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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Planning the agricultural development of crown land in the marginal fringe Lidstone, Allan Bertram 1985

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PLANNING THE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF CROWN LAND IN THE MARGINAL FRINGE By ALLAN BERTRAM LIDSTONE B . S c , The U n i v e r s i t y of Guelph, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (S c h o o l of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1985 ©Allan Bertram L i d s t o n e , 1985 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of oc koo I of Cor»n*unily omg{ Ivfj['out The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Ma l l Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) i i ABSTRACT The m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n of Canada i s an a g r i c u l t u r a l a r ea which i s near the e n v i r o n m e n t a l and economic l i m i t s f o r commercial a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . Combinations of p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s and s o c i a l and economic i n f l u e n c e s r e s u l t i n an a r e a t h a t e x p e r i e n c e s d r a m a t i c s h i f t s i n l a n d use and a g r i c u l t u r a l development. Government p o l i c y i s , however, a p o t e n t i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r o l l i n g and s t a b i l i z i n g f a c t o r i n the r e g i o n ' s development. I t i s t h e r e f o r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y i m p o r t a n t t h a t government p l a n i t s d i v e r s e f u n c t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e t o ensure an e f f e c t i v e , e q u i t a b l e and e f f i c i e n t a l l o c a t i o n of s o c i e t y ' s s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s . T h i s t h e s i s a n a l y s e s e x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g programs f o r the development of a g r i c u l t u r e on Crown l a n d i n Canada's m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n . I t seeks t o determine whether these programs have the p o t e n t i a l t o ensure the e f f i c i e n t and e q u i t a b l e development of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . T h i s t h e s i s a l s o a d d r e s s e s the problem of how we s h o u l d e f f e c t i v e l y d e v e l o p our s h r i n k i n g supply of undeveloped a r a b l e l a n d and whether e x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g programs a d e q u a t e l y a d dress the major i s s u e s i n the development p r o c e s s . The methods of i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n c l u d e a s e r i e s of t h r e e case s t u d i e s : S t . John's, Newfoundland; F o r t N e l s o n , B r i t i s h Columbia and; F o r t V e r m i l i o n , A l b e r t a . The case s t u d i e s are a n a l y s e d u s i n g a framework based on an i d e a l i z e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s d e v e l o p e d i n - t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r . T h i s framework i s a p p l i e d t o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s i n each case i n o r d e r t o i l l u s t r a t e the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g program's s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses. Based on t h i s broad a n a l y s i s , I p r e s e n t , i n c o n c l u s i o n , the most c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n s f o r d e v e l o p i n g e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g programs i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e and a p p l y t h e s e q u e s t i o n s t o the c a s e s s t u d i e d . O f f i c i a l r e p o r t s and s u r v e y s , d e t a i l e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , p e r s o n a l and t e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w s , and f i r s t - h a n d e x p e r i e n c e form the b a s i s f o r a n a l y s i s i n the case s t u d i e s . A l i t e r a t u r e r e v iew i s the b a s i s f o r the c o n t e x t u a l elements d e v e l o p e d i n P a r t I of t h i s t h e s i s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s s tudy r a i s e a number of c o n c e r n s about e x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g programs f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Newfoundland. The c r u c i a l i s s u e s f o r d e v e l o p i n g e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g programs i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e i n c l u d e the need f o r a c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d , s t a b l e y e t f l e x i b l e , program f o c u s s i n g on the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n . The a g r i c u l t u r a l l e a d agency's involvement i s c r u c i a l f o r th e s e programs. F u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s c o n s i d e r how w e l l e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s a r e i n v e n t o r i e d , e v a l u a t e d and communicated t o d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s ; whether adequate socio-economic assessments a r e p e r m i t t e d ; i f a l t e r n a t i v e r e s o u r c e development o p t i o n s t o a g r i c u l t u r e a r e c o n s i d e r e d ; whether government programs r e l a t e d t o a g r i c u l t u r a l development a r e e f f e c t i v e or whether they a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p l a n n i n g program o b j e c t i v e s , and whether the p u b l i c u n d e r s t a n d and support the p l a n n i n g program. P l a n n i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e i s i n i t s i n f a n c y . Sudden changes t o programs, as i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and f u n d i n g d e a d l i n e s , as i n Newfoundland, a r e h a r m f u l t o the e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e development of f r o n t i e r r e s o u r c e s and they erode government i v c r e d i b i l i t y . Some j u r i s d i c t i o n s , such as A l b e r t a , a re making r a p i d s t r i d e s i n a p p l y i n g many of the t r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e s , a l t h o u g h s o c i a l and economic assessment i s v e r y weak or absent a l t o g e t h e r i n each of the programs s t u d i e d . U s u a l l y , d e c i s i o n s a r e based on a narrow assessment of e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s and t h e r e a r e o f t e n s i g n i f i c a n t gaps i n e s s e n t i a l d a t a , e s p e c i a l l y c l i m a t e . A l t e r n a t i v e r e s o u r c e development o p t i o n s t o a g r i c u l t u r e a r e s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d o n l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Only i n A l b e r t a has the v i t a l element of p u b l i c support begun t o be a p p r e c i a t e d . E l s e w h e r e , p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i s , more or l e s s , n e g l e c t e d or m i s h a n d l e d . In c o n c l u s i o n , t h i s t h e s i s r a i s e s a number of i s s u e s r e q u i r i n g f u t u r e r e s e a r c h , r e l a t e d m a i n l y t o soci o - e c o n o m i c assessment and p l a n n i n g program development. A l s o a s e r i e s - o f more d e t a i l e d n o r m a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s a r e o f f e r e d f o r the improvement of p l a n n i n g programs f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e . V CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i Ta b l e s i x F i g u r e s x Maps x Acknowledgement x i PART I SETTING THE CONTEXT I n t r o d u c t i o n 2 The M a r g i n a l F r i n g e 5 C o n f l i c t i n g . P e r s p e c t i v e s 6 Is P l a n n i n g N e c e s s a r y f o r the A g r i c u l t u r a l Development of Crown Land i n Canada's M a r g i n a l F r i n g e Regions? 9 The Nature and O r g a n i z a t i o n of t h i s Study 12 Chapter 1 The G e n e r a l P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Development on Crown Land 14 I n t r o d u c t i o n 15 P r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r Commercial A g r i c u l t u r a l P r o d u c t i o n 16 The P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s f o r the A g r i c u l t u r a l Development of Crown Land— an O u t l i n e 16 S t r u c t u r i n g and Sc o p i n g the P l a n n i n g Program 18 The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and D e f i n i t i o n of O b j e c t i v e s 24 Assessment of E n v i r o n m e n t a l and S o c i o -economic F a c t o r s 26 P r e p a r a t i o n and E v a l u a t i o n of A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s and S e l e c t i o n of the P r e f e r r e d v i S t r a t e g y 35 Implementation 37 M o n i t o r i n g , E v a l u a t i o n , Feedback and I t e r a t i o n 38 C o o r d i n a t i o n 39 P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n 41 Summary 42 Re f e r e n c e s 44 Chapter 2 P l a n n i n g the A g r i c u l t u r a l Development of Crown l a n d i n the M a r g i n a l F r i n g e 48 I n t r o d u c t i o n 49 Assessment of E n v i r o n m e n t a l , Economic and S o c i a l F a c t o r s i n the M a r g i n a l F r i n g e 49 Summmary 57 Rererences 59 PART I I THE CASE STUDIES The A n a l y t i c a l Framework 61 Methods 64 Chapter 3 Case Study Number One: S t . J o h n ' s , Newfoundland 66 I n t r o d u c t i o n 67 S t r u c t u r i n g and Sco p i n g the P l a n n i n g Program 73 The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s O b j e c t i v e s 77 E n v i r o n m e n t a l F a c t o r s f o r P l a n n i n g 78 The Assessment and Relevance of S o c i o -economic F a c t o r s i n the P l a n n i n g E x e r c i s e .......81 A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s and t h e i r S e l e c t i o n 82 Implementation of the P l a n 84 v i i M o n i t o r i n g and E v a l u a t i n g the P l a n n i n g E x e r c i s e 89 The S i g n i f i c a n c e of P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the P l a n n i n g E x e r c i s e 90 Case Summary 91 Re f e r e n c e s 93 Chapter 4 Case Study Number Two: F o r t N e l s o n , B r i t i s h Columbia 95 I n t r o d u c t i o n 96 S t r u c t u r i n g and S c o p i n g the P l a n n i n g Program 101 The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s O b j e c t i v e s 109 E n v i r o n m e n t a l F a c t o r s f o r P l a n n i n g 110 The Assessment and Re l e v a n c e of S o c i o -economic F a c t o r s i n t h e P l a n n i n g E x e r c i s e 114 A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s and t h e i r S e l e c t i o n 115 Implementation of the P l a n 118 The S i g n i f i c a n c e of P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the P l a n n i n g E x e r c i s e 124 Case Summary 126 Re f e r e n c e s 129 Chapter 5 Case Study Number Three: F o r t V e r m i l i o n , A l b e r t a 130 I n t r o d u c t i o n 131 S t r u c t u r i n g and S c o p i n g the P l a n n i n g Program 136 The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s O b j e c t i v e s 144 E n v i r o n m e n t a l F a c t o r s f o r P l a n n i n g 148 The Assessment and R e l e v a n c e of S o c i o -economic F a c t o r s i n t h e P l a n n i n g E x e r c i s e 152 A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s and t h e i r S e l e c t i o n 153 v i i i Implementation of the P l a n 157 M o n i t o r i n g and E v a l u a t i n g the P l a n n i n g E x e r c i s e 1 65 The S i g n i f i c a n c e of P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the P l a n n i n g E x e r c i s e 165 Case Summary 167 Re f e r e n c e s 171 PART I I I CONCLUSION Chapter 6 A Comparative A n a l y s i s of Canadian P l a n n i n g Programs f o r the A g r i c u l t u r a l Development of Crown Land i n the M a r g i n a l F r i n g e 175 I n t r o d u c t i o n 176 I s There a C l e a r l y A r t i c u l a t e d Program f o r P l a n n i n g ? 179 How W e l l Are E n v i r o n m e n t a l F a c t o r s I n v e n t o r i e d , E v a l u a t e d and Communicated t o De c i s i o n - m a k e r s ? 183 Do P l a n n i n g Programs P e r m i t Adequate S o c i o -economic Assessments? 186 Are A l t e r n a t i v e Resource Development O p t i o n s t o A g r i c u l t u r e c o n s i d e r e d ? 188 Are R e l a t e d Government Programs E f f e c t i v e ? 189 Does the P u b l i c U n d e r s t a n d and Support the P l a n n i n g Program? 192 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u t u r e R esearch 193 C o n c l u s i o n 195 P l a n n i n g Program P r i n c i p l e s f o r the A g r i c u l t u r a l Development of Crown Land i n the M a r g i n a l F r i n g e 197 Re f e r e n c e s 201 i x TABLES 1.1 Elements of the P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Development on Crown Land 17 1.2 E n v i r o n m e n t a l and Socio-economic F a c t o r s f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Development on Crown Land 29 11.1 T a b l e of Concordance— Elements of the G e n e r a l P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s and the A n a l y t i c a l Framework 63 5.1 The Sub-Regional P l a n n i n g Program 143 X FIGURES 1.1 S t r u c t u r i n g and S c o p i n g the P l a n n i n g Program 25 3.1 P l a n n i n g Program f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Areas ...74 4.1 Schematic O u t l i n e of the Crown Land P l a n n i n g H i e r a r c h y 103 4.2 Crown Land P l a n n i n g Program S u b - D i s t r i c t P l a n Land D e s i g n a t i o n s and Implementation 106 4.3 A d v e r t i s i n g Crown Land D i s p o s i t i o n s 122 5.1 I n t e g r a t e d Resource P l a n n i n g A p p r o v a l P r o c e s s 140 MAPS 1.1 The M a r g i n a l F r i n g e Regions of Canada 7 3.1 The Development Area of S t . John's 68 3.2 Cochrane Pond Farmland Development P r o j e c t 72 4.1 F o r t N e l s o n D e f e r r e d P l a n n i n g Area P r o v i n c i a l S e t t i n g 97 4.2 F o r t N e l s o n D e f e r r e d P l a n n i n g Area L o c a t i o n of the P l a n Area 100 5.1 R e g i o n a l L o c a t i o n Map of F o r t V e r m i l i o n ...132 5.2 Jean D'Or P r a i r i e Study Area 135 5.3 P u b l i c Lands C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 137 5.4 Jean D'Or P r a i r i e P l a n n i n g Area Resource Management Areas 146 5.5 Jean D'Or P r a i r i e P l a n n i n g Area Y e l l o w / G r e e n Areas 147 5.6 Resource Management P o l i c y of Jean D'Or P r a i r i e 156 x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT T h i s t h e s i s would not have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t the a s s i s t a n c e and g e n e r o s i t y of many peopl e t h r o u g h o u t the c o u n t r y . I wish t o thank Norman Dale f o r p e r s e v e r i n g under a b a r r a g e of d r a f t s and f o r h i s t i m e l y s u g g e s t i o n s . Gary Runka i s owed a s p e c i a l debt of g r a t i t u d e f o r h i s a b l e a s s i s t a n c e . Thanks a l s o go t o C r a i g D a v i s and Brahm Weisman of the S c h o o l of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . A c r o s s the c o u n t r y , I would l i k e t o thank K e i t h V a l e n t i n e , now i n Ottawa, Wim Kok i n F o r t S t . John, R i c k K l i p p e n s t e i n i n F o r t V e r m i l i o n , J i m R i v a i t i n Edmonton, A r t h u r P e t c h i n Ottawa and B i l l M e r r i t t i n S t . John's. Janny Holmes c o n t r i b u t e d an h e r o i c e d i t i n g e f f o r t . My deepest g r a t i t u d e and warmest th o u g h t s a re r e s e r v e d f o r Helga who made t h i s t a s k p o s s i b l e . 1 PART I SETTING THE CONTEXT 2 INTRODUCTION 3 The o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s t h e s i s are t o a n a l y s e e x i s t i n g programs f o r p l a n n i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i n Canada's m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n and t o d e v e l o p a s e r i e s of recommendations f o r program improvement. The m a r g i n a l f r i n g e i s the o n l y p l a c e i n the c o u n t r y where a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use i s e x p a n d i n g . A r e c e n t study by the Lands D i r e c t o r a t e (McCuaig and Manning, 1981) r e v e a l s t h a t the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n of n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a , n o r t h - c e n t r a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , the n o r t h e r n p r a i r i e s and, t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , Newfoundland a r e a l l u n d e r g o i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use e x p a n s i o n . A g r i c u l t u r a l development i n t h e s e a r e a s has l e d t o c o n s i d e r a b l e debate over t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l , economic and s o c i a l consequences of such a c t i v i t y . A fundamental t e n e t of our economic system i s t h a t r e s o u r c e s a r e s c a r c e . The e f f i c i e n t and e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s w i l l , t h e o r e t i c a l l y , l e a d t o a b e t t e r s o c i e t y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s a r i s e about the development of Crown l a n d i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e - i s development o c c u r r i n g i n an e f f i c i e n t and e q u i t a b l e manner, or a r e we b e i n g p r o f l i g a t e i n the a l l o c a t i o n of s c a r c e f i n a n c i a l , human and l a n d r e s o u r c e s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development? How s h o u l d we d e v e l o p our s h r i n k i n g s u p p l y of undeveloped a r a b l e l a n d ? Do p l a n n i n g programs a d e q u a t e l y a d d r e s s the major i s s u e s i n the development p r o c e s s ? A review of e x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g programs f o r the development of a g r i c u l t u r e on Crown l a n d i n Canada's m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n w i l l h e l p t o answer t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . The p h y s i c a l margins f o r commercial a g r i c u l t u r e a r e 4 v a r i a b l e and can be i n f l u e n c e d by changes i n commodity p r i c e s , t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances, c l i m a t i c changes, e n v i r o n m e n t a l m o d i f i c a t i o n , government p o l i c y and changes i n l o c a l non-a g r i c u l t u r a l economic c o n d i t i o n s . In the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e , c o m b i n a t i o n s of p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s and s o c i a l and economic i n f l u e n c e s r e s u l t i n an a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a t h a t e x p e r i e n c e s d r a m a t i c s h i f t s i n l a n d use and a g r i c u l t u r a l development. I n s t a b i l i t y caused by h i g h l y f l u c t u a t i n g development p a t t e r n s combined w i t h the p o s s i b l e i n a p p r o p r i a t e a l l o c a t i o n of l a n d , human and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s can l e a d t o s i g n i f i c a n t c o s t s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l and f o r s o c i e t y . These a r e not o n l y o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s but a l s o the c o s t s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r a d a t i o n and human s u f f e r i n g . Such c o s t s i n f l u e n c e both the p r o s p e c t i v e farmer and the s u r r o u n d i n g community. A g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e i s s u b j e c t t o the v a g a r i e s of n a t u r e , the d i c t a t e s of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l m a r k e t p l a c e and t o a m u l t i t u d e of i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n s . Government p o l i c y , however, i s a p o t e n t i a l l y , s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r o l l i n g and s t a b i l i z i n g f a c t o r i n the r e g i o n ' s development. Government owns the l a n d t o be d e v e l o p e d , i t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development p o l i c y and support programs, and i t i s i n charge of r u r a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l s u p p o r t s such as roads and s e r v i c i n g . The hand of government r e s t s v e r y h e a v i l y on a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use e x p a n s i o n as a form of economic development. I t i s t h e r e f o r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y i m p o r t a n t t h a t government p l a n , i t s d i v e r s e f u n c t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o ensure an e f f e c t i v e , e q u i t a b l e and e f f i c i e n t a l l o c a t i o n of s o c i e t y ' s s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s . 5 The major assumption of t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t w i s e l y planned a g r i c u l t u r a l development t a k i n g i n t o account e n v i r o n m e n t a l , s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s i s d e s i r a b l e . Due t o the s p e c i a l problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the development of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n the h a r s h and i s o l a t e d environment of the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e , comprehensive and e f f i c i e n t p l a n n i n g programs a r e c r i t i c a l t o the s u s t a i n e d economic v i a b i l i t y of new a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s . P l a n n i n g programs must not i n v o l v e o n l y r e s o u r c e and economic a n a l y s i s but a l s o p u b l i c c o n s u l t a t i o n , i n t e r a g e n c y c o o r d i n a t i o n , and i n t e g r a t i o n or c o o r d i n a t i o n of programs a f f e c t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l development. P l a n n i n g , i f i t i s w e l l done, w i l l r e s u l t i n an e q u i t a b l e and e f f i c i e n t a l l o c a t i o n of s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s . The M a r g i n a l F r i n g e The s o u t h e r n p a r t of the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e i s an a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n w i t h f r e q u e n t e p i s o d e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l advance and r e t r e a t , o f t e n o c c u r i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . The n o r t h e r n a r e a s of the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e s t i l l l i e undeveloped y e t a r a b l e , a w a i t i n g changing economic c o n d i t i o n s or i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e s . The m a r g i n a l f r i n g e i s then a r e g i o n w i t h a d u a l n a t u r e . B o u n d a r i e s a r e s e t i n the n o r t h by the l i m i t s t o a r a b i l i t y and i n the s o u t h , g e n e r a l l y , by a change i n l a n d use p a t t e r n s . Attempts have been made t o q u a n t i f y these l a n d use changes and t o d e l i n e a t e the a d v a n c i n g or r e t r e a t i n g f r i n g e on the b a s i s of g a i n s or l o s s e s i n f a r m l a n d (McCuaig and Manning, 1982). A d e f i n i t i o n f o r the s o u t h e r n boundary based p r i m a r i l y on l a n d use p a t t e r n s i s more r e a l i s t i c than one based on economic f o r c e s , 6 f o r these p a t t e r n s a r e an e x p r e s s i o n of a l l the f o r c e s a t work i n the r e g i o n — s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l as w e l l as economic. Canada's m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n s are shown on Map 1 . The adv a n c i n g f r i n g e i s an area where t h e r e has been a net g a i n i n farm l a n d over the l a s t twenty y e a r s , w h i l e the r e t r e a t i n g or t w i l i g h t f r i n g e has d i s p l a y e d a net l o s s of f a r m l a n d . The rem a i n i n g a r e a s a re undeveloped, y e t i t has been determined t h a t these more n o r t h e r l y a r e a s c o n t a i n l a r g e t r a c t s of a r a b l e l a n d . T h i s t h e s i s d e a l s w i t h p l a n n i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i n t h e s e m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n s of Canada. C o n f l i c t i n g P e r s p e c t i v e s C o n f l i c t between man and n a t u r e i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e i s m i r r o r e d by the c o n t r a r y v i e w s h e l d by d i f f e r e n t groups over the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of t h e r e g i o n ' s Crown l a n d r e s o u r c e s . In r e p l y t o those opposed t o a g r i c u l t u r a l development such as B e n t l e y ( 1 9 8 2 ) , i t has l o n g been s a i d t h a t , i n r u r a l Canada, every man has the r i g h t t o s t a r v e t o death on h i s own p i e c e of l a n d . T h i s o f t e n heard r e f r a i n encompasses the i d e a of the p i o n e e r i n g s p i r i t and the c o n c e p t of the f r o n t i e r m e n t a l i t y . The r i g h t t o s t a r v e t o de a t h a l s o d i s p l a y s a r e c o g n i t i o n by the p o t e n t i a l p i o n e e r of the d i f f i c u l t n a t u r e of h i s t a s k , f a r m i n g i n the w i l d e r n e s s . A g r i c u l t u r a l development of the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e i s a l s o s u p p o r t e d by s c i e n t i s t s such as Laut ( 1 9 7 3 ) who, i n a n a l y z i n g the c l i m a t e of t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t s of the western p r o v i n c e s and the s o u t h e r n Yukon and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , found "an a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l t o be r e a l i z e d " ( p . 7 6 ) . L a u t ' s o p i n i o n s a r e f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the f i n d i n g s of 8 E x p l o r a t o r y s o i l s u r v e y s ( V a l e n t i n e , 1971). Both the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments a c t i v e l y promote development i n the f r i n g e . The A g r i - F o o d S t r a t e g y f o r Canada ( A g r i c u l t u r e Canada, 1981) recommends the development of new l a n d t o expand the t o t a l c u l t i v a t e d a r e a as an i m p o r t a n t method of s t r e n g t h e n i n g the s u p p l y base. The S t r a t e g y r e c o g n i z e s t h a t the few a r e a s l e f t i n Canada f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x p a n s i o n are i n the n o r t h , but w i t h i n c r e a s i n g w o r l d food demands, t h e s e a r e a s w i l l have t o be d e v e l o p e d . The S t r a t e g y ' s p r o d u c t i o n p o t e n t i a l s a r e d e t e r m i n e d by assuming an i n c r e a s e of s i x m i l l i o n t o seventeen m i l l i o n a d d i t i o n a l a c r e s of g r a i n i n the West by the year 2000. Some of t h i s e x p a n s i o n c o u l d come from r e d u c i n g the acreage i n summer f a l l o w , but a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n i s e x p e c t e d t o come from new l a n d i n m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n s . In c o n t r a s t t o the o p t i m i s m of A g r i c u l t u r e Canada, a g r o l o g i s t s such as B e n t l e y (1982) e x p r e s s s e r i o u s m i s g i v i n g s about f u r t h e r development i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e . Government i n c e n t i v e s f o r c u l t i v a t i n g m a r g i n a l l a n d a r e seen as l e a d i n g t o farmers b e i n g t r a p p e d i n t o i n f e r i o r l i f e s t y l e s w i t h l i t t l e hope of improvement. B e n t l e y a s s e r t s t h a t l a n d i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e i s l e s s p r o d u c t i v e , and t h e r e f o r e i t i s much l e s s c a p a b l e of s u p p o r t i n g economic v i a b i l i t y . In terms of economics, P e t e r s o n (1972) s t a t e s t h a t d e v e l o p i n g the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e makes l i t t l e sense, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e s e t i m e s when N o r t h American farmers are b e i n g p a i d t o take l a n d out of p r o d u c t i o n because of an o v e r s u p p l y of f o o d s t u f f s d e p r e s s i n g p r i c e s . He b e l i e v e s t h a t these new developments w i l l not be v i a b l e and w i l l be abandoned or m a i n t a i n e d as p a r t - t i m e o p e r a t i o n s . 9 I t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y f o r p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments to s u b s i d i z e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n as w e l l as t o u n d e r t a k e major c a p i t a l programmes i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n the economic v i a b i l i t y of the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n ( I r o n s i d e , e t a l . , 1974). I s P l a n n i n g N e c e s s a r y f o r the A g r i c u l t u r a l Development of Crown  Land i n Canada's M a r g i n a l F r i n g e Region? In most r u r a l a r e a s , t h e r e i s r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e government r e s o u r c e agency p l a n n i n g ( L a s s e y , 1977; I r o n s i d e , et a l . , 1974a). C o o r d i n a t i o n , a c e n t r a l element of p l a n n i n g , i s a l s o l a r g e l y absent from p u b l i c management i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e ( F a i r b a i r n and I r o n s i d e , 1974). The l a c k of p u b l i c s e c t o r p l a n n i n g and c o o r d i n a t i o n i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e may be a r e s u l t of the h o s t i l i t y r u r a l d w e l l e r s f e e l towards p l a n n i n g . They p e r c e i v e i t as the e x t e n s i o n of a n o n - a p p l i c a b l e urban approach to r u r a l i s s u e s (Runka, 1982; Friedman, 1980). When p l a n n i n g does o c c u r , c o n f r o n t a t i o n o f t e n r e s u l t s as i n d i v i d u a l s and groups pursue s i n g l e purpose o b j e c t i v e s and a r e unprepared t o compromise (van Vuuren, 1980). However, w i t h the growing s c a r c i t y of r e s o u r c e s and the i n c r e a s i n g c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h i n an expanding consumer base, 'rugged i n d i v i d u a l i s m ' , l i k e o t h e r r o m a n t i c c o n c e p t s of r u r a l l i f e , may have t o adapt t o a modern w o r l d . The s p i l l o v e r e f f e c t s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n s may have on o t h e r s a r e o f t e n m i t i g a t e d t h r o u g h the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ( B a r l o w e , 1979). As w e l l , the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s can d e a l e x p l i c i t l y w i t h the o f t e n n e g l e c t e d concept of o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s 10 t h r o u g h the d e s i g n of development a l t e r n a t i v e s A g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development p l a n n i n g w i l l p e r m i t the d e t a i l e d and comprehensive c o n s i d e r a t i o n of complex p r o p o s a l s whose impact o f t e n goes w e l l beyond s t a t e d d e s i r e d o b j e c t i v e s . Lassey (1977) d e f i n e s p l a n n i n g as "the s y s t e m a t i c a p p l i c a t i o n of knowledge t o e s t a b l i s h i n g and a c h i e v i n g p u b l i c l y d e f i n e d g o a l s " (p.5) T r a d i t i o n a l l y , a t y p i c a l a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e i n v o l v e s s e v e r a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s elements i n c l u d i n g the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of o b j e c t i v e s and problem d e f i n i t i o n , d e t a i l e d assessment of e n v i r o n m e n t a l , s o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s , development and s e l e c t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s and, i m p l e m e n t a t i o n (Jones, 1981; M o l l e t t , 1984; see a l s o Chapter 1 f o r my d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e l e m e n t s ) . The m a r g i n a l f r i n g e i s a r e g i o n w i t h numerous problems which demand good p l a n n i n g . There i s a wide range of o b j e c t i v e s pursued by v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t groups. There i s a d e a r t h of i n f o r m a t i o n on the c r i t i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l , economic and s o c i a l f a c t o r s . The i n t e r e s t groups concerned w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e have proposed time and a g a i n i n p u b l i c debate t h r e e main a l t e r n a t i v e s : development, no development and maybe development. P u b l i c c o s t s f o r s e r v i c i n g a r e s u b s t a n t i a l as a r e the o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s f o r d e v e l o p i n g a f i n i t e r e s o u r c e base under i n c r e a s i n g c o m p e t i t i o n among r e s o u r c e u s e r s . P l a n n i n g programs are w e l l s u i t e d t o a c h i e v i n g p u b l i c l y d e f i n e d o b j e c t i v e s f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e . F r a n c i s (1970) s t a t e s i n support of p l a n n i n g t h a t : O f t e n i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r the government t o i n t e r v e n e d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y i n t o c o m p e t i t i o n t o m a i n t a i n the economic v i a b i l i t y of the economic f r i n g e s and c e r t a i n l y c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g i s of h i g h p r i o r i t y , (p.27) Government's a m b i v a l e n t approach and i t s l a c k of p r e c i s e i n f o r m a t i o n i s seen by I r o n s i d e , e t a l . (1974a) as l e a d i n g t o haphazard development which i n c r e a s i n g l y r e q u i r e s compensation f o r economic l o s s e s . I r o n s i d e and o t h e r Canadian geographers have been a t the f o r e f r o n t i n r e q u e s t i n g an e n l i g h t e n e d comprehensive p l a n n i n g approach f o r Canada's l a r g e m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n (Wonders, 1975). For the purposes of t h i s s t u d y , l a n d development p l a n n i n g i s c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h r e e main components. A p l a n n i n g program i s d e f i n e d as the broad a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p r o c e d u r a l framework w i t h i n which i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s a r e c o n d u c t e d . A p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e i s a s i t e s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n of a s p e c t s of the p l a n n i n g program u s i n g the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s (see T a b l e 1.1) i s p r i m a r i l y a s e q u e n t i a l s e r i e s of s t e p s c o nducted i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of each p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e . P l a n n i n g p r o c e s s elements a r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y shaped by the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g program but can be m o d i f i e d t o f i t the c i r c u m s t a n c e s of i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s . 12 The Nature and O r g a n i z a t i o n of T h i s Study My a n a l y s i s i n subsequent c h a p t e r s i s both broad and comprehensive. D e t a i l i s sometimes s a c r i f i c e d to p r o v i d e the reader w i t h a sense of o r d e r i n the v a r i e t y of s u p e r f i c i a l l y d i s s i m i l a r programs and t o i d e n t i f y key a s p e c t s of t h e s e programs which are common t o a l l . The r e s u l t i n g a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e s the b a s i s f o r more s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h and the improvement of s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s of m a r g i n a l f r i n g e development. Chapter 1 w i l l d e a l w i t h a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the most w i d e l y used norms f o r a g e n e r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development on Crown l a n d . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n w i l l i n c l u d e an o u t l i n e of the s t r u c t u r e and scope of o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g programs and the elements of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s used i n i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s w i t h i n the o v e r a l l program. T h i s w i l l be f o l l o w e d i n Chapter 2 by an assessment of the s p e c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l , economic and s o c i a l f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n Canada's m a r g i n a l f r i n g e . In P a r t I I , I d e v e l o p an a n a l y t i c a l framework based on the normative m a t e r i a l i n P a r t I . P a r t I I a l s o c o n t a i n s C h a p t e r s 3 through 5 i n which I a p p l y the a n a l y t i c a l framework t o t h r e e case study a r e a s : S t . John's, Newfoundland; F o r t N e l s o n , B r i t i s h Columbia and; F o r t V e r m i l i o n , A l b e r t a . In e s s e n c e , each case i n c l u d e s an a n a l y s i s of the s t r u c t u r e and scope of the o v e r a l l p r o v i n c i a l p l a n n i n g program f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e and an a n a l y s i s of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s c o n d u c t e d as a p a r t of t h i s program. P a r t I I I c o n t a i n s Chapter 5, a c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s of the 13 p l a n n i n g programs conducted i n the t h r e e c a s e study a r e a s . In c o n c l u s i o n , I propose a s e r i e s of p r i n c i p l e s or g u i d e l i n e s f o r i m p r o v i n g e x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g programs and f o r d e v e l o p i n g new programs. CHAPTER ONE THE GENERAL PLANNING PROCESS FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT ON CROWN LAND 1 5 1.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n A g r i c u l t u r a l development on Crown l a n d i s the f o c a l p o i n t f o r the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n of a g e n e r a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . A c o n s i d e r a b l e degree of c o m p a t i b i l i t y e x i s t s among the v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g models r e g a r d i n g a g e n e r a l framework f o r the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s on Crown or p u b l i c l y owned l a n d . The t r a d i t i o n a l r a t i o n a l or s y n o p t i c model of p l a n n i n g i s p r e s e n t e d almost i n v a r i a b l y i n the l i t e r a t u r e on p u b l i c l a n d p l a n n i n g . In p r a c t i c e , p l a n n i n g , w h i l e f o l l o w i n g the g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e of the r a t i o n a l model, tends t o be i n c r e m e n t a l and c o n t a i n s a s t r o n g element of advocacy (Hudson, 1979). Crown l a n d i s l o c a t e d i n e x t e n s i v e t r a c t s i n r u r a l a r e a s and i s l a r g e l y undeveloped, w i t h a d i v e r s e untapped r e s o u r c e s . U n l i k e p l a n n i n g i n urban a r e a s , t h e r e i s o n l y one owner and u s u a l l y o n l y one or two a g e n c i e s p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g . The d e c i s i o n - m a k e r i s a l s o the owner and the l e g i s l a t o r . T h e r e f o r e , the m o d i f i e d model of p l a n n i n g , as proposed by Hudson (1979) i s the predominant u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e i n p l a n n i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d . T h i s approach w i l l be o u t l i n e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . However, b e f o r e the p l a n n i n g of any r e s o u r c e s e c t o r can commence, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d what i t t a k e s t o make a v i a b l e r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r y . Land development, i n t h i s c o n t e x t , goes beyond an a n a l y s i s of the l a n d base and i n c o r p o r a t e s a host of i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o the needs of a v i a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y . 16 1.2 P r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r Commercial A g r i c u l t u r a l P r o d u c t i o n Commercial a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , i n t h i s c a s e , r e f e r s t o a g r i c u l t u r e where o u t p u t s a r e t r e a t e d as commodities. A g r i c u l t u r e r e q u i r e s s u i t a b l e s o i l s and topography i n a c l i m a t e which r e c e i v e s adequate amounts of heat and m o i s t u r e f o r the commodity b e i n g produced ( W i l l i a m s , 1974). M a r k e t s must e x i s t f o r the s a l e of c o m m o d i t i e s , and e f f e c t i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes are r e q u i r e d t o get p r o d u c t s t o these markets. Major s u p p l i e s and equipment must be a v a i l a b l e l o c a l l y . F i n a n c i a l and i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s , e s p e c i a l l y c r e d i t , must be r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e . I f p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s p e r i o d i c a l l y exceed g r o s s revenues, s u b s i d i e s w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o m a i n t a i n p r o d u c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g i n i t i a l development ( K e l l o g g , 1975). 1.3 The P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s f o r the A g r i c u l t u r a l Development of  Crown Land: an O u t l i n e The g e n e r a l i z e d and i d e a l i z e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development on Crown l a n d i s summarized i n Table 1.1. The p r o c e s s elements p r e s e n t e d i n the t a b l e a r e drawn from the l i t e r a t u r e on a g r i c u l t u r a l development p l a n n i n g . I t must be emphasized t h a t the p r o c e s s i n T a b l e 1.1 r e p r e s e n t s an i d e a l i z e d one. Lead a g e n c i e s sometimes adapt and change the approach d e l i b e r a t e l y . Perhaps, more o f t e n , t h e i r a c t i o n s s i m p l y f a l l f a r from the i d e a l . In the c a s e s s t u d i e d (Ch. 3-5), these v a r i a t i o n s w i l l be examined f u l l y . To u n d e r s t a n d how a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development p l a n n i n g i s c o n d u c t e d i n the case s t u d y a r e a s , i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o use the elements of 17 T a b l e 1.1: Elements of the P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Development on Crown Land ( r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n s of t e x t i n p a r e n t h e s e s ) The f i r s t e i g h t elements of t h i s t a b l e are u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d s e q u e n t i a l s t e p s , w h i l e the f i n a l two elements are u b i q u i t o u s t o the e n t i r e p r o c e s s . S t r u c t u r i n g and s c o p i n g the p l a n n i n g program ( 1 . 3 ) : B e f o r e a s i t e s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e can be c o n d u c t e d , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o have an o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g program w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e s t r u c t u r e and scope i n which t o o p e r a t e . I f t h i s program a l r e a d y e x i s t s , i t may have t o be m o d i f i e d t o s p e c i f i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n of o b j e c t i v e s ( 1 . 4 ) : S e t t i n g t a r g e t s or the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s p e c i f i c problems t o be r e s o l v e d . Assessment of e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o cio-economic f a c t o r s (1.5) : I n v e n t o r y and e v a l u a t i o n of the e n v i r o n m e n t a l , s o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s c r i t i c a l t o a g r i c u l t u r e . P r e p a r a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s (1.6) : T h i s i n c l u d e s t e c h n i q u e s such as b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s , c o m p a r a t i v e c o s t a n a l y s i s and o t h e r more i n t u i t i v e methods used f o r comparing p o s s i b l e a c t i o n s . S e l e c t i o n of p r e f e r r e d s t r a t e g y ( 1 . 6 ) : T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n based, t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , upon the p l a n n e r ' s recommendations. Implementation ( 1 . 7 ) : T h i s i n v o l v e s the development of p o l i c i e s , programmes and p r o j e c t s . Implementation t r a n s f o r m s the o b j e c t i v e s i n t o r e a l i t y . M o n i t o r i n g and e v a l u a t i o n ( 1 . 8 ) : M o n i t o r i n g measures and r e c o r d s r e s u l t s . E v a l u a t i o n draws on the i n f o r m a t i o n from m o n i t o r i n g and a s s e s s e s the degree of achievement of o b j e c t i v e s and the reasons f o r the outcomes. Feedback and i t e r a t i o n ( 1 . 8 ) : I n f o r m a t i o n from m o n i t o r i n g and e v a l u a t i o n i s c o n t i n u a l l y f e d back i n t o the e a r l i e r s t a g e s of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a t the a p p r o p r i a t e s t e p and the p r o c e s s r e p e a t s i t s e l f . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( 1 . 9 ) : A s u p p o r t i v e p u b l i c i s n e c e s s a r y f o r the s u c c e s s of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s C o o r d i n a t i o n ( 1 . 1 0 ) : C o o r d i n a t i o n r e q u i r e s the i nvolvement i n the p r o c e s s of a l l government a g e n c i e s and major o r g a n i z e d groups a f f e c t e d . 18 the i d e a l i z e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o a n a l y s e b o t h the o v e r a l l program s t r u c t u r e and scope and how r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s a r e , i n f a c t , c o n d ucted. The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s g i v e a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n and r a t i o n a l e f o r each of the elements o u t l i n e d i n Ta b l e 1.1. 1.4 S t r u c t u r i n g and S c o p i n g the P l a n n i n g Program In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s , we w i l l c o n s i d e r the r e q u i s i t e elements of the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development p r o c e s s ; however, s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s u s i n g the i d e a l i z e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s must o p e r a t e w i t h i n a program c o n t a i n i n g c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s among and w i t h i n governments. As w e l l , t h e r e must be an u n d e r s t a n d i n g and i n t e g r a t i o n of the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of l a n d development p l a n n i n g from t h a t of broad p o l i c y down t o the i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t l e v e l . In t h i s s e c t i o n , c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n t o the needs of s t r u c t u r i n g and s c o p i n g the o v e r a l l program. S e v e r a l a s p e c t s of s t r u c t u r i n g and s c o p i n g of p l a n n i n g programs a r e d i s c u s s e d below i n i t i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o government o r g a n i z a t i o n and then i n terms of approaches t o l a n d development p l a n n i n g c a r r i e d out by t h e s e v a r i o u s government a g e n c i e s . The o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g program's s t r u c t u r e and scope determine t h e d e s i g n and a p p l i c a t i o n of a l l the o t h e r elements d i s c u s s e d i n the i d e a l i z e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . S t r u c t u r i n g and s c o p i n g a r e the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and o f t e n p r o c e d u r a l a s p e c t s of p l a n n i n g w h i c h , once e s t a b l i s h e d , remain r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t throughout the a p p l i c a t i o n of s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s . The a p p l i c a t i o n of 19 elements i n the i d e a l i z e d p r o c e s s occur r e p e a t e d l y i n a v a r i e t y of s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s conducted w i t h i n the framework e s t a b l i s h e d by the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g program. The s t r u c t u r i n g and s c o p i n g of the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g program s h o u l d not be m o n o l i t h i c . P l a n n i n g programs s h o u l d be f l e x i b l e and a d a p t a b l e t o the c i r c u m s t a n c e s of i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s . T h i s i s why the s t e p of s t r u c t u r i n g and s c o p i n g the p l a n n i n g program i s i n c l u d e d a t t h e t o p of Ta b l e 1.1. At the b e g i n n i n g of each e x e r c i s e , i t must be reviewed and m o d i f i e d a c c o r d i n g l y . A g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development p l a n n i n g programs can be d e s i g n e d t o i n c l u d e v a r y i n g l e v e l s of comprehensiveness. Comprehensiveness, i n t h i s c a s e , r e f e r s t o the e x t e n t of the p o l i t i c a l or g e o g r a p h i c a l u n i t c o v e r e d i n the p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e . These l e v e l s v a r y i n scope and i n the l e n g t h of the p l a n n i n g p e r i o d . P l a n n i n g programs can d e a l w i t h a s i n g l e p r o j e c t or an e n t i r e s e c t o r of the n a t i o n a l or p r o v i n c i a l economy. Even a t a s p e c i f i c l e v e l of comprehensiveness, the d e t a i l i n p l a n n i n g programs can v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o o b j e c t i v e s , p o l i t i c a l p r i o r i t i e s or f i n a n c i n g (Cochrane, 1974). I n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g programs can d e a l w i t h s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of comprehensiveness. These d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s , and even d i f f e r e n t elements of the i d e a l i z e d p r o c e s s c o nducted i n a p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e a t a s e l e c t e d l e v e l , can be a l l o c a t e d t o s e p a r a t e s t r a t a i n the b u r e a u c r a t i c h i e r a r c h y of the p l a n n i n g agency. P l a n n i n g programs may s p e c i f y t h a t v a r i o u s elements of the i d e a l i z e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r a l l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s must be undertaken a t a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g l e v e l . F r e q u e n t l y , a p r o v i n c i a l agency's s t a f f a t h e a d q u a r t e r s d e v e l o p s r e g i o n a l or 20 p r o j e c t p l a n s w i t h o u t p l a n n i n g involvement by the r e g i o n ( M c A l l i s t e r , 1977). Even i f the r e g i o n i s the l e a d agency i n d e v e l o p i n g r e g i o n a l s e c t o r or p r o j e c t p l a n s , o b j e c t i v e s and s e l e c t i o n of the p r e f e r r e d s t r a t e g y as w e l l as o t h e r elements of the p r o c e s s can be completed by h e a d q u a r t e r s s t a f f or p o l i t i c i a n s . As w e l l , the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g program o f t e n d i c t a t e s how v a r i o u s elements of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s are t o be c a r r i e d out i n a l l i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s . Programs d i f f e r i n almost every j u r i s d i c t i o n ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , a g e n e r a l i l l u s t r a t i o n of p o s s i b l e l e v e l s of comprehensiveness i n a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development p l a n n i n g programs i s p o s s i b l e and i s p r o v i d e d i n F i g u r e 1.1. P l a n n i n g programs which a l l o w the f o r m u l a t i o n of r e g i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development p l a n s a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l , i n c o n t r a s t t o the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , a l l o w government and i n d i v i d u a l s t o t a k e advantage of r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g development o p p o r t u n i t i e s as they o c c u r . There i s l e s s b u r e a u c r a c y and g r e a t e r i n c e n t i v e t o a c h i e v e q u i c k r e s u l t s . Lassey (1977) promotes the r e g i o n a l approach t o s e c t o r a l p l a n n i n g because: The r e g i o n a l u n i t may have the best p o t e n t i a l f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g an e f f e c t i v e f o r m a l communication and exchange network among these a g e n c i e s , w h i l e p r o v i d i n g f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n and c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h l o c a l u n i t s ( p . 8 2 ) . D e s p i t e t r a d i t i o n a l o p p o s i t i o n , i n c r e a s i n g d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y may be w a r r a n t e d . R e g i o n a l development o b j e c t i v e s a r e an i n c r e a s i n g f o c u s of government a t t e n t i o n i n 21 Canada (OECD, 1978). G i v e n the s i z e of the impact on r e g i o n a l development of government's normal e x p e n d i t u r e p o l i c i e s , i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of government a c t i o n s i n a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t i s n e c e s s a r y ( F a i r b a i r n and I r o n s i d e , 1974). 1.4.1 Land Development P l a n n i n g Programs The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n c o v e r e d the more p r o c e d u r a l a s p e c t s of s t r u c t u r i n g and s c o p i n g of the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development p l a n n i n g program. Another a s p e c t of program s t r u c t u r i n g and s c o p i n g i s more s u b s t a n t i v e and d e a l s w i t h the a c t u a l s u b j e c t emphasis or c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of l a n d development p l a n n i n g programs. The s u b j e c t emphasis of l a n d development p l a n n i n g programs d e a l i n g w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e i s d i s c u s s e d below. Land development p l a n n i n g programs can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s — l a n d use p l a n n i n g , l a n d management p l a n n i n g , and p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g programs. Land management p l a n n i n g programs d e a l w i t h l a n d which an i n d i v i d u a l agency manages, c o n t r o l s or owns. P r o j e c t p l a n n i n g programs, which may be a s u b - c a t e g o r y of a l a n d management p l a n n i n g program, a r e aimed a t c o n s t r u c t i n g c a p i t a l improvements. Land use p l a n n i n g programs, on the o t h e r hand, encompass p u b l i c p o l i c i e s and r e g u l a t i o n s , such as a g r i c u l t u r a l z o n i n g , which g u i d e o t h e r p e o p l e ' s l a n d use (Sampson, 1975). A g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development p l a n n i n g i s most o f t e n r e l a t e d t o l a n d management programs and p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g programs. Land management p l a n n i n g programs tend t o c o n c e n t r a t e more on r e s o u r c e assessment and a r e more i n v o l v e d i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r a t h e r than s o c i a l c h o i c e s . T h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s the 22 a l l o c a t i o n or use of r e s o u r c e l a n d s (Sampson, 1975). In Canada, a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n n i n g and p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g programs a r e conducted by l i n e a g e n c i e s such as a g r i c u l t u r e or by the agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Crown l a n d s . Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g programs u s u a l l y i n v o l v e d e v e l o p i n g p l a n s f o r the a l l o c a t i o n of Crown l a n d t o v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e uses such as f o r e s t r y , w i l d l i f e , r e c r e a t i o n and a g r i c u l t u r e . These p l a n s may be d e v e l o p e d f o r the p r o v i n c i a l , r e g i o n a l , s u b - r e g i o n a l or l o c a l l e v e l s . Land management p l a n n i n g programs a l s o i n v o l v e l a n d management w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c s e c t o r such as a g r i c u l t u r e or f o r e s t r y and the development of r e l a t e d p r o j e c t s . I f the a g r i c u l t u r a l agency has an a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n n i n g program f o r Crown l a n d , p l a n s d e v e l o p e d under t h i s program a r e l i n k e d t o o v e r a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l p l a n s and p o l i c i e s which i n v o l v e a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s , beyond l a n d , r e l a t e d t o a g r i c l u l t u r a l development a t the p r o v i n c i a l or r e g i o n a l l e v e l s . There are f o u r main approaches t o c o n d u c t i n g p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g programs. One approach t o a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development p r o j e c t s on Crown l a n d i s a p r o j e c t - b y - p r o j e c t program w i t h no f o u n d a t i o n i n an a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n . A l t e r n a t i v e p r o j e c t s a re not c o n s i d e r e d and e f f i c i e n c y i n r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n i s not r e v i e w e d (Weeks, 1977). A second approach t o p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g i s t o l i n k i t t o the p r o v i n c i a l s e c t o r p l a n , which t h e r e f o r e a l l o w s f o r a broadened p e r s p e c t i v e i n c o n s i d e r i n g r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n s . The l a c k , however, of r e g i o n a l i n p u t and poor c o o r d i n a t i o n a re major problems w i t h t h i s a p p roach. The s m a l l - s c a l e a r e a program approach, which has a r e g i o n a l f o c u s , i s suggested by M c A l l i s t e r (1977) as the be s t method of opening up new a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a w i t h development p r o j e c t s . T h i s approach i n v o l v e s the c a r e f u l c o o r d i n a t i o n of a l l the a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d i n the r e g i o n t o g i v e the r i g h t mix of e f f o r t t o make a p r o j e c t o p e r a t i o n a l . The u s u a l approach, however, t o a p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g program i n a g r i c u l t u r a l l y d e v e l o p i n g a r e a s i s the o p p o r t u n i t y p l a n n i n g program. I t i s s i m i l a r t o the p r o j e c t by p r o j e c t program, but i t may be more n a r r o w l y f o c u s s e d on p i o n e e r i n g i s s u e s . I t i s a ' f u l l steam ahead' approach w i t h l i t t l e heed t o o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s . One of the main p i t f a l l s of p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g programs i s a c c u r a t e l y e x p r e s s e d by M o l l e t t (1984): Those who a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o j e c t f o r m u l a t i o n a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o s a t i s f y two o b j e c t i v e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , and they may w e l l be i n c o n f l i c t . One o b j e c t i v e i s t o produce an u n b i a s e d assessment of what they t h i n k w i l l happen as a r e s u l t of the p r o j e c t . The o t h e r i s t o produce a s u f f i c i e n t l y a t t r a c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of the outcome t o ensure t h a t the p r o j e c t w i l l be implemented ( p . 2 2 5 ) . A v o i d i n g t h i s p i t f a l l r e q u i r e s the i n t e g r a t i o n of p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g programs w i t h the a g r i c u t u r a l l a n d management p l a n n i n g program f o r Crown l a n d . In a p p l i c a t i o n , the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of s u i t a b l e u n a l i e n a t e d a r e a s , i n c l u d i n g a l t e r n a t i v e p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g p r o p o s a l s , would be the major component of the r e g i o n ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n . F i n a l l y , the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n n i n g program s h o u l d be 24 i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the o v e r a l l Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g program (see F i g u r e 1.1). 1.5 The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and D e f i n i t i o n of O b j e c t i v e s I d e n t i f y i n g and d e f i n i n g c l e a r o b j e c t i v e s and g o a l s i s c r i t i c a l t o the s u c c e s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development p l a n n i n g . ( V l a s i n and B r o n s t e i n , 1979). Without c l e a r o b j e c t i v e s , r e s o u r c e assessment and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n mechanisms can be m i s d i r e c t e d . For example, l a n d may be c l e a r e d j u s t t o c r e a t e h i g h f i g u r e s f o r t o t a l a c r e a g e , but w i t h none of the o t h e r programs i n p l a c e t o complete development, s o i l e r o s i o n may q u i c k l y d e s t r o y the r e s o u r c e . M o l l e t t (1984) s t a t e s t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l p l a n n e r s do not d e c i d e on o b j e c t i v e s : r a t h e r they p r o v i d e g u i d e l i n e s t o those who do d e c i d e so t h a t the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o make r a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e a t a broader p o l i c y l e v e l . He s u g g e s t s : P l a n n e r s must r e a l i z e t h a t economic o b j e c t i v e s s h o u l d conform t o s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s and aims r a t h e r than the o t h e r way around... the main purpose of p l a n n i n g i s not t o maximize c o s t -e f f e c t i v e n e s s but t o a c h i e v e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s ( p . 4 3 ) . 25 F i g u r e 1.1: S t r u c t u r i n g and S c o p i n g The P l a n n i n g Program P r o v i n c i a l Crown Land Management P l a n n i n g and P o l i c y Statements P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Management P l a n n i n g and P o l i c y Statements R e g i o n a l Crown Land Management P l a n n i n g and P o l i c y Statements P r o v i n c i a l , R e g i o n a l , S u b - r e g i o n a l A g r i c u l t u r a l P l a n n i n g and' P o l i c y R e g i o n a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Management P l a n n i n g and P o l i c y Statements 7 S u b - r e g i o n a l Crown Land Management P l a n n i n g S u b - r e g i o n a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Management P l a n n i n g A g r i c u l t u r a l P r o d u c t i o n P r o j e c t P l a n n i n g 26 M o l l e t t p roposes t h a t o b j e c t i v e s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development be s u b s t a n t i v e , l i m i t e d i n number and t h a t the ends be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the means. To a c h i e v e s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n food p r o d u c t i o n i s an o b j e c t i v e , w h i l e s u b s i d i z i n g l a n d c l e a r i n g i s an i m p l e m e n t a t i o n program or means. G u i d e l i n e s f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n of o b j e c t i v e s can come from a v a r i e t y of s o u r c e s : •major p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s ; • p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s of o t h e r a g e n c i e s ; •assessment of l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , dependencies, t r e n d s and problems; • c o n s u l t a t i o n of v a r i o u s p u b l i c and p r i v a t e groups i n v o l v e d ; ( R o b e r t s , 1979). A f t e r the i n i t i a l o b j e c t i v e s have been d e f i n e d , they may be a d j u s t e d a t a l a t e r d a t e . 1.6 Assessment of E n v i r o n m e n t a l and Socio-economic F a c t o r s A g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development p l a n s w i l l succeed o n l y i f they a r e p h y s i c a l l y and b i o l o g i c a l l y p o s s i b l e , e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y and s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e (Barlowe, 1979). Changes, t r e n d s and c o n d i t i o n s b o t h w i t h i n the s p a t i a l or s e c t o r a l a r e a and w i t h o u t these a r e a s but h a v i n g an impact on the a r e a b e i n g s t u d i e d a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r p l a n n i n g (Hobbs, 1974). A l l o c a t i n g b e n e f i t s and c o s t s t o d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e makes the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n h e r e n t l y p o l i t i c a l ( V l a s i n , 1974). C a r t n e r 27 and R i c h a r d s (1983) s t a t e : P l a n n e r s . . . must be equipped t o d e a l w i t h t e c h n i c a l q u e s t i o n s of supply-demand and l a n d c o n d i t i o n s as w e l l as w i t h the v a l u e -l a d e n q u e s t i o n s of s o c i a l e q u i t y and p o l i t i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y . T h i s r e q u i r e s p o l i t i c a l awareness i n a d d i t i o n t o t e c h n i c a l competence ( p . 8 0 ) . I t i s t h r o u g h the assessment stage t h a t the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a t t e m p t s t o c r y s t a l l i z e and i n t e g r a t e s o c i a l , economic and e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s . T a b l e 1.2 summarizes the main p o i n t s p e r t a i n i n g t o the e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s t o be r e v i e w e d i n most a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . I s s u e s and methods i n a s s e s s i n g the more c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s w i l l be r e v i e w e d now i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . 1.6.1 E n v i r o n m e n t a l F a c t o r s C l i m a t e , topography and s o i l s d e t e r m i n e the a b s o l u t e l i m i t s of c u l t i v a b i l i t y ( W i l l i a m s , 1974). For example, hardy c r o p s such as b a r l e y and f o r a g e r e q u i r e a minimum of 50 t o 59 f r e e z e - f r e e days (the mean number of days between l a s t s p r i n g - f r o s t and f i r s t f a l l - f r o s t ) a t i n t e r i o r l o c a t i o n s and 80 t o 98 days on the c o a s t and a range of growing degree days above 5° of 1030 t o 1169. ( A i r S t u d i e s Branch, 1981). C l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s are i m p o r t a n t i n both the m a c r o c l i m a t i c or r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t and the m i c r o c l i m a t i c or l o c a l c o n t e x t . Wide v a r i a t i o n s can occur among m i c r o c l i m a t e s w i t h i n the same 2 8 m a c r o c l i m a t i c r e g i o n . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o s t u d y g e n e r a l i z e d m i c r o c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s t o d e f i n e t h i s v a r i a b i l i t y and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , determine an a r e a ' s s u i t a b i l i t y f o r c r o p p r o d u c t i o n . As w e l l , c l i m a t i c l i m i t a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y p r e c i p i t a t i o n , s h o u l d be e v a l u a t e d i n the c o n t e x t of s p e c i f i c c r o p s . S o i l map u n i t s i d e n t i f i e d i n a s o i l s u r v e y can be v e r y u s e f u l t o the p l a n n e r by b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r a wide v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e the l a n d ' s u l t i m a t e c a p a b i l i t y (Johnson and B a r t e l l i , 1974). The b e t t e r s o i l s f o r g e n e r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l development are m i n e r a l s o i l s which are l e v e l , w e l l - d r a i n e d , non-stony, deep, h i g h l y f e r t i l e , n o n - e r o s i v e , and which have a pH t h a t i s n e u t r a l t o s l i g h t l y b a s i c and which have no r e s t r i c t i o n s f o r normal t i l l a g e . E x i s t i n g v e g e t a t i o n must be c o n s i d e r e d when d e v e l o p i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . I f f o r e s t s e x i s t i n the a r e a t o be d e v e l o p e d , they can c r e a t e a c o n s i d e r a b l e expense f o r the farmer d u r i n g l a n d c l e a r i n g . T h i s expense may be o f f s e t by the s a l e of t i m b e r i f p r o p e r t y r i g h t s t o the t i m b e r a r e conveyed t o the farmer upon a c q u i s t i o n of the l a n d . The e x t e n t of f o r a g e s u i t a b l e f o r g r a z i n g l i v e s t o c k i s a n o t h e r b a s i c element of the r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r y . W i l d l i f e i n f o r m a t i o n , such as p r e d a t o r d e n s i t y and u n g u l a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n , w i l l g i v e the p l a n n e r d a t a f o r c a l c u l a t i n g the c o s t of w i l d l i f e c o n t r o l measures and p o t e n t i a l impact. Table 1.2: E n v i r o n m e n t a l and Socio-economic F a c t o r s f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Development on Crown Land* ( r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n s of t e x t i n p a r e n t h e s e s ) ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS P h y s i c a l base c a p a b l e of s u p p o r t i n g s u s t a i n a b l e a g r i c u l t u r e - s o i l s , w a t e r , c l i m a t e (1.5.1) B i o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s - p l a n t s and a n i m a l s , i n d i g e n o u s and i n t r o d u c e d (1.5.1) E c o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and c a p a c i t i e s (1.5.2) SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS (1.5.3) Compliance w i t h l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , p o l i t i c a l p r a c t i c e s , t r a d i t i o n s and o b j e c t i v e s C ompliance w i t h a c c e p t e d customs, a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s of s o c i e t y A d a p t a b l e e x i s t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s Demand f o r l a n d and p r o d u c t s E f f e c t i v e m a r k e t i n g , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , s t o r a g e and o t h e r i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l arrangements E f f i c i e n t and u l t i m a t e l y p r o f i t a b l e i n p u t - o u t p u t r e l a t i o n s h i p s E q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of income and o t h e r b e n e f i t s *Adapted from Barlowe (1979); R o b e r t s (1979); Box and Dwyer (1979) D e t e r m i n i n g p o t e n t i a l v e g e t a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t f o r bo t h range and c r o p uses on a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . Y i e l d and v a r i e t y t r i a l s s h o u l d be conducted i n a r e a s of major new l a n d 30 development b e f o r e l a n d c l e a r i n g s t a r t s i n o r d e r t o determine the most s u i t a b l e c r o p v a r i e t i e s , i f any (Box and Dwyer, 1979). 1.6.2 Resource I n v e n t o r i e s and E v a l u a t i o n s S e v e r a l methods a r e used i n modeling e c o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and c a p a c i t i e s f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l systems. Land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s the most i m p o r t a n t method f o r p l a n n i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development. Land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n v o l v e s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n , a n a l y s i s and e v a l u a t i o n of l a n d r e s o u r c e s . In a g r i c u l t u r e , one of the most w i d e l y used l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n formats i s the s o i l s u r v e y . C l i m a t i c s u r v e y s a r e a l s o conducted but c l i m a t i c d a t a a r e o f t e n c o n s o l i d a t e d i n t o the s o i l s u r v e y or combined w i t h s o i l s i n f o r m a t i o n t o d e v e l o p c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . S o i l s u r v e y s a r e conducted a t f i v e d i f f e r e n t s u r vey i n t e n s i t y l e v e l s , from a l e v e l f i v e survey s u i t a b l e f o r broad p r o v i n c i a l or r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g down t o a l e v e l one survey s u i t a b l e f o r i n t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h . Map s c a l e s v a r y w i t h 1:250,000 most w i d e l y used a t l e v e l f i v e t o 1:5000 a t l e v e l one ( V a l e n t i n e and L i d s t o n e , 1984). S o i l s u r v e y s , as p r i m a r y i n v e n t o r i e s , can be i n t e r p r e t e d so as t o p r o v i d e a number of secondary i n v e n t o r i e s or e v a l u a t i o n s w i t h i n l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n such as y i e l d p o t e n t i a l s , S t o r i e i n d e x , and c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r each map u n i t . The most commonly used l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system i n Canada i s the Canada Land I n v e n t o r y . The Canada Land I n v e n t o r y (CLI) f o r a g r i c u l t u r e i s a s o i l c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n based on: 31 the e f f e c t s of c o m b i n a t i o n s of c l i m a t e and s o i l c h a r a c t e r e s t i c s on l i m i t a t i o n s i n use of the s o i l s f o r a g r i c u l t u r e and t h e i r g e n e r a l p r o d u c t i o n c a p a c i t y f o r common f i e l d c r o p s (Environment Canada, 1972, p. 5 ) . The CLI c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n makes s e v e r a l assumptions i n c l u d i n g the c o m p l e t i o n of c e r t a i n improvements and a h i g h l y mechanized l e v e l of modern a g r i c u l t u r e . L i m i t a t i o n s a r e not c u m u l a t i v e ( S i n g e r , T a n j i and Snyder, 1979; M i n i s t r y of Environment, 1983). That i s , a c l a s s i s based on the most r e s t r i c t i n g f a c t o r and not c o m b i n a t i o n s of f a c t o r s . B e a r i n g t h e s e assumptions i n mind, the a g r i c u l t u r a l p l a n n e r s h o u l d use any c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n map i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the o r i g i n a l - s o i l s u r v e y . Resource i n v e n t o r i e s and e v a l u a t i o n s a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e from o t h e r s e c t o r s f o r f o r e s t r y , w i l d l i f e , m i n e r a l s and r e c r e a t i o n . The Canada Land I n v e n t o r y has mapped c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r r e c r e a t i o n , f o r e s t r y and some s p e c i e s of w i l d l i f e . Resource i n f o r m a t i o n from these s e c t o r s i s i m p o r t a n t f o r e v a l u a t i n g the impacts of any a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s on a g r i c u l t u r e and f o r d e t e r m i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l development. O p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s a r e , however, d i s c u s s e d more a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of economic f a c t o r s (see below). E c o l o g i c a l l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s are an approach t o p r i m a r y i n v e n t o r y of r e s o u r c e s which b r i n g t o g e t h e r s e v e r a l of the major e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s i n an e c o l o g i c a l approach t o c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . T e r r a i n , h y d r o l o g y , v e g e t a t i o n , w i l d l i f e and 32 c l i m a t e a r e combined t o produce e c o l o g i c a l map u n i t s which d i s p l a y common e c o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s . Map u n i t s are not r e s t r i c t e d t o a narrow range of s o i l p r o p e r t i e s as they are i n s o i l s u r v e y s . Surveys a r e conducted a t f i v e d i f f e r e n t i n t e n s i t y l e v e l s , s i m i l a r t o those i n the s o i l s u r v e y . The advantage of e c o l o g i c a l l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n l i e s i n the range of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d f o r each map p o l ygon and the p o s s i b i i t y of e v a l u a t i n g the same polygon f o r a f u l l range of r e s o u r c e uses. 1.6.3 Socio-Economic F a c t o r s The s o c i a l system a f f e c t i n g a p l a n n i n g area p r o v i d e s the l e g a l s t r u c t u r e and p o l i t i c a l mandate f o r p l a n n i n g a c t i o n . L o c a l community members' support or a n i m o s i t y o f t e n i n f l u e n c e s the s u c c e s s or' f a i l u r e of a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . In d e v e l o p i n g Crown l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , the a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d o f t e n d e a l w i t h the c r e a t i o n of new f a r m i n g communities. P r e s s u r e s f o r development f r e q u e n t l y come from a d j a c e n t communities and i n t e n s e p o l i t i c a l l o b b y i n g i s commonplace. These a g e n c i e s must ensure t h a t development c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e i r l e g i s l a t i v e mandate but i s a l s o p o l i t i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o a s s e s s the impact of p o t e n t i a l development s c e n a r i o s on the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of an a r e a . I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o a s s e s s the s o c i a l f a c t o r s r e q u i r e d f o r development t o p r o c e e d . F r e q u e n t l y , economic f a c t o r s r e c e i v e l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i n p l a n n i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development ( M o l l e t t , 1984). O f t e n , i f f u n d i n g i s a v a i l a b l e and the l a n d i s more or l e s s s u i t a b l e , p r o j e c t s a r e implemented. Economic f a c t o r s are s i g n i f i c a n t i n the c o n t e x t of the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s of implementing the 33 a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development p l a n and d e v e l o p i n g the a s s o c i a t e d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e which i s o f t e n e x t e r n a l t o the s p e c i f i c p l a n . Among the economic f a c t o r s which warrant assessment i n a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development p l a n n i n g a r e : • i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and s e r v i c i n g ; •market and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s and f a c i l i t i e s ; •demand and p r o d u c t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s of i n p u t s ; •farm s i z e , t e n u r e and e x p a n s i o n ; •economic impact (Barlowe,1979). Some of t h e s e a s p e c t s may be i n the purview .of an agency's l a n d development p l a n n i n g program, such as d e v e l o p i n g an a s s o c i a t e d m a r k e t i n g system, or they may be e x t e r n a l t o t h a t agency's program and may be l i n k e d t o another p l a n n i n g program i n another M i n i s t r y , such as d e v e l o p i n g and expanding a p r o v i n c i a l m a r k e t i n g system. Whether a d i r e c t a s p e c t of the l a n d development p l a n n i n g program or n o t , t h e s e economic a s p e c t s must be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . T h i s i s where c o o r d i n a t i o n i s so i m p o r t a n t . Many i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s must be s u b s i d i z e d by government, e s p e c i a l l y i n the e a r l y s t a g e s of development. O f t e n the development of o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s such as f o r e s t r y or p e t r o l e u m i s the o n l y way t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , e l e c t r i c i t y , s c h o o l s and h e a l t h - c a r e ( K e l l o g g , 1975; P e t e r s o n , 1972). Many s e r v i c e s and e s s e n t i a l 34 i n f r a s t r u c t u r e such as c r e d i t , i r r i g a t i o n w a t e r , e x t e n s i o n and a g r i - b u s i n e s s can o n l y be p r o v i d e d when the t o t a l number and p r o d u c t i o n of farms i s l a r g e enough t o s upport them. The a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development p l a n n i n g system must e v a l u a t e c o s t s and b e n e f i t s of the r e q u i r e d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e both t o the f a r m i n g community and t o s o c i e t y as a whole, f o r the economic v i a b i l i t y of d e v e l o p i n g new a r e a s o f t e n h i n g e s upon i t s p r o v i s i o n (Cochrane, 1974). Other economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n c l u d e the need f o r demand and s u p p l y p r o j e c t i o n s f o r the o u t p u t s of any new a g r i c u l t u r a l development. The system of t e n u r e can mean the d i f f e r e n c e between t y i n g up s c a r c e c a p i t a l i n f r e e h o l d a c q u i s i t i o n or i n v e s t i n g i t i n o t h e r a s p e c t s of management when l a n d i s h e l d l e a s e h o l d . The s i z e of an o p e r a t i o n i n f l u e n c e s the. u l t i m a t e • c o mmercial v i a b i l i t y of any farm. Farm s i z e s h o u l d be s t u d i e d i n the c o n t e x t of t r a d i t i o n a l r e g i o n a l farm s i z e s , demand p r o j e c t i o n s , c o s t s , r e t u r n s on i n v e s t m e n t , type and y i e l d of commodity and l a n d q u a l i t y . F l e x i b i l i t y i n f u t u r e e x p a n s i o n of new farm u n i t s s h o u l d be a c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n i n i t i a l l a n d d i s p o s i t i o n s and the c r e a t i o n of r e s e r v e a r e a s . The ranges of government programs at v a r i o u s l e v e l s t o promote and s u b s i d i z e a g r i c u l t u r a l development a r e o f t e n i n a d e q u a t e , o v e r l a p p i n g or c o n t r a d i c t o r y . F r e q u e n t l y , these programs have t o be r e s t r u c t u r e d t o become more e f f e c t i v e ( L a s s e y , 1977). Many methods a r e a v a i l a b l e t o the a g r i c u l t u r a l p l a n n e r i n economic impact assessment. The most i m p o r t a n t method i n impact a n a l y s i s a r e economic base, income e x p e n d i t u r e and i n p u t - o u t p u t 35 a n a l y s i s as w e l l as computer s i m u l a t i o n . In e v a l u a t i o n a n a l y s i s , the most common method i s b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s , but o t h e r approaches such as the p l a n n i n g b a l a n c e sheet and c o m p a r a t i v e c o s t a n a l y s i s may be a p p r o p r i a t e ( R o b e r t s , 1979). These t e c h n i q u e s can be used t o a s s e s s one p r o j e c t i n i s o l a t i o n or t o a s s e s s e n t i r e a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s . Techniques have been d e v i s e d t o i n t e g r a t e parameters from the v a r i o u s systems t o p r o v i d e a more comprehensive approach t o l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . These t e c h n i q u e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y complex and p r o b a b l y u s e f u l o n l y over a s h o r t timeframe due t o f l u c t u a t i n g economic c o n d i t i o n s ( V i n k , 1975). In summary, the i n v e n t o r y and e v a l u a t i o n of e n v i r o n m e n t a l and socio-economic f a c t o r s i s d e s c r i b e d by R o b e r t s (1979) as an e x e r c i s e which: ... aims f u n d a m e n t a l l y a t i m p r o v i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the amount and c h a r a c t e r of demand t h a t w i l l be p l a c e d on the l a n d r e s o u r c e and the c a p a c i t y of the l a n d t o support v a r i o u s u s e s . . . The c h a r a c t e r and depth of i n v e n t o r y and a n a l y s i s undertaken i n a p a r t i c u l a r l a n d use p l a n n i n g e f f o r t w i l l depend upon p r o f e s s i o n a l judgement, the r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e , the type of l a n d b e i n g p l a n n e d . . . and the demands of t h o s e w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n the p l a n n i n g e f f o r t . . . (p.54) 1.7 P r e p a r a t i o n and E v a l u a t i o n of A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s and  S e l e c t i o n of the P r e f e r r e d S t r a t e g y An a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development s t r a t e g y i n t e g r a t e s the v a r i o u s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n measures — p o l i c i e s , programs and p r o j e c t s — i n an a pproach t o a c h i e v i n g o b j e c t i v e s ( M o l l e t t , 36 1984). A g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development s t r a t e g i e s compromise among the c o n f l i c t i n g a s p i r a t i o n s of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . They must a l s o o p t i m i z e t h e use of s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s and t a k e advantage of more p l e n t i f u l r e s o u r c e s . An a g r i c u l t u r a l development s t r a t e g y must answer t h e q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g what a c t i o n i s needed t o a c h i e v e o b j e c t i v e s , how a c t i o n s are t o be implemented, who w i l l implement s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s and the t i m i n g of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ( M o l l e t t , 1984). A l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s a r e based u s u a l l y upon the t h e p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e ' s o b j e c t i v e s . They draw p r e d o m i n a n t l y upon the i n v e n t o r y and e v a l u a t i o n of e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s and a r e c o n f i n e d by the l e v e l of f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y , a range of t h r e e or f o u r a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e -developed, v a r y i n g o n l y i n c r e m e n t a l l y from each o t h e r . Resource development i s , however, a common theme. A l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s t o a g r i c u l t u r a l development may e x i s t such as f o r e s t r y or r e c r e a t i o n , and t h i s i s where o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n comparing the b e n e f i t s of one r e s o u r c e use t o a n o t h e r . A l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s can a l s o e x i s t w i t h i n a p l a n f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development between p o l i c i e s , programs and p r o j e c t s t o p r o v i d e v a r i o u s mixes and a l t e r n a t i v e o u t p u t s . One c o s t - e f f e c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e t o d e v e l o p i n g new l a n d i s the i n v e s t m e n t of p u b l i c funds t o i n t e n s i f y p r o d u c t i o n i n e s t a b l i s h e d f a r m i n g a r e a s w i t h e x i s t i n g i n f r a s t r u c t u r e (World Bank, 1978). P l a n n e r s or a d m i n i s t r a t o r s may s e l e c t the p r e f e r r e d s t r a t e g y , however, e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s a r e the u s u a l d e c i s i o n -makers. I t i s d u r i n g the s e l e c t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s as w e l l as 37 the s e t t i n g of o b j e c t i v e s t h a t the i n h e r e n t l y p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s can be p e r c e i v e d b e s t ( V l a s i n , 1974). At t h i s s t a g e , the p r o c e s s has been c r i t i c i s e d f r e q u e n t l y because of p e r c e i v e d m a n i p u l a t i o n . The p o s s i b i l i t y of m a n i p u l a t i o n can be d e c r e a s e d by d e s i g n i n g e f f e c t i v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and by e n s u r i n g a h i g h degree of c o o r d i n a t i o n . 1.8 Implementation The t h r e e main elements used i n implementing an a g r i c u l t u r a l development s t r a t e g y , as d e f i n e d by Cochrane (1974), a r e p o l i c i e s , programs and p r o j e c t s . A p o l i c y i s a c o u r s e of a c t i o n pursued by government and i n v o l v e s the statement of a purpose and t h e t a k i n g of a c t i o n s t o r e a l i z e t h a t p urpose. Programs a r e d e f i n e d as a s e t of p r o c e d u r a l s t e p s f o r implementing a p o l i c y . Programs can be f i s c a l , such as low i n t e r e s t l o a n s t o f a r m e r s , r e g u l a t o r y , such as s u p p l y management, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , such as e x t e n s i o n , or p r o m o t i o n a l such as a 'buy l o c a l ' program. A p r o j e c t i s a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d a c t i v i t y which i s u s u a l l y l o c a t i o n - s p e c i f i c , o f t e n i n v o l v e s the c o n s t r u c t i o n of c a p i t a l s t r u c t u r e s or the making of c a p i t a l improvements and has a l i m i t e d l i f e span. Cochrane (1974) terms p r o j e c t s the " b u i l d i n g b l o c k s of development" (p.126) as many of government's l a n d development programs and p o l i c i e s are f o c u s s e d a t the p r o j e c t l e v e l . P r o j e c t s tend t o be a t t r a c t i v e t o d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , t a n g i b l e r e s u l t s a r e o f t e n a c h i e v e d i n a s h o r t time and, second, c a p i t a l f u n d i n g i s e a s i e r t o o b t a i n than 38 i n c r e a s e d c u r r e n t or o p e r a t i o n a l f u n d i n g . Whether the p r o j e c t f i t s i n w i t h an o v e r a l l s t r a t e g y f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development o r , c o n v e r s e l y , o b s t r u c t s an o v e r a l l s t r a t e g y , i s sometimes not c o n s i d e r e d . P r o d u c t i o n p r o j e c t s s h o u l d be preceded by e x p e r i m e n t a l , p i l o t or d e m o n s t r a t i o n p r o j e c t s . In a c t u a l l y d e v e l o p i n g p r o j e c t s , the f i r s t s t e p i s a p r e l i m i n a r y assessment of the n a t u r e , s i z e and number of p o t e n t i a l p r o j e c t s . P r o j e c t s must then be l i s t e d i n o r d e r of p r i o r i t y , because i t i s u s u a l l y not f e a s i b l e or r e a l i s t i c t o t r y t o implement the whole range of p o t e n t i a l p r o j e c t s a t the same t i m e . T h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d i n an a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n (see S e c t i o n 1.3.1). M o l l e t t (1984) recommends t h a t the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n agency be i n v o l v e d i n both p l a n and p r o j e c t f o r m u l a t i o n t o ensure t h a t the o b j e c t i v e s are agreed upon and u n d e r s t o o d . W i t h i n s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s , c r i t i c a l elements must be f l a g g e d t o ensure e v e n t u a l s u c c e s s ( M c A l l i s t e r , 1977). Many p r o j e c t s f l o u n d e r because t e c h n i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y has o f t e n been the o n l y p r e c o n d i t i o n i n p r o j e c t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ( M o l l e t t , 1984). 1.9 M o n i t o r i n g , E v a l u a t i o n , Feedback and I t e r a t i o n M o n i t o r i n g , e v a l u a t i o n , feedback and i t e r a t i o n s h o u l d be b u i l t i n t o the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e from the b e g i n n i n g ( M o l l e t t , 1984). These elements a r e l i n k e d , w i t h m o n i t o r i n g p r e c e d i n g e v a l u a t i o n which then l e a d s t o feedback, and then the r e l e v a n t elements of the p r o c e s s a r e r e p e a t e d based on the new i n f o r m a t i o n . 39 A m o n i t o r i n g system o b s e r v e s , r e c o r d s , a n a l y s e s and p r e s e n t s r e l e v a n t e v e n t s and r e s u l t s t o p r o c e s s managers ( C a s l e y and L u r y , 1982). In d e f i n i n g e v a l u a t i o n v i s - a - v i s m o n i t o r i n g , C a s l e y and Lury (1982) s t a t e : E v a l u a t i o n w i l l draw on the d a t a g e n e r a t e d by the m o n i t o r i n g system t o h e l p e x p l a i n the t r e n d s i n e f f e c t s and impact of the p r o j e c t [ o r p l a n ] . M o n i t o r i n g d a t a may r e v e a l s i g n i f i c a n t d e p a r t u r e from e x p e c t a t i o n s which may warrant the u n d e r t a k i n g of an on-going e v a l u a t i o n e x e r c i s e . . . (p.4) The s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development p l a n s i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o measure. P r o j e c t s , programs and p o l i c i e s a r e not ends i n themselves and can be e v a l u a t e d o n l y i n terms of f a r m e r s ' p r o f i t a b i l i t y and p r o d u c t i v e n e s s i n response t o p a r t i c u l a r i n i t i a t i v e s . E v a l u a t i v e s t a n d a r d s or c r i t e r i a o f t e n used i n p l a n n e d a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t i n c l u d e the v a l u e of i n c r e a s e d output i n comparison t o the c o s t s of the development s t r a t e g y and, second, the degree t o which the p l a n ' s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c o b j e c t i v e s a r e a c h i e v e d . 1.10 C o o r d i n a t i o n The farm i s the s i n g l e u n i t of o p e r a t i o n on which the a c t i v i t i e s of a l l the v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s a f f e c t i n g a g r i c u l t u r e converge ( M o l l e t t , 1984). A g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development r e q u i r e s competent and e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n from a broad s e t of i n t e r r e l a t e d economic and s o c i a l f o r c e s . A c r i t i c a l a s p e c t of p l a n n i n g the 40 a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i s c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e s e v a r i o u s i n f l u e n c e s t o a c h i e v e s u c c e s s f u l and s u s t a i n a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l development (Cochrane, 1974). A l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n i s o f t e n a r e s u l t of s e v e r a l f a c t o r s ( M o l l e t t , 1984): • c o m p e t i t i o n among a g e n c i e s a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s ; • m i s p e r c e p t i o n of p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s ; • u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o share r i s k s ; •heavy time r e q u i r e m e n t s ; • n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h p a s t c o l l a b o r a t i o n ; • s h i f t i n g or m i s u n d e r s t o o d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and l a c k of a p r e c i s e mandate. A l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n may r e s u l t i n a seemingly s u c c e s s f u l s i n g l e program e v e n t u a l l y c a u s i n g more problems than i t s o l v e s . Adequate c o o r d i n a t i o n can h i n d e r maximum e f f i c i e n c y i n one a c t i v i t y or s e c t o r , but i t can maximize e f f i c i e n c y i n the p u r s u i t of broader s o c i a l , economic and e n v i r o n m e n t a l o b j e c t i v e s i n v o l v i n g many s e c t o r s ( L a s s e y , 1977). T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n Canadian a g r i c u l t u r e where c o n s t i t u t i o n a l powers a r e shared between the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments. Methods such as e n v i r o n m e n t a l m e d i a t i o n or b a r g a i n i n g show promise i n a c h i e v i n g improved c o o r d i n a t i o n among v a r i o u s l e v e l s of government and among v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s w i t h i n government (Dorcey, 1983). T h i s method i s used t o a ce r . t a i n e x t e n t t h r o u g h 41 the p l a n n i n g team approach d i s c u s s e d i n t h e case s t u d i e s (Chs.4 and 5 ) . 1.11 P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n can be e x p r e s s e d i n terms of a continuum from an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l - e x p e r t system w i t h minimal p u b l i c i nvolvement t o a d e m o c r a t i c - p a r t i c i p a t o r y system which i n v o l v e s the p u b l i c d i r e c t l y t h roughout th e e n t i r e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ( E r i c k s o n , 1980). E r i c k s o n (1980) l i s t s the arguments commonly r a i s e d a g a i n s t broad p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g of a g r i c u l t u r a l development on Crown l a n d . These i n c l u d e : •the h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l , complex n a t u r e of r e s o u r c e i s s u e s ; •the f o s t e r i n g of c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s ; • c o s t and t i m e ; ^ " l o b b y i n g f o r l o c a l i n t e r e s t s and s p e c i a l p r i v i l e d g e s ; • the d i f f i c u l t y of a s s i g n i n g weight t o p u b l i c i n p u t ; •the p o t e n t i a l f o r m a n i p u l a t i o n of p u b l i c i nvolvement by the p l a n n i n g agency; •the v a l u e - l a d e n and s u b j e c t i v e manner i n which o b j e c t i v e s e t t i n g and d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and o t h e r s t e p s of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w i l l o c c u r w i t h p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 42 However, opponents of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l - e x p e r t system h o l d t h a t t e c h n o c r a t i c d e c i s i o n s a r e o f t e n based on u n c l e a r o b j e c t i v e s , t h a t data a r e o f t e n i n s u f f i c i e n t as a s o l e r a t i o n a l e f o r d e c i s i o n s , and t h a t r e s o u r c e a g e n c i e s t e n d t o s e l e c t a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h narrow agency v a l u e s ( E r i c k s o n , 1980). The p u b l i c can p r e s e n t a w i d e r range of a l t e r n a t i v e s and can o f f e r c r i t i c a l support f o r a p r o c e s s w i t h which i t i d e n t i f i e s and i n which i t has been i n v o l v e d i n ( N i c h o l s , 1967) I f the p u b l i c i s not i n v o l v e d , antagonism may a r i s e between the p u b l i c and the p l a n n i n g agency. I concur w i t h the views of Hendee, et a l . , (1974) t h a t the main purpose of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e s o u r c e management i s t o o b t a i n a measure of p u b l i c o p i n i o n s and v a l u e s , not t o d i c t a t e d e c i s i o n s t o be t a k e n . In most p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s , • t h e r e a r e a wide range of d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t s . The v a l u e s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e s e i n t e r e s t s can o f t e n be c o n f l i c t i n g and, i f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s p o o r l y managed, l e a d t o c o n f r o n t a t i o n . V a l u e s a r e not o n l y h e l d by the p u b l i c but a l s o by the v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e s e c t o r a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d . One of the most v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t o i n f o r m the p a r t i c i p a n t s of the magnitude of f r e q u e n t l y d i v e r g e n t v a l u e s i n v o l v e d . As a r e s u l t of t h i s knowledge, n e c e s s a r y compromise may by a c h i e v e d more r e a d i l y . 1.12 Summary The i d e a l i z e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s as a p p l i e d t o the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d c r e a t e s a complex a r r a y of i s s u e s and c o n c e r n s which s h o u l d be a d d r e s s e d . A l l of the 43 elements of the p r o c e s s are i n t e r d e p e n d e n t . Assessment of e n v i r o n m e n t a l and socio-economic f a c t o r s , f o r example, i n f l u e n c e s the d e s i g n of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n mechanisms, p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , o b j e c t i v e s e t t i n g , development of a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s and so on. The s t r u c t u r e and scope of the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g program must be f l e x i b l e and a d a p t a b l e t o l o c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . These c i r c u m s t a n c e s may a l s o d i c t a t e the emphasis of c e r t a i n p r o c e s s elements over o t h e r s i n s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s . Y e t , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t the n e g l e c t of key elements w i l l a f f e c t the i n t e g r i t y of the e n t i r e p r o c e s s . 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F r a n c i s , R.J. 1970. The S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Term M a r g i n a l i n F r i n g e S e t t l e m e n t S t u d i e s . In H a r o l d D. F o s t e r [ e d . ] , G e o g r a p h i c a . Western G e o g r a p h i c a l S e r i e s , Volume 2. U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , V i c t o r i a , p.23-40 Fried m a n , John. 1980. Urban B i a s i n R e g i o n a l Development  P o l i c y . C o m p a r i t i v e U r b a n i z a t i o n S t u d i e s . U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l o s . Hendee, John C , C l a r k , Roger N. and Stankey, George H. 1979. A Framework f o r Agency Use of P u b l i c Input i n Resource D e c i s i o n Making. J . S o i l and Water Cons. 2 9 ( 2 ) : 60-66. Hobbs, D a r y l . 1974. P r o v i d i n g P u b l i c S e r v i c e s i n R u r a l A r e a s . J . S o i l and Water Cons. 2 9 ( 1 ) : 34-36. Hudson, B a r c l a y . 1979. 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American S o c i e t y of Agronomy, Madison, W i s c o n s c i n . p.47-63. Runka, G. Gary. 1980. Overview: P l a n n i n g f o r R u r a l Land. In In Search of P l a c e : P l a n n i n g f o r S m a l l  Communities. P r o c e e d i n g s of the 1980 CIP/ICU C o n f e r e n c e . Canadian I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , Ottawa. Sampson, N i e l R. 1975. W i l l the R e a l Land Use P l a n n i n g P l e a s e Stand Up? J . S o i l and Water Cons. 3 0 ( 5 ) : 207-210. 47 S i n g e r , M i c h a e l J . , T a n j i , Kenneth K. and Snyder, H e r b e r t J . 1979. P l a n n i n g the Uses of C u l t i v a t e d C r o p l a n d and P a s t u r e l a n d . In Marvin T. B e a t t y , Gary W. P e t e r s o n and L e s t e r D. Swindale [ e d s . ] , P l a n n i n g  the Uses and Management of Land. American S o c i e t y of Agronomy, Madison, W i s c o n s c i n . p.225-271. V a l e n t i n e , K.W.G. 1971. S o i l s of the F o r t N e l s o n Area of  B r i t i s h Columbia. R e p o r t No. 12. A g r i c u l t u r e Canada. Ottawa. V a l e n t i n e , K.W.G. and L i d s t o n e , A l l a n B. S p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r S o i l Survey I n t e n s i t y (Survey Order) i n Canada. S u b m i t t e d t o Can. J . S o i l S c i . Van Vuuren, W. 1980. P o l i c y F o r m u l a t i o n and Implementation i n R u r a l Land P l a n n i n g . CRD P u b l i c a t i o n No. 100. C e n t r e f o r Resource Development, Guelph. V i n k , A.P.A. 1975. Land Use i n Advancing A g r i c u l t u r e . S p r i n g e r - V e r l a g , New Yor k . V l a s i n , Raymond D. 1974. P l a n n i n g and Implementing R u r a l Development. J . S o i l and Water Cons. 2 9 ( 1 ) : 28-33. V l a s i n , Raymond D. And B r o n s t e i n , D a n i e l A. 1979. I n s t i t u t i o n a l Mechanisms f o r Land Use C o n t r o l . In M a r v i n T. B e a t t y , G a r r y W. P e t e r s o n and L e s t e r D. Swin d a l e [ e d s . ] , P l a n n i n g the Uses and Management of  Land. American S o c i e t y of Agronomy, Madison, W i s c o n s c i n . p.981-1011. Weeks, E.P. 1977. The P r o j e c t C y c l e - An Overview. In Ian M c A l l i s t e r and E t h e l L a n g i l l e [ e d s . ] , The P r o j e c t  C y c l e : P l a n n i n g and Managing Development P r o j e c t s . D a l h o u s i e U n i v e r s i t y , H a l i f a x , p.14-19. W i l l i a m s , G. Da v i d V. 1974. P h y s i c a l F r o n t i e r s of Crops: The Example f o r Growing B a r l e y t o M a t u r i t y i n Canada. In R.G. I r o n s i d e , e t a l . [ e d s . ] , F r o n t i e r  S e t t l e m e n t . U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , p.79-92. Wonders, W i l l i a m C. 1S75. M a r g i n a l S e t t l e m e n t . In The  S c o t t i s h G e o g r a p h i c a l Magazine. 9 1 ( 1 ) : 12-24. World Bank. 1978. A g r i c u l t u r a l Land S e t t l e m e n t : A World  Bank I s s u e s Paper. W o r l d Bank, Washington, D.C. CHAPTER TWO PLANNING THE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT  OF CROWN LAND IN THE MARGINAL FRINGE 4 9 2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s o u t l i n e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s a g e n e r a l approach t o p l a n n i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l development on Crown l a n d . However, i n each p a r t i c u l a r p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e , the g e n e r a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s must be adapted t o r e g i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s which d i s t i n q u i s h one p l a n n i n g a r e a from a n o t h e r . The p o t e n t i a l and problems of p l a n n i n g f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n an urban, g e n e r a l l y s o u t h e r n , a r e a of Canada a r e d i f f e r e n t than p l a n n i n g i n a more n o r t h e r n , r u r a l r e g i o n . For some of the elements of the i d e a l i z e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , m a r g i n a l l a n d development may demand no more or l e s s a t t e n t i o n than i n p l a n n i n g the development of l a n d i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l h e a r t l a n d . In t h i s s e c t i o n , I f o c u s on the assessment of e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s , f o r i t i s the s t a t u s of t hese which d e t e r m i n e s whether the l a n d i s m a r g i n a l or non-a r a b l e . T h i s p l a c e s a s p e c i a l onus on t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n i t i a l i n v e n t o r i e s . How the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s adapted t o m a r g i n a l f r i n g e c o n d i t i o n s i s a n a l y s e d l a t e r i n s e v e r a l case s t u d i e s . 2.2 Assessment of E n v i r o n m e n t a l , Economic and S o c i a l F a c t o r s i n  the M a r g i n a l F r i n g e C l i m a t i c r e s t r i c t i o n s i n s o u t h e r n a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s as opposed t o the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e a r e not such an o v e r r i d i n g f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g c r o p t y p e , y i e l d and, t h e r e f o r e , the economic v i a b i l i t y of farm u n i t s . The g e n e r a l l y h a r s h e r c l i m a t e of the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e , when combined w i t h a d v e r s e s o i l c o n d i t i o n s , 50 makes farm v i a b i l i t y an i n c r e a s i n g l y tenuous p r o p o s i t i o n . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and m a r k e t i n g o b s t a c l e s a l s o i n c r e a s e c o s t s f o r the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e farmer as opposed t o h i s s o u t h e r n c o u n t e r p a r t . I n f r a s t r u c t u r e , o f t e n taken f o r g r a n t e d i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l h e a r t l a n d , may never be p r o v i d e d i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e . W h i l e 20 h e c t a r e s p r o d u c i n g s t r a w b e r r i e s i n the urban f r i n g e of Vancouver may be a l u c r a t i v e b u s i n e s s f o r a farmer, 200 h e c t a r e s i n f o r a g e or b a r l e y near F o r t V e r m i l i o n , A l b e r t a may mean a s u b s i s t e n c e s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g f o r the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e f a r m e r . The l a n d management p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n must f i r s t a d d r ess i t s e l f t o which, i f any, c r o p s can be grown i n t h i s environment t h a t w i l l p r o v i d e a s u f f i c i e n t r e t u r n on p u b l i c and p r i v a t e investment t o warrant development. A s u f f i c i e n t r e t u r n on investment may s t i l l be a l o s s i f the p o l i t i c a l and p r i v a t e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s deem a c e r t a i n l e v e l of l o s s e s a c c e p t a b l e . U s u a l l y , t h i s i s when government s u b s i d i e s a r e i n t r o d u c e d . An i n v e n t o r y and e v a l u a t i o n of the e n v i r o n m e n t a l system which d i s p l a y s p o t e n t i a l f o r development i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r d e t a i l e d economic a n a l y s i s . 2.2.1 E n v i r o n m e n t a l F a c t o r s C l i m a t e and s o i l s a r e the two c r i t i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l elements i n d e t e r m i n i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y of l a n d w i t h i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e . G e o m o r p h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s , such as topography, a r e u s u a l l y r e f l e c t e d i n the c l i m a t i c or s o i l c a p a b i l i t y of a r e g i o n f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . Both s o i l s and c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s a r e not as w e l l known i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n 51 as i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l h e a r t l a n d ( W i l l i a m s , 1974). T h i s i s due to the l a c k of c l i m a t o l o g i c a l s t a t i o n s and l e s s d e t a i l e d coverage by s o i l s u r v e y s . The l a c k of r e s o u r c e i n f o r m a t i o n i s imp o r t a n t because the c o m b i n a t i o n of m i c r o c l i m a t e and s o i l s w i t h the management t e c h n i q u e s of the farmer w i l l d e t e r m i n e the y i e l d of each farm u n i t . In the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e , c o n d i t i o n s can change d r a m a t i c a l l y from year t o year and y i e l d s can v a r y j u s t as d r a m a t i c a l l y ( I r o n s i d e , et a l . , 1974b). A r a b l e s o i l s i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e t e n d t o be more d i s r u p t e d by n o n - a r a b l e , m i n e r a l or o r g a n i c s o i l s than i n the sout h e r n h e a r t l a n d . T h i s means t h a t the h i g h l y mechanized, l a r g e - s c a l e commercial o p e r a t i o n s t y p i c a l of Canadian a g r i c u l t u r e a r e at an added d i s a d v a n t a g e i n f a r m i n g around th e s e n o n - a r a b l e a r e a s . As w e l l , i n f r a s t r u c t u r e c o s t s become even h i g h e r per h e c t a r e of l a n d farmed. Among the many s o i l l i m i t a t i o n s f o r a g r i c u l t u r e i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e a r e poor d r a i n a g e ; s t e e p , l o n g or complex s l o p e s ; low f e r t i l i t y and low water r e t e n t i o n c a p a c i t y ; s a l i n i t y ; a c i d i t y ; f l o o d i n g ; s t o n i n e s s ; s h a l l o w depth t o bedrock or compacted l a y e r and; s u c c e p t i b i l i t y t o wind and water e r o s i o n . These r e s t r i c t i o n s must be i d e n t i f i e d i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l t o a i d i n a c c u r a t e d e l i n e a t i o n of v i a b l e farm u n i t s . To become e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e , farms a r e becoming h i g h l y mechanized and farmers a r e working i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e r a c r e a g e s as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e t o a l l o w the economies of s c a l e t o o f f s e t g e n e r a l l y lower y i e l d s and h i g h e r c o s t s . T h i s approach causes s e v e r e e r o s i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y on the more e r o s i o n prone s o i l s . U n f a v o u r a b l e c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s a r e o f t e n compounded i n 52 m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n s . Heavy p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n the s p r i n g , combined w i t h a s h o r t growing season and a l a t e snowmelt, i s a f r e q u e n t o c c u r a n c e . The s h o r t growing season and o f t e n s h o r t e r f r e e z e - f r e e p e r i o d a r e the most i m p o r t a n t c l i m a t i c l i m i t a t i o n s ( B e a t t i e , Bond and Manning, 1981), a l t h o u g h l o n g e r p e r i o d s of d a y l i g h t d u r i n g the growing season can compensate f o r thes e l i m i t a t i o n s and a l l o w the p r o d u c t i o n of h a r d y , f a s t - g r o w i n g and f a s t - m a t u r i n g c r o p s such as b a r l e y , f o r a g e and o i l s e e d s ( I r o n s i d e , e t a l . , 1974b). The l a c k of s o i l s and c l i m a t i c d a t a can make the job of economic a n a l y s i s even more d i f f i c u l t and u n c e r t a i n . 2.2.2 Economic F a c t o r s In terms of economics, m a r g i n a l f r i n g e farmers a r e a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e compared t o t h e i r s o u t h e r n c o u n t e r p a r t s . E n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s g e n e r a l l y d i c t a t e lower y i e l d s and h i g h e r i n p u t c o s t s t o overcome the r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed by these c o n d i t i o n s . The m a r g i n a l f r i n g e f a r m e r ' s problems are compounded when he at t e m p t s t o s i m p l y d u p l i c a t e s o u t h e r n c r o p p i n g p r a c t i c e s and t o compete i n the market w i t h the same c r o p s t h a t a r e produced i n the South. Not o n l y do n o n - f r i n g e p r o d u c e r s have a co m p a r a t i v e advantage r e s u l t i n g from b e t t e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s , but they a r e c l o s e r t o markets and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . They have lower t r a n s p o r t c o s t s f o r r e q u i r e d i n p u t s as w e l l as g r e a t e r s e l e c t i o n and a v a i l a b i l i t y of t h e s e i n p u t s . Southern farmers produce much l a r g e r volumes of commodities, r e s u l t i n g i n an even g r e a t e r c o m p a r a t i v e advantage i n r e l a t i o n t o f r e i g h t r a t e s ( I r o n s i d e , e t a l . , 1974b). 53 The g e n e r a l l y lower r a t e s of r e t u r n on l a b o u r and investment i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e mean t h a t the farmer has l e s s of a chance t o expand h i s landbase and purchase new equipment even though l a n d i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y cheaper ( B e a t t i e , Bond and Manning, 1981). Farm s i z e i s below the average s i z e f u r t h e r South, and t h e r e i s l e s s r e n t i n g , which means more s c a r c e c a p i t a l i s t i e d up i n the l a n d (Wonders, 1975). New farmers i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e tend t o be young and r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e r i e n c e d which makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o get c r e d i t and t o expand. Many of these f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e t o and may even a c c e l e r a t e the economic m a r g i n a l i t y of these a r e a s ( B e a t t i e , Bond and Manning, 1981). Government has been c r i t i c i s e d f o r f o s t e r i n g the development of m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n s w i t h s u b s i d i e s t h a t c o u l d p r o v i d e a b e t t e r r e t u r n elsewhere (World Bank, 1978). McCuaig and Manning (1982) suggest t h a t government s u b s i d i e s have " i n s u l a t e d the farmer from the consequences of f a i l u r e " ( p l 5 5 ) . As farm a r e a i n c r e a s e s i n many r e g i o n s of the a d v a n c i n g m a r g i n a l f r i n g e , i n c r e a s e s i n farm p o p u l a t i o n and number of farms does not keep pace. Farm enlargement i s g o i n g on i n an attempt t o overcome some of the d i s a d v a n t a g e s of the f r i n g e and i t r e f l e c t s a g e n e r a l n a t i o n a l t r e n d . T h i s means t h a t the c o s t of p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s t o a few peopl e spread over broader a r e a s w i l l be h i g h e r than i f r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n s were i n c r e a s i n g (McCuaig and Manning, 1982). Another problem i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e i s t h a t many farmers need t o become p a r t - t i m e o p e r a t o r s . S i n c e i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o make a l i v i n g from f a r m i n g a l o n e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o branch out 54 i n t o f o r e s t r y or get a job i n the o i l f i e l d s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , p r o d u c t i o n systems more s u i t a b l e t o the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e , such as l i v e s t o c k o p e r a t i o n s , cannot be u t i l i z e d , due t o t h e p e r i o d i c absence of the farmer. A broader a s p e c t of t h i s i s s u e has been r a i s e d by K e l l o g g (1975). In f a c t , many of t h e s e farms i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e would not e x i s t were i t not f o r the a s s o c i a t e d and a d j a c e n t o i l f i e l d and f o r e s t r y development and t h e employment which i t p r o v i d e s . S e c t o r s such as p e t r o l e u m , m i n i n g and f o r e s t r y o f t e n d e v e l o p or share i n t h e development of much of the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e needed f o r f a r m i n g . E n c o u r a g i n g p a r t - t i m e and o f t e n uneconomic farming developments i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e may seem more l o g i c a l i f viewed as p a r t of a b r o a d e r r u r a l development s t r a t e g y . I f t h i s i s the c a s e , the v i a b i l i t y of the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r may be o n l y one c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n a h o s t of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s . I n c r e a s i n g l y , a g r i c u l t u r e i s viewed i n t h i s c o n t e x t of i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o b r o a d e r r u r a l development f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o r e g i o n a l economic and s o c i a l l i f e (FAO, 1979). In s p i t e of the many e n v i r o n m e n t a l and economic o b s t a c l e s , a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development does occur i n t h e m a r g i n a l f r i n g e . T e c h n o l o g i c a l advances r e s u l t i n the development of h a r d i e r c r o p v a r i e t i e s and new machinery s u i t e d f o r m a r g i n a l f r i n g e c o n d i t i o n s . Market c o n d i t i o n s can become more f a v o u r a b l e and encourage g r e a t e r development. The i n c r e a s e i n a c t i v i t y i n another s e c t o r , such as p e t r o l e u m , can a l s o l e a d t o growth i n a g r i c u l t u r e . A s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n , w i t h a c a p t i v e market f o r example, can o f t e n spur f a r m l a n d e x p a n s i o n ( F r a n c i s , 1970). Not t o be o v e r l o o k e d i s the p i o n e e r i n g s p i r i t of many m a r g i n a l 55 f r i n g e r e s i d e n t s and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of an a c c e p t a b l e s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g , which v a r i e s from the Canadian norm. The c h a l l e n g e t o the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s t o . i d e n t i f y t h e s e f a v o u r a b l e i n f l u e n c e s and t o match them t o l a n d w i t h the h i g h e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r s u s t a i n i n g a g r i c u l t u r e . When t h e r e a re p e r i o d s of a g r i c u l t u r a l advance i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e , f u r t h e r development a c t i v i t y may be s t i m u l a t e d by the i n i t i a l e x p a n s i o n . Success appears t o f o s t e r the p u r s u i t of new o p p o r t u n i t i e s . A p e r c e p t i o n of u n r e a l i z e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s , i s g e n e r a t e d by each s u c c e e d i n g wave of s e t t l e m e n t ( B e a t t i e , Bond and Manning, 1981). A g r i c u l t u r e i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e economy has a much more s t a b i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e than e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s such as f o r e s t r y and m i n i n g . A g r i c u l t u r e has tended t o be a-permanent economic a c t i v i t y , s p ending much of i t s money l o c a l l y ( I r o n s i d e , e t a l . , 1974b). I t i s then c r i t i c a l t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e i n m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n s e x p l o i t whatever c o m p a r a t i v e advantages i t has and t h a t development and o p e r a t i o n of new farm u n i t s be as e f f i c i e n t as p o s s i b l e . T h i s w i l l ensure a s u s t a i n a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r i n l o c a l economies. 2.2.3 S o c i a l F a c t o r s Elements of the s o c i a l and economic systems a r e by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e i n t e r w o v e n . L i f e s t y l e i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e may be judged i n f e r i o r by urban s t a n d a r d s . Lower l e v e l s of s e r v i c e s i n h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n and c u l t u r a l a r e a s a r e i n v a r i a b l y commonplace. To an u r b a n i t e , t h i s may be u n a c c e p t a b l e , but t o a m a r g i n a l f r i n g e d w e l l e r , the l a c k of c i v i l i z a t i o n may be what a t t r a c t s him i n the f i r s t p l a c e . T h i s a t t i t u d e o f t e n e x t e n d s t o an open 56 h o s t i l i t y towards p e r c e i v e d government i n t e r f e r e n c e i n r e s o u r c e development t h r o u g h p r o c e s s e s l i k e p l a n n i n g . Among the many s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r e s t i c s of the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e which may a f f e c t r e s o u r c e development a r e : •the l a r g e n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n w i t h h i g h b i r t h r a t e s ; • t h e g r e a t e r number of males than f e m a l e s ; • d e c r e a s i n g or stea d y l e v e l of p o p u l a t i o n ; • p o p u l a t i o n movement t o urban c e n t r e s ; • e d u c a t i o n l e v e l s f a r below average; • h i g h l e v e l s of t r a n s i e n c e and; •lower h e a l t h l e v e l s ( F r a n c i s , 1970; I r o n s i d e , e t a l . , 1974b). Government a g e n c i e s w i t h a s m a l l s t a f f a r e charged w i t h a d m i n i s t e r i n g v e r y l a r g e a r e a s i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e . Many of th e s e a g e n c i e s a re p r e o c c u p i e d by the problems of e x i s t i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of p o p u l a t i o n ( N i c h o l s , 1967) and have the added problem of a h i g h t u r n - o v e r r a t e of p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f . Many government programs have o b j e c t i v e s which d i r e c t l y c o n f l i c t w i t h s t a t e d government p o l i c y i n o t h e r a r e a s . F e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l economic development agreements such as DREE, FRED and ARDA encourage the e x t e n s i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e i n m a r g i n a l a r e a s w h i l e a t t e m p t i n g t o overcome the s o c i a l , economic and e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems caused by s i m i l a r developments i n comparable a r e a s . C o s t - s h a r e d agreements a r e based o f t e n more on s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s 57 than on a t t e m p t i n g t o "encourage sound r e s o u r c e management" ( B e a t t i e , Bond and Manning, 1981, p.37). A g e n c i e s are f u r t h e r hampered by a l a c k of data and of s t a t i s t i c s t o e v a l u a t e s o c i a l and economic m a r g i n a l i t y i n f r i n g e r e g i o n s . 2.3 Summary The farmer i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e f a c e s a f o r m i d a b l e t a s k . The h a r s h c l i m a t e , g e n e r a l l y low c a p a b i l i t y l a n d and h e a v i l y f o r e s t e d l a n d s c a p e s l i m i t h i s management f l e x i b i l i t y . The l a c k of farm r e l a t e d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , markets and a g r i b u s i n e s s i s o f t e n a r e s t r i c t i n g f a c t o r . S o c i a l s e r v i c e s , when p r e s e n t , tend t o be e x p e n s i v e and s u b - s t a n d a r d . Development d e c i s i o n s a r e based f r e q u e n t l y on inadequate s o i l s and c l i m a t i c d a t a . Lack of c o o r d i n a t i o n among government a g e n c i e s r e s u l t s i n c o n f l i c t i n g a d v i c e and o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y i n c e n t i v e s o f f e r e d t o the farmer. However, where t h e r e a r e a r e a s of h i g h e r c a p a b i l i t y l a n d s i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e and where th e s e a r e l o c a t e d near e x i s t i n g i n f r a s t r u c t u r e or where i n f r a s t r u c t u r e can be d e v e l o p e d j o i n t l y w i t h o t h e r s e c t o r s , then s u c c e s s f u l development has been r e a l i z e d . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e when government support i s c h a n e l l e d i n t o these s p e c i f i c a r e a s . More p r o s p e r o u s r e g i o n s of the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e may be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the a g r i c u l t u r a l h e a r t l a n d as development s t a b i l i z e s and the community matures. D e c i s i o n s t o encourage a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e must be based on e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a p a b i l i t i e s , l o n g - t e r m economic p o t e n t i a l and the s o c i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s of the p u b l i c i n v o l v e d (McCuaig and Manning, 1982). The c h a l l e n g e t o the 58 p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s t o d e s i g n s t r a t e g i e s and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n mechanisms t h a t a d e q u a t e l y a d d r e s s these t h r e e r e q u i r e m e n t s t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n of d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s and-the p u b l i c . In o r d e r t o determine which i s s u e s are b e i n g a d d r e s s e d i n c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g programs, how t h e y a r e b e i n g a d d r e s s e d and where t h i s i s b e i n g done, I o u t l i n e an a n a l y t i c a l framework i n P a r t I I and a p p l y i t t o the case s t u d i e s i n subsequent c h a p t e r s . 59 REFERENCES B e a t t i e , K a t h l e e n G., Bond, Wayne K. And Manning, Edward W. 1981. The A g r i c u l t u r a l Use of M a r g i n a l Lands: A Review and B i b l i o g r a p h y . Working Paper No. 13. Environment Canada, Ottawa. FAO. 1979. Problems of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Development of  L e s s - f a v o u r e d Areas i n Europe. P r o c e e d i n g s of a Symposium of the Committee on A g r i c u l t u r a l Problems. Pergamon P r e s s , O x f o r d . F r a n c i s , R.J. 1970. The S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Term M a r g i n a l i n F r i n g e S e t t l e m e n t S t u d i e s . In H a r o l d D. F o s t e r [ e d . ] , G e o g r a p h i c a . Western G e o g r a p h i c a l S e r i e s , Volume 2. U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , V i c t o r i a , p.23-40. I r o n s i d e , R.G., P r o u d f o o t , V.B., Shannon, E.N. and T r a c i e , C.J. 1974b. F r o n t i e r Development and P e r s p e c t i v e s on the Western Canadian F r o n t i e r . In R.G. I r o n s i d e , e t a l . [ e d s . ] , F r o n t i e r S e t t l e m e n t . U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , Edmonton, p.1-45. K e l l o g g , C h a r l e s E. 1975. A g r i c u l t u r a l Development: S o i l , Food, P e o p l e , Work. S o i l S c i e n c e S o c i e t y of A m e r i c a , I n c . Madison, W i s c o n s c i n . McCuaig, J.D. and Manning, E.W. 1982. A g r i c u l t u r a l Land  Use i n Canada: P r o c e s s and Consequences. Land Use i n Canada S e r i e s , Number 21. Lands D i r e c t o r a t e , Environoment Canada, Ottawa. N i c h o l s , W i l l i a m M. 1967. Views on R u r a l Development i n  Canada: A Study of the Views of the Member  O r g a n i z a t i o n s of the Canadian C o u n c i l on R u r a l  Development. Canadian C o u n c i l on R u r a l Development, Ottawa. W i l l i a m s , G. D a v i d V. 1974. P h y s i c a l F r o n t i e r s of C r o p s : The Example f o r Growing B a r l e y t o M a t u r i t y i n Canada. In R.G. I r o n s i d e , e t a l . [ e d s . ] , F r o n t i e r  S e t t l e m e n t . U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , p.79-92. Wonders, W i l l i a m C. 1975. M a r g i n a l S e t t l e m e n t . In The  S c o t t i s h G e o g r a p h i c a l Magazine. 9 1 ( 1 ) : 12-24. World Bank. 1978. A g r i c u l t u r a l Land S e t t l e m e n t : A World  Bank I s s u e s Paper. World Bank, Washington, D.C. PART I I THE CASE STUDIES 61 The A n a l y t i c a l Framework I d e v e l o p an a n a l y t i c a l framework i n t h i s s e c t i o n based on the m a t e r i a l i n P a r t I . The framework f o c u s e s on the c r i t i c a l elements of p l a n n i n g programs and the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e . 1 What a r e the g e n e r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l , s o c i a l and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the case study area? 2 How i s the o f f i c i a l agency p l a n n i n g program f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d designed? 3 How does the a c t u a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e compare t o the agency's documented program? 4 In p r a c t i c e , how a r e p l a n n i n g a r e a s i d e n t i f i e d ? 5 How are documented o b j e c t i v e s e s t a b l i s h e d ? 6 How a r e e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e s o u r c e s e v a l u a t e d , and does the the k i n d and d e t a i l of data and the i n t e n s i t y of s u r v e y s match the purpose and s c a l e of the p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e ? 7 How e x t e n s i v e i s the a n a l y s i s of p r e s e n t and r e q u i r e d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and s e r v i c e s , and i s t h i s a n a l y s i s l i n k e d t o o t h e r s e c t o r s ' a c t i v i t i e s ? 8 How are socio-economic f a c t o r s assessed? 9 How are a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s and p r o j e c t s prepared and who chooses the p r e f e r r e d s t r a t e g y ? 10 Which agencies implement the plan? 11 What mechanisms are used to implement the plan? 12 Who s e l e c t s s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a n t s and what c r i t e r i a are used? 13 What are the c u r r e n t requirements f o r the d i s p o s i t i o n of Crown land f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development? 14 What i s the r o l e of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and how are a c t i v i t i e s c o o r d i n a t e d with other agencies? 15 How i s the monitoring and e v a l u a t i o n process designed? 16 Does feedback and r e v i s i o n occur? 17 How i s p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the process? 63 T a b l e 11 — 1 l i s t s elements of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 1 and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g q u e s t i o n s of the a n a l y t i c a l framework. In the case s t u d i e s to f o l l o w , q u e s t i o n s from the a n a l y t i c a l framework w i l l be a d d r e s s e d i n the s e c t i o n s whose headings c o r r e s p o n d most c l o s e l y t o the elements of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s on the l e f t of T a b l e 3. T a b l e 11 — 1 : T a b l e of Concordance—Elements of the G e n e r a l P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s and the A n a l y t i c a l Framework S t r u c t u r i n g and S c o p i n g the P l a n n i n g Program 2, 3, 4 O b j e c t i v e s 5 Assessment of E n v i r o n m e n t a l and Socio-economic F a c t o r s 1 , 6 , 7 , 8 P r e p a r a t i o n and E v a l u a t i o n of A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s 9 S e l e c t i o n of the P r e f e r r e d S t r a t e g y 9 I m plementation 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 M o n i t o r i n g and E v a l u a t i o n 1 5 Feedback and I t e r a t i o n 1 6 P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n 1 7 C o o r d i n a t i o n 3, 14, 10 and o t h e r s 64 Methods The i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g case s t u d i e s i s d e r i v e d from a v a r i e t y of s o u r c e s , In the S t . John's c a s e , I draw on p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e as I was s u p e r v i s o r of the p l a n n i n g program which i s a n a l y s e d . I a l s o conducted a t e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w w i t h one of the Department's p r e s e n t s u p e r v i s o r s and r e c e i v e d d e t a i l e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . I worked i n the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n i n the summer of 1984 and have f i r s t hand e x p e r i e n c e of a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s t h e r e . W h i l e i n the r e g i o n , I i n t e r v i e w e d p l a n n e r s and o f f i c i a l s of the M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and Housing who were i n charge of p l a n n i n g i n the F o r t N e l s o n a r e a . Many of the r e p o r t s and s u r v e y s f o r F o r t Nelson which I reviewed were p r o v i d e d by the s e o f f i c i a l s . I a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d s t a f f a t the M i n i s t r y ' s , h e a d q u a r t e r s i n V i c t o r i a and, as w e l l , s o i l s u r v e y o r s who conducted a number of the l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n v e n t o r i e s . I conducted numerous t e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w s and r e c e i v e d c o rrespondence from o f f i c i a l s of the M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and Housing and the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food. Correspondence a l s o s u p p l i e d i n f o r m a t i o n and m a t e r i a l s . f r o m A l b e r t a . I wrote s e v e r a l l e t t e r s t o v a r i o u s government a g e n c i e s . A l l r e p l i e d , many w i t h l e n g t h y a n a l y s e s of the s i t u a t i o n s and a l a r g e volume of r e p o r t s and s u r v e y s . R e p o r t s , s u r v e y s , p e r s o n a l and l i b r a r y documents, o f f i c i a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , p e r s o n a l and te l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w s , and f i r s t hand e x p e r i e n c e form the b a s i s f o r a n a l y s i s i n the f o l l o w i n g case s t u d i e s . The f i r s t case i s the S t . John's a r e a of Newfoundland. T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by F o r t N e l s o n , B r i t i s h Columbia 65 and, f i n a l l y , F o r t V e r m i l i o n , A l b e r t a . The cases begin w i t h a r e v i e w of t h e a r e a b e i n g s t u d i e d and a summary of the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g program and the p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s t o be a n a l y s e d i n the study a r e a . The s t a r t of d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s b e g i n s w i t h a r e v i e w of t h e o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r i n g and s c o p i n g of the p r o v i n c i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development p l a n n i n g program. I n d i v i d u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s under t h a t program conducted w i t h i n the case s t u d y a r e a a r e a n a l y s e d then i n more d e t a i l . I n c o n c l u s i o n , each case p r e s e n t s a summary of the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of the e x e r c i s e s and how they r e f l e c t on the o v e r a l l program. The i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g programs f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e a r e t i e d t o g e t h e r i n Chapter 6 through a co m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s of a l l t h r e e case s t u d i e s . 66 CHAPTER 3 CASE STUDY NUMBER ONE ST. JOHN'S, NEWFOUNDLAND 67 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The S t . John's urban r e g i o n i s l o c a t e d a t the n o r t h e a s t t i p of the A v a l o n P e n i n s u l a i n Newfoundland (see Map 3.1). The r e g i o n has the l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e w i t h 150,000 of the p r o v i n c e ' s 550,000 p e o p l e . S t . John's i s the c a p i t a l and i s the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , commercial and e d u c a t i o n a l c e n t r e of the p r o v i n c e . Twenty suburban and r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s make up the remainder of the r e g i o n . Many of these communities have e x p e r i e n c e d s i g n i f i c a n t growth i n the form of urban s p r a w l which has d e s t r o y e d l a r g e a r e a s of the r e g i o n ' s b e s t f a r m l a n d . T h i s l o s s i s one f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the p r o v i n c e ' s low l e v e l of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . The S t . John's urban r e g i o n , l i k e o t h e r a r e a s of Newfoundland, s u f f e r s from c h r o n i c unemployment and a r e l a t i v e l y low s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g . Many of the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n i t i a t i v e s a r e l i n k e d t o t h i s problem. S t . John's has a temperate, marine c l i m a t e which r e s u l t s i n s h o r t , c o o l summers and r e l a t i v e l y m i l d w i n t e r s . Fog and windy c o n d i t i o n s a r e common and can a f f e c t l o c a l growing c o n d i t i o n s . G e n e r a l l y , w i t h an average f r e e z e - f r e e p e r i o d of 105 days, 1903 degree-days and abundant r a i n f a l l d u r i n g the growing season, S t . John's has s u i t a b l e c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of f o r a g e and v a r i o u s v e g e t a b l e c r o p s ; however, f e e d g r a i n s or wheat cannot be grown t o m a t u r i t y due t o i n s u f f i c i e n t heat u n i t s ( R i z v i , et a l . , 1971; G u t h r i e , 1978). A r a b l e s o i l s , as i n most of the p r o v i n c e , a re not abundant i n the S t . John's urban r e g i o n , and most of the b e t t e r s o i l s have been i r r e v e r s i b l y c o n v e r t e d t o urban uses. The bu l k of the 68 69 r e g i o n ' s s o i l s a r e n o n - a r a b l e or m a r g i n a l , d e r i v e d from g l a c i a l t i l l s and are s h a l l o w , h i g h l y a c i d i c , c o a r s e , o f t e n cemented, stony and occur on u p l a n d b a r r e n s or under a non-commercial b o r e a l f o r e s t . Exposed bedrock i s common and predominates i n many a r e a s . O r g a n i c s o i l s a r e found i n almost a l l low l y i n g a r e a s and o f t e n a t h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s as w e l l . Due t o a l a r g e c a p t i v e market, f a r m e r s i n the S t . John's urban r e g i o n have i n v e s t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e l a b o u r and expense over the c e n t u r i e s t o upgrade t h e i r l a n d . Fences made from s t o n e s , p i c k e d from the f i e l d s , a r e a common s i g h t . A l a r g e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of l i v e s t o c k has a l l o w e d farmers t o supplement the i n h e r e n t l y low o r g a n i c m a tter c o n t e n t of s o i l s by a p p l y i n g a n i m a l wastes. Heavy a p p l i c a t i o n s of l i m e s t o n e and s y n t h e t i c f e r t i l i z e r s a r e annual r e q u i r e m e n t s . S o i l d r a i n a g e systems, w h i l e uncommon, a r e o f t e n r e q u i r e d , and t h e i r absence has r e s u l t e d i n c u l t i v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s which cause s i g n i f i c a n t e r o s i o n (Sudom, 1984). A g r i c u l t u r e i n the S t . John's urban r e g i o n i s dominated by i n t e n s i v e l i v e s t o c k o p e r a t i o n s . The number and s i z e of farms i s s m a l l , almost i n s i g n i f i c a n t by n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s . For the p r o v i n c i a l i n d u s t r y , however, they r e p r e s e n t the l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of investment and p r o d u c t i o n . Farms a r e a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t component of the r e g i o n ' s l a n d use mosaic. Over 100 commercial farms a r e l o c a t e d on 4000 h e c t a r e s w i t h a f u r t h e r 8000 h e c t a r e s i n community p a s t u r e s . S m a l l p a r c e l s i z e , l a n d f r a g m e n t a t i o n and a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of r e n t e d l a n d under s h o r t -term l e a s e a r e among o t h e r m a r g i n a l l a n d c o n s t r a i n t s f a c e d by l o c a l f a r m e r s . D a i r y p r o d u c t s , hogs, eggs, and v e g e t a b l e s a r e the main commodities. The r e g i o n has 75% of the p r o v i n c e ' s 70 c a t t l e and over 50% of the p r o v i n c e ' s hog p r o d u c t i o n . Due t o a l a c k of l a n d , forage i s impor t e d i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s . I n s u f f i c i e n t l a n d i s a l s o c a u s i n g a problem f o r manure d i s p o s a l . To overcome th e s e l i m i t a t i o n s , f a r m e r s , r e f l e c t i n g the n a t i o n a l t r e n d , a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o e n l a r g e t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s , reduce c o s t s and become more e f f i c i e n t ( L i d s t o n e , 1980). For the purposes of t h i s s t u d y , I w i l l r e v iew an a r e a l i m i t e d t o t h a t p a r t of the S t . John's urban r e g i o n where s i g n i f i c a n t a g r i c u l t u r a l e x p a n s i o n i s o c c u r i n g on Crown l a n d . T h i s i s The G o u l d s - K i l b r i d e i n the s o u t h e r n p a r t of the r e g i o n (see Map 3.1). The a r e a comes under the m u n i c i p a l j u r i s d i c t i o n of The Goulds and the S t . John's M e t r o p o l i t a n Area Board The a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d of the s e a r e a s f a l l s p r e d o m i n a n t l y w i t h i n the b o u n d a r i e s of a p r o v i n c i a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d a g r i c u l t u r a l zone where n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l uses a r e r e s t r i c t e d . The zone or A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Area a l s o s e r v e s as a t a r g e t a r e a f o r government a g r i c u l t u r a l programs i n c l u d i n g p r o p e r t y t a x exemption and c a p i t a l a s s i s t a n c e (see S e c t i o n 3.7.1). The S t . John's case study p r e s e n t s , p r i m a r i l y , an example of a p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g program. Some attempt i s made a t im p l e m e n t i n g an a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n n i n g program, but o v e r a l l Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g does not o c c u r . In re s p o n s e t o c o n s t r a i n t s f a c e d by l o c a l l i v e s t o c k f a r m e r s , two major p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s under the p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g program were u n d e r t a k e n on Crown l a n d i n the a r e a . The Goulds Forage P r o j e c t i s d e s i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e l o c a l d a i r y f a r m e r s s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n p r o d u c i n g f o r a g e and t h e r e b y reduce dependence on c o s t l y , low 71 q u a l i t y i m p o r t s . The Cochrane Pond Farmland Development P r o j e c t i s proposed t o r a t i o n a l i z e community p a s t u r e b o u n d a r i e s , t o p r o v i d e l a r g e l o t s f o r confinement o p e r a t i o n s such as hogs and p o u l t r y , and t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s w i t h the F o r e s t r y Branch. These two p l a n n i n g i n i t i a t i v e s encompass almost a l l the a r a b l e Crown l a n d i n the a r e a (see Map 3.2). The Goulds Forage P r o j e c t was f i r s t f o r m a l l y proposed i n 1975. The i n i t i a l p r o p o s a l went t h r o u g h a s e r i e s of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s u n t i l i n 1979, when a p r o j e c t p l a n was a c c e p t e d f o r f u n d i n g under the f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l , c o s t - s h a r e d A g r i c u l t u r a l S u b s i d i a r y Agreement. The p r o j e c t has undergone t h r e e phases of development s i n c e then w i t h a t o t a l of 26 l o t s c o v e r i n g over 900 h e c t a r e s . A p r o j e c t manager was h i r e d t o c o o r d i n a t e development, and t o the end of 1984, a l m o s t 200 h e c t a r e s of l a n d have been c l e a r e d . The Cochrane Pond Farmland Development P r o j e c t was f i r s t p roposed i n 1982 as the government was p h a s i n g out the Community P a s t u r e Program. The a r e a , a d j a c e n t t o the Goulds Forage P r o j e c t (see Map 3.2), c o n t a i n e d two l a r g e p a s t u r e s . The p r o j e c t p l a n was t o reduce the s i z e of the Cochrane Pond P a s t u r e and c r e a t e an a r e a f o r .confinement o p e r a t i o n s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 600 h e c t a r e s over n i n e l o t s were proposed w i t h p r o v i s i o n f o r a c c e s s roads and e l e c t r i c a l s e r v i c i n g . The p l a n , as of e a r l y 1985, i s s t i l l p e nding a p p r o v a l . 72 MAP 3.2: COCHRANE POHD FARMLAND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT* •Source: S o i l and Land Management Division (See References, Ch3) (1982 73 3.2 S t r u c t u r i n g and Scoping the P l a n n i n g Program P l a n n i n g f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d , f a l l s p r i m a r i l y t o the Land Use S e c t i o n of the A g r i c u l t u r e Branch i n the Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n Development. In the S t . John's Urban Region, the R e g i o n a l P l a n and the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l p l a n s u s u a l l y c o r r e s p o n d t o the A g r i c u l t u r e Branch's p l a n s as w e l l . The Department of F o r e s t Resources and Lands r e c e n t l y has implemented a Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g program, but t h i s has been completed i n o n l y one r e g i o n which i s o u t s i d e the S t . John's urban r e g i o n . T h i s Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g program i s d e v e l o p e d by the Land Management D i v i s i o n i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h o t h e r government a g e n c i e s . A l l o c a t i o n of l a n d s i s by z o n i n g t o v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e uses based, p r i m a r i l y , on e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n and agency o b j e c t i v e s . The A g r i c u l t u r e Branch has a documented p l a n n i n g program f o r the development of Crown l a n d ( S o i l and Land Management D i v i s i o n , 1981). T h i s program i s p u b l i s h e d f o r m a l l y and put f o r w a r d as o f f i c i a l government p o l i c y . F i g u r e 3.1 d e p i c t s t h i s program which i s t o be a p p l i e d i n the p r o v i n c e ' s seventeen A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Areas (ADA). These a r e a s i n c l u d e most of the p r o v i n c e ' s 100,000 h e c t a r e s (0.3% of the l a n d a r e a ) of l a n d s u i t a b l e f o r f a r m i n g (Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n Development, 1983). The p l a n n i n g program d e p i c t e d a f f e c t s b o th p r i v a t e and Crown l a n d s . I t i s i n t e n d e d t o c u l m i n a t e i n the p r o d u c t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r a l (or Area) Development P l a n s and the d e s i g n a t i o n or z o n i n g of th e s e a r e a s under the Development Areas (Lands) Act (RSN, 1970). So f a r o n l y two a r e a s , i n c l u d i n g the S t . John's ADA, have been zoned f o r FIGURE 3.1: PLANNING PROGRAM FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AREAS* *Source: S o i l and Land Management Division, 1981 -N3 75 a g r i c u l t u r a l use. T h i s program c o r r e s p o n d s t o the A g r i c u l t u r e Branch's F i v e Year Development P l a n and i s t i e d c l o s e l y t o the Department of R e g i o n a l Economic Expansion's A g r i c u l t u r e Development S u b s i d i a r y Agreement (Department of R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n , 1978). The p l a n n i n g program d e p i c t e d i n F i g u r e 3.1 i n c l u d e s elements of l a n d use p l a n n i n g and l a n d management p l a n n i n g d e v e l o p e d a t a r e g i o n a l l e v e l . I t i s not l i n k e d t o an o v e r a l l r e g i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l p l a n n i n g program nor t o a g e n e r a l r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g program, a l t h o u g h elements e x t e r n a l t o the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r a r e i n c l u d e d . W i t h i n the program, p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n t e r a g e n c y c o o r d i n a t i o n a r e s i g n i f i c a n t e l e m e n t s . I n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e o b j e c t i v e s a r e drawn from p r o v i n c i a l s e c t o r a l and economic development s t r a t e g i e s w i t h a d e f i n i t e development or e x p a n s i o n o r i e n t a t i o n . The development of Crown l a n d appears t o be an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h i s program, which i n c l u d e s a d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of economic, s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s . The A g r i c u l t u r a l Development P l a n , as an Area Development P l a n , even has been f o r m a l i z e d i n t o the r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g the S t . John's ADA ( N f l d . Reg. 198/83). P l a n n i n g f o r o t h e r elements of a g r i c u l t u r a l growth such as m a r k e t i n g , t r a i n i n g and f i n a n c e has been d e v e l o p e d a t the p r o v i n c i a l s e c t o r a l and i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l l e v e l s . These p l a n s then are implemented on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s , sometimes w i t h a c o n n e c t i o n t o the l a n d use p l a n n i n g program i n a broad p o l i c y statement t a r g e t i n g programs t o ADAs. A g r i c u l t u r a l Development P l a n s , as c o n c e i v e d i n F i g u r e 3.1, have not been completed. I n s t e a d , the development of 76 a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d has come as the r e s u l t of an o p p o r t u n i t y p l a n n i n g program f o r p r o j e c t s (see S e c t i o n 1.3.1). These p r o j e c t s , such as the Goulds Forage P r o j e c t and the Farm-land Development P r o j e c t s , i n v o l v e the i n v e n t o r y of a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y and a l i m i t e d assessment of e c o n m i c a l l y v i a b l e modes of p r o d u c t i o n . On the b a s i s of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , l o t s a r e l a i d o u t , roads and e l e c t r i c a l s e r v i c i n g p l a n n e d and d i s p o s i t i o n methods and c o n d i t i o n s are p r o p o s e d . 3.2.1 P l a n n i n g Area I d e n t i f i c a t i o n A reas f o r p l a n n i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d under the p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g program a r e i d e n t i f i e d i n two g e n e r a l ways. F i r s t , ADAs ar e d e l i n e a t e d by p l a n n e r s or p o l i t i c i a n s , not by r e q u e s t as i n F i g u r e 3.1. The l i m i t e d a r e a s s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development are w e l l known, and t h e s e were a u t o m a t i c a l l y d e s i g n a t e d . B o u n d a r i e s a r e drawn by c o n s u l t i n g a v a i l a b l e , g e n e r a l l y s m a l l s c a l e , CLI a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y s u r v e y s and by a s s e s s i n g e s t a b l i s h e d a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use p a t t e r n s . Once a r e a s a r e i d e n t i f i e d , more d e t a i l e d l a n d use, l a n d ownership and s o i l s s t u d i e s are c o n ducted. In what i s e s s e n t i a l l y an o v e r l a y t e c h n i q u e , u n a l i e n a t e d a r e a s of a r a b l e Crown l a n d a r e i d e n t i f i e d and, i f they occur i n l a r g e enough t r a c t s , t hey become the s u b j e c t of a Farmland Development P r o j e c t . A n o t h e r , more r e a c t i v e approach t o d e t e r m i n i n g p r o j e c t a r e a s i s used i n the G o u l d s - K i l b r i d e a r e a . T h i s approach i n v o l v e s the p l a n n i n g of Crown l a n d which has e i t h e r l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d as an a r e a f o r p o t e n t i a l e x p a n s i o n or which, due t o 77 c h a n g i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s , becomes a v a i l a b l e and i s i n demand. In t h e s e l a t t e r a r e a s , l a n d o w n e r ship s t u d i e s a r e conducted t o d i s t i n g u i s h a l i e n a t e d l a n d from Crown l a n d . 3.3 The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of P l a n n i n g E x e r c i s e O b j e c t i v e s Documented o b j e c t i v e s f o r the p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s i n i t i a t e d i n the G o u l d s - K i l b r i d e a r e a come, e s s e n t i a l l y , from the A g r i c u l t u r e Development S u b s i d i a r y Agreement s i g n e d by the two governments i n 1978 (Department of R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n , 1978, p 1 6 ) . The Agreement c o n s i s t s of e i g h t programs, one of which i s l a n d development. A main element of t h i s program was the development of an a r e a of Crown l a n d i n the S t . John's a r e a f o r f o r a g e p r o d u c t i o n , the Goulds Forage P r o j e c t . The o t h e r p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e , the Cochrane Pond Farmland Development P r o j e c t , i s , by d e f a u l t , a t t e m p t i n g t o a c h i e v e one of the main o b j e c t i v e s i n a n o t h e r of the Agreement's programs, Land Use P l a n n i n g . Under the Land Use P l a n n i n g Program, l a n d use p l a n n e r s a r e h i r e d t o p r e p a r e A g r i c u l t u r a l Development P l a n s f o r the ADA's. These p l a n s a r e t o i n c l u d e l a n d assembly and o t h e r elements t o "maximize the u t i l i z a t i o n of the s o i l r e s o u r c e f o r food p r o d u c t i o n " (Department of R e g i o n a l , Economic E x p a n s i o n , 1978, p . 1 6 ) . I n s t e a d of d e a l i n g w i t h the complex i s s u e s of i d l e , u n d e r u t i l i z e d and undeveloped p r i v a t e l a n d s , of g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r c a p a b i l i t y than Crown l a n d s , p l a n n i n g s t a f f d i r e c t e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o the one a r e a where r e s u l t s c o u l d be produced q u i c k l y t o meet the o b j e c t i v e s of the Land Use Plannng Program. The p l a n n i n g program was then i n i t i a t e d t o d e v e l o p f a r m l a n d development p r o j e c t s on Crown l a n d , m a i n l y w i t h i n the proposed 78 ADA'S. 3.4 E n v i r o n m e n t a l F a c t o r s f o r P l a n n i n g C l i m a t i c d a t a f o r the G o u l d s - K i l b r i d e a r e a i s based on i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by A g r i c u l t u r e Canada's a g r o m e t e o r o l o g i c a l s t a t i o n , f o u r k i l o m e t r e s from the Crown l a n d a r e a p l a n n e d f o r development. C l i m a t i c r e s o u r c e s f o r the a r e a a r e not mapped, nor i s m i c r o c l i m a t i c d a t a a v a i l a b l e . However, g i v e n the c l i m a t i c r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r f o r a g e p r o d u c t i o n , more d e t a i l e d d a t a may not be r e q u i r e d as the a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t e s no c l i m a t i c l i m i t a t i o n s . f o r t r a d i t i o n a l l o c a l f o r a g e c r o p s . The A v a l o n S o i l Survey ( H e r i n g a , 1982) i s the o n l y s o i l s urvey which has been conducted i n the a r e a . I t i s an i n t e n s i t y l e v e l 4 s u r v e y , p u b l i s h e d a t a s c a l e of 1:100,000 and, as such, i s s u i t a b l e f o r broad a g r i c u l t u r a l p l a n n i n g , not d e t a i l e d p l a n n i n g of s p e c i f i c a r e a s f o r farm l o t l a y o u t . The e n t i r e G o u l d s - K i l b r i d e a r e a i s c o v e r e d by j u s t a few map u n i t s . As p a r t of the Canada Land I n v e n t o r y (CLI) p r o c e s s , an a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y map of the a r e a was p u b l i s h e d based on the same s o i l s urvey and u s i n g the same d e l i n i a t i o n s . Most of the Crown l a n d proposed f o r development i s mapped as complexes of c l a s s e s 5, 6, and 7 w i t h c l a s s 6 p r e d o m i n a t i n g . C l a s s 6 l a n d i s v e r y m a r g i n a l l a n d c a p a b l e of p r o d u c i n g o n l y p e r e n i a l f o r a g e c r o p s and improvement p r a c t i c e s a r e not f e a s a b l e (Environment Canada, 1972). In 1975, a second a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y map of the 5500 a c r e Goulds Forage P r o j e c t a r e a , produced a t a s c a l e of 1:25,000, upgraded much of the a r e a s i g n i f i c a n t l y , w i t h major 79 p o r t i o n s of c l a s s 4 l a n d . F i n a l l y , i n 1978, a s u r v e y was c a r r i e d out a t an i n t e n s i t y l e v e l 3 and a s c a l e of 1:12,500. T h i s i s , e s s e n t i a l l y , a c a p a b i l i t y i n v e n t o r y which uses map u n i t s termed performance-management u n i t s ( G u t h r i e , 1978). Performance-management u n i t s a r e a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the n a t i o n a l CLI system t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . P a r t i c u l a r l i m i t a t i o n s are d e f i n e d more s p e c i f i c a l l y . I n s t e a d of a C l a s s 5p which d e f i n e s l a n d s u i t e d t o o n l y f o r a g e p r o d u c t i o n because of s t o n i n e s s , c l a s s 5p1, 5p2 and 5p3 a r e developed w i t h c l a s s 5p3 bein g the s t o n i e s t r e q u i r i n g a h i g h degree of stone removal and w i t h s t o n e s l e s s than one metre a p a r t . As a r e s u l t of the su r v e y a l l l a n d i n the s t u d y a r e a i s c l a s s i f i e d as c l a s s 5 or 7 e x c e p t f o r 2.9% of the a r e a , m a i n l y p r i v a t e l a n d , as c l a s s ' 4 . Over 53% of the area i s c l a s s i f i e d as u n a r a b l e w h i l e 65% of the r e m a i n i n g a r a b l e l a n d i s c l a s s i f i e d as 5p3 or worse ( G u t h r i e , 1978). The r e p o r t a l s o n o t e s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the q u a l i t y and number of s i t e i n s p e c t i o n s due t o a v a r i e t y of r e s t r i c t i n g f a c t o r s . No s o i l management i n f o r m a t i o n beyond e x i s t i n g l i m i t a t i o n s of s t o n i n e s s and wetness i s p r o v i d e d . T h i s survey i s r e s t r i c t e d t o the Goulds Forage P r o j e c t a r e a o n l y . There are no d e t a i l e d s u r v e y s i n the a r e a of the Cochrane Pond Farmland Development P r o j e c t beyond f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s which i n d i c a t e p o o r e r s o i l s , due t o e x c e s s i v e s t o n i n e s s , than those i n the G o u l d s Forage P r o j e c t . The i n t e n s i t y l e v e l of t h e A v a l o n S o i l Survey does not p r o v i d e enough d e t a i l f o r farm u n i t l a y o u t , road c o n s t r u c t i o n or on-farm s o i l management. The performance-management u n i t survey i s not a s o i l s urvey but an a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y s u r v e y . I t 80 i s of s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l t o p r o v i d e some i n f o r m a t i o n f o r i n i t i a l c l e a r i n g ; however, t h e r e i s no i n f o r m a t i o n f o r on-farm s o i l management. In p r a c t i c e , once l o t s were d e v e l o p e d , s i g n i f i c a n t i n a c c u r a c i e s were found i n the s u r v e y . T h i s i s p r o b l a b l y due t o i n s u f f i c i e n t s i t e i n s p e c t i o n s as noted i n the r e p o r t ( G u t h r i e , 1978). The main p r o c e s s f o r e v a l u a t i n g v e g e t a t i o n , w i l d l i f e , water and r e l a t e d r e s o u r c e s i s by r e f e r r a l t o o t h e r government a g e n c i e s . F o r e s t c a p a b i l t y maps a r e a v a i l a b l e a t a s c a l e of 1:50,000, but these i n d i c a t e d the e n t i r e a r e a as non-commercial f o r e s t s . F o r e s t r y Branch i n v e n t o r i e s and a c t u a l development r e v e a l e d t h a t the c a p a b i l i t y maps were not a c c u r a t e . N e i t h e r the A g r i c u l t u r e Branch or any o t h e r agency conducted an adequate r e v i e w of f o r e s t , w i l d l i f e , water or r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s b e f o r e development began. The s i g n i f i c a n c e and v a l u e of these r e s o u r c e s was not determined p r i o r t o a g r i c u l t u r a l development. The F o r e s t r y Branch s t r o n g l y o b j e c t e d t o the p r o j e c t on the b a s i s of p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e n t o r i e s i t had conducted i n the a r e a . The l a c k of r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r y a p p l i e s e q u a l l y w e l l t o the Cochrane Pond Farmland Development P r o j e c t a r e a . Only a f t e r an a g r i c u l t u r a l development p l a n was proposed f o r the a r e a d i d the S t . John's M e t r o p o l i t a n Area Board conduct a watershed study i n one s m a l l p a r t of the p r o j e c t a r e a . By d e f a u l t , the a r e a s i n both p r o j e c t s t h a t a r e not s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e or are a l r e a d y committed t o o t h e r u s e s , such as f o r e s t r y or r e c r e a t i o n , a re d e s i g n a t e d f o r non-a g r i c u l t u r a l uses. Land i s not a l l o c a t e d on the b a s i s of s u i t a b i l i t y but on the b a s i s of p e r c e i v e d demand by the 81 a g r i c u l t u r a l agency. The absence of a d e t a i l e d i n v e n t o r y of non-a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s may b i a s development i n f a v o u r of a g r i c u l t u r e i n the l a s t h e a v i l y f o r e s t e d , a c c e s s i b l e , l a r g e t r a c t of Crown l a n d a d j a c e n t t o the S t . John's Urban community. 3.5 The Assessment and Relevance of Socio-economic F a c t o r s i n  the P l a n n i n g E x e r c i s e In the p l a n s f o r the Goulds Forage P r o j e c t and the Cochrane Pond Farmland Development P r o j e c t , i t i s assumed t h a t t h e r e a r e no m a r k e t i n g c o n s t r a i n t s . B e i n g a d j a c e n t t o S t . John's, the c ommercial c e n t r e of the p r o v i n c e , i t i s a l s o assumed t h a t a l l the a g r i b u s i n e s s , e x t e n s i o n and f i n a n c i a l s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e t o the r e g i o n ' s f a r m e r s w i l l e x t e n d t o the p r o j e c t s . E x i s t i n g road networks a r e i d e n t i f i e d and r e q u i r e d new a c c e s s and e l e c t r i c a l s e r v i c i n g a r e i n d i c a t e d . ( S o i l and Land Management D i v i s i o n , 1979; S o i l and Land Management D i v i s i o n , 1982). There are no f o r m a l economic impact assessments of the p r o j e c t s . T o t a l e s t i m a t e s are g i v e n of the c o s t s t o government and t o the f a r m e r s , and b e n e f i t s are l i s t e d i n more q u a l i t a t i v e terms. In the case of the Goulds Forage P r o j e c t p r o d u c t i o n w i l l s e r v e t o : • t o o f f s e t i m p o r t s of low q u a l i t y , c o s t l y f o r a g e ; • t o i n c r e a s e l o c a l a g r i c u l t u r a l s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and; • t o expand a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y ( S o i l and Land Management D i v i s i o n , 1982). 82 The s o l e c a l c u l a t i o n of b e n e f i t s i s an estimate of $400,000 per annum sav i n g i n the displacement of hay imports ( S o i l and Land Management D i v i s i o n , 1982). A f t e r the p r o j e c t was i n i t i a t e d s e v e r a l reviews were made of the c o s t s . In the Cochrane Pond Farmland Development P r o j e c t , only non-monetized estimates of c o s t s and b e n e f i t s are g i v e n . Economic assessments, i n the S t . John's case, are not a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o development d e c i s i o n s , but only an input i n t o the management process. The d e c i s i o n t o develop was made p r i o r t o an adequate assessment of e i t h e r environmental, economic or s o c i a l f a c t o r s . 3 . 6 A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s and t h e i r S e l e c t i o n Planning the development of a r a b l e Crown land i n the G o u l d s - K i l b r i d e area has not i n v o l v e d the s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e land uses except when a t e c h n i c a l mistake i n the S t . John's Urban Region Plan gave the F o r e s t r y Branch an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s p u t e the planned a g r i c u l t u r a l use of l a n d i n the Cochrane Pond Farmland Development P r o j e c t . Watershed s t u d i e s of p a r t of the plan area are d e l a y i n g f i n a l approval of the Cochrane Pond Farmland Development P r o j e c t Plan but, given past h i s t o r y , these should not a l t e r the plan s i g n i f i c a n t l y . I t had been a foregone c o n c l u s i o n long before a c t u a l development of Crown land i n the G o u l d s - K i l b r i d e area that a r a b l e l a n d would be disposed f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes, d e s p i t e renewed F o r e s t r y Branch o b j e c t i o n s . With the seven year reserve under the Crown Lands Act (RSN, 1970) p l a c e d on the Goulds 83 Forage P r o j e c t a r e a by the A g r i c u l t u r e Branch p r e v e n t i n g d i s p o s i t i o n s , a l o n g w i t h i t s l o c a t i o n w i t h i n the ADA and a d j a c e n t t o commercial farms on one s i d e and community p a s t u r e s on the o t h e r , most a g e n c i e s assumed the a r e a t o be p r e d e t e r m i n e d a l r e a d y f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l use. W i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of the a g r i c u l t u r a l o b j e c t i v e s of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , l o c a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s have been c o n s i d e r e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development w i t h i n the S t . John's ADA but none of these a r e s u i t a b l e . The Goulds Forage P r o j e c t i s put f o r w a r d under t h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s . The f i r s t s t r a t e g y , advanced i n 1975, i s s i m p l y t o f o l l o w the t r a d i t i o n a l homesteading approach and b l o c k out the e n t i r e a r e a i n r e g u l a r l y shaped l o t s t o a l l o c a t e t o a r e a f a r m e r s . In t h i s p l a n , government w i l l have t o p r o v i d e a c c e s s roads as w e l l . Due t o t h e - h i g h l y d i s s e c t e d -n a t u r e of the l a n d , t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e was r e j e c t e d . In 1978, as a p a r t of the i n i t i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Development S u b s i d i a r y Agreement, a second and a l t e r n a t i v e p r o p o s a l t o form a f o r a g e p r o d u c t i o n c o r p o r a t i o n w i t h the m a j o r i t y of s h a r e s t o be h e l d by a r e a dairymen was put f o r w a r d . The c o r p o r a t i o n would d e v e l o p the e n t i r e a r e a i n a h i g h l y mechanized o p e r a t i o n w i t h f i n a n c i a l a i d from government and s e l l f o r a g e t o l o c a l f a r m e r s . T h i s a l t e r n a t i v e was a l s o e l i m i n a t e d due, a g a i n , t o the h i g h l y d i s s e c t e d n a t u r e of the l a n d , which was not s u i t e d t o l a r g e -s c a l e m e c h a n i z a t i o n . The f i n a l s t r a t e g y and the one a c c e p t e d by the v a r i o u s S u b s i d i a r y Agreement committees, the M i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r A g r i c u l t u r e Canada and the p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t , was t o a l l o w f o r i n d i v i d u a l farmer l e a s e and c o - o p e r a t i v e development. T h i s approach was t o be c o n ducted under s t r i c t 84 c o n d i t i o n s and w i t h major c o s t - s h a r e d f u n d i n g . The o t h e r p r o j e c t , the Cochrane Pond Farmland Development P r o j e c t i s d e s i g n e d w i t h o n l y one s t r a t e g y t h r o u g h o u t , l i n k i n g reduced p a s t u r e a r e a w i t h new confinement o p e r a t i o n u n i t s , a c c e s s roads and e l e c t r i c a l s e r v i c i n g . The Cochrane Pond Farmland Development P r o j e c t was i n i t i a t e d when the p r o v i n c e d e c i d e d t o p r i v a t i z e the community p a s t u r e s i n the a r e a . The o r i g i n a l p a s t u r e b o u n d a r i e s i n c o r p o r a t e f a r more l a n d than was a c t u a l l y d e v e l o p e d . When the p a s t u r e s were l e a s e d t o p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s , p l a n n e r s d e c i d e d t o reduce the s i z e of the l e a s e t o the d e v e l o p e d a r e a w h i l e p r o v i d i n g r e a s o n a b l e room f o r e x p a n s i o n . The r e m a i n i n g Crown l a n d o u t s i d e the two p a s t u r e b o u n d a r i e s , a l o n g w i t h the a d j a c e n t Goulds Forage P r o j e c t are the main development components i n the Cochrane Pond Farmland Development P r o j e c t , a l t h o u g h , the Goulds Forage P r o j e c t i s , i n f a c t , o p e r a t i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y of the Farmland Developoment P r o j e c t . 3.7 Implementation of the P l a n The A g r i c u l t u r e Branch i s the main i m p l e m e n t a t i o n agency; however, u l t i m a t e a p p r o v a l f o r the d i s p o s i t i o n of Crown l a n d must come from the Department of F o r e s t Resources and Lands. The major i m p l e m e n t a t i o n mechanism i s the A g r i c u l t u r e Development S u b s i d i a r y Agreement. Under t h i s f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l agreement, f u n d i n g i s p r o v i d e d t o c o n s t r u c t a c c e s s roads of which 11 k i l o m e t r e s have been b u i l t t o d a t e i n the Goulds Forage P r o j e c t . Another 7 t o 10 k i l o m e t r e s of roads p l u s e l e c t r i c a l s e r v i c i n g i s proposed f o r the Cochrane Pond Farmland Development P r o j e c t . 85 However, t h i s p l a n i s not approved y e t and the c o s t - s h a r i n g agreement has e x p i r e d , w i t h n e g o t i a t i o n s c u r r e n t l y underway f o r a new f i v e - y e a r agreement. Money i s a l s o a l l o c a t e d i n the Goulds Forage P r o j e c t t o h i r e a P r o j e c t Manager t o oversee the co-o p e r a t i v e t i m b e r removal, l a n d c l e a r i n g and seedbed p r e p a r a t i o n . S i n c e development s t a r t e d , two more phases have begun add i n g a d d i t i o n a l farmers and a d d i t i o n a l u n i t s t o the i n i t i a l n i n e l o t s . A t o t a l of t w e n t y - s i x l o t s a r e proposed i n the Goulds Forage P r o j e c t , t o t a l l i n g over 917 h e c t a r e s . The Cochrane Pond Farmland Development P r o j e c t has n i n e l o t s proposed t o t a l l i n g 600 h e c t a r e s . At the end of 1984, government, t h r o u g h the A g r i c u l t u r a l Development S u b s i d i a r y Agreement, had i n v e s t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y $600,000, r e s u l t i n g i n the c l e a r i n g of 175 h e c t a r e s of l a n d . T h i s f i g u r e does not i n c l u d e s a l a r i e s f o r s t a f f or s u b s i d i e s on l i m e s t o n e and f i n a n c i n g . Farmers have c o n t r i b u t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y $200,000. A n t i c i p a t e d t o t a l c l e a r e d a r e a i s i n exce s s of 430 h e c t a r e s ( S o i l and Land Management D i v i s i o n , 1982). By 1983, i t was p r o j e c t e d t h a t 200 h e c t a r e s would be i n for a g e p r o d u c t i o n . In f a c t , o n l y 75 h e c t a r e s were p r o d u c i n g f o r a g e by the end of 1983 ( S o i l and Land Management D i v i s i o n , 1984). 3.7.1 Support Programs f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Development i n the M a r g i n a l F r i n g e The Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n Development has two l o a n programs which can be a p p l i e d t o the development of new farms or t o the e x p a n s i o n of e x i s t i n g o p e r a t i o n s . The Farm Development Loan Board can l e n d up t o 86 $30,000 per farmer a t an i n t e r e s t r a t e of e i g h t p e r c e n t . I f r e f u s e d by the Farm Development Loan Board, a farmer may a p p l y t o the R u r a l Development A u t h o r i t y f o r a l o a n of up t o $25,000 a t the same r a t e . The most e x t e n s i v e range of support programs come under the a u s p i c e s of the f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Development S u b s i d i a r y Agreement. Funds are a l l o c a t e d t o e s t a b l i s h a p r o v i n c e - w i d e v e g e t a b l e p r o c e s s i n g and m a r k e t i n g system. G r a n t s a r e made a v a i l a b l e f o r farm development, and l a n d c l e a r i n g i s funded a t a r a t e of $575 per h e c t a r e , p l u s a f u r t h e r g r a n t of $250 per h e c t a r e once the l a n d i s i n p r o d u c t i o n t o a maximum t o t a l of $25,000. G r a n t s a re a l s o made a v a i l a b l e f o r up t o 25 p e r c e n t of the t o t a l c o s t s of a c q u i r i n g c a p i t a l a s s e t s . T h i s i s i n c r e a s e d t o 50 p e r c e n t of the c o s t s i n the case of s i l a g e and ha y l a g e s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s and equipment, and v e g e t a b l e s t o r a g e s . T o t a l a s s i s t a n c e under a l l of t h e s e programs combined can not exceed $25,000. However, t h i s sum i s i n c r e a s e d t o $75,000 maximum f o r new d a i r y e n t r a n t s . Funding i s a l s o a v a i l a b l e f o r 100 p e r c e n t of the c o s t s of farm a c c e s s r o a d s , e l e c t r i c a l s e r v i c i n g , road maintenance and the i n t r o d u c t i o n of new t e c h n o l o g y . S p e c i a l c r i t e r i a f o r f u n d i n g a p p r o v a l must be met i n a l l c a s e s . In the Goulds Forage P r o j e c t , s p e c i a l i z e d machinery was purchased f o r l a n d development under the Technology T r a n s f e r Program, a p r o j e c t manager was h i r e d and l e g a l s u r v e y s f o r l o t s were funded (Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n Development, 1981). 87 3.7.2 Crown Land D i s p o s i t i o n Crown l a n d i s a l l o c a t e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l use under the p r o v i s i o n s of the Crown Lands A c t (RSN, 1970) and s u b j e c t t o the Department of F o r e s t Resources and Lands' p o l i c y (Lands Branch, 1982). G e n e r a l l y , the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s a p p l y t o l e a s i n g Crown l a n d f o r commercial a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n Farmland Development P r o j e c t s and i n the Goulds Forage P r o j e c t : • l a n d must be s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n ; • a p p l i c a n t s must show t h a t they a re c a p a b l e of becoming f u l l - t i m e commercial f a r m e r s ; • a p p l i c a n t s must show t h a t they can f i n a n c e t h e o p e r a t i o n ; • a p p l i c a n t s must p r o v i d e the A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e w i t h a f i v e year development p l a n ; •15% of a r a b l e l a n d must be c l e a r e d and c u l t i v a t e d w i t h i n 2 y e a r s , 50% w i t h i n 5 y e a r s and the remainder w i t h i n 10 y e a r s ; • l a n d c l e a r i n g must be a c c o r d i n g t o Branch g u i d e l i n e s ; • l a n d must remain i n c o n t i n u o u s p r o d u c t i o n ; • a l l s u i t a b l e t i m b e r must be h a r v e s t e d and u t i l i z e d , and the remainder must be managed i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the F o r e s t r y Branch; •any s a l e or t r a n s f e r must be t o an o p e r a t i o n w h i c h w i l l m a i n t a i n f o r a g e p r o d u c t i o n or o t h e r c r o p s , as p e r m i t t e d , u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e a l l o w e d by the M i n i s t e r s i n v o l v e d ( S o i l and Land Management D i v i s i o n , 1984). Tenure i s by l e a s e o n l y w i t h a 15 year term f o r expanding farmers and 50 y e a r s f o r new e n t r a n t s . Lease r e n t s a r e s e t a t $2.54 per h e c t a r e per annum. F i n a l a p p r o v a l of a p p l i c a t i o n s of 20 h e c t a r e s or l e s s r e s t s w i t h the M i n i s t e r of F o r e s t Resources and Lands, w h i l e a p p l i c a t i o n s of g r e a t e r than 20 h e c t a r e s must be approved by C a b i n e t . Land i s l e a s e d o n l y a f t e r the a p p l i c a n t submits a d e t a i l e d development p l a n d e t a i l i n g farm s k i l l s , f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s and a f i v e year development s c e n a r i o . 88 In 1972, the a r e a of the Goulds Forage P r o j e c t was r e s e r v e d under the Crown Lands A c t , r e s t r i c t i n g any f u r t h e r a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r l a n d d i s p o s i t i o n . When the p r o j e c t p l a n was completed i n 1979, i t was r e f e r r e d t o a l l i n v o l v e d government a g e n c i e s i n c l u d i n g the S t . John's M e t r o p o l i t a n Area Board. M e e t i n g s were h e l d w i t h v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s t o n e g o t i a t e some of the o u t s t a n d i n g problems, p a r t i c u l a r l y t i m b e r removal. A l t h o u g h o f f i c i a l agreement had not been r e c e i v e d from a l l of the i n v o l v e d a g e n c i e s , the p r o j e c t was b e g i n n i n g t o p i c k up a momentum of i t s own, and a f t e r a p p l i c a n t s had been s e l e c t e d they were q u i c k l y approved by the Crown Lands Branch. I t o f t e n t a k e s up t o two y e a r s b e f o r e a l e a s e i s f i n a l i z e d and a p p l i c a n t s can be g i n development; t h e r e f o r e , p e r m i t s - t o - o c c u p y were sought under the Crown Lands Act and development began. A p p l i c a n t s f o r Crown l a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l l e a s e s n o r m a l l y a p p l y t h r o u g h the Crown Lands Branch r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s ; however, i n the case of f a r m l a n d development p r o j e c t s , a s e p a r a t e p r o c e d u r e i s e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h the Crown Lands Branch. P r o s p e c t i v e a p p l i c a n t s a r e r e f e r r e d t o the A g r i c u l t u r e Branch, or they a r e t o l d t h a t no a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e b e i n g a c c e p t e d i f the p r o j e c t s p l a n s a r e not f i n a l i z e d . In the case of Farmland Development P r o j e c t s , a d v e r t i s e m e n t s a r e p l a c e d i n l o c a l newspapers s o l i c i t i n g a p p l i c a n t s . The Goulds Forage P r o j e c t , however, was l i m i t e d t o d a i r y farmers i n the Gou l d s - K i l b r i d e a r e a who, i n the i n i t i a l phase, were i n d i v i d u a l l y m a i l e d a p p l i c a t i o n s and i n f o r m a t i o n . A R e g i o n a l S e l e c t i o n Committee i s e s t a b l i s h e d under the c h a i r m a n s h i p of the A g r i c u l t u r e Branch and w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Branch's v a r i o u s d i v i s i o n s as w e l l 89 as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Department of F o r e s t Resources and Lands. The R e g i o n a l S e c t i o n Committee chooses the s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a n t s w i t h o u t c o m p e t i t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l l o t s . 3.8 M o n i t o r i n g and E v a l u a t i n g the P l a n n i n g E x e r c i s e A f o r m a l mechanism f o r m o n i t o r i n g and e v a l u a t i n g the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s or the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n components has not been e s t a b l i s h e d . In the Goulds Forage P r o j e c t , c e r t a i n t a r g e t s a r e se t i n the manager's c o n t r a c t , i n the annual budgets of the Branch and i n the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r f u n d i n g t o the DREE committees. When t h e s e t a r g e t s a r e not met, t h e r e a re few consequences. M o n i t o r i n g i s by a day-to-day c o n t a c t of o f f i c i a l s w i t h the p r o j e c t and from q u a r t e r l y r e p o r t s of the manager. Annual r e p o r t s a re s u b m i t t e d by s t a f f which r e v i e w the p r o g r e s s of a l l p r o j e c t s or l a c k t h e r e o f . R e v i s i o n s of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s occur p e r i o d i c a l l y as problems a r e en c o u n t e r e d . C e r t a i n elements of the Goulds Forage P r o j e c t , such as the s p e c i a l i z e d machinery, a re the s u b j e c t of i n d i v i d u a l m o n i t o r i n g and e v a l u a t i o n . A h i g h r a t e of s t a f f t u r n o v e r , however, l i m i t t h e s e e v a l u a t i o n s . E v a l u a t i o n s of a c t u a l c o s t s and b e n e f i t s have been atte m p t e d on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s , but no f o r m a l r e p o r t has been p r e p a r e d . The A g r i c u l t u r a l Development S u b s i d i a r y Agreement has as one of i t s e i g h t programs, an e v a l u a t i o n component. Frequent s t a f f t u r n o v e r hampers t h i s program and, t o d a t e , no o v e r a l l e v a l u a t i o n of c o s t - s h a r e d programs has been r e l e a s e d p u b l i c a l l y , a l t h o u g h one i s b e i n g p r e p a r e d . 90 3.9 The S i g n i f i c a n c e of P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the P l a n n i n g  E x e r c i s e A l t h o u g h p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s i d e n t i f i e d e x p l i c i t l y as a component of the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g program a t the s t a g e of i n i t i a t i n g the A g r i c u l t u r a l Development P l a n (see F i g u r e 3.1), i n p r a c t i c e t h e r e has been o n l y one i n s t a n c e of i t a c t u a l l y o c c u r r i n g . T h i s o c c a s i o n was such a complete p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s f a i l u r e t h a t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been, u n o f f i c i a l l y , d e l e t e d from the p r o c e s s . Among the f a c t o r s c a u s i n g t h i s t u r n of e v e n t s were: •the l a t e i n v o l v e m e n t of the g e n e r a l p u b l i c i n the p l a n n i n g . p r o c e s s a f t e r ADA b o u n d a r i e s had been e s t a b l i s h e d ; •the p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the p u b l i c of a p l a n t h a t was e s s e n t i a l l y r e g i o n a l i n n a t u r e and e s t a b l i s h e d zones of urban and o t h e r n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l u ses; •the l a c k of i n i t i a t i o n of the r u r a l , i s o l a t e d p o p u l a t i o n i n t o a p r o c e s s t h a t was e s s e n t i a l l y a l i e n t o them and; • the emphasis on z o n i n g and r e g u l a t i o n i n the p r o p o s a l , s e e m i n g l y imposed by non-Newfoundland b u r e a u c r a t s from th e c a p i t a l c i t y . D u r i n g th e a f t e r m a t h of p o l i t i c a l t u r m o i l , d e a t h t h r e a t s and g e n e r a l p u b l i c o u t r a g e , the A g r i c u l t u r a l Development P l a n was put on t h e 'back b u r n e r ' and no f u r t h e r p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t 91 beyond s e l e c t e d farmer i n t e r e s t groups was ever s o l i c i t e d i n any l a n d p l a n n i n g program. 3.10 Case Summary The S t . John's case study i s , p r i m a r i l y , an i l l u s t r a t i o n of an a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g program. The a c t u a l program f o r p l a n n i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d b e a r s l i t t l e resemblance t o the documented p r o c e s s (see F i g u r e 3.1). Land management p l a n s do not e x i s t i n the sense proposed f o r ADAs through which i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s can be implemented. There i s scant p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n nor i s t h e r e an A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Committee. N o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s a r e g i v e n o n l y a c u r s o r y o v e r v i e w . S o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s a r e t r e a t e d i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n . Program components a r e not l i n k e d t o an i n t e g r a t e d p l a n n i n g framework f o r the r e g i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n the case of the Goulds Forage P r o j e c t , r e s u l t s have been a c h i e v e d . These r e s u l t s may be c o s t l y , u n d e r - t a r g e t and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s have not been c o n s i d e r e d e n t i r e l y . Land, however, has been d e v e l o p e d and most of the farmers i n v o l v e d g e n e r a l l y a r e s a t i s f i e d . Managers of the A g r i c u l t u r a l S u b s i d i a r y Agreement p e r c e i v e the Goulds Forage P r o j e c t as one of the most s u c c e s s f u l programs of the $16.3 m i l l i o n A g r i c u l t u r e S u b s i d i a r y Agreement. The p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g program i s conducted by the A g r i c u l t u r a l Branch r a t h e r than by the Lands Branch. T h i s d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t , c o u p l e d w i t h the wide range of f u n d i n g t a r g e t e d a t the p r o j e c t s by the A g r i c u l t u r a l Branch, a l l o w s f o r r a p i d r e s o l u t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l l y r e l a t e d problems. The r e s t r i c t i o n of l a n d d i s p o s i t i o n t o a p p l i c a n t s w i t h demonstrated s k i l l s and 92 r e s o u r c e s a l o n g w i t h the low r e n t a l r a t e s f o r Crown l a n d , i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n e n s u r i n g the s u c c e s s f u l development of a v e r y m a r g i n a l l a n d base. The p r o x i m i t y of a l a r g e and guaranteed market f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s and the r u r a l development as p e c t of the program i n an e c o n o m i c a l l y d e p r e s s e d r e g i o n makes the r a t i o n a l e of an o t h e r w i s e dubious u n d e r t a k i n g more c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . REFERENCES Department of R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n . 1982. Canada/Newfoundland A g r i c u l t u r e Development  S u b s i d i a r y Agreement: ( J u l y 1978) A Program Summary. Department of R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n , Ottawa. Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n Development. 1981. Annual Report of the A g r i c u l t u r e  Branch f o r the F i s c a l Year Ending March 31, 1981. Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n Development, S t . John's. Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n Development. 1983. Farmland P r e s e r v a t i o n : A Growing Need ( b r o c h u r e ) . Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n Development, S t . John's. G u t h r i e , Ken. 1978. A g r i c u l t u r e C a p a b i l i t y of the Proposed Forage Development Area between Cochrane  Pond and Bay B u l l s B i g Pond ( p r o v i s i o n a l ) . Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n Development, S t . John's. Lands Branch. 1982. Crown Lands L e a s i n g P o l i c y f o r  A g r i c u l t u r e . Department of F o r e s t Resources and Lands, S t . John's. L i d s t o n e , A l l a n . 1980. S t . John's A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Area S t a t u s R e p o r t . Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n Development, S t . John's. M e r r i t t , B i l l . 1983. Annual Report 1982-1983 f o r the A v a l o n P e n i n s u l a E a s t e r n Region U n i t s 1,2, and 3. Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n Development, S t . John's. Newfoundland R e g u l a t i o n 198/83. Development Area of S t . John's Urban Region ( A g r i c u l t u r e ) R e g u l a t i o n s , 1983. R i z v i , S.M.H., D a v i d s o n , A., L e r o h l , M.L., Graham, W.W. And MacEachern, G.A. 1971. Food and A g r i c u l t u r e  P o t e n t i a l s i n Newfoundland. A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics Research C o u n c i l of Canada, Ottawa. S o i l and Land Management D i v i s i o n . 1979. Goulds Forage  P r o j e c t . Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n Development, S t . John's. S o i l and Land Management D i v i s i o n . 1981. Newfoundland S o i l Survey and Land Use Program 1981. Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n Development, S t . John's. S o i l and Land Management D i v i s i o n . 1982a. Cochrane Pond  Farmland Development P r o j e c t . Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n Development, S t . John's. S o i l and Land Management D i v i s i o n . 1982b. Goulds Forage  P r o j e c t : Phase I I . Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n Development, S t . John's. S o i l and Land Management D i v i s i o n . 1984. Goulds Forage  P r o j e c t : Phase I I I . Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n Development, S t . John's. Sudom, M.D. 1984. P r e s e n t a t i o n t o the S t a n d i n g Committee on A g r i c u l t u r e , F o r e s t r y and F i s h e r i e s a t H a l i f a x , N.S. Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada, Ottawa: 16:48-61. The R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s of Newfoundland. 1970. C.71 The Crown Lands A c t . The R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s of Newfoundland. 1976. C.95 The Development A r e a s ( L a n d s ) A c t 1976. 95 CHAPTER FOUR CASE STUDY NUMBER TWO FORT NELSON, BRITISH COLUMBIA 96 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The F o r t Nelson area i s l o c a t e d i n the F o r t N e l s o n Lowlands p h y s i o g r a p h i c r e g i o n of n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia. The a r e a has a p o p u l a t i o n of 5075, l o c a t e d m o s t l y i n the v i l l a g e of F o r t N e l s o n and the nearby s e t t l e m e n t s of Muskwa and O l d F o r t N e l s o n . F o r t N e l s o n i s 450 k i l o m e t r e s n o r t h of the main a g r i c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s of the Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t at F o r t S t . John and Dawson Creek (see Map 4.1). Economic a c t i v i t y i s c e n t r e d on f o r e s t r y , s a w m i l l i n g , p e t r o l e u m and s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s . Development i n these s e c t o r s was s t i m u l a t e d by the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the A l a s k a Highway d u r i n g World War I I and the e x t e n s i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia R a i l w a y from F o r t S t . John i n 1968. The p o p u l a t i o n of F o r t N e l s o n has i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y over the l a s t t h r e e decades. T h i s p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e i s c r e a t i n g a g r e a t e r demand f o r Crown l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . The a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i n the r e g i o n i s s u p p o r t e d l a r g e l y by income earned i n o t h e r s e c t o r s . The F o r t Nelson a r e a has a b o r e a l c l i m a t e which r e s u l t s i n s h o r t c o o l summers and severe w i n t e r s . P r e c i p i t a t i o n i s adequate f o r most c r o p s w i t h 60% of the a n n u a l 423mm of p r e c i p i t a t i o n f a l l i n g d u r i n g the growing season. Depending on e l e v a t i o n and, p o s s i b l y , a s p e c t , the f r e e z e - f r e e p e r i o d may be as h i g h as 119 days, w i t h most of the s i t e s s u i t e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e h a v i n g a f r e e z e - f r e e p e r i o d of up t o 89 days. S h o r t e r growing seasons a r e o f f s e t by l o n g hours of d a y l i g h t i n the summer t i m e . Growing degree-days may range from 1200 t o 1500 on the b e s t s i t e s . The F o r t N e l s o n a r e a has c l i m a t i c a t t r i b u t e s s u f f i c i e n t t o produce a wide v a r i e t y of v e g e t a b l e s , c e r e a l g r a i n s , o i l seeds and f o r a g e 97 MAP 4.1: FORT NELSON DEFERRED PLANNING AREA PROVINCIAL SETTING* •Source: Peace Region and Land Planning Branch (MLPH) B«f«r«neaa ch. 4) (1983) 98 c r o p s . However, many of the a r e a s w i t h good c l i m a t i c c a p a b i l i t y a r e not s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n due t o f l o o d i n g h a z a r d , a c c e s s l i m i t a t i o n s , d i s s e c t e d t e r r a i n and o t h e r f a c t o r s . The F o r t Nelson a r e a ' s a r a b l e s o i l s a r e not as e x t e n s i v e as was p r e v i o u s l y b e l i e v e d b e f o r e s o i l s u r v e y s were co n d u c t e d . The t o t a l a r e a of a r a b l e l a n d r e p r e s e n t s l e s s than 200,000 h e c t a r e s . Much of t h i s l a n d i s i n a c c e s s i b l e and d i s s e c t e d by muskeg. S o i l s a r e d e r i v e d from t i l l , l a c u s t r i n e , e o l i a n and f l u v i a l d e p o s i t s . The l u v i s o l s and g l e y s o l s d e v e l o p e d on l a c u s t r i n e m a t e r i a l and the b r u n i s o l s and l u v i s o l s d e v e l o p e d on e o l i a n m a t e r i a l d i s p l a y the h i g h e s t c a p a b i l i t y f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . The m o r a i n a l or t i l l d e r i v e d s o i l s a r e , g e n e r a l l y , of lower c a p a b i l i t y due t o c l i m a t i c , t o p o g r a p h i c a l and t e x t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s . F l u v i a l d e p o s i t s a re l i m i t e d due t o p e r i o d i c f l o o d i n g . S o i l s a r e dev e l o p e d on a f l a t t o g e n t l y r o l l i n g p l a t e a u and on the d e e p l y i n c i s e d r i v e r c h a n n e l s under a l a r g e l y w h i t e s p r u c e and t r e m b l i n g aspen f o r e s t . P r e s e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y i n the F o r t N e l s o n area i s l i m i t e d . About 20,000 h e c t a r e s of l a n d have been l e a s e d i n 60 s e p a r a t e p a r c e l s over the p a s t 20 y e a r s . Some 30 i n d i v i d u a l s were u n d e r t a k i n g development i n 1984, but o n l y 1 9 of these c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a c t i v e i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o d e v e l o p l a n d (Bomford,1984). A p p r o x i m a t e l y 3200 h e c t a r e s had been c l e a r e d t o seedbed s t a g e by 1984, but no c r o p was seeded t h a t year due t o severe weather problems. I n 1983, about 480 h e c t a r e s were seeded t o c r o p s of b a r l e y , o a t s and f o r a g e (Bomford, 1984). Range r e s o u r c e s i n the F o r t N e l s o n a r e a a r e a l s o v e r y l i m i t e d and s u i t e d o n l y t o hor s e s due t o i n s e c t s and c l i m a t e . Much of the 99 a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n the F o r t N e l s o n a r e a f a l l s w i t h i n the b o u n d a r i e s of a p r o v i n c i a l l y a d m i n i s t e r d a g r i c u l t u r a l zone where n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l uses a r e r e s t r i c t e d . The zone or A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve (ALR) can a l s o be extended t o newly l e a s e d l a n d s o u t s i d e the e x i s t i n g ALR b o u n d a r i e s . The F o r t Nelson case p r e s e n t s a s p e c t s of an o p p o r t u n i t y p l a n n i n g program f o r p r o j e c t s and a Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g program. The McConachie Creek P r o j e c t was i n i t i a t e d i n response t o p u b l i c demand f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n the F o r t N e l s o n a r e a . The Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g program which r e s u l t e d i n the F o r t N e l s o n Area S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown Land P l a n n i n g Report was undertaken as a component of the D e f e r r e d Area P l a n n i n g Program (see Map 4.2). The F o r t N e l s o n P l a n n i n g Report was i n i t i a t e d by the proposed i n c l u s i o n of l o c a l Crown l a n d i n t o a P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t r e s e r v e by the M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s . Many l o c a l r e s i d e n t s b e l i e v e d t h a t much of t h i s l a n d s h o u l d be a l l o c a t e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development (Kok, 1985). The McConachie Creek P r o j e c t was i n i t i a t e d i n 1982. Farm l o t s were l a i d out and roads and e l e c t r i c a l s e r v i c i n g were p r o v i d e d . L o t s were a l l o c a t e d i n 1982 and 1983 by c o m p e t i t i v e b i d d i n g . Many of the 55 l o t s a r e s t i l l u n developed, w i t h o n l y 13 h a v i n g any development a t a l l (Bomford, 1984). The F o r t Nelson Area S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown Land P l a n n i n g Report began i n 1982 under the D e f e r r e d Area P l a n n i n g Program. The P l a n n i n g Report f o l l o w s the M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and Housing Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g program o u t l i n e . An i n t e r a g e n c y p l a n n i n g t a s k f o r c e was formed t o a d v i s e the M i n i s t r y on p l a n n i n g i s s u e s . C o n s u l t a n t s were h i r e d t o complete r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r i e s 100 MAP 4.2: FORT NELSON DERERRED PLANNING AREA LOCATION OF THE PLAN AREA* •Source: MLPH, 1983 101 and, i n 1983 on the b a s i s of thes e i n v e n t o r i e s , the i n t e r a g e n c y t a s k f o r c e f o r m u l a t e d f o u r a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s f o r development. The r e g i o n a l o f f i c e f o r w a r d e d the d r a f t P l a n n i n g Report c o n t a i n i n g the a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s t o the M i n i s t e r ' s o f f i c e . No d e c i s i o n on the p l a n has been made p u b l i c y e t . 4.2 S t r u c t u r i n g and Scoping the P l a n n i n g Program P l a n n i n g f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i s p r i m a r i l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the M i n i s t r y of Lands, Par k s and Housing; s p e c i f i c a l l y , the R e g i o n a l O f f i c e s and the Land P l a n n i n g Branch. The Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g program has e v o l v e d over the p a s t t en y e a r s i n t o a complex maze of o f f i c i a l v a r i a t i o n s . These programs, f o r the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s , s t a r t w i t h the Environment and Land Use Committee of C a b i n e t statement of p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development on Crown l a n d s (Environment and Land Use Committee, 1977). The ELUC g u i d e l i n e s i n d i c a t e t h a t r e s e r v e s of a r a b l e Crown l a n d cannot be expe c t e d t o sup p o r t s i g n i f i c a n t e x p a n s i o n of p r o v i n c i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , Crown l a n d s w i l l be a l l o c a t e d o n l y f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes where: ...such development i s i n keep i n g w i t h [ t h e ] g o a l of e n s u r i n g the b e s t use of Crown l a n d s a c c o r d i n g t o economic, s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c r i t e r i a . The a l l o c a t i o n of Crown l a n d s t o a g r i c u l t u r a l development w i l l be made w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of r e g i o n a l l a n d use p l a n s based on i n t e g r a t e d p o l i c i e s f o r r e s o u r c e management (Environment and Land Use Committee, 1977, p . 3 ) . 102 The g u i d e l i n e s s t r e s s the need f o r g r e a t e r study of the s o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s and the development of p r o c e d u r e s t o u n d e r t a k e t h i s a n a l y s i s . They emphasize t h a t economic a n a l y s i s w i l l be undertaken i n l a r g e r a g r i c u l t u r a l development a r e a s , and b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s examples a r e i l l u s t r a t e d . The g u i d e l i n e s a l s o propose the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a l l r e m a i n i n g a r e a s of Crown l a n d and, depending on the s i z e of the Crown l a n d base, the type of c o n f l i c t s as w e l l as o t h e r f a c t o r s , a v a r i e t y of l e v e l s of p l a n n i n g a t the r e g i o n a l s c a l e are proposed w i t h p r i o r i t i e s f o r p l a n n i n g s e t by the R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committees. An a c c e l e r a t e d p l a n n i n g program i s recommended t o p r e v e n t d e l a y s f o r o t h e r r e s o u r c e s e c t o r s and t o e l i m i n a t e the cumbersome r e f e r r a l system. A p p l i c a n t s s h o u l d p r e p a r e development p l a n s t o ensure t h a t the they a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e and a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s s u i t a b l e f o r the r e g i o n . The g u i d e l i n e s propose t h a t r e n t a l payments be deducted from the purchase p r i c e of l e a s e s and t h e r e i s no p r o v i s i o n f o r i n t e r e s t a c c u m u l a t i o n (Environment and Land Use Committee, 1977). In 1981, the M i n i s t r y of Lands, Par k s and Housing p r e p a r e d an o f f i c i a l Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g program and i n t r o d u c e d i t s Crown Land P l a n n i n g H i e r a r c h y , based p r i m a r i l y on the e a r l i e r ELUC g u i d e l i n e s ( M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and H ousing, 1981). The purpose of the p l a n n i n g h i e r a r c h y i s t o p r o v i d e a framework f o r the M i n i s t r y ' s p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s from a p r o v i n c i a l t o a s i t e s p e c i f i c s c a l e , r e s u l t i n g i n the o r d e r l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l o c a t i o n of Crown l a n d s (see F i g u r e 4.1). The o n l y p a r t s of t h i s h i e r a r c h y which have been implemented a r e a t the sub-r e g i o n a l and s u b - d i s t r i c t l e v e l s . At the s u b - r e g i o n a l or FIGURE 4.1 Schematic Oullln* of tho CROWN LAND PLANNING HIERARCHY PLANNING SCALE MINISTRY PLANNING UNIT LAND ADMINISTRATION REGION LAND ADMINISTRATION DISTRICT DEVELOPMENT AREA MINISTRY PLANNING ACTIVITY PROVINCIAL POLICY POSITION PAPER • i n t o COALS i OAJICTIvtS TOi ALL uwAL.f HATIB C M * LAMOf • *t COC.MTICW or U U O U . NIIMIII • Inr iuUTIOH KITH l l t l l -H1A1STA* riAMUHC • i . u v i K mL P O L I C I mm CM*M UluD US! R E G I O N A L C O O W N L A N O S T A A T E G * I O H U U T I W Or ITWTECT IXIH INTCCAATLO IrCC/NAMACCMCHT Of CAOi-< L M M •• AIC10A iDt-rifif IC»TIO» o r LAPJO P I A N A I M wn O IKPOAIT IOM THIW.IT* •o L A M uu eaitowTiOMi AT r a i l L I V T L IttTtCPAT ION M T I IHTf»-r l i m n ruuMIPC XUt* - R E G I O N A L C R O W N L A N D P L A N • a r m CAT lav or ATCICMAL rr«*T»c» IC EACH LANS BUT*ICt • cT»Tif>i - T or binAHc turrui Cwiju II AUTIC* for CMW LAHO • i M H T i f ICATIOM or PCfourcr MIOIITI A * K A ( Mip M'l POLlClf* J U B - A f GIONAL PLAMHIMO S T U D T AOAuTTATIOAl or M S I OVAL iTAATTCT OAT A 1-vr-TOAT UKfUL M>« I U O - A I C I O N A L P L A M WO CPOWBJ LAAO WSI D I I I C M A T I C tun-OUTPUT CROWN LA NO PLAN • iMAtTiricATioa or rtorr mitaolc CAOV.W LAMB ITIIi • rowwiATiOB or N U C I I I . P A D C A A M * A I S P O A I l i i L i T i t i ro* cnxcrtB MANACCMNT A OtirtLOrnCHT A M AI ACCOM)IMC JO SWA-AICIOJAL PIIOAIT1 • lACLut IOM or ACTA COMCIPTUAL A o c i A i i . r n r u n . COnrOAtnTl • rVAA ruAHALLI ADOPT ID AWO OrTAILII OOtlOATIOMI (CCUAT.O lAHJCA TAI LAHO ACT INTIRIM ROWN LAHO UU AGREEMENT • NWLTIPU UtI CO«riiCT AffSOUiTlOA THAOUCA tHOPT - TT. AM lATEAACfMCI ACArcM*rT • MAAACtnCAT AIACCTICM ro* ACmCItB AHO PIAP or Am»« A/rccTio • i f i c i r i i o I H T I - T TO raiPAAT CAOWA U»"D PLAN AT LA TCP OA TV. • MAP A P I A I MOT SICUAXD UMDC* LXSI SLAT IOM OrCNATIONAL CROWN LAND PLAN 1 ( I T T I •Picinc uu imicATio IN IUI-• I I T P I C T PLAA • SrtTiriC OA AtBOCLATtA UPAS •ocATirico • ttAVICCt. s rTAACi l . OCIIOA iTAAOAAOt AHO 1TACIWC IOOICATT* •UI-DISTRICT PLANNINO REPORT • IIOCLA M i l COWtt-lCT MAOLVTIOP) 00 PlNCLt INK PLAKMIAC AIOUIAJ-HBAT 1 A romoA or D I I T P I C T • AAAACIHCHT K C O P M N O A T I O H I OA ALT!PAATIWJI IO» M A O L U T I O A , PQISIALA- NAT or A AI A A ArrrcTto • MAP API AS MAI P I F ICUAXD UNDER LICI1LATIOM • OATA IAVIHTOAT ulrTUL POP tup DllTPICT PLAMt 'Source: Land Use Planning Section (See Referencs Ch4) (1981) 1 04 d i s t r i c t l e v e l , the main component i s the S u b - R e g i o n a l Crown Land P l a n . T h i s p l a n i s a broad comprehensive framework f o r s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e use a l l o c a t i o n p r i o r i t i e s . The C l i n t o n Crown Land P l a n was a p i l o t p r o j e c t and the o n l y Crown Land P l a n d e v e l o p e d a t the s u b - r e g i o n a l l e v e l . ( M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and H o u s i n g , 1982). The f o u r t h l e v e l i n the M i n i s t r y ' s p l a n n i n g h i e r a r c h y or program i s t h e s u b - d i s t r i c t l e v e l . At t h i s l e v e l , t h e r e are Sub-D i s t r i c t Crown Land P l a n s , I n t e r i m Crown Land Use Agreements and S u b - D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g R e p o r t s . S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown Land P l a n s , such as t h e P r i n c e George Area S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown Land P l a n ( M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and H o u s i n g , 1981), p r o v i d e d e t a i l e d p o l i c i e s and d e s i g n a t i o n s f o r a v a r i e t y of r e s o u r c e uses on Crown l a n d i n a p o r t i o n of a Land A d m i n i s t r a t i o n D i s t r i c t . I n t e r i m Crown Land Use Agreements are a stop-gap measure p r o v i d i n g i n t e r - a g e n c y p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s pending the p r e p a r a t i o n of S u b - D i s t r i c t P l a n s . The S u b - D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Report i s the stage of t h e program most r e l e v a n t t o t h i s case s t u d y . The F o r t N e l s o n S u b - D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Report was undertaken t o r e s o l v e a r e s o u r c e c o n f l i c t s p e c i f i c a l l y between f o r e s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e . T h i s s i t u a t i o n r e f l e c t s the n a t u r e of the P l a n n i n g Report program, which i s d i r e c t e d a t a l e s s complex l e v e l of c o n f l i c t o r c o m p e t i t i o n than i s the case f o r the S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown Land P l a n . I t a l s o does not i n v o l v e comprehensive l a n d use c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r may a c t on the recommendations c o n t a i n e d i n the P l a n n i n g Report t o the e x t e n t t h a t e x i s t i n g p o l i c y a l l o w s him, but the c o n c l u s i o n s of the P l a n n i n g R e p o r t a r e not b i n d i n g as i s the case w i t h the Crown 1 05 l a n d p l a n . The f i n a l stage i n the M i n i s t r y ' s p l a n n i n g h i e r a r c h y i s the Development Area l e v e l which i s a s i t e p l a n n i n g or p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g program. These a r e a s are i d e n t i f i e d a t b roader p l a n n i n g l e v e l s and can be implemented by o t h e r a g e n c i e s or by the M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and Housing. A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Areas a r e implemented by the M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and Housing (see F i g u r e 4.2). The McConachie Creek P r o j e c t i s an example of an A g r i c u l t u r a l Development A r e a ; however i t was not preceded by a h i g h e r l e v e l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e . The S u b - D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Report i s conducted i n the same manner as the s u b - d i s t r i c t Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g program (see F i g u r e 4.2). R e p o r t i n g s c a l e s range from 1:20,000 t o 1:50,000. B i o - p h y s i c a l c a p a b i l i t y i s not the main c r i t e r i o n but i t i s c o n s i d e r e d a l o n g w i t h demand p r o j e c t i o n s , p u b l i c o p i n i o n , l o c a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s and p o p u l a t i o n t r e n d s t o d e t e r m i n e use s u i t a b i l i t y . A number of c o n c e p t u a l a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d and e v a l u a t e d w i t h the p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e and the b a s i s f o r i t s s e l e c t i o n s t a t e d i n the f i n a l s u b m i s s i o n of the Concept P l a n . A f t e r the Concept P l a n i s approved, the D e t a i l e d P l a n i s p r e p a r e d . In the D e t a i l e d Crown Land P l a n , t h e r e a r e two main d e s i g n a t i o n s w i t h i n s p e c i f i c use a s s i g n m e n t s . These a r e Land/Resource Management A r e a s , where development i s e i t h e r p ostponed or not p e r m i t t e d , and Land/Resource Development Areas where development i s pursued. T h i s , i n the case of a g r i c u l t u r e , i s a form of an a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n n i n g program which then l e a d s t o A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Area p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g , such as McConachie Creek t h a t i s d e s i g n e d f o r the d i s p o s i t i o n of Crown l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . Throughout the FIGURE 4*2 CROWN LAND PLANNING SUB-DISTRICT PLAN LAND DESIGNATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION* AGRICULTURE OR G A M I N G INTEGRATED FORESTRY : AGRICULTURAL: .AGRICULTURAL j MANAGEMENT j .DEVELOPMENT i AREA : .ARM | : : • INTEGRATED |FORESTRY j MANAGEMENT RECREATION AND/OR CONSERVATION A F I S H AND NILDLirE HABITAT • RECREATION-; .RECREATION- • SRELATED j .RELATED \ •MANAGEMENT I (DEVELOPMENT i ; riSH :WILDLIFE ; I RELATED • MANAGEMENT t RURAL OR URBAN RESIDENTIAL INDUSTRIAL AND/OR COMMERCIAL i r RESIDENTIAL: MANAGEMENT t : RESIDENTIAL; DEVELOPMENT: J INDUSTRIAL/, .INDUSTRIAL/ :COHMERCIAl :;COHHEItCIAL :HANAGEHEHT ::DEVELOPMENT: OTHER LAND AND RESOURCE USE A C T I V I T I E S ;OTHER :;OTHER :HANACEMEHT.:DEVELOPHENT: :AREAS jtAREAS O-I-C RESERVE NAP RESERVE LAND USE DESIGNATION O-I-C RESERVE HAP RESERVE LAND USE DESIGNATION O-I-C RESERVE HAP RESERVE LAND USE DESIGNATION O-I-C RESERVE MAP RESERVE LAND USE DESIGNATION O-I-C RESERVE MAP RESERVE LAND USE DESIGNATION O-I-C RESERVE HAP RESERVE LAND LSE DESIGNATION O-I-C OR MAP RESERVES AS APPROPRIATE LAND USE DESIGNATION TRANSFER Or ADMIN. AND CONTROL LANDS I HOUSING DIVISION. HLPN MINISTRY Or FORESTS INITH OTHER AGENCIES) PARAS AND OUTDOOR RECREATION DIVISION MINISTRY Or LANDS, PARKS AND HOUSING (WITH OTHER AGENCIES) riSH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH, MINISTRY Or ENVIRONMENT LANDS 1 HOUSING DIVISION, HLPK LANDS » HOUSING DIVISION, MLPII BRITISH COLUMBIA DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION VARIOUS AGENCIES AS APPROPRIATE *Source: Land Use P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n (See R e f e r e n c e s Ch4) 107 p l a n n i n g program a t the s u b - d i s t r i c t l e v e l , i n t e r a g e n c y t a s k f o r c e s a r e n o r m a l l y i n v o l v e d and p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s encouraged ( M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and Housing, 1981). The maze of p l a n n i n g approaches t o the development of Crown l a n d becomes s t i l l more complex. The F o r t Nelson S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown Land Report a r e a i s a l s o a D e f e r r e d P l a n n i n g A r e a . In 1981, the Premier i s s u e d a d i r e c t i v e t h a t c o n f l i c t s between the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t s and o t h e r uses of Crown l a n d , i n c l u d i n g a g r i c u l t u r e , w i l l be r e s o l v e d by d e f e r r i n g the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t s i n c e r t a i n a r e a s f o r a p e r i o d of two y e a r s . P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d by C a b i n e t under the F o r e s t Act and are a d m i n i s t e r e d by the M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s . Uses which are not c o m p a t i b l e w i t h f o r e s t r y a r e r e s t r i c t e d . D e f e r r e d P l a n n i n g Areas a r e s u b j e c t t o the sub-d i s t r i c t Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g program which i"s used t o r e s o l v e o u t s t a n d i n g i s s u e s . A p u b l i c involvement p r o c e s s i s r e q u i r e d a l o n g w i t h the c o - o p e r a t i o n of a l l r e l e v a n t government a g e n c i e s ( M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and Housing and M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s , 1981). The Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g program was, however, put i n l i m b o i n 1983. Program P l a n n i n g was then e s t a b l i s h e d as the o p e r a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g program f o r the M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and H o u s i n g . Product d e l i v e r y and s e r v i c e became the key words. Program P l a n n i n g i s d e s i g n e d t o be " e f f i c i e n t , p r a g m a t i c and p r o d u c t o r i e n t e d " (Land P l a n n i n g Branch, 1983, p . 7 ) . No i n t e r -agency t a s k f o r c e or p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s p e r m i t t e d . At about the same t i m e , one of the l e a d c o o r d i n a t i n g mechanisms i n the Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , the R e g i o n a l Resource Management 108 Committees, were a l s o a b o l i s h e d . In Program P l a n n i n g , s u b j e c t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e judgement by s t a f f i s encouraged a l o n g w i t h f l e x i b i l i t y i n d e s i g n i n g r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g programs. Comprehensive l a n d use p l a n n i n g w i l l not be done, i n s t e a d s p e c i f i c l a n d uses w i l l be emphasised. The p r i o r i t i e s f o r 1983/84 were a g r i c u l t u r a l u ses, r e c r e a t i o n a l c o t t a g e l o t s and r u r a l r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s (Land P l a n n i n g Branch, 1983). 4.2.1 P l a n n i n g Area I d e n t i f i c a t i o n I d e a l l y , i n the o r i g i n a l Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g program almost any i n t e r e s t e d p a r t y can i n i t i a t e a p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e , but f i n a l a p p r o v a l t o proceed i s l e f t t o the M i n i s t r y e x e c u t i v e . P r i o r i t y i s p l a c e d on a r e a s w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t c o n f l i c t or c o m p e t i t i o n f o r Crown l a n d r e s o u r c e s . D e f e r r e d P l a n n i n g Areas a r e i d e n t i f i e d j o i n t l y by the M i n i s t r y of Lands, Par k s and Housing and the M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s u s i n g a q u a l i t a t i v e r a t h e r than a q u a n t i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n . P l a n n i n g a r e a s a r e based on Crown l a n d s t h a t a r e proposed f o r P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t s t a t u s but have the c a p a b i l i t y f o r or demand from o t h e r r e s o u r c e s e c t o r s . The F o r t Nelson P l a n n i n g Report a r e a was i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s manner. The e s s e n t i a l c o m p e t i t i o n o c c u r r i n g i n F o r t N e l s o n i s between f o r e s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e . The McConachie Creek P r o j e c t does not f i t w i t h i n any of the p r e s c r i b e d p l a n n i n g program molds except as an i s o l a t e d A g r i c u l t u r a l Development A r e a . I t was proposed i n 1982 based on l o c a l demand f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d and the l a n d ' s p e r c e i v e d c a p a b i l i t i e s . In t h i s sense, i t may be a good example of the new Program P l a n n i n g approach (see above) or an o p p o r t u n i t y p l a n n i n g 109 program f o r p r o j e c t s . 4.3 The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s O b j e c t i v e s The McConachie Creek P r o j e c t has no documented o b j e c t i v e s o t h e r than the d i s p o s a l of Crown l a n d l o t s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development ( M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and Ho u s i n g , 1982). The F o r t N e l s o n Area S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown Land P l a n n i n g Report g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w s the o b j e c t i v e s s e t i n the M i n i s t r y ' s P l a n n i n g Handbook and i n the i n t e r - M i n i s t r y D e f e r r e d Area p l a n n i n g framework as d i r e c t e d by the P r e m i e r . P r i m a r i l y , the g o a l of the F o r t N e l s o n P l a n n i n g Report i s t o r e s o l v e the i s s u e of the proposed P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t b o u n d a r i e s . The g o a l of the o v e r a l l Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g program i s t o : f a c i l i t a t e and d e v e l o p p l a n s f o r management, use and a l i e n a t i o n of u n r e s e r v e d Crown l a n d s i n a manner t h a t w i l l o p t i m i z e the l o n g term economic, s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l b e n e f i t s t o the c i t i z e n s of B r i t i s h Columbia (Land P l a n n i n g Branch and Peace R e g i o n , 1983, p. i ) . The s p e c i f i c F o r t N e l s o n P l a n n i n g Report o b j e c t i v e s based on t h i s o v e r a l l g o a l and e s t a b l i s h e d by the i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l t a s k f o r c e a r e : • t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s and a l l o c a t e l a n d t o t h e i r most s u i t a b l e uses; • t o f a c i l i t a t e programs of r e s o u r c e a g e n c i e s i n v o l v i n g Crown l a n d ; 110 • t o s t a b i l i z e the f o r e s t base; • t o reduce a p p l i c a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g time w i t h p l a n a r e a d e s i g n a t i o n s ; • t o e s t a b l i s h s c h e d u l e s f o r the p l a n n i n g and development of p r o j e c t s by the M i n i s t r y of Lands P a r k s and Housing (Land P l a n n i n g Branch and Peace R e g i o n , 1983). A number of l i m i t a t i o n s t o the F o r t N e l s o n P l a n n i n g Report a r e l i s t e d i n t h e document t h a t may d e t r a c t from the achievement of s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s . These l i m i t a t i o n s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n subsequent s e c t i o n s . 4.4 E n v i r o n m e n t a l F a c t o r s f o r P l a n n i n g C l i m a t i c c a p a b i l i t y f o r the F o r t N e l s o n a r e a has not been mapped. However, s o i l s u r v e y o r s have d e v e l o p e d a c l i m a t i c c a p a b i l i t y assessment based on d a t a from a d j a c e n t a i r p o r t weather s t a t i o n s and the use of r e g r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s . T h i s c a p a b i l i t y i s r e l a t e d t o e l e v a t i o n l e v e l s w i t h h i g h e r l e v e l s r e c e i v i n g a lower c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The e a r l i e r s u r v ey by V a l e n t i n e (1971) uses t e c h n i q u e s based on p r a i r i e c o n d i t i o n s . For the F o r t N e l s o n P l a n n i n g R e p o r t , c o n s u l t a n t s were engaged t o r e v i s e V a l e n t i n e ' s survey and a more r e c e n t survey by K o w a l l (1982). The c o n s u l t a n t s found i t n e c e s s a r y t o downgrade c l i m a t i c c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n the V a l e n t i n e r e p o r t based on more a c c u r a t e d a t a used i n the K o w a l l s u r v e y . F u r t h e r m o r e , the c o n s u l t a n t s proposed r e d u c i n g the c l i m a t i c c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s 111 on n o r t h and e a s t f a c i n g s l o p e s due t o p e r c e i v e d h a r s h e r c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . There i s some disagreement over t h i s change ( V a l e n t i n e i n t e r v i e w , 1985), but n e v e r t h e l e s s i t has been used i n the c a p a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s of the F o r t N e l s o n a r e a . C l i m a t i c c a p a b i l i t y i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the o v e r a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . In an a r e a w hich, due t o f a c t o r s o t h e r than c l i m a t e , has a CLI c l a s s t h r e e r a t i n g f o r a g r i c u l t u r e but has a c l i m a t i c c l a s s f i v e , a c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g of c l a s s 5c w i l l be a s s i g n e d . A map polygon can not r e c e i v e an o v e r a l l c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g h i g h e r than i t s c l i m a t i c c a p a b i l i t y . C l i m a t i c c a p a b i l i t y i n c o r p o r a t e s i n f o r m a t i o n on the f r e e z e - f r e e p e r i o d , growing degree days and p r e c i p i t a t i o n ( A i r S t u d i e s Branch, 1981). S o i l s u r v e y s f o r the a r e a a r e conducted a t s u r v e y i n t e n s i t y l e v e l f o u r and are p u b l i s h e d a t a s c a l e of 1:100,000 f o r the a r e a n o r t h of F o r t N e l s o n ( K o w a l l , 1982) and 1:126,000 f o r the a r e a around and t o the s o u t h of F o r t N e l s o n ( V a l e n t i n e , 1971). The McConachie Creek P r o j e c t i s d e v e l o p e d on the b a s i s of the 1:126,000 s o i l s u r v e y and the accompanying CLI map. T h i s i n t e n s i t y l e v e l f o u r survey i s o n l y s u i t e d f o r broad a g r i c u l t u r a l p l a n n i n g and not d e t a i l e d l o t l a y o u t which i s more a p p r o p r i a t e l y done w i t h an i n t e n s i t y l e v e l two s u r v e y . The e n t i r e McConachie Creek P r o j e c t a r e a of 7500 h e c t a r e s i s c o v e r e d by o n l y e i g h t map u n i t s . A c c o r d i n g t o the r e v i s e d c a l c u l a t i o n s . f o r c l i m a t i c c a p a b i l i t y , the McConachie Creek p r o j e c t a r e a , m o s t l y above 455 metres a s l and on e a s t and n o r t h f a c i n g s l o p e s , i s downgraded t o a t l e a s t a CLI c l a s s 5 s o i l . T h i s i n c l u d e s about 70% of the l o t s . A number of the a d v e r t i s e d u n i t s have 1 12 l e s s than 50% a r a b l e s o i l s , even a c c o r d i n g t o the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n g i v e n i n the p r o j e c t documents, which i s c o n t r a r y t o e s t a b l i s h e d M i n i s t r y p o l i c y ( M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and Housing, 1982). The i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by the s o i l s u r v e y c o v e r i n g the McConachie Creek P r o j e c t i s not a p p r o p r i a t e f o r farm u n i t l a y o u t or on-farm s o i l management recommendations ( V a l e n t i n e and L i d s t o n e , 1985). P r i o r t o the p u b l i c a u c t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e which c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the p r o j e c t a r e a . F u r t h e r m o r e , the o r i g i n a l c a p a b i l i t y survey appears t o have been i g n o r e d s i n c e c e r t a i n l o t s w i t h s t a t e d a r a b l e a r e a h i g h e r t h a n the c a p a b i l i t y s u r vey i n d i c a t e s have been o f f e r e d . The McConachie Creek P r o j e c t documents a l s o do not i n c l u d e an e v a l u a t i o n of any o t h e r r e s o u r c e s b e s i d e s a g r i c u l t u r e . S o i l s u r v e y s f o r the F o r t N e l s o n P l a n n i n g Report a r e a a r e , as mentioned e a r l i e r , conducted a t i n t e n s i t y l e v e l f o u r . The c o n s u l t a n t s h i r e d t o p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l b i o - p h y s i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n d i d a l i m i t e d amount of f i e l d work t o r e v i s e the a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the o l d e r s u r v e y s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t r e v i s i o n s a r e a downgrading of c a p a b i l i t y based on f l o o d i n g i n the f l o o d p l a i n a r e a s and based on c l i m a t e . Some polyg o n s a re s u b d i v i d e d i n a c c e s s i b l e a r e a s where f i e l d work was conducted. The o r i g i n a l c a p a b i l i t y i n v e n t o r i e s a r e e n l a r g e d t o a 1:50,000 s c a l e which i s the minimum r e q u i r e d s c a l e i n the sub-d i s t r i c t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The r e v i s e d c a p a b i l i t y of map polyg o n s may make t h e c a p a b i l i t y maps more a c c u r a t e , but the enlargement p r o c e s s does not make the maps more p r e c i s e , e x cept 1 1 3 i n t h o s e a r e a s which a r e s u b d i v e d on the b a s i s of the new s i t e i n s p e c t i o n s . In the end, the maps ar e b e t t e r s u i t e d than b e f o r e t o p l a n n i n g a t a s c a l e of 1:100,000 and s m a l l e r . They a r e not s u i t e d f o r p l a n n i n g where a 1:50,000 s c a l e i s r e q u i r e d because map p o l y g o n s and map u n i t s remain much the same as those at the s m a l l e r s c a l e . The c o n s u l t a n t ' s r e p o r t , i n r e c o g n i z i n g t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s , s uggests t h a t a 1:20, 000 s o i l and c l i m a t i c survey be conducted of the a r e a s i n d i c a t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l b e f o r e a l l o c a t i n g l a n d ( T a l i s m a n Resource C o n s u l t a n t s , 1982). The P l a n n i n g Report a r e a c o v e r s o n l y a s m a l l p o r t i o n of the l a r g e r r e g i o n around F o r t N e l s o n which may c o n t a i n a r a b l e l a n d . D e c i s i o n s t o a l l o c a t e l a n d w i t h o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g the l a r g e r b i o -p h y s i c a l c o n t e x t i n which i t l i e s have been r a i s e d as a l i m i t a t i o n i n the r e p o r t i t s e l f . The i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d i n the c o n s u l t a n t ' s r e p o r t i s not s u i t a b l e f o r d e t a i l e d p l a n n i n g such as l o t l a y o u t . The s o i l s i n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d o n l y f o r c a p a b i l i t y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . I f the i n t e n s i t y l e v e l of the s u r v e y were h i g h e r , the c a p a b i l i t y . i n v e n t o r y c o u l d be used f o r some on-farm management purposes. A l t h o u g h not mentioned i n the P l a n n i n g R e p o r t , the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food c o n d u c t e d y i e l d d e m o n s t r a t i o n t r i a l s i n F o r t N e l s o n f o r a v a r i e t y of c e r e a l g r a i n s and c a n o l a . These were d i s c o n t i n u e d a f t e r two y e a r s due t o a l a c k of funds. A c c o r d i n g t o the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t , the r e s u l t s a r e v e r y good and show t h a t a wide range of c r o p s can be produced i n F o r t N e l s o n ; however, t h i s does not imply t h a t c r o p p r o d u c t i o n t h e r e i s c u r r e n t l y economic (Bomford, 1984). F o r e s t r y , r e c r e a t i o n a l , w i l d l i f e and e x t r a c t i v e r e s o u r c e s 1 14 of the a r e a c o v e r e d by the F o r t N e l s o n P l a n n i n g Report a r e a l s o r e v i e w e d by the c o n s u l t a n t . These r e s o u r c e s a r e e v a l u a t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y a c c o r d i n g t o , p r i m a r i l y , e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r i e s . C a p a b i l i t y and p r i m a r y i n v e n t o r y maps a t a 1:50,000 s c a l e a r e p r e p a r e d f o r each of the f i v e r e s o u r c e u s e s . In the p l a n n i n g r e p o r t document, more d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n i s g i v e n of each of the r e s o u r c e uses l i n k i n g s p e c i f i c c a p a b i l i t i e s or s p e c i e s t o p a r t i c u l a r s o i l s or l a n d s c a p e s . The i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n the r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r i e s and c a p a b i l i t y mapping p r o v i d e s the b a s i c i n p u t i n t o s u i t a b i l i t y r a t i n g s f o r v a r i o u s s e c t o r s (see S e c t i o n 4.6). 4.5 The Assessment and Relevance of Socio-economic F a c t o r s i n  the P l a n n i n g E x e r c i s e N e i t h e r the McConachie Creek P r o j e c t nor the F o r t N e l s o n P l a n n i n g Report study i n c l u d e a review or e v a l u a t i o n of s o c i o -economic f a c t o r s , nor a r e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and s e r v i c e s c o n s i d e r e d . In f a c t , F o r t N e l s o n has no farm support i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and the n e a r e s t farm s e r v i c e s a re 400 k i l o m e t r e s t o the s o u t h i n F o r t S t . John (Bomford, 1984). The P l a n n i n g Report s t a t e s c l e a r l y t h a t s o cio-economic c r i t e r i a p l a y a minor r o l e i n the a n a l y s i s . A l s o , the l e v e l of c u r r e n t u t i l i z a t i o n of the a r e a ' s r e s o u r c e s and the l e v e l of management i n the p l a n a r e a and the r e g i o n a re not a d d r e s s e d . The P l a n n i n g Report admits t o o p e r a t i n g i n a vacuum caused by the absence of a broader r e g i o n a l p l a n . The o n l y economic a n a l y s i s i n McConachie Creek i s a l i m i t e d e v a l u a t i o n of whether l a n d s a l e s w i l l c o v e r the c o s t of a c c e s s roads and e l e c t r i c a l s e r v i c e s . 1 15 In a t t e m p t i n g t o a s s e s s the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , the P l a n n i n g Report mentions the e x t r a c o s t of c l e a r i n g l a n d due t o heavy f o r e s t , the absence of markets and the d i s t a n c e i n v o l v e d t o s h i p s u p p l i e s and p r o d u c t s . I t a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t no assesssment has been done of the c r o p s which can be grown e c o n o m i c a l l y i n the F o r t N e l s o n a r e a . F u r t h e r , v e r y l i t t l e of the l a n d s a l r e a d y a l l o c a t e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e a r e b e i n g farmed. In l i g h t of a l l t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , the t a s k f o r c e s t a t e s " t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t a r e a a v a i l a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e i n the F o r t N e l s o n a r e a i n the s h o r t term" (Peace Region and Land P l a n n n i n g Branch, 1983, p.26). T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t , based on t h e i r l i m i t e d a n a l y s i s , the t a s k f o r c e p r e f e r s t o see no f u r t h e r d i s p o s i t i o n of a r a b l e b l o c k s of Crown l a n d under c u r r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The assessment of r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r o t h e r r e s o u r c e s i s a l s o hampered, a c c o r d i n g t o the P l a n n i n g Report i t s e l f , by i t s l i m i t e d f o c u s and l a c k of a n a l y s i s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e f o r f o r e s t r y where a number of s p e c i e s u t i l i z a t i o n s c e n a r i o s or s i l v i c u l t u r a l i n i t i t i a t i v e s c o u l d change l a n d use r e q u i r e m e n t s . 4.6 A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s and t h e i r S e l e c t i o n The F o r t N e l s o n P l a n n i n g Report i n c l u d e s a l a n d s u i t a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s as an a i d t o r e s o l v e l a n d use i s s u e s and t o d e v e l o p p l a n a l t e r n a t i v e s . I n d i v i d u a l s u i t a b i l i t y maps ar e g e n e r a t e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , r e c r e a t i o n and w i l d l i f e . V a r i a b l e s used t o determine s u i t a b i l i t y i n c l u d e r e s o u r c e , l a n d use, and the s o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e management and development of the l a n d . The s e l e c t i o n of t h e s e v a r i a b l e s i s 116 u n u s u a l i n t h a t most of them a r e o m i t t e d from the a n a l y s i s i n the P l a n n i n g R e p o r t . A f o u r c l a s s r a t i n g of s u i t a b i l i t y i s d e v e l o p e d f o r each r e s o u r c e , r a n g i n g from h i g h t o n i l . A g r i c u l t u r a l s u i t a b i l i t y i s d e t e r m i n e d m a i n l y from e n v i r o n m e n t a l c r i t e r i a such as c l i m a t i c c a p a b i l i t y , s o i l l i m i t a t i o n s t o s e l e c t e d c r o p s , f l o o d i n g h a z a r d , topography and e r o s i o n . The o n l y n o n - e n v i r o n m e n t a l l i m i t a t i o n i s a c c e s s . Polygons a r e c l a s s i f i e d i n t o lower s u i t a b i l i t y r a t i n g s based on gro u p i n g s of p r o g r e s s i v e l y p o o r e r c o n d i t i o n s . Each i n d i v i d u a l s u i t a b i l i t y f a c t o r can bump the p o l y g o n t o a lower r a t i n g . For example, i f a s i t e meets a l l the c o n d i t i o n s f o r a h i g h r a t i n g but p h y s i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s t o a c c e s s may e x i s t , i t would be c l a s s i f i e d as moderate s u i t a b i l i t y . For o t h e r r e s o u r c e s e c t o r s , d i f f e r e n t s u i t a b i l i t y f a c t o r s e x i s t . F o r e s t r y and w i l d l i f e o n l y use e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s , w h i l e r e c r e a t i o n i n c l u d e s a c c e s s a g a i n and uses a w e i g h t i n g system t o c l a s s i f y s u i t a b i l i t y . S u i t a b i l i t y maps, once d e v e l o p e d , a r e combined t h r o u g h what the r e p o r t c a l l s r u l e s of c o m b i n a t i o n . These r u l e s a r e not s p e c i f i e d ; however, depending on the emphasis of each of the a l t e r n a t i v e s ( d i s c u s s e d b e l o w ) , l a n d s w i t h the h i g h e s t s u i t a b i l i t y f o r the p a r t i c u l a r use b e i n g emphasised a r e a l l o c a t e d t o t h a t use. The amount a l l o c a t e d r e f l e c t s t he p r o j e c t e d r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h a t use. The r e s u l t i n g a l l o c a t i o n i s compared t o the s t a t u s quo and t o the r e s u l t i n g impact on each r e s o u r c e use. F u r t h e r a d j u s t m e n t s a re made by the P l a n n i n g Team u n t i l an a c c e p t a b l e f i t i s a r r a n g e d among (and w i t h i n ) the v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s (Kok, 1985). The r e s u l t of t h i s e x e r c i s e i s 1 17 a p o r t f o l i o of a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t u a l p l a n maps which a r e based on d i f f e r e n t f u t u r e management and development s t r a t e g i e s . The f o u r a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s f o r F o r t N e l s o n a r e : • a g r i c u l t u r a l emphasis; •mixed management ( a g r i c u l t u r a l e m p h a s i s ) ; •mixed management ( w i l d l i f e e m p h a s i s ) ; • f o r e s t r y management emphasis. These a l t e r n a t i v e s were p r e s e n t e d t o the p u b l i c and o t h e r a g e n c i e s f o r review and a p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e was s e l e c t e d by the t a s k f o r c e . The p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e i s not p u b l i c a l l y known s i n c e the P l a n n i n g Report was s u b m i t t e d t o the M i n i s t e r of Lands, P a r k s and Housing i n 1983 and a d e c i s i o n has not been made y e t . T h i s s t e p of s u b m i s s i o n t o the M i n i s t e r i s not i n the documented program; n e v e r t h e l e s s , i t has e f f e c t i v e l y s h e l v e d the o r i g i n a l Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g program, which i s now s u b s t i t u t e d by Program P l a n n i n g . T h i s means a r e t u r n t o the development of u n i l a t e r a l p l a n n i n g programs such as the i m p o s i t i o n of P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t s and p r o j e c t s such as McConachie Creek w i t h o u t due c o n s i d e r a t i o n of o t h e r r e s o u r c e v a l u e s or socio-economic f a c t o r s . 118 4.7 Implementation of the P l a n As mentioned above, the F o r t Nelson Area S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown Land P l a n n i n g Report has not been implemented. Even i f i t i s f i n a l l y approved, i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t i t w i l l go t o the D e t a i l e d P l a n stage s i n c e the o v e r a l l Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g program has been suspended. Implementation of the McConachie Creek P r o j e c t was undertaken by the M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and Housing. P r o c e d u r e s f o r l e a s e - p u r c h a s e agreements and p u b l i c a u c t i o n s g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w the M i n i s t r y ' s e x t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r e p o l i c y , d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . The M i n i s t r y has funded 38 k i l o m e t r e s of a c c e s s roads and e l e c t r i c a l s e r v i c i n g t o some of the l o t s , but i t a t t e m p t s t o r e c o v e r t h e s e c o s t s i n the p r i c e s of the l o t s . D u r i n g 1982 and 1983 a l l 55 l o t s were a l l o c a t e d . The h i g h e s t b i d i s the s o l e c r i t e r i o n f o r d i s p o s i t i o n . To d a t e , 13 of the p a r c e l s a r e undergoing some development. No l a n d i n the p r o j e c t i s yet i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , and the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t p r e d i c t s t h a t 50% of the l a n d i n the p r o j e c t w i l l r e v e r t t o the Crown due t o l a c k of development (Bomford, 1984). There i s no m o n i t o r i n g and e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s i n p l a c e beyond the normal r e v i e w of whether l e a s e development c o n d i t i o n s have beeen met by the l e a s e e . 4.7.1 R o l e of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Agency and Support Programs f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Development i n the M a r g i n a l F r i n g e The M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food"s invo l v e m e n t i n p l a n n i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i n F o r t N e l s o n i s l i m i t e d . F o r t N e l s o n i s i n the F o r t S t . John 119 a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s t r i c t which i n c l u d e s 25% of B r i t i s h Columbia's c u l t i v a t e d f a r m l a n d but has o n l y one p r o f e s s i o n a l a g r o l o g i s t on s t a f f . E s s e n t i a l l y , the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food o n l y r e a c t s t o the M i n i s t r y of Land, Parks and Housing p r o p o s a l s . Recommendations are g i v e n on l a n d c a p a b i l i t y , p a r c e l s i z e and o t h e r r e l a t e d f a c t o r s f o r i n d i v i d u a l r e f e r r a l s . However, a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food d i d s i t on the i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l t a s k f o r c e f o r the F o r t N e l s o n P l a n n i n g Report a r e a and, w i t h the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d s i n the F o r t N e l s o n a r e a , M i n i s t r y s t a f f e x t e n s i o n and t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s have i n c r e a s e d (Bomford, 1984). The o n l y program which the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food has t h a t may be more r e l e v a n t t o newly d e v e l o p i n g a r e a s than a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d a r e a s i s the A g r i c u l t u r a l -Land Development A s s i s t a n c e program (A.L.D.A.). A.L.D.A. p r o v i d e s l o a n s a t one-h a l f the prime r a t e up t o $25,000 per s i n g l e farm u n i t . E l i g i b l e p r o j e c t s i n c l u d e l a n d c l e a r i n g , seedbed p r e p a r a t i o n , on-farm r o a d s , water s u p p l y and e r o s i o n c o n t r o l . However, s i n c e the farm must be c l a s s i f i e d as a farm f o r tax purposes a minimum s a l e s l e v e l u s u a l l y must be a c h i e v e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , many newly d e v e l o p i n g farm u n i t s have d i f f i c u l t y o b t a i n i n g t h i s s t a t u s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the a p p l i c a n t f o r A.L.D.A. must have a l r e a d y the r e s o u r c e s and equipment t o o p e r a t e the farm ( M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food, 1983a). As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , t h i s i s not a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r p u r c h a s i n g Crown l a n d . In e f f e c t , Crown l a n d may be purchased f o r a g r i c u l t u r e from the government, and the a p p l i c a n t may f i n d , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h a t he i s i n e l i g i b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development f u n d i n g from t h a t same government. 120 The M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food a l s o has a Guaranteed Loan Program and a P a r t i a l I n t e r e s t Reimbursement Program. The P a r t i a l I n t e r e s t Reimbursement Program reduces i n t e r e s t c o s t s t o one p e r c e n t below the prime r a t e ( M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food, 1983b). Another program which c o u l d have been a p p l i c a b l e t o the F o r t N e l s o n a r e a i s the Canada- B r i t i s h Columbia A g r i c u l t u r e and R u r a l Development Agreement. Under t h i s agreement, funds a r e a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h the Support S e r v i c e s and Community Development Program t o p r o v i d e p a r t i a l f u n d i n g f o r e l e c t r i c a l s e r v i c i n g , market a c c e s s r o a d s , m a r k e t i n g f a c i l i t i e s and r u r a l j o b c r e a t i o n p r o j e c t s (Department of R e g i o n a l , Economic E x p a n s i o n , 1977). There i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t any funds were spent under t h i s agreement, which e x p i r e d i n 1983, i n the F o r t N e l s o n a r e a . 4.7.2 Crown Land D i s p o s i t i o n Crown l a n d i s a l l o c a t e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l use under the p r o v i s i o n s of the Land Act (Ch 214, R.S.B.C, 1979) and i s s u b j e c t t o the M i n i s t r y ' s E x t e n s i v e A g r i c u l t u r e P o l i c y ( M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and H o u s i n g , 1981). The f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s a p p l y t o the l e a s e or s a l e of Crown l a n d f o r commercial a g r i c u l t u r a l development: • a p p l i c a n t s must be Canadian c i t i z e n s or l a n d e d i m m i g r a n t s , 19 y e a r s or o l d e r ; • a p p l i c a n t s must have r e s i d e d i n B.C. f o r two c o n s e c u t i v e y e a r s i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r t o the date of a p p l i c a t i o n ; •development and c u l t i v a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s must be i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a c l e a r i n g p l a n p r e p a r e d by the M i n i s t r y ; •removal of t i m b e r i s r e s t r i c t e d t o a r a b l e p o r t i o n s 121 of the l e a s e h o l d . A M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s ' L i c e n s e t o Cut i s r e q u i r e d f o r t i m b e r removal; •performance i s s e c u r e d t h r o u g h a buy-back o p t i o n r e g i s t e r e d a g a i n s t t i t l e ; • l e s s than 15 h e c t a r e p a r c e l s , when pu r c h a s e d , must be bound or c o n s o l i d a t e d i n t i t l e w i t h the e x i s t i n g f e e l a n d of a p p l i c a n t ; • l a n d under a p p l i c a t i o n must be a minimum of 50% a r a b l e ; • t o t a l a r ea of Crown l a n d h e l d a t any one time cannot exceed 520 h e c t a r e s , u n l e s s so o r d e r e d by C a b i n e t ; •minimum p a r c e l s i z e f o r d i s p o s i t i o n i s 15 h e c t a r e s , u n l e s s a d j a c e n t t o a p a r c e l owned by the a p p l i c a n t ; • r e s a l e t o non-Canadians i s not p e r m i t t e d . S e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t t e n u r e s a r e a v a i l a b l e on Crown l a n d i n A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Area p r o j e c t s or i n o t h e r a r e a s c o v e r e d by a Crown l a n d p l a n . The most im p o r t a n t forms of t e n u r e i n the F o r t N e l s o n a r e a a r e d i s c u s s e d below. Crown l a n d can be s o l d i f i t i s b e i n g used i n t r e s p a s s -or i f an e x i s t i n g farm r e q u i r e s 15 h e c t a r e s or l e s s . The major k i n d s of s a l e s , however, a r e those r e s u l t i n g from a l e a s e - t o -p urchase agreement, d i s c u s s e d below. L e a s e - o n l y t e n u r e s a r e g i v e n f o r those a r e a s where s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , such as a f l o o d i n g r e s e r v e , warrant such an arrangement. L e a s e - t o - p u r c h a s e i s the main form of te n u r e f o r the d i s p o s i t i o n of Crown l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia. L e a s e - d e v e l o p - p u r c h a s e agreements can be a c q u i r e d by d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n . I f no c o m p e t i t i o n i s l i k e l y f o r the l a n d under a p p l i c a t i o n , i t i s approved by the M i n i s t r y and made a v a i l a b l e a t the a p p r a i s e d market v a l u e . When c o m p e t i t i o n i s l i k e l y or when the M i n i s t r y i s m a r k e t i n g new farm u n i t s which i t has d e v e l o p e d , the l a n d a f f e c t e d i s a d v e r t i s e d f o r d i s p o s i t i o n and an a u c t i o n i s h e l d (see F i g u r e 4.3). The u p s e t , or minimum, 25i pnranrmstti ui wowwrroism i251 pmrarrFOtsAu list nomTFOtuu PUBLIC AUCTION OF AGRICULTURAL CROWN LAND The Ministry of Lariat, Parks and Housing wHI be auctioning ths following agricultural paresis on a leass-osvsiop-purcnass basis. Thsee paresis am located In ths McConachie Creek Area which Is North of Fort Nelson. Parcel District Slzsin Arable Area Upset No, Lot No. , ***** in Hectares Price Power 14 3326 1t6.43» 116 44,773 Yss . 18 3328 120.483 116 46.374 Yea 17 3328 125438 ' 110 45,278 YSS 18 3390 98.814. 93 39,742 YSS :19 3331 108:887 64 39492 YSS * 20 ' 3338 T92443 171 52.861 NO -~*21 3341 81.144 39 23,417 NO 25- 3348 . \ 245.54 213 64,025 No " 3846 '", 8648 82 24,716 NO 3? • 3384 189.14 170 48,098 NO 38 3359. 12043 109 36,064 No 37 3380 14*36 79 32403 No 38 3361 13338 77 32,071 No 4t 3304 148.87 108 .38424 NO 44 3387 104.48 . - 99 32,090 No 45 3388* 336T 104.44 .>. 83 31,493< No 48 11857 , 89 33488 No •*47 3370 - 117.38*- " 53 30442 No 3> w^'orfmACcmmounjncT All Legal Deeeripoonsand Stzoasubjeot to final survey plen approval. Tn* publk; suction wW brhsM w atton Centre, Fort Hslsch. Bonus bids for the right to soqutre these psroets on the awns and oondl-tlona specified in the agreement will only be aootptsd from Cansdlsfldttzare) who have resided In . British Wumbla tor two yean immediately preceding signing an agreement and who -are 18 yean of older. Bids will not be aoospted rrow0>ipori9ons, except for farm ooipcx allocs as defined under the Agricultural Crodft Act of B.C. Successful bidden win enter Into a 10 year Isaes and wW be required to develop 28 per cent of the arable portion before purchasing the land , Further Inforrr*^ on those parceh) B C f ^ FIGURE 4.3; ADVERTISING CROWN LAND DISPOSITIONS* *Source: The Sun, May 20, 1983 123 p r i c e a t the a u c t i o n i s the a p p r a i s e d market v a l u e . The l e a s e ' s term i s t e n y e a r s d u r i n g which time i n t e r e s t , at the M i n i s t r y ' s p r e s c r i b e d r a t e (1982-18.75%), accumulates on the i n i t i a l p r i c e of the the l a n d , and the r e n t a l r a t e w i l l be 1 p e r c e n t of the a p p r a i s e d v a l u e f o r the f i r s t f i v e y e a r s . I f the l e a s e e b r i n g s 25 p e r c e n t of the a r a b l e p o r t i o n of the l a n d i n t o p r o d u c t i o n w i t h i n the f i r s t f i v e y e a r s , the accumulated i n t e r e s t i s f o r g i v e n and the l a n d i s s o l d a t i t s i n i t i a l s e l l i n g p r i c e . I f the l e a s e e does not b r i n g 25 p e r c e n t of the a r a b l e p o r t i o n i n t o p r o d u c t i o n w i t h i n f i v e y e a r s , the accumulated i n t e r e s t i s added t o the o r i g i n a l s e l l i n g p r i c e and t h i s becomes the r e v i s e d s e l l i n g p r i c e . Annual r e n t a l then becomes 5 p e r c e n t of the r e v i s e d s e l l i n g p r i c e . I n t e r e s t accumulates on the r e v i s e d s e l l i n g p r i c e i n y e a r s s i x t o t e n and the purchase p r i c e , once c o n d i t i o n s have been met, i s the r e v i s e d s e l l i n g p r i c e p l u s a ccumulated i n t e r e s t . To purchase l a n d s under a l e a s e - d e v e l o p - p u r c h a s e agreement, 25 p e r c e n t of the a r a b l e l a n d must be d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n 10 y e a r s or e l s e t h e l a n d r e v e r t s t o the Crown. A f t e r s a l e , the Crown r e t a i n s the r i g h t t o r e p u r c h a s e the l a n d u n t i l i t i s c l a s s i f i e d a farm f o r t a x purposes ( M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and Housing b r o c h u r e , 1981). The M i n i s t r y does not r e q u i r e t h a t a p p l i c a n t s f o r Crown l a n d demonstrate any knowledge of f a r m i n g nor does i t r e q u i r e a p p l i c a n t s t o show t h a t they have the r e s o u r c e s t o d e v e l o p the l a n d . Timber h a r v e s t i n g on Crown l a n d s l e a s e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes i s a c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e . The l e a s s e e has the r i g h t t o remove t i m b e r from a l l a r a b l e p o r t i o n s of the l e a s e under a 1 24 l i c e n s e t o c u t i s s u e d by t h e M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s . Upon p u r c h a s i n g the l a n d , the l e a s s e e w i l l have t o purchase the re m a i n i n g t i m b e r a t the g o i n g stumpage r a t e or e l s e l o s e the r i g h t s t o the t i m b e r . The a c c u s a t i o n has been made t h a t many a p p l i c a n t s a c q u i r e Crown l a n d under the g u i s e of a g r i c u l t u r a l development s i m p l y f o r t h e t i m b e r r i g h t s (The Sun, December 13, 1984). R e f e r r a l s on Crown l a n d a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development may be t o the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food, M i n i s t r y of Environment, M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s and t o the a p p r o p r i a t e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . I f the l a n d i s not w i t h i n the ALR then a r e f e r r a l i s made t o t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission t o c o n s i d e r h a v i n g i t i n c l u d e d . A p p e a l s a re p o s s i b l e on the M i n i s t r y ' s p o s i t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e l a n d ' s a p p r a i s e d v a l u e and a r a b i l i t y . A p p e a l s can be made on the R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r ' s d e c i s i o n c o n c e r n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s t o the M i n i s t r y ' s Land A p p l i c a t i o n Appeal Committee. 4.8 The S i g n i f i c a n c e of P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the P l a n n i n g  E x e r e c i s e There has been no o f f i c i a l p u b l i c i nvolvement i n the McConachie Creek P r o j e c t p l a n n i n g or development. P u b l i c i n volvement i n the F o r t N e l s o n P l a n n i n g Report p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w s the g u i d e l i n e s i n the M i n i s t r y ' s P l a n n i n g Handbook. The Handbook s t a t e s t h a t : l o c a l c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g can l e a d t o more a c c e p t a b l e p r o p o s a l s f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and management of Crown l a n d 125 r e s o u r c e s . ( M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and Housing, 1981, p . v i i - c 2 ) . The p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n program r e s u l t s must be documented i n the p l a n documents as they a re i n the F o r t N e l s o n P l a n n i n g R e p o r t . In F o r t N e l s o n , p u b l i c i n p u t was s o l i c i t e d t h r o u g h a q u e s t i o n n a i r e format a f t e r a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s had been p r e p a r e d . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e q u e s t e d t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s s e l e c t a p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e and suggest r e v i s i o n s . The P l a n n i n g Report was a l s o a d v e r t i s e d i n the l o c a l media, and c o p i e s were made a v a i l a b l e l o c a l l y . C o n s u l t a n t s were o b l i g e d t o c o n t a c t l o c a l community groups, such as the Farmers I n s t i t u t e , f o r t h e i r i n p u t . An i n f o r m a t i o n s e s s i o n was h e l d i n F o r t N e l s o n which r e s u l t e d i n o n l y two or t h r e e b r i e f s b e i n g p r e p a r e d by l o c a l r e s i d e n t s (Kok,' 1985) and a v e r y s t r o n g n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n t o the P l a n n i n g R e p o r t . There was no p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t p r i o r t o t h i s i n the development of the P l a n n i n g R e p o r t . The p u b i c ' s l a t e i nvolvement i n the Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s has been c r i t i c i z e d i n the pa s t year by members of the p r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. They f e l t t h a t the p u b l i c had no i n f l u e n c e i n the d e c i s i o n s b e i n g made. T h i s c r i t i c i s m was extended, as a r e s u l t , t o the e n t i r e p l a n n i n g program and i t s p o l i c y s t a tements (The Sun, March 17, 1984). I t s h o u l d be noted a g a i n t h a t the new Program P l a n n i n g approach does not pe r m i t p u b l i c involvement and l i m i t s i n t e r - a g e n c y c o o r d i n a t i o n . 126 4 . 9 Case Summary P l a n n i n g f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i n F o r t N e l s o n i s o c c u r r i n g i n a d i s j o i n t e d manner and i n a c o n t e x t of c hanging p l a n n i n g p o l i c y and programs. The p r e s c r i b e d p l a n n i n g program of the M i n i s t r y of Lands, Pa r k s and H ousing, i s comprehensive and complex i n i t s h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r l i n e s s , but i t i s not b e i n g implemented. The F o r t N e l s o n P l a n n i n g Report e x e r c i s e does p r e s e n t a range of p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s , g i v i n g the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s f l e x i b i l i t y i n s e l e c t i n g the p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e or m o d i f y i n g i t . The a n a l y s i s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s c o v e r s the range of p o s s i b l e r e s o u r c e u s e s , and a comparison i s made of p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e r e s o u r c e use s u i t a b i l i t y . However, The F o r t N e l s o n Area S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown Land P l a n n i n g Report was p r e p a r e d e s s e n t i a l l y i n r e a c t i o n t o the proposed d e s i g n a t i o n of a P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t i n the a r e a . D e a d l i n e s were g i v e n and the scope and type of the a n a l y s i s was l i m i t e d . The a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s of the l a r g e r r e g i o n were not a d e q u a t e l y e v a l u a t e d and s o cio-economic f a c t o r s were almost c o m p l e t e l y o m i t t e d . A g r i c u l t u r e ' s v i a b i l i t y as an i n d u s t r y i n F o r t N e l s o n i s unknown. The m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s b e h i n d v o c a l and i n s i s t e n t community demands f o r i n c r e a s e d Crown l a n d d i s p o s i t i o n f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development a r e an i m p o r t a n t aspect of p l a n n i n g f u t u r e development. These f a c t o r s have not been s t u d i e d . However, an h i s t o r i c a l review of p a s t Crown l a n d d i s p o s i t i o n s , development and subsequent d i s p o s a l of deeded l a n d i s one o p t i o n i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . 1 27 The M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food's involvement i s m i n i m a l i n the development of new a r e a s and i t has few programs o r i e n t e d towards f r o n t i e r development. P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s inadequate and l i m i t e d t o a r e v i e w of the the completed a l t e r n a t i v e p r o p o s a l s . The f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t s of the Crown l a n d a l l o c a t i o n p r o c e s s emphasises s t r o n g l y the g e n e r a t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l p r o v i n c i a l r evenues. T h i s emphasis on maximum revenue from l a n d s a l e s , combined w i t h the absence of c o n d i t i o n s r e q u i r i n g a p p l i c a n t s t o have any knowledge of a g r i c u l t u r e and the l i m i t e d amount of f i n a n c i a l s u p port f o r development may be f a c t o r s i n the poor showing of a g r i c u l t u r e , t o d a t e , i n F o r t N e l s o n . T h i s i s u n f o r t u n a t e because the l a n d c l e a r l y d i s p l a y s s u i t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , m a i n t a i n i n g l o c a l b e l i e f i n the d e s i r a b i l i t y of development. I t might be an a p p r o p r i a t e time now f o r the r e l e v a n t o f f i c i a l s t o go back and read c a r e f u l l y the o r i g i n a l ELUC g u i d e l i n e s (see S e c t i o n 4.2) f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d . They r e p r e s e n t a much sounder and more i n t e l l i g e n t a pproach t o r e s o u r c e management than the c u r r e n t i n c o n s i s t e n t methods, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n . T h i s i n c o n s i s t e n t approach t o p l a n n i n g i n F o r t N e l s o n , based on inadequate r e s o u r c e d a t a , w i l l o n l y s e r v e t o c o n t i n u e the h e a t e d debate over the d e s i r a b i l i t y of d e v e l o p i n g F o r t N e l s o n as an a g r i c u l t u r a l c e n t r e . Many r e s i d e n t s compare F o r t N e l s o n t o the F o r t V e r m i l i o n - H i g h L e v e l a r e a of A l b e r t a , the s u b j e c t of the next case s t u d y , c l a i m i n g t h a t the s u c c e s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n t h a t a r e a j u s t i f i e s government support f o r development i n F o r t N e l s o n . REFERENCES A i r S t u d i e s Branch. 1981. C l i m a t i c C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r A g r i c u l t u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia. M i n i s t r y of Environment, V i c t o r i a . ARDA. 1971. S o i l C a p a b i l i t y f o r A g r i c u l t u r e Canada Land I n v e n t o r y : F o r t N e s l o n 94J/NE. Queen's P r i n t e r . Ottawa. Bomford, L.E., D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t , F o r t S t . J o h n . P e r s o n a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . Department of R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n . 1977. Canada- B r i t i s h Columbia S u b s i d i a r y Agreement on A g r i c u l t u r e  and R u r a l Development. Government of Canada, Ottawa. Kok, Wim, R e g i o n a l P l a n n e r , M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and H o u s i n g , F o r t S t . John. Telephone i n t e r v i e w , March 14,1985. K o w a l l , R.C. 1982. S o i l s of the F o r t Simpson T r a i l A r e a . Report No. 58 B r i t i s h Columbia S o i l S u rvey. M i n i s t r y of Environment, Kelowna. Land P l a n n i n g Branch. 1983. Program P l a n n i n g . M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and H o u s i n g , V i c t o r i a . Land Use P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n . 1981. P l a n n i n g Handbook. M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and Housing, V i c t o r i a . M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food. 1983a. A.L.D.A. A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Development A c t ( b r o c h u r e ) . M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food, V i c t o r i a . M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r a e and Food. 1983b. 1982 Annual  R e p o r t . M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food, V i c t o r i a . M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and H o u s i n g . 1981. A c q u i r i n g Crown Land f o r A g r i c u l t u r e ( b r o c h u r e ) . M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and H o u s i n g , V i c t o r i a . M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and H o u s i n g . 1981b. P r i n c e George Area S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown Land P l a n . M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and H o u s i n g , V i c t o r i a . M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and H o u s i n g . 1982. McConachie Creek A g r i c u l t u r a l A u c t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n . M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and H o u s i n g , F o r t S t . John. M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and Housing and M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s . 1981. D e f e r r e d Area P l a n n i n g . Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a . Peace Region and Land P l a n n i n g Branch. 1983. F o r t N e l s o n  Area S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown Land P l a n n i n g R e p o r t . M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Hou s i n g , V i c t o r i a . P l a n n i n g Systems S e c t i o n . 1981. Crown Land P l a n n i n g  H i e r a r c h y And D e s i g n a t i o n Systems. M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and Housing, V i c t o r i a . T a l i s m a n Land Resource C o n s u l t a n t s . 1982. F o r t Nelson  D e f e r r e d P l a n n i n g A r e a . T a l i s m a n Land Resource C o n s u l t a n t s , Vancouver. The Sun. May 20, 1983. The Sun. March 17, 1984. Farmland p o l i c y h i t by Socred MLA. The Sun. December 13, 1984. Crown l a n d p o l i c y c a l l e d a s c a n d a l . V a l e n t i n e , K.W.G. 1971. S o i l s of the F o r t Nelson Area of  B r i t i s h Columbia. Report No. 12 B r i t i s h Columbia S o i l Survey. Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Ottawa. V a l e n t i n e K.W.G. and L i d s t o n e , A l l a n B. 1985. The Use of Survey I n t e n s i t y L e v e l (Order) i n S o i l Survey. S u b m i t t e d t o Can. J . Of S o i l S c i . 130 CHAPTER 5 CASE STUDY NUMBER THREE FORT VERMILION, ALBERTA 131 5.1 INTRODUCTION F o r t V e r m i l i o n i s l o c a t e d i n Improvement D i s t r i c t No. 23 i n the Lower Peace R i v e r r e g i o n of n o r t h w e s t e r n A l b e r t a . I t i s 590 k i l o m e t r e s n o r t h of Edmonton and 65 k i l o m e t r e s e a s t of High L e v e l . Improvement D i s t r i c t (I.D.) No. 23 has a p o p u l a t i o n of 13,000 c e n t r e d i n High L e v e l , w h i l e F o r t V e r m i l i o n has a p o p u l a t i o n of 764. Economic a c t i v i t y c o n s i s t s of a g r i c u l t u r e , o i l and gas e x p l o r a t i o n and development, and f o r e s t r y ( P e t e r C. N i c h o l s & A s s o c i a t e s L t d . , 1981a). Most of t h i s a c t i v i t y f o c u s s e s on Hig h L e v e l , w h i l e F o r t V e r m i l i o n i s a s e r v i c e c e n t r e f o r the s u r r o u n d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s (see Map 5.1) and has an A g r i c u l t u r e Canada E x p e r i m e n t a l Farm. The l a t e s t surge i n the a r e a ' s development was s t i m u l a t e d by the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Mackenzie Highway i n 1947 and the Great S l a v e R a i l w a y i n 1965. A g r i c u l t u r a l development i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p p o r t e d by work i n o t h e r economic s e c t o r s w i t h 40 t o 50 p e r c e n t of the l o c a l farm o p e r a t o r s r e p o r t i n g o f f - f a r m work (Thompson, 1981). F o r t V e r m i l i o n has a b o r e a l c l i m a t e w i t h s e v e r e w i n t e r s and s h o r t , warm summers. Weather f l u c t u a t i o n s can be extreme both from year t o year and on a d a i l y b a s i s . P r e c i p i t a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be one of the main l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . T o t a l mean p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s 360 m i l i m e t r e s , but summer p r e c i p i t a t i o n e q u a l s o n l y 55 t o 65 p e r c e n t of the p r e c i p i t a t i o n a t Grande P r a i r i e and Edmonton. The f r e e z e - f r e e p e r i o d v a r i e s w i d e l y w i t h i n t h e a r e a , r a n g i n g from an average f i g u r e of 75 days a t one l o c a t i o n t o 91 a t F o r t V e r m i l i o n . The range of average f r e e z e - f r e e p e r i o d over time i s a l s o extreme w i t h a low of f o u r f r e e z e - f r e e days t o a h i g h of 124 r e c o r d e d a t 132 1 133 F o r t V e r m i l i o n . The average number of growing degree-days i s 1250, but t h i s f i g u r e a l s o v a r i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h i n the a r e a . A l t h o u g h , on a v e r a g e , the a r e a i s s u i t e d t o a wide range of c e r e a l g r a i n s , o i l seeds and f o r a g e c r o p s ( S t r o n g , 1981), a r e a l and t e m p o r a l c l i m a t i c f l u c t u a t i o n s may make the p r o d u c t i o n of l e s s hardy c r o p s such as wheat more r i s k y . A r a b l e s o i l s of the Lower Peace R i v e r Region are e x t e n s i v e . In I.D. 23, a l o n e , t h e r e a r e 1.6 m i l l i o n h e c t a r e s of p o t e n t i a l l y a r a b l e undeveloped s o i l s . Much of the r e m a i n i n g a r a b l e s o i l s , however, a r e found i n s m a l l , complex u n i t s i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h lower c a p a b i l i t y l a n d (Resource P l a n n i n g B r a n c h , 1983b). S o i l s a r e d e r i v e d from p r e d o m i n a n t l y l a c u s t r i n e d e p o s i t s w i t h a r e a s of l a c u s t r o - t i l l , f l u v i a l , e o l i a n and o r g a n i c d e p o s i t s . The l u v i s o l s d e v e l o p e d on l a c u s t r i n e and f l u v i a l m a t e r i a l s a r e the most e x t e n s i v e a r a b l e s o i l s . These are f o l l o w e d by the s o l o n e t z i c s on l a c u s t r o - t i l l and some chernozems on the f l u v i a l d e p o s i t s . S o i l s a r e d e v e l o p e d on a l e v e l t o g e n t l y r o l l i n g p l a t e a u or l a c u s t r i n e b a s i n and, t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , on f l a t f l o o d p l a i n a r e a s ( S c h e e l a r and Macyk, 1972). A g r i c u l t u r e i n I.D. 23 i s expanding a t a tremendous r a t e . Over 140,000 h e c t a r e s a r e c u l t i v a t e d w i t h 4000 t o 8000 h e c t a r e s added e v e r y y e a r . Most of t h i s i s i n the F o r t V e r m i l i o n - H i g h L e v e l a r e a . There a r e over 600 farms p r o d u c i n g m a i n l y c a n o l a , wheat and b a r l e y (anon,1982; Canadian Wheat Board, 1984). Range r e s o u r c e s of the a r e a a r e l i m i t e d due t o c l i m a t e and p r e d a t i o n . L i v e s t o c k p r o d u c t i o n i s of m i n i m a l importance due t o o f f - f a r m employment and the a r e a ' s s u i t a b i l i t y f o r o t h e r c r o p s (Resource P l a n n i n g Branch, 1983a; anon, 1982). 134 The F o r t V e r m i l i o n case s t u d y p r e s e n t s an i l l u s t r a t i o n of a Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g program and a p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g program. The Jean D'Or P r a i r i e S u b - R e g i o n a l I n t e g r a t e d Resource P l a n i s c u r r e n t l y pending a p p r o v a l and i s an example of a p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e c a r r i e d out under a Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g program. The A c c e l e r a t e d Land S a l e s p r o j e c t program i s a f o l l o w - u p mechanism t o the I n t e g r a t e d Resource P l a n . I t has a l s o been implemented throughout the F o r t V e r m i l i o n a r e a on Crown l a n d t h a t i s not i n an I n t e g r a t e d Resource P l a n but has few r e s t r i c t i o n s f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . P l a n n i n g f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i n A l b e r t a i s a p a r t of a program i n i t i a t e d i n 1977 w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n of a r e s o u r c e management p o l i c y f o r the E a s t e r n S l o p e s (Government of A l b e r t a , 1984). The program i s termed the I n t e g r a t e d Resource P l a n n i n g System ( I R P S ) . The main o b j e c t i v e " of many of the p l a n s produced under IRPS i s t o f a c i l i t a t e the a l l o c a t i o n of Crown l a n d s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development. The o v e r a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l development g o a l of A l b e r t a Energy and N a t u r a l Resources i s t o d i s p o s e of 121,404 h e c t a r e s of l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l uses per year u n t i l 1988 (Resource P l a n n i n g Branch, 1983) . I have s e l e c t e d the Jean D'Or P r a i r i e I n t e g r a t e d Resource P l a n as the emphasis of t h i s case s t u d y . The p l a n a r e a i s l o c a t e d i n an area of r a p i d e x p a n s i o n . The Jean D'Or P l a n a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e s a number of i n n o v a t i o n s , unique t o the IRPS program and which are now o f f i c i a l l y i n c l u d e d i n the program. The p l a n a r e a i s a d j a c e n t and t o the e a s t of F o r t V e r m i l i o n (see Map 5.2) and c o n t a i n s 150,000 h e c t a r e s . The Jean D'Or P l a n ' s main 135 MRP. 5.2: JEAN D'OR PRAIRIE STUDY AREA* *Source: REAP,1983 1 36 o b j e c t i v e i s t o h e l p meet A l b e r t a Energy and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s ' g o a l f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development and t o s a t i s f y l o c a l demand f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s p o s i t i o n s . The program used f o r the a c t u a l d i s p o s i t i o n of Crown l a n d s , as mentioned above, i s A c c e l e r a t e d Land S a l e s . S e v e r a l A c c e l e r a t e d Land S a l e s p r o j e c t s have taken p l a c e i n the F o r t V e r m i l i o n a r e a over the past few y e a r s . Demand f o r l a n d f a r o u t s t r i p s s u p p l y , and development of new l a n d i s r a p i d l y e x p anding. The Jean D'Or P l a n was i n i t i a t e d i n 1981. A P l a n n i n g Team was formed t o d e v e l o p the p l a n and t o o versee the p r e p a r a t i o n of r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r i e s and economic assessments. The d r a f t p l a n was s u b m i t t e d t o the A s s o c i a t e M i n i s t e r of P u b l i c Lands and W i l d l i f e i n 1983 who then o r d e r e d f u r t h e r economic a n a l y s i s . The r e q u e s t e d i n f o r m a t i o n i s now c o m p l e t e d , and the f i n a l p l a n i s e x p e c t e d t o be approved t h i s s p r i n g . 5.2 S t r u c t u r i n g and S c o p i n g The P l a n n i n g Program The b a s i c e lements of the p l a n n i n g program f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development on Crown l a n d a r e the l a n d management p l a n n i n g c o n c e p t s of w h i t e , y e l l o w and green a r e a s and the I n t e g r a t e d Resource P l a n n i n g System as w e l l as the A c c e l e r a t e d Land S a l e s p r o j e c t program. White a r e a s a r e a s a r e the l o n g s e t t l e d a r e a s of the p r o v i n c e . Green a r e a s a r e m a i n l y f o r e s t e d , n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s , and y e l l o w a r e a s are those a r e a s , m a i n l y i n the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n , w h i c h a r e open f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s p o s i t i o n (see Map 5.3). A c c e l e r a t e d Land S a l e s i s a program t o d e v e l o p p r o j e c t s f o r t h e a l l o c a t i o n of Crown l a n d s i n e x i s t i n g y e l l o w 137 138 a r e a s or tho s e a r e a s a r e s w i t c h e d r e c e n t l y from green a r e a s t o y e l l o w , u s u a l l y f o l l o w i n g the IRPS p r o c e s s . A l l t h e s e programs come under the mandate of ENR, s p e c i f i c a l l y , t he P u b l i c Lands D i v i s i o n . The IRPS e v o l v e d from the development of the E a s t e r n S l o p e s r e s o u r c e management p o l i c y (Government of A l b e r t a , 1984). A comprehensive i n t e r a g e n c y approach t o i n t e g r a t e d management p l a n n i n g i s the u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h y f o r a l l Crown l a n d development i n A l b e r t a . The i n t e g r a t e d a s p e c t of IRPS i s r e f l e c t e d i n the review and a p p r o v a l system f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . I n t e r a g e n c y committees a r e e s t a b l i s h e d as an h i e r a r c h i c a l system of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , review and recommendations (see F i g u r e 5.1). The P l a n n i n g Team r e p r e s e n t s the f i e l d l e v e l committee r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n development. The R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committee of ENR R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r s i s i n v o l v e d i n an a d v i s o r y r o l e t o the P l a n n i n g Teams and t o the Resource I n t e g r a t i o n Committee ( R I C ) . The RIC i s composed of the d i r e c t o r s of ten government a g e n c i e s , i n c l u d i n g A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e . The RIC i s the key s u p e r v i s o r y and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g committee and i s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the P l a n n i n g Team. The RIC approves many of the components of I n t e g r a t e d Resource P l a n s d e v e l o p e d by the P l a n n i n g Team. I t a l s o s e t s p l a n n i n g p r i o r i t i e s , m o n i t o r s p r o g r e s s and i s the i n i t i a l agency f o r review and a p p r o v a l of the f i n a l p l a n . The N a t u r a l Resources A d v i s o r y Committee c o n s i s t s of the A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r s of the same t e n a g e n c i e s as a r e on the RIC. The N a t u r a l Resources A d v i s o r y Committee r a t i f i e s p l a n n i n g p r i o r i t i e s e s t a b l i s h e d by the RIC. I t a l s o i s the l e v e l 1 39 r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e f o r m u l a t i n g government's broad p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s i n t o a c t u a l programs. From the ADM l e v e l the IRPS p r o c e s s moves t o the next committee a t the Deputy M i n i s t e r l e v e l - the N a t u r a l Resources C o o r d i n a t i o n C o u n c i l . The C o u n c i l a d v i s e s the o t h e r l e v e l s of the IRPS on government p o l i c y . Once I n t e g r a t e d Resource P l a n s (IRP) a r e approved by the C o u n c i l , they a r e r e f e r r e d t o the A s s o c i a t e M i n i s t e r of P u b l i c Lands and W i l d l i f e by the Deputy M i n i s t e r of Renewable Resources. The f i n a l d e c i s i o n on IRPs i s made by the Economic P l a n n i n g and Resource Development Committee of C a b i n e t . The main a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c o - o r d i n a t i n g agency f o r the IRPS i s ENR's Resource E v a l u a t i o n and P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n (Resource E v a l u a t i o n and P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , 1983). The IRPS program was c o n c e i v e d as a comprehensive approach t o r e s o u r c e management based on f o u r l e v e l s of p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t y . The f o u r l e v e l s a re p r o v i n c i a l , r e g i o n a l , s u b - r e g i o n a l and l o c a l . To d a t e , the s u b - r e g i o n a l l e v e l has been the o p e r a t i o n a l program. At the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , the p o l i t i c i a n s or s e n i o r b u r e a u c r a c y i n i t i a t e broad p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s on the u t i l i z a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . The r e g i o n a l l e v e l c o n s i s t s of broad a r e a s such as the E a s t e r n S l o p e s . R e g i o n a l l e v e l p l a n s " d e f i n e the r e g i o n ' s r o l e i n meeting p r o v i n c i a l o b j e c t i v e s " (Resource E v a l u a t i o n and P l a n n i n g Branch, 1983, p.15) and s e t the d i r e c t i o n of the o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s f o r p l a n n i n g and r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n i n the a r e a . Few r e g i o n a l p l a n s have been p r e p a r e d . The Jean D'Or P l a n i s a s u b - r e g i o n a l p l a n t h a t was de v e l o p e d i n the absence of a r e g i o n a l p l a n . D u r i n g the co u r s e of i t s development, a R e g i o n a l Overview of the Lower Peace 140 F i g u r e 5.1; I n t e g r a t e d Resource P l a n n i n g A p p r o v a l P r o c e s s * PROCESS MECHANISMS P l a n Approved Economic P l a n n i n g and Resource Development C a b i n e t Committee A s s o c i a t e M i n i s t e r of P u b l i c Lands and W i l d l i f e Deputy M i n i s t e r of Renewable Resources N a t u r a l Resources C o o r d i n a t i o n C o u n c i l (Deputy M i n i s t e r s ) F i n a l P l a n D r a f t P l a n Design A l t e r n a t i v e s P o l i c y A l t e r n a t i v e s Data C o l l e c t i o n Terms of Re f e r e n c e P l a n I n i t i a t i o n N a t u r a l Resources A d v i s o r y Committee ( A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r s ) Resource I n t e g r a t i o n Committee ( D i r e c t o r s ) R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committee P u b l i c Involvement Program I n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l P l a n n i n g Teams ( F i e l d S t a f f ) *Source; Resource E v a l u a t i o n and P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , 1983 141 was completed. However, t h i s document d e a l t more w i t h r e g i o n a l d a t a and s i t i n g of p l a n n i n g a r e a s than w i t h p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n and i s not c o n s i d e r e d a r e g i o n a l p l a n ( P e t c h , 1984) L o c a l p l a n s o c c u r a t a v e r y d e t a i l e d s c a l e , and few have been p r e p a r e d t o d a t e . They d e a l m a i n l y w i t h s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e use c o n f l i c t s i n a l o c a l i z e d a r e a . None have been conducted i n the F o r t V e r m i l i o n a r e a . The main emphasis i n t h i s case study w i l l be on the s u b - r e g i o n a l l e v e l of the IRPS program and the subsequent p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g program of A c c e l e r a t e d Land S a l e s . These p l a n n i n g programs w i l l be o u t l i n e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . 5.2.1 Sub-Regional I n t e g r a t e d Resource P l a n n i n g S u b - r e g i o n a l p l a n s , such as the Jean D'Or P l a n , a r e concerned w i t h d e t e r m i n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e l a n d use p a t t e r n s and the d e s i r e d mix of a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l a r e a . P l a n s d e t e r m i n e r e s o u r c e management o b j e c t i v e s and r e s o l v e c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s by a l l o c a t i n g l a n d s t o p a r t i c u l a r uses and a s s i g n i n g p r i o r i t i e s . The main o b j e c t i v e i s t o s c r e e n p r o v i n c i a l and r e g i o n a l g o a l s through a s i e v e of s u b - r e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e c a p a b i l i t i e s or s u i t a b i l i t i e s . S u b - r e g i o n a l p l a n s a re p r e p a r e d i n an e x e r c i s e which i n c l u d e s s e v e r a l s t a g e s and a number of p r e l i m i n a r y documents (see T a b l e 5.1). The P l a n n i n g Team, w i t h the c o o p e r a t i o n of the R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committee, p r e p a r e s the terms of r e f e r e n c e . These terms s e t out the p l a n n i n g framework, purpose, a r e a and i s s u e s i n v o l v e d . Data g a t h e r i n g and a n a l y s i s a r e then 142 conducted and a r e , e s s e n t i a l l y , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l a g e n c i e s , a l t h o u g h s u b s t a n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s u s u a l l y p r o v i d e d i n an e c o l o g i c a l l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r e p a r e d by ENR a t a s c a l e of 1:100,000. The next s t e p i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of the S u b - r e g i o n a l P l a n i s a r e v i e w of e x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s , c o n f l i c t s and o b j e c t i v e s . The P l a n n i n g Team p r e p a r e s a document on the i s s u e s and p o s s i b l e means of a t t a i n i n g o b j e c t i v e s and r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s . The P l a n n i n g Team uses s e v e r a l t e c h n i q u e s i n c l u d i n g a r e s o u r c e a c t i v i t y / l a n d use m a t r i x , which e s t a b l i s h e s r e s o u r c e a c t i v i t y c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h i n d e f i n e d a r e a s , and a second, more imp o r t a n t t e c h n i q u e , Resource Management Areas (RMA). RMAs a r e s u b - u n i t s i n an IRP ar e a which a r e a s s i g n e d s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e management o b j e c t i v e s . The RIC, upon r e c e i p t of the management o p t i o n s document, d e c i d e s on u n r e s o l v e d c o n f l i c t s and approves the management d i r e c t i o n f o r the a r e a . P l a n d e s i g n then f o l l o w s where the P l a n n i n g Team devel o p s management s t r a t e g i e s t o a c h i e v e the approved r e s o u r c e management p o l i c y d e v e l o p e d i n the p r e v i o u s s t e p . I f c o n f l i c t s a r i s e , they a r e r e s o l v e d a g a i n by the RIC. A f t e r the o p t i m a l d e s i g n i s approved, the d r a f t p l a n t h a t s y n t h e s i z e s a l l the e a r l i e r s t e p s i s p r e p a r e d and forwarded up the pyramid f o r a p p r o v a l . 5.2.2 A c c e l e r a t e d Land S a l e s I m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d . In the case of a g r i c u l t u r a l development, the main approach i s 143 T a b l e 5.1: The Sub-Regional P l a n n i n g Program 1 Stage S t e p Name Documents Produced I n f o r m a t i o n 1 . P l a n i n i t i a t i o n Terms of R e f e r e n c e 2. Data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s Background I n f o r m a t i o n * 3. P l a n p o l i c y Resource Management P o l i c y C h o i c e 4. P l a n d e s i g n D r a f t P l a n 5. F i n a l r e v i e w and a p p r o v a l F i n a l P l a n A c t i o n 6. P l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n * * 7. P l a n r e v i e w and a p p r o v a l * * * O p t i o n a l Document * *Agency o p e r a t i o n a l p l a n s , annual r e p o r t s and major review documents may be d r a f t e d / p r i n t e d a t t h e s e s t e p s . 1 S o u r c e : R e s o u r c e " E v a l u a t i o n and P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , 1983. the p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g program, A c c e l e r a t e d Land S a l e s (ALS). P r e v i o u s l y , ALS p r o j e c t s took p l a c e i n y e l l o w a r e a s , w i t h o u t an I n t e g r a t e d Resource P l a n . As most of the r e m a i n i n g a r a b l e l a n d i s i n green a r e a s , the IRPS mechanism i s used t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s and r e d e f i n e b o u n d a r i e s b e f o r e ALS can take p l a c e . ALS o c c u r i n a r e a s i d e n t i f i e d i n broad a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y s u r v e y s as b e i n g s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development and where a l l o c a t i o n c o n f l i c t s have been r e s o l v e d . The P u b l i c Lands D i v i s i o n h i r e s c o n s u l t a n t s t o do i n t e n s i t y l e v e l two s o i l s u r v e y s of these a r e a s a t a 1:15,000 s c a l e . Road a c c e s s t o d e s i g n a t e d farm u n i t s i s p l a n n e d and d e v e l o p e d i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h A l b e r t a T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and The L o c a l Improvement D i s t r i c t . 1 44 5.2.3 P l a n n i n g Area I d e n t i f i c a t i o n In t h e o r y , s u b - r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n n g a r e a s a r e i n d e n t i f i e d by broader r e g i o n a l p l a n s . The Jean D'Or P l a n , however, was i n i t i a t e d i n 1980 by ENR a f t e r r e q u e s t s from th e Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committee, A l b e r t a Environment and A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e . These r e q u e s t s r e f l e c t e d the demand f o r new c r o p l a n d i n the a r e a and c o n f l i c t s w i t h o t h e r r e s o u r c e a g e n c i e s over the d i s p o s i t i o n of Crown l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e ( P e t c h , 1984). A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Committees, p u b l i c a d v i s o r y b o d i e s t o A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e , o f t e n i n i t i a t e r e q u e s t s a l o n g w i t h A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e f o r ALS p r o j e c t s i n a r e a s where t h e r e i s l i t t l e c o n f l i c t or where c o n f l i c t has been r e s o l v e d by the IRPS. 5.3 The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of P l a n n i n g E x e r c i s e O b j e c t i v e s The e n t i r e IRPS program and o t h e r programs r e l a t e d t o a g r i c u l t u r e i n the F o r t V e r m i l i o n a r e a a r e permeated by the o v e r r i d i n g p r o v i n c i a l o b j e c t i v e of e xpanding the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d base. ENR's main a g r i c u l t u r a l o b j e c t i v e i s t o d i s p o s e of 121,404 h e c t a r e s of l a n d per year between 1983 and 1988 f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes. T h i s o b j e c t i v e does not t a k e i n t o account changing economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s or what might happen i n the event t h a t the demand f o r new f a r m l a n d d e c l i n e s . T h i s l a c k of c o n t i n g e n c y p l a n n i n g has been r a i s e d as a p o s s i b l e weakness i n the Jean D'Or P l a n ( P e t c h , 1984). The Jean D'Or P l a n c o n t r i b u t e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40,488 h e c t a r e s of a r a b l e l a n d towards the 145 d e p a r t m e n t a l g o a l (Resource P l a n n i n g B ranch, 1983a). The s t a t e d o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e of the IRPS program i s t o o p t i m i z e the use of A l b e r t a ' s r e s o u r c e base t o a c h i e v e maximum b e n e f i t s f o r A l b e r t a n s (Resource E v a l u a t i o n and P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , 1983). The i n t e g r a t e d a s p e c t of the program r e f l e c t s the u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t the use of one r e s o u r c e w i l l a f f e c t the a b i l i t y t o use o t h e r r e s o u r c e s . A l l l e v e l s of government and a f f e c t e d p a r t i e s a r e encouraged t o p a r t i c i p a t e . T h i s i s i m p o r t a n t i n the Jean D'Or.Plan because p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y r e c o g n i z e s a g r i c u l t u r a l e x p a n s i o n as a p r i o r i t y , y e t the IRPS program r e q u i r e s the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l l o t h e r p o t e n t i a l r e s o u r c e s and how they might be a f f e c t e d and d e v e l o p e d as a consequence. In the case of the Jean D'Or P l a n , the f o r e s t r y s e c t o r i s a f f e c t e d the most n e g a t i v e l y ; however, the A l b e r t a F o r e s t r y S e r v i c e of ENR i s eager t o s t a b i l i z e the g r e e n / y e l l o w boundary t o p e r m i t i t s l o n g - t e r m p l a n n i n g t o p r o g r e s s ( P e t c h , 1984). The Jean D'Or P l a n , i n k e e p i n g w i t h the i n t e g r a t e d emphasis, i n c l u d e s a range of o b j e c t i v e s f o r each r e s o u r c e i n c l u d i n g domestic g r a z i n g , e c o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s , i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , f i s h e r i e s , h i s t o r i c a l r e s o u r c e s , m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s , r e c r e a t i o n , t i l l c r o p p i n g , t i m b e r , water r e s o u r c e s and w i l d l i f e . The o b j e c t i v e f o r t i l l c r o p p i n g , f o r example, i s to s u p p l y s u i t a b l e Crown l a n d s t o meet a p o r t i o n of the demand f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d e x p a n s i o n . The Jean D'Or P l a n s u b - d i v i d e s the p l a n a r e a i n t o s i x Resource Management Areas (RMA) (see Map 5.4). The RMAs, w i t h t h e i r s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e o b j e c t i v e s and g u i d e l i n e s , a r e the l i * 6 •Source: REAP, 1983 1 4 7 R 12 R 11 R 10 R 9 R8 R7 M A P 5.5: JEAN D'OR PRAIRIE PLANNING AREA YELLOW/GREEN AREAS* •Source: REAP, 1983 148 p r i m a r y r e s o u r c e management mechanism f o r the Jean D'Or P l a n . Each RMA has a common r e s o u r c e management i n t e n t or o b j e c t i v e f o r i t s a r e a . The RMA's do not o v e r l a p the g r e e n / y e l l o w boundary and a r e s p l i t on the b a s i s of the g r e e n / y e l l o w boundary and the p h y s i o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s (see Map 5.5). Of the s i x RMA's, f o u r have t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e of a l l o c a t i n g l a n d t o e i t h e r new or expanding f a r m e r s . A s p e c i a l use zone i s d e s i g n a t e d throughout the RMAs t o p r o t e c t s e n s i t i v e l a n d s c a p e s . A c c e l e r a t e d Land S a l e s p r o j e c t s w i l l f o l l o w the IRPS program a t Jean D'Or and w i l l aim t o i d e n t i f y and d e v e l o p the most s u i t a b l e a r e a s w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l RMAs d e s i g n a t e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development. Once d e s i g n a t e d , t h e s e t r a c t s w i l l be s u b d i v i d e d , a c c e s s e d and a l l o c a t e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r p o s e s . 5.4 E n v i r o n m e n t a l F a c t o r s f o r P l a n n i n g The P l a n n i n g Team r e l i e d on the i n d i v i d u a l members t o produce r e q u i r e d r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n , based on a c h e c k l i s t which i t d e v e l o p e d , and d i d not p r e p a r e a Background I n f o r m a t i o n Document (see T a b l e 5.1) . Data was c o l l e c t e d on use, demand, c a p a b i l i t y , p o t e n t i a l use and economic c h a r a c t e r e s t i c s . The Jean D'Or p l a n n i n g a r e a i s c o v e r e d by a v a r i e t y of e n v i r o n m e n t a l , economic and even s o c i a l s t u d i e s , s u r v e y s , a n a l y s i s and d a t a . C l i m a t i c d a t a has been c o l l e c t e d s i n c e 1936 a t the F o r t V e r m i l i o n E x p e r i m e n t a l Farm o p e r a t e d by A g r i c u l t u r e Canada. The c l i m a t e i s mapped under the Canada Land I n v e n t o r y program w i t h e s s e n t i a l l y two map u n i t s , c l a s s t h r e e and c l a s s f i v e . The boundary between th e s e two a r e a s runs r o u g h l y p a r a l l e l and t o 149 the n o r t h of the Peace R i v e r . Resource i n v e n t o r i e s p r i o r t o 1981 have used t h i s c l i m a t i c c a p a b i l i t y as t h e i r g u i d e . I n , 1979, the Resource E v a l u a t i o n and P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n e s t a b l i s h e d f o u r c l i m a t i c s t a t i o n s i n the Jean D'Or P l a n a r e a . These s t a t i o n s s u p p l y d a t a which r e s u l t s i n a l e s s o p t i m i s t i c view of the a r e a ' s c l i m a t i c c a p a b i l i t y . R e s u l t s r e v e a l wide f l u c t u a t i o n s i n c l i m a t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s throughout the a r e a w i t h a d e f i n i t e t r e n d towards lower c a p a b i l i t y than a t the F o r t V e r m i l i o n s t a t i o n ( S t r o n g , 1981). Much of the e n v i r o n m e n t a l a n a l y s i s r e l i e s h e a v i l y on an e c o l o g i c a l l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a t a survey i n t e n s i t y l e v e l f o u r and a s c a l e of 1:100,000. The use of e c o l o g i c a l l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s s t a n d a r d f o r the IRPS program and i s c a r r i e d out by the P u b l i c Lands D i v i s i o n . The b a s i c map u n i t i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s the e c o s e c t i o n d e v e l o p e d p r i m a r i l y on the b a s i s of l a n d f o r m and v e g e t a t i o n through a i r photograph i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Only two weeks of f i e l d work were completed on the 1455 square k i l o m e t r e a r e a . C a p a b i l i t y f o r the v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e uses i s e v a l u a t e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the v a r i o u s r e l e v a n t a g e n c i e s and i s p u b l i s h e d i n the r e p o r t . W i t h i n each map p o l y g o n , the s u i t a b i l i t y of these uses can be compared f o r the same ar e a ( S t r o n g , 1981). The Jean D'Or P l a n a r e a i s a l s o i n c l u d e d i n the S o i l Survey  of the Mount Watt and F o r t V e r m i l i o n Area ( S c h e e l a r and Macyk, 1972). The survey i s an i n t e n s i t y l e v e l f o u r , p u b l i s h e d a t a s c a l e of 1:190,000. T h i s i s the o n l y s o i l s u r v e y of the a r e a and i s l i m i t e d i n i t s u s e f u l n e s s f o r on-farm s o i l management. The Canada Land I n v e n t o r y map produced i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the 150 s u r v e y c l a s s e d much of the a r e a as CLI c l a s s 5 or o r g a n i c w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a s of c l a s s 4. The major l i m i t a t i o n s were exc e s s s o i l water and poor s o i l s t r u c t u r e . In 1977, a r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r y based on b i o p h y s i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , the f o r e r u n n e r of e c o l o g i c a l l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , t h a t c o v e r e d a major p o r t i o n of the Jean D'Or P l a n a r e a was completed (Cameron, 1977). The La C r e t e survey i s not r e f e r r e d t o i n the 1981 e c o l o g i c a l l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and map p o l y g o n s d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y between the two s u r v e y s i n the same a r e a . The a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y a s s i g n e d t o the v a r i o u s map u n i t s i n the La C r e t e survey a r e d i s c e r n a b ' l y lower than i n the 1971 c a p a b i l i t y i n v e n t o r y , and the CLI r a t i n g s f o r f o r e s t r y a r e v e r y low. The e c o l o g i c a l l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n produced f o r the Jean • D'Or P l a n i n 1981 downgrades the a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y somewhat f u r t h e r than the La C r e t e s u r v e y . The 1981 su r v e y u t i l i z e s a s o i l r a t i n g p r o c e d u r e d e v e l o p e d f o r A l b e r t a c o n d i t i o n s . The system r a t e s s o i l zones a c c o r d i n g t o f r e e z e - f r e e days i n t h e a r e a which the zone o c c u r s . Thus B l a c k Chernozems which o c c u r i n areas of g r e a t e r than 90 f r o s t - f r e e days r a t e 100, t h e h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e r a t i n g . T h i s r a t i n g i s then m u l t i p l i e d by a w e i g h t , developed on the b a s i s of s e v e r a l p a r a m e t e r s : p r o f i l e v a r i a t i o n , t e x t u r e , s t o n e s and topography. U n l i k e the CLI system, no improvements a r e assumed t o have been made. The r e s u l t i n g range of p o i n t s i s then a r b i t r a r i l y broken down i n t o a f o u r c l a s s system of h i g h , moderate, low and not c a p a b l e . The low c a t e g o r y i s f u r t h e r s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o h i g h , moderate and low. Almost a l l the l a n d i n the Jean D'Or P l a n a r e a i s c l a s s e d as 151 low. W i t h i n the low c a t e g o r y c a p a b i l i t y i s f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d andranges from moderate t o h i g h . R a t i n g s were a l s o a s s i g n e d t o unimproved g r a z i n g , improved g r a z i n g , w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t and p o t e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l h a z a r d s . A l l r a t i n g s were g e n e r a l l y low t o moderate f o r t h e s e uses. F o r e s t r y r e s o u r c e s were a l s o e v a l u a t e d w i t h the same c l a s s e s of h i g h t o not c a p a b l e on the b a s i s of comparing t r e e h e i g h t and age t o s i t e index c u r v e s . The r e s u l t was a c a p a b i l i t y of h i g h -moderate t o h i g h f o r most of the a r e a , a s u b s t a n t i a l u p g r a d i n g from the La C r e t e s u r v e y . The v a r i a t i o n s i n r e s o u r c e e v a l u a t i o n by d i f f e r e n t s u r v e y o r s were c o m p l i c a t e d f u r t h e r when A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e d e c i d e d t o i n i t i a t e i t s own c a p a b i l i t y i n v e n t o r y d u r i n g the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e f e l t t h a t the a g r i c u l t u r e c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g s were u n d e r s t a t e d i n the E c o l o g i c a l Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The CLI system assumes t h a t f e a s i b l e improvement p r a c t i c e s have been implemented i n a s s i g n i n g r a t i n g s . The e c o l o g i c a l l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r a t i n g does not make t h i s a s s u m p t i o n , and s i n c e the o v e r a l l i n t e n t of the p l a n i s t o i n c r e a s e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development, A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e h e l d t h a t t h i s assumption was v a l i d . The new s u r vey was p e r m i t t e d and r a t i n g s a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y improved i n many a r e a s , e s p e c i a l l y where d r a i n a g e i s a problem ( P e t c h , 1984). A g r i c u l t u r e Canada has a l s o c o n ducted a number of y i e l d and v a r i e t y t r i a l s throughout the broader r e g i o n around F o r t V e r m i l i o n . R e s u l t s show the F o r t V e r m i l i o n a r e a t o be a t or near the mean y i e l d s f o r most v a r i e t i e s of c r o p s n o r m a l l y produced i n the Peace r e g i o n ( A g r i c u l t u r e Canada, 1983). 1 52 S o i l s u r v e y s f o r A c c e l e r a t e d Land S a l e s a re conducted a t an i n t e n s i t y l e v e l two and a t a s c a l e of 1:15,000. T h i s s u r vey i s used t o s u b - d i v i d e the l a n d i n t o farm u n i t s , l a y out roads and p r o v i d e on-farm s o i l management g u i d e l i n e s . The a n a l y s i s i n c l u d e s b oth a survey and c a p a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s (Graw, 1984; Resource P l a n n i n g Branch, 1983a). 5.5 The Assessment and Relevance of Socio-economic F a c t o r s i n  the P l a n n i n g E x e r c i s e The Jean D'Or P l a n i n c l u d e s , f o r the f i r s t time i n the IRPS program, an a n a l y s i s of the f i n a n c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the p l a n . T h i s s e c t i o n l a y s out some of the b e n e f i t s of the p l a n , but i t a l s o d e t a i l s many of the d i r e c t c o s t s t o t a l l i n g some $14 m i l l i o n p l u s $2 m i l l i o n f o r road g r i d s per township. As a r e s u l t of t h i s s e c t i o n , the A s s o c i a t e M i n i s t e r of P u b l i c Lands and W i l d l i f e o r d e r e d a d e t a i l e d economic impact a n a l y s i s ( P e t c h , 1984). A f i n a n c i a l , income and employment a n a l y s i s has been completed but i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c d i s t r i b u t i o n (Cooke, 1985). The Jean D'Or P l a n a l s o does not p l a c e the impact of i t s recommendations i n a r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t . The broader s o c i a l and economic impacts of the p r o p o s a l may be d i s c u s s e d i n the new s t u d i e s , but they have been a l s o w e l l d i s c u s s e d i n p r e v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d documents. A r e p o r t on economic growth f o r the r e g i o n emphasises a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y w i t h s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s t o F o r t V e r m i l i o n ( P e t e r C. N i c h o l s & A s s o c i a t e s , L t d . , 1981a). A s o c i a l impact assessment f o r the r e g i o n i s a l s o a v a i l a b l e and d i s c u s s e s many of the s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of a g r i c u l t u r a l development ( P e t e r C. N i c h o l s & A s s o c i a t e s L t d . , 1981b). These 153 r e p o r t s a r e not r e f e r r e d t o i n the p l a n ; a l t h o u g h , the d a t a and a n a l y s i s c o n t a i n e d i n them a r e v e r y r e l e v a n t . The main c o n c l u s i o n s of the s e impact s t u d i e s a r e t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l e x p a n s i o n w i l l o c cur a t a slower r a t e and t h a t c o s t s t o government f o r s e r v i c e s w i l l r i s e as more m a r g i n a l l a n d s a r e d e v e l o p e d . Demand can not be met by the s u p p l y of s u i t a b l e l a n d and t h i s w i l l have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r l o c a l communities and t h e i r economies i n p r o v i d i n g a l t e r n a t i v e employment, because the number of n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l j o b s w i l l a l s o d e c r e a s e . F u r t h e r , p o t e n t i a l changes t o r e g i o n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e w i l l have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the v i a b i l i t y of the F o r t V e r m i l i o n a r e a . The i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l elements d e a l t w i t h i n the Jean D'Or P l a n i n c l u d e r o a d s , d r a i n a g e , s u r v e y s and s o i l s u r v e y s . C o s t s r e l a t i n g t o community s e r v i c e s a r e not i n c l u d e d i n the d r a f t p l a n . A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e a l s o has a s e r i e s of p u b l i c a t i o n s on the c o s t s and r e t u r n s of p r o d u c i n g l o c a l l y s u i t e d c r o p s . F i g u r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t , depending on i n t e r e s t r a t e s , f a r m i n g can be p r o f i t a b l e , i n the a r e a , a t c u r r e n t commodity p r i c e s ( G l a s e r , 1982a; 1982b). 5.6 A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s and t h e i r S e l e c t i o n The IRPS program, as i l l u s t r a t e d by the Jean D'Or P l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e , i s based on a consensus approach t o r e s o u r c e management. A l t e r n a t i v e s a r e not p r e s e n t e d i n the f i n a l documents of each p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e . A l t e r n a t i v e s a r e d i s c u s s e d and c o n f l i c t s a r e r e s o l v e d a t e a r l i e r s t a g e s i n the e x e r c i s e . 1 54 The documents o u t l i n i n g t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o the f i n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s , the Economic P l a n n i n g and Resource Development Committee of C a b i n e t t h r o u g h the A s s o c i a t e M i n i s t e r of P u b l i c Lands and W i l d l i f e . I n i t i a l l y , the l a c k of p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y , r e g i o n a l l e v e l i n t e g r a t e d p l a n s and i n p u t from h i g h e r l e v e l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s i n the p l a n n i n g program slowed down the p r e p a r a t i o n of the Jean D'Or P l a n when compared t o o t h e r p l a n n i n g a r e a s ( P e t c h , 1984). A l t h o u g h the management i n t e n t of the p l a n i s t o expand the a g r i c u l t u r a l base, the A l b e r t a F o r e s t S e r v i c e has s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r e s t s i n r e d u c i n g the t o t a l a r e a a l i e n a t e d from i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s i n i t i a l l y d e v e l o p e d . In the f i r s t s t a g e s of the development of the Resource Management P o l i c y (see T a b l e 5.1), a m a t r i x of r e s o u r c e use and r e s o u r c e zones was d e v e l o p e d . Three zones a r e i d e n t i f i e d as a g r i c u l t u r e , mixed use and a s p e c i a l p r o t e c t i o n zone. V a r i o u s r e s o u r c e uses are p e r m i t t e d or r e s t r i c t e d i n each zone. Land i s a l l o c a t e d t o each based on the E c o l o g i c a l Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n r a t i n g and the v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e use o b j e c t i v e s of each agency. S e v e r a l c o n f l i c t a r e a s a r o s e which the P l a n n i n g Team c o u l d not r e s o l v e . These c o n f l i c t s were r e f e r r e d then t o the Resource I n t e g r a t i o n Committee as t h r e e p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s r e f l e c t i n g the p o s i t i o n s of the A l b e r t a F o r e s t S e r v i c e , the P u b l i c Lands D i v i s i o n and A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e . I t took the RIC s e v e r a l months t o work out a compromise based on a c e r t a i n degree of s u b j e c t i v i t y i n i n t e r p r e t i n g r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n ( P e t c h , 1984). The r e s u l t was the Resource Management P o l i c y 155 which i n c l u d e d the t h r e e zones p l u s a l i m i t e d development a r e a where c o n f l i c t between a g r i c u l t u r e and f o r e s t r y s t i l l e x i s t s and where a g r i c u l t u r a l development i s c o n d i t i o n a l upon the development of o t h e r a r e a s f i r s t (see Map 5.6). D u r i n g the next s t e p of the e x e r c i s e , the p l a n d e s i g n l e a d i n g t o a d r a f t p l a n , the P l a n n i n g Team d e c i d e d t o e l i m i n a t e the r e s o u r c e zone approach and t o go w i t h a Resource Management Area c o n c e p t . The RMAs a r e i d e n t i f i e d f o r a predominant use w i t h o b j e c t i v e s and g u i d e l i n e s p e r m i t t i n g c e r t a i n o t h e r r e s o u r c e uses. The P l a n n i n g Team a l s o d e c i d e d t o determine the boundary between y e l l o w and green a r e a s . The r e s u l t i s t h a t the y e l l o w / g r e e n d e s i g n a t i o n d e t e r m i n e s the b o u n d a r i e s of the RMAs. When the i n i t i a l d r a f t p l a n went t o the N a t u r a l Resource C o o r d i n a t i o n C o u n c i l f o r r e v i e w , the C o u n c i l d i r e c t e d the e l i m i n a t i o n of l i m i t e d use a r e a s . The r e s u l t i s b a s i c a l l y a s e r i e s of RMAs w i t h e i t h e r an a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n t e n t or a f o r e s t management i n t e n t . C o n s i d e r a b l e f l e x i b i l i t y i s l o s t , a c c o r d i n g t o P e t c h (1984), i n e l i m i n a t i n g the z o n i n g c o n c e p t . U l t i m a t e l y , t h e r e i s not much d i f f e r e n c e between RMAs and s i m p l y d e s i g n a t i n g the whole area as y e l l o w or green and a l l o w i n g r e s o u r c e management g u i d e l i n e s t o be a p p l i e d t o each a r e a . The RMA concept w i l l have more v a l u e a t an o p e r a t i o n a l or p r o j e c t l e v e l than at t h i s s u b - r e g i o n a l l e v e l . I f RMAs had been based on e c o l o g i c a l u n i t s r a t h e r than on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r e a s , r e s o u r c e managers might have had more f l e x i b i l i t y i n a d a p t i n g t o chan g i n g economic c o n d i t i o n s and t e c h n o l o g i c a l change. As w e l l , t h e r e remain s e v e r a l u n a r a b l e a r e a s w i t h i n the y e l l o w RMAs t h a t a r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , s u b j e c t t o l i q u i d a t i o n h a r v e s t i n g . 156 Tp 10b To 107 To 106 To 10S S C A L E 1:300 000 WEST OF THE FIFTH MERID IAN AGRICULTURE AREA MULTIPLE USE AREA LIMITED DEVELOPMENT SPECIAL USE AREA R 12 R 11 R 10 R 9 MAP 5.6: RESOURCE MANAGEMENT POLICY OF JEAN D'OR PRAIRIE * R 8 R ? *Source: REAP, 1983 157 U l t i m a t e l y , the a g r i c u l t u r a l community r e c e i v e d much of what i t wanted. T h i s o c c u r r e d throughout the p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e and i s i n e v i d e n c e i n the f i n a l p l a n . The emphasis on a g r i c u l t u r a l development l e n d s s i g n i f i c a n t weight t o t h a t s e c t o r ' s i n f l u e n c e . I t c o u l d be s a i d t h a t t h i s s i m p l y conforms t o p o l i c y as d i c t a t e d a t the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l . T h i s does not bode w e l l f o r the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , as t h e r e i s s t i l l c o n s i d e r a b l e a r a b l e undeveloped l a n d i n the green a r e a which i s a d j a c e n t t o ar e a s s l a t e d f o r development, and the p l a n i s s u b j e c t t o r e g u l a r review and amendment. 5.7 Implementation of the P l a n The Jean D'Or P l a n i s e x p e c t e d t o be approved l a t e r i n the s p r i n g of 1985. The i n n o v a t i o n of d e v e l o p i n g an economic impact assessment d e l a y e d the a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s and may l e a d t o r e v i s i o n s of the d r a f t p l a n . The f i n a l p l a n " p r o v i d e s d i r e c t i o n f o r s i n g l e - s e c t o r r e s o u r c e management a l o n g w i t h c r i t e r i a and g u i d e l i n e s f o r the review of development a p p l i c a t i o n s and the d i s p o s i t i o n of p u b l i c l a n d s " (Resource E v a l u a t i o n and P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , 1983, p.20). T h e o r e t i c a l l y , a p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n document i s supposed t o be p r e p a r e d by the P l a n n i n g Team and the R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committee (see T a b l e 5.1), but t h i s has not been done i n the case of the Jean D'Or P l a n . I n s t e a d , the p l a n c a l l s f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t h r o u g h the I n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l R e f e r r a l System. C o n f l i c t s i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the p l a n w i l l be r e s o l v e d by the R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committee or the RIC. The Jean D'Or P l a n c a l l s f o r the e x p a n s i o n of the 158 R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committee beyond ENR t o i n c l u d e o t h e r government a g e n c i e s a l r e a d y r e p r e s e n t e d on the RIC. T h i s w i l l r e s u l t i n a s t r u c t u r e s i m i l a r t o B r i t i s h Columbia's now d e f u n c t RRMC's. E v e n t u a l l y , the Jean D'Or P l a n w i l l d i s p o s e of over 40,000 h e c t a r e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . T h i s w i l l be a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h the ALS program i n accordance w i t h the g u i d e l i n e s and o b j e c t i v e s l a i d out f o r each RMA i n the J e a n D'Or P l a n . RMAs i n t e n d i n g t o a l l o c a t e l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e emphasize e i t h e r the b e g i n n i n g farmer or expanding farmer. G u i d e l i n e s e x i s t f o r the removal of timber (by l i q u i d a t i o n h a r v e s t i n g ) , b u f f e r s t r i p s t o p r e v e n t e r o s i o n , and w i l d l i f e c o n t r o l and management. Broad r e s o u r c e o b j e c t i v e s and g u i d e l i n e s a r e a l s o l a i d our f o r most o f t h e Jean D'Or P l a n a r e a ' s r e s o u r c e s . T i l l c r o p p i n g demands w i l l be met through the ALS program. The program w i l l i n c l u d e d e t a i l e d s o i l s u r v e y s , farm u n i t l a y o u t and d i s p o s i t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p u b l i c draw p r o c e s s d i s c u s s e d below i n S e c t i o n 5.7.2. The b e s t l a n d use w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d by the r e f e r r a l system t o A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e , the ADCs and o t h e r r e l e v a n t a g e n c i e s . The P u b l i c Lands D i v i s i o n i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s p l a n s r o a d s . R e g i o n a l d r a i n a g e c o s t s a r e shared by A l b e r t a Environment (75 p e r c e n t ) and Improvement D i s t i c t No. 23. Other i n f r a s t r u e t u r a l components such as s c h o o l s , h e a l t h c a r e and o t h e r s e r v i c e s are the p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of I.D. 23. A g r i c u l t u r a l Land S a l e s p r o j e c t s have not o c c u r e d y e t i n the Jean D'Or a r e a ; however, t h r o u g h o u t the r e s t of I.D. 23, s e v e r a l p r o j e c t s have taken p l a c e over the p a s t f o u r or f i v e 159 y e a r s . These p r o j e c t s were i n s t i g a t e d a t the r e q u e s t of the ADC a f t e r p u b l i c meetings were h e l d on the s u b j e c t of f a r m l a n d e x p a n s i o n ( K l i p p e n s t e i n , 1985). The demand f o r new f a r m l a n d i s about t h r e e t i m e s the s u p p l y a t any one time (Resource P l a n n i n g Branch, 1983a). P u b l i c draws were h e l d f o r s u i t a b l e a p p l i c a n t s f i v e t i m e s over f o u r y e a r s . The p a r c e l s a l l o c a t e d c o n t a i n e d from 128 t o 384 h e c t a r e s , a v e r a g i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 256 h e c t a r e s . T o t a l l a n d a l l o c a t e d under t h i s program has been over 24,000 h e c t a r e s i n 95 p a r c e l s . Roads were d e v e l o p e d p r i o r t o the draws t o p r o v i d e a c c e s s f o r immediate development. G e n e r a l l y , development i s f i n a n c e d by B e g i n n i n g Farmer Loans (see S e c t i o n 5..7.1), and l a n d i s brought i n t o p r o d u c t i o n w i t h i n t h r e e t o f o u r y e a r s . Only a few p a r c e l s have been t r a n s f e r r e d t o o t h e r b e g i n n i n g farmers ( K l i p p e n s t e i n , 1985). A l t h o u g h government o f f i c i a l s view a g r i c u l t u r a l e x p a n s i o n as b e i n g g e n e r a l l y s u c c e s s f u l (Graw, 1984; J a r v i e , 1984), they a l s o e x p r e s s concern about t h e impact of c u r r e n t economic f l u c t u a t i o n s a f f e c t i n g a g r i c u l t u r e . Graw (1984) a l s o s t a t e s t h a t the p r i c e of raw l a n d i s not s u f f i c i e n t t o c o v e r , i n the s h o r t -run , the c o s t s i n c u r r e d by government i n opening new l a n d s . The subsequent economic v i a b i l i t y of many farms, however, i s seen as a reason t o c o n t i n u e of t h e development program. 160 5.7.1 Ro l e of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Agency and Support Programs f o r  A g r i c u l t u r a l Development i n the M a r g i n a l F r i n g e A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e i s i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e from i t s o u t s e t . I t i s one of the o r i g i n a l i n i t i a t o r s of the e x e r c i s e f o r Jean D'Or P r a i r i e , and the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t i s on the P l a n n i n g Team. Much of the r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r y on a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l and s u i t a b l i l i t y i s deve l o p e d by A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e f o r the P l a n n i n g Team. Due t o the A l b e r t a government's s t r o n g s u pport f o r and d i r e c t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x p a n s i o n , A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e ' s r o l e i n the e x e r c i s e i s c r u c i a l t o the argument f o r more l a n d t o meet demand and f u l f i l l t h i s o b j e c t i v e ( P e t c h , 1984). A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e and o t h e r government a g e n c i e s have a w e l l d e v e l o p e d a r r a y of programs t o f o s t e r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development. Most of the s e programs are a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h the A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r a l Development C o r p o r a t i o n which p r o v i d e s l o a n s and l o a n g u a r a n t e e s f o r farms and a g r i b u s i n e s s e s . The A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r a l Development C o r p o r a t i o n (ADC) has a B e g i n n i n g Farmer Program where l o a n s of up t o $200,000 per farm f a m i l y or $600,000 per farm p a r t n e r s h i p a r e p r o v i d e d f o r p e r i o d s of up t o 30 y e a r s . I n t e r e s t r a t e s a r e f i x e d a t ADC's p r e f e r r e d r a t e f o r the f i r s t f i v e y e a r s and renewed a t t h i s r a t e f o r a subsequent f i v e y e a r s p r o v i d e d t h a t a farmer i s meeting a l l the terms and c o n d i t i o n s of the l o a n . A f t e r t h i s p e r i o d , i n t e r e s t i s c a l c u l a t e d a t ADC's base r a t e . For the f i r s t f i v e y e a r s , an i n c e n t i v e i s a v a i l a b l e f o r d i s c o u n t i n g s i x p e r c e n t of the o u t s t a n d i n g p r i n c i p a l b a l a n c e , a g a i n p r o v i d e d t h a t c o n d i t i o n s a r e met. The program i s a v a i l a b l e t o i n d i v i d u a l s e s t a b l i s h i n g 161 farms and can be used f o r a wide v a r i e t y of purposes i n c l u d i n g l a n d p u r c h a s e s and improvements. P a r t A and B l o a n s a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e t o farmers w i s h i n g t o expand t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s t h r o u g h such methods as l a n d purchase and improvement, among o t h e r s . The type of l o a n i s r e l a t e d t o the s i z e of the a p p l i c a n t ' s a s s e t s . Terms a r e much the same as B e g i n n i n g Farmer Loans except t h a t t h e r e a r e no i n c e n t i v e s . P a r t A l o a n s , however, have an i n t e r e s t r a t e of t h r e e p e r c e n t l e s s than ADC's p r e f e r r e d r a t e s . Another program p r o v i d e d by ADC t h r o u g h A l b e r t a Farm Development Loans, a l o a n guarantee program, i s the Range and S o i l Improvement program. The Range and S o i l Improvement Program has i n c e n t i v e s b u i l t i n on the b a s i s of a d i s c o u n t of $70 per $1000 of l o a n f o r each of the f i r s t f i v e y e a r s t o a maximum l o a n of $10,000 per farm or r a n c h . The ADC a l s o l e n d s money and gu a r a n t e e s l o a n s through i t s A g r i b u s i n e s s Loan Program. The D i r e c t A g r i b u s i n e s s Loans are i n t e n d e d t o d e v e l o p a g r i b u s i n e s s needed by p r i m a r y p r o d u c e r s and t o expand r u r a l economies. 5.7.2 Crown Land D i s p o s i t i o n ENR c l a s s i f i e s Crown l a n d s i n t o t h r e e g e n e r a l zones, w h i t e , green and y e l l o w (see Map 5.3). The w h i t e a r e a s a re the l a n d s f i r s t s e t t l e d i n the p r o v i n c e and cov e r o n e - t h i r d of A l b e r t a . Crown l a n d s i n the whi t e a r e a , a v a i l a b l e and s u i t a b l e f o r s p e c i f i c u s e s , can be a p p l i e d f o r i n the normal manner pursuant t o the P u b l i c Lands Act (C.297. R.S.A. 1970). The green area i s the n o n - s e t t l e d f o r e s t e d l a n d and i n c l u d e s 51 p e r c e n t of the 162 p r o v i n c e . Lands i n the green a r e a a re a d m i n i s t e r e d by the A l b e r t a F o r e s t S e r v i c e of A l b e r t a Energy and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , p r i m a r i l y f o r f o r e s t p r o d u c t i o n and o t h e r c o m p a t i b l e u s e s . A g r i c u l t u r a l development, except g r a z i n g , i s r e s t r i c t e d i n the green a r e a s . The y e l l o w a r e a c o v e r s much of the Peace R i v e r r e g i o n i n c l u d i n g F o r t V e r m i l i o n . Crown l a n d s i n the y e l l o w a r e a d i f f e r from the w h i t e a r e a i n t h a t homestead s a l e d i s p o s i t i o n s a r e a v a i l a b l e on s u i t a b l e l a n d s i n the y e l l o w a r e a ( P u b l i c Lands D i v i s i o n , 1981). A major i s s u e i n the F o r t V e r m i l i o n r e g i o n , as i n much of the Peace, i s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the boundary between green and y e l l o w a r e a s . Crown l a n d i s a l l o c a t e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l uses under the p r o v i s i o n s of the P u b l i c Lands A c t . C o n d i t i o n s f o r the s e v e r a l t y p e s of t e n u r e a v a i l a b l e v a r y w i t h each approach. Common t o a l l a r e the r e q u i r e m e n t s t h a t the a p p l i c a n t be a Canadian c i t i z e n over 18 y e a r s o l d . P r i o r i t y f o r d i s p o s i t i o n i s g i v e n t o fa r m e r s r e q u i r i n g a d d i t i o n a l l a n d and t o l o c a l r e s i d e n t s e s t a b l i s h i n g new farms. Next come n o n - l o c a l p e o p l e t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h new farms. New farmers must i n t e n d t o become engaged p r i m a r i l y i n fa r m i n g and must have the s k i l l s and r e s o u r c e s n e c e s s a r y f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a s u c c e s s f u l e n t e r p r i s e . Under the A c c e l e r a t e d Land S a l e s program, t r a c t s of Crown l a n d a re d e s i g n a t e d f o r s e t t l e m e n t . A p p l i c a n t s f o r Crown l a n d l o t s a r e f i r s t i n t e r v i e w e d and a s s s e s s e d by f i e l d p e r s o n n e l . Then s u i t a b l e a p p l i c a n t s a r e d e c l a r e d e l i g i b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a draw p r o c e d u r e f o r the l o t s . E l i g i b i l i t y i s s u b j e c t t o a p p e a l t o the A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Committee. The A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Committee (ADC) i s a l o c a l a g r i c u l t u r a l a d v i s o r y 163 group a p p o i n t e d under the a u s p i c e s of A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e . The ADC f u l f i l l s an a d v i s o r y r o l e o n l y and f i n a l d e c i s i o n s a r e made by A l b e r t a Energy and N a t u r a l Resources (ENR). The d i s p o s i t i o n of Crown l a n d s f o r c u l t i v a t i o n i n ALS a r e a s f o l l o w t h r e e main forms of t e n u r e : homestead s a l e , farm development s a l e and farm development l e a s e . Homestead s a l e s a r e a v a i l a b l e i n the p r o v i n c e ' s y e l l o w a r e a s . Homestead s a l e agreements a r e c o n t r a c t s i s s u e d t o s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a n t s , who can o b t a i n a maximum of f o u r q u a r t e r s e c t i o n s (256 h e c t a r e s ) . T h i s l i m i t must ta k e t h e i r own l a n d i n t o a c c o u n t . A p p l i c a n t s must be l e s s than 70 y e a r s o l d and have l i v e d i n A l b e r t a f o r a t o t a l of at l e a s t one year out of the p r e v i o u s t h r e e . The l a n d must be a t l e a s t 50 p e r c e n t a r a b l e . The purch a s e p r i c e i s e s t a b l i s h e d a t f a i r market v a l u e , but payment i s phased i n . A l l payments and m u n i c i p a l t a x e s a r e d e f e r r e d u n t i l the f o u r t h year a f t e r d i s p o s i t i o n . The maximum term of the agreement i s 20 y e a r s and i n t e r e s t i s c a l c u l a t e d a t a r a t e of 6% per annum. I n t e r e s t must be p a i d on an annual b a s i s a f t e r the f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s of the agreement. Lands can be a s s i g n e d p r o v i d e d c o n d i t i o n s have been met f o r the f i r s t two y e a r s and a l l payments are c u r r e n t . F i n a l t i t l e may be o b t a i n e d w i t h payment of the purchase p r i c e and p r o v i d e d t h a t the a p p l i c a n t has l i v e d on the l a n d f o r one year and c u l t i v a t e d a t l e a s t 16 h e c t a r e s per q u a r t e r s e c t i o n . Farm development s a l e s a r e i n t e n d e d t o a s s i s t l o c a l f a r m ers t o expand and c r e a t e more e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e o p e r a t i o n s . The purchase p r i c e i s e s t a b l i s h e d a t f a i r market v a l u e w i t h a minimum downpayment of 6 p e r c e n t of the s e l l i n g p r i c e . The maximum term i s 25 y e a r s but p r i n c i p a l payments can be d e f e r r e d 164 f o r up t o f i v e y e a r s , however, i n t e r e s t must be p a i d a n n u a l l y a t a r a t e of 6 p e r c e n t . Lands can be a s s i g n e d when c o n d i t i o n s w a r r a n t . Farm development l e a s e s can be i s s u e d f o r a term of up t o t e n y e a r s where ENR wishes t o r e t a i n t i t l e t o the l a n d . The agreement may c o n t a i n an o p t i o n t o purchase which a u t o m a t i c a l l y s h o r t e n s the p e r i o d t o f i v e y e a r s . O p t i o n s t o purchase are used when ENR f e e l s t h a t an a p p l i c a n t s h o u l d f u l f i l l c e r t a i n minimum c o n d i t i o n s because of h i s i n e x p e r i e n c e or the l a c k of development of h i s own l a n d . The l a n d can be purchased once c o n d i t i o n s have been met. Y e a r l y r e n t a l i s a p e r c e n t a g e of the l a n d ' s f a i r market v a l u e . The IRPS program p r i m a r i l y d e f i n e s green a r e a s , where most a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y i s r e s t r i c t e d , and y e l l o w a r e a s , where a g r i c u l t u r a l development i s encouraged. Once l a n d s a r e d e s i g n a t e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l use i n an e x i s t i n g y e l l o w area or when a green a r e a i s c o n v e r t e d t o a y e l l o w a r e a , t i m b e r management i s conducted on a l i q u i d a t i o n h a r v e s t i n g b a s i s . P r i o r i t y i s o f t e n g i v e n to sawlog h a r v e s t i n g f o r l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . B e f o r e t r a c t s of l a n d are m a d e . a v a i l a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development, r e f e r r a l s are made t o o t h e r r e l e v a n t a g e n c i e s f o r t h e i r comments and c o n d i t i o n s . In the IRPS program, many of these a g e n c i e s are i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s . 165 5.8 M o n i t o r i n g and E v a l u a t i n g of the P l a n n i n g E x e r c i s e Annual r e v i e w s and r e p o r t s a r e the main mechanisms i n v o l v e d i n m o n i t o r i n g and e v a l u a t i o n . Annual r e v i e w s of the Jean D'Or P l a n w i l l be undertaken by the R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committee. Annual r e v i e w s can r e s u l t i n the m o d i f i c a t i o n of s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s and g u i d e l i n e s . The r e v i e w w i l l be o u t l i n e d i n an a n n u a l r e p o r t p r e p a r e d by the R e g i o n a l Resource C o o r d i n a t o r f o r the RIC. Every f i v e y e a r s , or sooner i f o f f i c i a l s d e c i d e c o n d i t i o n s w a r r a n t , a major p l a n review w i l l be conducted under the c o o r d i n a t i o n of the RIC. A l l a s p e c t s of the p l a n w i l l be e v a l u a t e d , and the p u b l i c - w i l l be i n v o l v e d as i f a new p l a n were b e i n g d e v e l o p e d . S i g n i f i c a n t amendments must pass the o r i g i n a l a p p r o v i n g a u t h o r i t y and must i n c l u d e p u b l i c announcements and a p u b l i c h e a r i n g . 5.9 The S i g n i f i c a n c e of P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the P l a n n i n g  E x e r c i se Among the most i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t s of the IRPS program, g e n e r a l l y , and as i t i s a p p l i e d t o the F o r t V e r m i l i o n a r e a , i s i t s emphasis on p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The h i g h l e v e l of p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i s a l s o apparent i n A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e ' s programs. The Jean D'Or P l a n s t a r t e d when p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n was not a s i g n i f i c a n t component of the" IRPS program. P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n was l i m i t e d m a i n l y t o the i n t e r e s t groups' inv o l v e m e n t as c o n s u l t a t i v e r a t h e r than p a r t i c i p a t i v e P l a n n i n g Team members. C o n s u l t a t i v e members ar e not i n v o l v e d i n t h e day-166 to-day development of the p l a n but a r e c o n s u l t e d a t key s t a g e s . However, as the Jean D'Or P l a n d e v e l o p e d , f u l l p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n became p o l i c y . The new p o l i c y r e q u i r e s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s p e c i f i c p u b l i c s as opposed t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . The s p e c i f i c p u b l i c i s i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n ' s d i r e c t p r e p a r a t i o n and reviewn and has d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h o f f i c i a l s p r e p a r i n g the p l a n . The g e n e r a l p u b l i c i s i n v o l v e d a f t e r documents a r e approved up u n t i l the p l a n i s completed. E x t e n s i v e use i s made of the media i n announcing v a r i o u s s t e p s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and e n c o u r a g i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In F o r t V e r m i l i o n , as p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n became a c c e p t e d p o l i c y , the Jean D'Or P l a n was p r e s e n t e d f o r p u b l i c r e v i e w and comment a t the d r a f t p l a n s t a g e . An i n f o r m a t i o n n e w s l e t t e r ( A l b e r t a Energy and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , 1984) was c i r c u l a t e d t hroughout the a r e a f o l l o w e d by d i s p l a y s i n l o c a l shopping c e n t r e s and, f i n a l l y , an open house i n F o r t V e r m i l i o n . The p u b l i c ' s comments t o g e t h e r w i t h the d r a f t p l a n were p r o v i d e d t o the h i g h e r l e v e l committees i n ENR ( P e t c h , 1984). A main reason f o r i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i n the IRPS program i s the a c t i v i t y of A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e t h r o u g h i t s own p a r t i c i p a t i o n program, A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Committees (ADC) ( P e t c h , 1984). ADCs a r e a p p o i n t e d by the A l b e r t a M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e t o a d v i s e the government on i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g p u b l i c l a n d d i s p o s i t i o n s , r u r a l development, a g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t and o t h e r m a t t e r s . The ADC i s a p p o i n t e d f o r l o c a l a r e a s and membership c o m p r i s e s t h r e e farmer r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , one non-farm r e s i d e n t , one l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e , one 167 l o c a l m u n i c i p a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and one l o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of ENR. The v i c e - c h a i r m a n i s the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t who, i n the case of the Jean D'Or P l a n , i s a l s o on the P l a n n i n g Team. Thus the F o r t V e r m i l i o n ADC has d i r e c t i n p u t i n t o the development of the p l a n t hroughout the p r o c e s s . The i n f l u e n c e of the ADC i s s i g n i f i c a n t and has l e a d t o s e v e r a l c o n c e s s i o n s i n f a v o u r of a g r i c u l t u r e . The ADC p l a y s a n o t h e r major r o l e i n the A c c e l e r a t e d Land S a l e s program and o t h e r a s p e c t s of Crown l a n d d i s p o s i t i o n . They not o n l y i n i t i a t e r e q u e s t s f o r l a n d s t o go t o ALS, but they recommend p a r c e l s i z e s , shapes and t e n u r i a l arrangements (Graw, 1984). 5.10 Case Summary The IRPS program, as i l l u s t r a t e d by the Jean D'Or p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e , i s a complex and e v o l v i n g system. I t i s w i d e l y s u p p o r t e d by the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v o l v e d i n s p i t e of the l e n g t h of i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s ( P e t c h , 1984). The Jean D'Or P l a n took t h r e e y e a r s t o p r e p a r e t o the d r a f t s t a g e and i s expected t o be approved t h i s y e a r , f i v e y e a r s a f t e r i n i t i a t i o n . The program a t t e m p t s t o i n c l u d e a l l r e l e v a n t government a g e n c i e s t h r o u g h a committee system a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s i n the d e c i s i o n -making h i e r a r c h y . The sheer s i z e , however, of the bu r e a u c r a c y f o r the IRPS program i s a f a c t o r i n d e l a y i n g the c o m p l e t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s . The Jean D'Or p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e i l l u s t r a t e s the A l b e r t a p l a n n i n g program's e v o l u t i o n a r y n a t u r e . The a d a p t a t i o n s and improvements i n d i c a t e a v e r y f l e x i b l e a pproach, a l e a r n i n g approach and a commitment t o achievement on the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' 168 b e h a l f . P o l i t i c a l s u p p ort f o r the program appears t o be s t r o n g , due t o the A s s o c i a t e M i n i s t e r ' s d i r e c t i o n t o i n c r e a s e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t o d e v e l o p i n n o v a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s f o r a n a l y s i s . E x t e n s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o r e s o u r c e a n a l y s i s i s encouraged and s h o u l d not r e s t r i c t the making of w e l l - i n f o r m e d d e c i s i o n s . The use of e c o l o g i c a l l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y noteworthy and r e f l e c t s the i n t e g r a t e d n a t u r e of t h i s program. Some concern has been e x p r e s s e d r e c e n t l y over a d e c l i n e i n the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of s u r v e y s b e i n g produced. T h i s d e c l i n e i s a t t r i b u t e d l a r g e l y t o i n t e r n a l agency p o l i t i c s and l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d s t a f f ( S t r o n g , 1985). The method of l a n d a l l o c a t i o n i n c l u d e s a requirement f o r the a p p l i c a n t t o demonstrate competence t o farm. There a r e i n c e n t i v e s t o d e v e l o p l a n d q u i c k l y and a number of programs t o a i d the farmer i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of h i s o p e r a t i o n . There i s a s t r o n g l o c a l pro-development a g r i c u l t u r a l lobby which has s i g n i f i c a n t i n p u t i n t o the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . Government e x t e n s i o n and support a g e n c i e s a re l o c a t e d i n the r e g i o n and a r e v e r y a c t i v e i n s u p p o r t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l development t h r o u g h r e s e a r c h and advocacy. The v e r y s t r o n g emphasis on economic development and e f f i c i e n c y dominates the Jean D'Or p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e . E n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e e v a l u a t e d e n t i r e l y i n t h i s c o n t e x t , f o r example, w i l d l i f e management i s d e a l t w i t h i n terms of c o n t r o l or as a r e s i d u a l concern i n a r e a s u n a f f e c t e d by development. F u r t h e r b i a s may be i n t r o d u c e d i n the o v e r r i d i n g i n f l u e n c e of a g r i c u l t u r e and a g r i c u l t u r a l e x p a n s i o n . C a p a b i l i t y a n a l y s e s a r e upgraded t o support a g r i c u l t u r e ' s p o s i t i o n . Many of 169 the s i g n i f i c a n t c o n f l i c t s have been d e c i d e d i n a g r i c u l t u r e ' s f a v o u r . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h whether t h i s i s top-down or bottom-up p l a n n i n g . W h i l e the o v e r a l l p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n t o d e v e l o p more l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e come from the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l , t h e r e i s v e r y s t r o n g ' g r a s s r o o t s ' s u pport f o r such a p o l i c y . G i v e n the e x t e n s i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p u b l i c i n p u t , even a t s e n i o r l e v e l s , p u b l i c s e n t i m e n t may d i c t a t e the p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n . The s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e of a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n t e r e s t s makes r e s o u r c e management i n c r e a s i n g l y r i g i d because of the way RMAs a r e deve l o p e d t o f o l l o w a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r a t h e r than e c o l o g i c a l b o u n d a r i e s . The e l i m i n a t i o n of l i m i t e d development a r e a s i s an example where j o i n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n would have p r o v i d e d more management f l e x i b i l i t y . The A l b e r t a F o r e s t r y S e r v i c e a l s o promotes t h i s more r i g i d a p p r o a c h , t r a d i n g f l e x i b i l i t y f o r s t a b i l i t y . C o n t i n g e n c y p l a n s or a l t e r n a t i v e g u i d e l i n e s , g i v e n changing economic and t e c h n i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , a r e not p r o v i d e d . Timber removal i s by l i q u i d a t i o n h a r v e s t i n g i n a l l y e l l o w a r e a RMA's. I f , however, the economic c l i m a t e changes and a g r i c u l t u r e i s no l o n g e r v i a b l e , then f o r e s t management may become a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y . T h i s problem may be p a r t i a l l y a m e l i o r a t e d , i f any t r e e s remain, t h r o u g h t h e p l a n r e view mechanism. The Jean D'Or P l a n does not e x p l a i n a d e q u a t e l y d i s c r e p a n c i e s among t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of a number of r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r i e s . These c o n t r a d i c t i o n s may r e f l e c t s i m p l y the n a t u r e of the e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s and the range of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s 1 70 p o s s i b l e . In t h a t c a s e , these c o n t r a d i c t i o n s may be b e n e f i c i a l i f brought t o t h e a t t e n t i o n of d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s by i n f o r m i n g them of the l i m i t s of c a p a b i l i t y / s u i t a b i l i t y e v a l u a t i o n . N e i t h e r does the p l a n d e a l w i t h a d e q u a t e l y i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the s u r r o u n d i n g r e g i o n . There i s v e r y l i t t l e a n a l y s i s of r e g i o n a l growth p a t t e r n s and problems and how the Jean D'Or P l a n w i l l a f f e c t t h e s e or be a f f e c t e d by them. The Jean D'Or P l a n has been a c o s t l y and time-consuming document t o produce. The p r e s c r i b e d time l i m i t f o r a sub-r e g i o n a l p l a n i s one and o n e - h a l f y e a r s . The Jean D'Or P l a n took t h r e e y e a r s t o r e a c h the d r a f t p l a n stage and i s s t i l l not approved. E n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s a r e too s u b s e r v i e n t t o v e r y s t r o n g development p r i o r i t i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , as a l a n d management p l a n n i n g program, I n t e g r a t e d Resource P l a n n i n g e n j o y s w i d e s p r e a d s u p p o r t . I t i s a f l e x i b l e , e v o l v i n g program and appears t o be w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . The i n c r e a s i n g l y s t r o n g element of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n encourages f o r optimism f o r the c o n t i n u e d improvement of the IRPS program. REFERENCES A g r i c u l t u r e Canada. 1984. T e s t s on C e r e a l and O i l s e e d  Crops i n the Peace R i v e r Region 1983. A g r i c u l t u r e Canada, B e a v e r l o d g e . A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e . 1984. Sources of Farm B u s i n e s s  C r e d i t i n A l b e r t a . A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e , Edmonton. A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e . 1981. Farming P o t e n t i a l of the Jean  D'Or P r a i r i e - An Economic Assessment. A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e , Edmonton. ARDA. 1972. Canada Land I n v e n t o r y S o i l C a p a b i l i t y f o r A g r i c u l t u r e - Mount Watt, NTS 84K, and V e r m i l i o n C h u tes, NTS 84J. Environment Canada, Ottawa. Cameron, Tom F. 1977. B i o p h y s i c a l A n a l y s i s and E v a l u a t i o n of C a p a b i l i t y La C r e t e . A l b e r t a Energy and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , Edmonton. Canadian Wheat Board. 1984. The Canadian Wheat Board Seeded Acreage S t a t i s t i c s - High L e v e l , Keg R i v e r . Canadian Wheat Board. Cooke, L . J . , ADM of the Resource E v a l u a t i o n and P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , A l b e r t a Energy and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , Edmonton. P e r s o n a l Correspondence. G l a s e r , Harvey. 1982. A Consensus of C o s t s and R e t u r n s :  C e r e a l G r a i n s and Rapeseed P r o d u c t i o n i n the F o r t  V e r m i l i o n D i s t r i c t . A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e , Edmonton. G l a s e r , Harvey. 1982b. A Consensus of C o s t s and R e t u r n s :  Wheat, B a r l e y , F l a x , A l f a l f a , and Summerfallow on an  800 A cre Farm i n the F o r t V e r m i l i o n D i s t r i c t . A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e , Edmonton. Government of A l b e r t a . 1984. A P o l i c y f o r Resource  Management of the E a s t e r n S l o p e s R e v i s e d 1984. A l b e r t a Energy and N a t u r a l R e sources, Edmonton. Graw, G e r a l d , W., R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r , Peace R e g i o n , P u b l i c Lands D i v i s i o n , A l b e r t a Energy and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , Peace R i v e r . P e r s o n a l Correspondence. J a r v i e , John, P l a n n i n g Manager South Peace R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, Grande P r a i r i e . P e r s o n a l Correspondence. K l i p p e n s t e i n , R i c k , D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t , A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e , F o r t V e r m i l i o n . P e r s o n a l Correspondence. L e s k i n , L.A. And Twardy, A.G. 1982. E v a l u a t i o n of S o i l s  and A g r i c u l t u r a l S u i t a b i l i t y - Jean D'Or P r a i r i e . A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e , Edmonton. P e t c h , A r t h u r R., Land Use A n a l y s t , Lands D i r e c t o r a t e , Ottawa. Telephone i n t e r v i e w , A p r i l 16, 1985 and u n p u b l i s h e d r e s e a r c h . P e t e r C. N i c h o l s & A s s o c i a t e s L t d . 1981a. A Study of Economic Growth i n the South Peace Sub-Region. Peace R i v e r P l a n n i n g Commission, Grande P r a i r i e . P e t e r C. N i c h o l s & A s s o c i a t e s L t d . 1981b. A Study of  S o c i a l Impact i n the Lower Peace, N o r t h Peace, and  E a s t Peace Sub-Regions. Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, Grande P r a i r i e . P u b l i c Lands D i v i s i o n . 1981. A l b e r t a P u b l i c Lands. A l b e r t a Energy and N a r u r a l R e s o u r c e s , Edmonton. Resource E v a l u a t i o n and P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n . 1983. A System f o r I n t e g r a t e d Resource P l a n n i n g i n A l b e r t a . A l b e r t a l Energy and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , Edmonton. Resource E v a l u a t i o n and P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n . 1984. I n t e g r a t e d Resource Management : Resource Management th r o u g h Teamwork ( p a m p h l e t ) . A l b e r t a Energy and N a s t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , Edmonton. Resource P l a n n i n g Branch. 1983a. I n t e g r a t e d Resource  P l a n : Jean D'Or P r a i r i e S u b - R e g i o n a l P l a n . D r a f t P l a n . A l b e r t a Energy and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , Edmonton. Resource P l a n n i n g B r a nch. 1983b. S o i l C a p a b i l i t y f o r  A g r i c u l t u r e : A Summary and A p p l i c a t i o n of Canada  Land I n v e n t o r y Data i n A l b e r t a . A l b e r t a Energy and N a t u r a l R e sources, Edmonton. S c h e e l a r , M. D. and Macyk, T.M. 1972. S o i l Survey of the  Mount Watt and F o r t V e r m i l i o n A r e a . A l b e r t a S o i l Survey Report S-72-30. U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , Edmonton. S t r o n g , Wayne L. 1981. E c o l o g i c a l Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and E v a l u a t i o n Jean D'Or P r a i r i e . A l b e r t a Energy and N a t u r a l R e sources, Edmonton. S t r o n g , Wayne L., C o n s u l t a n t , Edmonton. Telephone I n t e r v i e w , A p r i l 26,1985. Thompson, Peggy S. 1981. The A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Base i n  A l b e r t a . Environment C o u n c i l of A l b e r t a , Edmonton. Anon. 1982. A g r i c u l t u r e i n the Lower Peace R i v e r Region, ( u n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t ) . A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e , F o r t V e r m i l i o n . 174 PART I I I CONCLUSION CHAPTER SIX A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS  OF CANADIAN PLANNING PROGRAMS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF CROWN LAND IN THE MARGINAL FRINGE 176 6.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n Programs f o r p l a n n i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i n Canada's m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n a r e i n t h e i r i n f a n c y . F l e d g l i n g p l a n n i n g programs a r e d e v e l o p i n g s l o w l y , h e s i t a n t l y , o f t e n s t u m b l i n g , f r e q u e n t l y h a l t i n g a l t o g e t h e r . Sometimes, as i n B r i t i s h Columbia, they take one s t e p f o r w a r d and two s t e p s back. S i n c e t h e s e programs began, over ten y e a r s ago, t h e r e has been much i n n o v a t i o n and t e s t i n g . As i f i n response t o the c r i t i c i s m s of academics such as Lassey and I r o n s i d e over the absence of p l a n n i n g i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e ( L a s s e y , 1977; I r o n s i d e e t a l . , 1974), governments began c r e a t i n g p l a n n i n g programs t o f o s t e r the development of these r e g i o n s . The t r a d i t i o n a l b a r r i e r s t o e f f e c t i v e c o o r d i n a t i o n among government a g e n c i e s were swept away i n a b e w i l d e r i n g a r r a y of p r o c e d u r e s , teams, committees and t a s k f o r c e s . P r o v i n c i a l governments i n A l b e r t a and Newfoundland a g g r e s s i v e l y promoted a g r i c u l t u r a l e xpansion onto t h e i r a r a b l e , v i r g i n Crown l a n d s , s u p p o r t e d by f e d e r a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s u b s i d i e s and, i n the p r a i r i e s , the Canadian Wheat Board quota system. R e f u t i n g B e n t l e y ' s (1982) pe s s i m i s m over th e wisdom of d e v e l o p i n g the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e , demand f o r new l a n d i s s t i l l s t r o n g e r than s u p p l y . Land i s b e i n g d e v e l o p e d , c r o p s a r e b e i n g grown and s o l d . Farmers have been a b l e t o earn a l i v i n g i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e . Economic s u r v i v a l may not be due t o a g r i c u l t u r e a l o n e but t o s i g n i f i c a n t government support and p a r t - t i m e work i n o t h e r r e s o u r c e s e c t o r s . Assuming t h a t t h i s s i t u a t i o n w i l l c o n t i n u e more l a n d w i l l be d e v e l o p e d , but the c o s t s f o r government w i l l be h i g h . I n f r a s t r u c t u r e , i n c e n t i v e programs, and 177 s o c i a l s e r v i c e s n e c e s s a r y t o the farm a r e more e x p e n s i v e on the f r o n t i e r than i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l h e a r t l a n d . O f t e n investment i n new a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s i s due t o the broader s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s s u r r o u n d i n g r u r a l development and not j u s t t o a g r i c u l t u r e . These broader i s s u e s o f t e n go u n r e c o g n i z e d , and t h i s p o i n t s t o a major f l a w i n a l l of the c a s e s reviewed i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r — a l a c k of s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i n f o r m a t i o n and assessment. The c h a l l e n g e t o the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s then i s t o match s k i l l e d f a r m e r s , l i m i t e d p u b l i c funds f o r development and the l a n d w i t h the h i g h e s t s u i t a b i l i t y f o r a g r i c u l t u r e w h i l e c a s t i n g one eye over the s h o u l d e r a t commodity p r i c e s and i n t e r e s t r a t e t r e n d s . The d i v e r s i t y of programs f o r p l a n n i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e i s i l l u s t r a t e d w e l l by the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e examples of p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s conducted i n each of the case study a r e a s . In t h i s a n a l y s i s , we have found t h a t s p e c i f i c e x e r c i s e s f o r p l a n n i n g the development of m a r g i n a l l a n d omit or a r e d e f i c i e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o one or more of the elements of the i d e a l i z e d p r o c e s s (as per Chapter 1). T h i s o m i s s i o n or d e f i e n c y c o u l d be due t o the o r i g i n a l s t r u c t u r i n g and s c o p i n g of the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g program or i t c o u l d be due t o a d e c i s i o n t o modify elements of the o v e r a l l program t o adapt t o the i n d i v i d u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s of each p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e . In t h i s c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r , I w i l l a d d r e s s the most c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n s f o r e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g programs i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e . I a r r i v e a t these q u e s t i o n s a f t e r a r e v i e w of the a n a l y s i s i n the case s t u d i e s where r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s u s i n g the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i l l u s t r a t e d the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of each program: •Has p r o v i s i o n been made f o r a c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d , s t a b l e y e t f l e x i b l e program f o r p l a n n i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e , and what i s the r o l e , c e n t r a l or p e r i p h e r a l , p l a y e d be the l e a d a g r i c u l t u r a l agency i n t h i s program? •Given the f a c t t h a t m a r g i n a l l a n d s a r e o f t e n a t some e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y d e f i n e d boundary of m a r g i n a l i t y , how w e l l a r e e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s ( e s p e c i a l l y c l i m a t e and s o i l s ) i n v e n t o r i e d , e v a l u a t e d and communicated t o d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s ? •Do programs p e r m i t socio-economic assessments t h a t shed l i g h t on the f e a s i b i l i t y , b r o a d l y s p e a k i n g , of p r e f e r r e d development s t r a t e g i e s ? •Does the program a l l o w f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e r e s o u r c e development o p t i o n s t o a g r i c u l t u r e ? •Are government programs such as Crown l a n d d i s p o s i t i o n and a g r i c u l t u r a l i n c e n t i v e s , e f f e c t i v e l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the p l a n n i n g program i n promoting the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d s i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e ? •What s o r t of e f f o r t has been made t o b u i l d p u b l i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g of and support f o r the p l a n n i n g program? 179 6.2 I s There a C l e a r l y A r t i c u l a t e d Program f o r P l a n n i n g ? In a l l t h r e e cases a n a l y s e d , no attempt has been made t o d e v e l o p a s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g program f o r m a r g i n a l f r i n g e c o n d i t i o n s . I n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s s t r u g g l e , some more s u c c e s s f u l l y than o t h e r s , t o adapt a p r o v i n c e - w i d e program f o r Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g or a g r i c u l t u r a l development t o m a r g i n a l f r i n g e c o n d i t i o n s . D e v e l o p i n g p l a n n i n g programs t o address m a r g i n a l f r i n g e c o n d i t i o n s and problems w i l l a l l o w i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s , such as those i n the case s t u d i e s , t o have a g r e a t e r impact by b e i n g l e s s a l i e n t o l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , more e f f i c i e n t and more e f f e c t i v e i n r e a l i z i n g r e g i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . Much of the l i t e r a t u r e c a l l s f o r a comprehensive, h i e r a r c h i c a l approach t o p l a n n i n g f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development. P o l i c i e s and p l a n s s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d a t a l l l e v e l s i n the h i e r a r c h y as proposed i n F i g u r e 1.1. The r e g i o n a l or sub-r e g i o n a l u n i t i s the most i m p o r t a n t as i t i s the o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l . T h i s i s c o n f i r m e d i n the p l a n n i n g programs r e v i e w e d i n the c a s e s and a l s o c o r r o b o r a t e s the views of Lassey (1977) and the OECD (1978). B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a attempt t o f o l l o w t h i s comprehensive, h i e r a r c h i c a l approach i n t h e i r p r o v i n c i a l Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g program. The program i s documented o f f i c i a l l y as p o l i c y i n each j u r i s d i c t i o n f l o w i n g from the p r o v i n c i a l t o the l o c a l l e v e l . However, many st a g e s a r e l e f t out of the program when i t i s a c t u a l l y implemented. B r i t i s h Columbia has c o n c e n t r a t e d a t the s u b - d i s t r i c t l e v e l as has A l b e r t a , t o a 180 l e s s e r e x t e n t . A l b e r t a i s a l s o s t a r t i n g t o renew emphasis on the development of r e g i o n a l p l a n s t o g u i d e more s i t e s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s . The development of r e g i o n a l p l a n s w i l l a i d i n the a d a p t a t i o n of p r o v i n c e - w i d e p l a n n i n g programs t o m a r g i n a l f r i n g e c o n d i t i o n s . B r i t i s h Columbia has, however, abandoned comprehensive p l a n n i n g programs i n an atmosphere of r e s o u r c e management i n s t a b i l i t y and c o n f u s i n g p o l i t i c a l d i r e c t i o n (Land P l a n n i n g B r a n c h , 1983). The absence of h i g h e r l e v e l p l a n s and p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n r e s u l t s i n a more i n e f f i c i e n t a p p l i c a t i o n of programs a t t h e f i e l d l e v e l of p l a n n i n g i n h i e r a r c h i c a l b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e s which a r e used t o r e c e i v i n g d i r e c t i o n from above. The problem a l s o extends t o f i t t i n g t he more l o c a l i z e d p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s i n t o the broader r e g i o n a l p i c t u r e . I n t e g r a t e d e f f o r t s i n p l a n n i n g programs a r e i l l u s t r a t e d most s u c c e s s f u l l y i n A l b e r t a . There, a l l a f f e c t e d a g e n c i e s a r e encouraged t o p a r t i c i p a t e a t a l l l e v e l s i n a committee system w i t h the f i e l d l e v e l u s i n g a p l a n n i n g team approach. In B r i t i s h C o lumbia, i n t e g r a t i o n i s l e s s of a f e a t u r e i n t h a t a g e n c i e s p r o v i d e an a d v i s o r y r o l e t o the M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and Housing t h r o u g h the i n t e r a g e n c y t a s k f o r c e . I n t e g r a t i o n i s not a f e a t u r e of t h e Newfoundland p l a n n i n g program beyond a r e f e r r a l system a f t e r p l a n s are d e v e l o p e d . C o n s u l t a t i o n i s conducted m a i n l y t o f a c i l i t a t e a g r i c u l t u r a l development and t o soothe unhappy i n t e r e s t s a f t e r p l a n s a r e implemented. The A g r i c u l t u r a l agency p l a y s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n both the Newfoundland and A l b e r t a p l a n n i n g programs, w h i l e i t i s i n v o l v e d o n l y p e r i p h e r a l l y i n the B r i t i s h Columbia programs. Newfoundland and B r i t i s h Columbia a r e a t o p p o s i t e extremes 181 on a continuum r e p r e s e n t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l agency i n v o l v e m e n t i n the p l a n n i n g program f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e . A l b e r t a i s near the m i d d l e of t h a t continuum. The B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food has v e r y l i t t l e i n p u t i n t o p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e . T h i s i s due p r i m a r i l y t o ' a l a c k of s t a f f and low p r i o r i t y f o r l a n d p l a n n i n g i n the M i n i s t r y . W h i l e c o n s u l t a t i o n does t a k e p l a c e , i t i s f a r from s a t i s f a c t o r y . The A g r i c u l t u r a l Branch i n Newfoundland, on the o t h e r hand, c o n t r o l s the e n t i r e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r the development of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . However, the Branch's a g g r e s s i v e p l a n n i n g program c o u p l e d w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t f u n d i n g p r o v i d e d by the f e d e r a l government, t o be spent by a c o n t r a c t e d d e a d l i n e , p l a c e s ' O t h e r a g e n c i e s i n a r e a c t i v e and d e f e n s i v e p o s i t i o n . Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g i s s t a r t i n g o n l y now i n the p r o v i n c e ; however, as most of the a g r i c u l t u r a l l y s u i t a b l e a r e a s have a l r e a d y been s u b j e c t t o p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s under the A g r i c u l t u r a l Branch's p l a n n i n g program, a pre c e d e n t has been s e t and r e s o u r c e use d e s i g n a t i o n i n a Crown l a n d p l a n w i l l be o n l y a f o r m a l i t y . A l b e r t a , a g a i n , s t r i k e s a b a l a n c e between Newfoundland and B r i t i s h C olumbia. A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e i s e x t e n s i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s as an e q u a l p a r t i c i p a n t on the P l a n n i n g Teams and committees i n the IRPS program. I t i s a l s o i n v o l v e d i n the d e s i g n of A c c e l e r a t e d Land S a l e s p r o j e c t s t h r o u g h r e f e r r a l and th r o u g h i t s r o l e i n the A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Committees. Approaches t o l a n d p l a n n i n g programs f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l 182 development i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e v a r y from j u r i s d i c t i o n t o j u r i s d i c t i o n i n a number of a s p e c t s . F i r s t , B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a programs f o l l o w a Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g approach. They lo o k a t a p l a n n i n g a r e a ' s Crown l a n d w i t h i n an i n t e g r a t e d framework. Then, based on r e s o u r c e s e c t o r o b j e c t i v e s and a, p r e d o m i n a n t l y , b i o - p h y s i c a l a n a l y s i s , they a l l o c a t e l a n d s t o v a r i o u s uses. The B r i t i s h Columbia program d i d a l l o w f o r a l i m i t e d form of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n n i n g i n d e s i g n a t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l development a r e a s and r e s o u r c e management a r e a s a f t e r ' a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s had been i d e n t i f i e d i n the Crown l a n d management p l a n . T h i s has not been the case i n A l b e r t a , where the p l a n n i n g program jumps d i r e c t l y from Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g t o a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g . In Newfoundland, t h e r e i s o n l y an e x p e r i m e n t a l Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g program. A program f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n n i n g i n d e s i g n a t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l development a r e a s has been a t t e m p t e d . However, the main form of p l a n n i n g program has been a t the p r o d u c t i o n p r o j e c t l e v e l . The absence of o t h e r l e v e l s of p l a n n i n g programs has l e d t o a n e g l e c t of o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s and o t h e r p o t e n t i a l r e s o u r c e uses. In summary, p l a n n i n g programs a r e not a r t i c u l a t e d v e r y w e l l . There i s no development of programs aimed s p e c i f i c a l l y a t m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n s . A g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n n i n g programs a r e absent as a r e , f o r the most p a r t , broader r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s . P r o j e c t p l a n n i n g programs are o f t e n i s o l a t e d from more comprehensive l e v e l s of a p l a n n i n g program. However, the a g r i c u l t u r a l agency does p l a y a l e a d r o l e i n most of the more e f f e c t i v e programs. 183 6.3 How W e l l a r e E n v i r o n m e n t a l F a c t o r s I n v e n t o r i e d , E v a l u a t e d  and Communicated t o D e c i s i o n - m a k e r s ? C l i m a t e and s o i l s remain the u l t i m a t e c o n s t r a i n t s t o a g r i c u l t u r e i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e . An i n c r e a s e i n the p r i c e of g r a i n c o u l d be v e r y b e n e f i c i a l f o r f a r m e r s , but t h e r e a r e a few t h i n g s t h a t f o r e s e e a b l e p r i c e i n c r e a s e s cannot do. They cannot i n c r e a s e the f r e e z e - f r e e p e r i o d nor can p r i c e i n c r e a s e s t u r n muskeg, a f f e c t e d by p e r m a f r o s t , i n t o w h e a t f i e l d s . C l i m a t e becomes a b a r r i e r t o c u l t i v a t i o n b e f o r e s o i l s do, as one moves f u r t h e r n o r t h . Broad c l i m a t i c d a t a i s r e q u i r e d t o d e f i n e e c o l o g i c a l l i m i t s . Once the s e l i m i t s are e s t a b l i s h e d , i n c r e a s i n g l y d e t a i l e d c l i m a t i c and s o i l s i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d w i t h i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e t o determine e n v i r o n m e n t a l s u i t a b i l i t y f o r s p e c i f i c c r o p s . Over t e n y e a r s ago, Laut (1973) and W i l l i a m s (1974) c a l l e d f o r a more s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s of s o i l and c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e . Only i n the A l b e r t a case does t h i s a n a l y s i s appear t o be t a k i n g p l a c e , t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t , w i t h c l i m a t e . S o i l s u r v e y s a r e u s u a l l y conducted at a v e r y s m a l l s c a l e and as an e x t e n s i o n of an o v e r a l l p r o v i n c i a l program. E v a l u a t i o n s or secondary i n v e n t o r i e s are conducted u s i n g a system, the CLI which i s more s u i t a b l e f o r s o u t h e r n c o n d i t i o n s . The assessment of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development i s c o nducted on a p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e by e x e r c i s e b a s i s . There i s no n a t i o n a l or p r o v i n c i a l program f o r a s s e s s i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s keyed s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e . Even i n Newfoundland, where i t can be s a i d , almost a l l 1 84 a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i s m a r g i n a l , the n a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y system i s s t i l l used. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o educate the non-expert about a 'one t h r o u g h seven', c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s system which s t a r t s , f o r the most p a r t , a t c l a s s f o u r i n Newfoundland. I t i s a l s o c o n f u s i n g t o e x p l a i n t h a t the c a p a b i l i t y system i s based m o s t l y on c r o p s t h a t cannot be grown i n Newfoundland. The e x p a n s i o n of the p l a n n i n g program i n t o Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g i n m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n s r e s u l t s i n i n c r e a s e d assesssment of a l t e r n a t i v e r e s o u r c e uses. To a l l o w f o r the assessment of the s e a l t e r n a t i v e uses, d i f f e r e n t j u r i s d i c t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a , a r e u s i n g i n n o v a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s t o d e v e l o p a common i n v e n t o r y base f o r c o m p a r i s o n . The A l b e r t a system f o r e c o l o g i c a l l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d i s p l a y s a number of advantages over o t h e r p r i m a r y i n v e n t o r i e s i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e . I t p r o v i d e s a common base of i n f o r m a t i o n and a common system of map poly g o n s f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of most a l t e r n a t i v e r e s o u r c e u s e s , i n c l u d i n g w i l d l i f e . T h i s makes the comparisons among v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e use c a p a b i l i t i e s or s u i t a b i l i t i e s e a s i e r s i n c e a l l i n v o l v e d a r e u s i n g a common p r i m a r y i n v e n t o r y base. The use of both improved and unimproved CLI r a t i n g s •< p r o v i d e s the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r w i t h a base f o r more a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t i o n of some of the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s i n v o l v e d i n a l t e r n a t i v e development s c e n a r i o s . At the s u b - r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g l e v e l i n A l b e r t a and some p a r t s of B r i t i s h C olumbia, c a p a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s uses o n l y unimproved CLI r a t i n g s . I n A l b e r t a , as the p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e was b e i n g c o n d u c t e d , A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e conducted a survey on improved a g r i c u l t u r a l r a t i n g s . A l t h o u g h 185 c o n t r o v e r s i a l , i t was a c c e p t e d as a b a s i s f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . P e t c h (1984) s t a t e s t h a t o t h e r r e s o u r c e u s e r s may have been a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e as they d i d not use improved r a t i n g s i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s under t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n . The d i v e r s i t y of l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c o n ducted i n the Jean D'Or P l a n a r e a d i s p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e of r e s o u r c e e v a l u a t i o n s . T h i s i s a l s o apparent i n the debate over the impact of c l i m a t e on c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n F o r t N e l s o n and the c a p a b i l i t y s u r v e y s i n the S t . John's c a s e . D i f f e r e n t s u r v e y o r s y i e l d d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the same r e s o u r c e base f o r the same us e s . Improved i n f o r m a t i o n and d a t a can be one f a c t o r i n t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s but o f t e n v a r i a t i o n s i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r e f l e c t the l a t i t u d e of p o s s i b l e d e r i v a t i o n s , g i v e n l i m i t e d knowledge. Such a range of r e s u l t s can be b e n e f i c i a l t o the p l a n n e r i n p r o v i d i n g a way t o judge the p r o b a b l e a c c u r a c y of any one s u r v e y . Y i e l d and v a r i e t y t r i a l s were conducted i n a l l t h r e e case study a r e a s . However, o n l y F o r t V e r m i l i o n has an e x t e n s i v e l o n g -term program where r e s u l t s c o u l d be used w i t h any degree of c o n f i d e n c e . B r i t i s h Columbia's v a r i e t y and y i e l d t r i a l s were c u t , due t o government r e s t r a i n t , a f t e r o n l y two y e a r s of e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . U n s t a b l e f u n d i n g i s a major problem w i t h r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r y i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e , as i t i s w i t h o t h e r a r e a s of r e s o u r c e management. Programs aimed a t c r e a t i n g an i n v e n t o r y of d e v e l o p i n g r e s o u r c e s a r e u s u a l l y l o n g - t e r m i n v e s t m e n t s w i t h a p a y - o f f s e v e r a l y e a r s i n the f u t u r e . I f programs a r e c u t i n t h e s e a r e a s , o f t e n few r e s u l t s can be r e a l i z e d f o r t h e a l r e a d y i n v e s t e d f u n d s . T h i s l a c k of s h o r t - t e r m 186 r e s u l t s i s o f t e n used as j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r even f u r t h e r c u t s . In summary, the i n v e n t o r y , e v a l u a t i o n and communication t o d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s f o r m a r g i n a l f r i n g e development a r e weak but a r e making some p r o g r e s s . U s u a l l y , i n v e n t o r i e s and e v a l u a t i o n s a r e not adapted t o m a r g i n a l f r i n g e c o n d i t i o n s but a r e o f t e n the e x t e n s i o n of a n a t i o n a l or p r o v i n c i a l program. C l i m a t i c d a t a i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a d e q u a t e . Funding i s o f t e n s h o r t - t e r m and i n s e c u r e . However, the use of e c o l o g i c a l l a n d s u r v e y s and more e x t e n s i v e y i e l d and v a r i e t y t r i a l s as w e l l as the use of both improved and unimproved c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g s a l l o w s f o r some op t i m i s m . 6.4 Do P l a n n i n g Programs P e r m i t Adequate Socio-economic  Assessments? The l a c k of economic and s o c i a l impact assessments i s another major f l a w i n the p l a n n i n g programs f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e . In an a r e a where development c o s t s f o r the government and the p r o d u c e r a r e h i g h e r than i n more d e n s e l y s e t t l e d a r e a s and where r e t u r n s a r e g e n e r a l l y l o w e r , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s must be a s s e s s e d t h r o u g h l y . As e c o l o g i c a l l i m i t s f o r a g r i c u l t u r e have t o be e s t a b l i s h e d , so do s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l i m i t s where p r o d u c t i o n cannot s u f f i c i e n t l y y i e l d income t o j u s t i f y p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t . T h i s i s t r u e e s p e c i a l l y i n more i s o l a t e d a r e a s where a g r i c u l t u r e i s the o n l y p o s s i b l e major r e s o u r c e use and broader r u r a l development i s s u e s a r e not i n v o l v e d . Land i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e may have a r a b l e s o i l s and a f a v o u r a b l e c l i m a t e , but u n t i l the p r i c e s of commmodities a r e 187 h i g h enough t o pay f o r the i n c r e a s e d c o s t s of p r o d u c t i o n i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e , a g r i c u l t u r e , as an i n d u s t r y , i s not e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e . Government can d e c i d e t o s u b s i d i z e a g r i c u l t u r a l development, as i t has done i n many a r e a s of the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e i n Canada. However, t h e s e s u b s i d i e s must be l i n k e d t o a p a y - o f f somewhere down the road t h a t makes the spending of t h a t money on a g r i c u l t u r a l development more e f f i c i e n t , e q u i t a b l e and e f f e c t i v e f o r s o c i e t y than i f s p e n t , f o r example, on s o i l c o n s e r v a t i o n i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y of B r i t i s h Columbia. C o s t s and b e n e f i t s must be e v a l u a t e d i n both s o c i a l and economic terms. I f broader r u r a l development o b j e c t i v e s are a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on development, they must be made e x p l i c i t i n the e v a l u a t i o n . These assessments have not been conducted i n the p a s t i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e and o n l y now, i n A l b e r t a , are they b e i n g a t t e m p t e d . The IRPS program b e i n g used i n the F o r t V e r m i l i o n a r e a , i s e v o l v i n g and i s j u s t now s t a r t i n g t o i n c l u d e economic a n a l y s i s as a major f e a t u r e . The d r a f t p l a n p r e s e n t s a broad a n a l y s i s of the c o s t s i n v o l v e d . Based on t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s , broader s t u d i e s are b e i n g completed now on the f i n a n c i a l , income and employment a s p e c t s of the p l a n . A g a i n , adequate socio-economic assessments a r e not b e i n g conducted i n m a r g i n a l f r i n g e development p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s . A s t a r t i s b e i n g made i n A l b e r t a on a form of economic a n a l y s i s and r e s u l t s s h o u l d be s t u d i e d c a r e f u l l y t o see i f the methods used a r e a p p l i c a b l e e l s e w h e r e . 188 6.5 Are A l t e r n a t i v e Resource Development O p t i o n s t o A g r i c u l t u r e  C o n s i d e r e d ? A s i g n i f i c a n t amount of i n t e r a g e n c y p o l i t i c s shapes the outcome of many r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s . A g e n c i e s f e e l t h a t the o t h e r s have more s t a f f , time or s u p p o r t . P o s i t i o n s a r e o f t e n t a k e n on the b a s i s of these p e r c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s become r i g i d . E f f e c t i v e c o o r d i n a t i o n , s t r o n g d i r e c t i o n and s k i l l e d n e g o t i a t i o n a r e e s s e n t i a l t o overcome t h e s e o b s t a c l e s . More i m p o r t a n t l y , the p l a n n i n g program must a l l o w e x p l i c i t l y f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e r e s o u r c e development o p t i o n s t o a g r i c u l t u r e on a l l l a n d i n the p l a n n i n g a r e a . A l t e r n a t i v e r e s o u r c e development o p t i o n s s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d i n the Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s . These a l t e r n a t i v e o p t i o n s have not been c o n s i d e r e d i n Newfoundland due t o the absence of such a program. In A l b e r t a , a l s o , a l t e r n a t i v e o p t i o n s are not c o n s i d e r e d e f f e c t i v e l y . The o v e r r i d i n g o b j e c t i v e , i n A l b e r t a , i s the development of more a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , which means t h a t o t h e r r e s o u r c e development o p t i o n s have t o f i g h t t o r e t a i n what they can a f t e r a g r i c u l t u r e i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h i t s t a k e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o c o n s i d e r a d e q u a t e l y o t h e r r e s o u r c e o p t i o n s i n a r e a s of r e l a t i v e l y h i g h c a p a b i l i t y f o r a g r i c u l t u r e w i t h such a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o a g r i c u l t u r a l development. Only i n B r i t i s h Columbia were the p r e p a r a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of the p l a n n i n g program. There, the a l t e r n a t i v e development o p t i o n s , w i t h d i f f e r e n t r e s o u r c e uses b e i n g emphasised i n each, g i v e the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s an i n d i r e c t i l l u s t r a t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s . 189 In the Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g program, i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e s c e n a r i o s or s t r a t e g i e s , r e f l e c t i n g d i f f e r e n t r e s o u r c e u s e s , be developed i n each p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e . I f the r o l e of the Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g program i s t o e f f e c t i v e l y , e f f i c i e n t l y and e q u i t a b l y a l l o c a t e l a n d t o i t s best use, then a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f , at l e a s t , the major r e s o u r c e development o p t i o n s i s a p p r o p r i a t e . 6.6 Are R e l a t e d Government Programs E f f e c t i v e ? U n l i k e urban p l a n n i n g , where p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the e x e r c i s e can o f t e n be viewed as major ends i n t h e m s e l v e s , th e p e o p l e of the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e a r e o f t e n a t t e n t i v e o n l y t o v e r y t a n g i b l e r e s u l t s . There a r e t r e e s t o be f e l l e d , l a n d t o be c l e a r e d , w i l d l i f e t o be managed and non-renewable r e s o u r c e s t o be e x t r a c t e d . A p l a n n i n g proram, t h e r e f o r e , must f a c i l i t a t e the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h a t development o p p o r t u n i t y . I t i s an e x h i l a r a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r the p o l i t i c i a n , j u s t l i k e the f r o n t i e r s m a n , t o cause w i l d e r n e s s t o be t u r n e d i n t o f a r m l a n d and communities. The a t t i t u d e i s o f t e n one of t u r n i n g v acant unused l a n d i n t o p r o d u c t i v e p a r t s of t h e p r o v i n c e . However, i n a l l t h r e e c a s e s , c o n f l i c t s a r e a p p a r e n t ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , a g r i c u l t u r e i s a d v a n c i n g i n e x o r a b l y , pushed by major f u n d i n g programs, p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y and p u b l i c p r e s s u r e . Land i s a l l o c a t e d t o a g r i c u l t u r e i n l a r g e t r a c t s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n v i e n i e n c e , as i n A l b e r t a and Newfoundland, or i n a more e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y s e n s i t i v e , s u i t a b i l i t y based z o n i n g t e c h n i q u e , as i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 190 Lassey (1977) views many of government's p o l i c i e s and programs f o r r u r a l development as c o n t r a d i c t o r y or i n a d e q u a t e . To these o b s e r v a t i o n s can be added the term i n c o n s i s t e n t e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of B r i t i s h Columbia. Land i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s s o l d t o the h i g h e s t b i d d e r , r e g a r d l e s s of the b i d d e r ' s f a r m i n g s k i l l s or r e s o u r c e s t o d e v e l o p the l a n d . Development f u n d i n g programs r e q u i r e t h e s e s k i l l s and r e s o u r c e s b e f o r e l e n d i n g money. The p r o s p e c t i v e farmer i s caught i n a 'catch-22' s i t u a t i o n . In Newfoundland, t h e government and farmers r a c e t o the end of one f i v e y e a r , f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l agreement a f t e r a n o t h e r , t r y i n g t o spend a l l the money b e f o r e the time i s up and Ottawa t a k e s what i s l e f t back home. T h i s r a c e o c c u r s , t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Develpment A s s i s t a n c e program f u n d i n g and c o s t - s h a r e d agreements. In a l l a r e a s s t u d i e d , l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o o t h e r r u r a l development r e q u i r e m e n t s which a r i s e as a r e s u l t of a g r i c u l t u r a l development, such as s c h o o l s , r e c r e a t i o n , h e a l t h c a r e and so on. The B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food's i n a t t e n t i o n t o the p l a n n i n g program which r e s u l t s i n an exp a n s i o n of the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d base ( d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 6.2) i s a l s o e v i d e n t i n the M i n i s t r y ' s r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l of f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e s . Only one program, A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Development A s s i s t a n c e , i s aimed d i r e c t l y a t d e v e l o p i n g new l a n d . There a r e o t h e r l o a n and l o a n g uarantee programs a v a i l a b l e , but they a r e not s p e c i f i c a l l y aimed a t l a n d development. I n t e r e s t r a t e s i n t h e s e o t h e r l o a n programs a r e a l s o h i g h (prime p l u s one p e r c e n t ) . 191 In Newfoundland, government f u n d i n g programs are p r o v i d e d m a i n l y t h r o u g h the c o s t - s h a r e d agreements. D i r e c t g r a n t s t o farmers and p r o s p e c t i v e f a r m e r s , under t h e s e agreements, c o n s t i t u t e a unique f e a t u r e i n the f u n d i n g of development i n the t h r e e case s t u d y a r e a s . A g a i n , wider r u r a l development and r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t y i s s u e s are a s i g n i f i c a n t element i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of these s h o r t - t e r m f u n d i n g agreements. T h i s may have the d e s i r e d r e s u l t of pumping a l o t of money over a s h o r t p e r i o d i n t o the l o c a l economy, but such programs are v e r y i n e f f i c i e n t i n d e v e l o p i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y . Money i s o f t e n wasted on e x o t i c p r o j e c t s , s t a f f t u r n - o v e r i s h i g h and e v a l u a t i o n i s poor. A l b e r t a has an e x t e n s i v e a r r a y of programs t o fund the e x p a n s i o n of the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d base i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e . These a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y low i n t e r e s t l o a n programs w i t h a v a r i e t y of b u i l t - i n i n c e n t i v e s . The f u n d i n g f o r these programs i s p r o v i d e d as a p a r t of a s e c u r e l y e s t a b l i s h e d f i n a n c i n g p r o c e s s . The p r o v i n c e f a c e s no d e a d l i n e f o r the spending of money from an o u t s i d e s o u r c e . Loans a r e l a r g e enough and a t r a t e s which a l l o w the s k i l l e d , new e n t r a n t or expanding o p e r a t o r t o a d e q u a t e l y d e v e l o p the s i z e of farm needed t o be e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e . A l b e r t a has the b e s t program, of the t h r e e p r o v i n c e ' s s t u d i e d , f o r Crown l a n d d i s p o s i t i o n s . Revenue i s g e n e r a t e d f o r the Crown a t a p p r a i s e d v a l u e , but t h e r e a r e no onerous i n t e r e s t c h a r g e s as i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and, as i n Newfoundland, a p p l i c a n t s a r e r e q u i r e d t o have the r e s o u r c e s and s k i l l s t o become f a r m e r s . 192 The t h r e e main elements f o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n government programs r e l a t e d t o the p l a n n i n g program f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development a r e t h e p r o v i s i o n of adequate l e v e l s of s e c u r e l o n g -term f u n d i n g , t h e c o n s i s t e n c y among programs, such as Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g and Crown l a n d d i s p o s i t i o n s and, f i n a l l y , the i n t e g r a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l development and broader r u r a l development i n i t i a t i v e s . 6.7 Does The P u b l i c U n derstand and Support the P l a n n i n g Program? P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s one of the most c r u c i a l elements i n p l a n n i n g programs f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e . U s i n g E r i c k s o n ' s (1980) t e r m i n o l o g y (from an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l - e x p e r t t o a d e m o c r a t i c - p a r t i c i p a t o r y s y s t e m ) , the S t . John's c a s e . i l l u s t r a t e s the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l - e x p e r t approach w h i l e A l b e r t a i s d e m o c r a t i c - p a r t i c i p a t o r y . B r i t i s h Columbia f a l l s somewhere i n between the two. The absence of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Newfoundland and the l a t e p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i n B r i t i s h Columbia c a u s e , a t t i m e s , a c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l atmosphere and a time-consuming r e f o r m u l a t i o n of the p l a n t o i n c o r p o r a t e p u b l i c comments, not t o mention the l o s t o p p o r t u n i t y of p u b l i c s u p p o r t . The r e s u l t s of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n can be d e t e r m i n e d by the n a t u r e and h i s t o r y of the proposed development. T h i s means t h a t the p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n program must be adapted t o i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h i s a l s o means t h a t the s t u d y of b r o a d e r s o c i a l f a c t o r s i s e s s e n t i a l . An i n f o r m e d and s u p p o r t i v e p u b l i c i s c r i t i c a l t o the c o n t i n u e d improvement of p l a n n i n g programs. P e t c h (1985) f e e l s 193 t h a t t h i s i s one of the A l b e r t a system's a s s e t s . S i n c e the p u b l i c i s i n v o l v e d and b e g i n s t o d e v e l o p an u n d e r s t a n d i n g f o r the p l a n n i n g program, i t w i l l r e c o g n i z e m i s t a k e s and clamour f o r t h e i r r e c t i f i c a t i o n . However, problems of s h o r t - t e r m program f u n d i n g a r e , a g a i n , an i s s u e . I t t a k e s time t o b u i l d up the c o n f i d e n c e of p a r t i c i p a n t s and the p u b l i c i n a p l a n n i n g program or e x e r c i s e . C o n f i d e n c e , l i k e f a r m l a n d , can be eroded q u i c k l y and, l i k e f a r m l a n d , i t may never be r e s t o r e d except a t g r e a t c o s t . The A l b e r t a c a s e , a t l e a s t a t t h i s e a r l y s t a g e , w a r r a n t s c l o s e a t t e n t i o n by o f f i c i a l s from the o t h e r two case study a r e a s . I f the p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n program succeeds i n A l b e r t a , i t w i l l be w o r t h w h i l e f o r o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s t o adapt i t t o t h e i r own c o n s t i t u e n c i e s . 6.8 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u t u r e Research As s t a t e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s t h e s i s , the method which I have used has been been t o scan b r o a d l y the performance of major Canadian programs i n the f i e l d of m a r g i n a l f r i n g e Crown l a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l development p l a n n i n g . T h i s has been a c c o m p l i s h e d by a p p l y i n g a comprehensive a n a l y t i c a l framework, based on the i d e a l i z e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s of Chapter 1, t o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e examples of p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s conducted i n Canada's m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n . One of the major r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s i s t o r a i s e a host of q u e s t i o n s which m e r i t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . I w i l l o u t l i n e i n t h i s s e c t i o n a number of fundamental, i s s u e s f o r c o n t i n u e d r e s e a r c h . One of the p r i o r i t y a r e a s f o r 194 r e s e a r c h w i l l have t o be the n e g l e c t e d f i e l d of socio-economic assessment. Here, i s s u e s a r e r e l a t e d t o m a t t e r s such as the a c t u a l h i s t o r y of s p e c i f i c l a n d d i s p o s i t i o n s . T h i s r e s e a r c h can l e a d t o a d e t e r m i n a t i o n of m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s behind the demand f o r more Crown l a n d . I s i t b e i n g d e v e l o p e d , or j u s t l o g g e d , and has i t been s o l d a t a p r o f i t ? A second i s s u e r e l a t e d t o the p o s s i b i l i t y of s p e c u l a t i v e g a i n r a i s e d above, i s the economic v i a b i l i t y of those a r e a s a c t u a l l y b e i n g farmed i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e . The p r o f i t and l o s s e s of a number of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e farms r e f l e c t i n g v a r i o u s commodity emphasis and l o c a t i o n s s h o u l d be s t u d i e d . As w e l l , the t o t a l c o s t s of p u b l i c i n f r a s t r u c t u r e per y i e l d of produce and how t h i s compares t o the a g r i c u l t u r a l h e a r t l a n d a r e i m p o r t a n t r e s e a r c h i t e m s . Government t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s u b s i d y programs and quota systems may be a f f e c t i n g the development of m a r g i n a l l a n d . I f t h i s i s so, how i s t h i s b e i n g done and s h o u l d i t be c o n t i n u e d ? The impact of a g r i c u l t u r a l development on s u r r o u n d i n g communities and the impact of those communities on a g r i c u l t u r e has not r e c e i v e d much a t t e n t i o n by p l a n n e r s or r e s e a r c h e r s . O p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s a r e seldom developed when c o n s i d e r i n g development on Crown l a n d . T h i s i s an a r e a where economic m o d e l l i n g would be v e r y u s e f u l . The impact on a g r i c u l t u r a l development of f u n d i n g s t a b i l i t y f o r p l a n n i n g and o t h e r r e s o u r c e development programs must a l s o be s t u d i e d . R e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s s h o u l d be d e v e l o p i n g p r o d u c t i o n systems t o f i t m a r g i n a l f r i n g e c o n d i t i o n s . A l s o , r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r i e s s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d t o address t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s . The l a c k of r e s e a r c h on c l i m a t e and s o i l l i m i t a t i o n s 195 i s a major h a n d i c a p t o e f f i c i e n t development. Long-term p r o d u c t i o n t r e n d s and y i e l d s on v a r i o u s t y p i c a l s i t e s s h o u l d a l s o be m o n i t o r e d and e v a l u a t e d . E x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g programs s h o u l d be m o n i t o r e d t o a l l o w f o r the more s u c c e s s f u l a s p e c t s of each program t o be adapted and used e l s e w h e r e . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e of A l b e r t a ' s p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n program and i t s new economic assessment i n i t i a t i v e s . E xperiments w i t h the d e s i g n of p l a n n i n g programs c o u l d be conducted i n v a r i o u s r e g i o n s of the c o u n t r y and funded by the f e d e r a l government. Impacts of e x i s t i n g programs can be compared. For example, the p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g programs of A l b e r t a , B r i t i s h Columbia and Newfoundland o f f e r many common f e a t u r e s which can form the b a s i s of f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . Some r e s e a r c h i s be i n g conducted on a s p e c t s of r e s o u r c e development i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e ; however, v e r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been done i n a r i g o r o u s manner a t a s i t e s p e c i f i c l e v e l which i s , a f t e r a l l , the l e v e l f o r a t r u e t e s t of most p l a n n i n g programs. 6.7 C o n c l u s i o n P l a n n i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e i s i n i t s i n f a n c y . Growing p a i n s a re r e a d i l y e v i d e n t i n the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s arid i n n o v a t i o n s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Sudden changes i n programs, as i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and f u n d i n g d e a d l i n e s , as i n Newfoundland, a r e h a r m f u l t o the s u c c e s s f u l development of f r o n t i e r r e s o u r c e s and erode government's c r e d i b i l i t y . Some j u r i s d i c t i o n s , such as A l b e r t a , a re making r a p i d s t r i d e s i n a p p l y i n g many of the t r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e s 196 t o the development of t h e i r m a r g i n a l f r i n g e a r e a s . S t i l l , much more can be done i n terms of a p p l y i n g a c c e p t e d a n a l y t i c a l methods, e s p e c i a l l y i n the a r e a of s o c i o - e c o n o m i c impact assessment. P l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s a r e , f o r the most p a r t , based on an a n a l y s i s of the e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e s o u r c e s of the a r e a . The methods used i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l assessment, p a r t i c u l a r l y l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , must be a p p l i e d u s i n g more r i g o r o u s s t a n d a r d s of i n v e n t o r y and e v a l u a t i o n . Survey i n t e n s i t i e s must be matched more a c c u r a t e l y t o the end use of the i n f o r m a t i o n . The c o s t of more i n t e n s i v e s u r v e y s has t o be b a l a n c e d a g a i n s t b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d from the use of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d i n each i n d i v i d u a l e x e r c i s e . C l i m a t i c d a t a i s c o n s p i c u o u s l y absent or i n s u f f i c i e n t . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s j u s t s t a r t i n g t o be r e c o g n i z e d as an i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w h i l e i n t e r a g e n c y c o o r d i n a t i o n i s a c c e p t e d as e s s e n t i a l , a l t h o u g h more e a g e r l y i n some j u r i s d i c t i o n s than i n o t h e r s . I n c r e a s e d p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a key t o improvement i n e x i s t i n g programs. No programs have been adapted t o o p e r a t e s p e c i f i c a l l y i n each p r o v i n c e ' s m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n . The two main l e v e l s of p l a n n i n g used i n t h e case study a r e a s a r e Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g a t the s u b - r e g i o n a l l e v e l and p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g . The i n t e r m e d i a t e s t e p of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n n i n g i s a b s e n t . P l a n n i n g f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e q u i r e s more c o n s i s t e n c y and s t a b i l i t y i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of p r o c e s s . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and more r i g o r o u s a p p l i c a t i o n of more r e l e v a n t a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s a r e e s s e n t i a l . Government, a t the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l , and the p u b l i c 1 97 must be i n f u l l s u p p o r t of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s b e f o r e i t commences and must m a i n t a i n t h a t support t h r o u g h o u t . A l l o w i n g f o r the comprehensive n a t u r e of t h i s s t u d y , i t f o l l o w s t h a t a d v i c e w i l l have t o be t a i l o r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y f o r each case or f o r o t h e r c a s e s . S t i l l i t i s p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y some no r m a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s of wide a p p l i c a b i l i t y , i n p a r t t o summarize the r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y . I propose the f o l l o w i n g s e r i e s of p r i n c i p l e s or g u i d e l i n e s , based on the l i t e r a t u r e , the case s t u d i e s , the c o n c l u s i o n s reached i n t h i s f i n a l c h a p t e r and my p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . These p r i n c i p l e s w i l l c o m p rise a comprehensive p r e s c r i p t i o n t o improve p l a n n i n g programs f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of Crown l a n d i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e . P l a n n i n g Program A r t i c u l a t i o n •The f i r s t s t e p i n d e v e l o p i n g a m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s s h o u l d be a w e l l d e s i g n e d Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g program. F o l l o w i n g the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s u i t a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s i n t h i s program, a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n n i n g s h o u l d commence. • A g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n s w i l l s e t p r i o r i t i e s among p r o j e c t s , d e s i g n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and p r e s e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l development p o l i c i e s i n a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s of the Crown l a n d management p l a n . I n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g s h o u l d be the f i n a l s t a ge i n the p l a n n i n g program. •Comprehensive p l a n n i n g , s u p p o r t e d a t the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l , i s n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e a broader c o n t e x t f o r i n c r e a s i n g l y s p e c i f i c l e v e l s of p l a n n i n g , and i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e , t o p r o v i d e g u i d a n c e . A p a r t i a l a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o a l l o w f o r more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e t t i n g o b j e c t i v e s and d e c i d i n g on a l t e r n a t i v e s t o r e s t w i t h r e g i o n a l r e s i d e n t s and o f f i c i a l s . •The agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Crown l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s h o u l d a l s o d e v e l o p the Crown l a n d managemnt p l a n i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the a g r i c u l t u r a l agency and o t h e r M i n i s t r i e s . The a g r i c u l t u r a l agency i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h the Crown l a n d s agency, s h o u l d d e v e l o p the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n . P r o j e c t p l a n n i n g s h o u l d be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the a g r i c u l t u r a l agency i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the Crown l a n d s and o t h e r r e l e v a n t a g e n c i e s . The a g r i c u l t u r a l agency has the broad range of e x p e r t i s e t o 198 ensure s u c c e s s f u l development of p r o j e c t s , and the s e l e c t i o n of s u i t a b l e a p p l i c a n t s . I t w i l l a l s o have t o l i v e and work w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l communities c r e a t e d through p r o j e c t s . I n v e n t o r y , E v a l u a t o n and Communication of E n v i r o n m e n t a l F a c t o r s •Funding f o r the assessment of e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s must be p r o v i d e d w i t h a l o n g - t e r m time h o r i z o n . •A n a t i o n a l program t o d e v e l o p and a p p l y t e c h n i q u e s f o r the assessment of e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s i n the development of the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e i s l o n g overdue and s h o u l d be begun i m m e d i a t e l y . • E n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s i n the Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d use a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e r e l e v a n t s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n . However, an e c o l o g i c a l l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s h o u l d be conducted a t the most a p p r o p r i a t e s c a l e f o r each i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e . An e c o l o g i c a l l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s u r v ey w i l l p r o v i d e a common base and s o u r c e of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of a l l r e s o u r c e u s e s . • C l i m a t i c a n a l y s i s r e q u i r e s more d e t a i l e d study than has been conducted i n the p a s t . D e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s s h o u l d be conducted a t the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n n i n g l e v e l . • A g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n n i n g i s conducted most a p p r o p r i a t e l y a t a 1:50,000 s c a l e or l a r g e r f o r s o i l s u r v e y and a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y mapping. I n d i v i d u a l p r o d u c t i o n p r o j e c t s are s u r v e y e d i n the 1:10,000 t o 1:15,000 range, a g a i n u s i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y and s o i l s u r v e y s . • Y i e l d and v a r i e t y t r i a l s f o r a range of commodities are an e s s e n t i a l p r e c o n d i t i o n on t y p i c a l s i t e s i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n area b e f o r e p r o d u c t i o n p r o j e c t s are i n i t i a t e d . • E n v i r o n m e n t a l r e s o u r c e c a p a b i l i t y e v a l u a t i o n s s h o u l d be s u r v e y e d on the b a s i s of both unimproved and improved r a t i n g s . T h i s w i l l g i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s a g r a s p of the t r u e p o t e n t i a l of a l l r e s o u r c e uses. Assessment of Socio-economic F a c t o r s • B e f o r e m a r g i n a l l a n d i s brought i n t o p r o d u c t i o n , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t u d i e s s h o u l d be conducted t o determine why e x i s t i n g , b e t t e r q u a l i t y l a n d i s l y i n g i d l e or i s not brought i n t o p r o d u c t i o n i n the f i r s t p l a c e . •Economic impact assessments s h o u l d be c o nducted f o r a l l Crown l a n d management p l a n s . A more r e s t r i c t e d b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s i s s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n s and p r o j e c t p l a n s . •Cost of p r o d u c t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n f o r l o c a l l y grown c r o p s i s n e c e s s a r y t o a l l o w proper c r o p s e l e c t i o n and as an i n p u t i n t o economic assessments. 199 • S o c i a l impact assessments s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d as a p a r t of broad r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s . These assessments can be used then i n more d e t a i l e d p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s as a s o u r c e of background i n f o r m a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n . E f f e c t i v e , R e l a t e d Government Programs •Funding f o r the development of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h l o n g - t e r m , low i n t e r e s t l e n d i n g w i t h no program t e r m i n a t i o n d e a d l i n e s . T h i s w i l l p r e v e n t the r a p i d development of u n s u i t a b l e l a n d and w i l l encourage farmers t o husband f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s i n a more c a u t i o u s manner than i f g r a n t s are p r o v i d e d . • Implementation of Crown l a n d management p l a n s i s done by the r e s p e c t i v e r e s o u r c e agency. Map u n i t s used i n the p l a n s h o u l d r e p r e s e n t a f u l l range of p o s s i b l e r e s o u r c e uses e v a l u a t e d i n the p l a n . The F o r t N e l s o n Crown l a n d management p l a n p r o v i d e s the best model of t h i s approach. • P r o j e c t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n can be a d m i n i s t e r e d by government a g e n c i e s o r , as i n the S t . John's case s t u d y , by an independent p r o j e c t manager from the f a r m i n g community. • I t i s p r e f e r a b l e t h a t the M i n i s t r y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Crown l a n d s not i n c l u d e any of the major r e s o u r c e a g e n c i e s competing f o r Crown l a n d a l l o c a t i o n s . G i v e n i n t e r a g e n c y p o l i t i c s , s u s p i c i o n s of b i a s may erode the c r e d i b i l i t y of the Crown l a n d s agency and l e a d to i n c r e a s i n g r i g i d i t y of p o s i t i o n s . •Farmers on the f r i n g e s h o u l d be g i v e n the o p t i o n t o l e a s e Crown l a n d t o a v o i d t y i n g up s c a r c e c a p i t a l i n l a n d . The o p t i o n t o p u r c h a s e , however, s h o u l d a l s o be a v a i l a b l e t o those farmers needing more s e c u r i t y b e f o r e making i n v e s t m e n t s . • A p p l i c a n t s must have p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e i n f a r m i n g and the r e s o u r c e s t o undertake the proposed development. T h i s s h o u l d be d e termined p r i o r t o a p p l i c a n t s e l e c t i o n . Crown l a n d s h o u l d be a d v e r t i s e d when ready f o r a p p l i c a t i o n , and a p p l i c a n t s e l e c t i o n s h o u l d be by p u b l i c draw as i n A l b e r t a . •Land s a l e p r i c e s , r e n t a l and i n t e r e s t r a t e s must s t r i k e a b a l a n c e between p r o v i d i n g a f a i r r e t u r n t o t h e Crown f o r the r e s o u r c e and removing an e x c e s s i v e f i n a n c i a l burden from the a p p l i c a n t . C o m p e t i t i v e b i d d i n g s h o u l d not be a p o l i c y . The A l b e r t a program i s most e f f e c t i v e c o n c e r n i n g t h i s i s s u e . •Requirements f o r l a n d development s h o u l d be s t a g e d a t f i v e y e a r and t o the end of term i n t e r v a l s i n o r d e r t o ensure some i n i t i a l development and t o a l l o w the l a n d t o r e v e r t t o the Crown i f the l a n d r e s o u r c e remains undeveloped. 200 A l t e n a t i v e Resource Development O p t i o n s t o A g r i c u l t u r e • C o o r d i n a t i o n i n Crown l a n d management p l a n s s h o u l d be by way of t h e p l a n n i n g team and committee systems. Teams s h o u l d o p e r a t e on a consensus b a s i s so t h a t a l l i n t e r e s t s r e p r e s e n t e d a r e c o n s i d e r e d e q u i t a b l y . C o o r d i n a t i o n can be modeled on a s c a l e d down v e r s i o n of the A l b e r t a system. • D e c i s i o n - m a k e r s s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d w i t h a number of a l t e r n a t i v e s i n the Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e which l e n d emphasis t o v a r i o u s major r e s o u r c e use a l t e r n a t i v e s . P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n • A l l major i n t e r e s t groups s h o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d on the p l a n n i n g teams and r e l a t e d committees. The g e n e r a l p u b l i c s h o u l d be f u l l y c o n s u l t e d from the b e g i n n i n g t o the end of the e x e r c i s e . REFERENCES B e n t l e y , C.F. 1982. A g r i c u l t u r a l Land i n Canada: Q u a l i t y , Q u a n t i t y and P r e s e r v a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , Edmonton. E r i c k s o n , D a v i d L. 1980. P u b l i c Involvement i n Resource Agency D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . J . S o i l and Water Cons. 3 5 ( 5 ) : 224-229. I r o n s i d e , R.G., P r o u d f o o t , V.B., Shannon, E.N. and T r a c i e , C.J. 1974b. F r o n t i e r Development and P e r s p e c t i v e s on the Western Canadian F r o n t i e r . I n R.G. I r o n s i d e , et a l . [ e d s . ] , F r o n t i e r S e t t l e m e n t . U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , Edmonton, p.1-45. Land P l a n n i n g Branch. 1983. Program P l a n n i n g . M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and H o u s i n g , V i c t o r i a . L a s s e y , W i l l i a m R. 1977. P l a n n i n g i n R u r a l E n v i r o n m e n t s . M c G r a w - H i l l I n c . New York. L a u t , P e t e r . 1973. A g r i c u l t u r a l R esearch on the N o r t h e r n M a r g i n s of the Ecumene. In John Rogge [ e d . ] , D e v e l o p i n g the S u b a r t i c . Manitoba G e o g r a p h i c a l S t u d i e s 1. The U n i v e r s i t y of M a n i t o b a , W i n n i p e g , p.67-90. OECD. 1978. Recent Developments i n Canadian A g r i c u l t u r a l  P o l i c y . A g r i c u l t u r a l P o l i c y R e p o r t s . OECD, P a r i s . P e t c h , A r t h u r R., Land Use A n a l y s t , Lands D i r e c t o r a t e , Ottawa. Telephone i n t e r v i e w , A p r i l 16, 1985 and u n p u b l i s h e d r e s e a r c h . W i l l i a m s , G. D a v i d V. 1974. P h y s i c a l F r o n t i e r s of Cr o p s : The Example f o r Growing B a r l e y t o M a t u r i t y i n Canada. In R.G. I r o n s i d e , e t a l . [ e d s . ] , F r o n t i e r  S e t t l e m e n t . U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , p.79-92. 

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