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Amadas et Ydoine, the search for inner and outer harmony 1984

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AMADAS ET YDOINE THE SEARCH FOR INNER AND OUTER HARMONY B y " BARBARA LUCILLE MEARNS B.A., The Univers ity of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF FRENCH We accept th i s thesis as conforming to the 'required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1984 ©Barbara L u c i l l e Mearns, 1984 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of French The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date October 1, 1984 DE-6 (.3/81) ABSTRACT Amadas et Ydoine, a romance written between 1190 and 1220, describes "pure" love and a l l the obstacles i t can overcome. The central concern of th i s work i s the resolut ion of c o n f l i c t in order to atta in harmony and union on both a social and personal l e v e l . Written during the t rans i t i on period between the 12th and 13th centuries, the romance re f l ec t s many changing and con f l i c t i n g att itudes of the time, espec ia l ly those concerning women. In these I examine the romance and the part women play in i t on three d i f ferent leve l s : the i n te r tex tua l , the narrative perspective and the psychological. On the intertextual l e ve l , I compare Amadas et Ydoine with Tr istan et I seult to show that the author is t ry ing to create a type of transcendent-Tristan. His variances of the accepted "perfect " romance of the time reveal his opinions about women and sexual ro les . In Chapter 2, I examine the integral part played by the narrator. He i s an extremely ambiguous personage who manages to praise Ydoine perpetually while describing her several acts of deception. At the same time he denounces women as a group while of fer ing no proof of his accusations. I examine his portrayal of Ydoine and the inconsistent nature of his periodic interruptions of the narrat ion. - i i - In Chapter 3, I look at the actions of Amadas in the l i gh t of Jungian and "Campbellian" concepts. I see his maturation process as being what Jung c a l l s the indiv iduation process and what Campbell labels the hero voyage. I consider the steps Amadas takes in order to bring to a conscious level his anima, or feminine p r i nc ip le , as being the major part of his maturation. Amadas et Ydoine is a romance of struggle, but one in which soc ia l and personal harmony are f i n a l l y achieved. The bridge of those two types of harmony is the female. On the intertextual l e ve l , i t i s Ydoine who guides Amadas and who motivates him to guard the i r v i t a l connection to the macrocosmos. On the psychological l e ve l , i t i s the anima who guides Amadas, helps him face his unconscious, surrender his ego, and molds him into a well-rounded personal i ty. The narrator incarnates opposing views of both the 12th and 13th centuries, and by doing so reveals how impossible and r id icu lous those extreme att itudes about women actua l ly are. Consequently, the romance can be regarded as a re-enactment of coming to terms with our unconscious, healing the c on f l i c t with the contrasexual component of our beings, which in turn helps to heal the s p l i t between male and female on a social level and results in both internal and external harmony. To Harold Knutson, without whose kind support and f r iendsh ip, th i s thesis would not have been wr i t ten. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to express my gratitude to my thesis advisor, Gordon McGregor, for his receptiveness and insight which helped me develop my ideas and structure them into the form of a thes i s , and for his humour and enthusiasm which contributed greatly to my enjoyment of the whole process. I also wish to express my appreciation to my second reader, Richard Holdaway, for the rap id i t y and thoroughness with which he read my draft and for his many valuable suggestions. And many thanks to my patient, perseverant and capable f r i end , s i s te r - in - l aw and t yp i s t , Linda Mearns, who, although l i v i n g in Regina while I was l i v i n g in Berkeley and, although having no knowledge of modern French, much less of old French, helped me immensely by bravely undertaking the job of typing th i s thes i s . - v - TABLE OF CONTENTS Description Page Abstract i i Dedication i i i Acknowledgements iv Plot Resume 1 Introduction 19 Chapter 1 - Amadas et Ydoine as Transcendent-Tristan 33 Chapter 2 - The Narrator and his Heroine 58 Chapter 3 - Amadas1 Inner Voyage 85 Conclusion 118 Notes 132 Bibliography 141 - v i - PLOT RESUME The narrater gives a br ie f introduction to the romance. He i s going to t e l l the story of two people whom love has brought together and who l oya l l y l i v e : Toute leur vie sans t r i c h i e r , Sans v i l en i e et sans dangier. The story takes place in "Burgundy" where the duke: A grant hounour maintint barnage, Prouece, largece et bonte'. The duke has a seneschal who i s "preu et v a i l l a n t et mult l o i a l " . The sensechal has a son named Amadas who is 15 years o ld , and: Biaus ert et alignie's et grans; De cors, de vis et de fa i tu re Amadas is humble, frank, courteous and wel l - loved. Even i f he were the son of a King, no one could treat him more honourably than he i s now treated. However, Amadas does have one tache: Qu ' i l n 'avoit pas ou mont dansele Tant courtoise, france ne bele, Ne dame de nuLe devise, Ne pour biaute, ne pour frankise Qu ' i l amast v a i l l a n t une a l i e . N'avoit cure de dr l ier ie. Verses 125 - 190 The duke has a daughter named Ydoine: Qui mult e s to i t et gente et bele. N'ot s i renoumee pucele Decha les mons, de grant biaute, De francise ne de bonte'. Her beauty i s described from head to toe, and we learn that she, also, has one tache: C'onques ne fu f i l l e a nul r o i , N'empereour, n'a due, n'a conte Qui s i ten i s t pe t i t de conte Au dro i t d'Amor com el f a i s o i t . D'amour s i sourquidie es to i t Et s i f i e r e et s i o rg i l leuse, Vers tous hommes s i desdaigneuse Verses 191 - 290 A f e s t i v a l takes place at which Amadas i s helping to serve the food. The coup de foudre h i t s him while he i s cutt ing meat for Ydoine. He drops the kn i fe , turns pale, sighs and f a i n t s . Verses 291 - 306 The narrator interrupts the story to speak of love, th i s "mervil leuse cose" that "de chose amere f a i t miel et de douceur f a i t savoir f i e l " . Verses 307 - 412 Ydoine does not suspect that i t i s she who has caused Amadas' strange behaviour. He i s in intense and incurable pain, and is taken home to bed. There he can neither eat nor drink, and i s near death for s ix months: Mais ainc Tr istrans s i grant doleur Ne souf f r i pour Yseu la b lo ie , Ne tant mal sans confort de j o i e , Com Amadas en a sousfert - 2 - During th i s time he seeks counsel from no one, but keeps his feel ings secret. Verses 413 - 571 Amadas v i s i t s Ydoine to declare his love for her. He i s very a f r a i d , and when he confesses his fee l ings: Idoine a l a requeste oiee, Mult le t i en t a grant derverie, A grant escar et a outrage; Ire est mult en son corage She t e l l s Amadas that he i s e ither crazy or drunk, that i t would be blasphemous for her to love bassement, and that, besides, she has no love in her heart fo r him. She orders him not to speak of i t again. Verses 572 - 619 Amadas is devastated. He leaves her room in more pain than he has experienced thus far and languishes on his bed for another year. Verses 620 - 764 Amadas decides to t r y again. He pretends to be j o l l y at court but enters Ydoine's room "a grant peeur" and announces: 'Ne m'i la iss ie 's dame, morir Pour seul sousfraite de confort, . . .Je m'ocirai ains le matin. ...France dame ne damoisele, Pour parage tant ne fu bele, Ne f i s t , certes, pechie' s i grant Ne s i cruel ne s i pesant Com vous fere's se je m'oehi. Je n'en sai plus, dame; merc i i ' - 3 - Ydoine is enragedl She c a l l s him: Leciere outrequidies, / Gars anieus, fox assoties! She repeats that he is insane, and that she owes more to her parents than to love someone of his small bravery, threatens to have him beaten by her servants who w i l l turn " l e ventre enver". Verses 765 - 965 Amadas sighs grievously and departs for his bedroom for another year. During th i s time there i s a tournament. Everyone misses Amadas and they discuss how well he would do there i f only he were not so i l l . Amadas hears th i s ta lk and regrets that he i s wasting his youth. Unfortunately, there i s nothing he can do, as he i s suffer ing from an incurable love sickness. He concludes that death i s the only so lut ion. Verses 966 - 1315 In a desperate e f f o r t , Amadas v i s i t s Ydoine for the th i rd time. He i s in much pain: De trestous les amans du mont, Qui en cest s i ec le ame ont Puis qu'Adans fu primes fourmes^ Ne cuic c'uns horn fust j a troves Qui tant a i t endure'd'Amours Ydoine i s outraged by his g a l l : - 4 - 'Mauvais gars, lechiere afole's, Quant c a s t i i e r ne vous vole's, Je vous fe ra i devant moi batre . . . 'Va t ' e n ' f a i t e l e , 'o ton dosnoi. Mar te venrai mais devant moi, Que j a de moi confort n'aras. Ce est l a f i n s , ains en morras' When he hears th i s l a s t , cruel re ject ion , Amadas sighs, repeats 1000 times "Hal la s ! " and loses consciousness at Ydoine's feet . Bel ieving him to be dead, Ydoine i s ho r r i f i ed to think that she has been the cause. She i s frightened because of her s i n , and is also frightened that: Qu'el n'en a i t blasme et mauvais c r i , S'en sa cambre muert devant l i . She i s str icken with p i t y , sadness and f i n a l l y , love: Par le commandement d'Amours, P i t i e s et Francise et Paours Forgent mult tost un trencant dart Ydoine repents of her past behaviour and t e l l s God that, i f he w i l l bring Amadas back to l i f e , she w i l l forever be his veraie amie. She takes Amadas in her arms, kisses him 100 times on the mouth and chin, and revives him. At l a s t , the love is mutual, and i t has come about natura l ly : Natureument leur est venus Cis dous fus es cuers et crelis. Ne leur v int pas pour manger f r u i t , Ne pour boire, ce sachies t u i t They exchange vows and r ings. Ydoine t e l l s Amadas: Par t e l convent vous doins m'amour; C'onques n'amai jusqu 'a cest jour, Ne n'amerai j a mais nul houme Autre que vous, ce est l a soume. - 5 - Ydoine suggests that Amadas become a knight in order to prove himself by courageous deeds. Verses 1315 - 1556 This he does immediately. He is absent for three years and gains a favourable reputation a l l over France. He i s an example to a l l : De sens et de ceva ler ie, D'ensegnement, de cour to i s ie , Et de f rancise et de largece; De l u i et de sa grant prouece During th i s time, Amadas and Ydoine are f a i t h f u l to each other and communicate by means of written messages and tokens of a f fect ion . Verses 1557 - 1978 Amadas has reached the end of his three years and i s very excited to be able to return home to Ydoine. However, he hears of one very important tournament which i s to take place in 40 days. Given the King of France w i l l attend, the temptation is too strong. Amadas delays his return and does well in the tournament. Then, on his way home, he is greeted by a messenger who informs him that, against her w i l l , Ydoine has been betrothed to the Count of Nevers. At hearing t h i s , Amadas loses possession of his senses. He f lees in his madness to the forest , where his valets manage to seize him; and sadly they take him to his f a ther ' s cast le where he is locked away. - 6 - Verses 1979 - 2302 In the meantime, Ydoine is in much anquish because of her impending marriage: Plus dolente ne plus pensive N'a ou mont dame ne mescine. So she fabr icates a scheme to discourage the Count from marrying her. She employs three witches who disguise themselves as the three fates - Cloto, Lachesis and Atropos. They interrupt the Count's sleep during the night before the wedding and, making the whole scene seem l i k e a v i s i on , set up a table for a meal and begin to eat. They mention several personal deta i l s about the Count's l i f e , his re la t i ves and his country to convince him of the i r authent ic i ty. Then they discuss his future. They commiserate over the fact that he and Ydoine w i l l never have a happy future together and that there i s nothing they can do about i t . At the Count's b i r th f e s t i v i t i e s , i t seems, someone inadvertently neglected to set a knife at Atropos' place sett ing and, to make matters worse, the same mistake occurred at Ydoine's b i r th f e s t i v i t i e s , only th i s time with a spoon. Consequently, the i rate Atropos put an i r r eve r s i b l e curse on them both. A year after the i r f i r s t sexual re lat ions together, the Count is destined to d ie. Just before leaving, "C loto" whispers to the Count that he would be well advised - 7 - to seek a wife elsewhere; i f not his death is guaranteed. Verses 2303 - 2448 The Count is understandably shaken by his " v i s i o n " . He i s confused: Esgare's est, ne set que f a i r e , Ou feme prendre ou le l a i s s i e r . Mais le corage a i tant f i e r Ne c r o i t en songe n'en argu, En carro i ne en esternu, De r ien ne doute la nouvele, Car i l aime tant l a pucele The wedding does, therefore, take place, but the Count has been frightened enough by the witches that he does not i n s i s t on sleeping with Ydoine and so she remains a v i r g i n . Verses 2449 - 2546 It i s now Ydoine's turn to languish for Amadas. And he i s s t i l l shut away in the cas t le , completely mad. Nevertheless, after a year he manages to escape and goes no one knows where. Verses 2547 - 3024 Ydoine is closer to death than to l i f e : Amadas n'ot onques s i g r ie f , Ne t e l paine ne t e l anui Por l i comme Ydoine a pour l u i . She sends her va let , Garine's, to search for Amadas. After hunting in many places Garines f i n a l l y tracks him down at Lucca where he i s the local lunat ic running about the streets. He returns with th i s - 8 - news to Ydoine, who i s both pained by the thought of his madness and delighted that he is s t i l l a l i ve . She arranges immediately to leave for Lucca, explaining to her husband that she i s t r a ve l l i n g to Rome to see St. Peter about a cure for her i l l n e s s . Verses 3025 - 3565 Ydoine meets Garines at the hostel in Lucca. She is witness to extremely humiliating treatment of her ami as he i s beaten, dragged and chased by the r i f f - r a f f of the town: Ce est grans duels a esgarder De nul houme c'on doie amer. Tant com ele plus aime l u i , Tant l i torne plus a anui Que s i laidement le b a i l l i s e n t Et, voiant ses oels, le l a id i s sent . Ydoine, Garines and two other f a i t h f u l valets go to Amadas' grotto that evening. They hold him down while Ydoine qu iet ly and tenderly repeats his name and hers 100 times. No other medicine could be better. Amadas i s cured. He is greatly ashamed of his insanity, however, and feels quite unworthy of Ydoine's love. But his veraie amie w i l l hear none of that. She knows that Amadas would have done the same for her had the s i tuat ion been reversed and reassures him that: ' Ja mais nul j o r n 'avrai signor Autre que vous, pour voir le d i . ' - 9 - Verses 3566 - 3623 The author now in ter ject s to b i t t e r l y attack women in general. There is no protection for a man against a woman who wishes to t r i c k him. Nothing stands in her way. A l l women know witchcraft and even the s i l l i e s t woman i s capable of deceiving a knowledgeable man by her t r i c k s . Women are f i c k l e , venimous, "pleines d 'egin et de traison en mil n'en a une enter ine". Verses 3624 - 3656 But not Ydoine, of course: Les dames ai or cest resp it Pour l a contesse Ydoine d i t Most women are "encontre raison et dro iture" (not the i r f au l t - God made them that way) but Ydoine i s "boine, l o i a l et enter ine". A good woman i s worth 100 men and Ydoine i s one of these. Verses 3657 - 4010 The transformed Amadas is taken by Garines to the hostel and is bathed, dressed and fed. Ydoine, who wants to achieve her goal to be united with Amadas: Sans reparlance de f o l i e , Sans pecie et sans volonnie wonders how to explain Amadas' presence and his reason for being at Lucca. They separately attend mass the next morning and l a te r , at mealtime, pretend to recognize each other and make small - 10 - t a l k . Ydoine asks the knights in her party i f Amadas can jo in them on the i r voyage to Rome but Amadas graciously refuses. Verses 4011 - 4604 Ydoine travels to Rome the next day. Amadas stays behind and part ic ipates in a tournament nearby. He buys a horse for both himself and for Ydoine and excels in the tournament. Verses 4605 - 4736 Ydoine returns from Rome and i s being guided by uns vius chevaliers when a strange knight appears and f o r c i b l y puts Ydoine on his horse and t r i e s to s p i r i t her away. When Amadas and others begin to pursue them, he puts her down and mysteriously disappears. Amadas and Ydoine enter Lucca, very happily. Verses 4737 - 4746 The narrator states a proverb describing the intens i ty (suffering) of these two lovers: .En tant d'eure d'unes amors N'orres j a mais s i grans dolors Ne teus angouses ne tex max. Mult leur est Fortune cruaus Verses 4747 - 5371 Ydoine suddenly f a l l s extremely i l l . She makes her confession and, immediately before dying, contrives an outrageous l i e to Amadas. She explains that, before she met him, she had borne three chi ldren by - 11 - three d i f ferent cousins and that she has since murdered a l l three of the ch i ldren. She t e l l s him: Estrange mencoigne de s o i , Par l o i au te ' e t par grant f o i . Por gar i r de mort son ami Por l i metre de mort a v ie . She wants to make sure that Amadas w i l l not be so overcome by gr ie f after her death that he e i ther commits suicide or goes insane again. She wants him to have a reason to l i v e , even i f i t i s only to give alms for her soul. Amadas agrees to th i s only for her sake, and Ydoine dies and i s buried. Verses 5372 - 6460 Amadas undergoes much gr ief and agony after her death. He is beside Ydoine's grave one night when a maufe' - or bad f a i r y arr ives, ready to dig i t up. He informs Amadas that Ydoine i s his love and shows him the ring that Amadas gave her. Amadas is overwhelmed. He begins to doubt Ydoine's i n teg r i t y and, during an i n t e r i o r monologue, l i s t s several men in h istory who were betrayed by women, as well as a few who were not. He concludes: ' Ah i ! Ydoine amie bele, Por coi m'aves i s s i t ra i ? Feme n'ot mais s i bon ami, ...De l a desloiaute' de vous C 'ainc mais ne fu s i angossous. ...Par vous sai que cascune drue Est t r iceresse et souduians, Et menteresse et decevans, Et foimentie et parjuree. ' - 12 - Nevertheless, Amadas s t i l l chooses to f i ght for Ydoine, and to keep f a i t h f u l because of the loyal love they have shared. He accuses the maufe of ly ing and declares: 'N'en portere's le cors sans moi, Si vous d i r a i raison por c o i : Amee l ' a i plus que ma v ie . ...Ne doit i s s i p a r f i t amour Qui lo iaute ' aime et honor OubTfer en s i poi de tens: Ce m'est avis selonc mon sens. 1 A long, arduous batt le begins. The maufe has super- natural power, and sometimes i t seems as i f he w i l l win, but Amadas has force: Vigueurs et vasselage Et hardenment et bon corage He cuts off the maufe's r ight hand and then his enemy acknowledges his a b i l i t y and strength. The maufe7 admits that he was the strange knight who had t r i ed to seize Ydoine on her re-entry to Lucca and that he had then substituted a magic r ing for her r ing. Ydoine i s not r ea l l y dead, he t e l l s an astounded Amadas, but merely in a deep stupor. And, he adds, the only person she has ever loved i s Amadas. Verses 6461 - 6522 The narrator contrasts foo l i sh courage, which causes g r i e f , with wise courage, which brings honour and comfort. Amadas possesses wise courage, for which he has indeed been rewarded. - 13 - Verses 6523 - 6862 Amadas is ec s ta t i c . He replaces the magic r ing with Ydoine's own r ing and " resurrects " her. She i s , needless to say, astonished. Amadas explains the whole s i tuat ion to her and a very tender reunion ensues. Amadas wants to consummate the i r love and run away someplace where they w i l l never again be separated, but Ydoine refuses. She wants to l i v e honourably in the eyes of God and humankind in her own country of Burgundy: Ouvrer ensi qu'a grant hounor Me pa r t i r a i de mon signour, Et de tous mes amis donee Sans pecie a 1'ouneur de De' Par esgart de crest iente ' Et s 'ore le me fas i ie ' s Amadas consents. They return to the hostel at Lucca and send word back to Burgundy that Ydoine i s a l i ve . Verses 6863 - 6908 The author breaks in to speak about nouvelles i n . general - how rap id ly and extensively i t i s spread: La nouvele et plus tost s'espant Que ne font l i o i se l volant. ...A cent mil pie's por tost aler L i croissent en mains d'un seul j o r . Verses 6909 - 6972 The news of Amadas and Ydoine i s proof of t h i s . When the i r adventures become known, there is immediately ta lk about the love that must ex ist between them. But, as most of the people admit: - 14 - Qu1 aperceli de r ien ne sont . . . Q u ' i l so i t seu'rs et el se'u're Sans doute de nule aventure. Tant devisent q u ' i l ont trove' Engin tot a lour volente' D'aciever leur grant des i r i e r Raisnavlement sans encombrier. Verses 6973 - 6996 Amadas returns home to the joy of his mother, father and community. Verses 6997 - 7036 Ydoine returns to Nevers where she feigns i l l ne s s and c a l l s for her husband to come and see her. Verses 7037 - 7097 The narrator interrupts with his own remarks about women for the second time. They are, as stated before, f a l s e , dece i t fu l and into sorcery. However, even so: Mais, je n ' i ai d ro i t ne raison Qu'en doie d ire se bien non: Ains ont bien deservi vers moi, Que trestoutes amer les doi ; Ses amerai jusqu 'a l a f i n Sans traison et sans engin. It i s true that women have the whole world in t he i r power but, i f they have the wits and knowledge to "mal querre", they also know " l e bien, l a f rancise et l 'ounour". And: En cest mont n'a s i grant docor Com en feme quant veut le bien Verses 7098 - 7302 The enterine Ydoine, who i s "bien enraisnie et bien parlans" informs her husband of the result of her - 15 - voyage to Rome. St. Peter and the three Fates a l l agreed i t would be best i f the two of them part. She adds, though, l i k e a good wife: D'estre ensamble ou dou depart i r : Tout en f e ra i vostre p l a i s i r . The Count agrees that an annulment is best. Verses 7303 - 7406 The marriage annulment i s arranged. During th i s time, Amadas' father dies and Amadas takes over the posit ion of seneschal. The Count "qui est debonaire" vo luntar i l y leaves Ydoine and soon afterwards weds the daughter of the Count of Po i t i e r s . Verses 7407 - 7450 The author speaks about Fortune; one i s f oo l i sh to give himself over to e ither glory or despair because: Ne mal ne bien tous jors ne dure; Tous l i mons est en aventure: Fois est qui trop a l u i se t i e n t , Car tost s'en va i t et tost revient. Verses 7451 - 7530 Ydoine consults with her parents and t e l l s them: 'Que j a mais jour outre mon gre' Ne prendrai signeur a nul foer Or en save's, s i r e , mon cuer. ' The duke consents and maintains she can marry whom- ever she wishes as long as: 'Mais que i l so i t de haut parage Et va i l l ans d'oevre et de corage' - 16 - Ydoine suggests that the barons vote on the most va l iant knight to be her husband, and her father agrees. Verses 7531 - 7583 The barons assemble and Ydoine explains the s i tuat ion to them. Verses 7584 - 7596 The narrator interrupts: Dius! Com est s o u t i l l e et sage! Par grant raison et par savoir .Veut aciever tout son vo l o i r , Que bien pense que l i pluisour Et l i plus v a i l l a n t de l 'ounor L i vauront Amadas doner, S 'e le le veut acreanter Verses 7597 - 7692 And, so i t happens according to Ydoine's plan. The barons "a une vois et a un c o i " choose Amadas. The duke asks Ydoine her opinion of th i s decision and, although she does not want to expose her "mult grant j o i e " , responds: ' S i r e 1 , f a i t e le , 'mon desir Est a f a i r e vostre p l a i s i r . ...Bien otro i c'Amadas me prenge Sans contredit et sans calenge, Car deseur tous amer le d o i . ' Verses 7693 - 7790 The duke i s pleased and goes immediately to see Amadas. Ydoine has already sent a message to him inst ruct ing him how to conduct himself when her father arr ives. The duke offers Amadas his daughter and his land of Burgundy. Amadas kisses his feet , thanks him for the " t res grant honour" and accepts. - 17 - Verses 7791 - 7912 The author brings the romance to a rapid f i n i s h . Without delay, the two lovers are joyously wedded. There i s great celebration and gladness throughout the land. After seven years, the duke passes away and leaves Amadas and Ydoine to rule in peace and happiness and love. Signeur, pour ver i te vous di Qu'a grant houneur t inrent la terre Toute leur vie en pais, sans guerre. De leur amor faut c i Ves to re , Leur ames mete Dix en glore Par sa douceur, par sa merchi, Et de tous peceeurs ausi . - 18 - INTRODUCTION Amadas et Ydoine i s an old French romance written between the years of 1190 and 1220 by an anonymous author. In comparison with the writ ings of Chretien de Troyes or Marie de France, th i s work has been largely unrecognized and unappreciated. It provides a var ied, st imulating plot f u l l of charm, humour and suspense, and in i t s 3956 rhymed couplets, gives numerous morals, messages and admonitions. Although art as ref lected in f i c t i o n i s not l i f e , i t does bear some resemblance to r e a l i t y by means of i t s symbols and themes, and by means of what i s perceived to be the author's motivations, ideas and opinions. Therefore, Amadas et Ydoine can be of value in understanding the t rans i t i on period between the 12th and 13th centuries, a time period which, although very d i f ferent from ours, i s in many ways very s im i l a r . The mood and philosophy of the 12th century d i f fered greatly from those of the 13th century. The 12th century was a period of awakening, of unsat i s f iab le cu r i o s i t y of the world of new ideas. ...there was a cu r i o s i t y the world in a l l i t s aspects, the world of men; the world of the cosmos; the world of natureJ At th i s time Europe was a f a i r l y open society. Barr iers between countries did not then ex i s t ; there existed instead open and f l u i d f r on t i e r s . Unt i l the Mongol onslaught and the Fourth Crusade in 1204, Russia was s t i l l accessible to the West and was l inked to i t by - 19 - commercial and economic t i e s as well as by a r i s t oc ra t i c intermarriage. Russia was a bridge across another of Europe's f r on t i e r s , that between Byzantium and Rome, between the churches of East and West. Although in the 11th century a serious breach did occur in the re lat ions of the Lat in and Greek churches-, the open Europe of the 12th century s t i l l created f r i end l y dealings. I t was not un t i l the Fourth Crusade that the f i n a l rupture between Greek and Lat in churches occurred, p i t t i n g East and West Europe against each other for the next 7 centuries. The th i rd f r on t i e r of open Europe, that with Islam, was also f l u i d . There was constant combat between the ar i s tocrac ies of Spain and Islam, but i t was not serious enough to destroy old fr iendships or to prevent new ones from forming - Islamic and Hispano-Christian fami l ies continued to intermarry. Islam was regarded as an i n te l l e c tua l and cu l tura l treasure by certa in segments of European society that were t h i r s t i n g for knowledge. Just as there were f l e x i b l e , external f ront ie r s of Europe in the 12th century, so there was a corresponding internal f l e x i b i l i t y : learning was l i be r a l and was becoming more broadly based. The Church i t s e l f was open. The c l e r i c s of the Catheral schools of France and Germany and the municipal schools of I t a l y brought with them cu r i o s i t y , freshness and open minds. The culture they were being taught had many elements of pagan ant iquity and the non-Christian Orient. - 20 - This ec lect ic i sm was possible only because of the open-mindedness preva i l ing in the church and in re l i g ious l i f e as a whole. This open re l i g i on of the ea r l i e r Middle Ages was a sat i s fy ing blend of ingredients taken from pre-Christ ian 'pagan' fo lk re l i g ions with others that were ce r ta in l y Chr i s t ian but which had acquired an exotic f lavouring from the i r intimate 2 association with contrasting and non-Christian mater ia l . It was not un t i l the middle of the 12th century that the Church as a separate ent i t y was even mentioned. People thought rather in terms of Christendom - fee l ing that attempts to understand God would imprison Him within a r i g i d theology. This open Church was a l i v i n g union of mighty opposites: heaven and earth, matter and s p i r i t , l i v i n g and dead, body and soul, 3 past, present and future. Open Europe also had an open ar istocracy. There was a substantial lesser ar istocracy that l i ved on the land close to the peasants and that was accessible from below. An open clergy reigned as we l l . Most 12th-century c l e r i c s were accessible to the i r people and at a l l levels of society. Rigid barr iers between clergy and people were few and even the highest clergy was often on the same cu l tu ra l level as the people, c lose ly associating with them in the i r feasts, f e s t i v a l s and da i l y l i f e . - 21 - By contrast, during the period 1200 - 1350, r i g i d d iv i s ions occurred which caused growing internal and external i so la t ion of Europe. The Mongol deluge cut Russia of f from Europe. The Lat in crusaders captured Constantinople by force and founded crusading states on Byzantine t e r r i t o r y , bringing about the separation of East and West, the d iv i s ion of Christendom into Greek and Lat in spheres of influence. The threat of the Turks created i n f l e x i b l e f ront ie r s between European Christendom and Islam. The three powerful and contiguous cultures, Western Christendom, Byzantium and Islam, were now drawing further and further apart; now a l l three tended to revert to what is usually considered a t y p i c a l l y "medieval" condit ion--they became closed soc ie t ie s , withdrawn into the i r separate worlds.^ This growing external i so la t ion was matched by the appearance of special ized i n s t i tu t i ons and groupings. The nob i l i t y , the clergy and the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a cut themselves off from the masses. Lat in lost i t s status as the universal language of Europe and was retained only as the language of the un iver s i t ie s and the governing e l i t e in Church and State. The masses spoke vernacular languages. The Church was becoming c l e r i c a l i z e d and was shocked to discover "heresy" in southwest Europe and western and southern Germany; even an opposition church. The Church reacted by establ ishing new re l ig ious orders, - 22 - developing a more rigorous theology and by intervening d i r e c t l y in the external and internal a f f a i r s of the nation. The rea l i za t i on that Christendom, an i nd i v i s i b l e un i t , had suddenly become permeated and undermined by sects whose views on r e l i g i o n , the world and sometimes also on p o l i t i c s , d i f fered t o t a l l y from those of the Church and i t s people.^ This was a shock that led to the fragmentation of Europe: internal "crusades" against the heret ics, the Inqu i s i t ion, censorship of thought and be l ie f on the part of church and state and r i g i d dogmas a l l resulted from th i s fragmentation. The tolerance that had before been shown to persons of a l ien race, creed or opinion was now replaced by prejudice and xenophobia. The i n te l l e c tua l and s p i r i t u a l l i f e of the time ref lected th i s fear and arrogance in the form of nominalism and mysticism. It expressed the doubts and depair of the time, try ing to bui ld " inner kingdoms of the mind and soul " in a troubled age. This period of the Middle Ages was volcanic t e r r i t o r y , with the threat of eruption always just below the surface: not a year passed, not a day, without outbreaks of war, feud and c i v i l c o n f l i c t . But th i s same volcanic s o i l could sustain the Gothic vine, poetic laurels f lour ished in i t and the myrtle of mysticism grew s tu rd i l y . ^ - 23 - The attitudes of both 12th and 13th centuries natura l ly extended to include women. In the 12th century, women attained a status never before enjoyed. There were no longer merely the chattel of men. P o l i t i c a l l y , they had considerable influence. In southern France, there i s evidence that there was something close to equal i ty of the sexes. In 1308, we hear of certa in women in the Touraine who were apparently e l i g i b l e to ass ist in the e lect ion of deputies to the assembly of estates at Tours.^ There were great ru l ing ladies during th i s century—Eleanor of Aquitaine, Empress Matilda and Blanche of Castile—who governed large t racts of land. The increased popularity and re spectab i l i t y of the vernacular languages for the expression of refined thought (sophisticated l i t e r a r y thought) owed much to feminine inf luence. Women also played a large ro le in the re l i g ious society of the day. Around the year 1250, there were 500 nunneries in Germany with a to ta l population of between 25,000 and 30,000 re l i g i ous . Women were e l i g i b l e to become Perfects and were authorized to preach and to dispense the consolamentum. Women were also very active in heterodox and heret ica l groups. The Waldensians, the Cathars and other groups encouraged women to preach and to propagandise. The court ly way of l i f e , connected with Eleanor and the r i se of the Angevin Empire, introduced into northern Europe a t r ad i t i on of love where - 24 - women were elevated, honoured and even worshipped. A woman became more than a physical being, she became a symbol of perfection and t o t a l i t y . It was the woman who inspired the man to great achievements and to supreme f u l f i l l m e n t . She represented the higher part of man, and by ra i s ing himself to her level and integrating her s p i r i t u a l a t t r ibutes , he could grow in v i r tue , merit and worth and achieve the moral and socia l harmony for which he longed so much. With the increasing fear and anxiety of the 13th century, however, the emphasis was no longer placed upon the search for harmony but on fragmentation of the psyche. The focus was no longer on society, but on the ind iv idua l , because salvation was achieved only by a l ienat ing oneself from the world. As men became more r i g i d and repressed, they regarded women more as separate beings who were dangerous and base. Thirteenth-century l i t e r a tu re shows the strong influence of two ant i - femin ist views: the A r i s t o t e l i a n — o f woman as a defective male, a creature lacking in reason, useful only to bear ch i ldren; and the mora l i s t—of woman as a threat to man's sa lvat ion.^ Men t r i ed desperately at th i s time to harness the feminine s p i r i t u a l energy of the 12th century. Society, theology and morality a l l became masculine. Feminine industr ies were taken over by men. There was no suitable out let after that for the i r great a b i l i t i e s and great s p i r i t u a l and i n te l l e c tua l yearnings. - 25 - Thus, we can see a s i m i l a r i t y between the age in which the author of Amadas et Ydoine was wr i t ing and our own. His was a time of fragmentation, of rapid socia l change, of uncertainty about and fear of the future. Today we have the pernicious threat of nuclear war, and although the fears of the 13th century did not include omnicide or to ta l ann ih i la t ion, the world as they knew i t was, in f ac t , se l f -des t ruct ing , and the d i v i s i ve influence affected every part of the i r l i v e s . As far as women are concerned, they are no longer phys ica l ly burned at the stake for being witches or heret ics, but f i gu ra t i ve l y they often are and they have s t i l l not gained equal ity with men economically or s oc i a l l y . There is s t i l l enormous disharmony between the sexes, and l i t t l e comprehension. As V i r g i n i a Woolf pointed out back in 1928 in A Room of One1s Own: And I went on amateurishly to sketch a plan of the soul so that in each of us two powers preside, one male, one female; and in the man's brain the man predominates over the woman, and in the woman's brain the woman predominates over the man. The normal and comfortable state of being is that when the two l i v e in harmony together, s p i r i t u a l l y co-operating. If one i s a man, s t i l l the woman also must have e f fec t , and a woman also must have intercourse with the man in her. Coleridge perhaps meant 9 th i s when he said that a great mind is androgynous. - 26 - An androgynous mind! Surely th i s i s the ideal towards which to s t r i v e , but which 20th-century society i s s t i l l fa r from achieving. This i s more than acceptance, more than understanding between the sexes--this i s complete integrat ion and union of the masculine and feminine parts of the mind. This union i s the essence of harmony not only between the sexes, but also in the soul of each ind i v idua l . As long as the masculine element of the brain f i gh t s , minimizes or ignores the feminine, or v ice versa, dissension and fragmentation w i l l ex i s t in the psyche of the indiv idual and the psyche of society. Because th i s i s such a c ruc ia l issue today, and has been throughout h i story, and because we s t i l l seem very fa r away from reaching a solut ion to the problem, i t can be very benef ic ia l to study texts from the Middle Ages so as to better understand the psychological fragmentation that existed during that time period. By examining the attitudes and opinions about women as set for th by the author of Amadas et Ydoine, we, as 20th-century readers, can compare the author 's attempts to deal with the discord between the sexes with current theories, and can investigate how successful he is at unifying the masculine and feminine elements of his mind. I have chosen to approach th i s issue from a psychological viewpoint because we are dealing f i r s t l y with mental att itudes and secondly, with - 27 - t h e r e s u l t s o f t h o s e a t t i t u d e s . A p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f Amadas e t Y d o i n e i s , a d m i t t e d l y , l i m i t e d by s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . We know n o t h i n g w h a t s o e v e r o f t h e p e r s o n a l l i f e o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r "anonymous" a n d , as f a r as we know, have no o t h e r works o f h i s w i t h w h i c h t o compare Amadas e t Y d o i n e . As a r e s u l t , a l l t h a t i s p o s s i b l e i s t o s c r u t i n i z e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r work as a s o l e e n t i t y . T h i s need no t l e s s e n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e i t h e r t h e a n a l y s i s o r t h e work i t s e l f , bu t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e a l i z e t h a t any c o n c l u s i o n s drawn a r e r e s t r i c t e d and t h a t t h e y a r e no t meant t o be a d e f i n i t i v e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e a u t h o r ' s c h a r a c t e r o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e - - t h e y a r e m e r e l y s p e c u l a t i o n s d e r i v e d f r o m v a r i o u s c l u e s f o u n d i n t h i s s i n g l e w o r k . P s y c h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f m e d i e v a l wo rks i s no t new and i s a v a l i d way o f a p p r o a c h i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e . H i s t o r i a n F r i e d r i c h Heer n o t e s t h a t A r t h u r i a n r o m a n c e s : . . . were a t t e m p t s a t e x p o u n d i n g t h e p r o c e s s e s o f man 's i n t e r i o r d e v e l o p m e n t s . . . t h e ' roman c o u r t o i s ' d i d no t i g n o r e t h e e n e r g i z i n g s p r i n g s o f l i f e , t h e deepe r l a y e r s o f p e r s o n a l i t y ; t h e y encompassed l i f e as a w h o l e . The s k i l l i n ' d e p t h p s y c h o l o g y ' f o u n d i n t h e s e romances i s a s t o n i s h i n g . . . w h i c h b r i n g s t o mind t h e r e s e a r c h e s o f G u n g J ^ As Heer s t a t e s : m e d i e v a l p e o p l e were i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s between t h e m i c r o c o s m o s (humans) and t h e macrocosmos ( n a t u r e ) , w h i c h i s - 28 - why we are able to use 20th-century ana lyt ica l tools to uncover layers of meaning in the l i t e r a t u r e . 1 1 I intend to analyse the romance on three d i f ferent leve l s , with each level leading to a deeper level of unconscious motivation and s ign i f icance. On the intertextual level I compare Amadas et Ydoine with Tr istan and I seu l t . The romance of Tr istan and Iseult has been lauded as being the model of perfect lovers throughout h i s tory, the level of love to which to aspire. As Joseph Campbell aff i rms: In the Occident the most impressive representation of love as passion is to be found undoubtedly in the legend of the love poem of Tr i stan and I s o l t , where i t i s the paradoxology of the mystery that is celebrated: the agony of love ' s joy, and the lover ' s joy in that agony, which is by noble hearts experienced 12 as the very ambrosia of l i f e . Tr istan and Iseult have been considered archetypal lovers and other romances have sought to emphasize the worth or suffer ing of the i r lovers by comparing i t with that of Tr istan and I seult . In Chretiens ' Erec and Enide, Enides' great beauty is described by a comparison with I seult : De cest i tesmoingne nature Qu'onques s i bele cr iature Ne fu vecie an tot le monde Por voir vos di qu ' lseuz l a blonde N'ot tant les cr ins sors ne luisanz Que a cest i ne fust neanz^ - 29 - And Erec 's praise from the people i s given in terms of T r i s tan ' s praise: Onques, ce c u i t , t e l j o i e n 'ot La ou Tristanz le f i e r Morhot An l ' i s l e saint Sanson vainqui Con l ' an f e i s o i t d'Erec iqui Mout fe i so ient de l u i grant lus Grant et pe t i t et gresle et gros Tuit prisent sa c h e v a l e r i e ^ Amadas et Ydoine i s no exception in th i s regard. Several times the author c i te s Tr i stan and Iseult as examples to e ither fol low or surpass. Indeed, I see as perhaps the prime motivation for wr i t ing Amadas et Ydoine the creat ion, not of an ant i -T r i s tan , but of a transcendent- Tr i s tan, where the author seeks to correct what he deems imperfections in the love between Tr istan and I seu l t , and seeks to surpass the qua l i ty of the i r love in the form of Amadas et Ydoine. The changes and modifications he makes in order to portray his own idea of perfect lovers are very s i gn i f i cant in considering the author's notions of women and sexual ro les . Consequently, I am using Tr istan and Iseult as a l i t e r a r y springboard to delve more deeply into the author's underlying be l ie f s and 15 assumptions. The second level i s the narrative perspective. The narrator plays an integral part throughout the whole romance, interrupt ing the plot narration numerous times to comment on the actions of the protagonists or to give his opinion of love in general, women, fortune, courage and even gossip. - 30 - In Chapter 2, I examine the narrator ' s portrayal and comments on Ydoine's actions, his statements about the female sex in general and his inconsistencies and biases in th i s regard. The inconsistencies are blatant, yet the narrator f a i l s to acknowledge them or explain them away. In a way the narrator i s a f igure to be mocked by both the author and reader, a f igure who is r id icu lous and f a r c i c a l yet who at times displays a canniness in his acute observations of human nature. By means of the narrator ' s incongruous and often i l l o g i c a l remarks we can speculate about the d i f f i c u l t i e s the author seems to be having formulating his own opinions about women. I am assuming here that the author i s male and that he fee l s a close bond with Amadas, not so much because of the narrator ' s comments about women, but because of an almost intangible qua l i ty behind the narration which suggests a great s e n s i t i v i t y and empathy for Amadas and his struggles. Although sympathy for Ydoine i s also present, the same depth of compassion is not. The author seems to fee l very close to Amadas during both his f a i l u re s and successes. Furthermore, the midpoint of medieval works i s usually very s i gn i f i c an t , and the midpoint of Amadas et Ydoine i s reserved for prais ing Amadas. The halfway point occurs just after Ydoine has cured Amadas of his madness at Lucca and has asked the knights in her party i f Amadas can j o i n them on the i r voyage to Rome. They reply: 'Grans biens s e r o i t , ' cascuns respont, 'Car n'a t e l cheval ier u mont, Plus gent i l ne plus debonaire. Se i l pour vous vo lo i t ce f a i r e , A vous et a nous tous sero i t Mult grans honeurs s ' a l u i p l a i s o i t . Drois est et raisons, ce nous samble, Et s i vous loons t u i t ensamble Que Ten facie's p r i i e re grant. '1° - 31 - Because the midpoint i s a t r ibute to Amadas and his knightly valour, I assume th is i s what the author values the most and relates to the best. The th i rd level of study is the psychological sphere. Here I analyse Amadas1 actions and reactions using as my tools both Jungian and "Campbellian" concepts. I see Amadas' adventures in th i s romance as being part of a maturation process, a discovery process of his true peronal i ty, an attempt to harmonise the element of the microcosmos and the macrocosmos. Amadas encounters several obstacles on the way, but these only serve to make him wiser, more sens it ive and closer in access to his soul and inner yearnings. Here the female f i gure , Ydoine, symbolizes much more than a physical woman; she symbolizes the search for unity and for integration of the male and female elements, of his being, which i s the core of a l l harmony. Amadas' psychological voyage reveals the fears, apprehensions, hopes and doubts of a person in search of harmony with himself and with the world during a time of increasing despair, intolerance and arrogance. Here we as readers may have the most to learn from th i s romance. The hero voyage and the indiv iduation process are timeless human experiences, and comparing our own with that of someone of the 13th-century can be most rewarding and reassuring. It can make us fee l a certa in connection with people who have l ived before us and w i l l l i v e after us. I t can give us that v i t a l l ink with the macrocosmos. It can give us incentive to embark on our own attempt to diminish the c o n f l i c t between the male and female within our own psyches and to achieve unity between the physical sexes. - 32 - CHAPTER 1 AMADAS ET YDOINE AS TRANSCENDENT-TRISTAN Tristan and Iseult have long been considered archetypal lovers, the model to imitate for medieval writers seeking to create a "perfect " romance. We have seen an example of th i s in Chretien de Troyes 1 Erec et Enide where Enide's beauty i s compared to that of Iseult and the praise bestowed upon Erec is assessed according to that received by Tr i s tan. The author of Amadas et Ydoine also seems to have had Tr istan and Iseult in mind while creating his romance. Besides the fact that the narrator refers to them by name several times, there are also many unstated pa ra l l e l s between Tr istan and Iseult and Amadas and Ydoine. The author does not, however, display the same degree of admiration for Tr i stan and Iseult as do other writers of the time. It i s almost as i f , while reading Tr istan and I seult , he noticed what he considered to be several flaws in the i r love re lat ionship and was moved to produce a romance where these imperfections would be corrected. Thus, in Amadas et Ydoine he i s seeking to write a transcendent-Tristan, portraying his own idea of perfect lovers. By examining how he modifies and deviates from what has been considered to be the model love a f f a i r , we can gain some clues as to his be l ie f s and assumptions about women, love and sexual ro les . The f i r s t difference we may notice between the two couples i s that, unlike Tr istan in re la t ion to I seu l t , Amadas i s below Ydoine in soc ia l - 33 - stat ion. She is the daughter of the Duke of Burgundy, whereas Amadas i s merely the son of his seneschal. I t i s a respected pos i t ion, but he i s nonetheless not a member of the highest n o b i l i t y . According to the standards of the court ly love t r ad i t i o n , th i s would have been considered a serious defect in a love re lat ionsh ip. Furthermore, Amadas is only 15 years old and i s as yet unproven in knight ly deeds and valour. Thus, r ight from the beginning the s i tuat ion seems to be less than ideal for creating a transcendent-Tristan. Nevertheless, we learn immediately that the author estimates the worth of a person by means other than one's soc ia l s tat ion. He t e l l s us of Amadas: Ne fust en nul pai's trouves Uns damoisiaus de sa beaute's. II avoit j a pres de^quinze ans. Biaus ert et alignie's et grans; ...Sour tous enfans sages e s to i t ; Humles ert mult et amiavles, Frans et courtois et serv icavles, Et mult ames de chevaliers vv. 59-71 In f ac t : Que s ' i l e s to i t f i u s a un r o i , Ou f i u s a r i ce empereour. Ne poroit plus t r a i r e a hounour vv. 78-80 Unlike Tr i s tan, Amadas i s not of superior b i r t h , but we can see that what the author values much more and what he considers to be essential fo r a perfect lover are moral excellence, physical beauty, and a good reputation. Amadas i s unproven, but he has potent ia l . Here the author seems to share the att i tude of the narrator of Yvain, who believes that love should seek out an honourable place to lodge: - 34 - C'est granz honte, qu'Amors est tes, Et quant ele s i mal se prueve Que e l -p lus v i i leu, qu 'e le trueve, Se herberge tot aussi t o s t , Come an tot le mei l lor de l ' o s t Mes ore est ele bien venue Ci i e r t ele a enor tenue Et c i l i fe t buen demorer E ins i se devroit atorner Amors, qui s i est haute chose Que mervoi l le est, comant ele ose De honte an s i v i i leu descandre 1 The narrator has great respect for love and believes i t w i l l be honourably treated by Yvain. So, too, the author of Amadas et Ydoine is in the process of showing us that by being "humles", "amiavles", " f rans " , "courto i s " and " se rv i cav le s " , Amadas i s a good candidate for love. S t i l l , the author does not create a character that is superhuman. Amadas may be superior in many ways, but he s t i l l has one serious f law: Qu ' i l n 'avoit teche, ne mais une, Qui pas n ' e s to i t a gent commune; Qu ' i l n 'avoit pas ou mont dansele Tant courtoise, france ne bele, . . . Q u ' i l amast v a i l l a n t une a l i e . N 'avoit cure de druerie vv. 81-88 The flaw i s not that Amadas i s superior morally and phys ica l ly , but that he has such a proud, haughty att i tude about i t . Curiously, Ydoine, who i s also exceptional phys ica l ly and morally, possesses the same tache, only to a more severe degree. She disdains, not only men, but love i t s e l f . - 35 - The author has thus far introduced two characters who are not at a l l searching for love. Amadas seems too young, being as yet untested as to courage and valour, and Ydoine seems unwi l l ing. Thus, i t i s going to be a challenge for love to touch e i ther of them. The author does not use a love potion s imi la r to that found in Tr i stan and Iseult in order to surmount th i s obstacle. He uses instead the coup de foudre, love at f i r s t s ight, which s t r ikes dramatical ly at the fe te . He loses a l l touch with r e a l i t y . He drops the knife with which he i s cutt ing Ydoine's meat, loses a l l colour in his face and f a i n t s . Many at the f e s t i v a l believe he has died. In a way he has, since he w i l l never be the same carefree adolescent again. Amadas becomes very i l l : Conduit l ' en ont a son ostel Et s i l ' ont coucie' en un l i t . ...Dont muert a s i tres grant t r i s t e u r ; Qu'estre son voel est s i aquis Que pres de mort en est souspris. Le mangier et le boivre pert vv. 328-335 Amadas' love sickness i s very sudden and involves a phys ica l , internal react ion. I t i s not caused by something he has ingested, but proceeds through his eyes—the mere sight of Ydoine renders him powerless against love. The author emphasizes the extent of Amadas' suffer ing by comparing i t with that of Tr i s tan caused by his love for I seult : - 36 - Mais ainc Tr istan s i grant doleur Ne souf f r i pour Yseu fa b lo ie , Ne tant mal sans confort de j o i e , Com Amadas en a sousfert vv. 340-344 It i s interest ing that the author fee l s i t necessary to create a character whose agony not only equals that of Tr i s tan, but exceeds i t . The author seems to believe that pain must accompany love and that the more one suffers, the more one loves. He stresses th i s fact by describing Amadas' languishing in his bed for 2-1/2 years because of his feel ings for Ydoine. Ydoine i s at f i r s t completely obl iv ious to Amadas. Consequently, Amadas i s forced to suffer alone. He i s also forced to become the pursuer, something which does not occur in Tr i s tan and I seu l t . We have seen that the author greatly values courage and knightly valour. Do these qua l i t i e s , then, have to carry over into the sphere of love as proof of a lover ' s worth? Does the fact that Amadas must r i se to the challenge and "conquer" Ydoine demonstrate that he is a superior lover to Tristan? And Ydoine ce r ta in l y does prove to be a challenge. After Amadas' f i r s t advances she i s very i r r i t a t e d and spurns him immediately. She thinks him either mad or drunk and forbids him to speak further of such fool ishness. Nonetheless, Amadas is persistent and determined. He v i s i t s Ydoine again after another year of love sickness and modifies his strategy. This time he does not implore, but announces: - 37 - 'Se ne m'aidies tost a l a f i n , Je m'ocirai ains le matin. ...Ne f i s t , certes, pechie' s i grant Ne s i c rue l , ne s i pesant Com vous feres se je m'ochi, Je n'en sai plus, dame; merc i i ' vv. 720-729 His t imid request of the i r f i r s t encounter has become a threat, and almost a condemnation of Ydoine. It i s the language more of a warrior than of a lover. Ydoine responds with a threat of her own. She c a l l s him " l e c i e r e outrequidies", "gars anieus", and "fox assoties" and says: 'Se mais t ' a v ien t iceste rage Que me requieres de folage, Tant me fe ra i batre a mes sers Que tourneras le ventre envers. ' vv. 758-761 Ydoine is displaying a gross lack of compassion here. Amadas has been lovesick for a year and a half by th i s time and must be showing signs of weakness and melancholy. At th i s point, Ydoine i s d e f i n i t e l y not the image of the ideal woman. She i s powerful, cruel and aggressive. She also seems hopelessly unattainable for Amadas. S t i l l , he does not give up. He returns home to languish in bed for another year. He i s aware of the time he i s wasting, just as Tr i stan becomes aware in the forest after the love potion wears o f f . Tr istan sorrowfully remarks: - 38 - 'Hal Dex,' f a i t i l , ' tant ai t r a v a i l Trois anz a hu i , que n'ens r i i f a l , Onques ne me f a l 1 i pus paine Ne a f o i r i e n'en sorsemaine, Qublie ai chevaler ie, A seure cort et baronie, Ge sui essi11ie du paYs, Tot m'est f a l l i et va i r et g r i s , Ne sui a cort a cheval iers, Dex! Tant m'amast mes oncle(r)s ch iers , Se tant ne fuse a l u i mesfez Nal Dex, tant foiblement me vet!'2 The s i tuat ion is r ad i c a l l y d i f ferent for Amadas, however, when Tr istan comes to rea l i ze that he i s wasting his youth and is not f u l f i l l i n g his societal ob l igat ions. He i s capable of r ec t i f y i ng th i s s i tuat ion because the love pot ion ' s influence i s waning. For Amadas, however, there i s "nule garison". Amadas rea l i zes that he i s wasting his youth while in the throes of love ' s power. He i s quite aware of what is happening and does not fo l low a bl ind passion as does Tr i s tan. He i s aware, yet he cannot escape the deb i l i t a t i n g effects of his love for Ydoine. He is rendered t o t a l l y passive, t o t a l l y impotent. Every action he now takes i s as a reaction to his love. This i s the reason why he decides to end his l i f e , since he has already surrendered i t to Ydoine. It i s interest ing that i t takes th i s ultimate s a c r i f i c e before Ydoine is moved to any tender emotions at a l l . She must have absolute and to ta l dominance over him before she w i l l deign to give anything of herself. She has become almost a goddess f igure who demands rigorous proof of loya l ty from a mortal. In th i s respect the author is fol lowing the court ly love t r ad i t i on of the lover who submits t o t a l l y to his lady. - 39 - Tristan surrenders to I seu l t ' s wishes but Amadas rel inguishes his soul to a woman who is c rue l , arrogant and d isdainful towards him. He i s rejected f i e r c e l y and thereafter suffers miserably, bearing the burden of his immense love in so l i tude. We may wonder why the author chooses to lower the hero of his story to such a p i t i f u l state. Why must he grovel at the feet of th i s unappreciative woman? Certa in ly we cannot imagine the Tr istan poets placing Tr istan in such a dishonourable condition in front of I seult . However, i f we consider that i t i s because Amadas i s "humles", "amiavles", " f r ans " , "courto i s " and " serv icav les " that the author deems him superior, and that his one f au l t i s pr ide, then th i s turn of events makes more sense. The author i s in the process of purging Amadas of his one flaw. Amadas no longer considers himself to be above a l l women. His pride has been destroyed and what remains are perserverance, humil ity and submission. Ydoine, too, must r i d herself of her vanity and i t i s love that helps her accomplish t h i s . Her i n i t i a l reaction when she believes Amadas has died i s purely e g o t i s t i c a l : Adont primes pite's l 'em prent; Ne quide avoir confession Ja mais a nul jo r ne pardon Don grant pechie' que ele a f a i t , A grant angousse pour s'amour. Et d 'autre part ra grant paour Qu'el n'en a i t blasme et mauvais c r i , S'en sa cambre muert devant l i . vv. 1075-1083 - 40 - A man dies in her room and her f i r s t concern i s for her own salvation and reputation! Nevertheless, after th i s i n i t i a l s e l f i s h react ion, a complete transformation occurs: Par le commandement d'Amours, P i t i e s et Francise et Paours Forgent mult tost un trencant dart vv. 1102-1104 It has taken a long time but, once Ydoine i s pierced by love ' s arrow, the change in character i s sudden. She f a i n t s , as did Amadas when struck by love and when she regains consciousness she repents s incerely of her past proud and unfeeling behaviour: Trop l i ai este f i e r e et dure Et org i l leuse a desmesure; S ' a i f a i t que f o l e et que dervee, Et que v i l a i ne sourquidee, Que non sachans et ke c a i t i v e ; Or m'en repent; tant com sui vive, L i serai mais veraie amie, Se Dix le ramenoit en v ie . Et je pour l u i en souferra i : D'ore en avant a l u i m 'otro i . vv. 1133-1148 This power to transform appears to be an essential part of the author's conception of love. Both Amadas and Ydoine are completely and ever last ing ly changed. And now that the i r love i s at las t mutual, the narrator states that the i r love i s superior to that of Tr istan and I seult : Natureument leur est venus Cis dous fus es cuers et creu's Ne leur v int pas pour manger f r u i t , Ne pour boire, ce sachies t u i t , Por coi l i pluseur destru i t sont Com de Tr istan dont vous aves Oi , et de pluseurs asses. Mais ast sont de f ine amistie' Natureument entreplaie vv. 1181-1190 - 41 - The key word here is "natureument". The beginning of love i s evidently important to the author as he has spent over 1/4 of the to ta l romance on i t . The narrator states that the love of Amadas and Ydoine stems from " f i n amist ie", not from food and drink, and that th i s affects the qua l i ty of love. Yet, up to th i s point, we have seen l i t t l e evidence of f r iendship. Ydoine is at best merely tolerant of Amadas at the beginning of the romance, and that tolerance turns quickly to scorn and near hate. They are not fr iends because they are not equals. Amadas aspires to Ydoine 1s love. She is above him in socia l status and in power. This i s not the case with Tr istan and I seult . In f a c t , they seem to display more " f i ne amistie" than do Amadas and Ydoine. Iseult nurses Tr istan back to health when they f i r s t meet. They are equals. Iseult never has or revels in the strange type of power that Ydoine enjoys having over Amadas. She never abuses Tr istan as Ydoine abuses Amadas. Yet, for some reason, the strange beginnings of th i s re lat ionship const itute "pure" love in the narrator ' s eyes. The c r i t i c a l element to the author seems to be that the love did not start by a r t i f i c i a l means. It i s also essential that love does not come eas i ly—one must work for i t , and once i t appears, be t o t a l l y transformed by i t . In any case, the fact that the love of Amadas and Ydoine originates from within and not from an outside source adds another component which i s also very important to the author—moral ity. Amadas and Ydoine must accept re spons ib i l i t y for the i r actions. They w i l l not be able to blame an external element as do Tristan and I seult: - 42 - 'Que ele m'aime en bone f o i Q'el m'aime c ' e s t par la poison '^ ...'II ne m'aime pas ne je l u i Fors par un herbe dont je bui Et i l en but; ce fu pechiez '4 Tristan and Iseult excuse themselves of any g u i l t of wrongdoing by means of the potion. Amadas and Ydoine do not, however, have th i s excuse for any future immoral conduct or shirked duties. Whereas the Tr istan poets emphasize the physical passion between Tr istan and I seult , the author of Amadas et Ydoine chooses to stress the s p i r i t u a l love between the lovers and the strong desire for permanence and honour. The romance now takes quite a d i f fe rent turn from that of Tr i stan and I seu l t . Tr i stan and Iseult seem doomed to a t rag ic end from the very beginning of the i r a f f a i r , yet they resign themselves to the s i tuat ion as though submitting to f a te . Amadas and Ydoine, on the other hand, are determined to have the i r love continue successful ly. Passion i s present, but i t does not take precedence over the s p i r i t u a l love. They have a certa in structure of l i f e that they desire to respect and honour, and w i l l not abuse the i r parents, the i r society or the i r r e l i g i on for the sake of passion. Unlike Tr istan and I seult , they are w i l l i n g to wait and to work towards the i r i dea l . And i t i s not Amadas who, up un t i l t h i s point has been the pursuer, takes the i n i t i a t i v e — i t i s Ydoine. We see again how love has transformed her. The power and strength she once used to spurn Amadas i s now - 43 - dedicated to keeping the i r love "pure". She becomes a leader and guide, displaying an extraordinary amount of moral f o r t i t ude . Unlike I seu l t , she has a very c lear view of her future and i s determined to reach her goals. Ydoine's f i r s t plan i s that Amadas become a knight. He must now prove his courage and worth to society, and must even compensate for his lower socia l stat ion by acts of knightly valour. Amadas i s quite w i l l i n g to submit to his lady ' s wishes and follows her guidance, and he greatly surpasses soc iety ' s expectations: Si est renoumes par sa lance Qu'en tout le roiaume de France ...Qu'as autres examplaire e s to i t De sens et de ceva ler ie , D'ensegnement, de cour to i s ie , Et de francise et de largece vv. 1385-1386; 1420-1423 Amadas' good reputation, one of the author 's prerequis ites for a perfect lover, i s growing and spreading widely. He i s fast becoming a model of physical and moral excellence. During the three years that Amadas i s away dist inguishing himself, there i s no sense of rush or impatience concerning the love between Amadas and Ydoine. There i s never the fee l ing of desperate anxiousness or restlessness that we discern between Tr istan and Iseult when they are planning the i r next t ry s t or are try ing to evade suspicion by covering the i r tracks. I t i s as i f the author wants to convey the truth that pure - 44 - love is t imeless, and that impatience has no part to play in i t . Amadas and Ydoine are not insecure about each other. They are f a i t h f u l , and regular ly communicate by means of written messages. But th i s sense of security i s shattered suddenly when outside forces in ter fere . Ydoine's father betrothes her to another man. The author creates a seemingly insurmountable obstacle for these otherwise b l i s s f u l lovers to face. He now actual ly places Ydoine in a somewhat pa ra l l e l s i tuat ion to that of I seult . She, too, was betrothed to another man, Marc, both before and after the effects of the love potion. And what is her course of action? There i s no evidence that she ever t r i e s to avoid the marriage or that she even considers confessing her love for Tr i s tan. On the contrary, since she i s no longer a v i r g i n , she substitutes Brangain in the marriage bed with Marc so that she i s thereafter able to sleep with both her lover and husband with no regrets. We cannot conceive of such conduct from Ydoine. She has promised eternal f i d e l i t y to Amadas and w i l l not even entertain the idea of sex with another man. She thus goes to extreme measures to avoid the marriage. By describing the unorthodox and elaborate plan Ydoine devises in order to remain f a i t h f u l to Amadas, the author is perhaps reproaching Iseult for e f for t s she f a i l s to make to keep her re lat ionship with Tr istan "pure". When Amadas la ter believes that Ydoine has betrayed him with the maufe, Iseult i s the f i r s t woman he mentions in his l i s t of unfa i thfu l - 4 5 - lovers. So Ydoine's behaviour after becoming betrothed to the Count of Nevers i s perhaps a model of what Iseult should have attempted for Tr i s tan. Ydoine resorts to devious methods to preserve the pur i ty of her vows to Amadas. She does not succeed; however, Ydoine does intimidate the Count s u f f i c i e n t l y to prevent him from having any sexual contact with her. She is thus able to keep her v i g i n i t y for Amadas. Nevertheless, she becomes married to another man and experiences extreme anquish because of i t : Bien pre est atainte de mort; De riens que voie n'a confort, Sa face coulouree et tendre Devint plus pale que n 'est cendre vv. 2559-2564 Again, the author stresses the hardship and emotional anguish Amadas and Ydoine undergo. In f a c t , Amadas' conscious mind can bear no more pain. He goes mad when he i s informed of Ydoine's forthcoming marriage. He probably would have stayed insane for the rest of his l i f e had i t not been for Ydoine's perseverance and independence. Iseult waits for Tr i stan to i n i t i a t e the i r meetings, but Ydoine cannot wait. She sends her messenger Garines to search for him. Even when she is in pain, her remarkable f a i t h , confidence and inner peace remain, and give her the determination and w i l l to act. Ydoine takes the necessary steps to journey to Lucca after Garines f inds Amadas there. This involves ly ing to her husband, but i t i s the only way - 46 - to save Amadas. The tenderness and intens i ty of her love are i l l u s t r a t ed by the descr ipt ion of her reaction when she reaches Lucca and sees Amadas running naked in the streets, being beaten and mocked by the local r i f f - r a f f : Ce est grans duels a esgarder De nul houme c'on doie amer. Tant com ele plus aime l u i , Tant l i torne plus a anui vv. 3155-3158 And i t i s no wonder that Ydoine fee l s "anui " because of her f r i end ' s present condit ion. For the sake of love, Amadas has stripped himself of a l l human d ign i ty. We have seen that the author values a lover who i s "humles", " serv icav les " and Amadas has more than f u l f i l l e d the requirements to prove t h i s . Tr istan feigns madness at one point in order to see I seult , but Amadas has actual ly l e f t the conscious world and has sac r i f i ced his sanity for Ydoine. In the case of Yvain, his madness occurs as a penance for his lack of appreciation of Laudine. It serves as part of his maturation process. With Amadas, however, th i s public madness is more l i k e a self-abnegation, a to ta l surrender to the other. We may consider th i s turn of events to be extreme but Amadas' madness, as well as i l l u s t r a t i n g Amadas' loya l ty towards Ydoine, also emphasizes her constancy towards him. She could eas i l y be repulsed by the sight of Amadas as a raving madman and no longer desire him as a lover. But she is neither so changeable nor shallow. She and Garines t ravel to Amadas' grotto. She shows herself to be capable, s k i l l f u l and almost supernatural during her cure of Amadas. After he regains his sanity, - 47 - Amadas "mult a grant honte de so i " and considers he i s no longer worthy of Ydoine's love and respect. Here again we see the transforming power of love. Before Ydoine i s affected by love her f i r s t concern is for her reputation and socia l status. But now, however, these take second place to pure love. She w i l l not consider leaving Amadas, but re-aff i rms her vows: • 'Se Dix me doinst j o i e et honor, Ja mais nul jo r n 'aurai signor Autre que vous, pour vo i r le d i . ' vv. 3542-3549 After th i s incident, Ydoine continues on to Rome. Is th i s not a mere travesty since her real goal has been accomplished? Is th i s attempt to cover her tracks not much l i k e the dishonesty and excuses of Tr istan and Iseult? It i s true that Ydoine i s deceiving her husband and other observers, just as Iseult deceives Marc and the court, so we must search for the motives and attitudes behind the action to discover how the author d i f fe rent ia tes between the behaviour of the two women. In the garden scene in Tr istan and I seu l t , Iseult uses ambiguous language to both warn Tristan that her husband is hiding in the tree above and to fool Marc about the intention of the rendezvous between she and Tr i s tan. Afterwards she describes the incident to Brangain: 'Dex me f i s t parler premeraine; Onques de ce que je Vqu i s N ' i out mot d i t , ce vos p lev i s , Mais mervellos con plaignement Et mervellos gemissenment'5 ' . . . Onques l i ro i s ne s 'apercut Ne mon estre ne desconnut Part ie me sui du t r i p o t ' 6 - 48 - She is almost boasting! She mentions no regrets o f having deceived Marc. On the contrary, she i s quite proud of herself. Iseult involves God in her dup l i c i t y , and Brangain agrees: ' I s eu l t , ma dame, grant merci Nos a Dex f a i t , qui ne menti Qant i l vos a f a i t desevrer Du parlement sanz plus outrer, Que l i ro i s n 'a chose velie Qui ne puise estr 'e(n) bien tenue, Granz miracles vos a f a i t Dex II est verais peres et tex Q u ' i l n'a cure de f a i r e mal A ceus qui sont buen et l o i a W Tristan and Iseult do not care i f they humiliate and deceive Marc and even when, during the f l ou r incident, they are exposed and proved gu i l t y , they s t i l l have the arrogance to deny the i r i l l i c i t re lat ionship and to say that God w i l l prove them r i ght . Amadas and Ydoine do none of th i s and, although they are dishonest, are so for d i f ferent reasons and in a d i f fe rent manner. After Ydoine deceives the Count about her t r i p to cure Amadas, she has compunctions and demonstrates she has no desire to do wrong or to humil iate: La contesse va i t au mostier P r i i e r a Diu que aciever Puist son desir et son penser, San reparlance de f o l i e , Sans pecie et sans volonnie, Si que de gent ne so i t blasmee, Que mult c r ient estre deparlee. Et nonpourguant raisnavlement Quide aciever tot son ta lent D'Amadas et de son signour, Qu'ele ne doit dou Creatour Ne de l a gent mal gre avoir. vv. 3708-3719 - 49 - Instead of arrogantly announcing that God i s on her s ide, Ydoine prays to Him that she w i l l be able to obtain her hear t fe l t desire "raisnavlement" and "sans pecie" in the eyes of a l l . She does deceive the Count and society, but does so only to f u l f i l l her vows to Amadas. She never loses her compassion. Thus, i t seems that motive and intention are the most important considerations of the author. Ydoine deceives so that she can f u l f i l her vow to Amadas, her f i r s t p r i o r i t y . She does not treat the Count with casual cruel ty and l i e s only as much as she must to stay f a i t h f u l to Amadas. The continuation of her t r i p to Rome indicates she i s w i l l i n g to go out of her way so that neither she nor the Count w i l l be pub l i c l y humiliated. This contrasts sharply with the conduct of I seult . It i s on her way back from Rome that the strange incident with the maufe occurs and Ydoine, as Amadas once d id , appears to d ie. Amadas' pain i s endless. Before her "death", we are again given evidence of Ydoine's t o t a l l y unself ish love for Amadas. She f i r s t t e l l s him: 'Quant vous seres a vos amis Se Diu p l a i s t , vous espouserois, Si com i l est raisons et dro is , Moull ier a vostre volente'. Dius doinst, amis, que lo iaute ' Vous porte, houneur et bone f o i . 1 vv. 4920-4925 This d i f f e r s great ly from I seu l t ' s fear that: 'Car vers vus ai s i f i ne amur Amis, dei jo aveir p o i i r Puis ma mort, s i vus garissez, Qu'en vostre v ie m'ubliez V d ' a l t r e femme aiez confort Tr istan apruef l a meier mort Amis, d 'Yso lt as Blances Mains Certes m'en crem e dut al mains'^ - 50 - I seult fears Tr istan w i l l be with another woman; Ydoine desires that Amadas w i l l f i nd another woman so that he w i l l be happy. Ydoine then t e l l s Amadas "estrange mencoigne de s o i " . She does so: Par lo iaute et par grant f o i . Por gar i r de mort son ami ...Por l i metre de mort a v i e . Com l a plus tres l o i a l amie Que on o'fst mais en roumans Puis le tans as premiers amans vv. 4968-4980 This brings to mind the l i e that T r i s tan , Iseult and Ogrin fabr icate in order to bring about a reconc i l i a t i on with Marc. Ogrin states that: 'Por honte oster et mal covr i ra Doit on un poi par bel mentir ' The big difference i s again intent ion. Ydoine's intention i s unse l f i sh, whereas that of Tr i stan and Iseult i s purely s e l f i s h . Tr istan and Iseult l i e merely to escape shame and don't consider Marc, his feel ings or his reputation at a l l . Ydoine, on the other hand, would rather die having Amadas believe she has committed a heinous crime than to have him commit suicide afterwards or die of g r i e f . And what a l i e she t e l l s l To have had three chi ldren by three d i f ferent cousins and then to have murdered a l l three of them is an extreme crime. But the crime must be serious enough to compel Amadas to stay a l i ve to give alms for her soul. And Ydoine succeeds. After her death, when Amadas i s grieving at her grave, desir ing to die himself, he says: - 51 - 'Du grant pecie ke vous fei ' s tes, Qu'en confession me deistes, Une eure apres vous ne v i v ro ie : Tot maintenant c i f i ne ro i e . ...Que grant doleur et paour a i , Douce amie, de vos pecies, vv. 5526-5529 Que Dius n'en so i t vers vous i r i e s ' vv. 5566-5568 Surely the most d i f f i c u l t test of Amadas' l oya l ty comes at th i s time when the maufe^ appears with evidence that Ydoine has betrayed him. Wi l l he stay strong in his love and commitment for her? Amadas does waver when he sees his r ing in the maufe^'s possession. How could he possibly have obtained i t unless Ydoine herself had given i t to him? Amadas f inds himself in an internal dilemma and fee l s that he has been duped. He i s b i t t e r : ' C a i t i s , dolans, mal e'u'res Com sui tra'i's et mal menes Et deceu's sor tous amansl' vv. 5809-5811 This i s s imi la r to the dilemma Tr istan f inds himself in when he thinks that Iseult i s f inding pleasure with Marc and decides that he, too, should therefore marry someone e l se. His doubts about Iseult lead him into a marriage tha t , although he doe not consummate, he s t i l l sorrowfully regrets. He i s punished for th i s mistake by his wife, who actua l ly causes his death by giving him the wrong information about the colour of the s a i l . Fortunately, Amadas does not doubt Ydoine for long and does not make a mistake he w i l l l a ter regret. He does not understand how the maufe'has - 52 - come to possess the r i ng , but chooses to continue to t rus t in Ydoine and to f i ght for her. After a l l : 'Amee 1 1 ai plus que ma v ie . ...Ne doit i s s i p a r f i t amour Qui lo iaute aime et honor Oublier en s i poi de tens: Ce m'est avis selonc mon sens.' vv. 6051-6068 With a combat that seems to be as much between the forces of good and e v i l as between Amadas and th i s bad f a i r y , Amadas displays his superior a b i l i t y . He is f i ght ing against a supernatural being but, as the author t r i e s to show, the power of pure devoted love i s also supernatural. It i s able to transform and to cure madness and, since i t i s on the side of good, can also win th i s bat t le . The maufe here represents a l l the obstacles Amadas has thus fa r encountered in his struggle for Ydoine's love, and the seeming imposs ib i l i t y of the whole s i tuat ion . Yet the love which once drained him of a l l energy and sanity i s now tapping strength he never knew he possessed in order to aid him crush th i s opposition. After an arduous, bloody f i g h t , Amadas succeeds in cutt ing off the maufe's hand and thus wins the bat t le . It i s at th i s point that the mauf£ explains the subst i tut ion of rings which has resulted in Ydoine's death-l ike stupor. Consequently, Amadas i s well rewarded for his continued trust in Ydoine by seeing her resurrected. Amadas and Ydoine succeed, again then, because of the i r f a i t h and t ru s t . They have f a i t h in the i r love, f a i t h in themselves, and f a i t h in each other. - 53 - Ydoine 1s f a i t h and in teg r i t y go even beyond that of Amadas as shown by her refusal to surrender to Amadas1 desire to f i n a l l y consummate the i r love. She understands and shares his physical desire as well as his wish to f l ee society and i t s constraints, but she rea l izes there are other even more important issues to consider: ' I c e l desir deves targ ier Tant quel puissies sans pecie f a i r e Et a grant j o i e et a c i e f t r a i r e Que nus n ' i puisse v i lounie Noter, ne mal, ne fe lonnie. ...Et que serai vostre espousee ...Sans pecie a 1 'ouneur de De vv. 6726-6730 Par esgart de cresti 'ente 1 vv. 6747; 6749-50 Again, i t is Ydoine who displays strength, th i s time in the form of re s t ra i n t . She is the one leading the re lat ionship the way she wants i t to go, the one capable of seeing beyond the moment to a future l i f e together. In th i s way she i s much d i f fe rent from I seult . Tr i s tan and Iseult conceive of the i r love as being adulterous and never intend to bui ld a l i f e together. Consequently, they merely munipulate Marc, society and re l i g i on to either extr icate themselves from a d i f f i c u l t s i tuat ion or allow them another i l l i c i t meeting. Iseult has not the moral fo r t i tude to take the lead or to d i rect the love a f f a i r in any other d i rec t i on . They speak about God only in terms of how he can help them and even implicate Him in the i r adultery. They deceive people to such a degree that they no longer seem to know what truth i s . They mistreat and humiliate Marc countless times—and a l l for the i r immediate g r a t i f i c a t i o n . - 54 - Ydoine, on the contrary, respects her parents, society and Ch r i s t i an i t y . She looks beyond passion and rea l i zes that she and Amadas must honour certain t rad i t ions in order to l i v e in happiness and d ign i ty . She convinces Amadas that only a love tha t ' s b u i l t upon (rather than destroys) these t rad i t ions is worth the pain and suffer ing they have already undergone. Therefore, Amadas and Ydoine do return to Burgundy to a very warm reception from the i r parents and the community. How d i f fe rent from the return of Tr i stan and I seult , where Tr istan must continue his e x i l e and Iseult must continue her l i e s and ambiguous oaths. They lose both each other and the i r pr iv i leges at Court. Ydoine l i e s once more to her husband by informing him that St. Peter suggested at Rome that they terminate the i r marriage. Another deception, but one again where intention and motive are the c ruc ia l elements. This l i e is t r u l y best for a l l concerned. The Count i s quite pleased to agree to a marriage annulment, and shortly thereafter remarries. Ydoine displays extraordinary cleverness once again by manoeuvering events so that the barons actual ly pick Amadas as the most suitable partner for her. Thus, the marriage is ostensibly the i r idea rather than hers. Consequently, the marriage does take place happily and Amadas and Ydoine f i n a l l y acquire what they desire: - 55 - Signeur, pour ver i te ' vous di Qu 'a grant houneur t in rent l a terre Toute leur vie en pais, sans guerre. De leur amor faut c i I 'estore, Leur ames mete Dix en glore Par sa douceur, par sa merchi, Et de tous peceeurs ausi vv. 7885-7891 The author has succeeded in showing that f a i t h , fo r t i tude and patience lead to happiness in love. He has shown that the love of Amadas and Ydoine i s s p i r i t u a l whereas the love of Tr istan and Iseult i s simply phys ical. They use the i r love to work towards a permanent re lat ionship and integrate a l l the elements essential in the i r l i v e s . This involves much time and pain, but they are rewarded with a happy end instead of the t rag ic one of Tr i stan and I seu l t . Nevertheless, the author also paints a picture of a woman with a curious mixture of personal ity t r a i t s , and of a love a f f a i r that many people would consider most unsatisfactory. Ydoine possesses a dichotomous character that evolves amazingly during the course of her re lat ionship with Amadas. She goes from tota l disdain to to ta l involvement. She plays the ro le of an unattainable i dea l , goddess, shrew, guide, f a i t h f u l lover, saviour, and leader. She i s capable of extreme crue l ty and manipulation as well as intense love and self lessness. In one way Ydoine 1s a b i l i t y to deceive makes her resemble I seu l t , but she has another side to her character. Ydoine i s extremely determined to get what she wants and let s nothing deter her. She u t i l i z e s manipulation, deception and sorcery to atta in her goal. Yet she also displays a strong - 56 - need to be moral and honourable. She respects t r ad i t i ona l i n s t i tu t i ons such as marriage, society and the Church. Because of her exceedingly powerful personal ity i t i s d i f f i c u l t for Ydoine to have an equal re lat ionsh ip with a man. Ydoine and Amadas are not equals at the beginning of the romance and are not equals at the end. Ydoine is always the stronger, more capable partner. Amadas becomes powerless twice in the course of the i r r e l a t i o n s h i p - - f i r s t when he becomes lovesick and second when he goes mad. Ydoine never loses control of her l i f e , even when circumstances place her in a passive pos i t ion. When she cannot act, she devises plans of action and reinforces her f a i t h . We can see, then, that even on the l i t e r a r y level of the romance we are dealing with a complex woman and a complex re lat ionsh ip. In Chapter 2, we w i l l examine in more deta i l Ydoine's behaviour, espec ia l l y her dishonesty, and w i l l look at the narrator ' s personal comments on Ydoine and on women in general. - 57 - CHAPTER 2 THE NARRATOR AND HIS HEROINE The author of Amadas et Ydoine l ived during a unique and unsettled age. He was no doubt greatly affected by the open and tolerant att itudes of the 12th century and by the court ly t r ad i t i on which considers the woman as something to which to aspire, as the personi f icat ion of Perfect ion. Nevertheless, he no doubt also witnessed a f a i r l y rapid change in th i s att itude with the advent of the intense prejudice and fear of the 13th century. Although we have no way of knowing to what extent he was personally affected by these con f l i c t i n g att i tudes, we can be certa in they played a s i gn i f i cant ro le in shaping his opinion of women and of sexual ro les . I t i s with these important background influences in mind that we now turn to the work i t s e l f , to an examination of the important function of the narrator in Amadas et Ydoine. By examining his portrayal of Ydoine as w i l l as his obtrusive interventions into the narration to make personal remarks about women, we can perhaps arr ive at some conclusions about the author and the d i f f i c u l t i e s he appears to have making a decision about women. Let us f i r s t consider the narrator ' s introduction of Ydoine. He describes her in the conventional court ly manner; that i s , phys ica l ly from head to toe. She i s , of course, extremely beaut i fu l : Le chief ot bel et bien reont, La greve droite et blanc le f ront . Et del ies et blons les c r i n s , ...Et les eux vairs et s ignouris, ...Biau nes, biau v i s et bouce bele, Fresce couleur, com f l eu r nouvele. vv. 131-133;138;143-144 - 5 8 - Midway through th i s introduction of Ydoine, the narrator inserts a few moral qua l i t i e s he deems s i gn i f i can t : Douc, le regart et simple et sage, Que nus n ' i pot noter folage, Ne nul samblant de l ece r i e , Nul seul trespas de v i l en i e vv. 139-142 The narrator conforms here to 12th-century court ly love t r a d i t i o n . His heroine is beaut i fu l , wise and honest. As in most court ly l i t e r a t u r e , Ydoine is the mirror image of Amadas' ideal s e l f : The romance hero f a l l s in love with his own image in the person of a woman who i s a mirror image of himself (as in Piramus et Tisbe and F l o i r e et Blancheflor) or one that he has, in a sense, created (as in Tr istan and Lanval). Unt i l he f a l l s in love, un t i l the woman intrudes herself on his l i f e and awakens him to an aspect of his being he had not been aware of, his l i f e has no apparent d i rec t i on . Love means a reb i r th ; i t awakens the hero to a new sense of himself...higher purpose and respons ib i l i t y .^ The interest ing point about Ydoine i s that she i s not only the mirror image of Amadas' potential se l f ; she i s also the re f l ec t i on of his r e a l , present s e l f . She shares with him one f law. They are both so beautiful and proud that there i s no one of the opposite sex they consider worthy of them. Thus, they are both d i sda infu l and Ydoine only more so than Amadas. By pointing out Ydoine's egotism and scorn for love, the narrator i s - 59 - undoubtedly preparing us for the fact that Ydoine takes such a long time to f a l l in love with Amadas, but i t i s also noteworthy that she i s never portrayed as a symbol of Perfection as are many women in court ly l i t e r a t u r e . She i s a woman with a f a u l t of her own--pride, an enormous flaw which was also the great imperfection of Satan which caused his expulsion from heaven. The court ly t r ad i t i on of the man seeking his mirror image has been taken a step further here to include his f au l t s as well as his superior qua l i t i e s and aspirat ions. I t i s as i f the narrator accepts the woman as a real being with weaknesses, even i f i t i s s t i l l for the sake of r e f l ec t i ng the character of a man. To the same degree that Ydoine is capable of haughtiness towards love however, she i s also capable of depth and constancy when she f i n a l l y does f a l l in love. She promises Amadas: 'Or vous ot ro i toute m'amor; Par t e l convent com vous d i r a i Sour tous homes vous amerai. ...Ne j a n'ames faus losengier, Ne f a i t e s j a , n'en aiie"s cure; Laissie's trestoute v i l oun ie , vv. 1224-1226 Encriemete, tout es tout ie 1 vv. 1232-1235 Therefore, she w i l l give him a l l her love and w i l l not deceive him-. I t is Amadas who has spoken romantically of his feel ings for Ydoine and who has been the pursuer, but i t i s she who gives the i r love form, s t a b i l i t y and a future. It i s no longer merely an abstract i n f a t u a t i o n — i t i s a s o l i d , enduring emotion. She vows to Amadas eternal love and f i d e l i t y . One of Ydoine's reasons for f i r s t reject ing Amadas i s that she does not want to dishonour, her parents by loving a man beneath her soc ia l s ta t ion. - 60 - She demonstrates her pract ica l nature by suggesting to Amadas immediately after her tender vow of f i d e l i t y that he be knighted and go off to prove his courage and valour. It i s well and good to be in love, but there i s more than love to consider. Amadas must f u l f i l certa in requirements before he can become her husband, and Ydoine takes the i n i t i a t i v e to see th i s i s done. Another dimension, then, has been added to the love story--the outside world. Unlike in many court ly romances, society is not ignored, rejected or given a subordinate role in the lovers ' l i v e s . It i s the foundation and nucleus of Ydoine's l i f e and her love a f f a i r must be bu i l t around i t , not society around her love a f f a i r . The author brings love down to earth to the level of everyday l i f e , and shows how i t can be, and must be. We have thus far seen Ydoine's p r a c t i c a l i t y , her loya l ty and s i nce r i t y and are prepared for the intense despair she experiences when she i s about to be married to another man. We do not question Ydoine's submis- sion to her parents' wishes. Af ter a l l , th i s i s the 12th century and Ydoine has already proved that she respects and honours the decisions of her parents and the customs of society. Nevertheless, her pain i s extreme: D'Ydoine me restuet a d ire Com a grant duel, com a grant i re Outre son gre fu f ianch ie ; S'en est es angousse et en i r e , Plus amast l a mort qu 'estre v ive. Plus dolente ne plus pensive N'a ou mont dame ne mescine. N'orres mais de s i enterine Parler de dro i te dr'u'erie Ne qui tant so i t l o i a l amie, Car ele est s i f o r t adolee, Quant d'Amadas est desevree, Que volent iers se fust ocise vv. 1979-1991 - 61 - By emphasizing her anguish, the narrator here succeeds in arousing our sympathy for a young woman deeply in love who has been try ing desperatley to arrange her new love a f f a i r so that i t w i l l be acceptable to her parents and society but who i s now facing the probab i l i t y that these fondest desires w i l l be lost forever. The narrator stresses, not only the severity of her pain, but also the extent of her loyaty towards Amadas. • As he states: La ou est amors, bien se proeve v. 2000 Proving love i s extremely important to the narrator. He u t i l i z e s two gauges--pain and loya l ty , to measure the depth and qual i ty of love. This is not unusual in court ly l i t e r a t u r e , but here the narrator seems deter- mined that Amadas and Ydoine surpass a l l other lovers in th i s proof. He cont inual ly emphasizes that Amadas and Ydoine suffer more than anyone, even (especial ly?) Tr i stan and I seu l t . At times his insistence of th i s fact appears overdone by the constant use of superlat ives. In the afore- mentioned quotation of Ydoine's reaction to her upcoming marriage, she i s the "plus dolente", the "plus pensive" of women in the world. One has never heard of such an "enter ine " , " d ro i te dr 'uerie", " l o i a l amie". She is closer to death than to l i f e because she is apart from Amadas. The narrator makes his point. Ydoine proves the intens i ty of her love for Amadas by the extreme pain she undergoes at being separated from him and by the great loya l ty she displays through her wi l l ingness to die for him. She has a determined goal: Cou le met en boine esperance Qu'Amadas T a i t pucele et pure vv. 1994-1995 - 52 - Her greatest commitment is to Amadas, and she must remain a v i r g in for him. Anything else is betrayal. The narrator stresses Ydoine's pain, loya l ty and determined aspirations so that we have her i n teg r i t y well in mind before the next scene, which i s one of deception and sorcery. Before we examine th i s scene i t might be useful to discuss b r i e f l y sorcery and witchcraft in general in the Middle Ages. The use of sorcery and witchcraft was not uncommon in the Middle Ages; indeed i t was often accepted. Sorcery was the use of mechanistic magic and the use of s p i r i t s , while witchcraft went beyond that to include worhship of the Dev i l . Both made use of low magic, which i s p ract i ca l and aimed at obtaining immediate resu l t s . There was malevolent and benevolent magic, but: in theory the Church assumed that a l l magic drew upon the help of demons whether the magician intended i t or not. The syllogism was: magic proceeds by compelling supernatural forces; but God and the angels are not subject to such compulsion; the forces compelled must, therefore be demons. The 2 Church consequently held that there was no good magic. According to Russe l l , there were three kinds of e v i l s p i r i t s : 1) minor demons; eg. elves and f a i r i e s 2) major demons; eg. Beelzebub 3) devi l - 63 - and f i ve degrees of closeness with them: 1) incantation 2) pact—promising something in return for the i r aid 3) s a c r i f i c e 4) homage 5) worship The lesser demons were used as " f a m i l i a r s " , or pet demons and helped the witches perform deeds. Sorcery and witchcraft were united by the idea of a pact. Demons were needed to perform magic, but i f one ca l led upon them one must of fer something in return. It could be either e x p l i c i t or i m p l i c i t , but a pact was always involved. It i s l og ica l to assume that att itudes towards witchcraft and sorcery varied from place to place. After the 11th century, as Chr i s t ian society became more orderly, h ierarch ica l and repressed h o s t i l i t y towards and persecution of witches became more prevalent. We do not know i f pract ic ing magic was considered a ' s i n ' by the society of the author of Amadas et Ydoine. However, in his descr ipt ion of the sorcery scene, the e v i l , mysterious and eerie character i s highl ighted. The three women are ca l led " sorc ieres " which could mean merely a sorcerer or a witch, but the fact that they pract ice incantation and necromancy leads us to assume that they are witches in contact, not just with the s p i r i t world, but with the Devil himself. The narrator does not hide either his fear of or d i s l i k e for these witches: - 64 - Et sevent par encantement Resusciter l a morte gent, Des v is Tune a Taut re f igure Mlier par art et par f i gure , Houme f a i r e asne devenir, Et ceus q u ' i l voelent endormir Ne puis pas dire ne conter La disme part, ne raconter, vv. 2029-2034 Qu'eles sevent de mauvairs ars vv. 2039-2041 He emphasizes mainly what they can do to men, as i f men are the prime targets for the i r magic. There are three of them, to correspond with the three Fates. This l inks the witchcraft to c l a s s i ca l "pagan" mythology which could give i t a certa in re spectab i l i t y except for the fact that the pract ice they choose to imitate and to speak about i s one that was considered by that time " d i a b o l i c a l " : Among the ancient women's practices condemned as d iabo l i ca l and obscene by Buikhard of Worms (c.1025) i s the custom of ' s e t t ing a table with three places and good and drink, with three knives upon the tab le, so that those three s i s te r s , whom ancient peoples and ancient foolishness named the parcae, might come and eat there...The Pen i tent ia l of Bishop Iscanus (1161-86) interprets th i s d iabo l i ca l pract ice as a charm to bring luck to an unborn ch i l d and Robert of Brunne says the same in his 3 Handlyng Synne. How does Ydoine f i t into th i s 'obscene' plan? The narrator mentions, immediately after saying: La ou est amors, bien se proeve, Puis qu 'e le est et vraie et f ine vv. 2000-2001 - 65 - and lauding Ydoine, that " t r o i s sorc iere, sans demorance, A quises." Obviously, then, Ydoine has no problem f inding them. Does she know them well? Does she use the i r services often? The narrator gives us no clues. However, he does mention that Ydoine reveals to the witches "sa volonte et que ve l t f a i r e " . We do not know i f she merely instructs them of the results she desires ( i e . fr ightening the Count) or i f she has fabricated the whole scheme, before contacting the witches. The witches: Regardless of whether or not Ydoine has a share in devising the plan, i t i s s t i l l she who i n i t i a t e s i t s accomplishment. In return for the services of the witches They w i l l be paid in r iches, but what about the minor demons, the " f am i l i a r s " who are to help create the Count's magical v i s i on . How w i l l they be paid? Has Ydoine unknowingly, or knowingly, made a pact with the demons? If so, th i s would explain some of the la ter developments of the story. So, the witches do carry out the i r plan. Ydoine does not part ic ipate d i r e c t l y , but as soon as they f i n i s h acting out the ' v i s i o n ' : A Ydoine sont a conseil Toutes t r o i s en un l i u prive ' Et devisent leur volonte; Com le feront et en quel guise Endroit soi cascune devise. vv. 2044-2048 Tant leur donra qu'a tos jors mais En seront manantes apres vv. 2013-2014 Toutes t r o i s a i tant s 'en vont A Ydoine hastivement, Si l i moustrent comfaitement Ont le conte escarni, qui c r o i t Que leur oevre certaine s o i t . vv. 2306-2310 - 66 - They are excited at the i r expected success and rush to t e l l Ydoine, more as f r iends, i t seems, than as hired witches. The narrator cannot exculpate Ydoine en t i r e l y , although he does not implicate her d i r e c t l y . Here we could ask why th i s scene i s in the story at a l l . Why does Ydoine, a respectable, virtuous, honest woman resort to , not simple deception, but witchcraft—contact with demons? Perhaps i t i s to show that Ydoine is not a l l she seems to be—that she, too, can lower herself to such depths. Perhaps i t i s to dispel once and for a l l the tendency to regard Ydoine as an Ideal, a P r i nc i p l e . She i s a real woman with temptations and fears. The witches are a necessary e v i l in order for Ydoine to atta in her goal. And i t i s most ce r ta in l y Ydoine's goals that the narrator stresses. He does not even mention the dishonest, deceptive nature of the plan. He c a l l s i t "estrange co i n t i s e " , a: Merveilleuse aventure ...Que j a mais jo r c ' a ie s a v iv re, En fable n'en cancon n'en l i v r e vv. 1996-1998 Instead of condemning her, the narrator praises Ydoine for her ingenuity. After the scene he re i terates Ydoine's goal: Ydoine en a j o i e mult grant, Remaigne q u ' i l mais ne l a pregne Et qu'Amadas l ' a i t sans calenge. vv. 2311-2313 The narrator has mentioned her intention to stay "pure" for Amadas twice and seems to consider i t adequate j u s t i f i c a t i o n for her conduct. Or perhaps he i s showing just how inadequate i t i s . Regardless, Ydoine i s s t i l l proving her love for Amadas by remaining loyal to him. She does not escape the arranged marriage but, because the Count is too frightened to sleep with her, she does atta in her goal to remain a v i r g i n . - 67 - The narrator appears to place great importance not so much on the actions themselves, but on the motives behind them. As we saw in Chapter 1, intention makes the big difference between the conduct of Tristan and Iseult and that of Amadas et Ydoine. The narrator could e a s i l y be a follower of Abelard, who: taught that everything depended on conscience and on the education of the conscience, or inner conversion; intention and 4 not deeds was what mattered. If Abelard influenced the narrator in th i s area, perhaps he influenced him in others. In a period of prevalent anti-feminist attitudes, Abelard was a refreshing change. He did believe that women are weaker, but thought that t h e i r virture i s that much greater to assert i t s e l f despite t h e i r weakness. It i s more perfect and more pleasing to God. Abelard praised the f a i t h of women of the Bible and pointed out that Christ: singled out women by special signs again and again: the greatest miracles of resuscitation were displayed to women, were worked 5 on women, or worked for them. He also pointed out that: Christ showed that the female sex i s essential to salvation when he chose to assume His human body through a woman; he could, Abelard suggests, have assumed i t through a man, just as God formed the f i r s t woman from the body of a man. - 68 - We can perhaps att r ibute some att itudes revealed la ter on in the romance to Abelard 1s influence, but i t seems, at the very least , that the idea of intention and conscience did affect the narrator. Ydoine has a very active conscience towards Amadas, her parents, her society and her God. She has placed her p r i o r i t i e s upon her vow of f i d e l i t y to Amadas. This takes precedence over any sin she may commit by coming in contact with the demonic world. In th i s case, then, the end is j u s t i f y i n g the means. And Ydoine continues to prove her loya l ty to Amadas and continues to use dishonest means to do t h i s . Amadas' descent into a state of madness is a test of Ydoine's f a i t h f u l love. Wi l l she passively accept his madness and now resign herself to a l i f e with the Count? Certa in ly not. Ydoine is act ive, dependable and trustworthy when i t involves Amadas. Her f a i t h in him and in l i f e i s c lear when her f i r s t thought i s : Car ele a bien en son pourpens Que tout le gar i ra par tens De ce dont si mal l i e s ta i t vv. 2915-2917 Here we see the type of f a i t h and optimism that Abelard so valued in women. When Ydoine i s about t o deceive the Count once more, the narrator f i r s t describes her intense gr ie f as i f to , again, arouse compassion in the reader: La contesse en son l i t remaint, Qui toute nuit sospire et p la in t ; Mult par demaine grant dolour L'endemain mande son signour; Et i l i v ient, devant son l i t S ' a s iet et: 'Bele amie 'd i st , - 69 - 'Com vous esta i t ? vostre desir Ferai et tout vostre p l a i s i r ' Lors pleure des oels l a contesse vv. 2919-2927 This i s outright manipulation. And the narrator does not even portray the Count as being a horr ib le ogre so that we can more eas i l y excuse Ydoine's treatment of him. He is k ind, generous and ready to please. Ydoine abuses his magnanimity by using tears and by generating hope within him that her proposed voyage to Rome w i l l "cure" her so that they can be happy together. But, again, the narrator gives no indicat ion of disapproval. She i s proving her love for Amadas and that appears to be the determining factor for v i r tue. Ydoine does, indeed, act in a remarkable fashion when she goes to Lucca to cure Amadas. She i s confronted with his insanity, dishonour and nakedness but i s not repulsed. She cures him by almost magical means by repeating her name and his one hundred times. Does th i s not resemble an incantation or part of a r i t u a l healing? Perhaps Ydoine does have close contact with the occult . Or perhaps the narrator i s fol lowing the court ly convention of portraying the woman as a healer with supernatual powers. Because she represents a force that the man does not completely understand and cannot cont ro l , the lady i s often said to possess supernatural powers—the power to cure f a t a l wounds or protect him from harm, to appear when needed or draw him to her.^ - 70- Immediately fol lowing Ydoine's exceptional cure and demonstration of loya l ty for Amadas the narrator i n te r ject s with a 56- l ine ant i - femin i s t d ia t r ibe : Tant durement est decevans Et angousseuse et souduians Vers houme qu 'ele veut decoivre Et engingnier, s i bel Venboivre Et afole que le plus sage Et qui a plus sou t i l corage vv. 3575-3580 This denunciation of women, inserted at th i s point, i s surpr i s ing. Up to th i s point, the only negat iv i ty we have seen expressed towards women has been towards the three witches. The narrator has praised Ydoine incessantly. But here we get the idea that every woman i s a witch. He uses the words "decevans", " t r i c i e r " and "engiens" often and i n s i s t s : Mais nule n'est sans decevance; Toutes sevent de 1'ingremance, Et les engiens dont abelissent Vers ceus que trecent et traYssent vv. 3585-3588 As during the narration of the witchcraft scene, he stresses the fact that men are the victims of the deception. His fear of women i s quite obvious; indeed, almost obsessive. They are " fe lenesses" , "venimeuse", "angoisseuse". It i s interest ing that the narrator decides to insert the t i rade at th i s point. Over 1300 l i ne s , nearly 1/5th of the romance, have elapsed since Ydoine's involvement with the witches; over 600 l ines have elapsed since Ydoine's las t l i e to her husband, and since then the narrator has described an incident of Ydoine's complete, utter devotion for Amadas. So why does he change the tone of his work so d r a s t i c a l l y here? It could be that the narrator does not want the reader to associate any of his - 71 - condemnations with Ydoine, and so waits un t i l long after her deceptions and immediately after her uncommonly constant and sincere conduct to express his opinions. S t i l l , his manifestly inconsistent att i tude regarding women is bothersome. We could eas i l y wonder i f he has suddenly changed his mind about Ydoine and i s going to condemn her severely also. But no, we see that his ant i - femin ist outburst i s actual ly being used to contrast the general population of women with Ydoine. Immediately after his strong comments he adds: Les dames ai or cest resp i t Pour l a contesse Ydoine d i t Por demostrer l a ver i te ' De l i et 1 ' e s t ab i l i t e ' ' vv. 3623-3626 The author then spends 34 l ines lauding Ydoine and her actions. He calms down somewhat from his previous emotional outburst. He states that the majority of women are "encontre raison et dro iture" but i t i s not the i r f au l t because "tout ce leur vient de Nature". Here we note the A r i s t o te l i an ant i - femin ist att i tude previously quoted that a woman i s " lack ing in reason" and is a male manque'. However th i s opinion is modified here since the narrator concedes that a few women ex i s t who are good, l o ya l , sincere and " ra i snav le " . Ydoine i s , according to the narrator, of th i s c lass , although at th i s point we may wonder why, since Ydoine has displayed many of the def ic ienc ies the narrator harshly judges. She has used deception, t r i c ke ry and witchcraft . So we must assume that the narrator excuses her treatment of the Count and considers only her behaviour with Amadas. - 72 - This places us, as readers, in a d i f f i c u l t pos i t ion. The narrator expects inordinate amount of acceptance from us. F i r s t , he portrays Ydoine as being virtuous, sincere and morally upright, yet most of her actions do not support th i s p icture. Then he strongly denounces the female sex with no concrete examples of the i r f i c k l e nature or treachery except perhaps the three witches or Ydoine herself. Wi l l the narrator ' s argument for the supremacy of intention over actual conduct be powerful enough to overcome our misgivings? Ydoine's prayer to God before continuing on to Rome after having cured Amadas i s perhaps meant to dispel some of the readers qualms: La contesse va i t au mostier P r i i e r a Diu que aciever Puist son desir et son penser, Sans reparlance de f o l i e , Sans pecie" et sans volonnie, Si que de gent ne so i t blasmee, Que mult c r ient estre deparlee. Et nonpourquant raisnavlement Quide aciever tot son ta lent D'Amadas et de son signour, Qu'ele ne doit dou Creatour Ne de l a gent mal gre avoir. En icou a mult bon espoir Que outre son gre ' fu dounee Au conte et a force espousee, Si avoit Amadas plevi Q u ' i l l a prendroit et ele l i . vv. 3708-3724 Ydoine, the narrator i n s i s t s , does not want to s i n , and wants to achieve her goal to be with Amadas reasonably and honourably. The narrator repeats that she has been married against her w i l l and that a l l she r ea l l y desires i s Amadas. Thus, she i s portrayed as an innocent v ict im of circumstance, t ry ing her best to be united with her true lover. I t i s a struggle for th i s woman to atta in her desire. In most court ly - 73 - l i t e ra tu re the woman must wait for events to happen, but Ydoine has assumed a "male ro le " by pursuing Amadas, who to her represents s p i r i t u a l heights. It i s extremely d i f f i c u l t . Because i t i s so d i f f i c u l t , she resorts to dishonesty and deception. Even Amadas does not escape i t . After the incident with the strange knight on her way back from Rome, Ydoine becomes severely i l l and seems to be on her death bed. This would seem to be the time for absolute honesty. The narrator states once more that: La ou est Amors bien se proeve. Par grant amor f a i t et controeve vv. 4965-4966 This time, however, he does explain exactly how Ydoine i s proving her love for Amadas, and he j u s t i f i e s her conduct. This i s necessary because by lying to Amadas, Ydoine i s breaking her vow of t rust and honesty: Estrange mencoigne de s o i , Par loiaute" et par grant f o i . Por gar i r de mort son ami Veut t e l chose faindre de l i Dont el le guide par boisdie Decevoir s i q u ' i l a s'amie Ne l a tiegne s i com i l seut; Car a cro i re f a i r e l i veut Une grant mencoigne de soi Qu'a concree en son secroi Por l i metre de mort a v ie . Com l a plus t r e s l o i a l amie Que on o'Yst mais en roumans Puis le tans as premiers amans vv. 4966-4980 It i s interest ing that the narrator chooses the same vocabulary to depict Ydoine's conduct as he uses to d i sc red i t women in general. He does not t r y to disguise her actions, but uses the words "mencoigne", "decevoir " , "bo i sd ie " . But, in th i s case, her falsehood i s being used as the - 74 - greatest evidence yet of her al legiance to Amadas. She i s now " l a plus tres l o i a l amie que on o i s t mais en roumans puis le tans as premiers amans". Her devotion surpasses even that of f i c t i o n a l characters. Again, i t i s c l ea r l y the intent ion, not the deed i t s e l f that determines the righteousness, of behaviour. Ydoine l i e s so that Amadas w i l l not be so overcome with distress after her death that he commits su ic ide. Her reputation has been an extremely important consideration in a l l her actions up to th i s point. She wants no bad rumours c i r cu la ted about her. Yet.here she i s w i l l i n g to s a c r i f i c e her lover ' s high regard for her by admitting to both promiscuity and murder. No rumour could blacken someone's reputation more than t h i s . So th i s l i e i s , indeed, supreme proof of unself i sh love. And what an adept l i a r she has become'. 'Biaus tresdous cuers, bele jovente, Merci vous c r i comme dolente, Que je sui l a plus dolereuse Peceresse et malelireuse Et l a plus c a i t i ve du mont. De toutes celes qui i sont' vv. 5047-5052 It would be d i f f i c u l t for Amadas not to be touched by such agony and g r ie f . But Ydoine has much at stake - - the l i f e of the person she values more than her own. She is overjoyed when she succeeds: Ydoine l ' o t , s ' a mult joious Le cuer, et el s i doit avoir; De l a pramesse a bon espoir; Ne doute mais que i l s ' oc ie Ne q u ' i l s ' a to r t a derverie. En grigneur j o i e icou l a met Que tous les biens que l i pramet Apres sa mort pour l u i a f a i r e . vv. 5232-5239 - 75 - Consequently, Ydoine does deceive Amadas by breaking her vow of honesty. She t e l l s a gross l i e and manipulates him. Yet, here again, i t i s for a noble cause. There could no nobler cause than to ensure that her lover w i l l survive her. The narrator succeeds here in displaying her unself ish motives and moral excellence. We glean more of the narrator ' s conception of v i r tue and moral ity by examining the women Amadas l i s t s as t r a i t o r s when, after the maufe' has revealed to him the r ing he gave to Ydoine, he begins to doubt her i n teg r i t y : L i corto is Tristans fu trai ' s Et deceit's et mal b a i l l i s De Vamiste Yseut l a b lo ie ; Si fu l i biaus Paris de Troie Et d'Oenone et d 'E la ine .. .Pol l ixcenoy.. . Penelope'.. . F lo i re s , vv. 5833-5837 Audain...Lavine...Alixandres vv. 5839-5840 ...Salemons...Sansons vv. 5853-5854 Amadas, and the narrator, have very high expectations and demands of lovers. We can assume that Iseult i s considered dece i t fu l because she remains with and sleeps with her husband while loving Tr i s tan. Helen i s probably considered unfa ithfu l because several men were in love with her; Oenone because, nursing her grievance, she refused to heal Pa r i s ' wound from carrying Helen from Sparta. These are examples, not so much of i n f i d e l i t y , but of a lack of t o t a l , absolute devotion. I t i s impossible to f i nd any example of treacherous conduct in Polyxena or Penelope. Blancefleur was sold into a harem, and thus forced to be un fa i th fu l . Aude looked with favour upon Lambert, and i t seems i s judged for th i s even though i t i s before she becomes Roland's - 76 - f iancee. Lavina and Roxana remain f a i t h f u l . Amadas i s more accurate in the cases of Soloman and Samson, who were both notorious as being Q dupes of women. Some of the examples Amadas uses are inaccurate, which could indicate that Amadas i s so emotional that he i s not thinking c l ea r l y . I t could also indicate that the narrator i s being t o t a l l y unreasonable by placing almost impossible demands upon women, or that he i s mocking those who ser ious ly expect th i s type of love. This i s loya l ty taken to the extreme. If the narrator i s serious, then even the s l i ghtes t transgression, weakness or inadequacy denotes i n f i d e l i t y , for the true lover i s expected to go to almost superhuman degrees or turn to devious, dangerous methods to prove fa i th fu lness . Nevertheless, there also seems to be a pr ice to pay i f someone uses questionable means to achieve one's ends. Ydoine resorts to witchcraft , a pract ice the narrator appears to deplore. Ydoine i s not d i r e c t l y implicated in the plan, but i s inext r icab ly involved, and th i s involvement may l ink the incident with the mauf£. It i s when she i s returning from Rome, just before re-entering Lucca, that a mysterious knight, who i s "grans et biaus" arr ives and t r i e s to f o r c i b l y seize Ydoine. When he i s pursued he sets her down and " s 'evanuis t , que nus ne sot que i l dev int " . This i s no normal knight and we learn l a te r that he i s a mauf£, a bad f a i r y , who has effected a death- l ike stupor in Ydoine by subst i tut ing his magic r ing for Amadas'. Is th i s then, the resu l t of an i m p l i c i t pact Ydoine made with the - 77 - demons when she employed the three witches? Or, i f her cure of Amadas did indeed include an incantation, then s p i r i t s were involved at that time as we l l . Perhaps in her zeal and determination to be with Amadas she has overstepped some bounds and must now pay the pr ice. The maufe does not mention a pact to Amadas but t e l l s him: Car ele avoit un autre ami Qu'ele amoit plus, que bien le sai Le tesmoing vous en mousterrai, Par convent que vous m'otroi ies Se les enseignes counoissie's vv. 5744-5748 He does admit la ter that Amadas i s the only person Ydoine has loved, but perhaps Ydoine made a bargain of which she was unaware. The maufe desires to have Ydoine for his own and to take her to the s p i r i t realm. Has Ydoine then, l i k e Faust, sold her soul to the Devil in order to remain pure and f a i t h f u l to Amadas, and does the narrator again consider th i s the ultimate proof of f i d e l i t y because of l o f t y motives? I f the narrator has, up to th i s point, asserted that i t i s intentions, not deeds, that matter, and that the end j u s t i f i e s the means, then th i s would be the log ica l progression of that argument. It i s poss ible, however, that he i s demonstrating the ridiculousness of an argument of th i s sort , because considering only intentions has led Ydoine to abuse the Count's l i f e , abuse the conventions of the s p i r i t world and to perhaps destroy her own l i f e and her ultimate o r i g ina l goal. In any case, Ydoine i s spared from a l i f e with the demons because of Amadas' love for and trust in her. In an almost C h r i s t - l i k e ro l e , he resurrects Ydoine from h e l l . - 78 - I t i s then that we see that the narrator ' s view of i n teg r i t y involves more than f i d e l i t y to lovers or to vows; i t involves f i d e l i t y to one's inner be l ie f s and pr inc ip les as well as to one's r e l i g i on and society. Thus, even though Ydoine does not love the Count and has been married to him against her w i l l , she w i l l not have sexual re lat ions with Amadas: ' I c e l desir deves ta rg ie r ...Ouvrer ensi qu'a grant hounor Me pa r t i r a i de mon signour, Et que serai vostre espousee Et de tous mes amis donee Sans pecie a Vouneur de, De Par esgart de crest 'fente'. ' vv. 6726; 6745-6750 Ydoine w i l l not commit adultery with Amadas. Her physical love for him must come within the l im i t s of her precious vows and her r e l i g i o n . Her love for Amadas i s not a t rans i to ry passion; i t i s a l a s t i ng , s p i r i t u a l devotion. It i s th i s type of "pure" love which the narrator exto ls , and which deserves to end happily and successful ly. Their love transcends the physical to reach a higher plane. Following th i s proof of fa i thfu lness to her p r inc ip le s , Ydoine continues to act with dup l i c i t y . She no longer, however, appears to receive help from the s p i r i t realm or deceives Amadas. These l a te r manipulations are described as being f a i r l y i n s i gn i f i c an t , but necessary to f i n a l l y rea l i ze her goal. Before Ydoine recounts her dishonest t a l e to the Count, however, the narrator i n te r ject s with his second ant i - femin i s t harangue: - 79 - Hal feme, com es enginneuse Et decevans et a r t i l l e u s e , D'engin trouver puissans et sage, De bast i r mal a grant damage! vv. 7037-7040 This 60- l ine digression d i f f e r s from the previous one in that i t seems to fol low more l o g i c a l l y from the p lo t , and i s therefore not so surpr i s ing. At f i r s t we may conclude that these negative comments are intended to include Ydoine because the narrator inserts them immediately after she summons the Count to l i e to him once again. In th i s t i rade the author uses much the same vocabulary but seems to add to i t in order to emphasize women's "enginneuse", " t r i c e r i e " , "decevans", "encanter", and adds " fausete" , " l e g i e r e " . He also adds an odd sort of respect to th i s denunciation, a respect for the i r power and knowledge: Que bien voi qu 'eles ont conquis Trestout le mont a leur v o l o i r , Sans contredit , par leur savoir vv. 7074-7076 He may not l i k e these "female" t r a i t s , but can we detect a note of envy of them? The narrator also adds a personal commentary: Mais je n ' i ai dro i t ne raison Qu'en doie d i re se bien non: Ains ont bien deservi vers moi, Que trestoutes amer les do i : Ses amerai jusqu 'a l a f i n Sans traYson et sans engin vv. 7067-7072 This comment i s somewhat strange considering i t i s offered by someone who has b i t t e r l y attacked women twice. It i s almost as i f he were disassociat ing himself from the overa l l d ia t r ibe to say what he r e a l l y f ee l s . But hasn't he just interrupted the story to state what he - 80 - r e a l l y feels? Perhaps th i s i s now a change of a t t i tude, or at least a softening of one. I t i s also interest ing to note that he does not state that he loves only good, sincere women. He loves them a l l because they have done no harm to him personally. But i f they have done no harm to him, why does he judge them in the f i r s t place? At least th i s time he does admit that there are a few women who know " l e bien, l a f rancise et Vounouri " But, cur ious ly, Ydoine i s again not included in the reproach. She i s " f i n e , bone et enter ine": Lors commence son conte en bas La contesse preus et va i l l an s , Bien enraisnie et bien parlans; Son sens et son engin esproeve, Estrangement f a i t et controeve Une merveilleuse matire vv. 7124-7129 The incident with the witches was ca l led a "merveilleuse aventure" and th i s untruth i s ca l led a "merveilleuse mat ire" . For any other woman we can assume i t would be ca l l ed "fausete" and " t r i c e r i e " . The word "ehgin" i s used both to describe women in general and Ydoine, but the word has two meanings. I t can mean ta lent and s p i r i t , or deceit and t r i c ke r y . Considering the tone of the rest of the comments on Ydoine, we can surmise that he means ta lent and s p i r i t , or he may even be playing on the ambiguity of the term. Following Ydoine's successful attempt to pursuade her husband to obtain a divorce, she concocts her f i n a l , c l imact ic ruse so that the barons w i l l be the ones to vote on the most courageous knight for her - 81 - to marry. She i s , of course, certa in that they w i l l choose Amadas. As the author i n te r jec t s : He! Dix, tant par est decevans, Quant par s i bel engin se coevre. vv. 7516-7517 "Decevans" and "engin" are the words the narrator has chosen most often to describe the female sex and he uses them here with reference to Ydoine. The word "engin" i s ambiguous but the word "decevans" i s not. The narrator i s including Ydoine in with women in general; nevertheless, he s t i l l does not c r i t i c i z e her. Instead, he adds: Diusl Com est s o u t i l l e et sage! Par grant raison et par savoir Veut aciever tout son vo l o i r , Que bien pense que l i piuisour Et l i plus v a i l l a n t de 1'ounor L i vauront Amadas doner, S 'e le le veut acreanter vv. 7584-7590 It i s "par leur savoir" that women have come to conquer the world, and i t i s also "par savoir" that Ydoine achieves a l l her wishes. The dist inguishing factor i s that, according to the narrator, Ydoine acts "par grant raison" and i s "sage". During his f i r s t d ia t r ibe he accuses women of being "encontre ra i son " . In the 13th century i t was thought that women were i n f e r i o r to men because they lacked reason. Is that, then, the qua l i ty the narrator most values in women, as portrayed by his words describing Ydoine? Her actions, however, do not bear out th i s port raya l . We see her ingenuity, cleverness and determination, but ce r ta in l y not "reason". She i s most d e f i n i t e l y ruled by her heart. - 82 - After Ydoine obtains her dearest desires by means of a l l her deceptions we, as readers, may be more confused than ever. Do we put more emphasis on Ydoine's actions, her blatant falsehoods, or on the narrator ' s praise of her? Do we condemn the female sex even though the only woman we encounter in depth i s Ydoine? To answer these questions, we must f i r s t consider the author 's aim or aims in wr i t ing Amadas et Ydoine. It i s true that he l i ved during an unsettled period in h i s tory. Thus, his attempt to create a transcendent-Tristan, to describe a t r u l y "perfect " love re lat ionsh ip may be an unconscious attempt to return to the peace and s t a b i l i t y of the 12th century and thus avoid the c o n f l i c t and changing att itudes of his time. However, the narrator ' s obvious contradict ions and omissions may also be an attempt to expose the absurdity of the generalisations of both the 12th and 13th centuries. Perhaps he i s parodying Beroul, prais ing Ydoine incessantly as Beroul praises Tr istan and I seult , while at the same time recounting her many dece i t fu l actions. Perhaps he i s showing how f u t i l e and unsatisfactory i t i s to aspire to an ideal of a "perfect " woman, just as i t i s f u t i l e and unsatisfactory to condemn the female sex as being a l l witches and l i a r s . He may be try ing to compose a love story that transcends a l l these f l ee t i ng att itudes and general isations by creating a female character - 83 - with both pos i t ive and negative characte r i s t i c s , who i s inconsistent yet, at the same time, true to her own values. The existence of the narrator may be an attempt to show the i r recon- c i l i b i l i t y of the extreme att i tude of both the 12th and 13th centuries and the desire to search for more r e a l i s t i c and human female images so as to bring more understanding between male and female. We w i l l examine further th i s attempt to resolve dissension between the sexes in the fol lowing chapter. - 84 - CHAPTER 3 AMADAS' INNER VOYAGE Amadas et Ydoine can be seen as the descr ipt ion of the unconscious maturation process of Amadas (and perhaps the author). Amadas' dialogue and actions r e f l e c t the psyche's e f fo r t s to achieve harmony within i t s e l f by recognizing certa in elements i t has thus far rejected and repressed and by reconci l ing i t s masculine and feminine energies. This i s a stage of Carl Jung's individuation process which also has much in common with Joseph Campbell's hero voyage. An important concept in Jungian psychology i s the Se l f , which can be defined as the centre of our psychic system. It i s a guide to our unconscious motivations as well the goal, because penetration to th i s ultimate foundation of our psyche leads to se l f knowledge and f u l f i l l m e n t . It i s the Self that brings about the continuing maturation of the personal ity: This larger, more nearly to ta l aspect of the psyche appears f i r s t as merely an inborn p o s s i b i l i t y . How fa r i t develops depends on whether or not the ego i s w i l l i n g to l i s t en to the messages of the S e l f J Listening to the messages of the Self makes us more balanced, complete human beings. However, th i s involves turning to our unconscious and actual ly surrendering to i t s power. This i s always a d i f f i c u l t process that involves much time, energy and pain. - 85 - The "coming-to-terms with one's inner center (psychic nucleus) or Sel f " i s ca l led indiv iduation or s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n and usually begins with a 2 wounding of the personal ity and the suffering that accompanies i t . We may feel bored, f rus t rated, u n f u l f i l l e d . We reach a c r i s i s point in our l i f e : One is seeking something that i s impossible to f i nd or about which nothing is known. In such moments a l l well-meant, sensible advice i s completely useless—advice that urges one to t r y to be responsible, to take a holiday. None of that helps, or at best only ra re ly . There i s only one thing that seems to work; and that is to turn d i r e c t l y toward the approaching darkness without prejudice and t o t a l l y naively, and to t r y to f i nd out what i t s secret aim i s and what i s wants from you. The f i r s t step in th i s psychological journey i s to face our shadow. The shadow is the dark or undifferentiated side of our personal i ty. According to Jung, there are two psychological att i tudes; extraverted and introverted, and four functions: th ink ing, f ee l i ng , sensation, and i n t u i t i o n . The shadow includes the att i tude and functions that we have not yet integrated into our personal ity. It also includes our negative personal ity t r a i t s or l i t t le-known qua l i t i e s of our ego that we have not yet accepted. Unt i l we come to terms with these weaknesses or undifferentiated parts of ourselves, we tend to project our shadow onto other people. The personif ied shadow can therefore be both a pos i t ive and negative f i gure. Facing the shadow i s a very painful and humbling - 86 - experience and often involves great resistance by the ego. Because of t h i s , many people do not f i n i s h th i s f i r s t step in individuation and discontinue the i r search for the Sel f . For those of us who do face our shadow and manage to incorporate i t into our conscious l i v e s , the next step is to meet our contrasexual component. For women th i s i s ca l led the animus, or masculine counterpart and for men i t i s the anima, or feminine counterpart. This archetypal f igure of the "soul-image" represents the image of the opposite sex that we carry in us. Just as we project our shadow on other people un t i l we accept i t , so we also project our anima or animus onto other people un t i l we integrate i t into our personal i ty. Thus, our contrasexual component can take on many forms: The anima can...take the form of a sweet young maiden, a goddess, a witch, an angel, a demon, a beggar woman, a whore, a 4 devoted companion, an amazon, etc. Our re lat ionship to our anima or animus plays a c ruc ia l role in our l i f e . Like the shadow, i t w i l l represent the underdeveloped areas of our psyche. If we are i n t e l l e c t u a l , our soul-image w i l l be sentimental. This i s a c a l l fo r us.to develop that side of our own personal i ty. I f not, we are in danger of becoming possessed by or soul-image which can lead to disastrous consequences to our relat ionships with the opposite sex and to our own personal ity balance. - 87 - Therefore, the goal of the Self i s that we integrate the unconscious elements such as the shadow and our contrasexual component into our conscious l i ves so that we can become more complete and whole. This corresponds to what Joseph Campbell describes as the hero voyage. He sets out three stages to th i s voyage: the separation or departure, the t r i a l s and v i c to r ie s of i n i t i a t i o n , and the return and re- integrat ion with society. The separation begins with the c a l l to adventure, much l i k e the wounding of the personal ity which signals the s tar t of the indiv iduation process. This c a l l can be accepted or refused. The refusal i s e s sent ia l l y a refusal to give up what one takes to be one's own in teres t . The future i s regarded not in terms of an unremitting series of deaths and b i r th s , but as though one's present system of ideals , v i r tu res , goals and advantages 5 were to be f ixed and made secure. This i s the person who i s afra id to face his shadow, afra id to change and grow. For those who do accept the challenge, however, there is supernatural a id , s imi la r to encouraging signs from the Sel f . We must f i r s t surrender our ego in order to cross the threshold in the hero voyage, just as we must surrender our ego in order to turn to the unconscious. - 88 - The passage of the threshold i s a form of s e l f - ann i h i l a t i on . His secular character remains without; he sheds i t , as a snake i t s slough. Once inside he may be said to have died to time and returned to the World Womb, the World Navel, the Earthly Paradise.^ Crossing the threshold leads to the second stage which is i n i t i a t i o n . This i s where a l l the t r i a l s occur. Just as the process of indiv iduation involves a commitment to explore the unconscious with a l l i t s fr ightening and marvellous aspects, so the hero voyage involves s o l i t a r y t ravel through the untravelled s p i r i t u a l labyrinth of the mind: This i s the process of d i s so lv ing, transcending or transmuting the i n f an t i l e images of our personal past. In our dreams the ageless p e r i l s , gargoyles, t r i a l s , secret helpers and inst ruc- t i ve f igures are n ight ly s t i l l encountered; and in the i r forms we may see ref lected not only the whole picture of our present case, but also the clue to what we must do to be saved.^ As with the indiv iduation process, the goal of the hero voyage is to make us more complete and to arr ive at an internal harmony and unity. In the hero voyage th i s involves f i r s t the meeting with the goddess and then atonement with the father, which two steps can be likened to accepting and integrating our soul-image and shadow into our conscious l i f e . Meeting the goddess means bringing to harmony the male and female components of our being. - 89 - Woman, in the picture language of mythology, represents the t o t a l i t y of what can be known. The hero i s the one who comes to o know. Atonement with the father involves accepting what is negative in ourselves, " f o r the ogre aspect of the father is a ref lex of the v i c t im ' s g own ego". For the son who has grown r ea l l y to know the father, the agonies of the ordeal are read i ly borne; the world i s no longer a vale of tears but a b l i s s - y i e l d i ng perpetual manifestation of the Presence.^ What is achieved is to ta l unity with ourselves and with the energy of the cosmos. Male, female; good, e v i l ; darkness, l i g h t : a l l become one. This i s symbolized with the image of the bisexual God: He is the mystery of the theme of i n i t i a t i o n . We are taken from the mother, chewed into fragments and assimilated to the world- annih i lat ing body of the ogre for whom a l l the precious forms and beings are only the courses of a feast , but, then, miraculously reborn, we are more than we were...the childhood parent images of 'good' and ' e v i l ' have been surpassed. We no longer desire and fear, we are what was desired and f ea red . . . a l l men are b ro ther s . 1 1 - 90 - This is s p i r i t u a l growth, breaking through personal l im i ta t i on s , accepting our shadow and soul-image as part of ourselves, thereby no longer projecting fau l t s and weaknesses on others. We are at harmony within and without. But just as we must continue to l i v e in the conscious world during our ind iv iduat ion, so we must also return to the world after our hero voyage. Now, however, we rea l i ze that "the two kingdoms (the unconscious 12 and the conscious) are actual ly one." L iv ing in our former world i s sometimes d i f f i c u l t , for i t now may seem bland and unimportant after what we have undergone. This i s as much of a challenge as the i n i t i a l voyage. ...Now the problem i s to maintain th i s cosmic standpoint in the 13 face of immediate earthly pain or joy. In Jungian terms th i s happens when the ego merges into the Sel f . We develop a re lat ionship with our Se l f , and learn to keep tune with i t . I t becomes an inner partner to whom we turn for insp i rat ion and peace. By means of th i s re lat ionsh ip we can transcend time and space and become connected to the macrocosm: In ways that are s t i l l completely beyond our comprehension, our unconscious is s im i l a r l y attuned to our surroundings—to our group, to society in general, and beyond these, to the space-time continuum and the whole of nature...the experience of something eternal that man can have in those moments when he fee l s immortal 14 and unalterable. - 91 - The hero then gains a new perspective and reaches that harmony. ...by ef fect ing a reconc i l i a t i on of the indiv idual consciousness with the universal w i l l . And th i s i s effected through a rea l i za t i on of the true re lat ionship of the passing phenomena of 1H time to the imperishable l i f e that l i ves and dies in a l l . Consequently, we see that, whether we c a l l i t individuation or the hero voyage, the process and results are bas i ca l l y the same. We travel to the abyss of the unconscious to tap i t s creat ive forces which lead us to new sp i r i t ua l dimensions. We face our underdeveloped side and work to develop i t . I t i s only in th i s manner that we can reach a state of t o ta l peace and harmony within ourselves and with the l i f e energy of the world. Using th i s methodological framework, then, l e t us now turn to Amadas and examine his and perhaps the author's own s p i r i t u a l voyage. At the beginning of the story Amadas i s 15 years o ld : Biaus ert et a l ign ies et grans De cors, de vis et de f a i tu re ...Sour tous enfans sages e s to i t ; Humles ert mult et amiavles, Frans et courtois et servicavles vv. 62-63; 68-70 He is both phys ica l ly and morally exceptional. He is also emotionally undeveloped, proud, independent and disdainful of love. In f a c t , he feels himself to be superior to women: - 92 - Q u ' i l n 'avoit pas ou mont dansele Tant courtoise, franee ne bele Ne dame de nule devise Ne pour biaute, ne pour frankise Q u ' i l amast v a i l l a n t une a l i e N'avoit cure de drlierie vv. 83-88 Despite his arrogance, he f a l l s suddenly and dramatical ly in love with Ydoine at the f e s t i v a l : La couleur l i p r i s t a cangier Et en l a face et ou menton Un souspir j e t a a larron ...Pales devint, aval s ' i n c l i n e Pasmes chiet devant l a mescine vv. 258-260; 279-280 Why is Amadas affected to such a degree? This i s "coup de foudre" taken to a melodramatic extreme. Amadas is "bewitched". I t i s the presence of the anima that causes a man to f a l l suddenly in love when he sees a woman for the f i r s t time and nows at once that th i s i s "she". In th i s s i tua t ion , the man fee l s as i f he has known th i s woman int imately for a l l time; he f a l l s for her so help less ly that i t looks to outsiders l i k e complete madness. Amadas has met his soul-image, his anima, for the f i r s t time and he is overwhelmed. And Ydoine i s the perfect person on whom to project i t . We have already discussed how Ydoine i s the mirror image of Amadas both phys ica l ly and morally. She also shares his one f l aw—pr ide . She i s a complement to him and he recognizes himself in her. He also recognizes his inner feminine energy which he has up un t i l th i s point ignored. - 93 - But Amadas can no longer ignore his anima. It i s making i t s presence known and for a very good reason: The secret aim of the unconscious...is to force a man to develop and to bring his own being to maturity by integrating more of his unconscious personal ity and bringing i t into his real l i f e . 1 7 The Se l f , then, i s giving Amadas messages to turn to his unconscious and to bring i t s hidden energy to his conscious surface. This i s what Campbell c a l l s the "herald" or c a l l to adventure, the awakening of the Se l f , when: ...whether small or great, and no matter what the stage or grade of l i f e , the c a l l rings up the cur ta in , always, on a mystery of t rans f igurat ion. . .a r i t e , or moment, of s p i r i t u a l passage which, when complete, amounts to a dying and a b i r t h . The f ami l i a r l i f e horizon has been outgrown; the old concepts, ideals and emotional patterns no longer f i t ; the time for the passing of a 18 threshold i s at hand. Amadas is being ca l led by his unconscious to a journey of discovery where he must f i nd new " idea l s and emotional patterns" which w i l l help him mature and deal with l i f e . He cannot f ind these from without—from his parents or from society, he must f i nd them from with in, from his centre, which i s l inked to the l i f e force of the cosmos. It must be a personal discovery. - 94 - As Campbell points out, the herald i s usually marked by a loathsome or t e r r i f y i n g being, a mysterious f igure who symbolizes the unknown, or a beast which s i gn i f i e s "repressed ins t inctua l fecundity" . In Amadas' case, the herald is marked by love: En l 'esgarder de la pucele L i saut au cuer une est incele Qui de f i n amor l ' a espris vv. 243-245 This i s f i t t i n g for Amadas and perhaps revealing about the author. Although we would be exaggerating in saying that love has been loathsome and t e r r i f y i n g to Amadas, i t ce r ta in l y has s i gn i f i ed the mysterious and unknown. Amadas is t o t a l l y ignorant of love and i t s e f fect s : Ne pot onques savoir d1amour Nule douceur, nule dolour vv. 117-118 Nevertheless, th i s unfamil iar dimension of his being i s the object of his quest. She is the paragon of a l l paragons of beauty, the reply to a l l des i re, the bliss-bestowing goal of every hero's earthly and unearthly quest. She i s mother, s i s t e r , mistress, br ide. For she i s the incarnation of the promise of perfect ion, the soul ' s assurance that, at the conclusion of i t s ex i l e in a world of organized inadequacies, the b l i s s that once was known w i l l be 19 known again. The author is using the 12th-century t r ad i t i on of the woman who symbolizes perfection and beauty. Campbell regards th i s part of the quest as the search for i d y l l i c harmony, as a return to the peace of the - 95 - womb. Perhaps the author's use of the court ly view of woman i s an unconscious desire to return to the open, t rust ing att i tude of the 12th century, before the intolerant "world of organized inadequacies" of the 13th century set i n . However, Ydoine does not quite conform to the 12th-century i dea l . She i s not perfect. She has the flaw of pr ide, a pride which i s even more extreme than that of Amadas. This leads us to suspect that Ydoine symbolizes more than his pos i t ive anima. She must also symbolize something imperfect in himself, something Amadas would l i k e to ignore or forget. Could Ydoine also personify Amadas' shadow? But paradoxical as i t may seem at f i r s t s ight, the shadow as ' a l t e r ego' may also be represented by a pos i t ive f i gure , for example, when the indiv idual whose 'other s ide ' i t personif ies is l i v i n g 'below his l e v e l ' , f a i l i n g to f u l f i l his p o t en t i a l i t i e s . . . I n i t s indiv idual aspect the shadow stands for the 'personal darkness ', personifying the contents (sometimes pos it ive) of our psyche that have been rejected or repressed or 20 less l i ved in the course of our conscious existence. This ce r ta in l y f i t s in the case of Amadas. He has been neglecting his softer, more emotional s ide, f a i l i n g to " f u l f i l the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s " of his inner feminine nature. Since Ydoine displays a s imi la r proud and - 96 - disdainful nature, he recognizes parts of himself in her. She i s , therefore, not only the personi f icat ion of Perfection and Beauty, but i s also a r e f l ec t i on of his own character flaws. I f , as we examined in the Introduction, the author i den t i f i e s with Amadas, th i s would explain why the narrator ' s descr ipt ion of Ydoine's actions does not j u s t i f y his ardent praise of her and why his remarks about women in general are so harsh. Ydoine symbolizes both Amadas' anima and his shadow—seemingly contradictory ro les . This no doubt causes a considerable amount of confusion in the author's psyche and leads to the narrator ' s inconsistent and ambiguous comments. In any case, Amadas reacts strongly to the sight of his "soul-image". It i s interest ing that Ydoine asks Amadas at the f e s t i v a l : 'Amis, ' f a i t e le , 'pren, s i f a i l l e Cest mes dedens cest esquiele ' vv. 228-229 The "esqu ie le " , bowl, i s a womb-like image. Ydoine i s asking to be f i l l e d , to have her feminine energies s a t i s f i e d . Amadas responds: Que de sa main chiet l i coutiax Dont i l doit t renc ier les morsiax Sour l a tab le, sour le doublier. vv. 255-257 Amadas drops the kn i fe, a pha l l i c symbol, from his hand. It i s as i f his anima is demanding recognition and fu l f i lment , and Amadas, by dropping th i s symbol of mascul inity, responds immediately to the c a l l . This i s the f i r s t act of submission to his unconscious. Amadas must deal with more of his unconscious before he can develop emotionally. He must face the prejudices and fears that w i l l ar ise as a resu l t of confronting his - 97 - shadow, and accept them. He must also resolve the con f l i c t s he has with his inner feminine side and develop a sat i s factory re lat ionship with i t . Amadas1 2-1/2 years of love sickness, which are r e a l l y 2-1/2 years of powerlessness over his l i f e , symbolize the beginning of his i n i t i a t i o n into a new way of l i f e . I n i t i a t i o n i s , e s sent ia l l y , a process that begins with a r i t e of submission, followed by a period of containment, and then by a further r i t e of l i be ra t i on . In th i s way every indiv idual can reconci le the con f l i c t i n g elements of his personal ity. He can s t r i ke a balance that makes him t r u l y human and t r u l y the master of himself.^ 1 Amadas accepts the c a l l to maturity, the c a l l to submit to th i s unconscious and deal with these con f l i c t i n g elements. This i s not an act ive, w i l l ed response, but a response which comes from with in, from his psyche. It i s the psyche which courageously accepts the challenge to embark on the hero voyage, even though i t w i l l mean much pain. Finding renewal and connection with the potent forces of the underworld w i l l involve breaking up the old pattern, the death of a gestalt we were comfortable with on some l e v e l , the death of a seemingly whole i dent i t y . We w i l l ra re ly approach such 22 dismemberment i f our pain i s not already severe. - 98 - Amadas must t r u l y "d ie " to the world which i s comfortable for him, become "dismembered" i f he is to f ind th i s connection, th i s force of l i f e within himself. His f i r s t step i s to separate himself from his fr iends and his family and to suffer in s i lence. He becomes severely withdrawn: Assess a mal, paine et contra i re, De l'angousse q u ' i l a emprise. ...Ne veut son consel descouvrir A estrange ne a pr ive ' ...Pour <jou vaura, bien l i s o i t g r ie f , vv. 369-370; 375-376 Celer trestout le sien corage vv. 381-382 He retreats from society, because i t can give him no comfort during his despair.' He must keep his pain a secret, and descend to the depths of his soul alone. . . . I t i s a del iberate, t e r r i f i c refusal to respond to anything but the deepest, highest, r ichest answer to the as yet unknown demand of some waiting void with in: a kind of to ta l s t r i ke , or reject ion of the offered terms of l i f e , as a resu l t of which some power of transformation carr ies the problem to a plane of 23 new magnitudes, where i t i s suddenly and f i n a l l y resolved. At f i r s t , Amadas meets with only to ta l opposit ion, reject ion and arrogance from Ydoine. It i s not his anima that Amadas i s now dealing with. I t i s his shadow, because confronting the shadow i s the f i r s t step in the indiv iduat ion process. So, although we have derived only a hint of th i s negative part of Amadas' character from the narrator ' s descr ipt ion of him, we are now observing the to ta l in tens i ty of his pride and snobbishness as portrayed by Ydoine's conduct towards him. She is hard, - 99 - cold and even cruel in her re jec t ion . For someone who has been described by the narrator as: Chiere courtoise et envois ie, Envers tous frans homes ha i t i e vv. 151-152 and whose beauty and gaiety have inspired love in Amadas' heart, her treatment of him i s extremely unkind. In f a c t , her threats of physical violence seem more l i k e a masculine reaction than a feminine one, again re f l ec t i ng the potential violence in Amadas' own nature: Tant te fe ra i batre a mes sers Que tourneras le ventre envers. Se ne t ' en f u i s , l ec ie re , hors vv. 760-763 But Amadas must deal with th i s cruel part of himself before he can continue his heroic individuation voyage. It i s d i f f i c u l t , because, as the narrator has described, Amadas has a well- loved persona. He is thought of by everyone as being: Sour tous enfans sages e s to i t ; Humles ert mult et amiavles, Frans et courtois et servicavles Et mult ames de cheval iers vv. 69-72 And so: To accept the shadow involves considerble moral e f fo r t and often the giving up of cherished ideals , but only because the ideals were raised too high or based upon an i l l u s i o n . Trying to l i v e as better and nobler people than we are involves us in endless hypocrisy and deceit, and imposes such a s t ra in on us that we 24 often collapse and become worse than we need have been. Amadas must accept his imperfections. But w i l l he be able to bear such a painful and humbling experience? Wi l l he be capable of completely surrendering his ego? - 100 - He cer ta in l y shows perseverance in his quest for Ydoine's love. Despite harsh treatment, he never turns away in anger. Never does he hurl invectives or arrogantly damn her behind her back. He simply perseveres quiety and meekly. His conduct has, indeed, changed. He i s at the mercy of his shadow at th i s point. He t e l l s Ydoine: Ma vie est en vous et ma mort v. 694 His future l i f e as a balanced, whole human being depends upon him facing and integrating both his shadow and anima, and upon resolving unconscious c o n f l i c t s . He can no longer be t o t a l l y caught up in his persona as a good, courageous young man and ignore his i n f e r i o r side and his feminine side. This w i l l only work against him in the long run. However, the unconscious is waiting for Amadas to surrender completely, to face the depths without his ego there to block his progress. The ego cannot descend to the underworld. It takes Amadas 2-1/2 years to f i n a l l y reach the point of to ta l wi l l ingness and to ta l submission. He accomplishes th i s by "dying" at Ydoine's feet , completely giving up his l i f e as i t has been up to now, completely s a c r i f i c i n g his persona and his ego. There i s only one thing that seems to work; and that i s to turn d i r e c t l y toward the approaching darkness without prejudice and t o t a l l y naively and to t ry to f ind out what i t s secret aim is 25 and what i t wants from you. - 101 - He has put his ego to death and has f i n a l l y crossed the threshold. But th i s i s only the beginning. Now he must "survive a succession of t r i a l s " as Campbell describes i t . He must now confront the goddesses of l i gh t and dark. ...the one goddess in two aspects; and the i r confrontation epitomizes the whole sense of the d i f f i c u l t road of t r i a l s . The hero, whether...man or woman, discovers and assimilates his opposite (his own suspected se l f ) e ither by swallowing i t or by being swallowed. One by one the resistances are broken. He must put aside his pr ide, his v i r tue , beauty and l i f e , and bow or submit to the absolutely in to lerab le . Then he f inds that he and his opposite are not of d i f f e r i ng species, but one f l e sh . An int imidating prospect, but one that i s necessary and also f u l f i l l i n g . But i t i s a long and peri lous journey, with many conquests, many f a i l u r e s , many joys and many sorrows. Dragons have now to be s l a in and surpris ing barr iers passed— again, again and again. Meanwhile there w i l l be a multitude of preliminary v i c t o r i e s , unretainable ecstasies and momentary 27 glimpses of the wonderful land. Ydoine revives Amadas by k iss ing him 100 times on the mouth and ch in. One hundred being a number of t o t a l i t y , Ydoine i s thus promising Amadas - 102 - t o t a l i t y and union in his soul, a true integration of his unconscious and conscious elements. Unfortunately, or perhaps fortunately, Amadas does not seem to be aware of what his journey w i l l e n t a i l . I t i s just beginning but Amadas thinks i t has ended, that he has reached his goal. After a l l , his feminine energy has brought him back to l i f e and the harmony he desires is promised. Ydoine now loves him and has vowed eterna l , devoted love to him. This has been his painful desire for 2-1/2 years. But Amadas is to be separated immediately from his newly found love. This has only been a "glimpse of the wonderful land" and now he must slay many dragons and pass many barr iers . At Ydoine's suggestion, Amadas becomes a knight and goes off to perform courageous deeds fo r three years. I t i s interest ing that the hero voyage here takes on a d i s t i n c t l y masculine tone. He must excel in the accepted male ro le of the Middle Ages. But herein l i e s the challenge for Amadas. His f i r e breathing dragon is his pr ide, his ego, and th i s i s what he must conquer. The only way to accomplish th i s task i s to f i r s t perform deeds which arouse his pride so that he can face i t and contain i t . Amadas' work i s to prevent his ego from dominating his personal i ty. It would be inappropriate to merely retreat from the secular world to avoid a confrontation with his masculine conceit. So Amadas accepts the challenge and adopts the t r ad i t i ona l male ro le . Not surpr i s ing ly , Amadas succeeds in becoming a brave knight: - 103 - Qu'as autres examplaire e s to i t D'ensegnement, de courto i s ie , Et de francise et de largece; De l u i et de sa grant prouece Est l a renoumee s i ample vv. 1420-1424 With a l l the praise he receives, can Amadas keep his ego, and his persona in check or w i l l he permit himself to become overwhelmed and forget his recently awakened softer side? Amadas does forget the lessons he learned from being with Ydoine. When i t . i s time to return home after three years of knighthood, Amadas hears of one more tournament and, although he misses his amie intensely, cannot re s i s t the temptation to pa r t i c ipa te . As in the case of Yvain, Amadas chooses secular glory over emotional development. His masculine ego wins for the time being. Just as Yvain overstays his year away from Laudine and loses her, so Amadas overstays his time away from Ydoine with disastrous resu l t s . As the narrator remarks: Si vous di bien que Ions sejors L i couste mult de grant mesure, Puis Ten v int grans messaventure Par 1'ocoison de cest a fa i re ; Vous Tore's bien avant r e t r a i r e . vv. 1566-1570 Amadas does not lose Ydoine's love, but he does lose the opportunity of marrying her, of being unif ied with her. Thus, although Amadas came into touch with his anima and seemed well on the way to incorporating i t into his conscious l i f e , his e f fo r t to develop a re lat ionship with i t has been abandoned, or at least delayed for a time. - 104 - Therefore, the anima again retreats into an undifferentiated state in his psyche. This causes confusion and c o n f l i c t since i t has already been awakened and does not care to once again be ignored. This c o n f l i c t and f rus t ra t ion of the anima are portryaed well in the narrator ' s descr ipt ion of what now takes place between Ydoine and the witches. He begins to increase his praise of Ydoine, while at the same time creating a scene which i s , i f not e v i l , at least eerie and f r ightening: Later, however, th i s indiv idual and personal e f fo r t of developing the re lat ionship with the anima was abandoned when her sublime aspect fused with the f igure of the V i r g i n , who then became the object of boundless devotion and praise. When the anima, as V i r g in , was conceived as being a l l - p o s i t i v e , her 28 negative aspects found expresson in the be l i e f of witches. When the anima is repressed into an undifferentiated state, i t usually emerges in images of extreme good or extreme bad, rather than in r e a l i s t i c or balanced ones. Consequently, since Amadas has rejected his anima, Ydoine as the pos i t ive personi f icat ion of i t evolves into a near perfect V i rg in f igure. The negative aspects of the anima emerge in the ' form of the three wtiches. It i s interest ing that both the pos i t ive and negative sides of the anima are portrayed in the same scene and that there are three witch f igures to one V i rg in f igure. Fami l i a r l y known as the 'mystic number', three suggests not only the promise of unity within a s ingle being but also redemption, the s p i r i t and the T r i n i t y . - 105 - Does th i s suggest, then, that i t takes three e v i l to make one good? Is th i s the supremacy of the pos i t ive anima over the negative tendencies? And are the three witches a prophecy of something better to come, a "promise of un i ty " , a "redemption", in the soul of Amadas? It i s obvious, in any case, that Amadas s t i l l has a great deal of work to do. His inner being i s s p l i t , and he has not yet accepted his i n f e r i o r or dark s ide. Because of t h i s , he i s projecting i t as a negative anima f igure and is thus harming his potential re lat ionship with th i s feminine energy. It i s time for him to delve deeper into his unconscious in order to resolve the struggle. Consequently, he goes mad. Like Yvain after the loss of Laudine, Amadas does not merely submit to his unconscious, he sac r i f i ce s his whole being to i t . He becomes naked phys ica l ly and sp i r i tua l ly - -exposed and vulnerable. Curious as i t may seem, he i s on the r ight course. According to the legend of Inanna and Ereshkigal, in order to descend into the underworld, there are certa in r i t e s to fo l low. One of these i s 30 that one must be brought "naked and bowed low". This i s what Amadas is undergoing. He needs to be transformed so as to f ind a new unity within himself and he demonstrates that he has discarded his old image by his retreat to insanity. When Garines f inds him at Lucca he has reached the depths of his soul and i s facing the horrors he there f inds : Amadas trestout nu venir, Tous deguises, en cr ins tondus Com c i l qui a le sens perdus, Qui de soi ne set nule r ien Savoir ne sens ne mal ne bien; De r ien du mont ne l i souvient. vv. 2722-2727 - 106 - There is a paradox here in Amadas' condit ion. He has turned inward and i s making the d i f f i c u l t journey that many do through drugs, meditation, or insanity to expand the i r consciousness and to come to terms with themselves. I t i s a journey of search, the search for knowledge, and yet, in a way, i t leads one back to the o r i g i n a l , innocent state before the " F a l l " of knowledge—"savoir ne sens ne mal ne b ien" . It i s dangerous at the extremity of th i s journey, and some never make i t back. Fortunately, Amadas i s one of the lucky ones. Just as Yvain was helped back to sanity with the aid of his feminine p r i nc ip le as personif ied in two maidens, so Amadas is helped back by his anima in the form of the woman he loves. And just as the two maidens use a magical ointment to cure Yvain, so Ydoine uses a magical kind of r i t e to cure Amadas: Cent f o i s le nomme d'un randon. Nomme Amadas, Ydoine apres, Et ami et amies ades, Et d i s t a vois piteuse et basse: "Amadas, j a sui j e ' l a lasse Ydoine, votre douce amie, Qui plus vous aime que sa v ie . vv. 3366-3372 The number 100 again occurs to symbolize t o t a l i t y and union, only th i s time i t i s no longer a potential unity, or a glimpse of i t , but an actual grasp of i t . Amadas regains his "memoire etraison" and comes back to the conscious world. He has been helped back by his anima, who represents here: The benign, protecting power of dest iny...a promise that the peace of Paradise, which was known f i r s t within the mother womb, - 107 - i s not to be l o s t ; that i t supports the present and stands in the future as well as in the past; that though omnipotence may seem to be endangered by the threshold passages and l i f e awakenings, protective power is always and ever present within the sanctuary of the heart and even immanent with in, or jus t 31 behind, the unfamil iar features of the world. Immediately after th i s tender scene of healing, however, the narrator breaks in with his misogynist bombast. This i s ostensibly very bad timing, but i t i s becoming a pattern that the more the narrator praises Ydoine, the more he rebukes women in general. I t i s f i r s t after describing Ydoine's to ta l love and devotion for Amadas and her anguish at being betrothed to another man that the narrator introduces the three witches. Now, after describing a scene which i l l u s t r a t e s th i s love and devotion, he e f f e c t i v e l y reproaches women, c a l l i n g them, as we have previously remarked "decevans, engins, venimeuse, felenesses". He concludes th i s d ia t r ibe by excluding Ydoine from th i s company. She i s "boine, l o i a l , et enter ine". This i s another example of confusing Ydoine's image with that of the perfect V i r g in , making her an object of boundless devotion and praise. Because the narrator lauds Ydoine to such a degree, he creates in her an impossible f igure of perfection and polarizes her against the rest of women. The negative aspects must emerge, so they are projected onto the rest of the female sex. I f the narrator ' s opinion re f l ec t s that of the author, th i s shows that the author has the grave problem of d i f f e ren t i a t i ng his inner feminine. Perhaps because of the external att itudes of his time, he has not up - 108 - unt i l th i s time, come to terms with his anima so that he can discontinue to project i t s pos i t ive and negative aspects on indiv idual women. As tlacobi states: The character of our soul-image, the anima or animus of our dreams, is a natural index to our internal psychological 32 s i tua t ion . The author i s confused, and i s t ry ing to deal with i t so that he can f i nd harmony within himself. The most dramatic struggle comes with Amadas' f i ght with the maufe. Ydoine, his feminine energy, has died, just when i t seems as i f he i s w i l l i n g and determined to incorporate her into his l i f e . Perhaps th i s i s the author's attempt to get along without his anima. I f i t i s so d i f f i c u l t to resolve these c o n f l i c t s , perhaps i t i s better to bury them and forget them. But Amadas cannot forget his anima. He is miserable without Ydoine: Mais Amadas a doel remaint Com c i l qui plus sospire et p l a i n t . Mult par demaine grant dolour Et grant angousse tout le j o r . Se coiement se p la in t et pleure, Ne cuic qu'on trouvast a cele eure Un plus dolant home de l u i . vv. 5401-5407 He goes to Ydoine's tomb and: Et baise l a p ierre l i s t e e Cent f o i s en une randounee vv. 5458-5459 - 109 - Although i t now seems impossible, he s t i l l longs for union with his anima. The one hundred kisses here symbolize that strong desire for to ta l harmony with her. However, w i l l that desire be strong enough? The maufe' arr ives and attempts to shatter Amadas' f a i t h by of fer ing proof that Ydoine has loved someone besides him. Could i t be true that she has betrayed him? Could she r ea l l y share the treacherous, dece i t fu l nature of her sex? She did l i e to him once. Amadas undergoes much internal turmoil at th i s point. He doubts Ydoine, damns the female sex, reproaches himself for having believed Ydoine. He sounds exactly l i k e the narrator during his d i a t r i be , using the same tone and vocabulary: 'Ne sai certes que plus en die: Plaines sont de grant fe lounie. Por (j 'ai leur maus ramente'u's Que tra'i's sui et deceu's Par Ydoine qui m'a t r i c h i e ' Comme mauvaise et engignie. Ja mais un j o r n'en kerrai une: Toutes ont l a fausse commune De trai 'son, de t r i c e r i e . Trestoutes sont fortra i ' t resses vv. 5869-5877 Et decevans et felenesses. vv. 5883-5884 There i s much anger and h o s t i l i t y evident in these words. Amadas is giving f u l l vent to his fear that Ydoine actual ly has betrayed him. Ydoine is his las t hope for developing a re lat ionship with his inner feminine. If she has l e t him down, only the negative anima w i l l survive, and Amadas w i l l f ind his soul f u l l of only e v i l , f r ighten ing, w i t ch - l i ke f igures. Happily, Amadas' f a i t h i s strong enough that he.does not surrender to these doubts and fears. - 110 - He would rather f i ght them: 'Ydoine, amie et dame, Merci, que trop mesfais me su i , Quant onques de r ien vous mescrui. Comment que c i s t e'u'st l ' a n e l . Tant av i ies le cuer l o i e l Que cro i re ne peu'sse p'as Que vous treciss ie ' s Amadas Qui de f i n cuer vous amoit tant, Plus c'omme de cest mont v ivant. ' vv. 5958-5966 The f i ght with the maufe' r e a l l y symbolizes a f i ght with his inner demons which have been r e l e a s e d — h o s t i l i t i e s , doubts, and insecur i t ies about women. The maufe^ i s an enemy and: As the or ig ina l intruder into the paradise of the infant with i t s mother, the father i s the archetypal enemy; hence, throughout l i f e a l l enemies are symbolical (to the unconscious) of the f a t h e r . 3 3 But, as Campbell points out "the ogre aspect of the father is a ref lex of 34 the v i c t im ' s own ego". So the task here i s to f i nd atonement with the father/ego so that one can become a balanced person. It i s only by doing so that the inner feminine side can emerge into the conscious realm. ...The work of the hero i s to slay the tenacious aspect of the father (dragon, tes ter , ogre king) and release from i t s ban the 35 v i t a l energies that w i l l feed the universe. As we saw in the beginning of th i s chapter, d i f fe rent f igures can represent d i f fe rent aspects of an archetype. Therefore, just as Ydoine - I l l - > i represents Amadas' shadow by embodying his undifferentiated " f ee l i n g " side and his human f r a i l t i e s , so the maufe' represents the most e v i l and negative part of Amadas, the part that could potent ia l l y possess and destroy him. He cannot dispense with i t , but by bringing i t to a conscious level and accepting i t he can reduce i t s powerful hold over him. He can "tame" his negative shadow and control i t rather than have i t control him. As Campbell points out about the enemy: The tyrant i s proud and therein resides his doom. He is proud because he thinks of his strength as his own. Notice then, that the maufe', Amadas' enemy, displays Amadas' worst f au l t to an excessive degree. He is haughty, sure of himself and mocking: 'Vassa l ' f a i t i l , 'ne sai qui es, Mais trop par es f o l et engre's Et non sacant quant ne t ' en f u i s . . .Je te fe ra i j e s i r tot f r o i t Geule baee et estendu.' vv. 5969-5971;5974-5975 In f ac t , i t i s th i s t r a i t of the maufe' that angers Amadas the most and that inc i tes him to action: Ce grant orguel abassera S ' i l puet, et bien s'en vengera Proqainement sans atarg ier. Par i re d i s t au ceva l i e r : 'Vassal mult ave's de paroles, Mais org i l leuses sont et f o l e s ' vv. 5989-5994 Amadas cannot support either the maufe'1 s arrogance or his own arrogance. So the f i gh t begins. I t i s strenous and continues for a long time, un t i l both of them are " l a s " and "caus". The maufe' urges Amadas repeatedly to give up, conceding that he i s "preus" and "hardis " even though he s t i l l - 112 - doesn't stand a chance against someone l i k e himself. F i n a l l y , however, Amadas cuts off the maufe^'s r ight hand. It i s s i gn i f i cant that Amadas does not k i l l his enemy but by cutt ing off his r ight hand (the r ight hand being a symbol of a b i l i t y and competence), he renders him impotent. Amadas' negative shadow w i l l no longer master him. He i s now free to pursue other more important matters such as developing a re lat ionship with his anima. Because the maufe i s no longer in contro l , he must surrender what he has taken from Amadas, namely, Ydoine, his feminine s ide. She could not ex i s t while his pride dominated his personal ity, but now that i t i s contained, she can once again play a ro le in Amadas' l i f e . Amadas has succeeded in facing his primary weakness. The problem of the hero i s to pierce himself (and therewith his world) precise ly through that point; to shatter and annihi late 37 that key knot of his l imited existence. So i t would now seem as i f Amadas' p o s s i b i l i t i e s are endless. He has redeemed himself and can return to the world with his anima and ego in tac t . His consciousness having succumbed, the unconscious nevertheless supplies i t s own balances, and he is born back into the world from which he came. Instead of holding to and saving his ego... he loses i t , and yet, through grace, i t i s returned. - 113 - Even the narrator comments on his wise courage as opposed to the foo l i sh boldness of many. Those who are bold without understanding atta in only g r ie f . But those l i k e Amadas: Honeur a c i l qui bien enprent Un pesant f a i s , ^ce m'est avis, Dont est renoumes a toudis. Pour ce fu sages qui ce d i s t Premierement et qui e s c r i t : 'De grans enprises finement Avienent maint grant bien sovent. 1 Ce puet pour voir dire Amadas, Qui ains fu mult dolans et l a s , Mais or est i l s i au desus De tout cest mont ne quiert i l plus, Pour ce q u ' i l l ' a part vasselage Conquise et par son f i e r corage Et par sa grant chevalerie C 'est le cors d'Ydoine s'amie Q u ' i l a rescous par grant vigour. vv. 6494-6509 Amadas has put his courage to use, not to win a tournament to boost up his pr ide, but to face his unconscious and conquer his weak parts so as to better co-habit with his anima. This i s indeed wise, not f o o l i s h , boldness. Amadas' hero quest has been accomplished except for technical de ta i l s . However, he does not want to return to Burgundy. He wants to run away with Ydoine to avoid further complications. But: The f u l l round, the norm of the monomyth, requires that the hero shal l now begin the labor of bringing the runes of wisdom...or his sleeping princess, back into the kingdom of humanity, where the boon may redound to the renewing of the community, the nation, the planet, or the ten thousand worlds. - 114 - It i s not rare for the hero to have no desire to return to society and, indeed, some never do. The f i r s t problem of the returning hero i s to accept as r e a l , after an experience of sou l - sat i s fy ing v i s ion of f u l f i l l m e n t , the passing joys and sorrows, banal i t ies and noisy obscenities of l i f e . Why re-enter such a world? Why attempt to make p laus ib le, or even in teres t ing , to men and women consumed with passion, the experience of transcendental b l i s s ? 4 0 But Amadas' feminine energy recognizes the importance of the return. She i s somehow more v i t a l l y connected to her community of Burgundy and to her God. These symbolize the centre of the universe, around which everything else must revolve. It i s part of the connection with l i f e . The narrator has shown that honour i s important to him, and th i s i s the honourable thing to do. Consequently, we can see that Amadas i s l e t t i ng his anima d i rect him. He l i s tens to her and follows her advice rather than that of his ego as he previously has done. Amadas now knows how to incorporate his unconscious into his conscious l i f e — a great breakthrough. Amadas and Ydoine do return to Burgundy where Ydoine begins action for a divorce. Here we rea l i ze that the narrator ' s emotional and s p i r i t ua l growth has perhaps not para l le led that of Amadas. He issues another ant i - femin ist d ia t r ibe using the same superci l ious tone and condemnatory - 115 - vocabulary as previously. He speaks of "mencoigne", " fausete" , " t r i c e re s s e " , "bo id ie " and l inks a l l women to witchcraft and, hence, to the negative anima. He speaks f e a r f u l l y of women's power over men and over the world in general. He again excludes Ydoine from th i s group, ca l l i n g her " f i n e " , "bone", and "enter ine " , but as we have seen, he also uses the words "sens" and "engin". His confusion and doubt seem to have worsened, because at the end of the speech he adds: Mais je n ' i ai dro i t ne raison Qu'en doie d ire se bien non: Ains ont bien deservi vers moi, Que.trestoutes amer les do i ; Ses amerai jusqu 'a l a f i n Sans traison et sans engin. vv. 7067-7072 The narrator brutual ly c r i t i c i z e s women in two speeches, labels them a l l as witches and l i a r s , then sweetly states he has no reason to slander them and that he w i l l love them un t i l the end. If the narrator, by at times acting nonsensical i s i l l u s t r a t i n g the inconsistent and i l l o g i c a l tendencies of human nature, then perhaps he i s mocking both polarized att itudes prevalent at the t ime—that of i do l i z i n g women as angels and that of condemning them as dev i l s . I f he re f lec t s the author's i n a b i l i t y to reconci le these two opinions, then he i s even able to mock himself. I t seems probable from the narrator ' s comments that the author has not reached a state of harmony with his unconscious. Nevertheless, there i s hope. The statement of the narrator indicat ing that he s t i l l loves women because they have not betrayed him personally shows a wi l l ingness to understand, to transcend popular be l ie f s and opinions and to f ind a - 116 - balance. Perhaps the author is just now ready to die at his anima1s feet , to submit to her power and slay his own unconscious dragons. After a l l , he has just f in ished recounting the experience of someone who succeeded in doing just that. Amadas has found "the other portion of (the hero) h imsel f - - for each i s b o t h . " 4 1 He has become an individuated person, one who has not only "brought to 42 l i ght again the los t A t l an t i s of the co-ordinated soul" but who has been able to s a c r i f i c e his own i nd i v i dua l i t y for society as a whole. Amadas does return to Burgundy, does share his newly found knowledge and f u l f i l l m e n t and uses i t to govern his community in honour, peace and harmony. Amadas f inds both inner and outer harmony and manages to resolve, not only the con f l i c t s within his soul, but also the con f l i c t s between the att itudes of the 12th and 13th centuries. - 117 - CONCLUSION After much invest igat ion of the issues raised in Amadas et Ydoine I w i l l recapitulate b r i e f l y the stages of the argument. The central concern of the work i s the resolut ion of c on f l i c t in order to atta in harmony and union on both a socia l and personal l e v e l . Chapter 1 of the thesis deals with socia l disconnection. From the very beginning of the ta le Amadas i s , although not t o t a l l y separate from society, s t i l l somewhat alienated from i t . This i s his own, not soc iety ' s f a u l t , since the a l ienat ion arises from his wrong at t i tude. Society desires Amadas and holds him in high regard, but he i s proud and independent, and these two t r a i t s hinder him from actual ly merging into the soc ia l f ab r i c . By reject ing women as a group as being beneath him, and by having no care to marry, Amadas i s f l out ing the t rad i t ions of society and i s continuing on a path of indiv idual ism. This course of action conforms with certa in prevai l ing notions current in the 13th century. Amadas considers himself superior to women, but generally a strong fee l ing of super ior i ty actual ly denotes a deeper fee l ing of i n f e r i o r i t y or inadequacy, and the idea that one has to prove something since one i s not comfortable with or sure of one's ident i ty . - 118 - This i s most l i k e l y the case with Amadas. However, Amadas does in his heart desire social harmony and union, as i s evident by the fact that he f a l l s intensely in love with Ydoine. Nevertheless, his c o n f l i c t and struggle are only beginning. Ydoine does not reciprocate his love, and Amadas discovers that he must persevere and persevere, even i f he has not the slightest hope of success. This struggle, he finds, puts even greater distance between himself and society, as i s made manifest by the fact that he spends 2-1/2 years in his bed and no longer participates in the social structure at a l l . His absence is noticed: Et chevalier et damoiseles Esquiier, bourgois et danseles. Quant passent pas devant I'ostal Ou l i enfes g i s t du grant mal. Se d'Yent tout: Alasi a l a s i Grans damages est d'Amadas Qui s i languist; che est dels grans, S'or fust h a i t i e s , l i e s et joians, Dix! com i l le f e s i s t hui bien! Certes n'en doutissons de rien Que de deus pars tous nes venquist Diusl quel doleur que s i languist! vv. 856-867 It i s after the long-awaited union with his soul-mate that Amadas departs from the path of individualism and begins to reach out for social connections and social acceptance. This a l l takes place because of Ydoine's i n i t i a t i v e and guidance. She desires to marry Amadas, but realizes the importance of the macrocosm. She does not wish the two of them to become an isolated entity or a universe of the i r own. She wants to guard the links with the outer world and keep i t s approval. In t h i s way Amadas and Ydoine are much unlike Tristan and Iseult. Rather than - 119 - transience, they seek permanence; rather than secrecy, they seek publicness; rather than mere phys i ca l i t y , they seek also s p i r i t u a l i t y . These are are a l l basic tenets of a society. Society perpetuates i t s e l f by means of legends, r i t u a l s and t r ad i t i on s . These communicate a sense of cont inuity, of belonging to something greater than oneself, and beyond the here and now. As is evident by the manner in which Amadas and Ydoine choose to pursue the i r love, they show that they are w i l l i n g to submit to and uphold these tenets. This i s not because of mere conformity. On the contrary, Amadas and Ydoine act i ve ly choose to fo l low the rules of society, resu l t ing in much pain and gr ie f fo r themselves. Usually i t i s easier to conform than to rebe l , but for Amadas and Ydoine i t i s a struggle to do things soc iety ' s way. If i t was not for soc iety ' s customs, they would not be forced to separate for three years during which time Amadas earns a knightly reputation. Ydoine would be spared an undesired marriage and Amadas would avoid insanity. Amadas and Ydoine could run off the same way as Tr istan and Iseult to be spared much g r ie f . By doing so, however, they would cut the connections between themselves and the i r fami ly, society and r e l i g i o n . Rather than bl ind conformity, the course of action that Amadas and Ydoine pursue denotes respect, and a desire to be part of something larger than themselves. It i s an abandonment of the way of individual ism and a return to the ideology of the 12th century where f u l f i l l m e n t was sought - 120 - by means of reaching harmony with the macrocosm and by keeping a connection with- i t . The author s t r ives to show that th i s socia l connection is also best for our psychological health. Personal harmony cannot be achieved i f we do not also possess socia l harmony. This i s i l l u s t r a t ed by the fact that when Tristan and Iseult f l ee together to the woods they are happy for awhile, bel ieving a l l they need i s each other to.be content. But once the love potion wears of f and the i r eyes are opened, so to speak, they long to return to court where the i r roots are, where the or ig ins of the i r personal ident i ty are, and on which they v i r t u a l l y depend for a sense of wholeness. A l l par t ic ipate in the ceremonial according to rank and funct ion. The whole society becomes v i s i b l e to i t s e l f as an imperishable l i v i n g unit . Generations of indiv iduals pass, l i k e anonymous c e l l s from a l i v i n g body; but the sustaining, timeless form remains. By an enlargement of v i s ion to embrace th i s super- ind i v idua l , each discovers himself enhanced, enriched, supported and magnified. His ro le , however unimpressive, is seen to be i n t r i n s i c to the beautiful fest ival- image of man—the image, potential .yet necessari ly i nh ib i ted , within himself. Social duties continue the lesson of the f e s t i v a l into normal, everyday existence, and the indiv idual i s val idated s t i l l . - 121 - Conversely, indi f ference, r e vo l t—o r exi le—break the v i t a l i z i n g connectives. From the standpoint of the socia l un i t , the broken- off indiv idual i s simply nothing—waste J Thus, personal par t i c ipat ion not only benefits society, but "enhances, enriches, supports and val idates the i nd i v i dua l " . I t i s interest ing that Ydoine, the female component of th i s love a f f a i r , i s the bridge to socia l harmony. She i s the moderating, guiding influence, and Amadas merely submits to her wishes. This i s because he trusts her and knows that she i s c loser to society. It i s Ydoine who suggests Amadas be knighted. It i s she who resorts to devious methods in order to avert an unwanted marriage. It i s she who takes the i n i t i a t i v e to f ind Amadas when he disappears and cures him of his madness. It i s she who arranges matters so that the barons w i l l e lect Amadas as her husband. It i s she who refuses Amadas' advances and i n s i s t s they return to Burgundy and be married l ega l l y and honourably. Ydoine is determined and strong. She rea l izes that she cannot separate herself fom her parents, society and r e l i g i o n . That l ink is essential to her personal health. In Chapter 3 where we examine the search for psychological union and harmony, i t i s again the feminine influence which i n i t i a t e s act ion. The anima c a l l s Amadas to turn to his unconscious and bring to the conscious level parts of his personal ity he has up un t i l th i s point ignored. Just - 122 - as Ydoine brings balance, guidance and moderation to Amadas on the soc ia l l e ve l , so the contrasexual component of his being brings him balance, guidance and moderation on the psychological l e v e l . It i s because Amadas has not yet acknowledged his anima that he is s p l i t and polarized psycho- l o g i c a l l y . The anima i s "a mediator between the ego and the Self " and thus can heal inner d iv i s ions . Amadas has remained unfamil iar with and, thus, frightened of the female counterpart of himself, which has resulted in his feel ings of super ior i ty towards women. S t i l l , Amadas strongly desires to heal the psychological s p l i t and, with the powerful herald from his unconscious, he f inds himself almost as i t under a s p e l l , l i k e the spel l of a love potion, except that th i s i s a resu l t of his own inner needs and yearnings. When Amadas becomes lovesick and retreats on a soc io log ica l l e v e l , there is also a corresponding retreat on the psychological l e v e l . He f a l l s apart emotionally and appears to be further than ever from integration or harmony. However, th i s i s r ea l l y part of the process of surrendering his ego in order to reach his Se l f . His ego must release i t s strong hold over him i f he i s to achieve that v i t a l balance and moderation. His ego has kept him on the path of individual ism and thus alienated from his Se l f . Just as his pride keeps him from a to ta l merging with society, so, too, his pride keeps him from a to ta l merging with his feminine counter- part to become a whole person. Amadas must humble himself to use the anima's help to integrate the underdeveloped parts of his personal i ty. - 123 - Conformity to soc iety ' s wishes creates much c o n f l i c t for Ydoine and Amadas before i t resolves i t . And conformity and submission to the desires of his unconscious f i r s t creates great internal c o n f l i c t fo r Amadas. Amadas' ego has comprised his to ta l i dent i t y , and he delays s a c r i f i c e of i t even though he i s aware i t i s necessary for his maturation. This i s brought out in the episode where Amadas y ie lds to the temptation to increase his secular glory by postponing his return to Burgundy for the sake of another tournament. In the meantime, Ydoine becomes betrothed to another man. His losing her s i gn i f i e s losing the contact with his anima that he has jus t recently made. This i s devastating to Amadas' psyche and he loses his conscious mind. However, th i s does not necessari ly mean losing cont ro l , or a weakness on his part. On the contrary, i t i s a w i l l ed surrender of i dent i t y , a courageous, to ta l abandonment of ego. Again, i t i s the feminine counterpart which i n i t i a t e s act ion. By removing i t s e l f from Amadas, the anima is appealing to Amadas1 psyche, which has as i t s main concern the inner needs and tota l health of Amadas, rather than to his ego, which i s mainly concerned with his persona and the outer world. The anima knows that drast ic measures are necessary and that only the psyche has the strength to take these. Thus, as Ydoine uses ingenuity to f i nd solutions when none appear to ex i s t , so does the anima. We examined how the tenets of a society involve a sense of s p i r i t u a l i t y , belonging and cont inuity with h i story, and how these are perpetrated by - 124 - means of legends and t rad i t i on s . The Self has s imi la r tenets, and i t i s on the level of the co l l e c t i ve unconscious that these are maintained. The co l l e c t i ve unconscious i s a deeper stratum of the unconscious than the personal unconscious; i t i s the unknown material from which our consciousness emerges. We can deduce i t s existence in part from observation of i n s t i n c t i ve behaviour...and from the obvious traces of mythological images in (our) dreams...images of which (we) have no previous conscious knowledge. Thus, i t i s in the sphere of the co l l e c t i v e unconscious where soc ia l and personal union merge, where the connection with a l l parts of the unconscious, other l i v i n g beings and history i s t o t a l , and where the l ink transcends re s t r i c t i on s because of race, sex or age. By fol lowing t i s "inborn form of i n t u i t i o n " 4 in the form of the archetypal anima, Amadas i s showing his wi l l ingness to uphold the tenets of the Se l f . For, even as Ydoine, the female component, i s the means, she is also the goal. The hegemony wrested from the enemy, the freedom won from the malice of the monster, the l i f e energy released from the t o i l s of the tyrant Ho ldfast - - i s symbolized as a woman. - 125 - This explains why, after the c l imact ic batt le with the maufe'', the dark recesses of Amadas' soul, the " p r i z e " i s Ydoine. She i s his freedom. She unlocks his true personal ity. Like many who fo l low the paths of the i r unconscious, Amadas is reluctant to return to the conscious level once he has achieved inner freedom. And, again, i t i s the female p r inc ip le which w i l l not allow him to remain. This would only be another sort of imbalance in his unconscious mind and would create another type of fragmentation in his being. Amadas and Ydoine return to the i r roots, the i r l ink to the macrocosmos, by returning to Burgundy. So the anima convinces Amadas to return to the conscious world, to integrate his new awareness into his to ta l personal ity and to enjoy the inner peace th i s harmony brings. And so i t appears as i f the c o n f l i c t i s resolved and harmony i s rea l ized on both a socia l and personal l e ve l . However, there i s an incongruous element in th i s p icture of unity. This i s the presence of the narrator. Is he the spokesperson for the author? I f so, how can someone who so beaut i fu l l y depicts the f u l f i l l m e n t of soc ia l and personal union hold such d i s jo in ted, extreme and biased views? The narrator i s , in r e a l i t y , the personi f icat ion of both socia l and personal fragmentation. He shares values from both the 12th century and the 13th century. - 126 - The 12th-century influence on his att itudes i s revealed by his portrayal of Ydoine. He appears to describe her actions object ive ly yet his comments about her actions are seldom appropriate. He shares the enthusiasm of most 12th-century lovers and elevates Ydoine to the level of a goddess, prais ing her constantly. Twelfth-century lovers ignored or denied the fau l t s of the i r lady. They preferred to i do l i ze her and regard her as Perfection personi f ied. The narrator of Amadas et Ydoine i l l u s t r a t e s th i s whole philosophy. The narrator does not hide the fact that Ydoine l i e s , deceives and uses witchcraft . But he skims over her dishonesty and instead stresses her ingenuity and her f i d e l i t y towards Amadas. In addit ion, the narrator voices the la ter 13th-century att i tude towards women which was the opposite extreme. His two bombastic speeches in which he denounces the female sex in general are another example of b l ind reasoning, of fol lowing accepted opinions of the day without examining the real substance or or ig in of these viewpoints. He insu l ts women, c a l l s them base and dangerous, yet offers no concrete proof of these accusations. These be l i e f s , he concedes, do not come from personal experience. Certes, toutes celes du mont Sans f a i l l e t r icereses sont, Mais je n ' i ai d ro i t ne raison Qu'en doie d ire se bien non: Ains ont bien deservi vers moi, Que trestoutes amer les doi ; Ses amerai jusqu 'a l a f i n Sans traYson et sans engin vv. 7065-7072 - 127 - A strange conclusion at which to ar r i ve. He seems to accept the common be l ie f of the time that women are f i c k l e and f a l s e , yet refuses to act on that opinion, preferr ing instead to love them a l l . The narrator adopts concurrently the sexist att itudes of both the 12th and 13th centuries, and th i s i s the reason why he appears i l l o g i c a l and contradictory. He portrays the incongruit ies and idiosyncracies of human nature and the absurdity of certa in be l ie f s by appearing to adopt them himself. The author merges the extreme views of both the 12th and 13th centuries and incarnates them into the personage of the narrator in order to i l l u s t r a t e the unreasonableness of both viewpoints and the imposs ib i l i t y of reconci l ing the two. We cannot know what opinions the author holds—whether, even though he may be aware of in just ices and chasms in society, he s t i l l shares the narrator ' s dilemma and knows not what to think about women. What is evident in his work is that struggle ex i s t s on more than one level and that that struggle i s overcome to make way for peace and harmony. As the romance concludes. Signeur, puis leur assamblement Vesqui set ans tot sainglement L i dus sans plus en tant fqnda Une abei'e u s'en ala Et l a ducesse avueques l u i , Illoeques morurent andui L i r i ce terre de Borgoigne Sans contredit et sans alonge, Ot l i cuens Amadas apres Si v a i l l an t due n ' i ot ainc mes, Ne qui s i vigereusement Tenist en pais l a povre gent, Ne qui chevaliers tant amast, Ne plus largement leur donast, - 128 - La ducesse refu s i sage, Si vai l !ans d'oevre et de corage, Si gentius ne s i houneree, C 'ainc dame ne fu tant amee En Bourgoigne mais a nul j o r Com l 'aiment t u i t c i l de I'ounor, Et le bon due tout autresi Signeur, pour ver i te vous di Qu'a grant houneur t inrent l a terre Toute leur vie en pais, sans guerre, De leur amor faut c i l ' e s t o re , Leur ames metre Dix en glore Par sa douceur, par sa merchi Et de tous peceeurs ausi Amen vv. 7885-7912 Truly a f a i r y ta le ending. They ru le in peace, loved by those who they ru le , bringing glory to God. Total harmony. Paradise. Perhaps, then, th i s romance has been a way for the author to come to terms with his own struggle, or has prepared the way for him to do so. Yet, what i s most v i t a l to us as readers is how we interpret th i s work and integrate i t s lessons into our own l i v e s . As Joseph Campbell perceptively states: The problem of mankind today, therefore, i s prec ise ly the opposite to that of men in the comparatively stable periods of those great co-ordinating mythologies which now are known as l i e s . Then a l l meaning was in the group, in the great anonymous forms, none in the self-express ive ind i v idua l ; today no meaning i s in the group—none in the world; a l l i s in the i nd i v idua l . But there the meaning i s absolutely unconscious. One does not - 129 - know toward what one moves. One does not know by what one is propel led. The l ines of communication between the conscious and the unconscious zones of the human psyche have a l l been cut, and we have been s p l i t in two. The modern hero-deed must be that of questing to bring to l i gh t again the lost A t l an t i s of the 5 co-ordinated soul. Thus, the problem today is the same as the problem of Amadas1 day, and our i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c age in re la t ion to the time when " a l l meaning was in the group" can be compared to the 13th century in re la t ion to the 12th. And, l i k e Amadas, we have a choice. We can choose to ignore doubts, d i s sa t i s fac t ions , c a l l s to change our way of re la t ing to the world. We can fol low the "norm" and choose the route of least resistance. That route revolves around money, personal glory, routine a c t i v i t i e s of l i f e , without stopping to ponder the mysteries of l i f e . Or we can f l i t from therapy to therapy, guru to guru, in an attempt to f i l l a vague void inside of us. We can j o i n the ranks of those who state they don't understand the opposite sex, don't l i k e the opposite sex, or fee l the i r sex is superior to the opposite sex. We can j o i n the s i l en t majority who recognize that v i o l a t i on of women exists in the form of rape and pornography, economic inequal i ty or discr imination against women, but not t r y to consider the causes or solut ions. But a l l these courses of action w i l l not bring true contentment to the soul or enlightenment. No one can do the searching for us. It i s up to each one of us to make some e f fo r t to rea l i ze and understand our unconscious and to harmonize i t s undifferentiated elements. - 130 - The goal i s not to decrease the differences between the sexes. I t i s rather to bring to f u l l maturity both the male and female elements of our Being so as to increase understanding and to better communication. It i s integration and incorporation of the contrasexual component into our personal ity. This s i gn i f i e s true harmony and union between the sexes and is a stepping stone to the attainment of both inner and outer harmony. Just as the "woman" in Amadas et Ydoine was a bridge to soc ia l and personal harmony, so the inner man or inner woman of our Being i s the bridge to our internal and external harmony. We have witnessed the course of th i s undertaking and the personal s a c r i f i c e , patience, determination, and f a i t h involved. It i s extremely d i f f i c u l t and pa in fu l . Yet the successful integration of our contrasexual component brings many rewards on a social and personal l e v e l . For Amadas and Ydoine, i t brought peace to a l l of Burgundy and i t also brought inner peace. When Amadas re l i ed on his inner se l f to guide him, he f i n a l l y found sa t i s fac t ion and contentment. As Jung writes of the indiv iduation process: I t i s as i f a r i ve r that had run to waste in sluggish side-streams and marshes suddenly found i t s way back to i t s proper bed, or as i f a stone ly ing on a germinating seed were l i f t e d away so that the shoot could begin i t s natural growth. 7 Amadas et Ydoine i s a v i v id account of how the personal ity can be l iberated, healed and transformed by l i s ten ing to the unconscious and how th i s i s a v i t a l step to l i be ra t i ng , healing, and transforming society. - 131 - NOTES I. INTRODUCTION 1 F r iedr ich Heer, The Medieval World, trans. Janet Sondheimer (New York: Mentor Books, 1961), p. 110. 2 Heer, p. 20. 3 Heer, p. 21. 4 Heer, pp. 23 - 24. 5 Heer, p. 25. 6 Heer, p. 28. 7 Heer, p. 318. Q Joan M. Ferrante, Woman as Image in Medieval Literature—From the Twelfth Century to Dante, (New York: Columbia Univers ity Press, 1975), p. 3. 9 V i r g i n i a Woolf, A Room of One's Own, (London, 1929; rpt . London: Granada Publishing Limited, 1982), pp. 93 - 94. - 132 - Heer, pp. 181 - 182. To be sure, not a l l psychological approaches to a work can be f r u i t f u l . Freudian concepts, for instance, would not be i l luminat ing in a study of Amadas et Ydoine. Nevertheless, th i s i s true of writ ings regardless of the time period in which they were wr i t ten. One must search to f i nd which, i f any, psychological analysis i s appropriate and e luc idat ing. 12 Joseph Campbell, Myths to Live By, (New York: Bantem, 1972) p. 160. 13 Chrestien de Troyes, Erec et Enide, (Manchester: Manchester Univers ity Press, 1942), vv. 421 - 426. 1 4 Chrestien, vv. 1247 - 1253. 15 Although one could compare Amadas et Ydoine to several other medieval romances and thereby discover many fasc inat ing comparisons and contrasts, th i s i s another path a l l i t s own and would only tend to d i f fuse the main focus of th i s thes i s . I w i l l therefore leave that to some time in the future and l i m i t myself to the legend of Tr i stan et Iseult s ince, for reasons already stated, I consider i t to be the most c ruc ia l and i n f l uen t i a l romance of the time period. - 133 - , u Amadas et Ydoine, ed. John Revel! Reinhard, CSMA, No. 51, Par i s : Champion, 1926. vv 3955 - 3963. A l l subsequent references are to th i s ed it ion by l i ne number only. I I. CHAPTER 1 - AMADAS ET YDOINE AS TRANSCENDENT-TRISTAN 1 Chrestien de Troyes, Yvain, (Manchester: Manchester Univers ity Press, 1942), vv. 1386 - 1397. 2 Berol, Tr i stan Und Isolde, (MUnchen: Eidoes Verlag Munchen, 1962), vv. 2161 - 2172. 3 Berol, vv. 1382 - 1384. 4 Berol, vv. 1412 - 1415. 5 Berol, vv. 352 - 356. 6 Berol, vv. 367 - 370. 7 Berol, vv. 371 - 380. o Thomas, "Tr i s tan et I seu l t " , in Les Poemes de Tr i s tan et I s eu l t—Ex t r a i t s , (Par is: L i b r a i r i e Larousse, 1933) p. 154. 9 Berol, vv. 2353 - 2354. - 134 - I I I . CHAPTER 2 - THE NARRATOR AND HIS HEROINE Joan M. Ferrante, Woman as Image in Medieval Literature—From the Twelfth Century to Dante, (New York: Columbia Univers ity Press, 1975), pp. 73 - 74. Jef f rey Burton Russel l , Witchcraft in the Middle Ages, (London: Cornell Univers ity Press, 1972), p. 13. Richard Axton, Medieval French Plays, (Oxford: Bas i l Blackwell, 1971), p. 147. 4 Heer, p. 113. Ferrante, p. 25. Ferrante, p."25. 7 Ferrante, p. 74. o John Revel 1 Reinhard, The Old French Romance of Amadas et Ydoine: An H i s to r i ca l Study, (Durham, N.C.: Duke Univers ity Press, 1927), pp. 13 - 16. - 135 - IV. CHAPTER 3 - AMADAS1 INNER VOYAGE 1 M.-L. von Franz, "The Process of Indiv iduat ion", in Man and His Symbols, ed. Carl G. Jung (London: Dell Publishing Co. Inc., 1964), p. 163. 2 von Franz, p. 169. 3 von Franz, p. 170. 4 Jolande Jacobi, The Psychology of C.G. Jung, (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd. 1942), p. 116. 5 Joseph Campbell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces, Boll ingen Series XVII (Princeton: Princeton Univers ity Press, 1949), p. 60. 6 Campbell, pp. 91 - 92. 7 Campbell, p. 101. 8 Campbell, p. 116. 9 Campbell, p. 129. 1 0 Campbell, p. 148. - 136 - 1 1 Campbell, p. 162. 1 2 Campbell, p. 217. 1 3 Campbell, p. 223. 1 4 von Franz, p. 224. 1 5 von Franz, p. 238. von Franz, p. 191. 1 7 von Franz, p. 191. 1 8 Campbell, p. 51. 1 9 Campbell, p. 111. 2 0 Jacobi, p. 112. 2 1 Joseph L. Henderson, "Ancient Myths and Modern Man" in Man and His Symbols, ed. Carl G. Jung (London: Dell Publishing Co. Inc., 1964) p. 156. 137 Sy lv ia Brinton Perera, Descent to the Goddess: A Way of I n i t i a t i o n for Women, Studies in Jungian psychology; 6, (Toronto: Inner C i t y Books, 1981), p. 55. Campbell, p. 65. 24 Frieda Fordham, An Introduction to Jung's Psychology, (Middlesex: Penguin, 1953), p. 51. 25 von Franz, p. 170. 2 6 Campbell, p. 108. 27 Campbell, p. 109. 28 von Franz, p. 196. Sharon Spencer, "Intimate Geometry: The Art of the Triangle in Three Works by Marguerite Duras," L ' E sp r i t Createur, Summer, 1982, vo l . XXII, No. 2, p. 45. o u Perera, p. 9. 3 1 Campbell, pp. 71 - 72. 3 2 Jacobi, pp. 115 - 116. - 138 - 3 3 Campbell, p. 155. 3 4 Campbell, p. 129. 3 5 Campbell, p. 352, 3 6 Campbell, p. 337. 3 7 Campbell, p. 147. 3 8 Campbell, p. 216. 3 9 Campbell, p. 193. 4 0 Campbell, p. 218. 4 1 Campbell, p. 342. 4 2 Campbell, p. 388. V. CONCLUSION 1 Campbell, p. 338. von Franz, p. 195. Fordham, pp. 23 & 25. Fordham, p. 25. Campbell, p. 342. Campbell, p. 388. Fordham, p. 83 BIBLIOGRAPHY Amadas et Ydoine, Ed. John Revell Reinhard, CSMA. No. 51. Par i s : Champion, 1926. Axton, Richard. Medieval French Plays. Oxford: Bas i l Blackwell, 1971. Berol, Tr istan Und Isolde. M'u'nchen: Eidos Verlag Mlinchen, 1962. Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Bollingen Series VXII. Princeton: Princeton Univers ity Press, 1949. Campbell, Joseph. Myths to Live By. New York: Bantem, 1972. Chrestien de Troyes. Erec et Enide. Paris*-- Champion 1 9 7 0 C . F . M . A . 8 0 Chrestien de Troyes. Yvain. Manchester: Manchester Univers ity Press, 1942. Ferrante, Joan H. Woman as Image in Medieval Literature—From the Twelfth Century to Dante. New York: Columbia Univers ity Press, 1975. Fordham, Fr ieda. An Introduction to Jung's Psychology. Middlesex: Penquin, 1953. von Franz, M.-L. "The Process of Indiv iduat ion". In Man and His Symbols. Ed. Carl G. Jung. London: Dell Publishing Co. Inc., 1964. Heer, F r i ed r i ch . The Medieval World. Trans. Janet Sondheimer. New York: Mentor Books, 1961. Henderson, Jospeh L. "Ancient Myths and Modern Man." In Man and His Symbols. Ed. Carl G. Jung. London: Dell Publishing Col Inc., 1964. Jacobi, Jolande. The Psychology of C.G. Jung, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul L td . , 1942. Perera, Sy lv ia Brinton. Descent to the Goddess: A Way of I n i t i a t i o n for Women. Studies in Jungian psychology; 6. Toronto: Inner C i ty Books, T 9 8 T 7 Reinhard, John Revel l . The Old French Romance of Amadas et Ydoine: An H i s t o r i ca l Study. Durham, N.C.: Duke Univers ity Press, 1927. Russe l l , Jef f rey Burton. Witchcraft in the Middle Ages. London: Cornell Univers ity Press, 1972. - 141 - Spencer, Sharon. "Intimate Geometry: The Art of the Triangle in Three Works by Marguerite Duras." In L ' E sp r i t Createur. Summer, 1982. Vol . XXIII. No. 2. Thomas. "Tr i s tan et I seu l t . " In Les Poemes de Tr istan et Iseult — E x t r a i t s . Par is : L i b r a i r i e Larousse, 1958. Woolf, V i r g i n i a . A Room of One's Own. London, 1929; rpt . London: Granada Publishing Limited, 1982. - 142 -

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