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The integration of selected groups of physically disabled men and women into the workforce in greater… Wood-Johnson, Faith Alvanley 1984

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THE INTEGRATION OF SELECTED GROUPS OF PHYSICALLY DISABLED MEN AND WOMEN INTO THE WORKFORCE IN GREATER VANCOUVER, 1982. By FAITH ALVANLEY WOOD-JOHNSON B.P.T., The U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF , THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE Health S e r v i c e s Planning i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Health Care and Epidemiology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e ^ r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1984 © F a i t h A l v a n l e y Wood-Johnson In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. . . c . Health Care and Epidemioloqy -Department of _ The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date October 14, 1984 ABSTRACT Th i s t h e s i s examines the job search and h i r i n g experiences of p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d people i n , or seeking t o enter the com p e t i t i v e workforce (as t h r e s h o l d workers) i n Greater Vancouver i n 1982. Estimates o f the number of d i s a b l e d people i n Canada vary, but t h e r e i s agreement t h a t t h e i r numbers are l i k e l y t o incr e a s e as more people l i v e longer t o develop d i s a b l i n g c o n d i t i o n s and as medical technology enables more people t o s u r v i v e a c c i d e n t s and di s e a s e t o become t e m p o r a r i l y or permanently d i s a b l e d . Although numbers are not known, th e r e i s a consensus t h a t d i s a b l e d people are under-represented in the workforce. A review of the l i t e r a t u r e suggested t h a t the v a r i a b l e s l i k e l y t o be important i n g e t t i n g work are: sex (male), the s a l i e n c e of the d i s a b i l i t y , socio-economic s t a t u s , education, j ob s k i l l s , s o c i a l s k i l l s , the job-search s t r a t e g y , access and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to the workplace and the h i r i n g procedure, e s p e c i a l l y the i n t e r v i e w . A l s o important are the a p p l i c a n t ' s s o c i a l support network, the p r e v a i l i n g economic c l i m a t e and c u r r e n t p o l i c i e s and l e g i s l a t i o n . A model was c o n s t r u c t e d from these v a r i a b l e s and a q u e s t i o n n a i r e designed. Four d i s a b i l i t y groups were chosen t o t e s t the model. S e l e c t i o n was made according t o t h e i r p o s i t i o n s along a g r a d i e n t of the s a l i e n c e of the d i s a b i l i t y : c e r e b r a l p a l s y (high s a l i e n c e ) , traumatic p a r a p l e g i a , b l i n d n e s s and e p i l e p s y (hidden d i s a b i l i t y ) . The c o n t r o l group c o n s i s t e d of people who had l e f t high school the previous year. i i N i n e t y n i n e s t a t i s t i c a l l y u s a b l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were o b t a i n e d . The computer program used was S P S S and t h e r e s u l t s were a n a l y s e d u s i n g a Y a t e s ' c o r r e c t i o n f o r s m a l l numbers. None o f t h e s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0.05 p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l . An unexpected, s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was f o u n d between m a r i t a l s t a t u s and employment: m a r r i e d p e o p l e a r e more l i k e l y t o be w o r k i n g . The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s might be g r e a t e r s o c i a l s u p p o r t and i n c e n t i v e f o r work. The d i s a b l e d p e o p l e s u r v e y e d a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y dependent on t h e f o r m a l s u p p o r t system o f p e n s i o n s and g u a r a n t e e d a v a i l a b l e income f o r need (GAIN) payments t o meet t h e i r b a s i c expenses o f f o o d , s h e l t e r and c l o t h i n g . No one w i t h c e r e b r a l p a l s y i s w o r k i n g . More b l i n d women t h a n b l i n d men a r e w o r k i n g . Most o f t h e s e women work i n t r a d i t i o n a l " f e m a l e g h e t t o " o f f i c e j o b s . None o f t h e c o n t r o l s has r e g u l a r , f u l l - t i m e work and t h i s sample proved t o be a n o t h e r employment-d i s a d v a n t a g e d group. The l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e chosen v a r i a b l e s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e envir o n m e n t may have more i n f l u e n c e on employment t h a n i n t r i n s i c f a c t o r s such as t h e t y p e o f d i s a b i l i t y . The economic r e c e s s i o n and d e p r e s s e d j o b market i s t h o u g h t t o have i n f l u e n c e d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s u r v e y . O t h e r f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d a r e s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , p o l i c y and l e g i s l a t i o n as a form o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l . A f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l t o complement e x i s t i n g f e d e r a l laws would f a c i l i t a t e t h e e n t r y o f i i i q u a l i f i e d , d i s a b l e d people i n t o the workforce. The aim of t h i s survey was t o gather information t o develop a s t r a t e g y t h a t would be u s e f u l to d i s a b l e d people look i n g f o r work. Such information was not obtained, t h e r e f o r e no s t r a t e g y can be recommended. Areas suggested f o r f u t u r e study are the r e l a t i o n s h i p of m a r i t a l s t a t u s t o employment of d i s a b l e d people; job r e t e n t i o n and promotion of people with s t a b l e d i s a b i l i t i e s such as the ones s t u d i e d here; the complementary r o l e s of v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and job placement s e r v i c e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia; the r o l e of d i s a b i l i t y agencies in v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and placement of d i s a b l e d people i n Greater Vancovuer; and the l o s s , i f any, t o the workforce of s k i l l e d workers who develop a d i s a b l i n g c o n d i t i o n such as rheumatoid a r t h r i t i s or m u l t i p l e s c l e r o s i s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT - i i INTRODUCTION: THE PROBLEM 1 CHAPTER I. FINDINGS FROM THE LITERATURE 2 A. THE IMPORTANCE OF WORK ' 2 B. UNEMPLOYMENT 3 . C. THE IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION 4 D. THE JOB SEARCH 5 1. Method 5 2. The Interview 6 E. THE STATUS OF DISABLED PEOPLE 9 1. S o c i a l Status 9 a) Deviance 9 b) Stigma 10 c) The Status of Disabled Women 11 d) S o c i a l I s o l a t i o n 12 2. Economic Status 13 a) Poverty 13 b) F i n a n c i a l D i s i n c e n t i v e s 14 F. TRANSPORTATION AND ACCESS 15 1. Transport 15 2. A r c h i t e c t u r e 16 v Page G. DEVELOPMENT OF A MODEL OF VARIABLES INFLUENCING THE JOB SEARCH AND HIRING 17 1. S o c i a l Support Network 19 2. The Job Search and H i r i n g Process 19 3. S o c i a l P o l i c y 21 4. L e g i s l a t i o n A f f e c t i n g the Employment of Disabled People 22 a) Income and Personal Maintenance 22 b) Vocational R e h a b i l i t a t i o n 27 c) .Human Rights L e g i s l a t i o n 28 d) Employment and Immigration Canada 30 5. Economic Climate .30 H. HYPOTHESES 32 1. Main Hypothesis - 32 2. S u b s i d i a r y Hypotheses 33 REFERENCES (CHAPTER I) 34 CHAPTER I I . METHODOLOGY 44 A. SCOPE 44 B. DEFINITIONS 44 1. Impairment 44 2. D i s a b i l i t y 45 3. Handicap 45 4. Blindness 45 5. Cerebral Palsy 46 v i Page 6. E p i l e p s y 46 7. Pa r a p l e g i a 46 8. Threshold-Worker 46 9. Work 47 C. DESIGN 47 1. Experimental Subjects 47 2. Control Subjects 49 3. Measuring Instrument 50 D. METHOD 51 1. Recruitment of Disabled Subjects 51 2. Recruitment of Control Subjects 53 3. Sample S e l e c t i o n 53 a) Disabled Subjects 53 b) Control Subjects 55 4. C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y 55 5. The Survey 57 E. RETURNS 59 F. SUBSTITUTION 62 G. DATA MANIPULATION 63 1. Coding 63 2. Data Entry / 63 3. Computer Program 63 v i i Page H. CHARACTER OF THE SAMPLE 64 1. D i s a b i l i t y 64 2. S a l i e n c e of the D i s a b i l i t y 65 3. Sex 66 4. Age 68 5. Employment Status 70 REFERENCES (CHAPTER II) 73 CHAPTER III.FINDINGS: TESTING THE MODEL 74 A. ATTRIBUTES 76 1. Sex 76 2. M a r i t a l Status 77 3. S a l i e n c e of the D i s a b i l i t y 78 4. Socio-Economic Status 79 B. EDUCATION 80 1. Type of School 80 2. Completion of High School Education 82 C. SOCIAL INTEGRATION 83 1. R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n 84 2. Recreation 84 a) Membership in an I n t e r e s t Group 86 D. JOB SKILLS 88 v i i i Page E. THE EMPLOYMENT SEARCH 89 1. Employment C o u n s e l l i n g 90 2. Agency A s s i s t a n c e 91 F. TRANSPORTATION AND ACCESS 93 6. THE HIRING PROCEDURE 96 H. DISCUSSION: MARITAL STATUS 97 I. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 99 REFERENCES (CHAPTER III) 102 CHAPTER IV. WORK AND SELECTED DISABILITIES 103 A. CEREBRAL PALSY 103 1. S a l i e n c e of the D i s a b i l i t y 103 2. L i v i n g Arrangements and Dependents 104 3. Work and Income 104 4. Education and Job S k i l l s 105 5. Experience and Perceptions 106 B. PARAPLEGIA 108 1. S a l i e n c e of the D i s a b i l i t y 109 2. L i v i n g Arrangements and Dependents 109 3. Work and Income 110 4. Education and Job S k i l l s 110 5. Experience and Perceptions 111 ix Page C. BLIND 112 1. S a l i e n c e of the D i s a b i l i t y 112 2. L i v i n g Arrangements and Dependents 113 3. Work and Income 114 4. Education and Job S k i l l s .115 5. Experience and P e r c e p t i o n s ' 116 D. EPILEPSY 117 1. L i v i n g Arrangements and Dependents 118 2. Work and Income 118 3. Education and Job S k i l l s 119 4. Experiences and P e r c e p t i o n s 120 E. CONTROLS 122 1. L i v i n g Arrangements and Dependents 122 2. Work and Income 122 3. Education and Job S k i l l s 123 4. Experiences and P e r c e p t i o n s 123 F. CONCLUSIONS 125 REFERENCES (CHAPTER IV) 126 CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FUTURE 127 A. UNEMPLOYMENT RATE OF DISABLED PEOPLE 128 B. EXPECTATIONS AND SEGREGATION 128 x Page C. SOCIAL CONTROL 130 1. V o c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s 131 2. Pensions 133 D. ATTITUDES 134 E. AFFIRMATIVE ACTION 136 G. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY 137 REFERENCES (CHAPTER V) 140 x i APPENDIX Page A. Questionnaire: Disabled Subjects 142 B. Questionnaire: Control Subjects 170 C. C h e c k - l i s t f o r S a l i e n c e of the D i s a b i l i t y 171 D. Voice of the Cerebral P a l s i e d (VCP) 176 E. Canadian P a r a p l e g i c A s s o c i a t i o n (CPA) 177 F. Canadian National I n s t i t u t e f o r the B l i n d (CNIB) 178 6. L e t t e r of I n t r o d u c t i o n : Disabled Subjects 179 H. L e t t e r of I n t r o d u c t i o n : Control Subjects 180 I. Follow up L e t t e r : Control Subjects 181 J . L e t t e r t o Control Subjects Requesting an Interview 182 K. Interview Consent Form 183 L. The Survey Process 184 M. Codebook 186 N. Age of Subject when Acquired D i s a b i l i t y 253 0. Number of Subjects Continuing T h e i r Education by Sample 256 P. Subjects Continuing T h e i r Education by Employment Status 257 Q. P r e - D i s a b i l i t y Earnings 258 R. Disabled Friends of Control Subjects 260 REFERENCES CITED 261 REFERENCES CONSULTED 270 x i i LIST OF TABLES Page I T o t a l Number of Subjects Surveyed by Mail and Interview 59 II S t a t i s t i c a l l y Usable Questionnaires Returned 61 III Sex of Subjects 67 IV Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects 69 V Employment Status of Disabled Subjects 71 VI Employment Status of Control Subjects 72 VII Employment Status of Disabled Persons According t o Sex 76 VIII M a r i t a l Status and Employment Status 77 IX S a l i e n c e of the D i s a b i l i t y and Employment Status 78 X Present Source of Income f o r Major Expenses 80 XI Type of School F i r s t Attended 82 XII High School Grade Completed 83 XIII R e c r e a t i o n a l and Spare Time A c t i v i t i e s 85 XIV O f f i c e r i n an I n t e r e s t Group 86 XV S p e c i f i c Job S k i l l s and Employment Status 88 XVI The R e l a t i o n s h i p of Employment C o u n s e l l i n g t o Work 91 XVII Method Used to get F i r s t Job 92 XVIII Agency A s s i s t a n c e in Finding Present Job 93 XIX Past Access Problems and Present Employment Status 95 XX Outcome of Threshold Workers' F i r s t Job Interview Compared with t h e i r Present Employment Status 96 XXI Employment Status According to L i v i n g Arrangements 99 x i i i Page XXII Age When D i s a b i l i t y was Acquired o r Diagnosed 254 XXIII Age When Acquired D i s a b i l i t y : By Employment Status 255 XXIV Number of Subjects Continuing T h e i r Education: By Sample 256 XXV Su b j e c t s Continuing T h e i r Education: By Employment Status 257 XXVI P r e - D i s a b i l i t y Earnings Compared with Present Earnings 259 x i v LIST OF FIGURES Page F i g u r e 1. V a r i a b l e s I n f l u e n c i n g the Job-Search and H i r i n g Process 18 F i g u r e 2. O u t l i n e of the V a r i a b l e s I n f l u e n c i n g the Job-Search and H i r i n g Process 74 xv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I should l i k e t o thank the f o l l o w i n g people f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t , support and p a t i e n c e d u r i n g the long g e s t a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s : My t h e s i s committee: Dr. Nancy Waxier Morrison f o r her u n f a i l i n g calm and Dr. Anne C r i c h t o n and Dr. Merle Ace f o r t h e i r encouragement. The agencies who g r a c i o u s l y made t h i s survey p o s s i b l e and e s p e c i a l l y my l i a i s o n person at each one: Ms. Mary Ann Roscoe a t the B r i t i s h Columbia-Yukon D i v i s o n of the Canadian N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r the B l i n d ; Mr. Vince M i e l e at the B r i t i s h Columbia D i v i s i o n o f the Canadian P a r a p l e g i c A s s o c i a t i o n and Mr. Rick Watson of the Voice of the C e r e b r a l P a l s i e d o f Greate r Vancouver. Dr. Michael W. Jones f o r h i s support and co o p e r a t i o n i n p e r m i t t i n g the i n c l u s i o n of h i s p a t i e n t s i n the survey. Mr. Ed Sherwood and the s t a f f of the Kinsmen R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Foundation of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t and a whole summer's use of the l i b r a r y a t the D i s a b l e d L i v i n g Resource Centre. Mr. Ronnie S i z t o f o r h i s computer e x p e r t i s e . Ms. Sherry S i c i l i a n o , Ms. P a t r i c i a Wood-Johnson and Mrs. Jan Zyda f o r t h e i r e x c e l l e n t t y p i n g . My f a m i l y and f r i e n d s who b e l i e v e d I c o u l d do i t . S p e c i a l thanks are due my respondents: the men and women who took the time t o complete and r e t u r n a lengthy q u e s t i o n n a i r e x v i and generously added comments or included letters . Together with the people who so courteously agreed to be interviewed they have made this document possible. I hope I have done them just ice . x v i i DEDICATION To the memory of my f a t h e r , Ernest Wood-Johnson 1899 - 1981 x v i i i 1 INTRODUCTION: THE PROBLEM This thesis examines the job search and hiring experiences of physically disabled people i n , or seeking to enter the competitive workforce in the Greater Vancovuer area in 1982. We do not know the number of disabled people in Canada. Statist ics Canada did not include disabi l i ty as a special category in the 1981 census questionnaire. If i t had, we might have a better estimate of the number of people disabled than the round two mi l l i on , or one in ten (or one in seven) of the Canadian population, that 1 2 are the usually quoted figures. ' It is expected that the number of disabled Canadians w i l l increase as more people l ive longer to develop chronic disabling conditions. As medical knowledge increases and technology improves, more people survive accidents and disease 3 to become temporarily or permanently disabled. Brown (1977) comments that although the federal government passed the Vocational Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons Act in 1961, no adequate data are available on disabled unemployment rates. 4 It was estimated that 1.6 mil l ion disabled Canadians of working age 5 were unemployed in 1977. Although absolute numbers are not known, there does seem to be a consensus that qualif ied, disabled people are under-represented in the workforce.6»7,8 ,9 ,10,11 Estimates of the number unemployed vary from f i f t y to ninety percent according 12 to the source. Another estimation suggests that in western, industrialized societies this unemployment rate is three or four 13 times that of the able-bodied unemployment rate. 2 One focus of the International Year of Disabled Persons was this problem of under employment. A one day workshop was held on this topic in Victor ia , B.C. on November 9th, 1981. The United Way of the Lower Mainland presented a series of workshops on Employment, Communication and Disabled Persons early in 1982. The Canadian Rehabilitation Council for the Disabled held a national conference in Toronto in March 1982 on the employment of disabled persons. The thrust, therefore, is for the integration of those people who, historically,have been either kept separate from society or been given a ward status out of charity. This thesis focuses on the job-search process and on the characteristics,both attributed and achieved, of the successful applicants. The Greater Vancouver area was considered to be a suitable place in which to conduct such a preliminary study as i t contains the bulk of Bri t i sh Columbia's population. It also has a wide industrial and commercial base. Data with this focus had not been collected before in this area and i t was hoped that the information obtained would prove helpful to d i sabi l i ty agencies and individuals in planning their employment-seeking strategies. CHAPTER 1. FINDINGS FROM THE LITERATURE A. THE IMPORTANCE OF WORK Neff (1971) considers work to be a form of social behaviour and emphasizes the need for the worker to cope with the social , 14 interpersonal and cultural demands of the work setting. Saf i l ios-Rothschild (1970) examines the place of work in western society, 3 specifically in the U.S.A. She writes that work is valued probably more this century than at any other time, not only for i ts instrumental value as a means of economic independence, but also for i t s part in the formation of identity and self-esteem. 1 5 i t is l ike ly that her observations apply to a l l countries, of which Canada is one, that were influenced by the protestant work ethic during the nineteenth century. Other writers confirm the importance of work, not only as an economic necessity, but for i ts social value to the individual concerned, 17,18,19,20,21 Gurney (1978) indicates that there is some evidence to suggest that moving from high school to a full-time job faci l i tates the school 22 leaver's psycho-social development. B. UNEMPLOYMENT Unemployment of those who are able and want to work has more than an economic effect. Hulbert (1981) writes that in a society where a person's definition of self is inextricably linked with his occupation, unemployment can have a catastrophic effect on his social status and self esteem.2 3 Tiffany, Cowan and Tiffany (1970) confirm t h i s . 2 4 Safilios-Rothschild (1970) notes that for those who became disabled after active participation in the workforce, return to employment is the criterion by which the success of the rehabilitation process is judged. 2 5 4 C. THE IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION Dayton (1981) studied young people entering the workforce for the f i r s t time. He found that those most l ikely to get work were males of higher socio-economic status and who had higher than average academic a b i l i t y . They also had some post secondary education, either academic or vocational. They were well motivated and set about their job search systematically. The importance of education in job-related s k i l l s has been emphasized by Lynch (1979) and Hulbert (1981) and is suggested by Finegan ( 1 9 7 8 ) . 2 7 ' 2 8 ' 2 9 Lotze (1981) in a discussion of German Vocational Training Centres for disabled suggests that disabled people need higher qualifications than the able-bodied in order to compete successfully 30 in the job market. Brown (1977) notes than many disabled Canadians are at a disadvantage in the competitive job market as they lack basic education. This is especially so when the market is t ight and education is used as a tool to screen many applicants for few 31 available jobs. Hollingsworth and Harris (1980) in a survey of handi-capped women found that the more education the woman had the more 32 l ike ly she was to be employed. 5 D. THE JOB SEARCH 1. Method Post-secondary education alone is no guarantee of employment. The job search i t se l f and the dynamics of the hiring interview are also important. In the U.S.A. between 1971 and 1975, nearly 12% of the three mill ion teenage graduates of secondary vocational programs were s t i l l unemployed several months after graduation. For 1975 33 alone, the figure was 14% of graduates unemployed. Hulbert (1981) refers to the United States Department of Labour Study which surveyed 10.4 mil l ion workers about methods they used to seek their present employment. The study also asked which method they found actually resulted in their obtaining that pos i t i on . 3 4 Hulbert (1981) analyzed the results and found that direct application to employers, asking friends about jobs where they work and answering local newspaper advertisements were not 35 only the most used methods, but also those found most effective. Granovetter (1974) asked male, professional, managerial and white-collar workers how they found their current jobs. He found the same three methods prominent. Personal contacts, in particular, played a very important part for those respondents under th i r ty-four years of age. Granovetter (1974) found that most personal contact information leading to a successful outcome came through acquaintances rather than friends. Acquaintances possess information which is l ike ly to be new; friends have more information in common. Also, such useful information came through a relatively short chain 6 of two or three people at the most. In a radio broadcast (C.B.C. Ideas, December 17, 1981), Granovetter elaborated on the results of such a short chain. If an employer rel ies on his employees to disseminate job-vacancy information, one result is that the demo-graphic nature of the workgroup is l ike ly to be maintained. He gave the examples of men of Italian origin working in the construction industry; and white, anglo-saxon,protestant women 38 being telephone operators. This raises the possibi l i ty that a workgroup might also maintain i t se l f in this way as a l l able-bodied or a l l disabled. 2. The Interview At the hiring interview the applicant is competing on a social level with others seeking the job. Lynch (1979) refers to the Final Report of Statewide Employer Survey carried out by the Texas Advisory Council for Vocational and Technical Education. The employers surveyed gave five main reasons for rejecting job applicants from vocational and technical programs. These reasons were: 1. L i t t l e interest, or poor reasons for wanting the job. 2. Inabil ity to communicate during the interview. 3. Poor manners. 4. Poorly f i l l e d out application form. 39 5. Appearance. 7 The f i r s t three points indicate a lack of acceptable social s k i l l s . A well f i l l e d out application form is the result of a learning process which can only start once the individual is aware that this is important. Lynch (1979) gives no further indication of what is meant by "appearance". This could range from choice of clothes, degree of personal cleanliness and grooming, hairstyle,to a v i s ib le , physical impairment. The importance of the interview and the application forms is confirmed by the results of a survey of seven hundred and sixty-three youth-opportunity counsellors from forty-eight American states. The counsellors identified the two major handicaps of young people entering the job market as being an inabi l i ty to f i l l out forms and a lack of s k i l l in handling job interviews. 4 0 Using data gathered from two f i e ld experiments, Springbett (1958) concluded that the interviewer is not only looking for some-one who w i l l f i t into the social milieu of the workplace, but also has to remember that he may be sanctioned i f he chooses someone who turns out to be a poor employee. The interviewer, therefore, is l ike ly to be sensitive to any negative evidence and may weight 41 this heavily when reaching the hiring decision. Nagi, McBroom and Collette (1972) found a similar tendency to exclude when in doubt. 4 2 The information used in reaching this decision is the written application form and the applicant's appearance and manner, or social presentation of self . Carlson (1967) and Springbett (1958) found that unless the applicant is assessed 8 favourably on both paper and appearance the probability of being hired is very low: about 1 in 1 0 . 4 3 ' 4 4 In 85% of the cases studied by Springbett (1958), the interviewer made the hiring 45 decision within three minutes of seeing the applicant. In laboratory settings, Dipboye, Fromkin and Wiback (1975) and Dipboye, Arvey and Terpstra (1977) found students in both studies demonstrated a bias against hiring less physically "attractive" candidates. Professional interviewer-subjects in the second study were more l ike ly to hire on the basis of attractiveness and sex (male), especially i f the candidates showed equal scholastic 46 47 achievement. Werner (1982) and Teff (1979) stress the importance of applicants entering the interview room with a clear idea of what they can offer the employer, and also what they want to do within the f irm. The employer cannot do this basic thinking for the candidate . 4 8 ' 4 9 The interview is also a time when the applicant with a hidden impairment such as cystic f ibrosis , epilepsy or haemophilia cn c i cp 53 may, or may not, disclose this information.- ' ' ' Limited disclosure is often recommended by helping agencies. People using the vocational services of the Vancouver Neurological Centre are advised not to write on the application form that they have epilepsy, but to disclose i t once they have been offered, and 54 accepted a job. 9 E. THE STATUS OF DISABLED PEOPLE 1. Social Status Kutner (1971), Wright (1960) and Safilios-Rothchild (1970) a l l confirm the low social status of disabled p e o p l e . 5 5 ' 5 6 ' 5 7 Some of the reasons for this low status can be analyzed under the concepts of deviance and stigma. The social status of disabled women w i l l also be discussed. a) Deviance A deviant is one who transgresses a culturally valued norm of society. The concept is thus culturally defined and that co eg definition may vary over time in a given society. ' Erikson (1966) states that deviants are an essential part of society. By their behaviour or characteristics they demonstrate the positions of the normative boundaries. 6 0 Safilios-Rothschild (1970) notes that although disabled people may transgress the culturally valued norms of physical integrity, and possibly those of independence and self-reliance, there are differences between them and other categories of deviants. They did not choose to be born with, or to develop their impairments. Therefore they cannot be held responsible for their disabled state. She also observes that the disabled individual has usually spent at least some time under the aegis of an institution of social control (medical treatment) which has failed to eradicate the deviance, despite the presumed cooperation of the individual concerned.6^ 10 b) Stigma Goffman (1963) writes extensively on the social identity spoiled by a stigma which he defines as "an attribute which is C O deeply discredit ing." Face to face contact with someone who is stigmatised creates tension for both parties. The onus is usually on the stigmatised person to relieve this tension. Recent articles give hints to personnel managers on how they might share some of the burden of this activity during an employment CO CA C t interview with a disabled person. i) V i s i b i l i t y and Obtrusiveness (Salience) Goffman (1963) describes the v i s i b i l i t y of a stigma as how wel l , or how badly, the stigma is adapted to provide means of communicating to others that the individual has i t . 5 5 This communication does not depend on sight alone, although i t is through that sense that the majority of stigmatized individuals become known. Some impairments such as diabetes and controlled epilepsy may be concealed successfully. Others, such as stuttering, depend on the sense of hearing to be identif ied. One of the components of v i s i b i l i t y is what Goffman (1963) terms obtrusiveness. That i s , how much the stigma interferes with the flow of personal interactions. He suggests that the stigma of paraplegia is less obtrusive at a business meeting, where everyone is seated, than is the speech impediment of the stutterer whose stigma creates tension for the meeting every time he opens his mouth to speak. 6 7 11 As the word obtrusiveness is somewhat clumsy, this thesis w i l l substitute the term salience. c) The Status of Disabled Women Just as able-bodied women have a lower social status than able-bodied men, so disabled women are relegated to a lower status than disabled m e n . 6 8 ' 6 9 ' 7 0 ' 7 1 Fine and Asch (1981) term this 7? "sexism without the pedestal". Women usually l ive longer than men and are more l ike ly to develop chronic or disabling conditions. Kutza (1981) reports that the U.S.A. Census of 1976 showed that more women than men not only reported themselves as disabled when asked, but also reported more serious work limitations as a result 73 of their d i s ab i l i ty . There is no reason to believe the Canadian experience would be different. Thurer (1982) maintains that the dearth of literature on the concerns of disabled women indicates a bias among the researchers. 7 4 Vash (1982) notes that in the U.S.A. the vocational rehabilitation services expanded after the second world war when women and the disabled were squeezed out of the labour market by 75 returning veterans. At the same time the sheltered workshop movement was expanded to keep disabled workers out of the competitive market. She reports a study of men and women vocational rehabilitation clients for the f i sca l year 1976 that showed considerable discrepancy in the outcomes for men and women: 12 Men Women Remained non-wage earning 4% 30% Entered Industrial Occupation 76 Mean Weekly Earnings $112.00 46% $63.00 12% d) Social Isolation The outcome of deviance and stigma is the creation and maintenance of social distance between the general population and the person considered flawed. Safilios-Rothschild (1970) mentions the segregation which is the result of disabled people being encouraged to interact with others who are disabled. Examples of this are sheltered workshops and special schools. These l imit the opportunities for occupational, social and recreational contact with the non-disabled population. In this way social and t e r r i t o r i a l distances are maintained. 7 7 MacGregor, Abel, Bryt, Lauer and Weissmann (1953) give one reason for the desire to maintain social distances as the social premium placed on physical attractiveness. The disabled person is s t i l l a member of the larger society and w i l l have internalized a l l of society's low valuation of the disabled state. This adds 78 to his or her feelings of isolation. Wright (1960) echoes th i s , stating that the underprivileged position in society of a disabled person imposes two kinds of hardships: the restrictions imposed by the dominant society, and the person's own feelings of devaluation because of his or her 79 handicap. 13 The practice of social distancing is seen in Johnson's (1976) study of counsellors in f i f t y private employment agencies in Dallas, Texas. A woman in a wheelchair applied for a receptionist-typist position. The responses of the counsellors were compared with their responses when the applicant presented herself as she really was: able-bodied. Analysis showed that the counsellors considered a paraplegic woman more suitable for positions where 80 she would have minimal exposure to the public. Seifert (1979) surveyed one thousand, eight hundred and seventy-nine working people, ranging from apprentices through blue-and white-collar workers to supervisors, from thirty-three firms in Linz, Austria. He found that eighty-five to ninety-five percent of his respondents believed that supervisors preferred non-disabled workers, even i f the disabled workers had equal qualifications. In addition, f i f t y to seventy-five percent of respondents pleaded for partial or complete segregation and isolation of disabled workers. 8 1 2. Economic Status a) Poverty Disabil i ty is not confined to any one socio-economic group. However, the Report of the Special Committee on the Disabled and Handicapped (Obstacles, 1981) points out that disabled people have an added financial cost to the other costs incurred by their d i s ab i l i ty . "Clothes wear out more quickly, taxis must be taken 82 more often, attendant care may be required." Special equipment 14 may not be covered by insurance plans and this is also a financial drain. Acton (1981) found that studies show a high correlation between the incidence of d i sabi l i ty and poverty. The presence of a disabled family-member increases the family's operating costs, 83 especially i f that person is not employed. It is l i k e l y , therefore, that disabled people may be over-represented in the lowest socio-economic stratum in Canada. b) Financial Disincentives Linked with poverty is the problem of financial disincen-tives . In Canada some financial provision is made for those who cannot support themselves. Most of these allowances are paid only i f the recipient does not work, or in the case of the Guaranteed Available Income for Need (GAIN) in B.C.,earns no more than a hundred dollars a month, before the allowance is reduced proportion-ately. If people receiving this form of financial assistance realize that i t w i l l be reduced or cut off i f they accept employment, they need to calculate whether the money earned w i l l leave them in a better financial position than before. If not, then they have to consider whether the combined tangible and intangible costs of finding and holding down a job outweigh the b e n e f i t s . 8 4 ' 8 5 ' 8 6 ' 8 7 ' Increasing recognition is being given to this problem. Changes in legislation are usually required to change the incentives. Steps in this direction have been taken by, among others, Belgium, France and the United Kingdom, at the federal 15 level in the U.S.A., and at the state level in California. Similar proposals for Canada were supported by the Saskatchewan Social Services Minister in 1979, but have not yet been taken up 92 by either the federal government, or the other provinces. F. TRANSPORTATION AND ACCESS For the purpose of this thesis access is considered in i ts broadest sense of location, transport and architecture. 1. Transport There seems to be a geographical l imit beyond which people are not prepared to travel to and from their work. This applies to the able-bodied as well as the disabled. It may be influenced by personal preference and the type of transport available. Many disabled people have some form of mobility impairment which makes travell ing d i f f i cu l t and, i f they have to use public transport, impossible for some. In many c i t i e s , custom transit vehicles such as the Handibus (Calgary) and HandyDart (Vancouver) are available. These do, however, tend to cost the user more than the regular bus service would, even i f heavily subsidized. In January 1982 a one way t r ip on the Vancouver HandyDart cost $1.00. These custom transit vehicles do not allow for much f l e x i b i l i t y in travel arrangements. Those people who are able and can afford to drive their own cars have a distinct advantage in both searching for jobs as well as commuting to them once hired. For many years disabled people in the United Kingdom have been provided with invacars for the purpose of getting to and 16 from work. These are three-wheeled, light-bodied cars for the personal use of the owner only. These cars have many disadvantages (not very stable, small range and no room for passengers), and there are plans to phase them out in favour of modified regular cars. Nevertheless they have enabled many people with mobility impairments to get and hold down a job. 2. Architecture The study of architectural and environmental barriers is a f i e l d in i t se l f and I do not propose to do more than mention i t 94 95 96 here. ' ' In the opinion of the Ontario Federation for the Physically Handicapped, "Architectural inaccessibil ity is one of 9 7 the most overt barriers to employment of handicapped persons." Even reaching an employment counsellor may be a problem. In 1978 the headquarters of the Ministry of Community and Social Services in Toronto was inaccessible to a l l but the able-bodied because of 98 i ts steps and heavy doors. The Department of Employment and Immigration is in the process of ensuring that a l l i t s offices are accessible. There is some evidence to suggest that inaccessibility of the workplace may be used as a reason for not hiring disabled people. In Israel i t is mandatory to employ disabled veterans. Financial grants are available to help employers make their buildings accessible. (Canada has similar grants ). In a survey of employers in Israel, Florian (1981) found that the most common reason given for not hiring disabled veterans was that the work-17 place was not accessible. This reason was given not only by those ignorant of the grants, but also by those who were aware of their existence. Access problems were thus seen as an acceptable reason for not hir ing . Florian (1981) does not speculate as to 9 9 what the real reasons might have been. MacLachlan (1980) terms this the "lack of accessibil ity myth" and notes that i t does not apply to people with epilepsy or diabetes or to those who have a history of cancer or alcoholism. Yet, he claims, people who admit to these often have as much trouble getting jobs as do the wheel-chair-bound. 1 0 0 Harris and Harris (1977) note that architectural barriers also serve as a form of social control by isolating people with mobility impairments. They cite a new hospital building at the University of Kansas Medical Centre where a l l the patient-service areas were made accessible. The laboratories and office spaces were not accessible, indicating that disabled people are only meant to receive services, not provide them. 1 0 1 The same authors also observe that the elimination of architectural barriers usually 102 makes movement easier for everyone, not just the disabled. G. DEVELOPMENT OF A MODEL OF VARIABLES INFLUENCING THE JOB SEARCH AND HIRING  A model that includes the main elements of work-preparation and the job-search process is shown in Figure 1. Variables that are peripheral to the focus of the survey are included for completeness but w i l l not be examined in any deta i l . F i g u r e 1 VARIABLES INFLUENCING THE JOB SEARCH ANO HIRING PROCESS "SOCIAL SUPPORT NETWORK' ATTRIBUTES' Sex Socio-economic s t a t u s D i s a b i l i t y - c o n g e n i t a l / a c q u i r e d - v i s i b l e stigma - s a l i e n c e -) EDUCATION Type o f s c h o o l r e g u l a r / s p e c i a l No. o f Years a t t e n d e d Academic l e v e l a t t a i n e d Job C o u n s e l l i n g JOB SKILLS' C e r t i f i c a t e s E l i g i b i l i t y f o r union membership S k i l l s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e c u r r e n t j o b market -> SOCIAL SKILLS I n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s l e a r n e d through i n t e r -a c t i o n w i t h f a m i l y , f r i e n d s , t e a c h e r s , s t o r e - c l e r k s , bank t e l l e r s , e t c . co EMPLOYMENT SEARCH  Methods used A p p l i c a t i o n p r o c e s s : l e t t e r s , t e l e p h o n e , p e r s o n a l v i s i t s P e r s i s t e n c e - d i s c o u r a g e d worker -> ACCESS TRANSPORT I JOB OFFER POLICY LEGISLATION ECONOMIC CLIMATE HIRING PROCEDURE In t e r v i e w Job T e s t i n g I NO JOB OFFER 19 1. Social Support Network A person's social support network varies during his or her l ifetime. Its roots are in the family. This network expands and contracts and the type of support given shifts according to changes in the subject's l i f e . 2. The Job Search and Hiring Process Figure 1 shows that the attributes of an individual can directly influence the education he receives. Schools in high socio-economic neighbourhoods may place more emphasis on post-secondary professional and academic education than might schools in poorer neighbourhoods. A person with a d i sabi l i ty may be sent to a special school where, by the nature of the d i sab i l i ty , there may be an emphasis on communication (e.g. for deafness), or on motor act ivi t ies of daily l i v i n g . Hours may be spent on these tasks by the disabled ch i ld . Meanwhile, his non-disabled peers w i l l be gaining academic and vocational s k i l l s . Both education and attributes influence the range of social s k i l l s the individual acquires. An extreme example is a disabled child from a poor family sent to a residential school specializing in teaching children with her d i sab i l i ty . She w i l l have less opportunity to learn as many social s k i l l s as w i l l a normal child from a richer family, attending regular school and involved out of school in a multitude of recreational and social act iv i t ies such as skiing, music and dancing. This second child w i l l learn to interact with children who may not attend her school 20 and also with other adults who are not her parents or schoolteachers. The disabled ch i ld , in comparison, is socially isolated from a l l but her disabled peers, schoolteachers and immediate family. Post secondary education prepares the individual for working l i f e . Educational s k i l l s learned at this level , together with social s k i l l s in everyday interactions, comprise a person's job s k i l l s . Job s k i l l s are only of value i f there is a market for them. At work an individual is expected not only to perform the task, but also to interact with fellow employees, supervisors and subordinates. The employment search is carried out using various methods which can be documented. The outcome of a successful job search is the granting of an interview where the candidate competes on a social level with other applicants. The employer is looking for someone who is not only qualified to do the job, but who w i l l also " f i t i n " to the existing workgroup. From the literature i t appears that some candidates f a i l because of poor manners, which can be interpreted as poor social s k i l l s . There is some indication that the appear-ance of some disabled people might affect the outcome of the interview. A disabled person may also have problems getting transport to the workplace or access to the place where the interviews are being conducted. He may not find until the interview i t se l f that the workplace is inaccessible. This process occurs within the larger framework of public policy and legislation and the prevailing economic climate. 21 3. Social Policy Social Policy w i l l be mentioned briefly here as i t is not the focus of the study. Titmuss (1974) describes policy as the principles governing 103 action that is directed towards given ends. He notes that a value-free approach to policy-making is not possible and there-fore the makers of policy, governments in the case of social policy, have a responsibility to make their values c l e a r . 1 0 4 The nature and thrust of social policy is determined by the dominant ideology of the time. Ideology is a systematic scheme or 1 QC coordinated body of concepts about human l i f e and culture. It becomes operational as the integrated assertions, theories and aims that comprise a social programme.105 Howards,'Breton and Nagi (1980) and Albrecht (1976) agree that policy is action-oriented according to normative values. Social policies are developed in relation to perceived problems, that is problems that have become salient and about which society agrees that something should be done. These policies are frequently supported by the law and enforced by legal sanctions. They embody the values of society and affect the ut i l i za t ion of resources. They often reflect compromises made by p o l i t i c a l interest n m m c 107,108 groups. ' Rice (1979) confirms that social policy is inextricably bound up with economic policy,each affecting the other to a great ex tent . 1 0 9 22 Aucoin (1979) describes the three dimensions of public policy as being coercive, distributive and systemic. It is coercive in that the government is able to bring upon i t s citizens the f u l l force of i t s authority, including sanctions. It is distributive in that i t allocates goods and services, rights and privileges in socio-economic affairs . It is systemic in that i t exercises po l i t i c a l authority across the complete range of public affairs whether these affairs are continuous or n o t . * * 0 Wallace (1950) points out that in democratic countries i t is agreed that the state exists for the well being of i t s citizens and not the reverse, even though there may be disagreement as to what exactly constitutes the welfare of the people. 1** Public policy is the basis on which action is taken to ensure these ends. Legislation is the means by which these ends are achieved. 4. Legislation Affecting the Employment of Disabled People Legislation is a manifestation of social policy. Federal and provincial legislation pertinent to the employment of disabled people f a l l s into three main categories: income and personal maintenance, vocational rehabilitation and employment and human rights. a) Income and Personal Maintenance Brown (1977) describes two levels of income security: a temporary need unti l the person can get work and permanent support for those who cannot work. She cites several means by which, in 23 theory, disabled people could obtain money. These are usually 112 dependent on a definition of inabi l i ty to work. i) Compensation Payments Some allowances are given according to the cause of the d i s ab i l i ty , for example Veterans' Disabil i ty Pensions and Workers' Compensation Board Pensions. Both these are calculated according to the severity of the residual impairment. They are not meant to be income-replacement, as recipients may also work, but in some cases the pension may be deducted from other income. Compensation for injuries sustained in a motor vehicle accident also comes into 113 this causal category. i i ) The Canada Assistance Plan 1966-67 This plan provides aid, as goods or services, to : " a person in need who, by employment (or) d i sab i l i ty is found to be unable to provide adequately for himself".114 The cost of this Plan is shared equally between the federal and provincial governments. A means test is required before benefits are granted and there is a deliberate exclusion of the working p o o r . 1 1 5 Services such as the provision of a homemaker and rehabi l i-tation services and counselling could be useful to disabled people, but the main criterion for e l i g i b i l i t y is that these services are provided only to people either receiving, or l ike ly to receive welfare. Services that might help with education are specif ical ly e x c l u d e d . 1 1 6 ' 1 1 7 The Liquid Asset Exemption states that recipients may keep only a certain amount of savings in the 24 bank. In 1981 this cei l ing was $1,500 for a single person and $2,500 for a family. The special Committee on the Disabled and the Handicapped recommended in i ts Report (Obstacles) that this n o cei l ing be raised. After this Act was passed in 1967 the federal government made provision to allow the provinces to phase out their services under two earlier Acts: The Disabled Persons Act (1954) and the Blind Persons Act (1951) and transfer existing recipients to the Canada Assistance Plan. Some provinces phased these out slowly as the new programme is less advantageous for the government and more advantageous for the recipients. Br i t i sh Columbia continued 11Q to provide assistance under the earlier Act unti l 1973. The residual welfare model of this Act has i t s roots in the English Elizabethan Poor Law of 1601 taken by colonists to the New World, either formally or in s p i r i t . There is an emphasis on work being available for a l l who can do i t and some 1 ?0 small provision made for those "deserving" people who cannot. i i i ) Br i t i sh Columbia, Guaranteed Available Income for Need (GAIN) Act, 1976 (amended 1979) This welfare Act provides for income assistance and social services for those in need and is administered by the Provincial 121 122 Ministry of Human Resources. ' It is the Province's means of f u l f i l l i n g i t s part of the Canada Assistance Plan. A means test is required and in 1982, the year of this study, the maximum savings in the bank allowed for a single unemployable recipient under f i f ty - f ive was $500.00. 25 The assumption is that work is available for those who can do i t and "employable" GAIN recipients are expected to register 1 2 3 with Manpower and look for work. Handicapped people in the eighteen to sixty-four age group were allowed maximum assets of $2,500 (single) and $5,000 (family) in 1982. The monthly amount received is divided into a fixed Support Allowance and a variable Shelter Allowance. In Apri l 1982 a single handicapped person's support allowance was $305.74. The maximum shelter allowance was $200.00 A family of three with one handicapped adult would receive a support allowance of $630.00 and a shelter allowance of $410.00. Handicapped recipients, single or family, were allowed an additional income of $100.00 a month before 1 2 4 their GAIN cheques were reduced proportionately. The definition of "unearned income" which is deducted tota l ly from the GAIN payment is broad. Included are war di sabi l i ty pensions, military pensions, War Veterans' Allowances and Workers' Compensation or d i sabi l i ty pensions. If the recipient is over sixty years old he or she is allowed to keep these without 125 penalty. An argument could be made that income from these sources has been earned involuntarily and at a personal cost to the recipient. People classif ied as unemployable could, in 1982 obtain another $50.00 a month without penalty by volunteering in a 1 2 6 Community Involvement Program (CIP). Work at Vancouver's Food Bank where donated food is distributed free to those in need is an example of work which qualified a recipient for this extra 26 money. In the Fal l of 1983 the re-elected Social Credit government deleted this provision as part of i t s controversial Restraint Budget: a u t i l i t a r i an rather than a humanitarian act. iv) Canada Pension Plan Disabi l i ty benefits became payable under this Plan in 1970 for working people who become disabled after contributing for at least f ive of the ten years prior to their d i sab i l i ty . There is a three month waiting period and the amount received is a f l a t rate component plus seventy-five percent of the estimated retirement pension the individual would have had i f he or she retired at s ixty-f ive . If the person recovers and returns to work the Plan is f lexible enough to allow for a t r i a l period without penalty. If , once the pension has stopped, the impairment returns, the 1 27 payments w i l l be reinstated without a delay and may be backdated. Brown's (1977) crit ic ism of this Plan is that the e l i g i b i l i t y rules exclude those people who have never worked and those (often women) who have not worked continuously or long enough to qualify. The three-month waiting period assumes that unemployment insurance and other forms of assistance w i l l be provided. The level of benefits is often too low as no account is taken of dependents and ] 28 CPP benefits are often deducted from those paid by other plans. If these two federal and one provincial Act are considered together from the position of a disabled person requiring income maintenance i t appears that what is given with one hand is taken away with the other. What remains, though, w i l l support a minimal standard of l i v i n g . A disabled individual with some impaired 27 mobility would need a job paying more than minimum wage for i t to be worth giving up even this meagre assistance. b) Vocational Rehabilitation Brown (1977) notes that vocational rehabilitation in Canada was started to assist disabled veterans of World War I I . It has been claimed that the Department of Veterans' Affairs was able to place ninety-five percent of disabled veterans in the 129 regular workforce. One reason for this high rate of success was that certain public sector jobs, such as those at the post-office, were reserved for veterans. This veterans' scheme is now not so important in Canada as that clientele is aging. Two other systems remain: that governed by Workers' Compensation legislation ; and the general system governed by the Vocational Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons Act, 1961. The Workers' Compensation legislation covers both medical and vocational rehabilitation. The programmes vary from province to province and the number of people taking part is small relative to the total number i n j u r e d . 1 3 0 As early as 1953 the federal government signed agreements with the provinces to provide modest financial assistance for the development of vocational rehabilitation programmes. The funds were made available under Orders in Council rather than through legis lat ion. At the same time a federal Co-ordinator for Rehabili-131 tation was appointed at the Department of Labour. The Vocational Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons Act, 1961 (VRDP) superseded this rather informal arrangement. This 28 Act provides for equal federal-provincial cost-sharing in the operating, not the capital , cost of the vocational rehabilitation services. This means the province has either to provide the 132 f a c i l i t i e s , or to subsidize an agency to provide them. In Br i t i sh Columbia the Vocational Rehabilitation Service (VRS), formerly Community Vocational Rehabilitation Services, administers this Act by coordinating assessment, remedial and restorative services, counselling and sponsorship for academic and vocational training in local institutions. The VRS Program is located within the Ministry of Labour and is based in part on the use of local committees. Each committee is composed of a rehabilitation counsellor from VRS, representatives from Canada Employment and the Ministry of Human Resources, a consulting physician and representatives from community agencies. Each committee carries a caseload and plans an individual program for each c l ient . Brown (1979) comments that access to VRDP services is restricted as i t excludes children, the aged and those people judged unlikely to obtain or to return to work. There is also a tendency to reject people over f i f t y years o l d . 1 3 4 c) Human Rights Legislation B i l l C-25, the Canadian Human Rights Act,was passed in 1977. The Human Rights Commission was established soon after-wards and the f inal sections of the Act proclaimed as law early in 1978. This Act prohibits: " discriminatory employment 135 practices based on physical handicap" unless there is a bona-fide occupational requirement. The onus is on the employer 29 to provide objective proof before a bona-fide occupational require-13fi ment can be established. This Act applies to a l l federal government departments, agencies and crown corporations as well as business, industries and 137 associations under federal jur i sdict ion. i t does not give disabled people formal protection from discrimination in the provision of goods, services and accommodation. Nevertheless, Section 22(h) states that the Commission shall encourage a l l under i t s jurisdict ion to make goods, services and accommodation that are available to the able-bodied equally available to-"physically handicapped 138 persons". The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms states that every individual is equal before and under the law and prohibits discrimination based on physical or mental d i sab i l i ty . This does not preclude any law, programme or act iv i ty , such as affirmative action,that is aimed at improving " conditions of disadvantaged 139 individuals or groups". The Human Rights Code of Bri t i sh Columbia provides general redress for discrimination but is limited to the investigation and resolution of individual complaints. 1 4 0 The B.C. Government's Restraint Budget in the Fall of 1983 included a provision to dismantle the Provincial Human Rights Commission and replace i t with a five-member, appointed Human Rights Council. This w i l l give the government more control over the process and outcome of cases brought before the Council. A new Human Rights Act that w i l l replace the Human Rights Code is proposed. This Act w i l l include protection specifically for physically and 141 mentally handicapped people. 30 d) Employment and Immigration Canada Employment and Immigration Canada's "Program for the Employment Disadvantaged", started in 1981, aims at stimulating continuing employment in the private sector for mentally and physically handicapped and other employment-disadvantaged people. The program provides financial incentives in the form of wage-subsidies and reimbursement for such costs as adapting the work-place, or the purchase of special equipment or protective clothing that is required by the disabled person at work. The subsidies are substantial: eighty-five percent of gross wages paid for the f i r s t thirteen weeks, f i f t y percent of gross wages paid for the next twenty-six weeks and twenty-five percent of gross wages paid for a further twenty-six weeks. The l imit is $10,000.00 per worker. The employer may also claim up to $5,000.00 for workplace modifications or the provision of special equipment to enable the disabled person to do the job, and up to a further $100.00 for protective clothing and equipment not normally supplied to other workers. The employment must be f u l l time and continuous for twelve 142 months per year. 5. Economic Climate Over forty years ago Beveridge (1942) commented that the state of the labour market determines whether disabled people are employed. He cites the wartime work in England of women and handicapped people whose labour was needed once the able-bodied 143 people had been conscripted. This was truly a case of the last 31 hired, f i r s t f ired as most of these people were eased out of their jobs when the service-men were demobilised after the war. The unemployment rate in Vancouver was very high during the latter half of 1982 when the data for this thesis were being collected. It was to rise even higher afterwards. In summary, getting a job depends on a person's attributes, education, social and job-sk i l l s , the methods used in the job-search and whether he had any problems with transport or access to the workplace. His appearance and manner at the interview are also important. A good social-support network confirms the individual's self-worth and provides encouragement in the search. Policy, legislation and the economic climate influence not only the extent of the job-market, but also who has access to jobs and on what terms. 32 H. HYPOTHESES Findings from the literature and an examination of the model suggest several testable hypotheses. This study investigated the variables of the job-search and hiring process only. * I . Main Hypothesis The null hypothesis states that there w i l l be no difference between physically disabled threshold-workers and able-bodied threshold-workers in finding and securing work. + The alternate hypothesis states that physically disabled threshold-workers are less l ike ly than able-bodied threshold workers to find and secure work. If the null hypotheses is not supported: Employed Not Employed Disabled - + Able-bodied + *The micro-environment of the subjects' social-support networks, other than family, and the macro-environment of policy, legislation and the economy are not the focus of this thesis. + A threshold-worker is one who is looking for his or her f i r s t job. 33 2. Subsidiary Hypotheses The variables of the model give rise to the following, testable subsidiary hypotheses: a) If the subject is male, then he w i l l be employed. b) If the d i sabi l i ty is not salient, then the person w i l l be employed. c) If the subject attended regular school, then he w i l l be employed. d) If the subject has post-secondary education or training, then he w i l l be employed. e) If the subject has had job-counselling, then he w i l l be employed. f) If the subject does not experience architectural ba r r i e r s , then he w i l l be employed. g) If the subject does not experience transport-barriers, then he w i l l be employed. 34 REFERENCES (CHAPTER 1) 1. Canada, Obstacles. Report of the Special Committee on the Disabled and the Handicapped, 1981, Feb., 131. 2. Muir, Marilyn. Last to be hired, f i r s t to be fired - the physically handicapped worker in Canada. Physiotherapy Canada. 1978, 30(3):128-134. 3. International Labour Office. Vocational Rehabilitation of the Disabled. Full Participation and Equality. 1981, Geneva, 4. 4. Brown, Joan C. A Hit and Miss Affa ir . Policies for Disabled People in Canada. 1977, The Canadian Council on Social Development, Ottawa, 265. 5. Axworthy, Lloyd. Meeting the Needs of Disabled People Within a Changing Economy. Rehabilitation International World Congress 1980, Winnipeg, Plenary Session Papers, 39. 6. Canada, Obstacles, 31. 7. Kettle, Melvyn. Disabled People and their Employment, 1979, London, Association of Disabled Professionals. 8. Workshop on Employment of the Disabled, Victoria , B.C. City Ha l l , Nov. 9, 1981. 9. Hammerman, Susan R. and Maikowski, Stephen. The Economics of Disabil i ty from an International Perspective. Annual  Review of Rehabilitation edited by Elizabeth L. Pan, Thomas E. Backer and Carolyn L. Vash, 1983, Springer, New York:178-202. 10. Begin, Monique. Structuring Society for Integration, Rehabilitation International, op.cit. ,11-13. 11. Greenland, C y r i l . Vision Canada. The Unment Needs of Blind Canadians. 1976,v.1. The Canadian National Institute for the Blind, Toronto, 41. 12. Canada, Obstacles, 31. 13. Hammerman, Susan R. and Maikowski, Stephen, op.cit . ,198. 35 14. Neff, Walter S. Rehabilitation and Work, in Rehabilitation Psychology, Walter S. Neff ed., 1971, Washington, D.C. Am. Psychological Association. 15. Safilios-Rothschild, Constantina. The Sociology and Social Psychology of Disabil i ty and Rehabilitation, 1970, New York, Random House, 194. 16. Larson, David R. and Spreitzer, Elmer A. The Disabled Role, Affluence and the Meaning of Work, J . of Rehabilitation, 1970, July-August, 36(4):29-32. 17. Tiffany, Donald W., Cowan, James R. and Tiffany, Phyll is M. The Unemployed: A Social Psychological Portrait , 1970, tnglewood C l i f f s , Prentice Hal l , lb . 18. Hulbert, Jack E. The Job Search. Common Sense or Cr i t i ca l S k i l l . Urban Education, 1981, 15(4):469-479. 19. Florian, Victor. The Meaning of Work for Physically Disabled Clients Undergoing Vocational Rehabilitation. Int. J .  Rehab. Research, 1982, 5(3):375-378. 20. Reasons, Charles E. and Perdue, William D. The Ideology of Social Problems, 1981, Sherman Oaks, California, Alfred Publishing Company, 160-161. 21. Lundy, Katherina, L.P. and Warme, Barbara D. Work in the Canadian Context. Continuity Despite Change, 1981, Toronto, Butterworths, x i i i . 22. Gurney, Ross M. The Effects of Unemployment on the Psycho-Social Development of School-Leavers, J . of Occupational  Psychology, 1980, 53:205-213. 23. Hulbert, Jack E. op . c i t . , 465. 24. Tiffany, D.W. et a l , op . c i t . , 16. 25. Safilios-Rothschild, C. op . c i t . , 33. 26. Dayton, Charles W. The Young Person's Job Search: Insights from a Study, J . of Counselling Psychology, 1981, 28(4):321-333. 27. Lynch, Richard L. The Job Getting a Job, Business Education World, 1979, May-June: 13-14. 28. Hulbert, Jack E. op . c i t . , 470. 36 29. Finegan, T. Aldrich. Improving Our Information on Discouraged Workers, Monthly Labour Review, 1978, Sept. 101(9):15-25,21. 30. Lotze, Rudolf. Evaluation of Long Term Efforts to Place Disabled Young People in Work, Int. J . of Rehab. Research, 1981, 4(2):198-199. 31. Brown, Joan C. op .c i t . , 270. 32. Hollingsworth, David and Harris, Robert. The Labour Force Participation of Handicapped Women: An Empirical Analysis, J . of Applied Rehab. Counselling, 1980, Summer, 11(2):99-103. 33. Lynch, Richard L. op .c i t . , 13. 34. Hulbert, Jack E. op . c i t . , 471. 35. Ibid, 474. 36. Granovetter, Mark S. Getting a Job. A Study of Contacts and Careers, 1974, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, w. 37. Ibid, 55-62. 38. . Ideas, C.B.C. Radio Broadcast, December 17, 1981. 39. Lynch, Richard L. op .c i t . , 13. 40. Idem. 41. Springbett, B.M. Factors Affecting the Final Decision in the Employment Interview, J . of Applied Psychology, 1958, 12(1):13-22. 42. Nagi, Saad A.,McBroom, William J . and Collette, John. Work, Employment and the Disabled. Am. J . of Economics  and Sociology, 1972, 31(l):21-34. 43. Carlson, Robert E. Selection Interview Decisions: The Relative Influence of Appearance and Factual Written Information on an Interviewer's Final Rating. J . of  Applied Psychology, 1967, 51(6):461-468. 44. Springbett, B.M. op.c i t . 45. Ibid, 22. 37 46. Dipboye, Robert L . , Fromkin, Howard L. and Wiback, Kent. Relative Importance of Applicant Sex, Attractiveness and Scholastic Standing in Evaluation of Job Applicant Resumes. J . of Applied Psychology, 1975, 60(l):39-43. 47. Dipboye, Robert L . , Arvey, Richard D. and Terpstra, David E. Sex and Physical Attractiveness of Raters and Applicants as Determinants of Resume Evaluations,J. of Applied  Psychology, 1977, 62(3):288-294. 48. Werner, Patr ic ia . How to Land - and Keep - That First Job, (Interview with Janice Tyrwhitt), Reader's Digest, 1982, March, 93-96. 49. Teff, Donald R. Placement: The Employer's View. Rehabilitation Literature, 1979, 40(1):7-9. 50. Neal, Kathi. Employing People with Cystic Fibrosis, Disabled USA, 1979, 2(4):12-13. 51. Schneider, Joseph W. and Conrad, Peter. In the Closet with Illness: Epilepsy, Stigma Potential and Information Control. Social Problems, 1980, 28(1):32-44. 52. Forbes, C D . , Markova, I . , Stuart, J . and Jones, P. To Tell Or Not To T e l l : Haemophiliacs' Views On Their Employment Prospects. Int. J . of Rehab. Research, 1982, 5(1):13-18. 53. Epilepsy Foundation of America, Can Epilepsy be Prevented? undated, ? 1975, Washington, D.C. (pamphlet). 54. Monaco, Cathy. Vocational Counsellor, Vancouver Neurological Centre, March, 1982, personal communication. 55. Kutner, Bernard. The Social Psychology of Disabi l i ty , in Walter S. Neff, op .c i t . , 144. 56. Wright, Beatrice A. Physical Disabil ity - A Psychological Approach, 1960, New YorK, Harper, 118-121" 57. Safilios-Rothschild, C. op .c i t . , 15. 58. Straus, Robert. Social Change and the Rehabilitation Concept, in Sociology and Rehabilitation, Marvin B. Sussman ed. 1965, Am. Sociological Association, 1-35, 2. 59. Freidson, E l io t . Disabil i ty as Social Deviance, in Marvin B. Sussman ed. op .c i t . , 71-99, 71. 38 60. Erikson, Kai. Wayward Puritans. A Study in the Sociology of Deviance, 19bb, New York, Wiley, 12-13. 61. Safilios-Rothschild, C. op .c i t . , 16-17. 62. Goffman, Erving. Stigma, 1963, Englewood C l i f f s , Prentice Hal I , 3. 63. Peach, Len. A Realistic Approach to Employing the Disabled, Personnel Management, 1981, Jan., 13, 18-21. 64. Kettle, Melvyn and Massie, Bert. Need a Disabil ity be a Handicap? Personnel Management, 1981, Feb., 13, 32-35. 65. Schweitzer, Nancy J . and Deeley, John. Interviewing the Disabled Job Applicant, Personnel Journal, 1982, 61(3):205-209 66. Goffman, Erving, op . c i t . , 48. 67. Ibid, 49. 68. Bartholomew, Jean Jesperson. A Word About This Issue, Edi tor ia l , Rehabilitation Literature, 1982, 43(7-8): inside front cover. 69. Deegan, Mary Jo. Multiple Minority Groups: A Case Study of Physically Disabled Women. J . of Sociology and Social Welfare, 1981, July, 8(2):274-29/. 70. Kutza, Elizabeth Ann. Benefits for the Disabled: How Beneficial for Women? J . of Sociology and Social  Welfare, 1981, July, 8(2):298-319. 71. Csekme, Eva Zabolai. ed., Women and Disabi l i ty , k i t produced by Joint UN Information committee/NGO Sub Group on Women and Development, UNICEF, Geneva, second edition, December 1981. 72. Fine, Michelle and Asch, Adrienne. Disabled Women: Sexism Without the Pedestal, J . of Sociology and Social Welfare, 1981, 8(2): 233^238": 73. Kutza, Elizabeth Ann. op .c i t . , 307. 74. Thurer, Shari L. Women and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation  Literature, 1982, 43(7-8):194-197,207. 39 75. Vash, Carolyn L. Employment Issues for Women with Disabi l i t ies , Rehabilitation Literature, 1982, 43(7-8):198-207. 76. Ibid, 204. 77. Safilios-Rothschild, C. op . c i t . , 25. 78. MacGregor, Frances Cooke. Abel, Theodora M. Bryt, Albert. Lauer, Edith and Weissmann, Serena. Facial Deformities  and Plastic Surgery: A Psychological study, 1953, Springfield, Charles C. Thomas, 65. 79. Wright, Beatrice A. op .c i t . , 20. 80. Johnson, Rosemary. Heal, Laird W. Private Employment Agency Responses to the Physically Handicapped Applicant in a Wheelchair, J . of Applied Rehab. Counselling, 1976, 7(1):12-21. :  81. Seifer, Karl Heinz. The Attitudes of Working People Toward Disabled Persons, Especially in Regard to Vocational Rehabilitation, Int. J . of Rehab. Research, 1979, 2(l):79-94. 82. Canada, Obstacles, op .c i t . , 54. 83. Acton, Norman. Employment of Disabled Persons: Where Are We Going? Int. Labour Review, 1981, Jan.-Feb., 1-14. 84. Walls, Richard T. Negative Incentives: Contingencies Which Discourage Disabled Individuals from Seeking or Completing Rehabilitation Services, Int. J . of Rehab. Research, 1979, 2(4):538-539. 8 5 - . Disincentives in Vocation Rehabilitation, Int. J . of Rehab. Research, 1982, 5(l):57-60. 86. Schlenoff, David. Obstacles to the Rehabilitation of Disabil i ty Benefits Recipients, J . of Rehabilitation, 1979, 45(2):56-58. 87. Hammerman, Susan R. and Maikowski, Stephen, op .c i t . , 195. 88. Wesolowski, Michael D. and Zawlocki, Richard J . The Job Club in VR Agencies: The Effects of Attendance and Disincentives, Int. J . of Rehab. Research, 1980, 3(4):531-532. : 89. Hammerman, Susan R. and Maikowski, Stephen, op .c i t . , 195. 40 90. Gorski, Robert. New Law Eliminates Some Work Disincentives, Disabled U.S.A., 1980, 3(10):21-23. 91. U.S.A., Programs for the Handicapped, Disabled Californians Can Work and S t i l l Retain State Benefits, Washington, D . C , 1979, Mar.-Apr.:2,12. 92. Saskatchewan Council for Crippled Children and Adults, Information, 1979, Apri l 25:2. 93. Townsend, Peter. The Disabled in Society, 1967, London, Greater London Association for the Disabled, 16. 94. DeJong, Gerben and Lifchez, Raymond. Physical Disabil i ty and Public Policy, Scientif ic American, 1983, 248(6):40-49. 95. Falta, Ladia P. Edi tor ia l , Physiotherapy Canada, 1981, 33(2):73-74. 96. Harris, Robert M. and Harris, A. Christine. A New Perspective on the Psychological Effects of Environmental Barriers, Rehabilitation Literature, 1977, 38(3):75-78. 97. Canada, Obstacles, op .c i t . , 89. 98. Toronto Star. "Cityspan", October 1, 1978, It 's Hell on Wheels, reprinted in Contact, The Canadian C P . Association, 1978, Autumn:26. 99. Florian, Victor. Objective Obstacles in Hiring Disabled Persons - The Employers' Point of View, Int. J . of Rehab. Research, 1981, 4(2):167-174. 100. MacLachlan, R.H. Guest Edi tor ia l , The Spokesman, 1980, 5(2):4. ; 101. Harris, Robert M. and Harris, A. Christine, op . c i t . , 76. 102. Ibid. 103. Titmuss, R.G. Social Policy. An Introduction, 1974, London, George Allen and Unwin, 23. 104. Ibid, 25. 105. Webster's Third New International Dictionary, 1971 ed., s.v. "Ideology". 106. Ibid. 41 107. Howards, Irving. Brehm, Henry P. and Nagi, Saad Z. Disabi l i ty . From Social Problem to Federal Programs, 1980, New York, Praeger, 12-14. 108. Albrecht, Gary L. ed. The Sociology of Physical Disabil i ty and Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1976, 258-259. 109. Rice, James J . "Social Policy, Economic Management and Redistribution" in Public Policy In Canada, ed. G. Bruce Doern and Peter Aucoin, 1979, MacMillan Canada, Toronto, 106-131. 110. Aucoin, Peter. Public-Policy Theory and Analysis, in Public Policy in Canada, op .c i t . , 1-26,3. 111. Wallace Elizabeth. The Origin of the Social Welfare State in Canada, 1867-1900. Canad. J . of Economics  and Po l i t i ca l Science, 1950, 16:383-393. 112. Brown, Joan. A Hit and Miss Affa ir . Policies for Disabled People In Canada, 19//, Ottawa, The Canadian Council on Social Development, 291-370. 113. Idem. 114. Canada. Canada Assistance Plan. 1966-67, C.45, S.1,713. 115. Ross, David. "Income Security" in Canadian Social Policy, ed. Shankar A. Yelaja, 1978, Waterloo, Ont., Wilfred Laurier University Press, 49-69. 116. Canada. Canada Assistance Plan. 1966-67, c.45, s.1,714. 117. Johnston, Patrick. Disabling Legislation, Perception, 1980, 4(1):19-22. 118. Canada. Obstacles, o p . c i t . , 55. 119. Brown, Joan. o p . c i t . , 301. 120. Crichton, Anne. A Comparison of Programs for the Delivery of Rehabilitation Services in Australia, Canada and Br i ta in : Three Nations' Social Policies Reviewed. Social Science and Medicine, 1980, 14A:287-296. 121. Br i t i sh Columbia. Guaranteed Available Income for Need Act. R.S. Chap. 158, 1. 42 122. Vancouver People's Law School, Welfare Rights and GAIN, 6th ed. Apri l 1982, Vancouver, 2. 123. Ibid, 9. 124. Ibid, 16. 125. Ibid, 14. 126. Ibid, 12. 127. Brown, Joan. op .c i t . , 305-310. 128. Ibid, 313-319. 129. Ibid, 217. 130. Ibid, 218-219. 131. Ibid, 229-230. 132. Ibid, 230-249. 133. Quail, Susan. "Report on Training and Employment of Disabled Persons in Bri t i sh Columbia".revised and edited by Helen Austin, 1981, Human Rights Commission of Brit ish Columbia, Vancouver, (mimeo), 16. 134. Brown, Joan. op .c i t . , 231. 135. Canadian Human Rights Commission, The Canadian Human Rights Act. A Summary, undated, Ottawa, 3. 136. Canadian Human Rights Commission, "Physical Handicap and Employment. Administrative Criteria for the Implementation of the Canadian Human Rights Act", Seminar on Employment of Persons with Physical Disabi l i t ie s , Vancouver, Apri l 30, 1981, (mimeo),2. 137. Canadian Rehabilitation Council for the Disabled. "Removing the Barriers", March 1982, Toronto, Conference Manual, 81. 138. Monk, Harry. A Profile of the New Canadian Human Rights Commission, Rehabilitation Digest, 1979, 10(l):2-3,18-19. 139. Canada. "Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms", Ottawa, 1981, Section 15. 43 140. Human Rights Commission of Brit ish Columbia, Breaking Down The Barriers to Employment, Newsletter, 1983, 4(4):1. 141. Br i t i sh Columbia. "Restraint and Recovery: The Next Steps". 1983, Victoria , 12, (pamphlet). 142. Employment and Immigration Canada. "Program for the Employment Disadvantaged", 1981, (pamphlet). 143. Beveridge, William. Social Insurance and Al l ied Services, 1942, London, H.M.S.O, 163. : 44 CHAPTER I I . METHODOLOGY A. SCOPE The study is restricted to physically disabled men and women l iv ing in the Greater Vancouver area in 1982. The age range is nineteen to twenty-five years. These are the years when people expect, and are expected by society to be employed. People looking for jobs may have different experiences that are directly related to their ethnic background. To control for th i s , only Caucasian subjects were accepted for the study. B. DEFINITIONS 1. Impairment The World Health Organization (1980) defines an impairment as a loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological or anatomical structure or function. It may be permanent or transitory. 1 The * impairments considered in this thesis are permanent ones. * This thesis is concerned with what the World Health Organization defines as impairments. However, 1982 was designated the International Year of Disabled Persons as this term is generally used when referring to people with physical, neurological or sensory impairments. In addition, the common understanding of an impaired person is that of an inebriate and makes this then an inappropriate choice for this report. 45 2. Disabi l i ty A disabi l i ty is any restriction or lack (resulting from an impairment) of ab i l i ty to perform an activity in the manner, or within 2 the range considered normal for a human being. Disabil i ty is concerned with ab i l i t i e s that are generally accepted as essential components of everyday l i f e such as personal care, other act ivi t ies of daily l iv ing 3 and locomotor act iv i t ies such as walking. The World Health Organization (WHO) (1980) states that the characteristic of a d i sab i l i ty is i t s objectification of an impairment and that i t reflects disturbances at the level of the person. 4 3. Handicap Handicap is the disadvantage for the individual, resulting from an impairment or a d i sab i l i ty , that l imits or prevents the fulfi l lment of a role that is normal (depending on age, sex and 5 cultural factors) for the individual. Handicap represents the socialization of an impairment or disabi l i ty and is usually specific to a situation. Bury (1970) notes that i t is possible to be impaired and not disabled, yet s t i l l be handicapped. He cites facial disfigurement as an example.6 4. Blindness Blindness is lacking the sense of sight by natural defect, or by deprivation. 7 Blindness may be total or partial (low vis ion). 46 5. Cerebral Palsy Cerebral Palsy is a disabi l i ty that results from direct or indirect damage to the motor centres of the brain before or during b i r th . It is manifested according to the degree of injury Q by muscular inco-ordination and speech disturbances. 6. Epilepsy Epilepsy is a chronic nervous disorder involving changes in the state of consciousness and motion. It is due either to an inborn defect which produces convulsions of a greater or lesser severity with clouding of consciousness, or to organic changes in the brain produced by tumour, injury, toxic agents or glandular g disturbances. 7. Paraplegia Paraplegia is paralysis of the lower half of the body with involvement of both legs usually due to disease or injury of the spinal c o r d . 1 0 Traumatic paraplegia is that resulting from an injury. 8. Threshold-Worker A threshold-worker is a person applying for his or her f i r s t permanent, paid, full-time job. For the purpose of this study, the definition of a traumatic paraplegic, threshold-worker is a person applying for his or her f i r s t permanent, paid, full-time job since the accident. If 47 this employment is different from the job he or she had prior to the injury, the individual becomes a threshold-worker again. 9. Work Work is regular, full-time employment in the open job market, for financial remuneration at the currently acceptable rate for that job. C. DESIGN 1 . Experimental Subjects The experimental subjects are Caucasian men and women between the ages of nineteen and thir ty-f ive who have one of the following, medically-determined conditions.* a) cerebral palsy b) traumatic paraplegia c) blindness or low vision d) epilepsy"*" * Medical determination was made earl ier and indicated by the subjects' membership or agency contact. +When referring to minority populations the writer has to decide what terminology is least l ike ly to give offence. Some terminology is be l i t t l ing as when adult women are called " g i r l s " . Sometimes there is a change over time for social as well as historical reasons: Black North Americans are now insulted by the term "negro". For people prone to epileptiform seizures the label "epileptic" may have similar connotations. After much thought, epileptic has been retained in the text as being the most appropriate and widely understood term. The writer trusts that no offence w i l l be taken where none is intended. 48 The reasons for choosing these d i sabi l i ty groups are: i) They affect men and women of working age. Thirty-five is taken as the upper age l imit as i t was thought unlikely that an older, disabled person would seek to enter the workforce for the f i r s t time, that i s , be a threshold-worker, i i ) These conditions are relatively stable. This means that the individual's impairment is not l ike ly to increase over time. It is recognized that some impairments, traumatic paraplegia for example, may increase the chances of the individual developing health problems such as bladder and kidney infections. i i i ) This group includes one d i sab i l i ty (cerebral palsy) that the subject has had since b ir th , one (traumatic paraplegia) that is acquired and two (blindness/low vision and epilepsy) that may be either congenital or acquired. In some cases the low vision or epilepsy may have been present from birth or an early age, but not diagnosed unti l the child is older, iv) The public salience of these impairments, or d i s ab i l i t i e s , ranges from very vis ible (cerebral palsy) to hidden (epilepsy), v) Agencies serving each group chosen exist in Vancouver and i t was hoped that they would be a source of subjects. 49 The planned sample s i z e was twenty men and twenty women from each group. I t was estimated that each agency would, i f i t agreed t o p a r t i c i p a t e , be able t o provide access t o t h i s number of people. (In f a c t , there were fewer c e r e b r a l p a l s i e d of both sexes and fewer paraplegic women than expected.) The planned sample s i z e was a l s o b e l i e v e d t o be a r e a l i s t i c one to survey w i t h i n the budget and time a v a i l a b l e . 2. Control Subjects The c o n t r o l subjects are twenty men and twenty women who graduated from an urban Vancouver high school in 1981, a year before the study was done. These people were chosen as c o n t r o l s as they would be entering the workforce f o r the f i r s t time as f u l l - t i m e workers, that i s be threshold-workers. This was considered a more important v a r i a b l e than the demographic one of age. They were expected t o have a lower modal age than the experimental s u b j e c t s . They were al s o expected to possess a lower range of job s k i l l s compared with the experimental group. T h i s means that i f d i f f e r e n c e s are found in the a b i l i t i e s t o f i n d work ( i n the d i r e c t i o n p r e d i c t e d , that i s d i s a b l e d people are le s s l i k e l y t o be working), then using t h i s group allows f o r a more conservative t e s t of hypothesis. 50 3. Measuring Instrument The measuring instrument i s a questionnaire designed t o tap the independent v a r i a b l e s making up the model (Appendix A). The que s t i o n n a i r e given to the blind/low v i s i o n sample was in large p r i n t (IBM "Or a t o r " ) . The Control questionnaire omitted the questions on personal d i s a b i l i t y , but included two questions not asked the d i s a b l e d group. These questions were: "Do you have any personal f r i e n d s who are di s a b l e d ? " and " I f Yes. what d i s a b i l i t i e s do they have?" (Appendix B). A man and a woman randomly s e l e c t e d from each d i s a b l e d sample and the Control sample were interviewed using the same que s t i o n n a i r e t h a t had been mailed to the r e s t of t h e i r subsample. A l l interviews were conducted by the w r i t e r . The purpose of the interviews was to t r y and e s t a b l i s h the approximate degree of s a l i e n c e of each d i s a b i l i t y , and the r e l a t i v e degree of s a l i e n c e between d i s a b i l i t i e s . The interviews were a l s o o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o see how the questions were received, and to provide some of the "r i c h n e s s " of response missed in the mailed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . A s a l i e n c e c h e c k l i s t of appearance and basic s o c i a l i n t e r -a c t i o n s k i l l s was drawn up under the main headings of appearance, vocal communication, s o c i a l communication and aids as symbols of d i s a b i l i t y . * The interviewer completed t h i s form immediately a f t e r each interview, once she had taken leave of the subject. it Appendix C 51 D. METHOD 1. Recruitment of Disabled Subjects Agencies serving people with the selected d i sab i l i t ie s in the Vancouver area were identif ied. These are: a) The Voice of the Cerebral Palsied of Greater Vancouver * (VCP). This group was formed in 1977 to meet the needs of the adult cerebral palsied population. The children with cerebral palsy continue to be served by the Cerebral Palsy Association of Br i t i sh Columbia. b) The Bri t i sh Columbia Division of the Canadian Paraplegic Association (CPA). + c) The B.C. and Yukon Divison of the Canadian National Institute for the Blind(CNIB).° Each agency was approached with a request to permit a survey of i t s members e l i g i b i l e for the study. A l l three agreed providing confidentiality was maintained. To contol for the variable, upper limb weakness found in people with quadriplegia (paralysis of both arms and legs as a result of spinal-cord injury), i t was decided to screen out this group and survey only paraplegic subjects from the spinal-cord injured population. People with paraplegia have no arm weakness, but may have leg weakness varying from slight to complete paralysis. As •Appendix D +Appendix E °Appendix F 52 a further control i t was decided to accept only, people from this group who had acquired their paraplegia as a result of an accident (traumatic paraplegia). This excluded people with congenital paraplegia from for example, spina bifida and also those whose paraplegia was the result of a disease-process such as cancer or multiple sclerosis. It was recognized that the paraplegic sample, and probably some of the people recruited through the CNIB, would have had some years of 'normal' or unimpaired l i f e prior to acquiring their d i sab i l i ty . Permission to recruit people with epilepsy receiving services from the Vancouver Neurological Centre was refused.* The reason given was that these people had problems other than their epilepsy and so were not appropriate subjects. *The Vancouver Neurological Centre is an out-patient rehabilitation f a c i l i t y . It is a cooperative centre of five non-profit organizations of which the B.C. Epilepsy Society is one. The centre provides a wide range of services such as occupational and physiotherapy, vocational and social services and training in the s k i l l s required for independent l i v i n g . (Vancouver Neurological Centre, information sheets, undated, mimeo.) 53 Dr. Michael W. Jones, a neurologist specializing in the treatment of epileptic seizures, was therefore approached with the request that he permit a survey of his e l ig ib le patients. He agreed, providing confidentiality was maintained. A l l people referred to Dr. Jones are those needing specialist help in controlling their seizures. They probably represent a minority of the total epileptic population as most people w i l l be under the care of their family physicians. 2. Recruitment of Control Subjects The counsellor at a high school in urban Vancouver was approached for a l i s t of the 1981, Grade XII students. This l i s t (the "Grad Directory"), was made available to the writer from the published School Directory of that year. A l l those men and women known by the counsellor to be of non-Caucasian or igin, were removed from the l i s t before the samples were drawn. 3. Sample Selection The planned sample size was twenty men and twenty women from each of the four d i sabi l i ty groups and the control goup. a) Disabled Subjects: The intention was to take random samples, but three populations were too small. These were cerebral palsied men and women, and women paraplegics. 54 T h e i r populations were: i ) Cerebral p a l s i e d men: 18. This includes a man who had pretested the questionnaire, i i ) Cerebral p a l s i e d women: 22. i i i ) P araplegic women: 17. In the l a s t two groups the t o t a l population was surveyed. Seventeen people from the male c e r e b r a l p a l s i e d group were surveyed, the exception being the man who had done the p r e t e s t . A random sample from Dr. Jones' e l i g i b l e p a t i e n t s would have placed a considerable burden on h i s s e c r e t a r y . A d e c i s i o n was made t h e r e f o r e , t o survey the twenty e l i g i b l e men and twenty e l i g i b l e women most r e c e n t l y admitted to h i s p r a c t i c e . Within each sex-group e l i g i b i l i t y was determined by age-and place of residence, not by the type of s e i z u r e s . The CNIB and CPA assembled the three populations from which i t was p o s s i b l e t o draw random samples. Each population c o n s i s t s of those e l i g i b l e men or women who had approached the agency's employment, or vocational guidance s e r v i c e s . * The l i s t s were compiled and kept by the agencies. The names were gathered from each c o u n s e l l o r ' s f i l e and subjects were not placed i n a l p h a b e t i c a l or any other order, such as age. Separate l i s t s were made f o r men and women. Each subject was given a number, and the t o t a l numbers given t o the w r i t e r . These were: *Th i s f a c t i s important in i n t e r p r e t i n g the f i n d i n g s . 55 i ) CNIB - blind/low vision men: 46 blind/low vision women: 51 i i ) CPA - paraplegic men: 62 Using a random-number table, twenty men and twenty women were selected from each of these three populations. Using the same random-number table, interview subjects of one man and one woman were selected from each subsample. The individual numbers of subjects to be surveyed by mail and interview were then given to the liaison person at each agency. Using the same random-number table, interview subjects were chosen from the populations of cerebral palsied men and women, epileptic men and women, and paraplegic women. Their subject numbers were then given to the agencies and to the physician's off ice. b) Control Subjects The control population was one-hundred and thirty-seven men and one-hundred and thirteen women. Using the same random-number table, twenty men and twenty women were selected from this population. Using the same table, one man and one woman interview-subjects were drawn from each subsample. 4. Confidentiality To maintain anonymity of the subjects, a l l questionnaires were mailed to the disabled subjects from the agencies, or the physician's off ice. Each interview subject was contacted f i r s t by either the agency or Dr. Jones requesting his or her par t i c i -56 pation in the study. Only then was the name and telephone number of the subject released to the writer. A package was made up for each disabled person receiving a mailed questionnaire. This consisted of an open letter of introduction*, the questionnaire and a prestamped, return addressed envelope. The letter of introduction was signed by the writer and included her home telephone number should the recipient have any queries. The envelope bore a regular postage stamp. To the front of each questionnaire was stapled a statement of the purpose of the study. This statement was signed by the writer. Also on this page was an invitation to the subject to request a summary of the results by printing his or her name and address at the bottom of the page. If returned, these sheets were detached and kept separate from each questionnaire before i t was read and coded. The Canadian Paraplegic Association and Dr. Jones inserted their own letters of introduction before mailing. The CNIB telephoned a l l subjects requesting their participation before the questionnaires were mailed. The writer knew the names of the control subjects as she had taken them from the high school Directory. To ensure the confidentiality of replies of those people requesting a summary of the results, the top sheet of each questionnaire was detached and kept separate from the questionnaire before i t was read and coded. *Appendix G 57 5. The Survey Once the agencies and the physician's o f f i c e r e c e i v e d the questionnaires, they had complete c o n t r o l over the d i s t r i b u t i o n and follow-up. The Control q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , with an accompanying l e t t e r , were mailed by the w r i t e r . * One month a f t e r the o r i g i n a l m a i l i n g a follow-up l e t t e r was s e n t . + Two more questionnaires were returned a f t e r t h i s prompting. A l l subjects were given an opportunity t o request a summary of the survey i f they so wished. The sheet showing the subject's name and address was detached from each question-n a i r e before i t was read and coded. The survey d i d not proceed e x a c t l y as planned. Dr. Jones' o f f i c e mailed the two extra questionnaires provided t o each agency. This brought the Epilepsy sample s i z e t o f o r t y -two. Some ce r e b r a l p a l s i e d subjects received two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . D e t a i l s are given i n Appendix L. The Interviews: The d i s a b l e d subjects were contacted by the w r i t e r a f t e r she had received t h e i r names and telephone numbers from the agencies or the phy s i c i a n ' s o f f i c e . A l l interviews took place at a time and l o c a t i o n convenient t o the s u b j e c t s . P r i o r to each interview the purpose of the study was explained b r i e f l y *Appendix H +Appendix I 58 and any questions answered before the subject was asked to sign the Consent to Interview form.* Interview subjects were f r e e to withdraw at any time, but none d i d so. They were al s o given the same opportunity as other subjects to request a summary of the research r e s u l t s . The questionnaire f o r the interviews was the same as t h a t the respondent's peers had received by m a i l . In a d d i t i o n to the scheduled interviews, one c e r e b r a l p a l s i e d man asked me to meet him and administer the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . This was done. Each of the two s e l e c t e d c o n t r o l interview-subjects received a personal l e t t e r requesting t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the s t u d y . + This was followed a week l a t e r by a telephone c a l l during which each subject granted me permission to interview. The procedure f o r the interview was the same as that f o r the interviews of d i s a b l e d s u b j e c t s . The questionnaire used was the same as that mailed to the c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s . The t o t a l number of subjects surveyed by mail and interview i s shown in Table 1. *Appendix K +Appendix J 59 TABLE 1. TOTAL NUMBER OF SUBJECTS SURVEYED BY MAIL AND INTERVIEW AGENCY MAIL INTERVIEW REFUSED TOTAL Voice of Cerebral . Palsied 36 3 a 0 39° Paraplegic Association 34 2 0 36 Canadian National Institute for the Blind 34 2 4° 36 Epilepsy 40 2 0 42 Control 38 2 l e 40 a0ne man requested the writer meet him to administer the questionnaire. This was done. b0ne man had pretested the questionnaire so was inel igible to receive the f inal version. One woman could not be located, but was thought to have gained almost f u l l recovery. dCNIB telephoned a l l subjects f i r s t to ask i f they would accept the questionnaire. No substitutions were made for refusals. eThe mother of one woman telephoned to express her disapproval of the survey. No substitution was made. E. RETURNS Ninety-nine s ta t i s t i ca l ly usable questionnaires were returned. The distribution is shown in Table I I . A l l the disabled samples have a higher than average return for a mailed questionnaire. This may be explained as a result of agency participation. 60 The Epilepsy sample shows the highest return: 67.0%. A l l these questionnaires were mailed from the physician's office with a covering letter . Next in rank is the sample recruited through the CNIB: 64.0% return. The total sample of twenty men and twenty women each received a telephone ca l l from the CNIB requesting his or her cooperation in the study before the questionnaires were mailed. There were four refusals and no substitutions were made so this is the percentage return from thir ty-s ix question-naires mailed by the CNIB office. Considering a l l subjects had agreed in principle to participate in the study, a return of twenty-three out of thir ty-s ix questionnaires is not thought to be worth the considerable time and effort put into the telephoning by the CNIB staff. Returns of 46.0% from both the Canadian Paraplegic Association and Voice of the Cerebral Palsied samples are higher than generally expected from a mailed questionnaire with no follow-up. The writer mailed the questionnaires to the Control sample. These show the lowest return: 33.0%. This percentage was reached only after a follow-up letter had been sent. TABLE I I . STATISTICALLY USABLE QUESTIONNAIRES RETURNED Men Women (Number surveyed in parentheses) Total Cerebral Palsy 8 (17) a 10 (22) 18 47% 45% 46% Paraplegia 8 (20) 9 b (16) 17 40% 56% 47% Blind 11 (19) 12 (17) 23 58% 71% 64% Epilepsy 13c (22) 15 (22) 28 59% 68% 64% Control 6 (20) 7 (20) 13 30% 35% 33% Refused 1 man; 3 women 1 woman includes: two known non-Caucasian men. An additional man is thought to be non-Caucasian. Substitution was not possible due to the small population. includes: one woman born 1941 and one non-Caucasian woman. Substitution was not possible due to small population. excludes: one man who has approximately 95-98% recovery and is working in Saskatchewan; one woman (address unknown) who is thought to have complete recovery. includes: one man who moved to Kamloops to work during 1982. 62 F. SUBSTITUTION Seven questionnaires are not included in the s ta t i s t ica l analysis, but have been kept for their general information and the respondents' comments. A substitute was randomly chosen in six cases. Substitution was made for four paraplegic respondents. Two men are older than the required age group, being forty-two and forty-nine years old respectively; one man is quadriplegic and one man's paraplegia is the result of congenital spina bi f ida , not trauma. Substitution was also made for two non-Caucasian, blind subjects, one man and one woman. Due to the small population, substitution for the seventh subject was not possible. This man recruited through the Voice of the Cerebral Palsied sustained a brain haemorrhage at the age of thirteen, unti l which time he had not had any problems. Although he checked that he had cerebral palsy he also wrote: " . . . .according to doctors, they a l l claim I have something different but no one w i l l put i t in wri t ing . " My telephone number had been made available to a l l subjects. The mother of this subject telephoned me and a lengthy conversation with her confirmed the presence of other problems and raised doubts about including this subject's questionnaire in the analysis. For these reasons, and also because unlike the rest of the cerebral palsied population, the subject had had a "normal" childhood unti l the age of thirteen, his questionnaire has been kept for general information only. Any reference in the text to information from these respondents is identified by the appropriate footnotes. 63 G. DATA MANIPULATION 1. Coding I coded the ninety-nine s ta t i s t i ca l ly usable questionnaires onto IBM sheets according to the codebook that forms Appendix M of this thesis. A r e l i a b i l i t y check of the coding was carried out by having an independent rater use this same codebook to code a randomly drawn sample of three questionnaires. The inter-rater agreement was 95%. The only question to occur more than once was the open-ended question number 117 that asked "As you see i t , what are the main problems disabled people have in getting jobs?" Coding disagreement occurred twice. 2. Data Entry Data entry to the computer was performed by the University of Bri t i sh Columbia Computing Centre's Data Entry service. 3. Computer Program SPSS was the program used for data analysis. Frequency tables for a l l variables were calculated. At this stage i t was observed that most cel l s of a l l tables contained less than five expected frequencies. Cross tabulation of d i sabi l i ty against a l l other variables also showed that most cel l s contained less than five expected frequencies. Some combination of categories was done before employment status was cross tabulated with a l l other variables. Again i t was noted that most cel ls contained less than f ive expected frequencies. At this stage i t was decided that a further combination of categories was required. 64 H. CHARACTER OF THE SAMPLE 1. D i s a b i l t i y A study of the questionnaires revealed that the d i s a b i l i t y c a t e g o r i e s are not e n t i r e l y d i s c r e t e . One e p i l e p t i c woman a l s o has mild c e r e b r a l p a l s y ; two b l i n d men, two ce r e b r a l p a l s i e d men and one c e r e b r a l p a l s i e d woman a l s o have e p i l e p s y . Health problems subjects thought worth mentioning as having an i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r job prospects are: - Diabetes: one b l i n d woman and one of the two b l i n d men who als o has e p i l e p s y . - Hearing impairment: one b l i n d woman. - Dy s l e x i a : one c e r e b r a l p a l s i e d woman and one c o n t r o l man. No question concerning the o r i g i n of t h e i r s e i z u r e s was asked the e p i l e p t i c s u b j e c t s . Therefore i t i s not known how many people have se i z u r e s as a r e s u l t of trauma, or whether t h e i r e p i l e p s y i s of unknown o r i g i n . One man volunteered the information that h i s e p i l e p s y i s a r e s u l t of a brain-tumour i n adult l i f e . One man's par a p l e g i a i s incomplete and he uses n e i t h e r a wheelchair nor a walking a i d . One woman's para p l e g i a i s not traumatic, but the r e s u l t s of congenital spina b i f i d a . As the population of par a p l e g i c women i s so small, her questionnaire i s r e t a i n e d f o r s t a t i s t i c a l purposes and t h i s f a c t noted where appropriate i n the t e x t . 65 The intention of the survey is to study the integration of disabled people into the mainstream of employment. Four cerebral palsied women are working in a sheltered workshop. As the cerebral palsied population is so small, their questionnaires have been retained for s ta t i s t ica l purposes and this fact noted where appropriate in the text. 2. Salience of the Disabil i ty Salience of the d i sabi l i ty refers to the extent to which i t is obtrusive in social situations. Based on previous know-ledge of the conditions and on checklists f i l l e d in after each interview, a somewhat arbitrary continuum of salience was developed. At the high end is cerebral palsy. People with this d i sab i l i ty ususally have mobility problems which can vary from slight to extreme. There is often involvement of the upper limbs so that even when s i t t ing the disabi l i ty may s t i l l be manifest. Involuntary movements of the limbs and face are a feature of this condition. They interfere with voluntary movement and with facial expression. If the person has speech problems this increases the salience of the d i sabi l i ty in social interactions. Next in rank is traumatic paraplegia. People with this condition are usually, although not always,wheelchair-bound. Although there may be some body weakness depending on the level of the injury, there is no involvement of the upper limbs. Therefore, especially in a social situation where the participants are seated, this is a less obtrusive d i sab i l i ty , especially i f the person with paraplegia is seated behind a table or desk. 66 The blind and low vision subjects are ranked next. Many legally blind people do have some sight. They very often do not have mobility problems, although some may use a white cane, or have a guide dog. In this respect the salience of the d i sabi l i ty is more variable than with the previous two d i s ab i l i t i e s . Certainly the white cane or guide dog increases this salience. Eye contact in social situations is less relied upon by blind or low vision people, and i t is this which may mark them as being different. Epilepsy is a hidden disabi l i ty unless the person is actually having a seizure. Many seizures are so slight that often the general public is unaware that the person has had one. This salience ranking of cerebral palsy, paraplegia, blind/low vision, epilepsy: high v i s i b i l i t y to i n v i s i b i l i t y is used in a l l the tables where a comparison of subsamples is drawn. 3. Sex Forty-eight men and fifty-one women responded to the survey. A l l subsamples contain more women than men, but i t is only in the Cerebral Palsy and Epilepsy samples that there is a difference of more than one: each sample has two more women than men. The sex distribution is shown in Table I I I . 67 TABLE I I I . SEX OF SUBJECTS Male Female Total Cerebral Palsy 8 10 18 (44) (56) (100) Paraplegia 8 9 17 (47) (53) (100) Blind 11 12 23 (48) (52) (100) Epilepsy 13 15 28 (46) (54) (100) Control 6 7 13 (46) (54) (100) Total 48 (48) 51 (52) 99 (100) 68 4. Age Eighty percent of a l l respondents are between nineteen and thirty years old. The age of a l l respondents is shown in Table IV. The largest single category is the nineteen to twenty-one age group. This is due to the presence of the total Control sample of thirteen subjects. If the Controls are removed from this category i t then contains sixteen subjects and ranks third after the twenty-two to twenty-four age group (eighteen subjects) and the twenty-eight to thirty age group (seventeen subjects). This table also shows that fourteen subjects (50%) of the Epilepsy sample are in the two categories spanning twenty-two to twenty-seven years o ld . The largest single sample represented in the over thirty-four category is Paraplegia. This includes the woman over forty mentioned in the footnote to Table I. TABLE IV. AGE DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS Cerebral Palsy Paraplegia 19-21 6 2 22-24 5 2 25-27 0 3 28-30 5 3 31-33 1 3 over 34 1 4 Total 18 17 Blind Epilepsy Control Total 4 4 13* 29 4 7 0 18 5 7 0 15 5 4 0 17 3 5 0 12 2 1 0 8 23 28 13 99 *0nly 12 Control subjects gave their year of b ir th . As these subjects were a l l recruited from the same Grade XII year, the remaining subject is assumed to f a l l into the same age group. 70 5. Employment Status The employment s t a t u s of d i s a b l e d s u b j e c t s i s shown Table V. The employment s t a t u s of c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s i s shown Table VI. TABLE V. EMPLOYMENT STATUS OF DISABLED SUBJECTS Working Regularly Full/Part Time Working Occasionally Looking for Work Unemployed Not Looking Total Cerebral 7* 4 7 18 Palsy (39) (22) (3 9) (100) Blind 9 8 6 23 (39) (35) (26) (100) Paraplegia 8 3 6 17 (47) (18) (35) (100) Epilepsy 17 4 7 28 (61) (14) (25) (100) Total 41 19 26 86 (48) (22) (30) (100) * No C P . subjects are supporting themselves by competitive employment: five are in a sheltered workshop; one does typing and sales work part-time at home and one does reception and office work one day a week i . e . not enough to lose the GAIN allowance. TABLE VI. EMPLOYMENT STATUS OF CONTROL SUBJECTS Working Regularly Working Occasionally Unemployed Part Time Looking for Work Not Looking Total Male 3 2 1* 6 (50) (33) (17) (100) Female 3 4 0 7 (43) (57) (0) (100) £ Total 6 6 1 13 (46) (46) (8) (100) *part-time student 73 REFERENCES (CHAPTER II) 1. World Health Organization. International Classification of Impairments, Disabi l i t ies  and Handicaps, 1980, Geneva, 47. 2. Ibid, 143 3. Workshop on Employment of the Disabled, City H a l l , Victoria , B.C., Nov. 9, 1981. 4. World Health Organization, op.c i t . 143. 5. Ibid 6. Bury, Michael R. Disablement in Society: Toward an Integrated Perspective, International J . of Rehab. Research, 1979, 2(1):33-4U, 3b. 7. Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language^ 1976, Springfield, Mass. G. & C. Merriam, s.v. "Bl ind" . 8. Ibid, s.v. "Cerebral Palsy". 9. Ibid, s.v. "Epilepsy". 10. Ibid, s.v. "Paraplegia". 74 CHAPTER I I I . FINDINGS: TESTING THE MODEL The i n t e n t of t h i s survey i s t o determine t o what extent the proposed model i s a p p l i c a b l e t o the job-hunting and h i r i n g experiences of p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d men and women i n the Greater Vancouver area i n 1982. An o u t l i n e of the model d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i s shown in F i g u r e 2. Figure 2. OUTLINE OF THE VARIABLES INFLUENCING THE JOB-SEARCH AND HIRING PROCESS S o c i a l Support Network-A t t r i b u t e s •^Education •^Social I n t e g r a t i o n Employment Search •^Access ^ H i r i n g Procedure Job O f f e r No Job 'Offer P o l i c y L e g i s l a t i o n Economic Climate 75 F i n d i n g s are d i s c u s s e d as they apply t o t h i s model. Each concept i s the model, f o r example " a t t r i b u t e s " , i s represented by one or more measured v a r i a b l e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of each v a r i a b l e t o the s u b j e c t s ' j o b - s t a t u s i s examined t o see which p a r t s of the model best p r e d i c t employment. As no c o n t r o l s u b j e c t has r e g u l a r f u l l - t i m e work, data from t h i s sample are not included i n t h i s chapter. For the purpose of the a n a l y s i s , the working o c c a s i o n a l l y and unemployed groups have been combined i n t o a new category of "not working". The "working" category i n c l u d e s a l l those d i s a b l e d s u b j e c t s having r e g u l a r , f u l l or part-time employment in the c o m p e t i t i v e workforce. The r e s u l t s were analyzed using X . A Yates' c o r r e c t i o n was employed f o r a l l two by two t a b l e s due t o the small f r e q u e n c i e s obtained. I t i s recognized t h a t t h i s may provide an over-c o r r e c t i o n . 1 76 A. ATTRIBUTES The attributes considered are those of sex, marital status, salience of the di sabi l i ty and socio-economic status. It was hypothesized that male subjects would be more l ike ly and female subjects less l ikely to be employed. Results of this survey are shown in Table VII and do not show any significant difference between sex and employment for this population. TABLE VII. EMPLOYMENT STATUS OF DISABLED PERSONS ACCORDING TO SEX 1. Sex Working Not Working Total Male 16 (39) 25 (61) 41 (100) Female 18 (40) 27 (60) 45 (100) Total 34 (40) 52 (60) 86 (100) X ^ w i t h Yates' correction = 0.016, not significant p=0.90 77 2. Marital Status The results for this variable were unexpected. The results are shown in Table VIII and indicate that married respondents are significantly more l ikely to be working than are single respondents. The reasons for this are not clear. It may be that they have more incentive to get work, or that they have greater social support than their single peers, or a combination of these and other unknown factors. TABLE VIII. MARITAL STATUS AND EMPLOYMENT STATUS Working Not Working Total Married 14 (70) 6 (30) 20 (100) Single 20 (30) 46 (70) 66 (100) Total 34 (40) 52 (60) 86 (100) "Xf'with Yates1 correction = 8.525, significant at p ^0 .01 78 3. Salience of the Disabil i ty It was hypothesized that people with salient or vis ible d i sab i l i t ie s are less l ike ly to be employed than people with hidden, or no d i s ab i l i t i e s . For the purpose of this analysis, the use of one or more aids on a regular basis for the act iv i t ies of daily l iv ing is taken as the criterion of salience. The results are shown in Table IX and are not significant at the 0.05 probability level . TABLE IX. SALIENCE OF THE DISABILITY AND EMPLOYMENT STATUS Working Not Working Total One or more Aids 18 (47) 20 (53) 38 (100) No Aids 20 (45) 25 (55) 45 (100) Total 38 (46) 45 (54) 83 (100) 'X with Yates' correction = 0.002, not significant p=0.95 79 4. Socio-Economic Status There is some evidence from the literature that able-bodied people of a higher socio-economic status are more l ike ly to be 2 employed. This raises the possibi l i ty that the same may be true for disabled people: a higher-status family would have more financial and other resources that might be channelled towards the social ization, education and employment preparation of a handicapped ch i ld . If an impairment is acquired when the individual is a teenager or adult, he or she has already benefitted from these educational and social advantages. In Canada, parents' occupations may be used as a guide to the socio-economic status of the family in which the individual grew up. This question was not asked the subjects of this survey, therefore no conclusions can be drawn on past socio-economic status. Information on subjects' economic status at the time for the survey is more accurate and is shown in Table X. Table X shows a present, significant economic dependence of disabled respondents on the formal support system of pensions and unemployment insurance, and on the informal support system of family and friends to meet their major expenses of shelter, food and clothing. These data are insufficient to permit the assumption of financial disincentives. Since socio-economic status prior to adulthood was not measured, but only socio-economic status now, i t is not possible to determine the direction of effects. It is more l ike ly that "work" determines the source of income. 80 TABLE X. PRESENT SOURCE OF INCOME FOR MAJOR EXPENSES Working Not Working Total Salary Investments 27 (73) (27) 10 37 (100) Formal/ Informal Support Systems 12 (27) 33 (73) 45 (100) Total 39 (48) 43 (52) 82 (100) "X. with Yates' correction = 15.65, significant p = 0.0001 B. EDUCATION There is some evidence from the literature that schooling influences employment prospects. Dayton (1981) found that the young person most l ike ly to be employed had a higher than average 3 scholastic ab i l i ty and some post high-school education. The model on which this survey is based took this into account and also differentiates between those people who went to a regular school and those who went to a special school for children with some kind of handicap. 1. Type of School A child who is disabled from bir th , or one who acquires a d i sabi l i ty before the age of s ix , may not be ready or able to attend Grade I with his or her peers. Schooling is not only an educational, but also a socialization process during which the 81 child learns to interact with peers and also with adults who are not family members. Through these interactions the child gains social s k i l l s . The interaction with the adults educates the child in the norms and values of the larger society as well as in academic subjects. Children are very conscious of age differences among themselves as each year brings changes in physical, mental and emotional development. Every year that a chi ld ' s schooling is delayed beyond the norm for his age, the more deviant that child w i l l seem to his peers when he f ina l ly does go to school. That is,unless the school is a special one for children who have d i s ab i l i t i e s . Canadian society expects i ts citizens to work after leaving high-school. This is reinforced by high school counsellors and by queries from family and friends as to what the young person wants to be when she grows up: meaning what job does she see herself doing. There is some evidence to suggest that in the past there has been less emphasis placed on future employment for students at special schools. Table XI shows the type of school f i r s t attended by disabled subjects. 82 TABLE XI. TYPE OF SCHOOL FIRST ATTENDED Working Not Working Total Regular 33 (48) 35 (52) 68 (100) Special 6 (35) 11 (65) 17 (100) Total 39 (46) 46 (54) 85 (100) - ^ w i t h Yates1 correction = 0.5, not significant p = 0.50 Table XI shows that there is no relation between the type of school f i r s t attended and later work. The only respondents attending special school are those from the cerebral palsied and blind samples. The paraplegic and epileptic subjects a l l attended regular schools. 2. Completion of High School Education Data were examined to see i f there is any association between employment and completion of high school. Results are shown in Table XII and are not significant at the 0.05 probability level . 83 TABLE XII . HIGH SCHOOL GRADE COMPLETED Working Not Working Total Grade XII or XIII 25 (44) 32 (56) 57 (100) Below Grade XII 12 (48) 13 (52) 25 (100) Total 37 (45) 45 (55) 82 (100) with Yates' correction = 0.39, not significant p = 0.50 C. SOCIAL INTEGRATION Work is a social as well as an economic act iv i ty . Very few people work for any length of time in isolation. Even those with more solitary occupations are required from time to time to interact with others in the course of their work. A writer l iv ing and working alone w i l l not earn a l iv ing unless the work is published. This process involves other people. Social s k i l l s are interpersonal s k i l l s learned through interactions with family, friends, teachers and people met during everyday l i f e such as store clerks, bus drivers and restaurant personnel. An employer chooses to hire a person not only for her technical a b i l i t y , but also because she appears to be the qualified candidate most l ike ly to f i t into the social milieu of the workplace. This survey did not attempt to measure social s k i l l s d irect ly , but indirectly by enquiring about religious 84 a f f i l i a t i o n , recreational act ivi t ies and membership of interest groups: a l l act ivi t ies that require a person to interact socially with people who are not family members.* 1. Religious Af f i l i a t ion Sixty one respondents (71%) do not have any a f f i l i a t ion with a formal religious group. Therefore i t was not possible to test the relationship of this variable to employment. One of the two subjects who did not reply to this question thought i t was an invasion of privacy and wrote "very questionable questions" in the margin of the questionnaire. 2. Recreation Most job-application forms include a question about spare-time act iv i t ie s , or this question might be asked during an intervew as a way of identifying a high energy applicant. Replies to this question were coded according to whether the recreation is active or passive and whether i t requires people other than immediate family. Replies such as "relax" and "take i t easy" were coded as non-responses. As the numbers were small, they were further aggregated into two categories of sociable and isolated. These results are shown in Table XIII and show that spare-time act iv i t ies do not have any relationship to employment for the subjects of this survey. *The Control subjects were also asked i f they have any personal friends who are disabled. Their replies are given in Appendix R. 85 TABLE XIII . RECREATIONAL AND SPARE-TIME ACTIVITIES Working Not Working Total Sociable 29 32 61 (48) (52) (100) Isolated 9 12 21 (43) (57) (100) Total 38 44 82 (46) (54) (100) X w i t h Yates' correction = 0.0138, not significant p = 0.90 Nearly three quarters of the respondents reported sociable ac t iv i t i e s . This suggests a f a i r l y high degree of social integration, but may be misleading as replies to other items in the questionnaire suggest that some subjects' social act iv i t ies take place partly or entirely among people with the same or other d i s ab i l i t i e s . Examples given are their disabled interest-groups and various sports clubs for the disabled. The sports club members are usually very active people, many being f u l l or part-time workers. These respondents are quire correct in stating that their organizations consist of both able-bodied and disabled people. However, in this case, membership in such a club does not indicate social integration in i t s accepted sense of integration into the wider society. Membership in a ski-club for the disabled is not the same as being a disabled member of a regular ski-club. This is not to dispute that there are some sports such as those played competitively and those requiring ski l led use of a wheelchair that may be best played within and among disabled sports clubs. 86 a) Membership in an Interest Group Membership in a group or association does not necessarily involve social interaction with others. Some associations have a nationwide "membership" kept informed of the association's act ivi t ies by means of a newsletter or journal. For these groups, only a few members at the board or committee level w i l l be engaging in social interaction. An example of this is the Royal Canadian Geographical Society. For this reason subjects were asked i f they held an o f f i c i a l position within their group. Results are shown in Table XIV and are not significant at the 0.05 probability level , although there is a trend for those who are officers to be employed. TABLE XIV. OFFICER IN AN INTEREST GROUP Working Not Working Total Officer 6 (50) 6 (50) 12 (100) Member 9 (36) 16 (64) 25 (100) Total 15 (40) 22 (60) 37 (100) %. with Yates' correction = 0.206, not significant p = 0.70 87 While there is a trend for officers to work, those members who are not employed may be using membership as a work alternative. For an underemployed population, membership in a social or interest group may be an activity into which the time and energy others put into paid employment may be channelled. This may be for personal growth and satisfaction only, or in order to advance the p o l i t i c a l , sc ienti f ic or social interests of the group. One very active member of an interest group stated that this is his reason for not seeking employment: "Too many people need my services at the moment. (I) could not f u l f i l l these and also f u l f i l l (my) obligations to (an) employer." People in regular work may also belong to an organization for the same reasons, but w i l l not be using that membership as a substitute for work. Membership in a group also provides contacts for people (the so-called networking phenomenon) that can lead to the provision of goods and services such as information about job vacancies, or even job offers, that are not the overt purpose of the club or association. From the data obtained on religious a f f i l i a t ion and recreational and interest-group act ivi t ies i t is not possible to assess to what extent the respondents are integrated into the wider society. 88 D. JOB SKILLS Job s k i l l s may be gained either formally or informally. On the job training does not always result in a diploma or certif icate although the s k i l l s acquired may be complex. However, for some employment such as the professions and many trades, some form of cert i f icat ion and license is required. Other jobs require, or employers w i l l only consider (not necessarily the same thing), candidates who have a high school diploma. Table XV shows that the acquisition of formal job s k i l l s is not related to employment for the subjects responding to this survey. In fact, there is a slight trend in the opposite direction. TABLE XV. SPECIFIC JOB SKILLS AND EMPLOYMENT STATUS Working Not Working Total Job Sk i l l s 9 31 40 (22) (78) (100) No Job 4 9 13 Sk i l l s (31) (69) (100) Total 13 40 53 (25). (75) (100) 'X, with Yates' correction = 0.053, not significant p = 0.80 89 Of interest is the number of people with job s k i l l s who are not working. Some of these subjects may be out of work because of the general unemployment. Some are students who have gained job s k i l l s through vacation and part-time jobs. Some respondents have returned to school either to upgrade their s k i l l s or to embark on another career. Jobs for which subjects have training are: janitor, policeman, daycare worker, sales person, a wide range of c ler ica l and office jobs, teacher, social worker, nurse and laboratory technician. E. THE EMPLOYMENT SEARCH The model shows two diverging paths once a person has gained social s k i l l s . Some people do not necessarily have to acquire formal job s k i l l s and go through a systematic search before getting work. They may be offered a job through a family or social network. These people are probably in the minority. Most people must f i r s t acquire specific job s k i l l s and then undertake the search for employment, or be wi l l ing to learn on the job starting with the tasks requiring the least s k i l l . When jobs are plentiful this search is l ike ly to be less systematic and thorough than when there is a recession and jobs of any kind are scarce. 90 As most subjects were recruited through an agency,two of which (the Canadian National Institute for the Blind and the Canadian Paraplegic Association) provide employment counselling, i t was decided to examine two dimensions of the job search: employment counselling and the role of an agency in helping the subject secure a job. 1. Employment Counselling There is a suggestion that people who have consulted a job counsellor are more l ikely to be employed than those who have not. Many subjects f i r s t saw a counsellor in high school, but counsellors were also seen at Manpower and at agencies specialising in the subjects' d i sab i l i ty . The purpose of job counselling is to enable the individual to find and secure a suitable job and may involve recommendations on job preparation. The relationship between counselling and work is shown in Table XVI and is not significant at the 0.05 probability level . There is a suggestion that those people who have not had counselling are more l ike ly to be working. 91 TABLE XVI. THE RELATIONSHIP OF EMPLOYMENT COUNSELLING TO WORK Working Not Working Total Counselling 25 33 58 (43) (57) (100) No Counselling 15 11 26 (58) (42) (100) Total 40 44 84 (48) (52) (100) TC with Yates' correction = 1.003, not significant p = 0.30 2. Agency Assistance Once a person has held down a job for even a short period of time, he has a job history. Sometimes i t is the f i r s t job that is hard to get, especially in a recession.* Subjects who are currently working were asked i f this was their f i r s t job. The findings are: - Yes 6 14% - No 36 86% N=42 A l l subjects were asked by what method they found their f i r s t job. The results are shown in Table XVII. *Both pretest and survey Control subjects spoke of the double bind of young people unable to get a job because they lack experience and not being able to gain experience until they have a job. 92 TABLE XVII. METHOD USED TO GET FIRST JOB* Method N % Direct Approach 27 45 to Employer Indirect/Informal 12 20 Approach: Family and Friends Through an Agent: 17 28 Manpower, Disabi l i ty Agency, Employment Agency Direct and Indirect/Informal Direct and 1 Through an Agent . .. A l l Methods 2 3 Total 60 100 Table XVII suggests that agency assistance does have a role to play in securing employment. It should be noted that some paraplegic subjects were employed before their injury and that some epileptic subjects worked before their seizures began, *A11 respondents reporting a work history are included here, regardless of whether they were employed at the time of the survey. 93 or were diagnosed. Agency assistance in finding subjects' present employment is shown in Table XVIII and is not related to whether the person is working. TABLE XVIII. AGENCY ASSISTANCE IN FINDING PRESENT JOB* Working Regularly Working Occasionally Total Agency 14 1 15 (93) (7) (100) No Agency 20 1 21 (95) (5) (100) Total 34 2 36 (94) (6) (100) *as two cel ls each contain only one frequency, is not calculated for this table. F. TRANSPORTATION AND ACCESS The distance people are prepared to travel to work seems to depend on individual preference and the mode of transport. For people with impaired mobility the choice of transport may be limited. They might need modified vehicles to get them to the workplace, devices such as ramps or ra i l s to enable them to get in the building and the use of an elevator once they are inside. The constraint caused by a mobility handicap does not end here as washrooms must also be accessible. Transportation and access for disabled people is a f i e ld of study in i t se l f and is not the concern of this survey. Questions on these matters were asked however in an attempt to identify any impediments to disabled people joining the labour force in Greater Vancouver. 94 The question on transportation asked "Have you ever not applied for a job because you thought you might have d i f f i cu l ty getting transport to the workplace?" Of the eighty one subjects who answered this question, twenty four (30%) said that they had. The breakdown by sample i s : - Cerebral Palsy 6 (33%) N=18 - Paraplegia 2 (12%) N=17 - Blind 7 (30%) N=23 - Epilepsy 9 (32%) N=28 The question asked subjects whether they thought, not whether they knew they would have d i f f icu l ty with transport. Therefore the answers tend to be perceptual rather than factual in nature, although one subject did volunteer the information that the job-vacancy was in a distant part of the Greater Vancouver area. For a better understanding of this problem i t would have been necessary to ask whether i t was indeed d i f f i c u l t to get transportation, travell ing time involved etc.,and even then the individual preference would prevail . Of special interest is the low score for Paraplegics. This may be explained partly by the fact that most of them drive their own cars. Also, the question was not qualified by a pre and post d i sabi l i ty alternative for this sample. Eleven out of seventy-eight respondents (14%) have at some time not applied for a job because they thought there would be d i f f i cu l ty getting into the workplace to do the job. Eight out of seventy-five (11%) have experienced physical d i f f icu l ty getting into the workplace to talk to a prospective employer. Details of 95 action taken were given for five occasions. Twice the subject went away without trying any further and twice he or she received physical help to get i n . On one occasion the subject found another entrance. Respondents were not asked when they encountered these d i f f i c u l t i e s , but for the age-range involved i t must certainly have been in the recent past. People with a mobility impairment become wise very quickly in the access and transportation constraints of their environment. It is l ike ly that the decision not to apply for a particular job was in many cases a more informed decison than that made regarding transportation. Encountering access problems in the past while disheartening does not necessarily mean that a l l subjects give up as is shown in Table XIX. These numbers are very small and the two regular workers may well be atypical of the general population. TABLE XIX. PAST ACCESS PROBLEMS AND PRESENT EMPLOYMENT STATUS Working Not Working Total One Occasion 0 1 (100) (0) (100) Two or More Occasions 2 (33) 4 (67) 6 (100) Total 2 (29) 5 (71) 7 (100) 96 6. THE HIRING PROCEDURE For many applicants the job offer comes only after a personal interview, or a less formal meeting at the workplace between the subject and the person receiving his application. An employer w i l l invite to an interview only those candidates who have the required qualifications and experience for the job. Therefore these candidates have already been screened before they reach the interview room. Lynch (1969) notes that poor handling of an interview was one of five main reasons given by employers for rejecting graduates of vocational and 4 technical education-programs in Texas. This lack of s k i l l was also confirmed by seven hundred and sixty-three youth-opportunity counsellors from forty-eight American states (Lynch 1979). There is no evidence to suggest that the Canadian experience is different. Fifty-eight respondents were asked to an interview when they were threshold workers. Forty-one reported on the outcome of the interview and these results are shown in Table XX. TABLE XX. OUTCOME OF THRESHOLD WORKERS' FIRST JOB INTERVIEW COMPARED WITH THEIR PRESENT EMPLOYMENT STATUS Working Not Working Total Job Offer 30 7 37 (81) (19) (100) No Job Offer 2 2 4 (50) (50) (100) Total 32 9 41 (78) (22) (100) *X with Yates' correction = 0.625, not significant p = 0.50 97 Although these findings are not s ta t i s t i ca l ly significant, there is a suggestion that those people who were offered a job when they were f i r s t seeking work are possibly more "acceptable" socially (however this is defined). H. DISCUSSION: MARITAL STATUS The significance of marital status requires further discussion. The question on whether the subject is married, single, separated or divorced was not asked and a l l information on marital status comes from the question asked on l iv ing arrangements. One reason that married people are more l ikely to be employed is there are family-centred as well as individual pressures to work. These, together with social support for work, may motivate disabled people to persevere through a system that is biased against them. Family and friends may also provide social support for work. Table XV shows job status according to l iv ing arrangements for seventy-three disabled subjects. Respondents l iving in group-homes for the handicapped, extended care units and university residences are excluded from this table. They are certainly l iv ing with friends, but this is not the same as sharing a house or apartment with one or more friends and so forming an independent economic unit. Table XXI shows that i t is the married state which is associated with employment, not the presumed social support of home-sharing. There i s , however, a suggestion from the data 98 obtained, that some respondents who are l iv ing with their parents (notably the cerebral palsied group of whom forty-four percent are s t i l l l iv ing with one or more parent), may be over protected by their families. Nevertheless, i t seems that the significance of marital status is due to more than the social support provided by a spouse. Marital status in the general population can be considered a good indicator of social integration. This may be one reason for the significance of this variable among these respondents. However, among minority groups such as the disabled and ethnic populations, there may be a tendency to marry within the group, thus diminishing the value of marital status as an indicator of social integration. Not enough is known about respondents' spouses to know i f they married in or out of their groups. Marital status may have a different effect i f the d i sabi l i ty is not stable. Yel in, Nevitt and Epstein (1980) found that married subjects with the unpredictable disease of rheumatoid ar thr i t i s tend to withdraw from the workforce. The authors' explanation is that others in the family can support that person. 5 There may be an extrinsic reason why married people are more l ike ly to be working: employers may favour the selection of married applicants as being more "stable" or"rel iable" , although this action is deplored by human rights workers. To conclude, marital status is associated with employment, but the reasons are not clear and are probably more complex than suggested here. 99 TABLE XXI. EMPLOYMENT STATUS ACCORDING TO LIVING ARRANGEMENTS Working Not Working Total Living with Spouse 15 5 20 (75) (25) (100) Single, l iving with 13 19 32 Family/Friends (41) (59) (100) Single, l iving 9 12 21 Alone (43) (57) (100) Total 37 36 73 (51) (49) (100) 06^ = 6.54, significant (df=2), p = 0.05 I. Summary and Conclusion Data on the variables of the model thought to influence the job-search and hiring of disabled people are discussed. In a l l cases the frequencies are small. A X * t e s t of association using Yates' correction for small numbers is used wherever possible. Findings are not significant at the 0.05 probability level for sex, salience of the d i sab i l i ty , type of school attended, level of high school completed, job-ski l l s and employment counselling. Numbers are too small to test the association of agency assistance, access and the avai labi l i ty of transport. Data on some of the indicators of social integration are problematic. Only one variable derived from the model is found to have a significant 100 association with regular employment: the marital status of the applicant. Those who are married are more l ikely to be working. This suggests that the efforts of an agency, whether Manpower or a d i sabi l i ty agency, to help a cl ient find work are not as important as that person's individual development. There may be several reasons for the lack of significance displayed by the data. The f i r s t is that the model is inappropriate for analysing the job-search and hiring process. This may be true although a knowledge of the real world t e l l s us that certain variables such as education and job-ski l l s do have a bearing on whether a person is employed. At least they do in "normal" times when there is not a recession and many ski l led and experienced people are unemployed. The second is that the samples as originally drawn are not large (twenty men and twenty women from each category) and the returns are low. One sample, the cerebral palsied, has no members in regular work and this reduces the numbers further. A third reason is that the right questions were not asked. This is certainly the case for the subjects' socio-economic status where the question of parents' occupations as an indication of the socio-economic status of the family in which the subject was reared, was omitted. More emphasis might also have been placed on subjects' lack of knowledge about transport and access rather than on their assumptions. More information on subjects' spouses would have been helpful in determining what 102 REFERENCES (CHAPTER III) 1. Downie, N.M. and Heath, R.W. Basic Stat is t ical Methods, 4th ed., 1974, New York, Parper and Row, 179. 2. Dayton, Charles W. The Young Person's Job Search: Insights from a Study, J . of Counselling Psychology, 1981, 28(4):321-333. 3. Idem. 4. Lynch, Richard L. The Job of Getting a Job, Business Education World, 1979, May-June:13-14. 5. Idem. 6. Yel in, Edward. Nevitt, Michael and Epstein, Wallace. Toward an Epidemiology of Work Disabi l i ty . Milbank  Memorial Fund Quarterly, Health and Society, mail, 58(3):386-415. 101 percentage married outside their disabi l i ty group. These are the only items lacking that have been identified so far. It appears, therefore, that there are other factors acting to make this model inappropriate as a means of analysing the job-search and hiring process of disabled people in Vancouver in 1982. It is l ikely that some of these form part of the macro-environment that contributed to the unemployment of both able-bodied and disabled people in that year. The question then arising i s : are any parts of the model important for an individual d isabi l i ty group? This w i l l be discussed briefly in the next chapter. 103 CHAPTER IV. WORK AND THE SELECTED DISABILITIES In this chapter I shall look at each sample in turn considering a few variables that give each sample i t s character. The disabled samples w i l l be discussed in descending order of the salience of the d i s ab i l i ty . The control sample w i l l be described last . A. CEREBRAL PALSY The people in this sample a l l acquired their d i sabi l i ty before, during or soon after b i r th . A person with cerebral palsy requires habilitation rather than rehabilitation to develop his or her f u l l potential. Habilitation does not seek to restore what has been lost, but to help the individual gain optimal physical, psychological and social function. 1 1. Salience of the Disabil i ty Nine men and nine women returned questionnaires. Eleven people (61%) use at least one aid regularly. Eight (44%) use a mobility aid such as a wheelchair or crutches, two (11%) use a communication aid to compensate for speech problems, and one person (6%) uses both a wheelchair and a communication aid. These aids are very vis ible and thus a high salience of the di sabi l i ty is established for sixty-one percent of this sample. The salience of the disabi l i ty for the remaining thirty-nine percent of the sample can only be estimated, but is expected to be f a i r ly high due to the excess movement and speech and balance d i f f i cu l t ie s found in the general cerebral palsied population. 104 2. Living Arrangements and Dependents Eight people (44%) l ive with their parents. Three (16%) l ive with friends in a group home for handicapped people. One (6%) lives with a spouse. Three people (17%) l ive alone and one (6%) is in an extended care f a c i l i t y . Two people (11%) did not respond. In 1980 the Cerebral Palsy Association of Bri t i sh Columbia commissioned a study of the needs of cerebral palsied adults in the Greater Vancouver Regional Di s t r i c t . This survey expressed concern over the social dependency of this population. This was seen in the lving arrangements where just over half (51%) of their respondents 2 were s t i l l l iving with their parents. This is echoed by the Voice of the Cerebral Palsied of Greater Vancouver (the origin of this sample) which is most concerned about what i t terms: " . . . . t h e passive, unambitious nature of the cerebral palsied community in B.C a population which has been over-protected by parents and institutions and which thereby lacks the knowledge and s k i l l s to seek improvement."3 This sample has no dependents, being i t se l f dependent on others. 3. Work and Income No one from this sample works in the competitive workforce. One person does part-time typing and saleswork at home on a contract basis and another person works one day a week doing office and reception work. Five people (28%) work part-time in a sheltered workshop. A l l these people earn no more than one hundred dollars ($100.00) a month: that i s , not enough to lose the GAIN allowance. 105 Eleven people (61%) rely total ly on the formal support system to meet their major expenses of food, rent and clothing. Another four (22%) rely partly on this system. That fifteen out of eighteen people rely wholly or partly on the formal support system suggests that, unless offered a well paid job, i t would not be to the subject's advantage to work f u l l time. The GAIN regulations are l ike ly to be a disincentive to seeking f u l l time employment for this group. These people also rely on expensive methods of transport (Handydart and taxis) . If the cost of replacing clothing soon worn by the excess movements of cerebral palsy is added, then full-time work for these people would have to be remunerated at more than the minimum wage for i t to be worth giving up the GAIN allowance. 4. Education and Job Sk i l l s Eight people (44%) went to a regular school, nine (50%) to a special school and one person never went to school. Three, or nearly half of the people in regular school, spent some or a l l of their time in a special class. Six people completed grade twelve, five in Vancouver and one in the U.S.A. One of the Vancouver students transferred from a special to a regular school.* *Arrangements were made between the special school at the G.F. Strong Rehabilitation Centre and nearby Eric Hamber High School for academically capable, but physically disabled students to either attend classes at the high school, or have work sent to them at the rehabilitation centre. Students who completed a l l grade twelve subjects satisfactori ly would be awarded a grade twelve certif icate from Eric Hamber High School (source: Ellen Baglot, Co-ordinator of Special Education, Vancouver School Board, personal communication, January 5, 1984). 106 Nine people (50%) have specific job training. Five have formal training in bookkeeping, c ler ica l and legal-secretarial work and finance and investment. Four people (22%) gained on the job training in sales, typing, printing press operation and assembly work. The last two s k i l l s were learned in a sheltered workshop environment. None of the people with formal job-training is working at present. Two are continuing their education f u l l time and two are not looking for work. One is in the no information category. Twelve people (67%) reported that they have s k i l l s gained through experience that they think would be useful to an employer. These include landscaping and gardening, work as a newspaper reporter, counselling parents of cerebral palsied children and general office work. These responses suggest that there is a range of ab i l i t i e s in this sample that is not being tapped by the labour market. 5. Experiences and Perceptions Most respondents from a l l samples were very generous: in their replies to the open-ended questions that asked for their perceptions of the problems disabled people have getting jobs. Perceptions were coded as external, or internal, to the person. Most cerebral palsied respondents perceived the problems to be external: mobility, access and transportation and a general lack of jobs were frequently mentioned. Several people mentioned 107 negative attitudes on the part of the employer, but only two gave examples: " (there is) also a feeling that handicapped people are not supposed to be physical. For example, I was turned down for a mail-clerk job." "I would say i t depends on the employer. 1 applied for a job as a security person, looking at T.V. monitors. . . . he laughed: thought i t one big joke." Byrd, Byrd and Emener (1977) surveyed twenty-five employers r in Tallahassee, Florida and asked them to rank ten d i sabi l i t ie s in order of severity. Cerebral palsy was ranked third after alcoholism 4 and blindness as having a negative effect on a person's employability. One respondent states that both employers and disabled people are not looking at a b i l i t y . Some job descriptions require very l i t t l e change to enable them to f i t a "differently-abled" person. Although some people with cerebral palsy may not be suitable for entry-level jobs requiring physical effort, they can do jobs that require more thinking and less ac t iv i ty . This leads us to the internal problems. Very few respondents from this sample mentioned these, but those who did had clearly given them considerable thought. These thoughts ranged from a brisk: "Most disabled people I know that have never worked, have never t r i ed . Disabled people are their own worst enemy. Some feel the community owes i t to them. And they don't have to work for a l i v i n g . " to admitting a general lack of confidence in themselves. They thought that this may be due to an over-protected upbringing. As a result they lack insight into their own strengths and weaknesses as people. Inadequate education is also cited. 108 In summary, this sample has had highly salient d i sabi l i ty since b i r th . Members are generally poorly educated and no one is working ful l-t ime. There is a high reliance on the formal support system,which does not encourage the individual to earn more than a hundred dollars a month without penalty,and so is instrumental in perpetuating a dependence that may have begun earlier when the individual for physical, social or academic reasons was assigned to a special school. This made i t harder to learn the social s k i l l s required for interaction with non-disabled people. There are a few respondents who do not f i t into this category and some of these are either furthering their education, or working hard through the Voice of the Cerebral Palsied to improve the future of their members whose habilitation process is not yet complete. B. PARAPLEGIA The eight men and eight of the nine women making up this sample a l l had non-disabled childhoods. The ninth woman was born with spina bifida and is included in the five people (29%) who were paraplegic before the age of nineteen. Ten people (59%) sustained their accidents between nineteen and thirty and one person (6%) was over thir ty years old. 109 1. Salience of the Disabil ity A l l but one of the sample has complete paraplegia and uses a wheelchair. The person with incomplete paraplegia does not use any walking aids. It is not known whether he has a steady gait, or whether he walks in a normal fashion which would indicate that his d i sab i l i ty is a hidden one resulting in muscle weakness rather than partial or complete paralysis. Wheelchairs are the generally recognized symbol of d i sabi l i ty largely because of the problems of access to buildings and of parking: a wider parking space than is usually allotted is required for a paraplegic person to get herself and her chair in and out of a car or van. However, a paraplegic person in a wheelchair may not seem as obviously disabled s i t t ing behind a table or desk as does someone who can walk,but who has involuntary facia l or upper body movements such as is found in some kinds of cerebral palsy. Nevertheless, reliance on a wheelchair for mobility makes this d i sabi l i ty a highly salient one. 2. - Living Arrangements and Dependents Five people (29%) are married, four (23%) l ive alone, three (18%) l ive with friends and three (18%) l ive with their parents. Two people (12%) l ive with their children as single parents. The people comprising this sample, therefore, do not seem to be dependent on their parents for social support. 110 3. Work and Income Eight people (47%) are working regularly and two (12%) work occasionally. Two people (12%) are looking for work and five (29%) are not looking. Some of the people not looking for work are training seriously for wheelchair-sports events. Six of the employed people (75%, N = 8) earn between one and two thousand dollars a month before tax. One person earns under a thousand and one earns between two and three thousand dollars a month. Twelve people (71%) worked before being injured. Seven (58%) state that they are less well off nowttian they were before their accidents. This number includes people who are working as well as those who are unemployed and receiving pensions,or guaranteed annual income for need payments. Four people (25%) rely entirely on the formal support system to meet their major expenses and another three people (18%) rely part ial ly on this system. 4. Education and Job Sk i l l s Twelve people (71%) finished grade twelve. Two (12%) are continuing their education full-time and one (6%) is studying part-time. Ten people (59%) reported formal training in job- sk i l l s . Jobs for which respondents are trained include biomedical-research assistant, bookkeeper, carpenter, computer assembler and repairer, machinist, millwright, painter, rehabilitation counsellor and schoolteacher. Some people have not worked at these jobs since becoming injured. I l l 5. Experiences and Perceptions This group has fewer t r a n s p o r t problems than might be expected. F i f t e e n people (88%) have a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n s e and own e i t h e r a car or van. As one person can use p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t (he does not have a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n s e ) , t h i s leaves one wheelchair-dependent person without a p r i v a t e v e h i c l e . The main problem of the people in t h i s sample i s t h a t of access to b u i l d i n g s and e s p e c i a l l y to washrooms within those b u i l d i n g s . I n a c c e s s i b l e washrooms are e s p e c i a l l y a problem f o r women p a r a p l e g i c s . Employers do seem to be sympathetic though,as these two women w r i t e : "(The)employers made some a l t e r a t i o n s to improve a c c e s s i b i l i t y . I spent most of (my) lunch and c o f f e e breaks s t r u g g l i n g t o get to the t o i l e t . " "I think one of the biggest hurdles i s i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the workplace ( i . e . s t a i r s , washroom, etc.) but I've found t h a t - provided the employer has the budget - they are w i l l i n g to put in a ramp or remodel the washroom." O f f i c e r s from the Canadian Paraplegic A s s o c i a t i o n v i s i t r e c e n t l y s p i n a l c o r d - i n j u r e d people in h o s p i t a l and f o l l o w t h e i r progress through the G.F. Strong R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Centre. The r e s u l t of t h i s i s a group cohesiveness. F i v e people found t h e i r present work through the CPA as d i d the person who pretested the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . One respondent who i s going to school part-time wrote: "I've had no t r o u b l e ( g e t t i n g work). I c a l l Cnd. Paraplegic Assoc. - t e l l 'em what I'm looking f o r and keep checking back p e r i o d i c a l l y They keep me posted i f they know I'm searching." 112 The impression received from the data obtained on this group of people is that they do not have problems with basic social s k i l l s . Many of them worked before their injuries and so know from experience the real ity of the workplace. They are aware of their mobility limitations and equally aware of how l i t t l e a workplace has to be modified to accommodate them. C. BLIND In selecting this sample, no distinction was made between those who were born bl ind, or developed blindness at a very early age, and those who had functioning sight during their school years and developed a visual impairment later. The only criterion was that these respondents are registered with the Canadian National Institute for the Blind as legally blind persons. This sample, therefore, includes a wide range of people:from those who have l i t t l e or no sight and read bra i l le instead of print,to those whose low vision is good enough that they require reading aids (special magnifying glasses) for small print only. 1. Salience of the Disabil i ty Of the twelve men and eleven women who make up this sample, five men and six women use aids regularly. This is fifty-two percent of the sample. Aids used are white canes, guide-dogs, bra i l l e r s , and special reading aids such as magnifiers and the Visual-Tek which magnifies print and projects i t onto a screen. 113 Human interaction relies heavily on eye contact which is why people may become uncomfortable talking to anyone wearing dark sun-glasses. In face to face interactions blind people have a problem in maintaining eye contact as they do not rely on their visual senses. To some extent this can be compensated for , and is by many blind peopl by increasing their head movements. However, the point of reference for a blind and for a sighted person during a conversation are different and, however ski l led the blind person is at th i s , after a while i t is clear to the sighted person that there is a visual impairment. This,especially i f one or both eyes do not look "normal", adds to the salience of the d i sab i l i ty . 2. Living Arrangements and Dependents Six people (26%) are married and four of these have a dependent spouse or c h i l d . Eight people (35%) l ive alone and three (13%) l ive with friends. It is probably safe to say that these people comprising seventy-four percent of this sample are independent of thei parents. One person lives with a sibling and five (22%) l ive with their parents. One person l iv ing in the parental home is s t i l l at high school, therefore there are possibly only four people, or five at the most (maximum 2%), who are socio-economically dependent on immediate family. 114 3. Work and Income Three men and six women (39%, N = 23) are working regularly. This is the only disabled sample where the percentage of women working (50%) is greater than the percentage of men working (27%). An examination of the work these blind women are doing suggests that s trat i f icat ion of the job-market by sex may have worked to their advantage: six out of seven are typists or recep-t ionis t s . The seventh is a social case-worker. The existence of a female job-ghetto has ensured that these women do have jobs, but no one is an administrative assistant or office manager. Further examination is needed to find out to what extent these respondents are e l ig ib le for promotion, or indeed w i l l be promoted.* This raises the possibi l i ty that certain jobs, often low paid and with few employee benefits may, i f there are no physical or sensory job-restrictions, become ghettoes for disabled people in the same way that deaf people were assigned to work with noisy machinery. Vash (1982) however, believes that some already established "mini-ghettoes" such as rehabilitation counselling and computer programming are acceptable 5 as they can offer better work for disabled people. Seven people, or f i f t y percent of those unemployed are looking for work. •Several respondents state that getting a job is only a beginning. There are s t i l l problems of keeping i t and of being promoted. 115 Earnings reported by eight people (35% of the sample and 89% of those employed).indicate that one person earns under one hundred dollars a month in part-time work delivering papers and seven (88%, N = 8) earn between one and two thousand dollars a month before taxes. Ten people (43%) rely wholly on the formal support system for their major expenses. One person is getting unemployment insurance payments and nine (39%) receive the guaranteed annual income for need (GAIN) either alone in or combination with unemployment insurance payments, d i sabi l i ty pensions and family allowance funds. These limited data show that only thirty percent of people in this sample are known to be self-sufficient in income. The rest are either heavily dependent on the formal support system, or have not responded to the question. 4. Education and Job Sk i l l s This sample has the highest percentage of Grade twelve diplomas. Nineteen people (86%) have diplomas and seventeen (74%) have education beyond the level of high school. Only three people have less than grade twelve education and one was upgrading to that level at the time she completed the questionnaire. A total of nine respondents (39%) are continuing their education: six full-time and three part-time. Nine people are attending, or have attended, a community college and seven (30%) a university. If the current six full-time students are discounted then the proportion of people in work s t i l l remains low at fifty-three percent. Clearly there must be other factors operating to prevent people with this level of education from getting work. 116 Ten people (50%, N = 20) have formal job-ski l l s training that led to a diploma, cert i f icate or degree. This is forty-three percent of the total sample. Examples of jobs for which respondents are trained are: bank t e l l e r and audit clerk, computer programming, radio communications, secretarial and word-processing work, small gasoline-engine mechanics and teaching languages or music. 5. Experiences and Perceptions Two respondents cited the problem of not being employed because of inexperience although a l l the people with the formal job-s k i l l s had worked, or were s t i l l working at these particular jobs. Two people acknowledged that there are some tasks such as f i l i n g and opening mail that are hard to adapt, or employers may be unwillingly to adapt,for one person with impaired vision in an office where everyone else is sighted. One woman who had additional training and whose vision had since deteriorated has had to: " . . . . g ive up my "new" position as the degree of sight required to f u l f i l l the job exceeds the level of my present v i s ion" . A non-caucasian respondent whose questionnaire was not used in the analysis wrote: "I think my problem had more to do with the type of job I was applying (for) than anything else. Not having gone to school in Canada, I was not aware of the kind of d i s c i -pline problems one could have in high schools. I wish somebody had made me aware of the problems I might encounter before I started my teacher's training programme. Speaking in more general terms, students with any d i sabi l i ty should be advised by counsellors before they undertake any vocational or professional t ra ining. " 117 The twenty-three people in t h i s sample appear to be educated and s k i l l e d beyond t h e i r current representation in the workforce. There i s some suggestion t h a t the majority of those employed may be in dead-end jobs, but the f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s are probably more complex than that they are a) female and b) b l i n d . The general under-representation of t h i s sample in the work-f o r c e may be due t o e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s such as the r e c e s s i o n , or may be p a r t l y due to i n a p p r o p r i a t e s o c i a l i z a t i o n of b l i n d people. One respondent,whose s i g h t d e t e r i o r a t e d in h i s twenties and i s g e t t i n g worse, wrote: "The problem with b l i n d people i s t h a t q u i t e a number of them....lack the s o c i a l s k i l l s t o gain employment." This i s the only population, apart from the c o n t r o l s , t h a t i s large enough to enable both male and female random samples to be drawn. These are a l s o people who have contacted the CNIB expressly f o r v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g and so these r e s u l t s may not be g e n e r a l i z a b l e to the t o t a l b l i n d population i n the Vancouver area. D. EPILEPSY Th i r t e e n men and f i f t e e n women make up t h i s sample. Epi l e p s y i s an i n v i s i b i l e impairment unless the person i s a c t u a l l y having a s e i z u r e and even then some sei z u r e s may be so s l i g h t t h a t the general p u b l i c i s unaware t h a t they are happening. Therefore, the s a l i e n c e of any one i n d i v i d u a l ' s d i s a b i l i t y w i l l vary over time and, once c o n t r o l l e d , w i l l remain i n v i s i b l e . F i f t e e n people (55%) 118 thought their epilepsy was more under control than i t had been: one (4%) thought i t was worse and eleven (41%) thought there had been no recent change. 1. Living Arrangements and Dependents Eight people (29%) are married. Two are supporting a spouse and another is supporting a spouse and ch i ld . One person has a working spouse and dependent ch i ld . Two people (7%) are single parents. Five people (18%) l ive with friends, f ive (18%) with their parents, six (21%) l ive alone and two (7%) l ive with siblings. As expected, this sample does not seem to be dependent on parental socio-economic support. 2. Work and Income Eight men and nine women (61%) are working regularly. Thirteen people (46%) work ful l-t ime. Five people (18%) are looking for work. This sample has the highest percentage of people supporting themselves wholly from their earnings: sixteen people (57%). It also has the lowest percentage of people relying tota l ly on the formal support system for their major expenses. Only six people (21%) rely tota l ly on this system, although another three (11%) have partial assistance. Fifteen people reported their monthly income before taxes. One person (7%) earns less than five hundred dollars a month doing part-time work; five (33%) earn up to a thousand dollars and another 119 five (33%) between one and two thousand dollars . Three people (20%) earn between two and three thousand dollars and one (7%) over three thousand dollars a month. 3. Education and Job Sk i l l s Although a l l but one of the respondents went to a regular school, only twenty-one people (71%) graduated from grade twelve compared with eighty-six percent of the blind sample. The reason for this is not clear. It may be that a greater emphasis is placed on education for a visually impaired ch i ld , but not a l l the people in the blind sample developed their visual problems early: three blind respondents (13%) were over nineteen years old when their sight deteriorated. Seven (25%) of the people with epilepsy developed their seizures or had them diagnosed between the ages of nineteen and thirty f ive . The people whose epilepsy was diagnosed in their childhood or teens may have been slowed down academically by their anti-seizure drugs. Non-compliance in the taking of medication, or inadequate seizure control at this important stage in their education may a l l have contributed. The reason may also have nothing to do with epilepsy and be a combination of other factors that might include a parental lack of interest in education. Fifteen people (50%) attended a vocational school or community college and seven (25%),a university. At the time they completed the questionnaire, two people (7%) were continuing their education full-time and six (21%), part-time. 120 Twenty four people (86%) have job s k i l l s and half of these completed a formal training leading to a cert i f icate , diploma or degree. Examples of these are bookkeeping, laboratory technician, marine navigator, radio operator, realtor and teacher. 4. Experiences and Perceptions Transport may be a problem for some people in this sample. In Bri t i sh Columbia, at the time of this study, a person had to be seizure-free for three years before a driver's licencewas issued or reinstated.* One woman turned down a job in Abbotsford because the bus service is inadequate. A realtor wrote that he could not do his present job i f he could not drive. Only one person specifically mentioned that she has no problem with transport: she walks, cycles or uses the bus. Most respondents who wrote on this topic agree that people's seizures should be controlled before they look for work. There is also agreement that people should know themselves and their reactions to the medication wel l . One person suggests avoiding potential seizure-inducing stimuli such as flashing l ights, and stressors such as shift work or irregular hours. *This time has since been reduced to one year, (source: spokesman for Driver Examination, Province of Bri t i sh Columbia, Motor Vehicle Department, Vancouver, August 28, 1984.) 121 Nineteen people (68%) wrote of the problem of disclosure of their epilepsy to an employer. The majority suggested limited disclosure at the interview, or only i f there is a question on medication on the application form. At least three people (11%) have lost jobs diret ly or indirectly because of their epilepsy. As one person wrote, "Epilepsy is a bad label" . One woman wrote that she has only ever informed one employer of her seizures and that was only when she found out that he too was epi lept ic . Another woman wrote: "Be honest. I went both routes - f i r s t being honest and found I got rejected. Then I l ied - but that becomes a very d i f f i c u l t burden to bear, along with the pressure of any job. So a l l in a l l - be honest. Somewhere out there, there are understanding employers." A few, such as the woman who had been f ired from several restaurant and sales-clerk jobs once the employers found out about her epilepsy, are adamant about not disclosing. The decision not to disclose can lead to anxiety. One subject, under the impression that I had mailed the questionnaire and therefore knew his identity wrote: "I know that I am supposed to be free and open about my d i sab i l i ty but the practical fact remains that I deal with people who invest up to $2,000,000. at a time, and i f any of them every heard that I had epilepsy, they would soon a l l hear i t and I would NEVER (work) again." As expected for a hidden d i s ab i l i ty , more people in this sample are working regularly. Apart from the occasional transport problems, the respondents' main cause for concern is whether to disclose to an employer that they have epilepsy and the timing of this disclosure. 122 E. CONTROLS As already mentioned these respondents turned out to be another employment-disadvantaged group rather than the control sample planned. It would be more appropriate to describe them as a contrast sample. 1. Living Arrangements and Dependents A l l but one of the six men and seven women making up this sample l ive in the parental home. One lives with friends. No one is married, but one woman has a dependent c h i l d . 2. Work and Income No one in this group has regular full-time work although one woman works full-t ime in the summer. Six people (46%) have part-time work and one works occasionally. Five people (38%) are actively looking for work. Seven people (54%) reported their earnings. Four (57%) earn less than five hundred dollars a month before taxes doing part-time waitressing, daycare and bank work. Two (29%) earn up to one thousand dollars a month working at food preparation in either a hospital or commercial restaurant. One person who works full-time during the summer at a dry-cleaners earns between one and two thousand dollars a month during this period. Two people (15%) out of the total sample state that they rely entirely on the formal support system of unemployment insurance payments to meet their major expenses. However, these people are s t i l l l iv ing in their parents' homes so presumably obtain some support from them. 123 3. Education and Job Sk i l l s Although recruited from the Grade XII graduating class of a local high school, only ten (77%) of the thirteen respondents received their high school diplomas. Two people (15%) are continuing their education full-time and three (23%) are part-time students. One person (10%, N = 10), reported having some formal job-s k i l l s training although ten respondents (78%) stated that they had studied either c l e r i ca l or trades-skills in high school. They may not perceive this as formal tra ining. Two men and four women (46%) have also had experience as volunteer workers teaching swimming, lifeguarding, doing office work for a p o l i t i c a l party, working in daycare for normal or autist ic children, candystriping in a hospital, and working in the local community centre. They may, therefore, have a wide range of job-s k i l l s gained informally through their voluntary work. 4. Experiences and Perceptions Only three people (23%) had additional comments to make on problems they had getting jobs. Two men mentioned the problem of experience. One wrote: "Experience: It seems wherever I look for a job, they wants (sic) an extreme amount of experience. But usually they pay a d i r t wage for that experience. I think i f more people are wi l l ing to train people from day 1, they would get there (sic) ideal employee. Just give me a chancel" 124 One man who had d y s l e x i a s t a t e s t h a t he i s i n t e r e s t e d i n attending v o c a t i o n a l school f o r baking and cooking, but t h i n k s he must get more experience i n the f i e l d f i r s t as he cannot " read and w r i t e at the same l e v e l as o t h e r s " . This man had a f a m i l y member t o help him with the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The young people making up t h i s sample were randomly s e l e c t e d from the high school graduating c l a s s of the year preceding the year of the survey. Although returns are low, t h e i r experiences and a t t i t u d e s are probably t y p i c a l of t h e i r peers. This age-group i s s u f f e r i n g s e v e r e l y at a time of high unemployment and cutbacks in the area of secondary education. They cannot f i n d jobs or on-the-job t r a i n i n g very e a s i l y as they are being squeezed out from above by more s k i l l e d people who have been l a i d o f f . Both interview subjects were wai t i n g f o r places at a community c o l l e g e . They had found out t h a t unless they were well organized and planned ahead, they had t o wait a semester or more f o r admission. Both l e v e l s of government have recognized t h i s problem but the e f f e c t s of t h e i r s p e c i a l youth employment programs are not determined y e t . 125 F. CONCLUSIONS The picture that emerges is of disabled people working, i f they have work at a l l , in low-skilled and presumably low status occupations. Generally the data confirm th i s , although some people do seem to be better off than others. No one has a high status occupation,such as doctor or lawyer, although one person is a medical student. The people with a wider range of job-ski l l s and more education tend to be staying on, or returning to school.* For the purposes of this survey, this placed them in the "not working" category and may have inflated these numbers, although not enough to have made a significant difference. The d i f f i cu l t i e s experienced by the control group in finding work suggest that d i sab i l i ty is not the only reason why some of the other respondents are not employed. The recession is certainly one reason, but care should be taken that this is not used as a catch-all answer to the question of unemployment. Other possible reasons w i l l be discussed in the next and f ina l chapter of this thesis. * ful l-t ime students by sample are: cerebral palsied, 2; paraplegic, 2; bl ind, 6; and epi leptic , 2. 126 REFERENCES (CHAPTER IV) 1. Pocock, Peter B. Why C P . Adults are Hard to Organize. Contact, The Canadian Cerebral Palsy Association, Autumn, 1979:"2TJT 2. Cooper, Mary. Survey of the Needs of Adults with Cerebral Palsy, Cerebral Palsy Association of Br i t i sh Columbia, 1980, Vancouver, (mimeo):16-17. 3. Voice of the Cerebral Palsied of Greater Vancouver, information leaf let , 1982. 4. Byrd, E. Keith. Byrd, Dianne P. and Emener, William G. Student Counselor and Employer Perceptions of Severely Retarded, Rehabilitation Literature, 1977, 38(2):42-44. 5. Vash, Carolyn L. Employment Issues for Women with Di sab i l i t i e s , Rehabilitation Literature, 1982, 43(7-8):198-207. 127 CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FUTURE From the findings i t seems that the character of the indivi and the presumed security of the married state are more important than any of the variables tested in predicting employment. One of the objectives of this thesis was to identify as many factors as possible contributing to a disabled person having work, so that a strategy could be recommended to people with similar d i sab i l i t i e s and helping agencies. Unfortunately, this did not happen and so no strategy can be suggested. What does seem to matter, at the level of the individual , is personal and societal integration as indicated by the married state. Work is only one indicator of social integration. On one level i t may not be the most important. Not a l l jobs lead to self-actualization: many are boring, repetit ive, stressful or demeaning. Nevertheless, Herstein, H i l l and Walters (1977) stress the importance of the source and level of personal income in determining adult self-image and social status. 1 The non-significance of the variables chosen for this study suggests that environmental factors beyond the control of disabled people seeking work have more influence on the outcome of the search than individual job-preparation and job-search. Some of these factors w i l l be considered in this chapter. 128 A. UNEMPLOYMENT RATE OF DISABLED PEOPLE Muir (1978) has stated that disabled people are the last hired 2 and the f i r s t f i r ed . There is no evidence from this survey to suggest the contrary. In 1982 the economic recession was deepening and the unemployment rate in Bri t i sh Columbia for people over the age of 3 fifteen was 12.1%, somewhat higher than the national average of 11.0%. This higher rate may or may not be due to the province's heavy reliance on the extraction of primary resources. The average rate of unemployment for men over the age of fifteen in 1982 was 12.4% in Br i t i sh Columbia and 11.1% across Canada; for women in that same age-group in 1982 the unemployment rate was 11.7% in Br i t i sh Columbia and 10.9% nat ional ly . 4 The rates for a l l the disabled groups taking part in the survey on which this thesis is based are higher than the averages for Br i t i sh Columbia. This may be due to different sampling techniques, but i t is not l ike ly to be the only reason for such a large difference. Whatever the reasons, the fact is that disabled people are less l ike ly to be employed. B. EXPECTATIONS AND SEGREGATION Disabled people are not the only group that find i t hard to find work. People belonging to an ethnic minority and older workers with few s k i l l s and f a i l ing health are two categories of people who tradit ional ly have a hard time finding suitable employment. A non-tradit ional group of unemployed or under-employed people has emerged during the current recession: young people. The main ar t ic le in a 129 recent issue of Maclean's magazine (July 16, 1984) discussed this 5 problem. While not wishing to detract from the seriousness of this problem, one confirmed by the control respondents of this survey, a point should be made that no similar ar t ic le on the high rate of unemployment among disabled people has been noticed in the public media since the International Year of the Disabled Persons in 1981. The reason for this lack of concern about the unemployment of disabled people may be explained by the nature and direction of societal expectations. Young people are expected to leave school and then go to work, with an option of further study before joining the workforce. Disabled people, especially i f they go to a special school, are not expected to go out to work to support themselves. This can be changed. An emphasis on general education for disabled children together with the acquisition of job s k i l l s w i l l help reduce this stereotypical thinking, but w i l l only lead to increased frustration i f these expectations are not met by employers once these children reach working age. The trend is for increasing integration within the school system. Integration for some children is possible only with the help of assistants or classroom aides. Baker, Baker and McDaniel (1975) note that care needs to be taken in planning such integration. They indicate that classes exclusively for special children in a regular school only reinforce the segregation from their socially "normal" peers. There w i l l always be some children who cannot benefit from regular schooling and so there w i l l always be a place for special schools. In Br i t i sh Columbia, resources for classroom integration 130 have been reduced since the re-election of the social credit government in 1983. C. SOCIAL CONTROL In bad times i t appears that disabled people are either not hired, or are the f i r s t to be let go. While carrying out this survey I received several comments and queries from non-disabled acquaintances to the effect: Why worry about jobs for disabled people when there are so many ablebodied people out of work? This comment is based on a "more deserving - less deserving" assumption. During the depression of the 1930s and after World War II i t was the married women who were expected to give up their jobs to the "more deserving" men. The increase in single-parent families headed by women, together with the growth of the feminist movement and anti-discriminatory legislation at both federal and provincial levels have made this opinion regarding the employment of women less common, or at least less frequently expressed. Now i t seems that disabled people are to be assigned this "less deserving" place. There is no provincial , human rights legislation in Br i t i sh Columbia to ensure that quali f ied, disabled people are not discriminated against when seeking employment. B i l l 27 of the Br i t i sh Columbia Legislature which would have provided this protection was withdrawn after the 1983 election. Federal legislation prohibiting such discrimination is in place, but this covers only a portion of the labour market. 131 It appears that unless there is protection by legis lat ion, the integration of disabled people into the workforce w i l l be painfully slow. The withdrawal of B i l l 27 removed, or at least weakened, the competition of this section of the community for the available jobs. If this b i l l had been passed, i t would have opened the way for l i t i ga t ion by and on behalf of disabled people who had been refused jobs in a tight market. This action may, therefore, be interpreted as a form of social control. Social control is not a l l governmental. The interlocking framework created by the helping institutions may also f a c i l i t a t e social control, although this is not the intent of the individual inst i tut ions . Two such institutions that may be used as instruments of social control are vocational services and the pension system. 1. Vocational Services* Many people leave high school to undertake some job-training before entering the workforce. Formal learning on the job, such as apprenticeships, is less common now than in the past. People with a medically recognized d i sab i l i ty are e l ig ib le for help from the Vocational Rehabilitation Service (VRS) in choosing and training for a job; or in getting retrained i f their d i sab i l i ty prevents them from doing their previous job. That i s , i f the person knows that the information on the Vocational Rehabilitation Service of Br i t i sh Columbia is from a personal communication from Rose Magnusson, Acting Director, March 28, 1984. 132 service exists. The VRS in Br i t i sh Columbia has a low prof i le . People are referred here by workers at the Ministry of Human Resources, special education teachers and Employment Canada (Manpower) Centres. A few hear about the service from friends and acquaintances. The VRS co-ordinates rather than provides the actual services and tra ining. Even for a co-ordinating service i t is understaffed. There are thirteen counsellors for the whole of Br i t i sh Columbia. Five counsellors are in Vancouver. The Committees described in Chapter II are s t i l l used where the counsellor finds i t a good way to keep the commitment to the c l ient of the referring agency. In the interior of the Province where each counsellor has to cover a large geographical area, this is the only way he or she can keep in touch with a l l available resources. The Vocational Rehabilitation Servjce in Br i t i sh Columbia began as part of the Ministry of Health. It has since been placed within the Ministry of Labour. This move has advantages and disadvantages. The main advantage is that the d i sab i l i ty is demedicalized as there is less emphasis on people being sick and needing paternalistic care. Many d i sab i l i t i e s are stable although some are the result of progressive disease. Often these diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and coronary artery disease, are acquired or diagnosed after a person has been working for several years. A possible disadvantage of the new location of the VRS is that the expansion of programs and services for disabled people may be a low prior i ty within the Ministry of Labour. If this is so, then witholding resources from- the VRS may be seen as a form of social control to keep disabled people from the labour market at a time of high general unemployment. 133 2. Pensions Hammerman and Maikowski (1983) observe that in the U.S.A. decreased economic growth, increased automation and changing labour markets are forcing mentally and physically impaired workers out of the workforce in many areas. They argue that this job rationing is based on the assumption that disabled people can receive pensions and so creates a medicalization of what is really a market problem: a lack of jobs . 7 There is no reason to think that the Canadian experience would be different. There are, however, some disabled people for whom computerised automation may open up jobs. People with weak or incoordinated upper limbs may, with the help of suitable devices, become very sk i l led at using computers. Stone (1982) surveyed d i sab i l i ty pension programs in several countries and. argues that they also act as a social control to keep disabled people out of the job market. Most pensions carry a penalty i f the recipient works, or earns more than a miniscule amount. Disabi l i ty is often defined as "being unable to work". Stone (1983) claims that qualifications for entry into the disabled category can be manipulated at a time when general unemployment is high so that more people can be given pensions and thereby removed from the g labour pool. This may be so,but i t can also be argued that i t is the unintended effect of legislation rooted in the humanitarian ideal of equity. Certainly reforms are needed in the Canada Pension Plan and the B.C. Guaranteed Available Income for Need plan so that disabled people are not penalised for working. If they earn good 134 wages then the monies would be returned to society through taxation. If reform of this legislation is delayed indefinitely, then i t could demonstrate a shift in intent to deliberate social control. D. ATTITUDES Even though this survey showed that many capable, disabled people are not looking for work, counsellors at Employment Canada (Manpower) and the Public Service Commission are not short of c l ients . A job-ready disabled person is only one half of the equation. The other half is the employer who provides the job. Employers are part of the general public and so have internalized society's beliefs and myths about d i s ab i l i ty . Attitudes towards disabled people is a complex f i e l d of study and w i l l not be considered here in any d e t a i l . 9 ' 1 0 , 1 1 Walker (1981) notes that these attitudes are neither homo-12 geneous nor static across cultures or over time. Block and Yuker (1979) believe that the single, most important factor in changing 13 attitudes toward the disabled is frequent, equal-status contact. Before and during the International Year of Disabled Persons, the aim in many countries was to educate the public about the ab i l i t i e s of handicapped p e o p l e . 1 4 ' 1 5 ' 1 6 ' 1 7 Efforts were also made to sensitise professionals in the f i e l d of vocational rehabilitation to the 18 19 20 deplored tendency to treat their clients as "cases". ' Olshansky (1980) describes the hiring policies and practices of employers as f a l l ing into three main group. The fixed group, a slowly shrinking minority, prefers and w i l l hire only non-disabled 135 people. A slowly growing minority of open-minded employers hires according to the applicant's training and experience and uses the same c r i t e r i a for disabled and ablebodied a l ike . The third and largest group is changeable and w i l l sometimes hire disabled people and sometimes not. Olshansky (1980) believes that too much emphasis has been placed by professional counsellors on educating employers in * a general way rather than persuading them to accept specif ic, 21 competent individuals. Officers of Employment Canada in Vancouver are currently working to identify and persuade employers to hire suitably quali f ied, 22 disabled people. Employers in the Greater Vancouver area do hire disabled people. Although some of the subjects of this survey had experienced discrimination, once hired the stereotype of the prejudiced, hard-hearted employer was not found on analyzing the questionnaires received. Subjects who reported d i f f i cu l ty doing work in the past , usually said that the employer made modifications for them, either to the task i t s e l f or by redistributing the tasks among available employees. One subject found she was underqualified for the job and she and the company parted on good terms. This does not deny that overt discrimination exists . It does. Several subjects, usually those with epilepsy, wrote about their experience. One subject working in a Crown Corporation was informed that he would not be hired at the end of probationary'period. 136 During this period: " 1 received an electr ic shock from some previously reported faulty machinery which made my epilepsy even a bi t worse. I though I was let go because of the epilepsy so I f i l e d a grievance with the union (who) said they couldn't help me It took me 3 years and I had to fight (the Corporation) a l l the way to Ottawa . . . .but the main thing was that I won." Under the present legislation that prohibits discrimination in firms under federal control, this man would have had fewer problems. If this legislation had been passed in 1972 i t would also have helped a woman who was" refused employment with the Royal Bank because I was an ep i lept ic . " Legislation can change attitudes over time. Laws were needed to stop chi ld labour in factories and capital punishment for petty theft. Once these structural changes were made there was a shift of public attitudes. E. AFFIRMATIVE ACTION Affirmative action in the context of disabled people and employment requires that a disabled person of equal qualifications and experience be hired in preference to an able-bodied candidate. Canadian federal legislation is comprehensive in this respect and, for instance, forbids the employer to refuse to hire on the grounds that the d i sab i l i ty may get worse. The idea is that minority groups such as women, disabled persons and native peoples should be represented at a l l levels of employment in the same proportion as they exist in society. The Public Service Commission accepts job-ready disabled applicants for placement in the c i v i l service. 137 Under i t s Access Program* a training plan is drawn up for each candidate placed. This plan is evaluated every two months by both the trainee and the employer. The program pays a l l the trainee's salary for the f i r s t six months. Affirmative action requires more from an employer than just accepting the applicant, making structural modifications and accepting a subsidy. Each position in the firm should be examined to see i f a l l tasks are essential to complete the necessary work and also to identify tasks that could be completed by a disabled person using an appropriate a i d . Many positions contain routine or occasional tasks that are completely irrelevant, but have come to be associated with that particular job. Affirmative action legislation at the provincial as well as at the federal level would f ac i l i t a t e the integration into the workforce of qualified disabled people whose s k i l l s are not being used at present. F. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY The preliminary study undertook to examine the variables thought important in the job preparation and job hunting experiences of disabled people in the Greater Vancouver area. The aim of the study was to see i f a strategy could be developed, from the information gathered, that would assist other disabled people in *not to be confused with Employment Canada's program of the same name 138 their job search.. Such information was not obtained and, therefore,' no strategy can be recommended. This led to the conclusion that the environment may have more influence on the unemployment of disabled people than intr ins ic factors such as schooling or the type of d i s a b i l i t y . A few of these have been discussed in this chapter. A study such as this raises more questions than i t answers. The following are some suggested areas for further study: 1. The relationship of marital status to the employment status of disabled people. 2. The job retention and promotion records of people with stable d i sab i l i t i e s such as the ones studied here. 3. The complementary roles of the vocational rehabil itation and the job placement services in Br i t i sh Columbia. These two functions are under different jur i sd ic t ions : Vocational Rehabilitation Services and Employment Canada. Their eff icient meshing is important for a l l disabled people, but especially for those not a f f i l i a ted with a d i sab i l i ty agency. 4. The role of the d i sab i l i ty agencies in vocational rehabi l i -tation and placement in the Vancouver area. 5. The loss to the workforce, i f any, of sk i l led workers who develop a disabling condition such as rheumatoid a r thr i t i s or multiple sclerosis. 139 There w i l l always be some disabled people who cannot support themselves. Others, but probably fewer than in the past, w i l l be able to work only in a sheltered environment. The rest could, with appropriate help, enter the competitive job market either part-time or ful l- t ime. The International Labour Office Report of the  Director General (1981) confirms that the costs to society of rehabilitation of disabled people are regained through taxes in a very short time, usually three to f ive years. The worker w i l l also 24 continue to be productive and independent for many more years. . This can be contrasted with a lifetime of social assistance from which there is no return to society and l i t t l e dignity for the recipient. 140 REFERENCES (CHAPTER V) 1. Herstein, Archie. H i l l , Robert H. and Walters, Kay. Adult Sexuality and Juvenile Rheumatoid A r t h r i t i s , Journal of  Rheumatology, 1979, 4(1):35-39. 2. Muir, Marilyn. Last to be Hired, First to be Fired - the Physically Handicapped Worker in Canada. Physiotherapy  Canada, 1978, 30(3):128-134. 3. Canada. Historical Labour Force Statist ics - Actual Data, Sea soTiaTT actors,.Seasonally Adjusted Data, Catalogue /i-zui, Annual 1983, Minister or bupply and Services Canada, Ottawa, January 1984:181,206. 4. Ibid: 186, 191,206-207. 5. Laver, Ross. Young and Out of Work, Maclean's, July 16, 1984, 97(39):34-39. 6. Baker, Frances Mercer. Baker, Richard J . and McDaniel, Randall S. Denormalizing Practices in Rehabilitation F a c i l i t i e s , Rehabilitation Literature, 1975, 36(4): 112-115,119. 7. Hammerman, Susan R. and Maikowski, Stephen. The Economics of Disabi l i ty from an International Perspective. Annual Review of Rehabilitation, v .3 . Elizabeth L. Pan, Thomas E. Backer and Carolyn L. Vash, ed. 1983:178-202. 8. Stone, Deborah A. "The Expansion of Disabi l i ty Programs in Western Europe and the United States", paper presented at the Tenth World Congress of Sociology, International Sociology Association, Mexico City, August 16-21, 1982 (mimeo). 9. Block, J.R. Recent Research With the Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons Scale: Some Research Abstracts, 1974, Albertson, N.Y. Human Resources Center. 10. Altman, Barbara M. Studies of Attitudes Toward the Handi-capped: The Need for a New Direction, Social Problems, 1981,28(3):321-337. 11. Antonak, Richard F. Prediction of Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons: A Multivariate Analysis, J . of  General Psychology, 1981, 104:119-123. 141 12. Walker, Sylvia . Cross Cultural Variations in the Perception of the Disabled, Int. J . of Rehabilitation Research, 1981, 4(l):90-92. 13. Block J . Richard and Yuker, Harold E. Attitudes Toward Disabi l i ty Are the Key! Rehabilitation Digest, 1979, 10(2):2-3. 14. Guthrie, Duncan, ed. Disabi l i ty . Legislation and Practice, 1981, London, Macmillan. 15. Canadian Human Rights Commission. Employ-Ability, 1980, Ottawa. 16. Katz, Shlomo and Shurka, Esther. The Influence of Contextual Variables on Evaluation of the Physically Disabled by the Nondisabled, RehabiIllation Literature, 1977, 38(11-12): 369-375.. 17. Bachtold, A. Attitudes Towards the Disabled As Related to Cultural Values and Personality Traits , Int. J . of  Rehabilitation Research, 1979, 2(2):253. 18. Oestreich, Richard P. Thoughts on a Winter Past, J . of Rehabilitation, 1979, 45(2):3. 19. Canada Employment and Immigration, Canada Works for the Disabled, in Panorama (staff newspaper), October 6, 1980. 20. . Panorama, 1979, ? month. 21. Olshansky, Simon. There Is Always At Least One! Rehabilitation Literature. 1980, 41(1-2):22-23. 22. Bennett, Nancy. Co-ordinator, Career Access Programme, Employment and Immigration Canada, Vancouver, March 22, 1984, personal communication. 23. Bentley, Bradford. Co-ordinator of Services to Handicapped People, Public Service Commission, Vancouver, March 23, 1984, personal communication. 24. International Labour Office, Report of the Director General (1981), Geneva:39. 143 THANK YOU FOR AGREEING TO TAKE PART IN THIS STUDY. YOU WILL FIND MANY OF THE QUESTIONS QUICK TO ANSWER BY EITHER A SIMPLE CHECK (vO , OR BY CIRCLING/UNDERLINING EITHER YES OR NO. THERE ARE NO RIGHT OR WRONG ANSWERS. FOR THOSE QUESTIONS WHERE A SPACE HAS BEEN LEFT FOR YOU TO WRITE MORE, PLEASE WRITE AS MUCH AS YOU THINK SUITABLE FOR THAT QUESTION. YOU CAN CLARIFY YOUR ANSWERS TO ANY QUESTION BY WRITING NOTES ON THE PAGE. FIRST THERE ARE SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT WORK: 1. ARE YOU CURRENTLY a) working regularly i) f u l l time i i ) part time _ _ _ b) working occasionally i) f u l l time i i ) part time ____ c) unemployed i) looking for work i i ) not looking for work d) continuing your education i) f u l l time i i ) part time ____ e) none of these (please explain) If you are NOT WORKING REGULARLY, please go to question 8. 2. IS THIS YOUR FIRST JOB? Yes No If YES, please go to question 4. PLEASE TURN THIS PAGE OVER 144 3. IP NO, HOW MANY DIFFERENT JOBS, INCLUDING AFTER SCHOOL JOBS ETC., DID YOU HAVE BEFORE THIS ONE? jobs 4. ARE YOU: a) self employed b) an employee in i) competitive employment i i ) sheltered workshop i i i ) vocational rehabilitation centre c) other (please explain) 5. IS THIS JOB a) permanent b) temporary 6. HOW DID YOU FIND OUT THAT THE JOB YOU ARE DOING NOW WAS AVAILABLE? 7. DO YOU DO ANY OF THIS WORK IN YOUR OWN HOME? a) a l l b) most c) none, or just what I choose to bring home with me (reading, etc.) 8. DID YOU MOVE TO VANCOUVER TO LOOK FOR WORK? ' Yes No If NO, please go to question 14. PLEASE TURN THIS PAGE OVER 145 9. IF YES, WHAT YEAR DID YOU ARRIVE IN VANCOUVER? year 10. DID YOU MANAGE TO FIND WORK AFTER RELOCATION? Yes No 11. IF YES, IS THIS THE SAME JOB YOU ARE DOING NOW? Yes No If YES, please go to question 13. 12. IF NO, IS IT A DIFFERENT JOB WITH THE SAME EMPLOYER? Yes No If NO, please go to question 14. 13. IF YES, IS THE JOB YOU ARE DOING NOW PAID BETTER, THE SAME, OR WORSE THAN THE ONE YOU STARTED IN? a) better paid now b) about the same pay c) worse paid now 14. PLEASE DESCRIBE THE TYPE OF PLACE WHERE YOU WORK IN YOUR PRESENT JOB, AND EXACTLY WHAT YOU DO IN THIS JOB. (names, addresses etc. are not required) 15. HOW MUCH MONEY DO YOU EARN A MONTH BEFORE TAXES? $ PLEASE TURN THIS PAGE OVER 146 16. DIB YOU HAVE A JOB BEFORE THE ONSET OF YOUR DISABILITY? Yes No If NO, please go to question 18. 17. IF YES, HOW DO YOUR MONTHLY EARNINGS COMPARE NOW WITH WHAT YOU WERE EARNING THEN, ALLOWING FOR INFLATION ETC.? a) better paid now b) about the same c) better paid then QUESTIONS 18 TO 27 ARE FOR PEOPLE WHO ARE NOT WORKING AT THE MOMENT. IF YOU HAVE A JOB, PLEASE GO TO QUESTION 28. 18. DO YOU WANT TO WORK? Yes No 19. HAVE YOU HAD ANY SPECIFIC, OR FORMAL JOB TRAINING? Yes No If NO, please go to question 22. 20. IF YES, WHERE DID YOU GET THIS TRAINING? a) course at community college, BCIT, etc. b) apprenticeship c) on the job training d) other (please explain) 21. WHAT JOBS ARE YOU TRAINED TO DO? 147 PLEASE LIST ANY SKILLS YOU HAVE ACQUIRED THROUGH EXPERIENCE THAT YOU THINK WOULD BE USEFUL TO AN EMPLOYER. HAVE YOU LOOKED FOR WORK IN 1982? Yes No If YES, please go Co question 25. LF NO, WHEN DID YOU LAST LOOK FOR WORK? month year DO YOU HAVE A HEALTH PROBLEM THAT PREVENTS YOU FROM WORKING? Yes No If NO, please go to question 28. IF YES, IS THIS HEALTH PROBLEM RELATED TO YOUR DISABILITY? Yes No WHAT IS YOUR HEALTH PROBLEM? IF YOU HAVE HAD MORE THAN ONE JOB, PLEASE DESCRIBE THE METHODS YOU USED TO GET YOUR FIRST JOB. 148 3EL0W ARE SOME COMMON METHODS PEOPLE USE IN GETTING JOBS. IF YOU ARE WORKING, PLEASE CHECK WHICH METHODS YOU USED TO.GET YOUR PRESENT JOB. IF YOU ARE LOOKING/HAVE LOOKED FOR WORK, PLEASE CHECK ALL METHODS YOU HAVE USED TO DATE. a) answered newspaper advertisements b) asked employers directly by i) letter i i ) telephone i i i ) went to see him/her c) asked friends about jobs where they work d) asked friends about jobs elsewhere e) asked family/relatives about jobs where they work f) asked family/relatives about jobs elsewhere _____ g) went to Manpower h) went to private employment agency ___^ i) went to agency specializing in your disability j) went to a social worker k) went to the union 1 other (please specify) DID YOU HAVE ANY RESPONSES FROM THE EMPLOYERS WHOM YOU CONTACTED? Yes No If NO, please go to question 32. IF YES, WHAT DID THEY SAY? 149 QUESTIONS 32 TO 46 REFER TO YOUR PRESENT JOB IF YOU ARE EMPLOYED, AND TO ALL YOUR ATTEMPTS TO FIND WORK IF YOU ARE STILL JOB HUNTING. 32. WHAT SUGGESTIONS DID YOU HAVE FROM THE FOLLOWING IF USED? a) Agency .specializing in your disability b) Friends/Family c) Manpower d) Private Employment Agency e) Social Worker f) Union 33. WERE YOU ASKED TO ANY INTERVIEWS, OR TO TALK TO SOMEONE AT THE JOB? Yes No If NO, please go to question 44. „ 34. IF YES, DID YOU GO? Yes No If NO, please go to question 43. 150 3.5. IF YOU WERE INVITED TO AN INTERVIEW, OR WENT TO TALK TO SOMEONE AT THE WORKPLACE, DID YOU HAVE ANY DIFFICULTY GETTING TO THE INTERVIEW ROOM, OR TALKING WITH THE PERSON? Yes No If NO, please go to question 37. 36. IF YES, WHAT WAS THE DIFFICULTY? WHAT DID YOU/THEY DO ABOUT IT? 37. IF YOU HAD THE INTERVIEW, OR TALKED WITH SOMEONE AT THE WORKPLACE, WERE YOU OFFERED A JOB THEN OR LATER? WHAT HAPPENED? 38. IF YOU WERE OFFERED A JOB, DID YOU ACCEPT? Yes No If YES, please go to question 44. 39. IF YOU WERE OFFERED A JOB AND DID NOT ACCEPT, WHAT WERE YOUR REASONS? 151 40. IF YOU WERE NOT OFFERED A JOB, DID THE EMPLOYER TELL YOU WHY? 41. IF YES, WHAT'WERE HIS OR HER REASONS FOR NOT HIRING YOU? 42. WERE THERE ANY OTHER REASONS THAT YOU THINK WERE PROBABLY IMPORTANT? 43. IF YOU WERE INVITED TO AN INTERVIEW BUT DID NOT GO, WHAT WERE YOUR REASONS FOR NOT GOING? 44. IN THIS JOB, OR YOUR PAST JOBS,- HAVE YOU EVER HAD ANY DIFFICULTY DOING THE WORK? Yes No If NO, please go to question 44. Yes No If NO, please go to question 47. 45. IF YES, WHAT WAS THE DIFFICULTY? 152 46. WHAT DID YOU/THE EMPLOYER DO ABOUT IT? 47. HAVE YOU EVER DONE ANY VOLUNTARY WORK? Yes No If NO, please go to question 49. 48. IF YES, PLEASE DESCRIBE WHAT VOLUNTARY WORK YOU HAVE DONE, AND FOR HOW LONG AND WHEN YOU DID IT. 49. HAVE YOU EVER WORKED ON A SHORT TERM, PAID PROJECT SUCH AS "OPPORTUNITY FOR YOUTH"? Yes No If NO, please go to question 51. 50. IF YES, PLEASE DESCRIBE THE LENGTH OF THE PROJECT(S), WHEN YOU WORKED ON IT(THEM), AND WHAT YOU DID. 153 THIS NEXT SERIES OF QUESTIONS IS ABOUT YOUR SCHOOLING. 51. HOW OLD WERE YOU WHEN YOU FIRST WENT TO SCHOOL? years old 52. WAS THIS A REGULAR SCHOOL? OR A SPECIAL SCHOOL FOR CHILDREN WITH SOME SORT OF DISABILITY? Regular Special If SPECIAL, please go to question 54. 53. IF IT WAS A REGULAR SCHOOL, WERE YOU IN A SPECIAL CLASS FOR CHILDREN WITH SOME SORT OF DISABILITY, OR IN A REGULAR CLASS? a) regular b) special ' c) both (please explain) 54. WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE LAST HIGH SCHOOL YOU ATTENDED? 55. HOW OLD WERE YOU WHEN YOU LEFT THIS SCHOOL? years old 56. WHAT IS THE HIGHEST GRADE LEVEL, OR EQUIVALENT, THAT YOU COMPLETED? grade 57. DID YOU RECEIVE A DIPLOMA FOR THIS GRADE? Yes No 154 WHAT YEAR DID YOU LEAVE HIGH SCHOOL? year DID THE LAST HIGH SCHOOL YOU ATTENDED TEACH ANY OF THE FOLLOWING? a) book keeping b) business machines c) carpentry/woodwork d) drafting e) dressmaking/tailoring f) metalwork g) shorthand h) typing AT THE LAST HIGH SCHOOL YOU ATTENDED DID YOU LEARN ANY OF THE FOLLOWING? a) book keeping b) business machines (please specify) c) carpentry/woodwork d) drafting _ __ e) dressmaking/tailoring f) metalwork g) shorthand h) typing DID YOU MOVE TO VANCOUVER IN ORDER TO GO TO HIGH SCHOOL OR COLLEGE? Yes No If NO, please go to question 65. IF YES, WHAT YEAR DID YOU ARRIVE IN VANCOUVER? year 155 63. DID YOU GET INTO THE SCHOOL OR COLLEGE OF YOUR CHOICE? ( Yes No If NO, please go to question 65. 64. IF Y_3S, WHAT SCHOOL OR COLLEGE WAS IT? 65. PLEASE LIST ALL THE SCHOOLS/COLLEGES ETC. YOU ATTENDED SINCE 8TH GRADE. 66. PLEASE LIST ALL THE CERTIFICATES, DIPLOMAS, DEGREES ETC., YOU HAVE EARNED AND THE YEAR(S) YOU RECEIVED THEM. 67. HAVE YOU EVER SEEN A JOB COUNSELOR? Yes If NO, please go to question 69. No 156 68. WHERE DID YOU SEE A JOB COUNSELOR? a) high school b) college/university c) Manpower d) agency specializing in your disability e) other (please specify) 69. HAVE YOU LEARNED'/BEEN TAUGHT ANY OF THE FOLLOWING? a) how to write a letter applying for a job Yes No b) how to write a resume Yes No c) how to f i l l in a job application form Yes No d) how to act during a job interview Yes No If NO, to ALL, of these, please go to question 71. 70. LF YES, TO ANY OF THE. ITEMS IN QUESTION 69, WHERE DID YOU LEARN THESE SKILLS? a) b) c) d) e) f) S) high school _____ college/university . Manpower at work agency specializing in your disability from a book other (please specify) 71. ARE YOU TRAINED TO DO A PARTICULAR JOB, OR JOBS? Yes No If NO, please go to question 75. 157 WHAT PARTICULAR JOB(S) ARE YOU TRAINED TO DO? a) c) d) HAVE YOU EVER WORKED AT THIS JOB (THESE JOBS)? Yes No If NO, please go to question 75. IF YES, FOR HOW LONG DID YOU WORK AT EACH JOB YOU HAVE MENTIONED FOR QUESTION 72? a) b) c) d) 158 PLEASE USE THIS PAGE TO ADD ANY MORE INFORMATION ABOUT JOBS YOU HAVE HAD, OR ABOUT TROUBLES YOU HAVE HAD GETTING JOBS AT ANY TIME IN YOUR LIFE. 159 DO YOU BELONG TO A CHURCH, SYNAGOGUE OR OTHER RELIGIOUS GROUP? Yes No If NO, please go to question 78. IF YES, HOW MANY TIMES DID YOU GO TO A SERVICE IN THE LAST FOUR WEEKS? times WHAT DO YOU LIKE TO DO IN YOUR SPARE TIME? DO YOU BELONG TO ANY CLUBS OR ORGANIZATIONS CONNECTED WITH YOUR HOBBY/INTERESTS? (I am thinking of such things as social groups, sports clubs and activity groups_etc.). Yes No If NO, please go to question 85. DOES THIS GROUP(THESE GROUPS) HAVE REGULAR MEETINGS IN THE VANCOUVER AREA? Yes No If NO, please go to question 82. IF YES, COUNTING ALL THE GROUPS YOU BELONG TO, ABOUT HOW OFTEN ARE YOU OUT TO A MEETING OR GATHERING? a) more than once a week b) once a week c) every two weeks d) every three weeks e) once a month f) less than once a month 160 DO YOU HOLD A POSITION, SUCH AS CHAIRMAN OR SECRETARY, IN ANY OF THE GROUPS YOU BELONG TO? Yes No If NO, please go to question 34. IF YES, PLEASE GIVE THE TITLE(S) OF THE POSITION(S) YOU-' HOLD AT THE MOMENT. (The group does not have to be identified by name). TAKING UP TO THREE GROUPS IN WHICH YOU CONSIDER YOURSELF TO BE THE MOST ACTIVE AND INVOLVED, DO THESE GROUPS CONSIST OF: a) disabled people only b) a mixture of disabled and ablebodied people Group 1 2 3 YESTERDAY, ABOUT HOW MANY HOURS DID YOU SPEND a) watching television b) listening to the radio c) listening to records or tapes d) reading 161 86. IF YOU ARE WORKING, ARE THERE PEOPLE AT WORK WITH WHOM YOU HAVE COFFEE, EAT LUNCH ETC.? a) yes, always b) yes, sometimes c) no d) not working If NO/ NOT WORKING, please go to question 88. 87. IF YES, DO YOU SEE THESE PEOPLE OUT OF WORK e.g. TO GO TO THE MOVIES, OUT FOR A MEAL, TO A FOOTBALL OR HOCKEY GAME ETC.? Yes No 88. DO. YOU HAVE A DRIVER'S LICENSE? Yes No If NO, please go to question 90. 89. DO YOU HAVE YOUR OWN TRANSPORT (CAR, VAN, ETC.)? Yes No 90. CAN YOU GET ON AND OFF BUSES? Yes No If NO, please go to question 92. 91. DO YOU USE THE BUS AT LEAST ONCE A WEEK? Yes No 92. DO YOU USE TAXIS TO GET ABOUT? a) hardly ever b) one trip in five c) three out of five trips d) each time you go out 162 93. DO YOU USE THE HANDYDART, OR OTHER CUSTOM TRANSIT VEHICLE TO GET ABOUT? a) never b) hardly ever c) one trip in five d) three out of five trips e) each time you go out 94. HAVE YOU EVER NOT APPLIED FOR A JOB BECAUSE YOU THOUGHT YOU MIGHT HAVE DIFFICULTY GETTING TRANSPORT TO THE WORKPLACE? Yes No 95. HAVE YOU'EVER NOT APPLIED FOR A JOB BECAUSE YOU THOUGHT YOU MIGHT HAVE DIFFICULTY GETTING INTO THE WORKPLACE TO DO THE JOB? Yes No 96. HAVE YOU EVER BEEN FOR AN INTERVIEW, OR TO TALK TO SOMEONE AT THE JOB, AND FOUND THAT YOU COULDN'T GET INTO THE WORKPLACE? Yes No If NO, please go to question 99. 97. IF YES, HOW MANY TIMES DID THIS HAPPEN TO YOU? times 98. WHAT DID YOU DO ON EACH OCCASION? 163 99. DO YOU LIVE IN A a) house b) apartment c) townhouse d) group home e) rooming house f) other (please specify) a) own this accommodation b) rent ______ c) share a cooperative _____ d) live with parents in the family home e) live in the home of other adult relatives e.g. brother or sister _____ f) other (please specify) a) alone b) with husband/wife (include common law) c) with one or both parents d) with brother/sister f) with your child/children as a single parent 102. DO YOU HAVE ANY DEPENDENTS, e.g. CHILDREN, HUSBAND/WIFE, OR A PARENT WHOM YOU HAVE TO SUPPORT? 100. DO YOU 101. DO YOU LIVE e) with a friend/friends Yes No If NO, please go to question 105. 164 103. IF YOU DO HAVE DEPENDENTS, PLEASE GIVE A LIST OF HOW MANY DEPENDENTS YOU HAVE, THEIR AGES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO YOU (names are not required). 104. HOW MANY OF THESE PEOPLE ARE WORKING EITHER FULL OR PART TIME? people 105. CAN YOU GIVE ME AN ESTIMATE OF THE MONTHLY INCOME OF THE HEAD OF YOUR HOUSEHOLD BEFORE TAXES ARE TAKEN OUT? 106. FROM WHICH OF THE SOURCES LISTED BELOW DO YOU GET MONEY FOR YOUR EXPENSES ( RENT, FOOD, CLOTHING ETC. )? disability pension _____ family friends G.A.I.N. private income e.g. rent, investments, etc. salary/wages unemployment insurance W.C.B. payments welfare other (please specify) 165 107. WHAT DISABILITY DO YOU HAVE? a) cerebral palsy b) blindness c) epilepsy d) low vision e) traumatic spinal cord injury f) other (please specify) 108. IS YOUR DISABILITY a) getting worse b) staying the same c) getting better 109. WERE YOU BORN WITH YOUR DISABILITY (DISABILITIES)? Yes No If YES, please go to question 111. 110. IF NO, HOW OLD WERE YOU WHEN YOU GOT IT? years old 111. DOES ANYONE IN YOUR IMMEDIATE FAMILY HAVE THE SAME, OR A SIMILAR DISABILITY? Yes No If NO, please go to question 113. 112. IF YES, WHAT IS THIS PERSON'S RELATIONSHIP TO YOU? 166 113. DO YOU USE ANY OF THE FOLLOWING REGULARLY? arm or leg brace brail l e r cane(s) communication aid e . g . Blissymbolics, Canon Communicator, Handivoice crutches headstick hearing aid seeing eye dog walker wheelchair _____ white cane none of these 114. WHAT IS THE FIRST LANGUAGE YOU LEARNED AS A CHILD? language 115. ARE YOU a) male b) female 116. WHAT YEAR WERE YOU BORN? year 167 117. AS YOU SEE IT, WHAT ARE THE MAIN PROBLEMS DISABLED PEOPLE HAVE IN GETTING JOBS? 118., WHAT ADVICE WOULD YOU GIVE TO SOMEONE WITH YOUR DISABILITY ABOUT GETTING A JOB? 168 IF YOU HAVE ANYTHING MORE YOU WOULD LIKE TO SAY, OR IF YOU HAVE ANY COMMENTS ON THE QUESTIONNAIRE, PLEASE FEEL FREE TO WRITE THEM HERE. 169 THANK YOU FOR YOUR HELP IN THIS STUDY. THERE ARE JUST A FEW MORE QUESTIONS ABOUT THE QUESTIONNAIRE ITSELF. BEFORE YOU MAIL IT IN THE PRE-STAMPED ENVELOPE ENCLOSED, I WOULD BE PLEASED IF YOU WOULD LET ME KNOW: 120. DTD YOU HAVE ANY HELP FILLING OUT THIS QUESTIONNAIRE? Yes No 121. IF YES, WAS IT IN THE FORM OF: a) b) c) d) helping you remember dates etc. reading the questionnaire out to you writing in the answers you dictated other (please specify) ' 1 2 2 . WAS THIS PERSON(THESE PEOPLE) YOUR a) husband or wife _ _ b) brother or sister c) parent(s) d) child(children) e) other relative(s) f) friends(s) g) attendant h) nurse i) other (please specify) THANK YOU! I APPRECIATE THE TIME AND EFFORT YOU HAVE TAKEN TO COMPLETE THIS QUESTIONNAIRE. 170 APPENDIX B. QUESTIONNAIRE: CONTROL SUBJECTS The questionnaire mailed to the control subjects consists of one hundred and six (106) questions. It is a shortened version of the questionnaire mailed to disabled subjects as a l l questions and references to d i sab i l i ty have been omitted. Two additional questions were asked the controls: Q.80 DO YOU HAVE ANY PERSONAL FRIENDS WHO.ARE DISABLED? Yes No If NO, please go to question 82. Q.81 IF YES, WHAT DISABILITIES DO THEY HAVE? The codebook was designed as a guide for coding both questionnaires. 171 APPENDIX C. CHECK-LIST FOR SALIENCE OF DISABILITY AND BASIC ' SOCIAL INTERACTION SKILLS OF INTERVIEW SUBJECTS INTERVIEW # SEX GROUP A. APPEARANCE 1. Face Normal _ Grimaces Drooling Excessive blinking Comments: 2. Body Normal Athetosis Spasms Posture Normal S t i f f Drooping Comments: 3. Cleanliness/Grooming Normal Hair Teeth Comments: 172 4. Dress Normal/Appropriate Inappropriate Clean Not Clean . Shoes Normal Inappropriate Clean Not Clean Comments: COMMUNICATION 1.. Voice a) Cannot Speak Uses aids (state which) Uses interpreter (Who?) Comments: b) Enunciation Normal . Not normal Easily comprehensible Not easily comprehensible Comments: 173 c) Tone Well modulated Flat Comments: d) Volume Normal Loud Whispers Comments: e) Speech Uses f u l l sentences Grammar appropriate Jargon Slang Comments: f) English As f i r s t language Not f i r s t language Accent Slight/None Heavy Easily comprehensible Not easily comprehensible Comments: 174 2. SOCIAL COMMUNICATION Greetings Handshake Small Talk a) Manners Normal/Acceptable Not Acceptable Explain Comments: b) Nervousness Fidgeting Hands Feet Inappropriate Laughter Comments: c) Eye Contact Normal None/Very L i t t l e Darting Eyes Comments: MPS AS SYMBOLS Of_p__SABJ___Il Cane(s) :— Crutches ____ . Dark G l a s s e s _____ Hearing A i d . Guide Dog '  T h i c k Glasses Walker .. Wheelchair .— White Cane — Other ( s t a t e ) ______ Comments: 176 APPENDIX D. VOICE OF THE CEREBRAL PALSIED OF GREATER VANCOUVER (VCP)* The VCP, a self-help group formed in 1977, is incorporated under the B.C. Societies Act as a non-profit society. It is con-tro l led and operated by adults with cerebral palsy and other birth defects. It has an exclusive mandate to offer services to cerebral palsied adults. The VCP believes that every cerebral palsied adult has the right to f u l l and equal opportunity in a l l aspects of l i f e , that i s : 1. The right to an education of one's choice, for i t s own sake, whether or not i t leads to employment. 2. The right to residential accommodation in which one can function independently with appropriate support systems available. 3. The right to employment of a productive and rewarding nature with proper technical aids to increase one's capabi l i t ies . 4. The right to meaningful social l i f e in which the emotional rewards of forming personal relationships can be experienced. 5. The right to an income sufficient enough to give the individual economic power as a consumer in the marketplace, physical and social mobility, and freedom of choice in creating l i fe s ty les . 6. The right to information as to what is written in medical and social service records, and information on how to use the systems in our society. *the information in this Appendix is taken from the Voice of the Cerebral Palsied of Greater Vancouver, information leaflet , 1982. 177 APPENDIX E. THE BRITISH COLUMBIA DIVISION OF THE CANADIAN PARAPLEGIC ASSOCIATION.*  The Canadian Paraplegic. Association was founded in 1945 to promote the rehabilitation and welfare of spinal-cord injured people, especially veterans of the second world war. The Bri t i sh Columbia Division's staff are active in v i s i t ing newly injured patients in the province's spinal cord unit at Shaughnessy Hospital, Vancouver, undertaking employment and educational counselling and promoting the welfare of members in such areas as housing, transport, sport and recreation. *This information is^ taken from the Canadian Paraplegic Association, Br i t i sh Columbia Division, 1982 Annual Report. 178 APPENDIX F. THE CANADIAN NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR THE BLIND (CNIB)* The B.C. and Yukon Division of the Canadian National Institute for the Blind provides services that include counselling, rehabil i tat ion, employment placement, residential care, free Bra i l l e and talking-book l ibrary, transcription services, recreation and social programs, prevention education, holiday resort, eye-bank information, and information and sale of aids and appliances for the visually impaired. *This information is taken from the CNIB, B.C.-Yukon Division, Annual Report, 1982 and from the Greater Vancouver Information and Referral Service, "Directory of Services, 1982", (The Redbook), Vancouver, June, 1982. 183 APPENDIX K. INTERVIEW CONSENT FORM PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this research is to find out how successful people are in getting jobs in the Vancouver area.. It seeks to discover not only the characteristics of the successful applicants, but also the steps they took to get their jobs. This information can be of use to a l l people looking for work. These facts can only be obtained from the people with the experience, both those who are employed and those who are looking, or who have looked for work. The study w i l l be written up in such a way that no one can be identif ied. This sheet w i l l be detached from your completed questionnaire before i t is read and coded in order that your replies w i l l be completely anonymous and confidential . You may decline to answer any question i f you so wish, or withdraw from the interview at any time without prejudice. INTERVIEW CONSENT FORM I have read and understood the purpose of this study and agree to be interviewed for this research. Signed I WOULD LIKE A SUMMARY OF THE RESEARCH RESULTS. Name (Please print) Address postal code 184 APPENDIX L. THE SURVEY PROCESS The questionnaire packages were delivered to the Voice of the Cerebral Palsied, the Paraplegic Association and Dr. Jones' office within the same week. Each received 38 packages for mailing plus two spares. They were asked not to mail questionnaires to interview subjects. I ; The questionnaire for subjects recruited through the CNIB was ready a month later as i t f i r s t had to be retyped using large print , and then the required number of copies printed. There was a further delay in distribution due to i l lness of CNIB staff. A l l subjects recruited through the CNIB were telephoned to get their consent prior to the questionnaire being mailed. Three women and one man refused. No substitutions were made. The CNIB was unable to contact two men, so two more random numbers were substituted. As the questionnaires were returned, one man and one woman were found to be non-caucasian. Their questionnaires were retained for information, but were not included in any s ta t i s t i ca l analyses. In each case a randomly drawn subject was substituted. Two weeks after delivery of the packages to the Voice of the Cerebral Palsied (VCP), there was some question whether they had a l l been mailed, or whether some had been lost in the mail . An additional fifteen questionnaire packages were supplied. There was a poss ibi l i ty that some people might receive two questionnaires, but with such a small population this was thought preferable 185 to some people not receiving any. Three people later indicated that they had received two packages, but the total number is not known. In view of the small overall return from the VCP, and the length of the questionnaire, i t is unlikely that anyone completed and mailed two. Both interview subjects had received mailed questionnaires.. One had already returned the questionnaire so a random number was drawn. The person drawn had not returned the questionnaire so became the substitute interview subject. Following the interview one cerebral palsied subject mailed in a self-completed questionnaire. This was kept for information, but is not included in any s ta t i s t i ca l analyses. The physician's office mailed a l l forty of their questionnaires. As a further two people were interviewed, this brought the total sample of people with epilepsy to forty-two. The Canadian Pairaplegtc Association could not locate the male interview subject. A randomly drawn subject was substituted. From the returns i t was found that one man had spina bifida and one man is quadriplegic. Two randomly drawn numbers wre substituted. The package for one woman was returned by the post office "address unknown". The agency was unable to locate her, but the l iaison person thought she had gained complete, or almost complete, recovery from her injury. Due to the small population, substitution was impossible. This reduced the female paraplegic population to sixteen. 186 The control questionnaires were mailed by the writer. Each package consisted of a personal letter of introduction signed by the writer, the questionnaire and a return-addressed envelope bearing a regular postage stamp. Twelve packages were returned by the post office "address unknown". A further twelve subjects(seven men and five women) were drawn using a random number table. Packages were mailed to these substitutes. One month after the original mailing, a follow-up letter was sent to fourteen women and seventeen men. This letter was sent to a l l subjects who had not requested a summary of the results, with the suggestion that they ignore the letter i f they had already replied anonymously. This reminder resulted in two men returning their completed questionnaires. One letter was returned by the post office "address unknown". There was one refusal from the control group. The mother' of one of the women telephoned the writer and the university department to express her objection to the questionnaire and the survey. No substitution was made. 187 APPENDIX M. CODEBOOK CODEBOOK CARD 1 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM SUBJECT I.D. 1 - 3 R e s p o n d e n t Number 2 D i s a b i 1 i t y (a.107) NOTE: c o d e a c c o r d i n g t o " o f f i c i a l " g r o u p i n g i . e . o r i g i n o f s a m p l e 1 - b 1 i nd/1ow v i s i on 2 - c e r e b r a l p a l s y 3 - ep i 1 e p s y k - t r a u m a t i c s p i n a l c o r d i n j u r y 5 - c o n t r o l (Q.115: Q . 9 9 c o n t r o l ) 3 5 Sex 1 - ma 1 e 2 - fema 1 e 188 CARD 1 QF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM  CURRENT JOB STATUS 6 - 8 Q.1 A r e you c u r r e n t l y : k 6 1 - w o r k i n g r e g u l a r l y f u l l - t i m e 2 - w o r k i n g r e g u l a r l y p a r t - t i m e 3 - w o r k i n g o c c a s i o n a l l y f u l l o r p a r t - t i m e 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 5 7 1 " u n e m p l o y e d ; l o o k i n g f o r work 2 - u n e m p l o y e d ; n o t l o o k i n g f o r w ork 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA NOTE: Code h o u s e w i f e , r e t i r e d , e t c . , a s 2 . 6 8 1 - c o n t i n u i n g y o u r e d u c a t i o n f u l 1 - t i m e 2 - c o n t i n u i n g y o u r e d u c a t i o n p a r t - t ime 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 7 9 Q . 2 Is t h i s y o u r f i r s t j o b ? 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 189 CARD 1 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM CURRENT JOB STATUS 8 10 Q.3 I f No, how many j o b s , i n c l u d i n g a f t e r s c h o o l j o b s , e t c . , h a v e you had b e f o r e t h i s o n e ? 1 - o n e 2 - two 3 - t h r e e h - f o u r o r more 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA y o u : 1 - s e l f e m p l o y e d 2 - an e m p l o y e e i n c o m p e t i t i v e e mployment 3 - an e m p l o y e e i n a s h e l t e r e d w o r k s h o p , o r v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c e n t r e *4 - o t h e r 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA NOTE: Code d o m i n a n t r e s p o n s e . 10 12 0__5 Is t h i s j o b : 1 - p e r m a n e n t 2 - t e m p o r a r y , i n c l u d i n g c o n t r a c t work 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 190 CARD 1 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM  CURRENT JOB STATUS 11 13 Q . 6 How d i d you f i n d o u t t h a t t h e j o b you a r e d o i n g now was a v a i1ab1e? 1 - D i r e c t l e t t e r , t e l e p h o n e , n e w s p a p e r a d v e r t i s e m e n t , went t o s e e e m p l o y e r , e m p l o y e r o f f e r s a j o b . 2 - I n d i r e c t / I n f o r m a 1 -f r i e n d s , f a m i l y , e t c . 3 - I n d i r e c t / A g e n t - r e h a b . c e n t r e , manpower, s o c i a l w o r k e r , e t c . k - o t h e r 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 12 \k Q.7 Do y o u do any o f t h i s work i n y o u r own home? 1 - a l l 2 - most 3 - none, o r j u s t what I c h o o s e t o b r i n g home w i t h me ( r e a d i n g , e t c . ) 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 13 15 Cj.8 D i d you move t o V a n c o u v e r t o l o o k f o r w ork? 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 191 CARD 1 QF 3 VAR. COL. _ ITEM CURRENT JOB STATUS ]k 16 Q . 9 I f Y e s , what y e a r d i d you a r r i v e i n V a n c o u v e r ? 1 - 1982 2 - 1981 3 - 1980 k - 1979 o r e a r l i e r 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 15 17 Q.10 D i d y o u manage t o f i n d work a f t e r r e - l o c a t i n g ? 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 16 18 Q,. 11 I f Y e s , i s t h i s t h e same j o b y o u a r e d o i n g now? 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 17 19 Q.12 I f No, i s i t a d i f f e r e n t j o b w i t h t h e same e m p l o y e r ? 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 192 CARD 1 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM CURRENT JOB STATUS 18 20 Q.13 I f Y e s , i s t h e j o b y o u a r e d o i n g now p a i d b e t t e r , t h e same, o r w o r s e t h a n t h e one you s t a r t e d i n ? 1 - b e t t e r p a i d now 2 - a b o u t t h e same pay 3 - w o r s e p a i d now 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 19 21 Q.. 14 P l e a s e d e s c r i b e t h e t y p e o f p l a c e w h e re you work i n y o u r p r e s e n t j o b , and e x a c t l y what you do i n t h i s j o b . NOTE: I f has more t h a n one j o b , c o d e t h e o n e f i r s t m e n t i o n e d , o r t h e o n e a t w h i c h s p e n d s most t i m e . 1 - manual l a b o u r ( f r e i g h t , s h e l t e r e d w o r k s h o p , h a n d -c r a f t s , p a c k a g i n g , e t c . ) 2 - s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s ( j a n i t o r , d a y c a r e w o r k e r , p o l i c e , e t c . ) 3 - s a l e s o c c u p a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g wa i t re s s k - c l e r i c a l , b o o k - k e e p i n g and g e n e r a l o f f i c e work 5 - s k i l l e d and s e m i - s k i l l e d t r a d e s 6 .- s o c i a l and a r t i s t i c ( s o c i a l w o r k e r , c o u n s e l l o r , j o u r n a l i s t , a c t o r , e t c . ) 7 - t e a c h i n g 8 - s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l ( n u r s i n g , e t c . ) 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 193 CARD 1 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM  CURRENT JOB STATUS 20 22 Q.15 How much money do you e a r n a month b e f o r e t a x e s ? 1 - up t o $100 2 - 101 t o 500 3 - 5 0 1 - 1 , 0 0 0 k - 1 ,001 t o 2,000 5 - 2,001 t o 3,000 •6 - o v e r 3,000 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 21 23 Q. 16 D i d y o u ha v e a j o b b e f o r e t h e o n s e t o f y o u r d i s a b i l i t y ? N/A t o c o n t r o l 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 22 2k Q. 17 I f Y e s , how do y o u r m o n t h l y e a r n i n g s c o mpare now w i t h what you w ere e a r n i n g t h e n , a l l o w i n g N/A t o c o n t r o l f o r i n f l a t i o n e t c . ? 1 - b e t t e r p a i d now 2 - a b o u t t h e same 3 - b e t t e r p a i d t h e n 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 194 CARD 1 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM  CURRENT JOB STATUS 23 25 Q_. 18 Do you want t o work? Q . l 6 c o n t r o l 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA JOB S K I L L S 2k 26 Q.19 Do you ha v e any s p e c i f i c , o r f o r m a l j o b t r a i n i n g ? Q.17 c o n t r o l 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 25 27 Q..20 I f Y e s , where d i d you g e t t h i s t r a i n i ng? Q,. 18 c o n t r o l 1 - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n : a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g , c o l l e g e , e t c . 2 - on t h e j o b t r a i n i n g : e i t h e r g e n e r a l o r s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r d i s a b l e d p e o p l e , e . g . s h e l t e r e d w o r k s h o p . 3 - 1 + 2 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 195 CARD 1 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM JOB S K I L L S 26 28 Q.21 What j o b s a r e you t r a i n e d t o do? Q. 19 c o n t r o l NOTE: g i v e p r i o r i t y t o t h e h i g h e s t c o d e i . e . 7 r a t h e r t h a n 1 1 - manual l a b o u r ( f r e i g h t , p a c k a g i ng) 2 - s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s ( j a n i t o r , d a y c a r e , d r i v e r , p o l i c e ) 3 - s a l e s o c c u p a t i o n s k - c l e r i c a l a nd g e n e r a l o f f i c e i n c l u d i n g l e g a l s e c r e t a r y 5 - s k i l l e d a nd s e m i - s k i l l e d t r a d e s 6 - s o c i a l and a r t i s t i c ( s o c i a l w o r k e r , c o u n s e l l o r , a c t o r ) 7 - t e a c h i n g 8 - s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l ( n u r s i n g , l a b t e c h n i c i a n , f i n a n c e and i n v e s t m e n t , e t c . ) 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 196 i CARD 1 OF 3 VAR. COL. JOB S K I L L S 27 28 29 29 Q.20 c o n t r o l ITEM Q.22 P l e a s e l i s t any s k i l l s you have a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e t h a t you t h i n k w o u l d be u s e f u l t o an e m p l o y e r . 1 - p e r s o n a l qua 1 i t i e s / i n t e r -p e r s o n a l s k i 11s 2 - manual and t e c h n i c a l i n c l u d i n g c l e r i c a l 3 - o r g a n i z a t i o n a / c o m m u n i c a t i o n s e.g. wr i t i ng, s a1es 4 - 1 + 2 5 - 1 + 3 6 - 2 + 3 7 - a l l o f t h e s e 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA DISCOURAGED WORKER 30 Q. 21 c o n t r o l 31 Q.22 c o n t r o l Q .23 Have you l o o k e d f o r work i n 1982? 1 -- yes 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA Q..2k I f No, when d i d you l a s t l o o k f o r work? 1 - 1981 2 - 1980 3 - b e f o r e 1980 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 197 CARD 1 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM  HEALTH PROBLEM 30 32 Q.25 Do you ha v e a h e a l t h p r o b l e m t h a t p r e v e n t s y ou f r o m w o r k i n g ? Q,.23 c o n t r o l 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 31 33 Q.26 I f Y e s , i s t h i s h e a l t h p r o b l e m r e l a t e d t o y o u r d i s a b i l i t y ? N/A t o c o n t r o l 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 32 3** Q.27 What i s y o u r h e a l t h p r o b l e m ? Q..2** c o n t r o l 1 - d i s a b i l i t y i t s e l f i s d e f i n e d a s a h e a l t h p r o b l e m 2 - c o m p l i c a t i o n o f d i s a b i l i t y e . g . u n c o n t r o l l e d e p i l e p s y , p r e s s u r e s o r e s / k i d n e y p r o b l e m s i n p a r a p l e g i a 3 - o t h e r k - 1 + 2 5 - 1 + 3 6 - 2 + 3 7 - a l l o f t h e s e 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 198 ITEM Q.28 If you have had more than one job, please describe the methods you used to get your f i rst job. 1 - direct letter, telephone, newspaper advertisement, employer offers a job 2 - indirect/informal (friends, relatives, etc.) 3 - indirect/agent (rehab. counsellor, teacher, manpower, social worker, etc.) 4- 1 + 2 5 - 1 + 3 6- 2 + 3 7 - a l l of these 8 - other 9 - no information; NA 199 CARD 1 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM  JOB SEARCH 34 36 Q.29 Below are some common methods people use in getting jobs. If you are working, please check which methods you used to get your present job. 0..26 control If you are looking/have looked for work, please check a 11 methods you have used to date. 1 - direct (letter, telephone, employer contacts , etc.) 2 - indirect/informal (friends, relat ives) 3 - indirect/agent (rehab, centre, manpower, etc.) 4 - 1 + 2 5 - 1 + 3 6- 2 + 3 7 - al1 of these 8 - other 9 - no information; NA 35 37 Cj.30 Did you have any responses from the employers whom you contacted? Q.27 control 1 - yes 2 - no 9 no information; NA 200 CARD 1 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM JOB SEARCH 38 - 39 Q.31 I f Y e s , what d i d t h e y s a y ? Q .28 c o n t r o l 36 38 = a c t i o n o f f e r e d a j o b / h i r e d 2 - n o t o f f e r e d a j o b 3 - o t h e r 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 2 - s u b j e c t u n d e r q u a l i f i e d 3 - s u b j e c t o v e r q u a 1 i f i e d 4 - o t h e r 5 - 2 + 4 6 - 3 + 4 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 37 39 = r e a s o n s f o r n o t h i r i n g n o t h i r i n g / n o j o b s 2 0 1 CARD 1 OF 3 VAR. COL. JOB SEARCH 40 - 50 Q .29 c o n t r o l 38 kO N/A t o c o n t r o l ITEM Q. 32 What s u g g e s t i o n s d i d you h a v e f r o m t h e f o l l o w i n g i f u s e d ? a) A g e n c y s p e c i a l i z i n g i n y o u r  d i s a b i 1 i t y 1 - m o r a l s u p p o r t / g e n e r a l a d v i c e (go b a c k t o s c h o o l e t c . ) 2 - a d v i c e r e m e n t i o n i n g d i s a b i 1 i t y 3 " a c t i o n on S's b e h a l f : p r o v i d e d / h e l p e d S. g e t j o b t r a i n i n g ; f o u n d a j o b f o r S . e t c . 4 - 1 + 2 5 - 1 + 3 6 - 2 + 3 7 - a l l o f t h e s e 8 - p o o r a d v i c e ; p u t o f f 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 39 41 = a t t i t u d e o f S. t o D i s a b i 1 i t y A g e n c y 1 - S. i s p o s i t i v e t o w a r d s d i s a b i I i t y a g e n c y 2 - S. i s n e g a t i v e t o w a r d s d i s a b i 1 i t y a g e n c y 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA NOTE: Q .32 ( Q . 2 9 ' c o n t r o l ) s p a n s c o l s . 40 - 50 i n c l u s i v e 202 CARD 1 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM  JOB SEARCH 40 - 50 Q.32 c o n t ' d What s u g g e s t i o n s d i d you h a v e f r o m t h e f o l l o w i n g i f Q.29 c o n t r o l U S e d ? 40 42 b) F r i e n d s / F a m i l y a) c o n t r o l 1 - m o r a l s u p p o r t / g e n e r a l a d v i c e (go b a c k t o s c h o o l e t c . ) 2 - a c t i o n o f S's b e h a l f : p r o f i d e d / h e l p e d S. g e t a j o b , e t c . 3 - a l l o f t h e s e 4 - p o o r a d v i c e ; p u t o f f 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 41 43 c) Manpower b) c o n t r o l 1 - m o r a l s u p p o r t / g e n e r a l a d v i c e (go b a c k t o s c h o o l , e t c . ) 2- - a c t i o n t a k e n o f S's b e h a l f : p r o v i d e d j o b t r a i n i n g , f o u n d a j o b f o r S, e t c . 3 - 1 + 2 4 - p o o r a d v i c e ; p u t o f f 5 - o t h e r 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 42 44 = a t t i t u d e o f S. t o Manpower 1 - S. i s p o s i t i v e t o w a r d s Manpower 2 - S. i s n e g a t i v e t o w a r d s Manpower 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA NOTE: Q.32 (Q.29 c o n t r o l ) s p a n s c o l s . 40 - 50 i n c l u s i v e 203 CARD 1 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM  JOB SEARCH 45 - 50 Q.32 c o n t ' d What s u g g e s t i o n s d i d you have f r o m t h e f o l l o w i n g i f u s e d ? Q.29 c o n t r o l d) P r i v a t e Employment A g e n c y c) c o n t r o l 43 45 1 - g e n e r a l a d v i c e / m o r a l s u p p o r t (go b a c k t o s c h o o l , e t c . ) 2 - a d v i c e r e m e n t i o n i n g d i s a b i 1 i t y 3 - a c t i o n on S's b e h a l f : f o u n d a j o b , h e l p e d S.-w i t h Resume, a r r a n g e d i n t e r v i e w s , e t c . 4 - 1 + 2 5 - 1 + 3 6 - 2 + 3 7 - a l l o f t h e s e 8 - p o o r a d v i c e ; p u t o f f 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 44 46 = a t t i t u d e o f S t o P r i v a t e Employment A g e n c y 1 - S i s p o s i t i v e t o w a r d s p r i v a t e employment a g e n c y 2 - S. i s n e g a t i v e t o w a r d s p r i v a t e employment a g e n c y 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 204 CARD 1 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM  JOB SEARCH 45 - 50 Q.32 cont'd What suggestions did you have from the following if used? e) Social Worker  N/A to control 45 47 1 - moral support/general advice (go back to school, etc.) 2 - advice re mentioning d i sab i 1i ty 3 - action of S's behalf: found a job, helped S. with. Resume, etc. 4- 1 + 2 5 - 1 + 3 6- 2 + 3 7 - a l l of these 8 - poor advice; put off 9 - no information; NA 46 48 = attitude of S to Social Worker 1 - S has positive attitude to Social Worker 2 - S has negative attitude to Social Worker 9 - no information; NA NOTE: Q.32 (Q.29 control) spans cols. 40 - 50 inclusive 205 CARD 1 QF 3 VAR. 47 48 NOTE: 49 COL. JOB SEARCH 49 - 50 Q.29 c o n t r o l 49 ITEM Q.32 c o n t ' d What s u g g e s t i o n s d i d you hav e f r o m t h e f o l l o w i n g i f u s e d ? f ) Un i o n d) c o n t r o l 1 - j o b f o u n d f o r S 2 - no j o b s a v a l i a b l e 3 - p o o r a d v i c e ; p u t o f f 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 50 = a t t i t u d e o f S t o U n i o n 1 - S p o s i t i v e t o w a r d s U n i o n 2 - S n e g a t i v e t o w a r d s U n i o n 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA Q.32 (Q.29 c o n t r o l ) s p a n s c o l s . 40 - 50 i n c l u s i v e 51 Q.30 c o n t r o l Q.33 Were you a s k e d t o an i n t e r v i e w , o r t o t a l k t o someonw a t t h e w o r k p l a c e ? 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 206 CARD 1 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM  JOB SEARCH 50 52 Q .34 I f Y e s , d i d you go? Q..31 c o n t r o l 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 51 53 Q.35 I f you were i n v i t e d t o an I n t e r v i e w , o r went t o t a l k t o someone a t t h e w o r k p l a c e , d i d Q .32 c o n t r o l y o u h a v e a n y d i f f i c u l t y g e t t i n g t o t h e i n t e r v i e w room, o r t a l k i n g w i t h t h e p e r s o n ? 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n 207 CARD 1 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM  JOB SEARCH 54 - 55 a.36 Q .33 c o n t r o l 52 54 D i f f i c u l t y 53 55 A c t i o n T a k e n I f Y e s , what was t h e d i f f i c u l t y ? What d i d y o u / t h e y do a b o u t i t ? 1 - a c c e s s / t e r r a i n p r o b l e m s 2 - t r a n s p o r t p r o b l e m s 3 - o t h e r 4 - 1 + 2 5 - 1 + 3 6 - 2 + 3 7 - a l l o f t h e s e 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 1 - a c t i o n t a k e n by S 2 - a c t i o n t a k e n by e m p l o y e r 3 - 1 + 2 4 - no a c t i o n t a k e n by e i t h e r p a r t y 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 2 0 8 CARD 1 O F 3 V A R . C O L . I T E M J O B S E A R C H 54 56 1^37 I ;-Q.34 c o n t r o l I f y o u had t h e i n t e r v i e w , o r t a l k e d t o someone a t t h e w o r k p l a c e , were y o u o f f e r e d a j o b t h e n o r l a t e r ? What h a p p e n e d ? 1 - o f f e r e d a j o b t h e n 2 - o f f e r e d a j o b l a t e r 3 - n o t o f f e r e d t h e j o b a t a l 1 4 - 1 + 2 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; N A 55 57 Q.38 I f y o u w e r e o f f e r e d a j o b , d i d y o u a c c e p t ? Q.35 c o n t r o l 1 - y e s 2 - n o 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 209 CARD 1 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM JOB SEARCH 56 58 Q.39 Q.36 c o n t r o l I f you were o f f e r e d a j o b and d i d not a c c e p t , what were y o u r r e a s o n s ? 1 - had b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y e l s e w h e r e 2 - n o t enough pay; w o u l d have l o s t d i sab i 1 i t y c h e q u e s / b e n e f i t s 3 - p r o b l e m s w i t h work a r e a e.g. washrooms not a c c e s s i b l e , e t c . 4 - 1 + 2 5 - 1 + 3 6 - a l l o f t h e above 7 - o t h e r e.g. g o i n g back t o s c h o o l , wanted p a r t -t ime 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 57 59 Q..40 I f you were not o f f e r e d a j o b , d i d t h e e m p l o y e r t e l l you why? Q.37 c o n t r o l 1 - ye's 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 210 CARD 1 OF 3 VAR. C O L . ITEM  JOB SEARCH 58 60 Q.41 I f Y e s , what were h i s o r h e r r e a s o n s f o r n o t h i r i n g 0.'.38 c o n t r o l you ? 1 - S was u n d e r q u a 1 i f i e d / l a c k e d e x p e r i e n c e 2 - no f a c i l i t i e s / a c c e s s f o r w h e e 1cha i r s 3 - b o t h o f t h e s e k - o t h e r 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 59 61 Q..42 Were t h e r e any o t h e r r e a s o n s t h a t y o u t h i n k were p r o b a b l y Q.39 c o n t r o l important? 1 - no o t h e r r e a s o n s 2 - no j o b s a v a i l a b l e a t t h e t i m e S a p p l i e d 3 - o t h e r 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 60 62 Q_.43 I f you were i n v i t e d t o an i n t e r v i e w b u t d i d n o t go, what were y o u r r e a s o n s f o r n o t g o i n g ? Q.40 c o n t r o l 1 - j o b n o t a t t r a c t i v e e n ough 2 - o t h e r 3 - b o t h o f t h e s e 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA i 211 CARD 1 OF 3 VAR. • COL. ITEM TASK D I F F I C U L T Y 61 63 Q.44 In t h i s j o b , o r y o u r p a s t j o b s , h a v e you e v e r had any d i f f i c u l t y d o i n g t h e work? Q.41 c o n t r o l 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 62 64 Q..45 I f Y e s , what was t h e d i f f i c u l t y ? Q..42 c o n t r o l 1 - e x e c u t i n g s p e c i f i c j o b t a s k s / i n t i m e a l l o w e d 2 - e p i l e p s y and e p i l e p s y -d r u g r e l a t e d p r o b l e m s 3 - a c c e s s p r o b l e m s : w o r k p l a c e / w a s h r o o m 4 - 1 + 2 5 - 1 + 3 6 - o t h e r 7 - a l l o f t h e s e 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 212 CARD 1 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM TASK D I F F I C U L T Y 63 65 Q.43 c o n t r o l 6 9 VOLUNTARY/SHORT TERM WORK Q.46 What d i d y o u / t h e e m p l o y e r do a b o u t i t ? 1 - no a c t i o n t a k e n by e i t h e r S o r e m p l o y e r 2 - S accommodated t o / c o m p e n s a t e d f o r p r o b l e m s 3 - e m p l o y e r r e a r r a n g e d t a s k s / m o d i f i e d work e n v i r o n m e n t , e t c . 4 - S d e c i d e d t o q u i t 5 - e m p l o y e r f i r e d S/ " l e t g o " o t h e r no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 64 66 Q..44 c o n t r o l Q.47 Have y o u e v e r done any v o l u n t a r y work? 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 213 CARD 1 QF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM VOLUNTARY/SHORT TERM WORK 67 - 71 Q.48 I f Y e s , p l e a s e d e s c r i b e what v o l u n t a r y work you h a v e d o n e , and f o r how l o n g and when y o u d i d i t . Q.45 c o n t r o l 65 67 T o t a l number o f t y p e s o f j o b s h e l d NOTE: e . g . s e c r e t a r y t o 2 o r more c l u b s w o u l d be one t y p e o f j o b 1 - one j o b 2 - two t y p e s o f j o b s 3 - t h r e e t y p e s o f j o b s k - f o u r o r more d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f j o b s 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n 66 68 Work Done 1 - a r t s , r e c r e a t i o n ( e . g . 1 i f e g u a r d ) 2 - p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e e . g . b a b y s i t t i n g , h o s p i t a l v o l u n t e e r , c o u n s e l l i n g 3 - t e c h n i c a l , c l e r i c a l , commun i c a t i o n s / t e a c h e r 1 s a i d e 1 + 2 5 - 1+3 6 - 2 + 3 7 - a l l o f t h e s e 8 - other e.g. board member 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 2 1 4 CARD 1 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM VOLUNTARY/SHORT TERM WORK  Q.48 c o n t ' d 67 69 - 70 How l o n g ? 68 71 When w o r k e d : NOTE: c o d e t o t a l months f o r a 11 j o b s . I f a j o b l a s t e d l e s s t h a n a month c o d e a s 01. I f 1 - 2 months c o d e a s 02. 99 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 1 - l e s s t h a n 1 y e a r a g o / s t i l l go i ng on 2 - 1 t o 2 y e a r s ago 3 - more t h a n 2 y e a r s ago 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA NOTE: c o d e most r e c e n t j o b h e l d i f known 69 72 0.. k3 Have you e v e r w o r k e d on a s h o r t t e r m , p a i d p r o j e c t s u c h a s " o p p o r t u n i t y f o r y o u t h " ? 0..46 c o n t r o l — 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n 215 CARD 1 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM 70 VOLUNTARY/SHORT TERM WORK 73 - 79 Q.47 control 73 How many pro jects? 0.. 50 If Yes, please describe the length of the project(s), when you worked on it (them) and what you did. 1 - one project 2 - two projects 3 - three or more projects 9 - no information; NA NOTE: code total months for a 11 projects. If a project lasted less than one month, code as 01. Code "summer job" as 04. 99 _ no information; NA 72 76 When worked 1 - less than 1 year ago 2 - 1 to 2 years ago 3 - more than 2 years ago 9 - no information; NA NOTE: code the most recent project if known; otherwise code 9 71 74 - 75 Total months worked 216 CARD 1 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM VOLUNTARY/SHORT TERM WORK  Q.50 c o n t ' d 73 77 Work done 1. - o f f i c e and g e n e r a l c l e r i c a l 2 - a r t s a nd r e c r e a t i o n 3 - s c i e n t i f i c , t e c h n i c a l , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s 4 - 1 + 2 5 - 1 + 3 6 - 2 + 3 7 - a l l o f t h e s e 8 - o t h e r 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA NOTE: c o d e a l 1 j o b s 217 CARD 1 QF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM VOLUNTARY/SHORT TERM WORK 78 Q.50 c o n t ' d I f Y e s , p l e a s e d e s c r i b e t h e l e n g t h o f t h e p r o j e c t ( s ) , when you w o r k e d on i t ( t h e m ) , and what you d i d . Q.47 c o n t r o l c o n t ' d 74 78 Was work f o r a s p e c i f i c c l i e n t e l e ? 1 - work was w i t h / f o r c h i l d r e n 2 - work was w i t h / f o r s e n i o r s 3 - work was w i t h / f o r d i s a b l e d p e o p l e i n c l u d i n g p s y c h . / m enta11y r e t a r d e d 4 - 1 + 2 5 - 1 + 3 6 - 2 + 3 7 - a l l o f t h e s e 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA NOTE: c o d e al 1 j o b s 79 no i n f o r m a t i o n 80 c a r d number 1 END OF CARD ONE (1) 218 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR. COL. SUBJECT I,D. 1 - 3 k ITEM Respondent Number  D i s a b i 1 i t y (Q.107) NOTE: code a c c o r d i n g t o " o f f i c i a l " g r o u p i n g i . e . o r i g i n o f sample. 1 - b l i n d / l o w v i s i o n 2 - c e r e b r a l p a l s y 3 - ep i 1 e p s y k - t r a u m a t i c s p i n a l c o r d i n j u r y 5 - c o n t r o l 75 EDUCATION Q.48 c o n t r o l Sex (Q. 115; 0..99 c o n t r o l ) 1 - male 2 - fema1e Q.51 How o l d were you when you f i r s t went t o s c h o o l ? 1 - l e s s than 6 y e a r s o l d 2- 6 y e a r s o l d 3- 7 y e a r s o l d 4 - 8 y e a r s o l d o r o l d e r 5 - n e v e r went t o s c h o o l 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 219 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM  EDUCATION 76 7 Q..52 Was t h i s a r e g u l a r s c h o o l ? Or a s p e c i a l s c h o o l f o r c h i l d r e n w i t h some s o r t o f d i s a b i l i t y ? N/A t o c o n t r o l . . 1 - r e g u l a r 2 - s p e c i a l 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 77 8 Q.53 I f i t was a r e g u l a r s c h o o l , w ere you i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s f o r c h i l d r e n w i t h some s o r t o f d i s a b i l i t y , o r i n a r e g u l a r c l a s s ? N/A t o c o n t r o l , . — — — — — 1 - r e g u l a r 2 - s p e c i a l 3 - b o t h 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 78 9 0..54 What i s t h e name o f t h e l a s t h i g h s c h o o l y ou a t t e n d e d ? Q.49 c o n t r o l 1 - s c h o o l i s i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r 2 - s c h o o l i s e l s e w h e r e i n B.C. 3 - s c h o o l i s e l s e w h e r e i n Canada k - s c h o o l i s i n U.S.A. 5 - s c h o o l i s o u t s i d e N. A m e r i c a 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 220 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM  EDUCATION 79 10 Q.55 How old were you when you left th.i s school? Q.50 control » n , , 1 - 20 years or older 2- 19 3- 18 k - 17 5 - 16 6 - 1 5 years or younger 7 - never went to high school 9 - no information; NA 80 11 Q.56 What is the highest grade level that you completed? Q.51 control , j 11 i-> — - 1 - grade 12 or 13 2 - grade 11 3 - grade 10 k - grade 9 or lower 9 " no information; NA 81 12 Q.57 Did you receive a diploma for this grade? Q..52 control 1 - yes 2 - no 9 - no information; NA 221 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM  EDUCATION 82 13 Q.58 What y e a r d i d you l e a v e h i g h s c h o o l ? Q..53 c o n t r o l . 1 o Q_ ..... . , . , — — 1 - 1982, o r s t i l l a t h i g h s c h o o l 2 - 1981 3-1980 4 - 1979 5 - 1978 6 - 1971 - 1977 7 - 1964 - 1970 8 - 1969 o r e a r l i e r 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 83 14 Q.59 D i d t h e l a s t h i g h s c h o o l you a t t e n d e d t e a c h any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g ? Q.c4 c o n t r o l 1 - o f f i c e / c l e r i c a l 2 - t r a d e s / t e c h n i c a l 3 - s e w i n g 4- 1+2 5- 1+3 6- 2 + 3 7 - a l l o f t h e s e 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 222 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM  EDUCATION 84 15 Q..60 A t t h e l a s t h i g h s c h o o l y ou . a t t e n d e d , d i d y o u l e a r n any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g ? Q.55 c o n t r o l , £ C. , , . , 1 - o f f i c e / c l e r i c a l 2 - t r a d e s / t e c h n i c a l / i n c l u d i n g c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m i n g 3 - s e w i n g 4- 1 + 2 5 - 1 + 3 6 - 2 + 3 7 - a 11 o f t h e s e 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 85 16 Q,.61 D i d y o u move t o V a n c o u v e r i n o r d e r t o go t o h i g h s c h o o l o r c o l l e g e ? Q.56 c o n t r o l 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 86 17 Q.62 I f Y e s , what y e a r d i d you a r r i v e i n V a n c o u v e r ? / Q.57 c o n t r o l 1 - 1972 o r e a r l i e r 2 - 1973 - 1977 3 - 1978 - 1982 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 223 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM  EDUCATION 87 18 Q.63 Did you get into the school or college of your choice? Q.58 control , — 1 - yes 2 - no 9 - no information; NA 88 19 Q.64 If Yes, what school or college was it? Q..59 control ^ _ n j g R s c h 0 0 ] ; n Vancouver 2 - B.C.I.T. 3 - V.C.C. - a l l campuses k - Simon Fraser University 5 - U.B.C. 6 - other 9 - no information; NA 89 20 Q.65 Please l i s t a l l the schools/ colleges etc. you have attended since 8th grade. Q.60 control 1 - high school only 2 - community college, B.C.I.T., secretarial or nursing school NOTE: code highest educational establishment attended. 3 - university k - other •' 9 - no information; NA 224 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR. 90 91 COL. EDUCATION 21 - 22 ITEM Q.66 P l e a s e l i s t a l l t h e c e r t i f i c a t e s , d i p l o m a s , d e g r e e s , e t c . , y o u h a v e e a r n e d and t h e y e a r ( s ) y o u r e c e i v e d them. Q..61 c o n t r o l 21 Q u a ! i f i c a t i o n s 1 - h i g h s c h o o l G r a d e 12 o r 13 on 1 y 2 - j o b s k i l l s t r a i n i ng ( i n c l u d e d e g r e e s e . g . law, m e d i c i n e , where a p p r o p r i a t e ) 3 - n o n - j o b o r i e n t e d a c a d e m i c d i p l o m a s , d e g r e e s , e t c . , g e n e r a l a r t s 4 - o t h e r : i n c l u d e n o n -a c a d e m i c , g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t 5 - 2 + 3 6- 2 + 4 7 - 3 + 4 8 - 2 + 3 + 4 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 22 When was most r e c e n t c e r t i f i c a t e e t c . r e c e i v e d ? 1 - one y e a r ago o r l e s s 2 - one t o two y e a r s ago 3 - more t h a n 2 y e a r s a g o 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 225 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM JOB APPLICATION SKILLS 92 23 Q.67 Have you e v e r seen a j o b c o u n s e l l o r ? Q.62 c o n t r o l yes 2 no 9 no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 93 0..68 Where d i d you see a j o b counse1 l o r ? Q.63 c o n t r o l 1 - e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n : h i g h s c h o o l , c o l l e g e 2 - r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c e n t r e : d i s a b i l i t y a g e n c y , e t c . 3 - g e n e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n : Manpower, Human R e s o u r c e s , P u b l i c S e r v i c e s C o m m i s s i o n , e t c . 4 - 1 + 2 5 - 1 + 3 6 j 2 + 3 7 - a l l o f t h e s e 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 226 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM 25 - 28 Q.69 Have you learned/been taught any of the following: „ . How to write a letter applying Q_.b4 control c . , u . K K ' 3 — for a job; How to write a resume; How to f i l l in a job application form; How to act. during a job interview? 3k 25 How to write a letter applying for a job 1 - yes 2 - no 9 - no information; NA 95 26 How to write a resume 1 - yes 2 - no 9 - no information; NA 96 27 How to f i l l in a job application form 1 - yes 2 - no 9 - no information; NA 97 28 How to act during an interview 1 - yes 2 - no 9 - no information; NA 227 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM JOB A P P L I C A T I O N S K I L L S 98 29 Q.70 I f Y e s , t o any o f t h e i t e m s i n Q u e s t i o n 69 (64), where d i d you l e a r n t h e s e s k i l l s ? Q.65 c o n t r o l 1 - f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n : h i g h s c h o o l , c o l l e g e , e t c . 2 - o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n : Manpower, a g e n c y 3 - i n f o r m a l : f r i e n d s , f a m i l y , f r o m a book, a t work 4 - 1 + 2 5 - 1 + 3 6 - 2 + 3 7 - a l l o f t h e s e 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 228 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR." COL. ITEM  JOB HISTORY 99 30 Q.71 A r e y o u t r a i n e d t o do a p a r t i c u l a r j o b , o r j o b s ? Q..66 c o n t r o l , — 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 ~ no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 100 31 Q.72 What p a r t i c u l a r j o b s a r e you t r a i n e d t o do? manual l a b o u r ( f r e i g h t , p a c k a g i n g , e t c . ) s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s ( j a n i t o r , d a y c a r e w o r k e r , p o l . i c e , 1 i f e g u a r d ) s a l e s o c c u p a t i o n s c l e r i c a l , b o o k k e e p i n g , word p r o c e s s i n g a nd g e n e r a l o f f i c e work Q.67 c o n t r o l 1 2 -3 -k -NOTE: g i v e p r i o r i t y t o t h e h i g h e s t c o d e i . e . 7 r a t h e r t h a n 1. ( s h o u l d c o r r e s p o n d t o a n s w e r s t o c o l . 28 c a r d 1, Q.21 (19 c o n t r o l ) ) 5 - s k i l l e d and s e m i - s k i l l e d t r a d e s 6 - s o c i a l and a r t i s t i c ( s o c i a l w o r k e r , a c t o r , e t c . ) 7 - t e a c h i n g 8 - s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l ( n u r s i n g , e t c . ) 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 229 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR. 101 COL. JOB HISTORY 32 Q.68 control ITEM 0..73 Have you ever worked at this job (these jobs)? 1 - yes 2 - no 9 - no information; NA 33 - 37 Q.69 control Q.Ik If Yes, for how long did you work at each job you have mentioned for question 72 (67)? 102 33 Number of jobs trained for 9 — no information; NA 103 3k - 35 Number of years in a l l jobs 01 - 1 year or less 99 - no information; NA NOTE: may be concurrent jobs. Code to nearest year correcting upwards. 1Qk 36 - 37 Number of years in highest level job according to ranking for Q..72 (67) i.e. 7 is higher than 1 01 - 1 year or less 99 - no information; NA 230 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM ADDITIONAL INFORMATION 105 38 - 40 Q.70 c o n t r o l 38 S u b j e c t 106 39 E m p l o y e r 107 40 E n v i r o n m e n t Q.75 P l e a s e u s e t h i s page t o a d d any more i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t j o b s you h a v e h a d , o r a b o u t t r o u b l e s y o u h a v e had g e t t i n g j o b s a t any t i m e i n y o u r l i f e . 1 - no p r o b l e m s 2 - d i s a b i l i t y - r e l a t e d p r o b l e m s 3 - g e n e r a l p r o b l e m s e . g . l a c k o f e d u c a t i o n / e x p e r i e n c e 4 - o t h e r 5 - 2 + 3 6 - 2 + 4 7 - 3 + 4 8 - 2 + 3 + 4 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 1 - p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e o f e m p l o y e r ( s ) 2 - n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e o f e m p l o y e r ( s ) 3 - o t h e r 4 - 1 + 3 5 - 2 + 3 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 1 - a c c e s s / t r a n s p o r t a t i o n / m o b i l i t y prob1 ems 2 - p o o r economy 3 - o t h e r 4 - 1 + 2 5 - 1 + 3 6 - 2 + 3 7 - a l l o f t h e s e 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 231 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR. 108 109 110 COL. ITEM SOCIAL INTEGRATION 41 Q. 71 control kl Q..72 control **3 Q.73 control Q.76 Do you belong to a church, synagogue or other religious group? 1 - yes 2 - no 9 - no information; NA Q.77 If Yes, how many times did you go to a service in the last . four weeks? 1 - none 2 - once or twice 3 - 3 or k times k •- more than k times 9 - no information; NA Q.78 What do you 1 ike to do in your spare time? 1 - active/can do alone: crafts, puzzles, reading, walks, etc. 2 - active/need people other than family: dance, parties, team sports, etc. 3 - passive/sit and be entertained: T.V., cinema, spectator sports, etc. 4- 1+2 5- 1+3 6- 2 + 3 7 - a l l of these 9 - no information NOTE" code "relax" and "take it easy" etc. as 9 232 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM SOCIAL INTEGRATION 111 44 Q.79 Q.74 c o n t r o l 112 45 Q.80 Cj.75 c o n t r o l 113 46 Q.81 Q.76 c o n t r o l Do you b e l o n g t o any c l u b s o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n n e c t e d w i t h y o u r h o b b y / i n t e r e s t s ? 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA Does t h i s g r o u p ( t h e s e g r o u p s ) h a v e r e g u l a r m e e t i n g s i n t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a ? 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA I f Y e s , c o u n t i n g a l l t h e g r o u p s y o u b e l o n g t o , a b o u t how o f t e n a r e you o u t t o a m e e t i n g o r g a t h e r i ng? 1 - more t h a n o n c e a week 2 - o n c e a week 3 - e v e r y 2 - 4 weeks 4 - l e s s t h a n e v e r y 4 weeks 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 233 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM  SOCIAL INTEGRATION 114 47 Q.82 Do you h o l d a p o s i t i o n , s u c h as c h a i r m a n o r s e c r e t a r y , i n any o f t h e gro u p s you b e l o n g t o ? 1 - yes 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 115 48 Q.83 I f Y e s , p l e a s e g i v e t h e t i t l e ( s ) o f t h e p o s i t i o n ( s ) you h o l d a t th e moment. Q.77 c o n t r o l Q.78 c o n t r o l 1 - o f f i c e r e.g. s e c r e t a r y 2 - g e n e r a l b o a r d / c o m m i t t e e member 3 - o t h e r 4 - 1 + 2 5 - 1 + 3 6 - 2 + 3 7 - 1 + 2 + 3 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 234 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM  SOCIAL INTEGRATION 49 - 50 Q.84 T a k i n g up t o t h r e e g r o u p s i n w h i c h you c o n s i d e r y o u r s e l f t o be t h e most a c t i v e and i n v o l v e d , do t h e s e g r o u p s c o n s i s t o f 0..79 - c o n t r o l a) d i s a b l e d p e o p l e o n l y ( c o n t r o l = a b l e -b o d i e d p e o p l e o n l y ) , o r b) a" m i x t u r e o f d i s a b l e d and a b l e b o d i e d p e o p l e . 116 49 Number o f G r o u p s 1 - one g r o u p 2 - two g r o u p s 3 - t h r e e g r o u p s 9 • no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 117 50 C o m p o s i t i o n 1 - a l 1 d i s a b l e d 2 - a l 1 a b l e b o d i e d 3 - m i x t u r e o f d i s a b l e d a nd a b l e b o d i e d 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 118 51 CONTROL QUESTION ONLY N/A D i s a b l e d Q.80 c o n t r o l Do you hav e any p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s who a r e d i s a b l e d ? 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 119 52 CONTROL QUESTION ONLY  N/A D i s a b l e d Q.81 c o n t r o l I f Y e s , what d i s a b i l i t i e s do t h e y h a v e ? 1 - p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y 2 - s e n s o r y i m p a i r m e n t e . g . d e a f 3 " m e n t a l i m p a i r m e n t 4 - o t h e r 5 - 1 + 3 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; . NA 235 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM  SOCIAL INTEGRATION 53 - 54 Q.85 Yesterday, about how many hours did you spend: a) watching television; b) listening to Q.82 control the radio; c) listening to records or tapes; d) reading. 120 53 T.V., Radio, Records and Tapes 121 54 Reading 1 - no time 2 - low: up to one hour 3 - moderate: 1 to 3 hours 4 - high: more than 3 hours 9 - no information; NA 1 - no t i me 2 - low: up to and including 1 hour 3 - moderate: 1 to 3 hours 4 - high: more than 3 hours 9 - no information; NA 122 55 Q.86 If you are working, are there people at work with whom you Q..83 control have coffee, eat lunch, etc.? 1 - yes, always 2 - yes, sometimes 3 - no 9 - no information; NA 236 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR. 123 COL. ITEM SOCIAL INTEGRATION 56 Q.84 c o n t r o l Q.87 I f Y e s , do you see t h e s e p e o p l e o u t o f work e.g. t o go t o t h e m o v i e s , o u t f o r a m e a l , t o a f o o t b a l l o r hockey game, e t c . ? 1 - yes 2 - no no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA TRANSPORTATION AND ACCESS 124 125 126 57 Q.85 c o n t r o l 58 Q.86 c o n t r o l 59 N/A t o c o n t r o l Q.88 Do you have a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n s e ? 1 - yes 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA Q.89 Do you have y o u r own t r a n s p o r t ( c a r , v a n , e t c . ) ? 1 - yes 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA Q.90 Can you g e t on and o f f b u s e s ? 1 - yes 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 237 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM TRANSPORTATION AND ACCESS 127 60 Q,.91 Do you u s e t h e bus a t l e a s t o n c e a week? Q.87 c o n t r o l 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 128 61 Q..92 Do you u s e t a x i s t o g e t a b o u t ? Q.88 c o n t r o l 1 - h a r d l y e v e r / n e v e r 2 - one t r i p i n f i v e 3 - t h r e e o u t o f f i v e t r i p s k - e a c h t i m e y o u go o u t 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 129 62 Q.93 Do you u s e t h e H a n d y d a r t , o r o t h e r c u s t o m t r a n s i t v e h i c l e t o g e t a b o u t ? N/A t o c o n t r o l 1 - n e v e r 2 - h a r d l y e v e r 3 - o n e t r i p i n f i v e k — t h r e e o u t o f f i v e t r i p s 5 - e a c h t i m e y o u go o u t 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 238 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM TRANSPORTATION AND ACCESS 130 131 132 133 63 Q.89 c o n t r o l 64 N/A t o c o n t r o l 65 N/A t o c o n t r o l 0..94 Have y o u e v e r n o t a p p l i e d f o r a j o b b e c a u s e y o u t h o u g h t y o u m i g h t h a v e d i f f i c u l t y g e t t i n g t r a n s p o r t t £ t h e w o r k p l a c e ? 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA Q.95 Have y o u e v e r n o t a p p l i e d f o r a j o b b e c a u s e y o u t h o u g h t y ou m i g h t h a v e d i f f i c u l t y g e t t i n g i n t o t h e w o r k p l a c e t o do t h e j o b ? 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA Q.96 Have you e v e r been t o an i n t e r v i e w , o r t o t a l k t o someone a t t h e j o b , and f o u n d t h a t y o u c o u l d n ' t g e t i n t o t h e w o r k p l a c e ? 1 - y e s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 66 Q.97 N/A t o c o n t r o l I f Y e s , how many t i m e s d i d t h i s h a p p e n t o y o u ? 1 - one 2 - t w i c e 3 - more t h a n t w i c e 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 239 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR. 134 COL. ITEM TRANSPORTATION AND ACCESS 67 Q.98 What did you do on each occasion? N/A to control . ^ . . ^ k . 1 - went away without trying to get in 2 - found/was shown another entrance and was able to get in without assistance 3 - needed/got physical help to get in 4- 1+2 5- 1+3 6- 2 + 3 on different occasions 7 - a l l of" these (on different occasions) 9 - no information; NA SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS 135 68 Q..99 Do you live in a Q.90 control 1 - house 2 - apartment 3 - townhouse 4 - group home 5 - university/college residence 6 - hospita1/extended care f a c i l i t y 9 - no information; NA 240 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS 136 69 Q.100 Do you v 0..91 control 1 - own this accommodation 2 - rent 3 - share a cooperative k - live with parents in the fami1y home 5 - other 9 - no information; NA 137 70 0.. 101 Do you live 0..92 control 1 - alone 2 - with spouse (including common law) 3 - with parent(s) k - with s ibl ing(s) 5 - wi th friend(s) 6 - with child/children as a single parent 9 - no information; NA NOTE: code dominant response e.g. spouse over children, and parents over spouse and siblings if both occur. 241 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS 138 71 Q.102 Do you ha v e a n y d e p e n d e n t s whom y o u h a v e t o s u p p o r t ? Q.93 c o n t r o l 1 _ y g s 2 - no 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA Q. 103 I f you do ha v e d e p e n d e n t s , p l e a s e g i v e a l i s t o f how many d e p e n d e n t s y o u h a v e , t h e i r a g e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o y o u . 1 - s p o u s e , i n c l u d e s common 1 aw 2 - c h i1d/ch i 1 d r e n 3 - o n e o r more s i b l i n g k - 1 + 2 5 - 1 + 3 6 -2 + 3 7 - a l l o f t h e s e 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 140 73 Q.10k How many o f t h e s e p e o p l e a r e w o r k i n g f u l l o r p a r t - t i m e ? Q.95 c o n t r o l 1 - nobody 2 - one p e r s o n 3 - two o r more p e o p l e 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 139 72 Q.94 c o n t r o l 242 CARD 2 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS 141 Ik Q. 105 Can you give me an estimate of the monthly income of the head of your household before taxes are taken out? Q.96 control 1 - up to $1 ,000 2 - 1,001 to 2,000 3 - 2,001 to 3,000 k - 3,001 to 4,000 5 - over 4,000 9 - no information; NA 142 75 Q.106 From which of the sources listed below do you get money for your expenses (rent, food, clothing, etc.), d i s a b i l i t y pension, family, friends, GAIN, private income (rentj investments, etc.); salary/wages, UIC, WCB payments, other. Q.97 control , , . ,. _ . 1 - salary/wages/investments/ rent/commission/savings 2 - informal support system: family/friends 3 - formal support system: (bureaucracy): d i s a b i l i t y pensions, family allowance, GAIN, UIC, WCB, etc. 4- 1+2 5- 1+3 6- 2 + 3 7 - a l l of these 9 - no information; NA 76 - 79 no information Blank 80 card number 2 END OF CARD TWO (2) 243 CARD 3 OF 3 VAR. 143 NOTE: COL. SUBJECT I.D. 3 D I S A B I L I T Y N/A t o c o n t r o l ITEM R e s p o n d e n t Number D i s a b i 1 i t y (Q.107) NOTE: c o d e a c c o r d i n g t o " o f f i c i a l " g r o u p i n g i . e . o r i g i n o f s a m p l e 1 - b l i n d / l o w v i s i o n 2 - c e r e b r a l p a l s y 3 - e p i l e p s y 4 - t r a u m a t i c s p i n a l c o r d i n j u r y 5 - c o n t r o l Sex ( Q . 1 1 5 ; Q . 9 9 c o n t r o l ) 1 - m a l e 2 - f e m a l e Q.107 What d i s a b i l i t y do you h a v e ? 1 - b l i n d / l o w v i s i o n 2 - c e r e b r a l p a l s y 3 - ep i 1 e p s y 4 - t r a u m a t i c s p i n a l c o r d i n j u r y c o d e a c c o r d i n g t o " o f f i c i a l " g r o u p i n g i . e . o r i g i n o f s a m p l e 244 CARD 3 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM  D I S A B I L I T Y 144 7 Q.108 Is y o u r d i s a b i l i t y N/A t o c o n t r o l 1 - g e t t i n g w o r s e 2 - s t a y i n g t h e same 3 - g e t t i n g b e t t e r 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 145 8 Q.109 Were you b o r n w i t h y o u r d i s a b i 1 i t y / d i s a b i 1 i t i e s ? N/A t o c o n t r o l 1 - y e s 2 - no -• • 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 146 9 Q.110 I f No, how o l d were you when you g o t i t ? N/A t o c o n t r o l 1 - u n d e r 6 y e a r s o l d 2 - b e t w e e n 6 and 12 y e a r s 3 - bet w e e n 13 and 18 y e a r s 4 - bet w e e n 19 and 24 y e a r s 5 - bet w e e n 25 and 30 y e a r s 6 - o v e r 30 y e a r s 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA NOTE: g i v e age when d i a g n o s i s made f o r e p i l e p s y , 1ow v i s i on 245 CARD 3 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM  D I S A B I L I T Y 147 10 Q.111 Does a n y o n e i n y o u r i m m e d i a t e f a m i l y h a v e t h e same, o r a s i m i l a r d i s a b i 1 i t y ? 1 - y e s 2 - no 3 - a d o p t e d 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 148 11 Q.112 I f Y e s , what i s t h i s p e r s o n ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o y o u ? N/A t o c o n t r o l N/A t o c o n t r o l 1 - s i b 1 i ng o r c o u s i n 2 - p a r e n t o r p a r e n t ' s g e n e r a t i o n 3 - g r a n d p a r e n t o r g r a n d -p a r e n t ' s g e n e r a t i o n o r o l d e r 4 - 1 + 2 5 - 1 + 3 6 - 2 + 3 7 - a l l o f t h e s e 8 - o t h e r 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 246 CARD 3 OF 3 VAR. 149 150 NOTE: 151 COL. DISABILITY 12 N/A to control ITEM Q.113 Do you use any of the following regularly? Arm or leg brace; cane(s); b r a i l l e r ; communication aid; crutches; headstick; hearing aid; seeing eye dog; wa1ker. 1 - one or more aids used 2 - no aids used 9 - no information; NA DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION 13 Q.114 What is the f i r s t language you learned as a chiId? Q..98 control 1 - English 2 - French 3 - other European language 4 - Oriental language (Chinese, Japanese, etc.) 9 - no information; NA non-caucasian Ss. are ineligible for s t a t i s t i c a l purposes. Make appropriate note on front of quest ionna i re. 14 Q.115 Are you Q.99 control 1 - male 2 - femaIe 9 - no information; NA 247 CARD 3 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION 152 15 - 16 Q.116 What y e a r were you b o r n ? Q.100 c o n t r o l NOTE: c o d e a c t u a l age a t t h e end o f 1982. T h o s e S s . u n d e r 19 and o v e r 35 y e a r s a r e i n e l i g i b l e f o r s t a t i s t i c a l p u r p o s e s . Make a p p r o p r i a t e n o t e on t h e f r o n t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . B o r n s i n c e 1963 u n d e r 19 B o r n 1954 = 28 1963 •= 19 1953 = 29 1962 3 20 1952 - 30 1961 3 21 1951 = 31 I960 3 22 1950 3 32 1959 = 23 1949 = 33 1958 = 24 • 19^ 8 = 34 1957 25 1947 = 35 1956 = 26 b o r n b e f o r e 1947 = o v e r 35 •1955 27 no i n f o r m a t i o n — 99 248 CARD 3 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM PERCEPTIONS OF THE JOB MARKET 153 17 - 18 Q.101 c o n t r o l 17 I n t e r n a l 154 18 E x t e r n a ) Q.. 117 As you s e e i t , what a r e t h e m a in p r o b l e m s p e o p l e l i k e you h a v e i n g e t t i n g j o b s ? 1 - low s e l f e s t e e m ; s o c i a l i m m a t u r i t y ; l a c k o f a m b i t i o n , s e l f p i t y 2 - l a c k o f r e l e v a n t e x p e r i e n c e s : e d u c a t i o n , a n d / o r j o b e x p e r i e n c e s 3 - p h y s i c a l i n a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m t h e / s o m e t a s k ( s ) , l a c k o f m o b i 1 i t y / equ i pment 4- 1+2 5- 1+3 6- 2 + 3 7 - a l l o f t h e s e 8 - o t h e r 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 1 - p o o r e c o n o m y / l a c k o f j o b s 2 - n e g a t i v e , e m p l o y e r / p u b l i c a t t i t u d e 3 - a c c e s s i b i l i t y / t r a n s p o r t p r o b l e m s 4- 1+2 5- 1+3 6- 2 + 3 7 - a l l o f t h e s e 8 - o t h e r 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 249 CARD 3 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM PERCEPTIONS OF THE JOB MARKET 155 1 9 - 2 0 Q.102 c o n t r o l 19 G e n e r a l Q.. 118 What a d v i c e w o u l d you g i v e t o someone l i k e y ou a b o u t g e t t i n g a j o b ? a s s e r t i v e n e s s , p e r s i s t e n c e , s y s t e m a t i c j o b s e a r c h i m p o r t a n c e o f e d u c a t i o n and j o b t r a i n i n g o t h e r 1 + 2 1 + 3 2 + 3 a l l o f t h e s e no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 156 20 D i s a b i l i t y - r e l a t e d 2 -3 k 5 6 7 9 be p o s i t i v e a b o u t h a n d i c a p ; e d u c a t e e m p l o y e r s a b o u t d i s a b l e d p e o p l e a d v i c e r e d i s a b i l i t y / e p i 1 e p s y : g e t u n d e r c o n t r o l , w h e n / i f t o m e n t i o n t o e m p l o y e r o t h e r ( d i s a b i l i t y r e l a t e d ) 1 + 2 1+3 2 + 3 a l l o f t h e s e no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 250 CARD 3 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM  FINAL COMMENTS 21 - 22 Q.119 If you have anything more you would like to say, or if you have any comments on the questionnaire, please feel free to write them here. Q.103 control 157 21 Job Hunting Experience 1 - job hunting/work experience 2 - other 3 - 1 + 2 9 - no information; NA NOTE: code any answers to #1 under previous questions if possible. 158 22 Attitude to Questionnaire 1 - S is positive to questionnaire 2 - S is negative to questionnaire 9 - no information; NA ASSISTANCE 159 23 Q.120 Did you have any help f i l l i n g out this questionnaire? Q. 104 control — 1 - yes 2 -• no 9 - no information; NA 251 CARD 3 OF 3 VAR. COL. ITEM ASSISTANCE 160 24 Q.121 I f Y e s , was i t i n t h e f o r m o f h e l p i n g you remember d a t e s e t c . ; r e a d i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e o u t t o y o u ; w r i t i n g i n t h e a n s w e r s yo u d i c t a t e d ; o t h e r ? Q,. 105 c o n t r o l 1 - h e l p i n g y o u remember d a t e s , e t c . 2 - r e a d i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o you 3 - w r i t i n g i n t h e a n s w e r s yo u d i c t a t e d 4 - 1 + 2 5 - 1 + 3 6 - 2 + 3 7 - a l l o f t h e s e 8 - o t h e r 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 161 25 Q.122 Was t h i s p e r s o n ( t h e s e p e o p l e ) y o u r : s p o u s e ; b r o t h e r o r s i s t e r ; p a r e n t ( s ) ; c h i l d ( c h i l d r e n ) ; o t h e r r e l a t i v e ( s ) ; f r i e n d ( s ) ; a t t e n d a n t / n u r s e ; o t h e r ? Cj. 106 c o n t r o l 1 - f a m i l y member(s) 2 - f r i e n d ( s ) 3 - a t t e n d a n t , n u r s e o r o t h e r p e r s o n w i t h some a u t h o r i t y o v e r S 4 - 1 + 2 5 - 2 + 3 6 - I n t e r v i e w e r (F.W-J) 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 252 CARD 3 OF 3 VAR. CjDL. ITEM ADDITIONAL VARIABLE 162 26 1 - w o r k i n g r e g u l a r l y , f u l l - t i m e 2 - w o r k i n g r e g u l a r l y , p a r t - t i m e 3 - w o r k i n g o c c a s i o n a l l y fu11 o r p a r t - t ime k - n o t w o r k i n g - l o o k i n g 5 - n o t w o r k i n g - n o t l o o k i n g 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA NOTE: c o d e t h o s e i n f u 1 1 / p a r t - t i m e s c h o o l as 5 u n l e s s a l s o s t a t e t h e y a r e w o r k i n g / l o o k i n g f o r work. R.162 1 - 1 + 2 2 - 3 + 4 3 - 5 9 - no i n f o r m a t i o n ; NA 27 - 29 Not a p p l i c a b l e B l a n k 80 C a r d Number 3 a END OF CARD THREE (3) 253 APPENDIX N. AGE OF SUBJECT WHEN ACQUIRED DISABILITY Question 109 asked "Were you born with your d i sab i l i ty (d i sabi l i t ies )? " For a l l the cerebral palsied subjects the answer was "Yes". Question 110 asked "If NO, how old were you when you got i t ? " A problem arose in coding the replies of the Epilepsy sample. Epilepsy may manifest i t s e l f at any age and, i f mi ld , there may be a considerable delay in i ts diagnosis. Some epileptic subjects answered Question 110 with the age at which their seizures were diagnosed. This was coded as the age of acquisition of the d i s a b i l i t y . The age grouping for the acquired d i sab i l i t i e s of blindness, epilepsy and paraplegia is shown in Table XXII. Table XXII shows that most d i sab i l i t i e s are acquired or diagnosed in the six to twenty-four years old age span. Eight subjects from the Blind and Epilepsy samples (four from each) acquired their d i sab i l i ty before the age of s ix , the normal age for entry to Grade I schooling. Table XXIII shows the age of onset of the d i sab i l i ty against the subjects' employment status. For a l l age groups with an acquired d i sab i l i ty (that i s , a l l except the cerebral palsied sample), over half (53.8%) are working regularly. Of the remainder, s l ight ly more are unemployed and not looking for work (thirteen subjects: 25%) than are working occasionally or looking for work (eleven subjects: 21.2%). 254 TABLE XXII. AGE WHEN DISABILITY WAS ACQUIRED, OR DIAGNOSED Blind Paraplegia Epilepsy Total under 6 yrs . 4 0 4 8 (36) (0) (16) (15) 6-18 years 4 5 14 23 (36) (31) (56) (44) 19-30 yrs. 3 10 6 19 (28) (63) (24) (37) over 30 yrs . ~ 0 1 1 2 (0) (6) (4) (4) 11 16 25 , 52 (100) (100) (100) (100) TABLE XXIII. AGE WHEN ACQUIRED DISABILITY BY EMPLOYMENT STATUS Working Regularly Working Occasionally Unemployed Full/Part Time Looking for Work Not Looking Total under 6 yrs. 6 2 0 ,8 (21) (18) (0) (15) 6-18 yrs . 11 4 8 23 (39) (36) (61) (44) 19-30 yrs. 10 5 4 19 (36) (46) (31) (37) over 30 yrs. 1 0 1 2 (4) (0) (8) (4) Total 28 11 13 52 (100) (100) (100) (100) APPENDIX 0. TABLE XXIV. NUMBER OF SUBJECTS CONTINUING THEIR EDUCATION BY SAMPLE Cerebral Palsy Blind Paraplegic Epilepsy Control Total Full-Time 2 6 2 2 2 14 ' Student (29) (67) (67) (25) (40) (44) Part-Time 5 3 1 6 3 18 Student (71) (33) (33) (75) (60) (56) Total 7 9 3 8 5 32 (100) (100) (100) (100) (100) (100) ro cn APPENDIX P. TABLE XXV. SUBJECTS CONTINUING THEIR EDUCATION: BY EMPLOYMENT STATUS Working Regularly Working Occasionally Unemployed Full/Part Time Looking for Work Not Looking Total Full Time 2 2 10 14 Student (18) (33) (67) (44) Part Time 9 4 5 18 Student (82) (67) (33) (56) Total 11 6 15 32 (100) (100) (100) (100) ro ^4 258 APPENDIX Q. PRE-DISABILITY EARNINGS Question 17 asked disabled subjects i f they had worked before the onset of their d i s a b i l i t y . Twenty-six replied that they had. By sample these are: -' Blind 6 - Paraplegia 12 - Epilepsy 7 Twenty-five people replied to Question 22 asking how their earnings compare now with what they were earning before they became disabled, allowing for in f la t ion . These results are shown in Table XXVI. One paraplegic subject did not make this comparison. The high representation of the Paraplegic sample among those earning less since the onset of their d i sab i l i ty may be because many spinal-cord injuries are the result of motor vehicle accidents occurring in early adult l i f e . Many of these people are in the workforce at the time of their injuries . After the necessary stay in hospital and a rehabilitation centre, i t may take several years before their post-injury income approaches their pre-injury earnings. For those who were in a physically demanding, very high paid job such as in the timber or construction industries, they w i l l not be able to return to this type of work and their income may never be the same again. 259 TABLE XXVI. PRE-DISABILITY EARNINGS COMPARED WITH PRESENT EARNINGS. Blind Paraplegia Epilepsy Total Earning 1 1 1 3 More Now (15) (8) (14) (12) About 1 4 3 , 8 The Same (16) (33) (43) (32) Earning 4 7 3 14 Less Now (68) (59) (43) (56) Total 6 12 7 25 (100) (100) (100) (100) 260 APPENDIX R. DISABLED FRIENDS OF CONTROL SUBJECTS In answer to Question 80 and Question 81 (control questionnaire), four people (31%) reported having personal friends who are disabled. One, who is himself dyslexic, has friends (number not stated) with learning d i s a b i l i t i e s . One person has a deaf friend. Two people each have two disabled friends: - one with a mild mental handicap and one who is paraplegic - one person is quadriplegic and the other "can't bend right arm". 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