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Environmental impact assessment and its role in regional development planning Tanner, Diane Janet 1985

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND ITS ROLE IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING by DIANE JANET TANNER B . S c , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o lumbia, 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e . r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1985 c^T) Diane J a n e t Tanner, 1985 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n for" e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of don\r\oL>o> a s Arvits fe£CxicsMft(~"v>i^^Nuiva<ir The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date A U G U S T v«=yggr ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y documents s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses i n h e r e n t i n E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact Assessment ( E I A ) , as c u r r e n t l y p r a c t i c e d a t the f e d e r a l l e v e l i n Canada. Two case s t u d i e s are e x a m i n e d — t h e B e a u f o r t Sea hy d r o c a r b o n development and p r o d u c t i o n E n v i r o n m e n t a l Assessment and Review P r o c e s s (EARP), and the West Coast o f f s h o r e h y d r o c a r b o n e x p l o r a t i o n EIA (a j o i n t f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l r e v i e w ) . By examining c u r r e n t s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses v a l u a b l e l e s s o n s can be l e a r n e d and u t i l i z e d i n a d a p t i n g the r o l e of EIA w i t h i n w i d e r p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . The major o b j e c t i v e of t h i s s t u d y i s t o determine how the West Coast EIA can c o n t r i b u t e t o a more c o n s i d e r e d approach t o development p l a n n i n g i n the West Coast r e g i o n . The st u d y r e v i e w s r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e on p l a n n i n g and EIA t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between EIA and p l a n n i n g . T h i s p r o v i d e d a b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i n g s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of the B e a u f o r t Sea EARP. The West Coast EIA was compared and c o n t r a s t e d t o the B e a u f o r t Sea EARP t o det e r m i n e what l e s s o n s had been l e a r n e d from the l a t t e r r e v i e w . Based on t h i s e v a l u a t i o n , s u g g e s t i o n s were made on ways i n which the West Co a s t EIA, p r i n c i p a l l y t h r ough the p a n e l ' s recommendations, c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e both t o improvements i n EARP, and t o e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g and management of West Co a s t o f f s h o r e h y drocarbon r e s o u r c e s . E v a l u a t i o n of the two case s t u d i e s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e are b o t h s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses e v i d e n t i n EIA. Major s t r e n g t h s a r e the comprehensive scope of the r e v i e w s , p u b l i c i i involvement, and, i n the case of the Beaufort Sea EARP, the p r o v i s i o n of i n t e r v e n o r funding, and, a unique o p p o r t u n i t y to examine government's management c a p a b i l i t y . Both EIAs are a f f e c t e d by s i m i l a r e x t e r n a l circumstances--the lack of a c o o r d i n a t e d p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g framework, and o u t s t a n d i n g n a t i v e c l a i m s . The Beaufort Sea EARP panel f a i l e d to make the most of i t s o p p o r t u n i t y to address the p a r t i a l p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g vacuum. The West Coast EIA panel s t i l l has an o p p o r t u n i t y to address the p a r t i a l vacuum w i t h i n which i t i s o p e r a t i n g . The Beaufort Sea EARP and West Coast EIA both examine p r e l i m i n a r y p r o j e c t proposals a s s o c i a t e d with hydrocarbon a c t i v i t i e s . However, the Beaufort Sea EARP panel provided l i t t l e guidance on how such p r e l i m i n a r y EIAs should be handled i n f u t u r e , or recommendations on subsequent p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c EIA requirements. The t h e s i s suggests ways i n which the West Coast EIA can avoid r e p e a t i n g t h i s d e f i c i e n c y . There i s a d e f i n i t e weakness i n EARP procedure. As a one-shot approach, EARP focuses on the product (the Environmental Impact Statement) r a t h e r than on environmental management as an ongoing, continuous process. Thus, the Beaufort Sea EIA process ended a f t e r the panel submitted i t s F i n a l Report, and i t appears t h a t the same w i l l apply f o r the West Coast.EIA review. Consequently, there i s no guarantee t h a t management-oriented monitoring, which should be an i n t e g r a l p a r t of EIA, w i l l be undertaken. T h i s study concludes t h a t i f the West Coast EIA i s to make a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n to r e g i o n a l development p l a n n i n g the panel should more f u l l y u t i l i z e the i n f o r m a t i o n i t r e c e i v e s than previous panels have done. Moreover, i t must c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h and document i n i t s F i n a l Report the major i s s u e s and concerns impeding o r d e r l y development of the r e g i o n . How w i l l these concerns i n t e r f e r e with hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n and other resource uses? How can governments a c t to r e s o l v e these o u t s t a n d i n g i s s u e s ? T h i s r e q u i r e s going beyond merely documenting f u t u r e data and r e s e a r c h requirements to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the p o l i c y , p l a n n i n g and i n s t i t u t i o n a l requirements f o r r a t i o n a l development of West Coast r e s o u r c e s . I suggest s e v e r a l major i s s u e s d e s e r v i n g of focused a t t e n t i o n : lack of a c o o r d i n a t e d r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g framework; p r o j e c t need assessment; j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e ; o u t s t a n d i n g n a t i v e c l a i m s ; f u t u r e p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c EIA requirements; community involvement i n f u t u r e assessments; monitoring; i n t e r v e n o r funding; and compensation. The p a n e l , of course, may uncover other i s s u e s and concerns. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t i i Table of Contents v L i s t of Tables i x L i s t of F i g u r e s x L i s t of Acronyms and A b b r e v i a t i o n s Used In the Text x i Acknowledgement x i i i CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 THESIS FOCUS AND OBJECTIVES 1 1.2 DEFINITION OF TERMS 1 1.3 EIA, REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND PROJECT PLANNING: THEORETICAL RELATIONSHIPS 3 1.4 CHOICE OF CASES 1 1 1.5 METHODS EMPLOYED 13 1.6 EIA AT THE FEDERAL LEVEL IN CANADA: THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF EARP 14 CHAPTER TWO: THE BEAUFORT SEA ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AND REVIEW PROCESS 21 2.1 BACKGROUND 21 2.2 THE BEAUFORT SEA EARP: JUST ANOTHER EARP?... 23 2.2.1 C r i s i s Management: The P o l i c y and Planning Framework f o r EARPs North of 60 23 2.2.2 Procedural S i m i l a r i t i e s Between the Beaufort Sea EARP and Previous EARPs.. 29 2.2.3 The Beaufort Sea EARP: Innovative C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 30 2.2.3.1 Scope 3 0 2.2.3.2 Request f o r P o s i t i o n Statements 31 2.2.3.3 P u b l i c Meetings on the D r a f t G u i d e l i n e s 33 2.2.3.4 Intervenor Funding 34 2.2.3.5 Panel Composition 34 2.2.3.6 A d d i t i o n a l Procedural Innovations 35 v 2 . 3 T H E B E A U F O R T S E A E A R P : A C A S E O F M I S S E D O P P O R T U N I T I E S ? . 36 2 . 3 . 1 T i m i n g o f t h e R e v i e w 36 2 . 3 . 2 D e f i c i e n c y S t a t e m e n t s : Was O n e E n o u g h ? 3 9 2 . 3 . 3 P r e l i m i n a r y P r o j e c t P r o p o s a l s : " A S c i e n c e F i c t i o n V o y a g e " ? 41 2 . 3 . 4 P r o j e c t N e e d A s s e s s m e n t a n d t h e N o - G o O p t i o n . 44 2 . 3 . 5 E x p l o r a t i o n : A R e s t r i c t e d I s s u e 48 2 . 3 . 6 M o n i t o r i n g 50 2 . 4 T H E P A N E L ' S F I N A L R E P O R T : WHAT L E S S O N S C A N B E L E A R N E D F R O M T H E B E A U F O R T S E A E A R P ? . . . 52 2 . 5 S U M M A R Y O F T H E M A J O R I S S U E S R A I S E D B Y T H E B E A U F O R T S E A E A R P 61 C H A P T E R T H R E E : T H E O N G O I N G W E S T C O A S T O F F S H O R E E I A 63 3 . 1 B A C K G R O U N D " 6 3 3 . 2 C R I T E R I A F O R E F F E C T I V E E I A 67 3 . 3 P O L I C Y A N D P L A N N I N G C O N T E X T O F T H E W E S T C O A S T O F F S H O R E E I A 70 3 . 3 . 1 I s T h e r e C o o r d i n a t e d P l a n n i n g o n t h e W e s t C o a s t ? 70 3 . 3 . 2 T h e O f f s h o r e O w n e r s h i p I s s u e 75 3 . 3 . 3 O u t s t a n d i n g N a t i v e C l a i m s 77 3 . 4 T H E W E S T C O A S T O F F S H O R E : A N A P P R A I S A L 78 3 . 4 . 1 R o l e o f t h e E I A a n d t h e P a n e l 78 3 . 4 . 2 A u t h o r i t y o f t h e P a n e l 80 3 . 4 . 3 T i m i n g o f t h e R e v i e w 82 3 . 4 . 4 S c o p e o f t h e R e v i e w 85 3 . 4 . 4 . 1 P r e l i m i n a r y P r o j e c t P r o p o s a l s 85 3 . 4 . 4 . 2 E x p l o r a t i o n 85 3 . 4 . 4 . 3 D e v e l o p m e n t a n d P r o d u c t i o n A N o n - i s s u e 86 3 . 4 . 4 . 4 S p a t i a l E x t e n t 88 3 . 4 . 5 M o n i t o r i n g 90 3 . 4 . 6 I n t e r v e n o r F u n d i n g 93 3 . 4 . 7 P a n e l C o m p o s i t i o n 95 3 . 4 . 8 I t e r a t i v e E I A 96 v i 3.4.8.1 Is I t Necessary? 96 3.4.8.2 Who Should Be Involved? 98 3.4.8.3 Time A l l o c a t e d For the Review 102 3.5 SUMMARY: STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF THE WEST COAST OFFSHORE EIA AND PARALLELS WITH THE BEAUFORT SEA EARP 10 3 CHAPTER FOUR: WHAT SHOULD BE DONE NEXT? 106 4.1 EFFECTIVE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT 106 4.1.1 Issue: Regional Development Planning 106 4.1.1.1 Recommendations on Regional Development Planning 107 4.1.2 Issue: P r o j e c t Need Assessment 108 4.1.2.1 Recommendations on P r o j e c t Needs Assessment 110 4.1.3 Issue: The J u r i s d i c t i o n a l Dispute... I l l 4.1.3.1 Recommendations on the J u r i s d i c t i o n a l Dispute 112 4.1.4 Issue: Native Claims .. 112 4.1.4.1 Recommendations on Native Claims 114 4.1.5 Issue: Development and P r o d u c t i o n . . . 114 4.1.5.1 Recommendations on Development and P r o d u c t i o n . . 115 4.2 FUTURE EIA REQUIREMENTS 116 4.2.1 Recommendations on Future EIA Requirements : . . 118 4.3 MONITORING 119 4.3.1 Recommendations On M o n i t o r i n g 121 4.4 INTERVENOR FUNDING IN FUTURE EIAs 121 4.4.1 Recommendations on Intervenor Funding 122 v i i 4.5 COMPENSATION 123 4.5.1 Recommendations on C o m p e n s a t i o n 124 4.6 SUMMARY 125 BIBLIOGRAPHY 128 APPENDIX 1 AN OPTION FOR FUTURE EI As 154 v i i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page I Timetable of the Main Events of the Beaufort Sea EARP 3 2 II Timetable of the Main Events of the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA 99 II I Strengths and Weaknesses of the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA and P a r a l l e l s With the Beaufort Sea EARP 105 ix LIST OF FIGURES Fi g u r e Page 1 Schematic Diagram of the F e d e r a l Environmental Assessment and Review Process. . 16 2 L o c a t i o n of the Beaufort Sea/Mackenzie D e l t a Hydrocarbon Development and P r o d u c t i o n Proposals 22 3 L o c a t i o n of the West Coast O f f s h o r e Hydrocarbon E x p l o r a t i o n Proposals 66 4 An Option For Future EIAs 155 x A C R O N Y M S A N D A B B R E V I A T I O N S U S E D I N T H E T E X T B . C . : B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a B . C . C . A . : B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o u r t o f A p p e a l B E A R P B e a u f o r t E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t a n d R e v i e w P r o c e s s B S E A P : B e a u f o r t S e a E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t P a n e l C A R C : C a n a d i a n A r c t i c R e s o u r c e s C o m m i t t e e C C G : C a n a d i a n C o a s t G u a r d C O G L A : C a n a d a O i l a n d G a s L a n d s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n C O P E : C o m m i t t e e f o r O r i g i n a l P e o p l e s E n t i t l e m e n t D F O : D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n s , C a n a d a D I A N D : D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s a n d N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t , C a n a d a D I N A : D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n a n d N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s , C a n a d a D O E : D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t , C a n a d a D R I E : D e p a r t m e n t o f R e g i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l E x p a n s i o n , C a n a d a E A R P : E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t a n d R e v i e w P r o c e s s E I A : E n v i r o n m e n t a l I m p a c t A s s e s s m e n t E I S : E n v i r o n m e n t a l I m p a c t S t a t e m e n t E L U C : E n v i r o n m e n t a n d L a n d U s e C o m m i t t e e E M P R : M i n i s t r y o f E n e r g y , M i n e s a n d P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E M R : D e p a r t m e n t o f E n e r g y , M i n e s a n d R e s o u r c e s , C a n a d a F E A R O : F e d e r a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t a n d R e v i e w O f f i c e GNWT G o v e r n m e n t o f t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s I E E : I n i t i a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l E v a l u a t i o n x i INAC: ITC: MISBD: NEP: NEPA: NWT: PEA: S • C • C • U.K. : U.S. : YTG: Indian and Northern A f f a i r s Canada I n u i t T a p i r i s a t of Canada M i n i s t r y of Industry and Small Business Development, B r i t i s h Columbia N a t i o n a l Energy Program N a t i o n a l Environmental P o l i c y Act Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s P r e l i m i n a r y Environmental Assessment Supreme Court of Canada United Kingdom United States Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l Government x i i A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k t h e D o n n e r C a n a d i a n F o u n d a t i o n f o r p r o v i d i n g f u n d i n g f o r my s t u d i e s . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k t h e s t a f f f r o m v a r i o u s B . C . , N e w f o u n d l a n d , a n d f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s , w h o r e s p o n d e d t o my r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . F i n a l l y , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k my Husband, T r e m a i n , a n d my f a m i l y f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t . x i i i CHAPTER ONE  INTRODUCTION 1.1 THESIS FOCUS AND OBJECTIVES The focus of t h i s t h e s i s i s the r o l e of environmental impact assessment (EIA) i n the pl a n n i n g process. My p a r t i a l o b j e c t i v e i s to document stre n g t h s and weaknesses i n h e r e n t i n EIA as c u r r e n t l y p r a c t i c e d at the f e d e r a l l e v e l i n Canada, emphasizing the r o l e EIA does and co.uld occupy i n p r o j e c t and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g processes. The Environmental Assessment and Review of the Beaufort Sea/Mackenzie D e l t a hydrocarbon p r o d u c t i o n proposal w i l l serve as one case study. The ongoing West Coast o f f s h o r e hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n environmental assessment w i l l serve as another. By examining c u r r e n t s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses v a l u a b l e lessons can be learned and u t i l i z e d i n adapting the r o l e of EIA w i t h i n wider p l a n n i n g pr o c e s s e s . The main o b j e c t i v e of t h i s t h e s i s i s to determine how the West Coast o f f s h o r e EIA can c o n t r i b u t e to r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . 1.2 DEFINITION OF TERMS EIA i s a process o s t e n s i b l y "designed to c o n t r i b u t e p e r t i n e n t environmental i n f o r m a t i o n to p r o j e c t or programme decision-making. In doing so i t attempts to p r e d i c t or measure the environmental e f f e c t s of s p e c i f i c human a c t i v i t i e s or do both, and to i n v e s t i g a t e and propose means of a m e l i o r a t i n g those e f f e c t s " (Beanlands and Duinker, 1983: 18). The term 'environmental' may r e f e r not only to the b i o p h y s i c a l 2 s e t t i n g b u t a l s o t o t h e m a n - m a d e e n v i r o n m e n t a n d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c p h e n o m e n a . E I A i s j u s t o n e t o o l a v a i l a b l e f o r u s e b y d e c i s i o n m a k e r s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I n g e n e r a l , E I A i n C a n a d a h a s b e e n u s e d a s a n a d h o c , r e a c t i v e a n d s t a t i c m e c h a n i s m r a t h e r t h a n a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . ' P l a n n i n g ' c a n b e d e f i n e d " a s a d e l i b e r a t e p r o c e s s b y w h i c h s o m e o n e m a k e s c o n s i d e r e d c h o i c e s a b o u t t h e u s e o f s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s , t o a c h i e v e s p e c i f i e d o b j e c t i v e s o v e r s o m e d e l i m i t e d p e r i o d i n t h e f u t u r e " ( R e e s , 1 9 8 3 a : 2 ) . T h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n c o r p o r a t e s p r o b l e m d e f i n i t i o n , s i t u a t i o n a n a l y s i s , a s e a r c h f o r v a l u e s , g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p o l i c y a n d p r o g r a m m e s , a n d e v a l u a t i o n ( P a g e t , 1 9 7 6 ) . I t s h o u l d b e a f l e x i b l e , o n g o i n g p r o c e s s t h a t b u i l d s o n t o t h e p a s t a n d c o n s i d e r s t h e p r e s e n t a n d f u t u r e . T h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s e n m e s h e d i n d e c i s i o n m a k i n g a n d v i c e v e r s a . I t c a n b e u n d e r t a k e n o n v a r i o u s s c a l e s . I n t h i s t h e s i s t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s r e f e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o : ( i ) t h e r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h " a d d r e s s e s t h e s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c c o n c e r n s a n d a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e r e g i o n ' s p e o p l e a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y " f o c u s i n g o n " . . . t h e s e l e c t i o n o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g o a l s f o r t h e r e g i o n a n d o n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g i e s t o a c h i e v e t h e g o a l s s e l e c t e d . L a n d u s e p l a n n i n g s h o u l d b e v i e w e d a s a c o m p o n e n t o f t h i s l a r g e r p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . . . . " L a n d u s e p l a n n i n g i d e n t i f i e s " p a t t e r n s a n d s e q u e n c e s o f l a n d u s e t h a t c a n b e s t a c c o m m o d a t e t h e r e g i o n a l g o a l s w i t h o u t d i m i n i s h i n g o r d e s t r o y i n g t h e l a n d ' s c a p a b i l i t y t o m e e t m a n ' s d e m a n d s o v e r t h e l o n g - t e r m " ( E n v i r o n m e n t C a n a d a , 1 9 8 3 c : 6 1 ) . 3 ( i i ) the p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g process which develops "...a proposed a c t i o n (a resource development p r o j e c t ) from the conceptual stage to the p o i n t of implementation" (Olynyk, 1984: 6) and, because circumstances such as environmental q u a l i t y standards can change, through the l i f e of the p r o j e c t as w e l l . 1.3 EIA, REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND PROJECT PLANNING:  THEORETICAL RELATIONSHIPS The o r i g i n s of EIA i n North America can be t r a c e d to the 1960's, a time when the p u b l i c ' s environmental consciousness rose to the f o r e . Environmental degradation was seen by many (both i n d i v i d u a l s and w e l l - o r g a n i z e d and well- i n f o r m e d environmental groups) as a t h r e a t to " t h e i r b a s i c i n t e r e s t s and continued w e l l - b e i n g ; demonstrations of popular concern were f o l l o w e d by c a l l s f o r a c t i o n " (Lang, 1977: 59-60; a l s o see O'Riordan and Sewell, 1981). Three a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of EIA are o u t l i n e d i n O'Riordan and Sewell (1981): i) the growing s c a l e and a s s o c i a t e d e f f e c t s of • resource development p r o j e c t s ; i i ) inadequate c o o r d i n a t i o n between r e g u l a t o r y agencies; i i i ) f a i l u r e to adequately r e c o g n i z e and i n t e g r a t e environmental and s o c i a l f a c t o r s i n t o p r o j e c t a p p r a i s a l . The United States (U.S.) f e d e r a l government's response was the N a t i o n a l Environmental P o l i c y Act (NEPA) of 1969; the f i r s t p i e c e of l e g i s l a t i o n e x p l i c i t l y r e q u i r i n g what we now know as EIA. The requirement t h a t environmental impacts of proposed p r o j e c t s , p o l i c y or programmes be e x p l i c i t l y c o n s i d e r e d was a divergence from the past; past p r a c t i c e was 4 t o c o n s i d e r t h e l e g a l i t y , t e c h n i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c f e a s i b i l i t y o f p r o j e c t s ( S e w e l l , 1 9 8 1 c i t e d i n O l y n y k , 1 9 8 4 ) . I n C a n a d a , t h e f e d e r a l r e s p o n s e w a s m u c h m o r e c a u t i o u s . E I A r e q u i r e m e n t s w e r e n o t f o r m a l l y i n t r o d u c e d u n t i l 1 9 7 4 a n d , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e U . S . , t h e p r o c e s s i n t r o d u c e d ( E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t a n d R e v i e w P r o c e s s o r E A R P ) w a s a p u r e l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e n o t a l e g i s l a t e d o n e . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t w a s r e l u c t a n t t o i m p l e m e n t a l e g i s l a t i v e p r o c e d u r e b e c a u s e i n t h e U . S . s u c h a n a p p r o a c h h a d r e s u l t e d i n 9 p e r c e n t o f f e d e r a l p r o j e c t s f o r w h i c h a f u l l E I S w a s p r e p a r e d b e i n g t i e d u p i n l i t i g a t i o n ; a n a d d i t i o n a l r e a s o n a p p e a r s t o b e a d e s i r e t o m a i n t a i n f l e x i b i l i t y , t o a d a p t t h e p r o c e d u r e t o c h a n g i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s ( R e e s , 1 9 8 0 ) . A r m o u r ( 1 9 7 7 ) p u t s f o r w a r d d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s ; m a y b e t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t a t t a c h e d a l o w p r i o r i t y t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a t t e r s a n d , t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , b e l i e v e d m o s t o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a t t e r s l a y w i t h t h e p r o v i n c e s . T h e l i t e r a t u r e h i g h l i g h t s t h r e e d i f f e r i n g v i e w p o i n t s o n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n E I A a n d p l a n n i n g : i ) E I A a s a s e p a r a t e p r o c e s s , t h a t i s , s e p a r a t e f r o m n o r m a l p l a n n i n g a n d d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . T h e e m p h a s i s h e r e i s t o p r o d u c e a p r o d u c t - - t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s t a t e m e n t o r E I S ( A n d r e w s , 1 9 7 3 ) - - t h a t s a t i s f i e s r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d p r i m a r i l y j u s t i f i e s d e c i s i o n s a l r e a d y m a d e ( A r m o u r , 1 9 7 9 ; L a n g a n d A r m o u r , 1 9 8 1 ) . E I A i s r e g a r d e d a s a t e c h n i c a l e x e r c i s e . i i ) E I A a s a p r o v i d e r o f n e w i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , t h a t i s , i n f o r m a t i o n i n a d d i t i o n t o , t r a d i t i o n a l e c o n o m i c a n d t e c h n i c a l c o n c e r n s a l t h o u g h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t c l e a r ( A n d r e w s , 1 9 7 3 ) . T h i s a p p r o a c h may g e n e r a t e v a s t q u a n t i t i e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d , 5 as i n ( i ) , focuses on EIA as a t e c h n i c a l e x e r c i s e . i i i ) EIA as a new p l a n n i n g approach. EIA goes beyond (i) and ( i i ) above and becomes "a new thought process f o r p r e d i c t i n g the consequences of a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n s " ; the aim being to promote a more informed choice by government, p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s and i n t e r e s t groups (Andrews, 1973: 198). T h i s approach emphasizes the impact assessment process r a t h e r than the impact assessment study (Armour, 1979), and thus moves towards a p o l i t i c a l process r a t h e r than a t e c h n i c a l e x e r c i s e (Lang and Armour, 1981) . Andrews (1978: 41) i s c r i t i c a l of "the lack of c l e a r goals concerning the r o l e of EIA i n d e c i s i o n making". Without a c l e a r goal i t i s hard to d i s c e r n e x a c t l y what an EIA should accomplish. The i n t r o d u c t i o n of EIA meant that i n d u s t r y ' s p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g had to g i v e a t t e n t i o n to e c o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ; t h i s had not always been the case i n the past (see Gladwin and Royston, 1975). The proponent of a proposal now had to prove a p r i o r i the environmental a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the proposal (Armour, 1977). The proponent became r e s p o n s i b l e f o r producing the necessary documentation, t h a t i s , the EIS, which has become "the main instrument of EIA" (Armour, 1977: 10). The EIS not only documents e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , i t a l s o p r e d i c t s and evaluates the p o t e n t i a l impacts from the p r o p o s a l ; because e v a l u a t i o n i s by nature v a l u e - l a d e n i n d u s t r y i s imposing i t s values on the e s t i m a t i o n of impacts. The r e f o r e , i n e f f e c t , t h i s means th a t the d e c i s i o n making body (government) i s r e l y i n g , on i n f o r m a t i o n provided by a vested i n t e r e s t (the proponent) to make i t s d e c i s i o n . Proponent 6 o b j e c t i v i t y m a y b e o p e n t o q u e s t i o n ( T u l l , 1 9 8 3 b d i s c u s s e s d i s a g r e e m e n t s b e t w e e n t h e B e a u f o r t S e a p r o p o n e n t s ' r e p o r t s a n d t h o s e o f t h e c o n s u l t a n t s ) . T h e r e l i a n c e o n i n d u s t r y i s e n h a n c e d w h e n g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c i e s a n d p r o g r a m m e s — o n , f o r e x a m p l e , e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t , c o n s e r v a t i o n , e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n , f i s h e r i e s , e n e r g y , s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t — h a v e n o t b e e n d e t e r m i n e d a n d / o r c o o r d i n a t e d i n a d v a n c e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , E I A b e c o m e s a r e a c t i v e r a t h e r t h a n a p r o - a c t i v e p r o c e s s a n d i n d u s t r y p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g s u b s t i t u t e s f o r g o v e r n m e n t ' s r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g . T h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P p a n e l ' s G u i d e l i n e s ( B e a u f o r t S e a E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t P a n e l , s u b s e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o a s B S E A P , 1 9 8 2 a ) , f o r e x a m p l e , r e q u e s t e d t h a t i n d u s t r y d e s c r i b e p o t e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t p a t t e r n s f o r t w e n t y y e a r s , t h e r e b y g i v i n g i n d u s t r y a t a s k c o m p a r a b l e t o n o r t h e r n d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g . T h e t i m i n g o f a n E I A a f f e c t s t h e r o l e i t c a n p l a y i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ( L a n g a n d A r m o u r , 1 9 7 7 ) , a n d i n d e e d i t s c r e d i b i l i t y a n d a c c e p t a n c e w i t h i n a c o m m u n i t y ( d ' A m o r e a n d R i t t e n b e r g , 1 9 7 8 ) . A r e c u r r e n t t h e m e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e i s t h a t i n o r d e r t o b e e f f e c t i v e E I A m u s t o c c u r e a r l y i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a n d , i n a d d i t i o n , b e a n i n t e g r a l a n d o n g o i n g p a r t o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a n d n o t b e i m p o s e d a s a s a d h o c , s t a t i c " o v e r l a y u p o n e x i s t i n g d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s " (Fox, 1 9 7 9 : 7 2 ; a l s o s e e A n d r e w s , 1 9 7 3 ; B o o t h r o y d , 1 9 7 8 ; d ' A m o r e a n d R i t t e n b e r g , 1 9 7 8 ; H o l l i n g , 1 9 7 8 ; P e t e r s o n a n d G e m m e l l , 1 9 7 8 ; M u n n , 1 9 7 9 ; B o o t h r o y d , 1 9 8 0 ; d ' A m o r e , 1 9 8 1 ; W a i t e n , 1 9 8 1 ) . P a r t o f t h e r e a s o n i n g f o r t h i s i s t h a t " d e c i s i o n p o i n t s , 7 i n v o l v i n g a b a l a n c i n g of e n v i r o n m e n t a l and non-env i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s , a r e s c a t t e r e d from the v e r y b e g i n n i n g t o the v e r y end of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s " (Gladwin and Royston, 1975: 194), and c r i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s made e a r l y on i n f l u e n c e s u c c e s s i v e e v e n t s . By u t i l i z i n g an ongoing and i n t e g r a t e d EIA, changes can be made t o i n c o r p o r a t e more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e as p r o j e c t d e s i g n e v o l v e s . T h i s means t h a t EIA would i n f l u e n c e a p r o j e c t d e s i g n as w e l l as e v a l u a t e i t (Boothroyd, 1980). The t r e n d i n the p a s t has been t o c o n c e n t r a t e on the p r o d u c t (EIS) r a t h e r than the EIA p r o c e s s . EISs were, i n g e n e r a l , snapshots t a k e n a t one p o i n t i n time and unable t o adapt t o changes made t o the p r o p o s a l over t i m e . Dale and Kennedy (1981), f o r example, s t a t e t h a t i n the i n t e r i m between the EARP g u i d e l i n e s and the EIS the p r o j e c t c o u l d have advanced t o the f i n a l d e s i g n s t a g e s and i t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t f o r t he p a n e l t o respond t o t h i s momentum. In a d d i t i o n , no p r o v i s i o n i s made i n EARP f o r chan g i n g the c o n t e n t s of the r e v i e w i n response t o new i s s u e s t h a t come up d u r i n g d e t a i l e d p l a n n i n g (Dale and Kennedy, 1981). I n e f f e c t , t h e r e f o r e , EIA would be p r o d u c i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t was no l o n g e r r e l e v a n t t o d e c i s i o n making. By the l a t e 1970's EIA was b e i n g q u e s t i o n e d on t h r e e f r o n t s : i t s s c i e n t i f i c c r e d i b i l i t y ; i t s a b i l i t y t o p r o t e c t the environment (Boothroyd and Rees, 1984); and i t s v a l i d i t y or u s e f u l n e s s i n d e c i s i o n making. EIA's s c i e n t i f i c c r e d i b i l i t y was q u e s t i o n e d because of the i n a b i l i t y t o p r e d i c t the b e h a v i o u r of complex systems (Boothroyd and Rees, 1984; 8 R e e s , 1 9 8 4 a ) g i v e n t h e i n h e r e n t u n c e r t a i n t y i n n a t u r a l s y s t e m s ( H o l l i n g , 1 9 7 8 ; T h o m p s o n e t a l . , 1 9 8 1 ) . W i t h r e s p e c t t o E I A s 1 u s e f u l n e s s i n d e c i s i o n m a k i n g a n d a b i l i t y t o p r o t e c t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , a U . S . C o u n c i l o n E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y s t u d y f o u n d t h a t a l t h o u g h 1 2 7 p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l s s u b j e c t t o N E P A - - o u t o f 2 0 0 r a n d o m l y s a m p l e d — h a d " a d v e r s e e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t s t h a t c o u l d n o t b e a v o i d e d " , a l l 2 0 0 p r o j e c t s w e r e e v e n t u a l l y i m p l e m e n t e d ( K e n n e d y a n d H a n s h a w , 1 9 7 4 c i t e d i n B o o t h r o y d a n d R e e s , 1 9 8 4 : 5 ) . A n e m e r g i n g t r e n d i s i m p a c t m a n a g e m e n t , w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e n e e d f o r o n g o i n g a n d i n t e g r a l a s s e s s m e n t t o a m u c h g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n d i d e a r l y E I A ( f o r e x a m p l e , s e e L a n g a n d A r m o u r , 1 9 8 1 ; R e e s , 1 9 8 3 c ; B o o t h r o y d a n d R e e s , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e b a s i s o f t h e i m p a c t m a n a g e m e n t a p p r o a c h i s t h a t m a n y i m p a c t s o f d e v e l o p m e n t a r e u n k n o w a b l e b e f o r e t h e y o c c u r ; t h e r e f o r e , w h a t i s r e q u i r e d i s a : c o n t i n o u s E I A f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h p r o j e c t d e s i g n a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , a n d w i t h l o c a l c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n n i n g . S u c h i n t e g r a t e d E I A r e m o v e s t h e e m p h a s i s f r o m f r o n t - e n d p r e d i c t i v e , t e c h n o c r a t i c . e x e r c i s e s a n d p l a c e s i t o n c o n s u l t a t i o n , m o n i t o r i n g a n d f e e d b a c k a t a l l s t a g e s . ( B o o t h r o y d a n d R e e s , 1 9 8 4 : 9) . E I A b e c o m e s a " m a j o r c o m p o n e n t o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s " , a p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s w h e r e b y " s o c i e t y a n d i t s c o m m u n i t i e s m a k e c h o i c e s a b o u t r e s o u r c e u s a g e a n d r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s " ( B o o t h r o y d a n d R e e s , 1 9 8 4 : 7 ) . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e i m p a c t m a n a g e m e n t a p p r o a c h . L i t e r a t u r e o n E I A r e g a r d s p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a s " a n e s s e n t i a l c o m p o n e n t o f E I A " , ( A r m o u r , 9 1 9 7 9 : 7 8 ; a l s o s e e f o r e x a m p l e , A r m o u r e t a l . , 1 9 7 7 ; F o x , 1 9 7 9 ; B o o t h r o y d , 1 9 8 0 ; d ' A m o r e , 1 9 8 1 ; W a i t e n , 1 9 8 1 ) . I n t h e i m p a c t m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e s s c o m m u n i t i e s a s s e s s a n d m a n a g e t h e i m p a c t s a s w e l l a s f u l f i l l i n g a m o n i t o r i n g r o l e ( B o o t h r o y d a n d R e e s , 1 9 8 4 ) . A d v a n t a g e s o f s u c h c o m m u n i t y i n v o l v e m e n t a r e : o b t a i n i n g a m o r e l u c i d c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f c o m m u n i t y a t t i t u d e s a n d p e r c e p t i o n s ( d ' A m o r e a n d R i t t e n b e r g , 1 9 7 8 ; C o n n o r , 1 9 8 1 ) ; f l e x i b i l i t y t o a d a p t t o i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s — d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s ( v a l u e s a n d p e r c e p t i o n s ) a n d u n i q u e r e g i o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s ( B o o t h r o y d , 1 9 8 0 ; D a l e a n d K e n n e d y , 1 9 8 1 ; T e s t e r , 1 9 8 1 ; W a i t e n , 1 9 8 1 ) ; t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e c o m m u n i t y c a n b e t t e r a s s e s s c h a n g e s t o i t s q u a l i t y o f l i f e t h a n o u t s i d e r s ( L a n g a n d A r m o u r , 1 9 8 1 ) ; t h a t s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s c o u l d b e c o m e m o r e p r o m i n e n t i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g ; a n d w i t h t h e i n v o l v e m e n t i n m o n i t o r i n g a c o m m u n i t y may b e b e t t e r a b l e t o c o p e w i t h u n f o r e s e e n s o c i a l i m p a c t s ( L a n g a n d A r m o u r , 1 9 8 1 ) . T h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i m p a c t m a n a g e m n t i s e n h a n c e d i f c o m m u n i t i e s h a v e p r o d u c e d t h e i r o w n d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s a s a c o n t e x t f o r a s s e s s i n g p r o j e c t i m p a c t s . M u c h o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e o n E I A s t r e s s e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f m o n i t o r i n g a s a n i n t e g r a l c o m p o n e n t o f E I A . B e a n l a n d s a n d D u i n k e r ( 1 9 8 3 ) , f o r e x a m p l e , s t a t e t h a t i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t i s i n c o m p l e t e u n t i l t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e m o n i t o r i n g p r o g r a m m e ( i m p l e m e n t e d d u r i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o r p r e p a r a t o r y a n d p o s t -c o n s t r u c t i o n o r . o p e r a t i o n a l p h a s e s o f t h e p r o j e c t ) i s c o m p l e t e . I t i s v a l u a b l e b e c a u s e i t f u n c t i o n s a s a " f e e d b a c k m e c h a n i s m " ( W a i t e n , 1 9 8 1 : 42 ) b o t h f o r c h a n g e s i n t h e 1 0 b i o p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a n d s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t , i n c l u d i n g c h a n g e s i n p e r s p e c t i v e ( A r m o u r e t a l . , 1 9 7 7 ) . L a n g a n d A r m o u r ( 1 9 8 1 ) p o i n t o u t t h a t a f t e r t h e E A R P a p r o j e c t i s u n l i k e l y t o f a c e a n y f u r t h e r r e g u l a t o r y p r o c e s s e s t h a t g i v e e x p l i c i t a t t e n t i o n t o s o c i a l i m p a c t s — i m p a c t m a n a g e m e n t w o u l d h e l p c o r r e c t t h i s d e f i c i e n c y . M o n i t o r i n g i s a l s o v a l u a b l e b e c a u s e i t p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e n e e d t o m a k e p o l i c y a d j u s t m e n t s ( A r m o u r e t a l . , 1 9 7 7 ) a n d i n c r e a s e s t h e v i a b i l i t y o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s b e c a u s e b y d e f i n i t i o n p l a n n i n g i s a c o n t i n u o u s a n d o n g o i n g p r o c e s s . A s s t a t e d b y B a n k e s a n d T h o m p s o n ( 1 9 8 0 : 6 ) : . . . a t t h e a p p r o v a l s t a g e , i f i t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t e f f e c t i v e m o n i t o r i n g o f i m p a c t s w i l l o c c u r a n d t h a t c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n w i l l b e t a k e w h e n i n d i c a t e d , t h e r e n e e d b e l e s s r e l i a n c e o n c o r r e c t p r e d i c t i o n o f i m p a c t s a n d l e s s c o n c e r n t h a t e v e r y c o n c e i v a b l e i m p a c t b e i d e n t i f i e d a n d m a n a g e d b y s o m e a p p r o v a l s t i p u l a t i o n . . . . e f f e c t i v e m o n i t o r i n g i n c l u d e s p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t . T h e p r o p o n e n t s ' r o l e i n i m p a c t m a n a g e m e n t i s t o c o n c e n t r a t e o n " p r o d u c i n g a n e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y a n d s o c i a l l y s e n s i t i v e p r o j e c t d e s i g n p r o p o s a l . . . " ( B o o t h r o y d a n d R e e s , 1 9 8 4 : 9 ) . P e t e r s o n a n d G e m m e l l ( 1 9 7 7 ) b e l i e v e i t i s a d v a n t a g e o u s f o r a s s e s s m e n t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f p r o j e c t d e s i g n r a t h e r t h a n m e r e l y r e a c t t o i t . O ' R i o r d a n a n d S e w e l l ( 1 9 8 1 : 6) s e e t h e p o t e n t i a l s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e o f E I A i n a s s i s t i n g f i n a l p r o j e c t d e s i g n " s o a s t o m i n i m i z e a d v e r s e e n v i r o n m e n t a l a n d s o c i a l r e p e r c u s s i o n s . . . " . D a l e a n d K e n n e d y ( 1 9 8 1 ) c i t e t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f c r i t i c s o f E I A t o i n c l u d e s o c i a l a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s e a r l i e r i n p r o j e c t d e s i g n . T h e r e a r e a l s o a d v a n t a g e s t o t h e p r o p o n e n t s . L o u c k s e t a l . 11 ( 1 9 7 8 ) d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e e a r l i e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a n a g e m e n t i s i n c l u d e d i n p r o j e c t d e v e l o p m e n t t h e l o w e r t h e c a p i t a l c o s t s t o t h e d e v e l o p e r i n t h e l o n g r u n . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e s o c i a l a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o s t s t o s o c i e t y a s a w h o l e c o u l d b e r e d u c e d . A s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , E I A w o u l d b e c o m e a n i n t e g r a l c o m p o n e n t o f t h e p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a n d a b r o a d e r c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ( R e e s , 1 9 8 3 c ; B o o t h r o y d a n d R e e s , 1 9 8 4 ; R e e s , 1 9 8 4 a ) . W h a t i s t h e p o l i c y a n d r e g i o n a l , d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t f o r t h i s ? W h a t i s t h e r o l e o f E I A a t t h i s l e v e l ? I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t a c o h e r e n t d e c i s i o n m a k i n g f r a m e w o r k b e i n p l a c e p r i o r t o a n y p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g . T h i s m e a n s t h a t c o o r d i n a t e d p o l i c i e s , p r i o r i t i e s a n d n e e d s s h o u l d b e c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d , a l t h o u g h i t m u s t b e r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e s e a r e d y n a m i c . A n t i c i p a t o r y p l a n n i n g i s e s s e n t i a l - - l a n d u s e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s f o r a r e g i o n s h o u l d b e p r o d u c e d i n c l u d i n g d e l i n e a t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y s e n s i t i v e a r e a s . E n v i r o n m e n t a l a n d s o c i a l f a c t o r s h a v e i m p o r t a n t r o l e s t o p l a y i n t h e s e d e c i s i o n s , a n d t h u s , w o u l d b e a s s e s s e d a t a g e n e r a l l e v e l , p r o v i d i n g i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e i s s u e s w h e r e m o r e d e t a i l e d a s s e s s m e n t i s s u b s e q u e n t l y r e q u i r e d . 1 . 4 C H O I C E O F C A S E S T h e B e a u f o r t S e a E I A w a s c h o s e n a s a c a s e s t u d y o f t h e r o l e o f E I A i n r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : i ) i t i s a c o n t e m p o r a r y e x a m p l e ; 12 i i ) T h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P w a s t h e m o s t e l a b o r a t e , e x p e n s i v e a n d l e n g t h y E I A i n C a n a d i a n e x p e r i e n c e ; i i i ) t h e E I A w a s e n o r m o u s i n s c o p e a n d h a d b r o a d p o l i c y a n d p l a n n i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s y e t i t w a s u n d e r t a k e n w i t h o u t a n a d e q u a t e r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g a n d d e c i s i o n m a k i n g f r a m e w o r k i n p l a c e w i t h i n w h i c h t o j u d g e a l t e r n a t i v e r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t ; i v ) i t c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c u r r e d w h e n u n d e r t a k i n g a n E I A f o r p r e l i m i n a r y p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l s ; a n d v ) m a n y o f t h e s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s i n t h e E I A h a v e b e e n w e l l d o c u m e n t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . T h e o n g o i n g W e s t C o a s t o f f s h o r e h y d r o c a r b o n e x p l o r a t i o n E I A w a s c h o s e n a s a c a s e s t u d y f o r t w o m a i n r e a s o n s : i ) t o c o m p a r e a n d c o n t r a s t t h e a p p r o a c h t o E I A b e i n g u t i l i z e d w i t h t h a t o f t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P , t o d e t e r m i n e w h a t l e s s o n s h a d b e e n l e a r n e d f r o m t h e l a t t e r r e v i e w . i i ) t h e r e v i e w i s s t i l l i n p r o g r e s s . T h i s p r o v i d e s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e t e r m i n e w a y s i n w h i c h t h e r e v i e w p r o c e s s , p r i n c i p a l l y t h r o u g h t h e p a n e l ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , c a n c o n t r i b u t e b o t h t o i m p r o v e m e n t s i n E A R P a n d r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e n o r t h e r n c o a s t a l r e g i o n o f B . C . P r e s e n t l y o f f t h e W e s t C o a s t t h e r e i s a m o r a t o r i u m o n h y d r o c a r b o n e x p l o r a t i o n . T h i s a f f o r d s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o 13 provide a plann i n g and management context w i t h i n which f u t u r e p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c EIAs can be undertaken i n r e l a t i o n to o f f s h o r e e x p l o r a t i o n and development. A p l a n n i n g and management context i s important because p o t e n t i a l o f f s h o r e hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n and development c o u l d occur i n an area r i c h i n many other n a t u r a l resources and n a t u r a l resource use, i n a d d i t i o n to hydrocarbons, f o r example, f i s h , f o r e s t s , e c o l o g i c a l r e s e r v e s , r e c r e a t i o n , tourism, marine t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Cooperation and a n t i c i p a t o r y p l a n n i n g i s a l s o r e q u i r e d because both f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i s i n v o l v e d : f e d e r a l f o r o f f s h o r e areas, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , N a t i o n a l Harbours, n a t i v e s , f i s h and enviroment; and p r o v i n c i a l f o r i n l a n d waters and any onshore development. 1.5 METHODS EMPLOYED The study was p r i m a r i l y based on a l i t e r a t u r e review: 1. Planning and EIA l i t e r a t u r e was examined to pro v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on the t h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between pl a n n i n g and EIA. This enabled c r i t e r i a f o r a "good" r e g i o n a l development p l a n n i n g process and EIA process to be determined. 2. L i t e r a t u r e d i s c u s s i n g the c u r r e n t r o l e EIA occupied i n the r e g i o n a l development and p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g processes i n the Beaufort Sea/Mackenzie D e l t a r e g i o n and the West Coast o f f s h o r e was examined to h i g h l i g h t the stren g t h s and weaknesses inh e r e n t i n the process. 3. L i t e r a t u r e from Newfoundland, Alaska and Sc o t l a n d provided 14 background m a t e r i a l on EIA and pl a n n i n g f o r hydrocarbon a c t i v i t i e s . These three areas were chosen because they have had to cope with o f f s h o r e hydrocarbon development. W r i t t e n correspondence and /or i n t e r v i e w s were i n i t i a t e d with s t a f f from the f e d e r a l and B.C. governments, and the F e d e r a l Environmental Assessment and Review O f f i c e (FEARO). Information requested r e l a t e d to e x i s t i n g and proposed p o l i c i e s , the e x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g process, and a l s o the j o i n t f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l EIA f o r o f f s h o r e hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n . 1.6 EIA AT THE FEDERAL LEVEL IN CANADA: THE STRUCTURE AND  FUNCTION OF EARP EARP was i n i t i a t e d on A p r i l 1, 1974 pursuant to a December 20, 1973 Cabinet D i r e c t i v e ; amendments were implemented February 15, 1977 (FEARO, 1978; 1979a; Canada. Environmental Assessment Review, 1980). As of June 1984, EARP e x i s t s as an O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l (Canada. Gazette, 1984). The aim of EARP i s to ensure t h a t f e d e r a l departments and agencies: . . . s h a l l , as e a r l y i n the pl a n n i n g process as p o s s i b l e and before i r r e v o c a b l e d e c i s i o n s are taken, ensure that the environmental i m p l i c a t i o n s of a l l proposals f o r which i t i s the d e c i s i o n making a u t h o r i t y are f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d . . . (Canada. Gazette, 1984 P a r t I I : 2). The EARP covers p r o j e c t s that r e q u i r e f e d e r a l funds and/or. lands, and those t h a t f e d e r a l departments or agencies i n i t i a t e or sponsor (Canada. Gazette, 1984). I n i t i a l l y , p r o p r i e t a r y 15 C r o w n C o r p o r a t i o n s , f o r e x a m p l e , P e t r o - C a n a d a , a n d f e d e r a l r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e N a t i o n a l E n e r g y B o a r d , w e r e n o t r e q u i r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e E A R P - , a l t h o u g h t h e y w e r e " i n v i t e d " t o d o s o ( F E A R O , 1 9 7 8 : 1 ; 1 9 7 9 a : 1 ) . U n d e r t h e r e c e n t O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l ( 1 9 8 4 ) , E A R P g u i d e l i n e s o n l y a p p l y t o f e d e r a l C r o w n c o r p o r a t i o n s a n d r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s i f E A R P i s w i t h i n t h e i r l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y a n d i f i t i s c o m p a n y p o l i c y t o p a r t i c i p a t e ( C a n a d a . G a z e t t e , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r E A R P i s u n d e r t a k e n b y a n i n d e p e n d e n t a g e n c y s e t u p s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i s t a s k , t h e F e d e r a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t R e v i e w O f f i c e ( F E A R O ) , w h i c h a c t s o n b e h a l f o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t ( F E A R O , 1 9 7 9 a ; 1 9 8 2 a ) . D e t a i l s o n F E A R O ' s s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e o u t l i n e d i n F E A R O ( 1 9 7 9 a ) a n d C a n a d a . G a z e t t e ( 1 9 8 4 ) . E A R P i n v o l v e s u p t o t h r e e s t a g e s : e n v i r o n m e n t a l s c r e e n i n g ; i n i t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l e v a l u a t i o n ( I E E ) ; a n d f o r m a l r e v i e w . F i g u r e 1 o u t l i n e s t h e t h r e e s t a g e s i n a s c h e m a t i c f o r m . I n t h e o r y , a l l f e d e r a l p r o j e c t s u n d e r g o e n v i r o n m e n t a l s c r e e n i n g , b y t h e i n i t i a t o r , t o d e t e r m i n e a d v e r s e e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t s ( F E A R O , 1 9 7 9 a ) . A n i n i t i a t o r i s a f e d e r a l d e p a r t m e n t o r a g e n c y i n t e n d i n g " t o u n d e r t a k e o r s p o n s o r a p r o j e c t , p r o g r a m , o r a c t i v i t y h a v i n g p o t e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t s " ( F E A R O , 1 9 7 9 a : 1 1 ) . A p r o p o n e n t i s a n a g e n c y o r c o m p a n y o u t s i d e t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t w h o s e p r o p o s a l r e q u i r e s f e d e r a l s p o n s o r s h i p , f u n d i n g , o r l a n d s ( F E A R O , 1 9 8 2 a ) . F E A R O ( 1 9 7 8 ; 1 9 7 9 a ; 1 9 8 0 ) p r o v i d e s d e t a i l s o n 16 F I G U R E 1 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF THE FEDERAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AND REVIEW PROCESS Project init ialed 01 sponsored by f e d . Dept. or Agency Screened for potential adverse environ mental effects No significant effects PROJECT M A Y PROCEED, W I T H M I T I G A T I N G MEASURES IF R E Q U I R E D Effects - + \ not fu l ly known I mtial E nviron mental Evaluation Potential Significant effects I n i t i a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l S c r e e n i n g No significant effects PROJECT M A Y PROCEED, W I T H M I T I G A T I N G M E A S U R E S tF R E Q U I R E D Potential Signif icant effects E.I.S produced Public Panel Guidelines for E 1 S. produced review of E.I.S and project formed by init iator 7 K F o r m a l R e v i e w B e g i n s Panel recommends Proceed w i th project Proceed but w i th modi f icat ions Du not proceed wi th project Ministers accept or reject Panel Recommendat ion Proceed w i t h project Proceed but w i t h i modi f icat ions Do not proceed w i th project Project goes ahead Project cancelled or postponed S o u r c e : F E A R O , 1 9 7 9 a : 1 2 . 1 7 the environmental s c r e e n i n g phase; H o l i s k o (1980) 1 and Rees (1980; 1981) provide a c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of environmental s c r e e n i n g . An IEE i s undertaken, by the i n i t i a t o r , when p o t e n t i a l adverse consequences of a p r o j e c t or programme reviewed by i n i t i a l environmental s c r e e n i n g are of unknown s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h i s stage i s not r e l e v a n t to the Beaufort Sea EARP (the Beaufort Sea hydrocarbon development and p r o d u c t i o n proposal ' was d i r e c t l y r e f e r r e d to a formal r e v i e w ) . The West Coast O f f s h o r e hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n p r o p osals were s u b j e c t to IEEs, p r i o r to a formal review. The reader i s r e f e r r e d to FEARO (1979a), Chairman Environmental Assessment Panel (1976), and O f f i c e of the Chairman Environmental Assessment Panel (1977) f o r d e t a i l s on the IEE stage. The formal review phase, administered by FEARO, i s supposed to c o n s t i t u t e "an independent and comprehensive review of the p r o j e c t " (FEARO, 1979a: 4). Only a small percentage of p r o j e c t s a c t u a l l y come to formal review; the m a j o r i t y of p r o j e c t s are assessed in-house, and thus, out of p u b l i c s c r u t i n y (Fox, 1979; Cotton and Edmond, 1981; Rees, 1981) . The formal environmental review phase i s a d v i s o r y . I t i s u s u a l l y undertaken by an environmental assessment panel, c o n s i s t i n g of between f i v e and seven members, appointed by the M i n i s t e r of DOE (Department of the Environment, now Environment Canada) or the Executive Chairman FEARO on b e h a l f of the M i n i s t e r of DOE (FEARO, 1979a; 1982a). Since the 1977 1 8 a m e n d m e n t s t o E A R P , p a n e l m e m b e r s n e e d n o t b e f e d e r a l p u b l i c s e r v a n t s ( C a n a d a . E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t R e v i e w , 1 9 8 0 ) , a n d i n d e e d , t h e r e s e e m s t o b e a t r e n d , i f n o t a p o l i c y t o e x c l u d e c i v i l s e r v a n t s . T h e s c o p e o f t h e f o r m a l r e v i e w i s d e l i n e a t e d i n P a n e l T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e s e n t t o t h e p a n e l b y t h e M i n i s t e r o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t . T h e p a n e l i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i s s u i n g p r o p o s a l s p e c i f i c g u i d e l i n e s ; t h e s e g u i d e l i n e s o u t l i n e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t m u s t b e i n c l u d e d i n t h e E I S p r e p a r e d b y t h e i n i t i a t i n g d e p a r t m e n t o r p r o p o n e n t . P u b l i c c o m m e n t s o n t h e g u i d e l i n e s c a n b e r e q u e s t e d ( F E A R O , 1 9 7 8 ) . T h i s i s o f t e n t h e c a s e w h e r e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t a n d / o r c o n c e r n h a s b e e n g e n e r a t e d b y a p a r t i c u l a r p r o p o s a l ( F E A R O , 1 9 7 9 a ) , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e B e a u f o r t S e a . T h e E I S h a s b e c o m e t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f t h e f o r m a l r e v i e w p h a s e o f E A R P . T h e E I S i n c l u d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t a n d t h e e x i s t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t , p r o j e c t n e e d , a l t e r n a t i v e w a y s o f a c h i e v i n g t h e p r o j e c t , p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s o f t h e p r o p o s a l , m e a s u r e s t h a t w o u l d b e t a k e n t o r e d u c e t h o s e i m p a c t s , a n d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i m p a c t s t h a t m i g h t r e m a i n a f t e r m i t i g a t i o n ( F E A R O , 1 9 7 9 a ) . A c o m p l e t e d E I S a n d i t s s u p p o r t i n g d o c u m e n t s a r e s u b m i t t e d t o t h e p a n e l f o r r e v i e w , i n c l u d i n g a t e c h n i c a l r e v i e w ( s e e F E A R O , 1 9 7 9 a ) . I n i t s r e v i e w t h e p a n e l i n v i t e s w r i t t e n c o m m e n t s f r o m g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s a n d d e p a r t m e n t s a n d t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c ( F E A R O , 1 9 8 0 ) . T h e r e may o r m a y n o t b e p u b l i c m e e t i n g s . 19 The panel decides whether the EIS and i t s s u p p o r t i n g documents s a t i s f y the g u i d e l i n e s or are d e f i c i e n t . In the l a t t e r case a d e f i c i e n c y statement w i l l be i s s u e d . The d e f i c i e n c y statement l i s t s areas t h a t r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , d i s c u s s i o n or c l a r i f i c a t i o n . The proponent i s given time to remedy the d e f i c i e n c i e s . Submission of the r e q u i r e d supplementary i n f o r m a t i o n r e s u l t s i n f u r t h e r p u b l i c comments and t e c h n i c a l a n a l y s i s . Should major d e f i c i e n c i e s remain the panel i s a t l i b e r t y to i s s u e another d e f i c i e n c y statement. However, i f the panel decides the a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t p u b l i c meetings can be h e l d . P u b l i c meetings, both community and general t e c h n i c a l s e s s i o n s , are i n f o r m a l ; they are not l e g a l proceedings so witnesses and documents cannot be subpoenaed. Th e r e f o r e , the value of these meetings i s dependent upon the g o o d w i l l , honesty, and openness of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c l u d i n g the proponents' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . Rees (1980) provides a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n on the two types of p u b l i c meetings. Upon the c o n c l u s i o n of the p u b l i c meetings the panel i s r e q u i r e d to compile a r e p o r t . The r e p o r t i n c l u d e s c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations on p r o j e c t implementation (FEARO,1979a). Fi g u r e 1 o u t l i n e s the p o s s i b l e recommendations. S p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s f o r proceeding can a l s o be d e t a i l e d (FEARO, 1979a provides examples). The r e p o r t i s submitted d i r e c t l y to the M i n i s t e r of the Environment and g e n e r a l l y r e l e a s e d to the p u b l i c at a l a t e r date. 20 The M i n i s t e r of the Environment and the M i n i s t e r of the i n i t i a t i n g or sponsoring department decide whether or not to accept the panel's recommendations. I f the M i n i s t e r s concur with the recommendations they inform the r e l e v a n t departments and/or agencies to implement them (FEARO, 1979a). I f the two m i n i s t e r s f a i l to agree then "the matter would probably be r e f e r r e d to the f e d e r a l Cabinet f o r r e s o l u t i o n " (FEARO. 1979a: 8) . EARP does not have p r o v i s i o n s f o r "postdevelopment monitoring and management feedback" (Rees, 1980; a l s o see Cotton and Edmond, 1981; Lang and Armour, 1981). Thus, although a panel may recommend monitoring procedures they need not be implemented or, i f they are implemented, FEARO cannot determine t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The EARP r e f e r r e d to above s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d to f e d e r a l l y i n i t i a t e d p r o j e c t s or those r e q u i r i n g f e d e r a l funds, lands or sponsorship, such as the Beaufort Sea hydrocarbon development and p r o d u c t i o n p r o p o s a l s . In cases where the p r o j e c t has major environmental i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a p r o v i n c e , the environmental assessment can take v a r i o u s forms. For example, a j o i n t f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l panel c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d with the review t a i l o r e d to s u i t both f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l EIA requirements, the aim being to reduce d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t (FEARO, 1979a). T h i s i s the approach t h a t has been i n i t i a t e d i n B.C. f o r the West Coast o f f s h o r e hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n review. 21 C H A P T E R TWO T H E B E A U F O R T S E A E N V I R O N M E N T A L A S S E S S M E N T AND R E V I E W P R O C E S S T h i s c h a p t e r h i g h l i g h t s t h e s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s i n t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P . 2 . 1 B A C K G R O U N D T h e B e a u f o r t S e a / M a c k e n z i e D e l t a r e g i o n o c c u p i e s s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d s q u a r e k i l o m e t r e s . I t h a s a v a r i e t y o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f l o c a l , r e g i o n a l , n a t i o n a l , a n d / o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e t o c o n s i d e r a n d m a n a g e : h y d r o c a r b o n s , f i s h , m i n e r a l s , w i l d l i f e , a n d w i l d e r n e s s . T h e B e a u f o r t S e a E I A w a s i n i t i a t e d i n 1 9 8 0 b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s a n d N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t ( D I A N D ; o r D I N A , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n a n d N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s ; o r I N A C , I n d i a n a n d N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s C a n a d a ) b y r e f e r r a l t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t . T h e M i n i s t e r o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t d i d n o t c o m p l e t e t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t R e v i e w p a n e l u n t i l M a y 1 9 8 1 ( B e a u f o r t S e a E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t P a n e l , s u b s e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o a s B S E A P , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e p a n e l ' s F i n a l R e p o r t was . c o m p l e t e d i n 1 9 8 4 , t h r e e y e a r s l a t e r . T h e E I A w a s e s t a b l i s h e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s o f p r e l i m i n a r y p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l s b y Dome P e t r o l e u m L i m i t e d , G u l f C a n a d a R e s o u r c e s I n c o r p o r a t e d , a n d E s s o R e s o u r c e s C a n a d a L i m i t e d t o p r o d u c e h y d r o c a r b o n s i n t h e B e a u f o r t S e a / M a c k e n z i e D e l t a r e g i o n . F i g u r e 2 s h o w s t h e g e n e r a l a r e a t h a t w o u l d b e s u b j e c t t o d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p r o d u c t i o n d r i l l i n g . A l t h o u g h e x p l o r a t i o n f o r h y d r o c a r b o n s F I G U R E 2 L O C A T I O N O F T H E B E A U F O R T S E A / M A C K E N Z I E D E L T A  H Y D R O C A R B O N D E V E L O P M E N T A N D P R O D U C T I O N P R O P O S A L S S o u r c e : Dome P e t r o l e u m L i m i t e d e t a l . , 1 9 8 2 a : 1 . 2 23 has been i n progress f o r many years i n the r e g i o n the proponents do not, as y e t , know where and i n what form hydrocarbon development w i l l be undertaken. 2.2 THE BEAUFORT SEA EARP: JUST ANOTHER EARP? 2.2.1 C r i s i s Management: The P o l i c y and Planning Framework  f o r EARPs North of 60 In some r e s p e c t s the Beaufort Sea EARP was t y p i c a l of formal reviews. Environment Canada, i n a d i s c u s s i o n paper, s t a t e d : A c l e a r framework of ( n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l ) p o l i c y and ( regional) p l a n n i n g i s necessary f o r impact assessments of s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s to work to maximum e f f e c t i v e n e s s . In p r a c t i c e , however, EARP panels seldom operate under these c o n d i t i o n s (Environment Canada, 1984: 5). The Lancaster Sound panel, f o r example, had found i t s e l f i n such a s i t u a t i o n , and d e c l i n e d to recommend f o r or a g a i n s t e x p l o r a t o r y d r i l l i n g on the grounds t h a t any d e c i s i o n would be a r b i t r a r y (see FEARO, 1979b). S i m i l a r l y , the Beaufort Sea EARP was i n i t i a t e d i n a p a r t i a l p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g vacuum. DIAND 1s 1972 northern p o l i c y statement had s t r e s s e d t h a t the f e d e r a l government should balance the needs of n o r t h e r n e r s , resource development and maintenance of the e c o l o g i c a l balance ( C h r e t i e n , M i n i s t e r of DIAND, 1972 c i t e d i n Orvik, 1973), but i n p r a c t i c e hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n and the N a t i o n a l Energy Program or NEP 1s 'need to know1 occupied a dominant p o s i t i o n , as d i d the need " . . . t o b r i n g these to p r o d u c t i o n under an a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e t a b l e " (Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, or EMR, 1982b: 9). The wheels -set i n motion by the 24 Diefenbaker government i n the e a r l y 1960's continued to t u r n (i n 1961 the Diefenbaker government passed the Canada O i l and Gas Act a l l o w i n g o i l and gas l e a s i n g i n A r c t i c lands--Rees, 1978). T h i s was probably due i n p a r t to the f e d e r a l government's c o n c l u s i o n that f o r the " . . . o v e r a l l wealth of Canada, the economic f u t u r e of the n o r t h l i e s i n the ground" ( C h r e t i e n , 1972 c i t e d i n Orvik, 1973: 210). Although DIAND's p o l i c y posture was o v e r a l l pro-development, d e c i s i o n making from Ottawa was overwhelmingly r e a c t i v e ; t h a t i s , s p e c i f i c p o l i c y was formulated when a development proposal was forwarded not p r i o r to i t ( S t a b l e r and O l f e r t , 1980). This ad hoc p o l i c y approach was s t i l l v i s i b l e i n 1980. A meeting between deputy m i n i s t e r s to d i s c u s s Dome Petroleum L i m i t e d , G u l f Canada Resources Incorporated, and Esso Resources Canada L i m i t e d ' s proposal f o r development i n the Beaufort Sea brought f o r t h the f o l l o w i n g : ...a fundamental d e c i s i o n to be taken i s whether the government: (i) wishes to continue to r e a c t to the s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t proposal when i t comes forward f o r m a l l y from the proponent and address the p o l i c y and r e g u l a t o r y d e c i s i o n s a f t e r the a p p l i c a t i o n has been f i l e d , or ( i i ) takes the lead i n advance of the a c t u a l submission of the a p p l i c a t i o n to set out c r i t e r i a t h a t the a p p l i c a n t must meet and i n d i c a t e l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t w i l l apply (Notes f o r a Deputy M i n i s t e r s Meeting as c i t e d i n Rees, 1981: 22). The approach used i n the north has been a p t l y d e s c r i b e d by DIAND (1981a) as c r i s i s management. The government can be c r i t i c i z e d f o r i t s f a i l u r e to d e f i n e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between 0 2 5 p o l i c i e s a n d " w h e r e a n d h o w o n e p o l i c y t a k e s p r e c e d e n c e o v e r a n o t h e r " ( R i c h a r d s o n , 1 9 8 4 : 6 ) . T h e T a s k F o r c e o n B e a u f o r t S e a D e v e l o p m e n t ( 1 9 8 1 : 1 6 ) , f o r e x a m p l e , s t a t e s : T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e N E P a n d n o r t h e r n d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c i e s h a s n o t b e e n e n u n c i a t e d i n t h e f o r m o f o b j e c t i v e s f o r h y d r o c a r b o n d e v e l o p m e n t , n o r h a s a s t r a t e g y b e e n p r e p a r e d w i t h w h i c h t o d e a l w i t h s u c h d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s a p a u c i t y o f p o l i c i e s r e l a t i n g t o " . . . n o r t h e r n c o n s e r v a t i o n , s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , f i s h e r i e s a n d o c e a n s , a n d t h e A r c t i c m a r i n e e n v i r o n m e n t " ( R e e s , 1 9 8 3 c : 1 7 ) . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t s u c h g a p s a r e f i l l e d ; f a i l u r e t o f o r m u l a t e p o l i c i e s p r i o r t o i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t c a n p r e - e m p t m a n y o t h e r r e s o u r c e a n d l a n d u s e o p t i o n s e i t h e r t e m p o r a r i l y o r p e r m a n e n t l y ( C a n a d a . S e n a t e , 1 9 8 3 ) . T h e N o r t h Y u k o n s e r v e s a s a n e x a m p l e o f c o n f l i c t i n g r e s o u r c e u s e p o l i c i e s a n d f a i l u r e t o d e f i n e w h i c h p o l i c y h a s p r e c e d e n c e . O n J u l y 6 , 1 9 7 8 a n O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l w a s p a s s e d b y t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t w i t h d r a w i n g 1 5 , 0 0 0 s q u a r e m i l e s i n N o r t h Y u k o n f r o m n e w d e v e l o p m e n t ( D I A N D , 1 9 7 8 ) . I n O c t o b e r , 1 9 7 8 t h e I n u v i a l u i t L a n d R i g h t s S e t t l e m e n t A g r e e m e n t - i n - P r i n c i p l e w a s s i g n e d b e t w e e n t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t a n d C O P E ( C o m m i t t e e f o r O r i g i n a l P e o p l e s E n t i t l e m e n t ) . T h e a g r e e m e n t c o m m i t t e d b o t h p a r t i e s t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a N a t i o n a l w i l d e r n e s s p a r k i n N o r t h Y u k o n ( B u r n e t , 1 9 8 3 ) . I n 1 9 7 9 E n v i r o n m e n t C a n a d a f o r w a r d e d a " P r o p o s a l f o r t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n o f N o r t h e r n Y u k o n " . T h e o b j e c t i v e w a s t o c r e a t e a N a t i o n a l p a r k a n d a w i l d e r n e s s p a r k t o p r o t e c t t h e e n t i r e n o r t h Y u k o n w i t h d r a w a l a r e a ( H e g g i e a n d 26 W o o d , 1 9 7 9 d e s c r i b e E n v i r o n m e n t C a n a d a ' s p r o p o s a l ) . H o w e v e r , b y 1 9 8 5 n e i t h e r a N a t i o n a l p a r k n o r a w i l d e r n e s s p a r k h a d b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d i n N o r t h Y u k o n b e c a u s e o f t h e n a t i v e c l a i m s d i s p u t e o v e r t h e s o u t h e r n b o u n d a r y ( M c P h e e , ' 1 9 8 5 ) . I n f a c t , d e s p i t e H u g h F a u l k n e r ' s ( M i n i s t e r o f D I A N D i n 1 9 7 8 ) c l a i m s t h a t t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n v a l u e o f t h e a r e a e x c e e d e d t h a t o f d e v e l o p m e n t ( s e e D I A N D , 1 9 7 8 ) , G u l f C a n a d a R e s o u r c e s I n c o r p o r a t e d w a s a p p a r e n t l y e n c o u r a g e d i n 1 9 8 2 t o e x a m i n e s i t e s f o r a d e e p w a t e r p o r t a n d s u p p l y b a s e w i t h i n t h e p r o p o s e d p a r k a r e a . I n a d d i t i o n , K i e w i t a n d S o n s p r o p o s a l t o d e v e l o p a p o r t a t K i n g P o i n t a n d a q u a r r y p l u s h a u l r o a d i n l a n d , a n d Dome e t a l . ' s h y d r o c a r b o n d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p r o d u c t i o n p r o p o s a l s , s u b j e c t t o t h e E A R P r e v i e w , i n c l u d e d p o t e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i n t h e w i t h d r a w n a r e a . I t w a s s u p r i s i n g t o m a n y t h a t s u c h p r o p o s a l s w e r e g i v e n s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l w i t h d r a w i n g s u c h l a n d s f r o m d e v e l o p m e n t a n d t h e p e n d i n g c l a i m s s e t t l e m e n t . T h i s h i g h l i g h t s t h e c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t w i t h i n D I A N D b e c a u s e o f i t s d u a l r o l e : e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n a n d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . F u r t h e r m o r e , J o h n M u n r o , M i n i s t e r o f D I A N D , i n 1 9 8 4 , s t a t e d t h a t G u l f ' s a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a l a n d u s e p e r m i t w o u l d n o t b e c o n s i d e r e d b y t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P p a n e l w h i c h h a d a l r e a d y c o n v e n e d s i n c e t h e p r o p o s a l w a s o s t e n s i b l y f o r e x p l o r a t i o n p u r p o s e s . T o s o m e t h i s m e a n t E A R P w a s b e i n g b y - p a s s e d ( B u r n e t , 1 9 8 3 ) ; t h i s w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 2 . 3 . 2 7 T h e r e s u l t i n g c o n t r o v e r s y f o r c e d D I A N D t o c o n d u c t a n i n - h o u s e s t u d y o n a l l p o t e n t i a l h a r b o u r s i t e s o n t h e B e a u f o r t S e a c o a s t , p o s t p o n i n g i t s d e c i s i o n o n G u l f ' s a p p l i c a t i o n ( B u r n e t , 1 9 8 3 ) . J o h n R o b e r t s , t h e n M i n i s t e r o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t , w a s t o t a l l y o p p o s e d t o a n y p r e m a t u r e d e c i s i o n s o n G u l f ' s a p p l i c a t i o n , p r e f e r r i n g t h a t a d e c i s i o n b e d e l a y e d u n t i l a r e g i o n a l p l a n o r a t m i n i m u m a s h o r e z o n e p l a n h a d b e e n i m p l e m e n t e d , d e c i s i o n s r e a c h e d o n t h e f i n a l b o u n d a r i e s f o r t h e n o r t h e r n Y u k o n N a t i o n a l a n d w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s , a n d c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P ( B u r n e t , 1 9 8 3 ) . I t m u s t b e r e m e m b e r e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t f e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r b o t h l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e u s e i n t h e n o r t h l i e s p r i m a r i l y w i t h D I A N D , n o t E n v i r o n m e n t C a n a d a . M u n r o d i d n o t a n n o u n c e h i s d e c i s i o n u n t i l N o v e m b e r 1 9 8 3 . F o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f e v e n t s p r e c e d i n g t h i s d e c i s i o n s e e B u r n e t ( 1 9 8 3 ) ; A b r a h a m s o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) a n d C A R C ( 1 9 8 4 a ) . M u n r o r e j e c t e d b o t h a p p l i c a t i o n s o s t e n s i b l y b e c a u s e t h e y t h r e a t e n e d i m m i n e n t s e t t l e m e n t o f l a n d c l a i m s ( C A R C , 1 9 8 4 a ) ; C a b i n e t a p p r o v a l f o r a f i n a l l a n d c l a i m s a g r e e m e n t w i t h C O P E w a s g i v e n M a r c h 1 9 8 4 ( L a n d s D i r e c t o r a t e , 1 9 8 4 ; s e e I N A C , 1 9 8 4 f o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s o n t h e l a n d s c l a i m a g r e e m e n t ) . I t h a d t a k e n s e v e n t e e n m o n t h s f r o m G u l f ' s a n n o u n c e m e n t o f i t s p e n d i n g a p p l i c a t i o n f o r S t o k e s P o i n t f o r t h e M i n i s t e r o f D I A N D t o r e j e c t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a p p l i c a t i o n i n l a n d s a l r e a d y w i t h d r a w n f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n p u r p o s e s . T h e a d h o c a n d h i g h l y t e n t a t i v e n a t u r e o f n o r t h e r n d e c i s i o n m a k i n g c a n a l s o b e s e e n i n t h e r e a l m o f p l a n n i n g . 28 D I A N D h a d p r o p o s e d a l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g s c h e m e i n 1 9 8 2 — t h e N o r t h e r n L a n d U s e P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s ( D I A N D , 1 9 8 2 a ) . R e a c t i o n s t o t h e p r o p o s a l w e r e n o t f a v o u r a b l e , f o r e x a m p l e , s e e R i c h a r d s o n ( 1 9 8 2 ) , R e e s ( 1 9 8 3 b ) . S u b s e q u e n t l y , D I A N D u n d e r t o o k s e p a r a t e d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h t h e t e r r i t o r i a l g o v e r n m e n t s , r e a c h i n g a g r e e m e n t s w i t h b o t h ( D I A N D , 1 9 8 3 c ; D I A N D / Y T G , 1 9 8 3 ; R e e s , 1 9 8 3 a ; F a u l k n e r , 1 9 8 4 : C A R C , 1 9 8 4 a ) . R i c h a r d s o n ( 1 9 8 4 ) h a s e x a m i n e d t h e s e t w o n o r t h e r n l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g a g r e e m e n t s c a r e f u l l y . H i s m a i n o b s e r v a t i o n i s t h a t t h e y a r e " p r i n c i p a l l y p o l i t i c a l d o c u m e n t s . . . d e a l i n g p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e s h a r i n g o f p o w e r " g i v i n g r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n " t o h o w l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g i s e x p e c t e d t o b e c a r r i e d o u t , o r w h a t i t i s e x p e c t e d t o p r o d u c e " ( R i c h a r d s o n , 1 9 8 4 : 1 , o r i g i n a l e m p h a s i s ) . R i c h a r d s o n ( 1 9 8 4 ) c i t e s t h e l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g t o n o r t h e r n c o n s e r v a t i o n s t r a t e g y a n d o t h e r p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s , f o r e x a m p l e , e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g , q u e s t i o n i n g w h e t h e r l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g w i l l t a k e p r e c e d e n c e , o r v i c e v e r s a , o r w h e t h e r t h e t w o p r o c e s s e s w i l l c o m e t o g e t h e r . H e s p e c u l a t e d o n t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h " a p p r o v e d p l a n s w i l l r e a l l y g o v e r n t h e a c t i o n s o f p o w e r f u l g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s " , s u c h a s C O G L A ( R i c h a r d s o n , 1 9 8 4 : 1 9 ) . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t g i v e n t h e f a c t t h a t N e i l F a u l k n e r , A s s i s t a n t D e p u t y M i n i s t e r , N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s , DIAND, ( 1 9 8 4 : 1) a n n o u n c e d : A p p r o v e d l a n d u s e p l a n s w i l l n o t b e ' b i n d i n g ' i n t h e l e g a l s e n s e s i n c e t h e y w i l l n o t t a k e p r e c e d e n c e o v e r e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n o r r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h w h i c h t h e y may c o n f l i c t . T h u s , i t a p p e a r s h i g h l y l i k e l y t h a t t h e s t a t u s q u o w i l l b e 29 m a i n t a i n e d i f t h e s e l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g p r o p o s a l s a r e i m p l e m e n t e d . N o f o r m a l l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s h a s b e e n i m p l e m e n t e d i n t h e B e a u f o r t S e a / M a c k e n z i e D e l t a r e g i o n a t p r e s e n t . T h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P , t h e r e f o r e , l a c k s a n i n t e g r a t e d a n d c o h e s i v e p o l i c y a n d p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t . T h i s l a c k o f c o n t e x t a p p e a r s m o r e g l a r i n g i n t h e c a s e o f t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P t h a n f o r p r e v i o u s E A R P s . T h e r e a r e p r o b a b l y t w o m a j o r r e a s o n s f o r t h i s . F i r s t l y , p r e v i o u s E A R P s , s u c h a s L a n c a s t e r S o u n d , h a d p u b l i c i z e d t h e w e a k n e s s e s i n h e r e n t i n u n d e r t a k i n g a n E I A w i t h o u t a p o l i c y a n d p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t ; t h e r e f o r e , o n e w o u l d h a v e a s s u m e d t h a t l e s s o n s h a d b e e n l e a r n e d f r o m p a s t m i s t a k e s . S e c o n d l y , t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P w a s t h e l a r g e s t E A R P t o d a t e i n t h e s c o p e , s p a t i a l e x t e n t , a n d a m o u n t o f t i m e t a k e n t o c o m p l e t e t h e r e v i e w . 2 . 2 . 2 P r o c e d u r a l S i m i l a r i t i e s B e t w e e n t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P  a n d P r e v i o u s E A R P s I n k e e p i n g w i t h p r e v i o u s f o r m a l E A R P r e v i e w s t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P r e s u l t e d f r o m a f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t — i n t h i s i n s t a n c e D I A N D - - r e f e r r i n g a d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l ( s ) t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t b e c a u s e o f p o t e n t i a l s i g n i f i c a n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t s ( B S E A P , 1 9 8 2 a ; F E A R O , 1 9 8 2 b ) , a n d b e c a u s e o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . T h e p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d b y t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P r e s e m b l e d t h o s e o f p r e v i o u s E A R P s i n t h a t : a p u b l i c r e v i e w w a s i n i t i a t e d , c o m p l e t e w i t h a n a d v i s o r y p a n e l c h o s e n b y t h e M i n i s t e r o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t ( B S E A P , 1 9 8 2 b ) ; E I S g u i d e l i n e s 30 w e r e d e v e l o p e d ; a n E I S p r o d u c e d ; t h e p u b l i c w a s g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e E I S a t p u b l i c m e e t i n g s a n d i n w r i t t e n s u b m i s s i o n s ; a n d t h e p a n e l g e n e r a t e d a f i n a l r e p o r t c o m p l e t e w i t h r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r t h e M i n i s t e r o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t . T a b l e I h i g h l i g h t s t h e m a i n e v e n t s a n d d a t e s o f t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P . 2 . 2 . 3 T h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P : I n n o v a t i v e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A l t h o u g h t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P c o n f o r m e d t o p r e v i o u s E A R P s i n c e r t a i n r e s p e c t s , i t h a d a n u m b e r o f i n n o v a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 2 . 2 . 3 . 1 S c o p e T h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P 1 s m o s t n o t a b l e d i v e r g e n c e f r o m p r e v i o u s E A R P s w a s t h e i m m e n s e s c o p e o f i t s r e v i e w . U n l i k e p r e c e d i n g E A R P s w h i c h a d d r e s s e d s i n g l e , d e f i n i t e p r o j e c t p l a n s - - t h e A l a s k a H i g h w a y G a s P i p e l i n e b e i n g a p r i m e e x a m p l e — t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P e x a m i n e d p r e l i m i n a r y p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l s ( s e e Dome e t a l . , 1 9 8 2 a : C h a p t e r 1) e n c o m p a s s i n g w h a t a m o u n t e d t o a r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t ( R e e s , 1 9 8 4 a ) . T h e p a n e l ' s m a n d a t e r e f l e c t e d t h e b r o a d n a t u r e o f t h e p a n e l ' s p r o p o s a l s . T h e p a n e l h a d t o : . . . i d e n t i f y m a j o r d e v e l o p m e n t a l e f f e c t s , b o t h p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e , u p o n t h e p h y s i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l a n d h u m a n e n v i r o n m e n t s a n d r e c o m m e n d w a y s a n d m e a n s o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h e m . A s p a r t o f t h i s m a n d a t e , t h e P a n e l s h o u l d r e v i e w a n d a s s e s s a l l r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l a n d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e p r o p o s a l . T h e P a n e l s h o u l d b e p r e p a r e d t o a d d r e s s p o s s i b l e c o m m u n i t y c h a n g e s s u c h a s e f f e c t s o n e x i s t i n g l i f e s t y l e s a n d c o n d i t i o n s ( R o b e r t s , 1 9 8 1 : 2 ) . 31 T h e p a n e l a l s o h a d t o c o n s i d e r : . . . a l l r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s n o r t h o f 6 0 ° o f t h e p r o p o n e n t ' s p r o p o s a l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o r r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e c o m m e r c i a l p r o d u c t i o n a n d s h i p m e n t o f h y d r o c a r b o n r e s o u r c e s f r o m t h e B e a u f o r t S e a a r e a . T h i s i n c l u d e s p o s s i b l e o n - s h o r e a n d o f f - s h o r e o i l a n d g a s p r o d u c t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e C a n a d i a n B e a u f o r t S e a a r e a a n d s u b s e q u e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f o i l a n d g a s t o s o u t h e r n m a r k e t s b y i c e - b r e a k i n g t a n k e r s o r p i p e l i n e ( s ) o r b y b o t h m e a n s ( R o b e r t s , 1 9 8 1 : 2 ; e m p h a s i s a d d e d ) . G r e a t e r e m p h a s i s w a s p l a c e d o n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i s s u e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p a n e l w a s a t l i b e r t y t o c o n s i d e r t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o m a n a g e t h e h y d r o c a r b o n d e v e l o p m e n t ( B S E A P , 1 9 8 4 ) . N e v e r b e f o r e i n E A R P ' s h i s t o r y h a d a p a n e l b e e n g i v e n a m a n d a t e w i t h s u c h a n e x t e n s i v e s c o p e . 2 . 2 . 3 . 2 R e q u e s t f o r P o s i t i o n S t a t e m e n t s I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e i s s u e o f g o v e r n m e n t m a n a g e m e n t c a p a b i l i t y , t h e p a n e l r e q u e s t e d p o s i t i o n ' s t a t e m e n t s f r o m f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s — E n e r g y , M i n e s a n d R e s o u r c e s ( E M R ) ; E n v i r o n m e n t ; F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n s ; H e a l t h a n d W e l f a r e ; P u b l i c W o r k s ; T r a n s p o r t ; E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s ; E m p l o y m e n t a n d I m m i g r a t i o n ; I n d u s t r y , T r a d e a n d C o m m e r c e ; C o m m u n i c a t i o n s — a s w e l l a s t e r r i t o r i a l g o v e r n m e n t s o f t h e Y u k o n a n d t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s ( N W T ) , a n d t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n M o u n t e d P o l i c e a n d N o r t h e r n C a n a d a P o w e r C o m m i s s i o n . A s e p a r a t e r e q u e s t w a s m a d e t o D I A N D , t h e i n i t i a t o r . T h e r e q u e s t f o r p o s i t i o n s t a t e m e n t s w a s a n i n n o v a t i v e s t e p . T h e p o s i t i o n s t a t e m e n t s w e r e t o o u t l i n e e x i s t i n g m a n d a t e s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , t h e p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s t h a t t h e B e a u f o r t S e a h y d r o c a r b o n p r o d u c t i o n c o u l d 32 TABLE I TIMETABLE OF THE MAIN EVENTS OF THE BEAUFORT SEA EARP DATE: EVENT 1980, J u l y 22: 1981, January-May: 1981, June: 1981, June: 1981, Nov.-Dec.: 1982, February: 1982, February: 1982, November: 1983, February: 1983, March: 1983, J u l y 4: 1983, August: 1983, Sept-Dec: 1984, J u l y : R e f e r r a l of Beaufort Sea hydrocarbon proposal to John Roberts, f e d e r a l M i n i s t e r of the Environment by John Munro, M i n i s t e r of DIAND. Environmental assesment panel chosen by the M i n i s t e r of the Environment. Panel i s s u e d i t s Terms of Reference by the M i n i s t e r of the Environment. D r a f t G u i d e l i n e s f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of the EIS made p u b l i c . P u b l i c meetings on d r a f t g u i d e l i n e s . F i n a l i z e d G u i d e l i n e s i s s u e d to the proponents. Government P o s i t i o n Statements requested by the p anel, i n c l u d i n g request to i n i t i a t o r . Panel r e c e i v e d the proponents' 7 volume EIS. Deadline f o r w r i t t e n comments on the adequacy of the EIS to be r e c e i v e d by the p a n e l . T e c h n i c a l review a l s o to be completed by t h i s time. Panel i s s u e d an EIS D e f i c i e n c y Statement. Proponents 5 volume supplementary i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e a s e d to the p u b l i c . Panel decides a g a i n s t i s s u i n g a f u r t h e r d e f i c i e n c y statement. P u b l i c meetings he l d at v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s . Panel's F i n a l Report made p u b l i c . 3 3 h a v e o n c u r r e n t a n d f u t u r e p l a n n e d g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c i e s a n d p r o g r a m m e s a n d v i c e v e r s a ( B S E A P , 1 9 8 2 b ) . D I A N D w a s t o s u b m i t a m o r e d e t a i l e d a n d c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t a t e m e n t ( B S E A P , 1 9 8 2 c ) . T h e r e q u e s t f o r p o s i t i o n s t a t e m e n t s w a s p o t e n t i a l l y -i m p o r t a n t . I f t h e g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s r e s p o n d e d t o t h e r e q u e s t w i t h d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n t h e n i t w o u l d b e p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h w h e t h e r : ( i ) p o l i c i e s a n d p r o g r a m m e s d i d e x i s t ; ( i i ) t h e r e w e r e o t h e r p o t e n t i a l l y c o n f l i c t i n g u s e s p l a n n e d f o r t h e r e g i o n ; ( i i i ) t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a d s u f f i c i e n t l y a s s e s s e d t h e n e e d f o r a n d i m p l i c a t i o n s o f h y d r o c a r b o n d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p r o d u c t i o n ; a n d ( i v ) t h e g o v e r n m e n t w a s i n a p o s i t i o n t o e f f e c t i v e l y m a n a g e t h e h y d r o c a r b o n d e v e l o p m e n t . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e p o s i t i o n s t a t e m e n t s w o u l d t o s o m e e x t e n t a d d r e s s t h e p a r t i a l p o l i c y a n d p l a n n i n g v a c u u m . 2 . 2 . 3 . 3 P u b l i c M e e t i n g s o n t h e D r a f t G u i d e l i n e s T h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P d e v i a t e d f r o m p r e v i o u s E A R P r e v i e w s i n t h a t a t a s e r i e s o f m e e t i n g s , s e t u p i n n o r t h e r n c o m m u n i t i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o o b t a i n p u b l i c c o m m e n t s o n t h e d r a f t g u i d e l i n e s , a n u m b e r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n s w e r e d i r e c t e d " . . . m o r e a t t h e r e v i e w p r o c e s s t h a n t h e d r a f t g u i d e l i n e s " ( B S E A P , 1 9 8 2 d : 3 ; e m p h a s i s a d d e d ) . A m a j o r r e a s o n f o r t h i s w a s t h a t v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e u n c l e a r a s t o E A R P 1 s e x a c t r o l e v i s a v i s o v e r a l l g o v e r n m e n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . T h i s i n c l u d e d E A R P 1 s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o r e g i o n a l a n d l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g , a n d w h a t w a s t o b e a c h i e v e d a t t h e e n d o f E A R P ( B e a u f o r t S e a R e s e a r c h C o a l i t i o n , 1 9 8 1 ; D e p a r t m e n t o f 34 F i s h e r i e s and Oceans (DFO), 1981a; Inuvik Town C o u n c i l , 1981; Environment Canada, 1981; Yukon Con s e r v a t i o n S o c i e t y , 1981). The o v e r a l l consensus was t h a t EARP's r o l e needed c l a r i f i c a t i o n . The p u b l i c wanted to know e x a c t l y how t h e i r i n put would be used i n decision-making. 2.2.3.4 Intervenor Funding For the f i r s t time i n an EARP formal review funding was made a v a i l a b l e (by DIAND) to a s s i s t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s i s t h a t i t could improve the q u a l i t y of i n t e r v e n o r submissions; p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups would be able to h i r e c o n s u l t a n t s or a l t e r n a t i v e l y conduct more d e t a i l e d r e s e a r c h of t h e i r own. In a d d i t i o n , such a move se t s a precedent f o r any f u t u r e formal EARP reviews. 2.2.3.5 Panel Composition The Beaufort Sea EARP panel was the f i r s t panel not to have at l e a s t one government employee on i t , although the panel Chairman, John Tener, was a former s e n i o r f e d e r a l c i v i l s ervant s p e c i a l i z i n g i n w i l d l i f e r e s e a r c h and management (BSEAP, 1984). Other panel members came from a v a r i e t y of backgrounds and i n c l u d e d : T i t u s A l l o o l o o , a n a t i v e ; Douglas C r a i g , a r e t i r e d engineer; Knute Hansen, former mayor of A k l a v i k and n e g o t i a t o r f o r COPE; A l l e n Lueck, a lawyer; Ross Mackay, geography p r o f e s s o r s p e c i a l i z i n g i n a r c t i c environments; and Michael S t u t t e r ; gold miner (BSEAP, 1984). The appointments of a n a t i v e and two northern r e s i d e n t s 35 (Hansen and S t u t t e r ) to the panel are important i n l i g h t of the f a c t t h a t northerners want more o p p o r t u n i t i e s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n aspects of northern development. 2.2.3.6 A d d i t i o n a l Procedural Innovations B r i e f mention must be made of four other u s e f u l i n n o v a t i o n s i n the Beaufort Sea EARP. F i r s t l y , the panel adopted a mix of i n f o r m a l community s e s s i o n s i n small northern communities and more s t r u c t u r e d s e s s i o n s i n the l a r g e r c e n t e r s of Y e l l o w k n i f e , Inuvik, Resolute, Whitehorse, Calgary and Ottawa. T h i s approach p a r a l l e l e d the one u t i l i z e d so s u c c e s s f u l l y by Thomas Berger i n the Mackenzie V a l l e y P i p e l i n e I n q u i r y (Dale, forthcoming; Rees, 1984b). Secondly, the panel engaged a l a r g e number of t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i s t s - - 1 6 i n a l l - - f r o m v a r i o u s backgrounds (BSEAP, 1984 pro v i d e s the names and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s of the t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i s t s ) . These s p e c i a l i s t s were a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c and proponents as w e l l as the panel (BSEAP, 1984). T h i r d l y , the panel requested t h a t the proponents u t i l i z e a three zone approach i n p r e s e n t i n g m a t e r i a l i n the EIS: the Beaufort Sea and adjacent c o a s t a l areas; t e r r e s t r i a l areas north of 60°; and tanker routes (BSEAP, 1982a). The aim was to "help communities focus on those p o r t i o n s of g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t to them" (BSEAP, 1982a: 2). To f u r t h e r f a c i l i t a t e t h i s aim, the proponents were requested to p r o v i d e a b r i e f , n o n - t e c h n i c a l summary of the EIS to a f f e c t e d r e s i d e n t s i n each zone (BSEAP, 1982a). 36 F i n a l l y , t h e p a n e l e s t a b l i s h e d a n i n f o r m a t i o n o f f i c e i n I n u v i k , a g a i n w i t h t h e a i m o f i m p r o v i n g c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 2 . 3 T H E B E A U F O R T S E A E A R P : A C A S E O F M I S S E D O P P O R T U N I T I E S ? 2 . 3 . 1 T i m i n g o f t h e R e v i e w I n S e c t i o n 2 . 2 . 1 t h e l a c k o f a c l e a r a n d c o h e s i v e p o l i c y a n d p l a n n i n g f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P w a s h i g h l i g h t e d . M a n y i n t e r v e n e r s i n t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P w e r e c r i t i c a l o f t h i s , s t a t i n g t h a t a f r a m e w o r k w a s r e q u i r e d s o . t h a t p r i o r i t i e s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t c o u l d b e e s t a b l i s h e d ; f o r e x a m p l e : B e a u f o r t S e a R e s e a r c h C o a l i t i o n ( 1 9 8 1 ) ; E n v i r o n m e n t C a n a d a , ( 1 9 8 1 ) ; I n u i t T a p i r i s a t o f C a n a d a ( I T C , 1 9 8 1 ) ; T e m p l e t o n ( 1 9 8 1 ) ; ' Y u k o n C o n s e r v a t i o n S o c i e t y ( 1 9 8 1 ) ; M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) ; N j o o t l i ( 1 9 8 3 ) . E n v i r o n m e n t C a n a d a ' ( 1 9 8 1 : 2 7 3 ) r e f e r r e d t o e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s w h i c h h a v e : s h o w n t h a t n e g a t i v e s o c i a l a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s c a n b e s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e d a n d b e n e f i t s i n c r e a s e d i f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n e s t a b l i s h e s t h e c o n t e x t f o r r e v i e w i n g i n d u s t r y p r o p o s a l s . . . , a n d a d d e d t h a t : I t i s d i s a p p o i n t i n g t h a t f o u r y e a r s a f t e r B e r g e r r e c o m m e n d e d d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n f o r t h e n o r t h we a r e s t i l l r e v i e w i n g i n d u s t r y p r o p o s a l s w i t h o u t c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e g i o n a l p l a n s i n p l a c e a s f r a m e s o f r e f e r e n c e . T h e S e n a t e o f C a n a d a ( C a n a d a . S e n a t e , 1 9 8 3 : 1) h a d p r o n o u n c e d t h a t " [ a ] t i m e t a b l e f o r d e v e l o p m e n t . . . h i n g e s o n c l e a r p o l i c i e s , i d e n t i f i e d p r i o r i t i e s , g o o d p l a n n i n g a n d e f f e c t i v e r e g u l a t i o n . " H e r e i n l i e s a m a j o r p r o b l e m w i t h t h e t i m i n g o f t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P a n d , t h u s , i t s r o l e . W i t h o u t s t a t e d p r i o r i t i e s f o r land use, and t h e r e f o r e , knowledge of other p o t e n t i a l f u t u r e uses of c e r t a i n lands, how can the panel a c c u r a t e l y assess what the p o t e n t i a l impacts of hydrocarbon developments w i l l be? While the proponents were to d i s c u s s the c u r r e n t use of renewable resources and the e f f e c t s of hydrocarbon development on such uses t h e i r coverage of t h i s i n the EIS was l a b e l l e d as s u p e r f i c i a l (DIAND, 1983a; 1983b; ITC, 1983). However, as the Department of F i s h e r i e s and Oceans or DFO (DFO, 1981b) s t a t e s , p r e d i c t i n g other non-hydrocarbon uses i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of government agencies. The panel's i n n o v a t i v e request f o r p o s i t i o n statements (see S e c t i o n 2.2.2.3) c o u l d have pr o v i d e d some i n s i g h t s i n t o the c u r r e n t or proposed uses i n so f a r as these uses were o u t l i n e d i n t h e . p o l i c i e s and programmes i d e n t i f i e d . Some i n d i c a t i o n of the government's a b i l i t y to manage hydrocarbon development c o u l d then be gained. Obviously, the q u a l i t y of the p o s i t i o n statements i s c r i t i c a l to such an assessment. In the o p i n i o n of Environment Canada (1983b: 200) the p o s i t i o n statements "do not p r o v i d e the i n f o r m a t i o n necessary f o r the Panel's d e l i b e r a t i o n s on these important management i s s u e s " . The p o s i t i o n statements, i n g e n e r a l , focused on d e s c r i p t i o n s of the r e l e v a n t agencies' mandates, and "...where there was s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e to the development p r o p o s a l , i t was i n terms of merely accommodating or r e a c t i n g to Beaufort Sea hydrocarbon p r o d u c t i o n " (Rees,1984a: 552). The panel, however, accepted the p o s i t i o n statements and d i d not request a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . The panel c o u l d have 3 8 o p e n l y s t a t e d t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n s t a t e m e n t s w e r e i n a d e q u a t e a n d t h a t f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n w a s n e e d e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n l i g h t o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e : P o s i t i o n S t a t e m e n t s s h o u l d b e v i e w e d a s a n i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t i n t h e P a n e l ' s i n f o r m a t i o n b a s e . . . ( F E A R O , 1 9 8 2 c : 2 ) . O n e c a n i n f e r f r o m t h i s t h a t t h e e i t h e r t h e p a n e l w a s r e l u c t a n t ' t o r o c k t h e b o a t ' o r d i d n o t f e e l t h a t a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n w a s n e e d e d t o f u l f i l l i t s m a n d a t e . T h e p a n e l ' s F i n a l R e p o r t c o n t a i n e d t w e n t y s e v e n r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n g o v e r n m e n t m a n a g e m e n t ( B S E A P , 1 9 8 4 ) . H o w e v e r , t h e s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , i n e f f e c t , r e - i t e r a t e d w h a t m a n y i n t e r v e n o r s h a d a r g u e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e v i e w , a n d w h a t s o m e h a d u r g e d e v e n b e f o r e t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P c a m e i n t o b e i n g , t h a t i s , t h e n e e d t o d e v e l o p p o l i c i e s , p l a n s , a n d p r i o r i t i e s . T h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e n e w i n s i g h t s a f t e r t h r e e y e a r s o f r e v i e w . T h e p a n e l c o u l d h a v e s t a t e d t h a t t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P ' s t i m i n g w a s i n a p p r o p r i a t e v i s a v i s l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g , a n d n a t i v e c l a i m s • s e t t l e m e n t ( I T C , 1 9 8 1 ; B e a u f o r t S e a A l l i a n c e , 1 9 8 3 a ) . I n t e r v e n o r s h a d c e r t a i n l y c o n v e y e d t h i s t o t h e p a n e l . D e s p i t e t h e n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s o f m a n y i n t e r v e n o r s o n t h e t i m i n g o f t h e B e a u f o r t S e a r e v i e w , a n d d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t R o s s M a c k a y , a p a n e l m e m b e r , i n 1 9 8 1 h a d m e n t i o n e d t o N e i l F a u l k n e r ( A s s i s t a n t D e p u t y M i n i s t e r , N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s P r o g r a m , D I A N D ) , " t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e P a n e l t o r e v i e w t h e p r o p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h o u t t h e b e n e f i t o f a r e g i o n a l p l a n " ( B S E A P , 1 9 8 1 : 3 ) , t h e p a n e l s t a t e d i n i t s F i n a l 3 9 Report (BSEAP, 1984) t h a t i t s review was t i m e l y because i t provided the f e d e r a l government with a three year lead i n i d e n t i f y i n g the i s s u e s t h a t r e q u i r e d s o l u t i o n s . T h i s seems somewhat c o n t r a d i c t o r y . The panel had the o p p o r t u n i t y to p o i n t out problems, recommend a g a i n s t f u t u r e EIAs being undertaken without a p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g context, and suggest p o l i c y and plan n i n g i n i t i a t i v e s . 2.3.2 D e f i c i e n c y Statements: Was One Enough? Although the panel i s s u e d one d e f i c i e n c y statement to the proponents (BSEAP, 1983a) i t decided not to i s s u e a f u r t h e r one. Instead, the panel decided to proceed with the community and general p u b l i c meetings. Not a l l the i n t e r v e n o r s were i n favour of t h i s (see BSEAP, 1983b f o r .written submissions to the panel on the proponents' response to the EIS d e f i c i e n c y statement). One i s s u e of importance a r i s i n g out of t h i s i s the l e v e l of d e t a i l p o s s i b l e f o r an assessment at the p r e l i m i n a r y p r o j e c t stage--how much i s s u f f i c i e n t ? A key f a c t o r i n d e c i d i n g s u f f i c i e n c y s u r e l y must be what the end process should achieve. In the case of the Beaufort Sea EARP, the r o l e of the EIA i n o v e r a l l d e c i s i o n making was u n c l e a r ; thus, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to make a v a l i d judgement on whether one d e f i c i e n c y statement was enough. Many i n t e r v e n o r s , at an e a r l y stage i n the process ( d r a f t g u i d e l i n e d i s c u s s i o n stage) requested c l a r i f i c a t i o n on what was to be achieved at the end of EARP as w e l l as i t s exact r o l e v i s a v i s o v e r a l l government decision-making, i n c l u d i n g 40 i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o r e g i o n a l a n d l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g . T h e B e a u f o r t S e a R e s e a r c h C o a l i t i o n ( 1 9 8 1 ) , f o r e x a m p l e , q u e s t i o n e d w h e t h e r t h e e n d p r o d u c t w o u l d r e s u l t i n a n a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e . I n a 1 9 8 1 d o c u m e n t t h e p r o p o n e n t s h a d s t a t e d t h a t t h e o i l i n d u s t r y w a n t e d t h e o u t c o m e o f t h e r e v i e w t o b e " a n e n v i r o n m e n t a l a n d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a p p r o v a l i n p r i n c i p l e " (Dome e t a l . , 1 9 8 1 a : 1 ) . O n e w o u l d a s s u m e t h a t m o r e d e t a i l e d * i n f o r m a t i o n w o u l d b e r e q u i r e d f o r a n a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e . E n v i r o n m e n t C a n a d a ( 1 9 8 1 : 2 7 4 ) s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e t h a t a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s h a v e a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f " w h a t i s b e i n g E A R P e d a n d w h y a n d h o w t h e r e s u l t s w i l l b e u s e d " . T h i s i s t o a v o i d p a r t i c i p a n t s b e l i e v i n g m o r e w i l l c o m e o u t o f t h e r e v i e w t h a n r e q u i r e d , a n d t o e n s u r e o n l y i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o t h e t a s k a t h a n d i s p r o c u r e d a n d a n a l y z e d . D I A N D , t h e i n i t i a t o r , h a d s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f r o m t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P p a n e l w o u l d s e r v e a s : o n e o f s e v e r a l i n p u t s b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f C a n a d a a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y D I A N D i n r e a c h i n g a d e c i s i o n o n t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t h e p r o p o s e d o i l a n d g a s p r o d u c t i o n a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m s ( D I A N D , 1 9 8 1 b : 5 7 ) . O t h e r i n p u t s w e r e t o i n c l u d e l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g , r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g , d i s c u s s i o n s a n d n e g o t i a t i o n s o n n a t i v e l a n d c l a i m s a n d d e v o l u t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t h e t e r r i t o r i a l g o v e r n m e n t s ( D I A N D , 1 9 8 1 b ) . H o w e v e r , f r a m e w o r k s f o r l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g a n d r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g h a v e n o t y e t b e e n i m p l e m e n t e d . E v e n t h o u g h D I A N D ( 1 9 8 1 b : 59) e m p h a t i c a l l y s t a t e d t h a t " . . . t h e P a n e l h a s n o m a n d a t e t o c a r r y o u t r e g i o n a l .41 p l a n n i n g " , t h e p a n e l w a s , i n e f f e c t , g i v e n a - t a s k o f c o m p a r a b l e s c o p e , a n d c o u l d h a v e s e i z e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o f o r w a r d s o m e i d e a s o n r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e p a n e l d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y h a v e t h e e x p e r t i s e i t s e l f , i t c e r t a i n l y h a d t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s t o d r a w u p o n f o r g u i d a n c e , f o r e x a m p l e , N i g e l R i c h a r d s o n , a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t t o t h e p a n e l . 2 . 3 . 3 P r e l i m i n a r y P r o j e c t P r o p o s a l s : " A S c i e n c e F i c t i o n  V o y a g e " ? T h e m a j o r r o l e o f t h e p a n e l , a s s e t o u t i n t h e T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e , w a s t o a s s e s s ( e a r l y i n t h e p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ) a p r e l i m i n a r y p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l f o r h y d r o c a r b o n d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p r o d u c t i o n f o r a w h o l e r e g i o n . T h e p r o p o n e n t s a c k n o w l e d g e t h e p r e l i m i n a r y n a t u r e o f t h e p r o p o s a l a n d a d d t h a t : . . . d e v e l o p m e n t may n o t i n f a c t t a k e p l a c e a t t h e o i l p r o d u c t i o n r a t e s i n t h e f o r e c a s t (Dome e t a _ l . , 1 9 8 1 b : 2 9 9 ) . D e p e n d i n g o n o n e ' s v i e w p o i n t t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f a p r o p o s a l a t t h e p r e l i m i n a r y d e s i g n s t a g e c a n b e a n a d v a n t a g e o r a d i s a d v a n t a g e . T h e p a n e l f e l t t h a t i t w a s a d v a n t a g e o u s . T h e i r a r g u m e n t i s b a s e d o n t h e f a c t t h a t " t h e e a r l y i n i t i a t i o n o f t h e P r o p o n e n t s ' p r o p o s a l h a s g i v e n t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t a t l e a s t a t h r e e y e a r l e a d i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a n u m b e r o f i s s u e s f o r w h i c h s o l u t i o n s a r e n e e d e d " ( B S E A P , 1 9 8 4 : 1 6 ) . G i b s o n ( 1 9 8 2 ) p r o v i d e s o t h e r a d v a n t a g e s : i t e n a b l e s k n o w l e d g e g a p s t o b e i d e n t i f i e d a n d t h e n f i l l e d b e f o r e f i n a l i z i n g p r o j e c t d e s i g n ; i t c a n c o n t r i b u t e t o a m o r e e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y s e n s i t i v e p r o j e c t d e s i g n ; , a n d i t m a y p r e v e n t l a r g e 42 e x p e n d i t u r e s o n d e s i g n a n d i m p a c t r e s e a r c h b y h i g h l i g h t i n g i n t o l e r a b l e o p t i o n s a t a n e a r l y s t a g e . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , w h a t t h e p a n e l e s s e n t i a l l y w a s a n a l y z i n g f r o m t h e E I S w a s o n e d e v e l o p m e n t s c e n a r i o , a „ s c e n a r i o t h a t m a y d i f f e r g r e a t l y f r o m t h e e v e n t u a l p l a n s p u t i n t o e f f e c t ; t h e r e f o r e , t h e i m p a c t s may d i f f e r f r o m t h o s e t h a t w e r e a s s e s s e d . T h i s l e d t o t h e D e n e N a t i o n a n d M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n ( 1 9 8 1 : 62) d e s c r i b i n g t h e p a n e l ' s t a s k a s a p o t e n t i a l " s c i e n c e f i c t i o n v o y a g e " . I t a l s o l e d t o m a n y i n t e r v e n o r s , i n t h e i r s u b m i s s i o n s t o t h e p a n e l , s t r e s s i n g t h e n e e d t o d i s c u s s i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l : p a c e o f d e v e l o p m e n t ( B e a u f o r t S e a R e s e a r c h C o a l i t i o n , 1 9 8 1 ; B e a u f o r t S e a A l l i a n c e , 1 9 8 3 b ; D I A N D , 1 9 8 3 a ; E n v i r o n m e n t C a n a d a , 1 9 8 3 a ; M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 8 3 ; Y u k o n C o n s e r v a t i o n S o c i e t y , 1 9 8 3 ) ; a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e s c e n a r i o p r o v i d e d a n d p r e f e r e n c e a m o n g s t t h o s e a l t e r n a t i v e s ( B e a u f o r t S e a A l l i a n c e , 1 9 8 3 b ; D F O , 1 9 8 3 ; D I A N D , 1 9 8 3 a ; 1 9 8 3 b ; E n v i r o n m e n t C a n a d a , 1 9 8 3 a ; 1 9 8 3 b ; M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 8 3 ; T u l l , 1 9 8 3 a ) ; r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e o p t i o n s f o r w a r d e d b y t h e p r o p o n e n t s ( B e a u f o r t S e a R e s e a r c h C o a l i t i o n , 1 9 8 3 ; D F O , 1 9 8 3 ; E n v i r o n m e n t C a n a d a , 1 9 8 3 a ; 1 9 8 3 b ; T u l l , 1 9 8 3 a ) ; a n d p o t e n t i a l s p i n o f f d e v e l o p m e n t s ( B e a u f o r t S e a A l l i a n c e , 1 9 8 3 b ; E n v i r o n m e n t C a n a d a , 1 9 8 3 a ; 1 9 8 3 b ; Y u k o n C o n s e r v a t i o n S o c i e t y , 1 9 8 3 ) . E n v i r o n m e n t C a n a d a ( 1 9 8 1 : 2 7 1 ) d e s c r i b e d t h e p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m s i n p u r s u i n g t h e s i n g l e p r e l i m i n a r y s c e n a r i o a p p r o a c h ; t h e r e i s a : . . . d a n g e r t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e r e s o u r c e s m i g h t b e e x p e n d e d o n r e v i e w i n g a p l a n n e v e r t o b e i m p l e m e n t e d . T h e r e i s t h e f u r t h e r r i s k t h a t d e c i s i o n s m a d e r e g a r d i n g t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a n d 43 e n v i r o n m e n t a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t h e p r o p o s a l w i l l b e b a s e d o n a s e r i e s o f g e n e r a l i z e d , i n a c c u r a t e a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o p o s a l . How c a n o n e p r e d i c t t h e i m p a c t s o f a s h o r e - b a s e d f a c i l i t y , f o r e x a m p l e , w h e n t h e e x a c t l o c a t i o n a n d s i z e o f t h a t b a s e i s u n c e r t a i n ? I n d i v i d u a l s i t e s h a v e u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h w i l l a l t e r e i t h e r t h e t y p e o r s i z e o f i m p a c t o r b o t h . I n a d d i t i o n , a p r e l i m i n a r y p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l d o e s n o t h e l p i n w e i g h i n g u p t h e r e g i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s o f d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s i s b e c a u s e i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s may c h a n g e a n d a l t e r t h e b e n e f i t ' s o r c o s t s a c c r u i n g t o a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , g o v e r n m e n t a c t i o n o r i n a c t i o n ( B e a u f o r t S e a R e s e a r c h C o a l i t i o n , 1 9 8 1 ) . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s a l s o m a d e m o r e d i f f i c u l t d u e t o . t h e l a c k o f e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r i t i e s f o r f u t u r e l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e u s e s . G i b s o n ( 1 9 8 2 ) h i g h l i g h t s a n o t h e r p o t e n t i a l d a n g e r . T h e r e i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e p r e l i m i n a r y r e v i e w : . . . w i l l b e t a k e n a s a s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e m o r e t h o r o u g h , c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n d s p e c i f i c a s s e s s m e n t w o r k t h a t i s p o s s i b l e o n l y a f t e r t h e e n g i n e e r i n g , t i m i n g , r o u t i n g , p l a n n i n g a n d i m p a c t d e t a i l s o f s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l ( s ) h a v e b e e n m a d e a v a i l a b l e ( G i b s o n , 1 9 8 2 : 7 ) , p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P p a n e l r e q u e s t e d d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n m o r e i n l i n e w i t h t h a t f o r a p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c E I A ( G i b s o n , 1 9 8 2 ) . T h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P d i d r e c o m m e n d i n f a v o u r o f a d d i t i o n a l p u b l i c r e v i e w s f o r : a l a r g e d i a m e t e r p i p e l i n e i f t h i s w a s t h e i n i t i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o p t i o n c h o s e n ( B S E A P , 1 9 8 4 ) ; t a n k e r t r a f f i c s o u t h o f 6 0 ° ( B S E A P , 1 9 8 4 ) ; d e e p - d r a f t p o r t d e v e l o p m e n t ( B S E A P , 1 9 8 4 ) ; a n d d e v e l o p m e n t a n d a c c e s s f o r a M o u n t S e d g e w i c k q u a r r y s i t e 44 ( B S E A P , 1 9 8 4 ) . H o w e v e r , t h e p a n e l d i d n o t s p e c i f y w h e t h e r a n E I A w a s r e q u i r e d i n a n y o f t h e s e c a s e s , a n d i f s o , w h a t f o r m i t s h o u l d t a k e a n d w h o s h o u l d b e i n v o l v e d . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e d e e p - d r a f t p o r t a n d q u a r r y t h e p a n e l r e f e r r e d t o t h e r e g i o n a l l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a s t h e p r e f e r r a b l e p u b l i c r e v i e w p r o c e s s . T h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n i s w i t h o u t s u b s t a n c e g i v e n t h e f a c t t h a t n o o n e , a s y e t , k n o w s h o w t h e l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w i l l b e i m p l e m e n t e d . I n s t e a d , t h e p a n e l c o u l d p e r h a p s h a v e t a k e n t h e i n i t i a t i v e a n d p r o v i d e d d e t a i l s o n t h e f o r m o f t h e r e v i e w a n d t h e p u b l i c ' s r o l e i n i t . T h e r e i s a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t d i s a d v a n t a g e w i t h a n E I A o f p r e l i m i n a r y p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l s . I m p a c t p r e d i c t i o n s , w h i c h e v e n f o r s i t e a n d p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c p r o p o s a l s c a n b e f r a u g h t w i t h u n c e r t a i n t i e s , a r e r e n d e r e d m o r e d i f f i c u l t . T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e d a t a b a s e i s g e n e r a l l y w e a k ( G i b s o n , 1 9 8 2 ) . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e C a n a d i a n n o r t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a p p r o a c h t o d a t a c o l l e c t i o n h a s b e e n " m i s s i o n - o r i e n t e d r e s e a r c h " ( L u c a s a n d P e t e r s o n , 1 9 7 8 : 7 3 ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y : A c o m p r e h e n s i v e , s y s t e m a t i c a n d r e l i a b l e d a t a b a s e f o r t h e N o r t h s u i t a b l e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f m a n a g e m e n t a n d p l a n n i n g f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t , c o n s e r v a t i o n a n d u s e o f t h e l a n d a n d o f f s h o r e r e s o u r c e s i s n o t a v a i l a b l e ( D I A N D , 1 9 8 1 a : 3 ) . 2 . 3 . 4 P r o j e c t N e e d A s s e s s m e n t a n d t h e N o - G o O p t i o n W h i l e E A R P p a n e l s a l l e g e d l y c a n " r e c o m m e n d t h a t a p r o j e c t n o t p r o c e e d , t h a t i t p r o c e e d a s p r o p o s e d ; o r t h a t i t p r o c e e d w i t h m o d i f i c a t i o n s " ( F E A R O , 1 9 7 9 a : 7 ; a n d F i g u r e 1 ) , t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P p a n e l w a s p r e s s u r e d b y D I A N D f r o m 45 r e c o m m e n d i n g t h e n o - g o o p t i o n ( D I A N D , 1 9 8 1 b ) . T h i s o c c u r r e d d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e E A R P w a s s u p p o s e d l y b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n e a r l y i n t h e p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , a n d t h a t n o d e c i s i o n h a d y e t b e e n m a d e r e g a r d i n g B e a u f o r t S e a d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p r o d u c t i o n ( D I A N D , 1 9 8 2 b ) , i m p l y i n g t h a t t h e E A R P w a s a l s o b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n e a r l y i n t h e r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . S u r e l y , i f t h e p a n e l , a f t e r i t s r e v i e w , h a d d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l a n d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s w e r e t o o g r e a t a n d e x c e e d e d t h e b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g f r o m h y d r o c a r b o n p r o d u c t i o n t h e n o - g o r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s h o u l d h a v e b e e n a n o p t i o n . T h i s i s a w e a k n e s s i n t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P . I t i n f e r s t h a t t h e p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n t o p r o c e e d h a d a l r e a d y b e e n m a d e t h r o u g h t h e N E P ( R e e s , 1 9 8 4 a ) . T h i s i s b a c k e d u p b y M u n r o ' s c o m m e n t s a t t h e N i n t h N a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t C o n f e r e n c e w h e n h e w a s M i n i s t e r o f D I A N D ; M u n r o ( 1 9 8 2 ) p r e d i c t e d t h a t w i t h i n t e n y e a r s t h e B e a u f o r t S e a r e g i o n w o u l d b e p r o d u c i n g h y d r o c a r b o n s . T h u s , o n e c a n q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P i s i n f a c t b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n e a r l y i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r t h e n o r t h , e v e n t h o u g h D I A N D ( 1 9 8 2 b : 9) h a d s t a t e d t h a t : t h e n e e d , t i m i n g a n d p r i o r i t y f o r n o r t h e r n h y d r o c a r b o n p r o d u c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y B e a u f o r t S e a o i l , a n d t h e e c o n o m i c f e a s i b i l i t y o f d e v e l o p i n g s u c h n o r t h e r n r e s e r v e s r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r s u p p l i e s h a s n o t y e t b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e r e b y i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t h a d n o t e s t a b l i s h e d i t s p r i o r i t i e s . T h e p a n e l d i d r e q u e s t t h a t t h e p r o p o n e n t s e x a m i n e p r o j e c t n e e d ( G u i d e l i n e 2 . 2 . 1 , B S E A P , 1 9 8 2 a ) i m p l y i n g t h a t t h e p a n e l f e l t t h a t t h e i s s u e s h o u l d b e d i s c u s s e d . O n e w o u l d a s s u m e t h o u g h t h a t d u e t o s e l f - i n t e r e s t 46 t h e p r o p o n e n t s w o u l d o n l y p r o d u c e e v i d e n c e i n f a v o u r o f t h e p r o j e c t p r o c e e d i n g . T h e q u e s t i o n o f p r o j e c t n e e d i s c r i t i c a l a n d s h o u l d n o t b e l e f t u p t o t h e p r o p o n e n t s . O n e c a n e v e n q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r s u c h a p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s h o u l d ' b e c o n s i d e r e d b y a n E I A p a n e l . I s s u e s s u c h a s o i l e x p o r t a t i o n , e n e r g y a l t e r n a t i v e s , a n d a l t e r n a t i v e d o m e s t i c s o u r c e s o f h y d r o c a r b o n s , f o r e x a m p l e , H i b e r n i a , n e e d t o b e c o n s i d e r e d v i s a v i s t h e B e a u f o r t S e a . H o w e v e r , t h e q u e s t i o n i s w h e t h e r a n E I A r e v i e w i s a s u i t a b l e p l a c e t o d o s o . A n u m b e r o f i n t e r v e n o r s o b v i o u s l y b e l i e v e d s o ; i n t h e i r s u b m i s s i o n s t o t h e p a n e l t h e y s t r e s s e d t h e n e e d t o d i s c u s s i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l e n e r g y a l t e r n a t i v e s ( Y u k o n C o n s e r v a t i o n S o c i e t y , 1 9 8 1 ; D I A N D , 1 9 8 3 a ; 1 9 8 3 b ) , a n d w h e t h e r B e a u f o r t S e a o i l w o u l d b e e x p o r t e d ( Y u k o n C o n s e r v a t i o n S o c i e t y , 1 9 8 1 ; B e a u f o r t S e a A l l i a n c e , 1 9 8 3 b ) . P r o j e c t n e e d i n f l u e n c e s w h e t h e r a p r o j e c t s h o u l d p r o c e e d o r n o t . E M R ' s m a n d a t e i n c l u d e s e s t a b l i s h i n g e n e r g y p o l i c i e s . T h e r e f o r e , o n e w o u l d a s s u m e t h a t i n i t s s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e p a n e l EMR w o u l d h a v e d i s c u s s e d s u c h a n i s s u e . E M R 1 s p o s i t i o n s t a t e m e n t ( D e p t . E M R , 1 9 8 2 b ) h i g h l i g h t e d t h e m a n y u n c e r t a i n t i e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e B e a u f o r t S e a d e v e l o p m e n t — d i s c o v e r y o f c o m m e r c i a l l y v i a b l e r e s e r v e s , w o r l d p r i c e o f o i l , f u t u r e d e m a n d o f o i l , t o n a m e b u t a f e w — u n c e r t a i n t i e s w h i c h m a d e i t d i f f i c u l t t o p r o j e c t w h e r e t h e B e a u f o r t S e a d e v e l o p m e n t f i t t e d i n t o t h e n a t i o n a l s u p p l y a n d d e m a n d s c e n e . EMR ( D e p t . E M R , 1 9 8 3 a ) h a d a l s o s t a t e d t h a t i t d i d n o t b e l i e v e E A R P w a s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r u m f o r t h e 47 r e s o l u t i o n of p o l i c y i s s u e s not a l r e a d y i n p l a c e . EARP i s a good forum f o r a i r i n g and d i s c u s s i n g p o l i c y i s s u e s , not r e s o l v i n g or d e c i d i n g on p o l i c y . D e c i s i o n s on p o l i c y are the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p o l i t i c i a n s . T h i s begs the q u e s t i o n when i s the f e d e r a l government going to decide? Decreases i n the p r i c e of o i l are of p a r t i c u l a r importance because of the high e x p l o r a t i o n and development c o s t s i n the north. The c u r r e n t o i l p r i c e r e d u c t i o n s by Norway, B r i t a i n and N i g e r i a brought f o r t h the f o l l o w i n g r e a c t i o n from Harry C a r l y l e , P r e s i d e n t of G u l f Canada Resources Incorporated: • ...short-term f l u c t u a t i o n s i n p r i c e s won't a f f e c t G u l f ' s Beaufort p r o j e c t . . . . I f p r i c e s take a major tumble, however,...Ottawa may be f o r c e d to cut back on i t s take to ensure p r o j e c t s l i k e the Beaufort continue ( C a r l y l e c i t e d i n Solomon et a l . , 1984: 2). Comments such as the above h i g h l i g h t why i t i s imperative f o r the f e d e r a l government to e s t a b l i s h p r i o r i t i e s f o r development; i s development of Beaufort Sea r e s e r v e s a higher p r i o r i t y than the economic c o s t s i n c u r r e d by the government i n such a development? The panel should have s e i z e d the o p p o r t u n i t y to s t r e s s the need to p r i o r i z e the Beaufort Sea development v i s a v i s other p o t e n t i a l o i l and gas developments because i t a f f e c t s the type and s c a l e of impacts experienced. For example, i f Beaufort Sea development i s a higher p r i o r i t y than the economic c o s t s i n c u r r e d by the government then the development w i l l have impacts on f e d e r a l revenues and subsequently on the Canadian taxpayer. 48 2 . 3 . 5 E x p l o r a t i o n : A R e s t r i c t e d I s s u e T h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P w a s r e s t r i c t e d f r o m e x a m i n i n g h y d r o c a r b o n e x p l o r a t i o n . T h e i n i t i a l T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e ( R o b e r t s , 1 9 8 1 : 2) e x p l i c i t l y e x c l u d e d a r e v i e w o f t h e e x p l o r a t i o n c o m p o n e n t s t a t i n g t h a t i t w a s s u b j e c t t o " c u r r e n t g o v e r n m e n t r e v i e w m e c h a n i s m s " . D F O ( D F O , 1 9 8 1 a : 7 1 - 7 2 ) w a s c r i t i c a l o f t h i s o m i s s i o n b e c a u s e t h e p r o p o n e n t s ' p r o p o s a l i n c l u d e d a n " a g g r e s s i v e " e x p l o r a t o r y d r i l l i n g p r o g r a m m e . T h e p a n e l ' s T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e , h o w e v e r , w e r e s u b s e q u e n t l y r e v i s e d . I n t h e r e v i s e d T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e o n e f i n d s : T h e P a n e l s h a l l c o n s i d e r o n l y t h o s e e x p l o r a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s t h a t w o u l d o c c u r c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h p r o d u c t i o n a n d t h a t w o u l d a d d t o t h e t o t a l a c t i v i t y i n a p r e s e n t e d p r o d u c t i o n a r e a ( B S E A P , 1 9 8 4 : 1 4 0 ) . E v e n w i t h t h i s e x t e n s i o n t o t h e p a n e l ' s m a n d a t e t h e r e a r e w e a k n e s s e s . O n e o f t h e s e w a s e l u c i d a t e d b y D F O ( D F O , 1 9 8 1 b ) . D I A N D h a d m a d e a s t a t e m e n t t h a t i t w o u l d a p p r o v e r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s c o n n e c t e d t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f o f f s h o r e s t r u c t u r e s . D F O w a s c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h e p r o p o n e n t s w o u l d w a n t t o u s e t h e s e s a m e e x p e r i m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e s f o r p r o d u c t i o n , i f p r o d u c t i o n i s e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e . T h u s , w i t h o u t b e i n g f u l l y c o g n i z a n t o f t h e f a c t , D I A N D m a y b e a g r e e i n g t o p r o d u c t i o n l o c a t i o n s a n d t i m i n g o f d e v e l o p m e n t . D F O , t h e r e f o r e , f e l ' t a p p r o v a l d e c i s i o n s o n s u c h s t r u c t u r e s s h o u l d b e d e l a y e d u n t i l a f t e r t h e p a n e l h a s m a d e i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a n d t h e n o r t h e r n l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s h a s b e e n i m p l e m e n t e d . A n o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e w o u l d h a v e b e e n t o g i v e t h e E A R P p a n e l t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e m b e c a u s e 4 9 of t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i n f l u e n c e on development. The B e a u f o r t Sea EARP was o s t e n s i b l y by-passed i n the case of G u l f ' s a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a l a n d use p e r m i t i n the N o r t h Yukon (see S e c t i o n 2.2.1 f o r d e t a i l s ) because i t r e l a t e d t o e x p l o r a t i o n . John Tener, B e a u f o r t Sea EARP p a n e l Chairman, q u i t e r i g h t l y was concerned. At t h a t time the p a n e l was examining p o t e n t i a l impacts of s i t e s f o r p r o d u c t i o n - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g Stokes P o i n t . Tener f e l t : I f G u l f i s g i v e n a p p r o v a l t o proceed w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n of an e x p l o r a t i o n r e l a t e d f a c i l i t y a t Stokes P o i n t b e f o r e the P a n e l completes i t s r e v i e w , the P a n e l ' s a b i l i t y t o c o n s i d e r a l l o p t i o n s f o r B e a u f o r t Sea p o r t f a c i l i t i e s c o u l d be s e r i o u s l y compromised. F u r t h e r m o r e , the p a n e l b e l i e v e s i t c o u l d l o s e i t s p u b l i c c r e d i b i l i t y i f the p u b l i c b e l i e v e d t h a t d e c i s i o n s such as those r e l a t i n g t o the Stokes P o i n t p r o p o s a l a r e made by the government b e f o r e c o m p l e t i o n of a f o r m a l p u b l i c r e v i e w (Tener c i t e d i n B u r n e t , 1983: 6 ) . However, DIAND d i d not r e c o n s i d e r i t s d e c i s i o n t o e x c l u d e G u l f ' s a p p l i c a t i o n from the B e a u f o r t Sea EARP. The p a n e l missed an i m p o r t a n t o p p o r t u n i t y i n t h i s c a s e . In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e the p a n e l c o u l d have made a b i g g e r i s s u e of b e i n g by-passed and got the p u b l i c on i t s s i d e . S e c o n d l y , i n i t s F i n a l Report the pa n e l c o u l d have s p e c i f i e d t h a t p l a n s f o r the N a t i o n a l and w i l d e r n e s s p a r k s be implemented t h e r e b y r e - i t e r a t i n g the i m p o r t a n t c o n s e r v a t i o n v a l u e of the N o r t h Yukon and the e x i s t e n c e of the O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i 1 . The p a n e l f a i l e d t o do t h i s . I n s t e a d , i t s F i n a l Report recommended " . . . a g a i n s t any deep-water p o r t west of Kay P o i n t [Stokes P o i n t i s west of Kay P o i n t ] because of p o t e n t i a l impacts on the P o r c u p i n e C a r i b o u herd...and of p o t e n t i a l a d v e r s e impacts 50 on f i s h and marine mammals" (BSEAP, 1984: 75), and t h a t the r e g i o n a l land use p l a n n i n g process should be implemented and land use plans f o r the Beaufort Sea/Mackenzie D e l t a r e g i o n be completed as soon as p o s s i b l e which should decide best use (BSEAP, 1984). The i n t r o d u c t i o n of any form of land use pla n n i n g i n the north, however, has a l r e a d y s t a l l e d f o r two yea r s . Rees (1984a: 541) suggests that by denying the panel a d e t a i l e d assessment of the e x p l o r a t i o n phase, i n e x i s t e n c e s i n c e the mid-1960's, an o p p o r t u n i t y to analyze an eighteen year o l d 'experiment' had been missed: Many of the e c o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l consequences of t h i s e a r l i e r a c t i v i t y c o u l d undoubtedly be e x t r a p o l a t e d u s e f u l l y to the f u l l p r o d u c t i o n phase with obvious b e n e f i t to s c i e n c e , to the implementation of impact management programs, and to the wider p o l i c y development process. The BSEAP terms of r e f e r e n c e denied the panel t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y , to the detriment of both the impact r e g i o n and c r e d i b i l i t y i n EARP i t s e l f . 2.3.6 M o n i t o r i n g The importance of monitoring as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of EIA was d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 1.3. The panel's EIS g u i d e l i n e s had s t a t e d t h a t monitoring should be one of the major components of the EIS (BSEAP, 1982a). Environment Canada's p o s i t i o n paper had a l s o s t r e s s e d the need f o r an e f f e c t i v e monitoring system, as w e l l as the need "to a c t c o n s t r u c t i v e l y on the feedback i n f o r m a t i o n produced by'such monitoring" (Environment Canada, 1982: 17). Despite the importance attached to monitoring, coverage of the s u b j e c t i n the EIS 5 1 was: ...inadequate f o r the scope and magnitude of the prop o s a l and the p o t e n t i a l impact i t r e p r e s e n t s (Gerin, 1983: 2) Few s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s were d i v u l g e d on how the monitoring would be c a r r i e d out. This r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n s , do the proponents i n f a c t know or are they hoping they w i l l not have to do i t ? A common phrase used i n the EIS was: ...monitoring programmes can be i n i t i a t e d as deemed appropriate...(Dome et a l . , 1982b). This statement provides l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n and, furthermore, i t does not i n d i c a t e a p p r o p r i a t e by whom. Jaques G e r i n , Senior A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r , Environment Canada had very s t r o n g views i n t h i s regard: Beaufort Sea hydrocarbon p r o d u c t i o n demands a d e t a i l e d monitoring program, i n d i c a t i n g what needs to be monitored, why, how, by whom, how o f t e n , etc....even with a major reworking of Volume 7, the i s s u e of monitoring w i l l not be f u l l y addressed. The government " P o s i t i o n Papers" provide some a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on monitoring but i n an incomplete and fragmented f a s h i o n . The panel must f i n d some means of ensuring t h a t between the i n d u s t r y and government t h i s very key i s s u e i s adequately c o n s i d e r e d (Gerin, 1983: 2-3). I t i s encouraging t h a t the panel's F i n a l Report made r e f e r e n c e to the importance of monitoring, s t a t i n g t h a t the f e d e r a l government should a l l o c a t e funds f o r monitoring immediately and recommending an o f f i c e be set up to c o o r d i n a t e monitoring programmes (BSEAP, 1984). L e t us hope t h a t the government ac t s on t h i s . 52 2.4 THE PANEL'S FINAL REPORT: WHAT LESSONS CAN BE LEARNED  FROM THE BEAUFORT SEA EARP? Northern communities, i n d u s t r y , and the Government of the NWT have, on the whole, r e a c t e d f a v o u r a b l y to the panel's F i n a l Report ( M a r s h a l l , Beaufort Sea EARP S e c r e t a r i a t , 1985). Northern communities are pleased t h a t a s m a l l - s c a l e phased approach to development was recommended (News North, 1984) . Industry i s pleased because they f e e l t h a t the panel's r e p o r t removes doubts t h a t development and pr o d u c t i o n c o u l d proceed (Davis, 1985). The Government of the NWT does not have major problems with the recommendations, although they f e e l t h a t the panel inadequately d e a l t w i t h some concerns, f o r example, employment and t r a i n i n g , and p r o t e c t i o n and enhancement of the renewable resource economy (News North, 1984; GNWT, 1985). The Canadian A r c t i c Resources Committee (CARC, 1984b), however, has been h i g h l y c r i t i c a l , condemning the panel f o r f a i l i n g to provide d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on f u t u r e EIAs r e q u i r e d , d e t a i l s on government i n s t i t u t i o n s and management, as w e l l as land c l a i m s . What i n s t i g a t e d such opposite o p i n i o n s ? B a s i c a l l y , the divergence occurs due to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s p l a c e d on the panel's mandate. CARC, f o r example, i n t e r p r e t e d the panel's broad mandate l i t e r a l l y ...the panel was expected to delve deeply i n t o government p o l i c i e s and programmes f o r t h i s r e g i o n and to recommend how pla n n i n g and management can be improved....The BEARP panel was expected to co n s i d e r how f u t u r e assessment and management processes can r e s o l v e the major concerns and u n c e r t a i n t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with northern development. (CARC, 1984b: 2) . Thus, CARC was bound to be d i s a p p o i n t e d by the panel's narrow, 53 t e c h n i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i t s mandate and g e n e r a l r e c ommendations on government management, and l a c k o f s p e c i f i c s on t h e f o r m a t and t i m i n g o f f u t u r e EIA r e v i e w s . The d i v e r g e n c e o f o p i n i o n on t h e B e a u f o r t Sea EARP outcome a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r o l e o f t h e B e a u f o r t Sea EARP was n o t a d e q u a t e l y c l a r i f i e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f o r t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o c e s s . Thus, a c l e a r l e s s o n f o r f u t u r e E I A s i s t h e need t o c l a r i f y , r i g h t f r o m t h e o u t s e t o f t h e p r o c e s s , e x a c t l y what t h e EIA i s a i m i n g t o a c h i e v e and where i t w i l l f i t i n t o t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . D i v e r g e n c e s i n o p i n i o n o v e r t h e B e a u f o r t Sea EARP p a n e l ' s mandate r a i s e s t h e i s s u e o f d e f i n i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t a s k o f an EARP p a n e l . I s i t an a p p r o p r i a t e forum t o p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s and d e t a i l s on government i n s t i t u t i o n s and management? The B e a u f o r t Sea EARP was i n i t i a t e d p r i o r t o d e v e l o p m e n t and emplacement o f e f f e c t i v e government management programmes and i n s t i t u t i o n s (see S e c t i o n 2 . 2 . 1 ) . T h i s f a c t , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e p a n e l ' s b r o a d mandate, meant t h a t some i n a d v e r t e n t l y a s s i g n e d EARP t h e t a s k by d e f a u l t . T h i s a u t h o r has s t a t e d t h a t t h e p a n e l c o u l d have p r o v i d e d more d e t a i l e d s u g g e s t i o n s on a s u i t a b l e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . P a r t o f t h e r e a s o n i n g f o r t h i s i s t h e p a n e l had t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s t o draw upon f o r e x p e r t i s e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p a n e l had recommended t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s as a s u i t a b l e p r o c e s s i n w h i c h t o c o n d u c t f u t u r e r e v i e w s . I n o r d e r t o make su c h a r e c o m m e n d a t i o n t h e p a n e l must have had some i d e a s o f what t h e p r o c e s s w o u l d i n c o r p o r a t e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s a u t h o r i 54 has been c r i t i c a l of the panel's response to the i s s u e of government management c a p a b i l i t y — a task t h a t was p a r t of the panel's m a n d a t e — s t a t i n g t h a t the recommendations lacked substance and d e t a i l and r e - i t e r a t e d what was a l r e a d y common knowledge. The panel d i d not c l e a r l y s t a t e whether or not i t b e l i e v e d t h a t the government was capable of managing Beaufort Sea hydrocarbon development. In a d d i t i o n , i t s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t small s c a l e phased hydrocarbon development i s f e a s i b l e was based on the assumptions t h a t a l l a p p r o p r i a t e r e s e a r c h and monitoring would be i n p l a c e p r i o r to development proceeding. But i s the government capable of e n s u r i n g t h a t t h i s i s indeed the case, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l i g h t of the c u r r e n t f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t r educing both funding and s t a f f ? What i f the panel's assumptions cannot be met? S u r e l y the panel should have addressed what would happen i f the assumptions c o u l d not be met. Should the panel's request f o r p o s i t i o n statements have enabled them to provide suggestions on f u t u r e government management or should i t : have s t i m u l a t e d these [government] agencies to begin to d e s ign the management programmes and i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t w i l l be r e q u i r e d i f i n d u s t r i a l development i n the Beaufort Sea r e g i o n i s to proceed f a i r l y and s a f e l y (Rees, 1984b: 4; emphasis added), thereby p l a c i n g the onus on government agencies not the EARP panel to suggest the necessary management programmes and i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s ? In the case of the panel s t i m u l a t i n g government agencies to a c t , a s u i t a b l e r o l e f o r the panel would be to p o i n t out the flaws i n the e x i s t i n g 55 s i t u a t i o n a n d r e a s o n s w h y i m p r o v e m e n t s a r e n e e d e d . T h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P p a n e l f a l l s s h o r t i n t h i s d e p a r t m e n t . E x i s t i n g f l a w s a r e s t a t e d v e r y m a t t e r o f f a c t l y . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e p a n e l r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t e f f e c t i v e g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c i e s a n d p r o g r a m m e s f o r m a n a g i n g B e a u f o r t S e a h y d r o c a r b o n d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d b e p r e p a r e d n o w ( B S E A P , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e r e a l s e n s e o f i m m e d i a c y d o e s n o t c o m e t h r o u g h . T h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n c o u l d h a v e b e e n p h r a s e d m o r e e m p h a t i c a l l y , f o r e x a m p l e , i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s p r e p a r e e f f e c t i v e p o l i c i e s a n d p r o g r a m m e s i m m e d i a t e l y a n d s t r e s s t h e r e a s o n s w h y i m p r o v e m e n t s a r e c r i t i c a l . O n e a n s w e r t o t h e d i l e m m a o f a s u i t a b l e r o l e f o r a n E A R P p a n e l i s t o a d j u s t i t s r o l e t o t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e p r o j e c t u n d e r r e v i e w . I t s a s s i g n e d r o l e m u s t b e c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d a n d u n d e r s t o o d b y a l l r e v i e w p a r t i c i p a n t s p r i o r t o t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f r e v i e w p r o c e e d i n g s . T h i s w o u l d r e d u c e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s a n d i n t e r v e n o r s w o u l d k n o w w h y c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n i s b e i n g r e q u e s t e d a n d h o w i t w i l l b e u t i l i z e d . D I A N D ( 1 9 8 5 : 20) s t a t e s " t h a t s o m e o f t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e a l r e a d y b e i n g s u b s t a n t i a l l y a d d r e s s e d t h r o u g h e x i s t i n g p r o g r a m s " . A n e x a m p l e i s c o o r d i n a t i o n o f m o n i t o r i n g a n d r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s f o r t h e B e a u f o r t S e a u n d e r t a k e n b y t h e B e a u f o r t E n v i r o n m e n t a l M o n i t o r i n g P r o g r a m ( t h e p r o g r a m m e w a s e s t a b l i s h e d b y D I A N D , w i t h t h e h e l p o f E n v i r o n m e n t C a n a d a , t o a s s i s t i n e n s u r i n g t h a t c o s t - e f f e c t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t a l m o n i t o r i n g a n d r e s e a r c h i s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s a n s w e r i n g s p e c i f i c i s s u e s a n d c o n c e r n s r e l a t i v e t o r e g u l a t o r y d e c i s i o n s w h i c h a r e D I A N D 1 s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; D I A N D , 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e p a n e l r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t a B e a u f o r t S e a C o o r d i n a t o r ' s O f f i c e d o t h i s . I n s u c h c a s e s , t h e F i n a l R e p o r t w o u l d h a v e b e e n m o r e e f f e c t i v e i f t h e p a n e l , r a t h e r t h a n r e c o m m e n d i n g t h a t c e r t a i n a c t i o n s b e t a k e n , h a d d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b e t w e e n t h o s e a c t i o n s w h i c h a r e c u r r e n t l y b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n a n d s h o u l d b e c o n t i n u e d ( w i t h a n y n e c e s s a r y i m p r o v e m e n t s ) a n d t h o s e w h i c h s h o u l d b e i n i t i a t e d . A k e y a r e a o f d e f i c i e n c y i n t h e F i n a l R e p o r t r e l a t e s t o n a t i v e l a n d c l a i m s . T h e r e p o r t d o e s n o t r e a l l y g e t i n v o l v e d i n t h e i s s u e b e y o n d s a y i n g t h a t t h e y s h o u l d b e s e t t l e d a s s o o n a s p o s s i b l e . T h e p a n e l ' s r e p o r t o f J u l y 1 9 8 4 , d o e s n o t r e a c t t o t h e I n u v i a l u i t F i n a l C l a i m s A g r e e m e n t o f M a r c h 1 9 8 4 . T h e p a n e l s h o u l d b e c r i t i c i z e d f o r t h i s . T h e A g r e e m e n t d i r e c t l y i m p i n g e s o n h y d r o c a r b o n d e v e l o p m e n t . A m o n g o t h e r t h i n g s , t h e I n u v i a l u i t A g r e e m e n t a l l o w s f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a N a t i o n a l P a r k w e s t o f t h e B a b b a g e R i v e r . T h e p a n e l ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n p o r t s i t e l o c a t i o n s a n d a p o t e n t i a l q u a r r y s i t e a t M o u n t S e d g e w i c k d o n o t m e n t i o n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e I n u v i a l u i t F i n a l A g r e e m e n t a f f e c t s t h e v a l i d i t y o f i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , a s p o i n t e d o u t b y D I A N D ( 1 9 8 5 ) i n i t s c o m m e n t s o n t h e p a n e l ' s F i n a l R e p o r t , r e c o m m e n d a t i o n 52 o n a M o u n t S e d g e w i c k q u a r r y s i t e i s n o t r e l e v a n t b e c a u s e t h e p r o p o s e d s i t e i s w i t h i n t h e N o r t h Y u k o n N a t i o n a l p a r k t o b e e s t a b l i s h e d u n d e r t h e I n u v i a l u i t A g r e e m e n t , a n d n o q u a r r i e s a r e p e r m i t t e d i n n a t i o n a l p a r k s . r F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e p a n e l ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n t h a t o n l y p o r t s i t e s 5 7 e a s t of Kay P o i n t be c o n s i d e r e d i s a f f e c t e d by the I n u v i a l u i t Agreement. S e c t i o n 12 of t h e Agreement r e f e r s t o t h i s a r e a as b e i n g d e s i g n a t e d f o r c o n t r o l l e d development s u b j e c t t o s c r e e n i n g and r e v i e w s e t up under the Agreement (see INAC, 19 84 ) . The p a n e l made no mention of t h i s . T h i s h i g h l i g h t s a weakness. The p a n e l e i t h e r c o u l d not or d i d not r e a c t t o new i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e s o c c u r r i n g l a t e i n the r e v i e w . The consequences of t h i s a r e t h a t some recommendations a r e no l o n g e r r e l e v a n t . T h e r e f o r e , a c o n t i n u o u s EIA p r o c e s s i s needed, one t h a t can r e a c t t o new i n f o r m a t i o n as i t a r i s e s . The p a n e l was a s s e s s i n g p r e l i m i n a r y p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l s . Thus, i t i s s u p r i s i n g t h a t the p a n e l p r o v i d e d v e r y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n on what f u t u r e p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c EIA r e v i e w s would be r e q u i r e d beyond "some form of p u b l i c r e v i e w would be r e q u i r e d " (BSEAP, 1984: 100). No mention was made of whether any p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c EIAs would be r e q u i r e d i f the s m a l l s c a l e phased h y d r o c a r b o n development s c e n a r i o ' f a v o u r e d ' by the pa n e l i s adopted by government. CARC, q u i t e r i g h t l y , was c r i t i c a l of t h i s (CARC, 1984b). There i s v e r y l i t t l e a d v i c e t o government on when such EIAs s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n , t h e i r f o r m a t , and who s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n them. T h i s i s s u p r i s i n g f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t l y , t h e p a n e l ' s mandate s t i p u l a t e d t h a t the p a n e l a s s e s s the need f o r subsequent r e v i e w s , i m p l y i n g t h a t t h e government was l o o k i n g f o r g u i d a n c e . S e c o n d l y , the p a n e l ' s assessment c o n c e n t r a t e d on p r e l i m i n a r y p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l s w i t h few p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , such d e t a i l s have y e t t o be a s s e s s e d . T h e r e f o r e , an i m p o r t a n t . 5 8 l e s s o n t h a t can be learned i s t h a t EIA panel's examining p r e l i m i n a r y p r o j e c t proposals should be r e q u i r e d to provide the government with recommendations on the need f o r and type of f u t u r e p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c EIAs. T h i s should be an important p a r t of such a panel's f u n c t i o n . The i s s u e of p r o j e c t need and whether EARP review panel's are a s u i t a b l e forum i n which to d i s c u s s such a t o p i c has important connotations f o r f u t u r e EARP reviews. P r o j e c t need i s a complex i s s u e with many f a c e t s . In the case of hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n p r o j e c t s , need i s p a r t l y a f f e c t e d by the energy p o l i c i e s e s t a b l i s h e d by the government. Intervenors i n the Beaufort Sea EARP r a i s e d the is s u e of p r o j e c t need and the need to assess energy a l t e r n a t i v e s (see S e c t i o n 2.3.4). EARP was the onl y mechanism a v a i l a b l e at t h a t time f o r them to do so. Environmental impacts, f o r example, can i n f l u e n c e the need f o r a p r o j e c t and co n v e r s e l y the need f o r a p r o j e c t may i n f l u e n c e the type and degree of environmental impacts t h a t are deemed a c c e p t a b l e . I t may be d i f f i c u l t , t h e r e f o r e , to separate impact assessment from p r o j e c t need. However, such a d i s c u s s i o n i n an EIA review can d e t r a c t from other key i s s u e s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the environment. This h i g h l i g h t s the need to determine i f there should be an a l t e r n a t i v e p u b l i c forum to debate the i s s u e of p r o j e c t need. The advantage of such a forum f o r hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n and development would be th a t d i s c u s s i o n c o u l d focus on p r i o r i t i e s f o r development, f o r example, the Beaufort Sea v i s a v i s other p o t e n t i a l o i l and 59 g a s d e v e l o p m e n t s , a l t e r n a t i v e e n e r g y s o u r c e s a n d e x p o r t p o l i c i e s . T h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P o p e n e d u p e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n f o r i n t e r v e n o r f u n d i n g a n d p a n e l v i s i t s t o n o r t h e r n c o m m u n i t i e s . T h e p a n e l , i n f a c t , s t a t e d i t s b e l i e f t h a t s u c h f u n d i n g h a d d e f i n i t e l y e n h a n c e d t h e q u a l i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( B S E A P , 1 9 8 4 ) a n d r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t f u n d i n g b e p r o v i d e d f o r f u t u r e E A R P r e v i e w s . T h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n , h o w e v e r , w a s t e m p e r e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g : . . . f u n d i n g b e r e s t r i c t e d t o t h o s e p a r t i c i p a n t s w h o w o u l d b e s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d b y t h e p r o p o s a l u n d e r r e v i e w ( B S E A P , 1 9 8 4 : 1 0 3 ; e m p h a s i s a d d e d ) . T h e p a n e l d i d n o t m e n t i o n w h o w o u l d b e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g w h o i s " s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d " a n d t h e c r i t e r i a t h a t w o u l d b e u s e d t o m a k e s u c h a d e c i s i o n ( M a c P h e r s o n , 1 9 8 4 ) . I f t h e p r o j e c t u n d e r E A R P r e v i e w i s o n l y o f l o c a l c o n s e q u e n c e , o r i f t h e d e c i s i o n i s b a s e d o n t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f s c a r c e f u n d s ( D a l e , f o r t h c o m i n g ) , t h e n s u c h a r e s t r i c t i o n i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . H o w e v e r , p r o j e c t s m a y i n v o l v e n a t i o n a l o r p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s , f o r e x a m p l e , C a n a d i a n e n e r g y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . I n s u c h c a s e s t h e r e a r e l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s o u t s i d e o f t h e i m p a c t e d a r e a ( M a c P h e r s o n , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e r e f o r e , a s p o i n t e d o u t b y D a l e ( f o r t h c o m i n g ) , a n i m p o r t a n t f i r s t p r i o r i t y f o r f u t u r e E I A s w o u l d b e t o e s t a b l i s h w h a t g r o u p s o r i n d i v i d u a l s h a v e s t a n d i n g a n d t h u s a r e e l i g i b l e f o r i n t e r v e n o r f u n d i n g . 60 Only b r i e f d e t a i l s are provided i n the panel's recommendations on p u b l i c involvement i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h , assessment and monitoring programmes. Such omissions are unfo r t u n a t e . Maybe a s u i t a b l e task f o r subsequent review panels i s to provide more s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s on p u b l i c involvement i n the p r o j e c t . F i n a l l y , l i t t l e r e f e r e n c e i s made of i n d u s t r y ' s r o l e i n r e s e a r c h programmes; t h i s i m p l i e s t h a t i t may not have a r o l e . A l e s s o n t h a t can be learned from t h i s i s to d e f i n e areas where government and i n d u s t r y can begin or continue to work together i n r e s e a r c h programmes f o r mutual b e n e f i t . An example of where government and i n d u s t r y cooperate i n r e s e a r c h i s the Environmental S t u d i e s Revolving Funds (see Government of Canada, 1983). In a d d i t i o n , the panel d i d not p r i o r i z e the re s e a r c h a c t i v i t i e s t h a t the government i s to address (DIAND, 1985). This i s an unfortunate omission because on reviewing a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n presented to i t the panel should have had a c l e a r idea of p r i o r i t y needs. Furthermore, the f e d e r a l government i s c u t t i n g back funding on programmes and s t a f f . T h i s means t h a t p r i o r i z a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h concerns becomes even more c r u c i a l i f l i m i t e d funds are to be d i r e c t e d to areas where they can have the most b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s . The panel would have made a more v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n i f i t had addressed r e s e a r c h p r i o r i t i e s . 61 2.5 SUMMARY OF THE MAJOR ISSUES RAISED BY THE BEAUFORT SEA  EARP Although the Beaufort Sea was undertaken i n a p a r t i a l p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g vacuum, the panel was given the o p p o r t u n i t y — v i a i t s mandate—to address t h i s vacuum. The panel f a i l e d to adequately do so. I b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s i s a major weakness i n the Beaufort Sea EARP, p a r t i c u l a r l y as the lack of c o o r d i n a t e d p o l i c i e s and plans d i r e c t l y impinges on the panel's a b i l i t y to assess the p o t e n t i a l environmental impacts of hydrocarbon development and p r o d u c t i o n . The Beaufort Sea EARP was a s s e s s i n g environmental impacts of p r e l i m i n a r y p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l s . While such an assessment i s advantageous i n t h a t i t can i d e n t i f y and p r i o r i z e key i n f o r m a t i o n gaps and i n f l u e n c e p r o j e c t design, i t must be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t any d e c i s i o n to proceed with the p r o j e c t may be based on the environmental a c c e p t a b i l i t y of plans t h a t are not, i n f a c t , implemented. I b e l i e v e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a key task f o r the panel i s to p r i o r i z e r e s e a r c h concerns and e x p l i c i t l y set out what f u t u r e p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c EIA requirements are. The Beaufort Sea EARP panel d i d not p r i o r i z e r e s e a r c h concerns and provided l i t t l e guidance on f u t u r e p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c EIAs. In my o p i n i o n t h i s i s a s e r i o u s omission. The r o l e of the Beaufort Sea EARP i n o v e r a l l government d e c i s i o n making was not c l a r i f i e d at the beginning or throughout the review. Thus, i t was not c l e a r to p a r t i c i p a n t s what i n f o r m a t i o n was needed and why. I b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s decreased the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the EIA. 62 A m a j o r i s s u e r a i s e d b y t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P i s w h e t h e r p r o j e c t n e e d s h o u l d b e i n c l u d e d a s p a r t o f a n E I A r e v i e w . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e B e a u f o r t , t h e E A R P w a s t h e o n l y a v e n u e o p e n t o t h e p u b l i c t o d i s c u s s t h i s i s s u e . P r o j e c t n e e d c a n b e i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e p o t e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t s o f a p r o j e c t . T h u s , t h e E I A i s o n e i n p u t i n t o t h e " n e e d " d e c i s i o n , a n d f o r t h i s r e a s o n I b e l i e v e t h a t p r o j e c t n e e d c a n n o t b e f u l l y d i s c u s s e d u n t i l a f t e r t h e E I A i s c o m p l e t e d . H o w e v e r , t h e p a n e l s h o u l d h a v e s o m e i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e p o t e n t i a l u r g e n c y f o r t h e p r o j e c t t o p r o v i d e t h e c o n t e x t f o r i t s r e v i e w . F i n a l l y , t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P p r o v i d e d a n u m b e r o f o p p o r t u n i t e s f o r p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t w h i c h i s a n i m p o r t a n t a t t r i b u t e . M o s t n o t e w o r t h y , w a s t h e p r o v i s i o n o f i n t e r v e n o r f u n d i n g . I n my o p i n i o n , t h i s i s v e r y b e n e f i c i a l t o a n E I A r e v i e w , e n h a n c i n g i t s o v e r a l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s , a n d t h e r e f o r e , s h o u l d b e a m a n d a t o r y r e q u i r e m e n t f o r f u t u r e f o r m a l E I A r e v i e w s . 63 CHAPTER THREE  THE ONGOING WEST COAST OFFSHORE EIA This chapter h i g h l i g h t s the str e n g t h s and weaknesses w i t h i n the ongoing West Coast o f f s h o r e hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n EIA, drawing p a r a l l e l s with the Beaufort Sea EARP. 3.1 BACKGROUND The o f f s h o r e area of B r i t i s h Columbia (B.C.), i n c l u d i n g the S t r a i t of Georgia, has been the s u b j e c t of j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e s between the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments s i n c e the 1940's. The q u e s t i o n of j u r i s d i c t i o n — o w n e r s h i p and c o n t r o l of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s — i s very important. I t a f f e c t s which government, f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l has the r i g h t to decide whether, how and- when any p a r t i c u l a r resource can be u t i l i z e d . F e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n of the o f f s h o r e would n e c e s s i t a t e c o - o r d i n a t e d p l a n n i n g between the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments; f o r example, any onshore development a s s o c i a t e d with f e d e r a l o f f s h o r e hydrocarbon development would be under p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n with the exce p t i o n of N a t i o n a l Harbours and n a t i v e lands. A b r i e f h i s t o r y of o f f s h o r e e x p l o r a t i o n f o r hydrocarbons h i g h l i g h t s the ongoing j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e s . The B.C. government i n i t i a t e d issuance of o f f s h o r e e x p l o r a t i o n permits f o r hydrocarbons i n 1949 (Nelson, 1981). The f e d e r a l government began i s s u i n g i t s own permits i n 1958. By 1962 i t was apparent t h a t the o i l companies were only a p p l y i n g f o r f e d e r a l permits. Consequently, the B.C. government began 64 p r e p a r i n g f o r a l e g a l c h a l l e n g e (Nelson, 1981). In 1965 the f e d e r a l government r e f e r r e d the o f f s h o r e j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e to the Supreme Court of Canada (Nelson, 1981; Petro-Canada, 1983) . A d e c i s i o n on the O f f s h o r e Mineral Rights Reference was reached i n 1967. The f e d e r a l government was deemed to have the r i g h t s to ex p l o r e and e x p l o i t the seabed "seaward from the o r d i n a r y low water mark... o u t s i d e i n l a n d waters, to the outer l i m i t of the t e r r i t o r i a l sea of Canada..." and on the c o n t i n e n t a l s h e l f (Reference: 1968, 65 D.L.R. (2d) 353 S.C.C.). The case d i d not c l e a r l y d e f i n e a l l bodies of water which were designated as " i n l a n d waters" and thus w i t h i n p r o v i n c i a l not f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . T h i s i s s u e was not r e s o l v e d u n t i l May 17, 1984 when the Supreme Court of Canada r u l e d t h a t B.C. owned the seabed and s u b s o i l of the S t r a i t of Georgia, Johnstone S t r a i t , Queen C h a r l o t t e S t r a i t , and the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca ( S a l l o t , 1984). The Supreme Court of Canada d e c i s i o n , however, has not s e t t l e d the i s s u e of subsea resource ownership of Hecate S t r a i t ( S a l l o t , 1984). This i s r e l e v a n t because Chevron Canada L i m i t e d i s c u r r e n t l y seeking to renew e x p l o r a t o r y hydrocarbon a c t i v i t y i n Hecate S t r a i t (Chevron, 1982). E x p l o r a t i o n work i n the S t r a i t of Georgia was suspended by both the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments i n 1970. In 1981, the B.C. government announced t h a t t h i s moratorium would be i n e f f e c t i n d e f i n i t e l y . In the case of the o f f s h o r e , the f e d e r a l government implemented a moratorium i n 1972. There were two main reasons f o r the moratoriums. F i r s t l y , 65 environmental concern with o i l p o l l u t i o n rose to the f o r e . Secondly, concern over f o r e i g n p o l i c y arose out of a U.S. proposal to s h i p Alaskan o i l along the B.C. c o a s t (Nelson, 1981). The ongoing j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e was a l s o a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r (McPhee, 1985) . The 1972 o f f s h o r e moratorium i s s t i l l i n e f f e c t today. I t i s renewed a n n u a l l y by the f e d e r a l M i n i s t e r s of EMR, and Environment Canada (Petro-Canada, 1983). However, pressure has been mounting to l i f t the moratorium. Petro-Canada Incorporated as w e l l as Chevron Canada L i m i t e d , want to undertake hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n o f f B.C.'s c o a s t . On September 8, 1983 the B.C. M i n i s t e r of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources (EMPR) and the f e d e r a l M i n i s t e r of EMR signed an agreement j o i n t l y to undertake an environmental review of the e f f e c t s of renewed hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n "between the northern t i p of Vancouver I s l a n d and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary j u s t south of the Alaska panhandle" (COGLA, 1984: 6, 15). F i g u r e 3 shows the l o c a t i o n of the proposed e x p l o r a t i o n area. The environmental assessment, e n t i t l e d The West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment, i s a formal review (as was the Beaufort Sea EIA). The panel j o i n t l y operates under EARP and the B.C. Environment Management Act (West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, 1984a). The formal panel review was i n i t i a t e d i n June 1984. Two of the main source documents are the I n i t i a l Environmental E v a l u a t i o n s (IEEs) undertaken by the two o i l companies 66 F I G U R E 3 L O C A T I O N OF T H E WEST COAST OFFSHORE HYDROCARBON E X P L O R A T I O N PROPOSALS 67 i n t e r e s t e d i n e x p l o r a t o r y d r i l l i n g . Petro-Canada 1s IEE was undertaken i n 1980 at the request of EMR (Petro-Canada, 1983). Chevron asked the Canada O i l and Gas Lands A d m i n i s t r a t i o n or COGLA i f i t co u l d undertake the IEE i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r e x p l o r a t o r y d r i l l i n g (McPhee, pers. comm.). As noted p r e v i o u s l y , the i s s u e of subsea resource ownership i n Hecate S t r a i t has not y e t been r e s o l v e d , t h e r e f o r e one c o u l d q u e s t i o n whether COGLA co u l d a u t h o r i z e the study i n Hecate S t r a i t , although under the Canada O i l and Gas Act, 1983 Hecate S t r a i t i s c o n s i d e r e d Canada Lands and, thus, under f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . A t h i r d source document i s the P r e l i m i n a r y Environmental Assessment (PEA) undertaken by the B.C. M i n i s t r y of the Environment which, u n l i k e the IEEs, i d e n t i f i e s p o t e n t i a l impacts from both e x p l o r a t i o n and development (B.C. M i n i s t r y of the Environment, 1983). 3.2 CRITERIA FOR EFFECTIVE EIA Strengths and weaknesses of the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA and i t s o p e r a t i n g environment are determined by e v a l u a t i n g i t a g a i n s t the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a f o r e f f e c t i v e EIA. These c r i t e r i a were chosen based on i n f o r m a t i o n provided i n the l i t e r a t u r e on e f f e c t i v e EIA and reviewed i n S e c t i o n 1.4, and from lessons learned from the Beaufort Sea EARP experience. C r i t e r i o n : Is there a c o o r d i n a t e d , coherent p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g framework i n pl a c e p r i o r to i n i t i a t i n g an EIA, such as r e g i o n a l development planning? 68 Reasoning: Such a framework enhances the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of impact assessment by . p r o v i d i n g the c o n t e x t f o r the EIA. I t e s t a b l i s h e s g o a l s and p r i o r i t i e s f o r r e s o u r c e use i n a r e g i o n a g a i n s t which the p a n e l can a s s e s s the proposed development. I t removes the problem of EIA s u b s t i t u t i n g f o r r e g i o n a l development p l a n n i n g . C r i t e r i o n : I s the r o l e t h a t EIA o c c u p i e s i n o v e r a l l d e c i s i o n making c l a r i f i e d p r i o r t o u n d e r t a k i n g an EIA? Reasoning: T h i s e s t a b l i s h e s what the EIA s h o u l d a c h i e v e , which means d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s can be r e s t r i c t e d t o t h a t which i s d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t t o the d e c i s i o n a t hand. C r i t e r i o n : Does the p a n e l have the a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o f u l f i l l t h e i r mandate? Reasoning: I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t the p a n e l have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e q u e s t a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n i f i t f e e l s t h a t e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n s u f f i c i e n t or b e i n g w i t h h e l d . W i t h o u t the power t o subpoena w i t n e s s e s and documents, the pa n e l may not o b t a i n key i n f o r m a t i o n from p r o p o n e n t s , government o f f i c i a l s and i n t e r v e n o r s . R a t h e r , i t would be r e l y i n g on the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' g o o d w i l l . C r i t e r i o n : What i s the scope of the p a n e l ' s mandate? I s i t f l e x i b l e , t h a t i s , a b l e t o respond t o new i s s u e s as th e y a r i s e ? Does i t a l l o w the p a n e l t o examine b i o p h y s i c a l and so c i o - e c o n o m i c impacts of a p r o j e c t ? Does i t a l l o w the pa n e l t o d e t a i l f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h r e q u i r e m e n t s based on the i n f o r m a t i o n gaps i d e n t i f i e d , and f u t u r e assessment and m o n i t o r i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s ? Reasoning: A f l e x i b l e mandate i s i m p o r t a n t because d u r i n g the c o u r s e of the r e v i e w , an i s s u e might be uncovered t h a t i s d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t t o the EIA. Socio-economic impacts s h o u l d be 6 9 c o n s i d e r e d because they can cause more s e r i o u s problems to a community than b i o p h y s i c a l e f f e c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n communities u t i l i z i n g more than one n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e . D i s c u s s i o n and recommendations on f u t u r e r e s e a r c h , assessment and monitoring requirements can be important because these tasks help address the environmental concerns r a i s e d d u r i n g the review. C r i t e r i o n : Is the EIA an ongoing, continuous process, or i s i t a product? Reasoning: S t a t i c , one-shot approaches to EIA cannot r e a c t to changes i n p r o j e c t circumstances. Ongoing EIA can provide feedback i n t o p r o j e c t d e sign, management, p o l i c i e s and plans e n a b l i n g the necessary adjustments to be made. C r i t e r i o n : Is the EIA being undertaken f o r p r e l i m i n a r y p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l s ? I f so, i s p a r t of the review process concerned with determining when f u t u r e p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c EIAs would be r e q u i r e d , t h e i r format and p a r t i c i p a n t s ? Reasoning: Too many u n c e r t a i n t i e s are present i n p r e l i m i n a r y p r o j e c t proposals which means p r e d i c t i o n s w i l l be very g e n e r a l i z e d ; and d e c i s i o n s to al l o w a p r o j e c t to proceed may be based on a design t h a t i s not i n f a c t implemented. In e f f e c t , the proposals are unbounded. S t i p u l a t i n g t h a t reviews of p r e l i m i n a r y p r o j e c t p r o p o sals have to d i s c e r n when f u t u r e p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c reviews are r e q u i r e d , means t h a t changes to the p r o j e c t and u n c e r t a i n t i e s w i l l be f u r t h e r assessed and managed. C r i t e r i o n : Reasoning: Is monitoring an i n d i v i s i b l e p a r t of impact management? Mo n i t o r i n g changes caused by the p r o j e c t provides feedback i n t o p r o j e c t design and o p e r a t i o n as w e l l as i n t o 70 government p o l i c i e s and pl a n s . T h i s enables adjustments to be made to take i n t o account unforeseen impacts. M o n i t o r i n g promotes l e a r n i n g by doing; the experience gained from one p r o j e c t p r o v i d i n g u s e f u l experience f o r f u t u r e p r o j e c t s of s i m i l a r nature. C r i t e r i o n : Is the p u b l i c , i n p a r t i c u l a r , communities a f f e c t e d by a p r o j e c t , a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c o l l e c t i n g data, a s s e s s i n g and monitoring impacts, e s p e c i a l l y s o c i a l impacts? Reasoning: A c t i v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s important to o b t a i n a more l u c i d comprehension of community a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s . A community may be more respo n s i v e to development i f they f e e l they have some c o n t r o l over d e c i s i o n s made. In a d d i t i o n , i t means t h a t the community i s not merely r e a c t i n g to a proponent's impact assessment. C r i t e r i o n : Is i n t e r v e n o r funding a v a i l a b l e f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the EIA? Are such groups able to undertake t h e i r own impact assessment? In a d d i t i o n , i n the case of p r o j e c t s t h a t have n a t i o n a l or p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s , i s funding provided to groups t h a t can demonstrate they have s t a n d i n g or a l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t i n the p r o j e c t ? Reasoning: Intervenor funding means t h a t groups a f f e c t e d by a p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t can p a r t i c i p a t e more e f f e c t i v e l y i n the EIA. Proponent funding allows such groups to conduct t h e i r own rese a r c h or h i r e c o n s u l t a n t s to do i t . T h i s means t h a t they become b e t t e r informed and c o n t r i b u t e more to the panel's d e l i b e r a t i o n s . 3.3 POLICY AND PLANNING CONTEXT OF THE WEST COAST OFFSHORE  EIA 3.3.1 Is There Coordinated Planning on the West Coast? There i s l i t t l e evidence of c o o r d i n a t e d p l a n n i n g by 71 governments on the West Coast. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r B.C.'s c o a s t a l zone i s d i v i d e d among f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and, to a l e s s e r extent, municipal governments, and r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . Moreover, a multitude of departments and agencies e x i s t w i t h i n the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments to deal with s p e c i f i c n a t u r a l resource a c t i v i t i e s . Each agency formulates i t s own p o l i c i e s and plans on a s e c t o r a l b a s i s , and even w i t h i n agencies i t i s not c l e a r t h a t w e l l d e f i n e d p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s p r e v a i l . For example, the f e d e r a l department of F i s h e r i e s and Oceans' (DFO) f i s h e r i e s management, enhancement and environmental p r o t e c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s on the West coa s t have been c r i t i c i z e d f o r " [ t ] h e lack of cohesive, c o n s i s t e n t and forward l o o k i n g p o l i c i e s and programs..." (Pearse, 1982: 3), although i n the case of f i s h h a b i t a t management, DFO i s p r e s e n t l y reviewing new i n i t i a t i v e s f o r p o l i c y and procedures, i n c l u d i n g h a b i t a t management area p l a n n i n g (see DFO, 1985 f o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s ) . In the case of the B.C. government: ...agencies r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f o r e s t s , a i r , water, f i s h , w i l d l i f e , and human settlements are now embarked on v a r i o u s forms of p l a n n i n g as the b a s i s f o r management of resources and a l l o c a t i o n of land f o r v a r i o u s uses, i n each of the regions of the p r o v i n c e . . . . So f a r the focus of t h i s p l a n n i n g has been upland; r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been giv e n to the c o a s t a l zone or key s e c t o r s u t i l i z i n g c o a s t a l resources such as f i s h e r i e s , r e c r e a t i o n and tourism, energy and min e r a l s , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . (Dorcey, 1983: 31). A problem with r e s t r i c t i n g a t t e n t i o n to the upland i s the f a c t t h a t i t takes no account of impacts of upland use on f o r e s h o r e use. T h e r e f o r e , a number of f o r e s h o r e uses c o u l d be precluded, f o r example, m a r i c u l t u r e . 72 There i s evidence t h a t i n d i v i d u a l m i n i s t r i e s are expanding t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to i n c l u d e the c o a s t . The B.C. M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Housing, f o r example, has a new i n i t i a t i v e i n the form of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n c o r r i d o r s (B.C. M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Housing, 1985; M o f f a t t , 1985). The B.C. M i n i s t r y of the Environment has a c o a s t a l and estuary management program (B.C. M i n i s t r y of the Environment, 1982), and i s i n the process of completing a r a t i n g scheme f o r B.C. c o a s t a l wetlands (B.C. M i n i s t r y of the Environment i n Government of Canada and Province of B.C., 1985a). However, the B.C. government has not adopted an h o l i s t i c , a n t i c i p a t o r y approach to the p l a n n i n g and management of the c o a s t a l zone, t h a t i s , one t h a t provides "the context f o r d e c i d i n g how best to accommodate a wide range of i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e s " (McPhee, 1982b: 2). An o v e r a l l , c o o r d i n a t e d c o a s t a l zone management p o l i c y i s c r u c i a l . Such a p o l i c y would e s t a b l i s h resource use and area p r i o r i t i e s , and make t r a d e o f f s thereby r e s o l v i n g resource use c o n f l i c t s . Instead of t h i s one f i n d s : . . . c o a s t a l resource p l a n n i n g has been l a r g e l y l i m i t e d to task f o r c e s t h a t are concerned with a s i n g l e i s s u e or region....While such an approach generates a g r e a t deal of i n f o r m a t i o n on a p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e or r e g i o n , i t g e n e r a l l y ignores the dynamic i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s which e x i s t along the e n t i r e c o a s t . (McPhee, 1982a: 68). In a d d i t i o n to task f o r c e s some c o o r d i n a t i o n between agencies i s achieved through a s e r i e s of formal procedures; examples i n c l u d e : M i n i s t e r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the Environmental Land Use Committee (ELUC; f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on ELUC see 0' Riordan, 7 3 1981a); i n t e r m i n i s t e r i a l committees; l e t t e r s of agreement and s u b s i d i a r y agreements with other m i n i s t r i e s and agencies ( B u l l e n , 1985); Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources r e f e r r a l processes encompassing c o a l , m i n e r a l , energy and petroleum r e l a t e d p r o j e c t s (Ewing, 1985). There i s a l s o c o o r d i n a t i o n on an ad hoc or "as needs b a s i s " , t h a t i s , when a major i s s u e a r i s e s such as o f f s h o r e hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n (Moffatt, 1985; B u l l e n , 1985). The above approaches are p r i n c i p a l l y r e a c t i v e . Greater c o o r d i n a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s and forward' t h i n k i n g are e s s e n t i a l f o r t r u l y e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g and management. There i s evidence t h a t the B.C. government agencies are aware of the importance and need f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n , and steps are being taken i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . The o b j e c t i v e s of the B.C. M i n i s t r y of the Environment's c o a s t a l and e s t u a r y management program, f o r example, i n c l u d e encouragement of i n t e g r a t e d resource use and management (B.C. M i n i s t r y of the Environment, 1982). A drawback to t h i s awareness, however, i s the f a c t t h a t : . . . i t w i l l be some time before a l l agencies have advanced t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s to the p o i n t where a more systematic i n t e g r a t i o n of r e g i o n a l land and resource use plans w i l l occur across the p r o v i n c e (O'Riordan, 1981b: 42). The main f a c t o r s which slow t h i s process down are j u r i s d i c t i o n a l and t e r r i t o r i a l chauvinism. The need to improve the i n f o r m a t i o n base on c u r r e n t and p o t e n t i a l resource u t i l i z a t i o n (COGLA and B.C. M i n i s t r y of EMPR. 1984a) a l s o has some e f f e c t on the timeframe w i t h i n which i n t e g r a t e d resource 74 use and management can be achieved, as may the B.C. government's r e s t r a i n t programmme. The reader i s r e f e r r e d to O'Riordan (1984a) f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the e f f e c t s of government r e s t r a i n t on the B.C. M i n i s t r y of the Environment's s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g process. C o o r d i n a t i o n must a l s o be achieved between the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l government agencies. DFO, f o r example, must c o o r d i n a t e i t s o b j e c t i v e s with the development plans of other resource agencies, i n c l u d i n g the B.C. M i n i s t r y of the Environment (Pearse, 1982). Pearse (1982: 228), however, p o i n t s out t h a t the " e x p l i c i t arrangements to govern the way the two governments w i l l r e c o n c i l e t h e i r separate and sometimes c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are s u p r i s i n g l y l a c k i n g " . C o o r d i n a t i o n i s a l s o r e q u i r e d between the p r o v i n c i a l government m i n i s t r i e s ' p l a n s , and O f f i c i a l Settlement Plans ( i n s t i t u t e d by the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ) , and f o r m e r l y with r e g i o n a l plans ( i n s t i t u t e d by r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s ) . The ongoing F r a s e r R i v e r Estuary Management Program i n i t i a t e d i n 1977, i s an example of a j o i n t f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l study, i n v o l v i n g agencies from the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments, as w e l l as municipal and r e g i o n a l agencies, i n d u s t r y and the p u b l i c . The aim of the study i s to develop a management program f o r the estuary t h a t balances economic development and p r e s e r v a t i o n of the n a t u r a l resource (Fraser R i v er E s t u a r y Study Planning Committee, 1982) . The above d i s c u s s i o n has concentrated on the o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e f o r i n t e r - M i n i s t r y c o o p e r a t i o n with 75 r e s p e c t to p o l i c y and pl a n n i n g to h i g h l i g h t the p o l i c y and pla n n i n g framework w i t h i n which the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA i s o p e r a t i n g . In g e n e r a l , a r e a c t i v e r a t h e r than an a n t i c i p a t o r y approach has p r e v a i l e d . Thus, a q u e s t i o n t h a t needs to be addressed i s whether the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA can provide the impetus to adopt an a n t i c i p a t o r y approach. 3.3.2 The Offshore Ownership Issue The EIA i s being "conducted without p r e j u d i c e to government ownership and j u r i s d i c t i o n of o f f s h o r e r e s o u r c e s " (Dept. EMR, 1983b). Who owns and has j u r i s d i c t i o n of such r e s o u r c e s , however, has important p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s . I t a f f e c t s whose energy p o l i c y p r e v a i l s and thus the i s s u e of p r o j e c t need: f e d e r a l energy p o l i c y - - t h e 'need to know' and Canadian o i l s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y - - v e r s u s p r o v i n c i a l energy p o l i c y — w h e t h e r B.C. wants the o p p o r t u n i t y to decrease o i l imports.by d e v e l o p i n g indigenous sources of hydrocarbons. . B.C. c u r r e n t l y imports approximately 77 percent of i t s l i q u i d hydrocarbon requirements from A l b e r t a or the U.S. (B.C. M i n i s t r y of EMPR; 1980) , although i t has su r p l u s n a t u r a l gas, a su r p l u s f o r e c a s t to continue i n t o the 1990s r e g a r d l e s s of n a t u r a l gas exports (B.C. M i n i s t r y of EMPR, 1980) . Who owns the o f f s h o r e might a l s o a f f e c t the pace of development should the moratorium be l i f t e d and o i l found. In Newfoundland, pace of development of H i b e r n i a hydrocarbon r e s e r v e s was an important i s s u e i n t h a t p r o v i n c e ' s o f f s h o r e 76 j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e with the f e d e r a l government (Peckford, 1979; 1984), and was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the A t l a n t i c Accord, signed between the f e d e r a l government and the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador i n 1985 (see Government of Canada and Province of Newfoundland, 1985). Pace of development has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r other resource u s e r s , f o r example, l o c a t i o n and number of r i g s might r e s t r i c t access to some f i s h i n g grounds, as was the case i n the U.K. hydrocarbon p r o d u c t i o n s e c t o r i n the North Sea (see Mackay, 1981). The ownership i s s u e i n f l u e n c e s who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making t r a d e o f f s between the v a r i o u s c o a s t a l uses. T r a d e o f f s i n c l u d e whether energy p o l i c y , e i t h e r the NEP and/or a B.C. energy p o l i c y , takes precedence over a l l other resource uses, both e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l on the West Coast. In t h i s regard i t i s important to examine the e f f e c t s of hydrocarbon development on f u t u r e resource use o p p o r t u n i t i e s — w h a t options w i l l be e l i m i n a t e d i f hydrocarbon development proceeds? (B.C. M i n i s t r y of the Environment, 1983) and what i s the c o s t of t h i s l o s s both i n s o c i a l and economic terms? Chevron (1982), f o r example, r e f e r s to the p o s s i b i l i t y of the h e r r i n g f i s h e r y being wiped out i f an o i l s p i l l occurred at a c r i t i c a l time. Is t h i s r i s k a c c e ptable? W i l l a j o i n t management agreement be signed between Canada and B.C. as was the case i n Newfoundland (see Government of Canada and Province of Newfoundland, 1985)? The now defunct NEP (Dept. of EMR, 1982a) d i d s t a t e t h a t the f e d e r a l government would seek an'agreement on c o o p e r a t i v e 77 management with the B.C. government f o r the e n t i r e West coa s t o f f s h o r e r e g i o n . There are rumours of an impending P a c i f i c Accord between the f e d e r a l and B.C. governments which w i l l deal with energy developments o f f the West Coast (Gherson, 1985). However, as y e t , the eventual management framework f o r o f f s h o r e hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n remains a mystery. In s h o r t , there are many u n c e r t a i n t i e s a r i s i n g from the ownership i s s u e which make the environment f o r p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g f o r the West Coast more nebulous. In the case of the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA, the ownership i s s u e has r e s u l t e d i n the implementation of a j o i n t f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l review of e x p l o r a t o r y d r i l l i n g . Such an approach encourages intergovernmental c o o p e r a t i o n and decreases d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t . The format of f u t u r e h y d r o c a r b o n - r e l a t e d p r o j e c t EIAs i s l e s s c e r t a i n at t h i s p o i n t i n time. 3.3.3 Outstanding Native Land Claims The i s s u e of a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e — n a t i v e land and sea ownership and management—is very important. The claims i n v o l v e land, sea and r e s o u r c e s o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n the proposed e x p l o r a t i o n area (see Chevron, 1982; Petro-Canada, 1983; Masset Band C o u n c i l , 1984; Speck, 1984 f o r d e t a i l s on the bands and areas i n v o l v e d i n the c l a i m s ) . Thus, there i s the p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n f l i c t . As p o i n t e d out by E r i c k s o n (1984: 85) settlements of these claims "would l i k e l y mean s i g n i f i c a n t changes to c u r r e n t or planned land use p l a n n i n g and management 78 s t r u c t u r e s " . T h e r e f o r e , I. b e l i e v e i t i s advantageous to s e t t l e the land claims f i r s t , and reduce u n c e r t a i n t y , although others may argue t h a t e x p l o r a t i o n should be undertaken now before claims i n t r o d u c e u n c e r t a i n t y . 3.4 THE WEST COAST OFFSHORE: AN APPRAISAL 3.4.1 Role of the EIA and the Panel The o b j e c t of the West Coast Offshore EIA i s t o : ...recommend the terms and c o n d i t i o n s under which e x p l o r a t i o n might proceed i n a safe and e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e manner, should a d e c i s i o n be made to resume e x p l o r a t o r y d r i l l i n g a c t i v i t y . . . . ( M i n i s t e r of EMR and M i n i s t e r of EMPR, 1983a: 2) In a d d i t i o n , the panel has been requested t o : . . . i d e n t i f y seasonal and r e g i o n a l concerns a s s o c i a t e d with the o f f s h o r e e x p l o r a t i o n as w e l l as any i n f o r m a t i o n gaps which might prevent a f u l l assessment of the impacts and r i s k s p r i o r to the commencement of e x p l o r a t i o n . . . . review the e f f e c t s of renewed e x p l o r a t i o n g e n e r a l l y . . . [ i t ] i s not l i m i t e d to present i n d u s t r y p r o p o s a l s . . . . (West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, 1984e: 1) . The panel review i s being undertaken without p r e j u d i c e to the o f f s h o r e ownership i s s u e , as w e l l as c u r r e n t and f u t u r e n a t i v e land and sea c l a i m s . Such i s s u e s are not p a r t of the panel's mandate. The panel i s a l s o excluded from: recommending to government whether hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n should be allowed; examining the r e g u l a t i o n of e x p l o r a t i o n ; d i s c u s s i n g p r o j e c t . j u s t i f i c a t i o n , energy p o l i c i e s , and the development and p r o d u c t i o n phase, although: . . . i n i t s f i n a l Report the panel might i d e n t i f y i s s u e s or questions r e l a t i n g to p r o d u c t i o n and 7 9 development...(West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, 1984e: 2; emphasis added). Whether or not p r o j e c t need (or j u s t i f i c a t i o n ) and energy p o l i c i e s should be i n c l u d e d as p a r t of the EIA review i s a d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n to answer. In the case of the Beaufort Sea EARP, p r o j e c t need became a c r u c i a l i s s u e (see S e c t i o n 2.3.4). In the case of the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA, the p u b l i c has been very v o c a l about being denied the o p p o r t u n i t y to examine e x i s t i n g energy p o l i c i e s and openly debate the i s s u e s r a i s e d i n them (West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, 1985). The panel, however, i s q u i t e comfortable with the l i m i t a t i o n s p l a c e d on i t s r o l e . C o t t e r i l l ( c i t e d i n West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, 1984d) does not agree t h a t p r o j e c t need should be determined f i r s t because the panel i s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the government's e s t a b l i s h e d energy p o l i c y , a p o l i c y which encourages o i l and gas development.- Thus, i n l i g h t of such statements i t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t the panel would d i g r e s s from i t s e x i s t i n g mandate and make recommendations concerning p r o j e c t need and energy p o l i c i e s and whether they should be d e a l t with i n another p u b l i c forum. The p u b l i c ' s concern with the i s s u e , however, shows t h a t these i s s u e s need to be d e a l t with at some p o i n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l i g h t of the f a c t t h a t the EIA i s j u s t one input a f f e c t i n g the d e c i s i o n on whether e x p l o r a t i o n i s needed and should resume. The panel w i l l r e p o r t i t s c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations to both the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r s 8 0 o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e s u b m i s s i o n o f t h e r e p o r t w i l l s i g n i f y t h e e n d o f t h e E I A ( M a r s h a l l , 1 9 8 5 ) . T h i s i s i m p o r t a n t . I t m e a n s t h a t t h e E I A b e c o m e s a p r o d u c t r a t h e r t h a n a p r o c e s s . T h e r e i s n o p r o v i s i o n f o r a n e v a l u a t i o n o f w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e p a n e l ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e p u t i n t o e f f e c t a n d w h e t h e r t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e t h e d e s i g n o f e x p l o r a t o r y d r i l l i n g p r o j e c t s s u b s e q u e n t l y p u t i n t o p l a c e , a n d g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c i e s , p l a n s a n d m a n a g e m e n t . T h u s , t h e r e i s n o m e c h a n i s m i n p l a c e t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e E I A . 3 . 4 . 2 A u t h o r i t y o f t h e P a n e l T h e W e s t C o a s t o f f s h o r e E I A , l i k e t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P , i s a f o r m a l r e v i e w p r o c e s s w i t h a n a d v i s o r y p a n e l . P o t e n t i a l d r a w b a c k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n a d v i s o r y p a n e l i n c l u d e t h e f a c t t h a t g o v e r n m e n t s n e e d n o t a c t o n t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e p u b l i c c a n b e c o m e d i s i l l u s i o n e d a n d q u e s t i o n t h e c r e d i b i l i t y o f t h e p r o c e s s . W h i l e i t c a n b e a r g u e d t h a t s u c h a s i t u a t i o n i s s a t i s f a c t o r y g i v e n t h a t i t i s g o v e r n m e n t s t h a t a r e a c c o u n t a b l e n o t t h e p a n e l , i t s e e m s s o m e w h a t p o i n t l e s s t o a l l o c a t e t i m e a n d m o n e y f o r a p a n e l t o a c c u m u l a t e k n o w l e d g e o n t h e i s s u e s i f i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e p a s s e d o v e r . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , a n a d v i s o r y p a n e l p r o v i d e s f l e x i b i l i t y ; i t m e a n s t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t i s n o t b o u n d b y a n y i n s u b s t a n t i a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t h a t a p a n e l m a y m a k e . C o t t e r i l l ( c i t e d i n W e s t C o a s t O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s m e n t P a n e l , 1 9 8 4 d ) s t a t e d t h e p a n e l h a d n o 81 qualms with i t s p u r e l y a d v i s o r y r o l e . The review f o l l o w s a n o n - j u d i c i a l format, t h a t i s , witnesses cannot be subpoenaed at the hearings nor can p a r t i c i p a n t s be cross-examined (B.C. M i n i s t r y of EMPR, 1983; West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, 1984a; 1984b). The advantage of a n o n - j u d i c i a l format i s t h a t the average c i t i z e n f e e l s l e s s i n t i m i d a t e d by the procedure and i s more l i k e l y to present h i s or her views. A major disadvantage i s t h a t the proponents and government o f f i c i a l s are not l e g a l l y o b l i g e d to produce evidence or even appear at the h e a r i n g s . Thus, key i n f o r m a t i o n need not come to the p u b l i c ' s a t t e n t i o n . The p u b l i c has to hope t h a t the proponents and governments w i l l be open and honest. I t may w e l l be t h a t i n p r a c t i c e government agencies "provide one u n i f i e d o p i n i o n when i n f a c t i n d i v i d u a l experts i n t h a t department may hold d i v e r g e n t o p i n i o n s " (Moore, 1984: 78). During the c u r r e n t p e r i o d of p r o v i n c i a l government r e s t r a i n t and cutbacks i n the c i v i l s e r v i c e , i n d i v i d u a l c i v i l s ervants may be even more r e l u c t a n t to provide t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l o p i n i o n i n case i t i s i n c o n f l i c t with the government's viewpoint f o r f e a r of r e p e r c u s s i o n s on the job s i t e (Williams, 1984a). Although the p u b l i c or anyone has the o p p o r t u n i t y to ask qu e s t i o n s of any of the p a r t i c i p a n t s d u r i n g the review, I f e e l t h a t f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n should be given to p r o v i d i n g the panel with an o p t i o n to subpoena witnesses and documents; i t would then be up to the panel to decide whether or not to e x e r c i s e t h i s o p t i o n . 82 One aspect of the a u t h o r i t y of the panel i s the manner i n which they i n t e p r e t t h e i r Terms of Reference. Do they take a wide ranging view, e l i c i t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on a wide scope of i s s u e s , or are they very c o n s e r v a t i v e ? As s t a t e d i n S e c t i o n 2.4, the Beaufort Sea EARP panel adopted a narrow, t e c h n i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e i r mandate. In the view of Dave M a r s h a l l , member of the Panel S e c r e t a r i a t f o r the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA (and the Beaufort Sea EARP), the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA panel i s t a k i n g a " f a i r " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . For example, while the panel i s not c o n s i d e r i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s or s p e c i f i c n a t i v e land claims per se, i t i s examining ^ — : — — socio-economic a f f e c t s of the hydrocarbon proposals on the n a t i v e s ( M a r s h a l l , 1985). 3.4.3 Timing of the Review Many i n t e r v e n o r s i n the EIA have been c r i t i c a l of the f a i l u r e to r e s o l v e both the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e and the n a t i v e land claims i s s u e s p r i o r to i n i t i a t i n g the EIA and have r e f e r r e d to the need f o r an o v e r a l l c o a s t a l zone management approach (Anglican Church of Canada, 1984; Massett Band C o u n c i l , 1984; V i c t o r i a Chapter of the Green Party, 1984; West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, 1985 c o n t a i n s a summary of the major i s s u e s r a i s e d at the p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n meetings). M. Ruel ( D i r e c t o r General, Environmental P r o t e c t i o n Branch, COGLA) and R. Durie ( A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r , Petroleum D i v i s i o n , Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources), s t a t e t h a t the unresolved management 83 framework, together with the f a c t t h a t e x p l o r a t i o n has not y e t been approved means: . . . i t i s not p o s s i b l e to o u t l i n e what would be done d u r i n g the e x p l o r a t i o n p e r i o d . . . . However, a l l agencies have made an e f f o r t to i n d i c a t e what co u l d be done based on r e g u l a t o r y experience i n B r i t i s h Columbia and on Canada Lands (covering l e t t e r by Durie and Ruel i n Government of Canada and the Province of B.C., 1985a: 2; o r i g i n a l emphasis). "Would" versus "could" has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p o t e n t i a l impacts t h a t may occur and how they w i l l be managed. Thus, u n c e r t a i n t y i s enhanced. Without s t a t e d p o l i c y p r i o r i t i e s i t may be very d i f f i c u l t f o r the panel to a c c u r a t e l y assess what impacts hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n would have on other resources and resource users-. The panel, i n i t s A d d i t i o n a l Information Required, while not e x p l i c i t l y r e q u e s t i n g government p o s i t i o n statements (as d i d the Beaufort Sea EARP panel) d i d request t h a t s p e c i f i c government agencies address the i s s u e of p r i o r i t y areas and f u t u r e p o t e n t i a l use, f o r example: What are your p r i o r i t y areas and plans f o r m a r i c u l t u r e , i n c l u d i n g marine p l a n t s , on the B r i t i s h Columbia co a s t north of Telegraph Cove?.... I d e n t i f y areas by map t h a t have the p o t e n t i a l of becoming marine and c o a s t a l parks and e c o l o g i c a l r e s e r v e s . . . . What other s i g n i f i c a n t c o a s t a l and marine developments are c u r r e n t l y planned or a n t i c i p a t e d to take p l a c e w i t h i n the west co a s t r e g i o n d u r i n g the next ten y e a r s ? . . . (West Coast Offshore E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, 1984e: 9, 11, 14). Responses to the requests are Responses to the Requirements (Government of Canada and the given i n the Government f o r A d d i t i o n a l Information Province of B.C., 1985a), and 84 a r e o f mixed q u a l i t y , some b e i n g more d e t a i l e d and i n f o r m a t i v e t h a n o t h e r s . F o r example, DFO and t h e B.C. M i n i s t r y o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t ' s r e s p o n s e s t o p r i o r i t y a r e a s and p l a n s f o r m a r i c u l t u r e a r e q u i t e i n f o r m a t i v e . The p a n e l needs some i n d i c a t i o n o f p r e s e n t and p r o p o s e d r e s o u r c e u s e s t o a i d i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r h y d r o c a r b o n e x p l o r a t i o n c a n p r o c e e d i n a s a f e and e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e manner. F o r example, i n f o r m a t i o n on volume and l o c a t i o n o f m a r i n e v e s s e l s i s i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e i t a f f e c t s t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r m a r i n e c o n g e s t i o n a n d / o r a c c i d e n t s w i t h e x p l o r a t i o n r i g s and s u p p l y v e s s e l s . The i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d w i l l e n a b l e t h e p a n e l t o d e t e r m i n e i f government a g e n c i e s a r e w e l l - i n f o r m e d and p r e p a r e d a t t h i s s t a g e , and t h u s , make a rec o m m e n d a t i o n w h e t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n i s l a c k i n g t h e r e b y p r e v e n t i n g " . . . a f u l l a s s e s s m e n t o f i m p a c t s and r i s k s t o t h e commencement o f e x p l o r a t i o n " (West C o a s t O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t P a n e l , ,1984e: 1 ) . A t t h e end o f t h e c u r r e n t r e v i e w , t h e p a n e l , would be i n as good a p o s i t i o n as any o t h e r body t o a d v i s e (not d e c i d e ) on p r i o r i t i e s and t r a d e o f f s due t o a l l t h e knowledge i t w i l l have a c c u m u l a t e d , o r , a l t e r n a t i v e l y a d v i s e g o vernments t h a t e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n a d e q u a t e f o r making s u c h d e c i s i o n s . I t i s t h e n up t o t h e p o l i t i c i a n s , who a r e a c c o u n t a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c , t o make t h e n e c e s s a r y d e c i s i o n s by a t t a c h i n g s o c i a l and ec o n o m i c v a l u e s t o make t h e t r a d e o f f s . 85 3.4.4 Scope of the Review 3.4.4.1 P r e l i m i n a r y P r o j e c t Proposals The EIA i s examining p r e l i m i n a r y p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l s ; n e i t h e r company p i n p o i n t e d s i t e s f o r e x p l o r a t i o n w e l l s i n i t s IEE, Chevron s t a t i n g t h i s would depend on the r e s u l t s of t h e i r s e i s m i c programmes (Chevron, 1982). Advantages and disadvantages i n t r y i n g to assess p r e l i m i n a r y p r o j e c t proposals were o u t l i n e d i n S e c t i o n 2.3.3. B r i e f l y , the advantages are: lead time to i d e n t i f y s o l u t i o n s ; knowledge gaps can be i d e n t i f i e d and f i l l e d b efore f i n a l i z i n g p r o j e c t design; and i t may prevent l a r g e expenditures on design and impact r e s e a r c h by h i g h l i g h t i n g i n t o l e r a b l e options at an e a r l y stage. The disadvantages are: impacts may d i f f e r from the s c e n a r i o presented because i t i s h y p o t h e t i c a l and judgements are based on t h i s ; u n c e r t a i n i t e s are i n c r e a s e d ; and the EIA may s u b s t i t u t e f o r a more thorough assessment at a l a t e r date. As the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA panel's mandate i n c l u d e s s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the terms and c o n d i t i o n s under which e x p l o r a t i o n c o u l d resume there i s the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the• panel to s t i p u l a t e , what f u t u r e EIA requirements should be. T h i s would overcome one of the major drawbacks of EIAs of p r e l i m i n a r y p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l s . 3.4.4.2 E x p l o r a t i o n The panel's mandate i s to examine a l l aspects of e x p l o r a t i o n up to and i n c l u d i n g the d e l i n e a t i o n stage. The IEEs, however, focus on i n i t i a l e x p l o r a t i o n p l a n s ; Environment 86 Canada, P a c i f i c and Yukon Region (1984: 204) i s concerned t h a t such i n f o r m a t i o n " . . . i s not s u f f i c i e n t f o r the department or p u b l i c to assess the f u l l consequences of o i l and gas e x p l o r a t i o n " . No i n d i c a t i o n i s given of the maximum number of r i g s and w e l l s , only the minimum (Chevron, 1982: 1-2; A n g l i c a n Church of Canada, 1984; de Leeuw, 1984; Douglas, 1984). Thus, the p r o j e c t i s unbounded. The p o t e n t i a l numbers a f f e c t the degree of impacts t h a t c o u l d be experienced and thus the s a f e t y of e x p l o r a t i o n , f o r example, c o n f l i c t with marine t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and f i s h i n g v e s s e l s . The panel's A d d i t i o n a l Information Required d i d request t h a t Chevron address an expanded e x p l o r a t i o n s c e n a r i o i n d i c a t i n g , f o r example, p o s s i b l e socio-economic e f f e c t s on l o c a l communities and cumulative e f f e c t s although the panel r e a l i z e d t h a t " [ t ] h i s e x e r c i s e may be even more s p e c u l a t i v e than the d e t a i l e d E x p l o r a t i o n S c e n a r i o s " (West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment, 1984e: 21, emphasis added; see Chevron, 1985 f o r Chevron's response to the panel's r e q u e s t ) . Because of the s p e c u l a t i v e nature of the i n f o r m a t i o n one must be c a r e f u l not to a t t a c h too much weight to i t . 3.4.4.3 Development and P r o d u c t i o n : A Non-Issue The EIA i s , i n p r i n c i p l e , r e s t r i c t e d from examining hydrocarbon development and p r o d u c t i o n . There are drawbacks to t h i s narrow scope. As e l u c i d a t e d by Environment Canada, P a c i f i c and Yukon Region (1984: 224): 87 I t i s n o t s a t i s f a c t o r y t o k n o w t h a t t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e o f a p r o j e c t i s e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y s a f e w h e n t h e s t a g e s t o f o l l o w w o u l d p r e s e n t m a j o r r i s k s t o m a r i n e a n d c o a s t a l e n v i r o n m e n t s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . I n S c o t l a n d , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e g r e a t e s t i m p a c t s f r o m o f f s h o r e h y d r o c a r b o n e x p l o r a t i o n , d e v e l o p m e n t a n d . p r o d u c t i o n w e r e n o t i c e d o n s h o r e d u r i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p h a s e ( B a l d w i n a n d B a l d w i n , 1 9 7 5 ) . O n c e a d e c i s i o n h a s b e e n m a d e t o a l l o w e x p l o r a t i o n t o p r o c e e d , a n d i f t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n i s s u c c e s s f u l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p r o d u c t i o n e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e , t h e r e w o u l d p r o b a b l y b e p r e s s u r e f r o m t h e o i l c o m p a n i e s t o p r o c e e d ( M c P h e e , 1 9 8 2 a ; C a l i f o r n i a C o a s t a l C o m m i s s i o n , 1 9 8 3 c i t e d i n t h e A n g l i c a n C h u r c h o f C a n a d a , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e o i l c o m p a n i e s , EMR a n d t h e B . C . M i n i s t r y o f E M P R , h a v e s t a t e d t h a t f u r t h e r r e v i e w s w i l l b e u n d e r t a k e n s h o u l d p r o d u c t i o n a p p e a r f e a s i b l e ( C h e v r o n , 1 9 8 2 ; D e p t . E M R , 1 9 8 3 b ; M i n i s t e r E M R , B . C . M i n i s t e r E M P R , 1 9 8 3 a ; P e t r o - C a n a d a , 1 9 8 3 ) . A n i n - d e p t h a s s e s s m e n t o f d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p r o d u c t i o n p r i o r t o a n y k n o w l e d g e o f w h e t h e r h y d r o c a r b o n s a r e p r e s e n t o f f t h e W e s t C o a s t w o u l d b e o f l i t t l e v a l u e b e c a u s e t h e i m p a c t s d i s c u s s e d w o u l d b e i n d e t e r m i n a t e . H o w e v e r , d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p r o d u c t i o n c a n n o t j u s t b e i g n o r e d ; s u c h a n a p p r o a c h i s n o t a n t i c i p a t o r y p l a n n i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n t h e r e i s t h e d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e r i s k s o f p r o c e e d i n g w i t h d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p r o d u c t i o n w i l l b e m u c h g r e a t e r t h a n f o r e x p l o r a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , a c a s e c a n b e m a d e f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g a p r e l i m i n a r y a s s e s s m e n t o f d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p r o d u c t i o n i n t o t h e p r e s e n t W e s t C o a s t O f f s h o r e E I A - - u t i l i z i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f N e w f o u n d l a n d , A l a s k a a n d t h e - U . K . - - t o 88 p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f i m p a c t s t h a t c o u l d be e x p e c t e d on t h e West C o a s t . The B.C. M i n i s t r y o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t ' s PEA does do t h i s t o some e x t e n t . Such i n f o r m a t i o n would be u s e f u l i n p u t i n t o t h e d e c i s i o n o f whe t h e r o r n o t t o l i f t t h e m o r a t o r i u m on e x p l o r a t i o n . The p a n e l ' s mandate does p r o v i d e them w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o i d e n t i f y i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s o r q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o p r o d u c t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t . The need f o r and t y p e o f f u t u r e E I A s i s an o b v i o u s i s s u e . 3.4.4.4 S p a t i a l E x t e n t A s u i t a b l e r e g i o n f o r an EIA o f o f f s h o r e h y d r o c a r b o n e x p l o r a t i o n would encompass t h e p r o p o s e d e x p l o r a t i o n a r e a , s i t e s f o r o n s h o r e f a c i l i t i e s , and a r e a s t h a t c o u l d be a f f e c t e d by o i l s p i l l s . The r e a s o n f o r i n c l u d i n g t h e l a t t e r i s t h a t o i l s p i l l s a r e p o t e n t i a l l y an e n v i r o n m e n t a l h a z a r d , and must, t h e r e f o r e , be c o n s i d e r e d i n o r d e r t o a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s w h e t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n c a n p r o c e e d i n a s a f e and e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e manner. T h i s may mean t h a t t h e r e g i o n encompasses p a r t s o f t h e s o u t h e r n c o a s t . A c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f f l e x i b i l i t y i s r e q u i r e d i n d e f i n i n g t h e r e g i o n . T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e zone o f p o t e n t i a l i m p a c t may n o t be e v i d e n t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e EIA r e v i e w ; t h i s i s o f t e n t h e c a s e when a p r e l i m i n a r y p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l , w h i c h may be l a c k i n g s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s , i s b e i n g a s s e s s e d . I n f o r m a t i o n p r o d u c e d d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e EIA may n e c e s s i t a t e a r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e b o u n d a r i e s . 89 The a c t u a l West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with the e x p l o r a t i o n area which l i e s n orth of Vancouver I s l a n d (an area which i s much smal l e r i n ge o g r a p h i c a l extent than the Beaufort Sea development and pr o d u c t i o n a r e a ) . The main background documents, t h a t i s , the IEEs and the PEA, concentrate on the area to the nor t h of Vancouver I s l a n d where e x p l o r a t i o n would occur. Intervenors have r e f e r r e d to the f a c t t h a t impacts need not be r e s t r i c t e d to t h i s l o c a l e (B.C. W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n , Canadian W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n , 1984; DFO, 1984a; Environment Canada, P a c i f i c and Yukon Region, 1984; IOS, 1984; K a i s e r , 1984, c i t e d i n the A n g l i c a n Church of Canada, 1984; W i l l i a m s , 1984b). The panel i s c o g n izant of p o t e n t i a l impacts o u t s i d e the e x p l o r a t i o n area. In i t s d r a f t A d d i t i o n a l Information Required the panel s t a t e d t h a t "...both the companies and government must address the impacts which c o u l d be experienced o u t s i d e the e x p l o r a t i o n area" (West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, 1984c: 8). N a t u r a l l y , the q u a l i t y of the responses on t h i s i s s u e a f f e c t s the l e v e l to which the impacts can be eval u a t e d . In i t s f i n a l v e r s i o n of A d d i t i o n a l Information Required the panel's requests f o r i n f o r m a t i o n appear to concentrate on the e x p l o r a t i o n area. There are a few e x c e p t i o n s . DFO, f o r example, was requested to provide i n f o r m a t i o n on the f i s h e r i e s resource base f o r " p o s s i b l e impact areas" as w e l l as f o r the e x p l o r a t i o n area (West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, 1984e: 8). DFO's (DFO, i n Government of Canada and the Province of 90 B.C., 1985a: 7) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of impact areas i n c l u d e d "areas south along the west co a s t of Vancouver I s l a n d and between Vancouver I s l a n d and the mainland". Another e x c e p t i o n was the request to DRIE ( f e d e r a l Department of Regional I n d u s t r i a l Expansion), MISBD (B.C. M i n i s t r y of Industry and Small Business Development), and CCG (Canadian Coast Guard) f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on "other s i g n i f i c a n t c o a s t a l and marine developments... planned or a n t i c i p a t e d to take p l a c e w i t h i n the west co a s t r e g i o n d u r i n g the next 10 y e a r s " (West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, 1984e: 14). DRIE and MISBD's d i s c u s s i o n s , however, were r e s t r i c t e d to the northern p o r t i o n of the c o a s t (Dept. of Regional I n d u s t r i a l Expansion, i n Government of Canada and the Province of B.C., 1985a; B.C. M i n i s t r y of Industry and Small Business Development, 1985). 3.4.5 M o n i t o r i n g The IEEs, PEA, and "other review requirements (e.g. impact i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and m i t i g a t i v e measures) t h a t w i l l be met...", together are to c o n s t i t u t e an EIS ( M i n i s t e r of EMR and M i n i s t e r of EMPR, 1983b: 2). In c o n t r a s t , the Beaufort Sea EARP review had a formal EIS ( M a r s h a l l , pers. comm.). The IEEs p r o v i d e d very l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n on monitoring which should be an i n t e g r a l p a r t of impact management. The B.C. M i n i s t r y of the Environment, i n a submission to the panel, acknowledged the importance of e s t a b l i s h i n g a monitoring programme, although the M i n i s t r y recommended i t , they d i d not 91 say i t would be e s t a b l i s h e d : I t i s recommended t h a t a b a s e l i n e monitoring program be designed and implemented p r i o r to s e i s m i c e x p l o r a t i o n and continued through to completion of e x p l o r a t o r y d r i l l i n g . The program should be based on the f i n d i n g s of s i m i l a r monitoring s t u d i e s i n Canada, the North Sea and the U.S.. Study parameters should be r e s t r i c t e d to those t h a t have been found to show s i g n i f i c a n t changes d u r i n g e x p l o r a t o r y d r i l l i n g and to those which w i l l be of s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r e v a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t s of o i l . (B.C. M i n i s t r y of the Environment, 1984a: 100; emphasis added). Chevron (1982) and Petro-Canada (1983) s t a t e t h a t s i t e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n i n the e x p l o r a t i o n area i s scanty; thus, they had to r e l y on i n f o r m a t i o n from other l o c a l i t i e s . T h i s presents a problem. To be e f f e c t i v e , monitoring of p r o j e c t impacts r e q u i r e s b a s e l i n e i n f o r m a t i o n . Thus, i t i s imperative t h a t data d e f i c i e n c i e s are p r i o r i z e d " i n terms of t h e i r r e l e v a n c e and importance to the decision-making process" (COGLA and B.C. M i n i s t r y EMPR, 1984a: 43) and "environmental management of the proposed d r i l l i n g program" (B.C. M i n i s t r y of the Environment, 1984a: 87). In f a c t , government agencies d i d undertake a scoping and p r i o r i z i n g workshop e a r l y i n 1984 (see COGLA and B.C. M i n i s t r y of EMPR, 1984a). The B.C. M i n i s t r y of the Environment (1983: 256) c i t e s the U.K. example where emphasis was placed "on monitoring the resources at r i s k " . I t i s encouraging t h a t the panel's A d d i t i o n a l Information Required made a number of r e f e r e n c e s to monitoring and to p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n such programmes (West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment, 1984e). For example: 92 37. . . . o u t l i n e what s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e would be a v a i l a b l e to l o c a l communities:... i i ) to monitor and assess changes i n t h e i r community and environment?... and 38. What are the c a p a b i l i t i e s of communities to monitor and assess s o c i a l changes? Are t h e i r r e sources adequate to do so?... (West Coast O f f s h o r e Hydrocarbon E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment, 1984e: 12-13). The responses given to these q u e s t i o n s were e n l i g h t e n i n g . Owen Anderson, Regional D i r e c t o r General B.C. Region, DIAND, f o r example, s t a t e s : our f i r m b e l i e f i s t h a t the Indian people themselves can best determine the means whereby they can become and remain w e l l - i n f o r m e d , assess and monitor s o c i a l changes, and assess t h e i r communities' c a p a b i l i t i e s and the adequacy of resources to respond to and manage impacts of o f f s h o r e petroleum a c t i v i t i e s (Anderson, 1985: 275). DIAND, d i d i n f a c t p r ovide funds to n a t i v e groups to conduct t h e i r own p l a n n i n g and assessment work on the West Coast o f f s h o r e hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n proposal (Anderson, 1985). I f e e l t h a t t h i s approach has p o t e n t i a l and i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s warrants f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The B.C. M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s ' response was t h a t l o c a l government c a p a b i l i t i e s v a r i e d with the s i z e and maturity of the community and " l o c a l governments have very l i m i t e d resources to assess s o c i a l change", t h e i r a b i l i t i e s c o n c e n t r a t i n g "more on the p l a n n i n g and management of p h y s i c a l responses to change which are t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . . . " , such as i n c r e a s e d demand f o r i n f r a s t r u c t u r e (B.C. M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , 1985, i n Government of Canada and the Province of B.C., 1985a: 271; emphasis added). As the M i n i s t r y expects community impacts 93 from e x p l o r a t i o n to be minimal i t d i d not seem overly-concerned by the lack of r e s o u r c e s . While t h i s assumption may be t r u e what happens i f development proceeds? There i s a need f o r community development p l a n n i n g d u r i n g the lead time a v a i l a b l e . Chevron, the proponent, d i d not s p e c i f y what s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e would be a v a i l a b l e to help communities monitor and assess changes to t h e i r environment (Chevron, 1985). This i s s u e of proponent a s s i s t a n c e to communities needs to be addressed by the pane l . 3.4.6 Intervenor Funding The Beaufort Sea EARP panel concluded t h a t i n t e r v e n o r funding had been very u s e f u l : ...the review process was m a t e r i a l l y a s s i s t e d . . . [ i t ] enhanced the q u a l i t y and substance of i n t e r v e n t i o n s from northern r e s i d e n t s whose i n t e r e s t s would be most d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d . . . (BSEAP, 1984: 7; emphasis added). They recommended: .. . t h a t i n t e r v e n o r funding be made a v a i l a b l e f o r a l 1 f u t u r e EARP reviews, and t h a t funding be r e s t r i c t e d to those p a r t i c i p a n t s who would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by the proposal under review (BSEAP, 1984: 7; emphasis added). Despite such a recommendation no funding i s a v a i l a b l e f o r the West Coast o f f s h o r e hydrocarbon EIA ( M i n i s t e r EMR, M i n i s t e r EMPR, 1983a), with the ex c e p t i o n of some funding made a v a i l a b l e to n a t i v e groups by DIAND under the Resource Development Impacts Program (Anderson, 1985), and funding was made a v a i l a b l e through Environment Canada/or the O f f s h o r e A l l i a n c e to conduct i n f o r m a t i o n workshops i n 1982-83 (McPhee, 94 1985). This i s a r e t r o g r e s s i v e step. Many groups p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the West Coast review have requested funding be made a v a i l a b l e (Anglican Church of Canada, 1984; de Leeuw, 1984; E r i c k s o n , 1984; Massett Band C o u n c i l , 1984; Moore, 1984; S i e r r a Club Canadian N a t i o n a l Committee, 1984; Speck, 1984; United Fishermen and A l l i e d Workers Union, 1984; V i c t o r i a Chapter of the Green Party of Canada, 1984; Yeomans, 1984; and West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, 1985). Charles C a c c i a (1984: 92) when he was f e d e r a l M i n i s t e r of the Environment s t a t e d h i s personal support f o r i n t e r v e n o r funding and: . . . t h a t a p r o p e r l y e s t a b l i s h e d and managed funding program can improve the q u a l i t y of p u b l i c i n p u t to the Panel reviews and consequently improve the government d e c i s i o n making f l o w i n g from these reviews. C a c c i a added t h a t there was no government p o l i c y on i n t e r v e n o r funding a t t h a t time (May 4, 1984). The panel submitted l e t t e r s to both the f e d e r a l M i n i s t e r of the Environment (Suzanne B l a i s - G r e n i e r ) and the p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r of the Environment (at the time Anthony Brummet) on December 1, 1984 r e q u e s t i n g t h a t l i m i t e d i n t e r v e n o r funding "be provided to communities, and those o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t can e s t a b l i s h a s p e c i a l and r e l e v a n t i n t e r e s t i n the review" so t h a t f u l l and e f f e c t i v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n would be ensured (West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, 1984f: 2). The f e d e r a l M i n i s t e r ' s response was: 95 ...I r e g r e t t h a t i n t e r v e n o r funding w i l l not be a v a i l a b l e . I am p e r s o n a l l y s u p p o r t i v e of the concept of i n t e r v e n o r funding but, as you are aware, there i s at the present time no f e d e r a l program f o r the a l l o c a t i o n of i n t e r v e n o r funds f o r p u b l i c review processes such as t h i s one. I am encouraging examination of t h i s matter on a government-wide b a s i s but, i n view of the c u r r e n t budgetary s i t u a t i o n , i t would be u n r e a l i s t i c to expect a change i n p o l i c y on i n t e r v e n o r funding before your Panel's work i s complete. ( B l a i s - G r e n i e r , 1985; emphasis added). The B.C. government has not even responded to the panel's request! (West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, 1985). Thus, while i n d i v i d u a l s from a l l walks of l i f e r e a l i z e t h a t the review process i s g r e a t l y enhanced by i n t e r v e n o r funding none w i l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r the West Coast o f f s h o r e hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n review. Consequently, the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the review process i s undermined--public groups are denied the resources to p a r t i c i p a t e more e f f e c t i v e l y . I t should be p o i n t e d out t h a t the p u b l i c groups asked f o r and were s u c c e s s f u l i n g e t t i n g a postponement of the hearings so t h a t they c o u l d s o l i c i t funds from other sources, and t h a t the f e d e r a l M i n i s t e r of the Environment has made a v a i l a b l e to anyone so i n t e r e s t e d , the s e r v i c e s of Environment Canada s t a f f (McPhee, pers. comm.). 3.4.7 Panel Composition As was the case with the Beaufort Sea EARP panel, the Chairman of the West Coast panel, Ewan C o t t e r i l l , was at one time a s e n i o r f e d e r a l c i v i l s e r v ant. C o t t e r i l l has had very d i v e r s e experiences i n c l u d i n g : E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of FEARO, V i c e - P r e s i d e n t of Dome Petroleum, resource management 96 c o n s u l t i n g . In a d d i t i o n to C o t t e r i l l , panel members are: Charles B e l l i s , a n a t i v e ; Peter Gelpke, a petroleum engineer; A l l e n Milne, a former f e d e r a l government oceanographer and s c i e n t i s t ; and Norman Nelson, a manager i n the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y (West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, 1984a). Thus, on the whole, panel membership o f f e r s a balance of p e r s p e c t i v e s , although a member experienced i n socio-economic a f f a i r s would have been a u s e f u l complement. As was the case with the Beaufort Sea EARP panel, the i n c l u s i o n of a n a t i v e i s important from the p e r s p e c t i v e of i n c r e a s i n g the involvement of n a t i v e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n ge o g r a p h i c a l areas s u b j e c t to outst a n d i n g n a t i v e land c l a i m s . The West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA panel, has a number of t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i s t s a v a i l a b l e to i t , as d i d the Beaufort Sea EARP panel . 3.4.8 I t e r a t i v e EIA  3.4.8.1 Is I t Necessary? The West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA e x h i b i t s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an i t e r a t i v e EIA. Table II h i g h l i g h t s the main events and dates of the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA. I t e r a t i v e EIA can waste v a l u a b l e time and resources i f u n r e a l i s t i c and/or unnecessary i n f o r m a t i o n i s requested. In the case of the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n was necessary because the i n i t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n provided by the companies b a s i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d r esources at r i s k and d i d not "adequately assess the consequences of e x p l o r a t i o n and a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s on these r e s o u r c e s , nor the means of m i t i g a t i n g and managing these impacts" (0* Riordan, 1984b). In a d d i t i o n , as p o i n t e d out by the B.C. M i n i s t r y of the Environment (1984a) and David F i s s e l ( t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i s t to the panel; 1984) i t was necessary to update the i n f o r m a t i o n provided i n the IEEs. . T h i s h i g h l i g h t s a weakness with the c u r r e n t approach to EIA. The review can take such a long time (Beaufort Sea EIA took three years, the West Coast O f f s h o r e IEEs were begun i n 1980) t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n on which the assessment i s based becomes outdated due to new data c o l l e c t i o n or t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances. The panel c i r c u l a t e d d r a f t A d d i t i o n a l Information Required (West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, 1984c) p r i o r to i s s u i n g supplementary i n f o r m a t i o n requirements to both the proponent (Chevron) and government agencies (West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, 1984e). Comments on the d r a f t A d d i t i o n a l Information Required (West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment, 1984c) c i r c u l a t e d by the panel were mixed. The proponents found some demands e x c e s s i v e (Chevron, 1984); Petro-Canada i n f a c t p u l l e d out of the review because of t h i s . Peter Kaye, V i c e - P r e s i d e n t , Western Canada E x p l o r a t i o n , Petro-Canada (1984) s t a t e d that Petro-Canada had a number of more p r e s s i n g problems to address at t h i s time and c o u l d not devote resources to f u l f i l l the panel's a d d i t i o n a l requirements which i t f e l t extended beyond Petro-Canada's o r i g i n a l terms of r e f e r e n c e ; and: 98 Petro-Canada w i l l f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r the terms and c o n d i t i o n s f o r e x p l o r a t i o n on the West Coast a t the  time those lands are made a v a i l a b l e f o r e x p l o r a t o r y  a c t i v i t y (Kaye, 1984: 2; emphasis added). Others who found the requests f o r i n f o r m a t i o n e x c e s s i v e i n c l u d e d : two t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i s t s to the panel, P. L.arkin (1984) and Tim Parsons (1984); COGLA and B.C. M i n i s t r y of EMPR (1984b); and David Thomas (1984). Data d e f i c i e n c i e s , however, are of g r e a t concern and have the a b i l i t y to undermine the c r e d i b i l i t y of the EIA. As p o i n t e d out i n the T e c h n i c a l E v a l u a t i o n (COGLA and B.C. M i n i s t r y EMPR, 1984a: 38-41) i t must be r e c o g n i z e d : ...given the a v a i l a b l e data, t h a t the impact p r e d i c t i o n s are "best guesses" based on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and assumptions. T h e r e f o r e , c a u t i o n should be e x e r c i s e d i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and assessment of these p r e d i c t i o n s . . . . S i m i l a r c a u t i o n should a l s o be a p p l i e d to the assessments of economic values generated from these s p i l l s c e n a r i o s / i m p a c t p r e d i c t i o n e x e r c i s e s . ....accuracy of such assessments can be expected to be extremely v a r i a b l e , of q u e s t i o n a b l e v a l i d i t y and s u b j e c t to s e r i o u s c r i t i c i s m . In l i g h t of t h i s , the panel should give s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n to whether or not the i n f o r m a t i o n presented i s adequate f o r determining the terms and c o n d i t i o n s of e x p l o r a t i o n . The panel must s p e c i f y f u t u r e r e s e a r c h requirements, p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c assessments and impact management requirements. 3.4.8.2 Who Should Be Involved? An important i s s u e i s who should provide the a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n requested by the panel? The panel i d e n t i f i e d s p e c i f i c government agencies and/or the proponent 99 TABLE II TIMETABLE OF THE MAIN EVENTS OF THE WEST COAST OFFSHORE EIA DATE: 1983, September 8: EVENT Memorandum of Agreement the f e d e r a l M i n i s t e r of and Petroleum Resources M i n i s t e r of Energy, Min Resources (EMPR), estab p u b l i c review of the of hydrocarbon proposals 6 Petro-Canada. Terms of the review attached to signed between Energy, Mines and the B.C. es and Petroleum l i s h i n g a j o i n t s h o r e f Chevron and Reference f o r the Memorandum. 1984, January 17-11 1984, June 26: 1984, J u l y - S e p t . : 1984, October 9: 1984, November 2: 1984, November: 1984, December 1: 1984, December: 1984, December: Government agencies undertake a T e c h n i c a l E v a l u a t i o n of Petro-Canada and Chevron's IEEs. E v a l u a t i o n c o o r d i n a t e d by COGLA and B.C. M i n i s t r y of EMPR. Environmental assessment panel chosen by the f e d e r a l and B.C. M i n i s t e r s of the Environment. Panel r e c e i v e s i n i t i a l p u b l i c comments on a d d i t i o n a l background i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d , t h a t i s , a d d i t i o n a l to the proponents' IEEs, the PEA, and COGLA/ B.C. M i n i s t r y of EMPR's T e c h n i c a l E v a l u a t i o n . Panel i s s u e s D r a f t A d d i t i o n a l Information Requirements. Petro-Canada withdraws from the review. P u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n meetings: d i s c u s s the review process, O p e r a t i o n a l Procedures, proponents' proposals and any a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s necessary. Panel requests t h a t the M i n i s t e r s of Environment f o r Canada and B.C. prov i d e i n t e r v e n o r funding. Panel i s s u e s Requirements f o r A d d i t i o n a l Information. Panel's Terms of Reference r e v i s e d to take i n t o account Petro-Canada's withdrawal from the review. 1985, February 7: Fed e r a l M i n i s t e r of Environment 100 1985, February 20: 1985, February on: 1985, May 6: s t a t e s no i n t e r v e n o r funding w i l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r the review. No response from the B.C. M i n i s t e r of Environment. Chevron and the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments' responses to the panel's A d d i t i o n a l Information Requirements made p u b l i c . .Public comments on Chevron and the governments' responses. Panel c o n s i d e r s the responses. Announcement t h a t P u b l i c Hearings rescheduled from May-June to September-October. A l s o d e a d l i n e f o r panel's f i n a l r e p o r t to the f e d e r a l and B.C. M i n i s t e r s of Environment extended from September 1985 to November 30, 1985. 1.01 i n i t s A d d i t i o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n R e q u i r e d ( W e s t C o a s t O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t P a n e l , 1 9 8 4 e ) . T h e B . C . M i n i s t r y o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t ( 1 9 8 4 a , 1 9 8 4 b ) a n d C O G L A , B . C . M i n i s t r y E M P R ( 1 9 8 4 a ) b o t h s t a t e d t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s w e r e s p e c i f i c a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g s o m e o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . A q u e s t i o n t h a t s p r i n g s t o m i n d i s w h e t h e r t h e p a n e l s h o u l d h a v e d i r e c t e d a n y o f i t s q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i s s u e s t o t h e c o m m u n i t i e s t h e m s e l v e s t h r o u g h t h e i r m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g o f f i c e s . O n e s u c h q u e s t i o n w o u l d b e : . . . t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f c o m m u n i t i e s t o m o n i t o r a n d a s s e s s s o c i a l c h a n g e s ? A r e t h e i r r e s o u r c e s a d e q u a t e t o d o s o ? ( W e s t C o a s t O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n A s s e s s m e n t P a n e l , 1 9 8 4 e : 1 3 ) . T h e p a n e l a s k e d D I A N D a n d t h e B . C . M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s t o r e s p o n d . T h u s , w h i l e a s t r e n g t h o f t h e W e s t C o a s t O f f s h o r e E I A i s t h a t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e p r o p o s a l s o n t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e , a r e d e e m e d i m p o r t a n t ( s e e W e s t C o a s t O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t P a n e l , 1 9 8 4 e , t h e p a n e l h a s n o t d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s e d t h e s e q u e s t i o n s t o t h e c o m m u n i t i e s i n v o l v e d . A n o t h e r p o t e n t i a l w e a k n e s s i s t h a t , u n l i k e t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P p a n e l w h i c h w a s g r a n t e d a v i r t u a l " c a r t e b l a n c h e " r e g a r d i n g s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s , t h e W e s t C o a s t O f f s h o r e E I A p a n e l i s l i m i t e d t o t h o s e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e b i o p h y s i c a l i m p a c t s ( M a r s h a l l , 1 9 8 5 ) . M a t e r i a l s u p p l i e d b y t h e p r o p o n e n t r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f o b j e c t i v i t y . N a t u r a l l y , t h e p r o p o n e n t w o u l d w a n t t o p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e m o s t f a v o u r a b l e l i g h t t o h i m s e l f i n o r d e r t o g e t t h e p r o j e c t a p p r o v e d . L o c a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e 1.02 p r o d u c t i o n of the IEEs was v i r t u a l l y n i l . Both Chevron (1982) and Petro-Canada (1983) s t a t e d t h a t they had not conducted community s t u d i e s . E r i c k s o n (1984: 84) i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l of t h i s because accurate i n f o r m a t i o n on the pe r c e p t i o n s of l o c a l r e s i d e n t s r e g a r d i n g the d e s i r a b i l i t y of any changes and "the r o l e of communities i n monitoring and managing changes, c o u l d only be obtained with s i g n i f i c a n t l o c a l involvement". The importance of community involvement i n EIA was o u t l i n e d i n S e c t i o n 1.3. 3.4.8.3 Time A l l o c a t e d For t h e Review The West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA i s al r e a d y behind i t s i n i t i a l schedule ( M i n i s t e r of EMR and M i n i s t e r of EMPR, 1983b). Even so, some i n t e r v e n o r s s t i l l complain of i n s u f f i c i e n t time to review and respond to the i n f o r m a t i o n presented (B.C. M i n i s t r y of Environment, 1984a; DFO, 1984b; the V i c t o r i a Chapter of the Green P a r t y , 1984). The B.C. M i n i s t r y of the Environment (1984a), f o r example, s t a t e d there i s only time f o r a desk a n a l y s i s to be undertaken between the request f o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and the time the panel must r e c e i v e i t by (February 1985). Given t h a t i n t e r v e n o r s , due to lack of i n t e r v e n o r funding are having to analyze the i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e i r own time and at t h e i r own c o s t , I b e l i e v e t h a t i n s u f f i c i e n t time was a l l o c a t e d f o r t h e i r responses. The p u b l i c hearings have now been re-scheduled from May to September/October 1985. Th i s r e - s c h e d u l i n g was made p o s s i b l e because the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r s of the 103 E n v i r o n m e n t a g r e e d t o a l a t e r d e a d l i n e f o r s u b m i s s i o n o f t h e p a n e l ' s r e p o r t — N o v e m b e r 3 0 , 1 9 8 5 r a t h e r t h a n S e p t e m b e r ( G o v e r n m e n t o f C a n a d a a n d t h e P r o v i n c e o f B . C . , 1 9 8 5 b ) . T h i s w i l l g i v e i n t e r v e n o r s m o r e t i m e t o a n a l y z e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d t o t h e p a n e l . 3 . 5 S U M M A R Y : S T R E N G T H S A N D W E A K N E S S E S O F T H E W E S T C O A S T  O F F S H O R E E I A A N D P A R A L L E L S W I T H T H E B E A U F O R T S E A E A R P T h e s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s o f t h e W e s t C o a s t O f f s h o r e E I A , a r e s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e I I I . T h e s e s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s h a v e b e e n d e t e r m i n e d b y c o m p a r i n g t h e W e s t C o a s t O f f s h o r e E I A t o t h e c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d f o r e f f e c t i v e E I A ( s e e S e c t i o n 3 . 2 ) . S t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s w i t h i n t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P a r e i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e I I I t o s h o w t h e p a r a l l e l s b e t w e e n t h e W e s t C o a s t O f f s h o r e E I A a n d t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P . T h e W e s t C o a s t O f f s h o r e E I A e x h i b i t s b o t h s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P . B o t h E I A s a r e a f f e c t e d b y s i m i l a r e x t e r n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e l a c k o f c l e a r , c o o r d i n a t e d p o l i c y a n d p l a n n i n g f r a m e w o r k s , a n d o u t s t a n d i n g n a t i v e l a n d c l a i m s . B o t h E I A s h a v e i n d e p e n d e n t p a n e l s w i t h m e m b e r s f r o m d i v e r s e b a c k g r o u n d s , i n c l u d i n g n a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . M a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s a r e t h a t t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P w a s p u r e l y a n E A R P , w h e r e a s t h e W e s t C o a s t O f f s h o r e E I A i s b o t h E A R P a n d B . C . E n v i r o n m e n t M a n a g e m e n t A c t . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e B e a u f o r t S e a p r o p o s a l s c o v e r e d a m u c h l a r g e r g e o g r a p h i c e x t e n t t h a n t h o s e f o r t h e W e s t C o a s t . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P w a s p r i n c i p a l l y r e s t r i c t e d t o 104 development and p r o d u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , and the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA p r i n c i p a l l y to e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . As po i n t e d out by McPhee (1985), i n d u s t r y d i d not want a repeat of the Beaufort Sea EARP, with unbounded scope and no time l i m i t . Consequently, the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA was given a more s p e c i f i c terms of r e f e r e n c e , a l i m i t e d time frame, and no i n t e r v e n o r funding. 105 T A B L E I I I S T R E N G T H S A N D W E A K N E S S E S O F T H E W E S T C O A S T O F F S H O R E E I A A N D P A R A L L E L S W I T H T H E B E A U F O R T S E A E A R P . C R I T E R I A F O R E F F E C T I V E E I A I s t h e r e a c o o r d i n a t e d p o l i c y a n d p l a n n i n g f r a m e w o r k , s u c h a s r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g i n p l a c e ? W E S T C O A S T O F F S H O R E E I A E x p l i c i t c o o r d i n a t e d p o l i c i e s a n d p l a n s , a n d a n e x p l i c i t r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r t h e c o a s t a r e l a c k i n g . T h e r e a r e o u t s t a n d i n g n a t i v e l a n d c l a i m s . T h e s e f a c t o r s d e c r e a s e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e E I A . B E A U F O R T S E A E A R P E x p l i c i t c o o r d i n a t e d p o l i c i e s a n d p l a n s , a n d a r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g o r l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w e r e l a c k i n g . T h e r e w e r e o u t s t a n d i n g n a t i v e l a n d c l a i m s . T h e s e f a c t o r s d e c r e a s e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e E I A . H a s a c l e a r r o l e f o r t h e E I A b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r t o t h e r e v i e w ? T h e E I A i s t o p r o v i d e o n e i n p u t i n t o t h e d e c i s i o n o n w h e t h e r o r n o t t o l i f t t h e m o r a t o r i u m o n e x p l o r a t i o n ; i t i s n o t c l e a r w h a t t h e o t h e r i n p u t s a r e . T h i s h a s t h e p o t e n t i a l t o u n d e r m i n e t h e E I A s c r e d i b i l i t y . T h e r o l e o f t h e E I A w a s u n c l e a r t o m a n y i n t e r v e n o r s . T h i s u n d e r m i n e d t h e c r e d i b i l i t y o f t h e E I A . D o e s t h e p a n e l ' s m a n d a t e g i v e t h e m t h e a u t h o r i t y a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o d o t h e j o b ? T h e p a n e l c a n r e q u e s t a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n a n d h a s d o n e s o . T h i s i s v a l u a b l e b e c a u s e s o m e o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n , t h e I E E s w a s o u t d a t e d . T h e p a n e l d o e s n o t h a v e t h e p o w e r t o s u b p o e n a w i t n e s s e s ; i t h a s t o r e l y o n r e l y o n p a r t i c i p a n t s ' h o n e s t y a n d g o o d w i l l w h i c h c a n b e a w e a k n e s s . T h e p a n e l d i d r e q u e s t a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e p r o p o n e n t s , w h i c h i s i m p o r t a n t i n l i g h t o f t h e p r e l i m i n a r y n a t u r e o f t h e p r o p o s a l s . T h e p a n e l d i d n o t h a v e t h e p o w e r t o s u b p o e n a w i t n e s s e s ; i t h a d t o r e l y o n t h e h o n e s t y a n d g o o d w i l l o f p a r t i c i p a n t s w h i c h w a s a w e a k n e s s . W h a t LS t h e s c o p e o f t h e p a n e l ' s m a n d a t e ? I s i t c o m p r e h e n s i v e i n s c o p e , t h a t i s , d o e s i t a l l o w t h e p a n e l t o e x a m i n e t o e x a m i n e b i o p h y s i c a l a n d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s ? D o e s i t a l l o w t h e m t o d e t a i l f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h r e q u i r e m e n t s b a s e d o n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g a p s i d e n t i f i e d , a n d f u t u r e a s s e s s m e n t a n d m o n i t o r i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s ? T h e p a n e l ' s m a n d a t e h a s a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s c o p e ; h o w e v e r , t h e c o v e r a g e o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s i s r e s t r i c t e d t o t h o s e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o b i o p h y s i c a l o n e s . I t s m a n d a t e i s t o r e c o m m e n d t e r m s a n d c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h e x p l o r a t i o n c a n p r o c e e d i n a s a f e a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e m a n n e r . T h e r e f o r e , t h e p a n e l c o u l d d e a l w i t h g o v e r n m e n t m a n a g e m e n t , f u t u r e r e s e a r c h , -m o n i t o r i n g a n d E I A r e q u i r e m e n t s . I f t h e p a n e l d o e s t h i s , t h e E I A w i l l m a k e a n i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . T h e p a n e l ' s m a n d a t e w a s c o m p r e h e n s i v e i n s c o p e . A l t h o u g h t h e p a n e l i n i t i a l l y s e e m e d d e t e r m i n e d t o o b t a i n g o o d d a t a o n g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y a n d p r o g r a m m e s , i t a c q u i e s c e d t o t h e r e c e i p t o f i n a d e q u a t e i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p a n e l d i d n o t p r i o r i z e f u t u r e r e s e a r c h r e q u i r e m e n t s , a n d , i n g e n e r a l , s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s o n m o n i t o r i n g a n d f u r t h e r a s s e s s m e n t s w e r e n o t p r o v i d e d . I s t h e E I A a n o n g o i n g , c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s , o r i s i t a p r o d u c t ? I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e E I A w i l l b e a o n e - s h o t a p p r o a c h , e n d i n g a f t e r t h e p a n e l s u b m i t s i t s F i n a l R e p o r t . M o r e o v e r , t h e E I A i s c o n c e n t r a t i n g o n t h e I E E s a n d a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , t h a t i s , t h e p r o d u c t , r a t h e r t h a n e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a n a g e m e n t , a l t h o u g h E n v i r o n m e n t C a n a d a i s w o r k i n g o n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h a n d m o n i t o r i n g n e e d s . T h e E I A w a s a o n e - s h o t a p p r o a c h , e n d i n g a f t e r t h e p a n e l s u b m i t t e d i t s F i n a l R e p o r t . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e E I A c o n c e n t r a t e d o n E I S , t h a t i s , t h e p r o d u c t , r a t h e r t h a n o n e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a n a g e m e n t , a m o r e p r e f e r r a b l e a p p r o a c h . I s t h e E I A e x a m i n i n g p r e l i m i n a r y p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l s ? I f s o , i s p a r t o f t h e r e v i e w p r o c e s s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i s s u e o f f u t u r e p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c E I A s ? T h e r e v i e w i s e x a m i n i n g p r e l i m i n a r y p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l s . T h e p a n e l ' s m a n d a t e a l l o w s t h e m t o e x a m i n e f u t u r e E I A r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d i f t h i s t a s k i s c o m p l e t e d , t h e E I A w i l l b e i m p r o v e d . T h e r e v i e w e x a m i n e d p r e l i m i n a r y p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l s . F e w d e t a i l s w e r e p r o v i d e d o n f u t u r e E I A r e q u i r e m e n t s w h i c h i s a s e r i o u s f l a w . I s m o n i t o r i n g a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e E I A ? M o n i t o r i n g i s n o t a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e E I A ; T h e p a n e l i s o n l y a b l e t o m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n m o n i t o r i n g . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t i s u n c e r t a i n w h e t h e r m a n a g e m e n t - o r i e n t e d m o n i t o r i n g w i l l b e u n d e r t a k e n M o n i t o r i n g w a s n o t a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e E I A . T h e p a n e l c o u l d o n l y m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n m o n i t o r i n g . T h u s , t h e r e i s n o g u a r a n t e e t h a t m a n a g e m e n t - o r i e n t e d m o n i t o r i n g w i l l b e u n d e r t a k e n . I s t h e p u b l i c a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e E I A ? T h e r e v i e w i s s t r e n g t h e n e d b y t h e m a n y o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c t o p a r t i c i p a t e : i n f o r m a t i o n m e e t i n g s ; h e a r i n g s ; t h e a b i l i t y t o a s k q u e s t i o n s o f o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s t h r o u g h t h e p a n e l ; a n d t h e a b i l i t y t o s u b m i t w r i t t e n c o m m e n t s . A l l i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d b y t h e p a n e l i s m a d e p u b l i c . T h e p a n e l ' s r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n o n c o m m u n i t y i n v o l v e m e n t i n a s s e s s m e n t a n d m o n i t o r i n g i s a n a s s e t . H o w e v e r , d r a w b a c k s a r e t h e l a c k o f c o m m u n i t y r e s o u r c e s a n d t h e p a n e l ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e a d v i s o r y . T h e r e v i e w w a s s t r e n g t h e n e d b y t h e m a n y o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c t o p a r t i c i p a t e : d i s c u s s i o n m e e t i n g s o n d r a f t g u i d e l i n e s ; h e a r i n g s ; t h e a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e w r i t t e n s u b m i s s i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , a l l i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d b y t h e p a n e l w a s m a d e p u b l i c . I s i n t e r v e n o r f u n d i n g a v a i l a b l e ? T h e p a n e l i s h a n d i c a p p e d b e c a u s e t h e r e i s n o i n t e r v e n o r f u n d i n g e x c e p t f o r s o m e n a t i v e g r o u p s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o u l d b e r e d u c e d . T h e q u a l i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e r e v i e w w a s e n h a n c e d b e c a u s e i n t e r v e n o r f u n d i n g w a s p r o v i d e d t o v a r i o u s g r o u p s . T h e p a n e l r e c o m m e n d e d i n f a v o u r o f i n t e r v e n o r f u n d i n g f o r f u t u r e E A R P r e v i e w s b u t i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e o n l y a d v i s o r y . 1 0 6 C H A P T E R F O U R WHAT S H O U L D B E D O N E N E X T O F F T H E W E S T C O A S T ? . . . i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e a p p r o a c h f o r t h e 8 0 ' s i s t o e n s u r e t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t p r o g r a m s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h r e g i o n a l a n d r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s ( M a r s h a l l e t a l . , 1 9 8 5 : 15) . T h e W e s t C o a s t O f f s h o r e E I A c o u l d p r o v i d e a n i m p o r t a n t i n p u t i n t o t h e d e c i s i o n o f w h e t h e r t o r e s u m e e x p l o r a t o r y d r i l l i n g o f f t h e W e s t C o a s t . I n t h i s c h a p t e r I s u g g e s t p r o b l e m a r e a s i n w h i c h t h e W e s t C o a s t O f f s h o r e E I A P a n e l c o u l d m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , a n d m e a s u r e s t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t s c o u l d a d o p t , t o a v o i d r e p e a t i n g p a s t e r r o r s ( s e e S e c t i o n 2 . 4 ) a n d t o u t i l i z e t h e e x i s t i n g E I A a s a s p r i n g b o a r d f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f W e s t C o a s t o f f s h o r e h y d r o c a r b o n r e s o u r c e s . 4 . 1 E F F E C T I V E P L A N N I N G A N D M A N A G E M E N T  4 . 1 . 1 I s s u e : R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n n i n g A s w a s t h e c a s e w i t h t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P ( s e e S e c t i o n 2 . 2 . 1 ) , t h e W e s t C o a s t O f f s h o r e E I A i s b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e a b s e n c e o f a c o o r d i n a t e d p o l i c y a n d p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t ( s e e S e c t i o n 3 . 3 ) . I n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o w e i g h t h e v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e u s e o p t i o n s a n d d i s c e r n ' b e s t ' o r p r i o r i t y u s e s . T h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m ( U . K . ) N o r t h S e a h y d r o c a r b o n d e v e l o p m e n t p r o v i d e s a n e x c e l l e n t e x a m p l e o f t h e w e a k n e s s e s i n a d h o c , r e a c t i v e p l a n n i n g a n d t h e r e s u l t a n t p r o b l e m s - - f o r d e t a i l s o f s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s s e e B a l d w i n a n d B a l d w i n ( 1 9 7 5 ) ; N e l s o n a n d J e s s e n ( 1 9 8 1 ) ; M a n n e r s 107 (1982). This r e a l i t y i n B.C. needs to be addressed i n the panel's recommendations. The West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA panel i s i n an e x c e l l e n t p o s i t i o n to p r o v i d e the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments with s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n on i s s u e s , o b j e c t i v e s and a l t e r n a t i v e approaches to r e g i o n a l development a s s o c i a t e d with hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n . The Beaufort Sea EARP was a l s o i n a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n but provided l i t t l e guidance to the f e d e r a l government d e s p i t e i n f o r m a t i o n i t had r e c e i v e d from v a r i u o s sources: government, p r i v a t e s e c t o r , and the p u b l i c ( S e c t i o n 2.4). 4.1.1.1 Recommendations on Regional Development Planning The West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA panel should address the lac k of a coherent and comprehensive p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g environment f o r the West Coast. Information provided by government on p r i o r i t y use areas, and p o t e n t i a l f u t u r e resource uses '(Section 3.4.3) may help address the p a r t i a l p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g vacuum, as w e l l as h i g h l i g h t i s s u e s t h a t s t i l l need to be r e s o l v e d , and i n d i c a t e i f government agencies are w e l l - i n f o r m e d and prepared at t h i s stage. The West Coast o f f s h o r e EIA c o u l d make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to development p l a n n i n g i f the panel c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d : the i s s u e s ; v a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s and problems a s s o c i a t e d with the lack of c o o r d i n a t e d p o l i c i e s and p l a n n i n g (f o r example, economic development, energy, f i s h e r i e s , c o n s e r v a t i o n , s o c i a l development); and provided 1 0 8 recommendations on a p p r o p r i a t e approaches t h a t would address these concerns. For example, the panel i s u n i q u e l y p o s i t i o n e d to l e a r n about l o c a l and r e g i o n a l values and p r i o r i t i e s and to s y n t h e s i z e i n f o r m a t i o n from both the p r i v a t e s e c t o r and government agencies on other resource development options t h a t w i l l be compromised and enhanced by hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n and development. The panel should c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e these i s s u e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s and recommend ways i n which governments might i n i t i a t e more comprehensive development p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n making on the West Coast. The o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e would be to maximize p u b l i c b e n e f i t and w e l f a r e from an optimal mix of development a c t i v i t i e s . 4.1.2 Issue: P r o j e c t Need Assessment As shown i n the Beaufort Sea EARP (Se c t i o n 2.3.4) and the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA ( S e c t i o n 3.4.1 and the West Coast O f f s h o r e Environmental Assessment Panel, 1985), the p u b l i c i s deeply concerned with p r o j e c t need and energy p o l i c y , and forwarded numerous submissions to the panels on t h i s i s s u e . While the d e c i s i o n on whether to "go" or "not go" with the p r o j e c t , should u l t i m a t e l y be a p o l i t i c a l l y accountable one, made by e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s , an EIA panel could recommend to government "no go" based on c o n s i d e r a t i o n of environmental impacts alone. "Need" f o r the p r o j e c t i s p a r t of the "go" or ."no go" d e c i s i o n , so some sense of the p e r c e i v e d urgency and/or p r i o r i t y of the p r o p o s a l , as seen by governments, should be 109 provided t o , or s o l i c i t e d by, the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA panel from the a p p r o p r i a t e government agencies. T h i s i s (or should be) p a r t of the panel's "context". T h i s i s necessary because urgency f o r a p r o j e c t can a f f e c t the pace of development, which i n t u r n , can a f f e c t the type and s c a l e of environmental impacts experienced. Such a context was l a c k i n g i n the case of the Beaufort Sea EARP. The Beaufort Sea EARP panel r e c e i v e d a submission from EMR on e x i s t i n g energy p o l i c i e s , but the department c o u l d not p i n p o i n t the p e r c e i v e d i p r i o r i t y of the Beaufort Sea proposals at t h a t time, due to u n c e r t a i n t i e s surrounding the p r o j e c t . In a d d i t i o n , DIAND had s t a t e d t h a t the need, t i m i n g and p r i o r i t y f o r northern r e s e r v e s had not been e s t a b l i s h e d (see S e c t i o n 2.3.4). Consequently, the review r e l i e d on the proponents' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of need. The Beaufort Sea EARP panel's F i n a l Report d i d not make any s i g n i f i c a n t comment on p r o j e c t need and assessment of energy p o l i c i e s , and thus, d i d not provide guidance f o r f u t u r e EARP reviews confronted with t h i s i s s u e . The West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA panel's mandate excludes d i s c u s s i o n of p r o j e c t need and the panel i s s a t i s f i e d with t h i s l i m i t a t i o n , s t a t i n g t h a t i t i s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n an e s t a b l i s h e d energy p o l i c y ( S e c t i o n 3.4.1). The panel, may need to r e - a s s e s s i t s p o s i t i o n on t h i s i s s u e and address how such an i s s u e could be d e a l t with i n the f u t u r e . T h i s i s because there are a number of important concerns a s s o c i a t e d with need t h a t r e q u i r e the a t t e n t i o n of the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments. 110 4 . 1 . 2 . 1 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n P r o j e c t N e e d A s s e s s m e n t I n l i g h t o f p u b l i c c o n c e r n , a n d t h e f a c t t h a t p r o j e c t n e e d h a s n o t b e e n a d e q u a t e l y a d d r e s s e d h e r e t o f o r e , I u r g e t h e p a n e l t o a d d r e s s t h e i s s u e o f : i ) h o w f u t u r e p a n e l s s h o u l d d e a l w i t h t h e n e e d p r o b l e m ; a n d i i ) h o w g o v e r n m e n t s m i g h t a s s i s t t h e E I A p r o c e s s a n d t h e p u b l i c i n d e a l i n g w i t h a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i s s u e . T h e p a n e l i s i n a u n i q u e p o s i t i o n f o r o f f e r i n g t h e g o v e r n m e n t s g u i d a n c e o n h o w p r o j e c t n e e d s h o u l d b e d i s c u s s e d i n a n E I A . I t h a s r e c e i v e d v a r y i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s o n t h e i s s u e f r o m i n t e r v e n o r s , a n d i n a d d i t i o n , i t c a n e v a l u a t e h o w t h e i s s u e a f f e c t e d i t s a b i l i t y t o f u l f i l l i t s m a n d a t e . T h e p a n e l ' s f i n d i n g s o n e n v i r o n m e n t a l a n d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s " f e e d s b a c k " o n t h e p r e v i o u s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f n e e d ; f o r e x a m p l e , i n l i g h t o f t h e n e g a t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s d o e s s o c i e t y s t i l l " n e e d " t h e p r o j e c t ? T h e p a n e l , t h e r e f o r e , c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e p r o j e c t " n e e d " d i s c u s s i o n b y s u g g e s t i n g h o w i t s p r i m a r y f i n d i n g s o n i m p a c t s , a n d r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s , b e a r o n t h e q u e s t i o n o f p r o j e c t u r g e n c y a n d n e e d , a n d m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n a p p r o p r i a t e d e l a y s , m i t i g a t i o n , a n d m o n i t o r i n g p r o g r a m m e s , s h o u l d t h e p r o j e c t b e a p p r o v e d . T h e t w o g o v e r n m e n t s , t h e n c a n m a k e t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n i n f u l l k n o w l e d g e o f t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s a n d t r a d e o f f s . W h i c h g o v e r n m e n t m a k e s t h e u l t i m a t e d e c i s i o n o n w h e t h e r h y d r o c a r b o n e x p l o r a t i o n p r o c e e d s i s d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e i l l r e s o l u t i o n of the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e . 4.1.3 Issue: The J u r i s d i c t i o n a l Dispute While the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA i s being undertaken without p r e j u d i c e to the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l i s s u e , t h i s i s s u e i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t s whether e x p l o r a t i o n can proceed i n a safe and e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e manner. J u r i s d i c t i o n a f f e c t s whether the f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l government or both w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r managing and r e g u l a t i n g e x p l o r a t o r y d r i l l i n g . The r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t are e s t a b l i s h e d determine h e a l t h , s a f e t y and environmental standards. Thus, the scope of the r e g u l a t i o n s imposed can d i r e c t l y a f f e c t the environmental consequences of d r i l l i n g . I t would be prudent f o r the panel to address the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l i s s u e because of the u n c e r t a i n t y i t adds to the assessment of the s a f e t y of e x p l o r a t i o n d r i l l i n g . The i s s u e a l s o adds u n c e r t a i n t y to the West Coast p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g environment, i n c l u d i n g whose energy p o l i c y takes precedence, f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l . In a d d i t i o n , u n c e r t a i n t y over the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l i s s u e may r e s u l t i n government agencies adopting a c a u t i o u s approach when r e v e a l i n g p o t e n t i a l p o l i c i e s and plans to ensure t h a t they do not compromise themselves. T h i s , p o t e n t i a l l y , has negative i m p l i c a t i o n s . Key i n f o r m a t i o n , r e l e v a n t to the panel's a n a l y s i s , such as s i t e s of p o t e n t i a l f u t u r e use f o r a p a r t i c u l a r r e s o u r c e , may not be made a v a i l a b l e . Under such circumstances, the EIA would not be u t i l i z e d to i t s f u l l p o t e n t i a l . 112 4 . 1 . 3 . 1 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n t h e J u r i s d i c t i o n a l D i s p u t e B a s e d o n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i t r e c e i v e s , t h e p a n e l s h o u l d e x p o s e a n d d i s c u s s t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s a n d p r o b l e m s t h a t r e s u l t f r o m t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e . M o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e p a n e l w i l l m a k e i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s i f i t c l a r i f i e s t h e i s s u e ; d e t e r m i n e s h o w t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e a f f e c t s i t s m a n d a t e , a n d b e a r s o n e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a t t e r s r e l e v a n t t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e d r i l l i n g p r o p o s a l , s u c h a s h o w i t a f f e c t s p u b l i c s a f e t y ; a n d s u g g e s t s h o w , a n d t h e p r i o r i t y w i t h w h i c h , s u c h i s s u e s b e a d d r e s s e d . 4 . 1 . 4 I s s u e : N a t i v e C l a i m s B o t h t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P a n d t h e W e s t C o a s t O f f s h o r e E I A c o v e r a r e a s s u b j e c t t o o u t s t a n d i n g n a t i v e l a n d a n d s e a c l a i m s . T h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P h a d n o m a n d a t e t o d i s c u s s n a t i v e c l a i m s b u t r e c e i v e d n u m e r o u s s u b m i s s i o n s o n t h e i s s u e . I t m a d e a r e c o m m e n d a t i o n t h a t t h e y b e r e s o l v e d a s s o o n a s p o s s i b l e , b u t p r o v i d e d n o s u g g e s t i o n s o n h o w t h i s c o u l d b e a c h i e v e d , n o r d i d i t p r o v i d e m u c h i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e u n r e s o l v e d c l a i m s t o t h e p r o p o n e n t ' s p r o p o s a l s a n d v i c e v e r s a . T h e W e s t C o a s t O f f s h o r e E I A p a n e l ' s " . . . T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e e x c l u d e t h e P a n e l f r o m g i v i n g d i r e c t c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o m a t t e r s s u c h a s . . . a b o r i g i n a l l a n d a n d s e a c l a i m s . . . " ( W e s t C o a s t O f f s h o r e E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t a n d R e v i e w P a n e l , 1 9 8 4 a : 4 ) . T h e r e f o r e , t h e p a n e l i s n o t o b l i g a t e d t o m a k e a n y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n t h i s . A s w a s 113 the case i n the Beaufort Sea EARP, the panel has r e c e i v e d submissions on the n a t i v e claims i s s u e , and the p u b l i c i s o b v i o u s l y concerned. Throughout the review, i f i t can be shown t h a t an i s s u e , not o r i g i n a l l y covered i n the panel's mandate, i s d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t to the EIA, then the panel should be at l i b e r t y to d i s c u s s i t . F l e x i b l e EIAs, able to respond to i s s u e s as they a r i s e , was one of the c r i t e r i a f o r e f f e c t i v e EIA o u t l i n e d i n S e c t i o n 3.2. The Beaufort Sea EARP panel's f i n a l recommendations, i n c o n t r a s t , d i d not respond to the I n u v i a l u i t F i n a l Agreement which was signed near the end of the review and had relev a n c e to the EIA (S e c t i o n 2.4). Outstanding n a t i v e claims add u n c e r t a i n t y to economic development and c o n s e r v a t i o n p o l i c i e s and p l a n n i n g . Development plans c o u l d be h e l d up by c o u r t i n j u n c t i o n s ; these i n j u n c t i o n s r e s u l t from l e g a l c h a l l e n g e s i n i t i a t e d by the n a t i v e s d i s p u t i n g the p r o v i n c i a l government's r i g h t to permit development on lands they c l a i m to have a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e over. P o t e n t i a l i n v e s t o r s may be d e t e r r e d because of the u n c e r t a i n t y . I t may become apparent to the panel t h a t the B.C. and f e d e r a l governments are r e l u c t a n t to address the n a t i v e claims i s s u e i n the EIA forum. The longer the i s s u e remains unresolved the g r e a t e r the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t the B.C. government and n a t i v e groups w i l l become more deeply entrenched i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s . Such a s i t u a t i o n means t h a t a n e g o t i a t e d settlement i s more d i f f i c u l t to reach. 114 4.1.4.1 Recommendations on Native Claims I urge the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA panel to document the s o c i a l and environmental problems a s s o c i a t e d with the f a i l u r e to r e s o l v e the land c l a i m s . I f the panel does so, i t would be making an enormous c o n t r i b u t i o n to the i s s u e without a d d r e s s i n g the s p e c i f i c s of a claims settlement per se. For example, the West Coast panel i s allowed to i d e n t i f y r e g i o n a l concerns a s s o c i a t e d with d r i l l i n g . A r e g i o n a l concern i s t h a t e x p l o r a t i o n has p o t e n t i a l socio-economic e f f e c t s on a l t e r n a t i v e p a t t e r n s of resource use and development t h a t would be the s u b j e c t of claims n e g o t i a t i o n s , and may j e o p a r d i z e the n a t i v e s ' b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n as w e l l as the r i g h t s of the o i l companies ( c f . MacMillan B l o e d e l f o r e s t company and Meares I s l a n d ) . In l i g h t of t h i s , i t would not be out of plac e f o r the panel to document f u l l y the s o c i a l and environmental problems a s s o c i a t e d with f a i l u r e to r e s o l v e these claims (as f a r as i t can from i t s own e v i d e n c e ) . 4.1.5 Issue: Development and P r o d u c t i o n The West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA panel can " i d e n t i f y i s s u e s or questions r e l a t i n g to p r o d u c t i o n and development" i n i t s f i n a l r e p o r t (West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, 1984e: 2). Intervenor submissions may h i g h l i g h t some p o t e n t i a l i s s u e s and concerns. In a d d i t i o n , an a n a l y s i s of the Beaufort Sea EARP, which focused on hydrocarbon development and p r o d u c t i o n p r o p o s a l s , w i l l h i g h l i g h t i s s u e s t h a t need to be addressed. One key i s s u e 115 t h a t can have environmental i m p l i c a t i o n s i s government's a b i l i t y to manage hydrocarbon development and p r o d u c t i o n . As noted e a r l i e r ( S e c t i o n 2.4), the Beaufort Sea panel d i d not adequately address t h i s i s s u e ; i t recommended i n favour of small s c a l e , phased development on the assumption t h a t a l l a p p r o p r i a t e r e s e a r c h and monitoring w i l l be i n p l a c e , an u n r e a l i s t i c assumption given the c u r r e n t f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t programmes w i t h i n government. Another concern t h a t arose i n the B e aufort Sea EARP i n t e r v e n o r submissions was pace of development (S e c t i o n 2.3.3), which a f f e c t s both government's a b i l i t y to r e a c t and the s c a l e of impacts experienced. Pace of development was a l s o a concern of the Newfoundland government f o r the H i b e r n i a f i e l d , and i n f l u e n c e d the type and s c a l e of many of the negative impacts experienced i n the U.K. hydrocarbon development. 4.1.5.1 Recommendations on Development and P r o d u c t i o n At the end of the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA the panel should be i n a p o s i t i o n to recommend to the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments what environmental i s s u e s and concerns would need to be addressed i f the r e s u l t s of e x p l o r a t i o n ( i f i t proceeds) appear promising, what subsequent a c t i o n s may be necessary, and who would be i n v o l v e d i n such a c t i o n s , OR t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d i s inadequate f o r making r e l e v a n t recommendations. I urge the panel to encourage governments to u t i l i z e the lead time between e x p l o r a t i o n and the i n i t i a t i o n of development and p r o d u c t i o n to undertake a n t i c i p a t o r y 116 p l a n n i n g , a n d p r i o r i z e r e s e a r c h a n d m o n i t o r i n g c o n c e r n s . B a s e d o n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h i s c u r r e n t r e v i e w , t h e p a n e l s h o u l d h a v e a r e a s o n a b l e i n d i c a t i o n a s t o w h a t t h e s e p r i o r i t i e s w i l l b e . I f t h e p a n e l d e t e r m i n e s t h a t f u t u r e c o m m u n i t y -i n v o l v e m e n t i n a s s e s s m e n t a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p r o d u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i s i m p o r t a n t , i t c o u l d a l s o s p e c i f i c a l l y a d d r e s s w h a t r e s o u r c e s w o u l d b e n e e d e d , w h e n , a n d f r o m w h o m , t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e c o m m u n i t y i n v o l v e m e n t i s e f f e c t i v e . 4 . 2 F U T U R E E I A R E Q U I R E M E N T S T h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P a s s e s s e d p r e l i m i n a r y p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l s . T h e p a n e l ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s p r o v i d e d l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e t y p e a n d f o r m a t o f f u t u r e p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c E I A s a n d c o m m u n i t y i n v o l v e m e n t i n s u c h a s s e s s m e n t s ( S e c t i o n 2 . 4 ) . T h i s w a s a f a i l i n g w i t h t h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P . A s s t a t e d i n S e c t i o n 2 . 4 , t h e p a n e l ' s m a n d a t e h a d s t i p u l a t e d t h a t t h e p a n e l a s s e s s t h e n e e d f o r s u b s e q u e n t r e v i e w s , i m p l y i n g t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t w a s l o o k i n g f o r g u i d a n c e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p a n e l ' s a s s e s s m e n t c o n c e n t r a t e d o n p r e l i m i n a r y p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l s w i t h f e w p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , s u c h d e t a i l s h a v e y e t t o b e a s s e s s e d . T h e W e s t C o a s t O f f s h o r e E I A p a n e l s h o u l d l e a r n f r o m t h i s d e f i c i e n c y a n d e x a m i n e t h e t y p e o f f u t u r e p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c E I A s t h a t w o u l d b e r e q u i r e d f o r e x p l o r a t i o n ( a n d a l s o d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p r o d u c t i o n i f i t p r o c e e d s ) . Why i s t h i s n e c e s s a r y ? I t i s n e c e s s a r y , p a r t l y b e c a u s e t h e p a n e l i s u n i q u e l y s i t u a t e d t o m a k e s u c h in recommendations; i t has both the data and f a m i l i a r i t y with the i s s u e s . In a d d i t i o n , the present EIA i s examining the e f f e c t s of e x p l o r a t i o n i n general as w e l l as the p r e l i m i n a r y e x p l o r a t i o n p r o p osals of Chevron. As s t a t e d i n S e c t i o n s 3.4.4.2 and 3.4.8.1 much of the i n f o r m a t i o n provided i s s p e c u l a t i v e and with the data a v a i l a b l e impact p r e d i c t i o n s a re "best guesses". S p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s , a r i s i n g out of these p r e l i m i n a r y p r o p osals can have socio-economic and environmental r e p e r c u s s i o n s which have hot been assessed i n t h i s i n i t i a l EIA. Some mechanism should be i n p l a c e to deal with them. Petro-Canada p u l l e d out of the c u r r e n t review s t a t i n g i t would r e c o n s i d e r i t s d e c i s i o n to e x p l o r e once the moratorium i s l i f t e d . The panel should make recommendations on f u t u r e EIA reviews i n which Petro-Canada, or other o i l companies, w i l l have to p a r t i c i p a t e . The panel was concerned with the r o l e l o c a l communities would play i n assessment and monitoring of hydrocarbon p r o j e c t s . L i t e r a t u r e on EIA favours the communities having an a c t i v e r o l e , see S e c t i o n 1.3. Community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s important, p a r t i c u l a r l y when one c o n s i d e r s t h a t the community r e c e i v i n g the development has to l i v e with the changes, both negative and p o s i t i v e . The community i s more aware of negative s o c i a l impacts e s p e c i a l l y on the q u a l i t y of l i f e . 1 1 8 4 . 2 . 1 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n F u t u r e E I A R e q u i r e m e n t s B y t h e e n d o f t h e r e v i e w t h e p a n e l w i l l b e i n g o o d p o s i t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e w h e n a n d w h a t t y p e s o f f u t u r e p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c E I A s s h o u l d b e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e v a r i o u s p h a s e s o f h y d r o c a r b o n a c t i v i t y , a n d h o w l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s m i g h t b e c o m e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e r e v i e w s . T h e p a n e l s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , m a k e e x p l i c i t r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n f u t u r e i m p a c t m a n a g e m e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s : w h a t t y p e ( s ) o f E I A s w i l l b e r e q u i r e d ; w h e n t h e y w i l l b e r e q u i r e d ; w h o w i l l b e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e E I A - - w i l l i t b e t h e p r o p o n e n t , a f f e c t e d c o m m u n i t i e s , t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , g o v e r n m e n t , o r a c o m b i n a t i o n ; w h o w i l l b e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e a s s e s s m e n t s — a n E A R P p a n e l , o r a n o t h e r b o d y ; a n d w h o i s t h e E I A m e a n t t o s e r v e ? T h e p a n e l m a y d e c i d e t o r e s t r i c t i t s a t t e n t i o n t o e x i s t i n g E I A p r o c e d u r e s , s u c h a s a n E A R P r e v i e w , o r t h o s e r e q u i r e d u n d e r v a r i o u s B . C . s t a t u t e s , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a n d L a n d U s e A c t . T h e p a n e l , h o w e v e r , m a y a l s o d e c i d e t o e x p l o r e n e w a p p r o a c h e s , s u c h a s o n e s t h a t f o c u s m o r e o n t h e E I A a s a p r o c e s s r a t h e r t h a n t h e E I A a s p r o d u c t . A p p e n d i x 1 o u t l i n e s o n e p o t e n t i a l o p t i o n t o w h i c h t h e p a n e l may w i s h t o g i v e f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h e p a n e l s h o u l d a l s o e v a l u a t e i t s o w n e x p e r i e n c e a n d r e c o m m e n d o n h o w < p a n e l s c a n o p e r a t e b e s t a n d c o n t r i b u t e t o d e c i s i o n m a k i n g a t s u c h a n e a r l y s t a g e o f p r o j e c t d e s i g n ( c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n ) . T h i s may i n v o l v e a n e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , a u t h o r i t y a n d m a n d a t e g i v e n t o t h e p a n e l , a s w e l l a s a n e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e j o i n t r e v i e w a p p r o a c h . S u c h 119 e v a l u a t i o n s and subsequent rec c l a r i f y the r o l e of EIA at the thus, guide f u t u r e EARP review ommendations would help to f e d e r a l l e v e l i n Canada, and s. 4.3 MONITORING Humans do not have p e r f e c t knowledge so there w i l l always be u n c e r t a i n t i e s , as w e l l as environmental e f f e c t s t h a t cannot be removed through p r o j e c t design (Boothroyd and Rees, 1984). M o n i t o r i n g changes caused by the p r o j e c t allows us to proceed i n the face of u n c e r t a i n t i e s . M o n i t o r i n g , t h e r e f o r e , has an important and i n t e g r a l r o l e to p l a y i n EIA. For the impact monitoring phase to be e f f e c t i v e and u s e f u l i t should a i d i n the m i t i g a t i o n of impacts, provide feedback i n t o the e x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s and plans of both government and the proponent so th a t the necessary adjustments can be made, and prov i d e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t can be u t i l i z e d i n p r e d i c t i n g and pl a n n i n g f o r environmental impacts of f u t u r e p r o j e c t s of a s i m i l a r nature (Olynyk, 1984). I t i s important t h a t we l e a r n from past experience. In order to undertake a monitoring programme, b a s e l i n e i n f o r m a t i o n on the key v a r i a b l e s i s r e q u i r e d . T h i s r a i s e s the i s s u e of who w i l l decide what the key v a r i a b l e s are and what impacts are to be monitored--the proponent, the p u b l i c , or government or a combination? (Thompson et a l . , 1981) . Accord i n g to McPhee (pers. comm.), Environment Canada i s . a d d r e s s i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n i n t h e i r submission to the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA panel. The West Coast Offshore EIA panel should 120 d i r e c t i t s a t t e n t i o n to t h i s i s s u e i n i t s recommendations. The Beaufort Sea EARP panel's recommendations provided l i t t l e guidance on p u b l i c involvement i n f u t u r e monitoring as w e l l as r e s e a r c h and assessment programmes (Se c t i o n 2.4). I suggest t h a t i n the case of the West Coast input from a l l three groups would be b e n e f i c i a l because each group b r i n g s f o r t h d i f f e r e n t concerns and has d i f f e r e n t needs f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n . Government agencies would want some i n f o r m a t i o n to be r e l e v a n t to p o l i c y a n a l y s i s and program development. The b a s e l i n e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r the monitoring of impacts a s s o c i a t e d with the p r o j e c t may not be a v a i l a b l e at the l o c a t i o n chosen f o r the p r o j e c t . S u f f i c i e n t time would then have to be a l l o c a t e d f o r c o l l e c t i n g the necessary i n f o r m a t i o n . Governments should: have the c a p a b i l i t y to monitor the i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d by the proponent's monitoring program, and to review and approve t h e i r o p e r a t i n g plans to ensure t h a t they are a c t u a l l y u s i n g t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n to a v o i d or m i t i g a t e as much as p o s s i b l e . . . . (Olynyk, 1984: 137). During times of government f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t , i t i s important t h a t governments are able to d i r e c t l i m i t e d funds and s t a f f to re s e a r c h t h a t i s deemed to be the most important. As poi n t e d out i n S e c t i o n 2.4, a s i g n i f i c a n t weakness with the Beaufort Sea panel's F i n a l Report i s i t s f a i l u r e to suggest an h i e r a r c h y of r e s e a r c h requirements. Although myriad suggestions f o r a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h were made, i t i s not c l e a r which of these are most important from an e c o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l or energy p o l i c y p e r s p e c t i v e . An EARP panel i s i n an e x c e l l e n t , even unique, p o s i t i o n , based on the d i v e r s e data 121 a n d p o i n t s o f v i e w p r e s e n t e d t o i t , t o r e c o m m e n d t o g o v e r n m e n t s a n a p p r o p r i a t e r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m m e r e f l e c t i n g a b a l a n c e o f e c o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s . A n i m p o r t a n t i s s u e f o r t h e W e s t C o a s t O f f s h o r e E I A p a n e l t o a d d r e s s , t h e r e f o r e , i s p r i o r i z i n g r e s e a r c h , a n d m o n i t o r i n g c o n c e r n s . G o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s ( C O G L A a n d B . C . M i n i s t r y o f E M P R ) , i n f a c t , h a v e a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t t o t h e p a n e l t h e n e e d t o p r i o r i z e d a t a d e f i e n c i e s i n t e r m s o f t h e i r r e l e v a n c e a n d i m p o r t a n c e t o d e c i s i o n m a k i n g ( S e c t i o n 3 . 4 . 5 ) . 4 . 3 . 1 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n M o n i t o r i n g I- r e c o m m e n d t h a t t h e W e s t C o a s t O f f s h o r e E I A p a n e l s h o u l d m a k e e x p l i c i t r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n m o n i t o r i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s d u r i n g t h e e x p l o r a t i o n p h a s e a n d s u b s e q u e n t d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p r o d u c t i o n ( t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h i s i s f e a s i b l e ) : w h a t t y p e s a r e n e e d e d , w h e n t h e y a r e n e e d e d ; w h o w i l l d e c i d e e x a c t l y w h a t i s t o b e m o n i t o r e d ; a n d w h o w i l l b e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n d u c t i n g t h e m o n i t o r i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p a n e l ' s h o u l d p r i o r i z e i t s r e s e a r c h a n d m o n i t o r i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s b a s e d o n t h e e v i d e n c e b e f o r e i t . 4 . 4 I N T E R V E N O R F U N D I N G I N F U T U R E E I A s T h e B e a u f o r t S e a E A R P p a n e l f e l t t h a t i n t e r v e n o r f u n d i n g h a d e n h a n c e d t h e q u a l i t y o f i n t e r v e n o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( S e c t i o n 3 . 4 . 6 ) . T h e y r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t l i m i t e d i n t e r v e n o r f u n d i n g b e m a d e a v a i l a b l e f o r f u t u r e E A R P r e v i e w s . T h e p a n e l d i d n o t , h o w e v e r , p r o v i d e g u i d a n c e o n h o w t h o s e w h o s h o u l d 122 r e c e i v e funding would be determined, which i s unfortunate 1 because t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n would have aided f u t u r e d i s c u s s i o n . Despite the Beaufort Sea EARP panel's recommendation on i n t e r v e n o r funding, and the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA panel's requests f o r i n t e r v e n o r funding, with the e x c e p t i o n of some funding from DIAND f o r some n a t i v e groups and funding f o r p r e l i m i n a r y workshops, no i n t e r v e n o r funding was forthcoming f o r the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA ( S e c t i o n 3.4.6). Thus, i n t e r e s t groups' a b i l i t y to conduct t h e i r own r e s e a r c h , and i n t e r p r e t documents presented, or h i r e c o n s u l t a n t s to do so, i s l i m i t e d by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of t h e i r own funds and/or e x p e r t i s e . 4.4.1 Recommendations on Intervenor Funding Any recommendations t h a t the panel makes are r e c e i v e d by both the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments. Th e r e f o r e , I recommend t h a t the panel c l e a r l y address the f o l l o w i n g two q u e s t i o n s : how, i n the panel's view would funding have improved the p a r t i c i p a t i o n process? And how d i d non-funding weaken the process? I recommend t h a t the panel b u i l d a case f o r the p r o v i s i o n of funding f o r f u t u r e EIAs. In a d d i t i o n , the panel should recommend to both governments t h a t they develop p o l i c i e s on i n t e r v e n o r funding immediately. The panel, by the end of the review, w i l l have enough experience to p r o v i d e d e t a i l s on where they f e e l such funding would be v a l u a b l e . The panel should a l s o be i n a p o s i t i o n to make recommendations on some of the c r i t e r i a t h a t c o u l d be used to 123 determine what groups have a l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t i n a p r o j e c t and should r e c e i v e funding. 4.5 COMPENSATION Compensation to resource users f o r l o s s e s a t t r i b u t a b l e to hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n and development i s an important aspect of m i t i g a t i n g some of the p o t e n t i a l n e gative economic impacts of hydrocarbon a c t i v i t i e s . The Beaufort Sea EARP panel's F i n a l Report s t a t e d t h a t the compensation i s s u e was a major t o p i c d i s c u s s e d a t the community and general s e s s i o n s and i n the proponents' EIS Supplementary Information. The F i n a l Report d i s c u s s e d v a r i o u s aspects of compensation i n c l u d i n g suggestions f o r a compensation board and the o b j e c t i v e s t h a t should form a p a r t of the compensation p l a n (see BSEAP, 1984) . In the case of the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA, the panel was i n v i t e d by COGLA and the B.C. M i n i s t r y of EMPR to make suggestions or. ways t h a t c u r r e n t approaches to compensation co u l d best be adapted to the West Coast (COGLA, B.C. M i n i s t r y of EMPR, 1985 i n Government of Canada and Province of B.C., 1985a). The panel should make use of t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y . The panel w i l l have r e c e i v e d i n f o r m a t i o n on other resource uses i n the r e g i o n and should, t h e r e f o r e , be able to assess the p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n f l i c t , and thus, circumstances where compensation may be r e q u i r e d . 124 4.5.1 Recommendations on Compensation I recommend t h a t the panel s e i z e the opportunity-presented to i t by the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments and i d e n t i f y and document why compensation i s an important i s s u e , what a c t i o n s can be taken, when they should be taken, and by whom. In t h i s author's o p i n i o n , i t i s important t h a t compensation measures be e s t a b l i s h e d i n advance of any s p e c i f i c problems so t h a t a l l the p l a y e r s i n the game have a c l e a r i d e a of the r u l e s . Experiences with compensation i n other areas, f o r example, the East Coast ( d e s c r i b e d i n Government of Canada and Province of B.C., 1985a) suggests t h a t i n most cases l e g i s l a t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n i s net necessary; agreements are amicably reached between i n d u s t r y and the p l a i n t i f f . A process should be i n p l a c e , however, ready to deal with d i s p u t e s t h a t cannot be s e t t l e d between i n d u s t r y and the p l a i n t i f f . An approach t h a t the panel may wish to c o n s i d e r , among ot h e r s , i n making i t s recommendations on compensation i s to e s t a b l i s h an independent Mediation Board. The Board c o u l d r e s i d e over d i s p u t e s c o v e r i n g both o f f s h o r e and onshore a c t i v i t i e s , f o r damage and l o s s e s to fishermen and other resource uses and non-economic l o s s e s (such as l o s s of a e s t h e t i c s ) . Board members co u l d be chosen from d i v e r s e backgrounds based cn t h e i r p revious experience of v a r i o u s resources of the co a s t . While members may have had previous a f f i l i a t i o n s with c e r t a i n groups, f o r example, a fishermen's 125 union, i t i s important t h a t while s e r v i n g on the Board they are non-aligned and appear independent. Where r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r damage can be a t t r i b u t e d to a s p e c i f i c operator he would provide compensation, i n c l u d i n g r e c l a m a t i o n of an area i f necessary. Where blame cannot be determined compensation c o u l d come out of a fund, administered by the Board, and based on c o n t r i b u t i o n s from o i l companies. O i l company c o n t r i b u t i o n s to t h i s fund could be based on the l e v e l and s c a l e of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . I suggest a s i n g l e Board approach as a s u i t a b l e o p t i o n f o r the West Coast i n order to minimize bureaucracy and promote c o o r d i n a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the proposed l e v e l of o i l i n d u s t r y a c t i v i t y and the r e l a t i v e l y small area i n v o l v e d does not warrant a multi-Board approach. E f f i c i e n c y and s i m p l i c i t y should be the g o a l . / 4.6 SUMMARY When EIAs are undertaken f o r r e g i o n a l - s c a l e resource development schemes, such as the Beaufort Sea hydrocarbon development and the West Coast O f f s h o r e hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n , by the end of the review the panel i s the focus of an enormous flow of i n f o r m a t i o n from government, i n d u s t r y and the p u b l i c . The panel, t h e r e f o r e , i s i n a p o s i t i o n to use t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n to i d e n t i f y major i s s u e s and concerns and suggest to government a p p r o p r i a t e ways of r e s o l v i n g them. In l i g h t of t h i s , i f a c o o r d i n a t e d p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g environment i s l a c k i n g , a primary f u n c t i o n of the panel's 1 2 6 recommendations should be to advise on ways to overcome the r e l a t i v e vacuum and, a t the same time, s t i m u l a t e governments to a c t . I t i s only a f t e r the r e l a t i v e vacuum has been f i l l e d t h a t v a l i d resource use t r a d e o f f s can be made. The Beaufort Sea EARP panel's recommendations f e l l s h o r t i n t h i s regard. I t i s imperative t h a t the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA panel avoids the same mistakes. I f the West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA i s to make a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n to r e g i o n a l development p l a n n i n g , the panel should more f u l l y u t i l i z e the i n f o r m a t i o n i t r e c e i v e s than previous panels have done. Moreover, i t must c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h and document i n i t s F i n a l Report the major i s s u e s and concerns impeding o r d e r l y development of the r e g i o n . How w i l l these concerns i n t e r f e r e with other resource uses? How can governments act to r e s o l v e these o u t s t a n d i n g i s s u e s ? I suggest s e v e r a l major i s s u e s d e s e r v i n g of focused a t t e n t i o n : lack of a c o o r d i n a t e d r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g framework; p r o j e c t need assessment; j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e ; o u t s t a n d i n g n a t i v e c l a i m s ; f u t u r e p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c EIA requirements; community involvement i n f u t u r e assessments; monitoring; i n t e r v e n o r funding; and compensation. The panel, of course, may uncover other i s s u e s and concerns, i n c l u d i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n produced f o r the EIA review i s not adequate to p r o p e r l y address these i s s u e s and make recommendations on the terms and c o n d i t i o n s of an e x p l o r a t i o n programme. 127 The West Coast O f f s h o r e EIA panel i s i n an advantageous p o s i t i o n . I t i s r e p o r t i n g to two s e n i o r l e v e l s of government at once: f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l . Let us hope t h a t the panel s e i z e s the o p p o r t u n i t y to address s q u a r e l y the b i o p h y s i c a l and socio-economic problems and i s s u e s . T h i s r e q u i r e s going beyond merely documenting f u t u r e data and r e s e a r c h requirements to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the p o l i c y , p l a n n i n g and i n s t i t u t i o n a l requirements f o r r a t i o n a l development of West Coast r e s o u r c e s . 128 B I B L I O G R A P H Y A b r a h a m s o n , G . , 1 9 8 3 . R e p o r t o f t h e Y u k o n N o r t h S l o p e P r o j e c t R e v i e w G r o u p , c o v e r i n g l e t t e r a n d A p p e n d i x A a n d B , i n C E . T u l l , T h e Q u a l i t y o f  T h e E I S a n d t h e N e e d F o r F u r t h e r R e v i e w . 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J o u r n a l o f S o i l a n d W a t e r C o n s e r v a t i o n 28 ( 5 ) : 1 9 7 - 2 0 3 . , 1 9 7 8 . " S u b s t a n t i v e G u i d e l i n e s F o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l I m p a c t A s s e s s m e n t " , i n R . J a i n a n d D . H u t c h i n g s ( e d s . ) , E n v i r o n m e n t a l I m p a c t A n a l y s i s : E m e r g i n g  I s s u e s I n P l a n n i n g . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s . p p . 3 7 - 3 4 . A n g l i c a n C h u r c h o f C a n a d a , 1 9 8 4 . " P r e l i m i n a r y C o m m e n t s o n t h e T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e , B a c k g r o u n d D o c u m e n t s a n d I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f S o m e A d d i t i o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n R e q u i r e d t o E v a l u a t e t h e P o t e n t i a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l a n d S o c i o - e c o n o m i c I m p a c t s o f O f f s h o r e P e t r o l e u m E x p l o r a t i o n o n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o a s t " , i n W e s t C o a s t O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t P a n e l , C o m p e n d i u m o f S u b m i s s s i o n s R e c e i v e d b y t h e  P a n e l a t o r D u r i n g t h e P u b l i c I n f o r m a t i o n M e e t i n g s ,  D e c e m b e r 6 , 1 9 8 4 . P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d C a ; h a d a E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t R e v i e w . p p . 1 - 2 3 . A r m o u r , A . , 1 9 7 7 . 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K e i t h and J.B. Wright (eds.), Northern T r a n s i t i o n s Volume I I . Second N a t i o n a l Workshop on People, Resources • and the Environment North of 60 . Ottawa: Canadian A r c t i c Resources Committee, pp. 42-62. , 1980. "EARP at the Crossroads: Environmental Assessment i n Canada." Environmental Impact Assessment Review 1 (4): 355-377. 149 , 1981. "Environmental Impact Assessment and the Planning Process i n Canada", i n S.D. C l a r k (ed.), Environmental Assessment i n A u s t r a l i a  and Canada. Vancouver, B.C.: Westwater Research Centre. pp. 3-39. , 1983a. "Northern Land Use Planning - In Search of a P o l i c y . " Proceedings, T h i r d N a t i o n a l Workshop or. People, Resources and the Environment North of 60 , Y e l l o w k n i f e , June 1-3, 1983. Ottawa: Canadian A r c t i c Resources Committee. , 1983b. " P o l i t i c s , Power and Land Use P l a n n i n g i n A r c t i c Canada". D r a f t . August 1983. , 1983c. "A B r i e f to the Beaufort Sea Environmental Assessment Panel on Government Management C a p a b i l i t y . " 15 December, 1983. , 1984a. "Environmental Assessment of Hydrocarbon P r o d u c t i o n From the Canadian Beaufort Sea." Environmental Impact Assessment Review 4 (3-4): 539- 555. , 1984b. "The Process: Did the BEARP'Work?" Northern P e r s p e c t i v e s 12 (3): 4-6. Reference Re Ownership of O f f s h o r e M i n e r a l Rights (headnote) (1968), 65 D.L.R. (2d) 353 (S.C.C.). Reguly, E., 1985. "The Death of the NEP", The F i n a n c i a l  Times, A p r i l 1, 1985. pp. 1, 47. R i c h a r d s o n , N.H., 1982. " N o r t h e r n Land Use P l a n n i n g . " R e p o r t t o DIAND, J a n u a r y 1982. , 1984. "The Northern Land Use Planning Agreements. A Commentary." February 1984. Submission to the Beaufort Sea Environmental Assessment Panel. Roberts, J . , 1981. "Beaufort Sea Hydrocarbon P r o d u c t i o n 150 Environmental Assessment Panel Terms of Reference", June 1981. S a l l o t , J . , 1984. "Supreme Court r u l e s B.C. owns i n l a n d sea r e s o u r c e s " , The Globe and M a i l , N a t i o n a l  E d i t i o n , May 18, 1984, pp. 1-2. S i e r r a Club Canadian N a t i o n a l Committee, 1984. "Submission to panel r e g a r d i n g i n t e r v e n o r funding", i n West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, Compendium of Submissions  Received by the Panel at or During the P u b l i c  Information Meetings, December 6, 1984. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada Environmental Assessment Review. pp. 82-93. Solomon, H., S. H o r v i t c h and J . DeMont, 1984. " O i l : P r i c e Cut Threatens B i g Changes", The  F i n a n c i a l Post, Western E d i t i o n , October 27, 1984. pp. 1-2. Speck, W. , 1984.' A d m i n i s t r a t o r Kwakiutl D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l . Notes For Address to the O f f s h o r e Environmental Panel, i n West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, Compendium of  Submisssions Received by the Panel at or During  the P u b l i c Information Meetings, December 6, 1984. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada Environmental Assesment Review. pp. 33-43. S t a b l e r , J.C. and M.R. O l f e r t , 1980. " G a s l i g h t F o l l i e s : The P o l i t i c a l Economy of the Western A r c t i c . " Canadian P u b l i c P o l i c y 6 (2): 374-388). Task Force on Beaufort Sea Development, 1981. Report Submitted to the Senior P o l i c y Committee, Northern Development P r o j e c t s , A p r i l 1981. Templeton, C., 1981. "Submission to the Beaufort Sea Environmental Assessment Panel on the Beaufort Sea Hydrocarbon P r o d u c t i o n Proposal D r a f t G u i d e l i n e s f o r the P r e p a r a t i o n of an Environmental Impact Statement and Terms of Reference Set By the M i n i s t e r i n h i s l e t t e r to Dr. John S. Tener, Chairman, Beaufort Sea Environmental Assessment Panel dated June 14, 1981", i n BSEAP, A d d i t i o n a l Compendium of W r i t t e n Submissions to the 151 Panel on the D r a f t Environmental Impact Statement  G u i d e l i n e s , December 18, 1981. Canada. Environmental Assessment Review. pp. 208-215. T e s t e r , F.J.., 1981. "SIA: Approaching the Fourth World", i n F . J. T e s t e r and W. Mykes (eds.), S o c i a l Impact  Assessment Theory, Method and P r a c t i c e . C algary, A l b e r t a : D e t s e l i g E n t e r p r i s e s L t d . . pp. 96-109. Thomas, D.J., 1984. Comments on the D r a f t " A d d i t i o n a l Information Required" of the West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, i n West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, Compendium of W r i t t e n Responses to the  Panel's D r a f t Information Requirements, September  27, 1984. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada Environmental Assessment Review. pp. 77-81. Thompson, A.R., N. Bankes and J . Souto-Maior, 1981. Energy P r o j e c t Approval i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver, B.C.: U.B.C., Westwater Research Centre. T u l l , C.E., 1983a. "Comments re D e f i c i e n c i e s i n the Beaufort Sea Environmental Impact Statement", i n BSEAP, Interim Compendium of W r i t t e n Submissions to  the Panel on the Dome, Gu l f and Esso Environmental  Impact Statement, February 9, 1983. Canada. Environmental Assessment Review. pp. 139-186. , 1983b. "The Q u a l i t y of the EIS and the Need f o r F u r t h e r Hearings." P r e s e n t a t i o n to the Beaufort Sea Environmental Assessment Panel, Inuvik, November 1983. United Fishermen and A l l i e d Workers' Union, 1984. "Submission to West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel", i n West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, Compendium of Submissions Received by the  Panel at or During the P u b l i c Information  Meetings, December 6, 1984. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada Environmental Assessment Review, pp. 24-27. V i c t o r i a Chapter of the Green Party of Canada, 1984. "Submission to the West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel", i n West Coast 152 O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, Compendium of Submissions r e c e i v e d by the Panel a t  or d u r i n g the P u b l i c Information Meetings December  6, 1984. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada Environmental Assessment Review. pp. 101-112. Waiten, CM., 1981. A Guide to S o c i a l Impact Assessment. Prepared f o r the Research Branch, Corporate P o l i c y , Indian and Northern A f f a i r s . Ottawa: Indian and Northern A f f a i r s . West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, 1984a. West Coast O f f s h o r e PANEL NEWS. Newsletter No. 1, J u l y 1984. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada Environmental Assessment Review. , 1984b. West Coast O f f s h o r e PANEL NEWS. Newsletter No. 2, September 1984. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada Environmental Assessment Review. , 1984c. " D r a f t A d d i t i o n a l Information Required ( F o r ' i n d u s t r y and Government)."' October 9, i'984. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada Environmental Assessment Review. , 1984d. Proceedings at Information Meeting,  V i c t o r i a November 20, 1984. V o l . 17. Vancouver, B.C.: A l l w e s t Reporting L t d . . , 1984e. "Requirements For A d d i t i o n a l Information (From Industry and Government)." December 1984. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada Environmental Assessment Review. , 1984f. L e t t e r to Hon. S. B l a i s - G r e n i e r and Hon. A. Brummet. December 1, 1984. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada Environmental Assessment Review. , 1985. West Coast O f f s h o r e PANEL NEWS. No. 5, February, 1985. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada Environmental Assessment Review. W i l l i a m s , H., 1984a. Statement made at the V i c t o r i a P u b l i c 153 Information Meeting, November 20, 1984, i n West Coast Offshore E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, Proceedings at P u b l i c Information Meeting,  V i c t o r i a , B.C.. V o l . 17. Vancouver, B.C.: A l l w e s t Reporting L t d . . pp. 1214-1219. 1984b. "Submission to West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Panel", i n West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, Compendium of Submissions Received by the Panel at  or d u r i n g the P u b l i c Information Meetings, December  6, 1984. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada Environmental Assessment Review. pp. 113-119. Yeomans, T. Dr., 1984. "Submission to West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel", i n West Coast O f f s h o r e E x p l o r a t i o n Environmental Assessment Panel, Compendium of Submissions Received by the  Panel a t or During the P u b l i c Information Meetings,  December 6, 1984. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada Environmental Assessment Review, pp. 120-123. Yukon C o n s e r v a t i o n S o c i e t y , 1981. "Submission to the F e d e r a l Environment Assessment Review Panel on Beaufort Sea Development", i n BSEAP, A d d i t i o n a l  Compendium of W r i t t e n Submissions to the Panel on  the Environmental Impact Statement G u i d e l i n e s ,  December 18, 1981. Canada. Environmental Assessment Review. pp. 216-233. , 1983. "Yukon Con s e r v a t i o n S o c i e t y Submission on D e f i c i e n c i e s i n the Environmental Impact Statement on Proposed Hydrocarbon Development and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the Beaufort Sea", i n BSEAP, Second ( F i n a l ) Compendium of W r i t t e n Submissions  to the Panel on the Dome, Gu l f and Esso  Environmental Impact Statement, February 15, 1983. Canada. Environmental Assessment Review, pp. 55-60. 154 APPENDIX 1  AN OPTION FOR FUTURE EIAs Bearing i n mind the importance of community involvement i n impact assessment (S e c t i o n 1.3) I recommend t h a t the panel c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g two-sta'ge approach, among o t h e r s , when i t i s p r e p a r i n g i t s recommendations on subsequent EIAs. T h i s approach gi v e s the a f f e c t e d communities an a c t i v e r o l e . In a d d i t i o n , the approach s t r e s s e s assessment and management of impacts r a t h e r than j u s t assessment. T h i s i s an important d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t a f f e c t s whether hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n and subsequently development and p r o d u c t i o n can proceed i n an en v i r o n m e n t a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e manner. Many impacts cannot be p r e d i c t e d i n advance because of u n c e r t a i n t i e s . By u t i l i z i n g an impact management approach, t h e r e f o r e , i t i s p o s s i b l e to proceed with the knowledge t h a t there are u n c e r t a i n t i e s and emphasize monitoring so t h a t adjustments can be made throughout the l i f e of the p r o j e c t as unforeseen circumstances a r i s e (although i t must be reco g n i z e d t h a t there may be occasions when adjustments are not p o s s i b l e and i r r e v e r s i b l e damage o c c u r s ) . In a d d i t i o n , the impact management approach addresses the problem of c u r r e n t EIAs, such as the Beaufort Sea EARP, being s t a t i c , one-shot approaches which concentrate on the product (the EIS) r a t h e r than the EIA pro c e s s . F i g u r e 4 h i g h l i g h t s the two-stage approach. 155 F I G U R E 4 A N O P T I O N F O R F U T U R E E I A s A p p r o v e d P o l i c i e s a n d P l a n s : I n c l u d e s d e c i s i o n f o r o r a g a i n s t h y d r o c a r b o n e x p l o r a t i o n / d e v e l o p m e n t . I f Y E S : P R E L I M I N A R Y A S S E S S M E N T  A N D P L A N N I N G S T A G E A I M : D e c i d e w h e t h e r o r n o t t o a p p r o v e - i n - p r i n c i p l e i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t c o m p o n e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h y d r o c a r b o n e x p l o r a t i o n a n d / o r d e v e l o p m e n t G r a n t A p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e j I M P A C T M A N A G E M E N T S T A G E A I M : D e c i d e h o w t o i m p l e m e n t t h e p r o j e c t A g r e e m e n t A p p r o a c h A g r e e m e n t s i g n e d b e t w e e n p r o p o n e n t a n d a f f e c t e d c o m m u n i t y : i n c l u d e s c o m m u n i t y - l e d i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t ( o r c o m m u n i t y c a n h i r e c o n s u l t a n t s ) . P r o p o n e n t c o n c e n t r a t e s o n p r o d u c i n g a s o c i a l l y a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y s e n s i t i v e d e s i g n p r o j e c t . F E A R O / P a n e l c o o r d i n a t e d a p p r o a c h F E A R O o r F E A R O a p p o i n t e d p a n e l c o o r d i n a t e s i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n p r o p o n e n t , a f f e c t e d c o m m u n i t y ( i e s ) a n d g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s : c o m m u n i t y u n d e r t a k e s i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t o r h i r e s c o n s u l t a n t s . P r o p o n e n t c o n c e n t r a t e s o n p r o d u c i n g a s o c i a l l y a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y s e n s i t i v e p r o j e c t d e s i g n . G o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s v a r i e t y o f t a s k s . M o n i t o r i n g P r o g r a m m e d e s i g n e d b y g o v e r n m e n t / p r o p o n e n t / c o m m u n i t y P r o j e c t i m p a c t s m o n i t o r e d b y c o m m u n i t y a n d p r o p o n e n t s d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d o p e r a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t . R e s u l t s C o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t -p l a n n i n g . G o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s ' p o l i c i e s a n d p l a n s . C o r p o r a t e p l a n n i n g a n d p r o j e c t d e s i g n / o p e r a t i o n . 156 Stage One: P r e l i m i n a r y Assessment and Planning Once i t has been decided at the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l to allow e x p l o r a t i o n i t becomes necessary to c o n s i d e r the qu e s t i o n of whether or not to all o w s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s a s s o c i a t e d with e x p l o r a t i o n and subsequently development and pr o d u c t i o n . T h i s means to determine the socio-economic value and environmental impacts of i n d i v i d u a l component p r o j e c t s ' need. An example would be the need f o r the onshore supply base at P r i n c e Rupert f o r e x p l o r a t i o n (bearing i n mind t h a t a s i t e chosen f o r the e x p l o r a t i o n phase i s o f t e n r e q u i r e d i n an expanded form d u r i n g the development and p r o d u c t i o n phase). T h i s could be achieved by a p r e l i m i n a r y assessment and pl a n n i n g process. The outcome of the process would be e i t h e r to grant or deny an a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e f o r the p r o j e c t . The process would focus on determining the r e g i o n a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y of the p r o j e c t . T h i s means t h a t the l o c a t i o n and d e s i r a b i l i t y of a p a r t i c u l a r proposal would be based on p l a n n i n g - r e l a t e d options and t r a d e o f f s . For example, i s the proposal i n accordance with designated land and resource use pl a n s , i n c l u d i n g the community's own development p l a n s , or do s o c i a l and economic circumstances, such as jobs and r e n t s , warrant a d e v i a t i o n from such p l a n s , and should the p r o j e c t be allowed i n l i g h t of i t s p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s ? The u l t i m a t e d e c i s i o n to grant or deny an a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e i s a p o l i t i c a l one based on a balanced c o n s i d e r a t i o n of s o c i a l , economic and environmental p o l i c y options and t r a d e o f f s . I t i s important t h a t the p u b l i c be 15 7 given the o p p o r t u n i t y to provide i t s input and p e r s p e c t i v e s p r i o r to t h i s d e c i s i o n being made. c Stage Two: Impact Management I suggest t h a t an impact management approach be implemented i f an a p p r o v a l - i n - p r i n c i p l e i s obtained from the p r e l i m i n a r y assessment and p l a n n i n g stage. The impact management approach would focus on how the p r o j e c t w i l l be implemented i n c l u d i n g the design and m i t i g a t i o n requirements (Marshall et a l . , 1985). I t would continue throughout the p r o j e c t ' s o p e r a t i o n a l phase, thereby moving towards environmental p l a n n i n g at a p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c l e v e l . The proponent would concentrate on producing an "environmentally and s o c i a l l y s e n s i t i v e p r o j e c t design p r o p o s a l . . . . [ t h a t i s , ] a design concept t h a t a l r e a d y i n c o r p o r a t e s known e c o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l concerns to the extent f e a s i b l e on e n g i n e e r i n g and economic grounds..." (Rees, 1983c: 11), and d e t a i l e d monitoring p l a n s , so t h a t the necessary adjustments can be made to the p r o j e c t throughout i t s o p e r a t i o n . Government agencies would have a v a r i e t y -of tasks (Rees, 1983c), i n c l u d i n g a n a l y z i n g how the p r o j e c t ' s impacts a f f e c t c u r r e n t programmes, p o l i c i e s and mandates, and making the necessary adjustments to the land and resource use plans p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l i g h t of any unforeseen cumulative impacts t h a t a r i s e . In a d d i t i o n , government agencies would supply any e x i s t i n g b a s e l i n e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s r e q u i r e d by the 158 proponent, such as, weather parameters--wind, waves, c u r r e n t s . The community(ies) p o t e n t i a l l y impacted by the p r o j e c t would assess impacts, p a r t i c u l a r l y s o c i a l ones, and monitor the changes i t s e l f i f i t f e e l s i t has the necessary e x p e r t i s e , or h i r e c o n s u l t a n t s to do so. I f communities have e s t a b l i s h e d o b j e c t i v e s through community development p l a n n i n g , such as p r o t e c t i n g the 'environment or m a i n t a i n i n g q u a l i t y of l i f e , p r i o r to r e c e i v i n g any hydrocarbon development a p p l i c a t i o n s , i t can use these o b j e c t i v e s to shape i t s responses to the o i l companies, and determine what needs to be assessed and monitored. The Shetland County C o u n c i l u t i l i z e d t h i s approach e f f e c t i v e l y (see Fenwick, 1980). Community involvement i n impact management r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n of funding. I recommend t h a t the proponent fund a community's s t u d i e s , i n c l u d i n g ongoing monitoring and impact management. I b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s i s a p l a u s i b l e s o l u t i o n f o r two main reasons. F i r s t l y , the p o l l u t e r pays p r i n c i p l e , t h a t i s , the one causing or proposing to cause any damage must pay. In a d d i t i o n , the developer gains most of the b e n e f i t s from the p r o j e c t and, thus, should be w i l l i n g to absorb the c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g and o p e r a t i n g h i s p r o j e c t . Secondly, both the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments are c u r r e n t l y p r a c t i s i n g f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t , and i t does not seem r e a l i s t i c to expect funds f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n impact assessment to be forthcoming a t t h i s time, a case i n p o i n t being the lac k of i n t e r v e n o r funding f o r the c u r r e n t West 159 Coast o f f s h o r e EIA. The impact management approach needs to be c o o r d i n a t e d to ensure i n t e r a c t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n exchange between the v a r i o u s a c t o r s . I f more than one community i s i n v o l v e d c o o r d i n a t i o n becomes even more e s s e n t i a l . There are a t l e a s t two f e a s i b l e approaches to ensure c o o r d i n a t i o n of the impact management approach: i) FEARO, or a panel appointed by FEARO, c o u l d perhaps f u n c t i o n as c o o r d i n a t o r ; i i ) the proponent and community co u l d deal with each other, d i r e c t l y and s i g n an agreement. In the case of ( i i ) , the agreement would e s t a b l i s h what s t u d i e s are to be done and by whom, and provide funding from the proponent f o r the community l e d s t u d i e s . The advantage of t h i s f o r the proponent' i s t h a t he i s more l i k e l y to o b t a i n community approval f o r the p r o j e c t i f the community i s g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y to become i n v o l v e d . In a d d i t i o n , i t circumvents "the need f o r c o s t l y and time-consuming assessment and review processes by government departments and agencies..." (Dorcey and Thompson, 1983: 25). Another advantage i s t h a t the agreement c o u l d be adapted to the unique circumstances of the community; a number of authors (Boothroyd, 1980; Dale and Kennedy, 1981; T e s t e r , 1981; Waiten, 1981) have s t a t e d the need to adapt EIAs to the unique circumstances of d i f f e r e n t communities, c u l t u r e s and r e g i o n s . One drawback with the approach i s t h a t agreement may be d i f f i c u l t to reach i f more than one community i s i n v o l v e d . In such circumstances there may be a r o l e f o r a FEARO-1 ik e body 160 to a c t as a c o o r d i n a t o r or mediator. An example of an agreement between a developer and the community r e c e i v i n g the development i s the Dome Petroleum L t d . and Lax Kw 'alaams Indian band agreement, concerning a proposed L i q u i f i e d N a t u r a l Gas (LNG) f a c i l i t y to be l o c a t e d adjacent to the Port Simpson community. DIAND provided the panel with i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s agreement (see Ostenstad, 1984). B r i e f l y , the agreement enables the Port Simpson Band to undertake socio-economic and environmental impact assessment s t u d i e s (funded by Dome), share i n the p r o j e c t ' s economic b e n e f i t s , r e c e i v e funds to respond to community and environmental impacts and have band r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on a j o i n t band-Dome monitoring committee (see Dorcey and Thompson, 1983; Ostenstad, 1984 f o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s ) . Is the agreement approach f e a s i b l e elsewhere, f o r example, f o r a downstream petrochemical p r o j e c t i n a p a r t i c u l a r community? The Port Simpson n a t i v e community had leverage. Dome's proposals i n c l u d e d a u t i l i t y c o r r i d o r across the band's r e s e r v e ; i t i s f e d e r a l government p o l i c y t h a t a band c o u n c i l ' s approval must be r e c e i v e d b e f o r e r e s e r v e land i s p r o c u r r e d f o r p u b l i c purposes (Ostenstad, 1984). I f Dome di d not get t h i s i t would have had to take a more c o s t l y route by-passing the r e s e r v e . In a d d i t i o n , the band's acceptance or r e j e c t i o n of the p r o j e c t would have a f f e c t e d Dome's chances of o b t a i n i n g a l l the necessary government p r o j e c t approvals i n c l u d i n g a N a t i o n a l Energy Board C e r t i f i c a t e of P u b l i c Convenience (Dorcey and Thompson, 1983; Ostenstad, 1984). 161 Agreement was f u r t h e r f a c i l i t a t e d : ...because the a f f e c t e d community was c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and separated from other communities, because i t was f o r m a l l y organized with a u t h o r i z e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who c o u l d b a r g a i n f o r i t , and because there was a w e l l understood process f o r community c o n s u l t a t i o n and f o r community r a t i f i c a t i o n of the outcome (Dorcey and Thompson, 1983: 25). Dome was w i l l i n g to allow the community to share i n the p r o j e c t ' s economic b e n e f i t s ; the extent to which other companies would do the same i s u n c e r t a i n . A l o t may depend on how c o n t r o v e r s i a l the p r o j e c t i s , whether the community i s i n favour of the development and how economically v i a b l e the p r o j e c t i s . In the case of hydrocarbon development, the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the agreement approach i s probably l i m i t e d to onshore f a c i l i t i e s where impacts are s i t e s p e c i f i c . I t would probably be more d i f f i c u l t to u t i l i z e the approach to i n c o r p o r a t e communities p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d by b r o a d e r . s c a l e impacts a s s o c i a t e d with an o i l s p i l l or blowout. The monitoring programme i s a c r u c i a l component of the impact management approach and c o n t i n u o u s l y feeds i n f o r m a t i o n back i n t o the design process so the p r o j e c t can be ad j u s t e d a c c o r d i n g l y . In a d d i t i o n , p o l i c i e s and plans can be c o n t i n u o u s l y a d j u s t e d as new i n f o r m a t i o n s u r f a c e s from the p r o j e c t . With the impact management approach suggested above u n c e r t a i n t i e s "would be s p e c i f i e d i n the form of t e s t a b l e hypotheses t h a t would be s p e c i f i c a l l y addressed by a monitoring program d u r i n g the o p e r a t i o n a l phase" (Rees, 1983c: 10, 1 2 ) . 1 In the impact management approach, both i n d u s t r y and 162 t h e c o m m u n i t y w o u l d h a v e r o l e s i n i m p a c t m o n i t o r i n g . T h e c o m m u n i t y , i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , w o u l d b e v o c a l a b o u t a n y n e g a t i v e i m p a c t s i t m o n i t o r e d t h e r e b y e n c o u r a g i n g t h e p r o p o n e n t t o t a k e a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t w o u l d b e t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o e n s u r e t h a t m o n i t o r i n g i s c a r r i e d o u t a n d t h e n e c e s s a r y a d j u s t m e n t s m a d e . F o o t n o t e 1 A s p e c i f i c e x a m p l e w h e r e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a n d b i o p h y s i c a l m o n i t o r i n g h a v e b e e n b u i l t i n t o a p r o j e c t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p h a s e i s t h e N o r m a n W e l l s p i p e l i n e p r o j e c t , N W T . M o n i t o r i n g a n d h i n d s i g h t s t u d i e s w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d a t t h e " F o l l o w - u p / A u d i t o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t R e s u l t s C o n f e r e n c e , O c t o b e r 1 3 - 1 6 , 1 9 8 5 , T h e B a n f f C e n t r e , A l b e r t a . 

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