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Amadas et Ydoine, the search for inner and outer harmony Mearns, Barbara Lucille 1984

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AMADAS ET YDOINE THE SEARCH FOR INNER AND OUTER HARMONY By" BARBARA LUCILLE MEARNS B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF FRENCH  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to t h e ' r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1984 © B a r b a r a L u c i l l e Mearns, 1984  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements  this thesis f o r an  of  British  it  freely available  agree that for  that  Library  s h a l l make  for reference  and  study.  I  f o r extensive copying of  h i s or  be  her  copying or  f i n a n c i a l gain  shall  g r a n t e d by  The  University  1956 Main Mall  publication  not  be  Vancouver, V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (.3/81)  British  Canada  October  1,  1984  of  further this  Columbia  thesis  head o f  this  my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  French of  the  representatives.  permission.  Department o f  University  the  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  understood  the  the  I agree that  permission by  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree at  Columbia,  department or for  in partial  written  ABSTRACT  Amadas et Ydoine, a romance w r i t t e n between 1190 and 1220, describes "pure" love and a l l the obstacles i t can overcome.  The c e n t r a l concern  of t h i s work i s the r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t in order to a t t a i n harmony and union on both a s o c i a l and personal l e v e l .  Written during the t r a n s i t i o n  period between the 12th and 13th c e n t u r i e s , the romance r e f l e c t s many changing and c o n f l i c t i n g a t t i t u d e s of the time, e s p e c i a l l y those concerning women.  In these I examine the romance and the part women play in i t on three d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s : the i n t e r t e x t u a l , the n a r r a t i v e perspective and the psychological.  On the i n t e r t e x t u a l l e v e l , I compare Amadas et Ydoine with T r i s t a n et I s e u l t to show that the author i s t r y i n g to create a type of transcendent-Tristan.  His variances of the accepted " p e r f e c t " romance of  the time reveal his opinions about women and sexual r o l e s .  In Chapter 2, I examine the i n t e g r a l part played by the narrator.  He i s  an extremely ambiguous personage who manages to praise Ydoine perpetually while describing her several acts of deception.  At the same time he  denounces women as a group while o f f e r i n g no proof of his accusations. examine his portrayal of Ydoine and the inconsistent nature of his periodic i n t e r r u p t i o n s of the n a r r a t i o n .  - ii -  I  In Chapter 3, I look at the actions of Amadas in the l i g h t of Jungian and "Campbellian" concepts.  I see his maturation process as being what Jung  c a l l s the i n d i v i d u a t i o n process and what Campbell labels the hero voyage.  I consider the steps Amadas takes in order to bring to a  conscious l e v e l his anima, or feminine p r i n c i p l e , as being the major part of his maturation.  Amadas et Ydoine i s a romance of struggle, but one in which s o c i a l and personal harmony are f i n a l l y achieved. harmony i s the female.  The bridge of those two types of  On the i n t e r t e x t u a l l e v e l , i t i s Ydoine who  guides Amadas and who motivates him to guard t h e i r v i t a l connection to the macrocosmos.  On the psychological l e v e l , i t i s the anima who guides  Amadas, helps him face his unconscious, surrender his ego, and molds him into a well-rounded p e r s o n a l i t y .  The narrator incarnates opposing views  of both the 12th and 13th c e n t u r i e s , and by doing so reveals how impossible and r i d i c u l o u s those extreme a t t i t u d e s about women a c t u a l l y are.  Consequently, the romance can be regarded as a re-enactment of coming to terms with our unconscious, healing the c o n f l i c t with the contrasexual component of our beings, which in turn helps to heal the s p l i t between male and female on a s o c i a l level and r e s u l t s in both i n t e r n a l and external harmony.  To Harold Knutson, without whose kind support and f r i e n d s h i p , t h i s t h e s i s would not have been w r i t t e n .  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e to express my gratitude to my thesis advisor, Gordon McGregor, f o r his receptiveness and i n s i g h t which helped me develop my ideas and structure them into the form of a t h e s i s , and f o r his humour and enthusiasm which contributed g r e a t l y to my enjoyment of the whole process.  I also wish to express my appreciation to my second reader, Richard Holdaway, f o r the r a p i d i t y and thoroughness with which he read my d r a f t and f o r his many valuable  suggestions.  And many thanks to my p a t i e n t , perseverant and capable f r i e n d , s i s t e r - i n - l a w and t y p i s t , Linda Mearns, who, although l i v i n g in Regina while I was l i v i n g in Berkeley and, although having no knowledge of modern French, much less of old French, helped me immensely by bravely undertaking the job of typing t h i s t h e s i s .  - v -  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Description  Page  Abstract  ii  Dedication  iii  Acknowledgements  iv  P l o t Resume  1  Introduction  19  Chapter 1 - Amadas et Ydoine as Transcendent-Tristan  33  Chapter 2 - The Narrator and his Heroine  58  Chapter 3 - Amadas  85  1  Inner Voyage  Conclusion  118  Notes  132  Bibliography  141  - vi -  PLOT RESUME  The narrater gives a b r i e f introduction to the romance.  He i s going to t e l l the story of two  people whom love has brought together and who loyally live: Toute leur vie sans t r i c h i e r , Sans v i l e n i e et sans dangier. The story takes place in "Burgundy" where the duke: A grant hounour maintint barnage, Prouece, largece et bonte'. The duke has a seneschal who i s "preu et v a i l l a n t et mult l o i a l " .  The sensechal has a son named Amadas who i s 15 years o l d , and: Biaus ert et alignie's et grans; De cors, de v i s et de f a i t u r e Amadas i s humble, frank, courteous and w e l l - l o v e d . Even i f he were the son of a King, no one could t r e a t him more honourably than he i s now t r e a t e d . However, Amadas does have one tache: Q u ' i l n ' a v o i t pas ou mont dansele Tant c o u r t o i s e , france ne bele, Ne dame de nuLe devise, Ne pour biaute, ne pour f r a n k i s e Q u ' i l amast v a i l l a n t une a l i e . N'avoit cure de d r l i e r i e .  Verses 125 - 190  The duke has a daughter named Ydoine: Qui mult e s t o i t et gente et bele. N'ot s i renoumee pucele Decha les mons, de grant biaute, De f r a n c i s e ne de bonte'. Her beauty i s described from head to toe, and we learn that she, also, has one tache: C'onques ne fu f i l l e a nul r o i , N'empereour, n'a due, n'a conte Qui s i t e n i s t p e t i t de conte Au d r o i t d'Amor com e l f a i s o i t . D'amour s i sourquidie e s t o i t Et s i f i e r e et s i o r g i l l e u s e , Vers tous hommes s i desdaigneuse  Verses 191 - 290  A f e s t i v a l takes place at which Amadas i s helping to serve the food.  The coup de foudre h i t s him while  he i s c u t t i n g meat f o r Ydoine.  He drops the k n i f e ,  turns pale, sighs and f a i n t s .  Verses 291 - 306  The narrator i n t e r r u p t s the story to speak of love, t h i s "mervilleuse cose" that "de chose amere f a i t miel et de douceur f a i t savoir  Verses 307 - 412  fiel".  Ydoine does not suspect that i t i s she who has caused Amadas' strange behaviour.  He i s in intense  and incurable pain, and i s taken home to bed.  There  he can neither eat nor drink, and i s near death f o r s i x months: Mais ainc T r i s t r a n s s i grant doleur Ne s o u f f r i pour Yseu l a b l o i e , Ne tant mal sans confort de j o i e , Com Amadas en a sousfert - 2 -  During t h i s time he seeks counsel from no one, but keeps his f e e l i n g s s e c r e t .  Verses 413 - 571  Amadas v i s i t s Ydoine to declare his love f o r her. He i s very a f r a i d , and when he confesses  his  feelings: Idoine a l a requeste oiee, Mult l e t i e n t a grant d e r v e r i e , A grant escar et a outrage; Ire est mult en son corage She t e l l s Amadas that he i s e i t h e r crazy or drunk, that i t would be blasphemous f o r her to love bassement, and t h a t , besides, she has no love in her heart f o r him.  She orders him not to speak of i t  again.  Verses 572 - 619  Amadas i s devastated.  He leaves her room in more  pain than he has experienced thus f a r and languishes on his bed f o r another year.  Verses 620 - 764  Amadas decides to t r y again.  He pretends to be  j o l l y at court but enters Ydoine's room " a grant peeur" and announces: 'Ne m'i l a i s s i e ' s dame, morir Pour seul s o u s f r a i t e de c o n f o r t , . . . J e m ' o c i r a i ains l e matin. ...France dame ne damoisele, Pour parage tant ne fu bele, Ne f i s t , c e r t e s , pechie' s i grant Ne s i cruel ne s i pesant Com vous fere's se j e m'oehi. Je n'en sai plus, dame; m e r c i i ' - 3 -  Ydoine i s enragedl  She c a l l s him:  Leciere outrequidies, Gars anieus, fox assoties! /  She repeats that he i s insane, and that she owes more to her parents than to love someone of his small bravery, threatens to have him beaten by her servants who w i l l turn " l e ventre enver".  Verses 765 - 965  Amadas sighs grievously and departs f o r his bedroom f o r another year. tournament.  During t h i s time there i s a  Everyone misses Amadas and they discuss  how well he would do there i f only he were not so ill.  Amadas hears t h i s t a l k and regrets that he i s  wasting his youth.  Unfortunately, there i s nothing  he can do, as he i s s u f f e r i n g from an incurable love sickness.  He concludes that death i s the only  solution.  Verses 966 - 1315  In a desperate e f f o r t , Amadas v i s i t s Ydoine f o r the t h i r d time.  He i s in much pain:  De trestous les amans du mont, Qui en cest s i e c l e ame ont Puis qu'Adans fu primes fourmes^ Ne cuic c'uns horn f u s t j a troves Qui tant a i t endure'd'Amours Ydoine i s outraged by his g a l l :  - 4 -  'Mauvais gars, lechiere afole's, Quant c a s t i i e r ne vous vole's, Je vous f e r a i devant moi batre . . . ' V a t ' e n ' f a i t e l e , 'o ton dosnoi. Mar te venrai mais devant moi, Que j a de moi confort n'aras. Ce est l a f i n s , ains en morras' When he hears t h i s l a s t , cruel r e j e c t i o n , Amadas sighs, repeats 1000 times "Hal l a s ! " and loses consciousness at Ydoine's f e e t .  B e l i e v i n g him to be  dead, Ydoine i s h o r r i f i e d to think that she has been the cause.  She i s frightened because of her s i n ,  and i s also frightened t h a t : Qu'el n'en a i t blasme et mauvais c r i , S'en sa cambre muert devant l i . She i s s t r i c k e n with p i t y , sadness and f i n a l l y , love: Par l e commandement d'Amours, P i t i e s et Francise et Paours Forgent mult t o s t un trencant dart Ydoine repents of her past behaviour and t e l l s God t h a t , i f he w i l l bring Amadas back to l i f e , she w i l l forever be his veraie amie.  She takes Amadas in her  arms, kisses him 100 times on the mouth and c h i n , and revives him.  At l a s t , the love i s mutual, and  i t has come about n a t u r a l l y : Natureument leur est venus Cis dous fus es cuers et crelis. Ne leur v i n t pas pour manger f r u i t , Ne pour b o i r e , ce sachies t u i t They exchange vows and r i n g s .  Ydoine t e l l s Amadas:  Par t e l convent vous doins m'amour; C'onques n'amai j u s q u ' a cest j o u r , Ne n'amerai j a mais nul houme Autre que vous, ce est l a soume. - 5 -  Ydoine suggests that Amadas become a knight in order to prove himself by courageous deeds.  Verses 1315 - 1556  This he does immediately.  He i s absent f o r three  years and gains a favourable reputation a l l over France.  He i s an example to a l l :  De sens et de c e v a l e r i e , D'ensegnement, de c o u r t o i s i e , Et de f r a n c i s e et de largece; De l u i et de sa grant prouece During t h i s time, Amadas and Ydoine are f a i t h f u l to each other and communicate by means of w r i t t e n messages and tokens of a f f e c t i o n .  Verses 1557 - 1978  Amadas has reached the end of his three years and i s very excited to be able to return home to Ydoine. However, he hears of one very important tournament which i s to take place in 40 days.  Given the King  of France w i l l attend, the temptation i s too strong.  Amadas delays his return and does well in  the tournament.  Then, on his way home, he i s  greeted by a messenger who informs him t h a t , against her w i l l , Ydoine has been betrothed to the Count of Nevers.  At hearing t h i s , Amadas loses possession  his senses.  of  He f l e e s in his madness to the f o r e s t ,  where his valets manage to seize him; and sadly they take him to his f a t h e r ' s c a s t l e where he i s locked away. - 6 -  Verses 1979 - 2302  In the meantime, Ydoine i s in much anquish because of her impending marriage: Plus dolente ne plus pensive N'a ou mont dame ne mescine. So she f a b r i c a t e s a scheme to discourage the Count from marrying her.  She employs three witches who  disguise themselves as the three fates - C l o t o , Lachesis and Atropos.  They i n t e r r u p t the Count's  sleep during the night before the wedding and, making the whole scene seem l i k e a v i s i o n , set up a table f o r a meal and begin to eat.  They mention  several personal d e t a i l s about the Count's l i f e ,  his  r e l a t i v e s and his country to convince him of t h e i r authenticity.  Then they discuss his f u t u r e .  They  commiserate over the f a c t that he and Ydoine w i l l never have a happy future together and that there i s nothing they can do about i t .  At the Count's b i r t h  f e s t i v i t i e s , i t seems, someone inadvertently neglected to set a k n i f e at Atropos' place s e t t i n g and, to make matters worse, the same mistake occurred at Ydoine's b i r t h f e s t i v i t i e s , only t h i s time with a spoon.  Consequently, the i r a t e Atropos  put an i r r e v e r s i b l e curse on them both.  A year a f t e r  t h e i r f i r s t sexual r e l a t i o n s together, the Count i s destined to d i e .  Just before leaving, " C l o t o "  whispers to the Count that he would be well advised  - 7 -  to seek a wife elsewhere; i f not his death i s guaranteed.  Verses 2303 - 2448  The Count i s understandably shaken by his " v i s i o n " . He i s confused: Esgare's e s t , ne set que f a i r e , Ou feme prendre ou le l a i s s i e r . Mais l e corage a i t a n t f i e r Ne c r o i t en songe n'en argu, En c a r r o i ne en esternu, De r i e n ne doute l a nouvele, Car i l aime tant l a pucele The wedding does, t h e r e f o r e , take place, but the Count has been frightened enough by the witches that he does not i n s i s t on sleeping with Ydoine and so she remains a v i r g i n .  Verses 2449 - 2546  It i s now Ydoine's turn to languish f o r Amadas.  And  he i s s t i l l shut away in the c a s t l e , completely mad.  Nevertheless, a f t e r a year he manages to  escape and goes no one knows where.  Verses 2547 - 3024  Ydoine i s c l o s e r to death than to l i f e : Amadas n'ot onques s i g r i e f , Ne t e l paine ne t e l anui Por l i comme Ydoine a pour l u i . She sends her v a l e t , Garine's, to search f o r Amadas. A f t e r hunting in many places Garines f i n a l l y tracks him down at Lucca where he i s the l o c a l l u n a t i c running about the s t r e e t s . - 8 -  He returns with t h i s  news to Ydoine, who i s both pained by the thought of his madness and delighted that he i s s t i l l  alive.  She arranges immediately to leave f o r Lucca, explaining to her husband that she i s t r a v e l l i n g to Rome to see St. Peter about a cure f o r her i l l n e s s .  Verses 3025 - 3565  Ydoine meets Garines at the hostel in Lucca.  She i s  witness to extremely humiliating treatment of her ami as he i s beaten, dragged and chased by the r i f f - r a f f of the town: Ce est grans duels a esgarder De nul houme c'on doie amer. Tant com e l e plus aime l u i , Tant l i torne plus a anui Que s i laidement le b a i l l i s e n t E t , voiant ses o e l s , le l a i d i s s e n t . Ydoine, Garines and two other f a i t h f u l valets go to Amadas' grotto that evening.  They hold him down  while Ydoine q u i e t l y and tenderly repeats his name and hers 100 times. better.  No other medicine could be  Amadas i s cured.  He i s greatly ashamed of  his i n s a n i t y , however, and f e e l s quite unworthy of Ydoine's of that.  love.  But his veraie amie w i l l hear none  She knows that Amadas would have done the  same f o r her had the s i t u a t i o n been reversed and reassures him that: ' J a mais nul j o r n'avrai signor Autre que vous, pour v o i r le d i . '  - 9 -  Verses 3566 - 3623  The author now i n t e r j e c t s to b i t t e r l y attack women in general.  There i s no protection f o r a man  against a woman who wishes to t r i c k him. stands in her way.  Nothing  A l l women know w i t c h c r a f t and  even the s i l l i e s t woman i s capable of deceiving a knowledgeable man by her t r i c k s .  Women are f i c k l e ,  venimous, " p l e i n e s d'egin et de t r a i s o n en mil n'en a une e n t e r i n e " .  Verses 3624 - 3656  But not Ydoine, of course: Les dames ai or cest r e s p i t Pour l a contesse Ydoine d i t Most women are "encontre raison et d r o i t u r e " (not t h e i r f a u l t - God made them that way) but Ydoine i s "boine, l o i a l et e n t e r i n e " .  A good woman i s worth  100 men and Ydoine i s one of these.  Verses 3657 - 4010  The transformed Amadas i s taken by Garines to the hostel and i s bathed, dressed and f e d .  Ydoine, who  wants to achieve her goal to be united with Amadas: Sans reparlance de f o l i e , Sans pecie et sans volonnie wonders how to explain Amadas' presence and his reason f o r being at Lucca.  They separately attend  mass the next morning and l a t e r , at mealtime, pretend to recognize each other and make small  - 10 -  talk.  Ydoine asks the knights in her party i f  Amadas can j o i n them on t h e i r voyage to Rome but Amadas graciously refuses.  Verses 4011 - 4604  Ydoine t r a v e l s to Rome the next day.  Amadas stays  behind and p a r t i c i p a t e s in a tournament nearby.  He  buys a horse f o r both himself and f o r Ydoine and excels in the tournament.  Verses 4605 - 4736  Ydoine returns from Rome and i s being guided by uns vius chevaliers when a strange knight appears and f o r c i b l y puts Ydoine on his horse and t r i e s to s p i r i t her away.  When Amadas and others begin to  pursue them, he puts her down and mysteriously disappears.  Amadas and Ydoine enter Lucca, very  happily.  Verses 4737 - 4746  The narrator states a proverb describing the i n t e n s i t y ( s u f f e r i n g ) of these two lovers: .En tant d'eure d'unes amors N'orres j a mais s i grans dolors Ne teus angouses ne tex max. Mult leur est Fortune cruaus  Verses 4747 - 5371  Ydoine suddenly f a l l s extremely i l l . She makes her confession and, immediately before dying, contrives an outrageous l i e to Amadas.  She explains t h a t ,  before she met him, she had borne three c h i l d r e n by  - 11 -  three d i f f e r e n t cousins and that she has since murdered a l l three of the c h i l d r e n .  She t e l l s him:  Estrange mencoigne de s o i , Par l o i a u t e ' e t par grant f o i . Por g a r i r de mort son ami Por l i metre de mort a v i e . She wants to make sure that Amadas w i l l not be so overcome by g r i e f a f t e r her death that he e i t h e r commits s u i c i d e or goes insane again.  She wants him  to have a reason to l i v e , even i f i t i s only to give alms f o r her s o u l .  Amadas agrees to t h i s only f o r  her sake, and Ydoine dies and i s buried.  Verses 5372 - 6460  Amadas undergoes much g r i e f and agony a f t e r her death.  He i s beside Ydoine's grave one night when a  maufe' - or bad f a i r y a r r i v e s , ready to dig i t up. He informs Amadas that Ydoine i s his love and shows him the ring that Amadas gave her. overwhelmed.  Amadas i s  He begins to doubt Ydoine's i n t e g r i t y  and, during an i n t e r i o r monologue, l i s t s several men in h i s t o r y who were betrayed by women, as well as a few who were not.  He concludes:  ' A h i ! Ydoine amie bele, Por coi m'aves i s s i t r a i ? Feme n'ot mais s i bon ami, ...De l a desloiaute' de vous C'ainc mais ne fu s i angossous. ...Par vous sai que cascune drue Est t r i c e r e s s e et souduians, Et menteresse et decevans, Et foimentie et p a r j u r e e . '  - 12 -  Nevertheless, Amadas s t i l l chooses to f i g h t f o r Ydoine, and to keep f a i t h f u l because of the l o y a l love they have shared.  He accuses the maufe of  l y i n g and declares: 'N'en portere's l e cors sans moi, Si vous d i r a i raison por c o i : Amee l ' a i plus que ma v i e . ...Ne d o i t i s s i p a r f i t amour Qui l o i a u t e ' aime et honor OubTfer en s i poi de tens: Ce m'est avis selonc mon sens. 1  A long, arduous b a t t l e begins.  The maufe has super-  natural power, and sometimes i t seems as i f he w i l l win, but Amadas has f o r c e : Vigueurs et vasselage Et hardenment et bon corage He cuts o f f the maufe's r i g h t hand and then his enemy acknowledges his a b i l i t y and strength.  The  maufe admits that he was the strange knight who had 7  t r i e d to seize Ydoine on her re-entry to Lucca and that he had then substituted a magic r i n g f o r her ring.  Ydoine i s not r e a l l y dead, he t e l l s an  astounded Amadas, but merely in a deep stupor.  And,  he adds, the only person she has ever loved i s Amadas.  Verses 6461 - 6522  The narrator contrasts f o o l i s h courage, which causes g r i e f , with wise courage, which brings honour and comfort.  Amadas possesses wise courage, f o r which  he has indeed been rewarded.  - 13 -  Verses 6523 - 6862  Amadas i s e c s t a t i c .  He replaces the magic r i n g with  Ydoine's own r i n g and " r e s u r r e c t s " her. needless to say, astonished.  She i s ,  Amadas explains the  whole s i t u a t i o n to her and a very tender reunion ensues.  Amadas wants to consummate t h e i r love and  run away someplace where they w i l l never again be separated, but Ydoine refuses.  She wants to l i v e  honourably in the eyes of God and humankind in her own country of Burgundy: Ouvrer ensi qu'a grant hounor Me p a r t i r a i de mon signour, Et de tous mes amis donee Sans pecie a 1'ouneur de De' Par esgart de c r e s t i e n t e ' Et s ' o r e l e me f a s i i e ' s Amadas consents.  They return to the hostel at Lucca  and send word back to Burgundy that Ydoine i s a l i v e .  Verses 6863 - 6908  The author breaks in to speak about nouvelles i n . general - how r a p i d l y and extensively i t i s spread: La nouvele et plus t o s t s'espant Que ne font l i o i s e l volant. ...A cent mil pie's por t o s t a l e r L i croissent en mains d'un seul j o r .  Verses 6909 - 6972  The news of Amadas and Ydoine i s proof of t h i s .  When  t h e i r adventures become known, there i s immediately t a l k about the love that must e x i s t between them. most of the people admit:  - 14 -  But, as  Qu aperceli de r i e n ne sont . . . Q u ' i l s o i t seu'rs et e l se'u're Sans doute de nule aventure. Tant devisent q u ' i l ont trove' Engin t o t a lour volente' D'aciever leur grant d e s i r i e r Raisnavlement sans encombrier. 1  Verses 6973 - 6996  Amadas returns home to the joy of his mother, father and community.  Verses 6997 - 7036  Ydoine returns to Nevers where she feigns i l l n e s s and c a l l s f o r her husband to come and see her.  Verses 7037 - 7097  The narrator i n t e r r u p t s with his own remarks about women f o r the second time.  They are, as stated  before, f a l s e , d e c e i t f u l and i n t o sorcery.  However,  even so: Mais, j e n ' i ai d r o i t ne raison Qu'en doie d i r e se bien non: Ains ont bien deservi vers moi, Que trestoutes amer les d o i ; Ses amerai j u s q u ' a l a f i n Sans t r a i s o n et sans engin. I t i s true that women have the whole world in t h e i r power but, i f they have the wits and knowledge to "mal querre", they also know " l e bien, l a f r a n c i s e et l'ounour".  And:  En cest mont n'a s i grant docor Com en feme quant veut l e bien Verses 7098 - 7302  The enterine Ydoine, who i s "bien enraisnie et bien parlans" informs her husband of the r e s u l t of her  - 15 -  voyage to Rome.  St. Peter and the three Fates a l l  agreed i t would be best i f the two of them part. She adds, though, l i k e a good wife: D'estre ensamble ou dou d e p a r t i r : Tout en f e r a i vostre p l a i s i r . The Count agrees that an annulment i s best.  Verses 7303 - 7406  The marriage annulment i s arranged.  During t h i s  time, Amadas' f a t h e r dies and Amadas takes over the p o s i t i o n of seneschal.  The Count "qui est  debonaire" v o l u n t a r i l y leaves Ydoine and soon afterwards weds the daughter of the Count of Poitiers.  Verses 7407 - 7450  The author speaks about Fortune; one i s f o o l i s h to give himself over to e i t h e r glory or despair because: Ne mal ne bien tous j o r s ne dure; Tous l i mons est en aventure: Fois est qui trop a l u i se t i e n t , Car t o s t s'en v a i t et t o s t r e v i e n t .  Verses 7451 - 7530  Ydoine consults with her parents and t e l l s them: 'Que j a mais jour outre mon gre' Ne prendrai signeur a nul foer Or en save's, s i r e , mon c u e r . ' The duke consents and maintains she can marry whomever she wishes as long as: 'Mais que i l s o i t de haut parage Et v a i l l a n s d'oevre et de corage'  - 16 -  Ydoine suggests that the barons vote on the most v a l i a n t knight to be her husband, and her father agrees.  Verses 7531 - 7583  The barons assemble and Ydoine explains the s i t u a t i o n to them.  Verses 7584 - 7596  The narrator i n t e r r u p t s : Dius! Com est s o u t i l l e et sage! Par grant raison et par savoir .Veut aciever tout son v o l o i r , Que bien pense que l i pluisour Et l i plus v a i l l a n t de l'ounor L i vauront Amadas doner, S ' e l e l e veut acreanter  Verses 7597 - 7692  And, so i t happens according to Ydoine's plan.  The  barons " a une vois et a un c o i " choose Amadas.  The duke  asks Ydoine her opinion of t h i s decision and, although she does not want to expose her "mult grant j o i e " , responds: ' S i r e , f a i t e l e , 'mon d e s i r Est a f a i r e vostre p l a i s i r . ...Bien o t r o i c'Amadas me prenge Sans c o n t r e d i t et sans calenge, Car deseur tous amer le d o i . ' 1  Verses 7693 - 7790  The duke i s pleased and goes immediately to see Amadas.  Ydoine has already sent a message to him  i n s t r u c t i n g him how to conduct himself when her father a r r i v e s .  The duke o f f e r s Amadas his daughter  and his land of Burgundy.  Amadas kisses his f e e t ,  thanks him f o r the " t r e s grant honour" and accepts.  - 17 -  Verses 7791 - 7912  The author brings the romance to a rapid f i n i s h . Without delay, the two lovers are joyously wedded. There i s great c e l e b r a t i o n and gladness the land.  throughout  A f t e r seven years, the duke passes away  and leaves Amadas and Ydoine to r u l e in peace and happiness and love. Signeur, pour v e r i t e vous di Qu'a grant houneur t i n r e n t l a t e r r e Toute leur v i e en pais, sans guerre. De leur amor faut c i V e s t o r e , Leur ames mete Dix en glore Par sa douceur, par sa merchi, Et de tous peceeurs a u s i .  - 18 -  INTRODUCTION  Amadas et Ydoine i s an old French romance w r i t t e n between the years of 1190 and 1220 by an anonymous author.  In comparison with the writings of  Chretien de Troyes or Marie de France, t h i s work has been l a r g e l y unrecognized and unappreciated.  It provides a v a r i e d , stimulating p l o t  f u l l of charm, humour and suspense, and in i t s 3956 rhymed couplets, gives numerous morals, messages and admonitions.  Although art as  r e f l e c t e d in f i c t i o n i s not l i f e , i t does bear some resemblance to r e a l i t y by means of i t s symbols and themes, and by means of what i s perceived to be the author's motivations, ideas and opinions.  Therefore,  Amadas et Ydoine can be of value in understanding the t r a n s i t i o n period between the 12th and 13th c e n t u r i e s , a time period which, although very d i f f e r e n t from ours, i s in many ways very s i m i l a r .  The mood and philosophy of the 12th century d i f f e r e d g r e a t l y from those of the 13th century.  The 12th century was a period of awakening, of  u n s a t i s f i a b l e c u r i o s i t y of the world of new ideas.  ...there was a c u r i o s i t y the world in a l l i t s aspects, the world of men; the world of the cosmos; the world of natureJ  At t h i s time Europe was a f a i r l y open s o c i e t y .  B a r r i e r s between  countries did not then e x i s t ; there existed instead open and f l u i d frontiers.  U n t i l the Mongol onslaught and the Fourth Crusade in 1204,  Russia was s t i l l  accessible to the West and was linked to i t by  - 19 -  commercial and economic t i e s as well as by a r i s t o c r a t i c intermarriage. Russia was a bridge across another of Europe's f r o n t i e r s , that between Byzantium and Rome, between the churches of East and West.  Although in  the 11th century a serious breach did occur in the r e l a t i o n s of the L a t i n and Greek churches-, the open Europe of the 12th century s t i l l created f r i e n d l y dealings.  I t was not u n t i l the Fourth Crusade that the f i n a l  rupture between Greek and L a t i n churches occurred, p i t t i n g East and West Europe against each other f o r the next 7 c e n t u r i e s .  The t h i r d f r o n t i e r of open Europe, that with Islam, was also f l u i d . There was constant combat between the a r i s t o c r a c i e s of Spain and Islam, but i t was not serious enough to destroy old f r i e n d s h i p s or to prevent new ones from forming - Islamic and Hispano-Christian f a m i l i e s continued to intermarry.  Islam was regarded as an i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l  treasure by c e r t a i n segments of European s o c i e t y that were t h i r s t i n g f o r knowledge.  Just as there were f l e x i b l e , external f r o n t i e r s of Europe in the 12th century, so there was a corresponding i n t e r n a l f l e x i b i l i t y : learning was l i b e r a l and was becoming more broadly based. open.  The Church i t s e l f was  The c l e r i c s of the Catheral schools of France and Germany and the  municipal schools of I t a l y brought with them c u r i o s i t y , freshness and open minds.  The c u l t u r e they were being taught had many elements of  pagan a n t i q u i t y and the non-Christian Orient.  - 20 -  This e c l e c t i c i s m was possible only because of the open-mindedness p r e v a i l i n g in the church and in r e l i g i o u s l i f e as a whole.  This open r e l i g i o n of the e a r l i e r Middle Ages was a s a t i s f y i n g blend of ingredients taken from p r e - C h r i s t i a n 'pagan' f o l k r e l i g i o n s with others that were c e r t a i n l y C h r i s t i a n but which had acquired an e x o t i c f l a v o u r i n g from t h e i r intimate association with contrasting and non-Christian m a t e r i a l .  2  It was not u n t i l the middle of the 12th century that the Church as a separate e n t i t y was even mentioned.  People thought rather in terms of  Christendom - f e e l i n g that attempts to understand God would imprison Him within a r i g i d theology.  This open Church was a l i v i n g union of mighty opposites: heaven and e a r t h , matter and s p i r i t , l i v i n g and dead, body and s o u l , 3  past, present and f u t u r e .  Open Europe also had an open a r i s t o c r a c y .  There was a substantial lesser  a r i s t o c r a c y that l i v e d on the land close to the peasants and that was accessible from below.  An open c l e r g y reigned as w e l l .  Most  12th-century c l e r i c s were accessible to t h e i r people and at a l l l e v e l s of society.  Rigid b a r r i e r s between c l e r g y and people were few and even the  highest clergy was often on the same c u l t u r a l level as the people, c l o s e l y associating with them in t h e i r f e a s t s , f e s t i v a l s and d a i l y l i f e .  - 21 -  By contrast, during the period 1200 - 1350, r i g i d d i v i s i o n s occurred which caused growing i n t e r n a l and external i s o l a t i o n of Europe. Mongol deluge cut Russia o f f from Europe.  The  The L a t i n crusaders captured  Constantinople by force and founded crusading states on Byzantine t e r r i t o r y , bringing about the separation of East and West, the d i v i s i o n of Christendom into Greek and L a t i n spheres of i n f l u e n c e .  The threat of  the Turks created i n f l e x i b l e f r o n t i e r s between European Christendom and Islam.  The three powerful and contiguous c u l t u r e s , Western Christendom, Byzantium and Islam, were now drawing f u r t h e r and f u r t h e r apart; now a l l three tended to revert to what i s usually considered a t y p i c a l l y "medieval" c o n d i t i o n - - t h e y became closed s o c i e t i e s , withdrawn into t h e i r separate worlds.^  This growing external i s o l a t i o n was matched by the appearance of s p e c i a l i z e d i n s t i t u t i o n s and groupings.  The n o b i l i t y , the clergy and the  i n t e l l i g e n t s i a cut themselves o f f from the masses.  L a t i n l o s t i t s status  as the universal language of Europe and was retained only as the language of the u n i v e r s i t i e s and the governing e l i t e in Church and State. masses spoke vernacular  The  languages.  The Church was becoming c l e r i c a l i z e d and was shocked to discover "heresy" in southwest Europe and western and southern Germany; even an opposition church.  The Church reacted by e s t a b l i s h i n g new r e l i g i o u s orders,  - 22 -  developing a more rigorous theology and by intervening d i r e c t l y in the external and i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s of the nation.  The r e a l i z a t i o n that Christendom, an i n d i v i s i b l e u n i t , had suddenly become permeated and undermined by sects whose views on r e l i g i o n , the world and sometimes also on p o l i t i c s , d i f f e r e d t o t a l l y from those of the Church and i t s people.^  This was a shock that led to the fragmentation of Europe: i n t e r n a l "crusades"  against the h e r e t i c s , the I n q u i s i t i o n , censorship of thought  and b e l i e f on the part of church and state and r i g i d dogmas a l l resulted from t h i s fragmentation.  The tolerance that had before been shown to persons of a l i e n race, creed or opinion was now replaced by prejudice and xenophobia.  The i n t e l l e c t u a l and s p i r i t u a l l i f e of the time r e f l e c t e d t h i s fear and arrogance in the form of nominalism and mysticism.  It expressed the  doubts and depair of the time, t r y i n g to b u i l d " i n n e r kingdoms of the mind and s o u l " in a troubled age. This period of the Middle Ages was volcanic t e r r i t o r y , with the threat of eruption always j u s t below the surface: not a year passed, not a day, without outbreaks of war, feud and c i v i l conflict.  But t h i s same volcanic s o i l could sustain the Gothic  vine, poetic l a u r e l s f l o u r i s h e d in i t and the myrtle of mysticism grew s t u r d i l y . ^  - 23 -  The a t t i t u d e s of both 12th and 13th centuries n a t u r a l l y extended to include women. enjoyed.  In the 12th century, women attained a status never before  There were no longer merely the chattel of men.  they had considerable i n f l u e n c e .  Politically,  In southern France, there i s evidence  that there was something close to e q u a l i t y of the sexes.  In 1308, we hear of c e r t a i n women in the Touraine who were apparently e l i g i b l e to a s s i s t in the e l e c t i o n of deputies to the assembly of estates at Tours.^  There were great r u l i n g ladies during t h i s century—Eleanor of Aquitaine, Empress Matilda and Blanche of Castile—who governed large t r a c t s of land.  The increased p o p u l a r i t y and r e s p e c t a b i l i t y of the vernacular  languages f o r the expression of refined thought (sophisticated l i t e r a r y thought) owed much to feminine i n f l u e n c e .  Women also played a large r o l e in the r e l i g i o u s society of the day. Around the year 1250, there were 500 nunneries in Germany with a t o t a l population of between 25,000 and 30,000 r e l i g i o u s .  Women were e l i g i b l e  to become Perfects and were authorized to preach and to dispense the consolamentum. groups.  Women were also very a c t i v e in heterodox and h e r e t i c a l  The Waldensians, the Cathars and other groups encouraged women  to preach and to propagandise.  The c o u r t l y way of l i f e , connected with Eleanor and the r i s e of the Angevin Empire, introduced into northern Europe a t r a d i t i o n of love where  - 24 -  women were elevated, honoured and even worshipped.  A woman became more  than a physical being, she became a symbol of perfection and t o t a l i t y . It was the woman who inspired the man to great achievements and to supreme f u l f i l l m e n t .  She represented the higher part of man, and by  r a i s i n g himself to her l e v e l and integrating her s p i r i t u a l a t t r i b u t e s , he could grow in v i r t u e , merit and worth and achieve the moral and s o c i a l harmony f o r which he longed so much.  With the increasing fear and anxiety of the 13th century, however, the emphasis was no longer placed upon the search f o r harmony but on fragmentation of the psyche.  The focus was no longer on s o c i e t y , but on  the i n d i v i d u a l , because s a l v a t i o n was achieved only by a l i e n a t i n g oneself from the world.  As men became more r i g i d and repressed, they regarded  women more as separate beings who were dangerous and base.  Thirteenth-century l i t e r a t u r e shows the strong influence of two a n t i - f e m i n i s t views: the A r i s t o t e l i a n — o f woman as a defective male, a creature lacking in reason, useful only to bear c h i l d r e n ; and the m o r a l i s t — o f woman as a threat to man's salvation.^  Men t r i e d desperately at t h i s time to harness the feminine s p i r i t u a l energy of the 12th century. masculine.  Society, theology and morality a l l became  Feminine i n d u s t r i e s were taken over by men.  There was no  s u i t a b l e o u t l e t a f t e r that f o r t h e i r great a b i l i t i e s and great s p i r i t u a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l  yearnings.  - 25 -  Thus, we can see a s i m i l a r i t y between the age in which the author of Amadas et Ydoine was w r i t i n g and our own.  His was a time of  fragmentation, of rapid s o c i a l change, of uncertainty about and fear of the f u t u r e .  Today we have the pernicious threat of nuclear war, and  although the fears of the 13th century did not include omnicide or t o t a l a n n i h i l a t i o n , the world as they knew i t was, in f a c t , s e l f - d e s t r u c t i n g , and the d i v i s i v e influence affected every part of t h e i r l i v e s .  As f a r as women are concerned, they are no longer p h y s i c a l l y burned at the stake f o r being witches or h e r e t i c s , but f i g u r a t i v e l y they often are and they have s t i l l not gained e q u a l i t y with men economically or socially.  There is s t i l l enormous disharmony between the sexes, and  l i t t l e comprehension.  As V i r g i n i a Woolf pointed out back in 1928 in  A Room of One s Own: 1  And I went on amateurishly to sketch a plan of the soul so that in each of us two powers preside, one male, one female; and in the man's brain the man predominates over the woman, and in the woman's brain the woman predominates over the man.  The normal  and comfortable state of being i s that when the two l i v e in harmony together, s p i r i t u a l l y co-operating.  If one i s a man,  s t i l l the woman also must have e f f e c t , and a woman also must have intercourse with the man in her.  Coleridge perhaps meant  t h i s when he said that a great mind i s androgynous.  - 26 -  9  An androgynous mind!  Surely t h i s i s the ideal towards which to s t r i v e ,  but which 20th-century society i s s t i l l f a r from achieving.  This i s more  than acceptance, more than understanding between the sexes--this  is  complete i n t e g r a t i o n and union of the masculine and feminine parts of the mind.  This union i s the essence of harmony not only between the sexes, but also in the soul of each i n d i v i d u a l .  As long as the masculine element of the  brain f i g h t s , minimizes or ignores the feminine, or v i c e versa, dissension and fragmentation w i l l e x i s t in the psyche of the i n d i v i d u a l and the psyche of s o c i e t y .  Because t h i s i s such a c r u c i a l issue today, and has been throughout h i s t o r y , and because we s t i l l seem very f a r away from reaching a s o l u t i o n to the problem, i t can be very b e n e f i c i a l to study texts from the Middle Ages so as to better understand the psychological fragmentation that existed during that time period.  By examining the a t t i t u d e s and opinions  about women as set f o r t h by the author of Amadas et Ydoine, we, as 20th-century readers, can compare the author's attempts to deal with the discord between the sexes with current t h e o r i e s , and can investigate how successful he i s at unifying the masculine and feminine elements of his mind.  I have chosen to approach t h i s issue from a psychological viewpoint because we are dealing f i r s t l y with mental a t t i t u d e s and secondly, with  - 27 -  the r e s u l t s  of  those  attitudes.  Ydoine i s ,  admittedly,  whatsoever  of  far et  the  as we k n o w , Ydoine.  A psychological  limited  personal  life  h a v e no o t h e r  As a r e s u l t ,  by s e v e r a l  all  of  this  works that  of  work as a s o l e e n t i t y .  either  a n a l y s i s o r t h e work i t s e l f ,  that  the  factors.  particular  This  but  assessment of  state--they  are merely  this  work.  single  Psychological approaching Arthurian  the  a n a l y s i s of medieval  the  literature.  lessen the  Historian  is  this  importance  i s necessary to  character  not  meant  to  psychological c l u e s found  new and i s  Friedrich  of  realize  are not  or  as  c o m p a r e Amadas  derived from various  works  and,  scrutinize  and t h a t t h e y  author's  speculations  it  et  nothing  "anonymous"  is to  need n o t  any c o n c l u s i o n s drawn a r e r e s t r i c t e d  be a d e f i n i t i v e  We know  h i s w i t h which to  is possible  particular  a n a l y s i s o f Amadas  a valid  Heer notes  in  way  of  that  romances:  ...  were  attempts  developments energizing they  ...  at the  springs  of  encompassed l i f e  psychology' brings  As Heer s t a t e s :  found  t o mind t h e  medieval  between t h e microcosmos  expounding  the  processes of  'roman c o u r t o i s ' life,  the  deeper  as a w h o l e .  p e o p l e were (humans)  - 28 -  layers  ignore of in  interior  the  personality; 'depth  astonishing...which  GungJ^  interested  and t h e  not  The s k i l l  i n t h e s e romances i s researches of  did  man's  in the  correspondences  macrocosmos ( n a t u r e ) ,  which  is  why we are able to use 20th-century a n a l y t i c a l t o o l s to uncover layers of meaning in the l i t e r a t u r e .  1 1  I intend to analyse the romance on three d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s , with each level leading to a deeper level of unconscious motivation and significance.  On the i n t e r t e x t u a l l e v e l I compare Amadas et Ydoine with T r i s t a n and Iseult.  The romance of T r i s t a n and I s e u l t has been lauded as being the  model of perfect lovers throughout h i s t o r y , the level of love to which to aspire.  As Joseph Campbell a f f i r m s :  In the Occident the most impressive representation of love as passion i s to be found undoubtedly in the legend of the love poem of T r i s t a n and I s o l t , where i t i s the paradoxology of the mystery that i s celebrated: the agony of l o v e ' s j o y , and the l o v e r ' s joy in that agony, which i s by noble hearts experienced as the very ambrosia of l i f e .  12  T r i s t a n and I s e u l t have been considered archetypal lovers and other romances have sought to emphasize the worth or s u f f e r i n g of t h e i r lovers by comparing i t with that of T r i s t a n and I s e u l t .  In Chretiens' Erec and  Enide, Enides' great beauty is described by a comparison with I s e u l t : De c e s t i tesmoingne nature Qu'onques s i bele c r i a t u r e Ne fu vecie an t o t l e monde Por v o i r vos di qu'lseuz l a blonde N'ot tant les c r i n s sors ne luisanz Que a c e s t i ne f u s t n e a n z ^ - 29 -  And E r e c ' s praise from the people i s given in terms of T r i s t a n ' s p r a i s e : Onques, ce c u i t , t e l j o i e n'ot La ou T r i s t a n z l e f i e r Morhot An l ' i s l e saint Sanson vainqui Con l ' a n f e i s o i t d'Erec i q u i Mout f e i s o i e n t de l u i grant lus Grant et p e t i t et gresle et gros T u i t prisent sa c h e v a l e r i e ^ Amadas et Ydoine i s no exception in t h i s regard.  Several times the  author c i t e s T r i s t a n and I s e u l t as examples to e i t h e r f o l l o w or surpass. Indeed, I see as perhaps the prime motivation f o r w r i t i n g Amadas et Ydoine the c r e a t i o n , not of an a n t i - T r i s t a n , but of a transcendentT r i s t a n , where the author seeks to c o r r e c t what he deems imperfections in the love between T r i s t a n and I s e u l t , and seeks to surpass the q u a l i t y of t h e i r love in the form of Amadas et Ydoine.  The changes and  modifications he makes in order to portray his own idea of perfect lovers are very s i g n i f i c a n t in considering the author's notions of women and sexual r o l e s .  Consequently, I am using T r i s t a n and I s e u l t as a l i t e r a r y springboard to delve more deeply into the author's underlying b e l i e f s and 15  assumptions. The second level i s the narrative perspective.  The narrator plays an  i n t e g r a l part throughout the whole romance, i n t e r r u p t i n g the p l o t narration numerous times to comment on the actions of the protagonists or to give his opinion of love in general, women, fortune, courage and even gossip.  - 30 -  In Chapter 2, I examine the n a r r a t o r ' s portrayal and comments on Ydoine's actions, his statements about the female sex in general and his inconsistencies and biases in t h i s regard.  The inconsistencies are  b l a t a n t , yet the narrator f a i l s to acknowledge them or explain them away.  In a way the narrator i s a f i g u r e to be mocked by both the author  and reader, a f i g u r e who i s r i d i c u l o u s and f a r c i c a l yet who at times displays a canniness in his acute observations of human nature.  By means  of the n a r r a t o r ' s incongruous and often i l l o g i c a l remarks we can speculate about the d i f f i c u l t i e s the author seems to be having formulating his own opinions about women.  I am assuming here that the author i s male and that he f e e l s a close bond with Amadas, not so much because of the n a r r a t o r ' s comments about women, but because of an almost i n t a n g i b l e q u a l i t y behind the narration which suggests a great s e n s i t i v i t y and empathy f o r Amadas and his  struggles.  Although sympathy f o r Ydoine i s also present, the same depth of compassion i s not.  The author seems to f e e l very close to Amadas during  both his f a i l u r e s and successes.  Furthermore, the midpoint of medieval  works i s usually very s i g n i f i c a n t , and the midpoint of Amadas et Ydoine i s reserved f o r p r a i s i n g Amadas.  The halfway point occurs j u s t a f t e r  Ydoine has cured Amadas of his madness at Lucca and has asked the knights in her party i f Amadas can j o i n them on t h e i r voyage to Rome. 'Grans biens s e r o i t , ' cascuns respont, 'Car n'a t e l c h e v a l i e r u mont, Plus g e n t i l ne plus debonaire. Se i l pour vous v o l o i t ce f a i r e , A vous et a nous tous s e r o i t Mult grans honeurs s ' a l u i p l a i s o i t . Drois est et raisons, ce nous samble, Et s i vous loons t u i t ensamble Que T e n facie's p r i i e r e grant. ' 1 ° - 31 -  They r e p l y :  Because the midpoint i s a t r i b u t e to Amadas and his k n i g h t l y valour, I assume t h i s i s what the author values the most and r e l a t e s to the best.  The t h i r d l e v e l of study i s the psychological sphere. Amadas  1  Here I analyse  actions and reactions using as my tools both Jungian and  "Campbellian" concepts.  I see Amadas' adventures in t h i s romance as  being part of a maturation process, a discovery process of his true p e r o n a l i t y , an attempt to harmonise the element of the microcosmos and the macrocosmos.  Amadas encounters several obstacles on the way, but  these only serve to make him wiser, more s e n s i t i v e and c l o s e r in access to his soul and inner yearnings.  Here the female f i g u r e , Ydoine,  symbolizes much more than a physical woman; she symbolizes the search f o r unity and f o r i n t e g r a t i o n of the male and female elements, of his being, which i s the core of a l l harmony.  Amadas' psychological voyage reveals the f e a r s , apprehensions, hopes and doubts of a person in search of harmony with himself and with the world during a time of increasing despair, intolerance and arrogance. as readers may have the most to learn from t h i s romance.  Here we  The hero voyage  and the i n d i v i d u a t i o n process are timeless human experiences, and comparing our own with that of someone of the 13th-century can be most rewarding and reassuring.  I t can make us f e e l a c e r t a i n connection with  people who have l i v e d before us and w i l l l i v e a f t e r us. that v i t a l l i n k with the macrocosmos.  I t can give us  I t can give us incentive to embark  on our own attempt to diminish the c o n f l i c t between the male and female within our own psyches and to achieve unity between the physical sexes.  - 32 -  CHAPTER 1  AMADAS ET YDOINE AS TRANSCENDENT-TRISTAN  T r i s t a n and I s e u l t have long been considered archetypal lovers, the model to imitate f o r medieval w r i t e r s seeking to create a " p e r f e c t " romance. We have seen an example of t h i s in Chretien de Troyes  1  Erec et Enide  where Enide's beauty i s compared to that of I s e u l t and the praise bestowed upon Erec i s assessed according to that received by T r i s t a n .  The author of Amadas et Ydoine also seems to have had T r i s t a n and I s e u l t i n mind while creating his romance.  Besides the f a c t that the narrator  r e f e r s to them by name several times, there are also many unstated p a r a l l e l s between T r i s t a n and I s e u l t and Amadas and Ydoine.  The author  does not, however, d i s p l a y the same degree of admiration f o r T r i s t a n and I s e u l t as do other w r i t e r s of the time.  It i s almost as i f , while  reading T r i s t a n and I s e u l t , he noticed what he considered to be several flaws in t h e i r love r e l a t i o n s h i p and was moved to produce a romance where these imperfections would be c o r r e c t e d .  Thus, in Amadas et Ydoine he i s  seeking to write a transcendent-Tristan, portraying his own idea of perfect lovers.  By examining how he modifies and deviates from what has  been considered to be the model love a f f a i r , we can gain some clues as to his b e l i e f s and assumptions about women, love and sexual r o l e s .  The f i r s t d i f f e r e n c e we may notice between the two couples i s t h a t , unlike T r i s t a n in r e l a t i o n to I s e u l t , Amadas i s below Ydoine in s o c i a l  - 33 -  station.  She i s the daughter of the Duke of Burgundy, whereas Amadas i s  merely the son of his seneschal.  I t i s a respected p o s i t i o n , but he i s  nonetheless not a member of the highest n o b i l i t y .  According to the  standards of the c o u r t l y love t r a d i t i o n , t h i s would have been considered a serious defect in a love r e l a t i o n s h i p .  Furthermore, Amadas i s only 15  years old and i s as yet unproven in k n i g h t l y deeds and valour.  Thus,  r i g h t from the beginning the s i t u a t i o n seems to be less than ideal f o r creating a transcendent-Tristan.  Nevertheless, we learn immediately that the author estimates the worth of a person by means other than one's s o c i a l s t a t i o n .  He t e l l s us of Amadas:  Ne f u s t en nul pai's trouves Uns damoisiaus de sa beaute's. II avoit j a pres de^quinze ans. Biaus e r t et alignie's et grans; ...Sour tous enfans sages e s t o i t ; Humles ert mult et amiavles, Frans et courtois et s e r v i c a v l e s , Et mult ames de chevaliers  vv.  Que s ' i l e s t o i t f i u s a un r o i , Ou f i u s a r i c e empereour. Ne poroit plus t r a i r e a hounour  vv. 78-80  59-71  In f a c t :  Unlike T r i s t a n , Amadas i s not of superior b i r t h , but we can see that what the author values much more and what he considers to be e s s e n t i a l f o r a perfect lover are moral excellence, physical beauty, and a good reputation.  Amadas i s unproven, but he has p o t e n t i a l .  Here the author  seems to share the a t t i t u d e of the narrator of Yvain, who believes that love should seek out an honourable place to lodge:  - 34 -  C ' e s t granz honte, qu'Amors est t e s , Et quant e l e s i mal se prueve Que e l - p l u s v i i l e u , q u ' e l e trueve, Se herberge t o t aussi t o s t , Come an t o t l e m e i l l o r de l ' o s t Mes ore est ele bien venue Ci i e r t ele a enor tenue Et c i l i f e t buen demorer E i n s i se devroit atorner Amors, qui s i est haute chose Que m e r v o i l l e est, comant ele ose De honte an s i v i i leu descandre 1 The narrator has great respect f o r love and believes i t w i l l be honourably treated by Yvain.  So, too, the author of Amadas et Ydoine i s  in the process of showing us that by being "humles", "amiavles", " f r a n s " , " c o u r t o i s " and " s e r v i c a v l e s " , Amadas i s a good candidate f o r love.  S t i l l , the author does not create a character that i s superhuman. may be superior in many ways, but he s t i l l  Amadas  has one serious f l a w :  Q u ' i l n ' a v o i t teche, ne mais une, Qui pas n ' e s t o i t a gent commune; Q u ' i l n ' a v o i t pas ou mont dansele Tant c o u r t o i s e , france ne bele, . . . Q u ' i l amast v a i l l a n t une a l i e . N'avoit cure de druerie  vv. 81-88  The flaw i s not that Amadas i s superior morally and p h y s i c a l l y , but that he has such a proud, haughty a t t i t u d e about i t .  Curiously, Ydoine, who i s also exceptional p h y s i c a l l y and morally, possesses the same tache, only to a more severe degree. not only men, but love i t s e l f .  - 35 -  She d i s d a i n s ,  The author has thus f a r introduced two characters who are not at a l l searching f o r love.  Amadas seems too young, being as yet untested as to  courage and valour, and Ydoine seems u n w i l l i n g .  Thus, i t i s going to be  a challenge f o r love to touch e i t h e r of them.  The author does not use a love potion s i m i l a r to that found in T r i s t a n and I s e u l t in order to surmount t h i s obstacle.  He uses instead the  coup de foudre, love at f i r s t s i g h t , which s t r i k e s d r a m a t i c a l l y at the fete.  He loses a l l touch with r e a l i t y .  He drops the k n i f e with which he  i s c u t t i n g Ydoine's meat, loses a l l colour in his face and f a i n t s . at the f e s t i v a l believe he has d i e d .  Many  In a way he has, since he w i l l  never be the same carefree adolescent again.  Amadas becomes very i l l : Conduit l ' e n ont a son o s t e l Et s i l ' o n t coucie' en un l i t . ...Dont muert a s i t r e s grant t r i s t e u r ; Qu'estre son voel est s i aquis Que pres de mort en est souspris. Le mangier et l e boivre pert vv. 328-335 Amadas'  love sickness i s very sudden and involves a p h y s i c a l , i n t e r n a l  reaction.  I t i s not caused by something he has ingested, but proceeds  through his eyes—the mere sight of Ydoine renders him powerless  against  love.  The author emphasizes the extent of Amadas' s u f f e r i n g by comparing i t with that of T r i s t a n caused by his love f o r I s e u l t :  - 36 -  Mais ainc T r i s t a n s i grant doleur Ne s o u f f r i pour Yseu fa b l o i e , Ne tant mal sans confort de j o i e , Com Amadas en a sousfert  vv. 340-344  It i s i n t e r e s t i n g that the author f e e l s i t necessary to create a character whose agony not only equals that of T r i s t a n , but exceeds i t . The author seems to believe that pain must accompany love and that the more one s u f f e r s , the more one loves. describing Amadas'  He stresses t h i s f a c t by  languishing in his bed f o r 2-1/2 years because of his  f e e l i n g s f o r Ydoine.  Ydoine i s at f i r s t completely o b l i v i o u s to Amadas. i s forced to s u f f e r alone.  Consequently, Amadas  He i s also forced to become the pursuer,  something which does not occur in T r i s t a n and I s e u l t . the author g r e a t l y values courage and k n i g h t l y valour.  We have seen that Do these  q u a l i t i e s , then, have to carry over into the sphere of love as proof of a l o v e r ' s worth?  Does the f a c t that Amadas must r i s e to the challenge and  "conquer" Ydoine demonstrate that he i s a superior lover to Tristan?  And Ydoine c e r t a i n l y does prove to be a challenge.  A f t e r Amadas' f i r s t  advances she i s very i r r i t a t e d and spurns him immediately.  She thinks  him e i t h e r mad or drunk and f o r b i d s him to speak f u r t h e r of such foolishness.  Nonetheless, Amadas i s p e r s i s t e n t and determined.  He v i s i t s Ydoine again  after another year of love sickness and modifies his strategy. he does not implore, but announces:  - 37 -  This time  'Se ne m'aidies tost a l a f i n , Je m'ocirai ains l e matin. ...Ne f i s t , c e r t e s , pechie' s i grant Ne s i c r u e l , ne s i pesant Com vous feres se j e m'ochi, Je n'en sai plus, dame; m e r c i i '  vv. 720-729  His timid request of t h e i r f i r s t encounter has become a t h r e a t , and almost a condemnation of Ydoine.  I t i s the language more of a warrior  than of a l o v e r .  Ydoine responds with a threat of her own.  She c a l l s him " l e c i e r e  o u t r e q u i d i e s " , "gars anieus", and "fox assoties" and says: 'Se mais t ' a v i e n t i c e s t e rage Que me requieres de f o l a g e , Tant me f e r a i batre a mes sers Que tourneras l e ventre envers.'  vv. 758-761  Ydoine i s d i s p l a y i n g a gross lack of compassion here.  Amadas has been  lovesick f o r a year and a h a l f by t h i s time and must be showing signs of weakness and melancholy. image of the ideal woman.  At t h i s p o i n t , Ydoine i s d e f i n i t e l y not the She i s powerful, cruel and aggressive.  She also seems hopelessly unattainable f o r Amadas. give up.  S t i l l , he does not  He returns home to languish in bed f o r another year.  He i s  aware of the time he i s wasting, j u s t as T r i s t a n becomes aware in the f o r e s t a f t e r the love potion wears o f f .  - 38 -  T r i s t a n sorrowfully remarks:  'Hal Dex,' f a i t i l , ' t a n t ai t r a v a i l Trois anz a h u i , que n'ens r i i f a l , Onques ne me f a l 1 i pus paine Ne a f o i r i e n'en sorsemaine, Qublie ai c h e v a l e r i e , A seure cort et baronie, Ge sui essi11ie du paYs, Tot m'est f a l l i et v a i r et g r i s , Ne sui a cort a c h e v a l i e r s , Dex! Tant m'amast mes o n c l e ( r ) s c h i e r s , Se tant ne fuse a l u i mesfez Nal Dex, tant foiblement me vet!'2 The s i t u a t i o n i s r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f o r Amadas, however, when T r i s t a n comes to r e a l i z e that he i s wasting his youth and i s not f u l f i l l i n g his societal obligations.  He i s capable of r e c t i f y i n g t h i s s i t u a t i o n because  the love p o t i o n ' s influence i s waning. "nule g a r i s o n " .  For Amadas, however, there i s  Amadas r e a l i z e s that he i s wasting his youth while in  the throes of l o v e ' s power.  He i s quite aware of what i s happening and  does not f o l l o w a b l i n d passion as does T r i s t a n .  He i s aware, yet he  cannot escape the d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s of his love f o r Ydoine. rendered t o t a l l y passive, t o t a l l y impotent. as a reaction to his love.  He i s  Every action he now takes i s  This i s the reason why he decides to end his  l i f e , since he has already surrendered i t to Ydoine.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that i t takes t h i s ultimate s a c r i f i c e before Ydoine i s moved to any tender emotions at a l l .  She must have absolute and t o t a l  dominance over him before she w i l l deign to give anything of h e r s e l f . She has become almost a goddess f i g u r e who demands rigorous proof of l o y a l t y from a mortal.  In t h i s respect the author i s f o l l o w i n g the  c o u r t l y love t r a d i t i o n of the lover who submits t o t a l l y to his lady.  - 39 -  T r i s t a n surrenders to I s e u l t ' s wishes but Amadas relinguishes his soul to a woman who i s c r u e l , arrogant and d i s d a i n f u l towards him.  He i s  rejected f i e r c e l y and t h e r e a f t e r suffers miserably, bearing the burden of his immense love in s o l i t u d e .  We may wonder why the author chooses to lower the hero of his story to such a p i t i f u l s t a t e .  Why must he grovel at the feet of t h i s  unappreciative woman?  C e r t a i n l y we cannot imagine the T r i s t a n poets  placing T r i s t a n in such a dishonourable condition in f r o n t of I s e u l t . However, i f we consider that i t i s because Amadas i s "humles", "amiavles", " f r a n s " , " c o u r t o i s " and " s e r v i c a v l e s " that the author deems him superior, and that his one f a u l t i s p r i d e , then t h i s turn of events makes more sense. one flaw.  The author i s in the process of purging Amadas of his  Amadas no longer considers himself to be above a l l women.  His  pride has been destroyed and what remains are perserverance, h u m i l i t y and submission.  Ydoine, too, must r i d herself of her vanity and i t i s love that helps her accomplish t h i s .  Her i n i t i a l reaction when she believes Amadas has died  i s purely e g o t i s t i c a l : Adont primes pite's l'em prent; Ne quide avoir confession Ja mais a nul j o r ne pardon Don grant pechie' que ele a f a i t , A grant angousse pour s'amour. Et d ' a u t r e part r a grant paour Qu'el n'en a i t blasme et mauvais c r i , S'en sa cambre muert devant l i .  - 40 -  vv. 1075-1083  A man dies in her room and her f i r s t concern i s f o r her own s a l v a t i o n and reputation!  Nevertheless, a f t e r t h i s i n i t i a l s e l f i s h r e a c t i o n , a  complete transformation occurs: Par l e commandement d'Amours, P i t i e s et Francise et Paours Forgent mult t o s t un trencant dart  vv. 1102-1104  I t has taken a long time but, once Ydoine i s pierced by l o v e ' s arrow, the change in character i s sudden.  She f a i n t s , as did Amadas when struck by  love and when she regains consciousness  she repents s i n c e r e l y of her past  proud and unfeeling behaviour: Trop l i ai este f i e r e et dure Et o r g i l l e u s e a desmesure; S ' a i f a i t que f o l e et que dervee, Et que v i l a i n e sourquidee, Que non sachans et ke c a i t i v e ; Or m'en repent; tant com sui v i v e , L i serai mais veraie amie, Se Dix l e ramenoit en v i e . Et j e pour l u i en s o u f e r r a i : D'ore en avant a l u i m ' o t r o i .  vv. 1133-1148  This power to transform appears to be an e s s e n t i a l part of the author's conception of love.  Both Amadas and Ydoine are completely and  e v e r l a s t i n g l y changed.  And now that t h e i r love i s at l a s t mutual, the  narrator states that t h e i r love i s superior to that of T r i s t a n and I s e u l t : Natureument leur est venus Cis dous fus es cuers et creu's Ne leur v i n t pas pour manger f r u i t , Ne pour b o i r e , ce sachies t u i t , Por coi l i pluseur d e s t r u i t sont Com de T r i s t a n dont vous aves O i , et de pluseurs asses. Mais ast sont de f i n e amistie' Natureument e n t r e p l a i e  - 41 -  vv. 1181-1190  The key word here i s "natureument".  The beginning of love i s evidently  important to the author as he has spent over 1/4 of the t o t a l romance on it.  The narrator states that the love of Amadas and Ydoine stems from  " f i n a m i s t i e " , not from food and drink, and that t h i s a f f e c t s the q u a l i t y of love.  Yet, up to t h i s p o i n t , we have seen l i t t l e evidence of  friendship.  Ydoine i s at best merely t o l e r a n t of Amadas at the beginning  of the romance, and that tolerance turns q u i c k l y to scorn and near hate. They are not f r i e n d s because they are not equals. Ydoine s love. 1  Amadas aspires to  She i s above him in s o c i a l status and in power.  not the case with T r i s t a n and I s e u l t .  In f a c t , they seem to display more  " f i n e amistie" than do Amadas and Ydoine. health when they f i r s t meet.  This i s  Iseult nurses T r i s t a n back to  They are equals.  I s e u l t never has or  revels in the strange type of power that Ydoine enjoys having over Amadas.  She never abuses T r i s t a n as Ydoine abuses Amadas.  Yet, f o r some  reason, the strange beginnings of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p c o n s t i t u t e "pure" love in the n a r r a t o r ' s eyes.  The c r i t i c a l element to the author seems to  be that the love did not s t a r t by a r t i f i c i a l means.  It i s also e s s e n t i a l  that love does not come e a s i l y — o n e must work f o r i t , and once i t appears, be t o t a l l y transformed by i t .  In any case, the f a c t that the love of Amadas and Ydoine o r i g i n a t e s from within and not from an outside source adds another component which i s also very important to the a u t h o r — m o r a l i t y . accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r actions.  They w i l l not be able to blame  an external element as do T r i s t a n and I s e u l t :  -  42  Amadas and Ydoine must  -  'Que ele m'aime en bone f o i Q'el m'aime c ' e s t par l a poison'^ ...'II ne m'aime pas ne j e l u i Fors par un herbe dont j e bui Et i l en but; ce fu pechiez'4 T r i s t a n and I s e u l t excuse themselves of any g u i l t of wrongdoing by means of the potion.  Amadas and Ydoine do not, however, have t h i s excuse f o r  any future immoral conduct or shirked d u t i e s .  Whereas the T r i s t a n poets emphasize the physical passion between T r i s t a n and I s e u l t , the author of Amadas et Ydoine chooses to stress the s p i r i t u a l love between the lovers and the strong desire f o r permanence and honour.  The romance now takes quite a d i f f e r e n t turn from that of  T r i s t a n and I s e u l t .  T r i s t a n and I s e u l t seem doomed to a t r a g i c end from  the very beginning of t h e i r a f f a i r , yet they resign themselves to the s i t u a t i o n as though submitting to f a t e .  Amadas and Ydoine, on the other  hand, are determined to have t h e i r love continue s u c c e s s f u l l y .  Passion  i s present, but i t does not take precedence over the s p i r i t u a l love. They have a c e r t a i n structure of l i f e that they desire to respect and honour, and w i l l not abuse t h e i r parents, t h e i r society or t h e i r r e l i g i o n f o r the sake of passion.  Unlike T r i s t a n and I s e u l t , they are w i l l i n g to  wait and to work towards t h e i r i d e a l .  And i t i s not Amadas who, up u n t i l t h i s point has been the pursuer, takes the i n i t i a t i v e — i t i s Ydoine. her.  We see again how love has transformed  The power and strength she once used to spurn Amadas i s now  - 43  -  dedicated to keeping t h e i r love " p u r e " .  She becomes a leader and guide,  d i s p l a y i n g an extraordinary amount of moral f o r t i t u d e .  Unlike I s e u l t ,  she has a very c l e a r view of her future and i s determined to reach her goals.  Ydoine's f i r s t plan i s that Amadas become a knight.  He must now prove  his courage and worth to s o c i e t y , and must even compensate f o r his lower s o c i a l s t a t i o n by acts of k n i g h t l y valour.  Amadas i s quite w i l l i n g to  submit to his l a d y ' s wishes and follows her guidance, and he g r e a t l y surpasses s o c i e t y ' s expectations: Si est renoumes par sa lance Qu'en tout l e roiaume de France ...Qu'as autres examplaire e s t o i t De sens et de c e v a l e r i e , D'ensegnement, de c o u r t o i s i e , Et de f r a n c i s e et de largece  vv. 1385-1386; 1420-1423  Amadas' good reputation, one of the author's p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r a perfect lover, i s growing and spreading widely.  He i s f a s t becoming a model of  physical and moral excellence.  During the three years that Amadas i s away d i s t i n g u i s h i n g himself, there i s no sense of rush or impatience concerning the love between Amadas and Ydoine.  There i s never the f e e l i n g of desperate anxiousness  or  restlessness that we discern between T r i s t a n and I s e u l t when they are planning t h e i r next t r y s t or are t r y i n g to evade suspicion by covering their tracks.  I t i s as i f the author wants to convey the t r u t h that pure  - 44 -  love i s timeless, and that impatience has no part to play in i t . and Ydoine are not insecure about each other.  Amadas  They are f a i t h f u l , and  r e g u l a r l y communicate by means of w r i t t e n messages.  But t h i s sense of s e c u r i t y i s shattered suddenly when outside forces interfere.  Ydoine's father betrothes her to another man.  The author  creates a seemingly insurmountable obstacle f o r these otherwise b l i s s f u l lovers to face.  He now a c t u a l l y places Ydoine in a somewhat p a r a l l e l  s i t u a t i o n to that of I s e u l t .  She, too, was betrothed to another man,  Marc, both before and a f t e r the e f f e c t s of the love potion. her course of action?  And what i s  There i s no evidence that she ever t r i e s to avoid  the marriage or that she even considers confessing her love f o r T r i s t a n . On the contrary, since she i s no longer a v i r g i n , she substitutes Brangain in the marriage bed with Marc so that she i s t h e r e a f t e r able to sleep with both her lover and husband with no regrets.  We cannot conceive of such conduct from Ydoine.  She has promised eternal  f i d e l i t y to Amadas and w i l l not even e n t e r t a i n the idea of sex with another man.  She thus goes to extreme measures to avoid the marriage.  By describing the unorthodox and elaborate plan Ydoine devises in order to remain f a i t h f u l to Amadas, the author i s perhaps reproaching  Iseult  f o r e f f o r t s she f a i l s to make to keep her r e l a t i o n s h i p with T r i s t a n "pure".  When Amadas l a t e r believes that Ydoine has betrayed him with the  maufe, I s e u l t i s the f i r s t woman he mentions in his l i s t of u n f a i t h f u l  -  45  -  lovers.  So Ydoine's behaviour a f t e r becoming betrothed to the Count of  Nevers i s perhaps a model of what I s e u l t should have attempted f o r Tristan.  Ydoine resorts to devious methods to preserve the p u r i t y of her  vows to Amadas.  She does not succeed; however, Ydoine does intimidate  the Count s u f f i c i e n t l y to prevent him from having any sexual contact with her.  She i s thus able to keep her v i g i n i t y f o r Amadas.  Nevertheless, she becomes married to another man and experiences extreme anquish because of i t : Bien pre est atainte de mort; De riens que voie n'a c o n f o r t , Sa face coulouree et tendre Devint plus pale que n ' e s t cendre  vv. 2559-2564  Again, the author stresses the hardship and emotional anguish Amadas and Ydoine undergo.  In f a c t , Amadas' conscious mind can bear no more pain.  He goes mad when he i s informed of Ydoine's forthcoming marriage.  He probably would have stayed insane f o r the rest of his l i f e had i t not been f o r Ydoine's perseverance and independence.  I s e u l t waits f o r  T r i s t a n to i n i t i a t e t h e i r meetings, but Ydoine cannot w a i t . her messenger Garines to search f o r him.  She sends  Even when she i s in pain, her  remarkable f a i t h , confidence and inner peace remain, and give her the determination and w i l l to act.  Ydoine takes the necessary steps to journey to Lucca a f t e r Garines f i n d s Amadas there.  This involves l y i n g to her husband, but i t i s the only way  - 46 -  to save Amadas.  The tenderness and i n t e n s i t y of her love are i l l u s t r a t e d  by the d e s c r i p t i o n of her reaction when she reaches Lucca and sees Amadas running naked in the s t r e e t s , being beaten and mocked by the l o c a l riff-raff: Ce est grans duels a esgarder De nul houme c'on doie amer. Tant com ele plus aime l u i , Tant l i torne plus a anui  vv. 3155-3158  And i t i s no wonder that Ydoine f e e l s " a n u i " because of her f r i e n d ' s present c o n d i t i o n .  For the sake of love, Amadas has stripped himself of  a l l human d i g n i t y .  We have seen that the author values a lover who i s  "humles", " s e r v i c a v l e s " and Amadas has more than f u l f i l l e d the requirements to prove t h i s .  T r i s t a n feigns madness at one point in order  to see I s e u l t , but Amadas has a c t u a l l y l e f t the conscious world and has s a c r i f i c e d his sanity f o r Ydoine.  In the case of Yvain, his madness  occurs as a penance f o r his lack of appreciation of Laudine. as part of his maturation process.  It  serves  With Amadas, however, t h i s public  madness i s more l i k e a self-abnegation, a t o t a l surrender to the other.  We may consider t h i s turn of events to be extreme but Amadas' madness, as well as i l l u s t r a t i n g Amadas' constancy towards him.  l o y a l t y towards Ydoine, also emphasizes her  She could e a s i l y be repulsed by the sight of  Amadas as a raving madman and no longer desire him as a lover. i s neither so changeable nor shallow. grotto.  But she  She and Garines t r a v e l to Amadas'  She shows herself to be capable, s k i l l f u l and almost  supernatural during her cure of Amadas.  - 47  A f t e r he regains his  -  sanity,  Amadas "mult a grant honte de s o i " and considers he i s no longer worthy of Ydoine's love and respect. of love.  Here again we see the transforming power  Before Ydoine i s affected by love her f i r s t concern i s f o r her  reputation and s o c i a l status. to pure love.  But now, however, these take second place  She w i l l not consider leaving Amadas, but r e - a f f i r m s her  vows: • 'Se Dix me doinst j o i e et honor, Ja mais nul j o r n'aurai signor Autre que vous, pour v o i r l e d i . ' A f t e r t h i s i n c i d e n t , Ydoine continues on to Rome. travesty since her real goal has been accomplished?  vv. 3542-3549 Is t h i s not a mere Is t h i s attempt to  cover her tracks not much l i k e the dishonesty and excuses of T r i s t a n and Iseult?  It i s true that Ydoine i s deceiving her husband and other observers, j u s t as I s e u l t deceives Marc and the court, so we must search f o r the motives and a t t i t u d e s behind the action t o discover how the author d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between the behaviour of the two women.  In the garden scene in T r i s t a n and I s e u l t , I s e u l t uses ambiguous  language  to both warn T r i s t a n that her husband i s hiding in the tree above and to f o o l Marc about the i n t e n t i o n of the rendezvous between she and T r i s t a n . Afterwards she describes the incident to Brangain: 'Dex me f i s t p a r l e r premeraine; Onques de ce que j e V q u i s N ' i out mot d i t , ce vos p l e v i s , Mais mervellos con plaignement Et mervellos gemissenment'5 ' . . . Onques l i r o i s ne s'apercut Ne mon estre ne desconnut P a r t i e me sui du t r i p o t ' 6 - 48 -  She i s almost boasting! Marc.  She mentions no regrets o f having deceived  On the contrary, she i s quite proud of h e r s e l f .  Iseult  involves  God in her d u p l i c i t y , and Brangain agrees: ' I s e u l t , ma dame, grant merci Nos a Dex f a i t , qui ne menti Qant i l vos a f a i t desevrer Du parlement sanz plus outrer, Que l i r o i s n'a chose velie Qui ne puise e s t r ' e ( n ) bien tenue, Granz miracles vos a f a i t Dex II est verais peres et tex Q u ' i l n'a cure de f a i r e mal A ceus qui sont buen et l o i a W T r i s t a n and I s e u l t do not care i f they humiliate and deceive Marc and even when, during the f l o u r i n c i d e n t , they are exposed and proved g u i l t y , they s t i l l have the arrogance to deny t h e i r i l l i c i t r e l a t i o n s h i p and to say that God w i l l prove them r i g h t .  Amadas and Ydoine do none of t h i s and, although they are dishonest, are so f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons and in a d i f f e r e n t manner.  A f t e r Ydoine  deceives the Count about her t r i p to cure Amadas, she has compunctions and demonstrates she has no desire to do wrong or to humiliate: La contesse v a i t au mostier P r i i e r a Diu que aciever Puist son desir et son penser, San reparlance de f o l i e , Sans pecie et sans volonnie, Si que de gent ne s o i t blasmee, Que mult c r i e n t estre deparlee. Et nonpourguant raisnavlement Quide aciever t o t son t a l e n t D'Amadas et de son signour, Qu'ele ne d o i t dou Creatour Ne de l a gent mal gre a v o i r .  - 49 -  vv. 3708-3719  Instead of arrogantly announcing that God i s on her s i d e , Ydoine prays to Him that she w i l l be able to obtain her h e a r t f e l t desire "raisnavlement" and "sans pecie" in the eyes of a l l .  She does deceive the Count and  s o c i e t y , but does so only to f u l f i l l her vows to Amadas. her compassion.  She never loses  Thus, i t seems that motive and i n t e n t i o n are the most  important considerations of the author.  Ydoine deceives so that she can  f u l f i l her vow to Amadas, her f i r s t p r i o r i t y .  She does not t r e a t the  Count with casual c r u e l t y and l i e s only as much as she must to stay f a i t h f u l to Amadas.  The continuation of her t r i p to Rome indicates she  i s w i l l i n g to go out of her way so that neither she nor the Count w i l l be p u b l i c l y humiliated.  This contrasts sharply with the conduct of I s e u l t .  It i s on her way back from Rome that the strange incident with the maufe occurs and Ydoine, as Amadas once d i d , appears to d i e . endless.  Amadas' pain i s  Before her " d e a t h " , we are again given evidence of Ydoine's  t o t a l l y u n s e l f i s h love f o r Amadas.  She f i r s t t e l l s him:  'Quant vous seres a vos amis Se Diu p l a i s t , vous espouserois, Si com i l est raisons et d r o i s , M o u l l i e r a vostre volente'. Dius doinst, amis, que l o i a u t e ' Vous porte, houneur et bone f o i .  1  This d i f f e r s g r e a t l y from I s e u l t ' s f e a r t h a t : 'Car vers vus ai s i f i n e amur Amis, dei jo aveir p o i i r Puis ma mort, s i vus g a r i s s e z , Qu'en vostre v i e m'ubliez V d ' a l t r e femme aiez confort T r i s t a n apruef l a meier mort Amis, d ' Y s o l t as Blances Mains Certes m'en crem e dut al mains'^  - 50 -  vv. 4920-4925  I s e u l t fears T r i s t a n w i l l be with another woman; Ydoine desires that Amadas w i l l f i n d another woman so that he w i l l be happy.  Ydoine then t e l l s Amadas "estrange mencoigne de s o i " . Par l o i a u t e et par grant f o i . Por g a r i r de mort son ami ...Por l i metre de mort a v i e . Com l a plus t r e s l o i a l amie Que on o'fst mais en roumans Puis l e tans as premiers amans  She does so:  vv. 4968-4980  This brings to mind the l i e that T r i s t a n , I s e u l t and Ogrin f a b r i c a t e in order to bring about a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n with Marc.  Ogrin states t h a t :  'Por honte oster et mal c o v r i r a Doit on un poi par bel mentir' The big d i f f e r e n c e i s again i n t e n t i o n .  Ydoine's i n t e n t i o n i s u n s e l f i s h ,  whereas that of T r i s t a n and I s e u l t i s purely s e l f i s h .  T r i s t a n and I s e u l t  l i e merely to escape shame and don't consider Marc, his f e e l i n g s or his reputation at a l l .  Ydoine, on the other hand, would rather die having  Amadas believe she has committed a heinous crime than to have him commit s u i c i d e afterwards or die of g r i e f .  And what a l i e she t e l l s l  To have had three c h i l d r e n by three d i f f e r e n t  cousins and then to have murdered a l l three of them i s an extreme crime. But the crime must be serious enough to compel Amadas to stay a l i v e to give alms f o r her s o u l .  And Ydoine succeeds.  A f t e r her death, when  Amadas i s grieving at her grave, d e s i r i n g to die himself, he says:  - 51 -  'Du grant pecie ke vous f e i ' s t e s , Qu'en confession me d e i s t e s , Une eure apres vous ne v i v r o i e : Tot maintenant c i f i n e r o i e . ...Que grant doleur et paour a i , Douce amie, de vos pecies, Que Dius n'en s o i t vers vous i r i e s '  vv. 5526-5529 vv. 5566-5568  Surely the most d i f f i c u l t t e s t of Amadas' l o y a l t y comes at t h i s time when the maufe^ appears with evidence that Ydoine has betrayed him. stay strong in his love and commitment f o r her? he sees his r i n g in the maufe^'s possession.  W i l l he  Amadas does waver when  How could he possibly have  obtained i t unless Ydoine h e r s e l f had given i t to him?  Amadas f i n d s  himself in an i n t e r n a l dilemma and f e e l s that he has been duped.  He i s  bitter: ' C a i t i s , dolans, mal e'u'res Com sui tra'i's et mal menes Et deceu's sor tous amansl'  vv. 5809-5811  This i s s i m i l a r to the dilemma T r i s t a n f i n d s himself in when he thinks that I s e u l t i s f i n d i n g pleasure with Marc and decides that he, too, should therefore marry someone e l s e .  His doubts about I s e u l t lead him  into a marriage t h a t , although he doe not consummate, he s t i l l sorrowfully r e g r e t s .  He i s punished f o r t h i s mistake by his wife, who  a c t u a l l y causes his death by giving him the wrong information about the colour of the s a i l .  Fortunately, Amadas does not doubt Ydoine f o r long and does not make a mistake he w i l l l a t e r regret.  He does not understand how the maufe'has  - 52 -  come to possess the r i n g , but chooses to continue to t r u s t in Ydoine and to f i g h t f o r her.  After a l l :  'Amee 1 a i plus que ma v i e . ...Ne d o i t i s s i p a r f i t amour Qui l o i a u t e aime et honor Oublier en s i poi de tens: Ce m'est avis selonc mon sens.' 1  vv. 6051-6068  With a combat that seems to be as much between the forces of good and e v i l as between Amadas and t h i s bad f a i r y , Amadas displays his superior ability.  He i s f i g h t i n g against a supernatural being but, as the author  t r i e s to show, the power of pure devoted love i s also supernatural.  It  i s able to transform and to cure madness and, since i t i s on the side of good, can also win t h i s b a t t l e .  The maufe  here represents a l l the  obstacles Amadas has thus f a r encountered in his struggle f o r Ydoine's love, and the seeming i m p o s s i b i l i t y of the whole s i t u a t i o n .  Yet the love  which once drained him of a l l energy and sanity i s now tapping strength he never knew he possessed in order to aid him crush t h i s opposition. A f t e r an arduous, bloody f i g h t , Amadas succeeds in c u t t i n g o f f the maufe's hand and thus wins the b a t t l e .  It i s at t h i s point that the  mauf£ explains the s u b s t i t u t i o n of rings which has resulted in Ydoine's d e a t h - l i k e stupor.  Consequently, Amadas i s well rewarded f o r his continued t r u s t in Ydoine by seeing her resurrected.  Amadas and Ydoine succeed, again then,  because of t h e i r f a i t h and t r u s t .  They have f a i t h in t h e i r love, f a i t h  in themselves, and f a i t h in each other.  - 53 -  Ydoine s f a i t h and i n t e g r i t y go even beyond that of Amadas as shown by 1  her refusal to surrender to Amadas love.  1  desire to f i n a l l y consummate t h e i r  She understands and shares his physical desire as well as his wish  to f l e e society and i t s c o n s t r a i n t s , but she r e a l i z e s there are other even more important issues to consider: ' I c e l desir deves t a r g i e r Tant quel puissies sans pecie f a i r e Et a grant j o i e et a c i e f t r a i r e Que nus n ' i puisse v i l o u n i e Noter, ne mal, ne f e l o n n i e . . . . E t que serai vostre espousee ...Sans pecie a 1'ouneur de De Par esgart de c r e s t i ' e n t e 1  vv. 6726-6730 vv. 6747; 6749-50  Again, i t is Ydoine who displays strength, t h i s time in the form of restraint.  She i s the one leading the r e l a t i o n s h i p the way she wants i t  to go, the one capable of seeing beyond the moment to a future l i f e together.  In t h i s way she i s much d i f f e r e n t from I s e u l t .  T r i s t a n and  I s e u l t conceive of t h e i r love as being adulterous and never intend to b u i l d a l i f e together.  Consequently, they merely munipulate Marc,  society and r e l i g i o n to e i t h e r e x t r i c a t e themselves from a d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n or allow them another i l l i c i t meeting.  I s e u l t has not the  moral f o r t i t u d e to take the lead or to d i r e c t the love a f f a i r in any other d i r e c t i o n .  They speak about God only in terms of how he can help  them and even implicate Him in t h e i r adultery.  They deceive people to  such a degree that they no longer seem to know what t r u t h i s .  They  mistreat and humiliate Marc countless times—and a l l f o r t h e i r immediate gratification.  - 54 -  Ydoine, on the contrary, respects her parents, society and C h r i s t i a n i t y . She looks beyond passion and r e a l i z e s that she and Amadas must honour c e r t a i n t r a d i t i o n s in order to l i v e in happiness and d i g n i t y .  She  convinces Amadas that only a love t h a t ' s b u i l t upon (rather than destroys) these t r a d i t i o n s i s worth the pain and s u f f e r i n g they have already undergone.  Therefore, Amadas and Ydoine do return to Burgundy to a very warm reception from t h e i r parents and the community.  How d i f f e r e n t from the  return of T r i s t a n and I s e u l t , where T r i s t a n must continue his e x i l e and Iseult must continue her l i e s and ambiguous oaths. other and t h e i r p r i v i l e g e s at Court.  They lose both each  Ydoine l i e s once more to her  husband by informing him that St. Peter suggested at Rome that they terminate t h e i r marriage.  Another deception, but one again where  i n t e n t i o n and motive are the c r u c i a l elements. f o r a l l concerned.  This l i e i s t r u l y best  The Count i s quite pleased to agree to a marriage  annulment, and s h o r t l y thereafter remarries.  Ydoine displays  extraordinary cleverness once again by manoeuvering events so that the barons a c t u a l l y pick Amadas as the most s u i t a b l e partner f o r her.  Thus,  the marriage i s ostensibly t h e i r idea rather than hers.  Consequently, the marriage does take place happily and Amadas and Ydoine f i n a l l y acquire what they d e s i r e :  -  55  -  Signeur, pour v e r i t e ' vous di Qu ' a grant houneur t i n r e n t l a t e r r e Toute leur v i e en p a i s , sans guerre. De leur amor faut c i I ' e s t o r e , Leur ames mete Dix en glore Par sa douceur, par sa merchi, Et de tous peceeurs ausi  vv. 7885-7891  The author has succeeded in showing that f a i t h , f o r t i t u d e and patience lead to happiness in love.  He has shown that the love of Amadas and  Ydoine i s s p i r i t u a l whereas the love of T r i s t a n and I s e u l t i s simply physical.  They use t h e i r love to work towards a permanent r e l a t i o n s h i p  and integrate a l l the elements e s s e n t i a l in t h e i r l i v e s .  This  involves  much time and pain, but they are rewarded with a happy end instead of the t r a g i c one of T r i s t a n and I s e u l t .  Nevertheless, the author also paints a p i c t u r e of a woman with a curious mixture of p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , and of a love a f f a i r that many people would consider most u n s a t i s f a c t o r y .  Ydoine possesses a dichotomous  character that evolves amazingly during the course of her r e l a t i o n s h i p with Amadas.  She goes from t o t a l disdain to t o t a l involvement.  She  plays the r o l e of an unattainable i d e a l , goddess, shrew, guide, f a i t h f u l lover, saviour, and leader.  She i s capable of extreme c r u e l t y and  manipulation as well as intense love and s e l f l e s s n e s s .  In one way  Ydoine s a b i l i t y to deceive makes her resemble I s e u l t , but she has 1  another side to her character.  Ydoine i s extremely determined to get  what she wants and l e t s nothing deter her. deception and sorcery to a t t a i n her goal.  - 56 -  She u t i l i z e s manipulation, Yet she also displays a strong  need to be moral and honourable.  She respects t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s  such as marriage, s o c i e t y and the Church.  Because of her exceedingly powerful p e r s o n a l i t y i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r Ydoine to have an equal r e l a t i o n s h i p with a man.  Ydoine and Amadas are  not equals at the beginning of the romance and are not equals at the end.  Ydoine i s always the stronger, more capable partner.  Amadas  becomes powerless twice in the course of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p - - f i r s t when he becomes lovesick and second when he goes mad.  Ydoine never loses  control of her l i f e , even when circumstances place her in a passive position.  When she cannot a c t , she devises plans of action and  reinforces her f a i t h .  We can see, then, that even on the l i t e r a r y l e v e l of the romance we are dealing with a complex woman and a complex r e l a t i o n s h i p .  In Chapter 2,  we w i l l examine in more d e t a i l Ydoine's behaviour, e s p e c i a l l y her dishonesty,  and w i l l look at the n a r r a t o r ' s personal comments on Ydoine  and on women in general.  - 57 -  CHAPTER 2 THE NARRATOR AND HIS HEROINE  The author of Amadas et Ydoine l i v e d during a unique and unsettled age. He was no doubt g r e a t l y affected by the open and t o l e r a n t a t t i t u d e s of the 12th century and by the c o u r t l y t r a d i t i o n which considers the woman as something to which to aspire, as the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of P e r f e c t i o n . Nevertheless, he no doubt also witnessed a f a i r l y rapid change in t h i s a t t i t u d e with the advent of the intense prejudice and fear of the 13th century.  Although we have no way of knowing to what extent he was  personally affected by these c o n f l i c t i n g a t t i t u d e s , we can be c e r t a i n they played a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e in shaping his opinion of women and of sexual r o l e s .  I t i s with these important background influences in mind  that we now turn to the work i t s e l f , to an examination of the important function of the narrator in Amadas et Ydoine.  By examining his portrayal  of Ydoine as w i l l as his obtrusive interventions into the narration to make personal remarks about women, we can perhaps a r r i v e at some conclusions about the author and the d i f f i c u l t i e s he appears to have making a decision about women.  Let us f i r s t consider the n a r r a t o r ' s introduction of Ydoine.  He  describes her in the conventional c o u r t l y manner; that i s , p h y s i c a l l y from head to toe.  She i s , of course, extremely b e a u t i f u l :  Le chief ot bel et bien reont, La greve d r o i t e et blanc le f r o n t . Et d e l i e s et blons les c r i n s , . . . E t les eux v a i r s et signouris, ...Biau nes, biau v i s et bouce bele, Fresce couleur, com f l e u r nouvele. vv. 131-133;138;143-144  -  58  -  Midway through t h i s introduction of Ydoine, the narrator i n s e r t s a few moral q u a l i t i e s he deems s i g n i f i c a n t : Douc, l e regart et simple et sage, Que nus n ' i pot noter f o l a g e , Ne nul samblant de l e c e r i e , Nul seul trespas de v i l e n i e  vv. 139-142  The narrator conforms here to 12th-century c o u r t l y love t r a d i t i o n . heroine i s b e a u t i f u l , wise and honest. Ydoine i s the mirror image of Amadas'  His  As in most c o u r t l y l i t e r a t u r e , ideal s e l f :  The romance hero f a l l s in love with his own image in the person of a woman who i s a mirror image of himself (as in Piramus et Tisbe and F l o i r e et Blancheflor) or one that he has, in a sense, created (as in T r i s t a n and Lanval).  U n t i l he f a l l s in love,  u n t i l the woman intrudes herself on his l i f e and awakens him to an aspect of his being he had not been aware of, his l i f e has no apparent d i r e c t i o n .  Love means a r e b i r t h ; i t awakens the hero  to a new sense of himself...higher purpose and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . ^  The i n t e r e s t i n g point about Ydoine i s that she i s not only the mirror image of Amadas' p o t e n t i a l s e l f ; she i s also the r e f l e c t i o n of his r e a l , present s e l f .  She shares with him one f l a w .  They are both so b e a u t i f u l  and proud that there i s no one of the opposite sex they consider worthy of them.  Thus, they are both d i s d a i n f u l and Ydoine only more so than  Amadas.  By pointing out Ydoine's egotism and scorn f o r love, the narrator i s  - 59 -  undoubtedly preparing us f o r the f a c t that Ydoine takes such a long time to f a l l in love with Amadas, but i t i s also noteworthy that she i s never portrayed as a symbol of P e r f e c t i o n as are many women in c o u r t l y literature.  She i s a woman with a f a u l t of her own--pride, an enormous  flaw which was also the great imperfection of Satan which caused his expulsion from heaven.  The c o u r t l y t r a d i t i o n of the man seeking  his  mirror image has been taken a step f u r t h e r here to include his f a u l t s as well as his superior q u a l i t i e s and a s p i r a t i o n s .  I t i s as i f the narrator  accepts the woman as a real being with weaknesses, even i f i t i s  still  f o r the sake of r e f l e c t i n g the character of a man.  To the same degree that Ydoine i s capable of haughtiness towards love however, she i s also capable of depth and constancy when she f i n a l l y does f a l l in love.  She promises Amadas: 'Or vous o t r o i toute m'amor; Par t e l convent com vous d i r a i Sour tous homes vous amerai. ...Ne j a n'ames faus losengier, Ne f a i t e s j a , n'en aiie"s cure; Laissie's trestoute v i l o u n i e , Encriemete, tout e s t o u t i e 1  vv. 1224-1226 vv. 1232-1235  Therefore, she w i l l give him a l l her love and w i l l not deceive him-.  It  is Amadas who has spoken romantically of his f e e l i n g s f o r Ydoine and who has been the pursuer, but i t i s she who gives t h e i r love form, s t a b i l i t y and a f u t u r e .  It i s no longer merely an abstract i n f a t u a t i o n — i t i s a  s o l i d , enduring emotion.  She vows to Amadas eternal love and f i d e l i t y .  One of Ydoine's reasons f o r f i r s t r e j e c t i n g Amadas i s that she does not want to dishonour, her parents by loving a man beneath her s o c i a l s t a t i o n .  - 60 -  She demonstrates her p r a c t i c a l nature by suggesting to Amadas immediately a f t e r her tender vow of f i d e l i t y that he be knighted and go o f f to prove his courage and valour.  It i s well and good to be in love,  but there i s more than love to consider.  Amadas must f u l f i l c e r t a i n  requirements before he can become her husband, and Ydoine takes the i n i t i a t i v e to see t h i s i s done.  Another dimension, then, has been added to the love s t o r y - - t h e outside world.  Unlike in many c o u r t l y romances, society i s not ignored, rejected  or given a subordinate r o l e in the l o v e r s ' l i v e s .  It i s the foundation  and nucleus of Ydoine's l i f e and her love a f f a i r must be b u i l t around i t , not society around her love a f f a i r .  The author brings love down to earth  to the level of everyday l i f e , and shows how i t can be, and must be.  We have thus f a r seen Ydoine's p r a c t i c a l i t y , her l o y a l t y and s i n c e r i t y and are prepared f o r the intense despair she experiences when she i s about to be married to another man. sion to her parents' wishes.  We do not question Ydoine's  submis-  A f t e r a l l , t h i s i s the 12th century and  Ydoine has already proved that she respects and honours the decisions of her parents and the customs of s o c i e t y . Nevertheless, her pain i s extreme: D'Ydoine me restuet a d i r e Com a grant d u e l , com a grant i r e Outre son gre fu f i a n c h i e ; S'en est es angousse et en i r e , Plus amast l a mort qu'estre v i v e . Plus dolente ne plus pensive N'a ou mont dame ne mescine. N'orres mais de s i enterine P a r l e r de d r o i t e dr'u'erie Ne qui tant s o i t l o i a l amie, Car ele est s i f o r t adolee, Quant d'Amadas est desevree, Que v o l e n t i e r s se f u s t ocise - 61 -  vv. 1979-1991  By emphasizing her anguish, the narrator here succeeds in arousing our sympathy f o r a young woman deeply in love who has been t r y i n g desperatley to arrange her new love a f f a i r so that i t w i l l be acceptable to her parents and s o c i e t y but who i s now f a c i n g the p r o b a b i l i t y that these fondest desires w i l l be l o s t forever.  The narrator stresses, not only  the s e v e r i t y of her pain, but also the extent of her loyaty towards Amadas. • As he states: La ou est amors, bien se proeve  Proving love i s extremely important to the narrator.  v. 2000  He u t i l i z e s two  gauges--pain and l o y a l t y , to measure the depth and q u a l i t y of love.  This  is not unusual in c o u r t l y l i t e r a t u r e , but here the narrator seems determined that Amadas and Ydoine surpass a l l other lovers in t h i s proof.  He  c o n t i n u a l l y emphasizes that Amadas and Ydoine s u f f e r more than anyone, even ( e s p e c i a l l y ? ) T r i s t a n and I s e u l t .  At times his i n s i s t e n c e of t h i s  f a c t appears overdone by the constant use of s u p e r l a t i v e s .  In the afore-  mentioned quotation of Ydoine's reaction to her upcoming marriage, she i s the "plus d o l e n t e " , the "plus pensive" of women in the world.  One has  never heard of such an " e n t e r i n e " , " d r o i t e dr'uerie", " l o i a l amie".  She  i s c l o s e r to death than to l i f e because she i s apart from Amadas.  The narrator makes his point.  Ydoine proves the i n t e n s i t y of her love  for Amadas by the extreme pain she undergoes at being separated from him and by the great l o y a l t y she displays through her w i l l i n g n e s s to die f o r him.  She has a determined goal: Cou l e met en boine esperance Qu'Amadas T a i t pucele et pure - 52 -  vv. 1994-1995  Her greatest commitment i s to Amadas, and she must remain a v i r g i n f o r him.  Anything else is b e t r a y a l .  The narrator stresses Ydoine's pain, l o y a l t y and determined aspirations so that we have her i n t e g r i t y well in mind before the next scene, which i s one of deception and sorcery.  Before we examine t h i s scene i t might  be useful to discuss b r i e f l y sorcery and w i t c h c r a f t in general in the Middle Ages.  The use of sorcery and w i t c h c r a f t was not uncommon in the Middle Ages; indeed i t was often accepted.  Sorcery was the use of mechanistic magic  and the use of s p i r i t s , while w i t c h c r a f t went beyond that to include worhship of the D e v i l .  Both made use of low magic, which i s p r a c t i c a l  and aimed at obtaining immediate r e s u l t s .  There was malevolent and  benevolent magic, but:  in theory the Church assumed that a l l magic drew upon the help of demons whether the magician intended i t or not. syllogism was:  The  magic proceeds by compelling supernatural  f o r c e s ; but God and the angels are not subject to such compulsion; the forces compelled must, therefore be demons. Church consequently held that there was no good magic.  According to R u s s e l l , there were three kinds of e v i l 1)  minor demons; eg. elves and f a i r i e s  2)  major demons; eg. Beelzebub  3)  devil  - 63 -  spirits:  2  The  and f i v e degrees of closeness with them: 1)  incantation  2)  pact—promising something in return f o r t h e i r aid  3)  sacrifice  4)  homage  5)  worship  The lesser demons were used as " f a m i l i a r s " , or pet demons and helped the witches perform deeds.  Sorcery and w i t c h c r a f t were united by the idea of a pact.  Demons were  needed to perform magic, but i f one c a l l e d upon them one must o f f e r something in r e t u r n .  I t could be e i t h e r e x p l i c i t or i m p l i c i t , but a pact  was always involved.  It i s l o g i c a l to assume that a t t i t u d e s towards w i t c h c r a f t and sorcery varied from place to place.  A f t e r the 11th century, as C h r i s t i a n society  became more o r d e r l y , h i e r a r c h i c a l and repressed h o s t i l i t y towards and persecution of witches became more prevalent.  We do not know i f p r a c t i c i n g magic was considered a ' s i n ' by the society of the author of Amadas et Ydoine.  However, in his d e s c r i p t i o n of the  sorcery scene, the e v i l , mysterious and eerie character i s h i g h l i g h t e d . The three women are c a l l e d " s o r c i e r e s " which could mean merely a sorcerer or a w i t c h , but the f a c t that they p r a c t i c e incantation and necromancy leads us to assume that they are witches in contact, not j u s t with the s p i r i t world, but with the Devil himself.  The narrator does not hide  e i t h e r his fear of or d i s l i k e f o r these witches:  - 64 -  Et sevent par encantement Resusciter l a morte gent, Des v i s Tune a T a u t r e f i g u r e Mlier par art et par f i g u r e , Houme f a i r e asne devenir, Et ceus q u ' i l voelent endormir Ne puis pas dire ne conter La disme part, ne raconter, Qu'eles sevent de mauvairs ars  vv. 2029-2034 vv. 2039-2041  He emphasizes mainly what they can do to men, as i f men are the prime targets f o r t h e i r magic. three Fates.  There are three of them, to correspond with the  This l i n k s the w i t c h c r a f t to c l a s s i c a l "pagan"  mythology  which could give i t a c e r t a i n r e s p e c t a b i l i t y except f o r the f a c t that the p r a c t i c e they choose to imitate and to speak about i s one that was considered by that time " d i a b o l i c a l " :  Among the ancient women's p r a c t i c e s condemned as d i a b o l i c a l and obscene by Buikhard of Worms (c.1025) i s the custom of ' s e t t i n g a table with three places and good and drink, with three knives upon the t a b l e , so that those three s i s t e r s , whom ancient peoples and ancient foolishness named the parcae, might come and eat there...The P e n i t e n t i a l of Bishop Iscanus (1161-86) i n t e r p r e t s t h i s d i a b o l i c a l p r a c t i c e as a charm to bring luck to an unborn c h i l d and Robert of Brunne says the same in his 3 Handlyng Synne.  How does Ydoine f i t into t h i s 'obscene'  plan?  The narrator mentions,  immediately a f t e r saying: La ou est amors, bien se proeve, Puis q u ' e l e est et v r a i e et f i n e  - 65 -  vv. 2000-2001  and lauding Ydoine, that " t r o i s s o r c i e r e , sans demorance, A quises." Obviously, then, Ydoine has no problem f i n d i n g them. well? clues.  Does she use t h e i r services often?  Does she know them  The narrator gives us no  However, he does mention that Ydoine reveals to the witches "sa  volonte et que v e l t f a i r e " .  We do not know i f she merely i n s t r u c t s them  of the r e s u l t s she desires ( i e . f r i g h t e n i n g the Count) or i f she has f a b r i c a t e d the whole scheme, before contacting the witches. A Ydoine sont a conseil Toutes t r o i s en un l i u prive' Et devisent leur volonte; Com le feront et en quel guise Endroit soi cascune devise.  The witches:  vv. 2044-2048  Regardless of whether or not Ydoine has a share in devising the plan, i t i s s t i l l she who i n i t i a t e s i t s accomplishment.  In return f o r the  services of the witches Tant leur donra qu'a tos j o r s mais En seront manantes apres  vv. 2013-2014  They w i l l be paid in r i c h e s , but what about the minor demons, the " f a m i l i a r s " who are to help create the Count's magical v i s i o n . they be paid? demons?  How w i l l  Has Ydoine unknowingly, or knowingly, made a pact with the  If so, t h i s would explain some of the l a t e r developments of the  story.  So, the witches do carry out t h e i r plan.  Ydoine does not p a r t i c i p a t e  d i r e c t l y , but as soon as they f i n i s h acting out the ' v i s i o n ' : Toutes t r o i s a i t a n t s'en vont A Ydoine hastivement, Si l i moustrent comfaitement Ont le conte e s c a r n i , qui c r o i t Que leur oevre certaine s o i t . - 66 -  vv. 2306-2310  They are excited at t h e i r expected success and rush to t e l l Ydoine, more as f r i e n d s , i t seems, than as hired witches.  The narrator cannot  exculpate Ydoine e n t i r e l y , although he does not implicate her d i r e c t l y .  Here we could ask why t h i s scene i s in the story at a l l .  Why does  Ydoine, a respectable, virtuous, honest woman resort t o , not simple deception, but w i t c h c r a f t — c o n t a c t with demons?  Perhaps i t i s to show  that Ydoine i s not a l l she seems to be—that she, too, can lower herself to such depths.  Perhaps i t i s to dispel once and f o r a l l the tendency to  regard Ydoine as an Ideal, a P r i n c i p l e . temptations and f e a r s .  The witches are a necessary e v i l in order f o r  Ydoine to a t t a i n her goal. the narrator stresses. nature of the plan.  She i s a real woman with  And i t i s most c e r t a i n l y Ydoine's goals that  He does not even mention the dishonest, deceptive  He c a l l s i t "estrange c o i n t i s e " , a:  Merveilleuse aventure ...Que j a mais j o r c ' a i e s a v i v r e , En f a b l e n'en cancon n'en l i v r e  vv. 1996-1998  Instead of condemning her, the narrator praises Ydoine f o r her ingenuity.  A f t e r the scene he r e i t e r a t e s Ydoine's Ydoine en a j o i e mult grant, Remaigne q u ' i l mais ne l a pregne Et qu'Amadas l ' a i t sans calenge.  goal:  vv. 2311-2313  The narrator has mentioned her i n t e n t i o n to stay "pure" f o r Amadas twice and seems to consider i t adequate j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r her conduct. perhaps he i s showing j u s t how inadequate i t i s .  Or  Regardless, Ydoine i s  s t i l l proving her love f o r Amadas by remaining loyal to him.  She does  not escape the arranged marriage but, because the Count i s too frightened to sleep with her, she does a t t a i n her goal to remain a v i r g i n .  - 67 -  The narrator appears t o place great importance not so much on the actions themselves, but on the motives behind them.  As we saw i n Chapter 1,  intention makes the b i g d i f f e r e n c e between the conduct of T r i s t a n and I s e u l t and that of Amadas et Ydoine.  The narrator could e a s i l y be a  follower of Abelard, who:  taught that everything depended on conscience  and on the  education of the conscience, or inner conversion; i n t e n t i o n and  4  not deeds was what mattered.  I f Abelard influenced the narrator i n t h i s area, perhaps he influenced him i n others.  In a period of prevalent a n t i - f e m i n i s t a t t i t u d e s , Abelard  was a r e f r e s h i n g change.  He did believe that women are weaker, but  thought that t h e i r v i r t u r e i s that much greater t o assert i t s e l f despite t h e i r weakness.  I t i s more perfect and more pleasing t o God.  Abelard  praised the f a i t h of women of the B i b l e and pointed out that C h r i s t :  singled out women by special signs again and again: the greatest miracles of r e s u s c i t a t i o n were displayed t o women, were worked 5  on women, or worked f o r them.  He also pointed out that:  C h r i s t showed that the female sex i s e s s e n t i a l t o s a l v a t i o n when he chose t o assume His human body through a woman; he could, Abelard suggests, have assumed i t through a man, j u s t as God formed the f i r s t woman from the body of a man.  -  68 -  We can perhaps a t t r i b u t e some a t t i t u d e s revealed l a t e r on in the romance to Abelard s i n f l u e n c e , but i t seems, at the very l e a s t , that the idea of 1  intention and conscience did a f f e c t the narrator.  Ydoine has a very  active conscience towards Amadas, her parents, her s o c i e t y and her God. She has placed her p r i o r i t i e s upon her vow of f i d e l i t y to Amadas.  This  takes precedence over any sin she may commit by coming in contact with the demonic world.  In t h i s case, then, the end i s j u s t i f y i n g the means.  And Ydoine continues to prove her l o y a l t y to Amadas and continues to use dishonest means to do t h i s .  Amadas' descent into a state of madness i s a  test of Ydoine's f a i t h f u l love.  W i l l she passively accept his madness  and now resign herself to a l i f e with the Count?  C e r t a i n l y not.  i s a c t i v e , dependable and trustworthy when i t involves Amadas.  Ydoine Her f a i t h  i n him and in l i f e i s c l e a r when her f i r s t thought i s : Car ele a bien en son pourpens Que tout l e g a r i r a par tens De ce dont si mal l i e s t a i t  vv. 2915-2917  Here we see the type of f a i t h and optimism that Abelard so valued in women.  When Ydoine i s about t o deceive the Count once more, the narrator f i r s t describes her intense g r i e f as i f t o , again, arouse compassion in the reader: La contesse en son l i t remaint, Qui toute nuit sospire et p l a i n t ; Mult par demaine grant dolour L'endemain mande son signour; Et i l i v i e n t , devant son l i t S ' a s i e t e t : 'Bele a m i e ' d i s t ,  - 69 -  'Com vous e s t a i t ? vostre d e s i r Ferai et tout vostre p l a i s i r ' Lors pleure des oels l a contesse This i s outright manipulation.  vv. 2919-2927  And the narrator does not even portray  the Count as being a h o r r i b l e ogre so that we can more e a s i l y excuse Ydoine's treatment of him.  He i s k i n d , generous and ready to please.  Ydoine abuses his magnanimity by using tears and by generating hope within him that her proposed voyage to Rome w i l l " c u r e " her so that they can be happy together. disapproval.  But, again, the narrator gives no i n d i c a t i o n of  She i s proving her love f o r Amadas and that appears to be  the determining f a c t o r f o r v i r t u e .  Ydoine does, indeed, act in a remarkable fashion when she goes to Lucca to cure Amadas.  She i s confronted with his i n s a n i t y , dishonour and  nakedness but i s not repulsed.  She cures him by almost magical means by  repeating her name and his one hundred times. incantation or part of a r i t u a l healing? contact with the o c c u l t .  Does t h i s not resemble an  Perhaps Ydoine does have close  Or perhaps the narrator i s f o l l o w i n g the  c o u r t l y convention of portraying the woman as a healer with supernatual powers.  Because she represents a force that the man does not completely understand and cannot c o n t r o l , the lady i s often said to possess supernatural powers—the power to cure f a t a l wounds or protect him from harm, to appear when needed or draw him to her.^  - 70-  Immediately f o l l o w i n g Ydoine's exceptional cure and demonstration of l o y a l t y f o r Amadas the narrator i n t e r j e c t s with a 5 6 - l i n e a n t i - f e m i n i s t diatribe: Tant durement est decevans Et angousseuse et souduians Vers houme q u ' e l e veut decoivre Et engingnier, s i bel V e n b o i v r e Et afole que l e plus sage Et qui a plus s o u t i l corage  vv. 3575-3580  This denunciation of women, inserted at t h i s p o i n t , i s s u r p r i s i n g .  Up to  t h i s p o i n t , the only n e g a t i v i t y we have seen expressed towards women has been towards the three witches. incessantly.  The narrator has praised Ydoine  But here we get the idea that every woman i s a w i t c h .  He  uses the words "decevans", " t r i c i e r " and "engiens" often and i n s i s t s : Mais nule n'est sans decevance; Toutes sevent de 1'ingremance, Et les engiens dont abelissent Vers ceus que trecent et traYssent  vv. 3585-3588  As during the narration of the w i t c h c r a f t scene, he stresses the f a c t that men are the victims of the deception. obvious; indeed, almost obsessive.  His f e a r of women i s quite  They are " f e l e n e s s e s " ,  "venimeuse",  "angoisseuse".  It i s i n t e r e s t i n g that the narrator decides to i n s e r t the t i r a d e at t h i s point.  Over 1300 l i n e s , nearly 1/5th of the romance, have elapsed since  Ydoine's involvement with the witches; over 600 l i n e s have elapsed since Ydoine's l a s t l i e to her husband, and since then the narrator has described an incident of Ydoine's complete, u t t e r devotion f o r Amadas. So why does he change the tone of his work so d r a s t i c a l l y here?  I t could  be that the narrator does not want the reader to associate any of his  - 71 -  condemnations with Ydoine, and so waits u n t i l long a f t e r her deceptions and immediately a f t e r her uncommonly constant and sincere conduct to express his opinions.  S t i l l , his manifestly inconsistent a t t i t u d e  regarding women i s bothersome.  We could e a s i l y wonder i f he has suddenly  changed his mind about Ydoine and i s going to condemn her severely a l s o . But no, we see that his a n t i - f e m i n i s t outburst i s a c t u a l l y being used to contrast the general population of women with Ydoine.  Immediately a f t e r  his strong comments he adds: Les dames ai or cest r e s p i t Pour l a contesse Ydoine d i t Por demostrer l a v e r i t e ' De l i et 1 ' e s t a b i l i t e ' '  vv. 3623-3626  The author then spends 34 l i n e s lauding Ydoine and her actions. down somewhat from his previous emotional outburst.  He calms  He states that the  majority of women are "encontre raison et d r o i t u r e " but i t i s not t h e i r f a u l t because " t o u t ce leur vient de Nature".  Here we note the  A r i s t o t e l i a n a n t i - f e m i n i s t a t t i t u d e previously quoted that a woman i s " l a c k i n g in reason" and i s a male manque'.  However t h i s opinion i s  modified here since the narrator concedes that a few women e x i s t who are good, l o y a l , sincere and " r a i s n a v l e " .  Ydoine i s , according to the  narrator, of t h i s c l a s s , although at t h i s point we may wonder why, since Ydoine has displayed many of the d e f i c i e n c i e s the narrator harshly judges.  She has used deception, t r i c k e r y and w i t c h c r a f t .  So we must  assume that the narrator excuses her treatment of the Count and considers only her behaviour with Amadas.  - 72 -  This places us, as readers, in a d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n . expects inordinate amount of acceptance from us.  The narrator  F i r s t , he portrays  Ydoine as being virtuous, sincere and morally upright, yet most of her actions do not support t h i s p i c t u r e .  Then he strongly denounces the  female sex with no concrete examples of t h e i r f i c k l e nature or treachery except perhaps the three witches or Ydoine h e r s e l f .  W i l l the n a r r a t o r ' s  argument f o r the supremacy of i n t e n t i o n over actual conduct be powerful enough to overcome our misgivings?  Ydoine's prayer to God before continuing on to Rome a f t e r having cured Amadas i s perhaps meant to dispel some of the readers qualms: La contesse v a i t au mostier P r i i e r a Diu que aciever Puist son desir et son penser, Sans reparlance de f o l i e , Sans pecie" et sans volonnie, Si que de gent ne s o i t blasmee, Que mult c r i e n t estre deparlee. Et nonpourquant raisnavlement Quide aciever t o t son t a l e n t D'Amadas et de son signour, Qu'ele ne d o i t dou Creatour Ne de l a gent mal gre a v o i r . En icou a mult bon espoir Que outre son g r e ' f u dounee Au conte et a force espousee, Si avoit Amadas p l e v i Q u ' i l l a prendroit et ele l i .  vv. 3708-3724  Ydoine, the narrator i n s i s t s , does not want to s i n , and wants to achieve her goal to be with Amadas reasonably and honourably.  The narrator  repeats that she has been married against her w i l l and that a l l she r e a l l y desires i s Amadas.  Thus, she i s portrayed as an innocent v i c t i m  of circumstance, t r y i n g her best to be united with her true l o v e r . a struggle f o r t h i s woman to a t t a i n her d e s i r e .  - 73 -  In most c o u r t l y  It  is  l i t e r a t u r e the woman must wait f o r events to happen, but Ydoine has assumed a "male r o l e " by pursuing Amadas, who to her represents s p i r i t u a l heights.  It i s extremely d i f f i c u l t .  Because i t i s so d i f f i c u l t , she resorts to dishonesty and deception. Even Amadas does not escape i t .  A f t e r the incident with the strange  knight on her way back from Rome, Ydoine becomes severely i l l and seems to be on her death bed. honesty.  This would seem to be the time f o r absolute  The narrator states once more that: La ou est Amors bien se proeve. Par grant amor f a i t et controeve  vv. 4965-4966  This time, however, he does explain e x a c t l y how Ydoine i s proving her love f o r Amadas, and he j u s t i f i e s her conduct.  This i s necessary because  by lying to Amadas, Ydoine i s breaking her vow of t r u s t and honesty: Estrange mencoigne de s o i , Par loiaute" et par grant f o i . Por g a r i r de mort son ami Veut t e l chose faindre de l i Dont e l l e guide par boisdie Decevoir s i q u ' i l a s'amie Ne l a tiegne s i com i l seut; Car a c r o i r e f a i r e l i veut Une grant mencoigne de soi Qu'a concree en son secroi Por l i metre de mort a v i e . Com l a plus t r e s l o i a l amie Que on o'Yst mais en roumans Puis l e tans as premiers amans  vv. 4966-4980  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that the narrator chooses the same vocabulary to depict Ydoine's conduct as he uses to d i s c r e d i t women in general.  He does not  t r y to disguise her a c t i o n s , but uses the words "mencoigne", " d e c e v o i r " , "boisdie".  But, in t h i s case, her falsehood i s being used as the  - 74 -  greatest evidence yet of her allegiance to Amadas.  She i s now " l a plus  t r e s l o i a l amie que on o i s t mais en roumans puis l e tans as premiers amans".  Her devotion surpasses even that of f i c t i o n a l characters.  Again, i t i s c l e a r l y the i n t e n t i o n , not the deed i t s e l f that determines the righteousness, of behaviour.  Ydoine l i e s so that Amadas w i l l not be  so overcome with d i s t r e s s a f t e r her death that he commits s u i c i d e .  Her  reputation has been an extremely important consideration in a l l her actions up to t h i s p o i n t . her.  She wants no bad rumours c i r c u l a t e d about  Yet.here she i s w i l l i n g to s a c r i f i c e her l o v e r ' s high regard f o r  her by admitting to both promiscuity and murder. someone's reputation more than t h i s .  No rumour could blacken  So t h i s l i e i s , indeed, supreme  proof of u n s e l f i s h love.  And what an adept l i a r she has become'. 'Biaus tresdous cuers, bele jovente, Merci vous c r i comme dolente, Que j e sui l a plus dolereuse Peceresse et malelireuse Et l a plus c a i t i v e du mont. De toutes celes qui i sont'  vv. 5047-5052  I t would be d i f f i c u l t f o r Amadas not to be touched by such agony and grief.  But Ydoine has much at stake - - the l i f e of the person she  values more than her own.  She i s overjoyed when she succeeds:  Ydoine l ' o t , s ' a mult joious Le cuer, et el s i d o i t avoir; De l a pramesse a bon espoir; Ne doute mais que i l s ' o c i e Ne q u ' i l s ' a t o r t a d e r v e r i e . En grigneur j o i e icou l a met Que tous les biens que l i pramet Apres sa mort pour l u i a f a i r e .  - 75 -  vv. 5232-5239  Consequently, Ydoine does deceive Amadas by breaking her vow of honesty.  She t e l l s a gross l i e and manipulates him.  i t i s f o r a noble cause.  Yet, here again,  There could no nobler cause than to ensure  that her lover w i l l survive her.  The narrator succeeds here in  displaying her u n s e l f i s h motives and moral excellence.  We glean more of the n a r r a t o r ' s conception of v i r t u e and m o r a l i t y by examining the women Amadas l i s t s as t r a i t o r s when, a f t e r the maufe' has revealed to him the r i n g he gave to Ydoine, he begins to doubt her integrity: L i c o r t o i s T r i s t a n s fu t r a i ' s Et deceit's et mal b a i l l i s De V a m i s t e Yseut l a b l o i e ; Si fu l i biaus Paris de Troie Et d'Oenone et d ' E l a i n e .. . P o l l i x c e n o y . . . Penelope'.. . F l o i r e s , Audain...Lavine...Alixandres ...Salemons...Sansons  vv. 5833-5837 vv. 5839-5840 vv. 5853-5854  Amadas, and the narrator, have very high expectations and demands of lovers.  We can assume that I s e u l t i s considered d e c e i t f u l because she  remains with and sleeps with her husband while loving T r i s t a n .  Helen  i s probably considered u n f a i t h f u l because several men were in love with her; Oenone because, nursing her grievance, she refused to heal P a r i s ' wound from c a r r y i n g Helen from Sparta.  These are examples, not  so much of i n f i d e l i t y , but of a lack of t o t a l , absolute devotion.  It  i s impossible to f i n d any example of treacherous conduct in Polyxena or Penelope. unfaithful.  Blancefleur was sold i n t o a harem, and thus forced to be Aude looked with favour upon Lambert, and i t seems i s  judged f o r t h i s even though i t i s before she becomes Roland's  - 76 -  fiancee.  Lavina and Roxana remain f a i t h f u l .  Amadas i s more accurate  in the cases of Soloman and Samson, who were both notorious as being dupes of women.  Q  Some of the examples Amadas uses are inaccurate, which could i n d i c a t e that Amadas i s so emotional that he i s not thinking c l e a r l y .  I t could  also i n d i c a t e that the narrator i s being t o t a l l y unreasonable by placing almost impossible demands upon women, or that he i s mocking those who s e r i o u s l y expect t h i s type of love. to the extreme.  This i s l o y a l t y taken  If the narrator i s serious, then even the s l i g h t e s t  transgression, weakness or inadequacy denotes i n f i d e l i t y , f o r the true lover i s expected to go to almost superhuman degrees or turn to devious, dangerous methods to prove f a i t h f u l n e s s .  Nevertheless, there also seems to be a p r i c e to pay i f someone uses questionable means to achieve one's ends.  Ydoine resorts to  w i t c h c r a f t , a p r a c t i c e the narrator appears to deplore.  Ydoine i s not  d i r e c t l y implicated in the plan, but i s i n e x t r i c a b l y involved, and t h i s involvement may l i n k the incident with the mauf£.  It i s when she  i s returning from Rome, j u s t before re-entering Lucca, that a mysterious knight, who i s "grans et biaus" a r r i v e s and t r i e s to f o r c i b l y seize Ydoine.  When he i s pursued he sets her down and  " s ' e v a n u i s t , que nus ne sot que i l d e v i n t " .  This i s no normal knight  and we learn l a t e r that he i s a mauf£, a bad f a i r y , who has effected a d e a t h - l i k e stupor in Ydoine by s u b s t i t u t i n g his magic r i n g f o r Amadas'. Is t h i s then, the r e s u l t of an i m p l i c i t pact Ydoine made with the  - 77 -  demons when she employed the three witches?  Or, i f her cure of Amadas  did indeed include an i n c a n t a t i o n , then s p i r i t s were involved at that time as w e l l .  Perhaps in her zeal and determination to be with Amadas  she has overstepped some bounds and must now pay the p r i c e .  The maufe  does not mention a pact to Amadas but t e l l s him: Car ele avoit un autre ami Qu'ele amoit plus, que bien l e sai Le tesmoing vous en mousterrai, Par convent que vous m ' o t r o i i e s Se les enseignes counoissie's  vv. 5744-5748  He does admit l a t e r that Amadas i s the only person Ydoine has loved, but perhaps Ydoine made a bargain of which she was unaware.  The maufe  desires to have Ydoine f o r his own and to take her to the s p i r i t realm.  Has Ydoine then, l i k e Faust, sold her soul to the Devil in  order to remain pure and f a i t h f u l to Amadas, and does the narrator again consider t h i s the ultimate proof of f i d e l i t y because of l o f t y motives?  I f the narrator has, up to t h i s point, asserted that i t i s  i n t e n t i o n s , not deeds, that matter, and that the end j u s t i f i e s the means, then t h i s would be the l o g i c a l progression of that argument. It i s p o s s i b l e , however, that he i s demonstrating the ridiculousness of an argument of t h i s s o r t , because considering only intentions has led Ydoine to abuse the Count's l i f e , abuse the conventions of the s p i r i t world and to perhaps destroy her own l i f e and her ultimate o r i g i n a l goal.  In any case, Ydoine i s spared from a l i f e with the demons because of Amadas' love f o r and t r u s t in her.  In an almost C h r i s t - l i k e r o l e , he  resurrects Ydoine from h e l l .  - 78 -  I t i s then that we see that the n a r r a t o r ' s view of i n t e g r i t y involves more than f i d e l i t y to lovers or to vows; i t involves f i d e l i t y to one's inner b e l i e f s and p r i n c i p l e s as well as to one's r e l i g i o n and society.  Thus, even though Ydoine does not love the Count and has  been married to him against her w i l l , she w i l l not have sexual r e l a t i o n s with Amadas: ' I c e l d e s i r deves t a r g i e r ...Ouvrer ensi qu'a grant hounor Me p a r t i r a i de mon signour, Et que serai vostre espousee Et de tous mes amis donee Sans pecie a Vouneur de, De Par esgart de crest'fente'.' Ydoine w i l l not commit adultery with Amadas.  vv. 6726; 6745-6750 Her physical love f o r  him must come w i t h i n the l i m i t s of her precious vows and her r e l i g i o n . Her love f o r Amadas i s not a t r a n s i t o r y passion; i t i s a l a s t i n g , s p i r i t u a l devotion.  It i s t h i s type of "pure" love which the narrator  e x t o l s , and which deserves to end happily and s u c c e s s f u l l y .  Their love  transcends the physical to reach a higher plane.  Following t h i s proof of f a i t h f u l n e s s to her p r i n c i p l e s , Ydoine continues to act with d u p l i c i t y .  She no longer, however, appears to  receive help from the s p i r i t realm or deceives Amadas.  These l a t e r  manipulations are described as being f a i r l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t , but necessary to f i n a l l y r e a l i z e her goal.  Before Ydoine recounts her  dishonest t a l e to the Count, however, the narrator i n t e r j e c t s with his second a n t i - f e m i n i s t harangue:  - 79 -  Hal feme, com es enginneuse Et decevans et a r t i l l e u s e , D'engin trouver puissans et sage, De b a s t i r mal a grant damage!  vv. 7037-7040  This 6 0 - l i n e digression d i f f e r s from the previous one in that i t seems to f o l l o w more l o g i c a l l y from the p l o t , and i s therefore not so surprising.  At f i r s t we may conclude that these negative comments are  intended to include Ydoine because the narrator i n s e r t s them immediately a f t e r she summons the Count to l i e to him once again.  In t h i s t i r a d e the author uses much the same vocabulary but seems to add to i t in order to emphasize women's "enginneuse", "decevans", "encanter", and adds " f a u s e t e " , " l e g i e r e " .  "tricerie", He also adds  an odd sort of respect to t h i s denunciation, a respect f o r t h e i r power and knowledge: Que bien voi q u ' e l e s ont conquis Trestout l e mont a leur v o l o i r , Sans c o n t r e d i t , par leur savoir  vv. 7074-7076  He may not l i k e these "female" t r a i t s , but can we detect a note of envy of them?  The narrator also adds a personal commentary: Mais j e n ' i ai d r o i t ne raison Qu'en doie d i r e se bien non: Ains ont bien deservi vers moi, Que trestoutes amer les d o i : Ses amerai j u s q u ' a l a f i n Sans traYson et sans engin  vv. 7067-7072  This comment i s somewhat strange considering i t i s offered by someone who has b i t t e r l y attacked women twice.  It i s almost as i f he were  d i s a s s o c i a t i n g himself from the o v e r a l l d i a t r i b e to say what he r e a l l y feels.  But hasn't he j u s t interrupted the story to state what he  - 80 -  r e a l l y feels?  Perhaps t h i s i s now a change of a t t i t u d e , or at least a  softening of one.  I t i s also i n t e r e s t i n g to note that he does not  state that he loves only good, sincere women.  He loves them a l l  because they have done no harm to him personally.  But i f they have  done no harm to him, why does he judge them in the f i r s t place?  At  least t h i s time he does admit that there are a few women who know " l e bien, l a f r a n c i s e et V o u n o u r i "  But, c u r i o u s l y , Ydoine i s again not included in the reproach.  She i s  " f i n e , bone et e n t e r i n e " : Lors commence son conte en bas La contesse preus et v a i l l a n s , Bien enraisnie et bien parlans; Son sens et son engin esproeve, Estrangement f a i t et controeve Une merveilleuse matire  vv. 7124-7129  The incident with the witches was c a l l e d a "merveilleuse aventure" and t h i s untruth i s c a l l e d a "merveilleuse m a t i r e " .  For any other woman  we can assume i t would be c a l l e d "fausete" and " t r i c e r i e " .  The word  "ehgin" i s used both to describe women in general and Ydoine, but the word has two meanings. trickery.  I t can mean t a l e n t and s p i r i t , or deceit and  Considering the tone of the r e s t of the comments on Ydoine,  we can surmise that he means t a l e n t and s p i r i t , or he may even be playing on the ambiguity of the term.  Following Ydoine's successful attempt to pursuade her husband to obtain a divorce, she concocts her f i n a l , c l i m a c t i c ruse so that the barons w i l l be the ones to vote on the most courageous knight f o r her  - 81 -  to marry.  She i s , of course, c e r t a i n that they w i l l choose Amadas.  As the author i n t e r j e c t s : He! Dix, tant par est decevans, Quant par s i bel engin se coevre. "Decevans"  vv. 7516-7517  and "engin" are the words the narrator has chosen most  often to describe the female sex and he uses them here with reference to Ydoine. not.  The word "engin" i s ambiguous but the word "decevans"  is  The narrator i s including Ydoine in with women in general;  nevertheless, he s t i l l does not c r i t i c i z e her. Diusl Com est s o u t i l l e et sage! Par grant raison et par savoir Veut aciever tout son v o l o i r , Que bien pense que l i piuisour Et l i plus v a i l l a n t de 1'ounor L i vauront Amadas doner, S ' e l e l e veut acreanter  Instead, he adds:  vv. 7584-7590  It i s "par leur savoir" that women have come to conquer the world, and i t i s also "par savoir" that Ydoine achieves a l l her wishes.  The  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a c t o r i s t h a t , according to the narrator, Ydoine acts "par grant r a i s o n " and i s "sage".  During his f i r s t d i a t r i b e he  accuses women of being "encontre r a i s o n " .  In the 13th century i t was  thought that women were i n f e r i o r to men because they lacked reason. Is t h a t , then, the q u a l i t y the narrator most values in women, as portrayed by his words describing Ydoine? not bear out t h i s p o r t r a y a l .  Her a c t i o n s , however, do  We see her ingenuity, cleverness and  determination, but c e r t a i n l y not "reason". ruled by her heart.  - 82 -  She i s most d e f i n i t e l y  A f t e r Ydoine obtains her dearest desires by means of a l l her deceptions we, as readers, may be more confused than ever.  Do we put  more emphasis on Ydoine's actions, her blatant falsehoods, or on the n a r r a t o r ' s praise of her?  Do we condemn the female sex even though  the only woman we encounter i n depth i s Ydoine?  To answer these questions, we must f i r s t consider the author's aim or aims in w r i t i n g Amadas et Ydoine. unsettled period in h i s t o r y .  I t i s true that he l i v e d during an  Thus, his attempt to create a  transcendent-Tristan, to describe a t r u l y " p e r f e c t " love r e l a t i o n s h i p may be an unconscious attempt to return to the peace and s t a b i l i t y of the 12th century and thus avoid the c o n f l i c t and changing a t t i t u d e s of his time.  However, the n a r r a t o r ' s obvious c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and omissions may also be an attempt to expose the absurdity of the generalisations of both the 12th and 13th c e n t u r i e s .  Perhaps he i s parodying Beroul, p r a i s i n g  Ydoine incessantly as Beroul praises T r i s t a n and I s e u l t , while at the same time recounting her many d e c e i t f u l actions.  Perhaps he i s  showing how f u t i l e and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i t i s to aspire to an ideal of a " p e r f e c t " woman, j u s t as i t i s f u t i l e and unsatisfactory to condemn the female sex as being a l l witches and l i a r s .  He may be t r y i n g to compose a love story that transcends a l l these f l e e t i n g a t t i t u d e s and generalisations by creating a female character  - 83 -  with both p o s i t i v e and negative c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , who i s inconsistent yet, at the same time, true to her own values.  The existence of the narrator may be an attempt to show the i r r e c o n c i l i b i l i t y of the extreme a t t i t u d e of both the 12th and 13th centuries and the desire to search f o r more r e a l i s t i c and human female images so as to bring more understanding between male and female.  We w i l l  examine f u r t h e r t h i s attempt to resolve dissension between the sexes in the f o l l o w i n g chapter.  - 84 -  CHAPTER 3 AMADAS' INNER VOYAGE  Amadas et Ydoine can be seen as the d e s c r i p t i o n of the unconscious maturation process of Amadas (and perhaps the author).  Amadas' dialogue  and actions r e f l e c t the psyche's e f f o r t s to achieve harmony within i t s e l f by recognizing c e r t a i n elements i t has thus f a r rejected and repressed and by r e c o n c i l i n g i t s masculine and feminine energies.  This i s a stage  of Carl Jung's i n d i v i d u a t i o n process which also has much in common with Joseph Campbell's hero voyage.  An important concept in Jungian psychology i s the S e l f , which can be defined as the centre of our psychic system.  I t i s a guide to our  unconscious motivations as well the goal, because penetration to t h i s ultimate foundation of our psyche leads to s e l f knowledge and fulfillment.  It i s the S e l f that brings about the continuing maturation  of the p e r s o n a l i t y :  This l a r g e r , more nearly t o t a l aspect of the psyche appears f i r s t as merely an inborn p o s s i b i l i t y .  How f a r i t develops  depends on whether or not the ego i s w i l l i n g to l i s t e n to the messages of the S e l f J  L i s t e n i n g to the messages of the S e l f makes us more balanced, complete human beings.  However, t h i s involves turning to our unconscious and  a c t u a l l y surrendering to i t s power.  This i s always a d i f f i c u l t process  that involves much time, energy and pain.  - 85  -  The "coming-to-terms with one's inner center (psychic nucleus) or S e l f " i s c a l l e d i n d i v i d u a t i o n or s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n and usually begins with a 2  wounding of the p e r s o n a l i t y and the s u f f e r i n g that accompanies i t . may f e e l bored, f r u s t r a t e d , u n f u l f i l l e d .  We  We reach a c r i s i s point in our  life: One i s seeking something that i s impossible to f i n d or about which nothing i s known.  In such moments a l l well-meant,  sensible advice i s completely useless—advice that urges one to t r y to be responsible, to take a holiday. or at best only r a r e l y .  None of that helps,  There i s only one thing that seems to  work; and that i s to turn d i r e c t l y toward the approaching darkness without prejudice and t o t a l l y naively, and to t r y to f i n d out what i t s secret aim i s and what i s wants from you.  The f i r s t step in t h i s psychological journey i s to face our shadow.  The  shadow i s the dark or u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d side of our p e r s o n a l i t y . According to Jung, there are two psychological a t t i t u d e s ; extraverted and i n t r o v e r t e d , and four functions: t h i n k i n g , f e e l i n g , sensation, and intuition.  The shadow includes the a t t i t u d e and functions that we have  not yet integrated into our p e r s o n a l i t y .  It also includes our negative  p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s or l i t t l e - k n o w n q u a l i t i e s of our ego that we have not yet accepted.  U n t i l we come to terms with these weaknesses or  u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d parts of ourselves, we tend to project our shadow onto other people.  The personified shadow can therefore be both a p o s i t i v e  and negative f i g u r e .  Facing the shadow i s a very painful and humbling  -  86  -  experience and often involves great resistance by the ego.  Because of  t h i s , many people do not f i n i s h t h i s f i r s t step in i n d i v i d u a t i o n and discontinue t h e i r search f o r the S e l f .  For those of us who do face our shadow and manage to incorporate i t into our conscious l i v e s , the next step i s to meet our contrasexual component.  For women t h i s i s c a l l e d the animus, or masculine counterpart  and f o r men i t i s the anima, or feminine counterpart. f i g u r e of the "soul-image" we carry in us.  This archetypal  represents the image of the opposite sex that  Just as we project our shadow on other people u n t i l we  accept i t , so we also project our anima or animus onto other people u n t i l we integrate i t into our p e r s o n a l i t y .  Thus, our contrasexual component  can take on many forms:  The anima can...take the form of a sweet young maiden, a goddess, a witch, an angel, a demon, a beggar woman, a whore, a 4  devoted companion, an amazon, e t c .  Our r e l a t i o n s h i p to our anima or animus plays a c r u c i a l r o l e in our life. psyche.  Like the shadow, i t w i l l represent the underdeveloped areas of our If we are i n t e l l e c t u a l , our soul-image w i l l be sentimental.  This i s a c a l l f o r us.to develop that side of our own p e r s o n a l i t y .  If  not, we are in danger of becoming possessed by or soul-image which can lead to disastrous consequences to our r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the opposite sex and to our own p e r s o n a l i t y balance.  - 87  -  Therefore, the goal of the Self i s that we integrate the  unconscious  elements such as the shadow and our contrasexual component into our conscious l i v e s so that we can become more complete and whole.  This  corresponds to what Joseph Campbell describes as the hero voyage. sets out three stages to t h i s voyage:  He  the separation or departure, the  t r i a l s and v i c t o r i e s of i n i t i a t i o n , and the return and r e - i n t e g r a t i o n with s o c i e t y .  The separation begins with the c a l l to adventure, much l i k e the wounding of the p e r s o n a l i t y which signals the s t a r t of the i n d i v i d u a t i o n process. This c a l l can be accepted or refused.  The refusal i s e s s e n t i a l l y a refusal to give up what one takes to be one's own i n t e r e s t .  The future i s regarded not in terms  of an unremitting series of deaths and b i r t h s , but as though one's present system of i d e a l s , v i r t u r e s , goals and advantages 5  were to be f i x e d and made secure.  This i s the person who i s a f r a i d to face his shadow, a f r a i d to change and grow.  For those who do accept the challenge, however, there i s  supernatural a i d , s i m i l a r to encouraging signs from the S e l f .  We must f i r s t surrender our ego in order to cross the threshold in the hero voyage, j u s t as we must surrender our ego in order to turn to the unconscious.  - 88 -  The passage of the threshold i s a form of s e l f - a n n i h i l a t i o n . His secular character remains without; he sheds i t , as a snake i t s slough.  Once inside he may be said to have died to time and  returned to the World Womb, the World Navel, the E a r t h l y Paradise.^  Crossing the threshold leads to the second stage which i s This i s where a l l the t r i a l s occur.  initiation.  Just as the process of i n d i v i d u a t i o n  involves a commitment to explore the unconscious with a l l i t s f r i g h t e n i n g and marvellous aspects, so the hero voyage involves s o l i t a r y t r a v e l through the untravelled s p i r i t u a l l a b y r i n t h of the mind:  This i s the process of d i s s o l v i n g , transcending or transmuting the i n f a n t i l e images of our personal past.  In our dreams the  ageless p e r i l s , gargoyles, t r i a l s , secret helpers and i n s t r u c t i v e f i g u r e s are n i g h t l y s t i l l encountered; and in t h e i r forms we may see r e f l e c t e d not only the whole p i c t u r e of our present case, but also the clue to what we must do to be saved.^  As with the i n d i v i d u a t i o n process, the goal of the hero voyage i s to make us more complete and to a r r i v e at an i n t e r n a l harmony and u n i t y .  In the  hero voyage t h i s involves f i r s t the meeting with the goddess and then atonement with the f a t h e r , which two steps can be likened to accepting and i n t e g r a t i n g our soul-image and shadow i n t o our conscious  life.  Meeting the goddess means bringing to harmony the male and female components of our being.  - 89 -  Woman, in the p i c t u r e language of mythology, represents the t o t a l i t y of what can be known. know.  The hero i s the one who comes to  o  Atonement with the father involves accepting what i s negative in ourselves, " f o r the ogre aspect of the father i s a r e f l e x of the v i c t i m ' s g own ego".  For the son who has grown r e a l l y to know the f a t h e r , the agonies of the ordeal are r e a d i l y borne; the world i s no longer a vale of tears but a b l i s s - y i e l d i n g perpetual manifestation of the Presence.^  What i s achieved i s t o t a l unity with ourselves and with the energy of the cosmos.  Male, female; good, e v i l ; darkness,  l i g h t : a l l become one.  This  i s symbolized with the image of the bisexual God:  He i s the mystery of the theme of i n i t i a t i o n .  We are taken from  the mother, chewed into fragments and assimilated to the worlda n n i h i l a t i n g body of the ogre f o r whom a l l the precious forms and beings are only the courses of a f e a s t , but, then, miraculously reborn, we are more than we were...the childhood parent images of 'good' and ' e v i l '  have been surpassed.  We no  longer desire and f e a r , we are what was desired and f e a r e d . . . a l l men are b r o t h e r s .  11  - 90 -  This i s s p i r i t u a l growth, breaking through personal l i m i t a t i o n s , accepting our shadow and soul-image as part of ourselves, thereby no longer projecting f a u l t s and weaknesses on others.  We are at harmony  within and without.  But j u s t as we must continue to l i v e in the conscious world during our i n d i v i d u a t i o n , so we must also return to the world a f t e r our hero voyage.  Now, however, we r e a l i z e that "the two kingdoms (the  unconscious  12  and the conscious)  are a c t u a l l y one."  L i v i n g in our former world i s  sometimes d i f f i c u l t , f o r i t now may seem bland and unimportant a f t e r what we have undergone.  This i s as much of a challenge as the i n i t i a l  voyage.  ...Now the problem i s to maintain t h i s cosmic standpoint in the face of immediate e a r t h l y pain or joy.  13  In Jungian terms t h i s happens when the ego merges into the S e l f .  We  develop a r e l a t i o n s h i p with our S e l f , and learn to keep tune with i t . becomes an inner partner to whom we turn f o r i n s p i r a t i o n and peace.  It By  means of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p we can transcend time and space and become connected to the macrocosm: In ways that are s t i l l completely beyond our comprehension, our unconscious  i s s i m i l a r l y attuned to our surroundings—to  our  group, to society in general, and beyond these, to the space-time continuum and the whole of nature...the experience of something eternal that man can have in those moments when he f e e l s immortal 14 and unalterable.  - 91 -  The hero then gains a new perspective and reaches that harmony.  ...by e f f e c t i n g a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l with the universal w i l l .  consciousness  And t h i s i s effected through a  r e a l i z a t i o n of the true r e l a t i o n s h i p of the passing phenomena of 1H  time to the imperishable l i f e that l i v e s and dies in a l l .  Consequently, we see t h a t , whether we c a l l i t i n d i v i d u a t i o n or the hero voyage, the process and r e s u l t s are b a s i c a l l y the same.  We t r a v e l to the  abyss of the unconscious to tap i t s c r e a t i v e forces which lead us to new s p i r i t u a l dimensions. it.  We face our underdeveloped side and work to develop  I t i s only in t h i s manner that we can reach a state of t o t a l peace  and harmony w i t h i n ourselves and with the l i f e energy of the world.  Using t h i s methodological framework, then, l e t us now turn to Amadas and examine his and perhaps the author's own s p i r i t u a l voyage.  At the beginning of the story Amadas i s 15 years o l d : Biaus ert et a l i g n i e s et grans De cors, de v i s et de f a i t u r e ...Sour tous enfans sages e s t o i t ; Humles ert mult et amiavles, Frans et courtois et servicavles He i s both p h y s i c a l l y and morally e x c e p t i o n a l .  vv. 62-63; 68-70 He i s also emotionally  undeveloped, proud, independent and d i s d a i n f u l of love. f e e l s himself to be superior to women:  - 92 -  In f a c t , he  Q u ' i l n ' a v o i t pas ou mont dansele Tant c o u r t o i s e , franee ne bele Ne dame de nule devise Ne pour biaute, ne pour f r a n k i s e Q u ' i l amast v a i l l a n t une a l i e N'avoit cure de drlierie  vv. 83-88  Despite his arrogance, he f a l l s suddenly and dramatically in love with Ydoine at the f e s t i v a l : La couleur l i p r i s t a cangier Et en l a face et ou menton Un souspir j e t a a larron ...Pales devint, aval s ' i n c l i n e Pasmes c h i e t devant l a mescine Why is Amadas affected to such a degree? to a melodramatic extreme.  vv. 258-260; 279-280  This i s "coup de foudre" taken  Amadas i s "bewitched".  I t i s the presence of the anima that causes a man to f a l l suddenly in love when he sees a woman f o r the f i r s t time and nows at once that t h i s i s "she".  In t h i s s i t u a t i o n , the man  f e e l s as i f he has known t h i s woman i n t i m a t e l y f o r a l l time; he f a l l s f o r her so h e l p l e s s l y that i t looks to outsiders  like  complete madness.  Amadas has met his soul-image, his anima, f o r the f i r s t time and he i s overwhelmed.  And Ydoine i s the perfect person on whom to project i t .  We  have already discussed how Ydoine i s the mirror image of Amadas both p h y s i c a l l y and morally.  She also shares his one f l a w — p r i d e .  complement to him and he recognizes himself in her.  She i s a  He also recognizes  his inner feminine energy which he has up u n t i l t h i s point ignored.  - 93 -  But Amadas can no longer ignore his anima.  It i s making i t s presence  known and f o r a very good reason:  The secret aim of the unconscious...is  to force a man to develop  and to bring his own being to maturity by i n t e g r a t i n g more of his unconscious p e r s o n a l i t y and bringing i t into his real life.  1 7  The S e l f , then, i s giving Amadas messages to turn to his unconscious to bring i t s hidden energy to his conscious surface.  and  This i s what  Campbell c a l l s the " h e r a l d " or c a l l to adventure, the awakening of the S e l f , when:  ...whether small or great, and no matter what the stage or grade of l i f e , the c a l l rings up the c u r t a i n , always, on a mystery of t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n . . . a r i t e , or moment, of s p i r i t u a l passage which, when complete, amounts to a dying and a b i r t h .  The f a m i l i a r  l i f e horizon has been outgrown; the old concepts, ideals and emotional patterns no longer f i t ; the time f o r the passing of a  18 threshold i s at hand. Amadas i s being c a l l e d by his unconscious to a journey of discovery where he must f i n d new " i d e a l s and emotional patterns" which w i l l help him mature and deal with l i f e .  He cannot f i n d these from without—from his  parents or from s o c i e t y , he must f i n d them from w i t h i n , from his centre, which i s linked to the l i f e force of the cosmos. discovery.  - 94 -  I t must be a personal  As Campbell points out, the herald i s usually marked by a loathsome or t e r r i f y i n g being, a mysterious f i g u r e who symbolizes the unknown, or a beast which s i g n i f i e s "repressed i n s t i n c t u a l f e c u n d i t y " .  In Amadas' case,  the herald i s marked by love: En l'esgarder de l a pucele L i saut au cuer une e s t i n c e l e Qui de f i n amor l ' a espris  vv. 243-245  This i s f i t t i n g f o r Amadas and perhaps revealing about the author. Although we would be exaggerating in saying that love has been loathsome and t e r r i f y i n g to Amadas, i t c e r t a i n l y has s i g n i f i e d the mysterious and unknown.  Amadas i s t o t a l l y ignorant of love and i t s e f f e c t s : Ne pot onques savoir d amour Nule douceur, nule dolour 1  vv. 117-118  Nevertheless, t h i s u n f a m i l i a r dimension of his being i s the object of his quest.  She i s the paragon of a l l paragons of beauty, the r e p l y to a l l d e s i r e , the bliss-bestowing goal of every hero's e a r t h l y and unearthly quest.  She i s mother, s i s t e r , mistress, b r i d e .  For  she i s the incarnation of the promise of p e r f e c t i o n , the s o u l ' s assurance t h a t , at the conclusion of i t s e x i l e in a world of organized inadequacies, the b l i s s that once was known w i l l be 19 known again. The author i s using the 12th-century t r a d i t i o n of the woman who symbolizes p e r f e c t i o n and beauty.  Campbell regards t h i s part of the  quest as the search f o r i d y l l i c harmony, as a return to the peace of the  - 95 -  womb.  Perhaps the author's use of the c o u r t l y view of woman i s an  unconscious desire to return to the open, t r u s t i n g a t t i t u d e of the 12th century, before the i n t o l e r a n t "world of organized inadequacies" of the 13th century set i n .  However, Ydoine does not quite conform to the 12th-century i d e a l . not p e r f e c t .  She i s  She has the flaw of p r i d e , a pride which i s even more  extreme than that of Amadas.  This leads us to suspect that Ydoine symbolizes more than his p o s i t i v e anima.  She must also symbolize something imperfect in himself, something  Amadas would l i k e to ignore or f o r g e t .  Could Ydoine also personify  Amadas' shadow?  But paradoxical as i t may seem at f i r s t s i g h t , the shadow as ' a l t e r ego' may also be represented by a p o s i t i v e f i g u r e , f o r example, when the i n d i v i d u a l whose 'other s i d e ' i t p e r s o n i f i e s i s l i v i n g 'below his l e v e l ' , f a i l i n g to f u l f i l  his  p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . . . I n i t s i n d i v i d u a l aspect the shadow stands f o r the 'personal darkness', personifying the contents (sometimes p o s i t i v e ) of our psyche that have been rejected or repressed or 20  less l i v e d in the course of our conscious existence. This c e r t a i n l y f i t s in the case of Amadas.  He has been neglecting his  s o f t e r , more emotional s i d e , f a i l i n g to " f u l f i l the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s " of his inner feminine nature.  Since Ydoine displays a s i m i l a r proud and  - 96 -  d i s d a i n f u l nature, he recognizes parts of himself in her.  She i s ,  therefore, not only the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of P e r f e c t i o n and Beauty, but i s also a r e f l e c t i o n of his own character flaws.  I f , as we examined in the Introduction, the author i d e n t i f i e s with Amadas, t h i s would explain why the n a r r a t o r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of Ydoine's actions does not j u s t i f y his ardent praise of her and why his remarks about women in general are so harsh.  Ydoine symbolizes both Amadas'  anima and his shadow—seemingly c o n t r a d i c t o r y r o l e s .  This no doubt  causes a considerable amount of confusion in the author's psyche and leads to the n a r r a t o r ' s inconsistent and ambiguous comments.  In any case, Amadas reacts strongly to the sight of his "soul-image".  It  i s i n t e r e s t i n g that Ydoine asks Amadas at the f e s t i v a l : 'Amis,' f a i t e l e , 'pren, s i f a i l l e Cest mes dedens cest e s q u i e l e ' The " e s q u i e l e " , bowl, i s a womb-like image.  vv. 228-229  Ydoine i s asking to be  f i l l e d , to have her feminine energies s a t i s f i e d . Que de sa main c h i e t l i coutiax Dont i l d o i t t r e n c i e r les morsiax Sour l a t a b l e , sour l e d o u b l i e r .  Amadas responds:  vv. 255-257  Amadas drops the k n i f e , a p h a l l i c symbol, from his hand.  I t i s as i f his  anima i s demanding recognition and f u l f i l m e n t , and Amadas, by dropping t h i s symbol of m a s c u l i n i t y , responds immediately to the c a l l . the f i r s t act of submission to his unconscious.  This i s  Amadas must deal with  more of his unconscious before he can develop emotionally.  He must face  the prejudices and fears that w i l l a r i s e as a r e s u l t of confronting his  - 97 -  shadow, and accept them.  He must also resolve the c o n f l i c t s he has with  his inner feminine side and develop a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p with i t .  Amadas  1  2-1/2 years of love sickness, which are r e a l l y 2-1/2 years of  powerlessness  over his l i f e , symbolize the beginning of his i n i t i a t i o n  into a new way of l i f e .  I n i t i a t i o n i s , e s s e n t i a l l y , a process that begins with a r i t e of submission, followed by a period of containment, and then by a f u r t h e r r i t e of l i b e r a t i o n .  In t h i s way every i n d i v i d u a l can  r e c o n c i l e the c o n f l i c t i n g elements of his p e r s o n a l i t y .  He can  s t r i k e a balance that makes him t r u l y human and t r u l y the master of h i m s e l f . ^  1  Amadas accepts the c a l l to maturity, the c a l l to submit to t h i s unconscious and deal with these c o n f l i c t i n g elements.  This i s not an  a c t i v e , w i l l e d response, but a response which comes from w i t h i n , from his psyche.  I t i s the psyche which courageously accepts the challenge to  embark on the hero voyage, even though i t w i l l mean much pain.  Finding renewal and connection with the potent forces of the underworld w i l l involve breaking up the old p a t t e r n , the death of a g e s t a l t we were comfortable with on some l e v e l , the death of a seemingly whole i d e n t i t y .  We w i l l r a r e l y approach such  dismemberment i f our pain i s not already severe.  - 98 -  22  Amadas must t r u l y " d i e " to the world which i s comfortable f o r him, become "dismembered" i f he i s to f i n d t h i s connection, t h i s force of l i f e within himself.  His f i r s t step i s to separate himself from his f r i e n d s and his  family and to s u f f e r in s i l e n c e .  He becomes severely withdrawn:  Assess a mal, paine et c o n t r a i r e , De l'angousse q u ' i l a emprise. ...Ne veut son consel descouvrir A estrange ne a p r i v e ' ...Pour <jou vaura, bien l i s o i t g r i e f , Celer t r e s t o u t le sien corage  vv. 369-370; 375-376 vv. 381-382  He r e t r e a t s from s o c i e t y , because i t can give him no comfort during his despair.'  He must keep his pain a secret, and descend to the depths of  his soul alone.  ...It  i s a d e l i b e r a t e , t e r r i f i c refusal to respond to anything  but the deepest, highest, r i c h e s t answer to the as yet unknown demand of some waiting void w i t h i n : a kind of t o t a l s t r i k e , or r e j e c t i o n of the offered terms of l i f e , as a r e s u l t of which some power of transformation c a r r i e s the problem to a plane of new magnitudes, where i t i s suddenly and f i n a l l y resolved.  23  At f i r s t , Amadas meets with only t o t a l opposition, r e j e c t i o n and arrogance from Ydoine. with.  It i s not his anima that Amadas i s now dealing  I t i s his shadow, because confronting the shadow i s the f i r s t step  i n the i n d i v i d u a t i o n process.  So, although we have derived only a hint  of t h i s negative part of Amadas' character from the n a r r a t o r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of him, we are now observing the t o t a l i n t e n s i t y of his pride and snobbishness as portrayed by Ydoine's conduct towards him.  - 99 -  She i s hard,  cold and even cruel in her r e j e c t i o n .  For someone who has been described  by the narrator as: Chiere courtoise et e n v o i s i e , Envers tous frans homes h a i t i e  vv. 151-152  and whose beauty and gaiety have inspired love in Amadas' heart, her treatment of him i s extremely unkind.  In f a c t , her threats of physical  violence seem more l i k e a masculine reaction than a feminine one, again r e f l e c t i n g the p o t e n t i a l violence in Amadas' own nature: Tant te f e r a i batre a mes sers Que tourneras l e ventre envers. Se ne t ' e n f u i s , l e c i e r e , hors  vv. 760-763  But Amadas must deal with t h i s cruel part of himself before he can continue his heroic i n d i v i d u a t i o n voyage.  It i s d i f f i c u l t , because, as  the narrator has described, Amadas has a w e l l - l o v e d persona.  He i s  thought of by everyone as being:  And so:  Sour tous enfans sages e s t o i t ; Humles ert mult et amiavles, Frans et courtois et servicavles Et mult ames de chevaliers  vv. 69-72  To accept the shadow involves considerble moral e f f o r t and often the giving up of cherished i d e a l s , but only because the ideals were raised too high or based upon an i l l u s i o n .  Trying to l i v e  as better and nobler people than we are involves us in endless hypocrisy and d e c e i t , and imposes such a s t r a i n on us that we often collapse and become worse than we need have been.  Amadas must accept his imperfections. painful and humbling experience?  24  But w i l l he be able to bear such a  W i l l he be capable of completely  surrendering his ego? - 100 -  He c e r t a i n l y shows perseverance in his quest f o r Ydoine's love. harsh treatment, he never turns away in anger.  Never does he hurl  invectives or arrogantly damn her behind her back. quiety and meekly.  He simply perseveres  His conduct has, indeed, changed.  of his shadow at t h i s point.  Despite  He i s at the mercy  He t e l l s Ydoine:  Ma vie est en vous et ma mort  v. 694  His future l i f e as a balanced, whole human being depends upon him facing and i n t e g r a t i n g both his shadow and anima, and upon resolving unconscious conflicts.  He can no longer be t o t a l l y caught up in his persona as a  good, courageous young man and ignore his i n f e r i o r side and his feminine side.  This w i l l only work against him in the long run.  However, the unconscious i s waiting f o r Amadas to surrender completely, to face the depths without his ego there to block his progress. cannot descend to the underworld.  The ego  It takes Amadas 2-1/2 years to f i n a l l y  reach the point of t o t a l w i l l i n g n e s s and t o t a l submission.  He  accomplishes t h i s by "dying" at Ydoine's f e e t , completely giving up his l i f e as i t has been up to now, completely s a c r i f i c i n g his persona and his ego.  There i s only one thing that seems to work; and that i s to turn d i r e c t l y toward the approaching darkness without prejudice and t o t a l l y n a i v e l y and to t r y to f i n d out what i t s secret aim i s and what i t wants from you.  25  - 101 -  He has put his ego to death and has f i n a l l y crossed the threshold. t h i s i s only the beginning. as Campbell describes i t .  But  Now he must "survive a succession of t r i a l s " He must now confront the goddesses of l i g h t  and dark.  . . . t h e one goddess in two aspects; and t h e i r confrontation epitomizes the whole sense of the d i f f i c u l t road of t r i a l s .  The  hero, whether...man or woman, discovers and assimilates his opposite (his own suspected s e l f ) e i t h e r by swallowing i t or by being swallowed.  One by one the resistances are broken.  He  must put aside his p r i d e , his v i r t u e , beauty and l i f e , and bow or submit to the absolutely i n t o l e r a b l e . Then he f i n d s that he and his opposite are not of d i f f e r i n g species, but one f l e s h .  An i n t i m i d a t i n g prospect, but one that i s necessary and also f u l f i l l i n g . But i t i s a long and perilous journey, with many conquests, many f a i l u r e s , many joys and many sorrows.  Dragons have now to be s l a i n and s u r p r i s i n g b a r r i e r s passed— again, again and again.  Meanwhile there w i l l be a multitude of  preliminary v i c t o r i e s , unretainable ecstasies and momentary glimpses of the wonderful land.  27  Ydoine revives Amadas by k i s s i n g him 100 times on the mouth and c h i n . One hundred being a number of t o t a l i t y , Ydoine i s thus promising Amadas  - 102 -  t o t a l i t y and union in his s o u l , a true i n t e g r a t i o n of his unconscious and conscious elements.  Unfortunately, or perhaps f o r t u n a t e l y , Amadas does not seem to be aware of what his journey w i l l e n t a i l .  I t i s j u s t beginning but Amadas thinks  i t has ended, that he has reached his goal.  A f t e r a l l , his feminine  energy has brought him back to l i f e and the harmony he desires promised. him.  is  Ydoine now loves him and has vowed e t e r n a l , devoted love to  This has been his painful desire f o r 2-1/2 years.  But Amadas i s to be separated immediately from his newly found love. This has only been a "glimpse of the wonderful land" and now he must slay many dragons and pass many b a r r i e r s .  At Ydoine's suggestion, Amadas  becomes a knight and goes o f f to perform courageous deeds f o r three years.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that the hero voyage here takes on a d i s t i n c t l y  masculine tone. Ages.  He must excel in the accepted male r o l e of the Middle  But herein l i e s the challenge f o r Amadas.  His f i r e breathing  dragon i s his p r i d e , his ego, and t h i s i s what he must conquer.  The only  way to accomplish t h i s task i s to f i r s t perform deeds which arouse his pride so that he can face i t and contain i t . his ego from dominating his p e r s o n a l i t y .  Amadas' work i s to prevent  It would be inappropriate to  merely r e t r e a t from the secular world to avoid a confrontation with his masculine c o n c e i t .  So Amadas accepts the challenge and adopts the  t r a d i t i o n a l male r o l e .  Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , Amadas succeeds in becoming a  brave knight:  - 103 -  Qu'as autres examplaire e s t o i t D'ensegnement, de c o u r t o i s i e , Et de f r a n c i s e et de largece; De l u i et de sa grant prouece Est l a renoumee s i ample  vv. 1420-1424  With a l l the praise he receives, can Amadas keep his ego, and his persona in check or w i l l he permit himself to become overwhelmed and forget his recently awakened s o f t e r side?  Amadas does forget the lessons he learned from being with Ydoine.  When  i t . i s time to return home a f t e r three years of knighthood, Amadas hears of one more tournament and, although he misses his amie i n t e n s e l y , cannot r e s i s t the temptation to p a r t i c i p a t e . As in the case of Yvain, Amadas chooses secular glory over emotional development. f o r the time being.  His masculine ego wins  Just as Yvain overstays his year away from Laudine  and loses her, so Amadas overstays his time away from Ydoine with disastrous r e s u l t s .  As the narrator remarks:  Si vous di bien que Ions sejors L i couste mult de grant mesure, Puis T e n v i n t grans messaventure Par 1'ocoison de cest a f a i r e ; Vous Tore's bien avant r e t r a i r e .  vv. 1566-1570  Amadas does not lose Ydoine's love, but he does lose the opportunity of marrying her, of being u n i f i e d with her.  Thus, although Amadas came into  touch with his anima and seemed well on the way to incorporating i t into his conscious l i f e , his e f f o r t to develop a r e l a t i o n s h i p with i t has been abandoned, or at least delayed f o r a time.  - 104 -  Therefore, the anima again r e t r e a t s into an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d state in his psyche.  This causes confusion and c o n f l i c t since i t has already been  awakened and does not care to once again be ignored.  This c o n f l i c t and  f r u s t r a t i o n of the anima are portryaed well in the n a r r a t o r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of what now takes place between Ydoine and the witches.  He begins to  increase his praise of Ydoine, while at the same time creating a scene which i s , i f not e v i l , at least eerie and f r i g h t e n i n g :  L a t e r , however, t h i s i n d i v i d u a l and personal e f f o r t of developing the r e l a t i o n s h i p with the anima was abandoned when her sublime aspect fused with the f i g u r e of the V i r g i n , who then became the object of boundless devotion and p r a i s e .  When the  anima, as V i r g i n , was conceived as being a l l - p o s i t i v e , her negative aspects found expresson in the b e l i e f of witches.  28  When the anima i s repressed into an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s t a t e , i t usually emerges in images of extreme good or extreme bad, rather than in r e a l i s t i c or balanced ones.  Consequently, since Amadas has rejected his  anima, Ydoine as the p o s i t i v e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of i t evolves into a near perfect V i r g i n f i g u r e .  The negative aspects of the anima emerge in the '  form of the three wtiches.  It i s i n t e r e s t i n g that both the p o s i t i v e and  negative sides of the anima are portrayed in the same scene and that there are three witch figures to one V i r g i n f i g u r e . F a m i l i a r l y known as the 'mystic number', three suggests not only the promise of unity w i t h i n a single being but also redemption, the s p i r i t and the T r i n i t y .  - 105 -  Does t h i s suggest, then, that i t takes three e v i l to make one good?  Is  t h i s the supremacy of the p o s i t i v e anima over the negative tendencies? And are the three witches a prophecy of something better to come, a "promise of u n i t y " , a "redemption", in the soul of Amadas?  It i s obvious, in any case, that Amadas s t i l l has a great deal of work to do.  His inner being i s s p l i t , and he has not yet accepted his i n f e r i o r  or dark side.  Because of t h i s , he i s projecting i t as a negative anima  f i g u r e and i s thus harming his p o t e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h i s feminine energy.  It i s time f o r him to delve deeper into his unconscious  in order  to resolve the struggle.  Consequently, he goes mad.  Like Yvain a f t e r the loss of Laudine, Amadas  does not merely submit to his unconscious, he s a c r i f i c e s his whole being to i t .  He becomes naked p h y s i c a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y - - e x p o s e d and  vulnerable.  Curious as i t may seem, he i s on the r i g h t course.  According to the legend of Inanna and E r e s h k i g a l , in order to descend into the underworld, there are c e r t a i n r i t e s to f o l l o w .  One of these i s  30  that one must be brought "naked and bowed low". i s undergoing.  This i s what Amadas  He needs to be transformed so as to f i n d a new unity  within himself and he demonstrates that he has discarded his old image by his r e t r e a t to i n s a n i t y .  When Garines f i n d s him at Lucca he has reached  the depths of his soul and i s facing the horrors he there f i n d s : Amadas t r e s t o u t nu v e n i r , Tous deguises, en c r i n s tondus Com c i l qui a le sens perdus, Qui de soi ne set nule r i e n Savoir ne sens ne mal ne bien; De r i e n du mont ne l i souvient. vv. 2722-2727 - 106 -  There i s a paradox here in Amadas' c o n d i t i o n .  He has turned inward and  i s making the d i f f i c u l t journey that many do through drugs, meditation, or i n s a n i t y to expand t h e i r consciousness themselves.  and to come to terms with  I t i s a journey of search, the search f o r knowledge, and  y e t , in a way, i t leads one back to the o r i g i n a l , innocent state before the " F a l l " of knowledge—"savoir ne sens ne mal ne b i e n " .  It i s dangerous at the extremity of t h i s journey, and some never make i t back.  Fortunately, Amadas i s one of the lucky ones.  Just as Yvain was  helped back to sanity with the aid of his feminine p r i n c i p l e as personified in two maidens, so Amadas i s helped back by his anima in the form of the woman he loves.  And j u s t as the two maidens use a magical  ointment to cure Yvain, so Ydoine uses a magical kind of r i t e to cure Amadas: Cent f o i s l e nomme d'un randon. Nomme Amadas, Ydoine apres, Et ami et amies ades, Et d i s t a vois piteuse et basse: "Amadas, j a sui j e ' l a lasse Ydoine, votre douce amie, Qui plus vous aime que sa v i e .  vv. 3366-3372  The number 100 again occurs to symbolize t o t a l i t y and union, only t h i s time i t i s no longer a p o t e n t i a l u n i t y , or a glimpse of i t , but an actual grasp of i t .  Amadas regains his "memoire e t r a i s o n " and comes back to the  conscious world.  He has been helped back by his anima, who represents  here:  The benign, protecting power of d e s t i n y . . . a promise that the peace of Paradise, which was known f i r s t within the mother womb,  - 107 -  i s not to be l o s t ; that i t supports the present and stands in the future as well as in the past; that though omnipotence may seem to be endangered by the threshold passages and l i f e awakenings, p r o t e c t i v e power i s always and ever present within the sanctuary of the heart and even immanent w i t h i n , or j u s t behind, the unfamiliar features of the world.  31  Immediately a f t e r t h i s tender scene of healing, however, the narrator breaks in with his misogynist bombast.  This i s ostensibly very bad  timing, but i t i s becoming a pattern that the more the narrator praises Ydoine, the more he rebukes women in general.  It is f i r s t after  describing Ydoine's t o t a l love and devotion f o r Amadas and her anguish at being betrothed to another man that the narrator introduces the three witches.  Now, a f t e r describing a scene which i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s love and  devotion, he e f f e c t i v e l y reproaches women, c a l l i n g them, as we have previously remarked "decevans, engins, venimeuse, f e l e n e s s e s " .  He  concludes t h i s d i a t r i b e by excluding Ydoine from t h i s company.  She i s  "boine, l o i a l , et e n t e r i n e " .  This i s another example of confusing  Ydoine's image with that of the perfect V i r g i n , making her an object of boundless devotion and p r a i s e .  Because the narrator lauds Ydoine to such  a degree, he creates in her an impossible f i g u r e of p e r f e c t i o n and p o l a r i z e s her against the r e s t of women.  The negative aspects must  emerge, so they are projected onto the r e s t of the female sex.  I f the  n a r r a t o r ' s opinion r e f l e c t s that of the author, t h i s shows that the author has the grave problem of d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g his inner feminine. Perhaps because of the external a t t i t u d e s of his time, he has not up  - 108 -  u n t i l t h i s time, come to terms with his anima so that he can discontinue to project i t s p o s i t i v e and negative aspects on i n d i v i d u a l women.  As  tlacobi states:  The character of our soul-image, the anima or animus of our dreams, i s a natural index to our i n t e r n a l psychological 32 situation.  The author i s confused, and i s t r y i n g to deal with i t so that he can f i n d harmony w i t h i n himself.  The most dramatic struggle comes with Amadas' f i g h t with the maufe. Ydoine, his feminine energy, has d i e d , j u s t when i t seems as i f he i s w i l l i n g and determined to incorporate her into his l i f e . the author's attempt to get along without his anima.  Perhaps t h i s i s  I f i t i s so  d i f f i c u l t to resolve these c o n f l i c t s , perhaps i t i s better to bury them and forget them.  But Amadas cannot forget his anima.  He i s miserable  without Ydoine: Mais Amadas a doel remaint Com c i l qui plus sospire et p l a i n t . Mult par demaine grant dolour Et grant angousse tout l e j o r . Se coiement se p l a i n t et pleure, Ne cuic qu'on trouvast a cele eure Un plus dolant home de l u i .  vv. 5401-5407  He goes to Ydoine's tomb and: Et baise l a p i e r r e l i s t e e Cent f o i s en une randounee  - 109 -  vv. 5458-5459  Although i t now seems impossible, he s t i l l anima.  longs f o r union with his  The one hundred kisses here symbolize that strong desire f o r  t o t a l harmony with her.  However, w i l l that desire be strong enough?  The maufe' a r r i v e s and  attempts to shatter Amadas' f a i t h by o f f e r i n g proof that Ydoine has loved someone besides him.  Could i t be true that she has betrayed him?  she r e a l l y share the treacherous, d e c e i t f u l nature of her sex? l i e to him once.  Could  She did  Amadas undergoes much i n t e r n a l turmoil at t h i s point.  He doubts Ydoine, damns the female sex, reproaches himself f o r having believed Ydoine.  He sounds e x a c t l y l i k e the narrator during his  d i a t r i b e , using the same tone and vocabulary: 'Ne sai certes que plus en d i e : Plaines sont de grant f e l o u n i e . Por (j'ai leur maus ramente'u's Que tra'i's sui et deceu's Par Ydoine qui m'a t r i c h i e ' Comme mauvaise et engignie. Ja mais un j o r n'en k e r r a i une: Toutes ont l a fausse commune De trai'son, de t r i c e r i e . Trestoutes sont f o r t r a i ' t r e s s e s Et decevans et felenesses.  vv. 5869-5877 vv. 5883-5884  There i s much anger and h o s t i l i t y evident in these words.  Amadas i s  giving f u l l vent to his fear that Ydoine a c t u a l l y has betrayed him. Ydoine i s his l a s t hope f o r developing a r e l a t i o n s h i p with his inner feminine.  If she has l e t him down, only the negative anima w i l l  survive,  and Amadas w i l l f i n d his soul f u l l of only e v i l , f r i g h t e n i n g , w i t c h - l i k e figures.  Happily, Amadas' f a i t h i s strong enough that he.does not surrender to these doubts and f e a r s . - 110 -  He would rather f i g h t them: 'Ydoine, amie et dame, Merci, que trop mesfais me s u i , Quant onques de r i e n vous mescrui. Comment que c i s t e'u'st l ' a n e l . Tant a v i i e s le cuer l o i e l Que c r o i r e ne peu'sse p'as Que vous t r e c i s s i e ' s Amadas Qui de f i n cuer vous amoit t a n t , Plus c'omme de cest mont v i v a n t . '  vv. 5958-5966  The f i g h t with the maufe' r e a l l y symbolizes a f i g h t with his inner demons which have been r e l e a s e d — h o s t i l i t i e s , doubts, and i n s e c u r i t i e s about women.  The maufe^ i s an enemy and:  As the o r i g i n a l intruder into the paradise of the infant with i t s mother, the f a t h e r i s the archetypal enemy; hence, throughout l i f e a l l enemies are symbolical (to the of the f a t h e r .  unconscious)  3 3  But, as Campbell points out "the ogre aspect of the father i s a r e f l e x of 34 the v i c t i m ' s own ego".  So the task here i s to f i n d atonement with  the father/ego so that one can become a balanced person.  I t i s only by  doing so that the inner feminine side can emerge into the conscious realm. ...The work of the hero i s to slay the tenacious aspect of the father (dragon, t e s t e r , ogre king) and release from i t s ban the v i t a l energies that w i l l feed the universe.  35  As we saw in the beginning of t h i s chapter, d i f f e r e n t f i g u r e s can represent d i f f e r e n t aspects of an archetype.  - I l l -  Therefore, j u s t as Ydoine  > i  represents Amadas' shadow by embodying his u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d " f e e l i n g " side and his human f r a i l t i e s , so the maufe' represents the most e v i l and negative part of Amadas, the part that could p o t e n t i a l l y possess and destroy him.  He cannot dispense with i t , but by bringing i t to a  conscious level and accepting i t he can reduce i t s powerful hold over him.  He can "tame" his negative shadow and control i t rather than have  i t control him.  As Campbell points out about the enemy:  The tyrant i s proud and therein resides his doom.  He i s proud  because he thinks of his strength as his own.  Notice then, that the maufe', Amadas' enemy, displays Amadas' worst f a u l t to an excessive degree.  He i s haughty, sure of himself and mocking:  ' V a s s a l ' f a i t i l , 'ne sai qui es, Mais trop par es f o l et engre's Et non sacant quant ne t ' e n f u i s . . . J e te f e r a i j e s i r t o t f r o i t Geule baee et estendu.'  vv. 5969-5971;5974-5975  In f a c t , i t i s t h i s t r a i t of the maufe' that angers Amadas the most and that i n c i t e s him to a c t i o n : Ce grant orguel abassera S ' i l puet, et bien s'en vengera Proqainement sans a t a r g i e r . Par i r e d i s t au c e v a l i e r : 'Vassal mult ave's de paroles, Mais o r g i l l e u s e s sont et f o l e s '  vv. 5989-5994  Amadas cannot support e i t h e r the maufe' s arrogance or his own arrogance. 1  So the f i g h t begins.  I t i s strenous and continues f o r a long time, u n t i l  both of them are " l a s " and "caus".  The maufe' urges Amadas repeatedly to  give up, conceding that he i s "preus" and " h a r d i s " even though he s t i l l  - 112 -  doesn't stand a chance against someone l i k e himself. Amadas cuts o f f the maufe^'s r i g h t hand.  F i n a l l y , however,  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that Amadas  does not k i l l his enemy but by c u t t i n g o f f his r i g h t hand (the r i g h t hand being a symbol of a b i l i t y and competence), he renders him impotent. Amadas' negative shadow w i l l no longer master him.  He i s now f r e e to  pursue other more important matters such as developing a r e l a t i o n s h i p with his anima.  Because the maufe i s no longer in c o n t r o l , he must surrender what he has taken from Amadas, namely, Ydoine, his feminine s i d e .  She could not  e x i s t while his pride dominated his p e r s o n a l i t y , but now that i t i s contained, she can once again play a r o l e in Amadas' l i f e .  Amadas has  succeeded in facing his primary weakness.  The problem of the hero i s to pierce himself (and therewith his world) p r e c i s e l y through that point; to shatter and a n n i h i l a t e that key knot of his l i m i t e d existence.  37  So i t would now seem as i f Amadas' p o s s i b i l i t i e s are endless.  He has  redeemed himself and can return to the world with his anima and ego intact.  His consciousness  having succumbed, the unconscious  nevertheless  supplies i t s own balances, and he is born back into the world from which he came.  Instead of holding to and saving his ego...  he loses i t , and y e t , through grace, i t i s returned.  - 113 -  Even the narrator comments on his wise courage as opposed to the f o o l i s h boldness of many. grief.  Those who are bold without understanding a t t a i n only  But those l i k e Amadas: Honeur a c i l qui bien enprent Un pesant f a i s , ^ce m'est a v i s , Dont est renoumes a t o u d i s . Pour ce fu sages qui ce d i s t Premierement et qui e s c r i t : 'De grans enprises finement Avienent maint grant bien sovent. Ce puet pour v o i r d i r e Amadas, Qui ains fu mult dolans et l a s , Mais or est i l s i au desus De tout cest mont ne q u i e r t i l plus, Pour ce q u ' i l l ' a part vasselage Conquise et par son f i e r corage Et par sa grant chevalerie C ' e s t le cors d'Ydoine s'amie Q u ' i l a rescous par grant vigour. 1  vv. 6494-6509  Amadas has put his courage to use, not to win a tournament to boost up his p r i d e , but to face his unconscious and conquer his weak parts so as to better co-habit with his anima.  This i s indeed wise, not f o o l i s h ,  boldness.  Amadas' hero quest has been accomplished except f o r technical d e t a i l s . However, he does not want to return to Burgundy. with Ydoine to avoid f u r t h e r complications.  He wants to run away  But:  The f u l l round, the norm of the monomyth, requires that the hero s h a l l now begin the labor of bringing the runes of wisdom...or his sleeping princess, back into the kingdom of humanity, where the boon may redound to the renewing of the community, the nation, the planet, or the ten thousand worlds.  - 114 -  It i s not rare f o r the hero to have no desire to return to s o c i e t y and, indeed, some never do.  The f i r s t problem of the returning hero i s to accept as r e a l , a f t e r an experience of s o u l - s a t i s f y i n g v i s i o n of f u l f i l l m e n t , the passing joys and sorrows, b a n a l i t i e s and noisy obscenities of l i f e .  Why re-enter such a world?  Why attempt to make  p l a u s i b l e , or even i n t e r e s t i n g , to men and women consumed with passion, the experience of transcendental  bliss?  4 0  But Amadas' feminine energy recognizes the importance of the r e t u r n .  She  i s somehow more v i t a l l y connected to her community of Burgundy and to her God.  These symbolize the centre of the universe, around which everything  else must revolve.  It i s part of the connection with l i f e .  The narrator  has shown that honour i s important to him, and t h i s i s the honourable thing to do.  Consequently, we can see that Amadas i s l e t t i n g his anima d i r e c t him.  He  l i s t e n s to her and follows her advice rather than that of his ego as he previously has done.  Amadas now knows how to incorporate his  unconscious  into his conscious l i f e — a great breakthrough.  Amadas and Ydoine do return to Burgundy where Ydoine begins action f o r a divorce.  Here we r e a l i z e that the n a r r a t o r ' s emotional and s p i r i t u a l  growth has perhaps not p a r a l l e l e d that of Amadas.  He issues another  a n t i - f e m i n i s t d i a t r i b e using the same s u p e r c i l i o u s tone and condemnatory  - 115 -  vocabulary as previously.  He speaks of "mencoigne", " f a u s e t e " ,  " t r i c e r e s s e " , " b o i d i e " and l i n k s a l l women to w i t c h c r a f t and, hence, to the negative anima.  He speaks f e a r f u l l y of women's power over men and  over the world in general.  He again excludes Ydoine from t h i s group,  c a l l i n g her " f i n e " , "bone", and " e n t e r i n e " , but as we have seen, he also uses the words "sens" and " e n g i n " .  His confusion and doubt seem to have  worsened, because at the end of the speech he adds: Mais j e n ' i ai d r o i t ne raison Qu'en doie d i r e se bien non: Ains ont bien deservi vers moi, Que.trestoutes amer les d o i ; Ses amerai j u s q u ' a l a f i n Sans t r a i s o n et sans engin.  vv. 7067-7072  The narrator b r u t u a l l y c r i t i c i z e s women in two speeches, labels them a l l as witches and l i a r s , then sweetly states he has no reason to slander them and that he w i l l love them u n t i l the end.  If the narrator, by at  times acting nonsensical i s i l l u s t r a t i n g the inconsistent and i l l o g i c a l tendencies of human nature, then perhaps he i s mocking both p o l a r i z e d a t t i t u d e s prevalent at the t i m e — t h a t of i d o l i z i n g women as angels and that of condemning them as d e v i l s .  I f he r e f l e c t s the author's  inability  to r e c o n c i l e these two opinions, then he i s even able to mock himself.  I t seems probable from the n a r r a t o r ' s comments that the author has not reached a state of harmony with his unconscious. hope.  Nevertheless, there i s  The statement of the narrator i n d i c a t i n g that he s t i l l  loves women  because they have not betrayed him personally shows a w i l l i n g n e s s to understand, to transcend popular b e l i e f s and opinions and to f i n d a  - 116 -  balance.  Perhaps the author i s j u s t now ready to die at his  f e e t , to submit to her power and slay his own unconscious  anima s 1  dragons.  A f t e r a l l , he has j u s t f i n i s h e d recounting the experience of someone who succeeded in doing j u s t t h a t .  Amadas has found "the other portion of  (the hero) h i m s e l f - - f o r each i s b o t h . "  4 1  He has become an individuated person, one who has not only "brought to 42  l i g h t again the l o s t A t l a n t i s of the co-ordinated s o u l "  but who has  been able to s a c r i f i c e his own i n d i v i d u a l i t y f o r society as a whole. Amadas does return to Burgundy, does share his newly found knowledge and f u l f i l l m e n t and uses i t to govern his community in honour, peace and harmony.  Amadas f i n d s both inner and outer harmony and manages to  resolve, not only the c o n f l i c t s w i t h i n his s o u l , but also the c o n f l i c t s between the a t t i t u d e s of the 12th and 13th c e n t u r i e s .  - 117 -  CONCLUSION  A f t e r much i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the issues raised in Amadas et Ydoine I w i l l r e c a p i t u l a t e b r i e f l y the stages of the argument.  The central concern of the work i s the r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t in order to a t t a i n harmony and union on both a s o c i a l and personal  level.  Chapter 1 of the thesis deals with s o c i a l disconnection.  From the very  beginning of the t a l e Amadas i s , although not t o t a l l y separate from s o c i e t y , s t i l l somewhat alienated from i t .  This i s his own, not  s o c i e t y ' s f a u l t , since the a l i e n a t i o n arises from his wrong a t t i t u d e .  Society desires Amadas and holds him in high regard, but he i s proud and independent, and these two t r a i t s hinder him from a c t u a l l y merging i n t o the s o c i a l f a b r i c .  By r e j e c t i n g women as a group as being beneath him,  and by having no care to marry, Amadas i s f l o u t i n g the t r a d i t i o n s of society and i s continuing on a path of i n d i v i d u a l i s m .  This course of  action conforms with c e r t a i n p r e v a i l i n g notions current in the 13th century.  Amadas considers himself superior to women, but generally a strong f e e l i n g of s u p e r i o r i t y a c t u a l l y denotes a deeper f e e l i n g of i n f e r i o r i t y or inadequacy, and the idea that one has to prove something since one i s not comfortable with or sure of one's i d e n t i t y .  - 118 -  This i s most l i k e l y the case with Amadas.  However, Amadas does i n his  heart desire s o c i a l harmony and union, as i s evident by the f a c t that he f a l l s intensely i n love with Ydoine. struggle are only beginning.  Nevertheless, his c o n f l i c t and  Ydoine does not reciprocate his love, and  Amadas discovers that he must persevere and persevere, even i f he has not the s l i g h t e s t hope of success.  This s t r u g g l e , he f i n d s , puts even greater distance between himself and society, as i s made manifest by the f a c t that he spends 2-1/2  years i n  his bed and no longer p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the s o c i a l structure at a l l .  His  absence i s noticed: Et c h e v a l i e r et damoiseles E s q u i i e r , bourgois et danseles. Quant passent pas devant I'ostal Ou l i enfes g i s t du grant mal. Se d'Yent tout: A l a s i a l a s i Grans damages est d'Amadas Qui s i languist; che est dels grans, S'or f u s t h a i t i e s , l i e s et j o i a n s , Dix! com i l le f e s i s t hui bien! Certes n'en doutissons de r i e n Que de deus pars tous nes venquist Diusl quel doleur que s i l a n g u i s t !  vv. 856-867  I t i s a f t e r the long-awaited union with his soul-mate that Amadas departs from the path of i n d i v i d u a l i s m and begins to reach out f o r s o c i a l connections and s o c i a l acceptance.  This a l l takes place because of  Ydoine's i n i t i a t i v e and guidance.  She desires to marry Amadas, but  r e a l i z e s the importance of the macrocosm.  She does not wish the two of  them to become an i s o l a t e d e n t i t y or a universe of t h e i r own. to guard the l i n k s with the outer world and keep i t s approval. way Amadas and Ydoine are much u n l i k e T r i s t a n and I s e u l t .  - 119 -  She wants In t h i s  Rather than  transience, they seek permanence; rather than secrecy, they seek publicness; rather than mere p h y s i c a l i t y , they seek also s p i r i t u a l i t y .  These are are a l l basic tenets of a s o c i e t y .  Society perpetuates i t s e l f  by means of legends, r i t u a l s and t r a d i t i o n s .  These communicate a sense  of c o n t i n u i t y , of belonging to something greater than oneself, and beyond the here and now.  As i s evident by the manner in which Amadas and Ydoine  choose to pursue t h e i r love, they show that they are w i l l i n g to submit to and uphold these tenets.  This i s not because of mere conformity.  On the contrary, Amadas and  Ydoine a c t i v e l y choose to f o l l o w the rules of s o c i e t y , r e s u l t i n g in much pain and g r i e f f o r themselves.  Usually i t i s easier to conform than to  r e b e l , but f o r Amadas and Ydoine i t i s a struggle to do things way.  society's  If i t was not f o r s o c i e t y ' s customs, they would not be forced to  separate f o r three years during which time Amadas earns a k n i g h t l y reputation.  Ydoine would be spared an undesired marriage and Amadas  would avoid i n s a n i t y .  Amadas and Ydoine could run o f f the same way as  T r i s t a n and I s e u l t to be spared much g r i e f .  By doing so, however, they  would cut the connections between themselves and t h e i r f a m i l y , s o c i e t y and r e l i g i o n .  Rather than b l i n d conformity, the course of action that Amadas and Ydoine pursue denotes respect, and a desire to be part of something larger than themselves.  It i s an abandonment of the way of i n d i v i d u a l i s m and a  return to the ideology of the 12th century where f u l f i l l m e n t was sought  - 120 -  by means of reaching harmony with the macrocosm and by keeping a connection with- i t .  The author s t r i v e s to show that t h i s s o c i a l connection i s also best f o r our psychological health.  Personal harmony cannot be achieved i f we do  not also possess s o c i a l harmony.  This i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the f a c t that  when T r i s t a n and I s e u l t f l e e together to the woods they are happy f o r awhile, b e l i e v i n g a l l they need i s each other to.be content.  But once  the love potion wears o f f and t h e i r eyes are opened, so to speak, they long to return to court where t h e i r roots are, where the o r i g i n s of t h e i r personal i d e n t i t y are, and on which they v i r t u a l l y depend f o r a sense of wholeness.  A l l p a r t i c i p a t e in the ceremonial according to rank and function.  The whole society becomes v i s i b l e to i t s e l f as an  imperishable l i v i n g u n i t .  Generations of i n d i v i d u a l s pass, l i k e  anonymous c e l l s from a l i v i n g body; but the s u s t a i n i n g , timeless form remains.  By an enlargement of v i s i o n to embrace t h i s super-  i n d i v i d u a l , each discovers himself enhanced, enriched, supported and magnified.  His r o l e , however unimpressive, i s seen to be  i n t r i n s i c to the b e a u t i f u l f e s t i v a l - i m a g e of man—the image, p o t e n t i a l .yet n e c e s s a r i l y i n h i b i t e d , within himself.  Social duties continue the lesson of the f e s t i v a l into normal, everyday existence, and the i n d i v i d u a l i s v a l i d a t e d s t i l l .  - 121 -  Conversely, i n d i f f e r e n c e , r e v o l t — o r e x i l e — b r e a k the v i t a l i z i n g connectives.  From the standpoint of the s o c i a l u n i t , the broken-  o f f i n d i v i d u a l i s simply nothing—waste J  Thus, personal p a r t i c i p a t i o n not only benefits s o c i e t y , but "enhances, enriches, supports and v a l i d a t e s the i n d i v i d u a l " .  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that Ydoine, the female component of t h i s love a f f a i r , i s the bridge to s o c i a l harmony.  She i s the moderating, guiding  influence, and Amadas merely submits to her wishes.  This i s because he  t r u s t s her and knows that she i s c l o s e r to s o c i e t y .  It i s Ydoine who  suggests Amadas be knighted.  It i s she who resorts to devious methods in  order to avert an unwanted marriage.  It i s she who takes the i n i t i a t i v e  to f i n d Amadas when he disappears and cures him of his madness.  It  is  she who arranges matters so that the barons w i l l e l e c t Amadas as her husband.  I t i s she who refuses Amadas'  advances and i n s i s t s they return  to Burgundy and be married l e g a l l y and honourably.  Ydoine i s determined and strong.  She r e a l i z e s that she cannot separate  herself fom her parents, s o c i e t y and r e l i g i o n .  That l i n k i s e s s e n t i a l to  her personal health.  In Chapter 3 where we examine the search f o r psychological union and harmony, i t i s again the feminine influence which i n i t i a t e s a c t i o n .  The  anima c a l l s Amadas to turn to his unconscious and bring to the conscious level parts of his p e r s o n a l i t y he has up u n t i l t h i s point ignored.  - 122 -  Just  as Ydoine brings balance, guidance and moderation to Amadas on the s o c i a l l e v e l , so the contrasexual component of his being brings him balance, guidance and moderation on the psychological l e v e l .  It i s because Amadas  has not yet acknowledged his anima that he i s s p l i t and polarized psychologically.  The anima i s " a mediator between the ego and the S e l f "  thus can heal inner d i v i s i o n s .  and  Amadas has remained unfamiliar with and,  thus, frightened of the female counterpart of himself, which has resulted in his f e e l i n g s of s u p e r i o r i t y towards women.  S t i l l , Amadas strongly  desires to heal the psychological s p l i t and, with the powerful herald from his unconscious, he f i n d s himself almost as i t under a s p e l l ,  like  the s p e l l of a love potion, except that t h i s i s a r e s u l t of his own inner needs and yearnings.  When Amadas becomes lovesick and r e t r e a t s on a s o c i o l o g i c a l l e v e l , there is also a corresponding r e t r e a t on the psychological l e v e l .  He f a l l s  apart emotionally and appears to be f u r t h e r than ever from i n t e g r a t i o n or harmony.  However, t h i s i s r e a l l y part of the process of surrendering  ego in order to reach his S e l f .  his  His ego must release i t s strong hold  over him i f he i s to achieve that v i t a l balance and moderation.  His ego  has kept him on the path of i n d i v i d u a l i s m and thus alienated from his Self.  Just as his pride keeps him from a t o t a l merging with s o c i e t y , so,  too, his pride keeps him from a t o t a l merging with his feminine counterpart to become a whole person.  Amadas must humble himself to use the  anima's help to integrate the underdeveloped parts of his p e r s o n a l i t y .  - 123 -  Conformity to s o c i e t y ' s wishes creates much c o n f l i c t f o r Ydoine and Amadas before i t resolves i t .  And conformity and submission to the  desires of his unconscious f i r s t creates great i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t f o r Amadas.  Amadas' ego has comprised his t o t a l i d e n t i t y , and he delays  s a c r i f i c e of i t even though he i s aware i t i s necessary f o r his maturation.  This i s brought out in the episode where Amadas y i e l d s to  the temptation to increase his secular glory by postponing his return to Burgundy f o r the sake of another tournament. becomes betrothed to another man.  In the meantime, Ydoine  His losing her s i g n i f i e s losing the  contact with his anima that he has j u s t recently made.  This i s  devastating to Amadas' psyche and he loses his conscious mind.  However,  t h i s does not necessarily mean l o s i n g c o n t r o l , or a weakness on his part.  On the contrary, i t i s a w i l l e d surrender of i d e n t i t y , a  courageous, t o t a l abandonment of ego.  Again, i t i s the feminine counterpart which i n i t i a t e s a c t i o n . removing i t s e l f from Amadas, the anima i s appealing to Amadas  By 1  psyche,  which has as i t s main concern the inner needs and t o t a l health of Amadas, rather than to his ego, which i s mainly concerned with his persona and the outer world.  The anima knows that d r a s t i c measures are necessary and  that only the psyche has the strength to take these.  Thus, as Ydoine  uses ingenuity to f i n d solutions when none appear to e x i s t , so does the anima.  We examined how the tenets of a s o c i e t y involve a sense of s p i r i t u a l i t y , belonging and c o n t i n u i t y with h i s t o r y , and how these are perpetrated by  - 124 -  means of legends and t r a d i t i o n s .  The S e l f has s i m i l a r tenets, and i t i s  on the level of the c o l l e c t i v e unconscious that these are maintained.  The c o l l e c t i v e unconscious i s a deeper stratum of the unconscious than the personal unconscious;  i t i s the unknown  material from which our consciousness emerges.  We can deduce  i t s existence in part from observation of i n s t i n c t i v e behaviour...and from the obvious traces of mythological images in (our) dreams...images of which (we) have no previous conscious knowledge.  Thus, i t i s in the sphere of the c o l l e c t i v e unconscious where s o c i a l and personal union merge, where the connection with a l l parts of the unconscious, other l i v i n g beings and h i s t o r y i s t o t a l , and where the l i n k transcends r e s t r i c t i o n s because of race, sex or age.  By f o l l o w i n g t i s "inborn form of i n t u i t i o n "  4  in the form of the  archetypal anima, Amadas i s showing his w i l l i n g n e s s to uphold the tenets of the S e l f .  For, even as Ydoine, the female component, i s the means,  she i s also the goal.  The hegemony wrested from the enemy, the freedom won from the malice of the monster, the l i f e energy released from the t o i l s of the tyrant H o l d f a s t - - i s symbolized as a woman.  - 125 -  This explains why, a f t e r the c l i m a c t i c b a t t l e with the maufe'', the dark recesses of Amadas'  soul, the " p r i z e " i s Ydoine.  She i s his freedom.  She unlocks his true p e r s o n a l i t y .  Like many who f o l l o w the paths of t h e i r unconscious, Amadas i s r e l u c t a n t to return to the conscious level once he has achieved inner freedom. And, again, i t i s the female p r i n c i p l e which w i l l not allow him to remain.  This would only be another sort of imbalance in his  unconscious  mind and would create another type of fragmentation in his being.  Amadas  and Ydoine return to t h e i r roots, t h e i r l i n k to the macrocosmos, by returning to Burgundy.  So the anima convinces Amadas to return to the  conscious world, to integrate his new awareness into his t o t a l p e r s o n a l i t y and to enjoy the inner peace t h i s harmony brings.  And so i t appears as i f the c o n f l i c t i s resolved and harmony i s r e a l i z e d on both a s o c i a l and personal l e v e l . element in t h i s p i c t u r e of u n i t y .  However, there i s an  incongruous  This i s the presence of the narrator.  Is he the spokesperson f o r the author?  I f so, how can someone who so  b e a u t i f u l l y depicts the f u l f i l l m e n t of s o c i a l and personal union hold such d i s j o i n t e d , extreme and biased views?  The narrator i s , in r e a l i t y , the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of both s o c i a l and personal fragmentation.  He shares values from both the 12th century and  the 13th century.  - 126 -  The 12th-century influence on his a t t i t u d e s i s revealed by his portrayal of Ydoine.  He appears to describe her actions o b j e c t i v e l y yet his  comments about her actions are seldom appropriate.  He shares the  enthusiasm of most 12th-century lovers and elevates Ydoine to the l e v e l of a goddess, p r a i s i n g her constantly. denied the f a u l t s of t h e i r lady.  They preferred to i d o l i z e her and  regard her as P e r f e c t i o n p e r s o n i f i e d . i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s whole philosophy.  Twelfth-century lovers ignored or  The narrator of Amadas et Ydoine  The narrator does not hide the f a c t  that Ydoine l i e s , deceives and uses w i t c h c r a f t .  But he skims over her  dishonesty and instead stresses her ingenuity and her f i d e l i t y towards Amadas.  In a d d i t i o n , the narrator voices the l a t e r 13th-century a t t i t u d e towards women which was the opposite extreme.  His two bombastic speeches in  which he denounces the female sex in general are another example of b l i n d reasoning, of f o l l o w i n g accepted opinions of the day without examining the real substance or o r i g i n of these viewpoints.  He i n s u l t s women,  c a l l s them base and dangerous, yet o f f e r s no concrete proof of these accusations.  These b e l i e f s , he concedes, do not come from personal  experience. Certes, toutes celes du mont Sans f a i l l e t r i c e r e s e s sont, Mais j e n ' i ai d r o i t ne raison Qu'en doie d i r e se bien non: Ains ont bien deservi vers moi, Que trestoutes amer les d o i ; Ses amerai j u s q u ' a l a f i n Sans traYson et sans engin  - 127 -  vv. 7065-7072  A strange conclusion at which to a r r i v e .  He seems to accept the common  b e l i e f of the time that women are f i c k l e and f a l s e , yet refuses to act on that opinion, p r e f e r r i n g instead to love them a l l .  The narrator adopts concurrently the s e x i s t a t t i t u d e s of both the 12th and 13th c e n t u r i e s , and t h i s i s the reason why he appears i l l o g i c a l and contradictory.  He portrays the i n c o n g r u i t i e s and idiosyncracies of human  nature and the absurdity of c e r t a i n b e l i e f s by appearing to adopt them himself.  The author merges the extreme views of both the 12th and 13th  centuries and incarnates them i n t o the personage of the narrator in order to i l l u s t r a t e the unreasonableness  of both viewpoints and the  i m p o s s i b i l i t y of r e c o n c i l i n g the two.  We cannot know what opinions the author holds—whether, even though he may be aware of i n j u s t i c e s and chasms in s o c i e t y , he s t i l l n a r r a t o r ' s dilemma and knows not what to think about women.  shares the What i s  evident in his work i s that struggle e x i s t s on more than one level and that that struggle i s overcome to make way f o r peace and harmony. romance concludes. Signeur, puis leur assamblement Vesqui set ans t o t sainglement L i dus sans plus en tant fqnda Une abei'e u s'en a l a Et l a ducesse avueques l u i , Illoeques morurent andui L i r i c e t e r r e de Borgoigne Sans c o n t r e d i t et sans alonge, Ot l i cuens Amadas apres Si v a i l l a n t due n ' i ot ainc mes, Ne qui s i vigereusement Tenist en pais l a povre gent, Ne qui chevaliers tant amast, Ne plus largement leur donast, - 128 -  As the  La ducesse refu s i sage, Si v a i l ! a n s d'oevre et de corage, Si gentius ne s i houneree, C ' a i n c dame ne fu tant amee En Bourgoigne mais a nul j o r Com l'aiment t u i t c i l de I'ounor, Et l e bon due tout autresi Signeur, pour v e r i t e vous di Qu'a grant houneur t i n r e n t l a t e r r e Toute leur v i e en p a i s , sans guerre, De leur amor faut c i l ' e s t o r e , Leur ames metre Dix en glore Par sa douceur, par sa merchi Et de tous peceeurs ausi Amen Truly a f a i r y t a l e ending. r u l e , bringing glory to God.  vv. 7885-7912  They r u l e in peace, loved by those who they Total harmony.  Paradise.  Perhaps, then,  t h i s romance has been a way f o r the author to come to terms with his own struggle, or has prepared the way f o r him to do so.  Yet, what i s most v i t a l to us as readers i s how we i n t e r p r e t t h i s work and integrate i t s lessons i n t o our own l i v e s .  As Joseph Campbell p e r c e p t i v e l y s t a t e s :  The problem of mankind today, t h e r e f o r e , i s p r e c i s e l y the opposite to that of men in the comparatively stable periods of those great co-ordinating mythologies which now are known as lies.  Then a l l meaning was in the group, in the great anonymous  forms, none in the s e l f - e x p r e s s i v e i n d i v i d u a l ; today no meaning i s in the group—none in the world; a l l i s in the i n d i v i d u a l . But there the meaning i s absolutely unconscious.  - 129 -  One does not  know toward what one moves. propelled.  One does not know by what one i s  The l i n e s of communication between the conscious and  the unconscious zones of the human psyche have a l l been cut, and we have been s p l i t in two.  The modern hero-deed must be that of  questing to bring to l i g h t again the l o s t A t l a n t i s of the 5 co-ordinated s o u l .  Thus, the problem today i s the same as the problem of Amadas  1  day, and  our i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c age in r e l a t i o n to the time when " a l l meaning was in the group" can be compared to the 13th century in r e l a t i o n to the 12th. And, l i k e Amadas, we have a choice.  We can choose to ignore doubts,  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s , c a l l s to change our way of r e l a t i n g to the world. can f o l l o w the "norm" and choose the route of least r e s i s t a n c e .  We  That  route revolves around money, personal glory, routine a c t i v i t i e s of l i f e , without stopping to ponder the mysteries of l i f e .  Or we can f l i t from  therapy to therapy, guru to guru, in an attempt to f i l l inside of us.  a vague void  We can j o i n the ranks of those who state they don't  understand the opposite sex, don't l i k e the opposite sex, or f e e l t h e i r sex i s superior to the opposite sex.  We can j o i n the s i l e n t majority who  recognize that v i o l a t i o n of women e x i s t s in the form of rape and pornography, economic i n e q u a l i t y or d i s c r i m i n a t i o n against women, but not t r y to consider the causes or s o l u t i o n s .  But a l l these courses of action  w i l l not bring true contentment to the soul or enlightenment. do the searching f o r us.  No one can  It i s up to each one of us to make some e f f o r t  to r e a l i z e and understand our unconscious and to harmonize i t s u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d elements.  - 130 -  The goal i s not to decrease the differences between the sexes.  It  is  rather to bring to f u l l maturity both the male and female elements of our Being so as to increase understanding and to better communication.  It  is  integration and incorporation of the contrasexual component into our personality.  This s i g n i f i e s true harmony and union between the sexes and  is a stepping stone to the attainment of both inner and outer harmony. Just as the "woman" in Amadas et Ydoine was a bridge to s o c i a l and personal harmony, so the inner man or inner woman of our Being i s the bridge to our i n t e r n a l and external harmony.  We have witnessed the course of t h i s undertaking and the personal s a c r i f i c e , patience, determination, and f a i t h involved. d i f f i c u l t and p a i n f u l .  I t i s extremely  Yet the successful i n t e g r a t i o n of our  contrasexual component brings many rewards on a s o c i a l and personal level.  For Amadas and Ydoine, i t brought peace to a l l of Burgundy and i t  also brought inner peace.  When Amadas r e l i e d on his inner s e l f to guide  him, he f i n a l l y found s a t i s f a c t i o n and contentment.  As Jung writes of  the i n d i v i d u a t i o n process:  I t i s as i f a r i v e r that had run to waste in sluggish side-streams and marshes suddenly found i t s way back to i t s proper bed, or as i f a stone l y i n g on a germinating seed were l i f t e d away so that the shoot could begin i t s natural growth.  7  Amadas et Ydoine i s a v i v i d account of how the p e r s o n a l i t y can be l i b e r a t e d , healed and transformed by l i s t e n i n g to the unconscious and how t h i s i s a v i t a l step to l i b e r a t i n g , healing, and transforming s o c i e t y .  - 131 -  NOTES  I.  INTRODUCTION  1  F r i e d r i c h Heer, The Medieval World, trans. Janet Sondheimer  (New York: Mentor Books, 1961), p. 110.  2  Heer, p. 20.  3  Heer, p. 21.  4  Heer, pp. 23 - 24.  5  Heer, p. 25.  6  Heer, p. 28.  7  Heer, p. 318.  Q  Joan M. Ferrante, Woman as Image in Medieval L i t e r a t u r e — F r o m the Twelfth Century to Dante, (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1975), p. 3. 9  V i r g i n i a Woolf, A Room of One's Own, (London, 1929; r p t . London:  Granada Publishing Limited, 1982), pp. 93 - 94.  - 132 -  Heer, pp. 181 - 182.  To be sure, not a l l psychological approaches to a work can be fruitful.  Freudian concepts, f o r instance, would not be i l l u m i n a t i n g in  a study of Amadas et Ydoine.  Nevertheless, t h i s i s true of w r i t i n g s  regardless of the time period in which they were w r i t t e n .  One must  search to f i n d which, i f any, psychological analysis i s appropriate and elucidating.  12  Joseph Campbell, Myths to Live By, (New York: Bantem, 1972)  p. 160.  13 Chrestien de Troyes, Erec et Enide, (Manchester: Manchester U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1942), vv. 421 - 426. 1 4  Chrestien, vv. 1247 - 1253.  15 Although one could compare Amadas et Ydoine to several other medieval romances and thereby discover many f a s c i n a t i n g comparisons and contrasts, t h i s i s another path a l l i t s own and would only tend to d i f f u s e the main focus of t h i s t h e s i s .  I w i l l therefore leave that to  some time in the future and l i m i t myself to the legend of T r i s t a n et I s e u l t since, f o r reasons already s t a t e d , I consider i t to be the most c r u c i a l and i n f l u e n t i a l romance of the time period.  - 133 -  , u  Amadas et Ydoine, ed. John Revel! Reinhard, CSMA, No. 51,  P a r i s : Champion, 1926.  vv 3955 - 3963.  A l l subsequent references are to  t h i s e d i t i o n by l i n e number only.  II.  CHAPTER 1 - AMADAS ET YDOINE AS TRANSCENDENT-TRISTAN  1  Chrestien de Troyes, Yvain, (Manchester: Manchester U n i v e r s i t y  Press, 1942), vv. 1386 - 1397.  2  Berol, T r i s t a n Und Isolde, (MUnchen: Eidoes Verlag Munchen, 1962), vv. 2161 - 2172.  3  Berol, vv. 1382 - 1384.  4  Berol, vv. 1412 - 1415.  5  Berol, vv. 352 - 356.  6  Berol, vv. 367 - 370.  7  Berol, vv. 371 - 380.  o  Thomas, " T r i s t a n et I s e u l t " , i n Les Poemes de T r i s t a n et I s e u l t — E x t r a i t s , ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Larousse, 1933) p. 154. 9  Berol, vv. 2353 - 2354.  - 134 -  III.  CHAPTER 2 - THE NARRATOR AND HIS HEROINE  Joan M. Ferrante, Woman as Image in Medieval L i t e r a t u r e — F r o m the Twelfth Century to Dante, (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1975), pp. 73 - 74.  J e f f r e y Burton R u s s e l l , Witchcraft in the Middle Ages, (London: Cornell U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1972), p. 13.  Richard Axton, Medieval French Plays, (Oxford: B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1971), p. 147.  4  Heer, p. 113.  Ferrante, p. 25.  Ferrante, p."25.  7  Ferrante, p. 74.  o  John Revel 1 Reinhard, The Old French Romance of Amadas et Ydoine: An H i s t o r i c a l Study, (Durham, N.C.: Duke U n i v e r s i t y Press, pp. 13 - 16.  - 135 -  1927),  IV.  CHAPTER 3 - AMADAS INNER VOYAGE 1  M.-L. von Franz, "The Process of I n d i v i d u a t i o n " , in Man and His  1  Symbols, ed. Carl G. Jung (London: Dell Publishing Co. Inc.,  1964),  p. 163.  2  von Franz, p. 169. 3  von Franz, p. 170.  Jolande J a c o b i , The Psychology of C.G. Jung, (London: Routledge  4  and Kegan Paul L t d . 1942), p. 116.  5  Joseph Campbell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces, Bollingen  Series XVII (Princeton: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1949), p. 60.  6  Campbell, pp. 91 - 92.  7  Campbell, p. 101.  8  Campbell, p. 116.  9  Campbell, p. 129.  1 0  Campbell, p. 148.  - 136 -  1 1  Campbell, p. 162.  1 2  Campbell, p. 217.  1 3  Campbell, p. 223.  1 4  von Franz, p. 224.  1 5  von Franz, p. 238.  von Franz, p. 191.  1 7  von Franz, p. 191.  1 8  Campbell, p. 51.  1 9  Campbell, p. 111.  2 0  J a c o b i , p. 112.  2 1  Joseph L. Henderson, "Ancient Myths and Modern Man" in Man and  His Symbols, ed. Carl G. Jung (London: Dell Publishing Co. Inc., p. 156.  137  1964)  S y l v i a Brinton Perera, Descent to the Goddess: A Way of I n i t i a t i o n f o r Women, Studies in Jungian psychology; 6, (Toronto: Inner C i t y Books, 1981), p. 55.  Campbell, p. 65.  24  Frieda Fordham, An Introduction to Jung's Psychology, (Middlesex: Penguin, 1953), p. 51. 25  von Franz, p. 170.  27  Campbell, p. 108. Campbell, p. 109.  28  von Franz, p. 196.  2 6  Sharon Spencer, "Intimate Geometry: The Art of the Triangle in Three Works by Marguerite Duras," L ' E s p r i t Createur, Summer, 1982, v o l . XXII, No. 2, p. 45.  o u  Perera, p. 9.  3 1  Campbell, pp. 71 - 72.  3 2  J a c o b i , pp. 115 - 116.  - 138 -  3 3  Campbell, p. 155.  3 4  Campbell, p. 129.  3 5  Campbell, p. 352,  3 6  Campbell, p. 337.  3 7  Campbell, p. 147.  3 8  Campbell, p. 216.  3 9  Campbell, p. 193.  4 0  Campbell, p. 218.  4 1  Campbell, p. 342.  4 2  Campbell, p. 388.  V.  CONCLUSION  1  Campbell, p. 338.  von Franz, p. 195.  Fordham, pp. 23 & 25.  Fordham, p. 25.  Campbell, p. 342.  Campbell, p. 388.  Fordham, p. 83  BIBLIOGRAPHY Amadas et Ydoine, Ed. John Revell Reinhard, CSMA. No. 51. P a r i s : Champion, 1926. Axton, Richard.  Medieval French P l a y s .  B e r o l , T r i s t a n Und Isolde.  Oxford: B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1971.  M'u'nchen: Eidos Verlag Mlinchen, 1962.  Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Bollingen Series VXII. Princeton: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1949. Campbell, Joseph.  Myths to Live By.  Chrestien de Troyes.  Erec et Enide.  Chrestien de Troyes. 1942.  Yvain.  New York: Bantem, 1972. P a r i s * - - Champion 1 9 7 0  C.F.M.A.  80  Manchester: Manchester U n i v e r s i t y Press,  Ferrante, Joan H. Woman as Image in Medieval L i t e r a t u r e — F r o m the Twelfth Century to Dante. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, Fordham, F r i e d a . An Introduction to Jung's Psychology. Penquin, 1953.  1975.  Middlesex:  von Franz, M.-L. "The Process of I n d i v i d u a t i o n " . In Man and His Symbols. Ed. Carl G. Jung. London: Dell Publishing Co. Inc., 1964. Heer, F r i e d r i c h . The Medieval World. Mentor Books, 1961.  Trans. Janet Sondheimer.  New York:  Henderson, Jospeh L. "Ancient Myths and Modern Man." In Man and His Symbols. Ed. Carl G. Jung. London: Dell Publishing Col Inc., 1964. J a c o b i , Jolande. The Psychology of C.G. Jung, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul L t d . , 1942. Perera, S y l v i a Brinton. Descent to the Goddess: A Way of I n i t i a t i o n f o r Women. Studies in Jungian psychology; 6. Toronto: Inner C i t y Books, T98T7  Reinhard, John R e v e l l . The Old French Romance of Amadas et Ydoine: An H i s t o r i c a l Study. Durham, N.C.: Duke U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1927. R u s s e l l , J e f f r e y Burton. Witchcraft in the Middle Ages. U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1972.  - 141 -  London: Cornell  Spencer, Sharon. "Intimate Geometry: The Art of the Triangle in Three Works by Marguerite Duras." In L ' E s p r i t Createur. Summer, 1982. V o l . XXIII. No. 2. Thomas. " T r i s t a n et I s e u l t . " In Les Poemes de T r i s t a n et I s e u l t — E x t r a i t s . P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Larousse, 1958. Woolf, V i r g i n i a . A Room of One's Own. Granada Publishing Limited, 1982.  London, 1929; r p t . London:  - 142 -  

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