Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Missing in style : public school elites and the Victorian economy McLean, Edward Byron 1984

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1984_A8 M33_4.pdf [ 8.7MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0096211.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0096211-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0096211-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0096211-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0096211-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0096211-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0096211-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0096211-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0096211.ris

Full Text

MISSING IN STYLE: PUBLIC SCHOOL ELITES AND THE VICTORIAN ECONOMY by EDWARD BYRON MCLEAN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1970 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f S o c i a l and E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1984 © Edward Byron McLean, 1984 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f ^ — ^ W C A ^ L Q I A The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3 D a t e DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT G r e a t B r i t a i n ' s s t e a d y d e c l i n e as a w o r l d power has prompted much s t u d y , i n c l u d i n g q u a n t i f i -a b l e economic a n a l y s i s and p o s t - i m p e r i a l s o c i o l o g y . H i s t o r i c a l , s t u d i e s have g e n e r a l l y d e c l i n e d to c l a i m c ause and e f f e c t l i n k s between t h e s e two a r e a s , but i t seemed w o r t h w h i l e to i n v e s t i g a t e one p o s s i b l e a r e a o f o v e r l a p . V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n ' s p e r i o d of g r e a -t e s t i m p e r i a l and i n d u s t r i a l p r e s s u r e was a l s o marked by e x t e n s i v e r e f o r m and e x p a n s i o n of t h e system of g r e a t p u b l i c s c h o o l s . The t h e s i s i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e c o n g r u e n c e s between t h e s e two d e v e l o p m e n t s and t h e i r j o i n t e f f e c t s upon the n a t i o n ' s i n d u s t r i a l and p u b l i c s e c t o r l e a d e r s h i p . I t i s c o n t e n d e d t h a t p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g i n the V i c t o r i a n e r a was d i s t i n c t i v e , s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y ex-c l u s i v e and i n h e r e n t l y h o s t i l e to the needs of b u s i -n e s s and s c i e n c e . As the s o u r c e o f l e a d e r s f o r a c l o s e d and p a t r i c i a n s o c i e t y , i t was p a r t i c u l a r l y i l l - s u i t e d to t h e demands o f i n d u s t r i a l c o m p e t i t i o n and may have been t h e major s o u r c e of G r e a t B r i t a i n ' s s u b s e q u e n t economic d e c l i n e . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. OUTLINE AND INTENTIONS 1 B r i t a i n ' s Economic D e c l i n e 2 M e t h o d o l o g i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s 3 T h e s i s S o u r c e s 6 I n t e n t of t h e T h e s i s 8 I I . PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND SCHOOLING IN NINETEENTH CENTURY ENGLAND 15 Development of the V i c t o r i a n P u b l i c S c h o o l s 15 Aims o f M i d - V i c t o r i a n P u b l i c S c h o o l i n g . 17 The P u b l i c S c h o o l E t h o s 20 Pedagogy i n t h e G r e a t S c h o o l s 25 The R o l e o f G e n t i l i t y 28 U t i l i t a r i a n i s m and t h e V i c t o r i a n R e a c t i o n 32 G o a l s of the L a t e - V i c t o r i a n S c h o o l s . . 36 I I I ANTI-INDUSTRIALISM IN THE VICTORIAN PUBLIC SCHOOLS 48 N o n - T e c h n o l o g i c a l Emphases of t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s 48 C l a s s i c a l S t u d i e s and C h a r a c t e r F o r m a t i o n 50 D i s v a l u a t i o n of S c i e n c e s i n t h e G r e a t S c h o o l s 53 Complacency of V i c t o r i a n E d u c a t i o n . . . 55 P u b l i c S c h o o l C o n s e r v a t i s m 58 A n t i - c o m m e r c i a l i s m i n P u b l i c S c h o o l s . . 61 P u b l i c S c h o o l L e a d e r s h i p Q u a l i t i e s and D e f i c i e n c i e s 63 C o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n of V i c t o r i a n S o c i e t y . . . 66 A t h e n i a n and V i c t o r i a n C o m p a r i s o n s . . . 69 IV VICTORIAN COMMERCE, INDUSTRY AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP 79 F a c t o r s f o r Study 79 B r i t i s h and I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o m p a r i s o n s . 81 i i i P u b l i c S c h o o l Men i n I n d u s t r y 82 F a m i l y - c o n t r o l l e d C o m m e r c i a l C o n c e r n s . 84 T h i r d - g e n e r a t i o n I n d u s t r i a l i s t s . . . . 86 B r i t i s h S t e e l I n d u s t r y 90 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f V i c t o r i a n B u s i n e s s L e a d e r s 92 Slow Development of New I n d u s t r i e s . . . 98 B i f u r c a t i o n o f B r i t a i n ' s Economic L e a d e r s h i p 102 V PUBLIC SCHOOLING, PUBLIC SERVICE AND THE VICTORIAN ECONOMY I l l V i c t o r i a n C i v i l S e r v i c e Reform I l l P u b l i c S c h o o l s and t h e V i c t o r i a n Army . 113 P u b l i c S c h o o l s and t h e R o y a l Navy . . . 116 L a i s s e z - f a i r i s m i n M i d - V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n 119 S o c i a l D a r w i n i s m and t h e E l i t e . . . . . 122 H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n and V i c t o r i a n Commerce and I n d u s t r y . 124 S c i e n c e T r a i n i n g a t t h e C i v i c and the A n c i e n t U n i v e r s i t i e s . . . . 127 S u r v i v a l o f the P u b l i c S c h o o l E t h o s . . 133 VI ECONOMIC LEGACIES OF THE VICTORIAN PUBLIC SCHOOLS 148 P u b l i c S c h o o l S t a t u s - q u o i s m . 148 I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o m p e t i t i o n 150 V i c t o r i a n S o c i a l D i s j u n c t i o n 151 S o c i o - e c o n o m i c L i n k a g e s 152 Economic C u l p a b i l i t y of P u b l i c S c h o o l B usinessmen 155 A r e a s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 155 T y p i c a l and A t y p i c a l V i c t o r i a n s . . . . 160 Summation 162 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 170 i v CHAPTER I OUTLINE AND INTENTIONS In the m i d d l e , and i n c r e a s i n g l y toward t h e end o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , B r i t a i n f a l t e r e d and sub-s e q u e n t l y d e c l i n e d as a major i n d u s t r i a l and commer-c i a l power."'' The f u l l r e a s o n s f o r t h i s f a i l u r e t o m a i n t a i n her w o r l d p o s i t i o n a r e n o t y e t c l e a r but i t seems p o s s i b l e t o a s s i g n some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to an o v e r l y s a n g u i n e or s i m p l y myopic view o f the n a t i o n ' s d e s t i n y . T h i s f o u n d p e r h a p s i t s f u l l e s t e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e lame or o t h e r w i s e i n a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i v i t i e s and ex-p e c t a t i o n s o f many l a t e - V i c t o r i a n b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s , though o t h e r members of t h e B r i t i s h e l i t e must a l s o 2 s h a r e th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e s e d e f e c t s . T h i s s t u d y w i l l examine, the s c h o o l i n g r e c e i v e d by such o f t h e B r i t i s h e l i t e s as a t t e n d e d the upper t i e r o f b o y s' i n d e p e n d e n t . p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n t h e p e r i o d 1850-1900. The p e d a g o g i c i m p a c t of such s c h o o l s upon t h e s o c i a l , m o r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f V i c -t o r i a n a d o l e s c e n t s was p r o f o u n d , r e m a i n s p a r t i a l l y d e l i n e a b l e , and may be l i n k e d by i n f e r e n c e to many o f t h e i r l a t e r economic a c t i v i t i e s . 1 2 From the m i d d l e o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y onwards, i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f c h i l d r e n from the. B r i t i s h m i d d l e and upper c l a s s e s e n t e r e d t h e major p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f E n g l a n d , h e r e t a k e n as the " C l a r e n d o n S even" o f E t o n , Harrow, Rugby, W i n c h e s t e r , W e s t m i n s t e r , C h a r t e r h o u s e , and S h r e wsbury, but a l s o i n c l u d i n g a number of o t h e r p r o m i n e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s such as S t . P a u l ' s , M e r chant T a y l o r s ' , O u n d le, Uppingham and Stowe.^ A f t e r t h e i r p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g many of t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s , whether by c h o i c e o r f a m i l y p r e s s u r e , e n t e r e d the w o r l d o f commerce as d i r e c t o r s o f i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s o r . o t h e r e n t e r p r i s e s . I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o a c c o r d them a r o l e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o t h e i r numbers i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g o f l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t a i n . As a r e s u l t , i t i s a l s o a p p r o p r i a t e t o examine the p o s s i b l e economic e f -f e c t s o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l , a t t i t u d e s and mannerisms which t h e y b r o u g h t t o t h e i r b u s i n e s s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The e conomic r o l e s p l a y e d by p u b l i c s c h o o l boys who en-t e r e d p o l i t i c a l , m i l i t a r y , c i v i l s e r v i c e and a c a d e m i c o c c u p a t i o n s w i l l l i k e w i s e m e r i t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n ' s economic d e c l i n e stemmed from an i n c r e a s i n g i n a b i l i t y t o a d j u s t t o , or p r o f i t f r om, th e s e r i e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e c y c l e s which c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e l a t e r n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . In p a r t , r e l i a n c e on cheap goods and raw m a t e r i a l s from c o l o n i e s and i n c r e a s e d o v e r s e a s i n v e s t m e n t r e d u c e d d o m e s t i c 3 d e v e l o p m e n t . At t h e same t i m e , i n d u s t r i a l managers ap-p e a r e d i n c a p a b l e o f s y n c h r o n i z i n g B r i t a i n ' s e f f o r t s w i t h s h o r t - t e r m changes i n the w o r l d ' s economy.'* T r a d i t i o n a l e x p o r t i n d u s t r i e s such as c o a l , i r o n and s t e e l , s h i p -b u i l d i n g and t e x t i l e s , a l l p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e t o e x t e r n a l c h a n g e s , were d o m i n a t e d by t r a d i t i o n - m i n d e d , f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d f i r m s which i n c r e a s i n g l y drew t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p and v a l u e s from c l a s s i c a l p u b l i c s c h o o l s . The main c a u s e s f o r B r i t a i n ' s d e c l i n e may be the l i n k between an i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n s t r i c t e d m a n a g e r i a l p o o l and a c h r o n i c u n d e r c a p i t a l i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y . ^ Any c o m m e r c i a l e n t i t y w h i c h . u n d e r v a l u e s p r o f i t s and a l s o r e d u c e s the p e r c e n t a g e o f p r o f i t s which a r e r e i n v e s t e d may, even i n t h e b e s t o f t i m e s , a n t i c i p a t e a downward s p i r a l such, as B r i t a i n e x p e r i e n c e d from 1880 onwards. The V i c t o r i a n f a l l was more p r e c i p i t o u s s i n c e an e r a demanding i n d u s t r i a l f l e x i b i l i t y and i n n o v a t i o n c o i n -c i d e d w i t h the emergence o f a c o m m e r c i a l l e a d e r s h i p which p l a c e d h i g h e s t v a l u e on a l l forms o f t r a d i t i o n . C o n s i d e r a b l e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t y f a c e s any a t t e m p t to gauge n e b u l o u s q u a l i t i e s such as ' e n t r e -p r e n e u r i a l competence', ' b u s i n e s s s u c c e s s ' , or i n t e r -n a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s ' and f u r t h e r c o m p l e x i t y a r i s e s i f s u ch f a c t o r s a r e used to e v a l u a t e t h e s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e o f s e l e c t e d n a t i o n s o r g r o u p s . ^ As w e l l , s e r -i o u s p r o b l e m s a r e i n v o l v e d i f a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l component, s u c h as e d u c a t i o n , i s examined i n r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n . In each o f t h e s e i n s t a n c e s , t h e h a p h a z a r d s u r v i v a l or r e l a t i v e v a l u e s o f v a r i o u s d a t a , r e m i n i s -c e n c e s , c o n t e m p o r a r y comments and l a t e r judgments make any cause and e f f e c t e v a l u a t i o n s t e n u o u s and q u e s t i o n -g a b l e . At the same t i m e , many p r o p o s i t i o n s and c l a i m s o f t h i s t h e s i s a r e broad, i n s c o p e d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t , i n some c a s e s , o n l y p a r t i a l , i n c o n c l u s i v e or i n f e r e n t i a l e v i d e n c e e x i s t s f o r t h e i r d e f e n s e . However, i t seemed f i n a l l y d e f e n s i b l e t o a c c e p t t h a t the V i c t o r i a n p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m c o n s t i t u t e d a r a t i o n a l and p o w e r f u l me-c h a n i s m f o r t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f p a r t i c u l a r norms and v a l u e s , and t h a t a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h i s s c h o o l i n g w i t h l a t e r economic u n d e r t a k i n g s may u n c o v e r s i g n i f i c a n t c o m m o n a l i t i e s . T h i s seems p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e l y i n t h e c a s e o f an e l i t e - d o m i n a t e d s o c i a l s y s t e m o f the l a t e V i c t o r i a n B r i t i s h v a r i e t y , where d e c i s i o n s a bout the p r o v i s i o n and s t r u c t u r i n g of e d u c a t i o n or t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f commerce and i n d u s t r y d i s c l o s e d much r e g a r d i n g the aims and v a l u e s o f t h e s o c i e t y ' s g o v e r n i n g b o d i e s . As one s c h o l a r has p o i n t e d o u t : When a c u l t u r e b u i l d s the c o n t e n t and r e g u l a t i o n s o f i t s s c h o o l s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , i t i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e s and t h e r e b y l e g i t i m i z e s a p a r t i c u l a r myth or v i s i o n o f i t s e l f , and o f i t s hopes f o r t h e f u t u r e . When i t d e c l a r e s ( o r r e f r a i n s from d e c l a r i n g ) what i t i s t h a t p e o p l e ought most to know, when i t d e f i n e s ( o r s h i r k s from d e f i n i n g ) b a s i c s k i l l s and i n f o r m a t i o n , when i t e s t a b l i s h e s ( o r s k i r t s e s t a b l i s h i n g ) the r u d i m e n t s o f 5 competence w i t h o u t which a p e r s o n i s u n a b l e to f u n c -t i o n i n t h e s o c i e t y , i t has s i m u l t a n e o u s l y made a mor a l and p o l i t i c a l announcement t o t h e w o r l d about what k i n d o f a s o c i e t y i t i s and what i t wants to become . 9 P a r a d o x i c a l l y , i n t h e c a s e o f V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n , i t ap-p e a r s t h a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s , p o l i c i e s and p e r s o n n e l which were needed t o m a i n t a i n an e x t e n d e d empire were a l s o t h o s e which would e v e n t u a l l y i m p o v e r i s h i t bot h i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and i n d u s t r i a l l y and b r i n g about a s t e a d y d e c l i n e . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a t h r e a d o f c a u s a t i o n can be drawn from t h e common rooms and c l a s s e s o f t h e g r e a t p u b l i c s c h o o l s t o t h e f a i l u r e o f the B r i t i s h c o m m e r c i a l s p i r i t , n o r s h o u l d a s i n g l e component such as e d u c a t i o n be a c c o r d e d undue i n f l u e n c e , but i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o ad-duce p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l and economic p a t t e r n s and manner-isms which i l l u m i n a t e the m o t i v a t i o n s and i n h i b i t i o n s o f the g r o u p s under s t u d y . A f u l l p r o s o p o g r a p h i c a l r e v i e w i s n ot y e t p o s s i b l e but p r o f i t a b l e a t t e n t i o n can be d i r e c t e d t o t h e p r o b a b l e c o m m e r c i a l c o r o l l a r i e s o f m i d d l e c l a s s p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g . Such a s t u d y can t a k e as p e r t i n e n t t h e e x p l i c i t and c o v e r t c u r r i c u l a o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l s , which m i r r o r e d but a l s o i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o V i c t o r i a n s o c i a l and economic v a l u e s and p r a c t i c e s . The r e c e i v e d m o r a l w i s -dom, u n e x p r e s s e d or t a c i t n o t i o n s , t r a d i t i o n s and new p r a c t i c e s o f t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n v i t e a s s e s s m e n t as 6 r e g a r d s t h e i r l i f e - l o n g powers."'""'" The main t h r u s t o f such e x a m i n a t i o n e n t a i l s a r e v i e w o f ' s c h o o l i n g ' p a t t e r n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e i m p l i c i t e c o n o m i c b i a s e s which can be d i s c e r n e d i n c u r r i c u l u m c o n s t r u c t i o n and s t a f f i n g p r i o r i t i e s . , , a s s e s s m e n t of s c h o o l d a t a r e s p e c -t i n g b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s and p u b l i c s e r v a n t s , and r e v i e w of s t a t e and i n d u s t r i a l d e c i s i o n s which c l a r i f y t h e com-m e r c i a l p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s o f B r i t a i n ' s p u b l i c s c h o o l e d l e a d e r s h i p . T h i s i s done t h r o u g h a s y n t h e s i z i n g r e v i e w o f p u b l i s h e d p r i m a r y s o u r c e s f o r the whole o f the n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y and o f s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s p u b l i s h e d sub-s e q u e n t l y . T h i s t h e s i s i n i t i a l l y examines changes i n t h e s c o p e and p u r p o s e o f p u b l i c , s c h o o l i n g which f o l l o w e d Thomas A r n o l d ' s r e f o r m s a t Rugby. A c a s e f o r t h e e x i s -t e n c e o f an a n t i - i n d u s t r i a l b i a s i n t h e l a t e V i c t o r i a n i n s t i t u t i o n s i s p r e s e n t e d . The c a r e e r p a t t e r n s o f p u b l i c s c h o o l e d l e a d e r s i n v a r i o u s b u s i n e s s s e c t o r s a r e r e v i e w e d and t h e e conomic competence o f such i n d i v i d u a l s a s s e s s e d . S i m i l a r summaries and judgments a r e a d v a n c e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o p u b l i c s e c t o r c a r e e r i s t s . The s t u d y c o n c l u d e s w i t h an e v a l u a t i o n of the p a r t p l a y e d by pub-l i c s c h o o l s i n B r i t a i n ' s e c onomic d e c l i n e and t h e e x t e n t t o which t h i s f o c u s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n may p r o v i d e f u t u r e c l a r i f i c a t i o n . In k e e p i n g w i t h i t s aim o f s y n t h e s i s , t h i s t h e s i s has not a t t e m p t e d an e x h a u s t i v e r e v i e w o f t h e a r e a s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l and e conomic h i s t o r y i n t o which i t was i n e v i t a b l y drawn. R a t h e r i t has employed e l e m e n t s each o f t h e s e to p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o an a r e a which may be the l o g i c a l nexus of t h e t h r e e , namely e d u c a t i o n a l 12 h i s t o r y and t h e o r y . A v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e s have been u t i l i z e d i n t h i s way. B e s i d e s s t a n d a r d h i s t o r i e s o f t h e V i c t o r i a n e r a , ^ c o n t e m p o r a r y o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d i n The W e s t m i n s t e r Review, The E d i n b u r g h Review and The  Q u a r t e r l y Review by such e m i n e n t V i c t o r i a n s as Oeremy Bentham, John S t u a r t M i l l and H e r b e r t Spencer- have p r o -ven u s e f u l . Economic h i s t o r i e s o f the p e r i o d , b e s i d e s 14-t h o s e a l r e a d y n o t e d , a r e abundant and t h o r o u g h , as a r e s t u d i e s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t . ^ ^ Reviews of changes i n u n i v e r s i t i e s , c o l l e g e s , s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l -ogy, p a r t i c u l a r l y a w i d e - r a n g i n g s e r i e s o f p u b l i c a t i o n s by Gordon R o d e r i c k and M i c h a e l S t e p h e n s , a r e a l s o a v a i l able,"*"^ w h i l e v a r i o u s s o c i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s throw some l i g h t o n t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y and i t s e l i t i s t c h a r a c t e r . ^ M a t e r i a l s on e d u c a t i o n may be summarized under a s e r i e s o f h e a d i n g s . O l d e r h i s t o r i c a l c h r o n o l o g i e s 18 o f E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n a r e numerous, w h i l e more modern works, e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e o f Bamford and Honey a l r e a d y c i t e d and R u p e r t W i l k i n s o n ' s s t u d y o f p u b l i c s c h o o l s and power, a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n s u p p l y i n g a 19 g e n e r a l framework f o r s t u d y . Though v a r y i n g i n v a l u e and r e l i a b i l i t y , s t u d i e s o f p a r t i c u l a r p u b l i c s c h o o l s a l s o e x i s t i n g r e a t numbers, as do memoirs and b i o g r a -20 p h i e s o f m a s t e r s . A v a r i e t y of s c h o o l - d a y s c h a p t e r s 21 i n o t h e r works p r o v i d e b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n , though the wide c o r p u s of p u b l i c s c h o o l n o v e l s c o n s t i t u t e s p e r -haps the b e s t s o u r c e o f m a t e r i a l on t h e n o t i o n s , p r e j u -22 d i c e s and p r a c t i c e s o f p a r t i c u l a r p u b l i c s c h o o l s . F i n a l l y , b u s i n e s s b i o g r a p h i e s , h i s t o r i e s o f f i r m s and s t u d i e s o f v a r i o u s i n d u s t r i e s have s u p p l i e d s u p p o r t i n g m a t e r i a l f o r the e c o n o m i c s - f o c u s s e d s e c t i o n s 23 o f the t h e s i s . D e s p i t e t h i s abundance o f p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y m a t e r i a l s t h e . r e l i s , however ,:. no _ s t u d y which f u l l y ex-amines the d i c h o t o m y which e x i s t e d between V i c t o r i a n s o c i a l l i f e and n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . M a r t i n W i e n e r ' s s t u d y o f what he terms the " c o n t a i n m e n t 24 o f the c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l i s m " p e r h a p s comes c l o s e s t . P a r t i c u l a r l y l a c k i n g i s a s t u d y o f the p a r t t a k e n by the l e a d e r s o f p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n t h e s o c i o -i n d u s t r i a l accommodation which was an i m p o r t a n t p a r t , f o r good or i l l , o f the l a t e V i c t o r i a n e r a . T h i s and o t h e r l a c u n a e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h , w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . i n C h a p t e r V I . In summary, the c h i e f t h e s i s o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l be t h a t t h e i n t e n s e and i d i o s y n c r a t i c form o f c h a r a c t e r -9 b u i l d i n g engaged i n by the V i c t o r i a n p u b l i c s c h o o l s p r o d u c e d a g r a d u a t e t y p e p e r h a p s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e management o f a s t a b l e empire but p a r t i c u l a r l y u n s u i t e d to the i n c r e a s i n g demands of l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y commerce, i n d u s t r y and p u b l i c l i f e . As one o b s e r v e r s t a t e d , w i t h r e g a r d t o a p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n o f the coun-t r y , but p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y a p p l i c a b l e to much of B r i t a i n ' s l e a d e r s h i p : L a n c a s h i r e was s e n d i n g o u t p u b l i c - s c h o o l m a n a f t e r p u b l i c - s c h o o l m a n t o keep up B r i t i s h p r e s t i g e , to r e f u s e t o l e a r n C h i n e s e f o r f e a r o f l o s i n g c a s t e , and to w a i t f o r t r a d e to come to him.25 The g r e a t s c h o o l s , t h r o u g h an o v e r w h e l m i n g emphasis on manner o v e r s u b s t a n c e , p e r p e t u a t e d t h i s r e a l or f e i g n e d , but e c o n o m i c a l l y i n a p t , i m p e r t u r b a b i l i t y . The s p i r i t o f t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the a d v i c e L o r d Home r e c e i v e d b e f o r e b a t t i n g a t E t o n : " F o r God's sak e , 2 6 s i r , i f you do m i s s , do i t i n s t y l e ! " FOOTNOTES 10 The l i t e r a t u r e , and t h e d i s a g r e e m e n t , on t h i s p o i n t i s immense. E. H. P h e l p s Brown and D. j . Hand-f i e l d - J ones , "The C l i m a c t e r i c o f the 1890s," O x f o r d  Economic P a p e r s IV ( O c t o b e r 1 9 5 2 ) , pp. 266-307, opened the modern d e b a t e , w i t h C h a r l e s W i l s o n , "Economy and S o c i e t y i n L a t e V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n , " Economic H i s t o r y  Review, 2nd. s e r . , . X V I I I ( 1 9 6 5 ) , pp. 183-198, and D. M. M c C l o s k e y , " D i d V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n F a i l ? " Economic H i s -t o r y Review, 2nd ser.., X X I I I ( 1 9 7 0 ) , . p p . 89-108, among o t h e r s , c o n t i n u i n g t h e e x c h a n g e . D a v i d L a n d e s , The  Unbound Prometheus ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , and A. L. L e v i n e , I n d u s t r i a l R e t a r d a t i o n  i n B r i t a i n 1880-1914 (London: W e i d e n f e l d , 1968) make the c a s e f o r a B r i t i s h i n d u s t r i a l d e c l i n e w h i l e A. E. Musson, The Growth o f B r i t i s h I n d u s t r y (London: A l l e n and Unwind 1'978 ), s e e s mere 1 y a p e r i o d o f r e d u c e d a c h i e v e -ment. D. H. A i d c r o f t , "The E n t r e p r e n e u r and t h e B r i t -i s Economy, 1870-1914," Economic H i s t o r y Review, 2nd s e r . , XVII ( 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 113-134, a t t r i b u t e s B r i t a i n ' s poor e c o n -omic p e r f o r m a n c e f o l l o w i n g 1870 t o " t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e B r i t i s h e n t r e p r e n e u r to r e s p o n d to the c h a l l e n g e o f changed c o n d i t i o n s . " p. 113. D. N. M c C l o s k e y and L. G. Sandberg, "From Damnation to R e d e m p t i o n : Judgments on the L a t e V i c t o r i a n E n t r e p r e n e u r , " E x p l o r a t i o n i n Econ-omic H i s t o r y IX ( 1 9 7 1 ) , pp. 89-108, c o n t e n d t h a t l a t e r q u a n t i t a t i v e a s s e s s m e n t s have t e n d e d t o r e h a b i l i t a t e t h e image o f t h e B r i t i s h b u s i n e s s m a n . D. H. A l d c r o f t , "The Economy, Management and F o r e i g n C o m p e t i t i o n , " i n G. Rod-e r i c k and M. Stephens., e d s . , .Where Did .We Go Wrong? (Barcombe, Lewes: The F a l m e r P r e s s , 1 9 8 1 ) , p~. 28, now a g r e e s t h a t " t h e c u r r e n t t r e n d . i s t o w a r d s l i f t i n g some of the burden o f g u i l t from t h e much m a l i g n e d e n t r e -p r e n e u r . " ^3. R. de S. Honey, Tom Brown's U n i v e r s e : The  Development o f t h e E n g l i s h P u b l i c S c h o o l i n t h e N i n e t e e n t h  C e n t u r y (New Y o r k : The New York Times Book Co., 1977) d i s c u s s e s the w i d e n i n g o f t h e term ' p u b l i c s c h o o l ' i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . He c l a s s i f i e s members o f t h i s community i n terms o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e Headmasters C o n f e r e n c e a f t e r 1869, a c h i e v e m e n t o f O x b r i d g e s c h o l a r -s h i p s , and t h e d e g r e e to which s c h o o l s were p r e p a r e d to i n t e r a c t w i t h each o t h e r . In t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , a 11 s c h o o l was o n l y a t r u e p u b l i c s c h o o l i f r e c o g n i z e d as such by o t h e r members o f the f r a t e r n i t y . T. W. Bamford, R i s e o f the P u b l i c S c h o o l s ( L o n -don: N e l s o n , 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 210, i n d i c a t e s t h a t e n t r y i n t o b u s i n e s s c a r e e r s by Rugby and Harrow g r a d u a t e s i n c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y from 1830 t o 1880:. 1830-3. 7% o f o c c u p a t i o n s s u r v e y e d ; 1840-4.6%; 1850-4.8%; 1860-5.4%; 1870-18.7%; 1880-16.8%. T. 3. H. B i s h o p and R. W i l k i n s o n , W i n c h e s t e r  and the P u b l i c S c h o o l E l i t e ( L ondon: E a b e r , 1967), p~. 63, n o t e a s i m i l a r t r e n d among W i n c h e s t e r g r a d u a t e s . ^See R. S. S a y e r s , A H i s t o r y o f Economic Change  i n E n g l a n d , 1880-1939 (London:. O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967), C h a p t e r 3. P. S. B a g w e l l and G. E. Mingay, B r i t a i n and  A m e r i c a , 1850-1939: a s t u d y o f economic change (London : R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1970) , p~. 176, i n d i c a t e t h a t i n 1915 t h e a v e r a g e c a p i t a l i z a t i o n per B r i t i s h f i r m was o n l y 41,000 pounds and i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i v i t y had d r o p -ped from an a n n u a l a v e r a g e r a t e o f growth of 1.2% i n 1880 t o 0.2% i n 1913. ^L a n d e s , Unbound Prometheus, pp. 526-528, d i s -c u s s e s v a r i o u s avenues . o f • a p p r o a c h t o s u c h e v a l u a t i o n s . g C. M. T u r n e r , " S o c i o l o g i c a l A p p r a o c h e s to t h e H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n , " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l  S t u d i e s XVII. ( F e b r u a r y 1969.) , c a l l s f o r a m u l t i - d i m e n -s i o n a l a p p r o a c h to t h e s t u d y o f e d u c a t i o n a l e f f e c t s i n o r d e r to a v o i d s e l e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n and t h e sk e w i n g of d a t a . 9 M. K a p l a n , "The Most I m p o r t a n t Q u e s t i o n s , " O x f o r d Review o f E d u c a t i o n I I I . ( 1 9 7 7 ) , p. 90. "^M. 3. Wiener, E n g l i s h C u l t u r e and the d e c l i n e  o f the i n d u s t r i a l s p i r i t ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r -s i t y P r e s s , 1 981), p~. 1~54, n e v e r t h e l e s s c l a i m s t h a t B r i t a i n ' s p a s t c e n t u r y of i n d u s t r i a l b e h a v i o u r " t r a c e s back i n l a r g e measure, to the c u l t u r a l a b s o r p t i o n o f the m i d d l e c l a s s e s i n t o a q u a s i - a r t i s t o c r a t i c e l i t e . " "'""'"Turner, " S o c i o l o g i c a l A p p r o a c h e s , : p. 147, r e f e r s t o e d u c a t i o n ' s s y s t e m a t i c a b i l i t y to d e f i n e and m e d i a t e c a r e e r s " i n terms o f c u l t u r a l l y s t r u c t u r e d and s h a r e d s y m b o l s . " 12 1 2 On t h i s p o i n t , see 3. E. T a l b o t , " E d u c a t i o n i n I n t e l l e c t u a l and S o c i a l H i s t o r y , " i n F. G i l b e r t and S. R. G r a u b a r d , e d s . , H i s t o r i c a l S t u d i e s Today (New Y o r k : N o r t o n , 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 193-210. The l a t e V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d may be a p a r t i c u l a r l y a p t moment f o r such a s t u d y s i n c e b o t h s c h o o l s and i n d u s t r y were r e l a t i v e l y f u l l y d e f i n e d e n t i t i e s which were o n l y . j u s t becoming aware o f t h e need f o r some form of mutual accommodation. 13 C. B a r n e t t , The C o l l a p s e o f B r i t i s h Power (London: E y r e Methuen~^ 1972 ), G~. B e s t , M i d - V i c t o r i a n  B r i t a i n 1851-75 (Lo n d o n : W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1 971), A. B r i g g s , The Age o f Improvement 1783-1867 (London: Longsmans^ 1959), W. L. Burn, The Age o f E q u i -p o i s e (New Y o r k : N o r t o n , 1964), 3. F. C. H a r r i s o n , The  E a r l y V i c t o r i a n s 1832-51 (London: W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l -s on, 1971), \T~. P e r k i n s , The O r i g i n s o f Modern E n g l i s h  S o c i e t y , 1780-1880 (London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1969), A. Wood, N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y B r i t a i n , 1815-1914 (London: Longman^ 1960), E~. L~. Woodward, The Age o f  Reform ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) . 14 D. H. A l d c r o f t , The Development o f B r i t i s h  I n d u s t r y and F o r e i g n C o m p e t i t i o n , 1875-1914 (London : George A l l e n and. Unwin, 1968 ) , ST G~. C h e c k l a n d , The R i s e  o f I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y . i n E n g l a n d , 1815-1885 (London: Longmans, 1964) , E~. 3~. Evans, The. F o r g i n g o f the Modern  S t a t e : E a r l y I n d u s t r i a l B r i t a i n , 1783-1870 (London: Longman, 1983), FT! 3~. Habakkuk and M. P o s t a n , e d s . , The Cambridge Economic H i s t o r y o f E u r o p e , V o l . VI (Cam-b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965) , R~. RT H a r t -w e l l , The I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n and Economic Growth (London"! Methuen, 1971), P. M a t h i a s and W. W. P o s t a n , The Cambridge Economic H i s t o r y o f E u r o p e , V o l . V I I (Cambridge : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 8 ) . ^^3. Bowie, P o l i t i c s and O p i n i o n i n the N i n e -t e e n t h C e n t u r y (London : J o n a t h a n Cape, 1954), 3~. RT B u c k l e y , The V i c t o r i a n Temper (New Y o r k : V i n t a g e Books, 1 9 5 1 ) , E~. Houghton, The V i c t o r i a n Frame o f Mind (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973) , E~. C. Mack, P u b l i c S c h o o l s and B r i t i s h O p i n i o n s i n c e 1860 (New Y o r k : Octagon Books, 1 9 7 3 ) . "*"^ D. S. L. C a r d w e l l , The O r g a n i z a t i o n of S c i e n c e  i n E n g l a n d (London: HeinemanTfT 19 /Z) , FT W~. Musgrave, T e c h n i c a l Change, t h e Labour F o r c e and E d u c a t i o n (Ox-f o r d : Pergamon P r e s s , 1967) , GT R o d e r i c k and M. S t e p h e n s , The, B r i t i s h M a l a i s e (Barcombe, Lewes: The F a l m e r P r e s s , 13 1982), G. R o d e r i c k , and M. S t e p h e n s , E d u c a t i o n and I n -d u s t r y i n t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y (London: Longman, 1978 ), G~. R o d e r i c k and' M. Stephen s, S c i e n t i f i c and  T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y E n g l a n d (New-ton Abbot, Devon: D a v i d and C h a r l e s L t d . , 1972), M. S a n d e r s o n , The U n i v e r s i t i e s and B r i t i s h I n d u s t r y , 1850- 1970 ( L o n d o n ! R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1 9 7 2 ) . " ^ F . C. Oaher, ed., The R i c h , The W e l l b o r n and  The P o w e r f u l ( U r b a n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1973) , P~7 S t a n d w o r t h and A. G i d d e n s , e d s . , E l i t e s and  Power i n B r i t i s h S o c i e t y (Cambridge.: Cambridge U n i v e r -s i t y P r e s s , 1974) , R~! W i l k i n s o n , ed., G o v e r n i n g E l i t e s (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) . 18 H. C. B a r n a r d , A H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n (London: U n i v e r s i t y o f London P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 ) . C. Norwood, The E n g l i s h T r a d i t i o n o f E d u c a t i o n ( L o n d o n : Oohn Mur-r a y , 1929), F. A. M. W e b s t e r , O u r G r e a t P u b l i c S c h o o l s (London: Ward, Lock, 1 9 3 7 ) . 1 9 3. G a t h o r n e - H a r d y , The P u b l i c S c h o o l Phenom-enon (Harmondsworth, Middl.e-.sex~: P e n g u i n Books , 1977 ) , D. Newsome, G o d l i n e s s and Good L e a r n i n g (London: John Murray, 1 9 6 1 ) , V. O g i l v i e , The E n g l i s h P u b l i c S c h o o l (London: B a t s - f o r d , 1957),. D. Wardle, The R i s e o f t h e  S c h o o l e d S o c i e t y ( L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1974) , R. W i l k i n s o n , The P r e f e c t s ( London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) . 20 L. S. R. Byrne and E. L. C h u r c h i l l , C h a n g i n g  Eton ( L o n d o n : J o n a t h a n Cape, 1937), W. H. H o l d e n , ed., The C h a r t e r h o u s e We Knew (Lon d o n : B r i t i s h T e c h n i c a l and G e n e r a l P r e s s , 1 9 5 0 ) , C. H o l l i s . , Eton : A- H i s t o r y ( L o n -don: H o l l i s and C a r t e r , 1 960), M. C. Morgan, C h e l t e n h a m  C o l l e g e : t h e F i r s t Hundred Y e a r s ( M i l l H i l l , Buckingham-s h i r e : R i c h a r d S a d l e r ' L t d . , 1 9 6 8 ) , 3. B. H. Simpson, Rugby S i n c e A r n o l d (New Y o r k : S t . M a r t i n ' s P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 ) ; N. Annan, Roxburgh o f Stowe (London: Longmans, G r e e n , 1965), G. G. C o u l t o n , A V i c t o r i a n Headmaster: Henry  H a r t o f Sedbergh (London.: G. V e i l , 1923.), A. Hearnden, Red R o b e r t : A L i f e o f R o b e r t B i r l e y ( L o n d o n : Hamish H a m i l t o n , 1984) , A~. K e n d a l l , A Headmaster Remembers (London: G o l l a n t z , 1 9 3 3 ) . 21 A. 3. A y e r , P a r t o f My L i f e ( London: C o l l i n s , 1 9 77), The E a r l o f Birkenhead., H a l i f a x : The L i f e o f  L o r d H a l i f a x ( London: Hamish H a m i l t o n , 1965), C. Conno11y, 14 Enemies o f P r o m i s e (New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1948), R. G r a v e s , Goodbye to A l l That (London: C a s s a l l , 1 9 5 8 ) , G. Green e~, A S o r t o f L i f e (N ew Y o r k : Simon and Schus-t e r , 1 9 7 1 ) , L. E. Oones, A V i c t o r i a n Boyhood (London: M a c m i l l a n , 1956), K. Rose, S u p e r i o r P e r s o n : The L i f e  o f L o r d C u r z o n (London: W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1 9 6 9 ) . 2 2 F. W. F a r r a r , E r i c , or l i t t l e by l i t t l e ( C h i -c a g o : M c C l u r g , 1 8 9 1 ) , T. Hughes, Tom Brown's S c h o o l d a y s (London: Ward, Lock, 1911), A. H u x l e y , Limbo (New Y o r k : George H. Doran, 1 9 2 0 ) , R. K i p l i n g , S t a l k y and Co. (New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y , Doran, 1 9 2 8 ) , A. Lunn, The H a r r o v i a n s (London: Methuen, 1913), A. P o w e l l , A Q u e s t i o n o f Up-b r i n g i n g ( London: F o n t a n a , 1 9 6 7 ) , H. A. V a c h e l l , The  H i l l ( L o n d o n : Oohn Murray, 1912), A. Waugh, The Loom  of Youth (New Y o r k : George H. Doran, 1 9 2 0 ) . 23 C. E r i c k s o n , B r i t i s h I n d u s t r i a l i s t s : S t e e l and H o s i e r y , 1850-1950 ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 ) , S. M a r r i n e r , Rathbones o f L i v e r p o o l , 1845- 73 ( L i v e r p o o l : L i v e r p o o l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 961), A. E. Musson, E n t e r p r i s e i n Soap and C h e m i c a l s (New Y o r k : K e l l e y , 1 9 6 7 ) , R. O v e r y , W i l l i a m M o r r i s , V i s c o u n t Nuf-f i e l d ( L o n d o n : E u r o p a P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1976) , W. 3~. Reader, I m p e r i a l C h e m i c a l I n d u s t r i e s : A H i s t o r y (London: Ox-f o r d U n v i e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 970), W. G. Rimmer, M a r s h a l l s  o f L e e d s , F l a x s p i n n e r s , 1788-1886 ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 0 ) , 3 . V a i z e y , The H i s t o r y o f B r i t -i s h S t e e l ( London: - W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1 974), C. W i l s o n and W. 3. Reader, Men and M a c h i n e s (London: W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1 9 5 8 ) . 24 Wiener, E n g l i s h ' c u l t u r e and t h e d e c l i n e o f the  i n d u s t r i a l s p i r i t , p. 158. 25 D. C. Coleman, "Gentlemen and P l a y e r s , " Econ-omic H i s t o r y Review, 2nd s e r . , XXVI. ( 1 9 7 3 ) , p. 105. 2 6 R. 0 1 l a r d , An E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n : A P e r s p e c -t i v e o f Eton ( L o n d o n : C o l l i n s , 1982), p. 200. CHAPTER I I PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND SCHOOLING IN NINETEENTH CENTURY ENGLAND P u b l i c s c h o o l s and s c h o o l i n g i n E n g l a n d a l -t e r e d d r a m a t i c a l l y d u r i n g the c o u r s e o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The i n s t i t u t i o n s s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d i n num-b e r , and i n numbers o f graduates."'" As w e l l , the p l a c e o f p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g i n V i c t o r i a n l i f e grew i n impor-t a n c e as the c o r p o r a t e aims and g e n e r a l e t h o s of t h e 2 s c h o o l s n arrowed and became c l e a r e r . Thomas A r n o l d ' s i n n o v a t i o n s a t Rugby had i n c r e a s e d r e p e r c u s s i o n s as the c e n t u r y p o r c e e d e d and as t h e numbers of h i s i m i -t a t o r s s w e l l e d , but i t i s a l s o a p p a r e n t t h a t the e l i t e s c h o o l s d i d n o t a c t i n l o c k s t e p , a l t e r w i t h c o m p l e t e autonomy, or d e v e l o p i n i s o l a t i o n from t h e i r s o c i e t y . Many o f t h e newly e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n s m e r e l y r e -sponded t o m i d d l e c l a s s demands which t h e a n c i e n t f o u n d a t i o n s were u n a b l e , or p e r h a p s u n w i l l i n g , to meet.^ R e g a r d i n g t h e o l d e r s c h o o l s , one w r i t e r has o b s e r v e d : With one e x c e p t i o n ( C h a r t e r h o u s e ) t h e r e i s no r e a l e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e y were aware of the ' e x p e r i m e n t a l ' a p p r o a c h which was such a f e a t u r e o f the age from the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y to 1837.^ By m i d - c e n t u r y t h e s e s c h o o l s were a b l e to i g n o r e 15 n e i t h e r A r n o l d ' s s u c c e s s nor. t h e r i s i n g demand f o r more e d u c a t i o n y e t , i n s h o r t o r d e r t h e r e a f t e r , t h e con-s t r a i n i n g power of the p u b l i c s c h o o l t r a d i t i o n , as m o d e l l e d m a i n l y by the C l a r e n d o n Seven, was a p p a r e n t among most of the new s c h o o l s . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , as the numbers o f e l i t e s c h o o l s grew, the shape and t e x t u r e of the s c h o o l i n g t h e y o f f e r e d were not g r e a t l y a l t e r e d by p r e s s u r e s from the g r o w i n g , c o n f i d e n t i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s e s . I n s t e a d , as the ' i d e a ' o f p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n was more c l o s e l y d e f i n e d , the aims o f the s y s t e m became i n c r e a s i n g e x p l i c i t and p r e c l u s i v e i n r e s p e c t of c u r -r i c u l u m , v a l u e s , c l i e n t e l e , p e d a g o g i c t h e o r y , and s o c i o -p o l i t i c a l a i m s. The g r e a t s c h o o l s a d a p t e d t h e m s e l v e s i n such a way t h a t t h e demands.of new c l i e n t s were subsumed, i f n o t v i r t u a l l y n e g a t e d , as a f o r c e f o r change. In e f f e c t : ( P u b l i c s c h o o l s ) emerged o r a d a p t e d t h e m s e l v e s d u r i n g the c e n t u r y i n such a way as to c o n s t i t u t e a s y s t e m , an a r t i c u l a t e d and c o h e r e n t s e t of s c h o o l s s e r v i n g a common s e t o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s . - * Some have a r g u e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s ' e t h o s was p u r p o s e l y a r r i v e d a t under t h e g u i d a n c e o f s t r o n g h e a d m a s t e r s , w h i l e o t h e r s c o n t e n d t h a t the d i s -t i n c t i v e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c o n c e p t i o n of the s c h o o l s was a p r o d u c t o f p a r t i c u l a r economic and s o c i a l c i r -c u m s t a n c e s . ^ Whatever the s o u r c e of t h e i r power, i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s were a b l e t o p l a c e t h e i r 17 stamp bo t h on e l i t e s t u d e n t s and the g e n e r a l V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y o u t s i d e t h e i r w a l l s . More to the p o i n t , i n a p e r i o d o f v a s t change, and. i n t h e m i d s t o f a s o c i e t y r e e l i n g from the e t h i c a l , a e s t h e t i c , r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l e f f e c t s o f t h e s e a l t e r a t i o n s , the p u b l i c s c h o o l s s t o o d f a s t , or were seen to s t a n d f a s t . R i g h t l y , or more p r o b a b l y w r o n g l y , th e y were h i g h l y v a l u e d f o r p r e c i s e l y t h i s c o n s i s t e n c y , which was seldom p r e s e n t e d i n t h e more p e j o r a t i v e s e n s e of r i g i d i t y . M a r t i n Wiener has s t a t e d : T h e r e was change - new s c h o o l s a p p e a r e d , new s u b j e c t s were i n t r o d u c e d , improvements i n p h y s -i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and i n n o v a t i o n s i n s c h o o l s p r o c e -d u r e s were made - but o n l y the minimum n e c e s s a r y to p r e s e r v e and e x t e n d t h e s o c i a l dominance o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l p a t t e r n . 8 One p i e c e o f p o p u l a r f i c t i o n a l s o made t h i s c l e a r : I f o r g o t , my d e a r , S h r e w s b u r y ' s no l o n g e r i n a h o l e ; i t ' s moved. . I t ' s on a h i l l now, t o w e r i n g above the town and r i v e r . Oust the v e r y p l a c e : new b u i l d i n g , o l d t r a d i t i o n s . What c o u l d pos-s i b l y be b e t t e r ? ^ I f i n d e e d , by the l a t e V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d , t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s were w e l l - s u i t e d to the needs o f t h e narrow s l i c e of s o c i e t y which t h e y s e r v e d , what were t h o s e n e e d s ? In s h o r t , t h e y a l l r e v o l v e d a r o u n d , and p a i d homage t o , one c e n t r a l l o d e - s t a r , t h e i d e a l o f t h e ' E n g l i s h g e n t l e m a n ' , i n which a s e n s e o f s u p e r i o r i t y was seen as the main, and o f t e n the o n l y , r e q u i r e m e n t f o r e l i t e w i s h - f u l f i l l m e n t . In the l a t e i n d u s t r i a l 18 p e r i o d t h i s g e n t l e m a n l y a u r a , which f o s t e r e d the key element o f s o c i a l ' a p a r t n e s s ' t h r o u g h emphasis on a r -cane knowledge and c o n s p i c u o u s l e i s u r e , s e r v e d a p p r o x -i m a t e l y the same f u n c t i o n as t h e c r u s a d e r ' s r e d c r o s s a f t e r the d e v e l o p m e n t o f f i r e a r m s , namely the c l e a r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f an easy t a r g e t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t was t h i s model which the p u b l i c s c h o o l s were c h a r g e d t o m a i n t a i n , f u r t h e r to p u r i f y , and to i n c u l c a t e i n t h e i r s t u d e n t s by means o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y r e f i n e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , p e d a g o g i c and s o c i a l d e v i c e s a t t h e i r command.^^ Fo r t h o s e p a r e n t s i n no doubt o f t h e i r s o c i a l s t a t i o n , t h e g e n t l e m a n l y e d u c a t i o n o f f e r e d by t h e pub-l i c s c h o o l s m e r e l y a c c e n t u a t e d what was t a k e n as u n d e r -s t o o d . In e f f e c t , " p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n t e n s i f i e d the v a r i o u s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f c l a s s and e l a b o r a t e d them i n a way w i t h which we a r e now becoming familiar.""''"'" T h i s e l a b o r a t i o n took t h e form o f an i n c r e a s i n g l y r i g i d h i e r -a r c h y o f r u l e s and a c t i v i t i e s , a u t h o r i t i e s and t r a d i t i o n s , a l l aimed a t p l a c i n g each s c h o o l b o y a t h i s p r o p e r l e v e l 12 i n t h e s y s t e m as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e . These a l s o en-s u r e d t h a t t h e v i r t u e s of s u b o r d i n a t i o n and c o n f o r m i t y w i t h s o c i a l p r a c t i c e were made, o f t e n p a i n f u l l y , e v i d e n t to him. Fo r p a r e n t s who s t i l l s o u g h t a p l a c e i n t h e V i c t o r i a n beau monde, or t h o s e who had o n l y r e c e n t l y 19 a c h i e v e d a measure o f s o c i a l a c c e p t a n c e , the main r e q u i r e m e n t was to shed, as s w i f t l y and d i s c r e e t l y as p o s s i b l e , any i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e i r upward s t r u g g l e s . Those a t t h e p i n n a c l e o f economic a c h i e v e m e n t were f o r t u n a t e t h a t the g e n i u s o f E n g l i s h s o c i e t y has al w a y s been i t s a p p a r e n t c a p a c i o u s n e s s , i t s a b i l i t y t o t u r n upward m o b i l i t y and new-won s u c c e s s i n t o m i n u t e l y g r a -d a t e d g r i s t f o r i t s m i l l . In su c h a s o c i e t y , as i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s which m i r r o r e d i t , a c c e p t a n c e n o t p e d i g r e e was the r e a l t e s t . The a b i l i t y to b l e n d i n s m o o t h l y was t h e s i n e qua non o f s o c i a l a r r i v a l . As one o l d E t o n i a n had i t : "What c o u n t s , what has a l w a y s c o u n t e d i n E n g l a n d , i s s t y l e o f l i f e . To l i v e l i k e an 14 a r i s t o c r a t f o r a c o u p l e o f g e n e r a t i o n s i s to be one." For t h o s e m i d d l e - c l a s s p a r e n t s n o t y e t a b l e t o o f f e r t h e i r o f f s p r i n g a l i f e o f g e n t e e l and t o t a l l e i -s u r e , the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y r i s e o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l c l a s s e s p r o v e d p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t u i t o u s . To t h e s e up-w a r d l y m o b i l e f a m i l i e s , a p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n r e p r e -s e n t e d b o t h a v o c a t i o n a l p a t h and a s o c i a l i m p r i m a t u r , w i t h most emphasis g i v e n the l a t t e r . In f a c t : P a r e n t s l o o k e d to the p u b l i c s c h o o l s to p r o v i d e what the p r o f e s s i o n s of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y de-m a n d e d — t h e e d u c a t i o n of a 'gentleman' . . . . What e n t r a n t s to t h e s e p r o f e s s i o n s would o b t a i n was t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f a s t a t u s f o r which t h e i r p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n had g i v e n t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s , and to which i t l \ had bestowed or c o n f i r m e d t h e i r r i g h t o f e n t r y . 1 5 In t h i s way, p u b l i c s c h o o l s were a t once g u a r d i a n s o f the o l d t r a d i t i o n s and c a p t o r s o f the new c l a s s e s . The s o u r c e s o f the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p u b l i c s c h o o l e t h o s , a n d . o f the u l t i m a t e f a i l u r e of the pub-l i c s c h o o l s , may be f o u n d i n b o t h t h e s e f a c t s . The s t i l l n a s c e n t V i c t o r i a n i d e o l o g y , c r y s t a l -l i z i n g i n the f i r e s of the i n d u s t r i a l d e b a t e s , combined hope and t r e p i d a t i o n . Optimism t h a t a l l t h e m y s t e r i e s o f N a t u r e were now a c c e s s i b l e was matched w i t h a n x i e t y t h a t too much might be l e a r n e d . The E n g l i s h e l i t e were, a t once, i n t e l l e c t u a l l y i n t r e p i d and c h r o n i c a l l y h e s i t a n t , as John S t u a r t M i l l a c k n o w l e d g e d : "The men o f the p r e s e n t day r a t h e r i n c l i n e to an o p i n i o n than em-b r a c e i t ; few, e x c e p t the v e r y p e n e t r a t i n g , or t h e v e r y p resumptuous, have f u l l c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r own c o n v i c -tions.""'"'' Such m i s g i v i n g s were p e r h a p s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r an a r i s t o c r a c y which was o n l y j u s t s h a k i n g i t s e l f i n t o shape, an e l i t e formed from u n e q u a l measures o f o l d g e n t r y , s o u t h e r n c o m m e r c i a l nouveau r i c h e s and n o r t h e r n i n d u s t r i a l p a r v e n u s . However, p u b l i c s c h o o l s , a c e n t r a l i n s t i t u t i o n f o r the m e l d i n g o f t h e s e g r o u p s , soon e v o l -ved a d i s t i n c t i v e pedagogy which g l o r i f i e d o n l y one segment o f t h e t r i u m v i r a t e , t h e o l d e s t . T h i s , a g a i n , may be seen as a s o u r c e o f t h e s c h o o l s ' s h o r t - t e r m power and l o n g - t e r m f a i l u r e , s i n c e t h e i r aim, i n p a r t , was the c i v i l i z i n g , or p e r h a p s e m a s c u l a t i n g , of t h e r i s i n g 21 i n d u s t r i a l and c o m m e r c i a l c l a s s e s who c o u l d have been 18 the w e l l s p r i n g o f renewed e n e r g y . T h i s a c t i v i t y on the p a r t o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s need not be viewed as a c o v e r t a c t o f j e a l o u s y or ag-g r e s s i o n ; r a p e o f t e n p r o v o k e s some r e s i s t a n c e , but l i t t l e p r o t e s t o v e r t h e i r f a t e was v o i c e d by the r i s i n g g r o u p s . I n d e e d , as F. M. L. Thompson n o t e d about the l a n d e d g e n t r y , s u c c e s s and t h e " m a t e r i a l s i n e w s o f 19 power" o f t e n e v a p o r a t e s w i f t l y as a new c l a s s r e a c h e s the s o c i a l h e i g h t s . a n d e x c h a n g e s w e a l t h f o r p o s i t i o n . E n g l a n d had, i f an t h i n g , become too a d e p t a t a b s o r b i n g new money i n t o o l d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n t h e mid and l a t e V i c t o r i a n e r a s , i t a p p e a r s t h a t " a t t h e moment of i t s t r i u m p h , the e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l c l a s s t u r n e d i t s e n e r g i e s to r e s h a p i n g i t s e l f i n t h e image o f the c l a s s i t was sup-i || 2 0 p l a n t i n g . " On an even b r o a d e r s c a l e , some i n v e s t i g a t o r s have drawn a t t e n t i o n t o o t h e r c o - o p t i n g t a s k s of t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s : . . . two i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n s (were) p e r f o r m e d by the E n g l i s h p u b l i c s c h o o l s : t h e f u s i n g , i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , o f the o l d n o b i l i t y and g e n t r y w i t h th e r i s i n g monied p e o p l e from the i n d u s t r i a l towns i n t o a s i n g l e ' r u l i n g c l a s s ' ; and the p r o d u c -t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r of a c a d r e of Empire b u i l d e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . 2 1 The view o f p u b l i c s c h o o l s as d o m e s t i c b u l w a r k s a g a i n s t J a c o b i n i s m and o t h e r forms of i n c i p i e n t r e v o l u t i o n a l s o 22 was c u r r e n t . B e r t r a n d R u s s e l l t h o u g h t t h a t " t h e con -c e p t of t h e gentl e m a n was i n v e n t e d by t h e a r i s t o c r a t s 22 to keep t h e m i d d l e c l a s s e s i n o r d e r , " w h i l e R. H. Tawney d e p l o r e d t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f s h a r p c l a s s d i v i s i o n s by the p u b l i c s c h o o l s : " E d u c a t i o n ought t o be t h e s o l -v e n t o f su c h d i v i s i o n s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o deny t h a t t h e t e n d e n c y o f t h o s e s c h o o l s i s to deepen and p e r p e t -23 u a t e them." However, a d e s i r e f o r s o c i a l c o n t r o l was prompted by the r i s e from the l o w e r c l a s s e s of i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f e n e r g e t i c , c h a l l e n g i n g and s u c c e s s f u l men who were unhampered by n o t i o n s o f g e n t l e m a n l y r e s t r a i n t and good f o r m . T h i s e l i t e f e a r of a . F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n s p i r i t among B r i t a i n ' s l o w e r o r d e r s c o n t i n u e d , beyond the V i c -t o r i a n e r a : The i n t e l l e c t u a l , q u i c k - b r a i n e d man who owes h i s e d u c a t i o n t o a c o u n t y c o u n c i l i s imbued w i t h no s e n s e o f the' v a l u e o f d i s c i p l i n e , o f t h e e t h i c s o f t r u e h onour; he has n e v e r s e t t h e c o u r s e b e f o r e him-s e l f , o r had h i s b e i n g s t e e p e d i n e s p r i t de c o r p s . He has from h i s boyhood p l a y e d f o r h i s own hand, and has seen h i s f e l l o w s s c r a m b l i n g , t r a m p l i n g , k i c k i n g one a n o t h e r down i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to ob-t a i n each h i s i n d i v i d u a l g o a l . He w i l l have l e a r n t n e i t h e r t o r u l e nor t o obey.24 I t may be an o v e r s t a t e m e n t to c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e 25 p u b l i c s c h o o l s came to r e p r e s e n t an " i n v i s i b l e e m p i r e " i n E n g l a n d . Y e t , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e y e v o l v e d i n t o an a r c h e t y p a l s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n by the end o f the n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y , i f n o t much e a r l i e r . As s u c h , t h e y s a t -i s f i e d t h e needs o f t h e i r s o c i a l l y r e s t r i c t e d c o n s t i t u e n c y 23 i n a v a r i e t y o f ways: as i n d o c t r i n a t o r s o f p r o t o -members of t h a t g r o u p , as m i r r o r s and s u p p o r t e r s o f s o c i a l mores and i n s t i t u t i o n s , and as i n t e n s i f i e r s o f v a l u e s . The C l a r e n d o n Commission summarized the p l a c e of t h e s e s c h o o l s i n the m i d - V i c t o r i a n w o r l d : I t i s n o t easy to e s t i m a t e the d e g r e e i n which th e E n g l i s h p e o p l e a r e i n d e b t e d t o t h e s e s c h o o l s f o r the q u a l i t i e s i n which t h e y p i q u e t h e m s e l v e s most . . . f o r t h e i r c a p a c i t y to g o v e r n o t h e r s , and c o n t r o l t h e m s e l v e s , . t h e i r a p t i t u d e f o r c o m b i n i n g freedom w i t h o r d e r , t h e i r p u b l i c s p i r i t , t h e i r v i g o u r and m a n l i n e s s o f c h a r a c t e r , . t h e i r s t r o n g but n o t s l a v i s h r e s p e c t f o r p u b l i c o p i n i o n , t h e i r l o v e f o r h e a l t h y s p o r t s and e x e r -c i s e s . . . t h e y have p e r h a p s th e l a r g e s t s h a r e i n m o u l d i n g the c h a r a c t e r o f the E n g l i s h g e n t l e -man .26 Thus, i t i s r e a s o n a b l e to s t a t e t h a t the system o f f i r s t - c l a s s E n g l i s h p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n c o r p o r a t e d a gen-e r a l l y a c c e p t e d , r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e , and s o c i o -e c o n o m i c a l l y p o t e n t e t h o s , as d e f i n e d by the C o n c i s e  O x f o r d D i c t i o n a r y : " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p i r i t and b e l i e f s 2 o f community, p e o p l e , s y s t e m , l i t e r a r y work or p e r s o n . " V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y and s o c i a l t h o u g h t may have found c l e a r e s t m a n i f e s t a t i o n i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s where n o t i o n s o f . f a i r p l a y , a n t i - m a t e r i a 1 i s m , group l o y a l t y , and gentlemanly, c o n d u c t r e a c h e d t h e i r most p r e -c i s e d e f i n i t i o n . In t i m e , t o o , the p u b l i c s c h o o l t a i l began to wag the V i c t o r i a n dog as p r o d u c t s of t h e r e -formed i n s t i t u t i o n s took t h e i r p r e o r d a i n e d p l a c e s a t the top of t h e s o c i a l p y r a m i d . One s u p p o r t e r o f the s y s t e m put c l e a r l y i t s p r e m e d i t a t e d aim f o r power, w i t h i m a g e r y which would r e s o n a t e i n the f u t u r e : He ( t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l boy) i s t a u g h t to p e r f e c t h i m s e l f i n the goose s t e p o f p u b l i c s c h o o l r a n k s and i s p a s s e d t h r o u g h the e l e m e n t a r y s t a g e o f d i s -c i p l i n e which a t t e n d s the p r o c e s s o f e l e v a t i o n from r a n k s t o command.28 In l a t e r l i f e , p u b l i c s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s who a t t a i n e d the s e a t s of power and a u t h o r i t y o f t e n seemed to r e l y on memories o f s c h o o l b e h a v i o u r as t h e i r main e t h i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s . "The boys a r e n o u r i s h e d on the d o c t r i n e t h a t t h e y have to p l a y the human game i n a m a n n e r l y way w i t h a s t r a i g h t b at and shun c r o o k e d n e s s V was one o b s e r v e r ' s summary o f t h e s e . The v i r t u o u s n e s s o f such a code i s a p p a r e n t ; what i s q u e s t i o n a b l e i s the s u i t a b i l i t y of a s y s t e m based on good c r i c k e t be-h a v i o u r f o r the p r o d u c t i o n o f competent and dynamic l e a d e r s . I f the p u b l i c s c h o o l s had a major f a i l i n g , i t was p e r h a p s t h a t t h e y top c o m p l e t e l y d o m i n a t e d t h e i r f i e l d . W i t h o u t r e a l c o m p e t i t i o n , t h e a c t i v i t i e s of t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s were i n c r e a s i n g l y r e f i n e d and r a r -e f i e d ; e v e n t u a l l y t h e y s e r v e d o n l y the d e s i r e s of the s m a l l , newly homogeneous e l i t e which grew up i n r e a c t i o n to n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n d u s t r i a l i s m . I n c r e a s i n g l y n a r -rowed e d u c a t i o n and a b u r g e o n i n g , p o l y m o r p h i c n a t i o n would a p p e a r to be c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n terms which com-b i n e d to p r o d u c e r e s u l t s b o t h p r e d i c t a b l e and damaging. 25 C l e a r l y : An i n s t i t u t i o n l i k e the p u b l i c s c h o o l s does n o t s i m -p l y t r a n s m i t v a l u e s ; i t s e l e c t s them and r e i n f o r c e s them. E v e r y s o p h i s t i c a t e d s o c i e t y e v o l v e s c o n t r a -d i c t o r y b e l i e f s ; and an e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m c a n n o t h e l p but emphasize some b e l i e f s to the v i r t u a l e x c l u s i o n of o t h e r s . J U As w e l l , g i v e n the i n c r e a s i n g l y r e g u l a t e d and e l i t e -d o m i n a t e d n a t u r e o f l a t e r V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y , t h e p r e -t e n t i o u s and s e l f - c o n s c i o u s e d u c a t i o n p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s had s i g n i f i c a n t n a t i o n a l powers o f pene-t r a t i o n and p e r s u a s i o n . In s h o r t : The v a l u e s o f the d i r e c t i n g s t r a t a , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a s t a b l e , c o h e s i v e s o c i e t y l i k e modern B r i t a i n , t e n d to permeate s o c i e t y as a whole and t o t a k e on the c o l o u r of n a t i o n a l v a l u e s , and of a g e n e r a l m e n t a l i t e . To be c l e a r about the e x i s t e n c e , c o n t e n t s and p r o p a g a t i o n o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l e t h o s , p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t r e l a t e d to B r i t a i n ' s economic p r o g r e s s , i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o i n v e s t i g a t e the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l changes which o c c u r r e d i n the g r e a t s c h o o l s d u r i n g the l a s t f i f t y y e a r s o f Queen V i c t o r i a ' s r e i g n . I t w i l l a l s o be a p p r o p r i a t e to a s s e s s the d e g r e e to which e t h o s e l e m e n t s were p r e s e n t i n i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s and t h e e x t e n t to which t h e s e c o i n c i d e d w i t h p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l t h o u g h t and h a b i t . To j u d g e the economic c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h i s c o n s t r u c t , i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y l a t e r to e s t i m a t e , how-e v e r r o u g h l y , the p a r t which p u b l i c s c h o o l t r a i n i n g p l a y e d i n the a d u l t c a r e e r s of g r a d u a t e s . 26 In t h e i r s t u d y of W i n c h e s t e r , T. 0. H. B i s h o p and R u p e r t W i l k i n s o n examined a number o f e l e m e n t s which 32 c o n t r i b u t e d to the p u b l i c s c h o o l e t h o s . They p a r t i c -u l a r l y n o t e d the i m p o r t a n c e of c u r r i c u l u m , the c o n v e n -t i o n s of c o l l e c t i v e l i v i n g , and ' n o t i o n s ' ( s c h o o l l o r e and t r a d i t i o n s ) . A l l o f t h e s e c o u l d p a s s under the r u b r i c o f ' c h a r a c t e r f o r m a t i o n ' which, i n t r u t h , was the main r a i s o n d ' e t r e of the s c h o o l s . However, i t be-comes a p p a r e n t t h a t , o v e r t i m e , t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s d i d not engage i n t r u e c h a r a c t e r m o u l d i n g . R a t h e r t h e y en-c o u r a g e d t h e i n c u l c a t i o n o f a r a n g e of s o c i a l s t r i c t u r e s which t a k e on the a s p e c t o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l a t one extreme and, l e s s d r a m a t i c a l l y , the a p p e a r a n c e o f what B i s h o p 33 and W i l k i n s o n c a l l e d " e l i t e s h o r t - h a n d . " N e v e r t h e l e s s , the f r e q u e n t l y p r o f e s s e d p u r p o s e of the l e a d e r s o f t h e s e s c h o o l s was the i n s t i l l a t i o n o f s u i t a b l e mannerisms and ways of t h i n k i n g , r a t h e r than t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of i n d i v i d -u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e p r o m o t i o n o f c r e a t i v e t h o u g h t . Dr. A r n o l d ' s p r i o r i t i e s had been c l e a r : "What we must l o o k f o r i s f i r s t , r e l i g i o u s and moral p r i n c i p l e ; s e -c o n d l y , g e n t l e m a n l y c o n d u c t ; t h i r d l y , i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l -35 i t y . " The s u c c e s s o f t h i s i n d o c t r i n a t i o n may be j u d g e d p a r t l y by t h e e x t e n t V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y b e l i e v e d i t u n d e r -s t o o d t h e term ' p u b l i c s c h o o l ' , the d e g r e e to which p u b l i c s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s b e l i e v e d t h e y c o u l d i d e n t i f y o t h e r such g r a d u a t e s , and the amount to which c o n v e n t i o n s o f t h e 27 p u b l i c s c h o o l e t h o s f i l t e r e d downward and found c l e a r e x p r e s s i o n i n o t h e r a r e a s o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h • 4. 36 s o c i e t y . More than j u s t i t s a c o r n , the p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s -tem formed the s u b s t a n t i a l and s u p p o r t i v e r o o t s t r u c t u r e of the l a t e V i c t o r i a n oak. One s c h o l a r , w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the modern s c e n e , makes t h e s o c i e t a l r o l e o f the s c h o o l s c l e a r : The p u b l i c s c h o o l s n o t o n l y s o c i a l i z e and e d u c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f the B r i t i s h e l i t e . They a l s o p e r f o r m what may be d e s c r i b e d as a c u s -t o d i a l f u n c t i o n . They c o n s e r v e w i t h i n t h e m s e l v e s and p r o t e c t . f r o m c o r r u p t i o n the norms and v a l u e s o f e l i t e b e h a v i o u r which a r e to be p a s s e d on to s u c c e s s i v e gen e r a t i o n s . 3 7 The V i c t o r i a n s i t u a t i o n was s u b s t a n t i a l l y s i m i l a r . Even g i v e n t h a t t h e g r e a t n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s c h o o l s were c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y and s o c i o - i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y d i s t i n c t i v e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o r e v i e w a v a r i e t y o f e t h o s - c r e a t i n g f a c t o r s which c o u l d be f o u n d i n each o f them. I s o l a t i o n of t h e s e e l e m e n t s i s s i m p l i f i e d by the r i g o r o u s e x c l u s -i v i t y and s o c i a l s e p a r a t i o n which t h e s c h o o l s p r o j e c t e d , and which f o u n d t h e i r o r i g i n s i n the p e r s i s t e n t e l i t e 3 8 f e a r o f t h e lo w e r c l a s s e s . I t w i l l be seen t h a t i t was p r e c i s e l y t h i s d r e a d of t h e B r i t i s h masses, who were seen as m a r g i n a l , d e v i a n t and c o r r o s i v e of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s , which l e d p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n t o become, i n many i n s t a n c e s , not a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l i f e but a form o f i n -n o c u l a t i o n a g a i n s t i t . L. E. Jones put t h e v a l u e o f h i s 28 l a t e V i c t o r i a n e d u c a t i o n p r e c i s e l y : I t may be, t h a t had. I gone s t r a i g h t from Eton i n t o the w o r l d t o e a r n my l i v i n g , I s h o u l d have been but. p o o r l y e q u i p p e d . But even so, I must have b l e s s e d h e r . F o r however i l l - p r o v i d e d the t r a v e l l e r , he may n o t be u n t h a n k f u l i f , when the way i s r o u g h , he can t u r n h i s eyes back a g a i n to a p l a c e o f s u n s h i n e , where a r i v e r r u n s , and t h e r e a r e g r e a t t r e e s , and r e d b r i c k s , and a h i g h g r e y c h a p e l l i f t i n g s t r o n g p i n n a c l e s to the s k y . - ^ To cope w i t h l i f e t h r o u g h Housemanesque n o s t a l g i a , f a c e d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h c a l m i n d i f f e r e n c e , and r e l y on g e n t l e -manly i n s t i n c t i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o s t e r e d i n such s e t t i n g s . As a. r e s u l t , the p u b l i c s c h o o l s may a g a i n be c h a r g e d w i t h i l l - s e r v i n g t h e i r g r a d u a t e s , as w e l l as t h e i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y which would 40 l a t e r depend on t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s . What, t h e n , were the main e l e m e n t s of the l a t e V i c t o r i a n p u b l i c s c h o o l s p i r i t ? In b r i e f , t h e s e were the ' g e n t l e m a n l y i d e a l ' p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d and i t s e v e n t u a l m e t a m o r p h o s i s i n t o t h e c o n c e p t o f the " V i c -t o r i a n c i v i l s e r v a n t . ' A l s o i n c l u d e d were the d e v e l o p -ment o f an awareness o f one's p l a c e and b e a r i n g i n s o c -i e t y , o f t h e need f o r l o y a l t y , and o f the v a l u e o f s e r -e n i t y , r e t i c e n c e , and modesty. Each o f t h e s e q u a l i t i e s came t o be viewed as e s s e n t i a l c o r o l l a r i e s o f the p u b l i c 41 s c h o o l man's a b s o l u t e and e f f o r t l e s s s u p e r i o r i t y . I-n p r a c t i c a l terms, the. p o s s e s s i o n of i n d e p e n -dent means, a c l a s s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , and ample l e i s u r e were the h a l l m a r k s o f a p r o p e r g e n t l e m a n , w i t h e d u c a t i o n 29 o c c u p y i n g th e most p e r i p h e r a l p o s i t i o n o f the t h r e e . As the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p r o c e e d e d , however, the pro forma p l a c e o f s c h o l a r s h i p . w a s augmented by the d e v e l -o p i n g b e l i e f t h a t a 'good s c h o o l ' was a t i c k e t to s u c c e s s or a c c e p t a n c e which, c o u l d o f t e n o f f s e t t h e a b s e n c e s of o t h e r a d v a n t a g e s . In t i m e , i t a p p e a r s t h a t " t h e comrade-s h i p of t h e ' o l d s c h o o l t i e ' . ... g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d , o v e r a wide f i e l d o f work, the ' g e n t l e m a n l y ' s t a t u s b ased on 42 a n c e s t r y , though n e v e r s u p e r c e d i n g i t a l t o g e t h e r . " Thomas A r n o l d ' s d e s i r e s to i n c r e a s e the s o c i a l and m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f E n g l i s h boys were well-known i n the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and v a r i o u s o f h i s u n d e r -t a k i n g s a t Rugby g a t h e r e d a wide c i r c l e o f i m i t a t o r s . The A r n o l d i a n view o f e d u c a t i o n encompassed the Greek b e l i e f that, the p r o p e r e d u c a t i o n o f a man was one which r a i s e d m o r a l a w a r e n e s s . A r n o l d a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t such 'goodness' c o u l d be h a b i t u a t e d i n c h i l d r e n . However, t h e r e was an u n d e n i a b l e a s p e c t of c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n h i s v i e w s s i n c e , l i k e P l a t o , he t h o u g h t of e d u c a t i o n as " g e n e r a l c u l t u r e which b e f i t s a man. of f r e e c l a s s - - a 43 g e n t l e m a n ' s s o n . " However, A r n o l d ' s o p i n i o n s on the p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t i e s r e q u i r e d by a g e n t l e m a n d i d n o t s u r v i v e un-a l t e r e d t o the end o f the c e n t u r y . H i s v iews ran s u f -f i c i e n t l y c o u n t e r t o t h e needs o f l a t e V i c t o r i a n e d u c a -t o r s t h a t much of h i s p h i l o s o p h y was j e t t i s o n e d and the 30 mere t r a p p i n g s of h i s i d e a s r e t a i n e d . I t i s f a i r t o say t h a t many new p u b l i c s c h o o l f o u n d a t i o n s u t i l i z e d A r n o l d ' s p e d a g o g i c d e v i c e s , w i t h t h e i r s t r o n g emphasis on the f o r m a t i v e and h a b i t u a t i n g powers o f d r e s s , i n s i g -n i a , o r g a n i z a t i o n , t r a d i t i o n s j r i g h t s , d u t i e s and p r i v -i l e g e s , i n the p u r s u i t of what has been termed " s y n -44 t h e t i c g e n t i l i t y . " The c l e a r components o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l , b o t h g e n e r a l and p a r t i c u l a r f o r m s , embodied i n A r n o l d ' s o r -g a n i z a t i o n a l scheme a l s o recommended t h e m s e l v e s to l a t e r u s e r s . H i s i n t e n t , i n t h i s r e g a r d , had been m e r e l y t o p r o v i d e t h e s o c i a l t r a i n i n g w hich t h e sons o f gentlemen would r e q u i r e i n l a t e r l i f e . He c l e a r l y a g r e e d w i t h Da f o e t h a t "an u n t a u g h t , u n p o l i s h e d g e n t l e m a n i s one 45 o f the most d e p l o r a b l e o b j e c t s i n the w o r l d . " However, the memory o f p u b l i c s c h o o l r i o t s , the e x c e s s e s o f the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n , Pe.te.rl.oo and C h a r t i s t u p r i s i n g s , a l l s h a r p e n e d t h e e l i t e ' s f e a r of r e b e l l i o n . A r n o l d ' s be-n i g n and p a t e r n a l d i s c i p l i n e , t h u s , came to s e r v e the needs of t h o s e who b e l i e v e d t h a t "when you c o n s u l t t h e w i s h e s o f c h i l d r e n you make J a c o b i n s . Only more p a r -e n t a l d i s c i p l i n e and a r i g h t e d u c a t i o n can p r e v e n t r e --i .. „46 v o l u t i o n . " A r n o l d ' s o r i g i n a l v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n s o u g h t t o meet o b j e c t i v e s d e s i r e d by a l l segments o f h i s s o c i e t y , though w i t h a v e r y c l e a r emphasis on t h o s e of t h e o l d e l i t e . He c h o s e t o b e l i e v e t h a t a l l o f t h e s e c o u l d b e s t be s e r v e d by y o u t h imbued w i t h a d e s i r e to s e r v e the n a t i o n i n a s p i r i t of m o r a l t h o u g h t f u l n e s s . Here he hoped t o p r o d u c e . a " s y n t h e s i s which would r e s o l v e a l l s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s p r o b l e m s w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e 47 48 o f the s t a t e . " I t w i l l be seen l a t e r t h a t i t was p r e c i s e l y the d i s i n c l i n a t i o n o f A r n o l d i a n - t r a i n e d pub-l i c s e r v a n t s to a d d r e s s p u b l i c needs which r e s u l t e d i n E n g l i s h s e c o n d a r y and p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n t r a i l i n g b e h i n d t h a t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t o r s a t the end o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A r n o l d ' s d e s i r e f o r an i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e m i d d l e c l a s s e s i n t o B r i t a i n ' s e l i t e was s u p e r c e d e d i n the l a t e V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d by a much more p a r o c h i a l view of the aims and d u t i e s o f a g e n t l e m a n . In t h i s l a t e r i n c a r n a t i o n , t h e i d e a l o f a 'gentleman' changed d i s -t i n c t l y . Now a g e n t l e m a n ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n the a f f a i r s of the n a t i o n was n o t seen so much as a s o c i a l p r i v i l e g e o r o b l i g a t i o n , d e p e n d i n g upon h i s rank i n s o c i e t y , but 49 as an e l i t e c l a s s d r o i t de . s e i g n e u r . T h i s r e a l i g n -ment o f t h i n k i n g was a p p a r e n t i n a v a r i e t y o f f o r m s , each stemming i n some way from t h a t u n d e r l y i n g e l i t e a n x i e t y - - f e a r o f the aims and powers o f t h e l o w e r and m i d d l e c l a s s e s . ^ U n d e r s t a n d i n g t h i s , t h e p u r p o s e s o f the f i r s t - c l a s s s c h o o l s were s e l f - e v i d e n t t o most upper c l a s s V i c t o r i a n p a r e n t s . Even i f some boys from 32 t h e l o w e r s t r a t a f o u n d t h e i r way i n t o p u b l i c s c h o o l s , i t was a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e y a l w a y s l e f t g e n t l e m e n , and a c t e d t h e r o l e c o n v i n c i n g l y much s o o n e r than t h a t . Whether t h e s e s t u d e n t s , and t h e i r h i g h e r born c l a s s m a t e s , l e a r n e d enough a t s c h o o l to f u n c t i o n as p r o d u c t i v e i n d i -v i d u a l s i n s o c i e t y , as opposed m e r e l y to f i l l i n g a p l a c e a t s u p p e r , was a q u e s t i o n n o t f r e q u e n t l y r a i s e d . The an-swer of one g r a d u a t e as to what he had l e a r n e d a t Eto n would have s t r u c k most upper c l a s s V i c t o r i a n s as a d m i r -a b l y s u c c i n c t and s u f f i c i e n t : " I l e a r n t to know my 51 p l a c e and keep i t . " However, t h e need f o r e d u c a t i o n a l change had not been l o s t on o t h e r t h e o r i s t s . In the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , Edgewood, C o b b e t t and the B e n t h a m i t e s had c a l l e d f o r a s y s t e m a t i c , p r a c t i c a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n i n o r d e r to r e c o n c i l e the c o n f l i c t s between i n d u s t r i a l change and the h i s t o r i c i d e a l o f s o c i a l h a r -mony. Jeremy Bentham had p o i n t e d , o ut i n d e t a i l the de-s i r a b l e o b j e c t i v e s o f e d u c a t i o n i n 1824: The o b j e c t o f e d u c a t i o n i s t w o f o l d : To p o i n t o ut t h o s e o b j e c t s i n n a t u r e which a r e most i m p o r t a n t to be known, and t h o s e p r i n c i p l e s i n c o n d u c t which a r e most p r o p e r to be o b s e r v e d ; to t e a c h what i s most u s e f u l to know, and what i s most c o n d u c i v e to h a p p i n e s s to do: hence, e d u c a t i o n , i s i n t e l l e c t u a l and m o r a l . L a t e r , he c o n t e n d e d t h a t t h e . u t i l i t y o f p u b l i c e d u c a -t i o n was " t o educe . . . a m o r a l or c o n v e n t i o n a l f o r c e , which would be s l o w l y and i m p e r f e c t l y formed by t h e 33 s i n g l e e f f o r t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s o r c l a s s e s . " I t s h o u l d , as w e l l , i n c u l c a t e a s e n s e . o f t h e work e t h i c which was o f t e n so c o n s p i c u o u s l y l a c k i n g : Of t h e whole number o f p e r s o n s . t r a i n e d by the p r e -s e n t s y s t e m of E d u c a t i o n , t h e f a r g r e a t e r number as d e p r i v e d of h a b i t s of i n d u s t r y , of b o d i l y o r : p h y s i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . . . . Hence men o f g e n i u s have become d i s t i n g u i s h e d a s men o f i d l e n e s s ; o f t e n as d i s s i p a t e d and i m m o r a l . 5 4 Bentham had a l s o been r o u n d l y contemptuous o f a n o t h e r a s p e c t o f c o n t e m p o r a r y e d u c a t i o n , namely what he saw as i t s l a c k o f d epth and want o f p r a c t i c a l i t y : From th e g r e a t P u b l i c S c h o o l s t o t h e m e r e s t C h a r i t y S c h o o l t h i s one f a u l t r u n s t h r o u g h t h e whole of t h e g e n e r a l s ystems o f e d u c a t i o n . A d d r e s s e d as t h e y a r e to t h e p u r e l y i n t e l l e c t u a l , t h e y f a i l b e c ause the p u r e l y i n t e l l e c t u a l i s u s e l e s s , e x c e p t i n r e f e r -ence to i t s power o v e r t h e p h y s i c a l ; which power i t c a n n o t p o s s e s s e x c e p t by a c o u r s e o f d i s c i p l i n e , u n i t i n g both t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l , p h y s i c a l and m o r a l f a c u l t i e s i n t h e same c o n c u r r e n t c o u r s e of d e v e l o p -ment . 55 A c c o r d i n g l y , i n e x t r e m e l y p r a c t i c a l d e t a i l , Bentham had l a i d out t h e needs and aims o f an e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l s y s -tem, i n c l u d i n g much s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g . The r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a l l c l a s s e s of s o c i e t y were a d d r e s -sed by h i s schema s i n c e he u n d e r s t o o d t h a t the n a t i o n would o n l y grow t h r o u g h c a r e f u l u t i l i z a t i o n of a l l i t s human c a p i t a l . But one group i n p a r t i c u l a r needed p r i -o r i t y : The m e r c h a n t , th e m a n u f a c t u r e r , the m e c h a n i s t , t h e c h e m i s t , t h e a r t i s t , t h o s e who d i s c o v e r new a r t s , t h o s e who p e r f e c t o l d a r t s , t h o s e who e x t e n d s c i -e n ce; t h e men i n f a c t who t h i n k f o r t h e r e s t o f 34-the w o r l d , a r e the men o f t h i s c l a s s . . . . The p r o p e r e d u c a t i o n o f t h i s p o r t i o n o f the p e o p l e i s t h e r e f o r e o f t h e g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e i m p o r t a n c e f o r the w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e s t a t e . 5 7 The U t i l i t a r i a n s ' emphasis on t h e needs of t h e l o w e r c l a s s e s and t h e v a l u e s o f i n d u s t r i a l and c o m m e r c i a l t r a i n i n g s t r u c k few s y m p a t h e t i c c h o r d s among the E n g l i s h upper c l a s s e s i n the m i d d l e and l a t e r V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d s . While o t h e r n a t i o n s p r o c e e d e d t o r e g u l a r i z e and expand 5 8 t h e i r s c h o o l s y s t e m s , B r i t a i n l a g g e d i n t h i s r e g a r d . N e a r l y t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of a c e n t u r y a f t e r Bentham's ex-h o r t a t i o n s , M i c h a e l S a d l e r would o b s e r v e t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l l y " t h e Germans make t h r i f t i e r use o f t h e i r .average m a t e r i a l 5 9 than we s u c c e e d i n d o i n g . " F o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s , t h e p l a i n l y u t i l i -t a r i a n and m o r a l a d v a n t a g e s o f e d u c a t i n g B r i t a i n ' s p o p u l a t i o n to the f u l l e s t d i d n o t recommend t h e m s e l v e s to many V i c t o r i a n l e a d e r s and e d u c a t o r s . Much o f t h i s h e s i t a n c y may be a s c r i b e d to a s i m p l e d i s i n c l i n a t i o n among t h o s e ahead i n t h e game t o c o n s i d e r , a change o f r u l e s . The m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e d e f i n i t i o n o f the term ' d u t y ' , under p r e s s u r e from t h e U t i l i t a r i a n s and P h i l -o s o p h i c a l R a d i c a l s , and w i t h t h e a i d o f A r n o l d ' s peda-gogy, may have been th e E n g l i s h e l i t e ' s most e f f e c t i v e r e p o s t to the t h r e a t of t h o r o u g h - g o i n g s o c i a l r e o r g a n -i z a t i o n . Betnham, M i l l and o t h e r s had a r g u e d t h a t t h e 3 5 need f o r t h e g r e a t e s t good f o r t h e g r e a t e s t number r e -q u i r e d s t a t e a c t i o n and t h e p o s s i b l e r e m o v a l o f many o f the d e f e n s e s o f p r i v i l e g e . A c c o r d i n g to them, w i t h new men and new v i s i o n , t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r change was immense: Men embued w i t h t h i s c l e a r - s i g h t e d s e n s e , men pos-s e s s i n g t h i s s i n g l e - m i n d e d h o n e s t y , ; o c c u p y i n g the v a r i o u s s t a t i o n s o f l i f e - - w h a t havoc would t h e y make w i t h c e r t a i n o p i n i o n s , customs, h a b i t s and i n s t i t u t i o n s , which p r e j u d i c e and i n t e r e s t now combine t h e i r e f f o r t s t o u p h o l d l ^ O In r e s p o n s e , T. H. Green and o t h e r s e n c o u r a g e d a m i d - c e n t u r y b a c k - t o - K a n t movement which e m p h a s i z e d the p h i l o s o p h y o f d u t y . T h e i r s t a t e d aim was to a s -c e r t a i n how " v a l u e s were t o be r e s c u e d ' from f a c t s . Under t h e i r t u t e l a g e , the p u b l i c s c h o o l s and a n c i e n t u n i v e r s i t i e s i n c r e a s i n g l y saw t h e m s e l v e s as s o u r c e s o f s t a t e s m e n f o r the n a t i o n , and l i t t l e e l s e ; i n t h i s way, e s s e n t i a l l y , t h e y f o r t i f i e d t h e m s e l v e s a g a i n s t demands from w i t h o u t f o r r e f o r m . The r i s e o f t h e V i c t o r i a n v a r i a n t o f n o b l e s s e o b l i g e , a t O x f o r d and Rugby i n i t -i a l l y , and then t h r o u g h o u t t h e sy s t e m o f g r e a t e r p u b l i c s c h o o l s and a n c i e n t s e a t s of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g , a g a i n de-m o n s t r a t e d t h e s k i l l o f t h e E n g l i s h e l i t e i n d e f l e c t i n g t h e demands of r i s i n g c l a s s e s . In e s s e n c e : U t i l i t a r i a n i s m had c a r r i e d w i t h i t an i m a g i n a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c s , a c o n c e p t i o n o f p r o b l e m -s o l v i n g and e x p l a n a t i o n o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n -n o v a t i o n as the v e r y s t u f f , o f p o l i t i c s . The p e r s i s -t e n c e of a s u p p o s e d l y a r i s t o c r a t i c c o n c e p t i o n of l e a d e r s h i p c a r r i e d w i t h i t a premium on v a l u e s o f group l o y a l t y and on the outward d i s p l a y of s o b r i e t y , and w i t h t h i s a c o n c e p t i o n o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g as the e x c e p t i o n and not the r u l e , i n d e e d a t e n d e n c y to deny t h a t t h e r e were p r o b l e m s a t a l l . 6 2 N i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y e d u c a t i o n change, which o f t e n i n -c r e a s e d i n t r o s p e c t i o n and n arrowed g e n e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n l e a d e r s and g r a d u a t e s o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s , may have been t h e c l e a r e s t i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h i s l a s t t r e n d . Whether, however, the s m a l l number o f v e r y g r e a t p u b l i c s c h o o l s were s p e c i f i c a l l y a f f e c t e d by t h e Rug-6 3 b e i a n movement i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s . I f we a r g u e the n e g a t i v e and s t a t e t h a t t h e V i c t o r i a n m a s t e r s and boys of such e x a l t e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s were n o t a b o u t t o a l t e r t o s u i t the o f t e n p r o s a i c v i e w s o f Dr. A r n o l d , we w i l l n ot be s a t i s f i e d . We must s t i l l wonder why the C l a r -endon C o m m i s s i o n e r s , and o t h e r l a t e r n o t a r i e s , f o u n d so l i t t l e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e top-most members of t h e s y s -tem from t h e i r l a t e - V i c t o r i a n i m i t a t o r s . In the s e n s e t h a t t h e c l o t h e s make the man, p u b l i c s c h o o l s were i n -c r e a s i n g l y much of a p i e c e by t h e end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and t h e i r p r o d u c t s became more and more p h y s i c a l l y 64 and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . One a s p e c t o f the R u g b e i a n p h i l o s o p h y , however, was not f u l l y a c c e p t e d by t h e g r e a t e r s c h o o l s . A r n o l d had c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y p r a i s e d the q u a l i t y o f ' m a n l i n e s s ' when he d e s c r i b e d d a i l y e x i s t e n c e as a c o n t e s t or b a t t l e ; s t e e p e d i n the metaphors o f .the Romantic e r a , he viewed 37 6 5 l i f e as an " o v e r t s t r u g g l e , s o m e t h i n g t o be proud o f . " In l a t e r V i c t o r i a n p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g , the i d e a of ' s t r u g -g l e ' was t o l e r a t e d o n l y i n t h e a r e a of s p o r t s , and w i t h d e c l i n i n g e n t h u s i a s m even t h e r e . G e n e r a l l y , the mark of a t r u e member of t h e e l i t e was t h e a p p a r e n t ease and n a t u r a l n e s s w i t h which s u c c e s s d r o p p e d a t h i s f e e t . ^ To l u n g e i n the d i r e c t i o n of s u c c e s s was e x t r e m e l y poor form s i n c e t h i s r a i s e d the doubt t h a t i t was not one's 6 7 by r i g h t . Development o f t h e c u l t s o f the amateur and t h e a e s t h e t e , w i t h t h e i r c l e a r e g o - p r o t e c t i n g q u a l i t i e s , p l a y e d a major r o l e i n l a t e r , p u b l i c s c h o o l - a u g m e n t e d p r o b l e m s o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l economy. Over t i m e , t h e n , t h e A r n o l d i a n i d e a l o f g o d l i n e s s and m a n l i n e s s was r e p l a c e d by a form o f m u s c u l a r C h r i s -t i a n i t y w h i c h , i n i t s t u r n , was s u p e r c e d e d i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s by a t r o p h i e d C h r i s t i a n i t y and s p i r i t l e s s muscu-G 8 l a r i t y . In e f f e c t , the g i f t to t h e n a t i o n from th e l a t e V i c t o r i a n s c h o o l s was an i n s u b s t a n t i a l s p i r i t u a l and- i n t e l l e c t u a l c o r e wrapped i n an o p p r e s s i v e s h r o u d o f t r a d i t i o n and good f o r m . Only t h r e a t s o f s o c i a l up-h e a v a l p r o v o k e d b r o a d e r r e a c t i o n s i n a number o f p u b l i c s c h o o l c o n v e n t i o n s , t h e g o a l s o f which may be d i v i d e d i n t o t h o s e which were p r a c t i c a l and t h o s e which were n o t i o n a l . ^ F o r p u b l i c s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , p r a c t i c a l or i n -s t r u m e n t a l s k i l l s were t h o s e which b r o u g h t q u i c k e r 38 p r e f e r m e n t i n t h e s o c i a l , a c a d e m i c or p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r l d I r o n i c a l l y , t h e s e were most l i k e l y the e n t i r e l y e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r t r i c k s o f l a n g u a g e , methods o f s o c i a l i n t e r -a c t i o n , a n d r e c e i v e d o p i n i o n s which boys a c q u i r e d o u t of the c l a s s r o o m . Form i n s t e a d o f s u b s t a n c e was the most c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z e d c r i t e r i o n o f s u c c e s s and, i n t i m e , the m a s t e r s a l s o came to a p p r e c i a t e and work t o -wards t h i s e p h e m e r a l end. H e r b e r t S p e n c e r d e p l o r e d t h i s t r e n d : We a r e none o f us c o n t e n t w i t h q u i e t l y u n f o l d i n g our own i n d i v i d u a l i t i e s to the f u l l i n a l l d i r e c t i o n but have a r e s t l e s s c r a v i n g to i m p r e s s our i n d i v i d -u a l i t i e s upon o t h e r s , a n d . i n some s e n s e s u b o r d i a n t e them. And t h i s i s not what d e t e r m i n e s the c h a r a c t e r of our e d u c a t i o n . Not what knowledge i s o f most r e a worth . . . but what w i l l b r i n g the most a p p l a u s e , h onour, r e s p e c t - - w h a t w i l l most conduce t o s o c i a l p o s i t i o n and i n f l u e n c e — what w i l l be most i m p o s i n g . As, t h r o u g h o u t l i f e , n o t what we a r e , but what we s h a l l be t h o u g h t i s t h e q u e s t i o n ; so i n e d u c a t i o n , t h e q u e s t i o n i s not the i n t r i n s i c v a l u e of know-l e d g e so much as i t s e x t r i n s i c e f f e c t s on o t h e r s . N o t i o n a l o r n o r m a t i v e q u a l i t i e s i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s were t h o s e e t h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s most a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i d e a of E n g l i s h g e n t i l i t y , p a r t i c -u l a r l y s u b s t a n t i v e b e l i e f s such as the v a l u e o f p r o p e r t y and t h e s a n c t i t y o f s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y . As we have s e e n , b o t h the n o t i o n o f t h e gentl e m a n and i t s r e l a t i v e w e i g h t i n s o c i e t y underwent s i g n i f i c a n t change i n t h e V i c t o r i a n e r a . A r n o l d ' s d e f i n i t i o n had f o c u s s e d on t h a t q u a l i t y o f m o r a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n man which was n o t f i x e d b u t a l -ways e v o l v i n g . T h i s growth was p r e d i c a t e d on what Matthew A r n o l d l a t e r c a l l e d " f r e e p l a y o f t h o u g h t . " P a r a d o x i c a l l y , as t h e Rug b e i a n model o f s c h o o l o r g a n -i z a t i o n was i n c r e a s i n g a d o p t e d , p u b l i c s c h o o l i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s o f i t s c e n t r a l c o n c e p t , the. p r o p e r g e n t l e m a n , moved i n t o s h a r p c o n t r a s t w i t h A r n o l d ' s v i e w s . F a r from dynamic, the v i s i o n o f a gentl e m a n d i s p l a y e d by l a t e V i c t o r i a n e d u c a t o r s was q u i t e i n e r t . I t r e s e m b l e d n o t h i n g so much as a t r a d i t i o n a l E n g l i s h C h r i s t m a s cake i n which an abundance o f r i c h e s were o f f e r e d up i n a p r e d i c t a b l e ' , and o f t e n i n d i g e s t i b l e , f o r m . The g e n t l e m a n l y 'cake' o f l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l i s h e d u c t i o n was a c o m b i n a t i o n o f e l i t e - d e f i n i n g but l a r g e l y i m p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g and p o w e r f u l but i n c r e a s i n g l y a t t e n u a t e d . c h a r a c t e r f o r m a t i o n , w i t h a s p i c y m i x t u r e o f c l a s s f e a r added f o r good measure. L a r d e d o v e r w i t h a t h i c k c o v e r i n g of m i d d l e c l a s s mor-a l i t y and- g e n t r y s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , t h i s p r o d u c t d r i e d up q u i c k l y and l o s t much o f wha t e v e r n o u r i s h m e n t v a l u e i t had had. Y e t , i t c o n t i n u e d to be s e r v e d up to gen-e r a t i o n a f t e r g e n e r a t i o n o f p u b l i c s c h o o l boys, t o t h e i r d e t r i m e n t and t h a t o f t h e n a t i o n . Any a s s e s s m e n t o f the economic c o n s e q u e n c e s of suc h e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e s , as a f i r s t s t e p , an e x a m i n a t i o n of the a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s commerce and i n d u s t r y d i s c o v e r -a b l e i n i t . T h i s w i l l be t h e n e x t t a s k o f the t h e s i s . FOOTNOTES 40 See T. W. Bamford, The R i s e o f t h e P u b l i c  S c h o o l s ( L o n d o n : N e l s o n , 1 9 6 7 ) , C h a p t e r 2 , ' f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s g r o w t h . 2 3. R. de S. Honey, Tom Brown's U n i v e r s e (New Y o r k : New York Times Book Co. , 19 77) , C h a p t e r 4, d e s c r i b e s t h e i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n i n n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t a i n . 3. R. Reed, Old S c h o o l T i e s ( S y r a c u s e , New Y o r k : S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , show t h a t t h i s pos-i t i o n of t h e s c h o o l s was i n c r e a s i n g r e f l e c t e d i n V i c t o r i a n l i t e r a t u r e . 3. Gatho.rne-Hardy, The P u b l i c S c h o o l Phen-omenon (Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n Books, T 9 7 7 ) , p p . 111-112, s t a t e s " t h e new f o u n d a t i o n s . . . were r e a c t i n g to a g r o w i n g market o f boys and t h e V i c t o r i a n e v a n g e l i c a l s p i r i t . " I t may b e t h a t t h i s s p i r i t was r e a l l y a f u s i o n o f i m p e r i a l i s m , m i l i t a r i s m , r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g , and w i d e n i n g c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i n d u s t r i a l i s m p l a y e d l i t t l e p a r t . 4 Bamford, R i s e o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s , p . x i i . "'Honey, Tom B rown ' s U n i v e r s e , p . x i i i . ^See A. P e r c i v a l , V ery S u p e r i o r Men (London: C h a r l e s K n i g h t , 1973.) and Bamford, R i s e o f the P u b l i c  S c h o o l s , C h a p t e r 6. ^Honey, Tom B r o w n ' s U n i v e r s e , C h a p t e r 1, de-v e l o p s t h e theme, o f ' i r r e s i s t i b l e t i d e s ' by which the p u b l i c s c h o o l s became the a r e n a o f d e v e l o p m e n t f o r the young o f B r i t a i n ' s e l i t e . Q M. 3. Wiener, E n g l i s h c u l t u r e and the d e c l i n e  of the i n d u s t r i a l s p i r i t f ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r -s i t y P r e s s , 1981 ) , p~. T T . D. Newsome,. G o d l i n e s s and  Good L e a r n i n g ( L o n d o n : Oohn Murray, 1961 ) , p^ 5~, a T s o summarizes t h i s s i t u a t i o n : "Reform was n e e d e d - - b u t no r e v o l u t i o n ; sound c l a s s i c a l l e a r n i n g and f i r m r e -l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e s — n o t h i n g s a c r e d or p r o f a n e . " 9 Bamford, R i s e o f the P u b l i c S c h o o l s , p . 15. 41 R. W i l k i n s o n , The P r e f e c t s ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964), C h a p t e r 2, d i s c u s s e s t h e p l a c e of g e n t i l i t y i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s . See a l s o , Honey, Tom Brown's U n i v e r s e , pp. 151-155. "'""''Gathorne-Hardy, P u b l i c S c h o o l Phenomenon, p. 140, 12 C. B a r n e t t , The C o l l a p s e of B r i t i s h Power ( L o n -don: E y r e Methune, 1972 ), p~. 34, s t a t e s : "Each s c h o o l had e l a b o r a t e d a h i e r a r c h y o f p e t t y r i t u a l p r i v i l e g e s . . . i t s y m b o l i z e d a h i e r a r c h y o f s u b m i s s i o n , o b e d i e n c e and a u t h o r i t y ; s c h o o l l i f e was now m i n u t e l y o r d e r e d by codes o f r u l e s , manners and c u s t o m s , o f which the p r e f e c t s were th e a u t h o r -i t a r i a n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . Though v e r y f a r from b e i n g s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y C h r i s t i a n and m o r a l n e v e r t h e l e s s t h i s r e g i m e n t a t i o n was s t r o n g l y e t h i c a l , i n c u l c a t i n g a way o f j u d g i n g and a code of b e h a v i o u r . " "*"^J. B u r s t y n , V i c t o r i a n E d u c a t i o n and t h e i d e a l  o f Womanhood (Lo n d o n : Croom Helm, 1980), S h e i l a F l e t c h e r , F e m i n i s t s and B u r e a u c r a t s : a s t u d y i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f  g i r l ' s e d u c a t i o n i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y (New Y o r k : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1980) , and G a t h o r n e - H a r d y , Pub-l i c S c h o o l Phenomenon, C h a p t e r 10, p r e s e n t the c a s e f o r a s i m i l a r c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f women's e d u c a t i o n i n t h e l a t e V i c t o r i a n e r a . R. Lewis and A. Maude, The E n g l i s h Mid-d l e C l a s s (London: Penguin Books, 1 9 5 3 ) , p. 241, c l a i m t h a t " G i r l s ' p u b l i c s c h o o l s . . . have borrowed t h e worse f e a t u r e s from t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s , w h i l e i g -n o r i n g t h e b e s t . " 14 R. O l l a r d , An E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n ( L o n d o n : C o l -l i n s , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 137. "''^Honey, Tom Brown's U n i v e r s e , p. 153. 1 6 D. C. Coleman, "Gentlemen and P l a y e r s , " Economic H i s t o r y Review XXVI (19 7 3 ) , p. 97, c o n c l u d e s "when the b u s i n e s s and t e c h n o l o g i c a l d r i v e of t h e E n g l i s h i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s l o s e s some o f i t s momentum . . . i t i s b e c a u s e too many o f the r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s a r e too busy becoming g e n t l e m e n . " "*"^3. S. M i l l , The S p i r i t o f t h e Age ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1942 ) , p~. 13. W. E. Hough-t o n , The V i c t o r i a n Frame of Mind (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957) , p~. 13, i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s e 42 o p i n i o n s o f 1832 were r e a f f i r m e d by M i l l as l a t e as 1854. 18 See G. M. Young, P o r t r a i t of an Age (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977 )Y W. TL. B u r n . The Age of  E q u i p o i s e (New Y o r k : Norton., ' 1964.)., and ' I . B r a d l e y , The O p t i m i s t s : Themes and . P e r s o n a l i t i e s i n V i c t o r i a n  L i b e r a l i s m ( L o n d o n : F a b e r , 1980) f o r d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e s e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l d e b a t e s . 19 F. M. L. Thompson, E n g l i s h Landed S o c i e t y i n  t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y ( L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e and P a u l , 1 963), p. 2. 20 Wiener, E n g l i s h c u l t u r e and t h e d e c l i n e o f  t h e i n d u s t r i a l s p i r i t , p. 14. W. D. R u b e n s t e i n , " W e a l t h , E l i t e s and the C l a s s S t r u c t u r e o f Modern B r i t a i n , " P a s t  and P r e s e n t 76 ( A u g u s t 1977), p. 1 1 6 , m a k e s the same p o i n t when he c l a i m s t h a t " f o r m a n u f a c t u r e r s and i n d u s -t r i a l i s t s t h e r o a d from w e a l t h to s t a t u s was a one-way s t r e e t . " 21 Lewis and Maude, E n g l i s h M i d d l e C l a s s e s , p. 232, 22 W. L. A r n s t e i n , "The Myth o f t h e T r i u m p h a n t V i c t o r i a n M i d d l e C l a s s e s , " The H i s t o r i a n XXXVII (Fe b -r u a r y 1975), p. 236. 2 3 R. H. Tawney, The R a d i c a l T r a d i t i o n (Harmonds-w o r t h , M i d d l e s e x : Pengu 171 Books, 1964) , p~. 63. Tawney's o p i n i o n s s h o u l d be a c c o r d e d , t h e r e s p e c t due an i n c i s i v e s o c i o l o g i c a l o b s e r v e r and p o p u l a r i z e r r a t h e r than a r i g -o r o u s p r o f e s s i o n a l h i s t o r i a n . Z^"lhe Dead Bones,". Blackwood's Magazine CLXXXIV (December 1908), p. 740. 25 Lewis and Maude, E n g l i s h M i d d l e C l a s s e s , p. 22. 2 6 G. R o d e r i c k and M. D. S t e p h e n s , S c i e n c e and  T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n N i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y E n g l a n d (Newton Abbot, Devon: D a v i d and C h a r l e s L t d . , 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 38. 2 7 3. B. S y k e s , ed., The C o n c i s e O x f o r d D i c t i o n -a r y , S i x t h E d i t i o n ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1976), p. 356. 43 2 8 G. L a g d i n , "Our P u b l i c S c h o o l s and t h e i r I n f l u e n c e s , " The N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y LXXI (March 1912) p. 570. 2 9 I b i d . , p. 581. " ^ W i l k i n son , The P r e f e c t s ; Wiener., E n g l i s h c u l t u r e and t h e d e c l i n e o f  t h e i n d u s t r i a l s p i r i t , p. 5. T h i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d emphasis o f the group o v e r t h e i n d i v i d u a l , which W i l -k i n s o n , The P r e f e c t s , pp. 42-45, r e f e r s t o as " c o l -l e c t i v i z e d e m o t i o n , " depends f o r i t s a u t h o r i t y on the c o n t i n u e d a c c e p t a n c e o f such opaque c o n c e p t s as d i g n i t y , d u t y , c o u r t e s y " a n d " s t y l e . 32 T. 3. H. B i s h o p and R. H. W i l k i n s o n , Win-c h e s t e r and' t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l E l i t e . ( L o n d o n : F a b e r , 1967) . See a l s o , W i l k i n s o n , The- P r e f e c t s , C h a p t e r s 5 and 6, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of e t h o s f o r m a t i o n . 33 B i s h o p and W i l k i n s o n , W i n c h e s t e r , p. 17. 34 By way o f i l l u s t r a t i o n , 3. Rae, "Our O b s o l e t e A t t i t u d e s : E d u c a t i o n and the N a t i o n a l M a l a i s e , " En-c o u n t e r XLIX (November 1977), p. 1 2 , s t a t e s t h a t as l a t e as 1955 t e n n i s was s t i l l e d banned a t Harrow as " t o o i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c . " ^^D. C. S o m e r v e l l , E n g l i s h Thought i n the N i n e -t e e n t h C e n t u r y (New Y o r k : D a v i d McKay, 1929), p. 113. T h i s o r d e r o f p r i o r i t i e s r e m a i n e d unchanged, a t l e a s t i n the minds o f some, for. many y e a r s . L o r d S e l b o r n e , a d d r e s s i n g W i n c h e s t e r S c h o o l i n 1910, The Times, 3 u l y 11, 1910, p. 6, s t a t e d " o f t h e t h r e e , m u s c l e s , b r a i n s and c h a r a c t e r , the g r e a t e s t i s c h a r a c t e r . " ^ O l l a r d , E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n , p. 108, i n d i c a t e s Edward L y t t e l t o n o f Eton b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s c h o o l s r e -f l e c t e d s o c i e t y r a t h e r than i n f l u e n c e d i t but he r e c o g -n i z e d t h e two were c l o s e l y s i m i l a r : "Our P u b l i c S c h o o l s a r e n o t t h e c a u s e o f t h e n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r but t h e symp-tom o f i t . . . huge groups o f the p o p u l a t i o n who know n o t h i n g o f t h o s e s c h o o l s b e t r a y the same q u a l i t i e s , good and bad." 44 37 I . Weinberg, The E n g l i s h P u b l i c S c h o o l s (New Y o r k : A t h e r t o n P r e s s , 1967), p. 8. 3 8 A r n s t e i n , "Myth o f t h e T r i u m p h a n t V i c t o r i a n M i d d l e C l a s s e s , " a r g u e s t h a t t h i s f e a r was p a r t i c u l a r l y u n j u s t i f i e d s i n c e t h e l o w e r c l a s s e s s w i f t l y " s e l f -d e r a d i c a l i z e d " as t h e c e n t u r y p r o c e e d e d . 39 L. E. Oones, A V i c t o r i a n Boyhood (London: M a c m i l l a n , 1956), pp. 242-243. 40 W i l k i n s o n , The P r e f e c t s , pp. 90-91, summarizes the c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e g r e a t s c h o o l s as f o l l o w s : " D u r i n g t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y the s c h o o l s un-d o u b t e d l y formed a c i t a d e l a g a i n s t t h e m a t e r i a l i s m and s e l f i s h n e s s g e n e r a t e d by the new c a p i t a l i s m o f the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . But when th e y p e r f o r m e d t h i s o f f s e t t i n g f u n c t i o n , t h e y d i d so by s t r e s s i n g t r a d i t i o n r a t h e r than s u p p o r t i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l c r i t -i c i s m and i m a g i n a t i o n . They chose, t o make t h e m s e l v e s an a n c h o r o f s t a b i l i t y , a g u a r d i a n o f c o n s e r v a t i s m , i n such a way t h a t t h e y were u n a b l e a l s o to s e r v e the c a u s e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t . As a r e -s u l t , t h e y p r o d u c e d l e a d e r s whose good s e n s e was too o f t e n n o t a c c o m p a n i e d by v i s i o n , and whose i n s u l a r i t y and c o m p l a c e n c e matched t o o p e r f e c t l y the i n s u l a r i t y and c o m p l a c e n c e o f t h e i r i s l a n d p e o p l e . " • 4 i I b i d . , C h a p t e r 2, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f ' q u a l i t i e s . ' 42 G. D. H. C o l e , S t u d i e s i n C l a s s S t r u c t u r e (Lon-don: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1955), p. 39. ( C o l e ' s e m p h a s i s . ) 43 G. C. Simmons, " E d u c a t i o n , t h e Good Man, t h e Good L i f e and the Greek I d e a l , " P a e d a g o g i c a H i s t o r i c a 17 ( 1 9 7 7 ) , p. 424^ 44 R. H. W i l k i n s o n , "The Gentleman I d e a l and the M a i n t e n a n c e o f a P o l i t i c a l E l i t e , " i n P. W. Musgrave, ed., S o c i o l o g y , H i s t o r y and E d u c a t i o n (London: Methuen, 1970), p. 127." 45 E. C. Mack, P u b l i c S c h o o l s and B r i t i s h O p i n i o n  s i n c e 18 60 (New Y o r k : Octagon Books, 1973), p. 38. 4 6 I b i d . , p. 183. 45 47 Bamford, E. A l e x a n d e r , Matthew don : R i s e o f the P u b l i c S c h o o l s , p. 41. A r n o l d and John S t u a r t M i l l (Lon-R o u t l e d g e and Kegan. P a u l , 1965 ) , p~. 217, b e l i e v e s t h i s was a l s o t h e i n t e n t o f Matthew A r n o l d when he a r -gued t h a t " t h e o n l y s c h o o l o f g e n u i n e m o r a l s e n t i m e n t i s s o c i e t y between e q u a l s . " 48 C h a p t e r V 49 See W i l k i n s o n , The P r e f e c t s , pp. 20-21.. Many o f the g e n t r y and a r i s t o c r a c y t h o u g h t t h e y knew c l e a r l y the p o t e n t i a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e s e r i s i n g c l a s s e s . F o r some V i c t o r i a n headmas-t e r s , r e b u t t a l r a t h e r than, accommodation was t h e o n l y answer s i n c e , a c c o r d i n g t o Bamford, R i s e o f the P u b l i c S c h o o l s , p. 49, t h e y b e l i e v e d t h a t : " M o r a l s a r e l a y e r e d i n t h e same way as s o c i a l c l a s s e s and ( t h e y ) e q u a t e d the two i n a rough f a s h i o n . C e r -t a i n l y t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the m i d d l e and l o w e r c l a s s e s had e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t s t a n d a r d s from t h e u p p e r , and t h a t t h e s e were m u t u a l l y i n c o m p a t i b l e . " ^ T h e P u b l i c ' and M a r s t o n , 1906), j S c h o o l s from W i t h i n (London: Low 161. 52 W e s t m i n s t e r Review I ( 1 8 2 4 ) , pp. 43-44. 53 W e s t m i n s t e r Review XL (18 3 4 ) , p.' 300. I b i d , p. 113, shows, 302 As S o m e r v e l l Thomas Bowdler. , E n g l i s h Thought, when n o t s a n i t i z i n g w i t h Bentham s i n c e he S h a k e s p e a r e , would have a g r e e d r e f e r r e d t o the p u b l i c s c h o o l s as t h o s e " n u r s e r i e s o f v i c e . " 55 W e s t m i n s t e r Review XL. ( 1 8 3 4 ) , p. 302, 56 W e s t m i n s t e r Review I (18 2 4 ) , p. 77. 57 I b i d . , p. 69. Modern 1979), 58, E d u c a t i o n and S o c i e t y i n L. A E x p e r i e n c e , See F. K. R i n g e r , Europe ( B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , ~Cr.emin, A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n : The N a t i o n a l 1783-18 76 (New Y o r k : H a r p e r C o l o p h o n , 1980), and W i l k i n s o n , The P r e f e c t s , f o r F r e n c h , German Amer i c a n and J a p a n e s e c o m p a r i s o n s . 46 59 G. R o d e r i c k and M. D. S t e p h e n s , e d s . , Where  Did We Go Wrong? (Barcombe, Lewes: The F a l m e r P r e s s , 1981), p. 8. ^ C . Oenks, "T. H. G r e e n , the O x f o r d p h i l o s o p h y of d u t y and the E n g l i s h m i d d l e c l a s s , " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l  o f E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s 28 ( 1 9 7 7 ) , p. 490. 6 1 I b i d . , p. 490. 6 2 I b i d . , p. 494. ^ S e e Bamford, R i s e o f the P u b l i c S c h o o l s , pp. 51-54, and Honey, Tom Brown's- U n i v e r s e , pp. 42-46, f o r b r i e f a s s e s s m e n t s o f A r n o l d ' s , i n f l u e n c e . 3. B. H. Simp-son, Rugby S i n c e A r n o l d .(New Y o r k : S t . M a r t i n ' s P r e s s , 1 967), o f f e r s a f u l l e r , bu.t r a t h e r h a g i o g r a p h i c , a s s e s s -ment. 64 L e w i s . a n d Maude, E n g l i s h M i d d l e C l a s s , p. 241, b e l i e v e t h a t , i n t h e r e a l m o f b e h a v i o u r , t h e " E n g l i s h p u b l i c s c h o o l t u r n s out a man e m o t i o n a l l y r e p r e s s e d , a b u n d l e o f i n h i b i t i o n s i n a s h e l l o f Good Form." Houghton, V i c t o r i a n Frame o f Mind, p. 175, a r g u e s t h a t s p i r i t u a l l y the p u b l i c s c h o o l boy was t r a i n e d to c r a v e dogma and the s e c u r i t y of m e n t a l i n f l e x a b i l i t y : "The l o n g i n g t o b e l i e v e under th e p a i n f u l p r e s s u r e o f doubt l e a d s to a s a v i n g b e l i e f t h a t i s n o t a con-v i c t i o n but a p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t f u r t h e r d i s t r e s s . H e n c e f o r t h i t w i l l be h e l d by the w i l l . . . and h e l d w i t h a t e n a c i t y t h a t can brook no e x a m i n a t i o n o f o p p o s i n g arguments t h a t m ight reawaken the o l d a n x i e t i e s . " ^ B a m f o r d , R i s e o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s , p. 41. ^ S p o r t s m e t a p h o r s , and games g e n e r a l l y , p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n the l i f e o f the V i c t o r i a n s c h o o l s . Among o t h e r s , s e e : E. Dunning and K. S h e a r d , B a r b a r i a n s ,  Gentlemen and P l a y e r s ( O x f o r d : M a r t i n R o b e r t s o n , 1979), D. C. Coleman, "Gentlemen and P l a y e r s , " Economic H i s -t o r y Review, 2nd s e r . , XXVI ( 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 92-116, and 3. A. Mangan, " P l a y Up and P l a y the Game," B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of  E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s , X X I I I ( O c t o b e r 1975) , pp. 324-335. 6 7 G a t h o r n e - H a r d y , P u b l i c S c h o o l Phenomenon, p. 416, c o n t e n d s t h a t even l e g i t i m a t e s u c c e s s was f r o w n e d upon i n some q u a r t e r s : "To a Wykehamist s u c c e s s demands q u a l i t i e s o f i n d u s t r y , enthu s i asm and r u t h l e s s n e s s con-t r a r y to the s c h o o l t r a d i t i o n - - w h i c h i s summed up i n t h e s c h o o l motto 1 Manners Makyth Man'." 47 E. L. Woodward, The Age o f Reform ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , pp. 511-521, b e l i e v e s t h a t the r e f o r m i n g power of Newman, K.eble and o t h e r s o f t h e Ox-f o r d Movement d i d n o t e q u a l t h a t of l a t e r p o p u l a r i z e r s such as C h a r l e s K i n g s l e y , whose n o v e l s made him the embodiment o f m u s c u l a r C h r i s t i a n i t y . However, D. Bowen, The Idea o f the. V i c t o r i a n C h u r c h ( M o n t r e a l : M c G i l l Un-i v e r s i t y Press., 19 68 ), p~. 221, p o i n t s o u t t h a t i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s the i m p a c t o f Thomas A r n o l d ' s "moral f e r v o u r " d i m i n i s h e d as i t was s u c c e e d e d by the " q u i e t s e n s e of d u t y " f a v o u r e d by h i s d i s c i p l e , F r e d e r i c k Tem-p l e . For more on the O x f o r d Movement and i t s r e s u l t s s e e : S.. L. O l l a r d , A S h o r t H i s t o r y of t h e O x f o r d Move-ment (London: Mowbray, 1915) , G. C. F a b e r , O x f o r d  A p o s t l e s : A .Ch a r a c t e r Study o f the O x f o r d Movement (Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x : Pen gu i n Books, 1954), and R. Chapman, F a i t h and R e v o l t : S t u d i e s i n the L i t e r a r y  I n f l u e n c e o f the O x f o r d Movement'( London : Weiden f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1 9 7 0 ) . 6 9 G. S k e l t o n , The P u b l i c S c h o o l s (London: Longman, 1966), d i s c u s s e s t h e i d e a o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s as a c l o s e d v a l u e s s y s t e m . ^ H . S p e n c e r , E d u c a t i o n : I n t e l l e c t u a l , M o r a l  and P h y s i c a l (New Y o r k ! A p p l e t o n , 1884) , p~. 26. S p e n c e r , o f c o u r s e , amassed a c o n s i d e r a b l e f o r t u n e by p r e s s i n g h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t i e s . up:on the e n t i r e n a t i o n . M i l l , A l e x a n d e r , p. 54. Matthew A r n o l d and John S t u a r t CHAPTER I I I ANTI-INDUSTRIALISM IN THE VICTORIAN PUBLIC SCHOOLS Through e x e r c i s e o f the v a r i e t y o f d e v i c e s l i s t e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , E n g l i s h p u b l i c s c h o o l s became f o r m i d a b l e f o r g e r s o f c h a r a c t e r among t h e i r e l i t e p o p u l a t i o n s . As has been shown, the f u n d a m e n t a l b a s i s of such c h a r a c t e r was a se n s e of g e n t l e m a n l y de-tachment, c l e a r awareness of s o c i a l p l a c e , and a c c e p t a n c e o f the n e c e s s i t y f o r o b e d i e n c e and group l o y a l t y . An i n c r e a s i n g l y narrowed view o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e as the p r o -per v o c a t i o n o f a member o f the upper c l a s s e s was a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c e p u b l i c s c h o o l boys were e n c o u r a g e d t o r e n o u n c e t h o u g h t s o f c o m m e r c i a l or s c i e n t i f i c c a r e e r s . As the W e s t m i n s t e r Review,had o b s e r v e d i n 1828, t h e s e were not seen as ' g e n t l e m a n l y ' : "Men o f s c i e n c e a r e viewed as a s p e c i e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n s ; and t h o s e g e n e r a l l y , p e r h a p s , who a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d f o r s p e c i f i c s c i e n c e s , as a k i n d o f traders.""'" L a t e r , the m i d - c e n t u r y i n t r o d u c t i o n o f compet-i t i v e e n t r y f o r p u b l i c c a r e e r s f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d the v a l u e o f a c l a s s i c a l or m a t h e m a t i c a l e d u c a t i o n s i n c e t h e s e s u b j e c t s were g i v e n h i g h e s t r a n k i n g by the ex-a m i n e r s . The p u b l i c s c h o o l s - a n c i e n t u n i v e r s i t i e s nexus, 48 a v i r t u a l l y c l o s e d s y s t e m , s t e a d f a s t l y d e f e n d e d the s u -premacy o f the c l a s s i c s and, a l t h o u g h V i c t o r i a n 3 r i t a i n was a g r e a t i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n , l a r g e l y r e p u d i a t e d t e c h -n o l o g i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c l e a r n i n g . The r e s u l t s were p e r n i c i o u s : "What the l e a d e r s g a i n e d i n c l a s s i c a l ed-u c a t i o n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y l o s t i n the a b i l i t y to renew 2 i t s economic i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . " As w e l l , " t h e d i v o r c e o f the uppe r and m i d d l e c l a s s e s from s c i e n c e and e v e r -more from t e c h n o l o g y s e t a norm f o r t h o s e who c l i m b e d 3 the s o c i a l l a d d e r b e h i n d them." P a r a d o x i c a l l y , as B r i t a i n ' s need f o r a w i d e r range of e x p e r t s grew, and a l s o the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f c a r e e r s f o r s t u d e n t s , the l e a d e r s o f the e l i t e e d u c a t i o n system r e s t r i c t e d t h e b r e a d t h of t h e i r o u t l o o k and the scop e of t h e i r e n d e a v o u r s . T r a d i t i o n a l i d e a s of ' c o r r e c t ' e d u c a t i o n and ' p r o p e r ' o c c u p a t i o n s were p l a i n l y e m p h a s i z e d . The p u b l i c s c h o o l s and t h e i r p r o d u c t s came to see p r a c t i c e and c r e a t i v i t y as incom-p a t i b l e ; p r a c t i c e became d o c t r i n e w h i c h , i n i t s t u r n , was b l e s s e d or c u r s e d w i t h the power o f p r e c e d e n t w h i l e c r e a t i v i t y took on the a s p e c t o f an a c t i v e t h r e a t to the s t a t u s quo. As the i n d u s t r i a l h e a r t of V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n s w e l l e d and sought t o pump f a s t e r , t h i s h a r d e n i n g o f v i t a l e d u c a t i o n a l a r t e r i e s had s e r i o u s r e p e r c u s s i o n s , not the l e a s t b e i n g an i n c r e a s e d f r a y i n g o f the s o c i a l f a b r i c . An e x a m i n a t i o n of the c e n t r a l n o t i o n s of s e r e n i t y , p l a c e - k e e p i n g and p u b l i c s e r v i c e i n e v i t a b l y u n c o v e r s a r e a s of o v e r l a p s i n c e I n e x t r i c a b l e t h r e a d s of many v a r i e t i e s r a n t h r o u g h the s k e i n of p u b l i c s c h o o l edu-c a t i o n . A t e n d e n c y , f o r i n s t a n c e , t o w a r d s d o c t r i n a i r e o r t h o d o x y c o u l d f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n p e r s o n a l p h i l o s o p h y , group l o y a l t y or p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e j u d i c e s . However m a n i f e s t e d , such r e s u l t s of n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s c h o o l i n g were i n w a r d , away from c o n c e r n s o f u t i l i t y and l a r g e l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e demands of the r e a l - l i f e m arket, i n d u s t r i a l - c o n c e r n , or i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r e n a . The e s s e n c e of p u b l i c s c h o o l pedagogy i s b e s t found i n t h e f i r m a d h e r e n c e to c l a s s i c a l s t u d i e s i n the V i c t o r i a n i n s t i t u t i o n s . Though the g r e a t s c h o o l s v a r i e d i n t h e i r c h o i c e o f t o p i c s and emphases,^ V i c -t o r i a n s b e l i e v e d t h a t the a n c i e n t l a n g u a g e s c o n f e r r e d a v a r i e t y o f b l e s s i n g s upon s t u d e n t . S t u d i e s o f L a t i n and Greek a c c u s t o m e d s t u d e n t s t o . h a r d , i n t e l l e c t u a l work, i n t r o d u c e d them to f e l i c i t i e s o f s t y l e , g r e a t h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s and e v e n t s , and had t h e added b e n e f i t of b e i n g the s o u r c e o f much C h r i s t i a n s c r i p t u r e . The C l a r e n d o n Commission o f the 1860s, w h i l e f a u l t i n g the p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n a number of a r e a s , c o n c l u d e d : Among the s e r v i c e s which t h e y had r e n d e r e d i s u n d o u b t e d l y to be r e c k o n e d the m a i n t e n a n c e o f c l a s -s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e as the s t a p l e o f E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n , a s e r v i c e which f a r o u t w e i g h s the e r r o r of h a v i n g c l u n g to t h e s e s t u d i e s e x c l u s i v e l y . ^ The c l a s s i c s were a l s o seen to enhance the c u l -t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e l a n d e d a r i s t o c r a c y , w i t h t h e i r 51 emphasis on p a t r i o t i s m , c o r p o r a t e s p i r i t , and honour, w h i l e c o n c e d i n g c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s v a l u e to the r i s i n g b o u r g e o i s i e ' s i d e a s o f m o ral e a r n e s t n e s s , e n e r g y , and s e l f - m a s t e r y . ^ T h i s u n e q u a l amalgam o f k n i g h t l y and c l e r k l y e l e m e n t s c o n s t i t u t e d the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l i s h h u m a n i s t i c e d u c a t i o n , but i n c o m b i n i n g a r i s t o -c r a t i c a s s u r a n c e , m i d d l e c l a s s p r i d e , and e v a n g e l i c a l C h r i s t i a n i t y , v i r t u a l l y no p e d a g o g i c room r e m a i n e d f o r t h e w o r l d l i n e s s of new s c i e n c e a n d . t e c h n o l o g y . T h i s , p e r h a p s , was an u n d e r l y i n g i n t e n t s i n c e : I t i s i m p o s s i b l e to e s c a p e the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the V i c t o r i a n s v a l u e d . c l a s s i c a l s t u d i e s b ecause t h e y l o o k e d f o r , and b e l i e v e d , t h e y f o u n d , i n them a v a l u e s - s y s t e m which h e l p e d t o e x p l a i n t h e i r own s i t u a t i o n , and t h u s a c t e d as a g u i d e i n m a t t e r s o f t a s t e , o f p o l i t i c s , and o f m o r a l s . ^ S c i e n c e s t u d i e s , i n t h e view o f the c o n t r o l l i n g e l i t e , d i d s o m e t h i n g q u i t e d i s s i m i l a r and, as a r e s u l t , were m a i n l y u n d e s i r a b l e . I t i s a p p a r e n t that. V i c t o r i a n e d u c a t o r s saw pedagogy as an avowedly n o r m a t i v e a c t i v i t y , a means o f a c t i n g upon i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s and g r o u p s i n o r d e r t o i n c u l c a t e v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and. b e h a v i o u r a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the g e n e r a l community. P e e r - p a t t e r n i n g , r o l e -m o d e l l i n g , s e c o n d a r y r e i n f o r c e m e n t , s t e r e o t y p i n g and h o m i l i e s from th e c l a s s i c s a l l p l a y e d t h e i r p a r t i n 9 t h i s p r o c e s s . Y e t , any a t t e m p t to h a b i t u a t e or ' p r i n t ' p r o p e r t h o u g h t and c o n d u c t based on the v a l u e s of o n l y one segment o f a s o c i e t y must be viewed more as i n d o c -t r i n a t i o n than e d u c a t i o n . " ^ In v a l u i n g r e t i c e n c e , s e r e n i t y and detachment i n p u p i l s , p u b l i c s c h o o l s a l s o e x p r e s s e d an e l i t e v a l u e . The V i c t o r i a n upper c l a s s e s i n s t i n c t i v e l y s o ught to e mphasize the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e m s e l v e s and the masses o f the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n , w hich were seen as a b r a w l i n g , s e l f - c e n t r e d and p r o f o u n d l y d i s t u r b i n g g r o u p . However, much of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ' s g e n t r y and a r i s t o c r a c y had s p r u n g from the E l i z a b e t h a n and G e o r g i a n m i l i e u x which were h a r d l y n o t e d f o r t h e i r m i l d n e s s o r f a l s e modesty. As a r e s u l t , the V i c t o r i a n e l i t e ' s main s o c i a l aim was o f t e n to c o v e r the t r a c k s o f t h e i r own upward s c r a m b l e so t h a t , i n r e t r o s p e c t , t h i s r i s e would a p p e a r i n e v i t a b l e , i f n o t mythological."'""'" C l a s s i c a l t r a i n i n g , even i f i t meant o n l y the p o s s e s s i o n o f a r e a d y r e s e r v e o f Greek t a g s f o r s o c i a l o c c a s i o n s , was an i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t o r o f e l i t e s t a t u s . The e d u c a t i o n a l dominance o f t h e c l a s s i c s con-t i n u e d t h r o u g h the r e f o r m and m i d - V i c t o r i a n e x p a n s i o n o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l s s y s t e m . At b e s t , t h e r e l i a n c e on t h i s c u r r i c u l u m i n d i c a t e d an a d h e r e n c e to p a s t f o r m s . One p o s t - V i c t o r i a n headmaster was r e p o r t e d to put t h i s q u i t e p l a i n l y to h i s Board o f G o v e r n o r s : He s a i d t h a t modern s u b j e c t s were ' i n v a d i n g t h e s a n c t u a r y ' o f t h e s c h o o l ; t h a t a t W i n c h e s t e r t h e y were ' h a n g i n g on f o r d ear l i f e , and would do so w h i l e had any v o i c e i n t h e m a t t e r , to t h e p r i c e -l e s s i n h e r i t a n c e o f Greek.'"12 At w o r s t , the modern s i d e was s e e n , w i t h g r e a t c o n -d e s c e n s i o n , as a " r e f u g e f o r t h e s e c o n d r a t e " where, 53 as T h r i n g o f Uppingham e x p l a i n e d , " t h e most backward i n c l a s s i c a l knowledge can t a k e r e f u g e . T h e r e they can 13 f i n d s o m e t h i n g to i n t e r e s t them." As w i t h t h e c l a s s i c s , t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s o f s c i e n c e p r e - d a t e d t h e V i c t o r i a n e r a and, i n 1828, t h e W e s t m i n s t e r Review n o t e d : S c i e n c e i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d as b e i n g commendable, o t h e r w i s e than as i t may be the ground of t r a d e or p r o f i t ; i t i s n o t viewed as o r n a m e n t a l , or f o r m i n g a recommendation t o i t s p o s s e s s o r , as i n d i c a t i n g a b i l -i t i e s , s t i l l l e s s t a l e n t s f i t f o r what i s termed b u s i n e s s ; and, most o f a l l , i t i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d as a c t i n g on the mind or the f a c u l t i e s as to be t h a t e n g i n e f o r the o c c u p a t i o n or improvement o f y o u t h which i s s u p p o s e d to e x i s t i n Greek or L a t i n . 1 ^ Dr. A r n o l d a p p e a r e d to a g r e e w i t h t h i s e v a l u a t i o n s i n c e he s t a t e d t h a t the l e a r n i n g o f f a c t s , o f which he be-l i e v e d s c i e n c e was s o l e l y composed, must always come a f t e r t h e l e a r n i n g o f v a l u e s : " P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e a l o n e can n e v e r make a man e d u c a t e d : even th e f o r m a l s c i e n c e s , v a l u a b l e as t h e y a r e . . . c a n n o t i n s t r u c t the judgement; i t i s o n l y m o r a l and r e l i g i o u s knowledge t h a t can accomp-l i s h this.""''"' B i s h o p Temple, A r n o l d ' s s u c c e s s o r , con-t i n u e d t h i s l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g when he i n f o r m e d t h e C l a r -endon C o m m i s s i o n e r s t h a t the r e a l d e f e c t o f the s c i e n c e s as p e d a g o g i c t o o l s was t h a t " t h e y have n o t any t e n d e n c y t o humanize. Such s t u d i e s do n o t make a man more human but s i m p l y more i n t e l l i g e n t . " " ' " ^ Such a t t i t u d e s t o s c i e n c e must have been a p p a r -e n t t o a t l e a s t one Shrewbury : stu.dent w h o ^ q u i t e e n j o y e d p o t t e r i n g i n t h e s c h o o l ' s r u d i m e n t a r y c h e m i s t r y l a b o r a t o r y . 54 F o r h i s p a i n s , the young C h a r l e s Darwin r e c e i v e d t h e s c o r n i n g s o b r i q u e t "Gas" from h i s h eadmaster, Dr. B u t l e r . Darwin l a t e r c o n c l u d e d : N o t h i n g c o u l d have been worse f o r my mind than Dr. 8 u t l e r ' s s c h o o l as i t was s t r i c t l y c l a s s i c a l , n o t h i n g e l s e b e i n g t a u g h t , e x c e p t a l i t t l e h i s t o r y and g e o g r a p h y . The s c h o o l as a means of e d u c a t i o n to me was s i m p l y a b lank.17 I f , as p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , the c l a s s i c s were esteemed b e c a u s e t h e y v a l i d a t e d V i c t o r i a n s o c i a l norms, 18 t h e s c i e n c e s were f e a r e d b e c a u s e t h e y d i d the o p p o s i t e . To an e l i t e group which c r a v e d s t a b i l i t y , s c i e n t i f i c s p e c i a l i z a t i o n was seen to c o n t r i b u t e t o the m o r a l , p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s d o u b t s which b u f f e t e d E n g l i s h s o c i e t y . M a t h e m a t i c s was p r i z e d f o r i t s p e d a g o g i c pow-e r s but a l s o b e c a u s e i t was e s s e n t i a l l y v a l u e s - f r e e . On the o t h e r hand, b e s i d e s b e i n g t a i n t e d by i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h commerce, f r e e - r a n g i n g s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n e d a l l the ' s u r e t i e s ' o f e x i s t e n c e w i t h o u t g u a r a n t e e i n g any-t h i n g s u b s t a n t i a l to t a k e t h e i r p l a c e . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h o s e e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s which e v e n t u a l l y r e c e i v e d most e l i t e s u p p o r t i n the V i c t o r i a n e r a were t h o s e pseudo-s c i e n c e s , such as p h r e n o l o g y and S o c i a l D a r w i n i s m , which m a i n l y e x p l a i n e d and h e l p e d p e r p e t u a t e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l and e conomic a r r a n g e m e n t s . In most o t h e r r e s p e c t s , s c i e n -1 9 t i f i c s t u d y was l i t t l e e n c o u r a g e d , w i t h l a t e r economic r e s u l t s , t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of which can o n l y be i n d i c a t e d w i t h v a r y i n g d e g r e e s of p r e c i s i o n . What can be c l a i m e d w i t h c o n f i d e n c e , however, i s t h a t many i n the V i c t o r i a n 55 e l i t e saw t h e m s e l v e s above and a p a r t from the c o n c e r n s of s c i e n c e w h i l e t h e y worked, w i t h much s u c c e s s , to deny i t a p l a c e i n g e n e r a l s o c i e t y as w e l l . W i t h o u t p u t t i n g a N e l s o n i a n b l i n d eye t o the m i c r o s c o p e or e n g a g i n g i n some form o f l a b o r a t o r y - L u d d i s m , B r i t a i n ' s l e a d e r s and the p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m managed t o e s t a b l i s h t h e image of t h e i r c o u n t r y as a f u t u r e non-con t e n d e r i n the f i e l d s o f s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s . The most p r o m i n e n t e x c e p t i o n to t h i s p a t t e r n was F r e d e r i c k S a n d e r s o n , headmaster o f O u n dle, who r e c o g n i z e d t h e need f o r a more r a t i o n a l , e m p i r i c a l , s l a n t to V i c t o r -i a n e d u c a t i o n . He s t a t e d t h a t : Our young men e n t e r i n g the f a c t o r i e s w i l l have to be w e l l - e q u i p p e d i n s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l knowledge and o u t l o o k . They must be c a p a b l e and z e a l o u s to t a k e a c t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e r e s t i n the work and must keep t h e i r mind open f o r t h o s e p r o -f e s s i o n a l changes which w i l l b e n e f i t the worker.20 Though h i s s c i e n t i f i c u n d e r t a k i n g s were w i d e l y remarked upon by the l a t e r V i c t o r i a n s , S a n d e r s o n ' s h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l p r o f i l e was based more on t h e . a p p a r e n t o d d i t y of h i s views than on t h e i r g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e . As a modern commentator o b s e r v e d : With the a c c e n t on s c i e n c e , on i n d u s t r y , on manual p e r f e c t i o n and i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h s u r r o u n d i n g s , S a n d e r s o n was as f a r from the n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p u b l i c s c h o o l o f the t r a d i t i o n a l t y p e as i t was p o s s i b l e to be, and i n d e e d h i s i d e a l s have n o t y e t been a c c e p t e d . 2 1 O p p o s i t i o n to the s c i e n c e s was a l s o s y m p t o m a t i c o f a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c m a l a i s e . i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s . The o l d e r f o u n d a t i o n s had n e v e r been n o t e d f o r any g r e a t 56 se n s e of d r i v e , and t r a d i t i o n s and c u r r i c u l a were seldom a f f e c t e d by t h e w o r l d ' s p r o g r e s s . I n d e e d : Wars were f o u g h t : an empi r e was won i n I n d i a and a n o t h e r l o s t i n A m e r i c a ; t h e voyages of C a p t a i n Cook e x t e n d e d t h e l i m i t s o f the w o r l d : the F r e n c h r e v o l u t i o n e n g u l f e d the s t a t e s and s o c i e t i e s o f E u r o p e . But Eto n took no c o g n i z a n c e o f t h e s e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . 2 2 As w i t h E t o n , many of t h e o l d s c h o o l s r e m a i n e d s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y a p a r t from t h e demands o f t h e i r age and, even a f t e r the f i r s t s u r g e o f R u g b y - s t y l e r e f o r m s , " t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s t e n d e d to grow more and more con-v e n t i o n a l , s t e r e o t y p e d and c o m p l a c e n t . Each s c h o o l 23 t e n d e d to become more and more, i n b r e d . " However, c o n s t a n c y i n the f a c e o f change came t o be seen as one of t h e i r g r e a t a t t r i b u t e s , and n o t i o n s o f calm t h i n k i n g and c o r r e c t a c t i n g as a p p r o p r i a t e l e s s o n s f o r s c h o o l b o y s . Such v a l u e s might c o n n o t e the t h i n k i n g o f a group which saw i t s e l f under u n f a i r a t t a c k but a c t u a l l y they m e r e l y e n s u r e d t h e peace o f mind o f p e o p l e u n d i s p o s e d to s t i r 24 t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e i r own d e f e n s e . Such c o m p l a c e n c y may be c o n s t r u e d as a p a t h y t e n d i n g towards b l i n d , i f n o t s u i c i d a l , i n d i f f e r e n c e . P u b l i c s c h o o l b o y s , t h e t a r g e t s o f t h i s t o r p i d i t y , have, been c h a r a c t e r i z e d as s i n g u l a r l y i n e r t , i n c u r i o u s 25 and u n a m b i t i o u s c r e a t u r e s , l i m i t e d a l m o s t from b i r t h by p r e t e n t i o u s and i n a p p r o p r i a t e s o c i a l and s c h o l a r l y a t t i t u d e s . I t s h o u l d come as no r e a l s u r p r i s e t h a t t h e y f o u n d t h e i r l a t e r economic e r a a d i f f i c u l t p a t h t o t r e a d . 57 Dr. C o r e y put the b e s t p o s s i b l e f a c e on t h e form o f t h e i r e d u c a t i o n when he s t a t e d : You go to a g r e a t s c h o o l , n o t f o r knowledge so much as f o r a r t s and h a b i t s ; f o r t h e h a b i t o f a t t e n t i o n , f o r t h e a r t o f e x p r e s s i o n . . . f o r t a s t e , f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , f o r m e n t a l c o u r a g e and m e n t a l s o b e r n e s s . 2 6 Some a s p e c t s o f C o r e y ' s l i s t m i g ht be viewed as d e s i r a b l e a t t r i b u t e s f o r c a r e f u l b u s i n e s s m e n and l e a d e r s . However, the p u b l i c s c h o o l emphasis on c a u t i o n and c o r r e c t n e s s o f t e n , made g r a d u a t e s i n t o h e s i t a n t , o t h e r - d i r e c t e d men s u i t e d o n l y f o r s e c o n d a r y e c h e l o n s o f 27 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e y o f t e n found them-s e l v e s v a u l t e d f a r beyond t h e i r competence or d e s i r e . E l i t e * e n t r o p y , d i l e t t a n t i s m or mere m e n t a l s l a c k n e s s had f e r t i l e ground f o r d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e E n g l i s h s c h o o l s of. t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Thus, a c o m p l a i n t i n 1835 t h a t " i t i s n o t o r i o u s t h a t a t s e v e r a l o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l s , i t i s r e c k o n e d d i s r e p u t a b l e t o 2 8 s t u d y , or to r e a d o r 'sap'.as the c a n t p h r a s e i s a t some" fou n d e c h o e s a t m i d - c e n t u r y : There a r e . . . a t Eton . . . l a d s o f h i g h rank and l a r g e e x p e c t a t i o n , who u n d e r s t a n d , v e r y e a r l y i n l i f e t h a t work i n any shape i s not t h e i r v o c a t i o n , and who q i v e more or l e s s a l e a v e n o f i n d o l e n c e to the s c h o o l . ^ Nor d i d t h i s s i t u a t i o n end w i t h the V i c t o r i a n e r a , as C y r i l C o n n o l l y i n d i c a t e d : I t was not smart to work a t E t o n ; to be a 'sap' was a d i s g r a c e and to compete f o r p r i z e s e c c e n -t r i c . . . . We were i n f e c t e d by t h e f a s h i o n from w i t h o u t , b e h i n d which l a y the E n g l i s h d i s -t r u s t o f i n t e l l e c t and p r e j u d i c e i n f a v o u r of t h e a m a t e u r . ^ 58 S c h o o l b o y i n t e r e s t i n work has a l w a y s , o f c o u r s e , e x h i b i t e d t h e f u l l r a n g e , from e n t h u s i a s m to i n d i f f e r e n c e , but C o n n o l l y ' s comment from the p o s t -V i c t o r i a n p e r s p e c t i v e r a i s e s a n o t h e r f e a t u r e o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l e t h o s . A c o n t i n u e d , n a t i o n a l esteem f o r the n o n - p r o f e s s i o n , the g e n e r a l i s t , o r the 'gen-t l e m a n - a m a t e u r ' , w h i l e an i n c r e a s i n g l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e model f o r a complex, c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e economy, was f u l l y r e f l e c t e d i n t h e e l i t e s c h o o l s . E a r l y i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y l e a d e r s had p r a i s e d t h a t " s e r e n i t y and r e p o s e of c h a r a c t e r ( w h i c h ) w i l l be r e c o g n i z e d as a well-known c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f f r e e - m i n d e d E n g l i s h 31 g e n t l e m e n . " L a t e r i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s e t r a i t s , however, r e s u l t e d i n a p u b l i c s c h o o l model which was an a g g r e g a t i o n o f i n d o c t r i n a t e d c e r t a i n t y , l a n g u o r o u s a t h l e t i c i s m , and s u p e r - r e f i n e d a e s t h e t i c t a s t e . I n -t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y , as a form o f l e a d e r s h i p , was seen as s u b t l e and c a s u i s t i c a l , a. t h r e a t e n i n g form of ob-s c u r a n t i s m . I t was seldom a c c e p t e d i n i s o l a t i o n but might be v a l i d a t e d by h i g h s o c i a l s t a n d i n g or a good 32 p a i r o f hands i n c r i c k e t . As a r e s u l t , i t i s f a i r to say t h a t the g r e a t p u b l i c s c h o o l s p e r p e t u a t e d a c o m p l a c e n c y t e n d i n g t o s n o b b e r y , a c o n s e r v a t i s m b r e e d i n g m i n d l e s s c o n f o r m i t y , and an i n c u r i o s i t y l e a d i n g to a n t i - i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m . The l a c k o f c r i t i c a l s e n s e and the g e n e r a l d i s t r u s t o f r a t i o n a l i n q u i r y which c h a r a c t e r i z e d many of B r i t a i n ' s 59 e l i t e d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f her s h a r p e s t economic d i f -f i c u l t i e s , may b e . t r a c e a b l e t o the p r i o r i t i e s s e t i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s . As A l e c Waugh r e c a l l e d : I t i s t h e b u s i n e s s of t h e s c h o o l to win t h e i r matches and to p r o d u c e f i r s t c l a s s f o o t b a l l e r s and c r i c k e t e r s ; i t i s the b u s i n e s s o f t h e house to win t h e i r house matches, and t o p r o d u c e as many c o l o u r s as p o s s i b l e . I t i s the b u s i n e s s o f e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l member o f the s c h o o l to s u b s c r i b e to t h i s c r e e d . The v a l u e o f s c h o l a s t i c a c h i e v e m e n t s i s r e l a t i v e . I t i s a f e a t h e r i n the cap of a d o u b l e f i r s t t o be p r i v i l e g e d to wear the dark r i b b o n o f the S i x t h . But i t i s not a n e c e s s a r y a c h i e v e m e n t . 3 3 One r e s u l t o f the s t r o n g g r o u n d i n g i n p u b l i c s c h o o l g r o u p - t h i n k was a b e l i e f t h a t n o t h i n g of v a l u e c o u l d p o s s i b l y e x i s t o u t s i d e t h e c i r c l e o f r e c e i v e d o p i n i o n . T h i s m ight a l s o have been a r e s u l t of the s t a n d a r d i z e d pedagogy which o f t e n b l u n t e d r a t h e r than s h a r p e n e d i n t e l l e c t s . As d e s c r i b e d by one o b s e r v e r : The method o f t e a c h i n g was s t e r e o t y p e d - - g r e a t s l a b s o f s e t - b o o k s or grammar to be l e a r n e d by h e a r t and r e c i t e d , r e p e t i t i o n work, a l l w i t h i n a f i x e d p r o -gramme. There was l i t t l e s c o p e f o r p e r s o n a l i n i t -i a t i v e and c u r i o s i t y , p r i v a t e r e s e a r c h . . . . F o r many i t p e r m a n e n t l y d i v o r c e d i n t e l l e c t u a l s t u d y from the p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s o f l i f e . 3 ^ R o b e r t G r a v e s a l s o d e s c r i b e d t h i s form o f e d u c a t i o n when he and a c l a s s m a t e were c o n t e m p l a t i n g , w i t h o u t marked e n t h u s i a s m , t h e i r move.up to O x f o r d from C h a r t e r -h o u se: "'Do you r e a l i z e , ' N e v i l l a s k e d me, ' t h a t we have s p e n t f o u r t e e n y e a r s of our l i f e p r i n c i p a l l y a t L a t i n and Greek, not even c o m p e t e n t l y t a u g h t , and t h a t we're now g o i n g t o s t a r t a n o t h e r t h r e e y e a r s o f the same t h i n g ? ' " ^ As a r e s u l t o f such s i t u a t i o n s , some o b s e r v e r s i n the V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t : 60 So l i t t l e has been done a t P u b l i c S c h o o l to s t i m -u l a t e . . . i n t e r e s t s , so l i t t l e a t t e m p t has been made t o e n c o u r a g e s p e c i a l a p t i t u d e s , t h a t boys seem to have f a l l e n i n t o a k i n d o f c y n i c a l a p a t h y a b o u t i n t e l l e c t u a l t h i n g s . 3 6 However, beyond the s t u l t i f i c a t i o n and s l o t h which s e l f -s e r v i n g and i n d i f f e r e n t pedagogy p r o v o k e d i n g e n e r a t i o n s o f boys (and which we might c a l l e d u c a t i o n a l l a i s s e z - f a i r i s m a t i t s w o r s t , i n the s e n s e o f c o n s t i t u t i n g a s ystem which p e r m i t t e d i t s v i c t i m s to v e r i f y t h e i r w o r s t s u s p i c i o n s about e d u c a t i o n ) , o t h e r . a s p e c t s of s c h o o l l i f e were opposed to t h e e x e r c i s e of i n t e l l e c t and i n -i t i a t i v e . I d e a s o f p r o p e r form, house l o y a l t y , f a g g i n g , and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e s e r v e d as s t r o n g b i n d i n g e l e m e n t s f o r the s c h o o l s . The needs f o r a c o n s e r v a t i o n o f o l d t r a d i t i o n s r a p i d l y f o u n d embodiment i n d o c t r i n a i r e forms o f s p e e c h and a c t i o n w h i c h , i n t u r n , e v o l v e d i n t o p a r t i c -u l a r l y r i g i d and i d i o s y n c r a t i c forms o f p u b l i c s c h o o l o r t h o d o x y . The s c h o o l s a t the end of t h e V i c t o r i a n e r a d i d n o t have 37 A r t i c l e s f o r s t u d e n t s to s i g n on a d m i t -t a n c e , but t h e i r d o c t r i n a i r e s t a n c e was a p p a r e n t n e v e r -t h e l e s s : The p u b l i c s c h o o l s g e n e r a l l y p r o d u c e d a r a c e o f w e l l - b o d i e d , w e l l - m a n n e r e d , w e l l - m e a n i n g boys, keen on games, d e v o t e d to t h e i r s c h o o l s , i g n o r a n t o f l i f e , c o ntemptuous o f a l l o u t s i d e the p o l e o f t h e i r own c a s t e , u n i n t e r e s t e d i n work, n e i t h e r d e s i r i n g nor r e v e r i n g k n o w l e d g e . J / In e f f e c t , the p u b l i c s c h o o l community saw i t s e l f as a b a s t i o n a g a i n s t the e x c e s s e s o f t h e i r age, whether i n d u s t r i a l or e c c l e s i a s t i c a l . They would h o l d f i r m to 61 t h e r o c k o f a c c e p t e d p r a c t i c e whether t h e t i d e r o s e or n o t ; the l e g e n d of Canute p r e s u m a b l y d i d not f i g u r e i n t h e i r L a t i n grammars. Many g r a d u a t e s o f such a sy s t e m were e i t h e r co-o p t e d or r e s t r i c t e d by t h e i r e d u c a t i o n ; w h i l e some d o o r s were opened, many avenues were b a r r e d . The i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o d u c t s o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s were w e l l - a r m e d m a i n l y i n the m a n i f e s t i n g o f p r e j u d i c e s a c q u i r e d or r e f i n e d d u r i n g t h e i r terms of s t u d y . At w o r s t , the s e n s e of b a l a n c e o f p u b l i c s c h o o l boys was s e v e r e l y d i s t o r t e d : A s p i r i n g t o f u l l s o c i a l a c c e p t a n c e , t h e y t e n d e d toward i n t e l l e c t u a l d e f e r e n c e . They were l e s s c r i t -i c a l o f a r i s t o c r a t i c i d e a s and v a l u e s than of i d e a s and v a l u e s e m a n a t i n g from e l s e w h e r e i n B r i t i s h s o c i e t y . 3 8 Such g r a d u a t e s who e n t e r e d b u s i n e s s , i n d u s t r y , o r o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d s may w e l l have .been t h e u l t i m a t e Greek g i f t from the p u b l i c s c h o o l s to t h e na-t i o n . As to t h e main aim o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l e t h o s , an Edwardian a s s e s s m e n t put the s i t u a t i o n i n b l e a k e s t , i f not b l a c k e s t , t e r m s : I t i s sometimes s a i d i n d e f e n c e o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s t h a t t h e y d e v e l o p c h a r a c t e r , even i f t h e i r s y s t e m of t e a c h i n g i s d e f i c i e n t . I t would be t r u e r to say t h a t t h e y a t t e m p t to shape t h e i r b o y s ' c h a r a c t e r s i n one common mould; and you c a n n o t be s a i d to ' d e v e l o p ' a j e l l y when you pour i t i n t o a t i n . . . . The p u b l i c s c h o o l s d e v e l o p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a*nd s u p p r e s s c h a r -a c t e r . . . i f you g e t b e h i n d the mask you f i n d a g r e a t e m p t i n e s s ; i t i s a mask which c o n c e a l s a des-p i t e o f l e a r n i n g , an u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o know, a c h a r n e l -house o f s t i l l - b o r n i n t e l l e c t . 3 9 The p h i l o s o p h i c t h r u s t o f p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a -t i o n , whether e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l , c u r r i c u ' l a r or s o c i a l , 62 c l e a r l y r a n c o u n t e r t o the needs of n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i n d u s t r i a l B r i t a i n . The s c h o o l s came t o r e p r e s e n t the South i n t h e g r e a t N o r t h - S o u t h s p l i t which c h a r a c t e r i z e d 40 l a t e r V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y ' s i n d u s t r i a l a m b i v i l e n c e . How-e v e r , r e p o s i n g f o r t h e most p a r t i n s y l v a n i s o l a t i o n , t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s d i d more than j u s t s e t a n o n - i n d u s t r i a l tone f o r t h e i r s t u d e n t s . They a c t i v e l y e n d e a v o u r e d to c o u n t e r what t h e i r l e a d e r s c o n s i d e r e d the e x c e s s e s and t h r e a t s of 41 the i n d u s t r i a l s i t u a t i o n . The d a y - t o - d a y r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f p u b l i c s c h o o l boys were one e x t r e m e l y p o w e r f u l means of p a t t e r n i n g and d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g s t u d e n t s . The a n t i - b u s i n e s s components of t h e s e i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e most a c c e s s i b l e t h r o u g h t h e range o f s c h o o l l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h , due t o i t s contem-p o r a r y a c c e p t a n c e , can be t a k e n to m i r r o r a c c u r a t e l y 42 t h e l i f e o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s . By way o f i l l u s t r a t i o n , S c a i f e , t h e a n t i - h e r o . o f H. A. V a c h e l l ' s p o p u l a r n o v e l The H i l l , i s b l u n t l y c a t e g o r i z e d . a s the g r a n d s o n o f a navvy but a n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r f a r e s much worse s i n c e h i s f a t h e r i s a L i v e r p o o l m e r c h a n t . P u b l i c s c h o o l s n o b b e r y , c l e a r l y , was aroused, more by m e r c a n t i l e a s s o c i a t i o n s 43 than by mere l o w e r c l a s s n e s s . In e f f e c t , t h e d e l i b e r a t e l y r e s t r i c t i v e s o c i a l and p e d a g o g i c a l p a t t e r n s o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s r e p r e s e n t e d a D i c k e n s i a n r e c o i l from c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n and t h e de-s t a b i l i z i n g changes o f i n d u s t r i a l g r owth. B e s i d e s e n c o u r -a g i n g a n t i - s c i e n c e b i a s e s , the i n s t i t u t i o n s r e a c t e d to such t r e n d s i n a v a r i e t y of ways. The de v e l o p m e n t o f u t i l i t a r i a n c o u r s e s i n t h e a r e a s of t e c h n o l o g y , modern l a n g u a g e s and b u s i n e s s was o p p o s e d . A p r e f e r e n c e was made p l a i n f o r pure as opposed to a p p l i e d m a t h e m a t i c s . Where s p e c i a l i z e d c o u r s e s were e s t a b l i s h e d , the v e r y b e s t p u b l i c s c h o o l s t u d e n t s were c h a n n e l l e d i n o t h e r d i r e c t i o n s . In s h o r t , the v a l u e o f s e p a r a t i n g ' t r u e ' l e a r n i n g from e a r n i n g was e n g r a i n e d i n s t u d e n t s . F i n a l l y , t h e con-c e p t o f t h e w e l l - r o u n d e d g e n e r a l i s t was honoured w h i l e t h a t o f t h e 'narrow' s p e c i a l i s t was d e n i g r a t e d . R e v i e w i n g t h i s s y s t e m i n 1861, H e r b e r t S p e n c e r commen t e d : Our s c h o o l c o u r s e s l e a v e a l m o s t e n t i r e l y out . . . t h a t which most n e a r l y c o n c e r n s the b u s i n e s s of l i f e . Our i n d u s t r i e s would c e a s e were i t n o t f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n which men b e g i n to a c q u i r e , as b e s t t h e y may, a f t e r t h e i r e d u c a t i o n i s s a i d to be f i n i s h e d . ^ - 5 He c o n c l u d e d : Here we see most d i s t i n c t l y the v i c e o f our e d u c a -t i o n a l s y s t e m . I t n e g l e c t s the p l a n t f o r the sake of t h e f l o w e r . In a n x i e t y f o r e l e g a n c e , i t f o r g e t s s u b s t a n c e . ^ A d e s i r e f o r s o c i a l q u i e t i s m , b o t h i n s c h o o l s and s o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y , matched w i t h the n a t u r a l compla-ce n c y of an empire a t peace and f l u s h w i t h p r o t e c t e d m a r k e t s t h u s p r o d u c e d an e l i t e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m which v a l u e d t h e n o n - i n d u s t r i a l i s t , t h e amateur, and t h e 'good l o s e r . ' P u b l i c s c h o o l m a s t e r s i n c r e a s i n g l y came to see t h e i r r o l e as groomers o f good managers, competent c i v i l s e r v a n t s , and 'sound' c o n c e n s u a l p o l i t i c i a n s , and, n o t 64 l e a s t , as tamers o f e n e r g e t i c ' r i s e r s ' from th e l o w e r c l a s s e s . Such r e s u l t s had p a r t i c u l a r c o n s e q u e n c e s . For i n s t a n c e : The s y s t e m may s t a r v e key n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l p r o f e s -s i o n s , i n i n d u s t r y , f o r example, or t h e a r t s . On the one hand i t may d i v e r t a b l e men away from t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s ; on the o t h e r , i t can q u i t e e a s i l y d e v e l o p u n s u i t a b l e a p t i t u d e s i n t h o s e who do e n t e r them.47 As w e l l , men were r a i s e d to p o s i t i o n s o f power and a u t h o r -i t y i l l - e q u i p p e d t o manage a p l u r a l i s t i c and i n c r e a s i n g l y t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y . They d i s p l a y e d a l e i s u r e l y pace of t h o u g h t , c o m p r e h e n s i o n , and a c t i o n which f r e q u e n t l y s e r v e d as a d e t r i m e n t t o t h e i r e n d e a v o u r s . In s e c t o r s f a c i n g r a p i d change and n e e d i n g b r i s k i n n o v a t i o n to r e -main c o m p e t i t i v e , l e a d e r s were o f t e n u n a b l e t o r i s e above the p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g which had t r a i n e d them to be i n s t i n c -t i v e c o n s e r v a t o r s . I t a l s o a p p e a r s t h a t , i n the most p r a g m a t i c a r e a o f b u s i n e s s judgment, g r a d u a t e s o f the g r e a t p u b l i c s c h o o l s were g e n e r a l l y not good p r o f i t makers. The a c c e p t e d c o n c e p t i o n o f b u s i n e s s and i n d u s -t r y which took r o o t i n t h e V i c t o r i a n p u b l i c s c h o o l s was of a c o r p o r a t e u n d e r t a k i n g i n which a l l i n v o l v e d d i d t h e i r d u t y as d e f i n e d from above. None worked w i t h or f o r u n f a i r a d v a n t a g e , e i t h e r i n t r a m u r a l l y or e x t r a -m u r a l l y . P r o p e r c o n d u c t e m p h a s i z e d t o l e r a n c e , s e l f -c o n t r o l and ' b a l a n c e . ' T h i s was a l o g i c a l o u t g r o w t h o f t h e A r n o l d i a n b e l i e f t h a t " d e f e r e n c e f o r a h i e r a r c h i c a l 65 s o c i e t y , the a b i l i t y and d e s i r e t o l e a d , an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the n i c e g r a d a t i o n s o f s o c i a l forms were a l l - i m p o r t a n t 49 g o a l s . " A s i m i l a r s e n s e o f B r i t i s h i n d u s t r y e x i s t e d a t a s l i g h t l y l a t e r d a t e , when t h e g r a d u a t e s of the n i n e t e e n t h -c e n t u r y p u b l i c s c h o o l s were a t t h e i r peak o f power: most i m p o r t a n t , t h e n , were " c o r p o r a t e s p i r i t which s e e s t h e whole as g r e a t e r t h an the p a r t ; s o d a l i t y which makes good a comrade's s h o r t c o m i n g s i n s t e a d o f u s i n g them f o r s e l f -a d v a n t a g e ; t o l e r a n c e and s e l f - c o n t r o l . " " ^ I t i s p e r h a p s l i t t l e wonder, as a r e s u l t , t h a t many i n d u s t r i a l and c o m m e r c i a l l e a d e r s o f humble o r i g i n d i d n o t see p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g as a f i t p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e i r h e i r s . Some were s u r e t h a t t h i s " u n s e t t l e d them f o r c o m m e r c i a l pursuits,"''"'' w h i l e o t h e r s i n t e n s i f i e d t h e s c h o o l s ' b e l i e f t h a t e a r n i n g and l e a r n i n g s h o u l d have no 52 l i n k i n t o a c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e s e c o u l d have no l i n k . The q u a l i t i e s o f l e a d e r s h i p which the s c h o o l s s o u g h t , and many b u s i n e s s m e n s..corned, were t h o s e o f a competent M a s t e r o f Hounds, r e g i m e n t a l o f f i c e r or c i v i l s e r v a n t i n t i m e s o f n o r m a l i t y . I t can be ar g u e d t h a t t h e s e were p r e c i s e l y the a t t r i b u t e s which l e s s e n e d s u c -c e s s i n t i m e s o f s t r e s s , such as t h e i n d u s t r i e s o f B r i t -a i n e x p e r i e n c e d a t the end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I t w i l l be seen l a t e r t h a t t h e s u c c e s s , f o r i n s t a n c e , o f p u b l i c s c h o o l e d m i l i t a r y and c i v i l o f f i c e r s d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f t r i a l may a l s o have been r e d u c e d by t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . 3 o h n R u s k i n was s u r e l y s p e a k i n g of an e a r l i e r 66 • and s i m p l i e r e r a when he c l a i m e d : The t a c t , f o r e s i g h t , d e c i s i o n , and t h e m e n t a l powers r e q u i r e d f o r t h e s u c c e s s f u l management of a l a r g e m e r c a n t i l e c o n c e r n , i f n o t such as c o u l d be compared w i t h t h o s e o f a g r e a t l a w y e r , g e n e r a l or d i v i n e , would a t l e a s t match the g e n e r a l c o n d i t -i o n s o f mind r e q u i r e d i n t h e s u b o r d i n a t e o f f i c e r s o f a s h i p , or o f a r e g i m e n t , or i n t h e c u r a t e o f a c o u n t r y p a r i s h . 5 4 Y e t , R u s k i n ' s l i m i t e d and p a t e r n a l i s t i c s e n s e o f t h e needs of b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r y r e f l e c t e d the. t e n o r of V i c t o r i a n t h o u g h t on the s u b j e c t , and t h e c o n c e r n of p u b l i c s c h o o l s to emphasize harmony, m o d e r a t i o n , and com-p r o m i s e h e l p e d to d e v e l o p a s p e c i e s of b u s i n e s s l e a d e r n o t a b l e f o r a l a c k o f d r i v e . Such men a r e needed i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s and e r a s , o f c o u r s e . However, when c o n t i n u e d growth was a g o a l , i t i s i n c r e a s i n g l y e v i d e n t t h a t l a t e V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n was n e i t h e r the t i m e nor the p l a c e f o r them."'"' The r e l u c t a n c e o f p u b l i c s c h o o l s t o a d a p t to the needs of t h e i r t i m e s a l s o had a p r o f o u n d s e c o n d a r y e f -f e c t . S c h o o l s i n F r a n c e , Germany and o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s had d e v e l o p e d i n d u s t r i a l and c o m m e r c i a l t r a i n i n g schemes known f o r t h e i r t h o r o u g h n e s s and wide a p p l i c a b i l i t y . " ^ In B r i t a i n , i n the a b s e n c e o f such programmes a t t h e t r a -d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h i s need was s e r v e d a l m o s t e x c l u s -i v e l y by f a c t o r y and a p p r e n t i c e - t r a i n i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and, l a t e r , by a d u l t n i g h t i n s t i t u t e s . The e a r l y and proud t r a d i t i o n s o f s u c c e s s t h r o u g h the e f f o r t s o f un-t r a i n e d , p r a c t i c a l men who p r o c e e d e d by ' r u l e o f thumb' 67 o f t e n p r e j u d i c e d businessmen, a g a i n s t f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . T h i s contempt was f a n n e d by t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s ' r e s o l u t e a d h e r e n c e to t h r e e major t e n e t s : . . . t h e n a t u r a l s i n f u l n e s s of b o y s ; the e x i s t e n c e o f a w e l l - d e f i n e d and n a t u r a l l y s u p e r i o r ' g e n t l e -manly' c l a s s whose sons ought to .be e d u c a t e d a p a r t from the m a j o r i t y of t h e n a t i o n ' s y o u t h and to be b r o u g h t up as i t s n a t u r a l l e a d e r s , and l a s t but not l e a s t , the u s e f u l n e s s of a s o - c a l l e d ' l i b e r a l ' non- ^ v o c a t i o n a l , i f n o t a n t i - v o c a t i o n a l a c a d e m i c t r a i n i n g . Though the t h i r d o f t h e s e b e l i e f s was t h e most c o n t e n t i o u s , the g e n e r a l e f f e c t o f t h i s 4 d i s j u n c t i o n between i n d u s t r y and the e l i t e was a s t e a d y move, on t h e p a r t of b o t h , 5 8 away from a r e a s o f p o s s i b l e r a p p r o a c h e m e n t . In l a t e r y e a r s , the f a i l u r e o f B r i t a i n ' s g o v e r n -ment and b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s to h o l d t h e same v a l u e s made l i f e i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t f o r b o t h , but the n a t i o n as a whole s u f f e r e d most. At i t s most c o n s p i r a t o r y , t h e d i s i n c l i n a t i o n of t h e e l i t e to f o r g e l i n k s w i t h t h e r i s i n g men o f commerce and i n d u s t r y can be c o n s i d e r e d an a t t e m p t a t s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n . b y e x c l u s i o n . I f t h e e l i t e saw i t -s e l f under a t t a c k , the s l o w n e s s of i t s s c h o o l s , t h r o u g h one s t r a t e g e m or a n o t h e r , to admit sons o f the i n d u s t r i a l 59 c l a s s e s becomes u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . T h i s r e l u c t a n c e i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e u n o f f i c i a l e n t r a n c e p h i l o s o p h y o f C h e l t e n h a m i n the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y : Had we a d m i t t e d t radesmen i n any i n s t a n c e , we must have done so a l m o s t w i t h o u t l i m i t , and i n t h e c o n -f i n e d c i r c l e of shops i n C h eltenham we s h o u l d have had t h e sons o f gentlemen s h a k i n g hands w i t h s c h o o l -f e l l o w s b e h i n d the c o u n t e r . ^ 68 In the w i d e r s o c i a l c o n t e x t o f V i c t o r i a n E n g l a n d , t h i s s o r t o f p a t r o n i z i n g c l a s s p r e j u d i c e was r e p e a t e d : Top b u s i n e s s m e n d i d n o t move i n the h i g h e s t s o c i a l c i r c l e s , e i t h e r i n the f a r r e a c h e s o f the Empire or a t home, and most V i c t o r i a n s would r a t h e r have s a t down to a bad meal w i t h a s t u p i d a r i s t o c r a t than t o a good meal w i t h an i n t e l l i g e n t b u s i n e s s -man . 61 B e s i d e s r e f l e c t i n g some o f t h e u n d e r s i d e o f V i c t o r i a n m o r a l i t y , t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s were a l s o d e s t r u c t i v e o f the s o c i a l f a b r i c i n a n o t h e r t w i n - b a r b e d way. They s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e i r e d u c a t i o n . w a s not f o r e v e r y c i t i z e n and, as a r e s u l t , need not be, programmed t o s u i t t h e needs o f g e n e r a l s o c i e t y . . At one s t r o k e , many o f t h e most c a p a b l e b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s , o r t h e i r o f f s p r i n g , were e f f e c t i v e l y d e n i e d e d u c a t i o n a l a c c e s s , w h i l e as many o t h were e n c o u r a g e d t o c o n c l u d e , t h a t p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g was 6 2 n o t v a l u a b l e and i t s p r o d u c t s d e f i c i e n t . Those p a r e n t s who d i d succumb to t h e s o c i a l l u r e o f t h e s c h o o l s , and s u c c e e d e d i n s u r m o u n t i n g the e n t r a n c e b a r r i e r s , committed t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o a s t r i c t r e g i m e o f s o c i a l programming. The b u s i n e s s t r a i t s of t h r i f t , i n n o v a t i o n and e n t h u s i a s m were o f t e n l a u d e d by the m a s t e r s but g e n e r a l l y i n s u c h an a r c h manner t h a t t h e i r p l a c e i n e l i t e s o c i e t y was n o t ' l e g i t i m i z e d . ^ These were seen as t h e s o r t s o f q u a l i t i e s a gent l e m a n c o u l d e x p e c t from h i s employees and. s e r v a n t s but a t r u e l e a d e r was not r e q u i r e d to d i s p l a y them h i m s e l f , i n the same way t h a t a t r u l y r i c h man d i d not need to c a r r y a 69 p u r s e f u l l of bank n o t e s . Some c l i e n t s o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l s c l e a r l y a d vanced t h e i r own s o c i a l s t a n d i n g t h r o u g h t h i s a s s o c -i a t i o n . However, t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s s e r v e d few o t h e r p r a g m a t i c ends f o r the r i s i n g c l a s s e s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t "a p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n r e m a i n e d a t t h e end o f the 19th c e n t u r y as a t the b e g i n n i n g o f most v a l u e to t h o s e who 6k d i d n o t have t o make t h e i r way i n the w o r l d . " Which i s not to say t h a t the e f f e c t s o f the s c h o o l s were n e u t r a l . They were s u b s t a n t i v e and f a r - r e a c h i n g , c o n t r i b u t i n g i n l a r g e measure to t h e s o c i a l u n c e r t a i n t y which marked B r i -t a i n ' s l o n g i m p e r i a l and i n d u s t r i a l d e c l i n e . ^ By c o m p a r i s o n , i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e d e c l i n e o f the a n c i e n t A t h e n i a n s t a t e , R. R. B o l g a r has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t an i n c r e a s i n g l y complex s o c i e t y r e q u i r e s a l e a d e r -s h i p and e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m o f s i m i l a r b r e a d t h and i n t r i -c a c y . As an economy m a t u r e s , s o c i a l p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s become m a t t e r s o f f u n d a m e n t a l and l a s t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e : In such a s o c i e t y the m a i n t e n a n c e o f a h i g h l e v e l o f e f f i c i e n c y would have r e q u i r e d f i r s t o f a l l t h e p r o -v i s i o n o f advanced t r a i n i n g f o r t h o s e who wanted i t i n a number o f s p e c i a l t i e s . The f u r t h e r p r o b l e m of how the s e v e r a l g r o u p s i n s o c i e t y c o u l d be b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r to form one e l i t e fr.om the i n d i v i d u a l l y e m inent was of s e c o n d a r y i m p o r t a n c e . The p u b l i c good d i d not depend on i t s s o l u t i o n . ^ 6 N e v e r t h e l e s s , f a c e d w i t h a c h o i c e between t h e s e two t a s k s , n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h l e a d e r s , i n s p i t e o f t h e i r v a u n t e d c l a s s i c a l knowledge, e s s e n t i a l l y m i r r o r e d the a c t i o n s o f t h e i r Greek p r e d e c e s s o r s , s i n c e : 70 . . . i t was t h i s s e c o n d a r y p r o b l e m t h a t the A t h e n -i a n e d u c a t o r s made the f o c u s of t h e i r a t t e n t i o n . They r e m a i n e d b l i n d to t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e o f t h e i r w o r l d t u r n e d upon the e f f e c t i v e e x e r c i s e of many s k i l l s ; t h e y o v e r v a l u e d the p o l -i t i c i a n ' s a r t s and u n d e r e s t i m a t e d t h e grow i n g c o n -s e q u e n c e of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , economic and t e c h n i c a l a c h i e v e m e n t . ^ 7 Any judgment o f V i c t o r i a n p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g may, t h e r e -f o r e echo the f o l l o w i n g e s t i m a t i o n of A t h e n i a n e d u c a t i o n : A c i t y ' s l i f e was g u i d e d n o t by a s i n g l e e l i t e , but by a group o f e 1 i t e s - - m i 1 i t a r y , e c o n o m i c , a d m i n i s -t r a t i v e , p o l i t i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l . . . e d u c a t o r s who c o n c e n t r a t e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on t h e p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p l i m i t e d the r a n g e of t h e i r i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n a compass t h a t was too narrow t o c o u n t . ^ 8 W h i l e E n g l i s h p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g was s i m i l a r l y narrow i n o u t l o o k , i t s u c c e e d e d i n ' c o u n t i n g ' w i t h s e r i o u s n a t i o n a l c o n s e q u e n c e s . I t c a n n o t be a r g u e d t h a t t h e g r e a t p u b l i c s c h o o l s were ' s u c c e s s f u l ' s i n c e t h e y c l e a r l y c o n t r i b u t e d to the weakening, o f the s o c i e t y which t h e y s o u g h t to s t r e n g t h e n . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e y advanced a s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y which e n s u r e d t h a t t h e v a r i o u s V i c t o r -i a n e l i t e s , having- l i t t l e common - groun d on which to meet, were u n a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h a, v i a b l e s o c i a l and e c o n -omic a l l i a n c e . I t may be c o n c l u d e d t h a t "a v e r y h i g h d e g r e e o f e d u c a t i o n a l e l i t i s m . . . t e n d s t o s e r v e g o v e r n -ment and s o c i e t y b a d l y i n an ad v a n c e d i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y marked by r a p i d t e c h n i c a l c h ange." In an e r a r e q u i r i n g s o c i a l accommodation and economic p r a g m a t i s m , the e l i t e e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m i n B r i t a i n r e m a i n e d l a r g e l y immovable. The h a l f - s e r i o u s comments o f one g r a d u a t e summarize t h e i n f l u e n c e and i n e r t i a o f t h e 71 p u b l i c s c h o o l s t h r o u g h the l a t e r V i c t o r i a n e r a and a f t e r : F i r s t , we a g r e e d t h a t t h e r e were p e r h a p s even more t y p i c a l p u b l i c s c h o o l s t h an C h a r t e r h o u s e i n e x i s t e n c e , but t h a t we p r e f e r r e d n o t to b e l i e v e i t . Next, t h a t no p o s s i b l e remedy c o u l d be f o u n d b e c a u s e t r a d i t i o n was so s t r o n g t h a t to b r e a k i t , one.would have to d i s m i s s the whole s c h o o l and s t a f f , and s t a r t a l l o v e r a g a i n . However, even t h i s would not be enough, the s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s b e i n g so i m p r e g n a t e d w i t h what p a s s e d as t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s p i r i t , but what we f e l t as f u n d a m e n t a l e v i l , t h a t t h e y would have to be demol-i s h e d and t h e s c h o o l r e b u i l t e l s e w h e r e under a d i f -f e r e n t name.70 Q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from R o b e r t G r a v e s ' dream, i t may be seen t h a t t h e s c h o o l s r e m a i n e d s t a n d i n g w h i l e a l l the time c o n t r i b u t i n g to the decay o f the s o c i e t y o u t s i d e t h e i r w a l l s . T h i s i m p a c t was p e r h a p s most p o t e n t i n the a r e a s o f V i c t o r i a n b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s h i p and p r a c t i c e , which w i l l be examined n e x t . 72 FOOTNOTES " S c i e n t i f i c . E d u c a t i o n o f Upper C l a s s e s , " West-m i n s t e r Review IX ( A p r i l 1 8 2 8 ) , p. 329. ~~ 2 3. A. H a l l , "The c u r i o u s c a s e o f the E n g l i s h i n t e l l i g e n s i a , " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y 30 (September 19.79), p. 299. 3 M. Gowing, " S c i e n c e , T e c h n o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n , " O x f o r d Review of E d u c a t i o n IV ( 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 12. LL M. J . Wiener, E n g l i s h c u l t u r e and the d e c l i n e of  t h e i n d u s t r i a l s p i r i t ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 1 ) , p~i i x , s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d , by the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a " c u l t u r a l c o r d o n s a n i t a i r e e n c i r c l i n g the f o r c e s o f economic d e v e l o p m e n t — t e c h n o l o g y , i n d u s t r y and commerce." ^R. G r a v e s , Goodbye to A l l That (London: C a s s a l , 1958), p. 19, i n d i c a t e s t h a t he won a s c h o l a r s h i p to C h a r t e r h o u s e m a i n l y b e c a u s e , t h a t s c h o o l d i d n o t s e t a Greek pap e r f o r i t s e n t r a n c e e x a m i n a t i o n . He e x p l a i n s t h a t , i f h i s l a n g u a g e s had been s t r o n g e r , " I s h o u l d a l -most c e r t a i n l y have gone t o t h e v e r y d i f f e r e n t atmos-phere of W i n c h e s t e r . " ^ G r e a t B r i t a i n , P a r l i a m e n t , P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a p e r s , 1864, " R e p o r t of t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r s on t h e Revenues and Management o f c e r t a i n C o l l e g e s and S c h o o l s (The C l a r e n d o n C o m m i s s i o n ) , " (Shannon: I r i s h U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969), p. 56. See a l s o F. C a m p b e l l , " L a t i n and the E l i t e T r a -d i t i o n i n E d u c a t i o n , " i n P. W. Musgrave, ed., S o c i e t y ,  H i s t o r y and E d u c a t i o n (London:. Methuen, 1970), pp. 249-264. M. L. C l a r k e , C l a s s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t a i n ,  1500-1900 ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959) s u r v e y s t h e r o l e o f the c l a s s i c s i n E n g l i s h p u b l i c s c h o o l s , Q 3. R. de S. Honey, Tom Brown's U n i v e r s e (New Y o r k : New York Times Book Co., 1977), p. 130. 9 C. M. T u r n e r , " S o c i o l o g i c a l A p p r o a c h e s to t h e H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n , " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l  S t u d i e s XVII (June 1969), pp. 146-165, d i s c u s s e s the r e l a t i v e p e d a g o g i c s t r e n g t h s o f t h e s e c o n c e p t s . 73 M. D e b e a u v a i s , " E d u c a t i o n and N a t i o n a l D e v e l -opment," O x f o r d Review o f E d u c a t i o n V I I ( 1 9 8 1 ) , pp. 67-71, i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n a c a s e such as l a t e V i c t o r i a n B r i -t a i n , the e d u c a t i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l or an e l i t e group w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o the needs or views o f the e n t i r e community can o n l y be a mechanism f o r r e p r o d u c i n g or r e i n f o r c i n g s o c i a l p a t t e r n s . I t i s , t h u s , an i d e o l o g i c a l r a t h e r t han a p e d a g o g i c a l u n d e r t a k i n g . "'""'"This v a r i a n t on t h e i m m a c u l a t e c o n c e p t i o n o f n o b i l i t y would come to h o l d s i m i l a r a t t r a c t i o n f o r l a t e r g e n e r a t i o n s o f the i n d u s t r i a l e l i t e when th e y s o u g h t t o d e f i n e t h e i r own s o c i a l l e g i t i m a c y . See C h a p t e r IV. 12 A. C. Benson, "Our G entlemen's S c h o o l s A g a i n , " The E n g l i s h Review X I I ( O c t o b e r 1912), p. 457. 13 G. R o d e r i c k and M. D. S t e p h e n s , S c i e n t i f i c and  T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n N i n e t e e n t h - C e n t u r y E n g l a n d (Newton Abbot, Devon : D a v i d and C h a r l e s L t d . , 1972), p. 30. 14 " S c i e n t i f i c E d u c a t i o n o f Upper C l a s s e s , " p. 330, "*"^ T. W. Bamford, The R i s e o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s , (London: N e l s o n , 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 92. ^^A. 3. Meadows and W. H. Brock., " T o p i c s f i t f o r G e n t l e m e n : The P r o b l e m of S c i e n c e i n t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l C u r r i c u l u m , " i n B.. Simon and I . B r a d l e y , e d s . , The V i c -t o r i a n P u b l i c S c h o o l ( D u b l i n : G i l l and M a c m i l l a n , 1975), p. 113. " ^ R o d e r i c k and S t e p h e n s , S c i e n t i f i . e . and T e c h n i c a l  E d u c a t i o n , p. 32. 3. A. Oldham, A H i s t o r y o f Shrewsbury  S c h o o l 15 52-1952 ( O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1952), p. 93, c o n c e d e s t h a t " i t i s d i f f i c u l t to b e l i e v e t h a t the narrow c u r r i c u l u m a t Shrewsbury had n o t s o m e t h i n g to do w i t h C h a r l e s Darwin's l a c k o f d i s t i n c t i o n a t s c h o o l , where he took two y e a r s to g e t i n t o Lower IV2." A. 3. A y e r , P a r t  o f My L i f e ( L ondon: C o l l i n s , 1977), p. 41, i n d i c a t e s t h a t a c e n t u r y l a t e r p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g s t i l l l a c k e d s c i e n t i f i c s u b s t a n c e . See L. R. Graham, Between S c i e n c e and V a l u e s (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1981), pp. 1-32, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c o n f l i c t between s c i e n t i f i c knowledge and e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . 74 19 R o d e r i c k and S t e p h e n s , S c i e n t i f i c and T e c h n i c a l  E d u c a t i o n , p. 41, i n d i c a t e t h a t o f 3076 g r a d u a t e s o f E t o n , Harrow, Rugby, M a r l b o r o u g h , M i l l H i l l and D u l w i c h C o l l e g e s u r v e y e d i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , 39 (1%) p u r s u e d s c i e n c e c a r e e r s and 125 (4%) became e n g i n e e r s . By c o m p a r i s o n , 20% of the sample e n t e r e d t h e army, 17% e n t e r e d the c h u r c h , and 9% became l a w y e r s . 20 S a n d e r s o n o f Oundle (London: C h a t t o and Windus, 1926), p. 286. 21 Bamford, R i s e o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s , p. 115. 22 R. O l l a r d , An E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n (London: C o l -l i n s , 1 9 8 2 ) , p. 82. 2 3 V. O g i l v i e , The E n g l i s h P u b l i c S c h o o l (London: B a t s f o r d , 1 957), p. 183. 24 0. Rae, "Our O b s o l e t e A t t i t u d e s : E d u c a t i o n and the N a t i o n a l M a l a i s e , " E n c o u n t e r XLIX (November 1 9 7 7 ) , p. 11, a r g u e s t h a t " t h e B r i t i s h e d u c a t i o n a l system i s e s s e n -t i a l l y t h e p r o d u c t o f a s o c i e t y t h a t c o u l d a f f o r d t o r e g a r d what happened i n s c h o o l s and u n i v e r s i t i e s as h a v i n g l i t t l e b e a r i n g on the w e a l t h o f t h e c o u n t r y . " 2 5 C. C o n n o l l y , Enemies o f P r o m i s e (New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1948), p. 192, d e s c r i b e s t h e " a p e - l i k e " v i r t u e s w i t h o u t which no one c o u l d e n j o y a p u b l i c s c h o o l : "The a r t o f g e t t i n g on a t s c h o o l depends on a m i x t u r e of e n t h u s i a s m w i t h m o r a l c o w a r d i c e and s o c i a l s e n s e . " 2 6 O l l a r d , An E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n , pp. 64-65. 27 I b i d . , p. 82, q u o t e s A. C. Benson on t h e e f -f e c t s o f p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g : "We o n l y make the o r d i n a r y boy h a t e and d e s p i s e books and knowledge g e n e r a l l y ; but we make them c o n s c i e n t i o u s - - g o o d d r u d g e s , I t h i n k . " 314. 2 8 W e s t m i n s t e r Review XLVI ( O c t o b e r 1, 18 3 5 ) , p. 2 9 " P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t , " Blackwood's Magazine XCV (Oune 1864), p. 717. 30 C o n n o l l y , Enemies o f P r o m i s e , p. 214. 75 3 1 " P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t , " p. 717. 32 The E n g l i s h p r e f e r e n c e f o r a m a t e u r i s m i s o f t e n most s i m p l y f o u n d by a r e v i e w of s c h o o l b o y l i t -e r a t u r e . H e n t y ' s s o l d i e r s were seldom p r o f e s s i o n a l s b u t , r a t h e r , g e n t l e m e n - a d v e n t u r e r s , C h a r l e s K i n g s l e y ' s h e r o e s were ' p l a i n - t h i n k e r s ' t o the p o i n t of b e i n g a n t i -i n t e l l e c t u a l s , S h e r l o c k Holmes was s u c c e s s f u l , and pop-u l a r , b e c a u s e he was an amateur i n v e s t i g a t o r r a t h e r t h a n a p r o f e s s i o n a l p o l i c e m a n , and R a f f l e s was f a s c i n -a t i n g b e c a u s e he was a g e n t l e m a n t u r n e d o c c a s i o n a l , s k i l f u l b u r g l a r , t h e ' a m a t e u r - c r a c k s m a h ', ' r a t h e r than a p r o f e s s i o n a l t h i e f . F o r the s c h o o l i n g and b u s i n e s s i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s l i t e r a r y vogue, see D. C. Coleman, "Gentlemen and P l a y e r s , " Economic H i s t o r y Review, 2nd s e r . , XXVI ( 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 92-116, and R. W i l k i n s o n , The  P r e f e c t s ( London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 964), Chap-t e r 6. 3 3 A . Waugh, P u b l i c S c h o o l L i f e (London: C o l -l i n s , 1 9 22), pp. 53-54. 34 C. B a r n e t t , The C o l l a p s e o f B r i t i s h Power (London: E y r e Methuen^ 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 33. Honey, Tom Brown's  U n i v e r s e , pp..224-226, d e s c r i b e s i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t y i n t h e s c h o o l s b e i n g d r i v e n u n d e r g r o u n d or t o l e r a t e d as " e c c e n t r i c i s m ' . ' by t h e d r i v e f o r u n i f o r m i t y and " c l u b -a b i l i t y . " 35 G r a v e s , Goodbye to A l l T h a t , pp. 32-33. 3 6 Benson, "Our G entlemen's S c h o o l s A g a i n , " 3 7 O g i l v i e , E n g l i s h P u b l i c S c h o o l , p. 189. 3 8 Wiener, E n g l i s h c u l t u r e , and t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e  i n d u s t r i a l s p i r i t , p. 37. 3 9 " T h e Dead Bones," Blackwood's Magazine CLXXXIV (December 1 9 0 8 ) , p. 734. 40 B a r n e t t , C o l l a p s e o f B r i t i s h Power, p. 30, d e s c r i b e s t h i s as t h e " i n c o m p a t a b i l i t y between t h e s t a i n e d g l a s s and w h i t e m a r b l e i d e a l s o f E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n and the i r o n - f o u n d a r i e s , c o t t o n - m i l l s and gas-works o f t h e E n g l i s h i n d u s t r i a l s u c c e s s t h a t p a i d f o r i t a l l . " 465, 76 Wiener, E n g l i s h c u l t u r e and t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e  i n d u s t r i a l s p i r i t , pp. 5-7, d i s c u s s e s what he r e f e r s t o as the " 3 a n u s - f a c e " o f V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n . He b e l i e v e s t h a t the n a t i o n a c c e p t e d , but was i l l - a t - e a s e w i t h , the i d e a o f p r o g r e s s and i n l a t e r y e a r s , m a i n l y t h r o u g h ed-u c a t i o n , a t t e m p t e d to c o u n t e r t h e e t h o s o f m a t e r i a l growth w i t h t h e i d e a l s o f s t a b i l i t y , t r a n q u i l l i t y , and c l o s e n e s s t o the p a s t and n a t u r e . These may be summar-i z e d as t h e 'workshop' and ' g a r d e n ' c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y B r i t a i n . 42 E. C. Mack, P u b l i c S c h o o l s and B r i t i s h O p i n i o n  s i n c e 1860 (New Y o r k : Octagon Books, 1973), pp. 18 6-208, 315-322, 327-332, r e v i e w s many of t h e most v a l u a b l e s c h o o l n o v e l s . H. A. V a c h e l l , The H i l l ( L o n d o n : 3ohn Murray, 1912), pp. 32-38. A. P o w e l l , A Qu.estlon of U p b r i n g i n g (London: F o n t a n a , 1967) r e v i v e s t h e s e p u b l i c s c h o o l p r e -j u d i c e s w i t h h i s awkward, c l i m b i n g c h a r a c t e r , Widmerpool. 44 Benson, "Our G entlemen's S c h o o l s A g a i n , " p. 462, s t a t e s t h a t , r e g a r d i n g the u t i l i t a r i a n m o t i v e o f e d u c a t i o n , "the b e t t e r k i n d o f s c h o o l m a s t e r i s too a p t to r e g a r d t h i s as not o n l y a n e g l i g i b l e t h i n g , but as a t h i n g w hich must be r e s o l u t e l y f o u g h t a g a i n s t . " 45 H. S p e n c e r , E d u c a t i o n : I n t e l l e c t u a l , M o r a l  and P h y s i c a l (New. Y o r k T A p p l e t o n , 1882 ) , p~. 54. I b i d . , p. 63. 47 W i l k i n s o n , The P r e f e c t s , p. 7. 48 G. F i e n n e s , " P u b l i c S c h o o l Boys i n I n d u s t r y , " The E n g l i s h Review XXXIX (December 1 9 2 4 ) , pp. 806-815, D. G r a n i c k , The E u r o p e a n E x e c u t i v e (New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y , 1962), and 0. MacDonagh, "Government, I n d u s t r y and S c i e n c e i n 19th C e n t u r y B r i t a i n , " H i s t o r i c a l S t u d i e s XVI ( O c t o b e r 1 975), pp. 503-517, each i n d i f f e r e n t ways, make t h i s p o i n t , w hich w i l l be f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d i n C h a p t e r IV. 49 3. G a t h o r n e - H a r d y , The P u b l i c S c h o o l Phenom-enon (Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x ! Pen gu i n Books, 1979) , p T T 3 5 . F i e n n e s , " P u b l i c S c h o o l Boys i n I n d u s t r y , " p. 807. 77 "'"'"P. W. Musgrave, T e c h n i c a l Change, The L a b o u r  F o r c e and E d u c a t i o n ( O x f o r d ! Pergamon P r e s s , 1967) , p. 49. 52 M. A r g l e s , " E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n f o r T e c h n o l o g y and S c i e n c e , " H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y I I (Septem-ber 1962), p. 183, q u o t e s S w i r e Smith on the s t a t e of e d u c a t i o n i n 1888: "The w e a l t h y m a n u f a c t u r e r . . . sends h i s son t o a c l a s s i c a l s c h o o l to l e a r n L a t i n and Greek as a p r e -p a r a t i o n f o r c l o t h m a n u f a c t u r i n g , c a l i c o p r i n t i n g , e n g i n e e r i n g or c o a l m i n i n g . . . . He e n t e r s h i s f a t h e r ' s f a c t o r y a t 20 o r 24 a b s o l u t e l y u n t r a i n e d i n the c h i e f r e q u i r e m e n t s of the b u s i n e s s he i s to d i r e c t . Is i t f a i r . . . t h a t he s h o u l d have been t a u g h t no-t h i n g o f c h e m i s t r y , or o f p r a c t i c a l m a t h e m a t i c s , steam, e l e c t r i c i t y , t h e methods o f commerce or even modern l a n g u a g e s ? " ^ 3 S e e C h a p t e r V. 54 Musgrave, T e c h n i c a l Change, The Labour F o r c e  and E d u c a t i o n , p. 46. ^ 0 . W. Gough, The R i s e of the E n t r e p r e n e u r (Lon-don: S a t s f o r d , 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 286, c o n t e n d s t h a t , i f t h e s u c c e s s f u l e n t r e p r e n e u r s , were marked out by " t h e i r i n d i v i d -u a l i t y , t h e i r i n v e n t i v e n e s s , t h e i r e n t e r p r i s e and d e t e r -m i n a t i o n , and t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a p a c i t y , " much of t h i s was knocked out o f p u b l i c s c h o o l boys by t h e i r e d u c a t i o n . ~*^See G. R o d e r i c k and M. D. S t e p h e n s , E d u c a t i o n  and I n d u s t r y i i v t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y (New Y ork: Long-man, 1978 ), C h a p t e r s 4, 5, and 6~. ^^ W. L. Guttsman, The B r i t i s h P o l i t i c a l E l i t e ( London: MacGibbon and Kee~~ 1963), p~. 151. 5 8 W i l k i n s o n , The P r e f e c t s , p. 17, d e s c r i b e s one a s p e c t o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n : " I f t h e s c h o o l s were r e a d y to t a k e t h e b u s i n e s s m a n ' s f e e s , t h e y were n o t r e a d y t o t a k e a l l t h a t he s t o o d f o r . . . . F o r where the p u b l i c s c h o o l s r e v e r e n c e d t r a d i t i o n , t h e b u s i n e s s m a n c o u r t e d i n n o v a t i o n . " 5 9 L. Oones, A V i c t o r i a n Boyhood (London: M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 151, i n d i c a t e s how E t o n chose h e r p u p i l s i n 1898 : "These were the good, e a s y days b e f o r e t h e Common E n t r a n c e e x a m i n a t i o n , or i n d e e d any e n t r a n c e e x a m i n a t i o n 78 a t a l l . You were a c c e p t e d f o r Eton i n the week, i f not on the day, o f your b i r t h , when you r f a t h e r s e n t a t e l e g r a m to some M a s t e r l i k e l y t o have a House i n t h i r t e e n y e a r s ' t i m e . The e x a m i n a t i o n was t o d e c i d e , not y o u r e n t r a n c e , but y o u r f o r m . " ^ G a t h o r n e - H a r d y , P u b l i c S c h o o l Phenomenon, p. 137. 61W. L. A r n s t e i n , "The S u r v i v a l of the V i c t o r i a n A r i s t o c r a c y , " i n F. H. Daher, ed., The R i c h , The W e l l b o r n ,  and The P o w e r f u l ( U r b a n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1973), p. 233. 6 2 G. R o d e r i c k and M. D. S t e p h e n s , eds., Where  Did We Go Wrong? (Barcombe, S u s s e x : The F a l m e r P r e s s , 1981) , p~. 239, o f f e r a p a r t i a l l i s t of h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l l a t e V i c t o r i a n i n d u s t r i a l i s t s who d i d n o t p a t r o n i z e t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s . N. Annan, L e s l i e S t e p h e n ( L o n d o n : MacGibbon and Kee, 1951), C h a p t e r s V I I and V I I I , d i s s e c t s t h e e l i t -i s t e l e m e n t s i n Thomas A r n o l d ' s e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y . 64 F. Musgrove, " M i d d l e C l a s s E d u c a t i o n and Em-ployment i n t h e 1 9 t h C e n t u r y , " Economic H i s t o r y Review X I I ( 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 111. ^ B a r n e t t , C o l l a p s e of B r i t i s h Power, p. 24, s t a t e s "The e v o l u t i o n o f the E n g l i s h p u b l i c s c h o o l has a c r u -c i a l b e a r i n g on t h e B r i t i s h p l i g h t i n 1940 f o r most of t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of the B r i t i s h Empire . . . as w e l l as many B r i t i s h b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s and MPs, were p r o d u c t s o f the p e r i o d of i t s r i p e s t d e v e l o p m e n t between 1870 and 1900." He adds, p. 43, t h a t t h e s e men "saw t h e empire r o m a n t i c a l l y as a - g r e a t i n s t r u -ment o f c i v i l i z a t i o n and e n l i g h t e n m e n t , a s u c c e s s o r to G r e e c e and Rome; and t h e i r own r o l e i n t h e empire i n i d e a l i s t i c terms of s e r v i c e i n i t s c i v i l i z i n g m i s s i o n . . . . They h a r d l y t h o u g h t a t a l l o f B r i t i s h power i n terms o f i n d u s t r i a l c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s , s c i e n c e , t e c h n o l o g y or s t r a t e g y . " 6 6 R . R. B o l g a r , "The T r a i n i n g o f E l i t e s i n Greek E d u c a t i o n , " i n R u p e r t W i l k i n s o n , . ed . , - .Governing E l i t e s (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 49. 6 7 ; I b i d . 6 8 I b i d . 6 9 R. W i l k i n s o n , " E l i t e s and E f f e c t i v e n e s s , " i n W i l k i n s o n , - G p v e r n i n g , E l i t e s , p. 224. 7 0 G r a v e s , Goodbye t o A l l T h a t , p. 32. CHAPTER IV VICTORIAN COMMERCE, INDUSTRY AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP A mixed economy i n t h e t h r o e s o f change i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y complex o b j e c t f o r s t u d y . Such i s c l e a r l y the c a s e when e x a m i n i n g t h e p r o g r e s s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and s o c i a l change i n V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n . Many f a c t o r s , b o t h e conomic and non-economic, must be c o n s i d e r e d be-f o r e a g e n e r a l i n d u s t r i a l p o r t r a i t can be r e c o n s t r u c t e d from the m i c r o - e c o n o m i c t r a c i n g s which r e m a i n to us and such m o d e l - b u i l d i n g from s t a t i s t i c s i s f i l l e d w i t h dan-g e r s , both i n s u r f e i t and s h o r t a g e o f d a t a . As w e l l , a s s e s s m e n t s o f t e n do n o t : . . . admit d i s c u s s i o n o f the e x t e n t . t o which s t a -t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s a r e de p e n d e n t upon a number o f i d e n t i f i a b l e , though u n q u a n t i f i a b l e f a c t o r s , o p e r -a t i n g i n such a way as to c a n c e l one a n o t h e r o u t . . . a s u r r o g a t e s t a t i s t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n does not n e c e s s a r i l y amount to a s a t i s f y i n g h i s t o r i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n . 1 At t h e same t i m e , an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the non-c l i o m e t r i c r e m a i n s o f t h e c i v i l i z a t i o n , d i a r i e s , l e t t e r s , memoirs, n o v e l s , and the l i k e , w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g l y s u b j e c t i v e w e i g h t i n g s t h e y c a l l f o r t h , does n o t con -s t i t u t e a s i m p l e r o u t e to q u a l i t a t i v e j u d g m e n t s . As D a v i d Landes s t a t e d : 7 9 80 The t r o u b l e i s t h a t e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p i s a d i f -f i c u l t f a c t o r t o s p e c i f y and a s s e s s . I t s c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c s do n o t l e n d t h e m s e l v e s to q u a n t i f i c a t i o n . . . and t h e y a r e so o v e r l a i d by o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t i t i s a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e to s e g r e g a t e t h e i r i n f l u e n c e . 2 Landes a d d s : What i s more, e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p i s n o t homogeneous; the e n t r e p r e n e u r s , t h a t i s , the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s of t h e economy, i n c l u d e n o t o n l y the t r a d i t i o n a l owner-o p e r a t o r s and t h e newer c l a s s of pure managers, but a g r o w i n g number of government b u r e a u c r a t s and t e c h n i c i a n s . 3 F o r t h e c a s e under s t u d y , however, Landes' f i n a l a m p l i f i c a t i o n s c a r r y l e s s weight,. The E n g l i s h i n d u s -t r i a l s i t u a t i o n i n t h e l a t e V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d was, i n f a c t , r e m a r k a b l y homogeneous, a t l e a s t w i t h r e g a r d to the uppermost e c h e l o n s of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . T r a d i t i o n a l owners were g i v i n g way m a i n l y t o t h e n e w . g e n e r a t i o n s of t h e i r own f a m i l i e s , l i m i t e d l i a b i l i t y had not y e t d r i v e n o u t the c l u b b y c o n c e p t o f s m a l l p a r t n e r s h i p s , and a new s t r a t u m o f p r o f e s s i o n a l managers had not. y e t emerged, nor would i t do so f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d . The numbers o f B r i t i s h s c i e n t i s t s and t e c h n o l o g i s t s were a l s o c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r compared, t o t h e i r A merican or con-t i n e n t a l c o u n t e r p a r t s . ' * As a r e s u l t , i t w i l l be a r g u e d t h a t the p u b l i c s c h o o l s e x e r c i s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e o v e r the B r i t i s h economy s i n c e the g e n e r a l l y a n t i -i n d u s t r i a l a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s which t h e y f o s t e r e d i n s t u d e n t s complemented or i n t e n s i f i e d t r a d i t i o n a l p r e j u -d i c e s and p r a c t i c e s among many of the r i s i n g m a s t e r s o f 81 commerce and i n d u s t r y . The economic power o f o t h e r s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s s uch as the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y f a m i l y , t h e g r o w i n g b u r r o u g h c o m m u n i t i e s , v a r i o u s c l u b s , and i n c r e a s i n g num-b e r s o f government a g e n c i e s , must not be d i s c o u n t e d , i n the same way t h a t t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g s h o u l d n o t be c r e d i t e d w i t h s i n g u l a r or d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e s i g n i f i c a n c e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e s e f a c t o r s had not y e t matched the p o w e r f u l p e n e t r a t i v e i n f l u e n c e which th e l a t e V i c t o r i a n p u b l i c s c h o o l s e x e r -c i s e d o v e r t h e B r i t i s h e l i t e . L i k e e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p , i t -s e l f an e x t r e m e l y s u b j e c t i v e c o n c e p t based on t h e e v a l -u a t i o n o f n o t i o n s such as ' i n n o v a t i v e n e s s v e r s u s c o n s e r v -a t i s m 1 and ' a d v e n t u r o u s n e s s v e r s u s c a u t i o n ' , e d u c a t i o n must be a s s e s s e d m a i n l y , t h r o u g h q u a l i t a t i v e j u d g m e n t s . While not p r o m i s i n g t h e immediate s a t i s f a c t i o n o f quan-t i t a t i v e m e asures, t h e s e u l t i m a t e l y p r o v i d e the t y p e o f e v i d e n c e and e v a l u a t i o n needed f o r a t h o r o u g h h i s t o r i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n . ^ When s t u d y i n g B r i t i s h e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p , two c o n -c e r n s must be f a c e d i m m e d i a t e l y : c o m p a r a b i l i t y and c u l p a b i l i t y . By use o f s t a t i s t i c a l r e c o r d s i t i s us-u a l l y p o s s i b l e to r e l a t e B r i t a i n ' s economic f l u c t u a t i o n s to t h e c a s e s o f her major c o m p e t i t o r s , F r a n c e , Germany and A m e r i c a . Most c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s o f t h i s t y p e have awarded B r i t a i n u n f a v o u r a b l e r a n k i n g s i n p r o f i t a b i l i t y , r e c a p i t a l i z a t i o n , p r o d u c t i v i t y and o t h e r areas.'' However, much f u r t h e r s t u d y i s r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r to compare f u l l y t h e economic c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f V i c t o r i a n b u s i n e s s m e n w i t h g t h o s e o f t h e i r i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v a l s . At the same t i m e , though the d e b a t e c o n t i n u e s on the e x t e n t o f B r i t a i n ' s 9 d e c l i n e and the p a r t p l a y e d by. b u s i n e s s m e n i n t h i s , i t w i l l be assumed, as one s c h o l a r has c o n c l u d e d , t h a t "the d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t o f e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e B r i t i s h economy was h i g h l y s i g n i f -10 i c a n t . " ' As m e n t i o n e d , b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r y r e c e i v e d m u l t i p l e blows from the p u b l i c , s c h o o l s - s y s t e m . Those g r a d u a t e s who e n t e r e d b u s i n e s s i n i n c r e a s i n g numbers d u r i n g t h e l a t e V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d were, a l m o s t by d e f i n -i t i o n , n o t the i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t e o f t h e i r c o h o r t s . I l l - e d u c a t e d as t h e y were, b o t h i n r e l a t i v e and b u s i n e s s t e r m s , t h e s e r e c r u i t s d i d p o s s e s s , d e f i n i t e n o t i o n s and p r e j u d i c e s about b u s i n e s s from t h e i r s c h o o l d a y s , many of which were p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r , i f n o t a c t i v e l y h o s t i l e t o w a r d s , the g o a l s of dynamic commerce. As w e l l , t h e s e c o m m e r c i a l n e o p h y t e s o f t e n e n t e r e d a com-pany a t t h e h i g h e r l e v e l s , m i s s i n g any o p p o r t u n i t y to become t r u l y c o n v e r s a n t w i t h t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e e n t e r -p r i s e . I n d e e d , the r i s e o f such i n d i v i d u a l s to t h e t o p -most r u n g s o f the f i r m was v i r t u a l l y preordained."'""'" The economic c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v i t y o f r a i s i n g up such commer-c i a l l e a d e r s may b e s t be made e v i d e n t t h r o u g h e x a m i n a t i o n of t h o s e i d e a s which most a f f e c t e d t h e i r s u c c e s s f u l 83 f u n c t i o n i n g and which a r e a t t r i b u t a b l e , i n p a r t a t l e a s t , to t h e i r p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g . Some s t a n c e s worthy of con-s i d e r a t i o n a r e the c u l t of a m a t e u r i s m , t h e non-commercia1 s t a t u s f o c u s , and the i n s t i n c t i v e , c o n s e r v a t i s m which c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e s e men. As has been shown, p u b l i c s c h o o l boys were t a u g h t by word, deed and p r e c e p t to eschew p r a c t i c a l m a t t e r s , which were a n y t h i n g which s a v o u r e d of u t i l i t y o r c o u l d be c o n s t r u e d as f a l l i n g w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f ' t r a d e . ' E f f o r t l e s s a c h i e v e m e n t o f n o n - s p e c i a l i s t g o a l s accompan-i e d by an o v e r l a y o f modesty was h e l d f o r t h as the nob-12 l e s t model. The p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of b u s i n e s s m e n so formed i n t h e i r e a r l i e s t and most r e c e p t i v e y e a r s c o u l d be f a r - r e a c h i n g . B e i n g t r u e t o su c h p r e c e p t s meant t h a t s e a r c h i n g f o r avenues of new p r o f i t s , v i g o r -o u s l y p u r s u i n g i n n o v a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s and new l i n e s , a d d i n g t e c h n i c a l l y q u a l i f i e d s t a f f , and r e c r u i t i n g p r o f e s -s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d managers were a l l u n t h i n k a b l e . " ' " 3 The i d e a of a d v e r t i s i n g f o r c u s t o m e r s was a l s o i n c o n c e i v a b l e t o many p u b l i c s c h o o l e d b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s , who p r e f e r r e d to p r o j e c t an a u r a o f 'take i t or l e a v e i t ' i n d i f f e r e n c e . A few e n t r e p r e n e u r s t u r n e d t h i s e l i t e d i f f i d e n c e t o f i n -a n c i a l a d v a n t a g e s i n c e , i n t h e l a t e r d e c a d e s of t h e c e n t u r y : . . . e x t r a o r d i n a r y improvement i n c o n s u m p t i o n s t a n -d a r d s meant t h a t g r e a t g a i n s c o u l d a c c r u e to t h e men who were p r e p a r e d to s t u d y , to meet and t o man-i p u l a t e consumers' t a s t e . . . . When the young L i p t o n r e t u r n e d from, a v i s i t t o A m e r i c a i n t h e 84 e a r l y s e v e n t i e s he b r o u g h t back the u s e f u l c o u p l e t : 'The man who on h i s t r a d e r e l i e s , Must e i t h e r b u s t or a d v e r t i s e . ' 1 4 Those b u s i n e s s m e n c o n s t r a i n e d to g i v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e y were n o t f i n a n c i a l l y dependent on t h e i r com-m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s o f t e n s u f f e r e d p r e c i s e l y the f a t e d e s c r i b e d . F o r i n s t a n c e , 3. M . N a p i e r , h e i r to a t h r i v i n g m e c h a n i c a l f i r m , t o o k t h e e n t e r p r i s e t o the v e r g e of e x t i n c t i o n by the end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y b e c a u s e H i s n a t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s p r i d e , s t o o d i n the way o f a n y t h i n g a p p r o a c h i n g ' h a r d - s e l l i n g " : i f p e o p l e wanted h i s goods, t h e y c o u l d come t o him and he would do an e x c e l l e n t j o b f o r them, but not a cheap one. O t h e r w i s e , t h e y might do w i t h o u t . E v e n t u a l l y , t h e f i r m was a l l o w e d to d i e back u n t i l i t p r o v i d e d m e r e l y a c o m f o r t a b l e l i v i n g f o r t h e owner, and where t h r e e hundred men had worked p r e v i o u s l y o n l y seven were employed by 1895: Anyone e n t e r i n g t h e f a c t o r y f o u n d i t h a r d to p e r -c e i v e t h e workmen so few t h e y were. And t h e ap-p r e n t i c e s ' shop was a t o t a l d e s e r t . . . . From a c o r n e r a huge sp i d e r , m ight d a r t o u t to s e i z e i t s p r e y : n o t h i n g e l s e would move - green mildew l a y upon the b e l t i n g , d u s t and r u s t on e v e r y t h i n g : the a i r was musty.16 Vague c o n f i d e n c e and e n e r g y l e s s c o m p l a c e n c y i n c r e a s i n g l y became the de_ r i g e u r p e r s o n n a o f the V i c -t o r i a n b u s i n e s s m a n o f the u p p e r s t r a t u m . Commercial c o n c e r n s and f a m i l y e n t e r p r i s e s began t o be run a l o n g the l i n e s o f a p u b l i c s c h o o l house. The owner o r d i r e c t o r took t h e r o l e o f a l l - k n o w i n g , o c c a s i o n a l l y k i n d l y , but i n v a r i a b l y u n c h a l l e n g e a b l e Head. Such a top-down, 85 p a t e r n a l i s t i c s y s t e m was n o t new i n B r i t i s h b u s i n e s s ; most of t h e h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l f i r m s were the c r e a t i o n o f one i n s p i r e d i n d i v i d u a l . The d i f f e r e n c e now, w i t h the r i s e o f p u b l i c s c h o o l e d d i r e c t o r s , was t h a t s u c h l e a d e r s h i p was n o t based on an i n t i m a t e knowledge of t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e f i r m . A s s u m p t i o n of t h e ' g e n t l e m a n l y h e a d m a s t e r ' p o s i t i o n i n a f i r m , c o u p l e d w i t h a d m i r a t i o n of a m a t e u r i s m , i n h i b i t e d the scope of a c t i o n o f many i n -cumbents i n r e t u r n f o r a s o l i d b o l s t e r i n g of t h e i r s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s . In t h e main, t h i s t r a d e - o f f was w i l l i n g l y made s i n c e i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t : L e a d e r s e x e r t g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e and c o n t r o l i f t h e y can c l a i m s t a t u s by a d h e r i n g t o g e n e r a l i z e d norms of i n t e r a c t i o n between g e n t l e m e n and o t h e r s . They e x p e c t d e f e r e n c e from s u b o r d i n a t e s . They c l a i m an autonomy, a s e c u r i t y of t e n u r e and an e x c l u s i v e n e s s u n b r e a c h e d by o u t s i d e r s o r by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of f l u i d i t y . 1 7 However, t h e economic r e s u l t s were p r o f o u n d l y a d v e r s e when the t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n s o f i n d u s t r i a l f a m i l i e s "worked 18 a t p l a y and p l a y e d a t work." As D a v i d Landes c o n c l u d e d The weakness o f B r i t i s h e n t e r p r i s e r e l e c t e d t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f a m a t e u r i s m and c o m p l a c e n c y . . . the B r i t i s h m a n u f a c t u r e r was n o t o r i o u s f o r h i s i n d i f f e r e n c e to s t y l e , h i s c o n s e r v a t i s m i n t h e f a c e o f new t e c h n i q u e s , h i s r e l u c t a n c e to abandon the i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f t r a d i t i o n f o r t h e c o n f o r m i t y i m p l i c i t i n mass p r o d u c t i o n . 1 ^ A f u r t h e r e f f e c t o f v i e w i n g b u s i n e s s p o s i t i o n s as s i t u a t i o n s o f i n v e r s e s t a t u s was t h a t V i c t o r i a n f i r m s t y p i c a l l y r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t t h e y were r i p e f o r n e p o t i s m and g e n e r a l l y i m p e r v i o u s t o new b l o o d and new i d e a s . . One seeming c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s t h a t , i n an e n v i r o n m e n t o v e r t l y hos-t i l e to s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , the m a j o r i t y o f companies were u n d i v e r s i f i e d , s i n g l e - p r o d u c t e n t e r p r i s e s . However, i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h i s was more a r e s u l t of l e t h a r g y or t i m -i d i t y than p r i d e ; a f a i l u r e to d i v e r s i f y o f t e n stemmed 20 from f e a r s o f r i s k - t a k i n g . Even when d i r e c t i n g f i r m s w i t h e x t r e m e l y r e s t r i c t e d aims and a c t i v i t i e s , p u b l i c s c h o o l e d b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s s t i l l d i d n o t see t h e m s e l v e s as e x p e r t s . R a t h e r t h e y hoped to r e s e m b l e t h a t b r a n d o f w e l l - r o u n d e d g e n e r a l i s t who c o u l d run e i t h e r a b u t t o n f a c t o r y , s t e e l m i l l . , embassy o r army a l o n g g e n e r a l , g e n t l e m a n l y p r e c e p t s whose antonyms were c r y s t a l c l e a r 21 but whose a c t u a l p r i n c i p l e s were l e f t d i s c r e e t l y vague. The a r r i v a l of l i m i t e d l i a b i l i t y i n 1855 s h o u l d have r e -duced ' r i s k i n e s s ' as an e x c u s e f o r c o n s e r v a t i s m but f u n d a -22 m e n t a l improvements were slow i n t a k i n g p l a c e . In e f f e c t : The new b u s i n e s s group e m e r g i n g i n B r i t a i n i n t h e e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was t h e r e s u l t of a f a r h i g h e r o r d e r o f s o c i a l and e conomic f l e x i b i l i t y t han was p r e s e n t i n t h e r e s t o f Europe . . . . But b u s i n e s s m e n by t h e i r own a c t i o n s had c r e a t e d a new s i t u a t i o n by t h e s e v e n t i e s and e i g h t i e s . By t h i s t i m e a h e r e d i t a r y e l e m e n t had d e v e l o p e d i n t h e i n -d u s t r i a l s e c t o r w h i c h , though b r i n g i n g c o n t i n u i t y and e x p e r i e n c e , had a l s o b r o u g h t an i n s e n s i t i v i t y to new c h a l l e n g e s . In t h e i r s e a r c h f o r s t a t u s , the new g e n e r a t i o n s a l s o saw b u s i n e s s p r o f i t s and c a p i t a l as both t h e i r s by r i g h t and t h e i r s to do w i t h as t h e y saw f i t . Thus, i t a p p e a r s t h a t "between 1830 and 1870 an a b i l i t y on t h e p a r t o f b u s i n e s s m e n to e a r n c o m f o r t a b l e p r o f i t s 7 p r o b a b l y l e d t o an o s s i f i c a t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n -24 i z a t i o n and s t r u c t u r e . " T h i s a t t i t u d e , w h i l e p e r -haps u n d e r s t a n d a b l e g i v e n B r i t a i n ' s e x t e n d e d h i s t o r y o f economic hegemony, was d e s t r u c t i v e i n a v a r i e t y of ways. T r a d i t i o n a l owners were i n c r e a s i n g l y u n i n t e r -e s t e d i n d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n as a means of g u a r a n t e e i n g the f u t u r e o f t h e i r e n t e r p r i s e s . T h i s would have deman-ded q u a l i t i e s o f r i s k - t a k i n g , o r g a n i z a t i o n and e n t r e -p r e n e u r i a l dynamism which t h e y l a c k e d , i f not a c t i v e l y d i s p a r a g e d . As w e l l , p r o d u c t i n n o v a t i o n s were c o n -s i d e r e d . u n n e c e s s a r y and i n d i c a t i v e of a want of p r i d e or c o n f i d e n c e . L e t f o r e i g n c o m p e t i t o r s be as e f f i c -i e n t , e n t h u s i a s t i c and p r o d u c t i v e as t h e y l i k e d ; t h e ' B r i t i s h - m a d e ' l a b e l was c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t of i t -s e l f , w h i l e change from s t a n d a r d p r o d u c t s or p r o c e s s e s was seen as a s u b t l e s l u r on p a s t a c h i e v e m e n t s . At the same t i m e , t h e g r o w i n g i n s u l a r i t y and i n b r e d n a t u r e o f B r i t i s h b u s i n e s s r e s t r i c t e d the o p p o r t u n i t i e s of b r i g h t , new, but u n c a p i t a l i z e d men who might have prompted change. More s e r i o u s l y , i t a l s o e n a b l e d l a t e r g e n e r a t i o n s of the g r e a t i n d u s t r i a l f a m i l i e s to seek s u r e r p r o f i t s by s t i c k i n g to o l d , s t a n d b y i n d u s t r i e s 25 or s w i f t e r p r o f i t s by i n v e s t i n g a b r o a d . Whatever the c a u s e s , p o t e n t i a l c a p i t a l f o r r e t o o l i n g , r e s e a r c h and g e n e r a l growth was l o s t to B r i t i s h i n d u s t r y , which c e r t a i n l y c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e l a t e - V i c t o r i a n economic 88 d e c l i n e . In t h i s r e g a r d , a c o m p a r i s o n of n a t i o n a l n e t d o m e s t i c c a p i t a l f o r m a t i o n as a p e r c e n t a g e of n e t d o m e s t i c p r o d u c t f o r s e l e c t e d p e r i o d s i n d i c a t e s B r i -t a i n ' s d i s a d v a n t a g e o u s p o s i t i o n v i s £ v i s her major r i v a l s : BRITAIN GERMANY UNITED STATES 1855- 74 7.0% 1851-70 8. 5% 1875- 94 6.8% 1871-90 11. 4% 1869-80 13. 9% 1895- 1914 7.7% 1891-1913 15. 0% 1889-1913 12. 9% 2 6 Lack of cap i t . a l i n ves t m e n t i n one i n d u s t r i a l p e r i o d f r e q u e n t l y r e s u l t s i n the s i m p l e i n a b i l i t y of l a t e r e r a s to engage i n t h i s n e c e s s a r y t a s k . In t h e l a t e r -V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d , f i n a n c i a l s t r i c t u r e s i n key i n d u s -t r i e s c o u p l e d w i t h e l i t e h o s t i l i t y o r i n d i f f e r e n c e t o -ward r e i n v e s t m e n t to p r o d u c e e n t e r p r i s e s n o t a b l e f o r t h e i r g e n e r a l i n e r t i a and b a c k w a r d n e s s . As p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , t h e r e i s a l s o e v i d e n c e t h a t numbers of s e c o n d and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n f a m i l i e s s i m p l y wanted, no f u r t h e r p a r t i n e n e r g e t i c c o m m e r c i a l or i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e . When such g r o u p s r a d i c a l l y s c a l e d - d o w n t h e i r d a i l y c o m m e r c i a l commitments, main-t a i n e d , o r o f t e n i n c r e a s e d , t h e i r r e t u r n s from h o l d i n g s , and a l s o r e s t r i c t e d t h e d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers of t h e i r f i r m s ' s u p e r v i s o r s , the r e s u l t s were p r e d i c t a b l y un-d e s i r a b l e . R athbones of L i v e r p o o l was one V i c t o r i a n 89 example, where a r r i v a l of the p u b l i c s c h o o l e d g e n e r -a t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n d i s c e r n a b l e s l a c k e n i n g of the f i r m ' s 27 d r i v e . A s i m i l a r l a s s i t u d e was a p p a r e n t i n the l a t e r h i s t o r y of M a r s h a l l s , a Leeds f l a x - s p i n n i n g company when the e a r l y , l a i s s e z - f a i r e l e a d which the f o u n d e r s had grabbed w i t h two b u r l y hands s l i p p e d t h r o u g h the f i n g e r s of the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a t i o n s . R e g a r d i n g t h e l a t t e r : Once the p i o n e e r i n g days of r a p i d change and f a l -l i n g c o s t s were o v e r t h e y wanted new r u l e s which would g u a r a n t e e t h e i r p e r p e t u a t i o n . But t h e y d e v e l o p e d no w o r t h w h i l e n o t i o n s as t o how to s u c c e e d by t h e i r own e f f o r t s , and a t the r o o t of t h e i r i n f i r m i t y was a f a i l u r e t o a d j u s t t h e i r o u t l o o k to c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s . 2 8 For t h i s f i r m , as w e l l as f o r the n a t i o n which depended, i n p a r t , upon i t s c o n t i n u e d p r o s p e r i t y , Oohn I I I and Stephen M a r s h a l l , b o t h p u b l i c s c h o o l e d and g r a d u a t e s of Cambridge, r e p r e s e n t e d no s a l v a t i o n . In f a c t , i n s h o r t o r d e r : I n s t e a d of p r o t e c t i n g t h e i r b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s and e v o l v i n g a s e l f - r e p a i r i n g s t r u c t u r e , M a r s h a l l ' s sons d e c i d e d i n m i d d l e - a g e to c o a s t on t h e i r i n h e r -i t a n c e and d i s s i p a t e d t h e a s s e t s which the f o u n d e r had b u i l t up. ^ The p u b l i c s c h o o l c o m p a t r i o t s which such l e a d e r s h i r e d or r e l i e d upon f o r a d v i c e were a l s o of q u e s t i o n a b l v a l u e , 3 ^ and i t can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e economic p r o -g r e s s o f B r i t a i n was b a d l y s e r v e d , here and e l s e w h e r e , when "the t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n o f w e l l - e d u c a t e d , c a p a b l e , urbane young g e n t l e m e n c l a i m e d t h e i r i n h e r i t a n c e . They v a l u e d b u s i n e s s as a way of l i f e l e s s t h an t h e i r p a r e n t s A r e v i e w o f t h i s a s p e c t of s o c i a l h i s t o r y t e n d s , i n f a c t 90 to bear out t h e c o n t e n t i o n o f one s c h o l a r t h a t l a t e V i c t o r i a n i n d u s t r i a l i s t s "were f a r more l i k e l y t o a s s i m -i l a t e the t a s t e s and a t t i t u d e s o f t h e i r new c o n n e c t i o n s than to impose a c a p i t a l i s t or e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l s p i r i t upon them. T h i s w a s t i n g away of i n d u s t r i a l d r i v e i n t h e s e a r c h f o r s o c i a l s t a t u s was. t o have o t h e r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . On t h e one hand, as p r e v i o u s l y s u g g e s t e d , a b u s i n e s s l e a d e r m ight n o t c u t h i s c o m m e r c i a l t i e s c o m p l e t e l y , i n which c a s e : . . . t h e ' p a r t - t i m e ' m a n u f a c t u r e r p r o b a b l y had a much worse e f f e c t on t h e r a t e o f i n v e s t m e n t than the man whose aim was to c e a s e e n t i r e l y t o be .a manufacturer:, b e c a u s e he r e t a i n e d t h e o w n e r s h i p o f the a s s e t s but d i d n o t c o m p l e t e l y d e v o t e e i t h e r ; h i s e n e rgy or h i s f u n d s to d e v e l o p i n g them.33 On the o t h e r hand, i t may be. a p p a r e n t now t h a t an e n t e r -p r i s e o f t e n s u f f e r e d most when a b u s i n e s s l e a d e r c h o s e , whether f o r r e a s o n s o f i n c r e a s e d s t a t u s , or f u t u r e p r e -f e r m e n t , t o send h i s c h i l d r e n to a p u b l i c s c h o o l . The r e s u l t s of such c h o i c e s for. o n e . i n d u s t r y have been sum-m a r i z e d i n t h i s way: As t h e s t e e l i n d u s t r y grew, b u s i n e s s m e n began t o e d u c a t e t h e i r sons to a l e v e l and i n a s t y l e com-p a r a b l e to t h a t o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l and l a n d e d men whose c h i l d r e n e n t e r e d t h e i n d u s t r y . . . . Thus i n o r i g i n t h e i n c r e a s e d i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e i n s t i -t u t i o n s i n t h e t r a i n i n g o f f u t u r e s t e e l - m a k e r s was n o t p a r t o f a c o n s c i o u s r e c r u i t m e n t , p o l i c y on t h e p a r t o f f i r m s i n the i n d u s t r y , but a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e h i g h d e g r e e o f f a m i l y c o n t r o l and t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h o s e f a m i l i e s t h a t e d u c a t i o n f o r s o c i a l s t a t u s was to be p r e f e r r e d to s p e c i f i c e d u c a t i o n f o r an i n d u s -t r i a l c a r e e r . 3 ^ The s t e e l i n d u s t r y i s , o f c o u r s e , the c l a s s i c 91 c a s e s t u d y o f i n d u s t r i a l d e c l i n e which i s f r e q u e n t l y u sed to e x e m p l i f y B r i t a i n ' s economic f a i l u r e . W h i l e no s i m p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e p o s s i b l e , i t i s s a l u t a r y to com-pa r e s t e e l ' s f a l l w i t h a c o r r e s p o n d i n g r i s e i n t h e num-ber o f t h e i n d u s t r y ' s e x e c u t i v e s who were e d u c a t e d a t p u b l i c s c h o o l s . The p r o d u c t i o n o f s t e e l i n B r i t a i n , Germany and A m e r i c a , as p e r c e n t a g e s of w o r l d p r o d u c t i o n can be summarized f o r s e l e c t e d y e a r s as f o l l o w s : YEARS BRITAIN GERMANY UNITED STATES 1875-79 35.9 16.6 26.0 1890-94 24.6 21.4 33.7 1905-09 12.4 22.1 43.5 1910-13 10.3 22.7 4 2 . 3 3 5 The p e r c e n t a g e s o f s t e e l i n d u s t r y owners and e x e c u t i v e s who were e d u c a t e d a t p u b l i c s c h o o l s , l i s t e d a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r y e a r s o f power, a r e : 1865 — 10%, 1875-95 — 16%, 3 6 and 1905-25 — 31%. O t h e r f a c t o r s e n t e r i n t o the h i s -t o r y o f t h e s t e e l i n d u s t r y ' s i n t e r n a t i o n a l d e c l i n e , i n c l u d i n g t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e p e r i o d .1905-25 l e s s than te n p e r c e n t o f t h e l e a d e r s o f B r i t a i n ' s major t e c h n o l o g -i c a l i n d u s t r y had t a k e n s c i e n t i f i c t r a i n i n g a t a u n i v e r -s i t y , t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l , m i l i t a r y or n a v a l c o l l e g e . 3 7 N e v e r t h e l e s s , s t e e l ' s e d u c a t i o n a l and c o m p e t i t i v e r e -c o r d s e x t e n d a. measure of posthumous v a l i d a t i o n t o t h e views of one e a r l y - V i c t o r i a n c o n t r i b u t o r to t h e West-m i n s t e r Review: The i n f l u e n c e s of t h e a r i s t o c r a c y have i n a g r e a t measure t a i n t e d t h e E d u c a t i o n o f t h e o t h e r c l a s s e s . The a m b i t i o n of b r i n g i n g up t h e i r c h i l d r e n 92 as g e n t l e m e n and l a d i e s , i n s t e a d o f men and women f i t f o r t h e i r s e v e r a l p o s i t i o n s i n t h e w o r l d , has l e a d t o the t e a c h i n g of a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f o t h e r s t u d i e s whose a i d i n l i f e would be more p r a c t i c a l l y u s e f u l . The whole t h i n g i s m i s c o n c e i v e d . 3 9 The f a l l o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n d u s t r y s u c h as 39 s t e e l may have a m u l t i t u d e o f c a u s e s , but t h e d e c l i n e o f the o l d i n d u s t r i a l f a m i l i e s of B r i t a i n , from l i v e l y s u p e r i o r i t y a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t o l i s t l e s s accommodation a t t h e end, a r o s e as much 40 from c h o i c e as e x t e r n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . . However, the r o l e p l a y e d i n t h i s p r o c e s s by t h e o l d e r e l i t e s and t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s was n e i t h e r i n c o n s i d e r a b l e , a i m l e s s nor n e u t r a l : In o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , t h e l a n d - o w n i n g a r i s t o -c r a c i e s , by e x c l u d i n g t h e nouveaux r i c h e s of t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n , e n s u r e d t h e i r own i m p o t e n c e and d e c l i n e . The B r i t i s h a r i s t o c r a c y , l e s s r i g i d , embraced the r i s i n g e n t r e p r e n e u r s and i n f e c t e d them and t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i t h i t s own s t a n d a r d of v a l u e s : and t h e q u a l i t y o f i n d u s t r i a l management has s u f -f e r e d i n c o n s e q u e n c e . The e x c e s s i v e c a u t i o n and f e a r , o f i n n o v a t i o n or growth which c h a r a c t e r i z e d many B r i t i s h b u s i n e s s m e n a t the end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y may a l s o f i n d t h e i r o r i g i n s i n p u b l i c s c h o o l i n d o c t r i n a t i o n o f n o t i o n s of p l a c e - k e e p i n g and good form. In t h e i r m a t u r i t y , p u b l i c s c h o o l e d men of a f f a i r s o f t e n seemed bound by a d o c t r i n a i r e and even j i n g o i s t i c c o n s e r v a t i s m which may have masked an i n b r e d f e a r of. f a i l u r e . I t was a s i n g u l a r m i s f o r t u n e f o r t h e n a t i o n t h a t t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s went q u i c k l y t o t h e head o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s upon whose dynamism B r i t a i n 93 42 depended f o r her f u t u r e s u c c e s s . T h i s c o n s e r v a t i s m may be seen as a cause o f t h e l a t e - V i c t o r i a n f a i l u r e t o m a i n t a i n B r i t a i n ' s p o s i t i o n o f economic dominance. An a p p a r e n t i n a b i l i t y to change i n the f a c e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c h a l l e n g e s a l s o p l a y e d a p a r t . I t was p e r h a p s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t t h e n a t i o n ' s e a r l y i n d u s -t r i a l l e a d s h o u l d be f o l l o w e d by a p e r i o d o f r e d u c e d r e t u r n s , f o r which b u s i n e s s m e n s h o u l d n o t be u n d u l y 43 f a u l t e d . However, i t a p p e a r s t h a t s u c h a r e o r d e r i n g o f p o s i t i o n s had a t r a u m a t i z i n g e f f e c t upon many economic l e a d e r s . To some t h e y e a r s o f q u i c k and easy p r o f i t s had seemed no more than t h e n a t i o n ' s due, and t h e i r l o s s p r o -duced a c r i p p l i n g f a i l u r e t o f a c e new f a c t s . O t h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e c o m m e r c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l l e a d e r s from the p u b l i c s c h o o l s , were h o b b l e d by an i n t e n s e awareness of t h e i r low s o c i a l . s t a n d i n g as b u s i n e s s m e n . They f e a r e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of f a i l u r e a t an a l r e a d y demeaning a c t i v -44 i t y . In both c a s e s much e n e r g y , i n c o n s e q u e n c e , was used t o r e d u c e or c o n c e a l t h e e f f e c t s of. f o r e i g n compe-t i t i o n upon d o m e s t i c i n d u s t r i e s . Some d e g r e e of s e l f -d e c e p t i o n must a l s o have e x i s t e d h e r e , s i n c e t h e n o t i o n o f t h o r o u g h r e o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e t o o l i n g t o t a c k l e the market a f r e s h was n o t common i n B r i t i s h i n d u s t r y . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n s u l a r i t y of t h i s was n o t l o s t on n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y o b s e r v e r s s i n c e " c o n t e m p o r a r i e s f r e q u e n t l y commented on t h e f l u i d i t y and r e c e p t i v e n e s s of A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y , on t h e i n f e c t i o u s s p i r i t of improvement, on t h e 9k tremendous e n t h u s i a s m f o r t e c h n i c a l advance . . . v i s a k5 v i s the B r i t i s h . " The f a c t t h a t s m a l l f i r m s , even a f t e r t h e i n t r o -d u c t i o n o f l i m i t e d l i a b i l i t y , r e m a i n e d t h e t y p i c a l B r i t i s h model may a l s o e x p l a i n some o f t h e n a t i o n ' s i n a b i l i t y to compete. Owners t e n d e d t o see t h e i r companies as one-man or o n e - f a m i l y u n d e r t a k i n g s or s m a l l p a r t n e r s h i p a r -rangements between l i k e - m i n d e d b r e t h r e n . These c o n t i n u e d , o f t e n w e l l a f t e r t h e V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d , as u n d e r p r o d u c t i v e s q u i r e a r c h i e s i n which t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s were marked by u n c h a n g i n g p r a c t i c e s c o m p l e t e d a t a p e n s i v e p a c e . To t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e l e a d e r s o f such e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n n o v a t i o n and e x p a n s i o n were t a n t a m o u n t t o unseemly g r e e d o r an u n -g e n t l e m a n l y grab f o r power; modern p r a c t i c e s p r o v o k e d t r e p i d a t i o n r a t h e r than e n t h u s i a s m i n s u c h owners. A c o n t e m p o r a r y o b s e r v e r remarked on the s t r i k i n g l y d i f -f e r e n t a t t i t u d e of one major c o m p e t i t o r : "In Germany the p o s s i b i l i t i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s , o f t h e machine have been welcomed i n s t e a d o f b e i n g r e g a r d e d as a h i n d r a n c e . I t i s . e v i d e n t t h a t e n t r e p r e n e u r s i n B r i t a i n r e m a i n e d wedded to t h e i r s t a p l e t r a d e s and t r a d i t i o n a l methods, t h o s e which had 'done us w e l l i n the p a s t , ' and were c o n t e n t t o l i m i t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s to known and d e p e n d a b l e m a r k e t s . These p r e f e r e n c e s c o n t i n u e d , i f n o t s t r e n g t h e n e d , as B r i t a i n ' s c o m p e t e t i o n i n c r e a s e d and her o v e r a l l p o s i t i o n d e t e r i o r a t e d . As D. H. A i d -c r a f t remarked : 95 . . . B r i t i s h i n d u s t r i a l i s t s took t h e l i n e o f l e a s t r e s i s t a n c e and were e x t r e m e l y r e l u c t a n t to a c c e p t the c h a l l e n g e of new c o n d i t i o n s . I t i s q u i t e e v i d e n t t h a t many e n t r e p r e n e u r s a d o p t e d a v e r y c o m p l a c e n t a t t i t u d e towards t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y on the c o m m e r c i a l s i d e where the 'take i t or l e a v e . i t a t t i t u d e 1 has p e r s i s t e d even up to t h i s day.Zj'~' One economic i n d i c a t o r which s i g n a l l e d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n was B r i t a i n ' s s h a r e of t o t a l w o r l d t r a d e i n m a n u f a c t u r e s which d e c l i n e d from 37.1% i n 1885 to 25.4% i n 1 9 1 3 . 4 8 A n o t h e r key i n d i c a t o r o f the drop i n B r i t a i n ' s c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s was a p e r s i s t e n t V i c t o r i a n d i s i n c l i n a t i o n to fund r e s e a r c h and d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s may have stem-med, i n p a r t , from the p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d p r e f e r e n c e f o r s m a l l f i r m s i n which low c a p i t a l i z a t i o n made f u n d s f o r i n d u s t r i a l r e s e a r c h s c a r c e , even i f t h i s had been 49 wanted. However, s m a l l s i z e a l s o e n g e n d e r e d a s m a l l -n ess of e x p e c t a t i o n and a g e n e r a l f a i l u r e to l o o k a c t i v e l y i n t o the f u t u r e , w hich a g a i n c o n t r a s t e d m a r k e d l y w i t h the a p p r o a c h o f some c o m p e t i t o r s : Even when the B r i t i s h e n t r e p r e n e u r was r a t i o n a l . . . h i s c a l c u l a t i o n s were d i s t o r t e d by the s h o r t -n ess of h i s time h o r i z o n , and h i s e s t i m a t e s were on t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e s i d e . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s p e c u n i a r y a p p r o a c h i s b e s t a p p r e c i a t e d when i t i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the t e c h n o l o g i c a l r a t i o n a l i t y of the G e r m a n s . ^ An a n t i - r e s e a r c h b i a s among i n d u s t r i a l i s t s may have had i t s o r i g i n i n s e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g . C l a s s i c a l s t u d i e s had been v a l u e d b e c a u s e t h e y were t h o u g h t to be a m e n t a l d i s c i p l i n e , n ot an end i n t h e m s e l v e s b ut a means t o the f o r m a t i o n o f character.^"'" U n d e r l y i n g t h i s was a s e n s e t h a t t h e gen-e r a l q u a l i t i e s of mind, which t h e y d e v e l o p e d n e v e r be-came o b s o l e t e w h i l e s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge c l e a r l y d i d , a c o n c l u s i o n c l e a r l y n o t c o n d u c i v e to t h e s u p p o r t o f i n d u s t r i a l R. and D. T h i s r e s u l t would have been u n d e r -s t a n d a b l e t o at. l e a s t one E d i n b u r g h Review w r i t e r o f the b e g i n n i n g of the c e n t u r y : A c l a s s i c a l s c h o l a r o f t w e n t y - t h r e e or t w e n t y - f o u r y e a r s o f age, i s a man p r i n c i p a l l y c o n v e r s a n t w i t h works o f i m a g i n a t i o n . . . » T a l e n t s f o r s p e c u l a t i o n and o r i g i n a l i n q u i r y he has none; nor has he formed the i n v a l u a b l e h a b i t o f p u s h i n g t h i n g s up to t h e i r f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s , or of c o l l e c t i n g d r y and unamusing f a c t s as the m a t e r i a l s of r e a s o n i n g . A l l the s o l i d and m a s c u l i n e p a r t s of h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g a r e l e f t w h o l l y w i t h o u t c u l t i v a t i o n ; he h a t e s the p a i n o f t h i n k i n g , and s u s p e c t s e v e r y man whose b o l d n e s s and o r i g i n a l i t y c a l l upon him to d e f e n d h i s o p i n i o n s and p r o v e h i s a s s e r t i o n s . 5 2 Businessmen formed on t h i s model w o r s h i p p e d " t h e i d e a l of the g e n t l e m a n l y amateur, d e r i v i n g wisdom, m o r a l i t y and a c a p a c i t y f o r l e a d e r s h i p from knowing a l i t t l e a b o u t e v e r y t h i n g and a l o t about, n o t h i n g ( e x c e p t p o s s i b l y / 5 3 c l a s s i c a l grammar)," and a g r e e d w i t h t h e b e l i e f t h a t 54 " t h e s p e c i a l i s t s h o u l d be on t a p and n o t on t o p . " An e x a m i n a t i o n o f B r i t i s h v e r s u s German r e s e a r c h and d e v e l o p m e n t i n the c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r y i n d i c a t e s t h a t the l a t t e r l e d i n a l l the g e n e r a l i n d i c a t o r s , numbers o f p a t e n t s , numbers o f s c i e n t i f i c a b s t r a c t s , and numbers o f new p r o d u c t s . B r i t i s h i n d u s t r i a l i s t s , u n a b l e to see the l o n g range b e n e f i t s of new knowledge, were c o n t e n t t o acknowledge the German l e a d w i t h o u t a t t e m p t i n g to c o u n t e r i t . Improvement h e r e r e m a i n e d slow i n 97 coming s i n c e : The u n d e r e s t i m a t i o n of the b e n e f i t s o f R. and D. w i d e s p r e a d i n the U n i t e d Kingdom c o u l d have been changed, e s p e c i a l l y by s c i e n t i s t s and i n d u s t r i a l -i s t s t h e m s e l v e s , but i t c o u l d not be changed o v e r n i g h t f o r t h e a t t i t u d e was d e e p l y r o o t e d i n s o c i e t y i t s e l f . - > 6 In t h i s and o t h e r a r e a s , " c i r c u m s t a n c e s may have e n g e n d e r e d an a t t i t u d e o f c a u t i o n among e n t r e p r e n e u r s a l l the more d i f f i c u l t to remove b e c a u s e i t was i n -g r a i n e d and not based upon e x p l i c i t r e a s o n i n g . S u c h f a i n t - h e a r t e d c o n s e r v a t i s m i n B r i t i s h b u s i n e s s m e n owed much to V i c t o r i a n p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g . In t h e same way, the p u b l i c s c h o o l s must bear much r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e e v e n t u a l r e s u l t s , as C o r r e l l i B a r n e t t made c l e a r : The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o s t e r e d by V i c t o r i a n e d u c a t i o n - - c o n s e r v a t i s m , d o c t r i n a i r e o r t h o d o x y , r i g i d i t y , i n e r t i a and unbounded c o m p l a c e n c y - - a r e th e c l a s s i c a t t r i b u t e s o f an army a b o u t to s u f f e r a c a t a s t r o -p h i c d e f e a t . P u r s u i n g h i s m i l i t a r y a n a l o g y , B a r n e t t c o n c l u d e d : In a hundred y e a r s B r i t i s h i n d u s t r y had . . . changed i t s c h a r a c t e r from an army o f c o n q u e s t , m o b i l e , f l e x -i b l e and b o l d , i n t o a d e f e n s i v e army pegged o u t i n f i x e d p o s i t i o n s . , p a s s i v e l y t r y i n g t o d e f e n d what i t had won i n t h e p a s t . 5 9 B e s i d e s t h e i r a p p a r e n t l y d i r e c t c o m m e r c i a l e f f e c t s , however, the p u b l i c s c h o o l s a l s o e x e r c i s e d s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o v e r the n o n - p u b l i c -s c h o o l e d l e a d e r s h i p o f the V i c t o r i a n economy. T h i s o c c u r r e d m a i n l y i n two ways. In some i n s t a n c e s , t h e g e n e r a l p r e c e p t s o f the s c h o o l s t e n d e d t o i n c r e a s e the t r a d i t i o n a l , or more a c c u r a t e l y , a n t i - i n n o v a t i v e b e l i e f s , o f many i n d u s t r i a l i s t s . In o t h e r c a s e s , the p r e j u d i c e s 98 and p e r s o n n e l o f t h e s c h o o l s e n c o u r a g e d a t h o r o u g h -g o i n g a n t i - i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m among B r i t i s h men of a f f a i r s . R e g a r d i n g t h e r e l u c t a n c e o f t r a d i t i o n a l B r i t i s h i n d u s t r i e s to change w i t h t h e t i m e s , i t seems r e a s o n a b l e to a g r e e t h a t "no i n d u s t r i a l machine can be b e t t e r than the minds t h a t d i r e c t i t . I f t h e machine i s a n t i q u a t e d and s l o w - m o v i n g , the n the d i r e c t i n g minds can be f r e q u e n t l y shown to have been u n r e c e p t i v e t o i n n o v a t i o n . " ^ The p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r t i m e l y and e f f e c t i v e i n n o v a t i o n a r e a c l e a r a wareness t h a t c o n d i t i o n s r e q u i r e s o m e t h i n g d i f -f e r e n t , and the o p t i m i s m and e n t h u s i a s m needed to seek new answers or a v e n u e s . L a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h i n d u s t r y seemed s i n g u l a r l y l a c k i n g i n b o t h r e q u i r e m e n t s . S a f e b e h i n d t h e p r o t e c t e d t r a d e w a l l s of t h e E m p i r e , B r i t i s h e n t r e p r e n e u r s e x h i b i t e d a c l o s e d m e n t a l i t y which combined a f r a n k u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o know w i t h an a r r o g a n t , but a l s o c o m m e r c i a l l y c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v e , be-l i e f t h a t " n i g g e r s b e g i n a t C a l a i s . " ^ ' ' " Such a b r e e d of b u s i n e s s m a n d i d n o t l a c k c o n f i d e n c e but t h i s g e n e r a l l y m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f as a m i s p l a c e d a s s u r a n c e t h a t B r i t o n s and B r i t i s h ways would c o n t i n u e to s u f f i c e . T h i s e t h n o -c e n t r i s m was e x h i b i t e d on a r e g i o n a l s c a l e i n 1911 when a b u s i n e s s m a n from n o r t h e r n E n g l a n d d e a l t b r i s k l y w i t h w o r r i e s a b o u t g r o w i n g f o r e i g n c o m p e t i t i o n : I t ' s j u s t t w a d d l e . In t h e f i r s t p l a c e , we've got t h e o n l y c l i m a t e i n t h e w o r l d where c o t t o n p i e c e goods i n any q u a n t i t y can e v e r be p r o d u c e d . In the s e c o n d , no f o r e i g n J o h n n i e s can e v e r be b r e d t h a t can s p i n and weave l i k e L a n c a s h i r e l a d s and l a s s e s . In the t h i r d p l a c e , t h e r e a r e more s p i n d l e s i n Oldham than i n a l l t h e r e s t of the w o r l d put t o g e t h e r . And l a s t o f a l l , i f t h e y had the c l i m a t e and the men and the s p i n d l e s - which t h e y can n e v e r have - f o r e i g n e r s c o u l d n e v e r f i n d the b r a i n s L a n c a s h i r e c o t t o n men have f o r t h e j o b . ^ 2 Such c o n f i d e n c e o f t e n m e t amorphized i n t o l i s t l e s s n e s s , however, and b u s i n e s s m e n were i n c r e a s i n g l y seen as " w i l l i n g but l a c k i n g i n i n i t i a t i v e , most of them a l m o s t automata 6 3 w i t h o u t any i n i t i a t i v e . " . As one commentator c o n c l u d e d , l i k e l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e to the p u b l i c s c h o o l s o r t o f e f -f e t i s m w hich c h a r a c t e r i z e d many e n t e r p r i s e s , " s p o r t s -manship and good form w o u l d . n o t m a i n t a i n t h e Empire a g a i n s t c o m m e r c i a l r i v a l s ; new and more i n d e p e n d e n t l e a -64 d e r s were needed but t h e y . w e r e n o t f o r t h c o m i n g . " F i n a l l y , i t became i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r as the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y drew to a c l o s e t h a t the q u i c k e n i n g d e c l i n e o f B r i t a i n ' s o l d e r i n d u s t r i e s was not the major c o n c e r n . A r e l u c t a n c e t o e n t e r newer and more p r o m i s -i n g a r e a s o f o p p o r t u n i t y was even more h a r m f u l . The r e s t r a i n i n g power o f p u b l i c s c h o o l c o n s e r v a t i s m i n a w o r l d of i n c r e a s i n g l y dynamic c o m p e t i t i o n and change was e c o n o m i c a l l y c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v e and " i t was by her f a i l u r e t o s e c u r e a. l a r g e s h a r e of the newer t r a d e s t h e n coming i n t o b e i n g r a t h e r than by her l o o s e n i n g her h o l d on some of t h e o l d i n d u s t r i e s t h a t B r i t a i n ' s weaknesses were becoming most o b v i o u s . . . . T r a d i t i o n a l i n d u s t r i a l p r e f e r e n c e s f o r t h e ' p r a c t i c a l man' a l s o c o n t i n u e d to a f f e c t i n d u s t r i a l p e r f o r m a n c e but w i t h added s t r e n g t h due to v a r i o u s 100 p u b l i c s c h o o l p r e j u d i c e s . E a r l y i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n c a p i t a l had not been a r e q u i s i t e f o r e n t r y i n t o a f i r m , s i n c e i n t h a t age o f i n n o v a t i o n an a c t u a l 1 premium was p l a c e d on k n o w l e d g e . ^ L a t e r , t w i n r e s u l t s o f p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g f o r s t a t u s r a t h e r t h an c o m m e r c i a l competence became i n c r e a s i n g l y a p p a r e n t . T e c h n i c a l l y u n q u a l i f i e d men o f t e n a t t a i n e d p o s i t i o n s o f power from which t h e y r e c r u i t e d a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r p u b l i c s c h o o l p r e f e r e n c e s , w i t h th e r e s u l t t h a t the r e p u t a t i o n s o f the g r e a t s c h o o l s as p r o d u c e r s o f a d e q u a t e l e a d e r s c o n t i n u e d t o d e c l i n e . O l d e r i n d u s t r i a l i s t s , on the o t h e r hand, e q u a t e d i n a d e q u a t e p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g w i t h most o t h e r a r e a s o f a c a d e m i c q u a l i f i c a t i o n , and a f u r t h e r e s t r a n g e -ment of t h e w o r l d s o f l e a r n i n g and a c t i v e commerce r e -s u l t e d . As e a r l y as 1828 t h e W e s t m i n s t e r Review had e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n t h a t " t h e s e v e r y men a r e o f t e n i g n o r -a n t , do n o t d e s i r e t o be i n f o r m e d , and t o o o f t e n d e s p i s e the v e r y knowledge by which t h e y e x i s t , under the v u l g a r 6 7 and m i s a p p l i e d term T h e o r y . " N e v e r t h e l e s s , one s c h o l a r has c o n c l u d e d t h a t : Most E n g l i s h f i r m s b e f o r e 1914, even t h o s e h e a v i l y d e pendent on a p p l i e d s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l -ogy, r e l i e d on . . . h a p h a z a r d methods o f manage-ment s e l e c t i o n and were s t i l l i n c l i n e d to r e g a r d u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w i t h s u s p i c i o n , i n d i f f e r e n c e or contempt.68 T h i s a t t i t u d e r e p r e s e n t e d the s u r v i v a l o f an e a r l i e r m i n d - s e t i l l u s t r a t e d by the s l i g h t i n g answer S i r Ber-n a r d Samuelson r e c e i v e d from one i n d u s t r i a l i s t i n t h e m i d - V i c t o r i a n e r a . T o l d t h a t one of h i s c o m p e t i t o r s 101 i n t h e c a l i c o t r a d e had j u s t been q u a l i f i e d by a German p o l y t e c h n i c , the b u s i n e s s m a n r e p l i e d , "Oh! We can buy our c h e m i s t r y - i f we need any." B r i t i s h i n d u s t r i a l l e a d e r s h i p , t h e r e f o r e , was i n c r e a s i n g l y hampered by, o r i n r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t , p u b l i c -s c h o o l - s t y l e t r a i n i n g . T h i s s i t u a t i o n was e f f e c t i v e l y summarized by 3. W e l l e n s : . . . from below, the 'hard-way' man has b r o u g h t w i t h him to i n d u s t r i a l management an a n t i -i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a d i t i o n which sees c o n f l i c t between the ' p r a c t i c a l ' man and t h e 'academic' w h i l e th e man c o n d i t i o n e d by t h e o l d c o l o n i a l e t h i c has b r o u g h t w i t h him an a n t i - i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a d i t i o n o f a n o t h e r k i n d ; t h a t which s e e s ' c h a r a c t e r ' as a more d e s i r a b l e commodity than b r a i n s . u As to the c u l p a b i l i t y o f p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n B r i t a i n ' s i n d u s t r i a l d e c l i n e we may c o n s i d e r t h e con-t e n t i o n t h a t : E n t r e p r e n e u r i a l d r i v e s and r e s p o n s e s a r e t h e prime movers o f an i n d u s t r i a l machine . . . i f , t h e r e f o r e , e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l d r i v e s were sometimes weak and r e s p o n s e s p a s s i v e where t h e y s h o u l d have been a c t i v e , t h e u l t i m a t e s o u r c e o f t h e weakness i s t o be s o u g h t i n the n a t u r e of t h e s o c i e t y and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s . ^ Whether d i r e c t l y t r a i n e d or o t h e r w i s e a f f e c t e d by p u b l i c s c h o o l s , V i c t o r i a n b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s e x h i b i t e d q u a l i t i e s which were l o g i c a l l y e x t e n s i o n s o f p a t t e r n s i n c u l c a t e d by t h e g r e a t s c h o o l s . Such men f e l t un-f a i r l y put upon, r a t h e r than c h a l l e n g e d , by c o m p e t i t i v e f o r c e s , r e s i s t e d a l t e r a t i o n s w h erever p o s s i b l e , and d i s -v a l u e d i n t e l l e c t u a l work as r e p r e s e n t e d by o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h . In e f f e c t , " t h e i n g r a i n e d t r a d i t i o n a l i s m o f the E n g l i s h . . . impeded i n t e g r a t i o n and growth w i t h i n 72 i n d u s t r y . " P e r h a p s the most s e r i o u s r e s u l t o f t h i s was t h a t young, would-be L i p t o n s , C o u r t a u l d s and L e v e r s of the l a t e V i c t o r i a n e r a o f t e n f o u n d t h e d o o r s to i n d u s t r y b a r r e d and b o l t e d , and the boardrooms of the n a t i o n f i l l e d w i t h t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y i l l i t e r a t e p u b l i c s c h o o l p r o d u c t s , men more i n t e r e s t e d i n h o r s e s and r o s e g a r d e n s than the s t a t e of t h e i r f a c t o r i e s . These i n -d i v i d u a l s seldom d i s p l a y e d the t r a d i t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s of a s u c c e s s f u l b u s i n e s s l e a d e r , e n t e r p r i s e matched w i t h p r u d e n c e , e n e r g y s t i f f e n e d w i t h f o r t i t u d e , judgment formed from wide and deep e x p e r i e n c e . I n s t e a d , w i t h them i t was o f t e n the c a s e t h a t p r u d e n c e overshadowed e n t e r -p r i s e , f o r t i t u d e o u t w e i g h e d e n e r g y , judgment was drawn from d e l i b e r a t e l y r e s t r i c t e d and narrow e x p e r i e n c e , and the a b i l i t y to r e a d c h a r a c t e r was r e p l a c e d by an i n f a l l i b l e memory f o r an o l d s c h o o l or r e g i m e n t a l t i e . The b i f u r c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h l e a d e r s h i p between p r a c t i c a l men and a m a t e u r s , w i t h both f o s t e r e d by e l e -ments of the p u b l i c s c h o o l e t h o s , had p a r t i c u l a r r e -s u l t s . I n s t i t u t i o n s , such as t h e s c h o o l s , which might have r a t i o n a l i z e d the c o u n t r y ' s economic p r o -g r e s s and drawn B r i t a i n ' s main s o c i a l s t r a n d s t o g e t h e r , n e g l e c t e d the f o r m e r and f r u s t r a t e d a c h i e v e m e n t of t h e l a t t e r . In e f f e c t , p u b l i c s c h o o l l e a d e r s d e m o n s t r a t e d l i t t l e a w a r e n e s s o f th e need f o r l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s o c i a l and c o m m e r c i a l c r o s s - f e r t i l i z a t i o n . G i v e n t h i s V i c t o r i a n s t r u c t u r e and the c l e a r l y o n e - s i d e d agendas o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l s , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t : 103 In B r i t a i n . . . the c o n s e q u e n c e s o f s o c i a l im-m o b i l i t y and a too h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d c l a s s c o n s c i o u s -ness up and down the s o c i a l s c a l e were not m i t i g a t e d by w i d e s p r e a d a c c e p t a n c e o f the need f o r sound t r a i n i n g f o r f u t u r e i n d u s t r i a l l e a d e r s . In B r i t -a i n , t h e r e f o r e , s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n c o u l d be viewed as a p o t e n t i a l l y s e r i o u s o b s t a c l e to t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l and m a n a g e r i a l s k i l l s . 7 3 I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e , now, to examine s i m i l a r ram-i f i c a t i o n s of p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g i n o t h e r a r e a s of V i c t o r -i a n l i f e , p a r t i c u l a r l y v a r i o u s s e c t o r s o f the p u b l i c s e r v i c e . Here, t o o , the economic nuances appear t o have been p r e d o m i n e n t l y n e g a t i v e r a t h e r than n e u t r a l . 104 FOOTNOTES "*"B. W. E. A l f o r d , " E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p , B u s i n e s s P e r f o r m a n c e and I n d u s t r i a l Development," B u s i n e s s H i s -t o r y XIX ( 1 9 7 7 ) , p. 122. D. S. L a n d e s , The Unbound Prometheus ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969), p~. 527. 3 I b i d . 4 See R. V. C l e m e n t s , Managers: A Study o f  T h e i r C a r e e r s i n I n d u s t r y ( L o n d o n : George A l l e n and Unwin , 1958 ), and W. 3~. Re a d e r , P r o f e s s i o n a l Men: The  R i s e o f the P r o f e s s i o n a l C l a s s e s i n N i n e t e e n t h - C e n t u r y  E n g l a n d (London: W e i d e n f e l d and N i . c o l s o n , 1966) , f o r d i s c u s s i o n s o f the slow growth o f a m a n a g e r i a l c l a s s i n B r i t a i n . ~*G. R o d e r i c k and M. S t e p h e n s , S c i e n t i f i c and  T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n N i n e t e e n t h - C e n t u r y E n g l a n d (Newton Abbot, Devon : D a v i d and C h a r l e s L t d . , 1~972 ) , and M. S a n d e r s o n , The U n i v e r s i t i e s and B r i t i s h I n d u s t r y ,  1850-1970 (London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1972) examine the u n d e r p r o v i s i o n of i n d u s t r i a l e x p e r t s . ^ 0 f n e c e s s i t y , the s o r t o f e x p l a n a t i o n a c h i e v e d w i l l s t i l l be i n c o m p l e t e but i t w i l l have the v i r t u e o f g r e a t e r c o m p r e h e n s i o n and d e e p e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I t w i l l , i n f a c t , be the t y p e o f h i s t o r y d e s c r i b e d by R. G. C o l -l i n g w o o d , The Idea o f H i s t o r y (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19 66.)., p~. 249:. "However f r a g m e n t a r y and f a u l t y . . . ,the i d e a which g o v e r n e d i t s c o u r s e i s c l e a r , r a t i o n -a l and u n i v e r s a l . I t i s the i d e a of the h i s t o r i c a l imag-i n a t i o n as a s e l f - d e p e n d e n t , . s e l f - d e t e r m i n g , and s e l f -j u s t i f y i n g form o f t h o u g h t . " ^See D. C. A l d c r o f t , ed., The Development of  B r i t i s h I n d u s t r y and F o r e i g n C o m p e t i t i o n , 1875-1914 (London: George A l l e n and Unwin, 1968) , G~. C~. A l l e n , The B r i t i s h D i s e a s e (London: I n s t i t u t e o f Economic A f f a i r s , 1 976), H. 3 . Habakkuk, Amer i c a n and B r i t i s h T e c h n o l o g y i n the N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y ( C a m b r i d g e : Cam-b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962) , and M. W. K i r b y , The  D e c l i n e o f B r i t i s h Economic Power s i n c e 1870 (London: George A l l e n and Unwin, 1 9 8 1 ) . g D. A. A l d c r o f t , "The Economy, Management and F o r e i g n C o m p e t i t i o n , " i n G. R o d e r i c k and M. S t e p h e n s , e d s . Where Did We Go Wrong? (Barcombe, S u s s e x : The F a l m e r P r e s s , 1 9 8 1 ) , pp. 13-31, l i s t s a r e a s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y . 105 9 D. N. M c C l o s k e y , ed., E n t e r p r i s e and T r a d e i n  V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n (London: George A l l e n and Unwin, 1981), c o n t a i n s f u r t h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the b a t t l e s o v e r V i c t o r i a n f a i l u r e . . "^P. L. Payne, B r i t i s h E n t r e p r e n e u r - s h i p - i n t h e  N i n e t e e n t h Century' (London: Macmillan,, 1974), p~7 49. "'"''"W. L. Guttsman, The B r i t i s h P o l i t i c a l E l i t e ( London: MacGibbon and K.e~e~, 1963 ), p"~ 38 3, r e f e r s to" t h i s form o f o l d - b o y .  n e t w o r k i n g or n e p o t i s m as a "new c o u s i n h o o d " i n which " c o n n e c t i o n s , o w n e r s h i p and w e a l t h weigh a t l e a s t as much as a b i l i t y , " i f n o t more. See a l s o , 0. H. G o l d t h o r p e , S o c i a l M o b i l i t y and C l a s s S t r u c -t u r e i n Modern' B r i t a i n ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 8 0 ) . 1 2 " E t o n C o l l e g e , " The Q u a r t e r l y Review 171 ( 1 8 9 0 ) , p. 27, o f f e r s t h e f o l l o w i n g as an a d m i r i n g summary.of t h e s e p u b l i c s c h o o l b o y t r a i t s : "They t o i l a t games, and p l a y w i t h b o o k s : They l o v e the w i n n e r o f t h e r a c e , I f o n l y he t h a t p r o s p e r s l o o k s On p r i z e s w i t h a s i m p l e g r a c e . " ^^3. Rae, The P u b l i c S c h o o l R e v o l u t i o n (London: F a b e r , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 12, p o i n t s out t h a t a r e a l danger i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l e t h o s was. t h a t "men i n i n f l u e n t i a l p u b l i c p o s i t i o n s . h a d h a d . t h e s o r t o f e d u c a t i o n t h a t p r e d i s p o s e d them t o be s u s p i c i o u s o f i n n o v a t i o n and r e l u c t a n t t o implement t e c h n i c a l i d e a s . " 14 S. G. C h e c k l a n d , The Ri s e , -of.. I n d u s t r i a l Soc-i e t y i n E n g l a n d , 1815-188-5 (London: Longmans, 1964) , p. 115. "^C. W i l s o n and W. Reader, Men and Machines (London: W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1 958), p~. 41. " ^ I b i d . , p. 58. ^ 7 I . W e i n b e r g , The E n g l i s h P u b l i c S c h o o l (New Y o r k : A t h e r t o n , 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 7-8. 18 D. S. L a n d e s , " T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change and De-v e l o p m e n t i n Western E u r o p e , .1750-1914," i n H. 3. Hab-akkuk and M. P o s t a n , The Cambridge Economic H i s t o r y o f  E u r o p e , V o l . VI ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I9T5), p. 563. 1 9 I b i d . , p. 564. 106 20 S. M a r r i n e r , Rathbones of L i v e r p o o l , 1845-73 ( L i v e r p o o l : L i v e r p o o l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961), p~. 126, c i t e s the example of one f i r m where " r i s k s were m i n i -mized by k e e p i n g o u t o f t r a d e s which r e q u i r e d c o n s t a n t t h o u g h t and a t t e n t i o n . " 21 D. G r a n i c k , The E u r o p e a n . E x e c u f i v e (New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y , 1962), pp. 134-135, d e s c r i b e s t h i s s o r t o f manager as one who " r e j e c t s i n d i g n a n t l y t h e v e r y t h o u g h t of b e i n g an ' e x p e r t ' . " 22 See H. A. Shannon, "The L i m i t e d L i a b i l i t y Com-p a n i e s o f 1866-1883," i n E..M. C a r u s - W i l s o n , ed., E s s a y s  i n Economic H i s t o r y , V o l . I ( L o n d o n : A r n o l d , 1954Ti pp. 221-257. 23 C h e c k l a n d , R i s e o f I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y , p. 108. 24 R. C h u r c h , The D y n a m i c s . o f V i c t o r i a n B u s i n e s s (London: A l l e n and Unwin, 1 9 8 0 ) , p. 19. 25 A. E. Musson, The Growth o f B r i t i s h I n d u s t r y (London: B a t s f o r d , 197871 p~. 162, d e s c r i b e s t h i s as an i m p u l s e on t h e p a r t o f i n v e s t o r s t o see t h e m s e l v e s as i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i n a n c i e r s r a t h e r than m e r e l y p r o s a i c i n d u s t r i a l i s t s . 2 6 A. E. L e v i n e , I n d u s t r i a l R e t a r d a t i o n i n B r i t a i n ( London: W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1967), p~. 128. W. E d e l s t e i n , O v e r s e a s I n v e s t m e n t i n : the Age o f High Imper-i a l i s m (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982 ), p~p. 310-311, a r g u e s , however, t h a t o t h e r f a c t o r s were o f g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e i n B r i t a i n ' s c o m p a r a t i v e slow-down: "These were, on t h e one hand, the., n a t i o n ' s p o l i c y o f f r e e t r a d e w i t h i t s c o r o l l a r y o f no i n f a n t i n d u s t r y p r o t e c t i o n and, on the o t h e r hand, t h e a s p e c t s o f U. K. s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l , s t r u c t u r e t h a t f o s t e r e d the r e l a t i v e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e n e g l e c t of e d u c a t i o n and r e s e a r c h i n s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y - t h e s e f a c -t o r s r a t h e r than a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o w a r d s f o r e i g n i n v e s t m e n t c a u s e d economic s t a g n a t i o n . " 2 7 M a r r i n e r , Rathbones o f L i v e r p o o l , C h a p t e r 6. 2 8 W. G. Rimmer, M a r s h a l l s of L e e d s , F l a x - s p i n n e r s ,  1788-1886 ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960), p. 253. 2 9 I b i d . , p. 281. 107 30 3. V a i z e y , The H i s t o r y of; B r i t i s h S t e e l (Lon-don: W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1974) , p~. 10, examines a c o m p a r a b l e s i t u a t i o n and c o n c l u d e s t h a t when sons s u c -c eeded t o power i n t h e s t e e l f i r m s t h e y r e c r u i t e d non-s p e c i a l i s t s c h o o l f r i e n d s and "as a r e s u l t the f i r m s were t e c h n i c a l l y and m a n a g e r i a l l y l e s s p r o f e s s i o n a l than t h o s e i n A m e r i c a or Germany." 3"*"Rimmer, Mars-halls o f L e e d s , p. 300. M a r r i n e r , Rathbones o f L i v e r p o o l , p. 120, comes t o a s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n when she s t a t e s t h a t l a t e r g e n e r a t i o n s o f her s t u d y " r e g a r d e d b u s i n e s s p r i m a r i l y as a means o f p r o v i d i n g money t o p u r s u e t h e i r main i n t e r e s t s which l a y i n p o l i t i c s , e d u c a t i o n , . p h i l a n t h r o p y and r e l i g i o n . " 32 W. L. A r n s t e i n , "The S u r v i v a l o f the V i c t o r i a n A r i s t o c r a c y , " i n F. H. 3 a h e r , ed., The R i c h , The W e l l b o r n ,  and t h e P o w e r f u l ( U r b a n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1 973), p. 234. 33 Habakkuk, American and. B r i t i s h T e c h n o l o g y , p. 178, 34 C. E r i c k s o n , B r i t i s h I n d u s t r i a l i s t s : S t e e l  and H o s i e r y , ' 1850-1950 (Cambridge : Cambridge Un i v e r s i f y P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 37. 35 A l d c r o f t , Development, of. . B r i t i s h I n d u s t r y , p. 72. 3 6 E r i c k s o n , B r i t i s h I n d u s t r i a l i s t s , p. 33. 3 7 I b i d . , p. 42. 3 8 W e s t m i n s t e r Review XL ( A p r i l 1, 1 834), p. 304. 39 P. L. Payne, " I r o n and S t e e l M a n u f a c t u r e s ti i n A l d c r o f t , , ed., Development, o f B r i t i s h I n d u s t r y , p. 98, a r g u e s c t h a t : . "The whole complex of c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t p r o d u c e d B r i t i s h p r e - e m i n e n c e b e f o r e 1873 was f o r t u i t o u s , and . . . as t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Germany c a u g h t up and e v e n t u a l l y s u r p a s s e d t h e U n i t e d Kingdom . . . t h e B r i t i s h i r o n and s t e e l i n d u s t r y assumed a r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n more a p p r o p r i a t e t o i t s r e s o u r c e b a s e , t o t h e s i z e o f i t s home market and to the s h a r e o f the e x p o r t market which i t might j u s t i f i a b l y e x p e c t t o s u p p l y . " il"°See T. 3. O r s a g h , " P r o g r e s s i n I r o n and S t e e l : 1870-1913," C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d i e s i n S o c i e t y and H i s t o r y I I I ( J a n u a r y 1961), p. 230. 108 41 M. Shanks, "The C o m f o r t s o f S t a g n a t i o n , " E n c o u n t e r XXI ( J u l y 1 963), p. 35. 42 C h e c k l a n d , R i s e o f I n d u s t r i a l . S o c i e t y , p. 294, i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e u n s h a k e a b l e s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n and a s s u r a n c e o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s were b o t h u n w a r r a n t e d and u n h e l p f u l r e s u l t s o f t h e i r s c h o o l i n g as w e l l as i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e i r i n s t i n c t i v e c o n s e r v a t i s m : "The t y p e o f t h e u p p e r - c l a s s E n g l i s h gentleman was f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d - a man r o b u s t , c o n s e r v a t i v e , somewhat opaque i n i n t e l l e c t , c l o s e l y bound by a code t h a t took no a c c o u n t o f t h o s e who were a f f l i c t e d by i n t e r n a l u n c e r t a i n t i e s or f l i g h t s o f e m o t i o n s . " 43 Musson, Growth o f B r i t i s h I n d u s t r y , p. 158, c o n t e n d s t h a t " i n so f a r as r e t a r d a t i o n d i d o c c u r , i t was b r o u g h t a b o u t n o t so much by s o c i o - b i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s , as by f a c t o r s l a r g e l y beyond the c o n t r o l of B r i t i s h e n t r e -p r e n e u r s . " 44 See G r a n i c k , European E x e c u t i v e , pp. 134-135, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f B r i t i s h e x e c u t i v e s ' i n h i b i t i o n s . 45 Habakkuk, American and B r i t i s h T e c h n o l o g y , p. 112. L e v i n e , I n d u s t r i a l R e t a r d a t i o n i n B r i t a i n , p. 69, adds i t was: " . . . a common b e l i e f t h a t A m e r i c a n i n d u s t r i a l i s t s a r e a l w a y s more r e a d y t o s c r a p i n d u s t r i a l equipment than a r e t h e i r B r i t i s h : c o u n t e r p a r t s . T h i s may be due t o c a p i t a l b e i n g more r e a d i l y o b t a i n a b l e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , but i t may a l s o be due t o a p s y c h o -l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between the a d v e n t u r o u s e m p l o y e r s of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e more c o n s e r v a t i v e B r i t i s h e m p l o y e r s . " 46 J . M o r t o n , T h r e e G e n e r a t i o n s i n a F a m i l y Tex-t i l e F i r m (London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1971), p. 249. D. H. A l d c r o f t , "The E n t r e p r e n e u r and t h e B r i t i s h Economy, 1870-1914," Economic H i s t o r y Review, 2nd. s e r . , 17 ( 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 128. 48 I b i d . , p. 124. By c o m p a r i s o n , i n t h e same p e r i o d Germany's s h a r e of. t h i s s e c t o r i n c r e a s e d from 17.2% t o 23%. Payne, B r i t i s h : E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p , pp. 54-55, examines the l i m i t a t i o n s on growth as a r e s u l t o f t h e s c a l e o f t h e a v e r a g e B r i t i s h c o m m e r c i a l - - u n i t . 109 3 ^ L a n d e s , Unbound Prometheus, p. 3 54. ''"'"See F. C a m p b e l l , " L a t i n and t h e E l i t e T r a -d i t i o n i n E d u c a t i o n , " i n P. W." Musgrave, ed., S o c i o l o g y ,  H i s t o r y and E d u c a t i o n (London: Methuen, 1970), pp. 249-264, f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f c l a s s i c s - b a s e d pedagogy. 3 2 E d i n b u r g h - Review XV ( 1 8 0 9 ) , p. 48. 53 L. S t o n e , " L i t e r a c y and E d u c a t i o n i n E n g l a n d , 1640-1900," P a s t and P r e s e n t X L I I ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 132. See S. R o t h b l a t t , T r a d i t i o n and Change i n E n g l i s h L i b e r a l  E d u c a t l o n (London: F a b e r , 19 7 6 ) , pp. 131-132, f o r a d i s s e n t i n g v iew. 54 A. A l b u , "Taboo on E x p e r t i s e , " E n c o u n t e r XXI ( J u l y 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 45. 3 3 H . W. . R i c h a r d s o n , " C h e m i c a l s , " i n A l d c r o f t , ed., Development of B r i t i s h I n d u s t r y , pp. 302-306. 5 6 I b i d . , p. 305. 3^Habakkuk, American and B r i t i s h T e c h n o l o g y , p.114. 5 8 C. B a r n e t t , The C o l l a p s e o f B r i t i s h Power (Lon-don: E y r e Methuen, 1 9 7 2 ) , p~. 43. 5 9 I b i d . , p. 89. ^ L e v i n e , I n d u s t r i a l R e t a r d a t i o n i n B r i t a i n , p. 57. 61 3. M o r r i s , Pax B r i t a n n i c a (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and World, 1968 ), p. 132. ' 62 A l l e n , B r i t i s h D i s e a s e , p. 35. 6 3 E. C. Mack, P u b l i c S c h o o l s and B r i t i s h O p i n i o n  s i n c e 1860 (New Y o r k : Octagon Books, 1973) , p~. 427. 64 3. R. Reed, O l d S c h o o l T i e s ( N e w Y o r k : S y r a -cuse U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964), p~. 9~. ^ A l l e n , B r i t i s h D i s e a s e , p. 32. R o d e r i c k and S t e p h e n s , e d s . , Where Did We Go Wrong?, p. 4, p o i n t out t h a t , w h i l e B r i t a i n ' s w o r l d t r a d e s h a r e i n f i f t e e n s e l -e c t e d i t e m s i n c r e a s e d by 44% between 1895 and 1907, i n the same p e r i o d Germany and A m e r i c a a c h i e v e d i n c r e a s e s o f 125%:and 500% r e s p e c t i v e l y . t 110 S. S h a p i r o , C a p i t a l and the C o t t o n I n d u s t r y (New Y o r k : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967), p~. 177, d i s c u s s e s t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e c o t t o n and t e x t i l e i n d u s t r i e s . F o l l o w i n g the p a r a b o l a of t h i s d e v e l o p -ment, we may e x t r a p o l a t e t h a t the l a t e V i c t o r i a n r e -q u i r e m e n t o f c a p i t a l f o r e n t r a n c e i n t o i n d u s t r y seems to have d r i v e n o u t t h e need f o r knowledge a t many l e v e l s . S c i e n t i f i c E d u c a t i o n of Upper C l a s s e s , " W e s t m i n s t e r Review XVII ( A p r i l 1 8 28), p. 367. 6 8 W. 3. Reader, I m p e r i a l C h e m i c a l I n d u s t r i e s ;  A H i s t o r y (London: OxfoFd U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970) , p. 176, 6 9 P. W. Musgrave, T e c h n i c a l Change, The L a b o u r  F o r c e and E d u c a t i o n ( O x f o r d : Pergamon P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 51, ^ 3 . W e l l e n s , "The A n t i - I n t e l l e c t u a l T r a d i t i o n i n the West," B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s V I I I (November 195.9) , p. 25. 145. 114. 72. ^ L e v i n e , I n d u s t r i a l R e t a r d a t i o n i n B r i t a i n , p. 72 Habakkuk, Ame r i c a n and B r i t i s h T e c h n o l o g y , p. 73 L e v i n e , I n d u s t r i a l R e t a r d a t i o n i n B r i t a i n , p. CHAPTER V PUBLIC SCHOOLING, PUBLIC SERVICE AND THE VICTORIAN ECONOMY P u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n had i m p o r t a n c e f o r o t h e r a r e a s of n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h l i f e b e s i d e s com-merce and i n d u s t r y . P u b l i c s c h o o l boys i n c r e a s i n g l y f o u n d c a r e e r s i n t h e V i c t o r i a n p u b l i c service''" where t h e y a g a i n d e m o n s t r a t e d the i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of much of t h e i r s c h o o l i n g f o r the needs o f t h e s o c i e t y t h e y sou t o l e a d . In o r d e r t o c l a r i f y t h i s , the t h e s i s w i l l ex-amine b r i e f l y t h e p r i n c i p l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f mid and l a t e r V i c t o r i a n c i v i l ..servants and m i l i t a r y c h i e f s and, i n more d e t a i l , t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f l a i s s e z - f a i r e g o v e r n -ment o f f i c i a l s and a c a d e m i c l e a d e r s . The p r o m i n e n c e of p u b l i c s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s i n t h e s e r a n k s w i l l c o n s t i t u t e one u n i f y i n g t h r e a d . A s e c o n d w i l l be t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t the s o c i a l , s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l d e c i s i o n -making a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s had marked s i g -n i f i c a n c e f o r B r i t a i n ' s economic f o r t u n e s i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s . B r i t i s h governments engaged i n a wide r e f o r m o f s t a t e a f f a i r s i n t h e m i d - V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d , w i t h com-p e t i t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n s f o r t h e I n d i a n C i v i l S e r v i c e 111 112 i n t r o d u c e d i n 1853, f o r some m i l i t a r y c a r e e r s i n 1858, and f o r t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e as a whole i n 1870. Though 2 t h i s " G l o r i o u s R e v o l u t i o n " may be seen t o have opened some d o o r s o f power f o r sons o f the m i d d l e c l a s s e s , i t i s a l s o a p p a r e n t t h a t the p u b l i c s c h o o l s ' i n f l u e n c e i n t h e a f f a i r s o f s t a t e was f u r t h e r e n h a n c e d . Some b e l i e v e t h e s e changes "sounded the d e a t h k n e l l o f the o l d c l a s s s y s t e m , " 3 but th e y can a l s o be t a k e n as the c o n t i n u a t i o n , s l i g h t l y t r a n s m u t e d , o f e l i t e p r e - e m i n e n c e or as s u b t l e but o r c h e s t r a t e d d e f e n c e s a g a i n s t t h e f o r c e s of e g a l -i t a r i a n i s m . W h a t e v e r . t h e c a s e , t h e i n c r e a s e d c e n t r a l -i z a t i o n of power i n t h e hands o f p u b l i c s c h o o l p r o d u c t s had c l e a r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n s e q u e n c e s . G e n e r a l c i v i l s e r v i c e competence i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s b u t , i n the main, the g r e a t s c h o o l s , who s u p p l i e d most p u b l i c s e r v i c e r e -c r u i t s : . . . c o n t i n u e d t o p r o d u c e s c h o l a r s who might have f e l t a t home i n the l i t e r a r y s a l o n s o f A n c i e n t Rome, but were t o o amateur to be o t h e r than d i s a s -t e r o u s when t r u s t e d w i t h c o n t r o l o f a government d e p a r t m e n t a l l o c a t i n g r e s o u r c e s needed i n modern-i z i n g B r i t a i n . One a c u t e o b s e r v e r remarked on t h e g e n e r a l l a c k o f aware-n e s s o f B r i t i s h c i v i l s e r v a n t s : The h i g h e r r a n g e s o f t h e B r i t i s h C i v i l S e r v i c e have many v i r t u e s . What too f r e q u e n t l y t h e y l a c k i s . . . p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f the c o n d i t i o n s of l i f e and h a b i t s o f t h o u g h t of t h o s e f o r whose r e -q u i r e m e n t s i n the m a t t e r o f h e a l t h , h o u s i n g , edu-c a t i o n and economic w e l l - b e i n g , t h e y a r e engaged i n p r o v i d i n g . T h a t d e f i c i e n c y i s s e r i o u s . ^ 113 The c o n c e p t i o n o f c i v i l s e r v a n t s as above t h e f r a y , m a i n t a i n i n g m a g i s t e r i a l detachment and r e s t r a i n t , had c l e a r t i e s to t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l e t h o s . L i k e c l a s s i c s -b ased e d u c a t i o n , p u b l i c s e r v i c e came t o be viewed m a i n l y as an ornament f o r an o t h e r w i s e l e i s u r e l y l i f e ; 7 e x p e r -t i s e and commitment were t h i n g s a l e a d e r c o u l d e x p e c t from h i s c l e r k s . As a r e s u l t , p e r h a p s , t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l e d c i v i l s e r v a n t s who f a c e d the a c c e l e r a t i n g demands of the l a t e V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d were o f t e n n ot e q u i p p e d or d i s -p osed to a d j u s t to t h e new c o n d i t i o n s : T e c h n i c a l improvement and e x p a n s i o n f o r i t s own sake were o u t s i d e the ra n g e o f mind o f men c o n t e n t to l i v e a g e n t e e l u p p e r - m i d d i e - c l a s s l i f e i n t h e su b u r b a n mansions where t h e , t r a i n t r a c k s ended and the r h o d o d e n d r o n s b e g a n . 0 I t s h o u l d be remembered t h a t n o t a l l B r i t i s h c i v i l s e r -v a n t s f e l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . Lyon P l a y f a i r , Edwin Chadwick, Games K a y - S h u t t l e w o r t h and some few o t h e r s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e c o i n . However, t h e i r r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n i n the V i c t o r i a n s c e n e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y were e x c e p t i o n s which p r o v e d t h e r u l e . The c o n n e c t i o n o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l s w i t h t h e o f f i c e r c l a s s o f t h e B r i t i s h m i l i t a r y a l s o i n c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . By 1890, 46% of S a n d h u r s t e n t r a n t s were from the top t e n p u b l i c s c h o o l s , w h i l e e n t r a n t s from a l l p u b l i c s c h o o l s t o t a l l e d 80%. In l a t e r y e a r s , p r o s p e c t i v e m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s would be drawn 9 more than 90% from p u b l i c s c h o o l s . Soon i t a p p e a r e d t h a t an e d u c a t i o n from one o f t h e g r e a t e r s c h o o l s was 114 v i r t u a l l y t h e o n l y r o u t e t o a, c o m m i s s i o n , even, a t l e a s t f o r a w h i l e , i n t i m e s o f n a t i o n a l e m e r g e n c y . ^ Many p u b l i c s c h o o l s r e a c t e d e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y t o the s y s t e m o f open c o m p e t i t i o n f o r m i l i t a r y e n t r y which was e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r t h e Crimean d e b a c l e . Some s c h o o l s such as C h e l t e n h a m and C l i f t o n d e v e l o p e d c o m p l e t e army s i d e s d e d i c a t e d to s a t i s f y i n g t h e t e s t r e q u i r e m e n t s of t h e i r b u d d i n g g e n e r a l s . O t h e r s c h o o l s a c t i v e l y s o u g h t the p a t r o n a g e o f m i l i t a r y f a m i l i e s .while W e l l i n g t o n C o l -l e g e r e s e r v e d two h u n d r e d f r e e p l a c e s each y e a r f o r t h e sons o f o f f i c e r s . S p a r t a n s c h o o l , accommodations, l o n g h o u r s o f work, and b r i s k d i s c i p l i n e u nder the p r e f e c t o r -i a l s y s t e m h e l p e d p r e p a r e . h a r d y young men f o r f u t u r e m i l i t a r y d u t i e s and, i n time t h e r e grew up: . . . a wide measure o f a g r e e m e n t . t h a t p u b l i c s c h o o l p r o d u c t s p o s s e s s e d g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r a t t r i b u t e s and s o c i a l s k i l l s which w e l l f i t t e d them f o r the r o l e s o f c o l o n i a l ' p o l i c e m e n ' and ' h e r o i c ' w a r r i o r s -p o i s e , e q u a n i m i t y , s e l f - a s s u r a n c e , f e a r l e s s n e s s , d ash, p u g n a c i t y , a s e n s e of duty and m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l r e s i l i e n c e . i l However, t h i s p r e - t r a i n i n g f o r t h e army, w h i l e p r o d u c i n g a g e n e r a l l y d e p e n d a b l e t y p e o f s o l d i e r , c o u l d a l s o be s a i d to d e v e l o p men who were m a i n l y c a p a b l e o f d o i n g as t h e y were t o l d r a t h e r than t h i n k i n g f o r them-s e l v e s . These were i n d i v i d u a l s : . . . a d m i r a b l y f i t t e d f o r m a i n t a i n i n g a s t a t i c p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l s y s t e m and f o r b u i l d i n g an E m p i r e . Men who were s u r e o f t h e m s e l v e s and r e a d y t o a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , but d e v o i d o f i m a g i n a t i o n , s e n s i b i l i t y , and t h e c a p a c i t y to c r i t i c i s e what t h e y had been t a u g h t to a c c e p t . 1 2 115 U n q u e s t i o n i n g o b e d i e n c e i s , of c o u r s e , a d e s i r a b l e s o l -d i e r l y t r a i t as l o n g as the t a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n does not r e q u i r e a t o u c h o f s e n s i b l e s k e p t i c i s m or c r e a t i v e f l e x -i b i l i t y . The p u b l i c s c h o o l s , however, had been "de-s i g n e d to r eward c o n f o r m i t y , o b e d i e n c e t o a u t h o r i t y and t o c r u s h o r i g i n a l i t y and r e b e l l i o n . " ' ' ' 3 T r u l y i n n o v a t i v e s o l d i e r s such as T. E. Lawrence were seldom p r o f e s s i o n a l s , w h i l e t e c h n i c a l l y competent o f f i c e r s were f o u n d m a i n l y i n s e c o n d a r y , u n d e r v a l u e d m i l i t a r y u n i t s : The q u a l i t i e s v a l u e d i n an o f f i c e r were the q u a l i t i e s v a l u e d by the c o u n t r y g e n t r y : c o u r a g e , p h y s i c a l t o u g h n e s s , a d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o s t a n d up f o r one's r i g h t s , a t o u c h y s e n s e o f humour . . . . The n o t i o n t h a t an o f f i c e r s h o u l d be a p r o f e s s i o n a l s o l d i e r , q u a l i f i e d by. t e c h n i c a l as w e l l as the t r a -d i t i o n a l v i r t u e s o f a g e n t l e m a n , was d e r i d e d and l o o k e d down upon, e x c e p t i n the e n g i n e e r s and a r -t i l l e r y , two c o r p s which were o n l y r a t h e r d o u b t -f u l l y f i t f o r gentlemen to s e r v e i n . 1 4 In some u n c h a r i t a b l e v i e w s , " t h e r e seems to have been no l i m i t t o what you d i d n ' t have to know to g e t i n t o t h e i n f a n t r y o r t h e c a v a l r y , " " ' " 3 and i n 1902 L e o p o l d Amery denounced th e Army i n famous t e r m s , s a y i n g : Regarded as an i n s t i t u t i o n or s o c i e t y t h e B r i t i s h Army o f 1899 was u n d o u b t e d l y a s u c c e s s . The numbers on i t s r o l l s were l a r g e , the u n i f o r m s of the members t h r o u g h a l l t h e r a n k s of the m i l i t a r y h i e r a r c h y most d i s t i n c t i v e , t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l c e r -emonies . . . e l a b o r a t e and p l e a s i n g to t h e eye, t h e r e g u l a t i o n s t o which t h e y s u b m i t t e d , i n f i n i t e l y com-p l e x . As a f i g h t i n g machine i t was l a r g e l y a sham.16 Amery's v e r d i c t may have been prompted.by the r e p e a t e d b l u n d e r s o f the E t o n - e d u c a t e d G e n e r a l L o r d Methuen or the c o m b i n a t i o n o f R e d v ers B u l l e r ( E t o n ) and S i r C h a r l e s Warren ( C h e l t e n h a m ) which e s s a y e d t h e 116 d i s a s t e r o f S p i o n Kop,"'"7 but p u b l i c s c h o o l e d g e n e r a l s would c o n t i n u e t o s u p p l y ammunition f o r h i s argument w e l l 18 i n t o the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . Even a f t e r the g r o t e s -q u e r i e s o f Ypr e s and t h e Somme, the. view o f war as a d i v e r s i o n f o r ge n t l e m e n p e r s i s t e d , as d i s p l a y e d by G e n e r a l L o r d Home i n 1918: Pe r h a p s as a n a t i o n we f a i l e d . i n i m a g i n a t i o n , p o s s i b l y Germany was more q u i c k t o i n i t i a t e new methods or w a r f a r e or to a d a p t her e x i s t i n g me-th o d s to meet p r e v a i l i n g c o n d i t i o n s . C e r t a i n l y , we were slow t o a d o p t , i n d e e d our s o u l s a b h o r r e d , a n y t h i n g u n s p o r t s m a n l i k e . 1 9 U l t i m a t e l y , p u b l i c s c h o o l d i s t r u s t o f t h e har d w o r k e r , o r 'sap', and o f the u n o r t h o d o x t h i n k e r may have been t h e most h a r m f u l c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h e B r i t i s h o f f i c e r - c a s t e m e n t a l i t y . The e l i t e o f t h e army " d i s t r u s t e d t h e ' b r i l l i a n t ' f e l l o w , and were i n -20 c l i n e d to t h i n k him u n s a f e , " and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e a r c h e t y p e o f C o l o n e l Blimp c o n t i n u e d to r e p r e s e n t much t h a t was t r u t h f u l a b o u t t h e o r i g i n s and i n c l i n a t i o n s 21 of the B r i t i s h m i l i t a r y man. D u r i n g t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e c r u i t m e n t and e d u c a t i o n o f n a v a l o f f i c e r s was not so c l o s e l y t i e d t o the p u b l i c s c h o o l s as i n the c a s e of t h e l a n d f o r c e s . P r o s p e c t i v e N e l s o n s g e n e r a l l y commenced r i g o r o u s mid-shipman t r a i n i n g a t an age when t h e i r army c o m p a t r i o t s were b e g i n n i n g s i x or seven y e a r s a t a crammer's o r p u b l i c s c h o o l . Recommendation r e m a i n e d t h e c h i e f r e -q u i r e m e n t f o r s e l e c t i o n and A d m i r a l F i s h e r r e c a l l e d t h a t when he e n t e r e d P o r t s m o u t h " a l l the e x a m i n a t i o n I had to 117 pass was t o w r i t e o u t t h e L o r d ' s P r a y e r , do a r u l e -22 o f - t h r e e sum and d r i n k a g l a s s of s h e r r y . " N a v a l e d u c a t i o n by m i d - c e n t u r y was h a r d l y more p r a c t i c a l or w e l l - s u i t e d f o r a s e r v i c e mandated to t i e t o g e t h e r a w o r l d w i d e E m p i r e . In 1857, however, the Army C o u n c i l a c c e d e d t o p u b l i c s c h o o l s u g g e s t i o n s f o r changes to s e r -v i c e e d u c a t i o n and a s p i l l - o v e r . e f f e c t o c c u r r e d i n the R o y a l Navy. W h i l e t h e army d e l e t e d S a n d h u r s t c o u r s e s i n f o r t i f i c a t i o n s i n f a v o u r o f E u c l i d , the navy d r o p p e d h i s t o r y , p h y s i c s and g eography i n o r d e r t o i n t r o d u c e i t s c a d e t s t o C a e s a r , Horace and V i r g i l . In e f f e c t , " t h e S e n i o r S e r v i c e had r e g r e t t e d i t s b r i e f e d u c a t i o n a l con-23 c e s s i o n to the age o f steam" and began to l o o k more to the g e n t l e m a n l y components o f i t s t r a i n i n g . As i n the l a t e V i c t o r i a n army, t h i s change c l e a r l y " e m p h a s i z e s the r o l e o f an o f f i c e r as a g e n t l e m a n and c u l t i v a t e d p e r -son and d e - e m p h a s i z e s the o f f i c e r ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n as a p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t w i t h h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d , t e c h n i c a l 24 s k i l l s . " A p i n g o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l man i n c r e a s e d ama-t e u r i s m and c o n s e r v a t i s m i n an a l r e a d y t r a d i t i o n - b o u n d s e r v i c e and i s l i k e l y r e l a t e d t o the i n a b i l i t y o f l a t e V i c t o r i a n and E d w a r d i a n o f f i c e r s to a p p r e c i a t e t h e sea w a r f a r e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a d v a n c e s i n s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l -25 ogy. A d m i r a l t y o p p o s i t i o n t o the use o f newly d e v e l o p e d Bessemer s t e e l as l a t e as t h e 1880s was i n d i c a t i v e o f a c o n t i n u e d , b u r e a u c r a c y - w i d e a n t i p a t h y to s c i e n t i f i c change 118 and t h e Navy's e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o f much of B r i t a i n ' s s h i p b u i l d i n g c a p a c i t y r a m i f i e d t h e e f f e c t s of t h i s i n -2 6 t r a n s i g e n c e . L a t e r f a i l u r e , w e l l i n t o World War One, t o d e v e l o p convoy p l a n s or e f f e c t i v e c o u n t e r - m e a s u r e s to t h e t h r e a t o f t h e Whitehead t o r p e d o , t h e p l a n s of which the A d m i r a l t y had h e l d s i n c e 1871, a l s o r e f l e c t e d u n f a v o u r -a b l y on t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e Navy's l e a d e r s h i p : F o r t h e l e a d e r s o f the w o r l d ' s g r e a t e s t m a r i t i m e f o r c e t o have t a k e n so l o n g to r e a c t c o r r e c t l y t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f w a r , . c a s t s s t r o n g doubt on the q u a l i t y o f t h e i r e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g . 2 7 A d m i r a l t y p r e f e r e n c e f o r what John S t u a r t M i l l c a l l e d 2 8 t h e "dogmatism o f common s e n s e " can be l i n k e d t o t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l d i s i n c l i n a t i o n t o move w i t h t h e t i m e s , but t h e s t u n t e d v i s i o n o f t h e members o f bot h g r o u p s was p e r h a p s t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t c o m m o n a l i t y . As a r e s u l t , o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c : The V i c t o r i a n Navy was n o t h a l f so f o r m i d a b l e as i t l o o k e d , and i t s d i s g r a c e f u l u n r e a d i n e s s f o r war was l a r g e l y due t o t h e c l a n n i s h s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y 2 < j of i t s o f f i c e r c o r p s , a l o o f t o the w o r l d ' s p r o s a i c s . Such a g r o u p , a l o n g w i t h the p u b l i c s c h o o l e d b u r e a u c r a t s who s u p p o r t e d : i t , p r o d u c e d a s e r v i c e which n e g l e c t e d the n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e t r i v i a l . In s h o r t , b e f o r e t h e a d v e n t o f C h u r c h i l l and F i s h e r , t h e R o y a l Navy was "an end i n i t s e l f , j u s t i f i e d by i t s s i z e , i t s r e p u t a t i o n J -4- i ., 30 and i t s e l e g a n c e ; " W h i l e t h e y may or may n o t have u s e d f u n d s e f f i c i e n t l y , the B r i t i s h Army and t h e R o y a l Navy c o n t i n u e d t o r e c e i v e combined s u p p o r t i n t h e o r d e r of 119 a minimum o f 2.4% o f t o t a l government e x p e n d i t u r e d u r i n g 31 t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s . E x c e p t i n t h e s e c a s e s o f n a t i o n a l d e f e n c e , however, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p o l i t i c a l and b u r e a u c r a t i c r e s p o n s e to most o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f the p e r i o d was i n v o c a t i o n o f the t h e o r y o f l a i s s e z - f a i r e . T h i s b e l i e f i n t h e e f -f i c a c y o f t h e f r e e market and the need f o r " t h e g e n e r a l a b s t e n t i o n o f the s t a t e from a t t e m p t s t o c o n t r o l t h e 32 c o u r s e o f i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t " p r o d u c e d >a g e n e r a l d i s i n c l i n a t i o n t o ' i n t e r f e r e ' i n t h e s o c i a l p r o b l e m s o f the g e n e r a l p o p u l a c e . The advancement o f f r e e d o m r a t h e r than o f e q u a l i t y was h e l d t o be t h e c h i e f need 33 o f i n d u s t r i a l B r i t a i n . Much f r u i t f u l a c a d e m i c d i s c u s s i o n has t a k e n p l a c e on whether the s p i r i t of n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n was a l l - p e r v a s i v e i n V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n , or whether mid-n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y g o v e r m e n t a l i n i t i a t i v e s l a i d t h e 34 f o u n d a t i o n s o f the modern w e l f a r e s t a t e . W i t h o u t a t t e m p t i n g to r e s o l v e t h i s d e b a t e , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t a l a i s s e z - f a i r e p h i l o s o p h y o p e r a t e d w i t h r e g a r d to t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l e d u c a t i o n . I t i s a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t t h i s a t t i t u d e among t h o s e i n the s e a t s of power was f u r t h e r l e g i t i m i z e d by v a r i o u s t e a c h i n g s o f t h e g r e a t s c h o o l s . P u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n i n . i t s p u r e s t e s s e n c e s o u g h t t o form and s t i m u l a t e t h e n a t u r a l q u a l i t i e s o f boys r a t h e r than impose v a l u e s o r p r o v i d e p r o f e s s i o n a l 120 t r a i n i n g . In t i m e , as the s c h o o l s a t t e m p t e d to i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y were h o t ' i n t e r f e r i n g ' w i t h t h e de v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s but were m e r e l y ' f a c i l i t a t i n g ' i t , t h i s s p e c i a l p l e a d i n g became an i n c r e a s i n g l y t a n g l e d e n t e r p r i s e . When p u b l i c s c h o o l p r o d u c t s f o u n d them-s e l v e s engaged i n s u b s e q u e n t government i n i t i a t i v e s , s i m i l a r s e m a n t i c a l g y m n a s t i c s were r e q u i r e d . O f t e n t h e s e u n d e r t a k i n g s were m e r e l y an ex-p r e s s i o n o f e l i t e - c l a s s s e l f - i n t e r e s t , s u c h as t h e sup-p o r t of M e c h a n i c s ' I n s t i t u t e s where Brougham and o t h e r s : . . . saw the p r o b l e m as one of h a r n e s s i n g t h e power and s t r e n g t h of t h e new i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s e s t o t h e i r own programmes o f r e f o r m . T h i s i n v o l v e d t h e r e f o r m o f p a r l i a m e n t to g i v e more power t o t h e m i d d l e c l a s s e s , i n the i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s , t h e p r o p a -g a t i n g o f ideas, o f economic and s o c i a l l a i s s e z - f a i r e and u t i l i t a r i a n i s m , and the encouragement o f i d e a s o f s e l f - h e l p and upward m o b i l i t y , even, f o r t h e most i n d u s t r i o u s and a b l e o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s . 3 5 In o t h e r i n s t a n c e s , though Matthew A r n o l d might b l u n t l y d e c l a r e t h a t "our n o t i o n o f t h e s t a t e , i s t h a t o f an a l i e n , i n t r u s i v e power i n t h e community, not summing up and r e p r e s e n t i n g . t h e a c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s , but t h w a r t i n g 3 6 i t , " o t h e r V i c t o r i a n s were l e s s d o g m a t i c . H e r b e r t S p e n c e r , on many o c c a s i o n s , a r g u e d f o r e d u c a t i o n a l change and the w i d e n i n g o f s t a t e p r o v i s i o n i n t h i s a r e a . How-e v e r , he a l s o g e n e r a l l y d e p l o r e d s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the ' n a t u r a l ' a f f a i r s o f l i f e , o f which e d u c a t i o n was s u r e l y one. Such i n t e r f e r e n c e , he f e l t , l e d t o a v a r i e t y o f e v i l s , i n c l u d i n g unwanted u n i f o r m i t y , s t u l t i f i c a t i o n o f i n i t i a t i v e , and t h e d i c t a t i o n to f u t u r e ages o f t h e i r 121 l e a r n i n g n e e d s . I n e v i t a b l y : . . . t h e s t a t e , r e g a r d e d as an u n d o u b t e d l y compe-t e n t j u d g e o f what c o n s t i t u t e s good e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e p o o r , s h a l l u n d e r t a k e a l s o t o p r e s c r i b e good e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e m i d d l e c l a s s e s - s h a l l stamp the c h i l d r e n o f t h e s e , t o o , a f t e r a s t a t e p a t t e r n , con-c e r n i n g t h e g oodness o f w hich t h e y have no more doubt than the C h i n e s e had when th e y f i x e d t h e i r s . 3 7 S p e n c e r f a c e d u n b l i n k i n g l y a major d i f f i c u l t y i n s o c i a l l a i s s e , z - f a i r e , namely the q u e s t i o n o f how d e s i r a b l e n a t i o n a l growth can be e n s u r e d i n an i n d u s t r i a l e r a w i t h o u t government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t : The l i b e r t y which an i n d i v i d u a l e n j o y s i s t o be measured, not.,h,y .the,.nature o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l m a c h i n e r y he l i v e s u n d e r , whether r e p r e s e n t a t i v e or o t h e r , but by t h e r e l a t i v e p a u c i t y of the r e -s t r a i n t s i t i mposes on him . . . . The d e s p o t i s s t i l l a d e s p o t whether h i s m o t i v e s f o r a r b i t r a r y r u l e a r e good or b a d . 3 8 C o n s e q u e n t l y , he f a v o u r e d a f r e e l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and v o l u n t a r y s y s t e m , no m a t t e r what the s u c c e s s f u l i n d u s -t r i a l examples o f F r a n c e and.Germany might show, r a t h e r 3 9 than s t a t e " f i n g e r i n g s " i n e d u c a t i o n which c o u l d have u p s e t t i n g s o c i a l r e s u l t s . Even a t t h e v e r y end o f the V i c t o r i a n e r a i t was a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t : S t a t e O r g a n i z a t i o n and S t a t e C o n t r o l have been f o r many y e a r s th e bugbear of P u b l i c S c h o o l - m e n : f o r v a r i o u s and d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s , t h e y c h e r i s h t h e i r l i b e r t y , and a r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t S t a t e i n t e r f e r e n c e means the d e s t r u c t i o n of e v e r y t h i n g t h a t t h e y p a r -t i c u l a r l y v a l u e . ^ 1 Thus, S p e n c e r ' s p o p u l a r i t y w i t h the r u l i n g B r i t i s h e l i t e stemmed most from the e l e m e n t s o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l and v a l i d a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g s o c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s which t h e y 122 p e r c e i v e d i n h i s w r i t i n g s . The n a t i o n ' s l e a d e r s were r e l u c t a n t to p r o v i d e f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n t o B r i t a i n ' s masses f o r two main reasons.: c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e coun-t r y ' s i n d u s t r i a l s t r e n g t h f o u n d i t s s o u r c e i n ' n a t u r a l ' i n n o v a t i o n which needed no a r t i f i c i a l b u t t r e s s i n g by edu-c a t i o n ; and, f e a r t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e might n o t t a k e the s t r a i n o f w i d e s p r e a d e d u c a t i o n a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t . S p e n c e r l a r g e l y put t h e s e c o n c e r n s to r e s t w i t h a s y n t h e s i s which s t a t e d : " I f a man has a n a t u r a l r i g h t to make h i s own b l u n d e r s , i t i s no bus-42 i n e s s of government t o save men from t h e m s e l v e s . " Darwin's t h e o r y o f e v o l u t i o n , w i t h i t s emphasis on the c o n c e p t o f s u r v i v a l o f t h e f i t t e s t , a l s o s u i t e d the v i e w s o f an e l i t e which had been t r a i n e d i n p u b l i c s c h o o l t o v a l u e c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s o n l y i n so f a r as i t 43 v a l i d a t e d c u r r e n t s t a t u s . Thus, S o c i a l D a r w i n i s m , as p r o m u l g a t e d by S p e n c e r , a s s u r e d t h e a d v o c a t e s o f l a i s s e z - f a i r e t h a t ; The p o v e r t y o f t h e i n c a p a b l e , t h e d i s t r e s s e s t h a t come upon t h e imprudent,, t h e s t a r v a t i o n o f the i d l e , and t h o s e shou 1 der.ings a s i d e of t h e weakly by t h e s t r o n g . . . a r e the d e c r e e s o f a l a r g e , f a r - s e e i n g b e n e v o l e n c e . ^ 4 In some i n s t a n c e s , however, the need f o r change was so p r e s s i n g t h a t even t h e l e a s t e n t h u s i a s t i c i n t e r -v e n e r s were prompted t o a c t . One W i n c h e s t e r g r a d u a t e , R o b e r t Lowe, was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n i n i t i a t i n g f a r - r e a c h i n g e x p a n s i o n s o f p o p u l a r e d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h government i n t e r -v e n t i o n . He came to see the need h e r e as a q u e s t i o n of n a t i o n a l s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n : 123 There i s no e f f o r t we s h o u l d n o t make - t h e r e i s no s a c r i f i c e , e i t h e r o f money or p r e j u d i c e , o f f e e l i n g , we s h o u l d n o t s u b m i t t o - r a t h e r than a l l o w a g e n e r a t i o n t o grow up i n i g n o r a n c e , i n whose hands a r e r e p o s e d t h e d e s t i n i e s of a l l o f u s , the d e s t i n i e s o f t h e nation.4-5 In t h e main, t h o u g h , i t s u i t e d Lowe and h i s most impo r -t a n t s u b o r d i n a t e , R a l p h L i n g e n , t o a c t as s t r i c t main-t a i n e r s o f g o v e r n m e n t a l p a r s i m o n y and a d v o c a t e s o f community s e l f - h e l p . When a s k e d , as. C h a n c e l l o r o f the E x c h e q u e r , t o s u p p l y t h r e e h u n d r e d pounds to the S c o t -t i s h M e t e o r o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , Lowe's r e p l y was to the p o i n t : I am i n p r i n c i p l e o p p o s e d t o a l l g r a n t s and i t i s my i n t e n t i o n not t o e n t e r t a i n any a p p l i c a -t i o n s o f t h i s n a t u r e . We a r e c a l l e d upon f o r economy . . . . I h o l d i t as our d u t y n o t to spend p u b l i c money to do t h a t which t h e p e o p l e can do f o r t h e m s e l v e s . 4-6 Government a n t i p a t h y t o many o f t h e demands of e d u c a t i o n , and e n t h u s i a s m f o r l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e , c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h t h e l a t e V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d , as when G l a d s t o n e f a c e d down c a l l s f o r f u r t h e r c e n t r a l g o v e r n -ment i n v o l v e m e n t : ' I t a p p e a r s t o me c l e a r t h a t t h e day you s a n c t i o n c u m p u l s o r y r a t i n g f o r the p u r p o s e o f e d u c a t i o n you s i g n t h e d e a t h - w a r r a n t of v o l u n t a r y e x e r t i o n s . . . . Are we p r e p a r e d t o undergo t h e r i s k o f e x t i n g u i s h i n g t h e v a s t amount o f v o l u n t a r y e f f o r t which now e x i s t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y ? ^ ' I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t government p r o v i s i o n s f o r p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s of e d u c a t i o n were i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g t h i s e r a . S t i l l , as i n the c a s e of p u b l i c s c h o o l a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e l o w e r c l a s s e s , a c a s e can be made t h a t such in--.-i t i a t i v e s o c c u r r e d i n the s e r v i c e of many.other ends. 124 i n c l u d i n g an a c t u a l r e d u c t i o n o f o v e r a l l e x p e n d i t u r e . As w e l l , many s t a t e s m e n were s t i l l on the h o r n s of t h e i r most p r e s s i n g i n d u s t r i a l dilemma: whether t o n e g l e c t e d u c a -t i o n and a l l o w b e t t e r - t r a i n e d n a t i o n s t o pass B r i t a i n , or to c o u r t p o s s i b l e s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n by e d u c a t i n g t h e V i c t o r i a n l o w e r c l a s s e s . The i d e a o f m e r i t o c r a t i c g o v e r n -ment as a v i a b l e compromise h e r e was m a i n l y an e l i t e -s p o n s o r e d i l l u s i o n . Lowe, who f a v o u r e d t h i s , was c e r -t a i n l y n ot a democrat and the s e n s e o f a m b i v a l e n c e about s o c i a l l a i s s e z - f a i r i s m which t r o u b l e d some upper c l a s s V i c t o r i a n s was a b s e n t i n h i s c a s e : Lowe h e a r t i l y d i s l i k e d the i d e a o f s o c i a l r e v -o l u t i o n . Even i f h i s main aim was n o t t o p r e s e r v e the e x i s t i n g c l a s s d i v i s i o n s but t o s e c u r e m e r i t -o c r a t i c government, he hoped t h a t t h e e f f e c t would be t h e same.^8 The V i c t o r i a n a t t i t u d e t o h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n was g e n e r a l l y s i m i l a r . The p u r p o s e of u n i v e r s i t y s t u d y was: . . . t o d e v e l o p and d i s c i p l i n e the me n t a l f a c u l -t i e s , to i m p a r t by e x e r c i s e a r e a d y and c o m p l e t e power of u s i n g them, t o form h a b i t s of a c c u r a t e t h i n k i n g , t o s t o r e the mind w i t h a g e n e r a l know-l e d g e o f human n a t u r e i n i t s v a r i o u s r e l a t i o n s and to f o r t i f y and e l e v a t e t h e c h a r a c t e r by moral d i s -c i p l i n e . H i g h e r l e a r n i n g was, t h u s , b e s t r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e t r a -d i t i o n a l a r e a s o f g e n t l e m a n l y t r a i n i n g and m e n t a l de-v e l o p m e n t , though such d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d n e v e r be so c r a s s as t o r e l a t e to a f u t u r e g e t t i n g o f income. John S t u a r t M i l l d e c l a r e d t h a t : The u n i v e r s i t y was n o t t h e p l a c e f o r p r o f e s -s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , the p u r p o s e of u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a -t i o n b e i n g t o i n c u l c a t e a n o b l e and c o u r t e o u s b e a r i n g i n t h e c o n d u c t of l i f e and t o p r o d u c e ' c a p a b l e and c u l t i v a t e d human b e i n g s ! . 125 C a r d i n a l Newman a g r e e d : T h i s p r o c e s s o f t r a i n i n g , by which the i n t e l -l e c t , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g formed or s a c r i f i c e d to some p a r t i c u l a r or a c c i d e n t a l p u r p o s e , some s p e c i f i c t r a d e or p r o f e s s i o n o r s t u d y or s c i e n c e , i s d i s c i -p l i n e d f o r i t s own sak e , f o r the p e r c e p t i o n o f i t s own p r o p e r o b j e c t , and f o r i t s own h i g h e r c u l t u r e , i s c a l l e d l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n . 5 1 Such t i g h t l y - f o c u s s e d c l a r i t y and r e s t r i c t i o n of p u r p o s e s t i f f e n e d t h e r e l u c t a n c e o f a n c i e n t c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s to a d d r e s s t h e e d u c a t i o n a l needs of i n d u s -t r i a l i z e d B r i t a i n . E a r l i e r i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y some had f o r e s e e n the need f o r more c o m p r e h e n s i v e p r o -grammes: L o q k i n g a l w a y s to r e a l u t i l i t y as our g u i d e we s h o u l d s e e , w i t h e q u a l p l e a s u r e , a s t u d i o u s and i n -q u i s i t i v e mind a s s a y i n g the p r o d u c t i o n s o f n a t u r e , i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e q u a l i t i e s o f b o d i e s , or m a s t e r i n g the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f the l e a r n e d l a n g u a g e s . 5 2 However, t h i s a u t h o r c o n c l u d e d t h a t "when an U n i v e r s i t y has been d o i n g u s e l e s s t h i n g s f o r a l o n g t i m e , i t ap-53 p e a r s a t f i r s t d e g r a d i n g to them t o be u s e f u l . " Through the r e m a i n d e r o f the c e n t u r y t h e a n c i e n t u n -i v e r s i t i e s f o u g h t a l o n g and, fxom t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e , c h i e f l y s u c c e s s f u l d e l a y i n g a c t i o n a g a i n s t such d e g r a -d a t i o n .^ 4-As w i t h the c l a s s i c s , V i c t o r i a n h i g h e r e d u c a -t o r s c o n t i n u e d t o esteem m a t h e m a t i c s and o t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t s f o r r e a s o n s s i n g u l a r l y u n c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e i r p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y . I n d e e d : So d e e p l y r o o t e d was the d i s d a i n f o r commerce and i n d u s t r y , f o r t h e v a l u e s which t h e y were s u p p o s e d to r e p r e s e n t , t h a t numerous dons and n o n - r e s i d e n t M. A.s d e c i d e d t h e worth of an ac a d e m i c s u b j e c t by i t s u s e f u l n e s s t o commerce and i n d u s t r y . In t h e i r view a l m o s t no s u b j e c t which c o u l d be t u r n e d t o t h e b e n e f i t o f b u s i n e s s d e s e r v e d u n i v e r s i t y r e c o g n i t i o n . 5 5 T h r o u g h o u t t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e a n c i e n t E n g l i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r s u c h f i e l d s as law and med-i c i n e , and c o m m e r c i a l s t u d i e s i n academia r e m a i n e d v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t . The i n t r a n s i g e n c e o f t h e i n -s t i t u t i o n s ' l e a d e r s h i p grew i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e a c -c e s s i o n t o a c a d e m i c power o f g r a d u a t e s of the ' r e f o r m e d p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m . The u n d e r p r o v i s i o n of s c i e n t i f i c s t u d i e s a t O x b r i d g e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , but the l a c k o f V i c t o r i a n e n g i n e e r i n g t r a i n i n g a t t h e s e c e n t r e s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g , w i t h i t s c l e a r economic c o r o l l a r i e s may be s k e t c h e d b r i e f l y . D e s p i t e t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f men such as R i c h a r d A r k w r i g h t , Isambard B r u n e i , and George S t e p h e n s o n , t h e r a n k s o f B r i t i s h e n g i n e e r s r e m a i n e d t h i n . W e l l a f t e r the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y o n l y 3% of p u b l i c s c h o o l g r a d -u a t e s c h o s e e n g i n e e r i n g s t u d i e s and i n a b s o l u t e numbers o n l y 17,000 o f B r i t a i n ' s 170,000 p r o f e s s i o n a l s c a l l e d 5 6 t h e m s e l v e s e n g i n e e r s i n 1910. I t a l s o a p p e a r s t h a t t h e growth i n r e s p e c t a b i l i t y of t h i s p r o f e s s i o n , and i t s c o n s e q u e n t p e r m e a t i o n by p u b l i c s c h o o l n o t i o n s of g e n t i l i t y , l e d to d e v e l o p m e n t s p o o r l y s u i t e d to an age of i n c r e a s i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l r i v a l r y . In s h o r t , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t : 127 The Gentlemen E n g i n e e r s s e r v e d t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n w e l l i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , but t h e y d i d l i t t l e t o p r e p a r e i t f o r the b l e a k winds o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n which were b l o w i n g s t r o n g l y by the end of t h e c e n t u r y . . . the t e n d e n c y t o a c c e p t th e l u r e s o f g e n t i l i t y and g e n t r i f i c a t i o n p r o v e d to be a dead end.^7 With r e g a r d to s c i e n t i f i c s t u d i e s , t h e D e v o n s h i r e Commission on S c i e n t i f i c I n s t r u c t i o n (1872-75) r e p o r t e d on the s t a t e o f t h i n g s a t u n i v e r s i t i e s , p u b l i c and endowed s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s and t r a i n i n g c o l l e g e s . I t c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d c a u s e f o r c o n c e r n : We a r e c o m p e l l e d . . . to r e c o r d our o p i n i o n t h a t the P r e s e n t S t a t e o f S c i e n t i f i c I n s t r u c t i o n i n our s c h o o l s i s e x t r e m e l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . The o m i s s i o n from a L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n o f a g r e a t b r a n c h o f I n t e l -l e c t u a l C u l t u r e i s of i t s e l f a m a t t e r o f s e r i o u s r e g r e t ; and c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i n c r e a s i n g i m p o r t a n c e of S c i e n c e to t h e M a t e r i a l I n t e r e s t s o f the c o u n t r y , we must but r e g a r d i t s a l m o s t t o t a l e x c l u s i o n from the t r a i n i n g of the u p p e r and m i d d l e c l a s s e s as l i t t l e l e s s t h an a n a t i o n a l m i s f o r t u n e . 5 8 The vehemence and e x c e p t i o n a l q u a l i t y o f t h e members of t h i s c o m m i s s i o n , which i n c l u d e d K a y e - S h u t t l e w o r t h , S i r B e r n a r d Samuelson and T. H. H u x l e y as w e l l as t h e c h a i r -man, W i l l i a m C a v e n d i s h , d i d n o t g u a r a n t e e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e i r v iews or p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . On the c o n t r a r y : . . . i n s p i t e o f w i d e s p r e a d c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e S t a t e s h o u l d endow s c i e n c e , i t c a n n o t be s a i d t h a t the p o l i t i c i a n s measured up to the o c c a s i o n . . . . V e ry few o f the recommendations of the D e v o n s h i r e Commission were implemented . . . g e n e r a l l y l a i s s e z -f a i r e c o n t i n u e d i n the m a t t e r of s c i e n c e . " The Samuelson Commission on T e c h n i c a l I n s t r u c t i o n (1882) had more s u c c e s s s i n c e , d e s p i t e f a i l u r e t o e s t a b -l i s h c o l l e g e s of h i g h e r t e c h n i c a l s t u d y i n 1887, t h e L o c a l Government A c t of 1888 and the T e c h n i c a l I n s t r u c t i o n 128 A c t o f 1889 e n a b l e d l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s to commence some e f f e c t i v e s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n . ^ How-e v e r , i t was n o t u n t i l t h e "whiskey money" g r a n t s became a v a i l a b l e i n 1890 t h a t t h i s s y s t e m was t r u l y v i a b l e . ^ Such l a r g e s s , a c c i d e n t a l or d e l i b e r a t e , was con-s i s t e n t l y l a c k i n g f o r c i v i c u n i v e r s i t i e s which s o u g h t to f u l f i l l t h e needs f o r s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y o f t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l i t i e s . The f o u n d i n g o f Owen C o l l e g e , M a n c h e s t e r , i n 1851, had been f o l l o w e d by the e s t a b l i s h -ment of such i n s t i t u t i o n s as N e w c a s t l e C o l l e g e o f P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e ( 1 8 7 1 ) , Y o r k s h i r e C o l l e g e of S c i e n c e , Leeds ( 1 8 7 4 ) , U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e , N o t t i n g h a m (18 8 1 ) , and U n i v e r s i t y C o l -l e g e , L i v e r p o o l ( 1 8 8 2 ) . A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i m i l a r i t y i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s was t h a t each was the r e s u l t o f l o c a l , r a t h e r than c e n t r a l government, i n i t i a t i v e . The U n i v e r s i t y a t L i v e r p o o l owed i t s f o u n d a -t i o n m a i n l y t o the e f f o r t s o f g r e a t f a m i l i e s such as the 6 2 Derb y s , Rathbones and M u s p r a t t s . No a s s i s t a n c e had been f o r t h c o m i n g from e i t h e r t h e Endowed S c h o o l s Com-m i s s i o n o r t h e S c i e n c e and A r t Department, and government p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e v e n t u r e amounted t o no more than 12% d u r i n g the f o u n d a t i o n p e r i o d , w i t h a f u r t h e r 8% coming from the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , and a v e r a g i n g 11% a n n u a l l y f o r the b a l a n c e o f t h e c e n t u r y . T h i s compared q u i t e u n f a v o u r a b l y w i t h the l e v e l o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n p r o v i s i o n which was m a i n t a i n e d by B r i t a i n ' s i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t o r s . The p a u c i t y o f s t a t e a i d f o r c i v i c u n i v e r s i t i e s 129 i s made c l e a r by t h e f a c t t h a t the f i r s t g r a n t made i n 1889, and i n t e n d e d to c o v e r a l l the i n s t i t u t i o n s , t o t -a l l e d o n l y 15,000 pounds, w h i l e a f u r t h e r 14,000 pounds was s h a r e d by the R o y a l S c h o o l o f Mines and the R o y a l 64 C o l l e g e o f S c i e n c e a l o n e . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , a l s o , t h a t d i s p e r s a l o f such g r a n t s c o n t i n u e d t o be t h e duty of ad  hoc c o m m i t t e e s u n t i l a s t a n d i n g committee was e v e n t u a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 9 0 6 . ^ 3 In the f a c e o f r a p i d t e c h n i c a l change and grow i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n , l a t e - V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n s i m p l y d i d n o t have the h i g h l y t r a i n e d t e c h n i c a l p e r s o n n e l she n e e d e d . ^ Her weak p o s i t i o n i n t h i s a r e a must be a t t r i b -u t e d , i n p a r t , to t h e f a i l u r e of s u c c e s s i v e governments to e n c o u r a g e t h e t r a i n i n g o f su c h e x p e r t s . P u b l i c s c h o o l e d p o l i t i c i a n s , r a i s e d to b e l i e v e i n both l a i s s e z - f a i r e and the c r a s s n e s s o f s c i e n c e , must bear a major p o r t i o n of the blame. However, the d i s i n c l i n a t i o n of the l e a d e r s o f a n c i e n t u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s to promote s c i e n -t i f i c e n d e a v o u r s a l s o p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e , as d i d the p u b l i c s c h o o l c o n v e n t i o n s which bound them. P u b l i c s c h o o l s i n the V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d s e n t t h e i r t a l e n t e d g r a d u a t e s i n c r e a s i n g l y to the a n c i e n t u n i v e r s i t i e s i n p r e f e r e n c e t o a l m o s t any o t h e r i n s t i t u -t i o n o r o c c u p a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , an i n c r e a s i n g p r o -p o r t i o n o f c o l l e g e t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s had p u b l i c s c h o o l b a c k g r o u n d s by t h e end of t h e c e n t u r y . ^ 7 R e s u l t i n g l y , the p r e j u d i c e s o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l s were 130 m i r r o r e d w i t h g r o w i n g f r e q u e n c y i n the o r i e n t a t i o n and d e c i s i o n s o f the u n i v e r s i t i e s (and r e - r e f l e c t e d when th e O x b r i d g e e l i t e assumed i n c r e a s i n g c o n t r o l o v e r components of the p u b l i c s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a ) . The low esteem o f s c i e n c e i n the a n c i e n t u n i v e r s i t i e s may be t r a c e d , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , t o t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p u b l i c s c h o o l d i s -d a i n f o r t h i s s u b j e c t . The measure of O x f o r d and Cam-b r i d g e ' s d i s r e g a r d f o r s c i e n c e i s a p p a r e n t i n t h e d i s -t r i b u t i o n o f f e l l o w s h i p s a t t h e s e c e n t r e s i n 1870: CLASSICS MATHEMATICS HISTORY NATURAL AND LAW SCIENCE OXFORD 145 28 25 4 CAMBRIDGE 67 102 2 3 TOTAL 212 130 27 7 6 8 The number of s c i e n c e s c h o l a r s h i p s made a v a i l a b l e i s a l s o a t e l l i n g i n d i c a t o r , s i n c e " i n 1896 . . . o n l y t e n out of twenty-one c o l l e g e s o f f e r e d s c h o l a r s h i p s i n s c i e n c e , and not more than f o r t y o ut of f i v e h undred s c h o l a r s h i p s , 69 were f o r t h e s e s u b j e c t s . " W i t n e s s e s to the D e v o n s h i r e Commission had i n -d i c a t e d t h a t " t h e S t a t e does n o t a t p r e s e n t . . . acknow-l e d g e pure s c i e n c e as an e l e m e n t o f n a t i o n a l g r e a t n e s s and u s e f u l n e s s and p r o g r e s s . A t the same t i m e , the power o f t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s t o s e t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n were made c l e a r : " P o s s e s s i n g s u -preme e d u c a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e and d i s p e n s i n g enormous e d u c a -t i o n a l r e w a r d s t h e i r power i s a b s o l u t e to d e t e r m i n e the g r o o v e s i n which s c h o o l work s h a l l run."'7"'" The C o m m i s s i o n e r s 131 c o n c l u d e d t h a t , i n t h e r e a l m o f s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g : N o t h i n g . . . can have much e f f e c t on t h e gram-mar s c h o o l s and m i d d l e c l a s s s c h o o l s o f the c o u n t r y , g e n e r a l l y , u n t i l the u n i v e r s i t i e s , which g i v e t h e key to e d u c a t i o n i n the c o u n t r y , a l l o c a t e a f a i r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e i r endowments to t h e reward of s c i e n t i f i c s t u d i e s . 7 ^ D e s p i t e c o n t i n u e d encouragement to u p g r a d e t h e i r s c i e n c e e n d e a v o u r s , however, the two a n c i e n t u n i v e r s i t i e s ' r e s i s t e d change, O x f o r d more so than Cambridge; s t u d i e s which were i n s t i t u t e d were a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y 'pure' s c i e n c e r a t h e r than ' a p p l i e d ' s c i e n c e w h i c h , l i k e t e c h -n i c a l e d u c a t i o n , was viewed as a l o w e r , r a t h e r than a 73 d i f f e r e n t , form o f e d u c a t i o n . G i v e n t h e power and i n g r a i n e d p r e j u d i c e s o f the u n i v e r s i t y and p u b l i c s c h o o l e l i t e s , t h e r e s u l t o f t h e b a t t l e f o r more and b e t t e r s c i e n c e i n t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s was a s t a l e m a t e : The u n i v e r s i t i e s d i d n o t r e ward n a t u r a l s c i e n c e b e c a u s e i t was n o t t a u g h t i n the s c h o o l s and t h e s c h o o l s d i d n o t t e a c h i t b e c a u s e i t was not r e w a r d e d i n t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s . 7 4 The v i t a l a r e a of o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h a l s o s u f -f e r e d from government r e l u c t a n c e t o o f f e r , and a c a d e m i c d i s i n c l i n a t i o n to p r e s s f o r , a d e q u a t e f u n d i n g . C e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y s u p p o r t f o r t h e . e n t i r e n a t i o n i n t h e p e r i o d 1849-1914 was e s s e n t i a l l y c o n f i n e d to an a n n u a l g r a n t o f one t h o u s a n d pounds to the R o y a l S o c i e t y . ^ At Cambridge, the most s c i e n t i f i c a l l y e n l i g h t e n e d of the a n c i e n t f o u n d a t i o n s , t h e N a t u r a l S c i e n c e T r i p o s had been i n t r o d u c e d i n 1848 but the e f f e c t of t h i s change was r e s t r i c t e d . "The NST b o t h a l t e r e d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n 132 of s c i e n c e a t Cambridge, and d e f i n e d new, s e l f - e x e m p l i f y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s among a s u b s t a n t i a l s e c t i o n of t h e s t u -d e n t p o p u l a t i o n " 7 ^ b u t , by 1910, the p r o p o r t i o n o f u n d e r -g r a d u a t e s r e a d i n g t h i s T r i p o s was s t i l l o n l y 18%. As'/, w e l l , a s p l i t g r a d u a l l y a r o s e , a l o n g t h e o l d l i n e s o f u t i l i t y v e r s u s g e n t i l i t y , between s c i e n t i s t s engaged i n t h e o r e t i c a l s t u d i e s and t h o s e who d i d p r a c t i c a l work. T h i s i s p e r h a p s b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d by the s t r a i n e d r e l a -t i o n s h i p between the g e n e r a l l y j o v i a l . b u t e m i n e n t l y p r a c t i c a l E r n e s t R u t h e r f o r d and t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p hys-i c i s t s o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y , whom he r e f e r r e d to as " t h o s e f e l l o w s . " 7 7 D e a r t h o f f u n d s c o n t i n u e d to hamper the advance of s c i e n c e i n B r i t a i n . . By way of example, the s i t u a t i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f L i v e r p o o l i n 1911 was s t r a i t e n e d to the p o i n t where " a f t e r the u n a v o i d a b l e e x p e n s e s of c l e a n i n g , gas l i g h t and w a t e r , t h e r e r e m a i n s to d e f r a y t h e c o s t o f m a t e r i a l and c h e m i c a l s f o r r e s e a r c h an an-78 n u a l sum o f 120 pounds." At t h e , C a v e n d i s h L a b o r a t o r y , B r i t a i n ' s p r e m i e r f a c i l i t y , t h e y e a r 1888/89 r e q u i r e d a t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e o f o n l y 1091 pounds, 9 s h i l l i n g s and 5 pence, w h i l e e x p e n s e s f o r 1913/14 r e a c h e d the sum o f 79 3092 pounds, 10 s h i l l i n g s and 5 pence. In summing up the s i t u a t i o n a t O x f o r d i n 1903, P r o f e s s o r 3ohn P e r r y a c c u s e d t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n " n o t o n l y o f n e g l e c t i n g s c i e n c e . . . but f o r n e g l e c t i n g r e s e a r c h even i n t h o s e s u b j e c t s i t p r o f e s s e d to t e a c h , and t h i s had c r e a t e d a d a n g e r o u s l y u n s c i e n t i f i c , a n t i - i n t e l l e c t u a l and a n t i - r e s e a r c h a t m o s p h e r e . " D e s p i t e some s c i e n t i f i c i n i t i a t i v e s , i t a p p e a r s t h a t a p u b l i c - s c h o o l - s t y l e a t t i -t ude a g a i n s t t h e c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n o f knowledge p r e v a i l e d i n the a n c i e n t u n i v e r s i t i e s o f B r i t a i n to t h e e x t e n t t h a t : The e t h o s o f l a t e r - V i c t o r i a n O x b r i d g e , a f u s i o n o f a r i s t o c r a t i c and p r a c t i c a l v a l u e s , s t o o d s e l f -c o n s c i o u s l y i n o p p o s i t i o n to t h e s p i r i t of V i c t o r i a n b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r y . I t e x u l t e d a d u a l i d e a l of c u l t i v a t i o n and s e r v i c e a g a i n s t p h i l i s t i n e p r o f i t s e e k i n g . S c i e n c e , seen m a i n l y as an a l l y o f t r a d e , was a c c o r d i n g l y m i s p r i z e d by the u n i v e r s i t y e l i t e s . F i n a l l y , t h e f a i l u r e o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l s to p r o d u c e e l i t e s c i e n t i s t s may be t a k e n to r e f l e c t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s and p r i o r i t i e s o f t h e B r i t i s h e l i t e , among which the t e a c h i n g o f s c i e n c e f i g u r e d no more h i g h l y than d i d s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g f o r i n d u s t r y , commerce and the p r o f e s s i o n s . In 1870 " t h e r e was h a r d l y any s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n o u t s i d e t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r which was d o m i n a t e d by the s o - c a l l e d p u b l i c s c h o o l s and endowed s c h o o l s , and 8 2 i n most o f t h e s e , s c i e n t i f i c e d u c a t i o n was n e g l i g i b l e , " w h i l e w e l l i n t o t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y " i t was p o s s i b l e . . . to e n c o u n t e r t r a c e s o f t h e ' o l d - f a s h i o n e d ' view t h a t the s c i e n c e s were n o t a r e s p e c t a b l e o c c u p a t i o n f o r 8 3 anyone who r e g a r d e d h i m s e l f as a g e n t l e m a n . " In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , t h e e x c e e d i n g l y s m a l l number o f f i r s t -r ank s c i e n t i s t s who c o u l d c l a i m a p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n 84 must weigh a g a i n s t t h e r e c o r d o f the e l i t e s c h o o l s . C o u t t s T r o t t e r , who h e l p e d i n i t i a t e t h e g o l d e n e r a o f T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , Cambridge, was a g r a d u a t e o f 134 Harrow, and F. W. A s t o n , r e c i p i e n t o f the 1922 N o b e l P r i z e f o r C h e m i s t r y , had a t t e n d e d M a l v e r n . S i r Henry T i z a r d , 0. M. , and E. D. A d r i a n , who won the Nobel P r i z e f o r M e d i c i n e i n 1932, were both from W e s t m i n s t e r , w h i l e F r e d e r i c k Soddy, who worked w i t h R u t h e r f o r d on t h e m y s t e r i e s o f t h e atom, was a g r a d u a t e o f E a s t b o u r n e 8 5 C o l l e g e . G i v e n t h e s e e x c e p t i o n s , the r o l l - c a l l o f g r e a t s c i e n t i s t s i n t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y twen-t i e t h c e n t u r i e s i s n o t i c e a b l y l a c k i n g i n p u b l i c s c h o o l 4-'*-- 8 6 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e , p e r h a p s , t h a t i n t h e two i n s t a n c e s of, a B r i t i s h f a t h e r and son both w i n n i n g the Nobel P r i z e (3. 3. Thomson, P h y s i c s 1906 and G. P. Thomson, P h y s i c s 1937; W. H. Bragg and W. L. B r a g g , P h y s i c s 1 9 1 5 ) , n e i t h e r the f a t h e r nor t h e son had had p u b l i c s c h o o l t r a i n i n g . I t i s p o s s i b l e to i n f e r t h a t the f a t h e r s , w i s h i n g t h e i r o f f s p r i n g to s u c c e e d i n s c i e n c e , knew where no t to have t h e i r sons s c h o o l e d . The q u a l i t y o f s c i e n c e t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e i n t h e V i c t o r i a n p u b l i c s c h o o l s i s p a r t i a l l y i n d i c a t e d by t h e s u c c e s s , o r l a c k o f i t , a t t a i n e d by t h e i r p r o d u c t s 8 7 i n C a m b ridge's N a t u r a l S c i e n c e T r i p o s . Between 1851 and 1881 o n l y o n e - q u a r t e r o f t h e s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e s i n t h e w r i t t e n and p r a c t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n f o r P a r t One o f the T r i p o s were from the 23 ' g r e a t e r ' p u b l i c s c h o o l s , 8 8 w h i l e between 1881 and 1904 more than o n e - t h i r d who f a i l e d were from t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s . From t h i s e v i d e n c e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t : 135 The h i g h r a t e of f a i l u r e among p u b l i c s c h o o l boys s u g g e s t e i t h e r t h a t t h e s c h o o l s s e l e c t e d a c a -d e m i c a l l y weaker boys f o r s c i e n c e , o r t h a t s c h o o l s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g gave a poor p r e p a r a t i o n . In a l l p r o b a b i l i t y b o t h e x p l a n a t i o n s a r e v a l i d . 8 ^ In 1853, Lyon P l a y f a i r had g i v e n the V i c t o r i a n s e a r l y w a r n i n g t h a t r e l i a n c e on 'muddling t h r o u g h ' r a t h e r than s y s t e m a t i c a p p r o a c h e s t o i n d u s t r y was i l l - a d v i s e d , as was the c o n t i n u e d s e p a r a t i o n o f ' p r a c t i c a l ' and ' s c i e n t i f i c ' men. He a l s o i n d i c a t e d a b e l i e f t h a t : W h i l e E n g l a n d has n e v e r l a c k e d l e a d e r s i n s c i e n c e , t h e y have too few f o l l o w e r s to r i s k a r a p i d march. We might c r e a t e an army to s u p p o r t our g e n e r a l s i n s c i e n c e as Germany has done . . . i f e d u c a t i o n i n t h i s c o u n t r y c o u l d o n l y mould i t s e l f to the needs of a s c i e n t i f i c age.90 However, f o l l o w i n g t h e V i c t o r i a n e r a B r i t a i n ' s d i f f i -c u l t i e s were s t i l l a c u t e , a c c o r d i n g to many o b s e r v e r s . A f t e r t h e P a r i s E x h i b i t i o n o f 1900, S i r J o s e p h Swan c o n c l u d e d : We see one o f t h e e v i l c o n s e q u e n c e s of our e d u c a t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c i e s i n t h e much l e s s r a p i d p r o g r e s s t h a t we, as a n a t i o n , have made, more e s p e c i a l l y i n t h o s e b r a n c h e s of i n d u s t r y which a r e t h e outcome o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c , d i s c o v e r i e s o f 6 1 r e c e n t t i m e s . i w h i l e L o r d H a l d a n e , d u r i n g t h e b l a c k e s t days o f 1916, s t a t e d : We s u f f e r i n t h i s c o u n t r y from want o f ex-p e r t s . . . o n l y 1500 t r a i n e d c h e m i s t s i n t h i s c o u n t r y a l t o g e t h e r , and t h e r e a s o n . . . t h a t we had n o t t h e means of encouragement to p r o d u c e the b u s i n e s s k i n d t h a t was wanted. Our p u b l i c s c h o o l s do not aim a.t p r e p a r i n g an a p t i t u d e i n t h e boy's mind f o r the s t u d y of c h e m i s t r y . . . . Nor a r e our u n i v e r s i t i e s e q u i p p e d to p r o d u c e t h e s e men i n l a r g e n u m b e r s . ^ D e s p i t e t h i s a wareness of the c o u n t r y ' s d e f i c i e n c i e s , 136 t h e B r i t i s h p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e 'hard-way' man c o n t i n u e d i n some q u a r t e r s w e l l i n t o t h e new c e n t u r y . S h i p -b u i l d i n g magnate 3. W. R i c h a r d s o n s t a t e d i n 1911 t h a t : Much has been s a i d i n r e c e n t y e a r s about t e c h -n i c a l e d u c a t i o n . The e x p r e s s i o n has been much abu s e d , f o r t e c h n c i a l e d u c a t i o n can s u r e l y o n l y mean t h e t e a c h i n g o f an a r t . In our own a r t s I can c o n c e i v e o f no b e t t e r s c h o o l than the work-shop . And even i n the t o i l s o f a g r i m w o r l d c o n f l i c t , t h e de-mands f o r g r e a t e r u t i l i t y i n e d u c a t i o n prompted a mea-s u r e d and c l a s s i c a l l y calm r e s p o n s e i n a l e t t e r t o The  Times o f May 4, 1916: Under t h e shock and s t r e s s o f war, the aims and methods of e d u c a t i o n have to be c o n s i d e r e d anew . . . ( b u t ) i t i s o f the utmost i m p o r t a n c e t h a t our h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d n o t become ma-t e r i a l i s t i c t h r o u g h too narrow a r e g a r d f o r p r a c t i c a l e f f i c i e n c e . T e c h n i c a l knowledge i s e s s e n t i a l to our i n d u s t r i a l p r o s p e r i t y and n a t i o n a l s a f e t y ; but e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be n o t h i n g l e s s t h an a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the whole of l i f e . 9 4 The above c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s e l e m e n t s o f m e n t a l c o n -s t r i c t i o n , d e tachment and u n a s s a i l a b l e a s s u r a n c e which b e t r a y t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l b a c k g r o u n d s o f many of i t s s i g n a t o r e s : L o r d E s h e r ( E t o n ) , L o r d C u r z o n ( E t o n ) , H. A. L. F i s h e r ( W i n c h e s t e r ) , G i l b e r t Murray ( M e r c h a n t T a y l o r s ' ) , G. 0. T r e v e l y a n ( H a r r o w ) , F. H. J a c k s o n ( H a r r o w ) , W a l t e r L e a f ( H a r r o w ) , and F. G. Kenyon (Win-c h e s t e r ) . Such a t t i t u d e s and men, p r o d u c t s o f t h e n a t i o n ' s g r e a t s c h o o l s , were i l l - m a t c h e d w i t h t h e demands f o r change which i n c r e a s i n g l y g o v e r n e d B r i t i s h i n d u s t r i a l p r o g r e s s . I n d e e d , l i k e o t h e r p u b l i c s e r v a n t s p r e v i o u s l y 137 d i s c u s s e d , t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s were f r e q u e n t l y i n c a p a b l e of i d e n t i f y i n g , l e t a l o n e m e e t i n g , c h a l l e n g e s i n b u s i n e s s , i n d u s t r y or i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e . I t r e m a i n s f o r t h i s t h e s i s to summarize t h e p a r t t h a t such men, and t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s which b r e d them, p l a y e d i n B r i t a i n ' s economic d i f f i c u l t i e s , and to s u g g e s t avenues f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h which w i l l e s t a b -l i s h t h i s c u l p a b i l i t y more f u l l y . 138 FOOTNOTES ^T. W. Bamford, The R i s e of t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s (London: N e l s o n , 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 210-211.' 2 N. Annan, "The I n t e l l e c t u a l A r i s t o c r a c y , " i n 3. H. Plumb, ed., S t u d i e s i n S o c i a l H i s t o r y ( London: Longmans, Green , 1955), p~. 247. 3D. W. S y l v e s t e r , R o b e r t Lowe and E d u c a t i o n ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974) , p~! 36. 3. W i n t e r , R o b e r t Lowe ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1976), p. 268, c o n t e n d s t h a t t h e r e f o r m government o f 1868-1874 "managed t o throw the m a c h i n e r y o f most o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t o a new g e a r . " I r o n -i c a l l y , w h i l e w i s h i n g to r e d u c e t h e r o l e of government i n n a t i o n a l l i f e , G l a d s t o n e and Lowe's d e v e l o p m e n t o f an i n c r e a s i n g l y m e r i t o c r a t i c b u r e a u c r a c y t e n d e d to weaken t h e i r arguments a g a i n s t government growth. 3 G . W. R o d e r i c k and M. D. S t e p h e n s , " C h a n g i n g -A t t i t u d e s t o E d u c a t i o n i n E n g l a n d and Wales, 1833-1902," A n n a l s o f S c i e n c e XXX (dune 1 9 7 3 ) , p. 156. ^R. H. Tawney, The R a d i c a l T r a d i t i o n (Harmonds-w o r t h , M i d d l e s e x : Pen gu i n Books, 1964) , p~. 65. 7R. H. W i l k i n s o n , "The G e n t l e m a n l y I d e a l and the M a i n t e n a n c e o f a P o l i t i c a l E l i t e , " i n P. W. Musgrave, S o c i o l o g y , H i s t o r y and E d u c a t i o n (London: Methuen, 1970), p. 128. Q C. B a r n e t t , The C o l l a p s e o f B r i t i s h Power (Lon-don: Methuen, 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 102. 9 C . B. O t l e y , " P u b l i c S c h o o l s and t h e Army," New S o c i e t y (November 17, 1966), p. 756. O t l e y l i s t s t h e t o p t e n s c h o o l s a s : C h a r t e r h o u s e , C h e l t e n h a m , C l i f t o n , E t o n , H a i l e y b u r y , Harrow, M a r l b o r o u g h , Rugby, W e l l i n g t o n and W i n c h e s t e r . . H i s s t a t i s t i c s on t h e i n -c r e a s i n g number o f army e l i t e ( l i e u t e n a n t g e n e r a l s , g e n e r a l s and f i e l d marshals.) w i t h p u b l i c s c h o o l edu-c a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h e g r o w i n g i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s e s c h o o l s : 1870 - 36%; 1897 - 59%; 1913 - 88%. 139 3. Keegan, The Face o f B a t t l e (London: J o n -a t h a n Cape, 1976), p. 220, d e s c r i b e s t h e f i r s t a t t e m p t by R. C. S h e r r i f f , ' a u t h o r of J o u r n e y ' s End, to become an o f f i c e r i n 1914: " ' S c h o o l ? ' i n q u i r e d t h e a d j u t a n t . I t o l d him and h i s f a c e f e l l . He took up a p r i n t e d l i s t and s e a r -ched t h r o u g h i t . 'I'm s o r r y , ' he s a i d , 'but I'm a f r a i d i t i s n ' t a p u b l i c s c h o o l . . . our i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e t h a t a l l a p p l i c a n t s f o r c o m m i s s i o n s must be s e l e c t e d from th e r e c o g n i z e d p u b l i c s c h o o l s and y o u r s i s n o t among them. 1 1 1 "'""'"Otley, " P u b l i c S c h o o l s and t h e Army," p. 756. 12 V. O g i l v i e , The E n g l i s h P u b l i c S c h o o l (London: B a t s f o r d , 1 957), p. 189. "*"33. G a t h o r n e - H a r d y , The P u b l i c S c h o o l Phenomenon (Hammond svvor t h , M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n Books , 1977) , p~. 220. 14 B. Bond, The V i c t o r i a n Army and the S t a f f C o l -l e g e , 1854-1914 (London : E y r e Methuen, 1972), p. 26. "'"^ G. B e s t , " M i l i t a r i s m and the V i c t o r i a n P u b l i c S c h o o l , " i n B. Simon and I . B r a d l e y , e d s . , The V i c t o r i a n  P u b l i c S c h o o l ( D u b l i n : G i l l and Macmillan., 1975), p. 131. G e n e r a l L o r d Ismay, Memoirs (L o n d o n : Heinemann, 1960), p. 6, r e c a l l s : "My f a t h e r was p a r t i c u l a r l y u p s e t a t t h e i d e a o f my j o i n i n g t h e I n d i a n C a v a l r y , and never' t i r e d of t e l l i n g t h e s t o r y a b o u t th e c a v a l r y o f f i c e r who was so s t u p i d even h i s b r o t h e r o f f i c e r s n o t i c e d i t . " "^H. B a i l e s , " T e c h n o l o g y and I m p e r i a l i s m : A Case Study o f t h e V i c t o r i a n Army i n A f r i c a , " V i c t o r i a n  S t u d i e s XXIV (Autumn 1980), p. 82. 1 7 A member of t h e ambulance c o r p s who c l e a r e d the h i l l o f c o r p s e s , Mahatma G a n d h i , may have used th e mem-o r y o f B r i t i s h f a i l u r e as a s o u r c e of f u t u r e o p t i m i s m . 18 The l i s t of p u b l i c s c h o o l g e n e r a l s i n c l u d e s : D o u g l a s H a i g ( C l i f t o n ) , u n i m a g i n a t i v e and c o s t l y p r o s -e c u t o r o f t h e 1916-18 campaigns; C h a r l e s Townshend ( C r a n -l e i g h ) , a u t h o r o f t h e d e f e a t a t Kut; Ian H a m i l t o n (Wel-l i n g t o n ) , a c c u s e d by James Mor.ris, F a r e w e l l t h e Trumpets (London: H a r c o u r t B r a c e J o v a n o v i c h ^ 19 78 ), p~. 195, o f l a c k i n g a v i t a l i n g r e d i e n t o f g e n e r a l s h i p a t G a l l i p o l i , f u r y ; and, A r t h u r P e r c i v a l (Rugby) who p r e s i d e d o v e r t h e l o s s o- S i n g a p o r e i n 1942. In c o n t r a s t , W i l l i a m S l i m and L o r d A l a n b r o o k e , . a r g u a b l y the two b e s t B r i t i s h g e n e r a l s of the Second World War, were a t y p i c a l l y n o n - p u b l i c - s c h o o l o f f i c e r s . 140 19 G. B e s t , " M i l i t a r i s m and the V i c t o r i a n P u b l i c S c h o o l , " p. 143. 20 Bond, V i c t o r i a n Army and the S t a f f C o l l e g e , p. 322. 21 R. Lewis and A.. Maude, The E n g l i s h M i d d l e  C l a s s e s (London: P e n g u i n Books, 1953) , p~. 233, q u o t e A l d o u s H u x l e y ' s b e l i e f t h a t t h e A m r i t s a r m a s s a c r e o f 1919 was "a g e n u i n e h a l l - m a r k e d p r o d u c t o f the p r e f e c -t o r i a l s y s t e m and c o m p u l s o r y c r i c k e t . " 22 T. H e a r l , " M i l i t a r y E d u c a t i o n and the S c h o o l C u r r i c u l u m , 1800-1870," H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n V ( 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 257. 2 3 I b i d . , p. 264. 24 0. G r u s k y , " C a r e e r P a t t e r n s . and C h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s o f B r i t i s h N a v a l O f f i c e r s , " B r i t i s h . J o u r n a l o f Soc-i o l o g y XXVI ( 1 9 7 3 ) , p. 36. See a l s o , E. H a l e v y , H i s t o r y  o f the E n g l i s h P e o p l e , v o l . 6: The R u l e o f Democracy,  1905-1914 (New Y o T k l Barnes and N o b l e , 1961), pp. 154-193, 193-232, f o r d i s c u s s i o n s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , of B r i t i s h m i l i t a r y and n a v a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . 25 S t a n l e y B o n n e t t , . T h e P r i c e o f A d m i r a l t y : An  I n d i c t m e n t o f t h e R o y a l Navy 1805-1.966 (London : R o b e r t H a l e , 1968), p. 95-98. ' 2 6 P. W.-Musgrave, T e c h n i c a l Change, t h e Labour  F o r c e and E d u c a t i o n ( O x f o r d ! Pergamon P r e s s , 1976), p. 51. See a l s o , D. S. Landes, The.Unbound Prometheus ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969) , p~. 260. 27 B. R a n f t , ed.,. T e c h n i c a l Change and B r i t i s h  N a v a l P o l i c y , 1860-1939 (L o n d o n : Hodder and S t o u g h t o n , 1977), p. 22. 2 8 Musgrave, T e c h n i c a l Change, p. 51. 29 James M o r r i s , "A View of the R o y a l Navy," E n c o u n t e r XL (March 1973), p. 22. 3 ^ C . B a r n e t t , The Swordbearers,: Supreme Com-mand i n t h e F i r s t .World War. (New Y o r k : 'Morrow, 1964), p. 184. 141 A. T. Peacock and 3. Wiseman, The Growth o f  P u b l i c E x p e n d i t u r e i n ; the U n i t e d Kingdom ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. -190. F o r t h e p e r i o d 1890-1913, m i l i t a r y e x p e n d i t u r e s a v e r a g e d 3.77% o f a n n u a l government e x p e n d i t u r e v e r s u s an. a v e r a g e o f 3.15% f o r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . 32 A. 3. T a y l o r , L a i s s e z - f a i r e and S t a t e I n t e r -v e n t i o n i n N i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y B r i t a i n " (London : Macmi 1 l a n , 1 972), p. 9. 33 W. E. Houghton, The V i c t o r i a n . . Frame of Mind  1830-1870 (London: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957), p. 46. See a l s o , K. P o . l a n y i , The G r e a t T r a n s f o r m a t i o n ( B o s t o n : Beacon P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , pp. 135-150,. f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f B r i t a i n ' s l a i s s e z - f a i r e h i s t o r y . 34 0. MacDonagh, "The N i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y R e v o l u -t i o n i n Government: A R e a p p r a i s a l , " H i s t o r i c a l J o u r n a l I ( 1 9 5 8 ) , S. G. C h e c k l a n d , The. R i s e of I n d u s t r i a l Soc-i e t y i n E n g l a n d , 1815-1885 . (New York:. S t . M a r t i n ' s P r e s s , 1965 ) , and E . 3~. Hobsbawn , I n d u s t r y and Empire (New Y o r k : Pantheon Books, 1968.) , p r e s e n t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l view o f t h e m i d - V i c t o r i a n e r a as a p e r i o d of g o v e r n m e n t a l l a i s s e z - f a i r e . D a v i d R o b e r t s , V i c t o r i a n O r i g i n s o f the  B r i t i s h W e l f a r e S t a t e (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 960), and o t h e r s , c o n t e n d t h a t V i c t o r i a n s t a t e i n t e r v e n - \ t i o n was u n d e r t a k e n w i t h i n c r e a s i n g f r e q u e n c y , though p r i m a r i l y i n s e c t o r s i d e n t i f i a b l e as s o c i a l r a t h e r than e c o n o m i c . 35 C. M. T u r n e r , " S o c i o l o g i c a l A p p r o a c h e s to t h e H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n , " B r i t i s h ..Journal o f E d u c a t i o n a l  S t u d i e s XVII ( F e b r u a r y 1969)., p~. 161.. T u r n e r a d d s : "The I n s t i t u t e s t a u g h t t h a t . t h e w o r k i n g s o f t h e economy were beyond the c o n t r o l of man as.:;were most o f the s o c i a l consequences,, t h a t the o r d e r i n g -of r a n k s i n s o c i e t y was G o d - o r d a i n e d , and w i t h i n a l i m i t e d p o s s i b i l i t y . of m o b i l i t y t h r o u g h h a r d work, man must a c c e p t h i s s t a t i o n and t h e d u t i e s and o b l i -g a t i o n s t h a t went w i t h I t . " 3^G. W. R o d e r i c k and M. D. S t e p h e n s , S c i e n t i f i c  and T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y E n g l a n d (Newton Abbot, Devon : D a v i d and C h a r l e s L t d . , 1972 ), p. 8. 3 ^ 3 . Bowie, P o l i t i c s and O p i n i o n i n the N i n e -t e e n t h C e n t u r y (London : J o n a t h a n Cape, 1954), p~. 2~31. 142 3 8 Bowie, P o l i t i c s and O p i n i o n , p. 231. 39 G. W. Trompf, " R a d i c a l C o n s e r v a t i s m i n Her-b e r t S p e n c e r ' s E d u c a t i o n a l T h o u g h t , " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l  o f E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s XVII ( O c t o b e r 1969) , p. 270. 40 The h e i g h t e n e d , r a t h e r than r e d u c e d , s o c i a l e x c l u s i v i t y o f p u b l i c s c h o o l s a f t e r the m i d - V i c t o r i a n r e f o r m s i s an example of i r o n i c or p a r a d o x i c a l r e s u l t s o f s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n . I t may n o t be t o o much to i n f e r t h a t t h i s i n c r e a s e i n c l a s s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was t h e u n d e r -l y i n g i n t e n t o f t h e c i v i l s e r v a n t s and p o l i t i c i a n s who prompted changes-. See Bamford, R i s e o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s pp. 24-25, f o r t h e example of C h e l t e n h a m . R. W i l k i n s o n , The P r e f e c t s : B r i t i s h L e a d e r s h i p and t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l  T r a d i t i o n ( London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964), p~. 23, c o n c l u d e s t h a t " p u b l i c s c h o o l h e a d m a s t e r s t e n d e d to r e s i s t l o w e r - c l a s s a d m i s s i o n as a t h r e a t t o t h e s c h o o l s ' t r a -d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r . " 41 3. S. T a r v e r , "The P u b l i c S c h o o l s and t h e P u b l i c S e r v i c e , " The F o r t n i g h t l y Review L X V I I I ( O c t o b e r 1900), p. 589. • 42 Bowie, P o l i t i c s and. O p i n i o n , p. 229. 43 M. Wiener, E n g l i s h C u l t u r e and the d e c l i n e of  the i n d u s t r i a l s p i r i t ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1981) , p~. 40, se e s t h e s c h o o l s i n terms o f "new b o t t l e s , p e r h a p s , but o l d wine p r e f e r r e d . " See a l s o , 3. R. de S. Honey, Tom Brown's- U n i v e r s e (New Y o r k : New York Times Books, 19 7 7 ) , C h a p t e r 44 Bowie, P o l i t i c s and O p i n i o n , p. 230. C a r o l Dyhouse, " S o c i a l D a r w i n i s t I d e a s and t h e Development o f Women's E d u c a t i o n i n E n g l a n d , 1880-1920," H i s t o r y o f  E d u c a t i o n V ( 1 9 7 6 ) , i n d i c a t e s . t h a t S o c i a l D a r w i n i s t p h i l o s o p h y was a l s o c o - o p t e d i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n -t u r y to s t r e n g t h e n t r a d i t i o n a l . c o n s e r v a t i v e views on t h e p r o p e r r o l e s o f women i n s o c i e t y . 45 W i n t e r , R o b e r t Lowe, p. 160. However, Lowe's b e l i e f t h a t h i s p e r s o n a l s u r v i v a l a t W i n c h e s t e r was a s i g n a l t h a t he c o u l d s u c c e e d , i n l i f e may be t a k e n as an i n d i c a t i o n of. h i s i n c i p i e n t S o c i a l D a r w i n i s m . See a l s o , S y l v e s t e r , R o b e r t Lowe and E d u c a t i o n , C h a p t e r 1. 46 D. S. L.. C a r d w e l l , The O r g a n i z a t i o n of S c i e n c e  i n E n g l a n d (London: HeinemanrT 1972) , p~. 98. 143 47 E. G. West, " E d u c a t i o n a l Slowdown and p u b l i c i n t e r v e n t i o n i n n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l a n d , " E x p l o r a t i o n s  i n Economic H i s t o r y X I I ( 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 62. 48 S y l v e s t e r , R o b e r t Lowe and E d u c a t i o n , p. 36. 49 "The O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Commission R e p o r t , " E d i n b u r g h Review CXCV ( 1 8 5 2 ) , p. 254. 3^G. W. R o d e r i c k and M. D. S t e p h e n s , " S c i e n t i f i c S t u d i e s a t O x f o r d and Cambridge, 1850-1914," B r i t i s h Jour-n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s XXIV ( F e b r u a r y 1976), pT 50. ''"'""On t h e P u r p o s e of Education,',' E d i n b u r g h Review LXXXIV ( 1 8 5 2 ) , p. 212. 3 2 E d i n b u r g h Review XV ( 1 8 0 9 ) , pp. 51-52. 3 3 I b i d . , p. 51. 5 tx S. R o t h b l a t t , The R e v o l u t i o n o f the Dons (Lon-don: F a b e r , 1968), C h a p t e r 3. 5 5 I b i d . , pp. 256-257. 5 6 G. W. R o d e r i c k and M. D. S t e p h e n s , "The H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n o f E n g i n e e r s i n E n g l a n d i n the N i n e t e e n t h Cen-t u r y , " P a e d a g o g i c H i s t o r i c a XVI ( 1 9 7 6 ) , pp. 375-378. D. H. A l d c r o f t , "The E n t r e p r e n e u r and t h e B r i t i s h Econ-omy, 1870-1914,". Economic H i s t o r y Review, 2nd s e r . , 17 ( 1 9 6 4 ) , p. .119, i n d i c a t e s t h a t . w h i l e Germany was g r a d -u a t i n g 3,000 e n g i n e e r s p e r annum by 1910, t h e compar-a b l e B r i t i s h f i g u r e was 53.0, o f whom few had t h e r e -s e a r c h b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e i r German c o u n t e r p a r t s . 3 7 R . A. Buchanan, "Gentlemen E n g i n e e r s : The Making of a P r o f e s s i o n , " V i c t o r i a n S t u d i e s XXVI (Summer 1983), p. 429. 5 8 G r e a t B r i t a i n , P a r l i a m e n t , P a r l i a m e n t a r y  P a p e r s , 1875, " R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l Commission on S c i e n t i f i c I n s t r u c t i o n and t h e Advancement of S c i e n c e (The Samuelson C o m m i s s i o n ) , " (Shannon: I r i s h U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 24. 97. 59 C a r d w e l l , O r g a n i z a t i o n o f S c i e n c e i n E n g l a n d , 144 M. Gowing, " S c i e n c e , T e c h n o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n : E n g l a n d i n 1870," O x f o r d Review of E d u c a t i o n IV ( 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 9, n o t e s t h a t t h e Samuelson c o m m i s s i o n e r s added th e p e r h a p s p o l i t i c c a v e a t t h a t s t a t e a i d i n s c i e n c e s h o u l d be t e m p o r a r y , e x i s t i n g o n l y u n t i l l o c a l p e o p l e t o o k up t h e i r p r o p e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . L a i s s e z - f a i r e c o n t i n u e d s t i l l , s i n c e " i n 1870 government e x p e n d i t u r e was a much l o w e r p e r c e n t a g e of g r o s s n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t than i n 1850; and i n 1890 i t was l o w e r s t i l l . " P e acock and Wise-man, Growth o f P u b l i c E x p e n d i t u r e i n t h e U n i t e d Kingdom, pp. 37-42, i n d i c a t e the f o l l o w i n g p e r c e n t a g e s of B r i t i s h G.N.P. a t t r i b u t a b l e t o government e x p e n d i t u r e : 1841 1850 I860' 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 11 12 11 9 10 8.9 14.4 12.8 The 1900 i n c r e a s e r e l e c t s a r i s e i n m i l i t a r y s p e n d i n g from 2.9% i n 1895 t o 6.9% i n 1900, w h i l e e x p e n d i t u r e on s o c i a l s e r v i c e s r e m a i n e d a t 2.6% f o r b o t h y e a r s , (p. 190.) ^^"Gowing, " S c i e n c e , .^Technology and E d u c a t i o n , " p. 11, i n d i c a t e s t h a t the f o r w a r d - l o o k i n g P r i n c e C o n s o r t had p r e d i c t e d i n 1859 t h a t o n l y the l o n g p u r s e o f t h e s t a t e c o u l d answer th e need f o r s c i e n t i f i c e d u c a t i o n but " t h i s p u r s e d i d n o t open f o r a n o t h e r t h i r t y y e a r s , and then o n l y b e c a u s e t h e Government was c a u g h t between the c l a i m s o f p u b l i c a n s and t e e t o t a l l e r s . " See, M. A r g l e s , South K e n s i n g t o n t o R o b b i n s ( L o n d o n : Longmans, 1964), C h a p t e r 3, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f w h i s k e y money d i s t r i b u t i o n . 6 2 R o d e r i c k and S t e p h e n s , S c i e n t i f i c and T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n , p. 47. P. Gosden and A. 3. T a y l o r , e d s . , S t u d i e s i n t h e  H i s t o r y o f a U n i v e r s i t y , 1874-1974 ( L e e d s : E. 3. A r n o l d and Son, 1975) , p~. 90, i n d i c a t e tfTat c e n t r a l government a s s i s t a n c e t o the U n i v e r s i t y o f L i v e r p o o l s u b s e q u e n t l y i n c r e a s e d to 18% i n 1904/05,. 24% i n 1908/09, and 39% i n 1913/14. However, R o d e r i c k and S t e p h e n s , . S c i e n t i f i c and  T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n , p. 47, p o i n t o u t t h a t : "In a l l , d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1889-1914, e x c h e q u e r g r a n t s to t h e u n i -v e r s i t y amounted, to some 170,000 pounds - n o t much g r e a t e r than the a n n u a l g r a n t to some I n d i v i d u a l German u n i v e r s i t i e s . " 64 G. R o d e r i c k and M. D. S t e p h e n s , E d u c a t i o n and  I n d u s t r y i n t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y (London: Longman, 1978 ), p~. I l l , by way o f c o m p a r i s o n , p o i n t o u t : "German u n i v e r s i t i e s d u r i n g t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y were n o t e d n o t o n l y f o r t h e e x c e l l e n c e of t h e i r s c h o l a r s h i p but a l s o f o r t h e l a v i s h sums s p e n t on them. The most ge n e r o u s o f t h e s t a t e s was P r u s s i a which as e a r l y as 1805 s p e n t 15,249 pounds on u n i v e r -s i t i e s — a sum e x c e e d i n g t h e f i r s t g r a n t to E n g l i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s i n 1889." 145 65 T. Owen, "The U n i v e r s i t y G r a n t s Committee," O x f o r d Review o f E d u c a t i o n VI ( 1 9 8 0 ) , pp. 255-256. ^ R o d e r i c k and S t e p h e n s , " S c i e n t i f i c S t u d i e s , " p. 43, i n d i c a t e t h a t B r i t a i n had 3,000 s c i e n c e s t u d e n t s i n 1910 compared w i t h Germany's 25,000. ^ 7H. J e n k i n s and D. C a r a d o g 3ones, " S o c i a l C l a s s of Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y A l u m n i of the E i g h t e e n t h and N i n e -t e e n t h C e n t u r i e s , " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y I ( 1 9 5 0 ) , pp. 105-115, i n d i c a t e t h a t , between 1850 and 1899, more than h a l f o f Cambridge u n d e r g r a d u a t e s came from th e top 23 p u b l i c s c h o o l s , w i t h a f u r t h e r 30% coming from o t h e r p u b l i c s c h o o l s . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , w h i l e an e d u c a t i o n from a g r e a t p u b l i c s c h o o l made u n d e r g r a d u a t e s u c c e s s l e s s l i k e l y t h a n i f a s t u d e n t had come from a l e s s e r s c h o o l , i t c o r r e l a t e d more h i g h l y w i t h s u c c e s s i n l a t e r l i f e , i n c l u d i n g t h e a c h i e v e m e n t of h i g h a c a d e m i c p o s i t i o n s . 68 R o d e r i c k and S t e p h e n s , S c i e n t i f i c and T e c h n i c a l  E d u c a t i o n , p. 29. 6 9 M. S a n d e r s o n , The U n i v e r s i t i e s and B r i t i s h I n -d u s t r y ( L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1972), p~. 33". ^ R o d e r i c k and S t e p h e n s , S c i e n t i f i c and T e c h n i c a l  E d u c a t i o n , p. 9. 7 ^ G o w i n g , " S c i e n c e , T e c h n o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n , " p. 5. 72 R o d e r i c k and S t e p h e n s , S c i e n t i f i c and T e c h n i c a l  E d u c a t i o n , p. 2 9. 7 3 F . W. F a r r a r , " P u b l i c S c h o o l E d u c a t i o n , " F o r t n i g h t l y Review I I I (March 1868), pp. 239-240, shows t h i s view o f s c i e n c e c l e a r l y : "And no s o o n e r have I u t t e r e d the word ' u s e f u l ' than I i m a g i n e th e h i d e o u s n o i s e which w i l l e n v i r o n me, and amid th e hubbub I f a i n t l y d i s t i n g u i s h t h e words, v u l g a r , u t i l i t a r i a n , m e c h a n i c a l . . . . One would r e a l l y t h i n k i t was a c r i m e t o aim a t t h e m a t e r i a l h a p p i n e s s o f the human r a c e . " 6. 74 Gowing, " S c i e n c e , T e c h n o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n , " p, 146 G. R o d e r i c k and M. S t e p h e n s , "The R o l e o f Government," i n G. R o d e r i c k and M. S t e p h e n s , e d s . , Where Did We Go Wrong? (Barcombe, S u s s e x : The Farmer P r e s s , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 225. C. P. Snow, The P h y s i c i s t s ( London: M a c m i l l a n , 1981), p. 22, adds t h a t the Ca-v e n d i s h C h a i r , when c r e a t e d a t Cambridge i n 1874, headed " t h e o n l y research., s c h o o l i n E n g l a n d a t a time when • American u n i v e r s i t i e s such as M i c h i g a n had a l r e a d y had w e l l - o r g a n i z e d r e s e a r c h f o r t h i r t y y e a r s p a s t . " 7^R. Mac l e o d and R. M o s e l e y , "The ' N a t u r a l s ' and V i c t o r i a n C a m b r i d g e , " O x f o r d Review of E d u c a t i o n VI (1 9 8 0 ) , p. 179. 7 7Snow,-The P h y s i c i s t s , p. 37. 53. 7 8 R o d e r i c k and S t e p h e n s , " S c i e n t i f i c S t u d i e s , " 79 3. G. C r o w t h e r , The C a v e n d i s h L a b o r a t o r y , 18^74-1^974 (New Y o r k : S c i e n c e H i s t o r y P u b l i c a t i o n s , 205. S a n d e r s o n , U n i v e r s i t i e s and B r i t i s h I n d u s t r y , 1 974), p. 5. 80 p. 37. p . 5. 81 Wiener, E n g l i s h c u l t u r e , p. 72. 8 2 Gowihg, "S.cience, T e c h n o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n , " 8 3 Honey, Tom Brown's Universe., p. 137. 84 S. S h a p i n and A. T h a c k e r a y , " P r o s o p o g r a p h y as a r e s e a r c h t o o l i n h i s t o r y o f s c i e n c e : the B r i t i s h s c i e n t i f i c community, 1700-1900," Hi s t o r y of S c i e n c e 12 ( 1 9 7 4 ) , pp. 1-28, and L. Pyenson, "Who t h e Guys Were: P r o s o p o g r a p h y i n the H i s t o r y o f S c i e n c e , " H i s t o r y o f S c i e n c e 15 (197 7 ) , pp. 155-188, argue f o r b r o a d e r c o l l e c t i v e b i o g r a p h i e s i n s c i e n c e and l e s s s c h o l -a r l y e mphasis on e l i t e s . 8 5 I t i s n o t even e n t i r e l y c l e a r t h a t the s c i e n -t i f i c s u c c e s s of. t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s was a r e s u l t o f , or a r e a c t i o n t o , t h e i r p u b l i c s c h o o l s c i e n c e t r a i n i n g . The l a t t e r p o s s i b i l i t y seems l i k e l y g i v e n t h a t t h e s c h o o l s c o n t i n u e d t o u n d e r v a l u e s c i e n c e w e l l a f t e r the V i c t o r i a n e r a ended. 147 Each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g made h i s s c i e n t i f i c con-t r i b u t i o n s w i t h o u t b e n e f i t o f a p u b l i c s c h o o l s t a r t i n l i f e : R. Ross ( N o b e l P r i z e f o r M e d i c i n e , 1904), E. R u t h e r f o r d ( C h e m i s t r y , 1908), C. G. B a r k l a ( P h y s i c s , 1 9 17), C. T. R. W i l s o n ( P h y s i c s , 1927), A. Harden ( C h e m i s t r y , 1929), C. S. S h e r r i n g t o n ( M e d i c i n e , 1932), P. D i r a c ( P h y s i c s , 1 9 3 3 ) , 3. Chadwick ( P h y s i c s , 1 935), H. H. Dale ( M e d i c i n e , 1936), W. N. Haworth ( C h e m i s t r y , 1937), and P. M. S. B l a c k e t t ( P h y s i c s , 1 9 4 8 ) . 8 7 M a c l e o d and M o s e l e y , "The ' N a t u r a l s ' , " p. 180, c l a i m t h a t " i n i n t r o d u c i n g t h e NST, a new s e t o f e l i t e s was p r o d u c e d , w h i c h , i n the f u l l n e s s of t i m e , began t o r e p r o d u c e i t s e l f . " I f t h i s i s c o r r e c t , i t i s a l s o a p p a r -e n t t h a t g r a d u a t e s o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l s were m a i n l y u n i n v o l v e d i n t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t . 8 8 I b i d . , p. 194. The ' g r e a t e r ' s c h o o l s were: C h a r t e r h o u s e , C h e l t e n h a m , C l i f t o n , E t o n , F e t t e s , H a i l e y -b u r y , Harrow, L o r e t t o , M a l v e r n , M a r l b o r o u g h , M e r c h a n t T a y l o r s ' , Oundle, R a d l e y , Repton, R o s s a l l , Rugby, S t . P a u l ' s , S edburgh, S h e r b o r n e , Shrewsbury, Uppingham, W e s t m i n s t e r and W i n c h e s t e r . " i b i d . , p. 184. 90 G. H a i n e s , E s s a y s on German I n f l u e n c e upon  E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n , and S c i e n c e (New Y o r k : C o n n e c t i c u t C o l l e g e P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 75. 91 W. H. B. C o u r t , B r i t i s h Economic H i s t o r y ,  18 70-1914 ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 965), p. 173. 9 2 I b i d . , p. 174. 9 3 I b i d . , p. 171 94 The Times, 4 May 1916, p. 6. CHAPTER VI ECONOMIC LEGACIES OF THE GREAT PUBLIC SCHOOLS George B e r n a r d Shaw was c l e a r , i n 1923, a b o u t what needed to be done w i t h t h e p u b l i c . s c h o o l s : " E t o n , Harrow, W i n c h e s t e r . . . and t h e i r c h e a p e r and more p e r -n i c i o u s i m i t a t o r s s h o u l d be r a z e d t o t h e ground and t h e i r f o u n d a t i o n s sown w i t h sa l t . " " ' " Even t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t the a u t h o r ' s t y p i c a l d i r e c t n e s s and d e s i r e t o shock, t h i s seems an extreme f a t e f o r o l d i n s t i t u t i o n s . However, i n 1905, Shaw had e s t a b l i s h e d c l e a r j u s t i f i -c a t i o n s , a t l e a s t i n h i s mind, f o r such a judgment, namely th e r e s c u e o f the s t a t e from g r a d u a t e s of the g r e a t s c h o o l s : E x a c t l y i n p r o p o r t i o n as P a r l i a m e n t c o n s i s t s of t h o r o u g h l y s c h o o l e d men, do we f i n d i t g i v e n to s h u f f l i n g and p r e v a r i c a t i o n and c o n v i n c e d t h a t the w o r l d can o n l y be h e l d t o g e t h e r by f l o g g i n g , p u n i s h i n g , c o e r c i n g and r e t a l i a t i n g . And t h e ex-p o n e n t s o f t h i s p h i l o s o p h y a r e p e r s o n a l l y d o c i l e , a b j e c t to s u p e r i o r rank and r o y a l t y , h o r r i b l y a-f r a i d t o say, do o r t h i n k a n y t h i n g u n l e s s t h e y see e v e r y b o d y e l s e s e t t i n g them the example.^ The w i d e r r . e s u l t s o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n were a l s o a p p a r e n t : . . . t h e y a r e e v e r y w h e r e b e a t e n i n c h a r a c t e r and e n e r g y by t h e men who, t h r o u g h t h e p o v e r t y , c a r e -l e s s n e s s , or e n l i g h t e n m e n t o f t h e i r p a r e n t s , have more o r l e s s e s c a p e d e d u c a t i o n . G r e a t c o m m u n i t i e s a r e b u i l t by men who s i g n w i t h a mark: th e y a r e wrecked by men who w r i t e L a t i n v e r s e s . - 3 148 149 Shaw's i c o n o c l a s m , w h i l e i n s t i n c t i v e and f a r -r e a c h i n g , was s t i m u l a t e d h e r e n o t so much by the s c h o o l s ' f a i l u r e s as by the p r e - e m i n e n c e o f t h e i r main o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e , r e s p e c t f o r t r a d i t i o n . To Shaw, of c o u r s e , t h i s t r a n s l a t e d as r e s p e c t f o r s o c i e t y as i t e x i s t e d w h i c h , f o r a F a b i a n , was as a r e d f l a g t o a b u l l . The s t a t u s quoism o f t h e s c h o o l s , however, e v e n t u a l l y r e -s u l t e d i n a s o c i a l s y s t e m d i s t i n g u i s h e d m a i n l y by com-p l a c e n t h i s t o r i c i s m . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . w a s e x p r e s s e d , i n t u r n , by s t a t i c i n d u s t r i a l i s m and r e p r e s s i v e i m p e r -i a l i s m : In an epoch t h a t r e q u i r e d i n men the i t c h t o d e v e l o p , c r e a t e and e x p l o i t , s c h o o l had f o s t e r e d . . . a h a b i t o f r o u t i n e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n - c a u t i o n , ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ' r a t h e r than the t a k i n g o f r i s k . . . where c o n t i n u e d B r i t i s h s u c c e s s and s u r -v i v a l depended on i n n o v a t i o n and open-mindedness, s c h o o l a d m i r e d c o n s e r v a t i s m and c o n f o r m i s m - l o y -a l t y to what e x i s t e d . 4 -Pedagogy i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s was i n c r e a s i n g l y p r o c e s s r a t h e r than c o n t e n t c e n t r e d , w i t h the aim o f d e v e l o p i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r s of I d e n t i f i a b l e members o f the s o c i a l e l i t e p r e - e m i n e n t . As L o r d Plumer remarked, "We a r e o f t e n t o l d t h e y t a u g h t us n o t h i n g a t E t o n . I t may be so but I t h i n k t h e y t a u g h t i t v e r y w e l l . " " * In t h i s s y s t e m , Greek and L a t i n s t u d i e s s e r v e d m a i n l y to i d e n -t i f y w o r thy i n d i v i d u a l s , d e v e l o p t h e i r minds, and, p e r -haps most i m p o r t a n t l y , d i f f e r e n t i a t e them from t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . The power of t h e s e l e s s o n s ex-t e n d e d much f u r t h e r , however, as s t u d e n t s a p p l i e d t h e t e a c h i n g s of c l a s s i c a l a u t h o r s to l a t e r b u s i n e s s and p u b l i c s e r v i c e c a r e e r s . The e a r l y V i c t o r i a n e l i t e t o ok to h e a r t P l a t o ' s remark P r o p t e r v i tarn V i v e n d i p e r -d e r e c a u s a s , 7 and A r i s t o t l e ' s b e l i e f t h a t " t o be a l w a y s s e e k i n g a f t e r the u s e f u l does n o t become f r e e and e x a l -Q t e d s o u l s . " The amateur and t h e g e n e r a l i s t were v a l u e d o v e r the p r o f e s s i o n a l and t h e s p e c i a l i s t , w h i l e g e n e r a l d i s d a i n f o r men o f c o m m e r c i a l d r i v e , d i s r e s p e c t f o r i n n o v a t i o n and r e s e a r c h , and i n s t i n c t i v e s u p e r i o r i t y f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i z e d , t h e s o c i e t y . T h i s V i c t o r i a n " s a t -9 i s f a c t i o n o f c e r t a i n t y " e v e n t u a l l y amounted t o a p e r v a s -i v e and l e t h a r g i c r e l a t i v i s m i n t h e f a c e o f dynamic l a t e -n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n . I t i s a l s o a p p a r e n t t h a t " t h e e d u c a t i o n a l r e -form o f p u b l i c s c h o o l s upon an a g g r e s s i v e l y and a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y h u m a n i s t i c p a t t e r n . . . m i l i t a t e d a g a i n s t t h e s t a t e ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n e i t h e r s c i e n c e o r industry.""'"^ As Lawrence Stone has n o t e d : I f s e l f - c o n s c i o u s a m a t e u r i s m was a d i s q u i e t i n g f e a t u r e o f E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n i n the 1830s, i t was t h e r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e o f contempt f o r s c i e n c e and e n g i n e e r i n g l a t e r i n the c e n t u r y which was i n t h e l o n g run to have s e r i o u s consequences.-'--'-In e v a l u a t i n g t h e r e s u l t s to which Stone r e f e r s , two main a r e a s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d , i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p e t i -t i o n and d o m e s t i c s o c i a l c o h e s i o n . B r i t a i n ' s f a i l u r e to m a i n t a i n her t r a d e p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e t o major r i v a l s had so.me r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t s o u r -c e s . Bentham had seen i n 1824 t h a t : 151 I t i s no l e s s t r u e than l a m e n t a b l e , t h a t h i t h e r t o the e d u c a t i o n p r o p e r f o r c i v i l and a c t i v e l i f e has been n e g l e c t e d ; t h a t n o t h i n g has been done to en-a b l e t h o s e who a r e a c t u a l l y to c o n d u c t the a f f a i r s of t h e w o r l d , t o c a r r y them on i n a manner worthy of t h e age and c o u n t r y i n which t h e y l i v e , by com-m u n i c a t i n g t o them t h e knowledge and s p i r i t o f t h e i r age and c e n t u r y . 1 2 The c o n t i n u e d V i c t o r i a n r e l u c t a n c e to match t h e e d u c a -t i o n a l aims and e f f o r t s of F r a n c e , Germany and o t h e r c o m p e t i t o r s r e s u l t e d i n a B r i t i s h l e a d e r s h i p s i n g u l a r l y i l l - e q u i p p e d and i l l - d i s p o s e d t o b r i d g e the g u l f be-tween B r i t a i n ' s two s e c t o r s , v a r i o u s l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d as the garden and workshop, amateur and p r a c t i c a l , or t r a -d i t i o n a l and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l views of s o c i e t y . R. H. Tawney was s p e c i f i c as to the i n c o m p l e t e n e s s of t h e s e p u b l i c s c h o o l promoted s t a n c e s f o r a modern w o r l d : T h e r e a r e t i m e s . . . when t h e even-handed j u s t i c e of an a u t h o r i t a r i a n government p r o v i d e s an a d e q u a t e answer t o most s i t u a t i o n s . . . . Th e r e a r e o t h e r s , a g a i n , when a h a b i t of b e n e v o l e n t s u p e r i o r i t y i s a r u i n o u s l i a b i l i t y and when l e a d e r s h i p i n v o l v e s an a b i l i t y to s y m p a t h i z e w i t h p o p u l a r movements, and a s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r e s t i n t h e economic and t e c h -n i c a l c o n d i t i o n s of s o c i a l p r o g r e s s t o be q u a l i f i e d to p l a y an a c t i v e p a r t i n p r o m o t i n g i t . A n a t i o n which i n t e n d s t o h o l d i t s own i n t h e w o r l d must t a k e a c c o u n t o f such c h a n g i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s and p l a y to t h e s c o r e . 13 I n s t e a d of h e e d i n g s u c h a d v i c e , however, B r i -t a i n ' s p r e m i e r e s c h o o l s c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e i n c r e a s e d c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n of t h e i r s o c i e t y ; boys from r i s i n g f a m i l i e s who a t t e n d e d the s c h o o l s were e s t r a n g e d from t h e i r r o o t s w h i l e r e t a i n i n g t h e i r i n d u s t r i a l b i r t h -r i g h t s . As L o r d F r e d e r i c k C a v e n i s h remarked i n 1874: Many o f t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r s had f e l t t h a t i t was d a n g e r o u s t o send t h e i r sons away to t h e o l d u n i v e r s i t i e s b e c a u s e t h e y had known i n s t a n c e s i n which, when the young came back, t h e y had r a t h e r ^ l o o k e d down upon t h e o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e i r f a t h e r s . The p u b l i c s c h o o l s were even more ad e p t a t c a u s i n g such d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and, i n t r u e Buddenbrook f a s h i o n , t h e i r t y p i c a l s c h o o l b o y - i n d u s t r i a l i s t came t o view h i s i n h e r -i t a n c e as a d i s t i n c t l y d u b i o u s c u r a t e ' s egg. In o t h e r segments o f i n d u s t r y , s e l f - r e c r u i t m e n t and r e s t r i c t e d s o c i a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l m o b i l i t y p r o d u c e d m a n a g e r i a l e x c l u s i v i t y . " ' " 3 The growth o f a p u b l i c s c h o o l p r e s e n c e i n t h e s e boardrooms, as i n t h e f i r m s o f t h e o l d fam-i l i e s , had t h e e c o n o m i c a l l y s e r i o u s e f f e c t of i m p l a n t i n g a c l a s s o f d i s a f f e c t e d or u n d e r q u a l i f i e d l e a d e r s . ^ F i n a l l y , the e x p a n s i o n o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m had t h e e f f e c t o f d i s g u i s i n g t h e l a c k o f t r u e power-s h a r i n g and c l a s s movement i n V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y . Such m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n had p a r t i c u l a r l y r e t r o g r a d e e f f e c t s s i n c e i t e n c o u r a g e d n e g l e c t o f needed r e v i s i o n s i n s c h o o l i n g and g e n e r a l s o c i e t y w h i l e i t masked the t r u e s i t u a t i o n ; t h e f i n a l r e s u l t was i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l c o n -1 7 f u s i o n and d i s c o r d . T h i s r e v i e w o f the c o n s e r v a t i s m o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s and i t s p r o b a b l e s o c i a l and economic c o n s e -q u e n c e s n a t u r a l l y prompts q u e s t i o n s of d e f i n i t i o n and v e r i f i c a t i o n f o r c o n c e p t s such as 'power' and ' e f f e c t ' . Debate a l s o a r i s e s o v e r t h e d e g r e e , i f any, i n which e d u c a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g may be t r a n s f e r a b l e to l a t e r - l i f e 153 s i t u a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y v i s £ v i s the i n f l u e n c e of o t h e r s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s s uch as the c h u r c h , the fam-i l y and t h e p e e r g r o u p . D i f f i c u l t i e s a l s o m u l t i p l y when the s t u d y a t t e m p t s to meld t h e views of t h e o r e t i c a l e c o n o m i s t s , c o n t e m p o r a r y o b s e r v e r s and o r t h o d o x h i s t o r -i a n s i n t o a d e f e n s i b l e n a r r a t i v e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a r e v i e w o f v a r i o u s f i n d i n g s and p o s s i b l e l i n k a g e s p r o -duces a c c e p t a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s i n s e v e r a l a r e a s . F i r s t l y , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t a p a r a d i g m o f the V i c t o r i a n p u b l i c s c h o o l e x i s t e d , w i t h p a t t e r n s and g o a l s which were u n d e r s t o o d a n d . v a l u e d by t h e B r i t i s h e l i t e and o t h e r s o f t h e i r s o c i e t y . S e c o n d l y , l e a d e r s o f the l a t e r - V i c t o r i a n p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r s d i s p l a y e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t t r i b u t a b l e , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , t o pub-l i c s c h o o l models. However, i n c o m p a r i n g t h e s e two s t a t e m e n t s and g a u g i n g how f a r p u b l i c s c h o o l s s u c c e e d e d i n t e a c h i n g norms f o r economic l i f e : We must face, s q u a r e l y such i s s u e s as the s e l e c t i o n of p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s , the c o n t r o l of t h e l e a d e r s h i p , the w i d e n i n g s c o p e f o r t a l e n t , t h e t u r n o v e r of e l i t e s , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a b i l i t y and the f o s t e r i n g of n a t i o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g through, th e p o p u l a t i o n . ! 8 I t i s p o s s i b l e , i n t h i s r e g a r d , t o j u d g e the e x t e n t t o which V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n was a c l o s e d r a t h e r than an open s o c i e t y , an e l i t i s t s o c i e t y , and a s o c i e t y where l a i s s e z -f a i r e p r i n c i p l e s r e s u l t e d i n t h e u n d e r p r o v i s i o n o f e d u c a -t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , but i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h s o c i a l c a u s e s and c o m m e r c i a l e f f e c t s w i t h o u t f i r s t s e p a r a t i n g out a number o f d i s c r e t e e conomic f a c t o r s . L e v e l s of i n d u s t r i a l u n i o n i z a t i o n , c a p i t a l and l a b o u r r a t i o s and wage r a t e s may a l l be d e t e r m i n e d and g i v e n r e l a t i v e w e i g h t i n g s , a l t h o u g h the d e g r e e to which t h e s e a r e s o c -19 i a l r a t h e r than economic m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i s a r g u a b l e . F i n a l l y , a l t h o u g h l e v e l s of p e d a g o g i c a l p r o v i s i o n may a l s o be e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between e d u c a t i o n a l b u d g e t s and n a t i o n a l economic s u c c e s s r e m a i n s open t o • 4- 20 c o n j e c t u r e . In o t h e r a r e a s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n : We s h o u l d be c o n c e r n e d w i t h what r o l e - p l a y i n g t a k e s p l a c e i n s c h o o l s , whence t h e r o l e s a r e de-r i v e d , what models a r e p o s e d by s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s , what r e f e r e n c e g r o u p s the s c h o o l produced,, what i s the e v a l u a t i v e a u d i e n c e , and from what s o u r c e s t h e p u p i l forms h i s c o n c e p t of s e l f . 2 1 P a r t i a l answers to the above q u e s t i o n s a r e p o s s i b l e s i n c e the c h a r a c t e r - d e v e l o p i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l s were so o v e r t and w e l l , d e f i n e d and because t h e i r a c c e p t a b l e r o l e models had so narrow a s c o p e . We can a s s e s s w i t h some a c c u r a c y t h e e x t e n t p a r t i c u l a r g e n e r a t i o n s d i s p l a y e d p u b l i c - s c h o o l - s t y l e b e h a v i o u r and s u p p o r t e d the p e r p e t u a t i o n o f c e r t a i n v a l u e s i n the i n -s t i t u t i o n s and i n t h e i r own o f f s p r i n g . I t i s t r u e t h a t p o s t f a c t o s o c i o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t e n s u p p l i e s c o n c l u s i o n s of a n e b u l o u s n a t u r e a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e n o t i o n t h a t p u b l i c s c h o o l s f o s t e r e d a d u l t l i f e - s t y l e s 22 based on t h e ' s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r ' c o n c e p t . I n f o r m a t i o n o f t h i s s o r t o f t e n c l o u d s r a t h e r than c l e a r s the i s s u e . However, we can e v a l u a t e w i t h some c o n c r e t e n e s s t h e s o r t s o f s o c i a l i s s u e s which V i c t o r i a n s p e r c e i v e d as 'pr o b l e m s ' and the way i n which e d u c a t i o n was i n t e n d e d to d e a l 23 w i t h t h e s e . In t h i s l a s t r e g a r d , our o p i n i o n of t h e i r p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n system may be s h a r p e n e d by c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t : The t r a d i t i o n a l b u s i n e s s o f e d u c a t i o n w i t h the p r o c e s s o f c u l t u r a l t r a n s m i s s i o n i s p e r f o r m e d i n q u i t e new terms under th e new c o n d i t i o n s of t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y . No l o n g e r i s i t a q u e s t i o n of h a n d i n g on an u n c h a n g i n g or o n l y s l o w l y c h a n g i n g body o f knowledge.and b e l i e f . On t h e c o n t r a r y , e d u c a t i o n i n modern s o c i e t i e s has more to do w i t h c h a n g i n g knowl edge - than w i t h c o n s e r v i n g i t . 2 4 In t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , of c o u r s e , we a r e l e f t w i t h the r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s o f whether b u s i n e s s m e n were g o v e r n e d by p u b l i c s c h o o l n o t i o n s and whether the a c -t i v i t i e s o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s had s i g n i f i c a n t economic i m p a c t . W h i l e w i s h i n g t o t i g h t e n the c a u s a l l i n k be-tween e d u c a t i o n a n d . e c o n o m i c s , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t no c a t e g o r i c a l answers w i l l be f o u n d f o r t h e economy as a whole. However, a m e t h o d i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e i d e a s , a c t o r s and s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v e d w i l l s o l v e p r o b -lems of l a n g u a g e , e x p e c t a t i o n , and p o t e n t i a l , and such s h a d i n g - i n of t h e V i c t o r i a n m i c r o - b a c k g r o u n d may y i e l d 2 5 a s i l h o u e t t e o f the d e s i r e d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n n e c t i o n . A c o n s i d e r a b l e l a c u n a e x i s t s i n economic h i s -t o r y , both w i t h r e s p e c t , t o t h e e d u c a t i o n r e c e i v e d by many b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s and to t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s of p a r -t i c u l a r f i r m s and i n d u s t r i e s . Much l i t e r a t u r e e x i s t s on famous e n t r e p r e n e u r s w h i l e r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i n f o r -m a t i o n has. been g a t h e r e d on i n d i v i d u a l s who were un-s u c c e s s f u l . E x a m i n a t i o n of d a t a f o r t h e ' s o m e t h i n g -wrong' V i c t o r i a n i n d u s t r i e s such as c o a l , t e x t i l e s , c h e m i c a l s , s h i p b u i l d i n g , and b o o t s and s h o e s , would 2 p r o v i d e c l u e s to t h e c o m m o n a l i t i e s o f b u s i n e s s f a i l u r e . On the o t h e r hand, s t u d y o f an i n d u s t r y such as l i g h t e l e c t r i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g , which was a c c o r d e d a r e p u t a t i o n f o r e f f i c i e n t p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e V i c t o r i a n e r a , c o u l d s u p p l y complementary i n f o r m a t i o n . In any c a s e , economy-wide g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s w i l l be of l i t t l e v a l u e u n l e s s t h e y a r e grounded i n a s p e c i f i a b l e a r e a o f c o n g r u e n c e 27 such as e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t . R e s e a r c h p o s s i b i l -i t i e s i n t h i s f i e l d a r e , t h u s , s u b s t a n t i a l . S t i l l f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h c o u l d p r o f i t a b l y examine the c u r r i c u l a o f s t u d i e s and l a t e r b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s of p a r t i c u l a r p u b l i c s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s . S c h o o l d a t a c o u l d i n c l u d e h o u r s o f s t u d y per s u b j e c t , t e x t s and o t h e r equipment a v a i l a b l e , t r a i n i n g of m a s t e r s , p r i z e s a w a r -2 8 ded and c a r e e r p a t t e r n s of c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . B u s i n e s s s u c c e s s c o u l d be a s s e s s e d i n terms of s h a r e d i v i d e n d r e c o r d s , p r o f i t - s p l i t t i n g i n terms o f p a r t n e r s h i p s , growth o f m a r k e t - s h a r e p e r c e n t a g e s , and the e x p a n s i o n of f i r m s and p e r s o n a l e s t a t e s , or t h e i r o b v e r s e , bus-i n e s s f a i l u r e s , t a k e - o v e r s and p e r s o n a l b a n k r u p t c i e s . C o r r e l a t i o n s may a l s o be p u r s u e d between d i f f e r i n g l e v e l s o f p o s t - s e c o n d a r y b u s i n e s s , s c i e n c e or t e c h n i c a l 29 t r a i n i n g and l a t e r b u s i n e s s a c h i e v e m e n t . P r o s o p o g r a p h i c a l r e v i e w s of b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s , w h i l e s e r v i n g to " b i n d t o g e t h e r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and 157 i n s t i t u t i o n a l h i s t o r y on the one hand and p e r s o n a l b i o -graphy on the o t h e r , " 3 ^ w i l l s u p p l y f u r t h e r v a l u a b l e m a t e r i a l i f th e y a v o i d an e l i t e f o c u s and a p r e s e n t i s t p e r s p e c t i v e . The a c c e p t a n c e o f s t a t e h o n o u rs by bus-i n e s s m e n , f o r example, may be more a s i g n of s l a c k e n i n g d r i v e and accommodation than b u s i n e s s s u c c e s s and s h o u l d be a s s e s s e d i n t h i s l i g h t . 3 ' ' ' C o n t a i n m e n t t h r o u g h c o - o p t i o n i s o f t e n t h e t a c t i c of a sys t e m i n which " c o n c e n s u s i s n o t so much the p r o d u c t of compromise as 32 o f e l i t e a s c e n d e n c y and i t s a c c e p t a n c e . " As a r e s u l t , a l t e r n a t i v e a r e a s o f V i c t o r i a n b u s i n e s s h i s t o r y s h o u l d be t a r g e t t e d . A g a i n , many p r o m i s i n g avenues a r e a v a i l -33 a b l e to t h e r e s e a r c h e r . F i n a l l y , i f we a c c e p t t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t "an e f f e c t i v e b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e i s one i n which growth 34 and change a r e i n t e n d e d and p l a n n e d f o r , " we may f o l l o w up D a v i d L a n d e s ' c o n t e n t i o n t h a t i m p o r t a n t and v e r i f i a b l e l i n k s e x i s t between f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and i n d u s t r i a l p r o g r e s s . 3 " ' Such a s t u d y would i n v o l v e an i n - d e p t h a n a l y s i s of ' c o u n t e r f a c t u a l ' d a t a i n which the p r o f i t a b i l i t y o f a l t e r n a t i v e economic c h o i -ces a v a i l a b l e t o V i c t o r i a n b u s i n e s s m e n i s a s s e s s e d . The c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d c o u l d , a g a i n , be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r i e s of the i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . Such f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h s h o u l d i n c r e a s i n g l y sub-s t a n t i a t e t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e h i g h d e g r e e o f i n i m i -c a b i l i t y to i n d u s t r y d i s p l a y e d by t h e v a r i o u s p u b l i c 158 s c h o o l s had a d i r e c t b e a r i n g on B r i t a i n ' s economic d e c l i n e . In summary, t h i s t h e s i s has c o n t e n d e d t h a t pub-l i c s c h o o l i n g c o n s t i t u t e d t h e main, but e c o n o m i c a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e , t r a i n i n g or i n f l u e n c e f o r B r i t a i n ' s l a t e - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y l e a d e r s h i p . A r n o l d Lunn, r o -m a n t i c i z i n g a b o u t Harrow, i n d i c a t e d t h e c l e a r l y e l i t i s t and f r e q u e n t l y a n t i - i n t e l l e c t u a l b i a s e s of t h i s e d u c a -t i o n : In t h e o l d days i f a man was a g e n t l e m a n he d i d n ' t need f u r t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n , d i d he? There was s o m e t h i n g a t t r a c t i v e i n t h e i n d o l e n t r e s i g n a t i o n to t h e t h e o r y t h a t P u b l i c S c h o o l s e x i s t e d t o t u r n out gentlemen, n o t s c h o l a r s . 3 7 F aced w i t h a s m a l l - s c a l e s h i f t i n f o c u s from games to more p r a c t i c a l s t u d i e s , L u n n 1 s hero a l s o d i s p l a y e d t h e a n t i - c o m m e r c i a l i s m which was t y p i c a l o f t h e o l d s c h o o l s : I t ' s r a t h e r , m e l a n c h o l y , t h i s c r a v i n g f o r com-m e r c i a l knowledge. However, i t i s n ' t as i f i t d i s p l a n t e d a y e a r n i n g f o r l e s s s o r d i d c u l t u r e . In my day a boy d i d n ' t b o t h e r to a c q u i r e an edu-c a t i o n , c u l t u r e d or c o m m e r c i a l , i f he was i n t h e r u n n i n g f o r h i s f l a n n e l s . 3 8 With o r w i t h o u t th e d i s t i n c t i o n o f f o o t b a l l f l a n n e l s , men who went from such s c h o o l s to c o m m e r c i a l c a r e e r s o f t e n viewed b u s i n e s s as a s i d e - l i n e i n t h e i r l i v e s . In b uoyant e r a s t h e y saw o c c a s i o n s t o m i l k t h e i r f i r m s r a t h e r than o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o b u i l d them up. In t i m e s of economic change t h e y saw c y c l e s r a t h e r than t r e n d s o p e r a t i n g . Such d i s p o s i t i o n s had p r o f o u n d economic c o n s e q u e n c e s s i n c e t h e s e p u b l i c s c h o o l e d i n d i -v i d u a l s , though s m a l l i n r e l a t i v e numbers, u n e n t h u s i a s t i c and m a r g i n a l l y q u a l i f i e d , f r e q u e n t l y h e l d key p o s t s i n the i n d u s t r i a l and c o m m e r c i a l s e c t o r s which were 39 s t i l l m a i n l y c o n t r o l l e d by f a m i l y f i r m s . T h i s was one s o u r c e o f V i c t o r i a n i n d u s t r y ' s l a t e r u n c o m p e t i t i v e -n e s s . O t h e r r e a s o n s f o r economic d e c l i n e were t h e g e n e r a l l a c k of b u s i n e s s awareness among B r i t a i n ' s n o n - c o m m e r c i a l e l i t e and a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l a c k of i n -f l u e n c e f o r the 'hard-way' men and t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s o f the economy. I t may be a s k e d whether the p u b l i c s c h o o l s , h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l a t p r e p a r i n g boys f o r p o s i t i o n s o f i m p e r i a l l e a d e r s h i p , s h o u l d be f a u l t e d f o r n e g l e c t i n g the r a n g e o f t r a i n i n g needed f o r e f f e c t i v e i n d u s t r i a l management. Or p e r h a p s , as Ian Weinberg p h r a s e d i t : The q u e s t i o n i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y whether or not an e l i t e l a r g e l y r e c r u i t e d from the p u b l i c s c h o o l s or a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e norms and v a l u e s of the s y s t e m can e n s u r e the t r a n s i t i o n o f the c o u n t r y from an i m p e r i a l to a v i a b l e economic r o l e . ^ 1 John S t u a r t M i l l may have s u p p l i e d an answer to some of t h e s e c o n c e r n s when he s u g g e s t e d t h a t " t h e a d o p t i o n of a l l the p r i n c i p a l a b i l i t y of t h e c o u n t r y i n t o the gov-e r n i n g body i s f a t a l , s o o n e r o r l a t e r , t o the me n t a l 42 a c t i v i t y and p r o g r e s s i v e n e s s of the body i t s e l f . " Such a p r o c e s s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e t r o g r a d e when accom-p a n i e d by t h e s e l f - s a t i s f i e d a s s u r a n c e and s e l f -r i g h t e o u s i m p e r m e a b i l i t y to new t h o u g h t and f r e s h b l o o d which marked the p u b l i c s c h o o l s . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the n a t i o n ' s d e c l i n e must a l s o 160 r e s t , i n p a r t , on t h e i r p r e d o m i n a n c e i n the supreme 43 g o v e r n i n g c o u n c i l s o f P a r l i a m e n t and the C a b i n e t . As i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , i n d i v i d u a l i t y was not a t r a i t g e n e r a l l y e n c o u r a g e d by V i c t o r i a n i n s t i t u t i o n s , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t : . . . the p o l i t i c a l c o m p l e x i o n of t h e government of t h e day made l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e . These were men o f s i m i l a r b a c k g r o u n d s s t e e p e d i n the same t r a d i t i o n s and d e e p l y i n f l u e n c e by t h e e t h o s o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l s and O x b r i d g e . ^ In a s l i g h t l y w i d e r c o n t e x t , i t i s a l s o a p p a r e n t t h a t : What we now c a l l t h e ' e s t a b l i s h m e n t ' : p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s , the C i v i l S e r v i c e and t h o s e who s a t on the b o a r d s of t h e c h i e f i n d u s t r i a l companies . . . were, o f c o u r s e , , the v i c t i m s of a n a c h r o n i s t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s - the E n g l i s h c l a s s s y s t e m and t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . 4-5 T h i s s i t u a t i o n d i d n o t a l t e r a p p r e c i a b l y d u r i n g t h e V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d , and i t may be c o n c l u d e d t h a t such was 46 the i n t e n t o f the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s i n v o l v e d . One s t e l l a r member of t h i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t , W i l -l i a m C a v e n d i s h , S e v e n t h Duke of D e v o n s h i r e , was a t r u e V i c t o r i a n p o l y m a t h : an a c c o m p l i s h e d s c h o l a r ( s e -cond w r a n g l e r and F i r s t S m i t h ' s P r i z e m a n a t Cambridge i n 1829), an i n n o v a t i v e e n t r e p r e n e u r and s u c c e s s f u l i n d u s t r i a l i s t who e a r n e d , r a t h e r than s u c c e e d e d t o , g r e a t w e a l t h and was p o p u l a r l y known, a f t e r the m i d - c e n t u r y , a s . t h e s e c o n d I r o n Duke, a g e n e r o u s p h i l a n t h r o p i s t ( f o u n d e r o f C a v e n d i s h C o l l e g e and the g r e a t C a v e n d i s h L a b o r a t o r y a t C a m b r i d g e ) , and a w i d e l y r e s p e c t e d l e a d e r , whether as f i r s t p r e s i d e n t of the I r o n and S t e e l I n s t i -t u t e , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n e r , or C h a n c e l l o r of Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y . An exemplar f o r h i s e r a , C a v e n d i s h was e u l o g i z e d by The Times as a " l i b e r a l p a t r o n o f t h e a r t s , and a s u p p o r t e r of e v e r y good measure f o r t h e a m e l i o r a t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e and t h e advancement of the 47 c l a i m s o f e d u c a t i o n and s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h . " He s e e m i n g l y i n c o r p o r a t e d a l l t h e f a c e t s o f t h e age, i n -c l u d i n g a t l e a s t one which may ap p e a r i n c o n g r u o u s but i s , i n f a c t , h i g h l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . D e s p i t e a s p e c t a c u l a r c a r e e r , i n l a t e r l i f e C a v e n d i s h viewed h i s e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t s and c o m m e r c i a l s u c c e s s as f u n d a -m e n t a l l i a b i l i t i e s w h i c h , as he s a i d , "made him u n f i t t o e x e r c i s e t h e p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e t h a t h i s p o s i t i o n 48 and w e a l t h b r o u g h t t o him." No l e s s d i s t i n g u i s h e d than C a v e n d i s h , but d e c i d e d l y l e s s h e s i t a n t and s e l f - e f f a c i n g , B e r t r a n d R u s s e l l saw c l e a r l y t h a t , w h i l e " e d u c a t i o n ought t o f o s t e r t h e wish f o r t r u t h , n o t the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t some 49 p a r t i c u l a r c r e e d i s t h e t r u t h , " i n r e a l i t y V i c t o r i a n p u b l i c s c h o o l s were i n d e n t u r e d i n the i d e o l o g i c a l s e r -v i c e o f a r e s t r i c t e d c l a s s and w o r l d view, both r e n d o -l e n t of l a n g u i d s u p e r i o r i t y i n an age o f dynamic c h a l -l e n g e . As he r e c o g n i z e d : E d u c a t i o n i s , as a r u l e , t h e s t r o n g e s t f o r c e on th e s i d e o f what e x i s t s and a g a i n s t f u n d a m e n t a l change; t h r e a t e n e d i n s t i t u t i o n s , w h i l e t h e y a r e s t i l l p o w e r f u l , p o s s e s s t h e m s e l v e s o f the educa-:'. t i o n a l machine and i n s t i l l a r e s p e c t f o r t h e i r own^Q s u p e r i o r i t y i n t o the m a l l e a b l e minds of the young. and, f o r t h i s r e a s o n , he c o n c l u d e d t h a t " t h e a r i s t o -c r a t i c t r a d i t i o n embedded i n B r i t i s h h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n 162 51 i s i t s bane." A s o c i e t y or a s c h o o l s y s t e m a b l e to i n h i b i t a man w i t h the a b i l i t y of C a v e n d i s h , o r e x a s p e r a t e one w i t h R u s s e l l ' s v i s i o n , may be termed p o w e r f u l w i t h o u t , u l t i m a t e l y , b e i n g j u d g e 'good'. Nor can t h e s e be c o n -s i d e r e d ' e f f e c t i v e ' or ' s u c c e s s f u l ' i f , i n the p u r s u i t o f r e s t r i c t e d a g endas, t h e y r e t a r d r a t h e r than advance the f o r t u n e s of the s t a t e . S c h o o l i n g which f o r c e s i t s s t u d e n t s i n t o a p r e d i c t a b l e mould does n o t , as R u s s e l l would have a r g u e d , engage i n ' t r u e ' e d u c a t i o n s i n c e t h i s u l t i m a t e l y t e a c h e s how i t can be undone. Not j u s t c o n t i n u i t i e s , but ways of d i s o b e d i e n c e , r e j e c t i o n o f modes and models, and a w areness o f the o u t d a t e d n e s s o f i d e a s must p l a y t h e i r p a r t i n t h e empowerment, as op-posed to the c o n t a i n m e n t , of s t u d e n t s . No d o u b t : In o r d e r t o s u r v i v e an i n s t i t u t i o n must f u l f i l two c o n d i t i o n s : i t must be s i g n i f i c a n t l y s t a b l e to s u s t a i n t h e i d e a l w hich gave i t b i r t h and s u f f i c i e n t l y r e s p o n s i v e t o r e m a i n r e l e v a n t t o t h e s o c i e t y which s u p p o r t s i t . - * ^ However, as i n t h e c a s e o f V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n , the l e a -d e r s h i p o f a n a t i o n , a l o n g w i t h th e i n s t i t u t i o n s which s u p p o r t and the i d e a l s which a c t i v a t e i t , may e ndure w e l l a f t e r a l l a r e i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e age. They then m e r e l y p r e s i d e o v e r , or i n c r e a s i n g l y p r e c i p i t a t e , t h e d e c l i n e of the g e n e r a l s o c i e t y . R u s s e l l ' o b s e r v e d t h a t : The b a t t l e o f W a t e r l o o may have been won on the p l a y i n g f i e l d s o f E t o n , but t h e B r i t i s h Empire i s b e i n g l o s t t h e r e . The modern w o r l d needs a d i f f e r e n t t y p e , w i t h more i m a g i n a t i v e sympathy, more i n t e l l e c t u a l suppleness,- l e s s b e l i e f i n b u l l d o g c o u r a g e and more b e l i e f i n t e c h n i c a l knowledge. To t h e i r d i s g r a c e b u t , more i m p o r t a n t l y , to B r i t a i n ' s d e t r i m e n t , t h e g r e a t p u b l i c s c h o o l s of t h e r e a l m were n o t the s o u r c e o f t h i s new man. FOOTNOTES 164 G. B. Shaw, D o c t o r s ' D e l u s i o n s , Crude Crim-i n o l o g y and Sham E d u c a t i o n (London p. 346. C o n s t a b l e , 1932), I b i d , p. 342. I b i d . C. B a r n e t t , The C o l l a p s e 1 9 7 2 ) , o f B r i t i s h Power (London: E y r e Methuenj 2 ) , p~. 37. M. 3. Wiener, E n g l i s h c u l t u r e and the d e c l i n e o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l  s p i r i t ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , T 9 8 1 ) , ~p~. 17, i n d i c a t e s t h a t a c o m m e r c i a l r e s u l t of t h i s e t h o s was "a d e s i r e t o m a i n t a i n s t a b i l i t y and o r d e r f a r o u t -weighed t h e d e s i r e t o maximize i n d i v i d u a l or n a t i o n a l • w e a l t h . " (New Y o r k : R. de S. Honey, Tom. Brown's U n i v e r s e New York Times. Book Co. , 1977) , p. 228. A. H u x l e y , Limbo (New Y o r k : George H. Doran, 1920), p. 7, makes s p o r t o f c l a s s i c a l p r e t e n s i o n w i t h th e d e s c r i p t i o n of one m a s t e r : " C o p t h o r n e - S l a z e n g e r r e g a r d e d h i m s e l f as the p e r f e c t example o f mens sana  i n c o r p o r e sano, t h e s o u l of an. E n g l i s h gentleman i n t h e body o f a Greek god. U n f o r t u n a t e l y h i s l e g s were r a t h e r t o o s h o r t and h i s l o w e r l i p was underhung l i k e a salmon's . " R. L i v i n g s t o n e , P l a t o and  ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , t r a n s l a t e s as " F o r t h e sake, o f l i v e l i h o o d what makes l i f e worth l i v i n g . " Modern E d u c a t i o n 1944), t o P l o s e 32, R. A r i s t o t l e , McKeon (New York The B a s i c Works of A r i s t o t l e , ed, Random House, 1968), p. 1308. Honey, Tom Brown's. U n i v e r s e , p. 131. "^0. MacDonagh, "Government, I n d u s t r y and S c i -ence i n 1 9 t h C e n t u r y B r i t a i n : A P a r t i c u l a r S t u d y , " H i s t o r i c a l S t u d i e s XVI ( O c t o b e r 1975), p. 515. E. (London T e c h n o l o g y and the A c a d e m i c s M a c m i l l a n Ashby, 1958), p. 49, adds t h a t B r i t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s " n e v e r q u i t e s u r r e n d e r e d t h e i d e a o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e Man t o the i d e a o f t h e R e s e a r c h Worker." 165 "'""'"L. S t o n e , " L i t e r a c y and E d u c a t i o n i n E n g l a n d , 1640-1900," P a s t and P r e s e n t X L I I ( F e b r u a r y 1969), p. 133. 45 1 2 " C h r e s t o m a t h i a , ". .  W e s t m i n s t e r Review I (1824) "^R. H. Tawney, The R a d i c a l T r a d i t i o n (Harmonds-wor t h , M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n Books, 1964), p~. 68. 14 P. H. 3. H. Gosden and A. 3. T a y l o r , e d s . , S t u d i e s i n the H i s t o r y .of a U n i v e r s i t y (Leeds!: E. 3. A r n o l d , 1975), p. 2. 1 5 S e e D. V. G l a s s and 3. R. H a l l , " S o c i a l Mo-b i l i t y i n G r e a t B r i t a i n : A Study o f I n t e r - G e n e r a t i o n a l Changes i n S t a t u s , " i n D. V. G l a s s , ed., S o c i a l M o b i l i t y  i n B r i t a i n ( London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1 9 5 4 ) , pp. 177-217. "^R. V. Clements., Managers!: A Study o f T h e i r  C a r e e r s i n I n d u s t r y (London: George A l l e n and Unwin, 1958), p. 32. ^^3. H. G o l d t h o r p e , . S o c i a l M o b i l i t y and C l a s s  S t r u c t u r e i n Modern. B r i t a i n ( O x f o r d : . C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1980), i n d i c a t e s t h a t . i n t i m e s of economic p r e s s u r e we may e x p e c t even l e s s s o c i a l o p e n n e s s , a t a t i m e when more i s most d e s i r a b l e . 1 8W. L. Guttsman, The B r i t i s h P o l i t i c a l E l i t e ( London: MacGibbbn and Kee^ 1 9 6 3 ) , p~. 388. 19 A. L. L e v i n e , I n d u s t r i a l R e t a r d a t i o n i n  B r i t a i n ( London: W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1967), pp. 76-78, d i s c u s s e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a low-wage economy and t e c h n o l o g i c a l b a c k w a r d n e s s . 20 E. G. West, " E d u c a t i o n a l Slowdown and p u b l i c i n t e r v e n t i o n i n n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l a n d : a s t u d y i n the e c o n o m i c s o f bureaucracy, 1.! E x p l o r a t i o n s i n Econ-omic H i s t o r y X I I ( 1 9 7 5 ) , pp. 61-87, c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e T a t e - V i c t o r i a n economic d e c l i n e may c o r r e l a t e w i t h t h e s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e which f o l l o w e d t h e c o n s o l i d a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n i n 1870. th e 21 C. M. T u r n e r , " S o c i o l o g i c a l A p p r o a c h e s t o tn e H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n , " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of Educa-t i o n a l S o c i o l o g y XVII (3une 1969), p. 151. 166 C. H. C o o l e y , Human N a t u r e and the S o c i a l  O rder (New Y o r k : S c h o c k e r B r o o k s , 1964), d i s c u s s e s t h e t h e o r y t h a t b e h a v i o u r i s d e t e r m i n e d m a i n l y by an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f h i s e f f e c t on o t h e r s . T h i s may p r o v e a p o w e r f u l c o n c e p t f o r t h e s t u d y o f V i c t o r i a n p u b l i c s c h o o l s g i v e n the h i g h d e g r e e of o t h e r - d i r e c t e d n e s s a p p a r e n t i n t h e i r s t u d e n t s . 2 3 T u r n e r , " S o c i o l o g i c a l A p p r o a c h e s , " p. 148, adds t h a t p r o b l e m - d e f i n i t i o n i s a u s e f u l i n d i c a t o r o f s o c i a l v a l u e s s i n c e : "The d e f i n i n g o f a s o c i a l p r o b l e m i s a f f e c t e d by the d e g r e e to which i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t i t i s amenable t o any k i n d of s o l u t i o n . What a p p a r e n t l y c a n n o t be changed, i s n o t viewed as a s o c i a l p r o b -lem but an u n f o r t u n a t e c o n d i t i o n . " 3. Ryder and H. S i l v e r , Modern E n g l i s h Soc-i e t y : H i s t o r y and S t r u c t u r e , 1850-1970 (London: Methuen, 1970), p~. J~. I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t l a t e -V i c t o r i a n e d u c a t o r s o f t e n i n t e r p r e t e d the p r e s e r v a t i v e f u n c t i o n s o f p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g as a c u s t o d i a l mandate which i n v o l v e d l i t t l e or no r e q u i r e m e n t f o r a d a p t a t i o n . In c o m p a r i s o n , P. L u n d g r e e n , " E d u c a t i o n f o r the S c i e n c e -based I n d u s t r i a l S t a t e ? The c a s e f o r n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Germany," H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n X I I I ( 1 9 8 4 ) , pp. 59-67, d i s c u s s e s t h e d e g r e e to which Germany, a l s o r u l e d by a c o n s e r v a t i v e e l i t e , u t i l i z e d new c i r c u m s t a n c e s t o f o s t e r a m o d e r n i z a t i o n from above. Any a t t e m p t to a s c r i b e i n t e n t i o n and i n f l u -ence t o h i s t o r i c a l . . i n d i v i d u a l s i n e v i t a b l y r a i s e s d e b a t e c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r f r e e w i l l and power t o a f f e c t contem-p o r a r y e v e n t s , as. w e l l as the d e g r e e to which p r e f e r -e nces may be i n c u l c a t e d . A s t u d y which a s p i r e s to s u b s t a n t i a t i o n s h o u l d a s s u m e . t h a t man i s r a t i o n a l and forms o r changes a t t i t u d e s i n r e s p o n s e to a r g u -ment and t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of. i n f o r m a t i o n , both of which may be l a t e r r e c o n s t r u c t e d . A c c o r d i n g to F e l i x G r a u b e r t , " I n t e l l e c t u a l H i s t o r y : I t s Aims and Methods," i n F. G i l b e r t and S. G r a u b a r d , eds., H i s t o r i c a l S t u d i e s  Today (New Y o r k : N o r t o n , 1972), p. 155, we s h o u l d assume t h a t : "Whatever one t h i n k s of t h e f o r c e s t h a t u n d e r l i e t h e h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s , t h e y a r e f i l t e r e d t h r o u g h th e human mind and t h i s d e t e r m i n e s t h e tempo and th e manner i n which t h e y work. I t i s human c o n -s c i o u s n e s s which c o n n e c t s t h e l o n g - r a n g e f a c t o r s and f o r c e s and t h e i n d i v i d u a l e v e n t . " G. R o d e r i c k and M. S t e p h e n s , e d s . , Where Did  We Go Wrong? (Barcombe, Lewes: The F a l m e r P r e s s , 1981), p. 18. 167 27 D. N. M c C l o s k e y and L. G. Sandberg, "From Damnation t o Redemption: Judgments on t h e L a t e V i c -t o r i a n E n t r e p r e n e u r , " E x p l o r a t i o n s i n Economic H i s t o r y 9 (1971), p. 96, d e r i d e q u a l i t a t i v e argument by i s o l a t i o n w h i c h , i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , becomes "a m a t t e r of f a i t h r a t h e r t han f a c t . " 2 8 An a d m i r a b l e model i s fo u n d i n T. 3. H. B i s h o p and R. W i l k i n s o n , W i n c h e s t e r and the P u b l i c  S c h o o l E l i t e ( L ondon: F a b e r , 1 9 6 7 ) . 29 Numbers of p a t e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s may s e r v e as a g u i d e t o t h e i n n o v a t i v e n e s s o f p a r t i c u l a r f i r m s and i n d u s t r i e s . In t h e same way, i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a r e -p r e s e n t a t i v e sample o f g r a d u a t e s from s e l e c t e d s c h o o l s may i n d i c a t e w h ether, f o r i n s t a n c e , E t o n ' s r e s o l u t e a n t i - m a t e r i a l i s m o r the s c i e n t i f i c o u t l o o k of S a n d e r -son's Oundle had l a t e r , q u a n t i f i a b l e r e s u l t s . 3 ^ S t o n e , " P r o s o p o g r a p h y , " p. 134. "^R. A. Pumphrey, "The I n t r o d u c t i o n o f I n d u s -t r i a l i s t s i n t o the B r i t i s h P e e r a g e : A Study i n Adap-t a t i o n o f a S o c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n , " A merican H i s t o r i c a l  Review LXV ( O c t o b e r 1959), pp. 1-16, i n d i c a t e s t h a t V i c t o r i a n men of commerce were honoured more f o r o t h e r q u a l i t i e s than t h e i r b u s i n e s s acumen. 32 3. P. N e t t l , "Concensus or E l i t e D o m i n a t i o n : the c a s e o f Business.,,'.' P o l i t i c a l S t u d i e s 13 (196 5 ) , p. 41. 33 Some g u i d e l i n e s and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r p r o s o p o g r a p h y a r e f o u n d i n P. L. Payne, B r i t i s h E n t r e -p r e n e u r s h i p i n the N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y (London: M a c m i l l a n , 1974) , L~. S t o n e , " P r o s o p o g r a p h y , " p~. 135, and S. S h a p i n and A. T h a c k e r a y , " P r o s o p o g r a p h y as a. r e s e a r c h t o o l i n the h i s t o r y o f s c i e n c e , " H i s t o r y of S c i e n c e 12 ( 1 9 7 4 ) , pp. 1-28. 34 K. A. T u c k e r , " B u s i n e s s H i s t o r y : Some P r o -p o s a l s f o r Aims and M e t h o d o l o g y , " B u s i n e s s H i s t o r y XIV ( 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 3. 3 5 D. S. Landes, The Unbound Prometheus (Cam-b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969), pp. 343-358 . 3 ^ S e e T u c k e r , " B u s i n e s s H i s t o r y , " f o r a d i s -c u s s i o n o f c o u n t e r f a c t u a l m e t h o d o l o g y . A. Lunn, The H a r r o v i a n s (London: Methuen 1913), pp. 308-309. I b i d . , p. 309. 39 3. Rae, The P u b l i c S c h o o l R e v o l u t i o n ( L o n -don: F a b e r , 1981), p. 282, o f f e r s a modern summary of t h i s syndrome: "The p u b l i c s c h o o l system i s t h e g r e a t e s t s i n g l e s o u r c e of the p r e s e n t B r i t i s h mal-a i s e which . . . t a k e s the f o r m , C e n t a u r - l i k e of a m a t e u r i s m a t t h e top and l a c k of o p p o r t u n i t y below." 40 N e t t l , "Concensus or E l i t e D o m i n a t i o n , " p. 23, b e l i e v e s t h a t : ". . . i n the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n s t i t u t i o n s o f government on t h e one hand and b u s i n e s s on. the other,, t h e l a c k of s o c i a l i d e n -t i t y o f t h e l a t t e r has been f o s t e r e d , e x p l o i t e d an pre-empted by government . . . and t h i s has l e d to s o m e t h i n g l i k e , s c h i z o p h r e n i a i n the w o r l d of bus-i n e s s . " . I . Weinberg, The E n g l i s h P u b l i c S c h o o l (New Y o r k : A t h e r t o n , 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 5. 42 Oobn S t u a r t M i l l , E s s e n t i a l Works o f 3ohn  S t u a r t M i l l , ed. M. L e r n e r ..(New York: Bantam, 1965 ), p. 358. R. M a c l e o d and R. M o s e l e y , "The ' N a t u r a l s ' and V i c t o r i a n C a mbridge," O x f o r d Review o f E d u c a t i o n VI ( 1 9 8 0 ) , p. 178, i n d i c a t e t h a t Baden P o w e l l h e l d a s i m i l a r view w i t h r e s p e c t to s c i e n c e : " I f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge i s r a p i d l y s p r e a d i n g amongst a l l c l a s s e s e x c e p t t h e h i g h e r . . . the c o n s e q u e n c e must be t h a t t h a t c l a s s w i l l not l o n g remain the h i g h e r . " 43 T. W. Bamford, R i s e o f the P u b l i c S c h o o l s (London: N e l s o n , 1967), p. 229, s t a t e s t h a t between o n e - t h i r d and o n e - h a l f of M. P.s between 1734 and 1935 were p u b l i c s c h o o l men. B i s h o p and W i l k i n s o n , W i n c h e s t e r and t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l E l i t e , pp. 34-35, i n d i c a t e t h a t c a b i n e t membership was n e v e r l e s s t h a n f i f t y p e r c e n t p u b l i c s c h o o l e d between 1801 and 1924. R o d e r i c k and S t e p h e n s , e d s . , Where Did We  Go Wrong?, p. 227. ^ G . C. A l l e n , The B r i t i s h D i s e a s e (London: I n s t i t u t e o f Economic A f f a i r s , 1976) , p~. 48. 169 46 H. G. Judge, "The E n g l i s h P u b l i c S c h o o l : H i s t o r y and S o c i e t y , " H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y 22 ( W i n t e r 1982), p. 513, i n d i c a t e s t h a t the modern s i t u a t i o n o f the s c h o o l s i s r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r : " T h e r e i s , f o r good or i l l , n o t h i n g q u i t e l i k e t h e E n g l i s h P u b l i c S c h o o l . Nor i s t h e r e any easy way to d i s e n t a n g l e from the f a b r i c of E n g l i s h s o c i a l h i s t o r y s i n c e ( a t t h e e a r l i e s t ) 1800 t h e r e a s o n s f o r i t s v i g o r o u s s u r v i v a l , i t s a d a p t i v e powers, i t s dominance o f the E n g l i s h e s t a b l i s h m e n t , i t s p r o m i n e n c e i n l i t e r a t u r e and p o l e m i c . " ^ 7 T h e Times, 22 December 1892, pp. 3-4. 48 3. G. Cro.wther, The C a v e n d i s h L a b o r a t o r y ,  18 74-1974 (New Y o r k : S c i e n c e H i s t o r y P u b l i c a t i o n s , L 974), p. 22. 49 / B. R u s s e l l , S e l e c t e d P a p e r s (New Y ork: Random House, 1927), p. 97. 5 0 I b i d . , p. 98. 3"*"B. R u s s e l l , E d u c a t i o n and t h e Good L i f e (New Y o r k : B o n i and L i v e r i g h t , 1926), p~. 55. R U s s e l l ' s i n s t i n c t i v e l y i c o n o c l a s t i c a p p r o a c h t o s o c i a l i s s u e s and well-known i d e o l o g i c a l s t a n c e s need not impede a c c e p t a n c e of h i s v i e w s . In the same way, the f a c t t h a t R u s s e l l n e v e r a t t e n d e d a p u b l i c s c h o o l and s o u g h t a l t e r n a t i v e e d u c a t i o n f o r h i s c h i l d r e n , does not r e -duce h i s i m p o r t a n c e as a commentator b u t , r a t h e r , l e n d s h i s o p i n i o n s the power o f c r i t i c a l d i s t a n c e . 52 E. Ashby, U n i v e r s i t i e s : B r i t i s h , I n d i a n ,  A f r i c a n ( L o n d o n : W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1966), p. 3. 53 R u s s e l l , E d u c a t i o n and the Good L i f e , p. 55. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 170 A. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES A l d c r o f t , D. H., ed. The Development o f B r i t i s h I n d u s -t r y and F o r e i g n C o m p e t i t i o n , 1875-1914. London: George A l l e n and Unwin, 1968. A l l e n , G. C. The B r i t i s h D i s e a s e . London: I n s t i t u t e o f Economic A f f a i r s , 1976. Annan, N. L e s l i e S t e p h e n . London: MacGibbon and Kee, 1951. . Roxburgh of Stowe. London: Longmans, Green, 1965. A r i s t o t l e . The B a s i c Works of A r i s t o t l e , E d i t e d by R. McKeon. New Y o r k : Random House, 1968. Armytage, W . „ H . G. C i v i c U n i v e r s i t i e s ; a s p e c t s o f a  B r i t i s h T r a d i t i o n . London: Benn, 1955. . Four Hundred Y e a r s of E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n . Cam-b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970. Ashby, E. T e c h n o l o g y and t h e A c a d e m i c s . London: M a c m i l l a n , 1958. . U n i v e r s i t i e s : B r i t i s h , I n d i a n , A f r i c a n . A Study i n the E c o l o g y of H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n . London: W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1966. A y e r , A. 3. P a r t o f My L i f e . London: C o l l i n s , 1977. B a g w e l l , P. S., and Mingay, G. E. B r i t a i n and A m e r i c a ,  1850-1939:. a s t o r y o f economic change. London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1970. Bamford, T. W. The R i s e o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s . London: N e l s o n , 1967. Banks, 3. A. P r o p e r t y and P a r e n t h o o d : A Study o f Fam-i l y P l a n n i n g Among the V i c t o r i a n M i d d l e C l a s s e s . London: R o u t l e d g e and P a u l , 1954. B a r n a r d , H. A H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n . London: U n i v e r s i t y d f London P r e s s , 1961. B a r n e t t , C. The S w o r d b e a r e r s : Supreme Command i n t h e  F i r s t World War. New Y o r k : Morrow, 1964. ' The C o l l a p s e of B r i t i s h Power. London: E y r e Methuen, 1972. B e r d a h l , R. 0. B r i t i s h U n i v e r s i t i e s and the S t a t e . B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1959. B e s t , G. F. A. M i d - V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n , 1851-75. London: W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1971. B i r k e n h e a d , E a r l o f . H a l i f a x : the L i f e o f L o r d H a l i -f a x . London: Hamish H a m i l t o n , 1965. B i r l e y , D. and D u f t o n , A. An E q u a l Chance: E q u a l i t i e s  and I n e q u a l i t i e s of E d u c a t i o n a l O p p o r t u n i t y . Lon-don: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1971. B i s h o p , T. 3. H., and W i l k i n s o n , R. W i n c h e s t e r and the  P u b l i c S c h o o l E l i t e . London: F a b e r , 1967. Bond, B. The V i c t o r i a n Army and the S t a f f C o l l e g e  1854-1914. London: E y r e Methuen, 1972. B o n n e t t , S. The P r i c e of . A d m i r a l t y : An I n d i c t m e n t  of t h e R o y a l Navy, 1805-1966. London: R o b e r t H a l e , 1968. Bowen, D. The Idea o f the V i c t o r i a n C h u r c h . M o n t r e a l : M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968. Bowie, 0. P o l i t i c s and O p i n i o n i n the N i n e t e e n t h Cen-t u r y : An H i s t o r i c a l I n t r o d u c t i o n . London: J o n -a t h a n Cape, 1954. B r a d l e y , I . The O p t i m i s t s : Themes and P e r s o n a l i t i e s  In V i c t o r i a n L i b e r a l i s m . London : F a b e r , 1980. B r i g g s , A. The Age o f Improvement, 1783-1867. London: Longmans, 1959. B r u b a c h e r , 3. S. A H i s t o r y o f t h e P r o b l e m s of E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : McGraw H i l l Books, 1966. B u c k l e y , 3. H. The V i c t o r i a n Temper: A Study i n L i t -e r a r y C u l t u r e . New Y o r k : V i n t a g e Books, 1951. Burn, W. L. The Age of E q u i p o i s e . New Y o r k : N o r t o n , 1964. B u r s t y n , 3. V i c t o r i a n E d u c a t i o n and t h e i d e a l of Wo-manhood.. London: Croom Helm, 1980. B y r n e , L. S. R., and C h u r c h i l l , E. L. C h a n g i n g E t o n . London: J o n a t h a n Cape, 1937. Cardwe11, D. S. L. The O r g a n i z a t i o n of S c i e n c e i n En g l a n d . London: Heinemann, 19 72. 172 Chapman, R. F a i t h and R e v o l t : S t u d i e s i n the L i t -e r a r y I n f l u e n c e o f the O x f o r d Movement. London: W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1970. C h e c k l a n d , S. G. The R i s e of I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y i n  E n g l a n d , 1815-1885. London: Longmans, 1964. C h u r c h , R. The Dynamics o f V i c t o r i a n B u s i n e s s : p r o b -lems and p e r s p e c t i v e s to t h e 1870s. London: A l l e n and Unwin, 1980. C l a r k e , M. L. C l a s s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t a i n , 1500-1900. Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959. C l e m e n t s , R. V. Managers.: A Study o f T h e i r C a r e e r s  i n I n d u s t r y . London: George A l l e n and Unwin, 1958. C o l e , G. D. H. S t u d i e s i n C l a s s S t r u c t u r e . London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1955. C o l l i n g w o o d , R. G. The Idea of H i s t o r y . London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966. C o n n e l l , W. F. The E d u c a t i o n Thought and I n f l u e n c e  of Matthew A r n o l d . . London: R.outledge and Kegan P a u l , 1950. C o n n o l l y , C. Enemies o f P r o m i s e . New Y o r k : Mac-m i l l a n , 1948. Cook, T. G., ed. E d u c a t i o n and the P r o f e s s i o n s . London: Methuen, 1973. C o o l e y , C. H. Human N a t u r e and the S o c i a l O r d e r . New Y o r k : S c h o c k e r B r o o k s , 1964. C o t t r e l l , P. L. B r i t i s h O v e r s e a s I n v e s t m e n t i n t h e  N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y . . London: M a c m i l l a n , 1975. C o u l t o n , G. G. A V i c t o r i a n Headmaster: Henry H a r t of  S e d b e r g h . London: G. B e l l and Sons, 1923. C o u r t , W. H. B. B r i t i s h Economic H i s t o r y , 1870-1914. Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. C r o w t h e r , 3. G. The C a v e n d i s h L a b o r a t o r y , 1874-1974. New Y o r k : S c i e n c e H i s t o r y P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1974. C u r t i s , S. 3.,.and B o l t w o o d , M. E. A.. An I n t r o d u c t o r y  H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n s i n c e 1800. London: U n i v e r s i t y T u t o r i a l P r e s s , 1966. D i l k e , C. Dr. M o b e r l y ' s M i n t - H a r k : A Study of Win-c h e s t e r C o l l e g e . London:. Heinemann, 1965. D o n a j g r o d z k i , A. P. S o c i a l C o n t r o l i n N i n e t e e n t h ' C e n t u r y B r i t a i n . London: Groom Helm, 1977. D r a p e r , F. W. M. F o u r C e n t u r i e s of M e r chant T a y l o r s '  S c h o o l , 1561-1961. London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962. Dunning, E., and S h e a r d , K. B a r b a r i a n s , Gentlemen and P l a y e r s : , A s o c i o l o g i c a l , s t u d y .of. the d e v e l o p -ment o f Rugby f o o t b a l l . . O x f o r d : , M a r t i n R o b e r t s o n 1979. D u n s t e r v i l l e , L. C. S t a l k y ' s R e m i n i s c e n c e s . London: J o n a t h a n Cape, 1928. Edgeworth, M., and Edgeworth, R. L. E s s a y s on P r a c -t i c a l E d u c a t i o n . London: Simpkin and M a r s h a l l , 1872. E r i c k s o n , C. B r i t i s h , I n d u s t r i a l i s t s : S t e e l and Hos-i e r y , 1850-1950. Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959. Evans, E. 3. The F o r g i n g o f t h e Modern S t a t e : E a r l y  I n d u s t r i a l B r i t a-t n , 1 783-1870. London: Longman, . 1983. F a b e r , G. C. O x f o r d A p o s t l e s : A C h a r a c t e r Study of  t h e O x f o r d Movement. Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n Books, 1954. F a r r a r , F. W. E r i c , or l i t t l e by l i t t l e . C h i c a g o : M c C l u r g , 1891. F i t c h , 3. E d u c a t i o n a l Aims and Methods. London: M a c m i l l a n , 1900. F l e t c h e r , S. . F e m i n i s t s and B u r e a u c r a t s : a s t u d y o f  the d e v e l o p m e n t o f g i r l ' s e d u c a t i o n i n t h e n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y . New Y o r k : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1980. F l o u d , 3. E.; H a l s e y , A. H.; and M a r t i n , F. M. S o c i a l  C l a s s and E d u c a t i o n a l , O p p o r t u n i t y . . London: Heine mann, 1956. G a r l a n d , M. M. Cambridge B e f o r e Darwin.: The I d e a l of  a L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n , 1800-1860. Cambridge: Cam-b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1980. G a t h o r n e - H a r d y , 3. The P u b l i c S c h o o l Phenomenon. Har mondsworth, M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n Books, 1979. 174 G i l b e r t , F., and G r a u b a r d , S. R.., e d s . H i s t o r i c a l  S t u d i e s Today. New Y o r k : N o r t o n , 1972. G l a s s , D. V., ed. S o c i a l M o b i l i t y i n B r i t a i n . Lon-don: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1954. G o l d t h o r p e , 3. H. S o c i a l M o b i l i t y an.d C l a s s S t r u c -t u r e i n Modern B r i t a i n . • O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1980. Gosden, P. H. 3. H., and T a y l o r , A. 3., e d s . S t u d i e s  i n t h e H i s t o r y o f a. U n i v e r s i t y , 1874-1974: The  U n i v e r s i t y of L e e d s . L e e d s : E. 3. A r n o l d and Son, 1975. Gough, 3. W. The R i s e of t h e E n t r e p r e n e u r . London: B. T. B a t s f o r d , 1969. G r a n i c k . The European E x e c u t i v e . New Y o r k : D o u b l e -day, 1962. G r a v e s , R. Goodbye t o A l l T h a t . London: C a s s a l , 1958. G r e a t B r i t a i n . P a r l i a m e n t . . P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a p e r s , 1864. " R e p o r t o f t h e Commission on t h e Revenues and Management of c e r t a i n C o l l e g e s and S c h o o l s : " (The C l a r e n d o n C o m m i s s i o n ) . Shannon: I r i s h U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969. . " R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l Commission on S c i e n t i f i c I n s t r u c t i o n and the Advancement of Science'.'" (The D e v o n s h i r e C o m m i s s i o n ) . Shannon: I r i s h U n i v e r -s i t y P r e s s , 1969. . " R e p o r t o f the R o y a l Commission on S c i e n t i f i c I n s t r u c t i o n and the.Advancement of S c i e n c e . " (The Samuelson C o m m i s s i o n ) . Shannon: I r i s h U n i v e r -s i t y P r e s s , 1970. Green, F. C. A C o m p a r a t i v e View of F r e n c h and B r i t -i s h C i v i l i z a t i o n , 1850-1879. ..London: 3. M. Dent, 1965. Green, H. Pack My Bag. London: The H o g a r t h P r e s s , 1952 . Greene, G. A S o r t o f L i f e . New Y o r k : Simon and S c h u s t e r , 1971. Guttsman, W. L. The B r i t i s h P o l i t i c a l E l i t e . London: MacGibbon and Kee, 1963. Habakkuk, H. 3. American and B r i t i s h T e c h n o l o g y i n the  N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y . Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r -s i t y P r e s s , 1962. Habakkuk, H. J . , and P o s t a n , M. M. The Cambridge Economic H i s t o r y of Eur o p e , V o l . V I . Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. H a i n e s , G. E s s a y s on German I n f l u e n c e upon E n g l i s h  E d u c a t i o n and S c i e n c e , ' 1850-1919. New York: C o n n e c t i c u t C o l l e g e P r e s s , 1969. H a l e v y , E. H i s t o r y of the E n g l i s h P e o p l e . V o l . V I :  The R u l e o f Democracy, 1905-1914. New Y o r k : Barnes and N o b l e , 1961. H a l s e y , A. H., and Trow, M. A. The B r i t i s h A c a d e m i c s London: F a b e r , 1971. Hammond, 3. L. and Hammond, B. The. R i s e of Modern  I n d u s t r y . London: Methuen, 1966. Hans, N. New T r e n d s i n E d u c a t i o n i n . t h e E i g h t e e n t h  C e n t u r y . London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1951 H a r r i s o n , 3. F. C. The E a r l y V i c t o r i a n s , 1832-51. London: W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1971. H a r t w e l l , R. M. The I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n and Econ-omic Growth." London: rMethuen, 1971. Harvey, C. The L i g h t s of L i b e r a l i s m : U n i v e r s i t y  L i b e r a l s and t h e C h a l l e n g e o f Democracy, 1860- 1886. London: Pergamon P r e s s , 1976.-Hearnden, A. Red R o b e r t : A L i f e of R o b e r t B i r l e y . London: Hamish H a m i l t o n , 1984. H e w i t t , M. Wives and Mothers i n V i c t o r i a n I n d u s t r y . London: R o c k l i f f , 1958. Hobsbawm, E. 3. I n d u s t r y , and Emp i r e . . London: Pan-theon P r e s s , 1968. Ho l d e n , W. H., ed. The C h a r t e r h o u s e We Knew. Lon-don: B r i t i s h T e c h n i c a l and G e n e r a l P r e s s , 1950. H o l l i s , C. Eton : A H i s t o r y . London.: H o l l i s and C a r t e r , 1960. Honey, 3. R. de S. Tom Brown's U n i v e r s e : The De-ve l o p m e n t o f t h e E n g l i s h P u b l i c S c h o o l i n the N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y . New Y o r k : New York Times Book Company, 1977. Hope-Simpson, 3. B. R u g b y . S i n c e A r n o l d . New Y o r k : S t . M a r t i n ' s P r e s s , 1967. Houghton, W. E. The V i c t o r i a n Frame o f Mind, 1830- 1870. New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957. Hughes, T. Tom Brown's S c h o o l d a y s . London: Ward, Lock, 1911. Hunt, J . E d u c a t i o n i n E v o l u t i o n . London: R u p e r t H a r t - D a v i s , 1971. H u x l e y , A. Limbo. New Y o r k : George H. Doran, 1920. I n g l i s , B., ed. John B u l l ' s S c h o o l d a y s . London: H u t c h i n s o n , 1961. Ismay, H. L. Memoirs. London: Heinemann, 1960. J a h e r , F. C , ed. The R i c h , The W e l l b o r n and The Pow-e r f u l . U r b a n a : U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1973. Jarman, T. L. Landmarks i n t h e H i s t : o r y _ o f E d u c a t i o n . London: 3ohn Murray, 1963. J e r v i s , F. R. B o s s e s i n B r i t i s h B u s i n e s s . London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1974. Johnson, L. G. The S o c i a l E v o l u t i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l B r i t a i n . L i v e r p o o l : L i v e r p o o l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. J o n e s , L. E. A V i c t o r i a n Boyhood. London: M a c m i l l a n , 1956. K a l t o n , G. The P u b l i c S c h o o l s . London: Longmans, 1966. Keegan, J . The Face o f B a t t l e . London: J o n a t h a n Cape, 1976. K e n d a l l , G. A Headmaster Remembers. London: V i c t o r G o l l a n t z , 1933. Kent, C. B r a i n s and Numbers: E l i t i s m , Comtism and  Democracy i n M i d - V i c t o r i a n E n g l a n d . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i ty of T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1978. K i p l i n g , R. S t a l k y and Co. New York.: D o u b l e d a y , Doran, 1928. Landes, D. S. The Unbound Prometheus. Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969. L a w l o r , J . H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n . London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1972. 177 Lawrence, P. S. H. The Encouragement of L e a r n i n g  Eton i a n a . London: W i l t o n , 1980. L e v i n e , A. L. I n d u s t r i a l R e t a r d a t i o n i n B r i t a i n , 1880-1914. London: W e i d e n f e l d and N l c o l s o n , 1967. L e w i s , R., and Maude, A. The E n g l i s h M i d d l e C l a s s e s . London: Penguin Books, 1953. L i v i n g s t o n e , R. P l a t o and Modern E d u c a t i o n . Cam-b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1944. Lunn, A. The H a r r o v i a n s . London: Methuen, 1913. Lynn, R. The E n t r e p r e n e u r : E i g h t Case S t u d i e s . London: George A l l e n and Unwin, 1974. Mc C l o s k e y , D. N. .. E n t e r p r i s e and Trade i n V i c t o r i a n  B r i t a i n . London: George A l l e n and Unwin, 1981. , ed. E s s a y s on a Mature Economy: B r i t a i n a f t e r 18 70. P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971. MacDonagh, 0. E a r l y V i c t o r i a n Government 1830-1870. London: W e i d e n f e l d and N l c o l s o n , 1977. M c D o n n e l l , M. F. 3. A H i s t o r y of S t . P a u l ' s S c h o o l . London: Chapman and H a l l , 1909. Mack, E. C. P u b l i c S c h o o l s and B r i t i s h O p i n i o n s i n c e 1860. New Y o r k : Octagon Books, 1973. Ma d u r e , 3. S. , ed. E d u c a t i o n Documents: E n g l a n d and  Wales, 1816-1967. London: Chapman and H a l l , 1968. Mahan, A. T. T h e . I n f l u e n c e o f Sea Power Upon H i s t o r y . London: Sampson, Low, M a r s t o n , 1890. Mark, H. T. An O u t l i n e of t h e H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n a l  T h e o r i e s i n E n g l a n d . London: S o n n e n s c h e i n , 1899. M a r r i n e r , S. Rathbones of L i v e r p o o l , 1845-73. L i v e r -p o o l : L i v e r p o o l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961. Marsh, D. C. The C h a n g i n g S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e of E n g l a n d  and Wales, 1871-1951. London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1958. M a r s h a l l , A. I n d u s t r y and T r a d e . London: M a c m i l l a n , 1919. M a t h i a s , P., and P o s t a n , M. M. The Cambridge Economic  H i s t o r y o f E u r o p e , V o l . V I I . Cambridge: Cam-b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978. 178 M i l l , j . S. The S p i r i t of the Age. C h i c a g o : U n i v e r -s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1942. Morgan, M. C. C h eltenham C o l l e g e : The F i r s t Hundred  Y e a r s . M i l l Lane, B u c k i n g h a m s h i r e : R i c h a r d S a d l e r L t d . , 1968. M o r r i s , 3. Pax B r i . t a n n i c a : The C l i m a x of an E m p i r e . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t B r a c e and World, 1968. . F a r e w e l l t h e Trumpets.: An I m p e r i a l R e t r e a t . London: H a r c o u r t B r a c e J o v a n o v i c h , 1978. Morton, 3. T h r e e G e n e r a t i o n s i n a F a m i l y T e x t i l e F i r m . London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1971. Murphy, 3. C h u r c h , S t a t e and S c h o o l s In B r i t a i n ,  1800-1970. London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1971 . Musgrave, P. W. T e c h n i c a l Change, the Labour F o r c e and  E d u c a t i o n : a s t u d y o f the B r i t i s h and German i r o n  and s t e e l i n d u s t r i e s . , 1860-1.964. O x f o r d : Pergamon P r e s s , 1967. . S o c i o l o g y , H i s t o r y and E d u c a t i o n . London : Methuen, 1970. Musgrove, F. P a t t e r n s of Power and A u t h o r i t y i n Eng-l i s h E d u c a t i o n . London: Methuen, 1971. Musson, A. E. . E n t e r p r i s e i n Soap and C h e m i c a l s : 3os-eph C r o s f i e l d and Sons L t d . 1815-1965. New Y o r k : A u g u s t u s M. K e l l e y , 1967. The Growth of. B r i t i s h I n d u s t r y . London: B. T. B a t s f o r d , 1978. Nash, P. T r a i n i n g An E l i t e . London: M a c m i l l a n , 1967. Newsome, D. G o d l i n e s s and Good L e a r n i n g . London: Murray, 1961. Nobel L e c t u r e s : P h y s i c s , 1901-1921. Amsterdam: E l s e v i r P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1967. Norwood, C. The E n g l i s h T r a d i t i o n of E d u c a t i o n . Lon-don: 3ohn Murray, 1929. O g i l v i e , V. The E n g l i s h P u b l i c S c h o o l . London: B. T. B a t s f o r d , 1957. Oldham, 3. B. A H i s t o r y o f Shrewsbury S c h o o l , 1552-1952. O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l L t d . , 1952. 179 O l l a r d , R. An E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n : A P e r s p e c t i v e of  E t o n . London: C o l l i n s , 1982. O l l a r d , S. L. A S h o r t H i s t o r y of the O x f o r d Movement. London: Mowbray, 1915. O r w e l l , G. Such, such were t h e j o y s . New Y ork: H a r c o u r t B r a c e , 1952. Osborne, 0. W. The S i l e n t R e v o l u t i o n . New Y ork: C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r s ' Sons, 1970. Overy, R. W i l l i a m M o r r i s , V i s c o u n t N u f f i e l d . London: Europa P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1976. P a d f i e l d , P. R u l e B r i t a n n i a : The V i c t o r i a n and Ed-w a r d i a n Navy. London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1981. Payne, P. L. B r i t i s h E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p i n the N i n e t e e n t h  C e n t u r y . London: M a c m i l l a n , 1974. P e a c o c k , A. T., and Wiseman, 3. The Growth of P u b l i c  E x p e n d i t u r e i n the U n i t e d Kingdom. P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961. P e r c i v a l , A. C. V ery S u p e r i o r Men. London: C h a r l e s K n i g h t , 1973. P e r k i n s , H. The O r i g i n s o f Modern E n g l i s h S o c i e t y ,  1780-1880. London: Routl.edge and Kegan P a u l , 1969. . The S t r u c t u r e d Crowd: e s s a y s i n . s o c i a l h i s t o r y . B r i g h t o n , S u s s e x : H a r v e s t e r P r e s s , 1981. P e t e r s o n , A. D. C. A Hundred-Years, of E d u c a t i o n . London: Duckworth, 1.952. P i n c h b e c k , I . , and H e w i t t , M. C h i l d r e n i n E n g l i s h  S o c i e t y . London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1969. P o l a n y i , K. The G r e a t T r a n s f o r m a t i o n . B o s t o n : Bea-con P r e s s , 1957. P o w e l l , A. A Q u e s t i o n of U p b r i n g i n g . London': Fon-t a n a Books, 1967. The P u b l i c S c h o o l s From W i t h i n . London: Low and M a r s t o n , 1906. Rae, 3. The P u b l i c S c h o o l R e v o l u t i o n . London!: f a b e r , 1981. R a n f t , B., ed. T e c h n i c a l Change a n d . B r i t i s h N a v a l P o l i c y , 1860-1939. London: Hodder and S t o u g h t o n , 1977. Reader, W. 3. P r o f e s s i o n a l Men: t h e r i s e of t h e P r o -f e s s i o n a l C l a s s e s i n n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y E n g l a n d . London: W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1966. . I m p e r i a l C h e m i c a l I n d u s t r i e s : A H i s t o r y . Lon-don: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970. Reed, 3. Old S c h o o l T i e s : The P u b l i c S c h o o l s i n B r i t -i s h L i t e r a t u r e . S y r a c u s e , New Y o r k : S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964. R i n g e r , F. K. E d u c a t i o n and S o c i e t y i n Modern E u r o p e . B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979. Rimmer, W. G. M a r s h a l l s o f L e e d s , F l a x - s p i n n e r s , 1788- 1886. C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960. R o b e r t s , D.. V i c t o r i a n O r i g i n s o f the W e l f a r e S t a t e . New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960. R o d e r i c k , G. W., and S t e p h e n s , M. D. S c i e n t i f i c and  T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n N i n e t e e n t h - C e n t u r y E n g l a n d . Newton,Abbot, Devon: D a v i d and C h a r l e s L t d . , 1972. . E d u c a t i o n and I n d u s t r y i n the. N i n e t e e n t h Cen-t u r y . London: Longman, 1978. . The B r i t i s h M a l a i s e : i n d u s t r i a l p e r f o r m a n c e , e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g i n B r i t a i n t o d a y . Lewes, S u s s e x : The F a l m e r P r e s s , 1982. Rose, H., and Rose, S. S c i e n c e and S o c i e t y . London: Cox and Wyman, 1969. Rose, K. S u p e r i o r P e r s o n : a p o r t r a i t of Curzon and  h i s c i r c l e i n L a t e V i c t o r i a n E n g l a n d . London: W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1969. R o t h b l a t t , S. The R e v o l u t i o n o f the Dons: Cambridge  and S o c i e t y i n V i c t o r i a n E n g l a n d . London: F a b e r , 1968 . T r a d i t i o n and Change In E n g l i s h L i b e r a l Educa-t i o n . London: F a b e r , 1976. R u s s e l l , B. E d u c a t i o n and the Good L i f e . New Y o r k : B o n i and L i v e r i g h t , 1926. . S e l e c t e d P a p e r s of Ber.frand R u s s e l l . New Y o r k : Random House, 1927. 181 Ryder, 3., and S i l v e r , H. Modern E n g l i s h S o c i e t y : H i s t o r y and S t r u c t u r e , ' 1850-1970. London: Methuen, 1970. S a c k s , B. The R e l i g i o u s I s s u e i n the S t a t e S c h o o l s o f E n g l a n d and Wales, 1903-1914. A l b u q u e r q u e : U n i v e r -s i t y o f New Mexico P r e s s , 1961. Sande r s o n o f Oundle. London: C h a t t o and Windus, 1926. S a n d e r s o n , M. The U n i v e r s i t i e s and B r i t i s h I n d u s t r y , 1850-1970. London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1972. S a y e r s , R. S. A H i s t o r y of Economic Change i n E n g l a n d ,  1880-1939. London: O x f o r d . U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. S e l l e c k , R. 3. W. The New E d u c a t i o n , 1870-1914. London: P i t m a n , 1968. S h a p i r o , S. C a p i t a l and the C o t t o n I n d u s t r y . I t h a c a , New Y o r k : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. Shaw, G. B. . D o c t o r ' s D e l u s i o n s , Crude C r i m i n o l o g y and  Sham E d u c a t i o n . London: C o n s t a b l e , 1932. S h e r r i n g t o n , G. E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n , S o c i a l Change and War, 1911-1920. M a n c h e s t e r : M a n c h e s t e r U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1981. S i l v e r , H. E d u c a t i o n as H i s t o r y . London: Methuen, 1983. ed. R o b e r t Owen on E d u c a t i o n . C ambridge: Cam-b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969. Simon, B. S t u d i e s i n the H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n , 1780- 1870. London: Lawrence and W i s h a r t , 1960. , and B r a d l e y , I . , e d s . The V i c t o r i a n P u b l i c  S c h o o l . Dublin.: G i l l and M a c m i l l a n , 1975. S k e l t o n , G. The P u b l i c S c h o o l s . London: Longman, 1966. Snow, C. P. V a r i e t y o f Men. Harmondsworth, M i d d l e -s e x : P e n g u i n Books, 1969. . The P h y s i c i s t s . London: M a c m i l l a n , 1981. S o m e r v e l l , D. C. E n g l i s h Thought i n t h e N i n e t e e n t h  C e n t u r y . New Yo r k : . D a v i d McKay, 1929. S p e n c e r , H. E d u c a t i o n : I n t e l l e c t u a l , M o r a l and Phys-i c a l . New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n , 1884. S p i e r s , E. M. The Army and S o c i e t y , 1815-1914. Lon-don: Longman, 1980. S t a n w o r t h , P., and G i d d e n s , A., eds. E l i t e s and Power  i n B r i t i s h S o c i e t y . London: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974. S t r a c h e y , L. Eminent V i c t o r i a n s . London: C h a t t o and Windus, 1918. T a i n e , H. Notes on E n g l a n d . London: Thames and Hud-son, 1957. Tawney, R. H. The R a d i c a l T r a d i t i o n . Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n Books, 1964. T a y l o r , A. 3. L a i s s e z - f a i r e and S t a t e I n t e r v e n t i o n i n  N i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y B r i t a i n . London: M a c m i l l a n , 1972. Thompson, F. M. L. E n g l i s h Landed S o c i e t y i n the N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y . London: R o u t l e d g e and P a u l , 1963. T i n g s t e n , H. V i c t o r i a and the V i c t o r i a n s . London: A l l e n and Unwin, 1972. V a c h e l l , H. A. The H i l l . London: John Murray, 1912. V a i z e y , 3. The H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h S t e e l . London: W e i d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , 1974. Van Doom, 0., ed. . Armed F o r c e s and S o c i e t y . P a r i s : Mouton, 1968. Vaughn, M., and A r c h e r , M. S. S o c i a l C o n f l i c t and Ed-u c a t i o n a l Change i n E n g l a n d and. France,. 1789-1848. Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971. Wardie, D. The R i s e of t h e S c h o o l e d S o c i e t y . Lon-don: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1974. Waugh, A. The l o o m of You t h . New Y o r k : George H. Doran, 1920. Webster, F. A.-.M. Our G r e a t P u b l i c S c h o o l s . London: Ward, Lock, 1937. Weinberg, I . The E n g l i s h P u b l i c S c h o o l . New Y o r k : A t h e r t o n P r e s s , 1967. Wiener, M. 3. E n g l i s h c u l t u r e and the, d e c l i n e o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l . s p i r i t . C a m b r i d g e : ..Cambridge U n i v e r -s i t y P r e s s , 1981. W i l e y , B. N i n e t e e n t h - C e n t u r y S t u d i e s . , Ha rmon dswor t h , M i d d l e s e x : Penguin Books, 1964. W i l k i n s o n , R. H. The P r e f e c t s : B r i t i s h . L e a d e r s h i p and  the P u b l i c S c h o o l . T r a d i t i o n . London: O x f o r d U n i -v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964. , ed. G o v e r n i n g E l i t e s . New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r -s i t y P r e s s , 1969. W i n t e r , 3. R o b e r t Lowe. T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of T o r -onto P r e s s , 1976. Wood, A. N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y B r i t a i n , 1815-1914. Lon-don: Longman, 1960. Wortham, H. E. V i c t o r i a n Eton and C ambridge . London: A r t h u r B a r k e r , 1956. Young, G. M. P o r t r a i t of an Age. New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977. B. ARTICLES A l b u , A. "Taboo on E x p e r t i s e . " E n c o u n t e r XXI ( D u l y 1 9 6 3 ) : 45-50. A l d c r o f t , D. H. "The E n t r e p r e n e u r and t h e B r i t i s h Economy, 18 70.-1914." Economic H i s t o r y Review, 2nd s e r . 17 ( 1 9 6 4 ) : 113-134. A l f o r d , B..W. E. " E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p , B u s i n e s s P e r -f o r m a n c e and I n d u s t r i a l D evelopment." B u s i n e s s H i s t o r y XIX (1977) : 116-133. A n d e r s o n , 0. " C h r i s t i a n M i l i t a r i s m . " E n g l i s h H i s -t o r y Review LXXXVI ( 1 9 7 1 ) : 46-72. A r g l e s , M. " E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n f o r T e c h n o l o g y and S c i e n c e : The F o r m a t i v e Y e a r s , 1880-1902." H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n . Q u a r t e r l y . I I (September 1 9 6 2 ) : 182-191. A r n s t e i n , W. L. "The Myth o f t h e T r i u m p h a n t V i c t o r -i a n M i d d l e C l a s s e s . " The H i s t o r i a n .XXXVII ( F e b -r u a r y , 1 9 7 5 ) : 205-221. B a i l e s , H. " T e c h n o l o g y and I m p e r i a l i s m : A Case Study of the V i c t o r i a n Army i n A f r i c a . " V i c t o r -i a n S t u d i e s XXIV (Autumn . 1980 ) : 82-104. 184 Benson, A. C. "Our Gentlemen's Sc.ools A g a i n . " The  E n g l i s h Review X I I ( O c t o b e r 1 9 1 2 ) : 457-469. Bentham, 3. " C h r e s t o m a t h i a . " W e s t m i n s t e r Review I ( 1 8 2 4 ) : 1-59. B i s h o p , A. S. " R a l p h L i n g e n , S e c r e t a r y t o the Edu-c a t i o n Department, 1849-1870." B r i t i s h J o u r n a l  of E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s XVI (19687! 138-163. Buchanan, R. A. "Gentlemen E n g i n e e r s : The Making of a P r o f e s s i o n . " V i c t o r i a n S t u d i e s XXVI (Summer 19 8 3 ) : 407-429. Cane, B. S. " S c i e n t i f i c and T e c h n i c a l S u b j e c t s i n the C u r r i c u l u m of E n g l i s h S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s a t t h e t u r n o f the C e n t u r y . " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l .of E d u c a t i o n a l  S t u d i e s V I I I (November, 1959) : 52-64. C h u r c h , R. A. "An A s p e c t of F a m i l y E n t e r p r i s e i n t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . " B u s i n e s s H i s t o r y IV ( 1 9 6 2 ) : 120-125. ' ' Coleman, D. C. "Gentlemen and P l a y e r s . " Economic H i s -t o r y Review, 2 n d . s e r . XXVI ( 1 9 7 3 ) : 92-116. C r u i c k s h a n k , M. " D a v i d Stow, S c o t t i s h P i o n e e r of T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g . " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l  S t u d i e s XIV (May 1 9 6 6 ) : 205-215. " C u s t o s " . "Our Gentlemen's S c h o o l s . " The E n g l i s h Re-view XII (August 1912 ) : 300-317. "The Dead Bones." Blackwood's Magazine CLXXXIV (Decem-ber 1 9 0 8 ) : 729-740. Dyhouse, C. " S o c i a 1 . D a r w i n i s t I d e a s and t h e D e v e l o p -ment of Women's E d u c a t i o n i n E n g l a n d , 1880-1920." H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n V ( 1 9 7 6 ) : 41-58. " E d u c a t i o n . " E d i n b u r g h Review XV ( 1 8 0 9 ) : 1-48. " E d u c a t i o n a l F a d s . " Q u a r t e r l y Review 185 ( 1 8 9 7 ) : 241-268. "Eton C o l l e g e . " Q u a r t e r l y Review 171 ( 1 8 9 0 ) : 1-27. F a r r a r , F. W. " P u b l i c S c h o o l E d u c a t i o n . " The F o r t - . n i g h t l y Review XV (March 1 8 6 8 ) : 233-249. F i e n n e s , G . E n g l i s h " P u b l i c S c h o o l Boys i n I n d u s t r y . " The Review XXXIX (December 1 9 2 4 ) : 806-815. 185 Gowing, M. "Science,, T e c h n o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n : E n g l a n d i n 1870." O x f o r d Review of E d u c a t i o n IV ( 1 9 7 8 ) : 3-17. G r u s k y j 0. " C a r e e r P a t t e r n s and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f B r i t -i s h N a v a l O f f i c e r s . " B r i t i s h . J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y XXVI ( 1 9 7 5 ) : 35-51. H a l l , J . A. "The C u r i o u s Case of the E n g l i s h I n t e l l i -g e n s i a . " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y . 3 0 (Septem-b e r , 1 9 7 9 ) : 291-306. Hannah, L. "M e r g e r s i n B r i t i s h M a n u f a c t u r i n g I n d u s t r y , 1880-1918." O x f o r d , E c o n o m i c P a p e r s XXVI ( 1 9 7 4 ) : 1-20. H e r l , T. " M i l i t a r y E d u c a t i o n and. the S c h o o l C u r r i c -ulum, 1800-1870." H i s t o r y of. E d u c a t i o n V ( 1 9 7 6 ) : 251-264. Holmes, E. " I d e a l s o f L i f e and E d u c a t i o n - German and E n g l i s h . " The N i n e t e e n t h Century. LX.XV.III ( O c t o b e r 1 9 1 5 ) : 957-997. J e n k i n s , E. W. "The Thomson Committee and the Board of E d u c a t i o n , 1916-22." B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of Educa-t i o n a l S t u d i e s XXI ( F e b r u a r y 1973):' 76-87. J e n k s , C. "T. H. Green, the O x f o r d p h i l o s o p h y of duty and t h e E n g l i s h m i d d l e c l a s s . " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of  E d u c a t i o n a l ' S t u d i e s . 28 .(1977): 481-497. Judge, H. G. "The E n g l i s h P u b l i c S c h o o l : H i s t o r y and S o c i e t y . " H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y X I I ( W i n t e r 1 9 8 2 ) : 513-524. Lagden, G. "Our P u b l i c S c h o o l s and t h e i r I n f l u e n c e s . " The N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y LXXI (March 1 9 1 2 ) : 568-581. L a y t o n , D. " S c i e n c e i n the S c h o o l s : The F i r s t Wave -A Study o f t h e I n f l u e n c e o f R i c h a r d Dawes (1793-18 6 7 ) . " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l , of E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s XX ( F e b r u a r y 1972 ) : 38-57. L u n d g r e e n , P. " E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e S c i e n c e - b a s e d i n d u s -t r i a l S t a t e ? The c a s e f o r n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y Ger-many." H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n X I I I (.1984): 59-67. M c C l o s k e y , D. N., and Sandberg, L. S. "From Damnation to R edemption: Judgments on the L a t e V i c t o r i a n E n t r e p r e n e u r s . M |' E x p l o r a t i o n s i n Economic H i s t o r y 9 ( 1 9 7 1 ) : 89-108. 186 MacDonagh, 0. "The N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y R e v o l u t i o n i n Government: A R e a p p r a i s a l . . " H i s t o r i c a l J o u r n a l I ( 1 9 5 8 ) : 52-67. 7 . "Government, I n d u s t r y and S c i e n c e i n 19th Cen-t u r y B r i t a i n : A P a r t i c u l a r . Study..." H i s t o r i c a l  S t u d i e s XVI ( 1 9 7 5 ) : 503-517. M a c l e o d , R., and M o s e l e y , R. "The ' N a t u r a l s ' and V i c t o r i a n C a mbridge: r e f l e c t i o n s on the anatomy of an e l i t e , 1851-191,4." . O x f o r d Review of Edu-c a t i o n VI ( 1 9 8 0 ) : 177-195. Mangan, J . A. " P l a y Up and P l a y t h e Game." B r i t i s h  J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Studi.e.s X X I I I ( O c t o b e r 1 9 7 5 ) : 324-335. Morgan, J . " P u b l i c S c h o o l . " The New S t a t e s m a n , F e b r u a r y 21, 1964, pp. 282-283. M o r r i s , J . "A View o f the R o y a l Navy." E n c o u n t e r XL (March 1 9 7 3 ) : 15-27. Musgrove, F. " M i d d l e C l a s s E d u c a t i o n and Employment i n the 19th C e n t u r y . " Economic H i s t o r y Review, 2nd s e r . X II ( 1 9 5 9 ) : 99-111. . " M i d d l e C l a s s F a m i l i e s and S c h o o l s , 1780-1880." S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, New s e r i e s V I I ( 1 9 5 9 ) : 169-178. N e t t l , J . P. "Concensus or E l i t e D o m i n a t i o n : t h e Case of B u s i n e s s . " P o l i t i c a l Studi.e.s 13 ( 1 9 6 5 ) : 22-24. 0 ' B o y l e , L. "The Probl e m of an Excess, of. E d u c a t e d Men i n Western E u r o p e , 1800-1850." J o u r n a l of Modern  H i s t o r y 42 (December . 1-970 ) : 471-495. Orsagh, T. J . " P r o g r e s s i n I r o n and S t e e l , 1870-1913." C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d i e s . i n S o c i e t y and H i s t o r y I I I ( J a n u a r y 1961 ) : 216-230. """ O t l e y , C. B. " P u b l i c S c h o o l s and t h e Army." New  S o c i e t y , November 17, 1966-, pp. 756-757. . " M i l i t a r i s m and m i l i t a r i z a t i o n i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s , 1.900-1972." B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f . S o c i o l -ogy (September 1 9 7 8 ) : 321-339. Owen, T. "The U n i v e r s i t y G r a n t s Committee." O x f o r d Review o f E d u c a t i o n VI ( 1 9 8 0 ) : 255-278. "The O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Commission R e p o r t . " Review CXCV ( 1 8 5 2 ) : 232-288. E d i n b u r g h 187 P a r k e r , W. N. " E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p , I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p -ment and Economic Growth: A German Example." J o u r n a l o f Economic H i s t o r y XIV ( 1 9 5 4 ) : 380-400. "The P u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t . " Blackwood's Magazine XCV (June 1 8 6 4 ) : 707-731. Pumphrey, R. A. "The I n t r o d u c t i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l i s t s i n t o t h e B r i t i s h P e e r a g e : A Study i n t h e A d a p t a -t i o n o f a S o c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n . " A merican H i s t o r i c a l  Review LXV ( O c t o b e r 1 9 5 9 ) : 1-16" P u r v i s , J . "Working C l a s s Women and A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y B r i t a i n . " H i s t o r y of Edu-c a t i o n IX (September 1 9 8 0 ) : 34-58. Pyenson, L. "Who t h e Guys Were: P r o s o p o g r a p h y i n t h e H i s t o r y o f S c i e n c e . " H i s t o r y of S c i e n c e 15 ( 1 9 7 7 ) : 155-188. Rae, 3. "Our O b s o l e t e A t t i t u d e s : E d u c a t i o n and t h e N a t i o n a l M a l a i s e . " E n c o u n t e r XLIX (November 1 9 7 7 ) : 10-17. Rees, G. "Amateurs and Gentlemen, or t h e c u l t of i n -c ompetence." E n c o u n t e r XXI ( 3 u l y 1 9 6 3 ) : 20-25. R i n g e r , F. K. "The E d u c a t i o n of E l i t e s i n Modern E u r o p e . " H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y 18 (Sum-mer 1978 ): 159-172. Roach, 3. P. C. "The V i c t o r i a n U n i v e r s i t i e s and t h e N a t i o n a l I n t e l l i g e n s i a . " V i c t o r i a n S t u d i e s I I (December 1 9 5 9 ) : 131-150. R o b e r t s , D. " T o r y P a t e r n a l i s m and S o c i a l Reform i n E a r l y V i c t o r i a n E n g l a n d . : American H i s t o r i c a l Review L X I I ( 3 a n u a r y 1 9 5 8 ) : 323-337. R o d e r i c k , G., and S t e p h e n s , M. " S c i e n t i f i c S t u d i e s and s c i e n t i f i c manpower i n the E n g l i s h c i v i c u n i v e r s i t i e s , 1870-1914." S c i e n c e S t u d i e s IV ( 1 9 7 4 ) : 41-63. . "The H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n o f E n g i n e e r s i n E n g l a n d i n t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y , w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n s on e n g i n e e r i n g t r a i n i n g on t h e c o n t i n e n t and i n A m e r i c a . " P a e d a g o g i c a H i s t o r i c a XVI ( 1 9 7 6 ) : 362-386. . " S c i e n t i f i c S t u d i e s a t O x f o r d and Cambridge, 1850-1914." B r i t i s h 3 o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l S t u -d i e s XXIV ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 6 ) : 49-65. R u b e n s t e i n , W. D. "Wealth, E l i t e s and t h e C l a s s S t r u c t u r e of Modern B r i t a i n . " P a s t and P r e s e n t 76 ( A u g u s t 1977) : 99-126. R u b e n s t e i n , W. D. "The V i c t o r i a n M i d d l e C l a s s e s : W e a l t h , O c c u p a t i o n and Geography." Economic  H i s t o r y Review, 2nd s e r . 30 ( 1 9 7 7 ) : 602-623. " S c i e n t i f i c E d u c a t i o n m i n s t e r Review IX o f the Upper ( A p r i l 1928) C l a s s e s . " 329-364. West-Shanks, M. "The C o m f o r t s of XXI ( J u l y 1963) : 30-38. S t a g n a t i o n . " E n c o u n t e r Shannon, H.A. 1866-1883." 1 9 3 3 ) : 290 "The L i m i t e d L i a b i l i t y Companies of .Economic H i s t o r y Review IV ( O c t o b e r • 307. S h a p i n , S., and T h a c k e r a y , A r e s e a r c h t o o l i n h i s t o r y " P r o s o p o g r a p h y as a of s c i e n c e : the B r i t i s h s c i e n t i f i c S c i e n c e 12 community, 1700-1900, ( 1 9 7 4 ) : 1-28. H i s t o r y of S t e p h e n s , 0. D. " C l a s s F o r m a t i o n and n e s s : a t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l r e f e r e n c e to B r i t a i n and Sweden." of E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s XXX (1979) c l a s s c o n s c i o u s -a n a l y s i s w i t h B r i t i s h J o u r n a l 389-414. S t e p h e n s , M. D., and R o b e r i c k , G. W. " C h a n g i n g A t t i -t u d e s t o E d u c a t i o n i n E n g l a n d and Wales, 1833-1907: The G o v e r n m e n t a l R e p o r t s , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o S c i e n c e and T e c h n i c a l s t u d i e s . " A n n a l s o f S c i e n c e XXX (Dune 1973): 149-164. Sto n e , L . 1900. " 69-139 " L i t e r a c y and E d u c a t i o n i n E n g l a n d , 1640-P a s t and P r e s e n t X L I I ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 9 ) : S u t h e r l a n d , G. "The Study of t h e H i s t o r y of Educa-t i o n . " H i s t o r y LIV ( 1 9 6 9 ) : 49-59. T a r v e r , 3. C. "The P u b l i c S c h o o l s and t h e P u b l i c S e r v i c e . " The F o r t n i g h t l y Review L X V I I I ( O c t o b e r 1 9 0 0 ) : 589-600. Trompf, G. W. " R a d i c a l C o n s e r v a t i s m i n H e r b e r t Spen-c e r ' s E d u c a t i o n a l T h o u g h t . " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f  E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s XVII ( O c t o b e r 1969) : 267-280. T u r n e r , C. M. " S o c i o l o g i c a l A p p r o a c h e s t o the H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n . " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l  S t u d i e s XVII (June 1 9 6 9 ) : 146-165. W a l l b a n k , M. V. " E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y P u b l i c S c h o o l s and the E d u c a t i o n of the G o v e r n i n g E l i t e . " H i s -t o r y of E d u c a t i o n 8 ( 1 9 7 9 ) : 1-19. Ward, D. "The P u b l i c S c h o o l s and I n d u s t r y a f t e r 1870." J o u r n a l of Contemporary H i s t o r y 2 ( J u l y 1 9 6 7 ) : 37-52. 189 Ward, L. 0. " T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n and t h e P o l i t i c i a n s , 1870-1918." B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s XXI ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 3 ) : 34-39. Weldon, J . F. C. "The T r a i n i n g of an E n g l i s h G e n t l e -man i n the P u b l i c S c h o o l s . " The N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y LX (September 1 9 0 6 ) : 396-413. W e l l e n s , J . "The A n t i - I n t e l l e c t u a l T r a d i t i o n i n the West." B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s V I I I (November 1959) : 22-28. West, E. G. " E d u c a t i o n a l Slowdown and p u b l i c i n t e r -v e n t i o n i n n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l a n d : a s t u d y i n the e c o n o m i c s of b u r e a u c r a c y . " E x p l o r a t i o n s  i n Economic H i s t o r y X I I ( 1 9 7 5 ) : 61-87. W i l s o n , C. "The E n t r e p r e n e u r i n the I n d u s t r i a l Rev-o l u t i o n i n B r i t a i n . " E x p l o r a t i o n s i n E n t r e p r e n e u r -i a l H i s t o r y I I I ( 1 9 5 5 ) : 129-145. . "Economy and S o c i e t y i n L a t e V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n . " Economic H i s t o r y Review, 2nd s e r . , X V I I I ( 1 9 6 5 ) : 183-198. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0096211/manifest

Comment

Related Items