UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Tlingit shaman charms Lovejoy, James 1984

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1984_A8 L69.pdf [ 20.8MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0096240.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0096240-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0096240-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0096240-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0096240-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0096240-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0096240-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0096240-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0096240.ris

Full Text

TLINGIT SHAMAN'S CHARMS by JAMES LOVEJOY B.A., Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y , 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF 4 THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e F a c u l t y o f G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s ( Department o f F i n e A r t s , Programme i n I n d i g e n o u s A r t s o f t h e A m e r i c a s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as_ c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1984 © I o p y r i g h t (C) James L o v e j o y , 1984 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Fine Arts  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date 24 A p r i l 1984 ABSTRACT This thesis examines 4 8 0 T l i n g i t shamanS1 charms using Panofsky's method of analysis. The ms. catalogue notes on 3 8 0 charms collected by George Emmons were compiled together with published information on 1 0 0 others to y i e l d firm data on provenance, context, materials, frequency of various motifs, and use. This data i s presented in a series of tables which are discussed in the text. The most frequently appearing motifs on charms were human beings of various types, and the most common animal motif was the land otter, but v a r i a b i l i t y of motif type and complexity was pronounced. Examination of the T l i n g i t context of the shaman's practice and s p e c i f i c T l i n g i t b e l i e f s about the land otter reveal that i t was the animal most frequently connected with shamanism, and the most important to his practice. T l i n g i t cosmological structure was reviewed in order to locate the land o t t e r i n the T l i n g i t scheme and shed l i g h t on the taboos associated with i t . The insights of Mary Douglas were referenced, comparing the ways the T l i n g i t structure i s l i k e others worldwide, and how the land otter functioned as an essential mediator between the secular and sacred for the T l i n g i t . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f T a b l e s v i L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 C h a p t e r One: P r e - I c o n o g r a p h i c a l D e s c r i p t i o n A. S o u r c e s 1. C o l l e c t i o n s a. D o c u m e n t a t i o n 4 b. G e o r g e T. Emmons and h i s t i m e s . . . . 9 2. P r e v i o u s S c h o l a r s h i p on T l i n g i t Charms . . 12 3. C o n t e m p o r a r y S o u r c e s . . . . . 14 4. H i s t o r i e s 15 B. P r o v e n a n c e and C o n t e x t o f R e c o v e r y o f Charms 1. P r o v e n a n c e D a t a . . . . . . . 16 2. C o m p a r i s o n o f P r o v e n a n c e and P o p u l a t i o n D a t a : D i s c u s s i o n o f T a b l e s I and I I . . . 20 3. I n c i d e n c e o f R e c o v e r y o f Charms f r o m Shamans' G r a v e s : D i s c u s s i o n o f T a b l e I I I 25 4. G r a v e L o t I n v e n t o r y : D i s c u s s i o n o f T a b l e IV 30 C. M a t e r i a l s : D i s c u s s i o n o f T a b l e V . 32 D. Methods o f M a n u f a c t u r e 38 E. D a t i n g o f Charms 40 iv F. Style . . 42 G. Motifs 1. Problems i n Motif I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . . . . . 47 2. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the Land Otter Motif . . 55 3. Motif Frequency Analysis: Discussion of Tables VI and VII . . . . . . . . . . 67 Chapter Two: Iconographical Analysis A. Sources on T l i n g i t Ethnography. . . . . . . . . 76 B. T l i n g i t S o c i a l Organization . 77 C. T l i n g i t Shamanism 1. ; D e f i n i t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 2. Manner of Practice of the T l i n g i t Shaman . 82 3. Manner of Use of Charms. . . . . . . . . . 84 . D,. Ic on o g r aphi6a 1 Analysis of the Land Otter Motif - i : . T l i n g i t B e l i e f s about the Land Otter ... . 92 •2. Land Otters as Crest Symbols . . . . . . . 93 3. Land Otters as Shamans' S p i r i t s . . . . . . 98 4. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Chapter Three: Iconoiogical Analysis :A. Sources and Guideposts. . . . * i . . . . . . . 116 B. Iconoiogical "Analysis of the Land Otter Motif t 117 C. Conclusion. . . . ,.; .... . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Bibliog.raphy ' .V.-' • . A.. Bibliographies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 • B ^ . - ^ . - ' - T l ^ n g ' i . t . . . 127 C. Other Works on Shamanism and Shamanic Art . . . 128 D. ;: Art Books and Exhibitioh Catalogues 131 V E. T l i n g i t A r t and M a t e r i a l C u l t u r e 134 F. C o m p a r a t i v e and R e l a t e d A r t and M a t e r i a l C u l t u r e 138 G. T l i n g i t E t h n o g r a p h i c D e s c r i p t i o n 142 H. C o m p a r a t i v e and R e l a t e d E t h n o g r a p h i c D e s c r i p t i o n 147 I . H i s t o r y 151 J . N a t u r a l H i s t o r y 153 K. T h e o r y : A r t , A n t h r o p o l o g y , P s y c h o l o g y 154 A p p e n d i x I : Museum A b b r e v i a t i o n s 160 A p p e n d i x I I : P u b l i s h e d and A s s o c i a t e d T l i n g i t Shaman Charms 161 A p p e n d i x I I I : T l i n g i t G a z e t e e r 167 v i L i s t o f T a b l e s I . P r o v e n a n c e o f T l i n g i t Shaman's Charms 18 I I . C o m p a r a t i v e D i s t r i b u t i o n and P r o p o r t i o n a l R e l a -t i o n s h i p s o f 1880 and 1890 P o p u l a t i o n , A r t i f a c t s i n t h e A.M.N.H. "E" C a t a l o g u e and Shamans' Charms, by Kwans 22 I I I . C o m p a r a t i v e D i s t r i b u t i o n and P r o p o r t i o n a l R e l a -t i o n s h i p s o f a l l T l i n g i t Shamans' Charms, G r a v e L o t Charms, and a l l G r a v e L o t A r t i f a c t s 26 IV. I n v e n t o r y o f A r t i f a c t s R e c o v e r e d f r o m T l i n g i t Shamans' G r a v e s 27 V. M a t e r i a l s Used f o r T l i n g i t Shamans' Charms. . . . 33 V I . M o t i f F r e q u e n c y A n a l y s i s 68 V I I . I c o n o g r a p h i c C o m p l e x i t y 71 VI.II. U ses A s c r i b e d t o Charms i n G.T. Emmons 1 N o t e s . . 87 v i i L I S T OF FIGURES 1. "Shaman o f t h e Taku Qwan D r e s s e d f o r P r a c t i c e , G a s t i n e a u C h a n n e l n e a r J u n e a u , A l a s k a i x 2. "The t h r e e s t a g e s o f a r t h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s " . . . . 6 3. Map o f T l i n g i t a r e a l s u b d i v i s i o n s 17 4. PM 69.30.10 - 1988 Shaman's n e c k l a c e 34 5. M i c h 74670 charm 36 6. AMNH wooden shaman's charm 37 7. AMNH 19-453, charm 39 8. MAI 4/1669, charm 39 9. P a a l e n c o l l . , charm 41 10. AMNH 19-508, 19-473, and 19-474, charms 43 11. AMNH E 2708, charm 44 12. AMNH 19-450, charm 46 13. AMNH E 864, charm 49 14. AMNH E 865, charm 50 15. WSM 1770, charm 52 16. AMNH E 2711, charm 53 17. WSM 1720, charm 54 18. L u t r a C a n a d e n s i s , t h e l a n d , o r r i v e r , o t t e r 57 19. WSM 926, charm 58 20. AMNH E 1285, charm 58 o 21. NMC V I I - A - 2 5 1 , charm 59 v i i i 22. MAI 9-7950, charm 60 23. MAI 9-7951, charm 60 24. AMNH 19-457, charm 62 25. DAM, song l e a d e r ' s s t a f f 63 26. AMNH E 1915, shaman's g r a v e g u a r d i a n f i g u r e , r e a r v i e w 64 27. AMNH E 1915, f r o n t v i e w 65 28. PU 5093, charm 66 29. OPM 16-707 , charm 81 30. MAI 11/1816, charm 86 31. FM 71936, shaman's w a i s t r o b e 89 32. " T l i n g i t S p i r i t D o c t o r and S i c k Woman" . . . . . . . 90 33. DMNH 11426, shaman's n e c k l a c e 91 34. AMNH E 400, mask 94 35. UM, canoe prow f i g u r e 95 36. PU 5090, charm 96 37. AMNH E 1668, l a n d o t t e r t o n g u e b u n d l e 99 38. G e o r g e T e r a s a k i c o l l . , charm 102 39. MAI 1301, charm 104 40. MAI 9-7948, charm 105 41. BKLN 05.588.7294, o y s t e r c a t c h e r r a t t l e ( d e t a i l ) . . 107 42. PM 69.30.10.1908, charm 108 43. W e i l g u s c o l l . , charm 109 44. MAI 9/7952, charm 110 45. LMA 2-19101, charm I l l 46. I n s i t u , Klukwan, house p o s t . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 i x "Shaman o f t h e Taku Kwan d r e s s e d f o r p r a c t i c e , G a s t i n e a u C h a n n e l , n e a r J u n e a u , A l a s k a . " G.T. Emmons p h o t o , 1888. Sawyer A r c h i v e FRONTISPIECE - 1 -INTRODUCTION A. Art History and Anthropology This thesis attempts an in-depth a r t - h i s t o r i c a l treatment of a class of small bone and tooth carvings usually c a l l e d charms, ^ h i c h were used in various ways as magical amulets by the shamans of the T l i n g i t Indians of Southeastern Alaska. Such an attempt i n i t s e l f r e q u i r e s a few words of explanation. In North America, art historians usually confine themselves to consideration of the a r t i s t i c products of their own, or s i m i l a r l y l i t e r a t e , "high" c i v i l i z a t i o n s . The obscure, exotic, and d i f f i c u l t works from the vastly varied non-literate peoples of North America have tended, with one or two notable exceptions, to be l e f t by art historians to the mercies of some anthropologists for whom art i s a problematic f type of material culture. There are good reasons for t h i s . Absent or fragmentary documentation often frustrates the art historian who by training wishes to reconstruct the o r i g i n a l context of a work or group of works. Where documentation exists, r e l i a b l e information concerning the society from which the work came may be lacking en t i r e l y , or, as i s usually the case, be quite incomplete. The art historian, furthermore, i s l i k e l y to want to discuss that which came before, and after, the work under discussion, and how the work exemplified and contributed to i t s period, a project necessarily contingent -2-upon p r e v i o u s s u c c e s s f u l work by a r c h e o l o g i s t s o r e t h n o h i s t o r i a n s . S u c h p r o b l e m s may do much t o e x p l a i n t h e n e g l e c t s u f f e r e d by t h e a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n s o f s o - c a l l e d " p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e s " , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n , b u t t h e y do n o t e x c u s e t h e e t h n o c e n t r i c d e n i g r a t i o n s u f f e r e d when p r e s e n t e d as a mere p r e l u d e t o " h i g h a r t " , as happens i n a number o f s w e e p i n g h i s t o r i e s o f W o r l d A r t , s u c h as G o m b r i c h (1961;K) and H a u ser (1962;K).-'- And y e t , m i s s t a t e m e n t s a r e p e r h a p s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e g i v e n t h e w e a l t h o f a r t i f a c t s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p a u c i t y o f d a t a . In s p i t e o f t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i n t e r e s t i n " P r i m i t i v e A r t " has n e v e r been h i g h e r , and d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s by a r t h i s t o r i a n s s u c h a s H o l m a n d K a u f m a n h a v e b e g u n t o e x p l o r e t h e r i c h v i s u a l u n i v e r s e o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t a r t . A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , who c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s a l m o s t s o l e l y w i t h e x o t i c , n o n - l i t e r a t e p e o p l e s , a r e p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s o c i e t i e s o f s u c h p e o p l e and t h e i r i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . R i t u a l , modes o f p r o d u c t i o n , m echanisms o f s o c i e t a l f u n c t i o n i n g , o w n e r s h i p o f r e s o u r c e s , and o t h e r a r e a s a r e a l l more e n e r g e t i c a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d t h a n i s m a t e r i a l  c u l t u r e , w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a s u b - d i s c i p l i n e o f r e l a t i v e l y low s t a t u s . The A n t h r o p o l o g y o f A r t s e e k s t o 1. The b i b l i o g r a p h y i n t h i s work has been d i v i d e d f o r c o n v e n i e n c e i n t o a number o f s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n s . The c a p i t a l l e t t e r w h i c h f o l l o w s t h e d a t e i n b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l r e f e r e n c e s r e f e r s t o t h e s e c t i o n o f t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y i n w h i c h t h e f u l l r e f e r e n c e may be f o u n d . -3-discover whether a universal theory of a r t i s t i c production and image recognition might be formulated which applies equally well to a l l human societies. (lecture notes, Anthropology 331, Anthropology of art, Marjorie Halpin, instructor, 1979-80.) Works in t h i s t r a d i t i o n , such as Boas' Prim i t i v e Art (1955;K), and Anderson's Art in Primi t i v e Societies (1979;K) take a broad overview of several p r i m i t i v e art tradi t i o n s . For Boas ( f i r s t published in 1895 and revised in 1927) the aim "i s rather an attempt to determine the dynamic conditions under which art styles grow up" (1955:7;K). Anderson presents his work as the f i r s t since Boas' to "bring together in a single book the many insights that have resulted from the systematic study of art from p r i m i t i v e societies" (1979:xiv;K). He writes: "I have t r i e d to present the p r i n c i p a l issues that are relevant to the study of art as a c u l t u r a l phenomenom (ibid.) (emphasis mine). This neglect of simple empirical study i s best exemplified by noting that Anderson's lengthy bibliography, consisting of 307 references, includes only 46 (15 percent) that may be judged from their t i t l e s to be object-centered, and has but a single a r t i c l e of methodological focus (Haselberger, 1961;K), by a European art historian, no less. Eighty-five percent of the references use art to get at some other aspect of the society, or even at the nature of mankind. This represents no small problem. A vast corpus of fascinating and little-understood art objects from an astoundingly varied panoply of human cultures would seem to - 4 -have, in large part, f a l l e n between the cracks. The art histo r i a n who wishes to examine a s p e c i f i c "primitive" art object but who i s l o s t without texts, and unfamiliar with the purposes of ethnographic description, has much in common with the anthropologist who wishes to do likewise but i s stymied by the absence of sound methodological examples in the f i e l d of anthropology. This t h e s i s has been conceived i n par t as a means of addressing t h i s lack. It i s intended to demonstrate the complementary nature of art h i s t o r i c a l and anthropological approaches. It considers, in depth, and with Erwin Panofsky's art h i s t o r i c a l methodology, the small, highly varied "charms", p r i n c i p a l l y of bone and marine ivory, used in magical practice by T l i n g i t shamans. This group of objects, of no mean a r t i s t i c and symbolic significance, have heretofore received l i t t l e serious scholarly consideration of any kind in any academic d i s c i p l i n e . B. Methodology This investigation i s based upon the metholodolgy formulated by Erwin Panofsky, a well-known art hi s t o r i a n who worked exclusively within the Western t r a d i t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y on the survival of motifs and themes from C l a s s i c a l Antiquity into Medieval and Renaissance times. His methodology has been used at least once previously for a Northwest Coast subject by J e n n i f e r Gould (U.B.C.) i n her Raven R a t t l e study (1973;F). -5-P a n o f s k y ' s I c o n o g r a p h y And I c o n o l o g y ; An I n t r o d u c t i o n To The  S t u d y Of R e n a i s s a n c e A r t (1955;K) d e l i n e a t e s a t h r e e - s t a g e p r o c e s s o f a r t h i s t o r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h a t u n i f i e s s e v e r a l c o m p l e m e n t a r y a p p r o a c h e s i n t o a s e q u e n t i a l , c o h e r e n t whole. H i s h e r m e n e u t i c a l s c h e m a t a , w h i c h t h i s t h e s i s e s s e n t i a l l y f o l l o w s , i s r e p r o d u c e d a s F i g u r e 2. P a n o f s k y ' s i n i t i a l s t a g e o f a r t h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s , p r e - i c o n o g r a p h i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n , c o n s i s t s o f " i d e n t i f y i n g . . . . r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f n a t u r a l o b j e c t s s u c h as human b e i n g s , a n i m a l s , p l a n t s , h o u s e s , t o o l s , and so f o r t h " ( i b i d : 2 8 ) . ; * P a n o f s k y , t h e h i s t o r i a n o f a r t and o f s y m b o l s , c o n s i d e r s t h e m o t i f , o r image, t h e b a s i c , most s i g n i f i c a n t e l e m e n t , b u t t o t h e s t u d e n t o f m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e , t h e c a n v a s i s as n o t e w o r t h y as t h e p a i n t i n g . I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t t o p i c , a t t h e l e v e l o f p r e - i c o n o g r a h i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n , r e q u i r e s c o m p i l a t i o n o f a v a i l a b l e d o c u m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n on p r o v e n a n c e , m a t e r i a l , and m o t i f . Thanks t o t h e p e r s p i c a c i t y o f Ge o r g e Emmons, who c o l l e c t e d t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e shamans' charms, s u c h d a t a i s r e m a r k a b l y f u l l : b u t , as w i l l be seen, i t i s n o t w i t h o u t i t s p r o b l e m s . Emmons' d o c u m e n t a t i o n must be r e g a r d e d as an a r t i f a c t as w e l l , and as s u b j e c t t o s c r u t i n y as t h e o b j e c t s i t d e s c r i b e s . T h i s t h e s i s , t h e n , i s as much a s t u d y o f Emmon's d o c u m e n t a t i o n as i t i s o f t h e charm s t h e m s e l v e s , b e c a u s e we a r e , i n t h e a b s e n c e o f o t h e r s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n , l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d t o c o m p i l i n g h i s a s s e r t i o n s . T h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o d o u b t Emmon's s t a t e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g p r o v e n a n c e and t h i s i s where d i s c u s s i o n o f h i s d o c u m e n t a t i o n b e g i n s . B u t , w i t h h i s i Iconography and IcoDology: O B J E C T O F INTERPRETATION A C T O F INTERPRETATION ..faff. ' An Introduction to the Study of Renaissance Art 41 CORRECTIVE PRINCIPLE E Q U I P M E N T FOR O F INTERPRETATION I N T E R P R E T A T I O N (History of Tradition) i Primary or natural subject Pre-iconographical descnp-matter-( A) factual, (B) ex- (ion (and pseudo-formal ^ pressional-constituting the analysis). ;v|s£ world of artistic motifs. Practical experience (famil- History of style (insight into the iarity with objects and manner in which, under varying events). historical conditions, objects and events were expressed by forms). — ' V i l - . ' . -u Secondary or conventional lconographical analysis. subject matter, constituting the "'"t^ world of images, stories and . .. " allegories. Knowledge of literary History of types (insight into the sources (familiarity with . manner in which, under varying specific themes and con- historical conditions, specific cepts). themes or concepts were expressed by objects and events). , : — — — — ^ v;^-III /ntrinric meaning or content, Iconological interpretation. ^ ^ constituting the world of "sym* bolical" values. • * Synthetic intuition (famil- History of cultural symptoms or iarity with the essential "symbols" in general (insight into tendencies of the human the manner in which, under vary-mind), conditioned by per- ing historical conditions, essential sonal psychology and tendencies of the human mind "Weltanschauung." were expressed by specific themes and concepts). F i g . 2 The Three Stages of Art H i s t o r i c a l Analysis (Panofsky, 1955:40-41; K.) -7-other attributions, which generally concern material, iconography, and use, we must use caution. The l i m i t a t i o n s of Emmon's documentation are discussed in turn in conjunction with the tables that present the data that are mostly his. Of the second stage, iconographical analysis, Panofsky writes that the essential concern i s to provide "insight into the manner in which, under varying h i s t o r i c a l conditions, s p e c i f i c themes or concepts were expressed by objects and events" (ibid:41). This requires integration of the empirical and documentary data compiled and evaluated in Chapter One with detailed knowledge of T l i n g i t ethnography. The s p e c i f i c question to be addressed i s : what did the various charms o r i g i n a l l y mean to the T l i n g i t who made, used, and saw them? What was their o r i g i n a l context? The very large number of motifs found on T l i n g i t charms, however, make i t necessary to r e s t r i c t the discussion considerably less the investigation at hand become u t t e r l y unwieldy. The land otter, the most frequent motif, has been selected for in-depth analysis. As w i l l be seen, ethnographic and mythological sources shed considerable l i g h t on the o r i g i n a l context of the potent land otter symbol. Stage three, iconoiogical interpretation, attempts to provide "insight into the manner in which, under varying h i s t o r i c a l conditions, essential tendencies of the human mind were expressed by s p e c i f i c themes and concepts" (ibid.). This writer asserts that such "essential tendencies" may reasonably be discovered no matter how a l i e n the culture under -8-consideration. Detailed consideration of thi s issue i s a major research topic in i t s e l f , but surely we are a l l human. Panofsky's method w i l l be followed by considering the following: Why was the p l a y f u l and remarkably i n t e l l i g e n t land o t t e r a unique and potent object of dread? Charms had magical power to eff e c t cures. Why? How? And f i n a l l y , with respect to charms and the land o t t e r , how d i d the T l i n g i t address the fundamental human need for s o c i a l and psychological s t a b i l i t y . The insights of Mary Douglas are drawn upon to help us make sense of these basic questions. Taken together, Panofsky's three stages of art h i s t o r i c a l analysis provide a most s a t i s f y i n g , complete framework of investigation which encompasses a broad spectrum of approaches. The hi s t o r i a n of s t y l e need not suspect the investigator of symbols for dealing in intangibles, and the symbolists need not denigrate the s t y l i s t for dealing only in nuts and bolts. Each contributes an essential portion of the whole. Art history, having grown up with secular humanism, i s more than a subset of material culture studies. They are complementary d i s c i p l i n e s , and capable of enriching each other immensely. - 9 -CHAPTER ONE: PRE-ICONOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION A. S o u r c e s 1. C o l l e c t i o n s a. D o c u m e n t a t i o n D a t a were c o m p i l e d on 480 T l i n g i t c harms i n 22 i n s t i t u t i o n a l and p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n s . By f a r t h e g r e a t e r number were t h o s e i n t h e G e o r g e Emmons 1 c o l l e c t i o n s o f t h e A m e r i c a n Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , New Y o r k , t h e F i e l d Museum, C h i c a g o , and t h e W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e Museum, S e a t t l e . F o r t u n a t e l y , Emmons' c o l l e c t i o n s were a l s o t h e b e s t documented. F i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s made i t i m p o s s i b l e t o v i s i t C h i c a g o o r New Y o r k , b u t Emmons' m a n u s c r i p t c a t a l o g u e s , w h i c h he w r o t e t o a c c o m p a n y t h e c o l l e c t i o n s t h a t he s o l d t o t h e a f o r e - m e n t i o n e d i n s t i t u t i o n s , were made a v a i l a b l e t o me by Dr. A l a n Sawyer, p r o f e s s o r , U.B.C. F i n e A r t s D e p a r t m e n t . (Emmons, mss. A.M.N.H. "E", A.M.N.H. - 19, F.M., a n d W.S.M.;E). D r . Sawyer a l s o f r e e l y made a v a i l a b l e t h e r e s o u r c e s o f h i s e x t e n s i v e s l i d e a r c h i v e , and many o f h i s o r i g i n a l p h o t o g r a p h s a r e r e p r o d u c e d i n t h i s s t u d y . P r o f e s s o r B i l l Holm, o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , F i n e A r t s and A n t h r o p o l o g y D e p a r t m e n t s , i n t r o d u c e d me t o t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e Museum, and a l s o made a v a i l a b l e h i s huge s l i d e a r c h i v e . Many o f Holm's images a r e a l s o h e r e r e p r o d u c e d . The U.B.C. l i b r a r i e s were s e a r c h e d f o r p u b l i s h e d i m a g e s o f charm s -c o m p i l e d i n A p p e n d i x I I . -10-Of t h e 480 charm s n o t e d , u n f o r t u n a t e l y o n l y 33 p e r c e n t were seen p h y s i c a l l y o r i n a p h o t o g r a p h . The r e m a i n d e r a r e known f r o m Emmons' d o c u m e n t a t i o n . The d e c i s i o n was made t o c o m p i l e Emmons' d a t a on u n s e e n c h a r m s b e c a u s e , as t h e most p r o l i f i c and c o n s c i e n t i o u s c o l l e c t o r on t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t ( B i l l Holm, i n c o n v e r s a t i o n , O c t o b e r 1980), h i s v o l u m i n o u s o r i g i n a l d a t a d e s e r v e s t o be c o m p i l e d and s t u d i e d . S e v e n t y -f i v e p e r c e n t o f a l l charms i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y were c o l l e c t e d by t h i s one man. Emmons t r i e d t o s u p p l y p l a c e o f c o l l e c t i o n , T l i n g i t name, use, and e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e m o t i f ( s ) r e p r e s e n t e d f o r e v e r y one o f t h e w e l l o v e r 10,000 a r t i f a c t s t h a t he s o l d (Low 1977:8;I). O c c a s i o n a l l y he a l s o s u p p l i e s t h e c l a n a f f i l i a t i o n o f t h e v e n d o r o r p r e v i o u s owner, b u t t h i s i s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , q u i t e r a r e . He o f t e n s k i p p e d one o r s e v e r a l i t e m s o f h i s c u s t o m a r y l i s t , and d i d so w i t h no d i s c e r n a b l e c o n s i s t e n c y . As w i l l be s e e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f m o t i f s , t h i s c a u s e s m a j o r p r o b l e m s w i t h h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . I n s i g h t i n t o h i s s t a n d a r d s o f d o c u m e n t a t i o n and s p e c i f i c s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n must a w a i t t h e r e s e a r c h i n g o f h i s n o t e b o o k s and m a n u s c r i p t s , many o f w h i c h a r e i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B.C. F r e d e r i c a de Laguna i s p r e s e n t l y w o r k i n g w i t h Emmons' p a p e r s and i n t e n d s e v e n t u a l l y t o p u b l i s h an e d i t e d v e r s i o n o f t h e T l i n g i t e t h n o g r a p h y on w h i c h he worked f o r many y e a r s . -11-b. George T. Emmons and h i s t i m e s Emmons was p e r h a p s b e t t e r a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e T l i n g i t t h a n any o t h e r n o n - I n d i a n o f h i s p e r i o d , 1880-1920 ( i b i d . ) . I n h i s p o s i t i o n w i t h t h e U.S. Revenue C u t t e r S e r v i c e , t h e o n l y l e g a l a u t h o r i t y i n A l a s k a b e f o r e t h e 1890's, he c o v e r e d s o u t h e a s t e r n A l a s k a , and a c q u i r e d an i n t i m a t e k n o w l e d g e o f n a t i v e c o n d i t i o n s and a f f a i r s . He c o l l e c t e d , m o s t l y by p u r c h a s i n g , b u t a l s o by g a t h e r i n g m a t e r i a l s f r o m shamans' g r a v e s and abandoned v i l l a g e s i t e s , a n y t h i n g p o r t a b l e t h a t had i n any way been m o d i f i e d or use d by t h e T l i n g i t . T h i s t o t a l o f o v e r 10,000 i t e m s was s o l d t o a number o f d i f f e r e n t museums. He was a b l e t o do t h i s b e c a u s e o f t h e u n i q u e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e p e r i o d . A l a s k a had been p u r c h a s e d f r o m R u s s i a i n 1867, and t h e R u s s i a n s had l a r g e l y been c o n t e n t t o l e a v e t h e n a t i v e s t o t h e i r own d e v i c e s , a t l e a s t beyond t h e v i c i n i t y o f S i t k a . The dec a d e b e g i n n i n g w i t h 1880, w h i c h saw t h e f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t r u s h o f A m e r i c a n c a p i t a l and m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t y , marked a g r e a t l y a c c e l e r a t e d d e c l i n e o f t r a d i t i o n a l T l i n g i t l i f e . H o o c h i n o o , o r moonshine, and v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e became rampant. U.S. g u n b o a t s s h e l l e d t h e v i l l a g e s o f Kake, W r a n g e l l , and o t h e r s i n t h e y e a r s 1869-1882 ( M i l l e r and M i l l e r 1 9 6 7 : Ch. 6 ; I ) . The 1880's saw many, i f n o t most, o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l h o u s e s abandoned i n f a v o u r o f f r a m e s t r u c t u r e s o f m i l l e d l u mber. By 1890, l a r g e numbers o f T l i n g i t s p e n t t h e summer i n new c a n n e r i e s o r c o m m e r i c a l f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s , w o r k i n g f o r -12-wages w i t h w h i c h t h e y p u r c h a s e d d u r a b l e goods. But, t e n y e a r s e a r l i e r t h e y had r e p a i r e d i n summer t o a n c e s t r a l f i s h i n g and g a t h e r i n g camps. Thousands o f t o u r i s t s v i s i t e d s o u t h e a s t e r n A l a s k a on c r u i s e s h i p s , and a t h r i v i n g c u r i o t r a d e i n a l l manner o f a r t i f a c t s s p r a n g up. ( P o r t e r 1893: Ch. 6;I). The a n c i e n t s u b s i s t e n c e c y c l e was b r o k e n , and h o o c h i n o o , v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e , m i s s i o n a r y e d u c a t i o n and w h i t e c o n t e m p t r a p i d l y weaned t h e T l i n g i t away f r o m t h e r e m a i n i n g f a i t h t h e y had i n t h e p o w e r o f t h e s h a m a n s t o c u r e o r k i l l ( M i l l e r a n d M i l l e r : 1 6 8 - 2 0 3 ; I ) . I n s u c h an e n v i r o n m e n t , Emmons was a b l e t o i n d u c e t h e T l i n g i t t o p a r t w i t h o b j e c t s t h a t a v e r y f e w y e a r s e a r l i e r w o u l d have been o b t a i n a b l e o n l y a t g r e a t r i s k . Edward G. F a s t , who i n 1867-8 o b t a i n e d some T l i n g i t shamans' p a r a p h e n a l i a , p r e s u m a b l y f r o m shamans' g r a v e s , n o t e d t h a t i t p l a c e d h i s a s s i s t a n t ' s l i f e a t r i s k t o g e t i t ( F a s t 1869:5-6;D). Emmons, though, who g a t h e r e d o v e r two d o z e n shamans' g r a v e l o t s , s e e m s t o h a v e d o n e h i s l o o t i n g w i t h no g r e a t e r r i s k t h a n h i s p u r c h a s i n g , and was a b l e t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on g r a v e l o t a r t i f a c t s f r o m T l i n g i t s who seem n o t t o have m i n d e d h i s l o o t i n g . 2. P r e v i o u s S c h o l a r s h i p on T l i n g i t Charms. P u b l i s h e d s c h o l a r l y l i t e r a t u r e on T l i n g i t shamans' charms i s meagre. O n l y two a r t i c l e s have a p p e a r e d i n w h i c h t h e y a r e t h e p r i m a r y t o p i c . G e o r g e Emmons and G.P. M i l e s ' -13-1938 (B) a r t i c l e i s v e r y b r i e f , b u t does p r o v i d e i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f n i n e c h a r m s , w i t h n o t e s on t h e i r i c o n o g r a p h y and use. J o n a i t i s * 1978(B) a r t i c l e i n A m e r i c a n I n d i a n A r t M a g a z i n e a l s o p r o v i d e s a number o f i l l u s t r a t i o n s , b u t i s f a r t o o b r i e f t o d e v e l o p t h e i d e a s p r e s e n t e d . Laguna i n c l u d e s a s h o r t n o t e on charms and s e v e r a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n h e r 1972 s t u d y (689-690;G), as does G u n t h e r (1966:157-158;F). Two u n p u b l i s h e d s c h o l a r l y works o f m e r i t must a l s o be m e n t i o n e d . C a r o l Ann MacKinnon's M.A. t h e s i s , A S t u d y o f  P e n d a n t s and S p i r i t Charms C o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t :  E t h n o l o g i c a l C o l l e c t i o n s and A r c h a e o l o g i c a l R e c o v e r i e s (1979;F) p r e s e n t s d a t a f r o m t h e e n t i r e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t , i n a manner somewhat d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . She does n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e v a r i o u s n o r t h e r n N o r t h w e s t C o a s t t r i b e s , o r c o m p i l e Emmons 1 m a n u s c r i p t d a t a . T h i s i s n o t t o f i n d f a u l t w i t h h e r w o r k , w h i c h w i l l be h e r e c i t e d . She p r o v i d e s s i g n i f i c a n t j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r e f f o r t by e s t a b l i s h i n g t h a t 66 p e r c e n t o f known N o r t h w e s t C o a s t c h a r m s a r e f r o m t h e T l i n g i t ( i b i d . : 2 5 ) . J o n a i t i s ' 1977 d i s s e r t a t i o n i n c l u d e s a s i x - p a g e d i s c u s s i o n o f c h a r m s (88-93;B). I t c o n t a i n s l i t t l e q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a , b u t d i s c u s s e s w e l l t h e m a j o r t y p e s and t h e i r u s e s as r e c o r d e d by Emmons. As h e r t i t l e (The  R e l a t i o n s h i p b etween t h e S o c i a l and Shamanic A r t o f t h e T l i n g i t I n d i a n s o f S o u t h e a s t e r n A l a s k a ) i m p l i e s , she p r o v i d e s an i n - d e p t h i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e shaman, h i s a r t , and p l a c e s b o t h i n t h e i r s o c i a l c o n t e x t s . -14-Numerous a r t books, f e a t u r i n g p r i m i t i v e A m e r i c a n a and p r o v i d i n g e x c e l l e n t p h o t o g r a p h s b u t m i n i m a l c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n , f e a t u r e a t l e a s t one charm. They a r e t o o numerous t o l i s t h e r e , b u t may be f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x I I . 3. C o n t e m p o r a r y S o u r c e s The 1880's saw a f l o o d o f A m e r i c a n n ewspaper and m a g a z i n e i n t e r e s t i n t h e n e w l y a c q u i r e d A l a s k a n p o s s e s s i o n s . A number o f p o p u l a r works o f t r a v e l and e x p l o r a t i o n c o n t a i n r e f e r e n c e s t o c u r i o t r a d e r s and even shamans i n a c t i o n (see e s p e c i a l l y S e t o n - K a r r 1887: 59, 125-133;I). B a n c r o f t ' s 1886 H i s t o r y o f A l a s k a (I) p r o v i d e s a m i n u t e l y d e t a i l e d r e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f e a r l y R u s s i a n m a n u s c r i p t s o u r c e s and i m m e d i a t e p o s t - p u r c h a s e e v e n t s . U.S. Government p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e e r a i m m e d i a t e l y s u b s e q u e n t t o t h e A l a s k a p u r c h a s e c o n t a i n d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n . P e t r o f f ' s T e n t h C e nsus  R e p o r t p r o v i d e s a l i s t o f T l i n g i t v i l l a g e s and camps and t h e i r 1880 p o p u l a t i o n (1884;I). P e t r o f f a l s o p r e s e n t s e a r l i e r R u s s i a n and Hudson Bay Company f i g u r e s . The r e p o r t s o f t h e U.S. Revenue C u t t e r S e r v i c e ( B e a r d s l e e 1882, G l a s s 1880-1882, and L u l l 1880-1882;I) p r o v i d e a w e a l t h o f d e t a i l on t h e c h a o t i c c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e t i m e . B e a r d s l e e o f f e r s h i s p e r s p e c t i v e on a c a s e o f w i t c h c r a f t , t e l l s us what t h e shaman was p a i d i n b l a n k e t s , and what t h e b l a n k e t s were w o r t h i n d o l l a r s (1882: 5 8 - 5 9 ; I ) . Schwatka's 1885 R e p o r t o f a M i l i t a r y  R e c o n a i s s a n c e i n A l a s k a made i n 1883 (I) i n c l u d e s n o t e s on t h e -15-s t r e n g t h and d i s p o s i t i o n s o f t h e v a r i o u s kwans ( T l i n g i t a r e a l s u b d i v i s i o n s ) and t h e i r r e l a t i v e d e g r e e s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n . The 1890 U.S. 1 1 t h Census r e p o r t ( P o r t e r 1893;I) comments g l o w i n g l y on t h e g r e a t p r o g r e s s made i n t h e p r e v i o u s t e n y e a r s i n r a i s i n g t h e T l i n g i t f r o m h e a t h e n i s m , and o f c o u r s e p r o v i d e s r e l i a b l e p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s w h i c h , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h o s e p r e s e n t e d i n 1884, a r e o f g r e a t e t h n o h i s t o r i c v a l u e . 4. H i s t o r i e s More r e c e n t l y , G u n t h e r ' s I n d i a n L i f e on t h e  N o r t h w e s t C o a s t o f N o r t h A m e r i c a (1972:139-181;H) has c o n t r i b u t e d an e x c e l l e n t r e v i e w o f t h e e a r l y c o n t a c t p e r i o d i n t h e l a t e 1 8 t h c e n t u r y , augmented by c a r e f u l e t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h and a t t e n t i o n t o t h e m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t i o n s made by t h e e a r l y e x p e d i t i o n s . The t e x t i s a c c o m p a n i e d by p l a t e s t a k e n f r o m t h e p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e v o y a g e s o f d i s c o v e r y , and a s u b s t a n t i a l b i b l i o g r a p h y . P o l l y and Leon M i l l e r ' s L o s t  H e r i t a g e o f A l a s k a (1967;H) p r o v i d e s a d e t a i l e d and w e l l r e s e a r c h e d p o p u l a r h i s t o r y t h a t c a r r i e s t h r o u g h t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y and i s s p e c i f i c a l l y o r i e n t e d t o t h e n a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . -16-B. P r o v e n a n c e and C o n t e x t o f R e c o v e r y o f Charms 1. P r o v e n a n c e D a t a E i g h t y p e r c e n t o f t h e 480 charms i n t h e s a m p l e ( a l m o s t e n t i r e l y o b t a i n e d by Emmons) have s p e c i f i c p r o v e n a n c e d a t a . L o c a t i o n , o r a t l e a s t d i s t r i c t , o f c o l l e c t i o n was one o f t h e i t e m s o f i n f o r m a t i o n he most r e g u l a r l y s u p p l i e d . T a b l e I p r e s e n t s t h e d a t a , d i s c u s s i o n o f w h i c h w i l l a p p e a r i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h a t o f T a b l e I I . Emmons 1 most f r e q u e n t o r t h o g r a p h y i s e m p l o y e d f o r o b s u r e v i l l a g e s h a v i n g no s t a n d a r d s p e l l i n g . When c o l l e c t i n g t h i s d a t a i t became a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d no s i n g l e c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h e many o b s c u r e T l i n g i t v i l l a g e s and camps. F o r t h a t r e a s o n a g a z e t e e r o f T l i n g i t kwans, v i l l a g e s and l o c a l i t i e s i s p r e s e n t e d as A p p e n d i x IV. A map w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s t h e T l i n g i t kwans ( F i g u r e 3) i s t a k e n f r o m Laguna (1972:1:4;G). I t has been m o d i f i e d s l i g h t l y i n t h e H e n y a / K a i g a n i a r e a , a s Laguna e r r e d i n s h o w i n g o n l y t h e s o u t h e a s t e r n p o r t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e e n t i r e s o u t h e r n h a l f o f P r i n c e o f W a l e s I s l a n d and a d j a c e n t i s l a n d s as K a i g a n i H a i d a t e r r i t o r y . I n t h a t s o u t h w e s t e r n q u a d r a n t were t h e H a i d a v i l l a g e s o f Howkan, K l i n k w a n and K a i g a n i (Swanton 1952:570;H). As w e l l , t h e D r y Bay o f Laguna's map i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e Gonaho o f Emmons, Swanton and o t h e r s . Angoon (name o f t h e c e n t r a l v i l l a g e ) i s e q u i v a l e n t t o Hutsnuwu, and t h e E y a k -C h u g a c h a r e a i s c l a i m e d by Emmons t o h a v e b e e n t h e home o f t h e - 1 8 -Table I, p . l : Provenance of T l i n g i t Shaman's Charms 1 Charms Col- 1 % Di s t . 1 Local Groups: 1 lected from 1 of Charms 1 Kwans and lLocal Groups Iwithin 1 Constituent V i l l a g e s 1 No. %iGroups 1 Auk Kwan 1 41 .831 44.441 Sinta Ka Heene 1 51 1.04 1 55.561 Total Auk 1 91 1.88 1 100.001 Chilkat-Chilkoot Kwan 1 27 1 5.63 1 38.571 Chilkat River 1 31 .63 1 4.291 Chilkoot 1 91 1.881 12.861 Dashu 1 31 .63 1 4.291 Inderstucka 1 31 .63 1 4.29 1 Kagwalter 1 41 .83 1 5.711 Klukwan 1 211 4.38 1 30.001 Total 1 701 14.581 100.001 Gonaho Kwan 1 11 .211 2.941 Ah-qwey R. 1 31 .63 1 8.82 1 Alsek R. 1 51 1.04 1 14.711 Aukon Heene 1 11 .21 1 2.941 Dry Bay 1 241 5.00 1 70.591 Total 1 341 7.081 100.001 Guthleuh Kwan: 1 1 .00 1 1 Cape Martin 1 11 .211 100.001 Henya Kwan: 1 1 1 — — — I 1 Klawack 1 11 .211 11.111 Shakan 1 7 1 1.46 1 77.781 Tuxecan 1 11 .211 11.111 Total 1 91 1.881 100.001 Hoonah Kwan 1 51 1.041 9.801 Arson Kee 1 41 .83 1 7.841 B a r t l e t t Bay 1 11 .211 1.961 Cross Sound 1 61 1.25 1 11.761 Gandecon 1 241 5.00 1 47.061 Icy S t r a i t 1 1 1 .211 1.96 1 Porpoise I s. 1 31 .63 1 5.881 Thle-hu-gu 1 41 .83 1 7 .'84 1 W. Coast Chichigoff I. 1 31 .63 1 5.881 Total 1 511 10.63 1 100.001 -19-Table I, p.2: Provenance of T l i n g i t Shaman's Cha rms 1 Charms Col- 1% Di s t . Local Groups: 1 lected from lof Charms Kwans and lLocal Groups Iwithin Constituent V i l l a g e s 1 No. %iGroups Hutsnuwu Kwan 1 61 1.25 1 7.50 Angoon 1 281 5.83 1 35.00 Chatham Str nr Angoon 1 11 .21 1 1.25 Chyeeke 1 131 2.711 16.25 Old Hootznahoo 1 13 1 2.711 16.25 Hood's Bay 1 11 .211 1.25 K i l l i s n o o 1 121 2.50 1 15.00 Kake-kuiu 1 01 .00 1 .00 Neltushkin 1 , 61 1.25 1 7.50 Total 1 80 1 16.671 100.00 Sanya Sumdum 1 01 .00 1 .00 Sitka Kwan 1 101 2.081 20.41 Nakwasina Bay 1 61 1.251 12.24 P e r i l S t r a i t 1 21 .42 1 4.08 Sitka V i l l a g e 1 311 6.46 1 63.27 Total 1 491 10.211 100.00 Stikine Kwan 1 21 .421 3.85 Wrangell 1 50 1 10.421 96.15 Total 1 521 10.831 100.00 Taku Kwan 1 11 .211 100.00 Tongass Kwan 1 21 .421 100.00 Yakutat Kwan 1 71 1.46 1 31.82 Port Mulgrave 1 101 2.081 45.45 Yakutat V i l l a g e 1 51 1.04 1 22.73 Total 1 221 4.58 1 100.00 T l i n g i t 1 1001 20.831 100.00 Grand Total 1 4801100.001 Data compiled from G.T. Emmons ms. notes and published sources (see Appendix II) -20-G u t h l e u h kwan (Hodge 1910:765;H). Sanya, i n t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t o f t h e T o n g a s s a r e a n e a r Cape Fox, i s n o t shown. 2. C o m p a r i s o n o f P o p u l a t i o n and P r o v e n a n c e D a t a : D i s c u s s i o n o f T a b l e s I and I I T a b l e I I c o m p a r e s t h e t o t a l s o f T a b l e I w i t h 1880 and 1890 p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s and w i t h p r o v e n a n c e d a t a o f T l i n g i t o b j e c t s f r o m t h e e n t i r e "E" c a t a l o g u e o f t h e A m e r i c a n Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , some 2,566 i t e m s . The p o i n t o f m a king t h i s c o m p a r i s o n i s t o e xamine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween p o p u l a t i o n , c h a r m s , and t o t a l a r t i f a c t p r o d u c t i o n , a s s u m i n g ' t h a t a r t i f a c t p r o d u c t i o n and c o l l e c t i o n were c o n s t a n t r e l a t i v e t o p o p u l a t i o n . S c r u t i n y r e v e a l s i n c o n g r u e n c i e s w h i c h a r e s u p p o r t e d by t h e known h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d . The Auk kwan c o n s t i t u t e d 18.4 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n 1890, a r a p i d r i s e f r o m 9.5 p e r c e n t i n 1880, b u t Emmons c o l l e c t e d o n l y 5.69 p e r c e n t o f h i s "E" c a t a l o g u e a r t i f a c t s f r o m them, and b u t 1.9 p e r c e n t o f t h e 480 c h a r m s i n o u r s a m p l e a r e f r o m t h e r e . T h i s may be e x p l a i n e d by t h e r a p i d r i s e o f t h e m i n i n g c e n t r e o f J u n e a u on t h e s i t e o f S i n t a - k a -heene (Emmons 1 s p e l l i n g ) , o r T s a n t i k i h i n . The Auk a r e a , i n i t i a l l y d e p o p u l a t e d as were t h e o t h e r T l i n g i t a r e a s , grew a g a i n as T l i n g i t f l o c k e d t o J u n e a u t o work as wage l a b o u r e r s . Such T l i n g i t , removed f r o m t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s , d e m o r a l i z e d and o f t e n C h r i s t i a n i s e d , a p p e a r e d n o t t o have b r o u g h t t h e i r h e i r l o o m s w i t h them. -21-The C h i l k a t , t h e s t r o n g e s t and most c o n s e r v a t i v e T l i n g i t g r o u p , c o n t r i b u t e d more t h a n t h e i r s h a r e o f a r t i f a c t s , and e x a c t l y t h e i r s h a r e o f charms. I t may be s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t Emmons had p a r t i c u l a r l y good r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e C h i l k a t . The n e a r b y Gonaho a r e a was e n t i r e l y d e p o p u l a t e d by 1890, and y e t 6.7 p e r c e n t o f "E" c a t a l o g u e a r t i f a c t s and 7.04 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l c harms a r e f r o m t h e r e . T h e s e were c o l l e c t e d f r o m shamans' g r a v e s i n t h e D r y Bay a r e a . The a b s e n c e o f p e r m a n e n t v i l l a g e s i n t h e Gonaho a r e a s i n c e t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y i s u n d e r s c o r e d by t h e m e n t i o n by Emmons o f d e s e r t e d Gonaho v i l l a g e s (ms. A.M.N.H. "E":#409), and t h e i r a b s e n c e i n l a t e r A m e r i c a n l i s t s . Swanton (1952:541;H) c h a r a c t e r i s e s t h e Gonaho a r e a a s a summering p l a c e o f t h e Y a k u t a t , w h i c h i t p e r h a p s became as p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e d , w i t h o u t i t s own v i l l a g e s . B u t , t h e c e n s u s e s , t a k e n i n t h e summer show no one, p e r h a p s due t o c o n t i n u i n g r a p i d d e p o p u l a t i o n . Emmons o b t a i n e d i m p o r t a n t Gonaho p i e c e s f r o m Y a k u t a t w h i c h shows where t h e s u r v i v o r s went. Some kwans, s u c h as Kake, Sanya and T o n g a s s , were q u i t e l o w i n p o p u l a t i o n by 1880 a n d e v e n l o w e r by 1890, a n d c o n t r i b u t e d even l e s s t o Emmons 1 h o a r d . The c u r i o t r a d e may be a f a c t o r i n t h e s e d i s c r e p a n c i e s . S c i d m o r e , w r i t i n g i n t h e 1890 c e n s u s r e p o r t n o t e s : "A c o n s i d e r a b l e t r a d e i n f u r s , b a s k e t s , and c u r i o s i s c a r r i e d on between S i t k a and Y a k u t a t . " ( P o r t e r 1893:53;I). One may s a f e l y assume t h e r e was o t h e r movement as w e l l . P o r t a b l e " c u r i o s " were t a k e n f r o m o u t l y i n g a r e a s and s o l d a t p l a c e s where w h i t e t o u r i s t s came i n t h e -22-Table II: Comparative distribution and proportional relationships of 1880 and 1890 population, artifacts in the A.M.N.H. "E" Catalogue, and shaman's charms by Kwans Pop in 18801Pop in 1890 IE Catalogue ITlingit I I IArtifacts IShaman's I I ITlingit ICharms I Kwan 1 No. % l No. % l No. % l No. % l i Auk 1 640 9.49! 896 18.41 146 5.691 9 - 1 1.91 Chilcat 1 841 12.51 610 12.51 503 19.61 61 13.1 Chilkoot 1 127 1.881 106 2.181 8 .3121 9 1.91 Gonaho 1 100 1.481 0 01 176 6.861 . 34 7.01 Guthleuh 1 320 4.751 88 1.811 0 01 1 .211 Henya 1 587 8.711 319 6.551 101 3.941 9 1.91 Huna 1 1008 15.01 449 9.221 317 12.41 54 11.1 Hutsnuwu 1 766 11.41 414 8.501 311 12.11 80 17.1 Kake 1 408 6.051 97 1.991 48 1.871 0 01 Kuiu 1 160 2.371 115 2.361 0 01 0 01 Sanya 1 100 1.481 26 .5341 10 .3901 0 01 Sitka 1 721 10.71 861 17.71 414 16.11 49 10.1 Stikine 1 217 3.221 228 4.681 200 7.791 52 11.1 Sumdum 1 0 01 41 .8421 0 01 0 01 Taku 1 269 3.991 7 .1441 28 1.091 2 .411 Tongass 1 178 2.641 43 .8831 47 1.831 1 .211 Yakutat 1 300 4.451 300 6.161 79 3.081 22 4.61 Tlingit 1 0 01 268 5.511 178 6.941 100 21.1 i Totals 1 6742 1001 4868 100.1 2566 100.1 483 I 1001 Sources: Petroff 1884; I Porter 1893; I Emmons ms. AMNH-E;E -23-summer. S c i d m o r e f u r t h e r w r i t e s o f t h e T l i n g i t : "They have b e e n k e e n e r t h a n t h e w h i t e s i n s e e i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l s o f t h e t o u r i s t t r a d e and s e l l t h e i r h e i r l o o m s and t h e c r u d e s t c o p i e s o f t h e i r h e i r l o o m s f o r f a b u l o u s sums... t h e y m a n u f a c t u r e a n t i q u e s , even S t o n e Age r e l i c s , w i t h t h e s h r e w d n e s s o f E u r o p e a n s " ( i b i d . : 4 4 ) . Emmons c o l l e c t e d f r u i t f u l l y among t h e Hutsnuwus, o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n s , who a t t h a t t i m e had a l a r g e f i s h - r e d u c i n g p l a n t ( a t K i l l i s n o o ) and a l s o o l d c o n s e r v a t i v e v i l l a g e s . P o s s i b l y T l i n g i t f r o m o t h e r kwans came t h e r e t o work. S c h w a t k a (1885;I) w r o t e o f t h e Hutsnuwus "In r e g a r d t o t h e m e d i c i n e man, e a c h t r i b e h a s one o r t w o , a n d t h e i r i n f l u e n c e , t h o u g h a l m o s t l o s t among t h e K o o t z n a h o o p r o p e r , i s v e r y s t r o n g w i t h t h e N e l t u s h k i n s , an a n c e s t r a l v i l l a g e i n t h e Hutsnuwu t e r r i t o r y " ( i b i d . : 6 9 ) , The S t i k i n e a r e a , i n w h i c h W r a n g e l l i s l o c a t e d , c o n t r i b u t e d i n e x c e s s o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n t o t h e g r e a t e s t e x t e n t . W r a n g e l l , s i t e o f a U.S. Army p o s t f r o m 1867-1877 (Orth:1060;I) was a m a j o r p o r t o f c a l l f o r t o u r i s t s and a r e n d e z v o u s p l a c e f o r t h e T l i n g i t . I n r e v i e w i n g t h i s d a t a , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c a l l t h a t no s u c h q u a n t i t a t i v e p i c t u r e , however s i m p l e , o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween a r t i f a c t c o l l e c t i o n and p o p u l a t i o n d a t a has p r e v i o u s l y been a t t e m p t e d f o r t h e T l i n g i t . S o p h i s t i c a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a w o u l d t a k e us beyond t h e p u r v i e w o f t h i s t h e s i s ; b u t even a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l h e r e -24-presented s i g n i f i c a n t anomolies at least p a r t i a l l y reveal the major forces shaping the T l i n g i t s in the period 1880-1890. A question about shamans' graves remains. (See Table IV for s p e c i f i c gravelot data). There were o r i g i n a l l y numbers of old shamans' graves in the underrepresented areas of Taku, Tongass, Kake and Sanya. What became of them? It i s unlikely that many were looted by the Russians, as Emmons coll e c t e d several grave l o t s in the immediate Sitka area. The areas of the missing grave l o t s had in common, though, rapid depopulation, and either central location (Kake, Kuiu, Sanya), or heavy involvements in the fur trade (Taku, Sumdum, Tongass). Perhaps graves from these depopulated areas supplied the e a r l i e s t curio trade. Emmons col l e c t e d from graves most successfully in either remote areas (Yakutat, Gonaho, Chilkat, part of Huna) or areas in which sizeable, l o c a l permanent populations remained in place throughout the chaotic nineteenth century (Sitka, Stikine, Chilkat). Of course, i t i s also possible that Emmons' duties may have l e d him more often i n t o some areas than others. And yet, the extent to which the correlations just discussed are supported by population figures and h i s t o r i c a l knowledge lends support to an o v e r a l l impression of thoroughness on Emmons' part. o -25-3. I n c i d e n c e o f R e c o v e r y o f Charms f r o m Shamans' G r a v e s : D i s c u s s i o n o f T a b l e I I I More q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e c u r i o t r a d e a r e i n s p i r e d by T a b l e I I I . Emmons c o n s i s t e n t l y i d e n t i f i e s c h a r m s as shamans' i m p l e m e n t s , and g i v e s them t h e T l i n g i t name s a r k - s e a t e . T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o Boas' (1892:179;G) s'ak s e t , bone n e c k l a c e . H o w e v e r , a s we s e e i n T a b l e I I I , o n l y 15 p e r c e n t o f t h e c h a r m s w i t h s p e c i f i c p r o v e n a n c e d a t a were r e c o v e r e d d i r e c t l y f r o m shamans' g r a v e s . What o f t h e o t h e r s ? F o r many, Emmons m e r e l y r e p o r t s t h e l o c a l e o f o r i g i n w i t h o u t comment. We do n o t know how, i n f a c t , he d i d a c q u i r e them. P r e s u m a b l y he b o ught them f r o m someone. A d e m o r a l i z e d , p a r t i a l l y C h r i s t i a n i s e d T l i n g i t m i g h t w e l l r o b a shaman's g r a v e , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e a r t i c l e was s m a l l , f i n e l y c a r v e d , e a s i l y c o n c e a l e d , and w o u l d b r i n g a h i g h p r i c e . D i r e c t m e n t i o n o f c a r v e d bones and even c h a r m s as c u r i o s i s made i n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y l i t e r a t u r e . S e t o n - K a r r (1887;I) w r o t e o f Y a k u t a t : "The g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e a r t i c l e s o f n a t i v e m a n u f a c t u r e b r o u g h t f o r s a l e c o n s i s t e d o f b a s k e t s i n a v a r i e t y o f s h a p e s , charms, c a r v e d w a l r u s t u s k s , bows and a r r o w s , and h o r n spoons." ( e m p h a s i s mine) ( i b i d . : 5 9 ) . T h i s goes f a r t o e x p l a i n t h e low r a t e o f r e c o v e r y f r o m g r a v e s . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e , and p e r h a p s p r o b a b l e , r e c a l l i n g t h e H a i d a s u c c e s s w i t h a r g i l i t e , t h a t w a l r u s t u s k s or bones, a f a v o u r e d m a t e r i a l f o r c h a r m s , (See T a b l e V) were even c a r v e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h e t o u r i s t t r a d e . None, however, a r e so documented. A l l c u r i o s were p r e s u m a b l y s o l d as g e n u i n e . -26-Table III: Comparative distribution and proportional relationships of a l l charms, charms in grave lots, and a l l grave lot artifacts — -Grave lot objects- - — 1% of total I Charms I Other I Total Icharm sample! I Objects I I documented I Kwan 1 No. 1 % l No. 1 % l No. las grave lot % 1 recoveries Auk 1 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 Chilcat 1 4 6.81 25 7.01 29 6.91 6.6 Chilkoot 1 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 Gonaho 1 2 3.4! 125 35.1 127 30.1 2.9 Henya 1 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 Huna 1 8 14.1 45 13.1 53 13.1 13 Hutsnuwu 1 20 34.1 107 30.1 127 30.1 25 Sitka 1 7 12.1 33 9.2! 40 9.61 14.3 Stikine 1 18 31.1 24 6.71 42 10.1 34.6 Taku 1 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 Tongass 1 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 Yakutat 1 0 01 0 01 0 01 0 Totals 1 59 100! 359 1001 418 1001 . _ _ 15 Sources: G.T. Emmons ms. catalogues A.M.N.H. "E" and W.S.M. -27-Table IV, p.l: Inventory of artifacts recovered from thirty shaman's graves Graves by Kwan Artifact 1 r- ro CN o , CN LD 1 r- CN *£> i o ro rH rH co ro 1 1 cn CO 1 1 1 1 o l <o 1 o <o cn CN cn o LO CO W 1 ro ro i—1 rH CN| •U W CJ W DJI (TJ 1 o o o o O XX XX x: XX **! •—1 n5 73 •H c c C e C AU UO Go Go Go Go VI V 1 V V V V V r— o CN I VD CN O CN £ CO o o -C XX c c & 8 V V Armlet 1 I 01 1 Basket 1 51 01 Beating Stick 1 1 01 Box 1 11 1 1! 21 1 Bracelet 1 21 1 11 Charm 1 41 2 21 6 2 Crown 1 1 2 1 31 1 Drum 1 1 01 Hair Pin 1 1 01 1 Head Dress 1 I 2 4 3 6 3 31 211 3 3 5 Head Dress Mask 1 I 3 1 41 5 Head Dress Orn. 1 I 1 2 41 71 1 1 1 1! Mask 1 81 1 4 7 9 10 7 7 81 521 Miscellaneus 1 I 2 4 61 1 Necklace 1 1 1 21 3! Rattle-Doctor's 1 81 1 1 21 41 2 3 3 41 Rattle-Gen Dance 1 I 2 21 1 21 Robe 1 I 1 1! Spirit Club 1 1 1 11 21 Spirit Knife 1 1 01 1 Spruce Root Hat 1 1 01 1 1 Dance Wand 1 31 4 2 61 Spirit Wand 1 1 •7 71 Wand 1 1 1 11 1 2 Wooden Carving i 31 4 41 Wooden Figure 1 21 01 Total 1 81 281 7 11 24 19 28 18 211 1281 5 7 6 5 6 12 5 81 Percent i 21 71 2 3 6 4 7 4 51 301 1 2 1 1 1 3 1 21 o •s s o rH rrj V ro o rH CN r - c n I I c n O rH r - c n r - *£> LD LD o CO ^ LD CO o CN ^ T <Q i—I rH rH i—I CN I I I I I ro CN o ^ c o LO p » o - i CN "=P ^  "3" LD ^-i r-i r-i n-i CS [i] [l| U id U c n cn I CO ro cn c c 8 8 V V c o o c 13 -§ c c 8 8 SX 3X XX XX C C 8 8 33 EC V V V V V V Source: G.T.Fmmons WSK and AMNH "E" Catalogues -28-Table IV, p.2: Inventory of artifacts cont. == ========== = = = = = = = === = = =======^ = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =l rH rH r o 1 I 1 1 1 1 CO LD 1 1 1 1 rH <o o C N r o 00 I | 1 C N I 1 1 00 o r » rH rH rH 1 1 1 1 r - o C N r o r o 1 1 I 1 | 1 r o • H 1 1 00 rH rH rH C N rH r o ' * i n C N 1 c n 1 1 1 1 CTi i 1 l 1 C N < 3 | l 1 1 o | 1 1 1 rH r-~ C N r o o o 1 * C N C T i 1 1 rH C N 1 1 CO C N r-~ O .IT) rH rH " H i rP 1 00 rH rH 1 O M 1 1 «3< o C N r o o n yo 1 1 1 1 CT) rH 1 0)1 4->' rH rH rH C N s cn SM S| c' 1 rH o CT) ml CV J s s' in Si w W W W w & 1 CQ L O •* <y>| 3' rc 4->' V O rH rH 1 Is •rl' • rc 3 3 r? 1 1 • H | _st o 1 UW 1 1 ' g | uw i i rc w W • •I C O 1 CD C ne _st c c c c G c c rH' ro' rH 1 •rH •H 1 rH 1 rH rH 1 CQ CQ w CQ CQ CQ CQ CO ( C I J * : 1^ ta ^ ta ro ta 4-1 4-> 4J 4-) 4-> 4-1 4-> 4->' 4-> 4-> 4-)' ta •rH •H 1 ta 4J ta 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 PI •rH - W • H I To 4-> -1—»I To O IE K rc I I ! rc rc rc CO CO C O To CO co To EH V v V V V V V vl vl V V vl Vl V vl Vl V Vl I 01 | 01 2 21 3 11 1 01 4 I 41 01 9 21 4 1 41 I 01 01 4 11 1 1 2 1 11 61 I 01 2 21 12 31 3 51 81 I 01 4 41 15 41 8 2 2 81 201 6 1 I 71 14 4 181 59 141 1 1 11 I 01 1 11 6 11 1 31 41 I 01 01 4 11 1 I 11 I 01 01 2 01 14 2 3 I 191 3 | 31 2 21 56 131 1 2 I 31 1 11 21 2 21 16 41 3 81 111 1 11 21 2 21 26 61 4 2 8 I 141 5 4 21 111 01 85 201 2 3 1 1 3 I 101 1 11 21 01 19 41 3 1 11 51 1 | 11 5 51 14 31 1 1 I 21 2 11 31 1 11 30 71 2 I 21 11 11 01 8 21 5 I 51 I 01 1 11 7 21 1 I 11 I 01 1 11 4 11 I 01 i 01 01 1 01 I 01 I 01 01 2 01 I 01 1 I 11 01 10 21 1 1 I 21 I 01 01 9 21 1 11 21 I 01 1 11 7 21 1 3 I 41 31 31 01 14 31 3 1 31 1 01 01 5 11 i 44 16 3 6 12 11 8 271 1271 24 6 101 401 38 4 421 427 — 1 1001 10 4 1 1 3 3 2 61 301 6 1 21 91 9 1 101 100 1 -29-documented. A l l c u r i o s were p r e s u m a b l y s o l d as g e n u i n e . T h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f c o u r s e c a l l i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e p u r i t y o f t h e s ample. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n t h a t g r a v e l o t s c o n t a i n e d a w i d e v a r i e t y o f t y p e s o f char m s f r o m c r u d e t o v e r y e l a b o r a t e , s u c h as F i g . 9, f o u n d i n a g r a v e by P a a l e n i n t h e 1930's. I t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t i n d e e d a t t h i s j u n c t u r e t o know w h i c h c h a r m s were g e n u i n e and w h i c h , i f any, were made f o r s a l e , a l t h o u g h t h r e e W.S.M. charms, n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y , a r e c o n s i d e r e d f a k e s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r u n p a t i n a t e d , unworn c o n d i t i o n and u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c shape ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n A l a n S a w y e r ) . Many char m s a r e o b v i o u s l y o l d , w e l l - w o r n , w i t h i m p r e g n a t e d g r e a s e , b u t c l o s e s c r u t i n y o f m o t i f c o m b i n a t i o n s and c a r v i n g s t y l e s m i g h t r e v e a l l i k e l y c a n d i d a t e s . D e t a i l e d s c r u t i n y o f t h e c o r e s a m p l e o f c h a r m s known t o have been r e c o v e r e d f r o m g r a v e s w o u l d y i e l d p a r a m e t e r s a g a i n s t w h i c h o t h e r s m i g h t be j u d g e d . Such a s t u d y w o u l d r e q u i r e a c t u a l p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f many charms. A few char m s were n o t o f T l i n g i t m a n u f a c t u r e , b u t were u s e d by T l i n g i t shamans. A t h a p a s c a n (FM 78259 and o t h e r s ) , E s k i m o (WSM 1832-4), A l e u t (E 1162), and H a i d a (E 867, E 1282) bone or t o o t h c a r v i n g s were f o u n d among T l i n g i t shamans' p a r a p h e n a l i a by Emmons. T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e shaman's p r e d e l i c t i o n f o r s t r a n g e o r e x o t i c o b j e c t s . -30-4. G r a v e L o t I n v e n t o r y : A D i s c u s s i o n o f T a b l e IV F i f t e e n p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l s a m p l e o f 480 c h a r m s a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y d o cumented by Emmons as r e c o v e r e d f r o m shaman's g r a v e s . T h e s e a r e e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t . The a s s o c i a t e d a r t i f a c t s , when c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r , t e l l much a b o u t t h e s p e c i f i c shaman t o whom t h e y b e l o n g e d . The p u r p o s e i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s n o t t o c o n s i d e r a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f c h a r m s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a s p e c i f i c g r a v e l o t , b u t t o s u m m a r i z e g r a v e l o t c o m p o s i t i o n d a t a and make some g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s w h i c h may be b u i l t on l a t e r i n t h e more r i c h l y c o n t e x t u a l i z e d d i s c u s s i o n . Of t h e 29 a s s e m b l a g e s o f " T l i n g i t Shamans'" g r a v e a r t i f a c t s l i s t e d i n Emmons' m a n u s c r i p t AMNH "E" and WSM c a t a l o g u e s , o n l y t h r e e (E 651-682 f r o m S i t k a , E 943-987, and WSM 1803-1852 b o t h f r o m Hutsnuwu) a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r r e d t o by h i m as c o m p l e t e shamans' k i t s . The o t h e r s , as may be s e e n i n T a b l e IV, a r e more o r l e s s f r a g m e n t a r y . Emmons f r e q u e n t l y e x c h a n g e d p i e c e s a n d b r o k e up s e t s s o t h a t h i s b u y e r s m i g h t a c q u i r e t h e w i d e s t p o s s i b l e a s s o r t m e n t o f a r t i f a c t s . Some a s s e m b l a g e s c o n t a i n b u t a few o f t h e many t y p e s o f a r t i f a c t s u s e d by t h e s h a m a n a n d f o u n d i n t h e c o m p l e t e k i t s , a n d o t h e r s v a r y w i d e l y i n t h e r e l a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f v a r i o u s a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s . The t h r e e " c o m p l e t e " k i t s f e a t u r e s i x , e i g h t and e i g h t c h a r m s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , numbers w h i c h may o r may n o t be s i g n f i c a n t . The Hutsnuwu g r a v e l o t w h i c h f e a t u r e s e i g h t c h arms, E 943-987, was u n u s u a l l y r i c h , c o n t a i n i n g as w e l l -31-t h r e e n e c k l a c e s , e a c h o f w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f bone and i v o r y p e n d a n t s , and t h r e e r o b e s , two o f w h i c h were a l s o f e s t o o n e d w i t h bone and i v o r y c a r v e d p e n d a n t s , o r charms. T h e r e w o u l d n o t seem t o be a n y s e t number o f t o t a l c h a r m s w h i c h t h e a c c o m p l i s h e d T l i n g i t shaman w o u l d own. C l e a r l y , some shamans a t l e a s t p o s s e s s e d l a r g e numbers o f them. I t has been s u g g e s t e d by J o n a i t i s (1981;B) t h a t t h e T l i n g i t shamans had, when f u l l y d e v e l o p e d , e i g h t masks, c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o e i g h t s p i r i t s , e i g h t b e i n g , on e t h n o g r a p h i c e v i d e n c e , t h e number o f r i t u a l c o m p l e t i o n f o r t h e T l i n g i t (Laguna 1972:2;761;G). As we c a n s e e by l o o k i n g a t T a b l e IV, t h e numbers o f masks i n g r a v e l o t s v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y , o f t e n b e i n g i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d o f f o u r o r e i g h t , b u t r a n g i n g as h i g h a s e l e v e n a n d a s l o w a s t w o i n t h e l o t s c o n t a i n i n g m a s k s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , two o f t h e t h r e e c o m p l e t e k i t s (E 943-987 and WSM 1803-1852) show no masks, t h i s a b s e n c e b e i n g p e r h a p s c o m p e n s a t e d f o r by t h e l a r g e r numbers o f h e a d - d r e s s masks or o r n a m e n t s . J o n a i t i s does n o t m e n t i o n t h e s e . I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e , on t h e b a s i s o f e t h n o g r a p h i c e v i d e n c e , t o a s c e r t a i n w h e t h e r c e r t a i n m a s k s a n d n o t o t h e r s w e r e i n u s e a t a n y one t i m e , w h e t h e r t h e y w e r e u s e d i n one way a n d n o t a n o t h e r , o r w h e t h e r masks and h e a d r e s s masks were f u l l y i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e . Nor i s i t p o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n w h e t h e r c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s o f ch a r m s a c c o r d i n g t o use, p e r h a p s , were i n t e n d e d t o t o t a l up t o a s p e c i f i c m a g i c a l number. D e s p i t e J o n a i t i s 1 s u g g e s t i o n t h a t e i g h t masks i s a c o m p l e t e s e t , c o n c l u s i o n s b a s e d on s u c h i r r e g u l a r e v i d e n c e w o u l d seem t o be q u e s t i o n a b l e . -32-T h e d a t a i n T a b l e I V show t h a t t h e r e i s g r e a t i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e k i n d s and number o f a r t i f a c t s i n c l u d e d i n g r a v e s . T h i s s u p p o r t s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t T l i n g i t shamans were i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , and, w h i l e c o n f o r m i n g t o b r o a d g e n e r a l r u l e s o f s h a m a n i c c o n d u c t and p a r a p h e r n a l i a , v a r i e d w i d e l y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r p e r s o n a l i n s p i r a t i o n s . As w i l l be se e n , t h i s i s an e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t o f shamanism. C. M a t e r i a l s , D i s c u s s i o n o f T a b l e V The o b j e c t s r e f e r r e d t o as char m s by Emmons a r e o v e r w h e l m i n g l y o f bone (41 p e r c e n t ) and " i v o r y " , o r t e e t h , o f v a r i o u s k i n d s (36.9 p e r c e n t ) . The i v o r y i s p r e d o m i n a n a t l y w a l r u s t u s k , p r o b a b l y o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e A l e u t . (G.T. Emmons ms. A.M.N.H. E 645-6) A.M.N.H. E 118 i s a c h a r m made o f a r e w o r k e d c a r v i n g o f C h i n e s e s o a p s t o n e w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s shamans' t e n d e n c i e s t o u t i l i z e s t r a n g e o b j e c t s o f m y s t e r i o u s o r i g i n . F i g u r e 4 i s a T l i n g i t shaman's n e c k l a c e made l a r g e l y o f u n d e c o r a t e d bone r o d s . I t i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t worn by t h e Taku shaman se e n i n t h e F r o n t i s p i e c e . Such n e c k l a c e s made n o i s e when t h e shaman l e a p t a b o u t i n p r a c t i c e , a d d i n g t o t h e d r a m a t i c e f f e c t . F u r s t , a l t h o u g h n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y d i s c u s s i n g t h e T l i n g i t , (1977:2-3,18;C) s u g g e s t s t h a t bone, even i f u n d e c o r a t e d , b e a r s c o n s i d e r a b l e s y m b o l i c m eaning as bone. He b a s e s h i s a r g u m e n t on t h e c e n t r a l r o l e o f b o n e i n f i s h i n g r i t u a l s : t o e n s u r e t h e c o n t i n u e d s u p p l y o f f i s h , t h e bones a r e - 3 3 -Table V: Materials from which charms were made Kwan 4J 8 V 4-1 o o •s 6 3 S 8 D c: to 4 J 4 J _ D - H K K DC W 0) •5 M • H CO 4-1 M (0 D c n 13 § 4-1 v v v v v v v v v v v -pi •gl •Si vl 4 J e V dpi vl IBear Tooth IBear Tusk ILynx Tooth Land IMouse Tooth Mammal IBone IAntler IDeer Hoof I Horn ILand Otter Tooth ITotal 1 2 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 4 4 3 8 2 3 2 9 3 2 2 6 2 1 1 4 4 5 1 0 2 2 6 3 3 3 7 2 9 0 0 41 1 5 3 . 1 1 I 2 . 4 1 I 1 . 2 1 I 1 . 2 1 9 211 1 9 5 4 1 . 1 21 5 I I I I 2 . 4 1 I 1 . 2 1 I 1 . 2 1 9 2 8 1 2 2 3 4 7 . 1 IWhale Bone IHair Seal Tooth Sea IKiller Wh. Tooth Mammal ISea Lion Tooth ISeal Tooth iWalrus Tooth IWhale Tooth ISea Mammal Tooth IWalrus Tusk ITotal 2 3 21 7 1 . 5 1 I I 1 . 2 1 1 2 I 3 . 6 1 1 2 I 3 . 6 1 1 1 I 2 . 4 1 I I 1 . 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 7 1 . 5 1 I I 1 . 2 1 3 1 4 7 2 1 7 3 3 9 1 6 1 1 1 9 1 3 1 1 3 5 2 9 . 1 3 1 6 1 3 2 2 2 3 5 1 2 1 7 1 1 2 0 1 8 1 1 6 0 3 3 . 1 Misc. I"Tooth" I Wood I No Data 3 9 3 1 4 1 6 1 2 3 5 1 2 51 6 1 . 3 1 21 2 2 4 . 6 1 1 4 6 1 6 8 1 4 . 1 Compiled from G.T. Emmons, ms. catalogues and published sources (Appendix II) -34-F i g . 4 P.M. 69.30.10 - 1988 Shaman's necklace Alan Sawyer Photo -35-r e t u r n e d t o t h e w a t e r so t h a t t h e f i s h may be r e i n c a r n a t e d a g a i n a r o u n d them. Shamans a l s o d e p i c t bones i n t h e i r " x - r a y " a r t a n d some a r e s u p p o s e d t o be r e b o r n f r o m t h e i r own b o n e s d u r i n g t h e i r i n i t i a t o r y c r i s i s . P r e s u m a b l y , t h e s o u l r e s i d e s i n t h e bones, a r o u n d w h i c h t h e f l e s h may be r e c o n s i t u t e d . F i g u r e 5, a T l i n g i t - s t y l e charm w i t h t h e p r o v e n a n c e o f N o r t o n sound i n w e s t e r n A l a s k a , w e l l beyond T l i n g i t t e r r i t o r y , shows t h e head o f some l a n d a n i m a l f o l l o w e d by a s t r i n g o f v e r t e b r a e w i t h o u t f l e s h . H e r e a charm o f bone b o t h s i g n i f i e s and i s bone. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , a s m a l l number o f wooden " c a r v i n g s " were u s e d i n ways a n a l a g o u s o r i d e n t i c a l t o charms. N i n e wooden " c a r v i n g s , " s o - c a l l e d by Emmons, r a t h e r t h a n "charms", were c a r r i e d i n t h e hands o f a s s i s t a n t s o f a Gunaho shaman (WSM 2047-2055). O t h e r wooden p i e c e s , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e w e a l t h - g i v i n g s e a m o n s t e r K o n k o d a t e (WSM 2270), were a t t a c h e d t o a shaman's s k i n r o b e , a s were bone or i v o r y c h a r m s and an u n u s u a l s e t o f e i g h t s m a l l , s h a l l o w masks (AMNH 16.1 995 1-8). The most i n t e r e s t i n g wooden p i e c e s a r e AMNH 19-208,209 and 211. T h e s e , c a l l e d c harms by Emmons, were c l a i m e d by h im t o have been t r a n s f e r r e d t o a p a t i e n t ' s neck and t h e r e a i d e d i n w a r d i n g o f f e v i l s p i r i t s . A l l o t h e r c h a r m s o r n e c k l a c e s so d e s c r i b e d a r e o f bone o r m a r i n e i v o r y , c a l l e d s s a r k - s e a t e , and s a i d by Emmons t o h a v e g r e a t s p i r i t p o w e r (WSM 9 2 0 ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , he does n o t o f f e r a T l i n g i t name f o r t h e wooden ones. E v i d e n t l y , charms d i d n o t have t o be made o f bone o r t o o t h , a l t h o u g h most were. -36-F i g . 5 M i c h 74670 " N o r t o n Sound" B i l l Holm P h o t o -37-F i g . 6 A.M.N.H. Wood shaman's charm A l a n Sawyer P h o t o -38-F i g u r e 6 r e p r e s e n t s one o f t h e a n o m a l o u s wooden charms i n t h e AMNH. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o s a y s p e c i f i c a l l y w h i c h charm t h i s i s . The AMNH d i d n o t p r o v i d e n u m b e r s t o go w i t h t h i s c a s e , a n d a s w i l l be shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , Emmons o f t e n m e n t i o n s o n l y t h e most p r o m i n e n t m o t i f ( s ) on a charm, and does n o t p r o v i d e much d e t a i l . I t i s t h u s n o t p o s s i b l e t o match up h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f wooden charms w i t h t h i s e xample, w h i c h i s i d e n t i c a l i n s t y l e t o a n u m ber o f b o n e c h a r m s . F r o m t h e d a t a a v a i l a b l e t o t h i s w r i t e r , i t was o n l y p o s s i b l e t o deduce t h a t t h i s c h arm was i n d e e d a wooden T l i n g i t shaman's charm f r o m t h e Emmons 1 c o l l e c t i o n . T e e t h may a l s o have had s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e as s u c h . T h e i r b o n e l i k e d u r a b i l i t y and t h e i r r o l e i n r e n d i n g and d e v o u r i n g i s c o n s o n a n t w i t h t h e i n i t i a t o r y e x p e r i e n c e o f many shamans, i n w h i c h t h e y a r e t o r n a p a r t and r e - c o n s t i t u t e d f r o m t h e i r bones by t h e i r t u t e l a r y s p i r i t ( E l i a d e 1972:53-58;C). F i g u r e s 7 and 8 d e p i c t two n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l c h a r m s made o f s p l i t s e c t i o n s o f s e a mammal t o o t h , e a c h w i t h a Raven m o t i f . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , p r o v e n a n c e d a t a o t h e r t h a n T l i n g i t was n o t o b t a i n a b l e , as t h e two a r e q u i t e l i k e l y f r o m t h e same hand. D. Methods o f M a n u f a c t u r e E t h n o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f c h a r m s a r e l a c k i n g . Emmons r e c o v e r e d a number o f charm b l a n k s , p i e c e s o f bone o r t o o t h t h a t had been sawn i n h a l f and -39-F i g . 7 A.M.N.H. 19-453 Alan Sawyer Photo F i g . 8 MAI 4/1669 (Dockstader 1966 F. 120) -40-made ready for further work (E 1411-1412). He also recovered a jade c h i s e l point or bow d r i l l b i t (E 2651), and a pump d r i l l (FM 78041). Undoubtably, making charms in pre-contact times was painstaking work. Perhaps the very d i f f i c u l t y of the art lent magic to the charms, especially so considering how remarkably well carved many of them are. Blanks were presumably sawn off with slate saws and carved with nephrite or quartz d r i l l s and c h i s e l s , probably in the manner of d r i l l i n g to depth and painstakingly scraping away u n t i l the desired shape was achieved (Emmons 1923;E). The astonishing results can be seen in figure 9, for example. Recovered from a shaman's grave by Wolfgang Paalen in the 1930's, i t i s perhaps the most complex of a l l T l i n g i t charms. A mere 3.75 inches t a l l , i t i s a masterpiece of conception and technique. E. Dating of Charms A charm such as that i n f i g u r e 9, or many another complex and well-carved charm, undoubtedly represented a considerable investment in time and labour. Considering the d u r a b i l i t y of the material, and the fact that T l i n g i t shamans were known to return to the graves of their predecessors to recover implements of practice to which they might be e n t i t l e d and wish to use (probably because they had inherited one or more of the deceased shaman's s p i r i t s ) (Emmons ms. AMNH E 409-432), certain i n d i v i d u a l charms are undoubtedly very old. Just how old i s impossible to say, of course, but an a r t i c l e -41-Fig . 9 Paalen Collection 3.75 inches (Inverarity 1950 #166; D) -42-as durable as a charm could remain i n use f o r some c e n t u r i e s , at least. Emmons mentions several grave lots in which, he was to l d , r e l i c implements were used by several consecutive generations of shamans. Masks from T l i n g i t shamans' graves are known that * show no evidence of having been worked with metal tools, and are painted e n t i r e l y with native pigments (personal communication, Alan Sawyer). Certainly, many of the charms are as old as these, i f not older, again considering the nature of the material. Many of the charms Emmons collected, as has been mentioned, have deeply ground-in grease and grime, and are worn smooth by many years of handling. Others are r e l a t i v e l y clean and unworn. Detailed s t y l i s t i c study to establish which charms may have preceeded others in date of manufacture, and which may in fact have been made for the t o u r i s t trade, would be a major and quite problematic undertaking, quite beyond the modest aspirations of the present introductory study. F. Style T l i n g i t shaman's charms display so wide a range of s t y l e and s k i l l of execution that categorization i s impossible. Figure 10 shows three extremely crude charms made of bone. The s p i r i t designations supplied by Emmons may be seen to be based on the paw, f l i p p e r , and wing motifs, respectively. Figure 11, at the other end of a continuous spectrum, shows a complex charm carved with consummate s k i l l . -43-Fig. 10 A.M.N.H.: 19-508 bear A.M.N.H.: 19-473 sea l i o n A.M.N.H.: 19-474 bird Alan Sawyer Photo F i g . 11 A.M.N.H.: E 2708 • B i l l Holm P h o t o -45-What i s more, f i g u r e 12 e m p l o y s b o t h f o r m l i n e d e s i g n ( t h e r i g i d , f o r m a l i s e d , a l m o s t c a l l i g r a p h i c t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l s t y l e f o r w h i c h t h e n o r t h e r n N o r t h w e s t c o a s t i s e s p e c i a l l y famous) a s w e l l a s a much f r e e r a n d m o r e n a t u r a l i s t i c s t y l e . The f o r m l i n e d e s i g n , more o f t e n s e e n on n o n - s h a m a n i c a r t , seems t o f r a m e t h e c h a o t i c , n a t u r a l i s t i c and s h a m a n i c s c e n e o f d e v o u r i n g . Was t h e a r t i s t u s i n g t h e s t y l e s s e l f -r e f e r e n t i a l l y , i . e . , d i d t h e s t y l e s have m e a n i n g i n t h e i r own r i g h t ? T h e r e i s no way o f knowing. J o n a i t i s (1983:130;D) d i s c u s s e s t h e q u e s t i o n p o s e d by t h e f r e q u e n t c r u d e n e s s o f s h a m a n i c a r t o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t i n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e a p p a r e n t l y h i g h e r s k i l l o f n o n -s h a m a n i c " c r e s t " a r t ( s o - c a l l e d b e c a u s e i t i s u s e d t o make v i s i b l e t h e c r e s t , o r f a m i l y s y m b o l ( s ) o f t h e owner). She s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c r u d e n e s s was o f t e n i n t e n t i o n a l , and s e r v e d t o j o l t t h e shaman's c l i e n t o r a u d i e n c e w i t h i t s r a w n e s s , s y m b o l i z i n g t h e d a n g e r o u s s p i r i t s u n der t h e shaman's c o n t r o l . She w r i t e s , b a s i n g h e r c o n j e c t u r e upon L e v i - S t r a u s s ' " i r r e d u c t i b l e " n a t u r e / c u l t u r e o p p o s i t i o n ( L e a c h 1974:30;K): "The c r u d e and e n e r g e t i c a r t works, so d i f f e r e n t f r o m s e c u l a r p i e c e s , s y m b o l i z e t h e . . . shaman's i n t i m a t e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e w o r l d o f s p i r i t s , w h i l e t h e f o r m a l , c o n v e n t i o n a l o b j e c t s c o n n o t e t h e shaman's r e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y a f t e r m a l e v o l e n t f o r c e s c r e a t e d d i s o r d e r . " However, f i g u r e 12 f e a t u r e s an i n d i s p u t a b l y w e l l - c a r v e d c harm w h i c h Emmons s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e s r e p e s e n t s a most u n p l e a s a n t s p i r i t , Ke-w a r - k h u , w h i c h l i v e s i n t h e c l o u d s a n d i s a v o i d e d by a l l o t h e r -46-F i g . 12 A.M.N.H. 19-450 " r e p r e s e n t s t h e s p i r i t Ke-war-khu, ... much d r e a d e d and a v o i d e d by a l l o t h e r s p i r i t s , b e l i e v e d by t h e T l i n g i t t o l i v e i n a d i s t a n t c o u n t r y i n t h e c l o u d s . B i l l Holm P h o t o -47-s p i r i t s (Emmons ms. AMNH 19.450;E). How t h i s charm might f i t into Jonaitis* formulation i s unclear. I t i s just as l i k e l y that the s t y l e of carving had l i t t l e to do with the magical e f f i c a c y of the charm, which might function as a kind of storage battery for s p i r i t power. Bancroft, i n what i s the e a r l i e s t s p e c i f i c reference to a shaman's charm (1886: 700Fn;I), relates from Russian ms. sources the fascinating account of a T l i n g i t acolyte to the Russian Orthodox Church at Sitka who in 1829 was convicted of sorcery and banished to the remotest monastery in Siberia - a "mild" punishment - because he was observed dipping charms into the holy water. For t h i s he was paid in furs by the shaman, to which the poor T l i n g i t was evidently apprenticed as well. The shaman, obviously not one to miss a t r i c k , must have been trying to obtain some of the church's magical powers for his own. This i s a clear instance of a charm's power (or potential power) deriving from something quite independent of i t s s t y l e or s k i l l of execution. G. Motifs 1. Problems in Motif I d e n t i f i c a t i o n It does not seem l i k e l y that Emmons could have had an informant for every charm or a r t i f a c t , yet he rarely f a i l s to i d e n t i f y motifs, including many that are quite obscure. He very rarely makes mention of informants, nor does he provide us w i t h t h e c r i t e r i a he u s e d i n making a t t r i b u t i o n s i n t h e a b s e n c e o f i n f o r m a n t s . What seems most p l a u s i b l e i s t h a t Emmons s o m e t i m e s had k n o w l e d g e a b l e i n f o r m a n t s , as f o r example when he p u r c h a s e d c h a r m s f r o m t h e h e i r s o f a d e c e a s e d shaman. A t o t h e r t i m e s h i s s o u r c e s must have been l e s s k n o w l e d g e a b l e , and he must have s o m e t i m e s made h i s own g u e s s e s on t h e b a s i s o f r e s e m b l a n c e t o some p r e v i o u s l y w e l l - i d e n t i f i e d p i e c e . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , p r o b l e m s w i t h h i s m o t i f a t t r i b u t i o n s a r e l e g i o n . F i g u r e 13 r e p r e s e n t s a charm f r o m n e a r Angoon w h i c h Emmons i d e n t i f i e s a s a "bear s p i r i t w i t h T l i n g i t s p i r i t s a l l about". F i g u r e 14, a l s o f r o m n e a r Angoon, b u t n o t i d e n t i f i e d a s b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f i g u r e 13 ( a l t h o u g h i t b e a t s t h e s e q u e n t i a l c a t a l o g u e number) a p p e a r s v e r y s i m i l a r i n d e e d , b u t has t h e d e s i g n a t i o n " S p i r i t o f a w h a l e What a r e we t o make o f t h i s ? Was Emmons making t h i n g s up b e c a u s e he f e l t he had t o p r o v i d e d i f f e r e n t d e s i g n a t i o n s t o i n t e r e s t h i s b u y e r s , o r d i d a n I n d i a n , who may o r may n o t h a v e known w h a t he was t a l k i n g a b o u t , p r o v i d e him w i t h t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ? Or, p e r h a p s , t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s r e a l l y a r e c o r r e c t b e c a u s e c h a r m s r e p r e s e n t e d w h a t e v e r a shaman s a i d t h e y d i d , r e g a r d l e s s o f what t h e y l o o k e d l i k e . Emmons may even have m i x e d up t h e e n t r y w i t h some o t h e r one as he penned h i s v o l u m i n o u s c a t a l o g u e . One t h i n g i s c e r t a i n - we w i l l n e v e r know. I t does n o t seem l i k e l y t h a t t h e charms w h i c h a r e so s i m i l a r r e p r e s e n t i n f a c t s u c h d i f f e r e n t a n i m a l s . I t i s w o r t h s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e l i m p f i g u r e s d r a p e d o v e r t h e n o s e s o f t h e l a r g e heads r e c a l l d r o w n i n g v i c t i m s , and t h u s l a n d o t t e r s , -49-F i g . 13 A.M.N.H. E 864 "Bear s p i r i t s w i t h T l i n g i t S p i r i t s a l l a b o u t . " From Shaman's G r a v e n e a r Angoon A l a n Sawyer P h o t o - 5 0 -F i g . 14 A.M.N.H. E 865 W a l r u s i v o r y ... S p i r i t o f a whale, w i t h T l i n g i t S p i r i t s a l l a b o u t and w o l f s p i r i t i n r e a r . Worn a t t a c h e d t o d a n c i n g r o b e when p r a c t i s i n g a b o u t s i c k or b e w i t c h e d . " From Shaman's G r a v e n e a r Angoon A l a n Sawyer P h o t o -51-w h i c h , as w i l l be made p l a i n i n C h a p t e r Two, have i n t i m a t e c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h t h e drowned, and s t r o n g e r c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h T l i n g i t shamanism t h a n any o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l a n i m a l . I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s e xample o f v e r y s i m i l a r p i e c e s h a v i n g w i d e l y d i v e r g e n t m o t i f a t t r i b u t i o n s , t h e r e i s t h e p a r a l l e l p r o b l e m o f e x t r e m e l y d i v e r g e n t p i e c e s b e i n g c a l l e d t h e same t h i n g . F i g u r e 15, a t f i r s t g l a n c e an e n t i r e l y a b s t r a c t p i e c e , i s i d e n t i f e d as a " w o l f head". Upon c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n one c a n d i s c e r n e a r s , e y e s ( t h e l a r g e c e n t r a l s q u a r e d o v a l s ) and a U-shaped s n o u t , p r e s u m a b l y . How, t h e n , d o e s t h i s r e l a t e t o f i g u r e 16 w h o s e m a j o r m o t i f i s a l s o i d e n t i f e d a s a w o l f head? The d e g r e e o f a b s t r a c t i o n i s p e r h a p s e q u a l l y g r e a t , b u t t h e r e i s no o t h e r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . T h e r e a r e no c o r r e s o p n d e n c e s , e i t h e r s t y l i s t i c o r o t h e r w i s e , b etween t h e s e two and t h e n e x t , f i g u r e 17. I t i s a l s o i d e n t i f i e d as a w o l f by Emmons, and g r e a t l y r e s e m b l e s many charms c a l l e d l a n d o t t e r . F u r t h e r e x a m p l e s o f t h e s e and o t h e r c o n f u s i o n s c o u l d be b r o u g h t f o r t h a t some l e n g t h . I t i s w e l l t o r e m e m b e r a t t h i s j u n c t u r e t h a t i t i s n o t t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s w ork t o s o r t o u t a l l s u c h d i f f i c u l t i e s , b u t r a t h e r t o r e p o r t them w h i l e p r e s e n t i n g Emmons 1 d a t a . Emmons was, c e r t a i n l y , f a r more k n o w l e d g e a b l e t h a n any o t h e r w h i t e o f h i s day, b u t he was a l s o f a l l i b l e . I t i s d o u b t f u l i n t h e e x t r e m e t h a t he w o u l d l i e , b u t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was o n l y as good as h i s i n f o r m a n t s . R a t h e r , t h e g r e a t v a r i a b i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l shamans' c o n c e p t i o n s , a r t i s t i c and o t h e r w i s e , ( n o t t o m e n t i o n t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e T l i n g i t -52-F i g . 15 W.S.M. 1770 "Wolf head." Wrangell (Vancouver Art Gallery 1956: f i g . 101;D) -53-Fig. 16 A.M.N.H. E 2711 "The large head i s that of a wolf, and d e v i l f i s h tentacles appear at the ears. The seated figure at the back of the charm i s a bear." (Wardwell 1978 f i g . 66;D) - 5 4 -F i g 17 W.S.M. 1720 Wolf charm of i v o r y , " c o l l e c t e d from the grave house of a dceased shaman of the S i t k i n e Kwan, near Wrangell." B i l l Holm photo -55-to provide answers to curious and well-meaning whites) no doubt went far to render the problem of motif i d e n t i f i c a t i o n e specially d i f f i c u l t . This i s disappointing, the more so because of the degree of confidence with which various species are i d e n t i f i e d in the c l a s s i c two-dimensional formline design of the northern Northwest Coast (Stewart 1979;F) and on totem poles (Halpin 1981b:37;F). Perhaps t h i s i s due to the d i f f e r e n t context of the shaman's art, which s i g n i f i e d present, potent, s p i r i t power, in contrast to secular art which exemplified the excellence of the lineage as i l l u s t r a t e d by past heroics or mythical supernatural encounters. The shaman's power was enhanced by mystery (not unlike medical and psy c h i a t r i c p r a c t i t i o n e r s today). He did not practice to his own family, and often went to another v i l l a g e to practice (Laguna 1972:2:670;G). Strangers were not l i k e l y to know the precise i d e n t i t y of the shaman's s p i r i t s , and even less l i k e l y to know which charm or other implement represented which s p i r i t . S p e c i f i c data on whether some or any shamans' s p i r i t s were secret in fact i s lacking, whereas crests (family symbols) were celebrated in potlatches, and thus were matters of public record. 2. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the Land Otter Motif We may now see what happens when we follow the single most commonly i d e n t i f i e d animal motif on T l i n g i t shamans' charms, the land otter, through a few of i t s -56-p e r m u t a t i o n s . F i g u r e 18 d e p i c t s an a c t u a l l a n d o t t e r , l u t r a c a n d e n s i s . I t i s "a l a r g e , e l o n g a t e d , s t r e a m l i n e d , c y l i n d r i c a l a q u a t i c w e a s e l w i t h a s t o u t neck, s m a l l e y e s and e a r s , a b r o a d , f l a t t e n e d head, webbed f e e t f o r and a f t , and a l o n g heavy t a i l f l a t t e n e d a t t h e b o t t o m and t a p e r i n g f r o m a t h i c k base t o w a r d t h e p o i n t e d ( a l m o s t ) t i p " ( C a r a s 1967: 191-1 9 2 ; J ) . F i g u r e s 19 a n d 20 d e p i c t l a n d o t t e r c h a r m s t h a t c o n f o r m f a i r l y w e l l t o t h e m o d e l j u s t r e c i t e d . F i g u r e 19 p a r t i c u l a r l y f e a t u r e s an e l o n g a t e d q u a d r u p e d w i t h s m a l l e a r s and a l o n g t h i c k t a i l , marked w i t h s egmented l i n e s i n t e n d e d t o show v e r t a b r a e . F i g u r e 20 (seen f r o m above) l a c k s t h e l o n g t a i l and has l a r g e r e a r s , b u t c o n f o r m s i n g e n e r a l o u t l i n e and c y l i n d e r i c a l i t y . F i g u r e 21, i s a l s o a most p l a u s i b l e o t t e r . I t f e a t u r e s two o u t l i n e d f a c e s u n d e r n e a t h . Laguna (1972:2:761;E) s t a t e s t h a t f a c e s , when r e p r e s e n t e d on o t h e r p a r t s o f an a n i m a l ' s body, i n a r t , r e p r e s e n t t h e a w a n i . o r i n d w e l l i n g a n t h r o p o m o r p h i c s o u l . T h i s c a n a l s o p e r t a i n t o m o u n t a i n s , r i v e r s , g l a c i e r s , h a i l s t o n e s , e t c . However, s i n c e t h e r e a r e t w o s m a l l f a c e s on f i g u r e 21, j u s t w h a t t h e y m e a n t t o t h e shaman who o r i g i n a l l y made or c o m m i s s i o n e d t h i s p i e c e i s u n c l e a r . F i g u r e s 22 and 23 a r e a l s o e l o n g a t e d , made of t o o t h , q u a d r u p e d a l , and b o t h a r e i d e n t i f i e d by Emmons as l a n d o t t e r s . F i g u r e 23 i s d o u b l e - h e a d e d a n d h a s a human i n i t s m o u t h , a n d f i g u r e 22 has two s u p e r n u m e r a r y human f a c e s , one a t e i t h e r end. D e s p i t e t h e b i z a r r e n a t u r e , b o t h a r e s t i l l s u f f i c i e n t l y -57-F i g . 18 L u t r a C a n a d e n s i s : t h e L a n d , o r R i v e r , O t t e r (Lee Rue, 1967:101,-J) (Note t h e t h i c k l o n g t a i l and v e r y s m a l l e a r s . ) -58-Fig. 19 W.S.M. 926 Land otter charm, of bone, co l l e c t e d from the grave house of a shaman of the Stickine Kwan, near Fort Wrangell (Jonaitis 1978:fig. 1;B) Fig . 20 A.M.N.H. E1285 Land otter charm, of bone, c o l l e c t e d from "an old shaman's grave house on an island in Cross Sound." (G.T. Emmons ms.) Huna Kwan d e t a i l , Alan Sawyer Photo -59-F i g . 21 N.M.C. VII-A-252 16.8 x 1.6 cm Land o t t e r , of a n t l e r ex Lord Bossom c o l l e c t i o n , c o l l e c t e d by G.T. Emmons 1903-1916 ( H a l l 1983: f i g . 2;I) -60-F i g . 22 M.A.I. 9/7950 "Land O t t e r " P o r t F r e d e r i c k - Huna ( J o n a i t i s 1978: F i g . 4;B) F i g . 23 M.A.I. 9/7951 "Land O t t e r " ( J o n a i t i s 1978: F i g . 7;B) -61-o t t e r i s h t h a t we do n o t w i s h t o q u i b b l e . The f o r e g o i n g may seem r e a s o n a b l y c l e a r , b u t c o m p a r i s o n o f f i g u r e s 24 and 25 r e i n t r o d u c e d oubt. F i g u r e 24 f e a t u r e s r a t h e r l a r g e - e a r e d " l a n d o t t e r s " w i t h s k i n n y t a i l s on t o p and b o t t o m . F i g u r e 25 shows a s o n g - l e a d e r ' s s t a f f f r o m Y a k u t a t w h i c h , on t h e s t r e n g t h o f i m p e c c a b l e d o c u m e n t a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a w o l f . The r e s e m b l a n c e i s v e r y c l o s e . I t may be a r g u e d t h a t i t i s a m i s t a k e t o c o m p a r e d i f f e r i n g t y p e s o f i t e m s , e s p e c i a l l y a p i e c e o f c r e s t and shamans' a r t . Land o t t e r s a r e r a r e i n c r e s t a r t , i n f a c t . The c o m p a r i s o n was made b e c a u s e o f t h e s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y , w h i c h e c h o e s t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s o f w o l f and l a n d o t t e r c h a r m s . A n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l a n i m a l , i d e n t i f i e d by F e d e r ( 1 9 7 1 : f i g u r e 151;D) as a l a n d o t t e r , b u t l e f t u n m e n t i o n e d i n Emmons' o r i g i n a l c a t a l o g u e n o t e , c l i n g s f a c e downward t o t h e back o f a l i f e - s i z e d shaman's g r a v e g u a r d i a n f i g u r e ( f i g u r e 26). I t has c i r c u l a r p i t s a l o n g i t s s p i n e w h i c h make a v i s u a l pun o f s p i n a l v e r t a b r a e / o c t o p u s s u c k e r . On t h e b a s i s o f e t h n o g r a p h i c e v i d e n c e t o be p r e s e n t e d s h o r t l y , t h e more l i k e l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s a n i m a l and i n d e e d many o t h e r s o f l i k e or r e l a t e d f o r m , i s i n f a c t l a n d o t t e r . However, no a t t r i b u t i o n c a n be made w i t h c e r t a i n t y . F i g u r e 28 f i n i s h e s t h e p o i n t . T h i s charm, w i t h o u t d o c u m e n t a t i o n o t h e r t h a n " T l i n g i t " , i s u n l i k e any o t h e r . I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t h i s r e p r e s e n t s a s p i r i t i n t h e p r o c e s s o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , p o s s i b l y f r o m o r t o an o t t e r - l i k e shape. The s t r a n g e l y e l o n g a t e d neck and t h e r u b b e r y , c u r l i n g l e g s s u g g e s t -62-Fi g . 24 A.M.N.H. 19-457 Land otters top and bottom B i l l Holm Photo F i g . 25 Song leader's s t a f f representing a wolf, painted in red, blue-green, and black. Made for the Drum House Teqwedi by D.S. Benson for Joseph Abraham and was used in the potlatch for Sidewise House at Yakutat in 1916. The t a i l i s m i s s i n g . Now i n the Denver A r t Museum. The Teqwedi are a sibof the Wolf-Eagle moiety. (Laguna 1972:3:P1. 163) F i g . 26 A.M.N.H. E 1915 ( r e a r view) Emmons does n o t i d e n t i f y t h e a n i m a l on t h e f i g u r e ' s back. ( F e d e r 1971: f i g . 5;D) F i g . 27 A.M.N.H. E 1915 Shaman's g r a v e g u a r d o f t h e C h i l k a t Kagwanton. R e p r e s e n t s t h e s p i r i t G e a s t i n , " w h i c h l i v e s i n t h e a i r above and i s a v e r y r e v e n g e f u l bad s p i r i t t h a t k i l l s T l i n g i t s when i t m e e t s t h e m . He i s r e p r e s e n t e d a s a man d r e s s e d a s a D o c t o r w i t h a s h o u l d e r r o b e on, w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s a s p i r i t f i s h , i n t h e s t o m a c h i s a n o t h e r s p i r i t f i s h , t h e mouth i s open s i n g i n g , and i n t h e hands were o r i g i n a l l y r a t t l e s . " ( F e d e r 1 9 7 1 : f i g . 150;D) -66-Fig . 28 P.U. 5093 Shape changing? Sheldon Jackson C o l l . B i l l Holm Photo -67-the p l a s t i c moment between the o l d shape and the new. We can gain perspective on the problems of motif i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by r e c a l l i n g that the shaman could transform himself into any of his tutelary s p i r i t s , and presumably, go d i r e c t l y from one form into another (Laguna 1972:2:690;G). Laguna s t a t e s that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to t e l l to what extent the shaman's t u t e l a r i e s are d i s t i n c t from and are controlled by him, and to what extent he becomes, and merges with them (ibid.:836). The charms represent the shaman's dreams or visions, and the s p i r i t s that protect him (ibid.:689) and thus, in a way, himself. It becomes apparent that simply c a l l i n g a charm a wolf or land o t t e r i s not saying very much. Unfortunately, i t i s often, i f not usually, not even possible to do that in any s p e c i f i c sense due to the extreme v a r i a b i l i t y of form and l i m i t e d documentation. 3. Motif Frequency Analysis: Discussion of Table VI. We may now return to our discussion of the compiled documentary data, s p e c i f i c a l l y that concerning the motifs found on charms. The l i a b i l i t i e s of t h i s kind of data have just been touched upon. Nevertheless, i t i s worthwhile to see what consistencies may emerge, and whether they are supported by the ethnographic record. - 6 8 -Table VI p.1: Motif Frequency Analysis 1 total 1number of 1% of total 1 occurance 1occurance1occurances1occurances [combined 1 las sole lof motif in 1with land 1 lor major 1which i t i sl otter 1 1 motif Isole or 1 Motif Type 1 No. 1 % l 1major 1 No. 1 % Fish and Shark Fish 1 221 2 .41 101 451 51 23 Dog Fish 1 11 .11 11 1001 1 Halibut 1 61 .71 41 671 21 33 Needle Fish 1 21 .21 01 01 1 Salmon 1 101 1.11 01 01 21 20 Sculpin 1 41 .41 21 501 1 Shark 1 51 .51 51 1001 1 Total Fish & Shark 1 501 5 .51 261 521 91 18 Marine Mammal Killer Whale 1 251 2.71 221 881 1 Porpoise 1 41 .41 31 751 1 Sea Otter 1 61 .71 11 171 1 Seal 1 41 .41 41 1001 1 Sea Lion 1 51 .51 31 601 11 20 Whale 1 181 21 171 951 1 Total Marine Mammal 1 621 6 .81 501 811 11 2 Land Otter 1 1141 1 2 . 1 681 601 501 44 Land Mammal Bear 1 561 6.11 291 521 131 23 Dog 1 11 .11 1 1 11 100 Wolf 1 321 3.51 181 561 31 9 Mountain Goat 1 81 .81 11 121 1 Total Land Mammal 1 971 11 .1 471 481 171 18 - 6 9 -Table VI, p.2: Motif Frequency Analysis ITotal Inumber of 1% of t o t a l loccurancel loccuranceloccurancesloccurances Icombined I I las s o l e Iof motif i n Iwith land I I lor major Iwhich i t i s I o t t e r I I I motif I s o l e or I I Motif Type I N O . 1% 1 Imajor INo. 1% 1 , Bird 1 i Bird 1 71 .81 11 141 21 291 Blue Heron 1 11 .11 1 1 1 1 Cormorant 1 41 .41 1 1 11 251 Duck 1 21 .21 1 1 1 1 Kingfisher I 21 .21 11 501 1 1 Loon 1 11 .11 1 1 1 1 Merganser 1 31 .31 31 1001 1 1 Oyster Catcher 1 11 .11 11 1001 1 1 Sand H i l l Crane 1 91 11 61 671 21 221 Eagle 1 71 .81 41 571 21 291 Hawk 1 21 .21 11 501 1 1 Owl 1 31 .31 1 1 11 331 Raven 1 741 8.11 201 271 91 121 Hummingbird 1 11 .11 1 1 1 1 Total Bird 1 1171 13 .1 371 321 171 151 i Monster 1 Gonokadet 1 41 .41 21 501 21 501 "Sea Monster" 1 71 .81 51 711 31 431 "Monster" 1 71 .81 21 291 1 1 Total Monster 1 181 21 91 1501 51 281 1 Human and Yek 1 i Human 1 1381 15 .1 241 171 301 221 Shaman 1 211 2 .31 171 811 91 431 Witch 1 81 .91 51 621 51 621 Yek (G.T.E.) 1 1181 13 .1 171 141 401 341 Total Human and Yek 1 2851 31 .1 631 1741 841 291 -70-Table VI, p.3: Motif Frequency Analysis 1Total 1number of 1% of t o t a l loccurancel loccuranceloccurancesloccurances Icombined 1 1 1 as s o l e lof motif i n 1with landl 1 lor major 1which i t i s 1otter 1 1 1motif Isole or 1 1 Motif Type INo. 1% 1 1major INo. 1% 1 Miscellaneous 1 Octopus 1 341 3.71 51 151 81 241 Crab 1 21 .21 1 1 1 1 Mosquito 1 11 .11 1 1 1 1 Frog 1 61 .71 1 1 31 501 Worm 1 61 .71 51 831 1 1 Canoe 1 41 .41 I 1 11 251 C i r c l e Dot 1 61 .71 I 1 1 1 Cross 1 11 .11 I 1 1 1 Soul Catcher 1 31 .31 I I I 1 Protruding Tongue 1 181 21 1 1 131 721 Witch Torture 1 41 .41 11 251 1 1 Devouring 1 351 3.81 1 1 91 261 Pun 1 31 .31 1 1 1 1 S p i r i t Transport 1 31 .31 1 1 1 1 Other 1 191 2.11 61 321 1 1 Compiled from G.T. Emmons ms. catalogue notes AMNH E & 19, WSM, F.M., and published sources (Appendix II). Table VII Iconographic Complexity of Tlingit's Shaman's Charms Motif Number I N O . ofINo 1Total iMean ===i # of 1 1charms 1 data INo. ofImotifs onl Iwith 1 1Motifsicharms 1 Kwan 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 111data 1 1 Iwith datal Auk 3 1 2 1 1 7 1 21 181 2 . 5 7 1 Chilkat-Chilcoot 3 2 4 5 5 2 1 1 1 21 5 3 1 1 5 1 1 2 9 1 2 . 4 3 1 Gonaho 1 8 2 2 1 1 11 2 5 1 81 5 2 1 2 . 0 8 1 Henya 7 1 1 81 1 91 1 . 1 3 1 Huna 2 3 4 5 4 2 3 1 1 421 91 981 2 . 3 3 1 Hutsnuwu 3 8 1 8 4 4 1 1 21 681 81 1 4 1 1 2 . 0 7 1 Sitka 3 1 1 0 2 2 1 1 461 11 7 5 1 1 . 6 3 1 Stikine 2 2 5 4 5 3 1 1 401 71 871 2 . 1 8 1 Taku 1 1 11 61 11 1 . 0 0 1 Tongass 1 1 1 21 1 31 1 . 5 0 1 Yakutat 1 0 1 2 1 2 1 1 6 1 1 3 2 1 2 . 0 0 1 Tlingit 4 1 1 6 9 9 2 3 2 2 1 3 11 891 1 2 4 0 1 2 . 7 0 1 Totals 2 2 7 6 3 3 3 3 2 1 2 8 5 4 2 5 61 3 9 7 1 561 8 8 5 1 1 Percent (%) 5 7 . 1 6 . 8 . 3 8 . 1 3 . 0 2 . 0 1 . 3 1 . 0 . 5 0 1 . 3 1 . 5 1 1 0 0 1 1 2 . 3 6 1 1 1 Compiled from G.T. Emmons ms., catalogue notes and manual inspection of published charms (Appendix II) A n i m a l m o t i f s were l i s t e d by e c o l o g i c a l zone, i . e . , w h e t h e r m a r i n e , t e r r e s t i a l , o r a v i a n s p e c i e s . M i s c e l l a n e o u s m o t i f s s u c h as t h o s e r e s u l t i n g f r o m c o m b i n a t i o n s o f o t h e r m o t i f s , s u c h as d e v o u r i n g , o r w i t c h t o r t u r e , a r e l i s t e d s e p a r a t e l y , as w e l l as f r a g m e n t a r y m o t i f s as n o t e d by Emmons. P e r c e n t a g e s were o b t a i n e d by c a l c u l a t i n g t h e f r e q u e n c y o f a p p e a r a n c e o f a m o t i f b a s e d on t h e t o t a l number o f m o t i f s r a t h e r t h a n t h e t o t a l number o f charms. The number and p e r c e n t a g e s o f i n s t a n c e s i n w h i c h a p a r t i c u l a r m o t i f i s f o u n d i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h t h e l a n d o t t e r m o t i f a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d . Humans o f v a r i o u s t y p e s a r e t h e most f r e q u e n t l y a p p e a r i n g m o t i f , a t 31 p e r c e n t . They may be shaman (2.3 p e r c e n t ) , w i t c h (.9 p e r c e n t ) , u n i d e n t i f i e d human (15 p e r c e n t ) o r "yek," T l i n g i t f o r s p i r i t , (13 p e r c e n t ) . Y e k s a r e v i s u a l l y i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m humans. When shamans a r e d e p i c t e d t h e y a r e t h e s o l e o r m a j o r m o t i f 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e ( s o l e means o n l y m o t i f , and m a j o r means p r e d o m i n a n t ) . W h i l e we c a n c o m p i l e d a t a on t h e v a r i o u s a t t r i b u t i o n s g i v e n by Emmons and a few o t h e r s , we c a n n o t know w i t h c e r t a i n t y w h i c h o f t h e p o s s i b l e r e a d i n g s o f a human m o t i f were i n t e n d e d , and t h u s t h e i r t r u e p r o p o r t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Emmons s o m e t i m e s w r i t e s " s p i r i t o f a dead T l i n g i t " , and a t o t h e r t i m e s , s i m p l y , "dead T l i n g i t . " D i d he i n t e n d a d i f f e r e n c e o r n o t ? The l a n d o t t e r i s t h e most f r e q u e n t l y a p p e a r i n g s p e c i f i c a n i m a l m o t i f (12 p e r c e n t ) . S i x t y p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e l a n d o t t e r s a p p e a r , t h e y a r e t h e m a j o r o r s o l e m o t i f . -73-L a n d o t t e r s a r e c o m b i n e d w i t h o t h e r l a n d o t t e r s 44 p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e l a n d o t t e r s a p p e a r . R e c a l l t h a t s e v e r a l , even many, m o t i f s can be c o m b i n e d on a s i n g l e charm. O t h e r h i g h s c o r e r s a r e b e a r , a t 6.1 p e r c e n t , w o l f , a t 3.5 p e r c e n t , r a v e n , a t 8.1 p e r c e n t , o c t o p u s a t 3.7 p e r c e n t , and d e v o u r i n g , a t 3.8 p e r c e n t . T h e s e low v a l u e s f o r even t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e r s a r e a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e h i g h d e g r e e o f v a r i a b i l i t y e x h i b i t e d by c h a r m s , and by e x t e n s i o n , shamans. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e v a l u e s a r e l o w e r t h a n w o u l d be p r o d u c e d by an a c t u a l v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e a l m o s t f i v e h u n d r e d known charms. T h i s i s b e c a u s e many o f Emmons', and o t h e r s ' , c a t a l o g u e d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e s o t e r s e t h a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t an e d i t i n g a t b e s t o f t h e v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n h e r e n t i n t h e charm. G o i n g by e c o l o g i c a l zone, f i s h c o n s t i t u t e 5.5 p e r c e n t o f a l l m o t i f s . A d d i n g o c t o p u s t o t h i s c a t e g o r y makes 9.2 p e r c e n t . M a r i n e mammals a p p e a r w i t h 6.8 p e r c e n t f r e q u e n c y ( b u t when t h e y do a p p e a r t h e y a r e t h e m a j o r o r s o l e m o t i f 81 p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e ) . T o g e t h e r w i t h f i s h and o c t o p u s , m a r i n e s p e c i e s a p p e a r as 16 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l number o f m o t i f s . Land a n i m a l s , r e p r e s e n t e d by o n l y f o u r s p e c i e s , c ompared t o 14 m a r i n e s p e c i e s , show 10.6 p e r c e n t o c c u r a n c e , due p r i n c i p a l l y t o b e a r (6.1 p e r c e n t ) and w o l f (3.5 p e r c e n t ) . L a n d o t t e r s , m e n t i o n e d as t h e most f r e q u e n t a n i m a l m o t i f , a r e n e i t h e r s t r i c t l y m a r i n e n o r t e r r e s t i a l a n i m a l s . As w i l l be d e m o n s t r a t e d , t h e i r f a v o u r e d r o l e makes s e n s e when s e e n i n t h i s l i g h t . B i r d s o f 14 s p e c i e s ( i n c l u d i n g , s i m p l y " b i r d " , as -7 4-t h e f i s h i n c l u d e d , s i m p l y , " f i s h " ) o c c u r 12.6 p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e . E i g h t s p e c i e s a r e a q u a t i c , e q u a l l i n g 2.4 p e r c e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , and f i v e a r e n o t , e q u a l l i n g 9.5 p e r c e n t . Of t h i s , 8.1 p e r c e n t i s due t o r a v e n . B i r d s a r e t h e m a j o r o r s o l e m o t i f i n o n l y 32 p e r c e n t o f i n s t a n c e s o f t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e s . M o n s t e r s , w h e t h e r i d e n t i f i e d as " s e a m o n s t e r " , j u s t " m o nster" ( u s u a l l y r e s e m b l i n g somewhat t h o s e c a l l e d s e a m o n s t e r s , o r " k o n okodate" (Emmons 1 most f r e q u e n t s p e l l i n g o f "GonaqAdet", t h e m y t h i c a l T l i n g i t m a s t e r o f w e a l t h o f t h e s e a ) , a r e r e p o r t e d as o c c u r i n g o n l y 2 p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e , and as t h e m a j o r f i g u r e i n 50 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e o c c u r e n c e s . I n s t a n c e s i n w h i c h t h e o v e r a l l f r e q u e n c y o f a p p e a r a n c e i s low, b u t h i g h as m a j o r m o t i f , a r e e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o f c e r t a i n m o t i f s t o p r o m i n e n t p o s i t i o n s i n t h e r a r e r , more c o m p l e x c h a r m s , s u c h as k i l l e r w h a l e . As shown i n T a b l e V I I ( i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g T a b l e V I ) , 57 p e r c e n t o f a l l c h a r m s e i t h e r f e a t u r e o r a r e r e c o r d e d as h a v i n g b u t a s i n g l e m o t i f . O c c u r e n c e o f more c o m p l e x c h a r m s f a l l s o f f r a p i d l y , w i t h a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n t h e r a t e o f o c c u r e n c e a t t h e more c o m p l e x end. B e f o r e we c a n p r o c e e d any f u r t h e r , however, we must t u r n t o t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c r e c o r d . H a v i n g f o l l o w e d P a n o f s k y ' s method and made c a r e f u l n o t e o f t h e e m p i r i c a l d a t a d e r i v i n g b o t h f r o m t h e c h a r m s t h e m s e l v e s , t h e i r o r i g i n a l d o c u m e n t a t i o n , and c o n t e m p o r a r y E u r o - A m e r i c a n s o u r c e s , we must now p l a c e t h i s mass o f m a t e r i a l i n t o t h e T l i n g i t c o n t e x t . -75-In closing t h i s section i t i s worth mentioning that however long on data and short on analysis t h i s i n i t i a l empirical section i s f i t represents the f i r s t time such data have been gathered. Since Emmons1 c o l l e c t i o n s are the most well documented a r t i f a c t c o l l e c t i o n s from the Northwest Coast, the very assembling of raw data marks a s i g n i f i c a n t advance over previous knowledge of thi s aspect of T l i n g i t material culture. In the chapters that follow, the attempt w i l l be made to provide the context in which charms functioned m a g i c a l l y to heal, and from which they have descended to us as fascinating and obscure art. -76-CHAPTER I I : ICONOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS A. S o u r c e s on T l i n g i t E t h n o g r a p h y E t h n o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e T l i n g i t began w i t h t h e R u s s i a n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y V e n i a m i n o v , an O r t h o d o x P r i e s t (see K a s h e v a r o f f : 1 9 2 7 ; I ) . Holmberg, a Dane, v i s i t e d t h e T l i n g i t i n 1855 and w r o t e a b r i e f work (1856,1863;G). N e i t h e r work has been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h , p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e b o t h were c i t e d f r e q u e n t l y by A u r e l K r a u s e , a German ( 1 8 8 5 ) ( t r a n s l a t i o n by E r n a G u n t h e r , 1956,G). K r a u s e p r o v i d e s a c h a p t e r on shamanism w h i c h i n c l u d e s e y e w i t n e s s a c c o u n t s o f a c u r i n g c e r e m o n y and t h e p u b l i c i n i t i a t i o n o f a n e o p h y t e shaman a t C h i l c a t . Swanton's 1908 (G) s t u d y d e v o t e s s i x p a g e s t o shamanism and i s e s p e c i a l l y v a l u a b l e f o r i t s n o t e s on s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . A p o i g n a n t c o n t r i b u t o r was L o u i s S h o t r i d g e (see Mason 1960; I ) , a C h i l k a t T l i n g i t who c o l l e c t e d f o r t h e U n i v e r s i t y Museum a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , P h i l a d e l p h i a and w r o t e a s e r i e s o f a r t i c l e s f o r t h e Museum's J o u r n a l (E) between 1913 a n d 1929. A p a u s e o f s e v e r a l d e c a d e s o c c u r r e d b e f o r e t h e n e x t m a j o r o r i g i n a l work was u n d e r t a k e n ; t h i s was K a l e r v o Oberg's d i s s e r t a t i o n , The S o c i a l Economy o f t h e T l i n g i t I n d i a n s , w r i t e n i n t h e e a r l y 1930's. I t was n o t p u b l i s h e d , however, u n t i l 1973. I t p r o v i d e s a f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s o f T l i n g i t s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and economy, and i n c l u d e s a f o r w a r d by W i l s o n -77-Duff that traces the evolution of T l i n g i t studies. Catherine McClellan's 1954 "The Interrelationship of So c i a l Structure with Northern T l i n g i t Ceremonialism" (G), i s a concise discussion of the o r i g i n a l context of "crest", or family symbol, art. Ronald Olson's 1961 " T l i n g i t Shamanism and Sorcery" (B) provides unique anecdotal material that expands the range of a c t i v i t i e s known to have been engaged in by T l i n g i t shamans and witches. The outstanding source on the Northern T l i n g i t i s Frederica de Laguna's monumental Under Mt. St. E l i a s (1972;G). This exhaustive study of the Yakutat T l i n g i t i s replete with verbatim statements of informants, describing l i f e as remembered i n every d e t a i l . Laguna, normally referred to as de Laguna. but who f o l l o w s the shorter usage i n her own bibliography, provides a r i c h discussion of shamanism, land otter men, and witches. Sources on T l i n g i t mythology are few. Swanton's 1909 (G) T l i n g i t Myths and Texts contains material collected at Sitka and, primarily, Wrangell, from "Chief" Kadishan. A smaller c o l l e c t i o n of material from Yakutat i s included in Laguna's 1972 study, mentioned above. B. T l i n g i t Social Organisation The T l i n g i t in 1837 numbered some 7500, not including Sitka and environs, according to a Hudson's Bay -7 8-Company c e n s u s ( P e t r o f f 1884:37;I). They i n h a b i t e d a s c o r e o r more v i l l a g e s b e t w e e n P o r t l a n d C a n a l , n e a r P o r t Simpson, B.C., and C o n t r o l l e r Bay, n e a r l y t o t h e Copper R i v e r . I n summer t h e y d i s p e r s e d t o f i s h i n g and h u n t i n g s i t e s , and i n w i n t e r t h e y r e p a i r e d t o t h e i r s u b s t a n t i a l v i l l a g e s , f o r t h e c e r e m o n i a l s e a s o n and community l i f e . They b e l o n g e d t o v a r i o u s a r e a l s u b d i v i s i o n s , t e r m e d kwan i n T l i n g i t , and i t i s t h e s e w h i c h a r e r e p r e s e n t e d on Laguna's map, f i g . 3, Laguna makes c l e a r t h e n a t u r e o f kwans and o v e r a l l s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n : "These ( r e f e r r i n g t o kwans) however d i d n o t c o n s t i t u t e a t r i b e i n t h e s e n s e o f a p o l i t i c a l l y o r g a n i s e d and autonomous g r o u p . R a t h e r , a s e n s e o f community i d e n t i t y d e f i n i t e l y t o o k s e c o n d p l a c e t o t h e " p a t r i o t i s m " f e l t by t h e members o f e a c h s i b f o r t h e i r own m a t - r i l i n e a l exogamous k i n g r o u p .... S i b members r e c o g n i s e d t h e i r common k i n s h i p even t h o u g h t h e y m i g h t be s c a t t e r e d i n d i s t a n t v i l l a g e s i n d i f f e r e n t t r i b a l (e.g. kwan) a r e a s , f o r o n l y a few s i b s were r e s t r i c t e d t o one r e g i o n . . . . A s i b o f a n y s i z e i s c o m p o s e d o f s e v e r a l l i n e a g e s o r h o u s e g r o u p s ( h i t - t a n ) , and t h e l a t t e r i n t u r n may c o n s i s t o f a s i n g l e h o u s e l i n e o r a c l u s t e r made up o f "mother" and " d a u g h t e r " h o u s e s .... The l o c a l s e gments o f s u c h a w i d e s p r e a d s i b may o r may n o t be f e l t t o f o r m d i s t i n c t s u b - s i b s , p e r h a p s d e p e n d i n g on t h e r e c e n c y o f t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e i r d i s p e r s a l . On t h e o t h e r hand, a s i n g l e s i b i n o n e l o c a l i t y may e x h i b i t t w o ( o r m o r e ? ) f a i r l y i n d e p e n d e n t l i n e a g e s or c l u s t e r s o f h o u s e s (Laguna 1972:1:212;G). S i b s , m o r e o v e r , were a l l e i t h e r o f one or t h e o t h e r exogamous m o i e t y : "Because t h e s e d i v i s i o n s ( m o i e t i e s ) a r e exogamous, t h e i r members s t a n d t o w a r d e a c h o t h e r i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f husband and w i f e , f a t h e r and c h i l d , spouse's s i b l i n g s and s i b l i n g ' s s p o u s e s , between whom a r e r e c i p r o c a l c e r e m o n i a l o b l i g a t i o n s . Thus, a t a l l t h e l i f e c r i s e s o f members o f one's m o i e t y , s e r v i c e s were r e n d e r e d by t h e i r " o p p o s i t e s " — who, i n t u r n , had t o be r e p a i d . Such r e p a y m e n t s were g e n e r a l l y made a t p o t l a t c h e s , when d e b t o r s as h o s t s -79-e n t e r t a i n e d t h e o t h e r s as g u e s t s , e a c h s i d e h o n o r i n g and s u s t a i n i n g t h e o t h e r . . . . " I t s h o u l d , however, be e m p h a s i s e d t h a t t h e m o i e t y as s u c h was n o t a s o c i a l g r o u p . I t had no o r g a n i s a t i o n o f i t s own, b u t was s i m p l y an a r r a n g e m e n t f o r r e g u l a t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween p e r s o n s , b e c a u s e i t r a n g e d t h e s i b s t o w h i c h t h e y b e l o n g e d on one s i d e o r t h e o t h e r . The s i b o r g a n i s a t i o n r e m a i n e d p r i m a r y . . . . "The two d i v i s i o n s f o r t h e T l i n g i t a r e named T l a y l n e d i ( f o r t h e Ravens) and C A n k u q e d i ( f o r t h e W o l v e s or E a g l e s ) , t h e l a t t e r b e i n g t h e same as t h e name f o r one o f t h e s i b s " ( L a g u n a 1 9 7 2:1:450;G). I t i s t h e s i b t h a t owns t h e c r e s t s , t h e f a m i l i a l s y m b o l s w h i c h a p p e a r as c r e s t h a t s , t o t e m p o l e s , " C h i l k a t " b l a n k e t s , k e r f e d and p a i n t e d b oxes, house f r o n t s , c a n o e p r o w s , i n t e r i o r " s c r e e n s , " and a l l t h e o t h e r i t e m s u s e d and d i s p l a y e d a t p o t l a t c h e s . C r e s t a r t , c o m p l e t e l y d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e a r t o f t h e shaman, f e a t u r e s i m a g e r y c e l e b r a t i n g myth and m i g r a t i o n l e g e n d s , h e r o i c f e a t s o f a n c e s t o r s , and p r e s e n t w e a l t h o f t h e l i n e a g e . C. T l i n g i t shamanism 1. D e f i n i t i o n L a guna s u c c i n c t l y p r e s e n t s t h e c o m p l e x c o n t e x t o f t h e T l i n g i t shaman: "The shaman ('ixt') i s t h e i n t e r m e d i a r y b etween man and t h e f o r c e s o f n a t u r e . He c u r e s t h e s i c k , c o n t r o l s t h e w e a t h e r , b r i n g s s u c c e s s i n war and on t h e h u nt, f o r e t e l l s t h e f u t u r e , c o m m u n i c a t e s w i t h c o l l e a g u e s a t a d i s t a n c e , r e c e i v e s n ews o f t h o s e who a r e f a r away, f i n d s a n d r e s t o r e s t o t h e i r f a m i l i e s t h o s e who a r e l o s t and c a p t u r e d by t h e L a n d O t t e r Men, r e v e a l s and o v e r t h r o w s t h e f i e n d i s h m a c h i n a t i o n s o f w i t c h e s , and makes p u b l i c d e m o n s t r a t i o n s o f h i s p o w e r s i n many a w e - i n s p i r i n g ways. -80-He i s t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l f i g u r e i n h i s own l i n e a g e , a n d s o m e t i m e s even i n h i s s i b . Though h i s fame may have s p r e a d f a r t o f o r e i g n t r i b e s , he i s s e l d o m c o n s u l t e d when t h o s e o f h i s own l i n e a r e s i c k and d y i n g , f o r t h e s e he c a n n o t s a v e . Nor can he s a v e h i s own c h i l d r e n i f t h e y a r e b e w i t c h e d . H i s p a t i e n t s a r e i n e v i t a b l y members o f a n o t h e r s i b , o f t e n r e s i d e n t s i n a n o t h e r v i l l a g e . H i s p r o f e s s i o n a l r i v a l s may be c o l l e a g u e s i n any s i b e x c e p t h i s own; h i s m o s t d e a d l y e n e m i e s , l i k e t h o s e o f a n y T l i n g i t , a r e t h e t r a i t o r w i t c h e s w h i c h l u r k among h i s c l o s e s t r e l a t i v e s . " (1972:670;G) One m i g h t a d d t h a t t o t h e T l i n g i t t h e f o r c e s o f n a t u r e a r e s p i r i t s w i t h w h i c h t h e shaman c a n d e a l ; t h e a b s t r a c t n o t i o n o f " f o r c e s o f n a t u r e " i s a W e s t e r n i n t e r p o l a t i o n on Laguna's p a r t . The d i s t i n c t i o n i s a c r i t i c a l one, i n a s m u c h as t h e shaman's a r t d i s p l a y s t h e p a r t i c u l a r s p i r i t s owned by t h e shaman, and i n t o w h i c h he c a n t r a n s f o r m h i m s e l f (Laguna 1972:2:670;G). T l i n g i t shamanism f u n c t i o n s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f an a n i m i s t i c , m a g i c a l , and e c s t a t i c r e l i g i o n . C o m p u l s i v e m a g i c was worked by w i t c h e s who made l i t t l e d o l l s , s i k , i n c o r p o r a t i n g some h a i r , s p i t t l e , s w e a t , or even b i t s o f f o o d t h a t h a d f a l l e n f r o m t h e m o u t h o f t h e v i c t i m . T h e s e d o l l s w e r e t h e n p l a c e d i n a human o r dog's c o r p s e t o r o t away (Laguna 1972:2:730;G). B o t h shamans and w i t c h e s were a b l e t o t r a n s f o r m i n t o v a r i o u s a n i m a l s t o p e r f o r m t h e i r t a s k s o f good or i l l . C e r t a i n a n i m a l s were more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h w i t c h e s ; o t h e r s , s u c h as l a n d o t t e r s , w i t h shamans, and m i c e a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b o t h ( i b i d . : 8 2 8 ) . T o r t u r e o f a w i t c h i s r a r e l y t h e s u b j e c t o f a c h a r m as i n F i g . 29, w h i l e "dead" w i t c h e s a p p e a r w i t h s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r f r e q u e n c y . W i t c h e s b e i n g t o r t u r e d a r e -81-F i g . 29 O.P.M. 16/707 "Alaska-Witch Torture (Harner & Elsasser 1965:97;D) -82-c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y d e p i c t e d w i t h hands bound b e h i n d t h e back, t i e d t o a r i g i d t w i s t e d queue. 2. Manner o f P r a c t i c e o f t h e T l i n g i t Shaman Lag u n a r e l a t e s t h a t : "Seances were h e l d f o r a v a r i e t y o f p u r p o s e s , s o m e t i m e s when t h e s p i r i t s came o f t h e i r own a c c o r d t o t h e d o c t o r , and s o m e t i m e s when he summoned them. A s e a n c e m i g h t be h e l d a s a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f power, as when t h e shaman w i s h e d t o i m p r e s s h i s own p e o p l e or a p r o f e s s i o n a l r i v a l . S o m e t i m e s t h e s e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s were p r e l i m i n a r i e s t o t h e a t t e m p t e d c u r e , an e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o b o t h p a t i e n t and d o c t o r . Some s e a n c e s were t o announce an u n e x p e c t e d e v e n t o r an i m p e n d i n g d i s a s t e r a b o u t w h i c h t h e shaman's s p i r i t s had b r o u g h t a w a r n i n g ; o t h e r s were h e l d a t t h e r e q u e s t o f a n x i o u s r e l a t i v e s t o o b t a i n news o f an a b s e n t k i n s m a n o r t o d i s c o v e r a n d s a v e t h o s e who w e r e l o s t a n d c a p t u r e d by L a n d O t t e r s . Swanton [1908:465;E] a l s o m e n t i o n s t h a t t h e shaman m i g h t s e n d h i s s p i r i t s t o f i n d s o u r c e s o f f o o d o r t o f i g h t s p i r i t s b e l o n g i n g t o a shaman o f an enemy t r i b e . M o s t s e a n c e s , p e r h a p s , were t o c u r e t h e s i c k , a p r o c e d u r e w h i c h o f t e n i n v o l v e d n o t s i m p l y t r e a t m e n t o f t h e p a t i e n t , b u t a p u b l i c i n q u i s i t i o n t o e x p o s e t h e w i t c h r e s p o n s i b l e and t o f o r c e h i s c o n f e s s i o n (see pp. 736-738). Shamans were a l s o t r u l y d o c t o r s i n t h a t t h e y p o s s e s s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e m e d i c a l s k i l l w h i c h c o u l d be d i s p e n s e d w i t h o u t f o r m a l s e a n c e . I n a d d i t i o n , some d i s p e n s e d a m u l e t s o r ' m e d i c i n e s ' t h a t b r o u g h t l u c k o f p a r t i c u l a r k i n d s . "... W h i l e h i s ( K r a u s e ' s ) r e p o r t s , l i k e S w a n t o n ' s , i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e T l i n g i t shamans o f s o u t h e a s t e r n A l a s k a h a d p o w e r s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f Y a k u t a t a n d D r y B a y , a n d h e l d s i m i l a r s e a n c e s , d e t a i l s v a r y t r e m e n d o u s l y . T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e s p i r i t s , and i n c o n s e q u e n c e t h e p o w e r s and p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e shamans, u s u a l l y b e l o n g e d t o p a r t i c u l a r s i b s . One w o u l d n o t e x p e c t d u p l i c a t i o n o f a s e a n c e u n l e s s t h e one shaman had o b t a i n e d h i s p o w e r s f r o m t h e o t h e r . " ( L a g u n a 1972:2:701-702;G). T h i s l a s t o b s e r v a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e m u l t i p l i c i t y o f m o t i f s and t h e i r c o m b i n a t i o n s . S e t o n - K a r r saw a T l i n g i t shaman i n a c t i o n a t -83-Y a k u t a t : "On t h e e v e n i n g o f t h e s i x t h a g r e a t b e a t i n g o f drums and s t i c k s , w h i c h c o n t i n u e d n e a r l y a l l n i g h t , was h e a r d i n t h e v i l l a g e .... "The i n t e r i o r o f t h e house was l i t by f i r e l i g h t . The shaman was s e a t e d , n a k e d t o t h e w a i s t , p e r f o r m i n g i n c a n t a t i o n s and m a c h i n a t i o n s o v e r a s i c k c h i l d , t h o u g h t h e c h i l d was nowhere v i s i b l e . H i s l o n g h a i r , a l w a y s l e f t u n c u t , was s t r e a m i n g b e h i n d him. He was s h a k i n g h i s c h a r m s , t h r o w i n g h i s body and c o n t o r t i n g , u t t e r i n g s h r i l l c r i e s , h i s s i n g and e x t e n d i n g h i s arms, g r o a n i n g and b r e a t h i n g b e t w e e n c l e n c h e d t e e t h , j e r k i n g h i m s e l f m e a n t i m e i n c o n v u l s i v e s t a r t s i n c a d e n c e t o t h e m u s i c . S e a t e d a r o u n d t h e f i r e a d o z e n Y a k u t a t I n d i a n s were b e a t i n g drums and p i e c e s o f wood t o g e t h e r , k e e p i n g t i m e t o t h e j e r k s o f t h e shaman's head and body. T h i s o l d m e d i c i n e man i s q u i t e b l i n d , h a v i n g been d e p r i v e d o f h i s s i g h t i n a f i g h t w i t h a n o t h e r m e d i c i n e man ( 1 8 8 7 : 1 2 8 ; I ) . The c h i l d had been p o i s o n e d by a r s e n i c l e f t a b o u t by t h e v e r y e x p e d i t i o n t o w h i c h S e t o n - K a r r was a t t a c h e d (Laguna 1972:2:700:G). The m u s i c i a n s were t h e shaman's a s s i s t a n t s , members o f h i s own f a m i l y . S e t o n - K a r r f a i l s t o m e n t i o n masks, a n d p e r h a p s t h i s s h a m a n d i d n o t u s e t h e m , o r d i d n o t a l w a y s use them. R e c a l l Emmons' Hutsnuwu g r a v e l o t (AMNH E 943-987) w h i c h had 14 h e a d r e s s e s b u t no masks. Most T l i n g i t shamans, t h o u g h , d i d u s e masks, and t h e s e r e p r e s e n t e d i n d i v i d u a l s p i r i t s . The shaman donned t h e s e s e q u e n t i a l l y , Emmons t e l l s u s , s o much b e i n g c h a r g e d f o r a s e r i e s o f f o u r m a s k s , s o much f o r e i g h t (Emmons ms. WSM 1344-1351;E). The shaman m i g h t wear, r a t h e r t h a n a mask, a h e a d r e s s w i t h a m i n i a t u r e mask a t t a c h e d t o t h e f r o n t , o r a b e a r c l a w crown. He most l i k e l y wore a n e c k l a c e o f bone c h a r m s , a w a i s t and s o m e t i m e s a s h o u l d e r r o b e o f s k i n w i t h c h a r m s and o c c a s i o n a l l y wooden c a r v i n g s h a n g i n g f r o m i t s p a i n t e d s u r f a c e , and a p u f f i n b i l l -84-fringe. Many other implements, and long hair and n a i l s that are never cut, complete the picture (Laguna 1972:2:685-699;G). No shaman, of course, had everything. The picture we have of them i s b u i l t up across the f u l l range of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l practices. Emmons' grave l o t s are the primary evidence for the patterns of association of the many items, and their imagery, which formed i n d i v i d u a l k i t s . 3. Manner of Use of Charms Not long after the seance for the l i t t l e g i r l , Seton-Karr had opportunity to observe another one. It seems several T l i n g i t had assumed the arsenic, a dry, white, powdery substance, was palatable. Of t h i s second seance, he wrote: "Presently he stripped himself, and opening his box of charms, took out the wooden f i g u r e of a crane with a fr o g c l i n g i n g to i t s back, and a bunch of sea otter teeth and carved walrus tusks. The l a t t e r he placed on the stomach of the dying man.... (Seton-Karr 1887:1). The figure of a crane would have been the shaman's oyster catcher r a t t l e . The p r a c t i c e of p l a c i n g charms on the person of the a f f l i c t e d i s mentioned several times by Emmons (AMNH E 2163, 19-208, E 679, and others), and Swanton mentions small bone images of water beetles which were "passed over sore places by the shaman to heal them" (Swanton 19038:459;E). Table VIII shows the uses made of charms as described by Emmons. In the interest of brevity, record was not kept of whether Emmons mentions witchcraft in connection -85-w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r charm o r n o t , a l t h o u g h d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f charms s o a s s o c i a t e d m i g h t r e v e a l d i f f e r e n c e s f r o m c h a r m s n o t so d e s c r i b e d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , Emmons nowhere m e n t i o n s a s p e c i f i c manner o f use o f a charm i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h w i t c h c r a f t . N o te was t a k e n o f where t h e charm was worn and what was done w i t h i t i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p a t i e n t . T w e n t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t were i d e n t i f i e d a s h a v i n g o r i g i n a l l y been a t t a c h e d t o a r o b e o r dance b l a n k e t , and 22.4 p e r c e n t as b e i n g f o r t h e n e c k , b u t w h e t h e r a s p a r t o f a n e c k l a c e o r w h e t h e r a s a s e p a r a t e , l a r g e r , p e c t o r a l o rnament (so i d e n t i f i e d s p e c i f i c a l l y by Emmons b u t once (MAI 9-7953), a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e many o t h e r c a n d i d a t e s ) i s u n c l e a r . T w e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t were w i t h o u t n o t a t i o n r e g a r d i n g u se, p r i m a r i l y t h o s e n o t c o l l e c t e d by Emmons. S p e c i f i c m e n t i o n o f what was done w i t h s p e c i f i c u n a t t a c h e d c h a r m s i s r a r e . Two and n i n e - t e n t h s p e r c e n t were s a i d t o h a v e b e e n d i s p l a y e d o r h a n d l e d i n wa y s n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e d . T h r e e and f i v e - t e n t h s p e r c e n t were r e c o r d e d a s b e i n g t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e p a t i e n t , n i n e - t e n t h s p e r c e n t a s b e i n g h e a t e d and t h e n t o u c h e d t o t h e p a t i e n t . E l e v e n and e i g h t - t e n t h s p e r c e n t had m u l t i p l e u s e s , w h i c h were s c o r e d s e p a r a t e l y . Emmons m e n t i o n s t o u c h i n g t h e tong u e o f s e v e r a l l a n d o t t e r c harms t o t h e p a t i e n t ' s body (ms. AMNH 19:633 and o t h e r s ) . A " w o l f " head charm w i t h g r e a t l y e x a g g e r a t e d t o n g u e shows t h e t y p e , f i g u r e 30. C e r t a i n l y t h e s e v a l u e s a r e l o w due t o u n d e r - r e p o r t i n g . -86-F i g . 30 M.A.I. 11/1816 Wolf Head, Angoon ( D o c k s t a d e r 1961 f i g . 120 - 8 7 -Table VTII Uses ascribed to charms i n Emmons notes 1Numbers of Charms 1 Uses Ascribed 1 No. % l i Ear Pendant 1 2 i .311 Neck 1 140 21.601 P e c t o r a l 1 1 .151 Robe or Dance Blanket 1 169 26.081 Necklace (Piece) 1 16 2.471 Necklace (Entire) 1 23 3.551 Displayed-Handled 1 18 2.781 Transferred to Patient ( l e f t ) 1 23 3.551 Heated or Touched to Patient 1 6 .931 "Charm or Ornament" e t c . 1 # 5 .771 Under Clothing 1 * 2 .311 M u l t i p l e Use 1 74 11.421 No Data 1 169 26.081 T o t a l 648 . ., . | 100.001 Source: G.T. Emmons ms. catalogues AMNH E and 19, WSM. -88-F i g u r e 31 i l l u s t r a t e s a shaman's w a i s t r o b e f r o m C h i l k a t . I t d e m o n s t r a t e s w e l l t h e l a r g e numbers o f charm s a shaman m i g h t p o s s e s s , and t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e y m i g h t be e f f e c t i v e l y d i s p l a y e d . Laguna m e n t i o n s t h e shaman as h a v i n g an e n t i r e box f u l l o f them (1972:2:689). Such l a r g e numbers o f c h a r m s , r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e i n f o r m , were n o t i n t e n d e d f o r c a r e f u l s c r u t i n y by t h e shaman's c l i e n t s , as were t h e more co m p l e x , i n d i v i d u a l p e c t o r a l o r n a m e n t s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , f i g u r e 32, a p o s e d s t u d i o s h o t o f t h e l a t e 1 9 t h C e n t u r y , f e a t u r e s a sha m a n h o l d i n g up a c h a r m t o t h e g a z e o f a woman p a t i e n t . P r e s u m a b l y t h e s t u d i o s h o t b e a r s some r e l a t i o n s h i p , however t e n u o u s , t o a c t u a l p r a c t i c e . Emmons m e n t i o n s some char m s as b e i n g " d i s p l a y e d , " b u t i n what manner, p r e c i s e l y , i s u n c e r t a i n (E 6 3 6 ) . F i g u r e 33 i s a shaman's n e c k l a c e . T h i s a l l o w s us t o mourn t h e l o s s o f c o n t e x t t h a t has o c c u r r e d w i t h t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f so many charms f r o m t h e i r o r i g i n a l n e c k l a c e s and r o b e s . The charm s on t h i s n e c k l a c e b r e a k down e a s i l y i n t o o p p o s i n g t y p e s . T h e r e a r e e i g h t d e c o r a t e d and e i g h t p l a i n c h arms, and humans and a n i m a l s . T h i s s u g g e s t s a c o n n e c t i o n w i t h Laguna's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t e i g h t i s t h e T l i n g i t number o f r i t u a l c o m p l e t i o n ( 1 9 7 2 : 2 : 7 6 1 ; E ) . T h e r e were, t h e n , a number o f d i f f e r e n t u s e s f o r char m s , and a number o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s , r a n g i n g f r o m o s t e n t a t i o u s and e l a b o r a t e , t a k i n g a c e n t r a l r o l e i n t h e h e a l i n g s e a n c e , t o v i r t u a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t ones c o n t r i b u t i n g b u t l i t t l e t o t h e o v e r a l l e f f e c t o f massed i v o r i e s and -89-F i g . 31 FM 71936 Shaman's W a i s t Robe C h i l k a t A l a n Sawyer P h o t o F i g . 32 " T l i n g i t s p i r i t d o c t o r and s i c k woman" T h i s p o s e d W i n t e r & P o n d p h o t o d e p i c t s a b o n e c h a r m i n a p u r p o r t e d m a n n e r o f u s e . I s t h e woman f i x i n g h e r g a z e u p o n t h e charm o r upon t h e d o c t o r ' s f a c e ? (Andrews 1960:97;H) - 9 1 -F i g . 33 D.M.N.H. 11426 T l i n g i t Shaman's N e c k l a c e B i l l Holm P h o t o -92-auditory enhancement. No other a r t i c l e of paraphenalia i s recorded as having been used by l e a v i n g i t with the p a t i e n t i n the shaman's absence (WSM 904 and others). In the iconographical analysis of the land otter motif which follows, we w i l l see how charms express in microcosm the entire world of the shaman's relationships and what th i s has to do with the charms' use and imagery. D. Iconographical Analysis of the Land Otter Motif 1. T l i n g i t B e l i e f s about the Land Otter. Land otters (kucda) are believed by the T l i n g i t to be, not animals in the ordinary sense, but transformed people. S p e c i f i c a l l y , they are people who have become l o s t in the woods or drowned, and whose bodies are not available to properly cremate and memorialise. They are dreaded because they have magic powers to confuse the mind of the unwary person, and can appear to one l o s t as his or her most dearly beloved r e l a t i v e s . They a s s i s t the vi c t i m "home", in r e a l i t y to their den. Once there, the victim slowly turns into a land o t t e r man (or woman), and may attempt to l u r e others to share i t s fate (Laguna 1972:2:744-748;G). Their canoe i s the skate (Swanton 1909:28;G). It appears to one under the influence of the land otters as an ordinary canoe. Various charms may be used against them, such as dog bones (Swanton 1908:189;G), urine, excrement, or metal carried in the mouth (Laguna -93-1972:2:670;G). Dogs a r e n e v e r f o o l e d by them ( i b i d . : 8 3 2 ) . F i g u r e 34 d e p i c t s an a n t h r o p o m o r p h i c l a n d o t t e r man mask f r o m D r y Bay. I t i s one o f many s u c h masks, and one o f many s u c h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n T l i n g i t s h a m a n i c a r t . C u r i o u s l y , l a n d o t t e r h a i r i s a good l u c k a m u l e t . One o f Laguna's i n f o r m a n t s a c q u i r e d some i n an a b b r e v i a t e d v e r s i o n o f a g u a r d i a n s p i r i t e n c o u n t e r (1972:2:667;G). Such e n c o u n t e r s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n . S e v e r a l myths a l s o show t h e d u a l n a t u r e o f l a n d o t t e r s . Swanton's myths numbers s i x , s e v e n , and f o r t y - f i v e r e c o u n t t a l e s o f f a m i l i e s v i s i t e d by p r i v a t i o n and a i d e d i n t h e i r d i s t r e s s by l a n d o t t e r s , w h i c h c a u s e d l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f f o o d t o come t o them. T h e s e l a n d o t t e r s , unknown t o t h e a f f l i c t e d , were members o f t h e i r own f a m i l i e s who had p r e v i o u s l y d i s a p p e a r e d (1909;G). 2. L a n d o t t e r s as C r e s t Symbols F i g u r e 35 d i s p l a y s a c anoe-prow f i g u r e i n t h e f o r m o f a l a n d o t t e r man. S h o t r i d g e gave t h e o r a l h i s t o r y o f t h i s p i e c e i n 1922;E, and s t a t e s t h a t as a p r o m i n e n t p i e c e o f c r e s t a r t i t was s u p p o s e d t o commemorate t h e l a n d o t t e r - l i k e n i m b l e n e s s and d e a t h d e f y i n g f e a t s o f a young w a r r i o r . As a c a n o e prow f i g u r e , i t w o u l d be s e e n by a l l , and c a r r y t h e s i b ' s i m a g e r y f a r and wide. S h o t r i d g e a l s o m e n t i o n s t h a t t h e young w a r r i o r ' s p a t e r n a l g r a n d f a t h e r s (& t h e r e f o r e o f t h e same s i b as he) were i n m a t e s o f a L a n d O t t e r House. I t i s - 9 4 -F i g . 34 A.M.N.H. E 400. Shaman's mask " r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s p i r i t o f a drowned T l i n g i t who has o n l y h a l f t u r n e d i n t o an o t t e r man, ' K u c h - t a r - k a r - K o - s e e - tau-kah.' Worn by t h e d o c t o r when d a n c i n g a b o u t t h e s i c k . " C o l l e c t e d by Emmons a t D r y Bay n e a r t h e m o u t h o f t h e A l s e k R i v e r f r o m t h e g r a v e h o u s e o f th e shaman G u c t d a . (Laguna 1972:3:P1. 191;G) -95-F i g . 35 U n i v e r s i t y Museum, P h i l a d e l p h i a Land O t t e r Man canoe prow f i g u r e (40" x 15") (Gunther 1963:13;D) -96-Fi g . 36 P.U. 5090 Land Otter Man B i l l Holm Photo -97-unfortunate that the o r a l history of the naming of Land Otter House has not been recorded. As far as I know, the land otter's occurence in crest art i s rare, for a l l i t s frequency i n shamanic a r t . Perhaps t h i s was one of the f a m i l i e s once aided by a land otter. Presumably such a perceived incident might q u a l i f y for crest status, but Swanton does not i d e n t i f y the sib of the legendary individuals, nor indicate any of the land otter s t o r i e s as being crest associated. The Land Otter house mentioned by Shotridge was at Sitka, of the Klooknah-adi sib. This corresponds to Swanton's L.uk.nAxA^di, "King Salmon People," a sib of the Raven moiety. Swanton, however, l i s t s no Land Otter house at Sitka in his lengthy l i s t . He does, however, l i s t a Land Otter house at Kake, belonging to the Tane^di, "People of the creek TAn," also a Raven moiety sib (1908:399,401;G). Shotridge, in a separate a r t i c l e (1913:100;E) l i s t s a Land Otter house at Klukwan, belonging to the Ga-nah-ta-de, corresponding to Swanton's GanAxA^di, "people of Ga/nAx," again a Raven moity sib. Interestingly, Kaka, the mythical f i r s t shaman was Kiksadi, also a Raven sib but quite d i s t i n c t from those just mentioned (Swanton, 1909:140;E). Shotridge's t a l e of the land otter man canoe prow figure, awarded the nimble youth as a memorial to his war exploits, and which graced his canoe when he arrived at Chilkat as guests at the f i r s t potlatch between formerly b i t t e r enemies, i l l u s t r a t e s a c r u c i a l difference between crest art ,and shamanic imagery. Even the land otter, intimately -98-involved with the practice of the shaman, as w i l l be outlined momentarily, can be used emblematically as a crest symbol i f a f a m i l y has come to have a r i g h t to i t . Note that the symbolic commemoration of the youth's exploits in the crest context was for the land otter's actual q u a l i t i e s as an animal, rather than the animal's dark and magical side, associated with shamanism. 3. Land Otters as Shamans' S p i r i t s According to Laguna's informant, the s p i r i t that begins troubling a prospective shaman " i s always c a l l e d kucda (land otter)" (1972:2:674;G). This i s apparently true for a l l T l i n g i t shamans, and not just those of a p a r t i c u l a r sib. Thus, while s p i r i t s were inherited, the land otter had the widest possible d i s t r i b u t i o n . The young shaman serves an apprenticeship in which he learns the many special taboos and practices of his profession, and eventually undertakes a s p i r i t quest which i s s i m i l a r to the s p i r i t quest known throughout most of North America. The object of his quest i s to encounter the land otter s p i r i t , and cut out the tongue of an actual land otter, in which i s contained " a l l the secrets of shamanism" (ibid.:677). This tongue becomes the nucleus of the shaman's most powerful amulet, c a l l e d skutch, (and) shown in figure 37. Ethnographic descriptions of the T l i n g i t shaman's vi s i o n quest are extremely rare. (Laguna 1972:2:676-678;G). -99-Fig. 37 A.M.N.H. E 1668 "Bundle of twigs wrapped around the tongue of a land otter - 'Sheetche' - worn in prac t i c i n g about the sick." Found in the grave house of a Tluk waxAdi shaman on the Akwe River by Emmons before 1888. (Laguna 1972:3:1119;G) -100-Th e prototype account i s to be found i n the myth of the f i r s t T l i n g i t shaman, Kaka. As Swanton relates in the abstract of the myth, Kaka "was taken south from S i t k a by the land o t t e r s and sent back again by the husband of a woman who had been c a r r i e d off l i k e himself. What they used as a canoe was a skate, and they kept him covered a l l the way. A f t e r a time one of h i s f r i e n d s heard him s i n g i n g i n the midst of a fog, but they could not get near him u n t i l they had f a s t e d two days. Then they found him laying on a log with blood running out of his nose and mouth. They brought him home, and he became a great shaman"(1909:420;G). According the Laguna, the neophyte shaman, after a period of training and r i t u a l abstinences goes off purposefully to encounter the s p i r i t , whereas Kaka was abducted by the land otters. But his encounter i s p a r t i c u l a r l y intense, and inasmuch as Kaka i s r e f e r r e d to as the f i r s t shaman, h i s s p i r i t encounter (for the land otters and the other animals and phenomena he saw while i n the custody of the land o t t e r s a l l became his shaman's s p i r i t s ) i s by d e f i n i t i o n p r o t o t y p i c a l . Elements of t h i s tale, at least, may be of considerable antiquity. The prostration, blood running from the nose and mouth, and the n e c e s s i t y of p u r i t y i n others who would approach the i n i t i a t e are i d e n t i c a l to the descriptions of a number of Coast Sal i s h guardian s p i r i t encounters with powerful shaman's s p i r i t s , Olson 1967:152;H being a prime example. This suggests a wide d i s t r i b u t i o n of such potent encounters. Benedict (i923;H) discusses the guardian s p i r i t -101-r e l a t i o n s h i p t h r o u g h o u t N o r t h A m e r i c a , w i t h o u t , u n f o r t u n a t e l y d w e l l i n g on t h e i n i t i a t o r y e n c o u n t e r . E l e m e n t s o f t h e m y t h o f K a k a a p p e a r i n t h e c h a r m i n f i g u r e 38, w h i c h i s a T l i n g i t s t y l e charm p h o t o g r a p h e d by B i l l Holm w h i l e i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e New Y o r k d e a l e r , G e o r g e T e r a s a k i . A human f i g u r e l a y s s u p i n e on t h e back o f a b e a s t w h i c h c e r t a i n l y c o n f o r m s w e l l enough t o our a d m i t t e d l y c o n f u s e d m o d e l o f w h a t a l a n d o t t e r may l o o k l i k e i n T l i n g i t shamans' a r t . The t a i l o f t h e o t t e r (?) becomes a human f a c e , and a l o n g i t s s p i n e a r e c i r c l e - d o t m o t i f s , w h i c h a r e g e n e r a l l y r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e T l i n g i t among N o r t h w e s t C o a s t p e o p l e s , as i t i s a m o t i f much u s e d by t h e A l e u t a n d E s k i m o p e o p l e s f a r t h e r West ( S m i t h and S p i e r 1927;F). T h e s e may a l s o be i n t e n d e d t o r e p r e s e n t o c t o p u s s u c k e r s , as s u c h s t r i n g s o f c i r c l e s o r e l e v a t e d c i r c u l a r d e p r e s s i o n s a r e o f t e n i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g s u c h . The l a n d o t t e r r e s t s i n s i d e a c a n o e w h i c h a t t h e r i g h t becomes t h e f l i p p e r o f a m a r i n e c r e a t u r e . W i t h o u t e m b a r k i n g on an e x a m i n a t i o n o f p o s i t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d s k a t e m o t i f s i n c h arms, w h i c h , g o i n g by our e x p e r i e n c e w i t h l a n d o t t e r s and w o l v e s , i s n o t l i k e l y t o be c o n c l u s i v e , we c a n n o t s a y w i t h c e r t a i n t y w h e t h e r t h e f l i p p e r m o t i f i s i n t e n d e d t o r e p r e s e n t a s k a t e o r a s e a l i o n o r s e a l . What i s c l e a r i s t h a t s o m e t h i n g a n i m a t e h a s b e c o m e t h e c a n o e . I n v i e w o f t h e i d e o l o g y o f t h e g u a r d i a n s p i r i t r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h i s charm i s v e r y p l a u s i b l y e v i d e n c e o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l g u a r d i a n s p i r i t power r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e T l i n g i t shaman. -102-Fig. 38 George Terasaki (Dealer) B i l l Holm Photo -103-T h i s p o i n t s t o a s i g n a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e l a n d o t t e r on c h a r m s a n d t h a t o f t h e c a n o e p r o w f i g u r e . When t h e l a n d o t t e r i m a g e i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e a r t o f t h e s h a m a n i t commemorates t h a t i n d i v i d u a l shaman's e n c o u n t e r w i t h t h e l a n d o t t e r s p i r i t , and h i s c o n t i n u i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h i t . The y o u t h f u l w a r r i o r had no s u c h s u p e r n a t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , and t h e u l t i m a t e r i g h t t o t h e l a n d o t t e r s y m b o l had been a c q u i r e d i n t h e m y t h i c a l p a s t . T h i s may be g e n e r a l i s e d t o h o l d f o r a l l shamans' a s o p p o s e d t o c r e s t a r t . Thus, t h e charm i n f i g u r e 36, s o s i m i l a r i n f o r m t o t h e c a n o e p r o w f i g u r e , i s e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t i n c o n c e p t i o n . F i g u r e 39 i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o f i g u r e 38, b u t t h e l a n d o t t e r ' s head o n l y i s v i s i b l e . I n p l a c e o f i t s body a r e t h r e e s k e l e t a l human f i g u r e s ( o n l y two b e i n g v i s i b l e , as t h e book f r o m w h i c h t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n was c o p i e d was o v e r b o u n d , o b s c u r i n g a p o r t i o n o f t h e imag e ) . A row o f r a t h e r more e x p l i c i t o c t o p u s s u c k e r s l i n e s t h e b o t t o m o f t h e canoe. F i g u r e 40, a n o t h e r Emmons p i e c e , i s i d e n t i f i e d as a s e a l i o n s p i r i t c a n o e . I t h a s , however, t h e same b a s i c a r r a n g e m e n t as t h e l a n d o t t e r t y p e s , i n c l u d i n g an o c t o p u s , and human f i g u r e s , one b e i n g p r o m i n e n t . Remembering t h a t shamans f r o m d i f f e r e n t s i b s t e n d e d t o have d i f f e r e n t s p i r i t s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e l a n d o t t e r and p o s s i b l y some o t h e r s , we s h o u l d n o t be s u r p r i s e d t o see d i f f e r e n t a n i m a l s and s p i r i t s i n s i m i l a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . As w e l l , more t h a n one s p i r i t c o u l d s e r v e s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n s . A p a r t i c u l a r shaman l i k e l y d i d n o t have t o r e l y s o l e l y on t h e l a n d o t t e r ' s s k a t e c a n o e t o g e t -104-F i g . 39 M.A.I./1301 (Harner & Elsasser p. 100) -105-F i g . 40 M.A.I. 9-7948 T l i n g i t Sea L i o n S p i r i t Canoe (Samuels & Samuels 1975 p. 211;K) -106-a b o u t i n t h e s p i r i t r e a l m s . The s e a l i o n m i g h t s e r v e e q u a l l y w e l l f o r s p i r i t t r a n s p o r t a c r o s s t h e s e a , as m i g h t t h e h a l i b u t , o r k i l l e r w h a le. The o y s t e r c a t c h e r r a t t l e , f i g u r e 41, i s b u t one o f many w h i c h show a s u p i n e f i g u r e s i m i l a r t o t h a t s e e n on c h a r m s . T h i s f i g u r e i s i d e n t i f i e d by Emmons as a dead T l i n g i t , o r dead shaman (dead e q u a l i n g r e s i d e n c e i n t h e s p i r i t r e a l m s ) . The w h o l e c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s t h e back o f t h e o y s t e r c a t c h e r , w h i c h f o r m s t h e r a t t l e a s a w h o l e , i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e o t h e r f i g u r e s . Thus i s i l l u s t r a t e d t h e shaman's g u a r d i a n s p i r i t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r e n t i t i e s t h a n t h e l a n d o t t e r , and a l s o t h e phenomenom known as shaman's f l i g h t , i n w h i c h t h e shaman's s p i r i t l e a v e s t h e body t o v i s i t ^ s u p e r n a t u r a l r e a l m s . The s u p i n e shaman m o t i f i s one o f t h e more i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s t y i n g t o g e t h e r t h e r i c h t a p e s t r y o f T l i n g i t shaman's i m a g e r y , d i s p l a y i n g a s i t does t h e p r o s t r a t e or e n t r a n c e d shaman r e c e i v i n g s p i r i t power, and t h u s t h e g u a r d i a n s p i r i t r e l a t i o n s h i p , w h i c h t h e shaman e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h a number o f s p i r i t s . G l a n c i n g back t o f i g u r e 12, t h e same f u n d a m e n t a l s u p i n e f i g u r e may be s e e n . F i g u r e 42 i l l u s t r a t e s a v a r i a t i o n on t h e theme. A s h a m a n , r e c o g n i s a b l e by h i s c l a w c r o w n , h a s t h e b o d y o f an o c t o p u s , t h e head o f w h i c h i s between h i s knees, and s t a n d s on t h e head o f a n o t h e r c r e a t u r e , w h i c h has a l a r g e f i s h - l i k e mouth. A l t h o u g h i t i s n o t e a s y t o s e e i n t h e p h o t o c o p y , a s m a l l l a n d o t t e r i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e c o l u m n - l i k e m o t i f a t t h e s i d e . T h i s charm has t h e same e l e m e n t s as t h e p r e v i o u s l y -107-Fig . 41 BKLN 05.588 7294 Oyster Catcher Rattle, D e t a i l B i l l Holm Photo -108-F i g . 42 P.M. 69-30-10 1908 E. Fast C o l l . 1867-8 Alan Sawyer Photo F i g . 43 Weilgus C o l l e c t i o n "Mythical sea monster i s shown with other animal and human forms." Rev. Doolan, C o l l . Pre 1900 (Wardwell 1978:Fig. 136;D) F i g . 44 M.A.I. 9/7952, Dry Bay. "Sea monster. On the side are three seated s p i r i t s ; at the t a i l i s a s p i r i t holding a s p i r i t canoe f u l l of dead men; on the b e l l y i s a bear s p i r i t , and on the back i s a shaman's s p i r i t holding a s p i r i t canoe with a land otter in i t . " (Laguna 1972:3:P1. 183(G) -111-F i g . 45 L.M.A. 2-19101, Chilkat Represents mythical strong man Kahasi tearing apart a sea l i o n . Collected pre 1869 (Elsasser 1968:18;D) Collected in 1891 (Invararity 1950: f i g . 167;D) See Swanton 1909 145-150 & 289-291 for the myth. Land Otters on Reverse (Harner & Elsasser 1965, frontispiece) B i l l Holm Photo -112-Fi g . 46 Duck-Toolh house post, Whale House of the Kon-nuh-ta-di at Klukwan. The face below represents the island at which the incident occurred. (Emmons 1916:pl. 3;E) -113-d i s c u s s e d s p i r i t t r a n s p o r t e x a m p l e s , b u t i n d i f f e r e n t a r r a n g e m e n t . Emmons (ms. AMNH 19-463;E) d e s c r i b e s a charm f e a t u r i n g a s h a m a n " s t a n d i n g on a f i s h c o m i n g up o u t o f t h e w a t e r " and e l s e w h e r e (E 1012) " f i s h , w h i c h t r a n s p o r t s him t h r o u g h s p a c e unseen, and n o i s e l e s s l y . " The shaman i n f i g u r e 42 i s s t a n d i n g on ( p l a u s i b l y ) a f i s h , and t h u s a l s o t r a v e l i n g . O t h e r e x a m p l e s c o u l d be c i t e d as w e l l . However, t h e theme o f u n d e r w a t e r s p i r i t t r a n s p o r t i n v o l v i n g t h e s u p i n e f i g u r e o f a s h a m a n i s n o t t o be c o n f u s e d w i t h d e p i c t i o n s o f s e a m o n s t e r s , u s u a l l y t h e Gonakadet, d e p i c t e d i n f i g u r e s 43 and 44. F i g u r e 43 i n c l u d e s a p l a u s i b l e l a n d o t t e r , and 44 i n c l u d e s one s p e c i f i c a l l y so i d e n t i f i e d . F i g u r e 44 i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c o m p l e x w i t h i t s s p i r i t c anoe a t o p t h e m o n s t e r . The i n i t i a t o r y r o l e o f t h e l a n d o t t e r s p i r i t f o r t h e T l i n g i t shaman s h o u l d p r e p a r e us f o r f i n d i n g them i n many d i f f e r e n t c o n f i g u r a t i o n s t h a t a r e n o t p r i m a r i l y b a s e d upon them v i s u a l l y . T h e i r i n c l u s i o n as a q u a l i f i e r o f s h a m a n i c power i s one r e a s o n why t h e y a p p e a r so f r e q u e n t l y . F i g u r e 45 r e i t e r a t e s t h i s p o i n t . I t r e p r e s e n t s a m y t h i c a l s t r o n g man, " B l a c k - s k i n " , a l a z y u s e l e s s c h i l d who t r a i n e d s e c r e t l y , a c q u i r e d S t r e n g t h h i m s e l f as a g u a r d i a n s p i r i t and s u c c e s s f u l l y r e n t a s e a l i o n t h a t had j u s t k i l l e d t h e young he-man o f t h e v i l l a g e . T h i s charm has two s m a l l l a n d o t t e r s on t h e b a c k a n d one e m e r g i n g f r o m t h e b r e a s t o f t h e p r i n c i p a l s u b j e c t . I t a l s o c o n f i r m s t h e shaman's employment o f s p e c i f i c a l l y b e n e f i c i a l s p i r i t s , and o f i n h e r i t e d s p i r i t s . F i g u r e 46 d e p i c t s t h e same b a s i c image on a house -114-p o s t o f t h e Whale House a t Klukwan. The shaman's charm has more c o m p l e x i m a g e r y f o r a l l i t s s m a l l e r s c a l e . The bow o f o c t o p u s t e n t a c l e and t h e a u x i l i a r y l a n d o t t e r s speak o f t h e shaman's p r e s e n t s p i r i t power r e l a t i o n s h i p , a s does t h e o t t e r ( ? ) e m e r g i n g f r o m t h e b r e a s t o f t h e m y t h i c a l y o u t h . I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t we l a c k d o c u m e n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h i s c h a r m w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r s i b , b u t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e m o t i f on a house p o s t i d e n t i f i e s i t as s i b p r o p e r t y . A l m o s t c e r t a i n l y , t h e s p i r i t was as w e l l , and r e g u l a r l y i n h e r i t e d by s u c c e s s i v e shamans o f t h e s i b . 4. C o n c l u s i o n I f we r e t u r n t o P a n o f s k y ' s f o r m u l a t i o n , we may s t a t e t h a t t h e s p e c i f i c theme b e i n g e x p r e s s e d i n t h e image o f t h e l a n d o t t e r and i t s v a r i o u s a p p e a r a n c e s , i s t h e shaman's p a r a d i g m a t i c g u a r d i a n s p i r i t r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s w i t h a p o t e n t o b j e c t o f d r e a d t h a t has, however, p o t e n t i a l f o r b e n e f i t as w e l l . The myths o f t h e l a n d o t t e r s ' s u c c o r o f f a m i l i e s i n d i s t r e s s i n d i c a t e t h e p o t e n t i a l t o t u r n a d v e r s i t y t o b e n e f i t i n t h e shaman's s u p e r n a t u r a l c o n t r a c t w i t h t h e l a n d o t t e r s p i r i t and t h u s n e a t l y u n d e r s c o r e t h e shaman's a b i l i t y t o h e a l . To t h e T l i n g i t , a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e l a n d o t t e r ' s s p i r i t meant t h a t a young shaman had a c h i e v e d i n i t i a t i o n i n t o t h e s h a m a n i c c o l l e g e ( s p e a k i n g m e t a p h o r i c a l l y , as t h e r e was no s e c r e t shaman's s o c i e t y among t h e T l i n g i t ) and c o u l d t h e n go on t o a c q u i r e o t h e r s p i r i t s and become a c o m p l e t e shaman. -115-I t i s n e c e s s a r y h o w e v e r , t o d i g m o r e d e e p l y t o d i s c o v e r why t h e l a n d o t t e r s h o u l d be s i g n a l e d o u t f o r t h e s e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n s , and why t h e shaman's a l l i a n c e w i t h i t was e s s e n t i a l . T h i s w i l l be t h e s u b j e c t o f i n q u i r y i n C h a p t e r T h r e e . 4 -116-CHAPTER THREE: ICONOLOGICAL ANALYSIS A. S o u r c e s and g u i d e p o s t s . P a n o f s k y d i r e c t s us, i n t h e t h i r d s t a g e o f a r t h i s t o r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i c o n o i o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , t o r e l a t e what we have o b s e r v e d and c o n t e x t u a l i s e d , t o e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e human mind. W i t h a nod t o a n t h r o p o l o g y , we c a n w i t h o u t d o i n g v i o l e n c e t o P a n o f s k y ' s f o r m u l a t i o n add "...and s o c i e t y " . P a n o f s k y ' s i n t e r e s t i n i n t r i n s i c m e a n i n g o r c o n t e n t (see f i g . 2) o f a r t works, and h i s p e r s o n a l p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r t h i s t h i r d s t a g e o f a n a l y s i s i s d e m o n s t r a t e d by h i s c o - a u t h o r s h i p o f S a t u r n and M e l a n c h o l y , a " H i s t o r y o f N a t u r a l P h i l o s o p h y , R e l i g i o n , and A r t " (1964;F). T h i s work t r a c e s t h e many o c c u r e n c e s o f t h e a n c i e n t c o n c e p t o f M e l a n c h o l y as one o f t h e f o u r humours, o f i t s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s f r o m e m a n a t i o n o f S a t u r n t o a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t , and o f c o u r s e i t s m y r i a d v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l o n g t h e way. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , P a n o f s k y , e t a l ' s , t r a c i n g o f M e l a n c h o l y b e g i n s and ends w i t h a c o m p l e x o f i d e a s s p e c i f i c t o one c u l t u r e , a l b e i t one c h a n g i n g t h r o u g h t i m e . He g i v e s us no c l u e a s t o how we m i g h t make c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o m p a r i s o n s . I f we a r e t o f u l f i l l h i s d i c t a and t h e r e b y e s t a b l i s h t h e v a l i d i t y o f h i s a p p r o a c h i n t h e f i e l d o f t h e a r t h i s t o r i e s o f n o n -l i t e r a t e p e o p l e s , and t h u s t h e c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y o f t h e a r t h i s t o r i c a l and a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h e s , t h i s p r o b l e m must be s o l v e d . Inasmuch as o u r s i s an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l t o p i c , a t -117-l e a s t c o n v e n t i o n a l l y , i t i s l o g i c a l t o seek methods f o r f u l f i l l i n g P a n o f s k y ' s d i r e c t i o n s i n s y m b o l i c and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g y . Mary D o u g l a s , a s y m b o l i c a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , b e g i n s a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e l a w s o f L e v i t i c u s w i t h a p e n e t r a t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n : " D e f i l e m e n t i s n e v e r an i s o l a t e d e v e n t . I t c a n n o t o c c u r e x c e p t i n v i e w o f a s y s t e m a t i c o r d e r i n g o f i d e a s . Hence any p i e c e m e a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p o l l u t i o n r u l e s o f a n o t h e r c u l t u r e i s bound t o f a i l . F o r t h e o n l y way i n w h i c h p o l l u t i o n i d e a s make s e n s e i s i n r e f e r e n c e t o a t o t a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h o u g h t whose k e y - s t o n e , b o u n d a r i e s , m a r g i n s and i n t e r n a l l i n e s a r e h e l d i n r e l a t i o n by r i t u a l s o f s e p a r a t i o n " (1972b:202;K). T h i s i s v e r y c l e a r . We need t o d e l i n e a t e T l i n g i t c o s m o l o g y i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r t h e " l o c a t i o n " o f t h e l a n d o t t e r , a n d p e r h a p s t h a t w i l l t e l l u s why i t h a s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t i t d oes. We may r e c a l l t h a t t h e l a n d o t t e r was t a b o o , b e f o r e t h e c o n t a c t e r a , t o a l l b u t shamans. But, why? And, what i s t h e s y s t e m a t i c o r d e r i n g o f i d e a s w h i c h , f o r t h e T l i n g i t , p l a c e s t h e l a n d o t t e r i n s u c h a u n i q u e p o s i t i o n ? B. I c o n o l o g i c a l A n a l y s i s o f t h e L a n d O t t e r M o t i f S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h e T l i n g i t s e p a r a t e t h e i r a f t e r w o r l d s a c c o r d i n g t o manner o f d e a t h . I t i s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t t o n o t e t h a t t h e s e a f t e r w o r l d s a r e s t r a t i f i e d and i d e n t i f i e d w i t h l e v e l s o f s p a c e i n t h e T l i n g i t e n v i r o n m e n t . B e g i n n i n g a t t h e t o p , Kiwa'a. o r "Land Above," i s t h e d e s t i n a t i o n o f t h o s e who d i e by v i o l e n c e , e i t h e r i n war - 1 1 8 -o r f r o m a b e a s t . T h i s r e a l m i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e v a u l t o f t h e s k y , a c t u a l l y above t h e s k y , and t h e N o r t h e r n L i g h t s a r e c a u s e d by t h e s p i r i t s who r e s i d e t h e r e p l a y i n g a game s i m i l a r t o s h i n n y (Laguna 1972:2:766;G). Kiwa'a i s g u a r d e d a g a i n s t u n d e s e r v e d e n t r y by watchmen s t a n d i n g g u a r d a t Gus-Wut, " c l o u d h o l e , " c o n c e i v e d as a h o l e i n t h e v a u l t o f t h e s k y ( i b i d . : 7 7 0 ) . The n e x t r e a l m down, K e t t Kiwa'a. "Dog Heaven," i s t h e d e s t i n a t i o n o f t h e s o u l s o f w i t c h e s and o t h e r s e r i o u s m a l e f a c t o r s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e who have been k i l l e d f o r t h e i r c r i m e s . T h i s r e c a l l s t h e charm i n f i g u r e 13, w h i c h was s p i r i t o f t h e a i r , and a " v e r y bad s p i r i t . " A l t h o u g h t h e s k y m i g h t seem t o us l i k e a r a t h e r p l e a s a n t p l a c e , e v i d e n t l y i t was n o t f o r t h e T l i n g i t . As Laguna's i n f o r m a n t p u t i t , t h e s p i r i t s o f t h e w i c k e d " ' f l o a t e d up i n t o t h e s k y and moved a r o u n d on t h e c l o u d s - - g o t no p l a c e t o g o " 1 ( i b i d . : 7 7 1 ) . B e l ow t h e sky, o f c o u r s e , i s t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e E a r t h , p l a c e o f t h e o r d i n a r y T l i n g i t l a n d o f t h e dead, and i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e c e m e t a r y w h i c h was e i t h e r i n t h e woods b e h i n d t h e v i l l a g e , o r more o f t e n , a c r o s s w a t e r f r o m t h e v i l l a g e o f t h e l i v i n g , on a s m a l l i s l e t . T h i s r e a l m , Sege  qawu ' a n i f " g h o s t town," was t h e d e s t i n a t i o n o f a l l t h o s e who d i e d o r d i n a r y and u n r e m a r k a b l e d e a t h s ( i b i d . : 7 6 6 ) . The above g r o u p s , w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e m a l e f a c t o r s i n K e t l Kiwa'a, were e v e n t u a l l y r e i n c a r n a t e d , i d e a l l y i n t o t h e same f a m i l y t h e y had p r e v i o u s l y known. T h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e w i t h t h e f i n a l g r o u p , t h e s p i r i t s o f t h o s e who -119-are drowned or l o s t in the woods. They, as previously stated, do not die. Instead, they become land otter people "kucda qwani". The c r u c i a l difference between th i s and the other groups i s that there i s no body to p r o p e r l y cremate and memorialize. Food for the drowned, i f the body i s recovered, i s placed not beside the f i r e , as i t i s for the t e r r e s t i a l and c e l e s t i a l groups, but i n the water, to mark the realm to which the s p i r i t now belongs. If no body i s recovered, of course, no food i s offered to the s p i r i t , as the in d i v i d u a l has not died. This cosmological s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i s echoed by the s p i r i t s of the shaman SlawA^n, called" " s p i r i t of the sea, s p i r i t of the land, s p i r i t from above, and s p i r i t from below". (Swanton 1909:153;G). A l i k e r e c i t a t i o n i s found in Veniaminov (cited in Laguna 1972:2:835;G). I f we r e t u r n to the data compiled i n t a b l e VI, however, we see that many of the animals symbolising shaman s p i r i t s found on charms were those that frequented the boundaries of these zones, or t r a v e l l e d beween them. The foremost of these, of course, i s the land otter, which feeds in the i n t e r t i d a l zone, but diving and shore birds figure prominently as do marine mammals, which frequent the surface. The oyster catcher, favored symbol for T l i n g i t shaman's r a t t l e s , feeds exclusively in the i n t e r t i d a l zone. Not surp r i s i n g l y , food from t h i s zone, "len-' Adi," or "things of low tide," i s subject to a number of taboos, even though i t i s -120-a m a j o r f o o d s o u r c e . Laguna was t o l d t h a t " A t n i g h t t i m e we d o n ' t e a t a n y t h i n g f r o m t h e b e a c h . . . I t ' s I g a s ( t a b o o ) . I t g i v e s us n i g h t m a r e s (omens o f m i s f o r t u n e ? ) and makes bad w e a t h e r . A l o n g t i m e ago t h e y d i d n ' t have any s a l t y s t u f f i n t h e house. And a young g i r l a f t e r she m e n s t r u a t e s n e v e r e a t s a n y t h i n g f r o m t h e b e a c h f o r two o r t h r e e y e a r s " ( i b i d , : l : 4 0 5 ; G ) , i n t e r p o l a t i o n s L a g u n a ' s . Laguna also remarks that "a shaman and the members of his immediate family, including his wife, were not allowed to eat beach food except during one month a year (February? March? April?) when the mythical Property Woman was supposed to go on the beach to gather and eat such food. Then i t was eaten r i t u a l l y by the shaman and h i s people to b r i n g good fortune" ( i b i d . ) . It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that land otters are largely nocturnal, and that i t i s just at night that humans cannot eat the same food as land otters. Also, late Winter and early Spring was h i s t o r i c a l l y the time of greatest scarcity, when beach food was the l a s t l i n e of defense against starvation. I t i s clear, then, that the beach area, which the land otter frequents, i s a zone of some ambiguity, and therefore danger. The land otter i s thus a l i m i n a l being (from limen. edge) and acquires i t s q u a l i t i e s from i t s ecological position as a land mammal remarkably well adapted to an aquatic environment — q u a l i t i e s that c o n f l i c t with the T l i n g i t ordering of the metaphysical universe. Land otters don't f i t . Obviously t h i s must have a great deal to do with the land otters' pre-eminence among animal motifs on charms. -121-They do not even act l i k e animals as they cavort, chortle and play e n d l e s s l y at s l i d i n g down snow or mud banks. They can swim a quarter of a mile underwater, burbling as they go (Harris 1968:200-201;J). It i s apt then that the T l i n g i t see the land otter as l u r i n g their drowned or l o s t loved ones away by clouding th e i r minds. If land otters do not f i t the T l i n g i t scheme of things, neither does drowning. The d i s t i n c t i o n between accidental death in war or hunting and that from drowning i s that war and the hunt are essential a c t i v i t i e s , however dangerous, and the men who f a l l v i c t i m to the p e r i l s inherent in these a c t i v i t i e s must be encouraged. Drowning, however, f a i l s to respect i n d i v i d u a l q u a l i t i e s . A canoe upset in bad weather or by strong t i d a l currents, both of which are common, i f not usual, in southeastern Alaska, may cause the deaths of a l l , whether babies or tough old fighters. The "clouding of the minds" part comes in when we think of the complex mental structures, essential to orderly l i f e , l i f e that makes sense, and t h e i r e s s e n t i a l l y a r b i t r a r y nature. Since the land otter straddles c r u c i a l mental boundaries as well as ecological ones, and i s purposely related to a form of death that does not f i t e i t h e r , we may say that " f a l l i n g v i c t i m to the land otters" involves blurring of these essential boundaries, and thus, indeed, a clouding of the mind. There is.more, however. I t i s altogether too coldly a n a l y t i c a l to ignore the emotional effects of suppressed g r i e f , which the sorrowing relations of the absent drowned are -122-u n a b l e t o d i s c h a r g e by means o f f u n e r a r y d i s p l a y and p o t l a t c h . What i s w o r s e , i n a b i l i t y t o c e l e b r a t e t h e s e e s s e n t i a l r i t e s o f p a s s a g e f o r t h e s p i r i t o f t h e d e c e a s e d means t h a t t h e r e w i l l be no r e i n c a r n a t i o n o f t h e s o u l . The l o v e d one i s t h u s t r u l y l o s t f o r e v e r , and t h e s o l a c e a v a i l a b l e by means o f t h i s c e r t a i n t y t o t h e s u r v i v o r s o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l l y dead i s a b s e n t , w h i c h o n l y compounds t h e e m o t i o n a l d i s o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e s u r v i v o r s o f t h e drowned. T u r n i n g our a t t e n t i o n now t o t h e shaman, we s e e t h a t he i s s e t up i n a s i m i l a r l y a n o m a l o u s s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . As t h e p r i m a r y i n t e r m e d i a r y b etween t h e human l i v i n g w o r l d and t h a t o f t h e s p i r i t s , t h e shaman i s as l i m i n a l as t h e l a n d o t t e r . An e l a b o r a t e s e t o f r u l e s s e t s him a p a r t f r o m o r d i n a r y p e o p l e . He i s n o t c r e m a t e d , as a r e o t h e r T l i n g i t , b u t i s p l a c e d i n a g r a v e h o u s e w h i c h no one o t h e r t h a n a n o t h e r s h a m a n o f h i s own l i n e a g e d a r e d e v e r a p p r o a c h . I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t when t h i s s t r u c t u r e d e c a y e d and c o l l a p s e d , a l l p a r t s f e l l s i m u l t a n e o u s l y (Laguna 1972:2:699;G). H i s a r t was made f o r him by h i m s e l f , o r members o f h i s own s i b , r a t h e r t h a n by h i s " o p p o s i t e s , " as was t h e c a s e w i t h c r e s t a r t ( i b i d . : 6 8 7 - 8 ) , and h i s f o o d t a b o o s , a s m e n t i o n e d , were u n i q u e l y s t r i c t . Even h i s d a i l y a p e a r a n c e s e t him a p a r t , as t h e T l i n g i t shaman n e v e r c u t h i s h a i r o r h i s n a i l s . Thus, a p a r t i c u l a r human, t h e shaman, was c o n c e i v e d o f and s e t up as h a v i n g a s u p e r n a t u r a l a l l i a n c e w i t h t h e most l i m i n a l o f a n i m a l s , w h i c h had been s e l e c t e d as s u c h and i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r l y u n f o r t u n a t e f a t e by means o f p r e c i s e , i f u n c o n s c i o u s r u l e s . -123-To t h e T l i n g i t , and p e r h a p s t o p e o p l e o f most c u l t u r e s , t h e s p i r i t w o r l d i s n o t a m a t t e r o f a b s t r a c t t h e o r y , b u t a d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e i n dreams, v i s i o n s and myth. I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e f l e c t b u t b r i e f l y on t h e p o s s i b l e l o n g - t e r m e f f e c t s o f s p e n d i n g a l i f e t i m e p l a y i n g w i t h t h e p i c t u r e s i n one's m i n d i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e i m a g e s t h e r e a r e p u b l i c l y a c c e s s i b l e and r e l a t e t o a r e a l , o b j e c t i v e s p i r i t w o r l d , r a t h e r t h a n u t t e r l y p r i v a t e . Were an i n t e l l i g e n t , d e d i c a t e d shaman t o s p e n d t h e k i n d o f e n e r g y d r e a m i n g and v i s u a l i z i n g i n t r a n c e , as many no d o u b t d i d , t h a t g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s t o d a y s pend r e s e a r c h i n g and w r i t i n g - t h a t i s , b e i n g l i t e r a t e - he w o u l d u n d o u b t e d l y a c h i e v e a m e n t a l w o r l d n o t o n l y v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m o u r s , b u t one i n w h i c h he c o u l d move t h r o u g h s u p e r n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e s w i t h a l l t h e l u c i d i t y and s e n s e o f u t t e r r e a l i t y known t o us under t h e r u b r i c " l u c i d dream", i n w h i c h t h e d r e a m e r i s c o n s c i o u s o f t h e f a c t t h a t he i s d r e a m i n g , and, c o n t i n u i n g t o dream, i s a b l e t o i n f l u e n c e i t s ' c o u r s e (see G r e e n 1968;K) . An a n a l a g o u s p r o c e s s i s Jung's " a c t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n " , a k i n d o f enhanced a u t b - h y p n o t i c daydream (see Hannah 1981;K). The c o n t i n u e d f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h t h e i r r a t i o n a l and t h e u n c o n s c i o u s i n our own c u l t u r e p o i n t s t o t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y o f t h e c o m p e l l i n g n a t u r e o f t h e dream o r s p i r i t w o r l d . The shaman i s t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s p e c i a l i s t whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t i s t o u n d e r s t a n d , make s e n s e o f , and m o l l i f y t h e many f o r c e s , s u p e r n a t u r a l t o h i m s e l f , and u l t i m a t e l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l , embedded i n a s p e c i f i c s o c i a l m a t r i x , t o us. -124-He i s t h e c o n d u i t f o r t h e n e c e s s a r y r e c i p r o c i t y b etween l i v i n g p e o p l e and s p i r i t s . M o s t T l i n g i t a r e u n t r o u b l e d by v i s i t a t i o n s o f s p i r i t s i n t h e i r e v e r y d a y l i v e s , and do n o t w i s h t o h a v e o n e f o o t i n t h e s p i r i t w o r l d a s t h e y go t h r o u g h l i f e - Laguna and o t h e r s make no m e n t i o n , r e g a r d i n g t h e T l i n g i t , o f t h e w i d e s p r e a d g u a r d i a n s p i r i t r e l a t i o n s h i p s s u c h a s f o u n d among t h e C o a s t S a l i s h . The shaman, by c o n t r a s t , has r e g u l a r a c c e s s t o t h e s p i r i t w o r l d t h r o u g h dreams and p a r t i c u l a r l y t r a n c e . S l e e p , and t h u s dreams, a r e c o n s i d e r e d c l o s e t o d e a t h , as e v i d e n c e d by t h e T l i n g i t p h r a s e n a n a / k i k a  'aya 'u t a , " s l e e p l i v e s f a c e t o f a c e w i t h d e a t h " (Laguna 1972:2:759;G). T h i s r e s o n a t e s w i t h Emmons 1 f r e q u e n t a s s e r t i o n t h a t c h a r m s r e p r e s e n t t h e dreams o f a shaman (Emmons ms. AMH E2708 and numerous o t h e r s ) . I n a c u r i n g s e a n c e , t h e shaman w i t h d r a w s i n t o h i m s e l f t o make c o n t a c t w i t h h i s s p i r i t s . He becomes one or t h e o t h e r o f them as he need s t o t r a v e l o r f i g h t . The l a n d s c a p e o r s e a s c a p e t h r o u g h w h i c h he t r a v e l s , and t h e l o c a t i o n o f h i s b a t t l e s w i t h h o s t i l e s p i r i t s i s i n s i d e h i s m i n d , we w o u l d s a y , b u t we c a n f o l l o w t h e s h a m a n no f a r t h e r , b e i n g b o t h p e r s o n a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y l e s s a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t r a n c e and t h e i n n e r l a n d s c a p e , t h a n he. The l a n d o t t e r , as p r o t o t y p i c a l shaman's s p i r i t , r e p r e s e n t s i n a way t h e e n t i r e t y o f t h e shaman's o t h e r - w o r l d l y e x p e r i e n c e , t h e da r k and l i m i n a l a s p e c t s o f e x i s t e n c e . I t s p o w e r s t o c l o u d m i n d s r e s o n a t e s a g a i n i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , f o r as s y m b o l o f t h e shaman's i n i t i a t o r y t r a n c e , i t r e m a i n s as -125-symbol of h i s a b i l i t y to (as we might say) sink i n t o the h a l l of mirrors within, or (as he might say), t r a v e l and transform in the l i m i t l e s s vastness of supernatural space. What he does there i s of consuming i n t e r e s t to a l l . I t i s more than mere c o l l e c t i v e fantasy because as a human i n s t i t u t i o n of p a l e o l i t h i c o r i g i n and global d i s t r i b u t i o n , shamanism would seem to be of fundamental significance to the human species. The shamans' trance and the universal b e l i e f in s p i r i t s point to c a p a b i l i t i e s of the human mind that are of essential value in the s u r v i v a l and evolution of the human race. C. Conclusion By following Panofsky's method we have been guided to take a very close look at T l i n g i t shamans' charms and their contexts on three successively more abstract l e v e l s . It was necessary to touch on a n a l y t i c a l insights developed by anthropologists in order to approach land otters in their symbolic matrix i n the t h i r d stage of a n a l y s i s , but i n so doing we have integrated art h i s t o r i c a l and anthropological methods in a way that i s , hopefully, sound and f r u i t f u l . -126-BIBLIOGRAPHY Bibliographies D a l l , William H. and Baker, Marcus 1879 P a r t i a l l i s t of books, pamphlets, papers in s e r i a l journals, and other publications on Alaska and adjacent regions. P a c i f i c Coast  P i l o t : Coasts and Islands of Alaska, 2nd series, pp. 226-375. U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington D.C. Dockstader, Frederick J . 1957 The American Indian in graduate studies. Museum of the American Indian Heve  Foundation Contributions XV. and A l i c e W. Dockstader 1974 The American Indian in graduate studies, a bibliography of theses and d i s s e r t a t i o n s . Museum of the American Indian Heve Founda- tion Contributions XXV:2. Eberstadt, Edward 1941 The Northwest Coast: a century of personal  narratives of discovery, conquest. and  exploration: Bering's l a n d f a l l to Wilkes' -surveys. Edward Eberstadt and Sons, New York. Their catalogue 119. 1958 Alaska and the Northwest Coast: rare books  and manuscripts, early maps, p r i n t s , apd  paintings of outstanding h i s t o r i c a l impor- tance. Edward Eberstadt and Sons, New York. Their catalogue 148. Gormly, Mary 1955 Spanish documentary material pertaining to the Northwest Coast Indians. Davidson  Journal of Anthropology 1:1:21-41. Harding, Anne D. and P. B o i l i n g 1938 Bibliograhy of a r t i c l e s and papers on North  American Indian a r t . United States Depart-ment of the Interior, Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Washington D.C. Murdock, George P. 1975 Ethnographic bibliography of North America. Human Relations Area F i l e s Press, New Haven. -127-S m i t h , C h a r l e s W. I s a b e l Mayhew 1950 P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t A m e r i c a n a . a c h e c k l i s t o f  books and p a m p h l e t s r e l a t i n g t o t h e h i s t o r y  o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t . 3 r d e d . B i n s f o r d and M o r t f o r t h e Oregon H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , P o r t l a n d . A l a n and L o i s L e b o v A n n o t a t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t  I n d i a n A r t . L i b r a r y o f t h e Museum o f P r i m i -t i v e A r t , New Y o r k . P r i m i t i v e A r t B i b l i o g r a p h y 8. W i c k e r s h a m , James 1927 A b i b l i o g r a p h y o f A l a s k a n l i t e r a t u r e 1724-1924. A l a s k a A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e and S c h o o l  o f M i n e s M i s c . Pub. 1. W a r d w e l l , 1970 B. T l i n g i t Shamanism and Shamanic A r t B a i r d , D o n a l d 1965 T l i n g i t t r e a s u r e s ; how an i m p o r t a n t c o l l e c -t i o n came t o P r i n c e t o n . P r i n c e t o n A l u m n i  Weekly 65:17:6-17. Emmons, G e o r g e T. and G.P.L. M i l e s 1939 S h a m a n i s t i c charms. E t h n o l o g i a C r a n m o r e n s i s 4:31-35. G i g l i o l i , E n r i c o H. 1900 A m u l e t i d e g l i s c i a m a n i m e d i c i d i a l c u n i p o p l i d e l n o r t e o d e l l A m e r i c a b o r e a l e e p i l s p e c i a l m e n t e d e g l i H a i d a , T l i n g i t , e T s i m s i a m . A r c h i v o p e r 1 ' A n t r o p o l o g i a e l a e t n o l o g i a XXX:227-237. Iowa U n i v e r s i t y Museum o f A r t 1973 The a r t o f t h e shaman. Iowa C i t y . J o n a i t i s , A l d o n a 1977 The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s o c i a l and s h amanic a r t o f t h e T l i n g i t I n d i a n s o f s o u t h - e a s t e r n A l a s k a . Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , New Y o r k . U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , Ann A r b o r . 1978 L a n d o t t e r s and shamans: some i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n s o f T l i n g i t c h a rms. A m e r i c a n I n d i a n A r t 4:1:62-66. -128-1980 The d e v i l f i s h i n T l i n g i t s a c r e d a r t . A m e r i c a n I n d i a n A r t 5:3:42-47. 1981 Shaman's masks and s p i r i t u a l power among t h e T l i n g i t I n d i a n s o f A l a s k a . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e 1981 m e e t i n g "New D i m e n s i o n s i n N a t i v e A m e r i c a n A r t H i s t o r y , " Tempe, A r i z o n a . 1983 " S t y l e and meaning i n t h e s hamanic a r t o f t h e n o r t h e r n N o r t h w e s t C o a s t . " I n The box  o f d a y l i g h t . N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n a r t a t  t h e S e a t t l e A r t Museum, e d i t e d by B i l l Holm, pp. 129-131. S e a t t l e A r t Museum, S e a t t l e . L a g u n a , F r e d e r i c a de 1973 T l i n g i t shamans. I n The f a r n o r t h : 2000  y e a r s o f A m e r i c a n E s k imo and I n d i a n a r t . e d i t e d by t h e U.S. N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y o f A r t , pp. 227-279. W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. L i b b e y , W i l l i a m 1886 . S u p e r s t i t i o u s n e g l e c t , k i l l e d by t h e t r e a t -ment o f t h e m e d i c i n e man. New Y o r k Times v. 36, no. 10,985, Nov. 16, p . 2. O l s o n , R o n a l d L . 1961 T l i n g i t shamanism and s o r c e r y . K r o e b e r A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y P a p e r s 25:207-220. S h o t r i d g e , L o u i s 1930 How A t s - h a f o l l o w e d t h e h i d e o f h i s comrade t o yek l a n d . P e n n s y l v a n i a U n i v e r s i t y Museum  J o u r n a l XXI:3-4:215-226. C. O t h e r Works on Shamanism and Shamanic A r t B a r b e a u , C h a r l e s M a r i u s 1958 M e d i c i n e Men on t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c C o a s t . N a t i o n a l Museum o f Canada, A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S e r i e s 42, B u l l . 152. D e p a r t m e n t o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , N a t i o n a l Museums o f Canada, O t t a w a . R e p r i n t e d 1973. B h a r a t i , Agehananda, e d . 1973 The r e a l m o f t h e e x t r a-human: i d e a s and  a c t i o n s . Mouton, The Haugue, and A l d i n e C h i c a g o . -129-B o g o r a s , Waldeman G. 1930 The s h a m a n i s t i c c a l l and t h e p e r i o d o f i n i t i a t i o n i n n o r t h A s i a and n o r t h e r n A m e r i c a . I n P a p e r s o f t h e 2 3 r d s e s s i o n  o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s o f A m e r i c a n - i s t s . 1928. pp. 441-444. B o u t e i l l e r , M a r c e l l e 1950 Chamanisme e t g u e r i s o n magique. P r e s s e s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de F r a n c e , P a r i s . D e v e r e u x , G e o r g e 1957 Dream l e a r n i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n A n t h r o p o l o g i s t and i n d i v i d u a l r i t u a l Mohave shamanism. A m e r i c a n 59:1036-1045. D r u r y , N e v i l l 1982 The Shaman and t h e M a g i c i a n . R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , L o n d o n . E l i a d e , M i r c e a 1972 Shamanism: a r c h a i c t e c h n i q u e s o f e c s t a c y . P a n t h e o n , New Y o r k . Edsman, C M . , E d . 1967 S t u d i e s i n Shamanism. A l m q u i s t and W i k s e l l , S t o c k h o l m . E l m e n d o r f , W i l l i a m W. 1953 S o u l l o s s i l l n e s s i n w e s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a P a p e r s o f t h e 2 9 t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s  o f A m e r i c a n i s t s . Furst, Peter T. 1977 Roots and con t i n u i t i e s of shamanism. In Stones, bones and skin, r i t u a l and shamanic  art, edited by Anne Trueblood Brodzky, Rose Daneswich, and Nick Johnson, pp. 1-28. The Society for Art Publications, Toronto. Halifax, Joan 1979 Shamanic voices: a survey of visionary  narratives. E.P. Dutton, New York. Harner, Michael 1980 The way of the shaman. Bantam, Toronto. H u l t k r a n t z , Ake 1973 The d e f i n i t i o n o f shamanism. Temenos 9:25-37. -130-J i l e k , W o l f g a n g G. 1982 I n d i a n h e a l i n g ; shamanic c e r e m o n i a l i s m i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t t o d a y . Hancock House, S u r r e y B.C. J o r g e n s o n , Gxaco M. M. 1970 A c o m p a r a t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t Shamanism. U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , D e p t . o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . L a r s e n , S t e p h e n 1976 The shaman's doorway: o p e n i n g t h e m y t h i c ima-. g i n a t i o n t o c o n t e m p o r a r y c o n s c i o u s n e s s . H a r p e r and Row, New Y o r k . Lommel, A n d r e a s 1967 Shamanism: t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f a r t . McGraw-H i l l , New Y o r k . L o t - F a l k , E v e l y n e 1953 L e s r i t e s de c h a s s e s c h e z l e s p e u p l e s  S i b e r i e n s . G a l l i m a r d , P a r i s . M y e r h o f f , B a r b a r a 1973 "Shamanic E q u i l i b r i u m : B a l a n c e and m e d i a t i o n i n known and unknown w o r l d s . " I n A m e r i c a n  F o l k M e d i c i n e , Wayland D. Hand, Ed. pp. 99-108. U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , B e r k e l e y . N o r d l a n d , 0. 1967 Shamanism and t h e u n r e a l : s t u d i e s i n S i b e r i a n shamanism. S c r i p t a I n s t i t u t a D o n n e r i a n i  A b o e n s i s 1:166-185 R e i c h e l - D o l m a t o f f , G e r a r d o 1975 The shaman and t h e j a g u a r . Temple U n i v e r -s i t y P e r s s , P h i l a d e l p h i a . S t e r n b e r g , Leo 1924 D i v i n e e l e c t i o n i n p r i m i t i v e r e l i g i o n . P a p e r s o f t h e 2 1 s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s  o f A m e r i c a n i s t s . v. 2, pp. 472-512. K r a u s R e p r i n t , L i c h t e n s t e i n , 1968. V a s t o k a s , J o a n 1977 The shamanic t r e e o f l i f e . I n S t o n e s . b o n e s ,  and s k i n f r i t u a l and shamanic a r t , e d i t e d by Anne T r u e b l o o d B r o d z k y , Rose D a n e s w i c h , and N i c k J o h n s o n , pp. 93-117. The S o c i e t y f o r A r t P u b l i c a t i o n s , T o r o n t o . -131-Art Books and Exhibition Catalogues: Coe, Ralph T. 1976 Sacred c i r c l e s : two thouand years of North  American Indian a r t . Arts Council of Great B r i t a i n , London. C o l l i n s , Henry B., Frederica de Laguna, Edmund 1978 Carpenter, and Peter Stone, The far north: 2000 years of American Eskimo and Indian Art Catalogue of an exhibition held at the U.S. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C, 1973. Indiana University Press, Bloomington Davis, Robert Tyler 1949 Native Arts of the P a c i f i c Northwest from the Rasmussen c o l l e c t i o n of the Portland Art Museum. Stanford University Press, Stanford Cal. Dockstader, Frederick J . 1966 Indian art in America: the arts and c r a f t s  of the North American Indian. New York Graphic Society, Greenwich Conn. Dockstader, Frederick J . 1973 Indian Art of the Americas. Museum of the American Indian, New York. Douglas, Frederic H. and Rena D'Harnoncourt 1941 Indian art of the United States. Museum of Modern Art, New York. Duff, Wilson, B i l l Holm and B i l l Reid 1967 Arts of the raven: masterworks by the North- west Coast Indian: an exhibition in honour  of the one hundredth anniversary of Canadian  confederation. Vancouver Art Gallery, Vancouver. Elsasser, Albert B. 1968 Treasures of the Lowie Museum. Lowie Museum, Berkeley. Fast, Edward G. 1869 Catalogue of a n t i q u i t i e s and c u r i o s i t i e s . Leavitt Streibeigh & Co., Boston. Feder, Norman 1971 American Indian art. Abrams, New York. Fuhrmann, E. 1923 T l i n k i t und Haida Indianer. Darmstadt. -132-F u r s t , P e t e r T., and J i l l F u r s t . 1982 N o r t h A m e r i c a n I n d i a n A r t . R i t o l l i , New Y o r k . G u n t h e r , E r n a 1951 I n d i a n s o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t . T a y l o r Museum o f t h e C o l o r a d o S p r i n g s F i n e A r t s C e n t e r and t h e S e a t t l e A r t Museum 1962 N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n A r t . An e x h i b i t a t t h e S e a t t l e W o r l d ' s F a i r F i n e A r t P a v i l i o n 21 A p r i l 21 O c t o b e r 1962. S e a t t l e W o r l d ' s F a i r , S e a t t l e . 1963 "West C o a s t I n d i a n a r t goes t o t h e f a i r . " The B e a v e r 293:4-14. 1966 A r t i n t h e l i f e o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t  I n d i a n . P o r t l a n d A r t Museum, P o r t l a n d , Oregon H a e b e r l i n g , W o l f g a n g 1979 D o n n e r v o g e l und Raubwal. H a m b u r g i s c h e s Museum f u r V o l k e r k u n d e and C h r i s t i a n s V e r l a g , Hamburg. H a r n e r , M i c h a e l J . and A l b e r t B. E l s a s s e r . 1965 A r t o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t . An E x h i b i t i o n a t t h e R o b e r t H. Lo w i e Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , 26 M a r ch - 17 O c t o b e r , 1965. Hawthorn, A u d r e y 1975 The W a l t e r and M a r i a n n e K o e r n e r c o l l e c t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C. P r e s s , V a n c o u v e r . 1979 K w a k i u t l a r t . D o u g l a s & M c l n t y r e , V a n c o u v e r . Holm, B i l l 1972 C r o o k e d beak o f Heaven. U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , S e a t t l e . I n v e r a r i t y , B r u c e 1950 A r t o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n s . U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , B e r k e l e y . L a J o l l a A r t C e n t e r 1962 I n d i a n A r t o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t . L a J o l l a , C a l . -133-L a v a c h e r y , H e n r i A. 1929 L e s a r t s a n c i e n n e s d'Amerique au Musee  A r c h e o l o g i q u e de M a d r i d . A n t w e r p . M i r s k i G a l l e r y 1972 A r t o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n f r o m t h e  L a s s e r C o l l e c t i o n . M i r s k i G a l l e r y , B o s t o n . N a u r e r , Evan M. 1977 The n a t i v e A m e r i c a n h e r i t a g e . A r t I n s t i t u t e o f C h i c a g o , C h i c a g o . P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , t h e A r t Museum 1969 The a r t o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t . P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y . S i e b e r t , E r n a , and Werner Forman 1967 N o r t h A m e r i c a n I n d i a n a r t : masks, a m u l e t s ,  wood c a r v i n g s and c e r e m o n i a l d r e s s f r o m t h e  N o r t h w e s t C o a s t . P a u l Hamlyn, London. S t e w a r t , H i l a r y L o o k i n g a t I n d i a n a r t o f t h e N o r t h w e s t  C o a s t . D o u g l a s and M a c l n t y r e , V a n c o u v e r . U m l a u f f Museum 1903 Sammlung N o r d w e s t - A m e r i c a , K a t a l o g no. 131. V a i l l a n t , G e o r g e C. 1939 I n d i a n a r t s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . New Y o r k . V a n c o u v e r A r t G a l l e r y 1956 P e o p l e o f t h e P o t l a t c h : n a t i v e a r t and c u l t u r e o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t C o a s t . V a n c o u v e r A r t G a l l e r y and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r . V o l k o v , F. K. and S. I . Rudenko 1910 E t h n o g r a p h i c c o l l e c t i o n s f r o m t h e f o r m e r R u s s i a n - A m e r i c a n p o s s e s s i o n s . S t P e t e r s b u r g . W a r d w e l l , A l l e n 1964 Y a k u t a t S o u t h : I n d i a n a r t o f t h e N o r t h w e s t  C o a s t . A r t I n s t i t u t e o f C h i c a g o , C h i c a g o . 1978 O b j e c t s o f b r i g h t p r i d e : N o r t h w e s t C o a s t  I n d i a n a r t f r o m t h e A m e r i c a n Museum o f  N a t u r a l H i s t o r y . The C e n t e r f o r I n t e r -A m e r i c a n R e l a t i o n s and t h e A m e r i c a n F e d e r a -t i o n o f A r t s , New Y o r k . -134-E. Art and Material Culture: Boas, Franz 1888 Gleanings from the Emmons c o l l e c t i o n . Journal of American Folklore. 1:215-219. Boll e s , T. Dix 1893 Chinese r e l i c s in Alaska. United States  National Museum Proceedings XV:221-222. E i f e r t , V i r g i n i a S. 1947 Lincoln on a totem pole. Natural History LVI:2:64-66. Emmons, George T. ms. Col l e c t i o n notes, American Museum of Natural History: Catalogue 19, Catalogue E. ms. Col l e c t i o n notes, F i e l d Museum of Natural History, Chicago. ms. Coll e c t i o n notes, Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, Seattle. 1903 The basketry of the T l i n g i t . Memoirs of  the American Museum of Natural History 3:2:229-277. 1907 The Chilkat blanket, with notes on the blanket designs by Franz Boas. Memoirs of  the American Museum of Natural History 3:2:329-400. 1908a P e t r o g l y p h s i n S o u t h e a s t A l a s k a . A m e r i c a n  A n t h r o p o l o g i s t . 10:221-20. 1908b Copper neck rings of southern Alaska. American Anthropologist 10:644-649. 1908c The use of the Chilkat blanket. American Museum of Natural History Journal VIII:65-70 1916 The Whale House of the Chilkat. American  Museum of Natural History Journal XVI: 7: 451-460. -135-1923 J a d e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and A l a s k a , and i t s use by t h e n a t i v e s . I n d i a n N o t e s and Mono- g r a p h s . Museum o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n d i a n Heye  F o u n d a t i o n , M i s c e l l a n e o u s No. 35.. 1930 A r t o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n s . N a t u r a l  H i s t o r y 30:282-292. G a r f i e l d , V i o l a E . and Lynn A. F o r r e s t 1948 The W o l f and t h e Raven: t o t e m p o l e s o f South- e a s t e r n A l a s k a . U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , S e a t t l e . H a r r i n g t o n , Mark R. 1912 The N o r t h w e s t C o a s t c o l l e c t i o n . P e n n s y l - v a n i a U n i v e r s i t y Museum J o u r n a l 111:1:10-15. J o n a i t i s , A l d o n a 1981 T l i n g i t h a l i b u t h o o k s : an a n a l y s i s o f t h e v i s u a l symbols o f a r i t e o f p a s s a g e . A n t h r o - p o l o g i c a l P a p e r s o f t h e A m e r i c a n Museum o f  N a t u r a l H i s t o r y v . 57, p a r t 1. K i e t h a n , Edward L. 1926 S t o n e a r t i f a c t s o f s o u t h e a s t e r n A l a s k a . A m e r i c a n A n t i q u i t y 28:1:66-77. 1954 Human h a i r as a d e c o r a t i v e f e a t u r e i n T l i n g i t c e r e m o n i a l p a r a p h e n a l i a . A l a s k a U n i v e r s i t y  A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P a p e r s 3:17-20. 1962 H e r a l d i c s c r e e n s o f t h e T l i n g i t . A l a s k a  S p o r t s m a n X X V I I I : 2 : 1 6 - 1 9 . 45. 1963 Monuments i n c e d a r : t h e a u t h e n t i c s t o r y o f  t h e t o t e m p o l e . R. A n d e r s o n , K e t c h i k a n , A l a s k a . Rev. e d . Bonanza Books, New Y o r k . 1964 O r i g i n o f t h e " c h i e f ' s c o p p e r " or " t i n n e h . " A l a s k a U n i v e r s i t y A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P a p e r s 12:2:59-78. K i s s e l , Mary L. 1928 The e a r l y g e o m e t r i c p a t t e r n e d C h i l k a t . A m e r i c a n A n t h r o p o l o g i s t XXX:116-120. -136-Kreiger, Herbert W. 1928 Indian v i l l a g e s of southeastern Alaska. Annual Report of the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n  for 1927. pp. 467-494. Leechman, D. 1953 The Chilkat blanket. Canadian Geographical  Journal SLVI:2:83. Levi-Strauss, Claude 1943 Art of the Northwest Coast at the American Museum of Natural History. Gazette des  Beaux Arts 24:175-183. MacDowell, Lloyd W. 1907 Indian Curios. Alaska-Yukon Magazine 2:6:185-189. Oregon H i s t o r i c a l Society 1982 Soft gold: the fur trade and c u l t u r a l exchange on the Northwest Coast of America. H i s t o r i c a l introduction and annotation by Thomas Vaughan; ethnographic annotation by B i l l Holm. Oregon H i s t o r i c a l Society, Portland. Carolyn The Yakutat blanket. In Laguna, Frederica de et a l , Archaeology of the Yakutat Bay  area. Alaska. Bureau of American Ethnology B u l l e t i n 192. Paalen, Wolfgang 1943 "Totem Art." DYN, 4,5: unpaged. Paul, Frances 1944 Spruce root basketry of the T l i n g i t . Publications of the Education D i v i s i o n of  the United States Indian Service. Haskell I n s t i t u t e , Lawrence, Kansas. Peck, Raymond E. 1978 T l i n g i t design and carving manual. Superior Publishing Co., Seattle. Ratner-Shternberg, S.A. Museum materials on the T l i n g i t s 1926 I. T l i n g i t shamanism. VI:79-114. 1929 I I . Ceremonial Objects. VIII:270-301. 1930 I I I . Arms and armour. IX:167-186. Samuel, Cheryl 1982 The Chilkat Dancing Blanket. P a c i f i c Search Press, Seattle. Osborne, 1964 -137-Shotridge, Louis 1919a War helmets and clan hats of the T l i n g i t Indians. Pennsylvania University Museum  Journal X:43-48. 1919b "Keyt-gooshe—" k i l l e r whale's dorsal f i n . Pennsylvania University Museum Journal X:213-216. 1920 Ghost of courageous adventurer. Pennsyl- vania University Museum Journal XI:l:10-26. 1921 T l i n g i t woman's root basket. Pennsylvania  University Museum Journal XII:162-178. 1922 Land otter man. Pennsylvania University  Museum Journal XIII:1:55-59. 1928 The emblems of T l i n g i t culture. Pennsylvania  University Museum Journal XIX:350-377. 1929a The bride of Tongass: a study of the T l i n g i t marriage ceremony. Pennsylvania University  Museum Journal XX:131-156. 1929b The Kagwanton s h a r k h e l m e t . P e n n s y l v a n i a  U n i v e r s i t y Museum J o u r n a l XX:339-343. and F l o r e n c e S h o t r i d g e 1913a C h i l k a t h o u s e s . P e n n s y l v a n i a U n i v e r s i t y  Museum J o u r n a l IV:3:81-94. 1913b House posts and screens and their heraldry. Pennsylvania University Museum Journal IV:3:94-100. Waterman, Thomas T. 1923 Observations among the ancient Indian monu-ments of southeastern Alaska. Smithsonian  Miscellaneous Collections LXXIV:115-133. -138-F. Art and Material Culture: Badner, Mino 1966 The protruding tongue and related motifs in the art styles of the American Northwest Coast, New Zealand, and China. Weiner  Beitrage zur Kulturgeschichte und l i n g u i s t i k . XV: Barbaeu, Marius 1950 Totem poles. B u l l e t i n 119. I, I I , National Museum of Canada, Ottawa. Birket-Smith, Kaj, and Frederica de Laguna 1938 The Eyak Indians of The Copper River Delta,  Alaska. Levin and Munksgaard, Copenhagen. Boas, Franz 1890 The use of masks and head ornaments on the Northwest Coast of America. Internationales  Archiv fur Ethnographie 3:7-15. 1897 The decorative art of the Indians of the North P a c i f i c coast. American Museum of  Natural History B u l l e t i n 9:126-176. 1927 Primitive Art. Oslo. reprinted by Dover, New York, 1955. Carpenter, Edmund 1975 Introduction, In Holm, B i l l and B i l l Reid, Form and freedom: a dialogue on Northwest  Coast Indian a r t , pp. 9-29. Ins t i t u t e for the Arts, Rice University, Houston. Coe, R.T. 1972 A s i a t i c sources of Northwest Coast Art. In American Indian Art: form and t r a d i t i o n . pp. 85-93. Walker Art Center, Minneapolis. D a l l , William H. 1882 Masks, Labrets and certain aboriginal customs. Annual Report of the United States National  Museum 3:67-203. Drucker, P h i l i p 1943 Archeological survey of the northern Northwest Coast. Bureau of American Ethnology B u l l e t i n 133. -139-1950 C u l t u r e e l e m e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n s : N o r t h w e s t C o a s t , A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l R e c o r d s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f  C a l i f o r n i a XXVI. D u f f , W i l s o n 1981 The W o r l d i s as s h a r p as a k n i f e : meaning i n n o r t h e r n N o r t h w e s t C o a s t a r t . I n The W o r l d i s  as s h a r p as a k n i f e : an a n t h o l o g y i n honour o f  W i l s o n D u f f , e d i t e d by D o n a l d N. A b b o t t , pp. 209-224. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a . F e d e n , Norman and Edward M a l i n 1962 I n d i a n a r t o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t . Denver  A r t Museum Q u a r t e r l y , W i n t e r 1962. G o u l d , J e n n i f e r 1973 I c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t Raven R a t t l e , u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s , D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . G u n t h e r , E r n a 1966 A r t i n t h e l i f e o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n ,  w i t h a c a t a l o g u e o f t h e Rasmussen C o l l e c t i o n  o f N o r t h w e s t I n d i a n a r t a t t h e P o r t l a n d Museum. P o r t l a n d A r t Museum, P o r t l a n d , O r e g o n . H a e b e r l i n , Herman K. 1918 P r i n c i p l e s o f e s t h e t i c f o r m i n t h e a r t o f t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c C o a s t . A m e r i c a n A n t h r o p o l o g i s t XX:258-264. H a l p i n , M a r j o r i e M. 1978 V i e w i n g O b j e c t s i n S e r i e s : t h e Raven R a t t l e . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , Museum n o t e No. 6, V a n c o u v e r . 1981a Seeing in stone: Tsimshian masking and the twin stone masks. In The World i s as sharp as a knife: an anthology in honour of Wilson Duff, pp. 269-288. B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a . 1981b Totem p o l e s . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e s s , V a n c o u v e r . H a t c h e r , E v e l y n P. 1974 V i s u a l m e t a p h o r s : a f o r m a l a n a l y s i s o f N a v a j o a r t . West P u b l i s h i n g Co., S t . P a u l , M i n n e s o t a . -140-Holm, B i l l 1965 N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n A r t ; an a n a l y s i s o f f o r m . Thomas B u r k e M e m o r i a l W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e Museum, Monograph no. 1. U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , S e a t t l e . and W i l l i a m R e i d 1975 Form and f r e e d o m ; a d i a l o g u e on c r a f t s m a n s h i p  and e s t h e t i c s . U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , S e a t t l e . J o n a i t i s , A l d o n a 1979 C r e a t i o n o f m y s t i c s and p h i l o s o p h e r s : t h e W h i t e Man's p e r c e p t i o n o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n a r t f r o m t h e 1930*s t o t h e p r e s e n t . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t 1979 m e e t i n g , New D i r e c t i o n s i n N a t i v e A m e r i c a n A r t H i s t o r y , A l b u q u e r q u e , New M e x i c o . Kaufman, C a r o l N. 1969 Changes i n H a i d a A r g i l l i t e C a r v i n g s 1820 t o  1910. PhD. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U.C.L.A. K l i b a n s k y , Raymond, E r w i n P a n o f s k y , and F r i t z S a x l 1964 S a t u r n and m e l a n c h o l y , s t u d i e s i n t h e h i s t o r y  o f n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y , r e l i g i o n and a r t . Thomas N e l s o n and Sons, L o n d o n . K r i e g e r , H e r b e r t W. 1926 Some a s p e c t s o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n ' s a r t . S c i e n t i f i c M o n t h l y 23:210-219. 1928 A m e r i c a n I n d i a n c o s t u m e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Museum. W a s h i n g t o n . A n n u a l  R e p o r t o f t h e B o a r d o f R e g e n t s o f t h e S m i t h s o n i a n  I n s t i t u t i o n . p p. 623-662. U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. 1930 A s p e c t s o f A b o r i g i n a l d e c o r a t i v e a r t i n A m e r i c a b a s e d on s p e c i m e n s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Museum. W a s h i n g t o n . A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e  B o a r d o f R e g e n t s o f t h e S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n , pp. 519-556. U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. 0 L i n d s t r o m , C h a r l e s 1946 I n d i g e n o u s a r t o f t h e N o r t h w e s t and A l a s k a n C o a s t s . P a c i f i c A r t Review I V 25-36. L o w i e , R o b e r t H. 1910 N o t e s C o n c e r n i n g new c o l l e c t i o n s . A m e r i c a n Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P a p e r s IV 271-307. -141-MacDonald, George 1981 Cosmic equations in Northwest Coast Indian a r t . In The World i s as sharp as a knife; an  anthology in honour of Wilson Duff, edited by Donald N. Abbott, pp. 225-238. B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a . MacKinnon, Carol A. .1979 A study of pendants and s p i r i t charms collected from the Northwest Coast; ethnological c o l l e c t i o n s  and archeological recoveries. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, Trent University, Peterboro, Ont. Orchard, William C. 1927 A Chilkat blanket and a Haida copper. Museum of  the American Indian Heye Foundation Indian Notes IV:33-40. Shotridge, Louis and Florence Shotridge 1913 The Indians of the Northwest. Pennsylvania  University Museum Journal IV:2:71-81. Smith, D.A. and Spier, L. 1927 The dot and c i r c l e design in Northwest America. Societe des Americanists de Par i s . Journal. Stewart, Hilary 1979 Looking at Indian art of the North West Coast. Douglas & Maclntyre, Vancouver. 1981 A r t i f a c t s of the Northwest Coast Indian. Hancock House, North Vancouver, B.C. United States Indian Arts and Crafts Board 1939 Indian art in the United States and Alaska. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor. Vanderburg,Joanne 1953 Chilkat and Salish weaving. Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Washington, Seattle. Vastokas, Joan M. 1966 Architecture of the Northwest Coast Indians of America. University microfilms, Ann Arbor. Wardwell, Allen 1963 Northwest Coast miniatures. Lore XVI:1:23-27. 1968 Small scale carvings from the Northwest Coast. Auction 11:1:13-15. -142-Waterman, Thomas T. 1923 Some conundrums i n N o r t h w e s t C o a s t a r t . A m e r i c a n A n t h r o p o l o g i s t XXV:435-451. W i n g e r t , P a u l 1966 T s i m s h i a n s c u l p t u r e . I n V i o l a G a r f i e l d and P a u l W i n g e r t , The T s i m s h i a n I n d i a n s and t h e i r A r t s . pp. 73-94. U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , S e a t t l e . W i t t h o f t , J o h n and F. Eyman 1969 M e t a l l u r g y o f t h e T l i n g i t , Dene and Eskimo E x p e d i t i o n . S p r i n g : 1 2 - 2 3 . E t h n o g r a p h i c D e s c r i p t i o n : T l i n g i t A v e r k i e v a , J u l i a P. 1971 The T l i n g i t I n d i a n s . I n N o r t h A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s i n h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , e d i t e d by E l e a n o r L e a c o c k and Nancy L u r i e , pp. 317-342. Random House, New Y o r k . B i l l m a n , E s t h e r 1970 A s t u d y o f t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l  among t h e T l i n g i t o f S i t k a and Y a k u t a t . U n p u b l i s h e d M. A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l a s k a , C o l l e g e . B o as, F r a n z 1892 V o c a b u l a r i e s o f t h e T l i n g i t , H a i d a and T s i m s h i a n l a n g u a g e s . P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e  A m e r i c a n P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y XXIX:173-208. 1917 G r a m m a t i c a l n o t e s on t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e T l i n g i t . A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n s o f  t h e U n i v e r s i t y Museum o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f  P e n n s y l v a n i a V I I I : 1 . Bugbee, Anna M. 1893 The T h l i n k e t s o f A l a s k a , O v e r l a n d M o n t h l y n . s . 22:185-196. C o r s e r , Rev. H. P. 1922 Totem L o r e o f t h e A l a s k a I n d i a n s . Ryus Drug Co., K e t c h i k a n . D u r l a c h , T h e r e s a M. 1928 The r e l a t i o n s h i p s y s t e m s o f t h e T l i n g i t , H a i d a and T s i m s h i a n . P u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e  A m e r i c a n E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y 11. -143-G a r f i e l d , V i o l a 1947 H i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t s o f T l i n g i t c l a n s i n Angoon, A l a s k a . A m e r i c a n A n t h r o p o l o g i s t 49:438-452. G o l d s c h m i d t , W a l t e r R. and T h e o d o r e R. Hass 1946 P o s s e s s o r y r i g h t s o f t h e n a t i v e s o f s o u t h - e a s t e r n A l a s k a , a r e p o r t t o t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r  o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. G o l d e n , F.G. 1907 T l i n g i t myths. J o u r n a l o f A m e r i c a n F o l k l o r e 20:290-295. Holmberg, H e i n r i c h , J . 1856 E t n o g r a p h i s c h e S k i z z e n uber d i e V o l k e r des 1863 R u s s i s c h e n A m e r i k a . A c t a S o c i e t a t i s S c i e n - t a r i u m F e n n i c a e 4:281-421; 7:37-101. Mimeographed t r a n s l a t i o n i n t h e A l a s k a S t a t e L i b r a r y , J u n e a u , e n t i t l e d E t h n o g r a p h i c s k e t c h e s o f t h e p e o p l e s o f R u s s i a n A m e r i c a , 1974. K a i p e r , Dan and Nan 1978 T l i n g i t : t h e i r a r t f c u l t u r e and Language. Hancock House, S a a n i c h t o n , B.C. K e e l i n g , W i l l i a m H. 1967 F u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and e t h i c o - r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s i n T l i n g i t  c u l t u r e . U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f K e n t u c k y . K e l l y , W i l l i a m A. and F r a n c e s H. W i l l a r d 1905 Grammar and v o c a b u l a r y o f t h e T l i n g i t l a n -guage o f s o u t h e a s t e r n A l a s k a . I n R e p o r t o f  t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r o f E d u c a t i o n f o r 1904. pp. 715-766. U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. Knapp, F r a n c e s and R h e t a L. C h i l d e 1896 The T h l i n k e t s o f s o u t h e r n A l a s k a . S t o n e and K i m b a l l , C h i c a g o . K r a u s e , A u r e l 1885 D i e T l i n k i t - I n d i a n e r . H. C o s t e n o b l e , J e n a . 1956 T r a n s l a t e d and r e p u b l i s h e d as The T l i n g i t I n d i a n s : r e s u l t s o f a t r i p t o t h e N o r t h w e s t  C o a s t o f A m e r i c a and t h e B e r i n g S t r a i t s . U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , S e a t t l e , f o r t h e A m e r i c a n E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y . -144-Kreiger, Herbert 1927 Smithsonian explorations 1926: archaeological and ethnological studies in southeastern Alaska. Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n Miscel- laneous Collections 7 8:7:174-187. K u l l , Dorothy M. 1952 A study of T l i n g i t Indian legends and folk  tales from Sitka. Alaska. Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Tennessee. Laguna, Frederica de 1933 Mummified heads from Alaska. American  Anthropolist. 35:4:742-744. 1952 Some dynamic forces in T l i n g i t society. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 8:1:1-12. 1953 Some problems in the relationship between T l i n g i t archaeology and ethnology. Society  of American Archaeology. Memoir 9:53-57. 1954 T l i n g i t ideas about the i n d i v i d u a l . South- western Journal of Anthropology 10:2:192-191. 1960 The story of a T l i n g i t community: a problem in the relationship between archaeological, ethnological, and h i s t o r i c a l methods. Bureau of American Ethnology B u l l e t i n 172. 1963 Yakutat canoes. In Essays presented to Kaj Birket-Smith on his seventieth birthday, January 20th 1963. Folk 5:219-229. 1965 Childhood among the Yakutat T l i n g i t . In Context and meaning in c u l t u r a l anthropology, edited by Melford E. Spiro, pp. 3-23. Free Press, New York. 1972 Under Mount St. E l i a s : the history and culture of the Yakutat T l i n g i t . 3 vols. Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n Contributions to Anthropology 7. Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n Press, Washington D.C. -145-M c C l e l l a n , C a t h e r i n e 1954 The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e w i t h N o r t h e r n T l i n g i t c e r m o n i a l i s m . S o u t h w e s t e r n J o u r n a l o f A n t h r o p o l o g y 10:75-96. McGowan, C h a r l o t t e 1969 R e f l e c t i o n s o f s t r u c t u r a l mechanisms i n t h e e s c h a t o l o g y o f t h e T l i n g i t and K w a k i u t l . U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , San D i e g o . McLean, J . J . 1883 A c c o u n t o f t h e f i s h d a n ce o f t h e S i t k a I n d i a n s . A n n u a l r e p o r t o f t h e B o a r d o f  R e g e n t s o f t h e S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n f o r  1881, p. 693. U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. N a i s h , C o n s t a n c e and G i l l i a n S t o r y 1963 E n g l i s h - T l i n g i t d i c t i o n a r y : n o u n s. Summer I n s t i t u t e o f L i n g u i s t i c s , F a i r b a n k s , A l a s k a . O b e r g , K a l e r v o 1934 C r i m e and p u n i s h m e n t i n T l i n g i t s o c i e t y . A m e r i c a n A n t h r o p o l o g i s t 36:145-156. 1973 The s o c i a l economy o f t h e T l i n g i t I n d i a n s . U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , S e a t t l e . O l s o n , R o n a l d L. 1956 C h a n n e l i n g o f c h a r a c t e r i n T l i n g i t s o c i e t y , I n P e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r and c u l t u r a l m i l e a u f e d i t e d by D. G. H a r i n g , pp. 6 7 5 - 6 8 7 . S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , S y r a c u s e , N.Y., 1967 S o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and s o c i a l l i f e o f t h e T l i n g i t i n A l a s k a . A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l R e c o r d s  o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a 26. R e p r i n t e d by K r a u s , M i l l w o o d , N.Y., 1976. O s t e n s t a d , W i l l i a m J . 1976 The i m p a c t o f t h e f u r t r a d e on t h e T l i n g i t  d u r i n g t h e e i g h t e e n t h and n i n t e e n t h c e n - t u r i e s . U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a P r e s s , W i n n i p e g . -146-S a l i s b u r y , O l i v e r M. 1962 The Customs and l e g e n d s o f t h e T h l i n g e t  I n d i a n s o f A l a s k a . Bonanza, New Y o r k . O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d a s Quoth t h e Raven; a l i t t l e j o u r n e y i n t o t h e p r i m i t i v e . S u p e r i o r , S e a t t l e , 1962. S h o t r i d g e , L o u i s 1917 My N o r t h l a n d R e v i s i t e d . P e n n s y l v a n i a U n i v e r s i t y Museum J o u r n a l 8:105-115. S t e v e n s o n , J o h n J . 1893 Some n o t e s on s o u t h e a s t e r n A l a s k a and i t s p e o p l e . S c o t t i s h G e o g r a p h i c a l M a g a z i n e , pp. 66-83. Swanton, J o h n R. 1908 S o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , b e l i e f s , and l i n g u i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e T l i n g i t I n d i a n s . i n T w e n t y - s i x t h a n n u a l r e p o r t o f t h e U n i t e d  S t a t e s B u r e a u o f A m e r i c a n E t h n o l o g y , 1904-1905:391-485. 1909 T l i n g i t myths and t e x t s . B u r e a u o f A m e r i c a n  E t h n o l o g y B u l l e t i n 39. 1920 The c r e a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e T l i n g i t I n d i a n s o f s o u t h e r n A l a s k a . I n So u r c e b o o k  i n a n t h r o p o l o g y , e d i t e d by A l f r e d L. K r o e b e r and Thomas T. Waterman, p . 535-541. U n i v e r -s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , B e r k e l e y . R e v i s e d e d i t i o n , H a r c o u r t , B r a c e , and W o r l d , New Y o r k , 1931. V e l t e n , H. V. 1939 Two S o u t h e r n T l i n g i t T a l e s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f A m e r i c a n L i n g u i s t i c s 10:2-3:65-74. 1944 T h r e e T l i n g i t s t o r i e s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f A m e r i c a n L i n g u i s t i c s 10:4:168-180. V e n i a m i n o v , I . 1840 N o t e s on t h e A t k i n A l e u t s and t h e K o l o s h o i . I n N o t e s on t h e i s l a n d s o f t h e U n a l a s k a  d i s t r i c t , v . 3. S t . P e t e r s b u r g . I n R u s s i a n . Ms. t r a n s l a t i o n i n l i b r a r i e s o f Y a l e and W i s c o n s i n u n i v e r s i t i e s . Wood, C. 1882 E. S. Among t h e T h l i n k e t s i n A l a s k a . The C e n t u r y  M a g a z i n e 24:3:323-339. -147-E t h n o g r a p h i c D e s c r i p t i o n , C o m p a r a t i v e : Andrews, R a l p h W. 1960 I n d i a n p r i m i t i v e . S u p e r i o r , S e a t t l e . B a n c r o f t , H u b e r t Howe 1874 W i l d t r i b e s . V o l . 1 o f N a t i v e r a c e s o f t h e P a c i f i c S t a t e s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a . 5 v o l s . 1874-1875. A. L. B a n c r o f t & Co., San F r a n c i s c o . Homer G. The C o a s t S a l i s h o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . U n v e r s i t y o f Oregon Monagraphs, S t u d i e s i n A n t h r o p o l o g y , v . 4. U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon P r e s s , Eugene. B e n e d i c t , R u t h 1923 The c o n c e p t o f t h e g u a r d i a n s p i r i t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . Memoirs o f t h e A m e r i c a n A n t h r o p o - l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n 31. B l a c k m a n , M a r g a r e t , e d . 1977 C o n t i n u i t y and c hange i n N o r t h w e s t C o a s t c e r e m o n i a l i s m . A r c t i c A n t h r o p o l o g y 14:1: 1-93. B o as, F r a n z 1911 Handbook o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n d i a n l a n g u a g e s . B u r e a u o f A m e r i c a n E t h n o l o g y B u l l e t i n 40:1: 1-682. 1916 T s i m s h i a n M y t h o l o g y . T h i r t y - f i r s t a n n u a l r e p o r t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s B u r e a u o f A m e r i - c a n E t h n o l o g y , pp. 17-1037. R e p r i n t e d by J o h n s o n , 1970. 1930 R e l i g i o n o f t h e K w a k i u t l . C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y  C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o A n t h r o p o l o g y X : l - 2 . B o g o r a s , W. 1902 The f o l k l o r e o f n o r t h e a s t e r n A s i a as compare t o t h a t o f n o r t h w e s t e r n A m e r i c a n . A m e r i c a n  A n t h r o p o l o g i s t 4:577-683. Chowning, Ann 1963 Raven Myths i n n o r t h w e s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a . A r c t i c A n t h r o p o l o g y 1:1:1-5. B a r n e t t , 1955 -148-D a l l , W i l l i a m H. 1877 T r i b e s o f t h e e xtreme N o r t h w e s t . C o n t r i - b u t i o n s t o N o r t h A m e r i c a n E t h n o l o g y 1:1-156. D r i v e r , H a r o l d , and Wm. C. Massey 1957 C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d i e s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s . T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e A m e r i c a n  P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y , n.o. 47:2:157-456. D r u c k e r , P h i l i p 1955 S o u r c e s o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t c u l t u r e . I n New  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f a b o r i g i n a l A m e r i c a n c u l - t u r e h i s t o r y , e d i t e d by C. Evans and B. M e g g a rs, pp. 59-82. A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. E l m e n d o r f , W i l l i a m W. 1960 The S t r u c t u r e o f Twana C u l t u r e . R e s e a r c h S t u d i e s , W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 28:3, s u p p l . 2. W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , P u l l m a n . Emmons, G e o r g e T. 1910 P o t l a t c h e s o f t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c C o a s t . Amer- c a n Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y J o u r n a l 10: 229-234. 1911 The T a h l t a n I n d i a n s . U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l - v a n i a A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n s 4:1. F i t z h u g h , W i l l i a m W., and Susan A. K a p l a n 1982 I n u a : S p i r i t W o r l d o f t h e B e r i n g Sea E s k i m o . S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n P r e s s , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. G a r f i e l d , V i o l a E. 1939 T s i m s h i a n c l a n and s o c i e t y . U n i v e r s i t y o f  W a s h i n g t o n P u b l i c a t i o n s i n A n t h r o p o l o g y 7:3, U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , S e a t t l e . and P a u l W i n g e r t 1966 The T s i m s h i a n I n d i a n s and t h e i r a r t s . U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , S e a t t l e . G u n t h e r , E r n a 1927 K l a l l a m E t h n o g r a p h y . U n i v e r s i t y o f Washing-t o n P u b l i c a t i o n s i n A n t h r o p o l o g y 1:5. U n i -v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , S e a t t l e . -149-1972 I n d i a n l i f e on t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t o f N o r t h  A m e r i c a . U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , C h i c a g o . H a l p i n , M a r j o r i e M. 1973 The T s i m s h i a n c r e s t s y s t e m : A s t u d y b a s e d on museum s p e c i m e n s and t h e M a r i u s B a r b e a u  and W i l l i a m Benyon f i e l d n o t e s . U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Honge, F r e d e r i c k Webb, Ed. 1910 Handbook o f A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s . B u r e a u o f A m e r i c a n E t h n o l o g y B u l l e t i n 30. U.S. Govern-ment P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h i n g t o n D.C. J i l e k , W o l f g a n g C , L o u i s J i l e k - A a l l , Norman Todd, and 1979 B. G a l l o w a y . S y m b o l i c p r o c e s s e s i n Contem-p o r a r y S a l i s h I n d i a n c e r e m o n i a l s . W e s t e r n  C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f A n t h r o p o l o g y 8:2:36-57. L a n e , B a r b a r a 1953 A c o m p a r a t i v e and a n a l y t i c a l s t u d y o f some  a s p e c t s o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t r e l i g i o n . Un-p u b l i s h e d Ph. D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , d e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , S e a t t l e . L o c h e r , G. W. 1932 The s e r p e n t i n K w a k i u t l r e l i g i o n . L a t e E. J . B r i l l L t d . , L e y d e n . M c C l e l l a n , C a t h e r i n e 1953 The I n l a n d T l i n g i t . Memoirs o f t h e S o c i e t y  f o r A m e r i c a n A r c h a e o l o g y 9:47-52. 1963 W e a l t h woman and f r o g s among t h e T a g i s h I n d i a n s . A n t h r o p o s 58:121-128. N e b e s k y - W o j k o w i t z , Rene de 1956 O r a c l e s and demons o f T i b e t , t h e c u l t and  i c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e T i b e t a n p r o t e c t i v e  d e i t i e s . Mouton & Co., 1 S - G r a v e n h a g e . N i b l a c k , A l b e r t P. 1890 The c o a s t I n d i a n s o f s o u t h e r n A l a s k a and n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n A n n u a l R e p o r t  o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Museum f o r  1888. pp. 225-386. The U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Museum, W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. -150-O l s o n , R o n a l d L. 1967 The O u i n a u l t I n d i a n s . U n i v e r s i t y o f Wash-i n g t o n P u b l i c a t i o n s i n A n t h r o p o l o g y 2 ( 1 9 2 7 ) , r e p r i n t e d w i t h same, Adze Canoe and  House T y p e s o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t . U.W.P.A. 6:1 ( 1 9 3 6 ) . U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , S e a t t l e . R i l e y , C a r r o l l C. 1955 The S t o r y o f S k a l a x t , A Lummi T r a i n i n g Myth. D a v i d s o n J o u r n a l o f A n t h r o p o l o g y 1:133-140. S a n d e r , D o n a l d 1979 N a v a j o Symbols o f H e a l i n g . H a r c o u r t B r a c e J o v a n o v i c h , New Y o r k . S a p i r , E. 1915 The s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e West C o a s t t r i b e s . P r o c e e d i n g s and T r a n s a c t i o n s o f  t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y o f Canada 9:255-274. S m i t h , H a r l a n I . 1925 S y m p a t h e t i c magic and w i t c h c r a f t among t h e B e l l a C o o l a . A m e r i c a n A n t h r o p o l o g i s t 27:116-121. S p r a d l e y , James P. 1953 The K w a k i u t l g u a r d i a n s p i r i t q u e s t : an  h i s t o r i c a l , f u n c t i o n a l , and c o m p a r a t i v e  a n a l y s i s . U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r -s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , S e a t t l e . Swan, James G. 1874 The H a i d a I n d i a n . S m i t h s o n i a n C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o Knowledge X X I : 4 . Swanton, J o h n R. 1905 C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e e t h n o l o g y o f t h e H a i d a . Memoirs o f t h e A m e r i c a n Museum o f N a t u r a l  H i s t o r y 8:1. New Y o r k . R e p r i n t e d AMS. New Y o r k , 1975. 1952 The I n d i a n T r i b e s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a . B u r e a u o f A m e r i c a n E t h n o l o g y B u l l e t i n 145. S m i t h -s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n P r e s s , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. Thomas, K e i t h 1971 R e l i g i o n £. t h e D e c l i n e o f M a g i c . S c r i b n e r s , New Y o r k . -151-Wike, J o y c e 1952 The r o l e o f t h e dead i n N o r t h w e s t C o a s t C u l t u r e . S e l e c t e d p a p e r s o f t h e 1 9 t h I n t e r - n a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s o f A m e r i c a n i s t s , pp. 97-103. U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , C h i c a g o . I . H i s t o r y : B a k e r , M a r i u s 1906 G e o g r a p h i c D i c t i o n a r y o f A l a s k a . 2nd E d . U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. B a n c r o f t , H u b e r t H. 1886 H i s t o r y o f A l a s k a . 1730-1885. A.L. B a n c r o f t & Co., San F r a n c i s c o . B e a r d s l e e , L . A. 1882 R e p o r t s o f ... r e l a t i v e t o a f f a i r s i n A l a s k a , and t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e U.S.S. Ja m e s t o w n under h i s command w h i l e i n t h e w a t e r s o f t h e T e r r i t o r y , 1882, f o r w a r d e d by W i l l i a m H. Hunt, S e c r e t a r y o f t h e Navy. S e n a t e E x e c .  Doc. no. 71, i n v o l . 4, 4 7 t h C o n g r e s s , 1 s t S e s s i o n . H e n r y A. I n t e r a c t i o n s between R u s s i a n s and n a t i v e  A m e r i c a n s i n A l a s k a , 1741-1840. U n p u b l i s h e d Ph. D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , M i c h i g a n S t a t e U n i v e r -s i t y . Emmons, Ge o r g e T. 1911 N a t i v e a c c o u n t o f t h e m e e t i n g between L a P e r o u s e and t h e T l i n g i t . A m e r i c a n A n t h r o - p o l o g i s t 13:2:294-298. G l a s s , Commander Henry 1880- R e p o r t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s N a v a l o f f i c e r s 1882 c r u i s i n g i n A l a s k a w a t e r s . P a r t I , O c t o b e r 11, 1880, t o J u n e 8, 1881. P a r t I I I , Novem-b e r 14, 1881, t o J a n u a r y 10, 1882. House  E x e c u t i v e Document no. 81, 4 7 t h C o n g r e s s , 1 s t S e s s i o n . C oppeck, 1970 H a l l , J u d y 1983 C a n a d i a n E t h n o l o g y S e r v i c e . A m e r i c a n I n d i a n  A r t 9:1:50-59. -152-Jacobsen, Johan A. 1977 Alaskan voyage, 1881-1883: an expedition to  the Northwest Coast of America, translataed by Erna Gunther. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Kashevaroff, Reverend A. P. 1927 Ivan Veniaminov, Innocent, Metropolitan of Moscow. Alaska Magazine 1:2:48-56; 113:145-153; 1:4:217-224. Low, Jean 1977 George Thornton Emmons. Alaska Journal 7:1:2-11. L u l l , Capt. Edward P. 1880- Report of the United States Naval o f f i c e r s 1882 c r u i s i n g in Alaska waters. Part I I , June 28, 1881, to October 8, 1881. House Executive  Document no. 81, 47th Congress, 1st Session. Mason, J . Alden 1960 Louis Shotridge. Expedition 11:2:11-16. M i l l e r , P o l l y , and Leon Gordon M i l l e r 1967 The l o s t heritage of Alaska: the adventure  and art of the Alaskan Coastal Indians. World, Cleveland. Orth, Donald J . 1967 Dictionary of Alaska place names. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper no. 567. Petroff, Ivan 1884 Report on the population, industries and resources of Alaska. U.S. Department of the  In t e r i o r , 10th Census. v. 8. Doc. no. 2136-42, micro-print U.S. House Records misc. doc. 1884. Porter, Robert R; Ed. 1893 Report on Population and Resources of Alaska  at the Eleventh Census: 1890. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. Schwatka, Frederick 1885 Report of a. m i l i t a r y reconaissance in Alaska  made in 1883. U.S. Government Printing O f f i c e , Washington, D.C. 1886a The secrets of Alaska. New York Times v. 36, no. 10,858, June 21, pp. 1-2. -153-1886b The Yakutats of Alaska. New York Times v. 36, no. 10,947, October 3, pp. 1-2. 1886c From Icy Bay to Yakutat. New York Times v. 36, no. 10,962, October 10, pp. 1-2. 1886d The St. E l i a s f l a t lands. New York Times v. 36, no. 10,967, October 26, p. 3. 1891 The expedition of the New York Times. The  Century Magazine, n.s., 19:865-872. Seton-Kar, Heywood, W. 1887 Shores and alps of Alaska. S. Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington, London. 1891 Explorations in Alaska and north-west B r i t i s h Columbia. Royal Geographical  Society Proceedings 13:2:65-84. J . Natural History: D a l l , William H. 1870 Alaska and i t s resources. Lee and Shepard, Boston. 1883 P a c i f i c coast p i l o t , part 1, 2nd ed. U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, D.C. Dufresne, Frank 1955 Alaska's animals and fishes . Binsford and Mort, Portland, Ore. Ferno, B.E. 1902 Forests of Alaska. In Harriman Alaska Expe- d i t i o n 2:235-256. Gabrielson, Ira N., and Frederick Lincoln. 1959 The birds of Alaska. W i l d l i f e Management In s t i t u t e , Wsahington, D.C. Harris, C. J . 1968 Otters: A Study of the Recent Lutr i n a l e . Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London. -154-i Johnson, Myrtle-Elizabeth and Harry J . Snook 1927 Seashore animals of the P a c i f i c Coast. Macmillan, New York. Lawrence, Donald B. 1958 Glaciers and vegetation in southeastern Alaska. American S c i e n t i s t 46:89-122. Lee Rue, Leonard III 1967 P i c t o r i a l Guide to the mammals of North America. Thomas Y. Crowell Co., New York. Toweill, Dale E., and James E. Tabor 1982 River Otter. In Wild mammals of North America: biology, management, and economics, edited by Joseph A. Chapman and George A. Feldhamer, pp. 688-703. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. K. Theory: Art, Anthropology, Psychology Ackernecht, Erwin H. 1943 Psychopathology, p r i m i t i v e medicine, and primitive culture. B u l l e t i n of the Institute  of the History of Medicine 14:30-67. Anderson, Richard L. 1979 Art in Primitive Societies . Prentice-Hall, Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey. Avens, Robert 1982 Imaginal Body: Para Jungian Reflections on Soul,  Imagination and Death. University Press of America, Washington D.C. Bachelard, Geston 1969 The Poetics of Space. Beacon Press, Boston. 1969 The Poetics of Reverie: Childhood, Language  and the Cosmos. Beacon Press, Boston. Barthes, Roland 1967 Elements of Semiology. H i l l and Wang, New York. 1972 Mythologies. H i l l and Wang, New York. Bertalanffy, Ludwig Von 1981 A Systems View of Man. Westview Press, Boulder, Colo. -155-o Boas, Franz 1955 Primitive Art. Dover Publications, New York. Bourguignon, Erika 1968 World d i s t r i b u t i o n and patterns of possesion states. In Trance and Possession States, edited by R. Prince, pp. 3-34. R.M. Bucke Memori S o c , Montreal. 1977 Altered states of consciousness within a general evolutionary perspective: a holocultural analysis Behavior Science Research 12:197-216. Carpenter, Edmund 1980 If Wittgenstein had been an Eskimo. Natural  History 98:2:72-77. Cassierer, Ernst 1955 The philosophy of symbolic forms. 3 vols. Yale University Press, New Haven. Clarke, Simon 1981 The Foundations of Structuralism. A Critique of Levi-Strauss and the S t r u c t u r a l i s t Movement. Brighton, Sussex: The Harvester Press, Ltd. Crumrine, N. Ross and Marjorie Halpin 1983 The Power of Symbols: Masks and Masquerade in  the Americas. University of B r i t i s h Columbia Press, Vancouver. D'Azevedo, Warren S. 1958 A s t r u c t u r a l approach to esthetics: toward a d e f i n i t i o n of art in anthropology. American  Anthropologist 60:702-714. Douglas, Mary 1966 Purity and Danger: an analysis of concepts of p o l l u t i o n and taboo. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London. 1972a " P o l l u t i o n , " i n Reader i n c o m p a r a t i v e R e l i g i o n , e d i t e d by W i l l i a m A. L e s s a and Evon Z. V o g t , pp. 196-202. H a r p e r and Row, New Y o r k . 1972b "The Abominations of L e v i t i c u s , " in Reader  in Comparitive Religion. edited by William A. Lessa and Evon Z. Vogt, pp. 202-205. Harper and Row, New York. - 1 5 6 -1973 Natural Symbols: Explorations in Cosmology. Vintage Books, New York. Durkheim, Emile 1915 The Elementary Forms of the Religious L i f e . Allen and Unwin, London. Erickson, Milton H. 1 9 8 1 Hypnotic Al t e r a t i o n of Sensory. Perceptual and  Psychophysical Processes, edited by Ernest L. Rossi. Irvington Pub. Inc., New York. Ey, Henri 1 9 7 8 Consciousness: A Phenomenological Study of  Being Conscious and Becoming Conscious. Indiana University Press, Bloomington. Geertz, C l i f f o r d 1 9 6 5 "Religion as a Cultural System." in Anthropological Approaches to the Study of  Religion, edited by M. Burton, TawStock, London, Green, C.E. 1 9 6 8 Lucid Dreams. Insti t u t e of Psychophysical Research, Oxford. Hannah, Barbara 1 9 8 1 Encounters with the soul; active imagination  as developed by Q^. ( L . Jung. Sigo Press, Santa Monica, CA. Hillman, J . 1979 The dream and the underworld. Harper and Row, New York. Hofstader, Douglas R. 1983 Godel. Escher, Bach; an eternal golden  braid. Vintage Book, New York. Jacobi, Jalonde 1965 The Way of Individuation. Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., New York. Jopling, Carol, ed. 1 9 7 1 Art and aesthetics in primitive s o c i e t i e s . E. P. Dutton, New York. Jung, Carl G. 1960 On the nature of the psyche. Extracted from The structure and dynamics of the  psyche, v o l . 8 of the col l e c t e d works. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. -157-1979 Aion: researches into the phenomenology of  the s e l f . Extracted from v o l . 9 pt-.--ii of the collected works. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. Gennep, A. van 1960 The r i t e s of passage. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London. Haselberger, Herta 1961 Method of studying ethnological a r t . Current Anthropology 2:4:341-355, 381-384. Leach, Edmund 1961 Two essays concerning the symbolic represen-tation of time. In Rethinking Anthropology. E. Leach ed., pp. 124-136. The Athlone Press, London. 1965 Anthropological aspects of language: animal categories and verbal abuse. In Reader in comparative r e l i g i o n , an anthropological  approach, edited by Wm. A. Lessa and Evan Z. Vogt, pp. 206-220. 1974 Levi Strauss. Fontana/Collins, Glasgow. Levi-Strauss, Claude 1967 Structural Anthropology. Anchor Books, New York. Lewis, I. M. 1971 E c s t a t i c Religion. Penguin, Harmondsworth. Ludwig, Arnold M. 1968 Altered states of consciousness. In Trance  and possession states. edited by Raymond Prince, pp. 69-96. R.M. Bucke Memorial Society, Montreal. Mauss, M. 1967 The g i f t : forms and functions of exchange in primitive s o c i e t i e s . W.W. Norton, New York. Neher, A. 1962 A physiological explanation of unusual beha-vior in ceremonies involving drums. Human  Biology 34:151-160. -158-Neumann, Erich 1973 Origins and history of consciousness. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. Nisbet, Robert 1974 The Sociology of Eroile Durkheim. Oxford University Press, New York. Nodelman, S. 1970 Structural analysis in art and anthropology. In Structuralism, edited by Jacques Ehermann, pp. 79-93. Anchor, Garden City Panofsky, Erwin 1955 Meaning in the v i s u a l a r t s. Doubleday-Anchor, New York. Piaget, Jean 1970 Structuralism. Basic Books, New York. Prince, Raymond, Ed. 1966 Trance and Possession States. R.M. Burke Memorial Society, Montreal. Rossi, Ino, ed. 1974 The unconscious in culture; the structuralism  of Claude Levi-Strauss in perspective. E.P. Dutton, New York. Samuels, Mike, M.D., and Nancy Samuels 1975 Seeing with the mind's eye: the history,  techniques. and uses of v i s u a l i z a t i o n . J o i n t : Random House, New York and Bookworks, Berkeley. Sargant, W. 1974 The mind possessed: a physiology of posses- sion, mysticism, and f a i t h healing. Lippincott, Philadelphia. Stewart, Kenneth M. 1946 S p i r i t posssesion in native America. South- western Journal of Anthropology I I : 323-329. Turner, Victor 1969 The r i t u a l process: structure and a n t i - structure. Aldine, Chicago. 1974 Dramas. f i e l d s and metaphors. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. - 1 5 9 -1978 Encounter with Freud: the making of a com-p a r a t i v e symbologist. In The making of p s y c h o l o g i c a l anthropology, e d i t e d by George D. S p i n d l e r , pp. 558-570 B e r k e l e y . von Franz, Marie-Louise 1980 P r o j e c t i o n and r e - c o l l e c t i o n i n Jungian  psychology. Open Court, La S a l l e and London Webber, Mark, C h r i s t o p h e r Stevens and C h a r l e s 1983 L a u g h l i n , J r . "Masks: a re-examination or "Masks? You Mean They A f f e c t the B r a i n ? ' " In The Power of Symbols: Masks and Masquer- ade i n the Americas, e d i t e d by N. Ross Cumprine and M a r j o r i e H a l p i n , U.B.C. Pr e s s , Vancouver. W i l l i a m s , Donald Lee 1981 Border c r o s s i n g s : a p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c - t i v e on C a r l o s Casteneda's path of knowledge. Inner C i t y Books, Toronto. Wittkower, E r i c 19700 "Trance and p o s s e s s i o n s t a t e s " . The I n t e r n a - t i o n a l J o u r n a l of S o c i a l P s y c h i a t r y . 16:153-168. -160-APPENDIX I 1 - Museum Abbreviations AMNH American Museum of Natural History, New York ASM Alaska State Museum, Juneau BAS Museum of Ethnology, Basle, Switzerland BLN Museum of Ethnology, B e r l i n BM B r i t i s h Museum CM Cranmore Ethnographical Museum, Chislehurst, England DMNH Denver Museum of Natural History FM F i e l d Museum of Natural History, Chicago LMA Lowie Museum of Anthropology, Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a MAI Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, New York MAE Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Leningrad MPA Museum of Primitive Art (Metropolitan Museum) New York NMC National Museum of Man, Ottawa PAM Portland Art Museum PM Peabody Museum, Harvard University PU Princeton University ROM Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto TM Taylor Museum, Colorado Springs, Colorado UBC Museum of Anthropology, University of B r i t i s h Columbia UM University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Weilgus Private WSM Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, Seattle -161-APPENDIX I I P u b l i s h e d and A s s o c i a t e d T l i n g i t Shaman Charms Auk AMNH 19-462: J o n a i t i s 1 9 8 0 : f i g . 7; B. C h i l c a t - C h i l c o o t : AMNH Neg. 291560: AMNH E 63 4+5 AMNH E 636+7 AMNH E 63 8 t h r o u g h 40 AMNH E 6 83, 704A-D: FM 78870: LMA 2-19101: J o n a i t i s 1 9 7 8 : f i g . 6; B. PAM 48-3-107: PAM 43-3-10 8: PAM 43-3-110: PAM 48-3-112: PAM 48-3-113: G r a v e l o t E 688-^07 J o n a i t i s 1 9 7 7 : f i g . 65; 1980 f i g , 9; b o t h B. I n v e r a r i t y 1 9 5 0 : f i g . 7; D. H a r n e r and E l s a s s e r 1965: f r o n t i s . ; D E l s a s s e r 1968:18;D F u r s t and F u r s t 1982: P I . 125; D. D a v i s 1949: f i g . I l l ; D. G u n t h e r 1966: #349; D. D a v i s 1949: f i g . 114; D. G u n t h e r 1966:#350; D. D a v i s 1949: f i g . 112; D. G u n t h e r 1966:#352; D. J o n a i t i s 1978: f i g . 3; B. G u n t h e r 1966:#354; D. G u n t h e r 1966:#355; D. Gonaho: AMNH E 1665-6,1669: G r a v e l o t E 1653-1669. AMNH E 2708: V a i l l a n t 1939: p i . 92; D. W a r d w e l l 1978: f i g . 67; D. -162-FM 77872 FM 77873 FM 77 87 8 FM 7 8236 MAI 4/1671 MAI 9/7 952 WSM 2047 t h r o u g h 2064 G r a v e l o t FM 77872-77878 G r a v e l o t FM 78227-78242 Laguna 1972: p i . 182; G. Laguna 1972: p i . 183; G. G r a v e l o t WSM 2026-2067 Hoonah: AMNH E 839 t h r o u g h E 841 AMNH E 1283 t h r o u g h G r a v e l o t AMNH E 1283-1287 E 1287 AMNH E 1480 A&B AMNH E 2711 AMNH 19-450 t h r o u g h 19455 MAI 4/1669 G r a v e l o t AMNH E 1474-1485 W a r d w e l l 1978: f i g . 66; D. W a r d w e l l 1978: F i g . 64; D (19-450 o n l y ) ; G r a v e l o t AMNH 19-450 -19-455 D o c k s t a d e r 1966: f i g . l 2 0 ; D . MAI 9/7 950 MAI 9/7953 J o n a i t i s 1978: f i g . 4; B Laguna 1973: f i g . 284; Hutsnuwu: AMNH E 864 AMNH E 964 & E 968 t h r o u g h E 976 AMNH E 1280&1 MAE 211-24 MAI 211-25 J o n a i t i s 1978: f i g . 2; B. G r a v e l o t AMNH E 943-987 G r a v e l o t AMNH E 1280-1281 S i e b e r t & Forman 1967: f i g . 82; D. S i e b e r t & Forman 1967: f i g . 86; D. -163-MAI 211-32 WSM 1227 t h r o u g h 1231 WSM 1821 WSM 1830 WSM 1831 WSM 1832 t h r o u g h 1834 WSM 1847&8 WSM 1922 t h r o u g h 1925 WSM 1926 WSM 1927 S i e b e r t & Forman 1967: f i g , 83; D. G r a v e l o t WSM 1221-1231 L a J o l l a 1962: f i g . 18; D. W a r d w e l l 1964: f i g . 144; D. G r a v e l o t WSM 1803-1852 L a J o l l a 1962: f i g . 70; D. J o n a i t i s 1980: f i g . 5; B. S i t k a : AMNH E 645&6 AMNH E 649A,B&C AMNH E 677 t h r o u g h E 682 AMNH E 1494 MAI 1/2154 MAI 9/7948 PAM 48-3-115 PAM 48-3-116 G r a v e l o t AMNH E 651-E 682 G r a v e l o t AMNH E 1490-E1495 D o c k s t a d e r 1966: f i g . 120; D. D o c k s t a d e r 1966; f i g . 119; D. P r i n c e t o n 1969:p. 46, f i g . 133; D. Samuels 1975:p. 211; K. G u n t h e r 1955:#356; D. D a v i s 1949: f i g . 15; D. G u n t h e r 1966:#357; D. S t i k i n e : MAI 2/20 89 D o c k s t a d e r 1966: f i g . 119; D. -164-PAM 48-3-48 WSM 904 WSM 910 t h r o u g h 915 WSM 919 t h r o u g h 925 WSM 926 WSM 927 t h r o u g h 930 WSM 1027 WSM 1203 WSM 1204 WSM 1522 WSM 1720 t h r o u g h 17 23 WSM 1770 MAI 4/1666 MAI 11/352 PU 5065A t h r o u g h 5065E PU 5104A t h r o u g h 5104J ROM 939-31-154 AMNH Neg. 291556 ASM l l - B - 8 0 3 and l l - B - 8 0 4 D a v i s 1949; f i g . 116; D. G u n t h e r 1966:#346; D. G r a v e l o t WSM 901-934 L a J o l l a 1962: f i g . 15; D; J o n a i t i s 1977: f i g . 1; B. L a J o l l a 1962: f i g . 17; D. L a J o l l a 1962: f i g . 16; D. I n v e r a r i t y 1950:#160; D. I n v e r a r i t y 1951:#161; D. L a J o l l a 1962: f i g . 13; D. G r a v e l o t WSM 1720-1724 V a n c o u v e r A r t G a l l e r y 1956 f i g . 101; D. Laguna 1972: p i . 182; G. W a r d w e l l 1964: f i g . 138; D Laguna 1972: p i . 173; G. Laguna 1972: p i . 173; G. G u n t h e r 1962: p. 85,#151; D. J o n a i t i s 1980: f i g . 4; B. K e i t h a n 1959; D. -165-BAS IV-A-13 8 CM E117 CM E13 9 CM E141 CM 1133 CM 113 8 CM 1234 CM 1821 CM 4928 CM 12432 CM 24537 DMNH 11426A t h r o u g h 11426H FM 14310 L a s s e r A and B MAI 1301 MAI 9/7051 MAE 5795-45 MAE 5795-47 MPA 57.82 G u n t h e r 1962:#312; D. Emmons & M i l e s 1939: p i . x x i , f i g . 4; B. Emmons & M i l e s 1939: p i . x x i , f i g . 3; B. Emmons & M i l e s 1939: p i . xx, f i g . 4; B. Emmons & M i l e s 1939: p i . xx, f i g . 2; B. Emmons & M i l e s 1939: p i . xx, f i g . 3; B. Emmons & M i l e s 1939: p i . x i x , f i g . 2; B. Emmons & M i l e s 1939: p i . x x i , f i g . 1; B. Emmons & M i l e s 1939: p i . x i x , f i g . 4; B. Emmons &' M i l e s 1993: p i . xx, f i g . 1; B. Emmons & M i l e s 1939: p i . x x i , f i g . 2; B. J o n a i t i s 1 9 7 7 : f i g . 32; B. M i r s k i 1972: unpaged; D. H a r n e r & E l s a s s e r 1965: p. 100; J o n a i t i s 1 9 7 8 : f i g . 7; B. S i e b e r t & Forman 1967: f i g , 84; D. S i e b e r t & Forman 1967: f i g , 85; D. P a a l e n 1943:p.36;E; I n v e r a r i t y 1 9 5 0 : f i g , 1 6 6 ; D ; W a r d w e l l 1 9 6 4 : f i g . l 3 7 ; D ; Coe 1 9 7 6 : f i g . 3 1 1 ; D . -166-NMC VII- A - 2 5 1 PAM 48-3-45 PAM 48-3-46 PAM 48-3-49 PAM 48-3-109 PAM 48-3-111 PM 68-30-10-1907 PU 5089 PU 5095 UBC A-247 8 W e i l g u s A W e i l g u s B RW 65-263 J o n a i t i s 1 9 7 8 : f i g . 5 ; B ; H a l l 1 9 8 3 : f i g . 2 ; I . D a v i s 1 9 4 9 : f i g . l l O ; D ; G u n t h e r 1966:#344;D. D a v i s 1 9 4 9 : f i g . l l 3 ; D ; G u n t h e r 1966:#345;D. G u n t h e r 1966:#347;D. G u n t h e r 1966:#351;D. G u n t h e r 1966:#353;D. P r i n c e t o n 1 9 6 9 : f i g . 47; D. P r i n c e t o n 1969; D. P r i n c e t o n 1969: p . 37; D. Hawthorne 1975: f i g . 25; D. Emmons & M i l e s 1939: p i . x i x , f i g . 1; B; Museum o f P r i m i t i v e A r t 1960: p . W a r d w e l l 1964: f i g . 136; D; Maurer 1977: p.308, #484 & p i . 2 8 ; D. Emmons & M i l e s 1939: p i . x v i i i , f i g . 2; B; W a r d w e l l 1964: f i g . 150; D. Ma u r e r 1977: f i g . 485; D. -167-APPENDIX I I I G a z e t e e r o f Kwans V i l l a g e s and Camps A k v e t s k o e : " l a k e town," summer v i l l a g e s o f Hunas on L i t u i a B a y . 1835 p o p . 200. (BAEB 3 0 : 1 : 3 4 ) . Akwe R i v e r : 35 m. S.E. o f Y a k u t a t Bay, 59 017'N., 13-9°-03*W. " O r i g i n a l l y a p p l i e d t o t h e who l e d r a i n a g e s y s t e m between I t a l i o R. and A l s e k d e l t a ; u s a g e r e s t r i c t e d s i n c e 1901." (Orth:59) "Tebenkov shows two n a t i v e s e t t l e m e n t s h e r e , t h e one n e a r e s t Y a k u t a t b e i n g c a l l e d a k o i b l i z h n (near a k o i ) , t h e o t h e r a k o i d a i n ( f a r a k o i ) . " (Baker:86,88) Gonaho Kwan A l s e k R i v e r : 49 m. S.E. o f Y a k u t a t : 59°03'N., 1 3 8 ° 3 4 , W . Mouth i s D r y Bay. A l s o c a l l e d H a r r i s o n R i v e r , J o n e s R i v e r , R i v i e r e de B e h r i n g . (Orth:68, Baker:94) Gonaho Kwan A n c h g u h l s u : O l d Auk, c h i e f Auk town. On A d m i r a l t y I. o p p o s i t e N. end D o u g l a s I . (BAEB 30:1:56). A d m i r a l t y I . v i l l a g e 1880 p o p . 360. A t P t . L o u i s a (BAEAR 26:396). Seen by Whidbey 8 Aug. 1794 (Krau s e : 6 3 ) Auk Kwan Angoon: w e s t s h o r e A d m i r a l t y I . 41 m. N.E. o f S i t k a : 57°30'N., 134°35*W. " L o s t much p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e l a t e 1880's when a f i s h r e d u c i n g p l a n t was e s t a b l i s h e d a t K i l l i s n o o . " ( O r t h : 7 8 ) . 1880 p o p . 420. 12 h o u s e s (Krause:69) Hutsnuwu Kwan Ankau, t h e : e s t u a r y 0.6 m. l o n g on W. e n d o f P h i p p s Pen., 2.6 m. W. o f Y a k u t a t , 59 o32'50"N., 1 3 9 ° 4 8 ' 2 0 " W . ( O r t h : 8 0 ) . S i t e o f shaman's g r a v e h o u s e s e m p t i e d by Emmons. Y a k u t a t Kwan A h r n k l i n R i v e r : 5 9 ° 2 5 ' 4 5 " N, 1 3 9 ° 3 2 ' 2 0 " W ; 10 m. S.E. Y a k u t a t . A r - s o n - k e e : V i l l a g e , Huna Kwan. (E 838-841) Auk Kwan: on S t e p h e n s P a s s a g e and D o u g l a s and A d m i r a l t y I s l a n d s , i n c l u d i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g v i l l a g e s : A n c h g u h l s u , T s a n t i k i h i n . (BAEB 145:571), and t h e a r e a o f B e r n e r s Bay (E 2683-90) Auk V i l l a g e : 10 m. N. o f J u n e a u . (1890 p o p . 4 8 ) . A n c h g u h l s u q.v. Auk Kwan. B a r r i e . P t . : S.W. P o i n t o f K u p r e a n o f I . , 56 ° 2 6 ' 1 0 " N . , 1 3 3 ° 3 9 ' 0 0 " W . ( O r t h : 1 0 7 ) . 1890 p o p . 89 n a t i v e . -168-B a r t l e t t B a y o r C o v e : e x t e n d s N. 5 ni. f r o m P t . G u s t a v u s on E. s h o r e o f G l a c i e r Bay, 58°27 ,N., 135°33'W. "Named a b o u t 1881 b y C a p t . W.E. G e o r g e , l o c a l p i l o t , f o r C h a r l e s E. B a r t l e t t , who bo u g h t f i s h i n g p r o p e r t y and a c l a i m on B a r t l e t t Bay i n 1884. S a l t e r y i n 1880's, c a n n e r y 1889. (Orth:108, B a k e r : 1 1 8 ) , s e e K h a r t h e e n e . Huna Kwan Behm C a n a l : r u i n s o f l a r g e v i l l a g e s i g h t e d by V a n c o u v e r 27 Aug. 1793. (Krause:63) H e h l Kwan B e r n e r ' s B a y : E. s h o r e o f L y n n C a n a l . 3 m. a c r o s s : 58°43'N., 135 o00'W. (Orth:126). S i t e o f m i n i n g camp "Seward C i t y " (1890:50). No m e n t i o n o f v i l l a g e h e r e , y e t Emmons c o l l e c t e d s e v e r a l g r a v e l o t s f r o m t h i s a r e a . Auk Kwan Bu r r o u g h ' s Bay: e x t e n d s 9 m. N.E. o f f Behm C a n a l , 55°59 ,30"N., 131 o14'00"W. C a n n e r y and v i l l a g e a t j u n c t i o n o f Unuk R. and Behm C a n a l , 1890 pop. 134, n a t i v e 91. S a l t e r y o p e r a t e d h e r e i n 1886 o r 1887. C a n n e r y b u i l t 1888, d i s m a n t l e d 1894. (Orth:169, B a k e r : 1 5 2 ) . H e h l Kwan Cape Fox V i l l a g e : See Gash. C a t I s l a n d : 2.3 m. l o n g b e t w e e n F e l i c e S t r . and R e v i l l a g i g e d o C h a n n e l , 8.8 m. N. o f G r a v e P t . , Duke I . , 55 o01'20"N., 131°15*00"W. (Orth:193). " t h e i n d i a n s m i g r a t e d t o P o r t T o n g a s s f r o m C o t ( s i c ) I s l a n d . " ( C o r s e r 1922:22;G) s e e Dasahuk. T o n g a s s Kwan C h i k a n : See Shakan. C h i l k a t Kwan: a b o u t head o f Lynn C a n a l , i n c l u d i n g t h e s e v i l l a g e : C h i l k o o t , Deshu Dyea, K a t k w a a h t l u ( K a g w a l t e r ) Klukwan, Skagway, Y e n d e s t a k e ( I n d e r s t u c k a ) . (BAEB 145:541). W i n t e r towns: C h i l k o o t , K a t w a a h l t u , Klukwan, Y e n d e s t a k e ; S m a l l e r towns: Deshu, Dyea, Skagway (BAEB 30:1:262) C h i l k a t : 11 m. E. o f K a t a l l a , on C o n t r o l l e r B a y : e O ' l l ' N . , 144°17'W. (Orth:209). V i l l a g e o r g r o u p o f v i l l a g e s on C o n t r o l l e r Bay, (BAEB 145:541). p r o b a b l y summer v i l l a g e (BAEB 30:1:267). summer v i l l a g e ( K r a u s e : 270, f n . 29 c i t i n g BAEB 3 0 2 : 7 8 5 ) . 1880 p o p . 170, 1890 pop. C h i l k a t L a k e 34. G u t h l e u h Kwan C h i l k a t : L o c a l i t y E. s h o r e C h i l k a t I n l e t 2 m. S. o f H a i n e s C t r . : 59°12'25"N. r 135 °26 I20"W. T l i n g i t v i l l a g e abandoned a b o u t 1910 (Orth:209). C a n n e r y . C h i l k a t Kwan C h i l k a t R i v e r : f l o w s t o head o f C h i l k a t I n l e t : 59°12 ,30"N., 1 3 5 ° 2 8 , 3 0 " W . C h i l k a t Kwan -169-C h i l k o o t : l o c a l i t y on C h i l k o o t R., between L u t a k I n l e t and C h i l k o o t L a k e , 12 m. S.W. o f S k a g w a y : 59 ° 2 0 , 0 0 " N . , 1 3 5 o33'10 nW. 1890 p o p . 106. 8 h o u s e s , p o p . 120 (Krause:66) D j i q o t (BAEAR 26:397). C h i l k a t - C h i l k o o t Kwan. C h i t k l i n ' s v i l l a g e : Taku R. and I n l e t . 1880 pop 113. Taku Kwan. -J C h u l c h a g u : o p p o s i t e s h o r e o f m a i n l a n d t o Gandecan (q.v.), 5 h o u s e s . ( K r a u s e : 6 9 ) . Huna Kwan. Chy e e k e : v i l l a g e . Hutsnuwu Kwan. (E943-987) C r o s s Sound: From I c y S t r a i t 12 m. S.W. t o G u l f o f A l a s k a : 58°08 IN., 136°35'W. O r i g i n a l l y i n c l u d e d I c y S t r . (Orth : 2 4 9 ) . Huna Kwan. Da h e t : v i l l a g e . (BAEB 145-571). ' " F a l l e n s t unned', a f o r m e r T l i n g i t v i l l a g e i n S i t k a c o u n t r y . " (BAEB 30:375). S i t k a Kwan. Dasahuk: C a t I s l a n d V i l l a g e ( O l s o n 1961:209;g) T o n g a s s Kwan. Dashu: H a i n e s , 59°14'10"N., 135°26'15"W. O r i g i n a l l y a v i l l a g e , l a t e r a t r a d i n g p o s t f o r C h i l k a t & i n t e r i o r v i l l a g e s . H a i n e s p.o. e s t a b l i s h e d , 1884, t h e n known l o c a l l y as C h i l k o o t . ( O r t h : 4 0 0 ) . A t head o f Lynn C a n a l . (BAEB 145:541). C h i l k a t - C h i l k o o t Kwan. D o u g l a s C i t y : on D o u g l a s I . , 4 m i . S.W. o f J u n e a u . 1980 pop, 26 n a t i v e . ( Orth:283). Modern D o u g l a s . D o u g l a s I s l a n d V i l l a g e : 1880 pop. 50 n a t i v e . O p p o s i t e n o r t h s h o r e o f A d m i r a l t y I., v i l l a g e s i g h t e d by V a n c o u v e r 8 Aug. 1794. ( K r a u s e : 6 3 ) . Auk Kwan. Dr y Bay: Mouth, A l s e k R i v e r : 59°08'N., 138°25'W. " A l s o c a l l e d B e r i n g ' s Bay: named B e r i n g R i v e r by Cook as he t h o u g h t B e r i n g a n c h o r e d h e r e i n 1741." (Orth:285). Gonaho Kwan. Dyea: C h i l k a t v i l l a g e a t modern p l a c e o f same name. (BAEB 145-541). C h i l k a t Kwan. E l l i s , P o i n t : n o r t h w e s t e r n p o i n t o f e n t r a n c e t o T e b e n k o f Bay, K u i u I . 56°33'40"N., 134°19'00"W. "An I n d i a n v i l l a g e h e r e has been c a l l e d P o i n t E l l i s V i l l a g e . " ( O r t h : 3 1 1 ) . 1890 pop. f i g s , t y p i c a l o f c a n n e r y : 17 w h i t e a l l male; 115 i n d i a n : 60 male, 55 f e m a l e ; 35 " M o n g o l i a n , " i . e . , C h i n e s e , a l l male. K u i u Kwan. Fo t s h o u ' s v i l l a g e : Taku R i v e r and I n l e t . 1880 pop. 24. Taku Kwan. -170-Funter Bay: cannery s i t e . 19 m. S.W. Juneau. 1890 pop. 20 native. Auk Kwan. Gambier Bay: cannery s i t e . E. coast Admiralty I., trends S.E. 8 m. to Stephen's Pass, 57 m. E. of S i t k a . (Orth:359). 1890 pop. 8 n a t i v e . Auk Kwan. Gash: Cape Fox V i l l a g e . 55°00'30"N., 131 o00'15"W. on E. shore of Revillagigedo Channel, 4 m. S. of Boca de Quadra (Orth:184). 1837 pop. 177. (BAEB 30:2:463). 1880 pop. 100. On mainland immediately E. of Duke I., beautiful beach, 21 buildings "deserted at census taker's v i s i t , a number of fine poles." (1890:26). (BAEB 145:541). Sanya Kwan. Gandecan: B e l l Town. E. shore of Port Frederick, 25 m. S. of Pt. Sophia: 58°06'30"N., 135°26*30"W. (Orth:249). Chief Huna town (BAEB 145:541) 13 houses, 600-800 pop. trading establishment 1880, mission 1881, (Krause:69) 1880 pop. 800, 1890 pop. 434 Gonaho: former T l i n g i t town at Dry Bay, mouth of Alsek R., Immediate t e r r i t o r y c a l l e d Gonaho kwan by Emmons. (BAEB 30:1:496, and BAEB 145:571) Gutheni: Yakutat Kwan v i l l a g e N. of Dry Bay. (BAEB 30:1:541). Former town N. of Dry Bay. (BAEB 30:1:513). Gonaho Kwan Guthleuh Kwan: Controller Bay. BAEB 30:2:765 c i t e s Emmons usage of t h i s term f o r t h i s group, but does not f o l l o w i t , asserting that Yakutat people only summered there. Hamilton Bay: Kekou I., facing Kupreanof I. 8 deserted and p a r t l y ruined v i l l a g e s a l l on steep promontories or rocky points sighted by Vancouver 13 Aug 1794. (Krause:63) Hanaga: Henya. 1880 pop. 500 Hehl Kwan: Behm Canal (BAEB 145:541) Henya Kwan: W. coast of Prince of Wales I. between Tlevak narrows and Sumner S t r a i t including v i l l a g e s : Klawak, Shakan, Tuxekan Hinauhan's V i l l a g e : Stikine R. 1880 pop. 31 Hlahayik: On Yakutat Bay behind an island c a l l e d Hlaha. (BAEB 145:541). Clach-a-jek (Krause:65), baxayl'k. inside of Baxa, an island (ibid:270 fn. 18). The Clach-a-jek of Krause seems to be i d e n t i c a l with Yakutat. (BAEB 30:1:552). No such place name on Yakutat Bay can be traced or found. (Gunther, note in Krause:270) -171-Hlukkokoan: "Town where people do not sleep much," a former T l i n g i t town in Alaska." (BAEB 30:1:554). Hoods Bay: Hootz Bay. W. coast Admiralty I. 57°26'N., 134°33'W. (Orth:428) Hutsnuwu Kwan Hot Springs Bay: W. of Goddard, W. coast of Baranof I. 56°51'N., 135°24'W. Sitka Kwan Hukanuwu: v i l l a g e on N. side of Cross Sound between mainland and Chichigoff I. (BAEB 145:541). Huna Kwan Huna Kwan: on Cross Sound, encamping in summer northward beyond L i t u i a Bay, with these v i l l a g e s : Okvetskoe, Gaudecan, Hukanuwu, Klughuggue, Kukanuwu, Tlushashakian (BAEB 145:541) Huna V i l l a g e : see Gaudecan Hutsnuwu Kwan: " g r i z z l y bear f o r t " on W. and S. coasts of Admiralty I. with v i l l a g e s : Angwin, K i l l i s n o o , Neltushkin (BAEB 145:541) Icy S t r a i t : 50 m. water passage between Chatham Str. and / Cross Sound. 58°18'N., 134°45'W. (Orth:442). Huna Kwan Iknou: W. coast of L i t t l e Kek I. (Krause:73, c i t i n g Camille de Roquefeuil, voyages 1816-19, Paris, 1823, who saw some palisades and a small piece of land planted with potatoes at thi s place) Kake- Kuiu Kwan. Inderstuka: (Emmons mss) Gantagastaki. " v i l l a g e on right bank of river." L o c a l i t y at Haines airport. 59°15,00"N., 135031*15"-W. (Orth:359). Yendestake. At mouth of Chilkat River. (BAEB 145:541). 1867 12 large houses, 1880 16 houses. 171 pop. (Krause:271, fn. #36.) "Between the population count of 1880 and 1890 an entire Chilkat v i l l a g e , one of four in which the Chilkat people l i v e d , was wiped out by f l u . " (Miller and M i l l e r 1967:198;i.) Inderstuka does not appear on 1890 l i s t . Indian River: 1 m. S.E. of Sitka. Former summer camp of Sitka Indians. (Orth:454) 1880 pop. 43. Location of fo r t destroyed by Russians in 1804. (Krause:70). Kadishan's v i l l a g e : Stikine River. 1880 pop. 27. Stikine Kwan Kagwalter: (Emmons mss) Katkwaahtlu: "town on the point of a h i l l . " On Chilkat River 6 m. above i t s mouth. (Orth:501). 1880 pop. 125. 8 houses, pop. 125 (Krause:270, fn. #34). Chilkat Kwan -172-Kahltcatlan: Old Wrangell. (BAEB 145:541). A town occupied by Stikine before moving to Wrangell, c a l l e d Old Wrangell by Whites. (BAEB 30:1:641) Stikine Kwan Kah Shakes: on shore of Kah Shakes Cove, near entrance to Boca de Quadra: 55°02 I30"N., 130°58 ,30"W. (Orth:485). 4 m. N. of Cape Fox V i l l a g e s (q.v.) , immediately opposite Mary Island. 6 houses, family of Cape Fox chief, named for him. 1880 pop. Kask's v i l l a g e 49, 1890: 25. Sanya Kwan. Kah-tinge-uan: s i t e of old Hutsnuwu v i l l a g e on Admiralty I., across from K i l l i s n o o . (Emmons ms. WSM 962, 1009, stone adze and carving, dug up) Kake Kwan: on Kupreanof I., the designation being sometimes extended to cover Kuiu and Sumdum (BAEB 145:541) Kake: N.W. coast of Kupreanof I.: 56o58'30"N., 133o56'30"W. S'ikanakhse'ni, orig. name. Major v i l l a g e of Kake kwan. (Orth:486). (But BAEB 145:542 has Sikanasankian on Taku Inlet, near Hamilton Hbr. (BAEB 30:1:644)) 1880 pop. 32; 1890 25 houses, number of poles, pop. 35. Kash's v i l l a g e : Stikine River. 1880 pop. 40. Katchanaak: "hip lake." Site of modern Wrangell (BAEB 145:541). Winter town of the Stikine. (BAEB 30:1:664). Katlany's v i l l a g e : Taku River and Inlet. 1880 pop. 106. summer camp. (Orth:501). Taku Kwan K a t l i a n s k i Bay: K a t l i a n Bay, 5 m. long, 8 m. N. of S i t k a . Named in 1809 for Sitka chief. (orth:501). Keshkunuwu: "blue jay fo r t " A former Sitka v i l l a g e in Sitka country, Alaska." (BAEB 30:1:675). Khart-heene: Huna v i l l a g e s i t e in B a r t l e t t Bay (q.v.). (E 2585) K i l l i s n o o : E. coast of K i l l i s n o o I., 2 m. S. of Angoon: 57°28'N., 134°34'W. Established in 1881 of combined natives from Angoon and Naltushkan, brought to work in a f i s h rendering plant. 1890 pop. 79; 1910 pop. 351 (Orth:519). Auk Kwan -173-Klawack: 5 m. N. of Cr a i g on Pr i n c e of Wales I., 55°3'15"N.f 133°05'45nW. Also Tlevak, Tlewak. Russian 1853 chart shows v i l l a g e W. side of Shinaku Inlet, former location before cannery estab. 1878. (Orth:530). Most important settlement on Prince of Wales I. Native labor cannery (elsewhere Chinese). About 50 native houses along beach. 1890 pop. 52. Henya Kwan Klo Kwan: see Kake. Kake Kwan Hlukkokoan v i l l a g e : (q.v.) Klughuggue: see Thlu-hu-gu Klukwan: north shore C h i l k a t River, 14 m. S.E. Glass Pt. 21 m. S.W. of Skagway: 59 o24'00 nN., 135°53 ,30" W. (Orth:531-2). 20 m. above mouth (BAEB 145:541) 1883 65 houses, pop. 500; 1890, 30 houses, pop. 326. Chilkat Kwan Kohltiente's v i l l a g e : Stikine River. 1880 pop. 28. Summer camp Kona: "A former T l i n g i t town in Sitka country." (BAEB 30:1:724). Koo I s l a n d v i l l a g e : 1880 pop. 82. Ku I., upper end of Port Camden, 4 houses sighted by Vancouver (10 Aug, 1794.) (Krause:63). Kosh's v i l l a g e : E t o l i n I. 1880 pop.49. Summer camp. Stikine Kwan Kukanuwu: N. side of Cross Sound. (BAEB 145:541). Kook-noo-oo (Emmons ms.) Huna Kwan Kuiu Kwan: on Kuiu I. with v i l l a g e of same name at Port Beauglerc. (BAEB:145:541) Kuiu v i l l a g e : at Port Beauclerc (BAEB 145:541). Prince of Wales Island West Coast 1880, pop. 60. Kupreanof I. v i l l a g e : 1880 pop. 82. See Kake Kustahekdaan: "A former T l i n g i t town in Sitka country, Alaska. (BAEB 30:1:738). Lake Bay: N.E. coast of Pr i n c e of Wales I., S.E. of Stevenson I. 56°01 ,00"N., 132°55'30"W. (Orth:561). 1890 pop. 28 native. Cannery or f i s h i n g station. Ledyanoprolivskoe: "perhaps a town of T l i n g i t , location not given, numbering 200 in 1835." (BAEB 30:1:761). -174-Letushkwin: Old Hootznahoo. Admiralty Island, N. shore Chaik Bay, 11 m. S. Angoon:57 o20'10"N., 13 4 0 31' 40 "W. (Orth:573) Formerly a populous v i l l a g e (Baker:479). Hutsnuwu Kwan Loring: West Coast Revillagigedo I., near head Neha Bay: L 55°36'12"N., 131o38'00"W. F J o h i n g v i l l a g e established around salmon cannery, estab. 1885 (Orth:597). 1890 pop. 120 n a t i v e . Martin, P o i n t : 27 m. S.W. of K a t a l l a : 60°11'N., 144°36 IW. tOrth:625) Jacobson col l e c t e d T l i n g i t a r t i f a c t s here in 1882. (BLN IV 6G502) Guthleuh Kwan Naha Bay: estuary 3 m. off Behm Canal, on W. coast Revillagigedo I.: 55°36'N., 131°41'W. (Orth:670). Tongass Kwan Nakwasina Bay: head of Nakwasina Sound. "fermented," in Russian. 57 °15'00"N., 135o20'30^W.- (Orth:671). Old v i l l a g e s i t e at entrance to 8 m. N. of Sitka, Destroyed and deserted in 1804. (E 2673). Sitka Kwan Neltushkin: l o c a l i t y N. shore Whitwater Bay: 57o15'30"N., 134036'15"W. Old v i l l a g e , pop. moved to K i l l i s n o o . (Orth:681). 1880 pop. 246. Scutshon. Hutsnuwu Kwan Old Auk: see Anchguhlsu. Parker, Point: Chatham S t r a i t . "Some new houses seen by Whidbey, 22 July, 1794." (Krause:63). Porpoise Islands: junction of Icy S t r a i t and Icy Passage. 5 m. S. Excursion I n l e t : 58°20'N., 135°28'W. (Orth:770) (Dall:1883:190). Huna Kwan Port Beauclerc: see Kuiu Port Houghton v i l l a g e : 1880 pop. 50. Sumdum? Port Mulgrave: cove 0.9 m. long on S. end of Kantaak I., M. of Graveyard Cove, 1.8 m. N.W. of Yakutat: 59°33'45"N., 139o46'40"W. Yakutat Kwan Pybus Bay: E. coast of Admiralty I. 57°16*N., 134°05'W. 1890 pop. 26 n a t i v e . Revillagigedo Channel: S. of Cape Northumberland. Ruins of unimportant v i l l a g e seen by Vancouver 14 Aug. 1793. (Krause:63). Sakar: estuary 1 m. long, off E l Capitan Passage, W. coast of Prince of Wales I., 55057'45"N., 133°16,00"W. 1890 pop. 20 native. Cannery, seasonal settlement. Henya Kwan -175-Salmon Bay: cove 0.8 m. long, N.W. end of Clarence Str. on N. coast of Prince of Wales I.: 56°18'15"N., 133°09'00"W. (Orth:830). 1890 pop. 38 native. Cannery, seasonal settlement. Sanya Kwan: about Cape Fox, v i l l a g e Gash, at Cape Fox (BAEB 145:541) Saxman: v i l l a g e on Tongass Narrows. (Emmons 1971:8, which includes an 1889 Emmons photo of a house). 2.5 m. S.E. of Ketchikan, v i l l a g e founded in 1894 by Sam Saxman, school teacher. (Orth:843). Tongass Kwan Seymour Channel V i l l a g e : 1880 pop. 75. Shakan: head of Shakan Bay, E. of Hamilton I., N.W. coast Koskiusco I.:56°08,15"N., 133°27,35"W. Previous summer v i l l a g e , saw m i l l established in 1879, indian v i l l a g e grew up around i t . (Orth:858). 1890 pop. 29 native. 60 m. N. of Klawak, sawmill and a dozen houses (1890:52). Summer v i l l a g e (BAEB 145:541) Henya Kwan Shake's v i l l a g e : E. coast of E t o l i n I.: 55°58_'N., 132°13'W. Former summer camp of Stikine chief Geks (Orth:859). 1880 pop. 38. Shallyany's v i l l a g e : Stikine R. 1880 pop. 38. Summer camp. Shustak's v i l l a g e : E t o l i n I. 1880 pop. 38. Summer camp. Stikine Kwan Sikanasankian: l o c a l i t y at mouth of Grindstone Creek, 10 m. S.E. of Juneau. 58°13'N., 134°11'W. Former T l i n g i t v i l l a g e name meaning "small black bear town" (BAEB 30:675) (Orth:873). Sicknarsonkee, Emmons mss. Sil v e r Bay: 1880 pop. 29. A summer camp (BAEB 145:542) of Sitka Sinta-ka-heene (Emmons mss.): See Tsantikihin. Sitka Kwan: on the West coasts of Baranof and Chichigoff Islands, with these v i l l a g e s : Dahet, Keshkunuwu, Kuna, Keshtahekdaan, Old Sitka, Sitka, Tlanak, Tluhashaiyikan, S i l v e r Bay (BAEB 145:541-2) Sitka: v i l l a g e on s i t e of modern town of same name (BAEB 145:541) -176-Sitka, Old: On S t a r r i g a v a n Bay, 5.5 m. N. of S i t k a , 57o07'50"N., 135°22I20"W. Site of Russian Fort Archangel Michael and settlement in 1799, destroyed by T l i n g i t in 1802. May be place l i s t e d in 1880 as Old Si t k a , pop. 73. (Orth:721). On Katleana Bay. Cannery s i t e . (Krause:72). Skagway: v i l l a g e on s i t e of modern town of same name (BAEB 145:541) Stephens Passage V i l l a g e : 1880 pop. 290. Auk Kwan Stikine Kwan: on Stikine River and the neighboring coast. V i l l a g e s : Kahlcatlan, Katchanaak, Shakes V i l l a g e . Sumdum: head of Sanford Cove on Endicott Arm. May be v i l l a g e , Port Houghton. 1968 pop. 150. (Orth:927). 1910 pop. 50 (BAEB 30:2:649) Kwan and v i l l a g e on Port Houghton (BAEB 145:542) Takokakoan: v i l l a g e , mouth of Taku River (BAEB 145:541). Taku Harbor: cove 0.6 m. across: 58°04 I10"N., 134°00 I30"W. Lo c a l i t y , E. shore Taku Harbour, c o l l e c t i v e l y l i s t e d as 4 Taku-kon v i l l a g e s , pop. 269, by Petroff, 1880. S i t e of Hudson's Bay Co. Post 1840: 58°03'30"N., 134°02'00"W. (Orth:943). Takokakoan: v i l l a g e , mouth Taku River (BAEB 145:541). Tatshenshini River: tributary of Alsek. "Chief of Yakutat l i v e s here." (Krause:65) Thlu-hu-gu (Emmons mss.): Klughuggue. On Chicagoff I. (Orth:531). 1880 pop. 108. Shaman from has grave house on Porpoise Is. (E 197 4). ident. Chulchagu (q.v.)? Huna Kwan Tlanak: " T l i n g i t town in Sitka country, Alaska" (BAEB 145:541) T l i s t e e : "a former town in the N. part of T l i n g i t region d e f i n i t e l o c a l i t y not known" (BAEB 30:2:765). Tluhashaiyikan: "town straight opposite Mt. Edgecumbe." Former town in Sitka country (BAEB 30:2:766). Tlushashakian: "town on top of sand h i l l . " Old town on N. side of W. entrance to Cross Sound. In Huna country but i s s a i d to have been occupied a n c i e n t l y by many fam i l i e s of Wolf phratry, now scattered a l l over Alaskan coast. Perhaps i d e n t i c a l with Kluhuggue (q.v.) (BAEB 30:2:766) . -177-Tokeatl's v i l l a g e : summer camp, location not given (Orth:973). 1880 pop. 26. Taku Kwan To l s t o i Bay: fi s h i n g station in Thorne Bay: 55°41'30"N., 132°33 I00'W. (Orth:974). 1890 pop. 13 n a t i v e . Tongass: E. coast Tongass I., 54°46 ,30"N., 130°14 I30"W. Former v i l l a g e , m i l i t a r y post 1868-70. Fort Tongass. (Orth:976). 25 houses, very large c o l l e c t i o n of poles. One time of considerable importance as a native rendezvous. 25 m. to Port Simpson. When troops were there i t did a t h r i v i n g business (1890:50) Tongass Kwan: at mouth of Portland Canal on N. side, with v i l l a g e of same name on Tongass I. Towayat's v i l l a g e : E t o l i n I. 1880 pop. 82. Summer camp (BAEB 145:542). Stikine Kwan Tsantikihin: v i l l a g e , s i t e of Juneau (BAEB 145:541). Summer camp (BAEB 30:1:117). Auk Kwan Tuxecan (Emmons mss): Tuxekan. N. entrance to Tuxecan Narrows, 55°53'20"N., 133 o14'30nW. "Tuxeau formerly c h i e f Henya town but the Henya have now moved to Klawak." (Orth:966) n Whaley, Point: v i l l a g e at northernmost point of Revillagigedo I., seen by Vancouver 11 Aug. 1793. Very l a r g e , deserted, could have held 300-400 (Krause:63). Hehl Kwan Windham Bay: S.W. 8 m. from Windham to Stephens Passage, 14 m. S. of Holkham Bay, 61 m. S.E. of Juneau. 1890 pop. 7 Wrangell: 56°28,00"N., 132°22,40"W. 1834 Russian stockade to prevent encroachment by HBC. 1839 leased to HBC -Fort Stikine 1839-44. 1867 U.S. m i l i t a r y post, abandoned in 1877. Important supply post for gold rush up Stikine, 1861 (Orth:1060) Wrangell, Old: see Kahktcatlan. Yaktag v i l l a g e : at foot of Mt. St. E l i a s , pop. 150 (Krause:66) "No v i l l a g e mentioned here by Swanton but Yaktag i s given as a native name in Orth:684" (Gunther in Krause:270, fn #30.) Yakutat: main v i l l a g e of Yakutat Kwan, 59°33,N., 139°44'W. 1880 pop. 500, 1890 pop. 300 (Orth:1063). -178-i Yakutat Kwan: p r i n c i p a l l y about Yakutat Bay but extending westward in lat e r times to the mouth of the Copper River, including these v i l l a g e s : Chilkat, Gutheni, Hlahayik, Yakutat (BAEB 145:542) Yess Bay: N.E. coast of Cleveland Peninsula, 3 m. N. Spacious Bay: 55°55'N., 138°48'W. Cannery established 1886 (Orth:1066). 1890 pop. 43 na t i v e . abbreviations: 1880 pop. figures from Petroff 1884;I 1890: Porter 1893;I BAEB: Bureau of American Ethnology B u l l e t i n 145:Swanton 1952;H) BAEAR: Bureau of American Ethnology Annual Report 26:Swanton 1908;G Baker: Baker 1906,1. Corser: Corser 1922;G Dahl: Dahl 1883,1 E: Emmons MS. AMNH-E;E Krause: Krause 1956(1885);G Orth: Orth 1967,1 WSM: Emmons MS. WSM;E 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0096240/manifest

Comment

Related Items