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UBC Theses and Dissertations

British Columbia parks and mines in conflict : an evaluation of resolution processes Marcy, Norman Karl 1985

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BRITISH COLUMBIA PARKS AND MINES IN CONFLICT: AN EVALUATION  OF RESOLUTION  PROCESSES  by NORMAN KARL B.Sc.  The U n i v e r s i t y  A THESIS SUBMITTED  MARCY  o-f V i c t o r i a , 1980  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT  OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER  OF SCIENCE  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School  o-f Community and R e g i o n a l  We a c c e p t to  this  Planning)  t h e s i s a s con-forming  the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1985  ©  Norman  Karl  Marcy, 1985  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be granted by the head o f  department o r by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be  S c h o o l o f Community a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Department o f U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  1956 M a i n  Mall  Vancouver, Canada V6T  1Y3  Date  ?  my  It is thesis  allowed without my  permission.  The  thesis  written  Abstract The processes  purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o e v a l u a t e a l t e r n a t i v e f o r r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s between m i n e r a l  development,  and park p r e s e r v a t i o n i n t e r e s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. p e c u l i a r i t i e s and v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n the g e n e r i c i l l u s t r a t e the d i v e r g e n c e  conflict  between two main i n t e r e s t groups,  the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p r o v i n c i a l r e s o u r c e a g e n c i e s . examination  The  and  A brief  of e i g h t c a s e s demonstrates the c o n f l i c t i s m a n i f e s t  w i t h d i f f e r e n t i n t e n s i t i e s , over a wide time range, and  with  geographic v a r i e t y .  By comparing the supposed weakness of  l i t i g a t i o n model and  the c l a i m e d advantages of the  the  bargaining  model f o r p r o c e s s i n g of c o n f l i c t t o r e s o l u t i o n , f i v e c r i t e r i a f o r e f f i c i e n c y are developed: time and d e l a y ; c o s t ; c a p a c i t y f o r technical  i s s u e s ; o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; and  of outcomes.  flexibility  Examples of c o n f l i c t d i a l o g u e i l l u s t r a t e c o g n i t i v e ,  v a l u e , i n t e r e s t and b e h a v i o r a l c o n f l i c t i n the p a r k s / mines s i t u a t i o n w i t h the aim t h a t the reader and have a communality of e x p e r i e n c e  and  a s s e s s i n g the d e t a i l e d case e v i d e n c e .  the r e s e a r c h e r  t o o l s f o r understanding D e t a i l e d examination  the W e l l s Gray P r o v i n c i a l Park case and C h i l k o Lake Park P r o p o s a l  can in of  Wilderness  i l l u s t r a t e s t r o n g B r i t i s h Columbia examples of both  l i t i g a t i o n and b a r g a i n i n g models under the same time and p o l i t i c a l circumstance.  Not a l l of the a l l e g a t i o n s of s t r e n g t h  or weakness are s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n e i t h e r case.  The  promise  demonstrated i n the u n s t r u c t u r e d v e r s i o n of b a r g a i n i n g found i n the C h i l k o example may  be improved through i n n o v a t i o n and commitment.  TABLE OF CONTENTS page Abstract T a b l e of C o n t e n t s L i s t of F i g u r e s L i s t o-f Appendices Acknowledgments  i i i i i v v vi  ,  CHAPTER 1 Introduction  1  R e c o g n i t i o n o-f t h e Problem Goal Objectives Methods Data  2 3 3 4 5  CHAPTER 2 The P a r k s / Mines C o n - f l i c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c Phases o-f P a r k s / Mines D e c i s i o n Making Environments D i f f i c u l t y of Resources I n v e n t o r y and Assessment The I n e v i t a b l e R i s e of C o n f l i c t S h o r t Cases of P a r k s / Mines C o n f l i c t C h i l k o Lake Park P r o p o s a l South Moresby W i l d e r n e s s P r o p o s a l V a l h a l l a W i l d e r n e s s Park Kwadacha W i l d e r n e s s Park S t r a t h c o n a P r o v i n c i a l Park Tweedsmuir P r o v i n c i a l Park W e l l s Gray P r o v i n c i a l Park A t l i n P r o v i n c i a l Park Summary  6 7 20 24 26 26 29 31 34 35 37 39 41 42  CHAPTER 3 Bargaining vs. L i t i g a t i o n  45  Concepts of C o n f l i c t C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s Weakness of L i t i g a t i o n Research Q u e s t i o n Claimed Advantages of B a r g a i n i n g Limitation Tools f o r Understanding Summary iii  46 48 49 54 55 58 60 74  page  CHAPTER 4 Two Cases of P a r k s / Mines C o n f l i c t : W e l l s Gray P r o v i n c i a l Park and C h i l k o Lake Park Proposal  75  In Depth D e s c r i p t i o n of Two Cases W e l l s Gray P r o v i n c i a l Park C h i l k o Lake W i l d e r n e s s Park P r o p o s a l  76 77 86  CHAPTER 5 Assessment of t h e Case Evidence Time and Delay Cost Capacity f o r Technical Issues Opportunity f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n F l e x i b i l i t y of Outcomes Summary  102  „  103 106 108 110 113 115  CHAPTER 6 Conclusions  116  Conclusions Recommendations References  117 120  Cited  124  P e r s o n a l I n t e r v i e w s and Communications  132  Appendices  134  iv  L i s t of F i g u r e s page Figure I  Phases of P a r k s / Mines D e c i s i o n Making Environment  Figure II  9  D e s i g n a t i o n P e r i o d s , Number of P a r k s and Millions  of A c r e s - P r o v i n c i a l Park Land i n  B r i t i s h Columbia Figure I I I  Classification  12  of M i n e r a l R e s e r v e s  and Resources F i g u r e IV  24  B r i t i s h Columbia P a r k s / Mines  Conflict  Locations  27  L i s t of Appendices Appendix 1  C h r o n o l o g i c a l L i s t of Newspaper A r t i c l e s  Appendix 2  P a r k s / Mines D e c i s i o n Making Environment  132  Phases  138  Appendix 3  Case S e l e c t i o n F a c t o r s A n a l y s i s  141  Appendix 4  Chronology of E v e n t s W e l l s Gray P r o v i n c i a l Park  Appendix 5  148  Chronology of E v e n t s C h i l k o Lake W i l d e r n e s s Proposal  151  v  Acknowledgements Without the s p e c i a l s u p p o r t of T e r r y and my -family t h i s t h e s i s would not be w r i t t e n . As my a d v i s o r s , Tony Dorcey and Norman Dale have p r o v i d e d a b a l a n c e of r i g o r and u n f a i l i n g commitment t o c r i t i c i s m w i t h c o n s u l t a t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i v e a d v i c e . Lengthy and r e p e a t e d meetings have a l l o w e d the time t o e x p l o r e a v a r i e t y of avenues f o r r e s e a r c h and development of the t h e s i s . S p e c i a l thanks t o P h i l i p Dearden f o r a g r e e i n g t o be my e x t e r n a l examiner. To those who a l l o w e d me the p r i v i l e g e of i n t e r v i e w s and d i s c u s s i o n s of the p a r k s / mines c o n f l i c t I am g r a t e f u l . I fully r e c o g n i z e my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r any m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s , e r r o n e o u s s t a t e m e n t s or o m i s s i o n s made i n the t h e s i s . To the many f r i e n d s and f e l l o w s t u d e n t s who l i s t e n e d t o the hours of d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s work I thank you a l l f o r a l l o w i n g my indulgence. A number of d i s t i n c t i v e q u o t a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t some of the t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s t h a t have been encountered i n p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s : M i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s don't e x i s t ; o n l y the f a i l u r e t o communicate e x i s t s . Senegalese  proverb.  Oh g o l d ! g o l d ! thou d a z z l i n g demon, what anguish c o s t me ... Why was I not c o n t e n t ? Cariboo Sentinel October 10,  thou  1867.  . . . W i l d e r n e s s i s a r e l a t i v e c o n d i t i o n . As a form of land use i t cannot be a r i d g i d e n t i t y of unchanging c o n t e n t , e x c l u s i v e of a l l o t h e r forms. On the c o n t r a r y , i t must be a f l e x i b l e t h i n g , accommodating i t s e l f t o o t h e r forms and b l e n d i n g w i t h them i n t h a t h i g h l y l o c a l i z e d g i v e - a n d - t a k e scheme of l a n d p l a n n i n g which employ the concept of h i g h e s t use... A l d o Leopold as c i t e d by Ian McTaggart Cowan 1968. M i n i n g , most c o l o r f u l most m i s u n d e r s t o o d . A bumper s t i c k e r seen i n Northwest B r i t i s h Columbia.  vi  CHAPTER  1  INTRODUCTION  A r e c e n t newspaper a r t i c l e e x c l a i m s b r a s h l y , "Law •for m i n i n g  i n park" (Bonn, 1985a).  d e c i s i o n on May  9, 1985  opens way  A Supreme Court of Canada  has f o r c e d the p r o v i n c e of  British  Columbia t o a l l o w m i n e r a l c l a i m development t o be c o n t i n u e d i n W e l l s Gray P r o v i n c i a l Park.  Not s i n c e 1973  had the p r o v i n c i a l  laws a l l o w e d the e x p l o r a t i o n and development of m i n e r a l w i t h i n d e s i g n a t e d park  land.  resources  The c o u r t r u l i n g has been the  r e s u l t of a long and c o n t i n u i n g d i v e r g e n c e between p a r t i e s i n f a v o u r of m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n and development i n park  and  proposed park a r e a s , and p a r t i e s s u p p o r t i n g the e s t a b l i s h m e n t maintenance of park  land i n the p r o v i n c e .  The  and  r e s u l t s of  l i t i g a t i o n model c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s e s a r e seen as than s a t i s f a c t o r y by p a r t i e s on both s i d e s of the i s s u e .  less Mining  i n t e r e s t s c o n t i n u e t o be u n c e r t a i n about the s e c u r i t y w i t h which r i g h t s t o m i n e r a l s are h e l d , w h i l e park proponents m a i n t a i n a s k e p t i c i s m t h a t park d e s i g n a t i o n s w i l l  remain as a r e a s of  c o n s e r v a t i o n and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . Government a g e n c i e s  i n v o l v e d i n the d i s p u t e are f a c e d w i t h a  complex n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s management s i t u a t i o n t h a t w i l l both a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and f i n a n c i a l  cause  burdens.  The W e l l s Gray c a s e , mentioned above, i s the c u l m i n a t i o n of at  l e a s t seven y e a r s of l e g a l a c t i o n and 15 y e a r s of s p o r a d i c  attempts a t c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n .  A v a r i e t y of o t h e r s i m i l a r  and  r e l a t e d c a s e s form an a r r a y of parks / mines land use c o n f l i c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t i s t h i s c o n t i n u e d c o n f l i c t over a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t i s addressed  in this thesis.  land use  A v a r i e t y of  approaches t o r e s o l v i n g t h i s d i v e r g e n c e have been put forward  2  by  government a g e n c i e s and  interested parties.  W e l l s Gray s i t u a t i o n , a r e l a t e d and o-f t h i s c o n f l i c t  In a d d i t i o n t o  somewhat i n t e r t w i n e d  i s found i n the c i r c u m s t a n c e and  example  actions  comprised i n the C h i l k o Lake W i l d e r n e s s Park P r o p o s a l . e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e s e two  the  An  c a s e s forms the e m p i r i c a l component f o r  this thesis investigation.  The  purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o e v a l u a t e  alternative  p r o c e s s e s f o r r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s between m i n e r a l s development and  park p r e s e r v a t i o n  i n t e r e s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. QJaj.ectiv.£s  A number of o b j e c t i v e s need be a c h i e v e d i n o r d e r t o reach the goal t h a t has been s e t . three  These o b j e c t i v e s can be d i v i d e d  into  parts. In the f i r s t p a r t , the o b j e c t i v e s  1.  To  2.  To j u s t i f y t h a t t h e r e  introduce  are:  the p a r k s / mines c o n f l i c t . i s a s i g n i f i c a n t problem i n B r i t i s h  Columbia, worthy of i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 3.  To f a m i l i a r i z e the reader w i t h the s o c i a l , economic  and  p o l i t i c a l s t r e s s e s w i t h i n which the p a r k s / mines c o n f l i c t d e c i s i o n making i s conducted. In the second p a r t , the o b j e c t i v e s 4.  To e x p l a i n the l i t i g a t i o n and  bargaining  are: models of  conflict  p r o c e s s i ng. 5.  To e x p l a i n a t y p o l o g y of c o n f l i c t causes w i t h of g e n e r a l i z e d  illustrations  park / mines examples, t h u s d e v e l o p i n g a  communality of u n d e r s t a n d i n g between the reader and 3  the  researcher. In t h e t h i r d p a r t , t h e o b j e c t i v e s a r e : 6.  To d e s c r i b e , i n d e t a i l , two c a s e s of c o n f l i c t the models and c r i t e r i a developed  i n l i g h t of  i n t h e second  part.  7.  To e v a l u a t e p r a c t i c e d c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s e s .  8.  To p r e s c r i b e c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s improvements. Method  Chapter 2 d e s c r i b e s development of both t h e p a r k s and mines s e c t o r s and d i f f i c u l t i e s of r e s o u r c e s management and c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s as e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e B r i t i s h Columbia s i t u a t i o n . particular  In  through t h e e x a m i n a t i o n of e i g h t s e p a r a t e p a r k s /  mines c o n f l i c t examples,  t h e r e a d e r w i l l become f a m i l i a r  g e n e r a l concept i n v o l v e d i n t h e g e n e r i c c o n f l i c t .  with the  Chapter 3  examines and c l a r i f i e s t h e a l l e g e d weaknesses of t h e l i t i g a t i o n model i n p r o c e s s i n g c o n f l i c t and t h e c l a i m e d advantages of t h e b a r g a i n i n g model f o r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n .  Additionally, a  c o n f l i c t cause t y p o l o g y i s i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h examples such t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r and t h e reader w i l l d e v e l o p some u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the t o o l and d i r e c t i o n s t h a t have been taken i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . Chapter 4 g i v e s an i n depth d e s c r i p t i o n of two c a s e s of p a r k s / mines c o n f l i c t and r e s o l u t i o n approaches,  thus p r o v i d i n g a b a s i s  f o r a n a l y s i s of t h e l i t i g a t i o n and b a r g a i n i n g models as used i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Chapter 5 i s an e v a l u a t i o n of each example  u s i n g t h e c l a i m e d advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s as a framework f o r analysis.  In c o n c l u s i o n , Chapter 6 b r i n g s f o r w a r d a summary of  f i n d i n g s and proposes i n n o v a t i o n s t o e x i s t i n g  4  c o n f l i c t processing  p r a c t i c e s t h a t might r e s u l t i n improved e-f-ficiency and satisfaction for a l l participants. Data  I n f o r m a t i o n t h a t has been used i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s has been g a t h e r e d from t h e f o l l o w i n g s o u r c e s : 1.  R e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e on c o n f l i c t , n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s management, l i t i g a t i o n , n e g o t i a t i o n and m e d i a t i o n .  2.  E x t e n s i v e newspaper coverage of parks / mines c o n f l i c t , as w e l l as background  l i t e r a t u r e on park and m i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s  and s i g n i f i c a n c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  A l i s t of t h e  newspaper a r t i c l e s i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix  1 reflecting  the v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n e d i n d e v e l o p i n g a c h r o n o l o g i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e p a r k s / mines c o n f l i c t i n British 3.  Columbia;  Case s p e c i f i c p u b l i c documents p e r t a i n i n g t o v a r i o u s p a r k s / mines c o n f l i c t s ;  4.  Court and l e g a l documents p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e W e l l s Gray P r o v i n c i a l Park case;  5.  P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h government o f f i c i a l s , m i n e r a l i n d u s t r y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , park and w i l d e r n e s s proponents conducted  i n t h e main d u r i n g A p r i l and May 1985, t h e s e a r e  augmented by p r i o r and subsequent  5  communications.  CHAPTER 2  THE PARKS / MINES CONFLICT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  6  The  parks / mines c o n f l i c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s worthy of  investigation.  Both t h e m i n i n g s e c t o r and t h e parks r e l a t e d  s e c t o r p l a y important r o l e s i n t h e h i s t o r y and economic development of B r i t i s h Columbia.  When i n v o l v e d  i n land  use c o n f l i c t , t h e p r o g r e s s and c o n t r i b u t i o n of each i s impeded. Four phases of t h e d e c i s i o n making environment w i t h i n which the h i s t o r y of t h e p a r k s / mines c o n f l i c t has t r a n s p i r e d w i l l  form a  b a s i s f o r t h e r e a d e r ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e a c t i o n s taken by parties involved. geographically  The c o n f l i c t can be shown t o be both  d i v e r s e and v a r i e d i n p o l i t i c a l  b r i e f case examples t h a t f o l l o w w i l l  i n t e n s i t y . The  i l l u s t r a t e two p a r k s / mines  c o n f l i c t c a t e g o r i e s : f i r s t , a s i t u a t i o n where park land i s t h e p r i o r or e x i s t i n g use d e s i g n a t i o n seeking  access,  and m i n e r a l  and second, where m i n e r a l  i n t e r e s t s are  land use d e s i g n a t i o n s  are e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r t o park i n t e r e s t s p u r s u i t of c o n s e r v a t i o n land  designation.  B e f o r e examining c a s e s of p a r k s / mines c o n f l i c t Columbia, we w i l l  in British  need an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e f o u r phases of t h e  d e c i s i o n making environment as they form t h e c o n t e x t the s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s of r e s o u r c e p o l i t i c i a n s have taken p l a c e .  managers, l o b b y i s t s and  T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s made w i t h t h e  assumption t h a t t o some e x t e n t , t h e p r o v i n c e international political  w i t h i n which  wide, n a t i o n a l and  and economic t r e n d s have an e f f e c t on t h e  d e c i s i o n making environment i n which t h e parks / mines c o n f l i c t occurs.  The f o u r g e n e r a l  e r a s o r phases can be i d e n t i f i e d 7  i n the  - f o l l o w i n g way.  F i r s t , the p e r i o d p r i o r t o 1972, can be thought  o-f as r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e i n t h e dynamics o-f t h e c o n f l i c t .  Second,  the p e r i o d o-f 1972 t o 1975 i s dominated by the p o l a r s h i f t i n p o l i c i e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as the r e s u l t of the New Democratic Party's e l e c t i o n .  T h i r d , a p e r i o d of p r o s p e r i t y and  activity  accompanied by a r e t u r n of the S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y from 1976 through 1980.  F o u r t h and f i n a l l y , from 1981 onward, the phase  t h a t has been dominated by the s t r e s s e s of economic r e c e s s i o n a r i s e i n r i g h t of c e n t e r  policies.  and  F i g u r e I o u t l i n e s the  c h r o n o l o g y and major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each of t h e d e c i s i o n making environment phases t h a t have been e x p e r i e n c e d i n r e s o l u t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia p a r k s / mines c o n f l i c t .  A  more d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n of the development and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each of t h e s e d e c i s i o n environment phases f a l l o w s .  8  FIGURE I  PHASES OF PARKS / MINES DECISION MAKING ENVIRONMENT  NOTE: a d e t a i l e d chronology FOUNDATION PHASE  1930  of events  i s -found i n Appendix 2.  - 1971  - e x p l o r a t i o n and c l a i m s a l l o w e d i n parks - r i s e i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l ism - s t r o n g economic c o n d i t i o n s - s t a b l e p r o m i n e r a l development government REVOLUTION PHASE  1972  - 1975  -new government w i t h c o n s e r v a t i o n s t a n c e - p l a n n i n g of r e s o u r c e management adopted - m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n banned i n a l l parks - c l a i m s i n parks a r e c o n s i d e r e d f o r purchase PROSPERITY PHASE  1976  - 1980  -pro m i n i n g and development government r e t u r n e d - p o l i c y on m i n e r a l a c t i v i t y r e c o n s i d e r e d -park p l a n n i n g c o n t i n u e s -economic growth and m i n e r a l i n d u s t r y prosper RECESSION PHASE  1981  - PRESENT  -sharp economic down t u r n - r e - e l e c t i o n of p r o b u s i n e s s government - r e s t r a i n t i n government a g e n c i e s and p l a n n i n g - p o l i t i c a l demands f o r parks j u s t i f i c a t i o n  Foundation In  t h e Foundation  Phase  Phase of t h e parks / mines c o n f l i c t  r e s o l u t i o n environment both m i n e r a l s and park r e s o u r c e s were f i r s t r e c o g n i z e d and developed.  Though c o a l was t h e f i r s t  m i n e r a l of s i g n i f i c a n c e t o be mined , major development began w i t h t h e lower F r a s e r R i v e r g o l d rush of 1858. Subsequent g o l d rushes through  t h e C a r i b o o a r e a , t h e S t i k i n e and Peace r i v e r s ,  then on t o t h e Kootenays by 1865, saw much D f t h e p r o v i n c e i n f i l t r a t e d by " f r e e m i n e r s "  i n s e a r c h of r e s o u r c e s .  A r e s u l t of  t h i s i n f l u x , combined w i t h s e t t l e m e n t and demands f o r f o r e s t  r e s o u r c e s and a g r i c u l t u r e , saw  a quick development o-f t r a n s p o r t  r o u t e s and t r a d i n g arrangements.  In a d d i t i o n , a q u i c k assessment  of the v a s t r e s o u r c e s and p o t e n t i a l t o be r e a l i z e d i n the p r o v i n c e was  s t i m u l a t e d . (Ramsey, 1957;  Ramsey, 1969;  F o l l o w i n g the p l a c e r g o l d m i n e r s and t u r n of the c e n t u r y and on t o World War subsequently  silver,  l e a d i n g through  World War  1978)  the  I , load g o l d , and  lead and z i n c , became important  produced i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Gunn,  minerals  I brought an i n t e n s e  s e a r c h i n the p r o v i n c e f o r 'war m e t a l s ' - chromium, molybdenum, mercury and t u n g s t e n .  These same m i n e r a l s were sought and  produced a g a i n d u r i n g World War I I . The passage of time has brought a major s h i f t  i n the  t e c h n o l o g y used f o r mining p a r t i c u l a r l y a move toward c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of the m i n i n g of e a r l y t i m e s was s h o v e l s , and  industry.  The  the  l a b o r i n t e n s i v e mine  r e p l a c e d by the use of b u l l d o z e r s , power  large trucks.  i n c r e a s e d use of petroleum  The  key t o t h i s change was  fuels.  the  Throughout t h i s time p e r i o d  the m i n e r a l i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia was but m a r g i n a l l y surpassed  by the f o r e s t s e c t o r i n the d o l l a r v a l u e of  produced. ( F r y ,  resources  1966)  P a r k s i n B r i t i s h Columbia were f i r s t c r e a t e d i n response the c o n s e r v a t i o n movement c o n c e i v e d reflected  h i s t o r y i t was  The  the  D u r i n g the e a r l y p a r t of the p r o v i n c e ' s  the government's p o l i c y t o g r a d u a l l y e s t a b l i s h a  park system throughout 11, 1983)  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and  i n Canada by the Commission of C o n s e r v a t i o n through  b e g i n n i n g of the 190C*s.  to  the province.(Thompson, p e r s . comm., March  p e r i o d 1939  t o 1945 was a time of c o n t i n u e d  g r a d u a l growth i n both the number and a r e a i n c l u d e d i n p r o v i n c i a l 10  p a r k s . ( B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980)  A r a p i d p e r i o d o-f park  development came a-fter World War  I I i n response  t o an i n c r e a s e d  m o b i l i t y and demand -for l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n . (Youds, 1978) l a r g e p r o v i n c i a l parks o-f the w i l d e r n e s s type are  The  unevenly  d i s t r i b u t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the p o p u l a t i o n c e n t e r s o-f the province.  At the same time, not a l l landscapes and  •found i n the p r o v i n c e have been r e p r e s e n t e d .  ecosystems  ( N e l s o n , 1974)  The  - f i r s t parks t o be c r e a t e d were l a t e r under heavy p r e s s u r e -for • f o r e s t r y , m i n i n g , power and basin, elimination.  i n the case o-f a park i n the L i a r d  (Olcay, 1980)  These a c t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n a  steady r e d u c t i o n i n the a r e a , though not the number o-f parks designated 1980)  i n B r i t i s h Columbia.(Youds 1978,  (See F i g u r e I I . )  11  B r i t i s h Columbia,  FIGURE I I DESIGNATION PERIODS, NUMBER OF PARKS AND MILLIONS OF ACRES - PROVINCIAL PARK LAND IN BRITISH COLUMBIA. (adapted and modi-fied -from Youds 1978). updated d a t a •from B. C. P r o c i n c i a l P a r k s Data Handbooks.  1  ! 1900  PERIOD OF DESIGNATION 2  i 1920  ! 1940  i 1960  3  ! 1980  YEARS ACREAGE  -  NUMBER OF PARKS  During the formative  y e a r s of t h e parks / mines c o n f l i c t i n  B r i t i s h Columbia, government l o n g e v i t y , through c o a l i t i o n s from 1941  t o 1953 f o l l o w e d  by a 20 year r e i g n of t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t  P a r t y , r e s u l t e d i n an e c o n o m i c a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y s t a b l e  period  a l l o w i n g t h e development of government p o l i c i e s i n response t o lobby i n t e r e s t s on both s i d e s of t h e parks / mines i s s u e . and  Stable  pro-development government was a f a c t o r i n m a i n t a i n i n g  mineral  industry  i n t e r e s t s i n a t r a d i t i o n a l l y unencumbered s t a t e .  Through t h i s phase, m i n e r a l  e x p l o r a t i o n and c l a i m s t a k i n g was  allowed  i n p r o v i n c i a l parks.  1950's and  R e l a t i v e l y low metal  p r i c e s i n the  i 9 6 0 ' s kept the l e v e l of m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t y  correspondingly  low.  Growing s t r e n g t h i n the  environmental  movement l e d t o q u e s t i o n i n g of the e x i s t i n g park land policies.  use  The f i r s t e x c e p t i o n t o the dominance of m i n e r a l  i n t e r e s t s was  the 1964  e l i m i n a t i o n of m i n e r a l  industry a c t i v i t y  i n parks of l e s s than 5,000 a c r e s . T h i s a c t i o n was  the  first  impingement on an open door p o l i c y t h a t had been e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1919.  The  mineral and  t i g h t e n i n g of r e g u l a t i o n s c o v e r i n g the a c t i o n s of  i n d u s t r y responded t o the growing e n v i r o n m e n t a l  However, the t r a d i t i o n a l  lobby s t r e n g t h of the  i n d u s t r y i n company w i t h o t h e r pro b u s i n e s s and m i n i n g prevented  w h o l e s a l e changes i n the r e g u l a t i o n of m i n e r a l i n d u s t r y  the Park Act of 1965  granted f r e q u e n t l y and w i t h l e n i e n c y through  1967b, Anon 1968)  Changes i n  l i m i t e d the s t a k i n g of m i n e r a l c l a i m s i n  parks by r e q u i r i n g the a p p r o v a l of the m i n i s t e r .  This  approval  the 1960's.(Anon  M i n e r a l land use r e g u l a t i o n s at t h i s time were  a l s o p o o r l y developed.  The e f f e c t of any a c t i o n s w i t h p o t e n t i a l  a l i e n a t e park lands from m i n e r a l  minimal.  mining interests  a c t i v i t y on crown lands i n c l u d i n g parks.(Anon. 1965,)  to  movement  the demand f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n t h a t accompanied i t d u r i n g the  1960*s.  was  the  industry a c t i v i t i e s  T h i s impotence, however, was  was  cause f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e  storm of p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o v e r s y between 1968  and  1972,  which  formed the b a s i s on which much of the i n t e r e s t and momentum f o r p o l i t i c a l and r e g u l a t o r y change i n the f o l l o w i n g phase was Though some c o n c e s s i o n s  based.  t o the p r e s s u r e from the  c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s ' l o b b y were made, i n c l u d i n g m i n e r a l r e c l a m a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s , the government m a i n t a i n e d 13  land a  resources  development p o s t u r e toward park l a n d . ( O l c a y ,  1980) Youds (1977)  s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e development of park and r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s r e f l e c t s a maturation  of B r i t i s h Columbia a f t e r t h e m i n e r a l  r e s o u r c e s formed p a r t of t h e e a r l y b a s i s f o r development. R e v o l u t i o n Phase I will call R e v o l u t i o n Phase. environmentalism  t h e second c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n environment t h e The second phase b u i l d s on t h e r i s e i n and outdoor r e c r e a t i o n t h a t was begun and  a c c e l e r a t e d toward t h e l a t t e r p a r t of t h e f i r s t phase.  Beginning  w i t h t h e e l e c t i o n of t h e New Democratic P a r t y i n t h e f a l l of 1972,  a s h o r t p e r i o d of t h r e e y e a r s f o l l o w e d i n which s i g n i f i c a n t  changes o c c u r r e d  i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and,  in p a r t i c u l a r , i n the processes resolution.  of management and c o n f l i c t  The e l e c t i o n of t h e New Democratic P a r t y was t h e key  event which f a c i l i t a t e d s w i f t changes i n t h e long e s t a b l i s h e d p a r k s / mines d e c i s i o n making schema.  These a c t i o n s were taken  i n an e r a of s t r o n g economic c o n d i t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e m i n i n g s e c t o r , w i t h t h e opening and p r o f i t a b l e o p e r a t i o n of many mines, producing  copper and molybdenum.  greater, experienced  The growth r a t e s of 5-7 %, o r  i n western economies d u r i n g t h e 1950*5 -  1970's had g i v e n r i s e t o g r e a t e x p e c t a t i o n s .  There was a  p e r c e p t i o n among t h e newly formed government t h a t t h e s t r e n g t h of the m i n i n g  s e c t o r c o u l d w i t h s t a n d c o n s i d e r a b l e t a x a t i o n and  regulation. E l e c t e d on a p l a t f o r m t h a t encompassed many s t r o n g p r o environmental  and c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n k s , t h e New Democratic P a r t y  were o b l i g e d t o make s i g n i f i c a n t changes.  14  F i r s t , no f u r t h e r  m i n e r a l c l a i m s were granted  i n p r o v i n c i a l parks.  T h i s was  accompanied by changes i n both the Park Act and t h e M i n e r a l A c t . These a c t i o n s can be seen t o be t h e end r e s u l t a-f s i g n i f i c a n t pressure  i n t h e parks / mines d e c i s i o n making environment t h a t  was t r a n s l a t e d i n t o t h e p o l i t i c a l arena as changes i n government and  legislation.  In a d d i t i o n t o e l i m i n a t i o n of e x p l o r a t i o n and  m i n e r a l c l a i m s t a k i n g i n p a r k s , t h e r e would be a s t r e n g t h e n i n g of the e x i s t i n g park d e s i g n a t i o n s by changing them from o r d e r s i n c o u n c i l t o b e i n g i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e new P a r k s A c t l e g i s l a t i o n . To s t r e n g t h e n and r a t i o n a l i z e t h e r e s o u r c e s management d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , t h e Environment and Land Use Committee of c a b i n e t was augmented by a r e s e a r c h S e c r e t a r i a t e .  This multi  d i s c i p l i n a r y group r e f l e c t e d t h e s t r o n g p l a n n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n t h a t was a p a r t of the New Democratic P a r t y ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l underpinnings.  In f a c t , t h i s phase of t h e parks / mines c o n f l i c t  r e s o l u t i o n environment c o u l d be c a l l e d t h e e r a of p l a n n i n g . P u b l i c lobby i n t e r e s t s were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s through  p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programs as an i n t e g r a l  p a r t of t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s .  The S e c r e t a r i a t e i n i t i a t e d and  d i r e c t e d many of t h e p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were needed f o r t h e accumulation  and d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e  p a r k s / mines c o n f l i c t as i t developed  through  t h e 1970's.  The  e f f e c t of t h e emphasis on p l a n n i n g c o n t i n u e d a f t e r t h e New Democratic P a r t y was d e f e a t e d and a f t e r t h e Environment and Land Use Committee had been disbanded.  Though t h e New Democratic  P a r t y imposed sharp t a x measures on t h e m i n i n g combination  industry, i n  w i t h more r e s t r i c t i v e land use r e g u l a t i o n s , v a l u e of  m i n e r a l p r o d u c t i o n would not d e c l i n e . ( B r i t i s h Columbia, 1979)  15  The economy i n g e n e r a l would c o n t i n u e t o be p r o d u c t i v e and  enjoy  growth. P r o s p e r i t y Phase The t h i r d d e c i s i o n making e r a can be d e s c r i b e d as the P r o s p e r i t y Phase.  The u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r t h a t most c o n t r i b u t e d t o  the n a t u r e o-f the d e c i s i o n making environment between the r e - e l e c t i o n o-f the S o c i a l C r e d i t government i n 1975 and the  onset  a r e c e s s i o n a r y t r e n d i n both the p r o v i n c i a l and w o r l d economies i n 1981,  was  the s t r e n g t h and growth o-f the economy.  Rising  metal p r i c e s i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the 1970's caused a of e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t y  throughout  resurgence  B r i t i s h Columbia as f o r m e r l y  uneconomic m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s became more v i a b l e .  Advances i n the  economy were accompanied by i n c r e a s i n g l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y and r i s i n g demand f o r a e s t h e t i c and outdoor  resources.  i n t e r e s t i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been the promotion  Of  the  particular  of the "Super  N a t u r a l " f e a t u r e s of the p r o v i n c e as a d e s t i n a t i o n f o r t o u r i s t s and r e s i d e n t s s e e k i n g an outdoor 1984a)  Consequently,  recreational  experience.(Dorcey,  p r o v i n c i a l t o u r i s m , as p a r t i a l l y  supported  by the a t t r a c t i o n s i n p a r k s , has become an i n c r e a s i n g l y component of the economy.  important  Over the past decade the t o u r i s m  s e c t o r has seen a near d o u b l i n g of revenues.(Stubbs, D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d world metal  1984)  p r i c e s were v e r y h i g h , w i t h  new  r e c o r d s b e i n g s e t i n p r e c i o u s m e t a l s the most n o t a b l e of which was g o l d .  The s t r e n g t h of demand f o r r e s o u r c e s r e s u l t e d i n the  o p e r a t i o n of a l a r g e number of mines throughout  the p r o v i n c e  a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s t h a t had, b e f o r e the advance i n p r i c e s , been sub-economic.  As a l a r g e number of  m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s can, under s t r o n g economic c o n d i t i o n s , be 16  and  e x p l o i t e d p r o f i t a b l y , t h e p r e s s u r e f o r a c c e s s t o park lands f o r m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n was s l i g h t .  High metal  p r i c e s would  s t i m u l a t e m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t y , but t h e u n c e r t a i n t i e s of e x p l o r i n g i n park lands or proposed park lands would be enough of an encumbrance t h a t i t would l a r g e l y be a v o i d e d .  Enough m i n e r a l  r e s o u r c e s o u t s i d e of park a r e a s would show promise under  these  c o n d i t i o n s t h a t p r e s s u r e f o r a c c e s s would be d i m i n i s h e d .  The  mining  i n d u s t r i e s ' p e r c e p t i o n d u r i n g p e r i o d s of s t r o n g metal  p r i c e s would be t h a t l i t t l e or n o t h i n g i s p o t e n t i a l l y l o s t by e x i s t i n g park d e s i g n a t i o n s .  However, new park d e s i g n a t i o n s would  not be viewed any l e s s c r i t i c a l l y . new r e s o u r c e  There i s l i t t l e demand f o r  lands as t h e known m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s a r e a b l e t o f i l l  market demand.  T h i s s i t u a t i o n may seem t o be c o n t r a r y t o what  one might e x p e c t , however, t h e long lead time f o r m i n e r a l p r o d u c t i o n t o b e g i n on any s i n g l e p r o j e c t r e s t r i c t s t h e s u p p l y of a growing market t o r e s o u r c e s t h a t have been known and d e v e l o p i n g for to  many y e a r s .  T h i s economic s i t u a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d e x t e n s i v e l y  a low l e v e l of p o l i t i c a l  environment and l i t t l e  s t r e s s i n t h e d e c i s i o n making  i n c e n t i v e or a c t i v i t y toward r e s o l u t i o n of  the parks /mines c o n f l i c t . Recession  Phase  The c u r r e n t d e c i s i o n making environment, dominated by economic c o n c e r n s ,  i s l a b e l e d as t h e R e c e s s i o n  Phase.  The  a n t i t h e s i s of t h e p r o s p e r i t y phase c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e c u r r e n t r e s o u r c e s d e c i s i o n making environment.  As demand f o r B r i t i s h  Columbia's n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s has d i m i n i s h e d  i n response t o world  s u p p l y g l u t s r e s u l t i n g i n lower p r i c e s , i n c r e a s e d c o s t s of  17  production  have caused many mines t o become uneconomic.  The drop  i n metal p r i c e s , as i s u s u a l , s i g n a l e d a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e l e v e l o-f m i n e r a l  e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t y throughout B r i t i s h Columbia.  (Rose, 1985) However, t h e m i n e r a l  i n d u s t r y has been f o r c e d t o  s e a r c h -for r i c h e r d e p o s i t s and more c o s t e-f-fective methods o-f production, earnings,  t o compensate -for c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v a r i a t i o n s i n  as a r e s u l t o-f - f l u c t u a t i o n i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l metal and  money markets. ( M i n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o-f B.C., 1983) resource  Mineral  generated government revenues have - f a l l e n (Joyce  Government has been under p r e s s u r e i n d u s t r i e s i n c l u d i n g the mineral the economy.  t o reduce encumbrances on a l l  i n d u s t r y i n an attempt t o r e v i v e  Among t h e measures t h a t have been taken i n c l u d e a  •further e x a m i n a t i o n o-f m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n and development. the t h i r d  1984).  i n d u s t r y a c c e s s t o park land -for Tourism d u r i n g t h i s phase became  l a r g e s t i n d u s t r y , r i v a l i n g t h e m i n i n g and - f o r e s t r y  s e c t o r s . (Farrow, 1983) However, t h e economic emphasis o-f government f o r c e d t h e M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and Housing t o adapt i t s d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s and park d e s i g n a t i o n to incorporate the associated opportunity c o s t s . both m i n e r a l  criteria  The r e s u l t of  i n d u s t r y lobby f o r a c c e s s t o p a r k s , and d i r e c t i v e s  from t h e p a r k s m i n i s t r y f o r more p o l i t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e  resource  land a l l o c a t i o n , has been a r i s e i n s t r e s s i n t h e p a r k s / mines c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n environment. R e - e l e c t i o n of t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y , brought a new order to the p o l i t i c a l increased  r e a l i t y of t h e parks / mines c o n f l i c t .  An  importance was p l a c e d on t h e economic impact of a l l  r e s o u r c e s management d e c i s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e d e s i g n a t i o n of parks.  The 1983 p r o v i n c i a l budget, and t h e e v e n t s t h a t f o l l o w e d ,  18  caused an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of the s t r e s s e s i n the parks / mines c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n d e c i s i o n making environment.  As reduced  f u n d i n g and s t a f f i n g i n c r e a s e d s t r e s s , so a l s o d i d the urgency of a c t i o n s designed  to r e l i e v e i t .  I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d planning  d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s e s such as the R e g i o n a l Management committees were a b o l i s h e d .  and  Resource  Changes were made i n the  park land d e s i g n a t i o n s t h a t s i m p l i f i e d the c h o i c e s t h a t are a v a i l a b l e f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n l a n d s . and R e c r e a t i o n Area d e s i g n a t i o n s are now Columbia, 1984b)  Only C l a s s  "A"  available.(British  The consequence of budget c o n s t r a i n t s and  p o l i c y changes has been a s i t u a t i o n i n which the r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t serves to a l l e v i a t e s t r e s s f o r p o l i t i c i a n s p r o v i n c i a l natural resources  and  l i n e a g e n c i e s as w e l l as the p a r t i e s  l o b b y i n g f o r park c r e a t i o n and m i n e r a l i n d u s t r y a c c e s s e x i s t i n g park l a n d .  Questions  of p r i o r i t y between m i n e r a l  development and o t h e r economic a c t i v i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y continue to surface.(Stubbs,  to  1984)  tourism,  I t i s when p a r t i e s w i s h i n g  d i f f e r e n t land uses converge on the same land t h a t the difficulties  occur.  We might summarize the development of each phase of  the  parks / mines c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n environment by p r o j e c t i n g possible futures.  F i r s t , metal  p r i c e s w i l l continue to f l u c t u a t e  c a u s i n g f l u c t u a t i o n i n the demand f o r m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s e x p l o r a t i o n lands.  and  Accompanying these f l u c t u a t i o n s w i l l  be  r e c e s s i o n a r y p e r i o d s i n the w o r l d and p r o v i n c i a l economies. F i n a l l y , the demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n and a e s t h e t i c r e s o u r c e s , r i s i n g through  each of the phases, shows no  of a b a t i n g .  19  indication  The  d i f f i c u l t i e s of d e f i n i n g and v a l u i n g  resources  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r k s as w e l l as m i n e r a l s c o n t r i b u t e f u r t h e r t o the p a r k s / mines c o n f l i c t .  Two  q u o t a t i o n s can be used t o  h i g h l i g h t these problems: "Do  Economists know about l u p i n e s ? " A l d o Leopold  "Subsurface m i n e r a l planners.  (1925)  p o s s i b i l i t i e s are e n i g m a t i c  U n t i l they are d i s c o v e r e d  t o the  they cannot be a n t i c i p a t e d . "  E. Fred B i r d a l l Jay M i t c h e l l  and  (1984)  Both L e o p o l d and B i r d a l l and M i t c h e l l r e c o g n i z e  the  d i f f i c u l t y of i n v e n t o r y and e v a l u a t i n g n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s i n the p a r k s / mines c o n f l i c t .  Whereas r e c r e a t i o n and  f e a t u r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r k s are d i f f i c u l t  involved  aesthetic  t o q u a n t i f y and  m i n e r a l s are d i f f i c u l t  t o f i n d and compare w i t h i n a changing  economic environment.  I t i s t o t h i s problem t h a t we now  value,  turn.  There are t h r e e primary ways of i n v e n t o r y i n g a t t r i b u t e s of park l a n d .  A r e c r e a t i o n resource  i n v e n t o r y can count  the  b i o p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s t h a t w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o the s u i t a b i l i t y lands f o r park use.  A use  inventory w i l l provide  information  about the e x t e n t t o which the land i s used by those who F i n a l l y , a user  i n v e n t o r y w i l l gather  d e s i r e s of p o t e n t i a l land u s e r s . p r o c e s s e s can be found i n c h a p t e r s Merriam(1979).  D e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of these 4, 6 and 7 of Brockman and  d i f f i c u l t i e s and 20  visit i t .  d a t a on the needs and  As w i t h any s c i e n t i f i c s u r v e y ,  p r o c e s s e s b r i n g s i t s own  of  each of these  degree of  reliability.  These measures can p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on the s u p p l y ,  quality,  a c c e s s i b i l i t y , and p e r c e p t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t y t o use park  land.  However, measures of the o p t i o n and e x i s t e n c e v a l u e s of park are not addressed.  These n o n - p r i c e parameters of park  i n v e n t o r y and e v a l u a t i o n a d i f f i c u l t problem.  land make  In a d d i t i o n ,  the  uniqueness of each park  land r e s o u r c e makes comparisons and  priorization difficult,  i f not i m p o s s i b l e .  economists  land  However, some  have made attempts at v a l u i n g the n o n - p r i c e nature of  r e c r e a t i o n and park r e s o u r c e s through measurement of the w i l l i n g n e s s t o pay, consumer s u r p l u s , and t r a v e l c o s t by u s e r s who  participate in specific a c t i v i t i e s .  K r u t i l l a and F i s h e r , 1975; D a v i s , 1980)  expenditure  (Pearse,  Sinden and W o r r e l , 1979;  1968;  and K i n g  and  These measures are a g a i n d i f f i c u l t t o judge  r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r r e s o u r c e s or t o o t h e r measures, as the f a c t o r s examined a r e those of a s s o c i a t e d c o s t s .  E v a l u a t i o n of the a c t u a l  r e s o u r c e worth has not been a c h i e v e d . A d e t a i l e d examination  of the economic impact of parks  prepared by the Canadian Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Research (1975).  was  Committee  A f t e r summarizing g e n e r a l p o i n t s made by many  r e s e a r c h e r s , the advantages of a number of economic b e n e f i t s a r e extolled. secondary park  Furthermore, and  c o n c l u s i o n s are advanced c o n c e r n i n g  the  l o c a l b e n e f i t s through m u l t i p l i e r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  land use. As w i t h park r e s o u r c e s , m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s too  present  d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s managers and p l a n n e r s . s i m i l a r way  problems a r i s e w i t h uniqueness,  physical a c c e s s i b i l i t y .  In a  randomness and  C o n c e n t r a t i o n s of m i n e r a l s such t h a t  t h e i r e x t r a c t i o n i s f e a s i b l e are r a r e . ( C l o u d , 1968) 21  In f a c t , of  the -few c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of m i n e r a l s t h a t have been d i s c o v e r e d many have become as famous as have d i s t i n c t i v e park l a n d s .  Gold i n  South A f r i c a , Yukon and Hemlo, Copper i n Zambia, C h i l i , and H i g h l a n d V a l l e y e x h i b i t t h e c h a r a c t e r of these  Montana  distinctive  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of m i n e r a l s and m i n i n g a c t i v i t y . However, t h e random d i s t r i b u t i o n of m i n e r a l s i n c o m b i n a t i o n n a t u r e make i n v e n t o r y even more u n c e r t a i n . minerals contained  with their  hidden  The t r u e e x t e n t of  i n t h e e a r t h ' s c r u s t i s not known u n t i l  have been e x t r a c t e d .  they  F i n d i n g t h e l o c a t i o n of c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of  m i n e r a l s i s i n c r e a s i n g l y a r i s k y p r o p o s i t i o n as many of t h e best and e a s i e s t t o f i n d d e p o s i t s a r e a l r e a d y known and e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s b r i n g s us t o t h e f i n a l  component of i n v e n t o r y i n g m i n e r a l  r e s o u r c e s , t h a t of changing a c c e s s i b i l i t y o r t e c h n o l o g y . g e o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s a r e developed,  As  d i f f e r e n t a r e a s of t h e e a r t h ' s  c r u s t become d e s i r a b l e l o c a t i o n s f o r m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n . technology  As t h e  f o r e x t r a c t i n g m i n e r a l s from t h e e a r t h ' s c r u s t  improves, d i f f e r e n t m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s w i l l become e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e . S i m i l a r l y , as changing economic c o n d i t i o n s d i c t a t e , d i f f e r e n t m i n e r a l s a r e i n l e s s e r o r g r e a t e r demand, thus b r i n g i n g d i f f e r e n t lands i n t o g r e a t e r demand f o r m i n e r a l land use. The u n c e r t a i n t y of t h e s i t u a t i o n t h a t we have d e s c r i b e d here can be summarized i n F i g u r e I I I (Smith, 1979; S t e i n h a r t , 1980). Of a l l t h e m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s i n t h e e a r t h ' s c r u s t , o n l y a s m a l l p o r t i o n a r e i d e n t i f i e d , t e c h n i c a l l y r e c o v e r a b l e , and e c o n o m i c a l l y feasible to extract.  Consequently,  t h e few m i n e r a l  occurances  t h a t have been d i s c o v e r e d t o have economic p o t e n t i a l a r e v e r y much more v a l u a b l e r e l a t i v e t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g t h e r e f o r e e a g e r l y sought by m i n e r a l 22  lands and a r e  industry interests. Similar  d i s c u s s i o n s i n a c o n c i s e -form r e g a r d i n g m i n e r a l p o t e n t i a l , i n f o r m a t i o n and m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g Zwartendyk ( i 9 7 2 ) .  can be found i n  More s p e c i f i c frameworks of a n a l y s i s f o r t h e  B r i t i s h Columbia case a r e developed South Moresby P l a n n i n g Team The  resource  by N o r t h c o t e  (1981) and t h e  (1983).  d i f f i c u l t y of i n v e n t o r y i n g each r e s o u r c e  i n t h e parks /  mines c o n f l i c t i s q u i c k l y e v i d e n t i n t h e s i t u a t i o n t h a t i s d e s c r i b e d above.  Furthermore, t h e nature of one as a n o n - p r i c e  good and t h e o t h e r as an economic good make comparison difficult.  As we have seen, attempts  extremely  have been made t o p r i c e  r e c r e a t i o n and a e s t h e t i c goods by Pearse and o t h e r s .  Further,  the e v a l u a t i o n of m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s i s wrought w i t h u n u s u a l l y h i g h u n c e r t a i n t i e s , compared t o o t h e r r e s o u r c e s .  I t has been t h e  e x p e r i e n c e of a t l e a s t one c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n p l a n n i n g  process  where parks and m i n e r a l c o n c e r n s were d i v e r g e n t t h a t t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y and p r a c t i c a l i t y of such methods was brought question.(South  Moresby Resource P l a n n i n g Team, 1983)  23  into  Identified I I  R! e:  I  I  Proved  ci  ! :  I  Probable  L  o! v! e! r! a! bi 1i e*  t !  i  I  I  I :  Undiscovered  I  Possible  i  I I  A  i i  !! i:  i  i !  i ! • i ! ! ! !  Reserves  L  ! E ic I o !n ! o im ii ic  :  i  M! a! r i g! i! ni a! 1i i _ i  F  i e i a i s !i !b !i !1 !i !t i y  Resources  •  <  Degree of C e r t a i n t y  FIGURE I I I  <  A  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of M i n e r a l Reserves and Resources A f t e r S t e i n h a r t (1980)  Ih£_Ia£v.itab.l£_FiiS£_Q£_CDa£lict We can summarize t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n as has been  described  above has l e d i n e v i t a b l y t o a land use c o n f l i c t . The miner  long s t a n d i n g  i n the mineral  instilled  h i s t o r y and t h e t r a d i t i o n of t h e f r e e  e x p l o r a t i o n and development i n d u s t r y has  i n t h e minds of many t h e r i g h t of a c c e s s and of w i n n i n g  r e s o u r c e s from t h e l a n d .  In t h e same h i s t o r i c a l sense, t h e p a r k s  i n t e r e s t s have been f o s t e r e d and developed through a growth i n acceptance of c o n s e r v a t i o n  and an a c c u l t u r a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n and 24  outdoor a c t i v i t y .  As the demand has grown -for both of these  land  uses i t has been i n e v i t a b l e t h a t t h e r e would be a r i s e of c o n f l i c t as the a v a i l a b l e land base has been d i m i n i s h e d . The  r e c e n t t r e n d s i n both the m i n i n g s e c t o r and  the  parks  s e c t o r have a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o the c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n . the one  hand, the dominance of the m i n i n g  On  industry's relative  p o s i t i o n i n the economy has been c h a l l e n g e d , t h u s f o r c i n g  a  d e f e n s i v e p o s i t i o n t o which the p a r t i e s are unaccustomed.  The  r a p i d r i s e of the parks r e l a t e d s e c t o r s has r a i s e d an of g a i n s t h a t may  or may  c r e a t e d where the m i n i n g  not be r e a l i s t i c . i n d u s t r y may  expectation  A s i t u a t i o n has been  be f o r c e d t o defend a  t r a d i t i o n a l l y h e l d p o s i t i o n , w h i l e parks proponents may  pursue  d e d i c a t i o n of park land w h i l e the economic s t r e n g t h of  tourism  and  r e c r e a t i o n may  support  such d e c i s i o n s by government.  Both  t h i s unfami 1 i a r i t y w i t h the s i t u a t i o n as i t i s presented  and  the  i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e of the l o b b y i n g by both s i d e s has tended t o accentuate  the i m p a s s i v e  n a t u r e of the c o n f l i c t and r e s u l t e d i n  some measure of e s c a l a t i o n . F i n a l l y , the d i f f i c u l t i e s of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s d e f i n i t i o n both s i d e s of the c o n f l i c t have l e d t o i t s c o n t i n u e d D e c i s i o n s based on fragmentary dilemma.  on  rise.  data present a s i g n i f i c a n t  I f an a r e a were recommended f o r w i l d e r n e s s or  park,  s i g n i f i c a n t m i n e r a l p o t e n t i a l might never be r e c o g n i z e d ; e q u a l l y , m i n e r a l e x t r a c t i o n p r o j e c t s c o u l d d e s t r o y the v e r y f e a t u r e s t h a t p r o v i d e park p o t e n t i a l .  At the same time, the d i f f i c u l t y of  i n v e n t o r y p r o c e d u r e s f o r both m i n e r a l s and park land has been shown.  Not o n l y a r e the d a t a u n a v a i l a b l e or u n r e l i a b l e , but  v a l u a t i o n of e i t h e r r e s o u r c e base may 25  be u n a c h i e v a b l e .  The  the  o p t i m a l s i t u a t i o n of b e i n g a b l e t o compare l i k e u n i t s of v a l u e or worth can not be e n j o y e d .  This section w i l l  show t h a t the c o n f l i c t examined i n t h i s  t h e s i s i s one of wide r a n g i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n and throughout the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia.  variation Furthermore,  r e l a t i v e s t a g e s of development  and concern e x p r e s s e d i n each  c o n f l i c t w i l l be i l l u s t r a t e d .  Some c o n f l i c t s w i l l  be shown as  c u r r e n t and a c t i v e w h i l e o t h e r s a r e dormant or l a y unapproached and u n r e s o l v e d . Each case i n t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l be comprised of t h r e e components.  F i r s t a r e f e r e n c e t o F i g u r e IV, showing the r e l a t i v e  case l o c a t i o n s of s e l e c t e d p a r k s / mines c o n f l i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  The second component i s a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the  case p a r t i c u l a r s , i n c l u d i n g : the p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d , and the t i m i n g of  t h e i r involvement.  established  The c u r r e n t s t a t u s of the c o n f l i c t w i l l  i n the f i n a l  be  component.  C h i l k o Lake Park P r o p o s a l C h i l k o Lake and i t s e n v i r o n s i s l o c a t e d i n the s o u t h e r n Coast and C h i l c o t i n Mountains at the headwaters of the C h i l c o t i n R i v e r system. W i l l i a m s Lake.  Access i s gained by 200 kms.  of road southwest of  The a r e a under c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r park  includes  much of C h i l k o Lake, Nemaia V a l l e y , T c h a i k a z a n V a l l e y and a d j a c e n t Taseko Lakes.  (See F i g u r e IV.)  T h i s land i s now  held  under a d e f e r r e d p l a n n i n g a r e a s t a t u s by the M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s . The C h i l k o Lake Park P r o p o s a l grew out of p u b l i c concern d u r i n g the mid-1970's over the f u t u r e of the s o u t h e r n C h i l c o t i n 26  FIGURE IV BRITISH COLUMBIA PARKS / MINES CONFLICT LOCATIONS LAMBERT CON FORMAL CONICAL PROJECTION STATUTE  100  KILOMETRES  200 100  0  100  200  MILES  300 KILOMETRES  Atlin >ark  Provincial  Kwadacha W i l d e r n e s s Park r  South Moresby Wilderness Proposal  Tweedsmui r P r o v i n c i a l Park  W e l l s Gray P r o v i n c i a l Park  C h i l k o Lake__ Park P r o p o s a l  Strathcona P r o v i n c i a l Park Valhalla Wilderness Park  27  Mountains.  In 1976, the C h i l c o t i n P a r k s Study was prepared by  the M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and Housing C o u n c i l o-f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976).  A c o a l i t i o n of e n v i r o n m e n t a l  c o n c e r n s was -formed b r i e - f l y t o encourage a r e a but was disbanded i n 1981.  (Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n  the p r e s e r v a t i o n o-f t h i s  The M i n i s t r y o-f F o r e s t s has  adopted a management p l a n f o r the a r e a .  The M i n i s t r y of Lands,  P a r k s and Housing has conducted a park p o t e n t i a l s t u d y . B e g i n n i n g i n 1981, the F e d e r a t e d Mountain C l u b s of B r i t i s h Columbia took up the cause of t h i s park p r o p o s a l through the a u s p i c e s of the Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  (Federated Mountain C l u b s of B r i t i s h Columbia, undated)  This  park p r o p o s a l has a l s o been of i n t e r e s t at the n a t i o n a l  level  through P a r k s Canada.(Dearden,  p e r s . comm., September 26,  1985)  There a r e a t l e a s t t h r e e major m i n e r a l p r o s p e c t s l o c a t e d w i t h i n the C h i l k o Lake Park P r o p o s a l .  However, the o v e r a l l  m i n e r a l p r o d u c t i o n p o t e n t i a l as developed by the M i n i s t r y o-f Energy, Mines and P e t r o l e u m Resources i s l a r g e l y c l a s s 3 and indicating  t h a t the g e o l o g i c a l environment  4,  i s f a v o u r a b l e though  no s i g n i f i c a n t d e p o s i t s a r e known and t h a t f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n i s possible.  Of note here i s t h a t the m i n e r a l p o t e n t i a l mapping  i s conducted on a f i v e c l a s s s c a l e t h a t i s h i g h l y s u b j e c t i v e . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s based on the e x i s t i n g d a t a a v a i l a b l e t o the M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and P e t r o l e u m Resources, and an i n t u i t i v e judgment i s made by a g e o l o g i s t w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e .  Judgements as t o the e f f e c t i v n e s s of  t h i s p r o c e s s i s d i f f i c u l t as the c o m b i n a t i o n of metal chages and advances  price  i n t e c n o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t y are c o n s t a n t l y  a l t e r i n g the c r i t e r i a upon which the m i n e r a l p o t e n t i a l 28  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are made.  M i n i n g c l a i m s have been e s t a b l i s h e d i n  the C h i l k o a r e a s i n c e at l e a s t 1935 some g o l d from the Lord R i v e r a r e a .  when p r o s p e c t o r s  During the 1940's m i n e r a l  development a c t i v i t y i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . p r o s p e c t was (Farrow, metal  At l e a s t  e x t e n s i v e l y e x p l o r e d by diamond d r i l l  1978).  recovered  Through the 1950's and  one  and t u n n e l i n g  1960's r e l a t i v e l y  low  p r i c e s kept m i n e r a l development a c t i v i t y t o a minimum.  However, many m i n e r a l c l a i m s have been m a i n t a i n e d prospects.  R i s i n g metal  on the best  p r i c e s i n the 1970's caused a  resurgence  of a c t i v i t y i n the a r e a as f o r m e r l y uneconomic d e p o s i t s became more p r o m i s i n g . The c u r r e n t s t a t u s of the C h i l k o Lake Park P r o p o s a l might be c a t e g o r i z e d as one of a h o l d i n g p a t t e r n .  The  park proponents are  unable t o muster an a c c e l e r a t e d lobby e f f o r t , and  the  mining  i n d u s t r y i s f a c e d w i t h a downturn i n the economic p r o s p e c t s f o r unextraordinary deposits. South Moresby W i l d e r n e s s  Proposal  The South Moresby a r e a i s l o c a t e d i n the s o u t h e r n the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s .  The  area includes a large p o r t i o n  of Moresby I s l a n d and numerous a d j a c e n t about 145,000 h e c t a r e s of upland, shore  p u b l i c concern  islands.  Comprising  the p r o p o s a l a l s o i n c l u d e s  lands and marine components. General  p o r t i o n of  (See F i g u r e  IV.)  f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n of the South Moresby  a r e a grew throughout the 1960's and  1970's.  In 1971  the  P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s Branch i d e n t i f i e d a c o r e p o r t i o n of the  island  as a prime c a n d i d a t e f o r a c l a s s A p r o v i n c i a l park, and i n d i c a t e d t h i s i n t e r e s t by e s t a b l i s h i n g a m i n e r a l r e s e r v e . S h o r t l y  29  t h e r e a f t e r , the whole of South Moresby became the s u b j e c t o-f a much broader  land a l l o c a t i o n c o n t r o v e r s y , and no park s t a t u s  was  implemented (South Moresby Resource P l a n n i n g Team, 1983). F u r t h e r c o n f l i c t began i n October 1974 t o l o g p o r t i o n s of the a r e a .  w i t h the  permission  The S k i d e g a t e Band C o u n c i l o b j e c t e d  t o t h i s p l a n w i t h the p o s i t i o n t h a t a l l of the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s are Haida land. group which was was  formed.  At the same t i m e , an e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t  t o become known as the I s l a n d s P r o t e c t i o n S o c i e t y  These two groups would d r a f t what was  the South Moresby W i l d e r n e s s  t o become  Proposal.  The Environment and Land Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t , through 1975  and  1976,  conducted an overview  study of South Moresby.  I n f o r m a t i o n and s u b m i s s i o n s  were i n v i t e d from the p u b l i c and  the v a r i o u s l i n e a g e n c i e s ,  i n c l u d i n g an assessment of m i n e r a l  p o t e n t i a l by the M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and Resources.  Petroleum  P a r k s Canada a l s o commissioned a study of the  n a t u r a l h i s t o r y as i t f e l t t h a t South Moresby was  area's  a N a t u r a l Area  of Canadian S i g n i f i c a n c e . Through 1977 concentrated conflict.  and  1978  concern  f o r the a r e a grew, but  around the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y / w i l d e r n e s s  The s i t u a t i o n was  f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by  was  proposal the  i n t r o d u c t i o n of an e c o l o g i c a l r e s e r v e p r o p o s a l t o encompass a p o r t i o n of lands a l r e a d y  contested.  The Environment and Land Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t ' s study r e s u l t e d i n recommendation of a f u r t h e r f i v e year m u l t i p l e land use p l a n n i n g program t o r e s o l v e the c o n f l i c t and a two year of the e c o l o g i c a l r e s e r v e p r o p o s a l .  The M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s  study was  s e l e c t e d t o lead the p l a n n i n g program t h a t r e s u l t e d i n the South  30  Moresby Resource P l a n n i n g Team and i t s r e p o r t of 1983. However, a d e c i s i o n on t h e f u t u r e of t h e South Moresby has not y e t been reached.  Though s p e c i f i c r e p o r t s and r e s e a r c h were  prepared  ( N o r t h c o t e , 1981) and p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a v a r i e t y of government and p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s was assured M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and Petroleum  Resources presented  m i n o r i t y o p i n i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g team's r e p o r t . none of t h e o p t i o n s presented  throughout, t h e a  I t was f e l t  that  by t h e team members met m i n e r a l  p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s of e v a l u a t i o n and d e t e r m i n a t i o n of m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s b e f o r e any a l i e n a t i o n of t h e land base.(Rate1,  1985)  E x i s t i n g m i n e r a l c l a i m s on t h e e a s t s i d e of Moresby I s l a n d have been shown t o be good p r o s p e c t s f o r g o l d p r o d u c t i o n .  At t h e  h e i g h t of t h e g o l d p r i c e surge of t h e l a t e 1970*5, C o n s o l i d a t e d S i n o l a Sindicate created a considerable s t i r  i n the f i n a n c i a l  community of Vancouver w i t h s t r o n g r e s u l t s i n an extended e x p l o r a t i o n and development program. The comments of some p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e South Moresby Resource P l a n n i n g Team p o i n t d i r e c t l y t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y of r e s o l v i n g t h e c o n f l i c t between w i l d e r n e s s c o n s e r v a t i o n u s e r s and m i n i n g  interests.  resource  The d i f f i c u l t y of d e a l i n g w i t h t h e  M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and Petroleum  Resources' c o n c e r n s and  the m i n e r a l c l a i m s w i t h i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s p r o p o s a l may be a key s t u m b l i n g b l o c k i n t h e r e s o l u t i o n of t h i s p l a n n i n g  process.(Dow,  p e r s . comm., December 1984; Lang, 1984). V a l h a l l a Wilderness  Park  The most r e c e n t major p r o v i n c i a l park i n B r i t i s h Columbia was d e s i g n a t e d on February  16, 1983. V a l h a l l a P r o v i n c i a l Park i s  l o c a t e d on t h e e a s t s i d e of S l o c a n Lake, 100 kms. n o r t h of Nelson 31  on the western edge of the Kootenays.  (See F i g u r e  IV.)  The V a l h a l l a park p r o p o s a l o r i g i n a t e d w i t h the Kootenay Mountaineering  Club i n 1970.  The o r i g i n a l concept was  encompass a s m a l l p o r t i o n o-f what was park.  F o l l o w i n g the 1974  the o r i g i n a l p r o p o s a l was  to  t o e v e n t u a l l y become the  S l o c a n V a l l e y F o r e s t Management Study, expanded by Ave Eweson, a l o c a l  b i o l o g i s t , t o i n c l u d e much of the west s i d e of S l o c a n Lake. the same y e a r , the V a l h a l l a W i l d e r n e s s S o c i e t y was  In  formed and  key  members of the o r g a n i z a t i o n were i d e n t i f i e d , i n c l u d i n g the chairman C o l l e e n McCrory.  The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n was  t o promote the expanded p r o p o s a l and pursue i t s d e s i g n a t i o n as a park.  In 1975,  w i t h i n c r e a s e d concern  over the d e c i s i o n t o be  made on the V a l h a l l a ' s c a s e , a moratorium was  p l a c e d on a l l  l o g g i n g a c t i v i t y and m i n e r a l r i g h t s were r e s e r v e d from f u r t h e r staking.  At the time t h e r e were a number of m i n e r a l c l a i m s over  two or t h r e e known m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s w i t h i n the proposed park area.  F u r t h e r m o r e , we s h o u l d note the s i g n i f i c a n t  historical  importance of the S l o c a n V a l l e y as an a r e a of s i l v e r , zinc production.  Throughout t h i s f i r s t phase of the  l e a d and conflict,  the Environment and Land Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t had played important  an  r o l e i n f a c i l i t a t i n g d i s c u s s i o n and c o o r d i n a t i n g  s t u d i e s p e r t a i n i n g t o the V a l h a l l a problem; however, i t was disbanded  in  1980.  The S l o c a n V a l l e y P l a n n i n g Study was  initiated  a broad mandate t o i n v e s t i g a t e the i n t e r r e l a t e d  i n 1980,  i s s u e s of  the  park p r o p o s a l , m i n i n g and f o r e s t r y land use, and s e t t l e m e n t the e n t i r e v a l l e y .  with  of  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l  A f f a i r s , the M i n i s t r y of Environment and the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t of 32  C e n t r a l Kootenay , as w e l l as r e s i d e n t s , were t o p a r t i c i p a t e . At the second s e t of h e a r i n g s h e l d a t the end of 1981, of m i n i n g was  formally recognized.  s u r f a c e v e r s u s s u r f a c e r i g h t s was  However, the i s s u e of subidentified  as a l e g a l problem  of P r o v i n c i a l scope t h a t c o u l d not be s o l v e d through planning process.  Though m i n e r a l p o t e n t i a l and  o p p o r t u n i t i e s would be r e c o g n i z e d p e r c e i v e d shortcomings be addressed  the i s s u e  the  local  development  i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ,  the  of the fundamental framework would have t o  by the P r o v i n c e . ( R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t of C e n t r a l  Kootenay, 1982)  Through the t h i r d s e t of h e a r i n g s i n May  f o u r o p t i o n s had been i d e n t i f i e d  1982,  as a l t e r n a t i v e s i n the V a l h a l l a  a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s .  These o p t i o n s c o n s i s t e d of  two v a r i a t i o n s on each of the dominant p r e s e r v a t i o n and dominant r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n themes. (Kootenay Resource Management Committee and R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t of C e n t r a l Kooteney, F i n a l l y , on February  16, 1983  1982)  the Environment and Land  Committee of the p r o v i n c i a l government reached the V a l h a l l a W i l d e r n e s s Park would be c r e a t e d .  Use  a d e c i s i o n that However, what i s  s u r e l y a v i c t o r y f o r the V a l h a l l a W i l d e r n e s s S o c i e t y has been w i t h c o n t i n u e d mixed f e e l i n g s by some r e s i d e n t s and i n t e r e s t s of the community.  met  concerned  Most n o t a b l e of the d i s s e n t o r s are  the m i n i n g and f o r e s t r y concerns r e p r e s e n t e d by the Chamber of Mines of E a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia and the l o c a l f o r e s t m a n u f a c t u r e r s . (Sherrod S.LJL. a l * , The crusade  1983  park d e s i g n a t i o n was  products*  1984) the c u l m i n a t i o n of a long  l e d by a group of Kootenay r e s i d e n t s t o have the 49,600  h e c t a r e s i t e d e c l a r e d a park, p r e s e r v i n g i t from f o r e s t r y mining  interests.  and  However, i t must be noted t h a t the d e c i s i o n t o 33  c r e a t e the park was addressed  one taken a f t e r a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s  that  a v a r i e t y of i s s u e s b e s i d e s t h a t of parks / mines  conflict.  In f a c t , as noted, the key  c o n f l i c t was  i s s u e i n the parks / mines  d e f e r r e d t o the p r o v i n c i a l government as a l e g a l  matter. Kwadacha W i l d e r n e s  Park  Kwadacha i s one of the l e s s e r known p r o v i n c i a l Created  i n 1973,  parks.  Kwadacha i s l o c a t e d i n the n o r t h e a s t s e c t o r  of the p r o v i n c e i n the Rocky Mountains. I t i s on the e a s t s i d e of the Rocky Mountain t r e n c h , n o r t h of the W i l l i s t e n Lake Hydro Power R e s e r v o i r , and a p p r o x i m a t e l y The  170 kms.  southwest of F o r t  Nelson.  park s t r a d d l e s the Rocky Mountain D i v i d e between the Kwadacha  and Muskwa R i v e r s . hectares.  The  park encompasses a p p r o x i m a t e l y  ( S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973)  At the time t h a t a park was and a study completed i n 1972,  (See F i g u r e  IV.)  proposed f o r the Kwadacha a r e a  t h e r e were no m i n e r a l  w i t h i n the proposed b o u n d a r i e s .  165,600  claims  A r e s e r v e a g a i n s t the  location  of m i n e r a l c l a i m s had been approved under the M i n e r a l and P l a c e r M i n i n g A c t s by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i 1 , Columbia, 1972).  October 21, 1971  However, s i n c e t h a t time  (British  mineral  e x p l o r a t i o n i s t s have shown c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n the c o n t a c t zone between the i n t e r i o r p l a t e a u and  the metamorphosed  s e d i m e n t a r i e s of the e a s t e r n c o r d i l l e r a n .  A s e r i e s of m i n e r a l  d e p o s i t s have been d i s c o v e r e d a l o n g the Rocky Mountain Trench, perhaps the most n o t a b l e of which i s the C i r c u e d e p o s i t s o u t h of Kwadacha h e l d by C o r d i l l e r a n  Engineering.  In c o n d u c t i n g a s e a r c h f o r m i n e r a l s i n the mid  34  1970's,  e x p l o r a t i o n i s t s t r a c e d what appears t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t d e p o s i t t o the border of Kwadacha Park.  barite  Upon f u r t h e r  i n v e s t i g a t i o n i t appears t h a t the d e p o s i t s t r a d d l e s the park boundary.  B a r i t e i s an i n d u s t r i a l m i n e r a l used f o r the  p r e p a r a t i o n of d r i l l i n g a d d i t i v e s f o r petroleum and m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n . R e l a t i v e l y r a r e and p r e s e n t l y w i t h o u t a p r o d u c i n g Canadian s o u r c e , the p o t e n t i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of such a d e p o s i t was clear.  C o n t r i b u t i n g t o the m i n e r a l i n t e r e s t s * c o n c e r n s i s the  f a c t t h a t the n a t u r e of such b a r i t e d e p o s i t s make them very easily identifiable.  However, the presence of the park p r e v e n t s  the s t a k i n g of c l a i m s and c o n t i n u a t i o n of the  development  process. Strathcona P r o v i n c i a l  Park  The p a r k s / mines c o n f l i c t i n S t r a t h c o n a P r o v i n c i a l Park i s perhaps the most advanced  and complex of a l l the c a s e s examined  in t h i s section.  C e r t a i n l y the m i n e r a l development  process i s  the most advanced  w i t h the c u r r e n t o p e r a t i o n of a copper mine  w i t h i n the b o u n d a r i e s of the park. S t r a t h c o n a P r o v i n c i a l Park i s l o c a t e d i n the  Vancouver  I s l a n d mountains and i t encompasses the h i g h e s t p o i n t s of the mountain  range.  (See F i g u r e IV.)  E s t a b l i s h e d i n 1911, S t r a t h c o n a P r o v i n c i a l Park i s the o l d e s t of the p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s .  I t has f r e q u e n t l y been the f o c u s  of c o n f l i c t between c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s development  interests.  The most n o t a b l e of t h e s e c o n f l i c t s  was  the f l o o d i n g of B u t t l e Lake f o r hydro e l e c t r i c g e n e r a t i o n i n 1952.(Tatreau and T a t r e a u ,  1973)  By 1965, the c o n f l i c t between m i n e r a l and park concerns over 35  S t r a t h c o n a Park was 1965)  r e c e i v i n g increased public attention.(James,  At t h i s t i m e , s t a k i n g of m i n e r a l c l a i m s was  p r o v i n c i a l parks l a r g e r than 2,000 h e c t a r e s . Mines had purchased  In 1960  Western  c l a i m s i n the park over land t h a t had  o r i g i n a l l y been s t a k e d i n the 1920's. completed.  allowed i n  P e r m i s s i o n t o proceed  F u r t h e r s t a k i n g was  w i t h mine development was  w i t h l i t t l e debate and the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the mine was underway by 1965.  also  I n c l u d e d i n the o r i g i n a l p l a n was  given  fully  the  c o n s t r u c t i o n of a t o w n s i t e w i t h i n the park t o s e r v i c e the mine site.  However, a f t e r s i g n i f i c a n t study  component of the development was commuting o p t i o n .  ( W i l l i a m s , 1966), t h i s  abandoned i n f a v o u r of a  With c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t i n u i n g i n 1967,  the  p u b l i c awareness of the S t r a t h c o n a Park development, the proposed development of o t h e r c l a i m s w i t h i n the park  (Anon, 1967b) and  the  s t a k i n g of f u r t h e r c l a i m s i n o t h e r p a r k s , c r e a t e d a major political  issue.  p u b l i c concern  T h i s i s s u e was  throughout  t o c o n t i n u e as a major f o c u s of  the 1960*s and  on a wave of the e n v i r o n m e n t a l  movement.  i n t o the 1970*s r i d i n g The c a t a l y s t  provided  by the S t r a t h c o n a parks / m i n i n g c o n f l i c t would c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the subsequent change i n government and l e g i s l a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o park In  1974,  land use.  a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e s t u d y , the p r o v i n c i a l government  decided t o a l t e r the park b o u n d a r i e s , e f f e c t i v e l y removing park d e s i g n a t i o n from the mine s i t e t o a l l o w c o n t i n u e d development. I t was  d e c i d e d t h a t where l a n d s were taken away, they would be  augmented by the a d d i t i o n of a l t e r n a t e l a n d s t o the park. another change of government i n 1976,  After  newspaper r e p o r t s c o n t i n u e  to r a i s e t h e r e was some f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of the S t r a t h c o n a 36  c o n f l i c t , but no changes were made i n t h e e x i s t i n g  regulatory  regime. The conflict  l a t e s t development  i n t h e h i s t o r y of parks / mines  i n B r i t i s h Columbia a l s o c o n c e r n s m i n e r a l c l a i m s i n  S t r a t h c o n a P r o v i n c i a l Park.  The h o l d e r s of m i n e r a l c l a i m s s t a k e d  i n 1964, 1965, and 1966, who were g r a n t e d a park use p e r m i t i n 1967, have now i n i t i a t e d a law s u i t a g a i n s t t h e p r o v i n c i a l government f o r t h e r i g h t t o d e v e l o p those c l a i m s . ( B o h n , 1935b) Such a s u i t ,  i f s u c c e s s f u l , w i l l e s t a b l i s h a precedent f o r many  of t h e 700 o t h e r c a s e s of c l a i m s t o m i n e r a l s i n p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s . Tweedsmuir P r o v i n c i a l  Park  Tweedsmuir P r o v i n c i a l Park now extends from Ootsa Lake s o u t h a l o n g t h e Coast mountains,  i n c l u d i n g an a r e a s t r a d d l i n g Highway  20 between W i l l i a m s Lake and B e l l a C o o l a .  (See F i g u r e IV.)  Tweedsmuir P r o v i n c i a l Park has had a l o n g and a r g u a b l y unstable history.  D e s i g n a t e d i n 1936 , and named a f t e r  Tweedsmuir of E l s f i e l d  (Tweedsmuir,  1938) t h e o r i g i n a l  Lady park  b o u n d a r i e s encompassed a s e r i e s of n a t u r a l l a k e s t h a t formed a r o u t e s u i t a b l e f o r canoe and s m a l l boat t r a v e l .  Then, i n 1950  the p r o v i n c i a l government, under t h e I n d u s t r i a l Development A c t , a l l o w e d t h e Aluminium Company of Canada t o d e v e l o p hydro e l e c t r i c power s u p p l i e s u s i n g t h e v a l l e y s of Tweedsmuir Park as t h e reservoir  (Anon., 1950).  c o n f i g u r a t i o n of t h e park.  T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e d a change i n t h e Now, r a t h e r than a c i r c u i t o u s  p a t t e r n , t h e park was extended southward a l o n g t h e mountains t o compensate f o r t h e l o s s .  However, t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n of mountains  f o r a l a k e system was seen as q u e s t i o n a b l e i n terms of e q u i t y .  37  M i n e r a l c l a i m s e x i s t e d i n Tweedsmuir Park b e f o r e i t s inception. mineral The  I n i t i a l l y crown granted  c l a i m s and then r e g u l a r  c l a i m s were l o c a t e d b e f o r e t h e park was  designated.  remote nature of t h e c l a i m s and t h e i r r e l a t i v e  l a c k of  r i c h n e s s i n comparison t o o t h e r s d i d not lead t o f u r t h e r development though. situation  until  T h i s was t o remain as a r e l a t i v e l y s t a t i c  1967, a t which time t h e member of t h e l e g i s l a t u r e  f o r t h e a r e a became i n v o l v e d i n l o b b y i n g f o r t h e renewed m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n of park l a n d .  To some e x t e n t t h e l o b b y i n g of t h e  government must have been s u c c e s s f u l as p e r m i s s i o n s t a k i n g of m i n e r a l 1967.  c l a i m s i n t h e park was granted  f o r the sometime i n  Two hundred and f i f t y c l a i m s had been s t a k e d  d e s i g n a t i o n of a n o r t h e r n  and t h e  p o r t i o n of t h e park had been changed t o  c r e a t e a nature conservancy a r e a thereby  d e f i n i n g t h e p o r t i o n of  the park t h a t was d e f i n i t e l y o f f l i m i t s t o t h e m i n e r a l explorationists,  and thus p r o v i d i n g some s e c u r i t y of tenure t o  those c l a i m s . I t was a l l e g e d a t t h e time t h a t these a c t i o n s amounted t o boundary changes t o a l l o w f o r t h e development of t h e mineral  claims  (Anon., 1968).  T h i s case has i n v o l v e d a l i m i t e d  number of a c t o r s .  The  government of the day and i t s m i n i s t e r s , i n c l u d i n g t h e member of the l e g i s l a t u r e f o r Omenica, can be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e m i n e r a l c l a i m h o l d e r s , o r i g i n a l l y P h e l p s Dodge and s u b s e q u e n t l y Mining.  Meteor  The t h i r d group of a c t o r s i n t h e c o n f l i c t , as i t  t r a n s p i r e d i n 1968, was t h e o f f i c i a l  o p p o s i t i o n of t h e p r o v i n c i a l  legislature. The  e v e n t s of 1968 have not been f o l l o w e d by any s i g n i f i c a n t  moves by any p a r t y w i t h s p e c i f i c  38  i n t e n t i o n s toward t h e Tweedsmuir  Park case.  Some m i n e r a l o c c u r e n c e s are s t i l l  known w i t h i n the  boundaries  of the park, however, and are o c c a s i o n a l l y d i s c u s s e d  by m i n e r a l  i n d u s t r y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s when parks / mines c o n f l i c t  is discussed.  We can s t a t e t h a t the Tweedsmuir Park c o n f l i c t  has  assumed a dormant s t a t u s , but i s one t h a t has the p o t e n t i a l of f u r t h e r development. W e l l s Gray P r o v i n c i a l Park W e l l s Gray P r o v i n c i a l Park i s a 521,200 h e c t a r e park l o c a t e d i n e a s t c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia encompassing a l a r g e p a r t of  the  headwaters of the Thompson R i v e r . ( S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973)  The  park i n c l u d e s many l a r g e l a k e s , i s q u i t e mountainous,  and has many v o l c a n i c f o r m a t i o n s . (See F i g u r e In  1939  (Tatreau and T a t r e a u ,  1973)  IV.) W e l l s Gray Park was  Columbia G a z e t t e . Columbia, i t was  designated  i n the  British  D u r i n g t h i s e r a of the h i s t o r y of  British  government p o l i c y t o move s l o w l y toward  e s t a b l i s h i n g a park system (Thompson, p e r s . comm., March 11, 1983). land was  As a consequence, the park and the l e g a l t i t l e t o the not e s t a b l i s h e d d e f i n i t i v e l y , nor were e x i s t i n g  rights  w i t h i n the a r e a e x p r o p r i a t e d or o t h e r w i s e a c q u i r e d by the crown. In  1937,  a consortium  of i n v e s t o r s , i n c l u d i n g the f a t h e r of  Mr.  David Tener, r e c e i v e d i n d e f e a s i b l e t i t l e t o 16 Crown granted m i n e r a l c l a i m s on l a n d s t h a t are now p o r t i o n of W e l l s Gray Park. h o l d e r of these c l a i m s was  i n c l u d e d i n the northwest  Under the M i n e r a l and Park A c t s the e n t i t l e d t o use the s u r f a c e of  c l a i m s t o work and win the m i n e r a l s c o n t a i n e d  i n the  the  subsurface.  The younger Tener i n h e r i t e d these r i g h t s from h i s f a t h e r ' s estate.  However, under the amended M i n e r a l Act of 1960, 39  claims  such as Tener's c o u l d not be developed except as a u t h o r i z e d by the L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l .  In 1973, w i t h f u r t h e r  amendments t o t h e Park A c t , W e l l s Gray Park was changed from a c l a s s B t o a c l a s s A park.  T h i s new d e s i g n a t i o n p l a c e d f u r t h e r  r e s t r i c t i o n s on Tener's a b i l i t y t o d e v e l o p h i s c l a i m s .  Under  t h i s new d e s i g n a t i o n a park use permit c o u l d o n l y be i s s u e d i f i t was necessary  f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n or maintenance of t h e  r e c r e a t i o n v a l u e s of t h e park.  The 1973 amendment i n e f f e c t  removed t h e r i g h t of development from Tener. F o l l o w i n g a t t e m p t s i n 1973 and 1974 by Tener t o o b t a i n a park use p e r m i t , Tener exchanged a s e r i e s of l e t t e r s and communications w i t h t h e p a r k s branch.  The New Democratic P a r t y  Government's pro p a r k s p o l i c y s t a n c e r a n a g a i n s t a l l o w i n g Tener's request.  Tener p e r s i s t e d w i t h r e q u e s t s  i n 1975, 1976, and 1977.  A change of government i n 1976 d i d not l e s s e n t h e c o n f l i c t nor b r i n g a change of p o l i c y .  In a 1978 l e t t e r t o Tener from t h e  D i r e c t o r of t h e P a r k s Branch, i t was c l e a r t h a t any f u r t h e r a t t e m p t s t o e x p l o i t m i n e r a l c l a i m s i n the park would be d e n i e d . With t h i s knowledge a w r i t was f i l e d by Tener compensation f o r c o s t s , e x p e n d i t u r e s  and l o s t  A f t e r l o s i n g t h e f i r s t case, an appeal Columbia Court of Appeal.  seeking  opportunity.  was made t o t h e B r i t i s h  T h i s h i g h e r c o u r t found t h a t t h e  e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n t o d e a l w i t h e x p r o p r i a t i o n d i d not a p p l y t o t h i s case where t h e r e was an i n j u r y t o Tener's r i g h t t o l a n d . government c o u l d not take t h e r i g h t s t o t h e p h y s i c a l land away but c o u l d make i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e h o l d e r t o e x e r c i s e rights.  those  The r e f u s a l of t h e P a r k s Branch t o g r a n t a park use  permit a f t e r repeated  e f f o r t s c r e a t e d a r i g h t t o compensation 40  The  (Tener v. R. , 1982).  I f the c o n f l i c t i n g p a r t i e s ,  the government  and Tener, c o u l d not agree on the amount o-f compensation,  the  d e c i s i o n would be r e f e r r e d  (Anon.,  1982a).  has been p a i d and an a r b i t r a t i o n  process  However, no compensation has not been pursued.  to binding a r b i t r a t i o n  R a t h e r , the p r o v i n c i a l  appeal t o the Supreme Court of Canada, c o u r t s r u l i n g b e i n g handed down i n May the  provincial  government made an  With the r e a s o n s f o r the 1985,  i n Tener's f a v o u r ,  government has been f o r c e d t o ammend e x i s t i n g  l e g i s l a t i o n t o a l l o w m i n i n g a c c e s s t o the crown g r a n t e d m i n e r a l c l a i m s ( B o h n , 1985a) or pay compensation  f o r l o s s of r i g h t s .  The p a r k s / mines c o n f l i c t as e x e m p l i f i e d by t h i s case i s one of l o n g s t a n d i n g and one where a t t e m p t s led t o l i t i g a t i o n  i n the p r o v i n c i a l  t o r e s o l v e i t have  and f e d e r a l  Tener case as i t has become known i s one watched by the m i n i n g f r a t e r n i t y f o r i t s p o t e n t i a l  courts.  The  with  interest  as a precedent i n  s e t t l i n g s i m i l a r - c o n f l i c t s t h a t o c c u r throughout the p r o v i n c e . Of note i s the s i m i l a r i t y between the Tener case and the s i t u a t i o n encountered i n the Tweedsmuir P r o v i n c i a l Atlin Provincial Atlin Provincial  Park c a s e .  Park  Park i s l o c a t e d on the s o u t h e r n end of  A t l i n Lake on the e a s t e r n s l o p e s of the Coast Mountains. park encompasses some 230,000 h e c t a r e s . i n 1973.  The  T h i s park was d e s i g n a t e d  ( S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973)  (See F i g u r e IV.)  At the b e g i n n i n g of the 1970's, the P a r k s Branch of the provincial  government undertook s t u d i e s of the A t l i n a r e a w i t h  d e s i g n s t o c r e a t e a new  park.  I n c l u d e d i n the s t u d y was  statement of the geology of the a r e a , i n c l u d i n g  41  a  the m i n e r a l  p o t e n t i a l and e x i s t i n g m i n e r a l c l a i m s ( B r i t i s h Columbia,  1973).  S t u d i e s conducted by the M i n i s t r y o-f Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources i n d i c a t e d a moderately h i g h m i n e r a l p o t e n t i a l -for a v a r i e t y o-f elements.  Thorough e x p l o r a t i o n o-f the a r e a was made  d i - f - f i c u l t by the s i g n i f i c a n t g l a c i a l c o v e r i n g o-f much of the park. A number of m i n i n g c l a i m s were l o c a t e d w i t h i n the park b o u n d a r i e s h o l d i n g l e g a l r i g h t s over at l e a s t 11 m i n e r a l deposits.  D r i l l i n g on some of the p r o p e r t i e s had  indicated  s i g n i f i c a n t d e p o s i t s of copper and low grade molybdenum.  Today  the park i s i n p l a c e and the s i m i l a r i t y w i t h the s i t u a t i o n found i n W e l l s Gray Park i s e v i d e n t .  The m i n e r a l c l a i m s a r e h e l d i n  limbo and the c o n f l i c t remains dormant.  T h i s s i t u a t i o n may  have  been d i f f e r e n t i f the m i n e r a l s l o c a t e d i n the park were more d e s i r a b l e and commanding a h i g h e r p r i c e as a r e s u l t of t h e i r r a r i t y , however the c u r r e n t abundance of t h e s e m i n e r a l s and the low demand as a r e s u l t of t e c h n o l o g i c a l s h i f t s away from copper r e s u l t i n l e s s p r e s s u r e b e i n g developed i n t h i s c o n f l i c t situation. Summany.  The  l i s t i n g of c o n f l i c t s p r e s e n t e d here i s i n no  way  e x h a u s t i v e , but i s i l l u s t r a t i v e  of the v a r i e t y w i t h i n the  g e n e r i c p a r k s / mines c o n f l i c t .  Cases of p a r k s / mines c o n f l i c t  are not uncommon or g e o g r a p h i c a l l y i s o l a t e d i n c i d e n t s .  The  degree of p u b l i c involvement or media exposure v a r y i n both number and i n t e n s i t y . varies greatly.  The t i m i n g of e v e n t s i n the c o n f l i c t s  Approaches  t o r e s o l u t i o n of the c o n f l i c t s  from non e x i s t e n t t o complex.  However, t h e s e c a s e s can be  d i v i d e d between two k i n d s of p a r k s / mines c o n f l i c t . 42  The  range  distinction  can be made u s i n g the land use s t r a t e g y o-f the  proponent  as the d e c i s i o n -factor.  conflicts  i s d e f i n e d as those park p r o p o s a l s where m i n e r a l s are  suspected.  The - f i r s t g r o u p i n g o-f  The second group i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s s e r t i o n s of  m i n e r a l development a c c e s s where park land i s a l r e a d y d e s i g n a t e d . Each i n d i v i d u a l case w i l l have s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r the r e s o u r c e s p l a n n e r and the land use e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e c i s i o n maker i n v o l v e d i n the r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s .  In a subsequent  c h a p t e r we  w i l l examine i n f u r t h e r d e t a i l a case from each c a t e g o r y i n an attempt t o e v a l u a t e the e x i s t i n g c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s e s used and a l l o w the p r e s c r i p t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e a l t e r n a t e or modified  approaches.  Throughout t h i s c h a p t e r I have endeavored  t o answer the  q u e s t i o n : What i s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of s t u d y i n g the c o n f l i c t between park and m i n i n g land use proponents?  I have shown t h a t  both m i n i n g and park a c t i v i t i e s have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the h i s t o r i c and economic development of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Though r e c e n t  t r e n d s do not bode w e l l f o r m i n i n g i n the immediate s i g n i f i c a n c e can not be o v e r l o o k e d .  future, i t s  The d i f f i c u l t y of  c a t a l o g u i n g r e s o u r c e s f o r land use d e c i s i o n making c o n t r i b u t e s t o c o n f l i c t of a p a r t i c u l a r l y  d i f f i c u l t nature.  As e v i d e n c e of the  wide r a n g i n g n a t u r e of the p a r k s / mines c o n f l i c t , a number of c a s e s have been d e s c r i b e d . The h i s t o r y and case d e s c r i p t i o n s i n t h i s c h a p t e r recount a c o n f l i c t t h a t has been d e v e l o p i n g and c o n t i n u i n g i n the p u b l i c sphere of a t t e n t i o n f o r t h r e e decades. The d i f f i c u l t i e s expressed by p a r t i e s on both s i d e s of the c o n f l i c t are no l e s s d i m i n i s h e d now  than they ever were.  The approaches f o r r e s o l v i n g 43  conflict  o-f t h i s n a t u r e appear, a-fter a p r e l i m i n a r y r e v i e w , not t o have been s u c c e s s f u l .  The c o n c e r n s of p a r t i e s t o the c o n f l i c t  t o r e c u r through each of the c o n f l i c t s .  44  appear  CHAPTER 3  BARGAINING v e r s u s  45  LITIGATION  In t h i s c h a p t e r I w i l l d e v e l o p the c o n c e p t s o-f c o n - f l i c t t h a t w i l l be used i n the t h e s i s .  Throughout, the d i s c u s s i o n ,  the  assumption i s made t h a t e-f-fective, e-f-ficient c o n - f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n i s d e s i r a b l e . In Canada and  the U n i t e d  States d i f f e r e n t c o n f l i c t  r e s o l u t i o n approaches have come t o be prominent. unstructured  bargaining  In Canada,  i s conducted w i t h i n the framework  p r o c e d u r e s of the b u r e a u c r a t i c  and  p o l i t i c a l systems.  and  The  American e x p e r i e n c e i s dominated by the use of l i t i g a t i o n i n r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t .  There are advantages t o both  b a r g a i n i n g model and  the l i t i g a t i o n model.  these advantages and  d i s a d v a n t a g e s have been c l a i m e d ,  examine more c l o s e l y .  The  discussion w i l l  the  F i v e f a c t o r s i n which  provide  will  the b a s i s f o r  e x a m i n a t i o n of d e t a i l e d e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e of both the and  be  bargaining  l i t i g a t i o n models as they are m a n i f e s t i n the p a r k s / mines  c o n f l i c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  To f u r t h e r a i d the reader i n  u n d e r s t a n d i n g the c o m p l e x i t i e s of the socio-economic  and  p o l i t i c a l regimes t h a t i n f l u e n c e the e v e n t s of the d e t a i l e d case s t u d i e s , a typology  of c o n f l i c t causes i s d i s c u s s e d .  In the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r we have shown t h a t c o n f l i c t i s i n e v i t a b l e i n the parks / mines s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In the same way,  c o n f l i c t i s an i n e v i t a b l e and  d e c i s i o n making throughout s o c i e t y . ( C o s e r ,  1967;  i n t e g r a l p a r t of Deutsh,  1973)  C o n f l i c t i s a r e f l e c t i o n of d i f f e r e n c e s between i n d i v i d u a l s and groups as p a r t of d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s and economic g o a l s and  d e s i r e s . ( F e l s t i n e r , 1983;  Bercovitch,  Simmel (1955) wrote: " ( c ) o n f l i c t i s designed t o  46  / or d i f f e r e n t  resolve  1984)  divergent  dualisms;  unity...". society. areas:  Conflict  i t i s a way o-f a c h i e v i n g some kind o-f then i s an important c a t a l y s t -for change i n  C o n f l i c t may c o n t r i b u t e to change i n any number o-f  change i n a p r e s e n t l y accepted paradigm or s c i e n t i f i c  theory;  change i n the c u r r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o-f power of money;  change i n the e x i s t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n of land or resources. C o n f l i c t can be manifest  i n combat, p o l i t i c s , b a r g a i n i n g and  arguments, each one a p o s s i b l e approach t o r e s o l u t i o n .  Each of  these c o n f l i c t s has i t s a s s o c i a t e d  Injury  and  c o s t s and b e n e f i t s .  death, l o s s of power, p r e s t i g e , o p p o r t u n i t y  l o s s e s are among the c o s t s .  and f i n a n c i a l  B e n e f i t s of c o n f l i c t may accrue i n  the achievement of d e c i s i o n s that are j u s t and r e f l e c t the d e s i r e s of as many of the p a r t i e s i n competition possible.  f o r resources  as  B e n e f i t s are r e f l e c t e d through the s a v i n g of l i f e ,  time and f i n a n c i a l wealth, gain of p r e s t i g e , and development of opportunities. The  r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t  i s desirable.  s t a t e s " ( i ) n l i m i t e d amounts and by regulated for societal self  correction...".  Resolution  Wehr (1979b) modes, i t provides of c o n f l i c t can be  expressed as the movement of a chord from dissonant As  i n music, a v a r i e t y of processes or a c t i o n s can be taken to  achieve t h i s .  Conflict  i s r e s o l v e d when d i v e r g e n t  w i l l i n g t o accept some p o s i t i o n as status,..quiP.C o n f l i c t , when i t i s r e s o l v e d , heightened e f f i c i e n c y .  a greater  r e s o l u t i o n that  i s extended  Weinstein, 1980)  allows  p a r t i e s are  (Boulding,  1962)  s o c i e t y t o f u n c t i o n with a  However, the r e s o l u t i o n that  c o s t l y provides  and  t o consonant.  i s less  degree of e f f i c i e n c y than the c o n f l i c t i n e i t h e r time or  C l e a r l y , an e f f i c i e n t  47  resources.(Susskind  r e s o l u t i o n of  conflict i s desirable.  (Schuck, 1979)  I f we can l e a r n or d e v i s e  ways i n which the e m p i r i c a l c a s e s can be d e a l t w i t h more efficiently, conflict  improvements a r e p o s s i b l e  i n the p r o c e s s i n g  of  resolution.  As s t a t e d  i n c h a p t e r 1, the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o  e v a l u a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s f o r r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s between m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s development  i n t e r e s t s and park  i n t e r e s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. models of c o n f l i c t  preservation  I t i s time now t o d e s c r i b e  the  resolution.  £on£llcl.J3£sjalulian^n-£a^  There a r e , i n the North American e x p e r i e n c e , two main approaches t o c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . r u n n i n g from pure a d j u d i c a t i o n pure b a r g a i n i n g 1979)  One can t h i n k of a spectrum  by an independent t r i b u n a l , t o  between o p p o s i n g i n t e r e s t s . ( F u l l e r , 1978;  Schuck  In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n i s dominated by  use of the c o u r t s . Schuck  (Cormick, 1982)  (1979) d e s c r i b e s  i t i s a group of a d v e r s a r i a l  c l u s t e r e d near the a d j u d i c a t i o n spectrum. various  The l i t i g a t i o n model as  end of the c o n f l i c t  approaches resolution  Many names and nomenclatures have been developed by  authors to describe  and d i s c u s s  the l i t i g a t i o n  model.  For each s e t of s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s the p r e c i s e o p t i o n s under the model w i l l change.  However, the f o l l o w i n g are  some t h a t w i l l be encountered: a r b i t r a t i o n ; a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; judging;  courts;  adjudication.  The use of l i t i g a t i o n t o  determine which of the d i v e r g e n t p a r t i e s i s r i g h t has a wide acceptance and a p p e a l . ( E c k h o f f , 1967) l i t i g a t i o n has developed a s t r e n g t h 48  With a long h i s t o r y ,  of moral l e g i t i m a c y  relying  on precedent,  deduction  criteria.(Schuck, The  -from p r i n c i p l e s ,  and  rational  decision  1979)  Canadian c o n - f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n e x p e r i e n c e  r e l i e s l e s s on  the c o u r t s and more on in-formal and u n s t r u c t u r e d  bargaining  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o b b y i n g and  (Dorcey  Thompson, 1983)  political activity.  and  Though more s t r u c t u r e d and d e l i b e r a t e b a r g a i n i n g  i s -found at the extreme o-f the spectrum, I w i l l denote as  the  b a r g a i n i n g model the p r a c t i c e d Canadian e q u i v a l e n t r a t h e r than that i d e a l .  The  b a r g a i n i n g model i n c l u d e s consensual  o-f mutual accommodation and  r e l i e s on the c o n f l i c t i n g  v o l u n t a r y c o n t r o l o-f the p r o c e s s e s . (Susskind 1981; Cormick 1982;  Susskind  approaches  and W e i n s t e i n ,  1981)  parties'  Schuck  1979;  Once a g a i n a number  o-f names have been used t o d e s c r i b e a range o-f c o n - f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n processes  at the b a r g a i n i n g end of the spectrum.  f o l l o w i n g are a sampling: conciliation;  conflict  Researchers,  environmental  mediation;  The  negotiation;  avoidance.  p r i m a r i l y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , have  h i g h l i g h t e d the i n a d e q u a c i e s conflict resolution.  of c o u r t p r o c e s s e s  t h a t are used f o r  Q u e s t i o n s about the proper l i m i t s of  the  l i t i g a t i o n model, i n i t s v a r i o u s forms, have long been asked new  problems and a l t e r n a t i v e s are posed ( F u l l e r , 1978).  as  "The  growing use of c o u r t remedies f o r p e r s o n a l as w e l l as b u s i n e s s governmental c o n f l i c t  i s p a r t of the quarrelsome n a t u r e  American s o c i e t y " ( C o r m i c k ,  1982).  49  of  As l i t i g a t i o n i s used i n  a t t e m p t s t o r e s o l v e a wider v a r i e t y of c o n f l i c t s new are asked about i t s a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  or  f o r the t a s k .  questions  The f o l l o w i n g  are -five c a t e g o r i e s i n which d e f i c i e n c i e s of the l i t i g a t i o n model have been recognized: technical  delay and time; c o s t s ; c a p a c i t y f o r  i s s u e s ; o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; and  f l e x i b i l i t y of outcomes. Delay and Time "American c o u r t s are doing 1980), with  too much,"(Cavanagh and Sarat,  the r e s u l t of backlogs and d e l a y s .  f o r (judging c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n processes, (1985) s t a t e that "a good outcome should The  As one c r i t e r i a  Susskind  and McCreary  be reached q u i c k l y . "  l i t i g a t i o n of c o n f l i c t s i s time consuming.(Ognibene, 1983)  As the c o u r t s are c a l l e d upon to process cases i n a d d i t i o n t o c r i m i n a l cases,  a greater  the resources  number of available for  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a l l j u s t i c e are s t r e s s e d . ( S a r a t and Grossman, 1978)  A broader "... scope of j u d i c i a l  accounts f o r some of the growing pressure the  increased work load of the c o u r t s  responsibility  on the j u d i c i a r y and  (Ford Foundation, 1978b)."  Furthermore, the b u i l t - i n delays of the l i t i g a t i o n model have been exaggerated by the i n c r e a s i n g l y crowded nature of the court calendar,  e s p e c i a l l y i n the United  States.(Cormick,  1982)  the areas of g r e a t e s t growth are p u b l i c law cases that the most complex type of s o c i a l Sarat,  1980)  include  p o l i c y 1itigation.(Cavanagh  and  " ( L ) i t i g a t i o n - p a r t i c u l a r l y the p u b l i c law v a r i e t y  - can pose awesome problems of implementation, continued  Among  i n part from the  i n t r a n s i g e n c e of a l o s i n g party(Schuck, 1978)."  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e and r e g u l a t i v e adjustments compelled as a r e s u l t of  litigation  r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l time f o r implementation a f t e r  the d e c i s i o n has been made. from the growth i n p o p u l a t i o n  "Pressure  (on the c o u r t s ) a r i s e s  and t r a n s a c t i o n s , and from changes 50  in technology, the economy, and i n s o c i a l Foundation, 1978b)."  Among the changes are the growth o-f the  environmental movement and the i n c r e a s e s demands -for  patterns(Ford  i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  wilderness. Costs  The  obvious c o r o l l a r y of time e f f i c i e n c y ,  Comparisons are d i f f i c u l t  and proof  i s that of c o s t .  of e f f i c i e n c y  i s unlikely.  " A d j u d i c a t i o n may be too c o s t l y f o r some kinds of cases(Ford Foundation, 1978b)."  Any processes that w i l l  reduce the cost of  l i t i g a t i o n would be welcomed by the p a r t i c i p a n t s . the time and resources  taken up i n p r e p a r a t i o n  of cases i s a move to r e d u c t i o n  of c o s t s .  component of the l i t i g a t i o n model e n f o r c e s delays  and evasive  parties.  Reduction of  and p r e s e n t a t i o n  The a d v e r s a r i a l added c o s t s of the  t a c t i c s that are employed by d i v e r g i n g  Appeals of e a r l i e r d e c i s i o n s , c a l l s f o r new arguments  to be brought forward, and adjournments f o r any number of reasons increase the c o s t s that are born f i r s t the c o n f l i c t , and  and second by the p u b l i c i n m a i n t a i n i n g  in enforcing  the f i r s t  by the p a r t i e s to  i t s d e c i s i o n s . Further  the system  c o s t s are generated when  d e c i s i o n r e s u l t s i n long term i n c r e a s e s  in l i t i g a t i o n  or the need f o r a d d i t i o n a l government r e g u l a t i o n and administration In periods  of circumstances that r e s u l t e d i n the c o n f l i c t .  of poor economic performance, the c o s t s of c o n f l i c t  become an e s p e c i a l l y unwanted burden to a l l p r o t a g o n i s t s . of the l i t i g a t i o n  Costs  process may become a f a c t o r i n d e c i s i o n making  processes of the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i e s who i n i t i a t e p r o j e c t s or pursue r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f 1 i c t . ( S u s s k i n d  51  and Weinstein, 1980)  There must be some accounting projected  legal costs w i l l  o-f the degree to which  the  a f f e c t the o v e r a l l d e s i r a b i l i t y of  the  proposal. Capacity The technical  i s s u e s i s suspect.  be e l i m i n a t e d  "(T)he a d v e r s a r i a l t a c t i c s ,  assure that p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l from c o n s i d e r a t i o n ( S u s s k i n d  There i s a trend  the focus of the  and  in l i t i g a t i o n f o r the c o u r t s to narrow that they  litigants  'actions.  Foundation, 1978b).  c o n f l i c t are able to b r i n g t e c h n i c a l and the c o u r t , there  him.  i s a question  "Sound d e c i s i o n scientific  If the p a r t i e s to  complex i s s u e s  as to the a b i l i t y of  . . . ( t h a t ) . . . are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  t e c h n i c a l content(Susskind  and  in  the  before  the  to understand the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the m a t e r i a l  T h i s d e f i c i e n c y i s e s p e c i a l l y important  disputes,  are  i s s u e s that  making r e q u i r e s access to h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d bodies of or t e c h n i c a l data(Ford  and  Weinstein,  than to n e c e s s a r i l y address the  forms the b a s i s f o r the  in  information  i s s u e s to be judged, to an extent  manageable, r a t h e r  adjudicator  and  with t e c h n i c a l r u l e s f o r admission of evidence  testimony at t r i a l ,  1980)."  Issues  c a p a b i l i t y of the c o u r t s to deal with complex  conjunction  will  for Technical  before  "(e)nvironmental  their s c i e n t i f i c  and  Weinstein, 1980)."  Opportunity f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n The  bilateral  pluralistic will one  character  of s o c i e t y by  l i t i g a t i o n model r e s t r i c t s  i n c l u d i n g only two  c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n process.  d i f f i c u l t y addressing of  of the  The  the  p a r t i e s in any  l i t i g a t i o n model  has  "polycentric" conflicts entailing a variety  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a number of concerned  52  parties.(Fuller, (public)  1978)  "Not  only are  l i t i g a t i o n o-f ten p o l y c e n t r i c ;  which no s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n s may s t r u c t u r e ) ( S c h u c k , 1978)." polycentric, and  the  associations  i n such  a l s o problems f o r (within  the  legal  every c o n f l i c t  c o n s t i t u e n c y than was p a r t i e s are c r i t i c a l of the  may  not  Consequently,  set precedents f o r  litigation.  Solutions  are c r i t i c i z e d by  represented  in the system.  handed  a wider Thus, r e l a t e d  of the apparent i n j u s t i c e that l i t i g a t i o n model f o r c o n f l i c t  may  has  been done  resolution.  F l e x i b i l i t y of Outcomes "The incident  adjudicative leading  technique tends to i s o l a t e a s p e c i f i c  to d i s p u t e ,  thus making i t d i f f i c u l t  i n t o account a l l the dimensions of the c o n t r o v e r s y . adversary nature of the aspect can  proceedings and  exacerbate t e n s i o n  p a r t i e s and  d i s p a r i t i e s between p a r t i e s can parties  involved  be overcome.  in the d i v e r g e n t  view of the  The  the two  conflict  desirable  of choosing between  There i s no room i n the course of  53  the  and  With only  l i t i g a t i o n system of  the job of the judge i s one  a l t e r n a t i v e s presented.  leave  provide a forum i n which  r e s o l u t i o n , each with an a d v e r s a r i a l resolution,  (T)he  Foundation, 1978b)."  l i t i g a t i o n model, through i t s t r a d i t i o n a l , s t r u c t u r e d approach, does not  to take  i t s winner-take-all  between the  u n d e r l y i n g problems to f e s t e r ( F o r d  antagonistic  is  always  of concern to p a r t i e s that  in the  the c o u r t s in t h i s way  p a r t i e s may  adjudicator.  in t h i s way  be d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a n t s  critical  be at hand  of s i m i l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d  d e c i s i o n making on other p o i n t s  and  they are  involved  p r a c t i c a l t i e s through l e g i s l a t i o n , p a r t n e r s h i p s  r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t  down by  issues  Though c o n c e p t u a l l y  be obvious or of concern to the  not  the  the  litigation fact,  to invent new  options f o r c o n f l i c t  i f the questions to be judged  are broad  general nature, the a d j u d i c a t o r w i l l  resolution.  In  and of a more  o f t e n l i m i t the d i s c u s s i o n  and f i n d i n g of the c o u r t to a l i m i t e d point of divergence. t h i s way  the tasks undertaken  simplified  and  i n the l i t i g a t i o n model are  r e s t r i c t e d such that they conform to the mechanics  of the j u d i c i a r y and the p r i n c i p l e s of law and 1983b)  In  Once again d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  l i t i g a n t s as the c o n f l i c t has been manipulated  precedent.(Amy,  i s generated  among the  that has been brought  b e f o r e the c o u r t s  to f i t the process being used f o r  resolut ion.  Given the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s , questions a r i s e about the s u i t a b i l i t y of the Canadian c o u r t s f o r r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s . the Canadian experience r e f l e c t been i d e n t i f i e d  practiced  the same weaknesses that have  i n the American l i t i g a t i o n model?  question remains,  how  The  companion  well does the u n s t r u c t u r e d b a r g a i n i n g  i n Canada r e d r e s s these i s s u e s ?  conflict will  Does  The  parks / mines  provide a p a i r of B r i t i s h Columbian cases that  employ the r e s p e c t i v e c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n models, and share same socio-economic  and  political  the  c o n d i t i o n s f o r d e c i s i o n making.  In the past, some commentators have compared the best examples of environmental the worst  conflict  r e s o l u t i o n under the b a r g a i n i n g model with  a t t r i b u t e s under the l i t i g a t i o n model.  I am  f o r t u n a t e i n t h i s study to have two cases that provide arguably good examples, i n the Canadian context, of each model. f o l l o w i n g chapter, w i l l  describe in detail  54  In the  the cases i n q u e s t i o n .  Chapter 5 w i l l •five  examine the evidence i n each case i n l i g h t  issues discussed  of the  here.  £laim£d._Adi(ian.ta9es_Q£_Ear:3ainia3  We w i l l  examine the advantages of b a r g a i n i n g  as they have  been proposed by a s e l e c t i o n of commentators, through the same five  categories  litigation  as were used  i n d e s c r i b i n g the weakness of the  model f o r c o n f l i c t  resolution.  Delay and Time The the  bargaining  model w i l l  r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t .  o f t e n be more time e f f i c i e n t i n  The d e l a y s  in the l i t i g a t i o n model are not present. voluntary positively  toward r e s o l u t i o n . should  model, having  be able to provide  as v a r i o u s  environment that r e s u l t s .  o f t e n be found when changes i n r e g u l a t i o n , procedures are r e q u i r e d  proceedings.  a resolution  i n the p o l y c e n t r i c web of d e c i s i o n making  to the new a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  other  The b a r g a i n i n g  not r e q u i r e f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n  constituencies  will  The p a r t i e s , being  p a r t i c i p a n t s , are thought t o be more i n c l i n e d t o s t r i v e  adequate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , that w i l l  that are found i n t e g r a l  adjust  Time  delays  i n s p e c t i o n and  at the completion of a court  Consensual approaches, should  implementation phase by a l l o w i n g  decrease delay  i n the  the p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d to  a n t i c i p a t e the requirements of a forthcoming r e s o l u t i o n of conf1ict. Costs "Most ... resource management c o n f l i c t s e i t h e r end up i n court  or p e r s i s t u n t i l  would be d e s i r a b l e  one of the p a r t i e s g i v e s up.  <and l e s s c o s t l y ) t o avoid  55  Obviously i t  litigation i f  e q u a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y (or b e t t e r ) outcomes could be without  i t ( S u s s k i n d and  McCreary, 1985)."  I t i s "...  encourage the p a r t i e s involved to n e g o t i a t e reach  a f a i r agreement(Amy, 1983b)."  r e d u c t i o n are  identified  who  be reduced by a  Parties  in t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n b a r g a i n i n g  Second, at the c o n c l u s i o n of  court  bargaining  the cost of f u r t h e r appeal proceedings i s an u n l i k e l y  consideration.  P e n a l i z i n g c o s t s to the  court d e c i s i o n s are a l s o avoided.  l o s i n g p a r t i c i p a n t of  T h i r d , the c o s t s of  c o u r t f a c i l i t i e s and  other s e r v i c e s provided  through t a x a t i o n and  r e n t s can be avoided  Though there are s e v e r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s c o s t s of the b a r g a i n i n g model, r e l a t i v e perceived over the  the savings  a l s o i d e n t i f y the p o t e n t i a l savings over e q u i v a l e n t  processes,  long term are the  providing  extent.  in c a l c u l a t i n g the a c t u a l  (Susskind  and  Weinstein,  1980)the  l i t i g a t i o n model  important c r i t e r i a f o r judgement.  The  are"... based on the r e a l i z a t i o n  that  i s more to making p o l i c y e f f i c i e n t l y  d e c i s i o n s e x p e d i t i o u s l y . . . (Amy, Capacity  the  by government  to a g r e a t e r  c o s t s i n comparison to the  reduced c o s t s of b a r g a i n i n g there  First,  are i n a weaker p o s i t i o n .  that p e r c e i v e some s t r e n g t h  proceedings.(Amy, 1983a)  and  be e s p e c i a l l y the case f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s  from a l e g a l standpoint  will  i n good f a i t h  i n the b a r g a i n i n g model.  T h i s may  c o s t s that  Three areas of cost  c o s t s to the p a r t i c i p a n t s d i r e c t l y w i l l in l e g a l c o s t s .  reached  than simply  making  1983b)."  for Technical  Issues  The mediation model, through i t s r e l i a n c e on the d i r e c t sometimes mediated processes  of c o n f l i c t  c a p a b i l i t y to deal s t r o n g l y with  56  r e s o l u t i o n , has  and  the  the t e c h n i c a l i s s u e s of concern  in many environmental and environmental d i s p u t e s scientific  resources  conflicts.  "Because most  i n v o l v e complex l e g a l , economic  issues, e f f e c t i v e negotiating usually requires  to e x p e r t i s e  i n those areas(Amy, 1983a)."  negotiation,  the p a r t i e s can each educate each other  conflict  party  that  access  With d i r e c t  produce j o i n t understanding of the c o m p l e x i t i e s The  and  in ways that  of the  conflict.  i s r e s o l v e d with the a s s i s t a n c e of a t h i r d  in the b a r g a i n i n g  model w i l l  r e q u i r e the s e r v i c e s of  i n d i v i d u a l - or team of mediators that are knowledgeable and to f a c i l i t a t e r a t i o n a l d i s c u s s i o n consensus.  "Bargaining  stimulates  between p a r t i e s (information i f not  an able  in an e f f o r t to reach the flow of  information  r e l e v a n t to t h e i r preferences,  even  to the a p p l i c a b l e l e g a l r u l e s (Schuck, 1978)." Opportunity f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n  The  bargaining  model "...  the d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t ( S c h u c k , advantages to f u l l conflict.  The  advances p a r t i c i p a t i o n by  1978)."  those  There are numerous  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l a f f e c t e d p a r t i e s in the  p o l y c e n t r i c nature of most c o n f l i c t s e n f o r c e s  a s s e r t i o n that a l l p a r t i e s wishing to p a r t i c i p a t e should represented.(Fuller,  1978)  ( B ) a r g a i n i n g can  ...  (and)  p r e v i o u s l y taken, and  may  be  help p a r t i c i p a n t s  to develop a b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n of the p e r s p e c t i v e s adversaries  the  reduce h o s t i l i t y , s o f t e n  of  their  positions  ... tends to expose the true i n t e n s i t i e s of  the p a r t i c i p a n t s preferences,...(Schuck, 1978)." o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r such completeness, any  Without  conflict resolution  process w i l l be open to c r i t i c i s m from excluded p a r t i e s . "Agreement ... minimizes the r i s k s of extended c o n f l i c t p o t e n t i a l l y adverse p u b l i c i t y  ...(Susskind 57  and  (and)  Weinstein, 1980)."  A d d i t i o n a l gains -from -full and bargaining  are gained  impression  o-f competency and  Weinstein,  1980)."  voluntary  p a r t i c i p a t i o n in  through the c r e a t i o n of a  "strong  capable l e a d e r s h i p  (Susskind  and  F l e x i b i l i t y o-f Outcomes The  b a r g a i n i n g model i s capable o-f producing  an open agenda  on which a l l p a r t i e s to the c o n f l i c t are able to b r i n g p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s and  to develop i n n o v a t i o n s .  attempts o f t e n b r i n g to the b a r g a i n i n g  "...(Opponents in mediation t a b l e a whole h i s t o r y of  a n t a g o n i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s , misperceptions, that must be d e a l t with  i f s e r i o u s and  n e g o t i a t i o n s over the s u b s t a n t i v e 1983a)." involved  "(T)he d i r e c t n e s s and  and  miscommunications  straightforward  i s s u e s are to take place(Amy,  i n f o r m a l i t y of the  i n environmental mediation  (bargaining)  discussions  leave  p a r t i c i p a n t s f r e e to address the c e n t r a l i s s u e s of controversy  and  perhaps r e s o l v e them (Amy,  arrangements are open f o r development and the b a r g a i n i n g model. all  adversary  p a r t i e s to  "The  processes:  bargaining  the  the  1983b)."  An array of  consideration  within  e x e m p l i f i e s the v i r t u e s of  i t encourages d i v e r s i t y , s t i m u l a t e s  develop r e l e v a n t  information  extreme p o s i t i o n s that would be a s s e r t e d  about f a c t s and in l i t i g a t i o n  the  values,  (Schuck,  1979)." Limitation Before  c o n t i n u i n g , s e v e r a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s must be placed  the d i s t i n c t i o n s i n the preceding cited  here in c r i t i c i s m of the  arguement.  The  literature  l i t i g a t i o n model i s based on  58  on  the  extremes of the United S t a t e s experience. claimed  Likewise,  many o-f the  advantages of the b a r g a i n i n g model are p r e d i c a t e d  examples of s t r u c t u r e d and  deliberate bargaining.  Use  on  of  courts  f o r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n , though growing in Canada, i s not with  the same enthusiasm.  though u n s t r u c t u r e d , forms and  found  b a r g a i n i n g undertaken in Canada,  i s conducted w i t h i n e x i s t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  conventions,  c o n c i l i a t o r y end  The  and  does not emulate the extreme at  of the spectrum.  in each model that should  conflict situations.  The  in p a r t i c u l a r  h i g h l y s t u c t u r e d , time t e s t e d ( K r i e s b e r g , 1979)  give  a c t i v e v o i c e to e x t r a o r d i n a r y d i v e r s i t y of p o l i t i c a l , and  other  interests...(Schuck,  f i n d i n g of f a c t s and  litigation  Susskind  i s often a  p r e r e q u i s i t e to the w i l l i n g n e s s of a party i s the source  of power and  "...  economic,  can work to the  in c o n f l i c t by reducing e s t a b l i s h e d  power r e l a t i o n s h i p s . (Schuck, 1979; "Actual or threatened  and  1979)" ; i t demands a  a s s e r t i o n of v a l u e s , and  advantage of the weaker party  the  There are s t r e n g t h s to be  be r e t a i n e d f o r use  d e c i s i v e q u a l i t i e s of l i t i g a t i o n  social  pursued  and  Weinstein,  1980)  necessary ... to n e g o t i a t e ; i t  i n f l u e n c e that b r i n g s the p a r t i e s to  the t a b l e . . . (Cormick, 1982)" and  to b a r g a i n i n g .  There are v a r i a t i o n s on each model of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . P r a c t i t i o n e r s of each s t r i v e to develop the perceived and  to reduce the  weaknesses i n the m o d i f i c a t i o n and  i n s t a n c e s that show weakness. litigation  process,  innovation that w i l l  circumstance.(Cavanagh and f a c t f i n d i n g processes  Sarat,  strengths  Though there  i t i s not c l o s e d to accomodate a v a r i e t y of  1980)  Informal  rule-making  p r e s c r i b e d by some c o u r t s , though  e x h i b i t i n g some of the weaknesses that are found  59  are  still  in the b a s i c  and  l i t i g a t i o n model, are attempts at improvement  (Schuck, 1979).  Other p o s s i b l e a d a p t a t i o n s o-f the l i t i g a t i o n model i n c l u d e ideas such as the s c i e n c e c o u r t (Kantrowitz, 1977) and masters o-f the t o p i c appointed expertise.  by a judge t o provide advice and t e c h n i c a l  Each m o d i f i c a t i o n t o l i t i g a t i o n or adaptation of  b a r g a i n i n g t o f u r t h e r accomodate the r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t r e c o g n i z e s the d i v e r s i t y of c o n f l i c t  and the v a r i e t y of  processes that need be c o n s i d e r e d . lQQls_£Qr._Unlenstanilin3 In r e s e a r c h i n g and developing the i n f o r m a t i o n necessary f o r t h i s t h e s i s , a typology of c o n f l i c t found  t o be h e l p f u l f o r understanding  peculiarities parks  causes has been used and  of c o n f l i c t  as i t occurs i n the B r i t i s h  / mines c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n .  misunderstood  c h a r a c t e r of mining,  parks / mines c o n f l i c t discussion  some of the m o t i v a t i o n s and  With the c o l o r f u l  Columbia and o f t e n  and as few examinations  have been undertaken,  of the  the f o l l o w i n g  i s i n c l u d e d i n the t h e s i s f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n .  If c o n f l i c t  i s d e f i n d e as:  the i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y between p a r t i e s whose behavior and / or c o g n i t i o n s , i n t e r e s t s , v a l u e s d i v e r g e ; then, each c o n f l i c t component i n the d e f i n i t i o n a cause of c o n f l i c t . typology.  Together,  these causes can be taken as a  T h i s typology of c o n f l i c t  (1979a) and Lord  a l - (1979).  has been proposed by Wehr  Wehr and Lord both d i s c u s s the  ' n o n - r e a l i s t i c ' nature of some c o n f l i c t . c a r r i e s forward  the notion of behavior  as a cause of c o n f l i c t  can be viewed as  However, Dorcey  and e x p l i c i t l y  (1934b)  includes i t  i n n a t u r a l resources management i s s u e s .  In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n I w i l l d e s c r i b e each type of c o n f l i c t  60  and develop examples, w i t h i n the t h e s i s context, as a means o-f clarification  o-f the concepts s e t -forth by these authors.  S c e n a r i o s w i l l be invented that r e f l e c t  each c o n f l i c t  as an a i d t o developing the framework of understanding. purpose of  parks / mines c o n f l i c t conflict  toward of  The key  of these s c e n a r i o s i s to i l l u s t r a t e the meaning of each  the types of c o n f l i c t  of  cause  with examples that might occur i n the  case.  R e s o l u t i o n of each s u c c e s s i v e type  cause w i l l be, f o r i l l u s t r a t i v e purposes,  the next type.  the f o u r c o n f l i c t  a step  In e m p i r i c a l cases there may be some mix types.  a c t u a l causes of c o n f l i c t  I t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h  u s i n g the f o u r part typology.  With  these d i s t i n c t i o n s , the reader can a p p r e c i a t e the process of development that the r e s e a r c h e r has undertaken the t h e s i s as a whole. will  To b r i n g c l a r i t y  i n p r e p a r a t i o n of  t o the s i t u a t i o n s , I  use f i c t i t i o u s d i a l o g u e s . The s i t u a t i o n common t o a l l d i a l o g u e s w i l l be a personal  meeting  where two i n d i v i d u a l s r e p r e s e n t p a r t i e s i n a parks /  mines c o n f l i c t .  I t i s thought  s c e n a r i o , the 'pure' c o n f l i c t recognized. a coalition  that by keeping with the same types w i l l be more  The parks proponent concerned  may represent a s i n g l e group or  with advancing a park  on the land i n q u e s t i o n .  easily  land use d e s i g n a t i o n  The mining advocate may represent a  s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e or an a s s o c i a t i o n of mineral  i n t e r e s t s , with a  goal of forwarding e x p l o r a t i o n and development o p t i o n s . party could represent a government l i n e agency. will  be the t h i r d  explanation  and  party i n the d i a l o g u e . will  61  As observer, I  My comments w i l l be i n  facilitate transition  scene t o another.  Either  from  one  conflict  We life,  should  note that t h i s ' c o n v e r s a t i o n '  take place  need not  , in real  in a person to person manner but may  transpire  through v a r i o u s media i n c l u d i n g : r a d i o , video, third  party  information.  The  press, or through  c o n f l i c t dialogue may  be  comprised  of a v a r i e t y of media messages. I w i l l w r i t e the d i a l o g u e s f o r t h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n s t y l e of a t h e a t r i c a l labelled  play.  i n the  Each a c t o r ' s statement w i l l  be  in t u r n : P - Park Proponent M - Mining Proponent  The  two  p a r t i c i p a n t s have come to d i s c u s s the mineral  e x p l o r a t i o n and mine development processes documents. proposal.  Each has had  an o p p o r t u n i t y  set f o r t h  to read and  in  deposit M's  study  In b r i e f , the mining concern wants to continue  exploration, d r i l l i n g , o p e r a t i o n , and  the with  sampling, development c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  reclamation.  Each s u c c e s s i v e a c t i v i t y would  be  conducted as investment, market c o n d i t i o n s and m i n e r a l i z a t i o n of the d e p o s i t d i c t a t e . The  park i n t e r e s t wants a park d e s i g n a t i o n  to i n c l u d e the same lands proposed f o r mineral thereby  a s s u r i n g use of the  industry a c t i v i t y ,  land f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n  and r e c r e a t i o n  purposes.  Cognitive C o n f l i c t Cognitive c o n f l i c t p e r c e p t i o n s of f a c t  Dialogue  i s based on d i f f e r e n t understandings  i n v o l v e d in the c o n f l i c t . The  are both making an appeal  to the f a c t s to support  t h i s instance f o r a p a r t i c u l a r d i s a g r e e because of the way  and  parties t h e i r case,  land use. However, the p a r t i e s  that they  p e r c e i v e the f a c t s .  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i a l o g u e might t r a n s p i r e as f o l l o w s :  62  A  in  ti  Do you understand that our proposal i s a s i x phase program l e a d i n g -from e x p l o r a t i o n through development to production of m i n e r a l s ?  P  Yes, I understand that there are s i x phases to your proposed mining a c t i v i t i e s .  M  I t i s c o r r e c t that there are s i x phases, but I must c o r r e c t your assumption that a l l s i x phases are mining.  P  C e r t a i n l y a l l the phases are mining! Is i t not true that you w i l l be u s i n g diamond d r i l l s and even b u l l d o z e r s to complete most phases of the p r o p o s a l .  M  Our program i s to c a r e f u l l y explore and develop t h i s mineral property during the f i r s t four phases, as o u t l i n e d in the p r o p o s a l . Not u n t i l the f i f t h phase, closely followed by reclamation, does mining take place.  P  If you are allowed to continue, your crews w i l l be d i s t u r b i n g many tens of hectares, moving tonnes of rocks and p r o c e s s i n g them to e x t r a c t the m i n e r a l s they contain. Is that not t r u e ?  M  Yes we w i l l be t a k i n g rock from the p r o p e r t y . However, we are only sampling small amounts of rock from a wide v a r i e t y of l o c a t i o n s , d i s t r i b u t e d over the e n t i r e s i t e . Disturbance w i l l be l i m i t e d to only a hectare or two. Samples w i l l be analyzed to assess the amount of mineral that i t may produce. T h i s i s not mining.  P  What may appear to be small amounts to you w i l l s e v e r e l y impair the e n t i r e core lands proposed f o r park. The v a l l e y in which your c l a i m s are s i t u a t e d , w i l l be changed beyond r e p a i r or u s e f u l n e s s .  M  C e r t a i n l y w i t h i n a year or two one would hardly n o t i c e that we had been doing work in the v a l l e y . Very l i t t l e d i s t u r b a n c e w i l l be c r e a t e d .  P  A l l of these p r o p o s a l s w i l l change the land, making i t u n s u i t a b l e f o r park. The damage w i l l not be diminished over time to allow the f e a t u r e s of the park land to be f u l l y represented.  The  two  p a r t i e s appear to agree on some of the f a c t s but  p e r c e i v e d i f f e r e n t outcomes or r e s u l t s from the Whereas the mining proponent  envisages  proposal.  a s e r i e s of development  phases, the park l o b b y i s t p e r c e i v e s s i x phases of  63  negative  environmental  impact.  There appear to be three main areas of  c o n t e n t i o n r e g a r d i n g -facts as set f o r t h  in M's  a d e f i n i t i o n of what mining  The  the same a c t i v i t i e s discussed.  really  is.  i n mind when mineral  Secondly,  the area and  proposals.  a c t o r s do not have  industry a c t i v i t i e s  s u r f a c e s o i l s and  count  subsurface m a t e r i a l s , the mineral  be d i s t u r b e d and  removed.  hectares that w i l l be s u s t a i n impact significantly different  landscape  it  Consequently,  may  the number of  by the proposal may  i n the minds of each a c t o r .  will  interest  f o r a n a l y s i s as that  issue i n t h i s c o g n i t i v e c o n f l i c t d i a l o g u e i s that of s p e c i f i c a l l y the time  upon.  a l l p o t e n t i a l movement of  only p e r c e i v e the rock that i s important which w i l l  are  tonnage of m a t e r i a l s to be  moved in e x p l o r i n g f o r m i n e r a l s has not been agreed Whereas the park proponent may  First,  be  The  third  time,  take f o r any d i s t u r b a n c e s to the  to recover to the former s t a t e .  The  p e r c e p t i o n of  f u t u r e s t a t e by each of the a c t o r s i s the key to c o n f l i c t . Where one might envisage  a t o t a l d e v a s t a t i o n of the  the other party has p e r c e p t i o n s of mild and d i s t u r b a n c e . The unacceptable  park proponent may  lands that may  acceptable  view changes as  while the mineral developer  landscape,  totally  accepts w i l d e r n e s s  as  have f e l t some i n f l u e n c e of human a c t i v i t y .  T h i s kind of s i t u a t i o n can be found  i n parks / mines  c o n f l i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia such as that of Kwadacha P r o v i n c i a l Park.  The e s s e n t i a l component c o n t r i b u t i n g to c o n f l i c t  the i n f o r m a t i o n , or lack of i t , i n the d e c i s i o n making has  i s that process  led to major d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p e r c e p t i o n s of the a c t o r s .  In t h i s case a park has been e s t a b l i s h e d without mineral occurrences. Subsequently,  64  a survey of  mineral e x p l o r a t i o n i s t s have  traced a promising mineral d e p o s i t t o the boundary and i n t o the park.  The c o n f l i c t then a r i s e s as t o what would be the impact of  changing deposit.  the park l i m i t s to allow f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n of the Could the i n i t i a l  boundaries  have been e s t a b l i s h e d to  avoid a d e p o s i t of high economic p o t e n t i a l ?  Would doing so then  or now compromise the f e a t u r e s of the park that are designated for conservation?  T h i s c o n f l i c t continues unresolved because of  a lack of agreement on the f a c t s of the matter. Our  d i a l o g u e case above i l l u s t r a t e s a v a r i e t y of p o s s i b l e  m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of c o g n i t i v e c o n f l i c t between park and mineral proponents.  What i s needed f o r r e s o l u t i o n of t h i s type of case  i s a process f o r c l a r i f y i n g or c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the f a c t s so that the p a r t i e s to the c o n f l i c t can reach some l e v e l of agreement. Perhaps some form of study or c o n f e r e n c i n g c o u l d be used t o e s t a b l i s h the f a c t s .  However, once t h i s i s done there may be  some r e s i d u a l c o n f l i c t .  F a i l u r e t o r e s o l v e the g r e a t e r p o r t i o n  of the c o n f l i c t may i n d i c a t e the presence Value C o n f l i c t  of a value  conflict.  Dialogue  Value c o n f l i c t stems from d i f f e r i n g assessments of the d e s i r a b i l i t y or a c c e p t a b i l i t y of a c t i o n s and r e s u l t s . "Value c o n f l i c t i s almost always present, not only because d i f f e r i n g s o c i a l i z a t i o n c r e a t e s d i f f e r i n g v a l u e s between people, but because we so r e a d i l y r a t i o n a l i z e our immediate i n t e r e s t s by c r e a t i n g and adapting a value s t r u c t u r e which supports and l e g i t i m i z e s those i n t e r e s t s (Lord, e t . a l . 1979)." Value type c o n f l i c t  i s a disagreement over e v a l u a t i o n s of  a l t e r n a t i v e s . C o n f l i c t i n g p a r t i e s can d i s a g r e e over the r e l a t i v e importance of developing mineral occurrences or d e s i g n a t i n g park  65  land.  T h i s then  i s a d i a l o g u e concerned  with d i f f e r i n g  opinions  o-f what a c t i o n s are worth t a k i n g . P  The damage to t h i s p o t e n t i a l park land would s u r e l y be enormous i-f you were to continue. I t would c e r t a i n l y not be as worthy o-f park s t a t u s .  M  I-f we don't continue with our assessment of t h i s mineral d e p o s i t then we w i l l not be a b l e to get the g e o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n that we need. These lands have to be held open f o r mineral e x p l o r a t i o n .  P  We would l i k e to see these lands held undisturbed that they may be enjoyed f o r the c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s that they encompass.  M  M i n e r a l s are where you f i n d them, and only r a r e l y are the c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of m i n e r a l s adequate such that the c o s t of recovery and the proximity to markets make a p r o j e c t economically v i a b l e .  P  Park land too i s r a r e and unique. Each landscape i t s own c l i m a t e , f l o r a and fauna to be conserved f o r education and f o r r e c r e a t i o n .  M  S u r e l y there i s enough park land i n B r i t i s h Columbia without adding t h i s p a r t i c u l a r area. F i v e percent i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e s i g n a t i o n to be withheld from mineral e x p l o r a t i o n and other a c t i v i t i e s .  P  The present park system i s but a p o r t i o n of what i s needed to represent the n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s of the p r o v i n c e and provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n .  M  I don't care i f we haven't enough park land f o r c o n s e r v i n g w i l d f l o w e r s and black bears. J u s t go out i n the bush and you w i l l f i n d more than anyone needs.  T h i s d i a l o g u e i s an example of how o f t e n seem to be about or concerned c o g n i t i v e c o n f l i c t might be. transpired and  a value c o n f l i c t  that t h i s d i a l o g u e  has  can  with the f a c t s the way  The way  so  that a has  i s t y p i c a l of many arguments between park proponents  the mineral  i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Though much i s  made of the i n f o r m a t i o n and f a c t s of the case, the  underpinnings  of the c o n f l i c t are the d i v e r g e n t value s t r u c t u r e s inherent i n the p a r t i e s ' views.  The  debate here  66  i l l u s t r a t e s the great  d i f f e r e n c e i n values conflicting parties.  attached  to the  land  in question  by  the  Amidst the c o g n i t i v e components of  the  argument concerned with the amount of r e c r e a t i o n land that i s a c t u a l l y needed, the b a s i c value s u r f a c e s . Each holds the value  p o s i t i o n s of the  of  land use  f o r t h e i r purpose as  more d e s i r a b l e to s o c i e t y than the other. of the mineral values. values  proponent b e l i t t l e the  importance of h i s r i v a l ' s  of the p a r t i e s as they r e f l e c t any  values,  in t h i s instance  Some value  commensurable in monetary form and the non-  the  i s not monetary p o s i t i o n s of  conflicts will  others w i l l  be  not.  Sometimes  monetary values can be t r a n s l a t e d through some  estimation  of s u r r o g a t e s .  Those values  nature be given  a monitary e q u i v a l e n t  more i n n o v a t i v e  conflict  resolution  i s o f t e n assumed that  conflict,  an  imposed.  that w i l l  will  the other  not by  of  processes.  in s i t u a t i o n s of  impasse i s i n e v i t a b l e and  value  that some a r b i t r a t i o n need  In f a c t , t r a d e - o f f s might be p o s s i b l e when both  perceives  that they may  be  i n a win  be advantageous to them to n e g o t i a t e  When one  s i t u a t i o n might be c r e a t e d .  the best a l t e r n a t i v e , / win  It i s l i k e l y that the wider  d i s p a r i t y between the p a r t i e s i n the value c o n f l i c t , the d e s i r a b i l i t y of s t r i k i n g some compromise point This w i l l  s i d e or  / lose s i t u a t i o n ,  thereby m i n i m i z i n g l o s s e s . I t i s p o s s i b l e that a win  alternatives.  their  r e q u i r e the use  s i d e s are unsure of g a i n i n g t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s .  i t may  but  p a r t i c u l a r world view.  r a t h e r more prominent i s the s o c i e t a l value  the c o n f l i c t i n g p a r t i e s .  be  In f a c t , the comments  Values i n t h i s sense are not monetary values  It must be noted that value  It  actors  the  the greater  in valuation  e s p e c i a l l y be the case when the p a r t i e s  67  to the c o n f l i c t appear to be q u i t e evenly matched i n the power that they command i n the d e c i s i o n making process. Though the monetary element i s evident i n the s h o r t case examples that we conflict  have examined to t h i s p o i n t , the value cause -for  i s a l s o an i n t e g r a l p a r t .  The V a l h a l l a Wilderness  having c o n s i d e r a b l e cause f o r c o n f l i c t merit of park or f o r e s t  land uses may  Park,  i n the r e l a t i v e economic be a case where the  proponents of mineral values have a l e s s e r impact.  In such  a  s i t u a t i o n , the value nature of the parks / mines c o n f l i c t may more apparent. for  be  Many l o c a l r e s i d e n t s value the V a l h a l l a area  i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as w i l d e r n e s s and f o r the  nature that i t c o n t r i b u t e s to l i v i n g same time r e s i d e n t s who  tranquil  i n the community.  At  the  have mineral c l a i m s i n the area argue  that those same v a l u e s touted by park proponents w i l l d i s t u r b e d by mineral development a c t i v i t i e s .  The  not  be  p a r t i e s diverge  as to the extent that the V a l h a l l a area must remain p r i s t i n e to provide the w i l d e r n e s s q u a l i t i e s that each value h i g h l y . Value c o n f l i c t  r e s o l u t i o n r e q u i r e s measures to f a c i l i t a t e  an a p p r e c i a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e v a l u e s by both p a r t i e s . such a c t i o n , an understanding lead to some form of u n i t y . divergence  of the opposing Though v a l u e s may  along a spectrum may  Through  value p o s i t i o n  may  not converge, the  be c o n s i d e r a b l y narrowed  such  that a p p r o p r i a t e t r a d e - o f f s are p o s s i b l e . Interest C o n f l i c t  Dialogue  I n t e r e s t c o n f l i c t d e s c r i b e s disagreement over  the  d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o s t s and b e n e f i t s a s s o c i a t e d with the use of scarce resources.  In s h o r t , the c o n f l i c t  68  i s over who  should  pay.  An  interest conflict  those of another.  p i t s the i n t e r e s t s of one party  Such a c o n f l i c t  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d when the  i n t e r e s t s of one party, i f advanced, w i l l on those of another party.  the  i n t e r e s t type c o n f l i c t  have a negative  The i n t e r e s t c o n f l i c t  have a p o t e n t i a l Pareto optimal  against  option.  impact  does not  In the case of land use  i s one of a zero-sum concept, where  the advances of one s i d e i n the r e s o l u t i o n w i l l be e q u a l l y matched by the l o s s e s of the other.  However, i n many cases of  i n t e r e s t c o n f l i c t , one p a r t y ' s gain i s not equal party's loss. one  will  i s summarized by R a i f f a  (1982) as  where there are no net gains t o be found. I n t e r e s t type  conflict The  The s i t u a t i o n  t o the other  i s u s u a l l y and most e a s i l y r e f l e c t e d  i n a monetary form.  d e c i s i o n to be made i n r e s o l v i n g an i n t e r e s t c o n f l i c t pay the c o s t s and who w i l l  A dialogue e x e m p l i f y i n g  i s who  reap the b e n e f i t s of any a c t i o n .  t h i s type of c o n f l i c t could proceed  thus:  M  We have e s t a b l i s h e d and r e g i s t e r e d a c l a i m t o the m i n e r a l s held under these lands.  P  Your c o n t i n u i n g with t h i s p r o j e c t w i l l n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s we want to preserve.  li  Our f i n a n c i a l backers have invested a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of money and our g e o l o g i s t s have t o i l e d long hours toward advancing t h i s p r o j e c t .  P  We b e l i e v e t h i s p o t e n t i a l park land i s of great r e c r e a t i o n a l value.  M  We can not a f f o r d t o abandon t h i s p r o j e c t without return.  P  The great economic e f f e c t s , through the investment m u l t i p l i e r , of r e c r e a t i o n land and a s s o c i a t e d f a c i l i t i e s must be recognized, preserved and developed.  ti  Not only have we spent a c o n s i d e r a b l e sum on the development of t h i s property a l r e a d y , but the m i n e r a l s i n the ground w i l l c o n t r i b u t e g r e a t l y t o the i n v e s t o r s r e t u r n i f they are recovered. 69  j e o p a r d i z e the  some  T h i s d i a l o g u e i l l u s t r a t e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l i n t e r e s t type c o n f l i c t . The  nature o-f the  r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s promoted by  the  park proponent are d e c i d e d l y i n c o n f l i c t with the p r i v a t e and industrial  i n t e r e s t s of the mineral development proponent.  The  g a i n of e i t h e r party i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n w i l l be d e c i d e d l y at the expense of the o t h e r ' s l o s s . c o n t i n u e s to financial will  The mineral development proponent  s t r e s s that h i s i n t e r e s t s  backers must be met.  and  those of h i s  R e s o l u t i o n of such a c o n f l i c t  turn on which party i s w i l l i n g to o f f e r or accept some  compensation in monetary or other terms f o r the l o s s of o p p o r t u n i t y a s s o c i a t e d with the land under any option.  Once one  compensation and  p r e f e r r e d use  party or the other has decided the other has agreed  to o f f e r some  to t h i s form of  the n e g o t i a t i o n s or b a r g a i n i n g can be concentrated of money or land or r e s o u r c e s that w i l l i n t e r e s t s to be r e l i n q u i s h e d .  on the amount  be necessary f o r  Though t h i s appears to be  many i n t e r e s t c o n f l i c t s are not r e s o l v e d . i s never made.  The  A key to t h i s lack of success  i s o f t e n that there the  expressed.  P r e c i s e l y t h i s s i t u a t i o n has occurred already.  simple,  r e q u i r e d trade o f f  i s no market or other forum i n which the i n t e r e s t s of d i v e r g e n t p a r t i e s can be  resolution,  in B r i t i s h  Columbia  In the Tener case, as the Wells Gray P r o v i n c i a l  Park  s i t u a t i o n has come to be known, both the mineral c l a i m holder the parks m i n i s t r y are committed to r e t a i n i n g t h e i r land.  interest in  Legal arguments on both s i d e s i n the c o u r t s of both  province and  the Supreme Court of Canada over a number of  focus on the compensation i s s u e .  70  The  question asked  and  the years  the c o u r t i s  whether the government must compensate Tener's l o s s of i n t e r e s t in land and m i n e r a l s .  A f t e r an prolonged hearing,  a r u l i n g in  Tener's -favour has -forced the government to compensate, or allow the -further development o-f the mineral di-f-ficulty o-f determining  claims  an a p p r o p r i a t e  i n question.  amount and perceived  high c o s t s o-f compensation have -forced an exception the  l e g i s l a t i o n p r o h i b i t i n g mineral Behavioral  The  to be made i n  e x p l o r a t i o n i n C l a s s A parks.  Con-flict Dialogue  There are a m u l t i p l i c i t y o-f ways i n which c o n f l i c t can become a b e h a v i o r a l divergent  type.  Behavioral  c o n - f l i c t goes beyond  c o g n i t i o n s , values or i n t e r e s t s o-f the p a r t i e s , t o some  non-rational  or non-substantive  s t a r t i n g point.  A breakdown i n  the o b j e c t i v i t y and c l a r i t y o-f d i s c u s s i o n s may occur.  Chie-f  f a c t o r s i n the c o n f l i c t might i n c l u d e the p e r s o n a l i t i e s , p h y s i c a l circumstances, individual other  or q u a l i t y of communications.  Incompatible  p e r s o n a l i t i e s may stymie c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n when  types of c o n f l i c t  have been overcome.  have not y e t been addressed, or seem t o  The c o n f l i c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n may occur  (as i s  t h i s w r i t e r ' s experience) when each i s t r y i n g to cope with difficult  p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , such as inclement  meeting on the a c t u a l land irrational final  i n question.  comments or behavior.  approval  weather  while  T h i s may lead to  In the same manner, moving  of a r e s o l u t i o n t o an u n f a m i l i a r s e t t i n g may spark  a n x i e t i e s f o r those i n c o n f l i c t . through media or second hand  Communications , e s p e c i a l l y  (perhaps u n r e l i a b l e ) sources may  further contribute to a non-rational  exchange by causing  messages t o be misunderstood. The f o l l o w i n g d i a l o g u e some of the parameters that could t y p i f y a b e h a v i o r a l  71  intended  embodies conflict:  li  I am c e r t a i n l y pleased that we have come t o a reasonable arrangement over our - f i r s t p o i n t s o-f c o n - f l i c t and that we can c l o s e our r e s o l v e here at the l e g i s l a t u r e with the m i n i s t e r s ' a p p r o v a l .  P  Yes, - f i n a l l y park land i s g e t t i n g the r e c o g n i t i o n i t has long deserved.  li  Well, would you l i k e the whole province to be a park?  P  You know the more you say t h i n g s l i k e t h a t , the more uneasy I become with t h i s agreement.  li  The -feeling i s mutual, b e l i e v e me.  P  I knew from the s t a r t that we couldn't t r u s t you miners to n e g o t i a t e i n good f a i t h . You have probably been cooking up some hidden agenda a l l along.  li  So now you are lumping me i n with a l l miners as untrustworthy and devious. Perhaps your- own m o t i v a t i o n s should be examined.  P  The mere thought of a devoted e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t compromising h i s v a l u e s t o accommodate an i n d u s t r i a l development i s preposterous. I w i l l not stand here and l i s t e n to these personal a f f r o n t s .  li  I can assume then that we do not have an agreement after a l l this. I t c e r t a i n l y seemed too good t o l a s t .  Wehr (1979a) would d e s c r i b e t h i s c o n f l i c t d i a l o g u e as nonrealistic. concerns Rather  or a l l e g a t i o n s of the other  in a stereotypical  manner.  than the i n d i v i d u a l m e r i t s of arguments and concerns  addressed and  We can see that each proponent i s r e a c t i n g t o the  being  by the a c t o r s i n the d i a l o g u e , the n o t i o n s and f e a r s  long e s t a b l i s h e d s t e r e o t y p e s of both miner and  e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t have been adopted by the a c t o r s i n the c o n f l i c t . Perhaps the i n d i v i d u a l s are r e a c t i n g t o the u n d e r l y i n g s t r e s s of the c o n f l i c t s that they have already agreed the u n f a m i l i a r s i t u a t i o n of being  to resolve.  i n the p o l i t i c a l  s p o t l i g h t of  the government m i n i s t e r s i s c o n t r i b u t i n g to the s t r e s s .  72  Perhaps  A  s c e n a r i o such as t h i s may previous  contact  been p r o t r a c t e d  occur where there has been  or where the c o n f l i c t or f r u s t r a t i n g ,  little  r e s o l u t i o n process  l e a d i n g to a l o s s of  has  rationality  in the exchange. Though i n our e x p l a n a t i o n  of the previous  three types of  c o n f l i c t an example from the short case examinations has h i g h l i g h t e d , I have not  in the e i g h t parks / mines c o n f l i c t s ,  i d e n t i f i e d behavioral  conflict.  part to the s u r f i c i a l  extent  i n v e s t i g a t e d to t h i s p o i n t . discussion  non-rational  Resolution  and  r e v e a l more i n d i c a t i o n s of  c o n f l i c t may  best be  in the processes that avoid By breaking  conducted  the  stumbling  down the  p o t e n t i a l p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s to allow  c o n f l i c t may  i s s u e s and  be avoided.  conducive to p r o d u c t i v e  discussion  the views of the Further,  e s t a b l i s h s i t u a t i o n s , c o n d i t i o n s and  will  and  conflict.  c l e a r understanding of the behavioral  parties  meeting p l a c e s that  i s important.  people problems apart  Ury  from the other  73  that  conflict symbolic  (1981), that address problems in the  to  are  Activities  i n c l u d e measures such as understanding emotions or u s i n g suggested by F i s h e r and  a  c a r e f u l planning  modify the f a c t o r s that c o n t r i b u t e to behavior  gestures,  in  that the cases have been  that have been suggested.  stereotypes  be due  More i n depth research  of b e h a v i o r a l  through a c t i v i t i e s blocks  T h i s d e f i c i e n c y may  in the next chapter may  behavioral,  been  the  conflict.  An a p p r e c i a t i o n of the l i t i g a t i o n model and of c o n f l i c t  claimed  i d e n t i f i e d weaknesses of  advantages of the b a r g a i n i n g  bargaining  Both  the  litigation  are r e s o l u t i o n processes that are b a s i c s upon  which innovation typology  model  r e s o l u t i o n , c o n t r i b u t e s to our understanding of  t h e o r e t i c a l concepts that underpin t h i s t h e s i s . and  the  and  adaptation  can be e s t a b l i s h e d .  The  four  part  of c o n f l i c t e s t a b l i s h e s a communality of understanding  between the reader and  the researcher  in p r e p a r a t i o n  for  d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the Weils Gray P r o v i n c i a l Park model experience and bargaining  the C h i l k o Lake Wilderness  model experience to f o l l o w .  74  the  litigation  Proposal  CHAPTER  TWO  CASES WELLS  OF GRAY  CHILKO  PARKS  /  4  MINES  PROVINCIAL LAKE  PARK  75  CONFLICT:  PARK  AND  PROPOSAL  T h i s chapter mines c o n f l i c t .  will  examine more c l o s e l y two cases of parks /  T h i s component of the t h e s i s i s designed to  accomplish two g o a l s .  First,  I am endeavoring t o e s t a b l i s h the  chronology of s i g n i f i c a n t events i n the two cases chosen. Second, i n so d e s c r i b i n g the cases, the  l i t i g a t i o n and b a r g a i n i n g  learn the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of  processes  of d e c i s i o n making that  have been used i n attempts to r e s o l v e the parks / mines c o n f l i c t in B r i t i s h Columbia.  This w i l l  allow us, i n Chapter 5, to use  the c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n that have been e s t a b l i s h e d i n Chapter 3 i n a n a l y s i s and p r e p a r a t i o n framework provided established  of recommendations.  The  by phases of the d e c i s i o n making environment,  i n Chapter 2,  will  lead to an understanding of the  v a r i e t i e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and i n d i v i d u a l a c t o r r o l e s , and conflict  r e s o l u t i o n processes.  T h i s information  evaluate  the e x i s t i n g c o n f l i c t  resolution  In choosing Proposal,  i s r e q u i r e d to  processes.  the cases of Wells Gray Park and the C h i l k o Lake  I have unknowingly made a choice of what appears to be  becoming an i n t e r t w i n e d s t o r y of c o n f l i c t they develop.  r e s o l u t i o n processes as  (Further r a t i o n a l e f o r the s e l e c t i o n of the Wells  Gray and C h i l k o cases from those that have been d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 2 i s presented making environment w i l l been revealed  i n Appendix 3.)  Phases of the d e c i s i o n  form the framework f o r a n a l y s i s .  I t has  that the Wells Gray s i t u a t i o n i s now one t o be  learned from and avoided.  With at l e a s t 650 v a l i d mineral  claims  w i t h i n p r o v i n c i a l parks of B r i t i s h Columbia, the r a m i f i c a t i o n s of a p o s i t i v e r e s u l t f o r the c l a i m holder  76  are many f o r the e x i s t i n g  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o-f the parks / mines conf1ict.(Heycek,  1985)  S i m i l a r l y , the e a r l y components o-f the C h i l k o Lake case looked at as o b s o l e t e , and a new conflict April  resolution  28,  1985)  i s now  The  are  order model -for parks / mines  i n e v o l u t i o n . ( C o l l i n s , pers. comm.,  c u r r e n t d e c i s i o n making environment  and  c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n processes have grown from each of the phases that precedes  i t . Further evidence  / mines c o n f l i c t  of t h i s phasing of the  r e s o l u t i o n environment w i l l  parks  be e v i d e n t as the  f o l l o w i n g case s t u d i e s are examined w i t h i n the f o u r phase framework. of  I t i s to t h i s task that we  the case d e s c r i p t i o n s presented  now  turn.  Thus the order  below.  Wells_Snay_EnDiiinc.ial_Eank_C.ase Though the number of a c t o r s i n t h i s case are few, of  processes and  a c t i o n s taken by the p a r t i e s and  the number  the p r o t r a c t e d  nature of the c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n process are q u i t e complex.  A  d i g e s t of the case  of  i s presented  i n Appendix 4 as a chronology  events. Foundation Between 1934 the predecessor  and  1937,  Phase  a consortium  i n t i t l e of Mr.  of i n v e s t o r s , i n c l u d i n g  David Tener, r e c e i v e d  indefeasible t i t l e  to 16 Crown granted mineral c l a i m s on  the  lands that are now  included i n the northeast p o r t i o n of  Wells  Gray P r o v i n c i a l Park. provincial continued in,  In 1939,  government. The  the park was  p e r i o d 1938  designated by  to 1945  was  gradual growth i n both the number of, and  provincial  parks  ( B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980).  and Park Acts of the day,  a time of area i n c l u d e d  Under the Mineral  the h o l d e r s of these mineral  77  the  claims  were e n t i t l e d  to use the s u r f a c e o-f the c l a i m s to work and  the m i n e r a l s contained e n t i t l e m e n t was  in the subsurface.  As we  have seen,  However, as the environmental  contain.  R.S.B.C. 1979  v i r t u a l l y no  c. 309  The Park Act, 1965  i t was  under a park  At t h i s time Wells Gray P r o v i n c i a l Park was  t h e r e f o r e a permit  (B.C.),  s e c t i o n 9, as amended, p r o h i b i t e d  the development of any mineral c l a i m s except  park,  conflict.  movement became s t r o n g e r ,  r e s t r i c t i o n s would begin to appear.  permit.  to the  d u r i n g t h i s phase of the parks / mines  d e c i s i o n making environment, there was  c. 31 now  In a d d i t i o n ,  given to take and use a r i g h t of way  c l a i m s to e x t r a c t the m i n e r a l s they may  win  use  a class B  to allow development could be granted i f  not d e t r i m e n t a l to the r e c r e a t i o n values of the  park.  Tener had a p p l i e d f o r such permits as r e q u i r e d before f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n and development work could take p l a c e , however, these were never granted.  As time passed,  the r e s t r i c t i o n s on  development of mineral c l a i m s w i t h i n parks became more constraining.  Under the Mineral Act, R.S.B.C. i960, c. 244  R.S.B.C. 1979,  c. 259  s e c t i o n 7, as amended, c l a i m s such  Tener's could not be developed  except  as a u t h o r i z e d by  now  as  the  Lieutenant Governor in C o u n c i l . R e v o l u t i o n Phase In 1973,  in conformity with environmental  and  conservation  p l a t f o r m s of the newly e l e c t e d government, the Park Act  was  amended.  mineral  The  p o l i c y of the New  Democratic Party to ban  e x p l o r a t i o n from parks, r e f l e c t e d a change in the value s t r u c t u r e of the government toward the values of parks proponents and toward s t r e n g t h e n i n g the power of the Parks 78  Branch.(McNelly,  19^3)  E x e r p t s from" the statements o-f the then M i n i s t e r o-f  Resources, Bob W i l l i a m s read as -follows: "The govenment a l s o intends to b r i n g i n l e g i s l a t i o n t h i s s e s s i o n b r i n g i n g a l l p r o v i n c i a l parks under s t a t u t e . ... ...the -former S o c i a l C r e d i t government was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the g r e a t e s t r e t a r d a t i o n o-f park p r e s e r v a t i o n anywhere i n the world over the past 20 y e a r s . ... ... e x p l o i t a t i o n o-f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s i n parks i s almost / always d e t r i m e n t a l to r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e s . " (McNelly, 19S3) Wells Gray Park was changed Park.  T h i s higher d e s i g n a t i o n placed -further r e s t r i c t i o n s on  Tener's a b i l i t y issued  to develop h i s c l a i m s .  i n a c l a s s A park, i-f i t was  p r e s e r v a t i o n or maintenance park.  -from a c l a s s B to a c l a s s A  A use permit can only be  necessary -for the  o-f the r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e s o-f the  Upon r e f l e c t i o n , the 1973 a c t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l  government i n e f f e c t removed the r i g h t of development even though he s t i l l  from Tener,  held the mineral r i g h t s .  In 1973 Tener once again sought a park use permit. permission was given by the Parks Branch f o r h e l i c o p t e r  Written flights  i n t o and out of the c l a i m s f o r the purpose of that work. However, no park use permit was granted. p l e t h o r a of l e t t e r s ,  Tener engaged i n a  phone c a l l s and personal meetings with the  d i r e c t o r of the Parks Branch.  E x c e r p t s from two  l e t t e r s i n 1974  from the Parks Branch to Tener read i n part as f o l l o w s : June,  1974.  ... As you know, the c o n s t r u c t i o n of nine m i l e s of i n d u s t r i a l road access a c r o s s Park land to the Summit Claims i s i n c o n f l i c t with S e c t i o n 9 (b) of the Park Act. We have sought i n s t r u c t i o n s from the Government as to whether, i n view of t h i s c o n f l i c t , we should proceed with v a l u a t i o n a p p r a i s a l s through the Department of Mines with the i n t e n t i o n of n e g o t i a t i o n the purchase of these c l a i m s , or issue the necessary a u t h o r i z a t i o n s f o r you to conduct your o p e r a t i o n s i n 79  view of the f a c t that the mineral c l a i m s predate the C l a s s "A" Park. September,  1974.  A c t i o n towards r e s o l v i n g the question of p e r m i t t i n g you to proceed with the o p e r a t i o n of Mineral Claims (L5001 - L5016) i n Wells Gray Park should be concluded by the t h i r d week i n October i f not sooner. (Tener and Tener __ B., 1982) A park use permit was  not issued  the  Parks Branch was  stalling.  the  demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n was  i n 1974.  The r i s e  c o n t r o v e r s y over mining i n p r o v i n c i a l  I t appeared  that  i n environmentalism and  reflected parks.  in considerable  The New  Democratic  Party could not part from p o l i c i e s of park p r e s e r v a t i o n developed while i n o p p o s i t i o n . provincial  Though some mineral r i g h t s w i t h i n  parks were purchased from c l a i m h o l d e r s , by the  government, Tener's case d i d not a t t r a c t s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n to r e s o l v e the c o n f l i c t . permits were not granted i n 1975,  Annually requested, park use 1976 or 1977.  continued to be a d i f f i c u l t p o l i t i c a l Lambert s t a t e d procrastinated issue(Anon,  political  issue.  i n 1982 of the s i t u a t i o n ,  Mining i n parks  Mr. J u s t i c e  J.D.  "... the government  because mining i n parks was  a difficult  political  1982)." P r o s p e r i t y Phase  A r e t u r n of a pro-development  government i n 1976 d i d not  lessen the c o n f l i c t or change the p o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g mineral c l a i m s i n parks or the issue of mineral i n d u s t r y access to park land f o r e x p l o r a t i o n purposes. of  Economic growth i n a l l s e c t o r s  the economy was enjoyed by government, the mining i n d u s t r y and  c o n s e r v a t i o n and outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  interests.  Prosperous times  tended to reduce the i n t e n s i t y of c o n f l i c t as s a t i s f a c t i o n with  80  e x i s t i n g resource  a l l o c a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y on the mining s i d e o-f  the c o n - f l i c t , was the norm.  Such corn-fort and complacency i n  government  the -flux needed f o r i n i t i a t i o n o-f  would not provide  d e f i n i t i v e con-flict r e s o l u t i o n actions. In 1978 a l e t t e r , o-f which the f o l l o w i n g i s a p o r t i o n , sent  was  to Tener by the Parks Branch D i r e c t o r : ...the whole s u b j e c t of mineral c l a i m s i n P r o v i n c i a l Parks i s very complex and has been under i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e time. Under the present Parks Branch p o l i c y r e s p e c t i n g mineral c l a i m s , we r e g r e t to advise that no new e x p l o r a t i o n or development work may be a u t h o r i z e d w i t h i n a P r o v i n c i a l Park. Not withstanding the above, would you k i n d l y quote us an itemized q u i t c l a i m p r i c e , showing a comprehensive breakdown of expenditures i n c u r r e d r e s p e c t i n g the Summit Group of c l a i m s f o r our records and c o n s i d e r a t i o n . ( T e n e r and Tener __ B-» 1982) This  l e t t e r was taken by Tener as the d e n i a l of any f u r t h e r  opportunity  to e x p l o i t the mineral  s i g n a l s the end of u n s t r u c t u r e d  claims.  This  letter  also  negotiation c o n f l i c t resolution  process w i t h i n which Tener i s attempting to gain access to park land f o r mineral processes.  e x p l o r a t i o n through government  In t h i s communication,  the government  administrative  i s a l s o the f i r s t  a c t i o n of  toward compensation of the l o s s of a b i l i t y to  access the park land f o r mineral  exploration.  I t i s at t h i s  point that d i r e c t and s p e c i f i c n e g o t i a t i o n between the p a r t i e s could  have been begun.  initiated  a court  However, on advice  a c t i o n against  the crown, at t h i s point s t i l l  the Crown.  enjoying  from h i s lawyer, Tener I t now  seems that  the p r o s p e r i t y  phase  d e c i s i o n making environment, was not w i l l i n g to proceed s u b s t a n t i v e l y toward r e s o l u t i o n of the Tener c o n f l i c t . filed  The w r i t  by Tener o u t l i n i n g a c l a i m f o r compensation, s t a t e d the  f o l l o w i n g c o s t s and  expenditures: 81  - initial  a c q u i s i t i o n c o s t $100,000 p l u s  - present values of the h i s t o r i c a l approximately * 1.5 m i l l i o n ;  expenditures  - present value o-f l o s s o-f o p p o r t u n i t y $ 3 mi 11 i o n . Though the l o s s o-f o p p o r t u n i t y value may f l u c t u a t i o n s i n gold and s i l v e r metal indicated  It was  I r v i n e (1978) was  estimated  i n 1978  p r i c e s the  million.  Current  estimates  p r i c e s used to upwards of  (Tener, pers. comm., A p r i l  I t appears that the wide discrepancy between the  government o f f e r and documents may never  engineering  The M i n i s t e r of Mines d u r i n g t h i s same time p e r i o d  o f f e r e d a compensation of $100,000 1985).  The  that the t o t a l value, or q u i t c l a i m  could f l u c t u a t e depending on the metal  26,  figures  never brought i n t o q u e s t i o n .  p r i c e of the c l a i m c o u l d be * 5.2  * 12 m i l l i o n .  approximately  vary g r e a t l y with  i n the w r i t were never c h a l l e n g e d .  r e p o r t by W.T  interest;  the e x p e c t a t i o n s forwarded  be the main reason why  i n the court  direct negotiation  was  undertaken. The  second stage of the c o n f l i c t  r e s o l u t i o n process was  of a d j u d i c a t i o n i n the l i t i g a t i o n model.  I t i s the example of  the l i t i g a t i o n model that i s most important weaknesses and Pitted  i n demonstrating  possible strengths for c o n f l i c t  i n an a n t a g o n i s t i c framework, the two  c o n f l i c t were now  the  resolution.  p a r t i e s to the  asking an a d j u d i c a t o r to r u l e on the r i g h t of  Tener to compensation i n l i e u of access to the mineral that were held i n the Wells Gray P r o v i n c i a l  claims  Park.  A d i g e s t of the case arguments appears i n Tener and v. R.  that  (B.C.C.A.) March 2, 1982.  Tener  Further complete Supreme Court  of Canada documentation from both the a p p e l l a n t s and 82  respondents  has been made a v a i l a b l e to t h i s researcher by David Tener and h i s lawyer.  What i s important to t h i s d i s c u s s i o n are the sequence of  events that have been completed process.  in t h i s c o n f l i c t  resolution  Both the importance of the issue to each of the p a r t i e s  and the p r o l o n g i n g nature of l i t i g a t i o n Recession The Tener case was f i r s t Supreme Court i n 1980, initiated.  are c l e a r l y  demonstrated.  Phase  heard before the B r i t i s h  two y e a r s a f t e r the l e g a l a c t i o n  Columbia was  In t h i s a c t i o n the j u s t i c e r e j e c t e d Tener's c l a i m f o r  compensation.  Tener was not s a t i s f i e d .  In times of  economic  s t r e s s , both Tener and the government were w i l l i n g to pursue t h i s i s s u e beyond  the o r i g i n a l  court a c t i o n .  lead time r e q u i r e d f o r development cost of c o n f l i c t  With the c o n s i d e r a b l e  of mineral r e s o u r c e s , and the  r e s o l u t i o n , p o t e n t i a l parks / mines c o n f l i c t s  were avoided d u r i n g the p r o s p e r i t y phase of the d e c i s i o n making environment  i n favour of known and  l e s s encumbered d e p o s i t s .  It  was the o p i n i o n of Tener's lawyer that the j u s t i c e had not understood the arguments  of the p l a i n t i f f  and  therefore  recommended a p p e a l i n g the r u l i n g to the B r i t i s h Columbia Court of Appeals.(Martin,  1983)  T h i s a c t i o n was s t a r t e d  Court of Appeals d e c i s i o n March 2, 1982.  immediately.  The  i n favour of Tener was brought down on  F o l l o w i n g the r u l i n g , Tener was to meet with the  government to d i s c u s s the amount of compensation due.  If the two  p a r t i e s could not agree on the amount, the d e c i s i o n would before binding a r b i t r a t i o n  (Anon.,  No meeting took place however.  go  1982). The Crown r e j e c t e d the  d e c i s i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia Court of Appeal and r a i s e d the  83  case be-fore the Supreme Court o-f Canada.  At the end o-f December  1982 the documents of the c o n f l i c t i n g p a r t i e s were f i l e d highest c o u r t . ( f i . B r i t i s h Columbia  i n Right of B r i t i s h Columbia b)  a; B.  i n the  i n Right of  The case was not heard to completion i n May  1983 as Tener had expected at that time.  Due t o the withdrawal  of one of the Supreme Court J u s t i c e s because  of i l l n e s s ,  was delayed and had t o be heard again b e f o r e a new  the case  assembly.  T h i s odd turn of events f u r t h e r c o n t r i b u t e d to the delay and a l s o increased the c o s t of l e g a l f e e s t o both of the c o n f l i c t i n g parties.  One more delay b e f e l l  throughout  the l e g a l system.  the passage of t h i s case  Once the c o u r t had heard the f i r s t  arguments of the p a r t i e s , they requested f u r t h e r  submissions  based on the l e g a l arguments that had been brought forward lower c o u r t .  These were f i n a l l y  in Right of B r i t i s h Columbia d;  (B.  c; (B.  i n Right of B r i t i s h Columbia  U n t i l November attempt  presented i n November i n Right of B r i t i s h  i n the  1984.(B. Columbia  e)  1984, four years had passed  i n the j u d i c i a l  at r e s o l v i n g the case between Tener and the Crown.  Reasons of the Supreme Court of Canada, i n Tener"s favour, were handed down May 9, 1985.(Supreme Court of Canada, 1985) 15 years had passed s i n c e the c o n f l i c t been 45 years s i n c e the p o t e n t i a l  had become a c t i v e .  At l e a s t I t has  land use c o n f l i c t was c r e a t e d  by the d e s i g n a t i o n of Wells Gray P r o v i n c i a l Park without the removal  of i n d i v i d u a l  r i g h t s to minerals within  Each of the p a r t i e s to the c o n f l i c t c o n s i d e r a b l e f i n a n c i a l burden  i t s boundaries.  has had t o shoulder a  to mount h i s case i n the c o u r t s .  David Tener alone has spent some * 300,000 i n l e g a l f e e s and other expenses(Tener,  pers.comm., A p r i l  84  1985).  Such a f i n a n c i a l  burden has caused c o n s i d e r a b l e business.  l o s s e s -for both he and h i s  Added c o s t s have been born -for l e g a l -fees by the  p r o v i n c i a l government. c o s t s o-f j u d i c i a l  Further,  l o s s e s o-f t a x a t i o n revenue and  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n combined with those o-f  l e g i s l a t i v e review, c o n t r i b u t e t o a s i g n i f i c a n t expense i n c u r r e d in the Wells Gray P r o v i n c i a l Park  litigation.  Further a c t i o n toward the a l l e v i a t i o n of t h i s case has been a c h o i c e between two o p t i o n s .  E i t h e r the p r o v i n c i a l  government  can compensate Tener as i s s e t by the c o u r t , or the group of mineral  c l a i m s can be d e c l a r e d a r e c r e a t i o n area w i t h i n the  provincial  park, t h e r e f o r e a l l o w i n g f o r mineral  development t o continue.  The second o p t i o n , which allows Tener  access t o the park f o r the purpose of mineral been chosen.  Amendments t o e x i s t i n g  e x p l o r a t i o n , has  l e g i s l a t i o n have been  passed that downgrade the area of the mineral r e c r e a t i o n area.  e x p l o r a t i o n and  claims to a  The province can now allow development.  As the  c u r r e n t r e c e s s i o n a r y phase of the p r o v i n c e ' s economy continues i t i s u n l i k e l y that the compensation o p t i o n w i l l Though m a i n t a i n i n g d e s i r a b l e , planners l i k e l y choice  be e x e r c i s e d .  the park i n an u n f e t t e r e d s t a t e would be recognize  that the lower c o s t o p t i o n  (Thompson, pers. comm., June 18 1985).  i s the  However,  the question of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o s t s t o be born by the M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Housing and the M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and Pertroleum  Resources f o r m a i n t a i n i n g  c o n f l i c t have not been addressed. advocates, the issue of mineral not,  t h i s r e s o l u t i o n of the  In the o p i n i o n of many  claims  in provincial  parks has  i n t h i s case, been r e s o l v e d i n a d e s i r a b l e f a s h i o n . (Bohn,  1985b; Bohn, 1985c; C o l l i n s , pers. comm., A p r i l  85  28,  1985;  McArthur, pers. comm., May 1, 1985) The l i t i g a t i o n process -found in t h i s case has been judged  by many not t o be a d e s i r a b l e  alternative  i t s e t s -for other  i n the precedent  cases.(Tenner, May  pers. comm., A p r i l  similar  26, 1985; R a t e l , pers. comm.,  1, 19855 Heyck, 1985) _hilkD_L_k___ild__n_s__Eank_E_DRQ_al As  events  with  the previous case, a d i g e s t o-f the chronology  i n the C h i l k o Lake case i s given i n Appendix 5.  long s t a n d i n g s t a t u s o-f the mining  o-f  Both the  i n d u s t r y i n the C h i l k o area  and the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of u n s t r u c t u r e d b a r g a i n i n g c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n processes a p p l i e d t o the s i t u a t i o n w i l l be observed. The case  i l l u s t r a t e s the use of the b a r g a i n i n g model i n a  s i t u a t i o n where park use designated  i n t e r e s t s are attempting t o have park  i n an area where mineral  land  i n t e r e s t s a r e of long  standing. Foundation The  Phase  lands surrounding C h i l k o and Taseko Lake, of the  C h i l c o t i n r e g i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia, have long been known as areas of mineral a c t i v i t y .  Prospectors f i r s t  explored the C h i l k o  area d u r i n g the e a r l y 1900*s with the f i r s t mineral d i s c o v e r i e s in  1910.  In the 1930's, mineral d e p o s i t s had been  identified  that held s u b s t a n t i a l gold v a l u e s .  Some l i m i t e d development work  produced  interest  time.  samples enough t o maintain  i n the area f o r some  During the 1940's mineral development a c t i v i t y increased  c o n s i d e r a b l y as e x t e n s i v e e x p l o r a t i o n was conducted and  t u n n e l i n g of at l e a s t one prospect.(Farrow,  recognized p o t e n t i a l of the area was r e f l e c t e d  86  by d r i l l i n g  1978) The i n the maintenance  o-f the mineral c l a i m s staked  i n more prosperous  times.  Although  the mineral e x p l o r a t i o n i n t h i s area i s of long s t a n d i n g , only modest l e v e l s of i n t e r e s t and The c o n f l i c t between mineral  importance have been recognized. i n t e r e s t s and  outdoor r e c r e a t i o n  i n t e r e s t s i n the C h i l k o area has not been recognized during the first  d e c i s i o n making environment phase.  The  foundation  i s now  set to introduce the elements of land use c o n f l i c t that w i l l become the focus of the subsequent  analysis.  R e v o l u t i o n Phase Beginning  i n 1973  the Parks Branch of the Department of  R e c r e a t i o n and Conservation conducted identifying provincial  landscapes  s t u d i e s with a view to  and environments s u i t a b l e f o r a  park d e s i g n a t i o n i n the area known as the C h i l c o t i n .  These s t u d i e s were in response  to a proposal by the Vancouver  Natural H i s t o r y S o c i e t y f o r a l a r g e w i l d e r n e s s park i n the Tchaikazan designed  V a l l e y area.  However, the Parks Branch s t u d i e s were  to g i v e a broader  park establishment.  framework f o r a survey of areas f o r  S t u d i e s conducted  i n 1974  f l a g g e d the high  q u a l i t y of the C h i l c o t i n f o r w i l d e r n e s s r e c r e a t i o n . ( C h i l c o t i n Wilderness  Park Study Committee, 1976)  A C h i l c o t i n park i s of  i n t e r e s t to the Parks Branch as there i s no land designated f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n between Tweedsmuir Park i n the north and  Garibaldi  Park i n the south along the Coast mountains r e p r e s e n t i n g the t r a n s i t i o n between the moist  C o a s t a l c l i m a t e and  the dry  Interior  Plateau. With an o b j e c t i v e of r e p r e s e n t i n g a l l n a t u r a l physiographic r e g i o n s of the p r o v i n c e i n the parks system, f u r t h e r s t u d i e s of three areas  i n the C h i l c o t i n were made f o r comparative 87  purposes  in 1975.  I t was  c a r r i e d on  at the end o-f these  Parks Branch s t u d i e s ,  i n a d e c i s i o n making environment encouraging  planning,  that the - f i r s t p r e l i m i n a r y p e r s p e c t i v e o-f p o s s i b l e resource c o n f l i c t s was  sought.  To achieve t h i s , an inter-agency a n a l y s i s  of resource v a l u e s was basis.  I t was  establishment  conducted,  but again on a p r e l i m i n a r y  e v i d e n t that the Parks branch  groups had developed  and  public interest  c o n s i d e r a b l e momentum i n proposing  of a park,  Initial  the  however, l i t t l e c o n s u l t a t i o n had been  undertaken with the other resource users having an the area.  i n t e r e s t in  r e a c t i o n to the Parks Branch s t u d i e s of  by the G e o l o g i c a l Branch of the Department of Mines was c o n s i d e r a b l e concern of  use  f o r the the s i z e of the proposed  land from mineral e x p l o r a t i o n and development and  1975  one  of  withdrawal the  impact  that park d e s i g n a t i o n would have on the e x i s t i n g and f u t u r e investment  of the mining  i n d u s t r y i n the C h i l c o t i n  (McArthur,  pers. comm., May  1 1985).  area  Other competing  resource  u s e r s had some r e s e r v a t i o n s , though these were seen to be minimal in comparison. In 1975,  with a mandate to supply research and  information  s e r v i c e s to the Environment and Land Use Committee of P r o v i n c i a l Cabinet, the Environment and Land Use Secretariate initiated  to the formal  L i l l o o e t Regional  D i s t r i c t f o r establishment  in the southern C h i l c o t i n  all  Committee  an inter-agency C h i l c o t i n Wilderness  Study i n response  1976).  the  Park  request of the Squamish of a w i l d e r n e s s park  ( C h i l c o t i n Wilderness  Park Committee,  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on the inter-agency committee included  n a t u r a l resource and  government.  land use agencies of the  provincial  In a d d i t i o n , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s were r e c e i v e d from the 88  Western Guides and B.C.  and  O u t f i t t e r s , W i l l i a m s Lake Indian C o u n c i l , the  Yukon Chamber of Mines and  C o u n c i l of B r i t i s h Columbia.  the Outdoor  Recreation  These non-governmental groups acted  in an a d v i s o r y r o l e r a t h e r than as d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a n t s . major goal of the 1975 inventory.  - 76 study was  v a l u e s were recognized The  to conduct a resource  A l l of the areas being considered  high v a l u e s of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n .  localized  f o r park e x h i b i t e d  S i m i l a r l y , mineral  in a l l three areas  resource  considered.  p a t t e r n of mineral c l a i m s w i t h i n the C h i l k o  Lake component of the C h i l c o t i n Park Study area, with the s p e c t a c u l a r s c e n i c and  in  combination  boating a t t r a c t i o n s indicated  that the C h i l k o Lake component would be the most l i k e l y f o r a C l a s s A Park. i n t e r e s t s and  The  However, the mining v a l u e s ,  candidate  hydroelectrical  concerns of the n a t i v e Indians posed problems in  d e f i n i n g the park proposal  boundaries.  The R e v o l u t i o n Phase of the d e c i s i o n making environment i n which the C h i l k o Lake case developed activity.  The  of environmental  was  one  a g i t a t i o n of the Foundation i s s u e s , was  of c o n s i d e r a b l e  Phase, with the  d r a m a t i c a l l y transformed  d e c i s i o n making arena by the change in government. activity  rise  to the  T h i s phase of  toward the r e s o l u t i o n of the C h i l k o Lake parks  / mines  c o n f l i c t would not be s u s t a i n e d however. P r o s p e r i t y Phase At l e a s t three major mineral  e x p l o r a t i o n p r o j e c t s were to  r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n d u r i n g t h i s time. ran a trend toward reduced Mineral  With i n d u s t r i a l p r o s p e r i t y  s t r e s s in the parks  / mines c o n f l i c t .  i n d u s t r y i n t e r e s t s were in a s u f f i c i e n t l y  89  prosperous  p o s i t i o n that - f l e x i b i l i t y a-f-forded.  i n d e c i s i o n investment making could be  This s e c u r i t y also led to l i t t l e  proposals  -for park land d e s i g n a t i o n .  •for park land d e s i g n a t i o n  Only with  There was l i t t l e  pressure  though, while a l l s e c t o r s o-f the  economy were able t o prosper regimen.  r e s i s t a n c e toward  under the e x i s t i n g a l l o c a t i o n  the coming downturn i n the economy would  s t r e s s be placed on the government t o make d e c i s i o n s that would assure  the a l l o c a t i o n of lands to a l l i n d u s t r i e s and i n t e r e s t s  that depended on the land f o r maintenance.  Only one P r o s p e r i t y  Phase i n i t i a t i v e would have b e a r i n g on the d e c i s i o n making process  used i n the C h i l k o case.  The Deferred  Area Plan was  i n i t i a t e d by the M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s and was i n 1981 used t o continue  d i s c u s s i o n s of M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Housing  proposals. Recession Following  Phase  the 1978 r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the f o r e s t s  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia government, the M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s s e t about a c o n s o l i d a t i o n of i t s f o r e s t land management plans  i n the province.  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of d i v e r g e n t  A part of t h i s process  and incompatible  resource  Approximately 30 of these areas were recognized Deferred  Planning  Areas.  Deferred  land uses.  and designated  Area Planning  the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s of the l i n e agencies.  was the  was conducted by  Though g e n e r a l l y l e d  by the M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s , where r e c r e a t i o n resources prime concern i t was l e d by the Parks and Outdoor  were of  Recreation  Branch of the M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Housing(Thompson, pers. comm., June 18, 1985) .  The C h i l k o case i s the most  prominent among them.(Federation of Mountain Clubs of B r i t i s h 90  as  Columbia, undated)  The s t r u c t u r e o-f these committees was  on the o r g a n i z a t i o n o-f the Regional These committees were designed  Resource Management Committees.  as a forum f o r the r e g i o n a l  managers of the agencies to r e g u l a r i z e d i r e c t concerning  based  communications  resource a l l o c a t i o n and management d i s p u t e s .  In February recognized.  The  1981,  the C h i l k o Lake Deferred Planning Area  initial  was  c o n f l i c t s that were recognized i n v o l v e d  the a l l o c a t i o n of f o r e s t , a g r i c u l t u r a l , and g r a z i n g r i g h t s the d e s i g n a t i o n of w i l d l i f e management areas. the planning program d i d not  and  The c r i t e r i a f o r  i n c l u d e any mention of  the  s i g n i f i c a n t mines / parks c o n f l i c t that had been i d e n t i f i e d i n the C h i l c o t i n Wilderness  Study  ( B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982).  f o r the r e s o l u t i o n of the parks / f o r e s t r y c o n f l i c t case were q u i c k l y o u t l i n e d as the process began.  Options  i n the C h i l k o  By e x c l u d i n g a  northern p o r t i o n of the d e f e r r e d area from park d e s i g n a t i o n and i n c l u d i n g i t i n p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t , the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of rangeland  g r a z i n g could be continued by the M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s .  L i k e w i s e , the management of lands f o r w i l d l i f e could accommodated by the establishment  of a s p e c i a l  management area i n the area that had been In combination  be  wildlife  excluded.  with the downturn i n the economic c o n d i t i o n s  has been the continued  u n c e r t a i n t y over the r i g h t s of the mineral  i n d u s t r y to work mineral c l a i m s that are held w i t h i n a proposed w i l d e r n e s s park.  At l e a s t one of the three major e x p l o r a t i o n  e f f o r t s i n the C h i l k o area was u n s e t t l e d d e c i s i o n making and pers. comm., May  8,  1985).  h a l t e d as a r e s u l t of risk taking  this  environment(Stevenson,  A l l of t h i s a c t i v i t y served  heighten the s e n s i t i v i t y of the mineral 91  i n d u s t r y toward  to  a l i e n a t i o n s o-f lands a v a i l a b l e -for mineral development.  As a  consequence, the p r o p o s a l s by the M i n i s t r y o-f Lands, Parks  and  Housing -for a w i l d e r n e s s park i n the C h i l c o t i n r e g i o n were met with c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s i s t a n c e -from the mining  i n d u s t r y and  the  M i n i s t r y o-f Energy, Mines and Mineral Resources a c t i n g both resource steward  and  The Recession  as  advocate.  Phase d e c i s i o n making environment caused  major change i n the r e a c t i o n of the mineral proponents toward land use d e c i s i o n s .  i n d u s t r y and  Each of the  a  park  provincial  l i n e agencies moved to c o n s o l i d a t e t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e holds on crown lands.  S i m i l a r l y , as v a l u a b l e resources were perceived to  become s c a r c e , the mineral  i n d u s t r y and  the park proponents each  became more a c t i v e . The G e o l o g i c a l Branch of the M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and Petroleum  Resources had done l i t t l e study toward  developing  i n v e n t o r i e s or estimates of mineral resources p o t e n t i a l C h i l k o area.  To t h i s end,  help formulate  a study was  prepared  i n J u l y 1982  to  the mineral resources p o r t i o n of the Deferred  Planning resources i n v e n t o r y . ( N o r t h c o t e , 1982) contributed  i n the  to the s p e c i f i c  T h i s study a l s o  i n f o r m a t i o n necessary  f o r the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i s s u e s f o r the C h i l k o Area. R e a l i z i n g that i t had with other resource  not developed  l i n e agencies,  a l e v e l of  understanding  the Resource Data and A n a l y s i s  s e c t i o n of the G e o l o g i c a l Branch at the M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and Petroleum November 5 - 7 ,  Resources conducted 1982.  m i n i s t r i e s concerned  a Land Use Review Seminar  These meetings were attended with  land use  by al1  i n the p r o v i n c e .  During  d i s c u s s i o n s , the i s s u e of communication between the  parties  92  the  involved was r a i s e d  i n a number o-f c o n t e x t s .  Comparison o-f data  on v a r i o u s resource i n t e r e s t s with the view t o improving the inter ministerial  referral  of p r o j e c t plans and t o b e t t e r  c o o r d i n a t e the e x i s t i n g planning processes, was i d e n t i f i e d as a goal.  Of highest p r i o r i t y during the seminar was the  r e l a t i o n s h i p of mineral  i n t e r e s t s t o the advocates  r e c r e a t i o n areas.(Farrow, was  addressed  of parks and  1982) Each of these c o n f l i c t  s p e c i f i c a l l y with an understanding  areas  that an  agreement had t o be achieved between the M i n i s t r y of Lands,  Parks  and Housing and the M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources.  (Bain, pers. comm., Nov. 8, 1982)  A f t e r the Land Use Seminar, the G e o l o g i c a l Branch was able to prepare a p o l i c y paper o u t l i n i n g a mineral management p e r s p e c t i v e f o r w i l d e r n e s s  resources  l e g i s l a t i o n and w i l d e r n e s s  management.(British Columbia, 1983; Schmit, pers. comm., March 13, 1984) P u b l i c meetings were held i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the Deferred Area Planning Process.  Each of these was held at A l e x i s Creek,  the c l o s e s t settlement t o the proposed park. in October 1981 and March 1982.  Meetings were held  The purpose of the p u b l i c  p a r t i c i p a t i o n program was t h r e e f o l d .  First  the Deferred  P l a n n i n g process and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s were e x p l a i n e d .  Area  Second,  the p u b l i c ' s knowledge was sought as a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the planning.  Finally,  a f t e r d r a f t a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r management of  the Deferred Planning Area had been formulated,  a request was  made f o r r e a c t i o n s and p r e f e r e n c e s t o be expressed.  The conduct  of these meetings was well organized and the r e a c t i o n of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c o n t r i b u t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n was h e l p f u l 93  i n the  reported  outcome.  processes,  However, as with many p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n  the r a t e o-f p a r t i c i p a t i o n d i s s i p a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  at  each stage o-f the program as p a r t i e s with l e s s e r concerns -fell the wayside l e a v i n g the primary resource  u s e r s and  by  lobby groups  to contend the -future o-f the C h i l k o Lake Wilderness Park Proposal. The  p a r t i c i p a n t s in the Deferred  C h i l k o Lake represented  Area Planning  a l l those i n t e r e s t s that had p a r t i c i p a t e d  in the C h i l c o t i n Wilderness Park Study seven years Though s p e c i f i c a l t e r n a t i v e land use and  a much more narrowly defined  the second process, at that time.  The  very  plans had  proposal  had  s i m i l a r i s s u e s had  parties representing  C h i l k o area remained  program f o r  before.  been developed, been addressed in  been brought forward  mining i n t e r e s t s in the  in a s i g n i f i c a n t divergence with  the  remainder of the p a r t i c i p a n t s in the p u b l i c involvement component of the planning that had  process.  Of  the  been proposed, the f i r s t  land use management a l t e r n a t i v e s entailed administration  C h i l k o Lakes Area as a P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t e x p l o r a t i o n and  thus a l l o w i n g  development to continue unimpeded.  management o p t i o n was  The  This  The  half  second a l t e r n a t i v e  would p r e s c r i b e the management of C h i l k o Lake resources Area d e s i g n a t i o n .  the  mineral  supported by the mining i n t e r e s t s and  of the area r e s i d e n t s that p a r t i c i p a t e d .  Park or Recreation  of  under a  remaining m a j o r i t y  p a r t i c i p a n t s in the process supported the park o p t i o n .  It  of was  c l e a r however, that the C h i l k o Lake Park management a l t e r n a t i v e would meet major d i s s e n t from the mining i n d u s t r y and M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and Columbia, 1983)  Petroleum  Resources.(British  However s u c c e s s f u l the process of 94  the  conflict  r e s o l u t i o n had been,  i t was not able to generate s a t i s f a c t o r y  alternative solutions.  The mines / parks c o n f l i c t  had now  begun  to achieve the r e c o g n i t i o n that would push t h i s case from the r e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e s management l e v e l to d i s c u s s i o n s centered i n the headquarters of the M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Housing and the M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources. During 1983,  there would be c o n s i d e r a b l e change  i n the  approach taken to r e s o l u t i o n of n a t u r a l resources management c o n f l i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  A f t e r the Mineral Resources  D i v i s i o n p o s i t i o n paper, the Deferred P l a n n i n g Area process was completed with the w r i t i n g of the C h i l k o Lake Deferred Area Plan. However, the planning process had not r e s u l t e d the c o n f l i c t at C h i l k o Lake.  i n r e s o l u t i o n of  The u n c e r t a i n t y of the s i t u a t i o n  would c o n t i n u e as the Cariboo Regional Resource Management Committee was h e s i t a n t to develop a recommendation Environment and Land Use T e c h n i c a l Committee.  However, the i s s u e  would be f o r c e d by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the J u l y 7, p r o v i n c i a l budget.  t o the  In the budget, the p r o v i n c i a l  1983 government  o u t l i n e d the removal or l e s s e n i n g of planning f u n c t i o n s from a v a r i e t y of government regional  levels.  agencies at each of the p r o v i n c i a l  and  A part of t h i s announcement was the i n t e n t i o n  of disbanding the Regional Resource Management Committees.  As a  consequence, the Cariboo Regional Resource Management Committee was faced with a January 1984 d e a d l i n e f o r submission of a recommendation.  A P r o v i n c i a l R e c r e a t i o n Area was recommended to  the Environment and Land Use T e c h n i c a l Committee, a l t e r n a t i v e to t o t a l resource v a l u e s .  as a best  achievement of e i t h e r of the d i v e r g e n t  The consequence of the e l i m i n a t i o n of the 95  Regional  Resource Management Committees was t o weaken the  s t r e n g t h o-f any recommendations that were made. political  will  was s t a l l e d The  As there was no  t o continue with the recommendations, the proposal  at the Environment and Land Use T e c h n i c a l Committee.  p r o v i n c i a l budget would a l s o a-f-fect changes i n the  l e v e l s o-f s t a f f i n g  i n a l l of the l i n e agencies  with the C h i l k o Lake case.  that were d e a l i n g  With s t a f f c u t s and r e o r g a n i z a t i o n at  the Parks and Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n of the M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Housing, the e n t i r e c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n process was i n f o r m a l l y placed on hold.  However, the p r i n c i p a l  actor i n  the M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Housing, Derek Thompson, would continue t o advocate the continuance  of the c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n  and  pers. comm., May 1,  park c r e a t i o n process.(McArthur,  In f a c t , Thompson had made the c r e a t i o n of a p r o v i n c i a l  1985)  park i n  the C h i l c o t i n r e g i o n a major goal of h i s career as parks pianner(Thompson, pers. comm., June 18, 1985). As the l i n e agencies adapted t o the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n and budget c u t s , the r e s t r u c t u r e d p o l i t i c a l mines c o n f l i c t was e v i d e n t . provincial and  r e a l i t y of the parks /  The business approach of the  government, e s p e c i a l l y m i n i s t e r s of the Environment  Land Use Committee, demanded information about the economic  c o s t s of resource a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s . ( S t e v e n s o n , May 8, 1985) The p o l i t i c a l  c l i m a t e became such that pressure was  put on a l l resource management planning s t a f f land use d e s i g n a t i o n s  to j u s t i f y  existing  (Downie, pers. comm., June 18, 1985).  Furthermore, there was an e x p l i c i t confrontational  pers. comm.,  nature of the parks  r e c o g n i t i o n that the / mines c o n f l i c t was  promoting u n c e r t a i n t i e s f o r each of the M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines 96  and Petroleum Resources, the mining i n d u s t r y , the M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Housing and the w i l d e r n e s s park lobby groups ( C o l l i n s , pers. comm., A p r i l  28,  1985;  Ratel,  1985).  Added  s t r e s s e s -for d e c i s i o n making on the parks / mines issue w i t h i n the  parks m i n i s t r y may  politically  have come through assignment o-f a new  motivated deputy m i n i s t e r .  recognized that more p o l i t i c a l  and  In any case, i t was  support was  necessary be-fore a  c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n proposal was brought forward i n the C h i l k o case.  I t was  the d e s i r e of the Parks and Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n  D i v i s i o n to minimize media c o n t r o v e r s y and embarrassment f o r the government.  political  The need f o r support from a l l  s i d e s f o r park and r e c r e a t i o n area p r o p o s a l s was e v i d e n t i f e x i s t i n g and f u t u r e park land use a l l o c a t i o n s were t o be successful. Further c o m p l i c a t i n g the p o l i t i c a l  nature of the parks /  mines c o n f l i c t and the urgency of the need f o r a r e s o l u t i o n  has  been the impending d e c i s i o n of the Tener case of mineral c l a i m s w i t h i n Wells Gray Park. the  With a d e c i s i o n  i n favour of Tener i n  Supreme Court of Canada, a s i g n i f i c a n t corner stone i n  arguments of c u r r e n t h o l d e r s of approximately 700 mineral c l a i m s within provincial  parks was e s t a b l i s h e d . ( B o h n , 1985e)  prospect of l a r g e compensation the  The  payments to Tener and o t h e r s , or  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of park land f o r mineral land use access and  activities, provincial  through c r e a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n areas w i t h i n parks, have added e x t r a impetus and urgency to the  need f o r a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s o l u t i o n of the parks / mines c o n f l i c t in B r i t i s h In  Columbia.  1984  the M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Housing, s e t out to 97  win the support r e q u i r e d -for the C h i l k o Lake proposal and f o r other  l i k e p r o j e c t s under  i t s mandate.  In order to - f a c i l i t a t e an  understanding o-f the parks / mines con-flict by both s i d e s i n the c o n f l i c t , meetings between the parks and mines l i n e agencies were conducted  as p r o p o s a l s f o r new  land use d e s i g n a t i o n  r e s o l v i n g p o l i c i e s approaches were formulated. were conducted  at the headquarters l e v e l , as  conflict  These  meetings  developments  r e q u i r e d , to respond to p r o p o s a l s and counter p r o p o s a l s . a l t e r n a t i v e was couched  Each  i n an o v e r a l l framework f o r r e s o l v i n g the  g e n e r i c parks / mines c o n f l i c t with the C h i l k o Lake case being used as the model on which the prototype r e s o l u t i o n was assessed. Each of the m i n i s t r i e s acted as advocates f o r the p o s i t i o n s of the  the p u b l i c  i n t e r e s t s that they r e p r e s e n t , and each n e g o t i a t e d  i s s u e s inherent i n those i n t e r e s t s .  The M i n i s t r y of  Lands,  Parks and Housing a l s o acted as a f a c i l i t a t o r between the i n t e r e s t s of the park proponents and the mining i n d u s t r y .  As  p o s s i b l e p o l i c i e s developed to address the parks / mines c o n f l i c t , meetings were held with r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of each t o o u t l i n e the d e t a i l s of the c u r r e n t t h i n k i n g and to r e g i s t e r concerns and d i f f i c u l t i e s that might be encountered c u r r e n t proposal were implemented.  i n c l u d i n g the Outdoor  achievement  issues: f i r s t ,  R e c r e a t i o n and  parks  R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l of B r i t i s h  Columbia and the F e d e r a t i o n of Mountain have d e a l t with two  i f the  Meetings between the  E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of Parks and Outdoor proponents,  any  Clubs of B r i t i s h  i n October  of the Parks and Outdoor  1984,  Columbia  the  R e c r e a t i o n Branch's goal of  e c o l o g i c a l u n i t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n through park and r e c r e a t i o n area designations second,  i n February 1985, 98  a plan f o r B r i t i s h  Columbia parks development that was t i e d t o the development of the tourism s e c t o r . ( F u l l e r , pers. comm., May 13, 1985) I t appears that e x p l i c i t d i s c u s s i o n s concerning the c o n f l i c t were down played 26,  at these meetings.(Dearden, pers. comm., September  1985) Only one meeting has been held with r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of  the mining  industry.  In A p r i l  1985, the Deputy M i n i s t e r of  Lands, Parks and Housing, Mr. Bob F l i t o n , met with members of the B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon Chamber of Mines and the B r i t i s h Columbia Mining A s s o c i a t i o n t o o u t l i n e a proposal f o r the d e s i g n a t i o n of R e c r e a t i o n Areas such that the r e c r e a t i o n and mineral resources could be co-managed April  28,1985).  ( C o l l i n s , pers. comm.,  These meetings were l a r g e l y c o n f i d e n t i a l i n  nature and the s p e c i f i c s of any of them have not been revealed t o t h i s researcher.  The s p i r i t  of the meetings was one of a  c o n s u l t a t i v e nature with each party a c h i e v i n g a b e t t e r understanding  of the proposals and being a b l e  c o n s t r u c t i v e l y b e f o r e any o f f i c i a l  respond  p u b l i c statements  In t h i s way the r e a c t i o n a r y nature of the c o n f l i c t l a r g e l y e l i m i n a t e d from the p u b l i c realm. n e g o t i a t i o n s however, has r e s u l t e d  Area P l a n n i n g .  has been  T h i s p r i v a c y of the  i n a r e d u c t i o n i n the open and  p u b l i c nature of the c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n process the C h i l c o t i n Wilderness  were made.  i n comparison t o  Park Study and the C h i l k o Lake Deferred  Such c l o s e d s e s s i o n s have i n some ways served t o  heighten s u s p i c i o n s among some  members of the p u b l i c . At the  same time the M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Housing may be usurping some of the lobbying power of the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the parks / mines c o n f l i c t by a c t i n g as a mediator  through  which r e a c t i o n s t o , and changes, i n proposals  99  for  r e s o l u t i o n have been conducted. Through 1984, each o-f the M i n i s t r i e s spent  and  effort  considerable  time  i n c o n s o l i d a t i n g t h e i r p o l i c i e s toward the d e s i g n a t i o n  of lands f o r r e c r e a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n  purposes.  of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources f o r m a l i z e d statement of May 1983 on w i l d e r n e s s with a land use p o l i c y  The M i n i s t r y i t s policy  l e g i s l a t i o n and management  information paper i n May 1984.  p o l i c y s t a t e s the agencies  This  i n t e n t t o "ensure that the maximum  amount of land i s a v a i l a b l e f o r mineral e x p l o r a t i o n " ( B r i t i s h Columbia, 1984a).  The Parks and Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n  p o l i c y of August i n the same year was designed  t o c l a r i f y and  s i m p l i f y the land use d e s i g n a t i o n f o r areas under i t s jurisdiction.  I t was the i n t e n t of the p o l i c y t o g i v e the parks  agency the s i m p l i c i t y of f u l l  p r o t e c t i o n from a l i e n a t i o n to  resource uses of park land w i t h i n C l a s s A d e s i g n a t i o n s and a l t e r n a t e l y to manage and p r o t e c t v a l u e s , with r e c r e a t i o n area s t a t u s , while a l l o w i n g resource use i n a c o n t r o l l e d manner. ( B r i t i s h Columbia, 1984b) In the C h i l k o Lake Case the b a r g a i n i n g model of c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n processes  has been a p p l i e d and adapted i n response t o  v a r y i n g s t r e s s e s i n the d e c i s i o n making environment. a c t i v i t y are countered  by slowly developing  Phases of  components of the  g e n e r i c parks / mines c o n f l i c t during the Foundation Phase and l i t t l e or no progress  toward c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n d u r i n g the  P r o s p e r i t y Phase of the d e c i s i o n making environment. that was f i r s t explicit  addressed  i n an e r a of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  n a t u r a l resources  addressed behind  A conflict  planning,  the case i s now being  c l o s e d door meetings with 100  individual  interest  groups.  T h i s case i s now  being d e a l t with at the headquarters o-f  the l i n e agencies as a p o l i c y level  issue r a t h e r than at the r e g i o n a l  as a land use management i s s u e .  The C h i l k o Lake case  been abandoned as a s p e c i f i c  i n s t a n c e D-f c o n f l i c t  pursuing a prototype problem  resolution.  101  has  i n favour of  CHAPTER 5  ASSESSMENT OF THE CASE EVIDENCE  102  In t h i s chapter, provide evidence  the d e t a i l e d cases of chapter  to c o n s i d e r the a s s e r t e d disadvantages  l i t i g a t i o n model and the claimed model f o r c o n f l i c t mines s i t u a t i o n . evidence The  4 will of the  advantages of the b a r g a i n i n g  r e s o l u t i o n i n the B r i t i s h Columbia parks / The Wells Gray P r o v i n c i a l Park case  provides  t o show many of the weaknesses i n the l i t i g a t i o n model.  C h i l k o Lake Wilderness  Proposal  case shows us evidence  that  there are shortcomings i n the u n s t r u c t u r e d b a r g a i n i n g a s s o c i a t e d with c o n f l i c t practiced. evidence  r e s o l u t i o n w i t h i n the b a r g a i n i n g model as c u r r e n t l y  For each of the f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of e v a l u a t i o n ,  w i l l be drawn from each case t o answer the r e s e a r c h  q u e s t i o n s : does the B r i t i s h Columbian experience weaknesses i d e n t i f i e d  reflect  the same  i n the American l i t i g a t i o n model?; and how  well does the u n s t r u c t u r e d b a r g a i n i n g p r a c t i c e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia r e d r e s s these  issues?  To r e i t e r a t e , the c o u r t s are o f t e n thought t o be i n e f f i c i e n t in the time that i t takes f o r c o n f l i c t s to be r e s o l v e d as a r e s u l t of increased demands f o r a d j u d i c a t i o n and the d e l a y s inherent  i n the l i t i g a t i o n model.  as a r e s u l t of  I t i s claimed  that  the b a r g a i n i n g model i s l e s s time consuming as the processes of appeal,  and d e l a y s of implementation  adjustment, w i l l  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  be . i n c o r p o r a t e d and a n t i c i p a t e d by the  p a r t i c i p a n t s during the process r a t h e r than way found  i n the r e a c t i o n a r y  i n the l i t i g a t i o n model.  By the summer of 1985, nine years had passed  103  i n the  judicial  attempt  to r e s o l v e the case o-f Tener and the Crown on  the Wells Gray P r o v i n c i a l Park  issue.  Reasons o-f the Supreme  Court o-f Canada, i n Tener's -favour, were handed down on May 1985.  9,  At l e a s t 15 years had passed s i n c e the c o n f l i c t had become  active.  Delays have been t r u e to the l i t i g a t i o n model.  the i n i t i a l  After  s t a l l i n g of the government a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agencies i n  not p r o v i d i n g Tener a p p r o p r i a t e permits, the l e g a l d e l a y s began. Tener's d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the Supreme Court of B r i t i s h Columbia's Columbia  ruling  led to the case being heard  Court of Appeals.  year delay.  The subsequent  i n the B r i t i s h  The appeal r e s u l t e d  i n a n e a r l y four  p o s i t i v e r e s u l t f o r Tener spawned the  t a k i n g , by the Crown, of the case to the Supreme Court of Canada. Beginning with an e i g h t month delay f o r the f i l i n g  of  initial  documents, added c o m p l i c a t i o n s of the case b e f o r e the h i g h e s t court resulted finally  i n more than one h e a r i n g being convened, and  the request f o r a d d i t i o n a l documentation  the Supreme Court J u s t i c e s r e s u l t e d years and f i v e months. was  still  i n the process t a k i n g  With the l i t i g a t i o n  not d e f i n i t i v e l y r e s o l v e d .  litigation  and arguments by two  r e s u l t the c o n f l i c t  With completion of the  p o r t i o n of the case, the p r o v i n c i a l government of  B r i t i s h Columbia has extended  has been f o r c e d to w r i t e new  legislation.  the time necessary f o r the c o n f l i c t  by adding an implementation  phase that  to be r e s o l v e d  i s as yet not  complete.  The claimed time e f f i c i e n c y of the b a r g a i n i n g model as exemplified doubtful.  i n the C h i l k o Lake Wilderness Proposal case i s The park v a l u e s a s s o c i a t e d with the C h i l k o Lake  s i t u a t i o n were f i r s t  i d e n t i f i e d and f o r m a l l y made part of a  d e c i s i o n making process i n 1973.  104  Formal  This  r e c o g n i t i o n of the  potential c o n f l i c t s in 1975  - 1978  a s s o c i a t e d with the proposal were recognized  period.  E x t e n s i v e attempts to r e s o l v e the parks /  mines c o n f l i c t were i n i t i a t e d with the Process i n 1981.  Continued,  though s p o r a d i c , a c t i o n through  b a r g a i n i n g model has not r e s u l t e d conflict of  Deferred Area P l a n n i n g  i n r e s o l u t i o n of the C h i l k o  or e s t a b l i s h e d a prototype s o l u t i o n f o r the r e s o l u t i o n  s i m i l a r parks / mines c o n f l i c t s .  The mediated n e g o t i a t i o n s  are c o n t i n u i n g as p a r t i e s are able to respond developments.  to p r o p o s a l s and  However, there has been no j u s t i f i e d or a r b i t r a r y  l i m i t set with which to frame the d i s c u s s i o n s .  During the past  four and one h a l f years b a r g a i n i n g has been most a c t i v e . relative  the  The  advantage of the b a r g a i n i n g model has not been s t r o n g l y  demonstrated  in t h i s  The b u i l t  case.  i n d e l a y s of the c o u r t s i n the Wells Gray  P r o v i n c i a l Park case have been a major c o n t r i b u t o r to the extended  nature of the c o n f l i c t  r e s o l u t i o n process.  The  u n s t r u c t u r e d , and at times uncommitted, b a r g a i n i n g that has been undertaken  i n the C h i l k o Lake Wilderness Proposal example of  parks / mines c o n f l i c t  has not shown the claimed advantages of  s a v i n g s i n time and r e d u c t i o n i n delay r e l a t i v e model.  to the l i t i g a t i o n  Each case has been a c t i v e f o r some f i f t e e n years, and  c o n c l u s i o n or r e s o l u t i o n of the c o n f l i c t  has not come to pass.  Each of the cases that has been examined both b r i e f l y and i n detail for  i n t h i s t h e s i s has shown that there i s no quick process  r e s o l u t i o n that has been used  between parks and mines i n B r i t i s h  105  to address the divergence Columbia.  the  Costa It has been held that the l i t i g a t i o n model i s too c o s t l y , and  that r e d u c t i o n s  achieved  i n c o s t s o-f c o n - f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n can  i-f the b a r g a i n i n g model i s adopted.  component o-f the  The a d v e r s a r i a l  l i t i g a t i o n model serves to i n f l a t e the c o s t s  that are i n c u r r e d with repeated administrative costs.  appeals,  in reduced end  the v o l u n t a r y  c o s t s f o r r e s o l u t i o n by  With an e f f o r t made to bargain u n t i l be  of one  l e s s than i f repeated  David  can the  solution is  s o l u t i o n s are the  persistence  i s eroded.  In the Wells Gray P r o v i n c i a l Park case I was  parties.  and  internalizing  an acceptable  or other party  enough to have p r i v i l e g e d  and  in the l i t i g a t i o n model.  a r b i t r a t e d by s u c c e s s i v e l y higher c o u r t s u n t i l or bank balance  court  in the b a r g a i n i n g model  d i v e r g e n t e f f e c t s that would be found  reached, the c o s t s may  l e g a l f e e s and  I t i s a l l e g e d that  c o n c i l i a t o r y aspects emphasized result  be  fortunate  i n f o r m a t i o n to the c o s t s to one  of  the  Tener has s t a t e d that h i s l e g a l c o s t s have  t o t a l e d approximately  * 300,000 .  T h i s f i g u r e has  l i t t l e meaning  f o r comparative purposes as a d d i t i o n a l data f o r s i m i l a r cases not a v a i l a b l e .  However, we can assess the s i g n i f i c a n c e of  amount in comparison to the p o t e n t i a l c o s t s that might expected  i f development were permitted  mi 11 ion.<Irvine, of p o s s i b l e t o t a l undertaken.  1978)  cost before  Taken together  be  resources  production  Tener's expenditure  pre production  of  held  *30  i n l e g a l f e e s i s 1%  c o s t s i f the development  with c o s t s that accrue  to the  p r o v i n c i a l government f o r l e g a l s e r v i c e s , d r a f t i n g and 106  this  w i t h i n Wells Gray Park.  An economic g e o l o g i c a l assessment of the mineral by Tener p r o j e c t s a c a p i t a l  are  was  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o-f e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , as w e l l as -federal c o s t s of a d j u d i c a t i o n and  l o s s of p o t e n t i a l tax revenues, the  Gray l i t i g a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e  can be deemed v e r y  Wells  costly.  There can o n l y be s p e c u l a t i o n about the a c t u a l c o s t s i n c u r r e d through the b a r g a i n i n g model i n the C h i l k o Lake Wilderness  P r o p o s a l case.  Each of the p a r t i e s has p a r t i c i p a t e d  over time i n v a r y i n g i n t e n s i t i e s and p r o v i n c i a l resource  l i n e agencies  in varying roles.  The  have been the most c o n s i s t e n t  p a r t i c i p a n t s , though the e f f o r t has not been ongoing.  The  Environment and Land Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n until  i t s disbandment was  park and mining  considerable.  Groups i n f a v o u r of both  i n t e r e s t s have c o n t r i b u t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e  much of i t v o l u n t a r y work of i n d i v i d u a l s .  Notable  effort,  among these  p a r t i e s are the F e d e r a t i o n of Mountain C l u b s of B r i t i s h Columbia, and  the B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon Chamber of Mines.  c o n t r i b u t i o n s have been made by  Additional  l e s s involved p a r t i c i p a n t s at  v a r i o u s s t a g e s of the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s .  The  t a s k of  e s t a b l i s h i n g the c o s t s t o each of these groups, i f not i m p o s s i b l e , i s beyond the r e s o u r c e s and t h i s researcher.  information a v a i l a b l e to  However, i f o n l y o n e - h a l f man  year combined  l a b o r was  expended on b e h a l f of those p a r t i e s i n f a v o u r of  and  those  i n f a v o u r of p a r k s , f o r o n l y 10 of the past 15  and  i f an average annual s a l a r y was  expenditure C h i l k o area,  years,  a s s i g n e d of $35,000, the  c o n s e r v a t i v e c o s t of the b a r g a i n i n g model as m a n i f e s t case would be $ 350,000.  mining  in this  Though t h e r e has been c o n s i d e r a b l e  on e x p l o r a t i o n and development of m i n e r a l s i n the '$500,000 i n one year by one company alone) complete  i n f o r m a t i o n and  i n d i c a t i o n s of r e s o u r c e v a l u e s are u n a v a i l a b l e 107  •for meaningful  comparisons.  Comparison o-f the c o s t s between the l i t i g a t i o n model and b a r g a i n i n g model i n these cases i s i n c o n c l u s i v e .  the  Without  i d e n t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s t r u e comparative comments can not be made. The s i m i l a r i t i e s here i n c l u d e that n e i t h e r of the cases i s f u l l y r e s o l v e d , and both are of s i m i l a r age and stage of development. The Wells Gray s i t u a t i o n  i s an attempt  to r e s o l v e a s p e c i f i c  c o n f l i c t while the task being undertaken now  one  i n the C h i l k o example i s  intended to develop a prototype s o l u t i o n .  The  Chilko  Lake b a r g a i n i n g has addressed a more complex s i t u a t i o n . c o s t s , though  s i m i l a r , seem to favour b a r g a i n i n g .  cost of implementing we  Even i f the  the u n s t r u c t u r e d b a r g a i n i n g was  have suggested, the comparison  would s t i l l  Overall  twice what  be reasonable.  Given the ad hoc c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the b a r g a i n i n g model implementation further  i n the C h i l k o Lake case there i s room f o r  improvement i n cost s a v i n g s over  litigation.  __Q__ity_£Qn_I__b.ni__l_I__u__  The c a p a c i t y of the c o u r t s to understand and to i n c o r p o r a t e technical material  i n t o the d e c i s i o n making process has been  questioned by the c r i t i c s of the l i t i g a t i o n model.  By  narrowing  the terms of r e f e r e n c e and q u e s t i o n s to be asked b e f o r e a d j u d i c a t i o n , the p a r t i e s are not as able to b r i n g forward r e l a t e d but perhaps not d i r e c t evidence.  By employing  b a r g a i n i n g model, i t i s a l l e g e d that advantages expertise w i l l  the  of shared  allow each party i n the n e g o t i a t i o n s an o p p o r t u n i t y  to be educated by those more knowledgeable In a d d i t i o n , mediators or other t h i r d  108  on a s p e c i f i c  topic.  party f a c i l i t a t o r s  i n the  bargaining  model may be chosen s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h e i r  understanding of the t e c h n i c a l aspects of the c o n f l i c t  rather  than t h e i r understanding of the r u l e s of standing  and evidence as  they apply  process.  to any p a r t i c u l a r c o n f l i c t  resolution  In the e a r l y stages of the l i t i g a t i o n  process examined i n  the Wells Gray P r o v i n c i a l Park case, the Supreme Court of B r i t i s h Columbia f i n d i n g i n favour Tener.  of the Crown r e s u l t e d i n an appeal by  Of major concern i n the d e c i s i o n to appeal was the f e a r  of Tener's lawyer that the court d i d not understand the argument presented.  Though l i t t l e  information  was presented, the a l l e g e d f a i l u r e of the c o u r t was  enforced  i n the way of d i f f i c u l t  by the lack of o p p o r t u n i t y  educate the p a r t i c i p a n t s . i s s u e s i n the l i t i g a t i o n  technical  i n the l e g a l system to  Subsequent t e c h n i c a l and c o g n i t i v e toward the r e s o l u t i o n of the Wells Gray  case have been processed well and t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the participants.  Both Tener and p r o v i n c i a l parks  representatives  have expressed no r e s e r v a t i o n s about the decorum and c a p a b i l i t y of the c o u r t s .  However, the narrow scope of the l i t i g a t i o n  process r e s t r i c t e d  the c o u r t s  i n such a way that a b i l i t y t o  contend with t e c h n i c a l i s s u e s was not c l e a r l y  observed.  I n d i c a t i o n s are that the c o u r t s , having not d e a l t with t e c h n i c a l i s s u e s , have had no major e f f e c t on the r e s o l u t i o n of the case on point of law.  In t h i s case the c l a i m s made about the inadequacy  of the c o u r t s may not be wrong but r a t h e r not r e l e v a n t . however, Tener's o p i n i o n i s s u e s r a i s e d could The  It i s  that d i r e c t n e g o t i a t i o n on many of these  have been more c o n s t r u c t i v e than  i n t e r a c t i o n that has taken place  litigation.  i n the C h i l k o Lake  example has allowed the p a r t i e s t o understand and develop an  109  a p p r e c i a t i o n o-f the di-f f i c u l t i e s that are -faced by competing resource u s e r s .  Comments o-f Vince C o l l i n s i n p a r t i c u l a r are  evidence that the understanding o-f the park's m i n i s t r y has matured i n l i g h t o-f the b a r g a i n i n g process and the changed political  c l i m a t e i n which i t has taken p l a c e .  The l i n e agencies  have developed each o t h e r ' s needs, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o-f the resources, and an understanding o-f the needs of the c o n s t i t u e n c i e s that they r e p r e s e n t i n an advocacy There  i s evidence that the l i t i g a t i o n  shortcomings  manner.  process has  i n i t s c a p a c i t y t o c o n s t r u c t i v e l y address i s s u e s of  t e c h n i c a l concern or i s s u e s where misunderstanding might be alleviated  through the education of the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  parks / mines c o n f l i c t ,  With the  the need f o r enlightenment i s  c o n s i d e r a b l e as the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of r e s o u r c e s inventory and e v a l u a t i o n are problematic on both s i d e s .  Without  the knowledge  gained through e x t e n s i v e c o n s u l t a t i o n , the c a s u a l observer or the u n i n i t i a t e d judge i n the l i t i g a t i o n  process may have  d i f f i c u l t y d e v e l o p i n g an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of resource concerns f o r each  participant.  QpcQnlunily_£an_B__li_ip_liQU C o n f l i c t s , e s p e c i a l l y q u e s t i o n s of p u b l i c concern, the i n t e r e s t and v a l u e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of many p a r t i e s . r u l i n g s that are produced  attract The  by the l i t i g a t i o n model c o n s i d e r only  the p a r t i e s that are b e f o r e the c o u r t . nature of many c o n f l i c t s r e s u l t  However, the p o l y c e n t r i c  i n d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and c r i t i c i s m  from those i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s that are not b e f o r e the c o u r t s . D e c i s i o n s of the c o u r t may a f f e c t changes that were not considered by the judge.  The b a r g a i n i n g model, on the other 110  hand, i s designed the c o n f l i c t  to i n c o r p o r a t e more than p r i n c i p a l  i n an e f f o r t  to reduce d i s c o n t e n t among  p a r t i e s in secondary  i nterests. It  i s c l e a r that i n the Wells Gray l i t i g a t i o n only  p a r t i e s were d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a n t s .  The  two  l i t i g a t i o n model  has  provided a forum f o r the e x p r e s s i o n of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n of  one  party of l e s s e r s t a t u r e with the government h o l d i n g p o l i c e power. The  l i t i g a t i o n mechanism may,  only recourse.  i n t h i s case, have been Tener's  A d d i t i o n a l i n t e r e s t e d observers though, i n c l u d e d  other h o l d e r s of mineral c l a i m s w i t h i n p r o v i n c i a l  parks, M i n i s t r y  of Lands, Parks and Housing and M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and Petroleum  Resources o f f i c i a l s ,  and  i n t e r e s t groups r e p r e s e n t i n g  the d i v e r s i t y of views i n the c o n f l i c t . questions of law have prevented the c o u r t s .  The  Rules of s t a n d i n g  these p a r t i e s from going  mining  with f u r t h e r parks / mines c o n f l i c t company has,  Tener, i n i t i a t e d  before  r a m i f i c a t i o n s of the Supreme Court of Canada  judgement have a f f e c t e d changes i n the way proceed  and  each of these resolution.  parties One  as a r e s u l t of the f a v o u r a b l e d e c i s i o n f o r  a new  c o u r t proceeding  a g a i n s t the Crown to gain  development r i g h t s to c l a i m s i t has held i n S t r a t h c o n a Park s i n c e the I960's.(Bohn, 1985b)  Provincial  The M i n i s t r y of Lands,  Parks  and Housing has been f o r c e d to allow changes i n the d e s i g n a t i o n of park land that f a c i l i t a t e s mineral e x p l o r a t i o n and development.  "...  (G)overnment had  'no a l t e r n a t i v e ' because of a  Supreme Court of Canada d e c i s i o n . . . " ( B o h n , M i n i s t e r of Lands, Parks and Housing.  "The  1985b) s a i d  l e g i s l a t u r e approved  a law that a l l o w s c a b i n e t to 'exclude c e r t a i n v a r i o u s crown-granted mineral claims*  111  the  lands encumbered by  i n Wells Gray P r o v i n c i a l  Park" (Bohn, 1985b). Resources now  The M i n i s t r y o-f Energy, Mines and  has to c o n s i d e r more care-fully the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  o-f mineral r i g h t s w i t h i n p r o v i n c i a l new  r e g u l a t i o n s and  tasks.  Petroleum  parks and may  i n s p e c t i o n procedures  Park advocates  are now  have to adopt  to complete these  -faced with a t h r e a t to the  s a n c t i t y o-f e x i s t i n g park d e s i g n a t i o n s while e-f-forts to have areas preserved c o n t i n u e . impacted  Each o-f these p a r t i e s has been  by the d e c i s i o n o-f the c o u r t without  participation  i n the  new  direct  litigation.  The C h i l k o Lake b a r g a i n i n g experience has provided the o p p o r t u n i t y -for f u l l process.  participation  From the i n i t i a l  i n the d e c i s i o n making  stages o-f the - f i r s t  d i s c u s s i o n s , the v a r i e t y o-f p a r t i c i p a t i o n who,  b e l i e v i n g there may  be some impact  included a l l p a r t i e s  on t h e i r v a l u e s or  i n t e r e s t s , cared to present t h e i r concerns. d i v e r s i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s was been addressed  the  Native Indian groups,  representatives, w i l d l i f e  local and  i n t e r e s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s have a l l withdrawn from However, none of these group's a c t i o n s seem to  have been a r e s u l t of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the process. it  Rather,  i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s a t i s f a c t i o n that t h e i r  concerns  are being d e a l t with s a t i s f a c t o r l y  that they w i l l and  have  or i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the p l a t f o r m s of o t h e r s , the  residents, regional d i s t r i c t  participation.  Initially,  g r e a t , but as the concerns  number of p a r t i e s has decreased.  environmental  public  be represented by some other p a r t y .  l o c a l groups as well as w i l d l i f e  their  initial  i n the process or  concerns  Regional d i s t r i c t s '  The  Native  i n t e r e s t s have each had  a n s w e r e d . ( B r i t i s h Columbia,  1982)  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s have served to i n i t i a t e 112  the  process.  The  diminished  d i v e r s i t y of environmental groups has been  as v a l u e s  and  concerns are amalgamated, u s u a l l y in an  informal manner, i n the arguments of another Consequently, though i t now  appears that only approximately s i x  p a r t i e s are engaged i n the process, greater The  party.  number of p a r t i e s are  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a  represented.  evidence found i n our  two  the a s s e r t i o n s made i n chapter 3,  main case s t u d i e s r e i n f o r c e s that the  l i t i g a t i o n model  c o n s t r i c t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n process while the b a r g a i n i n g The  model provides  a forum f o r f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  Wells Gray c o n f l i c t examined here has  a c t i o n s a f t e r the  litigation  processes as responses are  to the v a r i e t y of p a r t i e s not d i r e c t l y bargaining  led to c o n t i n u a t i o n  involved.  processes seem to have lessened  with d e c i s i o n making by  including a f u l l  the  of  required  Further,  the  dissatisfaction  range of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  El__ib.ili_y_Q£_Q„__Qm_s L i t i g a t i o n as p r a c t i c e d in the c o u r t s d e c i d i n g on  the  i s a question  l e g a l i t y or r i g h t n e s s of the questions  been brought before  it.  The  of  that have  c o u r t s tend to narrow the range of  o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n to the extreme p o s i t i o n s of the p a r t i e s as they come to the process. come the  intransigence  determination  of the  of the c o u r t .  l o s i n g party  With these extremes to accept  the  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , bargaining  of e x p l o r i n g a range of compromise agreements that f a l l the  initial  between  negotiating positions.  There were only two litigation.  i s capable  The  question  options  a v a i l a b l e i n the Wells Gray  through a l l l e v e l s of the court  113  has  been the same: should de-facto The  compensation be made to Tener -for the  l o s s o-f r i g h t s to m i n e r a l s  w i t h i n the park boundaries?  court could decide yes or no with  With t h i s l i m i t e d range o-f o p t i o n s , explore  alternative conflict  little  room -for comment.  the c o u r t was  not able  resolution strategies.  to  Rather,  the  a l t e r n a t i v e s were f o r c e d upon the p r o v i n c i a l government a f t e r the l i t i g a t i o n was  complete.  The  subsequent l e g i s l a t i o n  accommodate the r u l i n g of the court l i t i g a t i o n model per se. conflict it  L e g i s l a t i o n and  accommodated by the  r e g u l a t i o n to r e s o l v e  that may  litigation  unstructured  bargaining  Though the  not been  process. c a r r i e d on  needs of p a r t i c i p a n t s to allow  of o p t i o n s .  As such,  lead to r e s o l u t i o n that has  in the C h i l k o Lake  example has been able to adapt to changing p o l i t i c a l and  the  in t h i s case i s a r e a c t i o n to c o u r t r u l i n g s .  i s an extension  The  i s not a part of  to  stresses  the examination of a v a r i e t y  'mining to the e x c l u s i o n of parks'  or  'parks at the e x c l u s i o n of mining' o p t i o n s are a v a i l a b l e , a range of co-management o p t i o n s are under c o n s i d e r a t i o n that w i l l f o r the e x p l o r a t i o n and  p o s s i b l e development of  occurence w i t h i n the C h i l k o Lake area while care c o n s e r v a t i v e management techniques f e a t u r e s and  character  of the  and the  landscape that make i t d e s i r a b l e Added to the  of the C h i l k o Lake Park Proposal  development of a prototype  mineral  are used to preserve  f o r the p u r s u i t of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . questions  allow  initial  have been the need f o r  d e c i s i o n making framework f o r the  r e s o l u t i o n of s i m i l a r parks / mines land use c o n f l i c t s throughout B r i t i s h Columbia. conflict  Once again  t h i s demonstrates the c a p a b i l i t y of  r e s o l u t i o n w i t h i n the b a r g a i n i n g model to adapt  114  and  trans-form  the p o s i t i o n s o-f the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t o c o n s t r u c t i v e  actions. The l i t i g a t i o n model has not, i n the case o-f the parks / mines i s s u e , been able t o address the d i v e r s i t y o-f i s s u e s that accompany and surround the court case and connect i t through a p o l y c e n t r i c network to the v a r i e t y o-f concerns present. are no o p p o r t u n i t i e s  There  i n the c o u r t s to b r i n g these -forward.  c o n t r a s t , the b a r g a i n i n g  In  processes o-f the C h i l k o case have been  • f l e x i b l e enough t o i n c o r p o r a t e  i n v a r i e t y o-f concerns i n  attempts t o achieve r e s o l u t i o n . Summany. Both the l i t i g a t i o n model and the b a r g a i n i n g practiced  model, as  i n the r e s o l u t i o n o-f parks / mines c o n - f l i c t  in B r i t i s h  Columbia, do not e x h i b i t time e-f-fectivness or measures -for r e d u c t i o n of d e l a y s . the c o n s i d e r a b l e bargaining  cost of t h i s c o n f l i c t  that has taken place  the c o n t e n t i o n greater  Though the l i t i g a t i o n example demonstrates r e s o l u t i o n process, the  i n t h i s i s s u e does not support  of cost e f f e c t i v e n e s s .  There appears t o be a  c a p a c i t y f o r t e c h n i c a l i s s u e s and education  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the b a r g a i n i n g litigation.  of the  model than i n the processes of  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s more complete and i s more e f f e c t i v e  in r e p r e s e n t i n g  the values  and concerns of a l l p a r t i e s i n t e r e s t e d  in the r e s o l u t i o n of parks / mines c o n f l i c t . advantages of the b a r g a i n i n g  There are  process over l i t i g a t i o n i n p r o v i d i n g  o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r an array of outcomes i n c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n .  115  CHAPTER  6  CONCLUSIONS  116  Conclusions. The Wells Gray P r o v i n c i a l Park case does not r e f l e c t a l l the weaknesses that have been a t t r i b u t e d to the l i t i g a t i o n model nor does the C h i l k o Lake Wilderness Proposal case re-flect comprehensively outlined  the claimed s t r e n g t h s o-f the b a r g a i n i n g model as  i n Chapter  3.  B u i l t - i n d e l a y s and  ine-f-f i c i e n c y o-f the  c o u r t s have, i n the Wells Gray case, been shown to act s t r o n g l y to prolong the d e c i s i o n making processes. delay a d e c i s i o n conflict  Government d e s i r e s to  i n t h i s case have been well served by  r e s o l u t i o n process.  the  Lack o-f commitment to the  b a r g a i n i n g model as a process -for r e s o l u t i o n o-f c o n f l i c t  has  m i t i g a t e d a g a i n s t the achievement of claimed advantages i n time. Time l i m i t s have not been s e t i n which the b a r g a i n i n g process should be e f f e c t i v e l y s t r u c t u r e d . Progress d u r i n g the p r o s p e r i t y and r e c e s s i o n d e c i s i o n making environment phases, i n b a r g a i n i n g conducted  to r e s o l v e the C h i l k o  Lake case, has been dependent i n part on the Wells Gray litigation.  The  b a r g a i n i n g and  l i t e r a t u r e c i t e d may  litigation,  be  limited  i n that  r a t h e r than e x c l u s i o n a r y and  one  b e t t e r than the other, should be viewed as a group of o p t i o n s that are worthy of c o n s i d e r a t i o n due one upon the other. problematic and  compelled  dependence of  Though the Wells Gray experience has been  l e s s than d e s i r a b l e i n many ways, i t has served a  purpose i n s e t t i n g new bargaining.  to the p a r t i a l  Precedents  c o n d i t i o n s and  i n c e n t i v e s f o r more  set i n Tener's c o u r t b a t t l e have  p a r t i e s on both s i d e s of the c o n f l i c t  to pursue  b a r g a i n i n g model processes. Costs a s s o c i a t e d with the l i t i g a t i o n model are 117  unacceptable  and  the cost of b a r g a i n i n g  r e s u l t of the  has  l o n g e v i t y of the process.  advancement in the r e d u c t i o n through the bargaining  not achieved  d e l i b e r a t e and  any  advantage as a  There i s room f o r  of c o s t s with use  of  a s s e r t i v e adoption of  on the part of p a r t i c i p a n t s and  bargaining stuctured  legislators.  L i t t l e evidence in the cases examined that would support or disprove  the a l l e g a t i o n that the  s u i t e d to p r o c e s s i n g conflict  l i t i g a t i o n model i s poorly  technical material  r e s o l u t i o n d e c i s i o n making.  and  issues e f f e c t i v e l y in  However, through  the  c o n c i l i a t o r y procedures that have been adopted i n the C h i l k o Lake unstructured  bargaining,  an understanding and needs of divergent  a p p r e c i a t i o n of the resource  p a r t i e s and  been communicated, and been recognized the  p a r t i c i p a n t s have been able to develop  interests.  constraints  Technical  and  material  the need f o r improved communication  has  has  between the p r i n c i p l e l i n e agencies involved  in  conflict. There i s l i t t l e argument that the  participation  l i t i g a t i o n model  i n the c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n process.  limits  Participation  c o n s t r a i n t s in the Wells Gray case have led to f u r t h e r  litigation  by p a r t i e s i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s to the c l a i m h o l d e r s ,  added  l e g i s l a t i o n and  administration  government, and  f u r t h e r s t r e s s e s in the p o l i t i c a l  between parks and bargaining has  burdens on the p r o v i n c i a l  mines proponents.  discussion  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the  conducted in the C h i l k o Lake Wilderness Proposal  led to p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l p a r t i e s to the extent  concerns have been meaningfully The p o i n t s of  their  represented.  Wells Gray l i t i g a t i o n was law  that  case  concerned with d e c i d i n g  the r i g h t to compensation of the c l a i m 118  on  holder.  Options are  l i m i t e d to f i n d i n g f o r the a p p e l l a n t or  respondent.  The  litigation  process does not allow  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the p e r i p h e r a l the parks / mines c o n f l i c t . conducted  in p r o c e s s i n g  the room f o r  i s s u e s that are a s s o c i a t e d  Through the u n s t r u c t u r e d  the C h i l k o Lake c o n f l i c t ,  with  bargaining  a range of  management d e c i s i o n s has been considered  as a part of the ongoing  negotiations.  land resources,  Proposed co-management of  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the needs and conflict,  d e s i r e s of a l l p a r t i e s to  r e f l e c t s the f l e x i b i l i t y  bargaining  that  i s inherent  suggests that the b a r g a i n i n g Columbian context, delay  presents  i n the  model, as p r a c t i c e d in the an o p p o r t u n i t y  The  evidence in the two  d e t a i l e d cases.  given  f o r improvement in the  the extent  of the b a r g a i n i n g  The  model as i l l u s t r a t e d  i s s u e s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  for processing  f a c t s of  only s p e c u l a t i o n  about  here can  be  range of a l t e r n a t i v e s  in the d e c i s i o n making process however, favour bargaining  and  As the c r i t e r i a generates a  n u l l f i n d i n g in the Wells Gray l i t i g a t i o n ,  concluded.  British  s u p e r i o r i t y of e i t h e r model to process  i s s u e s cannot be decided  the s t r e n g t h s  inconclusive,  as well as c o s t c r i t e r i a that have been examined  in the case evidence. technical  the  model.  In summary, I have found that evidence, though  time and  with  the adoption of  the r e s o l u t i o n of the parks / mines  conf1i c t . There, are shortcomings and  l i m i t a t i o n s in t h i s  research.  More d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s would c o n t r i b u t e to a f u l l e r s e t , such that the true c o s t s to v a r i o u s identified.  data  p a r t i c i p a n t s would  be  A more complete understanding of the i n d i v i d u a l  p a r t i e s ' a s p i r a t i o n s and  disappointments with the processes might 119  be p o s s i b l e i-f a l l could be i d e n t i f i e d and were -found w i l l i n g to partake i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . component  Furthermore,  as the conceptual  o-f the t h e s i s has been developed over a number o-f  f o r m u l a t i o n s , the emphasis and data requirements have changed accordingly. field  A lack of consensus  of environmental c o n f l i c t  among l e a d i n g s c h o l a r s i n the  r e s o l u t i o n through  and other c o n c i l i a t o r y processes i s r i f e .  negotiation  A l l of these f a c t o r s  together have served to c r e a t e p o t e n t i a l weakness i n the t h e s i s . However, the importance of the f i n d i n g s here are not diminished. Strong s u g g e s t i o n s can be made f o r improvement of the e x i s t i n g conflict  r e s o l u t i o n processes i n the B r i t i s h Columbia  parks /  mines s i t u a t i o n . Upon c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the evidence, the o v e r a l l  potential  s t r e n g t h of the b a r g a i n i n g model r e l a t i v e to the l i t i g a t i o n model i s apparent.  With t h i s p r e r e q u i s i t e , recommendations f o r the  adoption of the b a r g a i n i n g model  i n a s t r o n g e r and more a g g r e s s i v e  manner as a t o o l f o r the r e s o l u t i o n of parks / mines r e s o u r c e s management d e c i s i o n making c o n f l i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia  can be  made.  _a____ejid______ F i v e recommendations can be made f o r the continued improvement of the parks / mines c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n  processes  that we have examined. These recommendations can a l s o be taken as a prescription  i n a d d i t i o n to e x i s t i n g mechanisms f o r the  r e s o l u t i o n of s i m i l a r f u t u r e parks / mines c o n f l i c t s as they are addressed  i n B r i t i s h Columbia  under the e x i s t i n g  legislative,  r e g u l a t o r y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e frameworks f o r d e c i s i o n making.  120  The 1.  recommendations  include:  Attempt to discourage r e l i a n c e on the  l i t i g a t i o n model -for  r e s o l u t i o n of parks / mines c o n f l i c t . 2.  Eliminate favour  3.  character  of more s t r u c t u r e d  bargaining  Commit f i n a n c i a l  resources  E s t a b l i s h time and  will  to support the  process.  f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n of  resource  basis.  performance o b j e c t i v e s f o r the  model must be perceived  the  resolution.  The  bargaining  model must be demonstrated such that a t r u s t of  bargaining  that  i s the m a n i f e s t a t i o n  model in B r i t i s h Columbia, could be  i n mind.  The  the  advantages  l e s s e r known process grows among p a r t i e s in c o n f l i c t .  unstructured  goal  processes,  by a l l p a r t i e s as more  available for conflict  of the b a r g a i n i n g  conflict  established.  To reduce the tendency to chose l i t i g a t i o n  d e s i r a b l e and  use  resolution  r e s o l u t i o n processes as they are  bargaining  model in  bargaining.  i n the c o n f l i c t  m i n i s t r i e s on a c o n s i s t e n t 5.  of the b a r g a i n i n g  Develop c o n t i n u i t y of p o l i t i c a l of formal  4.  the ad hoc  ad hoc  approach e x h i b i t e d  of  The  the  improved with  i n the C h i l k o Lake  case was  strengthened by e s t a b l i s h i n g a s t r u c t u r e t h a t , while  allowing  the f l e x i b i l i t y  degree of  involvement and  of the b a r g a i n i n g  be conducted.  The  model, e s t a b l i s h e s  l i m i t s the e x p e c t a t i o n s  p a r t i c i p a n t s such that u n i n f l a t e d and political  will  of  to e s t a b l i s h the  the  the  principled negotiation  model as a t o o l f o r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n i s c r i t i c a l  121  this  bargaining to i t s  can  acceptance.  C o n t i n u i t y o-f e f f o r t ,  alone i n advancing  i-f maintained,  will  not stand  the use o-f b a r g a i n i n g i-f implementation  d e c i s i o n s i s not supported  of  by the p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n makers.  Agreements that may be reached  between parks and mines  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n the p u b l i c s e r v i c e or i n n e g o t i a t i o n between parties representing various public with  i n t e r e s t s must be supported  l e g i s l a t i v e or r e g u l a t o r y a c t i o n .  political  An e x t e n s i o n of the  support f o r the implementation  requirement  of f i n a n c i a l  support.  continue to have d i f f i c u l t y  Though i n t e r e s t groups may  financing  participation,  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of any kind i s seemingly sustained f a c i l i t a t i o n  of b a r g a i n i n g i s the  u n f e a s i b l e without the  provided by the m i n i s t r i e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s management.  The e x i s t i n g u n s t r u c t u r e d  b a r g a i n i n g , with i t s accompanying open-ended s t r u c t u r e , must be abandoned i n favour of planned Innovations  and t i m e - l i m i t e d b a r g a i n i n g .  i n the e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e of the b a r g a i n i n g model  in B r i t i s h Columbia c o u l d reduce  the time and c o s t s that have  been i n c u r r e d by i n t e n s i f y i n g the process such that much of the unproductive time over the past years might be reduced or e l i m i n a t e d with emphasis placed on s t r u c t u r e d b a r g a i n i n g .  The  l i t i g a t i o n model should not be discounted e n t i r e l y however, as the need f o r a d j u d i c a t e d s e t t l e m e n t s w i l l  remain where the  p a r t i e s to the c o n f l i c t are not able to pursue a more c o n c i l i a t o r y process of r e s o l u t i o n .  Cases where one or other of  the p a r t i e s i s u n w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e will  i n a b a r g a i n i n g process  r e q u i r e the f o r c e d measures of l i t i g a t i o n  processes of r e s o l u t i o n .  122  to engage  Detailed  s t r a t e g i e s f o r implementation of these  recommendations w i l l p a r t i e s that  have to be c o n s i d e r e d and developed by the  are to p a r t i c i p a t e i n processes aimed at r e s o l u t i o n  of the parks../ mines c o n f l i c t . implementation w i l l and the M i n i s t r y  Most prominent  be the M i n i s t r y  of Lands, Parks and  of Energy, Mines and Petroleum  123  i n the Housing,  Resources.  CITED REFERENCES Amy,  Douglas J . 1983a. "The P o l i t i c s of Environmental Mediation," Ec.DlQ9x_Law_Qu.ar.ter.lx. V o l . 11. No. 1 pp. 1 19. 1983b. "Environmental M e d i a t i o n : An A l t e r n a t i v e Approach to P o l i c y Stalemates," i Q u n n a l D £ P Q I J E X S c i e n c e s . 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U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Supreme Court of Canada. 1985. Her Majesty the Queen i n Right of B r i t i s h Columbia -and- David Evans Tener and Gertrude Marina Tener. Reasons ..for-Judgement• May 9. Susskind, Lawrence. 1981. "Environmental M e d i a t i o n and the A c c o u n t a b i l i t y Problem," _ £ _ m a _ _ _ L a _ _ _ £ _ _ £ _ . V o l . 6 No. 1. S p r i n g 1981 pp. 1 - 48. Susskind, Lawrence and A. Weinstein. 1980. "Toward a Theory of Environmental Dispute R e s o l u t i o n , " _Q_tan__Qll£3£i. E n _ i r . Q n m £ n t a l _ _ £ £ a i _ _ _ L a _ _ E £ _ i £ _ . pp. 311-357. Susskind, Lawrence and S c o t t McCleary. 1985. "Techniques f o r R e s o l v i n g C o a s t a l Resource Management D i s p u t e s Through Negotiation," _ m £ _ i _ a - E l a n u i n g _ _ - _ - _ i a _ i Q n - 2 a u _ n a l . Summer 1985. pp. 365 - 374. Tatreau, Doug and Bobbe Tatreau. 1973. Ih£_Ear.kS_o.£ Bnitish_CD.lumb.ia. Vancouver: M i t c h e l l P r e s s . Tener and Tener __ R. i n Right of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1982. B.C.C.A. Lambert, Macdonald and Anderson. J.J.A. March 2. Tweedsmuir, Lady E l s f i e l d . 1938. a P i 1 gram age," N.ati_nal_£ LXXIII. A p r i l p. 451. Wehr, P a u l . Press.  1979a.  "Tweedsmuir Park: the Diary of Vol.  CQn£li_t_B£giilatiQn.  Boulder: Westview  1979b. "Environmental Peacemaking: Problem, Theory, and Method," E£S£ac.ch_in_SDCial_tlDV£m£nts^_CQn£lic.is_and. Change. L o u i s K r i e s b e r g , ed. V o l . 2. Greenwhich: JAI Press, pp. 63-82. W i l l i a m s , Robert. 1966. Eack_Z._tlina_Z_CDmmiinitxi_lQfcinait.a_ LREfl.tiPn.-S,tud,y. Robert W i l l i a m s and A s s o c i a t e s . January. Youds, J.K.  1977.  _n_E_aminaii_n__£_w_ild_i_ness  B£__£atio____n  NaturaL-Enylronment. Working Paper No. 1. School of Urban and Regional P l a n n i n g : U n i v e r s i t y of Waterloo.  130  Youds, J.K. 1978. A._e__k__X__£___£__n_E__l_^^ lnstitutiQni._A_£as£__tu_y_ Q£_ih£_Bniii-h-CQlum_ia_E_r:k £XSl£__121__i2Z£. A t h e s i s presented to U n i v e r s i t y of Waterloo, Masters of A r t s . School of Urban and Regional P l a n n i n g . Waterloo O n t a r i o . Zwartendyk, J . 1972. W h a t _ i _ _ i a i n e n _ l _ E n _ Q _ m £ n t l _ and_Haw £hQ_l___£__ea5„ri£_I-2' Mineral Resources Branch, Department of Energy, Mines and Resources. Ottawa: Mineral B u l l e t i n MR 126.  131  PERSONAL INTERVIEWS AND COMMUNICATIONS  Bain, John. Research A s s i s t a n t , M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources. G e o l o g i c a l Branch. Personal communication and personal notes. November 8, 1982. C a p l i n g , Steve. Planning O f f i c e r , M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s . Lake. Telephone communication. A p r i l 29, 1985.  Williams  C o l l i n s , Vince. E x e c u t i v e D i r e s t o r , Parks Branch, A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r , M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Housing. Telephone communication. A p r i l 28, 1985. Dearden, P h i l i p . Chairman, B r i t i s h Columbia Chapter, N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l Parks A s s o c i a t i o n . Telephone communication. A p r i l 29, 1985. Personal communication. September 26, 1985. Dow, Duncan. Resources Planner, P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region. Personal communication. December, 1984. Downie, Bruce. Parks: Research & P l a n n i n g Inc. Personal communication. June 18, 1985. F u l l e r , Steven. F e d e r a t i o n of Mountain Clubs of B r i t i s h Columbia. Telephone communication. A p r i l 28, 1985. McArthur, G i b . Manager, Resource Data and A n a l y s i s , M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources. G e o l o g i c a l Branch. Personal communications. February 24, 1984. May 1, 1985. McLennon, Graham. Mineral Land Use S p e c i a l i s t , G e o l o g i c a l Branch. M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources. May 1, 1985. Paterson, Jack. Manager, B. C. and Yukon Chamber of Mines. Personal communications. February 15, 1984. May 8, 1985. R a t e l , Ann. Land Use C o o r d i n a t o r , G e o l o g i c a l Branch, M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources. Personal communication. May 1, 1985. Schmit, Rolph. G e o l o g i s t , G e o l o g i c a l Branch, M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources. Personal communication. March 13, 1984. Stevenson, R. W . ( B i l l ) . Chairman, B. C. Land Withdrawl Committee, B. C. and Yukon Chamber of Mines. Personal communication. May 8, 1985. Tener, David. Personal communication. March 7, 1983. A p r i l 26, 1985.  132  Thompson, Andrew R. Westwater Research Centre. U.B.C. Personal communication. March 11, 1983. Thompson, Derek. R e c r e a t i o n Planner, Southern I n t e r i o r Region, Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Branch, M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Housing. Kamloops. Telephone communication. A p r i l 29, 1985. Personal communication. June 18, 1985.  133  APPENDIX 1  CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF NEWSPAPER ARTICLES 1940 - 1985 PARKS / MINES CONFLICT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  134  Anon.  1946. "Manning Park Mine's V a r i e t y Promising," ___5_____1_, August 10, p. 15. 1961. "Parks 'Bury' Mines," V i c t o r i a March 3, p. 23. 1961. "Parks People Hurt Mineral V i c t o r i a Iim£S» March 3, p. 25.  Vancouver  _________  Interests,"  1964. "Kiernan to permit mining i n parks," £______£, February 19, pp. 1-2.  Vancouver  1964. "Kiernan Promises New Parks Act - But Next Year," V i c t o r i a l i m e s , February 28, p. 1. 1964. "Mine ban i n parks law now," E _ _ _ i n _ £ , March 11, p. 13.  Vancouver  1964. "Small Parks Mining Out," Vancouver Sj__ March 11, p. 10. 1964. "Park mining r i g h t s not new Vancouver E _ Q _ i n _ £ , March 13, p. 5.  - Kiernan,"  James, W.A. 1965. "Mining i n Parks," V i c t o r i a March 14, p. 4.  ___Qnist»  M i t c h e l l , C.H. 1965. March 14, p. 4.  " M u l t i p l e Use," V i c t o r i a  Coionist,  Stephen, J.C. 1965. March 22, p. 4.  "Mines i n Parks," Vancouver  Anon.  1965. p. 4.  M i t c h e l l , C.H. 1965, March, 10, p. 4. Anon.  ask Access," Vancouver  March 1,  E_Q_i__£  " P r o s p e c t i n g Discouraged," V i c t o r i a  1965. " C o n t r o l l e d Mining In Parks Advocated," S u a , March 11, p. 62.  MacAlpine, Ian. 1965. Parks," Vancouver Anon.  E_Q_i__£,  "Parks o f r the Miners," V i c t o r i a I i m £ _ »  Shaw, R.M. 1965. "Mine men March 1, p. 6.  f  JJu_£_  Vancouver  "Cabinet Urged to Let Mines Into 'B* S u n , September 16, p. 30.  1965. "Parks mining too r i s k y , E _ _ _ i n _ £ , September, 17, p. 19.  says C of C,"  Vancouver  1965. "Throw Open C l a s s B Parks to Mining," V i c t o r i a _ _ l _ _ i s _ » September 17, p. 18.  135  Sun,  1965. " E x p r o p r i a t i n g Mining Claims," Vancouver October 14, p. 4.  Carney, Tom. 1966. "Western's B u t t l e Lake P r o j e c t Example o-f Mine Gambles i n B.C.," V i c t o r i a l i m e s , November 16, p.16. E l l i o t t , Thomas. 1966. "Mining and parks: Is there r e a l l y a problem?," Vancouver E n o _ i n c . £ , March 30, p. 7. Anon.  1966. "Mine P r e s i d e n t Raps C r i t i c s Of Park E x p l o r a t i o n Work," Vancouver S u n , June 23, p. 32. . "Park Savers K i l l September 20, p. 15. 1 9 6 6  Colonial,  'Goose'" V i c t o r i a  Kent, Ab. 1966. " M u l t i p l e Use of Land Backed by Mines C h i e f , " V i c t o r i a l i m e s , December 22, p. 9. Anon.  1967. "Park being s p o i l e d B a r r e t t t e l l s House," Vancouver E n Q _ i n o e , March 23, p. 10. May  1967. "Park Bans 'Stop Boom'," Vancouver 30, p. 15.  . 1967. "Conservation, B.C. • June 10, p. 4. 1967. Vancouver S u n ,  Style," Victoria  Times,  " S i l v e r E x p l o r a t i o n Permitted i n Park," June 13, pp. 1-2.  Mika, John. 1967. "Kiernan Warning: More E x p l o r a t i o n in Park," V i c t o r i a l i m e s , June 13, p. 7. Anon.  Sun,  1968. "Mine Foes In Parks A Bother," V i c t o r i a January 10, p. 40.  Possible limes,  1968. " V i o l a t i o n of parks charged," Vancouver E n Q i i i n o e , February 22, p. 15. 1968. "Park L i n e s Drawn A f t e r Mine Claim'" V i c t o r i a C o l o n i s t , February 22, p. 20. 1968. "Kiernan Accused of A l t e r i n g Park Borders f o r Companies," Vancouver S u n , February 22, p. 11. 1968. " B a r r e t t demands law a g a i n s t park mining," Vancouver EnO—inoe, May 14, p. 10. 1968. "Mine Man D i s p u t e s Tourism Supremacy," Vancouver S u n , September 27, p. 23. S t a i n s b y , Donald. 1969. "The B.C. Miner as a C o n s e r v a t i o n i s t , " Vancouver S u n , February 25, p. 6. Anon.  1969. "NDP Charges: Park Land Opened tD Mining Firms," V i c t o r i a C o l o n i s t , March 28, p. 49. 136  Anon.  1969. "Mining: 'Anywhere, Any Time'," V i c t o r i a March 28, p. 44.  limes,  " W i l d l i f e Group C r i t i c i z e s P r o v i n c e s Mining Vancouver S u n , May 9, p. 33. 1969. Vancouver S u n ,  Policy,"  "Chamber Says: Scan Park Land t o r M i n e r a l s , " November 6, p. 2.  1969. " P o t e n t i a l Mines Lost Group Asks A p p r a i s a l Be-fore Parks Reserved," Vancouver S u n , November 6, p. 37. 1971. "Richter Backs Mining i n Parks," CQlD.ni._-, February 12, p. 3.  Victoria  1971. "Media h i t -for spreading m i s i n f o r m a t i o n about mining," Vancouver E t Q - i n c e , A p r i l 17, p. 46. . 1971. "Provincial Minister," Victoria l i m e s , 1971.  Mineral P o l i c y S p e l l e d Out A p r i l 17, p. 2.  "More than a park," Vancouver S u n ,  May  by 8,  p. 4. '•  . 1972. "Mine e x p l o r e r s deface B.C., w i l d l i f e b i o l o g i s t s charge," Vancouver S u n , November 18, pp. 1-2.  McKenzie, A r t . 1973. "Non - mining c a l l e d a non Vancouver __Q_inc.e» January 26, p. 19.  -  solution,"  Butters, Brian. 1973. "Door Slams On Mining," V i c t o r i a February 23, pp. 1-2.  lime,  McNelly, P e t e r . 1973. "Mining e x p l o r a t i o n i n parks banned," Vancouver E _ a _ i n _ e , February 23, pp. 1-2. Anon.  p.  1973. 13.  "Wider Ban On Mining," V i c t o r i a l i m e s ,  February  24,  McLintock, Barbara. 1973. "Government May Buy Park Mining Claims," V i c t o r i a C o l o n i s t , J u l y 24, p. 9. Anon.  1974. "Gov't study mines i n parks," Vancouver S u n , September 30, p. 14. 1974. "'Denuded' Parkland Approved V i c t o r i a l i m e s , October 1, p. 3.  of Mining,"  1975. "Park c l a i m s bought," Vancouver S u n , March 8, p. 8. 1975. "B.C. mine c l a i m s l e f t , October 30, p. 21.  137  in lurch,"  Vancouver  . 1976. "Park Mining 'Not a Bad Thing'," V i c t o r i a I i m _ S j January 29, p. 1. 1976. "Mining i n Parks 'Not Bad' 1+ S t r i c t Kept," Vancouver S u n , January 29, p. 49.  Controls  Travers-Smith, T. 1976. "Park S a n c t i t y , " V i c t o r i a ___£_, February 11, p. 4. Anon.  1976. "Gov't p l a n n i n g p o l i c y on mining i n parks," Vancouver E _ Q _ i n _ £ , February 20, p. 21. 1976.  "Park Mining," V i c t o r i a ___££»  February 21,  p. 4. 1976. " I f mining permitted i n S t r a t h c o n a i t would j u s t be f o o t i n the door," V i c t o r i a C o l o n i s t , February 22, p. 28. B l a i r , C.  1976.  "Mining," V i c t o r i a C o l o n i s t , March 2, p. 5.  1976. "Mining Ban i n Parks Endorsed," V i c t o r i a l i m e . . , March 8, p. 2.  Anon.  1976. "Park mine p o l i c y E_Q_i__£> March 30, p. 11.  studied,"  Vancouver  April  1976. "Park Mine Claims Vetoed," Vancouver S u n , 14, p. 18.  April  1976. "No More S t a k i n g i n Parks," V i c t o r i a 14, p. 9.  1976. "No New Mines Allowed In P r o v i n c i a l V i c t o r i a Iim£S» June 5, p. 2.  Iim££» Parks,"  Farrow, Moira. 1977. " C h i l c o t i n park plans s t u d i e d by government," Vancouver S u n , January 18, p. 1. Odum, Jes. 1979. "The P r o s p e c t i n g Game C u r t e l a g e keeps miners away," Vancouver S u n , October 29, p. A7. Anon.  1982. "Couple s t r i k e s bonanza i n park c l a i m s f i g h t , " Vancouver E _ Q _ i n _ £ , March 3. p. 1.  Kaun, Bruce. 1982. "Park proposal already a compromise," Vancouver S u n , A p r i l 13, p. 5. Farrow, Moira. 1982. " V i c t o r i a forming p o l i c y on mining i n parks," Vancouver S u n , August 23, p. A l l . Anon.  1982. " V i c t o r i a t o a l l o w mining i n B.C. Parks?," Vancouver _£__!£, September 22, p. 5. 1983. " D e c i s i o n time near f o r park i n V a l h a l l a s , " Vancouver S u n , February 5, p. G2. 138  Long, Wendy. 1983. " V a l h a l l a Park ' v i c t o r y ' met with mixed •feelings," Vancouver ___» February 18, p. A18. T u r k k i , Pat. 1984. " P i o n e e r i n g e a r l y days r e c a l l e d , " Sun, February 3, p. DI. Anon,  Vancouver  1984. "Industry spoksman urges mining i n Parks," Vancouver E c _ y . _ n c _ , February 19, p. 37.  C o m p a r e l l i , Peter, 1984. "Carter note supports Moresby preservaton f i g h t , " Vancouver S u n , June 22, p. A9. Lang, Stew. 1984. " M i n i s t e r s e t to tour Moresby V i c t o r i a l i m e s - C Q l o n i — t , June 23, p. A3. Bohn, Glenn. 1985a. "Law opens way Vancouver S u n , June 29, p. A3.  wilderness,"  -for mining i n park,"  1985b. "Company to press government -for r i g h t to mine c l a i m s i n park," Vancouver S u n , J u l y 4. p. A15. Brummet, Anthony J . 1985. "Government w i l l do utmost to save 'jewels'," Vancouver S u n , J u l y 17, p. A5. Bohn, Glenn. 1985c. "Mines i n parks pushed," Vancouver S u n , J u l y 18, p. A12. 1985d. "Owners o-f c l a i m s i n parks to get compensation," Vancouver S u n , J u l y 23, p. B l . 1985e. "Man with stake i n Wells Gray Park seeks permission to prospect by a i r , " Vancouver S u n * August 2, p. A3. Poole, Mike. 1985. "Mine: a hole i n the ground owned by a Vancouver S u n , August 14, p. A5.  liar,"  R u t t e r , Jim. 1985. "Mine: a hole i n the ground owned by a Vancouver S u n , August 14, p. A5.  liar,"  Hackett, John. 1985. "Mine: a hole i n the ground owned by a l i a r , " Vancouver S u n , August 14, p. A5. Heyck, Anya. 1985. "Impact o-f W e l l s Gray r u l i n g concerns," Vancouver S u n , August 22, p. B5.  139  raises  APPENDIX 2  PARKS / MINES DECISION MAKING ENVIRONMENT  140  PHASES  FOUNDATION PHASE 1940's - 1950's No c o n t r o v e r s y . E r a of economic optimism. Claim s t a k i n g and mining allowed i n p r o v i n c i a l parks. 1961  Park access r e s t r i c t e d but permission granted i n 80 % o-f cases. Economic growth i n the mineral s e c t o r begins a long upward swing that w i l l apex i n 1981.  1965  New PARK ACT land use of parks unchanged. Mining i n Parks i s s u b j e c t t o m i n i s t e r i a l d i s c r e t i o n . Both mining and parks l o b b i e s are very a c t i v e . Environmental movement i s g a i n i n g momentum on the p o l l u t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n i s s u e s .  1967  Mining i n S t r a t h c o n a Park at B u t t l e Lake i s and n e g o t i a t i o n s are undertaken.  1968  Mineral s t a k i n g allowed i n a l l p r o v i n c i a l parks. Mining allowed i n C l a s s B Parks. Mines m i n i s t e r proposes a l l o w i n g mining i n large parks r e g a r d l e s s of class. Small parks mineral i n d u s t r y a c t i v i t y banned. A l l e g a t i o n s of wrong doing are brought i n the case of mineral c l a i m s i n Tweesmuir Park.  1969  Mineral land Reclamation p o l i c y i s introduced with s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n lobby from some s e c t o r of the mining i ndustry.  1971  Mines M i n i s t e r backs mining i n parks. Government p o l i c y toward parks and r e s o u r c e s i s development or i e n t e d .  proposed  REVOLUTION PHASE 1972  E l e c t i o n of the New Democratic  Party  1973  Environment and Land Use Committee and S e c r a t a r i a t e a r e established. MINERAL ACT and PARK ACT amended. Mineral c l a i m s pending r e g i s t r a t i o n i n p r o v i n c i a l are denied. Mineral e x p l o r a t i o n i s banned i n P r o v i n c i a l Parks.  parks  Mineral c l a i m s i n p r o v i n c i a l parks are s u b j e c t t o review f o r the purpose of purchase by the government t o extinguish t i t l e . 1974  Though changes i n t a x a t i o n of the mineral i n d u s t r y has slowed growth i n the value of mine p r o d u c t i o n growth i s s t i l l r e g i s t e r e d throughout the economy.  1975  T h i r t e e n mineral c l a i m s are purchased in Wells Gray P r o v i n c i a l Park. 141  by the government  PROSPERITY PHASE 1975  S o c i a l C r e d i t Party  elected.  1976  M i n i s t e r of Mines makes statement i n favour of mining in parks i f c o n t r o l s are in p l a c e . Government c o n s i d e r s p o l i c y on mineral i n d u s t r y a c t i v i t y in parks. P o l i c y unchanged, mineral c l a i m s t a k i n g and e x p l o r a t i o n remain p r o h i b i t e d .  1977  Park planning continues parks are e s t a b l i s h e d .  1981  The apex of the p r o s p e r i t y phase i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by high metal p r i c e s , a g e n e r a l l y f a s t moving economy and production and p r o f i t s in a l l s e c t o r s of the p r o v i n c i a l economy.  on v a r i o u s f r o n t s but  no major  RECESSION PHASE 1982  As the p r o v i n c i a l economy began to d e c l i n e , i n response to downturns i n world p r i c e s of resources i n c l u d i n g m i n e r a l s and f o r e s t products, competition f o r resource lands i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t e n s i f i e d . P o l i c i e s on mineral a c t i v i t y in parks remains under consideration. Various park proposals continued to be exami ned.  1983  S o c i a l C r e d i t party i s r e - e l e c t e d , with a mandate to r e s t r a i n c o s t of government. Resources management agencies and procedures are reduced and e l i m i n a t e d to enable cost s a v i n g s . Planning procedures and a c t i v i t i e s are t a r g e t s f o r e l i m i n a t i o n as they are perceived to be a time encumberance in the d e c i s i o n making process. M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and Petroleum resources s e t p o l i c y of not w i l l i n g l y g i v i n g up any p o t e n t i a l mineral lands to wilderness d e s i g n a t i o n . The V a l h a l l a s P r o v i n c i a l Park i s designated a f t e r long lobby e f f o r t by c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t i n t e r e s t s .  1984  The M i n i s t r y of Lands Parks and Housing i s faced with the task of winning p o l i t i c a l support as well as developing s t u d i e s of the economics of park and w i l d e r n e s s d e s i g n a t i o n s that are proposed. Park d e s i g n a t i o n c l a s s e s a r e s i m p l i f i e d .  142  APPENDIX 3  CASE SELECTION FACTORS ANALYSIS  143  It i s the o b j e c t i v e o-f t h i s component to make e x p l i c i t c r i t e r i a and comparison  -format on which s e l e c t i o n o-f cases -for i n  depth a n a l y s i s i n chapter 5 of t h i s t h e s i s was m a t r i c e s have been c o n s t r u c t e d to a s s i s t first  conducted.  case.  Two  in t h i s selection.  r e f l e c t s the presence of each type of c o n f l i c t  individual  the  The  i n each  The r e l a t i v e i n c i d e n c e of the type of c o n f l i c t  in the case i s i n d i c a t e d by d e s i g n a t i o n s o f : Dominant; Elements Of; and Not Present. type of c o n f l i c t same way, once.  Any  i n d i v i d u a l case can have more than  one  that has the dominant d e s i g n a t i o n as, i n the  the not present d e s i g n a t i o n can be a p p l i e d more than  See Matrix  1.  The second matrix summarizes the a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s that have been considered i n the s e l e c t i o n process. f a c t o r s can be d i v i d e d  These s e l e c t i o n  i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : f a c t o r s of  d i s t i n c t i o n and f a c t o r s of p r a c t i c a l i t y .  See Matrix 2.  There are f o u r f a c t o r s that have been used to d i s t i n g u i s h cases from each o t h e r .  D i v e r s i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e s the  p o t e n t i a l f o r complexity posed a c t o r s i n the c o n f l i c t . involved  by a small or large number of  Those cases where fewer  in the c o n f l i c t may  be s i m p l e r .  the  Applicability  be thought  p a r t i e s are  of as having p o t e n t i a l  to other cases shows the  to  interrelated  nature of the cases that have been b r i e f l y examined to t h i s point.  While the C h i l k o Lake, South Moresby and V a l h a l l a cases  have f a c t o r s and s i m i l a r i t i e s that  l i n k them, the Wells Gray,  Tweedsmuir and A t l i n cases have s i m i l a r i t i e s that study of one w i l l  result  d i s c u s s i o n of the o t h e r s . which the cases chosen  i n d i c a t e the  i n f i n d i n g s that are s i g n i f i c a n t i n Of f u r t h e r concern  have advanced 144  i s the extent t o  i n the r e s o l u t i o n  processes  a v a i l a b l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia. process apart -from government i n d i c a t e d as a f a c t o r .  The e x i s t e n c e of a r e s o l u t i o n l e g i s l a t i v e d e c i s i o n s i s then  Finally,  another  d i s t i n c t i v e -factor i n  the s e l e c t i o n o-f cases i s the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n that the case h o l d s .  chronologically  I t i s the r e s e a r c h e r ' s o p i n i o n that cases  with a high, or r e c e n t , p o s i t i o n are p o t e n t i a l l y too c o n t e n t i o u s to be m e a n i n g f u l l y a c c e s s i b l e and o b j e c t i v e l y reviewed. chronological position  i n d i c a t e s a case, that through  A low inactivity  i s one that has become too o l d to permit r e l e v a n t r e s u l t s to be drawn  i n l i g h t of the c u r r e n t d e c i s i o n making schema.  median c h r o n o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n w i l l  reflect  the optimal  While a situation.  Three f a c t o r s have been s e l e c t e d as f a c t o r s of p r a c t i c a l i t y in a s s e s s i n g the cases' s u i t a b i l i t y f o r i n depth study.  First is  the e x i s t e n c e of an e x t e n s i v e w r i t t e n r e c o r d p e r t a i n i n g to the case.  Second i s the p r o x i m i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n sources to the  r e s e a r c h e r , and t h i r d ,  i s the degree of a c c e s s i b i l i t y of a c t o r s  in the c o n f l i c t . The f i n d i n g s i n these two m a t r i c e s are based  on my best  knowledge of the e i g h t cases i n chapter 2, b e f o r e f u l l taken  i n the i n depth s t u d i e s of chapter 5.  knowledge are i n t u i t i v e dimensions  Accompanying  acquired through  145  this  familiarity  with the g e n e r i c perks / mines c o n f l i c t as encountered Columbia.  measure i s  in B r i t i s h  MATRIX 1  PRESENCE OF CONFLICT TYPES  COGNITIVE  VALUE  1 2 3 !  INTEREST  BEHAVIORAL  1 2 3 ' ,  1 2 3  ' . 1 2 3 J  CHILKO LAKE  X  i  X  !  X  SOUTH MORESBY  X  i  X  i  X  I X  VALHALLA  X  !  X  !  X  I  KWADACHA  X  I  X  I  STRATHCONA  X  I  X  I  X I  TWEEDSMUIR WELLS GRAY ATLIN  X  I X I  X X  1= DOMINANT 2= ELEMENTS OF 3= NOT PRESENT  146  I  X I  X  X  I  X  I I  X  X  X  I  X  X X  I X X  I  X  MATRIX 2 CASE SELECTION FACTORS B  A 1  2  3  4  1  2  3  CHILKO  X  X  X  0  X  X  X  SOUTH MORESBY  X  X  X  X  X  X  0  VALHALLA  X  X  X  X  X  0  0  KWADACHA  0  STRATHCONA  X  TWEEDSMUIR  0  0  X  WELLS GRAY  X  ATLIN  X  X  X = HIGH 0 = MEDIUM - = LOW A= FACTORS OF DISTINCTION 1= 2= 3= 4=  DIVERSITY OF PARTICIPANTS APPLICABILITY TO OTHER CASES EXISTENCE OF RESOLUTION PROCESSES CHRONOLOGICAL POSITION  B= FACTORS OF PRACTICALITY 1= WRITTEN RECORD 2= INFORMATION PROXIMITY 3= ACTOR ACCESSIBILITY  Upon examination there  are a v a r i e t y o-f reasons that  lead us  to the s e l e c t i o n o-f the Wells Gray P r o v i n c i a l Park and the C h i l k o Lake Wilderness Park p r o p o s a l s -for i n depth a n a l y s i s i n t h i s thesis.  I t i s my d e s i r e t o be as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  14?  as p o s s i b l e i n  the cases such that the understanding o-f the c o n f l i c t and consequently the p r o p o s i t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e c o n f l i c t processes i s not u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y skewed. explicit result  resolution  Further, a desire i s  t o choose cases that upon examination  and a n a l y s i s  will  i n f i n d i n g s that are t r a n s f e r a b l e to cases of s i m i l a r  circumstance w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l  jurisdiction.  Primary t o the s e l e c t i o n of these cases i s the d i s t i n c t i o n that each r e p r e s e n t s an i n s t a n c e where each of the p a r t i e s t o the c o n f l i c t are the f i r s t some r i g h t t o land.  i n r i g h t and the other i s t r y i n g t o a s s e r t  Though the Tener c l a i m s predate the  establishment of Wells Gray Park, the c u r r e n t c o n f l i c t i s centered around  the d e s i r e of the c l a i m holder to get access to  the park  The C h i l k o case, on the other hand, e n t a i l s the  land.  perserverance of the park proponent  i n advancing  park  land use  d e s i g n a t i o n on lands where mineral c l a i m s over well known mineral occurences are well known and of long s t a n d i n g . The  two cases chosen  exemplify two d i f f e r e n t  l e v e l s of  complexity that are contained w i t h i n the g e n e r i c parks / mines c o n f l i c t as we have come to know i t .  The Wells Gray case i s one  of a r e l a t i v e l y simple nature where the number of p a r t i c i p a n t s i s few and the r e s u l t a n t complexity inherent  i s l i m i t e d to that which i s  i n the arguments and n e g o t i a t i o n s presented.  The  C h i l k o Case, on the c o n t r a r y , i s one of p o t e n t i a l l y many p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the c o n f l i c t .  Though the major d i f f i c u l t y  lies  in the divergence between the parks and mines i n t e r e s t s , a large number of competing  peripheral  i n t e r e s t s are present to compound  the s i t u a t i o n . A third rational  f o r the c h o i c e of these cases i s found i n  148  the approaches  to c o n f l i c t  attempts t o r e s o l v e them. f o r each case.  r e s o l u t i o n that have been used i n D i f f e r e n t approaches  have been used  The Wells Gray case i s one where the c o u r t s have  been used to a d j u d i c a t e some r e s o l u t i o n which t o mid 1985 has not been s a t i s f a c t o r y . an extended  The C h i l k o Lake Case has been the s u b j e c t of  land use p l a n n i n g process that has not r e s u l t e d  d e c i s i o n or the r e s o l u t i o n of the c o n f l i c t  that  of these processes r e f l e c t common approaches resolution  i n the parks / mines s i t u a t i o n .  degree of success has been q u e s t i o n a b l e . i n t e r e s t t D determine  A final  i s present.  Each  to c o n f l i c t In each of these, the  I t i s t h e r e f o r e of  the types of c o n f l i c t and response  b r i n g s an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  in a  that  result.  r a t i o n a l e f o r the s e l e c t i o n of these cases i s the  apparent a v a i l a b i l i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n and sources of knowledge p e r t a i n i n g to the cases. located  With p r i n c i p l e s involved  i n the lower mainland  of B r i t i s h Columbia  as well as the c o u r t documentation  i n each  case  and V i c t o r i a ,  of the Wells Gray Case,  these  s e l e c t i o n s have been made. To summarize, there are four reasons f o r choosing the Wells Gray and the C h i l k o Lake cases. between proponents  First,  i n each; second,  i s the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  i s the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  number and complexity of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the c o n f l i c t ; i s the v a r i e t y of the response p r o f f e r e d the i n d i v i d u a l c o n f l i c t s ; and f i n a l l y ,  third,  i n attempts to r e s o l v e  the r e l a t i v e p r o x i m i t y  and abundance of i n f o r m a t i o n on these cases r e l a t i v e to the o t h e r s examined i n chapter 2.  149  APPENDIX 4  CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS WELLS GRAY PROVINCIAL PARK  150  FOUNDATION PHASE 1934  June 5.  First  r i g h t s to mineral  claimed  1937  J u l y 3. A consortium of i n v e s t o r s r e c e i v e crown granted t i t l e to 16 mineral c l a i m s . Holdings are d i s t r i b u t e d as f o l l o w s : Bradley 50 % Tener Sr. 25 % others 25 % J u l y 23. C e r t i f i c a t e of i n d e f e a s i b l e t i t l e under the Land R e g i s t r y Act.  i s issued  1939  December 14. N o t i c e of Wells Gray Park r e s e r v e appears in the B r i t i s h Columbia Gazette. The Park i s c r e a t e d . Tener Sr. s t i l l has the r i g h t to m i n e r a l s and to work on the s u r f a c e .  1940's  Some e x p l o r a t i o n and mineral c l a i m s  1965  A park use permit i s now r e q u i r e d f o r development of mineral c l a i m s w i t h i n a l l parks.  1970  Tener c o n t i n u e s process of a c q u i r i n g park land permi t .  development work i s conducted  on  use  REVOLUTION PHASE 1972  November. New government.  Democratic Party r e p l a c e s S o c i a l C r e d i t  1973  February 22. The Park Act i s r e v i s e d to r e s t r i c t access of Tener to the s u r f a c e of the c l a i m s .  the  J u l y 23. P r o v i n c i a l Government a c t i v e l y c o n s i d e r s n e g o t i a t i o n to buy out mineral r i g h t s held i n p r o v i n c i a l parks. 1974  September.  Tener Sr. d i e s .  Tener begins to request park land use permits such that work can continue on the c l a i m s . 1975  S p r i n g . David Tener takes over B r a d l e y ' s share to win c o n t r o l l i n g i n t e r e s t i n the c l a i m s . L e t t e r s , telephone c a l l s , and personal c o n f e r e n c i n g between Tener and the Parks Branch continue 1975 - 1978  151  PROSPERITY PHASE 1975  S o c i a l C r e d i t government  returns.  1977  M i n i s t e r of Mines, Jim Chabot o f f e r s David 100,000 d o l l a r q u i t c l a i m compensation.  1978  January 24. Parks Branch claim price.  Tener  requests an itemized q u i t  Tener, t r e a t s the l e t t e r as a d e n i a l of the r i g h t s to m i n e r a l s that he holds. Tener, h i s accountants, lawyers, and P. Eng. W.T. I r v i n e prepare c l a i m value estimate of h i s t o r i c a l expenditures at 1.5 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s , and the present value of l o s s of o p p o r t u n i t y to be about 3 m i l l i o n dollars. Parks Branch employee who claim price i s f i r e d .  writes l e t t e r asking f o r quit  1979  May. Issue a w r i t a g a i n s t the Crown i n Right of B r i t i s h Columbia asking f o r compensation.  1980  B r i t i s h Columbia Supreme Court r e j e c t s Tener's c l a i m f o r compensation.  RECESSION PHASE 1982  March 2. B r i t i s h Columbia Court of Appeal r u l e s that Tener should be compensated f o r the 16 mineral c l a i m s in Wells Gray Park. December 30. Factums of both the A p p e l l a n t ( B r i t i s h Columbia) and Respondent (Tener) are submitted to the Supreme Court of Canada.  1984  November 2. F i n a l documents of the p a r t i e s to the case are submitted to the Supreme Court of Canada.  1985  A p r i l 26. Tener awaits the d e c i s i o n of the Supreme Court of Canada. Current compensation c l a i m p r i c e i s suggested of 5.2 million dollars. Upward e s t i m a t e s have been suggested of 12 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . May 9. Supreme Court of Canada reasons are handed down in favour of Tener. June 28. P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e passes ammendments that allow the c r e a t i o n of a r e c r e a t i o n area i n Wells Gray P r o v i n c i a l Park, thus a l l o w i n g Tener to proceed with development. 152  APPENDIX 5  CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS CHILKO LAKE WILDERNESS  153  PROPOSAL  FOUNDATION PHASE 1935  P r o s p e c t o r s recover gold from the Lord River area w i t h i n the C h i l k o area.  1940's  Mineral i n d u s t r y i^e**s-trr-y a c t i v i t y i s increased with the e x p l o r a t i o n diamond d r i l l c o r i n g and t u n n e l i n g of mineral d e p o s i t s .  1964  F u r t h e r s t a k i n g of mineral c l a i m s i n the C h i l k o Lake area.  1970's  R i s i n g metal area.  p r i c e s cause increased a c t i v i t y  in Chilko  REVOLUTION PHASE 1973  Parks Branch of the M i n i s t r y of R e c r e a t i o n and Conservation do a s e r i e s of s t u d i e s t o i n v e s t i g a t e park v a l u e s i n the r e g i o n extending from Tweedsmuir Park i n the north t o Carpenter Lake i n the south.  1975  September 11. I n t e r - agency C h i l c o t i n Wilderness Park Study i s i n i t i a t e d by the Environment and Land Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t e .  PROSPERITY PHASE 1980  Mineral e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t y c o n t i n u e s t o a t t r a c t a c o n s i d e r a b l e expenditure.  RECESSION PHASE 1981 February. Deferred Area Planning Process i n i t i a t e d between M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s and M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Housing. 1982  J u l y . Mineral r e s o u r c e s and p o t e n t i a l study i s completed f o r the C h i l k o Lake area by M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines ad Petroleum Resources. November 5-7. M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources holds a Land Use Review Seminar i n V i c t o r i a to a s s i s t i n determining c o n f l i c t s between mineral and other land uses. Mineral e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t y i s c u r t a i l e d due t o concerns f o r s e c u r i t y of mineral r i g h t s tenure and f a l l i n g mineral p r i c e s .  1983  May 28. M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources presents a p o s i t i o n paper o u t l i n i n g the mineral resource management p e r s p e c t i v e f o r w i l d e r n e s s l e g i s l a t i o n and management i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  154  June 17. Deferred P l a n n i n g Area Report f o r C h i l k o i s submitted t o the Environment and Land Use T e c h n i c a l Committee o-f the P r o v i n c i a l Deputy M i n i s t e r s . J u l y 7. P r o v i n c i a l Budget c a l l s -for the e l i m i n a t i o n o-f the Regional Resource Management Committees and a r e d u c t i o n i n P l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s throughout the p r o v i n c i a l government s e r v i c e s . Cariboo Regional Resources Management Committee recommend the c r e a t i o n of a core r e c r e a t i o n area with mineral e x p l o r a t i o n allowed i n the p e r i p h e r y . Parks and Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n o-f the M i n i s t r y a-f Lands, Parks and Housing c o n t i n u e t o push -for the establishment o-f a C l a s s A park i n the C h i l k o area. Lands, Parks and Housing r e a l i z e that they need c o n s i d e r a b l e p o l i t i c a l support be-fore a park or r e c r e a t i o n area proposal i s put be-fore the p r o v i n c i a l cabi net. Process o-f c o n s u l t a t i o n and mediation between the parks and mines i n t e r e s t s by Lands, Parks and Housing i s begun. 1984  May. Mineral r e s o u r c e development land use p o l i c y -for the m i n i s t r y o-f Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources i s pub 1i shed. Regular c o n s u l t a t i o n between the G e o l o g i c a l Branch o-f the M i n i s t r y o-f Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources and the Parks and Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n o-f the M i n i s t r y o-f Lands, Parks and Housing c o n t i n u e at the headquarters l e v e l . August 22. Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Branch o-f the M i n i s t r y o-f Lands, Parks and Housing p u b l i s h e s park land d e s i g n a t i o n p o l i c y that w i l l e l i m i n a t e c l a s s e s o-f parks l e a v i n g only C l a s s A P r o v i n c i a l Parks and r e c r e a t i o n areas.  1985  A p r i l . Parks and Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n of the M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Housing submit a p o l i c y proposal t o the mining i n d u s t r y f o r comment.  155  

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