UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A prototype design and performance of the Savonius rotor based irrigation system Roth, Neal Joseph 1985

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A PROTOTYPE DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF THE SAVONIUS ROTOR BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM by NEAL J . ROTH B.A.Sc. ( M e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g ) , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 8 2 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( D e p a r t m e n t of M e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA M a r c h , 1985 ( c ) N e a l J . R o t h , 1985 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head of my D e p a r t m e n t or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . NEAL J . ROTH D e p a r t m e n t of M e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2975 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e : M a r c h , 1985 i i ABSTRACT I m p o r t a n t s t a g e s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a wind e n e r g y o p e r a t e d i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m , w h i c h i s s i m p l e i n d e s i g n and e a s y t o m a i n t a i n , a r e d e s c r i b e d f r o m model t e s t s i n wind t u n n e l s t h r o u g h t o a p r o t o t y p e p r e p a r e d f o r f i e l d t e s t s . The a t t e n t i o n i s f o c u s s e d on g r o s s f e a t u r e s of t h e p r o t o y p e i n c l u d i n g t h e b l a d e g e o m e t r y and a s p e c t r a t i o ; m ast, s l e e v e and b e a r i n g a s s e m b l i e s ; b r a k i n g s y s t e m and a l o a d m a t c h i n g c o n c e p t . D e s c r i b e d t o w a r d s t h e end a r e t h e f i e l d t e s t a r r a n g e m e n t s of t h e p r o t o t y p e and a s s o c i a t e d i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . Even a c c o r d i n g t o t h e most c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e , t h e p r o t o t y p e t e s t s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e w i n d m i l l s h o u l d be a b l e t o d e l i v e r a r o u n d 3000 l i t e r s of w a t e r per day ( e i g h t h o u r s of w i n d ) t o a head of 5 m i n a 24 km/h w i n d . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS C h a p t e r Page 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 P r e l i m i n a r y Remarks 1 1.2 A B r i e f R e v i e w of t h e R e l e v a n t L i t e r a t u r e . . . 4 1.3 Scope of t h e P r e s e n t I n v e s t i g a t i o n 6 2 MODEL STUDIES 10 2.1 S i n g l e - S t a g e R o t o r 10 2.2 P e r f o r m a n c e of t h e S i n g l e S t a g e M o d e l s . . . . 17 2.3 Two-Stage R o t o r s 22 2.3.1 The F i r s t Two-Stage M o d e l and i t s P e r f o r m a n c e . . . . 25 2.3.2 T e s t P r o c e d u r e and R e s u l t s f o r t h e Second Two-Stage R o t o r 35 3 PROTOTYPE DESIGN 47 3.1 S y s t e m A s s e m b l y 49 3.2 B r a k i n g S y s t e m 55 3.3 T r a n s m i s s i o n of Power and Load M a t c h i n g S y s t e m . 57 3.4 M o n i t o r i n g I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n and C o n t r o l l e r . . . 59 3.5 P e r f o r m a n c e of P r o t o t y p e 60 i v 4 CONCLUDING REMARKS 68 REFERENCES 70 APPENDIX I - MICROPROCESSOR BASED CONTROLLER 74 APPENDIX I I - PREDICTION OF THE PROTOTYPE PERFORMANCE BASED ON WIND TUNNEL STUDIES 77 APPENDIX I I I - ASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION OF THE PROTOTYPE . 79 APPENDIX IV - MATERIALS AND SUPPLIERS 87 V L I S T OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1- 1 A s c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m of t h e w i n d e n e r g y o p e r a t e d i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m 7 2- 1 B l a d e c o n f i g u r a t i o n used t o s t u d y g a p - s i z e , o v e r l a p and a s p e c t r a t i o e f f e c t s 11 2-2 A s c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m s h o w i n g model of t h e s i n g l e - s t a g e S a v o n i u s r o t o r 12 2-3 A s c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m of t h e wind t u n n e l u s e d i n t h e s i n g l e - s t a g e model s t u d y 14 2-4 P h o t o g r a p h s h o w i n g a s i n g l e - s t a g e model d u r i n g a t y p i c a l t e s t . . . . . . . . 15 2-5 P r o n y b r a k e a r r a n g e m e n t f o r measurement of t o r q u e o u t p u t 16 2-6 P l o t s s h o w i n g t h e e f f e c t of g a p - s i z e on power o u t p u t a t a g i v e n o v e r l a p and wind s p e e d 18 2-7 E f f e c t of b l a d e o v e r l a p on t h e r o t o r o u t p u t f o r z e r o g a p - s i z e and a f i x e d w ind s p e e d 19 V 1 F i g u r e Page 2-8 V a r i a t i o n o f t h e maximum power c o e f f i c i e n t w i t h o v e r l a p s h o w i n g t h e optimum s e t t i n g of a r o u n d 22% . . 20 2-9 P l o t s s h o w i n g e f f e c t of t h e a s p e c t r a t i o (A = h/d) on th e power c o e f f i c i e n t of a s i n g l e - s t a g e S a v o n i u s r o t o r . N o t e , t h e a s p e c t r a t i o of 0.77, w h i c h l e a d s t o a maximum Cp, was us e d i n t h e p r o t o t y p e d e s i g n . . . 21 2-10 A s c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m of t h e gea r pump u s e d i n p e r f o r m a n c e t e s t s 23 2-11 P e r f o r m a n c e c h a r t f o r t h e s i n g l e - s t a g e S a v o n i u s model s h o w i n g v a r i a t i o n of f l o w r a t e w i t h head and wind s p e e d u s i n g a g e a r pump 24 2-12 A s c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m of t h e l a r g e open c i r c u i t , b l o w e r t y p e w i n d t u n n e l u s e d f o r t e s t i n g of t h e t w o - s t a g e m o d e l s 26 2-13 D r a w i n g s h o w i n g t h e frame and f i r s t t w o - s t a g e model i n th e l a r g e w i n d t u n n e l . B l a d e g e o m e t r y i s t h e same as t h a t u s e d i n t h e s i n g l e - s t a g e s t u d y 28 2-14 E f f e c t of th e f i r s t w i n d s p e e d on power o u t p u t and r o t o r rpm f o r t w o - s t a g e S a v o n i u s model 29 v i i F i g u r e Page 2-15 V a r i a t i o n of t h e power c o e f f i c i e n t w i t h t i p s p e e d r a t i o as a f f e c t e d by wind s p e e d f o r t h e f i r s t t w o - s t a g e m o d e l . The l a c k o f c o l l a p s e o f t h e p l o t s on a s i n g l e c u r v e i s a t t r i b u t e d t o f r i c t i o n a l l o s s e s i n t h e d r i v e s y s t e m 30 2-16 P e r f o r m a n c e c h a r t f o r t h e f i r s t t w o - s t a g e r o t o r o p e r a t i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a ge a r pump . . . . 32 2-17 A s c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m o f t h e r o t a r y pump u s e d w i t h t h e t w o - s t a g e r o t o r 33 2-18 V a r i a t i o n of f l o w r a t e w i t h head and wi n d s p e e d f o r t h e f i r s t t w o - s t a g e S a v o n i u s r o t o r u s i n g a r o t a r y pump 3A 2-19 Geometry of t h e b l a d e p r o f i l e u sed i n t h e s e c o n d t w o - s t a g e model 36 2-20 S u p p o r t s y s t e m f o r t h e s e c o n d t w o - s t a g e r o t o r . . . 38 2-21 G e o m e t r i c d e t a i l s f o r t h e s e c o n d t w o - s t a g e m o d e l : 0 = 135°; p/q = 1; A = 0.75 39 2-22 D e t a i l s of a dynamometer u s e d w i t h t h e s e c o n d t w o - s t a g e m o del ; AO v i i i F i g u r e Page 2-23 V a r i a t i o n of power w i t h rpm a t t h r e e d i f f e r e n t w i n d s p e e d s f o r t h e s e c o n d t w o - s t a g e model 41 2-24 E f f e c t of w i n d speed on power c o e f f i c i e n t v s . rpm p l o t s f o r t h e s e c o n d t w o - s t a g e model 42 2-25 T e s t a r r a n g e m e n t f o r e v a l u a t i n g b e a r i n g l o s s e s . . . 43 2-26 P l o t s s h o w i n g f r i c t i o n a l l o s s e s i n t h e b e a r i n g s of t h e s e c o n d t w o - s t a g e r o t o r 45 2-27 V a r i a t i o n of t h e power c o e f f i c i e n t w i t h rpm a c c o u n t i n g f o r f r i c t i o n a l l o s s e s . . 46 3-1 A f o u r - s t a g e S a v o n i u s r o t o r b a s e d w i n d e n e r g y o p e r a t e d 2 i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m ( p r o j e c t e d a r e a = 4.45 m ) d u r i n g f i e l d t e s t s i n d i c a t i n g m a j o r s u b a s s e m b l i e s i n c l u d i n g t h e emergency b r a k e , d r i v e s h a f t , pumping u n i t and a n c h o r i n g a r r a n g e m e n t 48 3-2 A s c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m s h o w i n g t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e w i n d m i l l and m e t e o r o l o g i c a l t o w e r a t o p t h e M e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g M a c h i n e Shop b u i l d i n g 50 i x F i g u r e Page 3-3 R e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n o f b l a d e s i n f o u r s t a g e s of t h e p r o t o t y p e S a v o n i u s r o t o r . . . 5 1 3-4 D e t a i l s of t h e s l e e v e and b e a r i n g a s s e m b l y . . . . 52 3-5 Mast a s s e m b l y 53 3-6 P n e u m a t i c a l l y a c t u a t e d b r a k i n g s y s t e m s h o w i n g a i r - c y l i n d e r , c a l i p e r s and s h o e s 56 3-7 D r i v e s h a f t and pumping a r r a n g e m e n t s h o w i n g l o a d m a t c h i n g t e c h n i q u e u s i n g t h r e e pumps ( P I , P2, P3 ) . 58 3-8 Pumps us e d and a s s o c i a t e d i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n f o r i n s t a n t a n e o u s and i n t e g r a t e d f l o w m e asurements . . . 61 3-9 A s c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m s h o w i n g t h e b o t t o m h a l f of t h e mast and d e t a i l s o f t h e d r i v e s h a f t a s s e m b l y t o g e t h e r w i t h m e t e o r o l o g i c a l mast and i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n 62 3-10 T y p i c a l p l o t s s h o w i n g t h e t i m e h i s t o r i e s of w i n d s p e e d and f l o w r a t e f o r t h e p r o t o t y p e o v e r t h r e e h o u r s . . 63 3-11 P l o t s s h o w i n g t h e t i m e h i s t o r i e s of w i n d s p e e d and f l o w r a t e f o r t h e p r o t o t y p e o v e r 7.2 h o u r s 64 X F i g u r e Page 3-12 V a r i a t i o n of w i n d s p e e d p l o t t e d a g a i n s t f l o w r a t e f o r th e 7.2 hou r h i s t o r y . 6 7 1-1 A d e t a i l e d c i r c u i t d i a g r a m f o r t h e s i g n a l p r o c e s s o r s h o w i n g t h e c o m p a r a t o r (CMOS 4 0 8 1 ) , i n v e r t o r (CMOS 4 0 4 9 ) , b i n a r y c o u n t e r (TTL 74193) and d e c o d e r (TTL 74154) 75 I I I - l Top of t h e mast s h o w i n g t h e c a p , g u y - w i r e s and a p a r t of t h e r o t o r 79 I I I - 2 Top b e a r i n g a s s e m b l y : ( a ) o u t e r b e a r i n g - h o u s i n g ; ( b ) i n n e r b e a r i n g - h o l d e r and l o c k n u t ; ( c ) a s s e m b l y on t h e mast 81 I I I - 3 B o t t o m b e a r i n g and b r a k e drum: ( a ) d e t a i l s ; ( b ) a s s e m b l y on t h e mast 82 I I I - 4 Power t r a n s m i s s i o n t o t h e d r i v e s h a f t . Note a l s o t h e b r a k e p l a t e a s s e m b l y and g u y - w i r e a t t a c h m e n t s . . . 83 I I I - 5 L i f t i n g s e q u e n c e d u r i n g i n s t a l l a t i o n of t h e r o t o r : ( a ) , ( b ) c r a n e a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e r o t o r a t cap . . . 84 ( c ) l o w e r i n g of t h e mast on t h e base p l a t e ; ( d ) r o t o r i n p o s i t i o n w i t h g u y - w i r e s a n c h o r e d 85 x i F i g u r e Page I I I - 6 P h o t o g r a p h s h o w i n g r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n of the r o t o r and t h e m e t e o r o l o g i c a l mast a t o p t h e M e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g M a c h i n e Shop 86 x i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I n v e s t i g a t i o n was s u p p o r t e d by t h e N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s and E n g i n e e r i n g R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l of Canada, G r a n t No. A - 2181. A s s i s t a n c e of Mr. F. K n o w l e s and Mr. J . Wiebe, S e n i o r E n g i n e e r i n g T e c h n i c i a n s , i n d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e wi n d t u r b i n e i s g r a t e f u l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d . A s s i s t a n c e of Mr. Andrew Kwok i s a l s o g r a t e f u l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d f o r t h e d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e m i c r o p r o c e s s o r w h i c h c o n t r o l s t h e w i n d m i l l . A s p e c i a l t h a n k you i s e x t e n d e d t o Dr. V . J . M o d i f o r h i s t i m e , g u i d a n c e and h e l p t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o j e c t . x i i i L I S T OF SYMBOLS a b l a d e g a p - s i z e 2 A a s p e c t r a t i o , h /S = h/d b b l a d e o v e r l a p 0^ power c o e f f i c i e n t , P / ( l / 2 ) p V ^ S D s h a f t d i a m e t e r d b l a d e d i a m e t e r , 2r h b l a d e h e i g h t p,q,0 p a r a m e t e r s d e f i n i n g b l a d e g e o m e t r y ( F i g u r e 2-19) P power o u t p u t r b l a d e r a d i u s S p r o j e c t e d b l a d e a r e a , dh V w i n d s p e e d p a i r d e n s i t y £1 r o t o r a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y X t i p sp e e d r a t i o , oor/V Ap c h a n g e i n p r e s s u r e Q f l o w r a t e 1 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 P r e l i m i n a r y R emarks S i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g of t i m e , man has w o r s h i p p e d e l e m e n t s of n a t u r e , o f t e n o u t of f e a r , and has a l s o s t r i v e d t o u t i l i z e them t o a d v a n t a g e . I n p a r t i c u l a r , l i g h t , w a t e r and wind r e p r e s e n t t h e e l e m e n t s f r e q u e n t l y e x p l o i t e d by t h e e a r l y man. I t i s u n c e r t a i n j u s t how l o n g ago man f i r s t s t a r t e d t o use wind t o h e l p power h i s d a i l y w o r k . However, t h e r e e x i s t r e f e r e n c e s t o C h i n e s e and J a p a n e s e w i n d m i l l s i n use as f a r back as 2000 B.C.. Hammurabi, t h e emperor of B a b y l o n , p l a n n e d t o use w i n d m i l l s t o i r r i g a t e f i e l d s i n 1700 B.C. and Hero of A l e x a n d i r a , i n 300 B.C., r e p o r t e d o f a s m a l l w i n d m i l l b e i n g used t o o p e r a t e an o r g a n . A l t h o u g h i t i s not known when t h e P e r s i a n s s t a r t e d u s i n g w i n d m i l l s , h o w e v e r , h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s i n d i c a t e t h e i r e x i s t e n c e by 13A B.C. [ 1 ] . By t h e m i d d l e of t h e s e v e n t h c e n t u r y A.D. b u i l d i n g of w i n d m i l l s was a w e l l u n d e r s t o o d c r a f t i n P e r s i a . I n w e s t e r n E u r o p e , r e c o r d s t e l l of w i n d m i l l s b e i n g u s e d t o g r i n d g r a i n and pump w a t e r s i n c e 1100 A.D.. By t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , w i n d m i l l s were a common s i g h t i n E n g l a n d and t h r o u g h o u t E u r o p e . F o r n e a r l y f o u r c e n t u r i e s , u n t i l 1900, t h e D u t c h used as many as 10,000 w i n d m i l l s . T o w a r d s t h e end of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , Denmark had a t o t a l o f 3000 i n d u s t r i a l w i n d m i l l s and 30,000 s m a l l e r t y p e s f o r homes and f a r m s . W i n d m i l l s f i r s t a p p e a r e d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a i n t h e y e a r 1620. 2 T h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n began i n V i r g i n a and e x t e n d e d up and down t h e A t l a n t i c C o a s t . They were u s e d m o s t l y f o r g r i n d i n g g r a i n u n t i l t h e end of t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . However, i t was not u n t i l t h e l a t e 1800's t h a t i n t e r e s t i n w i n d m i l l s r e a l l y t o o k h o l d a c r o s s A m e r i c a . S i n c e 1880 more t h a n s i x m i l l i o n w i n d m i l l s have been e r e c t e d , p r i m a r i l y i n t h e M i d w e s t and S o u t h w e s t r e g i o n s . T h e r e a r e s t i l l a p p r o x i a t e l y 900 w i n d t u r b i n e s i n use t o d a y i n H o l l a n d and a r o u n d 100,000 i n N o r t h A m e r i c a [ 2 ] , More r e c e n t l y , w i t h g r e a t e r a w a r e n e s s of t h e l i m i t e d s u p p l y o f f o s s i l f u e l s , c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n has been f o c u s s e d on t h e u t i l i z a t i o n of w i n d e n e r g y . The e x t e n s i v e amount of l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h has e v o l v e d has been r e v i e w e d by s e v e r a l a u t h o r s i n c l u d i n g H u t t e r [ 3 ] , B l a c k w e l l e t a l . [ 4 ] , G o v i n d R a j u and N a r a s i m h a [ 5 ] , and o t h e r s . A c a r e f u l s t u d y of t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s two i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t s [ 6 - 1 3 ] : ( i ) I n g e n e r a l , i n v e s t i g a t i o n s may be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o two b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s : ( a ) L a b o r a t o r y s c a l e model i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , n o r m a l l y c o n d u c t e d a t a c a d e m i c i n s t i t u t i o n s by t e c h n i c a l l y q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n e l , s e l d o m e v o l v e t o a p r o t o t y p e s t a g e f o r f i e l d t e s t s and p r o d u c t i o n . ( b ) O p e r a t i o n a l d e v i c e s , a s s e m b l e d by e n v i r o n m e n t a l e n t h u s i a s t s p o s s e s s i n g l i m i t e d t e c h n i c a l b a c k g r o u n d , w h i c h f u n c t i o n as n o v e l t i e s a t an u n c e r t a i n e f f i c i e n c y . B e i n g i s o l a t e d d e v i c e s , t h e y a l s o f a i l t o r e a c h 3 the p r o d u c t i o n s t a g e , ( i i ) A l t h o u g h s e v e r a l c o m m e r c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s have f o c u s s e d a t t e n t i o n on d evelopment of l a r g e s c a l e wind t u r b i n e s i n t h e megawatt r a n g e , c o n s i d e r a b l e demand e x i s t s f o r systems w i t h 1-10 kw c a p a b i l i t y to s e r v e needs of r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s . D e s i g n of such s m a l l to medium s c a l e t u r b i n e s has r e c e i v e d r e l a t i v e l y l e s s a t t e n t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e to a p p l i c a t i o n s aimed at i r r i g a t i o n of farms and l i g h t i n g of s m a l l r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s . T a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e f o r e g o i n g a s p e c t s , t h e p r e s e n t p r o j e c t aims at the developement of a w i n d m i l l , which i s s i m p l e i n d e s i g n and easy to m a i n t a i n , u s i n g i n d u s t r i a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n r u r a l a r e a s of d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . The S a v o n i u s geometry p r o m i s e s to meet t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s q u i t e e f f e c t i v e l y . A l t h o u g h the S a v o n i u s r o t o r has a r e l a t i v e l y low e f f i c i e n c y i t p r e s e n t s s e v e r a l a d v a n t a g e s over o t h e r c o n f i g u r a t i o n s : ( a ) s i m p l e geometry and ease of c o n s t r u c t i o n ; (b) i n g e n e r a l s e I f - s t a r t i n g ; ( c ) p e r f o r m a n c e i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e wind d i r e c t i o n ; (d) low s t a r t i n g wind s p e e d ; (e) easy to m a i n t a i n ; ( f ) r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e i n terms of m a t e r i a l , c o n s t r u c t i o n a l and m a i n t e n a n c e c o s t s . The c l a s s i c a l P e r s i a n wheel f o r d r a w i n g water from w e l l s , i r r i g a t i o n c a n a l s or r i v e r s , which c o n s i s t s of a s t r i n g of 4 b u c k e t s a n d i s d r i v e n by a p a i r of b u l l o c k s , i s used e x t e n s i v e l y i n A f r i c a , A s i a and S o u t h A m e r i c a n even t o d a y . I n d o n e s i a i s one s u c h c o u n t r y w h i c h i s i n t e r e s t e d i n a d o p t i n g a r e l a t i v e l y modern s y s t e m f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . D u r i n g a r e c e n t v i s i t t o U.B.C. ( 1 9 7 8 ) , o f f i c i a l s of t h e I n d o n e s i a n N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of A e r o n a u t i c s and Space s u g g e s t e d t h a t a w i n d o p e r a t e d i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m w o u l d be i d e a l f o r t h e i r c o u n t r y . I n d o n e s i a , a n a t i o n of a r o u n d 10,000 i s l a n d s , w i t h r e g u l a r wind p a t t e r n s , i s w e l l - p l a c e d t o e x p l o i t t h i s n a t u r a l r e n e w a b l e e n e r g y s o u r c e . 1 .2 A B r i e f R e v i e w o f R e l e v a n t L i t e r a t u r e The amount of l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e i n t h e g e n e r a l f i e l d of w i n d e n e r g y i s i n d e e d enormous as t h e s u b j e c t has been e v o l v i n g l i t e r a l l y f o r c e n t u r i e s . I t i s not i n t e n d e d h e r e t o r e v i e w t h i s v a s t body of i n f o r m a t i o n . As t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y i s b a s i c a l l y S a v o n i u s i n n a t u r e , a t t e n t i o n i s f o c u s s e d on t h e l i t e r a t u r e p r e t a i n i n g t o t h a t s p e c i f i c g e o m e t r y . Khan [ 1 4 ] , who t e s t e d v a r i o u s S a v o n i u s r o t o r c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , c o n c l u d e d t h a t optimum o v e r l a p v a r i e d w i t h t h e shape of t h e r o t o r . The p r e s e n c e of a gap between t h e r o t o r b l a d e s c a u s e d a d e c r e a s e i n t h e power c o e f f i c i e n t w h i l e t h e peak e f f i c i e n c y d i d not v a r y w i t h a change i n w i n d s p e e d . U s h i y a m a and h i s c o l l e a g u e s [ 1 1 ] a l s o c o n c l u d e d t h a t a b s e n c e of a gap p r o v i d e d b e t t e r r e s u l t s . They f o u n d a Bach t y p e b l a d e a t an o v e r l a p of 30-50% p r o d u c e d a maximum power c o f f i c i e n t and t h a t a g u i d e vane was 5 q u i t e e f f e c t i v e i n i n c r e a s i n g o u t p u t . J o n e s , L i t t l e r and Manser [ 1 6 ] , i n t h e i r s t u d y t o i d e n t i f y t h e most p r o m i s i n g r o t o r g e o m e t r y , a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e gap between b l a d e s was of a d o u b t f u l v a l u e and t h a t vane shape a l o n e g o v e r n e d t h e per f o r m a n c e . I n an e x t e n s i v e s t u d y , S h a n k e r [ 1 5 ] e v a l u a t e d e f f e c t s of t h e g e o m e t r y and R e y n o l d s number on t h e two and t h r e e b l a d e d S a v o n i u s r o t o r s . The r e s u l t s d e m o n s t r a t e d an improvement i n p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n t h e R e y n o l d s number i n t h e r a n g e t e s t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e two b l a d e d r o t o r s a l w a y s out p e r f o r m e d t h e t h r e e b l a d e d g e o m e t r y . S i v a s e g a r a m [ 17 - 19 ] p r e s e n t e d r e s u l t s of a s e r i e s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on t h e S a v o n i u s - t y p e r o t o r s . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t a l t h o u g h a r o t o r w i t h s e v e r a l b l a d e s was not s e n s i t i v e t o b l a d e g e o m e t r y , i t d i d p r o d u c e a s l i g h t l y b e t t e r p e r f o r m a n c e t h a n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l S a v o n i u s c o n f i g u r a t i o n . However, a two b l a d e d r o t o r w i t h i m p r o v e d s e c t i o n a l g e o m e t r y e x h i b i t e d a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n power c o e f f i c i e n t . S i v a s e g a r a m [ 2 0 ] has a l s o d e s c r i b e d an e x p e r i m e n t a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n aimed a t d e t e r m i n i n g t h e optimum d e s i g n of a c o n c e n t r a t o r - a u g m e n t a t i o n - s y s t e m . S a b z e v a r i [ 2 1 ] t o o has d i s c u s s e d e f f e c t s of s e v e r a l t y p e s of c o n c e n t r a t o r s and d i f f u s e r s on p e r f o r m a n c e of t h e S a v o n i u s g e o m e t r y . G o v i n d a R a j u and N a r a s i m h a [ 2 2 ] r e p o r t e d a d e s i g n b a s e d on t h e S a v o n i u s c o n c e p t f o r pumping w a t e r . The s y s t e m was l a b o u r i n t e n s i v e and u s e d l o c a l m a t e r i a l s and s k i l l s t o t h e f u l l e s t . They f o u n d t h a t a ' s o f t ' d e s i g n s u c h as t h e i r s d e l i v e r e d t h e amount of w a t e r t h a t compared f a v o u r a b l y w i t h t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of 6 more e x p e n s i v e c o m m e r c i a l m a c h i n e s . A l e x a n d e r [ 2 3 ] p r e s e n t e d w i n d - t u n n e l b l o c k a g e c o r r e c t i o n s b a s e d on t e s t s w i t h a s e r i e s of S a v o n i u s r o t o r s . He f o u n d t h a t t h e c o r r e c t i o n s c o u l d be as l a r g e as 50% f o r t h e b l o c k a g e r a t i o o f 33%. The r e s u l t s were c o n f i r m e d by t e s t i n g a s e r i e s of m o d e l s i n two w i n d - t u n n e l s w i t h d i f f e r e n t t e s t - s e c t i o n a l a r e a s . A l d e r [ 2 4 ] l o o k e d at t h e mean and p e r i o d i c c o mponents of t o r q u e , d r a g and s i d e f o r c e on t h e S a v o n i u s r o t o r . He f o u n d t h a t t h e optimum e f f i c i e n c y of t h e r o t o r o c c u r r e d at a t i p - s p e e d r a t i o o f a r o u n d 0.82. 1 .3 Scope of t h e P r e s e n t I n v e s t i g a t i o n T h i s t h e s i s d e s c r i b e s e v o l u t i o n of a w i n d e n e r g y o p e r a t e d i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m ( F i g u r e 1-1) f r o m model t e s t s i n w i n d t u n n e l s , f o r o p t i m i z a t i o n of s y s t e m p a r a m e t e r s , t o a p r o t o t y p e p r e p a r e d f o r f i e l d t e s t s . The e m p h a s i s t h r o u g h o u t i s on s i m p l i c i t y of d e s i g n and ease of m a i n t e n a n c e , w i t h t e c h n o l o g y w i t h i n t h e r e a c h o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . A d e t a i l e d s e t of c r i t e r i a was e s t a b l i s h e d t o s e r v e as a g u i d e l i n e f o r a d e s i g n of t h e s y s t e m . The f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e f o r an i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m a p p r o p r i a t e f o r use i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s : ( i ) l a b o u r i n t e n s i v e d e s i g n , b a s e d on l o c a l m a t e r i a l s and s k i l l s ; ( i i ) p e r f o r m a n c e i n d e p e n d e n t of w i n d d i r e c t i o n , w i t h a F i g u r e 1-1 A s c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m of t h e w i n d e n e r g y o p e r a t e d i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m . 8 s e l f - s t a r t i n g r o t o r t h a t demands v i r t u a l l y no a t t e n t i o n ; ( i i i ) s i m p l e d e s i g n w i t h c o n s t r u c t i o n , i n s t a l l a t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e l i m i t e d s k i l l s of a f a r m i n g c o m m u n i t y ; ( i v ) g e n e r a t i o n of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 250 w a t t s of power e q u a l l i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of a p a i r of o x e n ; c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e d a i l y i r r i g a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t of an a v e r a g e 6-8 a c r e f a r m i n t h e amount of a p p r o x i a t e l y 3,000 l i t e r s per day; ( v ) s t a t e d o u t p u t (250 w a t t s ) t o be a c h i e v e d a t a minimum w i n d s p e e d of 24 km/h and a head of 5 m. The p r o j e c t i s d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l s t a g e s : 2 ( i ) A s c a l e model s t u d y o f t h e S a v o n i u s r o t o r (0.12m p r o j e c t e d a r e a ) i n a w i n d t u n n e l w i t h a s y s t e m a t i c v a r i a t i o n o f t h e b l a d e p r o f i l e , gap s i z e and o v e r l a p t o a r r i v e a t an optimum c o n f i g u r a t i o n . ( i i ) Wind t u n n e l t e s t s w i t h a l a r g e r t w o - s t a g e model of 2 t h e S a v o n i u s r o t o r ( 0.6m p r o j e c t e d a r e a ) t o a s s e s s i n f l u e n c e o f s e v e r a l o t h e r p a r a m e t e r s not c o n s i d e r e d i n s t a g e ( i ) , s u c h as a s p e c t r a t i o , e n d - p l a t e s and t h e s e l f - s t a r t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . ( i i i ) T e s t s u s i n g a l a r g e r t w o - s t a g e model of t h e S a v o n i u s 2 r o t o r ( 1.12m p r o j e c t e d a r e a ) w i t h t h e optimum c o n f i g u r a t i o n as a r r i v e d a t i n s t a g e s ( i ) and ( i i ) , t o g e t h e r w i t h s e v e r a l c o m m e r c i a l pumps, ( i v ) D e t a i l e d d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n of a p r o t o t y p e 9 c o n s i s t i n g of m a t e r i a l s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n an advanced i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y such as Canada, ( v ) F i e l d t e s t s of the p r o t o t y p e to a s s e s s p e r f o r m a n c e and s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r i t y . S t a g e s ( i v ) and ( v ) were added to the program as a r e s u l t of i n t e r e s t shown by s e v e r a l C a n a d i a n a g e n c i e s and f a r m i n g groups i n u s i n g the system f o r , b e s i d e s i r r i g a t i o n , d r a i n a g e , sewage d i s p o s a l , s e r v i c i n g d e p l e t e d o i l w e l l s and remote n a v i g a t i o n a l b e a c o n s , e t c . ( v i ) T e c h n o l o g y t r a n s f e r phase i n v o l v i n g s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of the d e s i g n u s i n g m a t e r i a l s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n I n d o n e s i a . ( v i i ) F i e l d t e s t s i n I n d o n e s i a to a s s e s s p e r f o r m a n c e and e s t a b l i s h m a i n t e n a n c e p r o c e d u r e s . T h i s w i l l a l s o h e l p i n a s s e s s i n g t h e l o s s of e f f i c i e n c y due to d e s i g n s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s , ( v i i i ) P r o d u c t i o n of t h e two v e r s i o n s of the same d e s i g n i n d i c a t e d above, one f o r use i n the t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y a dvanced a r e a s and t h e o t h e r i n d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s . The t h e s i s d e s c r i b e s p r o g r e s s made so f a r i n the f i r s t f i v e s t a g e s . 10 2. MODEL STUDIES S e v e r a l f a m i l i e s of s i n g l e and two s t a g e models were used i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l program t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t of b l a d e p r o f i l e , g a p - s i z e , o v e r l a p and a s p e c t r a t i o . The models were t e s t e d i n s e v e r a l smooth f l o w c o n d i t i o n s u s i n g two w i n d t u n n e l s of d i f f e r e n t c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a r e a s w h i c h were i d e a l l y s u i t e d f o r t h i s c l a s s of s t u d i e s . 2.1 S i n g l e - S t a g e R o t o r P r e l i m i n a r y e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h f o u r d i f f e r e n t b l a d e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s s u g g e s t e d t h e one s i m i l a r t o t h a t p r o p o s e d by Khan [ 6 ] t o be p r o m i s i m g ( F i g u r e 2 - 1 ) . Hence t h e b l a d e g a p - s i z e , o v e r l a p and a s p e c t r a t i o s t u d i e s were c o n f i n e d t o t h i s g e o m e t r y . B a s i c a l l y , two s e t s of m o dels were used i n t h e t e s t - p r o g r a m . The f i r s t s e r i e s of t w o - b l a d e d m o d e l s ( F i g u r e 2-2) w i t h a maximum 2 b l a d e d i a m e t e r of 330 mm and a h e i g h t of 301 mm ( 0 . 1 m p r o j e c t e d a r e a , A=0.91) were p r i m a r i l y d e s i g n e d t o s t u d y t h e e f f e c t of g a p - s i z e and o v e r l a p . The b l a d e s , r o l l e d i n t o d e s i r e d s h a p e s , were c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m 16 gauge a l u m i n u m s h e e t and s u p p o r t e d by two p l e x i g l a s e n d - p l a t e s , 6.35 mm t h i c k and 381 mm i n d i a m e t e r . R i g i d i t y of t h e p l a t e s was augmented by r e i n f o r c i n g them w i t h a l u m i n u m d i s k s , 200 mm i n d i a m e t e r and 6.35 mm t h i c k . A 25.A mm d i a m e t e r , h i g h p r e c i s i o n s t r a i g h t s h a f t s u p p o r t e d t h e b l a d e F i g u r e 2-1 B l a d e c o n f i g u r a t i o n used to s t u d y gap-o v e r l a p and a s p e c t r a t i o e f f e c t s . s i ze, 381 mm 12 End / Plate Blades 203 mm • 330 mm 301 mm F i g u r e 2-2 A s c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m showing model of the s i n g l e - s t a g e S a v o n i u s r o t o r . 13 a s s e m b l y i n a p a i r of * s e I f - a l i g n i n g b e a r i n g s . D u r i n g t e s t i n g , no v i b r a t i o n p r o b l e m s were e n c o u n t e r e d , even a t r o t a t i o n a l s p e e d s as h i g h as 1600 rpm. The s e c o n d s e t of m o d e l s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y v a r i e d h e i g h t / d i a m e t e r r a t i o f o r a f i x e d p r o j e c t e d a r e a t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t of a s p e c t r a t i o . E s s e n t i a l l y t h e same model c o n s t r u c t i o n and s u p p o r t p r o c e d u r e s were used as d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . The m o d e l s were t e s t e d i n a low s p e e d , low t u r b u l e n c e , r e t u r n t y p e w i n d t u n n e l w i t h a t e s t - s e c t i o n of 0.91 X 0.68 m. The a i r s p e e d can be v a r i e d f r o m 1-50 m/s w i t h a t u r b u l e n c e l e v e l of l e s s t h a n 0.1%. A B e t z m i c r o m a n o m e t e r w i t h an a c c u r a c y of 0.2 mm of w a t e r was u s e d t o measure p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n t i a l a c r o s s t h e c o n t r a c t i o n s e c t i o n of 7:1 r a t i o . The s p a t i a l v a r i a t i o n of v e l o c i t y i n t h e t e s t - s e c t i o n i s l e s s t h a n 0.25%. A l i n e d r a w i n g o f t h e t u n n e l u s e d i n t h i s phase of t h e s t u d y i s shown i n F i g u r e 2-3. A p h o t o g r a p h ( F i g u r e 2-4) shows t h e model d u r i n g a t y p i c a l t e s t . F o r e ach b l a d e s e t t i n g , t h e t o r q u e o u t p u t was me a s u r e d u s i n g a v a r i a t i o n of t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l P r o n y b r a k e a r r a n g e m e n t ( F i g u r e 2 - 5 ) . A b r a i d e d n y l o n s t r i n g was p a s s e d a r o u n d a p u l l e y , 110 mm i n d i a m e t e r , mounted on t h e l o w e r end of t h e r o t o r s h a f t . One end of t h e s t r i n g c a r r i e d a pan t o w h i c h w e i g h t s c o u l d be added w h i l e t h e o t h e r was f i x e d t o t h e f r e e end of a c a n t i l e v e r beam w h i c h had f o u r s t r a i n gauges mounted near i t s r o o t , two i n c o m p r e s s i o n and two i n t e n s i o n . The o u t p u t s i g n a l f r o m t h e s t r a i n g a u g e s , f o r m i n g a p a r t of t h e W h e a t s t o n e b r i d g e , was a m p l i f i e d u s i n g a B r i d g e A m p l i f i e r M e t e r (BAM) and me a s u r e d by a d i g i t a l v o l t m e t e r . r—Turning vanes j 16.3 m H I F i g u r e 2-3 A s c h e m a t i c diagram of the wind t u n n e l used i n the s i n g l e - s t a g e model s t u d y . 16 Pulley Nylon Thread Cantilever BAM Voltmeter Figure 2-5 Prony brake arrangement for measurement of torque output. 17 S e n s i t i v i t y of t h e s y s t e m was 0.0005 Nm. The r o t o r s p e e d r e q u i r e d t o compute t h e power o u t p u t was measured u s i n g a s t r o b o t a c . 2.2 P e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e S i n g l e - S t a g e M o d e l s T y p i c a l r e s u l t s f o r v a r i a t i o n of t h e power o u t p u t w i t h r o t o r rpm f o r d i f f e r e n t b l a d e s e p a r a t i o n i s shown i n F i g u r e 2-6. The r e s u l t s c l e a r l y show t h a t as s e p a r a t i o n 'a' i s i n c r e a s e d , t h e maximum power f o r a g i v e n o v e r l a p d i m i n i s h e s . The maximum power w i t h z e r o s e p a r a t i o n between t h e b l a d e s was 50.7 W at 885 rpm. I n g e n e r a l , an i n c r e a s e i n g a p - s i z e t e n d e d t o c a u s e t h e maximum o u t p u t t o o c c u r a t a h i g h e r s h a f t s p e e d f o r a g i v e n wind v e l o c i t y . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g e f f e c t of t h e b l a d e o v e r l a p 'b' on t h e r o t o r o u t p u t f o r a g i v e n g a p - s i z e and w i n d speed i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 2-7. As can be e x p e c t e d , t h e o v e r l a p a f f e c t e d t h e o u t p u t s u b s t a n t i a l l y , p a r t l y b e c a u s e of a change i n t h e e f f e c t i v e r o t o r d i a m e t e r . More i n f o r m a t i v e w o u l d be t h e v a r i a t i o n of maximum power c o e f f i c i e n t w i t h p e r c e n t a g e o v e r l a p as g i v e n i n F i g u r e 2-8, w h i c h shows an optimum t o . e x i s t a t a r o u n d b/d = 22% w i t h a [C ] of 0.16. p ma x Of c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t was t h e e f f e c t of t h e a s p e c t r a t i o 'h/d' on t h e wind t u r b i n e p e r f o r m a n c e as shown i n F i g u r e 2-9. The r e s u l t s s u g g e s t e d an optimum v a l u e of a r o u n d 0.77. The i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v e d t o be u s e f u l i n t h e p r o t o t y p e d e s i g n d i s c u s s e d 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 RPM Figure 2-6 Plots showing the effect of gap-size on power output at a given overlap and wind speed. Figure 2-7 Effect of blade overlap on the rotor output for zero gap-size and a fixed wind speed. b / d , % Figure 2-8 Variation of the maximum power coefficient with overlap showing the optimum setting of around 22%. 0.5 1.0 1.5 Tip speed ratio, -77-F i g u r e 2-9 P l o t s showing e f f e c t of the a s p e c t r a t i o (A = h/d) on the power c o e f f i c i e n t of a s i n g l e - s t a g e S a v o n i u s r o t o r . Note, the a s p e c t r a t i o of 0.77, which l e a d s to a maximum Cp, was used i n the p r o t o t y p e d e s i g n . 22 l a t e r . W i t h t h e optimum b l a d e s e t t i n g e s t a b l i s h e d ( e s s e n t i a l l y z e r o g a p - s i z e and 22% o v e r l a p ) , t h e w i n d t u r b i n e was c o n n e c t e d t o a g e a r pump ( F i g u r e 2-10) t o o b t a i n p e r f o r m a n c e d a t a i n t e r m s of f l o w r a t e and head as f u n c t i o n s of w ind s p e e d . The head was v a r i e d by c h a n g i n g t h e h e i g h t of a s t o r a g e t a n k o v e r a r a n g e of 1-5 m and t h e d i s c h a r g e r a t e d e t e r m i n e d by t i m i n g t h e a c c u m m u l a t i o n of t e n l i t e r s of w a t e r i n t o a p a i l . The r e s u l t s a r e g i v e n i n F i g u r e 2-11. As can be e x p e c t e d , b e c a u s e of t h e s m a l l s i z e of t h e r o t o r , t h e w i n d s p e e d s i n v o l v e d were r e l a t i v e l y h i g h . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e a t t a i n a b l e f l o w r a t e s were r a t h e r a t t r a c t i v e . The i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v e d as a u s e f u l s t a r t i n g p o i n t i n t h e d e s i g n of t h e l a r g e r s c a l e m o d e l s . 2.3 Two-Stage R o t o r s I n a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g t h e needed i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e optimum b l a d e c o n f i g u r a t i o n , t h e s i n g l e - s t a g e model s t u d y e m p h a s i z e d t h e p r e s e n c e of a dead s p o t , i . e . when t h e b l a d e s a r e a l i g n e d w i t h t h e w i n d , t h e r o t o r f a i l s t o s t a r t w i t h o u t a s s i s t a n c e . T h u s , f r o m s e l f - s t a r t i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o have a t w o - s t a g e r o t o r , w i t h b l a d e s i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t a g e s o r i e n t e d o r t h o g o n a l t o one a n o t h e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , r e s u l t s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t o g e n e r a t e even 100 W a t t s at a w i n d s p e e d of 24 km/h w o u l d r e q u i r e a p r o j e c t e d a r e a of a b o u t 2 3.5 m . Due t o t h e u n c e r t a i n t i e s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , i t was d e c i d e d F i g u r e 2-10 A s c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m of the gear pump used i n p e r f o r m a n c e t e s t s . V,km/hn 49 53 57 61 64 J i i i i i 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 FLOW RATE , L/min F i g u r e 2-11 P e r f o r m a n c e c h a r t f o r the s i n g l e - s t a g e S a v o n i u s model showing v a r i a t i o n of f l o w r a t e w i t h head and wind speed u s i n g a gear pump. 25 t o c o n d u c t t e s t s w i t h l a r g e r t w o - s t a g e m o d e l s b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h a p r o t o t y p e d e s i g n . 2 B e c a u s e of t h e s i z e o f t h e t w o - s t a g e m o d e l s ( 0 . 6 m and 1.12 2 m p r o j e c t e d a r e a ) a l a r g e r w i n d t u n n e l w i t h a t e s t - s e c t i o n of 1.58 x 2.44 x 24.4 m was u s e d i n t h i s p a r t of t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o g r a m . Powered by a 93 kW ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 125 h.p.) motor d r i v i n g a 2.44 m d i a m e t e r , 16 b l a d e d a x i a l f l o w f a n w i t h p n e u m a t i c p i t c h c o n t r o l , t h e open c i r c u i t t u n n e l i s c a p a b l e of p r o d u c i n g t h e maximum wi n d s p e e d of 90 km/h. The t u n n e l was s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d t o s i m u l a t e t h i c k g r o u n d b o u n d a r y l a y e r s f o r i n d u s t r i a l a e r o d y n a m i c s s t u d i e s . However, t h i s f e a t u r e was n o t u t i l i z e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y as t h e models were p l a c e d c l o s e t o t h e e n t r a n c e of t h e t e s t - s e c t i o n . The t u n n e l i s s c h e m a t i c a l l y shown i n F i g u r e 2-12. 2.3.1 The F i r s t Two-Stage M o d e l and i t s P e r f o r m a n c e The f i r s t of t h e t w o - s t a g e m o d e l s had a p r o j e c t e d a r e a of 2 1.12 m . The b l a d e d i a m e t e r was 1.09 m w i t h a h e i g h t of t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t a g e a t 0.5 m. The b l a d e s were o p t i m a l l y d e s i g n e d w i t h no gap and 22% o v e r l a p as s u g g e s t e d by t h e s i n g l e - s t a g e model s t u d i e s . The b l a d e s were c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m 22 gauge aluminum w i t h p l y w o o d e n d p l a t e s , 1.17 m i n d i a m e t e r and 12.7 mm t h i c k , and r e i n f o r c e d w i t h 13 mm t h i c k a l u m i n u m d i s c s , 0.6 m i n d i a m e t e r . The w h o l e a s s e m b l y was s u p p o r t e d by a 38 mm d i a m e t e r g r o u n d s h a f t h e l d i n p o s i t i o n by a p a i r of s e l f - a l i g n i n g b e a r i n g s ( F i g u r e Axivane Series 2000 Rotor, 2.44 m dia., 16 Cast aluminum blades, 125 h.p. electric motor, 175,000 cfm at 700 rpm, Fisher 4 8 0 - 6 0 pneumatic variable pitch control 1 honeycomb and 4 screens in 4 x 4 m settling section F i g u r e 2-12 A s c h e m a t i c diagram of the l a r g e open c i r c u i t , blower type wind t u n n e l , used f o r t e s t i n g of the two-stage models. ro ON 27 2-13) . O u t p u t of t h i s l a r g e r model was measured u s i n g a c o n v e n t i o n a l 12 v o l t a u t o m o t i v e g e n e r a t o r c o u p l e d t o t h e main s h a f t t h r o u g h a s y s t e m of p u l l e y s , r e s u l t i n g i n a s t e p - u p r a t i o of 1:8. The d e s i r e d l o a d was i n t r o d u c e d by c o n t r o l l i n g t h e g e n e r a t o r f i e l d c u r r e n t . P e r f o r m a n c e of t h e model was a l s o t e s t e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s e v e r a l p o s i t i v e d i s p l a c e m e n t pumps. The e f f e c t of w i n d v e l o c i t y on t h e power o u t p u t and rpm of t h e r o t o r i s shown i n F i g u r e 2-14. A s u b s t a n t i a l d r o p i n t h e r o t o r s p e e d i s a p p a r e n t , t o g e t h e r w i t h l a r g e r o u t p u t even at a m o d e r a t e w i n d v e l o c i t y . N o n d i m e n s i o n a 1 r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e same r e s u l t s as g i v e n i n F i g u r e 2-15 b r i n g s t o l i g h t an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t c o n c e r n i n g t h e f r i c t i o n a l l o s s e s . I n g e n e r a l , one w o u l d e x p e c t v a r i a t i o n of t h e power c o e f f i c i e n t w i t h t i p speed r a t i o to be i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e w i n d s p e e d . However, i n t h e p r e s e n t c a s e t h e power c o e f f i c i e n t showed a marked i n c r e a s e w i t h w i n d s p e e d . T h i s may be a t t r i b u t e d t o f r i c t i o n l o s s e s i n t h e g e n e r a t o r d r i v e s y s t e m w h i c h depend on t h e r o t o r s p e e d and d i m i n i s h w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n OJ i n t h e r a n g e of i n t e r e s t h e r e . Now, P = + P g and C P.g ( 1 / 2 ) P V3 S , w h e r e : P t o t a l power p r o d u c e d by r o t o r ; power consumed by f r i c t i o n ; P power p r o d u c e d by g e n e r a t o r g Frame n Top Bearing 28 Wind Tunnel 8' by 5' t e s t - s e c t i o n Blades P - Pulley S - Shaft E - End Plate Bottom Bearing 12 V Generator Pump Windmill T e s t - S t a n d '/A F i g u r e 2-13 Drawing showing the frame and f i r s t t w o - s t a g e model i n the l a r g e wind t u n n e l . B l a d e geometry i s the same as t h a t used i n the s i n g l e - s t a g e s t u d y . 0.28 0.6 08 1.0 1.2 TIP SPEED RATIO , rcu/V 1.4 1.6 F i g u r e 2-15 V a r i a t i o n of the power c o e f f i c i e n t w i t h t i p speed r a t i o as a f f e c t e d by wind speed f o r the f i r s t t w o - s t a g e model The l a c k of c o l l a p s e of the p l o t s on a s i n g l e c u r v e i s a t t r i b u t e d to f r i c t i o n a l l o s s e s i n t h e d r i v e s y s t e m . o 31 T hus, C = P [ l - ( P f / P ) ] / ( l / 2 ) p V 3 S P » 6 1 = C [1 - ( P f / P ) ] , and C p = P / ( l / 2 ) p V 3 S . R e c o g n i z i n g t h a t i s a l m o s t i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e wind s p e e d ( s e c t i o n 2.3.2) and t h a t P^/P d e c r e a s e s w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n t h e w i n d s p e e d , t h e t r e n d i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 2-15 i s l o g i c a l . F u r t h e r m o r e , continuous t o r q u e on t h e s h a f t due t o two s t a g e s may a l s o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e o u t p u t . I t was t h o u g h t a p p r o p r i a t e t o e v a l u a t e p o t e n t i a l of t h e wind t u r b i n e i n t e r m s of i t s pumping c a p a b i l i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e i r r i g a t i o n o r i e n t e d a p p l i c a t i o n . Hence t h e t e s t s were c a r r i e d out i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a v a r i e t y of pumps to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y f o r t h e i n t e n d e d p u r p o s e . F i g u r e 2-16 shows t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of t h e wind t u r b i n e i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a g e a r pump. I n s p i t e of l a r g e f r i c t i o n a l and f l u i d dynamic l o s s e s i n t h e d r i v e and p i p i n g s y s t e m s , a f l o w r a t e of 250 1/h t o a head of Am a t a m o d e r a t e s p e e d of 16 km/h i s i n d e e d e n c o u r a g i n g . One of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s of a g e a r pump was t h e p r i m i n g r e q u i r e m e n t . T h i s was e l i m i n a t e d by t h e r o t a r y pump r e p r e s e n t e d s c h e m a t i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 2-17. A l t h o u g h t h e s t a r t i n g w ind s p e e d was a l i t t l e h i g h e r h e r e ( F i g u r e 2-18, 22.A km/h), t h e f l o w r a t e was e s s e n t i a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e h e a d , at l e a s t o v e r t h e r a n g e of i n t e r e s t . A comment c o n c e r n i n g d e s i r a b i l i t y of t h e r o t o r t o run at n e a r < Id X 1 r Wind Speed, km/h 18.4 Performance with a gear pump 22.4 J I I I I I I I L 0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 FLOW RATE , L/min F i g u r e 2-16 Performance c h a r t f o r the f i r s t two-stage r o t o r o p e r a t i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a gear pump. LO N O 33 F i g u r e 2-17 A schematic diagram of the r o t a r y pump used w i t h the two-stage r o t o r . < T 1 1 1 1 1 — r — r Wind Speed, km/h: 22.4 25.6 28.8 Performance of a rotary pump J I I I I I I L 8 10 II FLOW RATE , L/min F i g u r e 2-18 V a r i a t i o n of f l o w r a t e w i t h head and wind speed f o r the f i r s t t w o - s t a g e S a v o n i u s r o t o r u s i n g a r o t a r y pump. U3 35 optimum s p e e d s i n d i f f e r e n t w i n d c o n d i t i o n s w o u l d be a p p r o p r i a t e . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s a l s o d e s i r a b l e t o r e s t r i c t t h e r o t o r s p e e d t o a s a f e v a l u e under s t o r m y c o n d i t i o n s t o a v o i d o v e r s t r e s s i n g . A scheme t o i m p l e m e n t t h e a b o v e r e q u i r e m e n t s i s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . One p o s s i b i l i t y i s t o c o u p l e t h e w i n d t u r b i n e t o a pump as w e l l as a g e n e r a t o r , w h i c h i n t u r n c h a r g e s a p a n e l of s t o r a g e b a t t e r i e s . Load on t h e g e n e r a t o r may be c o n t r o l l e d by g o v e r n i n g t h e f i e l d c u r r e n t a c c o r d i n g t o a s t r a t e g y t h a t i n v o l v e s e x c e s s s p e e d and w a t e r l e v e l . The e l e c t r i c a l s t o r a g e s y s t e m can be u s e d t o l i g h t a v i l l a g e a few h o u r s each n i g h t . A s i m p l e c o n t r o l s y s t e m can be d e s i g n e d t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s i n e x p e n s i v e l y . 2.3.2 T e s t P r o c e d u r e and R e s u l t s f o r t h e S e c o n d Two-Stage R o t o r The s i n g l e s t a g e r o t o r s t u d y c l e a r l y s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e m a g n i t u d e of t h e s t r a i g h t l i n e p o r t i o n of t h e b l a d e w i t h r e s p e c t t o i t s r a d i u s of c u r v a t u r e was an i m p o r t a n t p a r a m e t e r i n t h e d e s i g n of an e f f i c i e n t b l a d e g e o m e t r y . B a s e d on t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n a s i m p l e p r o c e d u r e f o r o b t a i n i n g f a m i l i e s of b l a d e p r o f i l e s was d e v e l o p e d , as i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 2-19. Note t h a t t h r o u g h a s y s t e m a t i c v a r i a t i o n of t h e m a j o r v a r i a b l e s p/q, 8 , a, and b t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e b l a d e a s p e c t r a t i o h/d, an optimum c o m b i n a t i o n can be e s t a b l i s h e d i n an e l a b o r a t e w i n d t u n n e l t e s t p r o g r a m . The amount of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t c a n be g e n e r a t e d t h r o u g h v a r i a t i o n o f even some of t h e s e p a r a m e t e r s i s c o n s i d e r a b l e . I n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e s e c o n d t w o - s t a g e m o d e l , 6 was f i x e d at gure 2-19 Geometry of the p r o f i l e used i n the second t w o - s t a g e model 0 0 ON 37 135°. The model had a p r o j e c t e d a r e a of 0.6 m , b l o c k a g e of 16.4% and a p/q r a t i o of 1. F i g u r e 2-20 shows a s c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m of t h e s e c o n d t w o - s t a g e r o t o r i n i t s frame l o c a t e d i n t h e l a r g e wind t u n n e l . The s t r a i n gauge b a s e d l o a d m e a s u r i n g d e v i c e m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r p r o v e d t o be i n a d e q u a t e at l a r g e r o u t p u t s . I t was t h e r e f o r e m o d i f i e d i n t o a b i g g e r dynamometer u s i n g two c o n c e n t r i c c y l i n d e r s , one of them f r e e t o u n d e r g o r o t a t i o n a l d i s p l a c e m e n t under t h e a c t i o n of the t o r q u e t r a n s m i t t e d t h r o u g h h i g h v i s c o s i t y o i l i n t h e gap. The t o r q u e d e p e n d e n t d i s p l a c e m e n t was m e a s u r e d t h r o u g h t h e c a n t i l e v e r mounted s t r a i n gauges as b e f o r e . The d e t a i l s of t h e model and t o r q u e m e t e r a r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 2-21 and 2-22, r e s p e c t i v e l y . F i g u r e 2-23 i l l u s t r a t e s how w i n d speed a f f e c t s t h e power v s . rpm p l o t s f o r t h e s e c o n d t w o - s t a g e r o t o r . V a r i a t i o n of t h e power c o e f f i c i e n t w i t h t h e t i p s p e e d r a t i o showed a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e a t h i g h e r wind s p e e d s ( F i g u r e 2 - 2 4 ) . T h i s may a l s o be a t t r i b u t e d t o f r i c t i o n a l b e a r i n g l o s s e s i n t h e dynamometer as e x p l a i n e d b e f o r e . I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e of s u c h a d r a g d e v i c e s h o u l d be a l m o s t i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e R e y n o l d s number i n t h e r a n g e 1.9 x 1 0 5 - 3.0 x i o 5 . To h e l p c o l l a p s e t h e Cp v s . t i p s p e e d p l o t s on a s i n g l e c u r v e , f r i c t i o n a l l o s s e s f o r t h e s e c o n d t w o - s t a g e r o t o r were o b t a i n e d u s i n g t h e a p p a r a t u s shown i n F i g u r e 2-25. The b e a r i n g s u s e d t o h o l d t h e r o t o r and dynamometer were f a s t e n e d t o a d i s k and mounted on a s h a f t w h i c h was spun by a v a r i a b l e speed m o t o r . The d i s k was c o n n e c t e d by a l i n k a g e t o a f l e x i b l e beam w h i c h had s t r a i n gauges mounted on i t t o measure the f o r c e . T h i s e n a b l e d w/////////s//// s /////////...>/> / Two stage rotor Tunnel Dynamometer support frame Rotor support frame JZZZZZZZZZZZl z z z Bearing Flexible couplings Four-vane viscous flow dynamometer Strain gage torquemeter Balancing load — a to minimize \ vibration F i g u r e 2-20 S u p p o r t system f o r the second t w o - s t a g e r o t o r . oo disk blade n 1.25 mm aluminum sheet used for disks and blades F' 480 mm F i g u r e 2-21 G e o m e t r i c d e t a i l s f o r t h e s e c o n d t w o - s t a g e model 9 = 135°; p/q = 1; A = 0.75. 40 Stationary cylinder Oil drain F i g u r e 2-22 D e t a i l s of a dynamometer used w i t h the second t w o - s t a g e model. RPM F i g u r e 2-23 V a r i a t i o n of power w i t h second t w o-stage model. rpm at t h r e e d i f f e r e n t wind s p e e d s f o r the 0.25 Tip speed ratio, ^ F i g u r e 2-24 E f f e c t of wind speed on power c o e f f i c i e n t v s . rpm p l o t s f o r the second two-stage model. 4> to Variable speed drive Belt drive b Bearings under test Strain gage transducer 3 Frame T Mr F i g u r e 2-25 T e s t arrangement f o r e v a l u a t i n g b e a r i n g l o s s e s , -c-44 the power consumed to be c a l c u l a t e d from the torque at v a r i o u s speeds. The r e s u l t s are p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 2-26. Cp vs. t i p speed r a t i o i s now p l o t t e d ( F i g u r e 2-27) f o r the second two-stage r o t o r w i t h the f r i c t i o n a l l o s s e s taken i n t o a c c o u n t . I t i s apparent t h a t the r e s u l t s do not q u i t e c o l l a p s e i n t o a s i m p l e c u r v e , s u g g e s t i n g a s l i g h t Reynold's Number dependency over the wind speeds c o n s i d e r e d . N T N B e a r i n g ^+ s + + + 1 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 4 0 0 K o y o B e a r i n g / X 1 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 4 0 0 R P M F i g u r e 2-26 P l o t s showing f r i c t i o n a l l o s s e s i n the b e a r i n g s of the second t w o - s t a g e r o t o r . 0.3 0.2 O Q O 2C + + o Cp 0. 1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 F i g u r e 2-27 V a r i a t i o n of the power f r i c t i o n a l l o s s e s . c o e f f i c i e n t w i t h rpm a c c o u n t i n g f o r 47 3. PROTOTYPE DESIGN W i t h t h e optimum b l a d e g e o m e t r y , a s p e c t r a t i o , r o t o r s t a g i n g and pumping c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n hand, d e s i g n of a f u l l s c a l e wind t u r b i n e s y s t e m was i n i t i a t e d . As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e i n i t i a l o b j e c t i v e of t h i s p r o j e c t was t o d e s i g n t h e s y s t e m f o r use i n t h e r u r a l , f a r m i n g c o m m u n i t i e s i n I n d o n e s i a . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e g u i d i n g c r i t e r i o n w h i c h shaped t h e d e s i g n were t h e f o l l o w i n g : s i m p l i c i t y o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , o p e r a t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e ; u t i l i z a t i o n of l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l ; • and use of t h e t e c h n o l o g y t h a t i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e r u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . However, as t h e d e s i g n p r o g r e s s e d , i n t e r e s t e x p r e s s e d by f a r m e r s i n N e w f o u n d l a n d , Quebec, and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t l o c a l demand f o r t h e w i n d m i l l . I t was t h e r e f o r e d e c i d e d t o d e s i g n a p r o t o t y p e u s i n g r e l a t i v e l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d m a t e r i a l s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n an a d v a n c e d i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t r y s u c h as C a n a d a , b e a r i n g i n mind i t s u l t i m a t e a p p l i c a t i o n i n a r u r a l s o c i e t y . T h u s , w i t h a t e c h n o l o g y t r a n s f e r p h a s e , e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same b a s i c d e s i g n w o u l d be a b l e t o s e r v e t h e need of f a r m e r s i n Canada as w e l l as t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s . The p r o t o t y p e d e s c r i b e d h e r e , w h i c h has been c o n s t r u c t e d and i n s t a l l e d ( F i g u r e 3-1, a l s o APPENDIX I I I ) , was s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d f o r f i e l d t e s t s t o c o r r e l a t e : ( i ) w i n d s p e e d and d i r e c t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h t h e r o t o r rpm and pumping c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and; F i g u r e 3-1 A f o u r - s t a g e S a v o n i u s r o t o r based wind e n e r g y o p e r a t e d i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m ( p r o j e c t e d a r e a = 4.45 m 3) d u r i n g f i e l d t e s t s i n d i c a t i n g m ajor s u b a s s e m b l i e s i n c l u d i n g t h e emergency b r a k e , d r i v e s h a f t , pumping u n i t and a n c h o r i n g a r r a n g e m e n t . 00 49 ( i i ) w i n d t u n n e l model t e s t r e s u l t s w i t h t h o s e of t h e p r o t o t y p e . These o b j e c t i v e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e f i e l d l o c a t i o n of t h e p r o t o t y p e ( a t o p t h e new C i v i l / M e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g B u i l d i n g , F i g u r e 3 - 2 ) , has i m p o s e d s e v e r a l a d d i t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s and c o m p l i c a t i o n s i n d e s i g n w h i c h w o u l d not be p r e s e n t i n t h e a c t u a l a p p l i c a t i o n . 3.1 S y s t e m A s s e m b l y E s s e n t i a l l y t h e s y s t e m c o n s i s t e d of a f o u r - s t a g e S a v o n i u s r o t o r , e a ch s t a g e 1.2 m i n d i a m e t e r and 0.915 m h i g h ( F i g u r e 3 - 3 ) , b u i l t on an aluminum s l e e v e ( F i g u r e 3 - 4 ) . The aluminum s l e e v e was f a s t e n e d t o aluminum b e a r i n g h o u s i n g s at e ach end. The h o u s i n g s h e l d b a l l b e a r i n g s w h i c h i n t u r n were s u p p o r t e d by t h e mast. B a l l b e a r i n g s were c h o o s e n b e c a u s e t h e y p r o d u c e d t h e l e a s t r o t a t i o n a l f r i c t i o n a t a minimum c o s t . The a x i a l l o a d , due to t h e w e i g h t of t h e r o t o r , p r e s e n t e d no p r o b l e m s f o r t h e b a l l b e a r i n g s . The o u t s i d e d i a m e t e r of t h e mast and b e a r i n g h o l d e r r e q u i r e d t h e b e a r i n g s t o have an i n s i d e d i a m e t e r of a t l e a s t 127 mm. S t a n d a r d b e a r i n g s of t h a t s i z e a r e a b l e t o s u p p o r t an a x i a l f o r c e of at l e a s t 9000 Newtons. The mast, e s s e n t i a l l y a s t e e l p i p e 11.6 m t a l l , was b u i l t i n t h r e e s e c t i o n s of 3m, 3m and 5.6m i n l e n g t h s ( F i g u r e 3-5) w i t h t h e o u t s i d e d i a m e t e r of 115 mm f o r t h e l o w e r two s e c t i o n s r e d u c i n g t o 102 mm O.D. f o r t h e t o p s e c t i o n . The s e c t i o n s a r e 50 11.6m 19.6m 8ml 7.3m 1 |_ _jwind anemometer signal ..water flow meter signal -•RPM signal wind speed and - direction signal -•brake signal .^magnetic clutch signals D A T A L O G G E R SIGNAL P R O C E S S O R F i g u r e 3-2 A s c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m showing the p o s i t i o n of w i n d m i l l and m e t e o r o l o g i c a l tower a t o p the M e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g Machine Shop b u i l d i n g . 1.5 m F i g u r e 3-3 R e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n of b l a d e s i n f o u r s t a g e s of the p r o t o t y p e S a v o n i u s r o t o r . 52 125 mm B 125 mm *Nop bearing housing 178 mm O.D., 127 mm I.D. ball bearing 152 mm O.D., 146 mm I.D. aluminum pipe 178 mm O.D., 127 mm I.D. ball bearing bottom bearing housing and pulley — brake drum, 165 mm O.D. C A brake plate F i g u r e 3-4 D e t a i l s of the s l e e v e and b e a r i n g a s s e m b l y . 53 5.6 m 102 mm O.D. steel pipe -1 200 mm 1 11.6 m 115 mm O.D. steel pipe — 102 mm O.D. steel pipe welded to one side of pipe 6.0 m 3.0 m A—brake plate guy w i r e mast mast base plate F i g u r e 3-5 Mast a s s e m b l y . 54 h e l d t o g e t h e r by f l a n g e s r e i n f o r c e d w i t h s h o r t p i e c e s , of s t e e l p i p e , 102 mm O.D., w e l d e d a t t h e j o i n t s . M o u n t i n g t h e t u r b i n e on t h e s l e e v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e d t h e r o t a t i n g i n e r t i a , t h u s l o w e r i n g t h e s t a r t i n g s p e e d . I n t h e p r e s e n t c a s e , w e i g h t of t h e f o u r s t a g e r o t o r was o n l y 150 kg r e s u l t i n g m o s t l y f r o m t h e m a t e r i a l s u s e d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of b l a d e s and e n d p l a t e s . B l a d e s i n t h e a d j a c e n t s t a g e s were s t a g g e r e d by 45° r e s u l t i n g i n s m o o t h e r o p e r a t i o n . The mast was h e l d i n p o s i t i o n by e i g h t guy w i r e s , f o u r r u n n i n g f r o m t h e mast cap and t h e o t h e r f o u r from t h e r e g i o n j u s t b e l o w t h e b r a k e - p l a t e , c o n n e c t e d t o f o u r r o o f a n c h o r s . The p r o t o t y p e was d e s i g n e d so t h a t t h e r o t o r ( i . e . t h e l i g h t r o t a t i n g s e c t i o n of t h e a s s e m b l y ) s l i p p e d o v e r t h e h e a v y , s t a t i o n a r y a n c h o r e d mast. I n t h i s way, even w i t h a b e a r i n g or a h o u s i n g f a i l u r e , t h e r o t o r i s p r e v e n t e d from b r e a k i n g f r e e f r o m t h e mast. A l s o two s e t s of guy w i r e s were p r o v i d e d t o a n c h o r t h e mast f r o m b o t h above and b e l o w t h e r o t o r w h i c h e x p e r i e n c e s t h e maximum a e r o d y n a m i c f o r c e s . The guy w i r e s were d e s i g n e d t o h o l d t h e r o t o r i n a 160 km/h w i n d . As a s a f e t y p r e c a u t i o n , each c a b l e was r a t e d t o h o l d t h e e n t i r e w i n d l o a d by i t s s e l f . As an added p r e c a u t i o n , t h e guy w i r e a n c h o r s were p l a c e d t h r o u g h t h e c o n c r e t e r o o f of t h e M a c h i n e Shop, and s e c u r e d w i t h m e t a l p l a t e s i n s i d e of t h e b u i l d i n g . 55 3. 2 B r a k i n g S y s t e m The S a v o n i u s r o t o r was p r o v i d e d w i t h an emergency b r a k i n g s y s t e m t o g u a r d a g a i n s t a p o s s i b l e s t r u c t u r a l f a i l u r e a t h i g h w i n d s p e e d s ( > 50 km/h ). E s s e n t i a l l y i t r e s e m b l e d t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l a u t o m o b i l e b r a k e c o n s i s t i n g of a drum w i t h s p r i n g a c t i v a t e d c a l l i p e r s c a r r y i n g a s b e s t o s pads ( F i g u r e 3 - 6 ) . The c a l l i p e r s were mounted on t h e b r a k e p l a t e ( S e c t i o n A-A) and t h e b r a k e drum was b o l t e d t o t h e b o t t o m b e a r i n g h o u s i n g ( S e c t i o n C-C) as shown i n F i g u r e 3-4. The b r a k i n g f o r c e was a d j u s t a b l e to a maximum of 2000 N t h r o u g h an a p p r o p r i a t e p r e t e n s i o n i n g of t h e s p r i n g . The b r a k i n g o p e r a t i o n was g o v e r n e d p n e u m a t i c a l l y . Under a n o r m a l o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n , a c o m p r e s s e d a i r - l i n e a t 680 kPa p r e s s u r i z e d t h e a i r - c y l i n d e r and t h e drum was r e l e a s e d . At a p r e d e t e r m i n e d c r i t i c a l w i n d s p e e d , t h e a i r s u p p l y was s w i t c h e d o f f a u t o m a t i c a l l y t h r o u g h a m i c r o p r o c e s s o r a c t u a t e d c o n t r o l l e r (APPENDIX I ). The a i r c y l i n d e r was t h e n a l l o w e d t o b l e e d t h r o u g h a n e e d l e v a l v e c a u s i n g t he p i s t o n ( o f t h e a i r - c y l i n d e r ) t o c l o s e t h e c a l i p e r s and b r a k e the drum. The n e e d l e v a l v e was a d j u s t a b l e t o c o n t r o l b l e e d i n g r a t e and hence t h e r a t e a t w h i c h t h e b r a k e was a p p l i e d . The b r a k e was c o n s t r u c t e d i n s u c h a way t h a t i t d i d n o t depend upon an e x t e r n a l power s o u r c e f o r a c t i v a t i o n . W i t h a b r e a k i n t h e a i r - l i n e , an open v a l v e or t h e a i r c o m p r e s s o r s w i t c h e d o f f , t h e b r a k e w o u l d be a p p l i e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y by t h e s p r i n g as an emergency p r e c a u t i o n . air supply to operate air cylinder 690 KPa' pins to fasten brake shoes to brake plate air cylinder to disengage brake shoes from drum - 40 mm O.D. piston - 50 mm piston stroke 100 mm 50 mm —h 50 mm + 50 mm l 25 mm F i g u r e 3-6 P n e u m a t i c a l l y a c t u a t e d b r a k i n g s y s t e m s h o w i n g a i r - c y l i n d c a l i p e r s and s h o e s . 57 3.3 T r a n s m i s s i o n o f Power and Load M a t c h i n g S y stem The power was t r a n s m i t t e d f r o m t h e S a v o n i u s r o t o r to t h e pumps t h r o u g h a d r i v e s h a f t ( F i g u r e 3 - 9 ) . The power was r e l a y e d by t h r e e A A - V e e - B e l t s f r o m t h e b o t t o m b e a r i n g h o u s i n g to t h e d r i v e s h a f t w h i c h was d e s i g n e d i n f i v e s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n p e r m i t t e d t e n s i o n i n g of t h e b e l t s - w h i l e t h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n had u n i v e r s a l - j o i n t s a t b o t h ends t o accommodate t h e m o t i o n of t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n . The n e x t two s e c t i o n s a l s o had u n i v e r s a l - j o i n t s t o c o r r e c t f o r any m i s a l i g n m e n t i n t h e s h a f t . The h a l f i n c h b e a r i n g s u s e d t o s u p p o r t t h e d r i v e s h a f t a r e a l s o s e l f - a l i g n i n g . At t h e b o t t o m of t h e d r i v e s h a f t a p u l l e y t r a n s m i t t e d t h e power t o a s y s t e m of pumps l o c a t e d a t t h e mast base ( F i g u r e 3-7) t o f a c i l i t a t e i n s t a l l a t i o n and s e r v i c i n g . I t a l s o a v o i d s t h e p r o b l e m of s u c t i o n l i f t on t h e pumps. Two w a t e r l i n e s r u n between t h e s u p p l y and r e c e i v i n g w a t e r t a n k s , t h e f o r m e r l o c a t e d a t t h e b o t t o m and t h e l a t t e r s u p p o r t e d on t h e mast a t a d e s i r e d h e i g h t t o p r o v i d e a r e q u i r e d h e a d . E a r l i e r w i n d t u n n e l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w i t h model t u r b i n e s o p e r a t i n g w i t h s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t pumps showed t h e p o s i t i v e d i s p l a c e m e n t t y p e t o be b e t t e r s u i t e d t o c o n d i t i o n s of w i d e l y v a r y i n g rpm e n c o u n t e r e d i n p r a c t i c e . F o r a p o s i t i v e d i s p l a c e m e n t pump, t h e f l o w r a t e v a r i e s l i n e a r l y w i t h rpm, h o w e v e r , t h e w i n d 3 t u r b i n e o u t p u t i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o V . Thus f o r an e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n a l o a d m a t c h i n g p r o c e d u r e i s n e s e s s a r y . I n t h e p r e s e n t 58 F i g u r e 3-7 D r i v e s h a f t and pumping arrangement showing l o a d m a t c h i n g t e c h n i q u e u s i n g t h r e e pumps (P 1 , P 2 , P 3 ) . 59 c a s e t h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d by t h r e e pumps r a t e d a 9, 22 and 44 1/min a t 1750 rpm. Each of t h e pumps was p r o v i d e d w i t h a m a g n e t i c c l u t c h o p e r a t e d by a 12V D.C. s u p p l y , w h i c h was s w i t c h e d on t h r o u g h a m i c r o p r o c e s s o r c i r c u i t a t a p r e d e t e r m i n e d w i n d s p e e d . W i t h t h e s m a l l e s t pump p e r m a n e n t l y c o n n e c t e d t o t h e t u r b i n e , t h e s t a r t i n g w ind s p e e d was 14 km/h. I n t h e a c t u a l a p p l i c a t i o n : ( i ) t h e mast and t h e guy w i r e s w i l l be r e p l a c e d by t h e l o c a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d s u p p o r t f r a m e ; ( i i ) t h e pump w i l l be c o n n e c t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e r o t o r s l e e v e ; ( i i i ) t h e b o t t o m t a n k w i l l be an i r r i g a t i o n d i t c h , w e l l or r i v e r , and t h e t o p t a n k a s e p a r a t e l y c o n s t r u c t e d r e s e r v o i r as shown i n F i g u r e 1-1. 3.4 M o n i t o r i n g I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n And C o n t r o l l e r A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n of r e s u l t s f o r a p r o t o t y p e w i n d t u r b i n e s and i t s model i s i n d e e d q u i t e s c a r c e . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e f o r t h e S a v o n i u s c o n f i g u r a t i o n . The p r o t o t y p e w i t h i t s i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n w i l l p r o v i d e t h i s v i t a l i n f o r m a t i o n . The f a c i l i t y p e r m i t s c o r r e l a t i o n of r o t o r rpm, i n s t a n t a n e o u s and i n t e g r a t e d d i s c h a r g e r a t e s , w i n d s p e e d and d i r e c t i o n , and t u r b u l e n c e i n t e n s i t y . I t w i l l be h e l p f u l i n a s s e s s i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of b l a d e g e o m e t r y , pump c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , and s e v e r a l l o a d m a t c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s . 60 The s y s t e m i s p r o v i d e d w i t h a d i g i t a l rpm m e t e r , two p a d d l e w h e e l t y p e f l o w m e t e r s ( F i g u r e 3-8) w i t h i n s t a n t a n e o u s and i n t e g r a t e d d i s c h a r g e d a t a o u t p u t s and a w e l l p r o v e n G i l l a nemometer, a l l c o n n e c t e d t o a m u l t i - c h a n n e l d a t a - l o g g e r w i t h v a r i a b l e d a t a s a m p l i n g c a p a b i l i t y ( F i g u r e 3 - 9 ) . The w i n d s p e e d , d i r e c t i o n , f l o w r a t e , e t c . i n f o r m a t i o n can be s a m p l e d at s e v e r a l p r e p r o g r a m m e d r a t e s and r e c o r d e d on a m a g n e t i c t a p e f o r a n a l y s i s . 3.5 P e r f o r m a n c e of P r o t o t y p e The p r o t o t y p e and a s s o c i a t e d p e r f o r m a n c e m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n has been i n o p e r a t i o n s i n c e A p r i l 1984. A w i d e v a r i e t y of w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d w h i c h p r o v i d e d s e v e r a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o a s s e s s t h e t u r b i n e s 1 s p e r f o r m a n c e o v e r a r a n g e of w i n d s p e e d s . T y p i c a l t h r e e and s e v e n h o u r r e c o r d s of w i n d speed and f l o w r a t e a r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e s 3-10 and F i g u r e 3-11, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The head was h e l d f i x e d a t 4m. The minimum s a m p l i n g p e r i o d f o r t h e d a t a l o g g e r i s one m i n u t e and i t was u s e d f o r a l l t h e r e c o r d i n g s . However, i n most s i t u a t i o n s t h e w i n d s p e e d f l u c t u a t i o n s were o b s e r v e d t o o c c u r at h i g h e r f r e q u e n c i e s . T h i s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e r o t o r ' s i n e r t i a t e n d e d t o d i s t o r t t h e p e r f o r m a n c e r e c o r d s . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t a s a m p l i n g p e r i o d of 1-5 s e c o n d s s h o u l d be u s e d i n f u t u r e t o o b t a i n b e t t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y between t h e wind s p e e d and t h e f l o w r a t e . 61 25 mm O.D. steel water up down mast drivyhaft SC-Process Control Systems 'Maxigard* Model C3000 signal conditioner P1-JABSCO PUMP * 777-9051 P2-JABSCO PUMP + 777-0001 P3-JABSCO PUMP * 6400-0001 „ ... . Campbell Scientific Inc CR21 Micrologger M1-315-PO Paddle wheel flosensor M2-315-TO Paddle wheel flosensor IT 1 -SIGNET SCIENTIFIC MK 375 R 0-8 GPM INDICATOR/TOTALIZER IT 2-SIGNET SCIENTIFIC MK 375 R 0-30 GPM INDICATOR/TOTALIZER F i g u r e 3-8 Pumps used and a s s o c i a t e d i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n f o r i n s t a n t a n e o u s and i n t e g r a t e d f l o w measurements. bottom bearing housing a n d pulley . s i z e d V - b e l t s 62 \ \ ^ d r i v e shaft pulley R. M . Y o u n g C o m p a n y G i l l p r o p e l l e r v a n e m a s t clampd= c lamps c l a m p = c l a m p ' W W W e s t o n d i g i t a l d i r e c t i o n i n d i c a t o r M o d e l 2 4 6 2 C a m p b e l l S c i e n t i f i c Inc C R 2 1 M i c r o l o g g e r b a s e p l a t e W e s t o n d i g i t a l t a c h M o d e l 2 4 6 2 S C - / P r o c e s s C o n t r o l S y s t e m s " M a x i g a r d * M o d e l C 3 0 0 0 s i g n a l c o n d i t i o n e r F i g u r e 3-9 A s c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m showing the bottom h a l f of the mast and d e t a i l s of the d r i v e s h a f t assembly t o g e t h e r w i t h m e t e o r o l o g i c a l mast and i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . i 1 1 > I I 1 1 1 1 1 I Time, hours i g u r e 3-10 T y p i c a l p l o t s and f l o w r a t e showing f o r the the time h i s t o r i e s of wind spee p r o t o t y p e over t h r e e h o u r s . f l o w r a t e f o r the p r o t o t y p e over 7.2 h o u r s . 65 I n F i g u r e 3-10 t h e w i n d s p e e d r e s u l t s were a v e r a g e d o v e r s i x m i n u t e s g i v i n g t e n p o i n t s o v e r an h o u r . The a v e r a g i n g was done i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t ways: s i m p l e a r i t h m e t i c mean 9 9 9 9 9 ? 1 / 9 V = ( V 1 + V 2 + V 3 + V 4 + V 5 + V 6 ) / 6 ; rms V = [ ( V ^ + V ^ + V ^ + V ^ + V ^ + V ^ ) / 6 ] u z ; and e q u i v a l e n t s p e e d b a s e d on t h e a v e r a g e power i n p u t 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 / ? V=[(V^+V2+V3+V^+V^+Vg)/6] . The l a s t a p p r o a c h a p p e a r s t o be a more r a t i o n a l way of p r e s e n t i n g t h e w i n d d a t a . As o u t p u t of a p o s i t i v e d i s p l a c e m e n t pump v a r i e s l i n e a r l y w i t h i t s rpm, a r i t h m e t i c mean of t h e f l o w r a t e was used i n p l o t t i n g t h e r e s u l t s . A c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e r o t o r i n e r t i a , t h e f l o w r a t e r e s p o n d s t o t h e w i n d s p e e d f l u c t u a t i o n s w i t h a phase d i f f e r e n c e . W i t h an i n c r e a s e i n w i n d s p e e d , t h e r o t o r i n e r t i a w i l l s t o r e a n g u l a r momentum c a u s i n g t h e f l o w r a t e t o l a g . T h i s i s a p p a r e n t t h r o u g h a c o m p a r i s o n of p e a k s marked a-a, b-b, c - c , e t c . I n F i g u r e 3-11, t h e w i n d s p e e d r e s u l t s b a s e d on t h e a v e r a g e power i n p u t , and t h e f l o w r a t e a r e p l o t t e d a g a i n s t t i m e . As i n t h e c a s e of t h e f i r s t r e c o r d t h e wind s p e e d p e a k s do r e l a t e t o t h e f l o w r a t e but w i t h a phase s h i f t due t o t h e i n e r t i a e f f e c t s o f t h e r o t o r . No a t t e m p t a t l o a d - m a t c h i n g was made h e r e and o n l y t h e s m a l l e s t pump of 9 1/min was i n o p e r a t i o n w h i c h , a t t h i s r e l a t i v e l y l o w w i n d s p e e d , was q u i t e a d e q u a t e . A c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e l o s s e s t h e r e s u l t s matched r a t h e r w e l l w i t h t h e w i n d t u n n e l t e s t p r e d i c t i o n s (APPENDIX I I ) . Such p r o t o t y p e r e s u l t s s h o u l d p r o v e t o be e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l i n a s s e s s i n g t h e f u l l - s c a l e l o s s e s and a p p r o p r i a t e m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n d e s i g n t o a c c o u n t f o r them. 66 The 72 p o i n t s of w i n d s p e e d and f l o w r a t e f r o m F i g u r e 3-11 a r e p l o t t e d a g a i n s t e a c h o t h e r i n F i g u r e 3-12. A s i m p l e l e a s t s q u a r e f i t of t h e d a t a g i v e s t h e p r e f o r m a n c e r e l a t i o n f o r t h e w i n d m i l l a s : WIND SPEED = 1.6 x (FLOW RATE) + 14.1 Where t h e w i n d s p e e d i s i n km/h and t h e f l o w r a t e i s i n 1/min. N o t e , t h e w i n d m i l l s t a r t s o p e r a t i n g a t 14.1 km/h or a p p r o x i a t e l y 9 mph and w i l l pump 6 l i t e r s per m i n u t e t o a head of 5m i n a 24 km/h w i n d . 67 F l o w R a t e ( l i t e r s / m i n ) F i g u r e 3-12 V a r i a t i o n of wind speed p l o t t e d a g a i n s t f l o w r a t e f o r t h e 7.2 hour h i s t o r y . 68 CONCLUDING REMARKS B a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d , t h e f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s can be made: ( i ) The s t u d y s u g g e s t s s u b s t a n t i a l e f f e c t s of t h e b l a d e s e p a r a t i o n , o v e r l a p and a s p e c t r a t i o . The a b s e n c e of gap between t h e b l a d e s r e s u l t e d i n a maximum o u t p u t w h i l e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e o v e r l a p was p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e b l e o n l y f o r b/d > 0.22. The optimum v a l u e of 'A' was f o u n d t o be 0.77. ( i i ) P r o t o t y p e p e r f o r m a n c e c a n be p r e d i c t e d u s i n g wind t u n n e l r e s u l t s w i t h a c c e p t a b l e e n g i n e e r i n g a c c u r a c y p r o v i d e d : ( a ) t h e r e i s a p r e c i s e e s t i m a t e of t h e l o s s e s i n t h e d r i v e s y s t e m ; and ( b ) f a s t e r s a m p l i n g of t h e wind s p e e d , t h u s r e d u c i n g s c a t t e r i n t h e d a t a , i s a v a i l a b l e . ( i i i ) The p r o t o t y p e has a s t a r t i n g w i n d s p e e d of 14.1 km/h ( = 9 mph). 2 ( i v ) The p r o t o t y p e w i t h a p r o j e c t e d a r e a of 4.45 m i s a n t i c i p a t e d t o d e l i v e r a t l e a s t 3,000 l i t r e s of w a t e r p er day t o a head of 5 m i n a 24 km/h w i n d (24 km/h w i n d f o r 8 h o u r s per d a y ) , ( v ) T h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e demand f o r w i n d t u r b i n e s w i t h a power o u t p u t i n t h e r a n g e of 5 - 10 kW, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s . The S a v o n i u s 69 r o t o r based i r r i g a t i o n system of moderate c a p a b i l i t y d e s c r i b e d here r e p r e s e n t s o n l y a s m a l l s t e p i n e v o l u t i o n of such a d e s i g n . The f i e l d t e s t s w i t h the p r o t o t y p e have p r o v i d e d p e r f o r m a n c e i n f o r m a t i o n h e l p f u l i n a c h i e v i n g t h i s g o a l . However, the system i s amenable to c o n s i d e r a b l e improvement. In p a r t i c u l a r , e f f o r t s a t : ( i ) i m p r o v i n g the b l a d e geometry; ( i i ) a s s e s s i n g the b l o c k a g e and R e y n o l d s number e f f e c t s d u r i n g wind t u n n e l t e s t s ; ( i i i ) f i n d i n g a l t e r n a t e a p p r o a c h e s f o r l o a d m a t c h i n g , which a r e m e c h a n i c a l l y s i m p l e and e c o n o m i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e ; ( i v ) s i m p l i f y i n g the r o t o r and s u p p o r t s t r u c t u r e d e s i g n u s i n g the l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l s of d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s ; ( v ) the development of a n a l y t i c a l models f o r t h e p r e d i c t i o n of p r o t o t y p e p e r f o r m a n c e ; s h o u l d p r o v e r e w a r d i n g . 70 REFERENCES Ahmedi, G., "Some P r e l i m i n a r y R e s u l t s on t h e P e r f o r m a n c e of a S m a l l V e r t i c a l A x i s C y l i n d r i c a l Wind T u r b i n e , " Wind  E n g i n e e r i n g , V o l . 2, No. 2, 1978, pp 65-74. S a v i n o , J.M., and E l d r i d g e , F.R., "Wind Power," A s t r o n a u t i c s  and A e r o n a u t i c s , V o l . 1 3 , No. 11, 1975, pp 53-57. H u t t e r , V., "Wind Power M a c h i n e s , " NASA-TT-F-16195, F e b r u a r y 1975. B l a c k w e l l , B.F., et a l . , "Wind E n e r g y - A R e v i t a l i z e d P u r s u i t , " S a n d i a L a b o r a t o r i e s , R e p o r t No. 75-0166, M a r c h 1975. G o v i n d R a j u , S.P., and N a r a s i m h a , R., "A Low-Cost Water Pumping W i n d m i l l U s i n g a S a i l Type S a v o n i u s R o t o r , " D e p a r t m e n t o f A e r o n a u t i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g , I n d i a n I n s t i t u t e of S c i e n c e , R e p o r t No. 79 FM 2, B a n g a l o r e J a n u a r y 1979. E l d r i d g e , F.R., Wind M a c h i n e s , N a t i o n a l S c i e n c e F o u n d a t i o n , U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C , 1975. U.S. D e p a r t m e n t o f Energy/NASA, Wind T u r b i n e S t r u c t u r a l D y n a m i c s , NASA C o n f e r e n c e P u b l i c a t i o n 2 0 3 4 , NASA L e w i s R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , 1977. 71 [ 8 ] Fantom, I.D. ( E d i t o r ) , P r o c e e d i n g s of t h e 2nd I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Symposium on Wind E n e r g y S y s t e m s , V o l s . I , I I , BHRA P u b l i s h e r , C r a n f i e l d , U.K., 1979. [ 9 ] P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e AIAA/SERI Wind E n e r g y C o n f e r e n c e , AIAA P u b l i s h e r , New Y o r k , N.Y., U.S., 1980. [ 1 0 ] P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e 1 6 t h I n t e r s o c i e t y E n e r g y C o n f e r e n c e , A t l a n t a , G e o r g i a , ASME P u b l i s h e r , New Y o r k , N.Y., U.S.A., 1981. [ 1 1 ] P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e 1 7 t h I n t e r s o c i e t y E n e r g y C o n v e r s i o n  E n g i n e e r i n g C o n f e r e n c e , Los A n g e l e s , IEEE P u b l i s h e r , New Y o r k , N.Y., U.S.A., 1982. [ 1 2 ] P r o c e e d i n g s o f E n e r g e x '82, R e g i n a , E d i t o r : F.A. C u r t i s , P u b l i s h e d by S o l a r E n e r g y S o c i e t y o f Canada I n c . , 1982. [ 1 3 ] M o d i , V . J . , R o t h , N . J . , and P i t a l a w a l a , A., " B l a d e C o n f i g u r a t i o n and P e r f o r m a n c e of t h e S a v o n i u s R o t o r w i t h A p p l i c a t i o n t o I r r i g a t i o n S y s t e m i n I n d o n e s i a , " P r o c e e d i n g o f  t h e 1 6 t h I n t e r s o c i e t y E n e r g y C o n v e r s i o n E n g i n e e r i n g  C o n f e r e n c e , A t l a n t a , G e o r g i a , U.S.A., A u g u s t 1 9 81, ASME P u b l i s h e r , V o l . 2, pp. 206 4 - 2 0 6 9 . [ 1 4 ] Khan, H.M., "Mod e l and P r o t o t y p e P e r f o r m a n c e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of S a v o n i u s R o t o r W i n d m i l l , " Wind Engg . , V o l . 2, No. 2, 1978, pp. 75-85. 72 [ 1 5 ] S h a n k a r , P.N., "The E f f e c t s of Geometry and R e y n o l d s Number on S a v o n i u s Type R o t o r s , " R e p o r t AE-TM3-76, N a t i o n a l  A e r o n a u t i c a l L a b o r a t o r y , B a n g a l o r e , 1976. [ 1 6 ] J o n e s , C.N., L i t t e r , R.D., and M a n s e r , B.L., "The S a v o n i u s R o t o r - P e r f o r m a n c e and F l o w , " P r e c e e d i n g s o f t h e F i r s t BWEA  Wind E n e r g y W o rkshop, M u l t i - S c i e n c e P u b l i s h i n g Co. L t d . , The O l d M i l l , D o r s e t P l a c e , London E15 1DJ, U.K., A p r i l 1979. [ 1 7 ] S i v a s e g a r a m , S., "An E x p e r i m e n t a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n of a C l a s s of R e s i s t a n c e - T y p e , D i r e c t i o n - I n d e p e n d e n t Wind T u r b i n e , " E n e r g y , V o l . 3, 1978, pp. 23-30. [ 1 8 ] S i v a s e g a r a m , S., " D e s i g n P a r a m e t e r s A f f e c t i n g t h e P e r f o r m a n c e of R e s i s t a n c e - T y p e , V e r t i c a l - A x i s Wind R o t o r s ; An E x p e r i m e n t a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n , " Wind E n g i n e e r i n g , V o l . 1, No. 3, 1977, pp. 207-218. [ 1 9 ] S i v a s e g a r a m , S., " S e c o n d a r y P a r a m e t e r s A f f e c t i n g t h e P e r f o r m a n c e of R e s i s t a n c e - T y p e V e r t i c a l - A x i s Wind R o t o r , " Wind E n g i n e e r i n g , V o l . 2, No. 1, 1978, pp. 49-58. [ 2 0 ] S i v a s e g a r a m , S., " C o n c e n t r a t i o n A u g m e n t a t i o n of S a v o n i u s - T y p e Wind R o t o r , " Wind E n g i n e e r i n g , V o l . 1979, pp. 5 2 - 6 1 . Power i n a 3, No. 1, 73 [ 2 1 ] S a b z e v a r i , A., "Power A u g m e n t a t i o n I n A D u c t e d S a v o n i u s R o t o r , " P r o c e e d i n g s of t h e 2nd I n t e r n a t i o n a l Symposium on  Wind E n e r g y S y s t e m , Amsterdam, O c t . 1978, P a p e r F 3 , pp. 25-34. [ 2 2 ] G o v i n d a R a j u , S.P., and N a r a s i m h a , R., " W i n d m i l l s f o r R u r a l U s e , " D e p a r t m e n t o f A e r o n a u t i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g , I n d i a n I n s t i t u t e o f S c i e n c e , R e p o r t No. 77 FM 14, B a n g a l o r e , 1977. [ 2 3 ] A l e x a n d e r , A. J . , " Wind T u n n e l C o r r e c t i o n s F o r S a v o n i u s R o t o r , " P r o c e e d i n g s of t h e 2nd I n t e r n a t i o n a l Symposium on Wind E n e r g y S y s t e m s , Amsterdam, O c t . 1978, P a p e r E6, pp. 69-80. [ 2 4 ] A l d e r , G.M., "The A e r o d y n a m i c P e r f o r m a n c e of The S a v o n i u s R o t o r , " P r o c e e d i n g s of t h e 2nd I n t e r n a t i o n a l Symposium on  Wind E n e r g y S y s t e m , Amsterdam, O c t . 1978, P a p e r F 3 , pp. 25-34. [ 2 5 ] M o d i , V . J . , F e r n a n d o , M.S.U.K., and R o t h , N . J . , " An A p p r o a c h t o Wind E n e r g y O p e r a t e d I r r i g a t i o n S y s t e m , " P r o c e e d i n g s o f  E n e r g e x , t h e G l o b a l E n e r g y Forum '84, R e g i n a , S a s k . , C a n a d a , May 1984, E d i t o r : F. C u r t i s , pp. 6 5 5 - 6 6 0 . 74 APPENDIX I - MICROPROCESSOR BASED CONTROLLER I t was c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l t o i n c o r p o r a t e a m i c r o p r o c e s s o r b a s e d c o n t r o l l e r ( F i g u r e 1-1) t o : ( i ) a u t o m a t i c a l l y a p p l y t h e b r a k e a t a d e s i r e d p r e s e t w i n d s p e e d t o a s s u r e s a f e t y o f t h e s t r u c t u r e ; ( i i ) p e r m i t l o a d m a t c h i n g by a c t u a t i n g a m a g n e t i c c l u t c h t h u s c o n n e c t i n g or d i s c o n n e c t i n g a pump a c c o r d i n g t o t h e w i n d s p e e d ; ( i i i ) d e l a y t h e a c t i v a t i n g s i g n a l by a d e s i r e d amount t o a v o i d s e n s i t i v i t y t o t r a n s i e n t f l u c t u a t i o n s i n t h e w i n d s p e e d . The p r o c e s s o r i s a b l e t o a c h i e v e t h e above r e q u i r e m e n t s t h r o u g h a c o m p a r a t o r , c l o c k p u l s e g e n e r a t o r and a d e l a y t i m e c o u n t e r . A c o m p a r a t o r g e n e r a t e s a c o n s t a n t s i g n a l of a b o u t 3-5 V when and i n p u t s i g n a l e x c e e d s a r e f e r e n c e v a l u e . I n t h e p r e s e n t c a s e an ' AND GATE' i s u s e d t o a c t as a c o m p a r a t o r . A CMOS 4081 c h i p p r o v i d e d a t r i g g e r i n g v o l t a g e l e v e l o f 2.5 V. O u t p u t of t h e G i l l anemometer was a d j u s t e d a c c o r d i n g l y u s i n g a p o t e n t i o m e t e r t o t r i g g e r a s i g n a l f o r c o n t r o l . F o r a s i g n a l d e l a y s y s t e m t o o p e r a t e s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , a c l o c k p u l s e g e n e r a t o r i s r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e a t i m e r e f e r e n c e . T h i s can be a c h i e v e d i n a number of ways. However, f o r s i m p l i c i t y , i n t h e p r e s e n t c a s e i t was a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e use of two i n v e r t e r s g i v i n g a p u l s e r a t e o f ( 1 . 4 R C ) " 1 . W i t h R = 6.5Mfi and C = 0.22 pF, 7 4 1 9 3 M i l l i i i i L11111 7 4 1 6 4 N IK brake activation brake calibration* 1M +5v i : IK IK * •n • » « - » • - O s - S » - o » » o » - » • b r«. kf ^clutch testj test • 6V *-W-1K IK • • B B H l I • 7 4 1 • i i S 3 N I I I ! 7 4 1 S 4 N 1 clutch activation . J ii •clutch calibration IM to brake GRD to clutch anemometer F i g u r e 1-1 A d e t a i l e d c i r c u i t d i a g r a m f o r t h e s i g n a l p r o c e s s o r s h o w i n g t h e c o m p a r a t o r (CMOS 4 0 8 1 ) . i n v e r t o r (CMOS 4 0 4 9 ) . b i n a r v c o u n t e r ( T L L 74193) and d e c o d e r (TTL 7 4 1 5 4 ) . 7 6 a p u l s e i s g e n e r a t e d e v e r y 2 s e c o n d s . The c h i p u s e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e was CMOS 4049. The t i m e d e l a y s y s t e m c o n s i s t s of a 4 - b i t b i n a r y c o u n t e r (TLL 7 4 1 5 4 ) , and a 'NAND GATE' (CMDS 4 0 1 1 ) . The f u n c t i o n of t h e b i n a r y c o u n t e r i s t o r e c e i v e a s i g n a l f r o m t h e c l o c k p u l s e g e n e r a t o r and c o n v e r t t h e c o u n t i n t h e b i n a r y f o r m f o r t h e d e c o d e r . The d e c o d e r i s e s s e n t i a l l y a dec a d e c o u n t e r w h i c h t a k e s a b i n a r y number and c o n v e r t s i t i n t o t h e d e c i m a l f o r m . The 'NAND GATE' i s used t o t e r m i n a t e c o u n t i n g , by t h e b i n a r y c o u n t e r , a t a p r e s e t d e l a y t i m e , i n t u r n c o n t r o l l e d by s w i t c h e s c o n n e c t e d t o t h e o u t p u t of th e d e c o d e r . I n a n o r m a l o p e r a t i o n a l l s w i t c h e s w i l l be open e x c e p t t h e one g i v i n g t h e d e s i r e d t i m e d e l a y . Thus when t h e b i n a r y c o u n t e r i s t r i g g e r e d by t h e c o m p a r a t o r , i t i n i t i a t e s t h e c o u n t of t h e c l o c k p u l s e s w h i c h s e r v e as an i n p u t t o t h e d e c o d e r . Now e a c h 4 - b i t a d d r e s s f r o m t h e b i n a r y c o u n t e r d r i v e s one c o n s e c u t i v e o u t p u t of t h e d e c o d e r ' l o w' k e e p i n g o t h e r o u t p u t s ' h i g h ' . Hence, a t t h i s s t a g e , t h e o u t p u t of th e d e c o d e r w o u l d go ' l o w ' c o n s e c u t i v e l y from N = 1. F o r e x a m p l e , i f s w i t c h number 8 i s c l o s e d , t h e n t h e i n p u t t o 'NAND GATE' i s h i g h b e c a u s e t h e N = 8 o u t p u t i s s t i l l h i g h when t h e c o u n t i n g i n i t i a t e s . I t w i l l t a k e 8 c l o c k p u l s e s b e f o r e t h e N = 8 o u t p u t goes l o w t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i n p u t t o t h e 'NAND GATE'. As t h e low N = 8 o u t p u t of t h e d e c o d e r a l s o goes t h r o u g h an i n v e r t e r , t h e o u t p u t f r o m t h e l a t t e r w o u l d be h i g h . The s i g n a l c a n t h e n be us e d t o a c t i v a t e e x t e r n a l d e v i c e s l i k e b r a k e s and c l u t c h e s . 77 APPENDIX I I - PREDICTION OF THE PROTOTYPE PERFORMANCE BASED ON WIND TUNNEL STUDIES 2 C o n s i d e r t h e t w o - s t a g e model w i t h a p r o j e c t e d a r e of 1.2m as u s e d i n the w i n d t u n n e l t e s t shown i n F i g u r e 2-13 ( p a g e 2 8 ) . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g o u t p u t i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a p o s i t i v e d i s p l a c e m e n t r o t a r y pump i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 2-18 ( p a g e 3 4 ) . The p l o t s show a f l o w r a t e of 6.3 1/min ( 1 . 0 5 x I O - 4 m/s) t o a head of 5m (48945 2 N/m ) a t a wi n d s p e e d of 22.4 km/h. Power = Q x Ap = (1.05 x 10 A ) ( 4 . 8 9 4 5 x 1 0 4 ) , = 5.13 W. Now C p = P o w e r / ( l / 2 ) p V 3 S , w h e r e : p = 1.226 kg/m ; V = 22.4 km/h = 6.222 m/s; 2 S = 1.2 m . T h e r e f o r e C = 0.029. P The r o t o r p r e s e n t e d a b l o c k a g e o f 27.4%. C o r r e c t i n g f o r t h e b l o c k a g e as s u g g e s t e d i n r e f e r e n c e [ 2 5 ] , t h e e f f e c t i v e c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e model i s , C = ( 0 . 4 7 6 ) . , _ x ( 0 . 0 2 9 ) p c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r = 0.0138. 78 T u r n i n g t o t h e p r o t o t y p e w i t h a p r o j e c t e d a r e a of 4.45 m , Power = ( 0 . 0 1 3 8 ) ( l / 2 ) p V 3 S . T a k i n g V 20 km/h = 5.55 m/s, Power = 6.A3 W. T h e r e f o r e Q = Power/Ap = 6.A3/A89A5 = 1.31 x 10 m/s, = 0.47 m 3/s. W i t h t h e w i n d a v a i l a b l e f o r an a v e r a g e of 8 h o u r s p er d a y , t h i s w i l l amount t o , Q = 3760 1/day. From F i g u r e 3-12 ( p a g e 67) f o r 20 km/h w i n d , Q = 3.8 1/min, i . e . 1824 1/day (8 h o u r s ) . T h i s i s a l m o s t h a l f o f t h e p r e d i c t e d v a l u e . However, f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s must be k e p t i n m i n d : ( i ) s t e e p g r a d i e n t of t h e head v s . f l o w r a t e p l o t i n F i g u r e 2-18; ( i i ) u n c e r t a i n t y of t h e b l o c k a g e c o r r e c t i o n s ; ( i i i ) a d d i t i o n a l l o s s e s ( c o m p a r e d t o t h e m o d e l ) due t o t h e ( i v ) l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e d a t a - l o g g e r i n t e r m s of s a m p l i n g r a t e (maximum one sample per m i n u t e ) r e s u l t i n g i n h i g h l y s c a t t e r e d w i n d d a t a ; ( v ) l i n e a r , l e a s t s q u a r e f i t o f t h e s c a t t e r e d d a t a . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e p o i n t s , t h e p r e d i c t i o n i s i n d e e d e n c o u r g i n g . s e v e n b e a r i n g s u s e d t o s u p p o r t t h e d r i v e s h a f t and t h e f o u r V - b e l t s u s e d t o t r a n s m i t t h e power; 79 APPENDIX I I I - ASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION OF THE PROTOTYPE The s y s t e m i n v o l v e d a l a r g e number of p a r t s and s u b a s s e m b l i e s e a c h r e q u i r i n g c a r e f u l d e s i g n , f a b r i c a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n . The e n t i r e w e l d i n g and m a c h i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s were done i n t h e d e p a r t m e n t ' s m a c h i n e shop w i t h m a j o r (60 %) p a r t i c a p a t i o n of t h e a u t h o r i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h two m a c h i n e shop t e c h n i c i a n s . The r o t o r b l a d e s were r o l l e d i n t o t h e d e s i r e d shape by t h e a u t h o r u s i n g a h a n d - r o l l e r f r o m t h e C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t . The r o t o r b l a d e s and e n d - p l a t e s were s e c u r e d w i t h p o p - r i v e t s . L i n i n g of t h e b r a k e s h o e s was done c o m m e r i c a1 1 y . 80 The mast was a s s e m b l e d by h o l d i n g i t one meter away, p a r a l l e l t o t h e g r o u n d , on two e n d - s t a n d s . The t o p end of t h e mast was p r o v i d e d w i t h a mast cap t o f a c i l i t a t e l i f t i n g and a n c h o r i n g of t h e s y s t e m u s i n g g u y - w i r e s ( F i g u r e I I I - l ). The mast s u p p o r t s t h e r o t o r a t i t s ends t h r o u g h two s i m i l i a r b e a r i n g a s s e m b l i e s . The b o t t o m b e a r i n g a s s e m b l y was i n s t a l l e d on t h e mast f i r s t . N e x t , t h e r o t o r was s l i p p e d o v e r t h e mast f o l l o w e d by t h e t o p b e a r i n g a s s e m b l y . F i g u r e I I I - 2 a shows t h e t o p o u t e r b e a r i n g h o u s i n g w h i l e F i g u r e I I I - 2 b p r e s e n t s t h e t o p mast b e a r i n g - h o l d e r t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e l o c k n u t . The e n t i r e b e a r i n g a s s e m b l y a p p e a r s as i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e I I I - 2 c . D e t a i l s of t h e b o t t o m b e a r i n g a s s e m b l y s h o w i n g t h e s e a l and t h e b r a k e drum a r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e I I I - 3 a . The t e f l o n s e a l p r e v e n t s d r a i n i n g of t h e g r e a s e between t h e r a c e s due t o g r a v i t y . F i g u r e I I I - 3 b shows t h e a s s e m b l e d b r a k e drum t o g e t h e r w i t h b e a r i n g . Power f r o m t h e r o t o r i s t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e pumps l o c a t e d a t t h e b o t t o m of t h e mast t h r o u g h V - b e l t s and a d r i v e s h a f t ( F i g u r e I I I - A ) . Note t h e b r a k e p l a t e a s s e m b l y i n b l u e s u p p o r t s t h e b r a k e s h o e s and p r o v i d e s f o r a n c h o r i n g of g u y - w i r e s as w e l l . I n s t a l l a t i o n of t h e r o t o r , b e i n g on t h e r o o f of t h e M e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g M a c h i n e s h o p , p r o v e d t o be somewhat c h a l l e n g i n g and i n v o l v e d c a r e f u l p r e p l a n n i n g . A r r a n g e m e n t s were made w i t h t h e P h y s i c a l P l a n t t o embed e i g h t a n c h o r s and a base p l a t e ( t o s u p p o r t t h e m a s t ) i n e x i s t i n g c o n c r e t e beams. O n e - h a l f i n c h d i a m e t e r g u y - w i r e s and t h e mast were d e s i g n e d t o w i t h s t a n d 160 km/h w i n d s . T h i s was p r i m a r i l y a p r e c a u t i o n a g a i n s t damaging 81 F i g u r e I I I - 2 Top b e a r i n g a s s e m b l y : ( a ) o u t e r b e a r i n g -h o u s i n g ; (b) i n n e r b e a r i n g - h o l d e r and l o c k n u t ; ( c ) assembly on the mast. F i g u r e I I I - 3 Bottom b e a r i n g and b r a k e drum: (b) assembly on the mast. (a) det a i I s ; 83 F i g u r e I I I - 4 Power t r a n s m i s s i o n to the d r i v e s h a f t . Note a l s o the b r a k e p l a t e assembly and g u y -wire a t t a c h m e n t s . the b u i l d i n g . On the o t h e r hand, to s i m u l a t e f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s more r e a l i s t i c a l l y , the b l a d e s where d e s i g n e d f o r a d r a g l o a d of o n l y 80 km/h to s i m p l i f y c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e d u c e c o s t . The e r e c t i o n was e x e c u t e d by J o h n s t o n C o n t r a c t and Heavy Haul S e r v i c e u s i n g a 65 t o n c r a n e . The r o t o r , w i t h one end of the g u y - w i r e s a t t a c h e d to the mast, was l i f t e d at the mast cap ( F i g u r e s I I I - 5 a and I I I - 5 b ) and l o w e r e d on the base p l a t e ( F i g u r e I I I - 5 c ) . The g u y - w i r e s were now a t t a c t e d to the r o o f a n c h o r s and a d j u s t e d to a c h i e v e v e r t i c a l a l i g n m e n t of the r o t o r ( F i g u r e I I I - 5 d ) . W ith the r o t o r i n p l a c e the pumps, t a n k s , f l o w and rpm 84 m e a s u r i n g t r a n s d u c e r s were i n s t a l l e d . The a i r l i n e f o r a c t u a t i o n of the brake and w i r e s c o n v e y i n g s i g n a l s , p r o t e c t e d by a PVC c o n d u i t , were c o n n e c t e d to the d i s p l a y i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n l o c a t e d d o w n s t a i r s w i t h i n the b u i l d i n g (ME 372 l a b o r a t o r y ) . A m e t e o r o l o g i c a l mast w i t h a G i l l anemometer was e r e c t e d on the r o o f about 20m s o u t h of the r o t o r . The r o t o r , m e t e o r o l o g i c a l mast and the s u r r o u n d i n g t e r r a i n are shown i n F i g u r e I I I - 6 . (a) (b) F i g u r e I I I - 5 L i f t i n g sequence d u r i n g i n s t a l l a t i o n of the r o t o r : ( a ) , (b) c r a n e a t t a c h m e n t to the r o t o r at cap. 85 F i g u r e I I I - 5 L i f t i n g s e q u e n c e d u r i n g i n s t a l l a t i o n of the r o t o r : ( c ) l o w e r i n g of t h e mast on t h e base p l a t e ; ( d ) r o t o r i n p o s i t i o n w i t h g u y - w i r e s a n c h o r e d . F i g u r e I I I - 6 P h o t o g r a p h showing r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n of the r o t o r and the m e t e o r o l o g i c a l mast a t o p the M e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g Machine Shop. 00 cr-87 APPENDIX IV - MATERIALS AND SUPPLIERS * W e l d i n g Rod E 7024 1/8 (50 l b s ) $42.00 A c e t o g e n W e l d i n g S u p p l i e s L t d . 1339 F r a n k l i n S t . , Vanco uv e r , B.C., V5L 1P2 * 12 ca n s of f l a t b l a c k p a i n t (12 o z . c a n s ) $44.52 A c k l a n d s L t d . 8651 E a s t l a k e D r i v e , P.O. Box 2008, Van co uv e r , B.C., V6B 3R1 * 4 AC 12 u n i v e r s a l J o i n t 4 R-12 c o v e r s 2 S e l f - l u b e p o l l o w b l o c k u n i t s 1" s h a f t 2 .75" f l a n g e b e a r i n g 1 .75" f l e x i b l e c o u p l i n g $205 .50 $58.00 $33.00 $36.00 $8 .00 88 Adanac E q u i p m e n t Co. 34 E a s t 3 r d . Ave • » V a n c o u v e r , B.C V5T 1C3 * B e a r i n g S e a l 6.5"x 0.25" t e f l o n s h e e t $2 5.00 B e a r i n g S e a l 7"x 0.25" t e f l o n s h e e t $35.00 C a d i l l a c P l a s t i c s 156 West 2nd Ave. , Vanco uv e r , B.C., V5Y 1C2 * 1 A i r C y l i n d e r ( 2 " s t r o k e , 1.75" d i a . p i s t o n CB mount, s i n g l e a c t i n g ) $93.02 CAE Morse L t d . 8250 F r a s e r S t . , Vancouv e r , B.C., V5X 3X7 * 1 22.2 l i t e r t a n k S9112-2C $20.95 1 68.1 l i t e r t a n k S9112-4C $40.79 1 22.2 l i t e r c o v e r S9112-50C $14.33 1 68.1 l i t e r c o v e r S9112-52C $20.95 C a n a d i a n L a b o r a t o r y S u p p l i e s 235-7080 R i v e r Road, R i c h m o n d , B.C., V6X 1X5 1 A p p l y b r a k e l i n i n g on c o r e s s u p p l i e d $49.32 Crown T i r e 830 C l a r k D i r . , Vancouv e r , B.C., V5L 3J7 1 C o i l C o m p r e s s i o n s p r i n g 3.94"x 4"x 4 t u r n s $41.59 D e n d o f f S p r i n g s L t d . 232 W. 2nd Ave., Vancouv er , B.C., V5Y 1C6 I m p e r i a l E a stman P l o y - F l o T u b i n g 4 4 - P - 1 / 4 " I m p e r i a l E a stman P l o y - F l o t u b i n g 4 4 - P - 1 / 4 " c h e c k v a l v e $6 .32 $24.00 $9 .96 90 F l e c k B r o t h e r s 110 A l e x a n d e r S t . V a n c o u v e r , B.C. V6A 1B6 * 1 1000 AD 62 Bs Pop R i v e t s $44.10 1 500 AD 62 Bs Pop R i v e t s $13.75 1 500 AD 62 Bs Pop R i v e t s $16.00 12 4"x 3/8"x NC $4.00 M a l k i n & P i n t o n L i m i t e d 325 E a s t F i f t h A v e . , V a n c o u v e r , B.C.,. V5T 1H6 * 2 MK 375R I n d i c a t o r / T o t a l i z e r r e s e t a b l e 0-8 GPM, 0-3 GPM $445.00 1 PVC T F i t t i n g PV8T005 .5" $65.00 2 PVC T F i t t i n g PV8T007 .75" $65.00 2 S i g n a l C o n d i t i o n e r #C3000 C/W $550.00 1 MK 315-P0 P a d d l e w h e e l F l o s e n s o r $150.00 1 MK 315-TO P a d d l e w h e e l F l o s e n s o r $230.00 1 M s x i g u a r d C3000 S y s t e m C/W M a g n e t i c D i s c S e n s i n g Head, MTG B r a c k e t $613.00 1 S c a l i n g C i r c u i t B o a r d $75.00 91 1 M a x i g u a r d C-3000 S i g n a l C o n d i t i o n e r $550.00 1 S c a l i n g C i r c u i t B o a r d $75.00 1 700 F t . S h i e l d e d S e n s i n g U n i t C a b l e $301.00 Modern I n s t r u m e n t S y s t e m I n c . 10 - 11171 H o r s e s h o e Way, R i c hmond , B.C., V7A 4S5 * 4 eye b o l t s t h r o u g h t h e r o o f w i t h p l a t e 4 b o l t s i n t o t h e r o o f t o s e c u r e t h e w i n d m i l l $4050.50 P h y s i c i a l P l a n t U.B.C. * 1 J a b s c o F l e x i b l e I m p e l l e r Pump, M o d e l 777-9051 $144.00 1 J a b s c o F l e x i b l e I m p e l l e r Pump, M o d e l 6400-0004 $206.44 Pumps & Power L t d . 1380 N a p i e r S t r e e t , V a n c o u v e r , B.C., V5L 2M4 92 * 1 167V12 12.6 Vet 20 amp.s $52.22 1 KBPC 25-02 25 amps 200 v o l t s $2.80 4 R10EIX2 V158 12 v o l t s $24.80 4 27E446 $6.94 1 37D633 m o u n t i n g s t r i p $2.94 1 R o l l 250 f t 8444-250 $26.10 1 R i n g t o n g u e 55006-4 16-14 $13.56 1 Spade t o n g u e 55025-4 16-14 ' $13.56 RAE I n d u s t r i a l E l e c t r o n i c s 3455 G a r d n e r C o u r t , B u r n a by, B.C., V5G 4J7 * 2 E s s e x C o u p l i n g - 095 1" bo r e $40.00 2 B a l l b e a r i n g s X L J 5 E $185.00 R.H.P. Canada I n c . B e a r i n g 22 West 2nd Ave., Vancouv e r , B.C., V5Y 1B4 * 20 C o u p l i n g s 1.5" SxS 8 Sch 40 p i p e 1.5" x 20' 6 90° e l b o w 1.5" t x t $14.80 $5 .60 $20.64 93 4 n i p p l e s 1.5" x 2" i n l e n g h t $8.00 2 1.25" t o 1" r e d u c e r t x t $6.50 1 c a n pvc j o i n t cement $15.00 3 1.5"x 1" S80 RD B u s h i n g THR $8.91 1 1.25"x 1" S80 RD B u s h i n g THR $2.56 10 1.5"x 90D S80 EL THR $34.40 2 1.25"x 90D S80 EL THR $5.94 2 1.5" S80 TEE THR $8.04 4 1.5" S80 F l a n g e THR $24.52 2 1.25"x 3" S80 TBE N i p p l e $5.04 1 1.5"x 3" S80 TBE N i p p l e $2.78 1 1.5"x 4" S80 TBE N i p p l e $2.78 20 1.5"x 20' P i p e S80 PE $186.00 1 1.5" HAY QIC BV PVC S $32.55 2 1.5" CHMT TU BCV PVC/V S $121.80 1 PVC TxT 1.5" TO .75" $2.70 1 PVC TxT 1.5" TO .5" $2.70 4 PVC TxT 1.5" TO 1.25" $10.80 2 PVC TxT 1.24" TO 1" $4.66 2 PVC TxT e l b o w s 90D 1.5" $3.84 2 PVC TxT n i p p l e l " x 2" l o n g $4.04 6 PVC hose a d a p t e r 1 . 2 5 " t h r e a d t o 1.25" $1.38 2 PVC Tee TxTxT 1.5" $7.30 1 PVC TxTxT 2" $8.96 2 PVC P l u g s 1.5" $1.96 1 PVC C o u p l i n g 1.25" TO .75" $3.20 1 PVC C o u p l i n g 1.25" TO .5" $3.20 2 PVC U n i o n 1.5" $12.80 S c e p t e r M a n u f a c t u r i n g Co. L i m i t e d 731 Derwent Way, A n n a c i s I s l a n d E s t a t e s , New West M i n s t e r , B.C., V3M 5P9 2 5.25"0.D.x 4.25"I.D. S t e e l t u b e I ' l l " and 2 1 1 1 " i n l e n g h t $220.00 1 7.5"0.D.x 7"I.D.x 6" t u b e $50.00 1 6"0.D.x5.5"I.D.x 6" t u b e $30.00 Tubco 730 Raymur Ave., V a n c o u v e r , B.C., V6A 3L4 40 f t . 1 1/4 X 1/8 i n c h a n g l e i r o n $80.00 1 V-BELT $3.10 96 s q . f t . alum s h e e t $100.80 •5 V-BELTS 2410 $10.90 24 s q . f t . alum s h e e t $25.20 U.B.C. S t o r e s 1 100 f t . 1.25" p l o y p i p e s t d 60# $37.80 8 1.25" p l a s t i c i n s e r t - m i p a d a p t e r $1.97 10 1.25" t o 1.5" HS24 SS Clamp w / z i n c s c r e w $4.02 W e s t e r n S u p p l i e s 896 Cambie S t . , V a n c o u v e r , B.C., V6B 2P6 * 1 4'x 4'x .25" m i l d s t e e l p l a t e $70.00 1 1.75 O.D.x 1/16" w a l l t u b e 20* l o n g $22.33 1 12' of 1.5" O.D.x 1.25"I.D. Alum P i p e $35.00 4 3'x 8'x .050" Alum s h e e t $222.94 1 12'x 1.5"0.D.x 1.25"I.D. alum p i p e $35.00 1 1.5"0.D.x 1.25"I.D. alum t u b e $17.00 1 20"x 24"x 5" 6061-T6 Alum P l a t e $532.80 1 6" Sch 40 A53 b l a c k p i p e 6" $20.00 1 6" D i a 4140 HT SR round bar 12" l o n g $98.32 2 4" s c h e d u l e 40 p i p e $529.20 1 3.5" s c h e d u l e 40 p i p e $50.00 1 l / 2 " x 4'x 8' s t e e l p l a t e c u t i n h a l f $215.90 1 6"x 5.75"I.D. $130.80 2 .050"x 4'x 12* alum s h e e t $220.00 3 .050"x 5'x 12* alum s h e e t $524.16 1 3/8" h o t r o l l e d r o d (40 f t . ) $20.00 1 10" s c h e d u l e 40 B l a c k p i p e $40.00 96 2 20 f t . M.S. Bar $20.00 W i l k i n s o n Co. P.O. Box 6630, Vancouv e r , B.C., V6B 4C4 

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