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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Planning the agricultural development of crown land in the marginal fringe Lidstone, Allan Bertram 1985

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PLANNING THE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF CROWN LAND I N THE MARGINAL FRINGE By ALLAN BERTRAM LIDSTONE B.Sc,  The U n i v e r s i t y o f G u e l p h ,  1976  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( S c h o o l o f Community a n d R e g i o n a l  We a c c e p t  Planning)  t h i s t h e s i s as conforming  to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA October ©Allan B e r t r a m  1985 L i d s t o n e , 1985  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis i n p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be  department o r by h i s or her  granted by  the head o f  representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be  allowed without my  permission.  Department of  oc  I  of  The  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  1956  Main  Mall  Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6  koo  (3/81)  Cor»n*unily omg{  Columbia  Ivfj['out  written  i i  ABSTRACT The area  marginal  f r i n g e r e g i o n of Canada i s an  which i s near the e n v i r o n m e n t a l  commercial a g r i c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s and  s o c i a l and  that experiences  economic l i m i t s  economic i n f l u e n c e s r e s u l t shifts  d e v e l o p m e n t . Government p o l i c y and  i n l a n d use  i s , however, a  stabilizing  the marginal efficient  i t s d i v e r s e f u n c t i o n s and  f r i n g e t o e n s u r e an  allocation  potentially  that  responsibilities  how  we  develop  u n d e v e l o p e d a r a b l e l a n d and adequately The  and  investigation  u s i n g a f r a m e w o r k b a s e d on an in-the f i r s t  representative planning illustrate  the problem  idealized planning  chapter.  process.  British  This  process  framework i s a p p l i e d t o  e x e r c i s e s i n each case i n order  t h i s broad a n a l y s i s , I present,  and in  case  Columbia  analysed  the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g program's s t r e n g t h s  w e a k n e s s e s . B a s e d on  programs  i n c l u d e a s e r i e s of t h r e e  case s t u d i e s are  of  of  i s s u e s i n the development  F o r t V e r m i l i o n , A l b e r t a . The  developed  programs have  s h r i n k i n g supply  s t u d i e s : S t . John's, Newfoundland; F o r t Nelson, and;  marginal  whether e x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g  address the major  methods of  our  the  e q u i t a b l e development  land. This t h e s i s a l s o addresses  should e f f e c t i v e l y  and  e x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g programs f o r  t o ensure the e f f i c i e n t  in  resources.  f r i n g e r e g i o n . I t seeks t o d e t e r m i n e whether these  of a g r i c u l t u r a l  region's  important  d e v e l o p m e n t o f a g r i c u l t u r e on Crown l a n d i n C a n a d a ' s  the p o t e n t i a l  area  agricultural  effective, equitable  of s o c i e t y ' s s c a r c e  This t h e s i s analyses  and  i n an  f a c t o r i n the  development. I t i s t h e r e f o r e fundamentally government p l a n  for  p r o d u c t i o n . C o m b i n a t i o n s of p h y s i c a l  dramatic  significant controlling  and  agricultural  to  c o n c l u s i o n , t h e most c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n s f o r d e v e l o p i n g p l a n n i n g programs  i n the marginal  questions t o the cases  f r i n g e and a p p l y  studied. O f f i c i a l  d e t a i l e d correspondence,  p e r s o n a l and t e l e p h o n e  studies. A literature  review  i n the  case  i s the b a s i s f o r the c o n t e x t u a l  i n P a r t I of t h i s  r e s u l t s of t h i s  surveys,  i n t e r v i e w s , and  form the b a s i s f o r a n a l y s i s  The  these  r e p o r t s and  first-hand experience  elements developed  effective  study  thesis.  r a i s e a number o f c o n c e r n s  about  e x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g programs  f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of  Crown l a n d i n t h e m a r g i n a l  fringe, particularly  C o l u m b i a and N e w f o u n d l a n d . The c r u c i a l e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g programs need f o r a c l e a r l y  f o c u s s i n g on t h e m a r g i n a l agency's involvement  program  factors are  to decision-makers;  assessments are permitted; i f  r e s o u r c e development o p t i o n s t o a g r i c u l t u r e  c o n s i d e r e d ; whether government  lead  f o r these programs. F u r t h e r  i n v e n t o r i e d , e v a l u a t e d and c o m m u n i c a t e d  alternative  i n c l u d e the  r e g i o n . The a g r i c u l t u r a l  well environmental  whether adequate socio-economic  fringe  stable yet f l e x i b l e ,  fringe  is crucial  q u e s t i o n s c o n s i d e r how  issues for developing  i n the marginal  articulated,  in British  programs  related  are  to a g r i c u l t u r a l  development a r e e f f e c t i v e or whether they a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m o b j e c t i v e s , and w h e t h e r t h e p u b l i c and s u p p o r t  the planning  fringe  as i n B r i t i s h  understand  program.  Planning the a g r i c u l t u r a l marginal  with  d e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown l a n d i n t h e  i s i n i t s i n f a n c y . Sudden c h a n g e s t o p r o g r a m s ,  C o l u m b i a , and f u n d i n g d e a d l i n e s , a s i n  Newfoundland, are harmful development of f r o n t i e r  to the e f f i c i e n t  and  effective  r e s o u r c e s and t h e y e r o d e  government  iv  credibility.  Some j u r i s d i c t i o n s ,  rapid strides techniques,  such as A l b e r t a , a r e making  i n a p p l y i n g many o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  although  planning  s o c i a l and economic assessment  i s very  weak  or absent a l t o g e t h e r i n each of t h e programs s t u d i e d . U s u a l l y , d e c i s i o n s a r e b a s e d on a n a r r o w a s s e s s m e n t o f  environmental  f a c t o r s and t h e r e a r e o f t e n s i g n i f i c a n t gaps i n e s s e n t i a l e s p e c i a l l y climate. A l t e r n a t i v e resource agriculture are seriously considered Only i n A l b e r t a has t h e v i t a l be a p p r e c i a t e d . E l s e w h e r e , neglected  development o p t i o n s t o in British  Columbia.  element of p u b l i c support  p u b l i c involvement  begun t o  i s , more o r l e s s ,  or mishandled.  In c o n c l u s i o n , t h i s requiring  only  data,  t h e s i s r a i s e s a number o f i s s u e s  future research, r e l a t e d mainly  to  socio-economic  assessment and p l a n n i n g program development. A l s o a s e r i e s - o f more d e t a i l e d n o r m a t i v e  p r i n c i p l e s are o f f e r e d f o r the  improvement of p l a n n i n g programs f o r t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown l a n d i n t h e m a r g i n a l  fringe.  V  CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  Tables  ix  Figures  x  Maps  x  Acknowledgement  xi  PART I  SETTING THE CONTEXT  Introduction The  2 Marginal  Fringe  5  Conflicting. Perspectives  6  Is Planning Necessary f o r the A g r i c u l t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown L a n d i n C a n a d a ' s Marginal Fringe Regions? The Chapter  1  9  Nature and O r g a n i z a t i o n of t h i s Study  12  The G e n e r a l P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t on Crown L a n d Introduction  14 15  Prerequisites Production  16  f o r Commercial  Agricultural  The P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s f o r t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown L a n d — an O u t l i n e  16  S t r u c t u r i n g and Scoping Program  18  The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Objectives  the Planning  and D e f i n i t i o n of  Assessment of E n v i r o n m e n t a l economic F a c t o r s  24 and S o c i o -  P r e p a r a t i o n and E v a l u a t i o n of A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s and S e l e c t i o n of t h e P r e f e r r e d  26  vi  Strategy  35  Implementation  37  M o n i t o r i n g , E v a l u a t i o n , Feedback and  Chapter 2  Iteration  38  Coordination  39  Public  41  Participation  Summary  42  References  44  Planning  t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Development of  Crown l a n d i n t h e M a r g i n a l  Fringe  48  Introduction  49  Assessment of E n v i r o n m e n t a l , Social  Factors  Economic and  i n the Marginal  Fringe  Summmary  57  Rererences PART I I  59  The A n a l y t i c a l  THE CASE STUDIES  Framework  61  Methods Chapter 3  49  64 Case S t u d y Number One: S t . J o h n ' s , Newfoundland  66  Introduction  67  S t r u c t u r i n g and Scoping t h e P l a n n i n g Program The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f P l a n n i n g Process Objectives Environmental  Factors  for Planning  The A s s e s s m e n t a n d R e l e v a n c e o f S o c i o economic F a c t o r s i n t h e P l a n n i n g E x e r c i s e Alternative  S t r a t e g i e s and t h e i r  Implementation of t h e P l a n  Selection  73 77 78 .......81 82 84  vi i  M o n i t o r i n g and E v a l u a t i n g t h e P l a n n i n g Exercise The  Chapter 4  S i g n i f i c a n c e of P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  the P l a n n i n g E x e r c i s e  90  C a s e Summary  91  References  93  Case S t u d y Number Two: F o r t N e l s o n ,  British  Columbia  95  Introduction  96  S t r u c t u r i n g and S c o p i n g t h e P l a n n i n g Program The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s Objectives Environmental Factors f o r Planning  101 109 110  The A s s e s s m e n t a n d R e l e v a n c e o f S o c i o economic F a c t o r s i n t h e P l a n n i n g E x e r c i s e  114  A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s and t h e i r  115  Selection  Implementation of the P l a n The  Chapter 5  89  118  S i g n i f i c a n c e of P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  the P l a n n i n g E x e r c i s e  124  C a s e Summary  126  References  129  Case S t u d y Number T h r e e : F o r t V e r m i l i o n , Alberta  130  Introduction  131  S t r u c t u r i n g and S c o p i n g t h e P l a n n i n g Program The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s Objectives Environmental Factors f o r Planning  136 144 148  The A s s e s s m e n t a n d R e l e v a n c e o f S o c i o economic F a c t o r s i n t h e P l a n n i n g E x e r c i s e  152  A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s and t h e i r  153  Selection  vi i i  Implementation of the Plan  157  M o n i t o r i n g and E v a l u a t i n g t h e P l a n n i n g Exercise  1 65  The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the P l a n n i n g E x e r c i s e  165  C a s e Summary  167  References  171 PART I I I  Chapter 6  CONCLUSION  A Comparative A n a l y s i s of Canadian P l a n n i n g Programs f o r t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Development o f Crown L a n d i n t h e M a r g i n a l F r i n g e  175  Introduction  176  Is There a C l e a r l y A r t i c u l a t e d Planning?  Program f o r  179  How W e l l A r e E n v i r o n m e n t a l Factors I n v e n t o r i e d , E v a l u a t e d and Communicated t o Decision-makers?  183  Do P l a n n i n g P r o g r a m s P e r m i t economic Assessments?  186  Adequate  Socio-  Are A l t e r n a t i v e R e s o u r c e Development Options to A g r i c u l t u r e considered?  188  Are  Programs E f f e c t i v e ?  189  Does t h e P u b l i c U n d e r s t a n d a n d S u p p o r t t h e P l a n n i n g Program?  192  Implications f o r Future  193  R e l a t e d Government  Research  Conclusion  195  P l a n n i n g Program P r i n c i p l e s f o r t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown L a n d i n the M a r g i n a l F r i n g e  197  References  201  ix  TABLES  1.1  E l e m e n t s of the P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t on Crown L a n d  17  1.2  E n v i r o n m e n t a l and S o c i o - e c o n o m i c F a c t o r s f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t on Crown L a n d  29  11.1  T a b l e of Concordance— E l e m e n t s P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s and t h e A n a l y t i c a l Framework  63  5.1  The  Sub-Regional  of the G e n e r a l  P l a n n i n g Program  143  X  FIGURES  1.1  S t r u c t u r i n g and S c o p i n g t h e P l a n n i n g P r o g r a m  3.1  P l a n n i n g Program  4.1  S c h e m a t i c O u t l i n e o f t h e Crown L a n d Hierarchy  4.2  Crown L a n d P l a n n i n g P r o g r a m Land D e s i g n a t i o n s  f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Areas Planning  25 ...74 103  S u b - D i s t r i c t Plan  and I m p l e m e n t a t i o n  106  4.3  A d v e r t i s i n g Crown L a n d D i s p o s i t i o n s  122  5.1  I n t e g r a t e d Resource P l a n n i n g Approval Process  140  MAPS  1.1  The  M a r g i n a l F r i n g e R e g i o n s o f Canada  3.1  The  Development A r e a of S t . John's  3.2  Cochrane  4.1  F o r t Nelson Deferred Provincial Setting  Planning  Fort Nelson Deferred  Planning  4.2  7 68  Pond F a r m l a n d D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t Area  97 Area  L o c a t i o n of the P l a n A r e a 5.1  Regional  5.2  J e a n D'Or  5.3  P u b l i c Lands C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  5.4  J e a n D'Or P r a i r i e P l a n n i n g R e s o u r c e Management A r e a s J e a n D'Or P r a i r i e P l a n n i n g Yellow/Green Areas  5.5 5.6  L o c a t i o n Map Prairie  72  100  of F o r t V e r m i l i o n  ...132  Study Area  135 137  Area 146 Area  R e s o u r c e Management P o l i c y o f J e a n D'Or  147 Prairie  156  xi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  This  t h e s i s w o u l d n o t have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e  assistance  and g e n e r o s i t y  o f many p e o p l e t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y .  I w i s h t o t h a n k Norman D a l e f o r p e r s e v e r i n g  under a b a r r a g e of  d r a f t s and f o r h i s t i m e l y  suggestions.  G a r y Runka i s owed a  s p e c i a l debt of g r a t i t u d e  for h i s able  a s s i s t a n c e . Thanks a l s o  go and  t o C r a i g D a v i s a n d Brahm Weisman o f t h e S c h o o l o f Community Regional  Planning.  Keith Valentine, Klippenstein  Across the country,  now i n O t t a w a , Wim Kok i n F o r t  i n Fort Vermilion,  P e t c h i n Ottawa and B i l l contributed  an h e r o i c  Jim Rivait  t o thank  S t . John,  i n Edmonton,  Rick  Arthur  M e r r i t t i n S t . J o h n ' s . Janny Holmes  e d i t i n g e f f o r t . My d e e p e s t g r a t i t u d e a n d  warmest t h o u g h t s a r e r e s e r v e d possible.  I would l i k e  f o r H e l g a who made t h i s  task  1  PART I  SETTING THE CONTEXT  2  INTRODUCTION  3  The  o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s t h e s i s are t o a n a l y s e  programs f o r p l a n n i n g i n Canada's m a r g i n a l  t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown f r i n g e r e g i o n and  to develop  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r p r o g r a m i m p r o v e m e n t . The the only p l a c e  i n the c o u n t r y  expanding. A recent Manning,  1981)  study  all  by  where a g r i c u l t u r a l  fringe  l a n d use  the Lands D i r e c t o r a t e (McCuaig  i n these  the environmental,  areas  l a n d use has  e c o n o m i c and  expansion.  is  is and  northern  Columbia,  t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , Newfoundland  undergoing a g r i c u l t u r a l  development  marginal  Alberta, north-central British  p r a i r i e s and,  land  a s e r i e s of  r e v e a l s t h a t t h e P e a c e R i v e r r e g i o n of  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and the northern  existing  are  Agricultural  l e d to c o n s i d e r a b l e debate s o c i a l consequences of  over  such  activity. A fundamental t e n e t of our resources  are  of  resources  scarce  s c a r c e . The will,  s o c i e t y . Consequently,  economic system i s t h a t  efficient  and  equitable  theoretically,  several questions  d e v e l o p m e n t of Crown l a n d i n t h e m a r g i n a l agriculture-  of  scarce  lead to a b e t t e r a r i s e about fringe  i s d e v e l o p m e n t o c c u r r i n g i n an  e q u i t a b l e manner, o r a r e we financial,  d e v e l o p m e n t ? How  being  human and  s h o u l d we  u n d e v e l o p e d a r a b l e l a n d ? Do  profligate  our  i n the  and  allocation  for agricultural  p l a n n i n g programs a d e q u a t e l y A review  of address  of  p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a g r i c u l t u r e on  Crown l a n d i n C a n a d a ' s m a r g i n a l answer t h e s e The  for  s h r i n k i n g supply  the major i s s u e s i n the development process? existing  the  efficient  land resources  develop  distribution  fringe region w i l l  help  questions.  p h y s i c a l margins f o r commercial a g r i c u l t u r e are  to  4  v a r i a b l e a n d c a n be i n f l u e n c e d by c h a n g e s i n c o m m o d i t y p r i c e s , t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances, c l i m a t i c  changes,  environmental  m o d i f i c a t i o n , government p o l i c y and changes i n l o c a l nonagricultural  economic c o n d i t i o n s . I n t h e m a r g i n a l  fringe,  c o m b i n a t i o n s of p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s and s o c i a l and economic i n f l u e n c e s r e s u l t i n an a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a dramatic  shifts  Instability  that  i n l a n d use and a g r i c u l t u r a l  experiences  development.  c a u s e d by h i g h l y f l u c t u a t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t  combined w i t h the p o s s i b l e i n a p p r o p r i a t e a l l o c a t i o n human a n d f i n a n c i a l the  resources  patterns of l a n d ,  can lead t o s i g n i f i c a n t  i n d i v i d u a l and f o r s o c i e t y . These a r e not o n l y  costs f o r  opportunity  c o s t s but a l s o the c o s t s of environmental degradation s u f f e r i n g . Such c o s t s the  surrounding  farmer and  community.  Agricultural fringe  i n f l u e n c e both the p r o s p e c t i v e  a n d human  i s subject  d e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown l a n d to the vagaries  i n the marginal  of nature,  i n t e r n a t i o n a l marketplace and t o a m u l t i t u d e  the d i c t a t e s of the of i n d i v i d u a l  d e c i s i o n s . Government p o l i c y , however, i s a p o t e n t i a l l y , significant  c o n t r o l l i n g and s t a b i l i z i n g  factor i n the region's  d e v e l o p m e n t . G o v e r n m e n t owns t h e l a n d t o be d e v e l o p e d , i t i s responsible  foragricultural  development p o l i c y and s u p p o r t  programs, and i t i s i n charge of r u r a l  infrastructural  supports  s u c h a s r o a d s a n d s e r v i c i n g . The hand o f g o v e r n m e n t r e s t s h e a v i l y on a g r i c u l t u r a l  l a n d use e x p a n s i o n as a form o f economic  development. I t i s t h e r e f o r e government p l a n , i t s d i v e r s e ensure an e f f e c t i v e , society's scarce  very  fundamentally  important  f u n c t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o  e q u i t a b l e and e f f i c i e n t  resources.  that  a l l o c a t i o n of  5  The  m a j o r a s s u m p t i o n of t h i s  a g r i c u l t u r a l development t a k i n g s o c i a l and  economic c o n d i t i o n s  thesis i s that wisely  i n t o account  planned  environmental,  i s d e s i r a b l e . Due  to the s p e c i a l  problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the development of a g r i c u l t u r a l t h e h a r s h and  i s o l a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t of the m a r g i n a l  c o m p r e h e n s i v e and the  sustained  Planning  economic v i a b i l i t y  p r o g r a m s must n o t  a n a l y s i s but and  e f f i c i e n t planning  o f new  i n an  e q u i t a b l e and  to  agricultural  areas.  resource  economic  and  a l s o public c o n s u l t a t i o n , interagency  coordination,  of programs a f f e c t i n g  a g r i c u l t u r a l development. P l a n n i n g , result  in  fringe,  programs are c r i t i c a l  involve only  i n t e g r a t i o n or c o o r d i n a t i o n  land  i f i t i s w e l l done,  efficient  allocation  of  will  scarce  resources.  The  Marginal The  region  Fringe  s o u t h e r n p a r t of t h e m a r g i n a l  with  frequent  simultaneously.  fringe s t i l l  marginal  i n the  south,  set  i n the  northern  areas  north  by  with a dual  the  limits  pressures.  nature.  to a r a b i l i t y  g e n e r a l l y , by a c h a n g e i n l a n d use  changes  t o d e l i n e a t e t h e a d v a n c i n g o r r e t r e a t i n g f r i n g e on  the  or l o s s e s  definition patterns  i n farmland  f o r the  ( M c C u a i g and  t h a n one  and  basis  of  Manning, 1982). A  s o u t h e r n b o u n d a r y b a s e d p r i m a r i l y on  i s more r e a l i s t i c  and  patterns.  A t t e m p t s have been made t o q u a n t i f y t h e s e l a n d use  gains  of  awaiting  increasing population  f r i n g e i s then a r e g i o n  Boundaries are  The  and  l i e undeveloped yet a r a b l e ,  c h a n g i n g economic c o n d i t i o n s or The  agricultural  e p i s o d e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l advance  retreat, often occuring the m a r g i n a l  f r i n g e i s an  b a s e d on  economic  land  forces,  use  6  for in  these p a t t e r n s  a r e an e x p r e s s i o n  o f a l l t h e f o r c e s a t work  t h e r e g i o n — s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l a s w e l l as economic. Canada's m a r g i n a l  a r e shown on Map 1 . The  fringe regions  a d v a n c i n g f r i n g e i s an a r e a  where t h e r e  farmland  over the l a s t  twilight  f r i n g e has d i s p l a y e d a n e t l o s s of f a r m l a n d .  remaining  twenty y e a r s ,  h a s been a n e t g a i n i n  while  This thesis deals Crown l a n d  l a r g e t r a c t s of arable  f r i n g e regions  b e t w e e n man a n d n a t u r e  by t h e c o n t r a r y  (1982),  to starve  often heard r e f r a i n  pioneering  spirit  the wilderness.  development such as Canada,  t o d e a t h on h i s own p i e c e o f  encompasses the i d e a of t h e  a n d t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e f r o n t i e r m e n t a l i t y . The  of the d i f f i c u l t Agricultural  nature  of h i s t a s k ,  such as Laut  t h e c l i m a t e of t h e northern  (1973)  who,  p a r t s of the western  and t h e s o u t h e r n Yukon and Northwest  f o u n d "an a g r i c u l t u r a l  farming  development of t h e marginal  i s a l s o s u p p o r t e d by s c i e n t i s t s  opinions  resources.  t o d e a t h a l s o d i s p l a y s a r e c o g n i t i o n by t h e  p o t e n t i a l pioneer  in analyzing  Crown l a n d  been s a i d t h a t , i n r u r a l  land. This  to starve  fringe i s  v i e w s h e l d by d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s o v e r t h e  i t has long  e v e r y man h a s t h e r i g h t  provinces  of Canada.  i n the marginal  In r e p l y t o t h o s e opposed t o a g r i c u l t u r a l  fringe  land.  t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l development of  a g r i c u l t u r a l development of t h e r e g i o n ' s  in  that  Perspectives  Conflict mirrored  with planning  i n these marginal  Conflicting  right  The  a r e a s a r e u n d e v e l o p e d , y e t i t h a s been d e t e r m i n e d  t h e s e more n o r t h e r l y a r e a s c o n t a i n  Bentley  the r e t r e a t i n g or  Territories,  p o t e n t i a l t o be r e a l i z e d "  (p.76).  a r e f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e d by t h e f i n d i n g s o f  Laut's  8  Exploratory Both  soil  surveys  ( V a l e n t i n e , 1971).  t h e p r o v i n c i a l and  promote development i n the Canada new  f e d e r a l governments  f r i n g e . The  ( A g r i c u l t u r e C a n a d a , 1981)  l a n d t o expand the t o t a l  Agri-Food  in  few  areas  left  c u l t i v a t e d a r e a a s an The  important  Strategy recognizes  i n Canada f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l  expansion  t h e n o r t h , b u t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g w o r l d f o o d demands,  areas w i l l  have t o be d e v e l o p e d .  p o t e n t i a l s are determined to  Strategy for  recommends t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f  method o f s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e s u p p l y b a s e . that the  actively  seventeen  the year  by a s s u m i n g an  expected  t o come f r o m  i n c r e a s e of s i x m i l l i o n  a d d i t i o n a l a c r e s of g r a i n  i n summer f a l l o w , b u t new  a g r o l o g i s t s such as B e n t l e y about f u r t h e r development  i n t h e West  c o u l d come f r o m  by  reducing  a significant proportion i s  land in marginal  c o n t r a s t t o the optimism  these  Strategy's production  2000. Some o f t h i s e x p a n s i o n  the acreage  In  million  The  are  fringe regions.  of A g r i c u l t u r e  (1982) e x p r e s s  i n the marginal  Canada,  serious misgivings fringe.  Government  incentives for c u l t i v a t i n g marginal  l a n d a r e s e e n as l e a d i n g t o  farmers  l i f e s t y l e s with l i t t l e  of  being trapped  into  inferior  improvement. B e n t l e y a s s e r t s t h a t l a n d i n the m a r g i n a l  i s l e s s p r o d u c t i v e , and  t h e r e f o r e i t i s much l e s s c a p a b l e  s u p p o r t i n g economic v i a b i l i t y .  I n t e r m s of e c o n o m i c s ,  (1972) s t a t e s t h a t d e v e l o p i n g t h e m a r g i n a l sense,  especially  i n these  or  maintained  of  little  t i m e s when N o r t h A m e r i c a n f a r m e r s  o v e r s u p p l y o f f o o d s t u f f s d e p r e s s i n g p r i c e s . He developments w i l l  fringe  Peterson  f r i n g e makes  b e i n g p a i d t o t a k e l a n d o u t o f p r o d u c t i o n b e c a u s e of  t h e s e new  hope  n o t be v i a b l e and  as p a r t - t i m e o p e r a t i o n s .  are  an  believes that will  be  abandoned  9  It to  i s a l s o necessary  f o r p r o v i n c i a l and  s u b s i d i z e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  p r o d u c t i o n as w e l l as  u n d e r t a k e m a j o r c a p i t a l programmes i n o r d e r economic v i a b i l i t y al.,  Is  f e d e r a l governments  of the m a r g i n a l  to  to maintain  fringe region  the  ( I r o n s i d e , et  1974).  Planning Necessary  f o r t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown  Land i n Canada's M a r g i n a l F r i n g e In  most r u r a l a r e a s ,  resource  agency p l a n n i n g  there  Region? is relatively  (Lassey,  1977;  little  government  I r o n s i d e , et a l . ,  1974a). C o o r d i n a t i o n , a c e n t r a l element of p l a n n i n g , l a r g e l y absent  f r o m p u b l i c management i n t h e m a r g i n a l  ( F a i r b a i r n and  I r o n s i d e , 1 9 7 4 ) . The  p l a n n i n g and  rural dwellers feel  perceive  i t as  to  i s s u e s ( R u n k a , 1982;  rural  the e x t e n s i o n  f r i n g e may  of a n o n - a p p l i c a b l e Friedman,  e x p a n d i n g consumer b a s e , romantic  concepts  the  urban  may  and to  growing  increasing competition  life,  approach  are unprepared  w i t h i n an  'rugged i n d i v i d u a l i s m ' , l i k e  of r u r a l  They  individuals  c o m p r o m i s e (van V u u r e n , 1 9 8 0 ) . However, w i t h t h e and  result  1 9 8 0 ) . When p l a n n i n g  g r o u p s p u r s u e s i n g l e p u r p o s e o b j e c t i v e s and  of r e s o u r c e s  be a  towards p l a n n i n g .  does o c c u r , c o n f r o n t a t i o n o f t e n r e s u l t s as  scarcity  fringe  l a c k of p u b l i c s e c t o r  c o o r d i n a t i o n i n the marginal  of the h o s t i l i t y  is also  other  h a v e t o a d a p t t o a modern  world. The  spillover  e f f e c t s that  i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n s may  others are often m i t i g a t e d through (Barlowe, explicitly  1 9 7 9 ) . As  well,  the p l a n n i n g  the p l a n n i n g process  have  on  process can  deal  w i t h the o f t e n n e g l e c t e d c o n c e p t of o p p o r t u n i t y  costs  10  through the design Agricultural  of development a l t e r n a t i v e s l a n d development p l a n n i n g  will  permit the  d e t a i l e d and comprehensive c o n s i d e r a t i o n of complex whose i m p a c t o f t e n g o e s w e l l b e y o n d Lassey  (1977) d e f i n e s p l a n n i n g  knowledge  exercise  including  land  involves several planning  (Jones,  development  process elements  of o b j e c t i v e s and p r o b l e m s o c i a l and  1981; M o l l e t t , 1984; s e e a l s o C h a p t e r 1  my d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g  p u r s u e d by v a r i o u s information  process  There i s a wide range of o b j e c t i v e s  i n t e r e s t groups. There i s a d e a r t h of  on t h e c r i t i c a l  environmental,  economic and s o c i a l  f a c t o r s . The i n t e r e s t g r o u p s c o n c e r n e d w i t h development  elements).  f r i n g e i s a r e g i o n w i t h numerous p r o b l e m s  w h i c h demand good p l a n n i n g .  i n the marginal  agricultural  f r i n g e have p r o p o s e d t i m e a n d a g a i n  p u b l i c d e b a t e t h r e e main a l t e r n a t i v e s : d e v e l o p m e n t , no  d e v e l o p m e n t a n d maybe d e v e l o p m e n t . P u b l i c c o s t s are  goals"  f a c t o r s , development and s e l e c t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s and,  The m a r g i n a l  in  a p p l i c a t i o n of  d e t a i l e d assessment of environmental,  implementation for  as "the systematic  a typical agricultural  the establishment  definition, economic  stated desired objectives.  t o e s t a b l i s h i n g and a c h i e v i n g p u b l i c l y d e f i n e d  (p.5) T r a d i t i o n a l l y , planning  proposals  s u b s t a n t i a l as a r e the o p p o r t u n i t y  finite  resource  costs  forservicing  f o r developing  base under i n c r e a s i n g c o m p e t i t i o n  among  a  resource  users. Planning defined  programs a r e w e l l s u i t e d t o a c h i e v i n g  objectives f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l  land i n the marginal planning  that:  fringe. Francis  publicly  d e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown  (1970) s t a t e s i n s u p p o r t o f  O f t e n i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e government i n t e r v e n e d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y i n t o c o m p e t i t i o n t o m a i n t a i n the economic v i a b i l i t y of t h e economic f r i n g e s and c e r t a i n l y c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g i s of h i g h p r i o r i t y , (p.27)  G o v e r n m e n t ' s a m b i v a l e n t a p p r o a c h and information  i t s l a c k of p r e c i s e  i s s e e n by I r o n s i d e , e t a l . ( 1 9 7 4 a ) a s l e a d i n g t o  haphazard development f o r economic  which i n c r e a s i n g l y r e q u i r e s compensation  l o s s e s . I r o n s i d e and o t h e r C a n a d i a n  have been a t t h e f o r e f r o n t i n r e q u e s t i n g an  geographers  enlightened  comprehensive  p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h f o r Canada's l a r g e  fringe region  (Wonders,  For  to  1975).  t h e p u r p o s e s of t h i s  is c l a s s i f i e d  marginal  i n t o t h r e e main  study,  l a n d development  components.  A p l a n n i n g program i s  d e f i n e d a s t h e b r o a d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p r o c e d u r a l w i t h i n which i n d i v i d u a l planning planning exercise i s a site the p l a n n i n g program process  s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n of a s p e c t s  planning  of e a c h p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e .  Planning process elements are s u b s t a n t i a l l y  circumstances  The  of  i s p r i m a r i l y a s e q u e n t i a l s e r i e s of  steps conducted i n the a p p l i c a t i o n  o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g program  framework  exercises are conducted. A  using the planning process.  ( s e e T a b l e 1.1)  planning  b u t c a n be m o d i f i e d  s h a p e d by  the  to f i t the  of i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s .  12  The  N a t u r e and My  O r g a n i z a t i o n of T h i s  a n a l y s i s i n subsequent c h a p t e r s  comprehensive. D e t a i l reader  Study  i s sometimes s a c r i f i c e d  w i t h a sense of o r d e r  d i s s i m i l a r p r o g r a m s and  i n the v a r i e t y  to i d e n t i f y  key  p r o g r a m s w h i c h a r e common t o a l l . The provides  t h e b a s i s f o r more s p e c i f i c  improvement of s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s Chapter  1 will  i s both broad  and  to provide  of  the  superficially  aspects  of  these  resulting analysis r e s e a r c h and  of m a r g i n a l  the  fringe  development.  d e a l w i t h a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f  most w i d e l y u s e d norms f o r a g e n e r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s  the  for  a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t on Crown l a n d . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n w i l l i n c l u d e an o u t l i n e o f t h e s t r u c t u r e and p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m s and in  s c o p e of  overall  t h e e l e m e n t s of t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s  i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s w i t h i n the o v e r a l l  This w i l l  be  e c o n o m i c and  social  Part I I , I develop  normative through  an a n a l y t i c a l  the  factors related  a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n Canada's m a r g i n a l In  program.  f o l l o w e d i n C h a p t e r 2 by an a s s e s s m e n t o f  special environmental,  used  to  fringe.  f r a m e w o r k b a s e d on  the  m a t e r i a l i n Part I. Part II a l s o contains Chapters 3 5 i n which I apply  case study  areas:  C o l u m b i a and;  the a n a l y t i c a l  framework t o  three  S t . John's, Newfoundland; Fort Nelson,  Fort V e r m i l i o n , A l b e r t a . In essence,  i n c l u d e s an a n a l y s i s of t h e  s t r u c t u r e and  Crown l a n d i n t h e m a r g i n a l  f r i n g e and  each case  scope of the  p r o v i n c i a l p l a n n i n g program f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l  British  overall  development  of  an a n a l y s i s o f  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s c o n d u c t e d as a p a r t of  this  program. P a r t I I I c o n t a i n s C h a p t e r 5, a c o m p a r a t i v e  a n a l y s i s of  the  13  p l a n n i n g programs conducted c o n c l u s i o n , I propose  i n the three case study areas. In  a s e r i e s of p r i n c i p l e s or g u i d e l i n e s f o r  i m p r o v i n g e x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g programs and f o r d e v e l o p i n g programs.  new  CHAPTER ONE  THE GENERAL PLANNING PROCESS FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT ON CROWN LAND  15  1.1  Introduction  A g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t on Crown l a n d i s t h e f o r the  focal  f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n of a g e n e r a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s .  c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e o f c o m p a t i b i l i t y e x i s t s among t h e resource  p l a n n i n g models r e g a r d i n g a g e n e r a l  planning process traditional almost  rational  invariably  f o l l o w i n g the g e n e r a l  (Hudson,  incremental  and  l a n d p l a n n i n g . The  p r o p o s e d by Hudson structure  agencies  However, b e f o r e  owner  i s a l s o t h e owner a n d  t h e p l a n n i n g o f any  underlying Crown  following sections.  resource  sector  t o u n d e r s t a n d what i t t a k e s  i n d u s t r y . Land development, i n t h i s l a n d b a s e and  the as  can  t o make a  context,  incorporates a  i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o the needs of a v i a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l  industry.  and  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Crown  be o u t l i n e d i n t h e  g o e s b e y o n d an a n a l y s i s o f t h e of  primarily  areas  resources.  the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of  commence, i t i s i m p o r t a n t resource  in rural  i s o n l y one  (1979) i s t h e p r e d o m i n a n t  in planning  strong  t h e m o d i f i e d model of p l a n n i n g ,  land. This approach w i l l  viable  there  decision-maker  Therefore,  the  1979).  i n urban a r e a s , o r two  In  s t r u c t u r e of  undeveloped, w i t h a d i v e r s e untapped  u s u a l l y o n l y one  presented  contains a  Crown l a n d i s l o c a t e d i n e x t e n s i v e t r a c t s  legislator.  is  i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on p u b l i c l a n d p l a n n i n g .  e l e m e n t of a d v o c a c y  Unlike planning  the  The  o r s y n o p t i c model of p l a n n i n g  r a t i o n a l m o d e l , t e n d s t o be  is largely  A  various  framework f o r  on Crown o r p u b l i c l y owned l a n d .  practice, planning, while  and  point  host  16  1.2  Prerequisites Commercial  f o r Commercial  Agricultural Production  a g r i c u l t u r a l production, in t h i s case, refers  a g r i c u l t u r e where o u t p u t s a r e t r e a t e d as Agriculture which  requires suitable  r e c e i v e s adequate  s o i l s and  commodities. topography  in a climate  a m o u n t s o f h e a t and m o i s t u r e f o r t h e  commodity b e i n g produced  (Williams, and  1 9 7 4 ) . M a r k e t s must  for  t h e s a l e of c o m m o d i t i e s ,  are  r e q u i r e d t o get p r o d u c t s t o these markets. Major  and  e q u i p m e n t must be a v a i l a b l e  locally.  Financial  s e r v i c e s , e s p e c i a l l y c r e d i t , must be  accessible.  If production costs periodically  subsidies w i l l  The  The  g e n e r a l i z e d and  development  gross  (Kellogg,  1975).  p r e s e n t e d i n t h e t a b l e a r e drawn  on a g r i c u l t u r a l  from  d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g . I t must  that the process i n Table  Lead a g e n c i e s sometimes adapt  deliberately.  1.1  r e p r e s e n t s an  and c h a n g e t h e  In the cases s t u d i e d  be e x a m i n e d f u l l y .  approach  development p l a n n i n g i s conducted be n e c e s s a r y t o use  (Ch. 3 - 5 ) , t h e s e  To u n d e r s t a n d how  agricultural  of  far  variations land  i n the case study a r e a s , i t  the elements  be  idealized  P e r h a p s , more o f t e n , t h e i r a c t i o n s s i m p l y f a l l  from the i d e a l .  will  exceed  idealized planning process for  process elements  emphasized  will  readily  d e v e l o p m e n t on Crown l a n d i s s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e  the l i t e r a t u r e  one.  and  an O u t l i n e  agricultural 1.1.  supplies  P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s f o r t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Development of  Crown L a n d : The  modes  be n e c e s s a r y t o m a i n t a i n p r o d u c t i o n ,  especially during i n i t i a l  1.3  exist  effective transportation  information  revenues,  to  17  T a b l e 1.1: E l e m e n t s o f t h e P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t on Crown L a n d ( r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n s o f t e x t i n parentheses) The f i r s t e i g h t e l e m e n t s of t h i s t a b l e a r e u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d s e q u e n t i a l s t e p s , w h i l e t h e f i n a l two elements are u b i q u i t o u s to the e n t i r e process. S t r u c t u r i n g and s c o p i n g t h e p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m ( 1 . 3 ) : B e f o r e a s i t e s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e can be c o n d u c t e d , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o have an o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e s t r u c t u r e and s c o p e i n w h i c h t o o p e r a t e . I f t h i s p r o g r a m a l r e a d y e x i s t s , i t may h a v e t o be m o d i f i e d t o s p e c i f i c circumstances. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e s ( 1 . 4 ) : S e t t i n g t a r g e t s or the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s t o be r e s o l v e d . A s s e s s m e n t of e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s (1.5) : I n v e n t o r y and e v a l u a t i o n of t h e environmental, s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s c r i t i c a l t o a g r i c u l t u r e . P r e p a r a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s (1.6) : T h i s i n c l u d e s t e c h n i q u e s s u c h as b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s , c o m p a r a t i v e c o s t a n a l y s i s and o t h e r more i n t u i t i v e methods u s e d f o r c o m p a r i n g p o s s i b l e a c t i o n s . S e l e c t i o n of p r e f e r r e d s t r a t e g y ( 1 . 6 ) : T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n based, to v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , upon t h e p l a n n e r ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . Implementation ( 1 . 7 ) : T h i s i n v o l v e s the development p o l i c i e s , programmes and p r o j e c t s . I m p l e m e n t a t i o n transforms the o b j e c t i v e s i n t o r e a l i t y .  of  M o n i t o r i n g and e v a l u a t i o n ( 1 . 8 ) : M o n i t o r i n g m e a s u r e s and r e c o r d s r e s u l t s . E v a l u a t i o n d r a w s on t h e i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m m o n i t o r i n g and a s s e s s e s t h e d e g r e e o f a c h i e v e m e n t o f o b j e c t i v e s and t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e outcomes. F e e d b a c k and i t e r a t i o n ( 1 . 8 ) : I n f o r m a t i o n f r o m m o n i t o r i n g and e v a l u a t i o n i s c o n t i n u a l l y f e d b a c k i n t o t h e e a r l i e r s t a g e s of t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s t e p and t h e p r o c e s s r e p e a t s itself. Public p a r t i c i p a t i o n (1.9): A supportive public i s n e c e s s a r y f o r the s u c c e s s of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s C o o r d i n a t i o n (1.10): C o o r d i n a t i o n r e q u i r e s the i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e p r o c e s s of a l l g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s and m a j o r o r g a n i z e d g r o u p s a f f e c t e d .  18  the  i d e a l i z e d planning process  to analyse  both  the o v e r a l l  p r o g r a m s t r u c t u r e a n d s c o p e a n d how r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s a r e , i n f a c t , c o n d u c t e d . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s g i v e a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n a n d r a t i o n a l e outlined  i n Table  1.1.  1.4 S t r u c t u r i n g a n d S c o p i n g  In  the Planning  t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s , we w i l l  elements of t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l specific  f o r each of t h e elements  Program  consider the r e q u i s i t e  land development process;  however,  planning exercises using the i d e a l i z e d planning  must o p e r a t e  w i t h i n a program c o n t a i n i n g c l e a r l y  process  defined  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s among a n d w i t h i n g o v e r n m e n t s . As w e l l ,  there  must be an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  levels  of the  and i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e v a r i o u s  l a n d development p l a n n i n g individual project level.  f r o m t h a t o f b r o a d p o l i c y down t o In t h i s  section, consideration i s  g i v e n t o t h e needs o f s t r u c t u r i n g and s c o p i n g  the o v e r a l l  program. Several aspects  of s t r u c t u r i n g and s c o p i n g  programs a r e d i s c u s s e d below i n i t i a l l y o r g a n i z a t i o n and then  of p l a n n i n g  in relation  t o government  i n terms of approaches t o l a n d development  p l a n n i n g c a r r i e d o u t by t h e s e  v a r i o u s government a g e n c i e s .  The  o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g program's s t r u c t u r e and scope determine t h e design the  and a p p l i c a t i o n  of a l l the other  i d e a l i z e d planning process.  elements discussed i n  S t r u c t u r i n g and scoping  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and o f t e n p r o c e d u r a l  aspects  once e s t a b l i s h e d , r e m a i n r e l a t i v e l y  constant  a p p l i c a t i o n of s p e c i f i c  of planning  are the which,  throughout the  p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f  19  elements i n the i d e a l i z e d process of s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g  occur  repeatedly  in a variety  e x e r c i s e s c o n d u c t e d w i t h i n t h e framework  e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m . The s t r u c t u r i n g a n d scoping  o f t h e o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m s h o u l d n o t be  m o n o l i t h i c . P l a n n i n g programs should to the circumstances  be f l e x i b l e a n d  of i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s . T h i s i s  why t h e s t e p o f s t r u c t u r i n g a n d s c o p i n g i n c l u d e d a t t h e t o p of Table exercise,  designed  and m o d i f i e d  or geographical  These l e v e l s v a r y  u n i t covered  of t h e  i n the planning e x e r c i s e .  i n scope and i n t h e l e n g t h o f t h e p l a n n i n g  s e c t o r o f t h e n a t i o n a l o r p r o v i n c i a l economy. E v e n a t a level  of comprehensiveness, t h e d e t a i l  programs can v a r y a c c o r d i n g or f i n a n c i n g (Cochrane,  different  levels,  conducted  i n planning  to objectives, p o l i t i c a l  priorities  1974). I n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g programs can  deal with several d i f f e r e n t  can  r e f e r s to the extent  P l a n n i n g p r o g r a m s c a n d e a l w i t h a s i n g l e p r o j e c t o r an  specific  process  accordingly.  t o i n c l u d e v a r y i n g l e v e l s of comprehensiveness.  political  entire  of each  l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m s c a n be  Comprehensiveness, i n t h i s case,  period.  the p l a n n i n g program i s  1.1. A t t h e b e g i n n i n g  i t must be r e v i e w e d  Agricultural  adaptable  l e v e l s of comprehensiveness. These  and even d i f f e r e n t  elements of the i d e a l i z e d  i n a planning exercise at a selected  be a l l o c a t e d t o s e p a r a t e  h i e r a r c h y of the p l a n n i n g P l a n n i n g p r o g r a m s may i d e a l i z e d planning process  strata  i n the bureaucratic  agency. s p e c i f y that v a r i o u s elements of the f o r a l l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s must be  undertaken at a r e g i o n a l planning p r o v i n c i a l agency's s t a f f  level,  level.  at headquarters  Frequently, a develops  r e g i o n a l or  20  project plans  without planning  (McAllister,  1 9 7 7 ) . Even i f t h e  developing selection the  regional sector of  As  d i c t a t e s how  various  differ  w e l l , the  o v e r a l l planning  e l e m e n t s of  the  i n almost every j u r i s d i c t i o n ;  agricultural  l a n d development p l a n n i n g  agricultural contrast  provincial level,  i n d i v i d u a l s t o t a k e advantage of  greater  the  of  or often  process are  exercises.  to  be  Programs a  general  programs i s p o s s i b l e  they occur.  formulation  at the  allow  of  and  regional  regional level,  government  r a p i d l y changing  in  and development  There i s l e s s bureaucracy  i n c e n t i v e to achieve quick  promotes the  elements  1.1.  l a n d development p l a n s  o p p o r t u n i t i e s as  other  and  l e v e l s of c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s i n  programs which a l l o w  t o the  objectives  nevertheless,  of p o s s i b l e  Planning  l e a d agency i n  program  planning  illustration  in Figure  i s the  region  headquarters s t a f f  in a l l i n d i v i d u a l planning  is provided  the  s t r a t e g y as w e l l as  be c o m p l e t e d by  politicians.  c a r r i e d out  region  or p r o j e c t p l a n s ,  the p r e f e r r e d  p r o c e s s can  i n v o l v e m e n t by  r e s u l t s . Lassey  and  (1977)  r e g i o n a l approach to s e c t o r a l planning  because:  The r e g i o n a l u n i t may h a v e t h e b e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g an e f f e c t i v e f o r m a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n and e x c h a n g e n e t w o r k among t h e s e a g e n c i e s , w h i l e p r o v i d i n g f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n and c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h l o c a l u n i t s (p.82).  Despite planning  traditional  opposition,  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y may  o b j e c t i v e s are  an  be  i n c r e a s i n g d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of warranted. Regional  development  i n c r e a s i n g f o c u s of government a t t e n t i o n i n  21  Canada  (OECD, 1 9 7 8 ) . G i v e n t h e s i z e o f t h e i m p a c t on r e g i o n a l  development of government's  normal expenditure  i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of government planning context  actions i n a regional  i s n e c e s s a r y ( F a i r b a i r n and I r o n s i d e , 1974).  1.4.1 L a n d D e v e l o p m e n t The p r e c e d i n g aspects  policies,  Planning  Programs  d i s c u s s i o n c o v e r e d t h e more  of s t r u c t u r i n g and s c o p i n g  procedural  of the a g r i c u l t u r a l  land  development p l a n n i n g program. A n o t h e r a s p e c t of program s t r u c t u r i n g and s c o p i n g actual  i s more s u b s t a n t i v e a n d d e a l s w i t h t h e  s u b j e c t emphasis or c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  of l a n d  p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m s . The s u b j e c t e m p h a s i s o f l a n d  development  development  p l a n n i n g programs d e a l i n g w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e i s d i s c u s s e d  below.  L a n d d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m s c a n be c l a s s i f i e d t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s — l a n d use p l a n n i n g ,  l a n d management  into  planning,  and p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m s . L a n d management p l a n n i n g  programs  d e a l w i t h l a n d w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l a g e n c y manages, c o n t r o l s o r owns. P r o j e c t p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m s , w h i c h may be a s u b - c a t e g o r y o f a l a n d management p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m , a r e a i m e d a t c o n s t r u c t i n g capital  i m p r o v e m e n t s . L a n d u s e p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m s , on t h e o t h e r  h a n d , encompass p u b l i c p o l i c i e s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s , s u c h a s agricultural  z o n i n g , w h i c h g u i d e o t h e r p e o p l e ' s l a n d use  (Sampson, 1 9 7 5 ) . A g r i c u l t u r a l  l a n d development p l a n n i n g  i s most  o f t e n r e l a t e d t o l a n d management p r o g r a m s a n d p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g programs. L a n d management p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m s on r e s o u r c e  tend t o concentrate  more  a s s e s s m e n t a n d a r e more i n v o l v e d i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  rather than s o c i a l c h o i c e s . This category  includes the  22  allocation  or use of r e s o u r c e  agricultural  lands  (Sampson,  l a n d management p l a n n i n g  1975). I n Canada,  and p r o j e c t  planning  p r o g r a m s a r e c o n d u c t e d by l i n e a g e n c i e s s u c h a s a g r i c u l t u r e o r by t h e a g e n c y r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Crown  Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g developing resource  plans  programs  f o r the a l l o c a t i o n  regional,  sub-regional  involve  o f Crown l a n d t o v a r i o u s  uses such as f o r e s t r y , w i l d l i f e ,  a g r i c u l t u r e . These p l a n s  usually  lands.  r e c r e a t i o n and  may be d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e p r o v i n c i a l ,  or l o c a l  L a n d management p l a n n i n g management w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c  levels.  programs a l s o i n v o l v e sector  land  such as a g r i c u l t u r e or  f o r e s t r y and t h e development o f r e l a t e d p r o j e c t s . I f t h e agricultural program linked  a g e n c y h a s an a g r i c u l t u r a l  f o r Crown l a n d , p l a n s to overall  agricultural  l a n d management  d e v e l o p e d under t h i s program a r e plans  a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s , beyond l a n d ,  and p o l i c i e s w h i c h  levels.  There a r e f o u r main a p p r o a c h e s t o c o n d u c t i n g p r o g r a m s . One a p p r o a c h t o a g r i c u l t u r a l  p r o j e c t s on Crown l a n d foundation  i s a project-by-project  i n an a g r i c u l t u r a l  p r o j e c t s a r e not c o n s i d e r e d allocation  i s to link  which t h e r e f o r e allows considering  resource  land  development  p r o g r a m w i t h no  and e f f i c i e n c y  i n resource  1977). A second approach t o  i t t o the p r o v i n c i a l sector  plan,  f o r a broadened p e r s p e c t i v e i n  a l l o c a t i o n s . The l a c k , h o w e v e r ,  i n p u t and poor c o o r d i n a t i o n approach.  project  l a n d management p l a n . A l t e r n a t i v e  i s n o t r e v i e w e d (Weeks,  project planning  involve  related to agriclultural  development a t the p r o v i n c i a l or r e g i o n a l  planning  planning  a r e major problems w i t h  of r e g i o n a l this  The focus,  s m a l l - s c a l e area  program approach, which has a r e g i o n a l  i s s u g g e s t e d by M c A l l i s t e r ( 1 9 7 7 ) a s t h e b e s t  o p e n i n g up new a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a  method o f  w i t h development p r o j e c t s .  This  approach i n v o l v e s the c a r e f u l c o o r d i n a t i o n of a l l the agencies involved  i n the region  to give  t h e r i g h t mix of e f f o r t  p r o j e c t o p e r a t i o n a l . The u s u a l planning  approach, however, t o a p r o j e c t  program i n a g r i c u l t u r a l l y d e v e l o p i n g  opportunity  planning  program. I t i s s i m i l a r  p r o j e c t p r o g r a m , b u t i t may be more n a r r o w l y pioneering little  issues. I t i s a ' f u l l  heed t o o p p o r t u n i t y  t o make a  areas i sthe  t o t h e p r o j e c t by focussed  on  steam ahead' a p p r o a c h  with  costs.  One o f t h e m a i n p i t f a l l s  of p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g  a c c u r a t e l y e x p r e s s e d by M o l l e t t  programs i s  (1984):  T h o s e who a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o j e c t f o r m u l a t i o n a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o s a t i s f y two o b j e c t i v e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , a n d t h e y may w e l l be i n c o n f l i c t . One o b j e c t i v e i s t o p r o d u c e an u n b i a s e d a s s e s s m e n t o f what t h e y t h i n k w i l l happen a s a r e s u l t of t h e p r o j e c t . The o t h e r i s t o p r o d u c e a s u f f i c i e n t l y a t t r a c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e outcome t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e p r o j e c t w i l l be implemented (p.225).  Avoiding  this p i t f a l l  requires  planning  p r o g r a m s w i t h t h e a g r i c u t u r a l l a n d management  p r o g r a m f o r Crown l a n d .  t h e i n t e g r a t i o n of p r o j e c t  In a p p l i c a t i o n , the a g r i c u l t u r a l  development of s u i t a b l e u n a l i e n a t e d project planning region's  proposals,  agricultural  agricultural  planning  areas,  including alternative  w o u l d be t h e m a j o r component o f t h e  l a n d management p l a n . F i n a l l y , t h e  l a n d management p l a n n i n g  program should  be  24  integrated  i n t o the  o v e r a l l Crown l a n d management  program  (see F i g u r e  1.5  Identification  The  1.1).  I d e n t i f y i n g and critical planning.  to the  can  other may  resource  high  Bronstein,  For  Mollett decide  on  who  decide  the  goals  development  be  cleared just to  w i t h none of  to complete development, s o i l  the  erosion  resource.  (1984) s t a t e s t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l p l a n n e r s  objectives: rather  they provide  do  g u i d e l i n e s to  so t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s h a v e t h e  l e v e l . He  is  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n mechanisms  a c r e a g e , but  t o make r a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . T h i s policy  land  e x a m p l e , l a n d may  figures for t o t a l  q u i c k l y destroy  Objectives  1979). Without c l e a r  a s s e s s m e n t and  programs i n p l a c e  do  D e f i n i t i o n of  s u c c e s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l  be m i s d i r e c t e d .  create  and  d e f i n i n g c l e a r o b j e c t i v e s and  ( V l a s i n and  objectives,  planning  is particularly  not those  opportunity  true at a  suggests:  P l a n n e r s must r e a l i z e t h a t e c o n o m i c o b j e c t i v e s s h o u l d c o n f o r m t o s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s and a i m s r a t h e r t h a n t h e o t h e r way a r o u n d . . . t h e main p u r p o s e of p l a n n i n g i s not t o m a x i m i z e c o s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s but t o a c h i e v e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l objectives(p.43).  broader  25  Figure  1.1: S t r u c t u r i n g a n d S c o p i n g The P l a n n i n g  Program  P r o v i n c i a l Crown L a n d Management P l a n n i n g and P o l i c y S t a t e m e n t s  Provincial Agricultural L a n d Management P l a n n i n g and P o l i c y Statements  R e g i o n a l Crown L a n d Management P l a n n i n g and P o l i c y S t a t e m e n t s Provinc i a l , Regional, Sub-regional Agricultural Planning and' P o l i c y  S u b - r e g i o n a l Crown L a n d Management Planning  7  Regional A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d Management P l a n n i n g and P o l i c y Statements  Sub-regional A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Management P l a n n i n g  Agricultural Production Project Planning  26  M o l l e t t proposes substantive,  that objectives  limited  distinguished  for agricultural  i n number a n d t h a t t h e e n d s be  f r o m t h e means. To a c h i e v e s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n  f o o d p r o d u c t i o n i s an o b j e c t i v e , w h i l e s u b s i d i z i n g i s an i m p l e m e n t a t i o n Guidelines  f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n of  •major p o l i c y  of s o u r c e s :  statements;  statements  of other a g e n c i e s ;  •assessment of l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n and requirements, dependencies,  industrial  t r e n d s and  problems;  • c o n s u l t a t i o n of v a r i o u s p u b l i c and p r i v a t e involved;  After  (Roberts,  the i n i t i a l  1979).  date.  1.6 A s s e s s m e n t o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l Agricultural  groups  o b j e c t i v e s h a v e been d e f i n e d , t h e y may be  adjusted at a later  and Socio-economic  l a n d development p l a n s w i l l  t h e y a r e p h y s i c a l l y and b i o l o g i c a l l y f e a s i b l e , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y 1979).  land clearing  p r o g r a m o r means.  o b j e c t i v e s c a n come f r o m a v a r i e t y  •policy  d e v e l o p m e n t be  possible,  and s o c i a l l y  Factors  succeed  only i f  economically  acceptable  Changes, t r e n d s and c o n d i t i o n s b o t h w i t h i n  (Barlowe,  the s p a t i a l or  s e c t o r a l a r e a a n d w i t h o u t t h e s e a r e a s b u t h a v i n g an i m p a c t  on  the area being s t u d i e d a r e important  1974).  Allocating  f o r p l a n n i n g (Hobbs,  b e n e f i t s a n d c o s t s t o d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e makes t h e  planning process  inherently p o l i t i c a l  (Vlasin,  1974).  Cartner  27  and  Richards  (1983)  state:  P l a n n e r s . . . must be e q u i p p e d t o d e a l w i t h t e c h n i c a l q u e s t i o n s o f s u p p l y - d e m a n d and l a n d c o n d i t i o n s as w e l l as w i t h the v a l u e l a d e n q u e s t i o n s of s o c i a l e q u i t y and p o l i t i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y . This requires p o l i t i c a l awareness i n a d d i t i o n to t e c h n i c a l competence (p.80).  It  i s through  attempts  the assessment stage  to c r y s t a l l i z e  environmental Table  integrate social,  environmental  and  socio-economic  f a c t o r s t o be  first  1169.  Issues  factors will  t o p o g r a p h y and  be  forage  reviewed  l o c a t i o n s and  s p r i n g - f r o s t and 80  t o 98 d a y s on  occur  and  1030  the  to  1981).  C l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s are or r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t  such  t o 59 f r e e z e - f r e e  a r a n g e o f g r o w i n g d e g r e e d a y s a b o v e 5° o f  ( A i r Studies Branch,  limits  example, hardy crops  r e q u i r e a minimum of 50  f a l l - f r o s t ) at i n t e r i o r  v a r i a t i o n s can  and  s o i l s determine the a b s o l u t e  ( t h e mean number o f d a y s b e t w e e n l a s t  c o a s t and  i n most  Factors  of c u l t i v a b i l i t y ( W i l l i a m s , 1 9 7 4 ) . F o r as b a r l e y and  the  detail.  Environmental Climate,  days  and  reviewed  l a n d development p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s .  in greater  1.6.1  economic  summarizes the main p o i n t s p e r t a i n i n g t o  methods i n a s s e s s i n g t h e more c r i t i c a l now  process  factors.  1.2  agricultural  and  t h a t the p l a n n i n g  important  i n both  the  macroclimatic  the m i c r o c l i m a t i c or l o c a l  c o n t e x t . Wide  among m i c r o c l i m a t e s w i t h i n t h e  same  28  macroclimatic region. Therefore,  i t i s desirable to  study  generalized m i c r o c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s to define t h i s and,  consequently,  determine  an a r e a ' s  p r o d u c t i o n . As w e l l , c l i m a t i c precipitation,  s h o u l d be  suitability  limitations,  evaluated  variability for crop  especially  i n the c o n t e x t of  specific  crops. Soil  map  units identified  u s e f u l to the planner  by  in a soil  survey  can  be  very  b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r a wide v a r i e t y  f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e the land's u l t i m a t e c a p a b i l i t y and  B a r t e l l i , 1 9 7 4 ) . The  better soils  development are m i n e r a l s o i l s  that i s n e u t r a l to s l i g h t l y  restrictions  f o r normal  non-erosive,  b a s i c and  and  agricultural  w h i c h have a  w h i c h have  no  tillage.  E x i s t i n g v e g e t a t i o n must be c o n s i d e r e d when agricultural  land. If forests exist  i n the area  developing t o be  they can c r e a t e a c o n s i d e r a b l e expense f o r the farmer l a n d c l e a r i n g . T h i s e x p e n s e may if  p r o p e r t y r i g h t s to the timber  a c q u i s t i o n o f t h e l a n d . The grazing  livestock  i s another  inventory. W i l d l i f e ungulate  calculating impact.  be o f f s e t  by  are conveyed to the  e x t e n t of f o r a g e  will  suitable  b a s i c e l e m e n t of t h e  g i v e the planner  the c o s t of w i l d l i f e  developed, during  t h e s a l e of  i n f o r m a t i o n , s u c h as p r e d a t o r  distribution,  (Johnson  which are l e v e l , w e l l - d r a i n e d ,  non-stony, deep, h i g h l y f e r t i l e , pH  for general  of  data  timber  farmer  upon  for  resource density  and  for  c o n t r o l m e a s u r e s and  potential  T a b l e 1.2: E n v i r o n m e n t a l a n d S o c i o - e c o n o m i c F a c t o r s f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t on Crown L a n d * ( r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n s o f text i n parentheses)  ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS P h y s i c a l base c a p a b l e of s u p p o r t i n g s u s t a i n a b l e a g r i c u l t u r e - s o i l s , water, c l i m a t e (1.5.1) B i o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s - p l a n t s and a n i m a l s , and i n t r o d u c e d ( 1 . 5 . 1 ) Ecological  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and c a p a c i t i e s SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS  Compliance practices,  indigenous  (1.5.2)  (1.5.3)  with legal requirements, p o l i t i c a l t r a d i t i o n s and o b j e c t i v e s  C o m p l i a n c e w i t h a c c e p t e d customs, a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s of s o c i e t y Adaptable  existing administrative  institutions  Demand f o r l a n d a n d p r o d u c t s E f f e c t i v e m a r k e t i n g , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , s t o r a g e and other i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l arrangements E f f i c i e n t and u l t i m a t e l y p r o f i t a b l e relat ionships Equitable distribution  * A d a p t e d from Barlowe and Dwyer (1979)  Determining range trials  input-output  o f income a n d o t h e r  (1979); Roberts  benefits  ( 1 9 7 9 ) ; Box  p o t e n t i a l vegetation i s important  a n d c r o p u s e s on a g r i c u l t u r a l s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d  f o r both  l a n d . Y i e l d and v a r i e t y  i n a r e a s o f m a j o r new l a n d  30  development before  land c l e a r i n g starts  t h e most s u i t a b l e c r o p v a r i e t i e s ,  1.6.2 R e s o u r c e I n v e n t o r i e s a n d Several  i n order  t o determine  i f any (Box a n d Dwyer,  1979).  Evaluations  methods a r e u s e d i n m o d e l i n g e c o l o g i c a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and c a p a c i t i e s f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l s y s t e m s . L a n d classification agricultural  i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t  l a n d development. Land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  identification, resources.  formats i s the s o i l  a l s o conducted but c l i m a t i c  Soil  levels,  from a l e v e l  C l i m a t i c surveys are  are often consolidated  five  or r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g  information  used a t l e v e l  Lidstone,  1984). S o i l  five  survey s u i t a b l e f o r broad one  Map s c a l e s v a r y  surveys,  as p r i m a r y  survey  with  t o 1:5000 a t l e v e l  be i n t e r p r e t e d so a s t o p r o v i d e  p o t e n t i a l s , S t o r i e index,  e a c h map  for  (Valentine  i n v e n t o r i e s , can  a number o f s e c o n d a r y  and c a p a b i l i t y  such as  classification  unit.  The most commonly is  1:250,000  one  i n v e n t o r i e s or e v a l u a t i o n s w i t h i n land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  for  i n t o the  to develop  down t o a l e v e l  f o r intensive research.  most w i d e l y  yield  land  classifications.  provincial suitable  survey.  used  surveys are conducted at f i v e d i f f e r e n t survey  intensity  and  data  survey or combined w i t h s o i l s  capability  involves the  d e s c r i p t i o n , a n a l y s i s and e v a l u a t i o n o f l a n d  I n a g r i c u l t u r e , one o f t h e most w i d e l y  classification  soil  method f o r p l a n n i n g  used l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  t h e Canada Land I n v e n t o r y . agriculture i s a soil  s y s t e m i n Canada  The Canada L a n d I n v e n t o r y  capability classification  (CLI)  based on:  31  t h e e f f e c t s o f c o m b i n a t i o n s of c l i m a t e s o i l c h a r a c t e r e s t i c s on l i m i t a t i o n s i n o f t h e s o i l s f o r a g r i c u l t u r e and t h e i r g e n e r a l p r o d u c t i o n c a p a c i t y f o r common f i e l d c r o p s ( E n v i r o n m e n t C a n a d a , 1972, p. 5 ) .  The  CLI  including  capability  the completion  and use  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n makes s e v e r a l  assumptions  o f c e r t a i n i m p r o v e m e n t s and  a highly  m e c h a n i z e d l e v e l of modern a g r i c u l t u r e . L i m i t a t i o n s a r e cumulative  ( S i n g e r , T a n j i and  Environment, restricting  S n y d e r , 1979;  M i n i s t r y of  1 9 8 3 ) . T h a t i s , a c l a s s i s b a s e d on f a c t o r and  not  c o m b i n a t i o n s of  the  factors.  c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n map  original- soil  evaluations  sectors for f o r e s t r y , w i l d l i f e , minerals Canada L a n d I n v e n t o r y  classifications  f o r r e c r e a t i o n , f o r e s t r y and  for  Resource i n f o r m a t i o n  e v a l u a t i n g the  a g r i c u l t u r e and  factors  mapped  and  capability  some s p e c i e s is  opportunity  costs  important on  associated  costs are,  i n a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  of  however,  economic  below).  Ecological to primary  the  associated a c t i v i t i e s  development. Opportunity  more a p p r o p r i a t e l y  (see  has  from these s e c t o r s  i m p a c t s o f any  for determining  with a g r i c u l t u r a l discussed  with  use  are a l s o a v a i l a b l e  r e c r e a t i o n . The  wildlife.  should  survey.  R e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r i e s and from other  in conjunction  most Bearing  these assumptions i n mind, the a g r i c u l t u r a l planner any  not  land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  inventory  of  resources  techniques  which b r i n g together  of t h e m a j o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s i n an classification.  a r e an  T e r r a i n , hydrology,  approach several  e c o l o g i c a l approach  vegetation, w i l d l i f e  and  to  32  c l i m a t e a r e c o m b i n e d t o p r o d u c e e c o l o g i c a l map  u n i t s which  d i s p l a y common e c o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s . Map  u n i t s are not  t o a narrow range of  they are  surveys. levels,  Surveys are conducted at similar  ecological provided the  s o i l p r o p e r t i e s as  t o those i n the  land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  f o r e a c h map  same p o l y g o n f o r a f u l l  1.6.3  Socio-Economic The  legal  social  lies  survey. i n the  r a n g e of r e s o u r c e  information  of  evaluating  uses.  political  area  provides  mandate f o r p l a n n i n g often  process.  the  action. Local  influences  In d e v e l o p i n g  the Crown  f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , the a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d o f t e n d e a l w i t h  c r e a t i o n of new  farming  communities. Pressures  f r e q u e n t l y come f r o m a d j a c e n t lobbying  c o m m u n i t i e s and  politically  and  s t r u c t u r e o f an a r e a . factors required Frequently,  funding  land development the  land  c o s t s and  the  to assess  little  assess  social the  social  attention in  ( M o l l e t t , 1984).  Often,  i s more o r l e s s s u i t a b l e ,  implemented. Economic f a c t o r s are of the  on  to  is also  proceed.  economic f a c t o r s r e c e i v e  i s a v a i l a b l e and  p r o j e c t s are the c o n t e x t  I t i s a l s o important  f o r development to  agricultural  political  that  I t i s important  impact of p o t e n t i a l development s c e n a r i o s  planning  intense  l e g i s l a t i v e mandate b u t  s o c i a l l y acceptable.  the  f o r development  i s c o m m o n p l a c e . T h e s e a g e n c i e s must e n s u r e  development corresponds to t h e i r  if  of  Factors  s u c c e s s or' f a i l u r e of a p l a n n i n g  the  advantage  the p o s s i b i i t y  c o m m u n i t y members' s u p p o r t o r a n i m o s i t y  land  The  r a n g e of  system a f f e c t i n g a p l a n n i n g  s t r u c t u r e and  soil  five different intensity  soil  p o l y g o n and  in  restricted  b e n e f i t s of  significant  implementing  the  in  33  agricultural  l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n and d e v e l o p i n g t h e a s s o c i a t e d  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e which  i s o f t e n e x t e r n a l t o the s p e c i f i c  Among t h e e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s w h i c h agricultural  warrant  assessment i n  l a n d development p l a n n i n g a r e :  • i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and  servicing;  • m a r k e t and  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s and  •demand and  production associated with various  combinations •farm  plan.  size,  of  facilities;  inputs;  t e n u r e and  •economic impact  expansion;  (Barlowe,1979).  Some of t h e s e a s p e c t s may  be  i n t h e p u r v i e w .of an a g e n c y ' s l a n d  d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m , s u c h as d e v e l o p i n g an a s s o c i a t e d marketing  system,  p r o g r a m and may  o r t h e y may  be e x t e r n a l  be l i n k e d t o a n o t h e r  Ministry,  s u c h as d e v e l o p i n g and  marketing  system.  to t h a t agency's  p l a n n i n g program i n another  expanding  Whether a d i r e c t  a  provincial  a s p e c t of t h e l a n d  d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m o r n o t , t h e s e e c o n o m i c a s p e c t s must be  integrated  coordination  into i s so  i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . T h i s i s where important.  Many i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l government, e s p e c i a l l y  i n the e a r l y  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of o t h e r petroleum  r e q u i r e m e n t s must be  i s t h e o n l y way  s t a g e s of d e v e l o p m e n t .  i n d u s t r i e s such as f o r e s t r y t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s such  transportation, electricity, 1975;  s u b s i d i z e d by  s c h o o l s and  P e t e r s o n , 1 9 7 2 ) . Many s e r v i c e s and  or  as  health-care essential  Often  (Kellogg,  34  infrastructure  s u c h as c r e d i t , can  production  f a r m s i s l a r g e e n o u g h t o s u p p o r t them.  agricultural c o s t s and farming  be  provided  water, extension  agri-business of  only  irrigation  when t h e  l a n d development p l a n n i n g  b e n e f i t s of t h e  c o m m u n i t y and  required  of d e v e l o p i n g  provision  (Cochrane,  new  b e t w e e n t y i n g up  scarce  i t i n other  capital  aspects  s i z e of an  commercial v i a b i l i t y of  new  traditional  need f o r demand new  mean t h e  agricultural  difference  i n f r e e h o l d a c q u i s i t i o n or  i n f l u e n c e s the. u l t i m a t e •  f a r m . Farm s i z e s h o u l d r e g i o n a l farm s i z e s ,  be  studied  be  i n v e s t m e n t , t y p e and  a consideration  the c r e a t i o n of  reserve  yield  in i n i t i a l  of  p r o g r a m s h a v e t o be  of  land  areas.  s u b s i d i z e a g r i c u l t u r a l development are  inadequate, overlapping  in  demand  r a n g e s of g o v e r n m e n t p r o g r a m s a t v a r i o u s  p r o m o t e and  i s held  land q u a l i t y . F l e x i b i l i t y i n future expansion  d i s p o s i t i o n s and  (Lassey,  can  operation  of any  farm u n i t s should  The  the  economic  o f management when l a n d  p r o j e c t i o n s , c o s t s , r e t u r n s on c o m m o d i t y and  i n c l u d e the  o u t p u t s of any  system of t e n u r e  the c o n t e x t  evaluate  1974).  p r o j e c t i o n s f o r the  l e a s e h o l d . The  The  a r e a s o f t e n h i n g e s upon i t s  d e v e l o p m e n t . The  investing  s y s t e m must  and  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e both to  Other economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s supply  number  t o s o c i e t y as a whole, f o r the  viability  and  total  and  l e v e l s to often  or c o n t r a d i c t o r y . F r e q u e n t l y ,  these  r e s t r u c t u r e d t o become more e f f e c t i v e  1977).  Many m e t h o d s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p l a n n e r e c o n o m i c i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t . The a n a l y s i s are  most i m p o r t a n t  e c o n o m i c b a s e , income e x p e n d i t u r e  in  method i n i m p a c t and  input-output  35  a n a l y s i s as w e l l a s c o m p u t e r s i m u l a t i o n . I n e v a l u a t i o n a n a l y s i s , t h e most common method i s b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s , b u t a p p r o a c h e s s u c h as  the p l a n n i n g  b a l a n c e s h e e t and  c o s t a n a l y s i s may  be  techniques  used to assess  assess  can  be  appropriate  (Roberts, one  project  in isolation  or  to  e n t i r e a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s . T e c h n i q u e s h a v e been to i n t e g r a t e parameters from the v a r i o u s  provide  a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e a p p r o a c h t o l a n d  These t e c h n i q u e s over a short  are  r e l a t i v e l y c o m p l e x and  t i m e f r a m e due  systems  to  classification.  probably  to f l u c t u a t i n g economic  useful  only  conditions  1975).  I n summary, t h e and  comparative  1979). These  devised  (Vink,  other  socio-economic  exercise  inventory  and  e v a l u a t i o n of  factors i s described  environmental  by R o b e r t s  ( 1 9 7 9 ) as  which:  ... a i m s f u n d a m e n t a l l y a t improving u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e amount and c h a r a c t e r of demand t h a t w i l l be p l a c e d on t h e l a n d r e s o u r c e and t h e c a p a c i t y of t h e l a n d t o s u p p o r t v a r i o u s u s e s . . . The c h a r a c t e r and d e p t h o f i n v e n t o r y and a n a l y s i s u n d e r t a k e n i n a p a r t i c u l a r l a n d use p l a n n i n g e f f o r t w i l l d e p e n d upon p r o f e s s i o n a l j u d g e m e n t , t h e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e , t h e t y p e of l a n d being planned... and t h e demands of t h o s e w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n t h e p l a n n i n g e f f o r t . . . (p.54)  1.7  Preparation  and  Evaluation  S e l e c t i o n of t h e P r e f e r r e d An various  agricultural  of A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s  Strategy  l a n d development s t r a t e g y  integrates  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n measures — p o l i c i e s , programs  projects —  and  i n an a p p r o a c h t o a c h i e v i n g  the  and  objectives (Mollett,  an  36  1984). A g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d the  development s t r a t e g i e s  conflicting aspirations  p r o c e s s . They must a l s o  of  participants  o p t i m i z e the  t a k e a d v a n t a g e of more p l e n t i f u l development s t r a t e g y action  must a n s w e r t h e  will  implementation Alternative  inventory  and  c o n f i n e d by  are  objectives. of  l e v e l of  scarce resources  questions regarding how  and  agricultural  actions  are  and  what to  the  based u s u a l l y  upon t h e  be timing  the  T h e y draw p r e d o m i n a n t l y upon  environmental  f a c t o r s and  a range of  only  t h r e e or  incrementally  four  from each  the  are  f i n a n c i a l resources available  implementation. Generally, are -developed, v a r y i n g  planning  1984).  strategies  evaluation  the  of  implement s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s  (Mollett,  planning exercise's  i n the  r e s o u r c e s . An  i s needed t o a c h i e v e o b j e c t i v e s ,  i m p l e m e n t e d , who of  use  c o m p r o m i s e among  for  alternatives other.  R e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t i s , h o w e v e r , a common theme. Alternative exist  s u c h as  strategies  f o r e s t r y or  opportunity costs benefits can  of  one  play  to a g r i c u l t u r a l development  recreation,  an  important  r e s o u r c e use  also exist within  a plan  a l t e r n a t i v e o u t p u t s . One  d e v e l o p i n g new  land  intensify production infrastructure  i s the  however, e l e c t e d  makers. I t i s d u r i n g the  the strategies  projects  to provide various  cost-effective alternative i n v e s t m e n t of  public  funds  farming areas with  mixes  to  to existing  1978).  P l a n n e r s or a d m i n i s t r a t o r s strategy,  i n comparing  f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development  in established  ( W o r l d Bank,  role  t h i s i s where  to another. A l t e r n a t i v e  b e t w e e n p o l i c i e s , p r o g r a m s and and  and  may  may  select  officials  s e l e c t i o n of  are  the  the  preferred  usual  decision-  a l t e r n a t i v e s as  well  as  37  the of  s e t t i n g of o b j e c t i v e s t h a t the planning  this  stage,  of p e r c e i v e d be  1.8  p r o c e s s c a n be p e r c e i v e d  best  t h e p r o c e s s has been c r i t i c i s e d manipulation.  d e c r e a s e d by d e s i g n i n g  ensuring  the inherently p o l i t i c a l  a high  The p o s s i b i l i t y  nature  ( V l a s i n , 1974). At  frequently  because  of manipulation  can  e f f e c t i v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d by  degree of c o o r d i n a t i o n .  Implementation The t h r e e  main e l e m e n t s u s e d  i n i m p l e m e n t i n g an  a g r i c u l t u r a l development s t r a t e g y , as d e f i n e d (1974), a r e p o l i c i e s ,  by C o c h r a n e  programs and p r o j e c t s . A p o l i c y i s a  c o u r s e o f a c t i o n p u r s u e d by g o v e r n m e n t a n d i n v o l v e s t h e s t a t e m e n t of a purpose and t h e t a k i n g of a c t i o n s  to realize  that  purpose. Programs a r e d e f i n e d  as a s e t of p r o c e d u r a l  i m p l e m e n t i n g a p o l i c y . P r o g r a m s c a n be f i s c a l , interest  loans  to farmers, regulatory,  such as  management, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , s u c h a s e x t e n s i o n , s u c h a s a 'buy l o c a l ' A project  often  involves  blocks  life  span. Cochrane  of development"  or promotional  which i s u s u a l l y of c a p i t a l  improvements and has a  (1974) terms p r o j e c t s the " b u i l d i n g  ( p . 1 2 6 ) a s many o f g o v e r n m e n t ' s  development programs and p o l i c i e s a r e focussed level.  supply  the c o n s t r u c t i o n  s t r u c t u r e s or t h e making of c a p i t a l limited  such as low  program.  i s a self-contained activity  location-specific,  steps f o r  land  at the p r o j e c t  P r o j e c t s t e n d t o be a t t r a c t i v e t o d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s f o r two  reasons. F i r s t ,  tangible r e s u l t s are often achieved  time and, second, c a p i t a l  funding  in a  i s easier to obtain  short  than  38  increased fits  current  i n w i t h an  or o p e r a t i o n a l  funding.  overall strategy  or, conversely,  obstructs  an  Whether the  for a g r i c u l t u r a l  overall strategy,  project  development  i s sometimes  not  considered. Production pilot  p r o j e c t s should  or d e m o n s t r a t i o n p r o j e c t s . In a c t u a l l y  projects,  the  first  nature,  s i z e and  t h e n be  listed  f e a s i b l e or  step  is a preliminary  i n order  realistic  agricultural  of p r i o r i t y ,  to t r y to  and  project  a g r e e d upon and Within  1.9  i n t o the  from the  This  (see  formulation  with monitoring f e e d b a c k , and  success  i s accomplished  in  an  1.3.1). M o l l e t t  to ensure that  involved  the  in  objectives  e l e m e n t s must be  ( M c A l l i s t e r , 1 9 7 7 ) . Many  implementation  agricultural  has  often  been t h e  then the  f e e d b a c k and  Iteration  iteration  should  land development p l a n n i n g  the  relevant new  which then leads  elements of  information.  only  ( M o l l e t t , 1984).  F e e d b a c k and  evaluation  flagged  projects  be  exercise  ( M o l l e t t , 1984). These e l e m e n t s a r e  preceding  r e p e a t e d b a s e d on  of  Section  projects, c r i t i c a l  evaluation,  beginning  not  whole range  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a g e n c y be  Evaluation,  Monitoring, built  same t i m e .  the  in project  Monitoring,  the  because i t i s u s u a l l y  because t e c h n i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y  precondition  a s s e s s m e n t of  understood.  specific  to ensure eventual flounder  developing  implement the  l a n d management p l a n  ( 1 9 8 4 ) recommends t h a t both plan  experimental,  number of p o t e n t i a l p r o j e c t s . P r o j e c t s must  p o t e n t i a l p r o j e c t s at the  are  be p r e c e d e d by  linked, to  the p r o c e s s  are  39  A monitoring presents and  system observes,  relevant events  Lury,  and  records, analyses  r e s u l t s to process  managers  1982). In d e f i n i n g e v a l u a t i o n v i s - a - v i s  C a s l e y and  Lury  (1982)  and (Casley  monitoring,  state:  E v a l u a t i o n w i l l draw on t h e d a t a g e n e r a t e d by t h e m o n i t o r i n g s y s t e m t o h e l p e x p l a i n t h e t r e n d s i n e f f e c t s and i m p a c t o f t h e p r o j e c t [ o r p l a n ] . M o n i t o r i n g d a t a may r e v e a l s i g n i f i c a n t d e p a r t u r e from e x p e c t a t i o n s w h i c h may w a r r a n t t h e u n d e r t a k i n g of an o n - g o i n g e v a l u a t i o n e x e r c i s e . . . (p.4)  The  success  or f a i l u r e  l a n d development p l a n s p r o g r a m s and  i n the  implementation  p o l i c i e s a r e not ends i n t h e m s e l v e s i n t e r m s of f a r m e r s '  productiveness  i n response  or c r i t e r i a  settlement  to p a r t i c u l a r  can  be  and  initiatives.  o f t e n used i n planned  i n c l u d e the v a l u e of  and  profitability  Evaluative  agricultural  increased output  to  t h e c o s t s of t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g y a n d ,  to  which the plan's socio-economic  1.10  agricultural  i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o measure. P r o j e c t s ,  evaluated only  standards  of  i n comparison  second, the  o b j e c t i v e s are  degree  achieved.  Coordination The  farm  activities converge  i s the  s i n g l e u n i t o f o p e r a t i o n on w h i c h  of a l l t h e v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s a f f e c t i n g  (Mollett,  c o m p e t e n t and e c o n o m i c and  1984). A g r i c u l t u r a l  agriculture  l a n d development r e q u i r e s  e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n from a broad social  the  s e t of  f o r c e s . A c r i t i c a l aspect  interrelated  of p l a n n i n g  the  40  a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown l a n d various  i s coordinating  these  i n f l u e n c e s t o a c h i e v e s u c c e s s f u l and s u s t a i n a b l e  a g r i c u l t u r a l development coordination  (Cochrane, 1974). A l a c k of  i s o f t e n a r e s u l t of s e v e r a l  factors (Mollett,  1984):  •competition  among a g e n c i e s a t v a r i o u s  levels; •misperception  of p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s ;  •unwillingness  t o share  •heavy t i m e •negative  risks;  requirements;  experience with  past  collaboration; •shifting and  or misunderstood  l a c k of a p r e c i s e  A l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n s i n g l e program e v e n t u a l l y Adequate c o o r d i n a t i o n activity  responsibilities  mandate.  may r e s u l t i n a s e e m i n g l y  causing  can hinder  successful  more p r o b l e m s t h a n i t s o l v e s . maximum e f f i c i e n c y i n one  or s e c t o r , but i t can maximize e f f i c i e n c y i n the  p u r s u i t of broader s o c i a l , i n v o l v i n g many s e c t o r s  economic and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  (Lassey,  1977). T h i s  objectives  i s e s p e c i a l l y true  i n C a n a d i a n a g r i c u l t u r e where c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p o w e r s a r e s h a r e d between t h e p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l  governments.  Methods such as e n v i r o n m e n t a l m e d i a t i o n o r b a r g a i n i n g promise i n achieving  improved c o o r d i n a t i o n  o f g o v e r n m e n t a n d among v a r i o u s (Dorcey,  1983). T h i s  among v a r i o u s  agencies within  show  levels  government  method i s u s e d t o a c e r . t a i n e x t e n t  through  41  the p l a n n i n g and  1.11  team a p p r o a c h d i s c u s s e d  i n the  case studies  5).  Public Participation P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n can  c o n t i n u u m f r o m an public  be  expressed  organizational-expert  i n t e r m s of  system with  involvement to a d e m o c r a t i c - p a r t i c i p a t o r y  i n v o l v e s the process  public directly  (Erickson,  planning  throughout the  1980). E r i c k s o n  commonly r a i s e d a g a i n s t  minimal  system which  entire  (1980) l i s t s  planning  the  arguments  broad p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  o f a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t on  a  Crown l a n d .  the  These  include:  • t h e h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l , complex n a t u r e of  resource  issues; • t h e f o s t e r i n g of c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s ; •cost ^  (Chs.4  and  "lobbying  time; for local  i n t e r e s t s and  special  priviledges; •the d i f f i c u l t y  of a s s i g n i n g  weight to p u b l i c  •the p o t e n t i a l f o r manipulation by  the p l a n n i n g  •the value-laden  of p u b l i c  and  s u b j e c t i v e manner i n w h i c h data c o l l e c t i o n  steps  process w i l l  planning  participation.  involvement  agency;  o b j e c t i v e s e t t i n g and of the  input;  and  other  occur with  public  42  H o w e v e r , o p p o n e n t s of t h e that  technocratic  d e c i s i o n s are  o b j e c t i v e s , that data are f o r d e c i s i o n s , and alternative (Erickson,  that  often  1 9 8 0 ) . The can  1967)  insufficient  a sole rationale  I concur with  i s not  been i n v o l v e d  are  t o be  t h e s e i n t e r e s t s can  are  not  sector  only  the p l a n n i n g  taken.  o f t e n be  i s poorly h e l d by  the  this  frequently  and  In most p l a n n i n g  not  to  processes,•there  values  represented  of  the  various  t h e most v a l u a b l e  inform  divergent  a l s o by  i n v o l v e d . As  k n o w l e d g e , n e c e s s a r y c o m p r o m i s e may  by  Values resource  contributions  t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s of  values  the  a result  a c h i e v e d more  readily.  1.12  Summary The  i d e a l i z e d planning  p r o c e s s as a p p l i e d t o  a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t of Crown l a n d c r e a t e s of  i s s u e s and  concerns which should  by  i f public  managed, l e a d t o c o n f r o n t a t i o n . p u b l i c but  the  management i s  values,  c o n f l i c t i n g and,  of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t o  of  may  agency.  i n t e r e s t s . The  a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d . One  m a g n i t u d e of  in  t h e v i e w s o f Hendee, e t a l . , (1974) t h a t  a w i d e r a n g e of d i v e r s e  participation  with  involved, antagonism  a measure o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n s  dictate decisions  of  support f o r a process  main p u r p o s e of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e s o u r c e to obtain  values  p r e s e n t a w i d e r range  i n w h i c h i t has  a r i s e b e t w e e n t h e p u b l i c and  select  w i t h narrow agency  offer c r i t i c a l  public  as  agencies tend to  p u b l i c can  I f the  hold  unclear  resource  w h i c h i t i d e n t i f i e s and  system  o f t e n b a s e d on  strategies consistent  a l t e r n a t i v e s and  (Nichols,  organizational-expert  the  a complex  be a d d r e s s e d . A l l of  array the  43  e l e m e n t s of t h e p r o c e s s a r e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t . Assessment of e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c influences  f o r example,  t h e d e s i g n of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n mechanisms,  participation, strategies  factors,  objective  s e t t i n g , development of  and so o n . The s t r u c t u r e  alternative  and s c o p e o f t h e o v e r a l l  p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m must be f l e x i b l e and a d a p t a b l e t o c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s may of  certain  exercises.  dictate  Y e t , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t affect  the emphasis  factors,  addressed,  strategies  alternative  inappropriate.  the n e g l e c t of  the i n t e g r i t y of the e n t i r e  Thus i f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  be  also  local  p r o c e s s elements over o t h e r s i n s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g  key e l e m e n t s w i l l  may  public  process.  f o r example, a r e i n a d e q u a t e l y and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  mechanisms  REFERENCES  A i r S t u d i e s B r a n c h . 1981. C l i m a t i c C a p a b i l i t y f o r A g r i c u l t u r e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . M i n i s t r y of Environment, V i c t o r i a . A g r i c u l t u r e C a n a d a . 1981. C h a l l e n g e F o r G r o w t h : An Food S t r a t e g y f o r Canada. A g r i c u l t u r e Canada, Ottawa.  Agri-  B a r l o w e , R a l e i g h . 1979. S o i l s , P l a n t s and L a n d Use i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n M a r t i n T. B e a t t y , G a r r y W. P e t e r s o n and L e s t e r D. S w i n d a l e [ e d s . ] , P l a n n i n g t h e U s e s and Management of L a n d . A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y of Agronomy, M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s c i n . p . 3 - 2 5 . B e n t l e y , C.F. 1982. A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d i n C a n a d a : Q u a l i t y , Q u a n t i t y and P r e s e r v a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , Edmonton. Box,  T h a d i s W. And D w y e r , Don D. 1979. P l a n n i n g t h e Use o f R a n g e l a n d f o r P u b l i c and P r i v a t e L a n d s . I n M a r v i n T. B e a t t y , G a r r y W. P e t e r s o n and L e s t e r D. Swindale [ e d s . ] , P l a n n i n g t h e U s e s and Management o f L a n d . A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y of Agronomy, M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s c i n . p.321-334.  C a r t n e r , Hanna J . And R i c h a r d s , M e r t o n T. 1983. 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A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y o f Agronomy, M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s c i n . p . 2 2 5 - 2 7 1 . V a l e n t i n e , K.W.G. 1971. S o i l s o f t h e F o r t N e l s o n A r e a o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . R e p o r t No. 12. A g r i c u l t u r e C a n a d a . Ottawa. V a l e n t i n e , K.W.G. a n d L i d s t o n e , A l l a n B. S p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r S o i l Survey I n t e n s i t y ( S u r v e y O r d e r ) i n Canada. S u b m i t t e d t o Can. J . S o i l S c i . Van V u u r e n , W. 1980. P o l i c y F o r m u l a t i o n a n d I m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n R u r a l L a n d P l a n n i n g . CRD P u b l i c a t i o n No. 100. C e n t r e f o r R e s o u r c e Development, Guelph. V i n k , A.P.A. 1975. L a n d U s e i n A d v a n c i n g A g r i c u l t u r e . S p r i n g e r - V e r l a g , New Y o r k . V l a s i n , Raymond D. 1974. Development. J . S o i l  P l a n n i n g and Implementing R u r a l a n d Water Cons. 2 9 ( 1 ) : 28-33.  V l a s i n , Raymond D. A n d B r o n s t e i n , D a n i e l A. 1 9 7 9 . I n s t i t u t i o n a l Mechanisms f o r Land Use C o n t r o l . I n M a r v i n T. B e a t t y , G a r r y W. P e t e r s o n a n d L e s t e r D. S w i n d a l e [ e d s . ] , P l a n n i n g t h e Uses a n d Management o f L a n d . A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y o f Agronomy, M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s c i n . p.981-1011. Weeks, E.P. 1977. The P r o j e c t C y c l e - An O v e r v i e w . I n I a n M c A l l i s t e r a n d E t h e l L a n g i l l e [ e d s . ] , The P r o j e c t C y c l e : P l a n n i n g and Managing Development P r o j e c t s . D a l h o u s i e U n i v e r s i t y , H a l i f a x , p.14-19. W i l l i a m s , G. D a v i d V. 1974. P h y s i c a l F r o n t i e r s o f C r o p s : The E x a m p l e f o r G r o w i n g B a r l e y t o M a t u r i t y i n C a n a d a . I n R.G. I r o n s i d e , e t a l . [ e d s . ] , F r o n t i e r S e t t l e m e n t . U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , p.79-92. W o n d e r s , W i l l i a m C. 1S75. M a r g i n a l S e t t l e m e n t . I n The S c o t t i s h G e o g r a p h i c a l M a g a z i n e . 9 1 ( 1 ) : 12-24. W o r l d Bank. 1978. A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d S e t t l e m e n t : A W o r l d Bank I s s u e s P a p e r . W o r l d Bank, W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.  CHAPTER  TWO  PLANNING THE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF CROWN LAND IN THE MARGINAL FRINGE  49  2.1  Introduction The  planning process o u t l i n e d  presents a g e n e r a l approach  i n the p r e v i o u s  chapter  to planning a g r i c u l t u r a l  development  on Crown l a n d . H o w e v e r , i n e a c h p a r t i c u l a r p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e , t h e g e n e r a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s must be a d a p t e d c o n d i t i o n s which  d i s t i n q u i s h one  to  planning area  regional from a n o t h e r .  p o t e n t i a l and  p r o b l e m s of p l a n n i n g f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l  i n an u r b a n ,  g e n e r a l l y s o u t h e r n , a r e a o f Canada a r e  t h a n p l a n n i n g i n a more n o r t h e r n , r u r a l F o r some of t h e e l e m e n t s m a r g i n a l l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t may than  environmental these which  and  section,  idealized planning  factors,  i n v e n t o r i e s . How  marginal  process,  attention  agricultural  I f o c u s on t h e a s s e s s m e n t  of  f o r i t i s the s t a t u s  whether the l a n d i s m a r g i n a l or  a r a b l e . T h i s p l a c e s a s p e c i a l o n u s on t h o s e initial  different  demand no more o r l e s s  socio-economic  determines  development  region.  i n p l a n n i n g the development of l a n d i n the  h e a r t l a n d . In t h i s  of  of t h e  The  non-  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  the p l a n n i n g process  fringe conditions i s analysed l a t e r  i s adapted  to  i n s e v e r a l case  studies.  2.2  Assessment of E n v i r o n m e n t a l ,  E c o n o m i c and  Social Factors in  the M a r g i n a l F r i n g e Climatic  restrictions  opposed t o the m a r g i n a l  i n southern  a g r i c u l t u r a l areas  as  f r i n g e a r e not  s u c h an o v e r r i d i n g  factor  i n d e t e r m i n i n g c r o p t y p e , y i e l d and, viability marginal  o f f a r m u n i t s . The  t h e r e f o r e , the  economic  g e n e r a l l y h a r s h e r c l i m a t e of  f r i n g e , when c o m b i n e d w i t h a d v e r s e  the  soil conditions,  50  makes f a r m v i a b i l i t y  an i n c r e a s i n g l y t e n u o u s  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and m a r k e t i n g the m a r g i n a l f r i n g e  obstacles also  increase costs for  farmer as opposed t o h i s southern  counterpart.  I n f r a s t r u c t u r e , o f t e n taken  agricultural  h e a r t l a n d , may n e v e r  f r i n g e . While  proposition.  f o r granted i n the  be p r o v i d e d i n t h e m a r g i n a l  20 h e c t a r e s p r o d u c i n g  s t r a w b e r r i e s i n t h e urban  f r i n g e o f V a n c o u v e r may be a l u c r a t i v e b u s i n e s s f o r a 200  h e c t a r e s i n f o r a g e o r b a r l e y near F o r t V e r m i l i o n , A l b e r t a  may mean a s u b s i s t e n c e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g fringe  f o r the marginal  farmer.  The  l a n d management p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s  r e g i o n must f i r s t a d d r e s s  itself  grown i n t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t  that w i l l  on p u b l i c  and p r i v a t e  sufficient political  investment  r e t u r n on i n v e s t m e n t  i n the marginal  t o which,  provide a s u f f i c i e n t  may s t i l l  fringe  i f a n y , c r o p s c a n be  t o warrant  return  development. A  be a l o s s  a n d p r i v a t e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s deem a c e r t a i n  losses acceptable. Usually, this are  farmer,  i f the l e v e l of  i s when g o v e r n m e n t s u b s i d i e s  i n t r o d u c e d . An i n v e n t o r y a n d e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l  system  which  prerequisite  displays potential  f o r development i s a  f o r d e t a i l e d economic  2.2.1 E n v i r o n m e n t a l  analysis.  Factors  C l i m a t e a n d s o i l s a r e t h e two c r i t i c a l elements within  i n determining the a g r i c u l t u r a l  c a p a b i l i t y of land  the marginal f r i n g e . Geomorphological  topography, capability  are usually  reflected  a s p e c t s , such as  i n the c l i m a t i c  of a region f o r a g r i c u l t u r e .  c o n d i t i o n s a r e not as w e l l  environmental  Both  or s o i l  s o i l s and c l i m a t i c  known i n t h e m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n  51  as  i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l h e a r t l a n d ( W i l l i a m s , 1974). T h i s  to  t h e l a c k of c l i m a t o l o g i c a l  c o v e r a g e by s o i l important  s t a t i o n s and l e s s  s u r v e y s . The l a c k o f r e s o u r c e  because t h e combination  t h e management t e c h n i q u e s of e a c h f a r m  unit.  dramatically  from year  dramatically  ( I r o n s i d e , e t a l . , 1974b).  Arable s o i l s  In the marginal  southern  information i s  will  determine  m i n e r a l or organic  j u s t as  soils  than  i n the  h e a r t l a n d . T h i s means t h a t t h e h i g h l y m e c h a n i z e d ,  a g r i c u l t u r e a r e a t an a d d e d d i s a d v a n t a g e non-arable  a r e a s . As w e l l ,  of Canadian i n farming around  limitations drainage;  for agriculture  i n the marginal  soil  f r i n g e a r e poor  s t e e p , l o n g o r complex s l o p e s ; low f e r t i l i t y  water r e t e n t i o n c a p a c i t y ; s a l i n i t y ; stoniness;  shallow depth  succeptibility  farm  fringe,  a r e working  and low  flooding;  t o bedrock or compacted l a y e r and;  in sufficient  d e l i n e a t i o n of v i a b l e the marginal  acidity;  t o wind and water e r o s i o n . These  must be i d e n t i f i e d  these  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e c o s t s become e v e n  h i g h e r p e r h e c t a r e o f l a n d f a r m e d . Among t h e many  farmers  the y i e l d  f r i n g e t e n d t o be more  l a r g e - s c a l e commercial operations t y p i c a l  in  with  f r i n g e , c o n d i t i o n s can change  and y i e l d s can v a r y  i n the marginal  d i s r u p t e d by n o n - a r a b l e ,  detailed  of m i c r o c l i m a t e and s o i l s  of t h e farmer  t o year  i s due  detail  restrictions  to a i d i n accurate  u n i t s . To become e c o n o m i c a l l y  viable  farms a r e becoming h i g h l y mechanized and  increasingly  l a r g e r acreages  as q u i c k l y as  p o s s i b l e t o a l l o w the economies of s c a l e t o o f f s e t g e n e r a l l y lower  y i e l d s and h i g h e r c o s t s . T h i s approach causes  erosion, particularly Unfavourable  on t h e more e r o s i o n p r o n e  climatic  severe  soils.  c o n d i t i o n s a r e o f t e n compounded i n  52  marginal  f r i n g e r e g i o n s . Heavy p r e c i p i t a t i o n  i n the spring,  combined w i t h a s h o r t growing season and a l a t e snowmelt, i s a frequent  o c c u r a n c e . The s h o r t g r o w i n g s e a s o n a n d o f t e n  f r e e z e - f r e e p e r i o d a r e t h e most i m p o r t a n t ( B e a t t i e , Bond a n d M a n n i n g , daylight during  1981), a l t h o u g h  longer p e r i o d s of  crops  of hardy, f a s t - g r o w i n g  such as b a r l e y , forage  and  and o i l s e e d s  ( I r o n s i d e , e t a l . , 1 9 7 4 b ) . The l a c k o f s o i l s can  limitations  t h e growing season can compensate f o r these  l i m i t a t i o n s and a l l o w t h e p r o d u c t i o n fast-maturing  climatic  shorter  and c l i m a t i c  data  make t h e j o b o f e c o n o m i c a n a l y s i s e v e n more d i f f i c u l t a n d  uncertain.  2.2.2 E c o n o m i c  Factors  In terms of economics, m a r g i n a l disadvantage Environmental higher  compared t o t h e i r  southern  counterparts.  c o n d i t i o n s g e n e r a l l y d i c t a t e lower  i n p u t c o s t s t o overcome t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s  c o n d i t i o n s . The m a r g i n a l  y i e l d s and i m p o s e d by  d u p l i c a t e southern  cropping  t o compete i n t h e m a r k e t w i t h t h e same c r o p s  p r o d u c e d i n t h e S o u t h . Not o n l y do n o n - f r i n g e comparative advantage r e s u l t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , but they They h a v e l o w e r greater  these  f r i n g e f a r m e r ' s p r o b l e m s a r e compounded  when he a t t e m p t s t o s i m p l y and  f r i n g e farmers a r e a t a  from b e t t e r  practices  that are  p r o d u c e r s have a environmental  a r e c l o s e r t o markets and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e .  t r a n s p o r t c o s t s f o r r e q u i r e d i n p u t s as w e l l as  s e l e c t i o n and a v a i l a b i l i t y  of these  i n p u t s . Southern  f a r m e r s p r o d u c e much l a r g e r v o l u m e s o f c o m m o d i t i e s , r e s u l t i n g i n an  even g r e a t e r c o m p a r a t i v e a d v a n t a g e i n r e l a t i o n  rates  ( I r o n s i d e , e t a l . , 1974b).  to freight  53  The  g e n e r a l l y l o w e r r a t e s o f r e t u r n on l a b o u r a n d  investment of  i n t h e m a r g i n a l f r i n g e mean t h a t t h e f a r m e r h a s l e s s  a chance t o expand h i s l a n d b a s e and purchase  even t h o u g h  land i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y  M a n n i n g , 1 9 8 1 ) . Farm s i z e  cheaper  new e q u i p m e n t  ( B e a t t i e , Bond a n d  i s below t h e average  size  further  S o u t h , a n d t h e r e i s l e s s r e n t i n g , w h i c h means more s c a r c e capital  i s t i e d up i n t h e l a n d  (Wonders, 1 9 7 5 ) . New f a r m e r s i n  t h e m a r g i n a l f r i n g e t e n d t o be y o u n g a n d r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e r i e n c e d w h i c h makes i t d i f f i c u l t  t o get c r e d i t and t o  e x p a n d . Many o f t h e s e f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e t o a n d may e v e n a c c e l e r a t e t h e economic m a r g i n a l i t y of t h e s e a r e a s Bond a n d M a n n i n g ,  (Beattie,  1981).  G o v e r n m e n t h a s been c r i t i c i s e d  f o r f o s t e r i n g the  development of m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n s w i t h s u b s i d i e s t h a t c o u l d provide a better and M a n n i n g  return elsewhere  (1982) s u g g e s t  " i n s u l a t e d the farmer As  ( W o r l d Bank, 1 9 7 8 ) .  t h a t government s u b s i d i e s  McCuaig have  from t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s of f a i l u r e "  f a r m a r e a i n c r e a s e s i n many r e g i o n s o f t h e a d v a n c i n g  fringe,  i n c r e a s e s i n f a r m p o p u l a t i o n a n d number o f f a r m s  not keep pace.  Farm e n l a r g e m e n t  (pl55). marginal does  i s g o i n g on i n an a t t e m p t t o  o v e r c o m e some o f t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e f r i n g e and i t r e f l e c t s a g e n e r a l n a t i o n a l t r e n d . T h i s means t h a t t h e c o s t o f p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s t o a few p e o p l e s p r e a d o v e r b r o a d e r a r e a s w i l l higher than Manning,  i f rural  p o p u l a t i o n s were i n c r e a s i n g  be  (McCuaig and  1982).  Another  problem  i n the marginal fringe  i s t h a t many  farmers  n e e d t o become p a r t - t i m e o p e r a t o r s . S i n c e i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o make a l i v i n g  from f a r m i n g a l o n e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o branch out  54  i n t o f o r e s t r y or get a j o b i n the o i l f i e l d s . p r o d u c t i o n systems  Consequently,  more s u i t a b l e t o t h e m a r g i n a l f r i n g e ,  l i v e s t o c k o p e r a t i o n s , cannot  be u t i l i z e d ,  due t o t h e p e r i o d i c  absence of t h e farmer. A broader aspect of t h i s  i s s u e h a s been  r a i s e d by K e l l o g g ( 1 9 7 5 ) . I n f a c t , many o f t h e s e f a r m s marginal  f r i n g e would  and a d j a c e n t o i l f i e l d employment w h i c h and  forestry  not e x i s t  such as  i n the  were i t n o t f o r t h e a s s o c i a t e d  and f o r e s t r y d e v e l o p m e n t a n d t h e  i t p r o v i d e s . S e c t o r s such as p e t r o l e u m ,  o f t e n develop or share  mining  i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f much  o f t h e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e needed f o r f a r m i n g . E n c o u r a g i n g p a r t - t i m e and o f t e n u n e c o n o m i c f a r m i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s may seem more l o g i c a l  i f viewed  development s t r a t e g y .  If this  agricultural  as p a r t of a broader  objectives.  fringe  rural  i s the case, the v i a b i l i t y  s e c t o r may be o n l y one c o n s i d e r a t i o n  s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l viewed  i n the marginal  of the  i n a h o s t of  Increasingly, agriculture i s  i n t h i s c o n t e x t of i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o b r o a d e r  rural  development f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o r e g i o n a l economic and s o c i a l (FAO,  life  1979). I n s p i t e o f t h e many e n v i r o n m e n t a l a n d e c o n o m i c  agricultural  l a n d development does occur  T e c h n o l o g i c a l advances r e s u l t v a r i e t i e s a n d new m a c h i n e r y c o n d i t i o n s . Market encourage another  i n the marginal  fringe.  i n the development of h a r d i e r  suited  for marginal  crop  fringe  c o n d i t i o n s c a n become more f a v o u r a b l e a n d  g r e a t e r development.  sector,  obstacles,  The i n c r e a s e i n a c t i v i t y i n  such as p e t r o l e u m , can a l s o l e a d t o growth i n  agriculture. A strategic  l o c a t i o n , w i t h a c a p t i v e market f o r  example, can o f t e n spur farmland expansion t o be o v e r l o o k e d i s t h e p i o n e e r i n g s p i r i t  (Francis,  1 9 7 0 ) . Not  o f many m a r g i n a l  55  f r i n g e r e s i d e n t s and t h e i r of l i v i n g ,  standard  w h i c h v a r i e s f r o m t h e C a n a d i a n norm. The c h a l l e n g e t o  the p l a n n i n g process and  p e r c e p t i o n o f an a c c e p t a b l e  i s to.identify  these  favourable influences  t o m a t c h them t o l a n d w i t h t h e h i g h e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r  sustaining  agriculture.  When t h e r e a r e p e r i o d s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l a d v a n c e i n t h e marginal by  fringe,  the i n i t i a l  f u r t h e r development a c t i v i t y  expansion.  may be s t i m u l a t e d  Success appears t o f o s t e r the p u r s u i t  o f new o p p o r t u n i t i e s . A p e r c e p t i o n o f u n r e a l i z e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s , i s generated  by e a c h s u c c e e d i n g  wave o f s e t t l e m e n t  (Beattie,  Bond a n d M a n n i n g , 1 9 8 1 ) . A g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e m a r g i n a l economy h a s a much more s t a b i l i z i n g industries  such  as f o r e s t r y and m i n i n g .  t o be a - p e r m a n e n t e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y , locally  i n f l u e n c e than  fringe  extractive  A g r i c u l t u r e has  spending  ( I r o n s i d e , e t a l . , 1974b). I t i s then fringe regions e x p l o i t  tended  much o f i t s money critical  that  agriculture  i n marginal  comparative  a d v a n t a g e s i t has and t h a t development and o p e r a t i o n  o f new f a r m  u n i t s be a s e f f i c i e n t  a sustainable agricultural  2.2.3  Social  whatever  as p o s s i b l e . T h i s w i l l  sector i n local  ensure  economies.  Factors  E l e m e n t s o f t h e s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c s y s t e m s a r e by t h e i r very nature judged  interwoven.  inferior  Lifestyle  by u r b a n s t a n d a r d s .  h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n and c u l t u r a l To  i n the marginal  Lower l e v e l s o f s e r v i c e s i n  areas a r e i n v a r i a b l y  an u r b a n i t e , t h i s may be u n a c c e p t a b l e ,  f r i n g e d w e l l e r , the lack of c i v i l i z a t i o n him  i n the f i r s t  f r i n g e may be  commonplace.  but t o a marginal may be what  p l a c e . This a t t i t u d e o f t e n extends  attracts t o an open  56  hostility  towards p e r c e i v e d  government i n t e r f e r e n c e i n r e s o u r c e  development through processes  like  planning.  Among t h e many s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r e s t i c s o f t h e m a r g i n a l f r i n g e w h i c h may a f f e c t  resource  development a r e :  •the  large native population  •the  g r e a t e r number o f m a l e s t h a n  •decreasing  or steady  •high  levels  females;  centres;  f a r below a v e r a g e ;  l e v e l s of t r a n s i e n c e and;  •lower al.,  health levels  ( F r a n c i s , 1970; I r o n s i d e , e t  1974b).  Government a g e n c i e s a d m i n i s t e r i n g very these  rates;  l e v e l of p o p u l a t i o n ;  • p o p u l a t i o n movement t o u r b a n •education  with high b i r t h  agencies  concentrations  with a small staff  are charged  large areas i n the marginal  are preoccupied of p o p u l a t i o n  problem of a high turn-over  f r i n g e . Many o f  by t h e p r o b l e m s o f e x i s t i n g ( N i c h o l s , 1967) a n d h a v e t h e a d d e d  r a t e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f . Many  government programs have o b j e c t i v e s w h i c h d i r e c t l y s t a t e d government p o l i c y  with  i n other  conflict  with  areas. F e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l  e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t a g r e e m e n t s s u c h a s DREE, FRED a n d ARDA encourage the extension attempting  of a g r i c u l t u r e i n marginal  t o overcome t h e s o c i a l , economic and  areas  while  environmental  p r o b l e m s c a u s e d by s i m i l a r d e v e l o p m e n t s i n c o m p a r a b l e  areas.  Cost-shared  objectives  a g r e e m e n t s a r e b a s e d o f t e n more on s o c i a l  57  t h a n on a t t e m p t i n g t o " e n c o u r a g e  s o u n d r e s o u r c e management"  ( B e a t t i e , Bond and M a n n i n g , 1981,  p.37). Agencies are  hampered by a l a c k o f d a t a and o f s t a t i s t i c s and e c o n o m i c m a r g i n a l i t y  2.3  farmer  i n the marginal f r i n g e  harsh c l i m a t e , generally  farm r e l a t e d  heavily The  such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,  when p r e s e n t , t e n d t o be e x p e n s i v e and  d a t a . Lack  l a n d and  h i s management f l e x i b i l i t y .  infrastructure  d e c i s i o n s a r e based  faces a formidable task.  low c a p a b i l i t y  and a g r i b u s i n e s s i s o f t e n a r e s t r i c t i n g  f r e q u e n t l y on  factor.  markets  Social  services,  inadequate  s o i l s and  climatic  o f c o o r d i n a t i o n among g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s r e s u l t s i n incentives offered  to  farmer. However, where t h e r e a r e a r e a s of h i g h e r c a p a b i l i t y  in  lack  s u b - s t a n d a r d . Development  c o n f l i c t i n g a d v i c e and o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y the  social  in fringe regions.  forested landscapes l i m i t of  to evaluate  Summary The  The  further  t h e m a r g i n a l f r i n g e and where t h e s e a r e l o c a t e d n e a r  existing  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e o r where i n f r a s t r u c t u r e c a n be d e v e l o p e d w i t h o t h e r s e c t o r s , t h e n s u c c e s s f u l d e v e l o p m e n t has realized. This i s especially chanelled  i n t o these s p e c i f i c  t h e m a r g i n a l f r i n g e may  be  f r i n g e must be b a s e d  involved  (McCuaig  been  a r e a s . More p r o s p e r o u s  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the  agricultural  the s o c i a l  r e g i o n s of  agricultural  t h e community  matures.  development i n the m a r g i n a l  on e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a p a b i l i t i e s ,  e c o n o m i c p o t e n t i a l and  jointly  t r u e when g o v e r n m e n t s u p p o r t i s  h e a r t l a n d as d e v e l o p m e n t s t a b i l i z e s and D e c i s i o n s t o encourage  lands  long-term  r e q u i r e m e n t s of the  and M a n n i n g , 1 9 8 2 ) . The  public  c h a l l e n g e to the  58  p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s t o d e s i g n s t r a t e g i e s and  implementation  mechanisms t h a t a d e q u a t e l y a d d r e s s t h e s e t h r e e r e q u i r e m e n t s the s a t i s f a c t i o n determine  which  p r o g r a m s , how  of d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s and-the p u b l i c . i s s u e s are being addressed  In order t o  in current planning  t h e y a r e b e i n g a d d r e s s e d and where t h i s  d o n e , I o u t l i n e an a n a l y t i c a l to the case s t u d i e s  to  i s being  f r a m e w o r k i n P a r t I I and a p p l y i t  i n subsequent c h a p t e r s .  59  REFERENCES  B e a t t i e , K a t h l e e n G., Bond, Wayne K. And M a n n i n g , E d w a r d W. 1981. The A g r i c u l t u r a l Use of M a r g i n a l L a n d s : A R e v i e w and B i b l i o g r a p h y . W o r k i n g P a p e r No. 13. E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, Ottawa. FAO.  1979. P r o b l e m s o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t o f L e s s - f a v o u r e d Areas i n Europe. P r o c e e d i n g s of a Symposium of t h e C o m m i t t e e on A g r i c u l t u r a l P r o b l e m s . Pergamon P r e s s , O x f o r d .  F r a n c i s , R . J . 1970. The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Term M a r g i n a l i n F r i n g e Settlement S t u d i e s . In H a r o l d F o s t e r [ e d . ] , G e o g r a p h i c a . Western G e o g r a p h i c a l S e r i e s , Volume 2. U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , V i c t o r i a , p.23-40.  D.  I r o n s i d e , R.G., P r o u d f o o t , V.B., Shannon, E.N. a n d T r a c i e , C . J . 1974b. F r o n t i e r D e v e l o p m e n t a n d P e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e W e s t e r n C a n a d i a n F r o n t i e r . I n R.G. I r o n s i d e , e t a l . [ e d s . ] , F r o n t i e r S e t t l e m e n t . U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , Edmonton, p . 1 - 4 5 . K e l l o g g , C h a r l e s E. 1975. A g r i c u l t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t : S o i l , F o o d , P e o p l e , Work. S o i l S c i e n c e S o c i e t y o f America, Inc. Madison, Wisconscin. M c C u a i g , J.D. and M a n n i n g , E.W. 1982. A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d Use i n C a n a d a : P r o c e s s and C o n s e q u e n c e s . L a n d Use i n C a n a d a S e r i e s , Number 2 1 . L a n d s D i r e c t o r a t e , Environoment Canada, Ottawa. N i c h o l s , W i l l i a m M. 1967. V i e w s on R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t i n C a n a d a : A S t u d y o f t h e V i e w s o f t h e Member O r g a n i z a t i o n s of t h e C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l on R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t . C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l on R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t , Ottawa. W i l l i a m s , G. D a v i d V. 1974. P h y s i c a l F r o n t i e r s o f C r o p s : The E x a m p l e f o r G r o w i n g B a r l e y t o M a t u r i t y i n C a n a d a . I n R.G. I r o n s i d e , e t a l . [ e d s . ] , F r o n t i e r S e t t l e m e n t . U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , p.79-92. W o n d e r s , W i l l i a m C. 1975. M a r g i n a l S e t t l e m e n t . I n The S c o t t i s h G e o g r a p h i c a l M a g a z i n e . 9 1 ( 1 ) : 12-24. W o r l d Bank. 1978. A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d S e t t l e m e n t : A W o r l d Bank I s s u e s P a p e r . W o r l d Bank, W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.  PART I I  THE CASE STUDIES  61  The A n a l y t i c a l  Framework  I d e v e l o p an a n a l y t i c a l t h e m a t e r i a l i n P a r t I . The  framework framework  in this  s e c t i o n b a s e d on  f o c u s e s on t h e  critical  e l e m e n t s of p l a n n i n g programs and t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r agricultural  d e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown l a n d i n t h e m a r g i n a l  1 What a r e t h e g e n e r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l , economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the case  2 How  i s the o f f i c i a l  social study  and area?  agency p l a n n i n g program f o r the  a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown l a n d  3 How  designed?  d o e s t h e a c t u a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e compare  agency's documented  4 I n p r a c t i c e , how  fringe.  t o the  program?  are planning areas  5 How  a r e documented  6 How  are environmental  identified?  objectives established?  r e s o u r c e s e v a l u a t e d , and  t h e t h e k i n d and d e t a i l  does  o f d a t a and t h e i n t e n s i t y o f  s u r v e y s match t h e p u r p o s e and s c a l e of t h e p l a n n i n g exercise?  7 How  e x t e n s i v e i s t h e a n a l y s i s of p r e s e n t  required  and  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and s e r v i c e s , and i s t h i s  analysis linked to other sectors' a c t i v i t i e s ?  8 How  a r e socio-economic  9 How  are alternative  and  who c h o o s e s  10 Which a g e n c i e s  factors  strategies  the p r e f e r r e d  implement  11 What mechanisms a r e u s e d  12 Who are  selects  successful  assessed?  and p r o j e c t s  prepared  strategy?  the plan?  t o implement  the plan?  a p p l i c a n t s and what  criteria  used?  13 What a r e t h e c u r r e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s disposition  o f Crown  f o r the  land f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l  development?  14 What  i s the r o l e  of t h e M i n i s t r y  how a r e a c t i v i t i e s  15 How  o f A g r i c u l t u r e and  coordinated with other  agencies?  i s t h e m o n i t o r i n g and e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s  designed?  16 Does f e e d b a c k  and r e v i s i o n  17 How  participation  i s public  process?  occur?  i n c o r p o r a t e d into the  63  T a b l e 11 — 1 l i s t s in Chapter  1 and  elements  of t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s d i s c u s s e d  t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g q u e s t i o n s of t h e  analytical  framework. In the case s t u d i e s to f o l l o w , q u e s t i o n s from analytical  framework w i l l  be a d d r e s s e d  h e a d i n g s c o r r e s p o n d most c l o s e l y p r o c e s s on t h e l e f t  of T a b l e  i n t h e s e c t i o n s whose  to the elements  of the p l a n n i n g  3.  T a b l e 11 — 1 : T a b l e o f C o n c o r d a n c e — E l e m e n t s of t h e G e n e r a l P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s a n d t h e A n a l y t i c a l Framework  S t r u c t u r i n g and S c o p i n g the P l a n n i n g Program  2, 3,  Object ives  5  A s s e s s m e n t of E n v i r o n m e n t a l Socio-economic F a c t o r s  and  9  Selection Strategy  9  Preferred  Implementation  10, 12,  M o n i t o r i n g and E v a l u a t i o n  15  F e e d b a c k and  16  Public  Iteration  Participation  Coordination  4  1,6,7,8  P r e p a r a t i o n and E v a l u a t i o n of A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s of t h e  the  11, 13,  14  17 3, 14, 10 and o t h e r s  64  Methods The derived  information  presented  i n the f o l l o w i n g case s t u d i e s i s  from a v a r i e t y of sources,  draw on p e r s o n a l  experience  program which i s a n a l y s e d .  In the S t . John's case, I  a s I was s u p e r v i s o r  of the planning  I a l s o conducted a telephone  i n t e r v i e w w i t h one o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s p r e s e n t  s u p e r v i s o r s and  received d e t a i l e d correspondence. I worked i n t h e Peace R i v e r and  have f i r s t  hand e x p e r i e n c e  region  i n t h e summer o f 1984  of a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s  While i n the region, I interviewed planners  and o f f i c i a l s  there. of the  M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s a n d H o u s i n g who were i n c h a r g e o f planning  i n the Fort Nelson area.  Many o f t h e r e p o r t s a n d  s u r v e y s f o r F o r t N e l s o n w h i c h I r e v i e w e d were p r o v i d e d officials.  I also interviewed  headquarters i n V i c t o r i a  s t a f f at the M i n i s t r y ' s ,  and, as w e l l ,  soil  surveyors  c o n d u c t e d a number o f t h e l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c o n d u c t e d numerous t e l e p h o n e  inventories. I  of t h e M i n i s t r y of Lands,  Parks  H o u s i n g and t h e M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food.  Correspondence a l s o s u p p l i e d Alberta. All  who  i n t e r v i e w s and r e c e i v e d  c o r r e s p o n d e n c e from o f f i c i a l s and  by t h e s e  i n f o r m a t i o n and  I wrote s e v e r a l l e t t e r s  r e p l i e d , many w i t h  lengthy  l a r g e volume of r e p o r t s and Reports,  surveys,  hand e x p e r i e n c e  analyses  government  agencies.  of t h e s i t u a t i o n s and a  surveys.  personal  correspondence, personal  to various  materials.from  and l i b r a r y documents,  official  and t e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w s , and f i r s t  form t h e b a s i s f o r a n a l y s i s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  c a s e s t u d i e s . The f i r s t Newfoundland. This  case i s the S t . John's area of  i s f o l l o w e d by F o r t N e l s o n , B r i t i s h  Columbia  65  and,  finally, The  Fort Vermilion, Alberta.  cases begin w i t h a r e v i e w of t h e a r e a b e i n g s t u d i e d and  a summary o f t h e o v e r a l l  p l a n n i n g program and t h e p l a n n i n g  e x e r c i s e s t o be a n a l y s e d  i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . The s t a r t o f  d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s begins with a review of the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r i n g and s c o p i n g o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l development p l a n n i n g program. I n d i v i d u a l  agricultural  land  representative planning  e x e r c i s e s under t h a t program c o n d u c t e d  within  area a r e a n a l y s e d then  I n c o n c l u s i o n , each  i n more d e t a i l .  t h e case  study case  p r e s e n t s a summary o f t h e s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s o f t h e e x e r c i s e s a n d how t h e y r e f l e c t on t h e o v e r a l l individual  p l a n n i n g programs f o r t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l  Crown l a n d i n t h e m a r g i n a l through  p r o g r a m . The  a comparative  development of  fringe are t i e d together  a n a l y s i s of a l l t h r e e case  i n Chapter  studies.  6  66  CHAPTER 3  CASE STUDY NUMBER ONE ST. JOHN'S, NEWFOUNDLAND  67  3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The S t . J o h n ' s u r b a n r e g i o n of t h e A v a l o n P e n i n s u l a  i s located at the northeast t i p  i n Newfoundland  region has the l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n province  with  ( s e e Map 3 . 1 ) . The  of p o p u l a t i o n  150,000 o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s  i n the  550,000 p e o p l e . S t .  J o h n ' s i s t h e c a p i t a l a n d i s t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , c o m m e r c i a l and educational centre  o f t h e p r o v i n c e . Twenty s u b u r b a n a n d r u r a l  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s make up t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e r e g i o n . Many o f these  c o m m u n i t i e s have e x p e r i e n c e d  form of urban s p r a w l region's  best  which has destroyed  farmland.  the p r o v i n c e ' s  This  growth i n the  l a r g e a r e a s of the  l o s s i s one f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o  low l e v e l of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n .  John's urban r e g i o n , l i k e other from c h r o n i c  significant  The S t .  a r e a s of Newfoundland,  unemployment a n d a r e l a t i v e l y  l i v i n g . Many o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l  suffers  low s t a n d a r d o f  i n i t i a t i v e s are linked to this  problem. S t . John's has a temperate, marine c l i m a t e which r e s u l t s i n s h o r t , c o o l summers and r e l a t i v e l y m i l d w i n t e r s . F o g a n d w i n d y c o n d i t i o n s a r e common a n d c a n a f f e c t  local  growing c o n d i t i o n s .  G e n e r a l l y , w i t h an a v e r a g e f r e e z e - f r e e p e r i o d o f 105 d a y s , 1903 d e g r e e - d a y s and abundant  rainfall  during  the growing season, S t .  John's has s u i t a b l e c l i m a t i c  c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n of  forage  crops;  and v a r i o u s v e g e t a b l e  c a n n o t be grown t o m a t u r i t y (Rizvi,  soils,  feedgrains  1978).  a s i n most o f t h e p r o v i n c e ,  a r e not abundant  i n t h e S t . J o h n ' s u r b a n r e g i o n , a n d most o f t h e b e t t e r have been  o r wheat  due t o i n s u f f i c i e n t h e a t u n i t s  e t a l . , 1971; G u t h r i e ,  Arable  however,  i r r e v e r s i b l y converted  soils  t o u r b a n u s e s . The b u l k  of the  68  69  region's  s o i l s are non-arable or marginal,  tills  and a r e s h a l l o w ,  stony  and occur  boreal  highly a c i d i c , coarse,  on u p l a n d  barrens  f o r e s t . Exposed bedrock  many a r e a s .  derived  from  often  cemented,  or under a non-commercial  i s common a n d p r e d o m i n a t e s i n  Organic s o i l s a r e found i n almost a l l low l y i n g  areas and o f t e n a t higher  e l e v a t i o n s a s w e l l . Due t o a l a r g e  c a p t i v e market, farmers i n t h e S t . John's urban r e g i o n invested considerable upgrade t h e i r fields, has  glacial  labour  and expense over t h e c e n t u r i e s t o  l a n d . F e n c e s made f r o m s t o n e s ,  picked  a r e a common s i g h t . A l a r g e c o n c e n t r a t i o n  allowed  have  from t h e  of l i v e s t o c k  farmers t o supplement t h e i n h e r e n t l y low o r g a n i c  matter content  o f s o i l s by a p p l y i n g a n i m a l  a p p l i c a t i o n s of limestone requirements.  w a s t e s . Heavy  and s y n t h e t i c f e r t i l i z e r s  S o i l drainage  a r e annual  s y s t e m s , w h i l e uncommon, a r e o f t e n  r e q u i r e d , and t h e i r absence has r e s u l t e d i n c u l t i v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s which cause s i g n i f i c a n t Agriculture  provincial  operations.  insignificant  represent  of investment and p r o d u c t i o n .  Farms a r e a l s o a  l a n d u s e m o s a i c . O v e r 100  8000 h e c t a r e s  i n community p a s t u r e s .  fragmentation  and a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of r e n t e d  t e r m l e a s e a r e among o t h e r m a r g i n a l Dairy products,  For the  the largest  c o m m e r c i a l f a r m s a r e l o c a t e d on 4000 h e c t a r e s  farmers.  i s d o m i n a t e d by  by n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s .  s i g n i f i c a n t component o f t h e r e g i o n ' s  local  1984).  The number a n d s i z e o f f a r m s i s  i n d u s t r y , however, they  concentration  (Sudom,  i n t h e S t . John's urban r e g i o n  intensive livestock s m a l l , almost  erosion  Small  with a further  parcel size, l a n d under  land short-  l a n d c o n s t r a i n t s f a c e d by  hogs, eggs, and v e g e t a b l e s a r e  t h e main c o m m o d i t i e s . The r e g i o n h a s 7 5 % o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s  70  c a t t l e a n d o v e r 50% o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s lack  of l a n d , forage  Insufficient To  land  overcome these l i m i t a t i o n s ,  and  limited  r e f l e c t i n g the national  their  (Lidstone,  the purposes of t h i s study,  operations,  agricultural  expansion  i s The G o u l d s - K i l b r i d e  ( s e e Map 3 . 1 ) .  The a r e a  The  agricultural  I will  review  i s occuring  The  an a r e a  property  on Crown  comes u n d e r t h e m u n i c i p a l  land.  jurisdiction  Area  land of these areas f a l l s  Board  predominantly  administered  zone where n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l u s e s a r e r e s t r i c t e d .  zone o r A g r i c u l t u r a l  t a r g e t area  where  i n the southern part of the region  the boundaries of a p r o v i n c i a l l y  agricultural  costs  1980).  of The G o u l d s and t h e S t . John's M e t r o p o l i t a n  within  reduce  t o t h a t part of t h e S t . John's urban r e g i o n  significant This  a p r o b l e m f o r manure d i s p o s a l .  farmers,  t o enlarge  become more e f f i c i e n t For  Due t o a  i s imported i n large q u a n t i t i e s .  i s also causing  trend, are attempting  hog p r o d u c t i o n .  Development Area a l s o s e r v e s  f o r government a g r i c u l t u r a l  as a  programs i n c l u d i n g  t a x exemption and c a p i t a l a s s i s t a n c e  (see Section  3.7.1). The  S t . John's case study  of a p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g  overall  major p l a n n i n g  i s made a t  l a n d management p l a n n i n g  Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g  response t o c o n s t r a i n t s faced  by l o c a l l i v e s t o c k  is designed to increase forage  i n the area.  program,  does not o c c u r . I n farmers,  e x e r c i s e s under t h e p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g  u n d e r t a k e n on Crown l a n d  producing  p r i m a r i l y , an e x a m p l e  p r o g r a m . Some a t t e m p t  i m p l e m e n t i n g an a g r i c u l t u r a l but  presents,  two  p r o g r a m were  The G o u l d s F o r a g e P r o j e c t  l o c a l d a i r y farmers s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n  and t h e r e b y  r e d u c e d e p e n d e n c e on c o s t l y , l o w  71  quality is  i m p o r t s . The  C o c h r a n e Pond F a r m l a n d D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t  p r o p o s e d t o r a t i o n a l i z e community p a s t u r e  provide  large lots  p o u l t r y , and T h e s e two  for confinement operations  1975.  The  first  i n i t i a l p r o p o s a l went t h r o u g h  funding  until  under the  Agricultural  i n 1979,  i n 1982  as t h e g o v e r n m e n t was  P r o g r a m . The  ( s e e Map  with a t o t a l  of  1984,  o f 26  3.2),  almost  area, adjacent  contained  two  phasing  out  200  the  electrical  l a r g e p a s t u r e s . The  approval.  Community  project plan and  600  l o t s were p r o p o s e d w i t h p r o v i s i o n f o r a c c e s s s e r v i c i n g . The  first  to the Goulds Forage P r o j e c t  f o r .confinement o p e r a t i o n s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y  nine  pending  lots  h i r e d to  t o r e d u c e t h e s i z e of t h e C o c h r a n e Pond P a s t u r e  an a r e a over  undergone  C o c h r a n e Pond F a r m l a n d D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t was  proposed  was  p r o j e c t has  o f l a n d have been c l e a r e d .  The  Pasture  t o t h e end  accepted  cost-shared  h e c t a r e s . A p r o j e c t manager was  c o o r d i n a t e d e v e l o p m e n t , and hectares  a s e r i e s of  federal-provincial,  t h r e e p h a s e s of d e v e l o p m e n t s i n c e t h e n 900  f o r m a l l y proposed i n  when a p r o j e c t p l a n was  S u b s i d i a r y A g r e e m e n t . The  c o v e r i n g over  arable  3.2).  G o u l d s F o r a g e P r o j e c t was  transformations for  ( s e e Map  and  Branch.  i n i t i a t i v e s encompass a l m o s t a l l t h e  Crown l a n d i n t h e a r e a  to  s u c h as h o g s  to r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s w i t h the F o r e s t r y  planning  The  boundaries,  p l a n , a s o f e a r l y 1985,  is  create hectares roads  still  and  72  MAP 3.2: COCHRANE POHD FARMLAND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT*  •Source: S o i l and Land Management D i v i s i o n  (See References, Ch3) (1982  73  3.2  S t r u c t u r i n g and S c o p i n g Planning  the Planning  Program  f o r t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown l a n d ,  falls primarily  t o t h e L a n d Use S e c t i o n o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r e  Branch i n t h e Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and Development.  Northern  In the S t . John's Urban R e g i o n , the R e g i o n a l  and t h e l o c a l m u n i c i p a l p l a n s u s u a l l y c o r r e s p o n d  Plan  t o the  A g r i c u l t u r e B r a n c h ' s p l a n s a s w e l l . The D e p a r t m e n t o f F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s a n d L a n d s r e c e n t l y h a s i m p l e m e n t e d a Crown  land  p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m , b u t t h i s has been c o m p l e t e d i n o n l y one  region  w h i c h i s o u t s i d e t h e S t . J o h n ' s u r b a n r e g i o n . T h i s Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m i s d e v e l o p e d by t h e L a n d Management D i v i s i o n i n c o n s u l t a t i o n with other i s by z o n i n g existing  government  to various resource  resource  agencies.  Allocation  of  uses based, p r i m a r i l y ,  on  i n v e n t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n and a g e n c y o b j e c t i v e s .  The A g r i c u l t u r e B r a n c h has a documented for  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown l a n d  Division, forward  lands  government  program  ( S o i l and L a n d Management  1981). T h i s program i s p u b l i s h e d  as o f f i c i a l  planning  f o r m a l l y and put  p o l i c y . F i g u r e 3.1  depicts  this  p r o g r a m w h i c h i s t o be a p p l i e d i n t h e p r o v i n c e ' s s e v e n t e e n Agricultural  D e v e l o p m e n t A r e a s (ADA). These a r e a s i n c l u d e most  of the p r o v i n c e ' s land s u i t a b l e Northern  100,000 h e c t a r e s  f o r farming  Development,  ( 0 . 3 % of t h e l a n d a r e a ) of  (Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l  1 9 8 3 ) . The p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m  depicted  a f f e c t s b o t h p r i v a t e a n d Crown l a n d s . I t i s i n t e n d e d culminate  i n the production  Development  of A g r i c u l t u r a l  P l a n s and t h e d e s i g n a t i o n or z o n i n g  i n c l u d i n g t h e S t . J o h n ' s ADA,  to  (or Area)  u n d e r t h e D e v e l o p m e n t A r e a s ( L a n d s ) A c t (RSN, two a r e a s ,  and  of these a r e a s  1 9 7 0 ) . So f a r o n l y  have been z o n e d f o r  FIGURE 3.1: PLANNING PROGRAM FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AREAS*  *Source: S o i l and Land Management D i v i s i o n , 1981 -N3  75  agricultural  use. T h i s program c o r r e s p o n d s t o the A g r i c u l t u r e  Branch's F i v e Year Development Department of R e g i o n a l Development  P l a n and i s t i e d c l o s e l y t o t h e  Economic E x p a n s i o n ' s A g r i c u l t u r e  S u b s i d i a r y Agreement  (Department of  Regional  Economic E x p a n s i o n , 1978). The p l a n n i n g  program d e p i c t e d  e l e m e n t s of l a n d use p l a n n i n g  i n Figure  3.1  includes  a n d l a n d management  planning  developed at a regional l e v e l .  I t i s n o t l i n k e d t o an  regional agricultural  program nor t o a g e n e r a l  planning  planning  program, although  sector are included. Within and i n t e r a g e n c y  regional  elements e x t e r n a l t o the a g r i c u l t u r a l the program, p u b l i c  participation  coordination are s i g n i f i c a n t elements.  Individual planning provincial  overall  e x e r c i s e o b j e c t i v e s a r e drawn f r o m  s e c t o r a l and economic development s t r a t e g i e s w i t h a  d e f i n i t e d e v e l o p m e n t o r e x p a n s i o n o r i e n t a t i o n . The  development  o f Crown l a n d a p p e a r s t o be an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h i s  program,  which i n c l u d e s a d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of economic, s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s . The A g r i c u l t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t Area Development  P l a n , e v e n h a s been f o r m a l i z e d  r e g u l a t i o n s governing Planning  t h e S t . J o h n ' s ADA  f o r other  and  P l a n , a s an  i n t o the  ( N f l d . Reg.  198/83).  e l e m e n t s of a g r i c u l t u r a l growth such as  m a r k e t i n g , t r a i n i n g a n d f i n a n c e has been d e v e l o p e d a t t h e provincial  s e c t o r a l and i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l  l e v e l s . These  plans  t h e n a r e i m p l e m e n t e d on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s , s o m e t i m e s w i t h a connection  t o t h e l a n d use p l a n n i n g  program i n a broad p o l i c y  s t a t e m e n t t a r g e t i n g p r o g r a m s t o ADAs. A g r i c u l t u r a l Development  P l a n s , as c o n c e i v e d  have n o t been c o m p l e t e d . I n s t e a d ,  i n Figure  the development of  3.1,  76  agricultural planning  l a n d has  come as  program f o r p r o j e c t s  projects,  s u c h as  the (see  and  On  out,  electrical  methods and  3.2.1  the  b a s i s of  Area  this  suitable  the  not  by  request  for agricultural  as  s u r v e y s and  Crown l a n d a r e tracts,  small  overlay  soils  i d e n t i f i e d and,  t h e y become t h e  subject  The  two  or areas  w e l l known, and  these  drawn  s c a l e , CLI  established  by  agricultural agricultural  i d e n t i f i e d , more d e t a i l e d l a n d  s t u d i e s are  technique,  Crown  limited  Boundaries are  by a s s e s s i n g  l a n d o w n e r s h i p and an  laid  identified in  3.1.  development are  p a t t e r n s . Once a r e a s a r e  essentially  l o t s are  d e v e l o p m e n t of  program are  in Figure  consulting available, generally  use,  v i a b l e modes  d e l i n e a t e d by p l a n n e r s  were a u t o m a t i c a l l y d e s i g n a t e d .  l a n d use  information,  agricultural  ways. F i r s t , ADAs a r e  capability  agricultural  proposed.  l a n d under the p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g  politicians,  of  Farm-land  Identification  Areas f o r planning  general  inventory  the  s e r v i c i n g p l a n n e d and d i s p o s i t i o n  c o n d i t i o n s are  Planning  1.3.1). These  a l i m i t e d assessment of e c o n m i c a l l y  of p r o d u c t i o n . r o a d s and  Section  opportunity  t h e G o u l d s F o r a g e P r o j e c t and  Development P r o j e c t s , i n v o l v e the capability  r e s u l t of an  c o n d u c t e d . I n what i s  unalienated  i f they occur  a r e a s of  arable  i n l a r g e enough  of a F a r m l a n d D e v e l o p m e n t  Project. A n o t h e r , more r e a c t i v e a p p r o a c h t o d e t e r m i n i n g areas i s used i n the G o u l d s - K i l b r i d e a r e a .  This  project  approach  i n v o l v e s the p l a n n i n g  of Crown l a n d w h i c h has  recognized  f o r p o t e n t i a l e x p a n s i o n o r w h i c h , due  as an  area  e i t h e r long  been to  77  changing circumstances, these l a t t e r  areas,  becomes a v a i l a b l e and  land ownership s t u d i e s are conducted  d i s t i n g u i s h a l i e n a t e d l a n d f r o m Crown  3.3  The  i s i n demand. I n  Identification  of P l a n n i n g  land.  Exercise  Objectives  Documented o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e p l a n n i n g i n the G o u l d s - K i l b r i d e area  exercises  come, e s s e n t i a l l y ,  from  1978,  p16).  The  ( D e p a r t m e n t of R e g i o n a l  initiated  the  A g r i c u l t u r e Development S u b s i d i a r y Agreement s i g n e d g o v e r n m e n t s i n 1978  to  by  Economic  the  Expansion,  A g r e e m e n t c o n s i s t s o f e i g h t p r o g r a m s , one  of  which i s l a n d development. A main element of t h i s program t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f an a r e a for  forage The  production,  other  o f Crown l a n d  i n the  two  was  St. John's  area  the Goulds Forage P r o j e c t .  planning  e x e r c i s e , the  C o c h r a n e Pond F a r m l a n d  D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t , i s , by d e f a u l t , a t t e m p t i n g  to achieve  one  of t h e m a i n o b j e c t i v e s i n a n o t h e r o f t h e A g r e e m e n t ' s p r o g r a m s , L a n d Use  Planning.  U n d e r t h e L a n d Use  planners  are h i r e d to prepare A g r i c u l t u r a l  t h e ADA's. T h e s e p l a n s  are  elements t o "maximize the food  production"  1978,  capability attention quickly The  utilization  Development P l a n s  for  of t h e  soil  other  resource  Economic  one  for  Expansion,  u n d e v e l o p e d p r i v a t e l a n d s , of g e n e r a l l y  t o meet t h e  planning  use  of d e a l i n g w i t h t h e c o m p l e x i s s u e s of  t h a n Crown l a n d s , t o the  Program, l a n d  t o i n c l u d e l a n d a s s e m b l y and  (Department of R e g i o n a l ,  p.16). Instead  u n d e r u t i l i z e d and  Planning  area  planning  d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s on  directed  where r e s u l t s c o u l d be  o b j e c t i v e s of  p r o g r a m was  staff  then  the  L a n d Use  initiated  higher  their  produced  Plannng  to develop  Crown l a n d , m a i n l y  idle,  Program.  farmland  w i t h i n the  proposed  78  ADA'S.  3.4  Environmental  Factors for Planning  C l i m a t i c data  f o r the G o u l d s - K i l b r i d e area  i s based  on  i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by A g r i c u l t u r e C a n a d a ' s a g r o m e t e o r o l o g i c a l station,  f o u r k i l o m e t r e s from  development. C l i m a t i c  t h e Crown l a n d a r e a p l a n n e d  resources  f o r t h e a r e a a r e n o t mapped, nor  i s m i c r o c l i m a t i c d a t a a v a i l a b l e . However, g i v e n t h e requirements be  limitations.for Avalon  survey which level is  has  traditional  local  Soil  ( H e r i n g a , 1982)  Survey  been c o n d u c t e d  f o r broad  G o u l d s - K i l b r i d e area  i s covered  s u r v e y and proposed  by  crops. i s the only  as  such,  detailed  l o t l a y o u t . The j u s t a few  soil  intensity  1:100,000 a n d ,  ( C L I ) p r o c e s s , an  o f t h e a r e a was  not  climatic  i n t h e a r e a . I t i s an  f o r farm  t h e Canada L a n d I n v e n t o r y  c a p a b i l i t y map  and  forage  a g r i c u l t u r a l p l a n n i n g , not  p l a n n i n g of s p e c i f i c a r e a s  of  i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t e s no  4 s u r v e y , p u b l i s h e d a t a s c a l e of  suitable  climatic  f o r f o r a g e p r o d u c t i o n , more d e t a i l e d d a t a may  r e q u i r e d as the a v a i l a b l e  The  for  map  entire  u n i t s . As  part  agricultural  p u b l i s h e d b a s e d on t h e same  soil  u s i n g t h e same d e l i n i a t i o n s . M o s t o f t h e Crown l a n d  f o r d e v e l o p m e n t i s mapped as c o m p l e x e s o f c l a s s e s 5,  7 with c l a s s 6 predominating.  land capable  of p r o d u c i n g  Class 6 land i s very  only perenial  improvement p r a c t i c e s a r e not  forage crops  f e a s a b l e (Environment  marginal  and Canada,  1972). In  1975,  a second  a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y map  acre Goulds Forage P r o j e c t a r e a , produced  of the  5500  a t a s c a l e of  1:25,000, u p g r a d e d much of t h e a r e a s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  6,  w i t h major  79  portions out  of c l a s s 4 land. F i n a l l y ,  a t an i n t e n s i t y l e v e l  i n 1978, a s u r v e y was c a r r i e d  3 a n d a s c a l e o f 1:12,500. T h i s i s ,  essentially, a c a p a b i l i t y inventory performance-management u n i t s  w h i c h u s e s map u n i t s  (Guthrie,  termed  1978).  Performance-management u n i t s a r e a m o d i f i c a t i o n of t h e n a t i o n a l CLI system t o l o c a l are  defined  defines  being with  more s p e c i f i c a l l y .  land  stoniness,  conditions. Particular limitations  s u i t e d to only  Instead  forage  of a C l a s s  production  s t o n e s l e s s t h a n one m e t r e  degree of stone removal and  apart.  As a r e s u l t o f t h e s u r v e y a l l l a n d  private  as c l a s s 5 or 7 except  i n the study area i s  f o r 2.9% o f t h e a r e a ,  l a n d , as c l a s s ' 4 . Over 53% of t h e a r e a  unarable while 5p3  because of  c l a s s 5 p 1 , 5p2 a n d 5p3 a r e d e v e l o p e d w i t h c l a s s 5p3  the s t o n i e s t r e q u i r i n g a high  classified  5p w h i c h  or worse  65% of t h e r e m a i n i n g a r a b l e  (Guthrie,  1 9 7 8 ) . The r e p o r t  is classified  land  also  t o a v a r i e t y of r e s t r i c t i n g  information  notes  f a c t o r s . No s o i l  inspections  management  beyond e x i s t i n g l i m i t a t i o n s of s t o n i n e s s  is provided.  This  Project area only.  survey  is restricted  and wetness  t o the Goulds Forage  T h e r e a r e no d e t a i l e d s u r v e y s i n t h e a r e a o f  t h e C o c h r a n e Pond F a r m l a n d D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t b e y o n d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s which i n d i c a t e poorer s o i l s , stoniness, The provide  as  i s c l a s s i f i e d as  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e q u a l i t y a n d number o f s i t e due  mainly  due t o  field  excessive  than those i n the Goulds Forage P r o j e c t .  intensity level enough d e t a i l  on-farm s o i l i s not a s o i l  of t h e A v a l o n S o i l Survey does not  f o r farm u n i t l a y o u t ,  road c o n s t r u c t i o n or  management. The p e r f o r m a n c e - m a n a g e m e n t u n i t  survey  s u r v e y b u t an a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y s u r v e y . I t  80  i s of s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l clearing;  t o provide  however, t h e r e  some i n f o r m a t i o n  i s no i n f o r m a t i o n  f o r on-farm  management. I n p r a c t i c e , o n c e l o t s were d e v e l o p e d , i n a c c u r a c i e s were f o u n d insufficient  site  i n the survey. This  i n s p e c t i o n s as noted  for initial soil  significant  i s problably  i n the report  due t o  (Guthrie,  1978). The and  main p r o c e s s f o r e v a l u a t i n g  r e l a t e d resources  agencies.  Forest  i s by r e f e r r a l  vegetation, t o other  wildlife,  water  government  c a p a b i l t y maps a r e a v a i l a b l e a t a s c a l e o f  1:50,000, b u t t h e s e i n d i c a t e d t h e e n t i r e a r e a a s n o n - c o m m e r c i a l forests. Forestry revealed  that  Neither  Branch  i n v e n t o r i e s and a c t u a l  development  t h e c a p a b i l i t y maps were n o t a c c u r a t e . t h e A g r i c u l t u r e B r a n c h o r any o t h e r  agency  c o n d u c t e d an a d e q u a t e r e v i e w o f f o r e s t , w i l d l i f e , recreation and  value  resources  before  of these resources  agricultural  d e v e l o p m e n t b e g a n . The s i g n i f i c a n c e was n o t d e t e r m i n e d p r i o r t o  d e v e l o p m e n t . The F o r e s t r y  Branch s t r o n g l y  t o t h e p r o j e c t on t h e b a s i s o f p r e l i m i n a r y conducted  i n the area.  water or  objected  i n v e n t o r i e s i t had  The l a c k o f r e s o u r c e  inventory  applies  e q u a l l y w e l l t o t h e C o c h r a n e Pond F a r m l a n d D e v e l o p m e n t area. for  O n l y a f t e r an a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n  the area d i d t h e S t . John's M e t r o p o l i t a n  a w a t e r s h e d s t u d y i n one s m a l l By suitable  part  Project  was p r o p o s e d  Area Board  of the p r o j e c t  conduct  area.  d e f a u l t , the areas i n both p r o j e c t s that a r e not f o r a g r i c u l t u r e or are already  committed t o other  such as f o r e s t r y o r r e c r e a t i o n , a r e designated agricultural suitability  f o r non-  u s e s . L a n d i s n o t a l l o c a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f b u t on t h e b a s i s o f p e r c e i v e d  demand by t h e  uses,  81  agricultural  a g e n c y . The  agricultural  r e s o u r c e s may  agriculture  a b s e n c e of a d e t a i l e d  b i a s development i n favour  The  non-  of  i n the l a s t h e a v i l y f o r e s t e d , a c c e s s i b l e , l a r g e  t r a c t of Crown l a n d a d j a c e n t  3.5  i n v e n t o r y of  A s s e s s m e n t and  t o the S t . John's Urban community.  Relevance  of S o c i o - e c o n o m i c F a c t o r s i n  the P l a n n i n g E x e r c i s e In  t h e p l a n s f o r t h e G o u l d s F o r a g e P r o j e c t and  the  Cochrane  Pond F a r m l a n d D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t , i t i s assumed t h a t t h e r e no m a r k e t i n g  c o n s t r a i n t s . Being  adjacent  to S t . John's,  are  the  c o m m e r c i a l c e n t r e of t h e p r o v i n c e , i t i s a l s o assumed t h a t a l l t h e a g r i b u s i n e s s , e x t e n s i o n and the region's farmers networks are  extend  i d e n t i f i e d and  s e r v i c i n g are 1979;  will  S o i l and  indicated.  financial  t o the p r o j e c t s . E x i s t i n g  r e q u i r e d new  ( S o i l and  access  and  L a n d Management  L a n d Management D i v i s i o n ,  T h e r e a r e no  services available  f o r m a l economic impact  to  road  electrical Division,  1982). a s s e s s m e n t s of  the  p r o j e c t s . T o t a l e s t i m a t e s a r e g i v e n of t h e c o s t s t o g o v e r n m e n t and  to the  terms. serve  farmers,  In the case  and  b e n e f i t s are l i s t e d  i n more q u a l i t a t i v e  of the Goulds Forage P r o j e c t p r o d u c t i o n  to:  •to  offset  imports  o f low q u a l i t y , c o s t l y  •to  increase local a g r i c u l t u r a l  •to  expand a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y  Management D i v i s i o n ,  1982).  forage;  self-sufficiency ( S o i l and  Land  and;  will  82  The  s o l e c a l c u l a t i o n of  annum s a v i n g  i n the  displacement  Management D i v i s i o n , After of  the  only  the  costs.  p r o j e c t was In  the  3.6  the  The  area  has  of  opportunity  not  their  of a r a b l e involved  only  not  an  Project, given.  a  input  into  made p r i o r economic  to dispute  Plan the  of p a r t  of  the  h i s t o r y , these had  development  been a of  gave t h e  area  l a n d would be  renewed F o r e s t r y under t h e  not  are  alter  i n the  disposed  Forestry  or  (RSN,  the  consideration  Branch use  delaying  final  Project  the  plan  long  Plan  the  an  of  land  in  before  for a g r i c u l t u r a l  placed  approval but,  of  given  significantly.  Goulds-Kilbride  1970)  in  P r o j e c t . Watershed  Branch o b j e c t i o n s . With the  Crown Lands A c t  in  when a t e c h n i c a l m i s t a k e  foregone c o n c l u s i o n  Crown l a n d  serious  planned a g r i c u l t u r a l  plan  should  Crown l a n d  the  C o c h r a n e Pond F a r m l a n d D e v e l o p m e n t  arable  Land  Selection  C o c h r a n e Pond F a r m l a n d D e v e l o p m e n t  It  are  e i t h e r environmental,  uses except  S t . J o h n ' s Urban R e g i o n  past  and  b e n e f i t s are  d e c i s i o n t o d e v e l o p was  development  a l t e r n a t i v e land  the  (Soil  per  factors.  Goulds-Kilbride  studies  $400,000  r e v i e w s were made  S t . John's case,  A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s and  the  and  t o d e v e l o p m e n t d e c i s i o n s , but  Planning  of  imports  several  of c o s t s  i n the  adequate assessment  social  of  C o c h r a n e Pond F a r m l a n d Development  management p r o c e s s .  t o an  estimate  o f hay  initiated  non-monetized estimates  prerequisite  i s an  1982).  Economic a s s e s s m e n t s ,  the  benefits  actual  area  that  purposes,  seven y e a r on  the  despite reserve  Goulds  83  Forage P r o j e c t area  by  d i s p o s i t i o n s , along  with  adjacent on  t o c o m m e r c i a l f a r m s on  for agricultural  Within planning for  the c o n f i n e s  process,  agricultural these are  under t h r e e in  1975,  one  s i d e and  community  block  out  the  farmers.  first  traditional  e n t i r e area  d a i r y m e n was  put  f r o m g o v e r n m e n t and  dissected nature  scale mechanization.  forward.  The  advanced  homesteading  r e j e c t e d . In  w i t h the m a j o r i t y of  the  strategy,  forward  to the-highly d i s s e c t e d  Development  The  forage  to l o c a l  not  s t r a t e g y and  t o form a s h a r e s t o be  with  t o the  d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s a p p r o a c h was  by the  aid  highly  s u i t e d to l a r g e the  one  accepted  f o r A g r i c u l t u r e Canada and  by  the p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t ,  f a r m e r l e a s e and  a  This  responsible  for individual  held  financial  S u b s i d i a r y Agreement c o m m i t t e e s , t h e M i n i s t e r  to allow  as  forage  the v a r i o u s  was  -  Subsidiary  farmers.  again,  l a n d , w h i c h was final  1978,  c o r p o r a t i o n would d e v e l o p  a l s o e l i m i n a t e d due, of  i s put  none  have  a l t e r n a t i v e proposal  sell  but  In t h i s p l a n , government w i l l  i n a h i g h l y mechanized o p e r a t i o n  a l t e r n a t i v e was  considered  lots  l a n d , t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e was  corporation  the  i n r e g u l a r l y shaped  i n i t i a l Agricultural  e n t i r e area  predetermined  o b j e c t i v e s of  Goulds Forage P r o j e c t  t o f o l l o w the  A g r e e m e n t , a s e c o n d and  area  the a g r i c u l t u r a l  a c c e s s r o a d s as w e l l . Due  p a r t of the  production  of  a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s . The  of t h e  pastures  d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i n t h e S t . J o h n ' s ADA  to a l l o c a t e to area  nature  t o be  l o c a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s h a v e been  i s simply  to provide  and  use.  s u i t a b l e . The  a p p r o a c h and  preventing  i t s l o c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e ADA  t h e o t h e r , most a g e n c i e s assumed t h e a r e a  already  of  the A g r i c u l t u r e Branch  co-operative  t o be c o n d u c t e d u n d e r  strict  84  c o n d i t i o n s and w i t h m a j o r c o s t - s h a r e d The  o t h e r p r o j e c t , t h e C o c h r a n e Pond F a r m l a n d D e v e l o p m e n t  Project  i s designed  reduced  p a s t u r e a r e a w i t h new  access  r o a d s and  w i t h o n l y one  electrical  decided to p r i v a t i z e  s e r v i c i n g . The  expansion. boundaries,  The  linking  units,  C o c h r a n e Pond  i n i t i a t e d when t h e  province  i n the a r e a .  The  i n c o r p o r a t e f a r more l a n d t h a n  When t h e p a s t u r e s were l e a s e d t o  i n t e r e s t s , p l a n n e r s decided t o reduce the developed  operation  the community p a s t u r e s  pasture boundaries  a c t u a l l y developed.  s t r a t e g y throughout,  confinement  F a r m l a n d D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t was  original  funding.  was  private  t h e s i z e of t h e l e a s e t o  area while p r o v i d i n g reasonable  room f o r  r e m a i n i n g Crown l a n d o u t s i d e t h e two  pasture  along w i t h the a d j a c e n t Goulds Forage P r o j e c t are  t h e m a i n d e v e l o p m e n t c o m p o n e n t s i n t h e C o c h r a n e Pond F a r m l a n d Development P r o j e c t , a l t h o u g h , the Goulds Forage P r o j e c t i s , i n fact, operating independently  of the Farmland Developoment  Project.  3.7  Implementation The  of t h e  Plan  A g r i c u l t u r e Branch  i s t h e main i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  however, u l t i m a t e a p p r o v a l f o r the d i s p o s i t i o n  agency;  of Crown l a n d  must come f r o m t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s  and L a n d s .  major  Development  implementation  mechanism i s the A g r i c u l t u r e  S u b s i d i a r y A g r e e m e n t . Under t h i s funding  i s provided to construct access  k i l o m e t r e s have been b u i l t Another proposed  federal-provincial  to date  7 t o 10 k i l o m e t r e s o f r o a d s  roads  agreement,  of which  i n the Goulds Forage plus e l e c t r i c a l  f o r t h e C o c h r a n e Pond F a r m l a n d D e v e l o p m e n t  The  11 Project.  servicing Project.  is  85  However, t h i s p l a n  i s not approved y e t and t h e c o s t - s h a r i n g  a g r e e m e n t h a s e x p i r e d , w i t h n e g o t i a t i o n s c u r r e n t l y underway f o r a new f i v e - y e a r a g r e e m e n t . Money i s a l s o a l l o c a t e d i n t h e G o u l d s F o r a g e P r o j e c t t o h i r e a P r o j e c t Manager t o o v e r s e e t h e c o operative  timber  Since  r e m o v a l , l a n d c l e a r i n g and seedbed  preparation.  d e v e l o p m e n t s t a r t e d , two more p h a s e s have begun  a d d i n g a d d i t i o n a l f a r m e r s and a d d i t i o n a l u n i t s t o t h e i n i t i a l nine  lots.  A total  of twenty-six  Forage P r o j e c t , t o t a l l i n g  l o t s a r e proposed i n the Goulds  o v e r 917 h e c t a r e s .  Farmland Development P r o j e c t has n i n e 600  The C o c h r a n e Pond  l o t s proposed  hectares. At  t h e e n d o f 1984, g o v e r n m e n t , t h r o u g h t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l  Development S u b s i d i a r y Agreement, had i n v e s t e d  approximately  $ 6 0 0 , 0 0 0 , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e c l e a r i n g o f 175 h e c t a r e s This  f i g u r e does not i n c l u d e s a l a r i e s f o r s t a f f  limestone  hectares  of l a n d .  o r s u b s i d i e s on  a n d f i n a n c i n g . F a r m e r s have c o n t r i b u t e d  $200,000. A n t i c i p a t e d t o t a l c l e a r e d a r e a  approximately  i s i n e x c e s s o f 430  ( S o i l a n d L a n d Management D i v i s i o n , 1 9 8 2 ) . By 1983,  was p r o j e c t e d  t h a t 200 h e c t a r e s  In f a c t ,  75 h e c t a r e s  1983  totalling  only  (Soil  w o u l d be i n f o r a g e  were p r o d u c i n g  forage  production.  by t h e e n d o f  a n d L a n d Management D i v i s i o n , 1 9 8 4 ) .  3.7.1 S u p p o r t P r o g r a m s f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e Marginal The  Fringe Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l  and N o r t h e r n  D e v e l o p m e n t h a s two l o a n p r o g r a m s w h i c h c a n be a p p l i e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new f a r m s o r t o t h e e x p a n s i o n o f e x i s t i n g operations.  i t  The Farm D e v e l o p m e n t L o a n B o a r d c a n l e n d up t o  86  $30,000 p e r f a r m e r a t an i n t e r e s t  rate of e i g h t percent. I f  r e f u s e d by t h e Farm D e v e l o p m e n t L o a n B o a r d ,  a f a r m e r may  apply  t o t h e R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t A u t h o r i t y f o r a l o a n o f up t o $25,000 a t t h e same r a t e . The  most e x t e n s i v e r a n g e  o f s u p p o r t p r o g r a m s come u n d e r t h e  a u s p i c e s of t h e f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l S u b s i d i a r y Agreement. Funds a r e a l l o c a t e d  to establish a  p r o v i n c e - w i d e v e g e t a b l e p r o c e s s i n g and m a r k e t i n g a r e made a v a i l a b l e funded  Development  system.  Grants  f o r farm development, and l a n d c l e a r i n g i s  a t a r a t e o f $575 p e r h e c t a r e , p l u s a f u r t h e r g r a n t o f  $250 p e r h e c t a r e once t h e l a n d i s i n p r o d u c t i o n t o a maximum t o t a l o f $25,000. G r a n t s a r e a l s o made a v a i l a b l e  f o r up t o 25  percent of t h e t o t a l c o s t s of a c q u i r i n g c a p i t a l a s s e t s . T h i s i s i n c r e a s e d t o 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e c o s t s i n t h e c a s e o f s i l a g e a n d haylage  s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s and equipment, and v e g e t a b l e  s t o r a g e s . T o t a l a s s i s t a n c e under a l l of t h e s e programs combined can  not exceed  $25,000. However, t h i s sum i s i n c r e a s e d t o  $75,000 maximum f o r new d a i r y e n t r a n t s . Funding  i s also available  farm a c c e s s roads, e l e c t r i c a l the  introduction  f o r 100 p e r c e n t o f t h e c o s t s o f servicing,  road maintenance and  o f new t e c h n o l o g y . S p e c i a l c r i t e r i a  a p p r o v a l must be met i n a l l c a s e s . I n t h e G o u l d s s p e c i a l i z e d machinery the Technology legal  was p u r c h a s e d  f o r funding  Forage  f o r l a n d development  Project, under  T r a n s f e r P r o g r a m , a p r o j e c t manager was h i r e d a n d  s u r v e y s f o r l o t s were f u n d e d  (Department of R u r a l ,  A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n Development,  1981).  87  3.7.2 Crown L a n d  Disposition  Crown l a n d i s a l l o c a t e d  for agricultural  use under t h e  p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e Crown L a n d s A c t (RSN, 1970) a n d s u b j e c t t o t h e Department of F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s and Lands' p o l i c y  (Lands  1982). G e n e r a l l y , the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s a p p l y  to leasing  Crown l a n d f o r c o m m e r c i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t  Branch,  i n Farmland  Development P r o j e c t s and i n t h e G o u l d s Forage P r o j e c t :  • l a n d must be s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n ; • a p p l i c a n t s must show t h a t t h e y a r e c a p a b l e o f becoming f u l l - t i m e commercial farmers; • a p p l i c a n t s must show t h a t t h e y c a n f i n a n c e t h e operation; • a p p l i c a n t s must p r o v i d e t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e w i t h a f i v e year development p l a n ; •15% o f a r a b l e l a n d must be c l e a r e d a n d c u l t i v a t e d w i t h i n 2 y e a r s , 50% w i t h i n 5 y e a r s and t h e r e m a i n d e r w i t h i n 10 y e a r s ; • l a n d c l e a r i n g must be a c c o r d i n g t o B r a n c h guidelines; • l a n d must r e m a i n i n c o n t i n u o u s p r o d u c t i o n ; • a l l s u i t a b l e t i m b e r must be h a r v e s t e d a n d u t i l i z e d , and t h e r e m a i n d e r must be managed i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the F o r e s t r y Branch; •any s a l e o r t r a n s f e r must be t o an o p e r a t i o n w h i c h w i l l m a i n t a i n forage p r o d u c t i o n or other c r o p s , as p e r m i t t e d , u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e a l l o w e d by t h e M i n i s t e r s i n v o l v e d ( S o i l a n d L a n d Management D i v i s i o n , 1 9 8 4 ) .  T e n u r e i s by l e a s e o n l y w i t h a 15 y e a r farmers  a n d 50 y e a r s  term  f o r expanding  f o r new e n t r a n t s . L e a s e r e n t s a r e s e t a t  $2.54 p e r h e c t a r e p e r annum. F i n a l a p p r o v a l o f a p p l i c a t i o n s o f 20 h e c t a r e s o r l e s s r e s t s w i t h t h e M i n i s t e r o f F o r e s t and  Lands, w h i l e a p p l i c a t i o n s of g r e a t e r than  20 h e c t a r e s  be a p p r o v e d by C a b i n e t . L a n d i s l e a s e d o n l y a f t e r submits  a d e t a i l e d development p l a n d e t a i l i n g  financial  Resources  farm  must  the applicant skills,  r e s o u r c e s and a f i v e y e a r development s c e n a r i o .  88  In  1972, t h e a r e a o f t h e G o u l d s F o r a g e P r o j e c t was  u n d e r t h e Crown L a n d s A c t , for  restricting  any f u r t h e r a p p l i c a t i o n s  l a n d d i s p o s i t i o n . When t h e p r o j e c t p l a n  1979,  the S t . John's M e t r o p o l i t a n  held with  various  agencies,  some o f t h e o u t s t a n d i n g  timber removal. Although  a g r e e m e n t h a d n o t been r e c e i v e d  official  from a l l of t h e i n v o l v e d  t h e p r o j e c t was b e g i n n i n g  to pick  up a momentum o f i t s  a n d a f t e r a p p l i c a n t s h a d been s e l e c t e d t h e y were q u i c k l y  a p p r o v e d by t h e Crown L a n d s B r a n c h . I t o f t e n years before  a lease  p e r m i t s - t o - o c c u p y were s o u g h t u n d e r t h e  Crown L a n d s A c t a n d d e v e l o p m e n t Applicants  t a k e s up t o two  i s f i n a l i z e d and a p p l i c a n t s can begin  development; t h e r e f o r e ,  apply  agencies  A r e a B o a r d . M e e t i n g s were  agencies t o negotiate  problems, p a r t i c u l a r l y  own,  was c o m p l e t e d i n  i t was r e f e r r e d t o a l l i n v o l v e d g o v e r n m e n t  including  reserved  began.  f o r Crown l a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l  leases  normally  t h r o u g h t h e Crown L a n d s B r a n c h r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s ;  however,  i n t h e case of farmland development p r o j e c t s , a separate procedure  i s established with  Prospective  t h e Crown L a n d s B r a n c h .  a p p l i c a n t s a r e r e f e r r e d t o the A g r i c u l t u r e Branch,  or they a r e t o l d projects plans  that  no a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e b e i n g  a r e not f i n a l i z e d .  In the case of Farmland  Development P r o j e c t s , a d v e r t i s e m e n t s a r e p l a c e d newspapers s o l i c i t i n g h o w e v e r , was l i m i t e d  accepted i f the  in local  a p p l i c a n t s . The G o u l d s F o r a g e P r o j e c t , to dairy  a r e a who, i n t h e i n i t i a l  farmers i n the Goulds-  p h a s e , were i n d i v i d u a l l y  a p p l i c a t i o n s and i n f o r m a t i o n .  A Regional  Kilbride  mailed  S e l e c t i o n Committee i s  e s t a b l i s h e d under t h e c h a i r m a n s h i p of t h e A g r i c u l t u r e Branch and with  representatives  of the Branch's v a r i o u s  d i v i s i o n s as w e l l  89  as  representatives  of t h e Department of F o r e s t  L a n d s . The R e g i o n a l a p p l i c a n t s without  3.8 M o n i t o r i n g A formal planning  S e c t i o n Committee chooses t h e s u c c e s s f u l competition  and E v a l u a t i n g  for individual  the Planning  mechanism f o r m o n i t o r i n g  lots.  Exercise  and e v a l u a t i n g t h e  p r o c e s s o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n c o m p o n e n t s h a s n o t been  established. set  Resources and  In the Goulds Forage P r o j e c t , c e r t a i n  i n t h e manager's c o n t r a c t , i n t h e a n n u a l b u d g e t s o f t h e  Branch and i n t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r funding  t o t h e DREE  c o m m i t t e e s . When t h e s e t a r g e t s a r e n o t met, t h e r e consequences. Monitoring with  targets are  a r e few  i s by a d a y - t o - d a y c o n t a c t  of o f f i c i a l s  t h e p r o j e c t a n d f r o m q u a r t e r l y r e p o r t s o f t h e manager.  Annual reports are submitted  by s t a f f  of a l l p r o j e c t s o r l a c k t h e r e o f . process occur p e r i o d i c a l l y  which review  Revisions  the progress  of the planning  as problems a r e encountered.  C e r t a i n elements of t h e Goulds Forage P r o j e c t , such as t h e specialized and  machinery, are the subject  evaluation. A high  rate of s t a f f  these evaluations. Evaluations  has  turnover,  overall  turnover  although  r e p o r t has  Development S u b s i d i a r y  Agreement  component.  hampers t h i s p r o g r a m a n d , t o d a t e ,  e v a l u a t i o n of cost-shared  publically,  however, l i m i t  b u t no f o r m a l  a s one o f i t s e i g h t p r o g r a m s , an e v a l u a t i o n  Frequent s t a f f  monitoring  o f a c t u a l c o s t s and b e n e f i t s have  been a t t e m p t e d on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s , been p r e p a r e d . The A g r i c u l t u r a l  of i n d i v i d u a l  one i s b e i n g  p r o g r a m s h a s been prepared.  no  released  90  3.9  The  Significance  of  Public  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  Planning  Exercise Although public component of initiating  the  the  in p r a c t i c e occurring.  participation is identified explicitly  o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g program at  the  A g r i c u l t u r a l Development P l a n  t h e r e has  been o n l y  T h i s o c c a s i o n was  failure  that  public  deleted  from the  one  stage  (see  instance  of  p r o c e s s . Among t h e  been,  3.1),  i t actually relations  unofficially,  factors causing t h i s turn  events were:  • t h e l a t e i n v o l v e m e n t of  the  p l a n n i n g . p r o c e s s a f t e r ADA  general public b o u n d a r i e s had  in  the  been  established; •the p r e s e n t a t i o n essentially of  regional  u r b a n and  •the lack  of  population t o them  put  on  the  of  the  was  that  was  established  zones  uses;  rural,  into a process that  isolated  essentially alien  and; z o n i n g and  seemingly  a f t e r m a t h of  general public  of a p l a n  i n n a t u r e and  initiation  regulation  i m p o s e d by  b u r e a u c r a t s from the  During the  public  other non-agricultural  • t h e e m p h a s i s on proposal,  t o the  in  the  non-Newfoundland  capital city.  political  o u t r a g e , the  'back b u r n e r ' and  t u r m o i l , death threats  and  A g r i c u l t u r a l Development P l a n no  a  of  Figure  such a complete p u b l i c  p a r t i c i p a t i o n has  as  further public  involvement  was  of  91  beyond s e l e c t e d land planning  f a r m e r i n t e r e s t g r o u p s was e v e r s o l i c i t e d  i n any  program.  3.10 C a s e Summary The S t . J o h n ' s c a s e s t u d y an a g r i c u l t u r a l  is,  p r i m a r i l y , an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f  p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m . The a c t u a l p r o g r a m f o r  p l a n n i n g t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown l a n d b e a r s  little  r e s e m b l a n c e t o t h e documented  process  (see F i g u r e 3.1). Land  management p l a n s do n o t e x i s t  i n t h e s e n s e p r o p o s e d f o r ADAs  t h r o u g h w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s c a n be i m p l e m e n t e d . T h e r e i s s c a n t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n n o r i s t h e r e an A g r i c u l t u r a l Development  resources are given  only  a c u r s o r y o v e r v i e w . S o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s a r e t r e a t e d  in a  similar  Committee. N o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l  f a s h i o n . Program components  integrated planning  framework  a r e not l i n k e d  f o r the region. Nevertheless, i n  the case of t h e Goulds Forage P r o j e c t , a c h i e v e d . These  t o an  r e s u l t s have  r e s u l t s may be c o s t l y , u n d e r - t a r g e t a n d t h e i r  i m p l i c a t i o n s h a v e n o t been c o n s i d e r e d e n t i r e l y .  Land,  has been d e v e l o p e d a n d most o f t h e f a r m e r s i n v o l v e d are s a t i s f i e d .  been  Managers  of t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l  however,  generally  Subsidiary  p e r c e i v e t h e G o u l d s F o r a g e P r o j e c t a s one o f t h e most p r o g r a m s o f t h e $16.3 m i l l i o n A g r i c u l t u r e S u b s i d i a r y  Agreement successful  Agreement.  The p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m i s c o n d u c t e d by t h e Agricultural  B r a n c h r a t h e r t h a n by t h e L a n d s B r a n c h . T h i s  direct  i n v o l v e m e n t , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e wide range of f u n d i n g t a r g e t e d a t t h e p r o j e c t s by t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l resolution  of a g r i c u l t u r a l l y  of l a n d d i s p o s i t i o n  Branch, allows f o r r a p i d  r e l a t e d p r o b l e m s . The r e s t r i c t i o n  t o a p p l i c a n t s w i t h demonstrated s k i l l s and  92  r e s o u r c e s a l o n g w i t h t h e low r e n t a l significant  factor  very marginal  i n e n s u r i n g the s u c c e s s f u l development of a  l a n d b a s e . The p r o x i m i t y o f a l a r g e a n d  market f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s aspect  r a t e s f o r Crown l a n d , i s a  and t h e r u r a l  development  o f t h e p r o g r a m i n an e c o n o m i c a l l y d e p r e s s e d  t h e r a t i o n a l e o f an o t h e r w i s e comprehensible.  dubious  guaranteed  undertaking  r e g i o n makes more  REFERENCES  D e p a r t m e n t o f R e g i o n a l E c o n o m i c E x p a n s i o n . 1982. Canada/Newfoundland A g r i c u l t u r e Development S u b s i d i a r y A g r e e m e n t : ( J u l y 1978) A P r o g r a m Summary. Department of R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n , Ottawa. Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t . 1981. A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r e B r a n c h f o r t h e F i s c a l Y e a r E n d i n g M a r c h 3 1 , 1981. D e p a r t m e n t o f R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n Development, S t . John's. Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t . 1983. F a r m l a n d P r e s e r v a t i o n : A G r o w i n g Need ( b r o c h u r e ) . D e p a r t m e n t o f R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t , S t . J o h n ' s . G u t h r i e , K e n . 1978. A g r i c u l t u r e C a p a b i l i t y o f t h e P r o p o s e d F o r a g e D e v e l o p m e n t A r e a between C o c h r a n e Pond and Bay B u l l s B i g Pond ( p r o v i s i o n a l ) . D e p a r t m e n t of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l a n d N o r t h e r n Development, S t . John's. L a n d s B r a n c h . 1982. Crown L a n d s L e a s i n g P o l i c y f o r A g r i c u l t u r e . Department of F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s and Lands, S t . John's. L i d s t o n e , A l l a n . 1980. S t . J o h n ' s A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Area S t a t u s R e p o r t . Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t , S t . J o h n ' s . M e r r i t t , B i l l . 1983. A n n u a l R e p o r t 1982-1983 f o r t h e A v a l o n P e n i n s u l a E a s t e r n R e g i o n U n i t s 1,2, and 3. Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n Development, S t . John's. N e w f o u n d l a n d R e g u l a t i o n 198/83. D e v e l o p m e n t A r e a o f S t . J o h n ' s U r b a n R e g i o n ( A g r i c u l t u r e ) R e g u l a t i o n s , 1983. R i z v i , S.M.H., D a v i d s o n , A., L e r o h l , M.L., Graham, W.W. And M a c E a c h e r n , G.A. 1971. F o o d and A g r i c u l t u r e P o t e n t i a l s i n Newfoundland. A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l of Canada, Ottawa. S o i l and L a n d Management D i v i s i o n . 1979. G o u l d s F o r a g e P r o j e c t . Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n Development, S t . John's. Soil  and L a n d Management D i v i s i o n . 1981. N e w f o u n d l a n d S o i l S u r v e y and L a n d Use P r o g r a m 1981. D e p a r t m e n t o f R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n Development, S t . John's.  S o i l a n d L a n d Management D i v i s i o n . 1982a. C o c h r a n e Pond Farmland Development P r o j e c t . Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n Development, S t . J o h n ' s . S o i l a n d L a n d Management D i v i s i o n . 1982b. G o u l d s F o r a g e P r o j e c t : Phase I I . Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n Development, S t . J o h n ' s . S o i l a n d L a n d Management D i v i s i o n . 1984. G o u l d s F o r a g e P r o j e c t : Phase I I I . Department of R u r a l , A g r i c u l t u r a l and N o r t h e r n Development, S t . J o h n ' s . Sudom, M.D. 1984. P r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e S t a n d i n g C o m m i t t e e on A g r i c u l t u r e , F o r e s t r y a n d F i s h e r i e s a t H a l i f a x , N.S. S u p p l y a n d S e r v i c e s C a n a d a , O t t a w a : 16:48-61. The R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f N e w f o u n d l a n d . Crown L a n d s A c t .  1970. C.71  The  The R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f N e w f o u n d l a n d . 1976. C.95 The D e v e l o p m e n t A r e a s ( L a n d s ) A c t 1976.  95  CHAPTER FOUR  CASE STUDY NUMBER  TWO  FORT NELSON, B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  96  4.1  Introduction The  F o r t Nelson  physiographic has  area  i s l o c a t e d i n the F o r t Nelson  r e g i o n of n o r t h e a s t e r n  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The  a p o p u l a t i o n of 5075, l o c a t e d m o s t l y  Nelson  and  the nearby s e t t l e m e n t s  Fort Nelson  i s 450  Creek  ( s e e Map  k i l o m e t r e s n o r t h of t h e main  4.1).  s a w m i l l i n g , petroleum these  s e c t o r s was  and  Columbia Railway Fort Nelson  has  I I and  the extension  of t h e The  the  d e v e l o p m e n t of Crown l a n d i n t h e  F o r t Nelson  falling  British  population last  a r e a has severe  w i t h 60%  three  agricultural  region i s supported  largely  the  winters. Precipitation  of t h e a n n u a l  423mm o f  f r e e z e - f r e e p e r i o d may  d a y s , w i t h most of t h e s i t e s  i s adequate  precipitation  be a s h i g h as  s u i t e d for a g r i c u l t u r e having  f r e e z e - f r e e p e r i o d of up t o 89 d a y s . S h o r t e r o f f s e t by  Fort Nelson wide v a r i e t y  r a n g e f r o m 1200  a r e a has  climatic  of v e g e t a b l e s ,  to  1500  on  and, 119 a  growing seasons  l o n g h o u r s of d a y l i g h t i n t h e summer t i m e .  d e g r e e - d a y s may  by  a b o r e a l c l i m a t e which r e s u l t s i n  d u r i n g t h e g r o w i n g s e a s o n . D e p e n d i n g on e l e v a t i o n  possibly, aspect,  of  sectors.  s h o r t c o o l summers and f o r most c r o p s  Alaska  i n c r e a s e i s c r e a t i n g a g r e a t e r demand  f o r Crown l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . The  The  Dawson  forestry,  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the  i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y over  income e a r n e d i n o t h e r  Nelson.  agricultural  i s c e n t r e d on  f r o m F o r t S t . J o h n i n 1968.  decades. T h i s p o p u l a t i o n  Fort  s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s . Development i n  s t i m u l a t e d by  Highway d u r i n g W o r l d War  Old Fort  a t F o r t S t . J o h n and  Economic a c t i v i t y  area  i n t h e v i l l a g e of  o f Muskwa and  c e n t r e s of the Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t  Lowlands  the best  attributes sufficient  are  Growing sites.  The  to produce a  c e r e a l g r a i n s , o i l s e e d s and  forage  97  MAP 4.1: FORT NELSON DEFERRED PLANNING AREA PROVINCIAL SETTING*  •Source: Peace Region and Land Planning Branch (MLPH) B«f«r«neaa c h . 4) (1983)  98  c r o p s . H o w e v e r , many o f t h e a r e a s w i t h g o o d c l i m a t i c are not s u i t a b l e  capability  f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n due t o f l o o d i n g  hazard, access l i m i t a t i o n s , d i s s e c t e d t e r r a i n and other The was  F o r t Nelson area's a r a b l e s o i l s a r e not as e x t e n s i v e as  previously believed before s o i l  total  s u r v e y s were c o n d u c t e d .  area of a r a b l e land r e p r e s e n t s l e s s than  Much o f t h i s  lacustrine,  l u v i s o l s and g l e y s o l s d e v e l o p e d  the h i g h e s t c a p a b i l i t y till  incised  on e o l i a n m a t e r i a l  t o p o g r a p h i c a l and t e x t u r a l  on a f l a t  c a p a b i l i t y due t o  limitations. flooding.  Fluvial  Soils are  t o g e n t l y r o l l i n g p l a t e a u a n d on t h e d e e p l y  r i v e r c h a n n e l s under a l a r g e l y w h i t e  t r e m b l i n g aspen  display  f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . The m o r a i n a l  d e p o s i t s a r e l i m i t e d due t o p e r i o d i c developed  Soils  on l a c u s t r i n e m a t e r i a l a n d  d e r i v e d s o i l s a r e , g e n e r a l l y , of lower  climatic,  200,000 h e c t a r e s .  e o l i a n and f l u v i a l d e p o s i t s .  the b r u n i s o l s and l u v i s o l s d e v e l o p e d  or  The  l a n d i s i n a c c e s s i b l e a n d d i s s e c t e d by muskeg.  a r e d e r i v e d from t i l l , The  factors.  s p r u c e and  forest.  Present a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y  i n the Fort Nelson  area i s  l i m i t e d . A b o u t 20,000 h e c t a r e s o f l a n d h a v e b e e n l e a s e d i n 60 s e p a r a t e p a r c e l s o v e r t h e p a s t 20 y e a r s . Some 30 were u n d e r t a k i n g d e v e l o p m e n t i n 1984, b u t o n l y be c o n s i d e r e d a c t i v e (Bomford,1984).  in their  Approximately  attempts  to  1 9 of these c o u l d  t o develop  land  3200 h e c t a r e s h a d been c l e a r e d t o  s e e d b e d s t a g e by 1984, b u t no c r o p was s e e d e d severe weather problems.  individuals  t h a t y e a r due t o  I n 1 9 8 3 , a b o u t 480 h e c t a r e s were  c r o p s of b a r l e y , o a t s and f o r a g e  resources i n the Fort Nelson  (Bomford,  1984).  seeded  Range  area a r e a l s o v e r y l i m i t e d and  s u i t e d o n l y t o h o r s e s due t o i n s e c t s a n d c l i m a t e . Much o f t h e  99  agricultural  land i n the F o r t Nelson area  f a l l s w i t h i n the  b o u n d a r i e s of a p r o v i n c i a l l y a d m i n i s t e r d a g r i c u l t u r a l n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l uses are r e s t r i c t e d . Land R e s e r v e  (ALR) c a n a l s o be e x t e n d e d  o u t s i d e t h e e x i s t i n g ALR The  The  zone or  t o newly  z o n e where  Agricultural leased  lands  boundaries.  F o r t Nelson case presents  aspects  o f an  opportunity  p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m f o r p r o j e c t s a n d a Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g program. response  The M c C o n a c h i e C r e e k  t o p u b l i c demand f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l  N e l s o n a r e a . The resulted  R e p o r t was  initiated  ( s e e Map  by t h e p r o p o s e d  into a P r o v i n c i a l Forest  F o r e s t s . Many l o c a l  4 . 2 ) . The  provided.  r e s e r v e by t h e M i n i s t r y o f  o u t and  P r o j e c t was  roads and  initiated  electrical  L o t s were a l l o c a t e d i n 1982  and  b i d d i n g . Many o f t h e 55 l o t s a r e s t i l l having  any  The Report The  development  P l a n n i n g Report  Housing planning  at a l l (Bomford,  (Kok,  servicing  1983  by  under  the Deferred  undeveloped,  issues. Consultants  to advise  were  with only  13  1984). Planning  Area Planning  Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m o u t l i n e . An formed  Farm  competitive  f o l l o w s the M i n i s t r y of Lands,  t a s k f o r c e was  land  1985).  i n 1982.  F o r t N e l s o n A r e a S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown L a n d  began i n 1982  Crown  r e s i d e n t s b e l i e v e d t h a t much o f t h i s  McConachie Creek  l o t s were l a i d  Planning  of l o c a l  be a l l o c a t e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t  The  Deferred  Fort Nelson  inclusion  which  Land  u n d e r t a k e n a s a component o f t h e  Program  in  l a n d i n the F o r t  i n t h e F o r t N e l s o n A r e a S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown  Area P l a n n i n g  should  initiated  Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m  P l a n n i n g R e p o r t was  land  P r o j e c t was  Parks  and  interagency  t h e M i n i s t r y on  were h i r e d t o c o m p l e t e  Program.  resource  planning  inventories  100  MAP 4.2: FORT NELSON DERERRED PLANNING AREA LOCATION OF THE PLAN AREA* •Source: MLPH, 1983  101  and,  i n 1983 on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e  task  force formulated  four a l t e r n a t i v e  d e v e l o p m e n t . The r e g i o n a l o f f i c e  strategies for  forwarded  Report c o n t a i n i n g the a l t e r n a t i v e office.  i n v e n t o r i e s , the interagency  the draft  Planning  s t r a t e g i e s t o the M i n i s t e r ' s  No d e c i s i o n on t h e p l a n h a s been made p u b l i c y e t .  4.2 S t r u c t u r i n g a n d S c o p i n g Planning primarily  the Planning  Program  f o r t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown l a n d i s  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  Housing; s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  of t h e M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and  the Regional  O f f i c e s and t h e Land  P l a n n i n g B r a n c h . The Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m h a s e v o l v e d over  the past  ten years  i n t o a c o m p l e x maze o f o f f i c i a l  v a r i a t i o n s . These programs, f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s  thesis,  s t a r t w i t h t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a n d L a n d Use C o m m i t t e e o f C a b i n e t statement of p o l i c y Crown l a n d s guidelines expected  g u i d e l i n e s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t on  ( E n v i r o n m e n t a n d L a n d Use C o m m i t t e e , 1 9 7 7 ) . The ELUC i n d i c a t e t h a t r e s e r v e s o f a r a b l e Crown l a n d c a n n o t be  t o support  agricultural  significant  expansion  of p r o v i n c i a l  p r o d u c t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , Crown l a n d s w i l l be  a l l o c a t e d only  f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r p o s e s where:  ...such development i s i n keeping w i t h [ t h e ] g o a l o f e n s u r i n g t h e b e s t u s e o f Crown l a n d s a c c o r d i n g t o economic, s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c r i t e r i a . The a l l o c a t i o n o f Crown l a n d s t o a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l be made w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f r e g i o n a l l a n d use p l a n s b a s e d on i n t e g r a t e d p o l i c i e s f o r r e s o u r c e management ( E n v i r o n m e n t a n d L a n d Use C o m m i t t e e , 1977, p . 3 ) .  102  The  g u i d e l i n e s s t r e s s the need f o r g r e a t e r  s o c i a l and  e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s and  study  of  the  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of p r o c e d u r e s  to  u n d e r t a k e t h i s a n a l y s i s . They e m p h a s i z e t h a t e c o n o m i c a n a l y s i s will  be  undertaken  i n l a r g e r a g r i c u l t u r a l development a r e a s ,  b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s examples are a l s o propose the l a n d and,  identification  d e p e n d i n g on  the  illustrated.  The  of a l l r e m a i n i n g  guidelines  a r e a s of  Crown  s i z e o f t h e Crown l a n d b a s e , t h e  of c o n f l i c t s as w e l l as o t h e r  f a c t o r s , a v a r i e t y of  levels  at the  r e g i o n a l s c a l e are proposed w i t h p r i o r i t i e s  planning  s e t by  the R e g i o n a l  for  other  referral  resource  p r o g r a m i s recommended t o p r e v e n t t o e l i m i n a t e the  system. A p p l i c a n t s should are  for  R e s o u r c e Management C o m m i t t e e s .  s e c t o r s and  ensure t h a t the they  type of  planning  accelerated planning  and  familiar  An  delays  cumbersome  prepare development p l a n s  to  w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e and  a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s s u i t a b l e f o r the  r e g i o n . The  guidelines  p r o p o s e t h a t r e n t a l p a y m e n t s be d e d u c t e d f r o m t h e p u r c h a s e p r i c e o f l e a s e s and  there  ( E n v i r o n m e n t and In an  1981,  official  L a n d Use  Committee,  Hierarchy,  b a s e d p r i m a r i l y on  p u r p o s e of t h e p l a n n i n g  hierarchy  the M i n i s t r y ' s planning  activities  specific  scale, resulting  allocation  and  p r o g r a m and  ( M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks  of Crown l a n d s  accumulation  1977).  the M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s  Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g  Land P l a n n i n g guidelines  i s no p r o v i s i o n f o r i n t e r e s t  and  Housing  introduced the  i s to provide  4.1).  ELUC  1981).  The  a framework f o r  from a p r o v i n c i a l  (see F i g u r e  i t s Crown  earlier  Housing,  i n t h e o r d e r l y and  prepared  to a  systematic The  only parts  t h i s h i e r a r c h y w h i c h have been i m p l e m e n t e d a r e a t t h e  sub-  r e g i o n a l and  or  sub-district  l e v e l s . At the  site  sub-regional  of  FIGURE 4.1 Schematic Oullln* of tho CROWN  LAND  PLANNING  HIERARCHY  PLANNING SCALE  LAND  ADMINISTRATION  REGION  DEVELOPMENT  LAND ADMINISTRATION DISTRICT  AREA  MINISTRY PLANNING UNIT  MINISTRY PLANNING ACTIVITY  PROVINCIAL POLICY POSITION PAPER • i n t o COALS i OAJICTIvtS TOi ALL uwAL.f HATIB C M * LAMOf •  NIIMIII riAMUHC C M * M UluD US! * t COC.MTICW  or  U U O U .  • I n r i u U T I O H KITH l l t l l H1A1STA* • i . u v i K mL  P O L I C I mm  REGIONAL  COOWN  LANO  STAATEG*  XUt*  - REGIONAL  CROWN  LAND  PLAN  • a r m CAT lav or ATCICMAL rr«*T»c» IC EACH L A N S BUT*ICt  I O H U U T I W Or ITWTECT IXIH I N T C C A A T L O IrCC/NAMACCMCHT  Of CAOi-< L M M •• AIC10A iDt-rifif IC»TIO» o r LAPJO  PIANAIM THIW.IT*  wn  •o L A M uu rail  LIVTL  Cwiju  • cT»Tif>i - T or binAHc II AUTIC* for  CMW LAHO turrui  • i M H T i f ICATIOM or PCfourcr MIOIITI A*KA( M i p M'l POLlClf*  OIKPOAITIOM  1  CAOV.W L A M B  (ITT  I  •IITPICT  PLAA  • SrtTiriC OA AtBOCLATtA UPAS  • ttAVICCt. s r T A A C i l . OCIIOA iTAAOAAOt AHO 1TACIWC IOOICATT*  • rowwiATiOB or N U C I I I . P A D C A A M  A I S P O A I l i i L i T i t i ro* MANACCMNT A OtirtLOrnCHT A M A I ACCOM)IMC JO SWA-AICIOJAL PIIOAIT1 *  eaitowTiOMi AT  IttTtCPAT ION M T I IHTf»r l i m n ruuMIPC  R O W N LAND PLAN tun-OUTPUT C R O W N LA N O PLAN OrCNATIONAL C •Picinc uu imicATio IN IUImitaolc •ocATirico ITIIi cnxcrtB  • iMAtTiricATioa or rtorr  J U B - A f GIONAL PLAMHIMO S T U D T  AOAuTTATIOAl or M S I OVAL iTAATTCT  OAT A 1-vr-TOAT U K f U L M>« IUO-AICIONAL  PLAM  WO CPOWBJ LAAO WSI D I I I C M A T I C  •  lACLut IOM or ACTA COMCIPTUAL A  o c i A i i . r n r u n . COnrOAtnTl • rVAA ruAHALLI ADOPT ID AWO OrTAILII OOtlOATIOMI (CCUAT.O lAHJCA TAI LAHO ACT  INTIRIM C R O W N LAHO UU AGREEMENT • NWLTIPU U t I CO«riiCT AffSOUiTlOA THAOUCA tHOPT - TT. AM lATEAACfMCI ACArcM*rT • MAAACtnCAT AIACCTICM ro* ACmCItB  AHO PIAP or Am»« A/rccTio • i f i c i r i i o I H T I - T TO raiPAAT CAOWA  U»"D PLAN AT LA TCP OA TV.  • MAP  A P I A I MOT SICUAXD UMDC*  LXSI SLAT IOM  •UI-DISTRICT PLANNINO REPORT  • IIOCLA M i l COWtt-lCT MAOLVTIOP)  00 PlNCLt INK PLAKMIAC AIOUIAJHBAT 1 A r o m o A or D I I T P I C T  • AAAACIHCHT K C O P M N O A T I O H I  OA A L T ! P A A T I W J I IO» M A O L U T I O A ,  PQISIALA- NAT or A AI A A ArrrcTto • MAP A P I AS MAI P I F I C U A X D UNDER  LICI1LATIOM  • OATA IAVIHTOAT ulrTUL POP tup DllTPICT PLAMt  'Source: Land Use P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n (See Referencs Ch4) (1981)  1 04  district  level,  t h e main component i s t h e S u b - R e g i o n a l Crown  Land P l a n . T h i s p l a n specific  resource  L a n d P l a n was  i s a broad comprehensive  use a l l o c a t i o n p r i o r i t i e s .  a pilot  p r o j e c t and  The  The program  of Lands,  i n the M i n i s t r y ' s planning  i s the s u b - d i s t r i c t  l e v e l . At t h i s  level,  Planning Reports.  there are  S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown L a n d  policies  of Lands, P a r k s and H o u s i n g , and d e s i g n a t i o n s  Crown l a n d  1981), p r o v i d e  f o r a v a r i e t y of r e s o u r c e  i n a p o r t i o n of a Land A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  Sub-  Agreements  and  Plans,  s u c h a s t h e P r i n c e G e o r g e A r e a S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown L a n d (Ministry  Parks  h i e r a r c h y or  Crown L a n d P l a n s , I n t e r i m Crown L a n d Use  Sub-District  Plan  1982).  fourth level  District  for  C l i n t o n Crown  t h e o n l y Crown L a n d  developed at the s u b - r e g i o n a l l e v e l . ( M i n i s t r y and H o u s i n g ,  framework  Plan detailed  uses  on  District.  I n t e r i m Crown L a n d Use A g r e e m e n t s a r e a s t o p - g a p m e a s u r e providing  inter-agency  policy  of S u b - D i s t r i c t P l a n s . The stage of t h e program The  S u b - D i s t r i c t Planning Report  most r e l e v a n t t o t h i s c a s e  agriculture.  conflict  This situation  Report program,  which  reflects  undertaken  between f o r e s t r y  the nature  of the  i s d i r e c t e d a t a l e s s complex  or competition  Crown L a n d  specifically  recommendations  and  Planning  level  of  than i s the case f o r the S u b - D i s t r i c t  P l a n . I t a l s o does not i n v o l v e comprehensive  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The  i s the  study.  F o r t N e l s o n S u b - D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g R e p o r t was  to resolve a resource  conflict  g u i d e l i n e s pending the p r e p a r a t i o n  Regional  contained  D i r e c t o r may  a c t on  land  use  the  i n the P l a n n i n g Report t o the  extent  t h a t e x i s t i n g p o l i c y a l l o w s him, but the c o n c l u s i o n s of the P l a n n i n g R e p o r t a r e n o t b i n d i n g a s i s t h e c a s e w i t h t h e Crown  1 05  l a n d p l a n . The  final  stage i n the M i n i s t r y ' s p l a n n i n g h i e r a r c h y  i s the Development Area l e v e l which p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g program. planning the  i s a s i t e p l a n n i n g or  These a r e a s a r e i d e n t i f i e d a t b r o a d e r  l e v e l s and c a n be i m p l e m e n t e d  Ministry  by o t h e r a g e n c i e s o r by  o f L a n d s , P a r k s and H o u s i n g .  Development Areas a r e implemented P a r k s and H o u s i n g  Agricultural  by t h e M i n i s t r y o f  ( s e e F i g u r e 4 . 2 ) . The M c C o n a c h i e  Lands,  Creek  Project  i s an e x a m p l e o f an A g r i c u l t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t A r e a ; h o w e v e r i t was  n o t p r e c e d e d by a h i g h e r l e v e l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e . The  Sub-District  P l a n n i n g Report  i s conducted  i n t h e same  manner a s t h e s u b - d i s t r i c t Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m Figure  4.2). R e p o r t i n g s c a l e s range  Bio-physical capability  from  1:20,000 t o 1:50,000.  i s not the main c r i t e r i o n  c o n s i d e r e d a l o n g w i t h demand p r o j e c t i o n s , p u b l i c locational  but  i t is  opinion,  a t t r i b u t e s and p o p u l a t i o n t r e n d s t o d e t e r m i n e  suitability.  A number o f c o n c e p t u a l a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e  and e v a l u a t e d w i t h t h e p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e a n d its  (see  selection  stated  i n the f i n a l  P l a n . A f t e r the Concept  Plan  identified  the b a s i s f o r  s u b m i s s i o n of t h e  Concept  i s approved, the D e t a i l e d Plan i s  p r e p a r e d . I n t h e D e t a i l e d Crown L a n d P l a n , t h e r e a r e two designations within Land/Resource  specific  p o s t p o n e d o r n o t p e r m i t t e d , and L a n d / R e s o u r c e i s pursued. This,  i s a f o r m o f an a g r i c u l t u r a l  i s either  Development  i n the case of  Areas  agriculture,  l a n d management p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m  which then l e a d s t o A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Area p l a n n i n g , such as McConachie  main  use a s s i g n m e n t s . T h e s e a r e  Management A r e a s , where d e v e l o p m e n t  where d e v e l o p m e n t  use  Creek  that  project  i s designed f o r the  d i s p o s i t i o n o f Crown l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . T h r o u g h o u t  the  FIGURE 4*2  CROWN LAND PLANNING SUB-DISTRICT PLAN LAND DESIGNATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION*  AGRICULTURE OR G A M I N G  R E C R E A T I O N AND/OR CONSERVATION  INTEGRATED FORESTRY  FISH  AND  R U R A L OR URBAN RESIDENTIAL  NILDLirE HABITAT  : AGRICULTURAL: .AGRICULTURAL j MANAGEMENT j .DEVELOPMENT i AREA : .ARM  |  • INTEGRATED |FORESTRY j MANAGEMENT  A  • RECREATION-; .RECREATION- • SRELATED j .RELATED \ •MANAGEMENT I (DEVELOPMENT i  : :  O-I-C RESERVE NAP R E S E R V E LAND U S E DESIGNATION  LANDS I HOUSING DIVISION. HLPN  O-I-C RESERVE HAP R E S E R V E LAND USE DESIGNATION  M I N I S T R Y Or INITH OTHER  FORESTS AGENCIES)  O-I-C RESERVE HAP R E S E R V E LAND U S E DESIGNATION  P A R A S AND OUTDOOR RECREATION D I V I S I O N M I N I S T R Y Or LANDS, PARKS AND H O U S I N G (WITH O T H E R A G E N C I E S )  ; riSH  i  t  :WILDLIFE ; I RELATED • MANAGEMENT  O-I-C RESERVE MAP R E S E R V E LAND USE DESIGNATION  r i S H AND W I L D L I F E BRANCH, M I N I S T R Y Or ENVIRONMENT  INDUSTRIAL AND/OR COMMERCIAL  r  RESIDENTIAL: :RESIDENTIAL; J INDUSTRIAL/, .INDUSTRIAL/ D E V E L O P M E N T : :COHMERCIAl :;COHHEItCIAL :HANAGEHEHT ::DEVELOPMENT:  MANAGEMENT t  O-I-C RESERVE MAP R E S E R V E LAND USE DESIGNATION  LANDS 1 H O U S I N G D I V I S I O N , HLPK  O-I-C RESERVE HAP R E S E R V E LAND L S E DESIGNATION  LANDS » HOUSING D I V I S I O N , MLPII B R I T I S H COLUMBIA DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION  * S o u r c e : L a n d Use P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n  O T H E R L A N D AND RESOURCE U S E ACTIVITIES  ;OTHER :;OTHER :HANACEMEHT.:DEVELOPHENT: :AREAS  jtAREAS  O-I-C OR MAP RESERVES AS APPROPRIATE LAND USE DESIGNATION T R A N S F E R Or A D M I N . AND C O N T R O L  VARIOUS AGENCIES AS A P P R O P R I A T E  (See R e f e r e n c e s Ch4)  107  p l a n n i n g program at the s u b - d i s t r i c t forces are normally encouraged The  i n v o l v e d and  Housing,  task  is  1981).  maze of p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown more c o m p l e x . The  Crown L a n d R e p o r t a r e a the Premier  establishment land,  interagency  public participation  ( M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s and  l a n d becomes s t i l l  1981,  level,  Fort Nelson S u b - D i s t r i c t  i s also a Deferred  issued a directive  be  In  t h a t c o n f l i c t s between  of P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t s and  including agriculture, will  Planning Area.  o t h e r u s e s o f Crown  r e s o l v e d by d e f e r r i n g t h e  establishment  of P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t s  p e r i o d of two  y e a r s . P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d by  Cabinet  u n d e r t h e F o r e s t A c t and  i n c e r t a i n areas  are administered  M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s . U s e s w h i c h a r e n o t are  r e s t r i c t e d . Deferred  district  along  by  compatible  Planning Areas are  for a  the  with  i s s u e s . A p u b l i c involvement  w i t h the c o - o p e r a t i o n  ( M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s  forestry  s u b j e c t to the  Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m w h i c h i"s u s e d t o  outstanding  process  H o u s i n g and  sub-  resolve  i s required  of a l l r e l e v a n t government  and  the  M i n i s t r y of  agencies Forests,  1981). The in  1983.  Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m was, P r o g r a m P l a n n i n g was  then  however, put  e s t a b l i s h e d as  in  the  o p e r a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m f o r t h e M i n i s t r y of L a n d s , and  Housing. Product  Program P l a n n i n g product  d e l i v e r y and  i s designed  o r i e n t e d " (Land  t o be  s e r v i c e became t h e  agency t a s k f o r c e or p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n the  same t i m e , one  of t h e  Parks  key  words.  " e f f i c i e n t , pragmatic  Planning Branch,  1983,  limbo  p . 7 ) . No  and inter-  i s p e r m i t t e d . At  about  l e a d c o o r d i n a t i n g mechanisms i n t h e  Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ,  the R e g i o n a l  R e s o u r c e Management  108  C o m m i t t e e s , were a l s o a b o l i s h e d . I n P r o g r a m P l a n n i n g , s u b j e c t i v e and  qualitative  flexibility  j u d g e m e n t by  planning w i l l  land uses w i l l  rural  residential  4.2.1  Planning Area Ideally,  lots  uses,  (Land  to proceed  Ministry  be done, i n s t e a d priorities  r e c r e a t i o n a l cottage  Planning Branch,  for lots  and  1983).  i n i t i a t e a p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e , but  is left  to the M i n i s t r y e x e c u t i v e .  with s i g n i f i c a n t c o n f l i c t  Crown l a n d r e s o u r c e s . D e f e r r e d by  programs.  i n t h e o r i g i n a l Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m a l m o s t  i s p l a c e d on a r e a s  jointly  with  Identification  i n t e r e s t e d p a r t y can  approval  not  be e m p h a s i s e d . The  1983/84 were a g r i c u l t u r a l  any  i s encouraged along  in designing regional planning  C o m p r e h e n s i v e l a n d use specific  staff  and  of F o r e s t s u s i n g a q u a l i t a t i v e  Priority  or c o m p e t i t i o n  Planning Areas are  t h e M i n i s t r y of L a n d s , P a r k s  H o u s i n g and  r a t h e r than  the  a  a r e b a s e d on Crown  that are proposed f o r P r o v i n c i a l Forest  s t a t u s but h a v e  Nelson  f o r o r demand f r o m o t h e r  P l a n n i n g R e p o r t a r e a was  essential competition f o r e s t r y and The  resource  identified  Fort  i n t h i s manner.  The  i s between  agriculture.  McConachie Creek P r o j e c t does not  p r e s c r i b e d p l a n n i n g program molds except A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Area.  I t was  l o c a l demand f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l  l a n d and  capabilities.  lands  the  s e c t o r s . The  o c c u r r i n g i n Fort Nelson  for  identified  q u a n t i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n . Planning areas  capability  final  I n t h i s s e n s e , i t may  Program P l a n n i n g approach  f i t w i t h i n any  as an  of  the  isolated  p r o p o s e d i n 1982 the land's  based  on  perceived  be a good e x a m p l e o f t h e  ( s e e a b o v e ) o r an o p p o r t u n i t y  new  planning  109  program f o r p r o j e c t s .  4.3 The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n  of P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s  Objectives  The M c C o n a c h i e C r e e k P r o j e c t h a s no d o c u m e n t e d o b j e c t i v e s other  than  t h e d i s p o s a l o f Crown l a n d l o t s  for agricultural  development  ( M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks  Fort Nelson  A r e a S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown L a n d P l a n n i n g  generally  and H o u s i n g ,  1 9 8 2 ) . The Report  follows the o b j e c t i v e s set i n the M i n i s t r y ' s Planning  Handbook and i n t h e i n t e r - M i n i s t r y D e f e r r e d f r a m e w o r k a s d i r e c t e d by t h e P r e m i e r . Fort Nelson  Area  Primarily,  planning the g o a l of t h e  P l a n n i n g Report i s t o r e s o l v e t h e i s s u e of the  proposed P r o v i n c i a l Forest boundaries.  The g o a l o f t h e o v e r a l l  Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m i s t o :  f a c i l i t a t e a n d d e v e l o p p l a n s f o r management, use and a l i e n a t i o n o f u n r e s e r v e d Crown l a n d s i n a manner t h a t w i l l o p t i m i z e t h e l o n g t e r m economic, s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l b e n e f i t s t o t h e c i t i z e n s of B r i t i s h Columbia (Land P l a n n i n g B r a n c h and P e a c e R e g i o n , 1983, p. i ) .  The s p e c i f i c  Fort Nelson  P l a n n i n g R e p o r t o b j e c t i v e s b a s e d on  this overall  g o a l a n d e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l  taskforce are:  • t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s and a l l o c a t e suitable  land to their  uses;  •to f a c i l i t a t e  programs of r e s o u r c e  i n v o l v i n g Crown  land;  agencies  most  110  •to  stabilize  •to  reduce  the f o r e s t  base;  a p p l i c a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g time w i t h plan area  designations; •to  establish  schedules  f o r the p l a n n i n g  d e v e l o p m e n t of p r o j e c t s by t h e M i n i s t r y  of Lands  P a r k s and H o u s i n g  and  Region,  (Land P l a n n i n g Branch  listed  i n t h e document t h a t may  P l a n n i n g Report  d e t r a c t from  s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s . These l i m i t a t i o n s w i l l subsequent  Peace  1983).  A number of l i m i t a t i o n s t o t h e F o r t N e l s o n  4.4  and  are  the achievement  of  be d i s c u s s e d i n  sections.  Environmental  Factors for Planning  Climatic capability mapped. H o w e v e r , s o i l  f o r the F o r t Nelson  s u r v e y o r s have d e v e l o p e d  c a p a b i l i t y assessment based w e a t h e r s t a t i o n s and capability  a r e a has n o t  on d a t a  t h e use  from a d j a c e n t  climatic airport  of r e g r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s . T h i s  i s related to elevation  r e c e i v i n g a lower c a p a b i l i t y  a  been  levels with higher  classification.  by V a l e n t i n e (1971) u s e s t e c h n i q u e s b a s e d  The  levels  earlier  on p r a i r i e  survey  conditions.  F o r t h e F o r t N e l s o n P l a n n i n g R e p o r t , c o n s u l t a n t s were e n g a g e d t o r e v i s e V a l e n t i n e ' s s u r v e y and Kowall  ( 1 9 8 2 ) . The  climatic  capability  c o n s u l t a n t s found classification  on more a c c u r a t e d a t a u s e d the c o n s u l t a n t s proposed  a more r e c e n t s u r v e y  i t necessary  t o downgrade  i n the V a l e n t i n e r e p o r t  i n the K o w a l l survey.  r e d u c i n g the c l i m a t i c  by  based  Furthermore,  capability  class  111  on n o r t h and climatic  f a c i n g s l o p e s due  to perceived  i n t e r v i e w , 1985), but  nevertheless  Climatic capability  f a c t o r s other  than  c l i m a t e , has  a g r i c u l t u r e but has o f c l a s s 5c w i l l  a climatic  be a s s i g n e d .  overall capability  A map  surveys  f o u r and  i t s climatic  precipitation  to the  ( K o w a l l , 1982)  rating  receive  an  capability.  the f r e e z e - f r e e  (Air Studies  south  intensity  survey  level  and  of F o r t N e l s o n  a g r i c u l t u r a l p l a n n i n g and  intensity  e n t i r e McConachie Creek P r o j e c t area by o n l y e i g h t map climatic  u n i t s . According  capability,  a b o v e 455  ( V a l e n t i n e , 1971).  on  t h e b a s i s of map.  the  This  l o t l a y o u t w h i c h i s more  level  two  survey.  of 7500 h e c t a r e s  to the  m e t r e s a s l and  on  The is  covered  revised calculations .  the McConachie Creek p r o j e c t  i s d o w n g r a d e d t o a t l e a s t a CLI a b o u t 70%  the  i s only s u i t e d for broad  not d e t a i l e d  a p p r o p r i a t e l y done w i t h an  the  1:126,000 f o r  t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g CLI  four survey  intensity  1:100,000 f o r  and  McConachie Creek P r o j e c t i s developed  mostly  not  f o r the area are conducted at survey  n o r t h of F o r t N e l s o n  1:126,000 s o i l  for  can  a r e p u b l i s h e d a t a s c a l e of  a r e a a r o u n d and The  than  for  a capability  polygon  to  1981).  Soil  area  overall  c l a s s three rating  i n c o r p o r a t e s i n f o r m a t i o n on  p e r i o d , g r o w i n g d e g r e e d a y s and  been u s e d  I n an a r e a w h i c h , due  class five,  rating higher  Climatic capability  level  a CLI  change  area.  i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the  agricultural capability classification.  this  i t has  t h e c a p a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s of t h e F o r t N e l s o n  Branch,  harsher  c o n d i t i o n s . T h e r e i s some d i s a g r e e m e n t o v e r  (Valentine in  east  e a s t and  area,  north facing slopes,  c l a s s 5 s o i l . This  includes  o f t h e l o t s . A number of t h e a d v e r t i s e d u n i t s h a v e  1 12  l e s s t h a n 50% a r a b l e given  soils,  even a c c o r d i n g  t o the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  i n t h e p r o j e c t documents, which i s c o n t r a r y  to established  M i n i s t r y p o l i c y ( M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and Housing, The  information  provided  McConachie Creek P r o j e c t or on-farm s o i l Lidstone,  by t h e s o i l  survey covering the  i s not appropriate  f o r farm u n i t  management r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  ( V a l e n t i n e and  1985). P r i o r t o t h e p u b l i c a u c t i o n ,  a v a i l a b l e which c a l l e d i n t o question classification capability l o t s with  of the p r o j e c t area.  area higher  information  ignored  since c e r t a i n  than the c a p a b i l i t y survey  d o c u m e n t s a l s o do n o t i n c l u d e an e v a l u a t i o n  Project  o f any o t h e r  besides a g r i c u l t u r e .  Soil  surveys f o r the Fort Nelson Planning  as m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , consultants  hired t o provide  capability classification significant  Report area a r e ,  conducted at i n t e n s i t y l e v e l  a l i m i t e d amount o f f i e l d  flooding  was  Furthermore, the o r i g i n a l  i n d i c a t e s have been o f f e r e d . The M c C o n a c h i e C r e e k  did  layout  thec a p a b i l i t y  s u r v e y a p p e a r s t o have been stated arable  resources  1982).  f o u r . The  additional bio-physical  information  work t o r e v i s e t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l  of the o l d e r  surveys.  The most  r e v i s i o n s a r e a d o w n g r a d i n g o f c a p a b i l i t y b a s e d on  i n t h e f l o o d p l a i n a r e a s a n d b a s e d on c l i m a t e .  polygons are subdivided  Some  i n a c c e s s i b l e a r e a s where f i e l d  work was  conducted. The  o r i g i n a l c a p a b i l i t y i n v e n t o r i e s are enlarged  1:50,000 s c a l e w h i c h i s t h e minimum r e q u i r e d district  planning  process.  to a  s c a l e i n t h e sub-  The r e v i s e d c a p a b i l i t y o f map  p o l y g o n s may make t h e c a p a b i l i t y maps more a c c u r a t e ,  but the  e n l a r g e m e n t p r o c e s s d o e s n o t make t h e maps more p r e c i s e ,  except  113  in  those areas which are  inspections. to planning suited map  p o l y g o n s and  s c a l e . The  limitations,  new  site  s m a l l e r . They a r e  1:50,000 s c a l e i s r e q u i r e d  u n i t s r e m a i n much t h e  consultant's  report,  s u g g e s t s t h a t a 1:20,  000  before not  because  same as t h o s e a t  in recognizing s o i l and  the  these  climatic  survey  c o n d u c t e d of t h e a r e a s i n d i c a t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l  before  allocating  The larger  land  Planning  (Talisman  Report area  Resource Consultants,  covers  to a l l o c a t e land without  p h y s i c a l context limitation  i n which i t l i e s  i n the  consultant's  report  l o t l a y o u t . The  capability  report  i s not soils  the  information  was  provided  c o l l e c t e d only  intensity  in  the  such  for  l e v e l of t h e  t h e c a p a b i l i t y . i n v e n t o r y c o u l d be  land.  a  s u i t a b l e for d e t a i l e d planning  information  the  larger bio-  h a v e been r a i s e d as  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . I f the  were h i g h e r ,  contain arable  understanding  i t s e l f . The  1982).  o n l y a s m a l l p o r t i o n of  r e g i o n a r o u n d F o r t N e l s o n w h i c h may  Decisions  as  the b a s i s of the  1:100,000 and  where a  map  on  t h e maps a r e b e t t e r s u i t e d t h a n  at a s c a l e of  for planning  smaller  be  I n t h e end,  subdived  survey  u s e d f o r some  on-  f a r m management p u r p o s e s . A l t h o u g h not o f A g r i c u l t u r e and Fort Nelson  g o o d and  Planning  R e p o r t , the M i n i s t r y  Food c o n d u c t e d y i e l d d e m o n s t r a t i o n t r i a l s  f o r a v a r i e t y o f c e r e a l g r a i n s and  were d i s c o n t i n u e d According  mentioned i n the  a f t e r two  t o the D i s t r i c t  y e a r s due  t o a l a c k of  Agriculturist,  the  show t h a t a w i d e r a n g e o f c r o p s c a n  N e l s o n ; however, t h i s does not i s c u r r e n t l y economic  (Bomford,  imply  canola.  These  funds.  r e s u l t s are be  in  very  produced i n Fort  that crop production  there  1984).  Forestry, recreational, w i l d l i f e  and  extractive  resources  1 14  of  the area  c o v e r e d by t h e F o r t N e l s o n P l a n n i n g  r e v i e w e d by t h e c o n s u l t a n t . i n d i v i d u a l l y according  These r e s o u r c e s  are evaluated  to, primarily, existing  i n v e n t o r i e s . C a p a b i l i t y and p r i m a r y  Report are a l s o  resource  i n v e n t o r y maps a t a 1:50,000  s c a l e a r e prepared f o r each of t h e f i v e resource planning  r e p o r t d o c u m e n t , more d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n  of each of t h e r e s o u r c e species  to particular  contained provides sectors  uses. In the  uses l i n k i n g  s o i l s or landscapes.  i n the resource the basic  specific  input  c a p a b i l i t i e s or  The  information  i n v e n t o r i e s and c a p a b i l i t y into suitability  i s given  mapping  ratings f o r various  (see Section 4.6).  4.5 The A s s e s s m e n t a n d R e l e v a n c e o f S o c i o - e c o n o m i c F a c t o r s i n the  Planning Neither  Planning  Exercise the McConachie Creek P r o j e c t nor the F o r t  Report study  i n c l u d e a review  or e v a l u a t i o n  Nelson  of s o c i o -  economic f a c t o r s , nor a r e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and s e r v i c e s considered.  I n f a c t , F o r t N e l s o n h a s no f a r m  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and t h e n e a r e s t to the south  i n F o r t S t . John  Report s t a t e s c l e a r l y role  f a r m s e r v i c e s a r e 400 ( B o m f o r d , 1 9 8 4 ) . The  socio-economic c r i t e r i a  i n t h e a n a l y s i s . A l s o , t h e l e v e l of c u r r e n t  the a r e a ' s resources area  that  support  and t h e l e v e l  o f management  Planning p l a y a minor  u t i l i z a t i o n of i n the plan  a n d t h e r e g i o n a r e n o t a d d r e s s e d . The P l a n n i n g  admits t o operating  kilometres  Report  i n a vacuum c a u s e d by t h e a b s e n c e o f a  b r o a d e r r e g i o n a l p l a n . The o n l y  economic a n a l y s i s i n McConachie  Creek i s a l i m i t e d e v a l u a t i o n of whether l a n d s a l e s w i l l the c o s t of a c c e s s roads and e l e c t r i c a l  services.  cover  1 15  In attempting  to assess  l a n d , the P l a n n i n g  the  requirements for  agricultural  Report mentions the e x t r a c o s t  of c l e a r i n g  l a n d due  t o h e a v y f o r e s t , t h e a b s e n c e o f m a r k e t s and  distance  i n v o l v e d t o s h i p s u p p l i e s and  out  t h a t no a s s e s s s m e n t has  grown e c o n o m i c a l l y of the  lands  In l i g h t "there  already  i n the  1983, the  of a r a b l e  blocks  focus  and  4.6  term"  task  no  Planning  their  limited  circumstances. resources  utilization  the  i s s u e s and  or  requirements.  maps a r e  to  suitability develop  generated  w i l d l i f e . Variables  include resource,  l a n d . The  true  scenarios  l a n d use,  and  e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e management  d e v e l o p m e n t of  i s also  by i t s  Report i n c l u d e s a land  f o r e s t r y , r e c r e a t i o n and  Fort  their  is particularly  plan a l t e r n a t i v e s . I n d i v i d u a l s u i t a b i l i t y  s o c i a l and  states  Selection  a i d t o r e s o l v e l a n d use  to determine s u i t a b i l i t y  farmed.  Plannning  Report i t s e l f ,  l a c k of a n a l y s i s . T h i s  Fort Nelson Planning  agriculture,  little  further disposition  requirements for other  to the  be  Land  i n i t i t i a t i v e s c o u l d c h a n g e l a n d use  a n a l y s i s as an  very  being  force  i m p l i e s t h a t , b a s e d on  A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s and The  Further,  ( P e a c e R e g i o n and  f o r e s t r y where a number of s p e c i e s  silvicultural  c r o p s which can  of Crown l a n d u n d e r c u r r e n t  assessment of  points  a v a i l a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e i n the  f o r c e p r e f e r s t o see  hampered, a c c o r d i n g  for  area  short  task  It also  a l l o c a t e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e are  p.26). This  analysis,  limited  the  of a l l t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t h e  Nelson area  The  been done of  i n the F o r t Nelson area.  is sufficient  Branch,  products.  the  for  used the  and  s e l e c t i o n of t h e s e v a r i a b l e s i s  116  unusual  i n t h a t most o f them a r e o m i t t e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s i n  the Planning Report. A four c l a s s r a t i n g of s u i t a b i l i t y  i s developed  r e s o u r c e , r a n g i n g from h i g h t o n i l . A g r i c u l t u r a l d e t e r m i n e d m a i n l y from e n v i r o n m e n t a l c r i t e r i a capability, topography  soil  such as c l i m a t i c  a n d e r o s i o n . The o n l y n o n - e n v i r o n m e n t a l  rating.  suitability  i n t o lower s u i t a b i l i t y  f a c t o r c a n bump t h e p o l y g o n  For example, i f a s i t e  high rating  ratings Each  t o a lower  meets a l l t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r a  b u t p h y s i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s t o a c c e s s may e x i s t , i t  be c l a s s i f i e d  sectors, different wildlife  hazard,  limitation i s  on g r o u p i n g s o f p r o g r e s s i v e l y p o o r e r c o n d i t i o n s .  individual  would  suitability i s  limitations to selected crops, flooding  a c c e s s . Polygons a r e c l a s s i f i e d based  f o r each  as moderate s u i t a b i l i t y . suitability  For other resource  f a c t o r s e x i s t . F o r e s t r y and  o n l y use e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s , w h i l e  recreation  i n c l u d e s a c c e s s a g a i n and uses a w e i g h t i n g system  to  classify  suitability. Suitability the r e p o r t c a l l s  maps, o n c e d e v e l o p e d , a r e c o m b i n e d t h r o u g h what r u l e s of c o m b i n a t i o n . These r u l e s a r e n o t  s p e c i f i e d ; however, depending alternatives suitability allocated  on t h e e m p h a s i s o f e a c h o f t h e  (discussed below), lands with the highest f o r the p a r t i c u l a r  use b e i n g emphasised a r e  t o t h a t u s e . The amount a l l o c a t e d  p r o j e c t e d requirements  r e f l e c t s the  f o r t h a t u s e . The r e s u l t i n g a l l o c a t i o n i s  c o m p a r e d t o t h e s t a t u s quo and t o t h e r e s u l t i n g resource use. Further adjustments until  i m p a c t on e a c h  a r e made by t h e P l a n n i n g Team  a n a c c e p t a b l e f i t i s a r r a n g e d among ( a n d w i t h i n ) t h e  various alternatives  ( K o k , 1 9 8 5 ) . The r e s u l t  of t h i s e x e r c i s e i s  1 17  a p o r t f o l i o of a l t e r n a t i v e conceptual on  p l a n maps w h i c h a r e b a s e d  d i f f e r e n t f u t u r e management a n d d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g i e s . The  four a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s f o r Fort Nelson a r e :  •agricultural  emphasis;  • m i x e d management ( a g r i c u l t u r a l • m i x e d management ( w i l d l i f e  emphasis);  emphasis);  • f o r e s t r y management e m p h a s i s .  T h e s e a l t e r n a t i v e s were p r e s e n t e d t o t h e p u b l i c a n d  other  a g e n c i e s f o r r e v i e w a n d a p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e was s e l e c t e d by the  t a s k f o r c e . The p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e i s n o t p u b l i c a l l y  since  the Planning  R e p o r t was s u b m i t t e d t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f  L a n d s , P a r k s and H o u s i n g made y e t . T h i s  i n 1983 a n d a d e c i s i o n h a s n o t been  s t e p of s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e M i n i s t e r i s not i n t h e  documented program; n e v e r t h e l e s s , o r i g i n a l Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g by  Program P l a n n i n g .  This  i t has e f f e c t i v e l y  p r o g r a m , w h i c h i s now  means a r e t u r n  shelved the  substituted  t o t h e development of  u n i l a t e r a l planning  programs such as the i m p o s i t i o n of  Provincial Forests  and p r o j e c t s such as McConachie Creek  due  consideration  factors.  known  of o t h e r  resource  values  without  or socio-economic  118  4.7 I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e P l a n As m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , t h e F o r t N e l s o n A r e a S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown Land P l a n n i n g finally Plan  R e p o r t h a s n o t been i m p l e m e n t e d . E v e n i f i t i s  approved, i t i s d o u b t f u l  that  i twill  go t o t h e D e t a i l e d  s t a g e s i n c e t h e o v e r a l l Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g  program has  been s u s p e n d e d . I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e M c C o n a c h i e C r e e k  Project  was u n d e r t a k e n by t h e M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s a n d H o u s i n g . Procedures f o r lease-purchase  agreements and p u b l i c  generally  follow the Ministry's extensive  discussed  earlier.  attempts t o recover During  highest  agriculture policy,  The M i n i s t r y h a s f u n d e d 38 k i l o m e t r e s o f  a c c e s s r o a d s and e l e c t r i c a l it  auctions  s e r v i c i n g t o some o f t h e l o t s , b u t  these costs  i n the p r i c e s of the l o t s .  1982 a n d 1983 a l l 55 l o t s were a l l o c a t e d . The  b i d i s the sole c r i t e r i o n  f o r d i s p o s i t i o n . To d a t e ,  o f t h e p a r c e l s a r e u n d e r g o i n g some d e v e l o p m e n t . No l a n d project  i s yet i n a g r i c u l t u r a l production,  Agriculturalist will  i n the project  r e v e r t t o t h e Crown due t o l a c k o f d e v e l o p m e n t  beyond t h e normal review  i nthe  and t h e D i s t r i c t  p r e d i c t s t h a t 50% of t h e l a n d  1 9 8 4 ) . T h e r e i s no m o n i t o r i n g  13  (Bomford,  and e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s i n p l a c e  of whether l e a s e development  conditions  h a v e beeen met by t h e l e a s e e .  4.7.1  R o l e o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Agency a n d S u p p o r t P r o g r a m s f o r  A g r i c u l t u r a l Development i n t h e M a r g i n a l The planning Nelson  Fringe  M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food"s i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown l a n d  i s l i m i t e d . Fort Nelson  i s i n the Fort  i n Fort  S t . John  119  agricultural cultivated  district  which includes  f a r m l a n d but  has  only  25%  one  of B r i t i s h  Columbia's  professional agrologist  s t a f f . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and reacts  t o t h e M i n i s t r y o f L a n d , P a r k s and  Recommendations are other  the  inter-departmental  i n the  with  land c a p a b i l i t y , parcel size  taskforce  the  Fort Nelson area,  has  only  t h a t may  already  half  the  be  more r e l e v a n t  program  include  level  classified  resources  and  erosion  the  be  F o o d , 1 9 8 3 a ) . As  agricultural  s i n g l e farm u n i t .  obtaining  farm  Eligible  on-farm farm  sales  this  status. the  ( M i n i s t r y of  mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , t h i s Crown l a n d .  f i n d , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h a t he  development funding  one-  C o n s e q u e n t l y , many n e w l y  p u r c h a s e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e from the  a p p l i c a n t may  at  f o r A.L.D.A. must h a v e a l r e a d y  a p r e r e q u i s i t e for purchasing  l a n d may  loans  as a f a r m f o r t a x p u r p o s e s a minimum  equipment t o o p e r a t e the  A g r i c u l t u r e and  than  c o n t r o l . However, s i n c e the  farm u n i t s have d i f f i c u l t y  and  areas  Food  A g r i c u l t u r a l -Land D e v e l o p m e n t  t o $25,000 per  F u r t h e r m o r e , the a p p l i c a n t  not  t o newly d e v e l o p i n g  u s u a l l y must be a c h i e v e d .  developing  and  1984).  l a n d c l e a r i n g , seedbed p r e p a r a t i o n ,  roads, water supply must be  Crown  extension  ( A . L . D . A . ) . A.L.D.A. p r o v i d e s  p r i m e r a t e up  projects  (Bomford,  Planning  p r o g r a m w h i c h t h e M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and  d e v e l o p e d a r e a s i s the  Assistance  Food d i d s i t  f o r the F o r t Nelson  Ministry staff  and  However, a  a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t of  t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s have i n c r e a s e d The  only  proposals.  f r o m t h e M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and  R e p o r t a r e a and, lands  on  related factors for individual referrals.  representative on  given  Housing  Food  on  from t h a t  is  I n e f f e c t , Crown government, is ineligible  same g o v e r n m e n t .  and for  120  The  Ministry  o f A g r i c u l t u r e and F o o d a l s o has a  L o a n P r o g r a m and a P a r t i a l Partial  I n t e r e s t Reimbursement Program.  I n t e r e s t Reimbursement Program reduces  one p e r c e n t b e l o w t h e p r i m e Food,  Guaranteed  rate  interest costs to  ( M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e  p r o g r a m w h i c h c o u l d have been a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e  F o r t N e l s o n a r e a i s t h e Canada- B r i t i s h Columbia  Agriculture  R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t A g r e e m e n t . Under t h i s a g r e e m e n t , f u n d s available  through the Support  Program t o p r o v i d e p a r t i a l  projects  (Department  funding for e l e c t r i c a l facilities  Crown l a n d  rural  job c r e a t i o n  i n the F o r t Nelson  1977). this area.  Disposition is allocated  p r o v i s i o n s of the Land Act subject  and  f u n d s were s p e n t u n d e r  a g r e e m e n t , w h i c h e x p i r e d i n 1983,  Crown L a n d  for agricultural  (Ch 214,  use u n d e r  R . S . B . C , 1979)  P a r k s and H o u s i n g ,  1 9 8 1 ) . The  following  a p p l y t o t h e l e a s e o r s a l e o f Crown l a n d f o r agricultural  the  and  to the M i n i s t r y ' s E x t e n s i v e A g r i c u l t u r e P o l i c y  of Lands,  are  servicing,  of R e g i o n a l , Economic E x p a n s i o n ,  i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t any  and  S e r v i c e s and Community D e v e l o p m e n t  market a c c e s s roads, m a r k e t i n g  4.7.2  and  1983b). Another  There  The  is (Ministry  conditions  commercial  development:  • a p p l i c a n t s must be C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n s o r l a n d e d i m m i g r a n t s , 19 y e a r s o r o l d e r ; • a p p l i c a n t s must h a v e r e s i d e d i n B.C. f o r two c o n s e c u t i v e y e a r s i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r t o the date of application; • d e v e l o p m e n t a n d c u l t i v a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s must be i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a c l e a r i n g p l a n p r e p a r e d by t h e Ministry; •removal of t i m b e r i s r e s t r i c t e d t o a r a b l e p o r t i o n s  121  of t h e l e a s e h o l d . A M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s ' L i c e n s e t o Cut i s r e q u i r e d f o r t i m b e r r e m o v a l ; •performance i s s e c u r e d t h r o u g h a buy-back o p t i o n registered against t i t l e ; • l e s s t h a n 15 h e c t a r e p a r c e l s , when p u r c h a s e d , must be b o u n d o r c o n s o l i d a t e d i n t i t l e w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g fee l a n d of a p p l i c a n t ; • l a n d u n d e r a p p l i c a t i o n must be a minimum o f 5 0 % arable; • t o t a l a r e a o f Crown l a n d h e l d a t a n y one t i m e c a n n o t e x c e e d 520 h e c t a r e s , u n l e s s s o o r d e r e d by C a b i n e t ; •minimum p a r c e l s i z e f o r d i s p o s i t i o n i s 15 h e c t a r e s , u n l e s s a d j a c e n t t o a p a r c e l owned by t h e a p p l i c a n t ; • r e s a l e t o non-Canadians i s not p e r m i t t e d .  Several  d i f f e r e n t tenures  a r e a v a i l a b l e on Crown l a n d i n  A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Area p r o j e c t s o r i n o t h e r by a Crown l a n d p l a n . The most i m p o r t a n t Fort Nelson area  are discussed  areas  covered  forms of t e n u r e  i n the  below.  Crown l a n d c a n be s o l d i f i t i s b e i n g if  an e x i s t i n g  kinds  farm r e q u i r e s  15 h e c t a r e s  o r l e s s . The m a j o r  o f s a l e s , however, a r e those r e s u l t i n g from a l e a s e - t o -  purchase agreement, d i s c u s s e d given  u s e d i n t r e s p a s s -or  below. Lease-only tenures a r e  f o r t h o s e a r e a s where s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  flooding  reserve,  such as a  w a r r a n t s u c h an a r r a n g e m e n t .  L e a s e - t o - p u r c h a s e i s t h e main form of tenure d i s p o s i t i o n o f Crown l a n d  f o r the  f o ragriculture i n B r i t i s h  L e a s e - d e v e l o p - p u r c h a s e a g r e e m e n t s c a n be a c q u i r e d  by d i r e c t  application.  I f no c o m p e t i t i o n  application,  i t i s a p p r o v e d by t h e M i n i s t r y a n d made a v a i l a b l e  at t h e appraised  i s likely  Columbia.  f o r the land  m a r k e t v a l u e . When c o m p e t i t i o n  under  i s l i k e l y or  when t h e M i n i s t r y i s m a r k e t i n g new f a r m u n i t s w h i c h i t h a s developed, the land a f f e c t e d i s advertised an a u c t i o n  i s held  (see Figure  4.3).  f o r d i s p o s i t i o n and  The u p s e t , o r minimum,  25i pnranrmstti  ui  wowwrroism  i251 pmrarrFOtsAu  list  nomTFOtuu  PUBLIC AUCTION OF AGRICULTURAL CROWN LAND  The Ministry of Lariat, Parks and Housing wHI be auctioning ths following agricultural paresis on a leass-osvsiop-purcnass basis. Thsee paresis am located In ths McConachie Creek Area which Is North of Fort Nelson. Upset Arable Area Parcel District Slzsin No, Lot No. Price Power , ***** in Hectares 1t6.43» 116 44,773 Yss . 3326 14 Yea 18 3328 120.483 116 46.374 YSS 17 3328 125438 ' 110 45,278 YSS 18 3390 98.814. 93 39,742 YSS * 3331 108:887 64 39492 :19 20 ' 3338 T92443 171 52.861 NO -~*21 3341 81.144 39 23,417 NO 253348 . \ 245.54 213 64,025 No 3846 ' " , 8648 82 24,716 NO " 3? • 3384 189.14 170 48,098 NO 38 3359. 12043 109 36,064 No 37 3380 14*36 79 32403 No 38 3361 13338 77 32,071 No 4t 3304 148.87 108 .38424 NO 44 3387 104.48 . 32,090 No - 99 3388* 45 104.44 .>. 83 31,493< No 336T 48 11857 , 89 33488 No •*47 3370 - 117.38*- " 53 30442 No  3>  w^'orfmACcmmounjncT  All Legal Deeeripoonsand Stzoasubjeottofinalsurvey plen approval. Tn* publk; suction wW brhsM w atton Centre, Fort Hslsch. Bonus bids for the right to soqutre these psroets on the awns and oondltlona specified in the agreement will only be aootptsd from Cansdlsfldttzare) who have resided In . British Wumblatortwo yean immediately preceding signing an agreement and who -are 18 yean of older. Bids will not be aoospted rrow0>ipori9ons, except for farm ooipcx allocs as defined under the Agricultural Crodft Act of B.C. Successful bidden win enter Into a 10 year Isaes and wW be required to develop 28 per cent of the arable portion before purchasing the land , Further Inforrr*^ on those parceh)  BCf^  FIGURE 4.3; ADVERTISING CROWN LAND DISPOSITIONS*  * S o u r c e : The Sun, May 20, 1983  123  p r i c e at the The  auction  lease's  i s the a p p r a i s e d  market  term i s ten y e a r s d u r i n g  at the M i n i s t r y ' s p r e s c r i b e d  rate  the  l a n d , and  i n i t i a l p r i c e of t h e  p e r c e n t of leasee  the  brings  production  appraised  the  value  w i t h i n the  is  f o r g i v e n and  If  the  leasee  the  first  land  d o e s not  into production added t o t h e  i s s o l d at  selling  r e n t a l rate w i l l  first  f i v e years.  p o r t i o n of t h e  f i v e years,  the  the  h a v e been met,  i s the  the into  accumulated i n t e r e s t  the  arable  price.  portion  t h i s becomes t h e  s e l l i n g p r i c e . I n t e r e s t a c c u m u l a t e s on  conditions  1  accumulated i n t e r e s t i s  p r i c e and  s e l l i n g p r i c e i n y e a r s s i x t o t e n and  be  land  s e l l i n g p r i c e . A n n u a l r e n t a l t h e n becomes 5 p e r c e n t of revised  on  If  i t s initial selling  p e r c e n t of  within five years,  original  the  arable  b r i n g 25  which time i n t e r e s t ,  (1982-18.75%), accumulates  f o r the  25 p e r c e n t of t h e  value.  the  the  revised the  revised  p u r c h a s e p r i c e , once  revised s e l l i n g  price  plus  accumulated i n t e r e s t . To  purchase lands  25 p e r c e n t of  under a l e a s e - d e v e l o p - p u r c h a s e agreement,  the a r a b l e  l a n d must be d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n  or e l s e t h e  land  r e v e r t s to the  r e t a i n s the  r i g h t to repurchase the  a farm f o r tax purposes brochure, for  1 9 8 1 ) . The  land u n t i l  M i n i s t r y d o e s not  require  k n o w l e d g e of  r e q u i r e a p p l i c a n t s t o show t h a t develop the  Crown. A f t e r s a l e , t h e  Crown  that  Housing  applicants  f a r m i n g nor  t h e y have the  years  i t is classified  ( M i n i s t r y of L a n d s , P a r k s and  Crown l a n d d e m o n s t r a t e any  10  resources  does i t to  land.  Timber h a r v e s t i n g  on Crown l a n d s  purposes i s a contentious remove t i m b e r  issue  from a l l a r a b l e  . The  portions  leased leassee of the  for has  agricultural the  lease  r i g h t to  under a  1 24  license t o cut issued purchasing the land,  by t h e M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s . the leassee w i l l  Upon  have t o p u r c h a s e t h e  r e m a i n i n g t i m b e r a t t h e g o i n g stumpage r a t e o r e l s e r i g h t s t o t h e t i m b e r . The a c c u s a t i o n applicants  acquire  Crown l a n d  development simply  lose the  h a s been made t h a t many  under t h e g u i s e of a g r i c u l t u r a l  f o r t h e t i m b e r r i g h t s (The S u n , December 13,  1984). Referrals  on Crown l a n d  applications  for agricultural  d e v e l o p m e n t may be t o t h e M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e Ministry  of Environment, M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s  appropriate  Regional D i s t r i c t .  I f the land  and Food,  and t o t h e  i s not w i t h i n  t h e ALR  then a r e f e r r a l  i s made t o t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d C o m m i s s i o n t o  consider  i tincluded.  having  Appeals are p o s s i b l e  Ministry's  position  arability.  A p p e a l s c a n be made on t h e R e g i o n a l  decision  regarding  t h e l a n d ' s a p p r a i s e d v a l u e and  concerning a p p l i c a t i o n s  Application  Appeal  on t h e  Director's  to the Ministry's  Land  Committee.  4.8 The S i g n i f i c a n c e  of P u b l i c  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Planning  Exerecise T h e r e h a s been no o f f i c i a l McConachie Creek P r o j e c t involvement generally  i n the Fort  follows  public  involvement  p l a n n i n g or development.  i n the Public  Nelson Planning Report planning  the guidelines  Handbook. The Handbook s t a t e s  i n the Ministry's  exercise  Planning  that:  l o c a l c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n planning can l e a d t o more a c c e p t a b l e p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d management o f Crown l a n d  125  r e s o u r c e s . ( M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and H o u s i n g , 1981, p . v i i - c 2 ) .  The  p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m r e s u l t s must be d o c u m e n t e d  i n t h e p l a n documents a s they Report.  In Fort Nelson,  are i n the F o r t Nelson  p u b l i c i n p u t was s o l i c i t e d  q u e s t i o n n a i r e format a f t e r a l t e r n a t i v e prepared.  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e q u e s t e d  Planning  through  a  s t r a t e g i e s h a d been that the p a r t i c i p a n t s  s e l e c t a p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e a n d s u g g e s t r e v i s i o n s . The P l a n n i n g R e p o r t was a l s o a d v e r t i s e d i n t h e l o c a l m e d i a , a n d c o p i e s were made a v a i l a b l e l o c a l l y . contact for  Consultants  were o b l i g e d t o  l o c a l community g r o u p s , such as t h e Farmers  their  i n p u t . An i n f o r m a t i o n s e s s i o n was h e l d i n F o r t  w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n o n l y two o r t h r e e b r i e f s b e i n g local  r e s i d e n t s (Kok,' 1985) a n d a v e r y  to the Planning Report. this  pubic's  late  involvement  e x e r c i s e s h a s been c r i t i c i z e d  strong negative  by  reaction prior to  Report.  i n t h e Crown l a n d  i n the past year  p r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y . They f e l t no  Nelson  prepared  T h e r e was no p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t  i n the development of t h e P l a n n i n g The  Institute,  planning  by members o f t h e  t h a t t h e p u b l i c had  i n f l u e n c e i n t h e d e c i s i o n s b e i n g made. T h i s c r i t i c i s m was  extended, as a r e s u l t , policy again public  statements  t o t h e e n t i r e p l a n n i n g program and i t s  (The S u n , M a r c h  17, 1 9 8 4 ) . I t s h o u l d be  noted  t h a t t h e new P r o g r a m P l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h d o e s n o t p e r m i t involvement  and l i m i t s  inter-agency coordination.  126  4 . 9 C a s e Summary Planning Fort Nelson  f o r the  is occurring  of c h a n g i n g p l a n n i n g planning  d e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown l a n d  i n a d i s j o i n t e d manner and  p o l i c y and  p r o g r a m s . The  i s not The  being  The  i n s e l e c t i n g the  Report e x e r c i s e  alternative  u s e s , and  resource  H o w e v e r , The Planning  use  modifying r a n g e of  possible  suitability.  prepared e s s e n t i a l l y i n reaction to  D e a d l i n e s were g i v e n  and  and  decision-makers  a c o m p a r i s o n i s made of  of a P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t  agricultural  adequately evaluated  Fort Nelson  does p r e s e n t a  f a c t o r s c o v e r s the  proposed designation  completely  omitted.  the  s c o p e and  resources and  i n the  of the  socio-economic  motivational  analysis  larger region  f a c t o r s behind Crown  of p l a n n i n g  f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e s e f a c t o r s have n o t  d i s p o s i t i o n s , d e v e l o p m e n t and option  factors.  an  in  vocal  land  f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development are  historical  were  industry  disposition  s t u d i e d . H o w e v e r , an  important  r e v i e w o f p a s t Crown  aspect  been land  subsequent d i s p o s a l of deeded  i n understanding the  was  f a c t o r s were a l m o s t  A g r i c u l t u r e ' s v i a b i l i t y as an  i s unknown. The  the  area.  t y p e of the  i n s i s t e n t c o m m u n i t y demands f o r i n c r e a s e d  i s one  but  F o r t N e l s o n A r e a S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown L a n d  R e p o r t was  l i m i t e d . The  Housing, i s  p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e or  a n a l y s i s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l  p o s s i b l e resource  not  prescribed  implemented.  Fort Nelson Planning  flexibility  in  context  complex i n i t s h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r l i n e s s ,  range of p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s , g i v i n g the  it.  in a  p r o g r a m o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s and  c o m p r e h e n s i v e and it  agricultural  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  land  motivational  1 27  The  M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and  minimal  i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of new  Food's involvement  areas  and  i t has  is  few  programs  o r i e n t e d towards f r o n t i e r development. P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n inadequate  and  alternative The  l i m i t e d to a review  of t h e  the  is  completed  proposals.  financial  aspects  of t h e Crown l a n d a l l o c a t i o n  emphasises s t r o n g l y the g e n e r a t i o n  of a d d i t i o n a l  process  provincial  r e v e n u e s . T h i s e m p h a s i s on maximum r e v e n u e f r o m l a n d s a l e s , c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e a b s e n c e of c o n d i t i o n s r e q u i r i n g a p p l i c a n t s t o h a v e any  k n o w l e d g e of a g r i c u l t u r e and  financial  support  f o r d e v e l o p m e n t may  s h o w i n g of a g r i c u l t u r e ,  to date,  unfortunate  land c l e a r l y  conditions  because the  of  ( s e e S e c t i o n 4.2)  approach to resource  This i s  local belief  i n the  now  f o r the  the o r i g i n a l  a much s o u n d e r and  i n the m a r g i n a l  resource  debate over  ELUC  more  intelligent  the c u r r e n t i n c o n s i s t e n t fringe  i n c o n s i s t e n t approach to planning inadequate  relevant  f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l development  management t h a n  methods, p a r t i c u l a r l y  the heated  poor  displays suitable  read c a r e f u l l y  Crown l a n d . They r e p r e s e n t  b a s e d on  f a c t o r s i n the  development.  t o go back and  This  l i m i t e d amount o f  i n Fort Nelson.  I t m i g h t be an a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e  guidelines  be  for agriculture, maintaining  desirability  officials  the  region. in Fort  data, w i l l only serve  the d e s i r a b i l i t y  Nelson, to  of d e v e l o p i n g  continue Fort  Nelson  a s an a g r i c u l t u r a l c e n t r e . Many r e s i d e n t s compare F o r t  Nelson  to the F o r t V e r m i l i o n - H i g h  s u b j e c t of t h e n e x t  Level area  of A l b e r t a , t h e  case study, c l a i m i n g t h a t the success  a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n t h a t area  justifies  government  of  of  support  f o r development  in Fort  Nelson.  REFERENCES  Air  S t u d i e s B r a n c h . 1981. C l i m a t i c C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r A g r i c u l t u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia. M i n i s t r y of E n v i r o n m e n t , V i c t o r i a .  ARDA. 1971. S o i l C a p a b i l i t y f o r A g r i c u l t u r e Canada L a n d I n v e n t o r y : F o r t N e s l o n 9 4 J / N E . Queen's P r i n t e r . Ottawa. B o m f o r d , L.E., D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t , Personal correspondence.  Fort  St.John.  D e p a r t m e n t o f R e g i o n a l E c o n o m i c E x p a n s i o n . 1977. C a n a d a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S u b s i d i a r y A g r e e m e n t on A g r i c u l t u r e and R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t . G o v e r n m e n t o f C a n a d a , O t t a w a . Kok, Wim, R e g i o n a l P l a n n e r , M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s and H o u s i n g , F o r t S t . John. Telephone i n t e r v i e w , March 14,1985. K o w a l l , R.C. 1982. S o i l s o f t h e F o r t S i m p s o n T r a i l A r e a . R e p o r t No. 58 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S o i l S u r v e y . M i n i s t r y of E n v i r o n m e n t , K e l o w n a . L a n d P l a n n i n g B r a n c h . 1983. P r o g r a m P l a n n i n g . of L a n d s , P a r k s and H o u s i n g , V i c t o r i a .  Ministry  L a n d Use P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n . 1981. P l a n n i n g Handbook. M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s and H o u s i n g , V i c t o r i a . M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and F o o d . 1983a. A.L.D.A. A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Development A c t ( b r o c h u r e ) . M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and F o o d , V i c t o r i a . M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r a e and F o o d . 1983b. 1982 A n n u a l R e p o r t . M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and F o o d , V i c t o r i a . M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s and H o u s i n g . 1981. A c q u i r i n g Crown L a n d f o r A g r i c u l t u r e ( b r o c h u r e ) . M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s and H o u s i n g , V i c t o r i a . M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s a n d H o u s i n g . 1981b. P r i n c e G e o r g e A r e a S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown L a n d P l a n . M i n i s t r y of L a n d s , P a r k s and H o u s i n g , V i c t o r i a . M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s and H o u s i n g . 1982. M c C o n a c h i e Creek A g r i c u l t u r a l A u c t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n . M i n i s t r y of L a n d s , P a r k s and H o u s i n g , F o r t S t . J o h n . M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s a n d H o u s i n g and M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s . 1981. D e f e r r e d A r e a P l a n n i n g . G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a .  P e a c e R e g i o n a n d L a n d P l a n n i n g B r a n c h . 1983. F o r t N e l s o n A r e a S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown L a n d P l a n n i n g R e p o r t . M i n i s t r y o f Lands, Parks and Housing, V i c t o r i a . P l a n n i n g S y s t e m s S e c t i o n . 1981. Crown L a n d P l a n n i n g H i e r a r c h y And D e s i g n a t i o n S y s t e m s . M i n i s t r y o f Lands, Parks and Housing, V i c t o r i a . T a l i s m a n L a n d R e s o u r c e C o n s u l t a n t s . 1982. F o r t N e l s o n D e f e r r e d P l a n n i n g A r e a . T a l i s m a n Land Resource C o n s u l t a n t s , Vancouver. The S u n . May 20,  1983.  The S u n . M a r c h 17, 1984. F a r m l a n d MLA. The S u n . December scandal.  p o l i c y h i t by S o c r e d  13, 1984. Crown l a n d p o l i c y c a l l e d a  V a l e n t i n e , K.W.G. 1971. S o i l s o f t h e F o r t N e l s o n A r e a o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . R e p o r t No. 12 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S o i l S u r v e y . Canada D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Ottawa. V a l e n t i n e K.W.G. a n d L i d s t o n e , A l l a n B. 1985. The Use o f Survey I n t e n s i t y L e v e l (Order) i n S o i l Survey. S u b m i t t e d t o C a n . J . Of S o i l S c i .  130  CHAPTER 5  CASE STUDY NUMBER THREE FORT VERMILION, ALBERTA  131  5.1 INTRODUCTION Fort Vermilion  i s located  t h e Lower P e a c e R i v e r kilometres  north  region  population oil  o f n o r t h w e s t e r n A l b e r t a . I t i s 590  o f Edmonton a n d 65 k i l o m e t r e s  L e v e l . Improvement D i s t r i c t 13,000 c e n t r e d  i n Improvement D i s t r i c t No. 23 i n  east  of High  ( I . D . ) No. 23 h a s a p o p u l a t i o n o f  i n High L e v e l , while Fort V e r m i l i o n  o f 764. Economic a c t i v i t y  has a  c o n s i s t s of a g r i c u l t u r e ,  and gas e x p l o r a t i o n and development, and f o r e s t r y ( P e t e r  Nichols  & Associates  focusses  Ltd.,  1981a). Most o f t h i s  on H i g h L e v e l , w h i l e F o r t V e r m i l i o n  for the surrounding  a g r i c u l t u r a l areas  A g r i c u l t u r e Canada E x p e r i m e n t a l  C.  activity  i s a service  centre  ( s e e Map 5.1) a n d h a s an  Farm. The l a t e s t  surge i n the  a r e a ' s d e v e l o p m e n t was s t i m u l a t e d by t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e M a c k e n z i e H i g h w a y i n 1947 a n d t h e G r e a t S l a v e A g r i c u l t u r a l development i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y other  economic s e c t o r s w i t h  operators  Fort Vermilion  i n 1965.  s u p p o r t e d by work i n  40 t o 50 p e r c e n t  r e p o r t i n g o f f - f a r m work  Railway  (Thompson,  has a b o r e a l c l i m a t e w i t h  of the l o c a l  farm  1981). s e v e r e w i n t e r s and  s h o r t , warm summers. W e a t h e r f l u c t u a t i o n s c a n be e x t r e m e b o t h f r o m y e a r t o y e a r a n d on a d a i l y b a s i s . P r e c i p i t a t i o n i s considered  t o be one o f t h e m a i n l i m i t i n g  a g r i c u l t u r e . T o t a l mean p r e c i p i t a t i o n summer p r e c i p i t a t i o n  equals only  factors for  i s 360 m i l i m e t r e s , b u t  55 t o 65 p e r c e n t  of t h e  p r e c i p i t a t i o n a t G r a n d e P r a i r i e a n d Edmonton. The f r e e z e - f r e e period varies widely  within the area,  ranging  f r o m an a v e r a g e  f i g u r e o f 75 d a y s a t one l o c a t i o n t o 91 a t F o r t V e r m i l i o n . The range of average f r e e z e - f r e e p e r i o d over time i s a l s o extreme w i t h a low of f o u r  f r e e z e - f r e e days t o a h i g h  o f 124 r e c o r d e d  at  132  1  133  F o r t V e r m i l i o n . The 1250,  but  this  Although,  on  a v e r a g e number o f g r o w i n g d e g r e e - d a y s i s  figure also varies significantly  average, the area  c e r e a l g r a i n s , o i l s e e d s and and  temporal c l i m a t i c  l e s s hardy crops Arable I n I.D.  23,  there are  1.6  land  (Resource Planning  of  of  extensive. potentially  arable  soils,  organic  l a c u s t r i n e and  and  l a c u s t r i n e b a s i n and,  Agriculture  (Scheelar i n I.D.  140,000 h e c t a r e s  and  23  resources  of the a r e a  Livestock production employment and  fluvial  rolling on  flat  1972).  4000 t o 8000  Vermilion-High  farms p r o d u c i n g  mainly  l i m i t e d due  1982).  for other  canola,  1 9 8 4 ) . Range  t o c l i m a t e and  i s of m i n i m a l i m p o r t a n c e due  1983a; a n o n ,  hectares  i s i n the F o r t  the area's s u i t a b i l i t y  Branch,  the  to gently  ( a n o n , 1 9 8 2 ; C a n a d i a n Wheat B o a r d , are  the  the  to a l e s s e r extent,  are c u l t i v a t e d with  L e v e l a r e a . T h e r e a r e o v e r 600 barley  The  some c h e r n o z e m s on  Macyk,  of  i s expanding a t a tremendous r a t e .  y e a r . Most of t h i s  wheat and  Soils  m a t e r i a l s are  f o l l o w e d by  d e p o s i t s . S o i l s a r e d e v e l o p e d on a l e v e l  f l o o d p l a i n areas  1983b).  deposits.  fluvial  s o l o n e t z i c s on  lacustro-till  Branch,  l a c u s t r i n e deposits with areas  These a r e  Planning  hectares  remaining  most e x t e n s i v e a r a b l e s o i l s .  added e v e r y  1981), a r e a l  risky.  million  f l u v i a l , e o l i a n and  l u v i s o l s d e v e l o p e d on  Over  of  make t h e p r o d u c t i o n  Much of t h e  from predominantly  lacustro-till,  p l a t e a u or  (Strong,  area.  found i n s m a l l , complex u n i t s i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h  capability  are d e r i v e d  crops  f l u c t u a t i o n s may  a r a b l e undeveloped s o i l s .  lower  forage  of t h e Lower P e a c e R i v e r R e g i o n a r e  alone,  however, are  i s s u i t e d t o a wide range  s u c h a s wheat more  soils  w i t h i n the  to  crops  predation. off-farm (Resource  134  The F o r t V e r m i l i o n c a s e s t u d y Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g program. Plan  The J e a n D'Or  presents  program  an i l l u s t r a t i o n  and a p r o j e c t  planning  P r a i r i e Sub-Regional Integrated  i s c u r r e n t l y pending approval  and  of a  i s an e x a m p l e  Resource  of a  planning  e x e r c i s e c a r r i e d o u t u n d e r a Crown l a n d management  planning  program.  a follow-up  The A c c e l e r a t e d  mechanism t o t h e I n t e g r a t e d  a l s o been i m p l e m e n t e d Crown l a n d t h a t  Planning  throughout the Fort V e r m i l i o n area  f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l  i s a p a r t of a program  (Government  Integrated  overall  initiated  but  has  produced under  o f Crown l a n d s  agricultural  System  Natural Resources i s to dispose  f o r the  program  (IRPS).  Eastern  i s termed  The main  the  The  g o a l of A l b e r t a Energy  and  1988  the  objective"  development.  o f 121,404 h e c t a r e s  uses per year u n t i l  the  IRPS i s t o f a c i l i t a t e  for agricultural  development  o f Crown l a n d i n  i n 1977 w i t h  management p o l i c y  Resource Planning  agricultural  development  of A l b e r t a , 1 9 8 4 ) . The  of many o f t h e p l a n s allocation  Resource Plan  on  for agriculture.  p u b l i c a t i o n of a r e s o u r c e Slopes  p r o j e c t program i s  R e s o u r c e P l a n . I t has  i s n o t i n an I n t e g r a t e d  few r e s t r i c t i o n s  Alberta  Land S a l e s  of l a n d f o r  (Resource Planning  Branch,  1983) . I have s e l e c t e d t h e J e a n D'Or P l a n as t h e e m p h a s i s located  i n an a r e a  incorporates  i s adjacent  and c o n t a i n s  of t h i s case study.  The  o f r a p i d e x p a n s i o n . The  a number o f i n n o v a t i o n s ,  and w h i c h a r e now area  P r a i r i e Integrated  officially  included  and t o t h e e a s t  150,000 h e c t a r e s .  plan area  J e a n D'Or  is  Plan  u n i q u e t o t h e IRPS i n the program.  of F o r t V e r m i l i o n  The  Resource  J e a n D'Or  Plan's  The  also program plan  ( s e e Map main  5.2)  135  MRP. 5.2: JEAN D'OR PRAIRIE STUDY AREA* *Source: REAP,1983  1 36  objective goal  i s t o h e l p meet A l b e r t a E n e r g y and  f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t and  Natural  to s a t i s f y  Resources'  local  demand  for a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s p o s i t i o n s . The  program used f o r the a c t u a l d i s p o s i t i o n  as mentioned above, i s A c c e l e r a t e d Land S a l e s . A c c e l e r a t e d Land S a l e s p r o j e c t s have taken V e r m i l i o n area  over the past  o u t s t r i p s supply,  and  few  o f Crown  lands,  Several  place  i n the  Fort  y e a r s . Demand f o r l a n d f a r  d e v e l o p m e n t o f new  land i s r a p i d l y  expanding. The was  J e a n D'Or  i n v e n t o r i e s and  submitted  Wildlife  who  i s now  Scoping  Resource P l a n n i n g  The  Planning  y e l l o w and  the  areas,  and  S y s t e m as w e l l as  areas are  program f o r  5.3).  those  A c c e l e r a t e d Land S a l e s  p r o j e c t s f o r the a l l o c a t i o n  is  the  agricultural  planning Integrated  the A c c e l e r a t e d Land the  long  Sales  s e t t l e d areas  of  forested, non-agricultural  areas,  mainly  R i v e r r e g i o n , w h i c h a r e open f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l Map  plan  The  Program  g r e e n a r e a s and  Green areas are mainly  yellow  final  l a n d management  p r o j e c t program. White areas areas are the p r o v i n c e .  and  spring.  Crown l a n d a r e  c o n c e p t s of w h i t e ,  the  of  d r a f t plan  f u r t h e r economic a n a l y s i s .  b a s i c e l e m e n t s of t h e p l a n n i n g  d e v e l o p m e n t on  Team  t o oversee the p r e p a r a t i o n  c o m p l e t e d , and  approved t h i s  S t r u c t u r i n g and The  A Planning  e c o n o m i c a s s e s s m e n t s . The  then ordered  information  e x p e c t e d t o be  i n 1981.  t o the A s s o c i a t e M i n i s t e r of P u b l i c Lands  i n 1983  requested  5.2  initiated  f o r m e d t o d e v e l o p t h e p l a n and  resource was  P l a n was  Peace  disposition  i s a program to  of Crown l a n d s  i n the  (see  develop  in existing  yellow  137  138  areas or those areas are switched r e c e n t l y yellow, usually  from green  areas t o  f o l l o w i n g t h e IRPS p r o c e s s . A l l t h e s e  programs  come u n d e r t h e mandate o f ENR, s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e P u b l i c  Lands  Division. The  IRPS e v o l v e d  from  r e s o u r c e management p o l i c y  t h e development of t h e E a s t e r n (Government o f A l b e r t a ,  comprehensive i n t e r a g e n c y approach planning  reflected  of  i n A l b e r t a . The i n t e g r a t e d a s p e c t o f IRPS i s  review and recommendations  P l a n n i n g Team r e p r e s e n t s t h e f i e l d  responsible  f o r decision-making.  c o m m i t t e e s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d a s an h i e r a r c h i c a l  decision-making, The  f o r a l l Crown l a n d  i n t h e review and a p p r o v a l system  Interagency  A  t o i n t e g r a t e d management  i s the underlying philosophy  development  1984).  Slopes  (see Figure 5.1).  level  f o r p l a n d e v e l o p m e n t . The R e g i o n a l  system  committee  Resource  Management C o m m i t t e e o f ENR R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r s i s i n v o l v e d i n an advisory  r o l e t o t h e P l a n n i n g Teams a n d t o t h e R e s o u r c e  I n t e g r a t i o n Committee  ( R I C ) . The RIC i s composed o f t h e  d i r e c t o r s o f t e n government a g e n c i e s , Agriculture.  The R I C i s t h e key s u p e r v i s o r y a n d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  committee and i s d i r e c t l y RIC  including Alberta  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e P l a n n i n g Team. The  a p p r o v e s many o f t h e c o m p o n e n t s o f I n t e g r a t e d R e s o u r c e  developed  Plans  by t h e P l a n n i n g Team. I t a l s o s e t s p l a n n i n g  priorities,  monitors  p r o g r e s s and i s t h e i n i t i a l  agency f o r  review and a p p r o v a l of t h e f i n a l p l a n . The  N a t u r a l Resources  A d v i s o r y Committee c o n s i s t s o f t h e  A s s i s t a n t D e p u t y M i n i s t e r s o f t h e same t e n a g e n c i e s t h e R I C . The N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s  a s a r e on  A d v i s o r y Committee r a t i f i e s  p l a n n i n g p r i o r i t i e s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e R I C . I t a l s o i s t h e l e v e l  1 39  responsible statements process level-  f o r r e f o r m u l a t i n g government's broad  policy  i n t o a c t u a l p r o g r a m s . From t h e ADM l e v e l  moves t o t h e n e x t  t h e IRPS  committee a t t h e Deputy M i n i s t e r  t h e N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s C o o r d i n a t i o n C o u n c i l . The C o u n c i l  advises  the other  l e v e l s o f t h e IRPS on g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y . Once  I n t e g r a t e d Resource Plans  ( I R P ) a r e a p p r o v e d by t h e C o u n c i l ,  they a r e r e f e r r e d t o t h e A s s o c i a t e M i n i s t e r of P u b l i c Lands and Wildlife final  by t h e D e p u t y M i n i s t e r o f R e n e w a b l e R e s o u r c e s . The  d e c i s i o n on I R P s i s made by t h e E c o n o m i c P l a n n i n g and  Resource Development Committee o f C a b i n e t .  The main  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d c o - o r d i n a t i n g a g e n c y f o r t h e IRPS i s ENR's Resource E v a l u a t i o n and P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n and  Planning D i v i s i o n , The  activity. and  1983).  IRPS p r o g r a m was c o n c e i v e d  to resource  as a comprehensive approach  management b a s e d on f o u r l e v e l s o f p l a n n i n g  The f o u r l e v e l s a r e p r o v i n c i a l ,  local.  (Resource E v a l u a t i o n  To d a t e ,  t h e s u b - r e g i o n a l l e v e l h a s been t h e  o p e r a t i o n a l program. At the p r o v i n c i a l senior bureaucracy  regional, sub-regional  initiate  level,  broad p o l i c y  the p o l i t i c i a n s or  statements  on t h e  utilization  o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . The r e g i o n a l l e v e l c o n s i s t s o f  broad areas  such as t h e E a s t e r n  "define the region's  role  Slopes. Regional  resource  of t h e o v e r a l l  allocation  1983, p.15) a n d s e t  o b j e c t i v e s f o r p l a n n i n g and  i n t h e a r e a . Few r e g i o n a l p l a n s have been  prepared.  The J e a n D'Or P l a n  developed  i n the absence of a r e g i o n a l p l a n . During  of  plans  i n meeting p r o v i n c i a l o b j e c t i v e s "  (Resource E v a l u a t i o n and P l a n n i n g Branch, the d i r e c t i o n  level  i s a s u b - r e g i o n a l p l a n t h a t was  i t s development, a Regional  the course  O v e r v i e w o f t h e Lower P e a c e  140  Figure  5.1; I n t e g r a t e d R e s o u r c e P l a n n i n g  Approval  PROCESS  Process*  MECHANISMS  Plan Approved  Economic P l a n n i n g and Resource Development C a b i n e t Committee  Associate Minister of P u b l i c Lands and W i l d l i f e  Deputy  Minister of Renewable Resources  N a t u r a l Resources Coordination Council (Deputy M i n i s t e r s )  Final  Plan  Draft  Plan  N a t u r a l Resources Advisory Committee ( A s s i s t a n t Deputy Ministers)  Design Alternatives  Resource I n t e g r a t i o n Committee (Directors)  Pol icy Alternatives Data Collection Terms o f Reference Plan Initiation  Regional Resource Management Committee  Public Involvement Program  Interdepartmental P l a n n i n g Teams (Field Staff)  * S o u r c e ; Resource E v a l u a t i o n and P l a n n i n g  D i v i s i o n , 1983  141  was c o m p l e t e d . H o w e v e r , t h i s document d e a l t more w i t h r e g i o n a l data  and s i t i n g  of p l a n n i n g areas  i s not considered  a regional plan  L o c a l plans occur  than  w i t h p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n and  (Petch,  at a very d e t a i l e d  1984) s c a l e , a n d few h a v e  been p r e p a r e d  t o d a t e . They d e a l m a i n l y  use  i n a l o c a l i z e d a r e a . None h a v e been c o n d u c t e d i n  conflicts  with specific  resource  t h e F o r t V e r m i l i o n a r e a . The m a i n e m p h a s i s i n t h i s c a s e will  be on t h e s u b - r e g i o n a l  level  study  o f t h e IRPS p r o g r a m a n d t h e  subsequent p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g program of A c c e l e r a t e d Land S a l e s . These p l a n n i n g programs w i l l  be o u t l i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  sections.  5.2.1 S u b - R e g i o n a l I n t e g r a t e d R e s o u r c e  Sub-regional  Planning  p l a n s , s u c h a s t h e J e a n D'Or  concerned with determining  appropriate  l a n d use p a t t e r n s and t h e  d e s i r e d mix o f a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n a r e l a t i v e l y determine resource  small area.  management o b j e c t i v e s a n d r e s o l v e  i s s u e s by a l l o c a t i n g priorities.  Plan, are  lands to p a r t i c u l a r  contentious  uses and a s s i g n i n g  The m a i n o b j e c t i v e i s t o s c r e e n  r e g i o n a l goals through  Plans  p r o v i n c i a l and  a s i e v e of s u b - r e g i o n a l  resource  c a p a b i l i t i e s or s u i t a b i l i t i e s . Sub-regional  plans are prepared  includes s e v e r a l stages (see Table Regional  i n an e x e r c i s e w h i c h  a n d a number o f p r e l i m i n a r y d o c u m e n t s  5 . 1 ) . The P l a n n i n g Team, w i t h t h e c o o p e r a t i o n  R e s o u r c e Management C o m m i t t e e , p r e p a r e s  r e f e r e n c e . These terms s e t o u t t h e p l a n n i n g area  of t h e  the terms of  framework, purpose,  and i s s u e s i n v o l v e d . D a t a g a t h e r i n g a n d a n a l y s i s a r e t h e n  142  conducted  and a r e , e s s e n t i a l l y ,  i n d i v i d u a l agencies, provided  although  i n an e c o l o g i c a l  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  substantial  of the  information i s usually  land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n prepared  by ENR a t  a s c a l e o f 1:100,000. The  next  i s a review  step i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of the Sub-regional  of e x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s ,  P l a n n i n g Team p r e p a r e s  c o n f l i c t s a n d o b j e c t i v e s . The  a document on t h e i s s u e s a n d p o s s i b l e  means o f a t t a i n i n g o b j e c t i v e s a n d r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s . P l a n n i n g Team u s e s s e v e r a l t e c h n i q u e s activity/land  including a  activity  c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h i n d e f i n e d a r e a s , a n d a s e c o n d , more t e c h n i q u e , R e s o u r c e Management A r e a s  specific  o b j e c t i v e s . The R I C , upon r e c e i p t  o f t h e management  management d i r e c t i o n Plan design  resource  management options  c o n f l i c t s and a p p r o v e s t h e  f o r the area.  then  f o l l o w s where t h e P l a n n i n g Team  management s t r a t e g i e s t o a c h i e v e management p o l i c y  important  (RMA). RMAs a r e s u b - u n i t s  i n an I R P a r e a w h i c h a r e a s s i g n e d  on u n r e s o l v e d  The  resource  use m a t r i x , w h i c h e s t a b l i s h e s r e s o u r c e  document, d e c i d e s  Plan  developed  the approved  i n the previous  develops  resource  step. I f c o n f l i c t s  arise,  they a r e r e s o l v e d again  design  i s approved, the d r a f t plan that synthesizes a l lthe  earlier  steps  i s prepared  by t h e R I C . A f t e r  and forwarded  the optimal  up t h e p y r a m i d f o r  approval.  5.2.2 A c c e l e r a t e d L a n d Implementation agencies  Sales  i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  i n v o l v e d . I n the case  main a p p r o a c h i s  of the v a r i o u s  of a g r i c u l t u r a l development, the  143  T a b l e 5.1:  The  Sub-Regional Planning  Stage  Program  S t e p Name  Information  Choice  Action  1  Documents P r o d u c e d  1 . Plan i n i t i a t i o n 2. D a t a c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s 3. P l a n p o l i c y  Terms o f  4. P l a n d e s i g n 5. F i n a l r e v i e w and a p p r o v a l  Draft  Plan  Final  Plan  6. 7.  Plan implementation Plan review and a p p r o v a l  Reference  Background I n f o r m a t i o n * R e s o u r c e Management P o l i c y  *  *  *  *  * O p t i o n a l Document * *Agency o p e r a t i o n a l p l a n s , a n n u a l r e p o r t s and m a j o r r e v i e w d o c u m e n t s may be d r a f t e d / p r i n t e d a t t h e s e s t e p s . S o u r c e : R e s o u r c e " E v a l u a t i o n and P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , 1983. 1  the p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g P r e v i o u s l y , ALS  program, A c c e l e r a t e d Land S a l e s  p r o j e c t s took p l a c e  in yellow areas,  I n t e g r a t e d R e s o u r c e P l a n . As most of t h e is  i n green areas,  c o n f l i c t s and occur  the  remaining  IRPS m e c h a n i s m i s u s e d  redefine boundaries before  ALS  as b e i n g  allocation Division surveys  suitable  for agricultural  of these  designated  areas at a  intensity  can  take  and  The  an  land  place.  ALS  capability where  P u b l i c Lands  l e v e l two  soil  1:15,000 s c a l e . Road a c c e s s  f a r m u n i t s i s p l a n n e d and  with Alberta Transportation  arable  d e v e l o p m e n t and  c o n f l i c t s h a v e been r e s o l v e d . The  h i r e s c o n s u l t a n t s t o do  without  toresolve  i n areas i d e n t i f i e d i n broad a g r i c u l t u r a l  surveys  (ALS).  developed i n  to  co-operation  L o c a l Improvement  District.  1 44  5.2.3  P l a n n i n g Area In t h e o r y ,  broader  Identification  sub-regional planninng  r e g i o n a l p l a n s . The  initiated Regional  i n 1980  by ENR  J e a n D'Or  after  are  indentified  P l a n , however,  requests  c r o p l a n d i n t h e a r e a and the d i s p o s i t i o n  by  was  from t h e Peace R i v e r  R e s o u r c e Management C o m m i t t e e , A l b e r t a E n v i r o n m e n t  A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e . These r e q u e s t s  over  areas  reflected  and  t h e demand f o r  c o n f l i c t s with other  resource  new  agencies  o f Crown l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e ( P e t c h ,  1984). A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Committees, p u b l i c a d v i s o r y to A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e , often A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e f o r ALS little  5.3  conflict  The The  initiate  requests  projects in areas  or where c o n f l i c t  has  agriculture  IRPS p r o g r a m and  of l a n d p e r  year  e v e n t t h a t t h e demand f o r new contingency  p l a n n i n g has  the  p e r m e a t e d by  between  IRPS.  to the  agricultural  o b j e c t i v e i s to dispose 1983  a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes. T h i s o b j e c t i v e does not c h a n g i n g economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s  is  Objectives  o b j e c t i v e of e x p a n d i n g t h e  l a n d b a s e . ENR's main a g r i c u l t u r a l 121,404 h e c t a r e s  where t h e r e  other programs r e l a t e d  i n the F o r t V e r m i l i o n area a r e  overriding provincial  with  been r e s o l v e d by  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of P l a n n i n g E x e r c i s e entire  along  bodies  and  1988  take  into  of  for account  o r what m i g h t happen i n t h e  farmland  d e c l i n e s . T h i s l a c k of  been r a i s e d as a p o s s i b l e weakness i n  t h e J e a n D'Or  Plan  (Petch,  1 9 8 4 ) . The  approximately  40,488 h e c t a r e s  J e a n D'Or  Plan contributes  of a r a b l e l a n d t o w a r d s  the  145  departmental The  goal  (Resource P l a n n i n g Branch,  stated overall  optimize  t h e use  benefits  for Albertans  Division,  of A l b e r t a ' s r e s o u r c e  1 9 8 3 ) . The  the understanding ability  t o use  o b j e c t i v e of the  IRPS p r o g r a m i s t o  base t o a c h i e v e  ( R e s o u r c e E v a l u a t i o n and  integrated aspect  t h a t t h e use  other  1983a).  o f one  Planning  of the program resource  maximum  will  reflects  affect  r e s o u r c e s . A l l l e v e l s of g o v e r n m e n t  the and  a f f e c t e d p a r t i e s are encouraged t o p a r t i c i p a t e . T h i s i s important  i n the Jean D'Or.Plan because p r o v i n c i a l  recognizes  agricultural  expansion  as a p r i o r i t y ,  program r e q u i r e s the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l l o t h e r resources  and  how  t h e y m i g h t be a f f e c t e d and  c o n s e q u e n c e . I n t h e c a s e of t h e J e a n D'Or sector  policy  yet the  IRPS  potential  developed  P l a n , the  as  a  forestry  i s a f f e c t e d t h e most n e g a t i v e l y ; h o w e v e r , t h e A l b e r t a  F o r e s t r y S e r v i c e of ENR boundary t o permit  i s eager to s t a b i l i z e  i t s long-term  planning  the  green/yellow  to progress  (Petch,  1984). The  J e a n D'Or  P l a n , i n keeping  w i t h the i n t e g r a t e d  e m p h a s i s , i n c l u d e s a r a n g e of o b j e c t i v e s f o r e a c h  resource  i n c l u d i n g domestic g r a z i n g , e c o l o g i c a l resources, infrastructure, resources, and to for  recreation, t i l l  wildlife. supply  fisheries,  The  cropping,  objective for t i l l  J e a n D'Or  land  timber, cropping,  mineral  water  resources  f o r example, i s  specific  Plan sub-divides  resource  demand  expansion.  R e s o u r c e Management A r e a s their  resources,  s u i t a b l e Crown l a n d s t o meet a p o r t i o n o f t h e  agricultural The  historical  (RMA)  the p l a n area  ( s e e Map  o b j e c t i v e s and  5.4).  The  into six RMAs, w i t h  g u i d e l i n e s , are  the  li*6  •Source: REAP, 1983  147  R 12  MAP  R 11  R 10  R 9  R8  R7  5.5:  JEAN D'OR PRAIRIE PLANNING AREA  YELLOW/GREEN AREAS*  •Source: REAP, 1983  148  primary  r e s o u r c e management m e c h a n i s m f o r t h e J e a n D'Or P l a n .  E a c h RMA h a s a common r e s o u r c e management i n t e n t o r o b j e c t i v e for  i t s a r e a . The RMA's do n o t o v e r l a p t h e g r e e n / y e l l o w  and  are s p l i t  on t h e b a s i s o f t h e g r e e n / y e l l o w  physiographic  o b j e c t i v e of a l l o c a t i n g  farmers. A s p e c i a l  t h e RMAs t o p r o t e c t s e n s i t i v e  p r o g r a m a t J e a n D'Or a n d w i l l most s u i t a b l e a r e a s w i t h i n  5.4 E n v i r o n m e n t a l The  f o l l o w t h e IRPS  aim t o i d e n t i f y and d e v e l o p t h e  and a l l o c a t e d  tracts will  for agricultural  be  purposes.  Factors f o r Planning  produce r e q u i r e d resource  on t h e i n d i v i d u a l members t o  i n v e n t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n , b a s e d on a  i t developed,  and d i d not p r e p a r e  I n f o r m a t i o n Document ( s e e T a b l e  a Background  5.1) . D a t a was c o l l e c t e d on  u s e , demand, c a p a b i l i t y , p o t e n t i a l  use a n d e c o n o m i c  c h a r a c t e r e s t i c s . The J e a n D'Or p l a n n i n g a r e a variety  throughout  i n d i v i d u a l RMAs d e s i g n a t e d f o r  P l a n n i n g Team r e l i e d  c h e c k l i s t which  new o r  landscapes.  d e v e l o p m e n t . Once d e s i g n a t e d , t h e s e  subdivided, accessed  four  land to either  u s e zone i s d e s i g n a t e d  A c c e l e r a t e d Land S a l e s p r o j e c t s w i l l  agricultural  boundary and t h e  f e a t u r e s ( s e e Map 5 . 5 ) . Of t h e s i x RMA's,  have t h e s p e c i f i c expanding  boundary  i s covered  of e n v i r o n m e n t a l , economic and even s o c i a l  by a  studies,  s u r v e y s , a n a l y s i s and d a t a . C l i m a t i c d a t a h a s been c o l l e c t e d V e r m i l i o n E x p e r i m e n t a l Farm o p e r a t e d climate  s i n c e 1936 a t t h e F o r t by A g r i c u l t u r e C a n a d a . The  i s mapped u n d e r t h e Canada L a n d I n v e n t o r y p r o g r a m w i t h  essentially  two map u n i t s , c l a s s t h r e e a n d c l a s s  b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n t h e s e two a r e a s  runs  five.  The  r o u g h l y p a r a l l e l and t o  149  t h e n o r t h of t h e P e a c e R i v e r . R e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r i e s p r i o r  1981  I n , 1979,  the  have used t h i s c l i m a t i c  c a p a b i l i t y as t h e i r  R e s o u r c e E v a l u a t i o n and  Planning D i v i s i o n e s t a b l i s h e d four  climatic supply  s t a t i o n s i n t h e J e a n D'Or  data  which r e s u l t s  guide.  to  P l a n a r e a . These s t a t i o n s  in a less optimistic  v i e w of  the  area's c l i m a t i c c a p a b i l i t y . R e s u l t s r e v e a l wide f l u c t u a t i o n s i n climatic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h r o u g h o u t the area  t r e n d towards lower station  (Strong,  capability  than at the F o r t  and  classification out  by  1:100,000. The i s standard  b a s i s of  1455  resource  of e c o l o g i c a l l a n d  f o r the  IRPS p r o g r a m and  and  vegetation  the  same a r e a The  the  and  1 9 7 2 ) . The s c a l e of  survey  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the  various  Plan area  of t h e s e  report. Within  uses can  each  be c o m p a r e d f o r  i s a l s o i n c l u d e d i n the S o i l  Fort V e r m i l i o n Area  i s an  intensity i s the  in i t s usefulness  Canada L a n d I n v e n t o r y  i n the  on  1981).  1:190,000. T h i s  limited  work were c o m p l e t e d various  suitability  of t h e Mount Watt and  field  C a p a b i l i t y f o r the  i s published  (Strong,  J e a n D'Or  through a i r photograph  weeks o f  uses i s e v a l u a t e d  b a s i c map  is carried  the  square k i l o m e t r e area.  polygon,  four  i s t h e e c o s e c t i o n d e v e l o p e d p r i m a r i l y on  landform  map  level  the  relevant agencies  is  use  intensity  an  unit in  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . O n l y two the  at a survey  t h e P u b l i c L a n d s D i v i s i o n . The  classification  Vermilion  a n a l y s i s r e l i e s h e a v i l y on  land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  a s c a l e of  definite  1981).  Much of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l ecological  with a  map  level  only  (Scheelar  and  Survey  Macyk,  four, published at a  soil  survey  f o r on-farm s o i l  of t h e a r e a  management.  produced i n c o n j u n c t i o n with  the  The  and  150  s u r v e y c l a s s e d much o f t h e a r e a a s C L I c l a s s 5 o r o r g a n i c w i t h significant soil  water In  a r e a s o f c l a s s 4. The m a j o r and poor  soil  l i m i t a t i o n s were  structure.  1977, a r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r y b a s e d  on b i o p h y s i c a l  classification,  the forerunner of e c o l o g i c a l  classification,  t h a t c o v e r e d a major  P l a n a r e a was c o m p l e t e d not r e f e r r e d  land  p o r t i o n of the Jean  D'Or  (Cameron, 1 9 7 7 ) . The L a C r e t e s u r v e y i s  t o i n t h e 1981 e c o l o g i c a l  map p o l y g o n s d i f f e r  excess  significantly  l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and  b e t w e e n t h e two s u r v e y s i n t h e  same a r e a . The a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y a s s i g n e d t o t h e v a r i o u s map u n i t s  i n t h e La C r e t e s u r v e y a r e d i s c e r n a b ' l y lower than i n  the  1971 c a p a b i l i t y  are  very low. The  ecological  i n v e n t o r y , and t h e CLI r a t i n g s  land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  produced  D'Or P l a n i n 1981 d o w n g r a d e s t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l somewhat f u r t h e r utilizes  a soil  for forestry  f o r t h e Jean •  capability  t h a n t h e L a C r e t e s u r v e y . The 1981 s u r v e y r a t i n g procedure  developed  for Alberta  c o n d i t i o n s . The s y s t e m  rates s o i l  days i n t h e area which  t h e zone o c c u r s . T h u s B l a c k C h e r n o z e m s  which 100,  occur  i n a r e a s o f g r e a t e r t h a n 90 f r o s t - f r e e d a y s  the highest possible  by a w e i g h t , d e v e l o p e d profile CLI  variation,  system,  resulting four c l a s s  rating. This rating  on t h e b a s i s o f s e v e r a l  i s then  rate  multiplied  parameters:  t e x t u r e , s t o n e s and topography.  Unlike the  no i m p r o v e m e n t s a r e assumed t o h a v e been made. The  range  of p o i n t s i s then a r b i t r a r i l y  system  broken  down i n t o a  o f h i g h , m o d e r a t e , l o w a n d n o t c a p a b l e . The  low c a t e g o r y i s f u r t h e r Almost  zones a c c o r d i n g t o f r e e z e - f r e e  a l l the land  s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o h i g h , moderate and l o w .  i n t h e J e a n D'Or P l a n a r e a i s c l a s s e d a s  151  low.  Within  the  low  category c a p a b i l i t y i s further  andranges from moderate t o Ratings grazing, All  high age  high.  were a l s o a s s i g n e d  w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t and  r a t i n g s were g e n e r a l l y  Forestry  resources  t o not to s i t e  from the The  The  r e s u l t was  f o r most of  La C r e t e  the  the  decided to i n i t i a t e process.  area,  f u r t h e r when A l b e r t a  i t s own  CLI  i n the  that  s i n c e the  agricultural  o v e r a l l i n t e n t of  agriculture  ratings. make  the  improved  considerably  where d r a i n a g e i s a p r o b l e m A g r i c u l t u r e Canada has  this  plan  new  s u r v e y was  i n many a r e a s ,  (Petch,  Peace r e g i o n  i s to  permitted  held and  especially  1984).  a l s o c o n d u c t e d a number of y i e l d  throughout the show t h e  The  broader region  Fort Vermilion  around  ( A g r i c u l t u r e Canada,  1983).  and  Fort  a r e a t o be  t h e mean y i e l d s f o r most v a r i e t i e s o f c r o p s n o r m a l l y the  The  land development, A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e  r a t i n g s are  Results  the  the  f e a s i b l e improvement  r a t i n g does not  valid.  Vermilion.  during  E c o l o g i c a l Land  s y s t e m assumes t h a t  land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  trials  high-  Agriculture  c a p a b i l i t y inventory  t h a t t h i s a s s u m p t i o n was  variety  and  by d i f f e r e n t  p r a c t i c e s have been i m p l e m e n t e d i n a s s i g n i n g  increase  of  a s u b s t a n t i a l upgrading  evaluation  r a t i n g s were u n d e r s t a t e d  a s s u m p t i o n , and  same c l a s s e s  a c a p a b i l i t y of  Alberta Agriculture felt  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The  ecological  uses.  survey.  v a r i a t i o n s in resource  capability  hazards.  to moderate f o r these with  improved  b a s i s of c o m p a r i n g t r e e h e i g h t  s u r v e y o r s were c o m p l i c a t e d  planning  p o t e n t i a l environmental  low  the  index curves.  moderate to high  to unimproved g r a z i n g ,  were a l s o e v a l u a t e d  c a p a b l e on  subdivided  at or  near  produced i n  1 52  Soil  s u r v e y s f o r A c c e l e r a t e d L a n d S a l e s a r e c o n d u c t e d a t an  intensity  level  two a n d a t a s c a l e o f 1:15,000. T h i s  used t o s u b - d i v i d e provide  on-farm  the land  i n t o farm u n i t s ,  survey i s  l a y out roads and  s o i l management g u i d e l i n e s . The a n a l y s i s  i n c l u d e s b o t h a s u r v e y a n d c a p a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s (Graw, 1984; Resource  Planning  Branch,  5.5 The A s s e s s m e n t the P l a n n i n g The program, This  1983a).  and Relevance of Socio-economic  Factors i n  Exercise  J e a n D'Or P l a n  includes, f o r the f i r s t  an a n a l y s i s o f t h e f i n a n c i a l  t i m e i n t h e IRPS  i m p l i c a t i o n s of the p l a n .  s e c t i o n l a y s o u t some o f t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h e p l a n , b u t i t  a l s o d e t a i l s many o f t h e d i r e c t c o s t s t o t a l l i n g p l u s $2 m i l l i o n  some $14 m i l l i o n  f o r r o a d g r i d s p e r t o w n s h i p . As a r e s u l t  of t h i s  s e c t i o n , t h e A s s o c i a t e M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Lands and W i l d l i f e o r d e r e d a d e t a i l e d economic financial,  impact a n a l y s i s ( P e t c h ,  income a n d employment a n a l y s i s h a s been c o m p l e t e d b u t  i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c d i s t r i b u t i o n The  (Cooke,  i n a regional context.  impacts of t h e p r o p o s a l  The b r o a d e r s o c i a l a n d  may be d i s c u s s e d  s t u d i e s , b u t t h e y have been a l s o w e l l d i s c u s s e d p u b l i s h e d d o c u m e n t s . A r e p o r t on e c o n o m i c emphasises  agricultural activity  Fort Vermilion social  1985).  J e a n D'Or P l a n a l s o d o e s n o t p l a c e t h e i m p a c t o f i t s  recommendations economic  1984). A  f o r the region  references to  ( P e t e r C. N i c h o l s & A s s o c i a t e s , L t d . , 1 9 8 1 a ) . A  impact assessment  f o r the region  d i s c u s s e s many o f t h e s o c i a l development  in previously  growth  with specific  i n t h e new  i s a l s o a v a i l a b l e and  i m p l i c a t i o n s of a g r i c u l t u r a l  ( P e t e r C. N i c h o l s & A s s o c i a t e s L t d . , 1 9 8 1 b ) .  These  153  reports  a r e n o t r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e p l a n ; a l t h o u g h , t h e d a t a and  analysis contained  i n them a r e v e r y  The m a i n c o n c l u s i o n s agricultural costs  relevant.  of these impact s t u d i e s  expansion w i l l  are that  occur a t a slower r a t e and t h a t  t o government f o r s e r v i c e s w i l l  r i s e a s more m a r g i n a l  l a n d s a r e d e v e l o p e d . Demand c a n n o t be met by t h e s u p p l y o f suitable  l a n d and t h i s w i l l  communities and t h e i r  have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r l o c a l  economies i n p r o v i d i n g  alternative  e m p l o y m e n t , b e c a u s e t h e number o f n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l also decrease. Further, infrastructure will of  include  relating  i m p a c t on t h e v i a b i l i t y  area.  The i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l Plan  will  p o t e n t i a l changes t o r e g i o n a l  have a s i g n i f i c a n t  the Fort V e r m i l i o n  jobs  elements d e a l t with  i n the Jean  r o a d s , d r a i n a g e , s u r v e y s and s o i l  t o community s e r v i c e s a r e not i n c l u d e d  surveys.  D'Or Costs  i n the draft  plan. Alberta the  costs  A g r i c u l t u r e a l s o h a s a s e r i e s o f p u b l i c a t i o n s on  and r e t u r n s  of p r o d u c i n g l o c a l l y  i n d i c a t e t h a t , d e p e n d i n g on i n t e r e s t r a t e s , profitable, 1982a;  i n the area,  at current  suited crops.  Figures  f a r m i n g c a n be  commodity p r i c e s  (Glaser,  1982b).  5.6 A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s  and t h e i r  The IRPS p r o g r a m , a s i l l u s t r a t e d exercise,  Selection by t h e J e a n D'Or  Planning  i s b a s e d on a c o n s e n s u s a p p r o a c h t o r e s o u r c e  management. A l t e r n a t i v e s a r e n o t p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f i n a l documents of each p l a n n i n g  exercise.  and  at earlier  c o n f l i c t s are resolved  Alternatives are  discussed  stages i n the e x e r c i s e .  1 54  The  documents o u t l i n i n g  these a c t i v i t i e s are a v a i l a b l e t o the  f i n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s , t h e Economic Development of  Committee  P l a n n i n g and Resource  of Cabinet through the A s s o c i a t e  Minister  P u b l i c Lands and W i l d l i f e . Initially,  the lack of p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y ,  regional  level  i n t e g r a t e d p l a n s and i n p u t from h i g h e r l e v e l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s i n the  p l a n n i n g program  s l o w e d down t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e J e a n  D'Or P l a n when c o m p a r e d t o o t h e r p l a n n i n g a r e a s ( P e t c h , A l t h o u g h t h e management i n t e n t o f t h e p l a n agricultural interests  initially In  i s t o expand t h e  base, the A l b e r t a F o r e s t S e r v i c e has s i g n i f i c a n t  i n reducing the t o t a l area a l i e n a t e d  jurisdiction.  1984).  This  i s reflected  i n the various  from i t s alternatives  developed.  the f i r s t  Management P o l i c y  s t a g e s of t h e development  of the Resource  (see T a b l e 5 . 1 ) , a m a t r i x of r e s o u r c e use and  r e s o u r c e z o n e s was d e v e l o p e d . T h r e e z o n e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d a s a g r i c u l t u r e , mixed use and a s p e c i a l p r o t e c t i o n r e s o u r c e uses a r e p e r m i t t e d or r e s t r i c t e d allocated  zone. V a r i o u s  i n each zone. Land i s  t o e a c h b a s e d on t h e E c o l o g i c a l L a n d  Classification  r a t i n g and t h e v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e use o b j e c t i v e s of each Several c o n f l i c t not  r e s o l v e . These  a r e a s a r o s e w h i c h t h e P l a n n i n g Team  as t h r e e p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s  reflecting  p o s i t i o n s of the A l b e r t a F o r e s t S e r v i c e , the P u b l i c  D i v i s i o n and A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e . to  could  c o n f l i c t s were r e f e r r e d t h e n t o t h e R e s o u r c e  I n t e g r a t i o n Committee the  agency.  Lands  I t t o o k t h e RIC s e v e r a l months  work o u t a c o m p r o m i s e b a s e d on a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f  subjectivity (Petch,  in interpreting  resource inventory  information  1 9 8 4 ) . The r e s u l t was t h e R e s o u r c e Management P o l i c y  155  which i n c l u d e d the three where c o n f l i c t  between a g r i c u l t u r e and f o r e s t r y s t i l l  where a g r i c u l t u r a l  leading the  areas f i r s t  e x i s t s and  ( s e e Map 5 . 6 ) .  t h e next s t e p of t h e e x e r c i s e , t h e plan  t o a d r a f t plan, the Planning  resource  area  d e v e l o p m e n t i s c o n d i t i o n a l upon t h e  development o f other During  zones p l u s a l i m i t e d development  Team d e c i d e d  design to eliminate  zone a p p r o a c h a n d t o go w i t h a R e s o u r c e Management  A r e a c o n c e p t . The RMAs a r e i d e n t i f i e d  f o r a predominant use w i t h  o b j e c t i v e s and g u i d e l i n e s p e r m i t t i n g c e r t a i n other u s e s . The P l a n n i n g  Team a l s o d e c i d e d  between y e l l o w and green a r e a s . yellow/green  resource  t o determine t h e boundary  The r e s u l t  i s that the  d e s i g n a t i o n d e t e r m i n e s t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e RMAs.  When t h e i n i t i a l Coordination  Council  d r a f t p l a n went t o t h e N a t u r a l f o r review,  e l i m i n a t i o n o f l i m i t e d use a r e a s .  Resource  the Council directed the The r e s u l t  i sbasically a  s e r i e s o f RMAs w i t h e i t h e r an a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n t e n t o r a f o r e s t management i n t e n t . C o n s i d e r a b l e according  t o Petch  U l t i m a t e l y , there designating resource The project  (1984),  flexibility  i s lost,  i n e l i m i n a t i n g the zoning  concept.  i s n o t much d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n RMAs a n d s i m p l y  t h e whole area  as y e l l o w  o r green and a l l o w i n g  management g u i d e l i n e s t o be a p p l i e d t o e a c h RMA c o n c e p t w i l l level  than a t t h i s  h a v e more v a l u e sub-regional  area.  a t an o p e r a t i o n a l o r  level.  I f RMAs h a d been  b a s e d on e c o l o g i c a l u n i t s r a t h e r t h a n on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e resource  m a n a g e r s m i g h t have h a d more f l e x i b i l i t y  areas,  i n adapting t o  c h a n g i n g economic c o n d i t i o n s and t e c h n o l o g i c a l change. As w e l l , there  remain s e v e r a l unarable  are, nevertheless,  subject  a r e a s w i t h i n t h e y e l l o w RMAs t h a t  to liquidation  harvesting.  156  Tp 10b  To 107  To 106  To 10S  AGRICULTURE  AREA  MULTIPLE USE A R E A  LIMITED DEVELOPMENT  S C A L E 1:300 0 0 0 W E S T O F THE FIFTH M E R I D I A N  SPECIAL USE  R 12  R 11  R 10  R 9  R 8  AREA  R ?  MAP 5.6: RESOURCE MANAGEMENT POLICY OF JEAN D'OR PRAIRIE *  *Source: REAP, 1983  157  U l t i m a t e l y , t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i t y r e c e i v e d much o f what i t w a n t e d . T h i s o c c u r r e d and  i s i n evidence  throughout the planning  exercise  i n t h e f i n a l p l a n . The e m p h a s i s on  a g r i c u l t u r a l development lends s i g n i f i c a n t weight t o t h a t s e c t o r ' s i n f l u e n c e . I t c o u l d be s a i d t h a t t h i s  simply  to p o l i c y as d i c t a t e d a t t h e p o l i t i c a l  level.  well  is still  f o r the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , as t h e r e  conforms  T h i s d o e s n o t bode considerable  arable undeveloped land i n the green area which i s adjacent t o areas  slated  review  f o r development, and t h e p l a n  i s subject to regular  a n d amendment.  5.7 I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e P l a n The  J e a n D'Or  Plan  i s expected  t o be a p p r o v e d l a t e r  s p r i n g o f 1985. The i n n o v a t i o n o f d e v e l o p i n g assessment d e l a y e d  the approval  process  g u i d e l i n e s f o r the review disposition Division,  has  (Resource E v a l u a t i o n and P l a n n i n g  1983, p . 2 0 ) . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , a p l a n  implementation  by t h e P l a n n i n g Team a n d t h e  R e s o u r c e Management C o m m i t t e e ( s e e T a b l e  n o t been done i n t h e c a s e o f t h e J e a n D'Or  Referral  direction  of development a p p l i c a t i o n s and t h e  of p u b l i c lands"  the plan c a l l s  f o r implementation  through  5.1), but t h i s  Plan.  Instead,  the Interdepartmental  System.  Conflicts will  "provides  management a l o n g w i t h c r i t e r i a a n d  document i s s u p p o s e d t o be p r e p a r e d Regional  impact  a n d may l e a d t o  r e v i s i o n s o f t h e d r a f t p l a n . The f i n a l p l a n for s i n g l e - s e c t o r resource  an e c o n o m i c  i n the  in interpretation  be r e s o l v e d by t h e R e g i o n a l  or implementation  of the plan  R e s o u r c e Management C o m m i t t e e  o r t h e R I C . The J e a n D'Or P l a n c a l l s  f o r the expansion  of t h e  158  R e g i o n a l R e s o u r c e Management C o m m i t t e e b e y o n d ENR o t h e r government a g e n c i e s will  result  defunct  a l r e a d y r e p r e s e n t e d on  in a structure similar  to include t h e RIC.  to B r i t i s h Columbia's  h e c t a r e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l t h e ALS  Plan w i l l  d i s p o s e of over  40,000  land. This w i l l  be a c c o m p l i s h e d  through  p r o g r a m i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e g u i d e l i n e s and o b j e c t i v e s  l a i d out  f o r e a c h RMA  allocate  land f o r a g r i c u l t u r e emphasize e i t h e r  i n t h e J e a n D'Or  beginning  timber  (by l i q u i d a t i o n h a r v e s t i n g ) , b u f f e r s t r i p s t o w i l d l i f e c o n t r o l and  o b j e c t i v e s and  f o r the removal  management. B r o a d  g u i d e l i n e s are a l s o l a i d  Plan area's Till  Guidelines exist  the  or expanding  e r o s i o n , and  farmer.  P l a n . RMAs i n t e n d i n g t o  farmer  our  f o r most o f t h e J e a n  be met  include detailed  d i s p o s i t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p u b l i c draw p r o c e s s best  l a n d use  will  system t o A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e ,  r e l e v a n t a g e n c i e s . The with other agencies  plans roads.  23. O t h e r  of I.D.  other  be d e t e r m i n e d  and  costs  s e r v i c e s are the  are  Improvement as  planning  23.  a r e a ; however, t h r o u g h o u t  s e v e r a l p r o j e c t s have t a k e n p l a c e over  yet i n  t h e r e s t of I.D. the past  f o u r or  by  other  in consultation  A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d S a l e s p r o j e c t s have n o t o c c u r e d t h e J e a n D'Or  layout  discussed  i n f r a s t r u e t u r a l components such  s c h o o l s , h e a l t h c a r e and responsibility  farm u n i t  Regional drainage  (75 p e r c e n t )  program.  t h e ADCs and  P u b l i c Lands D i v i s i o n  by A l b e r t a E n v i r o n m e n t No.  surveys,  t h e ALS  and  b e l o w i n S e c t i o n 5.7.2. The  soil  through  program w i l l  Distict  prevent  resources.  c r o p p i n g demands w i l l  the r e f e r r a l  of  resource  The  shared  now  RRMC's.  E v e n t u a l l y , t h e J e a n D'Or  D'Or  This  23, five  159  y e a r s . These p r o j e c t s were i n s t i g a t e d a t the r e q u e s t of t h e a f t e r p u b l i c meetings expansion about  (Klippenstein,  1 9 8 5 ) . The  t h r e e t i m e s t h e s u p p l y a t any  Branch,  farmland  demand f o r new one  time  farmland i s  (Resource P l a n n i n g  1983a).  Public over  w e r e h e l d on t h e s u b j e c t o f  d r a w s were h e l d f o r s u i t a b l e a p p l i c a n t s f i v e  f o u r y e a r s . The  p a r c e l s a l l o c a t e d c o n t a i n e d from  h e c t a r e s , a v e r a g i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 256 a l l o c a t e d u n d e r t h i s p r o g r a m has p a r c e l s . Roads were d e v e l o p e d a c c e s s f o r immediate  i s brought  prior  development.  into production within  few p a r c e l s have been t r a n s f e r r e d (Klippenstein,  hectares. Total  times  128  to  land  t o the draws t o p r o v i d e  G e n e r a l l y , development i s ( s e e S e c t i o n 5..7.1), and t h r e e to four y e a r s . Only to other beginning  as b e i n g g e n e r a l l y  successful  a l s o e x p r e s s concern about  a  farmers  view a g r i c u l t u r a l  (Graw, 1984;  the impact  Jarvie,  expansion  1984),  they  of c u r r e n t economic  f l u c t u a t i o n s a f f e c t i n g a g r i c u l t u r e . Graw (1984) a l s o s t a t e s land  i s not s u f f i c i e n t  to cover, i n the  t h e c o s t s i n c u r r e d by g o v e r n m e n t i n o p e n i n g  subsequent  land  1985).  A l t h o u g h government o f f i c i a l s  t h e p r i c e o f raw  384  been o v e r 24,000 h e c t a r e s i n 95  f i n a n c e d by B e g i n n i n g F a r m e r L o a n s  run,  ADC  economic v i a b i l i t y  new  that  short-  lands.  The  o f many f a r m s , h o w e v e r , i s s e e n  a r e a s o n t o c o n t i n u e of t h e development program.  as  160  5.7.1 R o l e o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l A g e n c y a n d S u p p o r t P r o g r a m s f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Development i n t h e M a r g i n a l  Fringe  Alberta A g r i c u l t u r e i s involved i n the planning from i t s o u t s e t . exercise  I t i s one o f t h e o r i g i n a l  initiators  f o r J e a n D'Or P r a i r i e , a n d t h e D i s t r i c t  i s on t h e P l a n n i n g agricultural Agriculture  Team. Much o f t h e r e s o u r c e  p o t e n t i a l and s u i t a b l i l i t y f o r the Planning  government's s t r o n g  support  exercise of t h e  Agriculturist  inventory  on  i s d e v e l o p e d by A l b e r t a  Team. Due t o t h e A l b e r t a f o r and d i r e c t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l  expansion, Alberta A g r i c u l t u r e ' s r o l e i n the exercise  i s crucial  t o t h e a r g u m e n t f o r more l a n d t o meet demand a n d f u l f i l l objective  (Petch,  this  1984).  A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e and o t h e r w e l l developed array  g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s have a  of programs t o f o s t e r a g r i c u l t u r a l  land  d e v e l o p m e n t . Most o f t h e s e p r o g r a m s a r e a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h t h e A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r a l Development C o r p o r a t i o n loans  which  provides  and l o a n g u a r a n t e e s f o r farms and a g r i b u s i n e s s e s .  A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r a l Development C o r p o r a t i o n Beginning  F a r m e r P r o g r a m where l o a n s  The  (ADC) h a s a  o f up t o $200,000 p e r f a r m  f a m i l y o r $600,000 p e r f a r m p a r t n e r s h i p a r e p r o v i d e d  f o r periods  o f up t o 30 y e a r s .  I n t e r e s t r a t e s a r e f i x e d a t ADC's  preferred  rate  f i v e y e a r s and renewed a t t h i s  f o r the f i r s t  subsequent f i v e years provided  that a farmer  rate f o r a  i s meeting a l l the  terms and c o n d i t i o n s of t h e l o a n . A f t e r t h i s p e r i o d , c a l c u l a t e d a t ADC's b a s e r a t e . F o r t h e f i r s t incentive  i s available for discounting  outstanding  principal  balance,  again  five years,  s i x percent  provided  interest i s  that  an  of the conditions  a r e met. The p r o g r a m i s a v a i l a b l e t o i n d i v i d u a l s e s t a b l i s h i n g  161  f a r m s a n d c a n be u s e d f o r a w i d e v a r i e t y land purchases  of purposes  and improvements.  P a r t A and B l o a n s a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e t o farmers expand t h e i r  including  operations through  wishing to  such methods as l a n d p u r c h a s e  and  i m p r o v e m e n t , among o t h e r s . The t y p e o f l o a n i s r e l a t e d t o  the  s i z e o f t h e a p p l i c a n t ' s a s s e t s . Terms a r e much t h e same a s  Beginning  Farmer Loans except  t h a t t h e r e a r e no i n c e n t i v e s .  A l o a n s , h o w e v e r , h a v e an i n t e r e s t  r a t e of three percent  Part  less  t h a n ADC's p r e f e r r e d r a t e s . A n o t h e r p r o g r a m p r o v i d e d by ADC t h r o u g h Development Loans, a l o a n guarantee Soil has  p r o g r a m , i s t h e Range a n d  Improvement p r o g r a m . The Range a n d S o i l incentives built  The  Improvement P r o g r a m  i n on t h e b a s i s o f a d i s c o u n t o f $70 p e r  $1000 o f l o a n f o r e a c h o f t h e f i r s t o f $10,000 p e r f a r m  A l b e r t a Farm  f i v e years  t o a maximum  loan  or ranch.  ADC a l s o l e n d s money a n d g u a r a n t e e s  loans through i t s  A g r i b u s i n e s s L o a n P r o g r a m . The D i r e c t A g r i b u s i n e s s L o a n s a r e intended t o develop to  expand r u r a l  5.7.2 Crown L a n d  a g r i b u s i n e s s n e e d e d by p r i m a r y  producers  economies.  Disposition  ENR c l a s s i f i e s Crown l a n d s i n t o t h r e e g e n e r a l z o n e s , green and y e l l o w first  settled  Crown l a n d s specific to  and  white,  ( s e e Map 5 . 3 ) . The w h i t e a r e a s a r e t h e l a n d s  i n t h e p r o v i n c e and cover  o n e - t h i r d of A l b e r t a .  i n the white a r e a , a v a i l a b l e and s u i t a b l e f o r  u s e s , c a n be a p p l i e d f o r i n t h e n o r m a l manner  pursuant  t h e P u b l i c L a n d s A c t ( C . 2 9 7 . R.S.A. 1 9 7 0 ) . The g r e e n a r e a i s  t h e n o n - s e t t l e d f o r e s t e d l a n d a n d i n c l u d e s 51 p e r c e n t  of t h e  162  province.  Lands i n t h e green area  Alberta Forest primarily  are administered  by t h e  S e r v i c e of A l b e r t a Energy and N a t u r a l  f o r forest production  Resources,  and other compatible  uses.  A g r i c u l t u r a l development, except g r a z i n g , i s r e s t r i c t e d green areas.  The y e l l o w a r e a  covers  much o f t h e P e a c e  region  i n c l u d i n g F o r t V e r m i l i o n . Crown l a n d s  differ  from t h e white  area  i n the yellow  i n the yellow area  i n much o f t h e P e a c e , i s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  Crown l a n d  are  of tenure  r e g i o n , as  of t h e boundary  areas.  i s allocated foragricultural  uses under t h e  p r o v i s i o n s of t h e P u b l i c Lands A c t . C o n d i t i o n s types  a v a i l a b l e vary  f o r the several  w i t h e a c h a p p r o a c h . Common t o a l l  t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s t h a t t h e a p p l i c a n t be a C a n a d i a n  over  18 y e a r s  old. Priority  fordisposition  r e q u i r i n g a d d i t i o n a l l a n d and t o l o c a l  i s given  farming  citizen t o farmers  residents establishing  new f a r m s . N e x t come n o n - l o c a l p e o p l e t r y i n g f a r m s . New  area  ( P u b l i c Lands  1981). A major i s s u e i n t h e F o r t V e r m i l i o n  between g r e e n and y e l l o w  River  i n t h a t homestead s a l e d i s p o s i t i o n s  a r e a v a i l a b l e on s u i t a b l e l a n d s Division,  i nthe  t o e s t a b l i s h new  f a r m e r s must i n t e n d t o become e n g a g e d p r i m a r i l y i n  a n d must h a v e t h e s k i l l s  and r e s o u r c e s  necessary f o r  establishing a successful enterprise. Under t h e A c c e l e r a t e d L a n d S a l e s p r o g r a m , t r a c t s o f Crown land are designated lots are f i r s t  f o r settlement.  A p p l i c a n t s f o r Crown  i n t e r v i e w e d and a s s s e s s e d  by f i e l d  Then s u i t a b l e a p p l i c a n t s a r e d e c l a r e d e l i g i b l e a draw p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e l o t s . to  Eligibility  land  personnel.  to participatein  i s subject  t o appeal  t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t C o m m i t t e e . The A g r i c u l t u r a l  D e v e l o p m e n t C o m m i t t e e (ADC) i s a l o c a l a g r i c u l t u r a l  advisory  163  group appointed  under t h e a u s p i c e s  ADC f u l f i l l s an a d v i s o r y  o f A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e . The  r o l e o n l y and f i n a l  by A l b e r t a E n e r g y a n d N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s The  d i s p o s i t i o n o f Crown l a n d s  f o l l o w t h r e e main f o r m s o f t e n u r e :  d e c i s i o n s a r e made  (ENR).  forcultivation homestead s a l e ,  i n ALS a r e a s farm  development s a l e and farm development l e a s e . Homestead s a l e s a r e available  i n the province's  agreements a r e c o n t r a c t s can  yellow  areas.  l i m i t must t a k e  their  own l a n d  sections  (256 h e c t a r e s ) .  i n t o account.  must be l e s s t h a n 70 y e a r s o l d a n d h a v e l i v e d total  must be a t l e a s t 50 p e r c e n t  t h r e e . The l a n d  a r a b l e . The p u r c h a s e p r i c e i s  e s t a b l i s h e d a t f a i r market v a l u e , taxes  Applicants  i n Alberta fora  o f a t l e a s t one y e a r o u t o f t h e p r e v i o u s  payments and m u n i c i p a l  sale  i s s u e d t o s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a n t s , who  o b t a i n a maximum o f f o u r q u a r t e r  This  Homestead  b u t payment i s p h a s e d i n . A l l  are deferred  until  the f o u r t h year  a f t e r d i s p o s i t i o n . The maximum t e r m o f t h e a g r e e m e n t i s 20 y e a r s and  i n t e r e s t i s c a l c u l a t e d a t a r a t e o f 6% p e r annum. I n t e r e s t  must be p a i d on an a n n u a l b a s i s a f t e r t h e f i r s t t h e a g r e e m e n t . L a n d s c a n be a s s i g n e d been met f o r t h e f i r s t Final and  conditions  have  two y e a r s a n d a l l p a y m e n t s a r e c u r r e n t .  t i t l e may be o b t a i n e d  provided  provided  three y e a r s of  w i t h payment o f t h e p u r c h a s e p r i c e  that the a p p l i c a n t has l i v e d  y e a r a n d c u l t i v a t e d a t l e a s t 16 h e c t a r e s Farm d e v e l o p m e n t s a l e s a r e i n t e n d e d t o e x p a n d a n d c r e a t e more e c o n o m i c a l l y  on t h e l a n d f o r one per quarter to assist  of the s e l l i n g  maximum t e r m i s 25 y e a r s b u t p r i n c i p a l  local  viable operations.  purchase p r i c e i s e s t a b l i s h e d a t f a i r market value minimum downpayment o f 6 p e r c e n t  section. farmers The  with a  p r i c e . The  p a y m e n t s c a n be d e f e r r e d  164  f o r up  to f i v e years,  a r a t e of  6 percent.  h o w e v e r , i n t e r e s t must be Lands can  be a s s i g n e d  paid annually  at  when c o n d i t i o n s  warrant. Farm d e v e l o p m e n t l e a s e s c a n t e n y e a r s where ENR a g r e e m e n t may  be  i s s u e d f o r a t e r m of up  wishes to r e t a i n t i t l e  c o n t a i n an  option  the p e r i o d t o f i v e y e a r s .  when ENR  f e e l s t h a t an a p p l i c a n t s h o u l d  l a n d . The  land's  f a i r market  The  Yearly  fulfill or the  l a n d can rental  designated  lack  i s r e s t r i c t e d , and  f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l use i s converted  i n an  purchased  i s often given  agricultural  once  i s a p e r c e n t a g e of  yellow  existing  to a yellow  management i s c o n d u c t e d on a l i q u i d a t i o n  r e s i d e n t s . Before  minimum  of  the  t r a c t s of  yellow  basis.  for  d e v e l o p m e n t , r e f e r r a l s a r e made t o o t h e r  these agencies are  c o n d i t i o n s . In the  i n v o l v e d i n the  or  local  land are made.available  a g e n c i e s f o r t h e i r comments and  area  timber  harvesting for  where  are  area,  to sawlog h a r v e s t i n g  where most  areas,  d e v e l o p m e n t i s e n c o u r a g e d . Once l a n d s  when a g r e e n a r e a  many o f  be  certain  used  value.  agricultural activity  Priority  automatically  IRPS p r o g r a m p r i m a r i l y d e f i n e s g r e e n a r e a s ,  agricultural  The  Options to purchase are  c o n d i t i o n s because of h i s i n e x p e r i e n c e  c o n d i t i o n s h a v e been met.  land.  to purchase which  shortens  d e v e l o p m e n t of h i s own  t o the  to  planning  relevant  IRPS p r o g r a m , exercises.  165  5.8  Monitoring  and  Evaluating  A n n u a l r e v i e w s and in monitoring Plan  will  be  and  reports  in  an  u n d e r t a k e n by  o b j e c t i v e s and  annual report  Coordinator Every  f i v e years,  being  of t h e  and  the  the main mechanisms  r e s u l t i n the m o d i f i c a t i o n  g u i d e l i n e s . The  D'Or  R e s o u r c e Management  review w i l l  the R e g i o n a l  be  of  outlined  Resource  review w i l l  RIC.  be  c o n d u c t e d under  A l l a s p e c t s of  public- w i l l  be  conditions  the  plan  i n v o l v e d as  the  will  be  i f a new  d e v e l o p e d . S i g n i f i c a n t amendments must p a s s t h e  public  involved  Jean  or sooner i f o f f i c i a l s d e c i d e  a p p r o v i n g a u t h o r i t y and  5.9  Exercise  RIC.  w a r r a n t , a major p l a n  evaluated,  are  the R e g i o n a l  p r e p a r e d by  f o r the  coordination  Planning  e v a l u a t i o n . A n n u a l r e v i e w s of the  C o m m i t t e e . A n n u a l r e v i e w s can specific  of t h e  plan  were  original  must i n c l u d e p u b l i c a n n o u n c e m e n t s and  a  hearing.  The  S i g n i f i c a n c e of P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e  Planning  E x e r c i se Among t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t s o f g e n e r a l l y , and  as  The not  IRPS p r o g r a m ,  i t i s a p p l i e d to the F o r t V e r m i l i o n  i t s e m p h a s i s on p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The involvement  the  high  level  area, of  is  public  i s a l s o apparent i n A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e ' s programs.  J e a n D'Or  Plan  s t a r t e d when p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n  was  a s i g n i f i c a n t component of the" IRPS p r o g r a m . P u b l i c  p a r t i c i p a t i o n was  l i m i t e d mainly to the  i n v o l v e m e n t as c o n s u l t a t i v e r a t h e r Team members. C o n s u l t a t i v e  i n t e r e s t groups'  than p a r t i c i p a t i v e P l a n n i n g  members a r e  not  involved  i n the  day-  166  to-day development of t h e p l a n but a r e c o n s u l t e d H o w e v e r , a s t h e J e a n D'Or participation The  became  new p o l i c y  Plan developed, f u l l  r e q u i r e s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s p e c i f i c  i n the plan's  direct contact public plan  p u b l i c . The s p e c i f i c  with o f f i c i a l s preparing  t h e p l a n . The  u s e i s made o f t h e m e d i a i n  i n the planning  process  and e n c o u r a g i n g  participation.  In F o r t V e r m i l i o n , as p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h e J e a n D'Or  P l a n was p r e s e n t e d  comment a t t h e d r a f t p l a n  stage.  throughout the area  accepted  1984) was  circulated shopping  an open h o u s e i n F o r t V e r m i l i o n . The  p u b l i c ' s comments t o g e t h e r  w i t h t h e d r a f t p l a n were p r o v i d e d t o  l e v e l c o m m i t t e e s i n ENR  (Petch,  1984).  A main r e a s o n f o r i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t program i s the a c t i v i t y  i n t h e IRPS  o f A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e t h r o u g h i t s own  p a r t i c i p a t i o n program, A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Committees (Petch,  1 9 8 4 ) . ADCs a r e a p p o i n t e d  Agriculture to advise  The ADC  t h e g o v e r n m e n t on i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g  i s appointed  membership c o m p r i s e s t h r e e r e s i d e n t , one l o c a l  (ADC)  by t h e A l b e r t a M i n i s t e r o f  land d i s p o s i t i o n s , r u r a l development, a g r i c u l t u r a l other matters.  and  newsletter  f o l l o w e d by d i s p l a y s i n l o c a l  and, f i n a l l y ,  the higher  became  f o r p u b l i c review  An i n f o r m a t i o n  ( A l b e r t a Energy and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s ,  centres  general  i s i n v o l v e d a f t e r d o c u m e n t s a r e a p p r o v e d up u n t i l t h e  announcing v a r i o u s steps  policy,  public i s  d i r e c t p r e p a r a t i o n and reviewn and has  i s completed. Extensive  public  public  policy.  p u b l i c s as opposed t o t h e g e n e r a l involved  a t key s t a g e s .  for local  public  c r e d i t and  a r e a s and  f a r m e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , one n o n - f a r m  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e , one  167  local municipal  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a n d one l o c a l  ENR. The v i c e - c h a i r m a n  i s t h e D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t who, i n t h e  c a s e o f t h e J e a n D'Or P l a n , the  i s a l s o on t h e P l a n n i n g  F o r t V e r m i l i o n ADC h a s d i r e c t i n p u t  the p l a n The  aspects  sizes,  i n t o t h e development of  i n f l u e n c e o f t h e ADC i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n favour  and has l e a d t o  o f a g r i c u l t u r e . The ADC  another major r o l e i n t h e A c c e l e r a t e d  requests  Team. Thus  throughout the process.  several concessions  other  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  Land S a l e s  plays  program and  o f Crown l a n d d i s p o s i t i o n . They n o t o n l y  f o r lands  initiate  t o go t o A L S , b u t t h e y recommend p a r c e l  shapes and t e n u r i a l arrangements  (Graw,  1984).  5.10 C a s e Summary The  IRPS p r o g r a m , a s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e J e a n D'Or  exercise,  i s a complex and e v o l v i n g system. I t i s w i d e l y  s u p p o r t e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v o l v e d i n d i v i d u a l planning took three  exercises  (Petch,  i n s p i t e of the l e n g t h of 1 9 8 4 ) . The J e a n D'Or  f i v e y e a r s a f t e r i n i t i a t i o n . The  program a t t e m p t s t o i n c l u d e a l l r e l e v a n t government through a committee system a t v a r i o u s m a k i n g h i e r a r c h y . The s h e e r s i z e ,  planning  planning  agencies  l e v e l s i n the d e c i s i o n -  however, o f t h e b u r e a u c r a c y  f o r t h e IRPS p r o g r a m i s a f a c t o r i n d e l a y i n g individual  Plan  y e a r s t o p r e p a r e t o t h e d r a f t s t a g e and i s e x p e c t e d  t o be a p p r o v e d t h i s y e a r ,  The  planning  the completion  of  exercises.  J e a n D'Or p l a n n i n g  exercise  illustrates  program's e v o l u t i o n a r y n a t u r e .  improvements i n d i c a t e a very  the Alberta  The a d a p t a t i o n s  and  f l e x i b l e approach, a l e a r n i n g  a p p r o a c h a n d a commitment t o a c h i e v e m e n t on t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s '  168  behalf. due  Political  s u p p o r t f o r t h e p r o g r a m a p p e a r s t o be  t o the Associate M i n i s t e r ' s d i r e c t i o n t o increase  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t o d e v e l o p i n n o v a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s Extensive  information  e n c o u r a g e d and s h o u l d  relating  not r e s t r i c t  to resource  strong,  public  foranalysis.  analysis i s  t h e making of  well-informed  d e c i s i o n s . The u s e o f e c o l o g i c a l l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s particularly  n o t e w o r t h y and r e f l e c t s t h e i n t e g r a t e d n a t u r e of  t h i s p r o g r a m . Some c o n c e r n h a s been e x p r e s s e d r e c e n t l y o v e r a decline  i n t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f s u r v e y s b e i n g  produced.  T h i s d e c l i n e i s a t t r i b u t e d l a r g e l y t o i n t e r n a l agency and  l e s s experienced The  the  staff  (Strong,  method o f l a n d a l l o c a t i o n  politics  1985). includes a requirement f o r  a p p l i c a n t t o demonstrate competence t o farm. There a r e  i n c e n t i v e s t o d e v e l o p l a n d q u i c k l y a n d a number o f p r o g r a m s t o aid  the farmer i n t h e establishment  strong  l o c a l pro-development a g r i c u l t u r a l  significant extension very  of h i s o p e r a t i o n .  input  i n t o the decision-making  The  a g r i c u l t u r a l development  through  and advocacy. very  s t r o n g e m p h a s i s on e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t a n d  Environmental considerations are evaluated  exercise. entirely  in this  f o r e x a m p l e , w i l d l i f e management i s d e a l t w i t h  of c o n t r o l or as a r e s i d u a l c o n c e r n development. Further  i n areas unaffected  b i a s may be i n t r o d u c e d  i n f l u e n c e of a g r i c u l t u r e and a g r i c u l t u r a l analyses  Government  i n t h e r e g i o n and a r e  e f f i c i e n c y d o m i n a t e s t h e J e a n D'Or p l a n n i n g  context,  which has  process.  and s u p p o r t a g e n c i e s a r e l o c a t e d  a c t i v e i n supporting  research  lobby  There i s a  i n terms by  i n the o v e r r i d i n g  expansion. C a p a b i l i t y  a r e u p g r a d e d t o s u p p o r t a g r i c u l t u r e ' s p o s i t i o n . Many o f  169  the  s i g n i f i c a n t c o n f l i c t s h a v e been d e c i d e d  in agriculture's  favour. It  isdifficult  bottom-up p l a n n i n g . d e v e l o p more l a n d  t o d i s t i n g u i s h w h e t h e r t h i s i s top-down o r While the o v e r a l l p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n t o  f o r a g r i c u l t u r e come f r o m t h e p o l i t i c a l  there i s very strong Given the extensive senior  'grassroots' opportunities  levels, public  support  level,  f o r such a p o l i c y .  for public  input,  even a t  s e n t i m e n t may d i c t a t e t h e p o l i t i c a l  decision. The  strong  influence  makes r e s o u r c e management  of a g r i c u l t u r a l development increasingly  rigid  RMAs a r e d e v e l o p e d t o f o l l o w a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e c o l o g i c a l b o u n d a r i e s . The e l i m i n a t i o n  b e c a u s e o f t h e way rather  Service  would have  The A l b e r t a  a l s o p r o m o t e s t h i s more r i g i d a p p r o a c h ,  flexibility  Forestry trading  for stability.  Contingency plans or a l t e r n a t i v e g u i d e l i n e s , economic and t e c h n i c a l c o n d i t i o n s ,  however, t h e economic c l i m a t e  given  a r e not provided.  r e m o v a l i s by l i q u i d a t i o n h a r v e s t i n g If,  than  of l i m i t e d development  a r e a s i s an e x a m p l e w h e r e j o i n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o v i d e d more management f l e x i b i l i t y .  interests  i n a l l yellow  changing  Timber  area  RMA's.  c h a n g e s a n d a g r i c u l t u r e i s no  l o n g e r v i a b l e , t h e n f o r e s t management may become a h i g h e r priority. trees  T h i s p r o b l e m may be p a r t i a l l y  remain, through the plan The  J e a n D'Or P l a n  discrepancies inventories. of  ameliorated,  i f any  r e v i e w mechanism.  does not e x p l a i n  adequately  among t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f a number o f r e s o u r c e These c o n t r a d i c t i o n s  the evaluation  may r e f l e c t s i m p l y t h e n a t u r e  p r o c e s s and t h e range of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  1 70  possible. if  In t h a t case,  these  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s may  b r o u g h t t o t h e a t t e n t i o n of d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s  of the  limits  of c a p a b i l i t y / s u i t a b i l i t y  the p l a n d e a l w i t h adequately surrounding  affect  these  The  p r o b l e m s and  o r be a f f e c t e d by  J e a n D'Or  P l a n has  little how  one-half  to reach  the  Plan  will  time-consuming  limit  y e a r s . The  for a  sub-  J e a n D'Or is still  f a c t o r s are too s u b s e r v i e n t to  s t r o n g development p r i o r i t i e s .  Nevertheless,  as a  Plan  It is a flexible,  a p p e a r s t o be w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . The  very  land  e v o l v i n g program  i n c r e a s i n g l y strong  of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n e n c o u r a g e s f o r o p t i m i s m continued  i m p r o v e m e n t of t h e IRPS p r o g r a m .  took  not  management p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m , I n t e g r a t e d R e s o u r c e P l a n n i n g widespread support.  does  a n a l y s i s of r e g i o n a l  t h e d r a f t p l a n s t a g e and  approved. Environmental  them  evaluation. Neither  been a c o s t l y and  regional plan three years  informing  them.  p r e s c r i b e d time  and  beneficial  t h e J e a n D'Or  document t o p r o d u c e . The i s one  by  i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to  r e g i o n . There i s very  g r o w t h p a t t e r n s and  be  for  the  enjoys  and element  REFERENCES  A g r i c u l t u r e C a n a d a . 1984. T e s t s on C e r e a l C r o p s i n t h e P e a c e R i v e r R e g i o n 1983. Canada, B e a v e r l o d g e .  and O i l s e e d Agriculture  A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e . 1984. S o u r c e s o f Farm B u s i n e s s C r e d i t i n A l b e r t a . A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e , Edmonton. A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e . 1981. F a r m i n g P o t e n t i a l o f t h e D'Or P r a i r i e - An E c o n o m i c A s s e s s m e n t . A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e , Edmonton.  Jean  ARDA. 1972. Canada L a n d I n v e n t o r y S o i l C a p a b i l i t y f o r A g r i c u l t u r e - Mount W a t t , NTS 84K, and V e r m i l i o n C h u t e s , NTS 8 4 J . E n v i r o n m e n t C a n a d a , O t t a w a . Cameron, Tom F. 1977. B i o p h y s i c a l A n a l y s i s and E v a l u a t i o n of C a p a b i l i t y La C r e t e . A l b e r t a E n e r g y and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , Edmonton. C a n a d i a n Wheat B o a r d . 1984. The C a n a d i a n Wheat B o a r d S e e d e d A c r e a g e S t a t i s t i c s - H i g h L e v e l , Keg R i v e r . C a n a d i a n Wheat B o a r d . C o o k e , L . J . , ADM of t h e R e s o u r c e E v a l u a t i o n and Planning D i v i s i o n , A l b e r t a E n e r g y and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , Edmonton. P e r s o n a l C o r r e s p o n d e n c e . G l a s e r , H a r v e y . 1982. A C o n s e n s u s o f C o s t s and R e t u r n s : C e r e a l G r a i n s and R a p e s e e d P r o d u c t i o n i n t h e F o r t V e r m i l i o n D i s t r i c t . A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e , Edmonton. G l a s e r , H a r v e y . 1982b. A Wheat, B a r l e y , F l a x , 800 A c r e Farm i n t h e Alberta Agriculture,  C o n s e n s u s o f C o s t s and R e t u r n s : A l f a l f a , and S u m m e r f a l l o w on an Fort Vermilion D i s t r i c t . Edmonton.  G o v e r n m e n t of A l b e r t a . 1984. A P o l i c y f o r R e s o u r c e Management o f t h e E a s t e r n S l o p e s R e v i s e d 1984. A l b e r t a E n e r g y and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , Edmonton. Graw, G e r a l d , W., R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r , Peace R e g i o n , P u b l i c L a n d s D i v i s i o n , A l b e r t a E n e r g y and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , Peace R i v e r . P e r s o n a l C o r r e s p o n d e n c e . J a r v i e , J o h n , P l a n n i n g Manager S o u t h P e a c e R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, Grande P r a i r i e . Personal Correspondence. Klippenstein, Rick, D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t , Agriculture, Fort Vermilion. Personal Correspondence.  Alberta  L e s k i n , L.A. And T w a r d y , A.G. 1982. E v a l u a t i o n o f S o i l s and A g r i c u l t u r a l S u i t a b i l i t y - J e a n D'Or P r a i r i e . A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e , Edmonton. P e t c h , A r t h u r R., L a n d Use A n a l y s t , L a n d s D i r e c t o r a t e , O t t a w a . T e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w , A p r i l 16, 1985 and unpublished research. P e t e r C. N i c h o l s & A s s o c i a t e s L t d . 1981a. A S t u d y o f E c o n o m i c G r o w t h i n t h e S o u t h P e a c e S u b - R e g i o n . Peace R i v e r P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , Grande P r a i r i e . P e t e r C. N i c h o l s & A s s o c i a t e s L t d . 1981b. A S t u d y o f S o c i a l Impact i n t h e Lower P e a c e , N o r t h P e a c e , and E a s t Peace Sub-Regions. Peace R i v e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, Grande P r a i r i e . P u b l i c L a n d s D i v i s i o n . 1981. A l b e r t a P u b l i c L a n d s . A l b e r t a E n e r g y and N a r u r a l R e s o u r c e s , Edmonton. R e s o u r c e E v a l u a t i o n and P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n . 1983. A System f o r I n t e g r a t e d Resource P l a n n i n g i n A l b e r t a . A l b e r t a l E n e r g y and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , Edmonton. R e s o u r c e E v a l u a t i o n and P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n . 1984. I n t e g r a t e d R e s o u r c e Management : R e s o u r c e Management t h r o u g h Teamwork ( p a m p h l e t ) . A l b e r t a E n e r g y and N a s t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , Edmonton. R e s o u r c e P l a n n i n g B r a n c h . 1983a. I n t e g r a t e d R e s o u r c e P l a n : J e a n D'Or P r a i r i e S u b - R e g i o n a l P l a n . D r a f t P l a n . A l b e r t a E n e r g y and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , Edmonton. R e s o u r c e P l a n n i n g B r a n c h . 1983b. S o i l C a p a b i l i t y f o r A g r i c u l t u r e : A Summary and A p p l i c a t i o n o f Canada L a n d I n v e n t o r y D a t a i n A l b e r t a . A l b e r t a E n e r g y and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , Edmonton. S c h e e l a r , M. D. and M a c y k , T.M. 1972. S o i l S u r v e y o f t h e Mount Watt and F o r t V e r m i l i o n A r e a . A l b e r t a S o i l S u r v e y R e p o r t S-72-30. U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , Edmonton. S t r o n g , Wayne L. 1981. E c o l o g i c a l L a n d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and E v a l u a t i o n J e a n D'Or P r a i r i e . A l b e r t a E n e r g y and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , Edmonton. S t r o n g , Wayne L., C o n s u l t a n t , Edmonton. I n t e r v i e w , A p r i l 26,1985.  Telephone  Thompson, Peggy S. 1981. The A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d B a s e i n A l b e r t a . E n v i r o n m e n t C o u n c i l o f A l b e r t a , Edmonton. Anon. 1982. A g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e Lower P e a c e R i v e r R e g i o n , (unpublished r e p o r t ) . A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e , Fort  Vermilion.  174  PART I I I  CONCLUSION  CHAPTER S I X  A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CANADIAN PLANNING PROGRAMS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF CROWN LAND I N THE MARGINAL FRINGE  176  6.1  Introduction Programs f o r p l a n n i n g  land  t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t of  i n Canada's m a r g i n a l  Fledgling planning often stumbling,  f r i n g e region are  programs are  slowly, hesitantly,  one  step  forward  and  t h e s e programs began, over t e n y e a r s ago,  much i n n o v a t i o n and As  two  steps  there  has  been  testing.  I r o n s i d e o v e r t h e a b s e n c e of p l a n n i n g  (Lassey,  1977;  creating planning regions.  The  i n the  as  marginal  I r o n s i d e e t a l . , 1 9 7 4 ) , g o v e r n m e n t s began  p r o g r a m s t o f o s t e r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of  these  t r a d i t i o n a l b a r r i e r s to e f f e c t i v e c o o r d i n a t i o n  among g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s were swept away i n a b e w i l d e r i n g of p r o c e d u r e s , teams, c o m m i t t e e s and g o v e r n m e n t s i n A l b e r t a and  Newfoundland a g g r e s s i v e l y  expansion onto t h e i r a r a b l e , v i r g i n  s u p p o r t e d by  f e d e r a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s u b s i d i e s and,  t h e C a n a d i a n Wheat B o a r d q u o t a  Refuting developing stronger grown and marginal a l o n e but in  other  continue  Bentley's  the marginal  than supply.  government w i l l  be  high.  w i s d o m of  land  is  to earn a l i v i n g not  be  due  g o v e r n m e n t s u p p o r t and  s e c t o r s . Assuming t h a t t h i s  more l a n d w i l l  the  still  developed, crops are  f r i n g e . E c o n o m i c s u r v i v a l may  resource  in  lands,  system.  f r i n g e , demand f o r new  s o l d . F a r m e r s have been a b l e  to s i g n i f i c a n t  promoted  Crown  (1982) p e s s i m i s m o v e r t h e  Land i s b e i n g  array  taskforces. Provincial  agricultural  prairies,  in  back.  i f i n response t o the c r i t i c i s m s of a c a d e m i c s such  L a s s e y and fringe  infancy.  f r e q u e n t l y h a l t i n g a l t o g e t h e r . S o m e t i m e s , as  B r i t i s h Columbia, they take Since  developing  in their  Crown  be d e v e l o p e d , b u t  being in  the  to a g r i c u l t u r e  part-time  situation  the c o s t s  work will  for  I n f r a s t r u c t u r e , i n c e n t i v e programs,  and  177  social  s e r v i c e s necessary  frontier new  than  i s due  issues surrounding  agriculture.  f a r m a r e more e x p e n s i v e  i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l h e a r t l a n d . Often  a g r i c u l t u r a l areas  political  to the  These broader  to the broader  social  previous chapter— a s s e s s m e n t . The match s k i l l e d the  a l a c k of s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  challenge  farmers,  interest  eye  rate  The  over  the  suitability  by  information process  shoulder  conducted  the  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e x a m p l e s of p l a n n i n g areas.  l a n d omit or are d e f i c i e n t  more of t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e 1). T h i s o m i s s i o n and  c o u l d be due  and i n the and i s to and  while and  is  illustrated  exercises  In t h i s a n a l y s i s , the  idealized process  (as per  t o the  or  Chapter  original  of t h e o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m o r i t  t o a d e c i s i o n t o m o d i f y e l e m e n t s of the  program t o adapt t o the  we  development  w i t h r e s p e c t t o one  o r d e f i e n c y c o u l d be due  scoping  agricultural  fringe  have found t h a t s p e c i f i c e x e r c i s e s f o r p l a n n i n g  structuring  to  trends.  i n e a c h of t h e c a s e s t u d y  of m a r g i n a l  then  a t commodity p r i c e s  d i v e r s i t y of p r o g r a m s f o r p l a n n i n g  the  just  reviewed  for agriculture  d e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown l a n d i n t h e m a r g i n a l well  not  l i m i t e d p u b l i c funds f o r development  l a n d w i t h the h i g h e s t  c a s t i n g one  to the p l a n n i n g  in  and  unrecognized,  t h i s p o i n t s t o a major f l a w i n a l l of the c a s e s  the  investment  r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t and  i s s u e s o f t e n go  on  individual circumstances  of  overall each  planning exercise. In  t h i s concluding chapter,  questions fringe. analysis  for effective  I arrive  I will  a d d r e s s t h e most c r u c i a l  p l a n n i n g programs i n the  at these  questions  after  a review  marginal of  the  i n t h e c a s e s t u d i e s where r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p l a n n i n g  exercises using the planning process  illustrated  the strengths  and weaknesses o f each program:  •Has p r o v i s i o n been made f o r a c l e a r l y  articulated,  s t a b l e y e t f l e x i b l e program f o r p l a n n i n g t h e agricultural marginal  d e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown l a n d i n t h e  f r i n g e , a n d what i s t h e r o l e , c e n t r a l o r  peripheral, played in t h i s •Given  be t h e l e a d a g r i c u l t u r a l  agency  program? the fact  that marginal  some e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y  lands a r e often a t  d e f i n e d boundary of  m a r g i n a l i t y , how w e l l a r e e n v i r o n m e n t a l  factors  ( e s p e c i a l l y c l i m a t e and s o i l s ) i n v e n t o r i e d , evaluated  and communicated  •Do p r o g r a m s p e r m i t shed l i g h t  to  decision-makers?  socio-economic  on t h e f e a s i b i l i t y ,  assessments that  broadly  speaking, of  p r e f e r r e d development s t r a t e g i e s ? •Does t h e p r o g r a m a l l o w f o r t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f alternative  resource  development o p t i o n s t o  agriculture? •Are government  programs  s u c h a s Crown  d i s p o s i t i o n and a g r i c u l t u r a l  land  incentives, effectively  i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e p l a n n i n g program i n promoting t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown l a n d s marginal  i n the  fringe?  •What s o r t o f e f f o r t h a s been made t o b u i l d p u b l i c understanding program?  of and support  f o r the planning  179  6.2  Is There a C l e a r l y A r t i c u l a t e d In  Program f o r P l a n n i n g ?  a l l t h r e e c a s e s a n a l y s e d , no a t t e m p t  develop a s p e c i f i c conditions.  has  been made t o  p l a n n i n g program f o r m a r g i n a l  fringe  I n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s s t r u g g l e , some more  successfully  than o t h e r s , t o adapt a province-wide  program f o r  Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g o r a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t marginal address  fringe c o n d i t i o n s . Developing marginal  p l a n n i n g programs t o  f r i n g e c o n d i t i o n s and  problems w i l l  i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s , such as t h o s e s t u d i e s , t o have a g r e a t e r i m p a c t r e s i d e n t s , more e f f i c i e n t regional  and  case  in  to  local  realizing  aspirations.  h i e r a r c h i c a l approach P o l i c i e s and  regional unit  to planning for a g r i c u l t u r a l  i n F i g u r e 1.1.  t h e OECD  development.  at a l l l e v e l s  The  r e g i o n a l or  i n the sub-  i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t a s i t i s t h e o p e r a t i o n a l  This i s confirmed  t h e c a s e s and  f o r a comprehensive,  p l a n s s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d  h i e r a r c h y as proposed  i n the p l a n n i n g programs reviewed  a l s o c o r r o b o r a t e s the views  of L a s s e y  (1977)  to follow  this  in and  (1978).  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and  A l b e r t a attempt  comprehensive, h i e r a r c h i c a l approach  in their provincial  l a n d management p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m . The officially  as p o l i c y  provincial  to the l o c a l  of  i n the  allow  by b e i n g l e s s a l i e n  more e f f e c t i v e  Much o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e c a l l s  level.  to  Crown  program i s documented  i n each j u r i s d i c t i o n  f l o w i n g from  the  l e v e l . H o w e v e r , many s t a g e s a r e l e f t  t h e p r o g r a m when i t i s a c t u a l l y  implemented. B r i t i s h  has c o n c e n t r a t e d a t t h e s u b - d i s t r i c t  out  Columbia  l e v e l a s has A l b e r t a , t o a  180  lesser extent. Alberta i s also starting development  of regional plans  t o renew e m p h a s i s on t h e  t o g u i d e more s i t e  specific  p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e g i o n a l p l a n s w i l l a i d in the adaptation  of p r o v i n c e - w i d e p l a n n i n g programs t o m a r g i n a l  f r i n g e c o n d i t i o n s . B r i t i s h Columbia h a s , however, comprehensive p l a n n i n g programs management  instability  i n an a t m o s p h e r e  and c o n f u s i n g p o l i t i c a l  P l a n n i n g B r a n c h , 1 9 8 3 ) . The a b s e n c e o f h i g h e r policy direction  results  programs a t t h e f i e l d bureaucratic  resource (Land  l e v e l p l a n s and a p p l i c a t i o n of  in hierarchical  s t r u c t u r e s which a r e used t o r e c e i v i n g d i r e c t i o n  f r o m a b o v e . The p r o b l e m a l s o e x t e n d s t o f i t t i n g localized  of  direction  i n a more i n e f f i c i e n t  l e v e l of planning  abandoned  t h e more  planning exercises into the broader r e g i o n a l p i c t u r e .  Integrated efforts  i n p l a n n i n g programs a r e i l l u s t r a t e d  most s u c c e s s f u l l y i n A l b e r t a . T h e r e , a l l a f f e c t e d a g e n c i e s a r e encouraged t o p a r t i c i p a t e a t a l l l e v e l s with the f i e l d Columbia,  l e v e l using a planning  i n a committee  system  team a p p r o a c h . I n B r i t i s h  i n t e g r a t i o n i s l e s s of a feature i n that agencies  p r o v i d e an a d v i s o r y r o l e t o t h e M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s a n d Housing through the interagency  task  f e a t u r e of t h e Newfoundland p l a n n i n g system a f t e r mainly  f o r c e . I n t e g r a t i o n i s not a program beyond a  referral  plans are developed . C o n s u l t a t i o n i s conducted  t o f a c i l i t a t e a g r i c u l t u r a l development and t o soothe  unhappy i n t e r e s t s a f t e r p l a n s a r e i m p l e m e n t e d . The A g r i c u l t u r a l agency p l a y s a v e r y  important  role  A l b e r t a p l a n n i n g programs, w h i l e peripherally  i n b o t h t h e Newfoundland and  i t i s involved only  i n the B r i t i s h Columbia programs.  N e w f o u n d l a n d and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e a t o p p o s i t e  extremes  181  on a c o n t i n u u m r e p r e s e n t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c y i n v o l v e m e n t  in  t h e p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m f o r t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown land  i n the marginal  f r i n g e . A l b e r t a i s near the middle  of that  c o n t i n u u m . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e a n d F o o d has v e r y  little  input  into planning  exercises f o rthe  a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown l a n d i n t h e m a r g i n a l This  i s due p r i m a r i l y  land planning place,  The A g r i c u l t u r a l  B r a n c h i n N e w f o u n d l a n d , on t h e o t h e r  l a n d . However,  program coupled  the Branch's aggressive  with significant  funding provided  i n a r e a c t i v e and d e f e n s i v e  management p l a n n i n g  hand,  f o r t h e development of  g o v e r n m e n t , t o be s p e n t by a c o n t r a c t e d d e a d l i n e , agencies  take  satisfactory.  the e n t i r e planning process  agricultural  and low p r i o r i t y f o r  i n t h e M i n i s t r y . W h i l e c o n s u l t a t i o n does  i t i s f a r from  controls  t o ' a l a c k of s t a f f  fringe.  planning  by t h e f e d e r a l places'Other  p o s i t i o n . Crown  land  i s s t a r t i n g o n l y now i n t h e p r o v i n c e ;  h o w e v e r , a s most o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l l y  s u i t a b l e areas  have  a l r e a d y been s u b j e c t t o p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s u n d e r t h e Agricultural  B r a n c h ' s p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m , a p r e c e d e n t h a s been s e t  and r e s o u r c e  u s e d e s i g n a t i o n i n a Crown l a n d p l a n w i l l  be o n l y a  formality. A l b e r t a , again, s t r i k e s a balance  between N e w f o u n d l a n d and  B r i t i s h Columbia. A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e i s e x t e n s i v e l y involved i n planning  e x e r c i s e s a s an e q u a l p a r t i c i p a n t on t h e P l a n n i n g  Teams  and c o m m i t t e e s i n t h e IRPS p r o g r a m . I t i s a l s o i n v o l v e d i n t h e design through  o f A c c e l e r a t e d Land S a l e s p r o j e c t s t h r o u g h i t srole  i n t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Development  Approaches t o l a n d p l a n n i n g programs  r e f e r r a l and Committees.  for agricultural  182  development i n the m a r g i n a l jurisdiction  fringe vary  from j u r i s d i c t i o n t o  i n a number o f a s p e c t s . F i r s t ,  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and  A l b e r t a p r o g r a m s f o l l o w a Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h . They integrated  l o o k a t a p l a n n i n g a r e a ' s Crown l a n d w i t h i n an  f r a m e w o r k . Then, b a s e d on r e s o u r c e  sector objectives  a n d a, p r e d o m i n a n t l y , b i o - p h y s i c a l a n a l y s i s , t h e y a l l o c a t e  lands  t o v a r i o u s u s e s . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p r o g r a m d i d a l l o w f o r a limited  form of a g r i c u l t u r a l  designating agricultural  l a n d management p l a n n i n g i n  d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a s and  management a r e a s a f t e r ' a g r i c u l t u r a l  resource  a r e a s had been i d e n t i f i e d i n  t h e Crown l a n d management p l a n . T h i s h a s n o t been t h e c a s e i n A l b e r t a , where  t h e p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m jumps d i r e c t l y f r o m Crown  l a n d management p l a n n i n g planning.  to a g r i c u l t u r a l  In Newfoundland, there  production  project  i s o n l y an e x p e r i m e n t a l  Crown  l a n d management p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m . A p r o g r a m f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n n i n g  in designating agricultural  a r e a s h a s been a t t e m p t e d . However,  t h e main  form of  development planning  p r o g r a m h a s been a t t h e p r o d u c t i o n p r o j e c t l e v e l . The a b s e n c e o f other  levels  of p l a n n i n g programs has l e d t o a n e g l e c t of  o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s and o t h e r p o t e n t i a l In well.  resource uses.  summary, p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m s a r e n o t a r t i c u l a t e d  very  T h e r e i s no d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r o g r a m s a i m e d s p e c i f i c a l l y a t  marginal  fringe regions. Agricultural  l a n d management  planning  p r o g r a m s a r e a b s e n t a s a r e , f o r t h e most p a r t , b r o a d e r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s . P r o j e c t p l a n n i n g programs are o f t e n f r o m more c o m p r e h e n s i v e l e v e l s the a g r i c u l t u r a l more e f f e c t i v e  of a p l a n n i n g program.  agency does p l a y a l e a d r o l e  programs.  isolated  However,  i n most o f t h e  183  6.3  How  Well  are Environmental Factors  and  Communicated t o Climate  and  remain the  agriculture  i n the marginal  grain could  be  things that  foreseeable  increase  the  beneficial  Broad c l i m a t i c  suitability  for specific  O v e r t e n y e a r s ago,  i n the m a r g i n a l  data  s o i l s do,  i s required to  climate. Soil  Evaluations s y s t e m , t h e CLI  soils  Laut  turn  Climate as one define  established, information  i s required  Williams  and  (1974)  climatic  i n the A l b e r t a case does  u s u a l l y conducted at a very o f an  or secondary  called  conditions this  taking place, to a l i m i t e d extent,  extension  moves  environmental  (1973) and  a n a l y s i s of s o i l  surveys are  as an  and  few  crops.  f r i n g e . Only  a n a l y s i s a p p e a r t o be  The  before  a  They c a n n o t  price increases  f r i n g e to determine  f o r a more s y s t e m a t i c  there are  into wheatfields.  increasingly detailed climatic  s c a l e and  can  l i m i t s . Once t h e s e l i m i t s a r e  w i t h i n the m a r g i n a l  but  i n the p r i c e of  p r i c e i n c r e a s e s c a n n o t do.  f r e e z e - f r e e p e r i o d nor  north.  increase  for farmers,  becomes a b a r r i e r t o c u l t i v a t i o n  ecological  ultimate constraints to  f r i n g e . An  muskeg, a f f e c t e d by p e r m a f r o s t ,  further  Evaluated  Decision-makers?  soils  very  Inventoried,  with  small  o v e r a l l p r o v i n c i a l program.  i n v e n t o r i e s are conducted using  a  w h i c h i s more s u i t a b l e f o r s o u t h e r n c o n d i t i o n s .  assessment of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r  d e v e l o p m e n t i s c o n d u c t e d on b a s i s . T h e r e i s no  a planning  agricultural  e x e r c i s e by  exercise  n a t i o n a l or p r o v i n c i a l program f o r  e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s keyed s p e c i f i c a l l y E v e n i n N e w f o u n d l a n d , where i t can  assessing  t o the m a r g i n a l be  fringe.  s a i d , almost a l l  1 84  agricultural still 'one  land  i smarginal,  used. I t i s d i f f i c u l t  the national capability  system i s  t o educate t h e non-expert about a  through seven', c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s system which s t a r t s , f o r  t h e most p a r t , a t c l a s s f o u r confusing  i n Newfoundland. I t i s a l s o  to explain that the c a p a b i l i t y  system i s based mostly  on c r o p s t h a t c a n n o t be grown i n N e w f o u n d l a n d . The  expansion of t h e p l a n n i n g  management p l a n n i n g increased  i n marginal  p r o g r a m i n t o Crown l a n d  fringe regions  assesssment of a l t e r n a t i v e resource  results in u s e s . To a l l o w f o r  the assessment of these a l t e r n a t i v e uses, d i f f e r e n t jurisdictions, using  particularly  innovative techniques  B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a , a r e t o d e v e l o p a common i n v e n t o r y  base  f o r c o m p a r i s o n . The A l b e r t a s y s t e m f o r e c o l o g i c a l l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d i s p l a y s a number o f a d v a n t a g e s o v e r primary  inventories i n the marginal  base of i n f o r m a t i o n  f r i n g e . I t provides  or s u i t a b i l i t i e s  u s i n g a common p r i m a r y The  uses, i n c l u d i n g  T h i s makes t h e c o m p a r i s o n s among v a r i o u s  capabilities  a common  a n d a common s y s t e m o f map p o l y g o n s f o r t h e  e v a l u a t i o n o f most a l t e r n a t i v e r e s o u r c e wildlife.  other  resource use  easier since a l l involved are  inventory  base.  use of b o t h improved and unimproved CLI r a t i n g s •<  provides  t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r w i t h a b a s e f o r more  estimation  accurate  o f some o f t h e c o s t s a n d b e n e f i t s i n v o l v e d i n  a l t e r n a t i v e development s c e n a r i o s . At t h e s u b - r e g i o n a l level  i n A l b e r t a a n d some p a r t s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  planning capability  a n a l y s i s uses only unimproved CLI r a t i n g s . I n A l b e r t a , as t h e planning  e x e r c i s e was b e i n g  conducted, A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e  c o n d u c t e d a s u r v e y on i m p r o v e d a g r i c u l t u r a l  r a t i n g s . Although  185  controversial, Petch  i t was  accepted  as a b a s i s f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g .  ( 1 9 8 4 ) s t a t e s t h a t o t h e r r e s o u r c e u s e r s may  disadvantage  a s t h e y d i d n o t use  improved  e v a l u a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s under t h e i r The D'Or  diversity  P l a n a r e a d i s p l a y s an  surveys  yield different t h e same u s e s . in  important  f e a t u r e of  one  the  i n Fort Nelson  impact  and  the  surveyors  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h e same r e s o u r c e b a s e f o r I m p r o v e d i n f o r m a t i o n and  d a t a can in  be one  i n p r o v i d i n g a way  t o judge  factor  interpretation  t h e l a t i t u d e of p o s s i b l e d e r i v a t i o n s , g i v e n  limited  be b e n e f i c i a l  the probable  to  the  accuracy  of  any  survey. Y i e l d and  variety  trials  were c o n d u c t e d  in a l l three  s t u d y a r e a s . H o w e v e r , o n l y F o r t V e r m i l i o n has  c o n f i d e n c e . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s v a r i e t y and due  t o government r e s t r a i n t , a f t e r  experimentation. Unstable resource  yield  o n l y two  d e g r e e of trials years  f u n d i n g i s a major problem  i n v e n t o r y i n the m a r g i n a l  f r i n g e , as  were of  with  i t i s with other  a r e a s o f r e s o u r c e management. P r o g r a m s a i m e d a t c r e a t i n g i n v e n t o r y of d e v e l o p i n g investments  with a pay-off  programs are c u t realized  resources are u s u a l l y several years  case  an e x t e n s i v e l o n g -  t e r m p r o g r a m where r e s u l t s c o u l d be u s e d w i t h any  cut,  Jean  resource  i n the S t . John's case. D i f f e r e n t  k n o w l e d g e . S u c h a r a n g e of r e s u l t s c a n planner  i n the  i n the debate over  t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s but o f t e n v a r i a t i o n s  reflect  in their  jurisdiction.  c l i m a t e on c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  capability  ratings  of l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s conducted  e v a l u a t i o n s . This i s a l s o apparent of  h a v e been a t a  an  long-term  i n the f u t u r e . I f  i n t h e s e a r e a s , o f t e n few  r e s u l t s can  f o r t h e a l r e a d y i n v e s t e d f u n d s . T h i s l a c k of  be short-term  186  results  i s o f t e n u s e d as j u s t i f i c a t i o n  f o r even f u r t h e r  I n summary, t h e i n v e n t o r y , e v a l u a t i o n and decision-makers  of e n v i r o n m e n t a l  factors  cuts.  communication  for marginal  to  fringe  d e v e l o p m e n t a r e weak b u t a r e m a k i n g some p r o g r e s s . U s u a l l y , i n v e n t o r i e s and  e v a l u a t i o n s are not adapted  to marginal  c o n d i t i o n s b u t a r e o f t e n t h e e x t e n s i o n of a n a t i o n a l p r o v i n c i a l program. C l i m a t i c Funding  i s o f t e n s h o r t - t e r m and  ecological trials  Do  is particularly  a s w e l l a s t h e use  or  inadequate.  i n s e c u r e . H o w e v e r , t h e use  l a n d s u r v e y s and more e x t e n s i v e y i e l d and  capability  6.4  data  fringe  of both  improved  r a t i n g s a l l o w s f o r some  and  of  variety  unimproved  optimism.  P l a n n i n g Programs P e r m i t Adequate  Socio-economic  Assessments? The  l a c k of e c o n o m i c and  social  impact  assessments  another major f l a w i n the p l a n n i n g programs f o r the d e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown l a n d i n t h e m a r g i n a l f r i n g e . where d e v e l o p m e n t c o s t s f o r t h e g o v e r n m e n t and higher than generally  i n more d e n s e l y s e t t l e d a r e a s and  lower, socio-economic  t h r o u g h l y . As e c o l o g i c a l established,  so do  sufficiently yield  limits  I n an  p u b l i c and  be cannot  private  i n more i s o l a t e d a r e a s  i s t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e m a j o r r e s o u r c e use and  where  broader  involved.  L a n d i n t h e m a r g i n a l f r i n g e may f a v o u r a b l e c l i m a t e , but u n t i l  are  assessed  l i m i t s where p r o d u c t i o n  income t o j u s t i f y  r u r a l development i s s u e s are not  area  where r e t u r n s a r e  f o r a g r i c u l t u r e have t o  investment. This i s true e s p e c i a l l y agriculture  agricultural  the producer  f a c t o r s must be  socio-economic  is  h a v e a r a b l e s o i l s and  a  the p r i c e s of commmodities a r e  187  high  enough t o pay  f o r the  increased  costs  of p r o d u c t i o n  m a r g i n a l f r i n g e , a g r i c u l t u r e , as an  industry,  is  economically  decide to  subsidize  v i a b l e . Government can  a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t , as  i t has  in  not  done i n many a r e a s of  the  m a r g i n a l f r i n g e i n C a n a d a . However, t h e s e s u b s i d i e s must l i n k e d to a pay-off  somewhere down t h e  the  r o a d t h a t makes  be  the  s p e n d i n g o f t h a t money on a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t more efficient,  equitable  f o r e x a m p l e , on British  and  soil  e f f e c t i v e f o r s o c i e t y than  conservation  i n the  i f spent,  Lower F r a s e r  Valley  Columbia.  C o s t s and  b e n e f i t s must be  evaluated  i n both s o c i a l  and  economic terms. I f broader r u r a l development o b j e c t i v e s are significant i n the the  i n f l u e n c e on  evaluation.  past  i n the  they being Vermilion  These a s s e s s m e n t s h a v e not  marginal  a t t e m p t e d . The area,  d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e y must be  f r i n g e and  only  i s evolving  and  i s j u s t now  b r o a d a n a l y s i s of t h e  costs  financial,  income and  being  made e x p l i c i t  in Alberta, used i n the s t a r t i n g to  draft plan  i n v o l v e d . B a s e d on  a n a l y s i s , broader s t u d i e s are  this  c o m p l e t e d now  employment a s p e c t s o f t h e  and  in marginal  i s being  r e s u l t s should  used are  applicable  be  elsewhere.  Fort include a  preliminary the  not  being  exercises.  a f o r m of e c o n o m i c  s t u d i e d c a r e f u l l y t o see  are  plan.  f r i n g e development p l a n n i n g  made i n A l b e r t a on  in  presents  on  Again, adequate socio-economic assessments are conducted  a  been c o n d u c t e d  now,  IRPS p r o g r a m b e i n g  e c o n o m i c a n a l y s i s as a m a j o r f e a t u r e . The  start  of  i f the  analysis methods  A  188  6.5  Are A l t e r n a t i v e Resource Development Options  to A g r i c u l t u r e  Considered? A significant  amount o f  outcome of many r e s o u r c e  interagency p o l i t i c s  planning e x e r c i s e s . Agencies  t h e o t h e r s h a v e more s t a f f ,  time  taken  p e r c e p t i o n s and  on  rigid.  shapes  t h e b a s i s of t h e s e  or s u p p o r t .  feel  skilled  o b s t a c l e s . More  i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m must a l l o w e x p l i c i t l y  Alternative developed  resource  to  be  i n t h e Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s . T h e s e been c o n s i d e r e d  i n Newfoundland  t o t h e a b s e n c e of s u c h a p r o g r a m . I n A l b e r t a , a l s o , o p t i o n s are not objective,  considered  effectively.  resource  t o f i g h t t o r e t a i n what t h e y can i t s take.  It is difficult  options  i n areas  alternative  agricultural  development o p t i o n s  after agriculture is  other  high c a p a b i l i t y  a g r i c u l t u r e w i t h such a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o  have  satisfied  to consider adequately  of r e l a t i v e l y  due  The o v e r r i d i n g  i n A l b e r t a , i s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of more  l a n d , w h i c h means t h a t o t h e r  resource  the  area.  development o p t i o n s should  a l t e r n a t i v e o p t i o n s have n o t  with  for  development o p t i o n s  a g r i c u l t u r e on a l l l a n d i n t h e p l a n n i n g  often  a t t i t u d e s become  n e g o t i a t i o n a r e e s s e n t i a l t o overcome t h e s e  resource  that  P o s i t i o n s are  E f f e c t i v e c o o r d i n a t i o n , s t r o n g d i r e c t i o n and  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e  the  for  agricultural  development. Only  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were t h e p r e p a r a t i o n  e v a l u a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s a s i g n i f i c a n t  and p a r t of  p l a n n i n g program. There, the a l t e r n a t i v e development with different decision-makers  resource an  uses being  indirect  options,  emphasised i n each, g i v e  illustration  the  the  of o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s .  189  I n t h e Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g appropriate different If  the  that a l t e r n a t i v e scenarios  resource  r o l e of  effectively, use,  the  and  Are  Related  e q u i t a b l y a l l o c a t e l a n d to i t s best  o f t e n be  the marginal  f r i n g e are  often a t t e n t i v e only  t r e e s t o be  t o be managed and  r e a l i z a t i o n of i s an  where p a r t i c i p a t i o n  and  the  exercise  v i e w e d as m a j o r e n d s i n t h e m s e l v e s , t h e p e o p l e  extracted. A planning  It  resource  Government Programs E f f e c t i v e ?  r e s u l t s . There are wildlife  the major  appropriate.  U n l i k e urban p l a n n i n g , can  exercise.  program i s t o  then a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f , at l e a s t , is  strategies, reflecting  developed i n each p l a n n i n g  Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g  efficiently  development o p t i o n s  6.6  u s e s , be  or  program, i t i s  felled,  farmland  and  f o r the  to  be  cases,  the  politician,  t o be  attitude i s often  into productive  However, i n a l l t h r e e  cleared,  opportunity.  to cause w i l d e r n e s s  c o m m u n i t i e s . The  vacant unused l a n d  tangible  p r o r a m , t h e r e f o r e , must f a c i l i t a t e  e x h i l a r a t i n g experience  frontiersman,  l a n d t o be  non-renewable r e s o u r c e s  t h a t development  l i k e the  to very  of  one  p a r t s of t h e  c o n f l i c t s are  turned of  just  into turning  province.  apparent;  nevertheless,  a g r i c u l t u r e i s advancing  i n e x o r a b l y , pushed  major f u n d i n g  p r o g r a m s , p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y and  public  by  pressure.  Land i s a l l o c a t e d to a g r i c u l t u r e i n l a r g e t r a c t s f o r administrative convienience, i n a more e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y technique,  as  in British  as  i n A l b e r t a and  Newfoundland,  sensitive, suitability Columbia.  based  zoning  or  190  Lassey  ( 1 9 7 7 ) v i e w s many o f g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c i e s a n d  programs f o r r u r a l development as c o n t r a d i c t o r y or To  these  observations  especially  inadequate.  c a n be a d d e d t h e t e r m i n c o n s i s t e n t  i n t h e case of B r i t i s h Columbia. Land i n B r i t i s h  Columbia  i s s o l d t o t h e h i g h e s t b i d d e r , r e g a r d l e s s of the  bidder's  farming  skills  or resources  to develop  Development f u n d i n g programs r e q u i r e these before  skills  and  resources  l e n d i n g money. The p r o s p e c t i v e f a r m e r i s c a u g h t  'catch-22' farmers  situation.  race  time  in a  In Newfoundland, t h e government and  t o t h e e n d o f one f i v e y e a r ,  agreement a f t e r the  the land.  another,  trying  federal-provincial  t o s p e n d a l l t h e money  i s up a n d O t t a w a t a k e s what i s l e f t  This  race occurs,  to a lesser extent,  Agricultural  Land Develpment A s s i s t a n c e program f u n d i n g and  cost-shared  agreements. In a l l areas  i s paid t o other result  in British  b a c k home.  before  Columbia w i t h the  studied, l i t t l e attention  r u r a l development requirements  of a g r i c u l t u r a l  which a r i s e as a  development, such as s c h o o l s , r e c r e a t i o n ,  h e a l t h c a r e and so on. The  B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food's  inattention expansion  t o t h e p l a n n i n g program which r e s u l t s  of t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l  6.2) i s a l s o e v i d e n t financial  l a n d base ( d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n  i n the M i n i s t r y ' s r e l a t i v e l y  low l e v e l of  i n c e n t i v e s . O n l y one p r o g r a m , A g r i c u l t u r a l  Development A s s i s t a n c e , i s aimed d i r e c t l y l a n d . There a r e other a v a i l a b l e , but they  l o a n and l o a n g u a r a n t e e  a r e not s p e c i f i c a l l y  (prime  p l u s one p e r c e n t ) .  Land  at developing  new  programs  aimed a t l a n d  development. I n t e r e s t r a t e s i n these other also high  i n an  l o a n programs a r e  191  In Newfoundland, government f u n d i n g programs are mainly  through  farmers  and  the c o s t - s h a r e d agreements. D i r e c t g r a n t s  prospective farmers,  under t h e s e  c o n s t i t u t e a unique f e a t u r e i n the three case  regional disparity  short-term  agreements,  r u r a l development  i s s u e s are a s i g n i f i c a n t  of t h e s e  and  element i n the  funding agreements. This  h a v e t h e d e s i r e d r e s u l t o f pumping a l o t o f money o v e r period  i n t o t h e l o c a l economy, b u t  inefficient  in developing  such programs are  the a g r i c u l t u r a l  o f t e n w a s t e d on e x o t i c p r o j e c t s , s t a f f evaluation  a  short  very  i n d u s t r y . Money i s  turn-over  i s high  and  an e x t e n s i v e a r r a y o f p r o g r a m s t o f u n d  of t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l  These a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y variety  may  i s poor.  A l b e r t a has expansion  to  f u n d i n g of development i n the  study areas. Again, wider  application  provided  of b u i l t - i n  low  the  l a n d base i n the m a r g i n a l  interest  i n c e n t i v e s . The  fringe.  l o a n programs w i t h a funding  f o r these  programs  i s p r o v i d e d as a p a r t of a s e c u r e l y e s t a b l i s h e d f i n a n c i n g p r o c e s s . The  p r o v i n c e f a c e s no d e a d l i n e f o r t h e s p e n d i n g  money f r o m an o u t s i d e s o u r c e . r a t e s which a l l o w the s k i l l e d , to adequately  develop  of  L o a n s a r e l a r g e enough and new  at  e n t r a n t or expanding  t h e s i z e of f a r m n e e d e d t o be  operator  economically  viable. A l b e r t a has studied,  t h e b e s t p r o g r a m , of t h e t h r e e  f o r Crown l a n d d i s p o s i t i o n s . Revenue i s g e n e r a t e d  t h e Crown a t a p p r a i s e d v a l u e , b u t charges  as  t h e r e a r e no o n e r o u s  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and,  a p p l i c a n t s are become  province's  farmers.  as  for  interest  i n Newfoundland,  r e q u i r e d t o h a v e t h e r e s o u r c e s and  skills  to  192  The  three  main elements f o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n government  programs r e l a t e d t o the development are term f u n d i n g , planning  the  planning  finally,  i n t e g r a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t and development  initiatives.  6.7  P u b l i c U n d e r s t a n d and  Public participation planning  programs f o r the  marginal  f r i n g e . Using  organizational-expert St.  falls  i s one  broader  Support the  Planning  of t h e most c r u c i a l  Erickson's  i n N e w f o u n d l a n d and  B r i t i s h Columbia cause, at times,  the  absence of  an  system),  the  approach  Columbia public  l a t e p u b l i c involvement  in  a c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l atmosphere  a time-consuming r e f o r m u l a t i o n  p u b l i c comments, n o t  The  the (from  to a d e m o c r a t i c - p a r t i c i p a t o r y  two.  Program?  elements i n  (1980) t e r m i n o l o g y  is democratic-participatory. British  land  rural  a g r i c u l t u r a l development of  somewhere i n b e t w e e n t h e  participation  long-  the  John's c a s e . i l l u s t r a t e s the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l - e x p e r t  while Alberta  and  secure  among p r o g r a m s , s u c h as Crown  Crown l a n d d i s p o s i t i o n s a n d ,  Does The  agricultural  p r o v i s i o n of a d e q u a t e l e v e l s o f  the c o n s i s t e n c y  and  program f o r  of the  to mention the  lost  plan  to  incorporate  opportunity  of  public  support. The the that  r e s u l t s of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n can  nature  and  t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m must be  study An  exercise circumstances.  of b r o a d e r s o c i a l  i n f o r m e d and  continued  determined  h i s t o r y of the p r o p o s e d development. T h i s  individual planning the  be  adapted  by  means  to  T h i s a l s o means t h a t  factors is essential.  supportive  public is c r i t i c a l  improvement of p l a n n i n g  programs. Petch  to  the  (1985) f e e l s  193  that t h i s public  i s one  of the A l b e r t a system's a s s e t s . S i n c e  i s i n v o l v e d and  begins  to develop  the p l a n n i n g program, i t w i l l their  rectification.  confidence  like  recognize mistakes  i s s u e . I t takes time  of p a r t i c i p a n t s and  or e x e r c i s e . Confidence, and,  farmland,  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g and  like  i t may  program  t o b u i l d up  the  the p u b l i c i n a p l a n n i n g farmland,  n e v e r be  can  for  clamour f o r  However, p r o b l e m s o f s h o r t - t e r m  f u n d i n g a r e , a g a i n , an  the  be e r o d e d  r e s t o r e d except  program  quickly  at  great  cost. The  A l b e r t a case, at l e a s t at t h i s e a r l y  c l o s e a t t e n t i o n by o f f i c i a l s  stage,  f r o m t h e o t h e r two  warrants  case  study  a r e a s . I f the p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n program succeeds i n A l b e r t a , it  will  their  6.8  be  worthwhile  for other  jurisdictions  to adapt  i t to  own c o n s t i t u e n c i e s .  I m p l i c a t i o n s for Future As  s t a t e d i n the  w h i c h I h a v e u s e d has  Research  i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s t h e s i s , been been t o s c a n  of major C a n a d i a n programs i n the land a g r i c u l t u r a l  field  b r o a d l y the  performance  of m a r g i n a l  fringe  d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g . T h i s has  by a p p l y i n g a c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n a l y t i c a l  b a s e d on  i d e a l i z e d planning process  of C h a p t e r  framework, 1,  to  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e examples of p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s conducted Canada's m a r g i n a l  f r i n g e r e g i o n . One  t h i s a n a l y s i s i s to r a i s e a host further  Crown  been  accomplished the  t h e method  in  of t h e m a j o r r e s u l t s  of  of q u e s t i o n s w h i c h m e r i t  research.  I will  outline  issues for continued  in this  s e c t i o n a number of  r e s e a r c h . One  fundamental,  of t h e p r i o r i t y a r e a s  for  194  research w i l l  have t o be  the n e g l e c t e d  field  of  socio-economic  assessment. Here, i s s u e s are r e l a t e d to matters actual history  of s p e c i f i c  s u c h as  the  land d i s p o s i t i o n s . This research  l e a d t o a d e t e r m i n a t i o n of m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s behind demand f o r more Crown l a n d . I s i t b e i n g d e v e l o p e d , logged,  and  has  or  can  the just  i t been s o l d a t a p r o f i t ? A s e c o n d i s s u e  related  to the p o s s i b i l i t y  of s p e c u l a t i v e g a i n r a i s e d a b o v e , i s t h e  economic v i a b i l i t y  of t h o s e a r e a s a c t u a l l y  marginal  f r i n g e . The  representative locations  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e per  yield  not  important  impact  should  i t be  how  quota  t h i s compares t o  s y s t e m s may  land. If this  impact  c o s t s are  the  be i s so,  how  continued? surrounding  of t h o s e c o m m u n i t i e s on  r e c e i v e d much a t t e n t i o n by p l a n n e r s  Opportunity  c o s t s of p u b l i c  of a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t on the  and  r e s e a r c h i t e m s . Government  the development of m a r g i n a l  c o m m u n i t i e s and has  the t o t a l  of p r o d u c e and  s u b s i d y p r o g r a m s and  i s t h i s b e i n g done and The  l o s s e s of a number of  s t u d i e d . As w e l l ,  h e a r t l a n d are  transportation affecting  and  farmed i n the  farms r e f l e c t i n g v a r i o u s commodity emphasis  s h o u l d be  agricultural  profit  being  seldom developed  or  agriculture  researchers.  when c o n s i d e r i n g  d e v e l o p m e n t on Crown l a n d . T h i s i s an a r e a where e c o n o m i c m o d e l l i n g w o u l d be v e r y u s e f u l . The development of f u n d i n g s t a b i l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m s must a l s o be Research  impact  on  f o r p l a n n i n g and  f a c t o r s should  d e v e l o p i n g p r o d u c t i o n systems to f i t m a r g i n a l  c o n d i t i o n s . The  other  resource  studied.  r e l a t e d to environmental  Also, resource  agricultural  be  fringe conditions.  i n v e n t o r i e s s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d l a c k of r e s e a r c h on c l i m a t e and  to address soil  these  limitations  195  i s a major h a n d i c a p t o e f f i c i e n t production  development. Long-term  t r e n d s a n d y i e l d s on v a r i o u s t y p i c a l  sites  should  a l s o be m o n i t o r e d a n d e v a l u a t e d . E x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m s s h o u l d be m o n i t o r e d t o a l l o w f o r t h e more s u c c e s s f u l a s p e c t s used e l s e w h e r e . T h i s  o f e a c h p r o g r a m t o be a d a p t e d a n d  i sparticularly  t r u e of A l b e r t a ' s p u b l i c  p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m a n d i t s new e c o n o m i c a s s e s s m e n t initiatives.  Experiments with the design  of p l a n n i n g  c o u l d be c o n d u c t e d i n v a r i o u s r e g i o n s o f t h e c o u n t r y  programs and funded  by t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t . I m p a c t s o f e x i s t i n g p r o g r a m s c a n be compared. F o r example, t h e p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g programs of A l b e r t a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d N e w f o u n d l a n d o f f e r many common f e a t u r e s w h i c h c a n f o r m t h e b a s i s o f f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . Some r e s e a r c h i s b e i n g c o n d u c t e d on a s p e c t s marginal  of resource  f r i n g e ; however, v e r y  a r i g o r o u s manner a t a s i t e the  level  6.7  Conclusion  specific  evident process.  r e s e a r c h h a s been done i n l e v e l which i s , a f t e r  f o r a t r u e t e s t o f most p l a n n i n g  Planning the a g r i c u l t u r a l marginal  little  development i n t h e  fringe  all,  programs.  d e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown l a n d i n t h e  i s i n i t s i n f a n c y . Growing p a i n s a r e r e a d i l y  i n t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s arid i n n o v a t i o n s  i n the planning  Sudden c h a n g e s i n p r o g r a m s , a s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a n d  funding d e a d l i n e s , as i n Newfoundland, a r e harmful t o the s u c c e s s f u l development of f r o n t i e r government's  and erode  credibility.  Some j u r i s d i c t i o n s , strides  resources  such as A l b e r t a , a r e making r a p i d  i n a p p l y i n g many o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g  techniques  196  t o the development of t h e i r m a r g i n a l more c a n  fringe areas.  be done i n t e r m s of a p p l y i n g a c c e p t e d  methods, e s p e c i a l l y  i n the area  Still,  much  analytical  of s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  impact  a s s e s s m e n t . P l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s a r e , f o r t h e most p a r t , b a s e d an a n a l y s i s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l methods used i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l classification, i n v e n t o r y and  resources  assessment, p a r t i c u l a r l y  e v a l u a t i o n . Survey use  more i n t e n s i v e s u r v e y s  t o be  f r o m t h e use  has  of  participation  important  i n t e n s i t i e s must be  of the  balanced  i s conspicuously  i s just  starting  i s accepted  some j u r i s d i c t i o n s participation  than  i s a key  province's marginal  absent or  t o be  intermediate  cost  of  individual  insufficient.  recognized  while  in others. Increased  as  an  interagency more e a g e r l y  fringe  specifically  r e g i o n . The areas  two  No  i n each  main l e v e l s  of  a r e Crown l a n d management  s u b - r e g i o n a l l e v e l and  s t e p of a g r i c u l t u r a l  in  public  t o improvement i n e x i s t i n g programs.  p l a n n i n g used i n the case study p l a n n i n g at the  matched  i n each  as e s s e n t i a l , a l t h o u g h  p r o g r a m s h a v e been a d a p t e d t o o p e r a t e  of  against benefits  f e a t u r e of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s  coordination  land  i n f o r m a t i o n . The  information provided  e x e r c i s e . C l i m a t i c data Public  The  must be a p p l i e d u s i n g more r i g o r o u s s t a n d a r d s  more a c c u r a t e l y t o t h e end  derived  of the a r e a .  on  project planning.  The  l a n d management p l a n n i n g  is  absent. Planning the marginal  f o r t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t of Crown l a n d i n fringe  r e q u i r e s more c o n s i s t e n c y and  t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of p r o c e s s .  stability  P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  r i g o r o u s a p p l i c a t i o n o f more r e l e v a n t a n a l y t i c a l e s s e n t i a l . Government, at the p o l i t i c a l  more  techniques  l e v e l , and  in  are  the p u b l i c  1 97  must be i n f u l l commences  support  of t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s  a n d must m a i n t a i n  Allowing  that support  f o r the comprehensive nature  follows that advice w i l l  throughout. of t h i s  study, i t  h a v e t o be t a i l o r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y f o r  each case or f o r o t h e r c a s e s . some n o r m a t i v e  before i t  Still  i t i s possible to identify  p r i n c i p l e s of wide a p p l i c a b i l i t y ,  summarize t h e r e s u l t s of t h i s  study.  i n part to  I propose the f o l l o w i n g  s e r i e s o f p r i n c i p l e s o r g u i d e l i n e s , b a s e d on t h e l i t e r a t u r e , t h e case s t u d i e s , the c o n c l u s i o n s reached my p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e .  These p r i n c i p l e s w i l l  comprehensive p r e s c r i p t i o n agricultural  in this  final  chapter  comprise a  t o improve p l a n n i n g programs f o r the  d e v e l o p m e n t o f Crown l a n d i n t h e m a r g i n a l  P l a n n i n g Program  and  fringe.  Articulation  •The f i r s t s t e p i n d e v e l o p i n g a m a r g i n a l f r i n g e r e g i o n ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s s h o u l d be a w e l l d e s i g n e d Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m . F o l l o w i n g t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s u i t a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l areas i n t h i s program, a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n n i n g s h o u l d commence. • A g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n s w i l l s e t p r i o r i t i e s among p r o j e c t s , d e s i g n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and p r e s e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c i e s i n a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s o f t h e Crown l a n d management p l a n . I n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g s h o u l d be t h e f i n a l stage i n the p l a n n i n g program. •Comprehensive p l a n n i n g , supported a t the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l , i s necessary t o provide a broader context f o r i n c r e a s i n g l y s p e c i f i c l e v e l s of p l a n n i n g , and i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e , to provide guidance. A p a r t i a l a l t e r n a t i v e i s to a l l o w f o r more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e t t i n g o b j e c t i v e s a n d d e c i d i n g on a l t e r n a t i v e s t o r e s t w i t h r e g i o n a l r e s i d e n t s a n d officials. •The a g e n c y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Crown l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s h o u l d a l s o d e v e l o p t h e Crown l a n d managemnt p l a n i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c y a n d o t h e r M i n i s t r i e s . The a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c y i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h t h e Crown l a n d s a g e n c y , s h o u l d d e v e l o p t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n . P r o j e c t p l a n n i n g s h o u l d be t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c y i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e Crown l a n d s and o t h e r r e l e v a n t a g e n c i e s . The a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c y h a s t h e b r o a d r a n g e o f e x p e r t i s e t o  198  e n s u r e s u c c e s s f u l d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r o j e c t s , and t h e s e l e c t i o n of s u i t a b l e a p p l i c a n t s . I t w i l l a l s o have t o l i v e and work w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l communities c r e a t e d through p r o j e c t s . Inventory,  Evaluaton  and  C o m m u n i c a t i o n of E n v i r o n m e n t a l  •Funding f o r the assessment of e n v i r o n m e n t a l provided w i t h a long-term time h o r i z o n .  f a c t o r s must  Factors be  •A n a t i o n a l p r o g r a m t o d e v e l o p and a p p l y t e c h n i q u e s f o r t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e m a r g i n a l f r i n g e i s l o n g o v e r d u e and s h o u l d be begun i m m e d i a t e l y . • E n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s i n t h e Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d use a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e r e l e v a n t s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n . However, an e c o l o g i c a l l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d a t t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e s c a l e f o r e a c h i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e . An e c o l o g i c a l l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s u r v e y w i l l p r o v i d e a common base and s o u r c e of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n of a l l r e s o u r c e u s e s . • C l i m a t i c a n a l y s i s r e q u i r e s more d e t a i l e d s t u d y t h a n has been c o n d u c t e d i n t h e p a s t . D e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d a t t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n n i n g l e v e l . •Agricultural appropriately agricultural are surveyed agricultural  l a n d management p l a n n i n g i s c o n d u c t e d most a t a 1:50,000 s c a l e o r l a r g e r f o r s o i l s u r v e y and c a p a b i l i t y mapping. I n d i v i d u a l p r o d u c t i o n p r o j e c t s i n t h e 1:10,000 t o 1:15,000 r a n g e , a g a i n u s i n g c a p a b i l i t y and s o i l s u r v e y s .  • Y i e l d and v a r i e t y t r i a l s f o r a r a n g e o f c o m m o d i t i e s a r e an e s s e n t i a l p r e c o n d i t i o n on t y p i c a l s i t e s i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n a r e a b e f o r e p r o d u c t i o n p r o j e c t s a r e i n i t i a t e d . • E n v i r o n m e n t a l r e s o u r c e c a p a b i l i t y e v a l u a t i o n s s h o u l d be s u r v e y e d on t h e b a s i s o f b o t h u n i m p r o v e d and i m p r o v e d r a t i n g s . T h i s w i l l g i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s a g r a s p of the t r u e p o t e n t i a l of a l l resource uses. A s s e s s m e n t of S o c i o - e c o n o m i c  Factors  •Before marginal land i s brought i n t o p r o d u c t i o n , socio-economic s t u d i e s s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e why e x i s t i n g , b e t t e r q u a l i t y l a n d i s l y i n g i d l e o r i s not b r o u g h t i n t o p r o d u c t i o n i n the f i r s t p l a c e . • E c o n o m i c i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t s s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d f o r a l l Crown l a n d management p l a n s . A more r e s t r i c t e d b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s i s s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d management p l a n s and p r o j e c t plans. • C o s t of p r o d u c t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n f o r l o c a l l y grown c r o p s i s n e c e s s a r y t o a l l o w p r o p e r c r o p s e l e c t i o n and a s an i n p u t i n t o economic a s s e s s m e n t s .  199  • S o c i a l i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t s s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d a s a p a r t of b r o a d r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s . T h e s e a s s e s s m e n t s c a n be u s e d t h e n i n more d e t a i l e d p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s a s a s o u r c e o f b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n . E f f e c t i v e , Related  Government Programs  • F u n d i n g f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n t h e m a r g i n a l f r i n g e s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h l o n g - t e r m , low i n t e r e s t l e n d i n g w i t h no p r o g r a m t e r m i n a t i o n d e a d l i n e s . T h i s w i l l p r e v e n t t h e r a p i d d e v e l o p m e n t of u n s u i t a b l e l a n d and w i l l e n c o u r a g e f a r m e r s t o h u s b a n d f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s i n a more c a u t i o u s manner than i f g r a n t s are p r o v i d e d . • I m p l e m e n t a t i o n of Crown l a n d management p l a n s i s done by t h e r e s p e c t i v e r e s o u r c e a g e n c y . Map u n i t s u s e d i n t h e p l a n s h o u l d r e p r e s e n t a f u l l r a n g e of p o s s i b l e r e s o u r c e u s e s e v a l u a t e d i n t h e p l a n . The F o r t N e l s o n Crown l a n d management p l a n p r o v i d e s t h e b e s t m o d e l of t h i s a p p r o a c h . • P r o j e c t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n can be a d m i n i s t e r e d by a g e n c i e s o r , as i n t h e S t . J o h n ' s c a s e s t u d y , p r o j e c t manager f r o m t h e f a r m i n g c o m m u n i t y .  government by an i n d e p e n d e n t  • I t i s p r e f e r a b l e t h a t t h e M i n i s t r y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Crown l a n d s n o t i n c l u d e any o f t h e m a j o r r e s o u r c e a g e n c i e s c o m p e t i n g f o r Crown l a n d a l l o c a t i o n s . G i v e n i n t e r a g e n c y p o l i t i c s , s u s p i c i o n s o f b i a s may e r o d e t h e c r e d i b i l i t y of t h e Crown l a n d s a g e n c y and l e a d t o i n c r e a s i n g r i g i d i t y of p o s i t i o n s . • F a r m e r s on t h e f r i n g e s h o u l d be g i v e n t h e o p t i o n t o l e a s e Crown l a n d t o a v o i d t y i n g up s c a r c e c a p i t a l i n l a n d . The o p t i o n t o p u r c h a s e , h o w e v e r , s h o u l d a l s o be a v a i l a b l e t o t h o s e f a r m e r s n e e d i n g more s e c u r i t y b e f o r e m a k i n g investments. • A p p l i c a n t s must h a v e p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e i n f a r m i n g and t h e r e s o u r c e s t o u n d e r t a k e t h e p r o p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s s h o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d p r i o r t o a p p l i c a n t s e l e c t i o n . Crown l a n d s h o u l d be a d v e r t i s e d when r e a d y f o r a p p l i c a t i o n , and a p p l i c a n t s e l e c t i o n s h o u l d be by p u b l i c draw as i n A l b e r t a . • L a n d s a l e p r i c e s , r e n t a l and i n t e r e s t r a t e s must s t r i k e a b a l a n c e b e t w e e n p r o v i d i n g a f a i r r e t u r n t o t h e Crown f o r t h e r e s o u r c e and r e m o v i n g an e x c e s s i v e f i n a n c i a l b u r d e n f r o m t h e a p p l i c a n t . C o m p e t i t i v e b i d d i n g s h o u l d n o t be a p o l i c y . The A l b e r t a p r o g r a m i s most e f f e c t i v e c o n c e r n i n g t h i s i s s u e . • R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d be s t a g e d a t f i v e y e a r and t o t h e end of t e r m i n t e r v a l s i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e some i n i t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t and t o a l l o w t h e l a n d t o r e v e r t t o t h e Crown i f t h e land resource remains undeveloped.  200  A l t e n a t i v e Resource Development O p t i o n s  to Agriculture  • C o o r d i n a t i o n i n Crown l a n d management p l a n s s h o u l d be by way of t h e p l a n n i n g team and c o m m i t t e e s y s t e m s . Teams s h o u l d o p e r a t e on a c o n s e n s u s b a s i s so t h a t a l l i n t e r e s t s r e p r e s e n t e d a r e c o n s i d e r e d e q u i t a b l y . C o o r d i n a t i o n c a n be m o d e l e d on a s c a l e d down v e r s i o n of t h e A l b e r t a s y s t e m . • D e c i s i o n - m a k e r s s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d w i t h a number of a l t e r n a t i v e s i n t h e Crown l a n d management p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e w h i c h l e n d e m p h a s i s t o v a r i o u s m a j o r r e s o u r c e use a l t e r n a t i v e s . Public  Participation  • A l l m a j o r i n t e r e s t g r o u p s s h o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e p l a n n i n g teams and r e l a t e d c o m m i t t e e s . The g e n e r a l p u b l i c s h o u l d be f u l l y c o n s u l t e d f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g t o t h e end o f t h e e x e r c i s e .  REFERENCES  B e n t l e y , C.F. 1982. A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d i n C a n a d a : Q u a l i t y , Q u a n t i t y and P r e s e r v a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , Edmonton. E r i c k s o n , D a v i d L. 1980. P u b l i c I n v o l v e m e n t i n R e s o u r c e Agency D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . J . S o i l and Water Cons. 3 5 ( 5 ) : 224-229. I r o n s i d e , R.G., P r o u d f o o t , V.B., S h a n n o n , E.N. a n d T r a c i e , C . J . 1974b. F r o n t i e r D e v e l o p m e n t a n d P e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e W e s t e r n C a n a d i a n F r o n t i e r . I n R.G. I r o n s i d e , e t a l . [ e d s . ] , F r o n t i e r S e t t l e m e n t . U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , Edmonton, p . 1 - 4 5 . L a n d P l a n n i n g B r a n c h . 1983. P r o g r a m P l a n n i n g . of L a n d s , P a r k s and H o u s i n g , V i c t o r i a . L a s s e y , W i l l i a m R. 1977. P l a n n i n g M c G r a w - H i l l I n c . New Y o r k .  i n Rural  Ministry  Environments.  L a u t , P e t e r . 1973. A g r i c u l t u r a l R e s e a r c h on t h e N o r t h e r n M a r g i n s o f t h e Ecumene. I n J o h n Rogge [ e d . ] , Developing the S u b a r t i c . Manitoba Geographical S t u d i e s 1. The U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a , W i n n i p e g , p.67-90. OECD. 1978. R e c e n t D e v e l o p m e n t s i n C a n a d i a n A g r i c u l t u r a l P o l i c y . A g r i c u l t u r a l P o l i c y R e p o r t s . OECD, P a r i s . P e t c h , A r t h u r R., L a n d Use A n a l y s t , L a n d s D i r e c t o r a t e , O t t a w a . T e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w , A p r i l 16, 1985 a n d unpublished research. W i l l i a m s , G. D a v i d V. 1974. P h y s i c a l F r o n t i e r s o f C r o p s : The E x a m p l e f o r G r o w i n g B a r l e y t o M a t u r i t y i n C a n a d a . I n R.G. I r o n s i d e , e t a l . [ e d s . ] , F r o n t i e r S e t t l e m e n t . U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , p.79-92.  

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