UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A chromatographic approach to the diagnosis of humus quality and some implications for forest management Laird, Robert Morris 1984

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1984_A6_7 L34.pdf [ 10.7MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0096161.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0096161-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0096161-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0096161-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0096161-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0096161-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0096161-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0096161-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0096161.ris

Full Text

A CHROMATOGRAPHIC APPROACH TO THE DIAGNOSIS OF HUMUS QUALITY AND SOME IMPLICATIONS FOR FOREST MANAGEMENT by ROBERT MORRIS LAIRD B.Sc., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( I N T E R D I S C I P L I N A R Y STUDIES, RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SCIENCE) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A p r i l 1984 (c) R o b e r t M o r r i s L a i r d , 1984. In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of ^T€fiO\SU?L.xv4A^ S T ^ E S The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date ABSTRACT Und e r s t a n d i n g f o r e s t humus i s s e e n as an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f sound f o r e s t management. A method u s i n g p a p e r c h r o m a t o g r a p h y , d e v e l o p e d by P f e i f f e r i s e x a m i n e d as a d i a g n o s t i c a p p r o a c h t o t h e n a t u r e and d y n a m i c s of f o r e s t humus. C h r o m a t o g r a m s a r e p r e p a r e d f r o m a s o d i u m h y d r o x i d e e x t r a c t o f humus. On a c i r c u l a r f i l t e r p a p e r t h e r a d i a t i n g e x t r a c t r e a c t s w i t h s i l v e r n i t r a t e p r o d u c i n g a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p i c t u r e o r "humus s p e c t r u m " . P r e l i m i n a r y work r e l a t i n g c h r o m a t o g r a m s t o t y p e s o f humus and s i t e c o n d i t i o n s I s p r e s e n t e d and d i s c u s s e d . F u r t h e r c o m p a r i s o n s a r e made between c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s and a r a n g e of c h e m i c a l and s i t e v a r i a b l e s of 103 humus f o r m s a m p l e s . S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s , s c a t t e r g r a m s and d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s e s a r e p r e s e n t e d and d i s c u s s e d . I t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m a l l o w s a n e t w o r k of i n f e r e n c e s t o be made a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f f o r e s t humus. A l t h o u g h n o t q u a n t i t a t i v e l y p r e d i c t i v e , t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m r e f l e c t s i n a c o n s i s t e n t manner, p r o p e r t i e s o f humus d e r i v e d f r o m c h e m i c a l a n a l y s e s . I t s u p p o r t s t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f humus f o r m s and may p r o v i d e a method o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n when m o r p h o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s a r e i n c o n c l u s i v e as f o u n d i n c l e a r c u t s o r o t h e r d i s t u r b e d s i t e s . A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r f o r e s t management a r e d i s c u s s e d and a number of e x a m p l e s p r e s e n t e d . The p o t e n t i a l f o r m o n i t o r i n g c h a n g e s a s a r e s u l t of management p r a c t i s e s i s s e e n as p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g . The method may p r o v i d e t h e f i e l d manager w i t h a p r a c t i c a l i n t e r p r e t i v e t o o l , and t h e s t u d e n t of humus d y n a m i c s w i t h a n i n t e r e s t i n g b r i d g e b e t w e e n t h e r e s u l t s o f a n a l y t i c a l c h e m i s t r y a n d f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i n - s i t u h u m u s . The l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e a p p r o a c h a r e d i s c u s s e d a n d f u r t h e r s t u d i e s s u g g e s t e d . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE L I S T OF TABLES v L I S T OF FIGURES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x INTRODUCTION 1 NATURE AND ROLE OF HUMUS 6 MATERIALS AND METHODS PRELIMINARY STUDY 11 UBC RESEARCH FOREST STUDY 16 SAYWARD PROVINCIAL FOREST STUDY 18 MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS 22 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION PRELIMINARY STUDY 24 UBC RESEARCH FOREST STUDY 29 SAYWARD PROVINCIAL FOREST STUDY 35 •MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS 69 LIMITATIONS OF THE APPROACH AND FURTHER STUDIES 78 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 84 LITERATURE CITED 88 APPENDICES APPENDIX 1 CHROMATOGRAMS OF REPLICATED HUMUS SAMPLES 91 APPENDIX I I DATA SET - SAYWARD PROVINCIAL FOREST STUDY 94 i v L I S T OF TABLES TABLE • PAGE 1 L i s t o f v a r i a b l e s and a b b r e v i a t i o n s u s e d . 21 2 C h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and a s s o c i a t e d c h e m i c a l v a r i a b l e s o f t h r e e s i t e s i n t h e UBC R e s e a r c h F o r e s t . 33 3 Means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s o f 18 r e p l i c a t e c h r o m a t o g r a m s . 34 4-1 S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t ween c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and s i t e and humus sa m p l e c h e m i c a l v a r i a b l e s o f a l l s a m p l e s f r o m Sayward F o r e s t . 36 4-2 S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and s i t e and humus sa m p l e c h e m i c a l v a r i a b l e s o f o r g a n i c s a m p l e s f r o m Sayward F o r e s t . 37 4-3 S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and s i t e and humus sa m p l e c h e m i c a l v a r i a b l e s o f Ah s a m p l e s f r o m S a y w a r d F o r e s t . 38 5 Summary of r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n c h r o m a t o g r a p i c v a r i a b l e s and s i t e and humus sample c h e m i c a l v a r i a b l e s f r o m Sayward F o r e s t S t u d y . 68 6 C h r o m a t o g r a p h i c and c h e m i c a l v a r i a b l e s o f humus s a m p l e s f r o m p u r e D o u g l a s - f i r , m i x e d , and p u r e w e s t e r n h e m l o c k s t a n d s . 73 7 C h r o m a t o g r a p h i c and c h e m i c a l v a r i a b l e s o f humus s a m p l e s f r o m two " s a l a l " humus s i t e s . 74 v L I S T OF FIGURES FIGURE " PAGE 1 C h r o m a t o g r a p h y i n p r o c e s s . 13 2 C h r o m a t o g r a m s p r e p a r e d w i t h o u t use of s i l v e r n i t r a t e . 15 3 S c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m o f c h r o m a t o g r a m s h o w i n g c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s . 17 4 C h r o m a t o g r a m s o f a r a n g e o f s a m p l e s f r o m d i f f e r e n t s o i l t y p e s p r e p a r e d i n p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d i e s . 26 5 C h r o m a t o g r a m s o f h o r i z o n s o f same s o i l p r o f i l e . 27 6 C h r o m a t o g r a m s of two a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s . 28 7 C h r o m a t o g r a m s o f humus s a m p l e s f r o m t h r e e s i t e s i n t h e UBC R e s e a r c h F o r e s t . 30 8 C h r o m a t o g r a m s o f Bhf h o r i z o n s f r o m t h r e e s i t e s i n t h e UBC R e s e a r c h F o r e s t . 31 9 Chro m a t o g r a m s o f LFH s a m p l e s f r o m t h r e e s i t e s i n t h e UBC R e s e a r c h F o r e s t . 32 10 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween Wl and PHH20 u s i n g a l l s a m p l e s . 40 11 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n Wl and L I P I D A u s i n g a l l s a m p l e s . 40 12 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between Wl and EXK u s i n g a l l s a m p l e s . 41 13 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween Wl and CN u s i n g a l l s a m p l e s . 41 14 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n Wl and HFORM u s i n g a l l s a m p l e s . 42 vx 15 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between Wl and HYGR u s i n g a l l s a m p l e s . 42 16 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between Wl and TROPH u s i n g a l l s a m p l e s . 43 17 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between Wl and SUBZ u s i n g a l l s a m p l e s . 43 18 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween Wl and CF1 u s i n g a l l s a m p l e s . 44 19 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between W4 and PHH20 u s i n g a l l s a m p l e s . 44 20 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween W4 and HUMC u s i n g a l l s a m p l e s . 45 21 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween SP and HUMC u s i n g a l l s a m p l e s . 47 22 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between Wl and PHH20 u s i n g o r g a n i c s a m p l e s . 47 23 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between Wl and HYGR u s i n g o r g a n i c s a m p l e s . 48 24 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between Wl and HFORM u s i n g o r g a n i c s a m p l e s . 48 25 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between Wl and L I P I D A u s i n g o r g a n i c s a m p l e s . 49 26 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between Wl and CN u s i n g o r g a n i c s a m p l e s . 49 27 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between W4 and PHH20 u s i n g o r g a n i c s a m p l e s . 51 V 1 1 28 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between W4 and HUMC u s i n g o r g a n i c s a m p l e s . 51 29 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween LO and CN u s i n g o r g a n i c s a m p l e s . 52 30 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between LO and TCA u s i n g o r g a n i c s a m p l e s . 52 31 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between LO and FDSI u s i n g o r g a n i c s a m p l e s . 53 32 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween LO and HWSI u s i n g o r g a n i c s a m p l e s . 53 33 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between Wl and TC u s i n g Ah s a m p l e s . 54 34 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between Wl and CEC u s i n g Ah s a m p l e s . 55 35 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between W4 and MINN u s i n g Ah s a m p l e s . 55 36 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between D3 and HUMC u s i n g Ah s a m p l e s . 55 37 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n D3 and CEC u s i n g Ah s a m p l e s . 56 38 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between D3 and FDSI u s i n g Ah s a m p l e s . 56 39 S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between D2 and FDSI u s i n g Ah s a m p l e s . 57 40 C h r o m a t o g r a m s of M u l l humus f o r m s a m p l e s . 62 41 C h r o m a t o g r a m s o f Mor humus f o r m s a m p l e s . 62 v i i i 42 E x a m p l e c h r o m a t o g r a m s s h o w i n g c o l o u r and f o r m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 63 43 C h r o m a t o g r a m s of two h o r i z o n s s a m p l e d f r o m a D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d . 65 44 C h r o m a t o g r a m s o f h o r i z o n s s a m p l e d f r o m a w e s t e r n h e m l o c k s t a n d . ' 66 45 C h r o m a t o g r a m s o f humus (LFH) s a m p l e d f r o m c o n t r o l and t r e a t e d s i t e s . 72 46 C h r o m a t o g r a m s o f humus (LFH) s a m p l e d f r o m t h r e e s t a n d s t h a t d i f f e r i n s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n . 76 47 C h r o m a t o g r a m s o f humus (LFH) s a m p l e d f r o m two s i t e s where s a l a l i s d o m i n a n t i n t h e s h r u b l a y e r . 77 48 C h r o m a t o g r a m s of s e p a r a t e d f r a c t i o n s . 79 49 Ch r o m a t o g r a m s o f s e l e c t e d m i n e r a l s o i l h o r i z o n s . 83 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Th a n k s t o c o l l e a g u e s i n t h e R e s e a r c h S e c t i o n o f t h e M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y P. C o u r t i n f o r h e l p i n d a t a management and a n a l y s i s . T h a n k s t o L. L a i r d and R. C a r t e r f o r a s s i s t a n c e w i t h word p r o c e s s i n g , and t o L. L a v k u l i c h f o r h i s e a r l y e n c o u r a g e m e n t and p a t i e n c e . x INTRODUCTION Humus has p r o v e d t o be an e l u s i v e and c o m p l e x s u b s t a n c e . A good d e a l o f s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h has t a k e n p l a c e , c l a s s i c a l l y i n R u s s i a and more r e c e n t l y i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . V e r y s o p h i s t i c a t e d a n a l y s i s has been u s e d , and i s c o n t i n u i n g f o l l o w i n g t h e a p p r o a c h e s d e v e l o p e d i n R u s s i a n s c h o o l s . C h e m i c a l f r a c t i o n a t i o n and a n a l y s i s a r e used t o e l u c i d a t e t h e m o l e c u l a r c o m p o s i t i o n , t o a t t e m p t t o d e f i n e t h i s s u b s t a n c e i n f o r m , s t r u c t u r e and c o m p o s i t i o n . T h i s a p p r o a c h has been o n l y p a r t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l on a p r a c t i c a l b a s i s , b e c a u s e i n s p i t e o f t h e work done t o d a t e , and e v i d e n c e o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f humus, v e r y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o q u a l i t y and management o f humus i n a g r i c u l t u r a l o r s i l v i c u l t u r a l s y s t e m s . A n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n i s i n t h e " o r g a n i c movement". However i t i s s u r p r i s i n g how u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d and i n a s e n s e u n s c i e n t i f i c , o r g a n i c m a t t e r management has been C o n s i d e r i n g t h e e f f o r t s i n t h e r e a l m o f i n o r g a n i c t r e a t m e n t w h i c h has c u l m i n a t e d i n h y d r o p o n i c s , humus management has been n e g l e c t e d . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s n e g l e c t may p r o v e a s e v e r e p r o b l e m . Most e n v i r o n m e n t a l s c i e n t i s t s know t h e p r o b l e m s o f e r o s i o n , s u b s i d e n c e , p o l l u t i o n o f g r o u n d w a t e r , d e c l i n e i n q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of p r o d u c e , i n c r e a s e i n p e s t damage, e t c . These s u b j e c t s have been e x p l o r e d i n w o r k s h o p s s u c h as t h e S o i l D e g r a d a t i o n Workshop ( Anon. 1983) ,the A g r o l o g i s t ( 1 9 7 5 ) and by i n d i v i d u a l s s u c h as S c h u m a c h e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) . F a i l u r e t o t a k e humus 1 s e r i o u s l y i s a key c o n t r i b u t o r t o t h e s e p r o b l e m s . A l a r g e p a r t o f t h e i r " c u r e " l i e s i n t h e a c t i v e , c o n s i d e r e d management o f humus. F o r e s t s y s t e m s a r e u s e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y f o r two m a j o r r e a s o n s . They p r o v i d e t h e most n a t u r a l s y s t e m a v a i l a b l e i n w h i c h t o e x p l o r e t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s o f s i t e d y n a m i c s and humus. More p r a c t i c a l l y t h e a u t h o r has w o r k e d w i t h them o v e r t h e l a s t f o u r y e a r s as a P e d o l o g i s t i n t h e E c o l o g i c a l P r o g r a m o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s . The p o t e n t i a l f o r humus management i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r e s t s has n o t been d e v e l o p e d t o any s i g n i f i c a n t d e g r e e . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n t o humus w i l l p r o v i d e a good b a s i s f o r l o n g t e r m f o r e s t management. F o r e s t r y p r a c t i c e s i n B.C. have h i s t o r i c a l l y v i e w e d s o i l s and t h e i r s u r f a c e o r g a n i c m a t t e r ( " d u f f " ) as b e i n g o f m i n o r i m p o r t a n c e . C l e a r c u t t i n g , i n d i s c r i m i m a n t s l a s h b u r n i n g and g r o u n d s k i d d i n g have l e f t a l e g a c y of "N.S.R." ( n o t s a t i s f a c t o r i l y r e s t o c k e d ) f o r e s t l a n d s . P o o r u t i l i z a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l has l e f t h e a v i l y l i g n o u s a r e a s p a r t i c u l a r l y where d e c a d e n t s t a n d s have been h a r v e s t e d . T hese s i t u a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t , i n many c a s e s , d e g r a d a t i o n o f s i t e q u a l i t y . I d e a l l y , management s h o u l d e nhance q u a l i t y and p r o d u c t i v i t y on a l o n g t e r m b a s i s . R e c e n t l y t h e M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s has p r o v i d e d an i m p r o v e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f humus f o r m s ( K l i n k a e_t a _ l . , 1 9 8 0 ) . A l o n g w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n and s t u d y o f f o r e s t e c o s y s t e m s , a l o n g e r t e r m e c o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h t o f o r e s t management i s d e v e l o p i n g . P r e s e n t work i s p r i m a r i l y d e s c r i p t i v e , c h a r a c t e r i s i n g t h e c h e m i c a l and ' 2 e c o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f humus f o r m s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s . P r e l i m i n a r y work w i t h a c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c method of s t u d y i n g humus has l e d t o a h y p o t h e s i s t h a t s u c h an a p p r o a c h c a n be u s e f u l i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e c h e m i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f humus and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o humus f o r m , n u t r i e n t s t a t u s and m o i s t u r e r e g i m e . The c h r o m a t o g r a m g i v e s a v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e n a t u r e of humus. I t a l s o p r o v i d e s a t e s t f o r t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f humus f o r m s now u s e d i n B.C. A m a j o r p a r t of t h e f o l l o w i n g t h e s i s i s t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h i s method - i s t h e method p r a c t i c a l l y u s e f u l , and what i n f o r m a t i o n c a n be d e r i v e d f r o m t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m f o r management d e c i s i o n s ? I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t v a r i o u s k i n d s o f i n f o r m a t i o n can be i n f e r r e d f r o m t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m . F i r s t l y , t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m s h o u l d r e f l e c t s o m e t h i n g o f t h e c h e m i c a l c o n s t i t u e n t s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s a m p l e . C h r o m a t o g r a p h y s e p a r a t e s s u b s t a n c e s i n s o l u t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o m o l e c u l a r w e i g h t and s i z e . One w o u l d e x p e c t s m a l l e r m o l e c u l e s t o m i g r a t e more q u i c k l y and t h e r e f o r e be f u r t h e s t f r o m t h e o r i g i n . S i l v e r l i k e l y c o n f o u n d s t h e m i g r a t i o n by f o r m i n g c o m p l e x e s w i t h humic m o l e c u l e s , p r e c i p i t a t i n g them d e p e n d i n g on t h e i r s t r u c t u r e and a c t i v i t y . However, s i m i l a r c o m p o n e n t s s h o u l d r e a c t i n s i m i l a r ways i n t h e c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c p r o c e s s . The c h r o m a t o g r a m s h o u l d be a " f i n g e r p r i n t " o f t h e c h e m i c a l c o n s t i t u e n t s i n t h e s a m p l e . S e c o n d l y , t h i s " f i n g e r p r i n t " s h o u l d r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s o f humus f o r m a t i o n b e t ween two or more 3 s a m p l e s , and s h o u l d e x p r e s s a r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e humus f o r m . T h i r d l y , b e c a u s e humus f o r m i s r e l a t e d i n t i m a t e l y t o t h e e c o s y s t e m , t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m s h o u l d be an i n d i c a t o r o f g e n e r a l s i t e e c o l o g y . T h i s t h e s i s e x p l o r e s t h e n a t u r e o f humus and a d i a g n o s t i c a p p r o a c h t o s t u d y i n g humus as a key i n s o i l s y s t e m s and management of them. The management i s e m p h a s i z e d . I t i s n o t meant t o be a d e f i n i t i v e s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y , b u t a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o a r a t i o n a l e f o r a p p r o a c h i n g management d e c i s i o n s , and h o p e f u l l y i m p r o v i n g them. T h e r e i s an o b v i o u s c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e n a t u r a l p r o c e s s e s of humus f o r m a t i o n i n f o r e s t s y s t e m s and t h e " a r t i f i c i a l " c o m p o s t i n g p r a c t i c e d on f a r m s and i n d u s t r i a l c o m p o s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . The t y p e o f i n p u t , t h e t e m p e r a t u r e , m o i s t u r e and pH a r e t h e m a j o r f a c t o r s t h a t d e t e r m i n e t h e q u a l i t y of p r o d u c t . The p r o d u c t w h e t h e r on t h e f a r m o r i n t h e f o r e s t i s r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e humus. F o r e s t management a c t i v i t i e s a l t e r l i g h t , p l a n t s p e c i e s , t e m p e r a t u r e , m o i s t u r e and n u t r i e n t c y c l i n g . T h e i r e f f e c t s on humus and s i t e q u a l i t y need c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Some o f t h e s e p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r e d e a l t w i t h i n "Management A p p l i c a t i o n s " . As m e n t i o n e d , humus has been n e g l e c t e d t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e i n f o r e s t management. T h e r e i s c l e a r l y a need t o f i n d p r a c t i c a l ways of e x a m i n i n g humus t o s u p p o r t management d e c i s i o n s . Q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y t i c a l a p p r o a c h e s have n o t as y e t p r o v i d e d many d e f i n i t i v e a n s w e r s . T h e r e i s an u r g e n c y t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d and manage t h e f o r e s t and s o i l r e s o u r c e s . T h i s u r g e n c y has p r o v i d e d t h e i m p e t u s t o e x p l o r e t h e c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c method, i n s p i t e o f i t s q u a l i t a t i v e n a t u r e , and i n s p i t e o f many unknowns r e g a r d i n g i t s s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p t o humus c h e m i s t r y . The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e : t o e x p l o r e t h e c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c a p p r o a c h ; to d e t e r m i n e what i n f o r m a t i o n c a n be i n f e r r e d f r o m t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m and p r o v i d e some j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e i n f e r e n c e s ; and t o exa m i n e t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e method as a d i a g n o s t i c management t o o l . The e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e o f t h i s t h e s i s r e q u i r e d f o u r s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t . E a c h s t a g e f o l l o w e d f r o m t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d y . F i r s t , a g e n e r a l s u r v e y of s o i l t y p e s was made. Then, a p p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were e x a m i n e d between c h r o m a t o g r a m s and c h e m i c a l and s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of humus u s i n g a w e l l -c h a r a c t e r i z e d a r e a - t h e UBC R e s e a r c h F o r e s t . T h i r d l y , r e l a t i o n s h i p s were e x a m i n e d u s i n g 103 humus f o r m s a m p l e s f r o m t h e Sayward P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t . T h i s p r o v i d e d t h e b a s i s f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m f o r management a p p l i c a t i o n i n s t a g e f o u r . 5 NATURE AND ROLE OF HUMUS The f o r e s t e d e c o s y s t e m i n i t s n a t u r a l s t a t e r e p r e s e n t s a s t a t e o f d y n a m i c e q u i l i b r i u m . I t i s c e r t a i n l y n o t a c l o s e d s y s t e m , however w i t h a w e l l d e v e l o p e d canopy t h e r e i s a c l e a r l y an i s o l a t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n f r o m c l i m a t i c v a r i a t i o n o u t s i d e . The s o u r c e o f humus i s t h e r h y t h m i c c y c l e o f l i t t e r f a l l , d y i n g r o o t s , a n i m a l p r o d u c t s and c o r p s e s . The e l e m e n t s o f t h e s y s t e m p a s s f r o m t h e l i v i n g t o t h e dead and a g a i n t o t h e l i v i n g . Humus o c c u p i e s a p l a c e b e t ween t h e s e e x t r e m e s . L i t t l e wonder t h a t i t i s e l u s i v e . Humus may be e l u s i v e and d i f f i c u l t t o s t u d y i n i t s n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , b u t i t i s o f m a j o r i m p o r t a n c e i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e f o r e s t e c o s y t e m . S u k a c h e v and D y l i s ( 1 9 6 8 ) c o n s i d e r i t t o be t h e " p r i n c i p a l f o r e s t b i o g e o c o e n o s e component" b e c a u s e " i t i s f o r m e d f r o m dead o r g a n i c r e m a i n s and i s a r e s u l t o f t h e l i f e - a c t i v i t y o f o r g a n i s m s and n o t a p r o d u c t o f t h e s o i l - f o r m i n g p r o c e s s as a w h o l e . I t i s a c r u c i a l l i n k b e t w e e n t he b i o l o g i c a l and g e o l o g i c a l c o m p o n e n t s o f an e c o s y s t e m . Humus, " d u f f " and s o i l o r g a n i c m a t t e r a r e t e r m s t h a t a r e u s e d somewhat l o o s e l y t o r e f e r t o d e c o m p o s i n g or decomposed p l a n t and a n i m a l r e m a i n s and t h e i r p r o d u c t s . Humus does n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y i n c l u d e undecomposed m a t e r i a l s . P r a c t i c a l l y h o w e v e r , i t i s i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u n a l t e r e d o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l s and w i t h i n o r g a n i c m i n e r a l m a t t e r . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s t h e s i s , humus r e f e r s t o t h e o r g a n i c p r o d u c t s o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f p l a n t and a n i m a l d e b r i s , on o r i n t h e s o i l , and i n v o l v e d i n s o i l p r o c e s s e s . Humic s u b s t a n c e s more s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r t o i s o l a t e d f r a c t i o n s or c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e b r o a d e r c o n c e p t , humus. The t e r m humus f o r m r e f e r s t o " a g r o u p o f s o i l h o r i z o n s a t or n e a r t h e s u r f a c e o f a p edon, w h i c h have f o r m e d f r o m o r g a n i c r e s i d u e s , e i t h e r s e p a r a t e f r o m or i n t e r m i x e d w i t h m i n e r a l m a t e r i a l s " ( K l i n k a e t a l . , 1 9 8 1 ) . Much o f t h e a n a l y t i c a l work i n humus s t u d i e s has been d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s humic s u b s t a n c e s - t h e i s o l a t e d f r a c t i o n s . Humic s u b s t a n c e s have been d e s c r i b e d as d a r k c o l o u r e d , a c i d i c , p r e d o m i n a n t l y a r o m a t i c , h y d r o p h i l i c ( i n most c a s e s ) , c h e m i c a l l y c o m p l e x , p o l y - e l e c t r o l y t i c - l i k e s u b s t a n c e s , w i t h m o l e c l u a r w e i g h t s r a n g i n g f r o m 100 t o many t h o u s a n d s ( S c h n i t z e r and K han, 1 9 7 8 ) . The f o r m a t i o n o f t h e s e s u b s t a n c e s has been a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o c e s s e s : 1. P l a n t a l t e r a t i o n - where t h e n a t u r e of t h e p l a n t d e t e r m i n e s n a t u r e o f humus. 2. C h e m i c a l p o l y m e r i z a t i o n - m a t e r i a l s a r e d e g r a d e d by m i c r o b e s t o s m a l l m o l e c u l e s , t h e n m i c r o b e s s y n t h e s i z e p h e n o l s and amino a c i d s w h i c h o x i d i z e t o f o r m humic s u b s t a n c e s - so p l a n t n a t u r e h a s l i t t l e e f f e c t on t h e r e s u l t . 3. C e l l a u t o l y s i s - a u t o l y s i s o f p l a n t and m i c r o b e s w h i c h c o n d e n s e and p o l y m e r i z e . 7 4. M i c r o b i a l s y n t h e s i s - m i c r o b e s s y n t h e s i z e humic s u b s t a n c e s i n t r a c e l l u l a r l y . The c o n s e n s u s a p p e a r s t o be t h a t a l l f o u r p r o c e s s e s may be t a k i n g p l a c e : c h e m i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l d e g r a d a t i o n o f p l a n t and a n i m a l r e s i d u e s and s y n t h e t i c a c t i v i t i e s o f m i c r o o r g a n i s m s , i n t r a and e x t r a c e l l u l a r l y . The p r o c e s s i s s e e n as g e n e r a l l y s l o w w i t h d a t i n g t e c h n i q u e s g i v i n g ages f r o m 50 t o 3,000 y e a r s ( G j e s s i n g , 1 9 7 6 ) . T h i s v a r i a t i o n i n r e s u l t s i s t y p i c a l o f s t u d i e s of humic s u b s t a n c e s and a g a i n i t must be e m p h a s i z e d t h a t most a n a l y t i c a l work i s b a s e d on an e x t r a c t i o n m e t h o d o l o g y u s i n g b a s e s , a c i d s and a l c o h o l s . T h e r e a r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e c l a s s i c f r a c t i o n s ( a l c o h o l s o l u b l e waxes and f a t s ; a c i d and b a s e s o l u b l e f u l v i c a c i d s ; base s o l u b l e humic a c i d s ; and i n s o l u b l e h u m i n s ) and s o i l t y p e s ( K o n o n o v a , 1 9 6 6 ) , but t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e h i g h l y v a r i a b l e . Humic and f u l v i c a c i d s a p p e a r t o c o n v e r t t o one a n o t h e r and a r e l i k e l y p a r t o f a c o n t i n u u m - p r o d u c t s of a method and d e f i n e d by t h e method. As s u c h t h e s e component humic s u b s t a n c e s . may w e l l be p a r t i a l a r t i f a c t s and n o t r e a l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n n a t u r a l s y s t e m s . I t may h e l p t o e x p l a i n t h e l a c k of f i r m r e s u l t s and t h e e x t r e m e v a r i a b i l i t y of v i e w s on humus. The summary v i e w o f humus f r o m a c h e m i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w i s " t h a t nobody r e a l l y knows", ( A n o n . , 1 9 7 2 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , Lowe and K l i n k a ( 1 9 7 6 ) r e p o r t t h e r e v e r s e of a c l a s s i c a s s u m p t i o n t h a t humid c o n d i t i o n s f a v o u r t h e p r o d u c t i o n of f u l v i c a c i d s . The l i t e r a t u r e c o n t a i n s many s u c h a p p a r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . T h e r e i s a good d e a l more a g r e e m e n t i n r e g a r d t o t h e r o l e o f humus i n s o i l s y s t e m s . The i m p o r t a n c e o f humus as a n u t r i e n t s o u r c e i s v e r y e v i d e n t . The b i o l o g i c a l c y c l i n g o c c u r i n g t h r o u g h humus f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e s a c o n t i n u o u s s u p p l y of e n e r g y t o t h e s y s t e m . Humus has a r e m a r k a b l e c a p a c i t y f o r l i n k i n g i t s e l f t o t h e i n o r g a n i c . O r g a n i c a c i d s d i s s o l v e p h o s p h a t e s and c a r b o n a t e s m a k i n g them a v a i l a b l e t o p l a n t s . R e l a t i o n s h i p s t o m e t a l s o c c u r a s c o m p l e x a t i o n , i o n e x c h a n g e and c h e l a t i o n . The r e d u c t i o n o f i r o n i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n p o d z o l i z a t i o n . A d s o r p t i o n w i t h c l a y s , b o n d i n g w i t h o r g a n i c compounds s u c h as DDT and u r e a i n d i c a t e a w i d e b r e a d t h o f i n v o l v e m e n t i n s o i l p r o c e s s e s . I t i s s u m m a r i z e d by t h e h i g h c a t i o n e x c h a n g e c a p a c i t y w h i c h humus e x h i b i t s . O t h e r m a j o r r o l e s i n c l u d e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s o i l s t r u c t u r e , i n s u l a t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n , and v e r y i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e c a p a c i t y f o r h o l d i n g w a t e r . The many more s u b t l e r o l e s o f humus i n g r o w t h p r o m o t i o n and a n t i b i o t i c e f f e c t s ( S u k a c h e v and D y l i s ,1968, K o n o n o v a , 1 9 6 6 ) a r e n o t w e l l e x p l o r e d , t h o u g h w i l l l i k e l y be i m p o r t a n t f o r f u t u r e management. How humus t a k e s p a r t i n t h e s e many r o l e s i s o b s c u r e . K o n onova ( 1 9 6 6 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t " g e n e r a l c o n c e p t i o n s and l a w s of c h e m i s t r y c a n n o t be a p p l i e d t o phenomena a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m a c r o m o l e c u l e s " . G j e s s i n g ( 1 9 7 6 ) s e e s t h e v a r i o u s b o n d i n g phenonema as b e i n g t h e same. Humus a g a i n i s p a r t o f d y n a m i c l i v i n g p r o c e s s e s t h a t by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e c a n n o t be 9 u n d e r s t o o d by i n o r g a n i c l a w s . I n o r g a n i c and t h e l a w s s u m m a r i z e what i s o b s e r v e d , what i s o b s e r v e d o u t o f t h e w h o l e . s y s t e m s a r e p r e d i c t a b l e O r g a n i c s y s t e m s p r o d u c e I n s t u d y i n g humus f r o m a management p e r s p e c t i v e , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o d i s c o v e r t r e n d s or b e h a v i o r of s y s t e m s so t h a t o ut of t h e s y s t e m i t s e l f t h e d i r e c t i o n of p r o c e s s e s can be i n f l u e n c e d . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t a b r o a d e r , more h o l i s t i c a p p r o a c h t o s t u d y i n g humus i s r e q u i r e d . "As i n a l l o t h e r s t u d i e s and i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of e c o l o g i c a l u n i t s , t h e r e a r e no a b s o l u t e v a l u e s . . . t h e s o i l t y p e w i t h a s p e c i a l c r o p ... c r e a t e s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c m i c r o c l i m a t e . . . i n f l u e n c e s b i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y . . . w h i c h y i e l d s a d i s t i n c t humus s p e c t r u m . " ( P a u l i , 1 9 6 7 ) . The c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c method u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e s a v i s u a l p i c t u r e o f t h e humus s p e c t r u m . 10 MATERIALS AND METHODS PRELIMINARY STUDY D u r i n g f i e l d t r i p s i n 1979 t h r o u g h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and A l b e r t a , s o i l s a m p l e s of a w i d e r a n g e of s o i l t y p e s and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e h o r i z o n s were c o l l e c t e d . S a m ples were a i r - d r i e d and b r o k e n - u p by hand t o p a s s a 2-mm s c r e e n . C h r o m a t o g r a m s were p r e p a r e d u s i n g an a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g method. P f e i f f e r ( 1 9 5 9 ) d e v e l o p e d t h e f o l l o w i n g method t o e v a l u a t e a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s and compost q u a l i l t y . F i v e t o s e v e n grams o f s o i l o r compost a r e m i x e d w i t h 50ml of .25 NaOH and e x t r a c t e d f o r s i x h o u r s . The e x t r a c t i s a l l o w e d t o r a d i a t e v i a a p a p e r w i c k t h r o u g h a c i r c u l a r f i l t e r p a p e r (Whatman no. 1) 15cm i n d i a m e t e r . A c l o s e d chamber i s us e d t o m a i n t a i n h u m i d i t y w h i l e t h e e x t r a c t r a d i a t e s . The f i l t e r - d i s c h as p r e v i o u s l y been t r e a t e d by a l l o w i n g a .5 p e r c e n t s i l v e r n i t r a t e s o l u t i o n t o r a d i a t e t o 75mm , t h e n d r i e d . F i g u r e 1 shows t h e humus e x t r a c t as i t r a d i a t e s . When t h e e x t r a c t r e a c h e s 120mm , t h e w i c k i s removed and t h e r e s u l t i n g c h r o m a t o g r a m d r i e d and d e v e l o p e d i n d i f f u s e l i g h t f o r 48 h o u r s . More r e c e n t l y , t h e method has been d e s c r i b e d by K o e p f ( 1 9 6 4 ) and B r i n t o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l and c o m p o s t i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s . The a u t h o r f i r s t l e a r n e d of t h i s method i n E n g l a n d i n t h e e a r l y 7 0 ' s . D u r i n g 1979, t e s t s w i t h t h e method on f o r e s t s o i l s i n d i c a t e d some a d a p t a t i o n was r e q u i r e d . The e x t r a c t a b i l i t y o f 11 f o r e s t humus r e q u i r e d l e s s t h a n t h e 5 t o 7 grams s u g g e s t e d i n o r d e r t h a t t h e e x t r a c t w o u l d r a d i a t e t o t h e o u t e r a r e a . The c h r o m a t o g r a m s were p r e p a r e d by u s i n g 2.5 grams o f m i n e r a l s o i l s a m p le o r 1.25 grams o f o r g a n i c s a m p l e . 12 C h r o m a t o g r a p h y i n p r o c e s s . Humus e x t r a c t r a d i a t i n g a f t e r 15 m i n u t e s . M o i s t p a p e r t o w e l s m a i n t a i n h u m i d i t y i n g l a s s t o p box. F i g u r e 1 C h r o m a t o g r a p h y i n p r o c e s s a f t e r 40 m i n u t e s 13 A g e n e r a l l y " n a i v e " a p p r o a c h i s t a k e n i n r e g a r d t o t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m . The humus e x t r a c t u s e d (NaOH e x t r a c t e d ) w i l l c o n t a i n a p r o p o r t i o n of t h e humus f r a c t i o n s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n . C e r t a i n l y f u l v i c and h u m ic a c i d s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d , as w e l l as s o l u b l e c o m p o n e n t s ( s u g a r s , s a l t s , e t c . ) . One w o u l d e x p e c t s m a l l e r m o l e c u l e s t o m i g r a t e more q u i c k l y and g e n e r a l l y end up a t t h e p e r i p h e r y . T h i s however i s c o n f o u n d e d by t h e a c t i o n of s i l v e r . I t i s o b v i o u s l y c r i t i c a l f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of z o n e s . F i g u r e 2 shows an LFH e x t r a c t and Ah e x t r a c t w i t h o u t u s i n g s i l v e r n i t r a t e . T h e r e i s no d e f i n i t i o n o f z o n e s . S i l v e r w i l l f o r m c o m p l e x e s w i t h many com p o n e n t s i n c l u d i n g OH r a d i c a l s o f e x t r a c t i n g s o l u t i o n . S i l v e r o x i d e s i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h t h e humus c o l o u r s t h e m s e l v e s p r o d u c e t h e c o l o u r s i n t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m . E x t r a c t a b i l i t y o f humus v a r i e s w i t h pH ( K o n a n o v a 1 9 6 6 ) . I t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m w i l l r e f l e c t c h a n g e s i n pH. The amount o f sample u s e d f o r e x t r a c t i o n was one gram i f g r e a t e r t h a n 17% o r g a n i c c a r b o n and two grams i f l e s s t h a n 17% o r g a n i c c a r b o n . The i n t e n s i t y o f c o l o u r v a r i e s w i t h t h e amount o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r . As m e n t i o n e d one w o u l d e x p e c t t h e more m o b i l e f u l v i c a c i d f r a c t i o n t o m i g r a t e t o t h e p e r i p h e r y . However, b e c a u s e i t may be e x p e c t e d t o c o m p l e x more r a p i d l y w i t h s i l v e r , (Lowe, p e r s . comm.,1983) i t may a l s o c o n c e n t r a t e n e a r e r t h e c e n t r e . G e n e r a l l y t h e w i d e r t h e z o n e , t h e more o f a p a r t i c u l a r s u b s t a n c e o r c o m p l e x of s u b s t a n c e s m i g h t be e x p e c t e d . The d e n s i t y o f t h e zone s h o u l d a l s o r e f l e c t t h e amount o f s u b s t a n c e . 14 15 UBC RESEARCH FOREST STUDY T h r e e p l o t s were s e l e c t e d a t t h e UBC R e s e a r c h F o r e s t r e p r e s e n t i n g x e r i c , m e s i c and h y g r i c e c o s y s t e m s f o r w h i c h s o i l a n a l y s i s had been done ( K l i n k a and Lowe 1 9 7 6 ) . X e r i c , m e s i c and h y g r i c r e f e r t o m o i s t u r e r e g i m e o r h y g r o t o p e as u s e d by t h e M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s S t a f f ( W a l m s l e y e t a 1 . 1 9 8 0 ) . S i m p l y , t h e y a r e d r y , m o i s t and wet s i t e s w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v e g e t a t i o n . Two s a m p l e s (25cm by 40cm x t h e d e p t h o f humus f o r m ) were t a k e n a t each p l o t . T h e s e were a i r d r i e d and g r o u n d . An a d d i t i o n a l two s a m p l e s were t a k e n a t t h e m e s i c s i t e f o r use i n t e s t i n g t h e r e p e a t a b i l i t y o f t h e c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c method. C h r o m a t o g r a m s were p r e p a r e d f r o m e a c h H or H i h o r i z o n , Bhf h o r i z o n , and an LFH c o m b i n e d sample u s i n g a one gram sample f o r t h e o r g a n i c s a m p l e s and two grams f o r m i n e r a l s a m p l e s . E i g h t e e n r e p l i c a t e c h r o m a t o g r a m s were p r e p a r e d u s i n g one gram s u b - s a m p l e s (LFH) f r o m t h e a d d i t i o n a l s a m p l e s t a k e n a t t h e m e s i c s i t e . The c h r o m a t o g r a m s e x h i b i t e d r e p e a t i n g z o n e s and f o r m s . M e a s u r e m e n t s of t h e s e r e p e a t i n g z o n e s were made u s i n g d i v i d e r s . F o u r m e a s u r e m e n t s were made of e a c h and t h e a v e r a g e r e p o r t . e d i n m i l l i m e t r e s . Numbers o f l o b e s and s p i k e f o r m a t i o n s were c o u n t e d . F i g u r e 3 shows a s c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m of z o n e s and a s s o c i a t e d m e a s u r e m e n t s . 16 F i g u r e 3 S c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m o f c h r o m a t o g r a m s h o w i n g d e r i v e d v a r i a b l e s . 17 The d e v e l o p e d c h r o m a t o g r a m s were p h o t o g r a p h e d i n b r i g h t d a y l i g h t t o p r e s e r v e a r e c o r d o f t h e i r c o l o u r s . A s l i g h t d a r k e n i n g was o b s e r v e d i n some o f t h e e a r l y c h r o m a t o g r a m s . The o r i g i n a l c h r o m a t o g r a m s a r e s t o r e d i n a l i g h t - p r o o f c o n t a i n e r . The p h o t o g r a p h s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y show t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m s a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f - s i z e . SAYWARD PROVINCIAL FOREST STUDY D u r i n g 1980 and 1981 e x t e n s i v e s a m p l i n g of t h e Sayward P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t was u n d e r t a k e n by t h e M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s r e s e a r c h s t a f f t o d e s c r i b e and c h a r a c t e r i z e e c o s y s t e m s of t h e a r e a . The F o r e s t i s on e a s t e r n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d n e a r C a m p b e l l R i v e r , and i n c l u d e s a r a n g e o f c l i m a t e , s o i l s and v e g e t a t i o n i n t e g r a t e d i n t o s e v e r a l b i o g e o c l i m a t i c s u b z o n e s . P l o t s were s e l e c t e d u s i n g s y n e c o l o g i c a l methods so t h a t t h e r a n g e o f a s s o c i a t i o n s i n e a c h s u b z o n e was r e p r e s e n t e d by a t l e a s t f i v e p l o t s . I n a l l , some 120 p l o t s were s a m p l e d and d e s c r i b e d a c c o r d i n g t o p r o c e d u r e s i n D e s c r i b i n g E c o s y s t e m s i n t h e F i e l d ( W a l m s l e y e_t a _ l . , 1 9 8 1 ) . E a c h 400 s q u a r e m e t r e p l o t was d e s c r i b e d by t h e above p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h i n c l u d e v e g e t a t i o n , s o i l s by a m o d a l p i t , - humus f o r m , m e n s u r a t i o n d a t a , w i l d l i f e i n f o r m a t i o n and g e n e r a l s i t e f e a t u r e s . S o i l s were s a m p l e d by h o r i z o n . Humus f o r m s were s a m p l e d as LFH c o m p o s i t e s i f e c t o r g a n i c . E n d o r g a n i c and o r g a n i c h o r i z o n s were s a m p l e d s e p a r a t e l y ( A h , Oh) where t h e y o c c u r e d . E a c h humus sa m p l e was a i r d r i e d , g r o u n d i n a b l e n d e r and t h e n i n a W i l e y m i l l and a n a l y s e d f o r a w i d e r a n g e o f c h e m i c a l v a r i a b l e s . 18 A n a l y s i s was done s u m m a r i z e d b e l o w : by P a c i f i c S o i l A n a l y s i s I n c . M e t h o d s a r e 1. T o t a l C a r b o n - W a l k l e y - B l a c k . ( B l a c k e t a l . , 1 9 6 5 ) . 2. T o t a l N i t r o g e n - S u l p h u r i c a c i d d i g e s t i o n f o l l o w e d by c o l o u r i m e t r i c a n a l y s i s .( B l a c k e_t a _ l . , 1965 ) ( Watanabe and 0 1 s e n , 1 9 6 5 ) . 3. T o t a l P h o s p h o r u s - S u l p h u r i c a c i d - p e r o x i d e d i g e s t i o n f o l l o w e d by c o l o u r i m e t r i c a n a l y s i s .( B l a c k e_t a _ l . , 1 965 ) (Watanabe and O l s e n , 1 9 6 5 ) . 4. M i n e r a l i z a b l e N i t r o g e n - W a r i n g Method - 2 week 30'C i n c u b a t i o n . ( W a r i n g and B r e m n e r , 1 9 6 4 ) . 5. CEC and e x c h a n g e a b l e c a t i o n s - one n o r m a l ammonium a c e t a t e pH=7 m e t h o d . ( B l a c k e t a l . , 1 9 6 5 ) . 6. T o t a l C a t i o n s - S u l p h u r i c a c i d - p e r o x i d e d i g e s t i o n f o l l o w e d by A.A. a n a l y s i s . ( P r i c e , 1 9 7 8 ) . 7. L i p i d A f r a c t i o n - e t h a n o l - b e n z e n e e x t r a c t i o n . ( L o w e , 1 9 7 4 ) . 8. F r a c t i o n B - e x t r a c t e d w i t h 0.1 N s u l p h u r i c a c i d . C a r b o n d e t e r m i n e d by method 1. S u g a r s d e t e r m i n e d by p h e n o l - s u l p h u r i c m e t h o d . ( L o w e , 1 9 7 4 ) . 9. Humics and f u l v i c s were e x t r a c t e d w i t h 4 , 200 m l . e x t r a c t i o n s of 0.2 N NaOH. C a r b o n s were d e t e r m i n e d by method 1. N i t r o g e n d e t e r m i n e d by e v a p o r a t i o n f o l l o w e d by method 2. E400 and E600 a b s o r b a n c e s m e a s u r e d on a 50 ppm c a r b o n humic e x t r a c t . C a l c u l a t e d on a 1% c a r b o n b a s i s . ( L o w e , 1 9 7 4 ) ( K 1 i n k a and Lowe, 1 9 7 6 ) . 10. P y r o p h o s p h a t e Fe and A l d e t e r m i n e d by e x t r a c t i o n w i t h 0.1M s o d i u m p y r o p h o s p h a t e . ( B a s c o m b , 1 9 7 8 ) . The s o i l s component of t h e S a yward S t u d y i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e a u t h o r . The d e v e l o p e d d a t a s e t i n c l u d e s 146 v a r i a b l e s and 114 p l o t s . A r e p o r t i s i n p r o g r e s s e n t i t l e d Humus Forms o f t h e S a y w a r d F o r e s t w h i c h i s bu t one p a r t o f t h e Sayward F o r e s t S t u d y . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s t h e s i s , e a c h c o m p l e t e humus f o r m 19 sample was u s e d t o p r e p a r e c h r o m a t o g r a m s . One gram of o r g a n i c sample was u s e d , two grams f o r m i n e r a l s o i l ( A h ) . O n l y humus f o r m s w i t h one s a m p l e i . e . , LFH, Ah or 0 were u s e d b e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n a v e r a g i n g c h r o m a t o g r a m s . T h e r e i s t h e r e f o r e , one c h r o m a t o g r a m f o r one humus f o r m . T h i s a l l o w s d i r e c t c o m p a r i s o n o f th e c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s w i t h t h e c h e m i c a l , p h y s i c a l and c a t a g o r i c a l v a r i a b l e s o f e a c h p l o t . The d a t a s e t u s e d i s shown i n A p p e n d i x I and has 50 v a r i a b l e s f o r 103 p l o t s . C h e m i c a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n d a t a and s i t e d a t a was s e l e c t e d f rom t h e l a r g e d a t a s e t r e s u l t i n g i n t h e use o f t h e 50 v a r i a b l e s shown i n t a b l e 1. 20 T a b l e 1 L i s t o f v a r i a b l e s and a b b r e v i a t i o n s u s e d . PHH20 - pH i n w a t e r TC - t o t a l C ( % ) TN - t o t a l N ( %) CN - TC/TN TP - t o t a l P ( % ) MINN - raineralizable N ( % ) CEC - c a t i o n e x c h a n g e c a p a c i t y ( m e q / 1 O O g ) EXCA - e x c h a n g e a b l e Ca(meq/100g.) EXMG _ e x c h a n g e a b l e Mg(meq/lOOg.) EXNA - e x c h a n g e a b l e Na(meq/1OOg.) EXK - e x c h a n g e a b l e K(meq/100g.) L I P I D A - l i p i d f r a c t i o n ( % ) CB - C a r b o n i n f r a c t i o n B (%) SB - s u g a r s i n f r a c t i o n B ( % ) HUMC - C a r b o n i n humic a c i d f r a c t i o n ( % ) HUMN - N i t r o g e n i n humic a c i d f r a c t i o n ( % ) CF1 - C a r b o n i n f u l v i c a c i d f r a c t i o n ( % ) CHCF - HUMC/CF1 = humic C a r b o n / f u l v i c C a r b o n E400 - E400 nm f o r humic a c i d f r a c t i o n E600 - E600 nm f o r humic a c i d f r a c t i o n E40E6 - E400/E600 TCA - t o t a l C a l c i u m ( % ) TMG - t o t a l M a g n e s i u m ( % ) TK - t o t a l P o t a s s i u m ( % ) TNA - t o t a l S o d i u m ( % ) TFE - t o t a l I r o n ( % ) TAL - t o t a l A l u m i n u m ( % ) TMN - t o t a l M a n g a n e s e ( % ) PYFE - p y r o p h o s p h a t e e x t r a c t a b l e I r o n ( % ) PYAL - p y r o p h o s p h a t e e x t r a c t a b l e A l u m i n u m ( % ) DTREE - d o m i n a n t t r e e s p e c i e s SUBZ - b i o g e o c l i m a t i c s u b z o n e ELEV - e l e v a t i o n (m) HYGR - h y g r o t o p e TROPH - t r o p h o t o p e HFORM - humus f o r m t a x a FDSI - D o u g l a s - f i r ( P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i ( M i r b . ) F r a n c o ) s i t e i n d e x (m./lOO y r . ) P L S I - L o d g e p o l e p i n e ( P i n u s c o n t o r t a D o u g l . ) s i t e i n d e x HWSI - W e s t e r n hemlock(T_s_ug_a h e t e r o p h y l l a ( R a f . ) S a r g . ) s i t e i n d e x CWSI - W e s t e r n r e d c e d a r ( T h u j a p i i c a t a Donn) s i t e i n d e x D2 - d i a m e t e r of 2nd zon e (mm) D3 - d i a m e t e r o f 3d zone (mm) Wl - w i d t h o f i n n e r zone (mm) W2 - w i d t h o f 2nd zone (mm) W3 - w i d t h of 3d zon e (mm) W4 - w i d t h o f o u t e r zone (mm) LO - number o f l o b e s SP - number o f s p i k e s 21 The c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s used were a l l m e a s u r e m e n t s o r numbers a s s o c i a t e d w i t h z o n e s as m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y . T hese were s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e o f s i m p l i c i t y i n o b t a i n i n g them. The c o l o u r s a r e c l e a r l y i m p o r t a n t a t t r i b u t e s , h o wever t o e x p r e s s them as d i s c r e t e v a r i a b l e s w o u l d r e q u i r e v e r y e l a b o r a t e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , a t t h e l e a s t d e n s i t o m e t e r s . As w i t h s o i l s t h e m s e l v e s , c o l o u r i s q u i t e a s u b j e c t i v e phenonemon even w i t h t h e use o f M u n s e l l c o l o u r c h a r t s . C o l o u r s t h e n were e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s h o w e v e r , t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e i s d i s c u s s e d i n l a t e r s e c t i o n s . B o t h MIDAS ( F o x and G u i r e , 1 9 7 6 ) and BMDP ( D i x o n e t a l . , 1 9 8 1 ) were u s e d i n d a t a a n a l y s i s . C o r r e l a t i o n s were e x a m i n e d b e t w e e n t h e c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and c h e m i c a l and s i t e v a r i a b l e s f o r eac h s a m p l e . S c a t t e r g r a m s were p r e p a r e d f o r t h e s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . J a c k - k n i f e d d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s (BMDP) was u s e d t o e x a m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s t o t h e humus f o r m c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , and t o g r o u p s b a s e d on t h e d o m i n a n t t r e e s p e c i e i n each p l o t . S t e p w i s e l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n (MIDAS) was used f o r p r o d u c t i v i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS Humus was s a m p l e d i n two c l e a r c u t s and t h e i r a d j a c e n t s t a n d s . E a c h humus sa m p l e was a c o m p o s i t e o f f i v e LFH s a m p l e s . S a m ples f r o m a p u r e D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d , a m i x e d D o u g l a s - f i r and w e s t e r n h e m l o c k , and a p u r e w e s t e r n hemlock s t a n d ( e a c h 25 sample c o m p o s i t e s ) were u s e d as w e l l as s a m p l e s f r o m two " p r o b l e m " 22 s a l a l ( G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n P u r s h ) s i t e s ( e a c h 10 sample c o m p o s i t e s ) f o r w h i c h c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s was a v a i l a b l e . C h r o m a t o g r a m s were p r e p a r e d f r o m e a c h s a m p l e i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n u s i n g one gram f o r e x t r a c t i o n . 23 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION PRELIMINARY STUDY The c h r o m a t o g r a m s w h i c h f o l l o w i l l u s t r a t e a r a n g e o f s o i l h o r i z o n s a m p l e s . Ah h o r i z o n s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f M u l l humus f o r m s t e n d e d t o have a l i g h t c o l o u r e d , o u t e r a r e a and w e l l d e f i n e d s p i k e f o r m a t i o n s ( f i g u r e 4 A and B ) . LFH h o r i z o n s t e n d e d t o d a r k e r , l o b e d o u t e r a r e a s and s m a l l e r i n n e r z o n e s . ( f i g u r e 4 C and D ) . O r g a n i c s e m i - t e r r e s t i a 1 h o r i z o n s (Oh) or s a t u r a t e d H h o r i z o n s t e n d e d t o have d a r k e r z o n e s w i t h l e s s d e f i n e d s p i k e f o r m a t i o n s ( f i g u r e 4 E and F ) . T h e r e a p p e a r e d t o be t r e n d s i n s i z e o f t h e i n n e r zone i n r e l a t i o n t o s o i l m o i s t u r e c o n d i t i o n s . The m o i s t e r t h e s o i l , t h e l a r g e r t h i s i n n e r z o n e . F i g u r e 4 C and D or f i g u r e 4 C and f i g u r e 5 A a r e e x a m p l e s . P f e i f f e r ( 1 9 5 9 ) s u g g e s t e d t h e i n n e r zone gave an i n d i c a t i o n of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , t h e p r e s e n c e o f s o l u b l e i n o r g a n i c compounds. F i g u r e 6 B, f r o m a c u l t i v a t e d h e a v i l y f e r t i l i z e d , d r a i n e d o r g a n i c s o i l does e x h i b i t a l a r g e r i n n e r zone and b e t t e r d e f i n i t i o n o f s p i k e f o r m a t i o n t h a n f i g u r e 4 E and F. F i g u r e 6 A, a w e l l d r a i n e d Ah s a m p l e shows l i g h t o u t e r z o n e , c l e a r s p i k e s and m o d e r a t e s i z e d i n n e r z o n e . Amounts o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r and t h e n a t u r e o r s t a b i l i t y o f i t were a l s o c o n s i d e r e d d e m o n s t r a b l e by P f e i f f e r . F i g u r e 5 A t o C shows t h r e e h o r i z o n s f r o m a F e r r o h u m i c P o d z o l . The Ae shows a f a i n t o u t e r z o n e , i n d i c a t i v e o f low o r g a n i c m a t t e r o f a l e s s 24 c r u d e , more s t a b l e n a t u r e . The B f l i s more s t a b l e t h a n t h e e c t o r g a n i c F-H. P f e i f f e r a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m i n d i c a t e s b i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s w h i c h c a n n o t be d e t e r m i n e d by c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s . Two s o i l s of s i m i l a r c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s can be v e r y d i f f e r e n t i n t e r m s o f t h e i r p r o d u c t i v i t y and q u a l i t y o f p r o d u c t . T h ese and o t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s as w e l l as t h e e x p e r i e n c e of d e s c r i b i n g s o i l s , v e g e t a t i o n and s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e n p r e p a r i n g t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m i n d i c a t e d a p o t e n t i a l f o r t h e c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c a p p r o a c h . The c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m ("humus s p e c t r u m " ) and t h e s i t e s u g g e s t e d t h a t more s p e c i f i c t e s t i n g o f t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s be c a r r i e d o u t . 25 F i g u r e 4 E. H h o r i z o n G l e y s o l . F i g u r e 4 F. Oh h o r i z o n H u m i s o l . F i g u r e 4. C h r o m a t o g r a m s of d i f f e r e n t s o i l h o r i z o n s a m p l e s . 26 F i g u r e 5 A. F h o r i z o n FH P o d z o l F i g u r e 5 C. Bf h o r i z o n . F i g u r e 5 C h r o m a t o g r a m s o f h o r i z o n s o f t h e same s o i l p r o f i l e . 27 F i g u r e 6 A. Ah h o r i z o n . P a s t u r e . F i g u r e 6 B. O r g a n i c . D r a i n e d and c u l t i v a t e d . F i g u r e 6 Chromatograms of two a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s . 28 UBC RESEARCH FOREST STUDY V i s u a l e x a m i n a t i o n of f i g u r e s 7 t o 9 shows t h e f o l l o w i n g t r e n d s . The i n n e r z o n e (Wl) i n c r e a s e s i n s i z e f r o m x e r i c t o h y g r i c m o i s t u r e r e g i m e s . The d i a m e t e r o f t h e s e c o n d zone (D2) a l s o i n c r e a s e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g s i t e m o i s t u r e . The c h r o m a t o g r a m f r o m t h e h y g r i c s i t e s a m p l e shows l i g h t e r browns and more d i f f u s e o u t e r z o n e s t h a n e i t h e r t h e x e r i c o r m e s i c . C h e m i c a l d a t a f r o m Lowe and K l i n k a ( 1 9 7 6 ) and m e asurements of c h r o m a t o g r a m s of t h e t h r e e p l o t s a r e shown i n T a b l e 2. R e l a t i o n s h i p s were c o n s i d e r e d t o see i f c o n s i s t e n t - t r e n d s e x i s t e d . They a r e t r e a t e d o n l y as i n d i c a t i o n s b e c a u s e of the s m a l l number o f s a m p l e s . W3 a p p e a r s r e l a t e d t o % o r g a n i c m a t t e r , n i t r o g e n and f u l v i c c a r b o n . Wl a p p e a r s r e l a t e d t o s o i l m o i s t u r e and pH. D2 a p p e a r s r e l a t e d t o % humic c a r b o n . B h o r i z o n s were e x a m i n e d and s i m i l a r t r e n d s were n o t e d as i n LFH or H h o r i z o n s . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t a s a m p l e o f t h e LFH w o u l d p r o v i d e t h e s i m p l e s t method of s a m p l i n g and p r e s e n t t h e b e s t o v e r a l l p i c t u r e . The i n d i c a t i o n s were s u c h t h a t t h e c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c a p p r o a c h m i g h t be d i a g n o s t i c f o r a number o f humus and s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The i n d i c a t i o n s s u p p o r t e a r l i e r o b s e r v a t i o n s and some o f P f e i f f e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . 29 F i g u r e 7 A. Chromatogram o f x e r i c s i t e s a m p l e . 1 F i g u r e 7 B. Chromatogram o f m e s i c s i t e s a m p l e . F i g u r e 7 C. Chromatogram o f h y g r i c s i t e s a m p l e . F i g u r e 7 C h r o m a t o g r a m s of humus s a m p l e s f r o m t h r e e s i t e s i n t h e UBC R e s e a r c h F o r e s t . 30 F i g u r e 8 A. Bhf h o r i z o n , x e r i c s i t e . F i g u r e 8 C. B f h h o r i z o n , h y g r i c s i t e . F i g u r e 8. C h r o m a t o g r a m s of Bhf h o r i z o n s f r o m t h r e e s i t e s i n t h e UBC R e s e a r c h F o r e s t . 3 1 F i g u r e 9. C h r o m a t o g r a m s o f LFH s a m p l e s f r o m t h r e e s i t e s i n t h e UBC R e s e a r c h F o r e s t . ( LFH x e r i c u p p e r l e f t , h y g r i c u p p e r r i g h t , m e s i c c e n t r e . ) 32 T a b l e 2. C h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and a s s o c i a t e d c h e m i c a l d a t a f r o m t h r e e s i t e s i n t h e UBC R e s e a r c h F o r e s t . ( c h e m i c a l d a t a f r o m K l i n k a and Lowe,1978.) C h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l ( u n i t s i n mm e x c e p t L0 and S i t e D2 D3 W2 W3 W4 L0 x e r i c A 46 73 16 .5 13.5 10 69 B 49 77 16 . 5 14.0 10 72 LFH 35 80 11 .0 22.5 7 65 me s i c A 47 78 13 . 5 15.5 10 68 B 48 77 15 . 0 14.5 9 68 LFH 43 80 13 .0 22 . 5 10 59 h y g r i c A 75 85 21 .5 5.0 9.5 64 B 72 81 22 . 5 4.5 10 75 LFH 64 83 22 .0 9.5 9 77 s C h e m i c a l v a r i a b l e s SP) SP PH %C %N CN %HA %FA 32 3.8 38.4 1.07 36 23 23 36 42 37 3.6 52.6 1.33 40 25 25 41 35 46 4.6 15.1 .74 20 37 20 51 47 33 T a b l e 3 shows t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e r e p e a t a b i l i t y s t u d y b a s e d on e i g h t e e n s u b - s a m p l e s f r o m t h e m e s i c s i t e LFH s a m p l e s . T a b l e 3 Means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s of c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s of e i g h t e e n r e p l i c a t e c h r o m a t o g r a m s . ( u n i t s i n mm e x c e p t f o r LO and SP) A l l R e p l i c a t e s ( N = 1 8 ) D2 D3 LO SP Wl W2 W3 W4 mean 44.9 78.8 54.1 39.6 6.2 15.7 17.0 8.2 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 2.2 1.3 1.8 1.9 0.2 3.0 1.3 0.6 Sample A (N=9) mean 45.8 78.-8 53.8 39.8 6.1 16.6 16.5 8.2 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 2.0 0.8 2.0 2.5 0.2 1.1 0.9 0.6 Sample B (N=9) mean 44.0 78.9 54.3 39.4 6.2 15.8 17.4 8.2 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 2.2 1.6 1.6 1.3 0.3 1.2 1.6 0.6 I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e v a r i a b l e s f r o m w i t h i n s a m p l e and w i t h i n s i t e e x p r e s s a v e r y l o w d e g r e e o f v a r i a b i l i t y . 34 SAYWARD PROVINCIAL FOREST STUDY CORRELATIONS T a b l e s 4-1, 4-2, and 4-3 show c o r r e l a t i o n s between m e a s u r e d c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and c h e m i c a l and s i t e v a r i a b l e s t h a t a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 and .01. A l l humus s a m p l e s ( b o t h o r g a n i c and m i n e r a l ) a r e shown i n t a b l e 4-1, o r g a n i c s o n l y i n t a b l e 4-2, and Ah o n l y i n t a b l e 4-3. Two grams o f s a m p l e were u s e d f o r m i n e r a l s o i l ( A h ' s ) and o n l y one gram f o r o r g a n i c s o i l . T h i s was done t o i n c r e a s e t h e e x t r a c t e d s u b s t a n c e s i n m i n e r a l s o i l s a m p l e s t o a c h i e v e common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r a l l humus f o r m s s a m p l e d . I n p a r t i c u l a r , l o b e s d i d n o t d e v e l o p c o n s i s t e n t l y when one gram o f Ah s a m p l e s was used i n e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d i e s . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e w i l l weaken t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o u n d f o r a l l s a m p l e s ( i . e . , t a b l e 4-1 ) . However, t h e r e i s c l e a r l y a d i f f e r e n c e b e t ween e n d o r g a n i c humus f o r m s and e c t o r g a n i c f o r m s - t h i s i s why t a b l e s 4-2 and 4-3 a r e p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e l y . D i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s u l t s a r e d i s c u s s e d b e l o w . Those s c a t t e r g r a m s w h i c h showed v i s u a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n . Note t h a t a s t e r i s k s a r e f r e q u e n t l y r e p l a c e d by numbers w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h e number o f s a m p l e p o i n t s t h a t f a l l on t h e same p l a c e . 35 T a b l e 4-1 S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t ween c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and s i t e and humus s a m p l e c h e m i c a l v a r i a b l e s of a l l s a m p l e s f r o m t h e S a yward F o r e s t . D2 EXMG ( + ) * * , E X K ( - ) * , L I P I D A ( - ) * , C B ( - ) * , S B ( - ) * , HF0RM(+)* D3 HUMC(-)**, HUMN(-)*, P L S I ( - ) * , E L E V ( - ) * LO PHH20(+)*, EXCA ( + 0 * » HUMC(-)** SP PHH20(+)**, T C ( - ) * * , C E C ( - ) * * , L I P I D A ( - ) * * , HUMC(-)**, HUMN(-)**, C F 1 ( - ) * , S U B Z ( - ) * * , E L E V ( - ) * Wl PHH20(+)*», T C ( - ) * * , C E C ( - ) * * , E X K ( - ) * * , L I P I D A ( - ) * * , C B ( - ) * * , S B ( - ) * * , HUMC(-)*, C F 1 ( - ) * * , E 4 0 0 ( + ) * * , E 6 0 0 ( + ) * * E 4 / E 6 ( - ) * * t S U B Z ( - ) * * , HYGR(+)**, TROPH(+)**, HFORM(+)**, C N ( - ) * * , E L E V ( - ) * W2 P H H 2 0 ( - ) * , TC(+)», C E C ( + ) * , E 4 / E 6 ( + ) * W3 T N ( - ) * , E X M G ( - ) * , E X K ( + ) * * , L I P I D A ( + ) * . S B ( + ) * , E 4 0 0 ( - ) * , E600(-)», TROPH(-)*, HFORM(-)*, C W S I ( - ) * * W4 P H H 2 0 ( - ) * * , T C ( + ) * * , C E C ( + ) * * . L I P I D A ( + ) * * , HUMC(+)**, HUMN(+)**, C F 1 ( + ) * * , E 4 0 0 ( - ) * , E 6 0 0 ( - ) * , E4/E6(+)«, SUBZ( + ) * * , E L E V ( + ) * * S i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 * * S i g n i f i c a n t a t .01 36 T a b l e 4-2 S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t ween c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and s i t e and humus sa m p l e c h e m i c a l v a r i a b l e s of o r g a n i c s a m p l e s f r o m t h e S a yward F o r e s t . D2 T C ( - ) * , T N ( + ) * , E X K ( - ) * * , L I P I D A ( - ) * * , S B ( - ) * * , C F 1 ( - ) * , E400(+)**> HYGR(+)*, TROPH(+)*, HFORM(+)** D3 PHH20(+)*, T C ( - ) * * , C E C ( - ) * * , HUMC(-)**, HUMN(-)*, C F 1 ( - ) * , T C A ( + ) * * . TMG(+)», TNA(+)**, T F E ( + ) * * , S U B Z ( - ) * * , E L E V ( - ) * * LO PHH20(+)*. T C ( - ) * * , EXCA( + ) * , L I P I D A ( - ) * * , HUMC(-)**, E 6 0 0 ( + ) * ,TCA(+)**. TMG(+)*, TNA(+)*, T F E ( + ) * , S U B Z ( - ) * , F D S I ( + ) * , HWSI(+)*. C N ( - ) * * , E L E V ( - ) * SP PHH20( + )-"- , T C ( - ) * , C E C ( - ) * , HUMC(-)**, HUMN(-)*, TMG(+)**, T K ( + ) * , T N A ( + ) * * , TFE ( +) ** , S U B Z ( - ) * , E L E V ( - ) * * Wl P H H20(+)**, T C ( - ) * * , TP(+)*», E X C A ( + ) * * . EXMG(+)*, E X K ( - ) * * , L I P I D A ( - ) * * , C B ( - ) * , S B ( - ) * * , HUMN( + ) * * , C F 1 ( - ) * * , E 4 0 0 ( + ) * * , E 6 0 0 ( + ) * * . T C A ( + ) * * , TMG(+)**, TNA(+)**, T F E ( + ) * * , T A L ( + ) * * , T M N ( + ) * , S U B Z ( - ) * * . HYGR( + ) * * , TROPH( + )*,HFORM(+)**, C N ( - ) * * W2 T P ( - ) * * , T M G ( - ) * * , TFE (-)""" , T A L ( - ) * W3 T N ( - ) * * , E X K ( + ) * * , L I P I D A ( + ) * . SB(+)*> HUMN(-)*, E 4 0 0 ( - ) * * , TMG(+)**, TFE( + )», HYGR( - ) * > T ROPH(-)*, HFORM(-)** W4 P H H 2 0 ( - ) * * , T C ( + ) * * , C E C ( + ) * . L I P I D A ( + ) * * , HUMC(+)**» CF1( + ' ) * , T C A ( - ) * * , TMG(-)**,TK(-)», T N A ( - ) * * , T F E ( - ) * * , TMN(-)*"*, SUBZ( + ) * , E L E V ( + ) * S i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 * * S i g n i f i c a n t a t .01 37 T a b l e 4-3 S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t ween c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and s i t e and humus s a m p l e c h e m i c a l v a r i a b l e s of Ah s a m p l e s f r o m t h e Sayward F o r e s t . D2 EXMG( + ) * * , F D S I ( - ) * , CWSI( + ) * D3 . C E C ( - ) * , S B ( - ) * , HUMC(-)*, HUMN(-)**, C F 1 ( - ) * , P Y F E ( - ) * * P Y A L ( - ) * , F D S I ( - ) * LO C E C ( - ) * * . EXMG( + - ) * , C B ( - ) * , S B ( - ) * , HUMC(-)*, HUMN(-)*, P Y F E ( - ) * * , P Y A L ( - ) * Wl TC( + ) * * , CEC( + ) * * , HUMC( + ) * * , HUMN(+ ) * * , CF1( + ) * W2 C E C ( - ) * , EXMG(+)*», CWSI(+)»* W3 C W S I ( - ) * , ELEV(+)» W4 MINN( + )^ »;-, C W S I ( - ) * , C N ( - ) * * * S i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 ** S i g n i f i c a n t a t .01 38 ALL SAMPLES The inn.er zone Wl shows s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the. l a r g e s t number of v a r i a b l e s . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t a r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h PHH20, L I P I D A , EXK and CN ( f i g u r e s 10 t o 1 3 ) . T hese c h e m i c a l v a r i a b l e s have been shown t o have a c o n n e c t i o n t o humus f o r m t a x a ( K l i n k a , e t a l . , 1981) . F i g u r e 14 i s a s c a t t e r g r a m of Wl and HFORM s h o w i n g an i n c r e a s e i n Wl a s humus f o r m s c h a n g e f r o m Mors t o M u l l s . I n c r e a s e s i n PHH20 and d e c r e a s e s i n CN, EXK, L I P I D A a r e e x p e c t e d . T r e n d s b etween Wl and H Y G R , ( f i g u r e 15) TROPH ( f i g u r e 16) and SUBZ ( f i g u r e 17) a r e a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g and e x p e c t e d . G e n e r a l l y , as s i t e s become c o o l e r ( s u b z o n e s CDFa>CWHa>CWHb>MHb ) PHH20 d e c r e a s e s and CN i n c r e a s e s . As Wl d e c r e a s e s , C F I ( f u l v i c c a r b o n ) i n c r e a s e s . T h i s i s a l s o e x p e c t e d as f u l v i c a c i d s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o i n d i c a t e i m m a t u r e humus. Wl d e c r e a s e s t o w a r d s Mor humus f o r m s and t o w a r d s c o o l e r and w e t t e r c o n d i t i o n s . Wl i s a l s o p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h E 4 0 0 , and shows e x p e c t e d t r e n d s w i t h m o i s t u r e (HYGR), CN, and humus f o r m ( K l i n k a and Lowe , 1 9 7 6 ) . W4 a l s o e x h i b i t e d s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s . S c a t t e r g r a m s o f PHH20 and HUMC a r e p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e s 19 and 20. As t h i s zone i n c r e a s e s , PHH20 d e c r e a s e s and HUMC i n c r e a s e s . A d d i t i o n a l c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h L I P I D A , C F I and E400 a r e a l s o c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e s u l t s o f Wl r e l a t i o n s h i p s . C o o l e r w e t t e r s u b z o n e s show w i d e r W4 z o n e s i n d i c a t i n g l ow pH and E400, h i g h L I P I D A , TC and C F I . 39 Wl (mm) 20.0 16.5 13.0 9.5 * 3 * * * * * 2 2 * 2 * * 2 * * 2 * 6.0 * * 3 * 3 3 * 2 * * 3 * 2 * * +« . * 2 2 2 2.5 3-2 4.0 4.9 PHH20 3.6 4.5 5.4 F i g u r e 10. S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between Wl and PHH20 u s i n g a l l s a m p l e s . Numbers i n d i c a t e t h e number o f s a m p l e p o i n t s t h a t f a l l i n t h e same p l a c e . W1 (mm) ?n,n + • * 16.5 13.0 * * * * * * i 9.5 + * * * * * * * * * * * * * * . . * * * * * * * * * 3 * 2 * * * * ** * * * * * 6.0 + * * 2 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ** * 2 * * * * 2 * * * * * 2.5 . 18 2.7 5.2 LIPIDA(%) 1.4 3.9 6.4 F i g u r e 11. S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween Wl and L I P I D A u s i n g a l l s a m p l e s . 40 W1 (mm! 20.0 + 16.5 13.0 +* * * * * * * + * i * * *** ** * * 9.5 + * * * * * * * * 2 * * * * + 2 * * * * * 2 * * * * ** 2 ** * * * * * * * 6.0 + * » * 3 * * ... * * 2 * * * * * 2 * * * **** * + 2* * *2 2 * 2.5 .18 1.8 .3.4 EXK (%) 1.0 2.6 4.3 F i g u r e 12. Scattergram showing r e l a t i o n s h i p between Wl and EXK using a l l samples. Wl (mm' 20.0 + * 16.5 • 13.0 + • * * * * 9.5 + * * * *** * * * * * * * * * * 4 * + * * * * * 4 * * * * * 2 3 * * * * *2 * 6.0 + * 2 *2 * * 2* * ** * * *3 2* ** * + * * 2* * * * * * 2.5 6.4 38.3 70.2 CN 22.3 54.2 86.1 Figure 13. Scattergram showing r e - l a t i o n s h i p between Wl and CN using a l l samples. A l Wl (mm) 20.0 16.5 13.0 9.5 6.0 * * * * * * 7 * 2 2.5 Mors Moders M u l l s F i g u r e 14. Scattergram showing r e l a t i o n s h i p between Wl and HFORM using a l l samples. W 1 (mm) 20.0 16.5 13.0 9.5 6.C 2.5 HYGR 8 1 3 6 2 5 X e r i c Mesic Hygric F i g u r e 15. Scattergram showing r e l a t i o n s h i p between Wl and HYGR using a l l samples. 42 W1 (mn>) 20.0 16.5 13.0 • • 2 * 3 2 * 9.5 + 2 * * * * 4 2 2 + 4 7 2 3 3 3 * 2 2 6.0 +* 4 2 * 6 * * 4 7 + * 6 2 * 2.5 O l i g o t r o p h i a Mesotrophic E u t r o p h i c F i g u r e 16. Scattergram showing r e l a t i o n s h i p between Wl and TROPH using a l l samples. 20.0 16.5 13.0 2 3 2 9.5 +2 * * * * 6 * + 3 9 * 8 * 2 2 6.0 + 3 4 2 2 2 7 * + 4 6 2.5 CDFb CWHa CWHb MHb Fig u r e 17. Scattergram showing r e l a t i o n s h i p between Wl and SUBZ using a l l samples. 43 20.0 16.5 13.0 + * * ** * 2 9.5 * * 2 * * * 3 2 * * + 2 ** * * * * 3 * * ** * *22 * * # * * * 6.0 + * *2* * * * * 2 2* * * * * 2* * * 2 + * * 2*** *** 2.5 1.0 5.0 9.0 CF1(%) 3.0 7.0 11.0 F i g u r e 18. Scattergram showing r e l a t i o n s h i p between Wl and CFI using a l l samples. W4 (mm) 14.0 + 12.2 + * * * * 3 2 10.4 2 3 * * 2 2 + * * * * 2 * * 2 * * 3 + 2 * * * * * * * * 2 2 2 8.6 +* * * * * 2 * * 2 2 + * * * 2 * * 2 2 3 6.8 + 4. * * * * 5.0 3.2 4.0' 4.9 PHH20 3.6 4.5 5.4 Figure 19. Scattergram showing r e l a t i o n s h i p between W4 and PHH20 using a l l samples. 44 W4 (mir.l 1 4 . 0 1 2 . 2 • 2 * * * * * * * *22 * ** 1 0 . 4 + * * ** *2 ** ** * ** + ** ** * * * * * * 3 * * * * 8 . 6 + •* * * * * 7 * * 2 * 2 *2 * * 2 * * * * 6 . 8 + ** * * 5 . 0 +* 1 .5 1 0 . 8 2 0 . 0 HUMC <*) 6 . 2 15 .4 2 4 . 7 ure 20 . S c a t t e r g r a m showing r e l a t i o n s h i p between WA and HUMC u s i n g a l l samples . 4 5 SP ( s p i k e s ) a l s o show c o n s i s t e n t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h PHH20, TC, CEC, L I P I D A , and C F I . T h e s e r e s u l t s w o u l d be e x p e c t e d g i v e n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n SP and HUMC shown i n f i g u r e 2 1 . LO i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h SP however i t a l s o i n d i c a t e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h EXCA. T h i s i s r e a s o n a b l e b e c a u s e as PH i n c r e a s e s and HUMC d e c r e a s e s ( i . e . m o v i n g f r o m Mor t o M u l l humus f o r m s ) EXCA i n c r e a s e s ( K l i n k a e_t a _ l . , 1 9 8 1 ) . The s e c o n d d i a m e t e r (D2) v a r i e s p o s i t i v e l y f r o m Mor t o M u l l humus f o r m s , p o s i t i v e l y w i t h EXMG and n e g a t i v e l y w i t h L I P I D A and EXK. K l i n k a e_t_ a_l_. ( 1 9 8 1 ) n o t e d t h e s e t r e n d s i n t h e UBC R e s e a r c h F o r e s t , Mor humus f o r m s h a v i n g l o w EXMG and h i g h L I P I D A and EXK. W3 a l s o v a r i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h humus f o r m , i n c r e a s i n g f r o m Mors t o M u l l s . Of i n t e r e s t i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h CWSI ( s i t e i n d e x of Red C e d a r ) w h i c h shows s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h W3. ORGANIC SAMPLES R e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e o r g a n i c s a m p l e s show s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s as a l l s a m p l e s , t h o u g h t h e r e a r e a g r e a t e r number o f s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s ( t a b l e 4 - 2 ) . Wl v a r i e s p o s i t i v e l y w i t h PHH20, HYGR ( m o i s t u r e r e g i m e ) and humus f o r m , and n e g a t i v e l y w i t h L I P I D A and CN ( f i g u r e s 22 t o 2 6 ) . A g a i n , t h e way Wl c h a n g e s i s c o n s i s t e n t and i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f e x p e c t e d c h e m i c a l and s i t e p r o p e r t i e s . 46 SP 54 48 * * 42 + * * ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * 2 * + * * * * * * ** *** * * * * * * * 36 + * * * 3 * * * * * * * * * 2 * ** * * ** * + * * * * * " ** * * * * * * ** 3 0 + * * * * * * 24 1.5 10.8 20.0 HUMC (%) 6.2 15.4 24.7 F i g u r e 2 1 . S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n S P a n d H U M C u s i n g a l l s a m p l e s . W l (ram)-20.0 16.5 13.0 9.5 3 * * * 2 2 * * 2 * * 2 * * * 6.0 + * 3 * 3 3 * 2 * * 3 * 2 * * + * * * 2 2 2 2.5 3.2 4.C 4.9 PHH20 3.6 4.5 5.4 F i g u r e 2 2 . S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n W l a n d PHH20 u s i n g o r g a n i c s a m p l e s . 47 W1 (mm) 20.0 16.5 1 3.0 9.5 6.0 2 . 5 ] (mm) 20.0 16.5 1 3.0 H?GR 8 X e r i c Mesic Hygric F i g u r e 23 . Scattergram showing r e l a t i o n s h i p between Wl and HYGR using o r g a n i c samples. 9.5 6.0 3 4 5 3 * 5 7 9 * 9 2.5 Mors Moders M u l l s Figure 24. Scattergram showing r e l a t i o n s h i p between Wl and HFORM using organic samples. 48 Wl (Ml) 20.0 16.5 13.0 * * * < 9.5 + * * * * * * * * * * * * + * * * * * * 3 * 2 * * * * ** * * * ** 6.0 + * * 2 * * * * * * * ** * * * * * * ** * 2 ** * + * * j * * * * * 2.5 . 18 2.7 5.2 LIPIDA(%) 1.4 3.9 6.4 F i g u r e 2 5 . S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n W l a n d L I P I D A u s i n g o r g a n i c s a m p l e s . Wl (mm) 20.0 + * 16.5 13.0 9.5 *** * * * * * 22* * * 3 2 * * * * ** 2* * *** 2* * 6.0 + * 2 *** * * 3 * 2 * * 3*2 * 2 * 4. * * * * * * * * * * 2.5 7 39 70 CN 23 54 86 F i g u r e 2 6 . S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n W l a n d C N u s i n g o r g a n i c s a m p l e s . A 9 W4 and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o PHH20 and HUMC a r e shown i n f i g u r e s 27 and 28. Lower v a l u e s o f t h i s o u t e r w i d t h i n d i c a t e h i g h e r pH v a l u e s and l o w e r HUMC and TC. LO d e c r e a s e s i n number w i t h i n c r e a s e s i n CN . ( f i g u r e 29) and i n c r e a s e s w i t h b o t h TCA ( f i g u r e 3 0 ) , FDSI ( f i g u r e 31) and HWSI ( f i g u r e 3 2 ) . AH SAMPLES When t h e Ah s a m p l e s a r e l o o k e d a t s e p a r a t e l y , t h e number o f s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s i s much r e d u c e d . B e c a u s e of t h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s a m p l e s i z e ( N=15), r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and c h e m i c a l and s i t e v a r i a b l e s a r e l i m i t e d . T h e r e a r e some d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x p r e s s e d . Humus i n m i n e r a l s o i l shows d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t h e i n n e r zone Wl. I t shows o p p o s i t e t r e n d s w i t h TC, and CEC as shown i n f i g u r e s 33 and 34. To i m p r o v e t h e sample s i z e , a d d i t i o n a l Ah s a m p l e s f r o m a m p h i m o r p h i c humus f o r m s were added t o t h e g r a p h . These s a m p l e s c o u l d n o t be u s e d f o r t h e main d a t a s e t as t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y p a r t of a humus f o r m . These a d d i t i o n a l f i v e p o i n t s c o n f o r m w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . W4 v a r i e s p o s i t i v e l y w i t h MINN ( f i g u r e 3 5 ) . D3 v a r i e s n e g a t i v e l y w i t h HUMC ( f i g u r e 3 6 ) , CEC ( f i g u r e 3 7 ) , and as w o u l d be e x p e c t e d w i t h FDSI ( f i g u r e 3 8 ) . D2 and W2 a l s o v a r y n e g a t i v e l y w i t h FDSI ( f i g u r e 3 9 ) . 50 W4 (mm) 14.0 + 12.2 + * * * * 3 2 2 3 * * 10.4 + * * * * 2 * * 2 8.6 6.8 5.0 2 * * * * * * * 2 2 * * * 2 * * 2 * * 2 2 * 2 * * * * 3.2 4.0 4.9 PHH20 3.6 4.5 5.4 F i g u r e 27. S c a t t e r g r a m showing r e l a t i o n s h i p between W4 and PHH20 u s i n g o r g a n i c s a m p l e s . W4 (mm) 14.0 + * * 12.2 10.4 8.6 6.8 5.0 2 * * * *22 * * * k ***** ** * *« * * * * * * * 3 * * * * * * * * * * * * * 2 * 2 * * 2 * * * * * * * ** * * 3. 5 12.0 20.4 HUMC (*> 7.8 16.2 24.7 F i g u r e 28. S c a t t e r g r a m showing r e l a t i o n s h i p between W4 and HUMC u s i n g o r g a n i c s a m p l e s . 51 LO 78 69 +* ** 2 ** * * * * * * + * * * * * * * * *2 3*2 * 61 + * « * * 2 * * * * * * * 2 * + * * *** * * * * * * * 52 + *** * * * * * * * 44 36 7 39 70 CN 23 54 86 F i g u r e 29. Scattergram showing r e l a t i o n s h i p between LO and CN u s i n g o r g a n i c samples. LO 78 69 + * * *** + * ** * * * * * * * 2 * * * 61 + 2 2 ** ** * * 22 * * + ** * * * * * * * * * * 52 +* **** * ** 2 ** * * + * * * 44 36 .14 1.0 1.8 TCA (») .57 1.4 2.3 F i g u r e 30. Scattergram showing r e l a t i o n s h i p between LO and TCA u s i n g organic samples. 52 LO 78 72 66 60 54 * * * * * ** * * * ** * * * 49 12.C 32.8 53.6 FDSI (m/lOOyr) 22.4 43.2 64.0 F i g u r e 31. Scattergram showing r e l a t i o n s h i p between LO and FDSI u s i n g o r g a n i c samples. LO 78 69 * * * * * * * * 61 52 44 36 * * * * 2 2 17.0 29.8 42. C HWSI (m/100 yr) 23.4 36.2 49.0 Figure 32. Scattergram showing r e l a t i o n s h i p between LO and HWSI us i n g organic samples. 53 W1 (mm) 14.5 13.1 11.7 10.3 + 8.9 + o o 7.5 + * O 5.8 11.2 16.5 TC (%) o o 8 - 5 , 3 - £ F i g u r e 33 . Scat te rg ram showing r e l a t i o n s h i p between Wl and TC u s i n g Ah samples . Wl (mm) 14.5 13.1 11.7 10.3 o. 8.9 + * 7.5 - * O* 26.3 45.4 64.5 CEC C 0 3 5 - 9 55.0 74.1 F i g u r e 34. S c a t t e r g r a m showing r e l a t i o n s h i p between Wl and CEC u s i n g Ah samples . 54 W4 (mm) 11.0 + 9.8 + + * 8.6 + o + 7.4 • C + o 6.2 + o 5.C +* 1 7 70 124 MINN (opm) 43 97 151 F i g u r e 3 5 . S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n W 4 a n d O M I N N u s i n g A h s a m p l e s . D3 (mm) S2.0 + * 88.2 + o 84.4 Q * 80.6 + O 76.8 73.0 * o 1 .5 3. 5 5.52 HUMC (%) 2.5 4.5 6.5 F i g u r e 3 6 . S c a t t e r g r a m s h o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n D 3 a n d HUMC u s i n g A h s a m p l e s . 5 5 o D3 ( m l 9 2 . 0 8 8 . : +* + o 84.4 + * O + 8 0 . 6 + O O * * 7 6 . 8 7 3 . 0 2 6 . 3 4 5 . 4 6 4 . ? C E C 3 5 . 9 5 5 . 0 7 4 . ' F i g u r e 37. Scattergram showing r e l a t i o n s h i p between D3 and CEC us i n g Ah samples. Q D3 (ram) 9 2 . 0 + * 8 8 . S + 6 5 . 6 + 8 2 . 4 • o * 0 7 9 . 2 + 7 6 . 0 2 4 - ° , „ 3 6 . 4 4 8 . 8 F D S I < m /100 y r ) 3 0 . 2 4 2 . 6 5 5 . 0 ' Figure 38. Scattergram showing r e l a t i o n s h i p between D3 and FDSI using Ah samples. 56 D2 (mm) 6 8 . 0 6 3 . 2 5 8 . 4 5 3 . 6 + 4 8 . 8 4 4 . 0 . 2 4 - ° „ „ , 3 6 . 4 4 8 . 8 F D S I (m/100 y r ) 3 0 . 2 4 2 . 6 5 5 . 0 ^ o F i g u r e 39. Scattergram showing r e l a t i o n s h i p between D2 and FDSI using Ah samples. 57 DISCRIMINANT FUNCTION ANALYSIS J a c k - k n i f e d s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s ( D i x o n e t a_l.,1981) was used t o t e s t t h e a b i l i t y of m e a s u r e d c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s t o s e p a r a t e humus s a m p l e s i n t o s p e c i f i e d g r o u p s . HUMUS FORM Humus f o r m % c o r r e c t Mor Mo der M u l l Mor 75.4 . 43 9 5 Mo der 43.3 9 13 8 M u l l 56.3 1 6 9 A p p r o x i m a t e l y 2/3 of t h e s a m p l e s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d u s i n g o n l y W l . The p o o r e s t s e p a r a t i o n was w i t h t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l M o d e r s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t h e c h r o m o t o g r a p h i c a p p r o a c h t h o u g h n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y good, was o n l y s l i g h t l y p o o r e r t h a n a s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s u s i n g o n l y c h e m i c a l v a r i a b l e s and humus f o r m t a x a where 7 0% (Mor 79, Moder 44, M u l l 70) were c l a s s i f i e d c o r r e c t l y . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c a p p r o a c h c o u l d be u s e d d i a g n o s t i c a l l y i n c l a s s i f y i n g humus f o r m s . 58 DOMINANT TREE When s a m p l e s were s t r a t i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o w h e t h e r D o u g l a s -f i r or w e s t e r n h e m l o c k were d o m i n a n t i n t h e p l o t t h e r e s u l t s wer e : DTREE %CORRRECT Fd Hw Fd 75.6 ' 34 11 Hw 81.8 4 18 A p p r o x i m a t e l y 4/5 of t h e s a m p l e s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d u s i n g o n l y W l . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e m a j o r t r e e s p e c i e s e x e r t s a l a r g e e f f e c t on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e humus as r e f l e c t e d by c h r o m a t o g r a p h y . A g a i n , t h i s r e s u l t was o n l y s l i g h t l y p o o r e r t h a n when u s i n g c h e m i c a l v a r i a b l e s . T h e s e showed a 90% c o r r e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n b e tween D o u g l a s - f i r and h e m l o c k . Of a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t e s t e d u s i n g c h e m i c a l d a t a t h e s t r o n g e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o humus was t h e d o m i n a n t t r e e s p e c i e s . T h i s c a n be e x p e c t e d because. f o r e s t e d e c o s y s t e m s a r e l a r g e l y d e t r i t a l and f o l i a g e p r o v i d e s t h e main s o u r c e o f l i t t e r . T h e r e were n o t enough p l o t s w i t h o t h e r t r e e s p e c i e s b e s i d e s D o u g l a s - f i r and w e s t e r n h e m l o c k t o t e s t t h e a b i l i t y of c h r o m a t o g r a p h y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e o t h e r humus t y p e s . I n most p l o t s w i t h D o u g l a s - f i r o r w e s t e r n h e m l o c k d o m i n a n t , o t h e r s p e c i e s were p r e s e n t . C o n s i d e r i n g t h i s m i x t u r e , t h e r e s u l t s a r e q u i t e e n c o u r a g i n g . 59 NON-MEASURED OBSERVATIONS ON CHROMATOGRAMS The above r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d by m e a s u r i n g a number o f r e l a t e d f e a t u r e s of t h e d e v e l o p e d c h r o m a t o g r a m . T h i s p r o v i d e d a means t o t e s t i f t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m e x p r e s s e d s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o c h e m i c a l d a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e same s a m p l e . C o l o u r , p a t t e r n , and i r r e g u l a r i t i e s t h a t c o u l d n o t be q u a n t i f i e d a r e d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y b e l o w . The c o l o u r s and d e n s i t y of t h e v a r i o u s z o n e s of t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m a r e i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e n a t u r e of humus. These f e a t u r e s c o u l d n o t be q u a n t i f i e d i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y manner. Use of M u n s e l l c o l o u r c h i p s was d i f f i c u l t b e c a u s e o f v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n e a c h zone and t h e use of e l a b o r a t e i n s t r u m e n t s ( d e n s i t o m e t e r s ) was r e j e c t e d as b e i n g i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e p r a c t i c a l , s i m p l e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c a p p r o a c h . F i g u r e s 40 and 41 show d a r k e r browns a s s o c i a t e d w i t h M u l l humus f o r m s and r e d d e r browns a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Mor f o r m s . Hemlock as d o m i n a n t on s i t e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e d d e r c o l o u r s , D o u g l a s - f i r w i t h b r o w n e r c o l o u r s . A l d e r ( A l n u s r u b r a Bong.) d o m i n a n c e a p p e a r s r e l a t e d t o g r e e n i s h c o l o u r s i n t h e m i d d l e zone (D2) e g . f i g u r e 42 A. S a t u r a t e d o r g a n i c s a m p l e s (Oh) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y showed d a r k e r c o l o u r s t h r o u g h o u t and deep i r r e g u l a r l o b e s ( f i g u r e 42 B 60 t o D) . T h e r e a r e a number o f o t h e r f e a t u r e s w h i c h e x p e r i e n c e i n d i c a t e s a r e i m p o r t a n t . C l e a n , w e l l e x p r e s s e d z o n a t i o n and f o r m s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " h e a l t h y " p r o d u c t i v e s i t e s . U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c o l o u r s , d a r k g r e y i n n e r z o n e s , and i r r e g u l a r i t i e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " p r o b l e m " c o n d i t i o n s s u c h as h i g h w a t e r t a b l e s . B a l a n c e , s t r e n g t h and c l a r i t y a r e t e r m s t h a t a r e q u a l i t a t i v e , and however s u b j e c t i v e , a r e o f t e n a p p r o p r i a t e . 61 F i g u r e 4 1 . C h r o m a t o g r a m s o f Mor humus f o r m s a m p l e s s h o w i n g r e d d e r b r o w n s . 62 F i g u r e 42 C F i g u r e 42 D F i g u r e 42. Example c h r o m a t o g r a m s s h o w i n g c o l o u r and f o r m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 63 TWO SELECTED PLOTS A l t h o u g h s e p a r a t e LFH h o r i z o n s were n o t c h e m i c a l l y a n a l y z e d , a number o f c h r o m a t o g r a m s were p r e p a r e d of F and H s a m p l e s . Two p l o t s a r e shown i n f i g u r e s 43 and 44 , r e p r e s e n t i n g two d i f f e r e n t humus f o r m s , c l i m a t e s , and d o m i n a n t t r e e s p e c i e s p r e s e n t . F i g u r e 43 A shows a v e r y t h i n Fa h o r i z o n . Fa h o r i z o n s have a p r e d o m i n a n c e o f f a u n a l a c t i v i t y ( K l i n k a e_t _al_.,1981). N o t e the n a r r o w brown o u t e r zone (W4). T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c t i v e M u l l humus f o r m s and D o u g l a s - f i r d o m i n a t e d s i t e s . Compare t h i s t o f i g u r e 44 B, an Fq h o r i z o n ( f u n g a l a c t i v i t y p r e d o m i n a t e s ) w i t h r e d d i s h o u t e r zone of h e m l o c k d o m i n a t e d s i t e . N o t e l a r g e r i n n e r zone (Wl) i n Fa ( f i g u r e 43 A ) . Note t h e l a r g e c h a n g e f r o m Fa t o Ah i n f i g u r e 4 3 . Note t h e s l o w t r a n s i t i o n f r o m Fq t o Hr t o B h f . The o v e r a l l " p i c t u r e " o f humus i s v e r y s i m i l a r f r o m h o r i z o n t o h o r i z o n , e x c e p t n o t e t h e i n c r e a s e i n Wl i n B h f . Compare Ah c h r o m a t o g r a m i n f i g u r e 43 and LFH i n f i g u r e 44. They show c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e x t r e m e s o f i n n e r z o n e , D2 and W3. 64 F i g u r e 43 A F i g u r e 43 B F i g u r e 43. C h r o m a t o g r a m s o f two h o r i z o n s s a m p l e d f r o m a D o u g l a s f i r s t a n d . F h o r i z o n and Ah h o r i z o n f r o m s i t e on Quadra I s l a n d . V e r m i m u l l . FDSI 36 m./lOOyr. 65 F i g u r e 44 C Hr h o r i z o n F i g u r e 44 D B h f h o r i z o n F i g u r e 44. C h r o m a t o g r a m s o f h o r i z o n s s a m p l e d f r o m a w e s t e r n h e m l o c k s t a n d . Humimor. HWSI 40m./100yr. 66 SYNTHESIS OF RESULTS I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t a number o f f e a t u r e s o f c h r o m a t o g r a m s o f humus s a m p l e s f r o m t h e Sayward F o r e s t a r e r e l a t e d t o c h e m i c a l and s i t e p r o p e r t i e s . None of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s c a n be u s e d i n i s o l a t i o n , n o r i s any c o n s i d e r e d t o be a r e p l a c e m e n t f o r p r e c i s e c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s . J u s t how t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m i s " c a u s e e f f e c t " r e l a t e d t o humus c h e m i s t r y h a s n o t been e x p l o r e d , t h o u g h i t i s c l e a r l y n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e o t h e r t h a n c o r r o b e r a t i v e o r d i a g n o s t i c use i s made o f t h e method. T h i s i s d i s c u s s e d i n summary and c o n c l u s i o n s . I t i s a l s o a p p a r e n t t h a t humus p r o c e s s e s a r e a c o n t i n u u m and no s i n g l e f a c t o r o r s i n g l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i l l p r o v i d e a n e a t s e p a r a t i o n . I n s p i t e o f t h e a b o v e , t h e r e s u l t s c a n be s u m m a r i z e d as f o l l o w s : 67 T a b l e 5 Summary of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and s i t e and humus sa m p l e c h e m i c a l v a r i a b l e s f r o m S a y w a r d F o r e s t s t u d y , f o r o r g a n i c s a m p l e s . "NETWORK OF INFERENCES" (As c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s c h a n g e as shown by a r r o w s i n c e n t e r c o l u m n , f e a t u r e s on t h e l e f t o r r i g h t can be i n f e r r e d . F o r e x a m p l e , a s m a l l e r Wl i n d i c a t e s Mor humus f o r m s w i t h h i g h e r TC, l o w e r pH, h i g h e r CEC, h i g h e r CN and L I P I D A , c o o l e r c o n d i t i o n s , p o o r e r p r o d u c t i v i t y . ) INFERENCE Humus f o r m M o r - l e s s a c t i v e Low pH,High TC, C h e m i s t r y H i g h E X K , h i g h CEC h i g h HUMC CF1 h i g h C/N-, low EXMG h i g h l i p i d C l i m a t e c o o l e r , w e t t e r E l e v a t i o n h i g h e r T r e e s p e c i e s Hemlock H y g r o t o p e d r y e r T r o p h o t o p e p o o r e r C o l o u r r e d d e r P r o d u c t i v i t y p o o r e r CHANGE ^ wi 4 ^ LO 4 ^ W2 ^ W3^ ^ W4^ INFERENCE M u l l - more a c t i v e h i g h e r pH, l o w TC.low EXK, lowCEC, low C/n, l o w e r l i p i d h i g h EXMg, E x C a , h i g h e r TN, h i g h e r TNa, TFe, TP, HUMN, TMN,TCA d r y e r , warmer l o w e r D o u g l a s - f i r w e t t e r r i c h e r b rown er b e t t e r 68 I t i s e n c o u r a g i n g t h a t f o r a l l e i g h t c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s , t h e change o f c h e m i c a l and s i t e v a r i a b l e s " f i t s " a c c e p t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f c l i m a t e , o r g a n i c m a t t e r , humus f o r m , pH, some e x c h a n g e a b l e and t o t a l c a t i o n s , and p r o d u c t i v i t y . T hese r e s u l t s s u p p o r t t h e d i a g n o s t i c c o n s i s t e n c y of t h e c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c method. The p r e c i s i o n of t h e method i s a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n . C e r t a i n l y , l i t t l e q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be g a i n e d w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a b l y more t e s t i n g . Among t h e Ah s a m p l e s t h e r e i s a c hange i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s . When t h e m i n e r a l p o r t i o n of s o i l p r e d o m i n a t e s , . Wl i s l a r g e r w i t h i n c r e a s e d TC , CEC and HUMC. W2 a l s o shows a r e v e r s a l o f t r e n d s -CEC i n c r e a s e s as W2 d e c r e a s e s . P r o d u c t i v i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s of D o u g l a s - f i r f o l l o w t r e n d s o f CEC and D3, t h a t i s , i n c r e a s e w i t h CEC a s one w o u l d e x p e c t . D2 a l s o shows a r e v e r s e d r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h F D S I . Sample s i z e i s much l o w e r i n Ah r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( v a r y i n g f r o m 10 t o 2 0 ) , however t h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t Ah ( e n d o r g a n i c humus f o r m s ) a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m o r g a n i c humus f o r m s . MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS A q u e s t i o n w h i c h s h o u l d be a s k e d more o f t e n i n f o r e s t management i s what s i t e c h a n g e s w i l l be b r o u g h t a b o u t by a c e r t a i n management a c t i v i t y ? I t i s p o s s i b l e t o s h i f t p r o c e s s e s t o a more a c t i v e , or a l e s s a c t i v e s t a t e . L o n g t e r m e f f e c t s on s i t e p r o d u c t i v i t y need t o be c o n s i d e r e d . 69 The c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c i n d i c a t i n g d i r e c t i o n s of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a b o u t humus a p p r o a c h i s change and c o n d i t i o n s . c o n s i d e r e d p r o v i d i n g u s e f u l i n q u a l i t a t i ve One g o a l i s t o en h a n c e p r o d u c t i v i t y of t h e s i t e . T h i s r e q u i r e s h o l d i n g t h e s y s t e m i n a s l i g h t l y " a d o l e s c e n t " s t a g e , b a l a n c e d b e t w e e n i n p u t s o f new humus and o x i d a t i o n / u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e o l d . Once a g a i n , o r g a n i c a g r i c u l t u r a l management shows t h a t a b a l a n c e d s y s t e m i s more c o n s e r v a t i v e of e n e r g y t h a n one w h i c h r e d u c e s o r g a n i c m a t t e r and s u p p l i e s n u t r i e n t s i n a r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e form" t h r o u g h i n o r g a n i c f e r t i l i z i n g . C l e a r l y many s i l v i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i s e s pose p r o b l e m s . S i l e n ( 1 9 8 2 ) e x p l o r e s some f e a t u r e s of maximum y i e l d s t r a t e g i e s f o r D o u g l a s - f i r and q u e s t i o n s t h e use o f f e r t i l i z e r s and weed c o n t r o l . F e l l e r ( 1 9 8 2 ) e x p l o r e s t h e e f f e c t s o f s l a s h b u r n i n g on s i t e e c o l o g y . T h e r e i s a need t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e e f f e c t s o f s u c h p l a n n e d or i n a d v e r t e n t p r a c t i s e s s u c h a s l e a v i n g l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f woody m a t e r i a l on a s i t e , w h o l e t r e e h a r v e s t i n g , c l e a r - c u t t i n g , s l a s h b u r n i n g and t r e e s p e c i e s s e l e c t i o n . The e x a m p l e s w h i c h f o l l o w d e m o n s t r a t e t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r m o n i t o r i n g humus c h a n g e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t management p r a c t i s e s . F i g u r e 45 A shows a c h r o m a t o g r a m o f LFH sample f r o m an o l d g r o w t h h e m l o c k and b a l s a m ( A b i e s a m a b i l i s ( D o u g l . ) F o r b . ) s t a n d , w i t h a Mor humus f o r m . F i g u r e 45 B i s f r o m an i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t f e l l e d and b u c k e d s i t e o n l y f o u r t o s i x months a f t e r f a l l i n g . An i n c r e a s e i n W l , d e c r e a s e i n W4 and a r e d u c t i o n i n 70 c o l o u r i n t e n s i t y i n d i c a t e more a c t i v e c y c l i n g w i t h i n f e r r e d d e c r e a s e s i n t o t a l c a r b o n and CN r a t i o , i n s h o r t a s h i f t t o w a r d s a Moder humus f o r m . F i g u r e 45 C shows a n o t h e r n a t u r a l s t a n d - D o u g l a s - f i r Compare w i t h f i g u r e 45 A above and n o t e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c " D o u g l a s - f i r " brown r a t h e r t h a n r e d of t h e o u t e r zone i n f i g u r e 45 A, l a r g e r D I , D2, D3 , s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r W4, and i n c r e a s e s i n L o b e s and S p i k e s . A l l t h e s e c h a n g e s f i t t h e summary ( t a b l e 5 ) . F i g u r e 45 C i s a c l a s s i c Mormoder. F i g u r e 45 D i s an i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t c l e a r c u t w h i c h was l i g h t l y b u r n e d . S l i g h t i n c r e a s e s i n Wl and d e c r e a s e s i n W4 and a s h i f t t o a l i g h t e r brown i n d i c a t e a r e d u c t i o n i n t o t a l c a r b o n , and a s l i g h t s h i f t t o w a r d s a M u l l humus f o r m . The p a l e c o l o u r s and poor d e f i n i t i o n i n d i c a t e a r e d u c t i o n i n d i v e r s i t y o f compounds. I t w o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g t o f o l l o w t h i s s i t e a s i t r e c o v e r s . 71 f F i g u r e 45 C D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d F i g u r e 45 D A d j a c e n t a r e a Cut humus sample and l i g h t b u r n F i g u r e 45 Chr o m a t o g r a m s o f humus (LFH) s a m p l e d f r o m c o n t r o l and t r e a t e d s i t e s . 72 F i g u r e 46 A,B,and C a r e c h r o m a t o g r a m s f r o m t h r e e s t a n d s w h i c h were i n t e n s i v e l y s a m p l e d f o r a volume s t u d y ( R e s e a r c h s e c t i o n , M i n . o f F o r e s t s ) . They a r e a l l a d j a c e n t unmanaged s e c o n d g r o w t h s t a n d s on s i m i l a r p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s . They a r e of i n t e r e s t b e c a u s e of t h e i n t e n s i v e n e s s o f t h e s t u d y (25 c o m p o s i t e d s a m p l e s o f humus ( L F H ) ) , a c c u r a t e p r o d u c t i v i t y d a t a and c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s o f humic s u b s t a n c e s . T a b l e 6 shows v a r i a b l e s f r o m c h r o m a t o g r a m s and c h e m i c a l d a t a f o r t h e t h r e e s a m p l e s . T a b l e 6. C h r o m a t o g r a p h i c and c h e m i c a l v a r i a b l e s o f humus s a m p l e s f r o m >80% D o u g l a s - f i r , m i x e d , and >80% w e s t e r n h e m l o c k s t a n d s . S t a n d C h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s Chemi ca 1 v a r i a b l e s ( u n i t s i n mm e x c e p t f o r LO and SP) D2 D3 Lo S p Wl W2 W3 W4 L i p i d% HUMC% Cf 1% CH/CF Fd 58 80 67 37 9 20 11 9.5 3. 14 5.98 3. 79 1 . 58 F&H 54 78 61 38 7 20 12 10.5 4.42 8.37 4. 14 2.00 Hw 58 78 52 35 8 21 10 13.0 3. 64 7.39 4. 19 1 . 76 ( c h e m i c a l d a t a f r o m M i n . o f F o r e s t s , unpub . d a t a . V a n c o u v e r R e s e a r c h S e c t i o n ) F i g u r e 46 A and C show c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o l o u r s o f D o u g l a s -f i r and hemlock r e s p e c t i v e l y . The mix e d s t a n d ( f i g u r e 46 B) i s i n t e r m e d i a t e . A g a i n , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n l o b e s , s p i k e s and W4 a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h c o r r e l a t i o n s f r o m S a yward F o r e s t S t u d y ( T a b l e 4-2 ) . The h i g h e r l i p i d c o n t e n t o f t h e m i x e d s t a n d c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h t h e l o w e s t W l . Two v a r i a b l e s , Wl and D2 i n d i c a t e a s l i g h t l y p o o r e r p r o d u c t i v i t y f o r t h e m i x e d s t a n d . S i t e i n d e x e s ( m. 100 y r ) 73 f o r t h e t h r e e s t a n d s a r e : D o u g l a s - f i r ( F d S I 45) ; mi x e d ( F d S I 4 1 , HwSI 4 2 ) ; a n d h e m l o c k (HwSI 4 1 ) , ( p e r s . comm. S h i s h k o v , 1 9 8 4 ) . A p a l e r , l e s s d i s t i n c t e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e m i x e d s t a n d c h r o m a t o g r a m a l s o i n d i c a t e s a l e s s d y n a m i c s i t e . F i g u r e 47 A and B a r e c h r o m a t o g r a m s o f humus s a m p l e s f r o m s i t e s where s a l a l i s d o m i n a n t and e x c l u s i v e i n t h e s h r u b l a y e r . T a b l e 7 b e l o w shows c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c and c h e m i c a l v a r i a b l e s f o r t h e s e s i t e s . T a b l e 7 C h r o m a t o g r a p h i c and c h e m i c a l v a r i a b l e s o f humus s a m p l e s f r o m two " s a l a l " humus s i t e s . S i t e D2 D3 LO SP Wl W2 W3 W4 L I P I D % HUMC% CF1 % CHCF ( u n i t s i n mm e x c e p t f o r LO and SP) SPM 66 80 53 35 6.5 27 7 11 4.50 5.87 3.95 1.4 SNW 64 82 51 36 9.0 23 9 9.5 4.46 5.32 3. 78 1.4 ( C h e m i c a l d a t a f r o m M i n . o f F o r e s t s , unpub. d a t a , V a n c o u v e r R e s e a r c h S e c t i o n ) B o t h s i t e s show s i m i l a r r e s u l t s f o r c h e m i c a l v a r i a b l e s , t h o u g h t h e c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s change w i t h t h e c h e m i c a l v a r i a b l e s i n t h e same way as d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e Sayward F o r e s t S t u d y : Wl d e c r e a s e s and W4 i n c r e a s e s w i t h i n c r e a s e s i n HUMC and C F I . B u t t h e two c h r o m a t o g r a m s a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . F i g u r e 47 A i n d i c a t e s a " h e m l o c k - t y p e " humus. F i g u r e 47 B i n d i c a t e s a " D o u g l a s - f i r - t y p e " humus t h o u g h has a p a r t i c u l a r l y d a r k g r a y i n n e r z o n e . D a r k g r a y i n n e r z o n e s a r e o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o o r g r o w t h o f D o u g l a s - f i r on d r y s i t e s , or w i t h s i t k a s p r u c e ( P i c e a  s i t c h e n s i s ( B o n g . ) C a r r . ) s i t e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t h i s s i m i l a r i t y o c c u r s i n humus f r o m s u c h d i s s i m i l a r s i t e s . The f i g u r e 74 47 A s i t e i s i n f a c t a wet c e d a r and h e m l o c k s i t e t h a t was l o g g e d , b u r n e d and p l a n t e d t o s i t k a s p r u c e 15 y e a r s ago. The s i t e b r u s h e d i n w i t h s a l a l and t h e s p r u c e has s t a g n a t e d . The low number of l o b e s i n f e r p o o r p r o d u c t i v i t y of D o u g l a s - f i r and h e m l o c k ( f i g u r e 31 and 3 2 ) , low TCA and h i g h CN. The s m a l l Wl a l s o i n d i c a t e s low a c t i v i t y . The f i g u r e 47 B s i t e h a s a 15 y e a r o l d D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d w i t h m i n o r c omponents o f h e m l o c k , r e d c e d a r and w h i t e p i n e ( P i n u s m o n t i c o l a D o u g l . ) I t h a s a m e s i c m o i s t u r e r e g i m e and Moder humus f o r m . The r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l d a r k g r a y Wl and low number of l o b e s i n d i c a t e poor p r o d u c t i v i t y . T h i s i s u n u s u a l f o r a moder humus f o r m . The s a l a l may be c o n t r i b u t i n g t o a p o o r e r , l e s s d y n a m i c humus t h a n w o u l d be e x p e c t e d . 75 F i g u r e 46 A >80% D o u g l a s - f i r F i g u r e 46 B M i x e d h e m l o c k and D o u g l a s - f i r F i g u r e 46 C >80% h e m l o c k F i g u r e 46 C h r o m a t o g r a m s o f humus (LFH) s a m p l e d f r o m t h r e e s t a n d s t h a t d i f f e r i n s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n . 76 F i g u r e 47 A " S a l a l humus" SPM S i t e F i g u r e 47 B " S a l a l humus" SNW S i t e F i g u r e 47. C h r o m a t o g r a m s o f humus ( L F H ) s a m p l e d f r o m two s i t e s where s a l a l i s d o m i n a n t i n t h e s h r u b l a y e r 77 LIMITATIONS OF THE APPROACH AND FURTHER STUDIES A m a j o r l i m i t a t i o n i s t h e l a c k o f d i r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m and c h e m i c a l s u b s t a n c e s i n t h e humus e x t r a c t . W h i l e i t a p p e a r s t h a t f u l v i c a c i d s , g e n e r a l l y more h i g h l y c o l o u r e d r a d i a t e t o t h e p e r i p h e r y , i t a l s o a p p e a r s t h a t humic a c i d f r a c t i o n s a l s o move t o t h e o u t e r z o n e . S i m p l e t e s t s done w i t h e x t r a c t s s e p a r a t e d i n t o f u l v i c and humic f r a c t i o n s by a c i d i f i c a t i o n a r e g e n e r a l l y i n c o n c l u s i v e . F i g u r e 48 shows one ex a m p l e where a f u l v i c a c i d f r a c t i o n y i e l d s a c h r o m a t a o g r a m w i t h d a r k e r c e n t r a l z o n e s , and t h e humic f r a c t i o n w i t h more d e f i n e d o u t e r z o n e s . However t h e c h e m i s t r y o f t h e c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c p r o c e s s c a n n o t be e x p e c t e d t o be t h e same, and t h e most r e a s o n a b l e method f o r e x a m i n i n g t h e z o n e s w o u l d be as f o l l o w s : p r e p a r e a l a r g e number o f c h r o m a t o g r a m s u s i n g s t a n d a r d method; c u t o u t t h e z o n e s and r e - e x t r a c t w i t h .25 N NaOH ; a n a l y z e e a c h e x t r a c t u s i n g f r a c t i o n a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s and s t a n d a r d c h e m i c a l a n a l y s e s . T h i s w o u l d e s t a b l i s h a " f a t e map" s h o w i n g where t h e c l a s s i c humus f r a c t i o n s move t o on t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m . W h i l e t h i s a n a l y s i s i s s e e n as a n e c e s s a r y n e x t s t e p , t h e i n t e n t i n t h i s t h e s i s was t o e v a l u a t e t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m as a u s e f u l " r e f l e c t o r " o f humus c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e l a n d manager. 78 i g u r e 48 A Humic a c i d f r a c t i o n . F i g u r e 48 B F u l v i c a c i d f r a c t i o n F i g u r e 48. Example of c h r o m a t o g r a m s o f s e p a r a t e d f r a c t i o n s . 79 A n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t l i m i t a t i o n i s t h e p r o b l e m o f v a r i a b i l i t y of t h e c h e m i s t r y o f humus. Q u e s n e l ( 1 9 8 0 ) and C a r t e r ( 1 9 8 3 ) have e x a m i n e d t h i s p r o b l e m i n c o a s t a l B.C. The S a y w a r d humus d a t a was bas e d on a " m o d a l " p i t as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a s i t e . T h i s i s a s h o r t c o m i n g w h i c h weakens t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t ween c h e m i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s a m p l e and a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e s i t e ( i . e . s i t e i n d i c e s , t r o p h o t o p e , humus f o r m , e t c ) . I t does n o t a f f e c t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m and humus c h e m i s t r y ( t h e s e were done on t h e same s a m p l e ) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between th e c h r o m a t o g r a m and s i t e a t t r i b u t e s , h o w e v e r , a r e a f f e c t e d . W h i l e i t i s c l e a r t h a t one s a m p l e c a n n o t a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t a s i t e , g i v e n enough s a m p l e s and s i t e s a good d e a l o f v a r i a b i l i t y must be i n c l u d e d . C o m p o s i t i n g 5 t o 10 s a m p l e s ( a s was done f o r e x a m p l e s i n management a p p l i c a t i o n s ) w o u l d have been much p r e f e r a b l e . P r o d u c t i v i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e g e n e r a l l y weak. T h i s i s e x p e c t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e d o m i n a n t i n f l u e n c e o f t r e e s p e c i e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e humus. I t i s n o t a b l e t h a t among t h e Ah p o p u l a t i o n t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h p r o d u c t i v i t y t h a n among t h e o r g a n i c s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n . I n s p i t e of t h e s m a l l number of Ah s a m p l e s , t h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t more a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o humic s u b s t a n c e s i n m i n e r a l h o r i z o n s f o r c l u e s t o p r o d u c t i v i t y . C a r t e r ( 1 9 8 3 ) f o u n d t h a t c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f humus f o r m s d i d n o t show p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a s s e s s i n g D o u g l a s - f i r p r o d u c t i v i t y . 80 L i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s (MIDAS , s t e p w i s e , f o r w a r d ) ( F o x and G u i r e , 1 9 7 6 ) y e i l d e d o n l y one s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . U s i n g Ah s a m p l e s , FDSI and D2 had an R s q u a r e d of .62. A l t h o u g h t h e s a m p l e s i z e i s s m a l l (n=8) t h i s r e s u l t i s p r o m i s i n g . I t may have p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e i n s i t e d i a g n o s i s . B h o r i z o n s have n o t been i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o n c e p t of humus f o r m . I n f o r e s t e d e c o s y s t e m s t h e r e i s a need t o l o o k c a r e f u l l y a t t h e q u a l i t i e s o f humic s u b s t a n c e s i n B h o r i z o n s . U s i n g t h e a n a l o g y i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n , i n f o r e s t e c o s y s t e m s e c t o r g a n i c humus can be s e e n a s t h e " c o m p o s t " and t h e upper m i n e r a l s o i l a s t h e " g a r d e n " . I t a p p e a r s t o be o f p r a c t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e t o examine c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c a l l y how t h e p r o d u c t s o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n e n t e r i n t o a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h m i n e r a l s o i l . I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h i s t h e s i s d i d n o t e x a m i n e B h o r i z o n s t o any e x t e n t h o w e v e r some o b s e r v a t i o n s c a n be made. F o r e x a m p l e , Lowe ( 1 9 8 0 ) d e m o n s t r a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n humus f r a c t i o n s t h a t were r e l a t e d t o h o r i z o n t y p e . Humic c a r b o n / f u l v i c c a r b o n r a t i o s were c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e s t i n Ah h o r i z o n s and d e c l i n e d t h r o u g h v a r i o u s B h o r i z o n t o t h e l o w e s t i n H u m o f e r r i c P o d z o l s . F i g u r e 49 shows c h r o m a t o g r a m s o f a number o f m i n e r a l h o r i z o n s a r r a n g e d i n t h e o r d e r of e x p e c t e d c h a n g e s i n CHCF f r o m t o p t o b o t t o m . The most o b v i o u s v i s u a l c h a n g e i n t h e s e q u e n c e i s t h e s h i f t f r o m brown t o r e d i n t h e o u t e r z o n e and a g e n e r a l d e c l i n e i n DI and D3. C o r r e l a t i o n s o f Ah s a m p l e CHCF w i t h c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . P e r h a p s i f t h e sample was 81 a d j u s t e d f o r o r g a n i c m a t t e r c o n t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w o u l d be a p p a r e n t . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t c h r o m a t o g r a p h y i n r e l a t i o n t o humus f r a c t i o n s i s w o r t h p e r s u i n g i n B h o r i z o n s . W i t h a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what c h e m i c a l s u b s t a n c e s t h e z o n e s r e p r e s e n t , c h r o m a t o g r a p h y may p r o v i d e a s i m p l e means of e x a m i n i n g humus f o r m a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o humic and f u l v i c a c i d f r a c t i o n s . 82 Ah Chernozem Ah S u b a l p i n e B r u n i s o l Bh P o d z o l Bf P o d z o l F i g u r e 49. C h r o m a t o g r a m s of s e l e c t e d m i n e r a l s o i l h o r i z o n s . 83 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Humus management has been n e g l e c t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r e s t s . I n s p i t e o f many y e a r s o f r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e n a t u r e and c o m p o s i t i o n of humus, t h e r e s u l t s a r e c o m p l e x and o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y . L i t t l e o f p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e has been a c h e i v e d t o a i d t h e l a n d manager i n a s s e s s i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f humus and how management a c t i v i t i e s a f f e c t i t . T h i s s t u d y has e x p l o r e d i n s t a g e s a c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c method of i n v e s t i g a t i n g ' humus a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A t the l e v e l o f c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e s a m p l e , t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m a l l o w s i n f e r e n c e s t o be made a b o u t s u c h p r o p e r t i e s as pH, CEC, p e r c e n t o r g a n i c c a r b o n , some e x c h a n g e a b l e and t o t a l c a t i o n s and s o m e t h i n g r e g a r d i n g t h e f u l v i c and humic a c i d f r a c t i o n s . A t t h e l e v e l o f humus f o r m o r humus t y p e , t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m a p p e a r s d i a g n o s t i c f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f humus f o r m t a x a . A t t h e s i t e l e v e l , i t a p p e a r s t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between humus f o r m e d f r o m d i f f e r i n g t r e e s p e c i e s and und e r d i f f e r e n t m o i s t u r e and n u t r i e n t c o n d i t i o n s . W i t h f u r t h e r t e s t i n g , t h e method may p r o v i d e sound i n d i c a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i v i t y . A t t h e e c o s y s t e m l e v e l , t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m r e f l e c t s more g e n e r a l f a c t o r s o f c l i m a t e and v e g e t a t i o n . I t does so by s h o w i n g a " f i n g e r p r i n t " of t h e p a r t i c u l a r humus component t h a t has f o r m e d i n t h e s e t of c o n d i t i o n s and p r o c e s s e s t h a t a r e a c t i v e i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r s i t e . U n d e r s t a n d i n g p r o c e s s i s p e r h a p s t h e most i m p o r t a n t p o i n t . The c h r o m a t o g r a m p r e s e n t s an e x p r e s s i o n o f h u m u s / s o i l 84 r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t does so i n a way t h a t i s p e r h a p s more n a t u r a l , l e s s removed f r o m t h e a c t u a l s i t e t h a n many c h e m i c a l a n a l y s e s w h i c h a r e o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y and d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t . As s u c h t h e a p p r o a c h i s s e e n as a b r i d g e b e t w e e n t h e o n - s i t e o b s e r v a t i o n s and q u a n t i t a t i v e c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s . By u s i n g a s t a n d a r d s a m p l e , a s y n t h e s i s o f many a t t r i b u t e s of humus i s p o r t r a y e d as a d i a g n o s t i c p i c t u r e . W i t h t h e Sayward F o r e s t s a m p l e s , t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e p i c t u r e a r e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a r a n g e o f c h e m i c a l and s i t e p r o p e r t i e s . R e l a t i o n s h i p s t o humus f r a c t i o n s a r e e v i d e n t , h owever i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t f u r t h e r work t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t e x t r a c t a b i l i t y of humus and t h e t o t a l c a r b o n c o n t e n t o f t h e s a m p l e , so t h a t s i m i l a r q u a n t i t i e s of humus f r a c t i o n s a r e used w i t h e a c h c h r o m a t o g r a m . The S a y w a r d F o r e s t s a m p l e s a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y p o d z o l i c s o i l s w i t h a low r a n g e i n pH. F o r o t h e r a r e a s , a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c p r o c e s s i s n e c e s s a r y and s p e c i f i c a n a l y s i s o f t h e z o n e s i s e s s e n t i a l . The p r i m a r y e m p h a s i s i n t h i s t h e s i s has been t o a s s e s s t h e p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s o f t h i s s i m p l e a p p r o a c h a s an a i d t o t h e l a n d manager i n m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s a b o u t t r e a t m e n t s and e f f e c t s on l o n g t e r m s i t e q u a l i t y . T h i s s t u d y d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n t d i a g n o s t i c v a l u e o f t h e a p p r o a c h . I n s p i t e o f n o t k n o w i n g t h e c h e m i c a l phenomena o c c u r i n g i n t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m , t h e a p p r o a c h c a n be u s e d p r a g m a t i c a l l y . The i n f e r e n c e s d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g t h e me a s u r e d 85 v a r i a b l e s D2 t o W4 a r e d e m o n s t r a t e d by c o r r e l a t i o n s and s c a t t e r g r a m s . T h e r e a r e many o t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s w h i c h c a n n o t be r e a s o n a b l y m e a s u r e d and w h i c h r e q u i r e e x p e r i e n c e i n " r e a d i n g " . W h i l e t h i s may be c o n s i d e r e d a d r a w b a c k by some, i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t s u c h a c t i v i t y ( c o m p a r i n g and q u e s t i o n i n g why d i f f e r e n t s i t e s have d i f f e r e n t e x p r e s s i o n s o f humus ) w i l l l e a d t o more r i g o r o u s e x a m i n a t i o n o f humus p r o c e s s e s , w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o b e t t e r management of f o r e s t e d e c o s y s t e m s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t c h r o m a t o g r a p h y p r o v i d e s a-c o n s i s t e n t r e f l e c t i o n , b a s e d on c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h c h e m i c a l and s i t e p r o p e r t i e s , o f t h e q u a l i t a t i v e n a t u r e o f humus. C h r o m a t o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s change most w i t h a change i n d o m i n a n t t r e e s p e c i e s , and t o a l e s s e r , t h o u g h s i g n i f i c a n t d e g r e e w i t h humus f o r m , c l i m a t e , s i t e p r o d u c t i v i t y and m o i s t u r e r e g i m e . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n p r o v i d e s t h e b a s i s f o r u s i n g t h e method as a d i a g n o s t i c t o o l f o r s t u d y i n g humus and a s s e s s i n g c h a n g e s b r o u g h t a b o u t by f o r e s t management. B e c a u s e o f t h e s i m p l i c i t y o f e q u i p m e n t and method, i t c a n be u s e d i n u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d s u r r o u n d i n g s , w i t h o u t l a r g e c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t s . The method a l s o p r o v i d e s some s u p p o r t f o r t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f humus f o r m s and may be of use i n s e p a r a t i n g Fa and Fq h o r i z o n s w h i c h a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e o r d e r l e v e l . T h e s e h o r i z o n s r e p r e s e n t t h e e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r e n t s o i l b i o t a and t h e c h r o m a t o g r a m c a n be se e n as an i n t e r e s t i n g i n d i c a t o r o f b i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e e f f e c t s o f e a r t h w o r m p o p u l a t i o n s a r e e v i d e n t i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f Ah h o r i z o n s . E a r t h w o r m Ah's ( v e r m i m u l l s ) have 86 d i s t i n c t i v e c h r o m a t o g r a m s . M o n i t o r i n g i n o c u l a t i o n s , and e x p l o r i n g t h e a s s o c i a t i o n of s o i l b i o t a w i t h v a r i o u s p l a n t s p e c i e s w o u l d be p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c a p p r o a c h . U n t i l f u r t h e r work i s done t h e method can o n l y be c o n s i d e r e d q u a l i t a t i v e . However on a p e r s o n a l n o t e , i t does p r o v i d e a v e r y s a t i s f y i n g , h o l i s t i c v i e w on what i s c e r t a i n l y a key i n p l a n t - s o i l i n t e r a c t i o n s : humus. 87 LITERATURE CITED Anonymous.1972. Humic S u b s t a n c e s , T h e i r S t r u c t u r e and F u n c t i o n i n t h e B i o s p h e r e . P r o c . I n t . M e e t i n g Humic S u b s t a n c e s , N i e u w e r s l u i s , P u d o c , W a g e n i n g e n . Anonymous.1983. S o i l D e g r a d a t i o n i n B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a . P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e e i g h t h m e e t i n g o f t h e B.C. S o i l S c i e n c e W o r k s h o p , H a r r i s o n Hot S p r i n g s , B.C. M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and F o o d , V i c t o r i a , B . C . 273 p. Bascomb, C.L. 1968. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f p y r o p h o s p h a t e i r o n and a l u m i n u m and o r g a n i c c a r b o n i n s o i l s o f v a r i o u s g r o u p s . J . S o i l S c i . 19:no.2, pp 251-268. B l a c k , C A . e_t a _ l . ( e d s . ) 1965. M e t h o d s of S o i l A n a l y s i s . Agronomy Monograph no. 9 , Amer. S o c . A g r o n . M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s o n . D i x o n , W.J., M.B. Brown, L. E n g l e m a n , J.W. F r a n e , M.A. H i l l , R . I . J e n r i c h , and J.D. T o p o r e k . 1981. BMDP S t a t i s t i c a l S o f t w a r e . U n i v . o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , B e r k e l e y , p. 5 1 9-537. B r i n t o n . W . F . 1983. A q u a l i t a t i v e method f o r a s s e s s i n g humus c o n d i t i o n . I n S u s t a i n a b l e Food S y s t e m s , Ed. D. K n o r r , AVI P u b l i s h e r s , W e s t p o r t , CT. C a r t e r , R.E. 1983. F o r e s t f l o o r s under s e c o n d g r o w t h D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d s : t h e i r c h e m i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y and some r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o p r o d u c t i v i t y . MSc T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . F e l l e r , M. 1982 The E c o l o g i c a l E f f e c t s of S l a s h b u r n i n g w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : a L i t e r a t u r e R e v i e w . P r o v . of B.C., M i n . of F o r e s t s . L a n d Management R e p o r t no. 13, V i c t o r i a , B . C . 60p. F o x , D.J. and K.E. G u i r e . 1976. D o c u m e n t a t i o n f o r MIDAS. T h i r d e d i t i o n . S t a t i s t i c a l R e s e a r c h L a b o r a t o r y , U n i v . of M i c h i g a n . 203p. G j e s s i n g , E.T. 1976. P h y s i c a l and C h e m i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of A q u a t i c Humus. Ann A r b o r S c i e n c e P u b l . I n c . 88 K l i n k a , K. and L.E.Lowe. 1976. O r g a n i c C o n s t i t u e n t s o f F o r e s t Humus L a y e r s i n t h e C o a s t a l W e s t e r n Hemlock B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zone o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n R e l a t i o n t o F o r e s t E c o s y s t e m s . R e s e a r c h N o t e No. 75 and 76. B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e . R e s e a r c h D i v i s i o n . V i c t o r i a , B.C. K l i n k a , K. R.N. G r e e n , R.L. T r o w b r i d g e and L.E. Lowe. 1981. T a x o n o m i c C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Humus Forms i n E c o s y s t e m s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1 s t A p p r o x . P r o v . of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , M i n . o f F o r e s t s . 54pp. Ko e p f , H.H. 1964. S o i l T e s t s and C h r o m a t o g r a m s . B i o d y n a m i c s 6 9 , 1 -13.' K o n a n o v a , M.M. 1966. S o i l O r g a n i c M a t t e r : I t s N a t u r e , I t s R o l e i n S o i l F o r m a t i o n and i n S o i l F e r t i l i t y . 2nd E d i t i o n . Pergamon P r e s s , L o n d o n . 554p. Lowe, L.E. 1974. A s e q u e n t i a l e x t r a c t i o n p r o c e d u r e f o r s t u d y i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o r g a n i c f r a c t i o n s i n f o r e s t humus l a y e r s . C an. J . o f F o r e s t R e s e a r c h . 4 : 4 4 6 - 4 5 4 . Lowe, L.E. 1980. Humus f r a c t i o n r a t i o s as a means of d i s c r i m i n a t i n g b e t w e e n h o r i z o n t y p e s . Can. J . S o i l S c i . 60: 219-229. P a u l i , F.W. 1967. S o i l F e r t i l i t y : A B i o d y n a m i c a l A p p r o a c h . Adam H i l g e r L t d . , L o n d o n . P f e i f f e r , E.E. 1959. The A r t and S c i e n c e of C o m p o s t i n g . B i o d y n a m i c s 49: 1-20. P f e i f f e r , E.E. 1960. Q u a l i t a t i v e C h r o m a t o g r a p h i c M e t h o d f o r t h e D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f B i o l o g i c a l F a c t o r s . B i o d y n a m i c s 5 0 : 2 - 1 5 . P r i c e , W.J. 1978. A n a l y t i c a l a t o m i c a b s o r p t i o n s p e c t r o m e t r y . Heydon and Son L t d . L o n d o n . 239 pp. Q u e s n e l , H.A. 1980. F o r e s t F l o o r s n e a r P o r t H a r d y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . MSc. T h e s i s . D e p t . S o i l S c i e n c e , , U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C., V a n c o u v e r , B . C . 152pp. 89 S c h n i t z e r , M. and Kahn ( E d i t o r s ) 1978. S o i l O r g a n i c M a t t e r E l s e v i e r S c . P u b l . L t d . S c h u m a c h e r , E . F . 1974 . S m a l l i s B e a u t i f u l . S p h e r e B o o k s L t d . , L o n d o n , E n g l a n d . 255p. S h i s h k o v , G. 1984. R e s e a r c h S e c t i o n , V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n , M i n . o f F o r e s t s , B.C. S i l e n , R . R . 1982. N i t r o g e n , C o r n , and F o r e s t G e n e t i c s . Gen. Tech, Rep. PNW-137. P o r t l a n d , O r e g o n . U.S.D.A. F o r e s t S e r v i c e . 20 PP • S u k a c h e v , V . and N. D y l i s . 1968. F u n d a m e n t a l s o f F o r e s t B i o g e o c e n o l o g y . O l i v e r and Boyd L t d . , L o n d o n . 672 p. W a l m s l e y , M. , G. U t z i g , T. V o i d , D. Moon and J . van B a r n e v e l d 1980. D e s c r i b i n g E c o s y s t e m s i n t h e F i e l d . R.A.B. T e c h n i c a l P a p e r 2. Land Mgmt. Rep. No. 7, V i c t o r i a , B.C. W a r i n g , S.A. and J.M. B r e m n e r . 1964. Ammonium p r o d u c t i o n i n s o i l u n d e r w a t e r l o g g e d c o n d i t i o n s as an i n d e x o f n i t r o g e n a v a i l a b i l i t y . N a t u r e 20' 1: 951-952 . Watanabe, F.S. and S.R. O l s e n . 1965. T e s t o f an a s c o r b i c a c i d method f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p h o s p h o r o u s i n w a t e r and NaHC03 e x t r a c t s f r o m s o i l . S o i l S c . S o c . Amer. P r o c . 4 9 : 6 7 7 - 6 7 8 . 90 APPENDIX I CHROMATOGRAMS OF REPLICATED HUMUS SAMPLES FROM UBC RESEARCH FOREST SAMPLE A 91 REPLICATES OF SAMPLE A CONTINUED. 92 9 3 APPENDIX I I DATA SET -KEY TO VARIABLES: 0. «. T . 8 . 9 . H O T W H O T C T N T P 1 8 . 1 9 . 3 0 . 21 . 2 2 . C B S B HUMC HUMN C F 1 3 0 . 31 . 33. 33. 3 4 . T N * T F I T»l T H N P Y F E 6 9 73. 74 . 76 • 6 . HFOIM F O S I B G S I MHSI P L S I 1 6 3 . iS4. 1 5 5 . 1 5 6 . 1 5 6 . i n • V ] 04 C N C H C F VARIABLES: 1 4.4000 33.090 .87000 . 11200 .61000 1.0000 5.2800 .33000 5.2500 .7O0OO -1 1.3100 -8IOOO . 15000 -0 12.000 30.000 - 0 . 38 000 -0. 31.000 13.OOO 10.COO 49.388 1.0057 2 3.60O0 56.880 .66000 .74000 .40000 .B70O0 16.950 .31000 5.2300 .40000 -1 .48000 .36000 .20000 -1 -0. 33.000 37.000 - 0 . 41 .000 -0. 21.500 14.750 11.500 86.182 3.2471 3 4.4OO0 83.290 1 . 1400 .94OO0 .33000 .43000 12.440 .37OO0 6 3300 .70000 -1 1.7800 .88000 .60000 -1 -0 23.000 46.000 49. COO 44.000 -0 21.000 18.500 6.5000 46.746 , 1.9652 4 3.4000 64 '420 1 .2700 .61000 1.2B00 .50000 16.030 .49000 6.5300 .20000 -1 . 16000 .21000 .10000 -1 -0 IS.OOO 51.000 - 0 . 47.000 -0 . 26.250 12.250 10.000 50.724 3.3017 5 3.6000 54.820 1.3600 .10700 .430OO 6O0O0 B.60O0 .46000 6.6900 .40000 - 1 .60000 .45000 .80000 -1 -0. 15.000 40.000 - 0 . 26 000 - 0 . 16.OOO 18.5O0 9. OOOO 39.725 1.4350 • 3.6000 CO.480 1 .3500 . 10500 .58000 .70000 13.710 .52000 6.5900 .200O0 -1 • 5O00O .38000 .50000 -1 -0. 15.000 40.000 -0 . 44.000 -0 20.000 16 000 10.000 44.800 3.0804 7 3.5000 64.630 1.1100 . 10800 .86000 .88000 10.750 .37000 8.3100 .20000 -1 .19O00 .23000 .60000 - 1 -0. 15.000 43.000 - 0 . 37 000 -0. 24. COO I2.5O0 13.000 58.316 1.3936 • 3.3000 56.680 .87000 . 11600 .56000 .64OO0 11.380 .37000 6.8700 .50000 -1 .66000 .70000 .30000 -1 -0 15.OOO -0. -0. 43.000 -0. 23.000 14.000 12.000 SB.433 1.6565 9 5.3000 36.170 .77000 .14O0O .440CO 51O0O 4.7700 .32000 4.4600 . 15000 2.6600 1.6900 .14000 -0 . 13.OOO 39 000 -0. -0. -0. 13.500 22.000 5.0000 46.974 1 0695 10 1.9000 58.870 1.3300 .96000 .85000 .75000 11.140 .51000 7. 11O0 .50000 -1 .80000 .82OO0 .50000 -1 -0. 23.000 43. OOO -0 . 40 000 -0. 17.000 16.500 10.OOO 44.038 1.5668 11 4 7O0O 52.540 1 3000 . 11300 54000 .56000 10.860 460O0 6.5300 .90000 - 1 1 930O 1 0700 13000 -0. 33 OOO 42 000 -0 34 OOO -0 . 35 500 12 000 6 SOOO 43 783 1.6631 13 5.3O00 47.440 1 .4600 13600 .57000 .60000 10.300 .56000 6.3300 .70000 - 1 1 69O0 1.1100 . 150O0 - 0 . 24.OOO 45.000 -0. 39.000 -0 . 36.500 8 OOOO 7.0000 33.493 1.9694 13 3.9000 63 600 . 1.0200 .13700 1.0300 i oeoo 6.3400 .28000 6.5700 .5O000 - 1 1.1300 .83000 eoooo - i -0. 15 000 39 OOO -0. 31 OOO -0 . 30 BOO 18.500 9.OOOO 61.373 .96499 IB 4.7000 47.330 1 2100 .11700 .71000 .79000 7.6400 .39000 6.8800 .80000 - 1 J.3200 1.2500 .14O00 -0. 23 OOO 47.OOO - 0 . -0. -0. 14.OOO 32 000 7 5000 39. 116 1.0946 SAYWARD PROVINCIAL FOREST STUDY 11. MINN etc 13. OCt 14 EXMG 15. IXNa 16. E X K 17. LIPIDA 33. CF1» 34. 1400 25. (600 26. E40E6 27. TC« 2B. TMO 29. TIC 35. POL 61 . CTREE 64. SUBZ 65. (LEV 66. •SPECT 67. HVOB 68. TROPH 90. 8451 93. CHS I 148 02 149 D3 150. 10 151 . SP 152. HI 147.00 3 04O0 -0. -0. 58.460 62 600 1 OOOO 27.000 13 090 10 200 3.0000 59.000 3.3500 6.1000 300 00 95 000 350O0 .74000 3.0000 60 000 3 0900 :12O00 3 OOOO 35 000 3.4600 .15O0O 3.0000 • 5000 92.000 1.6300 -0. -0. 106 96 60 400 1 .0000 33.000 13.630 7.6O0O 3.0000 53.500 3.6300 7.9000 380 00 83 000 .39000 .46000 3.0000 50.000 1 56O0 .60000 -1 4 OOOO 33.000 3 7500 .70000 3.0000 4.7500 236 .OO 3.6600 -0 -0. 106.99 66.400 2.0000 32.000 39.030 11.600 3 OOOO 60.000 3.9000 5.70OO ISO 00 93.000 .40000 1 3100 3 OOOO 73.000 3.1300 .26000 6 OOOO 44.000 1 6600 • OOOO ' 4.0000 9 OOOO 141 00 3.3900 -0. -0. 161 44 79 300 2.0000 33.OOO 16.830 10.600 3 OOOO 63.500 6.4900 7 3OO0 140 00 61 000 .53000 47000 3. OOOO 62 000 1.7600 80000 -1 6.0000 38 .000 1.9600 .60000 3 OOOO 8 OOOO 319.00 3.3300 -0. -0. 137.27 88.30O 1 OOOO -0 33.300 15.000 3.0000 • 46.000 5.7300 5 9000 240 00 87.000 .36000 1 0300 3 OOOO 70 000 3.2900 .12000 3 OOOO 19.000 3 4800 10000 1 OOOO • OOOO 300 00 2 . 1400 -0. -0. 136 02 74.800 2 OOOO 27 000 33.320 10.000 3 OOOO 64 000 4.3OO0 7 .SOOO 210 OO 86 OOO .44000 71OO0 3 OOOO 57 .000 2.6700 .80000 -1 6 OOOO 34 OOO 1 3600 .90000 4 OOOO 7 OOOO 208 00 3.3300 -0 -0. 123.08 60 600 2 OOOO 30 OOO 13.550 9.6000 3.0000 SB.OOO 4 4300 6.3000 170.00 83 000 75000 37OO0 3 OOOO 56.000 3. lOOO 7O0O0 -1 4.0000 33.OOO 4 9600 13000 1 OOOO 5 OOOO 153 00 1 94O0 -0. -0. 109.12 66. OOO 2. OOOO -0. 8.7200 13.600 3. OOOO 56.OOO 3 . 7600 5 3OO0 150.00 64.000 45O0O 3SO00 3 .0000 58 OOO 2.4700 . 11000 4. OOOO 14 OOO 4 0900 . 11000 3.0000 5 OOOO 168.00 1 .5600 -0 -0. 69 710 67 000 i oooo -0 25.960 10.400 3.0000 44.000 3.4200 6 4COO 310 00 68 000 .15OO0 1.2500 3.OOOO 57 OOO 1.7600 390OO 4 OOOO 45 OOO 3 3600 14000 3 OOOO 8 5000 387 00 2 4100 -0. -0. 111 80 61 200 1 OOOO 23 000 16 690 6 6 OOO 3 OOOO 49 000 3.3800 7. 1000 480 00 83.000 .35000 71000 3 OOOO 60 000 1.6900 . 150O0 6 OOOO 30 OOO 4 16O0 .90000 4 OOOO 7 5000 189.00 3 8100 •0. •0. 111.59 63.400 1 . OOOO -0 40 790 14 600 3 OOOO 71.000 4.8900 5.6000 470 00 •5.000 .33000 1 6900 3.OOOO 74.0OO 3.OOOO .34000 4.OOOO 42.000 3.1800 . 1OO00 4.0000 10.OOO 368.00 3.3300 •0. •0. 137 76 10'.20 1 OOOO 31.OOO 74.430 17.600 3.OOOO 74.000 9 0300 6.0000 30O.O0 90.000 .35000 3.3300 3.0000 77.000 3.0300 .2OO00 • OOOO 17.000 1.73O0 . 11000 4.OOOO 10.BOO 130.00 3 3100 -0. -0. 118.33 66 400 2.0000 21 .000 13.590 11.300 3 OOOO 50.000 3.9300 S.900O 140 00 •7.000 .39000 .7O00O 1.0000 65 000 1.0000 .14000 1.0000 BO. 000 4.5800 . 11000 1.0000 4.SOOO 3«6 00 3.4700 •0. -0. 104.30 75.400 1 .0000 -0. 36.650 13 600 3.0000 43 000 • 7700 5.5000 •5.000 66.000 .64000 1 .4600 3.0000 S3 OOO 2.5300 .33OO0 4.0000 41.000 3.6900 . 13000 1.0000 7 OOOO 94 18 4.30O0 55.330 1 . 1400 . 13400 218 OO 116.17 16.330 4.7300 .76000 1.9900 3. I7O0 .53000 .87000 10 910 .40000 • 1600 3 3600 66.000 9.4O00 7.0000 .91000 .16000 . 10000 .COOOO -1 i.asoo .94000 .90000 -1 -0 . -0 . 1 OOOO 3 OOOO 100.00 3.OOOO 3.0000 3.0000 IS 000 3*.OOO -0 - 0 . - 0 . -0 -0. 34.000 78. OOO 57.000 39.000 8.78O0 10.250 33.900 9.OOOO 48.447 1.7492 IT '.•000 55 070 1.2400 .13300 369.00 110.19 24 S90 6 1300 .76000 3.4700 3.7700 61OO0 .92000 9.9400 .41000 6.8700 3.3300 72.200 13.OOO 6. OOOO 1. 1800 .16000 .ISOOO SOOOO -1 1 . 1900 .69000 . 19OO0 -0 . -0 . 1.0000 3.0000 103 00 3.0000 2.0000 1.0000 15 000 31.000 - 0 . - 0 . - 0 . -0 . -0 . 39.000 83.000 56.000 40.000 T.OOOO 13.500 22 OOO 9.0000 44.411 1.3686 16 4.40O0 15.340 .87OO0 - 0 . 18.OOO 93.300 1.2500 .38000 .10000 .aoooo .36000 .35000 .23000 6.3100 .57000 1.3300 .36000 346.60 39.BOO 4.1000 - 0 . - 0 . - 0 . -0 •0. - 0 . -0 .78000 .66000 -0 3.0000 103.00 3. OOOO 1.0000 3.0000 aa ooo -0 . -0 - 0 . -0 . -0 - 0 . 61.000 •1.000 53.000 4 3 . 0 0 0 1 3 . 0 0 0 IT.SOO 10.000 9.OOOO 13 914 4.8947 It 4.S000 39.620 1.0400 .11400 330.00 93.930 20.000 7.9900 .61000 a.0900 1.7600 .63000 .74000 6.9100 ,34000 4.6100 1 .4000 77.000 11.800 6.5000 1.6500 .370  .11000 . I2OO0 3.9400 I.BBOO .60000 -1 -0 . -0 . 1 OOOO 3 .OOOO 75 000 1.0000 6.0000 COOOO 35.OOO 91 OOO S3 OOO 49.000 - 0 . -0 - 0 . 47.000 •9.000 87.000 4 1 . 0 0 0 7.23O0 is aso 19.000 T.OOOO • 39.096 1.4989 ai 9.3000 . • 9100 .63000 - 0 . B6 000 45.400 a.oooo 8 OOOO .11000 .aoooo .39000 .34000 . 19000 3.1700 .29000 3.1400 .71000 115.40 32.400 saooo -0. - 0 . -0 . -O. -0 . - 0 - 0 . .94000 .73000 8.0000 3.0000 70.000 1.0000 T.OOOO • OOOO 32 OOO -0 . - 0 . -0 -0 . -0 . - 0 . 66.000 ' 76 OOO 56.000 33 000 14.500 It BOO • OOOO 8.3000 IS.371 1.4913 aa 9.OOOO 6.69O0 33OO0 -0 33.000 34 . 290 8 73O0 1 5800 . ISOOO .33000 .19000 9OOO0 -1 600OO -1 3.6300 15000 1.0900 .43000 186 40 46.200 4. OOOO -0 . - 0 . - 0 . - 0 . - 0 . - 0 . - 0 . .41000 .37000 I.OOOO 1 OOOO 90.000 3.0000 5.0000 4.OOOO 32 OOO 49. OOO -0 . - 0 . - 0 . -0 . -0 . 54.000 •4.000 •0.000 40.000 10.250 16. 730 13.000 a.oooo 36.333 2.43S9 as 3.4000 60.670 3 7900 .11900 339.00 143.72 18.370 5.8100 .46000 1.3800 3.0300 350OO .34OO0 11 240 76000 6.6100 3.1300 72.200 6 8000 B 3000 .57000 .13000 .80000 -.30000 -1 35O0O .29000 30000 -1 - 0 . - 0 . 6.OOOO 1 OOOO 60 000 3.OOOO 6.0000 6.0000 24 OOO - 0 . - 0 . 39.000 - 0 . - 0 . -0 . 73.000 89.000 •8.000 45.000 5.S000 31.000 • .0000 7.0000 a 1.924 1.7005 34 4.90O0 93.7O0 ' 1 S400 .86000 -1 330 00 127 72 16 790 5.3300 .36000 1.3800 2.O7O0 360O0 37OO0 14 430 4BOO0 7 6100 3 6 tOO 50.600 6.4000 7.9000 S4O00 . 10000 .60000 -30OOO -1 .saooo .31000 .10000 -1 -0 . - 0 . 3.OOOO 4.0000 29O.O0 1 OOOO 8. OOOO 6.0000 IS.OOO - 0 . - 0 . 38.000 -0 . 30.000 -0 . S3 OOO 79.OOO 83.000 42.000 6.3S0O I8.7SO 13 OOO 14.OOO 40.714 1.8476 as 4.3000 59.930 1.5200 . 13600 331.OO 113.96 14.950 3.3600 1.3100 1 .7300 3.6600 .29000 .43OO0 13.050' 54O00 7.1300 3 6BO0 63. SOO 9.6OO0 7.3000 .43000 .80000 -1 .80000 -. 30OO0 -1 .59000 .39OO0 .9OO00 -1 -0 . - 0 . 3 OOOO 4. OOOO 290. OO a.oooo 3.OOOO 6.OOOO 33.000 -0 . - 0 . 39.000 - 0 . 43.000 -0 . 33.000 T7.000 •4.000 35 0 0 0 T.SOOO 19 OOO 13.000 13. OOO 39.429 1.8339 36 3.3000 65 590 1.0200 .79000 -1 193.00 130.67 11.6B0 3. 1900 .BSOOO 3.1900 4.3000 .49000 .71000 30.310 .41000 6 5900 1 .4900 49 800 saooo 9 6000 .33000 .30000 -1 .90000 -. 3OOO0 -1 1 I OOO .90000 -1 .40OO0 -1 - 0 . - 0 . 3. OOOO 5. OOOO 600.00 2.OOOO 3.0000 3.OOOO 1S OOO - 0 . - 0 . 32.000 -0 . 24.OOO - 0 . 52. OOO 80.OOO 41.000 36.000 3.5OO0 33.500 14.000 13.000 64.294 3.0819 37 3 9000 59.760 1.3700 . 10000 368 00 121 4} 12 lao a 6500 .35000 a.7300 4.2400 9600O .74000 10.420 46000 9.6200 3.5700 63. BOO 10 200 6.3OO 44OO0 .900  -1 .nooo .30000 -1 .65000 .31000 . 19000 - 0 . - 0 . 3.OOOO 5 OOOO 610 OO 3.0000 4.0000 3.OOOO IS 000 -0 -O. 42.000 -0 26 000 34.000 69.000 86.000 •0 .OOO 36.000 9.SO0O as ooo B 5000 11. OOO 47.033 1.aOBB 3a 3 6000 66 330 1 .4600 . 11600 290 00 130 67 7.1400 3 1700 .70000 a 3200 5.0500 32000 56000 16 960 .62000 7.3100 1.4300 59.600 7.OOOO a 5O00 .33000 .600 -1 .11000 .aoooo -i .33000 .33000 .40000 -1 - 0 . -0 . 3.0000 4 OOOO 500.00 3.0000 5 OOOO 4.OOOO IS.OOO - 0 . - 0 . 34. OOO -0 . 36.000 - 0 . 43.000 79.000 54 .000 30.000 5.5000 ic ooo 19 000 10 500 46.915 3.6397 39 3.6000 64 330 1 . 1900 .11300 180.00 124.04 7.3900 2 9100 .58000 3.4300 4.4200 S7O00 .67000 10 290 33OO0 6.2900 3.7300 77 600 12 2O0 6.4000 .27000 .50000 -1 .11000 3O0O0 -1 .31OO0 24OO0 8OOO0 -1 - 0 . -e. 3.0000 4.0000 500.00 1.0000 3.OOOO 3.0000 IS OOO -0 . -0 34.000 -0 . 39.000 - 0 . 53 000 86.000 60.OOO 33.000 5.5OO0 33.000 IS 500 12.OOO 34.076 1.6359 30 4.1000 45.960 .71000 .85000 - I I 34 000 91 900 17 300 4.2000 .64000 1.2600 5.3600 .44000 .70000 11 460 43000 6 0700 2 3300 62 300 9 OOOO 7.8000 1 6300 .27000 .60000 -.70000 -1 3 .0200 1 4400 .60000 -1 -0 . -0 . 1 .0000 3 OOOO 190 00 3.0000 2.0000 2. OOOO 32.000 26 OOO - 0 . -0 - 0 . -0 . -0 . 30.000 93.000 66.000 40.000 T.OOOO 19.OOO ai soo 7.6OO0 64.733 1.4326 • 31 3.8000 62.490 .67000 .96 OOO -1 194.OO 108.20 13 330 3.7500 .43000 2.0300 4 2300 .SIOOO .61000 10.090 .32OO0 6 76O0 2.4300 60.000 9.0000 6.7000 .66000 70000 -1 .80000 -.aoooo -i , .43000 4SOOO .10O00 -0 . - 0 . 5 OOOO 3.OOOO 350 OO 1 OOOO a.oooo a.oooo IS 000 19.OOO - 0 . -0 . 16.000 -0 . - 0 . 87 OOO 90 000 57.OOO 33.OOO S.5OO0 33 OOO ' 11.S00 11 .000 71.916 1.4911 33 4.400O 35 350 .77000 . 19400 16.000 73.230 16.280 3 7100 .33000 3.5900 3.3300 TIOOO .67000 5 7300 30000 5.2800 2 4600 34 600 9 2000 S.9O00 1 .0300 .34000 .ISOOO 90OO0 - 1 2 7700 1 3300 .70000 -0 . -0 . 1 OOOO 1 . OOOO 190 00 1 .0000 3.0000 3.0000 IS OOO 34 000 -0 - 0 . -0 . -0 -0 . 41 OOO 90.000 49.000 39.000 9.3000 13.OOO 19 500 T.OOOO 49.779 1.0890 33 4 . 1OO0 SS 960 7OOO0 .14000 176.00 112 33 16.990 3 6600 .81000 9 5400 5.1300 csooo .43000 9 9700 .35000 10.060 4 9200 64.900 8.6000 7.5000 .•3000 .10000 .16000 40OO0 - 1 .91000 .42000 .50000 -0 . •0. 1.0000 1.0000 160.00 1.0000 3.0000 a.oooo IS 000 33 000 -0 . 19.000 -0 -0 19.000 40 000 82.000 8O.0O0 38.000 11.000 9 OOOO ai ooo ti OOO 79.900 6B171 34 4.6000 39.970 .97000 .11700 154.00 87 630 34 630 4 1000 .33000 1.9100 3.6700 .960O0 69000 6 5100 .32000 S 3100 1 . 930O 63 .400 14 400 5 7000 1.3100 .30000 . 13000 . 'OOOO 1.9200 1 1500 .34000 -0 -0 . 1.0000 3.0000 375.00 3.OOOO 2.0000 3.0000 IS.000 31 OOO -0 -0 . - 0 . - 0 . 31 OOO 60.000 88.000 •8.000 39.000 10.350 19 750 14.000 T.OOOO 44.793 1.1815 95 35 4 .4000 48.540 1 1700 .14400 226.00 114.95 31 .790 5 3400 .33000 3.5700 4.0300 .66000 690OO 6 950O .46000 5 5700 1 5500 76.OOO 12.800 5.90O0 1 39O0 .30000 . 13OO0 . .eoooo - 1 1 2100 .79000 39O0O -0 . -0 . 1 OOOO 3.0000 270 00 3.0000 3.0000 3.0000 15 000 37 000 -0. -0 -0 -0 -0 57 000 86 .000 65 000 34 000 8.0000 20 .500 IS 500 6 O O O O 41 .467 1.6066 36 3.4000 60 490 1 37O0 .10500 197.00 136. 10 13.990 4.33O0 .37000 3.1700 4.4700 .53000 .66000 13 930 .50000 7 .6200 2.3600 65 400 8 4000 7 BOOO .40000 .70000 -1 . 10000 . 3O0O0 - 1 .19000 . 17000 .30000 -1 -0 . -0 . 1 . OOOO 4 . OOOO 490 OO 3.0000 4 OOOO 3 OOOO 15 000 53 .000 -0 39 000 •0 . 22 000 37 000 58 000 80 .000 62 000 34 .000 6. SOOO 32 5O0 11.OOO 12 .OOO 47 630 1 .6268 37 4.8000 46 620 !1 .6500 .35500 79.000 136 01 30.170 3 1300 .40000 .44000 3.3100 .30000 .24000 21 300 1 OOOO 5 6100 1 .9500 94.700 14 400 6 6000 .92000 .60000 -1 .40000 . 30000 - 1 .34OO0 3 6100 .12O0O -0 . -0 9 OOOO 5.0000 640.00 1 OOOO 8 OOOO 4.0000 34 OOO -0 -0 . 34 . OOO -0 . -0 . -0 . 63 000 7 7 000 36 .000 39.OOO 14.350 16.750 7 5000 14 000 26 389 3 7968 38 5 OOOO 13 640 73OO0 -0 56 OOO 74 130 10 630 1 0500 . 17000 .33000 .35000 1 0200 35000 5 6600 .37000 2 .0100 .68000 165 00 44.400 4 3000 -0 . -0 . - 0 •0. -0 -0 -0 1.0000 3.0500 4 OOOO 3 OOOO 310.00 3 OOOO 7.0000 4.0000 35 OOO 45 000 -0 . 38 000 -0 -0 . 38 000 45.OOO 76 000 41 OOO 35.OOO 13.500 10 OOO 15.500 1 1 000 19 096 2 .6159 39 4.4000 9 4900 630O0 -0 68 OOO 3B 570 7 OOOO 1 .6800 .13000 .3OO0O .39000 IIOOO . 11000 2 3700 .210O0 1.7100 SBOOO 73 600 9 2000 8 OOOO -0 . -0 - 0 . •0. - 0 . - 0 - 0 10000 . 25'X'C 6 OOOO 3 OOOO 140.00 1 OOOO 7.0000 4.0000 32-000 - 0 . - 0 28 . OOO - 0 . - 0 - 0 49.000 90 000 67 OOO 45 .000 7 .7500 16 750 30 500 6 SOOO 15.063 1.3660 40 4 . 100C 37.620 95000 . 10800 196 OO 78 6J0 10.300 3 9800 .38000 1.9200 3 9800 .56OO0 .53^00 7 8G00 .36000 5.3600 1 6000 76.200 15 800 4 8000 1 .0400 .18000 . 11000 9 C " X » - 1 3.3100 1 0400 .90000 -1 1 -0. - 0 . 3 OOOO 3.0000 95.000 3.0000 5 .0000 4.0000 15 .000 44 000 -0 45.000 -0 . -0. -0. 61.000 69 .000 70 .000 36 .000 7 .5000 33.000 14 OOO 9 OOOO 39 81 1 1.4686 * 1 4.5OC0 15 210 930O0 -0 . 58 OOO 70.040 6.25O0 3.4000 .13000 1.0000 .34000 .16000 13OO0 4.O9O0 350O0 3.3900 900O0 131 60 34 OOO 5.SOOO -0 . -0 . - 0 . -0 - 0 - 0 -0 1.1800 1. 04O0 1 OOOO 1 .0000 30 000 3.OOOO 6.OOOO 6.OOOO 33 .000 55 000 61 000 42 OOO -0 -0 -0 . 44 .000 78.000 51 .000 38 .000 14.000 6 OOOO 17 COO 7 OOOO 16 533 1 .7860 43 4 . 0 0 0 0 4 3 860 810OO .10400 71 000 86 510 17.440 5 OOOO .24000 3.3700 3 .4600 .50000 . 4400O 4.7 300 .23000 7.3100 3.6600 75 4G0 12.400 6 .1000 .95000 .13000 . 11000 .eoooo - 1 1 07O0 55OO0 .12O00 - 0 . : 0 . 1 OOOO 1 OOOO 160 00 1 .0000 3. OOOO 3 OOOO 15 OOO 33 000 -0 32 000 -0 . -0 . -0 62 OOO 90 000 69 .000 41 .000 5.5OO0 35.500 14 000 10 000 52 914 .65603 43 4.6000 '43 .300 I .65000 .10300 218 OO 85 980 25 4 10 4 0100 .37000 3.0600 4.3700 . 590O0 510OO 7 9500 . 30000 5 6400 2 220O 7 1 8(>0 10.BOO 6 6000 1.3900 .16000 1 100O . 700O0 - 1 1 7lOO B6CO0 . 30OO0 -0 - 0 . 1 OOOO 3 OOOO 350 00 1 OOOO 4 OOOO 3 .0000 33 OOO 76 OOO - 0 28 OOO •0. - 0 -0. 50.000 83 000 63 000 35 .000 7.0000 16 OOO 16 500 10.000 50 94 1 1,4096 44 4.7090 52.540 1 .3000 .1970O 337.00 1 14 02 39 770 5 6900 .41000 3.1800 4 OIOO 4 7GOO .48COO 7.6 700 .42000 7.7800 3.1600 .70 2O0 1 1 . JOO 6 . 2000 1 6500 .17000 . 17000 .11OO0 1 7 800 » e o o o 1.5500 - 0 . ' - 0 . 1 OOOO 3.0000 370 00 3.0000 3.0000 3.0000 23 000 3B 000 -0 - 0 . - 0 . - 0 35.OOO GO 000 84 000 57 .000 31 OOO 7 .5000 22 .500 12.000 7.5000 40 .4 15 .9B586 45 3. 6000 58.920 .74000 .64000 - 1 126 00 109 39 1 1 360 5.4500 .97000 2.9800 6.3300 .62000 .66000 21 620 .53000 7.2600 2 9100 68.200 9 OOOO 7 6000 .34000 .8OOO0 -1 . 13000 .30000 - 1 .12000 . 12000 . 10000 -1 - 0 - 0 . 2 .0000 4 . OOOO 370-00 3.0000 3.0000 3 OOOO 15 OOO 34 OOO -0 . 30. OOO - 0 . -O . 31 OOO 66 .000 86 OOO 56. OOO 32 OOO 4.5000 28 500 10.000 13 000 79.622 2.9780 46 4 100O 55.680 1.5900 .16300 156 .00 115 33 13 890 1 2000 .30000 1. 1600 3.3IO0 . 75OO0 .75000 14.080 74000 7 6200 3-07OO 84 eoo 18.BOO 4 5000 .36O00 . 8O0O0 -1 -6OOO0 .20000 - ' 1 1 1100 1 .3300 .ICOOO -1 -0 . - 0 5 0000 4.0000 360.00 3.0000 1 OOOO 3 OOOO 22 000 12 OOO - 0 . - 0 . 12.000 - 0 . - 0 . 49 000 86 000 60.000 31 .000 9. OOOO 15 500 18.500 1 1 000 35 145 1 847B 47 3 9000 6 . 2900 .58000 -0 129 00 40.040 30 000 .9B0O0 10000 .23000 .38000 .15000 OOOO 3 2 100 .26000 1 8600 . 62O00 ea 400 12.200 6 9000 -0 - 0 . - 0 . - 0 •0 •0. -0. 610O0 . 39000 6 OOOO 1 .OOOO 90 OOO 1 .OOOO 7 .0000 6.0000 33 000 46 000 - 0 . 56 000 -0 . - 0 . - 0 . 53.000 60.000 53.OOO 35.000 10.000 16 BOO 13 500 1 1 .000 14 293 1.7259 46 4 1000 36 030 .58000 . 116O0 49 000 79 100 10.670 3.0800 .34000 1.5600 3 SOOO .44000 .36000 9 5800 . 3O0O0 3 9100 1 .3600 B5 600 14.000 6 1000 .62000 .31000 .12000 . 1 10OO 2 5600 1 5400 90O00 - 1 -0. - 0 . 1 OOOO 1 .0000 160.00 1.OOOO 4 .0000 3.OOOO 15.000 45 000 - 0 . - 0 . -0 -0. - 0 . 4 7 000 84.000 51 .000 37.000 7 SOOO 16 000 18.500 9 OOOO 65 569 3 4501 50 4 6000 9 8300 290O0 - 0 . 36 000 35 9G0 10 750 1.1800 .60000 - 1 . 33OO0 .25O00 . IO00O • .600O0 - 1 2 39O0 13000 1 2800 51000 171 20 38 .000 4 5OO0 -0 - 0 . - 0 . - 0 - 0 . - 0 - 0 33000 .360OO 1 OOOO 3 OOOO 300.00 3.0000 5.0000 4.0000 32 .000 44 OOO - 0 . -0 -0 . •0 -0 . 47.000 88 000 63.000 36 000 9 SOOO 14 000 JO 500 10 000 33 B97 1 6672 51 5.4000 53 2 10 1 OOOO .910O0 - 1 305 OO 106 4 1 30.340 3 7600 .420OO 1.9800 5.7600 35000 36000 11 7 10 40000 4,8900 2 0900 73 800 10 OOO 7.4000 .97000 .13000 .80000 .40000 - 1 .63000 . 37000 .80000 - I 1 -0. -0. 1.0000 3.OOOO 340 00 3 OOOO 4 .0000 3 OOOO 15.OOO 49 000 -0. 45.000 -0. -0 34 000 S3 .000 87 000 66 .000 40.000 5 .0000 31.000 17 ,500 9 .0000 53.310 2.3947 53 •4 . 3000 46 730 1 OOOO .12900 160 00 101.06 19 6J0 3 ecoo .38000 2 .3400 2 .4900 49000 .45000 10 510 .45000 5 .5000 1 .6900 91 600 17.200 5 3000 .79000 .12000 .11C00 .70O0O • 1 .6*000 , .56000 . 11000 -0 -0 1 . OOOO 3.OOOO 180.00 1.0000 5.0000 4 . OOOO 15 .000 64 OOO 0 47 OOO -0. •0. - 0 . 53.OOO 90 000 69 .000 43.000 6 2500 20 250 16 500 6 OOOO 46 730 1.9109 53 4 .O'X'O 60 450 1 4500 .13°00 316.OO 11?.55 14 240 3 7300 .33000 3.4100 5.5500 .68000 .62000 10 360 52000 9 8200 4 2600 61 600 11 400 5 4C0O .48000 .50000 -1 .15000 200-?J • 1 . 3JOO0 . 300O0 6'jOOO - 1 1 -0 •0 2 oooo 5. OOOO 760 OO 3. OOOO 4 OOOO 3.OOOO 15 OOO 36 OOO - 0 34 OOO - 0 . 36 OCO 32 .OOO 36 OOO 63 OOO 53 OOO 36 OOO 5.25O0 13.750 33 500 12 .000 41 690 1.0550 5 ' 4 30OO 46 600 -68000 .14J00 187 OO 96 500 16 180 3 6800 .25COO 3. 1000 2 .6900 50OOO . 45O0O 10 160 40000 7 .0500 3 JOOO 74 40O 12 200 6 . 1000 1 0600 .34000 . 1 I00O . 7OOO0 • 1 3 OIOO 1 29O0 2TO00 - 0 •0. 1 OOOO 3 OOOO 30O 00 3 OOOO 5.0000 4 OOOO 3 3 COO 4 1 OOO •0 41.000 •0. -C 0. 45 OOU 66 000 63 OOO 40.000 7 .5000 15. OOO 30.500 7 SOOO 52 955 1 4140 96 57 3.8000 23.160 1.3900 -0 . 281.00 80 360 6.2500 1 .6300 . 14000 .58000 98000 .21000 .20000 6.6100 .37000 3.4BOO .76000 123 20 24.400 5.1000 -0 . -0 . -0 . -0 . -0 . -0 -0 1.3100 , 40000 6 OOOO 1 OOOO 140 00 t OOOO 7.OOOO 4.0000 32 000 -0 -0. -0 -0. -0 -0 76.000 86. OOO SB.OOO 36.000 30.OOO te ooo 5 OOOO 6 OOOO 17 953 1.8994 58 3.9OO0 47,900 1.0200 .1380O 154 OO 1 14 20 17 360 4 1000 .27000 2.4600 3.66O0 360O0 .460O0 10 170 4 10O0 5.18O0 t.4900 76 OOO 41.600 6 600O .87000 . 10OO0 . 1 1000 . 400O0 -1 .76000 SOOOO .90000 - 1 -O. -0. 1.0000 3 .OOOO 150.00 3.0000 3.0000 3.0000 15 OOO 36 000 -0 , -0 -0 -0 -0 49.000 87.000 60 000 33.000 4.S000 30 OOO 19 000 10,000 46 961 1 .9633 59 4.6000 33.020 1 1400 .13300 313.00 91.920 33.080 4 7800 .34000 2.5200 4.3900 .74OO0 .52000 8 6300 .45000 6.5400 2 7100 6O.OO0 9 6OO0 6 3000 t 0600 . 18OO0 . 1200O .SOOOO - 1 94O0O 69000 . 14O00 -0 . -0. 1 OOOO 3.OOOO 150.00 3.OOOO 5 . OOOO 4.0000 ISOOO 45 OOO -0 . 33.OOO -0. -0 . -0 . 47.000 68 OOO 63 000 40.000 6.5000 17 OOO 30 500 10. OOO 46 509 1.3196 60 4.OOOO S4 440 1.3300 .I3J0O 317 .00 113 10 • 22 660 4 05O0 .47000 2.3700 4.1600 .51000 .60000 10 630 520OO 7 .0000 3.7400 80.400 14 .000 5.7000 .B6000 .13000 . 12000 . SOOOO - 1 . 70O00 . 4 100O .39000 -0 . -0. 1 OOOO 3.0000 40.000 3 .0000 4.0000 4 .0000 15 OOO -0 -0 49 OOO -0 . •0. -0 57.000 99 000 SB . 000 36.000 7 OOOO 21 500 16 000 8.5000 44 260 t.5186 61 4.2000 58 680 1 .6600 . 12000 220 00 166 95 33 630 5.9100 .30000 .79000 1 .8900 .74OO0 .33000 13.300 83OO0 7.3500 3.3800 86 800 13 600 6.6000 .66000 .90000 -1 .40000 .20000 -1 . 280O0 1 6100 .60000 - 1 -0 . -0. 1 OOOO 3.0000 40.000 1 .OOOO 6.0000 4 .0000 23 OOO 54 000 -0 . 49 .000 -0 . -0 . 46 OOO 65 OOO BI.000 56 OOO 28.000 7.5OO0 25 OOO 6 OOOO 9 OOOO 33.349 3.0816 62 3 5000 30 550 1 1800 .1040O 199,00 12111 5 8000 3.B70O .51000 1.4900 3.5500 .31000 340O0 10 410 .40000 11.030 6 6500 75 600 10 800 7.0000 .3JOO0 .70000 -1 .70000 .40OO0 -1 .70000 .46000 .IPOOO - 1 -0 -0 3 OOOO 3 OOOO 50 000 1 OOOO 6.0000 4,0000 13 000 -0 -0 . 43 000 -0 . 41.000 -0 . 59.000 74 000 32.OOO 36.000 8.5000 31 OOO 7.5000 11.000 42.839 94379 63 3.9000 38 030 1 0700 .88000 - t 143.00 12? 52 13.130 4.8000 .46000 1.8700 4.9500 .530OO 510OO 8 9500 .33000 6 3100 3 7300 69.300 9 40OO 7 4000 .43000 .80000 -1 .90000 . 30O00 - 1 .28000 .19000 .30000 - 1 -0. -0 5 OOOO 3.OOOO 50 000 2 OOOO 1.0000 1.0000 33 OOO 13 000 -0. -0 15.000 -0. -0 44.000 80,000 53.000 31.000 6.0000 16 OOO 16 000 9 OOOO 56 340 1 3748 64 4 . 40OO 35.930 1 OOOO .13600 159.00 94.870 24.750 5 2700 .34000 1 .7900 1.3600 .32000 .34000 6.1300 .35000 3.7300 1 1 100 117.00 24.600 4.8000 1 .2400 .20000 . 11000 .toooo 1.9100 .97000 .37000 -0 •0. 1 .0000 3.0000 70 000 3.0000 4.0000 4.0000 34 000 43 000 -0 44 000 -0 . -0 -0 . 66.000 91 000 78.000 47.000 12.500 20 300 12.500 6 OOOO 35.930 1 .6434 65 4 .6000 53.450 1 .5000 .73O0O - 1 83 OOO 154 04 72.140 18 110 .28000 .54O00 3.4300 . 190O0 . 17000 34 730 78O00 2.4000 ,61000 134 90 24 600 5.6000 2.3000 29OO0 .40000 . 30000 -1 36O0O 69000 I0OO0 - 1 -0. -0. 6.OOOO 3 .0000 2O0.O0 1 .0000 8. OOOO 6.OOOO 34.000 -0 . -0. 21 000 -0. •0 -0. 47.500 74 000 44.000 28 000 15.000 8 730O 13 230 13. SOO 35 633 10, 3O0 66 3 6OO0 49 8 10 1 -60OO .11600 143 00 144 16 21 640 7 2700 . 3B0O0 1.2800 3.3600 39'>jO 4 7 COO 31.300 .820OO 5 3300 1 3800 78 300 11.200 7 OOOO .60000 .19OO0 .70000 .6'.'0O0 - 1 1 0300 -6R0O0 10000 - t -0. -0. 1 OOOO 1.0000 170 00 1.0000 7.OOOO 6.0000 24 OOO 49 -OOO 53 . OOO 47 OOO -0 . -0. -0. 44 OOO 77 000 52.000 34.000 9.2300 12 730 16.500 12 OOO 31.13 1 3.9B50 67 3.40O0 60 990 1.2100 .870OO - 1 182 00 159,80 34.290 5.1200 .39000 2 6400 4.6900 .4 MOO .61000 12.520 .81000 7 2200 3 9700 95 40O 13 700 7.2000 .77000 .toooo .90O00 SOOOO -t . 3600O .26000 . 1O0OO - 1 -0. •0. 4 OOOO 3.0000 200.00 i oooo 7.OOOO 2.0000 15 OOO -0. -0 31 000 -0 . -0. 34.000 52.000 64 . OOO 63.OOO 35.000 5.0000 21.000 16 OOO 9.50O0 • 50.403 1.7341 66 3.5O0O 57 660 1 6OO0 .12400 192,OU 134 33 14 950 4 0900 63000 1 76O0 4 7B0O .7 3000 10 770 .49000 6.3400 1.3700 70. OOO 10.800 6.5000 .56000 .11000 .80000 .50000 - 1 55OO0 . 340O0 . 40O00 - 1 -0 . •0 3 OOOO 4.0000 260.00 3 OOOO 4.0000 6 OOOO 15 .OOO 36 OOO •0. 29.000 -0. 37 ,000 •0 51 OOO 81 000 59 OOO 35.000 4.5000 21 OOO 15.000 1 1 OOO 36.037 1.7260 69 3.4O00 56. 160 1 3500 . t 1300 181 OC 143 39 9.6900 4 0700 .62000 3 1600 4.8700 .590OO . 65000 13 400 .560O0 6 6200 2 0500 84 600 15 000 5.6000 .33000 .70000 -1 .14000 .iryyjo -i 470OO 31000 100O0 - 1 -0. -0 3 OOOO 5.OOOO 7 10 00 3 OOOO 5 OOOO 3.0000 15 OOO 33 OOO -0 . 32 OOO •0 28 OOO -0 49 OOO 60 OOO 62.000 41.OOO 9.S000 19 OOO 15 SOO 1 1 000 4 1 600 1 9648 70 3.40OO 59.260 9B0OO 95000 - 1 153 00 128 78 7 B90O 3 1400 .79000 4.3100 6 4600 92O0O .740O0 9 7900 .51000 6 930O 1 9ROO 82 000 17.600 6.5000 .23OO0 .80000 -1 .1BO0O .30000 - t .34000 .14000 100O0 - 1 -0. -0 9.0000 5. OOOO 810.00 3.0000 3.0000 2.0000 13 OOO -0. -0 17.000 -0 . 16.000 -0. 59 .000 79 000 49.000 38.000 7.2300 32 250 10 .000 9 50O0 60 469 1 .4127 7 1 3. 70O0 60,440 90O00 .73000 - 1 103,00 126 28 19 640 3 3300 350O0 1 2600 3.3000 . 38 )^0 .32000 17.170 .32000 3.6300 2,0200 71.400 9 2000 7 6000 .74000 .toooo .60000 . 40O0O - 1 .630OO 37O0O • 3O000 -1 -0 -0, 1 OOOO 3 OOOO 330.00 3.0000 4 OOOO 2.0000 13 OOO 35 OOO -0 30. OOO -0 . •0 . - O , 40 OOO 76 OOO 49 OOO 33 OOO 4.7500 15 350 19.OOO 12.000 67 . 156 3 0497 73 3.80O0 48,030 1 0400 . 11300 120.00 1 14 55 20 4SO 3-6500 .24000 2.2600 4.2300 57000 S6000 1 1 ,4 10 . 380O0 6.2900 1 . 7700 63.400 9.B0OO 6.5000 .80000 . 120O0 . 10000 . 40O00 • 1 eoooo .460OO . I90O0 -0 -0 1 OOOO 4.0000 450.00 3. OOOO 4 OOOO 4 .0000 13 000 42 000 -0, 30 COO -0. -0. -0 52 000 65.000 66 000 40.000 6 OOOO 20 boo t6 500 7 5OO0 46 173 1 8140 97 74 4 4000 52.740 1 0900 .11700 203 00 116 39 34 .430 5 3900 .38000 3.5300 5.4900 51009 .43900 9.5900 .42000 6 8300 2 9700 7 1 000 9 6900 7 2000 1 3B0O .33000 .12000 .SOOOO - 1  1.20O0 68000 .IBOOO -0 -0. 1.0000 4 . OOOO 465 OO 3.0000 3.0000 3.0000 33 .000 38 000 -0. -0 - 0 . -0 33.000 46 000 86 OOO S3.OOO 38.000 4.SOOO 19.500 19 OOO 9 OOOO 48 385 1 404 1 75 4 OOOO 1.7. 1T0 .35OO0 -0 53 OOO 42 900 4 5300 1.5500 .31000 .63OO0 .98000 . 37000 .15000 3 5700 . I30O0 1.9200 .69000 122.60 26.600 4 4000 -0 . -0 . -0 . -0 -0 . -0 . -0 . -0. -0 1 OOOO 1 .OOOO 105 00 1.0000 5.0000 4.0000 23 OOO 49 000 -0 37 000 -0 . - 0 . -0 . 65 000 90.000 65.000 38.000 8.0000 34.500 12.5O0 9 5000 37 629 1 .8594 76 4.8000 7.7OO0 .34000 -0 . 22 000 35.380 9.9000 1.4700 .14000 .39000 .38000 .4 IOOO . 16000 1 5900 . 13000 1.2000 . 47OO0 309 80 56. 100 3.9000 -0 . -0 . -0 . -0 -0 . -0 -0 -0 . -0 . 4.OOOO 1.0000 100 00 1 .0000 7.0000 4.OOOO 23 000 42 000 -0 . 35.000 -0 -0 . 42.000 62.000 80 000 63.000 47.000 7.5OO0 33.500 8 OOOO 5.SOOO 32 083 1 3250 77 3.3000 56 640 1.4000 .IOIOO 206.00 139 48 12.010 3.4100 .27000 3.3600 4.6400 .51000 .43000 11.590 .32000 6 3000 3.3100 70.400 9.B0OO 7.2000 .46000 .18000 .11000 .6O0O0 - 1 .97000 47OO0 .29000 - 1 -0 . •0. 2 OOOO 4.OOOO 400.00 3 OOOO 5 OOOO 4.0000 15 000 -0 . -0 . 38 000 -0 . 36.000 43 000 97.000 84 000 61.000 37.000 6.OOOO 33.500 13 500 10 OOO 40 457 1.6397 76 3.8000 61.070 1.6700 . 10000 311.00 115 64 32.530 4.3100 .22000 3.3700 3.5700 .56090 .71000 13.080 .53000 7 3000 1 9700 74.600 10.600 7.0000 .94000 .70000 -1 .60000 • 30000 - 1 .43000 .30000 .20000 -1 -0 . -0 3.0000 4.0O00 400 00 3.0000 7.0000 4.0000 15 OOO -0 -0 . 38 COO - 0 . -0 41 COO 56.000 66 OOO 68.000 37 .000 6. OOOO 33 OOO 14.000 10.500 36.569 1 6546 79 3.2000 63 850 1.4900 ,85000 -1 161.00 169 89 13.020 6 5100 .64000 1 .6800 4.4600 49099 .58900 14 2B0 .63000 7.9800 3 3900 90 200 12 600 7.3000 .31000 .eoooo - i .70000 • 20000 -1 1 .11000 .90000 -1 I . 10000 - 1  -0. - 0 . 3 OOOO 6 OOOO 670 00 3.0000 5.0000 3.OOOO 15.OOO -0 . -0 . 32 000 -0 . 33 OOO -0 . -0 . -0 . -0 . -0 . - 0 . -0 . -0 . -0 . 43 853 1 .7695 80 4. 1000 47.470 1 0800 -0 . 137.00 129.96 1.9600 .90000 .36000 2.0900 4.3300 . 390O0 .94 OOO 8 8200 .43000 7 .6100 3 2600 88 . 1O0 21 700 4.0000 -0 -0 . -0 . - 0 . -0 - 0 . -0 -0 . •0. 3. OOOO 6 OOOO 940.00 3.0000 5.0000 4.0000 15 000 - 0 . -0 . -0 -0 22.000 -0 48.000 64.000 63.000 24.000 10.500 13 5O0 18 OOO 6.OOOO 43 954 1.1590 83 4 6000 6 37O0 .31000 -0 . 77.000 26 380 7.7500 1 . 1000 .90000 -1 .43000 .33000 . 13000 .90000 -1 1 8600 . 1 1000 1 . 1900 .45000 78.600 10.600 7.4000 -0 . -0 . -0 . -0 - 0 . - 0 . -0 .36000 .25000 6 OOOO 3 .0000 310.00 3 OOOO 8 OOOO 6. OOOO 32 . OOO -0 . - 0 . - 0 . -0 . -0 . -0 . 45.000 SB.OOO 67.000 40 000 8.0000 14 . 5O0 31 500 8 OOOO 30 546 ' 1.5630 64 4 .0090 32.520 56000 .96000 -1 67.000 73.750 16.170 3.3500 .16000 1.3500 3.3300 . 4 1000 .43000 5.3100 . 43000 4.9200 2 67O0 66.200 9.3000 7.3000 .73000 .13000 . 11OO0 .60000 - 1 1 6700 1.1300 60000 -1 -0 . -0 1 OOOO 3.OOOO 330.00 1 .0000 3.0000 3.0000 15 OOO 36.OOO -0. -0 . -0 . 0. -0 71 .000 S3 000 68.000 64.000 7.3500 36 350 11 .OOO 5 SOOO 58.071 1.0793 85 3.80O0 56 550 1 3000 .94000 -1 128.00 135 55 37 8B0 3.1900 .33000 1.5500 4.9100 .43OO0 . 4T.000 11 640 27OO0 6 3 100 1 9J00 69 000 9 2000 7 50O0 .62000 ,90000 -1 .90000 • .300O0 -{ 1.1200 .56O00 30000 -1 -0 - 0 . 7 OOOO 5.0000 710.00 3 OOOO 6.0000 3 .0000 16 000 36 .000 - 0 . - 0 . - 0 . 37 ,000 33 OOO 54.000 63 000 S3.000 31 .000 4.7500 32.250 14 000 9.5000 47.125 1.6744 86 3 4000 60 620 .83000 .66000 • 1 104.00 132 72 14 B:O 2.7100 .37000 3.5400 S.7100 51090 .68000 8.6400 .46000 6.3000 1 9800 73.200 9.4000 7.8000 .59000 .40000 - ' 1 . 10000 4O09O - 1 .42O00 . 250O0 7000C - 1 -0 -0 . 2 OOOO s.oooo 750 00 3 .0000 3 OOOO 3.OOOO lb 000 -0 -0 . 19 000 -0 . •0 -0 . 52.000 69 000 53.000 35.000 3.5000 33 500 18 500 6 OOOO 73 277 1 .3935 87 3 .6000 64 010 1 5000 .B30CO - 1 147 00 157.93 5 7600 7 56O0 . 46000 3 5900 4.7400 7 3OO0 . 7 2090 9.5300 4 3000 8.2200 3 0300 72.800 13.400 5 4000 .14000 .11000 . 1 IOOO .2OO0O - 1 2J00O 2J0OO .10000 - 1 -0 - 0 . 3 OOOO 6.0000 1140 0 3.0000 6.0000 3.0000 15 OOO -0 -0 -0 -0 . 12,OOO -0. 46 OOO 63 000 54 000 42.000 5.5000 18 500 17 5O0 6.5000 42 673 1 1594 86 3.40O0 60 7 90 1.3100 .13200 92 000 148.80 4.4800 2.6100 1 . 1400 2.3900 5.4300 .96909 1. 04O0 13.040 .52OO0 8.2800 2 9G00 78,200 14.890 5.3000 . 140O0 .40000 -• 1 .12000 SOOOO - 1 30O0O . 73090 . 10OO0 - 1 -0 - 0 . 3,0000 6.OOOO 1140.0 3.0000 5.0000 3.0000 15 OOO -0 - 0 . -0 . - 0 . 15.000 -0. 56.000 76 .000 53.000 28.000 5. OOOO 33 000 10.OOO 1 1 OOO 46 405 1 .4541 89 3 . 2900 44 640 92000 . 11600 64.090 100 41 4.9600 2.69O0 .38000 1.6900 3 06OO 62OO0 .66900 6 2800 .34000 6 2300 2 . 1400 73 BOO 15.6O0 4.7090 .39000 .70000 - ' 1 .13000 .8:JOOO - 1 2 OIOO 1 0900 SOOOO - 1 -0 . -0 9 .OOOO 6 OOOO 12O0 0 3 OOOO 3.0000 3 OOOO 15 OOO - 0 . -0 . -0 . -0 -0 -0 50,000 80 OOO 69. OOO 30. OOO 5.0000 20 OOO 15 000 13 SOO 48 522 1 0080 90 3 4000 38.970 75000 .96000 • 1 46,OOO 65 400 4 3700 1 . 34O0 .31000 .87OO0 3.8500 .27O00 .34O90 5 340O 260O0 6 6900 3 1300 93.600 16 600 5 OOOO .49000 . 10000 .17OO0 70O-J9 - i i eooo 1 7300 40OOO - 1 -0 -0 9 OOOO 7 OOOO 1300 0 3.0000 1 OOOO 3.0000 12 OOO -0 - 0 . -0 -0 •0 -0 - 0 . - 0 . -0 . -0 -0 . •0 0 -0 51 960 7982 1 91 3.2009 65 939 1.4 300 .83000 - 1 174 'X) 153 80 9 4 OOO 4 0500 .31000 2.0400 3.4300 . 33000 55OO0 14 4 90 .61000 7.5600 1 9200 80 000 9 eooo 6 2000 .36000 .60000 - 1 .BOOOO 20000 - 1 1 IOOO .60000 - 1 . 1OOO0 • 1 -0 -0 . 2 OOOO 3 OOOO 110.00 3.0000 4 . OOOO 3.0000 15 OOO -0 . - 0 . 37 .000 -0 . -0 •0. 53 000 65 000 59 000 31 .000 4.5000 32 000 16 000 10 000 46 105 1.9167 92 3.7090 19 240 1.0300 -0 15 1 00 65 430 5.7B00 1 6900 . 13000 7BO00 .84000 . 230O0 23000 4 8400 .45000 3 i 100 , 98,'j'yi 107 90 21 500 5.3000 -0 . -0 . -0 . •0. -0 -0 . . 0. -0 . •0 B OOOO 3 OOOO 70.COO 3.0000 6.0000 6 .0000 25 OOO -0 •0 . 36 000 -0 -0 39.000 47 000 73 000 57 .000 40.000 13.000 11.500 13 000 1 1 000 IB 680 1 .5563 93 3 . 3O0O 47 650 1 4300 65OO0 • 1 132 OO 137 44 15. 1 10 5.1600 .45OO0 1.7300 3.6500 46000 .59000 8 4 300 49000 6 0700 2.27O0 72 890 9 JOOO 7 7000 43000 .90000 - 1 .90000 39090 - 1 .260O0 .14000 . 10000 • •1 -0 . - 0 . 3 (.OOO 3 00.10 60.000 3.0000 5.0000 4.OOOO 15 OOO 46.000 51.000 - 0 . -0 - 0 . 36 000 51.000 91.000 61 OOO 44.000 4.0000 3 1 500 20 000 8 OOOO 33 322 1 3888 98 • 4 3.9OO0 62 770 1.4 100 .B30OO -1 1 188.OO 159.06 42.770 3.S5O0 .38OO0 1.6600 390O0 3IOO0 10 580 . 53000 6 10OO 2 3200 78. BOO 9.4000 8. 40O0 1.1500 .90000 -1 .30000 -1 1 .ISOOO SOOOO - 1 1 . 10000 - 1 -0 •0 4.0000 3 OOOO 210.00 1.0000 7.0000 34 .000 -0. -0 21 000 -0 -0 36 000 58 000 88 .OOO 63.000 35 OOO 33 OOO 15 OOO 9.5000 44 518 1 .7344 85 4 30O0 13 890 .74000 •0 82.000 45.540 6.7500 2 8800 .38000 .33000 . I2OO0 .80000 -I 1 4 12O0 . 3 3 OOO 1 7500 54O00 86 OOO 12 600 6 8000 -0. -0. -0 -0 -0 -0 .30000 .31000 6.0000 2 OOOO 95.000 1.0000 8 OOOO 33.000 -0 -0 -0 -0. -0 -0 48 000 77 .000 52.000 40.000 (2 SOO 14 500 9 5000 18.770 3 3543 96 3 SOOO 63.850 1 . 16O0 .B9CO0 - 1 96 .000 122 36 14 230 4 .0300 .38000 2.1300 .64000 830O0 13 . 200 .53000 6 3900 1 4 100 75.600 16 . 200 4.7000 .46000 .90000 -.SOOOO - 1 .53000 .340O0 . 1OOO0 -1 -0. -0 1 OOOO 4 OOOO 560 00 3.OOOO 2.OOOO 12 OOO 17.000 -0. -0. 15.000 -0. -0. 62 . OOO 83.OOO SO.OOO 36 000 30 750 10 000 8 SOOO 35 043 3 0986 4.3000 63 540 1 .4900 .14100 1B5 .00 144 63 14 250 5 3800 .60000 2 5500 .88000 .90000 12.580 .64000 8 0300 3 3300 « 4 aoo 13.800 6.1000 . 4 OOOO .aoooo -.2O0O0 - 1 .18000 1 S300 .39O00 -0 -0. 4. oooo 4.0000 530.00 3.0000 7 OOOO 16 OOO 39 OOO -0 26.OOO -0 -0. 28.000 49.000 89 000 65.000 41 .000 14 50O 30 OOO 7 OOOO 41 .973 1.S666 88 3 6000 62 160 1.3200 .14700 112 00 131.65 16 940 4.2400 47000 2.5400 .99000 1.2900 IO 300 .5SOO0 9.2400 3 74O0 63 200 18.000 4 .6000 46OO0 .12000 .70000 - 1 .98000 .77000 .40000 -1 -0. -0. 1 .0000 4 OOOO 540.00 3.0000 3.0000 IS 000 30 000 -0. 29.OOO -0. -0. 26.000 55.000 81 .000 62.000 32.000 33 SOO 13.000 11.300 47.106 1.1147 8- 4 7000 3 8800 .24000 -0 17 OOO 28 930 9.5000 16 130 . 13000 .1B000 .19O0O BOOOO - 1 1.7400 11000 1.0700 .49OO0 84.000 14 000 6.0000 -0. -0. -0 -0. -0 -0. .33000 .3B0OO 4 .0000 3.0000 60 000 1 OOOO 6.0000 32 OOO -0 59 000 43.000 •0 -0. 44 .000 77.000 81.000 75.000 48.OOO 30 OOO 7 OOOO 5 OOOO 24 SOO 1 6262 101 3 5000 57.710 .76000 .65000 - 1 111.00 1 12.42 7.2300 3 9800 S90O0 3.1800 .17000 .33000 10.830 .33000 6 2700 2 1200 69 200 9. BOOO 7.0000 .38000 .60000 -2O00O - 1 .16000 I2OO0 1OOO0 -1 -0 -0. 3 OOOO 4.0000 270 00 3 OOOO 3.OOOO 15.000 -0. -0. 31 000 -0. -0. 33.000 64 000 87 000 60.000 31.000 37 600 1 1.300 II 000 7B 934 1 .7273 102 3 60C0 63 900 .92000 .57000 - 1 74.OOO 167 14 39.570 3 9700 .30000 1 .8100 30OO0 . 33OO0 8 S300 .31000 7 4 700 3 3600 7?.800 9 2000 7 .9000 . 77OO0 .60000 -. 1O< » 0 - 1 . 6 0 0 0 0 -1 60O00 -1 .10O00 - 1 -0. -0 3 .OOOO 4.OOOO 260 00 3.0000 5 OOOO 15 OOO 32 0"X> -0. 32 OOO -0. -0. 33 000 62.000 69 000 50.000 33.000 27 OOO IS 509 10 000 69 457 1.1151 103 4 4000 34 540 .75OO0 . 11500 65 .000 73 640 24 350 3.7200 .11000 1.7600 39000 .53000 7 04O0 .30000 4.4200 1 3200 70. OOO 10.600 6 6000 1 .4 100 .35000 .isooo 2 7600 1 8O00 .40000 -0. -0. 1 OOOO 3. OOOO 210 00 3.0000 5 OOOO 34 000 -0 -0 -0. -0 -0 •0 58 OOO 90.000 70.000 39.000 20 SOO 16.OOO 7 OOOO 46 053 1 5938 104 4 . 200O 37 OOO 95O0O .96000 - 1 i l l . O O 79 470 17.170 3 7B00 .32O00 1.6500 49OO0 . 460O0 7.1800 39OO0 5.2800 2.5300 84 400 15.600 5 .4000 .91000 .23000 . 1O0O0 1 . 4500 97OO0 6OO0O -1 -0. -0. 1 OOOO 1 OOOO 70.000 3.0000 5.0000 23 OOO 46.000 -0. -0. -0 -0. -0. 71 000 87 000 63 000 30.000 23 750 6 OOOO 8 OOOO 38 .94 7 1 3598 105 4 6OO0 15.320 .S4OO0 -0 59 .000 48.870 10 750 4.8100 .ssooo .83000 . 19'vyj . 170O0 3.7300 2 3000 1 8700 590O0 17 1 . SO 35 200 S 1000 -0. -0 -0 -0. -0 -0. -0 -0 1 .0000 1 . OOOO 10 000 1 oooo 3.0000 25 000 36 OCO -0 -0 -0 -0. -0. 66 OOO BB 000 66 000 37 .000 20 750 10 000 7 OOOO 28.370 1.9947 106 4 SOOO 64.180 1.4400 54O00 - 1 70.000 174 . 4 4 45.000 17.C30 1 .5400 1 . 3B00 .1400O 7 OOOO 15 SOO .32000 4.5200 3 . 1600 101.90 12 800 8.2000 1 .3400 .22O00 4O0O0 - 1 .15000 . 30000 . 2O0O0 - ' 1 -0. -0. 2 OOOO 1 .0000 40 000 1 .0000 8.0000 16.000 -0 -0 S9.000 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 44 569 3 3850 107 3 4 0 0 0 29 280 1 49O0 -0 58 GCC 125 49 36 750 24 250 2.7500 .38000 I4O00 ISOOO 7 64C0 470O0 3.0700 1 . 2200 96 000 13 800 7.0000 -0 -0 -0 -0. -0 •0. .S4O0O .SIOOO 8 OOOO 1 .OOOO 10.000 1 oooo 7 .OOOO 33 000 -0 -0. 28 OOO -0. •0. -0. 81 .OOO 90 OOO 69. OOO 37 OOO 28.SOO 4 3000 7 OOOO 19.651 2 4886 106 3 4000 65 790 1 . 1400 .69000 - 1 95 000 169 16 18 030 4.5800 .36000 2.4000 . 15000 29C>vO 12.990 .49000 6 30OO 2 - OCOO 81 .200 10.BOO B lOOO .44000 .60000 -1COO0 - 1 60O0O -1 1OOO0 .20O00 -1 1 -0 -0 2 OOOO 4.0000 310 00 3.0000 5.0000 13. OOO -0 -0 40 OOO -0. 39 OOO -0. 48 000 90 000 55.000 43 OOO 19 SOO 21.000 a oooo 57 711 1 9985 109 4.OOOO 63 450 1.1400 .63000 - 1 69.000 t e o . e i 27 680 5.2500 .36000 1 .3400 I75O0 .21O0O 32 820 560O0 5 6700 1 990O 79 . 200 9.40O0 B.4CO0 .73000 .80000 -]''»0 - 1 25O0O .60000 . 10O00 - 1 1 -0. -0 4 OOOO 4 OOOO 310 00 1 OOOO 6 OOOO 16 OOO -0 -0. S3.000 -0. 29.000 31 .000 70.000 83.030 52 000 30.000 28. SOO 6.3000 9 OOOO 54 78 1 4 0247 113 4 . 6 0 0 0 6 3 970 1 740O .ISOOO 3.17 00 142 40 47.990 7 3200 .57000 2 4500 . 25'>X> . 310O0 10 990 550O0 6 90OO 1 87'JO 74 400 9 6 OOO 7 60O0 1 2700 . IO0O0 . 2'hyyi -1 . 330O0 170O0 . 80OO0 -1 -0 •0. 4 OOOO 4 . OOOO 310 00 1 OOOO 8 OOOO 34 jOO -0 -0 29 000 -0. 31 OOO 43 000 59 OOO 6 7 000 72.000 45.000 21 OOO 14 OOO 9 OOOO 36 764 1.5928 112 4 SOOO 2' 890 3 57O0 -0 158 00 90 800 IB OOO 2 60O0 30000 . 90OOO 3-tryyQ .260OO 6 6S00 23OO0 4. s r . o o 1 5200 77 600 10 800 7.3000 -0. -0. -0 -0 -0 -0 .70000 - 1 .IflOOO 1 OOOO 3 OOOO 180.00 2.0000 2.0000 2 2 OOO 33 OOO -0 -0 -0 -0 -0. 69 000 90 000 70.000 35 000 26 OOO 10 3(30 6 .OCOO 7.900B 1 3206 3.S9O0 .80000 6 OOOO 6.0000 .39000 -0. 6.OOOO 11. SOO 6.1700 . 10000 3.0000 10.250 4.8700 . I00OO 2.0000 10.OOO 5.3400 . 170O0 3.0000 5.0000 .19000 -0. 6.OOOO 8.3000 3.9B00 .BOOOO 3.0000 4 SOOO 5.1300 . 70O00 4.0000 4 . OOOO 1 .9700 .13000 3.0000 8. SOOO 1.7600 . 14000 4.0000 9.7500 .67O0O -0. 3.0000 13 250 2.0100 . 30000 4 OOOO -0. .18000 -0. 6.OOOO 12 OOO 3.7400 . IOO0O 3.0000 4.5000 1 31O0 6O0OO 4 .0000 6. SOOO 3.300O BOOOO 6.0000 8.3000 1 6800 -0 4.oooo 8.5000 99 11] 3. SOOO 14 S70 2.1300 - 0 34 OOO 49 290 . I IOOO . ISOOO 1 2SOO 17000 1 8600 71OO0 122.60 - 0 - 0 . -0. -0 .13000 .33000 1.0000 22 OOO 34 OOO -0. -o -0 -0 -0 a) oco 13 COO 7 OOOO • 4349/ 1.T473 114 4.9000 55 540 2 2900 .11600 11*.OO 172.10 .24000 .2*000 21 410 1 0800 4.3400 « 4500 109 60 soooo - i TSOOO 1. 15O0 .4CO00 -1 -0. -0. 4 OOOO 14 OOO - 0 . - 0 . - 0 . - 0 . - 0 . - 0 . l» SOO • SOOO II 000 24 253 • 0495 114 • OOOO • 3 ««0 1.8200 . 16500 173 00 145 05 1 0300 .€7000 14 ISO .74000 • 6300 3 6600 • 7 800 .SOOOO -1 .15000 1 ( 3 0 0 39OO0 -0. - 0 -0 16 OOO - 0 . - 0 - 0 -0. -0 - 0 . 21.600 11 SOO • oooo 39 583 1 6663 11? 3 4000 • 1 290 •5000 . 10700 6(1 000 120.37 . TSOOO n o o c • 8 100 3D0O0 7,5300 3 5400 63 300 40O0O -1 .nooo 270O0 .30000 -1 - 0 . •0 3.OOOO 13 OOO - 0 . •0. 39 000 - 0 . •0 33 OOO 34 000 14 500 10 coo 64 516 1.1036 6 7500 35.000 1 OOOO 66 OOO 76.060 14 600 3 OOOO •S . 0 0 0 10.960 11.400 4.0000 •1.000 10 730 • 6CO0 1.0000 59 OOO 3 OOOO 4.9000 180 00 S3 000 6.5900 7.SOOO loo.oo •4 OOO • 8500 7.7000 170.00 • 4 . 0 0 0 3 (100 6 5000 175 00 88.000 . 1(000 -O 2. OOOO •8.000 .38000 2.0600 1.0000 63 000 .88000 •8000 1.0000 6 6 OOO .11000 .40000 1 OOOO se oco .41000 -o. 1.0000 40.000 .46000 . 11000 8.0000 •0.000 1 1000 .11000 7 OOOO 19.000 2 6600 .70000 8.0000 35 000 • 1000 -O. 1 OOOO 10.OOO 1 4900 .SOOOO 4 OOOO 11.000 1.6400 . 14 OOO 4 OOOO 7.0000 (.0800 . 12OO0 3 OOOO 9. SOOO 100 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0096161/manifest

Comment

Related Items