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Soil erosion, water quality and revegetation at a sub-alpine ski area development McTavish, Robert Bruce 1984

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SOIL EROSION, WATER QUALITY AND REVEGETATION AT A SUB-ALPINE SKI AREA DEVELOPMENT BY ROBERT BRUCE MCTAVISH B.Sc. ( B i o l o g y ) , Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of A g r i c u l t u r a l Mechanics) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard: THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J U L Y , 1984 @ R.B. McTavish, 1984 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f T\<T{1\Q. uciur?ftc ' (£c/i/h^/cc T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 Main M a l l V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1Y3 D E - 6 (3/81) - i i -A B S T R A C T Earth clearing act iv i t ies in subalpine areas on the west coast of Br i t ish Columbia can lead to serious soil erosion and subsequent deterioration in physical stream water quality. This study undertook to measure soil losses on unvegetated slopes, sediment discharge into waterways and methods of vegetative erosion control . This study took place at Hemlock Valley Ski Resort which is located in the mountain-hemlock biogeocl imatic zone on the west coast of Br i t ish Columbia. Quanti f icat ion of soil loss on unvegetated slopes using a portable r i l l meter measured soil losses of 605 t ha * over a four-month period and a total soil loss of 1 104 t h a - i over a twenty -s ix -month period. This corresponded to measured sediment loading in surrounding waterways of up to 571 mg L _ l of suspended solids and downstream movement of sediment of 120.6 tonnes per hour. Testing of twenty-one agronomic grasses and legumes for their abi l i ty to establish adequate ground cover to contro l erosion, resulted in two recommended seed mixes. For dry areas with wel l drained soils, the species giving highest observed ground cover were tetraploid perennial ryegrass, redtop bentgrass, penncross bentgrass and creeping red fescue. The species giving highest observed ground cover on areas with topsoil intact and poorer drained soils were hard fescue, annual ryegrass, orchard grass and slender wheatgrass. In most species increases in the rates of fe r t i l i zer application from 150 to 300 kg h a " l (12-20-20) resulted in an increase in observed ground cover. - i i i -A n a t i v e sedge C a r e x m e r t e n s i i was a lso tes ted under bo th l a b o r a t o r y and f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s . G e r m i n a t i o n tes ts in the l a b o r a t o r y gave a m a x i m u m g e r m i n a t i o n of 9 7 . 5 % when tes ted on top of m o i s t b l o t t e r s w i t h a f i v e - d a y p r e c h i l l and seed wings on and t e m p e r a t u r e a l t e r n a t i n g at 30°C on 12 -hour day and 20°C on 12-hour n ight . F i e l d e x p e r i m e n t s c a r r i e d out on a s i te p r e v i o u s l y shown i n c a p a b l e of suppor t ing a g r o n o m i c grasses and l e g u m e s showed a m a x i m u m observed ground c o v e r of 2 8 % w i t h C a r e x  m e r t e n s i i a p p l i e d at a seed ing r a t e of 50 k g h a - 1 and 1 2 - 2 0 - 2 0 f e r t i l i z e r a t 600 k g h a " 1 . - iv -T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S Page Acknowledgements x 1.0 I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 2.0 DESCRIPTION OF S T U D Y A R E A 4 2.1 Topography 5 2.2 C l imate 5 2.3 Soils 7 2.4 Vegetation 10 3.0 L I T E R A T U R E REVIEW 10 3.1 Soi l Erosion 10 3.1.1 Measuring Soi l Erosion Losses y 13 3.1.2 Control l ing Soil Erosion 16 3.1.3 Ef fects of Sediment on Fisheries Resources 19 3.2 Reclamat ion Research 20 4.0 METHODS A N D M A T E R I A L S 27 4.1 Quant i f icat ion of Soil Loss on Unvegetated Slopes 27 4.1.1 Analysis of R i l l Meter Photographs 30 4.2 Analysis of Suspended Sediments and Turbidity 32 4.3 Revegetation Trials 34 4.3.1 Design and Layout 34 4.3.2 Determination of Ground Cover 38 4.4 Seed Germination Experiments on Carex mertensi i 38 5.0 R E S U L T S A N D DISCUSSION 41 5.1 E f fec ts of Prec ip i tat ion and Suspended Sediments on Waterways 41 5.2 Results from Analysis of Soi l Loss Plots 47 5.3 Fer t i l i ze r Requirements for Revegetation Trials 51 5.4 Exper imental Tr ia ls on Carex mertensi i 55 5.4.1 Germination Trials on Carex mertensi i 55 5.4.2 F ie ld Experiments with Carex mertensi i 57 - V -Page 5.5 Results from F ie ld Experiments on Legumes 61 5.5.1 Ground Cover of Tested Legumes 61 5.6 E f fec ts of Seed and Fer t i l i ze r Rates on Percent Ground Cover of Grasses 64 5.6.1 E f fec ts of Fe r t i l i ze r on Sasquatch Plots 65 5.6.2 E f fec ts of Varying Rates of Seeding, Sasquatch Plots 68 5.6.3 Interactive E f fec ts of Seed and Fer t i l i ze r on the Sasquatch Plots 68 5.6.4 E f fec ts of Fe r t i l i ze r on Skyline Plots 72 5.6.5 E f fec ts of Varying Rates of Seeding: Skyline Plots 73 5.6.6 Interactive E f fec ts of Seed and Fer t i l i ze r on the Skyline Plots 78 5.7 Comparison of Results Between Skyline and Sasquatch Sites 79 5.8 Comparison of Results at Hemlock Valley and Other Simi lar Areas 80 6.0 S U M M A R Y A N D C O N C L U S I O N S 82 L I T E R A T U R E CITED 84 - v i -LIST O F F I G U R E S Page 1 Map of Fraser Valley Showing Locat ion of Hemlock Valley Ski A rea 4 2 Photograph of Hemlock Valley Summer Conditions 6 3 Photograph of Hemlock Valley Winter Conditions 6 4 Schematic Diagram of Surface Water Erosion Process 11 5 R i l l Meter Used for Measuring Soil Loss 29 6 R i l l Meter with Pins Dropped Showing Soil Prof i le 29 7 Example of Method Used for Calcu lat ing Soil Loss from Soi l Prof i les 31 8 Locat ion of Vegetation Plots , Weather Station and Sampling Site 33 9 One Metre Square Plots Used for Measuring Percentage Ground Cover to Determine Ab i l i t y of Individual Species to Germinate and Grow 36 10 Suspended Solids, Turbidity and Precip i tat ion 43 11 Photograph Showing Extent of R i l l Formation on Test Plots at Hemlock Valley 50 - VII -LIST O F T A B L E S Agronomic Grasses and Legumes Used in the Hemlock Valley Experiments Seed Germination Trials for Carex mertensi i Selected Ra in fa l l , Suspended Solids and Turbidity Data in Sakwi Creek at Hemlock Valley Selected Ra in fa l l Intensity Data Measurement of Soi l Loss at Hemlock Valley Over a 26-Month Period Bulk Densities of Soils on Soil Erosion Measurement Plots at Hemlock Valley Nutr ient Analysis of Soils at Hemlock Valley Recommended Fer t i l i ze r and L ime Appl icat ion Rates for Various Sites at Hemlock Valley Average Fer t i l i ze r and L ime Appl icat ion Rates for Soils at Hemlock Valley E f f e c t of Germination Temperature, Wing Removal and Substrate on Germination Rate of Carex Mertensi i Percent Ground Cover for Carex Mertensi i at Varying Rates of Seed and Fer t i l i ze r Appl icat ion Stat is t ica l Analysis of F ie ld Trials on Carex Mertensi i Percentage Ground Cover for Legumes 6 Months and 14 Months A f t e r Seeding Performance of Grasses and Legumes Measured as Percent Ground Cover at Seed/Fert i l izer Ratios Giving Highest Observed Ground Cover , Sasquatch 1979 Performance of Grasses Measured as Percent Ground Cover at Seed/Fert i l izer Ratios Giving Highest Observed Ground Cover , Sasquatch 1980 Results from Analysis of Variance on Seed and Fer t i l i ze r Rates, and Seed by Fer t i l i ze r from Sasquatch Site, 1979 - v i i i -T A B L E Page XVII Results from Analysis of Variance on Seed and Fer t i l i ze r Rates, and Seed by Fer t i l i ze r from Sasquatch Site, 1980 70 XVIII Species Showing Signif icant Interactive Ef fects Between Seed and Fer t i l i ze r Rates at the .05 Probabi l i ty Leve l 71 X IX Grass Species from Sasquatch Plots Giving Greater than 45% Ground Cover 72 X X Performance of Grasses Measured as Percent Ground Cover at Seed/Fert i l izer ratios Giving Highest Observed Ground Cover 74 X X I Results from Analysis of Variance on Seed and Fer t i l i ze r Rates, and Seed by Fer t i l i ze r from Skyline Site, 1979 75 XXII Performance of Grasses Measured as Percent Ground Cover at Seed/Fert i l izer Ratios Giv ing Highest Observed Ground Cover 76 XXIII Results from Analysis of Variance on Seed and Fer t i l i ze r Rates, and Seed by Fer t i l i ze r from Skyline Site, 1980 77 XXIV Percent Ground Cover on Skyline Site for Species Giv ing 4 5 % or Greater Ground Cover 79 - ix -LIST O F A P P E N D I C E S Page I Description of Orthic Fer ro -Humic Podzols Found at Hemlock Valley 91 II • Raw Data from Soi l Loss Plots 92 III Calculat ion of Stream Discharge Using Cross-Sect ional A rea and Manning's Formula 93 IV Calculat ions of Theoret ical Fer t i l i ze r Requirements 95 V Results from Germination Experiments on Carex Mertensi i 96 VI Calculat ion of Pr ice for Carex Mertensi i and Number of Seeds per Ki logram 102 VII Raw Data from Vegetation Plots , Percent Ground Cover Per P lot , Average Ground Cover Percentage, and Standard Deviation 103 - X -A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S I wish to thank my thesis supervisor, Dr. Ross Bulley, for continued support throughout this study. Dr. Terry Podmore also provided invaluable support while at the University of Br i t ish Columbia and from Colorado. My special thanks to my wife for putting up with many years of working and thesis wr i t ing. - 1 -1.0 I N T R O D U C T I O N Land development for skiing in sub-alpine areas can lead to major problems in soil erosion. Since most ski areas are situated in areas of steep slopes and high precipi tat ion, heavy runoff is inevitable. With areas stripped of vegetation for ski runs, the runoff can cause severe in te r i l l , r i l l and gully erosion. This eroded soil is transported into surrounding waterways creat ing problems of water pollution due to high sediment levels. T o control erosion the major in i t ia l step is the establishment of vegetation (Errington, 1975). Ski areas however present a unique problem. The land must be revegetated with grasses or legumes or very low growing species of shrubs and herbs. The use of trees and most shrubs is prohibited as they would interfere with ski ing. In order to control erosion, grasses, legumes, or mat forming herbaceous species which can root quickly and provide heavy ground cover to stabi l ize the soil must be found. L i t t l e quantitative information is avai lable dealing with erosion rates, creek sedimenta-tion or revegetation specif ic to ski area development in the sub-alpine areas on the west coast of Br i t i sh Co lumbia (B.C.). Most of the environmental problems associated with extensive earth moving act iv i t ies that could be expected in ski areas occurred and are occurr ing in the development of the Hemlock Val ley ski area. In part icular , these include extensive soil erosion and subsequent increase in sediment discharge into surrounding waterways. Hemlock Val ley Ski A r e a began development in 1969. For the f i rst nine years relat ively l i t t le development took place and environmental concerns were not a major problem. - 2 -Extensive work in new ski l i f ts , subdivisions, condominiums, and recreat ional fac i l i t ies began in 1978. With this development large areas of previously vegetated sidehills were exposed and subject to extensive erosion. The ski development is situated at the headwaters of Sakwi Creek which is a major source of water for the International P a c i f i c Salmon Fisheries Commission's (IPSFC) a r t i f i c i a l spawning channels at Weaver Creek. The lower reaches of Sakwi Creek also support sizeable natural spawning areas. The increase in creek sediment loads due to upstream development at Hemlock Valley became a major concern to the IPSFC , Federal Fisheries and B .C . Ministry of Environment. For the ski operator, control of extensive erosion became necessary, not only to reduce environmental damage, but to reduce severe gullying and r i l l ing on ski runs. Erosion in the form of gully format ion can delay opening of ski runs as the operator waits for suff ic ient snow to f i l l the gull ies. The extensive r i l l ing, gully formation and lack of vegetation also reduces the aesthetics of the area during the summer tourist months. It is ant ic ipated that the results f rom this study can be extrapolated to other ski areas or construction developments taking place in other areas of the sub-alpine mountain hemlock biogeocl imatic zone. The objectives of the study were: a) T o determine the rates of soil erosion and sediment loading in creeks in a sub-alpine ski area during the f i rst two years after cover was removed. - 3 -b) T o determine the abi l i ty of various grasses, legumes and a native sedge, Carex mertensi i , to establish vegetative cover on freshly cleared so i l . c) T o determine effects of varying rates of seed and fe r t i l i ze r on establ ish-ment of ground cover. - 4 -2.0 DESCRIPT ION O F S T U D Y A R E A The Hemlock Val ley ski area is situated in the Douglas Forest , approximately 120 km east of Vancouver (Figure 1). BRITISH Figure //I Location of Hemlock Valley Ski Area. - 5 -2.1 Topography The Hemlock Valley ski area is located in a U-shaped hanging g lac ia l val ley, with a near ver t ica l out fa l l at the entrance. The valley floor is relat ively f la t with an average grade of 3 to 6%. The valley sides rise sharply to ridges with a ver t ica l rise of 300 to 450 metres above the valley f loor. The slopes on these sidehills range from 20 to 80% (Figures 2 and 3). The elevation of the ski area extends from 915 metres to 1400 metres. 2.2 C l i m a t e The c l imate is typ ica l of the coastal mountains of the Vancouver area. Hemlock Valley experiences two types of storms which may have ef fect on erosion in the area: 1. Convect ive storms arising mostly in the summer from ver t ica l thermal s t rat i f icat ion (Dayton and Knight , 1973). 2. F ronta l storms which may occur at any t ime, but most frequently in the f a l l and winter. These storms originate in the P a c i f i c and move eastward through B.C . It is these large frontal storms occuring in the f a l l with high ra infa l l intensit ies that have the potential to cause the most serious erosion problems on newly disturbed areas. The closest weather station at a similar elevation and c l imate is located at Grouse Mountain Ski Resort at an elevation of 1 128 m. Data from Grouse Mountain indicates average daily temperature is 4.6°C with 4 months averaging less than 0°C. Average yearly ra infa l l is 1 773.7 mm and average snowfall 816.5 m m . The maximum recorded 24-hour ra infal l was 148.3 mm and maximum recorded snowfall 55.9 m m . The average number of days with rain is 100 and snowfall 80. (Environment Canada, 1982). Figure 3: Photograph of Hemlock Valley winter conditions. - 7 -Avai lable data from the B.C. Ministry of Environment (1980A), indicates that May to September precipitat ion would be greater than 400 m m . The nearest mapped isocline to the study area is Weaver Lake and it indicates a moisture deficit/surplus ratio of zero. There should, therefore, be no c l imat i c def ic i t and possibly a slight surplus. The area has a freeze free period of less than 140 days and 1000 ef fect ive growing degree days based on the Weaver Lake isocl ine. A n ef fect ive growing degree day is the average accumulated product of growing degree days and a crop development index that adjusts for the ef fect of suboptimal tempera-tures. A growing degree day is a 1°C departure of a daily mean temperature above a 5°C temperature threshold. The crop development index is an empir ica l factor derived from corn and is defined as the ratio of the the shortest t ime of development under opt imal conditions to the sum of the "delays" caused by suboptimal temperature. The period over which ef fect ive growing degree days are accumulated extends from the f irst day of the f i rst yearly occurrence of f ive consecutive days when the mean daily temperature is equal to or greater than 5°C to the last day of the last f ive consecutive days in the same year with a mean daily temperature greater than or equal to 5°C -otherwise referred to as the growing season. (B.C. Ministry of Environment, 1980B) 2.3 Soils Hemlock Valley is situated within the Mountain Hemlock biogeocl imatic zone. The valley contains deep deposits of g lacial t i l l on the lower slopes and valley bottom. Steeper slopes are covered with a veneer of t i l ls and col luv ium. Port ions of the valley bottom contain f luv ia l mater ials deposited by Sakwi Creek. - 8 -Soi l forming processes in this environment have resulted in development of orthic fe r ro -humic podzols. A soil prof i le was described f rom a soil pit dug on October 1, 1983 and is is included in Appendix I. These soils have deep accumulations of organic l i t te r , causing intensive leaching of the mineral soil by organic acids resulting in the development of a thin eluvial (Ae) horizon. A dark reddish B horizon has developed to 1 metre in depth. Below this B weathered horizon is a compacted C horizon. The B horizon is loose and has l i t t l e structure and, therefore, is very susceptible to erosion processes. The part ic le size distr ibution of soil sampled from the soil pit dug on October 1, 1984 at Hemlock Val ley is as fol lows: The Bhf horizon is 56 .9% sand, 2 9 . 3 % si l t , and 13.8% clay; the B C horizon is 70 .7% sand, 17.1% si l t , and 12.2% c lay . The texture of the local g lac ia l t i l l is therefore a sandy loam. 2.4 Vegetation The area lies in the Mountain Hemlock biogeocl imatic zone (Karj ina, 1965). The forest consist of Abies amabi l is , (Balsam fir) , Tsuga mertensiana (mountain hemlock), and Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (yellow cedar). The area has been extensively logged and was slash burned tw ice with no reforestat ion. There has been l i t t l e natural regenera-t ion of conifers and most of the area is covered by a shrub community with Vaccinium  membranceum (Blackmountain huckleberry) as the dominant species. The lower sections of the valley are in the forested subzone of the Mountain Hemlock biogeocl imatic zone. The dominance of Vaccinium membranaceum concurs wi th descriptions by Brooke et al (1970). The upper slopes are in the Parkland Subzone with - 9 -a corresponding change in vegetation. This area is typi f ied by heath- l ike , low shrub vegetation as described by Brooke et al (1970) and K l i n k a et al (1979). This community consists of stunted Tsuga mertensiana with Phyl lodoce empetr i formis, Cassiope mer ten - siana, Rhododendron albif lorum and Vaccinium membranaceum. - 10 -3.0 L I T E R A T U R E REVIEW 3.1 Soi l Erosion Two major types of soil erosion have been defined. These are geological erosion and accelerated erosion. The latter is considered as soil loss in excess of geological erosion (Schwab et a l , 1966). In terms of soil conservation act iv i t ies , only accelerated erosion is considered an important process as geological erosion is not greatly af fected by man's act iv i t ies . In this study of coastal subalpine areas, only soil erosion by water was considered. The processes of soil erosion by water, whether geological or accelerated, are control led by the same fundamental principles. Soi l erosion at the fundamental level consists of three sequential stages, as defined by Novak and vanVliet (1983): "The detachment stage consists of a set of physical processes that result in the entrainment of either soil part ic les or aggregates by the transporting f lu id . In the transport stage the entrained soil is moved along the soil surface by the f lu id . Deposit ion of the entrained soil w i l l take place when the f low is slowed for some reason. This may occur relat ively close to the point of detachment, in which case signif icant erosion of a given s i te w i l l then require many repetitions of the process both temporally and spatial ly ." This process is shown schematical ly in F igure 4. - 1 1 -Erosion Process Factors of Greatest Importance in the Erosion Process E X P O S U R E OF S U R F A C E TO R A I N F A L L I M P A C T i S U R F A C E P R E P A R A T I O N -A G G R E G A T E B R E A K D O W N / S M O O T H I N G / C R U S T I N G I S P L A S H E R O S I O N -T R A N S P O R T -L I M I T E D S U R F A C E P O N D I N G B E G I N S - D U N N E OR H O R T O N I A N i T O P O G R A P H Y C H A N N E L S S U R F A C E FLOW i E N T R A I N M E N T OF S O I L P A R T I C L E S OR A G G R E G A T E S -R I L L D E V E L O P M E N T I T R A N S P O R T OF S O I L D O W N S L O P E I N R I L L S B Y S U S P E N S I O N , S A L T A T I O N / C R E E P " D E T A C H M E N T - L I M I T E D C R O P C O V E R T I L L A G E M A N A G E M E N T K I N E T I C E N E R G Y OF R A I N S O I L T E X T U R E AND S T R U C T U R E O R G A N I C M A T T E R S L O P E R A I N F A L L R A T E S O I L I N F I L T R A B I L I T Y D R A I N A G E P R O F I L E D E P T H S U R F A C E R O U G H N E S S CONTOUR T I L L A G E V E G E T A T I O N COVER S O I L T E X T U R E AND S T R U C T U R E V E G E T A T I V E ROOTS O V E R L A N D FLOW V E L O C I T Y T U R B U L E N C E S L O P E S L O P E L E N G T H R A I N S P L A S H T U R B U L E N C E S O I L T E X T U R E AND S T R U C T U R E R A I N F A L L R A T E D E P O S I T I O N OF S O R T E D M A T E R I A L IN F I E L D / L O S S TO M A I N S T R E A M T O P O G R A P H Y S O I L T E X T U R E AND V E G E T A T I V E C O V E R S T R U C T U R E Figure 4 Schematic Diagram of Surface Water Erosion S o u r c e : N o v a k a n d v a n V l i e t , 1 9 8 3 - 12 -The major factors af fect ing erosion by water are: c l imate , topography, so i l , and vegetation (Brink, 1964). The c l imat ic factors involved in soil erosion are precipi tat ion, temperature, wind, humidity and solar radiation (Schwab et a l , 1966). The soil factors af fect ing erosion are the physical properties which af fect in f i l t rat ion capacity and the abi l i ty of the soil to be dispersed and transported. These properties are: soil structure, texture, organic matter , moisture content, density and chemical and biological charac -ter ist ics (Schwab et a l , 1966). Topographic factors a f fect ing erosion are, therefore, slope, length of slope and shape of the watershed. Vegetation af fects erosion in the fol lowing ways (Schwab et a l , 1964; Meiman, 1974; and Peterson, 1964): a) interception of ra infal l by absorbing energy of the raindrops and thus dissipating energy before i t can destroy soil structure; b) retardation of erosion by decreased surface velocity ; c) physical restraint of soil movement - i.e. the roots of the plants provide direct stabi l izat ion by binding the soil together; d) improvement of aggregation and porosity of the soil by roots and plant residue; e) increased biological act iv i ty in the soil increasing soil aggregation; and f) transpiration which decreases soil moisture, resulting in increased storage capaci ty . The major processes of water erosion can be divided into raindrop, in te r i l l , r i l l , gully and stream channel erosion (Schwab et a l , 1964). - 13 -Raindrop erosion or splash erosion is the in i t ia l step in the erosion process. With rainsplash soil part ic les are detached and in i t ia l movement takes place. The amount of soil detached and moved is a function of ra infa l l momentum and energy, soil character ist ics and slope of the land. Sheet or in ter i l l erosion in the ideal ized form is the uniform removal of soil across a slope. Novak and van V l iet (1983) state that " in ter i l l erosion rates are low compared with r i l l erosion and are generally assumed to be transport l imi ted . However since the in ter i l l eroded soil is carr ied into the high transport capacity r i l l f low, signif icant erosion can take place even after r i l l enlargement has ceased." R i l l erosion is the process of soil removed by water f rom smal l but wel l defined channels when there is a concentration of overland f low (Schwab et a l , 1966). It is in the form of r i l l erosion that the most serious soil losses usually take place. In r i l l erosion soil detachabi l i ty and transportabil i ty are high due to higher runoff velocit ies and greater turbulence than could occur in sheet erosion. Gul ly erosion produces channels larger than r i l ls . These channels carry water during and immediately after rains, and as distinguished from r i l l s , gull ies cannot be obl i terated by t i l lage. Thus, gully erosion is an advanced stage of r i l l erosion (Schawb et a l , 1966). 3.1.1 Measuring Soil Erosion Losses T o determine if a signif icant amount of soil loss is taking place, a method of quantifying the soil loss must be used. In agr icultural research and in some roadside research the standard method of measuring soil loss is the use of sediment traps, or - 1 4 -runoff co l lect ion systems. These systems col lect a l l the runoff f rom a given area. The average sediment loading in the trap is measured in mg 1 - 1 as wel l as the volume of the trap. From this, tota l soil loss from the area can be calculated. Other techniques which do not depend on direct entrapment of runoff have also been developed. These techniques are based on measurement of changes in soil elevation giving a depth of soil loss. Several of these techniques are described below. Henry et al (1980) developed a device which automatical ly traces the soil surface. It consists of a rectangular f rame on which is mounted a carriage carry ing a probe. The probe automatical ly moves up and down in response to change in surface heights as it is carr ied horizontal ly across the slope and up the slope. The elevations and horizontal locations are then automatical ly printed on paper tape. Haig (1978) describes a s imple method which consists of placing a series of meta l pins in the ground and then measuring elevation changes relat ive to the pin heads. To get accurate measurements a large number of pins are needed, plus the pins tend to trap sediment from above thus causing inaccuracies in the measurements. Dyrness (1975) used a method of attaching wires to permanent locations then stringing the wire across the slope. Soi l elevations were measured by a micrometer f rom the wires. This method was reported as working quite wel l , except that it needs permanent anchoring points for the wires at appropriate locations. The device used in the Hemlock Val ley experiments was based on the Palouse r i l l meter developed by M c C o o l et a l , 1976. This device measures changes in soil surface prof i le across the slope by means of a series of pins attached to a portable f rame. This device - 15 -has the advantage of reasonable accuracy due to the number of sampling pins, is portable and can be used on steep slopes. It is described in more detai l in Chapter 4. A l l methods used for estimating soil loss by changes in soil elevation suffer some inherent accuracy problems. Soil bulk densities must be used in conjunction with elevation changes to calculate soil loss on a weight basis. One must, therefore, assume that bulk density remains constant. Foster et al (1977) found, however, that the average primary part ic le size of eroded in ter i l l sediment tends to be smaller than the original soil mass, therefore, bulk densities could f luctuate. These changes in bulk density would result in an error in calculat ion of soil volume lost. Changes in soil surface prof i le can also be caused by other mechanisms than erosion, such as frost heaving, wett ing and drying, or heating and cooling (Haig, 1978). Though the above-mentioned problems are inherent in soil surface prof i le devices, it is fe l t that under mountainous conditions with l imi ted access the use of elevation or prof i le devices for est imating soil losses is useful and reasonably accurate. These prof i le measuring devices have been used extensively in the Palouse area of Washington State for measuring soil loss on cult ivated f ields. It has also been used in an attempt to gain relevant soil loss information to apply the universal soil loss equation to the P a c i f i c Northwest (McCool et a l , 1981; M c C o o l et a l , 1976; Car r , 1977). Car r and Bal lard (1980) used a prof i le measuring device to quantify soil loss on hydroseeded and non-hydroseeded plots along logging roads on Vancouver Island. Dyrness (1975) used prof i le measurements to quantify soil loss along the logging roads in western Oregon. Soi l prof i le measuring devices have also been used successfully to measure wind erosion (Malakouti et a l , 1978) and measuring snow dr i f t ing (Chacho and Molnau, 1980). - 16 -3.1.2 Contro l l ing Soil Erosion The easiest solution to soil erosion problems in mountainous areas is usually through the use of vegetation management techniques. Vegetation cover provides resistance to overland f low because of its drag and reduces f low velocit ies thus inhibit ing r i l l development (Novak and van V l iet , 1983). With Steep rocky sidehil ls, topographic manipulation such as terracing is impossible or at least very costly . C l i m a t e cannot be control led and soils can only be ameliorated over long periods of t ime , or at high cost. Thus vegetation is the only factor that can be changed with immediate results in erosion contro l . The Universal Soi l Loss Equation shown below (Wischmeir and Smith , 1965) is used as a model to ref lect most important factors of the soil loss process. It is apparent that the cropping management or vegetation factor is indeed the only easily control led factor . The Universal Soi l Loss Equations is usually wr i t ten as: A = R K L S C P Where: A = soil loss per unit area (t/ha) R = the rainfal l factor which is the number of erosion index units in a normal year K = soil erodibi l i ty factor (t/ha) L = slope length factor S = slope gradient factor C = cropping management factor P = erosion control pract ice factor - 17 -Under steep slope conditions the slope length and gradient factors are f ixed, R is f ixed leaving the cropping management factor C and erosion control pract ice factor P the only items which can, under normal conditions, be changed to a large enough degree to have an impact on erosion. The P factor (erosion control pract ice factor , or conservation pract ice factor) includes such management techniques as cross-slope farming, strip cropping, terracing, mulching, and contour plowing. This erosion control pract ice factor is generally related to agriculture conditions (Farmer and F letcher , 1976) and with the exception of mulching is d i f f i cu l t to control or apply under steep slope conditions. This leaves the cropping management or vegetation factor C as the single most useful i tem which can be manipulated to reduce the soil loss per unit area on ski slopes. It has been demonstrated that ground cover has a dramatic e f fec t on sediment yield (Dunne and Leopold, 1978). Though this work was carr ied out in the mid-western United States under di f ferent c l i m a t i c , topographic and soil conditions than the Hemlock Valley s i te, it shows the magnitude of soil loss increase for d i f ferent ground covers. The fol lowing summarizes the results from Dunne and Leopold (1978): Site Condition Sediment Yield (tonnes/ha) Woods 0.00 Grass 0.04 Corn 73.20 Fal low 69.00 Studies done by Copeland (1969) in Utah, Idaho and Montana showed that the density of the vegetative cover (live plant and l i t ter cover) was the most important factor af fect ing erosion. This one variable accounted for 52 to 80% of the explained variance - 18 -in soil erosion. Baver (1959) states that good grass sod l imi ts soil loss to less than 1 ton per acre (2.24 tonnes per hectare) on soil ranging from highly permeable Marshal l si lt loam to fa i r ly impermeable Shelly loams, on slopes varying f rom 4 to 3 0 % . A study of Ca l i fo rn ia watersheds reported by Anderson (1971) est imated the fol lowing increase in sediment production associated with modif icat ion of the forest land use: Conversion of 14.8% of steep forested watershed lands to grasslands mult ip l ied sediment by 4.7. F i r e in last 10 years on 8 3 % of watershed areas mult ip l ied sediment by 23. Poor logging in 1.4% of the area increased sediment by 2 9 % . Conversion of 0 .6% of watershed area into low standard roads increased sediment by 2 6 % . T o be ef fect ive in control l ing erosion, vegetation must be quickly established after the soil disturbance. Studies have shown that maximum erosion takes place during the f i rst rainstorms after construct ion. Fredr icksen (1965) reported that the f i rs t rainstorms after road construction resulted in an increase in sediment load of 230 t imes. A f t e r two months, sediment loads during rainfal ls returned to near preconstruction levels. In hydroseeding experiments carr ied out on Vancouver Island (Carr and Ba l la rd , 1980), i t was found that untreated plots had an average change in soil elevation of 2.3 cm per plot over 7 months, whereas on slopes that were hydroseeded erosion was ef fect ive ly control led. The establishment of vegetation was found to trap many of the soil - 19 -particles carr ied from up slope. Dyrness (1975) found that long-term erosion on unvegetated roadsides in Oregon averaged 5 mm of soil loss per year. 3.1.3 E f fec ts of Sediments on Fisheries Resources Under conditions of high suspended solids in the creeks, downstream fisheries can be severely a f fected . The detr imental effects are both from deposition of part ic les on top of spawning beds and a direct effect of the solids in suspension upon f ish . Phi l l ips (1970) summarized the influence of sediment on f ish in the fol lowing ways: Reduct ion of the transmission of l ight, reducing algae production. Damage to g i l l membranes, causing death where concentrations are high and exposure is prolonged. When sediment settles on spawning beds, it is harmful in the fol lowing ways: . It f i l l s the interstices reducing interchange between surface waters and waters within the ground leve l . This reduces the supply of dissolved oxygen to the egg and interferes with the removal of metabolites (carbon dioxide and ammonia). . Sediment also forms a barrier to fry emergence by blocking the route of egress. . Low dissolved oxygen and the physical barrier ef fect of sediment appear to be addit ive in reducing survival . - 20 -. Survival af ter fry emergence is impaired because of a loss of escape cover and a reduction of aquatic organisms that are food for f ish . H a l l and Lantz (1969) have determined that the percentage survival of coho and steelhead during early growth is a function of the percentage of f ine sediments in the spawning beds. They concluded that the effects of sediments in spawning beds are deleterious to the survival of the f ish and it would seem that the most c r i t i c a l effects take place during development of the egg and emergence of the fry . Noggle (1978) showed that there is a steady decl ine in the abi l i ty of coho smelts to feed as sediment concentrations increase. F rom a maximum feeding in clear water, feeding decreases to zero at approximately 300 mg 1 _ 1 of suspended solids. A l lowable sediment concentrations under hatchery conditions are suggested at 3 mg 1~1 for incubation and 25 mg 1~1 for holding and rearing (Sigma Resources Consultants L t d . , 1979). H a l l and Lantz (1969) showed that as the percentage of f ine sediments increases there is a decrease in percentage survival to emergence and a decrease in abi l i ty to emerge from the gravel beds. Phi l l ips (1970) concludes that deposition of sediment onto gravel spawning beds is a major factor in the decrease of f ish populations. Not only does sediment decrease emergence and inhibit feeding, but i t also reduces the habitat avai lable for overwintering protection. Bustard (1974) found that during overwintering, juvenile coho and cutthroat trout preferred clean rubble to rubble f i l l ed with f ines. It seems that the substrate must have adequate interstices to provide suitable cover. 3.2 Rec lamat ion Research Rec lamat ion and revegetation of disturbed lands has taken place with varying degrees of success in western North A m e r i c a . The majority of research and pract ica l - 21 -applications have been related to major resource developments, part icular ly mining and forestry. A l imi ted degree of revegetation work has been carr ied out in ski areas in western Canada and the United States. Dyrness (1975) found that on road backslopes in Oregon, that applications of grass-legume seed, fe r t i l i ze r and straw mulch for the most part successfully halted erosion. Dyrness also found that the appl ication of a mulch was necessary to reduce erosion during the f i rst year after construction. If mulch was not applied the vegetation cover was not suff ic ient to reduce erosion during the f i rst growing season. Hydroseeding on forestry roadsides on Vancouver Island proved successful in s igni f icant -ly reducing erosion as compared to non-revegetated plots (Carr and Bal lard , 1980). Grasses and legumes that proved most successful were: annual ryegrass, perennial ryegrass, sheeps fescue and red fescue, orchard grass and white c lover . Rec lamat ion research carr ied out at the K i tsaul t molybdenum mine north of P r ince Rupert , B .C . on broken rock indicated the fol lowing species mixes provided a fu l l grass cover and buildup of organic matter (Thirgood, 1975): Mix / / l sown at 71 lbs/1000 f t 2 (32.2 kg/93m 2 ) : 3 0 % perennial rye grass 2 0 % creeping red fescue 2 0 % chewings fescue 2 0 % pod tr ival is 5 % red top 5 % white dutch clover - 22 -Mix #3 sown at 100 lbs acre-1 (112 kg ha-1) 20% double cut red clover 18% alsike clover 15% New Zealand perennial rye grass 10% c l imax timothy 5 % H L rye grass 10% ta l l fescue 5 % red top 12% U.S. perennial ryegrass 5 % New Zealand wild white clover Mix //5 (seed application rate not specified): 50% sainfoin 5 0 % birdsfoot t refo i l A l l mixtures had fer t i l i ze r (13-16-10) applied at 500 lbs per acre (561 kg ha~l). Extensive research has been carr ied out at subalpine and alpine areas in Colorado including work at Steamboat and Winter Park ski areas. Although these areas are drier than coastal subalpine and alpine areas, the species that performed wel l do exhibit hardiness needed to adapt in many areas of severe c l imate . Species that performed best were: thickspike wheatgrass, crested wheatgrass, meadow fox ta i l , smooth brome, orchard grass, red canary grass, t imothy, hard fescue, creeping red fescue, chewings fescue, Canada bluegrass and Kentucky bluegrass (Kenny and Cuany, 1978). Legumes which produced highest cover values were: crown vetch, a l f a l f a , yellow sweet clover and white c lover . Of a l l the species listed above, only hard fescue, Canada bluegrass and meadow foxta i l consistently produced seed. A l l legumes proved hard to establish - 23 -and none produced seed. The inabi l i ty of most agronomic grass and legume species to produce seed indicates that continual reseeding would be necessary to maintain suff ic ient ground cover to control erosion. Berg (1974) provides the fol lowing l ist of agronomic species that have given varying degrees of success in revegetation in subalpine environments: a) Species which usually establish wel l and have proven to be persistent in the subalpine: . Alopecurus praetensis (meadow foxtail ) . Alopecurus arundinaceus (creeping foxtail ) . Bromus inermis (smooth brome var. manchar) b) Species which establish wel l but are not persistent: . Phleum praetense (timothy) . Agropyron trachycaulum (slender wheat grass) . Festuca arundinacea (tall f escue) . Dacty l i s glomerata (orchard grass) . L olium perenne (rye grass) c) Species which show promise under certa in conditions: . Festuca rubra (red fescue) . Festuca rubra var commutata (chewings fescue) . Poe praetensis (Kentucky bluegrass) . Poa compressa (Canada bluegrass) -2k-d) Species that may have a special use (not good for higher subalpine): . Festuca ovina var duriuscula (hard fescue) . Bromus marginatus (mountain brome) . Phalar is arundinacea (red canary grass) . Agropyron intermedium (intermediate wheatgrass) . Agropyron trichophorum (pubescent wheatgrass) . Agropyron r iparium (streambrook wheatgrass) . Agropyron smithi i (western wheatgrass) e) Legumes (many cannot l ive in upper subalpine. Innoculation with proper Rhizobium for the species is mandatory): . M edicago sativa (alfalfa) . Tr i f olium repens (white clover) . Astrayalus c icer (cicer milkvetch) . Lotus corniculatus (birdsfoot trefoi l ) . Coron i l la var ia (crown vetch) . Tr i f olium praetense (red clover) . Tr i f olium hybridum (alsike clover) For reclamation of subalpine areas in Br i t ish Columbia , McDonald and Dick (1974) recommend the fol lowing species mix: pubescent wheatgrass, 15%; meadow fox ta i l , 2 0 % ; crested wheatgrass, 15%; smooth brome, 15%; hard fescue, 10%; ta l l wheatgrass, 10%; and boreal creeping red fescue, 10%. They also suggest seeding rates of not less than 20 lbs a c r e " 1 (22.4 kg ha" 1 ) and a fe r t i l i ze r application of 20-24-15 of not less than 150 lbs a c r e " 1 (168 kg h a " 1 ) . - 25 -Revegetat ion tr ials carr ied out by Err ington (1978) in the Peace R i ve r , B .C . coal block found major problems in revegetating with agronomic species above the t ree l ine. In part icular , it was found that legume growth was poor on even the most favourable sites. In a l l cases appl icat ion of fe r t i l i zer was required for successful survival of grass species. Grass species that performed best under alpine conditions are l isted in descending order of performance: creeping red fescue, c l imax t imothy, t racenta bentgrass, meadow fox ta i l and Kentucky bluegrass. Err ington (1978) also showed that ground cover continued to increase with seed application rates. Appl icat ion of 25 lbs a c r e - ! (28 kg ha~l) provided 18% ground cover. Maximum ground cover of 7 3 % was obtained at the highest t r ia l appl icat ion rate of 400 lbs a c r e - 1 (448 kg h a " 1 ) . These experiments also indicated that spring seeding was preferable to fa l l seeding. Appl icat ion in the spring of 65 lbs a c r e " ! (73 kg h a _ l ) produced ground cover of 3 5 % , compared to a fa l l appl icat ion of 100 lb a c r e " ! (112 kg h a _ l ) to obtain the same results. The use of native plants indigenous to areas to be reclaimed overcomes many of the problems of producing a self -sustaining ground cover. Kenny and Cuany (1978) l ist numerous species suitable for reclamation purposes in alpine areas. These species include the native grasses in the fol lowing genus: Agropyron, Calamagrost is , Des - champsia, Fes tuca , Phleum, Poa and Tr isteum; native sedges of Carex and Kobresia ; and f orbes including Dryas, Geum, Potent i l la , Rubus, Sibbaldai and Rosa . Work carr ied out on Vancouver Island showed excel lent survival of Mahonia nervosa, Gaul ther ia shall on, Alnus sp. and Vaccinium membranaceum on acid producing mine waste rock (McTavish and 3ones, 1983). Extensive work has taken place in northern - 26 -A lber ta on tar sand tail ings and overburden with native species giving very good results. Best performing native species in terms of percent survival are: Pinus banksiana, P icea glauca, Sheperdia canadensis, Cornus stolenifera, Rosa acicular is , Potent i l la f rut icosa, and Prunus virginiana (McTavish and Shopick, 1983). - 27 -4.0 METHODS A N D M A T E R I A L S 4.1 Quanti f icat ion of Soi l Loss on Unvegetated Slopes To quantify the loss of soil on the steep unvegetated slopes at Hemlock Val ley, a r i l l meter as discussed in Section 3.1.1 and designed by M c C o o l et a l (1981) was used. The r i l l meter consisted of 145 ver t ica l pins supported by an aluminum frame (Figure 5). Bubble levels on the f rame were used to level the meter along and across the slope. When level , the pins (Figure 6) were dropped to the ground and a photograph taken using a wide angle lens. To insure consistency the left leg was set at a predetermined mark and the meter was levelled across slope made by adjustment to the right leg. This process was carr ied out on December 1, 1980 and October 15, 1982 to give an approximate two-year soil loss f igure. The plots for obtaining measurements of soil loss were established on a south-west facing slope of 2 3 % that had been completely cleared of vegetation, but with the topsoil layer remaining. The soil loss sampling area was 670 m^ on which two permanent sampling points were located on each of four sub-plots. Each plot was 19 m by 1.9 m. The sampling points were established by placing 30 cm steel pegs into the ground at 9 -metre intervals on which the legs of the r i l l meter are seated. The area chosen was a typ ica l 2 2 % uniform slope for most of the ski area. The area had been recently c leared of a l l vegetation but not reseeded. The plots were cleared in August, 1980 and the f i rst erosion measurement were taken in December. The volume of soil loss is calculated by determining the change in elevation from the d i f ferent ia l pin positions on two successive dates. This gives a measurement of the - 28 -change in the soil depth. By calculat ing soil bulk densities and mult ip ly ing these by the soil volume soil loss, the mass loss in kg h a _ l can be determined (see Appendix II). F ive soil samples were taken from each site. The ar i thmet ic mean bulk density was used for calculat ing soil loss. The volume of each soil sample was determined by excavating the soil to a depth of 10 c m , sealing the bottom and sides of the hole with plastic then measuring the volume by addition of water to the excavated hole. Soi l samples were returned to the laboratory and dried in a 105° oven for 24 hours and dry weights calculated (U .B .C . Pedology Laboratory Methods Manual, 1981). Dry weight by sample volume gives the bulk density in g c m _ 3 f 0 r each sample. - 29 -Figure 6: R i l l meter with pins dropped showing soi l prof i le . - 30 -4.2 Analysis of R i l l Meter Photographs To determine changes in depth of the soil prof i le , photographs were used as follows (Figure 6): a) Slides were projected onto a plain white paper giving a one-quarter scale projection. b) A trace was made across each pin head with ver t i ca l side lines delineating the plot sides. A horizontal area was measured by planimetering the area between the pin head trace, the ver t ica l side lines, and horizontal top line (Figure 7). c) This process was repeated after a set period of t ime and then the area change between the two traces was calculated. - 31 -Figure 7 Example of Method Used for Calculating Area of Soil Loss From Soil Profiles A Original ground profile (at head of pins) B Profile of ground 4 months after clearing (at head of pins) C Profile of ground 26 months after clearing (at head of pins) Area between Line A and B gives area of soil loss in cm 2 over first 4 months. Area between Line B and C represents area of soil loss between December 1, 1980 and October 15,1982. - 32 -d) Two profi le measurements per plot were taken and the ar i thmet ic mean of the planimetered soil loss area was calculated. e) The soil loss area at a cross-section was mult ipl ied by the plot length and the average bulk density to give soil loss in kg ha~ l . To calculate the soil loss during the in i t ia l four months (before the r i l l meter was built) the original contour had to be reconstructed. Since the ground was originally level this was done by assuming the original contour followed the tops of the r i l ls . This original contour was then traced and area calculated as described above. 4.2 Analysis for Suspended Sediments and Tubidity A water sampling point was located on the main stem of Sakwi Creek at a point where a l l runoff from the Hemlock Valley watershed could be sampled (see Figure 8). Water samples were col lected on a daily basis and analyzed for suspended solids and turbidity from August 1st to September 19th. Suspended solids were determined according to standard methods (American Publ ic Health Associat ion, 1971). Turbidity was determined by use of a Fisher DRT 100 turbidity meter. Precip i tat ion data for comparison with suspended solids and turbidity was col lected using a 24-hour rain gauge. This instrument was part of a forestry weather station located behind the Hemlock Valley lodge at an elevation of 950 metres. In August, 1980, a tipping bucket rain gauge was installed at the same location to measure rainfal l intensities (see Figure 8 for exact location). - 33 -Figure 8 Locat ion of Vegetation Plots , Weather Stat ion and Sampling Site - 34 -Turbidity and suspended solids concentrations were graphically compared to p rec ip i ta -tion data to determine if a correlat ion exists between increased precipitat ion and suspended sediment loading or turbidity in the creek. 4.3 Re-vegetat ion Tr ials 4.3.1 Design and Layout To determine which grass and legume species had the greatest potential to provide adequate ground cover, a set of experimental tr ials were established. Two representa-t ive sites were selected. Site 1, the Skyline site, was located on a southwest exposure in a recently cleared area with the organic layer (LFH) s t i l l intact . The skyline site was at 1 100 metres elevation and cooler, moister and with longer snow retention than Site 2. Site 2, the Sasquatch site, was on a wel l -drained southern exposure, at an elevation of 975 metres. A l l the topsoil had eroded and only the subsoil (glacial t i l l ) remained. Snow melts approximately 3 weeks earl ier than site 1 and consequently was much drier. On each site, 1 m 2 plot sizes were completely randomized with 1 repl icate each to test seeding and fe r t i l i ze r rates. Twenty-one agronomic grasses and legumes were tested at seed rates of 50 and 100 kg h a " 1 and fe r t i l i ze r (12-20-20) rates of 150 and 300 kg h a - 1 . The species used are l isted in Table 1. - 35 -T A B L E 1 AGRONOMIC GRASSES AND LEGUMES USED IN THE HEMLOCK VALLEY EXPERIMENTS Common Name Botanical Name Penncross creeping bentgrass Agrost is palustris Redtop bentgrass Agrost is alba Reed canary grass Phalaris arundinacea Hard fescue Festuca ovina duriuscula Red fescue Festuca rubra Meadow foxta i l Alopecurus pratensis Orchardgrass Dacty l is glomerata Perennial ryegrass Lol ium perenne Tetraploid perennial ryegrass Lol ium perenne Timoth Phleum pratense Canada bluegrass Poa compressa Kentucky bluegrass Poa pratensis Bluegrass Poa palustris Annual rye Lol ium mult i f lorum Slender wheatgrass Agropyron trachycaulum Pubescent wheatgrass Agropyron trichophorum Crested wheatgrass Agropyron cr istatum A l f a l f a Medicago sativa Birdsfoot t re fo i l Lotus corniculatus Red clover Tr i fo l ium pratense White clover Tr i fo l ium repens - 36 -Figure 9 One metre square plots used for measuring percentage ground cover to determine individual species abi l i ty to germinate and grow. - 37 -Fer t i l i ze r rates were based on analysis of soil samples co l lected from 11 sites throughout the area. These were col lected by excavating soil to 15 cm from ten plots in each site then mixing the soil and extract ing single 500 gm samples from the mix . This was repeated at a l l 11 sites. These were sent to the B .C . Ministry of Agr icu l ture and Food ( B C M A F ) for available nutrient analysis and fe r t i l i ze r recommendations. Based on the available nutrients, the B C M A F produced a set of recommended fer t i l i zer rates needed to produce an agricultural ly acceptable pasture crop. These rates were modif ied to take into account the inabil i ty to spread fer t i l i zer by mechanical means other than hand cyclone seeders or by hel icopter, and the desire to produce adequate ground cover but not an agr icultural crop. Based on these factors , fe r t i l i ze r rates were used as described in Section 5.3. F ie ld tr ials were also carr ied out on a native sedge, Carex mertensi i . The site was situated on a windy, wel l drained, southern exposure. A l l topsoil had previously eroded and only g lac ia l t i l l remained. Elevat ion was 1 220 metres (Figure 8). These tr ials were set up on a site on which previous hydroseeding had taken place using the fol lowing mix : fe r t i l i ze r : 300 kg h a " 1 , 12-20-20 seed: - 50 kg h a - 1 , annual ryegrass - 100 kg h a - 1 , 40% creeping red fescue, 10% perennial ryegrass, 20% Canada bluegrass, 10% orchard grass, 10% timothy and 10% white clover mulch : 1 000 kg h a - ^ , woodfibre mulch This hydroseeding treatment had resulted in less than 5 % ground cover as determined by occular est imation. - 3 8 -The Carex tr ials were completely randomized with one repl ication of each treatment. Treatments included seeding rates of 50, 100 and 200 kg ha-1 and 12-20-20 fe r t i l i ze r applied at rates of 0, 150, 300 and 600 kg h a - 1 . Seed and fe r t i l i ze r were measured individually on a Mett ler precision balance and packaged in labelled envelopes. In June, 1979, the seed and fe r t i l i ze r were careful ly applied to each plot (1 m^) during calm weather then immediately raked into the ground. The agronomic vegetation plots were analyzed twice for percentage ground cover (as outlined below) in October, 1979 and again in June, 1980. The Carex was measured only once in the f ie ld in October, 1979 due to destruction of the plot by a bulldozer in the spring of 1980. 4.3.2 Determinat ion of Ground Cover A l l plots were photographed from a height of 2 m using a wide angle lens from as near a ver t ica l position over the centre of the plot as possible. These slides, for example, (Figure 9) were then projected onto white paper where the area of ground cover was then traced. This trace was then overlaid with a 5 mm metr ic grid and percent area of ground cover calculated by counting of squares. 4.4 Seed Germination Experiments on Carex mertensi i The acceptable germination rate for agronomic species is greater than 9 0 % , (per C A . Richardson, R ichard Seed Co.) but l i t t le is known about the germination character ist ics of Carex mertensi i . A series of germination tests were in i t iated to determine - 39 -germination capabi l i ty of the seed. These tests were carr ied out fol lowing standard testing methodology described by the Associat ion of O f f i c i a l Seed Analysts (1970). The seed was co l lected in August and September of 1978 at Hemlock Val ley, dried and stored in paper bags at room temperature for seeding the fol lowing spring. Germination tr ials were carr ied out in A p r i l , 1979. Germination tr ials were done in temperature and l ight -control led germination chambers. Photoperiod and temperatures were set as described in Table II. Seeds were considered germinated if the radicals had emerged, within 19 days. -RO-TABLE II SEED GERMINATION TRIALS FOR CAREX MERTENSII Day Night Length Temperature Length Temperat Treatment Wings (hours) (degrees C) (hours) (degrees top of moist blotters off 12 25 12 15 on 12 25 12 15 on 12 20 12 20 on 12 30 12 20 seed on top of blotters off 12 25 12 15 in 0 .2% k N 0 3 on 12 25 12 15 on 12 20 12 20 on 12 30 12 20 seed between moist off 12 25 12 15 blotters in tins on 12 25 12 15 no light on 12 20 12 20 on 12 30 12 20 seed on top of off 12 25 12 15 moist sand on 12 25 12 15 on 12 20 12 20 on 12 30 12 20 seed prechil led at 2°C off 12 25 12 15 for 5 days then on top on 12 25 12 15 of moist blotters on 12 20 12 20 on 12 30 12 20 seed prechil led at 2°C off 12 25 12 15 for 5 days then on top on 12 25 12 15 of moist sand on 12 20 12 20 on 12 30 12 20 - 41 -5.0 R E S U L T S A N D DISCUSSION 5.1 E f fec ts of Prec ip i tat ion and Suspended Sediments on Waterways E f fec ts of precipitat ion and subsequent increases in suspended sediments on waterways are shown in Figure 10 and Table III. The f i rst recorded ra infa l l occurred on August 10 (0.65 mm) fol lowed on August 11 with 0.60 mm and 33 mm on August 13. This corresponded to suspended solids concentrations (sediments) in Sakwi Creek of 545, 558, 571 mg 1_1 on August 11, 12 and 13th. The high suspended solids on August 11 with only 0.60 mm of rain is due to t ime lag in sampling. Precip i tat ion was measured at 9:00 a.m. and suspended solids at 2:00 p.m. Heavy ra infa l l had taken place between these t imes. On September 1 and 2, ra infa l l was 31 mm each day. This corresponded to suspended solids in the creek of 245 and 344 mg l~K Removing the high suspended solids levels corresponding to ra infal l events, the average background sediment levels are 3.19 mg 1"1. Thus the high suspended solid levels on August 11, 12, and 13 and September 1 and 2 corresponded to ra infa l l events represent an increase of 171, 175, 179, 77, and 108 times increase over the normal background levels. Turbidity levels increased similar to suspended solids with increased precipitat ion. The correlation coef f ic ient between the two is .94, thus for f ie ld samples turbidity could be used as a rapid f ie ld analysis. This data on suspended sediment increases is in agreement with previous reports showing that highest sediment loading occurred during in i t ia l storm events in the f i rst two months after disturbance (Fredricksen, 1965). In that study the f i rst storm after road construction increased sediment concentration 250 - 41 -5.0 R E S U L T S A N D DISCUSSION 5.1 E f fec ts of Prec ip i tat ion and Suspended Sediments on Waterways E f fec ts of precipitat ion and subsequent increases in suspended sediments on waterways are shown in Figure 10 and Table III. The f i rst recorded rainfal l occurred on August 10 (0.65 mm) fol lowed on August 11 with 0.60 mm and 33 mm on August 13. This corresponded to suspended solids concentrations (sediments) in Sakwi Creek of 545, 558, 571 mg 1-1 on August 11, 12 and 13th. The high suspended solids on August 11 with only 0.60 mm of rain is due to t ime lag in sampling. Prec ip i tat ion was measured at 9:00 a.m. and suspended solids at 2:00 p.m. Heavy ra infa l l had taken place between these t imes. On September 1 and 2, ra infa l l was 31 mm each day. This corresponded to suspended solids in the creek of 245 and 344 mg 1-1. Removing the high suspended solids levels corresponding to ra infal l events, the average background sediment levels are 3.19 mg 1-1. Thus the high suspended solid levels on August 11, 12, and 13 and September 1 and 2 corresponded to ra infa l l events represent an increase of 171, 175, 179, 77, and 108 times increase over the normal background levels. Turbidity levels increased similar to suspended solids with increased precipi tat ion. The correlat ion coef f i c ient between the two is .94, thus for f ield samples turbidity could be used as a rapid f ie ld analysis. This data on suspended sediment increases is in agreement with previous reports showing that highest sediment loading occurred during in i t ia l storm events in the f i rst two months after disturbance (Fredricksen, 1965). In that study the f i rst storm after road construction increased sediment concentration 250 t imes. Anderson (1971) states that surface erosion by overland f low at forested sites is - 42 -t imes. Anderson (1971) states that surface erosion by overland f low at forested sites is usually associated with intense rainstorms that fol low disturbance of soil by road building or logging. - 43 -F igure 10 Suspended Solids, Turbidity and Prec ip i tat ion Sakwi Creek August 1 to September 18, 1980 J Suspended solids (mg/t) Turbidity (ntu) August September - 44 -T A B L E III SELECTED RAINFALL, SUSPENDED SOLIDS AND TURBIDITY DATA IN SAKWI CREEK AT HEMLOCK VALLEY - 1980 Precipitation Date mm August 1 0 .00 2 0 .00 3 0 .00 4 0 .00 5 0 .00 6 7 0 .00 8 0 .00 9 0 .00 10 0 .65 11 0 .60 12 33.00 13 0 .00 14 1.00 15 17.00 16 8 .00 17 0 .05 18 0 .40 19 0 .00 20 0 .00 21 0 .00 22 0 .00 23 1.00 24 7.40 25 0 .00 26 0 .00 27 0 .00 28 0.00 29 0.00 30 0 .00 31 1.70 Suspended Solids Turbidity mg/1 NTU 1 1.80 1 0 .86 1 1.60 1 0 .90 1 1.10 1 0 .75 1 0 .89 1.00 1.40 545 470.00 558 620.00 571 680.00 15.00 83.00 130.00 16.00 14 9.00 3 2 .20 21 97.00 6 3 .70 11 2.90 7 3 .20 9 5.40 1 2.30 3 2.20 1 2.20 2 1.90 1 1.50 2 1.70 39 2.40 September 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 31.00 31.00 5.00 16.50 0 .30 0.80 0 .00 0 .00 14.00 4 .50 0 .50 0 .00 245 344 52 11 6 26 9 4.50 480.00 140.00 10.00 4 .00 29 13 4 26.00 17.00 4 .20 6.20 - 45 -Table III cont'd. Date Precipitation Suspended Solids mm mg/1 September 14 7 15 2.60 36 16 17 -18 - 6 19 0 .10 2 N O T E : " - " indicates data missing. - 46 -Table IV shows selected data on intensity of ra infa l l during storms at Hemlock Val ley . Maximum rainfal l intensity recorded was 18 mm per hour on November 11, 1981 between 15:00 and 16:00. Maximum recorded 24-hour ra infal l in 1981 was 86 mm on November 11, 1981. These storms were typical of the normal heavy rains experienced in late f a l l . The 18 mm per hour intensity is comparable to a 5-year return storm at the Mission Abbey, or a 25-year return storm at Agassiz . (Data from Atmospheric Environment Service, 1980.) The 24-hour recorded maximum is far less than the maximum recorded at Grouse Mountain Ski Resort (which has similar elevation and c l imat ic conditions) which has experienced 148.3 mm over 24 hours (Environment Canada, 1982). T A B L E IV SELECTED RAINFALL INTENSITY DATA Date Time Precipitation (mm) Intensity (mm/hr) November 11 8:00 - 12:00 23 5.75 November 11 15:00 - 16:00 18 18.0 November 11 15:00 - 24:00 48 5 .3 November 14 9:00 - 16:00 30 4 .2 November 14 17:00 - 21:00 20 5.0 November 15 20:00 - 22:00 20 10.0 Tota l ra infa l l Nov. 1 1 - 1 3 Max. 24-hr. ra infa l l , Nov. 11 Max. intensity, Nov. 11 232 mm 80 mm 18 cm h r . " 1 - 47 -To determine the total quantities of suspended solids moving downstream during peak f low, Manning's formula (Dunne & Leopold, 1978) was used to determine velocity and subsequent volume of f low. During the August 12th rainstorm the wetted perimeter of Sakwi Creek was measured at the sampling site. Using this wetted perimeter the cross-sectional area was calculated using this value, the peak f low of water was calculated (Appendix III). The peak f low was 41 300 1 s _ l with suspended solids of 558 mg 1 - 1 which corresponds to a downstream sediment movement of 67 kg s"* or 120.6 tonnes per hour. The data from Hemlock Valley indicate that suspended solids are of suff ic ient magnitude to be deleterious to fish populations as discussed in Section 3.1.3. 5.2 Results From Analysis of Soi l Loss Plots The soil erosion plots were careful ly selected to be representative of the typical slopes and soils found at Hemlock Val ley. The soil erosion on these plots was calculated based on baseline r i l l meter readings taken on December 1, 1980, and October 1, 1982. Data from these profi le measurements are included in Appendix II. Soi l loss volumes for the 4 plots after the f i rst 4 months (Table V) averaged 398 ha~l or 605 tonnes ha~*. Using bulk density (Table VI) the soil loss after 26 months averaged 726 n-|3 ha "I (Table V), or 1104 tonnes ha~ l . These figures indicate the source of the high suspended solids levels are experienced in Sakwi Creek during in i t ia l fa l l rains after summer construct ion. The soil losses during the f i rst four months after c lear ing were 5 5 % of the total soil loss over a 26-month period. These in i t ia l soi l losses correspond to results reported by Fredricksen (1965) indicating that the highest sediment loadings in creeks and thus soil erosion from slopes occurs during the in i t ia l ra infa l l events af ter soil disruption. - 48 -T A B L E V MEASUREMENT OF SOIL LOSS AT HEMLOCK VALLEY OVER A 26-MONTH PERIOD Plot 1 2 3 4 Average Loss - m 3 Months 0-4 Loss 0.52 0.34 1.18 0 .91 0.74 Months 4-26 Loss ~m*~ 0.87 0.77 0.58 0 .21 0.61 Total 26-Month Loss 1.39 1.11 1.76 1.12 1.35 Extrapolation to soil loss per ha (mult ipl icat ion factor of 537.634) 398 (605 t ha-1) 328 (499 t ha-1) 726 (I 104 t h a - 1 ) Total sampling area - 670 m 2 T A B L E VI BULK DENSITIES OF SOILS ON SOIL EROSION MEASUREMENT PLOTS AT HEMLOCK VALLEY Sample 1 2 3 4 Average 1 520 Bulk Density kg rrr 3 1 420 1 460 1 740 1 440 - 49 -Carr and Bal lard (1980) carr ied out soil erosion studies on "fine textured t i l l s " near Shawnigan Lake on Vancouver Island. This location has a precipitation of 1 800 mm per year. Soi l erosion losses calculated using soil surface profi les were 345 of soil per k i lometre of road or approximately 230 m3 ha~l over a 7-month period. Though the Hemlock Valley site had coarser sandy loam t i l ls and more ra infa l l , these figures would indicate that, high soil losses are quite normal for coastal areas of Br i t ish Columbia. Dyrness (1970) carr ied out extensive erosion and revegetation work in the Blue River D is t r ic t of the Wil lamette Nat ional Forest in the western Cascades of Oregon. The sites were located at 945 metres. Soils were clay loams grading into si lty loams. Soi l loss figures calculated by profi le measurement technique was 180 tonnes per hectare in the f i rst year. A f t e r 5 years, the soil loss s t i l l averaged 0.51 cm or approximately 120 tonnes per hectare per year. These soil losses are much less than those at Hemlock Valley during the f irst four months, and the long-term losses are approximately one-half the losses experienced at Hemlock Val ley. The yearly soil loss at Hemlock Valley averaged from after 4-months to 26-month period was 272 tonnes per hectare per year, compared to 120 tonnes per hectare per year in Oregon over a 5-year period. Comparison of the data from Oregon, Vancouver Island and Hemlock Valley is the magnitude of the losses in the f i rst year in a l l cases of 180 tonnes per hectare per year or greater, and then the continual losses of 120 tonnes per hectare per year and 272 tonnes per hectare per year in Oregon and Hemlock Valley respectively. These continued high losses indicate the definite necessity for act ion to be taken to ameliorate the site conditions to reduce the magnitude of erosion. Figure 11 shows the extent of r i l l erosion af ter 26 months at Hemlock Val ley. - 50 -Figure 11 Photograph showing extent of r i l l formation on test plots at Hemlock Val ley. - 51 -5.3 Fe r t i l i ze r Requirements for Revegetation Trials Analysis of soils were carr ied out in order to determine the level of available nutrients. Results from soil analysis carr ied out by the B.C. Ministry of Agr icul ture and Food are shown in Table VI. Based on these results, fe r t i l i zer and l ime application rates were recommended by the B C M A F (Table VII). From this data an average required fe r t i l i ze r application rate was calculated (Table VIII). Examples of the amount (kg ha -*) of fe r t i l i ze r appl ication needed to meet these requirements are shown in Appendix IV. - 52 -T A B L E VII NUTRIENT ANALYSIS OF SOILS AT HEMLOCK VALLEY+ (Quantity of nutrients contained in top 6" of soil for 1 acre of land.) Mmhos/ Phosphorus C a l c i u m Magnes ium P o t a s s i u m S a m p l e N o . L o c a t i o n So i l T e x t u r e 0 / m % p H c m Sa l t s N i t r a t e s * P* N O - , N R a t i n g C a * R a t i n g M g * R a t i n g K* R a t i n g 1 Subdiv is ion />3 2 c o a r s e 6 . 2 4 . 9 0 . 0 8 1 65 H 500 53 L 50 L 2 Subdiv is ion 112 2 5 . 1 5 . 0 0 . 1 0 2 31 U 500 50 50 3 Subd iv is ion #4 2 6 . 2 4 . 7 0 . 0 8 1 10 L 500 50 50 4 Respread Topso i l Subdiv is ion in 2 11 .0 4 . 6 0 . 1 2 1 26 L 500 68 L 50 L 5 R e s p r e a d Topsoi l Subdiv is ion Hi 2 1 4 . 0 4 . 9 0 . 0 8 1 16 L 500 50 .50 6 111 C h a i r l i f t Tower 119 2 1.1 5 . 9 0 . 1 2 1 107 H 606 50 L 50 7 III C h a i r l i f t Tower It2 2 12 .0 5 . 2 0 . 1 4 I 26 L 724 66 L 57 L 8 #3 C h a i r l i f t Tower #9 2 29 5 . 0 0 . 1 4 1 31 L 839 87 L 78 L 9 in C h a i r l i f t B a s e A r e a 2 16 5 . 5 0 . 1 2 1 41 M 1147 102 M 84 L 10 112 C h a i r l i f t B a s e A r e a 2 7 . 2 4 . 7 0 . 1 4 2 34 M 1230 154 M 121 M 11 in C h a i r l i f t Tower 111 2 2 . 8 5 . 1 0 . 0 6 1 62 H 500 50 50 * lb. a c r e " 1 L = L o w M = M e d i u m 0/m96 O r g a n i c m a t t e r c o n t e n t , dry weight basis. • T a k e n f r o m report on soi l analys is c a r r i e d out by B . C . M . A . F . Soi ls B r a n c h . - 53 -T A B L E VIII RECOMMENDED FERTILIZER AND LIME APPLICATION RATES FOR VARIOUS SITES AT HEMLOCK VALLEY* in kg ha~l Sample # Nitrogen Phosphate Potash Magnesium Lime N P2O5 K 2 O MgO 1 56 28 .224 39 1.12 2 56 67 224 39 1.12 3 56 134 224 39 1.12 4 56 78 224 39 1.12 5 56 112 224 39 1.12 6 56 22 224 39 1.12 7 56 78 224 34 1.12 8 56 67 168 34 1.12 9 56 45 201 28 0 10 56 67 123 17 1.12 11 56 28 224 39 1.12 S O U R C E : B .C . Ministry of Agr icul ture and Food report to Hemlock Valley Recreat ion L t d . , August, 1979. - 54 -T A B L E IX AVERAGE FERTILIZER AND LIME APPLICATION RATES FOR SOILS AT HEMLOCK VALLEY Nutrient kg ha~l nitrogen 56 phosphate 64 potash 208 magnesium 35 l ime 2245 The extremely high amounts of fer t i l i zer needed made it unfeasible to attempt to reach the recommended levels. Since the concern is not to produce an economic crop, but only to establish adequate ground cover, a standard commerc ia l fe r t i l i ze r mix (12-20-20) was selected. The application rates were also based on the feasibi l i ty of applying these levels to inaccessible areas. To apply the amounts recommended by B C M A F would mean the appl ication of 842 kg h a _ l which would be extremely expensive due to logistics of spreading fe r t i l i ze r in areas accessibly only by foot or air . Fe r t i l i ze r was applied at the rates of 150 and 300 kg h a - * , at 150 kg ha-1 this supplied 18, 30 and 30 kg h a _ l of nitrogen, phosphate and potash respectively. A t 300 kg h a - * the fe r t i l i ze r supplied 36 kg h a - l of nitrogen and 60 kg h a - l of phosphate and potash. An addit ional fe r t i l i ze r rate of 600 kg ha"* was used on the Carex mertensi i studies. This supplied 72 kg h a _ l nitrogen and 120 kg h a - l phosphate and potash. -55 -5 . 4 Exper imental Tr ials on Carex mertensi i 5A.I Germination Tr ials on Carex mertensi i The ef fects of germination temperature, wing removal , water avai labi l i ty and substrate on seed viabi l i ty were determined for Carex mertensi i (Table X and Appendix V). Germination on top of blotters with prechi l l was 9 7 . 5 % , top of moist blotters with 0 .2% K N O 3 was 9 6 . 5 % , and to top of moist blotters, no prechi l l , was 93 .25%. These germination percentages, a l l greater than 9 0 % , are equivalent to those accepted for germination of agronomic species. T A B L E X EFFECT OF GERMINATION TEMPERATURE, WING REMOVAL AND SUBSTRATE ON GERMINATION PERCENTAGE OF CAREX MERTENSII Wings Off 15-25°C Wings On 15-25°C Wings On 20 °C Wings On 20-30 °C Top of moist blotters 8 5 . 2 5 % (±6.4%) 6 2 . 7 5 % (6.4) 8 2 . 2 5 % (±2.9%) 9 3 . 2 5 % (±2.8%) Top of moist blotters, 0.2% K N O 3 9 0 . 5 0 % (±3 .1%) 6 8 . 0 0 % (±2.7%) 8 4 . 0 0 % ( ± 7 . 9 % ) 9 6 . 5 0 % (±1.3%) Between moist blotters 3 . 0 0 % in tins, no light (±1.2%) 0 . 7 5 % (±0.5%) 0 . 0 0 % (0) 1 . 2 5 % (±1.5%) Top of moist sand 4 3 . 0 0 % (±7 .6%) 3 9 . 7 5 % (7.6) 2 2 . 0 0 % ( ± 5 . 9 % ) 8 1 . 5 0 % (±2.6%) Top of moist blotters, p re -ch i l l 5 days 9 2 . 5 0 % (±1-3%) 7 2 . 0 0 % (±0.8%) 8 4 . 5 0 % (±4 .2%) 9 7 . 5 0 % ( ± 9 . 4 % ) Top of sand pre -ch i l l 5 days 4 1 . 2 5 % (±6.2%) 4 7 . 5 0 % (±7 .0%) N O T E : . Four repl icates of each test were carr ied out. . One hundred seeds per repl icate. . Results give average percentage germination. . Temperature/light cyc le was 12 hours at low temp in darkness, 12 hours at higher temperature with l ight. . ( ) = standard deviat ion. - 56 -Table X indicates that in a l l cases the 20 to 30°C temperature cyc le produced maximum results, fol lowed by the wings off condition at 15 to 25°C. In a l l cases at the 15 to 25°C range the seed with wings off produced better results than with wings left on. Several factors emerge from the results: a) Temperature f luctuation during germination produces a higher percentage germination than a constant 20°C temperature. b) The higher temperature range f luctuation of 30°C day/20°C night gave a higher percentage germination than the 15 to 25°C. c) The removal of wings also produces a higher percentage germination for the 15 to 25°C temperature f luctuat ion. d) P rech i l l gives a slight increase in germination indicating a slight seed dormancy, which can be overcome by cool moist s t rat i f i cat ion . e) Germinat ion in a l l cases was poorest in the experiments between blotters in tins which blocked out l ight. An increase in germination rate in response to temperature f luctuat ion is a common occurence among many species. Heit (1967) reports that most woody shrubs germinate better when temperature variations between 50°F to 80°F. Harrington (1923) studying Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) found that diurnal temperature variations between 20 and 35°C produced optimum results. Harrington (1923) also reports that germination - 57 -of Sorghum halopense at 30, 35 and 40°C increased when temperatures were alternated diurnally with temperatures 10 to 15°C lower. Under f ield conditions, good germination would be expected since germination tests showed high percentage of germination. The prechi l l and diurnal temperature va r ia -tions gave the best germination results, thus an early spring sowing should be the most successful. This would allow for chi l l ing with low overnight temperatures fol lowed by warmer daytime temperatures. 5.4.2 F ie ld Experiments with Carex mertensi i F ie ld experiments on Carex mertensi i were installed at an elevation of 1190 m on a wel l drained, southern exposure. The soils on this site are coarse textured t i l l s . The surface of the soil had previously eroded. At tempts at revegetation of this area had taken place in the three previous years with no success. These attempts consisted of the application of an agronomic grass/legume mix by hydroseeder as described in Section 4.3.1. Due to the poor results with the agronomic species this site was chosen to test the success of a hardy native species. Table XI shows the percentage ground cover obtained from Carex mertensi i on this site, one year after seeding. From Table XI, i t can be seen that in a l l but 4 plots some of the Carex grew and gave average ground covers ranging from 2.5% to 2 8 % . These results indicate that the Carex is capable of germinating and growing on this site even though repeated attempts at vegetation with agronomic species has given no ground cover. Table XII shows the results obtained from analysis of variance on the percentage ground cover results. From this it can be seen that there are significant differences within seed rates, fe r t i l i zer rates and seed times fer t i l i zer rates at the 0.05 probabil ity level . From - 58 -TABLE XI PERCENT GROUND COVER FOR CAREX MERTENSII AT VARYING RATES OF SEED AND FERTILIZER APPLICATION Seed Fertilizer Mean kg/ha kg/ha % cover % a 100 600 5 8 . 5 100 600 12 b 100 300 5 2 .5 100 300 0 c 100 150 10 11.5 100 150 13 d 100 0 3 5 . 5 100 0 8 a 50 600 31 28 50 600 25 b 50 300 13 11 50 300 9 c 50 150 7 4 . 5 50 150 2 d 50 0 0 3 .0 50 0 6 a 200 600 9 7 .0 200 600 5 b 200 300 4 6 . 5 200 300 9 c 200 150 5 10.5 200 150 16 d 200 0 0 200 0 0 - 59 -T A B L E XII STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF FIELD TRIALS ON CAREX MERTENSn b) Analysis of Variance Tabular F Values Source df SS MS F F.05 F.01 Seed 2 72 4 . 5 3 .89 6.93 Fer t i l i ze r 3 427.5 142.5 4 7 . 5 3 .49 5.75 Seed x Fe r t i l i ze r 6 564.5 94 5.875 3 .00 4 .82 Error 12 191.9 Total 23 132.8 c) Duncan's Mult ip le Range Test - .05 level Seed: S50 S100 s 2 0 0 11.63 7 6 F e r t i l i z e r : F 6 0 0 F 1 5 0 F 3 0 0 F 0 0 14.5 8.83 6.67 2.83 Seed x F e r t i l i z e r : FS FS FS FS FS FS FS FS FS FS FS FS 600/ 150/ 300/ 150/ 600/ 600/ 300/ 0/ 150/ 0/ 300/ 0/ 50 100 50 200 100 300 200 100 50 50 100 200 28 11.5 11 10.5 8.5 7 6.5 5.5 4.5 3 2.5 0 Indicates no signif icant difference between numbers underlined. - 60 -Table XII, showing results of Duncan's Mult iple Range Test, it can be seen that the seeding rate of 50 kg h a _ l was signif icantly better than 100 or 200 kg ha~ l . Fe r t i l i ze r at 600 kg h a - * was signif icantly better than 0, 150, 200 or 300 kg h a - * . The analysis of the combination of seed t imes fer t i l i zer at 600 kg ha-1 and seed at 50 kg ha-1 was signif icantly better than a l l other combinations. Given the coarse textured soils and heavy rainfal l in this area there is potential for excessive leaching of nutrients. Therefore the highest tested levels of fe r t i l i ze r (600 kg ha"*) give the best results. The lowest level of seeding (50 kg ha"*) gave the best results. It is possible that the seeding at higher rates increased competi t ion for nutrients and thus reduced ground cover. The percentage ground cover after one year is extremely low in most cases and would indicate that competi t ion should not be a factor . It is possible, however, that during the early stages of germination and in i t ia l establishment, the high seed levels caused general weakening of a l l germinants and thus much heavier losses. Dyrness (1975), reports that ground cover less than 4 5 % does not provide adequate erosion contro l . The 28% average reported from Hemlock Valley with the Carex is, however, a f i rst year result, and in an area in which agronomic species were unsuccessful. It is l ikely that ground cover would increase in the subsequent years, however, this data was not available as the plots were inadvertently destroyed. Good success in vegetation establishment has been reported for a closely related species of Carex , C. nigricans, by transplanting plugs (Mil ler and Mi l le r 1976). Mi l ler and Mi l le r (1975) also successfully propogated Carex nigricans from root divisions which were then transplanted into the f ie ld , with good establishment success. The process of propagating from root divisions and planting as plugs is, however, a t ime consuming and - 61 -expensive process. Be l l and Bliss (1973) report that in alpine and subalpine disturbances that Carex spectabil is was the most important colonizing species. Lawrence, et a l (1967) showed that species of Carex were important in colonizing recently exposed surfaces after ice recession at Glacier Bay. From the results on Carex mertensi i it would seem that direct seeding of Carex mertensi i would be a feasible and economic method of vegetating c r i t i c a l areas where agronomic grasses wi l l not establish. The cost of the Carex seed as calculated in Appendix VI is $7.60/kg (wings on). With the average price of the agronomics which gave best results being approximately $3.00 per kg ; the use of Carex mertensi i adds only $230.00 per ha to the reclamation costs at seeding rate of 50 kg h a - * and would appear to be a reasonable added cost for c r i t i c a l areas where agronomic species are incapable of producing signif icant ground cover. 5.5 Results from F ie ld Experiments on Legumes 5.5.1 Ground Cover of Tested Legumes The percentage ground cover for the four species of legumes tested varied from 1 to 6%, four months after seedings and from 2 to 12% sixteen months after seeding (Tables XIII and Appendix VII). - 62 -T A B L E XIII PERCENTAGE GROUND COVER FOR LEGUMES 6 MONTHS AND 14 MONTHS AFTER SEEDING (figures are average values for seed fer t i l i zer combination giving highest yields) Percent Ground Cover  Skyline Site Ground Sasquatch Site Ground Species 6 months 1979 14 months 1980 6 months 1979 14 months 1980 al fa l fa 6 .0 2 .0 - 5 . 3 t refo i l 8 . 0 6 .0 - 10.0 white clover 6 . 5 12.0 15.0 8 . 0 red clover 1.0 10.5 9 . 5 10.0 The only signif icant differences observed (at .05 probability level), in seeding rates were with T refo i l and White clover (see Section 5.6). On the Sasquatch plots in 1980 the seed rate of 50 kg h a - * showed signif icantly better results than 100 kg h a - * . White clover on the Skyline site in 1980 showed signif icantly better results at 100 kg h a - * of seed. There was an increase in ground cover between 1979 and 1980 for red and white clover on the Skyline sites. The ground cover increased from 6.5% to 12% for white clover and from 1% to 10.3% for red clover. There was a decrease in ground cover on the Skyline site for a l fa l fa and t re fo i l , decreasing from 6% to 2% and 8% to 6% respectively. The condition of both the t refo i l and a l fa l fa was very chlorot ic at the t ime of assessment. On the Sasquatch site white clover had a signif icant decrease in average cover between 1979 and 1980, decreasing from 15% to 8 % . Red clover maintained virtual ly the same cover (9.5% and 10%). A l f a l f a and t refo i l increased ground cover from 0 % to 5 .5% and 10% respectively. - 63 -Though the cover values are generally low for the legumes, the clovers produced the highest cover values. White clover had the highest average ground cover over the two years. Carr and Bal lard (1980), reporting on work on Vancouver Island, state that white clover was found with 100% frequency during sampling on a l l experimental plots, whereas red clover had a consistently low frequency. Birdsfoot t re fo i l was found with 5 to 3 5 % frequency, though the authors fe l t that this would increase with t ime. Dyrness (1967), in work in Oregon, also reports excel lent results with white clover and good results with t re fo i l . He found t refo i l germinated very wel l and during the in i t ia l growing season produced dense stands, however, it was subject to extensive winter mortal i ty . The t refo i l results from Hemlock Valley indicate possible winter mortal i ty on the Skyline site, however, contrary to Dyrness (1967) findings, germination and growth on both sites was poor. Dyrness (1967) found that white clover germinated wel l , but plant density decreased greatly over the f irst growing season. This e f fect was seen at Hemlock Valley on the Sasquatch site but there was an increase in cover on the Skyline site. Since the Skyline site was situated on an area with the top soil ( LFH layer and A horizon) s t i l l intact and the Sasquatch site on wel l drained g lac ia l t i l l , the observed differences probably ref lect the nutrient and moisture status of the respective soils. Though the legume ground cover results indicated poor performance, the use of these species, especially white clover, should not be dismissed. Legumes even at low frequency with a grass cover are important in the supply of nitrogen. This is especially important in the nitrogen defic ient soils found in the study area. Stewart (1966) reported that nitrogen f ixat ion with red clovers to average 103 lb per acre per year and - 64 -white clover 133 lb per acre per year. The variation in the range seems to be due to the effects of environmental stress on nodule init iat ion (Pate, 1977; Gibson, 1977). de Wit et a l (1976) reported that in experiements with perennial ryegrass grown with white clover, the ryegrass prof itted from the presence of the clover , while the clover did not suffer from compet i t ion. Only under extreme drought conditions did the species become mutually exclusive. Dyrness (1975) states that the inclusion of legumes with grasses for soil stabi l izat ion may improve the nitrogen economy of the soil suff ic ient ly to produce a denser longer lasting stand of vegetation. The poor legume establishment at Hemlock Valley could be due to late seeding fol lowed by a hot dry summer, which would inhibit germination. Another possibility is that the seeds germinated but, due to high temperatures and lack of available moisture they quickly died. General observations at Hemlock Valley on previously hydroseeded slopes indicate that white clover does survive and provides an integral part of the ground cover. White clover should, therefore, be included in any seed mixes used for revegetation at Hemlock Val ley. More extensive testing of t re fo i l would have to be carr ied out to properly assess its abi l i ty to survive under the conditions at Hemlock Val ley. 5.6 E f fec ts of Seed and Fer t i l i ze r Rates  on Percent Ground Cover of Grasses Table XIV to XVII show density of ground cover at the seed and fe r t i l i ze r rates that gave the highest observed ground cover for a given species. Results from individual plots on a l l species and fe r t i l i ze r combinations are shown in Appendix VII. - 65 -5.6.1 E f fec ts of Fe r t i l i ze r on Sasquatch Plots On the Sasquatch plots in 1979, as shown in Table XIV, it can be seen that 15 out of 17, or 8 8 % of the tr ials , fe r t i l i ze r levels of 300 kgha~l resulted in the highest observed ground cover. Analysis of variance of fe r t i l i zer rates within each species as given in Table XVI shows that at the .05 probability level , only four species actual ly had fer t i l i zer rates showing a signif icant di f ference. The Sasquatch plots in 1980 given in Table XV show 13 out of 17, or 76% of the species, had the highest observed ground cover at 300 kg h a - * of fe r t i l i ze r . In only 4 cases (Table XVII) were these results signif icantly better at the .05 probability level . In one case, with perennial ryegrass there was signficantly better performance at the .05 probabil ity level with 150 kg h a - 1 of fe r t i l i ze r . 3 - 66 -TABLE XIV PERFORMANCE OF GRASSES AND LEGUMES MEASURED AS PERCENT GROUND COVER AT SEED/FERTILIZER RATIOS GIVING HIGHEST OBSERVED GROUND COVER Sasquatch, 1979 Average Density of Ground Cover Standard kg Seed/ Species % Deviation kg Fertilizer Reed Canary Grass 18.5 9 .19 50/300 Tetraploid Perennial Rye 40.0 12.73 50/300 Red Top Bentgrass 7 5 . 5 30.41 100/300 Bluegrass 9 . 5 3.54 100/300 Fox ta i l 31 .5 9 .19 100/300 White Clover 15.0 4.24 50/300 Trefo i l - - N/A Penncross Creeping Bentgrass 35 .5 21.92 50/300 A l f a l f a - - N/A Red Clover 9 . 5 4.95 50/300 Hard Fescue 18.5 2 .12 50/300 Kentucky Bluegrass 10.0 5.66 50/300 Annual Rye 23.0 16.97 100/300 Creeping Red Fescue 45 .5 2.12 100/300 Slender Wheatgrass 12.0 16.97 100/300 Timothy 33.0 43.84 50/150 Pubescent Wheatgrass 6 .0 5.66 100/150 Perennial Rye 28 .5 3.54 50/300 Canada Bluegrass 6 . 5 6.36 100/300 Orchard Grass 26.0 16.97 100/300 Crested Wheatgrass 1.0 1.41 50/150 and 50/300 - 67 -TABLE XV PERFORMANCE OF GRASSES AND LEGUMES MEASURED AS PERCENT GROUND COVER AT SEED/FERTILIZER RATIOS GIVING HIGHEST OBSERVED GROUND COVER Sasquatch, 1980 Species Average Density of Ground Cover % Standard Deviation kg Seed/ kg Fertilizer Reed Canary Grass 8 2 . 5 Tetraploid Perennial Rye 5 8 . 5 Red Top Bentgrass 7 9 . 5 Bluegrass 41 .0 Foxta i l 18.5 Penncross Creeping Bentgrass 66 .0 Hard Fescue 26 .0 Kentucky Bluegrass 6 . 5 Annual Rye 2 .0 Creeping Red Fescue 4 0 . 5 Slender Wheatgrass 2 .0 Timothy 14.0 Pubescent Wheatgrass 29 .5 Perennial Rye 37.0 Canada Bluegrass 10.5 Orchard Grass 11.5 Crested Wheatgrass 6 . 5 3.54 3.54 21.92 11.31 0.71 5 .66 1.41 6 .36 0 .00 2.12 0 .00 19.8 38.89 8.49 4 .95 13.44 9.17 100/300 50/300 100/300 100/150 100/300 100/300 50/300 50/300 50/300 and 100/300 50/300 50/300 50/300 50/150 50/150 100/300 50/300 50/150 - 68 -5.6.2 E f fec ts of Varying Rates o i Seeding: Sasquatch Plots Analysis of variance on the seeding rates of grasses on the Sasquatch 1979 plots for individual species are shown in Table XVI. In only four cases did seed rates make any signif icant di f ference in ground cover, at the .05 probability level . Hard fescue performed best at 50 kg ha-I and perennial ryegrass, bluegrass and foxta i l performed best at rates of 100 kg h a - 1 . From Table XIV it can be seen that highest observed ground cover (though not stat ist ical ly significant) was achieved at 50 kg h a - 1 in eight species and at 100 kg h a - 1 for seven species of grasses. The 1980 data from the Sasquatch plots as shown in Table XVI indicates that in only three cases did seed rates make a signif icant difference in ground cover at the .05 probability level . These three species were perennial ryegrass at 50 kg h a - 1 and bluegrass and pencross creeping bentgrass at 100 kg ha -1 . 5.6.3 Interactive E f fec ts of Seed and Fer t i l i ze r on the Sasquatch Plots The interact ive e f fec t of seed and fer t i l i ze r showed signif icantly different results at the .05 probabil ity level for three species in 1979 and f ive species in 1980 as shown in Tables XVI and XVII. This data is summarized in Table XVIII. - 69 -TABLE XVI RESULTS FROM ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON SEED AND FERTILIZER RATES, AND SEED BY FERTILIZER FROM SASQUATCH SITE, 1979 F Value F (1,4) Seed x Species Seed Fertilizer Fertilizer Hard Fescue 17.86* 4 3 . 4 6 * 6 .43 Kentucky Bluegrass 0 .31 0 . 9 3 0.07 Annual Rye 1.47 3.34 0 .95 Creeping Red Fescue 3 .75 6 .35 9 . 1 2 * Slender Wheatgrass 0 .50 1.55 0.14 Timothy 2.82 0.44 0 .10 Pubescent Wheatgrass 3.00 0 .30 0 .30 Perennial Ryegrass 152.58* 2.80 2.80 Canada Bluegrass 7.11 7.11 7.11 Orchard Grass 0 .20 2.30 1.86 Crested Wheatgrass 2.00 - -Red Canary Grass 0 .40 16.70* 8 . 9 0 * Tetraploid Perennial Rye 5.90 15.04* 1.60 Red Top Bentgrass 2.20 1.63 2.20 Bluegrass 14.46* 14.46* 14.46* Fox ta i l 14.20* 0 .94 3 .66 White Clover 4 .65 6.50 0 .35 Trefo i l 8 . 2 3 * 0 .06 6.91 Pencross Creeping Bentgrass 1.98 4.40 0.14 A l f a l f a - - -Red Clover 0.01 0.01 0 .33 0.01 21.20 0.05 7.71 Denotes signif icant differences at .05 probability level . - 70 -T A B L E XVII RESULTS FROM ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON SEED AND FERTILIZER RATES, AND SEED BY FERTILIZER FROM SASQUATCH SITE, 1980 F Value F (1,4) Seed x Species Seed Fertilizer Fertilizer Hard Fescue 1. 85 0 . 24 16. 63* Kentucky Bluegrass 0 . 10 1. 20 0 . 04 Annual Rye - - -Creeping Red Fescue 0 . 79 10. 37* 5 . 67 Slender Wheatgrass - - 2 . 00 Timothy 0 . 28 0 . 62 0 . 16 Pubescent Wheatgrass 1. 01 1. 34 0 . 86 Perennial Ryegrass 18. 12* 11. 88* 2 5 . 69* Canada Bluegrass - 8 . 00 9 . 68* Orchard Grass 1. 21 3 . 10 0 . 30 Crested Wheatgrass 0 . 07 0 . 88 0 . 29 Red Canary Grass 0 . 62 7. 96 0 . 04 Tetraploid Perennial Rye 0 . 19 16. 32* 2 . 26 Red Top Bentgrass 0 . 57 3 8 . 17* 1. 40 Bluegrass 9 . 77* 2 . 77 12. 47* Fox ta i l 3 . 32 6 . 08 7 . 18 White Clover 0 . 32 0 . 32 3 . 66 T refo i l 8 . 23* 0 . 06 6 . 91 Penncross Creeping Bentgrass 17. 30* 26. 45* 8 . 45* A l f a l f a 2 . 97 0 . 24 2 . 97 Red Clover 0 . 27 0 . 60 0 . 18 Denotes signif icant differences at .05 probability level . - 71 -TABLE XVIII SPECIES SHOWING SIGNIFICANT INTERACTIVE EFFECTS BETWEEN SEED AND FERTILIZER RATES AT THE .05 PROBABILITY LEVEL Seed Fertilizer Rate Rate % Species Year kg ha-1 kg ha -1 Cover Hard fescue 1980 50 300 26.0 Creeping red fescue 1979 100 300 45.5 Perennial ryegrass 1980 50 150 37.0 Canada bluegrass 1980 100 300 10.5 Reed canary grass 1979 50 300 18.5 Bluegrass 1979 100 300 9 . 5 Bluegrass 1980 100 150 41 .0 Pencross creeping bentgrass 1980 100 300 66.0 These interact ive ef fects indicate that even though a specif ic seed rate or fe r t i l i ze r rate alone does not produce signif icantly better results, the combination of specif ic seed rate by fe r t i l i ze r rate can be signif icant. This would indicate that to produce opt imal results in terms of ground cover for individual species that combined effects of seed and fer t i l i ze r must be considered. Because most seeding is done with seed mixes including a minimum of four species, these interactive ef fects of seed rate and fer t i l i zer rate become d i f f i cu l t to control and seed and fer t i l i zer rate must be decided upon for the given mix. Due to the application of seed at equal weights rather than equal numbers of seeds per plot, direct s tat is t ica l comparisons between species is d i f f i cu l t . The seed rates applied were, however, high enough in a l l cases to provide 100% ground cover under good conditions (per comm. A . Richardson, Richardson Seed Company). Since in most cases - 72 -there was no signif icant difference between seed rates within the species it can be assumed that the performance of the species was due to its abi l i ty to germinate and grow under the harsh conditions rather than a function of seed rates applied per plot. Table X IX shows the summary of species which gave the highest observed ground cover on the Sasquatch plots. These species are prime candidates for revegetation purposes with a l l giving greater than 4 5 % ground cover, in either 1979 or 1980, states that 45% ground cover is the minimum cr i ter ion for a species ground cover to provide ef fect ive erosion contro l . T A B L E X IX GRASS SPECIES FROM SASQUATCH PLOTS GIVING GREATER THAN 45% GROUND COVER IN EITHER 1979 OR 1980 % % Ground Ground Cover Cover Species 1979 1980 Tetraploid perennial ryegrass 40 .0 58 .5 Red top bentgrass 75 .5 79 .5 Penncross creeping bentgrass 35.5 66 .0 Creeping red fescue 45 .5 40 .5 5.6.4 E f fec ts of Fe r t i l i ze r on Skyline Plots On the Skyline plots in 1979, 11 out of 17, or 6 7 % of the plots, had highest observed ground cover at 300 kg ha~l (Table X X ) . In only three cases were the differences actual ly signif icant at the .05 probability level as shown in Table X X I . The Skyline plots in 1980 showed 13 out of 17, or 7 5 % of the species, giving highest observed ground - 73 -cover at 300 kg h a - 1 (Table XXII). In four cases as shown in Table XXIII, the effects of fer t i l i zer showed signif icantly different results at the .05 probability level . In the majority of cases on a l l plots fe r t i l i ze r rates of 300 kg h a _ l resulted in the highest observed ground cover. In only 3 cases were the 300 kg h a _ l fe r t i l i zer rates signif icantly higher at .05 probability level . Results of the fe r t i l i ze r t r ials and the soil analyses would indicate that high levels of fer t i l i zer are essential for in i t ia l establishment of grass cover. 5.6.5 E f fec ts of Varying Rates of Seeding: Skyline Plots In 1979 the seed rate tr ials on the Skyline site indicated that 11 out of 14, or 6 5 % , of the species showed maximum observed ground cover at 100 kg h a - 1 of seed (Table X X ) . Only with annual ryegrass was there a signif icant di f ferent in seed rates at the .05 probability level (Table XXI) . - 74 -T A B L E X X PERFORMANCE OF GRASSES AND LEGUMES MEASURED AS PERCENT GROUND COVER AT SEED/FERTILIZER RATIOS GIVING HIGHEST OBSERVED GROUND COVER Skyline, 1979 Species Average Density of Ground Cover % Standard Deviation kg Seed/ kg Fertilizer Reed Canary Grass Tetraploid Perennial Rye Red Top Bentgrass Bluegrass Fox ta i l Penncross Creeping Bentgrass Hard Fescue Kentucky Bluegrass Annual Rye Creeping Red Fescue Slender Wheatgrass Timothy Pubescent Wheatgrass Perennial Rye Canada Bluegrass Orchard Grass Crested Wheatgrass 31.5 12.5 18.5 7 . 5 19.0 36.0 30 .5 3 . 5 93 .0 23 .5 9 . 0 11.5 5 .0 66 .0 3 . 5 31 .0 4 .0 3.54 0.71 12.02 7 .78 16.97 18.30 0.71 4 .95 4.24 3.54 12.73 6.36 7.07 31.11 4 .95 18.38 2 .83 100/150 100/150 50/300 50/300 100/300 100/150 100/300 50/300 100/300 100/300 100/150 50/150 50/150 100/300 50/300 100/300 100/300 - 7 5 -TABLE X X I RESULTS FROM ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON SEED AND FERTILIZER RATES, AND SEED BY FERTILIZER FROM SKYLINE SITE, 1979 F Value F (1,4) Seed x 1 Species Seed Fertilizer Fertilizer Hard Fescue 5 . 05 12. 31* 35 . 2 0 * Kentucky Bluegrass 0 . 13 0 . 33 0 .03 Annual Rye 68. 86* 47 . 71* 80 . 8 9 * Creeping Red Fescue 1. 45 0 . 31 0 .77 Slender Wheatgrass 0 . 40 1. 25 0 .02 Timothy 1. 65 0 . 05 1 .65 Pubescent Wheatgrass 0 . 03 1. 14 0 .09 Perennial Ryegrass 4. 95 9 . 70* 5 .77 Canada Bluegrass 0 . 41 1. 06 0 .41 Orchard Grass 0 . 20 6 . 44 -Crested Wheatgrass 0 . 91 0 . 91 0 .91 Red Canary Grass 5 . 30 3 . 26 0 .36 Treaploid Perennial Rye 2. 12 - 1 .49 Red Top Bentgrass 0 . 12 0 . 40 0 .12 Bluegrass 0 . 14 1. 26 1 .72 Fox ta i l 1. 27 2 . 60 1 .05 White Clover 1. 31 0 . 79 0 .15 T refo i l 2 . 60 0 . 02 0 .02 Penncross Creeping Bentgrass 0 . 69 0 . 69 6 .73 A l f a l f a 2 . 00 8 . 00 -Red Clover _ _ Denotes signif icant dif ference at .05 probability level . - 76 -TABLE XXII PERFORMANCE OF GRASSES AND LEGUMES MEASURED AS PERCENT GROUND COVER AT SEED/FERTILIZER RATIOS GIVING HIGHEST OBSERVED GROUND COVER Skyline, 1980 Average Density of Ground Cover Standard kg Seed/ Species % Deviation kg Fertilizer Reed Canary Grass 13.0 1.41 100/300 Tetraploid Perennial Rye 9 . 5 0.71 100/300 Red Top Bentgrass 6 . 5 6.36 100/300 50/300 Bluegrass 9 .0 9 .9 30/300 Foxta i l 11.5 2 .12 100/300 Penncross Creeping Bentgrass 13.0 4.20 100/300 Hard Fescue 71.0 1.41 100/300 Kentucky Bluegrass 20 .5 9 .19 100/300 Annual Rye 2 .5 3.54 50/150 Creeping Red Fescue 43 .5 2.12 100/300 Slender Wheatgrass 46 .5 2.12 100/150 Timothy 32.0 2 .83 50/300 Pubescent Wheatgrass 30.5 3.54 50/150 Perennial Rye 16.0 1.41 100/300 Canada Bluegrass 15.0 9 .90 100/300 Orchard Grass 46 .5 3.54 50/300 Crested Wheatgrass 7 . 5 4.99 100/150 - 77 -T A B L E XXIII RESULTS FROM ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON SEED AND FERTILIZER RATES, AND SEED BY FERTILIZER FROM SKYLINE SITE, 1980 F Value F (1,4) Seed x Species Seed Fertilizer Fertilizer Hard Fescue 3 .53 0.72 11.60* Kentucky Bluegrass 3.88 6 .50 0 .12 Annual Rye - - -Creeping Red Fescue 3.42 2.04 7.22 Slender Wheatgrass 5 4 . 9 6 * 3 5 . 5 6 * 21 .84* Timothy 1.04 3 .25 0 .65 Pubescent Wheatgrass 6.16 2.50 8.61 Perennial Ryegrass 1 0 . 7 1 * 2 9 . 7 6 * 1 0 . 7 1 * Canada Bluegrass 0.38 1.15 0.09 Orchard Grass 0.98 2 8 . 2 3 * 17 .65* Crested Wheatgrass 4.59 1.13 7.91 Reed Canary Grass 2.85 0 .11 0.19 Tetraploid Perennial Rye 3.59 3.18 0 .31 Red Top Bentgrass 0.11 0 .25 0 .11 Bluegrass 0 .16 0.74 0.47 Foxta i l 15.07* 2 4 . 6 0 * 15.07* White Clover 10.42* 0.44 1.39 T refo i l 0 .14 - 0.41 Penncross Creeping Bentgrass 0.67 3.40 0 .02 A l f a l f a - 0.67 0.67 Red Clover 5.69 3.30 6.66 Denotes signif icant difference at .05 probability level . - 78 -In 1980 12 out of 17 species (70.5%) showed highest observed ground cover at 100 kg h a - i seed (Table XXII). For only three cases (slender wheatgrass, perennial ryegrass and foxtai l ) were there signif icant differences at the .05 probability level between seed rates. 5.6.6 Interactive E f fec ts of Seed and Fer t i l i ze r on the Skyline Plots The interact ive ef fects of seed and fe r t i l i ze r rates indicated stat ist ical ly signif icant increases in ground cover at the .05 probability level in 1979 for only two species (Table XXI) . Hard fescue and annual rye showed stat ist ical ly more ground cover at 100 kg h a - 1 of seed and 300 kg ha~l of fe r t i l i zer . In 1980 f ive species showed signif icantly higher ground cover due to interact ive seed and fer t i l i zer e f fects at the .05 probability level (Table XXIII). Hard fescue, perennial ryegrass and foxta i l showed highest observed cover at 100 kg h a - 1 seed and 300 kg h a - 1 fe r t i l i ze r ; slender wheatgrass at 100 kg h a - 1 seed and 150 kg h a - 1 fe r t i l i zer and orchard grass at 50 kg h a - 1 seed and 300 kg h a - 1 fe r t i l i zer . Interspecies comparisons on a s tat is t ica l basis is d i f f i cu l t as discussed with the Sasquatch plots. Table XXIV outlines the species giving greater than 4 5 % ground cover on the Skyline site. These species would be the most l ikely species considered for revegetation purposes on the Skyline areas. - 79 -T A B L E XXIV PERCENT GROUND COVER ON SKYLINE SITE FOR SPECIES GIVING 45% OR GREATER GROUND COVER IN EITHER 1979 OR 1980 % % Ground Ground Cover Cover Species 1979 1980 Hard fescue 30 .5 71 .0 Annual ryegrass 93 .0 2 . 5 Orchard grass 31.0 4 6 . 5 Slender wheatgrass 9 .0 46 .5 Data summarized from Appendix I and Tables XV and XVI. 5.7 Comparison of Results Between Skyline and Sasquatch Sites Comparing the results between the Skyline and Sasquatch sites, i t can be seen that very few species performed well on both sites. This is indicative of the changes in edaphic conditions over very short geographic distances. Brink (1964) states "the proper selection of plants for roadsides and highways entails f i rst and foremost, knowledge of topography, soils and c l imate , the practices and influences to which the plots w i l l be subjected and the purposes which they wi l l serve. In the P a c i f i c Northwest these conditions and influences are so variable over very short geographical distances, selection c a l l pr imari ly for a knowledge and appreciation of them." For these reasons, two seed mixes at least must be considered for the Hemlock Valley area. One mix that would perform wel l on wel l drained mineral soil sites such as represented by the Sasquatch experimental plots. A second mix should be developed for areas with the soil as represented by the Skyline site. - 80 -Species to be considered for the dryer Sasquatch sites would be those showing highest observed ground cover in 1980 as given in Table XVIII. These are tetraploid perennial ryegrass, red top bentgrass, penncross bentgrass, and creeping red fescue. Species to be considered for the moister Skyline type sites would be those showing highest observed ground cover in 1980 as given in Table XXIV . These are hard fescue, orchard grass, and slender wheatgrass. 5.8 Comparison of Results at Hemlock Valley and Other Simi lar Areas Direct comparisons between results from Hemlock Valley and other s imilar sites are d i f f i cu l t due to the change in environments over short geographical distances. There does, however, seem to be a group of species that show hardiness and abi l i ty to survive under harsh environmental conditions. Looking at studies in similar to the Hemlock site, some of the same species which performed wel l at Hemlock Valley also performed well in other disturbed areas. Car r and Bal lard (1980) studied hydroseeding application of grasses and legumes at Shawnigan Lake and Cowichan Lake on Vancouver Island. Their mix consisted of t imothy, red top, perennial rye, annual rye, orchard grass, chewing fescue, ta l l fescue, sheep fescue and creeping red fescue. In the f i rst year they found annual rye, perennial rye and creeping red fescue averaged 100% frequency in a l l plots; orchard grass ranged from 60% to 100%. These species, with the exception of perennial rye, a l l did wel l on the Skyline site, whereas the perennial rye did wel l on the Sasquatch site at Hemlock Val ley. Thirgood and Z iemkiewicz (1978) recommended species for revegetation in the Rocky Mountains of B .C . and A lber ta , including many of the species that performed well at - 81 -Hemlock Val ley. These included orchard grass, creeping red fescue, Timothy, and perennial rye. In a study carr ied out in north-central Washington, at 1,645 metres, Smith (1963) found that t imothy, pubescent wheatgrass, orchard grass and blue wild rye maintained an excel lent rating over the eight-year study. Big bluegrass, meadow broom, slender wheatgrass, dryland Timothy and intermediate wheatgrass also performed wel l . Work done at the K i tsaul t molybdenum mine near Pr ince Rupert , B .C . at 760 metres, indicated a range of grass mixtures that performed wel l on mine waste rock (Thirgood, 1975). The two best mixes consisted of: 1) perennial rye grass, creeping red fescue, chewing fescue, poa t r iv ia l is , red top and white dutch clover 2) double cut red clover, white c lover , New Zealand perennial rye grass, c l imax Timothy, ryegrass, ta l l fescue, red top, US perennial ryegrass, and New Zealand wild white clover. It can be seen that many of the species in the mix that performed well at Ki tsaul t and north centra l Washington are also found performing wel l at Hemlock Val ley. The above comparisons also reiterate the changes in species response to different environments and the need to understand the environmental factors before making recommendations of appropriate species for rehabil itation work. There also appears to be a group of species that consistently recur in the l i terature that respond wel l in harsh environments, and which are normally included in seed mixes. - 82 -6.0 S U M M A R Y A N D C O N C L U S I O N S The levels of suspended solids in Sakwi Creek fol lowing rainfal l events are of a high enough level to cause potential problems to the downstream salmon spawning area. The levels of suspended solids reached a maximum of 571 mg 1 _1 after 33 mm of ra infal l in less than 24 hours. This level corresponded to downstream movement of solids at a rate of approximately 120.6 tonnes per hour. This compares to suggested allowable l imits of 3 mg I"* for incubation and 25 mg l - * for rearing and holding of salmon (Sigma Resource Consultants Ltd. ) . Measurement of soil loss by a portable r i l l meter confirmed that there were extremely high soil losses on unvegetated slopes. Soi l loss in the f irst four months after ground cover was removed was measured at a rate of 605 tonnes per hectare. Over the 26 months of the study soil losses total led 1,104 tonnes per hectare. For this reason, methods must be instituted to control the soil losses which contribute to the sediment levels in Sakwi Creek. The easiest method of control l ing sediment in the creek is a program of revegetation of the disturbed areas. On sites with reasonable abil i ty to retain moisture and with the topsoil intact , the fol lowing species were shown to perform we l l : tetraploid perennial rye, red top bentgrass, pencross bentgrass, and creep-ing red fescue. On dryer sites with topsoil removed, the fol lowing species were shown to perform wel l : hard fescue, annual ryegrass, orchard grass, and slender wheatgrass. - 83 -A l l the legumes tested produced less than 10% ground cover. However, it was fe l t that this could be increased by earl ier seeding. Observations of previous hydroseeding work on lower slopes showed they form an integral part of the vegetation. Due to the abi l i ty of legumes to f ix nitrogen they should be included in a l l seed mixes. On the Hemlock Valley site white clover produced the highest ground cover and would be recommended to be added to the grasses. The native sedge Carex mertensi i showed promising character ist ics for use as a revegetation species. Germination tests indicated greater than 90% viable seed. F ie ld t r ia ls on an extremely harsh site where a l l other revegetation attempts fai led gave an average ground cover of 28% after 1 year at seed rate of 50 kg h a - 1 and fe r t i l i ze r at 600 kg h a - 1 -Fe r t i l i ze r and seed rates are specif ic to individual species. There was, however, a definite trend to greater ground cover with increase in the fe r t i l i ze r rates. On the Sasquatch site in 1980, 8 1 % of the species gave highest observed average ground cover with 300 kg ha -1 fe r t i l i ze r appl icat ion. On the Skyline site in 1980, 7 1 % of the species gave highest observed ground cover with the 300 kg h a - 1 appl icat ion. Based on these results, fe r t i l i ze r rates of at least 300 kg h a - 1 of 12-20-20 are recommended. Seed rates seem to be species specif ic and decisions on the quantity of seed for each species to be included in a mix must be made on an individual basis. Conclusions from this study do not al low specif ic recommendations on quantity of seed per species. It is recommended that further work be carr ied out on seed mixes using the suggested species at various rates within the mix to determine which combination produces the highest percentage ground cover. - 84 -LITERATURE CITED Amer ican Publ ic Health Associat ion, 1971. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 14th edit ion, New York. Anderson, H.W., 1971. Relative contributions of sediment from source areas, and transport processes. In: Proceedings of a symposium: Forest Land Uses and Stream Environment, October 19-21, 1970, Continuing Education, Oregon State University , p. 5 5 - 6 3 . Associat ion of O f f i c i a l Seed Analysts, 1970. Rules for testing seeds. Proceedings of the association of o f f i c i a l seed analysts, 60(2). Atmospheric Environment Service, 1980. Rainfall intensity duration curves for 25-year return storms. Supplied by A E S , Vancouver, B .C. Baver, L .D. , 1959. Soil physics. 3rd edit ion, 3ohn Wiley, New York. Be l l , K . L . and L . C . Bl iss, 1973. Alpine disturbance studies, Olympic National Park, U.S.A. B io logical Conservation 5(1): 25-32. Berg, W.A. , 1974. Grasses and legumes for revegetation of disturbed subalpine areas. IN: Proceedings of a Workshop on Revegetation of High-al t i tude Disturbed Lands. Colorado State Universi ty , Fort Col l ins , Colorado. Information Series #10, p. 31-35. Brink, V .C . , 1964. The selection of plants for roadside and highways in the Pacific Northwest. In: F i rs t Canadian roadside development conference, University of Br i t ish Columbia, Extension Department, p. 5 7 - 6 2 . Br i t ish Columbia Ministry of Agr icul ture and Food, 1979. Analyses of available nutrients in soils at Hemlock Valley. Report to Hemlock Valley Recreations L t d . - 85 -Br i t ish Columbia Ministry of Environment, 1980A. Climatic Moisture/Surplus Map #92 H/SW. Bri t ish Columbia Ministry of Environment, 1980B. Effective growing degree day map, Chilliwack, B.C. Map 92 H/SW. Brooke, R .C . , E.B. Peterson and V . J . Kra j ina , 1970. The Subalpine Mountain Hemlock Zone IN: Ecology of Western North A m e r i c a . V .2 , No. 2, 153-300 Bustard, D.R., 1974. Some aspects of the winter ecology of juvenile salmonids with reference to possible habitat alterations by logging in Carnation Creek, Vancouver Island. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Br i t ish Columbia. Car r , W.W., 1977. Hydroseeding of forest road erosion control and resource protection. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Br i t ish Columbia . Car r , W.W. and T . M . Bal lard , 1980. Hydroseeding forest roadsides in British Columbia for erosion control. 3. of Soi l and Water Cons., 35(1): 33-35. Chacho, E. and M. Molnau, 1980. Snow drifting on phosphate mine dumps in southeastern Idaho. In: Proceedings of western snow conference, p. 3 1 - 4 2 . Chow, V.T., 1959. Open channel hydraulics. M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co . , Toronto, 680 pp. Copeland, O.L . , 1969. Forest service research in erosion control. Trans, of the A S A E , 12(1): 75-79. Dayton & Knight L t d . (1973). District of West Vancouver drainage survey. Prepared for C i t y of West Vancouver. Dunne, 3 . and L .B . Leopold, 1978. Water in environmental planning. W.H. Freeman and Co . , San Francisco, 818 pp. - 86 -Dyrness, C.T. , 1967. Grass- legume mixtures for road stabi l i zat ion . U .S .D.A . Forest Service Research Note P N W - 7 1 , P a c i f i c Northwest Forest and Range Exp. Sta . , Port land, Oregon, 19 pp. Dyrness, C.T, 1970. Stabi l izat ion of newly constructed road backslopes by mulch and grass-legume treatments. U .S .D.A. Forest Service Research Note P N W - 7 1 , P a c i f i c Northwest Forest and Range Exp. S ta . , Port land, Oregon, spp. Dyrness, C.T. , 1975. Grass- legume mixtures for erosion contro l along forest roads in western Oregon. J . of Soi l and Water Cons., 30(4): 169-173. Environment Canada, 1982. Canadian c l i m a t i c normals, temperature and precip i tat ion. 1951-1980, Ot tawa, Ontario. Err ington, 3 .C . , 1975. Natura l revegetation of disturbed sites in Br i t i sh Co lumbia . Ph .D . Thesis, University of Br i t ish Columbia . Err ington, J . C , 1978. Revegetat ion studies in the Peace R iver coa l block. Paper 1979-3, Province of Br i t ish Columbia , Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources. Farmer , E.E. and J . E . F letcher , 1976. Highway erosion contro l systems: An evaluation based on the universal soi l loss equation. In: Soi l erosion prediction and contro l . Soi l Cons. Soc. of A m e r i c a , Akeny, Iowa, p. 12 -21 . Foster, G .R. , L .D . Meyer and C A . Onstad, 1977. An erosion equation derived f rom basic erosion principles. Trans. A S A E , 20(4): 678-682. Fredr icksen, R .L . , 1965. Sediment a f ter logging road construction in a smal l western Oregon watershed. Federal Interagency Sediment Conference, U .S .D.A. Misc . Pub. 970, Paper #8, Washington, D.C. 4 pp. Gibson, A . H . , 1977. The inf luence of the environment and managerial pract ices on the legume-rhizobium symbosis. In: A treatise on dinitrogen f ixat ion. R .W.F . Hardy and A . H . Gibson eds., John Wiley and Sons, Toronto, p. 393-450. - 87 -H a l l , J . D . and R .L . Lantz , 1969. Effects of logging on habitat of coho salmon and cutthroat trout in coastal streams. In: Symposium on salmon and trout in streams, Institute of Fisheries, University of Br i t ish Columbia, p. 355-370. Haig , M. J . , 1978. Evolution of slopes on artificial landforms. Blaenavon, U.K. , 187 pp. Harr ington, G.T., 1923. Use of alternating temperatures in the germination of seeds. J . Agr . Res. 23, p. 295. He i t , C .E . , 1967. Propagation from seed, Part 6: Hard seededness a critical factor. New York Agr icu l ture Experiment Stat ion, Geneva, N.Y. spp. Henry, 3 .E . , M . J . Sciar ina and D .M. VanDoren Jr . , 1980. A device for measuring soil surface profiles. Transactions of A S A E , Vo l . 23: 1457-1459. Kenny, S.T. and R .E . Cuany, 1978. Grass and legume improvement for high altitude regions. In: Proceedings high alt i tude revegetation workshop #3. Colorado Water Resources Research Institute, Information Series //8, p. 84 -100. K l inka , K., F .C . Nuszdorfer and L. Skoda, 1979. Niogeoclimatic units of central and southern Vancouver Island. Province of Br i t ish Columbia , Ministry of Forests. Kra j ina , V.T., 1965. Biogeoclimatic zones and biogeocoenoses of British Columbia. Ecology of Western North A m e r i c a , 1: 1-17. Lawrence, D.B., R .E . Schoenike, A . Quispel and G. Bond, 1967. The role of Dryas drummondii in vegetation developments following ice recession at Glacier Bay, Alaska, with special reference to N-fixation by root nodules. Journal of Ecology, 55: 793-813. Malakout i , D .J . , D.T. Lewis and J . Stubbendieck, 1978. Effect of grasses and soil properties on wind erosion in sand blowouts. J . of Range Management, 31(6): 417-420. M c C o o l , D.K. , M.G. Dosset and S . J . Yecha , 1976. A portable rill meter for measuring soil loss. A S A E summer meeting, 1976, Paper No. 76-2054. - 88 -M c C o o l , D .K. , M.G. Dosset and S . J . Yecha , 1981. A portable rill meter for field measurements of soil loss. Erosion and sediment transport measurement. In: Proceedings in the Florence Symposium, 1981. IAHS Pub. No. 133: 479-484. McDonald, J . D . and J . D ick , 1974. Reclamation guidelines for exploration. Br i t ish Columbia Department of Mines and Petroleum Resource. 19 pp. McTavish, R.B. and C E . Jones, 1983. Westmin reclamation program, 1983. Prepared for Westmin Resources L t d . 904 - 1055 Dunsmuir Street, Vancouver, B .C . McTavish, R.B. and T. Shopick, 1983. Propagation and use of native woody plants in northern latitudes. In: Proceedings of the 7th Annual B .C. Rec lamat ion Symposium. Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources. (In publication.) Meiman, J . R . , 1974. Water and erosion control in relation to revegetation of high altitude disturbed lands. In: Proceedings of a workshop on revegetation of high alt i tude disturbed lands. Environmntal Resources Centre, Colorado State Unviersity , Informa-tion Series #10, p. 2 4 - 3 0 . Mi l le r , J .W. and M . M . Mi l le r , 1975. Test trials on the propagation of plant material for the revegetation of Cascade Pass, North Cascade National Park. Report prepared for Nat . Park Service, unpublished, 6 pp. Mi l le r , J .W. and M . M . Mi l le r , 1976. Cascade pass revegetation experiments. Report prepared for Nat . Parks Services, unpublished, 5 pp. Noggle, L., 1978. The behavioral and physiological effects of suspended sediment on juvenile salmonids. In: Proceedings of the fourth annual toxic i ty workshop, Vancouver, B.C. Fisheries Marine Service Tech. Rep. #818, p. 54 -64 . Novak, M.D. and L . J . P . van V l ie t , 1983. Degradation effects of soil erosion by water and wind. In: Soil Degradation in Br i t ish Columbia, Proceedings of the 8th B.C. Soil Science Workshop. Province of Br i t ish Columbia , Ministry of Agr icul ture and Food. - 89 -Pate , J .S . , 1977. Functional Biology of dinitrogen fixation by legumes. In: A treatise on dinitrogen f ixat ion, R.W.F . Hardy and W.S. Si lver, eds. John Wiley and Sons, Toronto, p. 473-518. Peterson, J . B . , 1964. The relation of soil fertility to soil erosion. J . Soi l and Water Cons., 19(1): 15-19. Phi l l ips , R.W., 1970. Effects of sediment on the gravel environment and fish production. In: Proceedings of a symposium forest land use and stream environment, Oregon State Universi ty , p. 64 -74 . Schwab, C O . , R .R . Frevert , T.W. Edminster and K . K . Barnes, 1966. Soil and water conservation. 2nd edit ion, John Wiley and Sons, Toronto, 683 pp. Sigma Resource Consultants L t d . , 1979. Summary of water quality criteria for salmonid hatcheries. Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Ot tawa. Smith, J . C , 1963. A subalpine grassland seeding trial. J . of Range Management, 16(3): 208-210. Stewart , W.D., 1966. Nitrogen fixation in plants. The athlone Press, London. Thirgood, J .V. , 1975. Reclamation research station mine site in north coastal British Columbia, a five-year progress report. In: Proceedings of the annual meeting of the Ontario cover crop commit tee , Guelph, Ontario, p. 4 7 - 5 1 . Thirgood, J .V . and P .F . Z iemkiewicz , 1978. Reclamation of coal surface-mined lands in western Canada in reclamation of drastically disturbed lands. F.W. Schaller and P. Sutter editors, A m . Soc. of Agronomy, Madison, Wis. University of Br i t ish Columbia , 1981. Pedology laboratory methods manual. Depart -ment of Soil Science, U . B . C , Vancouver, B .C . - 90 -Wischmeier, W.H. and D.D. Smith , 1965. Predicting rainfall erosion losses from cropland east of the rocky mountains. Agr . Handbook No. 282, U.S. Dept. of Agr . , Washington, D . C , 47 pp. de Wit, C.T. , P .G . Tow and G .C . Ennik, 1966. Competition between legumes and grasses. Centre for agr icul tural publications and documentation, A g . Res. Report #687, Wayeningen, 30 pp. - 91 -A P P E N D I X I DESCRIPTION OF ORTHIC FERRO-HUMIC PODZOLS FOUND AT HEMLOCK VALLEY Horizon Depth (cm) Description L 30-25 l i t ter of needles, bark and mosses F H 25 -0 black, wel l to moderately wel l decomposed needles and mosses, p lent i ful medium roots A e 0-3 grey (10 Y R 5/1), sand loam, massive, sl ightly st icky, few f ine roots, abrupt boundary Bhf 3-13 dark brown (10 Y R 3/3), sandy loam, massive, sl ightly st icky, few medium and f ine roots, abrupt boundary Bf 13-20 dark yel lowish-brown (10 Y R 3/10), sandy loam, massive, sl ightly st icky, plenti ful medium and f ine roots, clear bound-ary Bf2 20-31 dark yel lowish-brown (10 Y R 3/6), sandy loam, massive, slightly st icky, very few medium and fine roots, abrupt boundary B C 31-100+ light olive brown (2.5 Y R 5/6), sandy loam, massive, sl ightly st icky, no roots Soil prof i le description f rom soil pit dug October 1, 1983. - 92 -APPENDIX II RAW DATA FROM SOIL LOSS PLOTS Square centimetres of soil profile change per sampling point Plot Months 0-4 Loss err? Months 4-26 Loss err? Months 4-26 Deposition cm? Total 26-Month Loss cn? #1 #2 560 O 648 324 20 16 1 188 308 2 #1 2 #2 368 O 600 264 12 24 956 240 3 3 #1 #2 488 780 248 548 172 0 564 1 328 4 #1 4 #2 976 O 152 320 100 148 1 028 182 - 93-A P P E N D I X III CALCULATION OF STREAM DISCHARGE USING CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA AND MANNING'S FORMULA TOTAL AREA *-7 8.0 m t b 7.2 m o 0.8 m Cross-sectional Area a » bd • Zdz a = 7.2(0.8) + (°V0.8)(0.82) a = 6.0 m2 Wetted Perimeter Velocity - R 3 S 7n p » b*2d>/Z2 + l p = 0.4 + 2(0.8) N/0.52 + I p • 2.19 m V= (2.78)2/3(0.03)'/2/0.05 V » 6.85 m/s Q •» oV * (6.0)(6.85) V » average velocity of flow in m/s n = roughness coefficient of the channel R • a/p , the cross-sectional area divided by the wetted perimeter in metres s » hydraulic gradient Q = flow rate in m3/s S = 0.03 n = 0.05 41.1 m3/s - 94 -V A L U E S O F R O U G H N E S S C O E F F I C I E N T " n " Source: Chow, 1959 Type of channel and description Minimum Normal Maximum c. EXCAVATED OR DREDGED a. Earth, straight and uniform 1. Clean, recently completed 0 01G 0 018 0 020 2. Clean, after weathering 0 018 0 022 0 025 3. Gravel, uniform section, clean 0 022 0 025 0 030 4. With short grass, few weeds 0 022 0 027 0 033 6. Earth, winding and sluggish 1. No vegetation 0 023 0 025 0 030 2. Grass, some weeds 0 025 0 030 0 033 3. Dense weeds or aquatic plants in 0 030 0 035 0 040 deep channels 4. Earth bottom and rubble sides 0 028 0 030 0 035 5. Stony bottom and weedy banks D 025 0 035 0 040 6. Cobble bottom and clean sides 0 030 0 040 0 050 c. Dragline-excavated or dredged 1. No vegetation 0 025 0 02S 0 033 2. Light brush on banks 0 035 0 050 0 0(10 d. Rock cuts 1. Smooth and uniform 0 025 0 035 0 040 2. Jagged and irregular 0 035 0 010 0 050 e. Channels not maintained, weeds and brush uncut 1. Dense'weeds, high as flow depth 0 050 0 OSO 0 120 2. Clean bottom, brush on sides 0 040 0 050 0 OSO 3. Same, highest stage of flow 0 045 0 070 0 110 4. Dense brush, high stage 0 080 0 100 0 140 D. NATURAL STREAMS D-l. Minor streams (top width at flood stage <100 ft) a. Streams on plain 1. Clean, straight, full stage, no rifts or 0 025 0 030 0 033 deep pools 2. Same as above, but more stones and 0 030 0 035 0 040 weeds 3. Clean, winding, Bome pools and 0 033 0 040 0 045 shoals 4. Same as above, but some weeds and 0 035 0 045 0 050 stones 5. Same as above, lower stages, more 0 040 0 048 0 055 ineffective slopes and sections 6. Same as 4, but more stones 0 045 0 050 0 060 7. Sluggish reaches, weedy, deep pools 0 050 0 070 c 080 8. Very weedy reaches, deep pools, or 0 075 0 100 0 150 floodwayB with heavy stand of tim-ber and underbrush - 95 -A P P E N D I X IV CALCULATIONS OF THEORETICAL FERTILIZER REQUIREMENTS Nutrient Required Amount kg ha~l Nitrogen 56 Phosphorus 66 Potash 207 using 34 -0 -0 using 0 -20-0 using 0 -0 -60 Ammonium ni t rate Superphosphate Mur iate of Potash N 56 P2O5 66 K 2 0 207 N : 56 .34 164.7 kg h a " 1 P 2 0 5 : 66 .20 = 330.0 kg h a " 1 K 2 0 : 107 .60 = 345.0 kg h a " 1 - 96 -A P P E N D I X V RESULTS FROM GERMINATION EXPERIMENTS ON CAREX MERTENSII Date Date of No. of Replicates Method Planted Counting Days 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Top of Blotter H 2 O Wing On: March 24 March 30 6 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 3 10 1 2 3 4 Temp. 15-25°C A p r i l 6 13 37 48 52 33 A p r i l 12 19 18 14 16 23 Normal 56 64 71 60 Abnormal 12 8 6 12 Dead 32 28 23 28 Average Germination - 62.75% Top of Blotter K N O 3 , 0 . 2 % : March 24 March 30 6 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 3 10 5 4 3 6 Temp. 15-25°C A p r i l 6 13 31 47 44 42 A p r i l 12 19 33 19 17 21 Normal 69 70 64 69 Abnormal 9 12 13 15 Dead 22 18 23 16 Average Germination - 6 8 % Between Blotters H 2 O : March 24 March 30 6 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 3 10 0 0 0 0 Temp. 15-25°C A p r i l 6 13 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 12 19 1 0 1 1 Normal 1 0 1 1 Abnormal 0 0 0 0 Dead 99 100 99 99 Average Germination - 0 .75% Top of Sand, H 2 O : March 24 March 30 6 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 3 10 0 0 0 0 Temp. 15-25°C A p r i l 6 13 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 12 19 42 31 37 49 Normal 42 31 37 49 Abnormal 1 3 1 0 Dead 57 34 60 51 Average Germination - 39.75% - 97 -Date Date of No. of Replicates Method Planted Counting Days 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Top of Blotter H 2 O Pre-chill 5 Days: March 24 A p r i l 4 6 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 8 10 48 52 51 50 Temp. 15-250C A p r i l 11 13 17 17 16 16 A p r i l 17 19 7 3 4 7 Normal 72 72 71 73 Abnormal 19 17 12 20 Dead 9 11 17 7 Average Germination - 7 2 % Top of Sand H 2 O Pre-chill 5 Days: March 24 A p r i l 4 6 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 8 10 8 22 12 14 Temp. 15-25°C A p r i l 11 13 21 18 21 17 A p r i l 17 19 21 16 11 9 Normal 50 56 44 40 Abnormal 4 1 1 4 Dead 46 43 55 66 Average Germination - 47 .5% Top of Blotter H 2 0 Wings Off: March 24 March 30 6 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 3 10 21 26 28 27 Temp. 15-25°C A p r i l 6 13 43 50 42 41 A p r i l 12 19 17 13 14 19 Normal 81 89 84 87 Abnormal 3 0 1 3 Dead 16 11 15 10 Average Germination - 85.25% Top of Blotter K N O 3 , 0 . 2 % Wings Off: March 24 March 30 6 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 3 10 41 20 43 28 Temp. 15-25°C A p r i l 6 13 34 53 34 45 A p r i l 12 19 20 17 11 16 Normal 95 90 88 89 Abnormal 1 2 2 3 Dead 4 8 10 8 Average Germination - 9 0 . 5 % - 98 -Date Date of No. of Replicates Method Planted Counting Days 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Between Blotters H 2 0 Wings Off: March 24 March 30 6 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 3 10 0 0 0 0 Temp. 15-250C A p r i l 6 13 1 2 0 1 A p r i l 12 19 3 0 4 1 Normal 4 2 4 2 Abnormal 0 0 0 0 Dead 96 98 96 98 Average Germination - 3 % Top of Sand H 2 O Wings Off: March 24 March 30 6 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 3 10 0 0 0 0 Temp. 15-25°C A p r i l 6 13 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 12 19 44 49 32 47 Normal 44 49 32 47 Abnormal 1 0 0 1 Dead 65 51 68 52 Average Germination - 4 3 % Top of Blotter H 2 O Wings Off, Prechill: March 24 A p r i l 4 6 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 8 10 76 78 84 75 Temp. 15-25°C A p r i l 11 13 11 9 4 11 A p r i l 17 19 6 2 4 5 Normal 93 94 92 91 Abnormal 1 0 1 1 Dead 6 6 7 8 Average Germination - 9 2 . 5 % Top of Sand H 2 O Wings Off, Prechill: March 24 Apr i l 4 6 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 8 10 21 20 14 20 Temp. 15-25°C A p r i l 11 13 12 21 23 11 A p r i l 17 19 3 7 8 5 Normal 36 48 45 36 Abnormal 1 1 0 0 Dead 63 51 55 64 Average Germination - 41.25% - 99 -Date Date of No. of Replicates Method Planted Counting Days 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Between Blotters H 2 O : March 27 A p r i l 2 6 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 6 10 0 0 0 0 Temp. 20OC A p r i l 9 13 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 15 19 0 0 0 0 Normal 0 0 0 0 Abnormal Dead 100 100 100 100 Average Germination - 0% Top of Sand: March 27 A p r i l 2 6 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 6 10 0 0 0 0 Temp. 20°C A p r i l 9 13 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 15 19 22 14 24 28 Normal 22 14 24 28 Abnormal 0 0 0 0 Dead 78 86 76 72 Average Germination - 22% Top of Blotter H 2 O Pre-chill: A p r i l 3 A p r i l 14 6 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 18 10 77 79 69 84 Temp. 20°C A p r i l 21 13 4 3 4 3 A p r i l 27 19 1 5 7 2 Normal 82 87 80 89 Abnormal 1 0 3 1 Dead 17 13 17 10 Average Germination - 84 .5% Top of Blotter H 2 0 Wings Off: March 27 A p r i l 2 6 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 6 10 7 3 8 11 Temp. 20°C A p r i l 9 13 65 72 63 58 A p r i l 15 19 7 11 11 13 Normal 79 86 82 82 Abnormal 2 Dead 19 14 18 18 Average Germination - 82.25% - 100 -Date Date of No. of Replicates Method Planted Counting Days 100 100 100 100 Top of Blotter KN03, 0.2% Wings Off: March 27 A p r i l 2 6 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 6 10 0 11 12 9 Temp. 20°C A p r i l 9 13 49 65 60 35 A p r i l 15 19 42 8 16 29 Normal 91 84 88 73 Abnormal 0 0 0 0 Dead 9 16 12 27 Average Germination - 84% Top of Blotter H20: A p r i l 3 A p r i l 9 6 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 13 10 70 71 . 67 58 Temp. 20-30°C A p r i l 16 13 19 22 18 31 A p r i l 22 19 3 3 5 6 Normal 92 96 90 95 Abnormal 0 0 3 0 Dead 8 4 7 5 Average Germination - 93.25% Between Blotters in Tins: A p r i l 3 A p r i l 9 6 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 13 10 0 0 0 0 Temp. 20-30°C A p r i l 16 13 0 1 2 0 A p r i l 22 19 0 2 0 0 Normal 0 3 2 0 Abnormal 2 0 1 1 Dead 98 97 97 99 Average Germination - 1.25% Top of Sand: A p r i l 3 A p r i l 9 6 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 13 10 58 51 32 22 Temp. 20-30°C A p r i l 16 13 19 28 45 60 A p r i l 22 19 6 2 1 2 Normal 83 81 78 84 Abnormal 0 0 0 1 Dead 17 19 22 15 Average Germination - 81 .5% - 101 -Date Date of No. of Replicat* ss Method Planted Counting Days 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Top of Blotter H 2 O Pre-chill: A p r i l 2 A p r i l 14 6 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 18 10 98 91 99 89 Temp. 20-30OC A p r i l 21 13 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 27 19 2 5 0 6 Normal 100 96 99 95 Abnormal 0 0 0 0 Dead 0 4 1 5 Average Germination - 97 .5% Top of Blotter 2 % 1 0 1 0 3 : A p r i l 2 A p r i l 9 6 0 0 0 0 A p r i l 13 10 77 77 67 65 A p r i l 16 13 16 26 27 23 A p r i l 22 19 2 1 2 9 Normal 95 98 96 97 Abnormal 0 0 1 0 Dead 5 2 3 3 Average Germination - 96 .5% - 102 -A P P E N D I X VI CALCULATION OF PRICE FOR CAREX MERTENSII AND NUMBER OF SEEDS PER KILOGRAM Col lec t ion of 50 kg seed, taking 32 man-hours: . 32 hours @ salary cost of $9.00/h $288.00 8 hours of cleaning and drying @ $9.00/h 72.00 Miscellaneous mater ials (screens, bags, etc.) 20.00 Cost of 50 kg of seed $380.00 Therefore, Cost per kg $ 7 .60 SEEDS PER KILOGRAM Weight No. of Sample Seeds 1 0.0561 100 2 0.0585 100 3 0.0544 100 0.0563 g/100 seeds 1,776 seeds/g 1,776,000 seeds/kg - 103 -A P P E N D I X VII RAW DATA FROM VEGETATION PLOTS, PERCENT GROUND COVER PER PLOT, AVERAGE GROUND COVER PERCENTAGE, AND STANDARD DEVIATION Species Hard Fescue Kentucky Bluegrass Annual Ryegrass Creeping Red Fescue Canada Bluegrass SKYLINE, 1980 Seed Rate Fertilizer % Cover Mean S.D. 50 150 43 39.0 5.66 50 150 35 - -50 300 15 13.5 2.12 50 300 12 - -100 150 9 28 .5 27.57 100 150 48 - -100 300 70 71 .0 1.41 100 300 72 - -50 150 2 .5 1.0 1.41 50 150 - - -50 300 19 13.5 7.78 50 300 8 - -100 150 12 11.0 14.1 100 150 10 - -100 300 27 20.5 9.19 100 300 14 - -50 150 5 2 .5 3.54 50 150 - - -50 300 - - -50 300 - - -100 150 - - -100 150 - - -100 300 - - -100 300 - - -50 150 33 20.0 18.38 50 150 7 - -50 300 6 11.0 7.07 50 300 16 - -100 150 17 14.0 4.24 100 150 11 - -100 300 42 43 .5 2.12 100 300 45 - -50 150 6 4 . 0 2 .83 50 150 2 .5 - -50 300 18 9 . 0 12.73 50 300 - - -100 150 12 6 .0 8 .49 100, 150 - - -100 300 22 15.0 9 .90 100 300 8 - -- 104 -Species Orchard Grass Slender Wheatgrass Timothy Pubescent Wheat Perennial Rye Seed R a t e F e r t i l i z e r % Cover Mean S . D . 50 150 7 8 . 0 1.41 50 150 9 - -50 300 49 4 6 . 5 3 .54 50 300 44 - -100 150 25 2 1 . 0 5 .66 100 150 17 - -100 300 19 25 .5 9 .19 100 300 32 - -50 150 13 9 . 0 5.66 50 150 5 - -50 300 5 2 .0 -50 300 5 - -100 150 48 4 6 . 5 2 .12 100 150 45 - -100 300 18 13.5 6 .36 100 • 300 9 - -50 150 2 .5 15.0 15.56 50 150 26 - -50 300 34 32 .0 2 .83 50 300 30 - -100 150 24 19.0 7.07 100 150 14 - -100 300 21 25 .5 6 .36 100 300 30 - -50 150 33 3 0 . 5 3.54 50 150 28 - -50 300 6 10.0 5.66 50 300 14 - -100 150 5 4 . 5 3.54 100 150 7 - -100 300 17 12.0 7.07 100 300 7 - -50 150 5 4 . 5 3 .54 50 150 7 - -50 300 10 8 . 5 2 .12 50 300 7 - -100 150 5 4 . 5 3 .54 100 150 7 - -100 300 15 16.0 1.41 100 300 17 - -- 105 -Species Crested Wheat Grass Red Clover Tetraploid P. Rye Red Canary Grass Red Top Bentgrass Seed R a t e F e r t i l i z e r % Cover Mean S .D . 50 150 _ 1.0 1.41 50 150 2 . 5 - -50 300 5 6 . 5 2 .12 50 300 8 - -100 150 4 7 . 5 5 .99 100 150 11 - -100 300 6 5 . 5 0 .71 100 300 5 - -50 150 _ 50 150 - _ -50 300 - - -50 300 2 . 5 10.0 -100 150 13 10.5 3 .55 100 150 8 - -100 300 - - -100 300 2 . 5 - -50 150 _ 1.0 1.41 50 150 2 .5 - -50 300 7 6 . 5 0 .71 50 300 6 - -100 150 2 . 5 6 . 5 6 .36 100 150 11 - -100 300 9 9 . 3 0 .71 50 150 _ 9 . 9 50 100 14 - -50 300 2 . 5 _ -50 300 2 .5 - -100 150 24 - -100 150 5 14.5 13.44 100 300 14 - -100 300 16 15 1.41 50 150 _ 3 . 0 4.24 50 150 6 - -50 300 2 .5 6 . 5 6 .36 50 300 11 - -100 150 12 6 . 0 8.49 100 150 2 . 5 100 300 2 .5 6 . 5 6 .36 100 300 11 - -- 106 -Species Bluegrass F oxtail White C lover T refo i l Pencross Creeping Bentgrass Seed R a t e F e r t i l i z e r % Cover Mean S .D . 50 150 2 . 5 2 .0 _ 50 150 2 . 5 - -50 300 2 . 5 - -50 300 16 9 . 0 9 .90 100 150 2 .5 - -100 150 12 7 .0 7.07 100 300 8 - -100 300 8 8 . 0 -50 150 _ 1.0 1.41 50 150 2 . 5 - -50 300 2 . 5 2 .0 -50 300 2 .5 - -100 150 - 1.0 1.41 100 150 2 .5 - -100 300 13 11.5 2 .12 100 300 10 - -50 150 2 . 5 2 .0 _ 50 150 2 . 5 - -50 300 - 1.0 1.41 50 300 2 .5 - -100 150 10 7 . 5 3.34 100 150 5 -100 300 8 12.0 5.66 100 300 16 - -50 150 10 6 . 0 5 .66 50 150 2 .5 - -50 300 2 . 5 5 . 5 4 .95 50 300 9 - -100 150 2 . 5 4 . 0 2 .83 100 150 6 - -100 300 2 . 5 5 . 0 4 .20 100 300 8 - -50 150 8 5 .0 4 .20 50 150 2 .5 - -50 300 15 11.0 5.66 50 300 7 - -100 150 7 8 . 0 1.41 100 150 7 - -100 300 10 13.0 4 .20 100 300 16 _ -- 107 -Species Seed Rate Fertilizer % Cover Mean S.D. Alfalfa 50 150 2 .5 50 150 - -50 300 2 . 5 -50 300 - -100 150 2 . 5 100 150 2 .5 100 300 - -100 300 _ - 108 -S K Y L I N E 1, 1979 Species Hard Fescue Kentucky Bluegrass Annual Ryegrass Creeping Red Fescue Slender Wheatgrass Seed R a t e F e r t i l i z e r % Cover Mean S .D . 50 150 15 14.5 0 .71 50 150 14 - -50 300 5 7 . 5 7 .78 50 300 13 - -100 150 6 4 . 0 2 .83 100 150 25 - -100 300 30 3 0 . 5 0 .71 100 300 31 - -50 150 2 2 .0 50 150 2 - -50 300 - 3 . 5 4 .95 50 300 7 _ 100 150 - 1.0 1.41 100 150 2 - -100 300 - 3 . 0 4.24 100 300 6 - -50 150 10 16.5 9 .19 50 150 23 - -50 300 5 6 . 0 1.41 50 300 7 - -100 150 6 13.0 9 .90 100 150 20 - -100 300 90 93 .0 4.24 100 300 96 - -50 100 20 11.0 12.73 50 150 2 - -50 300 18 9 . 0 12.73 50 300 - - -100 150 19 13.5 7 .78 100 150 8 - -100 300 21 23 .5 3.54 100 300 26 - -50 150 10 5 . 0 7.07 50 150 - -50 300 - -50 300 - - -100 150 - 9 . 0 12.73 100 150 18 _ 100 300 2 2 .0 -100 300 2 _ _ - 109 -Species T im othy Pubescent Wheat Perennial Rye Canada Bluegrass Orchard Grass Seed R a t e F e r t i l i z e r % Cover Mean S . D . 50 150 7 11.5 6 .36 50 150 16 - -50 300 10 17.0 9 .90 50 300 24 - -100 150 17 11.5 7.78 100 150 6 - -100 300 2 4 . 0 2 .83 100 300 6 - -50 150 10 5 .0 7.07 50 150 - - -50 300 2 1.0 1.41 50 300 - - -100 150 2 4 . 5 3 .54 100 150 7 - -100 300 2 2 .0 100 300 2 - -50 150 7 6 . 0 1.41 50 150 5 - -50 300 16 14.0 2 .83 50 300 12 - -100 150 - 4.0 5 .66 100 150 8 - -100 300 8 - -100 300 44 66 .0 31.11 50 150 _ 1.0 1.41 50 150 2 - -50 300 - 3 . 5 4 .95 50 300 7 - -100 150 2 1.0 1.41 100 150 - - -100 300 - 11.0 15.56 100 300 22 - -50 150 2 2 .0 _ 50 150 2 - -50 300 30 26 .5 4 .95 50 300 23 - -100 150 6 6 . 5 0 .71 100 150 7 - -100 300 44 31 .0 18.38 100 300 18 - -- 110 -Species Crested Wheat A l f a l f a Red Top Bentgrass Bluegrass Red Canary Grass Seed R a t e F e r t i l i z e r % Cover Mean S . D . 50 150 1.0 1.41 50 150 2 - -50 300 - - -50 300 - - -100 150 - - -100 150 - - -100 300 6 4 . 0 2 .83 100 300 2 - -50 150 5 2 .0 _ 50 150 5 - -50 300 - - -50 300 - - -100 150 10 6 . 0 5 .66 100 150 5 - -100 300 5 1.0 1.41 100 300 - - -50 150 6 11.5 7.78 50 150 17 - -50 300 10 18.5 12.02 50 300 27 - -100 150 18 10.0 11.31 100 150 5 - -100 300 21 13.5 10.61 100 300 6 - -50 150 _ 1.0 1.41 50 150 5 - -50 300 5 7 . 5 7.78 50 300 13 - -100 150 9 5 . 5 4 .95 100 150 5 - -100 300 5 5 . 0 4.24 100 300 8 - -50 150 8 1.0 60 .0 50 150 15 11.5 4 .95 50 300 - 3 . 0 4.24 50 300 6 - -100 150 29 3 1 . 5 3.54 100 150 35 - -100 300 2 25 .0 4.24 100 300 28 - -- I l l -Species Tetraploid Perennial R y e White C lover Trefo i l Penncross Creeping Bentgrass F oxtail Seed R a t e F e r t i l i z e r % Cover Mean S . D . 50 150 2 1.0 1.41 50 150 - - -50 300 13 6 . 5 9 .19 50 300 - - -100 150 13 12.5 0 .71 100 150 12 - -100 300 2 7 . 5 7 .78 100 300 13 - -50 150 5 2 .0 _ 50 150 5 - -50 300 5 5 . 5 4 .95 50 300 9 - -100 150 11 6 . 5 6 .36 100 150 5 - -100 300 6 13.0 9 .90 100 300 20 - -50 150 5 7 . 0 7.07 50 150 12 - -50 300 6 8 . 0 2 .83 50 300 10 - -100 150 5 2 .0 -100 150 5 - -100 300 5 2 .0 -100 300 5 - -50 150 5 2 . 0 _ 50 150 5 - -50 300 8 2 0 . 5 17.68 50 300 33 - -100 150 23 36 .0 18.38 100 150 49 - -100 300 - 5 . 0 7.07 100 300 10 - -50 150 10 5 . 0 7.07 50 150 - - -50 300 - 8 . 0 11.31 50 300 16 - -100 150 5 4 . 0 2 .83 100 150 6 - -100 300 31 19.0 16.97 100 300 7 - -- 112 -Species Seed Rate Fertilizer % Cover Mean S.D. Red Clover 50 150 - 1.0 1.41 t    0 _ .  50 150 5 -50 300 _ _ 50 300 _ 100 150 100 150 _ 100 300 5 1.0 100 300 — 1.41 - 113 -S A S Q U A T C H , 1980 Species Hard Fescue Kentucky Bluegrass Annual R y e Creeping Red Slender Wheat Seed R a t e F e r t i l i z e r % Cover X S . D . 50 150 5 6 . 0 5 .66 50 150 10 - -50 300 27 26 .0 1.41 50 300 25 - -100 150 25 18.5 9 .19 100 150 12 - -100 300 - 4.0 5.66 100 300 8 -50 150 6 3 . 0 4.24 50 150 - - -50 300 5 6 . 5 6 .36 50 300 11 - -100 150 5 1.0 1.41 100 150 - - -100 300 - 6 . 0 8 .49 100 300 12 - -50 150 _ _ _ 50 150 - - -50 300 5 2 . 0 -50 300 5 - -100 150 - 1.0 1.91 100 150 5 - -100 300 5 2 .0 -100 300 5 - -50 150 13 10.5 3 .54 50 150 8 - -50 300 42 4 0 . 5 2 .12 50 300 39 - -100 150 12 18.5 9 .19 100 150 25 - -100 300 31 23 .0 11.31 100 300 15 - -50 150 _ 1.0 1.91 50 150 5 - -50 300 5 2 . 0 -50 300 5 - -100 150 5 2 .0 -100 150 5 - -100 300 5 1.0 1.41 100 300 - - -- 1 1 4 -Species Timothy Pubescent Wheat Perennial Rye Canada Bluegrass Orchard Grass Seed R a t e F e r t i l i z e r % Cover Mean S .D . 50 150 11 8 . 0 4.24 50 150 5 - -50 300 6 14.0 19.8 50 300 28 - -100 150 8 7 .0 1.41 100 150 6 - -100 300 20 10.0 14.14 100 300 - - -50 150 6 5 . 5 0 .71 50 150 5 - -50 300 5 1.0 1.41 50 300 - - -100 150 57 2 9 . 5 38.87 100 150 5 - -100 300 7 3 . 5 4 .95 100 300 - - -50 150 43 37 .0 8 .49 50 150 31 - -50 300 5 5 . 5 0 .71 50 300 6 - -100 150 - 3 . 5 2 .12 100 150 5 - -100 300 12 8 . 5 4 .45 100 300 5 - -50 150 5 4 . 0 2 .83 50 150 6 _ 50 300 5 2 .0 -50 300 5 - -100 150 - _ -100 150 - - -100 300 7 10.5 4 .95 100 300 14 - -50 150 5 6 5 .66 50 150 10 - -50 300 5 11.5 13.44 50 300 21 - -100 150 - 1.0 1.41 100 150 - - -100 300 7 10.5 4 .95 100 300 14 - -- 115 -Species Crested Wheat Grass Red Canary Grass Tetraploid P. Rye Red Top Bentgrass Bluegrass Seed R a t e F e r t i l i z e r % Cover Mean S .D . 50 150 — 6 . 5 9 .19 50 150 13 - -50 300 2 1.0 1.41 50 300 - - -100 150 7 3 . 5 4 .95 100 150 - - -100 300 2 2 . 0 -100 300 2 - -50 150 11 8 . 5 3.54 50 150 6 - -50 300 38 - -50 300 14 26 .0 16.97 100 150 8 - -100 150 17 12.5 6 .36 100 300 30 - -100 300 35 3 2 . 5 3 .54 50 150 29 17.0 16.97 50 150 5 - -50 300 61 3 8 . 5 3.54 50 300 56 - -100 150 30 25 .0 7 .07 100 150 20 - -100 300 51 44 .0 9 . 9 100 300 37 - -50 150 _ 15.0 21.21 50 150 30 - -50 300 44 61 .5 24.75 50 300 79 - -100 150 6 11.0 7.07 100 150 16 - -100 300 64 7 9 . 5 21 .92 100 300 95 - -50 150 50 150 - - -50 300 14 11.5 3 .54 50 300 9 - -100 150 49 41 .0 11.31 100 150 33 - -100 300 18 9 . 0 12.73 100 300 - - -- 116 -Species Seed Rate Fertilizer % Cover Mean S.D. Foxta i l 50 150 12 7 .0 7.07 6 . 3 2 .83 0 .71 White C lover 50 150 7 8 . 0 1.41 1.91 3 .54 2.12 Trefo i l 50 150 6 4 .0 2 .83 11.31 7 .07 Penncross Creeping 50 150 17 14.0 4 .24 Bentgrass 2 .12 2 . 8 3 5 .66 A l f a l f a 50 150 5 1.0 1.41 t   0  .  50 150 5 -50 300 5 6 . 5 50 300 11 -100 150 7 9 . 0 100 150 6 -100 300 18 18.5 100 300 19 - 0  . 0 50 150 9 -50 300 - 1.0 50 300 5 -100 150 5 2 . 5 100 150 - -100 300 8 6 . 5 100 300 3 - 0  .  50 150 5 -50 300 5 10.0 50 300 18 -100 150 - -100 150 10 5.0 100 300 - -100 300 - - 0  .0 50 150 11 -50 300 25 2 6 . 5 50 300 28 -100 150 23 21 .0 100 150 19 -100 300 70 66 .0 100 300 62 -.  0  .  50 150 - -50 300 - -50 300 - -100 150 5 1.0 100 150 - -100 300 5 5 . 5 100 300 9 -1.41 4 .95 - 117 -Species Red C lover Seed R a t e F e r t i l i z e r % Cover Mean S . D . 50 150 6 3 . 0 4.24 50 150 - - -50 300 20 10.0 14.14 50 300 - - -100 150 5 1.0 1.41 100 150 - - -100 300 9 4 . 5 6 .36 100 300 - - -- 118 -S A S Q U A T C H , 1979 Species Canada Bluegrass Orchard Grass Creeping Red Fescue Hard Fescue Kentucky Bluegrass Seed R a t e F e r t i l i z e r % Cover Mean S . D . 50 150 _ _ 50 150 - - -50 300 - - -50 300 - - -100 100 - - -100 100 - - -100 300 5 6 . 5 6 .36 100 300 11 - -50 150 18 13.0 7.07 . 50 100 8 - -50 300 15 9 . 0 5.66 50 300 13 - -100 150 9 5 . 5 4 .95 100 150 5 - -100 300 14 26 .0 16.97 100 300 38 - -50 150 5 15.0 18.38 50 150 28 - -50 300 19 18.5 0 .71 50 300 18 - -100 150 10 12.5 3 .54 100 150 15 - -100 310 44 4 .15 2 .12 100 300 47 - -50 150 5 2 . 0 50 150 5 - -50 300 17 18.5 2 .12 50 300 20 - -100 150 5 1.0 1.41 100 150 - - -100 300 8 - -100 300 9 - -50 150 5 6 . 5 2 .12 50 150 8 - -50 300 14 10.0 5.66 50 300 6 - -100 150 5 1.0 1.41 100 150 - - -100 300 17 8 . 5 12.02 100 300 - - -- 119 -Species Annual Rye Slender Wheatgrass Timothy Pubescent Wheatgrass Perennial Rye Seed R a t e F e r t i l i z e r % Cover Mean S .D . 50 150 5 8 . 5 4 .95 50 150 12 - -50 300 11 14.0 4.24 50 300 17 - -100 150 5 2 . 0 -100 150 5 - -100 300 11 23 .0 16.97 100 300 35 - -50 150 _ _ _ 50 100 - - -50 300 8 5 . 0 4.24 50 300 5 - -100 150 - 1.0 1.41 100 150 5 - -100 300 - 12.0 16.97 100 300 29 - -50 150 5 33 .0 43.04 50 150 64 - -50 300 20 23 .0 4.24 50 300 20 - -100 150 5 3 . 5 2 .12 100 150 5 - -100 300 - - -100 300 - - -50 150 _ 50 150 - - -50 300 5 1.0 1.41 50 300 - - -100 150 10 6 .0 5.66 100 150 5 - -100 300 5 1.0 1.41 100 300 - - -50 150 25 23 .0 2 .83 50 150 21 - -50 300 26 2 8 . 5 3.54 50 300 31 - -100 150 5 4 . 0 2 .83 100 150 6 - -100 300 6 4 . 0 2 .83 100 300 5 - -- 120 -Species Crested Wheatgrass Red Canary Grass Tetraploid P. R y e Red Top Bentgrass A l f a l f a Seed R a t e F e r t i l i z e r % Cover Mean S . D . 50 150 _ 1.0 1.41 50 150 5 - -50 300 5 - -50 300 - - -100 150 - - -100 150 - - -100 300 - - -100 300 - - -50 150 21 16.0 7.07 50 150 11 - -50 300 25 18.5 9 .19 50 300 12 - -100 150 10 8 . 5 2.12 100 150 7 - -100 300 34 31 .0 4 .24 100 300 28 - -50 150 11 21 .0 14.14 50 150 31 - -50 300 49 40 .0 12.73 50 300 31 - -100 150 27 2 9 . 5 3 .54 100 150 32 - -100 300 62 67 .0 7.07 100 300 72 - -50 150 49 4 2 . 5 9 .19 50 150 36 - -50 300 43 40 .0 4 .24 50 300 37 - -100 150 35 4 2 . 5 10.61 100 150 50 - -100 300 54 7 5 . 5 30.41 100 300 97 - -50 150 _ 50 150 - - -50 300 - - -50 300 - - -100 150 - - -100 150 - - -100 300 - - -100 300 - - -- 121 -Species Seed Rate Fertilizer % Cover Mean S.D. Red C lover 50 150 - 5 . 0 7.07 4.95 12.02 1.41 White C lover 50 150 9 7 .0 2 .83 4.24 4.24 2 . 8 3 100 300 10 Trefo i l Bluegrass   -50 150 10 -50 300 13 9 . 4 50 300 6 -100 150 17 8 . 5 100 150 - -100 300 8 7 .0 100 300 6 -  50 150 5 -50 300 18 15.0 50 300 12 -100 150 6 3 .0 100 150 - _ 100 300 6 8 . 0 100 300 10 -50 150 _ _ 50 150 - -50 300 - -50 300 -100 150 - -100 150 - -100 300 - -100 300 - -50 150 17 18.0 50 150 19 -50 300 51 35 .5 50 300 20 -100 150 - -100 150 - _ 100 300 38 25 .0 100 300 12 -50 150 _ 50 150 - -50 300 - -50 300 - -100 150 - -100 150 - -100 300 12 9 . 5 100 300 7 -Pencross Creeping   .  1.41 Bentgrass 21.92 18.38 3.54 - 122 -Species Fox ta i l Seed R a t e F e r t i l i z e r % Cover Mean S .D . 50 150 10 11.5 2.12 50 150 13 - -50 300 - 3 . 5 7.78 50 300 11 - -100 150 17 20 .0 4.24 100 150 23 - -100 300 38 3 1 . 5 9 .19 100 300 25 - -

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