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Municipal boundary extension in British Columbia : procedures and guidelines Pyplacz, Bonita Marie 1984

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MUNICIPAL BOUNDARY EXTENSION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA PROCEDURES AND GUIDELINES By BONITA MARIE PYPLACZ B . S c , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE • in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Community and Regional Planning) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH October 1984 Bonita Marie Pyplacz, COLUMBIA 1 984 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of ^cXmf fjtrrr^UjUrxx'Jy a^i^ ' / ^ V H t J f^h»w«p The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date flefoliU //, IKj DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s examines the simple m u n i c i p a l boundary e x t e n s i o n process i n B r i t i s h Columbia to determine how present procedures and g u i d e l i n e s d e a l with the i s s u e s i n v o l v e d . The process ' i n a c t i o n ' i s documented in a s e r i e s of v a r i e d case s t u d i e s i n order t o e v a l u a t e the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the e x i s t i n g p r o c e s s . The case s t u d i e s i l l u s t r a t e d the p r a c t i c a l importance of O f f i c i a l Community Plans, the economic f e a s i b i l i t y of s e r v i c e area expansions, the q u e s t i o n of i r r e g u l a r m u n i c i p a l boundaries, concern over 'who pays and who b e n e f i t s ' , and comparative r e g i o n a l and m u n i c i p a l growth r a t e s as f a c t o r s i n the boundary e x t e n s i o n p r o c e s s . Many of these f a c t s are not addressed i n the present procedures and g u i d e l i n e s . Recommendations i n c l u d e new procedures and g u i d e l i n e s which r e f l e c t the i s s u e s brought forward from the process ' i n a c t i o n ' . The changes, i f implemented, would r e s u l t i n more r a t i o n a l and p a r a l l e l trends i n the demand f o r s e r v i c e s and development and investment p o l i c i e s . Boundary e x t e n s i o n s should be pa r t of an on-going planned m u n i c i p a l growth process and not a s i n g u l a r event u n r e l a t e d to past and f u t u r e growth and expansions. i Superv i s o r i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS T i t l e Page i Ab s t r a c t i i Table of Contents i i i L i s t of Tables v i L i s t of F i g u r e s v i i CHAPTER U_ INTRODUCTION 1.1 RESEARCH STATEMENT 2 1 . 2 OBJECTIVES 2 1 . 3 CONTEXT 3 1.4 METHOD OF ANALYSIS 6 1.4.1 The Case Study Approach 6 1.4.2 Thesi s Organ i zat ion 7 1.4.3 Constra i n t s . . 8 1.4.4 D e f i n i t i o n s 9 CHAPTER 1 FOOTNOTES • 10 CHAPTER 2: LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND BOUNDARY EXTENSIONS 2. 1 THE PURPOSE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT 12 2.1.1 The R e q u i s i t e of Access 14 2.1.2 The R e q u i s i t e of S e r v i c e . . . . 16 2.1.3 L o c a l Government Goals 18 2.2 LOCAL GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE IN B.C 20 2.2.1 Spec i f i e d Areas 20 2.2.2 Improvement D i s t r i c t s 21 2.2.3 Munic i p a l i t i e s 21 2.2.4 Regional D i s t r i c t s 24 2.3 APPROACHES TO BOUNDARY EXTENSION .25 2.3.1 The R e f o r m Movement • 25 2.3.2 Commun i ty and Terr i t o r y 27 2.3.3 The Issues Ident i f i e d 29 CHAPTER 2 FOOTNOTES chapter 3: The boundary extension process in B.C. 42 3.1 h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t s of the process 42 3.2 the impact of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s 44 3.2.1 The I n t r o d u c t ion of Regional D i s t r i c t s 44 3.2.2 Regional D i s t r i c t s and Boundary Ext e n s i o n s 46 3.3 THE IMPACT OF THE AGRICULTURAL LAND COMMISSION 50 3.3.1 The Agr i c u l t u r a l Land Commission 50 3.3.2 Evaluat ion of the ALR System 53 3.3.3 The BCALC and Boundary Ext e n s i o n s 53 3.4 THE PRESENT BOUNDARY EXTENSION PROCESS 54 3.4.1 Procedures and G u i d e l i n e s 54 CHAPTER 3 FOOTNOTES ....59 THE CASE STUDIES CHAPTER 4: THE CITY OF WILLIAMS LAKE, B.C. 65 4 . 1 BACKGROUND 66 4.1.1 Settlement Hi s t o r y 66 4.1.2 The Economic Base 68 4.1.3 The Demographic Base 68 4.1.4 Land Use 70 4.2 INCORPORATION AND BOUNDARY EXTENSIONS 72 4 . 3 SYNTHESIS 7 9 CHAPTER 4 FOOTNOTES 83 CHAPTER 5j_ THE TOWN OF GIBSONS, B.C. 84 5 . 1 BACKGROUND 85 5.1.1 Settlement H i s t o r y -85 V 5.1.2 Economic Base ' 87 5.1.3 The Demographic Base 88 5.1.4 Land Use 88 5.2 INCORPORATION AND BOUNDARY EXTENSIONS 90 5 . 3 SYNTHESIS 96 CHAPTER 5 FOOTNOTES 98 CHAPTER §J_ THE VILLAGE OF FRASER LAKE, B.C. 99 6.1 BACKGROUND 100 6.1.1 Settlement H i s t o r y 100 6.1.2 The Economic Base 100 6.1.3 The Demoqaphic Base 102 6.1.4 Land Use 102 6.2 INCORPORATION AND BOUNDARY EXTENSIONS 104 6 . 3 SYNTHESIS 110 CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSIONS 112 7.1 THE STRUCTURE AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT 112 7.2 CASE STUDY BOUNDARY EXTENSION ISSUES 115 7.3 PROCEDURES AND GUIDELINES OF BOUNDARY EXTENSIONS 117 7.3.1 Boundary Extension Procedures 118 7.3.2 Report G u i d e l i n e s 120 7.4 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACTION ...123 7.4.1 General P r i n c i p l e s 124 7.4.2 Proposed Procedures and G u i d e l i n e s 124 7.4.3 Ef f e c t s on the Boundary Extens ion Process 126 7.5 IMPLICATIONS FOR PLANNING 132 BIBLIOGRAPHY 133 LIST OF TABLES No. T i t l e Page ********************************************* I B.C. M u n i c i p a l C l a s s by Base C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 22 II 1978 Land Use by Zoning: W i l l i a m s Lake 71 III I n c o r p o r a t i o n and Boundary Ex t e n s i o n s of W i l l i a m s Lake 72 IV 1981 Land Use by Zoning: Gibsons 89 V I n c o r p o r a t i o n and Boundary Ex t e n s i o n s 90 of Gibsons VI I n c o r p o r a t i o n and Boundary Ex t e n s i o n s of 101 F r a s e r Lake LIST OF FIGURES No. T i t l e Page ************************************** 1 The Case S t u d i e s i n the P r o v n c i a l Context 64 2 The W i l l i a m s Lake Subregion 67 3 1981 Age and Sex P r o f i l e : W i l l i a m s Lake Subregion 69 4 I n c o r p o r a t i o n s and Boundary E x t e n s i o n s of W i l l i a m s Lake 73 5 The Regional View of Gibsons 86 6 I n c o r p o r a t i o n and Boundary E x t e n s i o n s of Gibsons 91 7 The Regional View of F r a s e r Lake 101 8 I n c o r p o r a t i o n and Boundary E x t e n s i o n s of F r a s e r Lake 105 9 O r i g i n a l 198 1 Proposed Boundary E x t e n s i o n to Fr a s e r Lake 108 10 E x i s t i n g M u n i c i p a l Simple Boundary Ex t e n s i o n Process i n B.C. 127 11 Recommended M u n i c i p a l Simple Boundary Ex t e n s i o n Process i n B.C. 128 12 An O v e r a l l Process f o r Boundary E x t e n s i o n 131 1 CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION 2 CHAPTER U_ INTRODUCTION 1.1 RESEARCH STATEMENT T h i s t h e s i s examines the simple m u n i c i p a l boundary extension process i n B r i t i s h Columbia to determine how present procedures and g u i d e l i n e s d e a l with the i s s u e s i n v o l v e d . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s propose boundary ex t e n s i o n s f o r a vast a r r a y of reasons and assumptions i n t o many types of land, both u n i n h a b i t e d and i n h a b i t e d , undeveloped and developed. The process g u i d e l i n e s and procedures should ensure that the reasons and circumstances f o r a boundary e x t e n s i o n are reasonable and allow f o r f a i r examination of the s i t u a t i o n from many p o i n t s of v i ew. 1.2 OBJECTIVES The o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s t h e s i s i n c l u d e : (1) to d i s c u s s the procedures and g u i d e l i n e s in the simple m u n i c i p a l boundary e x t e n s i o n process in B r i t i s h Columbia i n c l u d i n g r e l a t e d l e g i s l a t i v e i s s u e s ; (2) to document the e x i s t i n g p r o c e s s , with the p r e s c r i b e d procedures and g u i d e l i n e s , i n a s e r i e s of case s t u d i e s with v a r i e d circumstances; (3) to eva l u a t e the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of e x i s t i n g procedures and g u i d e l i n e s i n view of the case s t u d i e s . 3 1.3 CONTEXT The impact of s p a t i a l growth on many communities s i n c e World War II has fo r c e d the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the i d e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between j u r i s d i c t i o n a l boundaries and 'economic areas' which had p r e v i o u s l y been more e a s i l y d e f i n a b l e (1). Plu n k e t t has i d e n t i f i e d the issue ( 2 ) : "In Canada, the p o l i t i c a l boundaries of l o c a l government... were e s t a b l i s h e d long before the advent of the automobile, in an era that was p r i m a r i l y r u r a l o r i e n t e d . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between urban and r u r a l communities was o r i g i n a l l y c l e a r cut...towns and c i t i e s were r e c o g n i z a b l e e n t i t i e s and .... r u r a l areas were separate and d i s t i n c t r e g i o n s . The p o l i t i c a l boundaries corresponded to the economic and s o c i a l r e a l i t y of a town or r u r a l area. The economy of the time was r e l a t i v e l y simple and there was l i t t l e economic interdependence between l o c a l areas. The s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the i n d i v i d u a l community was such that there were strong r e g i o n a l l o y a l t i e s , there was l i t t l e g e n e r a l concern about a f f a i r s beyond i t s boundaries Such i s no longer the case today." A l a r g e volume of l i t e r a t u r e i s a v a i l a b l e on the purpose of l o c a l government and on reforming the p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e to improve the d e l i v e r y of s e r v i c e s w i t h i n m u n i c i p a l u n i t s . S e v e r a l f a c t o r s have c o n t r i b u t e d i n making t h i s a major m u n i c i p a l i s s u e : (1.) the consequence of u r b a n i z a t i o n (3); (2) the f i s c a l squeeze on l o c a l government (4); (3) i n c r e a s e d i n d i v i d u a l m o b i l i t y . Each of these f a c t o r s d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y a c c e l e r a t e d the outward expansion of urban areas u s u a l l y made p o s s i b l e by improvements in access. As a r e s u l t of u r b a n i z a t i o n and urban sprawl, many 4 municip a l boundaries were no longer a p p r o p r i a t e , and there was the r e s u l t i n g search f o r some economies of s c a l e in i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and s e r v i c i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s . However, p o l i t i c a l boundaries o f t e n do not c o i n c i d e with those i d e a l f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes and there may be a d d i t i o n a l regions which o f t e n d e s i r e only the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e r v i c e s (the suburbs). The r e l a t i v e ease i n o b t a i n i n g land i n the suburbs at l e s s c o s t , the p o s s i b i l i t y of lower taxes, and a d i v e r s e environment have encouraged r e s i d e n t i a l growth on the p e r i p h e r y of the p o l i t i c a l boundaries of the urban a r e a . Urban taxpayers complain of the i n e q u i t a b l e f i n a n c i a l burden caused by urban goods and s e r v i c e s being used by n o n - c o n t r i b u t i n g p e r i p h e r a l r e s i d e n t s . But, when o u t s i d e areas are annexed to the urban area, the i n c o r p o r a t e d t e r r i t o r i a l boundaries most o f t e n are not drawn to produce the most e f f e c t i v e p a t t e r n f o r the d e l i v e r y and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of s e r v i c e s , but are mediated by p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s . I d e a l l y , annexations should occur w i t h i n the sphere of a ' n a t u r a l p l a n n i n g a r e a ' . Such an area i s d e f i n e d by topography, drainage, t r a f f i c networks, h i s t o r i c community i d e n t i t y , optimum o p e r a t i o n a l areas f o r m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , balanced land use p o t e n t i a l , and other s i m i l a r f a c t o r s . There are many examples of c i t i e s who have used annexation i n an attempt to improve t h e i r f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s , s e r v i c i n g , or l a n d use problems. F r e q u e n t l y , annexation does not provide the s o l u t i o n t o these problems (5) . As w e l l , enough e v i d e n c e i s n ' t u s u a l l y gathered before p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s are made about 5 whether or not annexation or c o n s o l i d a t i o n would improve the performance of government in a p a r t i c u l a r area ( 6 ) . Most of the o p p o s i t i o n to annexation has c e n t r e d on the l o s s of assessment, major f e a r s of in c r e a s e d t a x a t i o n , and re l u c t a n c e to experience the p o s s i b l e r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from the a d d i t i o n of pop u l a t i o n and t e r r i t o r y to a m u n i c i p a l i t y (7). Most Canadian examples of annexation (8) have been based on the economic r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n that fragmented governmental u n i t s have r e s u l t e d i n i n e f f i c i e n t d e l i v e r y of s e r v i c e s to be r e c t i f i e d by c e n t r a l i z i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s . However, without a p p r o p r i a t e procedures and g u i d e l i n e s f o r munici p a l boundary e x t e n s i o n s , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s r i s k becoming sprawling a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a g e n c i e s , p r o v i d i n g minimum standard s e r v i c e s r a t h e r than s e r v i c e s t a i l o r e d to p a r t i c u l a r community needs. T h i s i s because v a r i o u s p a r t s of the c i t y have l i t t l e i n common, a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which a l s o handicaps the making of major community d e c i s i o n s . Costs and taxes are u s u a l l y high due to both unplanned growth and i n e f f i c i e n t s e r v i c e areas. Boundary e x t e n s i o n s should not be t r e a t e d as simply a matter of boundary adjustment. I t i s a step i n the o v e r a l l process of urban expansion and must be based on the long range plans of the community, the type of l o c a l government d e s i r e d , and the s u i t a b i l i t y of the extension f o r d e s i r e d development. For t h i s reason i t i s necessary to review a l l extensions a c c o r d i n g to d e s i r a b l e urban growth p r i n c i p l e s . The i s s u e of municipal boundary e x t e n s i o n i s common t o many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t hat vary s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n p o p u l a t i o n , area, and circumstances. The procedures and g u i d e l i n e s o f t h e p r o c e s s 6 must be general and f l e x i b l e enough to apply to a l a r g e a r r a y of d i f f e r i n g circumstances, yet complete enough to ensure that the process has been w e l l thought out. The Importance of the Boundary E x t e n s i o n Issue The impetus f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s has r e s u l t e d from three b a s i c o b s e r v a t i o n s . F i r s t , the r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e has l i t t l e in the way of recent a n a l y s i s f o r non-metropolitan areas and only a very small p r o p o r t i o n of that p e r t a i n i n g to r e l a t i v e l y smaller urban areas. Secondly, most of the i n f o r m a t i o n i s non-Canadian and only very l i m i t e d examination of t h i s t o p i c has taken place w i t h i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia. F i n a l l y , a f t e r coming out of s e v e r a l years of intense growth f o r many areas i n t o a p e r i o d of r e c e s s i o n and r e s t r a i n t , many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have been f o r c e d i n t o r e v e a l i n g f i s c a l a n a l y s e s and c o n s i d e r a t i o n of d e s i r a b l e urban growth p r i n c i p l e s and o p t i o n s with r e s p e c t to t h e i r own r e g i o n . There i s and has been a d e f i n i t e r e a l i z a t i o n that i t i s necessary to r e c a s t m u n i c i p a l boundaries to meet the s h i f t i n g requirements and o b l i g a t i o n s of l o c a l governments. I t must be assured that the procedures and g u i d e l i n e s of the mu n i c i p a l boundary extension process in B r i t i s h Columbia d e a l with a v a r i e t y of munici p a l circumstances. 1.4 METHOD OF ANALYSIS 1.4.1 The Case Study Approach T h i s research w i l l u t i l i z e the case study approach to analyze and evaluate the simple m u n i c i p a l boundary extension 7 process i n B r i t i s h Columbia ( 9 ) . Since the d i s c u s s i o n does not center on a p o l i c y i s s u e , but r a t h e r one of procedures and g u i d e l i n e s , i t i s only a p p r o p r i a t e to view the process ' i n a c t i o n ' - a case study approach. The chosen case s t u d i e s must be of v a r i e d circumstances to r e f l e c t the l a r g e range of p o s s i b l e s i t u a t i o n s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , the most recent boundary e x t e n s i o n , or attempt at i t , of each case study must be r e l a t i v e l y c u r r e n t so that the a n a l y s i s i s n ' t l o s t w i t h i n changed en a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . There are three general areas of circumstance which must be c o n s i d e r e d (10): (1) a boundary extension to i n c l u d e a urban, suburban, or semi-urban area contiguous to the boundary of the e x i s t i n g m u n i c i p a l i t y ; (2) a boundary extension t a k i n g i n t r a c t s of open land, f o r e s t land, or a g r i c u l t u r a l land (not n e c e s s a r i l y i n the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve) that i s uninhabi.ted to very s p a r s e l y populated; (3) a boundary extension to mainly i n c l u d e an i n d u s t r i a l or commercial s i t e or a c t i v i t y , e i t h e r developed or in the process of development in the near f u t u r e . Each of these three general areas w i l l be addressed w i t h i n a separate case study. 1.4.2 T h e s i s O r g a n i z a t i o n To adequately d i s c u s s the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the procedures and g u i d e l i n e s , of the simple m u n i c i p a l boundary extension p r o c e s s , a review of the genesis of the process i t s e l f as well as i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p with the needs of l o c a l government i s 8 necessary. Chapter 1 p r o v i d e s a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n to the problem and the s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s to be f u l f i l l e d in t h i s t h e s i s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t s e t s out the method of a n a l y s i s used to f u l f i l l the o b j e c t i v e s . The r o l e and purpose of l o c a l government and i t s s p e c i f i c r o l e in the simple m u n i c i p a l boundary extension i s s u e are examined in Chapter 2. The general advantages and disadvantages of boundary e x t e n s i o n s are a l s o d i s c u s s e d . Chapter 3 t r a c e s the e v o l u t i o n of l e g i s l a t i o n concerning simple boundary e x t e n s i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and e x p l o r e s the impacts that r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s and the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission have had on the p r o c e s s . The chapter concludes by d e t a i l i n g the present process in B r i t i s h Columbia. Chapters 4, 5, and 6 examine the case s t u d i e s i n l i g h t of the simple boundary extension process and e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the process i n each case. Chapter 7 completes the process e v a l u a t i o n and i n c l u d e s the f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations. 1.4.3 C o n s t r a i n t s At t h i s p o i n t i t i s important to acknowledge that there are both time and monetary c o n s t r a i n t s i n the p r o d u c t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , case s t u d i e s were chosen to be as s p a t i a l l y c l o s e as p o s s i b l e to the Lower Mainland due to both the time and monetary c o s t s of long d i s t a n c e t r a v e l . Because only a few days of c o n c e n t r a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t i n g was a v a i l a b l e in each case study s i t e , the l o c a l p l a n n i n g departments as w e l l as the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , 9 Planning and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S e r v i c e s Branches, r e l i e d upon to b r i n g forward r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . These c o n s t r a i n t s must be kept in mind when f i n a l product. 1.4.4 Def i n i t i o n s AMALGAMATE: mix or come together; blend; u n i t e . ANNEXATION: u n i t e or j o i n , e s p e c i a l l y a sm a l l e r t h i n g to a l a r g e r ; a s u b s i d i a r y ; a supplement. CRITERIA: a standard for comparison or judgement. GUIDELINE: a method of procedure. PROCEDURE: a course of mode of a c t i o n ; a step taken. RESTRUCTURE: to reform; the mode of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n or r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . (11) were h e a v i l y reviewing the 10 CHAPTER 1 FOOTNOTES 1. The Union of Nova S c o t i a M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , Mun i c i p a l  Amalgamat ion and Annexat io n , The I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c A f f a i r s , Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y , J u l y 1959, p.1. 2. T.G. P l u n k e t t , Urban Canada and I t s Government: A Study of  Mun i c i p a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , Toronto: Macmillan, 1968, p.78. 3. Canadian Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , The Urban Future, Research Monograph #5, Ottawa, 1970. 4. P. Brown and J . McLean, The £ Burden of Growth, Greater Vancouver Region a l D i s t r i c t , 1974. 5. Thomas M u l l e r and Grace Dawson, The Economic Ef f e c t s of  Annexat i o n : A Second Case Study in Richmond, V i r g i n i a , The Urban I n s t i t u t e , Washington, D.C, A p r i l 1976, p.1. 6. W.L. Batey and P.J. Smith, "The Role of T e r r i t o r y in P o l i t i c a l C o n f l i c t i n M e t r o p o l i t a n F r i n g e Areas" i n Ken B. Beesley and Lome H. Russwurm, ( e d s . ) , The Rural-Urban Fr inge:  Canadian P e r s p e c t i v e s , Dept. of Geography, York U n i v e r s i t y , G e o g r a p h i c a l Monograph #10, 1981, p.201. 7. George E. G a t h e r c o l e , "Plans f o r the M u n i c i p a l Government of Metro Areas - Annexation and Other A l t e r n a t i v e s " , i n P h i l i p J . C l a r k , ( e d . ) , Proceedings of the I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Canada, No. 5, 1953. 8. M i t c h e l l E. Kosny, L o c a l Government Reorgan i zat i on i n  Canada: Towards a More R e a l i st i c Theory, School of Urban and Regional P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of Waterloo, June 1977, p.9. 9. T h i s t h e s i s draws an e x p l i c i t l i n e between the simple boundary e x t e n s i o n process (where sma l l areas are taken in) and more complex e x t e n s i o n s i n v o l v i n g r e l a t i v e l y autonomous areas ( r e s t r u c t u r i n g ) . T h i s t h e s i s has l i m i t e d d i s c u s s i o n to the simple m u n i c i p a l boundary ex t e n s i o n p r o c e s . 10. These were f e l t to be three main areas in which a l l boundary e x t e n s i o n s in B.C. would g e n e r a l l y f a l l . Interview with John G. C a l l a n , E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S e r v i c e s Branch, M u n i c i p a l S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n , M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, October 20, 1 98 3 . 11. A l l d e f i n i t i o n s were taken from Websters D i c t i o n a r y , 1983 e d i t i o n . 1 1 CHAPTER 2 LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND BOUNDARY EXTENSIONS 1 2 CHAPTER 2: LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND BOUNDARY EXTENSIONS The purpose and s t r u c t u r e of a l o c a l government in the area to be extended or in the extension area can g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e the reasons f o r a boundary e x t e n s i o n . The purpose of a l o c a l government determines i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s while the s t r u c t u r e of l o c a l government d i c t a t e s the l e g i s l a t e d extent of the purposes. 2.1 THE PURPOSE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT Crawford has suggested that m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n s may be def ined as ( l ) : "...devices which enable groups of persons to j o i n together f o r the purposes of l o c a l government and to o b t a i n the r e s u l t s d e s i r e d through one medium rather than by the sum t o t a l of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . " M u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n s do have other r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s b e s i d e s the overt a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of s e r v i c e s . Within c l e a r l y d e f i n e d l i m i t s they have the power to decide what s e r v i c e s s h a l l be provided, f i n a n c e d , and r e g u l a t e d and c o n t r o l many areas of s o c i a l and economic l i f e in terms of r e s i d e n t h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , and s a f e t y . In e x e r c i s i n g these powers, a m u n i c i p a l i t y makes ' p o l i c y ' d e c i s i o n s , a b a s i c f u n c t i o n of a p o l i t i c a l system. Many reviews of l o c a l government f i n d that the prime values of l o c a l government are access, and s e r v i c e ( 2 ) . Access to government i s in terms of the p u b l i c ' s c a p a c i t y to i n f l u e n c e p u b l i c p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s and to en f o r c e responsive and r e s p o n s i b l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . S e r v i c e s are the p u b l i c goods and s e r v i c e s s u p p l i e d by l o c a l government ( 3 ) . But while these two values are complementary, there i s always p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t (4), g e n e r a l l y r e s o l v e d by one t a k i n g p r i o r i t y . 1 3 Cameron p o i n t s out that l o c a l government reforms during the mid 1970's had a number of f a c t o r s i n common i n c l u d i n g (5): (1) widespread tendency in metro areas to p l a c e growth-o r i e n t e d s e r v i c e s under a r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , p r i m a r i l y designed to accommodate growth by expanding or r e o r g a n i z i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s for needed s e r v i c e s ; (2) l o c a l governments c o n s i s t e n t l y placed the value of e f f i c i e n c y i n s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y above that of p o l i t i c a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The key p o i n t i n m u n i c i p a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n proceedings i s that i t i n v o l v e s two c o n f l i c t i n g r e q u i s i t e s of s c a l e ( 6 ) . F i r s t l y , the r e q u i s i t e of s e r v i c e i s more e a s i l y p r o v i d e d over a l a r g e area, although optimum s e r v i c e areas do not o f t e n match. Large s c a l e j u r i s d i c t i o n s tend to mediate gross v a r i a t i o n s between areas in terms of kinds and l e v e l s of s e r v i c e provided and the r e s u l t i n g t a x a t i o n l e v e l r e q u i r e d . But the other r e q u i s i t e , that or r e p r e s e n t a t i o n or access, works best at the ' g r a s s - r o o t s ' l e v e l . o f l o c a l government and i s opposed to the l a r g e s c a l e n o t i o n . There i s , t h e r e f o r e , a t e n s i o n between these two r e q u i s i t e s of l o c a l government r e s u l t i n g in e i t h e r a compromise, one being given p r i o r i t y , or a new format for r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h i n a l a r g e r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l area (7) . The c i t i z e n response to - the issue of annexation or c o n s o l i d a t i o n i s v a r i e d and based on s e v e r a l mediating f a c t o r s . G i l s d o r f ( 8 ) in a Canadian study, found that l e s s knowledgeable 1 4 and l e s s p o l i t i c a l l y aware c i t i z e n s are more r e a c t i v e to persuasion and i n f l u e n c e . Smallwood (9) i n f e r s that changing p o l i t i c a l boundaries f a i l because c i t i z e n s p a r t i c i p a t e only when they p e r c e i v e a p o s s i b l e p e r s o n a l n e g a t i v e e f f e c t . B i s h and Ostrom (10) suggest that v o t e r s w i l l r e j e c t c o n s o l i d a t i o n proposals because vot e r s are s u s p i c i o u s that i t w i l l not r e s u l t in s e r v i c e s at equal or l e s s c o s t s . Hawkins (11) and Kunkel (12) both found that the more d i s s a t i s f i e d the e l e c t o r a t e i s with the c u r r e n t d e l i v e r y of l o c a l s e r v i c e s the g r e a t e r i s the w i l l i n g n e s s to support annexation p r o p o s a l s . 2.1.1 The R e q u i s i t e of Access The s t r e n g t h of l o c a l government l i e s i n the f a c t that the e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i s c l o s e to the people he r e p r e s e n t s and has a f i r s t hand knowledge of the problems and c o n d i t i o n s with which he must d e a l . As the s i z e of a community i n c r e a s e s , t h i s advantage d i m i n i s h e s , u n t i l at some stage i t may be argued that there i s no longer any purpose in having a l o c a l area government. Hence the success of a s i n g l e m e t r o p o l i t a n government may be c o n d i t i o n e d by the t e r r i t o r i a l l i m i t s of i t s j ur i s d i c t i o n . Access to government, which i n v o l v e s c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , must have the a t t r i b u t e of community which p l a y s an e s s e n t i a l r o l e in making government v i a b l e . Popular p a r t i c i p a t i o n and community are r e c i p r o c a l s (16): p a r t i c i p a t i o n can only develop where there i s an e x i s t i n g f e e l i n g of community. An a d d i t i o n a l determinant of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s the c a p a c i t y of a c i t i z e n to i n f l u e n c e the p o l i t i c a l process (17). T h i s has a b a s i c 1 5 dependence on the balance of i n t e r e s t groups w i t h i n the community. If the balance i s n ' t t h e r e , the r e s u l t w i l l be f e e l i n g s of p o l i t i c a l a l i e n a t i o n , d e f e a t i s m , and l e s s e n i n g of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l o c a l government a f f a i r s . R e o r g a n i z a t i o n that produces c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and c o n s o l i d a t i o n may leave an a l i e n a t e d c i t i z e n r y because p o l i t i c a l power i s being p l a c e d f a r t h e r from them. Government r e o r g a n i z a t i o n based " on a s e r v i c e r e q u i s i t e only means that there w i l l be fewer, but l a r g e r c e n t r e s , more conc e n t r a t e d p o l i t i c a l power, thereby l e a v i n g those with economic power the domination of m u n i c i p a l p o l i t i c s (18), subsequently reducing access. The b a s i c c o n s o l i d a t i o n i s t viewpoint i s based on a s t r u c t u r a l i s t p o i n t about the negative consequences which fragmented p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s ' are presumed to impose on governmental performance. Fragmentation i s p e r c e i v e d a s - the c a u s a l l i n k to i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s (19). Then the f i n a l i n f e r e n c e i s made - remove fragmentation and thereby reduce the i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s . 1 6 2.1.2 The Requi s i te of S e r v i c e The key argument in the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the s e r v i c e r e q u i s i t e i s how i n e f f e c t i v e fragmentation i s and i s annexation or c o n s o l i d a t i o n the answer to reduce negative impacts. One p o i n t that i s not r e a d i l y apparent are that the range of s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s that can be performed by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g to the c l a s s of the m u n i c i p a l i t y . G e n e r a l l y , smaller m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are most r e s t r i c t e d , somewhat l e g a l l y but s u b s t a n t i a l l y f i n a n c i a l l y , with the range i n c r e a s i n g from v i l l a g e to town, c i t y , and d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y s t a t u s . There are some who maintain that fragmentation i s not n e c e s s a r i l y bad. Cook (20) argues that as c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of s e r v i c e s becomes more p r e v a l e n t , there may be a lowered a b i l i t y to accommodate d i v e r s i t y . Warren (21) c o n s t r u c t e d a m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s model based on a market system and found that p u b l i c s e r v i c e s are more e f f e c t i v e under c o m p e t i t i v e and not m o n o p o l i s t i c c o n d i t i o n s . But m a i n t a i n i n g a o n e - t i e r system may not be the answer e i t h e r . If one c o n s i d e r e d the ' o v e r s p i l l ' of s e r v i c e areas such that a t e r r i t o r i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n can i n t e r n a l i z e the p u b l i c goods and s e r v i c e s i t produces, t h i s annexation move may cause many i n e f f i c i e n c i e s (22). Taking advantage of the 'optimal catchment areas' may not be p o s s i b l e under such a o n e - t i e r system because annexation f r e q u e n t l y leads to demands of s e r v i c e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n across the whole j u r i s d i c t i o n . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t however, that the usual d r i v i n g f o r c e behind m u n i c i p a l r e s t r u c t u r i n g in the l i t e r a t u r e i s the savings a t t r i b u t e d mainly to c i t i z e n p e r c e i v e d economies that may be 1 7 p o s s i b l e (23). Quesnel-Ouellet (24) concurred t h a t , a t t i t u d e s towards mu n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s seems, a p r i o r i , to be r e l a t e d to the c i t i z e n ' s a t t i t u d e to the annexation or amalgamation of h i s area with a m u n i c i p a l i t y . She f u r t h e r s t a t e d that m u n i c i p a l reform o b j e c t i v e s are to o f f e r c i t i z e n s of the same re g i o n at l e a s t e q u i v a l e n t q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e a f t e r the reform (25). C l e a r l y , when d e a l i n g with problems i n a c h i e v i n g s e r v i c e o b j e c t i v e s , the p o s s i b i l i t y of e f f e c t i v e i n t r a - and i n t e r - r e g i o n a l arrangements w i l l be a major component (26) r e g a r d l e s s of the phase of p o l i t i c a l reform i n the area. H i r s c h (28) developed a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s using a quasi-dynamic model c o n s i d e r i n g the impact of urban growth and c o n s o l i d a t i o n . He i d e n t i f i e d three groups of s e r v i c e s based on the average u n i t c o s t s of the s e r v i c e . They are: (1) h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s e r v i c e s which c o n s i s t of a number of p l a n t s or u n i t s t h a t produce the same s e r v i c e ; (2) c i r c u l a r l y i n t e g r a t e d s e r v i c e s are produced when a governmental u n i t renders s e r v i c e s that are complementary; (3) v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s e r v i c e s e x i s t when there are a number of s u c c e s s i v e steps i n the p r o d u c t i o n and d e l i v e r y of the s e r v i c e . By comparing s e r v i c e output w i t h the co s t of p r o d u c t i o n , cost f u n c t i o n s were d e r i v e d to determine i f economies of s c a l e could be achieved through government c o n s o l i d a t i o n . H o r i z o n t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s e r v i c e s have h i g h l y adaptable, f i x e d 18 p l a n t s and/or d i v i s i b l e o p e r a t i n g equipment and t h e r e f o r e growth and c o n s o l i d a t i o n w i l l have l i t t l e , i f any, e f f e c t on the per c a p i t a expenditures fo r such s e r v i c e s . C i r c u l a r l y i n t e g r a t e d s e r v i c e s produce a d e c r e a s i n g c o s t f u n c t i o n with growth due to a f u l l e r more e f f i c i e n t use of o f f i c i a l s , c l e r i c a l s t a f f , and p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l . Beyond an u n i d e n t i f i e d ' c r i t i c a l p o i n t ' however, higher wa.ges and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e top heaviness leads to diseconomies of s c a l e . Growth and c o n s o l i d a t i o n i n v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d s e r v i c e s r e s u l t s in a decrease in the per c a p i t a expenditure u n t i l a very l a r g e s i z e i s reached. C l e a r l y the e f f e c t of annexation or c o n s o l i d a t i o n on m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , i n t h i s study, i s dependent on the type of s e r v i c e o f f e r e d . Research by Break (29) i n d i c a t e s that of eighteen p u b l i c s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s that he s t u d i e d , o n l y nine c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d as s t r i c t l y l o c a l or area-wide. Break a l s o noted that the r e s u l t s are not d e f i n i t i v e , and before f i n a l f u n c t i o n a l assignment i s completed, broad s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s must be accounted f o r . 2.1.3. L o c a l Government Goals Golden (30) has d e f i n e d f i v e g o a l s f o r l o c a l government. The f i r s t goal i s c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The base j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r l o c a l government i s that i t i s the c l o s e s t to the e l e c t o r a t e and can t h e r e f o r e give maximum o p p o r t u n i t y f o r access to and involvement in decision-making. I n c r e a s e s in j u r i s d i c t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n through n a t u r a l growth or due to boundary extension l e a d s to a d e c r e a s i n g r a t i o of e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e to c i t i z e n and l e s s responsive a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I t means the system must 1 9 provide a d d i t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r access and i n f o r m a t i o n , adequate p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , a c c o u n t a b i l i t y in s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y , and an e a s i l y understandable system. The second goal i s the p r o v i s i o n of a sense of community (31). A c t i v e community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s best achieved w i t h i n a framework of l o c a l government that s t r i v e s to preserve and enhance the d i v e r s i t y of l i f e s t y l e s w i t h i n the community. T h i r d l y , e f f i c i e n c y i n l o c a l government i s a f r e q u e n t l y mentioned goal (32). The e f f i c i e n t d e l i v e r y of munici p a l s e r v i c e s while a primary o b j e c t i v e of many governmental u n i t s i s d i f f i c u l t to achieve because the optimal area f o r one type of s e r v i c e i s u s u a l l y d i f f e r e n t than the optimal area f o r another s e r v i c e type, as w e l l as having d i f f e r i n g economies of s c a l e . F o u r t h l y , as an extension of the b a s i c e f f i c i e n c y g o a l , an e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g process must be f l e x i b l e and yet d i v e r s e w i t h i n a l o c a l government framework that can respond to mega and micro-problems and processes (33). F i n a l l y , u nless a l e v e l of l o c a l government has some power to make s i g n i f i c a n t l o c a l d e c i s i o n s , l o c a l p u b l i c i n t e r e s t w i l l not be h e l d . T h e r e f o r e , the f i f t h goal of l o c a l government i s to achieve ' s u f f i c i e n t ' l o c a l autonomy meaning that the m u n i c i p a l i t y has both the autonomy and f i s c a l resources needed to make p r i o r i t y d e c i s i o n s about p u b l i c a c t i v i t i e s of l o c a l impact (34). S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the goal of l o c a l autonomy i s u s u a l l y used in the arguments of both proponents and opponents of l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l u n i t s : advocates s t a t e that i t w i l l strengthen the p o s i t i o n of l o c a l government i n the v e r t i c a l government 20 h i e r a r c h y : opponents c l a i m that the move would make l o c a l government more remote from c i t i z e n i n f l u e n c e , thereby reducing true l o c a l autonomy (35). 2.2 LOCAL GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA There are s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r e s of l o c a l government i n B r i t i s h Columbia and v a r i e d c i r c u m s t a n c e s determining the a p p r o p r i a t e s t r u c t u r e f o r a given a r e a . The four b a s i c s t r u c t u r e s are: 1. s p e c i f i e d areas; 2. improvement d i s t r i c t s ; 3. m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ; 4. r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . 2.2.1 Spec i f i e d Areas S p e c i f i e d areas are areas r e c o g n i z e d under s e c t i o n s 674 t h r u 678 of the M u n i c i p a l Act (36) which have undertaken a s p e c i f i c work or s e r v i c e , the b e n e f i t s and c o s t s of which are borne wholly by r e s i d e n t s in that a r e a . I t i s not an i n c o r p o r a t e d j u r i s d i c t i o n and may be w i t h i n or o u t s i d e of a m u n i c i p a l i t y . Previous to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of r e g i o n a l government, s p e c i f i e d areas were mainly i n non-municipal areas now covered by r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s (37). New s p e c i f i e d areas are u s u a l l y w i t h i n the bounds of mu n i c i p a l u n i t s (38), although upon the d i s s o l u t i o n of an improvement d i s t r i c t i n a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t the area o f t e n becomes a s p e c i f i e d a r e a . The main reason for i n i t i a t i n g a s p e c i f i e d area i s to allow d i f f e r e n t i a l tax rates w i t h i n a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l u n i t due to a d i f f e r e n c e s in the l e v e l or q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e s r e c e i v e d (39). T h i s a l l o w s s u b s t a n t i a l f l e x i b i l i t y i n d e a l i n g w i t h a d i v e r s e c o m m u n i t y whose s e r v i c e r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d . a b i l i t y t o pay may d i f f e r . 2.2.2 Improvement D i s t r i c t s T h e r e a r e o v e r 300 i m p r o v e m e n t d i s t r i c t s i n t h e p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 4 0 ) i n c o r p o r a t e d u n d e r t h e W a t e r A c t and t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t . U n d e r s e c t i o n 827 o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t d e s c r i b i n g t h e p o w e r s o f i m p r o v e m e n t d i s t r i c t s , t h e b o a r d of t r u s t e e s h a s c o r p o r a t e power o v e r t h e a r e a i t a d m i n i s t e r s , b u t u n l i k e a m u n i c i p a l i t y , t h e L i e u t e n i e n t G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may d i s s o l v e any i m p r o v e m e n t d i s t r i c t a t any t i m e ( s e c . 8 2 6 ) . A d d i t i o n a l l y , a l l b y l a w s of i m p r o v e m e n t d i s t r i c t s must be r e g i s t e r e d w i t h t h e I n s p e c t o r o f M u n i c i p a l i t i e s who may r e f u s e t o r e g i s t e r i t ( s e c . 8 3 1 ) . L a n d and i m p r o v e m e n t s w i t h i n an i m p r o v e m e n t d i s t r i c t a r e exempt f r o m t a x a t i o n by t h e p r o v i n c e , a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t , o r a m u n i c i p a l i t y ( s e c . 8 4 7 ) . 2.2.3 M u n i c i p a l i t i e s T h e r e a r e f o u r c l a s s e s o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w h i c h d i f f e r i n t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a n d p o w e r s c o n f e r r e d upon them f r o m t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t ( s e c . 20) and a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n T a b l e 1 ( 2 2 ) : ( i ) v i l l a g e s ; ( i i ) t o w n s ; ( i i i ) c i t i e s ; ( i v ) d i s t r i c t s . r 22 TABLE 1 B.C. MUNICIPAL CLASS BY BASE CHARACTERISTICS ****************************************** CHAR. * VILLAGE * TOWN * CITY * DISTRICT * ***************************************************************** Popln * (p) * < 2500 *2500<p<5000 * > 5000 * area > 800 hec. sec. 20 * * * *< 5 persons/hec. ***************************************************************** C o u n c i l * 1 mayor * 1 mayor * 1 mayor * 1 mayor s i z e *4 alderman *4~ alderman * 5000<p<50 , 000 . . 6 alderman sec.208 * *• * >50,000 8 alderman ***************************************************************** Li c e n c e * $200. * $300. * < 10,000 $500. fees * * * 10,000<p<50 , 000 .$ 1000. sec.505 * * * > 50,000 $1500. ***************************************************************** Commissions * * * s. 687 * _ * Parks * Parks * Parks s.688 * - * Propert i e s * Pro p e r t i e s * P r o p e r t i e s s.689 * - * A t h l e t i c * A t h l e t i c * A t h l e t i c s.690 * R e c r e a t i o n * Recreat ion * Rec r e a t ion * Rec reat i on s.691 * _ * J o i n t * J o i n t * J o i n t ***************************************************************** Welfare* - C o n t r i b u t e s * c o n t r i b u t e s * c o n t r i b u t e s s. 697 ***************************************************************** Source: B.C. M u n i c i p a l Act, R.S.B.C. 1981, c. 290. S l i g h t l y more complicated f a c t o r s i n c l u d e the r e g i s t r a t i o n , of bylaws, l o c a l improvements, borrowing l i m i t s , and t a x i n g a b i l i t i e s and l i m i t s . 23 Every bylaw passed by a v i l l a g e c o u n c i l must be d e p o s i t e d with the Inspector of M u n i c i p a l i t i e s who may r e f u s e to r e g i s t e r the bylaw, r e n d e r i n g i t i n a c t i v e (sec. 307). For a town, c i t y , or d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y the bylaw i s i n f o r c e from the date of adoption or on a subsequent date s t a t e d w i t h i n the bylaw (sec. 306). L o c a l improvement works undertaken by a town, c i t y or d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y (42) are s u b s t a n t i a l l y more e x t e n s i v e than for a v i l l a g e (43). A d d i t i o n a l l y , the v i l l a g e bylaw to i n i t i a t e the s p e c i f i c works must be approved by the Inspector of Munic i p a l i t i e s . Borrowing l i m i t s d i f f e r between c l a s s e s of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s (sec. 325 and 326). P r i o r to the 1983 f i s c a l year, c i t i e s , towns, or d i s t r i c t s were allowed to borrow an amount not to exceed 20% of the t o t a l of the t o t a l assessed value f o r general m u n i c i p a l purposes and the value of. the u t i l i t y systems and other m u n i c i p a l e n t e r p r i s e s . Changes to the P r o p e r t y Tax Reform Act (44) i n 1983 r e s u l t e d i n an amendment to the M u n i c i p a l Act g i v i n g a s i m i l a r , but s u b s t a n t i a l l y more complex c a l c u l a t i o n f o r the 1983, 1984 and beyond. There were no amendments to s e c t i o n 326, borrowing by a v i l l a g e , which remains at an amount not to exceed the t o t a l of 10% of the average o f the t o t a l assessed values f o r g e n e r a l m u n i c i p a l purposes and 20% of the value of the u t i l i t y systems and other m u n i c i p a l e n t e r p r i s e s . The 'type' of m u n i c i p a l taxes has a l s o been a l t e r e d by a s h i f t from a m i l l r a t e system to a v a r i a b l e tax r a t e system f o r the . 1983 tax year (45). P r i o r t o t h e 1983 tax year, c i t i e s o r d i s t r i c t s were not allowed to exceed 50 m i l l s , 40 m i l l s for a 24 town, and 30 m i l l s f o r a v i l l a g e (46). Under the new amendment to s e c t i o n 274, the Lieutenant Governor in C o u n c i l may make r e g u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the l i m i t s on, r e l a t i o n s h i p s between, and formulas f o r c a l c u l a t i n g tax r a t e s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , he may allow for d i f f e r e n c e s i n these components f o r each c l a s s of prope r t y , d i f f e r e n t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , or d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s (sec. 274(2)). 2.2.4 Regional D i s t r i c t s P r o v i d i n g a fe d e r a t e d approach to r e g i o n a l i s s u e s , r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s have had an important impact on l o c a l government o r g a n i z a t i o n because they o f f e r r e d a method of p r o v i d i n g t r a d i t i o n a l l y m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s to non-municipal a r e a s . Regional d i s t r i c t s are i n c o r p o r a t e d under s e c t i o n 767 of the M u n i c i p a l A c t . They are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r pl a n n i n g (47), land use c o n t r o l s , b u i l d i n g permits, the management of h o s p i t a l s , l i b r a r i e s , c e r t a i n p u b l i c works and f i n a n c i n g . A d d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s , such as a d m i n i s t e r i n g s e r v i c e s l i k e p u b l i c t r a n s i t , water, sewer, s o l i d waste d i s p o s a l , or r e g i o n a l parks f o r example, can be taken on with a p p r o v a l from the Lie u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l . A 1974 M u n i c i p a l Department Report c l e a r l y s t a t e s that (48) : " . . . i n the course of time the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s should g r a d u a l l y take over the s i n g l e purpose d i s t r i c t and the improvement d i s t r i c t . " They have indeed done so. 25 2.3 APPROACHES TO BOUNDARY EXTENSION The dual p r o c e s s e s of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and u r b a n i z a t i o n have r e s u l t e d i n many municipal areas having i n a p p r o p r i a t e boundaries. A d d i t i o n a l l y , the new r u r a l - u r b a n dependence and in c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n m o b i l i t y has a l t e r e d the t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a m u n i c i p a l i t y based on a s e p a r a t i o n of urban and r u r a l u n i t s (49). A re-alignment of l o c a l government boundaries i s done f o r many reasons but the p r i n c i p a l approach has been that the e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e impedes the most e f f e c t i v e d e l i v e r y of s e r v i c e s to the p u b l i c (50). 2.3.1 The Reform Movement By s t u d y i n g the phases of m u n i c i p a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , Kosny (51) has i d e n t i f i e d four b a s i c s e t s of reform p r o p o s a l s . The approach used almost e x c l u s i v e l y throughout t h i s century has been to recommend c o n s o l i d a t i o n of v a r i o u s governmental u n i t s i n t o one s i n g l e u n i t of government with t o t a l a r e a l jur i s d i c t i o n . The second o p t i o n i s based on a d e c e n t r a l i z i n g approach. M u n i c i p a l s t r u c t u r e s are seen as being h i g h l y responsive to c i t i z e n needs due to neighbourhood governments and community c o n t r o l . T h i r d l y , a combination of the f i r s t and second approaches as p a r t of an advanced t w o - t i e r approach to l o c a l government. This model c o n s o l i d a t e s a l l major u n i t s of l o c a l government i n t o one g e n e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n which would maintain f u n c t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y over the e n t i r e region together with s m a l l e r u n i t s to meet l o c a l problems w i t h i n t h i s l a r g e r c o n s o l i d a t e d framework. 26 F i n a l l y , the f o u r t h approach c a l l s f o r an assessment of p u b l i c demands and needs f o r d i f f e r e n t goods and s e r v i c e s and then o v e r l a y i n g an i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e to meet s e r v i c i n g c r i t e r i a . H i s t o r i c a l l y , the c o n s o l i d a t i o n approaches have won out. I n i t i a t e d i n the 1920's due to pressure to introduce business management p r a c t i c e s i n t o p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and f i n a n c e , the m e t r o p o l i t a n reform movement was based on the n i n e t e e n t h century idea of u t i l i t a r i a n i s m (52). T h i s good government reform movement, or the e f f i c i e n c y and economy reform movement, has been f r e q u e n t l y used i n North American urban government r e o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o p o s a l s d u r i n g the t w e n t i e t h century (53). The main p o i n t of c o n t e n t i o n was that fragmented m e t r o p o l i t a n areas meant many small j u r i s d i c t i o n s which were unable to adequately serve t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n c i e s . The s o l u t i o n seemed c l e a r : "...only by p o o l i n g resources c o u l d the u t i l i t y of the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n be maximized. Good government t h e r e f o r e became synonomous with c e n t r a l i z a t i o n as the necessary c o n d i t i o n f o r a t e c h n i c a l l y p r o f i c i e n t , r a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . . . . the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of m e t r o p o l i t a n j u r i s d i c t i o n s i n t o u n i t a r y governments became the f i r s t goal of the m e t r o p o l i t a n reform movement, from which the b e n e f i t s of e f f i c i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were expected to flow, almost as a matter of course." (53) T h i s one government reform theory was an i n t e r n a t i o n a l movement general to Canadian s o c i e t y as w e l l . It was based on a precept of p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e f i r s t p o p u l a r i z e d by Woodrow Wilson duri n g the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century t h a t : "...the more power i s d i v i d e d the more i r r e s p o n s i b l e i t becomes." (54) The theory experienced great academic appeal because of the 27 popular p a r a l l e l theory of h o l i s t i c p o s i t i v i s m w i t h i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e d i s c i p l i n e s (55). The emphasis was s h i f t e d from p a r t i c u l a r i s t i n t e r e s t s to that of the whole community as one s i n g l e e n t i t y . The movement had made three key assumptions, i d e n t i f i e d by Kosny (56), which may or may not be t r u e : (1) m e t r o p o l i t a n areas are one u n i f i e d community with a s s o c i a t e d common elements but for the fragmented governmental s t r u c t u r e ; (2) community needs cannot be met by j o i n t a c t i o n of small u n i t s ; (3) c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n t o one s i n g l e , h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s the answer to assure the w e l l - b e i n g of the community. F u r t h e r , i t was assumed t h a t c o n c e n t r a t e d p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y would be e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e and c i t i z e n s would be able to h o l d p o l i t i c i a n s d i r e c t l y a c c o u n t a b l e . The c o n s o l i d a t i o n i s t theory emphasizes that t h i s approach w i l l produce economy, in c r e a s e d s e r v i c e i n t e g r a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n , and more e q u i t a b l e f i n a n c i n g of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s . 2.3.2 Community and T e r r i t o r y The concept of community i s h i g h l y valued i n western s o c i e t y . Community i s an a b s t r a c t e n t i t y that a c t s when i t s boundary i s coterminous with p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s (57). But the community i s more than a f u n c t i o n a l e n t i t y as i t p r o v i d e s a sense of 'place' and a p s y c h o l o g i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the area. Batey and Smith (58) s t a t e that l o c a l governments value t e r r i t o r y because the accommodation of r e s i d e n t i a l and 28 i n d u s t r i a l expansion r e q u i r e the raw l a n d and t h i s a d d i t i o n a l development generates e x t r a revenues. The power to r e g u l a t e the land development process, with the aim of maximizing tax b e n e f i t s i s thus of p r a c t i c a l importance to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . S e r v i c e s , t h e i r l e v e l and q u a l i t y , are g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by the t e r r i t o r i a l base due to f i n a n c i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s from tax revenues and the economies that can be achieved over a given s e r v i c e area. There i s , t h e r e f o r e , a s t r o n g d e s i r e f o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to extend t h e i r boundaries in phase with development trends (58). While boundary extensions can be c a r r i e d out where the annexed area i s e i t h e r s m a l l , or i f l a r g e i s predominantly r u r a l , i t makes d i f f i c u l t headway i f the annexed area a l r e a d y has i t s own s e r v i c e s and has reached a s t a t e of s e t t l e d development (59). Once m u n i c i p a l i t i e s 'have e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r own corporate e n t i t y i t w i l l not e a s i l y surrender any p o r t i o n of i t but expect other areas to succumb. Most l o c a l government r e o r g a n i z a t i o n theory and p r a c t i c e have assumed that p o l i t i c a l fragmentation w i l l l e a d to f a i l u r e of the governmental pro c e s s . However, some recent e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e that fragmented l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e s e x h i b i t " e x t r a o r d i n a r y c a p a c i t y f o r a d a p t a t i o n and i n n o v a t i o n to meet the s e r v i c e pressures of p o p u l a t i o n growth" (60). The f i n a l p o i n t that needs to be made i s that m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have l e g a l power to make d e c i s i o n s , but that power i s d e l e g a t e d to them by the p r o v i n c e . The d e l e g a t i o n of s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s by the p r o v i n c e to the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s never e x c l u s i v e for the p r o v i n c i a l government r e t a i n s the l e g a l r i g h t 29 to veto, amend, or s u b s t i t u t e l o c a l c o u n c i l s ' a c t i o n s , and to r e g u l a t e and supervise a l l a c t i o n s of a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the performance of those f u n c t i o n s . 2.3.3 The Issues I d e n t i f i e d An American report ( 6 1 ) , r e p o r t i n g on a s e r i e s of eighteen case s t u d i e s , found a c o n s i s t e n c y i n pro- and a n t i - a n n e x a t i o n groups. They found an overt c e n t r a l c i t y versus f r i n g e s p l i t . C e n t r a l c i t y commercial groups, p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s , and c i t y home owners tend to support r e o r g a n i z a t i o n e f f o r t s while r u r a l and suburban commercial groups, the r e s p e c t i v e p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s and home owners tended to oppose the program. The c e n t r a l c i t y groups were p r i m a r i l y motivated by a n t i c i p a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l g a i n s , while the f r i n g e groups are p r i m a r i l y motivated by fear of p o t e n t i a l l o s s e s . As with many r e o r g a n i z a t i o n programs, those in o p p o s i t i o n tend to be more motivated than supporters because o p p o s i t i o n i s t s are f i g h t i n g a g a i n s t a b s o l u t e l o s s e s while supporters are hoping f o r marginal gains (62). There are many boundary e x t e n s i o n i s s u e s that can be i d e n t i f i e d and g e n e r a l l y grouped i n t o advantages and disadvantages. 30 (1) ADVANTAGES A. ECONOMIC ADVANTAGES A.1 Economies of Scale It i s purported that savings w i l l be enjoyed by both the f r i n g e areas and the core c i t y due to s c a l e economies in the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s , n otwithstanding the f a c t that savings p o t e n t i a l w i l l vary a c c o r d i n g to the c h a r a c t e r of the s e r v i c e (sect ion 2.1.2). A.2 Suburban E x p l o i t a t i o n I t i s f e l t that the suburbs or f r i n g e areas e x p l o i t the c i t y by using the p u b l i c s e r v i c e s (parks, f o r example) without paying f o r them. A s o l u t i o n would r e s u l t i n a more e q u i t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between those paying f o r the c o s t s of m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and those b e n e f i t t i n g from them ( s e c t i o n 2.1.2). A.3 Lack of Space S p i l l o v e r e f f e c t s ( a i r and noise p o l l u t i o n ) are p r e v a l e n t when the c i t y i s coming up to i t s s p a t i a l l i m i t . Annexing p e r i p h e r a l areas w i l l enable planned f u t u r e growth and development and continued tax revenues to the core c i t y ( s e c t i o n 2.1.2). A.4 Grants, T r a n s f e r s , Borrowing Powers A l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n r e s u l t s i n g r e a t e r intergovernmental t r a n s f e r s and grants and the a b i l i t y to borrow a greater p r o p o r t i o n of monies. "Higher s t a t u s " m u n i c i p a l i t i e s can borrow a higher percentage of t h e i r t o t a l assesed values and can demand 31 l a r g e r business l i c e n s e fees ( s e c t i o n 2.1.1). A.5 C o o r d i n a t i o n Of S e r v i c e s Annexation w i l l • provide a means of c o o r d i n a t i n g p u b l i c s e r v i c e s being provided by d i f f e r e n t j u r i s d i c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s over the whole r e g i o n . Increased e f f i c i e n c y , g r e a t e r economy, and improved s e r v i c e s may r e s u l t ( s e c t i o n 2.1.2). A. 6 I n d i v i d u a l Savings On an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , a d d i t i o n a l cost savings upon annexation may be due to decreased insurance r a t e s , decreased s e r v i c i n g c o s t s , decreased crime and a c c i d e n t r a t e s due to b e t t e r p r o t e c t i o n , and i n c r e a s e d p r o p e r t y v a l u e s . B. SOCIAL ADVANTAGES B. I Larger S o c i a l Resource Base Community groups and s p e c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s (the YW/YMCA, for example) w i l l have a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n base to draw on and may i n c r e a s e the l e v e l and d i v e r s i t y of s e r v i c e s o f f e r r e d . B.2 Heterogeneity A more v a r i e d and d i v e r s e community may r e s u l t which may produce more area s p e c i a l t y shops or e t h n i c shopping areas which are viewed as an added urban amenity. B.3 Increased M u n i c i p a l S e r v i c e s Depending on the s t a t u s of m u n i c i p a l i t y , i n c r e a s i n g s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and general s e r v i c e s may become a v a i l a b l e . For r e s i d e n t s in the area of e x t e n s i o n , r e c e i v i n g the s e r v i c e s normally given only to m u n i c i p a l r e s i d e n t s w i l l be an improvement. 32 B.4 P r e f e r r e d Growth More l o g i c a l boundaries c o v e r i n g the areas of growth and development may permit a more a e s t h e t i c and s o c i a l l y compatible mixture of land uses. B.5 The Right to Vote Residents i n the annexed area w i l l have t h e i r chance to vo i c e t h e i r o p i n i o n on the aspects of community d e c i s i o n s which may have a f f e c t e d them p r e v i o u s l y when they had no ' c i t i z e n o p i n i o n ' . B. 6 Community F e e l i n g s Both the annexed area and the urban core area w i l l become more committed to moulding the development of the t o t a l community i n a manner he/she deems d e s i r a b l e , r a t h e r than p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a s u b s e c t i o n of i t . C. POLITICAL ADVANTAGES C. 1 P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n Annexation g i v e s f r i n g e r e s i d e n t s a v o i c e i n the government of the l a r g e r community and the a b i l i t y to c o n t r i b u t e p o l i t i c a l l y to development. F u r t h e r , because of the new c i t y ' s s c a l e and because i t would be a more powerful e n t i t y , i t would be more l i k e l y to a t t r a c t and h o l d the i n t e r e s t of i t s c i t i z e n r y ( s e c t i o n 2.3.1). C.2 P r e s t i g e Annexation i n c r e a s e s c i t y s i z e and thus r a i s e s i t s l e v e l of p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e , i t s p r e s t i g e , and i t s a b i l i t y to a t t r a c t d e s i r a b l e types of development. 33 2.3.3 THE DISADVANTAGES The key disadvantage s t r e s s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e i s always put on an economic f o o t i n g while advantages f o r the newly annexed r e s i d e n t tend to be more s o c i a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d . A. ECONOMIC DISADVANTAGES The s i n g l e most important economic disadvantage i s the a n t i c i p a t i o n of higher taxes (63). As w e l l , resources from the o r i g i n a l m u n i c i p a l i t y may be d i v e r t e d from maintenance there to the p r o v i s i o n of new s e r v i c e in the expansion area. B. SOCIAL DISADVANTAGES B.1 R e s i s t a n c e to Change Leemans (64) suggests that r e s i s t a n c e to change i s p a r t l y rooted i n a n a t u r a l i n c l i n a t i o n to r e s i s t changes to e x i s t i n g frameworks unless f u l l d i s c l o s u r e of advantages i s very e x p l i c i t and disadvantages are n e g l e c t e d . B.2 Changes i n the S o c i a l Community The new community may be s t r a t i f i e d or d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on a d i f f e r e n t base than one or e i t h e r of the p r e v i o u s l y separate areas which may or may not cause some s o c i a l f r i c t i o n . B.3 Loss of I d e n t i t y If the p o p u l a t i o n to be i n c l u d e d i s small r e l a t i v e to that of the m u n i c i p a l i t y the new r e s i d e n t s w i l l f e ar a l o s s of i d e n t i t y of t h e i r neighbourhood. C o n v e r s e l y , a small m u n i c i p a l p o p u l a t i o n w i l l f e e l ' d i l u t e d ' w i t h i n a l a r g e annexed p o p u l a t i o n . 34 B. 4 Loss of Character Annexed areas tend to be l e s s dense than the core c i t y and fear t h e i r present c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be overgrown by a t t r i b u t e s s i m i l a r to what e x i s t s i n the core c i t y . C. POLITICAL DISADVANTAGES C. 1 Decreased C i t i z e n I n fluence Leemans (65) suggests that the l e s s f a v o u r a b l e r a t i o of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n (more v o t e r s per c o u n c i l member) and an enlarged f r o n t l i n e bureaucracy w i l l make e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s l e s s a c c e s s i b l e ( s e c t i o n 2.3.1). C.2 Vo t i n g U n i t s Depending on the p o p u l a t i o n of the area to be annexed, e i t h e r or both the o r i g i n a l m u n i c i p a l i t y and the proposed extension area w i l l be concerned over where the power of the e l e c t o r a t e w i l l l i e and whether t h e i r i n t e r e s t s w i l l be subordinated. C.3 The N e c e s s i t y of Annexation Annexation may be unnecessary i f the area to be annexed has l i m i t e d s e r v i c i n g d e s i r e s or needs and wants to remain that way. C.4 S p e c i a l I n t e r e s t Groups With the a d d i t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n due to annexation, the type or i n f l u e n c e of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups w i t h i n the new community may be a l t e r e d . 35 CHAPTER 2 FOOTNOTES 1. Kenneth Grant Crawford, Canadian Mun i c i p a l Government, Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1954, pp. 48-49. 2. O n t a r i o Committee on T a x a t i o n , "The T e r r i t o r i a l Extent of L o c a l Government" in L.D. Feldman and M.D. G o l d r i c k ( e d s . ) , P o l i t i c s and Government of Urban Canada, Toronto: Metheun, 1976, p. 345. 3. I b i d , p. 346. 4. I b i d , p. 347. 5. Kenneth D. Cameron, "Goodbye to A l l That: The Future of L o c a l Government i n Canada's M e t r o p o l i t a n C i t i e s " , i n Ken Denike, e d i t o r , Managing Urban Set t l e m e n t s : Can Our Governmental  S t r u c t u r e s Cope? Centre f o r Human Settlements, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., 1979, p. 42. 6. Donald J . H i g g i n s , Urban Canada, Toronto: Macmillan, 1977, p. 157. 7. I b i d , p. 157. 8. R.R. G i l s d o r f , "Voter S u s c e p t a b i 1 i t y to I n f l u e n c e " , Canadian P o l i t i c a l Sc ience Review, Dec. 1973, pp. 246-251. 9. F. Smallwood, "The P o l i t i c s of Regional Government", in L.D. Feldman and M.D. G o l d r i c k ( e d s . ) , P o l i t i c s and Government  of Urban Canada, Toronto: Metheun, 1969. 10. R.L. B i s h and V. Ostrom, Understanding Urban Government, Washington, D.C: American I n s t i t u t e f o r P u b l i c Research, 1973, p. 136. 11. B.W. Hawkins, " P u b l i c Opinion and M e t r o p o l i t a n C o n s o l i d a t i o n i n N a s h v i l l e " , J o u r n a l of P o l i t i c s , v o l . 28, 1966, pp. 408-418 . 12. T.L. Kunkel, "The Role of S e r v i c e s i n Annexation of a Metro F r i n g e Area", Land Economics, v o l . 36, 1960, pp. 208-212. 13. W.L. Batey and P.J. Smith, "The Role of T e r r i t o r y in P o l i t i c a l C o n f l i c t i n M e t r o p o l i t a n F r i n g e Areas", i n Ken B. Beesley and Lome H. Russwurm, ( e d s . ) , The Rural-Urban F r i n g e :  Canadian P e r s p e c t i v e s j_ York U n i v e r s i t y , G e o g r a p h i c a l Monograph #10, 1981, p. 199. 14. Donald J . H i g g i n s , Op. c i t . , p. 156. 15. I b i d , p. 157. 16. O n t a r i o Committee on T a x a t i o n , Op. c i t . , p. 348. 36 17. I b i d , p. 349. 18. Donald J . H i g g i n s , Op. c i t . , p. 158. 19. W.l. Batey and P.J. Smith, Op. c i t . , p. 209. 20. G a i l Cook, " P u b l i c S e r v i c e P r o v i s i o n i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas", in L.D. Feldman and M.D. G o l d r i c k , ( e d s . ) , Op. c i t . , pp. 79-93. 21. R. Warren, "A M u n i c i p a l S e r v i c e s Model of M e t r o p o l i t a n O r g a n i z a t i o n " , A.I.P., v o l . 30, 1964, pp. 193-204. 22. Anne Golden, "The Form of L o c a l Government", in L.D. Feldman and M.D. G o l d r i c k , ( e d s . ) , Op. c i t . , 1976, p. 360. 23. B. Deane Strongitharm, L o c a l Government R e o r g a n i z a t i o n , M.A. T h e s i s , School of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g , Univ. Of B.C., October 1975, p. 2. 24. Louise Q u e s n e l - O u e l l e t , " S o c i a l C o n d i t i o n s and A t t i t u d e s to Change in M u n i c i p a l S t r u c t u r e s " , i n L.D. Feldman and M.D. G o l d r i c k , (eds.), Op. c i t . , , 1976, p. 426. 25. I b i d , p. 428. 26. O n t a r i o Committee on T a x a t i o n , Op. c i t . , p. 350. 27. Committee f o r Economic Development, Statement by the Research and P o l i c y Committee, Reshaping Government in  M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas, New York: Centre f o r the Committee for Economic Development, 1970, p. 19. 28. W.Z. H i r s c h , "Expenditure I m p l i c a t i o n s of M e t r o p o l i t a n Growth and C o n s o l i d a t i o n " , The Review of Economics and  S t a t i s t i c s , v o l . 41, 1959, pp. 231-239. 29. George Break, Intergovernmental F i s e a l R e l a t i o n s i n the  United S t a t e s , Washington, D.C: Brookings I n s t i t u t i o n , 1967, p. 176. 30. Anne Golden, "The Form of L o c a l Government" in L.D. Feldman and M.D. G o l d r i c k , (eds.), Op. C i t . , 1976, p. 360. 31 . I b i d , P- 362. 32. I b i d , .P- 362. 33 . I b i d , P- 363 . 34. I b i d , P- 363-364, 35. I b i d , P- 365. 36. B.C. M u n i c i p a l Act, R.S.B.C. 1979, Chapter 290. 37 37. B..C M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Annual Report, 1981, p. 10. 38. I b i d , p. 11. 39. B.C. M u n i c i p a l Act, R.S.B.C. 1979,c. 290, s. 674(2). 40. B.C. M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , O p . c i t . , p. 11. 41. A l l i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d in Table 1 has been drawn from the M u n i c i p a l A c t . 42. B.C. S t a t u t e s , M u n i c i p a l Act, 1979, c. 290, s. 651 ( 1 ) . 43. I b i d , s. 651(2). 44. Property Tax Reform Act (No. 1) 1983, B i l l 7, pp. 2-3. 45. I b i d , p. 2. 46. B.C. M u n i c i p a l Act, R.S.B.C. 1979, c. 290, s. 274. 47. The f u n c t i o n of o v e r a l l r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g was removed from the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s who s t i l l remain r e s p o n s i b l e f o r O f f i c i a l Settlement Plans f o r e l e c t o r a l areas. 48. B.C. M u n i c i p a l Department, S t a t i s t i c s R e l a t inq to Regional  and M u n i c i p a l Governments, 1974, p. 7. 49. C R . T i n d a l , S t r u c t u r a l Changes in L o c a l Government:  Government f o r Urban Regions, The I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Canada, Toronto, 1977. 50. B. Deane Strongitharm, L o c a l Government R e o r g a n i z a t i o n , M.A. T h e s i s , School of Community and Regional Planning, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., October 1975, p. 2. 51. M i t c h e l E. Kosny, L o c a l Government R e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n  Canada: Towards a More R e a l i st i c Theory, School of Urban and Regional Planning, U n i v e r s i t y of Waterloo, Working Paper #2, June 1977, p. 2. 52. P.J. Smith, "The P r i n c i p l e of U t i l i t y and the O r i g i n s of Planning L e g i s l a t i o n i n A l b e r t a , 1912-1975", in Alan F.J. A r t i b i s e and G i l b e r t A. S t e l t e r , ( e d s . ) , The Usable Urban Past:  Planning and P o l i t i c s i n the Modern C i t y , Toronto: MacMillan, 1979, pp. 201-202. 53. W.L. Batey and P.J. Smith, "The Role of T e r r i t o r y in P o l i t i c a l C o n f l i c t i n M e t r o p o l i t a n F r i n g e Areas", in Ken B. Beesley and Lome H. Russwurm, (eds . ) , The Rural-Urban F r i n g e :  Canadian P e r s p e c t i v e s , York U n i v e r s i t y , G e o g r a p h i c a l Monographs #10, 1981, p. 200. 54. Woodrow Wilson, C o n g r e s s i o n a l Goverment, New York: Meridian Books, o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1885, p. 77. 38 55. Robert E. D i c k i n s o n , C i t y and Region: A Geographical  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , London: Routledge and Kegan Paul L t d . , 1964, pp. 470-471. 56. Kosny, Op. C i t . , p. 3. 57. Alan S. Berger, The C i t y : Urban Communities and Thei r  Problems, Iowa: Brown Co. P u b l i s h e r s , 1978, p. 47. 58. W.L. Batey and P.J. Smith, Op. c i t . , p. 199. 59. George E. G a t h e r c o l e , "Plans f o r the M u n i c i p a l Government of Metro Areas - Annexation and other A l t e r n a t i v e s " , i n P h i l i p T. C l a r k , e d i t o r , The Annual Proceedings of the I n s t i t u t e of  P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Canada, 1953. 60. Robert C. Wood, "A D i v i s i o n of Powers in M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas", in A r t h u r Maas, e d i t o r , Area and Power, Glencoe, I l l i n o i s : Free P r e s s , 1969, p. 47. 61. Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental R e l a t i o n s , F a c t o r s  A f f e c t i n g Voter Reactions to Governmental R e o r g a n i z a t i o n in  M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas, Report M-15, Washington, D.C, May 1962. 62. . Frank Smallwood, Op. c i t . , , p. 336. 63. R.L. Bish and V. Ostrom, Op. c i t . 64. A.F. Leeman, Changing P a t t e r n s of L o c a l Government, Stockholm, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union of L o c a l A u t h o r i t i e s , 1970. 65. I b i d . 39 CHAPTER 3: THE BOUNDARY EXTENSION PROCESS IN B.C. AND ASSOCIATED LEGISLATION 40 CHAPTER 3j_ THE BOUNDARY EXTENSION PROCESS IN B.C. AND ASSOCIATED LEGISLATION Many years of l e g i s l a t i o n have not g r e a t l y s h i f t e d the process of m u n i c i p a l boundary e x t e n s i o n i t s e l f , but the a s s o c i a t e d areas of taxes, i n c o r p o r a t i o n procedures and c r i t e r i a , land use l e g i s l a t i o n , and other p e r i p h e r a l i s s u e s have a f f e c t e d the use and purposes f o r use of the process ( 1 ) . 3.1 HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF THE PROCESS The B.C. C o n s o l i d a t e d Munic i p a l Act of 1872 was passed s h o r t l y a f t e r B.C. became a p r o v i n c e i n C o n f e d e r a t i o n . M u n i c i p a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n c o u l d be achieved by the p e t i t i o n of at l e a s t t h i r t y a d u l t male r e s i d e n t s i n h a b i t i n g an area of not more than ten square m i l e s . There were f i v e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the pr o v i n c e by the end of 1874 (2). Between 1872 and 1900 s e v e r a l a c t s concerning m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were passed, most i m p o r t a n t l y , the Mun i c ipa1  Clauses Act of 1896.(3) which adapted the 1849 Baldwin scheme of O n t a r i o to B.C.'s circumstances. The Baldwin scheme o u t l i n e d two b a s i c m u n i c i p a l c l a s s e s - a c i t y , d e f i n e d as a densely populated urban area, and a d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y which maintained a more r u r a l s e t t i n g . R e l a t i v e d e n s i t y and not t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n was a key f a c t o r . However, much of the pro v i n c e remained m u n i c i p a l l y unorganized and, because of the topography, sett l e m e n t s s t i l l tended to be i s o l a t e d and s c a t t e r e d . Due to the general a d m i n i s t r a t i v e g u i d e l i n e s for i n c o r p o r a t i o n , p e t i t i o n e r s for i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t e n proposed m u n i c i p a l boundaries which were not economical to a d m i n i s t r a t e . 4 1 In the Munic i p a l Incorporat ion Act of 1912, power was granted to the Lieutenant-Governor in C o u n c i l to vary the boundaries or reduce the l i m i t s of the proposed m u n i c i p a l i t y in such a way as he c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e (4). S e v e r a l p o r t i o n s of the Munic i p a l Incorporat ion Act of 1912 d e a l t e x p l i c i t l y with m u n i c i p a l boundary extensions or r e d u c t i o n s . Subsection 12(1) s t a t e d than an a f f i r m a t i v e vote of at l e a s t t w o - t h i r d s of the members of a c i t y m u n i c i p a l i t y may pass a r e s o l u t i o n to extend boundaries. However, the extension was l i m i t e d to a maximum of one mile beyond the boundaries e x i s t i n g at the time of a p p l i c a t i o n . The w r i t t e n consent of owners of more than h a l f the value of the land in the proposed extension area had to be obt a i n e d . A p o l l of the o r i g i n a l m u n i c i p a l e l e c t o r s a l s o had to favour the extension by a simple m a j o r i t y . The requirements f o r a d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y were s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t (5). Instead of w r i t t e n consent based on property value, a f a v o u r a b l e p e t i t i o n by the m a j o r i t y of persons w i t h i n the proposed ex t e n s i o n had to be r e c e i v e d by' the L i e u t e n a n t -Governor i n C o u n c i l who then d e c i d e d on the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the e x t e n s i o n . Under s u b s e c t i o n 15(1) of the M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Incorporat ion  Act of 1912, the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l a l s o had the power to r e d e f i n e or a l t e r the boundaries of a m u n i c i p a l i t y provided l e g a l n o t i c e of t h i r t y days of the proposed a c t i o n had been given. A d d i t i o n a l l y , under s e c t i o n 19, a d d i t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s c o u l d a l s o be imposed upon the m u n i c i p a l i t y at that time and the bylaws and r e s o l u t i o n s of the m u n i c i p a l i t y 42 a u t o m a t i c a l l y extended to the a d d i t i o n a l boundary l i m i t s immediately ( s e c t i o n 20). The l i s t of p o t e n t i a l forms of c o r p o r a t e s t a t u s f o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s was supplemented in 1920 by the passage of the V i l l a g e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Act which p r o v i d e d f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of small s e t t l e m e n t s and communities as v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Under s e c t i o n 2 (6), the Lieutenant-Governor in C o u n c i l c o u l d issue L e t t e r s Patent to any group of p e t i t i o n i n g i n h a b i t a n t s of any area in which the number of r e s i d e n t s d i d not exceed one thousand. P r o v i s i o n s i n the C o n s o l i d a t e d M u n i c i p a l Act d i d not apply to v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and so the r i g h t s , powers, and p r i v i l e g e s were i n d i v i d u a l l y s p e c i f i e d i n the L e t t e r s Patent. By 1922, amendments were i n t r o d u c e d which allowed s p e c i f i e d p o r t i o n s of the M u n i c i p a l Act to become a p p l i c a b l e to a v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y . Included i n the V i l l a g e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Act of 1922 was a schedule of s p e c i f i c powers which were to be wholly or p a r t i a l l y assumed by a v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y depending on the l i m i t a t i o n s expressed i n the L e t t e r s Patent. A 1925 amendment to the V i l l a g e Munic i p a l i t i e s Act removed the minimum p o p u l a t i o n requirement f o r i n c o r p o r a t i o n of one thousand for a v i l l a g e m u n i c i p a l i t y ( 7 ) . The 1926 amendment set f o r t h procedures f o r a p o l l to determine whether i n c o r p o r a t i o n was favoured or not. With both a p e t i t i o n and a p o l l the p o p u l a r i t y of the proposed i n c o r p o r a t i o n would be more r e f l e c t i v e of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n and not j u s t the p e t i t i o n e r s ( 8 ) . A 1928 amendment reduced the t h r e e - f i f t h s m a j o r i t y approval to a simple m a j o r i t y . By 1949 the concept of h o l d i n g a p o l l to determine, the 43 p o p u l a r i t y of i n c o r p o r a t i o n was a l s o i n c l u d e d i n the i n c o r p o r a t i o n procedures of a c i t y and a d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y . The p o l l was to be d i r e c t e d by the Lieutenant-Governor in C o u n c i l at the expense of the p e t i t i o n e r s . A simple m a j o r i t y of e l e c t o r s (those persons who were B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s at l e a s t twenty-one years o l d and c o r p o r a t i o n s which had f o r one month preceding the v o t i n g been r e g i s t e r e d owners of land in the area of proposed i n c o r p o r a t i o n ) i n favour, and the L i e u t e n a n t -Governor i n C o u n c i l c o u l d i s s u e L e t t e r s Patent ( 9 ) . In 1953 the Water Act was amended so that an improvement d i s t r i c t under that Act c o u l d not be set up w i t h i n a m u n i c i p a l i t y or a v i l l a g e f o r waterworks or sewerage purposes. The Munic i p a l Act was amended to i n c r e a s e to a maximum of f i f t y m i l l s from t h i r t y - f i v e m i l l s the tax payable f o r general m u n i c i p a l purposes. The t r a d e - l i c e n c e s e c t i o n o f . t h e Act was amended and maximum fees i n c r e a s e d . During both 1953 and 1954 other r e g u l a t i o n s were passed pursuant to s u b s e c t i o n 9 ( f ) of the V i l l a g e Mun i c i p a l i t i e s Act making c e r t a i n p o r t i o n s of the Mun i c i p a l Ac t a p p l i c a b l e to s p e c i f i c v i l l a g e s and, i n some cases, to a l l v i l l a g e s . In 1957 a major r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the Munic i p a l Act occurred in response to the l a r g e number of separate a c t s p e r t a i n i n g to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The l a s t r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the Mun i c i p a l Act had taken p l a c e in 1914 and wasn't t o t a l l y r e l e v a n t to munic i p a l concerns of the 1950's. D e t a i l e d p r o v i s i o n s and procedures for both i n c o r p o r a t i o n and boundary e x t e n s i o n s were in t r o d u c e d and were very s i m i l a r to the aggregated past procedures. The M u n i c i p a l Act of 1957 was amended to i n c l u d e new 44 p r o v i s i o n s f o r the extension of an area of a m u n i c i p a l i t y . E i t h e r a vote was to be taken or the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s c o u l d appoint a Commission to i n q u i r e i n t o and re p o r t to him on the p r o p r i e t y of the e x t e n s i o n i n t o the new ar e a . The l a t t e r was u s u a l l y only done i n the case of a r e s t r u c t u r e (10). Another important aspect of the Munic i p a l Act of 1957 was the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a new m u n i c i p a l form known as the l o c a l d i s t r i c t . The Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s c o u l d then r e g u l a t e the establishment of water improvement d i s t r i c t s (under the Water Act ) by e s t a b l i s h i n g l o c a l i t i e s r e q u i r i n g s e r v i c e s as l o c a l d i s t r i c t s r a t h e r than a l l o w i n g them to i n c o r p o r a t e as water improvement d i s t r i c t s and by c o n s o l i d a t i n g e x i s t i n g water improvement d i s t r i c t s and r e i n c o r p o r a t i n g them as l o c a l d i s t r i c t s under the Munic i p a l A c t . A l s o s u b j e c t to r e i n c o r p o r a t i o n as l o c a l d i s t r i c t s were l o c a l areas which had been e s t a b l i s h e d under the L o c a l S e r v i c e s Ac t . The only improvement d i s t r i c t s exempt from t h i s p rocess were those p r o v i d i n g only i r r i g a t i o n and dyking s e r v i c e s . There were now f i v e c l a s s e s of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . These f i v e c l a s s e s i n c l u d e d a l o c a l d i s t r i c t where the p o p u l a t i o n of an area d i d not exceed f i v e hundred, a v i l l a g e where the p o p u l a t i o n exceeded f i v e hundred but d i d not exceed t w e n t y - f i v e hundred, a town where the p o p u l a t i o n exceeded t w e n t y - f i v e hundred but not f i v e thousand, a c i t y where the p o p u l a t i o n exceeded f i v e thousand, and a d i s t r i c t , where the area exceeded two thousand ac r e s and had an average d e n s i t y of l e s s than two persons per acre ( 1 1 ) . P o p u l a t i o n minimums and maximums f o r the Munic i p a l  Ac t of 1957 were adopted from Golden'berg' s Royal Commission 45 Report of 1946 which was g e n e r a l l y based on O n t a r i o ' s M u n i c i p a l Act (12). At t h i s p o i n t , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedures had been set out for two separate procedures f o r boundary e x t e n s i o n s : one f o r the extension of mu n i c i p a l u n i t s i n t o 'unorganized' areas (simple boundary e x t e n s i o n s ) ; and, another f o r those which have 'organized' u n i t s next to them ( r e s t r u c t u r i n g ) (13). An exception to the p o p u l a t i o n determinants e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1957 came when the Munic i p a l Act of 1960 enabled the L i e u t e n a n t -Governor in C o u n c i l , upon the recommendation of the M i n i s t e r of Mu n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , to a u t h o r i z e i n c o r p o r a t i o n as a v i l l a g e an area where the p o p u l a t i o n d i d not exceed f i v e hundred (14). As w e l l , under the p r o v i s i o n of the L o c a l S e r v i c e s Act of 1959, the unorganized area of the pr o v i n c e was e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the purpose of community p l a n n i n g . T h i s r e p l a c e d the former r e g u l a t e d areas c o n s t i t u t e d under the re p e a l e d Town P l a n n i n g Act . In 1965, one major amendment i n the Mun i c i p a l Act pr o v i d e d for the exception of i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s i t e s from i n c l u s i o n i n surrounding or adjacent m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . If the i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t , because of s i z e and l o c a t i o n would not b e n e f i t from the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by the m u n i c i p a l i t y , the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l c o u l d set f o r t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of the p l a n t s i t e and exempt i t from i n c l u s i o n w i t h i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y . No m u n i c i p a l bylaw was to be b i n d i n g oh the i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t and any s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d by the p l a n t were to be p r o v i d e d by the p l a n t owners at t h e i r expense (15). A d d i t i o n a l l y , the procedures f o r boundary extensions were s i m p l i f i e d and a vote r e q u i r e d only i f s u b s t a n t i a l o p p o s i t i o n i s 46 encountered at the d i s c r e t i o n of the M i n i s t e r o f . M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s (16). The most i n f l u e n t i a l aspect of the Munic i p a l Act of 1965 was the i n i t i a t i o n of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t government ( s e c t i o n 766). Although the s t a t u s of the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t was not to be taken as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r m u n i c i p a l government, i t assumed many f u n c t i o n s which had been t r a d i t i o n a l l y assumed by municipal governments. I t a l s o allowed u n i n c o r p o r a t e d communities, on a s p e c i f i e d area b a s i s , to approach the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s f o r s e r v i c e s r a t h e r than assuming a l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e to p r o v i d e these s e r v i c e s on t h e i r own (17). In 1966, an amendment to s e c t i o n 12 of the M u n i c i p a l Act of 1965 allowed the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l by L e t t e r s Patent i n c o r p o r a t i n g a community or by supplementary L e t t e r s Patent due to a boundary e x t e n s i o n , to p r o v i d e f o r a r e d u c t i o n in the maximum tax rate p e r m i t t e d under the Munic i p a l Act (18). T h i s would l i m i t the amount of m u n i c i p a l taxes which could be l e v i e d on newly i n c l u d e d m u n i c i p a l a r e a s . In 1968 an amendment to the Munic i p a l Act r e s u l t e d in the a b o l i t i o n of l o c a l d i s t r i c t s as a c l a s s of m u n i c i p a l i t y . In the f a l l of 1973 amendments to the Mun i c i p a l Act were again i n t r o d u c e d . The s i x t y percent m a j o r i t y requirement f o r a boundary e x t e n s i o n was lowered to a simple m a j o r i t y . S e v e r a l important amendments to the Mun i c i p a l Act were passed in 1977. Development permits and development cost charges were int r o d u c e d , O f f i c i a l Settlement Plans (OSPs) f o r e l e c t o r a l areas of the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s were i n i t i a t e d , while the s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s of O f f i c i a l Community Plans (OCPs) were 47 r e v i s e d and i n c r e a s e d . Both OSPs and OCPs were r e q u i r e d to include a d e t a i l e d set of l o c a t i o n , environmental, economic, housing and s e r v i c i n g f a c t o r s . The approved adoption of the a p p l i c a b l e plan c o u l d exempt a l o c a l or r e g i o n a l government from c e r t a i n p r o v i n c i a l land use a p p r o v a l s . In 1982, the Mun i c i p a l Expendi ture R e s t r a i n t Act was adopted. I t empowered the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s to set an upper l i m i t on both m u n i c i p a l and r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t expenditures f o r the 1982 and 1983 tax y e a r s . Under s e c t i o n 3, the Inspector of M u n i c i p a l i t i e s may a l l o w exemptions i f e x t r a o r d i n a r y circumstances are i n v o l v e d and the m u n i c i p a l i t y has made reasonable e f f o r t s to comply. No f u r t h e r amendments a p p l i c a b l e to boundary extensions were int r o d u c e d . 3.2 THE IMPACT OF REGIONAL DISTRICTS Residents and t h e i r problems are not s e a l e d i n t o one u n i t . People often l i v e i n one area but • work i n another; p o l l u t e d r i v e r s and a i r c a r r y e f f l u e n t i n t o a d j o i n i n g r i v e r s and a i r pathways; p l a n n i n g and development e f f e c t s w i l l have s p i l l - o v e r s i n t o the l a r g e r r e g i o n . 3.2.1 The I n t r o d u c t i o n of Regional D i s t r i c t s The i n t r o d u c t i o n of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s to B.C. i n 1965 was a major development with res p e c t to m u n i c i p a l "reorganization because they were f u n c t i o n a l l y designed to g i v e unorganized area a form of l o c a l government (20). R e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s were not meant to be another form of m u n i c i p a l government but were designed for the j o i n t p r o v i s i o n of m u l t i p l e s e r v i c e s . Since I. 48 r e g i o n a l governments hadn't been w e l l r e c e i v e d elsewhere in Canada, i t was hypothesized that not a t t a c h i n g the term of mun i c i p a l government to the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s (but g i v i n g them s i m i l a r powers) may deter some of the ne g a t i v e a t t i t u d e (21). B.C.'s approach to l o c a l government reform was c r i t i c i z e d from many p o i n t s of view. T i n d a l (22) s t a t e d t h a t : "The B.C. government's approach to l o c a l government reform appears q u i t e pragmatic i n nature. There i s no suggestion of an u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h y of what l o c a l government i s or should be; nor i s there an apparent attempt to balance the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e dimensions of l o c a l government. Rather, the approach i s to de a l with s p e c i f i c problems as p e r c e i v e d by the p r o v i n c i a l government." The M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s gave the dominant reason for r e g i o n a l i z i n g the urban governmental s t r u c t u r e throughout the p r o v i n c e as the need to e l i m i n a t e the 'cancerous p a r o c h i a l i s m ' of fragmented governmental u n i t s which 'tend to block or k i l l the b e n e f i t s which c o u l d otherwise be achieved by a community" (23). Nic h o l s o n (24) i d e n t i f i e d four trends l e a d i n g to r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t l e g i s l a t i o n . F i r s t l y , the topographic c o n s t r a i n t s of the p r o v i n c e r e s t r i c t e d c e n t r a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Secondly, e x i s t i n g agencies i n other departments t h a t u t i l i z e d a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g approach had worked w e l l . T h i r d l y , the Vancouver and V i c t o r i a m e t r o p o l i t a n areas r e q u i r e d a new a d m i n i s t r a t i v e approach. F i n a l l y , p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to the p r o v i n c e ' s unorganized areas from V i c t o r i a had become a d i f f i c u l t task. In the 1950's, unorganized areas covered 98% of the p r o v i n c e and accounted for 15% of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n (25). In June 1965, B i l l 83 was f o r m a l l y introduced in the 49 l e g i s l a t u r e i n i t i a t i n g the formation of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t government. Regiona l d i s t r i c t s are i n c o r p o r a t e d under s e c t i o n 767 of the Munic i p a l Act of 1981. T h e i r s t a t u t o r y o b l i g a t i o n s l i e p r i m a r i l y i n the v e i n of p l a n n i n g , being r e s p o n s i b l e f o r land use c o n t r o l , b u i l d i n g permits, and p l a n n i n g i n non-municipal areas. Many r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s have taken over a d m i n i s t e r i n g such s e r v i c e s as p u b l i c t r a n s i t , water, sewer, and s o l i d waste d i s p o s a l , r e g i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n and p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l . The extent of s e r v i c e s i s based on l o c a l p r e f e r e n c e s and needs. The f u n c t i o n a l use of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s was i l l u s t r a t e d in a 1974 Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s r e p o r t s t a t i n g that (26): " . . . . i n the course of time the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s should g r a d u a l l y take over the s i n g l e purpose d i s t r i c t and the improvement d i s t r i c t . " The t r a n s f e r a n c e of improvement d i s t r i c t s to the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s had an added p o s i t i v e e f f e c t i n that p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of l o c a l government c o u l d then be c o - o r d i n a t e d under one p r o v i n c i a l department. The s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n background of the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s was s t r e s s e d i n a 1967 Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s Annual Report (27): "The p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s through the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t should not be c o n s i d e r e d to be an a l t e r n a t i v e to m u n i c i p a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n i f the s c a l e of s e r v i c e s needed can best be provided through i n c o r p o r a t i o n as a m u n i c i p a l i t y . " 3.2.2 Regional D i s t r i c t s and Boundary E x t e n s i o n s The p r o v i s i o n of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t government p r o v i d e d both the p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and the f l e x i b l e s e r v i c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to non-municipal area which were p r e v i o u s l y only 50 a v a i l a b l e through municipal i n c o r p o r a t i o n . Small area s p e c i f i c needs c o u l d be d e a l t with in the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t format. Non-m u n i c i p a l r e s i d e n t s had a p o l i t i c a l hand i n determining t h e i r r e g ion's f u t u r e . C l e a r l y , r u r a l areas c o n s i d e r i n g i n c o r p o r a t i o n or i n c l u s i o n i n t o a m u n i c i p a l i t y through boundary e x t e n s i o n for reasons of s e r v i c i n g needs or the d e s i r e to gain l o c a l v o t i n g r i g h t s would now be accommodated w i t h i n the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t format. Boundary e x t e n s i o n for these reasons would be expected to decrease a f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t government to an a r ea. 3.3 THE IMPACT OF THE AGRICULTURAL LAND COMMISSION The i n t e r a c t i o n and c o n f l i c t s between ecology and economics i s keenly f e l t on the r u r a l - u r b a n f r i n g e where a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d has s t e a d i l y given way to urban growth.. Urban land economics models c l e a r l y p r e d i c t t h i s t r e n d as a key element of f r i n g e expansion. As a p o l i c y response, the B.C. Government i n s t i t u t e d the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission in the e a r l y 1970's with a system of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s (ALRs) to prevent f u r t h e r unnecessary e r o s i o n of the farmland base. 3.3.1 The A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission In December 1972, the government of B.C. passed o r d e r s - i n -C o u n c i l to f r e e z e the use of a g r i c u l t u r a l land within' the p r o v i n c e and proceeded to d r a f t complementary l e g i s l a t i o n . T h i s a c t i o n was a d i r e c t response to p r e s s u r e s which were r e s u l t i n g in the r a p i d removal of high q u a l i t y farmland from a g r i c u l t u r a l use. The s t a t e d goal of the B r i t i s h Columbia A g r i c u l t u r a l Land 51 Commission (BCALC) was m o d i f i e d i n 1977 and l i m i t e d to the present goal of p r e s e r v i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l land f o r f u t u r e a g r i c u l t u r a l use. The BCALCs major aim was to slow the l o s s of s c a r c e p r o v i n c i a l food producing lands to urban development. To do so, the system removed c e r t a i n l o c a l government powers over land use and p l a c e d them i n the hands of p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s (28). The major impact of the BCALC has been at the (29): "...boundaries where town and country meet...where growing communities impinge upon the neighbouring farmland." The e f f e c t of the l e g i s l a t i o n was to r e d i r e c t demand f o r land f o r these a c t i v i t i e s to areas where the r e s t r i c t i o n s d i d not apply (30). T h i s tended to r e s t r i c t the o v e r a l l supply of land f o r urban development over the s h o r t e r run. Because the l e g i s l a t i o n d i d not a f f e c t any f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to demand f o r urban land, some observers expected a gradual e r o s i o n of the reserve system at the i n t e r f a c e between urban development and reserve lands (33). E x p e c t a t i o n s were countered by those who hoped that the e f f o r t s of the Commission to e s t a b l i s h the re s e r v e s as a f a c t of l i f e would persuade developers and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to c o n s i d e r other a l t e r n a t i v e s than a g r i c u l t u r a l land as s i t e s f o r urban development (32). In a recent study (33), in most a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r the removal of land from the r e s e r v e , the urban need f o r the reserve land wasn't demonstrated for the s u b j e c t s i t e s . Instead, demand was i n f e r r e d by a s s e r t i n g the absence of a l t e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n s for the proposed use or general need. Assessments of 52 a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y were o f t e n complex, and the v i a b i l i t y of land f o r economic farm was use a c o m p l i c a t i n g f a c t o r . L o c a l p u b l i c or neighbourhood o p i n i o n was d e c i s i v e i n three of every f i v e r e j e c t e d a p p l i c a t i o n s or s e r i e s of a p p l i c a t i o n s , whatever the long term consequences for the r e s e r v e and the nature of the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the p r o j e c t s i n v o l v e d (34). There were many d i f f e r i n g a t t i t u d e s and o p i n i o n s to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the ALR system. Commercial and hobby farmers were s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n favour of the l e g i s l a t i o n (35). In c o n t r a s t , h o l d e r s of vacant or c o m pletely l e a s e d out p r o p e r t i e s c o n s t i t u t e d the groups most opposed to the l e g i s l a t i o n (36). As w e l l , roughly twice the percentage of owner in or p a r t l y i n the ALRs commented that they l e f t t h e i r l a n d i d l e because i t was ' u n s u i t a b l e for a g r i c u l t u r e ' as compared to those owners o u t s i d e the ALRs who c i t e d the same reason yet presumably h e l d land of lower a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y than those i n s i d e the ALR. The high percentage i n s i d e the ALRs c o u l d i n d i c a t e those with s p e c u l a t i v e r a t h e r than a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s i n t h e i r land (37). In the absence of r a d i c a l change i n development p a t t e r n s , i t appears that i t i s the view of m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s that a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i s a h o l d i n g zone a w a i t i n g e v e n t u a l urban development (38). "On r e f l e c t i o n , i t i s c l e a r that most communities in the p r o v i n c e c o u l d , i f they adopted a d i f f e r e n t i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n of development, reduce t h e i r r a t e of i n t r u s i o n i n t o a g r i c u l t u r a l land very s u b s t a n t i a l l y or h a l t i t completely. The amount of vacant l a n d , under-used land, and land i n need of redevelopment in our towns i s n o t o r i o u s . " (39) 53 3 . 3 . 2 E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e A L R S y s t e m I f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e A L R a r e e v a l u a t e d a g a i n s t t h e g o a l o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d p r o m o t i o n o f a v i a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r , i t i s a l s o c l e a r t h a t t h e B C A L C h a s h a d a s m a l l f a v o u r a b l e i m p a c t f o r s o m e , b u t i s n o t b y i t s e l f a s u f f i c i e n t m e a n s t o e n s u r e t h e l o n g t e r m v i a b i l i t y o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r ( 4 0 ) . T h e B C A L C h a s s e c u r e d a n i m p r o v e d e n v i r o n m e n t f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , b u t t h i s c o u l d b e e a s i l y o f f s e t b y d e c l i n e s i n t h e q u a n t i t y a n d q u a l i t y o f l a n d o v e r t i m e ( 4 1 ) . A s w e l l , t h e a b s e n c e o f l i m i t s t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f l a n d i g n o r e s t h e f i n i t e n e s s o f t h e A L R b a s e . P i e r c e ( 4 2 ) s t a t e d t h a t d e s p i t e a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y b e i n g a p r i m a r y i s s u e , s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e l a n d f o r a l t e r n a t e u s e s o f t e n t o o k p r e c e d e n c e . 3 . 3 . 3 T h e B C A L C a n d B o u n d a r y E x t e n s i o n s T h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e B C A L C i s c l e a r w i t h r e s p e c t t o m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r y e x t e n s i o n . " I n t h e e v e n t l a n d w i t h i n t h e A L R i s i n c l u d e d w i t h i n i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s a s a r e s u l t o f t h e r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f a m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s b o u n d a r i e s , i t s h o u l d b e c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e l a n d s i n q u e s t i o n r e m a i n i n t h e A L R . T h e s t a t u s o f t h e s e l a n d s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d C o m m i s s i o n A c t o f b e i n g p r e s e r v e d f o r c u r r e n t a n d f u t u r e a g r i c u l t u r a l u s e i s t h e r e f o r e u n a l t e r e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r y a d j u s t m e n t . F u r t h e r , i t w o u l d b e a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t p o l i c i e s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s o f a n O f f i c i a l C o m m u n i t y P l a n a n d I m p l e m e n t i n g B y l a w s w o u l d b e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y o f p r e s e r v i n g l a n d w i t h i n t h e A L R f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r p o s e s . " ( 4 4 ) W h i l e r e c o g n i z i n g t h e i n e v i t a b l e n e e d f o r c o m m u n i t i e s t o s p a t i a l l y g r o w , t h e B C A L C a d v o c a t e s a c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e s t r u c t u r i n g s t u d y , a n d w o r k i n g t h r o u g h c o m m u n i t y a n d s e t t l e m e n t p l a n s , i n s t e a d o f a l l o w i n g e x t e n s i o n o n a l o t by l o t b a s i s l a c k i n g a n o v e r a l l v i e w ( 4 5 ) . G e n e r a l l y , a n y s u b d i v i s i o n 54 of ALR lands i s seen as d e t r i m e n t a l to the a g r i c u l t u r a l use of that land because a s e r i e s of small l o t s encourage s i m i l a r a c t i o n s over l a r g e r areas which tend to l i m i t a g r i c u l t u r a l o p t i o n s due to small p a r c e l s i z e (46). O f f i c i a l s e ttlement and community plans w i l l not be favourably c o n s i d e r e d i f the BCALC a d v i s e s the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s that they are not in keeping with the i n t e n t of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission Act (47). However, in some s i t u a t i o n s where e x i s t i n g developed areas or other lands are r e q u i r e d and s u i t a b l e f o r development and are not contiguous to m u n i c i p a l boundaries, the i n c l u s i o n of i n t e r v e n i n g ALR land to provide a r a t i o n a l boundary may be c o n s i d e r e d . Upon i n c l u s i o n of ALR lands w i t h i n a m u n i c i p a l boundary, a p p r o p r i a t e a g r i c u l t u r a l or resource area zoning that r e s t r i c t s r u r a l s u b d i v i s i o n and other non-farm uses must be a p p l i e d ('48). R e s t r i c t i o n s on a g r i c u l t u r a l uses are not p e r m i t t e d unless agreed to by the BCALC (49). 3.4 THE PRESENT BOUNDARY EXTENSION PROCESS 3.4.1 Procedures and G u i d e l i n e s Boundary e x t e n s i o n s occur i n many d i f f e r e n t s i z e s of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , i n d i f f e r e n t magnitudes, and w i t h i n a v a r i e t y of circumstances and reasons. P r e s e n t l y , boundary ex t e n s i o n s can be d i v i d e d i n t o two types: ( i ) simple boundary extensions f o r small areas to be taken i n ; and, ( i i ) r e s t r u c t u r i n g when m a j o r changes are to occur or i f the areas a r e r e l a t i v e l y autonomous. 55 T h i s - t h e s i s i s l i m i t e d t o an a n a l y s i s o f t h e s i m p l e m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r y e x t e n s i o n p r o c e s s . T h e p r o c e s s e s f o r b o t h a r e r e g u l a t e d b y t h e M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s t h r o u g h t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t a n d t h e M u n i c i p a l M a n u a l - t h e A c t p r o v i d i n g t h e l e g i s l a t i v e b a s e a n d t h e M a n u a l d e t a i l i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d p r o c e d u r a l c o n c e r n s . A . S i m p l e B o u n d a r y E x t e n s i o n s T h e e x t e n s i o n o f m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s , s e c t i o n 2 2 o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t o f 1 9 8 1 , m a y b e i n i t i a t e d b y e i t h e r a r e q u e s t f r o m t h e c o u n c i l t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s f o r a n e x t e n s i o n , o r t h e M i n i s t e r m a y n o t i f y t h e c o u n c i l t h a t h e i n t e n d s t o r e c o m m e n d a n e x t e n s i o n . T h e p r o c e d u r e s a n d g u i d e l i n e s f o r a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e M i n i s t e r f o r a n e x t e n s i o n a r e g i v e n i n S e c t i o n C o f t h e M u n i c i p a l M a n u a l ( 5 0 ) . T h e p r o p o s a l r e p o r t g u i d e l i n e s a r e s p e c i f i e d a s f o l l o w s ( 5 1 ) : " ( a ) H o w i s t h e l a n d c u r r e n t l y b e i n g u s e d ? I f u n d e v e l o p e d , w h a t t y p e o f d e v e l o p m e n t i s p l a n n e d f o r t h e a r e a ? ( b ) W i l l t h e p r o p o s a l r e q u i r e e x t e n s i o n o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s a n d a t w h a t c o s t t o t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ? A r e a l l p a r t s o f t h e e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e a b l e ? H a s C o u n c i l r e v i e w e d a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o p o s a l a n d g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o a n y i m p a c t f i n a n c i a l o r o t h e r w i s e on t h e p r e s e n t m u n i c i p a l i t y ? I f a n o f f i c i a l s e t t l e m e n t p l a n , c r e a t e d b y t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t , i s i n p l a c e i n t h e o u t s i d e a r e a , i t m a y c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n of v a l u e r e g a r d i n g any c o n s t r a i n t s o r c o n c e r n s d e t e c t e d by t h e r e g i o n a l b o a r d d u r i n g t h e p l a n s f o r m u l a t i o n . 56 (c) Have the property owners w i t h i n the extension area been canvassed with respect to the i n c l u s i o n of t h e i r proper w i t h i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y and are t h e i r views known to c o u n c i l ? (d) What i s the approximate p o p u l a t i o n in the extension area? (e) Are the people r e s i d i n g o u t s i d e the m u n i c i p a l i t y a v a i l i n g themselves of m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s ? If so, what s e r v i c e s are being p r o v i d e d ? " The c o u n c i l may proceed with a vote on the is s u e and must do so i f at l e a s t one-tenth of e l e c t o r s request i t w i t h i n t h i r t y days of the second and l a s t p u b l i c a t i o n of l e g a l n o t i c e . If the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s f e e l there are s u b s t a n t i a l negative f e e l i n g s to the proposed e x t e n s i o n by owners or tenants, and r e s i d e n t s of the proposed e x t e n s i o n area, he may d i c t a t e a s p e c i f i c form to the q u e s t i o n of assent (simple m a j o r i t y i s required) i n the e x t e n s i o n area to be submitted to him (su b s e c t i o n 22(4)). A l l unpaid taxes w i t h i n the e x t e n s i o n area become taxes due to the m u n i c i p a l i t y (52), the bylaws and r e s o l u t i o n s of the m u n i c i p a l i t y extend to the a d d i t i o n a l area unless a l t e r e d or repealed by the c o u n c i l (53), and, the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l , when i s s u i n g L e t t e r s Patent to extend or reduce and area, may impose a d d i t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s on the m u n i c i p a l i t y (54). There may a l s o be a d d i t i o n a l payment to the m u n i c i p a l i t y by the M i n i s t e r of Finance (55). The amount would be equal to the c u r r e n t year's taxes f o r the area of i n c l u s i o n i f the boundary extension i s e f f e c t i v e p r i o r to J u l y 1 or h a l f the amount where 57 the date i s a f t e r June 30. The amount s h a l l be pa i d in January f o l l o w i n g the year the taxes are l e v i e d or at another time deemed a p p r o p r i a t e by the M i n i s t e r of Finance. The procedures f o r munici p a l boundary extension are c l e a r l y set out in s i x c o n s e c u t i v e , dependent steps. F i r s t , the proposed ex t e n s i o n area, along surveyed l o t l i n e s , must be e s t a b l i s h e d . The M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s must be adv i s e d of the c o u n c i l ' s i n t e n t i o n s and reasons for the proposed extension i n a pr o p o s a l report format, the g u i d e l i n e s f o r which were d i s c u s s e d above. Secondly, no a d v e r t i s i n g i s to take p l a c e u n t i l the M i n i s t e r has reviewed and approved the pro p o s a l r e p o r t . T h i r d l y , the a p p r o p r i a t e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t should be informed and comments s o l i c i t e d from the Board. F o u r t h l y , the BCALC should be c o n t a c t e d and comments requested. F i f t h l y , d i r e c t i o n s f o r p u b l i s h i n g and c i r c u l a t i n g n o t i c e of the proposed extension are g i v e n . F i n a l l y , the m u n i c i p a l e l e c t o r s should agree to the e x t e n s i o n and the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s may d i r e c t a vote i n the extension area i f there i s some q u e s t i o n . B. R e s t r u c t u r i n g When a l t e r a t i o n s to e x i s t i n g boundaries are major or when autonomous areas are to be j o i n e d , there must be a r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the mu n i c i p a l government u n i t . The r e s t r u c t u r i n g process i s i n i t i a t e d by a r e s o l u t i o n from a m u n i c i p a l i t y to the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s r e q u e s t i n g a study on the s u b j e c t of r e s t r u c t u r i n g (56). When a m u n i c i p a l i t y has f r e q u e n t l y requested simple boundary extensions in the past, t h i s process i s i n i t i a t e d at the M i n i s t r y l e v e l to determine the 58 l o n g t e r m n e e d s o f t h e m u n i c i p a 1 i t y . a n d p e r h a p s r e s u l t i n a m o r e r a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h . W h i l e t h e r e a r e n o s p e c i f i c g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h i s r e p o r t , i n p r a c t i c e t h e r e p o r t s t e n d t o c o n c e n t r a t e o n s e r v i c i n g n e e d s a n d f e a s i b i l i t y a s w e l l a s f i s c a l i m p a c t s . T h e M i n i s t e r a p p o i n t s a c o m m i t t e e c o n s i s t i n g o f o n e p o l i t i c i a n f r o m e a c h o f t h e a r e a s u n d e r g o i n g r e s t r u c t u r e a n d o n e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f r o m t h e M i n i s t r y t o a c t a s a n i n t e r m e d i a r y w i t h a f f e c t e d g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s a t b o t h t h e f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s . I f t h e i n i t i a l r e p o r t i s v i e w e d a s f e a s i b l e b y t h e c o m m i t t e e a n d l o c a l e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s , t h e M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s a n d t h e l o c a l e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s d i r e c t t h e c o m m i t t e e t o p r o d u c e a n i n d e p t h r e p o r t . I f t h e i n d e p t h r e p o r t i s a g a i n s e e n a s f e a s i b l e , p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a n d e v e n t u a l l y a r e f e r e n d u m m a y b e r e q u i r e d . V e r y p o s i t i v e p u b l i c r e s p o n s e s a n d / o r a m a j o r i t y v o t e i n i t i a t e s t h e p r o c e s s f o r a p p l y i n g f o r L e t t e r s P a t e n t f o r t h e a p p r o v e d r e s t r u c t u r e . T h e n e w l y e x p a n d e d m u n i c i p a l i t y , a l o n g w i t h i t s n e w r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s m a y r e c e i v e l u m p s u m g r a n t s u n d e r t h e R e s t r u c t u r e A s s i s t a n c e P r o g r a m b a s e d o n t h e o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n a n d t h a t t a k e n i n . 5 9 CHAPTER 3 FOOTNOTES 1. Rawson and W i l l i a m s L t d . , Town Planners, Salmon Arm  Amalgamation Study, 1969, p. 2. 2. Donald J . H i g g i n s , Urban Canada: Government and P o l i t i c s , Toronto, Macmillan, 1977, pp. 35-36. 3. B.C. M u n i c i p a l Clauses Act, 1896. 4. B.C. M u n i c i p a l I n c o r p o r a t i o n Act Amendment Act, 1912, c.29, s.9. 5. B.C. Mun i c i p a l I n c o r p o r a t i o n Act, R.S.B.C. 1911, c.172, s. 13. 6. B.C. V i l l a g e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Act, R.S.B.C. 1920, c.65, s.2. 7. B.C. V i l l a q e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Act Amendment Act, 1925, c.38, s.2. 8. B.C. V i i l a q e Mun i c i p a l i t i e s Act Amendment Act, 1926, c.47, s. 3A. 9. B.C. M u n i c i p a l I n c o r p o r a t i o n Act Amendment Act, 1949, c.42, s.2. 10. Interview with John C a l l a n , M u n i c i p a l S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n , M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , October 18, 1983. 11. B.C. M u n i c i p a l A c t , R.S.B.C. 1957, c.42, S.18(7). 12. H.C. Goldenberg, B r i t i s h Columbia Royal Commission on  Provinc i a l Mun i c i p a l R e l a t ions, V i c t o r i a , McDiarmid, 1947 . 13. Union of Nova S c o t i a M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , M u n i c i p a l Amalgamation  and Annexation, Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y , The I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c A f f a i r s , J u l y 1959, p.5. 14. B.C. M u n i c i p a l Act, R.S.B.C.1960, c.255, S.19(3). 15. B.C. Mun i c i p a l Act Amendment Act, 1965, c.28, s.7(3). 16. B.C. Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s Annual Report, 1965, p. 8. 17. B.C. M u n i c i p a l Act, R.S.B.C. i960, c.255, s.616. 18. B.C. M u n i c i p a l Act Amendment Act, 1966, c.31, s.4. 20. Donald J . H i g g i n s , Op. c i t . , p. 153. 21. I b i d , p. 154. 22. C R . T i n d a l , S t r u c t u r a l Changes in L o c a l Government: 60 Government for Urban Regions, Toronto, I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Canada, 1977, p. 13. 23. B.C. Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , The Changing Face of  L o c a l Government, V i c t o r i a , The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1967, p. 3. 24. T.J. N i c h o l s o n , The Regional D i s t r i c t s of B.C., M.A. T h e s i s , School of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. , Vancouver, May 1974, p.22. 25. I b i d , p. 27. 26. B.C. M u n i c i p a l Department, S t a t i s t i e s R e l a t i n g to Regional  and Mun i c i p a l Governments, 1974, p. 7. 27. B.C. Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s Annual Report, 1967, p. 34. 28. Edward W. Manning and Sandra S. Eddy, The A g r i c u l t u r a l  Land Reserves of B.C.: An Impact A n a l y s i s , Environment Canada, Ottawa, 1978. 29. B.C. A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, Keeping the Opt ions  Open, Burnaby, 1975, p. 14. 30. E.W. Manning and S.S. Eddy, Op. c i t . 31. Mary Rawson, 111 Fares the Land, M i n i s t r y of State f o r Urban A f f a i r s , Ottawa, 1976. 32. I b i d . 33. A l i c e P h i l l i p s Graesser, Regulat ing Urban Enc roachment on  A g r i c u l t u r a l Land, M.A. T h e s i s , School of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., Vancouver, May 1981. 34. I b i d . 35. E.W. Manning and S.S. Eddy, Op. c i t . 36. I b i d . 37 . I b i d . 38. I b i d . 39. Mary Rawson, Op. c i t . , p. 28. 40. E.W. Manning and S.S. Eddy, Op. c i t . 41. J.T. P i e r c e , "The Land Conversion A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve", i n The R u r a l Beesley and Lome Russwurm, ( e d s . ) , Process -Urban York Within B.C.'s Fr inqe, K.B. U n i v e r s i t y , G e o g r a p h i c a l Monograph #10, 1981, pp. 314-324. 42. I b i d . 61 43. Mary Rawson, Op. c i t . 44. Correspondence from Barry Smith, B.C. A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission dated A p r i l 18, 1984. 45. B.C. A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, Boundary R e s t r u c t u r i n g  of Incorporated Areas and R e l a t i o n s h i p to the ALR, prepared f o r the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , 1983. 46. B.C. M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, A Guide to the Re l a t i o n s h i p Between  Agr i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves and L o c a l Government Plans and  Bylaws, V i c t o r i a , November 1982, p. 7. 47. I b i d , p. 3. 48. I b i d . 49. I b i d , p. 11. 50. B.C. M u n i c i p a l O f f i c e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , Munic i p a l Manual, Se c t i o n C, Boundary E x t e n s i o n s , August 1982, pp. 23-24. 51. I b i d , p. 23. 52. B.C. M u n i c i p a l Act, R.S.B.C.1981, c.290, s . 2 4 ( l ) . 53. I b i d , s.31. 54. I b i d , s.30. 55. I b i d , s.25( 1 ) , ( 2 ), (3) . 56. The whole of the r e s t r u c t u r i n g procedure was o u t l i n e d to the author d u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w with John C a l l a n , M u n i c i p a l S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n , M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , October 18, 1983 . THE CASE STUDIES 63 The case s t u d i e s were chosen by the procedures given in sect ion 1.4. Case study #1, the C i t y of W i l l i a m s Lake, e x p l o r e s the boundary e x t e n s i o n process, i t s procedures and g u i d e l i n e s when e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l areas are taken i n t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y . Case study #2, the Town of Gibsons, i d e n t i f i e s the issue of a g r i c u l t u r a l land ( i n t h i s case d e s i g n a t e d A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve) and i t s a f f e c t on municipal boundary e x t e n s i o n s . Case study #3, the V i l l a g e of F r a s e r Lake, d i s c u s s e s a boundary ex t e n s i o n to i n c l u d e an i n d u s t r i a l s i t e and the r e s u l t a n t problems and i m p l i c a t i o n s . A l l three case study areas are shown i n the p r o v i n c i a l context i n F i g u r e 1. n ( T O 1: THE CASE STUDIES IN PROVINCIAL CONTEXT 65 CHAPTER 4: THE CITY OF WILLIAMS LAKE, B.C. 6 6 CHAPTER 4j_ THE CITY OF WILLIAMS LAKE, B.C. The C i t y of Wiliams Lake i s l o c a t e d in the c e n t r a l - w e s t e r n p o r t i o n of the province of B.C. i n the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t ( Figure 2) and serves as the r e g i o n a l c e n t r e f o r a d i s p e r s e d populat i o n . 4.1 BACKGROUND 4.1.1 Settlement H i s t o r y Before 1860, much of the Cariboo was occupied by the S a l i s h a n Indians who e s t a b l i s h e d camps and v i l l a g e s throughout the area i n a t r a d i t i o n a l hunting and f i s h i n g — l i f e s t y l e ' . With the g o l d rush i n B.C. i n 1860, the supply p o i n t of Borland was e s t a b l i s h e d on the west s i d e of W i l l i a m s Lake and farming was i n i t i a t e d to p r o v i d e s u p p l i e s . In the l a t e 1800's, the Cariboo Wagon Road by-passed Borland and growth was a r r e s t e d . However, the P a c i f i c Great E a s t e r n Railway was b u i l t through Borland i n 1919. With a change of name to W i l l i a m s Lake, and as a convenient s h i p p i n g and supply l o c a t i o n , the area grew and was i n c o r p o r a t e d as a v i l l a g e on March 15, 1929. By the mid 1950's, some one hundred and f i f t y p o r t a b l e m i l l s were in res i d e n c e about W i l l i a m s Lake which c o n t i n u e d i t s r o l e as a s e r v i c e and shopping c e n t r e . On February 15, 1965 the V i l l a g e of W i l l i a m s Lake became the Town of W i l l i a m s Lake. On September 18, 1981 the Town of W i l l i a m s Lake was e l e v a t e d to c i t y s t a t u s . ZIGURE_2: THE WILLIAMS LAKE SUBREGION 6 8 4.1.2 The Economic Base W i l l i a m s Lake's economy i s based on the e x p l o i t a t i o n of primary resources - f o r e s t r y , a g r i c u l t u r e , and mining. The secondary s e c t o r i s predominantly dependent upon the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y f o r jobs i n the sawmills. There are s e v e r a l l a r g e m i l l complexes l o c a t e d i n W i l l i a m s Lake. Employment growth i n f o r e s t - b a s e d i n d u s t r i e s i s expected only due to d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of secondary i n d u s t r i e s due to present s u s t a i n e d maximum y i e l d c u t t i n g . The mining s e c t o r i s copper-based and due to r a p i d l y f l u c t u a t i n g p r i c e s and the r e l a t i v e l y low grade ore, more growth i s not expected in t h i s i n d u s t r y . A g r i c u l t u r e c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y of beef c a t t l e ranching on unimproved n a t i v e g r a s s l a n d s p r e s e n t l y being u t i l i z e d near c a p a c i t y . 4.1.3 The Demoqraphic Base The Age and Sex P r o f i l e shown in F i g u r e 3 c l e a r l y d e f i n e s the young p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of W i l l i a m s Lake. There are p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more young f a m i l i e s and fewer people over 50 in the community compared to the p r o v i n c e as a whole. The average household s i z e of 3.3 persons i s higher than the p r o v i n c i a l average due to the young c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the populat i o n . P o p u l a t i o n growth i n the region i s expected to slow s u b s t a n t i a l l y as the a b i l i t y to c r e a t e new employment in the e x i s t i n g f o r e s t y , a g r i c u l t u r a l , and mining resources i s l i m i t e d . 90+ 85-89 80-84 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 B r i t i s h Columbia \NSSj Williams Lake Subregion FIGURE 3: 1981 Age and Sex P r o f i l e : Williams Lake Subregion Source: S t a t i s t i c s Canada 70 4.1.4 Land Use Planning i s not new i n the W i l l i a m s Lake subregion. In the c i t y , the f i r s t p lan was prepared i n 1966. The " O u t l i n e Development P l a n " p r o v i d e d a b a s i c framework f o r g u i d i n g f u t u r e growth w i t h i n the c i t y . I t was superseded in 1973 by the "Long Range Development Pl a n " , which was approved as a p o l i c y document and has guided the c o u n c i l ' s development d e c i s i o n s . In e a r l y 1979 the O f f i c i a l Community Plan was passed i n t o law. The f i r s t p lan prepared i n the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t in 1971 provided g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e s and p o l i c i e s to encourage new growth. An urban f r i n g e zoning bylaw was i n i t i a t e d i n 1975 to regulate land use in the many communities adjacent to W i l l i a m s Lake. The Wiliams Lake v a l l e y area i s occupied by urban development b o r d e r i n g the lake and extending northward. There are a number of ribbon s e t t l e m e n t s adjacent to the major area roads. The p l a t e a u areas, some 275 metres above the v a l l e y , are reached by steep s l o p e s g e n e r a l l y exceeding 30%. The t y p i c a l area c l i m a t e i n c l u d e s warm, dry summers and c o l d , dry w i n t e r s . R e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s i n the W i l l i a m s Lake subregion take up the m a j o r i t y of land in urban use. Lot s i z e s and s e r v i c e s vary s u b s t a n t i a l l y between the many developed p e r i p h e r a l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . The approximate are area of each land use (under the zoning bylaw) i s given i n Table 11 below. 7 1 T A B L E I I : ' 1 9 7 8 L A N D U S E B Y Z O N I N G I N W I L L I A M S L A K E , B . C . * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Z O N E * D E S C R I P T I O N * A R E A * * H e c t a r e s * % o f * * * t o t a l * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * A - 1 * A c r e a g e ( 2 h a m i n ) * 9 7 7 * 5 0 . 0 R - 1 * S i n g l e F a m i l y R e s i d e n t i a l * 1 6 6 * 8 . 5 R - 2 * T w o F a m i l y R e s i d e n t i a l * 2 7 * 1 . 4 ' R - 3 , - 4 * M u l t i - F a m i l y R e s i d e n t i a l * 2 4 * 1 . 2 R - 5 * M o b i l e H o m e R e s i d e n t i a l * 1 1 * 0 . 6 c-1 * T o w n C e n t r e C o m m e r c i a l * 2 2 * 1.. 1 C - 2 , - 3 * N e i g h b o u r h o o d C o m m e r c i a l * 2 * 0 . 1 C S - 1 , - 2 * S e r v i c e C o m m e r c i a l * 2 6 * 1 . 3 C S - 3 * H i g h w a y C o m m e r c i a l * 9 * 0 . 5 M - 1 * L i g h t I n d u s t r i a l * 4 7 * 2 . 4 M - 2 * H e a v y I n d u s t r i a l * 3 8 0 * 1 9 . 4 P - 1 * C i v i c a n d I n s t i t u t i o n a l * 6 2 * 3 . 1 P - 2 * R e c r e a t i o n , P a r k s , O p e n S p a c e * 2 0 3 * 1 0 . 4 T O T A L * 1 9 5 6 * 1 0 0 . 0 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * S o u r c e : C i t y o f W i l l i a m s L a k e , B u i l d i n g D e p a r t m e n t . M o s t o f t h e 1 9 7 8 r e s i d e n t i a 1 l y z o n e d p r o p e r t y i n t h e t h e n T o w n o f W i l l i a m s L a k e h a d b e e n a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y d e v e l o p e d . I t w a s e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e a v a i l a b l e v a c a n t l o t s i n 1 9 7 8 c o u l d h a n d l e o n l y two y e a r s o f p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h . 72 4.2 INCORPORATION AND BOUNDARY EXTENSIONS The C i t y of Williams Lake has undergone one r e i n c o r p o r a t i o n and eleven boundary extensions which are summarized i n Table III and shown on F i g u r e 4. TABLE I I I : INCORPORATIONS AND BOUNDARY EXTENSIONS OF WILLIAMS LAKE * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * YEAR * STATUS * AREA * POPULATION * * Before Added A f t e r *Before Added A f t e r ***************************************************************** 1 982 * c i t y * 2261 .89 208. 49 2470 . 38 * 9548 5 1 4 1 0062 1 981 * town * 1 986 .8 275. 09 2261 . 89 * 6398 1 1 83 9548 1 980 * town * 1 978 .94 7 . 93 1 986. 87 * 6256 1 42 6398 1 979 * town * 1 955 .81 8. 74 1 964. 55 * 6249 2 6251 1 979 * town * 1 964 .55 14. 39 1 978. 94 * 6251 5 6257 1 977 * town * 1 527 .0 437 . 70 1 964. 7 * 61 99 50 6249 1 974 * town * 1514 . 5 12. 5 1 527 . 0 * 4072 32 41 04 1 970 * town * 7 97 .6 716. 9 1514. 5 * 3592 34 3626 1 969 * town * 546 . 3 251 . 3 797 . 6 * 3592 0 3592 1 967 * town * 480 .7 65. 6 546. 3 * 3167 425 3592 1 957 * v i l l a g e * .1 39 . 4 341 . 3 480. 7 * 1 790 1 18 1 908 1 953 * v i l l a g e * 1 36 . 4 3. 0 1 39. 4 * (a) (a) (a) 1 929 * v i l l a g e * 0 1 36. 4 1 36. 4 * 0 (a) (a) ***************************************************************** Source: B.C. M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s (a) F i g u r e s not a v a i l a b l e . 4.2.1 Incorporat ion On March 15, 1929 the Borland s e r v i c e area l o c a t e d on the west s i d e of W i l l i a m s Lake was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the V i l l a g e of Wil l i a m s Lake with a t o t a l area of 136.3 h e c t a r e s . o o oooo© e 9 9 9 O © ©CP O » o o « e e c i t? wmmf&o * t>0 t loc*e>Oec K><j> f O O f C Iffffffffflf 74 4.2.2 The 1953 Extension On December 23, 1953 two separate p a r c e l s of land, one about 2.8 hec. and the other about 0.2 hec. were added to the v i l l a g e . The p a r c e l s were l o c a t e d on the south and south-west edges of the lake where i n d u s t r y (mainly f o r e s t - r e l a t e d ) was s t a r t i n g to develop. The e x t e n s i o n was at the request of the owners. 4.2.3 The 1957 Extension In a move to gain c o n t r o l of d e v e l o p i n g i n d u s t r i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s , the v i l l a g e extended i t s boundaries on A p r i l 18 to i n c l u d e an a d d i t i o n a l 326.3 hec. of land and 15.0 hec. of land covered by water, i n c l u d i n g 118 r e s i d e n t s . The j u r i s d i c t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e of the v i l l a g e was i n c r e a s e d n e a r l y three and one-half times. 4.2.4 The 1967 Extension Already e l e v a t e d to town s t a t u s (February 15, 1965), W i l l i a m s Lake moved'to include s e r v i c e and highway commercial lands f r o n t i n g Highway 97 i n c l u d i n g a s s o c i a t e d ribbon r e s i d e n t i a l development. 4.2.5 The 1969 Extension, T h i s extension c o n s i s t e d of a set of s i x separate p a r c e l s under four separate a p p l i c a t i o n s t o t a l l i n g 251.3 hec. The l a r g e s t p o r t i o n of the t o t a l e x t e n s i o n was g e n e r a l l y vacant, with some a g r i c u l t u r a l uses ( g r a z i n g ) near the extreme north-west corner of the municipal boundary. The land was e a s i l y 75 s e r v i c e d , near the railway, and s u i t a b l e f o r the p r o j e c t e d expansion of i n d u s t r y in Wi l l i a m s Lake. The remaining p a r c e l s were vacant and designated r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial s i t e s . A l a r g e r e s i d e n t i a l area on the north edge of the town, south-west of the Ca r i b o o Highway (No. 97) was a n a t u r a l extension f o r the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s . However, the one l o t a d d i t i o n on the e a s t e r n town boundary only added to the c o n f u s i n g and complicated shape of the boundary. There were no a d d i t i o n a l r e s i d e n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s e x t e n s i o n . 4.2.6 The 1970 Exte n s i o n The Town of Wi l l i a m s Lake s t i l l d e s i r e d a d d i t i o n a l i n d u s t r i a l lands that were s e r v i c e a b l e f o r f u t u r e expansion. On June 9, 1970 approximately 668 hec. of land and 49.1 hec. of land covered by water were i n c l u d e d i n the town. The land was s i t u a t e d on the north-western corner of the town a d j a c e n t to the railway and on the southern p o r t i o n west of the lake and south of the W i l l i a m s Lake R i v e r . A l l the e x t e n s i o n a r e a , e x c e p t i n g a p a r c e l on the south s i d e of the r i v e r was desig n a t e d an i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s i t e pursuant to s u b s e c t i o n (3) of s e c t i o n 12 of the Munic i p a l Act of 1965. A s i t e so d e s i g n a t e d c o u l d not be charged the c o s t s of s e r v i c i n g and would have to p r o v i d e needed s e r v i c e s themselves. In t h i s s p e c i f i c case, i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s on these d e s i g n a t e d s i t e s would pay no b u s i n e s s tax u n t i l January 1976, the maximum rate of t a x a t i o n c o u l d n ' t exceed one-f i f t h of the a n n u a l l y e x i s t i n g tax r a t e s , no other bylaw or r e g u l a t i o n of the c o u n c i l , with the e x c l u s i o n . of r e g u l a t i o n s 76 a f f e c t i n g p o l l u t i o n , c o u l d r e s t r i c t p l a n t s on the i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s . While the m a j o r i t y of t h i s land was p a r t i a l l y e x t e n s i v e l y developed i t was hoped that more inte n s e i n d u s t r i a l development would ensue. On December 11, 1973 the i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s i t e d e s i g n a t i o n was d e l e t e d from the L e t t e r s Patent of the m u n i c i p a l i t y . 4.2.7 The 1974 Extension On December 4, 1974 two r e s i d e n t i a l areas were taken i n t o the town of 0.4 hec. and 12.1 hec. The f i r s t was by a p p l i c a t i o n of the owner r e q u e s t i n g i n c l u s i o n to gain m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s to develop h i s p r o p e r t y . The second p a r c e l was a small a l r e a d y s u b d i v i d e d r e s i d e n t i a l development r e c e i v i n g water s e r v i c e s from the m u n i c i p a l i t y . The Town of W i l l i a m s Lake now had a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l area of some 1462.9 hec. of land and 64.1 hec. of land covered by water. 4.2.8 The 1977 Extension R e f e r r e d to as the Westside e x t e n s i o n , the town i n c l u d e d two p a r c e l s combining to t o t a l 429.7 hec. The land taken i n was mainly vacant. 4.2.9 The 1979 Extensions There were two separate issuances of supplementary L e t t e r s Patent f o r the Town of W i l l i a m s Lake i n 1979 due to boundary e x t e n s i o n s . The f i r s t on March 15 to add 8.74 hec. to the town at the request of the owner to gain m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s . 77 The second extension of 14.39 hec. c o n s i s t e d of three separate owner a p p l i c a t i o n s mainly f o r the purposes of rezoning for f u t u r e r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial development. 4.2.10 The 1980 Extension On October 8, 1980 the Town of W i l l i a m s Lake was again extended to i n c l u d e a 7.93 hec. area, the major p o r t i o n of which was made up of s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l d w e l l i n g s with other minimal uses being commercial and l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l . T h i s e x t e n s i o n was part of an o r i g i n a l request i n 1978. An area survey i n d i c a t e d t h at only two of the twenty-two area owners were a g a i n s t the p r o p o s a l . 4.2.1 1 The 1981 Reincorporat ion R e a l i z i n g the r a p i d and coninuous flow of boundary ex t e n s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s from W i l l i a m s Lake, the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s suggested a r e s t r u c t u r e study to pr o v i d e the town with a longer term planning view. The f i r s t phase was the suggested r e i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the Town of W i l l i a m s Lake and the Glendale Improvement D i s t r i c t on the north-western boundary of the m u n i c i p a l i t y . The r e s i d e n t i a l p o r t i o n of Glendal e was r e c e i v i n g both water and sewerage s e r v i c e s from the m u n i c i p a l i t y . On September 18, the C i t y of W i l l i a m s Lake was formed by the j o i n t r e i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the Town of W i l l i a m s Lake and the Glendale Improvement D i s t r i c t . The new L e t t e r s Patent s p e c i f i e d that the new c i t y c o u n c i l would c o n s i s t of one mayor and eig h t aldermen with a quorum being f i v e . One alderman must be from 78 G l e n d a l e a n d s i t o n c o u n c i l f o r a one y e a r t e r m a f t e r w h i c h a l l a l d e r m e n w e r e t o b e e l e c t e d a t l a r g e . 4 . 2 . 1 2 T h e 1 9 8 2 E x t e n s i o n B y 1 9 8 2 a f i r m a d d i t i o n a l t h r e e p h a s e p l a n o f b o u n d a r y e x t e n s i o n s f o r t h e c i t y w a s r e c e i v e d . T h e f i r s t p h a s e r e c o m m e n d e d i n c l u s i o n o f a p o r t i o n o f t h e N o r t h • L a k e s i d e a r e a w h i c h w a s a l r e a d y r e c e i v i n g m u n i c i p a l w a t e r s e r v i c e s . P h a s e 2 w a s t h e S o u t h L a k e s i d e a r e a w h i c h p r o v i d e d i t s o w n s e r v i c e s . P h a s e 3 w a s a n o t h e r p o r t i o n o f N o r t h L a k e s i d e f u r t h e r e a s t t h a n P h a s e 1 . N o t i m e f r a m e w a s s u g g e s t e d a s t h e f e a s i b i l i t y w a s d e p e n d e n t u p o n s e r v i c e e x t e n s i o n i n t h e l a t t e r t w o p h a s e s w h i c h , i n t u r n , w a s d e p e n d e n t u p o n e i t h e r r e s t r u c t u r i n g m o n i e s o r o t h e r g r a n t s f r o m t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t . O n A u g u s t 2 0 , 1 9 8 2 P h a s e 1 ( N o r t h L a k e s i d e ) w a s i n c l u d e d i n t h e C i t y ' s - b o u n d a r i e s . I t c o m p r i s e d s o m e 1 1 8 . 8 7 h e c . o f l a n d a n d 8 9 . 6 2 h e c . o f f o r e s h o r e a n d l a k e w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f 5 1 4 . 4 . 2 . 1 3 T h e 1 9 8 3 E x t e n s i o n I n m i d - 1 9 8 2 a n e x t e n s i o n p r o p o s a l w a s i n i t i a t e d f r o m r e s i d e n t s i n t h e T o o p R o a d a r e a o n t h e n o r t h - e a s t e r n m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r y . A n o l d e r s u b d i v i s i o n o f 1 6 . 1 9 h e c . , m o s t o f t h e l a n d w a s a n o l d e r r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f a b o u t 270 a n d r e c e i v i n g m u n i c i p a l w a t e r s e r v i c e s . T h e l o t s w e r e s m a l l and t h e a r e a h a d a h i g h r e l a t i v e d e n s i t y r e s u l t i n g i n s e w a g e p r o b l e m s . At a U t i l i t y C o m m i t t e e m e e t i n g on J a n u a r y 26, . 1982 i n W i l l i a m s L a k e , t h e M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h r e q u e s t e d t h a t t h e c i t y 79 proceed with an a p p l i c a t i o n to annex the Toop Road a r e a . There was an urgent need for a s a n i t a r y sewer system which c o u l d be e a s i l y extended from the m u n i c i p a l i t y . The c i t y h e s i t a t e d given the recent completion of the r e s t r u c t u r i n g study, but s e v e r a l key elements remained o u t s t a n d i n g : (1) i n c l u s i o n of t h i s area would r e s u l t i n the e a s t e r n side of Highway 97 f a l l i n g under on j u r i s d i c t i o n which would f a c i l i t a t e planning along the highway and produce a more r a t i o n a l municipal boundary; (2) the r e s t r u c t u r e study had brought f o r t h the o p i n i o n that while incremental extensions shouldn't be the r u l e , to b r i n g under c o n t r o l f r i n g e developments the s i t u a t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e d that approach in some areas; (3) the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s had no o b j e c t i o n s . On March 17, 1983 the Toop Road area was i n c l u d e d in the C i t y of W i l l i a m s Lake. 4.2.14 Current S t a t u s A combination of the o v e r a l l r e c e s s i o n , the u n c e r t a i n t y of s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t types of funding from the p r o v i n c e , and the slowed growth i n the W i l l i a m s Lake r e g i o n has r e s u l t e d i n Phase 2 and 3 of the r e s t r u c t u r e study being put on h o l d i n d e f i n i t e l y . No f u r t h e r e x t e n s i o n s are contemplated i n the near f u t u r e . 4.3 SYNTHESIS The reasons behind i n i t i a t i o n of i n c o r p o r a t i o n proceedings 80 for W i l l i a m s Lake and i t s economic base both h e l p to f u r t h e r d e f i n e the s p a t i a l demands of the a r e a . The i n i t i a l draw of the area was i t s c a p a b i l i t y as a major s e r v i c e c e n t r e . With l i m i t e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o p t i o n s i n the e a r l y 1900's, r u r a l r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t l e m e n t s tended to c l u s t e r near s e r v i c e areas. While s e v e r a l s m a l l e r c e n t e r s evolved, W i l l i a m s Lake remained c e n t r a l mainly due to i n f l u e n c e by Highway 16 and the B r i t i s h Columbia Railway. Ribbon settlement c o n t i n u e d along the major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routes and many s p a t i a l l y d i s p e r s e d r e s i d e n t i a l developments o c c u r r e d . The growing f o r e s t based economy in the p r o v i n c e a f t e r World War II g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d the W i l l i a m s Lake r e g i o n . The labour f o r c e was r e l a t i v e l y t r a n s i e n t , younger, and had a higher average household s i z e compared to the p r o v i n c e as a whole. E a r l y boundary e x t e n s i o n s , e x c l u d i n g s m a l l e r p a r c e l s brought i n at the owner's request, were mainly to take in developed p r o p e r t i e s (1957, 1967). With the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a general area plan in l a t e 1966, which p o i n t e d to the small amounts of a v a i l a b l e land i n the town a v a i l a b l e f o r growth, the emphasis of boundary extensions was a l t e r e d . The 1969 and 1970 e x t e n s i o n s took in undeveloped or only p a r t i a l l y developed lands to s a t i s f y f u t u r e i n d u s t r i a l and commercial needs of the town. About t h i s time the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t brought in a plan (1971) concerning g u i d e l i n e s f o r new growth in the r u r a l areas, but d i d n ' t emphasize problems with f r i n g e development at W i l l i a m s Lake. With the adoption of a Long Range Development Plan in 1973, b a s i c a l l y a p o l i c y document for use by the c o u n c i l , e xtensions 8 1 to the town proceeded on a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t course - the taking in of r e s i d e n t i a l lands, many of which had been r e c e i v i n g municipal s e r v i c e s (1974, 1977, 1979(2), 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983) ( 1 ) . In 1979 an O f f i c i a l Community Plan was completed and adopted f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y but i t was p a r t of a su b r e g i o n a l plan and d i d not address the q u e s t i o n of f u t u r e land use l o c a t i o n s o u t s i d e of the then m u n i c i p a l boundary and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to p o s s i b l e boundary e x t e n s i o n s . Due to t h i s d e f i c i t and the frequency of ext e n s i o n requests from W i l l i a m s Lake c o u n c i l , the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s completed a r e s t r u c t u r e study c o n t a i n i n g f i r m suggestions f o r fut u r e municipal growth. The 1981 r e i n c o r p o r a t i o n and the 1982 boundary e x t e n s i o n were two of four steps recommended. In 1 9 8 3 , the Toop Road area was i n c l u d e d in the c i t y by s p e c i a l circumstances that were not c o n s i d e r e d on such a small s c a l e d u r i n g the r e s t r u c t u r e study. The c i t y , the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t , and the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s a l l recommended the extension proceed. O v e r a l l , i t seems the c i t y w i l l probably continue on the path set out f o r i t in the r e s t r u c t u r e study b a r r i n g e x c e p t i o n a l small cases. Many of the previous boundary extensions produced an i r r e g u l a r m u n i c i p a l boundary, but t h i s p o i n t was never pressed from the M i n i s t r y l e v e l . While an O f f i c i a l Community Plan was i n p l a c e , a r e s t r u c t u r e study was s t i l l r e q u i r e d to fu r t h e r d e f i n e long term needs in the ar e a . No procedures or g u i d e l i n e s f o r f u t u r e growth beyond the p e r i o d of the r e s t r u c t u r e study were given. 82 The C i t y of W i l l i a m s Lake and the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t have a l s o been somewhat at odds. The c i t y f e e l s that r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s would best be served i f c i t y i n f i l l o c c u r r e d and f r i n g e r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n s were d i s c o u r a g e d . The Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t , while r e c o g n i z i n g problems at the urban f r i n g e , want to assure f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s the c h o i c e between s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of taxes and s e r v i c e s r e c e i v e d . 83 CHAPTER 4 FOOTNOTES 1. In 1978, i t had been estimated that the e x i s t i n g boundaries would only accommodate two years more p o p u l a t i o n - growth. Interview with K e l l y Roth, B u i l d i n g I n s p e c t o r , A p r i l 17, 1984. 84 CHAPTER 5: THE TOWN OF GIBSONS, B.C. 85 CHAPTER 5j_ THE TOWN OF GIBSONS , B.C. The Town of Gibsons in the Sunshine Coast Regional D i s t r i c t i s l o c a t e d some f o r t y k i l o m e t e r s from Vancouver as shown in Fi g u r e 5. The combination of sunny, dry summers and m i l d , almost snow-free winters has given support to the p o p u l a r i z e d name of the 'Sunshine Coast'. 5.1 BACKGROUND 5.1.1 Settlement H i s t o r y Blown o f f course on a t r i p to Vancouver from Vancouver I s l a n d in a small s a i l b o a t , George Gibson and h i s two sons stayed the night in a small bay o f f Keats' I s l a n d . The next morning, May 24, 1886, they c r o s s e d to a headland area where George l a i d c l a i m to D i s t r i c t Lot (DL) 686 and George J r . to DL685 (1). By 1892, i f a c i r c l e were drawn along the f r i n g e s of a l l the pre-emptions c e n t r e d at George Gibson's home, i t would have formed a h a l f - c i r c l e with a radius of about 4.5 k i l o m e t r e s (2). Logging and f i s h i n g p r o v i d e d an economic base. In 1906 a s l a s h c l e a r i n g f i r e from the n o r t h - e a s t swept the area. "While i t destroyed much timber, t h i s f i r e d i d h e l p c l e a r the land for a g r i c u l t u r a l use. New f a m i l i e s then came to farm. The major crops were b e r r i e s , canned i n the area as Four Square Brand and marketed through W.H. Malkin Co. L t d . However, a combination of low p r i c e s , f r o s t damage, and p e s t s r e s u l t e d in t o t a l shutdown at the end of World War I I . " (3) 86 FIGURE 5; THE REGIONAL VIEW OF GIBSONS 87 In 1929 the V i l l a g e of Gibson's Landing was i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n the boundaries of DL686. The area continued to develop c o n s t r a i n e d along the c o a s t l i n e due to mountainous topography. C a r - f e r r y s e r v i c e to Gibsons Landing was i n i t i a t e d i n 1951 while the r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n was about 5000 persons. Two s i x t y car f e r r i e s were introduced in 1954, an e i g h t y - c a r f e r r y i n 1963, a two hundred-car f e r r y i n 1977, and an over three hundred-car f e r r y i n 1982. 5.1.2 The Economic Base The three b a s i c i n d u s t r i e s on the Sunshine Coast are a l l h i g h l y seasonal - f o r e s t r y , f i s h i n g , and tourism. The f o r e s t r y i n d u s t r y p r o v i d e s the economic backbone of the region and i s c e n t r e d on the Port Mellon m i l l east of Gibsons. Growth in t h i s s e c t o r has been h a l t e d due to d e c r e a s i n g worldwide demand for pulp products, a d e c r e a s i n g amount of usable f o r e s t stands in the area, and labour-management problems. S i m i l a r l y the commercial f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y has been dessimated due to d e p l e t e d f i s h stock and r e s u l t i n g l y short f i s h i n g seasons. No s i g n i f i c a n t change in t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s expected through the medium term. The tourism market has two b a s i c elements: the retirement i n d u s t r y and the summer r e c r e a t i o n a l s e c t o r . However, given the c u r r e n t r e c e s s i o n a r y economic trends and the r e s t r a i n t measures imposed on the f e r r y system, i n c r e a s e s in tourism w i l l be minimal i f at a l l p r e s e n t . The small a g r i c u l t u r a l base in the region e x i s t s mainly on the r e l a t i v e l y f e r t i l e s o i l s along a c o a s t a l p l a i n b e t w e e n the Town of Gibsons and the V i l l a g e of S e c h e l t (4). A narrow s t r i p 88 of some 25 k i l o m e t r e s long and s e v e r a l k i l o m e t r e s wide has r e s t r i c t e d farm s i z e to g e n e r a l l y l e s s than 10 a c r e s . Small f r u i t growing, vegetable gardening, and p o u l t r y r a i s i n g are the most common a c t i v i t i e s . 5.1.3 The Demographic Base The Town of Gibsons has tended to have a s l i g h t l y o l d e r p o p u l a t i o n base then B.C. as a whole as w e l l as an expected sma l l e r average household s i z e . Between 1961 and 1971, the average annual p o p u l a t i o n growth r a t e was 6.8%, f a l l i n g to 1.1% between 1971 and 1976, and r i s i n g s l i g h t l y to 1.5% annually between 1976 and 1981. In the same time frame, the Sunshine Coast Regional D i s t r i c t experienced growth r a t e s of 3.3%, 4.6% and 3.9%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . E l e c t o r a l Area E, which borders the town, experienced even more s u b s t a n t i a l growth r a t e s of 8.7% an n u a l l y between 1971 and 1976, and 7.7% a n n u a l l y between 1976 and 1981. 5.1.4 Land Use Land use in the Town of Gibsons has been mainly r e s i d e n t i a l . Many l o t s , e s p e c i a l l y along the w a t e r f r o n t , are occupied by more than one h a b i t a b l e s t r u c t u r e . O r i g i n a l summer cot t a g e s are now occupied on a year round b a s i s . Commercial expansion in the bay area of Gibsons i s l i m i t e d due to steep topography, inadequate p a r k i n g , and l e s s than i d e a l a v a i l a b l e l o c a t i o n s . As a r e s u l t commercial development s i n c e the 1960's has been c e n t r e d on a high p l a t e a u area above the bay and has continued to spread along Highway 101 to S e c h e l t . Table IV d e t a i l s the land uses in Gibsons i n 1981. 89 TABLE IV: 1981 LAND USE BY ZONING: GIBSONS ZONE AREA 1 Developed Undeveloped Total 1 ha. Percent ha. Percent ha. I RESIDENTIAL R-l 28.7 44.4 36.0 55.6 64.7 R-2 36.3 78.0 10.0 21.9 46.3 R-3* 27.6 46.0 33.2 54.0 60.8 R-4 - 19.0 100.0 19.0 RM-1 3.4 57.0 2.6 43.0 6.0 RM-2 0.2 9.0 2.1 91.0 2.3 SUB-TOTAL 96.2 48.5 102.9 51.5 199.1 COMMERCIAL C-l 9.6 82.5 2.1 17.5 11.7 C-2 1.1 60.8 .7 39.2 1.8 C-3 .6 100.0 - - .6 C-4 .3 67.0 .2 33.0 .5 SUB-TOTAL 11.6 80.0 3.0 20.0 INDUSTRIAL (Sub-Total) 1.9 28.0 4.9 72.0 6.8 TOTAL 109.6 49.7 110.7 50.3 220.3 Source: Planning Data Base Study, Town of Gibsons, December 1981. * Excludes 44.5 ha. of ALR lard within R-3 Zone Undeveloped land refers to vacant land, as well as land being used for a purpose other than for which i t is zoned. 90 5.2 INCORPORATION AND BOUNDARY EXTENSIONS The Town of Gibsons has experienced four boundary e x t e n s i o n s which are summarized in Table V and shown on F i g u r e 6. TABLE V: INCORPORATION AND BOUNDARY EXTENSIONS OF GIBSONS *************************************** YEAR * STATUS * AREA * POPULATION * * Before Added A f t e r *Before Added A f t e r ***************************************************************** 1 982 * v i l l a g e * 477. 1 20. 86 497. 92 * 2076 1 0 2086 1 976 * v i l l a g e * 451 . 0 26 . 1 477 . 1 * 1 934 2 1 936 1 969 * v i l l a g e * 203. 3 247. 7 451 . 0 * 1 450 244 1 694 1 950 * v i 1 l a g e * 20. 4 182. 9 203. 3 * 1015 85 1 1 00 1 929 * v i l l a g e * 0 20. 4 20. 4 * 0 305 305 ***************************************************************** Source: B.C. M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s 5.2.1 Incorpora t i on On March 4, 1929 DL 686 was i n c o r p o r a t e d as the V i l l a g e of Gibson's Landing with a t o t a l area of 20.4 hec. T h i s DL was the o r i g i n a l pre-emption of George Gibson and i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l homes, a l o c a l s t o r e , an assembly h a l l , and a wharf. 91 FIGURE 6: INCORPORATION AND BOUNDARY EXTENSIONS OF GIBSONS 92 5.2.2 The 1950 Extension On October 20, 1950 George Gibson J r . ' s o r i g i n a l pre-emption, DL 685, was i n c l u d e d in the v i l l a g e . T h i s was a n a t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n t o e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l areas with water s e r v i c e s a l r e a d y being s u p p l i e d to a p o r t i o n by the v i l l a g e . The p l e b i s c i t e was s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n favour of the e x t e n s i o n . 5.2.3 The 1969 Extension In an extremely l a r g e extension of some 248 hec., more than the p r e v i o u s s i z e of the v i l l a g e , Gibsons Landing expanded on June 17, 1969 i n a l l p o s s i b l e landward d i r e c t i o n s . Topography and the l a r g e amount of r e s i d e n t i a l development i n the previous v i l l a g e area had r e s t r i c t e d f u t u r e commercial and i n d u s t r i a l growth which was o c c u r r i n g on the upper p l a t e a u area, o u t s i d e the v i l l a g e boundaries. The area taken i n was b a s i c a l l y .of r u r a l r e s i d e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r with ribbon commercial and l i m i t e d i n d u s t r i a l development along Highway 101. 5.2.4 The 1976 Extension There was much d i s c u s s i o n p r e v i o u s to the 1976 boundary e x t e n s i o n . In l a t e 1975 and e a r l y 1976 a committee of c i t i z e n s from Gibsons and the adjacent R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t areas E and F completed a f i s c a l a n a l y s i s on the f e a s i b i l i t y of the three areas j o i n i n g to form one d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y ( 6 ) . P o l i c i n g and road c o s t s were i d e n t i f i e d as the most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s in the a n a l y s i s . The r e s u l t s of the study i n d i c a t e d that while a l l three areas would b e n e f i t , the b e n e f i t s would be g r e a t e r to the two e l e c t o r a l areas than f o r the v i l l a g e . The study was a p p a r e n t l y forwarded to V i c t o r i a f o r f u r t h e r comment. 93 Organized o p p o s i t i o n was vehemently put forward by the E l p h i n s t o n e E l e c t o r s A s s o c i a t i o n , a p o l i t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d community group from e l e c t o r a l area E. Apparently s u b s t a n t i a l numbers of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t r e s i d e n t s d i s l i k e d what they f e l t was an ' e m p i r e - b u i l d i n g ' a t t i t u d e by the v i l l a g e given the low f e a s i b i l i t y of s e r v i c e extension to much of e l e c t o r a l area F and some of area E ( 7 ) . The f e a s i b i l i t y of a d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t y format was.then shelved as being p o l i t i c a l l y untenable at that time. In l a t e J u l y of 1976, a p r o p o s a l f o r a f u r t h e r and s u b s t a n t i a l l y a l t e r e d proposed boundary e x t e n s i o n was put forward by the V i l l a g e of Gibsons. I t was a b a s i c ' u m b i l i c a l ' extension i n an attempt to gain the p o s s i b l e tax revenue from the Port Mellon m i l l s i t e some 20 k i l o m e t r e s d i s t a n t ( 8 ) . The M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s d i d not look with favour upon t h i s type of boundary ex t e n s i o n and f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e to the p o s s i b i l i t y was s t i f l e d . On December 22, 1976 a p r e v i o u s l y undiscussed 26.2 hec. extension was taken i n t o the v i l l a g e . At a Sunshine Coast Regional D i s t r i c t meeting on November 26, 1976 the V i l l a g e of Gibsons a d v i s e d the Board that the proposed 26.2 hec. boundary extension to i n c l u d e ALR lands would i n c l u d e a guarantee from the v i l l a g e that the a g r i c u l t u r a l land would remain in the ALR. The m a j o r i t y of D i r e c t o r s voted agreement to E l e c t o r a l Area E's o b j e c t i o n to the ALR p o r t i o n of the l o t s being annexed to Gibsons. F e e l i n g s of i l l w i l l and m i s t r u s t were evident between the Regional D i s t r i c t and the v i l l a g e . The l o t by l o t expansion by 94 the v i l l a g e was seen as a lack of f o r e s i g h t and p l a n n i n g . However, another wrinkle soon developed with t h i s s p e c i f i c e x t e n s i o n . Apparently though the m a j o r i t y of owners in the extended area had i n d i c a t e d t h e i r d e s i r e to j o i n the v i l l a g e , one p r o p e r t y owner whose land was s i t u a t e d between a few of the p r o - e x t e n s i o n p a r c e l s was not aware h i s land had been annexed u n t i l h i s property tax n o t i c e a r r i v e d . His p r o p e r t y had been i n c l u d e d in the extension because i t would complete an e a s i l y surveyable block and i t would produce a r a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g boundary. The d i s s e n t i n g owner appealed to the SCRD who c o u l d only o f f e r t h e i r support, and to the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s for a consequent boundary r e d u c t i o n to r e t u r n h i s land to E l e c t o r a l Area E. The complexity of t h i s request was evident and no a c t i o n was taken. 5.2.5 The 1982 Extension The 1982 extension was p r e f a c e d by s e v e r a l key f a c t o r s . F i r s t l y , the v i l l a g e c o u n c i l ' s approach to boundary extensions became c l e a r e r in a statement by an alderman (8): " i t i s the p o l i c y of the v i l l a g e not to s o l i c i t boundary e x t e n s i o n s but to welcome those who do apply to be i n c l u d e d i n the mun i c i p a l i t y . " Secondly, the SCRD's p o l i c y with r e s p e c t to m u n i c i p a l boundary extensions was a l s o c l a r i f i e d - plan ahead for the long term. T h i r d l y , concerns were expressed at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l over the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of past and then c u r r e n t l y proposed extensions to Gibsons. The M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s suggested a r e s t r u c t u r i n g study to p r o v i d e the area with a longer term overview) while the BCALC, concerned about the 44.78 95 hec. of ALR a l r e a d y w i t h i n m u n i c i p a l boundaries, watched remaining f r i n g e ALR lands with apprehension. The v i l l a g e had been a d v i s e d that i t should be " . . . c l e a r to both the land owners i n v o l v e d and the m u n i c i p a l i t y that the land remains in the ALR and ...that t h i s general area has good a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l and r e p r e s e n t s some of the best land f o r t h i s purpose in the Sunshine Coast Regional D i s t r i c t . " ( 9 ) . On March 11, 1982 two p a r c e l s of land of t o t a l 20.86 hec. were i n c l u d e d in the v i l l a g e at the request of the owners. Both owners s t a t e d the d e s i r e f o r m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s as reason. Approximately 19.08 hec. was i n the ALR. T h i s boundary extension, meant an i r r e g u l a r p r o j e c t i o n on the v i l l a g e boundary. In 1982 the V i l l a g e of Gibsons Landing was e l e v a t e d to town s t a t u s . 5.2.6 Current Status The Town of Gibsons, w i t h i n s e v e r a l months of the l a t e s t boundary e x t e n s i o n , i n i t i a t e d r e z o n i n g on the ALR lands taken in from Rural Zone with a 5 acre minimum p a r c e l s i z e to R-4 zone with a 2 acre minimum p a r c e l s i z e . The BCALC d i d not endorse the a p p l i c a t i o n and c o n s i d e r e d the rezoning c o n t r a r y to the o b j e c t i v e of p r e s e r v i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . In a d d i t i o n to the Land Commission, the M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Highways a l s o i n d i c a t e d o p p o s i t i o n to the proposed r e z o n i n g . The a p p l i c a t i o n was r e j e c t e d . Two a d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s of f u t u r e boundary ex t e n s i o n s of the Town of Gibsons have since been completed. The f i r s t was a j o i n t study between the town, the SCRD, and the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s to suggest a p p r o p r i a t e recommendations. The 96 second study, completed by the town and SCRD only i n March 1984, was i n i t i a t e d to c o r r e c t the lack of a d e f i n i t i v e t e c h n i c a l recommendations in the f i r s t r e p o r t . I t was j o i n t l y agreed that the town had s u f f i c i e n t land to accommodate expected growth but the i r r e g u l a r m u n i c i p a l boundary r e q u i r e d r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n . As w e l l , the town acknowledged that i t s boundary e x t e n s i o n ' p o l i c y ' was based on p o l i t i c a l expediency with no p l a n n i n g b a s i s . No recommendation has r e s u l t e d from the four s o l u t i o n s o f f e r r e d . The Town of Gibsons has no O f f i c i a l Community Plan but the planner had p l a c e d t h i s d e f i c i t as a top p r i o r i t y i n h i s 1984 work schedule (10). 5.3 SYNTHESIS Population wise, the Town of Gibsons c l a i m s l e s s than 20% of the t o t a l r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n . I t has t r a d i t i o n a l l y served as the s e r v i c e and commercial core. The d i f f i c u l t topography w i t h i n the town has tended to l i m i t the s i z e and d i s t r i b u t i o n of land uses. The e a r l i e r boundary e x t e n s i o n s (1950, 1969) were keyed on t h i s problem. The Sunshine Coast region had experienced p o p u l a t i o n growth at a rate higher than the p r o v i n c i a l average d u r i n g the l a t e 1960's, the 1970's, and i n t o the e a r l y 1980's. During these p e r i o d s , annual growth r a t e s in the e l e c t o r a l areas exceeded that of the town, even though annexed lands were h e a v i l y drawn from what i s now e l e c t o r a l area E. Growth in Area E s u b s t a n t i a l l y outpaced the town. The r e s u l t i n g p o p u l a t i o n base in the region i s s l i g h t l y o l d e r and has a smaller average household s i z e compared to the p r o v i n c e as a whole. 97 In terms of r e g i o n a l coherence, N i c h o l s o n (11) s t a t e d that the SCRD: "With an average of 16 meetings a year s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n (January 1967), the board of d i r e c t o r s i s p o s s i b l y the most a c t i v e one i n the whole p r o v i n c e . To account for t h i s phenomenon, i t i s p o s t u l a t e d that with 8000 people a l i g n e d along some 30 m i l e s of c o a s t a l highway, the g r a n t i n g of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t a t u s transformed the Sunshine Coast i n t o a l i n e a r m u n i c i p a l i t y rather than a true r e g i o n . " E s p e c i a l l y evident in the 1976 and 1981 boundary extensions was the lack of r e g i o n a l coherence and long term p o l i c y or development procedures for the town. According to the town's own data base, there was no apparent need to extend boundaries as there was s u f f i c i e n t d evelopable land w i t h i n the then e x i s t i n g boundaries to accommodate expected urban growth, none of which was in the ALR. Area E D i r e c t o r Jim Gurney was quoted as saying (12): "I r e a l i z e that the v i l l a g e must and w i l l expand, but t h i s i s some of the best a g r i c u l t u r a l land on the Sunshine Coast. We would be dismayed i f i t were turned i n t o r e s i d e n t i a l land. Who a d m i n i s t e r s i t , the board or the v i l l a g e , i s u l t i m a t e l y i r r e l e v a n t , as long as the land remains as i t i s . . . The r e g i o n a l board has a s t a t e d p o l i c y of being opposed to the removal of any land from the ALR. To my knowledge, the v i l l a g e has no such p o l i c y . " A lack of an O f f i c i a l Community Plan f o r Gibsons . has f r e q u e n t l y been c i t e d ' as the reason f o r an i n c r e m e n t a l approach to boundary extensions and as the reason for i n t e r f e r e n c e with the BCALC's o b j e c t i v e s . J o i n t s t u d i e s between the town and the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t have only been i n i t i a t e d s i n c e 1982 and have been found to lack any f i r m t e c h n i c a l d e c i s i o n s or suggestions for longer term strategies.. Recent s t r a t e g i e s have centred on r a t i o n a l i z i n g the i r r e g u l a r boundary of the town. 98 C H A P T E R 5 F O O T N O T E S 1 . L e s t e r R . P e t e r s o n , T h e G i b s o n ' s L a n d i n g S t o r y , O t t a w a , M u t u a l P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 , p . 4 1 . 2 . I b i d , p . 4 2 . 3 . I b i d , p . 8 5 . 4 . S c h o o l o f C o m m u n i t y a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f B . C . , T h e S u n s h i n e C o a s t R e g i o n : P l a n n i n g f o r t h e F u t u r e , V a n c o u v e r , B e s t P r i n t e r s , A p r i l 1 9 7 3 , p . 1 8 . 5 . L e s t e r R . P e t e r s o n , O p . c i t . , p . 9 9 . 6 . C o a s t N e w s , " C o m m i t t e e o n G o v e r n m e n t S t u d i e s M e r g e r " , v o l . 2 9 , n . 18, M a y 4 , 1 9 7 6 . 7 . D a y t o n a n d K n i g h t L t d . , C o n s u l t i n g E n g i n e e r s r e v i e w e d p o s s i b l e i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l e x p a n s i o n a n d r e c o m m e n d e d o n l y c e r t a i n a r e a s o f e x p a n s i o n d u e t o t h e h i g h c o s t - b e n e f i t r a t i o . 8 . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , n e i t h e r t h e M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s n o r t h e p r e s e n t p l a n n e r i n G i b s o n s , R o b B u c h a n , c o u l d f i n d o r r e f e r t h e a u t h o r t o a n y r e l a t e d f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y . 9 . C o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n t h e M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s a n d t h e T o w n o f G i b s o n s , R o b B u c h a n , p l a n n e r . D a t e d F e b r u a r y 1 7 , 1 9 8 3 . 1 0 . I n t e r v i e w w i t h R o b B u c h a n , p l a n n e r f o r t h e T o w n o f G i b s o n s , A p r i l 1 2 , 1 9 8 4 . 1 1 . T . J . N i c h o l s o n , T h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s o f B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , M . A . T h e s i s , S c h o o l o f C o m m u n i t y a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f B . C , M a y 1 9 7 4 , p . 4 8 . 1 2 . C o a s t N e w s , " S C R D J a n u a r y 2 7 , 1 9 8 1 , p . 1 . B a t t l e s G i b s o n s " , v o l . 3 5 , n o . 4 , 99 CHAPTER 6: THE VILLAGE OF FRASER LAKE, B.C. 1 00 CHAPTER 6j_ THE VILLAGE OF FRASER LAKE, B.C. The V i l l a g e of F r a s e r Lake i n the Regional D i s t r i c t of Bulkley-Nechako i s l o c a t e d in the m i d - c e n t r a l r e g i o n of the province some one hundred and t h i r t y k i l o m e t r e s west of P r i n c e George as shown in F i g u r e 7. 6.1 BACKGROUND 6.1.1 Settlement H i s t o r y The F r a s e r Lake S t a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d at the present F r a s e r Lake townsite around 1914 on what i s now the Canadian N a t i o n a l Railway l i n e . F r a s e r Lake Sawmills s t a r t e d soon a f t e r and was in f u l l o p e r a t i o n by .1920. The major growth t h r u s t came i n the e a r l y s i x t i e s when Louie Dalgren, one of the major i n t e r e s t s i n F r a s e r Lake Sawmills, provided what i s now the F r a s e r Lake townsite for employees of Pl a c e r Development L t d . The community has avoided many of the problems o l d e r communities have faced with respect to i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l s e r v i c e s because of p l a n n i n g i n advance of development. F r a s e r Lake was i n c o r p o r a t e d as a v i l l a g e on September 27, 1966 as the primary dormitory f o r workers of the P l a c e r Development's Endako Mine. 6.1.2 The Economic Base The short h i s t o r y of the V i l l a g e of F r a s e r Lake does not f a c i l i t a t e a thorough a n a l y s i s of economic growth p a t t e r n s in the community. The area i s h i g h l y dependent on the two resource bases of f o r e s t r y and mining. 101 FIGURE 7: THE REGIONAL VIEW OF FRASER LAKE Source: B.C M i n i s t r y of Municipal A f f a i r s 1 02 The f o r e s t i n d u s t r y i s based on a s u s t a i n e d y i e l d program and major s h i f t s i n t h i s s e c t o r would have to be due to d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n , t e c h n o l o g i c a l improvements, or s h i f t i n g worldwide market demands. The i n d u s t r y i n ge n e r a l i s p r e s e n t l y r e c o v e r i n g from a r e c e s s i o n a r y p e r i o d . The Endako Mine i s the focus of the mining i n d u s t r y i n the F r a s e r Lake r e g i o n . While the mine's resources are expected to be d e p l e t e d at the turn of the c e n t u r y , shutdowns caused by lengthy s t r i k e s and/or poor product p r i c e s have extended t h i s somewhat. P r e s e n t l y , the Endako Mine i s i n a p a r t i a l shutdown and i s r e - p r o c e s s i n g s l a g p i l e s . 6.1.3 The Demographic Base The average annual growth r a t e f o r the v i l l a g e p o p u l a t i o n between 1966 and 1971 was 3.7%, 2.1% between 1971 and 1976, and 2.0% between 1976 and 1981. Comparatively, the e l e c t o r a l areas of the Regional D i s t r i c t of Bulkley-Nechako had growth r a t e s of 2.3%, 1.0%, and 0.8%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The' v i l l a g e has been able to a t t r a c t a l a r g e r percentage of r e g i o n a l growth than the r u r a l a r e a s . Average household s i z e , while d e c r e a s i n g , i s above the p r o v i n c i a l average mainly due to the young p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the F r a s e r Lake r e s i d e n t s . 6.1.4 Land Use F r a s e r Lake i s a compact community with good area f o r fu t u r e expansion. Although growth i s l i m i t e d to the no r t h and west by the lake i t s e l f , there i s ample room, fo r expansion to the east and south. Fragmentation of the r e s i d e n t i a l community through g-rowth on the south si d e of Highway 16 has been 103 discouraged, but i n d u s t r i a l development i s seen as an a p p r o p r i a t e use f o r that l o c a t i o n . The v i l l a g e has a w e l l d e f i n e d commercial area with only one b u s i n e s s , a s e r v i c e s t a t i o n and s t o r e , having d i r e c t access to the Yellowhead Highway (Highway 16). Most of the other commercial e s t a b l i s h m e n t s have a d i s p l a y area f r o n t i n g the highway. The v i l l a g e expects the present commercial area w i l l be adequate f o r the next f i v e years, and perhaps beyond. There i s very l i t t l e i n d u s t r i a l development w i t h i n the v i l l a g e proper. Although one mine and one m i l l s i t e are w i t h i n the m u n i c i p a l boundaries, they are not c o n s i d e r e d a s e t t l e d p o r t i o n of the v i l l a g e . The major users of i n d u s t r i a l lands w i t h i n the v i l l a g e are u t i l i t i e s , and machinery and equipment storage. There are no vacant i n d u s t r i a l l o t s but demand c o u l d be c o n t a i n e d by simple rezonings. The Canadian N a t i o n a l Railway i s a l s o a major i n d u s t r i a l area. The d i r e c t i o n f o r r e s i d e n t i a l growth in the community has g e n e r a l l y been towards the e a s t . I n f i l l i n g of r e s i d e n t i a l areas i s expected to accommodate the demand w e l l beyond 1986. In terms of development, the V i l l a g e of F r a s e r Lake has taken an a c t i v e r o l e i n terms of r e s i d e n t i a l land banking both v i l l a g e and Crown owned lands. To ensure that the c o s t of s e r v i c i n g s t a y s as low as p o s s i b l e and to a v o i d s p e c u l a t i o n on the f i n i t e number of commercial l o t s a v a i l a b l e , the v i l l a g e a u c t i o n s the l o t s and unless a b u i l d i n g permit i s i s s u e d f o r the property w i t h i n two years the land r e v e r t s to the v i l l a g e . 1 04 6.2 INCORPORATION AND BOUNDARY EXTENSIONS The V i l l a g e of F r a s e r Lake has experienced f i v e boundary exte n s i o n s which are summarized in Table VI and shown on F i g u r e 8. TABLE VI: INCORPORATION AND BOUNDARY EXTENSIONS OF FRASER LAKE ************************************* YEAR * STATUS * AREA * POPULATION * * Before Added A f t e r * Before Added A f t e r ***************************************************************** 1 982 * v i l l a g e * 437. 34 47. 1 3 484 .47 * 1 54 3 0 1 543 1 981 * v i l l a g e * 362 . 23 75. 1 1 437 .34 * 1 430 0 1 430 1 980 * v i 1 l a g e * 361 . 81 0. 42 362 .23 . * 1 430 0 1 430 1 975 * v i l l a g e * 327. 99 33. 82 361 .81 * 1 292 0 1 292 327 . 79 0. 20 327 .99 * 1 292 2 1 294 1 966 * v i l l a g e * 0 327. 79 327 .79 * , 0 1 093 1 093 ***************************************************************** Source: B.C. M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s 6.2.1 Incorporat ion The V i l l a g e of F r a s e r Lake was i n c o r p o r a t e d on September 27, 1966. 1 06 6.2.2 The 1975 E x t e n s i o n s There were two separate boundary extensions d u r i n g 1975. The f i r s t c o n s i s t e d of DLs 7774 and 7766, known as the MO 4 and BOOT8 mineral c l a i m s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s 33.82 h e c t a r e p a r c e l i s the s i t e of the Endako mine and had no r e s i d e n t s . The i n d u s t r y consented to the i n c l u s i o n . I n i t i a l l y , an ' u m b i l i c a l ' l i n k was planned but i t was impossible by means of a r e g i s t e r e d highway plan r e s u l t i n g i n the s a t e l l i t e s i t u a t i o n . The tax base of the v i l l a g e was i n c r e a s e d by some 200% by the boundary ex t e n s i o n ( i n 1975 d o l l a r s , from n e a r l y three m i l l i o n d o l l a r s to j u s t l e s s the s i x m i l l i o n d o l l a r s ) . The second boundary extension was the simple i n c l u s i o n of a 0.2 hectare s i t e as requested by the owners who r e q u i r e d water s e r v i c e to b u i l d a home. 6.2.3 The 1980 E x t e n s i o n Another small e x t e n s i o n of 0.42 h e c t a r e s was allowed to accommodate an owner to o b t a i n water and sewerage s e r v i c e s as he planned to b u i l d a r e s i d e n c e . The l a n d was immediately adjacent to the p r e v i o u s m u n i c i p a l boundary. 6.2.4 The 1981 E x t e n s i o n The e x t e n s i o n of v i l l a g e boundaries to i n c l u d e the Lejac Sawmill s i t e of 75.11 h e c t a r e s was f i r s t i n i t i a t e d i n l a t e 1979. The F r a s e r Lake M i l l had c l o s e d and a major m u n i c i p a l revenue source was removed from the tax r o l e s by the Court of R e v i s i o n . The land was owned by the Canadian N a t i o n a l Railway who were not ready to develop i t or to s e l l i t . At the same time, the l o c a l m i l l i n nearby F o r t F r a s e r was 1 07 a l s o c l o s i n g and a new s i t e was being sought to re p l a c e and combine the o p e r a t i o n s of the two o l d e r m i l l s . The Lejac s i t e was chosen along the CNR and near Highway 16, some 7.2 ki l o m e t r e s east of the V i l l a g e of F r a s e r Lake. On October 17, 1979 at a Fr a s e r Lake c o u n c i l meeting, a motion was passed s t a t i n g that a p p r o v a l be requested from the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s to i n c o r p o r a t e a l l land east of the v i l l a g e up to and i n c l u d i n g the Le j a c Sawmill s i t e ( F i g u r e 9) . There are f i v e p roperty owners and one Indian Reserve i n t h i s a r ea. Much of the land i s d e s i g n a t e d ALR. The m u n i c i p a l i t y had s e v e r a l reasons f o r suggesting t h i s boundary e x t e n s i o n : (1) the tax l o s s from the F r a s e r Lake M i l l had become a burden on the e n t i r e community; (2) s i n c e most Lejac employees l i v e d i n F r a s e r Lake, the c o s t s r e q u i r e d f o r s e r v i c i n g would remain at l e a s t the same; (3) i t was f e l t that both the mining and the f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s should pay f o r s e r v i c e s rendered to t h e i r employees and employee's f a m i l i e s by the mun i c i p a l i t y . The Regional D i s t r i c t expessed i t s concern over f a i r n e s s of the t o t a l tax revenues a c c r u i n g to F r a s e r Lake and not to F o r t F r a s e r which had s u f f e r e d a s i m i l a r l o s s and suggested revenue s h a r i n g . 2L ORIGINAL 1981 PROPOSED BOUNDARY EXTENSION TO FRASER LAKE Source: B.C. M i n i s t r y of Municipal A f f a i r s 109 The owners of land in the proposed area of e x t e n s i o n were opposed to the e x t e n s i o n . They s t r e s s e d that t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s are d e s i g n a t e d ALR and would remain that way. A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t was p o i n t e d out that the v i l l a g e c o u l d r e t a i n the tax base using the s a t e l l i t e approach to boundary extension as had been p r e v i o u s l y done in 1975 with the Endako Mine s i t e . The M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s r e l u c t a n t l y agreed. An ' u m b i l i c a l ' e x t e n s i o n was enacted June 30, 1981. 6.2.5 The 1982 E x t e n s i o n On September 16, 1982 21.53 h e c t a r e s of land and 25.6 h e c t a r e s of f o r e s h o r e and land covered by water were taken i n t o the v i l l a g e . T h i s Crown land was immediately adjacent to the e x i s t i n g m u n i c i p a l boundaries and i s known as Mouse Mountain. In June of 1982 the e x t e n s i o n p r o p o s a l was passed to the BCALC because a l l of the proposed e x t e n s i o n was p a r t of the ALR. A review of the then r e c e n t l y adopted F r a s e r Lake O f f i c i a l Community Plan (1981) agreed that the extension was a l o g i c a l long run l o c a t i o n f o r r e s i d e n t i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes. However, the Commission f e l t that there was s u b s t a n t i a l room f o r i n f i l l in the v i l l a g e and p r e v i o u s to removal of e x t e n s i o n lands from the ALR, non-ALR lands would have to be i n f i l l e d . With no o b j e c t i o n s , the boundaries were extended.with the extension area to remain in the ALR. 6.2.6 Current S t a t u s With l i m i t e d economic growth i n F r a s e r Lake over the past two years and a d e c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n base, no f u r t h e r extensions have been contemplated or a p p l i e d f o r : 1 10 6.3 SYNTHESIS The o r i g i n of the V i l l a g e of F r a s e r Lake p r o v i d e s a c l e a r e r focus on recent v i l l a g e boundary e x t e n s i o n s . F r a s e r Lake S t a t i o n was a dormitory s i t e f o r the F r a s e r Lake Sawmills i n o p e r a t i o n there s i n c e 1920. By the 1960's, F r a s e r Lake S t a t i o n was approved as a dormitory s i t e f o r P l a c e r Development Ltd.'s Endako M i n e s i t e and i n c o r p o r a t e d as the V i l l a g e of F r a s e r Lake in 1966. From the 1920's onwards, F r a s e r Lake was a r e s i d e n t i a l development t o t a l l y dependent on employment l e v e l s i n f o r e s t r y and mining for i t s p o p u l a t i o n base. The v i l l a g e s i t e i t s e l f has had a long h i s t o r y of t e c h n i c a l l y planned growth and i s f a i r l y compact. The workforce has tended to be younger, have a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r average household s i z e , and i s r e l a t i v e l y t r a n s i e n t compared to the province as a whole. In order to reduce housing c o s t s and s p e c u l a t i o n on l i m i t e d land r e s o u r c e s , the v i l l a g e has undertaken r e s i d e n t i a l land banking and commercial land development schemes. In keeping with a long term plan n i n g b e l i e f and h i s t o r y , the v i l l a g e completed an updated O f f i c i a l Community Plan i n 1981 which was a f o r m a l i z e d e x p r e s s i o n of past p o l i c y documents and p l a n s . R e a l i z i n g the major dependence of F r a s e r Lake on mining and f o r e s t r y , a 1975 s a t e l l i t e e x t e n s i o n to i n c l u d e the Endako M i n e s i t e was mainly for revenue purposes and was seen as j u s t i f i e d from a l l p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d . R e c r e a t i o n a l , community and i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l requirements f o r employees of the mine were being provided by the v i l l a g e and by the F r a s e r Lake Sawmills. It was seen as an e q u i t a b l e d e c i s i o n i n terms of a s s e s s i n g the 1 1 1 c o s t s of p u b l i c goods based on b e n e f i t s r e c e i v e d . P l a c e r Development L t d . agreed r e a l i z i n g that a higher amenity townsite may persuade workers to come to the area and to stay l o n g e r . S i m i l a r reasoning c o u l d be used in the Le j a c M i l l s i t e u m b i l i c a l e x t e n s i o n . While Lejac was a new e n t e r p r i s e , i t was b u i l t at the c o s t of i n d u s t r i a l tax revenues w i t h i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y when the o l d F r a s e r M i l l s c l o s e d . The m a j o r i t y of Lejac workers co n t i n u e d to l i v e i n F r a s e r lake but the q u a l i t y or l e v e l of p u b l i c s e r v i c e may have been d i m i n i s h e d i f t h i s revenue was t o t a l l y l o s t . The q u e s t i o n of e q u i t y between i n d u s t r i e s a l s o arose -shouldn't both major employers of the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s c i t i z e n s c o n t r i b u t e to the keeping of those c i t i z e n s ? Both i n d u s t r i e s and the v i l l a g e agreed. Future boundary e x t e n s i o n s of F r a s e r Lake w i l l continue along l e s s grandiose l i n e s to i n c l u d e owners r e q u e s t i n g m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and new areas f o r r e c r e a t i o n or u t i l i t i e s expansion. However, given the r e c e s s i o n a r y c l i m a t e of both the mining and f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s i n B.C., long term p l a n n i n g f o r Fr a s e r Lake i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e at t h i s time. CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSIONS 1 1 3 CHAPTER 7j_ CONCLUSIONS As p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , t h i s t h e s i s has l i m i t e d the d i s c u s s i o n of the boundary extension p r o c e s s to t h a t f o r simple boundary e x t e n s i o n s only ( s e c t i o n 3 . 4.1). The case s t u d i e s have provided s p e c i f i c , chosen i n s t a n c e s of simple boundary extensions which have been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s . The c o n c l u s i o n s drawn from t h i s study can be d i v i d e d i n t o four subgroups: f i r s t , those r e l a t e d to an understanding of l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n B.C.; secondly, c o n c l u s i o n s which a i d the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of boundary extension i s s u e s in the three case s t u d i e s ; t h i r d l y , c o n c l u s i o n s e v a l u a t i n g the procedures and g u i d e l i n e s of the boundary extension process in B.C.; and f o u r t h l y , recommendations f o r a c t i o n . 7.1 THE STRUCTURE AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT The two prime r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of l o c a l government, access and s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n , r e q u i r e comparative study when d e a l i n g with m u n i c i p a l boundary e x t e n s i o n s . For example, s e r v i c e area boundaries producing maximum e f f i c i e n c y r e s u l t i n g i n o v e r l a p p i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n s may cause c o n f u s i o n i n the r e q u i s i t e of ac c e s s . Conversely, s m a l l block governments u s u a l l y p r e c l u d e economies of s c a l e i n s e r v i c e s . There i s no simple answer to the q u e s t i o n , "what i s the optimal s t r u c t u r e and l e v e l of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c e r t a i n government?". The answer r e a l l y depends on the c r i t e r i a to be s a t i s f i e d . In a s p e c i f i c example, assuming that c i t i z e n s have d i f f e r e n t t a s t e s for s e r v i c e s and that s e r v i c e consumption i s s p a t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , o v e r a l l demand may be most e f f i c i e n t l y 1 1 4 s a t i s f i e d by autonomous a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n doesn't n e c e s s i t a t e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of a u t h o r i t y . For d i f f e r e n c e s in f i s c a l r e s o u r c e s , there are s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e adjustments. Areas so small as to lack a taxable base capable of supporting minimal standards of governmental performance, may be enlarged to envelop g r e a t e r f i s c a l r e s o u r c e s . But no absolute s i z e can be p r e d i c t e d . A l a r g e area may s t i l l be a poor a r e a . Mere expansion of poor areas to i n c l u d e a d j o i n i n g areas that are e q u a l l y poor would be no s o l u t i o n . Business and i n d u s t r y , r e g a r d l e s s of l o c a t i o n , depend on the region as a whole - i t s power s u p p l i e s , i t s r e s o u r c e s , labour f o r c e , i t s market and i t s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n - and not simply on one s i n g l e m u n i c i p a l i t y . The problem i s to determine the socio-economic u n i t s that should be under one- government; the type of government best s u i t e d to meet area needs; and the p r e f e r r e d method of f i s c a l s h a r i n g . One key assumption of the good government reform movement was that the m e t r o p o l i t a n areas were a c t u a l l y one community with a s s o c i a t e d common elements but for the fragmented governmental s t r u c t u r e s ( s e c t i o n 2.3.1). But, e f f i c i e n c y and c e n t r a l i z a t i o n are not n e c e s s a r i l y automatic. H i r s c h ' s model p o i n t e d out that the e f f e c t i s dependent on the type of s e r v i c e s o f f e r r e d ( s e c t i o n 2.1.2). Boundary extensions may a l s o mean a change i n the powers or r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the o r i g i n a l m u n i c i p a l i t y e i t h e r through an e l e v a t i o n of m u n i c i p a l s t a t u s or by d i r e c t assignment through supplementary L e t t e r s Patent ( s e c t i o n 2.2). 1 1 5 The area of extension must attempt to c o m p a r a t i v e l y balance s e r v i c e and access ( s e c t i o n 2.1) in an attempt to determine how f e a s i b l e annexation w i l l be f o r t h e i r requirements. Regional d i s t r i c t government in B.C. has a l t e r e d the balance point by o f f e r r i n g t r a d i t i o n a l l y m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s to u n i n c o r p o r a t e d areas. If a f u n c t i o n a l community has i t own s e r v i c e s and has reached a s t a t e of s e t t l e d development, annexation can be d i f f i c u l t due to autonomous community v a l u e s ( s e c t i o n 2.1.2). D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with s e r v i c e l e v e l s or q u a l i t y w i l l allow e a s i e r e x t e n s i o n ( s e c t i o n 2.1.2). In a t w o - t i e r government system, some f u n c t i o n s w i l l be assigned to each l e v e l but the most important p o i n t i s that the d i v i s i o n of f u n c t i o n s i s a c t u a l l y a s h a r i n g of power ( s e c t i o n 2.1.2). Some argue t h a t , i n f a c t , that r u r a l r e s i d e n t s have a l r e a d y "voted with t h e i r f e e t " as to t h e i r s e r v i c e and tax package p r e f e r e n c e s . 7.2 CASE STUDY BOUNDARY EXTENSION ISSUES While a l l three case s t u d i e s had common boundary ex t e n s i o n i s s u e s , many i s s u e s were of primary importance on an i n d i v i d u a l case study b a s i s . A. Common to a l l cases was the concern f o r completion of O f f i c i a l Community Plans. Both W i l l i a m s Lake and F r a s e r Lake have had a long h i s t o r y - of p l a n n i n g work i n c l u d i n g s e v e r a l p o l i c y documents and formal p l a n s . Gibsons has had a few s e c t o r s p e c i f i c p o l i c y plans but i s s t i l l i n the process of completing a f i r s t O f f i c i a l Community Plan and as a r e s u l t has no p o l i c i e s or b a s i c c r i t e r i a r e l a t i n g to f u t u r e l a n d use p a t t e r n s or needs. 1 1 6 B. The f e a s i b i l i t y of s e r v i c i n g the areas of extension was primary in Gibsons and Wi l l i a m s Lake. Costs at the mun i c i p a l l e v e l tended to o v e r l a y major d i s c u s s i o n of c o s t s at the r e s i d e n t s l e v e l , i n both the m u n i c i p a l i t y and the exte n s i o n area. S e r v i c i n g was f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d as the owner's reason f o r re q u e s t i n g an e x t e n s i o n . Indeed, the r e s t r u c t u r e phases at Wi l l i a m s Lake were p r i m a r i l y based on the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s expected time frame f o r s e r v i c e e x t e n s i o n s to those areas. C. In each case study, many of the boundary e x t e n s i o n s produced an i r r e g u l a r m u n i c i p a l boundary. However, only i n the Gibsons case study was t h i s p o i n t h e a v i l y s t r e s s e d from the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . D e l i v e r y and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of m u n i c i p a l or r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s e r v i c e s becomes c o n f u s i n g to r e s i d e n t s when j u r i s d i c t i o n a l boundaries are not e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e . As w e l l , there i s no evidence to suggest that a ' n a t u r a l p l a n n i n g area' was ever a d i s c u s s i o n p o i n t , e x c e p t i n g some examples in Gibsons. D. A l l three case s t u d i e s i n v o l v e d the problem of the use of mun i c i p a l s e r v i c e s (parks, f o r example) without those d i r e c t l y b e n e f i t t i n g paying p a r t of the c o s t s . W i l l i a m s Lake and Gibsons were concerned with f r i n g e area r e s i d e n t s while F r a s e r Lake emphasized c o r p o r a t e r e s p o n s i v e n e s s . E. Somewhat evi d e n t i n W i l l i a m s Lake was the d e s i r e by f r i n g e r e s i d e n t s to vote on community d e c i s i o n s which may a f f e c t them. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t i s s u e s d i d not p e r t a i n to the f r i n g e r e s i d e n t s f r e q u e n t l y due to t h e i r c l o s e s p a t i a l and 1 1 7 s t r u c t u r a l t i e s with the m u n i c i p a l i t y . F. Comparative growth r a t e s between the m u n i c i p a l i t y and i t s r e s p e c t i v e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t were a l s o important. Growth at Fras e r Lake, almost completely t i e d to employment growth i n the mining and f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s , was c e n t r e d i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y . In Gibsons, the adjacent e l e c t o r a l area E experienced growth r a t e s s u b s t a n t i a l l y higher than that of the m u n i c i p a l i t y as area inmigrants chose a more r u r a l s e t t i n g with l e s s s e r v i c e s and l e s s taxes. Conversely, s u b r e g i o n a l growth at the f r i n g e s of Wi l l i a m s Lake was demographically and r a t e s i m i l a r to that of the m u n i c i p a l i t y . G. Evident i n the Gibsons and W i l l i a m s Lake case s t u d i e s are probable concerns by annexed areas that t h e i r present c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be overgrown by a t t r i b u t e s of the core m u n i c i p a l i t y . The Gibsons case study emphasized the maintenance of r u r a l l i f e s t l y l e s i n the remaining f r i n g e areas, while f r i n g e r e s i d e n t s of W i l l i a m s Lake wanted to maintain a subu r b a n - r u r a l s e t t i n g . H. The s h i f t i n g r a t i o of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ( v o t e r s per c o u n c i l member) and the changing r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the r e s p e c t i v e c o u n c i l s f i g u r e d prominently only d u r i n g the r e i n c o r p o r a t i o n of W i l l i a m s Lake. However, many of the boundary extensions of a l l three case s t u d i e s i n v o l v e d only s m a l l , i f any, extension area p o p u l a t i o n s . 118 7.3 THE PROCEDURES AND GUIDELINES OF BOUNDARY EXTENSIONS The procedures and g u i d e l i n e s f o r the simple m u n i c i p a l boundary extension process i n B.C. ( s e c t i o n 3.4.2) are r e l a t i v e l y l o n g s t a n d i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e requirements. 7.3.1 Boundary Extension Procedures The s i x a d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedures f o r a simple m u n i c i p a l boundary ex t e n s i o n are given i n the M u n i c i p a l Manual. 1. In order to p e t i t i o n the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s f o r the i s s u e of supplementary L e t t e r s Patent a u t h o r i z i n g a boundary extension ( s e c t i o n 3.4.2), the c o u n c i l must f i r s t e s t a b l i s h by survey the area of extension and a d v i s e the M i n i s t e r of c o u n c i l ' s i n t e n t i o n s . The M i n i s t e r has the d i s c r e t i o n a r y power to d i s m i s s the pro p o s a l as u n f e a s i b l e or may d i r e c t that a proposal r e p o r t be prepared. There are f i v e r e p o r t g u i d e l i n e s to be c o n s i d e r e d which are d i s c u s s e d below i n s e c t i o n 7.3.2. 2. S t r a n g e l y p l a c e d i s a s i m p l i s t i c d i r e c t i v e as procedure two, to not a d v e r t i s e the extension u n t i l M i n i s t e r i a l a p p r o v a l has been gained. Both procedures one and two are a p p l i c a b l e to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s undergoing any type of boundary e x t e n s i o n . 3. The t h i r d procedure s t a t e s that the r e s p e c t i v e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t should be ad v i s e d and comments sought. The unique s a t e l l i t e and u m b i l i c a l extensions at F r a s e r Lake brought f o r t h s e v e r a l comments from the Regional D i s t r i c t of Bulkley-Nechako d i r e c t e d mainly to the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s concerning 1 1 9 p o s s i b l e r e g i o n a l revenue s h a r i n g p l a n s . The Regional D i s t r i c t r e a l i z e d the dependent nature of F r a s e r Lake, and i n f a c t the whole region to the f o r e s t r y and mining i n d u s t r i e s . The Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t and W i l l i a m s Lake, having a basic a d v e r s a r i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , have a l s o tended to comment through the M i n i s t r y . While a s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between Gibsons and the Sunshine Coast R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t has r e s u l t e d i n a recent s e r i e s of j o i n t committees to attempt some form of t e c h n i c a l agreement for f u t u r e m u n i c i p a l boundary ex t e n s i o n s i n the r e g i o n . Note that the key word in the t h i r d procedure i s 'should' be a d v i s e d and comments 'should' be sought i n s t e a d of the word 'must'. 4. The BCALC 'should' be c o n t a c t e d and i t s comments requested. While the BCALC i s t y p i c a l l y c o n t a c t e d by both the m u n i c i p a l i t y and the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , negative comments at t h i s p o i n t make the boundary e x t e n s i o n a long term p r o p o s i t i o n . In Gibsons, d e s p i t e the s t a t e d apprehension of the BCALC, the process was not stopped but the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s with r e s p e c t to ALR lands were c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . 5. The terms of p u b l i c a t i o n of n o t i c e c l e a r l y o u t l i n e the routes that a municipal e l e c t o r and a r e s i d e n t from the extension area must take i n order to r e g i s t e r o p p o s i t i o n to the planned e x t e n s i o n . While m u n i c i p a l e l e c t o r s p e t i t i o n the c o u n c i l , r e s i d e n t s of the e x t e n s i o n area are r e q u i r e d to n o t i f y the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s to f o r m a l l y express 1 20 o p p o s i t i o n . However, i t i s at the M i n i s t e r ' s d i s c r e t i o n to d e f i n e at what p o i n t o p p o s i t i o n to the p r o p o s a l becomes s u b s t a n t i a l enough to warrant a vote in the e x t e n s i o n area. 6. The f i n a l procedure d e t a i l s the format of the l e g i s l a t i v e p o r t i o n of the a p p l i c a t i o n to M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and leaves a reminder that a vote may be taken i n the e x t e n s i o n area. 7.3.2 Report G u i d e l i n e s The present simple boundary e x t e n s i o n process i s mainly based upon the r e s u l t s of the p r o p o s a l r e p o r t to the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . The report g u i d e l i n e s , i n a q u e s t i o n format with the r e s u l t i n g answers s u p p l i e d by the m u n i c i p a l i t y , a p p a r e n t l y g i v e s a c l e a r view of the s i t u a t i o n at hand. 1. The f i r s t g u i d e l i n e q u e s t i o n r e q u i r e s s p e c i f i c a t i o n of c u r r e n t and f u t u r e planned lan d uses in the e x t e n s i o n area. T h i s r e q u i r e s a c l e a r d i r e c t statement on the need f o r the l a n d in q u e s t i o n and a l s o opens a path f o r d i s c u s s i o n of f a c t o r s d e f i n i n g a ' n a t u r a l p l a n n i n g a r e a ' . In the W i l l i a m s Lake and Gibsons case s t u d i e s , the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s t a t e d a short term need f o r the l a n d f o r v a r i o u s types of development. However, the s u i t a b i l i t y of the extension area f o r that s p e c i f i c f u t u r e land use, the lack of proof of need, and a l a c k of a l t e r n a t i v e area s t u d i e s were apparent. The t h i r d case study, F r a s e r Lake, mainly annexed developed i n d u s t r i a l p r o p e r t i e s that were t h e r e f o r e very s i t e and use s p e c i f i c and u n a f f e c t e d by t h i s g u i d e l i n e . 121 2. The second g u i d e l i n e q u e s t i o n bears on two separate i s s u e s : ( i ) the general economic f e a s i b i l i t y , c o s t s , and s e r v i c i n g needs of the e x t e n s i o n ; ( i i ) i n f o r m a t i o n from O f f i c i a l Settlement P l a n s . The s e r v i c e r e q u i s i t e p l a y s a primary r o l e i n the a p p l i c a t i o n r e p o r t . S e r v i c i n g f e a s i b i l i t y and p r o v i s i o n was key in W i l l i a m s Lake's boundary ex t e n s i o n s as the c i t y had extended s e r v i c i n g to many non-municipal r e s i d e n t i a l f r i n g e areas and u t i l i z e d t h i s f a c t as a prime reason f o r e x t e n s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s . However, extension to gain f u t u r e i n d u s t r i a l and commercial lands then undeveloped and u n s e r v i c e d , tended to only d e a l with the t e c h n i c a l ease of s e r v i c e expansion and f u t u r e p o s s i b l e tax revenues. The 1970 e x t e n s i o n with the i n d u s t r i a l s i t e d e s i g n a t i o n ( s e c t i o n 4.2.6) i s a good example of these pr i o r i t i e s . Topography c o n s t r a i n s both i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l and urban growth in the Town of Gibsons and the f e a s i b i l i t y of s e r v i c e expansion had t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a high p r i o r i t y . A c o m p l i c a t i n g f a c t o r has been the e x t e n s i v e s e r v i c e system of the Sunshine Coast Regional D i s t r i c t o p e r a t i n g up to the town's boundaries and the problem areas which n e i t h e r system p r e s e n t l y s e r v e s . In terms of ALR lands, the amount and type of s e r v i c e s extended to s e r v i c e these lands i s not r e s t r i c t e d as long as the s t a t e d minimum l o t s i z e s are exceeded. The demand for s e r v i c e expansion to i n c l u d e both the s a t e l l i t e ( s e c t i o n 6.2.2) and u m b i l i c a l ( s e c t i o n 6.2.4) boundary extensions in F r a s e r Lake was not a d i s c u s s i o n p o i n t as both s i t e s were f u l l y developed and had p r o v i d e d t h e i r own s e r v i c e s . 1 22 The second p a r t of the second g u i d e l i n e d i r e c t s c o u n c i l ' s a t t e n t i o n to O f f i c i a l Settlement Plans f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on the extension a r e a . Neither W i l l i a m s Lake nor F r a s e r Lake had s u b s t a n t i a l o p p o s i t i o n from the t e c h n i c a l f a c e t s of the r e s p e c t i v e O f f i c i a l Settlement P l a n s . In f a c t , W i l l i a m s Lake's O f f i c i a l Community Plan was undertaken on a s u b r e g i o n a l b a s i s . The Gibsons extensions have f r e q u e n t l y been questionned at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l due to lack of both O f f i c i a l Settlement and Community Plans r e s u l t i n g i n i n c r e m e n t a l , unplanned boundary e x t e n s i o n s . 3. T h i s g u i d e l i n e r e q u i r e s the o p i n i o n s of e x t e n s i o n area p r o p e r t y owners but doesn't s p e c i f y what format or l e v e l of use these o p i n i o n s should be put t o . In the 1981 F r a s e r Lake boundary e x t e n s i o n ( s e c t i o n 6.2.4), p r o p e r t y owners o p i n i o n s p r o v i d e d the s o l u t i o n to s e v e r a l noted problems with the c o u n c i l ' s boundary extension a p p l i c a t i o n . 4. G u i d e l i n e four r e q u i r e s the p o p u l a t i o n count i n the e x t e n s i o n a r e a , probably to determine i f any s h i f t i n m u n i c i p a l s t a t u s w i l l occur, and the comparative s i z e of the extension area and the m u n i c i p a l i t y . T h i s request doesn't e x p l i c i t l y i n c l u d e a count of r e s i d e n t s of v o t i n g age which may make some socio-economic d i f f e r e n c e s to the m u n i c i p a l i t y ( s e c t i o n 2.3.3) and c o u l d s h i f t the power of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups. 5. The f i f t h and f i n a l g u i d e l i n e requests i n f o r m a t i o n on non-m u n i c i p a l r e s i d e n t s ' a v a i l i n g themselves' of general m u n i c i p a l 1 23 s e r v i c e s (such as parks, r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , f o r example) without paying f o r them. C l e a r l y , t h i s was a major i s s u e i n Will i a m s Lake where there i s a l a r g e f r i n g e area p o p u l a t i o n dependent upon the m u n i c i p a l i t y . An e q u i t a b l e payment scheme was a l s o a key element i n Fra s e r Lake but was based on the two major i n d u s t r i e s r e c e i v i n g d i r e c t b e n e f i t s through t h e i r labour f o r c e and the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s of each i n d u s t r y to the v i l l a g e . T h i s i s r e a l l y a s e r v i c e r e q u i s i t e i n q u i r y . Notably, n e i t h e r the g u i d e l i n e s nor the procedures mention review of an O f f i c i a l Community Plan or j o i n t Settlement and Community Plan work. T h i s type of c o n s u l t a t i o n c o u l d form the b a s i s of understanding community needs and p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the r o l e of the m u n i c i p a l i t y i n the r e g i o n a l s e t t i n g and the broader p l a n n i n g o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e . One p l a n n i n g i s s u e not addressed i n the procedures or g u i d e l i n e s was that of r a t i o n a l boundary c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The piecemeal, l o t - b y - l o t approach as i l l u s t r a t e d by Gibsons gave a very i r r e g u l a r , hard to d e f i n e boundary, p r e s e n t l y under study fo r ' r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n ' by a j o i n t m u n i c i p a l / r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g committee. 7.4 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACTION There are s e v e r a l b a s i c inadequacies i n the present procedures and g u i d e l i n e s f o r simple m u n i c i p a l boundary extensions in B.C. 1 24 7.4.1 General P r i n c i p l e s Each a p p l i c a t i o n f o r boundary e x t e n s i o n should adhere to a b a s i c set of gen e r a l p r i n c i p l e s g u i d i n g a l l m u n i c i p a l boundary e x t e n s i o n s . These p r i n c i p l e s , most a p p r o p r i a t e l y p l a c e d i n the M u n i c i p a l Manual at the i n i t i a t i o n of the boundary extension s e c t i o n should p r o v i d e a base understanding f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y on the d i s c r e t i o n a r y concerns of the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s w i t h i n the proc e s s . (1) The land to be annexed and i t s l o c a t i o n should be s u i t e d to the use proposed. (2) The proposed annexation should be based on reasonable estimates of long term la n d needs as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g reasonable f l e x i b i l i t y f o r unexpected growth. (3) The proposed e x t e n s i o n should work to ensure that the m u n i c i p a l i t y w i l l be a b l e to e x e r c i s e land use c o n t r o l and a v o i d s i t u a t i o n s of urban sprawl and f r i n g e development. (4) When a l t e r n a t i v e d i r e c t i o n s f o r urban expansion are a v a i l a b l e , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s should expand in d i r e c t i o n s which minimize the removal of a g r i c u l t u r a l lands. When a l t e r n a t i v e s are not a v a i l a b l e , expansion should be phased i n order not to unduly d i s t u r b the time the land can remain a v a i l a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . (5) The proposed e x t e n s i o n should be a coherent and r a t i o n a l e x tension to the e x i s t i n g m u n i c i p a l boundary. (6) The proposed e x t e n s i o n should not pl a c e a heavy f i n a n c i a l burden on the m u n i c i p a l i t y . T h i s set of general p r i n c i p l e s w i l l a llow the m u n i c i p a l i t y to c r i t i c a l l y look b r i e f l y at an e x t e n s i o n p r o p o s a l before the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s i s c o n t a c t e d or the lengthy p r o p o s a l report i s prepared. 7.4.2 Proposed Procedures and G u i d e l i n e s As evidenced by the three case s t u d i e s , the present procedures and g u i d e l i n e s f o r simple m u n i c i p a l boundary ext e n s i o n do not f u l l y address the concerns and r e a l i t i e s of the 1 2 5 Procedures 1. E s t a b l i s h boundaries of e x t e n s i o n areas on surveyed l o t l i n e s and a d v i s e the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s of c o u n c i l ' s i n t e n t i o n to i n i t i a t e a request f o r a boundary e x t e n s i o n . 2. Upon the M i n i s t e r ' s a p p r o v a l , an a p p l i c a t i o n f e a s i b i l i t y report must be forwarded to the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . The report must i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e s and address deviances from the p r e v i o u s l y d e f i n e d g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s . G u i d e l i n e s A. Describe the c u r r e n t land use, the f u t u r e or proposed land uses, and reasons f o r the fu t u r e or proposed land uses. D i s c u s s the s u i t a b i l i t y of the extension area f o r the proposed la n d use and p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e s both i n s i d e and a d j a c e n t to e x i s t i n g m u n i c i p a l boundaries. B. If the p r o p o s a l r e q u i r e s e x t e n s i o n of m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , review the impacts, f i n a n c i a l or otherwise, on the present m u n i c i p a l i t y , present e l e c t o r s , the ext e n s i o n a r e a , and extension area p r o p e r t y owners and r e s i d e n t s . C. Review the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s o c i a l and economic t i e s , and the present use of m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s by r e s i d e n t s and property owners of the e x t e n s i o n area and compare t h i s to s i m i l a r m u n i c i p a l s t a t i s t i c s . ' D. Review a p p r o p r i a t e adopted or d r a f t O f f i c i a l Settlement Plans and O f f i c i a l Community Plans and comment on the f e a s i b i l i t y of t h i s proposed e x t e n s i o n i n l i g h t of these p l a n s . E. Canvas and aggregate the o p i n i o n s of p r o p e r t y owners i n the extension area on the proposed e x t e n s i o n . I n d i v i d u a l survey forms, while not a part of t h i s r e p o r t , must be kept u n t i l the 126 p r o p o s a l has been approved. 3. Send the completed a p p l i c a t i o n f e a s i b i l i t y r e p o r t to the BCALC and the a p p r o p r i a t e Regional D i s t r i c t r e q u e s t i n g formal comments to the c o u n c i l . Forward the complete a p p l i c a t i o n f e a s i b i l i t y r e p o r t , comments by the BCALC and the Regional D i s t r i c t , and c o u n c i l ' s response to these comments to the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s f o r a p p r o v a l . O r i g i n a l procedures f i v e and s i x w i l l now be numbered four and f i v e and w i l l not be a l t e r e d from t h e i r present form. F i g u r e s 10 and 11 diagram the e x i s t i n g and recommended mu n i c i p a l simple boundary ex t e n s i o n process, r e s p e c t i v e l y . 7.4.3 Ef f e c t s on the Boundary Ext e n s i o n Process In p r a c t i c e , the base e f f e c t of the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s w i t h i n the M u n i c i p a l Manual may serve as a pre - p r o c e s s c r i t e r i o n f o r a p p r o p r i a t e boundary ex t e n s i o n s by the m u n i c i p a l i t y . If major concerns are s t i l l o u t s t a n d i n g there would be no p o i n t i n c o n t i n u i n g the lengthy process to producing the f e a s i b i l i t y r e p o r t u n t i l those i s s u e s are r e s o l v e d . The major s h i f t w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g process w i l l occur w i t h i n the f e a s i b i l i t y r e p o r t g u i d e l i n e s which would now for c e the m u n i c i p a l i t y i n t o more of a s e l f - m o n i t o r i n g r o l e . In a d d i t i o n to the e x i s t i n g g u i d e l i n e s , t o p i c s such as a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e s , comparative demographic a n a l y s e s , a r e q u i r e d review of O f f i c i a l Settlement and Community Plans, and a response to 127 FIGURE 11): E x i s t i n g Municipal Simple Boundary Extension Process •in B.C. Guidelines Regional D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission Extension area Property Owners vote i f s u b s t a n t i a l o p p o s i t i o n Proposal f o r boundary extension along given procedures and g u i d e l i n e s M i n i s t e r of Municipa l A f f a i r s f o r approval proposal denied at M i n i s t e r ' s d i s c r e t i o n Proposal f o r boundary extension by Council no s u b s t a n t i a l o p p o s i t i o n 50% or more approve l e s s than 50% approve a p p l i c a t i o n denied Minister> of Municipa l A f f a i r s approves Boundary Extension approved 128 FIGURE 11: Recommended Municipal Simple Boundary Extension Process i n n.C. Council requests permission to proceed with boundary extension proposal with regard to general boundary extension p r i n c i p l e s M i n i s t e r of Mun i c i p a l A f f a i r s f o r approval Recommended Guidelines A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission Regional D i s t r i c t S Extension area Property Owners vote i f s u b s t a n t i a l o p p o s i t i o n 50% or more approve approval given to proceed with proposal along the recommended g u i d e l i n e s roposal to M i n i s t e r of *|Municipal A f f a i r s i s ompleted M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s f o r approval proposal denied at M i n i s t e r ' s d i s c r e t i o n l e s s than 50% approve approval to proceed denied proposal n u l l i f i e d no s u b s t a n t i a l o p p o s i t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n denied S i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s approves Boundary Extension approved 129 Comments by the a p p r o p r i a t e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t and the BCALC would be i n c l u d e d i n the proposed g u i d e l i n e s . The o v e r a l l r e s u l t w i l l be a f e a s i b i l i t y r e p o r t with a r e g i o n a l understanding of the i s s u e s i n v o l v e d and an emphasis on boundary extensions as p a r t of the o v e r a l l urban growth p r o c e s s . One key p r o c e d u r a l p o i n t , the d i s c r e t i o n a r y power of the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s remains i n the proposed procedures and g u i d e l i n e s . While the proposed new g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s , procedures, and g u i d e l i n e s represent perhaps a more t e c h n i c a l report on the f e a s i b i l i t y of a boundary e x t e n s i o n , the system i s open to many types of b i a s . The procedures and the report are not s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d to any s i n g l e or combination of mun i c i p a l departments to complete and i t i s not c l e a r whether one m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s appointee, and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d b i a s e s , w i l l r e t a i n that c o n t r o l f o r f u t u r e boundary e x t e n s i o n s . An e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l , the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , can provide a r e l a t i v e l y i m p a r t i a l overview of the p r o p o s a l without r e g i o n a l b i a s . The suggested procedures and g u i d e l i n e s w i l l not i d e n t i f y or provide a l l the answers and impact a n a l y s e s f o r comprehensive growth p l a n n i n g i s s u e s of the r e g i o n . They are onl y a p p r o p r i a t e for e v a l u a t i n g proposed boundary e x t e n s i o n s . They are not intended as s t r i c t r e g u l a t i o n s to be complied with i n every case nor i s i t expected that every boundary e x t e n s i o n w i l l comply p o s i t i v e l y with a l l the procedures and g u i d e l i n e s . The o b j e c t i v e i s to e v a l u a t e a l l p r o p o s a l s f o r boundary extension a g a i n s t d e s i r a b l e p l a n n i n g p r i n c i p l e s and f o r comparative e v a l u a t i o n a g a i n s t a l t e r n a t e p r o p o s a l s . . A weighting system T30 should not be emphasized as the importance of a p a r t i c u l a r procedure or g u i d e l i n e w i l l be p a r t i a l l y determined by time, circumstance, and l o c a l s p e c i f i c s would be given p r i o r i t y at the time of the a p p l i c a t i o n . An a d d i t i o n a l l i n k in the process would be strengthened i f the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t was f o r m a l l y allowed to a s s i s t e l e c t o r a l area c i t i z e n s i n t h e i r concerns over proposed e x t e n s i o n s . While t h i s i s f r e q u e n t l y the case in p r a c t i c e , the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t ' s r o l e with respect to e l e c t o r a l area r e s i d e n t s i s not c l e a r and doesn't assure that a l l r e l e v a n t i s s u e s w i l l be brought forward. The present p o l i t i c a l power balance, the m u n i c i p a l i t y versus the e l e c t o r a l area c i t i z e n through the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , i s weighted f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y . In summary, the o v e r a l l process of simple m u n i c i p a l boundary extensions should be p a r t of the l a r g e r growth process of the m u n i c i p a l i t y . For the m u n i c i p a l i t y to have f u l l c o n t r o l of p e r i p h e r a l growth, i t s land requirements must be brought under i t s c o n t r o l i n advance of a c t u a l development. T h i s i s necessary to allow f o r comprehensive p l a n n i n g and to prevent premature developments which c o u l d p r e j u d i c e the wise use of l a n d . The p r e f e r r e d o v e r a l l process i s given i n F i g u r e 12. 131 ON-GOING PLANNING i ] PROCESS IMPLEMENTATION OF PLAN INCORPORATE INTO OFFICIAL SETTLEMENT AND COMMUNITY PLANS REVIEW OF EXISTING SITUATION GENERATION AND EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE URBAN GROWTH STRATEGIES I DEVELOPMENT OF A PREFERRED URBAN GROWTH STRATEGY FIGURE 12: AN OVERALL PROCESS FOR BOUNDARY EXTENSION T32 7.5 IMPLICATIONS FOR PLANNING Given that the recommended changes to the boundary extension process are implemented there w i l l be the f o l l o w i n g a l t e r a t i o n s to the pl a n n i n g p r o c e s s . A. The changes w i l l ensure w e l l thought out and a p p r o p r i a t e p r o p o s a l s f o r boundary e x t e n s i o n that r e a l i z e and address the c o n s t r a i n t s of the s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n t e c h n i c a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y p r e f e r r e d growth p a t t e r n s . B. I t would r e s u l t i n r a t i o n a l and p a r a l l e l trends i n the demand f o r s e r v i c e s and development and investment p o l i c i e s and a base understanding of f a c t o r s d e f i n i n g the s p e c i f i c m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s ' n a t u r a l p l a n n i n g a r e a ' or some approximation of i t . C. 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