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Tlingit shaman charms Lovejoy, James 1984

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TLINGIT SHAMAN'S CHARMS  by  JAMES LOVEJOY B.A.,  A THESIS THE  York  SUBMITTED  U n i v e r s i t y , 1979  IN PARTIAL  REQUIREMENTS  F U L F I L M E N T OF  4  FOR T H E D E G R E E OF  MASTER OF ARTS  in  the Faculty  (Department  of Fine  Indigenous  We  accept  this  thesis  o f Graduate  Arts  Arts,  Studies  Programme i n  o f t h e Americas)  as_ c o n f o r m i n g  to the required  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1 9 8 4  ©I opyright  (C) J a m e s L o v e j o y , 1 9 8 4  standard  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be  department o r by h i s o r her  granted by  the head o f  representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be  allowed w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department o f  Fine Arts  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  24 A p r i l  1984  Columbia  written  ABSTRACT  T h i s t h e s i s examines 4 8 0 T l i n g i t shamanS  1  using Panofsky's method of a n a l y s i s .  charms  The ms. catalogue notes  on 3 8 0 charms c o l l e c t e d by George Emmons were compiled together  with published  information  f i r m data on provenance, context, various motifs,  and use.  on 1 0 0 others  to y i e l d  m a t e r i a l s , frequency of  T h i s data i s presented i n a s e r i e s  of t a b l e s which are d i s c u s s e d  i n the t e x t .  The most  f r e q u e n t l y appearing m o t i f s on charms were human beings of v a r i o u s types,  and the most common animal m o t i f was the land  o t t e r , but v a r i a b i l i t y of m o t i f pronounced.  type and c o m p l e x i t y  Examination of the T l i n g i t context  shaman's p r a c t i c e and s p e c i f i c  was  of the  T l i n g i t b e l i e f s about the land  o t t e r r e v e a l that i t was the animal most f r e q u e n t l y connected w i t h shamanism, and the most important t o h i s p r a c t i c e . T l i n g i t cosmological  s t r u c t u r e was reviewed i n order  to l o c a t e  the l a n d o t t e r i n t h e T l i n g i t scheme and shed l i g h t on t h e taboos a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . referenced, others  The i n s i g h t s of Mary Douglas were  comparing the ways the T l i n g i t  structure i s l i k e  worldwide, and how the land o t t e r f u n c t i o n e d  e s s e n t i a l mediator between the s e c u l a r and sacred Tlingit.  as an  f o r the  i i i  T A B L E OF  CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  List  of Tables  List  of Figures  v i v i i  Introduction Chapter A.  One:  Pre-Iconographical Description  Sources 1.  B.  1  Collections a.  Documentation  b.  George  T.  2.  Previous  3.  Contemporary  4.  Histories  Provenance  4  Emmons  and h i s t i m e s .  S c h o l a r s h i p on T l i n g i t Sources  of Recovery  Provenance  Data.  2.  Comparison  of Provenance  Grave  Graves:  and  of Tables  of Recovery  Shamans' 4.  14  o f Charms  . . . . . .  Discussion  Incidence  . . 12  . . . . .  1.  3.  Charms  9  15  and C o n t e x t  Data:  . . .  Population I a n d I I . . . 20  o f Charms  Discussion  Lot Inventory:  16  from  of Table  Discussion of  IV  I I I 25  Table 30  C.  Materials: Discussion of Table  D.  Methods o f Manufacture  38  E.  Dating  40  o f Charms  V  . 32  iv  F.  Style  . . 42  G.  Motifs 1.  Problems i n M o t i f I d e n t i f i c a t i o n  . . . . .  2.  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the Land O t t e r M o t i f  3.  M o t i f Frequency A n a l y s i s :  47  . . 55  Discussion  of Tables VI and VII . . . . . . . . . . Chapter Two:  67  Iconographical Analysis  A.  Sources on T l i n g i t Ethnography. . . . . . . . .  76  B.  T l i n g i t S o c i a l Organization  77  C.  T l i n g i t Shamanism  . D,.  1. ;  Definition  2.  Manner of P r a c t i c e of the T l i n g i t Shaman . 82  3.  Manner of Use of Charms. . . . . . . . . . 84  . . ...........  . . . .  .79  Ic on o g r aphi6a 1 A n a l y s i s of the Land O t t e r M o t i f -i:.  T l i n g i t B e l i e f s about the Land O t t e r  •2.  Land O t t e r s as C r e s t Symbols  ... . 92  . . . . .  . . 93  3.  Land O t t e r s as Shamans' S p i r i t s .  . . . . .  4.  Conclusion  . . . . . 114  Chapter Three: :  .  . . . . .  . . . . . .  98  Iconoiogical Analysis  A.  Sources and G u i d e p o s t s . . . . * i . . . . . . . 116  B.  I c o n o i o g i c a l "Analysis of the Land O t t e r M o t i f t 117  C.  Conclusion.  Bibliog.raphy ' A.. •B  ;  .V.-'  . . . . . . . . . . .  125  • .  B i b l i o g r a p h i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 ^  C.  . . . ,. . . . .  .  -  ^  .  -  '  -  T  l  ^  n  g  '  i  .  t  .  . . 127  Other Works on Shamanism and Shamanic A r t . . . 128  D. : A r t Books and E x h i b i t i o h Catalogues ;  131  V  E.  Tlingit  A r t and M a t e r i a l  F.  Comparative  and R e l a t e d  Culture A r t and  134 Material  Culture G.  Tlingit  H.  Comparative  138  Ethnographic  Description  and R e l a t e d  142  Ethnographic  Description  147  I.  History  151  J.  Natural  History  K.  Theory:  A r t , Anthropology,  Appendix  I:  Museum  Appendix  I I :  Published  153  III:  Tlingit  154  Abbreviations and A s s o c i a t e d  Charms Appendix  Psychology  160 Tlingit  Shaman 161  Gazeteer  167  vi  List  I.  Provenance  II.  Comparative tionships  III.  of T l i n g i t  Tables  Shaman's  Distribution  o f 1880  Charms  18  and P r o p o r t i o n a l  a n d 1890  Population,  t h e A.M.N.H. " E " C a t a l o g u e a n d S h a m a n s '  by  Kwans Distribution  of a l l T l i n g i t  and P r o p o r t i o n a l  Rela-  Shamans'  Grave  Charms, and a l l Grave  Inventory Shamans'  Charms, 22  Comparative  Lot  Rela-  Artifacts  in  tionships  IV.  of  of Artifacts  Charms,  Lot Artifacts  Recovered  from  26  Tlingit  Graves  V.  Materials  Used  VI.  Motif  VII.  Iconographic  VI.II.  Uses  for Tlingit  Frequency  Ascribed  27 Shamans'  Charms.  . . .  Analysis  68  Complexity t o Charms  33  71 i n G.T.  Emmons  1  Notes  . . 87  vii  LIST  1.  "Shaman  o f t h e Taku  OF F I G U R E S  Qwan D r e s s e d  Gastineau  Channel  2.  "The t h r e e  stages  3.  Map o f T l i n g i t  4.  PM 6 9 . 3 0 . 1 0  5.  Mich  74670  6.  AMNH  wooden  7.  AMNH  19-453,  8.  MAI 4 / 1 6 6 9 ,  9.  Paalen  10.  AMNH  19-508,  19-473,  11.  AMNH  E 2708,  charm  44  12.  AMNH  19-450,  charm  46  13.  AMNH  E 864, charm  49  14.  AMNH  E 865, charm  50  15.  WSM  16.  AMNH  17.  WSM  18.  Lutra  19.  WSM  20.  AMNH  of art historical  areal  analysis".  subdivisions necklace  34  charm  37  charm  39  charm  39  charm  41 a n d 19-474,  charms  charm  43  52  charm  53  charm  54 the land,  926, charm E 1285,  . . . 6  36  shaman's  Canadensis,  i x  17  charm  E 2711, 1720,  Juneau, Alaska  - 1988 Shaman's  coll.,  1770,  near  for Practice,  charm  or river,  otter  57 58 58  o  21.  NMC V I I - A - 2 5 1 , c h a r m  59  viii  22.  MAI 9 - 7 9 5 0 ,  charm  60  23.  MAI 9 - 7 9 5 1 ,  charm  60  24.  AMNH  25.  DAM, s o n g  26.  AMNH  E 1 9 1 5 , shaman's  rear  view  27.  AMNH  E 1915, f r o n t  28.  PU 5 0 9 3 ,  29.  OPM 1 6 - 7 0 7 , c h a r m  81  30.  MAI 1 1 / 1 8 1 6 ,  86  31.  FM 7 1 9 3 6 ,  32.  "Tlingit  33.  DMNH  11426,  34.  AMNH  E 4 0 0 , mask  35.  UM, c a n o e p r o w  36.  PU 5 0 9 0 ,  37.  AMNH  38.  George  39.  MAI 1 3 0 1 , c h a r m  104  40.  MAI 9 - 7 9 4 8 ,  105  41.  BKLN  42.  PM 6 9 . 3 0 . 1 0 . 1 9 0 8 ,  43.  Weilgus c o l l . ,  44.  MAI 9 / 7 9 5 2 ,  45.  LMA 2 - 1 9 1 0 1 ,  46.  In situ,  19-457,  charm  leader's  62 staff  63  grave  guardian  figure, 64  view  65  charm  66  charm  shaman's w a i s t Spirit  Doctor  robe  89  and Sick  Woman"  . . . . . . .  90  shaman's n e c k l a c e  91 94  figure  95  charm  E 1668,  96  land  Terasaki  otter  coll.,  tongue bundle  99  charm  102  charm  05.588.7294,  oyster  catcher  rattle  (detail).  .  charm  108  charm  109  charm  110  charm  Klukwan,  107  I l l house p o s t  . . . . . . . . . . . .  112  ix  "Shaman o f t h e T a k u Kwan d r e s s e d f o r p r a c t i c e , Gastineau Channel, near Juneau, A l a s k a . " G . T . Emmons p h o t o , 1 8 8 8 . Sawyer A r c h i v e  FRONTISPIECE  -1-  INTRODUCTION  A.  A r t H i s t o r y and  Anthropology  T h i s t h e s i s attempts an in-depth treatment of a c l a s s of s m a l l bone and  art-historical  tooth c a r v i n g s  usually  c a l l e d charms, ^ h i c h were used i n v a r i o u s ways as magical amulets by the shamans of the T l i n g i t Alaska.  Indians of Southeastern  Such an a t t e m p t i n i t s e l f r e q u i r e s a few words of  explanation.  In North America, a r t h i s t o r i a n s u s u a l l y  confine  themselves to c o n s i d e r a t i o n  of the a r t i s t i c products of t h e i r  own,  "high" c i v i l i z a t i o n s .  or s i m i l a r l y l i t e r a t e ,  obscure, e x o t i c , and  The  d i f f i c u l t works from the v a s t l y v a r i e d  n o n - l i t e r a t e peoples of North America have tended, w i t h one two  notable  exceptions,  to be l e f t by a r t h i s t o r i a n s to  mercies of some a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s  f o r whom a r t i s a  or  the  problematic  f  type of m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e . There are good reasons f o r t h i s .  Absent or  fragmentary documentation o f t e n f r u s t r a t e s the a r t h i s t o r i a n who  by t r a i n i n g wishes to r e c o n s t r u c t the o r i g i n a l context  a work or group of works. r e l i a b l e information work came may  Where documentation e x i s t s ,  concerning  the s o c i e t y from which the  be l a c k i n g e n t i r e l y , or, as i s u s u a l l y the case,  be q u i t e incomplete.  The  a r t h i s t o r i a n , furthermore, i s  l i k e l y to want to d i s c u s s that which came before, the work under d i s c u s s i o n , and how contributed  of  and a f t e r ,  the work e x e m p l i f i e d  to i t s p e r i o d , a p r o j e c t n e c e s s a r i l y  and  contingent  -2-  upon  previous  successful  work  by  archeologists  or  ethnohistorians. Such suffered  by  peoples", excuse a  problems  the  Hauser  to  understandable the  paucity  "Primitive  art",  the  happens  of  solely  spite  of  has  rich  with  interested  these  never  visual  the  relationships. societal  relatively  as  low  do  not  when p r e s e n t e d number  Gombrich are  artifacts  been  higher,  universe who  and  as  of  (1961;K)  and  perhaps  in  relation  to  Ritual,  of  ownership  i s considered status.  The  to  descriptive  Northwest  concern  such  modes o f  interest in  Kaufman have begun  are  people  be  a  of  art.  almost  their  and  internal  is  other  Art  of areas  material  sub-discipline  Anthropology  to  mechanisms  resources, than  studies  primarily  and  production, of  Coast  themselves  energetically investigated  which  they  in a  considerations,  s o c i e t i e s of  functioning,  a l l more  culture,  but  exotic, n o n - l i t e r a t e peoples, in  neglect  so-called "primitive  suffered  such  the  data.  Art"  the  of  misstatements  wealth  Anthropologists,  are  as  Art,  yet,  explain  American,  a r t h i s t o r i a n s s u c h as Holm and  explore  to  productions  World  And  given  of  In  by  of  (1962;K).-'-  much  denigration  "high  histories  do  i n North  ethnocentric  mere p r e l u d e  sweeping  artistic  particularly  the  may  of  seeks  to  1. The b i b l i o g r a p h y i n t h i s work has been d i v i d e d f o r c o n v e n i e n c e i n t o a number o f s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n s . The capital l e t t e r which f o l l o w s the date i n b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l references r e f e r s to the s e c t i o n of the b i b l i o g r a p h y i n which the f u l l r e f e r e n c e may be found.  -3-  discover  whether a u n i v e r s a l theory of a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n and  image r e c o g n i t i o n might be formulated which a p p l i e s w e l l t o a l l human s o c i e t i e s .  ( l e c t u r e notes, Anthropology  3 3 1 , Anthropology of a r t , M a r j o r i e 80.)  Works i n t h i s t r a d i t i o n ,  (1955;K),  equally  Halpin,  instructor, 1979-  such as Boas' P r i m i t i v e A r t  and Anderson's A r t i n P r i m i t i v e S o c i e t i e s  (1979;K)  take a broad overview of s e v e r a l p r i m i t i v e a r t t r a d i t i o n s . For Boas ( f i r s t p u b l i s h e d  i n 1895 and r e v i s e d i n 1927)  " i s rather an attempt t o determine the dynamic under which a r t s t y l e s grow up" (1955:7;K). h i s work as the f i r s t  the aim  conditions  Anderson p r e s e n t s  s i n c e Boas' t o "bring together  ina  s i n g l e book the many i n s i g h t s t h a t have r e s u l t e d from the systematic  study of a r t from p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s "  (1979:xiv;K). principal cultural  He w r i t e s :  " I have t r i e d  i s s u e s that are r e l e v a n t  t o the study of a r t as a  phenomenom (ibid.) (emphasis This neglect  exemplified consisting  by n o t i n g  mine).  of simple e m p i r i c a l study i s best t h a t Anderson's lengthy  of 307 r e f e r e n c e s ,  includes  t h a t may be judged from t h e i r t i t l e s and  t o present the  only  t o be  bibliography,  46 (15 percent) object-centered,  has but a s i n g l e a r t i c l e of m e t h o d o l o g i c a l focus  (Haselberger,  1961;K),  by a European a r t h i s t o r i a n , no l e s s .  E i g h t y - f i v e percent of the r e f e r e n c e s other  use a r t t o get a t some  aspect of the s o c i e t y , or even a t the nature of mankind. This  represents  no s m a l l problem.  f a s c i n a t i n g and l i t t l e - u n d e r s t o o d a r t o b j e c t s astoundingly  A vast corpus of from an  v a r i e d panoply of human c u l t u r e s would seem t o  - 4 -  have,  i n l a r g e p a r t , f a l l e n between the cracks.  The a r t  h i s t o r i a n who wishes t o examine a s p e c i f i c " p r i m i t i v e " a r t o b j e c t but who i s l o s t without t e x t s , and u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the purposes of ethnographic d e s c r i p t i o n , has much i n common w i t h the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t who wishes t o do l i k e w i s e but i s stymied by the absence of sound m e t h o d o l o g i c a l examples i n the f i e l d of anthropology. T h i s t h e s i s has been c o n c e i v e d i n p a r t as a means o f addressing  t h i s lack.  I t i s intended t o demonstrate the  complementary nature of a r t h i s t o r i c a l and a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l approaches. art  I t considers,  h i s t o r i c a l methodology,  i n depth, and w i t h Erwin Panofsky's the s m a l l , h i g h l y v a r i e d "charms",  p r i n c i p a l l y of bone and marine i v o r y , used i n m a g i c a l p r a c t i c e by T l i n g i t artistic little  T h i s group of o b j e c t s , of no mean  and symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e , have h e r e t o f o r e  received  s e r i o u s s c h o l a r l y c o n s i d e r a t i o n of any kind i n any  academic  B.  shamans.  discipline.  Methodology  T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s based upon the metholodolgy f o r m u l a t e d by Erwin Panofsky, a well-known a r t h i s t o r i a n who worked e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h i n the Western  tradition,  particularly  on the s u r v i v a l of m o t i f s and themes from C l a s s i c a l A n t i q u i t y i n t o Medieval and Renaissance times.  H i s methodology  used a t l e a s t once p r e v i o u s l y f o r a Northwest  has been  Coast s u b j e c t by  J e n n i f e r G o u l d (U.B.C.) i n her Raven R a t t l e s t u d y (1973;F).  -5-  Panofsky's Study  Iconography  Of Renaissance  process  follows,  Panofsky's pre-iconographical representations animals,  the as  of  o r image,  houses,  motif.  of material  thesis,  consists such  a s human  restricted  significant t h e canvas  to compiling  Emmon's  discussion  (ibid:28).;* considers  element,  topic,  his  statements  of h i s documentation  such  be r e g a r d e d  who data  o f Emmon's because  of information, There  i s no  provenance begins.  a s an  as t h e o b j e c t s i t  themselves,  regarding  material,  Emmons,  i s a s much a s t u d y  assertions.  at the  i t i s not without  to scrutiny  sources  but to  compilation  on p r o v e n a n c e ,  must  the  i s as noteworthy  o f t h e shamans' charms,  as i t i s o f t h e charms of other  beings,  requires  be seen,  analysis,  of "identifying....  and so f o r t h "  information  then,  whole.  thesis essentially  description,  but, as w i l l  several  coherent  of the present  and as s u b j e c t  i n t h e absence  doubt  unifies  of a r t h i s t o r i c a l  Emmons' d o c u m e n t a t i o n  This  documentation  where  culture,  majority  full:  as w e l l ,  describes.  most  three-stage  t o t h e p e r s p i c a c i t y o f George  the vast  problems.  are,  tools,  To The  2.  stage  Investigation  Thanks  remarkably  artifact  this  objects  the basic,  a v a i l a b l e documentary  its  to  initial  of pre-iconograhical  collected is  which  description,  the painting.  and  a  t h e h i s t o r i a n o f a r t and o f symbols,  student  level  delineates  a sequential,  as Figure  of natural  plants,  Panofsky,  into  schemata,  i s reproduced  An I n t r o d u c t i o n  investigation that  approaches  hermeneutical  motif,  A r t (1955;K)  of a r thistorical  complementary His  And I c o n o l o g y ;  we  largely reason  and t h i s i s  But, with h i s  i O B J E C T O F INTERPRETATION  41  An Introduction to the Study of Renaissance Art  Iconography and IcoDology: A C T OF INTERPRETATION  CORRECTIVE PRINCIPLE  E Q U I P M E N T FOR  OF INTERPRETATION  INTERPRETATION  (History  of  Tradition)  ..faff. ' i Primary or natural subject  Pre-iconographical  matter-( A) factual, (B) expressional-constituting the world of artistic motifs.  (ion (and pseudo-formal analysis).  u Secondary  lconographical  Practical  descnp-  ^ ;v|s£  —  or conventional  '  subject matter, constituting the  "'"t^  world of images, stories and allegories.  ,  :  . .. "  —  III /ntrinric meaning or content,  Vil-.'.-  analysis.  —  —  Iconological  —  ^  v ^;  interpretation.  ^ ^  constituting the world of "sym* bolical"  values.  •  *  experience  (famil-  History of style (insight into the  iarity with objects and  manner in which, under varying  events).  historical conditions, objects and events were expressed by forms).  Knowledge  of literary  History of types (insight into the  sources (familiarity with . specific themes and con-  manner in which, under varying historical conditions, specific  cepts).  themes or concepts were expressed by objects and events).  Synthetic  intuition  (famil-  iarity with the essential tendencies of the human mind), conditioned by per-  History of cultural  symptoms  or  "symbols" in general (insight into the manner in which, under varying historical conditions, essential  sonal psychology and  tendencies  "Weltanschauung."  were expressed by specific themes and  of the human  concepts).  Fig. 2 The Three Stages of A r t H i s t o r i c a l A n a l y s i s (Panofsky, 1955:40-41; K.)  mind  -7-  other a t t r i b u t i o n s , which g e n e r a l l y concern m a t e r i a l , iconography, and use, we must use c a u t i o n . Emmon's documentation are d i s c u s s e d w i t h the t a b l e s t h a t present Of  The  l i m i t a t i o n s of  i n turn i n c o n j u n c t i o n  the data t h a t are mostly h i s .  the second stage,  iconographical analysis,  Panofsky w r i t e s that the e s s e n t i a l concern i s to p r o v i d e " i n s i g h t i n t o the manner i n which, under v a r y i n g  historical  c o n d i t i o n s , s p e c i f i c themes or concepts were expressed o b j e c t s and  events"  (ibid:41).  T h i s r e q u i r e s i n t e g r a t i o n of  the e m p i r i c a l and documentary data compiled Chapter One The  What was  evaluated  t h e i r o r i g i n a l context?  in  ethnography.  to be addressed i s : what d i d the  charms o r i g i n a l l y mean to the T l i n g i t who them?  and  with d e t a i l e d knowledge of T l i n g i t  s p e c i f i c question  by  various  made, used, and  saw  The very l a r g e number  of m o t i f s found on T l i n g i t charms, however, make i t necessary to r e s t r i c t the d i s c u s s i o n c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s the i n v e s t i g a t i o n at hand become u t t e r l y unwieldy. frequent  motif,  The  land o t t e r , the most  has been s e l e c t e d f o r in-depth a n a l y s i s .  w i l l be seen, ethnographic  and m y t h o l o g i c a l  c o n s i d e r a b l e l i g h t on the o r i g i n a l context otter  sources  As  shed  of the potent  land  symbol. Stage three, i c o n o i o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , attempts  to p r o v i d e " i n s i g h t i n t o the manner i n which, under v a r y i n g h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , e s s e n t i a l tendencies were expressed  by s p e c i f i c  themes and  of the human mind  concepts"  (ibid.).  w r i t e r a s s e r t s t h a t such " e s s e n t i a l tendencies" may be d i s c o v e r e d no matter how  a l i e n the c u l t u r e under  This  reasonably  -8-  consideration. Detailed consideration research  topic i n i t s e l f ,  but s u r e l y we are a l l human.  Panofsky's method w i l l be f o l l o w e d following:  of t h i s i s s u e i s a major  by c o n s i d e r i n g the  Why was the p l a y f u l and remarkably  l a n d o t t e r a u n i q u e and p o t e n t o b j e c t o f d r e a d ? magical power t o e f f e c t cures.  Why?  How?  intelligent Charms had  And f i n a l l y ,  with  r e s p e c t t o charms and t h e l a n d o t t e r , how d i d t h e T l i n g i t address the fundamental human need f o r s o c i a l and psychological s t a b i l i t y .  The i n s i g h t s of Mary Douglas are  drawn upon to help us make sense of these b a s i c Taken together,  Panofsky's three  questions.  stages of a r t  h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e a most s a t i s f y i n g ,  complete  framework of i n v e s t i g a t i o n which encompasses a broad spectrum of approaches.  The h i s t o r i a n of s t y l e need not suspect the  i n v e s t i g a t o r of symbols f o r d e a l i n g i n i n t a n g i b l e s , and the symbolists  need not d e n i g r a t e  nuts and b o l t s . whole.  the s t y l i s t f o r d e a l i n g only i n  Each c o n t r i b u t e s an e s s e n t i a l p o r t i o n of the  A r t h i s t o r y , having grown up w i t h s e c u l a r humanism, i s  more than a subset of m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e s t u d i e s .  They are  complementary d i s c i p l i n e s , and capable of e n r i c h i n g each immensely.  other  -9-  C H A P T E R ONE:  A.  PRE-ICONOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION  Sources 1.  Collections a.  Documentation  Data institutional number  were  American  were  compiled  and p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n s .  those  Museum  i n t h e George  of Natural  Museum, C h i c a g o ,  History,  Emmons'  documented.  Financial  o r New Y o r k ,  collections  Alan  Sawyer,  mss.  A.M.N.H.  Sawyer  also  extensive are  professor,  freely  slide  reproduced  University  made  Departments, Museum,  and a l s o  Many  o f Holm's  images  libraries compiled  study.  introduced  State  were  searched  t h a t he s o l d  Arts  Arts  Bill  (Emmons, Dr.  of h i s photographs  Holm,  of the  o f t h e Washington  a v a i l a b l e h i shuge  are also  by Dr.  and Anthropology  me t o t h e r e s o u r c e s  here  f o rpublished  i n Appendix I I .  to the  Department.  o f h i so r i g i n a l  Professor  Fine  made  which  - 1 9 , F.M., a n d W.S.M.;E).  a n d many  o f Washington,  to visit  catalogues,  a v a i l a b l e the resources  archive, i n this  i ti m p o s s i b l e  m a d e a v a i l a b l e t o me  U.B.C. F i n e  " E " , A.M.N.H.  the Field  the best  manuscript  were  of the  Museum, S e a t t l e .  also  c o n s t r a i n t s made  institutions,  i n 22  collections  State  he w r o t e t o a c c o m p a n y t h e c o l l e c t i o n s afore-mentioned  1  New Y o r k ,  were  b u t Emmons'  charms  By f a r t h e g r e a t e r  Emmons  and the Washington  Fortunately,  Chicago  o n 480 T l i n g i t  reproduced. images  slide  archive.  T h e U.B.C.  o f charms  -  -10-  Of were  seen  known  physically  from  compile  (Bill  noted,  or i n a photograph.  on unseen  and c o n s c i e n t i o u s  Holm,  original  percent  deserves  by t h i s Emmons  October  1980),  included  i n this  tried  to supply  place  one o f t h e w e l l  10,000  customary As  will  this his  standards  manuscripts,  problems  one o r s e v e r a l  eventually  ethnography  of motifs, into  of  o f h i s notebooks and  working  to publish  on w h i c h  Insight  sources  are i n the Provincial  i s presently  of h i s  consistency.  h i s information. and s p e c i f i c  affiliation  items  i n the discussion  with  (Low  unfortunately,  no d i s c e r n a b l e  the researching  de Laguna  and i n t e n d s  Tlingit  is,  many o f w h i c h  Frederica  papers  but this  skipped  await  he s o l d  owner,  of documentation must  that  the clan  particularly  major  artifacts supplies  and d i d so w i t h  be seen,  information  the  He o f t e n  Tlingit  represented f o r  he a l s o  or previous  list,  causes  B.C.  over  Occasionally  rare.  were  of collection,  every  quite  study  Seventy-  o n e man.  of the motif(s)  t h e vendor  Coast  h i s voluminous  and s t u d i e d .  use, and e x p l a n a t i o n  of  percent  as t h e most  on t h e N o r t h w e s t  name,  1977:8;I).  33  The remainder a r e  charms because,  t o be c o m p i l e d  o f a l l charms  only  T h e d e c i s i o n was made t o  collector  i n conversation,  data  collected  unfortunately  Emmons' d o c u m e n t a t i o n .  Emmons' d a t a  prolific  five  t h e 480 c h a r m s  Archives  with  an e d i t e d  he w o r k e d  of  Emmons' version of  f o r many  years.  -11-  b.  George  T. Emmons  Emmons w a s p e r h a p s Tlingit  than  any other  In h i s p o s i t i o n  Service,  the only  covered  knowledge mostly  legal  southeastern  shamans' g r a v e s  This  total  different  of over  leave  was s o l d  became  marked  life.  lumber.  collected,  materials  from  anything  portable  by t h e T l i n g i t . t o a number o f  had been  purchased  had l a r g e l y  own d e v i c e s , beginning  of American  a greatly  been  at least  with  capital  or moonshine, shelled  i n the years  beyond t h e saw  and m i s s i o n a r y traditional  and v e n e r e a l the villages  1869-1882  content  1880, w h i c h  accelerated decline of  U.S. g u n b o a t s  and others  (Miller  disease o f Kake, and M i l l e r  6;I). The  houses  rush  Hoochinoo,  rampant.  Ch.  to their  The decade  significant  Wrangell,  Alaska  i n 1867, and t h e R u s s i a n s  of Sitka.  first  Tlingit  an i n t i m a t e  sites,  or used  t h e 1890's,  He w a s a b l e t o d o t h i s b e c a u s e o f t h e  the natives  activity,  new  modified  Cutter  He  by g a t h e r i n g village  1880-1920  before  and a c q u i r e d  10,000 i t e m s  museums.  Russia  1967:  Alaska,  conditions of the period.  vicinity the  authority i n Alaska  and abandoned  h a d i n a n y way b e e n  to  t h e U.S. R e v e n u e  but also  that  from  with  with the  of h i speriod,  of n a t i v e c o n d i t i o n s and a f f a i r s .  by p u r c h a s i n g ,  unique  better acquainted  non-Indian  (ibid.).  he  and h i s times  1880's  abandoned  s a w many,  i n favour  of frame  By 1890, l a r g e numbers  canneries  i f n o t most,  or commerical  structures of milled  of Tlingit  fishing  of the traditional  spent  stations,  t h e summer i n  working f o r  -12-  wages  with  earlier  which  they  had  gathering  camps.  Alaska  on  cruise  manner  of  ancient  purchased  Thousands ships,  artifacts  Tlingit  the power  of the  of  and  a  sprang  missionary  the  durable  r e p a i r e d i n summer  subsistence cycle  disease, weaned  they  tourists  up. was  from  ancestral  thriving  visited curio  (Porter broken,  education away  to  goods. But,  and the  white  in a l l  Ch.  6;I).  contempt  shamans to cure or k i l l  and  southeastern  hoochinoo,  remaining  years  fishing  trade  1893:  and  ten  The  venereal  rapidly  faith  they  (Miller  had  in  and  Miller:168-203;I) . In  such  an  environment,  the T l i n g i t to p a r t with would  have  Fast,  who  been  paraphenalia, placed 6;D). grave risk on  presumably  Emmons, lots, than  grave  minded  2.  though,  they  lot artifacts  i s meagre. the  risk  gathered  to  get  over  and  from  was  able  Tlingits  to  who  earlier  Edward  G.  shamans'  shamans' g r a v e s ,  at  induce  years  risk.  Tlingit  to  i t  two  noted (Fast  dozen  seem  1869:5shamans'  w i t h no obtain  that i t  greater  information  not  to  have  looting.  Previous  are  who  great  seems t o have done h i s l o o t i n g  S c h o l a r s h i p on  Published charms  life  at  some  from  his purchasing,  his  only  obtained  his assistant's  able  o b j e c t s t h a t a v e r y few  obtainable  i n 1867-8  Emmons was  scholarly Only  primary  two  topic.  Tlingit  literature  articles George  Charms.  on  Tlingit  have appeared Emmons  and  G.P.  shamans' in  which  Miles'  -13-  1938 of  (B) a r t i c l e  nine  charms,  i s very with  Jonaitis*  1978(B)  provides  a number  develop charms  brief,  notes  article  presented.  as  does  Gunther  mentioned.  Pendants  Carol  and S p i r i t  Ethnological  manner  somewhat  Northwest This  Coast  from  She p r o v i d e s  effort  by e s t a b l i s h i n g  Coast  charms  Jonaitis' discussion  their  uses  data,  Relationship Tlingit an  Indians  in-depth  both  the various  66 p e r c e n t  the Social  of Southeastern  in a  northern data.  be  here  f o r further  o f known  Northwest  (ibid.:25). includes a  six-page  little  t h e major  types and  As h e r t i t l e (The  and Shamanic Alaska)  o f t h e shaman,  contexts.  Coast:  She does  manuscript  I t contains  b y Emmons.  also  Study of  Coast,  study.  justification  but discusses well  social  on  Recoveries  Northwest  1  A  h e r work, w h i c h w i l l  (88-93;B).  investigation  i n their  the Northwest  Emmons  1977 d i s s e r t a t i o n  between  from  the present  the T l i n g i t  as recorded  must  thesis,  between  with  that  o f charms  quantitative  than  significant  a r e from  to  note  M.A.  the entire  or compile  fault  cited.  of merit  and A r c h a e o l o g i c a l  distinguish  is notto find  works  Charms C o l l e c t e d  tribes,  also  i n h e r 1972 s t u d y ( 6 8 9 -  scholarly  different  significantly  A r t Magazine  includes a short  Ann MacKinnon's  data  Indian  and use.  (1966:157-158;F).  Collections  (1979;F) p r e s e n t s  illustrations  but i s f a rtoo brief  Laguna  and s e v e r a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s  provide  iconography  i n American  Two u n p u b l i s h e d  not  on t h e i r  of i l l u s t r a t i o n s ,  the ideas  690;G),  be  b u t does  A r t of the  implies,  she provides  h i s a r t , and p l a c e s  -14-  Numerous a r t books, and  providing  excellent  contextualization, numerous  3.  to  list  The  here,  1880's  magazine  interest  A number  of popular  especially  Seton-Karr  detailed and  purchase Report 1880  and  contain  population and  Lull  dollars  of  on  a  Bay  and  of  Reconaissance  and  are  too  II.  of  the  of of  shamans  Alaska early  Tlingit  events.  (see  U.S.  and  figures.  wealth  Government  to the  The  of  Beardslee tells  the  his  what  i n 1883  (I)  Report includes  the  1880-1882,  on  offers  of  the  shaman  the b l a n k e t s were worth 1885  their  earlier  Glass  us  Census  and  reports  detail  Alaska  Tenth  camps  presents  a  manuscript  Petroff's  also  Schwatka's  i n A l a s k a made  Russian  ( B e a r d s l e e 1882,  what  contain  (I) p r o v i d e s  villages  Petroff  time.  and  in action  subsequent  of w i t c h c r a f t ,  58-59;I).  exploration  information.  Company  newspaper  125-133;I).  immediately  i n b l a n k e t s , and (1882:  They  i n Appendix  American  even  59,  Service  case  Americana  acquired Alaskan possessions.  History  (1884;I).  conditions  charm.  found  post-purchase  era  list  Cutter  one  travel  1880-1882;I) p r o v i d e a  perspective paid  1886  detailed  Hudson  Revenue  chaotic  was  the  minimal  of  recapitulation  provides a  Russian U.S.  of  newly  1887:  immediate  publications  be  flood  traders  Bancroft's  sources  a  works  curio  but  least  may  primitive  Sources  i n the  to  at  but  saw  references  minutely  photographs  feature  Contemporary  featuring  of  a  in Military  notes  on  the  -15-  strength  and d i s p o s i t i o n s  subdivisions) 1890  U.S. 1 1 t h C e n s u s  glowingly in  and t h e i r  the T l i n g i t  population  presented  Northwest  Coast  contributed  research early from  (Porter  from  made  which,  ten years  and o f course  of North  America  an e x c e l l e n t r e v i e w  18th century,  augmented  Indian  with  provides  those  Life  on t h e  (1972:139-181;H) h a s of the early by c a r e f u l  contact  The t e x t  i s accompanied  substantial  bibliography.  of Alaska  researched  popular  Polly  (1967;H) p r o v i d e s history  and i s s p e c i f i c a l l y  that  oriented  Miller's  a detailed  carries  made b y t h e  by p l a t e s  of discovery,  and Leon  period i n  ethnographic  and a t t e n t i o n t o t h e m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t i o n s  t h e p u b l i c a t i o n s o f the voyages  century  comments  i n the previous  together  The  ethnohistoric value.  r e c e n t l y , Gunther's  expeditions.  Heritage  areal  of assimilation.  1893;I)  heathenism,  figures  (Tlingit  Histories  More  late  report  kwans  degrees  i n 1884, a r e o f g r e a t  4.  the  relative  on t h e g r e a t p r o g r e s s  raising  reliable  of the various  through  taken  and a Lost  and w e l l the19th  to the native  experience.  -16-  B.  Provenance  1.  and Context  Provenance  Eighty (almost data. of I  Location,  the items presents  of information  the data,  i s employed When  that  villages  Tlingit  kwans, v i l l a g e s  i s taken  slightly  the southeastern  half  of Prince  Haida  o f Wales  territory.  Island  In that  villages  o f Howkan,  As  t h e D r y Bay o f Laguna's  well,  Gonaho central  o f Emmons, village)  Chugach area  Klinkwan  Swanton  map  and o t h e r s .  i s equivalent  i sc l a i m e d  and K a i g a n i  i n showing  islands  Angoon  (name  southern as Kaigani  were  i s equivalent  (Figure  modified  the entire  t o Hutsnuwu,  b y Emmons  kwans  (Swanton  of  as  erred  quadrant  that  obscure  I t has been  than  standard  apparent  i s presented  and a d j a c e n t  southwestern  no  a gazeteer  as Laguna  rather  frequent  having  the T l i n g i t  (1972:1:4;G). area,  most  reason  Table  appear i n  o f t h e many  represents  portion  will 1  was one  supplied.  i t became  For that  i n the Henya/Kaigani  only  data  provenance  of collection  villages  and l o c a l i t i e s  Laguna  specific  Emmons  compilation  which  i n t h e sample  regularly  II.  this  and camps.  A map from  he m o s t  f o r obsure  collecting  Tlingit  3)  district,  of Table  e x i s t e d no s i n g l e  IV.  have  d i s c u s s i o n of which  orthography  Appendix  b y Emmons)  or at least  with  there  o f t h e 480 c h a r m s  obtained  conjunction  spelling.  o f Charms  Data  percent  entirely  of Recovery  the Haida  1952:570;H). to the of the  and t h e Eyak-  t o h a v e b e e n t h e home o f t h e  -18-  Table I,  p . l : Provenance of T l i n g i t Shaman's Charms  L o c a l Groups: Kwans and Constituent V i l l a g e s  1 Charms C o l - 1 % D i s t . 1 1 l e c t e d from 1 of Charms 1 l L o c a l Groups Iwithin 1 1 No. %iGroups 1  Auk Kwan S i n t a Ka Heene T o t a l Auk  1 1 1  Chilkat-Chilkoot C h i l k a t River Chilkoot Dashu Inderstucka Kagwalter Klukwan Total  Kwan  41 51 91  .831 1.04 1 1.88 1  44.441 55.561 100.001  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  27 1 5.63 1 31 .63 1 91 1.881 31 .63 1 31 .63 1 41 .83 1 211 4.38 1 701 14.581  38.571 4.291 12.861 4.291 4.29 1 5.711 30.001 100.001  Gonaho Kwan Ah-qwey R. Alsek R. Aukon Heene Dry Bay Total  1 1 1 1 1 1  11 31 51 11 241 341  .211 .63 1 1.04 1 .21 1 5.00 1 7.081  2.941 8.82 1 14.711 2.941 70.591 100.001  Guthleuh Kwan: Cape M a r t i n  1 1  1 11  .00 1 .211  1 100.001  Henya Kwan: Klawack Shakan Tuxecan Total  1 1 1 1 1  1 1 .211 11 7 1 1.46 1 .211 11 91 1.881  1 11.111 77.781 11.111 100.001  Hoonah Kwan 1 Arson Kee 1 B a r t l e t t Bay 1 Cross Sound 1 Gandecon 1 Icy S t r a i t 1 Porpoise I s . 1 Thle-hu-gu 1 W. Coast C h i c h i g o f f I . 1 Total 1  51 1.041 41 .83 1 .211 11 61 1.25 1 241 5.00 1 .211 11 31 .63 1 41 .83 1 31 .63 1 511 10.63 1  9.801 7.841 1.961 11.761 47.061 1.96 1 5.881 7 .'84 1 5.881 100.001  —  —  — I  -19-  Table I , p.2:  Provenance of T l i n g i t Shaman's Cha rms  L o c a l Groups: Kwans and Constituent V i l l a g e s  1 Charms C o l 1% D i s t . 1 l e c t e d from l o f Charms l L o c a l Groups Iwithin 1 No. %iGroups  Hutsnuwu Kwan 1 Angoon 1 Chatham S t r nr Angoon 1 Chyeeke 1 Old Hootznahoo 1 Hood's Bay 1 Killisnoo 1 Kake-kuiu 1 Neltushkin 1 , 1 Total Sanya Sumdum  1  S i t k a Kwan Nakwasina Bay Peril Strait Sitka V i l l a g e Total  1.25 1 61 281 5.83 1 .21 1 11 131 2.711 13 1 2.711 .211 11 121 2.50 1 01 .00 1 61 1.25 1 80 1 16.671 .00 1  .00  1 1 1 1 1  101 2.081 61 1.251 21 .42 1 311 6.46 1 491 10.211  20.41 12.24 4.08 63.27 100.00  S t i k i n e Kwan Wrangell Total  1 1 1  21 .421 50 1 10.421 521 10.831  3.85 96.15 100.00  Taku Kwan  1  11  .211  100.00  Tongass Kwan  1  21  .421  100.00  Yakutat Kwan Port Mulgrave Yakutat V i l l a g e Total  1 1 1 1  71 101 51 221  1.46 1 2.081 1.04 1 4.58 1  31.82 45.45 22.73 100.00  Tlingit  1  1001 20.831  Grand  1  4801100.001  Total  01  7.50 35.00 1.25 16.25 16.25 1.25 15.00 .00 7.50 100.00  100.00  Data compiled from G.T. Emmons ms. notes and p u b l i s h e d sources (see Appendix II)  -20-  Guthleuh of  the  kwan  (Hodge  Tongass  2.  area  1890  objects  Museum  of  making  this  to  by  population Emmons  our  a  only  them,  heene  of the  (Emmons  initially again  mining  as  Tlingit  Tlingit,  5.69 and  rise  demoralized brought  and  their  as  often  1.9  from  from of  percent 9.5  the  be  other  Juneau  with  of  between  assuming relative  which  to  "E"  of  are  the i n 1880,  480  charms  e x p l a i n e d by  The  as  appeared  of  the  rapid  area,  areas,  wage  grew  labourers.  villages, not  in  Sinta-ka-  Auk  Tlingit  work  but  catalogue  the  traditional  them.  of  percent  his  percent  Christianised,  heirlooms  point  were c o n s t a n t  Tsantikihin.  their  American  relationship  o f J u n e a u on t h e s i t e  were  of  the  The  1880  record.  T h i s may  or  data  of  incongruencies  percent  but  I with  production,  c o n s t i t u t e d 18.4  f l o c k e d to  removed  the  collection  centre  depopulated  items.  and  rapid  part  II  catalogue  2,566  reveals  and  provenance  examine  southern  shown.  of Table  artifact  spelling),  1  "E"  the  Provenance I  with  historical  kwan  i n 1890,  from  and  total  sample are from there.  rise  Such  and  known  Auk  collected  artifacts  i s to  Scrutiny  the  and  in  i s not  Tables  entire  production  The  of  H i s t o r y , some  charms,  population.  supported  the  comparison  artifact  Fox,  Population  figures  from  Natural  population,  Sanya,  II compares the t o t a l s  population  Tlingit  of  Cape  Discussion  Table  'that  near  Comparison Data:  and  1910:765;H).  to  have  -21-  The Tlingit and  Chilkat,  group,  c o n t r i b u t e d more  exactly their  Emmons  of total  Gonaho  charms  shamans' g r a v e s  permanent the  nearby  good  villages  19thcentury  deserted absence  Gonaho  characterises Yakutat,  which  without summer  area  area  Yakutat  which Some  shows  where  kwans,  were  since  even  be  i n these  a factor  1890  census  baskets, (Porter  report  "E":#409),  Swanton  1893:53;I).  and s o l d  and  their  (1952:541;H) place  ofthe  as p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e d ,  important  taken  in  the  rapid  Gonaho  as Kake, Sanya  t o Emmons  1  hoard.  discrepancies.  pieces  from  and Tongass,  were  by 1890, and  The c u r i o  Scidmore,  on between  safely  Portable "curios" where  white  assume were  Sitka there taken  tourists  trade  writing  "A c o n s i d e r a b l e t r a d e  One may  at places  years of  t h e s u r v i v o r s went.  such  notes:  collected  b y Emmons o f  due t o c o n t i n u i n g  and c u r i o s i s c a r r i e d  movement a s w e l l . areas  less  a n d 7.04  the early  q u i t e l o w i np o p u l a t i o n by 1880 a n d even l o w e r contributed  by  The absence o f  But, t h e censuses,  obtained  that  the Chilkat.  artifacts  as a summering  became  artifacts,  depopulated  by t h e m e n t i o n  lists.  i t perhaps  Emmons  area  (ms. A.M.N.H.  American  t h e Gonaho  with  These  i n t h e Dry Bay area.  no one, p e r h a p s  depopulation.  there.  i n t h e Gonaho  of  I t may b e s i g n i f i c a n t  was e n t i r e l y  a r e from  villages  conservative  share  o f "E" c a t a l o g u e  i t s own v i l l a g e s . show  their  relationships  i s underscored  i n later  and most  than  o f charms.  a n d y e t 6.7 p e r c e n t  percent from  share  had p a r t i c u l a r l y The  1890,  the strongest  may  i n the  i n furs, and was from  came  Yakutat." other outlying  i n the  -22-  Table II: Comparative distribution and proportional relationships of 1880 and 1890 population, artifacts in the A.M.N.H. "E" Catalogue, and shaman's charms by Kwans  Kwan Auk Chilcat Chilkoot Gonaho Guthleuh Henya Huna Hutsnuwu Kake Kuiu Sanya Sitka Stikine Sumdum Taku Tongass Yakutat Tlingit Totals  Pop in 18801Pop i n 1890 IE Catalogue ITlingit I I IArtifacts IShaman's I I ITlingit ICharms I 1 No. % l No. % l No. % l No. %l i  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  640 9.49! 841 12.51 127 1.881 100 1.481 320 4.751 587 8.711 1008 15.01 766 11.41 408 6.051 160 2.371 100 1.481 721 10.71 217 3.221 0 01 269 3.991 178 2.641 300 4.451 0 01  1 6742  896 610 106 0 88 319 449 414 97 115 26 861 228 41 7 43 300 268  1001 4868  18.41 12.51 2.181 01 1.811 6.551 9.221 8.501 1.991 2.361 .5341 17.71 4.681 .8421 .1441 .8831 6.161 5.511  146 503 8 176 0 101 317 311 48 0 10 414 200 0 28 47 79 178  100.1 2566  Sources: Petroff 1884; I Porter 1893; I Emmons ms. AMNH-E;E  5.691 9 19.61 61 .3121 9 6.861 . 34 01 1 3.941 9 12.41 54 12.11 80 1.871 0 01 0 .3901 0 16.11 49 7.791 52 01 0 1.091 2 1.831 1 3.081 22 6.941 100  -1 1.91 13.1 1.91 7.01 .211 1.91 11.1 17.1 01 01 01 10.1 11.1 01 .411 .211 4.61 21.1  100.1 483  I 1001  i  -23-  summer.  Scidmore  been keener than tourist of  trade  their  further writes the whites  and  sell  heirlooms  antiques,  even  Europeans"  Stone  conservative  regard their  work.  village  in  the The  contributed  strong  Stikine  Wrangell,  rendezvous  was  place In  such  relationship  of  crudest  have the copies  manufacture  shrewdness  a  with  of  who  of  this  had  other  kwans  Hutsnuwus  has  one  or two,  the  a  old  the  among  i n which  a  U.S.  port  came "In  and  Kootznahoo an  ancestral  Wrangell  of  to  Army  post  call  for  i s located,  the  greatest  from  1867-1877  tourists  and  a  Tlingit.  this  data,  artifact attempted  thesis;  also  Neltushkins,  i t i s important  quantitative picture,  a n a l y s i s of  and  time  of  i t s population of  the  Hutsnuwus,  that  from  wrote  lost  the  area,  reviewing  between  at  the  t e r r i t o r y " (ibid.:69),  major  for  among  each t r i b e  almost  site  p r e v i o u s l y been  statistical  (1885;I)  Hutsnuwu  i n excess  (Orth:1060;I)  purview  the  (at K i l l i s n o o )  man,  i n f l u e n c e , though  no  the  they  Possibly Tlingit  Schwatka  i s very  has  collections,  villages.  proper,  that  i n the  to the medicine  extent.  with  fruitfully  fish-reducing plant  to  "They  (ibid.:44).  overrepresented  there  and  sums...  relics,  Emmons c o l l e c t e d  large  Tlingit:  heirlooms  fabulous  Age  the  i n s e e i n g the p o t e n t i a l s of  their  for  of  however  collection for  the  the  data  would  but  even  at  simple,  and  the  of  recall the  population  Tlingit. take  to  us  data  Sophisticated beyond  elementary  the  level  here  -24-  presented s i g n i f i c a n t anomolies  at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y r e v e a l the  major f o r c e s shaping the T l i n g i t s i n the p e r i o d 1880-1890. A q u e s t i o n about  shamans' graves remains.  Table IV f o r s p e c i f i c g r a v e l o t data).  (See  There were o r i g i n a l l y  numbers of o l d shamans' graves i n the underrepresented of Taku, Tongass, Kake and Sanya.  areas  What became of them?  It is  u n l i k e l y t h a t many were l o o t e d by the Russians, as Emmons c o l l e c t e d s e v e r a l grave l o t s i n the immediate S i t k a area.  The  areas of the m i s s i n g grave l o t s had i n common, though,  rapid  depopulation, and  Sanya),  either central location  or heavy involvements Tongass).  (Kake,  Kuiu,  i n the f u r t r a d e (Taku, Sumdum,  Perhaps graves from these depopulated  s u p p l i e d the e a r l i e s t c u r i o trade.  areas  Emmons c o l l e c t e d  graves most s u c c e s s f u l l y i n e i t h e r remote areas  from  (Yakutat,  Gonaho, C h i l k a t , p a r t of Huna) or areas i n which s i z e a b l e , l o c a l permanent p o p u l a t i o n s remained c h a o t i c n i n e t e e n t h century ( S i t k a ,  i n p l a c e throughout  Stikine,  the  Chilkat).  Of course, i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e that Emmons' d u t i e s may  have l e d him more o f t e n i n t o some a r e a s than o t h e r s .  And  yet, the extent to which the c o r r e l a t i o n s j u s t d i s c u s s e d are supported by p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s and h i s t o r i c a l knowledge lends support t o an o v e r a l l impression of thoroughness part. o  on Emmons'  -25-  3.  Incidence Graves:  More Table  III.  and  corresponds  to  Boas' see  the  how,  in fact,  from  someone.  might  well  small,  he  rob  finely  did  a  shaman's  i s made  i n the  of a  variety  goes  of  and  far to  also  success material  shapes, horn  with  spoons."  f o r charms,  rate  that  (See  specifically  f o r the  tourist  documented.  A l l c u r i o s were  directly  many,  trade.  from  Emmons  merely know  Presumably  he  bought  them  Christianised i f the  and and  sale  V)  charms  not  would even  part  of  walrus  Tlingit  article bring a  charms  the  tusks,  tusks  articles baskets  bows  were  the  This  as  It  Haida favoured  carved  however,  sold  a  in  and  graves.  bones,  even  None,  presumably  from  recalling or  high  as  mine) ( i b i d . : 5 9 ) . recovery  was  Seton-Karr  c o n s i s t e d of  probable,  Table  of the  do  greater  walrus  This  necklace.  literature.  of  shamans'  We  (emphasis  low  by  comment.  bones  carved  perhaps  argilite,  For  especially  for  inspired as  bone  recovered  partially  "The  charms,  and  charms  set,  concealed,  brought  e x p l a i n the  possible,  were  carved  Yakutat:  are  name s a r k - s e a t e .  s'ak  contemporary  native manufacture  arrows,  is  of  Tlingit  grave,  easily  curios  trade  identifies  them.  demoralized,  of  curio  without  A  mention  Shamans'  III  others?  acquire  Direct  wrote  the  origin  carved,  from  I I I , o n l y 15 p e r c e n t  data  of  of  price.  (1887;I)  the  in Table  What  locale  the  (1892:179;G)  provenance  shamans' g r a v e s . reports  about  them  Charms  Table  consistently  gives  H o w e v e r , a s we  of  Discussion of  Emmons  specific  Recovery  questions  implements,  with  of  are  genuine.  so  -26-  Table III: Comparative distribution and proportional relationships of a l l charms, charms in grave lots, and a l l grave l o t artifacts  Kwan  — -Grave l o t objects- - — 1% of total I Charms I Other I Total Icharm sample! I Objects I I documented I 1 1 las grave lot 1 No. % l No. % 1 recoveries % l No.  Auk Chilcat Chilkoot Gonaho Henya Huna Hutsnuwu Sitka Stikine Taku Tongass Yakutat  1 0 1 4 1 0 1 2 1 0 1 8 1 20 1 7 1 18 1 0 1 0 1 0  01 0 6.81 25 01 0 3.4! 125 01 0 14.1 45 34.1 107 12.1 33 31.1 24 01 0 01 0 01 0  01 0 7.01 29 01 0 35.1 127 01 0 13.1 53 30.1 127 9.2! 40 6.71 42 01 0 01 0 01 0  01 6.91 01 30.1 01 13.1 30.1 9.61 10.1 01 01 01  Totals  1 59  100! 359  1001 418  1001  Sources: G.T. Emmons ms. catalogues A.M.N.H. "E" and W.S.M.  . __  0 6.6 0 2.9 0 13 25 14.3 34.6 0 0 0 15  -27-  Inventory of artifacts recovered from thirty shaman's graves  VI  Armlet 1 Basket 1 Beating Stick 1 Box 1 Bracelet 1 Charm 1 Crown 1 Drum 1 Hair Pin 1 Head Dress 1 Head Dress Mask 1 Head Dress Orn. 1 Mask 1 81 Miscellaneus 1 Necklace 1 Rattle-Doctor's 1 Rattle-Gen Dance 1 Robe 1 S p i r i t Club 1 S p i r i t Knife 1 Spruce Root Hat 1 Dance Wand 1 S p i r i t Wand 1 Wand 1 Wooden Carving i Wooden Figure 1 Total Percent Source:  1 i  c  V1 V  V  V  I 51 1 11 21 41 1 1 1 I 2 4 3 I I 1 4 7 9 I 1 81 1 I I 1 1 1 1 31 4 1 •7 1 31 21  81 281 21 71  V  r— o  CN LD rH 1  73  C  V  1 1  I  -C  CN O CN £ CO o XX  c c  & 8 V V  2  6 3 3 1 1 2 10 7 7 2 4 1 1 2 1  2 1 4  CO  VD  1!  2 1  r-  CN  CN rH W O o XX Go  Artifact  •—  •H  Go  AU  **!  1  ro1 o ro W o XX  Go  1  ro CN CN *£> o ro rH 1 1 1 o <o cn cn o LO ro i—1 CJ o o XX o x: n5 c C e  Go  Graves by Kwan  1 r, 1 o ri co cn C O l <o 1 CO W 1 CN| •U DJI (TJ 1  UO  Table IV, p . l :  31 41 81 21 21 11  o  •s s  c  c  cn  c  88  rrj  V  V V  01 01 01 21 11 21 31 01 01 211 41 71 521 61 3! 41 21 1! 21 01 01 61 71 11 41 01  7 11 24 19 28 18 211 1281 2 3 6 4 7 4 51 301  ^ rH I CN "=P  r-  o rH  *£>  ^  N ro o C i—I rH CN roI co rc n I I CN cn O rH ^-i  r-i  rH I o LO ^  o cn o T <Q cn i—I CN I CO I I ^ ro p » o-i cn "3" LD  r-i  n-i  LD LD  [i] [l| U  c o o V  LD CO  CS  id U  13 -§  c c  XX XX  C  C  88 88  SX 3X  33 EC V V V V V  1 1 6  1  2  1 3 3 1  1  5  5 1  1!  1 2  3  1  1 1  5 1  G.T.Fmmons WSK and AMNH "E" Catalogues  3 1  7 6 5 2 1 1  41 21  1 2  6 12 5 1 3 1  81 21  -28-  Table IV, p.2: Inventory of artifacts cont. == ========= == ======^ I rH rH r o 1 1 1 CO LD C N <o r o 1 rH 00 | o I 1 o r » 00 rH rH r H CN o ro I rro 1 | 1 1 1 1 ro' CN i n 00 rH rH rH C N rH l i 1 CTi 1 rHl 1 CC NN r o <o 3o | CTi 1 CN 1 CN r-~ rH rH " H i O CO 1 00 rH rH r ~ . I T ) r P 1 1 CN ro on «3< o yo 1 1 rH rH rH C N s S| 1 o ml cn c' J W W W CQ •* LO CT) C V| w w & 1 4->' rH < y> VO rH rH 3' 1 3 3 •H| r? 1 CO W 1 g | rc w • •I 1' 1 ii c rH' rH G c c CQc CQ CQc CQc CO ro' CQ CQ J*: (CI w ^1 4-1 4-> 4J 4-) 4-> 4-1 4-> 4->' 4-> 4-> 4-)' -W 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 •HI PI •rH CO CO CO II! IE K rc rc rc rc V v V V V V V vl vl V V vl Vl  =============================  1  CNI  1  1  1  *  SM  1  UW  uw  1  To ta  1  1 1 3 8 1 1 14  2 2  2  1 3  2 3 1 2 5 1  3  1  1  1  3 3  1  1  1  44 16 3 10 4 1  1  I 1 4 1 1 11 51 2 81 1 1 31 I I 3 I 2 81 4 2 8 I I 3 1 11 I I I I I I I I 11 I 1  6 12 11 1 3 3  01 01 41 61 81 201 11 41 11 191 31 111 141 101 51 21 21 51 11 01 01 01 21 21 41 31  4  6  3 1 1 5 1 2  1  8 271 1271 24 2 61 301 6  ro cn  1 rH O  CT)  •H 1 o | CN  1  M rH s' 1  s Is CD C  ne  *  ^ •rH  •H  1  •H  1  •rH 4-> CO  V  •rl'  -1—»I  co vl  | 01 2 I 41 I 01 I 01 2 I 01 4 I 71 14 4 1 I 01 1 I 01 I 01 | 31 2 11 21 2 11 21 2 4 21 111 1 11 21 | 11 5 11 31 1 11 11 I 01 1 I 01 1 i 01 I 01 I 11 I 01 I 01 1 31 31 01 1 6 101 1 21  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0)1  401 38 4 91 9 1  rH  1  Vl 21 01 01 21 41 181 11 01 01 21 21 21 01 01 51 11 01 11 11 01 01 01 01 11 01 01  l  4->'  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  Si  •  rc  1  o rH  rH  1  1  ro 4J  ta  ===  in  ========  To ta _st  =  EH V  Vl  O  3 11 9 21 4 11 12 31 15 41 59 141 6 11 4 11 2 01 56 131 41 16 26 61 85 201 19 41 14 31 30 71 8 21 21 7 4 11 1 01 2 01 10 21 9 21 7 21 14 31 5 11 i  —  1  421 427 1001 101 100 1  -29-  documented. These the  A l l c u r i o s were  observations  sample.  contained  very  elaborate, 1930's.  know for  which sale,  of course  call  It i s significant  lots  the  presumably  a wide such  I t would charms  variety  into  be d i f f i c u l t  three  indeed  unworn  c o n d i t i o n and u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c shape  well-worn, motif  with  known  against  used  others), 867,  grease,  and c a r v i n g  recovered which  others  few charms  by T l i n g i t  graves  might  Eskimo  (WSM  E 1282) b o n e  1832-4),  or tooth  Aleut  carvings  shamans' p a r a p h e n a l i a  b y Emmons.  shaman's  f o r strange  predeliction  reveal sample  i n this  o f many  This  of  likely  of charms  Such  a  study  charms.  manufacture, but (FM 7 8 2 5 9 a n d  (E 1 1 6 2 ) , were  old,  yield  be judged.  Athapascan  made  unpatinated,  would  were n o t o f T l i n g i t  shamans.  to  (personal  might  of the core  from  juncture  but close scrutiny  styles  to in  are obviously  require a c t u a l p h y s i c a l examination A  were  Many c h a r m s  Detailed scrutiny  t o have been  parameters would  impregnated  combinations  candidates.  Sawyer).  crude  by P a a l e n  not included  of their  of  grave  i f any, were  are considered  Alan  from  at this  study,  communication  because  that  i n a grave  W.S.M. c h a r m s ,  fakes  the purity  o f charms  were genuine and which,  although  genuine.  connection  of types found  as  question  i n this  a s F i g . 9,  sold  found  and Haida among  (E  Tlingit  i s consistent with  or exotic  objects.  the  -30-  4.  Grave  Lot  Table  IV  Fifteen are  specifically  shaman's  about  the  in this in  the  percent  These  artifacts, specific  shaman  composition  data  may  be  on  later  Of  the  built  discussion. artifacts  listed  catalogues, WSM  only  1803-1852  by  him  as  in  Table  the  29  from  or  classes. eight  The  charms,  signficant. charms,  E  the three  less  a  few  found  relative  of  the  Hutsnuwu  9 4 3 - 9 8 7 , was  "E"  and  E  others,  kits  of  many  grave  unusually  l o t which rich,  which  943-987,  as  types  of  may  may  be  Some artifacts  and  may  containing  others artifact  eight  features  seen  might  various  or  and  frequently  of  six,  grave  referred to  artifacts.  feature which  grave  WSM  Emmons  representation  "complete"  charms  Shamans'"  i n the complete k i t s ,  r e s p e c t i v e l y , numbers The  "Tlingit  s e t s so t h a t h i s b u y e r s  possible assortment but  set of  specifically  The  purpose  contextualized  fragmentary.  b r o k e up  shaman and in  Hutsnuwu) a r e  shamans' k i t s .  more  widest  from  The  observations  Sitka,  u s e d by  widely  richly  much  to summarize  make some g e n e r a l  (E 6 5 1 - 6 8 2  from The  belonged.  grave l o t , but  of  charms  tell  a particular  assemblages  480  important. together,  they  more  of  recovered  three  contain  vary  whom  i n the  assemblages the  considered  to consider  and  e x c h a n g e d p i e c e s and acquire  Emmons a s  especially  to  sample  AMNH  both  are  total  of  i n Emmons' m a n u s c r i p t  complete IV,  Discussion  the  of a s p e c i f i c  lot  A  by  are  when  s e c t i o n i s not context  of  documented  graves.  associated  Inventory:  and  not eight  as  well  be  -31-  three  necklaces,  each  of which  c o n s i s t e d o f bone and  pendants,  and t h r e e  robes,  two  with  and  carved  pendants,  not  bone  seem t o be any s e t number  accomplished at  ivory  least  Tlingit  possessed It  Tlingit  has  shamans  corresponding evidence, (Laguna the  would  been  suggested  had, when  to eight  o f masks  As  we  i n the neighbourhood  Jonaitis  s e e by  eight  or eight,  Interestingly,  two  WSM  show no m a s k s ,  f o r by  ornaments.  Jonaitis  possible,  on  whether  whether Nor  masks  complete  this  numbers  not mention  specific  eight  irregular  being  IV,  often as masks.  (E 9 4 3 - 9 8 7  and  perhaps  of head-dress  of ethnographic  masks  or  I t i s not  evidence,  w e r e u s e d i n one way  and headress  masks  t o use, perhaps,  magical  masks  at Table  to ascertain  masks and n o t o t h e r s were i n u s e a t any one  they  according  Tlingit  containing  these.  the  ethnographic  but ranging  kits  absence  were  number.  i s a complete  evidence  would  were  Despite  and n o t another,  fully  i s i t p o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n whether  charms a  does  the basis  whether c e r t a i n time,  the larger  on  looking  and as low as two i n t h e l o t s  compensated  shamans  masks,  f o r the  high as e l e v e n  1803-1852)  some  varies considerably,  of four  of the three  would  (1981;B) t h a t  being,  completion  lots  There  them.  eight  can  i n grave  Clearly,  developed,  spirits,  of r i t u a l  1972:2;761;G).  of  festooned  charms which the  own.  by  fully  were a l s o  or charms.  of total  l a r g e numbers  t h e number  numbers  being  shaman  of which  ivory  seem  t o be  interchangeable.  certain intended  Jonaitis  set, conclusions  or  1  categories of to total  suggestion  based  questionable.  on  such  up t o that  -32-  The  data  i nTable  inconsistency  i n the kinds  graves.  supports  were  This  individualistic,  rules  of shamanic  according  i s an e s s e n t i a l  C.  Materials,  of  various  walrus  tusk,  probably  Tlingit  t o broad  As w i l l  shamans  general widely  be  seen,  V  t o as charms  (41 p e r c e n t )  obtained  and " i v o r y " ,  The i v o r y  from  b y Emmons a r e  i s  the Aleut.  soapstone  to utilize  which  strange  or teeth,  predominanatly (G.T. Emmons  A.M.N.H. E 1 1 8 i s a c h a r m  carving of Chinese  shamans' t e n d e n c i e s  included i n  o f shamanism.  (36.9 p e r c e n t ) .  ms. A.M.N.H. E 6 4 5 - 6 ) reworked  inspirations.  referred  o f bone  that  conforming  Discussion of Table  kinds  of artifacts  and p a r a p h e r n a l i a , v a r i e d  element  objects  overwhelmingly  and, w h i l e  personal  this  The  a n d number  there i s great  the interpretation  conduct  to their  I V show t h a t  made  of a  illustrates  objects of  mysterious  origin. Figure of  undecorated  Taku  shaman  noise  seen  rods.  undecorated,  shaman's n e c k l a c e  I t i s similar  i n the Frontispiece.  effect.  Tlingit,  bases  bone  when t h e shaman  dramatic the  4 i s a Tlingit  leapt  Furst,  although  (1977:2-3,18;C) bears  about  rituals:  t o ensure  Such  adding  not specifically that  considerable symbolic  the continued  worn  necklaces  i n practice,  suggests  h i s a r g u m e n t on t h e c e n t r a l  to that  made  bone,  meaning  largely by t h e made to the  discussing  even i f a s bone.  He  r o l e o f bone i n f i s h i n g supply  of fish,  t h e bones a r e  - 3 3 -  Table V:  Materials from which charms were made 4J  8  Kwan V  4-1  o  o  0)  D  c: to  6  •s S 8 4 J 4 J K K DC W 3  1  2  _  D  -H  •5 M  •H  CO M D  c n  4-1  -pi  4-1  •gl  (0  13 §  v v v v v v v v v v v  Land Mammal  Sea Mammal  Misc.  IBear Tooth IBear Tusk ILynx Tooth IMouse Tooth IBone IAntler IDeer Hoof I Horn ILand Otter Tooth ITotal IWhale Bone IHair Seal Tooth IKiller Wh. Tooth ISea Lion Tooth ISeal Tooth iWalrus Tooth IWhale Tooth ISea Mammal Tooth IWalrus Tusk ITotal I"Tooth" I Wood I No Data  3  3  2  43  8 2  1 1  45 10  1 23 29 32 26 1  2 26 33 37 29 2  1 1  9  0  0  3  2 2  1 1 1 3  1  3 14 7 3 16 13  1  3 6  1  1  2 17 33 9 16 2 2 2 3 5 12 17  9  3 2  1 3  1 1  1 1  9  1  15 2 1  3.11 .41 .21  I 1 211 1 9 5 21 5 II 2  .21 41.1 II .41  I 1 I 1 281 2 2 3  .21 .21 47.1  2  Compiled from G.T. Emmons, ms. catalogues and published sources (Appendix II)  vl  21 7 1.51 II 1 .21 I 3 .61 I 3 .61 I 2 .41 II 1 .21 1 1 7 1.51 II 1 .21 1 9 131 1 3 5 2 9 . 1 2 0 181 1 6 0 3 3 . 1  4 5  e V  dpi  vl I I  1  4  4J  41  1  4  •Si  1  51 21 461  6 1.31 22 4.61 68 14.1  -34-  Fig. 4 P.M. 69.30.10 - 1988 Shaman's n e c k l a c e A l a n Sawyer P h o t o  -35-  returned again art  a r o u n d them.  their  Shamans  initiatory  t h e bones,  the fish  also  Norton sound  territory, string  i n western Alaska, t h e head  of vertebrae  signifies  used  wooden  o f some  without  were  carried  (WSM  2047-2055).  well land  a small  i n t h e hands  O t h e r wooden  pieces,  skin  a shaman's  have  as were  shallow  interesting  wooden  pieces  charms  transferred  o f fevil  described  resides  Tlingit followed  a charm  by a  o f bone  o f wooden  both  b y Emmons  Unfortunately,  spirits.  Evidently,  tooth,  although  most  "charms",  were.  were neck  power  a Tlingit  attached  charms  and an  16.1 9 9 5 1 - 8 ) .  19-208,209  claimed and there  charms  d i d n o t have  shaman  were  (AMNH  and  by h i m t o aided i n  or necklaces  ivory, called  spirit  not offer  charms  than  2270),  a r e AMNH  A l l other  t o have g r e a t  ones.  Nine  representing the  masks  b y Emmons,  or marine  he d o e s  rather  or i v o r y  to a patient's  a r e o f bone  "carvings"  t o charms.  (WSM  bone  small,  These, c a l l e d  warding  said  robe,  set of eight  been  bones  the provenance  o f a s s i s t a n t s o f a Gunaho  to  211.  animal  s o - c a l l e d b y Emmons,  sea monster Konkodate  most  "x-ray"  reconsituted.  with  Here  own  the soul  beyond  number  wealth-giving  The  charm  i n ways a n a l a g o u s o r i d e n t i c a l  "carvings,"  unusual  from their  may b e  flesh.  i n their  a n d i s bone. Interestingly,  were  the flesh  reincarnated  bones  Presumably,  5, a T l i n g i t - s t y l e  shows  may b e  depict  crisis.  around which  Figure of  so that  and some a r e s u p p o s e d t o be r e b o r n  during in  t o the water  so  ssark-seate,  and  (WSM 9 2 0 ) . name f o r t h e wooden  t o b e made  o f bone o r  -36-  Fig. 5 M i c h 74670 "Norton Sound" B i l l Holm Photo  -37-  Fig. 6 A.M.N.H. Wood s h a m a n ' s c h a r m A l a n Sawyer Photo  -38-  Figure charms  6  represents  i n t h e AMNH.  specifically numbers  this  this case,  following  section,  prominent  m o t i f ( s ) on a c h a r m ,  detail. of  wooden  style this was  I t i s thus charms  indeed  wooden  i t i s not p o s s i b l e to say  i s .  T h e AMNH d i d n o t  and as w i l l  provide  be shown  i n the  Emmons o f t e n m e n t i o n s o n l y t h e m o s t and  does  not provide  not p o s s i b l e t o match  with  this  example,  t o a number o f bone charms. writer,  of the anomalous  Unfortunately,  which charm  t o go w i t h  one  i t was  up  his description  which i s i d e n t i c a l  From  in  the data a v a i l a b l e  o n l y p o s s i b l e t o deduce  a wooden T l i n g i t  much  shaman's c h a r m  that from  this the  to  charm  Emmons  1  collection. Teeth such.  Their  devouring shamans, their  split  also  bonelike  have  i n which they by  7 and  their  tutelary  obtainable,  t h e two  likely  from  1972:53-58;C).  charms  made  a Raven  Tlingit  from  and  o f many  re-constituted  each with than  i n rending  experience  (Eliade  other  are quite  and  as  was  t h e same  of  motif. not hand.  of Manufacture  Ethnographic  blanks,  role  identical  tooth,  provenance data  charms  their  spirit  nearly  s e c t i o n s o f s e a mammal  Methods  and  significance  the i n i t i a t o r y  Unfortunately,  D.  special  are torn apart  8 d e p i c t two  as  had  durability  i s consonant with  bones  Figures  may  are lacking. pieces  d e s c r i p t i o n s of the manufacture of  Emmons  o f bone  recovered  or tooth  that  a number had  been  of sawn  charm in half  and  -39-  Fig. 7 A.M.N.H. 19-453 A l a n Sawyer P h o t o  Fig. 8 MAI 4/1669 ( D o c k s t a d e r 1966 F. 120)  -40-  made ready f o r f u r t h e r work (E 1411-1412). a jade c h i s e l p o i n t or bow drill  (FM 78041).  times was  drill  He a l s o  recovered  b i t (E 2651), and a pump  Undoubtably, making charms i n p r e - c o n t a c t  p a i n s t a k i n g work.  Perhaps the very d i f f i c u l t y  of  the a r t l e n t magic to the charms, e s p e c i a l l y so c o n s i d e r i n g how  remarkably  w e l l carved many of them are.  Blanks were  presumably sawn o f f w i t h s l a t e saws and carved w i t h n e p h r i t e or  quartz d r i l l s and c h i s e l s , probably i n the manner of  drilling  to depth and p a i n s t a k i n g l y s c r a p i n g away u n t i l  d e s i r e d shape was  achieved  r e s u l t s can be seen  (Emmons 1923;E).  the  The a s t o n i s h i n g  i n f i g u r e 9, f o r example.  Recovered  from  a shaman's grave by Wolfgang Paalen i n the 1930's, i t i s perhaps the most complex of a l l T l i n g i t charms. inches t a l l ,  E.  i t i s a masterpiece  A mere  of conception and  3.75  technique.  Dating of Charms  A charm such as t h a t i n f i g u r e 9, or many a n o t h e r complex and w e l l - c a r v e d charm, undoubtedly c o n s i d e r a b l e investment  i n time and  labour.  represented a C o n s i d e r i n g the  d u r a b i l i t y of the m a t e r i a l , and the f a c t t h a t T l i n g i t shamans were known to r e t u r n to the graves of t h e i r predecessors to recover implements of p r a c t i c e to which they might be and wish to use  (probably because they had  more of the deceased 432),  certain  J u s t how  shaman's s p i r i t s )  entitled  i n h e r i t e d one  (Emmons ms. AMNH E  i n d i v i d u a l charms are undoubtedly  or 409-  very o l d .  o l d i s i m p o s s i b l e to say, of course, but an  article  -41-  Fig. 9 Paalen C o l l e c t i o n 3.75 inches ( I n v e r a r i t y 1950 #166;  D)  -42-  as d u r a b l e as a charm c o u l d r e m a i n i n use f o r some c e n t u r i e s , at was  least.  Emmons mentions s e v e r a l grave l o t s i n which,  t o l d , r e l i c implements were used by s e v e r a l c o n s e c u t i v e  generations  of shamans.  Masks from T l i n g i t *  he  shamans' graves are known t h a t  show no evidence of having been worked w i t h metal t o o l s ,  and  are p a i n t e d e n t i r e l y w i t h n a t i v e pigments (personal communication, Alan Sawyer). are as o l d as these,  C e r t a i n l y , many of the charms  i f not o l d e r , again c o n s i d e r i n g the  nature of the m a t e r i a l .  Many of the charms Emmons c o l l e c t e d ,  as has been mentioned, have deeply ground-in  grease and  and a r e worn smooth by many y e a r s of h a n d l i n g . r e l a t i v e l y c l e a n and unworn.  grime,  Others are  D e t a i l e d s t y l i s t i c study to  e s t a b l i s h which charms may  have preceeded  others i n date of  manufacture, and which may  i n f a c t have been made f o r the  t o u r i s t trade, would be a major and q u i t e p r o b l e m a t i c undertaking, q u i t e beyond the modest a s p i r a t i o n s of the present F.  i n t r o d u c t o r y study.  Style T l i n g i t shaman's charms d i s p l a y so wide a range of  s t y l e and s k i l l of execution t h a t c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i s impossible. of bone.  F i g u r e 10 shows three extremely  crude charms made  The s p i r i t d e s i g n a t i o n s s u p p l i e d by Emmons may  seen to be based on the paw, respectively.  F i g u r e 11,  be  f l i p p e r , and wing m o t i f s ,  at the other end of a  continuous  spectrum, shows a complex charm carved w i t h consummate s k i l l .  -43-  F i g . 10 A.M.N.H.: 19-508 bear A.M.N.H.: 19-473 sea l i o n A.M.N.H.: 19-474 bird Alan Sawyer Photo  F i g . 11 A.M.N.H.: E 2 7 0 8 • B i l l Holm P h o t o  -45-  What  i s more,  rigid, for  f i g u r e 12  formalised,  which  the  employs  northern  frame  design,  the  Northwest  Was  right?  There  i s no  Jonaitis by  the  Coast  frequent  visible  jolt  with  the  crest,  that the  the  the  She  basing  writes,  of  of  the  or  family  crudeness  her  the  world  connote  of  the  malevolent features  spirits, shaman's  forces  an  specifically  discusses  was or  spirits  in  their  art  upon  own  so  . . . shaman's while  the  a  i n the clouds  Northwest non-  i t i s used  to  make  owner).  She  the  with the  its  of  served  shaman's c o n t r o l .  Levi-Strauss' (Leach  1974:30;K): from  secular  association  conventional social  However, charm  with  objects  stability figure  which  unpleasant  and  and  rawness,  different  formal,  most  the  intimate  disorder."  repesents  of  posed  of  opposition works,  question  intentional,  under  reestablishment  war-khu, which l i v e s  to  of  skill  of  audience  indisputably well-carved states  seems  self-  higher  often  conjecture  created  The  art,  scene  the  art  symbol(s)  energetic the  famous)  style.  meaning  ( s o - c a l l e d because  dangerous  symbolize  have  apparently  "The  pieces,  styles  shamanic  nature/culture  and  the  style  knowing.  "irreductible" crude  shamanic  styles  shaman's c l i e n t  symbolizing  is especially  non-shamanic  and  using  (1983:130;D)  "crest" art  suggests to  way  on  (the  two-dimensional  coast  seen  the  crudeness  in contrast  shamanic  artist  i.e., d i d  design  more n a t u r a l i s t i c  naturalistic  the  referentially,  and  more o f t e n  chaotic,  devouring.  formline  almost c a l l i g r a p h i c  as w e l l as a much f r e e r formline  both  after  12  Emmons spirit,  i s avoided  by  Ke-  a l l other  -46-  Fig. 12 A.M.N.H. 19-450 " r e p r e s e n t s t h e s p i r i t K e - w a r - k h u , ... much d r e a d e d a n d a v o i d e d b y a l l o t h e r s p i r i t s , b e l i e v e d by the T l i n g i t t o l i v e i n a distant country i n the clouds. B i l l Holm P h o t o  -47-  spirits  (Emmons ms.  AMNH 19.450;E).  into Jonaitis* formulation  How  t h i s charm might f i t  i s unclear.  I t i s j u s t as l i k e l y t h a t the s t y l e of c a r v i n g  had  l i t t l e t o do with the magical e f f i c a c y of the charm, which might f u n c t i o n as a kind of storage Bancroft,  b a t t e r y f o r s p i r i t power.  i n what i s the e a r l i e s t s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e  shaman's charm  (1886: 700Fn;I), r e l a t e s from Russian  to a ms.  sources the f a s c i n a t i n g account of a T l i n g i t a c o l y t e to the Russian Orthodox Church at S i t k a who  i n 1829  was  c o n v i c t e d of  s o r c e r y and banished to the remotest monastery i n S i b e r i a - a "mild" punishment - because he was i n t o the h o l y water.  observed d i p p i n g charms  For t h i s he was  shaman, to which the poor T l i n g i t was well.  The  shaman, o b v i o u s l y not one  p a i d i n f u r s by  the  evidently apprenticed  as  to miss a t r i c k , must  have been t r y i n g to o b t a i n some of the church's m a g i c a l powers f o r h i s own.  T h i s i s a c l e a r i n s t a n c e of a charm's power (or  p o t e n t i a l power) d e r i v i n g from something q u i t e independent of i t s s t y l e or s k i l l  G.  of  execution.  Motifs  1.  Problems i n M o t i f  Identification  I t does not seem l i k e l y t h a t Emmons c o u l d have had an informant  f o r every charm or a r t i f a c t , y e t he r a r e l y f a i l s  to i d e n t i f y m o t i f s , i n c l u d i n g many t h a t are q u i t e obscure. very  r a r e l y makes mention of informants,  nor does he  provide  He  us  with  the c r i t e r i a  absence  he used  of informants.  i n making  What  seems  most p l a u s i b l e  Emmons s o m e t i m e s h a d k n o w l e d g e a b l e when he p u r c h a s e d At  other  and of  times  he must  resemblance  problems  a s a "bear  as  associated with  14, a l s o  catalogue  the designation  less  near  figure  number) "Spirit  Was Emmons  had  different  from  with  on t h e b a s i s  13  near  very  are legion.  Angoon  i tbeats the indeed, but  What  a r e we t o  t h i n g s up b e c a u s e  designations  which  spirits a l l  similar  o f a whale  making  Not  but not identified  (although  appears  piece.  Tlingit  Angoon,  shaman.  knowledgeable,  attributions  a charm  spirit  from  make o f t h i s ? to provide  o f a deceased  been  h i smotif  13 r e p r e s e n t s  Figure  has  as f o r example  m a d e h i s own g u e s s e s  with  about".  sequential  have  i n the  i s that  t o some p r e v i o u s l y w e l l - i d e n t i f i e d  identifies  being  informants,  the heirs  must  sometimes  Figure Emmons  from  h i s sources  have  surprisingly,  charms  attributions  to interest  he f e l t  he  h i s buyers,  o r d i d a n I n d i a n , who may o r may n o t h a v e k n o w n w h a t he w a s talking  about, p r o v i d e  perhaps,  the identifications  represented what entry  they  whatever  looked  some o t h e r  catalogue.  One t h i n g  d o e s n o t seem represent  likely  i n fact  suggesting heads  Emmons  said  are correct  charms  regardless of  may e v e n  have  mixed  - we  t h a t t h e charms different figures  drowning  because  did,  i s certain  such  Or,  they  one a s he penned  that the limp recall  the identification?  really  a shaman  like.  with  large  him with  h i s voluminous will  which  animals. draped  victims,  up t h e  never  know.  a r e so  I t  similar  I t i s worth  over  and thus  the noses land  of the  otters,  -49-  "Bear From  F i g . 13 A.M.N.H. E 864 s p i r i t s with T l i n g i t Spirits all about." Shaman's G r a v e n e a r Angoon A l a n Sawyer Photo  -50-  F i g . 14 A.M.N.H. E 865 Walrus ivory ... S p i r i t o f a w h a l e , w i t h T l i n g i t S p i r i t s a l l about and w o l f s p i r i t in rear. Worn a t t a c h e d t o d a n c i n g r o b e when p r a c t i s i n g a b o u t s i c k o r bewitched." From Shaman's G r a v e n e a r Angoon A l a n Sawyer Photo  -51-  which,  as  will  connections Tlingit  be  with  made p l a i n the  shamanism In  similar  drowned,  than  having  there  i s the  parallel  being  called  the  closer  previous  thing.  Figure  is identifed  and  a  does t h i s  relate  t o f i g u r e 16  head?  equally great,  are  charms  no  two  as  land  could It  and  a wolf  called  any  there  the by  be  brought  forth  but  data. other  Emmons w a s , white  of  information  was  only  variability  otherwise,  of  (not  as  some  at this  certainly,  good  as  individual to  17.  mention  head".  out  but  would  his  large How,  is also  or  otherwise,  is  also  resembles of  these  many and  other  length. juncture that i t is  a l l such while  presenting  was  knowledgeable  also  lie,  but  informants.  fallible.  w i l l i n g n e s s of  It  his Rather,  shamans' c o n c e p t i o n s , the  Upon  correspondence.  f a r more he  an  presumably.  It  examples at  i s d o u b t f u l i n t h e e x t r e m e t h a t he  glance  (the  other  r e p o r t them  h i s day,  pieces  abstraction is  greatly  work t o s o r t  rather to  "wolf  stylistic  figure  Further  first  eyes  of  i s no  Emmons, a n d  otter.  very  whose major m o t i f  either  next,  a  with  attributions,  snout,  degree  i s w e l l to remember  difficulties, 1  The  but  the purpose of t h i s  Emmons  U-shaped  corresopndences,  these  confusions  and  as  of  divergent  at  ovals)  identified  great  15,  squared  a wolf  example  extremely  discern ears,  between  than  animal.  divergent motif of  intimate  individual  can  as  have  connections  one  perhaps  not  Two,  stronger  the  problem  abstract piece,  identifed  There  other  widely  same  examination  central then,  any  and  conjunction with  pieces  entirely  i n Chapter  the  the  artistic Tlingit  -52-  F i g . 15 W.S.M. 1770 "Wolf head." Wrangell (Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y 1956: f i g . 101;D)  -53-  F i g . 16 A.M.N.H. E 2711 "The l a r g e head i s that of a wolf, and d e v i l f i s h t e n t a c l e s appear at the e a r s . The seated f i g u r e at the back of the charm i s a bear." (Wardwell 1978 f i g . 66;D)  - 5 4 -  F i g 17 W.S.M. 1720 Wolf charm o f i v o r y , " c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e g r a v e house o f a d c e a s e d shaman o f t h e S i t k i n e Kwan, n e a r W r a n g e l l . " B i l l Holm p h o t o  -55-  to p r o v i d e answers t o c u r i o u s and well-meaning whites) no doubt went f a r t o render especially d i f f i c u l t .  the problem of m o t i f  identification  T h i s i s d i s a p p o i n t i n g , the more so  because of the degree of confidence  w i t h which v a r i o u s  are i d e n t i f i e d i n the c l a s s i c two-dimensional f o r m l i n e of the northern poles  Northwest Coast  (Stewart  species design  1979;F) and on totem  ( H a l p i n 1981b:37;F). Perhaps t h i s i s due to the d i f f e r e n t context  shaman's a r t , which s i g n i f i e d present,  potent,  of the  s p i r i t power,  i n c o n t r a s t t o s e c u l a r a r t which e x e m p l i f i e d the e x c e l l e n c e of the l i n e a g e as i l l u s t r a t e d by past h e r o i c s or m y t h i c a l s u p e r n a t u r a l encounters.  The shaman's power was enhanced by  mystery (not u n l i k e medical today).  He d i d not p r a c t i c e to h i s own f a m i l y , and o f t e n went  to another v i l l a g e Strangers  and p s y c h i a t r i c p r a c t i t i o n e r s  t o p r a c t i c e (Laguna 1972:2:670;G).  were not l i k e l y t o know the p r e c i s e i d e n t i t y of the  shaman's s p i r i t s , and even l e s s l i k e l y t o know which charm or other  implement represented  which s p i r i t .  S p e c i f i c data on  whether some or any shamans' s p i r i t s were s e c r e t i n f a c t i s l a c k i n g , whereas c r e s t s ( f a m i l y symbols) were c e l e b r a t e d i n p o t l a t c h e s , and thus were matters of p u b l i c record.  2.  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the Land O t t e r  Motif  We may now see what happens when we f o l l o w the s i n g l e most commonly  i d e n t i f i e d animal motif on T l i n g i t  shamans' charms, the land o t t e r , through a few of i t s  -56-  permutations.  Figure  candensis.  It  is  cylindrical  aquatic  ears, long  a  broad,  heavy  thick  "a  depicts  large, weasel  with  f l a t t e n e d at  toward  the  an  actual  elongated,  f l a t t e n e d head,  tail  base  18  a  pointed  otter,  lutra  streamlined,  stout  webbed  the  land  neck,  feet  bottom  (almost)  small  for  and  and  eyes  and  a f t , and  tapering  t i p " (Caras  from  a  a  1967:  191-  192;J). Figures conform  fairly  particularly and to  a  long  show  tail  19  well  features  thick  has  features  (1972:2:761;E) parts  of  an  the  marked  Figure outlined  21,  mountains,  rivers,  to  the  is  are  two  shaman  who  in  f a c e s on  originally  most  when  art,  intended  lacks  can  hailstones, f i g u r e 21,  the  long  outline  and  Laguna  represented  This  ears  plausible otter.  represent  made o r  small  in general  a  19  the  also  etc.  on  other  awani.  or  pertain  to  However,  j u s t what they  commissioned  since meant  this  piece  unclear. Figures  quadrupedal,  and  22 both  and are  23  are  also  identified  Figure  23  i s double-headed  figure  22  has  two  supernumerary  Despite  the  b i z a r r e nature,  end.  above)  underneath.  soul.  glaciers,  small  lines  is also  faces,  anthropomorphic  segmented from  that  Figure  with  conforms  faces  body,  recited.  quadruped  (seen  but  indwelling  there  with  20  that  animal's  just  elongated  ears,  states  d e p i c t land o t t e r charms model  Figure  larger  two  20  an  tail,  cylindericality. It  to  vertabrae.  and  and  and  has  elongated, by  Emmons  made as  of  land  tooth, otters.  a human i n i t s mouth,  human both  faces, are  one  still  at  and  either  sufficiently  -57-  F i g . 18 Lutra Canadensis: the Land, or R i v e r , O t t e r ( L e e R u e , 1967:101,-J) (Note t h e t h i c k long tail and v e r y s m a l l ears.)  -58-  F i g . 19 W.S.M. 926 Land o t t e r charm, of bone, c o l l e c t e d from the grave house of a shaman of the S t i c k i n e Kwan, near F o r t Wrangell ( J o n a i t i s 1 9 7 8 : f i g . 1;B)  F i g . 20 A.M.N.H. E1285 Land o t t e r charm, of bone, c o l l e c t e d from "an o l d shaman's grave house on an i s l a n d i n Cross Sound." (G.T. Emmons ms.) Huna Kwan d e t a i l , Alan Sawyer Photo  -59-  F i g . 21 N.M.C. V I I - A - 2 5 2 16.8 x 1.6 cm Land o t t e r , o f a n t l e r ex L o r d Bossom c o l l e c t i o n , c o l l e c t e d by G.T. Emmons 1903-1916 ( H a l l 1983: f i g . 2;I)  -60-  F i g . 22 M . A . I . 9/7950 "Land O t t e r " P o r t F r e d e r i c k - Huna ( J o n a i t i s 1978: F i g . 4;B)  F i g . 23 M . A . I . 9/7951 "Land O t t e r " ( J o n a i t i s 1978: F i g . 7;B)  -61-  otterish  that  we  The comparison features top  do n o t w i s h  f o r e g o i n g may  of figures  rather  which,  represents  Figure  especially  otters  are rare  26). pun  of wolf nearly  of spinal  related  evidence of this  Figure documentation  clings  grave  along  animal  i s i n fact with  28 f i n i s h e s  which  Land was  echoes t h e  by  Feder  unmentioned i n  guardian  i t s spine  figure  which  On  otter.  (figure  make a  many  t h e more others  However,  certainty. the point.  This  charm,  without  that  this  represents  a spirit  elongated  neck  like  no  i s u n l i k e any other.  from  likely  of  "Tlingit",  possibly  visual  the basis of  shortly,  and indeed  tothe  than  transformation,  be  types of  f a c e downward  sucker.  land  I t may  other  conceivable  strangely  note,  from  The c o m p a r i s o n  but l e f t  t o be p r e s e n t e d  c a n b e made  close.  identified  otter,  vertabrae/octopus  form,  attribution  pits  staff  on  charms.  animal,  shaman's  I t has c i r c u l a r  identification  is  catalogue  otter  24  tails  and shamans' a r t .  similarity,  identical  Figure  documentation  i s very  art, i n fact.  and l a n d  of a l i f e - s i z e d  but  skinny  a song-leader's  of crest  151;D) a s a l a n d  ethnographic  or  a piece  i n crest  Emmons' o r i g i n a l back  with  t o compare d i f f e r i n g  of the striking  (1971:figure  otters"  The resemblance  items,  A  "land  25 s h o w s  t h a t i t i sa mistake  similarities  clear,  on t h e s t r e n g t h o f i m p e c c a b l e  a wolf.  because  reasonably  24 a n d 25 r e i n t r o d u c e d o u b t .  argued  made  seem  large-eared  and bottom.  Yakutat  to quibble.  i n the process  o r t o an o t t e r - l i k e  and t h e rubbery,  I t  curling  shape. legs  of  The  suggest  -62-  F i g . 24 A.M.N.H. 19-457 Land o t t e r s top and bottom B i l l Holm Photo  F i g . 25 Song leader's s t a f f r e p r e s e n t i n g a w o l f , p a i n t e d i n r e d , blue-green, and b l a c k . Made f o r the Drum House Teqwedi by D.S. Benson f o r Joseph Abraham and was used i n t h e p o t l a t c h f o r Sidewise House a t Yakutat i n 1916. The t a i l i s m i s s i n g . Now i n t h e Denver A r t Museum. The T e q w e d i a r e a s i b o f the Wolf-Eagle moiety. (Laguna 1972:3:P1. 163)  Emmons  does  F i g . 26 A.M.N.H. E 1915 ( r e a r view) n o t i d e n t i f y t h e a n i m a l on t h e ( F e d e r 1 9 7 1 : f i g . 5;D)  figure's  back.  Fig. 27 A.M.N.H. E 1915 Shaman's g r a v e g u a r d o f t h e C h i l k a t Kagwanton. Represents the s p i r i t Geastin, "which l i v e s i n the a i r above and i s a v e r y r e v e n g e f u l bad s p i r i t t h a t kills T l i n g i t s when i t m e e t s them. He i s r e p r e s e n t e d a s a m a n d r e s s e d as a D o c t o r w i t h a s h o u l d e r r o b e on, w h i c h represents a s p i r i t f i s h , i n the stomach i s another spirit f i s h , t h e mouth i s open s i n g i n g , and i n t h e hands were originally (Feder 1971:  rattles." f i g . 150;D)  -66-  F i g . 28 P.U. 5093 Shape changing? Sheldon Jackson C o l l . B i l l Holm Photo  -67-  the p l a s t i c moment between the o l d shape and t h e new.  We  gain p e r s p e c t i v e on the problems of motif  identification  r e c a l l i n g t h a t the shaman c o u l d transform  himself  i n t o another  by  i n t o any  h i s t u t e l a r y s p i r i t s , and presumably, go d i r e c t l y from form  can  of  one  (Laguna 1972:2:690;G).  Laguna s t a t e s t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o t e l l t o what extent  the shaman's t u t e l a r i e s are d i s t i n c t from and  c o n t r o l l e d by him, w i t h them  and  to what extent he becomes, and merges  (ibid.:836).  The  dreams or v i s i o n s , and (ibid.:689)  and  thus,  are  charms represent  the shaman's  the s p i r i t s that p r o t e c t i n a way,  himself.  him  I t becomes apparent  t h a t s i m p l y c a l l i n g a charm a w o l f or l a n d o t t e r i s not  saying  very much.  not  Unfortunately,  i t i s often,  i f not u s u a l l y ,  even p o s s i b l e to do that i n any  s p e c i f i c sense due  extreme v a r i a b i l i t y of form and  l i m i t e d documentation.  3.  M o t i f Frequency A n a l y s i s :  to  the  Discussion  of T a b l e VI.  We  may  now  r e t u r n to our d i s c u s s i o n of the compiled  documentary data,  s p e c i f i c a l l y that concerning  found on charms.  The  what c o n s i s t e n c i e s may the  ethnographic  motifs  l i a b i l i t i e s of t h i s kind of data have  j u s t been touched upon.  by  the  Nevertheless, emerge, and  record.  i t i s worthwhile to  see  whether they are supported  -68-  Table VI p.1:  Motif Frequency Analysis  Motif Type  1 total 1number of 1% oftotal 1 occurance 1occurance1occurances1occurances [combined 1 las sole lof motif in 1with land lor major 1which i t i s l otter 1 1 1 motif Isole or 1 1 No. 1 %l 1major 1 No. 1 %  Fish and Shark Fish Dog Fish Halibut Needle Fish Salmon Sculpin Shark Total Fish & Shark  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  221 2 . 4 1 11 .11 61 .71 21 .21 101 1.11 41 .41 51 .51 501 5 . 5 1  101 11 41 01 01 21 51 261  451 1001 671 01 01 501 1001 521  51 1 21 1 21 1 1 91  K i l l e r Whale Porpoise Sea Otter Seal Sea Lion Whale Total Marine Mammal  1 1 1 1 1 1 1  251 2 . 7 1 41 .41 61 .71 41 .41 51 .51 181 21 621 6 . 8 1  221 31 11 41 31 171 501  881 751 171 1001 601 951 811  1 1 1 1 11 1 11  Land Otter  1 1141 1 2 . 1  681  601  1 1 1 1 1  291 1 181 11 471  521  23 33 20  18  Marine Mammal  501  20 2 44  Land Mammal Bear Dog Wolf Mountain Goat Total Land Mammal  561 6 . 1 1 11 .11 321 3 . 5 1 81 .81 971 1 1 . 1  1  561 121 481  131 23 11 1 0 0 31 9 1 171 18  -69-  Table VI, p.2:  Motif Frequency Analysis  Motif Type  ITotal Inumber o f 1% o f t o t a l l o c c u r a n c e l l o c c u r a n c e l o c c u r a n c e s l o c c u r a n c e s Icombined I I las sole Iof m o t i f i n Iwith l a n d I I l o r major Iwhich i t i s I o t t e r I I I motif I sole or I I I N O . 1% 1 Imajor INo. 1% 1 ,  1  Bird Bird Blue Heron Cormorant Duck Kingfisher Loon Merganser Oyster Catcher Sand H i l l Crane Eagle Hawk Owl Raven Hummingbird Total Bird  1 1 1 1  I  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  .81 71 11 .11 41 .41 21 .21 .21 21 11 .11 .31 31 .11 11 91 11 .81 71 .21 21 .31 31 741 8 . 1 1 11 .11 1171 1 3 . 1  11 1 1 1 11 1 31 11 61 41 11 1 201 1 371  141 1 1 1 501 1 1001 1001 671 571 501 1 271 1 321  21 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 21 21 1 11 91 1 171  1  Monster Gonokadet "Sea Monster" "Monster" Total Monster  1 1 1 1  41 71 71 181  .41 .81 .81 21  21 51 21 91  501 711 291 1501  21 31 1 51  501 431 1 281 1  1  Human and Yek Human Shaman Witch Yek (G.T.E.) Total Human and Yek  i 291 1 251 1 1 1 1 1 221 291 1 331 121 1 151 i  1 1381 1 5 . 1 1 211 2 . 3 1 .91 1 81 1 1181 1 3 . 1 1 2851 3 1 . 1  241 171 51 171 631  171 811 621 141 1741  301 91 51 401 841  i 221 431 621 341 291  -70-  T a b l e VI, p.3:  M o t i f Frequency A n a l y s i s  M o t i f Type  1Total 1number o f 1% o f t o t a l loccuranceloccurancesloccurances 1 as s o l e lof motif i n 1 l o r major 1which i t i s 1 1motif 1 Isole or INo. 1% 1 1major  loccurancel Icombined 1 1with l a n d l 1otter 1 1 1 INo. 1% 1  Miscellaneous Octopus Crab Mosquito Frog Worm Canoe C i r c l e Dot Cross Soul Catcher P r o t r u d i n g Tongue Witch Torture Devouring Pun S p i r i t Transport Other  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  341 3.71 .21 21 11 .11 .71 61 .71 61 .41 41 61 .71 11 .11 31 .31 181 21 41 .41 351 3.81 .31 31 .31 31 191 2.11  51 1 1 1 51 I I I I 1 11 1 1 1 61  Compiled from G.T. Emmons ms. c a t a l o g u e n o t e s AMNH E & 19, WSM, F.M., and p u b l i s h e d s o u r c e s (Appendix I I ) .  151 1 1 1 831 1 1 1 I 1 251 1 1 1 321  81 241 1 1 1 1 31 501 1 1 11 251 1 1 1 1 I 1 131 721 1 1 91 261 1 1 1 1 1 1  Table VII Iconographic Complexity of Tlingit's Shaman's Charms Motif Number Kwan Auk Chilkat-Chilcoot Gonaho Henya Huna Hutsnuwu Sitka Stikine Taku Tongass Yakutat Tlingit Totals Percent (%)  1  2  3 32 18 7 23 38  1 4 2 1 4 18  31 22  10 5  3  5 2 5 4 2 4  4  5  2 5  1 2  4 4 2 5  2  6  7  1 1  1 1  3  8  9  10  1 21  1  11  1  1 1 21  1  1  1 1 1  3  1 1 10 41  16  2 9  1 9  2 2  3  227 57.  63 16.  33 8.3  32 8.1  12 3.0  1 1  ===i ofINo 1Total iMean # of 1 1charms 1 data INo.ofImotifs onl Iwith 1 1Motifsicharms 1 111data 1 1 Iwith datal INO.  2  2  8  5  2 .0  1.3  4 1.0  1 1 1 1  3  2 5 .50 1.3  1 11 61 1.51  71 531 251 81 421 681  21 151 81  461 401  11 71 61  11 21 161 891 3971 1001  Compiled from G.T. Emmons ms., catalogue notes and manual inspection of published charms (Appendix II)  1 91 81  1 1 1 561 12.361  181 1291 521 91 981  2.571 2.431 2.081 1.131 2.331  1411 751  2.071 1.631 2.181 1.001 1.501  871 11 31 321 2401 8851 1  2.001 2.701 1 1  Animal whether motifs  marine, such  motifs,  as  such  motifs  were  terrestial, those  as as  Percentages  were  or  w e l l as  or  from witch  fragmentary  obtained  by  of  charms.  motifs The  particular motif  are  r a t h e r than  number  motif also  and  various  appearing  motif,  at  31  percent),  witch  are  depicted time  we  the  thus  "dead  a  percent), Tlingit  only  compile few  "spirit  land  by  Emmons.  frequency  number  of  of  instances i n which with  are  the  the  land  a  otter  They  may  most f r e q u e n t l y be  unidentified  for  motif, data  on  others,  of  Tlingit."  specific  noted  the  spirit, from  (13  we of  major  the  various  cannot  a  dead  Did  he  intend  a  land otter  i s the  most  animal otters  motif  (12  means  appear,  they  are  the  shamans of  at  or  frequently  or  and  sometimes  times,  simply,  not? appearing  percent sole  by  which  intended,  Emmons  other  major  the  given  certainty  were  Sixty  are  predominant).  attributions  difference  percent).  Yeks  80 p e r c e n t  a human m o t i f  and  (15  When  know w i t h  Tlingit",  (2.3  percent).  humans.  and  shaman  human  true proportional representation.  The  time  percent.  p o s s i b l e readings  their  writes  as  total  total  types  indistinguishable  means  can  Emmons a n d of  listed  they are the s o l e or major m o t i f  (sole  While  (.9  "yek,"  visually  torture,  are  other  presented.  of  or  Miscellaneous of  on t h e  the  zone, i . e . ,  combinations  in combination  Humans  percent)  species.  motifs  percentages  i s found  ecological  calculating  of appearance of a m o t i f based number  by  avian  resulting  devouring,  separately,  listed  of  the  motif.  -73-  Land  otters  the  time  motifs are  are  land  can  bear,  otters  be at  combined  octopus  percent.  These  reflection charms, are  of  and  lower  because are  so  visual  of  many terse  low  the of  Emmons', they  of  by  percent  of  time).  species  appear  compared due  to  Land are  to  bear  otters,  neither  (6.1  strictly  will  be  demonstrated,  seen  in  this  the  the  their  by  visual  charms.  at  This  is  descriptions best  total by  of  the  nor  percent  frequency  octopus,  number  of  four  wolf  marine  motifs.  occurance, (3.5  frequent  makes  81  species,  terrestial  role  makes  or s o l e m o t i f  and  most  5.5  category  percent  and  the  favoured  6.8  only  10.6  as  this  major  percent)  marine  to  fish  show  mentioned  percent). animal  animals.  sense  when  light.  Birds  of  14  species  a  values  constitute  with  represented  species,  8.1  are  exhibited  catalogue  fish  with  of  scorers  actual  octopus  are  at  3.8  an  known  many,  charm.  appear  percent  marine  principally  motif,  16  highest  editing  zone,  Together  animals,  14  i n the  at  of  scorers  raven,  a d d i t i o n , the  others', an  high  In  and  they  Other  variability  by  percent  s e v e r a l , even  percent,  the  hundred  Adding  appear  as  Land  of  44  devouring,  five  mammals  do  and  even  ecological  (but when t h e y  that  3.5  shamans.  inherent  Marine  the  for  otters  charm.  at  represent  a l l motifs.  percent.  wolf,  produced  almost  that  single  degree  be  land  Recall  percent,  high  information  percent  a  values  would  Going  9.2  3.7  extension,  than  inspection  at  the  by  on  percent,  percent,  other  appear.  combined 6.1  with  (including,  simply  "bird",  as  As  -7 4-  the  fish  time.  included,  Eight  species  representation, this,  8.1  and  percent  sole motif  simply, are five  i s due  "fish")  occur  12.6  percent  of  aquatic,  e q u a l l i n g 2.4  percent  are  e q u a l l i n g 9.5  percent.  to  not, raven.  i n o n l y 32 p e r c e n t  Birds  are  the  of i n s t a n c e s of  major  the  Of or  their  appearances. Monsters, "monster"  (usually  monsters,  or  "GonaqAdet", sea), as  are  the  whether resembling  "konokodate" the  as  figure  appearance  i s low,  occuring  but  high  restriction  of  the  rarer,  complex  shown  in Table  percent  of  a  single  off  rapidly, the  more  motif. with  turn  to  method both and mass  the and  from  we  slight  can  charms  material  such  of  are  following Table  of  are  i n the  the time,  and  of  expressions  whale.  As 57  recorded  as  rate  of  positions in  VI),  more complex  increase  the  frequency  killer  or  of  of  occurences.  motif,  as  sea  spelling  wealth  those  just  charms of  having  falls  occurence  end.  made c a r e f u l the  of  to prominent  feature  Occurence  proceed  ethnographic  contemporary of  a  complex  Before  charms,  frequent  overall  motifs  either  of  monster",  called  2 percent  major  (immediately  a l l charms  but  at  certain  VII  only  "sea  those  master  the as  as  most  1  percent  i n which  the  more  Tlingit  i n 50  Instances  somewhat  (Emmons  mythical  reported  major  identified  record. note  of  the  further,  Having the  themselves,  Euro-American into  any  followed  e m p i r i c a l data  their sources,  Tlingit  however,  original we  context.  we  must  Panofsky's deriving  documentation,  m u s t now  place  this  -75-  In  c l o s i n g t h i s s e c t i o n i t i s worth mentioning  however long on data and s h o r t on a n a l y s i s t h i s empirical section i s  f  i t r e p r e s e n t s the f i r s t  have been gathered.  Since Emmons  1  the very assembling  initial  time such data  c o l l e c t i o n s a r e the  most w e l l documented a r t i f a c t c o l l e c t i o n s from Coast,  that  the Northwest  of raw data marks a s i g n i f i c a n t  advance over p r e v i o u s knowledge of t h i s aspect of T l i n g i t material culture.  In the chapters t h a t f o l l o w , the attempt  w i l l be made to p r o v i d e the context i n which charms f u n c t i o n e d m a g i c a l l y t o h e a l , and from w h i c h t h e y have d e s c e n d e d t o us as fascinating  and obscure a r t .  -76-  CHAPTER  A.  Sources  on  II:  Tlingit  Russians,  1855  and  wrote  been  translated  frequently Erna  by  a  into  1908  eyewitness  study  especially poignant a  the  and  of  Dane,  German  a  began  Orthodox  visited  with  Priest  the  (see  Tlingit  Neither  because  both  in  work  has  were  cited  ( 1 8 8 5 ) ( t r a n s l a t i o n by  to  collected  f o r the  social  f o r the  and  Chilcat.  shamanism  on  which  ceremony  at  Shotridge  Pennsylvania,  articles  shamanism  curing  i t s notes Louis  on  shaman  s i x pages  was  who  of  of  a neophyte  devotes  Tlingit  of  an  probably  a  accounts  valuable for  University  series  Tlingit  (1856,1863;G).  English,  contributor  Chilkat  work  a  provides a chapter  initiation  (G)  the  1956,G).  Krause  public  Holmberg,  brief  of  Veniaminov,  A u r e l Krause,  Gunther,  includes  description  particularly  Kashevaroff:1927;I).  ANALYSIS  Ethnography  Ethnographic the  ICONOGRAPHICAL  and  Swanton's is  organization.  (see  Mason  University  Philadelphia  Museum's J o u r n a l  the  and  1960;  I),  Museum  wrote  A  at  a  (E) b e t w e e n  1913  1929. A  major  pause  original  of  work  dissertation,  The  writen  early  until social  i n the 1973.  several was  Social  structure  and  undertaken; Economy  1930's.  It provides  decades  a  of  I t was  occurred this  and  Kalervo  the  Tlingit  not  published,  functional  economy,  was  before  analysis  includes a  the  next  Oberg's  Indians,  of  however, Tlingit  forward  by  Wilson  -77-  Duff t h a t t r a c e s the e v o l u t i o n of T l i n g i t s t u d i e s . C a t h e r i n e McClellan's 1954  "The  I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of  S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e w i t h Northern T l i n g i t Ceremonialism" a c o n c i s e d i s c u s s i o n of the o r i g i n a l  (G), i s  context of " c r e s t " ,  or  f a m i l y symbol, a r t . Ronald  Olson's  1961  "Tlingit  Shamanism and  Sorcery"  (B) p r o v i d e s unique a n e c d o t a l m a t e r i a l t h a t expands the range of a c t i v i t i e s and  known to have been engaged i n by T l i n g i t shamans  witches. The  outstanding source on the Northern T l i n g i t i s  F r e d e r i c a de Laguna's monumental Under Mt.  St. E l i a s  T h i s exhaustive study of the Yakutat T l i n g i t verbatim statements  de Laguna. but who  i s replete with  of informants, d e s c r i b i n g l i f e  remembered i n every d e t a i l .  (1972;G).  Laguna, n o r m a l l y  as  r e f e r r e d to as  f o l l o w s t h e s h o r t e r usage i n her  own  b i b l i o g r a p h y , p r o v i d e s a r i c h d i s c u s s i o n of shamanism, land o t t e r men,  and  witches.  Sources 1909  on T l i n g i t mythology are few.  (G) T l i n g i t Myths and Texts c o n t a i n s m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d  at S i t k a and, p r i m a r i l y , Wrangell, smaller c o l l e c t i o n Laguna's 1972  B.  Swanton's  from  "Chief" Kadishan.  of m a t e r i a l from Yakutat  study,  i s included in  mentioned above.  T l i n g i t Social Organisation  The T l i n g i t  i n 1837  numbered some 7500, not  i n c l u d i n g S i t k a and environs, a c c o r d i n g to a Hudson's Bay  A  -7 8-  Company more and  census  villages  (Petroff between  Controller  they  dispersed  they  repaired  ceremonial various  Bay, to  Portland  nearly  fishing  to their  s e a s o n and  areal  1884:37;I).  They  Canal,  inhabited  near  t o the Copper and  community  represented  villages,  life.  termed on  River.  hunting sites,  substantial  subdivisions,  Port  these  which  are  makes  clear  t h e n a t u r e o f kwans and  kwan  Laguna's  They  and  overall  score  Simpson, In  or  B.C.,  summer  in winter  f o r the belonged  in Tlingit, map,  a  f i g . 3,  to and  i t is  Laguna  social  organisation:  "These ( r e f e r r i n g t o kwans) however d i d n o t c o n s t i t u t e a t r i b e i n t h e sense o f a p o l i t i c a l l y o r g a n i s e d and autonomous group. Rather, a sense of community identity d e f i n i t e l y took second p l a c e t o the " p a t r i o t i s m " f e l t by the m e m b e r s o f e a c h s i b f o r t h e i r own mat-rilineal e x o g a m o u s k i n g r o u p .... S i b members r e c o g n i s e d their common k i n s h i p e v e n t h o u g h t h e y m i g h t b e s c a t t e r e d i n distant villages in different tribal ( e . g . kwan) a r e a s , for o n l y a few s i b s w e r e r e s t r i c t e d t o one r e g i o n . . . . A s i b o f any s i z e i s composed o f s e v e r a l l i n e a g e s or house g r o u p s ( h i t - t a n ) , a n d t h e l a t t e r i n t u r n may c o n s i s t o f a s i n g l e h o u s e l i n e o r a c l u s t e r m a d e up o f " m o t h e r " a n d " d a u g h t e r " h o u s e s .... The l o c a l s e g m e n t s of such a w i d e s p r e a d s i b may o r may n o t b e f e l t t o f o r m d i s t i n c t s u b - s i b s , p e r h a p s d e p e n d i n g on t h e r e c e n c y o f t h e circumstances of t h e i r d i s p e r s a l . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , a s i n g l e s i b i n o n e l o c a l i t y may e x h i b i t t w o ( o r m o r e ? ) f a i r l y independent l i n e a g e s or c l u s t e r s o f houses (Laguna 1972:1:212;G). Sibs, or  the  other  moreover,  exogamous  were  a l l either  of  one  moiety:  "Because t h e s e d i v i s i o n s ( m o i e t i e s ) a r e exogamous, their members s t a n d t o w a r d e a c h o t h e r i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of husband and w i f e , f a t h e r and c h i l d , spouse's s i b l i n g s and s i b l i n g ' s s p o u s e s , b e t w e e n whom a r e r e c i p r o c a l c e r e m o n i a l obligations. Thus, a t a l l t h e l i f e c r i s e s o f members o f one's m o i e t y , s e r v i c e s w e r e r e n d e r e d by t h e i r "opposites" — who, i n t u r n , had t o be r e p a i d . Such repayments were g e n e r a l l y made a t p o t l a t c h e s , when d e b t o r s a s h o s t s  -79-  entertained sustaining  the the  o t h e r s as other....  guests,  each  side  honoring  and  " I t s h o u l d , h o w e v e r , be e m p h a s i s e d t h a t t h e m o i e t y a s s u c h was not a s o c i a l group. I t had no o r g a n i s a t i o n of i t s own, b u t was s i m p l y an a r r a n g e m e n t f o r r e g u l a t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between persons, because i t ranged the s i b s t o w h i c h t h e y b e l o n g e d on one s i d e o r t h e o t h e r . The sib organisation remained primary.... "The two d i v i s i o n s f o r t h e T l i n g i t a r e named ( f o r t h e Ravens) and C A n k u q e d i ( f o r t h e W o l v e s E a g l e s ) , t h e l a t t e r b e i n g t h e same as t h e name the s i b s " (Laguna 1972:1:450;G). It familial "Chilkat" canoe and from and  symbols  art  of  migration of  the  Tlingit  1.  at  owns  the  crests,  the  appear  as  crest  hats,  totem  and  shaman,  legends,  painted  "screens,"  potlatches. the  and  Crest features  heroic  feats  boxes,  a l l the art,  house other  fronts, items  completely  imagery of  poles,  distinct  celebrating  ancestors,  and  used  myth  present  lineage.  shamanism  Definition  Laguna the  that  kerfed  interior  displayed the  sib  which  blankets,  prows,  wealth  C.  i s the  Tlaylnedi or f o r one of  Tlingit  succinctly presents  the  complex  context  of  shaman:  "The shaman ('ixt') i s t h e i n t e r m e d i a r y b e t w e e n man and the f o r c e s of nature. He c u r e s t h e s i c k , c o n t r o l s the w e a t h e r , b r i n g s s u c c e s s i n war a n d on t h e h u n t , f o r e t e l l s the f u t u r e , communicates w i t h colleagues at a distance, r e c e i v e s n e w s o f t h o s e who a r e f a r a w a y , f i n d s a n d r e s t o r e s t o t h e i r f a m i l i e s t h o s e who are l o s t and captured b y t h e L a n d O t t e r Men, r e v e a l s and overthrows t h e f i e n d i s h m a c h i n a t i o n s o f w i t c h e s , and makes p u b l i c d e m o n s t r a t i o n s o f h i s p o w e r s i n many a w e - i n s p i r i n g ways.  -80-  He i s t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l f i g u r e i n h i s o w n l i n e a g e , a n d s o m e t i m e s e v e n i n h i s s i b . T h o u g h h i s f a m e may have s p r e a d f a r t o f o r e i g n t r i b e s , he i s s e l d o m c o n s u l t e d when t h o s e o f h i s own l i n e a r e s i c k and d y i n g , f o r t h e s e he cannot save. N o r c a n h e s a v e h i s own c h i l d r e n i f t h e y are bewitched. H i s p a t i e n t s a r e i n e v i t a b l y members o f another s i b , often residents i n another v i l l a g e . His p r o f e s s i o n a l r i v a l s may be c o l l e a g u e s i n any s i b e x c e p t h i s own; h i s m o s t d e a d l y e n e m i e s , l i k e t h o s e o f a n y T l i n g i t , a r e t h e t r a i t o r w i t c h e s w h i c h l u r k among h i s closest relatives." (1972:670;G) One  might  add  spirits  with  "forces  of  part.  shaman,  to the T l i n g i t  which  the  nature"  The  shaman's  that  shaman can  is a  distinction  art displays and  into  the forces  Western is a  the  which  he  deal;  the  abstract  interpolation  critical  one,  particular can  of nature  owned  himself  notion  of  Laguna's  inasmuch  spirits  transform  on  are  as  the  by  the  (Laguna  1972:2:670;G). Tlingit  shamanism  animistic,  magical,  was  by  worked  incorporating t h a t had  and  witches  ecstatic  who  some h a i r ,  fallen  from  f u n c t i o n s i n the religion.  made l i t t l e spittle,  context  Compulsive  dolls,  sweat,  of  or  an magic  sik, even  the mouth of the v i c t i m .  bits  These  of  food  dolls  were t h e n p l a c e d i n a human or dog's c o r p s e t o r o t away (Laguna  1972:2:730;G).  transform or  i l l .  witches; are  into  shamans  various animals  Certain  animals  others, such  associated  Both  with  as  and  i n F i g . 29,  greater  while  frequency.  were  their  tasks  to perform  were more c l o s e l y  associated  land  shamans,  both  otters,  with  able of  to  good  with  and  mice  (ibid.:828).  Torture of a witch i s r a r e l y as  witches  the s u b j e c t of a  "dead"  witches  appear  Witches  being  tortured  with are  charm  slightly  -81-  F i g . 29 O.P.M. 16/707 "AlaskaWitch Torture (Harner & E l s a s s e r 1965:97;D)  -82-  characteristically tied  to  2.  a  rigid  depicted with  twisted  Manner  of  Laguna  relates  hands  bound  behind  the  back,  queue.  Practice  of  the  Tlingit  Shaman  that:  "Seances were h e l d f o r a v a r i e t y of purposes, sometimes w h e n t h e s p i r i t s c a m e o f t h e i r own a c c o r d t o t h e d o c t o r , a n d s o m e t i m e s when he summoned t h e m . A seance might be h e l d a s a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f p o w e r , as when t h e shaman w i s h e d t o i m p r e s s h i s own p e o p l e o r a p r o f e s s i o n a l r i v a l . Sometimes these d e m o n s t r a t i o n s were p r e l i m i n a r i e s t o the a t t e m p t e d c u r e , an e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o b o t h p a t i e n t and doctor. Some s e a n c e s w e r e t o a n n o u n c e a n unexpected e v e n t o r an i m p e n d i n g d i s a s t e r a b o u t w h i c h t h e shaman's s p i r i t s had b r o u g h t a w a r n i n g ; o t h e r s were h e l d a t t h e r e q u e s t o f a n x i o u s r e l a t i v e s t o o b t a i n n e w s o f an a b s e n t k i n s m a n o r t o d i s c o v e r a n d s a v e t h o s e who w e r e l o s t a n d c a p t u r e d by L a n d Otters. S w a n t o n [1908:465;E] a l s o m e n t i o n s t h a t t h e shaman might send h i s s p i r i t s t o f i n d s o u r c e s of food or to f i g h t s p i r i t s b e l o n g i n g t o a shaman o f an enemy t r i b e . Most seances, perhaps, were t o cure the s i c k , a procedure which often involved not simply treatment of the patient, but a p u b l i c i n q u i s i t i o n t o expose the w i t c h r e s p o n s i b l e and t o f o r c e h i s c o n f e s s i o n (see pp. 7 3 6 - 7 3 8 ) . Shamans were a l s o t r u l y d o c t o r s i n t h a t they p o s s e s s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e m e d i c a l s k i l l w h i c h c o u l d be d i s p e n s e d without f o r m a l seance. I n a d d i t i o n , some d i s p e n s e d amulets or 'medicines' that brought luck of p a r t i c u l a r kinds. "... W h i l e h i s ( K r a u s e ' s ) r e p o r t s , l i k e S w a n t o n ' s , i n d i c a t e t h a t the T l i n g i t shamans o f s o u t h e a s t e r n A l a s k a had p o w e r s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f Y a k u t a t and Dry Bay, and held s i m i l a r seances, d e t a i l s vary tremendously. This i s because t h e s p i r i t s , and i n c o n s e q u e n c e t h e p o w e r s and p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e shamans, u s u a l l y b e l o n g e d t o p a r t i c u l a r sibs. One w o u l d n o t e x p e c t d u p l i c a t i o n o f a s e a n c e u n l e s s t h e one shaman had o b t a i n e d h i s p o w e r s f r o m the other." (Laguna 1972:2:701-702;G). This multiplicity  of  last  observation i s important  m o t i f s and  Seton-Karr  saw  their  a Tlingit  in explaining  combinations. shaman  in action  at  the  -83-  Yakutat: "On t h e e v e n i n g o f t h e s i x t h a g r e a t b e a t i n g o f d r u m s a n d s t i c k s , w h i c h c o n t i n u e d n e a r l y a l l n i g h t , was heard in the v i l l a g e .... "The i n t e r i o r o f t h e h o u s e was l i t by f i r e l i g h t . The s h a m a n was s e a t e d , n a k e d t o t h e w a i s t , p e r f o r m i n g i n c a n t a t i o n s and m a c h i n a t i o n s o v e r a s i c k c h i l d , though t h e c h i l d was n o w h e r e v i s i b l e . His long hair, always l e f t u n c u t , was s t r e a m i n g b e h i n d h i m . He was shaking h i s c h a r m s , t h r o w i n g h i s body and c o n t o r t i n g , u t t e r i n g s h r i l l c r i e s , h i s s i n g and e x t e n d i n g h i s arms, g r o a n i n g and b r e a t h i n g between c l e n c h e d t e e t h , j e r k i n g h i m s e l f meantime i n c o n v u l s i v e s t a r t s i n cadence to the music. Seated around the f i r e a dozen Yakutat Indians were b e a t i n g d r u m s and p i e c e s o f wood t o g e t h e r , k e e p i n g t i m e t o t h e j e r k s o f t h e shaman's h e a d and body. This old m e d i c i n e man i s q u i t e b l i n d , h a v i n g been d e p r i v e d of his sight i n a f i g h t with another medicine man (1887:128;I). The the  very  members o f  them. had  though,  The  this  family.  The  eight  wear,  masks,  shaman  attached wore  (Emmons  rather to  than the  a necklace  were  the  arsenic was  left  about  attached  shaman's  Seton-Karr  but and  ms.  WSM  a mask,  front,  or  no  fails  assistants,  a headress bear  robe  of  skin  carvings  hanging  from  with  claw  with  943-987) shamans,  He  most  occasionally  much  might  sometimes  and  tells  masks, so  a miniature  and  i t s painted surface,  always  Emmons  shaman  crown.  a waist  charms and  The  masks,  individual  of four  1344-1351;E).  E  Tlingit  sequentially,  for a series  a  (AMNH  Most  by  (Laguna  to mention  represented  these  o f bone charms,  shoulder  gravelot  masks.  these  donned  us, so much b e i n g c h a r g e d for  by  Seton-Karr  Emmons' H u t s n u w u  headresses  d i d use  spirits.  which  poisoned  shaman d i d n o t use them, or d i d not  Recall 14  been  musicians  h i s own  and p e r h a p s  which  had  expedition to  1972:2:700:G).  use  child  mask likely a  wooden  a puffin  bill  -84-  fringe. are  Many other implements,  never cut, complete  and long h a i r and n a i l s  the p i c t u r e  (Laguna  that  1972:2:685-699;G).  No shaman, of course, had e v e r y t h i n g .  The p i c t u r e  we have o f them i s b u i l t up a c r o s s t h e f u l l range o f t h e i r individual practices.  Emmons' grave l o t s are the primary  evidence f o r the p a t t e r n s of a s s o c i a t i o n of the many items, and t h e i r imagery, which formed  3.  individual  kits.  Manner of Use of Charms  Not  long a f t e r the seance f o r the l i t t l e  girl,  Seton-Karr had o p p o r t u n i t y t o observe another one. I t seems s e v e r a l T l i n g i t had assumed the a r s e n i c , a dry, white, powdery substance, was p a l a t a b l e .  Of t h i s second seance, he wrote:  " P r e s e n t l y he s t r i p p e d h i m s e l f , and opening h i s box of charms, took o u t the wooden f i g u r e o f a c r a n e w i t h a f r o g c l i n g i n g t o i t s back, and a bunch of sea o t t e r t e e t h and carved walrus tusks. The l a t t e r he p l a c e d on the stomach of t h e d y i n g man.... ( S e t o n - K a r r 1887:1). The f i g u r e of a crane would have been the shaman's o y s t e r catcher  rattle. The p r a c t i c e o f p l a c i n g charms on t h e p e r s o n o f t h e  a f f l i c t e d i s mentioned  s e v e r a l times by Emmons (AMNH E 2163,  19-208, E 679, and o t h e r s ) , and Swanton mentions  s m a l l bone  images of water b e e t l e s which were "passed over sore p l a c e s by the  shaman t o h e a l them" (Swanton 19038:459;E). T a b l e V I I I shows t h e uses made o f charms as  d e s c r i b e d by Emmons. not  In the i n t e r e s t of b r e v i t y , record was  kept of whether Emmons mentions w i t c h c r a f t i n connection  -85-  with  a particular  charms so  charm  or not, although  so associated might  described.  specific  analysis of  r e v e a l d i f f e r e n c e s from charms n o t  Unfortunately,  manner  detailed  Emmons n o w h e r e  o f use o f a charm  mentions a  i n connection  with  witchcraft. Note was  done  percent a  with were  was t a k e n  o f where  i ti n r e l a t i o n identified  robe or dance  t h e charm  to the patient.  as having  blanket,  a n d 22.4 p e r c e n t  as p a r t of a necklace  separate,  p e c t o r a l ornament  specifically are were  many  b y Emmons  other  without  collected  candidates)  notation  unattached  charms  specifically  percent  (MAI 9 - 7 9 5 3 ) ,  i s rare.  stated.  the  there  percent  those n o t  was done  as being as being  heated  otter  and others).  exaggerated  tongue  specific percent  and then  Emmons charms  shows  touched  nine-tenths  had m u l t i p l e uses,  t h e type,  charm figure  a r e l o w due t o u n d e r - r e p o r t i n g .  which  were  t h e tongue o f  t o t h e p a t i e n t ' s body head  were  to the patient.  mentions touching  A "wolf"  were  i nways n o t  transferred to the patient,  separately. land  with  Three and f i v e - t e n t h s p e r c e n t  scored  values  Twenty-three  Two a n d n i n e - t e n t h s  and e i g h t - t e n t h s percent  19:633  for  although  use, p r i m a r i l y  m e n t i o n o f what  Eleven  several  as being  (so i d e n t i f i e d  t o have been d i s p l a y e d o r handled  recorded  attached to  or whether as a  i s unclear.  regarding  been  b y Emmons. Specific  said  b u t once  and what  Twenty-seven  originally  neck, but whether larger,  was worn  with 30.  (ms. AMNH  greatly Certainly  these  -86-  Fig.  30  M . A . I . 11/1816 Wolf Head, Angoon ( D o c k s t a d e r 1961 f i g . 120  -87-  T a b l e VTII Uses a s c r i b e d t o charms i n Emmons n o t e s 1Numbers o f Charms 1 1 No. %l ii Ear Pendant 1 2 .311 Neck 1 140 21.601 Pectoral 1 1 .151 Robe o r Dance B l a n k e t 1 169 26.081 N e c k l a c e (Piece) 1 16 2.471 Necklace (Entire) 1 23 3.551 Displayed-Handled 1 18 2.781 Transferred t o Patient (left) 1 23 3.551 Heated o r Touched t o P a t i e n t 1 6 .931 "Charm o r Ornament" e t c . .771 5 1# Under C l o t h i n g 1* 2 .311 M u l t i p l e Use 1 74 11.421 No D a t a 1 169 26.081 Uses A s c r i b e d  Total Source: G.T. Emmons ms. c a t a l o g u e s AMNH E and 1 9 , WSM.  648  . ., . | 100.001  -88-  Figure Chilkat. shaman  I t demonstrates  might  effectively an  entire  of  charms,  careful  possess,  box f u l l  Laguna  Presumably tenuous,  the large  simple  i n form,  shot  they  Such  to actual  "displayed,"  shot  practice.  as were  be  as having numbers  t h e more  Interestingly,  19th Century,  some  manner,  figure  features  a  patient.  relationship,  Emmons m e n t i o n s  b u t i n what  a  were n o t intended f o r  ornaments.  bears  might  large  up a c h a r m t o t h e g a z e o f a woman  the studio  from  o f charms  t h e shaman  clients,  of the late  robe  numbers  i n which  mentions  b y t h e shaman's  studio  waist  (1972:2:689).  individual pectoral  shaman h o l d i n g  being  well  o f them  relatively  a posed  a shaman's  and t h e manner  displayed.  scrutiny  complex, 32,  31 i l l u s t r a t e s  however  some c h a r m s a s  precisely,  i s uncertain  (E 6 3 6 ) . Figure mourn  the loss  separation robes.  with  types.  but  little  their  necklace  and animals.  down  decorated This  eight  us t o  with the  original  break  allows  necklaces and  easily  and e i g h t  suggests  a  into plain  connection  i s the Tlingit  number o f  (1972:2:761;E).  were,  a n d a number  then,  a number  of d i f f e r e n t uses f o r  of d i f f e r e n t types,  and elaborate,  seance,  from  that  This  has occurred  are eight  contention  completion  ostentatious healing  on t h i s  There  a n d humans  There charms,  that  o f s o many c h a r m s  Laguna's  ritual  of context  The charms  opposing charms,  33 i s a s h a m a n ' s n e c k l a c e .  to virtually  taking  ranging  a central  insignificant  t o t h e o v e r a l l e f f e c t o f massed  from  role  ones  i n the  contributing  i v o r i e s and  -89-  F i g . 31 FM 7 1 9 3 6 Shaman's W a i s t Robe Chilkat A l a n Sawyer P h o t o  F i g . 32 " T l i n g i t s p i r i t doctor and T h i s posed W i n t e r & Pond photo d e p i p u r p o r t e d manner o f use. I s t h e woman c h a r m o r upon t h e d o c t o r ' s f a c e ?  s i c k woman" c t s a bone c h a r m i na f i x i n g h e r g a z e upon t h e ( A n d r e w s 1960:97;H)  -91-  F i g . 33 D.M.N.H. 1 1 4 2 6 T l i n g i t Shaman's N e c k l a c e B i l l Holm P h o t o  -92-  a u d i t o r y enhancement.  No other a r t i c l e of p a r a p h e n a l i a i s  r e c o r d e d as h a v i n g been used by l e a v i n g i t w i t h t h e p a t i e n t i n the shaman's absence  (WSM  904 and o t h e r s ) .  In the i c o n o g r a p h i c a l a n a l y s i s of the land o t t e r m o t i f which f o l l o w s , we w i l l see how charms express i n microcosm the e n t i r e world of the shaman's r e l a t i o n s h i p s and what t h i s has to do w i t h the charms' use and imagery.  D.  I c o n o g r a p h i c a l A n a l y s i s of the Land O t t e r  1.  Motif  T l i n g i t B e l i e f s about the Land O t t e r .  Land o t t e r s  (kucda) are b e l i e v e d by the T l i n g i t to  be, not animals i n the o r d i n a r y sense, but transformed people. Specifically,  they are people who  have become l o s t i n the  woods or drowned, and whose bodies are not a v a i l a b l e to p r o p e r l y cremate and m e m o r i a l i s e .  They are dreaded because  they have magic powers to confuse the mind of the unwary person, and can appear to one l o s t as h i s or her most d e a r l y beloved r e l a t i v e s . to t h e i r den. o t t e r man its  fate  (Swanton  They a s s i s t the v i c t i m "home", i n r e a l i t y  Once there, the v i c t i m  s l o w l y turns i n t o a land  (or woman), and may a t t e m p t t o l u r e o t h e r s t o s h a r e (Laguna 1972:2:744-748;G). 1909:28;G).  T h e i r canoe i s the skate  I t appears to one under the i n f l u e n c e of  the land o t t e r s as an o r d i n a r y canoe. used a g a i n s t them, such as dog bones  V a r i o u s charms may (Swanton 1908:189;G),  u r i n e , excrement, or metal c a r r i e d i n the mouth (Laguna  be  -93-  1972:2:670;G). Figure Dry  34  Dogs  depicts  Bay.  It  an  i s one  representations  are  of  of  version  of  encounters  a  guardian  are  their of  tales  food  to  previously  2.  a  come  land  to  land  otter  man.  in  1922;E,  canoe  prow  figure,  sib's  imagery  young  warrior's he)  These  far  Crest  by  of  good  from  many  in  luck  an  such  amulet.  abbreviated  (1972:2:667;G). in  a  seven,  caused  Such  later  nature and  privation  of  section. land  forty-five  and  large  aided  in  quantities  o t t e r s , unknown  own  f a m i l i e s who  to  the  had  a  Symbols  canoe-prow gave  that  as  commemorate  defying  i t would  and  one  mask  (1909;G).  as  to  man  dual  six,  their  states  death  were  the  land  Shotridge  supposed and  as  numbers  displays  and  nimbleness  sib  show  otter  detail  o t t e r s , which  disappeared  35  i t was  also  them.  otters  is a  encounter  greater  (ibid.:832).  and  some  in  them  art.  acquired  were members o f  Land  land  hair  families visited  Figure  piece art  of  myths  d i s t r e s s by  afflicted,  of  myths  by  masks,  otter  spirit  discussed  Swanton's  recount  land  such  shamanic  informants  Several otters.  many  in Tlingit  Laguna's  fooled  anthropomorphic  Curiously, One  never  wide.  paternal inmates  a  of  seen  of  land a  by  a  Land  (&  Otter  piece  form  of  this  of  crest  otter-like  young  also  i n the  history  warrior.  a l l , and  Shotridge  grandfathers  oral  prominent  the  feats be  the  figure  carry  mentions  therefore House.  It  of is  As  a  the that  the  the  same  - 9 4 -  F i g . 34 A.M.N.H. E 400. S h a m a n ' s m a s k " r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s p i r i t o f a d r o w n e d T l i n g i t who h a s o n l y h a l f t u r n e d i n t o a n o t t e r man, ' K u c h - t a r - k a r - Ko-see- tau-kah.' Worn b y t h e d o c t o r when dancing about t h e sick." C o l l e c t e d b y Emmons a t D r y B a y near t h e mouth o f t h e Alsek River from t h egrave house o f the shaman Guctda. ( L a g u n a 1972:3:P1. 191;G)  -95-  F i g . 35 Museum, P h i l a d e l p h i a Man canoe prow f i g u r e (40" x 15") (Gunther 1963:13;D)  University Land O t t e r  -96-  F i g . 36 P.U. 5090 Land O t t e r Man B i l l Holm Photo  -97-  unfortunate that the o r a l h i s t o r y of the naming of Land O t t e r House has not been recorded.  As f a r as I know, the land  o t t e r ' s occurence i n c r e s t a r t i s rare, i n shamanic a r t .  f o r a l l i t s frequency  P e r h a p s t h i s was one o f t h e f a m i l i e s once  aided by a land o t t e r .  Presumably such a p e r c e i v e d  incident  might q u a l i f y f o r c r e s t s t a t u s , but Swanton does not i d e n t i f y the  s i b of the legendary i n d i v i d u a l s , nor i n d i c a t e any of the  land o t t e r s t o r i e s as being c r e s t  associated.  The Land O t t e r house mentioned by Shotridge was at Sitka,  of the Klooknah-adi s i b . T h i s corresponds to Swanton's  L.uk.nAxA^di,  "King Salmon People," a s i b of the Raven moiety.  Swanton, however, l i s t s lengthy l i s t .  no Land O t t e r house at S i t k a i n h i s  He does, however,  list  a Land O t t e r house at  Kake, belonging t o the Tane^di, "People of the creek TAn," a l s o a Raven moiety s i b (1908:399,401;G). separate a r t i c l e  (1913:100;E) l i s t s  Shotridge,  in a  a Land O t t e r house at  Klukwan, belonging to the Ga-nah-ta-de, corresponding to Swanton's GanAxA^di, "people of Ga/nAx," again a Raven moity sib.  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , Kaka, the m y t h i c a l f i r s t  shaman was  K i k s a d i , a l s o a Raven s i b but q u i t e d i s t i n c t from those j u s t mentioned  (Swanton,  1909:140;E).  Shotridge's t a l e of the land o t t e r man  canoe prow  f i g u r e , awarded the nimble youth as a memorial t o h i s war e x p l o i t s , and which graced h i s canoe when he a r r i v e d at C h i l k a t as guests a t the f i r s t p o t l a t c h between  formerly  b i t t e r enemies, i l l u s t r a t e s a c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e between c r e s t art  ,and shamanic imagery.  Even the land o t t e r ,  intimately  -98-  i n v o l v e d w i t h the p r a c t i c e of the shaman, as w i l l be o u t l i n e d momentarily,  can be used e m b l e m a t i c a l l y as a c r e s t symbol i f a  f a m i l y has come t o have a r i g h t t o i t .  Note t h a t t h e s y m b o l i c  commemoration of the youth's e x p l o i t s i n the c r e s t context for  was  the land o t t e r ' s a c t u a l q u a l i t i e s as an animal, r a t h e r  than the animal's dark and magical s i d e , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h shamanism.  3.  Land O t t e r s as Shamans' S p i r i t s  A c c o r d i n g to Laguna's informant,  the s p i r i t  that  begins t r o u b l i n g a p r o s p e c t i v e shaman " i s always c a l l e d kucda (land o t t e r ) " Tlingit  (1972:2:674;G).  This i s apparently true for a l l  shamans, and not j u s t those of a p a r t i c u l a r s i b .  Thus, w h i l e s p i r i t s widest p o s s i b l e  were i n h e r i t e d , the land o t t e r had  the  distribution.  The young shaman serves an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p i n which he l e a r n s the many s p e c i a l taboos and p r a c t i c e s of h i s p r o f e s s i o n , and e v e n t u a l l y undertakes  a s p i r i t quest which i s  s i m i l a r t o the s p i r i t quest known throughout America.  most of North  The o b j e c t of h i s quest i s to encounter  otter s p i r i t ,  the land  and cut out the tongue of an a c t u a l land o t t e r ,  i n which i s c o n t a i n e d " a l l the s e c r e t s of shamanism" (ibid.:677).  T h i s tongue becomes the nucleus of the shaman's  most p o w e r f u l amulet,  c a l l e d skutch, (and) shown i n f i g u r e  Ethnographic d e s c r i p t i o n s of the T l i n g i t v i s i o n quest are extremely  rare.  37.  shaman's  (Laguna 1972:2:676-678;G).  -99-  F i g . 37 A.M.N.H. E 1668 "Bundle o f twigs wrapped around the tongue of a land o t t e r - 'Sheetche' - worn i n p r a c t i c i n g about the s i c k . " Found i n the grave house of a T l u k a x A d i shaman on the Akwe River by Emmons before 1888. (Laguna 1972:3:1119;G) w  -100-  Th e p r o t o t y p e a c c o u n t i s t o be f o u n d i n t h e myth of t h e f i r s t T l i n g i t shaman, Kaka.  As Swanton r e l a t e s i n the a b s t r a c t of  the myth, Kaka "was t a k e n s o u t h from S i t k a by t h e l a n d o t t e r s and s e n t back a g a i n by t h e husband of a woman who had been c a r r i e d o f f l i k e h i m s e l f . What they used as a canoe was a skate, and t h e y kept him c o v e r e d a l l t h e way. A f t e r a t i m e one of h i s f r i e n d s h e a r d him s i n g i n g i n t h e m i d s t of a f o g , but t h e y c o u l d n o t g e t near him u n t i l t h e y had f a s t e d two days. Then they found him l a y i n g on a l o g w i t h blood running out of h i s nose and mouth. They brought him home, and he became a g r e a t shaman"(1909:420;G).  According the Laguna, the neophyte shaman, a f t e r a p e r i o d of t r a i n i n g and r i t u a l a b s t i n e n c e s goes o f f p u r p o s e f u l l y to encounter the s p i r i t , otters.  whereas Kaka was  But h i s encounter  abducted  by the land  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e n s e , and  i n a s m u c h as Kaka i s r e f e r r e d t o as t h e f i r s t shaman, h i s s p i r i t encounter  (for the land o t t e r s and the other  animals  and phenomena he saw w h i l e i n t h e c u s t o d y of t h e l a n d o t t e r s all  became h i s shaman's s p i r i t s ) i s by  definition  prototypical. Elements of t h i s t a l e , at l e a s t , may considerable antiquity.  be of  The p r o s t r a t i o n , blood running  from  the nose and mouth, and t h e n e c e s s i t y of p u r i t y i n o t h e r s would approach of  the i n i t i a t e are i d e n t i c a l to the d e s c r i p t i o n s  a number of Coast S a l i s h guardian s p i r i t encounters  p o w e r f u l shaman's s p i r i t s , example.  who  with  Olson 1967:152;H being a prime  T h i s suggests a wide d i s t r i b u t i o n of such potent  encounters.  Benedict  (i923;H)  d i s c u s s e s the guardian  spirit  -101-  relationship dwelling  on  throughout the  North  initiatory  America,  without,  unfortunately  encounter.  E l e m e n t s of the myth of Kaka appear i n the charm figure Holm  38,  which  while  i n the  Terasaki. which  A  along  a motif  West  represent elevated  an  The  the  and  circular land  which,  or  a  sea  of  New  enough  the  York  on  as  depressions rests a  t o our  likely  lion  or  flipper seal.  often a  evidence  of  fundamental shaman.  of  in  a  also of  be  which  with  cannot  i s intended i s clear  In view  as  at  land  as i t  farther  circles  skate  being  the  right  embarking  motifs  in  otters  and  say  to  with  represent  i s that  i s very  spirit  power  to  or  a  something  of the i d e o l o g y of  charm  guardian  generally  intended  identified  canoe  face,  peoples,  identified  this  Tlingit  are  Without  motif  beast  human  creature.  What  relationship,  a  Coast  t o b e c o n c l u s i v e , we  the  back  Eskimo peoples  experience  spirit  Tlingit  are  marine  our  George  which  strings  inside  become the canoe.  the  such  Bill  dealer,  look l i k e  may  by  admittedly  motifs,  These  of p o s i t i v e l y by  the  among N o r t h w e s t  1927;F).  of  photographed  o t t e r (?) b e c o m e s  circle-dot  guardian  the  the  by t h e A l e u t and  going  whether  a n i m a t e has  of  charm  supine  well  suckers,  flipper  wolves, i s not  skate  of  lays  Tlingit  otter  examination  certainty  are  Spier  octopus  the  charms,  tail  much u s e d  The  becomes on  to  (Smith  such.  conforms  i t s spine  restricted is  figure  style  m o d e l o f w h a t a l a n d o t t e r may  shamans' a r t . and  possession  human  certainly  confused  is a Tlingit  in  the  plausibly relationship  -102-  F i g . 38 George T e r a s a k i (Dealer) B i l l Holm Photo  -103-  This otter land  otter  otter  image  h a d no s u c h  right  the mythical  otter's  head  skeletal from  art.  explicit  symbol  Thus,  lion  from  a portion octopus  spirit  suckers  lines  canoe.  as the land  figure, i s entirely  similar  to rely  visible, was  a s t h e book  more  o f t h e canoe. i s identified  t h e same  including  basic  that  different spirits, some  others,  t o see d i f f e r e n t animals As w e l l ,  more  than  otter's  one  skate  shamans with the we  and s p i r i t s  A p a r t i c u l a r shaman  s o l e l y on t h e l a n d  as a  an o c t o p u s , and  Remembering  and p o s s i b l y  functions.  are three  overbound,  piece,  types,  t o have  38, b u t t h e l a n d  o f i t s body  t h e bottom  prominent.  otter  n o t be s u r p r i s e d  have  for a l l  i n figure  A row o f r a t h e r  Emmons  otter  tended  of the land  serve  The  acquired  to hold  t h e charm  I t h a s , however,  similar configurations.  could  was c o p i e d  40, a n o t h e r  different sibs  should  two being  o f t h e image).  f i g u r e s , one being  exception  i t .  had been  to figure  In place  (only  the illustration  arrangement human  similar  i svisible.  figures  Figure sea  39 i s v e r y  only  human  which  obscuring  not  otter  the land  r e l a t i o n s h i p , and  may b e g e n e r a l i s e d  to crest  with  conception.  Figure  in  This  When t h e  relationship with  so s i m i l a r i nform t o t h ecanoe prow i n  figure.  the land  i n t h ea r t o f t h e shaman i t  supernatural  to the land  past.  shamans' a s o p p o s e d  different  between  i n d i v i d u a l shaman's e n c o u n t e r  and h i scontinuing  warrior  ultimate  36,  difference  i si n c o r p o r a t e d  that  spirit,  youthful  in  to a signal  on c h a r m s a n d t h a t o f t h e c a n o e prow  commemorates  the  points  spirit likely did  canoe  toget  -104-  F i g . 39 M.A.I./1301 (Harner & E l s a s s e r p . 100)  -105-  F i g . 40 M.A.I. 9-7948 T l i n g i t Sea L i o n S p i r i t Canoe (Samuels & Samuels 1975 p . 211;K)  -106-  about well  i n the s p i r i t for spirit  halibut,  many w h i c h  show  Tlingit,  or dead  other spirit and  figures.  Thus  relationship  tying  together  displaying  as  receiving  relationship, spirits. supine  with  motif  i t does  which  Figure  other known  octopus,  t h e head  the  of another  mouth. small side.  Although land This  otter charm  the  seen  dead  of the oyster  guardian  the land  flight,  to figure  12,  realms.  important  elements  shaman's  imagery,  the guardian  experiences  otter,  i n which the  to v i s i t ^supernatural  tapestry of T l i n g i t  spirit  i n c o r p o r a t i n g the  than  i s one o f t h e more  on  i n the  t h e shaman's  a s shaman's  t h e shaman  be 42  to that  residence  entities  shaman  spirit  with  t h e same  a number  of  fundamental  seen.  illustrates  a variation  shaman, r e c o g n i s a b l e by h i s c l a w  head  equally  i s b u t one o f  the p r o s t r a t e or entranced  back  may  41,  as a whole,  power, and thus  Glancing figure  serve  b y Emmons a s a  equaling  t h e body  the rich  spirit  (dead  figure  similar  i s illustrated  leaves  shaman  figure  the r a t t l e  t h e phenomenom  supine  rattle,  c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s t h e back  forms  spirit  might  the sea, as might  i s identified  shaman  which  shaman's The  figure  The whole  also  catcher  a supine  This  catcher,  sea l i o n  whale.  oyster  charms.  realms).  The  transport across  or k i l l e r The  realms.  of which  on  t h e theme.  crown, has t h e body o f an  i s between h i s knees,  creature, which  i t i s n o t easy i s attached  has a  large  and stands fish-like  to see i n the photocopy,  to the column-like  h a s t h e same  A  elements  motif  a  at the  as the p r e v i o u s l y  on  -107-  F i g . 41 BKLN 05.588 7294 Oyster Catcher R a t t l e , D e t a i l B i l l Holm Photo  -108-  F i g . 42 P.M. 69-30-10 1908 E. F a s t C o l l . 1867-8 A l a n Sawyer P h o t o  F i g . 43 Weilgus C o l l e c t i o n " M y t h i c a l sea monster i s shown with other animal and human forms." Rev. Doolan, C o l l . Pre 1900 (Wardwell 1978:Fig. 136;D)  F i g . 44 M.A.I. 9/7952, Dry Bay. "Sea monster. On the s i d e are t h r e e seated s p i r i t s ; a t the t a i l i s a s p i r i t h o l d i n g a s p i r i t canoe f u l l of dead men; on t h e b e l l y i s a bear s p i r i t , and on t h e back i s a shaman's s p i r i t h o l d i n g a s p i r i t canoe w i t h a l a n d o t t e r i n i t . " (Laguna 1972:3:P1. 183(G)  -111-  F i g . 45 L.M.A. 2-19101, C h i l k a t Represents m y t h i c a l strong man Kahasi t e a r i n g apart a sea l i o n . C o l l e c t e d pre 1869 ( E l s a s s e r 1968:18;D) C o l l e c t e d i n 1891 ( I n v a r a r i t y 1950: f i g . 167;D) See Swanton 1909 145-150 & 289-291 f o r the myth. Land O t t e r s on Reverse (Harner & E l s a s s e r 1965, frontispiece)  B i l l Holm Photo  -112-  F i g . 46 Duck-Toolh house post, Whale House of the Kon-nuh-ta-di at Klukwan. The face below represents the i s l a n d at which the i n c i d e n t occurred. (Emmons 1916:pl. 3;E)  -113-  discussed  spirit  arrangement. featuring water"  42  is  Other  Emmons  a shaman  and  through  transport  elsewhere  space  on  examples  could  the  land  in  Figure  44  of  and  monster.  the  Tlingit  different  The  power  is  one  mythical trained spirit the land the  43  and  strong  44.  why  he-man  o t t e r s on  spirits.  of  appear  back and It  46  depicts  a  sea  one also  qualifier  It  lazy  useless  himself lion  in  for  many  upon  shamanic  as  represents child  a  had  just  charm  has  two  confirms  from the  basic  a who  guardian  that  emerging  same  spirit  based of  atop  frequently.  beneficial spirits, the  canoe  them  point.  This  plausible  otter  primarily  so  Strength  village.  specifically  Figure  a  "Black-skin",  p r i n c i p a l subject.  employment  not  a  its spirit  finding  are  confused  identified.  for  man,  the  so  us  a  traveling.  transport  includes  prepare  rent  figure  Gonakadet,  land  they  the  him  t o be  the  reiterates this  the  43  with  45  of  the  specifically  i n c l u s i o n as  successfully  young  spirit  of  that  of  in  also  role  secretly, acquired and  usually  Figure  one  out  shaman  thus  underwater  complex  should  Their  Figure  The  and  charm  well.  of  initiatory  reason  as  monsters,  configurations  visually.  fish,  a  transports  f i g u r e of a shaman i s not  includes  shaman  a  cited theme  sea  44  which  noiselessly."  is particularly  the  them  the  figures  otter,  be  in different  a f i s h c o m i n g up  "fish,  (plausibly)  supine  depictions  depicted  and  but  19-463;E) d e s c r i b e s  on  (E 1012)  unseen,  standing  involving  AMNH  "standing  However,  with  (ms.  examples,  the  killed small  breast  of  shaman's and  image  on  of a  inherited house  -114-  post  o f the Whale  more  complex  octopus  imagery  otter(?)  unfortunate  charm with a  house  the  spirit  that  we  return  land  otter  and  paradigmatic with  the  on  guardian  of  of the  as does the youth.  association of  Almost  and r e g u l a r l y i n h e r i t e d  by  To  meant  shamanic  spirit  It this on  certainly, successive  of dread  that  state  i s the  shaman's  This  relationship  has, however,  potential  otters'  succor  indicate the p o t e n t i a l  to turn  adversity  supernatural  neatly  underscore  that  shaman  a young  (speaking  s o c i e t y among  other  may  of the land  acquisition  college  we  i n the image o f t h e  relationship.  the Tlingit,  shaman's  to acquire  expressed  The myths  and thus  formulation,  appearances,  i n t h e shaman's  spirit  heal.  t o Panofsky's  object  in distress  benefit  secret  o t t e r s speak  i t as s i b property.  theme b e i n g  b e n e f i t as w e l l .  spirit  T h e bow  of the mythical  documentary  has  s i b , but the existence of the motif  i t svarious  a potent  families  to  charm  Conclusion  the s p e c i f i c  otter  lack  as w e l l ,  that  to  we  scale.  relationship,  the breast  identifies  was  If  for  from  land  shaman's  of thes i b .  4.  is  power  a particular  post  shamans  spirit  emerging  The  f o r a l l i t ssmaller  t e n t a c l e and t h e a u x i l i a r y  shaman's p r e s e n t  is  House a t Klukwan.  spirits  contract  t h e shaman's  of the land  had a c h i e v e d  metaphorically, the Tlingit)  and become  with  the land ability  otter's  initiation as there  and c o u l d  a complete  of  into was  then  shaman.  go  no  -115-  It discover special  why  i s n e c e s s a r y however, t o d i g more d e e p l y t o the land  attentions,  essential.  This  Three.  4  otter  a n d why  will  be  should  be s i g n a l e d  out f o r these  t h e shaman's a l l i a n c e  the subject  of inquiry  with  i t was  i n Chapter  -116-  CHAPTER THREE:  A.  Sources  and  what  we  observed  characteristics anthropology, formulation intrinsic his  directs  investigation,  have  of  we  without  or  "History This  of  work  content  from its  myriad  the  one  emanation  one  of  visual  begins  culture,  clue  as  of  the  Saturn  to  we  are  of  h i s approach  literate  be  we  f u l f i l l  solved.  and  and  f i g . 2) third  nod  four  one  might  humours,  to abstract  interest  of  field thus  of  the  anthropological  Inasmuch  as  the  ours  thereby the  Art"  and  of  a  (1964;F).  of  of  time.  He  of  g i v e s us  comparisons.  establish  art histories  approaches,  course  ideas specific  complementarity  i s an  Melancholy,  al's, tracing  through  is  way.  make c r o s s - c u l t u r a l and  analysis  i t s transformations  a complex  changing  and  ancient concept  concept,  et  in  a r t works,  and  the  relate  Panofsky's  stage  of  along  Panofsky,  his dicta  and  of  to  to  to  of  Religion,  occurences  ends w i t h  i n the  peoples,  historical  (see  representation  albeit  t o how  a  of a r t  essential  Panofsky's  for this  many  Unfortunately, Melancholy  to  violence  society".  Natural Philosophy,  as  analysis,  With  doing  stage  h i s c o - a u t h o r s h i p of S a t u r n and  traces  Melancholy  third  contextualised,  personal predilection by  i n the  iconoiogical  and  "...and  meaning  us,  t h e human m i n d .  can  add  demonstrated  ANALYSIS  guideposts.  Panofsky historical  ICONOLOGICAL  this  of  the of  no  If  validity non-  the a r t  problem  anthropological  to  must  topic,  at  -117-  least  conventionally,  fulfilling  Panofsky's  i t is logical  to  seek  directions in  symbolic  methods and  for  psychological  anthropology. Mary discussion  of  Douglas, the  laws  a  symbolic  of  anthropologist,  Leviticus with  a  begins  a  penetrating  observation: "Defilement i s n e v e r an i s o l a t e d e v e n t . I t cannot occur except i n view of a s y s t e m a t i c o r d e r i n g of ideas. Hence any p i e c e m e a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p o l l u t i o n r u l e s o f a n o t h e r c u l t u r e i s bound t o f a i l . F o r t h e o n l y way in w h i c h p o l l u t i o n i d e a s make s e n s e i s i n r e f e r e n c e t o a t o t a l s t r u c t u r e of t h o u g h t whose k e y - s t o n e , b o u n d a r i e s , m a r g i n s and i n t e r n a l l i n e s a r e h e l d i n r e l a t i o n by rituals of separation" (1972b:202;K).  This cosmology otter,  in  and  taboo,  why?  order  to  clear.  that  before  And,  what  w i l l  i t does. the  Tlingit,  the  B.  Iconological Analysis  considerable stratified  environment. is  the  of  the  to  Beginning  at  why  to  in  Land  of  that  the  d e s t i n a t i o n o f t h o s e who  that  a l l but of a  Otter  death. these of  land  the the  land  shamans. ideas unique  But,  which,  for  position?  their  It  is  of  afterworlds space  Kiwa'a.  otter  Motif  separate  levels top,  such  Tlingit  the  i t has  ordering  Tlingit  with  delineate  recall  otter  note  identified  us  era,  the  to  " l o c a t i o n " of  may  manner  i n t e r e s t to  and  We  land  Significantly, according  t e l l  systematic  the  afterworlds  need  the  contact  i s the  places  We  discover  perhaps that  significance was  i s very  or  in  the  "Land  are Tlingit Above,"  d i e by v i o l e n c e , e i t h e r i n  war  -118-  or  from  the  sky,  caused to  a beast.  realm  a c t u a l l y above  by  the  shinny  spirits  (Laguna  undeserved hole,"  This  entry  conceived  is associated  the  who  sky,  and  reside  there  1972:2:766;G). by  watchmen  as  a  hole  the  Kiwa'a  the  the v a u l t  Northern  playing  standing  in  with  is  of  Lights  at  are  game s i m i l a r  guarded  guard  vault  a  against  Gus-Wut,  the  of  "cloud  sky  (ibid.:770) . The the  next  d e s t i n a t i o n of  malefactors, crimes. of  realm  the  air,  for  the  the  wicked  clouds  souls  recalls  and  a  like  the  "very  who  charm  bad  As  got  no  Below  into  place  to  the  sky  of  the  ordinary  Tlingit  identified  with  the  cemetary  which  behind  village,  village  the of  the  qawu  'ani  died  ordinary The  malefactors ideally is not  into the  living,  "ghost  f  or  and  course,  more  often,  on  small  a  t o w n , " was  and  the  unremarkable  i s the land  was  across islet.  This  destination deaths  on  of  the  were  eventually  they  had  group,  of  the  dead,  from  woods the  realm,  of  and  Sege  a l l those  who  (ibid.:766).  Kiwa'a,  final  not  spirits  i n the  water  in Ketl  the  might  around  the  either  the  case with  spirit  i t was  i t , the  of  with  family  was sky  surface  groups,  same  the  moved  above  the  which  their  (ibid.:771).  1  sky,  place  for  evidently put  is  serious  killed  Although  place,  Heaven,"  other  i n f i g u r e 13,  the  Earth,  of  and  informant  go"  "Dog  have been  spirit."  Laguna's  " ' f l o a t e d up  Kiwa'a.  witches  a rather pleasant  Tlingit.  --  Kett  of  e s p e c i a l l y those  This  seem t o us  the  down,  possible  exception  the  reincarnated,  previously the  of  spirits  known. of  This  those  who  -119-  are drowned or l o s t do not d i e . qwani".  i n the woods.  They, as p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d ,  I n s t e a d , they become land o t t e r people "kucda  The c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s and the other  g r o u p s i s t h a t t h e r e i s no body t o p r o p e r l y c r e m a t e and memorialize. Food f o r the drowned, i f the body i s recovered, i s p l a c e d not b e s i d e the f i r e , as i t i s f o r the t e r r e s t i a l and c e l e s t i a l g r o u p s , b u t i n t h e w a t e r , t o mark t h e r e a l m t o w h i c h the s p i r i t now belongs.  I f no body i s recovered, of course,  no food i s o f f e r e d to the s p i r i t ,  as the i n d i v i d u a l has not  died. This cosmological s t r a t i f i c a t i o n  i s echoed by the  s p i r i t s of t h e shaman SlawA^n, c a l l e d " " s p i r i t of the sea, spirit  of t h e l a n d , s p i r i t  (Swanton 1909:153;G). Veniaminov  (cited  from  A like  above, and s p i r i t from below".  recitation  i s found i n  i n Laguna 1972:2:835;G).  I f we r e t u r n t o t h e d a t a c o m p i l e d i n t a b l e V I , however, we see t h a t many of the animals s y m b o l i s i n g shaman s p i r i t s found on charms were those that frequented the boundaries o f these zones, or t r a v e l l e d beween them.  The  foremost of these, of course, i s the l a n d o t t e r , which feeds i n the i n t e r t i d a l zone, but d i v i n g and shore b i r d s  figure  p r o m i n e n t l y as do marine mammals, which frequent the s u r f a c e . The o y s t e r c a t c h e r , favored symbol f o r T l i n g i t shaman's rattles,  feeds e x c l u s i v e l y i n the i n t e r t i d a l zone.  surprisingly, low  food from  Not  t h i s zone, " l e n - ' A d i , " or "things o f  t i d e , " i s s u b j e c t t o a number of taboos, even though i t i s  -120-  a  major  food  source.  Laguna  was  told  that  "At  n i g h t t i m e we d o n ' t e a t a n y t h i n g f r o m t h e b e a c h . . . It's Igas (taboo). I t g i v e s us n i g h t m a r e s (omens o f m i s f o r t u n e ? ) and makes bad w e a t h e r . A l o n g t i m e ago they d i d n ' t h a v e any s a l t y s t u f f i n t h e house. And a y o u n g g i r l a f t e r she m e n s t r u a t e s never e a t s a n y t h i n g f r o m the b e a c h f o r two or three years" (ibid,:l:405;G), i n t e r p o l a t i o n s Laguna's.  Laguna a l s o remarks t h a t  "a shaman and the members of h i s immediate f a m i l y , i n c l u d i n g h i s w i f e , were not allowed to eat beach food except d u r i n g one month a year (February? March? A p r i l ? ) when the m y t h i c a l Property Woman was supposed to go on the beach to gather and eat such food. Then i t was eaten r i t u a l l y by t h e shaman and h i s p e o p l e t o b r i n g good fortune" (ibid.).  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t land o t t e r s are n o c t u r n a l , and  t h a t i t i s j u s t at n i g h t t h a t humans cannot eat  the same food as land o t t e r s . Spring was  largely  A l s o , l a t e Winter and e a r l y  h i s t o r i c a l l y the time of g r e a t e s t s c a r c i t y , when  beach food was  the l a s t l i n e of defense a g a i n s t s t a r v a t i o n .  I t i s c l e a r , then, that the beach area, which land o t t e r frequents, i s a zone of some ambiguity, t h e r e f o r e danger.  The  land o t t e r i s thus a l i m i n a l  the  and being  (from l i m e n . edge) and a c q u i r e s i t s q u a l i t i e s from i t s e c o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n as a land mammal remarkably w e l l adapted to an a q u a t i c environment —  q u a l i t i e s t h a t c o n f l i c t with  T l i n g i t o r d e r i n g of the m e t a p h y s i c a l don't f i t .  Obviously  universe.  Land o t t e r s  t h i s must have a great d e a l to do  the land o t t e r s ' pre-eminence among animal  the  with  m o t i f s on charms.  -121-  They do not even a c t l i k e animals as they c a v o r t , c h o r t l e p l a y e n d l e s s l y a t s l i d i n g down snow or mud swim a quarter  banks.  and  They can  of a m i l e underwater, b u r b l i n g as they go  ( H a r r i s 1968:200-201;J). It  i s apt then t h a t the T l i n g i t see the land o t t e r  as l u r i n g t h e i r drowned or l o s t loved ones away by t h e i r minds.  I f land o t t e r s do not  t h i n g s , n e i t h e r does drowning. a c c i d e n t a l death i n war t h a t war  and  f i t the T l i n g i t scheme of d i s t i n c t i o n between  or hunting and  t h a t from drowning i s  the hunt are e s s e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s ,  dangerous, and in  The  the men  who  to r e s p e c t  however  f a l l v i c t i m to the p e r i l s  these a c t i v i t i e s must be encouraged.  fails  clouding  individual qualities.  inherent  Drowning, however, A canoe upset i n  bad  weather or by strong t i d a l c u r r e n t s , both of which are common, i f not usual, i n southeastern all,  Alaska,  may  whether babies or tough o l d f i g h t e r s .  the minds" p a r t comes i n when we  The  "clouding  of  think of the complex mental  s t r u c t u r e s , e s s e n t i a l to o r d e r l y l i f e , and  cause the deaths of  t h e i r e s s e n t i a l l y a r b i t r a r y nature.  life  t h a t makes sense,  Since the land o t t e r  s t r a d d l e s c r u c i a l mental boundaries as w e l l as e c o l o g i c a l ones, and  i s purposely  not f i t e i t h e r , we may  r e l a t e d to a form of death that does say t h a t " f a l l i n g v i c t i m t o the  land  o t t e r s " i n v o l v e s b l u r r i n g of these e s s e n t i a l boundaries, thus,  indeed, a c l o u d i n g  of the mind.  There is.more, however. a n a l y t i c a l to ignore grief,  and  I t i s altogether  too c o l d l y  the emotional e f f e c t s of suppressed  which the sorrowing r e l a t i o n s of the absent drowned are  -122-  unable What  to  i s worse,  passage be  discharge  no  lost  for  inability  the  forever,  absent,  he  to  spirit  and the  which  survivors  the  only of  An  elaborate  He  i s not  the  set  structure  decayed  as  case as  apearance hair  or  of  and  with  set  and  with  the  most  such  and  identified  of  precise,  this  dead  shaman,  social  is  as  apart  was  as  of  with  a  as  was  than  As  and  land  that  that  otter.  ordinary  people.  but  i s placed  in  shaman of h i s that  fell  for  when  this  simultaneously  him  by  himself,  "opposites,"  (ibid.:687-8),  and  his  the  strict.  Tlingit  particular having  a  human,  his  never the  which  rules.  had  been  as  food daily cut  his  shaman,  supernatural  particularly  i f unconscious  Even  shaman  a own  his  uniquely  the  from  believed  made  see  by  animals, a  world  the  than another It  we  position.  living  Tlingit,  rather  art  were  up  liminal  the  liminal  him  art  sib,  Thus,  set  to  human  other  His  apart,  nails.  of  sets  other  crest  him  of  truly  d i s o r i e n t a t i o n of  collapsed, a l l parts  own  mentioned,  his  conceived  means  one  the  i s as  approach.  his  will  i s thus  means  emotional  anomalous  are  1972:2:699;G).  members  taboos,  ever  one  conventionally  the  between  g r a v e h o u s e w h i c h no dared  the  a t t e n t i o n now  rules  cremated,  loved  there  of  drowned.  shaman  of  The  potlatch.  essential rites  means t h a t  a v a i l a b l e by  of  similarly  spirits,  the  solace  d i s p l a y and  these  deceased  soul.  up  the  (Laguna  the  funerary  celebrate  compounds  the  in a  of  the  our  of  was  of  survivors  intermediary  lineage  to  Turning i s set  primary  or  means  r e i n c a r n a t i o n of  certainty  the  by  was  alliance selected  unfortunate  fate  as by  -123-  To cultures, but  a  the  the  direct  necessary effects one's  i n the  accessible  and  rather  than  shaman  to as  a  would  undoubtedly  supernatural utter  known  which the dreamer  course  and,  (see  "active  with  irrational  dream  or  the  responsibility the  many  Hannah  the  An  kind  1981;K). and  the  he  the  visualizing  and  i s able  to  he  through  sense  "lucid that  -  vastly  c o u l d move  fact  in  today  literate  only  lucidity  of  dream",  he  in  i s  influence its'  process  is  Jung's  autb-hypnotic  continued  unconscious of  not  enhanced The  dedicated  students  analagous  of  world,  intelligent,  i s , being  in  publicly  spirit  rubric  dream,  are  graduate  a l l the  under  long-term  and  i n which  It is  the p i c t u r e s  there  world  theory,  fascination  i n our  compelling  own  culture  nature  of  the  world.  shaman  i s the p r o f e s s i o n a l  i t i s to  forces,  psychological,  a  universality  spirit The  us  myth.  dreaming  - that  a mental  with  with  most  abstract  and  objective an  of  possible  images  did, that  1968;K) .  (see  to  playing  energy  continuing to  Green  the  Were  one  of  visions  i s c o n s c i o u s of the  daydream  points  to  to people  matter  on  real,  of  but  imagination",  the  a  achieve  ours,  a  the  writing  landscapes  reality  dreaming,  to  doubt  r e s e a r c h i n g and  from  that  kind  spend  different  lifetime  private.  the  many no  i s not  briefly  belief  utterly  perhaps  i n dreams,  but  relate  spend  and  world  reflect  spending  mind  trance,  spirit  experience  to  of  Tlingit,  understand,  make  supernatural to himself,  embedded  in a  specific  specialist sense and  social  whose  o f , and  mollify  ultimately matrix,  to  us.  -124-  He  i s the conduit  people  f o r the necessary  and s p i r i t s .  visitations  Most  of s p i r i t s  wish  t o have one f o o t  life  - Laguna  Tlingit  i n their  and o t h e r s  as  among  regular  particularly close 'aya  the Coast  access  trance.  1972:2:759;G). that  charms  E2708  This  landscape location  with  dreams and  dreams,  with  Emmons  with  a s he n e e d s  or seascape  through  of h i s battles  trance  both  are considered  phrase death"  nana/  and t h e inner  represents  powers as  land  with  t h e shaman  to travel which  symbol  AMH  into  He b e c o m e s  or fight.  he t r a v e l s ,  hostile  spirits  minds  and l i m i n a l resonates  o f t h e shaman's  than  less  The  and the  i s inside h i s  acquainted  shaman's  o f t h e shaman's aspects again  initiatory  one o r  farther, with  he.  as p r o t o t y p i c a l  the entirety  t h e dark  to cloud  assertion  (Emmons ms.  withdraws  hisspirits.  landscape,  otter,  i n a way  experience,  kika  (Laguna  frequent  1  o f a shaman  p e r s o n a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y  The  such  by c o n t r a s t , has  m i n d , we w o u l d s a y , b u t we c a n f o l l o w t h e s h a m a n n o being  through  others).  a c u r i n g seance,  o f them  through  to face  t h e dreams  t o make c o n t a c t  other  face  go  relationships  by t h e T l i n g i t  resonates  and numerous  himself the  lives  a n d do n o t  regarding the  spirit  and thus  living  by  as they  The shaman,  world  Sleep,  represent  In  Salish.  as evidenced  'u t a , " s l e e p  lives,  world  guardian  to the s p i r i t  t o death,  everyday  make no m e n t i o n ,  of the widespread  between  are untroubled  i n the spirit  Tlingit, found  reciprocity  spirit,  other-worldly  of existence.  i n this trance,  Its  connection, f o r i t remains  as  -125-  symbol of h i s a b i l i t y t o (as we m i g h t say) s i n k i n t o t h e h a l l of m i r r o r s  w i t h i n , or  (as he might say), t r a v e l and  i n the l i m i t l e s s vastness of s u p e r n a t u r a l t h e r e i s of c o n s u m i n g i n t e r e s t t o a l l . c o l l e c t i v e fantasy  space.  transform  What he does  I t i s more t h a n mere  because as a human i n s t i t u t i o n of  p a l e o l i t h i c o r i g i n and g l o b a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , shamanism would seem to be of fundamental s i g n i f i c a n c e to the human s p e c i e s . The  shamans' trance and  the u n i v e r s a l b e l i e f  in s p i r i t s  point  to c a p a b i l i t i e s of the human mind that are of e s s e n t i a l value i n the s u r v i v a l and  C.  e v o l u t i o n of the human race.  Conclusion  By  f o l l o w i n g Panofsky's method we  have been guided  to take a very c l o s e look at T l i n g i t shamans' charms and  their  contexts  was  on three s u c c e s s i v e l y more a b s t r a c t l e v e l s .  necessary to touch on a n a l y t i c a l i n s i g h t s developed anthropologists  i n order  It by  to approach land o t t e r s i n t h e i r  s y m b o l i c m a t r i x i n the t h i r d s t a g e of a n a l y s i s , but i n so doing we  have i n t e g r a t e d a r t h i s t o r i c a l and  methods i n a way  that i s , hopefully,  anthropological  sound and  fruitful.  -126-  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Bibliographies D a l l , W i l l i a m H. and Baker, Marcus 1879 P a r t i a l l i s t of books, pamphlets, papers i n s e r i a l j o u r n a l s , and other p u b l i c a t i o n s on Alaska and adjacent r e g i o n s . P a c i f i c Coast P i l o t : Coasts and I s l a n d s of Alaska, 2nd s e r i e s , pp. 226-375. 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Other  Works  on  Shamanism  and  Shamanic  Art  Barbeau, 1958  Charles Marius M e d i c i n e Men on t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c Coast. N a t i o n a l Museum o f C a n a d a , A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S e r i e s 42, B u l l . 152. Department of Northern A f f a i r s and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , N a t i o n a l Museums o f C a n a d a , O t t a w a . Reprinted 1973.  Bharati, 1973  Agehananda, ed. The r e a l m o f t h e e x t r a - h u m a n : actions. Mouton, The Haugue, Chicago.  ideas and and A l d i n e  -129-  Bogoras, 1930  W a l d e m a n G. The s h a m a n i s t i c c a l l and t h e p e r i o d o f i n i t i a t i o n i n n o r t h A s i a and n o r t h e r n America. In Papers of the 23rd s e s s i o n of t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s o f A m e r i c a n i s t s . 1928. pp. 441-444.  Bouteiller, Marcelle 1950 Chamanisme e t g u e r i s o n magique. Presses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de F r a n c e , P a r i s .  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H a l i f a x , Joan 1979 Shamanic v o i c e s : a survey of v i s i o n a r y narratives. E.P. Dutton, New York. Harner, M i c h a e l 1980 The way of the shaman. H u l t k r a n t z , Ake 1973 The d e f i n i t i o n 9:25-37.  Bantam, Toronto.  o f shamanism.  Temenos  -130-  J i l e k , Wolfgang G. 1982 I n d i a n h e a l i n g ; shamanic c e r e m o n i a l i s m i n the P a c i f i c Northwest today. Hancock House, Surrey B.C. J o r g e n s o n , G x a c o M. M. 1970 A comparative examination of Northwest C o a s t Shamanism. U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. thesis, Dept. of Anthropology, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Larsen, 1976  Stephen The shaman's doorway: o p e n i n g t h e m y t h i c . g i n a t i o n to contemporary consciousness. H a r p e r a n d Row, New York.  Lommel, 1967  Andreas Shamanism: t h e b e g i n n i n g s H i l l , New York.  of  art.  ima-  McGraw-  Lot-Falk, 1953  Evelyne L e s r i t e s de c h a s s e s c h e z l e s Siberiens. 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Mirski Naurer, 1977  I n d i a n from t h e Gallery, Boston.  E v a n M. The n a t i v e American h e r i t a g e . of Chicago, Chicago.  Princeton 1969  Art Institute  U n i v e r s i t y , t h e A r t Museum The a r t o f t h e Northwest C o a s t . New J e r s e y .  Princeton,  Siebert, 1967  E r n a , and Werner Forman N o r t h American I n d i a n a r t : masks, a m u l e t s , wood c a r v i n g s a n d c e r e m o n i a l d r e s s f r o m t h e Northwest Coast. P a u l Hamlyn, London.  Stewart,  Hilary Looking Coast.  Umlauff 1903  Museum Sammlung  a t Indian a r t o f the Northwest Douglas and M a c l n t y r e , Vancouver.  Nordwest-America,  K a t a l o g no. 131.  Vaillant, 1939  G e o r g e C. Indian arts  Vancouver 1956  Art Gallery P e o p l e o f t h e P o t l a t c h : n a t i v e a r t and c u l t u r e of the P a c i f i c Northwest Coast. Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y and t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver.  Volkov, 1910  America.  New  York.  F . K. a n d S. I . R u d e n k o E t h n o g r a p h i c c o l l e c t i o n s from t h e former Russian-American possessions. St Petersburg.  Wardwell, 1964  1978  i n North  Allen Yakutat Coast.  South: Indian a r t of the Northwest A r t I n s t i t u t e of Chicago, Chicago.  Objects of b r i g h t p r i d e : Northwest Coast I n d i a n a r t f r o m t h e A m e r i c a n Museum o f Natural History. The C e n t e r f o r I n t e r American R e l a t i o n s and t h e American Federat i o n o f A r t s , New Y o r k .  -134-  E.  A r t and M a t e r i a l C u l t u r e : Boas, Franz 1888 Gleanings from the Emmons c o l l e c t i o n . J o u r n a l of American F o l k l o r e . 1:215-219. B o l l e s , T. Dix 1893 Chinese r e l i c s i n A l a s k a . United S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Museum Proceedings XV:221-222. E i f e r t , V i r g i n i a S. 1947 L i n c o l n on a totem p o l e . LVI:2:64-66.  Natural History  Emmons, George T. ms. C o l l e c t i o n notes, American Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y : Catalogue 19, Catalogue E. ms.  C o l l e c t i o n notes, F i e l d Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , Chicago.  ms.  C o l l e c t i o n notes, Thomas Burke Memorial Washington S t a t e Museum, S e a t t l e .  1903  The basketry of the T l i n g i t . Memoirs of the American Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y 3:2:229-277.  1907  The C h i l k a t blanket, w i t h notes on the blanket designs by Franz Boas. Memoirs of the American Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y 3:2:329-400.  1908a  Petroglyphs i n Southeast Alaska. A n t h r o p o l o g i s t . 10:221-20.  1908b  Copper neck r i n g s of southern Alaska. American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t 10:644-649.  1908c  The use of the C h i l k a t b l a n k e t . American Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y J o u r n a l VIII:65-70  1916  The Whale House of the C h i l k a t . American Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y J o u r n a l XVI: 7: 451-460.  American  -135-  1923  Jade i n B r i t i s h Columbia and A l a s k a , and i t s use by t h e n a t i v e s . I n d i a n N o t e s a n d Monog r a p h s . Museum o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n d i a n H e y e F o u n d a t i o n , M i s c e l l a n e o u s No. 35..  1930  A r t of the Northwest H i s t o r y 30:282-292.  Garfield, 1948  Coast  Indians.  V i o l a E . and Lynn A. F o r r e s t The Wolf and t h e Raven: totem p o l e s o f Southeastern Alaska. U n i v e r s i t y of Washington Press, Seattle.  H a r r i n g t o n , M a r k R. 1912 The Northwest C o a s t c o l l e c t i o n . v a n i a U n i v e r s i t y Museum J o u r n a l Jonaitis, 1981  Kiethan, 1926  Natural  Pennsyl111:1:10-15.  Aldona T l i n g i t h a l i b u t hooks: an a n a l y s i s o f t h e v i s u a l symbols o f a r i t e o f passage. Anthrop o l o g i c a l P a p e r s o f t h e A m e r i c a n Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y v . 5 7 , p a r t 1. Edward L. Stone a r t i f a c t s of southeastern American A n t i q u i t y 28:1:66-77.  Alaska.  1954  Human h a i r a s a d e c o r a t i v e f e a t u r e i n T l i n g i t ceremonial paraphenalia. Alaska University A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P a p e r s 3:17-20.  1962  Heraldic screens of the T l i n g i t . Sportsman XXVIII:2:16-19. 45.  1963  Monuments i n c e d a r : t h e a u t h e n t i c s t o r y o f the totem p o l e . R. A n d e r s o n , Ketchikan, Alaska. R e v . e d . B o n a n z a B o o k s , New Y o r k .  1964  Kissel, 1928  Alaska  O r i g i n of the " c h i e f ' s copper" or "tinneh." Alaska U n i v e r s i t y Anthropological Papers 12:2:59-78. Mary L. The e a r l y g e o m e t r i c p a t t e r n e d C h i l k a t . 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Pennsylvania U n i v e r s i t y Museum J o u r n a l X:43-48. 1919b  " K e y t - g o o s h e — " k i l l e r whale's d o r s a l f i n . P e n n s y l v a n i a U n i v e r s i t y Museum J o u r n a l X:213-216.  1920  Ghost of courageous adventurer. v a n i a U n i v e r s i t y Museum J o u r n a l  1921  T l i n g i t woman's root basket. Pennsylvania U n i v e r s i t y Museum J o u r n a l XII:162-178.  1922  Land o t t e r man. P e n n s y l v a n i a Museum J o u r n a l XIII:1:55-59.  1928  The emblems of T l i n g i t c u l t u r e . Pennsylvania U n i v e r s i t y Museum J o u r n a l XIX:350-377.  1929a  The b r i d e of Tongass: a study of the T l i n g i t marriage ceremony. P e n n s y l v a n i a U n i v e r s i t y Museum J o u r n a l XX:131-156.  1929b  The Kagwanton shark helmet. Pennsylvania U n i v e r s i t y Museum J o u r n a l X X : 3 3 9 - 3 4 3 .  1913a  1913b  and F l o r e n c e S h o t r i d g e C h i l k a t houses. 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Annual Report of the United S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Museum 3:67-203. Drucker, P h i l i p 1943 A r c h e o l o g i c a l survey of the northern Northwest Coast. Bureau of American Ethnology B u l l e t i n 133.  -139-  1950  C u l t u r e element d i s t r i b u t i o n s : Northwest Coast, Anthropological Records of the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a XXVI.  Duff, Wilson 1981 The World i s as s h a r p as a k n i f e : meaning i n n o r t h e r n Northwest Coast a r t . In The World i s as s h a r p a s a k n i f e : an a n t h o l o g y i n honour o f W i l s o n D u f f , e d i t e d b y D o n a l d N. A b b o t t , pp. 209-224. B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a . F e d e n , Norman a n d Edward M a l i n 1962 Indian a r t of the Northwest Coast. A r t Museum Q u a r t e r l y , W i n t e r 1 9 6 2 .  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The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Journal of Social Psychiatry. 16:153-168.  -160-  APPENDIX I 1  -  Museum A b b r e v i a t i o n s  AMNH  American Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , New York  ASM  Alaska S t a t e Museum, Juneau  BAS  Museum of Ethnology,  Basle,  BLN  Museum of Ethnology,  Berlin  BM  B r i t i s h Museum  CM  Cranmore E t h n o g r a p h i c a l Museum, C h i s l e h u r s t , England  DMNH  Denver Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y  FM  F i e l d Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , Chicago  LMA  Lowie Museum of Anthropology,  MAI  Museum of the American Indian, Heye New York  MAE  Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography,  MPA  Museum of P r i m i t i v e A r t ( M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum) New York  NMC  N a t i o n a l Museum of Man, Ottawa  PAM  P o r t l a n d A r t Museum  PM  Peabody Museum, Harvard U n i v e r s i t y  PU  Princeton University  ROM  Royal O n t a r i o Museum,  TM  T a y l o r Museum, Colorado  Springs,  UBC  Museum of Anthropology, Columbia  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  UM  U n i v e r s i t y Museum, U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia  Switzerland  Berkeley,  California  Foundation, Leningrad  Toronto Colorado  Weilgus P r i v a t e WSM  Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, Seattle  -161-  APPENDIX I I  Published  and A s s o c i a t e d  Tlingit  Shaman  Charms  Auk  AMNH  19-462:  Jonaitis  1980:fig.  7; B .  Chilcat-Chilcoot:  AMNH N e g . 2 9 1 5 6 0 :  Jonaitis  1978:fig.  6; B.  AMNH  E 63 4+5  AMNH  E 636+7  AMNH 40  E 63 8  AMNH  E 6 83,  FM  Gonaho:  through  704A-D:  78870:  Grave  lot E  688-^07  Jonaitis 1977:fig. f i g , 9; b o t h B .  6 5 ; 1980  LMA  2-19101:  I n v e r a r i t y 1 9 5 0 : f i g . 7; D. Harner and E l s a s s e r 1965: frontis.; D Elsasser 1968:18;D F u r s t and F u r s t 1982: P I . 1 2 5 ; D.  PAM  48-3-107:  D a v i s 1 9 4 9 : f i g . I l l ; D. G u n t h e r 1 9 6 6 : #349; D.  PAM  4 3 - 3 - 1 0 8:  D a v i s 1 9 4 9 : f i g . 1 1 4 ; D. G u n t h e r 1 9 6 6 : # 3 5 0 ; D.  PAM  43-3-110:  D a v i s 1 9 4 9 : f i g . 1 1 2 ; D. G u n t h e r 1 9 6 6 : # 3 5 2 ; D. J o n a i t i s 1 9 7 8 : f i g . 3; B .  PAM  48-3-112:  Gunther  1966:#354;  D.  PAM  48-3-113:  Gunther  1966:#355;  D.  AMNH  E 1665-6,1669:  AMNH  E  2708:  Grave  lot E  Vaillant Wardwell  1653-1669.  1 9 3 9 : p i . 9 2 ; D. 1 9 7 8 : f i g . 6 7 ; D.  -162-  FM  77872  FM  77873  FM  77 87 8  FM  7 8236  77872-77878  Grave  l o t FM  78227-78242  4/1671  Laguna  1 9 7 2 : p i . 1 8 2 ; G.  MAI  9/7 952  Laguna  1 9 7 2 : p i . 1 8 3 ; G.  through  Grave  l o t WSM  2026-2067  AMNH E 8 3 9 t h r o u g h E 841 AMNH E 1 2 8 3 t h r o u g h E 1287  Grave  l o t AMNH  E 1283-1287  AMNH E 1 4 8 0 A&B  Grave  l o t AMNH  E 1474-1485  AMNH E 2 7 1 1  Wardwell  AMNH 1 9 - 4 5 0 through  MAI  Hutsnuwu:  l o t FM  MAI  WSM 2047 2064  Hoonah:  Grave  19455  4/1669  Dockstader  Jonaitis  MAI  Laguna  AMNH  E 864  AMNH E 9 6 4 & E 9 6 8 t h r o u g h E 976 AMNH  E 1280&1  f i g . 6 6 ; D.  W a r d w e l l 1978: F i g . 64; D (19-450 o n l y ) ; G r a v e l o t AMNH 1 9 - 4 5 0 19-455  MAI 9/7 950 9/7953  1978:  1978:  Grave  f i g . 4; B  1973: f i g .  Jonaitis Grave  1966: f i g . l 2 0 ; D .  1978:  l o t AMNH  l o t AMNH  284;  f i g . 2; B. E 943-987  E 1280-1281  MAE  211-24  Siebert 8 2 ; D.  & Forman  1967: f i g .  MAI  211-25  Siebert 8 6 ; D.  & Forman  1967:  f i g .  -163-  MAI 211-32  Siebert 83; D.  WSM  Grave  1227  through  & F o r m a n 1967: f i g ,  l o t WSM 1221-1231  1231 WSM  1821  La J o l l a Wardwell  WSM  1830  Grave  WSM  1831  La  WSM  1832  1962: f i g . 18; D. 1964: f i g . 144; D.  l o t WSM 1803-1852  Jolla  1962: f i g . 70; D.  through  1834 WSM 1847&8 WSM  1922  through  1925  Sitka:  Stikine:  WSM  1926  WSM  1927  AMNH  E  645&6  AMNH  E  649A,B&C  Jonaitis  1 9 8 0 : f i g . 5; B .  AMNH E 677 t h r o u g h E 682  Grave  l o t AMNH  E 6 5 1 - E 682  AMNH  Grave  l o t AMNH  E 1490-E1495  E 1494  MAI  1/2154  Dockstader 1 2 0 ; D.  1966: f i g .  MAI  9/7948  Dockstader 1966; f i g . 1 1 9 ; D. P r i n c e t o n 1969:p. 46, f i g . 1 3 3 ; D. S a m u e l s 1 9 7 5 : p . 2 1 1 ; K.  PAM  48-3-115  Gunther  PAM  48-3-116  D a v i s 1 9 4 9 : f i g . 1 5 ; D. G u n t h e r 1 9 6 6 : # 3 5 7 ; D.  MAI  2/20 89  Dockstader D.  1955:#356;  D.  1966: f i g .  119;  -164-  PAM  48-3-48  D a v i s 1949; f i g . 116; G u n t h e r 1 9 6 6 : # 3 4 6 ; D.  WSM  904  Grave  WSM 915  910  through  WSM 925  919  through  WSM  926  WSM 930  927  WSM  l o t WSM  D.  901-934  La J o l l a Jonaitis  1962: f i g . 15; 1 9 7 7 : f i g . 1;  D; B.  1027  La  Jolla  1962:  f i g .  WSM  1203  La  Jolla  1962:  f i g . 16;  WSM  1204  Inverarity  WSM  1522  I n v e r a r i t y 1 9 5 1 : # 1 6 1 ; D. L a J o l l a 1 9 6 2 : f i g . 1 3 ; D.  through  WSM 1720 17 23  through  Grave  17;  1950:#160;  l o t WSM  D. D.  D.  1720-1724  WSM  1770  Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y f i g . 1 0 1 ; D.  1956  MAI  4/1666  Laguna  G.  MAI  11/352  Wardwell  1972: p i . 182; 1964:  f i g . 138;  PU 5 0 6 5 A 5065E  through  Laguna  1972: p i . 173;  G.  PU 5 1 0 4 A 5104J  through  Laguna  1972: p i . 173;  G.  ROM  939-31-154  AMNH N e g .  291556  ASM l l - B - 8 0 3 ll-B-804  and  Gunther  D.  Jonaitis Keithan  1962: p.  1980: 1959;  85,#151;  f i g . 4; D.  B.  D  -165-  BAS  Gunther  IV-A-13 8  1962:#312;  D.  CM E 1 1 7  Emmons & M i l e s 1 9 3 9 : x x i , f i g . 4; B .  p i .  CM E13 9  Emmons & M i l e s 1 9 3 9 : x x i , f i g . 3; B .  p i .  CM E 1 4 1  Emmons & M i l e s 1 9 3 9 : x x , f i g . 4; B .  p i .  CM 1 1 3 3  Emmons & M i l e s 1 9 3 9 : x x , f i g . 2; B .  p i .  CM  113 8  Emmons & M i l e s 1 9 3 9 : x x , f i g . 3; B .  p i .  CM 1 2 3 4  Emmons & M i l e s 1 9 3 9 : x i x , f i g . 2; B .  p i .  CM 1 8 2 1  Emmons & M i l e s 1 9 3 9 : x x i , f i g . 1; B .  p i .  CM  4928  Emmons & M i l e s 1 9 3 9 : x i x , f i g . 4; B .  p i .  CM  12432  Emmons &' M i l e s 1 9 9 3 : x x , f i g . 1; B .  p i .  CM  24537  Emmons & M i l e s 1 9 3 9 : x x i , f i g . 2; B .  p i .  DMNH 1 1 4 2 6 A 11426H  through  FM 1 4 3 1 0  Jonaitis  Lasser  Mirski  MAI  A and B  1301  1977:fig.  32; B.  1 9 7 2 : u n p a g e d ; D.  Harner & E l s a s s e r 1965: p. 100;  MAI  9/7051  Jonaitis  1978:fig.  7; B .  MAE  5795-45  Siebert 8 4 ; D.  & Forman  1967:  f i g ,  MAE  5795-47  Siebert 8 5 ; D.  & Forman  1967:  f i g ,  MPA  57.82  P a a l e n 1943:p.36;E; I n v e r a r i t y 1950:fig,166;D; Wardwell 1964:fig.l37;D; Coe 1 9 7 6 : f i g . 3 1 1 ; D .  -166-  NMC  VII-A-251  J o n a i t i s 1978:fig.5;B; Hall 1983:fig.2;I.  PAM  48-3-45  Davis 1949:fig.llO;D; Gunther 1966:#344;D.  PAM  48-3-46  Davis 1949:fig.ll3;D; Gunther 1966:#345;D.  PAM  48-3-49  Gunther  1966:#347;D.  PAM  48-3-109  Gunther  1966:#351;D.  PAM  48-3-111  Gunther  1966:#353;D.  PM  68-30-10-1907  Princeton  1969:fig.  PU  5089  Princeton  1 9 6 9 ; D.  PU  5095  Princeton  1 9 6 9 : p . 3 7 ; D.  Hawthorne  1 9 7 5 : f i g . 2 5 ; D.  UBC  A-247 8  4 7 ; D.  Weilgus  A  Emmons & M i l e s 1 9 3 9 : p i . x i x , f i g . 1; B ; Museum o f P r i m i t i v e A r t 1960: p . W a r d w e l l 1 9 6 4 : f i g . 1 3 6 ; D; M a u r e r 1 9 7 7 : p . 3 0 8 , #484 & p i . 2 8 ; D.  Weilgus  B  Emmons & M i l e s 1 9 3 9 : p i . x v i i i , f i g . 2; B ; W a r d w e l l 1 9 6 4 : f i g . 1 5 0 ; D.  RW  65-263  Maurer  1 9 7 7 : f i g . 4 8 5 ; D.  -167-  APPENDIX I I I Gazeteer  o f Kwans V i l l a g e s  a n d Camps  Akvetskoe: " l a k e town," summer v i l l a g e s o f Hunas Bay. 1835 pop. 200. (BAEB 30:1:34).  on  Lituia  Akwe R i v e r : 3 5 m. S . E . o f Y a k u t a t B a y , 5 9 1 7 ' N . , 13-9°-03*W. " O r i g i n a l l y a p p l i e d t o t h e whole drainage system b e t w e e n I t a l i o R. a n d A l s e k d e l t a ; u s a g e r e s t r i c t e d s i n c e 1901." ( O r t h : 5 9 ) " T e b e n k o v s h o w s t w o n a t i v e s e t t l e m e n t s here, t h e one n e a r e s t Y a k u t a t b e i n g c a l l e d a k o i b l i z h n (near a k o i ) , t h e o t h e r a k o i d a i n ( f a r akoi)." (Baker:86,88) G o n a h o Kwan 0  Alsek  River: 4 9 m. S . E . o f Y a k u t a t : 5 9 ° 0 3 ' N . , 1 3 8 ° 3 4 W . Mouth i s D r y Bay. A l s o c a l l e d H a r r i s o n R i v e r , J o n e s R i v e r , R i v i e r e de B e h r i n g . (Orth:68, Baker:94) Gonaho Kwan ,  Anchguhlsu: O l d Auk, c h i e f Auk t o w n . On A d m i r a l t y I . o p p o s i t e N. e n d D o u g l a s I . (BAEB 3 0 : 1 : 5 6 ) . Admiralty I. v i l l a g e 1880 pop. 360. A t P t . L o u i s a (BAEAR 2 6 : 3 9 6 ) . Seen by Whidbey 8 Aug. 1794 (Krause:63) A u k Kwan Angoon:  Ankau,  w e s t s h o r e A d m i r a l t y I . 41 m. N.E. o f S i t k a : 57°30'N., 134°35*W. " L o s t much p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e l a t e 1880's when a f i s h r e d u c i n g p l a n t was e s t a b l i s h e d a t K i l l i s n o o . " ( O r t h : 7 8 ) . 1 8 8 0 p o p . 4 2 0 . 12 h o u s e s (Krause:69) H u t s n u w u Kwan t h e : e s t u a r y 0.6 m. l o n g o n W. e n d o f P h i p p s P e n . , 2.6 m. W. o f Y a k u t a t , 5 9 3 2 ' 5 0 " N . , 1 3 9 ° 4 8 ' 2 0 " W . ( O r t h : 8 0 ) . S i t e o f s h a m a n ' s g r a v e h o u s e s e m p t i e d b y Emmons. Y a k u t a t Kwan o  Ahrnklin  River:  Ar-son-kee:  5 9 ° 2 5 ' 4 5 " N, 1 3 9 ° 3 2 ' 2 0 " W ;  Village,  Huna  Kwan.  10 m. S . E . Y a k u t a t .  (E 8 3 8 - 8 4 1 )  Auk  Kwan: on S t e p h e n s P a s s a g e a n d D o u g l a s a n d A d m i r a l t y Islands, including the following villages: Anchguhlsu, T s a n t i k i h i n . (BAEB 1 4 5 : 5 7 1 ) , a n d t h e a r e a o f B e r n e r s B a y (E 2 6 8 3 - 9 0 )  Auk  Village: q.v.  Barrie.  10 m. N. o f J u n e a u . Auk Kwan.  (1890 pop. 4 8 ) . A n c h g u h l s u  P t . : S.W. P o i n t o f K u p r e a n o f I . , 5 6 ° 2 6 ' 1 0 " N . , 1 3 3 ° 3 9 ' 0 0 " W . ( O r t h : 1 0 7 ) . 1 8 9 0 p o p . 89 n a t i v e .  -168-  Bartlett  Bay o r Cove: e x t e n d s N. 5 ni. f r o m P t . G u s t a v u s o n E . s h o r e o f G l a c i e r Bay, 58°27 N., 135°33'W. "Named a b o u t 1 8 8 1 b y C a p t . W.E. G e o r g e , l o c a l p i l o t , f o r C h a r l e s E . B a r t l e t t , who b o u g h t f i s h i n g p r o p e r t y a n d a c l a i m o n B a r t l e t t B a y i n 1884. S a l t e r y i n 1880's, c a n n e r y 1889. ( O r t h : 1 0 8 , B a k e r : 1 1 8 ) , s e e K h a r t h e e n e . Huna Kwan ,  Behm  Canal: Aug.  ruins of large village sighted 1793. (Krause:63) H e h l Kwan  by Vancouver  27  Berner's  Bay: E. s h o r e o f Lynn C a n a l . 3 m. a c r o s s : 58°43'N., 135 00'W. ( O r t h : 1 2 6 ) . S i t e o f m i n i n g camp "Seward ( 1 8 9 0 : 5 0 ) . No m e n t i o n o f v i l l a g e h e r e , y e t Emmons c o l l e c t e d s e v e r a l g r a v e l o t s f r o m t h i s a r e a . Auk K w a n o  City"  Burrough's Bay: e x t e n d s 9 m. N.E. o f f Behm C a n a l , 55°59 30"N., 131 14'00"W. Cannery and v i l l a g e a t j u n c t i o n o f Unuk R. a n d B e h m C a n a l , 1 8 9 0 p o p . 1 3 4 , n a t i v e 91. S a l t e r y o p e r a t e d h e r e i n 1886 o r 1887. C a n n e r y b u i l t 1888, d i s m a n t l e d 1894. (Orth:169, Baker:152). H e h l Kwan ,  Cape Cat  o  Fox V i l l a g e :  See  Gash.  Island: 2.3 m. l o n g b e t w e e n F e l i c e S t r . a n d R e v i l l a g i g e d o C h a n n e l , 8.8 m. N. o f G r a v e P t . , D u k e I . , 5 5 0 1 ' 2 0 " N . , 131°15*00"W. (Orth:193). "the indians migrated t o P o r t Tongass from Cot (sic) Island." (Corser 1922:22;G) s e e D a s a h u k . T o n g a s s Kwan o  Chikan:  See  Shakan.  Chilkat  Kwan: about head o f Lynn C a n a l , i n c l u d i n g t h e s e v i l l a g e : C h i l k o o t , Deshu Dyea, K a t k w a a h t l u ( K a g w a l t e r ) Klukwan, Skagway, Y e n d e s t a k e (Inderstucka). (BAEB 145:541). Winter towns: C h i l k o o t , Katwaahltu, Klukwan, Y e n d e s t a k e ; S m a l l e r towns: Deshu, Dyea, S k a g w a y (BAEB 3 0 : 1 : 2 6 2 )  Chilkat:  1 1 m. E . o f K a t a l l a , o n C o n t r o l l e r B a y : e O ' l l ' N . , 144°17'W. ( O r t h : 2 0 9 ) . V i l l a g e o r g r o u p o f v i l l a g e s on C o n t r o l l e r B a y , (BAEB 1 4 5 : 5 4 1 ) . p r o b a b l y s u m m e r village (BAEB 3 0 : 1 : 2 6 7 ) . summer v i l l a g e ( K r a u s e : 270, f n . 29 c i t i n g B A E B 3 0 2 : 7 8 5 ) . 1880 pop. 170, 1890 pop. C h i l k a t L a k e 34. G u t h l e u h Kwan  Chilkat:  L o c a l i t y E . s h o r e C h i l k a t I n l e t 2 m. S. o f H a i n e s Ctr.: 59°12'25"N. 135 ° 2 6 2 0 " W . Tlingit village a b a n d o n e d a b o u t 1910 ( O r t h : 2 0 9 ) . C a n n e r y . Chilkat Kwan I  r  Chilkat  River: flows 135°28 30"W. ,  t o head Chilkat  of Chilkat Kwan  Inlet:  59°12 30"N., ,  -169-  C h i l k o o t : l o c a l i t y o n C h i l k o o t R., b e t w e e n L u t a k I n l e t a n d C h i l k o o t L a k e , 12 m. S.W. o f S k a g w a y : 59 ° 2 0 0 0 " N . , 135 33'10 W. 1890 pop. 106. 8 h o u s e s , p o p . 120 (Krause:66) D j i q o t (BAEAR 2 6 : 3 9 7 ) . Chilkat-Chilkoot Kwan. ,  o  n  Chitklin's village: Kwan.  Taku  R.  and I n l e t .  1880 p o p 113. -J  Chulchagu: o p p o s i t e shore o f m a i n l a n d t o Gandecan houses. (Krause:69). Huna Kwan. Chyeeke: Cross  village.  Hutsnuwu  Kwan.  I  village. (BAEB Tlingit village S i t k a Kwan.  Dasahuk: Dashu:  Cat Island  145-571). i n Sitka  Village  5  '"Fallen country."  (Olson  of Alaska: Icy Str.  stunned', a former (BAEB 3 0 : 3 7 5 ) .  1961:209;g)  Tongass  Kwan.  Haines, 59°14'10"N., 135°26'15"W. Originally a v i l l a g e , later a trading post f o r Chilkat & i n t e r i o r villages. H a i n e s p.o. e s t a b l i s h e d , 1 8 8 4 , t h e n k n o w n l o c a l l y as C h i l k o o t . (Orth:400). A t head o f Lynn Canal. (BAEB 1 4 5 : 5 4 1 ) . Chilkat-Chilkoot Kwan.  Douglas  City: o n D o u g l a s I . , 4 m i . S.W. o f J u n e a u . 26 n a t i v e . (Orth:283). Modern D o u g l a s .  Douglas  Island Village: 1 8 8 0 p o p . 50 n a t i v e . shore o f A d m i r a l t y I., v i l l a g e s i g h t e d Aug. 1794. (Krause:63). Auk Kwan.  Dry  (q.v.),  (E943-987)  Sound: F r o m I c y S t r a i t 12 m. S.W. t o G u l f 58°08 N., 136°35'W. Originally included (Orth:249). Huna Kwan.  Dahet:  Taku  1980 pop,  Opposite north by Vancouver 8  Bay: M o u t h , A l s e k R i v e r : 59°08'N., 1 3 8 ° 2 5 ' W . "Also c a l l e d B e r i n g ' s B a y : named B e r i n g R i v e r by Cook a s he t h o u g h t B e r i n g a n c h o r e d h e r e i n 1741." (Orth:285). G o n a h o Kwan.  Dyea:  C h i l k a t v i l l a g e a t modern (BAEB 1 4 5 - 5 4 1 ) . Chilkat  Ellis,  Point: n o r t h w e s t e r n p o i n t o f e n t r a n c e t o T e b e n k o f Bay, Kuiu I. 56°33'40"N., 134°19'00"W. "An I n d i a n village here has been c a l l e d P o i n t E l l i s Village." (Orth:311). 1 8 9 0 p o p . f i g s , t y p i c a l o f c a n n e r y : 17 w h i t e a l l m a l e ; 1 1 5 i n d i a n : 60 m a l e , 55 f e m a l e ; 35 "Mongolian," i.e., Chinese, a l l male. K u i u Kwan.  Fotshou's v i l l a g e : Kwan.  Taku  River  p l a c e o f s a m e name. Kwan.  and I n l e t .  1 8 8 0 p o p . 24.  Taku  -170-  Funter Bay: cannery s i t e . native. Auk Kwan.  19 m. S.W.  Juneau.  1890 pop. 20  Gambier Bay: cannery s i t e . E. coast A d m i r a l t y I., trends S.E. 8 m. t o Stephen's P a s s , 57 m. E. of S i t k a . (Orth:359). 1890 pop. 8 n a t i v e . Auk Kwan. Gash:  Cape Fox V i l l a g e . 55°00'30"N., 131 00'15"W. on E. shore of R e v i l l a g i g e d o Channel, 4 m. S. of Boca de Quadra (Orth:184). 1837 pop. 177. (BAEB 30:2:463). 1880 pop. 100. On mainland immediately E. of Duke I., b e a u t i f u l beach, 21 b u i l d i n g s "deserted a t census taker's v i s i t , a number of f i n e poles." (1890:26). (BAEB 145:541). Sanya Kwan. o  Gandecan: B e l l Town. E. shore of P o r t F r e d e r i c k , 25 m. S. of P t . S o p h i a : 58°06'30"N., 135°26*30"W. (Orth:249). C h i e f Huna town (BAEB 145:541) 13 houses, 600-800 pop. t r a d i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t 1880, m i s s i o n 1881, (Krause:69) 1880 pop. 800, 1890 pop. 434 Gonaho:  former T l i n g i t town a t Dry Bay, mouth of Alsek R., Immediate t e r r i t o r y c a l l e d Gonaho kwan by Emmons. (BAEB 30:1:496, and BAEB 145:571)  Gutheni:  Yakutat Kwan v i l l a g e N. of Dry Bay. (BAEB 30:1:541). Former town N. of Dry (BAEB 30:1:513). Gonaho Kwan  Bay.  Guthleuh Kwan: C o n t r o l l e r Bay. BAEB 30:2:765 c i t e s Emmons usage of t h i s term f o r t h i s group, but does not f o l l o w i t , a s s e r t i n g that Yakutat people only summered there. Hamilton Bay: Kekou I., f a c i n g Kupreanof I. 8 deserted and p a r t l y r u i n e d v i l l a g e s a l l on steep promontories or rocky p o i n t s s i g h t e d by Vancouver 13 Aug 1794. (Krause:63) Hanaga:  Henya.  Hehl Kwan:  1880  pop.  Behm Canal  500  (BAEB 145:541)  Henya Kwan: W. coast of P r i n c e of Wales I. between Tlevak narrows and Sumner S t r a i t i n c l u d i n g v i l l a g e s : Klawak, Shakan, Tuxekan Hinauhan's V i l l a g e :  S t i k i n e R.  1880  pop. 31  Hlahayik: On Yakutat Bay behind an i s l a n d c a l l e d Hlaha. (BAEB 145:541). C l a c h - a - j e k (Krause:65), baxayl'k. i n s i d e of Baxa, an i s l a n d (ibid:270 f n . 18). The Clach-a-jek of Krause seems to be i d e n t i c a l with Yakutat. (BAEB 30:1:552). No such p l a c e name on Yakutat Bay can be t r a c e d or found. (Gunther, note i n Krause:270)  -171-  Hlukkokoan: "Town where people do not s l e e p much," a former T l i n g i t town i n Alaska." (BAEB 30:1:554). Hoods Bay: Hootz Bay. W. c o a s t A d m i r a l t y I. 57°26'N., 134°33'W. (Orth:428) Hutsnuwu Kwan Hot Springs Bay: W. of Goddard, W. coast of Baranof I. 56°51'N., 135°24'W. S i t k a Kwan Hukanuwu: v i l l a g e on N. s i d e of Cross Sound between mainland and C h i c h i g o f f I. (BAEB 145:541). Huna Kwan Huna Kwan: on Cross Sound, encamping i n summer northward beyond L i t u i a Bay, w i t h these v i l l a g e s : Okvetskoe, Gaudecan, Hukanuwu, Klughuggue, Kukanuwu, Tlushashakian (BAEB 145:541) Huna V i l l a g e :  see Gaudecan  Hutsnuwu Kwan: " g r i z z l y bear f o r t " on W. and S. c o a s t s of A d m i r a l t y I. w i t h v i l l a g e s : Angwin, K i l l i s n o o , Neltushkin (BAEB 145:541) Icy S t r a i t : 50 m. water passage between Chatham S t r . and / C r o s s Sound. 58°18'N., 134°45'W. (Orth:442). Huna Kwan Iknou:  W. coast of L i t t l e Kek I. (Krause:73, c i t i n g C a m i l l e de R o q u e f e u i l , voyages 1816-19, P a r i s , 1823, who saw some p a l i s a d e s and a s m a l l p i e c e of land p l a n t e d w i t h potatoes a t t h i s place) Kake- Kuiu Kwan.  Inderstuka: (Emmons mss) Gantagastaki. " v i l l a g e on r i g h t bank of r i v e r . " L o c a l i t y a t Haines a i r p o r t . 59°15 00"N., 135 31*15"-W. (Orth:359). Yendestake. At mouth of C h i l k a t River. (BAEB 145:541). 1867 12 l a r g e houses, 1880 16 houses. 171 pop. (Krause:271, f n . #36.) "Between the p o p u l a t i o n count of 1880 and 1890 an e n t i r e C h i l k a t v i l l a g e , one of four i n which the C h i l k a t people l i v e d , was wiped out by f l u . " ( M i l l e r and M i l l e r 1967:198;i.) Inderstuka does not appear on 1890 l i s t . ,  0  Indian R i v e r : 1 m. S.E. of S i t k a . Former summer camp of S i t k a Indians. (Orth:454) 1880 pop. 43. L o c a t i o n of f o r t destroyed by Russians i n 1804. (Krause:70). Kadishan's v i l l a g e : Kwan  S t i k i n e R i v e r . 1880 pop. 27.  Stikine  Kagwalter: (Emmons mss) Katkwaahtlu: "town on the p o i n t of a hill." On C h i l k a t R i v e r 6 m. above i t s mouth. (Orth:501). 1880 pop. 125. 8 h o u s e s , pop. 125 (Krause:270, f n . #34). C h i l k a t Kwan  -172-  Kahltcatlan: O l d Wrangell. (BAEB 145:541). A town occupied by S t i k i n e b e f o r e moving t o Wrangell, called Old Wrangell by Whites. (BAEB 30:1:641) S t i k i n e Kwan Kah Shakes: on shore of Kah Shakes Cove, near entrance to Boca de Quadra: 55°02 30"N., 1 3 0 ° 5 8 3 0 " W . (Orth:485). 4 m. N. o f Cape Fox V i l l a g e s (q.v.) , i m m e d i a t e l y opposite Mary I s l a n d . 6 houses, f a m i l y of Cape Fox c h i e f , named f o r him. 1880 pop. Kask's v i l l a g e 49, 1890: 25. Sanya Kwan. I  ,  Kah-tinge-uan: s i t e of o l d Hutsnuwu v i l l a g e on A d m i r a l t y I., a c r o s s from K i l l i s n o o . (Emmons ms. WSM 962, 1009, stone adze and c a r v i n g , dug up) Kake Kwan: on Kupreanof I., the d e s i g n a t i o n being sometimes extended t o cover Kuiu and Sumdum (BAEB 145:541) Kake:  N.W. c o a s t o f K u p r e a n o f I.: 56 58'30"N., 133 56'30"W. S'ikanakhse'ni, o r i g . name. Major v i l l a g e of Kake kwan. (Orth:486). (But BAEB 145:542 has Sikanasankian on Taku I n l e t , near Hamilton Hbr. (BAEB 30:1:644)) 1880 pop. 32; 1890 25 houses, number of p o l e s , pop. 35.  Kash's v i l l a g e :  o  o  S t i k i n e R i v e r . 1880 pop. 40.  Katchanaak: "hip lake." S i t e of modern Wrangell (BAEB 145:541). Winter town of the S t i k i n e . (BAEB 30:1:664). Katlany's v i l l a g e : Taku R i v e r and I n l e t . 1880 pop. 106. summer camp. (Orth:501). Taku Kwan K a t l i a n s k i Bay: K a t l i a n Bay, 5 m. l o n g , 8 m. N. o f S i t k a . Named i n 1809 f o r S i t k a c h i e f . (orth:501). Keshkunuwu: "blue j a y f o r t " A former S i t k a v i l l a g e i n S i t k a country, Alaska." (BAEB 30:1:675). Khart-heene: Huna v i l l a g e (E 2585)  site  in Bartlett  Bay (q.v.).  Killisnoo: E. c o a s t o f K i l l i s n o o I., 2 m. S. o f Angoon: 57°28'N., 134°34'W. E s t a b l i s h e d i n 1881 of combined n a t i v e s from Angoon and Naltushkan, brought t o work i n a f i s h rendering p l a n t . 1890 pop. 79; 1910 pop. 351 (Orth:519). Auk Kwan  -173-  Klawack:  5 m. N. o f C r a i g on P r i n c e o f Wales I., 55°3'15"N. 133°05'45 W. A l s o Tlevak, Tlewak. Russian 1853 c h a r t shows v i l l a g e W. s i d e of Shinaku I n l e t , former l o c a t i o n before cannery estab. 1878. (Orth:530). Most important s e t t l e m e n t on P r i n c e of Wales I. N a t i v e labor cannery (elsewhere Chinese). About 50 n a t i v e houses along beach. 1890 pop. 52. Henya Kwan f  n  Klo  Kwan:  Hlukkokoan Klughuggue: Klukwan:  see Kake. village:  Kake Kwan (q.v.)  see Thlu-hu-gu  n o r t h s h o r e C h i l k a t R i v e r , 14 m. S.E. G l a s s P t . 21 m. S.W. o f Skagway: 59 24'00 N., 1 3 5 ° 5 3 3 0 " W. (Orth:531-2). 20 m. above mouth (BAEB 145:541) 1883 65 houses, pop. 500; 1890, 30 houses, pop. 326. C h i l k a t Kwan o  Kohltiente's v i l l a g e : camp Kona:  n  ,  S t i k i n e River.  "A former T l i n g i t town (BAEB 30:1:724).  1880 pop. 28.  Summer  i n S i t k a country."  Koo I s l a n d v i l l a g e : 1880 pop. 82. Ku I., upper end o f P o r t Camden, 4 houses s i g h t e d by Vancouver (10 Aug, 1794.) (Krause:63). Kosh's v i l l a g e : Kwan  Etolin  I. 1880 pop.49.  Kukanuwu: N. s i d e of Cross Sound. (Emmons ms.) Huna Kwan  Summer camp.  (BAEB 145:541).  Stikine Kook-noo-oo  Kuiu Kwan: on K u i u I. w i t h v i l l a g e o f same name a t P o r t Beauglerc. (BAEB:145:541) Kuiu v i l l a g e : a t Port Beauclerc (BAEB 145:541). Wales I s l a n d West Coast 1880, pop. 60. Kupreanof I. v i l l a g e :  1880 pop. 82.  P r i n c e of  See Kake  Kustahekdaan: "A former T l i n g i t town i n S i t k a country, Alaska. (BAEB 30:1:738). Lake Bay: N.E. c o a s t o f P r i n c e o f Wales I., S.E. o f S t e v e n s o n I. 56°01 00"N., 132°55'30"W. (Orth:561). 1890 pop. 28 n a t i v e . Cannery or f i s h i n g s t a t i o n . ,  Ledyanoprolivskoe: "perhaps a town of T l i n g i t , l o c a t i o n not given, numbering 200 i n 1835." (BAEB 30:1:761).  -174-  Letushkwin: O l d Hootznahoo. A d m i r a l t y I s l a n d , N. shore Chaik Bay, 11 m. S. Angoon:57 20'10"N., 13 4 31' 40 "W. (Orth:573) Formerly a populous v i l l a g e (Baker:479). Hutsnuwu Kwan o  0  L o r i n g : West Coast R e v i l l a g i g e d o I., near head Neha Bay: 55°36'12"N., 131 38'00"W. F J o h i n g v i l l a g e e s t a b l i s h e d around salmon cannery, estab. 1885 (Orth:597). 1890 pop. 120 n a t i v e . L  o  Martin, P o i n t : 27 m. S.W. o f K a t a l l a : 60°11'N., 1 4 4 ° 3 6 W . tOrth:625) Jacobson c o l l e c t e d T l i n g i t a r t i f a c t s here i n 1882. (BLN IV 6G502) Guthleuh Kwan I  Naha Bay: e s t u a r y 3 m. o f f Behm Canal, on W. coast R e v i l l a g i g e d o I.: 55°36'N., 131°41'W. (Orth:670). Tongass Kwan Nakwasina Bay: head of Nakwasina Sound. "fermented," i n Russian. 57 °15'00"N., 135 20'30^W.- (Orth:671). O l d v i l l a g e s i t e a t entrance to 8 m. N. of S i t k a , Destroyed and d e s e r t e d i n 1804. (E 2673). S i t k a Kwan o  Neltushkin: l o c a l i t y N. shore Whitwater Bay: 57 15'30"N., 134 36'15"W. O l d v i l l a g e , pop. moved t o K i l l i s n o o . (Orth:681). 1880 pop. 246. Scutshon. Hutsnuwu Kwan o  0  Old  Auk:  see Anchguhlsu.  Parker, P o i n t : Chatham S t r a i t . "Some new houses seen by Whidbey, 22 J u l y , 1794." (Krause:63). Porpoise I s l a n d s : j u n c t i o n of I c y S t r a i t and I c y Passage. 5 m. S. E x c u r s i o n I n l e t : 58°20'N., 135°28'W. (Orth:770) (Dall:1883:190). Huna Kwan Port B e a u c l e r c :  see Kuiu  Port Houghton v i l l a g e :  1880 pop. 50.  Sumdum?  Port Mulgrave: cove 0.9 m. l o n g on S. end o f Kantaak of G r a v e y a r d Cove, 1.8 m. N.W. o f Y a k u t a t : 59°33'45"N., 139 46'40"W. Yakutat Kwan  I., M.  o  Pybus Bay: E. c o a s t o f A d m i r a l t y I. 57°16*N., 134°05'W. pop. 26 n a t i v e .  1890  R e v i l l a g i g e d o Channel: S. of Cape Northumberland. Ruins of unimportant v i l l a g e seen by Vancouver 14 Aug. 1793. (Krause:63). Sakar:  e s t u a r y 1 m. long, o f f E l C a p i t a n Passage, W. coast of P r i n c e of Wales I., 55 57'45"N., 133°16 00"W. 1890 pop. 20 n a t i v e . Cannery, s e a s o n a l s e t t l e m e n t . Henya Kwan 0  ,  -175-  Salmon Bay: cove 0.8 m. l o n g , N.W. end o f C l a r e n c e S t r . on N. coast of P r i n c e of Wales I.: 56°18'15"N., 133°09'00"W. (Orth:830). 1890 pop. 38 n a t i v e . Cannery, seasonal settlement. Sanya Kwan: about Cape Fox, v i l l a g e Gash, a t Cape Fox (BAEB 145:541) Saxman:  v i l l a g e on Tongass Narrows. (Emmons 1971:8, which i n c l u d e s an 1889 Emmons photo of a house). 2.5 m. S.E. o f Ketchikan, v i l l a g e founded i n 1894 by Sam Saxman, s c h o o l teacher. (Orth:843). Tongass Kwan  Seymour Channel V i l l a g e : Shakan:  1880 pop. 75.  head o f Shakan Bay, E. o f H a m i l t o n I., N.W. c o a s t K o s k i u s c o I.:56°08 15"N., 133°27 35"W. P r e v i o u s summer v i l l a g e , saw m i l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1879, i n d i a n v i l l a g e grew up around i t . (Orth:858). 1890 pop. 29 n a t i v e . 60 m. N. of Klawak, s a w m i l l and a dozen houses (1890:52). Summer v i l l a g e (BAEB 145:541) Henya Kwan ,  ,  Shake's v i l l a g e : E. c o a s t o f E t o l i n I.: 55°58_'N., 132°13'W. Former summer camp of S t i k i n e c h i e f Geks (Orth:859). 1880 pop. 38. Shallyany's  village:  S t i k i n e R.  Shustak's v i l l a g e : Etolin S t i k i n e Kwan  I.  1880 pop. 38.  1880 pop. 38.  Summer camp.  Summer camp.  Sikanasankian: l o c a l i t y a t mouth of Grindstone Creek, 10 m. S.E. of Juneau. 58°13'N., 134°11'W. Former T l i n g i t v i l l a g e name meaning " s m a l l black bear town" (BAEB 30:675) (Orth:873). Sicknarsonkee, Emmons mss. S i l v e r Bay: 1880 pop. 29. Sitka Sinta-ka-heene  A summer camp (BAEB 145:542)  (Emmons mss.):  of  See T s a n t i k i h i n .  S i t k a Kwan: on the West c o a s t s of Baranof and C h i c h i g o f f I s l a n d s , w i t h these v i l l a g e s : Dahet, Keshkunuwu, Kuna, Keshtahekdaan, O l d S i t k a , S i t k a , Tlanak, T l u h a s h a i y i k a n , S i l v e r Bay (BAEB 145:541-2) Sitka:  v i l l a g e on s i t e of modern town of same name (BAEB 145:541)  -176-  S i t k a , O l d : On S t a r r i g a v a n Bay, 5.5 m. N. o f S i t k a , 57 07'50"N., 135°22 20"W. S i t e of Russian F o r t Archangel M i c h a e l and s e t t l e m e n t i n 1799, destroyed by T l i n g i t i n 1802. May be p l a c e l i s t e d i n 1880 as O l d S i t k a , pop. 73. (Orth:721). On K a t l e a n a Bay. C a n n e r y site. (Krause:72). o  Skagway:  I  v i l l a g e on s i t e of modern town of same name (BAEB 145:541)  Stephens Passage V i l l a g e :  1880 pop. 290.  Auk Kwan  S t i k i n e Kwan: on S t i k i n e R i v e r and the n e i g h b o r i n g coast. V i l l a g e s : K a h l c a t l a n , Katchanaak, Shakes V i l l a g e . Sumdum:  head of Sanford Cove on E n d i c o t t Arm. May be v i l l a g e , Port Houghton. 1968 pop. 150. (Orth:927). 1910 pop. 50 (BAEB 30:2:649) Kwan and v i l l a g e on P o r t Houghton (BAEB 145:542)  Takokakoan:  village,  mouth of Taku R i v e r (BAEB 145:541).  Taku H a r b o r : cove 0.6 m. a c r o s s : 58°04 10"N., 1 3 4 ° 0 0 3 0 " W . L o c a l i t y , E. shore Taku Harbour, c o l l e c t i v e l y l i s t e d as 4 Taku-kon v i l l a g e s , pop. 269, by P e t r o f f , 1880. S i t e o f Hudson's Bay Co. P o s t 1840: 58°03'30"N., 134°02'00"W. (Orth:943). I  Takokakoan:  village,  I  mouth Taku R i v e r (BAEB 145:541).  Tatshenshini River: t r i b u t a r y of Alsek. l i v e s here." (Krause:65)  "Chief of Yakutat  Thlu-hu-gu (Emmons mss.): Klughuggue. On C h i c a g o f f I. (Orth:531). 1880 pop. 108. Shaman from has grave house on P o r p o i s e I s . (E 197 4). ident. Chulchagu (q.v.)? Huna Kwan Tlanak:  " T l i n g i t town i n S i t k a country, Alaska" (BAEB 145:541)  Tlistee:  "a former town i n the N. p a r t of T l i n g i t region d e f i n i t e l o c a l i t y not known" (BAEB 30:2:765).  Tluhashaiyikan: "town s t r a i g h t o p p o s i t e Mt. Edgecumbe." Former town i n S i t k a country (BAEB 30:2:766). Tlushashakian: "town on top of sand h i l l . " O l d town on N. s i d e of W. entrance to Cross Sound. In Huna country but i s s a i d t o have been o c c u p i e d a n c i e n t l y by many f a m i l i e s of Wolf p h r a t r y , now s c a t t e r e d a l l over Alaskan coast. Perhaps i d e n t i c a l w i t h Kluhuggue (q.v.) (BAEB 30:2:766) .  -177-  Tokeatl's v i l l a g e : summer camp, l o c a t i o n not given (Orth:973). 1880 pop. 26. Taku Kwan T o l s t o i Bay: f i s h i n g s t a t i o n i n Thorne Bay: 55°41'30"N., 132°33 00'W. (Orth:974). 1890 pop. 13 n a t i v e . I  Tongass:  E. c o a s t Tongass I., 54°46 30"N., 1 3 0 ° 1 4 3 0 " W . Former v i l l a g e , m i l i t a r y post 1868-70. F o r t Tongass. (Orth:976). 25 houses, very l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n of p o l e s . One time of c o n s i d e r a b l e importance as a n a t i v e rendezvous. 25 m. t o P o r t Simpson. When troops were there i t d i d a t h r i v i n g business (1890:50) ,  I  Tongass Kwan: a t mouth of P o r t l a n d Canal on N. s i d e , w i t h v i l l a g e of same name on Tongass I. Towayat's v i l l a g e : E t o l i n I. 1880 pop. 82. (BAEB 145:542). S t i k i n e Kwan  Summer camp  Tsantikihin: v i l l a g e , s i t e of Juneau (BAEB 145:541). camp (BAEB 30:1:117). Auk Kwan  Summer  Tuxecan (Emmons mss): Tuxekan. N. entrance to Tuxecan Narrows, 55°53'20"N., 133 14'30 W. "Tuxeau f o r m e r l y c h i e f Henya town b u t t h e Henya have now moved t o Klawak." ( O r t h : 9 6 6 ) o  n  n  Whaley, P o i n t : v i l l a g e a t northernmost p o i n t of R e v i l l a g i g e d o I., seen by V a n c o u v e r 11 Aug. 1793. V e r y l a r g e , deserted, c o u l d have h e l d 300-400 (Krause:63). Hehl Kwan Windham Bay: S.W. 8 m. from Windham t o Stephens Passage, 14 m. S. o f Holkham Bay, 61 m. S.E. o f Juneau. 1890 pop. 7 Wrangell: 56°28 00"N., 132°22 40"W. 1834 Russian stockade to prevent encroachment by HBC. 1839 leased t o HBC F o r t S t i k i n e 1839-44. 1867 U.S. m i l i t a r y post, abandoned i n 1877. Important supply post f o r gold rush up S t i k i n e , 1861 (Orth:1060) ,  Wrangell, Old:  ,  see K a h k t c a t l a n .  Yaktag v i l l a g e : a t f o o t o f Mt. S t . E l i a s , pop. 150 (Krause:66) "No v i l l a g e mentioned here by Swanton but Yaktag i s given as a n a t i v e name i n Orth:684" (Gunther i n Krause:270, f n #30.) Yakutat:  main v i l l a g e of Yakutat Kwan, 59°33 N., 139°44'W. 1880 pop. 500, 1890 pop. 300 (Orth:1063). ,  -178i  Yakutat Kwan: p r i n c i p a l l y about Yakutat Bay but extending westward i n l a t e r times t o the mouth of the Copper R i v e r , i n c l u d i n g these v i l l a g e s : C h i l k a t , Gutheni, Hlahayik, Yakutat (BAEB 145:542) Yess Bay: N.E. c o a s t of C l e v e l a n d P e n i n s u l a , 3 m. N. Spacious Bay: 55°55'N., 138°48'W. Cannery e s t a b l i s h e d 1886 (Orth:1066). 1890 pop. 43 n a t i v e . abbreviations: 1880 pop. f i g u r e s from P e t r o f f 1884;I 1890: P o r t e r 1893;I BAEB: Bureau of American Ethnology B u l l e t i n 145:Swanton 1952;H) BAEAR: Bureau of American Ethnology Annual Report 26:Swanton 1908;G Baker: Baker 1906,1. C o r s e r : Corser 1922;G Dahl: Dahl 1883,1 E: Emmons MS. AMNH-E;E Krause: Krause 1956(1885);G O r t h : Orth 1967,1 WSM: Emmons MS. WSM;E  

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