Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Pregnancy rate and early lamb surviaval of California bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis californiana, Douglas… Harper, William Lamont 1984

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1984_A6_7 H37.pdf [ 5.16MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0096116.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0096116-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0096116-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0096116-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0096116-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0096116-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0096116-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0096116-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0096116.ris

Full Text

P R E G N A N C Y R A T E AND E A R L Y L A M B S U R V I V A L OF  C A L I F O R N I A B G IH O R N S H E E P  ( O V I S C A N A D E N S S I C A L I F O R N I A N A , D O U G L A S IN  THE  1871)  A S H N O L A W A T E R S H E D , B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A .  By WILLIAM LAMONT HARPER B.Sc.(Zool), University o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1979  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FLJIiFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Animal Science)  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the recfuired standard, .  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1984 ©William Lamont Harper, 1984  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  It i s  understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l n o t be allowed without my w r i t t e n  permission.  Department  Of  A m n w l fim'pnpp  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (.3/81)  October  1fi  r  Columbia  ii  A B S T R A C T  The  Flatiron  Mountain  canadensis],  with  to determine  the timing  disease  status  behaviour,  a history  of  determined  adult  females  lambs  belonging  first  month p o s t p a r t u m .  the  Flatiron scores  the  captured  than  between  energy  blood  deficient,  was  the  the  were  status  and  on d o m e s t i c  sheep  The  only  parainfluenza sampled  their  old.  females  mineral  i n late  f r e e z i n g temperatures  that  pathogen  virus, winter.  which  when from  condition production,  sufficient for and z i n c i n  were  marginally  minerals. i n adult  deficient isolated was  Although  and s n o w f a l l  observable  The one 9-month o l d  selenium  marginally  important type-3  values.  lamb  copper,  i n winter  i n the  females  body  was  o f some b l o o d  suggest  100% i n 10  Mortality of  Adult  higher  and  suckling  offspring  higher  o f selenium,  based  trace  lost  with  of F l a t i r o n  low l e v e l s  studied  64%, a l l o c c u r r i n g  had  females  had v e r y  [Ovis  Pregnancy  was  gestation.  and 21 d a y s  herd  survival.  diagnoses,  three  heavier  of  f e m a l e s t h a t were  of Flatiron  only  lamb  was  serum  12 f e m a l e s  involving  five  concentrations  population. swabs was  period,  was  significance  on  Of t h e f i v e  Concentrations  lamb c a p t u r e d kidney  the  females  sheep  losses, the n u t r i t i o n a l  ultrasound  a captive research  survival.  and  and  bighorn  recruitment,  i n mid t o l a t e  t o tagged  Mountain  suggesting lamb  by D o p p l e r  t h e lambing  lamb was  of offspring  and p r e d a t i o n  fate,  of  o f low lamb  females,  weather,  throughout  population  found  in from  males this nasal  i n 50% o f  several  occurred  Liver  storms  during the  iii  lambing  period,  elevations no  females  with  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  obvious  correlation  newborn  a milder  between  lambs  frequented  microclimate,  inclement  weather  and and  lower  there  was  periods  of  \  high was  lamb  mortality.  similar  double  the  predator spring  to  that  lamb  scats,  diet  The of  other  production mainly  consisted  of  nutritional,  considering  the  hypothesized  t o be  Flatiron  testing applied.  timing the  populations of  coyote,  significant  on  s u c k l i n g behaviour  bighorn  most  conclusion  24%  by  or  climatic  on  losses,  coyote  likely  factor  limiting  effort  before  should  management  be  had  Analysis  volume  Based  lambs  average,  females.  lamb  Mountain. Research  this  on  lambs.  disease, of  Flatiron  which,  Flatiron revealed  of  the  of  of  their  lack  of  factors,  and  predation  was  lamb  directed  survival towards  prescriptions  are  iv  T A B L E OF  C O N T E N T S  PAGE Abstract Table  i i  of Contents  List  of Tables  List  of Figures  List  of Appendices  iv v i i viii x  Acknowledgements  xi  Introduction  1  B a c k g r o u n d and O b j e c t i v e s  1  Study Area  20  Methods  24 Capture  and D a t a C o l l e c t i o n  24  Pregnancy D i a g n o s i s  25  Blood  25  and T i s s u e Samples  A e r o b i c B a c t e r i a and V i r u s Sampling W e i g h t s and Measurements and Body C o n d i t i o n S c o r e s Identification and E a r t a g s Observation of  26 26  Collars 27  and C e n s u s  the P o p u l a t i o n Census Technique Suckling Behaviour  27 27 28  V  Climatological  Stations  29  P r e d a t o r Food H a b i t s  30  Statistical  31  Analysis  Results  3  Timing  of O f f s p r i n g  Losses  3  33  Pregnancy Rate  33  S u r v i v a l o f Lambs f r o m Tagged F e m a l e s  33  N u t r i t i o n a l and D i s e a s e S t a t u s of Females i n L a t e G e s t a t i o n  38  Weights, and  Measurements  Body C o n d i t i o n S c o r e s  Blood  and  Disease  Tissue Chemistry  Incidence  V o c a l i z a t i o n and S e a r c h B e h a v i o u r o f Females Factors  Affecting  Lamb S u r v i v a l  43 43 45  50  Weather D u r i n g Lambing  50  Suckling Behaviour  53  Direct  Observations  of Predators  Contents of Predator Scats i n Spring Discussion Timing  40 42  P r o d u c t i o n and S u r v i v a l o f O f f s p r i n g D u r i n g t h e Lambing P e r i o d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Censuses of t h e F l a t i r o n Mt. P o p u l a t i o n  Potential  38  54  56 58  of O f f s p r i n g  Mortality  P r e g n a n c y Rate  58 58  vi  S u r v i v a l o f Lambs f r o m Tagged F e m a l e s  60  N u t r i t i o n a l and D i s e a s e S t a t u s o f Females i n L a t e G e s t a t i o n  61  Weights, and  Measurements,  Body C o n d i t i o n S c o r e s  Blood  and T i s s u e C h e m i s t r y  Disease  Incidence  P r o d u c t i o n and S u r v i v a l o f O f f s p r i n g D u r i n g t h e Lambing P e r i o d Lambing C h r o n o l o g y and P r o d u c t i o n i n Previous Years Potential  Factors  Affecting  Lamb S u r v i v a l  Weather  During  61 63 67  70 70  73 Lambing  73  S u c k l i n g Behaviour  75  Predation  76  Conclusions  82  Recommendations  84  Literature  87  Appendices  Cited  97  vii  LIST OF  T A B L E S  PAGE 1.  Recent  history  2.  Summary  Pregnancy bighorn in  Mountain  i n the Ashnola since  1950 .  f e m a l e s c a p t u r e d on F l a t i r o n  Mountain  1983  34  B l o o d c h e m i s t r y o f female b i g h o r n from t h e A s h n o l a  5.  Weights  of C a l i f o r n i a  south-central  B r i t i s h Columbia  on a wet w e i g h t  basis  and k i d n e y  f r o m male and f e m a l e  Monthly  maximum c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c o u n t s o f b i g h o r n  1983. and  based  Mountain  Mountain  41  transect  R a t i o s i n p a r e n t h e s e s o f lambs,  males  (2yr+)  on y e a r l y  to adult  35  39  from F l a t i r o n  on t h e F l a t i r o n  ...  from  bighorn  sheep  8.  b i g h o r n sheep  Trace mineral concentrations of l i v e r tissue  7.  5  d i a g n o s i s , w e i g h t s , and measurements o f  4.  6.  3  o f y e a r l y maximum c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c o u n t s  on F l a t i r o n 3.  of the Ashnola bighorn p o p u l a t i o n  i n 1982 and yearlings,  females are a l s o  shown  maxima  46  S u c k l i n g b e h a v i o u r o f b i g h o r n lambs f o r t h e Flatiron June  Mountain  11, 1983  p o p u l a t i o n between A p r i l  27 and 53b  viii  LIST OF  F I G U R E S  PAGE 1.  (A) Y e a r l y maximum c o u n t s o f f e m a l e s older)  on F l a t i r o n  Mountain  from  (B) R a t i o o f lambs p e r a d u l t 1983 for 2.  actual  Schematic and of  3.  based  The  4.  to  female  from  on y e a r l y maximu c o u n t s .  See  diagram  1983. 1960 table  representing  affecting,  survival  month o f age  s t u d y a r e a on F l a t i r o n  Mountain  10 i n the  River watershed  21  of tagged  the  and  pattern of b i r t h Mountain  females,  survival  and  of t h e i r  Flatiron  Mountain  i n 1983.  observation of adult  during  indicating the  lambs  i n 1983  37  (A) P a t t e r n o f o b s e r v a t i o n o f newborn lambs  1983  2  the process o f ,  p r o d u c t i o n and  P a t t e r n of i s o l a t i o n  in  to  6  b i g h o r n lambs t o one  on F l a t i r o n 5.  1960  and  values  factors  Ashnola  (2 y e a r s  (B) P a t t e r n  f e m a l e s on F l a t i r o n  isolation  lambing p e r i o d  of pregnant  on  of Mountain females 44  ix  6.  S u r v i v a l o f b i g h o r n lambs on F l a t i r o n  Mountain  from June,  pregnancy  diagnosis  1982 and  t o May,  1983  based  on  maximum c o u n t s o f lambs  and  yearlings  7.  Weather p a t t e r n s during  8.  47  t h e 1983  Pattern Mountain  i n t h e A s h n o l a a t 1585 lambing  of observation  m  (HT3)  period o f newborn lambs on  i n seven d i f f e r e n t  years  51 Flatiron 71  X  LIST  Accuracy  of Doppler  i n b i g h o r n sheep. J. Wildl.  OF  APPENDICES  ultrasound i n diagnosing Harper  Cohen  of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  t h e Body C o n d i t i o n S c o r e  scale  used  a wet  weight  south-central  to define  in this  basis  British  form  liver  male and  study  females  which s u c c e s s f u l l y  to those that  t h a n one  month o l d .  and  female  kidney  tissue  bighorn  from  Columbia.  Comparison of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  old,  used  R u s s e l e t a_l. 1969) .  Trace mineral c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of on  (in press).  Manage.  Descriptions  (after  and  pregnancy  lost  of those  tagged  r e a r e d a lamb t o t h r e e months  their  lambs when t h e y were  less  xi  A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S  My Tait,  both  project. F.L.  co-supervisors o f whom  were  D r . D.M.  provided  guidance  Shackleton and s u p p o r t  R.M.  throughout the  The o t h e r members o f my c o m m i t t e e were, D r s . M.D.  Pitt,  B u n n e l l , and R.G. P e t e r s o n . Mr.  R.C.  Lincoln  first  suggested  b i g h o r n , and D r . R.D.H. Cohen i n i t i a t e d Dr.  R.G.  Laboratory,  Dr. practise Dr.  Lewis,  provided  swab s a m p l e s , D.  Mr. mineral  Rurak  the  D. Eastman  Ashnola  Veterinary  Pathology  tissue,  and n a s a l  and d i s e a s e i n c i d e n c e s .  h i s Doppler  ultrasound  device f o r  stages o f the p r o j e c t . allowed  me t o sample  kindly  relatives,  t h e Okanagan  Game  Farm  suggestions.  provided  o f E a s t Kootenay  t h e B.C. M i n i s t r y  the  the project.  of blood,  levels  and p r o v i d e d u s e f u l  P. D a v i d s o n levels  me  studying  Provincal  the analyses  loaned  i n the early  Many f r i e n d s ,  field  of  f o r trace mineral  research herd,  of  and D r .  unpublished  data  on t r a c e  bighorn.  f e l l o w graduate  o f Environment  helped  s t u d e n t s , and s t a f f me  o u t , both  in  the  and i n t h e l a b . Mr.  H.F.  Newman,  of  the  Keremeos-Cawston  Sportman's  xii  Association,  was  always  supportive  a  of  and  interested  in  the  project.  In tissue  two  sincere  This British  Columbia  B.C.  Columbia. Ministry  year  25  hunters  was  submitted  analysis.  a  joint  and t h e B.C.  provided  Ministry  undertaking Ministry  by t h e S c i e n c e  o f Environment,  Logistical  support  of Environment.  Council  and  was  of the U n i v e r s i t y  also  Financial  of B r i t i s h  the U n i v e r s i t y provided  Columbia, of  by  of  British  the  B.C.  of Environment.  would  especially  out to a s s i s t  like  t o thank  i n the majority  my  wife  Terry,  of the f i e l d  showed p a t i e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g d u r i n g project.  voluntarily  thanks t o a l l of you.  project  s u p p o r t was  I  total  samples f o r m i n e r a l  My  the  years  who  work,  the w r i t i n g  took and  a  who  phase o f t h e  "When we c o n s i d e r . . . how soon some would full  fill  the ocean i f a l l t h e i r  grown f i s h e s , we a r e tempted  e v e r y o r g a n i s m , whether is  fishes  o v a became t o say that  animal or vegetable,  contending f o r possession of the planet...  Nature opposes climate, and  to this  many o b s t a c l e s , a s  m y r i a d s o f b r u t e and a l s o human  foes,  o f c o m p e t i t o r s w h i c h may p r e o c c u p y t h e  ground.  E a c h s u g g e s t s an immense and w o n d e r f u l  g r e e d i n e s s and t e n a c i t y prevails  of l i f e . . .  And e a c h  a s much a s i t d o e s , b e c a u s e o f t h e  ample p r e p a r a t i o n s  i t h a s made f o r t h e c o n t e s t . .  - Henry  David  Thoreau  March 22, 1861.  1  I N T R O D U C T I O N  B a c k g r o u n d and The  numbers  Objectives  of  California  californiana)  in  white  unknown, b u t  men  are  population, village  based  was  of  first  men  white  1960).  (Blood  to  word  until 1961).  near  to  domestic until  sheep  1955,  hunting and  1909,  with  surviving after  population  this  dry  was  forbidden  bighorn  peaked  at  a  the  the  o f B.C.  guides,  introduction  of  During a  short  i n the  hunting minimum  of  217  was  population  diseases  period  season  increased. season  unregulated  of  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  of  southern  on  Buechner  extirpation  the  the  remarked  Ashnola  to the  and  various  1912;  the  Indian  Ashnola  1887  (Allen  of  present  An  Indian  and  attributes  populations  male-only  the  internationally,  range.  exception  by  1886  reduced  the  arrival  the  hunted  observed  interior and  of  Led  in  spread  bighorn the  a  area  (1923)  the  early naturalists.  area.  drastically  Indians on  the  canadensis  l a r g e r than  inhabitants  the  (Ovis  before  confluence  bighorn  Brooks  of bighorn  continued the  the  the  in  of  of  from  its  visit  mountain sheep i n the rifles  watershed  reports  bighorn  sheep  were p r o b a b l y  and  abundance  When  hunting,  on  Rivers  populations  great  Ashnola  located  Similkameen  the  the  bighorn  in  from  1909  1947,  all  interior This  of  on  B.C.  increase  introduced,  bighorn  from  and  Flatiron  2  Mountain counts  in  In  of  the  applied  low  past  years  fall  mineral  anti-helmintic these  always  generated period  from  applied,  success  lambs  per  population  (Table  strategies  have  of  comm.).  water  to  The  of  increasing before  averaged  years, Table among N o r t h females  is  growth  (Lawson  and  production,  the  declined  an  which be  (Romesburg 1 9 8 1 ) . D u r i n g  the  26  these  treatments  per  and  100  adult  i s great v a r i a t i o n  mountain  number  in  sheep p o p u l a t i o n s , adequate  1982) . D u r i n g  average  were  decreased  lambs  there  Johnson  at  and  applying  reasoning,  generally considered  maximum  winter  can  only  American  for  hypotheses  generally  2). While  the  These i n c l u d e d  reasons  alternate  lambs  been  supplementation,  retroductive  t o p r e s e n t , when most o f  Mountain  primarily  1980).  t o have e x i s t e d  1) .  because  100  lamb  to decline,  objective  Lincoln pers.  same s e t o f f a c t s  counts  lambing  the  classification  spring burning, predator control,  production  (n=13  Flatiron  and  1967,  management  estimated  were o f t e n due  1970  females  (Ramsay  supplementation,  the  classification  low  (R.C.  reliable  from  After  bighorn, with  treatment  treatments  not  many  level  men  removal,  feeding,  of  lamb p r o d u c t i o n 30  of white  1973).  t h e p o p u l a t i o n began  p o p u l a t i o n to the  cattle  50  that  t o the Ashnola  arrival  is  (Scheffler  indicated  as a r e s u l t  the  1967  of  rate  this  adult of  1.7  for  period  females per  on  year  ( F i g u r e 1) .  Bighorn  sheep  and  their  range  habits  have  been  studied in  Table  1.  Recent h i s t o r y  of the Ashnola  bighorn population.  Date  F a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the b i g h o r n s h e e p on F l a t i r o n and C r a t e r Mts,  1861  wagon r o a d  early  1880'S  1887  Source  Blood  1961  s t a r t of c a t t l e g r a z i n g on b i g h o r n w i n t e r r a n g e s  Blood  1961  s t a r t of unregulated s p o r t and m a r k e t h u n t i n g  Blood  1961  to hunting Blood  1961  up  bighorn  1912  s t a r t of domestic g r a z i n g on w i n t e r  1913  O.I.C. G r a z i n g R e s e r v e f o r b i g h o r n on S o u t h S l o p e and C l i f f ' s R i d g e  1922 1924 1914-1950  closed  R.  1909  1919  herds  the Ashnola  sheep ranges  B l o o d 1961 & D e m a r c h i 1965  Harper  s t a r t of horse g r a z i n g on b i g h o r n w i n t e r r a n g e s  Demarchi  " v i r u s " from domestic sheep causing disease i n bighorn d o m e s t i c s h e e p removed w i n t e r ranges  1980 1965  Brooks  1923  from  600 c a t t l e on a l l A s h n o l a w i n t e r ranges  Demarchi  1965  Demarchi  1965  400 c a t t l e on S o u t h S l o p e alone i n d i c a t e s overstocking  Blood  1961  1947  short hunting  Blood  1961  1951-52  coyote  control  bait  Blood  1961  1952  cattle  numbers r e d u c e d  150  Blood  1961  1955  male o n l y h u n t i n g s e a s o n b e g i n s (3/4 c u r l r e g u l a t i o n )  1928  season by  poison to  D e m a r c h i 196 5  4  Table  1.  Continued.  1955  cattle  numbers i n c r e a s e t o 300  1957  p o i s o n b a i t s d r o p p e d by a i r c r a f t on m o u n t a i n r a n g e s  Blood  1961  Blood  1961  B l o o d 1961 & D e m a r c h i 1965  1957-68  c a t t l e numbers a t 340-345  1969-76  cattle  1973  p r e d a t o r c o n t r o l by p o i s o n b a i t , t r a p p i n g and s h o o t i n g  1974-83  open s e a s o n i s r e p l a c e d by L i m i t e d Entry Hunting  Ramsay  1980  1976-80  spring burning  Slope  Ramsay  1980  1977  m i n e r a l b l o c k s (3001bs)and a n t i - h e l m i n t i c s (50 l b s ) f e d t o b i g h o r n on S o u t h S l o p e  Harper  1980  c a t t l e returned t o Ashnola r a n g e s (350 head) b u t do n o t g r a z e on S o u t h S l o p e  Crater-Juniper C.R.M.P.  300-800 kg o f p e l l e t e d f o o d s u p p l e m e n t s and a n t i h e l m i n t i c s on S o u t h S l o p e  Ramsay  1981  f a l l b u r n i n g o f South Slope and s u r r o u n d i n g r a n g e s  Min. o f E n v i r o n , f i l e s , Penticton.  1982  a d d i t i o n a l p e l l e t e d food s u p p l e m e n t t o make up f o r burned w i n t e r range, no a n t i - h e l m e n t h i c s , b u t m i n e r a l mix added t o f e e d .  1983  p e l l e t e d food supplements b u t no m i n e r a l s o r a n t i helmenthics  Min. o f E n v i r o n , f i l e s , Penticton  1984  Number o f p e r m i t s f o r L i m i t e d Entry Hunting i n c r e a s e d but a 3/4 c u r l r e s t r i c t i o n i s now e n f o r c e d  B.C. L i m i t e d E n t r y Hunting S y n o p s i s 84/85  1977  1978-81  stabilize  Morrison  removed  on S o u t h  Webster field  1972  unpubl. notes  19 80  Min. o f E n v i r o n , f i l e s , Penticton  Table 2.  Summary of yearly maximum c l a s s i f i c a t i o n counts on F l a t i r o n Mountain since 1950. See Figure 1 f o r graphical representation o f number of adult females and lamb:female r a t i o s . Females 2yr+  Males 2yr+  Lambs per Y e a r l . per Female Female  Year  Iambs  Yearl.  1950 1951  16 23  11 5  43 38  —  .37 .60  .26 .13  Cowan 1951 Cowan 1951  1960  35  15  54  71  .65  .28  Blood 1960, 1961, 1963.  1963 1964  23 30  16 17  53 72  79 53  .43 .42  .30 .24  Demarchi 1965 Demarchi 1965  1967 1968 1969  49 28 27  34  107  51  .46  .31  Scheffler 1973 S i l v e r 1971 S i l v e r 1971  1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980  28 27 14 12 20 10 16 10 27 19 17  13 16 7 9 10 8 15 17 29 18  99 93 80 67 75 80 84 62 58 56 53  62 65 61  .28 .29 .18 .18 .27 .13 .19 .16 .47 .34 .32  .14 .20 .10 .12 .13 .10 .24 .29 .52 .34  1982 1983  23 20  17 19  81 82  38 44  .28 .24  .21 .23  —  Average lamb:female (1970 to 1983) = 0.26 Average year ling-.female (1971 t o 1983) = 0.22  —  Source  Spalding 1971 Webster unpubl Webster unpubl Ramsay 1980 Ramsay 1980 Ramsay 1980 Ramsay 1980 Ramsay 1980 Ramsay 1980 Ramsay 1980 Ramsay 1980 Harper 1984 Harper 1984  6  I960  1965  1970  1975  1980  YEAR  Figure  1.  (A) Y e a r l y maximum c o u n t s o f females (2 y e a r s and o l d e r ) on F l a t i r o n M o u n t a i n from 1960 t o 1983. (B) R a t i o o f lambs p e r a d u l t female from 1960 t o 1983 b a s e d on y e a r l y maximum c o u n t s . See t a b l e 2 f o r a c t u a l v a l u e s .  7  the  Ashnola  watershed  1961;  Demarchi  1972;  and  1965,  Scheffler  ecological  applicable  satisfactory  the  the  and  of  1973).  These  of  importance  investigating  have  the  cause  to  of  capture  habitat  information  have been  there  has  several been  no  nutritional,  Ramsay  studied  (1980) bighorn,  pregnancy  the  general  reproductive,  Ashnola  determining  Morrison  and  limited  there  Sugden  mostly  habits  provided  the  of  food  1967;  1971;  were  habitat,  bighorn.  1963,  Silver  While  Ashnola  biology  1969;  animal  of  1961,  studies  management.  these  of  unable  of  such  the  reproductive  however,  Harper  documentation  status  (Blood  1968;  as  to bighorn  investigations  of  1960  investigations  characteristics,  disease  since  low  female  lamb  rate  and as  a  in  late  of  bighorn  aspects  recognised method  recruitment.  bighorn  or  of  He  was,  gestation  to  meet t h i s o b j e c t i v e . Previous suggested first,  work  three  neonatal  on  major  various periods  mortality,  postpartum  ( G e i s t 1971). A  occurs  lambs  in  one  lungworm/pneumonia Spraker  and  during  the  Geist  1971) .  A  considered the  to  complex  of  bighorn  lamb  occurs  between  birth  second  period  four  lambs' f i r s t fourth  in this  neonatal  third  et  of  high  old, a_l.  early  (Blood  sheep  and  a  1974;  postnatal  the  lambs r e a c h  one  days  lamb m o r t a l i t y to  Horesji  a  1976;  lamb m o r t a l i t y Demarchi  1965;  mortality,  E a r l y postnatal m o r t a l i t y occurs  before  The  few  attributable  1961;  has  mortality.  period of high  winter  period,  study.  p e r i o d but  months  (Woodard  H i b l e r 1 9 8 2 ) . The  occurs  populations  month o f  was  after age.  8  Although month  and  mortality  one  year  from  1960  to  1970  indicate  recently  and  1964  been  focussed  of  that  high  survival  data,  offspring The  number  cleavage  with and  25%  for  classification their  (Table  factors  determine  during  2) .  the  this  the  first  four  years  counts  since  winter  Accordingly,  neonatal  study  factors  of  ovulation,  successful  affect the  previous  Munro 1962;  each  and  focussed  has  this  not study  conceived  early  on  affecting  postnatal  evaluating  pregnancy  to  Belschner  the  these  of  from  rate  1976;  1983), w i l d  Fairaizl 1977;  Thorne  Flinders  sheep  1969;  sheep  et  series  and  al.  events  1975;  1980;  (Geist  variety  ultimately  1976).  Based  Thomson  1953;  and  Williams  Nalbandov  P u i s 1981;  1971;  1982),  1976;  A  and  Alexander  Henne  events  stage, implantation,  (Nalbandov  1966;  Bunnell  of  fertilization,  (Thomson and  Hidiroglou  1980;  a  parturition.  critical  Leathern  Underwood 1977;  Shamberger  and  reproduction  Blore  on  blastocyst  gestation,  1965;  and  depends  c o n t i n u i n g through  s t u d i e s of domestic  W e b s t e r 1976;  S t e i g e r s and  born  and  of  efficiency  Butterworth  1965,  offspring  development  placentation,  (Verme  in  than  one  survival.  beginning  Horesji  greater  1965) ,  mortality  available  1983;  was  h e r d between  on d e t e r m i n i n g t h e number o f b i g h o r n o f f s p r i n g  their  1968;  age  lamb  Secondly,  on  lambs i n t h e F l a t i r o n  (Demarchi  periods.  of  of  Blix  1980) , t h e p r o c e s s o f , and  1976; Dubeski  Shackleton and and  wild Steen  possible  1973;  cervids 1979; factors  9  affecting, age  are  the  production  summarized  progression  of  and  during  events,  the  in  the  sheep data  successful  had  Spalding  sampling was  studies  u s e d t o meet t h e  1.  To  identify  mortality As  shown  production practical females work  must  gestation. concentrate  In offspring tested:  the  limited  can  may  be  2,  rate  to  and  in  the  30  living  the  only  days  bighorn  available  for general a p p l i c a t i o n  determination of  of  flowchart.  was  bighorn  the  first  offspring  that  was:  i n d e v e l o p m e n t when most  late  to  there  occur.  those i f  the  rate  events  following  a  is  1 null  to low  offspring  stages  whether then  is  where  point  for or  a  not  subsequent  factors  rate  postpartum  of  pivotal  and  pregnancy  objective  number  according  I f pregnancy on  a  However,  p r e p a r t u m and  meet  are  recognized  Alternatively,  losses  illustrates  offspring  rates  value  month  physiological states  o b j e c t i v e , which  stage  Figure  concentrate  order  pregnancy  development  first  pregnant.  on  her  one  i s occurring.  in  study  of  to  2  various  accomplished,  of  the  failures  are  of  been  during  lambs  Figure  through  1966). Pregnancy  point  of  f o r m a t o f a computer p r o g r a m  were f o r t u i t o u s and  (e.g.  2.  development  the  previously  survival  Figure  female  p o s t p a r t u m , b a s e d on  No  and  prior  high  one  to can  factors.  concerning research  the  timing  hypothesis  of was  L E G E N D /EVENT / / STATE/  DECISION.  ENDPOINT  Sources 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.  Alexander and Williams 1968, Belschner 1965. Blix and Steen 1979. Bunnell 1982. Butterwarth and Blare 1969. DubesJa 1983. Fairaizl 1980. Geist 1971. Hart et aL 1961. Henn 1973. Hidiroglou 1980. Haresji 1976. Leathern 1966. Munro 1962. Nalbandov 1976. Puis 1981. Shacxleton 1973. Shamberger 1983. Steigers and Flinders 1980. Thomson and Thomson 1953. Thome et aL 1976. Underwood 1977. Verme 1965. Verme 1977. Webster 1976.  -continued Figure 2 .  Schematic diagram representing the process of, and f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g , production and s u r v i v a l of bighorn lambs t o one month of age.  11  8,12,14,17  6,16,18,22  7,10,19  Figure  2.  Continued.  12  Ho:  There  i s no  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e  lamb p r o d u c t i o n  of  Ha:  The  Data  required  the  data,  rate  of  the  timing  defined (Verme  pregnancy r a t e to  population,  Additional  lambs  as  required  belonging  of  any  to  at  production  i s the  a  of  sample  meet  objective  captured 1,  are  Lent  occurring  2  1974).  rate  females.  the  Neonatal within  rate.  pregnancy  individually identified  1971;  and  females.  hypothesis  p a r t u r i t i o n or  as  Mt.  than the  mortalities.  Geist  i s defined  on to  lamb  occurring  i s higher  test this based  1965,1977;  mortality  r a t e of F l a t i r o n  pregnancy r a t e  survival  females,  and  mortality  is  days  postpartum  Early  postnatal  a f t e r 2 d a y s and  before  30  days  postpartum.  To from  study  the  gestation  through  second o b j e c t i v e  2.  To  factors  formulated  females p r i o r to  Studies weight  of  domestic  is significantly  birth  the  successful  lactation  progress  (Figure  2),  the  was:  nutritional  l a m b i n g and  and  the  disease  status  e f f e c t s t h e y have  of on  s u r v i v a l of o f f s p r i n g .  1968). Subsequently, lamb  in  p a r t u r i t i o n and  i n v e s t i g a t e the  the  involved  weight  ewe  s h e e p have a f f e c t e d by  shown t h a t her  body w e i g h t has  (Butterworth  and  the  nutritional a  Blore  female's level  significant 1969;  body (Peart  effect  Peart  et  on al.  13  1975)  which  1953)(see  affect  lamb  F i g u r e 2 ) . Smith  physical index  may  condition  was  the  in  most  applicability.  survival  (Thomson  (1970) r e v i e w e d  ungulates, useful  and  in  In w h i t e - t a i l e d  deer  Thomson  methods f o r e s t i m a t i n g  concluded  terms  and  of  the  kidney  accuracy  and  fat field  (Odocoileus v i r g i n i a n u s ) the 2  kidney the  f a t index  percent  for  estimating a_l.  the  body  difficulty of  three  status  of  weight,  i s that  in  et  deposited a  based  girth,  and  and  feasible  of  techniques  bighorn  sheep  are  working  a  direct  1978). N u t r i t i o n effect  domestic  average  4.3  minimize  c a t a b o l i s m of  fatty  acids  mobilized  kg  on  and  (Peart  through  birthweight  the  lamb  fat stores,  ketones 1967).  indicate Similar  last  measures and  adipose  et  blood  Peterson  and  f o r example is  adjusted  kg when b l o o d tissues  have  al.  o f g e s t a t i o n has  weights;  3.0  nutritional  (Bandy  1978;  feed  animals,  1969) , and  third  when  findings  live  size  Hebert  versus  The  animals,  determining  body  birth  results  length.  with  1970;  Bottrell  Bandy  populations.  chemistry  Thorne  involve  relationship  dead  ( R u s s e l e t a_l.  and  the  most o t h e r d i r e c t  for  Other  although  hindfoot  1956) , s u b c u t a n e o u s f a t r e s e r v e s (Franzmann  usually  on  i n v o l v e measuring  limitations  ( r =0.75)  1981) .  fat reserves,  technique  they  a_l.  status  f o r small threatened  the  living  accurately predict  (Finger  fat indices  feasible  most  to  nutritional  chest  with kidney  are not  fat  suggested  Considering the  body  amount  f a t reserves  thus  shown  measuring  (1956)  between  been  total  techniques  et  has  been  are  an to  free being  reported  by  14  other  r e s e a r c h e r s i n domestic  1967;  Butterworth  1969;  Thome e t a l . Certain  origin, of  ungulates  living  England  In females  et  a l .  1983)  of  both  and i m p a i r e d  order from  disease  t o meet Flatiron  their  disease  i n weight,  offspring.  The  that  third on  sensitive  lose  (Verme 1965,  viral  and  bacterial  fertility in a  1976). D i s e a s e  variety  status i n  (Parks e t a l .  antibody  titre  1972;  (Parks  and  1982).  2,  the n u t r i t i o n a l  status  of  Mt. c a n be compared  to a captive research  Game  o f body  2  Farm can  i n terms also  be  body c o n d i t i o n  among  females  those  their  objective  the s u r v i v a l  that  to thermoregulatory  lambs, stress  since  comparing  m i n e r a l s , and  i n the n u t r i t i o n a l produce  of the study r e l a t e d  and  Mt. t o t h e s u r v i v a l  lambs, s h o u l d become  of  by  score, blood  on F l a t i r o n  females  condition  addressed  T h u s , any d i f f e r e n c e s  s t a t u s between  those  serum  objective  Objective  affliction  and  and P a y s o n  a t t h e Okanagan  weather  diseases,  sterility  1974; T u r n e r  differences  and  cervids  et a l .  1976).  ( B e l s c h n e r 1965; N a l b a n d o v  liveweight.  of  1948; R u s s e l  b i g h o r n c a n be a s s e s s e d by n a s a l swab  Marshall  herd  (Wallace  and B l o r e 1 9 6 9 ) , and w i l d  infectious  can cause  sheep  viable  or  lambs,  apparent.  to the influence of  newborn  ungulates  ( B l i x and S t e e n  1979).  are  15  3.  To document t h e s e v e r i t y period Lambs  relative  which  gestation w i l l both, they  and are  adequate  t o the s u r v i v a l  are  subject  to  during  the  of bighorn  lambing  lambs.  nutritional  stress  during  have l o w e r b i r t h w e i g h t s , m i n e r a l d e f i c i e n c i e s ,  thus born  o f weather  are  more  (Figure  milk  susceptable to  2) . L i k e w i s e ,  supplies  after  acute  cold  lambs  that  are  born  they  stress  do  not  will  after  receive be  more  susceptable to hypothermia.  However, s e v e r e i n c l e m e n t w e a t h e r  the  nutrition  presence  mortality exceed  of  adequate  directly,  t h e lambs'  In  i f the  summit  order to avoid  lamb must  elevate  m/s  however,  wind;  energy  could  drain  conceivably  were  severe  or  in  cause  enough  to  metabolism.  a n e g a t i v e e n e r g y b a l a n c e , a 5 kg  i t s metabolism summit  to  350  metabolism  _ 2  W.m  of a  a t -10  5 kg  C  domestic in a  domestic  5.5  lamb i s  -2 only  360  still  W.m  (Webster  1978).  lambs i n s t i l l +12  The  lower  and  that  although bighorn are  lambing  for  still  to  +22  domestic  period  (Rangifer in  lower  critical  critical  temperature  temperature  on  C  when lambs  lambs,  dry are  Flatiron  Mountain For  the r e s t i n g  a i r , and • e l e v a t e d  +22  1976) .  probably better  temperatures  thermoregulation. tarandus)  (Webster  could  is  in  times  and  C when  apparent  adapted  in  in  domestic  t o +32 It  result  example,  five  (Chappel  encountered  m e t a b o l i c r a t e was  to  C  o f newborn  a i r i s much h i g h e r , r a n g i n g f r o m  wet,  cost  The  a i r o f a d u l t b i g h o r n i n w i n t e r p e l a g e i s -20  Hudson  than  1976).  to  cold  during  the  an  caribou  energy calves  doubled at 0 C  resting  rate  when  16  inclement  weather  (Hart e t a l . The  feedback  metabolic  during  systems.  adipose  lamb  birth,  to  cause  The  tissue  does  not  brown  demand  inclement  r e s e r v e s , w i t h which the  sufficient  hypothermia  weather  autonomic  reserves.  adipose  i s met  system  However,  the neonate  suckle  required  to by  two  involves these  catabolising  brown  i s born, are e a s i l y  soon  after  tissue  birth  accounts  fat  40%  of  (Alexander  The  summit  and  W i l l i a m s 1968).  lambs  involves  metabolism  generated  this  i n newborn  the  somatic  accounts  and  30  other  day  for  1962). the  60  and  o l d domestic  heat  system  response.  95%  of  lambs  At  postpartum  thermoregulatory shivering  energy  exhausted i f  (Alexander  for  body  homeostatic  b u t o n l y 5% a t 30 d a y s  young  death  maintain  g e n e r a t e d a t summit m e t a b o l i s m ,  in  and  1961).  increased  temperature  brown  was  At  the  heat  respectively  ( A l e x a n d e r and W i l l i a m s 1968) .  Data maximum Slope  required  temperatures,  lambing  t h e n be  grounds  compared  determine  i f  Whereas  effect  on  period.  d u r i n g the  during  the  i n the m o r t a l i t y  through  effect  precipitation  lambing  lambs  weather  increase  nutrition  marginal  of  3 are the d a i l y  and  d u r i n g the  inclement  have a s i g n i f i c a n t has  humidity,  to counts  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an  it  t o meet o b j e c t i v e  on  gestation  the  birth  subsequent  on These  lambing lambing  of  has  weight milk  minimum the  and  South  data period period  can to is  lambs.  been  determined  of domestic  production  to  lambs,  (Barnicoat  17  et  al.  1949,  providing  1957;  energy  (Butterworth energetic one  half  1968;  weight  yield  of  during  Peart  lactation  As  deficiency milk  gain  their  such, in  lambs  i t  would  In domestic  Barnicoat  Butterworth  et  aL.  et  of  al.  1968;  cost of  sheep  71%  on  Forbes  1957;  1969;  fetal a  manifest of  the  the  determination 1949,  and  that  would  dependent  The  i s two  expected  females  directly  1969).  sheep  be  1969),  i s adequate  Forbes  exceeds the  (mean c o e f f i c i e n t  1948;  Blore  lactation  1968;  Ashnola  is  and  i n domestic  production.  of  dams  Wallace  1962;  of  1975).  lower  daily  Butterworth  t h a t o f m a i n t e n a n c e , and  protein/energy  Munro  al.  (NRC  in a  1967;  protein intake  requirement times  studies:  and  et  production  itself  Peart  milk  of  eight  Owen  1957;  Peart  et a l .  1975). Work duration between  with of  bighorn  the  suckling  populations  (Horesji  lamb  and  objective  was  sufficiently  4.  To  assess  first with  determine  t o be  the  limiting  lactation  month a f t e r known lamb  has  found  between 1973),  differences species  and  in  (Geist  between  years  quality i f the  (Geist  1971).  lactation survival  of  in  production.  relative  lambs.  to  the to  fourth  production  p r o d u c t i o n of females  parturition  The  the  1971),  1 9 7 6 ) . T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s were r e l a t e d  population  to.  low  bout  (Shackleton  same p o p u l a t i o n production  sheep  i n the  populations  was  18  Data  required  frequency  of  to  meet  suckling  bouts  a g e s , under t h e a s s u m p t i o n milk  production  compared receive  to  objective of  studies  relatively  less  Flatiron  are  the  Mt.  1973).  to  These  determine  milk  duration  lambs  that these v a r i a b l e s  (Shackleton  other  4  are  data  if  of  different  indicative  of  can  be  then  Flatiron  than  populations  third  main  factor  lambs  in  and  that  Mt.  lambs  have  higher  lamb p r o d u c t i o n .  Predation survival  of  (Figure  independantly  be  much  more  other  two  first  and  young  predator  the  Three cougar  the bobcat  (Felis  ungulates,  with  approximately l y n x a t 8 kg  46  kg,  (Canis  of  lambs  rufus). the  the  The  coyote  the  most a b u n d a n t b a s e d  Guiguet  act  had  been  lactation  would  of  bighorn  the  family the  severe prey.  sheep  the  being  bobcat  the at  16  lynx  (Lynx prey  largest kg,  in  Felidae  A l l t h r e e a r e known t o  and  at the  1956).  f a m i l y Canidae  l a t r a n s ) i s the on  may  make them e a s i e r of  the after  Likewise  concolor),  cougar  by  weeks  which  attacks.  members  affect  predation  predators  (Felis  followed  (Cowan and  members  may  four  while  factors,  several potential  area,  which  s t r e s s during g e s t a t i o n or  watershed.  the  Two  However,  s u s c e p t i b l e to  are  Ashnola  inhabit  on  the  the  w e a t h e r c o u l d weaken lambs and  There  lynx),  of  2).  to n u t r i t i o n a l  inclement  the  the  bighorn  parturition  subject  is  occur  largest  t r a c k s and  at  i n the 13  study  area.  kg  and  is  observations.  The  red  also fox  19  (Vulpes vulpes)  i s much s m a l l e r a t  and  present  i s probably Black  bears  chrysaetos) c a n be  (Ursus also  fifth  To  determine  component during Data  proportion  the  which  observations  of  americanus)  i f bighorn  and  abundant  potential  o b j e c t i v e of the  (Cowan and  golden  eagles  in  study  can  be  interaction  of bighorn  1956)  the  (Aquila area  and  predators.  study  was:  sheep c o n s t i t u t e  (25% o r g r e a t e r ) o f t h e d i e t lambing  Guiguet  densities.  relatively  c o n s i d e r e d t o be  The  5.  are  i n lower  5 kg  a major  of  predators  period. obtained between  to lambs  remains which occur  meet  objective  and  predators,  i n predators  5  are  and  the  scats.  20  S T U D Y A R E A  The  focus  inhabiting  all  age-sex  weights,  and  was  of  purposes  August  population  1983  females  of research  to  the south,  i n a transition  consists  elevation  from  the  precipitation plant  of  a  conducted  on  Flatiron allowed  observed.  the pregnancy  were  collected  on n a t i v e  For  status,  from;  1)  a  a t the  ranging population that  winters  Valley.  zone between t h e C a s c a d e  highly  approximately  3 ) . The A s h n o l a  southern  work  Mountains  and t h e Thompson P l a t e a u t o t h e n o r t h , t h e A s h n o l a  watershed  (Figure  totalling  range  o f V a s e u x L a k e i n t h e Okanagan Occurring  easily  on  bighorn  bighorn  characteristics  be  data  Okanagan Game Farm, and 2) a f r e e east  to  of  watershed,  concentrated  topographic  bighorn  of  population  (Figure 3 ) . F i e l d  additional  condition  the  i n the Ashnola  i t s unique  classes  and  captive  Mountain  1982  because  comparative  study  165 t o 175 a n i m a l s  April  Mountain,  this  Flatiron  approximately between  of  interior results  dissected  1500  to  plateau,  2100  m  varying i n  above  sea  experiences a rainshadow e f f e c t of  British  Columbia,  i n development  and  level  common t o  thus  t h e low  of semi-arid, grass  steppe  communities.  The environs were made  south  side  was where  of Flatiron observations  ( F i g u r e 3 ) . South  Slope  Mountain o f tagged  (South  Slope)  and u n t a g g e d  and  i t s  females  (400 ha) i s f r e q u e n t l y used by  Figure  3.  The s t u d y a r e a on F l a t i r o n Mountain i n t h e Ashnola R i v e r watershed.  22  sheep,  and  consists  communities  rising  top of F l a t i r o n rises  from  bighorn. cliff  Slope  for  Flatiron  these  watershed  of are  the  neomenclature  grass  steppe,  most  of  the  contorta)  parkland  communities  steppe  Agropyron common due  is  a  spicatum to  xeric  1969). Mesic  Agropyron  predominate.  fire  -  Forage  (100  ha)  used  by  a  rugged  used  by  some  ha)  the  east  of  South  mainly  by  rams.  to  1000 of  and  -  production  the  1961;  botanical  the  1982).  the  (50  type  Festuca these  pine  types,  being  the  south-facing  i n areas  of  idahoensis first  to  The 400  (Pinus  elevation.  community  steep  occur  m  Vascular  (Pseudotsuga  lodgepole  2300  1965;  (1977) .  Douglas-fir  and  Ashnola  Demarchi  i n several large  macrantha  on  of  MacBryde  several  moistures  and  Kowall  successional  c o n d i t i o n s on  spicatum  the  is  and  climax  Koelaria  soil  Slope  at  ledges  (Blood  Taylor  between  mixture  Juniper  communities  h a b i t a t occurs  and  m  little  topography  Harcombe  by  is  frequented  the  elsewhere  surrounded  2100  w i n t e r - s p r i n g h a b i t a t of  steppe  after  to  steppe  bighorn.  of  1972;  is  (50  grass  Juniper Slope  and  slope  m  and  and  Ridge  grass  bighorn  islands  menziesii)  and  Slope  plateaus  available  plant  (Harper  South  facing  Scheffler  1000  elevation  descriptions  1969;  grass  m  Cliffs  make up  continuous  (Figure 3), while  of  south  of  e l e v a t i o n of  Mountain p o p u l a t i o n of  composition  ha)  an  small  steep  Detailed  Harper  west  of  mixture  2000  lambing.  is a  Together,  to  the  terrain  females  from  a  Mountain  1700  To  of  two  less  The with most  slopes slope,  communities communities  23  varies  between  moisture hygric to  500  variations  areas  with  and  1200  due  kg.ha  to slope  little  or  no  (Demarchi 1965; slope  2000 k g . h a ) o c c u r s where Poa  species  - 1  (Harper  1969;  Scheffler  , depending  primarily  on  Harper 1969).  a productive  community  p r a t e n s i s i s the dominant  1973).  soil In (up  grass  24  M E T H O D S  C a p t u r e and D a t a  A total and  March,  west  and  1983, i n a  this  status  was  with  (Figure  as  were  bait used  burlap  and 25 m t o form  wide was r e l e a s e d , e i t h e r were i n s i d e  Once chute the  ends  captured,  occasions  t h e sheep  were  quietly  handling  c r a t e s was c o v e r e d  constructed  fishing  3  net covered  3 m high  and 5 m  when  bighorn  driven  crates.  into  a  corner  The f a r end o f  i n n e t t i n g so t h e r e was no v i s u a l  When t h e s h e e p were i n t h e c r a t e s , p l y w o o d d o o r s a t t h e closed.  Farm r e s e a r c h handling.  was  A gate  Minimal  the n u t r i t i o n a l  manually, or e l e c t r i c a l l y ,  l e d t o two p l y w o o d  handling  were  barrier.  s i n c e 1977,  program.  A corral-type trap mesh  has been f e d  ration  confounding  from  on t h e  the c o r r a l .  which  barrier.  of a pelleted  i n diameter  February  a t 1400 m e l e v a t i o n  f o r the trapping  a visual  during  3) . The p o p u l a t i o n  to avoid  of the population.  4 m high  located  i n t h e form  used  of bait  f e m a l e s were c a p t u r e d  trap  Slope  supplements  amounts  to  o f 12 b i g h o r n  end o f S o u t h  winter  Collection  population,  The were  (manufactured  Based  last also  on  experience  t h e s h e e p were  five given  sheep a  low  by Rogar/STB u n d e r  with left  captured dose  t h e Okanagan at least on  the l a b e l  Rompun)  1 h before  two  (<lmg.kg ^)  Game  different  of  xylazine  as a  sedative  25  to  f a c i l i t a t e handling Pregnancy  Diagnosis  Pregnancy  status  absence of f e t a l scanning Systems 4WT) .  using Ltd.,  Hulet  ranging given  test  at  and  To  and  samples  were  gauge  needles  and  by  press) . to  with  Trapp  Farm, This  the  the is  P021 detect  and  1971; Slyter  s h e e p , and  in  research  accuracy  was  100%  first  time  that  the  of  to  captive  pregnancy  details  (Medata  (Lindahl  f o r bighorn  determine  Specific  rates  this  in  free  technique  are  Samples  obtained 15  was  letting  s a m p l e s were t h e n  technique  ultrasonic  accurately  1981;  or  England,  authors  Sahni  Game  presence  Detector  Sussex,  used  several  and  trace mineral  blood  possible,  the  used  Tisssue  serum  by  Pregnancy West  been  the  1.  determine  coagulated,  has  Wani  sheep.  i n Appendix  Blood  in  been  bighorn  Pagham,  on  o f p r e g n a n c y , by  Ultrasound  Okanagan  Cohen, has  based  i s also effective of  the  tissues  sheep  1977;  stress.  diagnosed,  Parade,  technique  population  ultrasound  Doppler  Deas  preliminary  reduce  maternal  domestic  19 73;  (Harper  a  was  ultrasound  in  1983) . The  and  The  Doppler  pregnancy  a  and  kept  ml  by  on  of  jugular  vacutainers.  separated the  status  by  blood ice until  individual venipuncture Once  the  centrifugation, stand they  sheep,  overnight. c o u l d be  using blood  or  frozen  20 had  when The  six  not  serum (within  26  5 days),  and  submitted  Abbotsford,  B.C.  to the V e t e r i n a r y Pathology  f o r t r a c e element  analysis  and  Laboratory  disease  at  antibody  titres.  A total  o f 25  hunter-harvested trapping  liver rams,  mortality.  Pathology  zinc,  road  copper,  rotated  swabs were  to  swabs were until at  collect  submitted  Abbotsford,  sterile  culture  and  B.C..  bacterial  samples.  s y s t e m was  used  Liveweight to  0.5  kg,  with  measurements included:  for  1.0  foot  submitted for  cm  lambs, to  the  and  one  Veterinary  determination  into  system  of  iron,  fixative  ml  samples  the  taken  kept  a  total  body  of  modified  to  collect  collection  Scores  spring scale,  with  a  Ltd.).  Body C o n d i t i o n  small  cool  Canlab),  Virocult  in a  the  Laboratory  used  E q u i p m e n t Co.  with a d i a l held  and  c o n t a i n i n g 0.5 were  and  extraction  by  For  length,  After  (manufactured  medium,  viral  e x t e r n a l nares  V e t e r i n a r y Pathology  transport  animals  the  in sterile  Culturettes  mm,  and  culture.  Provincial  determined  the  to,  hind  15  Measurements and was  ewes  from  Sampling  ( M e d i c a l W i r e and  W e i g h t s and  s a m p l e s were o b t a i n e d  manganese c o n c e n t r a t i o n s .  placed  collection  bacterial  were  Virus  samples  t o the  Stuart's  killed  inserted  immediately  kidney  Abbotsford,  A e r o b i c B a c t e r i a and Nasal  17  Samples  Laboratory,  selenium,  and  plywood  flexible length,  accurate  box. steel  chest  Body tape, girth,  27  (Bandy  et  a_l.  deposition  i n bighorn  Body C o n d i t i o n used  in  to  Condition based  on  examined  categories, fit  exactly  therefore  ranging  this  including  This  fell  into  score  1, s c o r e  2 and s c o r e  to  the scores  described  being  Collars  provided  of fatness  (Appendix  a  way  vary  animals  according  region.  A  t o each  2) .  A l l the  one  of  3. Some  animals broad  animals 2  Body  female  three  i n Appendix  of  did and  not  were  values. and E a r t a g s  identification  a lamb, were g i v e n  technique  i n live  which  r e l e a s e d , t h e a d u l t females  nylon,  of f a t  a common  i n t h e lumbar  scale  intermediate  level  0 t o 5, was a s s i g n e d  technique  Identification  permanent,  from  The  by a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f  1969);  research.  of f a t deposition  given  Before  was e s t i m a t e d  physical characteristics,  descriptive  by  1970).  a s u b j e c t i v e assessment  Score, a  e t a_l.  (Russel e t a l .  sheep  on c e r t a i n  the level  females  Scoring  domestic  standardizing based  1956; B l o o d  collar  individual  were  (n=10). plastic  fitted  with  a  Five  animals,  eartags  (Duflex,  m a n u f a c t u r e d by F e a r i n g ) . Observation Census A  and C e n s u s o f t h e P o p u l a t i o n  Technique  standardized  Environment personnel population  transect,  developed  by  B.C.  and employed d u r i n g a p r e v i o u s  Ministry study  (Ramsay 1980) , was t h e most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d  of  of the  route f o r  28  classification transects maximize  counts  used  of  during  t h e number  classification  counts  thoroughly  total  size  and a g e - s e x  any p o s s i b i l i t y was r e p e a t e d  males  (greater  additionally horn  size  Suckling  production.  suckling  Slope  and  those  Juniper  i n estimates  of the p o p u l a t i o n .  t h e same a n i m a l  (1  scope  as lambs  to  2  was  2  of the  I f there  counted  20X  twice, the  old).  one  of  eyepieces.  females  The  four  o r 40X  using  1 y e a r o l d ) , male' and  o l d ) , adult  years into  with  ( l e s s than  years  adult  age  and  adult  males  were  classes  based  on  1971).  of  behaviour  of  lambs  quantified  as  an  Observations the  suckling  bout,  and  of  the  observed  consecutive  bouts.  Suckle  a  stopwatch,  both  indirect  and  the  and of  included  data  of  continuously durations  tagged  estimate  t h e number  frequency  were  using  of  suckling  bout,  individuals  timed  Only  to  Behaviour  was  duration  designed  observed.  South  Other  and marked i n d i v i d u a l s were i d e n t i f i e d  classified  Suckling females  3).  or the data d i s c a r d e d .  than  (Geist  were  are included  composition  B i g h o r n were c l a s s i f i e d yearlings  bighorn  a l l of  b i n o c u l a r s and a s p o t t i n g  female  (Figure  observations  scanned  that  Age-sex c l a s s e s 7X50  field  i n which  were  census  population  of different  Slope  was  the  o f bunts nursing for  of  lactation on  the  during when  two  to the nearest  terminator  untagged  known  or 0.1  the  the  more s were  bout  was  29  recorded. Since  lambing  occurred over  month,  lambs  o f many d i f f e r e n t  groups  a t any one  time.  height  o f i t s back  relative  To  a  ages  period were  quantify  t h e age o f t h e lamb t h e  along with the behavioural information.  their rate  dams was  correlated  f o r a l l lambs,  unmarked  females.  (less  than b e l l y  belly  height),  respectively:  height,  The using  ground  elevations,  and  located  m  1.5  elevation) in  t h e South  plywood  sheet.  thermograph less The  than  one  into  height, to  an e q u a l  growth  t o age lambs o f three  categories  and g r e a t e r  three  age  than  groups  11 t o 25 d a y s , and 26 t o 50 d a y s .  thermographs  the ground  located  upper  (T2) was l o c a t e d  in  (Figure  thermograph  lambing  The  hygrothermograph  to belly  hygrothermograph  level  100 m f r o m  used  classified  corresponded  level  Slope  o f lambs r e l a t i v e t o  h u m i d i t y , and p r e c i p i t a t i o n  above  ground  was  marked  Stations  temperature,  two  equal  2 t o 10 d a y s ,  Climatological  By o b s e r v i n g f i v e  t o a g e , and a s s u m i n g  were  which  o f i t s dam was r e c o r d e d  dates, the s i z e  the r e l a t i o n s h i p Lambs  present i n the nursery  to the b e l l y  f e m a l e s o f known p a r t u r i t i o n  o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y one  grounds (1585  shaded m  Screen  at  different Screen  lower  located  (1065 m  on a  by a r o c k  elevation)  t h e t o p o f t h e South  monitored  Stevenson  3 ) . The  (TI) was  i n t h e shade  i n a Stevenson  a  were  ledge  and w h i t e  ground  level  of the research  cabin,  Slope  lambing  (HT3) was a l s o  grounds. a t 1585  30  m elevation  and was  less  than  grounds.  Relative  humidity  corrected  using  sling  were  located  a t .the HT3  Predator  To of  April  collect early  scats,  drying mm  and  Two  diet  lambs were  of predators,  scats,  some s c a t s  which  but since may  were  component  81  collected  scats  thawed.  accomplished,  sieves  cleared  1969;  distinguished s h a f t s were  50X  scale  from  less  et  adult  than  were done i n  were  a l l predator  and  al.  hair  130 u .  100X  light  on  guard  1974). when  g r a n u l o s u s by  were washed  a l lmaterial  Identification  patterns  Moore  of  against Echinococcus  t o remove  a  were made t o  age o f most s c a t s was t h e r e f o r e known.  exoskeleton.  using  characteristic Kolenosky  were  Most c o l l e c t i o n s  i n an o v e n a t 110° C f o r 8 h , and t h e n  bone, and i n s e c t  raingauges  a significant  the c o l l e c t i o n s  frequently  s c a t s were s t e r i l i z e d  mm  was  have b e e n d e p o s i t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s  recently  so t h e a p p r o x i m a t e  0.5  (HT3)  storage  20 t o J u n e 20, i n 1982 and 1983. E f f o r t s  trails  lambing  station.  and may have j u s t  The  Slope  t h e hygrothermograph  psychrometer.  i f bighorn  only fresh  on  on  t h e South  Habits  spring  spring,  winter made  Food  determine  the early  from  a  200 m f r o m  except  o f prey  Bighorn  diameters  1  for hair, s p e c i e s was  microscope, hairs  over  from  the  (Adorjan  and  lamb  hair  o f t h e guard  was hair  31  Statistical  All  Analysis  means a r e g i v e n +/- t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n .  Student's  t-tests  used  to detect  bout  rate  South  from  same  One-way  Analysis  of population  t h e same t i m e  of  f o rtests  Variance  was  on t h e l i v e w e i g h t  of the year.  Data  analysis  age on b o t h  bunting. therefore these  the duration  The a  data.  statistical California).  natural One-way package  of  used  to  of adult  determine females  on t h e s u c k l i n g  suckle  (UCLA  The f o l l o w i n g  was  linear  model was u s e d :  Y.. = ju + A. + E . , . > 13 1 3d)  1  sampled  the e f f e c t  skewed,  t o normalize  using  School,  the  behaviour of  was  used  accomplished  Medical  of  and t h e r a t e o f  durations  l o g t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was ANOVA  body  of hypotheses.  o f the s u c k l i n g bout  distribution  of  level  lambs were a l s o a n a l y s e d by one-way ANOVA t o d e t e r m i n e of  on t h e  s c o r e s came  5%  The  were  suckling  elevations  i f the ranked  population.  a priori  and v a r i a n c e  means f o r lamb  Chi-square  t o .determine  statistical  was s e l e c t e d  size  a t two d i f f e r e n t  grounds.  s c o r e s was u s e d  the  effect  lambing  o f unequal  between g r o u p  and t e m p e r a t u r e s  probability  at  differences  Slope  condition  f o r samples  Two-tailed  t h e BMD:10V  Los  Angeles,  32  where, Y^j . = s u c k l i n g  bout d u r a t i o n ,  o r bunt r a t e , o r  liveweight.  ju = o v e r a l l mean. = e f f e c t o f lamb a g e , o r p o p u l a t i o n E . . .. = e r r o r 3 U) Significant Duncan's M u l t i p l e s e t a t 5%.  (3 l e v e l s ) .  term. differences Range  among  means  were  t e s t with the a p r i o r i  determined  using  probability  level  33  R E S U L T S  Timing o f O f f s p r i n g  Pregnancy  All  10  Rate  adult  between J a n u a r y Doppler with and  older,  gestation  each  105.8  pregnant  18.5  tagged  birth  Flatiron  days  fetal 73  concentrations  of  lamb was 0.2 ng.ml  p r e g n a n t by  also  of bighorn  (Table  pregnant 4.5  years  3 ) . Based  o f 174.2 +/-  age a t t h e t i m e to  estimated and  identified  one  escape  days,  adult  15.3 +/-  on  1.7  a  days  7.8  3 ) . Serum  females  diagnosed  - 1  ,  while  that  Females  naturally  terrain  Table  ng.ml  p o p u l a t i o n o f 82  showed  o f d i a g n o s i s was  (Table 4 ) .  1  and o b s e r v e d  of i s o l a t i o n  130  four  o f Lambs f r o m Tagged  on t h e c l i f f  100%  was  Mountain  19 84) , and t h e e s t i m a t e d d a t e s o f p a r t u r i t i o n  (range  females  pattern  was  californiana)  t h e mean  the t o t a l  individually The  rate  by u l t r a s o u n d averaged  Survival  on  f o r t h e sample  f o r (CX  female,  of the female  Of  Thus,  the pregnancy  progesterone  live  The one c a p t u r e m o r t a l i t y  fetus.  period  +/-  captured  29 and March 24, 1983, were d i a g n o s e d  ( S h a c k l e t o n e t a_l. for  females  ultrasound.  a single  Losses  five  marked through  adult female  females, could  t h e lambing  o f them  (Category  10 be  period. I) gave  a t t h e west end o f S o u t h  Slope  Table  3 .  Pregnancy d i a g n o s i s , w e i g h t s , a n d measurements o f b i g h o r n females c a p t u r e d on F l a t i r o n Mountain i n 1 9 8 3 .  AGE y e a r s  DATE OF AGE DIAGNOSIS days  FETAL I  .D.  0.5 4.5  n/a 07/03  03 04 05 06  6.5 6.5 6.5 7.5  21/02 06/03 21/02  07 08  7.5+ 7.5+  06/02 29/01 06/02  87' 86b 73b  24/03 07/03 26/02  130e 105eu 112b  .  09 10 11 12  8.5+ 8.5+ 9.5+ 9.5+  a  -  FHR=fetal  UA=uterine  128b  132  102c 122c  168  95-105 I19c  h e a r t  a r t e r y ,  OF  DIAGNOSIS"  WEIGHT  BODY  TOTAL  HINDFOOT  COND. SCORE  LENGTH mm  LENGTH  1280  56.7  1.50 1.75  58.0 59.4 64.9 57.6 67.1  2.00 3.00 3.00 2.00 2.50  6 5 6 6  3.00 2.00 1.75 1.75 2.50  kg  UA  2 5 . 5  01 02  07/03  BASIS  (Doppler ultrasound) FHR FM PC  + +  162  + + + + + + +  (bpm);  FM=fetal  126  108  -  + .  (autopsy)  d  r a t e b  + + +  F e t a l  +  +  + +  +  +  —  movement;  age e s t i m a t e d  c  -  F e t a l  age e s t i m a t e d  from  dates  when  d  -  F e t a l  age e s t i m a t e d  from  t h e mean  8.0 9.0 4.4 1.2  from  females  b i r t h d a t e  P C = p l a c e n t a l o b s e r v a t i o n s  i s o l a t e d o f  t h e  o f  1650 1560  mm  _ 380 364  -  385 405 410 420  -  400 375 400 395 390  1570 1470 1670 1630 1620 1600 1700  c i r c u l a t i o n ; newborn  t h e m s e l v e s ,  p o p u l a t i o n .  lambs,  Table  4.  Blood c h e m i s t r y of female from F l a t i r o n Mountain.  Concentration Serum Constituent Trace  Units  x  i n Blood  bighorn  Serum  A d u l t females SD n  Lamb f e m a l e n=l  elements-  Selenium  , -1 mg .kg  .090  .034  5  .046  Copper  mg.kg  .69  .08  4  .35  Zinc  , -1 mg.kg  .52  .19  4  .25  mcg%  5.3  1.3  4  5.0  Calcium  mg%  8.95  .41  4  9.7  Magnesium  mg%  1.95  .57  4  1.28  Phosphorus  mg%  3.25  .73  4  5.9  15.3  7.8  4  0.2  Iodine Macro  (total) elements  Reproductive  hormone-  Progesterone  ,-1 ng.ml  36  (Figure  3) ,  and  undetermined pregnant, with  five  of  location.  them  (Category  Although  female  when she i s o l a t e d  Slope  lambing  in  Category  the  lambs  early  I were were  Category  II  i n Category  only  left  5  left  near  South  with  lambs. date  Based  less  lost  their Those  than  20  As w i t h  for  lambs, which  month l a t e r  old.  i n early July  old. periods  they spent  when t h e y  the  South  lambs  three lost  The  which females  them  when  females  ranging  in from  isolated  Slope  (Figure  on and  II returned  t h e m s e l v e s and  without  their  t h e main  remained  i n Category  The f e m a l e s  their  away f r o m  which  II lost  r e t u r n e d t o South  d i d not lose  on  had  but they  the females  i n Category  days  #12)  days  r e t u r n e d t o South  females  category.  observed  and  i f and  T h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n  on t h e d a t e  they  diagnosed  S l o p e , but never  4) . The o t h e r  21  and i n t h e t i m e  range.  when  were  and  I  Slope, o n l y 2 of the 5 females  unsuccessful  20.  had b e e n  a t an  n o t be d e t e r m i n e d  lambs,  Slope  the  winter-spring  with  South  16 t o 60 d a y s .  they  (#2  (Figure  observed  approximately date  two  August  between  birth  she was p l a c e d i n n e i t h e r  females  grounds,  until  Since i t could  herself,  the f i v e  survived  the  #10  she was c o n s i s t a n t l y o b s e r v e d on S o u t h  a lamb o f h e r own.  Of  I I ) gave  a  lambs  i n Category  lamb, t h e when  they  II  which  S l o p e between May 10 and May lambs  4).  r e t u r n e d more t h a n one  FEMALE I.D. #  'a "  1 1  13  • • 11  12*  1  2'3  —  1 1  i-u-u1 •4  94-+  -+-H  1  l +++-  '  — — — A — 1  23  4 -H 1  •  1  11  -li  —-H  1  :  1  1  H  1-  H  1-  H  r-  H  r-  CATEGORY* I  1  1  1  2  6 +H-++H 1  7  2  t i n 11 . 1 2  3 +-H—f+J 1  11 +-  H  20  30  •4'  3 - ,  +H  •4'  ' 2 '  1  ,  CATEGORY I I  -H 1  10  APRIL  20  30  MAY  9  „  A  T  E  19  29  9  JUNE  •Category I - those females which used' the South Slope lambing grounds. Category II - those females which l e f t South Slope to lamb in an unknown area.  1  r-  female observed without a lamb on South Slope, female observed nursing a lamb on South Slope. r t i c a l bars indicate at least one observation per day.  Figure  4.  19  29  JULY 1 -  isolation  2 -  parturition  3 -  r e a p p e a r a n c e on South  4 -  loss of  -  offspring.  numbers i n q u o t e s a r e estimated  P a t t e r n o f b i r t h a n d s u r v i v a l o f lambs f r o m i d e n t i f i e d f e m a l e b i g h o r n on F l a t i r o n M o u n t a i n .  dates.  Slope.  38  Nutritional  and D i s e a s e  Status  o f Females i n L a t e  W e i g h t s , M e a s u r e m e n t s , and Body C o n d i t i o n Mean Flatiron (range to  weights Mountain  and l e n g t h s were  as f o l l o w s :  56.7 t o 68.0 k g ) , t o t a l  1700 mm), and h i n d f o o t  mm) 41  ( + /-  (Table mm  SD)  length  Scores  of adult  liveweight  length  Gestation  females  61.6 +/-  1608 +/- 69 mm  393 +/- 16 mm  from  4.1 kg  (range 1470  (range  363 t o 420  3 ) . The mean c h e s t g i r t h o f a d u l t f e m a l e s was 1011 + /-  ( n = l l ) , and t h e c h e s t g i r t h o f t h e f e m a l e  Liveweight  was  significantly  correlated  lamb was 775 with  mm.  chestgirth  2 (r =0.79). Lake  was  The mean t h e same  liveweight as  Flatiron  Female  liveweights of nine  early  spring  populations  were  from  Shackleton  1979).  significantly  t h e Vaseux  Body c o n d i t i o n s c o r e s to  3.0 w i t h  a mean  lamb had t h e l e a s t score of  value  1.8  females ranked  +/-  females  score lumbar  (Harper  (chi-squared  Lake  population  o f 11 A s h n o l a o f 2.3 +/-  females ranked  so h i g h .  the  Vaseux  (Table 5 ) .  unpubl.)  of  (Table  l a r g e r than  bighorn  from  1.5  3 ) . The f e m a l e 1.5. The mean t h e mean  i n t h e Game  Farm  27% o f t h e A s h n o l a  3.0, none  At the other  Farm  varied  and s c o r e d  found  free-ranging  i n 1977 ( E c c l e s and  females  0.5  f a t reserves  scale  than  5 ) . The Okangan Game  = 2.78). Although  a t t h e uppermost  from  a t 61.6 k g  lower  o f 2.3 was s i g n i f i c a n t l y 0.4  females  Okanagan Game Farm r e s e a r c h b i g h o r n i n  a t 46.8 k g ( T a b l e  originated  o f 17 a d u l t  score adult  females  o f t h e Game  Farm  end o f t h e s c a l e 10% o f t h e  39  Table  5.  Weights of C a l i f o r n i a B r i t i s h Columbia.  Population  Flatiron Vaseux OK  Mountain  Lake  Game Farm  Month/Year  bighorn  x  sheep from  W e i g h t i n kg sd n  south-central  Homogeneous Subsets  03/83  61.6  4.1  10  a  03/84  61.6  3.9  17  a  04/83  46.8  3.8  9  b  40  Game  Farm  Flatiron  females  ranked  In  and T i s s u e serum  from  element  levels  were  twice  copper,  and  zinc  calcium,  the  adults  the  lamb  females  was  were  (female  #5,  selenium  females  adult  o f the female the  Inorganic  from  almost  twice  serum  t h e mean  kidney  tissue,  female  lamb  trace  f o r selenium,  concentration  of  a p p r e c i a b l y between  phosphorus  apparently  i n adult  higher  trace  6) .  lower  male  Conversely, liver  concentration i n  level  i n the males,  of the a d u l t  i n bighorn  Vaseux Lake, C r a t e r Mountain, were  combined  f o r south-central  however,  lower  B.C.,  higher  o f non-males  for iron,  levels  element  were  Manganese  zinc,  and  apparently levels  were  with  kidney  levels  levels  being  higher  i n the  some b a s e l i n e  levels  and k i d n e y  Flatiron  (Appendix  i n Flatiron  had r e l a t i v e l y  t h e mean  to establish liver  trace  tissues,  and l i v e r  elements  male  lamb)  copper  i n both  6) . I n o r d e r  were  than  and k i d n e y s .  (Table  populations  adult  h e r f e t u s , and a newborn  (Table  non-males  levels  bighorn,  4 ) , but  consistently different  means  the  (Table 4 ) .  concentrations  the  that  and t h e lamb.  and  of  Flatiron  (Table  liver  being  of  and magnesium d i d n o t d i f f e r  serum  In  not  none  Chemistry  blood  higher  but  M o u n t a i n had s u c h a low s c o r e .  Blood  iodine,  1.0,  tissue,  Mountain,  3) . Compared  iron, males. levels  zinc,  and  Non-males of l i v e r  data  from  and B i g B a r  to the overall selenium from iron  liver  Flatiron, and  kidney  41  Table  6.  Element  T r a c e m i n e r a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f l i v e r and k i d n e y t i s s u e on a wet w e i g h t b a s i s f r o m male and f e m a l e b i g h o r n f r o m F l a t i r o n Mountain.  Sex* ^  Liver x  (mg.kg - . sd n 1  K i d n e y (mg .kg sd n x  Iron  Males Non-males  55 173  12 38  7 3  64 91  26 27  4 3  Copper  Males Non-males  81 67  19 45  7 3  4.5 3.8  1.1 1.1  4 3  Zinc  Males Non-males  33 71  6 35  7 3  22 32  6 14  4 3  Manganese M a l e s Non-males  3.2 4.0  0.7 1.3  7 3  2.0 1.2  0.9 0.3  4 3  Selenium  0.18 0.27  0.06 0.09  7 3  —  —  —  -  -  -  Males Non-males  * M a l e s were a l l h u n t e r - h a r v e s t e d a d u l t s . Non-males c o n s i s t e d o f one a d u l t f e m a l e t r a p p i n g m o r t a l i t y ( I . D . #5, t a b l e 2 ) , h e r 95-105 day o l d f e t u s , and one r o a d - k i l l e d newborn f e m a l e lamb.  42  zinc  compared  to the o v e r a l l  manganese k i d n e y south-central Flatiron B.C.  level  B.C.  were  average.  species  of  incidence found:  A l l the other  non-males  tissue  t o the average  than the  levels  i n the  f o r south-central  Incidence of the nasal  bacteria of  the  and  one  indicated  species three  of  nasal  swabs  Two  aureus, were  a  of  potentially  f o r bovine  bovine  rhinotracheitis  (IBR),  twelve  bighorn  were  (PI-3)  virus  serum  females  a t the time samples  negative,  as  Leptospira  spp.  were  for  swabs  diarrhea  adenovirus.  infected  with  of sampling. Brucella  serological  antibodies.  30  spp. tests  The  of  four  to  bacteria  of  50% was  s p p . , and hemolytic  bacterium.  presence  pyogenes.  viral and  A  isolated  pathogenic  f o r the  and h e m o l y t i c C o r y n e b a c t e r i u m a l l negative  virus.  Corynebacterium  s i x nasal  negative  the presence  non-pathogenic  F l a v o b a c t e r spp., non-hemolytic  Staphylococcus  spp.  swabs  following  alpha-Streptococcus.  six  i n Flatiron  3. B o t h c o p p e r and  (Appendix 3 ) .  Analysis  were  lower  p o p u l a t i o n were s i m i l a r  Disease  12  means i n A p p e n d i x  All  Pasteurella  Viral  nasal  (BVD),  swabs  infectious  However,  s i x of  parainfluenza  type-3  Rapid  Plate  antibodies for  the  T e s t on  were a l l  presence  of  43  P r o d u c t i o n and  Survival  Classification  Periodic 11,  1983,  winter-spring April  to  50  it  to  return  remained exodus  by  May  birth  of  (Figure  by  May  animals with  from  a steady  females  Mountain  (Figure  The  period  South  from  70  leaving  number  until  May  10,  on  the  in  late  the  of  herd  females  after  which  number o f f e m a l e s  observed d i d  levels  24,  Slope  increase  were The  23 t o June  observed  declined  5B) . 50  Mt. P o p u l a t i o n  from A p r i l  3 when f e m a l e s  21.  pre-lambing  of  Period  until  until for  May  at least a  period  and  then  June 11.  This  of  i n t h e number o f  one  lambs  month  observed  5A).  The  pattern  indicated  Assuming  of  that  approximately  lamb o b s e r v a t i o n s t h r o u g h  parturition  1 month  that  represents  the  further  between  "birthdate" mean  lambs  April  parturitions,  (+/- SD)  not  22  of and  throughout  was  probably  observed  L e s s f r e q u e n t s u r v e y s i n 1982  until  the  over and  May  lambing  period  a  period  of  22  (Figure  5A) .  additional  newborn  lambs  t h e p a t t e r n o f lamb  survival  the lambing  t h e mean  o f lambs i n 1983  birthdate were  occurred  observation  does n o t v a r y a p p r e c i a b l y  most  number  a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70 f e m a l e s  coincided  actual  Mountain  at approximately  t o 58  to  the  of F l a t i r o n  give  remained  increased  not  range  D u r i n g t h e Lambing  of the F l a t i r o n  of F l a t i r o n  that  animals  presumably observed  Censuses  censuses  showed  of O f f s p r i n g  was a  few  they  indicated  May  period,  7 +/-  days were  11 d a y s .  earlier 2  to  4  because  days  a steady increase  The  old.  i n lamb  lambing  period  :  »»  j  12 Maximum number o f lambs on S o u t h Slope  r* ^ - fit' J •** »'  s —  f  1  L  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  i  1  1  X 70  ' 1  "  ~  -  \ X  Maximum number of adult _ _ females 60 on S o u t h Slope  \ \  \  l  50 1 1  1  1  20  24  28  April  Figure  5.  1  1  1  10  ** * v>.-.-... 1  14  18  1  1  22  26  1  1  7  11  .V.Vj.V.  ••••+Y  30  June  May  (A) P a t t e r n o f o b s e r v a t i o n o f newborn lambs on F l a t i r o n M o u n t a i n i n 1 9 8 3 . (B) P a t t e r n oJ o b s e r v a t i o n o f a d u l t f e m a l e s on F l a t i r o n M o u n t a i n i n 1983 i n d i c a t i n g i s o l a t i o n o f pregnant females d u r i n g t h e lambing p e r i o d . * broken l i n e s i n d i c a t e f u l l counts o f lambs were n o t o b t a i n e d . ** ***  a r r o w s i n d i c a t e p e r i o d s when t o t a l number o b s e r v e d d e c l i n e d d u e t o known l o s s e s . shaded areas i n d i c a t e p e r i o d s no observations.  X = mean  " b i r t h d a t e " o f lambs  when t h e r e  (May 7).  o f lambs were  45  numbers t h r o u g h censused tagged,  more three  identified. to  June  6  late April  to early  f r e q u e n t l y i n 1983, and 13% o f t h e f e m a l e s  were  periods  were  where  t h e number  T h e s e were A p r i l  for  2 years  1982  production maximum  and  and o l d e r 1983  count  of only  (Table  decreased  o f lambs  and  than  lambs  0.24  either  (Ministry  were  23 on  t h e maximum c o u n t o f  7) , t h e lamb  0.28  less 14  counts  26, 1983. U s i n g  were  i n 1984 was  o f lambs  28 t o 30, May 12 t o 18, and May 26  ( F i g u r e 5A) . The maximum  J u n e 18, 1982 and 20 on J u l y females  May. When lamb p r o d u c t i o n was  t o female  ratios  respectively.  Lamb  of these  years  with  o f Environment  a  files,  Penticton).  then  Once t h e b i g h o r n  lambs r e a c h a p p r o x i m a t e l y  their  survival  lambs f r o m an  subsequent  survival  distributed  of  i s high.  Maximum  counts  J u n e , 1982 t o May, 1983 o f t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r  overall  lambs  rate  one month o f age  throughout  produced  rate  of  82%,  the year  with  losses  being  ( F i g u r e 6) . S e v e n t e e n  of  indicate evenly  o f t h e 20  i n 1983 s u r v i v e d t o May o f 1984, a s u r v i v a l  rate  85%.  Vocalization Early  i n t h e lambing  individually them  were  (#13) ,  and S e a r c h  t h e seven  collared,  period  females one  and t h e r e m a i n i n g  moult, v a r y i n g from  Behaviour  a full  had four  o f Females  i t was  w h i c h were a  uniquely  were  possible  to  l e a d i n g lambs. light-coloured  i n different  winter coat to a f u l l  stages  identify Two o f pelage o f the  summer c o a t .  On  Table 7. Monthly maximum c l a s s i f i c a t i o n counts of bighorn sheep on the F l a t i r o n Mountain transect i n 1982 and 1983. Ratios i n parentheses of lambs, yearlings and adult males t o adult females are also shown based on yearly maxima.  LAMBS MONTH  82  FEB  - 1 9  APRIL  YEARLINGS  83  FEMALES 2YR+  MALES 2YR+  82 83  82  83  82 83  -  -  82  -  -  06  TOTAL 82  NUMBER OF SURVEYS  83  82 83  -  107  -  4  7  7  16 19  58  70  22 35  103  131  3  4  MAY  21  16  17 14  46  72  26 44  110 147  8  6  JUNE  23  15  11 15  81  70  1  44  116  144  4  5  JULY  23  20  15  66  48  4  1  108  78  6  1  AUG  - 2 0  -  -  -  67*  89  -  3  OCT  17  -  -  -  62*  -  5  -  4  -  NOV  20  -  -  -  92*  -  38  -  150  3  -  DEC  20  -  -  -  86*  -  37  -  143  4  -  20  17 19  81  82  38 44  YR MAX 23  9  RATIO(..28) (.24)(.21)(.23)  2 83  -  161" 165~  32 23  (.49)(.54)  * - counts of females i n late summer and f a l l include yearlings. - yearly maximum t o t a l numbers o f sheep are calculated by summing yearly maxima f o r each age-sex c l a s s .  47  80h  number o f predicted pregnancy  fetuses by diagnosis  /  60 Number of Lambs 40 maximum c o u n t s o f lambs  20  • • a^^p m m m i ^ B ^ p » -  maximum c o u n t o f y e a r l i n g s (1982 c o h o r t )  6  8  10  11  12  MONTH Figure  6.  S u r v i v a l o f b i g h o r n lambs on S o u t h S l o p e f r o m J u n e , 1982 t o May 1983 b a s e d on p r e g n a n c y d i a g n o s i s i n 1983, and maximum c o u n t s o f lambs a n d y e a r l i n g s .  48  April  30,  1983  identified was  day  and  a  by  herself  frequently  l o u d l y and sight  this  yearlings  while  female  #13  was  steady  pace  unusual 30,  females for  I t was  April  this  On  was  alert  being  female  was  calls.min  - 1  1983  the  The  at  two  were  and  On  was May  travelled  less  accounted  for rate  two  the  females  travelling  to  5A).  of  0.8  The  30  .min  on  another  This  female  min. 1  ,  with  a  head-up  alert  at  April of s i x count 29,  lambs  observed  This  female  grazing  a  a  the  April  was  a  travelling,  vocalized  on  of  constantly maintaining  1983  Thus  lamb  loss  female  at a  exhibit  count  (Figure  and  afternoon,  consisting  the  same other  females.  by  period of  almost  of  sighted.  solitary a  of  constant v o c a l i z i n g  for  females  10,  o t h e r sheep i n L a t e r the  observed  than  Slope,  vocalizing  same  other  lambs, was  another  a  and  c o n s t a n t l y and of  moult,  South  company  constantly.  five  vocalizing  observed. ,  in  a group  vocalizing  identified  and  posture.  posture,  t o approach  t h e r e f o r e two  vocalizing  infrequently,  seen  of t r a v e l l i n g  9,  and  on  dusk b e f o r e the n u r s e r y group,  t o two  travelling  forth  t h e r e were no  time  females  was  May  this  different  difference  belonging  and  alert  time  company  t a g g e d ) and  30  back  i n the  behaviour  individually  f o l l o w e d by a lamb.  vocalizing  while  (two  was  observed  three  1983.  not  females,  i t s p a t t e r n of winter coat  At t h i s  female,  females,  by  seven  head-up  f e m a l e was  uncollared  of  these  running  in a  constantly.  different  total  of  t h e p r e v i o u s day  observed  stopping  one  very head-up  vocalizing rate  posture,  and  of  16  only  49  infrequently After South  travelling  lambs, The  on  May  sampling  indicated  grazing,  instead  did  while female  she s p e n t she  maintained  during to  alert  sniffing  and other  one  8 min  their  dam.  period. Activity  30% o f h e r a c t i v e  head-up  or standing.  #4 v o c a l i z e d  vocalizing  sheep,  than a  #4 r e t u r n e d t o  1 h she r a n t o groups o f  fled  less  female  observed  of  lambs  usually  Two  alert  time  posture,  separate  and  samplings  a t a r a t e o f 10.9 and 12 c a l l s . m i n  posture.  the v o c a l i z i n g  The f o l l o w i n g  and lamb  sniffing  however, a s s o c i a t e w i t h t h e n u r s e r y g r o u p  day female  behaviour.  at least  1  #4 She  until  May  b u t was n o t w i t h them on June 6, 1983. On J u n e 7, 1983 f o u r  observed 5  groups  of five  travelling  not exhibit  26,  among  case  i n t h e head-up  did,  1983, and was  a total  i n each  vocalized  f o r 26 d a y s ,  On two o c c a s i o n s w i t h i n  sniffing  lambs  when  20,  extensively  lambs.  revealed  to graze.  not being observed  Slope  females'  stopped  travelling  females,  group that  2  lamb.  return  It  appeared  day.  10 min l a t e r that  females  including  and v o c a l i z i n g  and  1  lamb.  female  as p a r t  They  these  vocalization  then with  quickly  approached  r e t u r n e d over  an a d d i t i o n a l  females  had f o u n d  and t r a v e l l i n g  another sniffed  the ridge  3 females their  #12 were  o f a group o f  and 1 lamb, whereupon 3 o f t h e f e m a l e s  The g r o u p  to  further  rapidly  yearlings,  o f 3 females  adult  only  and 7 lambs.  lambs  because  b e h a v i o u r s were o b s e r v e d  no that  50  Potential  Factors Affecting  Lamb  Survival  Weather D u r i n g Lambing  Climatological of  39 d a y s  weather (the  from  might  last  high  and  upper  elevations  where  lamb  lamb  a  noticably periods  were  fact,  more  April  23  to  observations  lambs 26, oh  affects o f age  18) . T h e r e  was  r e c o r d e d a t HT3  7 ) . However, p e r i o d s o f  associated 23  with  the  t o 26,  and  freezing May  8 to  were than the  cold  as  5A) , two o c c u r r e d  7) . The 12  and  i n 9 mm those  period,  18 was, of  were  there c e r t a i n l y  before the  i t .  however,  precipitation,  associated  t h e most  grounds,  declining  known d e c l i n e i n  to inclement  after  observed  temperatures,  mortalities  response  lambing  (Figure  May  resulted  observed were  the three p e r i o d s  (Figure  postnatal  a  Of  increasing  t h e lambing  reflected  grounds.  between  n o t as  While  throughout which  (Figure  declined  of  occurred  storms.  pattern  variables  of A p r i l  lambing  w i t h a storm which  two  occurring  of the  that  temperatures  May  period  i n an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f 6 t o 7 cm o f snow a t t h e  after  numbers  first  not  and no p r e c i p i t a t i o n  associated but  were  lambing  o f lambs t o two weeks  o c c u r r e d on  o f 1983  precipitation  numbers  and  humidity,  period  resulted  "extended"  i n the c l i m a t i c  mortality  temperatures  an  31, 1983 t o document any  have on t h e s u r v i v a l  the lambing  10, w h i c h  23 t o May  variation  lamb  during  April  documented p a r t u r i t i o n  considerable during  records covered  with the probably was n o t  weather.  In  severe  storm  of  Also,  based  on  females  and  newborn  51  85 + 80 >  60-  •H  * -> -  E  3 6  io  E  •H G •H G  H  3  41  E M •  -rt  >,  6  CO T3  40  X * J 4J IB C -H  >i  T> i-i e is c oi 3 20  •H  a at  26  22  c o  24  30  28  8-  •H 10  •H  6-  t-H -H  4-  a  fl o —  E one t« a — •M 0)  snowfall  3  m U-l  2 O E  1  222  26  30  22  26  30  c o , to •—  total ppt  8  12  16  20  24  28  12  16  20  24  28  28 24 o 20  o E 3  E E •H 3 C E •H -H E X  1612-  8>i iEo 0) 01 -H Cu •H -o E + 410 C E 01 0-  i-l  -4-8-  APRI L  Figure  7.  IA Y  W e a t h e r p a t t e r n s i n t h e A s h n o l a a t 1585 m (HT3) d u r i n g t h e 19 83 l a m b i n g p e r i o d .  * shaded a r e a s i n d i c a t e p e r i o d s when t h e t o t a l number o f lambs d e c l i n e d due t o known l o s s e s (See F i g u r e 5A). ** V e r t i c a l b a r s showing t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n a c c u m u l a t e d o v e r t h e p e r i o d c o v e r e d by the p r e c e d i n g h o r i z o n t a l a r r o w .  52  lambs  made  overhangs,  considerable shallow  behavioural thermal  use  caves,  of  and  thermoregulation  stress  shelter mature  would  experienced  by  in  the  form  Douglas-fir  have  moderated  neonatal  and  of  cliff  trees.  This  some  early  of  the  postnatal  lambs.  The m to at  South  1585 m.  Slope Ground  1065 m (TI)  maximum  minimum  and  compared  elevation  in  elevation  to  1585 m (T2) .  April  +16.2°C  23  to  The  May  were  the  respectively.  lambing  The  lower  where  grounds  part  females  of  were  the  1983  At  with  at  5 . 4 ° and Slope  newborn  1065 m  1585 m t h e mean  + 1 . 7 ° and  South  warmer  mean minimum and  31,  respectively.  temperatures  f r o m 1050  significantly  Mean minimum and maximum t e m p e r a t u r e s  of  area  +7.1°and  vary  t e m p e r a t u r e s were  from  maximum  respectively.  an  level  temperatures  e l e v a t i o n were  was  lambing grounds  +12.6°  at the 3.6° C  were  lower warmer  lambing  lambs  C  grounds  frequently  observed.  Since ground  level  ground, above  microclimate could  temperatures  the  elevation ground  the  ground of  level  in  1585 m.  that  be  different  at  ground  a Stevenson Overall,  newborn than  that  level(T2) screen for  the  lambs  higher  and  (HT3)  were  extended  respectively.  ground  temperatures  However, were  colder  further only  during  the  1.5 m  compared a t lambing  were  analysis  at  above  temperatures  minimum and maximum t e m p e r a t u r e s  colder  experience  period,  1.1°and  0.6°C  revealed  periods  an  free  that of  52a  L e a f 53 missed i n numbering.  53a  precipitation. that  D u r i n g t h e 15 d a y s  precipitation  temperatures those  in  at  the  that  would  Suckling  A  suckle 10 d a y s  m  ground  were  0.8° and  screen.  be  of  Mountain  duration  195  suckling  from  late  was  21.9  April  +/-  9.9  terminated  females  stepping  by  b r e a k i n g c o n t a c t w i t h the One-way ANOVA  days  bout  of  11  and  26  respectively.  during  warmer  those  than  days  of  thermal s t r e s s  durations  to early  June,  seconds.  timed.  The  over  were  on  Only  of  they  their  timed  1983. lambs  remaining  their  on  The  mean  less  than  these accounted  f o r 22  suckles  were  heads  and  lambs'  effect two  of  lamb age  homogeneous  significantly  on  the d u r a t i o n  subsets.  l o n g e r on  a g e - c l a s s e s (F=11.67, T a b l e  Lambs  average 8 ) . The  of  less  (x=24.3 second  f e m a l e t e r m i n a t e d s u c k l i n g b o u t s w i t h lambs b o t h to  60  days  o l d , and  averaged  19.2  s and  T h e r e were no a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  durations lost  the  o l d suckled  included  t o 25,  C.  maximum  udders.  revealed  s) t h a n t h e o t h e r two subset,  was  b o u t s , and  bouts  10  It  bout  suckling  than  0.7° d e g r e e s  and  period  highest.  o l d terminated suckling  suckling  minimum  t e m p e r a t u r e s were l o w e s t and  (11.3%) o f t h e  the  level  lambing  Behaviour  total  Flatiron  1585  Stevenson  precipitation the neonate  fell,  of the extended  tagged  and  untagged  lambs o r n o t  females,  regardless  (One-way ANOVA, F=0.85).  18.4  s  among mean of  whether  Table 8. Suckling behaviour of bighorn lambs for the Flatiron Mountain population between April 27 and June 11,1983.  Estimated Age  Suckle Rate  Suckle Duration  (days)  (bouts.h )  (s) x  Total Suckle Duration Rate -1  sd  n  (sJi ) -1  x  Bunt Rate (bunts.s ^ of suckling) x  sd  n  .26  18  1-10  24.3 a  1.6  60  3.2  75  0.30  11-25  19.2. b  1.4  51  2.0  29  0.4^  .18  25  26-60  18.4, b  1.3  84  0.7  14  0.44  .19  42  b  3.  b  Means within columns with different subscripts are significantly different.  54  The and  suckle r a t e of  was  significantly  bouts.h rates  for  1  for  lambs  lambs  lambs more  26-60  11  to  comparisons.  suckles  0.14  the  was  bunt  bunts.s to  10  rate  of  80  days  days  old  was  bunt  and  was  female  also  t o lambs 11  Direct  groups of  eagles  eagle  of  were  was  group  but  before did  not  protection  by  1982,  main  the  terrain  was  insufficient  rate  nursery by  lambs  were  All  the  the  outcome  flee,  crouching  pursued  of  m a t u r e e a g l e was  of  size  5  two  this  observed  mean b u n t  diving  three  at  and  with  to  allow  terminated  that  r a t e of  at  from  was  0.30 0.45  the  group  was  diving  and  0.43  lambs  1  bunts.s  ^  bunts.s  1  bighorn  up  unknown. on  On  a group of  May  two  to On  fleeing  adult  to  in  females.  the  an  for a period  appearing  low  1982,  one  gathered  in rapid, with  attacking  25,  hovering  sheep  adult  April  observed  eagles  was  On  yearling  the  keep  occasions  yearling  The  beside  to  on  juveniles.  away.  pursuit  observed  suckle  Predators  mature  able  0.7  different  suckles  less  of  lamb  significantly  of  8).  observed  flying  rate  sample  significantly  m e t e r s above a g r o u p o f f e m a l e s min  bout  bouts.h  The  terminated  sheep which c o n t a i n e d  immature  the  3.2  t o 60 d a y s o l d w h i c h a v e r a g e d  Observations  Golden  15  old  The 1  than  old.  days  (One-way ANOVA, F=3.5, T a b l e  of  d a y s o l d was  (One-way ANOVA, F=10.2). The  - 1  compared  bunts.s  10  frequent  25  statistical  1 to  to  level  a  tight obtain May  6,  escape flight.  females, 24,  but  1983,  lambs bedded  on  a a  55  large the  flat  escape  min  were  terrain  before  presence  of  1 m of striking  Juniper  eagle-bighorn  group f o r  interactions  were  observed  often,  the  lambing  period,  i n the  species  reacting  to the  during  without  immediately t o  eagles  either  observed  o f Environment  potentially  and  early prey  on  Juniper  i n both  size  as  of  the  an  five  o f 1982, b a s e d these  first  newborn  Slope,  common i n t h e s t u d y a r e a .  crew o b s e r v e d  i n t h e summer  phase  as  on  s i g h t i n g s were q u i t e  Slope  colour  spring,  and  one o f  of the other.  Ministry  often  year  fled  standing i n a tight  These  golden  bighorn  Black bear B.C.  down.  because  the  proximity  the  came w i t h i n  and r e m a i n e d  bedding  unusual  throughout  on  The e a g l e  lambs, whereupon t h e e n t i r e n u r s e r y g r o u p  cliff 10  rock.  bears.  week  lambs. area  of  different  May  so  B e a r s ' were by  1982 and 1983. No b e a r - b i g h o r n  bears  on v a r i a t i o n s i n Black  n o t used  A  bears  were  they  could  observed bighorn  more  i n the  interactions  were  observed. A grounds  single on May  the t r a v e l fox of  observed  22, 1984. A s o l i t a r y  on  t h e South  female  Slope  bighorn,  that  r o u t e o f t h e f o x , h i d b e l o w some r o c k b l u f f s  had p a s s e d .  The f o x d i d a p p e a r  lambing was on  u n t i l the  t o be aware o f t h e p r e s e n c e  the bighorn. Although  the  r e d f o x was  course  a total  of f i e l d  o f o n l y seven work  (three  coyotes  were  individuals,  observed  during  and one g r o u p  of  56  four),  coyote  t r a c k s were common a t a l l t i m e s  bighorn w i n t e r - s p r i n g range. indicate groups  activity  of f i v e  coyotes  Mountain.  On  occasions  i n close  a  coyote  centers,  South  a  each  Slope  Based  occurred  association  was o b s e r v e d  went  into  bighorn single  could  adult  female  bighorn  South  Slope.  The  off,  they  their  range.  c o y o t e was o b s e r v e d running  coyote  and  towards  a  run.  The  disappeared  over  coyote the  to avoid  then  ridge  two a d u l t  a  edge.  April  large were  tried  to  since i t where t h e  a t t a c k on two o f s h e e p on  heading  straight  t o c u t the bighorn and  accelerated  i t s brisk  i n the opposite  females  29, 1983, a  group  the coyote  slowed  two  The c o y o t e  position  On  the bighorn  on  On March 28, 1983,  t o make a b r i e f  o t h e r , and when t h e c o y o t e  changed d i r e c t i o n  of Flatiron  as i t approached,  i t had r e a c h e d  s e e i t on t h e open  trotting  towards each  when  family  observed  the f o r e s t  of the bighorn  the trees  were  70 m from  near  of three  i n the v i c i n i t y  approximately  t o be aware  estimate  coyotes  on t h e  and s c e n t p o s t s t o  with bighorn.  t h a t were b e d d e d on open r a n g e appeared  on t r a c k s  minimum  single  o f the year  trot  direction  and  o f the  bighorn.  Contents A total were  coyote  However, coyote  of Predator Scats i n Spring o f 81 p r e d a t o r scats,  since  i t i s possible  were  included  that  scats none  were were  associated  some F e l i d  i n t h e sample.  collected,  or Canid  Twenty-four  most  o f which  with  scrapes.  scats other percent  than  of the  57  total  volume  fragments by  scats  of bighorn  volume.  diet  of  Thus,  lambs,  a  frequency  contained  the  remains  adult  hair,  and  those  scats  which  of  contained  6%  adult  contained  either  remains  only  lamb h a i r ,  both lamb  because  or  adult hair,  some  and  predator  of  lambs  of  o l d scats  food  habits  i n the predators' however,  n i n e months o l d when  and  amounted  bone  t o 10%  early  spring  diet  because  collected.  could none  adult  lamb  bighorn.  remains.  only Of  volume  was  of coyotes  may  collected  may  of the scats  and t h u s w o u l d n o t  spring.  The p r o p o r t i o n  n o t be b i a s e d b y of these  (47%)  12% c o n t a i n e d  i n the d i e t  i n early  scats  the average  have r e c e n t l y thawed f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s w i n t e r , represent  hair  38 o f t h e 81 lambs  of adult bighorn  overestimated  of  34% t h e p r e d a t o r s '  basis,  contained  The p r o p o r t i o n  consisted  sheep.  occurence  Twenty-nine p e r c e n t  have been  while  approximately  consisted of bighorn On  68%.  collected  were  inclusion  greater  than  58  D I S C U S S I O N  Timing  of Offspring Mortality  Pregnancy  Assuming population  Rate  t h e sample  as a whole,  gestation clearly is  o f 11 f e m a l e s  leads  t h e 100% p r e g n a n c y to rejection  production.  The c a u s e  conception.  The a s s u m p t i o n  t o some q u e s t i o n ,  energy requirement pregnant females from  lambs, w i t h estimate Vaseux  t o food  trapped  t h e Vaseux  because  Lake  population  was  twins  93%,  diagnosis  classes  other  adult  road-kill  1965  i s therefore  there  n o t low  i s representative i s the increased  was u s e d  i n trapping.  and shot  gave  When  Game birth  based  on  (Harper  sheep  sample  were into  study,  to viable 1979).  sample  progesterone  unpubl.).  While  also  captured,  the traps. females  My  of the  serum  o f Vaseux  (1966) f o u n d  trapped  adult  Farm  ( E c c l e s and S h a c k l e t o n  females  to lure  and 1966, S p a l d i n g  a l l 16  i n 1984 f o r a n o t h e r  ultrasound than  as b a i t  population,  Doppler  mixed  that  late  and t h e r a t e o f lamb  i n 1977 f o r t h e Okanagan  o f pregnancy  food  i n mid t o  i t i s possible that  used  two p r o d u c i n g  cases  t h e sample  of the  o f g e s t a t i o n may have d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a t t r a c t e d  females were  rate  o f low r e c r u i t m e n t that  rate  of the hypothesis  no d i f f e r e n c e between t h e p r e g n a n c y  open  i s representative  and  age-sex in  both  However, i n a collected i n  a p r e g n a n c y r a t e o f 91% w i t h  59  4  cases  Dall's  of  twins  sheep  in  11  (Ovis d a l l i  Northwest  Territories,  7  yearlings  female  were  adult  pregnant  (Nichols  1978)  i n Iran  also  3-years  and  pregnant  female  older  females  baited  traps,  populations  are  a  (Nalbandov old  conceive sheep  olds  counts  of  the  females  of  mature  100%  9  (Geist  50% to  82  of  for  live  indicated females in  1982  i n 1983, age  females  two  were  was  beyond  were  orientalis)  rate  in  therefore  females  seem  that  attracted in  wild  determined, of t h e i r  to Ovis  olds  i n females and  and  Flatiron  i n an  few  of  the  weight  to  the  none Olsen  (Table number  estimate  of  Assuming  reproductive  Dall's  5-years  of  the  1981).  Mountain  older  older). their  senescent  reproductive  sufficient  >80%  estimate  and  (Ovis  O b s e r v a t i o n o f marked  y e a r s and to  3 of  Alaska  i t i s probable that  (Bunnell  results  (3-years  was  attained  the  and  1984) . A l l  in  females  t h e end  4-year  lambs  of  rates.  1971).  the  a_l.  pregnancy  rate  natality  older,  differentially  common  have  sheep  sample  a u t o p s i e d i n the  et  I t would  not  pregnancy  indicated  yearlings  reproductive  a  1976) .  would  large  autopsied  Asiatic  1976) . S i m i l a r l y ,  1983  as  (Simmons  not c o n c e i v e near  birth  in  consisted  showed  100%  only  gave  wild  is  a  2 - y e a r s and  sheep  probably  as y e a r l i n g s  but  Dall's  i t  females  females  older,  pregnant,  and  in  f e m a l e s s h o t and  t o have h i g h p r e g n a n c y  d o m e s t i c ewes may  2-year  Also,  of females  (Valdez  and  Although  life  dalli)  78%  eighteen  autopsied  females.  and  3-year Maximum  population  7) . U s i n g of  2-year  73  females  5% life  of  50% old of  these further  60  reduces So,  the e s t i m a t e of pregnant  i n the  p o p u l a t i o n of  estimated rate,  69  would  females have  days  old.  mortality  o n l y 20  o f Lambs f r o m  lost  of  their Low  lambs  69  in  1983.  to  high  early  Circumstantial Category after not  evidence,  was of  first lose  isolating  their  isolated  themselves  females  i s based  d i d , and  losing  their  South  Slope,  the  old.  days  South  exhibited  fact the  in  o f an  offspring.  only  an  pregnancy  the  first  to I  maximum  occurred  I  18 t o 26  II  as t h e a  search  supports days  females Category  few  upon h e r  f o r a few  days  parturition  that Category  and  females.  unsuccessful  after  #4,  was  II females d i d  Slope w i t h i n  exhibited  21  females  that  days  vocalization  and  neonatal  Slope from  female  5  I  high  before parturition  that  Category  lamb p r o d u c t i o n  fact  few  5  Category  o f dams s e a r c h i n g f o r m i s s i n g lambs, s h o u l d o n l y be  of  suggest Category  r e t u r n e d t o South The  my  between  due  Low  the  on t h e a s s u m p t i o n  a few  lambs.  This behaviour loss  in  not  Category  on  themselves,  lambs  This  typical  based  3  were  mortality  I I f e m a l e s were away f r o m  either.  I  postnatal  on  However,  indicate lambs  when lambs were g r e a t e r t h a n 3 days due  older,  69.  Females  the  losses  and  based  lambs.  females  production  a l l lamb  2-years  to  when  i n the p o p u l a t i o n to  older,  Tagged  marked  lamb  since  and  given b i r t h  Observations females  females  3-years  summer lamb c o u n t was  Survival  82  females  days  of  return  to  behaviour this  idea.  after  the  61  Lamb 36%  production  i n 1983  from  (Figure  identified  4) . U s i n g  t h e above  females  i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n , lamb  3-years  and o l d e r  i s then  than  there  a r e more  i s predicted  Survival were  high  survival lower in  rates  i n the early  Weights,  unmarked  females  non-pregnant  among f e m a l e s , o r may  females  they  could  i n the population  rate.  reached  one month o f age  lambs  Ashnola  and D i s e a s e  o f Ashnola  than  Game that  t h a n Game Farm  production.  one month  t o one y e a r  o f age were  S t a t u s o f Females i n L a t e G e s t a t i o n  females  Farm  captive  were  research  32% h i g h e r herd,  than  y e t they  p o p u l a t i o n i n both  females produced  1982 and 1983  64% and 8 2 % ) . S i m i l a r l y body c o n d i t i o n  females  Flatiron  females  from  The  1965).  (28% and 24% v e r s u s  Mt.  pregnant  1960's, b e i n g 73% i n 1961 ( B l o o d 1961) and 71%  t h e Okanagan  females.  69  M e a s u r e m e n t s , and Body C o n d i t i o n S c o r e s  Liveweights  of  i n lamb s u r v i v a l  o f lambs a f t e r  o f lambs  Nutritional  fewer  o f 11 o r  i n 1983 and 1984, a t 82% and 85% r e s p e c t i v e l y .  1964 (Demarchi  from  estimated  p r o d u c t i o n from  by t h e sampled p r e g n a n c y  rates  was f o u r  16 o f 58 o r 28%. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e  be due t o random v a r i a t i o n suggest  females  were  28%  Mt. f e m a l e s  females.  i n mid t o Within  higher  than  Okanagan  are i n a better  Thus t h e n u t r i t i o n a l late  gestation  the F l a t i r o n  Farm  state  of nutrition  status  of Flatiron  should  Mt. s a m p l e ,  Game  scores  not a f f e c t the lowest  lamb weight  62  female  was  score fact  t h e lamb,  and t h e l o w e s t i f body  equivalent  which  had  the lowest  body  concentration of c e r t a i n blood  condition  to  also  scores  scores  of the F l a t i r o n  i n domestic  sheep,  they  condition  minerals.  Mt.  In  females a r e  a r e i n good f a t 2  condition. determined fat  Using  the  regression  f o r domestic sheep  i n t h e f l e e c e - f r e e empty  body  condition  Ashnola would  score  and V a s e u x  cause  of  ( R u s s e l e t a_l. body  2.3.  should  Thus  should  neonatal  mortality  described  1969) , t h e c h e m i c a l  (Verme  20% f o r a  birthweights  be  above  that  by w o r k e r s on d o m e s t i c  Thomson 1 9 4 9 ) , and w i l d c e r v i d s  ( r =0.88)  approximate  lamb  populations  the high  birthweights  relationship  a  from  level  which  i s related sheep  the  t o low  (Thomson and  1965, 1977; T h o r n e e t a l .  1976). Compared weights the  of the females  high  size  was  small  (48 t o 66 kg) .  Vaseux  Lake  Ministry  The mean w e i g h t i n winter  populations  files,  f e d which  Linear  measurements o f t h e F l a t i r o n  length being  obtained  mean  81 mm  i n t h e 1980's  measurements  longer  of adult  and h i n d  are heavier  than  may  compared  (n = 9,  the Ashnola account  foot length being  also with 45 mm  and  f o r the  to the  canadensis  was  from t h e  58.7 k g  Mt. f e m a l e s were  o f Ovis  their  given  females  was  P e n t i c t o n ) . Both  weights  the  of weights  o f 1965-66  are winter  californiana  ( 1 9 7 0 ) . However,  (n=4) , and t h e r a n g e  population  published  study  e t a_l.  higher  than  o f Oj_ c_^  i n this  by B l o o d  o f Environment  Vaseux  weights  captured  mean o f 53 kg g i v e n  sample  the  to published  1960's. larger total longer  63  (Lawson and  Johnson  Blood  and  While levels  1982).  Tissue  there  Chemistry  are  of bighorn  no  sheep, t h e r e a r e  concentration  of  magnesium  bighorn  in  the  production  is  populations  of bighorn  Mountain that  not  herd.  by  (1970), Hickey M o u n t a i n and c. have  serum  serum. given,  Franzmann  California c.  calcium  which  is slightly  1980;  McDonald  al.  1981;  et  (Foreyt et a l .  1983).  a  there  serum c a l c i u m , low  of  3.3  was  and  higher  0.  little  c.  Flatiron  Deforge  in wild  Thorne  19 70) , t o a h i g h  Kradel  1970) . Most  levels  of  of  studies  bighorn  and  7.0 of  mg%  desert bighorn  i n o r g a n i c phosphorus  (0.  from  11.0  9.8  females Scott  to  1982).  on  varying  at  mg%.  values  varied  (Franzmann  native from  Dall's  9.6  published  handling  mg%  (Bunch e t a l .  levels  i n the  sheep  Thorne  (1978) f o r Rocky  i n captive bighorn  wild  to  however,  calcium  after  Flatiron  cremnobates)  and  variation  other  is similar  Franzmann  Bottrell  lamb  in  from the  females  ranging  serum  levels  ranging  the and  their  i n o r g a n i c phosphorus c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  mg%  serum  and  Free  the  on  differ  1972),  concentrations  slightly  of  they  Peterson  than  mineral  phosphorus,  mineral  (1971,  higher  trace  data  in Flatiron  mexicana,  s h e e p a l s o have  Whereas  Although  bighorn.  the  calcium,  blood  calcium  on  s e v e r a l s t u d i e s which g i v e  i n d i c a t e how  ( 1 9 7 6 ) , and  n e l s o n i , 0.  data  macrominerals  Serum  reported  published  4.0  (Woolf forage to  5.4  from and and give mg%  64  (Franzmann Hickey  and T h o r n e  1976;  MacDonald 1983). average al.  inorganic  inorganic  and  phosphorus  phosphorus  minerals,  concentration  1978;  that the  Flatiron  levels adult  the despite  having had  phosphorus  i n blood  i s correlated  South  Slope  sufficient  crude p r o t e i n ,  range  was  c o n s i d e r e d t o be d e f i c i e n t ,  0.12%  (Demarchi stressed  i n d r y matter  i n August  the  females.  increasing  In  age, as of  bone  to  phosphorus  be c o n s i d e r e d an i s o l a t e d  1968).  however,  in a  review  nutrient  While  rangeland  supplements,  there  are  few  among  from  March  i n rangeland  infertility.  Phosphorus,  especially  by  of by  reports  grasses,  since  r a n g i n g from  0.06%  the  Cohen  ruminant  and p a n a c e a  cattle  to contain extract,  (Demarchi  0.01%  determined  on t h e  ash, nitrogen-free  concentration  1968) . However, that  twice  forage species  h a s been  fat, fiber,  c a l c i u m f o r maintenance  to  It i s i n most  to the rate  composition of the p r i n c i p a l  bighorn winter  declined  serum  1983) .  and  it  levels  of adult  its  Chemical  than  (McDonald e t  almost  to decrease with  (Hillman  eta l .  had l o w e r  lower  i s known  growth  1980;  had l o w e r  o f 3.6 mg%  humans, p h o s p h o r u s concentration  a l .  1982; F o r e y t  females  1972;  i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  lamb  o f serum i n o r g a n i c  et  however,  reported  female  Bunch  and S c o t t  serum  than t h a t  t o note  1971, 1972; H e b e r t  o f Oj_ Cj_ n e l s o n i  A t 3.25 mg%,  interesting  Bottrell  1981; D e f o r g e  population  1981).  serum  Peterson  e t a_l.  One  1970; Franzmann  respond of  following  year  (1980) , i t was nutrition  cannot  f o r i l l - t h r i f t and well  positive  to  phosphorus  responses  to  65  phophorus  supplementation  not  clear  what  and  pregnant  bighorn,  female  but  development supply and  and  fetal  in  on  serum  (Garel of  1980) . I t i s  productivity  affect  However,  (Cohen  i n bighorn winter  the  will  transfer  fetus  growth  domestic  in direct  females  is  a  skeletal  are  relation 7%  Flatiron  and  of  1983) . I t i s p o s s i b l e  pregnant  of  sheep  represents only  forages  able  to  to  i t s size  the  transfer  that  the  response  to  low high  demand.  Magnesium established (19 7 0 ) ,  levels  by  but  Serum step  were  trace  toward  among  than  concentrations  of  baseline  The (P.  and  only  Mountain  levels  pers.  and  copper  lower,  and  iodine  was  energy  status  levels  and  Thorne  bighorn  from  comm.). o b t a i n e d as to  comparable  Davidson  selenium  baseline  Franzmann  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s were  establishing  B.C.  than  Rocky  (P. D a v i d s o n p e r s .  element  south-eastern  higher  (1971,1972)  lower  populations.  females,  were  Franzmann  s o u t h - e a s t e r n B.C.  Mt.  had  w i t h phosphorus  back  to  phosphorus  1980).  sheep  phosphorus  deficiencies  fetus  female  low  serums  (Cohen  the  need,  from  effects  i n domestic  allow data  zinc  levels  from  where  similar  first  comparison comes  comm.),  were  a  to  were  serum  Flatiron almost  4  times h i g h e r .  Although to  be  zinc,  adequate and  during  selenium,  of the  gestation,  may  be  Flatiron blood  marginally  Mt.  serum  females levels  deficient  of  based  appeared copper, on  the  66  adequate  levels  (Puis  1981) .  normal  based  comm.). than  which  However, on  are b e t t e r storage  f o r domestic  tissues  homeostatic concentration Tissue had  levels  f o r many which  manganese, and i r o n with  based is  were  selenium, forages  of  with tissue  serum trace  the  to of  trace  with  i n central  bighorn  was  lower level  and k i d n e y  tissue  whereas  dietary  B.C.  elements levels  that  a  deficiencies.  and  suggest  T h i s i s a t odds  and z i n c .  adult  However,  sheep l i v e r , i t  marginally  Washington  they zinc,  the F l a t i r o n  selenium  is a  constant  copper,  f o r domestic  were  blood  maintain  i n copper  t h e serum  deficient  results. State  in  Alfalfa  have  been  i n s e l e n i u m w i t h a mean c o n c e n t r a t i o n  on a d r y w e i g h t  element  pers.  normal  elements  levels  established  the F l a t i r o n  trace  appear  serum b e c a u s e t h e y a r e  elements,  presence  serum  t o be i n a d e q u a t e  0.047 ppm  the  in liver  tend  marginally deficient  grown  females  and  sheep  Puis  male and non-male b i g h o r n  from  which agrees  determined  will  of  on b a s e l i n e l e v e l s  possible  (R.  f o r g r o w t h and r e p r o d u c t i o n .  the suggestion  females  levels  elements  the  levels  magnesium  sheep  of adult  of these  of F l a t i r o n  adequate  and  o f s t a t u s than blood  despite  f o r domestic  sheep.  of trace  tissue  serum  bighorn  indicators  calcium,  f o r domestic  i n blood  Concentrations  established  iodine,  published  established  been  values  Phosphorus  most  have  basis  there  ( C a t h c a r t e t a_l.  a r e no  i n bighorn  published  sheep.  1980). As studies of  67  Selenium/vitamin disease birth in  (Hidiroglou  and  weaning;  Dubeski  the h i n d The  d i s e a s e may  apparent  not  first  (Dubeski  died.  This  cardiac  possibility activity, prolonged  and  does  result  in  the  of  hind  in a  acute  cannot  of  in  be  Flatiron  65%  i t would  be be  would  legs,  is  a stiffness  of  arrest,  are  the  .lambs  not  out.  always  of  70% be  In  blood  were that  possibility  stress  any  t h a n t h o s e t h a t were  of  mineral mortality  severe  addition, and  The  predator  lamb so  of  died.  the  However,  probably  nursery  those  between  estimated  that  in  but such  symptoms  which  result  1983).  symptoms,  s u r v i v e d , or  apparent.  expected  lower  front  a  review  lambs  cardiac  interaction  ruled  very  between  (Shamberger  visible  as  muscle  (see  domestic  since  those  i n the  herd  from  preclude  failure  resulted  significantly  50%  as  disease, c l i n i c a l  however,  cardiac  case  The  high  lambs  intense o b s e r v a t i o n of  that  significant  were  Disease  lambs  some  symptoms w o u l d  w o u l d be  and  muscle  in  clinical the  as  i n mortality  difficult  white  domestic  disease  be  not,  which  be  causes  t h e n an a r c h e d b a c k s t a n c e  either  pursuit  deficiencies  may  muscle  f o r white  of  sheep  affects  1983) . D e s p i t e  failure  in  a r e l u c t a n c e t o walk, then  paralysis  observed  found  White  also  i n 1983  which  losses  d i a g n o s i s can  partial  groups  and  l i m b s , and  correct as  by  deficiency  1980)  1983).  characterised  E  that  i f this  tissue  levels  found.  Incidence incidence  of  PI-3  virus  isolated  from  the  nasal  68  swabs was  the  suggests  that  suffering  most i n t e r e s t i n g approximately  from  period.  influenza  However,  lambing  period  paramyxovirus cattle  and  (McLean  1967) .  The  to  dams  upper  Doane  February  four  that  PI-3  on r e p r o d u c t i o n , s u g g e s t s  that  i t may  p r e v i o u s l y been s u s p e c t e d  (Parks e t al_.  tests  positive  antibody  antibody  titres  on  titre on  73  11  PI-3  been  England I t would  documented  1974)  and  appear  in  Colorado  California  that  PI-3  (69%  et  desert  inability  Corynebacterium  pyrogenes,  bighorn  i n an  and  are not  Corynebacterium  acute  isolate and  77%,  pyogenes  have  effect as  has  one and  (0_^  Payson  c.  1982).  i n bighorn  (62%,  Parks  and  e t al.  1982).  of mountain  sheep i n  animals.  BVD,  IBR, indicate  situation. been  only 1983)  t o PI-3  Deforge  Pasteurella  disease  no  al.  Wyoming  i s a common v i r u s  to  healthy  bighorn  response  a r e a s where t h e y a r e i n c o n t a c t w i t h d o m e s t i c  The  had  ( T u r n e r and  and to  a  (Fischman  revealed  (F'oreyt  However, h i g h i n c i d e n c e s o f a n t i g e n i c  is  domestic  as p a t h o g e n i c  sheep  penisular  of  the  1972) .  c r e m n o b a t e s ) were a l l n e g a t i v e f o r PI-3  have  infection  n o t be  Dall's  for  disease  PI-3  otherwise  fact  Serologic  PI-3.  these  the  and  survived  sheep  in  been  sampling  domestic  PI-3  females,  with  This  have  March  which  respiratory and  may  and  lambs  infected  1971) ,  incidence  disease analyses.  population  of  Flatiron  high  the  of  the  the  of  common  and  half  during  three  belonged  result  found  adenovirus, the  Flatiron  Pasteurella in  bighorn  spp. which  69  died  of  bacterial  association presence  with  domestic  of alpha  Flavobacter Flatiron  bronchiopneumonia  females  is  not  Veterinary  Pathologist,  tested  and L e p t o s p i r a  other  wild  causing  sheep  late  successfully  the  pathogenic  sample  i n weights, affliction,  lambs.  In f a c t ,  were  size  also  than s u c c e s s f u l  body  was  The  d i s e a s e s have  the  Lewis,  a l l s i x female  been  for Brucella isolated i n  1982; F o r e y t e t a_l.  organisms  from  to  ( D r . R.  Although  compared  females  of  which  1983) ,  are capable  identified  low (n=4),  t o those serum  than  they  females  the  one  of  (Appendix  which obvious  minerals, or  which  blood  h e a v i e r , and had h i g h e r body  (Appendix  had no  lost  m i n e r a l s measured  r e a r e d an o f f s p r i n g  length  females  scores, trace  their  higher i n  sampled  female  4). Unsuccessful condition  scores  difference  i n total  4 ) . I t was t h e r e f o r e  apparent  that n u t r i t i o n  and d i s e a s e d i d n o t a f f e c t  tagged  on F l a t i r o n  females  sheep  f e m a l e s , b u t t h e r e was l i t t l e  length or hindfoot  swabs  significant  of antibodies  condition  s i x o f seven  unsuccessful  females  1982).  on n a s a l  be  comm.).  and J e s s u p  reared offspring  successfully  Jessup  after  a b o r t i o n s ( B e l s c h n e r 1965) .  disease  which  pers.  (Foreyt  term  Although  three  to  diseases i n these  spp., these  are highly  advantage  thought  negative f o r the presence  spp.  both  and  s p p . , and S t a p h y l o c o c c u s a u r e u s ,  of pathogenic  and  (Foreyt  pleuritis  h e m o l y t i c S t r e p t o c o c c u s , Corynebacterium spp.,  assessment  sera  sheep  and  Mt. i n 1983.  lamb s u r v i v a l  among t h e  70  Production  and  Survival  of  Offspring  During  the  Lambing  Period Lambing C h r o n o l o g y  The with  lambing  the  dates  April  22,  1971  April  17,  1983;  are  1984  from  and  Gun  of  from a  of  a  (est. born and  record  lamb  of  first  the  18,  Years  began e a r l y  single  (unpubl.  book  Slope  April  April  Webster  temporal  The  majority of  30  i n a l l years  May,  South  observations  17),  soon  i n the  after  lamb  April  1984.  18,  field  notes),  by  the  as  1972  and  spring  mid-April.  are  Observations  maintained  p a t t e r n of  investigated  number  Production i n Previous  follows; (newborn),  for  1971  and  for  1983  and  Keremeos-Cawston  Rod  Club.  The been  p e r i o d on  observation  Early  1972  and  of  lambs  1961  number  1978,  in  1982  except  1960  observed  most  1979, and  chronology majority  lambs were b o r n  lambs  1960's, w i t h in  p r e v i o u s l y by  of  and 1983  of  Blood on  occurred  observed  as  births  in early found  occurred  rapid  to  the  i n the f i r s t  had  has  (1980).  before  increases 1960,  in  and  May the late  i n c r e a s e s i n the in  two  the  early  weeks o f  i n c r e a s e as  late two  Slope  Ramsay  than  first  researchers  similar  lambs b e i n g b o r n  and  June,  earlier i n the  South  Mountain  Lamb numbers d i d n o t  previous was  on  (1967)  Flatiron  (1980)  lambs b e i n g b o r n 1980.  appearance  ( F i g u r e 8) . R a p i d  ( F i g u r e 8) . Ramsay  of  lamb  May  rapidly  found,  but  the  1970's,  with  the  weeks o f  May.  Maximum number of 20 lambs observed  Maximum number of lambs observed  Figure  8.  P a t t e r n o f o b s e r v a t i o n o f newborn lambs on F l a t i r o n M o u n t a i n i n s e v e n different years.  72  There  has  sightings  on  been c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n  Flatiron  8 ) . T h i s may  be  due  the  of  female  pattern  effort  and  these.  In  away f r o m  ability view South  observed  due  lambing  19 80  and  (Figure but  were due should females the  to  early  of  have  and  in  of  60  days  counts  1982.  been  32 the  sheep  were o b s e r v e d  lambs  observed  with  to  low  a  in  1970's  i n the  female  was  as  years  1977  low  not  an  this  case  produced  rate  of  in  (Ramsay of  to  adult  decline.  study  (Table  of  females  14  in  then  two  8)  1978,  a l l adult  1979  females  1982 these  year  (Table 2 ) . Only in  49  i n the p o p u l a t i o n  additional  the  small  lamb:female  lamb p r o d u c t i o n i n 1978  as  not  r a t i o s were o v e r  continued  number  was  number  to  females  is  Variation in  and  lamb:female  of  stayed  a high of  1975  of  of  1980) .  maximum  part  the  difference  years  from  corresponded  additional  lambs  mortality  the  number  higher  which  in  females  conducted  censused  10  t o 1980  of  I f the  of  between (Bunnell  in  lambs  the  recent  range  dates, i n  combination  i n 1983,  and  lamb  (Figure  lambs,  some  some f e m a l e s  Dall's  number  i n 1980,  estimated  or  1960's  Declines  to r e l a t i v e l y  survived,  of  i n the  increase  to  survival  observer,  1 ) . From 1978  the  an  1980  f o r up  2) .  observed  Classification  from  that  1973)  Table  indicate  fact  the  numbers  (Scheffler  0.30  the  in  of  period  t o a change i n t h e b r e e d i n g s e a s o n .  1967  ratios  the  parturitions  Total  females  of  lambing  among y e a r s i n b i r t h  isolation,  chronology  when a c t u a l  d u r i n g the  to differences  Slope  between  neccesarily the  of  Mountain  i n the p a t t e r n  old  i fa l l  and  1980  was  zero  73  for  these  three years, could  the increase One  of  isolation females after  lambing  period  females  and  counts  to  the  females  yearlings  previous year  lambing  earliest  This  observed  than  at  the  period  in  date  either  a r e done  June  15 be  explain  lambs  that  female  of  before  adult  or  well  just  during  the  the  number  of  then  underestimated.  range.  yearlings,  may  of  In and why  may  1983, five  a  not  Even have  group  of  lambs d i d n o t  i n some y e a r s more  had  been  counted  the  1983  Lamb  Survival  Lambing forces  mountain  that  dropped  upper of  pattern  some o f t h e f e m a l e s  Factors Affecting  (Bunnell  Temperatures  June  years.  maximum c o u n t s  done  winter-spring  selective  onset  birthweight  to  t a g g e d ) , two  Weather D u r i n g two  be  two  (Ramsay 1980) .  Potential  The  observed  to obtain  15  July.  lamb p r o d u c t i o n e x p l a i n  t o 81 i n j u s t  I f censuses  April  main  early  were  the  of  i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n may  (two  until  53  must  period.  from  lambs  of  i s that  a r e made i n l a t e  returned  return  5B)  rate  from  implications  (Figure  the  seven  the  females  p o p u l a t i o n censuses  lambing  if  i n adult  the  lambing  sheep  1980), a  thought  since  newborn  below ground  (Figure  are  to control climate  together  lamb  freezing weather  7) . However,  can on  (Geist they  survive  three  station the  the e v o l u t i o n  of  1971),  and  determine  the  cold  stress.  separate occasions during  climate  of  the  lambing  the  Ashnola  74  plateau at  i s not  higher  Cowan  particularly  elevations  19 7 9 ) .  At  grounds,  where  observed,  the  was  5.4°  C  and  the  more n o r t h e r l y  lower  dams  h a r s h , when compared  elevations  and  newborn  mean minimum  warmer  than  latitudes  of  the  lambs  temperature  higher  on  to  during  areas  (e.g. Hoefs  South  were  the  lambing  Slope  most  the  lambing  frequently  lambing  lambing  and  period  grounds.  This o  corresponded C  per  the  100m  +2° C.  the.  thermogregulatory catabolism  of  Though the  mortality  during  the  and  Of  7.  losses the  should  data  of  the  be  two  only  lower  1983  did  could  not  fat  be  there  on  a  that  periods  the  does n o t  lamb l o s s e s  on  mild  grounds, any  for  by  comparison  increase  in  Figure  of  weather  Figures  5A  inclement  when  has  greatest appear  demonstrated affect  t o be  Mt.  on  5A lamb  weather,  o f warm sunny w e a t h e r .  work  Flatiron  no  with inclement  with  has  the  experience  was  associated  previous  such  reserves.  one  that  1  lambing  compensated  in  during  with  of  As  lambing  not  identified  was  rate  1975).  coupled  associated  based  lapse  elevation  elevation  inconclusive,  stress  a period  the  periods  occurring  stressed  major c a u s e o f  that  period,  three  thermoregulatory mortality,  was  Thompson  shelter,  in  lambs t h a t was  lambing  occurred,  other  born  adiabatic  and  lower  n o r m a l amounts o f  the  on  of  the  stresses  dry  (Miller  use  at  lambs  the  recorded  The  experienced  suggest  to  change  temperature  was  climate  exactly  elevation  lowest  grounds  almost  It that  neonatal  implicated  as  the  75  Suckling  The Flatiron  Behaviour  overall  mean  suckle  Mountain  herd  falls  Shackleton  (1973)  is  to levels  similar  and  by  Smith  given  by G e i s t  Wishart  (1978) ,  mountain  sheep.  durations  were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  Shackleton large  Geist  through (1973)  found  differences  populations. survival small  durations  22  of  c^  (1971),  first  of  suckle  duration.  different  years  correlated  to the corresponding  Shackleton  1973; H o r e j s i 1976; S m i t h  and  (1976),  that  of  suckle  i n mountain  sheep  quality.  correlated to  between  detected  by  populations  population  two  different  differences  i n t h e same p o p u l a t i o n ,  from  by H o r e j s i  positively  duration  i n the  reported  suggested  lamb p r o d u c t i o n  i n mean  found  canadensis,  f o r other  concept  (1976)  s  the levels  lamb p r o d u c t i o n  suckle  Horejsi  variations  suckle  in  among y e a r s  (1971)  the  of  i n between  f o r two p o p u l a t i o n s  and  populations  duration  in  lamb  t h a t was r e l a t e d t o However,  and  lamb:female  when  mean  populations  was  ratios  and W i s h a r t  ( G e i s t 1971;  1978; and  this  2 study), The the  there  no  significant  relationship  mean s u c k l e d u r a t i o n o f a l l t h e s e mean  lamb:female  populations, less  was  ratio  the F l a t i r o n  than  half  their  The  suckling  reported  i n other  herd  average  rate  of  was  Compared  had a v e r a g e  to  suckle  these  other  durations but  production.  Flatiron  populations,  n=ll).  s t u d i e s was 21 s e c o n d s , and  0.58.  lamb  ( r =0.003,  lambs  declining  was from  similar  to  that  approximately  3  76  bout.h  i n one week  week  o l d lambs  rate  o f 0.42  the  same  (Shackleton determined  (Geist  bunts.s  as  that  that  associated  a  with  suggests  than  Shackleton's  lamb  production.  that  high  low  bunt  and  production  low q u a l i t y  on  Flatiron  relatively gestation  high also  lamb  live  weights  suggests  and b u n t  lamb  production The  that  Mt.  duration i s  females  lambs, rate  production i s limiting  fact  that  that  I f the  1973),  i s greater  p o p u l a t i o n t h a t had s l i g h t l y  where  Mountain.  than  population.  of Flatiron  rate,  that milk  populations  lower  suckle  bunt  lambs i s  i s c o r r e c t (Shackleton  duration,  populations  is  short  of F l a t i r o n  suckling  productive  quality  rate  i n four  i n Flatiron  but  s u c k l i n g behaviour  of other  limiting  1976) ,  1 bout.h  1973) . The a v e r a g e  for highly  Horejsi  the milk  does n o t a p p e a r lambs  than  duration  low m i l k p r o d u c t i o n  this  suckling  of suckle  1  determined  1973;  to less  1971; S h a c k l e t o n  f o r Shackleton's  assumption  The  o l d lambs  higher  i n terms  of  i s similar  to  i s higher.  It  the s u r v i v a l of  Flatiron  females  and body  c o n d i t i o n scores  lactation  production  in  should  had late  n o t be  survival.  Predation There each year weeks  is little  that  65 t o 70% o f t h e lambs  a r e s u b j e c t t o m o r t a l i t y between  postpartum.  pregnancy  doubt  rate,  This  coupled  is  with  evidenced  parturition by  a low s u r v i v a l  a  high  produced and t h r e e estimated  of offspring  and t h e  77  presence  of  behaviour.  eliminated  suggested  early  production.  What  postnatal  weather by  used,  bighorn  animals relative well  to  coyotes,  since  t h a n one  scat.  Starting  of  lambs  of  coyotes 10%  to  underestimate  of  their  with  this  high  eliminated  the  of  females,  production  as  factors  affecting  on  technique  coyotes  smaller  animals. the  remains  the  results  of  analysis)  early  spring  diet.  early the  However, of  one  estimated  analysis) spring  to  frequency bighorn may  number  of  49  Percent of  large  mass  ratio  the  pregnant the  may  diet  present  lambs  18%  occurence  in  be  subtracting  estimated  diet.  area  or  Adult or  contribution  meal  (69) , and  i n an  (volume  surface  proportion  the  24%  (volume  tends  the  and lamb  pregnant  as  depending  constituted  either  M o u n t a i n i n 1983 (20),  that,  the  smaller  lamb  low  milk  lambs,  for  cause  of  and  of  mortality,  have  status  of  overestimate  Flatiron  either  occurence)  because  of  the  search  timing  reason  data  lambing,  occurence)  volume a n a l y s i s  is  disease  indicate  constituted  (frequency  the  and  mortality.  lambs  (frequency  as  doubt  behaviour  the  neonatal  Available  during  contents  bighorn  and  in  n u t r i t i o n a l and  early postnatal  Scat  35%  still  suckling  vocalization  mortality  mortality.  inclement  a  determine  prenatal  is  of  estimated  to  postnatal  likelyhood  high  exhibiting  Observations  mortality  early  females  in  of more  females  on  maximum c o u n t  that  apparently  78  died  between  birthweight pattern  kg.day  of  of  (Spedding  birth  bighorn  linear 1965;  three  lambs  Peart  this,  Blood  bighorn  approximately days.  Assuming  total  biomass of  It  was  Flatiron  a  on days,  10  that  a  Messier  Using  for  a  growth  days  and  of  of  and  weight.  A  weight Using kg,  (1982) . A c c o r d i n g  days,  should and  10  weigh  kg  K.  20,  assumed  f o r lamb m o r t a l i t i e s ,  minimum  of  15  reviewed  Atkinson  kg.  of  a  If coyotes  lambs  should  higher  than  indicates could  15  coyotes  coyote  ate  either  estimate  relatively  i n g e s t a l l the  and  thus  the  their  based small  diet  on  lambs e s t i m a t e d  rate  t o be  of  20  p e r i o d would  available  then  1.36  to  estimated  May food  be  613  bighorn  (294kg/613kg), which  s c a t c o n t e n t s , but  coyote  body  - 1  (11.36  April  total  lambing  .kg  coyotes  intake from  - 1  body  study.  an  lost  -1  this  predicts  lamb b i o m a s s  of  the  intake  .kg  kg.day  B.C.  during this  48%  0.12  of  days,  30  inhabit  food  kg.day  sample  large  a l l the  0.17  calculations  Lambs were  30  coyotes  to of  his  comm.)  of  represent  that a  a  coyote.  period  the  both  of  pers.  f o r each  1  0.06  requirement  for  mean w e i g h t  1983,  intake  food  from  at  kg.  (1979)  i t ranged  mean  was the  kg.day  found  0.2  5 month o l d  -1 rates,  the lambs  rate  Mountain 20  mean  domestic  Bunnell  at  a  1982),  mean w e i g h t  8 kg  of  age.  (Bunnell  Flatiron  lambs i s 294  estimated  Mountain.  the  (1970) and  mean age  lost  kg  1975),  achieve  10  of  reported  a_l.  et a l .  at  4.0  gain  et  lambs  6 kg  weeks  of  weight  i s p r e d i c t e d to  1  lambs g i v e n by to  and  population lost  each  is  certainly  i n the year.  area  79  Without d i r e c t determine merely leads  observations  i f coyotes  scavenging  are actually  dead  one t o r e j e c t  sickened their  of  preying  on h e a l t h y  lambs, o r  lambs.  Inductive  reasoning  dying that  significant  Also,  females,  showed  none  condition,  lambs  diet  sheep,  any  a r e born  i n a weak o r  predation  the high  early  organisms  which  behaviour  were  lambs,  were  t h e lambing  evidence  and  of otherwise postnatal  of  mineral t o marked  a  weakened  died.  a major  component o f  period.  Furthermore,  inductive  healthy  mortality  dams and  or  born  indicative  which subsequently  during  circumstantial  appears coyote  lambs  especially  of predators  on  disease  of those  i n c l u d i n g those  Bighorn  source  i t i s d i f f i c u l t to  c o n d i t i o n , b a s e d on t h e good c o n d i t i o n o f t h e i r lack  based  and  the idea  deficiencies.  the  of predation,  reasoning,  lambs  could  documented  i t  be t h e in  this  population.  Despite found  on  predator entire  much  searching,  Flatiron scats  lamb  interactions  Mountain,  contained  was  sheep  ranch  major  predator  coyote  (Henne  bone  Direct  not observed,  made i n t h e predawn h o u r s  carcasses  but t h i s  large  ingested.  were  no  of bighorn  fragments  observation because  a s was t h e c a s e have  offspring  s c a t s i n Wyoming c o n t a i n e d  dead  lambs  were  i s not surprising  perhaps  1975) . C o y o t e s  of  before,  bighorn  indicating of  the k i l l s  remains  were  domestic  reported  however,  the  coyote-lamb  on a Montana  n o t been  since  seven  t o be o f 11  (Thorne 1976 i n  80  Lawson  and  predation (1978),  Johnson  by  coyotes  and  Shank  Coyotes offspring Mountain  coyote  females  more t h a n and  57  days  bighorn  B.C.  old  successful Bowen  major  The  finding  until  Flinders  deer  the  of  that  Flatiron  t h r e e weeks o f due  1980;  age  is  primarily  Salwasser  determined  fawns  the  was  due  to  1978). that  to  the  coyote  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the m o r t a l i t y of  pronghorn  (Barrett  predators  fawns when t h e y  1984) . effect  There  of  have  were between  not  p r e d a t i o n on  yet  the  been  4  any  survival  of  lambs.  Predator  control  Ministry  of Environment  were  trapped  production  Canid was  Two or  shot.  sign and  lower  Flatiron  first  2 coyote,  In  was  by  the  f o u r months o f 1973  (B.  addition,  March  Felid  and the  May, lambing  predators usual  with  attempted  2 bear,  3 cougar,  approximately  ingested, primarily  during  than  Mountain  i n the  bobcat,  between  predator  the  on  (1080) were  evidence,  efforts, all  be  mortalities  white-tailed  s t u d i e s on  poison baits track  of  b e e n r e p o r t e d by  r a d i o t e l e m e t r y , and  o f marked  Webster u n p u b l . ) . lynx  and  C o y o t e p r e d a t i o n was 50%  intensive  fawn  (Steigers  of  to  lambs up  deer  (1971) u s e d  predation.  has  ungulates.  their  mule  predation  mortality  observations  lambs  reported  large  lose  with  bighorn  been  other  Cook e t a K high  on  Isolated  (1977).  have  of  consistent  1982) .  by  coyotes  1973. period  were  35  and to  40  based  on  Despite  these  indicated  killed,  a maximum c o u n t  and of  4  not lamb  only  12  81  lambs i n 1973.  One past  of  the d i f f i c u l t i e s  management  cause  and  i n evaluating the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  prescriptions  effect  relative  to  has  been  changes  the in  lamb  p r e d a t i o n was  in fact  the f a c t o r  most  might  either  a  fluctuation  expect  success, prey  or  a  correlation  abundance.  measured, survival fully  the  Since  to  concentrate  coyote,  particularly  with of  limiting on  the  limiting  predator these  behind  predation  factors  should  spring.  none  mechanisms  relative  those  random  lamb s u r v i v a l ,  one  in  yearly  numbers  in  unknown.  and  with  food  bighorn  predator  and have  survival,  behaviour  show If  variations  lamb  to  production.  parameters  remain  i t s interaction  inability  alternate ever  been  yearly  lamb  To  understand  future habits lambs  research of  the  in early  82  CONCLUSIONS The  following  presented  a high  lamb  production  neonatal  accounted  to  the  objectives  was n o t due t o a low p r e g n a n c y r a t e  mortality, but high  f o r 60 t o 70% o f lamb  2a.  The  determined  by  nutritional liveweight  T h e r e was  produced v i a b l e liveweight,  and body  of  mortality  was  females, above  a  as level  production.  no d i f f e r e n c e  condition  Flatiron  condition,  between  lambs and t h o s e t h a t  body  early postnatal  losses.  status  t h a t w o u l d have a f f e c t e d lamb 2b.  correspond  i n the Introduction.  1. Low or  conclusions  score,  lost blood  Flatiron their  females  that  lambs i n t e r m s o f  minerals,  or  disease  affliction. 3. P r e l i m i n a r y the  information  i n d i c a t e d no a p p a r e n t  m o r t a l i t y o f lambs t h a t was a s s o c i a t e d  during  t h e lambing  period.  with  increase i n  inclement  weather  83  4. did  The  s u c k l i n g behaviour  not r e c e i v e  less  milk  than  of  Flatiron  populations  lambs that  indicated had  they  higher  lamb  production. 5. component  Bighorn  sheep  of the d i e t  (especially  of predators  lambs) during  constituted  the lambing  a  major  period.  84  RECOMMENDATIONS Management o f C a l i f o r n i a  Bighorn  F o o d , M i n e r a l and Water  Supplementation  Winter three  adult such to  f e e d i n g s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d  reasons.  remains  Firstly,  at i t scurrent  females, a  level  test  and  to avoid  predator  manipulation.  effect  significant  on  contemplated  consultation with a provides  season,  after  enough  to  probably  which  meet  highest  be  held  between  however, a  predation  supplementation  as  o f a response  to  should  selenium be  ruled  should  lamb  constant  n o t have  the p o s s i b i l i t y  marginal cannot  as  at  Thirdly,  i s limiting  supplementation  survival,  to  mineral  should  weights  mortalities.  predation  animals  m o r t a l i t y among birth  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  mineral  interaction  lamb  neonatal  coyote  factors  lamb  vulnerability  Snow  that  confusing  indicate  to maintain  minimize  a l l other  Results  so a s t o m i n i m i z e  secondly  possible  lamb  level  that w i l l  a t the current l e v e l f o r  to insure that the c o n d i t i o n of  the hypothesis  production,  major  i n the Ashnola  be  a  of a  s t a t u s and out.  undertaken  Any in  nutritionist. a  source  of  the water  bighorn  water  content  requirements.  i n summer  and  early  well  into  the  growing  of spring forages  i s high  Water fall,  limitations  when  are  winter-spring  85  r a n g e f o r a g e s become d e s i c a t e d . when t h e b i g h o r n results  migrate  i n forages  probably  not  a  of  However, t h i s  to a l p i n e areas  higher  limiting  water  factor  where d e l a y e d  content. for  i s a l s o the  the  Water  period  phrenology  i s therefore  bighorn  of  Flatiron  Mountain.  Range  Burning  Since preparturant stressed,  i t is  production. habitat be  able  unlikely  However,  adjacent to  increase  i f increased  this  increased  prey  the  range  f o r bighorn  common method  species  predator program  is  to  Aside be  on  can  Flatiron  some p r e d a t o r s increase Instead  a  of  trapping,  bighorn  r a n g e s may  well  habitat.  i n population overall  lamb  forested  winter-spring  higher  reducing the  ineffective.  (B. W e b s t e r  a  increase  south-facing  resulted  potential  after  of  will  nutritionally  growth, carrying  Mountain.  for  Mountain  remained  burning  bighorn  allow  remove  from cost  of  Flatiron  The  a p p e a r t o be  steppe  survival  Manipulation  most  range  grass  might  on  not  burning  area  Predator  poisoning.  not  fall  lamb  do  that  to e x i s t i n g  Thus,  capacity  females  in  1973  the  predator  predators adverse A  pressure  by  trapping  public  poisoning  required  p r o g r a m , and  and  much lamb  on  a or  reaction, trapping  effort,  yet  survival  did  predators  one  unpubl.). shooting,  and  poisoning  86  could  provide  alternative  coyotes  to  with  bighorn  from  locations  could p o t e n t i a l l y  alternate  food  vulnerable to  hunt  meat  required  One  would in  survival  and  lamb  required survival  potential  their  for  my  may  rough  cover only  6  to  week  15%  is  i n the  fall  for a  at as  least,  the  short  there  critical  (F. M e s s i e r  pers.  period  this are  inclined of  coyote 1000  kg  period.  An  a l l that  is  stabilize.  a l l o w i n g the predator  coyotes  by  lambs  less  estimate  the  10%  be  meat,  Flatiron  approximately  population to  population,  supplementation  i n c r e a s e pup  they  when  an  strategic  drawback t o s u p p l e m e n t a r y f e e d i n g o f  However,  occurs  in  period  requirement  of  red  away f r o m t h e  week  on  to  M o u n t a i n w o u l d be  in  6  31) , t h e n  food  of  as  p r e d a t o r s were s a t i a t e d  the  Based  source  placed  draw p r e d a t o r s  t o May  food  quantities  deer,  I f the  their  be  mule  to a l l o w the b i g h o r n  increase. increase  15  Large  during  lambs.  size  Flatiron  food  source  bighorn  increase  on  grounds.  (April  population of  road-killed  lambing  attractive  lambs.  obtained  Mountain  an  i n the  predators  population  to  should  no  period  comm.), and  be for  pup  spring  s p r i n g should  not  survival.  s Future food  habits,  before are  research  efforts  behaviour,  management  implemented.  and  should  be  directed  interactions  p r e s c r i p t i o n s aimed  at  with  reducing  towards  coyote  bighorn  lambs,  coyote  numbers  87  LITERATURE CITED A d o r j a n , A.S., and G.B. K o l e n o s k y . 1969. A manual f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f h a i r s o f s e l e c t e d O n t a r i o mammals. R e s e a r c h R e p o r t ( W i l d l i f e ) No. 90. O n t a r i o Dept. o f L a n d s and F o r e s t s . 64 pp. Allen,  J.A. 1912. Historical North American sheep. 31:24-25.  A l e x a n d e r , G. lamb.  and n o m e n c l a t o r i a l n o t e s on B u l l . Am. Mus. o f N a t . H i s t .  1962. Energy metabolism i n the s t a r v e d A u s t . J . A g r i c . Res. 13:144-164.  new-born  A l e x a n d e r , G. and D. W i l l i a m s . 1968. S h i v e r i n g and n o n - s h i v e r i n g t h e r m o g e n e s i s d u r i n g summit m e t a b o l i s m i n young lambs. J . P h y s i o l . , London 198:251-276. Bandy, P . J . , I.McT. Cowan, W.D. K i t t s , and A . J . Woods. 1956. A method f o r t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t u s of w i l d ungulates. Can. J . Z o o l . 34:48-52. B a r n i c o a t , C.R., A.G. L o g a n , and A . I . G r a n t . 1949. Milk s e c r e t i o n s t u d i e s w i t h New Z e a l a n d Romney ewes. Parts I I I and IV. J . A g r i c . S c i . , Camb. 39:237-248. B a r n i c o a t , C.R., P.F. M u r r a y , E.M. R o b e r t s , and G.S. W i l s o n . 1957. M i l k s e c r e t i o n s t u d i e s w i t h New Z e a l a n d Romney ewes. P a r t s V - X I . J . A g r i c . S c i . , Camb. 48:9-35. Barrett,  M.W. 1984. Movements, h a b i t a t u s e , and p r e d a t i o n p r o n g h o r n fawns i n A l b e r t a . J . W i l d l . Manage. 48:542-550.  on  B e l s c h n e r , H.G. 1965. Sheep management and d i s e a s e s . Agric. and L i v e s t . S e r i e s . Angus and R o b e r t s o n , Sydney and London. 814 pp. Blix,  A.S. and J . B . S t e e n . 1979. Temperature r e g u l a t i o n i n newborn p o l a r homeotherms. P h y s i o l . R e v i e w s 59:285-304.  B l o o d , D.A. 1960. P r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t t o t h e D e p t . o f F i s h and Game. M i n . o f E n v i r o n m e n t f i l e s , P e n t i c t o n , B.C. B l o o d , D.A. 1961. An e c o l o g i c a l s t u d y o f C a l i f o r n i a b i g h o r n sheep (Ovis c a n a d e n s i s c a l i f o r n i a n a , Douglas) i n southern B r i t i s h Columbia. M.Sc. T h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 127 pp. B l o o d , D.A.  1963.  Some a s p e c t s  of behaviour of a  bighorn  88  herd. Blood,  Can. F i e l d  N a t . 77:77-94.  D.A. 1 9 6 7 . Food h a b i t s o f t h e A s h n o l a herd. C a n . F i e l d N a t . 81:23-29.  bighorn  sheep  B l o o d , D.A., D.R. F l o o k , and W.D. W i s h a r t . 1970. W e i g h t s and g r o w t h o f Rocky M o u n t a i n b i g h o r n s h e e p i n w e s t e r n Alberta. J . W i l d l . Manage. 34:451-455. Bowen, W.D. 1978. S o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c o y o t e i n r e l a t i o n to prey s i z e . Ph.D. T h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 230 p p . Brooks,  A. 1 9 2 3 . The Rocky M o u n t a i n s h e e p ( O v i s c a n a d e n s i s ) i n B r i t i s h Columbia. C a n . F i e l d N a t . 37:23-25.  B u e c h n e r , H. K. 1960. The b i g h o r n s h e e p o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , i t s p a s t , p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e . W i l d l . Monog. 4. 174 p p . Bunch, T.D., J.W. B a t e s , P.W. Webb, a n d E . L . S m i t h . 1980. Baseline physiologic values i n the desert bighorn. D e s e r t B i g h o r n C o u n c . T r a n s , pp 46-49. S t . George,  Utah.  Bunnell,  F . L . 1980. F a c t o r s c o n t r o l l i n g l a m b i n g sheep. Can. J . Z o o l . 58:1027-1031.  period of Dall's  Bunnell,  F . L . 1982. The l a m b i n g p e r i o d o f m o u n t a i n s h e e p : s y n t h e s i s , hypotheses, and t e s t s . C a n . J . Z o o l . 60:1-14.  Bunnell,  F . L . , a n d N.A. O l s e n . 1981. A g e - s p e c i f i c D a l l ' s sheep. J . Mamm. 62:379-380.  natality of  B u t t e r w o r t h , M.H., T.R. H o u g h t o n , J . C . M a C a r t n e y , A . J . P r i o r , C P . M i d d l e m i s s , a n d D.E. Edmond. 1968. Some o b s e r v a t i o n s o n t h e l a c t a t i o n o f B l a c k f a c e ewes and t h e g r o w t h o f lambs: t h e c o m p o s i t i o n a n d y i e l d o f m i l k . J . A g r i c . S c i . , Camb. 70:203-207. B u t t e r w o r t h , M.H. and T.W.D. B l o r e . 1969. The l a c t a t i o n o f P e r s i a n B l a c k h e a d ewes and t h e g r o w t h o f lambs. J . A g r i c . S c i . , Camb. 73:133-137. C a t h c a r t , E.B., J . A . S h e l f o r d , and R.G. P e t e r s o n . 1980. M i n e r a l a n a l y s e s o f d a i r y c a t t l e f e e d i n t h e upper F r a s e r V a l l e y of B r i t i s h Columbia. C a n . J . Anim. S c i . 60:177-183. Chappel,  R.W., a n d R . J . Hudson. 1978. W i n t e r b i o e n e r g e t i c s o f Rocky M o u n t a i n b i g h o r n s h e e p . C a n . J . Z o o l . 56:2388-2393.  Cohen, R.D.H. 1980. P h o s p h o r u s i n r a n g e l a n d r u m i n a n t A review. L i v e s t . P r o d . S c i . 7:25-37.  nutrition:  89  Cook, R.S., M. W h i t e , D.O. T r a i n e r , and W.C. G l a z n e r . 1971. M o r t a l i t y o f young w h i t e - t a i l e d d e e r fawns i n s o u t h Texas. J . W i l d l . Manage. 35:47-56. Cowan, I.McT. 1951. R e p o r t t o D e p t . o f F i s h and Game. M i n . o f E n v i r o n m e n t f i l e s , P e n t i c t o n , B.C. Cowan, I.McT., and C . J . G u i g u e t . 1956. The mammals o f B r i t i s h Columbia. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l Museum, Handbook No. 11. V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 414 p p . Deas, D.W. 1977. ultrasonic  P r e g n a n c y d i a g n o s i s i n t h e ewe by an r e c t a l probe. V e t . R e c . 101:113-115.  D e f o r g e , J.R., and J . E . S c o t t . 1982. E c o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o h i g h lamb m o r t a l i t y o f d e s e r t b i g h o r n sheep i n t h e S a n t a Rosa M o u n t a i n s , C a l i f o r n i a . Desert Bighorn Council T r a n s a c t i o n s , pp 65-76. Borrego Springs, C a l i f . D e f o r g e , J.R., J e s s u p , D.A., J e n n e r , C.W., and J . E . S c o t t . 1982. D i s e a s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o h i g h lamb m o r t a l i t y o f d e s e r t b i g h o r n i n t h e S a n t a Rosa M o u n t a i n s , C a l i f o r n i a . Desert B i g h o r n C o u n c i l T r a n s a c t i o n s , pp 76-81. Borrego Springs, C a l i f . D e m a r c h i , R.A. 1965. An e c o l o g i c a l s t u d y o f t h e A s h n o l a b i g h o r n winter ranges. M.Sc. T h e s i s . University of B r i t i s h Columbia. 103 p p . D e m a r c h i , R.A. 1968. C h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f b i g h o r n w i n t e r forages. J . Range Manage. 21:385-387. Dubeski,  P.L. 1983. M.Sc. T h e s i s .  I r o n and s e l e n i u m s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s h e e p . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 160 pp.  Eccles,  T.R. and D.M. S h a c k l e t o n . t w i n n i n g i n North American Manage. 43:974-976.  1979. R e c e n t r e c o r d s o f mountain sheep. J . Wildl.  F a i r a i z l , S.D. 1980. P o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f transplanted C a l i f o r n i a b i g h o r n sheep i n w e s t e r n North Dakota. B i e n n . Symp. N o r t h . W i l d Sheep and Goat C o u n c . 2:70-89. Finger,  S.E., L . B r i s b i n J r . , and M.H. S m i t h . 1981. K i d n e y f a t a s a p r e d i c t o r o f body c o n d i t i o n i n w h i t e - t a i l e d deer. J . W i l d l . Manage. 45:964-968.  F i s c h m a n , H.R. 1967. E p i d e m i o l o g y o f p a r a i n f l u e n z a - 3 i n f e c t i o n i n sheep. Am. J . E p i d e m i o l . 85:272-281.  90  F o r b e s , J.M. 1969. A n o t e on t h e v o l u n t a r y f e e d i n t a k e l a c t a t i n g ewes, t h e i r m i l k y i e l d , and t h e g r o w t h o f t h e i r lambs. Anim. P r o d . 11:263-266.  of rate  F o r e y t , W.J., and D.A. J e s s u p . 1982. F a t a l pneumonia o f b i g h o r n sheep f o l l o w i n g a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h d o m e s t i c s h e e p . J . W i l d l . D i s . 18:163-168. F o r e y t , W.J., T.C. S m i t h , J . F . Evermann, and W.E. Heimer. 1983. H e m a t o l o g i c , serum c h e m i s t r y and s e r o l o g i c v a l u e s o f D a l l ' s sheep ( O v i s d a l l i d a l l i ) i n A l a s k a . J . W i l d l . D i s . 136-139. Franzmann, A.W. 1971. Physiologic J . W i l d l . D i s . 7:139-141.  values of stone  sheep.  Franzmann, A.W. 1972. Environmental sources of v a r i a t i o n of b i g h o r n sheep p h y s i o l o g i c v a l u e s . J . W i l d l . Manage. 36:924-932. Franzmann, A.W. and E.T. T h o r n e . 1970. Physiologic values i n w i l d b i g h o r n sheep ( O v i s c a n a d e n s i s c a n a d e n s i s ) a t c a p t u r e , a f t e r h a n d l i n g , and a f t e r c a p t i v i t y . J . Am. V e t . Med. A s s o c . 157:647-650. Garel,  J.M. 1983. P a r a t h y r o i d hormone, c a l c i t o n i n and m i n e r a l m e t a b o l i s m i n t h e mammalian f e t u s and n e o n a t e . C h a p t e r 5, In " P e r i n a t a l C a l c i u m and P h o s p h o r u s M e t a b o l i s m " Holik, M.F., T.K. G r a y , and C.S. A n a s t ( e d s ) . E l s e v i e r Science P u b l i s h e r s B.V., Amsterdam and New Y o r k .  G e i s t , V. 1971. M o u n t a i n sheep - A s t u d y i n b e h a v i o r and evolution. U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , Chicago. 383 pp. Harcombe, A. and R. K o w a l l 1982. Keremeos f o r e s t encroachment. W o r k i n g r e p o r t 1982-06-15. Resource A n a l y s i s Branch, M i n i s t r y of Environment. Kelowna, B.C.. Harper,  F.E. 1969. E f f e c t s o f c e r t a i n c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s on t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f f o r a g e s on t h e A s h n o l a bighorn winter ranges. M.Sc. T h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 112 pp.  H a r p e r , W.L. 1980. A c o m p a r i s o n o f p o p u l a t i o n q u a l i t y among t h r e e h e r d s o f C a l i f o r n i a b i g h o r n s h e e p i n t h e Okanagan Region. Unpublished report. Min. o f Environment, P e n t i c t o n , B.C.. 95 pp. H a r p e r , W.L.  and  R.D.H. Cohen.  In p r e s s .  Accuracy of  Doppler  91  u l t r a s o u n d i n d i a g n o s i n g pregnancy i n bighorn J . W i l d l . Manage. Hart,  sheep.  J . S . , 0. H e r o u x , W.H. C o t t l e , and C A . M i l l s . 1961. The i n f l u e n c e o f c l i m a t e on m e t a b o l i c and t h e r m a l r e s p o n s e s o f i n f a n t c a r i b o u . Can. J . Z o o l . 39:845-856.  Hebert,  D.M. 1972. F o r a g e and serum p h o s p h o r u s v a l u e s f o r b i g h o r n sheep. J . Range Manage. 25:292-296.  Hebert,  D.M. 1978. nutritional North. Wild  B l o o d c h e m i s t r y as an i n d i c a t o r o f c o n d i t i o n i n b i g h o r n sheep. B i e n n . Symp. Sheep and G o a t Counc. 1:365-387.  Henne, D.R. 1975. D o m e s t i c s h e e p m o r t a l i t y on a w e s t e r n Montana r a n c h . I n " P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e 1975 P r e d a t o r Symposium". P h i l l i p s , R.L. and C J o n k e l (eds) U n i v e r s i t y o f Montana, M i s s o u l a , pp 133-146. Hickey,  W.O. 1976. Job p r o g r e s s Sept. 1976.  B i g h o r n sheep e c o l o g y . P r o j e c t W-160-R-3. report. Idaho D e p t . o f F i s h and Game.  H i d i r o g l o u , M. 1980. Trace ruminant: A review.  e l e m e n t s i n t h e f e t a l and Can. V e t . J . 21:328-335.  neonate  H i l l m a n , L.S. 1983. M i n e r a l i z a t i o n and l a t e m i n e r a l h o m e o s t a s i s in infants. C h a p t e r 15. In " P e r i n a t a l C a l c i u m and Phosphorus Metabolism" H o l i k , M.F., T.K. G r a y , and C.S. A n a s t ( e d s ) . E l s e v i e r S c i e n c e P u b l i s h e r s B.V., Amsterdam and New Y o r k . Hoefs,  M. and I . McT. Cowan. 1979. Ecological investigation a p o p u l a t i o n o f D a l l sheep (Ovis d a l l i d a l l i , Nelson). S y e s i s 12 ( S u p p l . 1 ) . 81 pp.  Horesji,  of  B.L. 1976. S u c k l i n g and f e e d i n g b e h a v i o r i n r e l a t i o n t o lamb s u r v i v a l i n b i g h o r n s h e e p ( O v i s c a n a d e n s i s c a n a d e n s i s , Shaw). Ph.D. T h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary. 265 pp.  H u l e t , C.V. 1973. Determining f e t a l J . Anim. S c i . 36:325-330.  numbers i n p r e g n a n t  ewes.  Lawson, B., and R. J o h n s o n . 1982. Mountain sheep. C h a p t e r 52. In " W i l d mammals o f N o r t h A m e r i c a - b i o l o g y , management, and e c o n o m i c s " . Chapman, J.A., and G.A. F e l d h a m e r ( e d s ) . J o h n H o p k i n s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , B a l t i m o r e and L o n d o n , pp 1036-1055. Leathern, J.H.  1966.  Nutritional  effects  on hormone p r o d u c t i o n .  92  J.  Anim. S c i . , S u p p l .  25:68-82.  L e n t , P.C. 1974. M o t h e r - i n f a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n u n g u l a t e s . In "The b e h a v i o u r o f u n g u l a t e s and i t s r e l a t i o n t o management". G e i s t , V and F. W a l t h e r (eds). I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i o n f o r C o n s e r v a t i o n o f N a t u r e and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , M o r g e s , S w i t z e r l a n d , pp 14-55. Lindahl,  I . L . 1971. P r e g n a n c y d i a g n o s i s i n t h e ewe by i n t r a r e c t a l Doppler. J . Anim. S c i . 32:922-925.  McDonald, S.E., S.R. P a u l , and T.O. Bunch. 1981. P h y s i o l o g i c and h e m a t o l o g i c v a l u e s i n N e l s o n d e s e r t b i g h o r n s h e e p . J . W i l d l . D i s . 17:131-134. McLean, A.M. and F.W. Doane. 1971. The m o r p h o g e n e s i s and cytopathology o f bovine p a r a i n f l u e n z a type 3 v i r u s . J . Gen. V i r o l . 12:271-279. M a r s h a l l , M.M., J . G . S o n g e r , C . J . C h i l e l l i , and J . C . d e V o s . 1983. I s o l a t i o n s o f a e r o b i c b a c t e r i s from w i l d d e s e r t b i g h o r n s h e e p ( O v i s c a n a d e n s i s n e l s o n i and 0_^ c.• m e x i c a n a) i n A r i z o n a . J . W i l d l . D i s 19:98-100. M e s s i e r , F. 1979. E t u d e de l a p r e d a t i o n du c e r f de V i r g i n e p a r l e c o y o t e dans l e r a v a g e d ' A r m s t r o n g , Beauce s u d . M.Sc. T h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y o f L a v a l , Quebec. 164 pp. Miller,  A., and J . C . Thompson. 1975. E l e m e n t s o f M e t e o r o l o g y . C.E. M e r r i l l P u b l . Co., Columbus, O h i o .  Moore, T.D., S p e n c e , L . E . , and C.E. D u g n o l l e . 1974. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e d o r s a l g u a r d h a i r s o f some mammals o f Wyoming. B u l l e t i n No. 14, Wyoming Game and F i s h D e p t . , Cheyenne, Wyoming. M o r r i s o n , D.C. 1972. H a b i t a t u t i l i z a t i o n by mule d e e r i n r e l a t i o n t o c a t t l e and C a l i f o r n i a b i g h o r n s h e e p i n t h e Ashnola R i v e r V a l l e y , B r i t i s h Columbia. M.Sc. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Munro,J.  1962. A s t u d y o f t h e m i l k y i e l d o f t h r e e s t r a i n s o f S c o t t i s h B l a c k f a c e ewes i n two e n v i r o n m e n t s . Anim. P r o d . 4:203-213.  National  Research C o u n c i l . 1975. N u t r i e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s o f sheep. N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. 72 p p .  N a l b a n d o v , A.V. 1976. R e p r o d u c t i v e p h y s i o l o g y o f mammals and b i r d s . 3 r d e d . W.H. Freeman and Co., San  93  Fransisco.  334pp.  N i c h o l s , L . 1978. D a l l 42:570-580.  sheep r e p r o d u c t i o n .  J . Wildl.  Manage.  Owen, J . B . 1957. A s t u d y o f t h e l a c t a t i o n and g r o w t h o f H i l l sheep. J . A g r i c . S c i . , Camb. 48:387-412. Parks,  J . B . , G. P o s t , T. T h o r n e , and P. N a s h . 1972. P a r a i n f l u e n z a - 3 v i r u s i n f e c t i o n i n Rocky M o u n t a i n b i g h o r n sheep. J . Am. V e t . Med. A s s o c . 161:669-672.  Parks,  J . B . , and J . J . E n g l a n d . 1974. A s e r o l o g i c a l s u r v e y f o r s e l e c t e d v i r a l i n f e c t i o n s o f Rocky M o u n t a i n b i g h o r n s h e e p . J . W i l d l . D i s . 10:107-110.  Peart,  J.N. 1967. The e f f e c t o f d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f n u t r i t i o n ' d u r i n g l a t e p r e g n a n c y on t h e s u b s e q u e n t m i l k p r o d u c t i o n o f B l a c k f a c e ewes and on t h e g r o w t h o f t h e i r lambs. J . A g r i c . S c i . , Camb. 68:365-371.  Peart,  J.N. 1968. Some e f f e c t s o f l i v e w e i g h t a n d body c o n d i t i o n on t h e m i l k p r o d u c t i o n o f B l a c k f a c e ewes. J . A g r i c . S c i . , Camb. 70:331-338.  Peart,  J.N., J.M. Doney, and A . J . M a c D o n a l d . 1975. The i n f l u e n c e o f lamb g e n o t y p e on t h e m i l k p r o d u c t i o n o f B l a c k f a c e ewes. J . A g r i c . S c i . , Camb. 84:313-316.  P e t e r s o n , R., and A. B o t t r e l l . 1978. Normal m e t a b o l i c p r o f i l e s o f lamb and a d u l t C a l i f o r n i a b i g h o r n s h e e p . B i e n n . Symp. N o r t h . W i l d Sheep.and G o a t C o u n c . 1:342-349. Puis,  R.  1981. V e t e r i n a r y t r a c e m i n e r a l d e f i c i e n c y and t o x i c i t y information. P u b l i c a t i o n 5139, I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s , A g r i c u l t u r e Canada, Ottawa, O n t a r i o . 101 p p .  Ramsay, M.A. 1980. A s p e c t s o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a b i g h r o n s h e e p on of B r i t i s h Columbia. M.Sc. U n i v e r s i t y , B u r n a b y , B.C..  reproductive ecology of the Ashnola plateau region Thesis. Simon F r a s e r 103 pp.  Romesburg, H.C. 1981. W i l d l i f e s c i e n c e : G a i n i n g r e l i a b l e knowledge. J . W i l d l . Manage. 45:293-313. R u s s e l , A . J . F . , J.M. Doney, and R.L. R e i d . 1967. The u s e o f biochemical parameters i n c o n t r o l l i n g n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t e i n p r e g n a n t ewes, and t h e e f f e c t o f u n d e r n o u r i s h m e n t d u r i n g p r e g n a n c y on lamb b i r t h - w e i g h t . J . Agric. S c i . , Camb. 68:351-358.  94  R u s s e l , A . J . F . , J.M. Doney, and R.G. Gunn. 1969. S u b j e c t i v e a s s e s s m e n t o f body f a t i n l i v e s h e e p . J. Agric. S c i . , Camb. 72:451-454. S a l w a s s e r , H., S.A. H o l l , and G.A. A s h c r a f t . 1978. Fawn p r o d u c t i o n and s u r v i v a l i n t h e N o r t h K i n g s R i v e r d e e r herd. C a l i f . F i s h and Game 64:38-52. S c h e f f l e r , E.G. 1973. An a p p r a i s a l o f u n g u l a t e h a b i t a t s i n t h e A s h n o l a r e s o u r c e management u n i t . M.Sc. T h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 196 p p . S h a c k l e t o n , D.M. 1973. P o p u l a t i o n q u a l i t y and b i g h o r n s h e e p ( O v i s c a n a d e n s i s c a n a d e n s i s , Shaw). Ph.D. T h e s i s . University of Calgary. 227 p p . S h a c k l e t o n , D.M., R.G. P e t e r s o n , J . Haywood, and A. B o t t r e l l . 1984. Gestation period i n Ovis canadensis. J . Mamm. 65:337-338. Shamberger, R . J . 1983. B i o c h e m i s t r y o f s e l e n i u m . New Y o r k and L o n d o n . pp 38-40. Shank, C.C. 19 77. Cooperative J . Mamm. 58: 243-244. Silver,  defence  by b i g h o r n  Plenum  Press.  sheep.  R.S. 1971. P r o b a b l e f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the i n c r e a s e o f C a l i f o r n i a b i g h o r n sheep (Ovis c a n a d e n s i s c a l i f o r n i a n a , Douglas) p o p u l a t i o n s . B.Sc. T h e s i s . F o r e s t r y 495. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  Simmons, N.M., M.B. B a y e r , and L.O. S i n k e y . 1984. Demography of D a l l ' s sheep i n the Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories. J . W i l d l . Manage. 48:156-162. Smith,  K.G., and W.D. W i s h a r t . 1978. F u r t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s o f b i g h o r n sheep non-trophy seasons i n A l b e r t a and t h e i r management i m p l i c a t i o n s . B i e n n . Symp. N o r t h . W i l d Sheep and G o a t C o u n c . 1:52-74.  Smith,  N.S. 1970. A p p r a i s a l o f c o n d i t i o n e s t i m a t i o n methods f o r East African ungulates. E . A f r . W i l d l . J . 8:123-130.  S p a l d i n g , D.J. 1966. T w i n n i n g Manage. 30:207.  i n bighorn  sheep.  J. Wildl.  S p e d d i n g , C.R.W. 1965. Sheep p r o d u c t i o n and g r a z i n g managment. C h a p t e r V. The lamb - i t s g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t . B a i l l i e r e , T i n d a l l and Cox, London, pp 101-140. Spraker,  T.R. a n d C P . H i b l e r .  1982. An o v e r v i e w  o f the  95  c l i n i c a l s i g n s , g r o s s and h i s t o l o g i c a l l e s i o n s o f t h e pneumonia complex o f b i g h o r n s h e e p . B i e n n . Symp. N o r t h . W i l d Sheep and G o a t Counc. 3:163-172. S t e i g e r s , W.D., and J . T . F l i n d e r s . 1980. M o r t a l i t y and movements o f mule d e e r fawns i n W a s h i n g t o n . J. Wildl. Manage. 44:381-388. Sugden, L.G. 1961. The C a l i f o r n i a b i g h o r n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o the Churn Creek h e r d . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f R e c r e a t i o n and Conservation. 58 pp. Taylor,  R.L. and B. MacBryde. 1977. Vascular p l a n t s of B r i t i s h Columbia. T e c h . B u l l . No. 4. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , Vancouver. 754 pp.  Thomson, A.M., and W. Thomson. 1949. Lambing i n r e l a t i o n t o d i e t i n t h e p r e g n a n t ewe. B r i t . J . N u t r . 2:290-305. Thomson, A.M., and W. Thomson. 1953. E f f e c t of d i e t y i e l d o f t h e ewe and t h e g r o w t h o f h e r lamb. N u t . 7:263-274.  on m i l k Brit. J.  T h o r n e , E.T. 1976. The s t a t u s , m o r t a l i t y and r e s p o n s e t o management o f t h e W h i s k e y B a s i n b i g h o r n s h e e p h e r d . A i d i n W i l d l . R e s t o r . P r o j . FW-3-R-22, work p l a n 3, j o b 15W. Wyoming Game and F i s h D e p t .  Fed.  T h o r n e , E.T., R.E. Dean, and W.G. Hepworth. 1976. Nutrition during g e s t a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to s u c c e s s f u l reproduction i n e l k . J . W i l d l . Manage. 40:330-335. Trapp, Turner,  M.J., ewe.  and A.L. S l y t e r . 1983. J . Anim. S c i . 57:1-5.  Pregnancy d i a g n o s i s i n the  J . C , and J.B. P a y s o n . 1982. Prevalence of antibodies of s e l e c t e d i n f e c t i o u s d i s e a s e agents i n the p e n i n s u l a r d e s e r t b i g h o r n sheep (Ovis c a n a d e n s i s cremnobates) o f t h e S a n t a Rosa M o u n t a i n s , C a l i f o r n i a ! J. Wildl. Dis. 18:243-245.  Underwood, E . J . 1977. T r a c e e l e m e n t s i n human and a n i m a l nutrition. 4th ed. A c a d e m i c P r e s s , New Y o r k . Valdez,  R. 1976. F e c u n d i t y o f w i l d sheep Iran. J . Mammal. 57:762-763.  Verme, L . J . 1965. R e p r o d u c t i o n s t u d i e s on deer. J . W i l d l . Manage. 29:74-79.  (Ovis o r i e n t a l i s ) penned  in  white-tailed  96  Verme, L . J . 1977. A s s e s s m e n t o f n a t a l m o r t a l i t y i n u p p e r Michigan deer. J . W i l d l . Manage. 41:700-708. Wallace,  L.R. 1948. The g r o w t h o f lambs b e f o r e and a f t e r b i r t h i n r e l a t i o n to the l e v e l of n u t r i t i o n . P a r t s I and III. J . A g r i c . S c i . , Camb. 38:93-153, 367-401.  Wani, G.M. and K.L. S a h n i . 1981. U l t r a s o n i c p r e g n a n c y d i a g n o s i s i n ewes u n d e r t r o p i c a l f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s . I n d i a n J . Anim. S c i . 51:194-197. Webster, A.J.F. 1976. E f f e c t s o f c o l d on e n e r g y m e t a b o l i s m sheep. C h a p t e r 1, S e c t i o n 8b i n " P r o g r e s s i n Biometeorology". Tromp, S.W. and J . J . Bouma ( e d s ) . Swets and Z e i t l i n g e r B.V., Amsterdam, pp. 218-226. Woodard,  of  T.N., G u t i e r r e z , R . J . , and W.H. R u t h e r f o r d . 1974. B i g h o r n lamb p r o d u c t i o n , s u r v i v a l , and m o r t a l i t y i n south-central Colorado. J . W i l d l . Manage. 38:771-774.  W o o l f , A. and D.C. K r a d e l . 1970. H e m a t o l o g i c a l v a l u e s o f c a p t i v e Rocky M o u n t a i n b i g h o r n s h e e p . J . Wildl. Dis. 6:67-68.  97  Appendix  I.  Paper s u b m i t t e d t o t h e J o u r n a l Management ( i n p r e s s ) .  of Wildlife  ACCURACY OF DOPPLER ULTRASOUND IN DIAGNOSING PREGNANCY IN BIGHORN SBEEP  Keywords:  Doppler, u l t r a s o u n d , pregnancy d i a g n o s i s , b i g h o r n sheep, O v i s c a n a d e n s i s .  W.L. H a r p e r  and R.D.H. Cohen  ^"Department o f A n i m a l S c i e n c e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia V a n c o u v e r , B.C., V6T 2A2, Canada and D e p a r t m e n t o f A n i m a l and P o u l t r y S c i e n c e U n i v e r s i t y " o f Saskatchewan S a s k a t o o n , S a s k a t c h e w a n , S7N 0W0, Canada  98  A  reliable  estimate  successfully  conceive  is  to f u l l y  required  species.  This  offspring  is  wildlife based are  low.  These  the  no  main c o n s t r a i n t  methodology. subject  to  require  sacrificing  estimates  when  a  large  t o be made by  single  These  include vaginal  been  with  1981),  ultrasound  wild  (Turner  1983) .  which  counts  of  failures.  of  to  u s e and  i s obtained,  or  females  reliable  for  t o diagnose  they  hormonal biopsy,  s p e c i e s ; ' f o r example  palpation  1981; S m i t h  Assaying  pregnancy i n  assays,  rectal  laparotomy,  Of'these' techniques,  1979; W h i t e h e a d  rectal  (Barrett  often  during  are d i f f i c u l t  sample  numbers  (Memon and O t t 1 9 8 0 ) .  al.  These counts  autopsy.  radiography,  (Ramsay and S a d l e i r  usually are  of prenatal reproductive  ultrasound used  estimates  In a d d i t i o n ,  have been d e v e l o p e d  animals.  palpation,  of a  unavailable f o r  period  place.  the techniques  Many t e c h n i q u e s domestic  can take  dynamics  that  the population of  are generally  postnatal  that  i n e s t i m a t i n g p r e g n a n c y r a t e s has been one o f  Either error  when  production  females  of information  f o r the year.  early  indication  piece  of  the population  data  so f e m a l e  mortality  give  proportion  important  of offspring  after  offspring The  understand  i s especially  upon c o u n t s  significant  the  i s an i m p o r t a n t  populations  made  of  and  some  progesterone  have assay  and McEwan 1980; R e h b i n d e r (Follis  and L i n d z e y  and  Spillet  1982) , and  f o r hormones i s r e l a t i v e l y  et  1974),  laparotomy  e x p e n s i v e and  99  does  not  give  circulating well  as  immediate  progestrone  through  suitable  experience the  goats,  There  in  the  and  pulse-echo.  field  to  pregnancy  to  the (Smith  evaluate  pregnancy  compare  these  a  to  extensive  (1980),  reviewed  in  domestic  u l t r a s o u n d was  the  the  Doppler,  u l t a s o u n d was  92%  accurate  sample  of  and  Sahni  1981) .  depth in  this  t h e use  or  those of t h i s  deer  method  of  has  been  (Odocoileus  objectives  sheep  ewes,  Pulse-echo  decreases  Doppler  from  domestic  A-scan),  mule  1982) . The  accuracy  currently  the  large  of  with  devices  animals:  i n captive bighorn  the u l t i m a t e g o a l being  Ott  Doppler  pregnancy  Lindzey  data  subject  as  Rectal palpation  diagnosis  in wild  amplitude  accuracy and  be  requires  ultrasound  (Wani  diagnose  were  bighorns.  in  reliably  diagnosing to  of  E x t e r n a l Doppler  known as  mid-gestation  and  types  conditions  but  1980).  pregnancy  of  individuals,  can  and  levels  method.  (also  hemionus) ,  study  McEwan  f o r d i a g n o s i n g pregnancy  ultrasound, used  technique  that  the  between  Memon and  concluded  two  since  mammals  for  reliable  are  determining  under  and  larger  available  most a c c u r a t e and  and  this  for accurate r e s u l t s .  and  available  for  and  erratically  (Whitehead  only  techniques  sheep  vary  gestation,  misinterpretation is  results,  after  of  ultrasound  this for  (Ovis c a n a d e n s i s ) ,  domestic  technique  sheep,  with  on f r e e - r a n g i n g  100  METHODS EQUIPMENT A  portable  Detector,  P021 This  consisting is  placed  4WT) ,  device  was  used  operates  on  23  the skin.  which  will  continuous  block  sinusoidal  the wave  and  A thin  layer  and t h e s k i n  low  of  power  Sussex,  59  domestic  transducer,  piezoelectric  transmission of  Pregnancy  Pagham, West  bighorn  o f t r a n s m i t t i n g and r e c e i v i n g i n contact with  Ultrasound  a s f o l l o w s : an e x t e r n a l  o r V a s e l i n e between t h e t r a n s d u c e r air  Doppler  (Medata Systems L t d . , The P a r a d e ,  England, sheep.  (0.61 kg) Medata  crystals,  of mineral o i l  serves  t o exclude  sound  waves.  ultrasound  (2  A MHz;  -2 lOmW.cm  ) i s directed  crystal.  When  reflected The  on  analysed speaker  on  t h e body c a v i t y wave  back t o t h e r e c e i v i n g  tissue  the direction  displaced  and  t h e sound  Doppler  to d e t e c t  into  shift  of  tissue  a 12 v o l t  tissues  (Rose and G o l d b e r g  is  movement,  o r lower  1979) i s used  pregnancy.  frequency,  and t h e r e s u l t a n t  and once signal  wave  is  received i s  broadcast  on a  the electronics  a r e p a r t o f t h e headphone a p p a r a t u s , battery.  Depending  the reflected  I n t h e Medata P r e g n a n c y D e t e c t o r  transistor  i t  crystal.  principle  electronically,  the speakers  various  movements a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  to a higher  system.  strikes  from t h e t r a n s m i t t i n g  and o p e r a t e  101  ANIMALS AND MEASUREMENTS The  sample  locations;  t h e Okanagan  californiana), British  term  at  Columbia The  the  t h e Dept.  gestation  The anterior  of  o f domestic Animal  farm  were  University  O.c.  cavity  in  came  from  University  tested Forty  Identification  generated  by  was p l a c e d  artery,  o f pregnancy.  was d e t e c t e d w i t h i n  research  of  between  74  and  then the  sounds  or f e t a l I f none  (n=50).  90 and 120  94  days  on t h e abdomen 5  manipulated  artery,  British  from of  and t e r m .  and between  o f one o r more  the uterine  movement, u m b i l i c a l evidence  I t was  were  one o f t h e ewes  between  to the teats  of  a  h e r d a t A l d e r g r o v e , B.C.  examined  search  gestation;  d i a g n o s i s was c o n f i r m e d  ewes  h e r d were  of  canadensis).  1984) . I n d i v i d u a l s  Science,  t r a n s d u c e r head  of mid-line.  (n=20, O.c.  110 and 150 days  (term = 145 d a y s ) .  and p o s t e r i o r  pregnancy.  sounds  (n=3,  ( S h a c k l e t o n e t a_l.  the University  external  side  positive  Facility,  B.C.  between  B.C.  and a n o t h e r 9 ewes were between 118 days  abdominal  fetal  Care  (n=9), and a c o m m e r c i a l  commercial  sounds  tested  The sample  of gestation  either  Animal  and came f r o m two  Penticton,  and t h e a c c u r a c y o f p r e g n a n c y  ewes f r o m  days  Farm,  Vancouver,  i s 174 d a y s  lambing.  herd  Game  the  f e m a l e s were  identified, at  and  Columbia,  Bighorn full  o f b i g h o r n f e m a l e s was c a p t i v e  and  15  both cm.  t o scan the  characteristic  of  of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c placental heart,  circulation,  was  considered  of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  5-10 m i n u t e s , t h e a n i m a l was d i a g n o s e d  102  as  nonpregnant.  little of  as 30 s e c o n d s ,  diagnosis  especially  o f pregnancy  with  females  often  t o o k as  i n the l a s t  third  gestation.  The  only  other  peristaltic interference the  Positive  which  could  movement  in  the  associated  with  friction  subject.  difference  sounds  There  between  was these  no  be  lower  intestines,  between  difficulty  sounds  detected  and  were t h e and  the  t h e t r a n s d u c e r and  in  those  recognising  the  associated  with  pregnancy.  Parentage the  domestic  British  o f lambs  herds  and t h e c a p t i v e  Columbia.  parentage  was d e t e r m i n e d  Successful  from  lambing  records f o r  bighorn a t the University of  suckling  of  a  lamb  confirmed  i n t h e Okanagan Game Farm b i g h o r n h e r d .  RESULTS PREGNANCY DETERMINATION OF BIGHORN All  3 female  bighorn a t the University  were d i a g n o s e d p r e g n a n t (Table  1). Eight  Okanagan April,  Game  of  Farm  1982 ( T a b l e  i n April, the  11  research  1 ) . These  1982 and p r o d u c e d  captive herd  sheep  of B r i t i s h  were  bighorn  lambed a r o u n d  May a n d 7 lambs were o b s e r v e d on J u n e  lambs i n June  females  diagnosed  Columbia  a t the  pregnant  the last  in  week i n  13, 1982. When t h e h e r d was  103  recaptured  i n June  a l l 8 females  were a p p a r e n t l y l a c t a t i n g , mammary one  glands.  udder,  remains  of a  scavenged the  Game  was  lambs.  These  were  year  12, t h e r e Parentage  pregnant  diagnosed a  lamb.  revealed  pregnant,  that  and had a  that  year the  The lamb h a d b e e n  k i l l e d or  remains  were  Later  of the  assumed  t o be t h a t o f  ewe.  9 o f t h e 11 b i g h o r n ewes a t t h e Okanagan  captured  12, 1983. E i g h t  June  had been  the aforementioned  following  diagnosed  o b s e r v a t i o n of the herd  not suckling  by c o y o t e s .  Farm  April  which  were  on t h e s w o l l e n c o n d i t i o n  lamb were d i s c o v e r e d .  lamb f r o m The  By  However,  o f the animals  swollen  based  that  and t e s t e d  with  Doppler  o f t h e s e were d i a g n o s e d  were  7  lambs  of the c o l l a r e d  and by  u l t r a s o u n d on  pregnant  July  25  (Table 1 ) .  there  lambs was d e t e r m i n e d  were  on  August  7 by o b s e r v i n g s u c k l i n g b o u t s , and t h e d i a g n o s i s o f p r e g n a n c y confirmed after  f o r a l l 8 females.  June  12, i n d i c a t i n g  when t h e f e t u s e s were were old.  diagnosed  The g e s t a t i o n  determined The  animal  suckling  that  both  of these  period  was  d i d n o t lamb  was  until  that  t h e pregnancy  diagnosis  occured  than  114 d a y s o l d .  The o t h e r  females  t h e f e t u s e s were  approximately  of California  t o be 174.2 +/-  1.70 d a y s  diagnosed  as  bighorn  130-140  sheep  h a s been  (Shackleton e t a l . non-pregnant  was  days  1984).  not  seen  a lamb.  Pregnancy for  when  less  Two  9  d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f female  diagnosis  of  pregnancy  b i g h o r n s was 100% a c c u r a t e (n=19),  and  diagnosis  of  104  non-pregnancy  (n=4),  (Table 1 ) .  PREGNANCY DETERMINATION Of  the 9 domestic  Columbia,  7  were  non-pregnant. lambed. total,  errors  negative  sheep  a t the U n i v e r s i t y  were  and  2  of  British  were  diagnosed  when  the  confirmed  sample o f 50 ewes f r o m a c o m m e r c i a l diagnosis  animals was  diagnosis  SHEEP  pregnant  diagnoses  in  pregnant  domestic  positive  diagnosed  These  6  diagnosing for  ewes t e s t e d  In t h e s e c o n d  of  OF DOMESTIC  occured,  a l l the  as n o n - p r e g n a n t .  100% f o r p o s i t i v e  (Table  1).  The  Thus  ewes  farm a  result  of  the accuracy  d i a g n o s i s and 54% f o r  overall  accuracy  of  both  and n e g a t i v e d i a g n o s e s was 90%.  DISCUSSION The  results  ultrasound and  females  than  third  study  f o r diagnosing  accuracy  explanations last  this  indicate  t e c h n i q u e , u s i n g an e x t e r n a l  effective  overall  of  o f pregnancy  for  domestic  for this. of  sheep  were  i n their  sheep.  those  domestic  fetal  mass p r e s e n t l a t e r  ewes t e s t e d  the  the  i s both  i n bighorn  d i a g n o s i s was  whereas  second  probe,  pregnancy  Firstly,  gestation  that  There  practical  sheep.  higher are  Doppler  f o r bighorn  two  possible  t h e b i g h o r n were t e s t e d the  majority  trimester.  i n their  third  No  of  the  errors  i n the domestic  occurred i n  trimester.  i n g e s t a t i o n makes i t l e s s  The  The  larger  likely  that a  105  pregnancy second  would  be  explanation  processed  overlooked may  a t one t i m e  diagnosing  each  was  The  ultrasound  individual  is  in  the  non-pregnancy absence  of  improper  result of  in a  sounds  50  been  A  bighorns  t o be  when  have  pregnancy  of  pregnant  spent  domestic  avoided i f  only  of  fetal  a  in  o f p r o c e s s i n g a l a r g e number  non-pregnant sounds  tissue.  pregnancy  However,  can  study  of animals  of  because be  the  due  inexperience.  this  are  (prediction  i s possible,  operator  errors  diagnosis of  extraneous  female)  and  in  non-pregnancy  characteristic  the  occurred  associated with  placement  that  of  i n the p o s i t i v e  unless  diagnosis  probe  significant  of  unlikely  as b e i n g  number  more t i m e  and m i g h t  i s accurate  Misdiagnosis  error  6 errors  scanning.  i n the d i a g n o s i s o f non-pregnancy.  pregnancy.  misinterpreted  t h e maximum  a t one t i m e ,  had been s p e n t  Doppler  that  ultrasonic  11. T h i s a l l o w e d  female.  ewes were p r o c e s s e d more t i m e  be  during  to  It is  occured  as  a  i n a short period  time. Errors  i n the diagnosis  o f non-pregnancy  testing  diagnosed  reduced  by  separate  occasions.  domestic  ewes  examined  twice  error early  by  using  females  The a c c u r a c y  improved  ( L i n d a h l 1972).  I t also  an  probe,  gestation  (Deas  1977) .  when may which  probably  non-pregnant  of predicting  considerably  intrarectal  as  could  on  be two  non-pregnancy i n  the  animals  were  be p o s s i b l e t o  reduce  i s more  accurate i n  Unfortunately,accuracy  with  the  106  intrarectal  probe  possibility  of causing  and  Slyter  greater  decreases  after  injury,  peritonitis,  1983) . The p r o b a b l i l i t y  i n wild  useful  bighorn 110 an  days  technique  that  Doppler  f o r determining  sheep p o p u l a t i o n s , pregnant.  important  o f such  injury  could  isa (Trapp  be even  provided  ultrasound  should  rates  in  be  wild  t h a t the females a r e a t l e a s t  In a d d i t i o n t o being  an a c c u r a t e  technique,  advantage i s t h e immediate d i a g n o s i s o f r e p r o d u c t i v e  compact w e a t h e r  the  and a b o r t i o n  pregnancy  s t a t u s , a c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r some f i e l d  from  and t h e r e  species.  In c o n c l u s i o n , i t a p p e a r s a  mid-gestation,  resistant  an e x t e r n a l  instrument,  transducer,  studies. which  accurately  pregnancy r a t e o f c a p t i v e bighorn  In t h i s  used  2MHz  and r a p i d l y  study, a  ultrasound determined  females.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The the  British  British the  research  Okanagan  bighorn. University Hunt  Columbia  Columbia,  Eastman,  reported  R. We  i s part  of a joint  M i n i s t r y o f Environment,  p r o j e c t among  the University of  and t h e Okanagan Game Farm. E . L a c e y ,  Game  Farm  Peterson thank  provided  and H.  of B r i t i s h  f o r allowing  here  us  H.  Nordan  Columbia to  logistical  Lacey  assisted  f o r allowing bighorn,  sample  their  support  late of and  i n handling us  to  sample  and A. S c h a e f f e r domestic  sheep.  D. the the  and D. Field  107  research  was  supported D.  by  funds  British  Columbia.  Shackleton  reviewed  the d r a f t manuscript.  from and  the Science R.  Tait  Council  of  constructively  LITERATDRE CITED  BARRETT, R. H. 1981. P r e g n a n c y d i a g n o s i s w i t h D o p p l e r ultrasonic f e t a l pulse detectors. W i l d l . Soc. B u l l . 9:60-63. DEAS, D. W. 1977. P r e g n a n c y d i a g n o s i s i n t h e ewe b y an u l t r a s o n i c r e c t a l probe. V e t . R e c . 101:113-115. FOLLIS,  T. B. and J . J . S P I L L E T . 1974. W i n t e r p r e g n a n c y r a t e s and s u b s e q u e n t f a l l c o w / c a l f r a t i o s i n e l k . J . W i l d l . Manage. 38:789-791.  LINDAHL,  I . L . 1972. E a r l y p r e g n a n c y d e t e c t i o n i n ewes b y intrarectal r e f l e c t i o n ultrasound. J . Anim. S c i . 34:772-775.  MEMON, M. A. and R. S. OTT. 1980. Methods o f p r e g n a n c y d i a g n o s i s i n sheep and g o a t s . C o r n e l l V e t . 70:226-231. RAMSAY, M. A. a n d R. M. F. S. SADLEIR. 1979. D e t e c t i o n o f p r e g n a n c y i n l i v i n g b i g h o r n sheep b y p r o g e s t i n determination. J . W i l d l . Manage. 43:970-973. REHBINDER, C , L . E . EDQVIST, U. RIESTEN-ARHED a n d M. NORDQVIST. 1981. P r o g e s t e r o n e i n p r e g n a n t and n o n - p r e g n a n t reindeer. A c t a V e t . Scand. 22:355-359. ROSE, J . L . a n d B. B. GOLDBERG. 1979. B a s i c P h y s i c s i n Diagnostic Ultrasound. John W i l e y & Sons. New Y o r k , N.Y. 340 p p . SHACKLETON, D. M., R. G. PETERSON, J . HAYWOOD, a n d A. BOTTRELL. 1984. G e s t a t i o n p e r i o d i n O v i s c a n a d e n s i s . J . Mamm. 65:337-338. " SMITH, R. B. a n d F . G. LINDZEY. 1982. Use o f u l t r a s o u n d f o r d e t e c t i n g p r e g n a n c y i n mule d e e r . J . W i l d l . Manage. 46:1089-1092.  108  TRAPP, M. J . and A. L . SLYTER. 1983. ewe. J . Anim. S c i . 57:1-5.  Pregnancy d i a g n o s i s  i n the  TURNER, J . C . 1983. A f i e l d l a p a r o t o m y t e c h n i q u e f o r o b s e r v i n g the r e p r o d u c t i v e t r a c t o f f r e e - r a n g i n g d e s e r t b i g h o r n sheep (Ovis c a n a d e n s i s c r e m n o b a t e s ) . Theriogenology 19:787-794. WANI, G. M. and K. L . SAHNI. 1981. U l t r a s o n i c pregnancy d i a g n o s i s i n ewes under t r o p i c a l f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s . I n d i a n J . Anim. S c i . 51:194-197. WHITEHEAD, P. E . and E . H. MCEWAN. 1980. Progesterone l e v e l s i n t h e p e r i p h e r a l p l a s m a o f Rocky M o u n t a i n b i g h o r n ewes O v i s c a n a d e n s i s d u r i n g t h e e s t r o u s c y c l e and pregnancy. Can. J . Z o o l . 58:1105-1108.  109  T a b l e 1.  A c c u r a c y o f both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e diagnoses o f pregnancy i n b i g h o r n females and domestic ewes  LOCATION AND YEAR BIGHORN FEMALES  UBC 1982  # tested with ultrasound  OKGF 1982  OKGF 1983  DOMESTIC EWES  Total Bighorn  11  UBC 1982  Hunt Farm 1983  Total Domestic Ewes  23  50  59  # diagnosed pregnant  3  8 .  8  19  39  46  # n u r s i n g lambs  3  7+(l)*  8  18+(1)*  39  46  100%  100%  100%  100%  11  13  % correctly diagnosed pregnant  100%  100%*  100%  # diagnosed non-pregnant % correctly diagnosed non-pregnant % overall accuracy  n/a  100%  100%  100%  100%  45%  54%  100%  100%  100%  100%  100%  88%  90%  ft - Number * - assuming one female which was diagnosed pregnant, was l a c t a t i n g , b u t was not observed n u r s i n g , was the dam of a m o r t a l i t y d i s c o v e r e d . UBC - U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  Vancouver, B.C.  OKGF - Okanagan Game Farm, P e n t i c t o n , B.C.  110  Appendix  2.  D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s used t o d e f i n e t h e Body C o n d i t i o n S c o r e s c a l e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y ( a f t e r R u s s e l e t al. 1969) .  SCORE 0: E x t r e m e l y e m a c i a t e d and on t h e p o i n t o f d e a t h . I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o d e t e c t any m u s c u l a r o r f a t t y t i s s u e between s k i n and b o n e . SCORE 1: The s p i n o u s p r o c e s s e s a r e f e l t t o be p r o m i n a n t and sharp. The t r a n s v e r s e p r o c e s s e s a r e a l s o s h a r p , t h e f i n g e r s p a s s e a s i l y under t h e e n d s , and i t i s p o s s i b l e t o f e e l between e a c h process. The e y e m u s c l e a r e a s a r e s h a l l o w w i t h no f a t c o v e r . SCORE 2: The s p i n o u s p r o c e s s e s s t i l l f e e l prominent, but smooth, and i n d i v i d u a l processes c a n be f e l t only as fine corrugations. The t r a n s v e r s e p r o c e s s e s a r e smooth and r o u n d e d , and i t i s p o s s i b l e t o p a s s t h e f i n g e r s u n d e r t h e ends w i t h a l i t t l e pressure.>• The e y e m u s c l e a r e a s a r e o f m o d e r a t e d e p t h , b u t have l i t t l e f a t c o v e r . SCORE 3: The s p i n o u s p r o c e s s e s a r e d e t e c t e d o n l y a s s m a l l e l e v a t i o n s ; t h e y a r e smooth and r o u n d e d , and i n d i v i d u a l bones c a n be f e l t o n l y w i t h p r e s s u r e . The t r a n s v e r s e p r o c e s s e s a r e smooth and w e l l c o v e r e d , and f i r m p r e s s u r e i s r e q u i r e d t o f e e l o v e r t h e ends. The e y e m u s c l e a r e a s a r e f u l l , and have a m o d e r a t e d e g r e e of f a t c o v e r . SCORE pressure, area. The eye m u s c l e  4: The s p i n o u s p r o c e s s e s c a n j u s t be d e t e c t e d , w i t h as a hard line between t h e f a t c o v e r e d eye m u s c l e ends o f t h e t r a n s v e r s e p r o c e s s e s c a n n o t be f e l t . The a r e a s a r e f u l l , and have a t h i c k c o v e r i n g o f f a t .  SCORE 5: The s p i n o u s p r o c e s s e s c a n n o t be d e t e c t e d e v e n w i t h f i r m p r e s s u r e , and t h e r e i s a d e p r e s s i o n between t h e l a y e r s o f f a t i n t h e p o s i t i o n where t h e s p i n o u s p r o c e s s w o u l d n o r m a l l y be felt. The t r a n s v e r s e p r o c e s s e s c a n n o t be d e t e c t e d . The eye muscle areas a r e v e r y f u l l w i t h v e r y t h i c k f a t c o v e r . T h e r e may be l a r g e d e p o s i t s o f f a t o v e r t h e rump and t a i l .  Ill  * Appendix  3.  **  Trace mineral concentrations of l i v e r and k i d n e y t i s s u e on a wet w e i g h t b a s i s f r o m b i g h o r n sheep from s o u t h - c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia.  Element  x  Liver  (mg.kg ^) sd n  x  Kidney  (mg.kg ^) sd n  Iron  99  58  25  73  38  17  Copper  68  47  25  4.8  1.6  17  Zinc  37  18  25  23  8.0  17  Manganese  3.4  1.3  25  1.6  0.6  17  Selenium  0.27  0.08  25  * L i v e r samples came f r o m V a s e u x L a k e (n=12), t h e A s h n o l a (n=12), and B i g B a r ( n = l ) . S e v e n t e e n were f r o m m a l e s , f i v e f r o m f e m a l e s , two f r o m f e t u s e s , and one f r o m a newborn lamb. ** K i d n e y samples came f r o m V a s e u x Lake (n=8), and f r o m t h e A s h n o l a (n=9). N i n e were f r o m m a l e s , f o u r f r o m f e m a l e s , two f r o m f e t u s e s , and two f r o m lambs.  112  Appendix  4.  Comparison of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of those tagged f e m a l e s w h i c h s u c c e s s f u l l y r e a r e d a lamb t o t h r e e months o l d , t o t h o s e t h a t l o s t t h e i r lambs when t h e y were l e s s t h a n one month o l d .  Successful Female* Mean (n)  Variable  Unsuccessful Female** Mean (n)  Liveweight  (kg)  58.5  (3)  62.6  (6)  Chestgirth  (mm)  1009  (4)  1011  (6)  1605  (4)  1620  (4)  (mm)  394  (4)  391  (6)  Score  2.0  (4)  2.4  (6)  75%  (4)  50%  (6)  0.08  (2)  0.10  (3)  0.77  (1)  0.66  (3)  0.48  (1)  0.53  (3)  (mcg%)  5.00  (1)  5.33  (3)  (mg%)  7.70  (1)  7.77  (3)  2.80  (1)  2.97  (3)  1.55  (1)  2.09  (3)  Total  Length  (mm)  Hindfoot Length Body C o n d i t i o n PI-3 Serum  infection selenium(mg.kg ) 1  Serum c o p p e r Serum  zinc  Serum  iodine  (mg.kg  (mg.kg  Serum c a l c i u m  Serum p h o s p h o r u s Serum magnesium  ^)  (mg%) (mg%)  * f e m a l e s whose lambs s u r v i v e d ** f e m a l e s whose lambs d i e d  t o t h r e e months o l d .  b e f o r e t h e y were one month o l d .  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0096116/manifest

Comment

Related Items