967, p.1. 1 o a E s t e v a , p.1. 1 0 5 E r n e s t o Volkening, " G a b r i e l G a r c i a Marquez o e l t r o p i c o desembrujado," in Nueve as e d i o s a G a r c i a MSrquez (Santiago: E d i t o r i a l U n i v e r s i t a r i a , 1969), p. 147. 1 0 6 V o l k e n i n g , p. 149. 1 0 7 V o l k e n i n g , p. 149. 1 0 8 Vargas L l o s a , p. 135. 1 0 9 Vargas L l o s a , pp. 137-8. 1 1 0 Vargas L l o s a , p. 166. 1 20 1 1 1 Alone, p. 3. 1 1 2 Esteva, p. 1. 1 1 3 Alone, p. 3. 1 1 " Vargas L l o s a , p. 166. 1 1 5 V i r g i n i a Woolf, " P r o f e s s i o n s f o r Women," in her C o l l e c t e d Essays (London: The Hogarth Press, 1966), I I , 287-8. 1 1 6 Vargas L l o s a , pp. 162-3. 1 1 7 Vargas L l o s a , p. 164. 1 1 8 Rodriguez Monegal, p. 14. 1 1 9 Schoo, p. 53. 1 2 0 Alone, p. 3. 1 2 1 Alone, p. 3. 1 2 2 McMurray, p. 157. 1 2 3 Rodriguez Monegal, p. 15. 1 2 " McMurray, p. 106. 1 2 5 McMurray, p. 12. 1 2 6 McMurray, p. 85. 1 2 7 C a r l o s Fuentes, "Garcia Marquez: Cien anos de soledad," Siempre! N. 679, 29 June 1966, as quoted i n Vargas L l o s a , p. 78. 1 2 8 James Naremore, "Nature and H i s t o r y i n The Years," i n V i r g i n i a Woolf: Re v a l u a t i o n and C o n t i n u i t y , ed. Ralph Freedman (Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1980), p. 244. 1 2 9 Maria D i B a t t i s t a , " To the Lighthouse : V i r g i n i a Woolf's Winter T a l e , " i n V i r g i n i a Woolf: R e v a l u a t i o n and  C o n t i n u i t y , p. 174. 1 3 0 Naremore, p. 243. 1 3 1 B a s i l d e Senancourt, as quoted i n Naremore, p. 247. 1 3 2 G i l l i a n Beer, "Beyond Determinism: George E l i o t and V i r g i n i a Woolf," i n Women W r i t i n g and W r i t i n g About Women, ed. Mary Jacobus (London: Croom Helm, L t d . , 1979), pp. 90,94. Indeed, the n a r r a t i o n of p l o t , l i k e that of h i s t o r y , f a r from 121 r e p r e s e n t i n g any n a t u r a l sequence, has an i n t e r p r e t i v e f u n c t i o n . For p l o t i s the embodiment of sequence, and hence a v e h i c l e f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of meaning. For f u r t h e r examination of the i n t e r p r e t i v e power of p l o t , see J u r i j M.Lotman, "The O r i g i n of P l o t in the L i g h t of Typology," P o e t i c s Today, 1 (1979/80), 161-83. " P l o t , " says Lotman, "represents a powerful means of making sense of l i f e . Only as a r e s u l t of the emergence of n a r r a t i v e forms of a r t d i d man l e a r n to d i s t i n g u i s h the p l o t aspect of r e a l i t y , that i s , to break down the n o n - d i s c r e t e flow of events i n t o d i s c r e t e u n i t s , to connect them to c e r t a i n meanings (that i s , to i n t e r p r e t them s e m a n t i c a l l y ) and to organize them i n t o r e g u l a t e d chains (to i n t e r p r e t them s y n t a g m a t i c a l l y ) . I t i s the i s o l a t i o n of events - d i s c r e t e p l o t u n i t s - and the a l l o t t i n g to them, on the one hand, of a p a r t i c u l a r meaning, and, on the other, a p a r t i c u l a r temporal, c a u s e - r e s u l t or other regulatedness that makes up the essence of p l o t " (pp. 182-3). 1 3 3 Beer, p. 80. 1 3 4 A l l e n McLaurin, V i r g i n i a Woolf: The Echoes Enslaved (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1973), p. 1 58 . 1 3 5 McMurray, p. 158. 1 3 6 McMurray, p. 106. 1 3 7 Vargas L l o s a , p. 550. 1 3 8 D i B a t t i s t a , p. 169. Note as w e l l a s i m i l a r d e s c r i p t i o n by Rodriguez Monegal, c i t e d e a r l i e r , of time in these novels as "mordiendose rabiosamente l a c o l a . " For a p a r t i c u l a r l y good i l l u s t r a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n of t h i s motif to n a r r a t i v e , see Ur s u l a K.LeGuin, " I t Was a Dark and Stormy Night; or, Why Are We Huddling about the Campfire?" in On N a r r a t i v e , ed. W.J.T.Mitchell (Chicago: U n i v e r s t i y of Chicago Press, 1981), pp. 187-95. LeGuin r e l a t e s the s t o r y of the hoop snake, who takes i t s t a i l i n i t s mouth to form a hoop and thus r o l l along, with the drawback that some hoop snakes have r a t t l e s , and d i e of the poison they i n j e c t i n t o themselves. "I don't know what the moral i s , " says LeGuin. " I t may be i n the end s a f e s t to l i e p e r f e c t l y s t i l l without even c r a w l i n g . . . But then no t r a c k s are l e f t in the dust, no l i n e s drawn; the dark and stormy n i g h t s are a l l one with the sweet b r i g h t days, t h i s moment of June - and you might as w e l l never have l i v e d at a l l . And the moral of that i s , you have to form a c i r c l e to escape from the c i r c l e ... [and] very few t h i n g s come nearer the r e a l Hoop T r i c k than a good s t o r y " (pp. 189-90). 1 3 9 Vargas L l o s a , p. 160. Vargas L l o s a ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the moment as " p r i v i l e g i a d o " r e c a l l s Proust's "moment p r i v i l e g i e . " However, the two concepts have s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . The importance of Proust's moment i s most predominantly i n i t s r e l a t i o n to memory, i n that a memory i s r e c a l l e d by the p a r t i c u l a r s e n s a t i o n s of a present moment. 1 22 E l i z a b e t h Shore has compared t h i s to Woolf's moments, and, while she maintains that in general there i s l i t t l e s i m i l a r i t y , there are c e r t a i n moments i n Orlando which bear a great resemblance to the P r o u s t i a n moment. In f a c t , she claims to s u b s t a n t i a t e the hypothesis that Woolf was i n f l u e n c e d by Proust p r i m a r i l y on the b a s i s of that s i m i l a r i t y . See E l i z a b e t h Shore, " V i r g i n i a Woolf, Proust, and Orlando," Comparative L i t e r a t u r e , 31 (1979), 232-45. 1 4 0 Vargas L l o s a , p. 162. 1 U 1 Beer, p. 80. 1 4 2 Vargas L l o s a , p. 41. 1 4 3 Volkening, p. 163. 1 4 4 Naremore, p. 247. 1 4 5 D i B a t t i s t a , p. 180. 1 4 6 McLaurin, p. 160. 1 4 7 V i r g i n i a Woolf, "How Should One Read a Book?" in C o l l e c t e d Essays, I I , p. 2. 1 4 8 Woolf, "How Should?" p. 5. 1 4 9 Woolf, "How Should?" p. 2. 1 5 0 V i r g i n i a Woolf, Moments of Being: Unpublished  A u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l W r i t i n g s " ed. Jeanne S c h u l k i n d (197 6; r p t . St.Albans: T r i a d Panther, 1978), p. 77. Georg Lukacs uses very s i m i l a r images in h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the concept of the moment and the form of f i c t i o n . "Every w r i t t e n work," says Lukacs, "leads towards great moments in which we can suddenly glimpse the dark abysses i n t o whose depths we must f a l l one day; and the d e s i r e to f a l l i n t o them i s the hidden content of our l i v e s . Our consciousness a l l o w s us to evade them for as long as we can, yet they are always t h e r e , gaping at our f e e t when a view opening unexpectedly before us from a mountain top g i v e s us a touch of v e r t i g o , or when roses whose scent s t i l l surrounds us suddenly vanish from our s i g h t i n the evening mist. Every w r i t t e n work i s c o n s t r u c t e d round a q u e s t i o n and progresses in such a way that i t can suddenly stop at the edge of an abyss - suddenly, unexpectedly, yet with c o m p e l l i n g f o r c e . And even i f i t leads us past l u x u r i a n t palm groves or f i e l d s of glowing white l i l i e s , i t w i l l always l e a d to the great abyss, and can never stop anywhere e l s e before i t reaches the edge. T h i s i s the most profound meaning of form: to l e a d to a great moment of s i l e n c e , to mould the d i r e c t i o n l e s s , p r e c i p i t o u s , many-coloured stream of l i f e as though a l l i t s haste were only fo r the sake of such moments." (pp. 113-4) See Georg Lukacs, "The Moment and Form," in h i s Soul and Form, t r a n s . Anna Bostock (Cambridge, Mass.: The Mit Press^ 1974), pp. 107-23. 1 23 1 5 1 T h i s i s not to say, i t must be s t r e s s e d , that t h i s i s the more r e l i a b l e p o i n t of comparison because the author acknowledges i t . That an author's admission of an i n f l u e n c e i s d e f i n i t i v e proof of i t s occurrence i s yet another unfortunate myth of i n f l u e n c e s t u d i e s . But i t i s a p a r a l l e l which, f o r one, corresponds to those drawn by c r i t i c s . And i t w i l l p r o v i d e c l u e s as to how G a r c i a Marquez read Woolf and how h i s p a r t i c u l a r reading of her a f f e c t e d , i n h i s own mind, h i s w r i t i n g . 1 5 2 G a r c i a Marquez, Olor de l a guayaba, pp. 50-1. 1 5 3 G a r c i a Marquez, Olor de l a guayaba, p. 50. Note the great s i m i l a r i t y between t h i s sentence and the f i r s t sentence of Cien afios de soledad, i n which the p e r s p e c t i v e i s a l s o that of l o o k i n g back upon the past from a p r o j e c t e d f u t u r e time: "Muchos anos despues, f r e n t e a l pelot6n de f u s i l a m i e n t o , e l c o r o n e l A u r e l i a n o Buendia habia de recordar a q u e l l a tarde remota en que su padre l o l l e v o a conocer e l h i e l o . " (p. 59) 1 5 a V i r g i n i a Woolf, The Voyage Out (London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1920), pp. 50-1; h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as VO. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s work appear i n the t e x t . 1 5 5 G a b r i e l G a r c i a Marquez, E l otono d e l p a t r i a r c a (Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l Sudamericana, 1975) , p~. 22; h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as OP. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s work appear i n the t e x t . 1 5 6 V i r g i n i a Woolf, Jacob's Room (1922; r p t . London: The Hogarth Press, 1954), pp. 152-3; h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as JR. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s work appear i n the t e x t . 1 5 7 V i r g i n i a Woolf, Mrs.Dalloway (London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1925), p. 20. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s work appear i n the t e x t . 1 5 8 G a b r i e l G a r c i a Marquez, E l c o r o n e l no t i e n e quien l e  e s c r i b a , 2nd ed. (1961; r p t . Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l Sudamericana, 1968), p. 60; h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as CT. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s work appear i n the t e x t . 1 5 9 V i r g i n i a Woolf, The Years (1937; r p t . London: Granada, 1979), p. 288; h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Y. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s work appear i n the t e x t . 1 6 0 G a b r i e l G a r c i a Marquez, Cien anos de soledad, 3rd ed. (1967; r p t . i n t r o d . Joaquin Marco. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1982), pp. 440-1; h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as CA. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s work appear i n the t e x t . 1 6 1 V i r g i n i a Woolf, To the Lighthouse (London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1927), p. 220; h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as TL. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s work appear i n the t e x t . 1 24 1 6 2 V i r g i n i a Woolf, Orlando: A Biography (1928; r p t . London: Granada, 1980) 1 6 3 V i r g i n i a Woolf, "On Not Knowing Greek," i n C o l l e c t e d  Essays (London: The Hogarth Press, 1966), I, 13. 1 6 4 Gerhard Joseph, "The Ant igone as C u l t u r a l Touchstone: Mathew Arno l d , Hegel, George E l i o t , V i r g i n i a Woolf, and Margaret Drabble," PMLA, 96 (1981), 28. 1 6 5 Sophocles, Antigone, t r a n s . E l i z a b e t h Wyckoff, in Sophocles - I, ed. David Grene (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1954) , p. 160. 1 6 6 McMurray, p. 10. 1 6 7 Pedro L a s t r a , "La t r a g e d i a como fundamento e s t r u c t u r a l de La h o j a r a s c a , " i n Nueve asedios a G a r c i a Marquez, p. 46. 1 6 8 Woolf, "On Not Knowing," p. 4. 1 6 9 G a b r i e l G a r c i a Marquez, La h o j a r a s c a , 3rd ed. (1955; r p t . Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l Sudamericana, 1969), p. 87. A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s work appear i n the t e x t . 1 7 0 L a s t r a , p. 39. 1 7 1 L a s t r a , p. 50. 1 7 2 Sophocles, Antigone, pp. 167-8. 1 7 3 S a i d , p. 138. 1 7 " G a b r i e l G a r c i a Marquez, Leaf Storm and Other S t o r i e s , t r a n s . Gregory Rabassa (1972; r p t . New York: Harper Colophon Books, 1979), pp. 43-4. T h i s passage i s c i t e d i n E n g l i s h f o r c l e a r e r i l l u s t r a t i o n of the s i m i l a r i t i e s between i t and the preceding passage of Woolf's. 1 25 BIBLIOGRAPHY Alone. " Orlando y Cien anos de soledad." C r o n i c a l i t e r a r i a . E l mercurio, Santiago, 21 June 1970, p. 3. Ba l a k i a n , Anna. "Influence and L i t e r a r y Fortune: The E q u i v o c a l J u n c t i o n of Two Methods." YCGL, 11 (1962), 24-31. Barthes, Roland. "From Work to Text." In h i s Image - Music - Text. Trans. Stephen Heath. New York: H i l l and Wang, 1977, pp. 155-64. 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