UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Quantitative classification of soil nutrient regimes of some mesothermal Douglas-fir ecosystems Kabzems, Richard Darwin 1985

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QUANTITATIVE CLASSIFICATION OF SOIL NUTRIENT REGIMES SOME MESOTHERMAL DOUGLAS-FIR ECOSYSTEMS by RICHARD DARWIN KABZEMS B.S.A. ( H o n o r s ) , U n i v e r s i t y o f S a s k a t c h e w a n , 1978 B.Sc., U n i v e r s i t y o f S a s k a t c h e w a n , 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (FACULTY OF FORESTRY) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA O c t o b e r 1985 © R i c h a r d D a r w i n Kabzems, 1985 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 i i ABSTRACT P r e v i o u s a t t e m p t s t o c l a s s i f y n u t r i e n t r e g i m e s o f f o r e s t s o i l h ave been q u a l i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s u t i l i z i n g v e g e t a t i o n a n d / o r p h y s i o g r a p h i c s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , m o r p h o l o g i c a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s , and p a r e n t m a t e r i a l . The m a j o r o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e s c r i b e a n d c l a s s i f y t h e s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e s (SNR) o f some P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i e c o s y s t e m s on s o u t h e r n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The o r d e r o f i n c r e a s i n g v a r i a b i l i t y f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s was p H ( H 2 0 ) <TC <TN <TS <TP <exMg <exCa <exK <exMn <minN. The o r d e r o f i n c r e a s i n g v a r i a b i l i t y f o r m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s was p H ( H 2 0 ) = p H ( C a C l 2 ) <TN <TC <exP = exMg <S0 4 <minN = exK <exCa <exMn. C o n s i s t e n t t r e n d s i n s o i l p r o p e r t y v a r i a b i l i t y a l o n g g r a d i e n t s o f s o i l m o i s t u r e o r n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y o r b e t w e e n p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g i e s were n o t a p p a r e n t . M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n and i n d i c a t o r p l a n t a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t e d a m a j o r t r e n d i n v a r i a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a c o m p l e x e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r a d i e n t r e l a t e d t o i n c r e a s e d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s o i l m o i s t u r e and n u t r i e n t s . The a r r a n g e m e n t o f s t u d y p l o t s a l o n g t h e g r a d i e n t showed g r o u p i n g s w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d e d t o b o t h t h e c a l c u l a t e d s o i l w a t e r d e f i c i t a n d i n f e r r e d s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e . One m u l t i v a r i a t e a x i s a c c o u n t e d f o r most o f t h e v a r i a t i o n o f s o i l p r o p e r t i e s b e t w e e n s t u d y p l o t s . The m i n e r a l s o i l and f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l q u a n t i t i e s o f minN, TN, exCa and i i i exMg s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d a l o n g t h e n u t r i e n t g r a d i e n t . O r d i n a t i o n s o f m i n e r a l s o i l and f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s a r r a n g e d most p l o t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e m o i s t u r e -n u t r i e n t g r a d i e n t . D i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s o f t h e s o i l p r o p e r t i e s s e l e c t e d l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n s o f p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h s e p a r a t e d s i t e s , p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g i e s , s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e c l a s s e s and SNR c l a s s e s . C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s c o n f i r m e d t h a t minN and exMg o f t h e f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l b e s t s e p a r a t e d SNR c l a s s e s . M u l t i v a r i a t e s u m m a r i e s o f v a r i a t i o n i n u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n and f o l i a r n u t r i e n t s were h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d t o t h e s o i l p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h b e s t s e p a r a t e d SNR c l a s s e s . The i n c r e a s i n g q u a n t i t i e s o f t h e s e n u t r i e n t s c o r r e s p o n d e d t o i n c r e a s e s i n s i t e i n d e x f o r t h e s t u d y s i t e s . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n N, Ca, and Mg a v a i l a b i l i t y e x i s t e d b e t w e e n SNR c l a s s e s f o r t h e s t u d y s i t e s . T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s i n n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y c o r r e s p o n d e d t o c h a n g e s i n u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n , f o l i a r n u t r i e n t s t a t u s and s i t e i n d e x f o r t h e s t u d y s i t e s . U s i n g f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l q u a n t i t i e s o f minN and exMg, a m u l t i v a r i a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e f o u r SNR c l a s s e s r e c o g n i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y was p r o p o s e d . i v T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s ABSTRACT i i L I S T OF TABLES v i L I S T OF FIGURES x i L I S T OF APPENDICES x i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i x x 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. SOIL NUTRIENT REGIME 3 2.1 P r e v i o u s A p p r o a c h e s t o C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f S o i l N u t r i e n t R e g i m e 3 2.2 A p p r o a c h t o S o i l N u t r i e n t R e g i m e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n A d o p t e d i n t h i s S t u d y 6 3. METHODS 9 3.1 S i t e S e l e c t i o n a n d D e s c r i p t i o n 9 3.2 V e g e t a t i o n S a m p l i n g 10 3.3 S o i l S a m p l i n g 11 3.4 S o i l M o i s t u r e A n a l y s i s 13 3.5 L a b o r a t o r y A n a l y s i s 18 3.6 D a t a Summary and S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s 24 3.6.1 V e g e t a t i o n 24 3.6.2 F o l i a r N u t r i e n t A n a l y s i s 25 3.6.3 S o i l P r o p e r t i e s 25 3.6.4 R e l a t i o n s h i p s B e t w e e n S o i l P r o p e r t i e s and V e g e t a t i o n 32 4. CHARACTERIZATION AND C L A S S I F I C A T I O N OF STUDY ECOSYSTEMS 33 4.1 L o c a t i o n and Management H i s t o r y 33 4.2 C l i m a t e 37 4.3 B e d r o c k G e o l o g y and L i t h o l o g y o f P a r e n t M a t e r i a l s 38 4.4 S u r f i c i a l M a t e r i a l s and S o i l s 41 4.5 F i e l d - A s s e s s e d SMR a n d SNR o f S t u d y S t a n d s 44 4.6 M e a s u r e m e n t s o f S o i l M o i s t u r e 46 4.7 V e g e t a t i o n A n a l y s i s a n d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 49 4.8 F o l i a r N u t r i e n t S t a t u s 59 V 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 61 5.1 V a r i a b i l i t y of the S o i l P r o p e r t i e s 61 5.1.1 P o t e n t i a l Sources of V a r i a b i l i t y Not Determined i n t h i s Study 62 5.1.2 Trends i n V a r i a b i l i t y 66 5.2 S e l e c t i o n of D i f f e r e n t i a t i n g C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .. 69 5.2.1 U n i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s 69 5.2.1.1 Forest Floor Bulk D e n s i t i e s and Conversion Factors 69 5.2.1.2 Forest Floor P r o p e r t i e s 71 5.2.1.3 Min e r a l S o i l Bulk Density and Conversion Factors 74 5.2.1.4 Mi n e r a l S o i l P r o p e r t i e s 78 5.2.1.5 Forest Floor plus M i n e r a l S o i l P r o p e r t i e s 87 5.2.1.6 U n i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of Field-Assessed SNR 94 5.2.2 M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s 99 5.2.2.1 M u l t i v a r i a t e Sample Size A n a l y s i s 100 5.2.2.2 P r i n c i p a l Components An a l y s i s 102 5.2.2.3 Discriminant A n a l y s i s 108 5.2.2.4 C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s I l l 5.3 Re l a t i o n s h i p s between A n a l y t i c a l S o i l P r o p e r t i e s and Vegetation 119 5.3.1 Understory Vegetation and S o i l P r o p e r t i e s ... 119 5.3.2 F o l i a r N u t r i e n t s and S o i l P r o p e r t i e s 130 5.3.3 Forest P r o d u c t i v i t y and S o i l P r o p e r t i e s 145 5.4 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of S o i l N u t r i e n t Regimes 152 5.4.1 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Recognized Classes 152 5.4.2 Comparison of the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Proposed by Courtin et a l . (1985) and This Study 154 6. SUMMARY 159 7. CONCLUSIONS 170 LITERATURE CITED 172 v i L i s t o f T a b l e s 1. S e l e c t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t u d y s i t e s 36 2. S e l e c t e d c l i m a t i c d a t a f o r t h e E a s t V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d V a r i a n t o f t h e D r i e r M a r i t i m e C o a s t a l W e s t e r n Hemlock s u b z o n e ( d a t a f r o m K l i n k a e t a l . , 1979) 7 7 37 3. A p p r o x i m a t e p e r c e n t o f c o a r s e f r a g m e n t and b e d r o c k s a m p l e s f r o m s t u d y s i t e s a r r a n g e d by l o c a l g e o l o g i c a l u n i t and l i t h o l o g y 39 4. A v e r a g e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n ( p e r c e n t o f w e i g h t ) o f l i t h o l o g i e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e s t u d y a r e a 40 5. C u m u l a t i v e g r o w i n g s e a s o n s o i l w a t e r d e f i c i t s (mm) f o r e a c h s i t e b e t w e e n 2 J u n e and 31 A u g u s t , 1983 47 6. C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e t a max, t h e t a m i n , t h e t a max m i n u s t h e t a min ( d e l t a t h e t a ) , s o i l d e p t h , and a v a i l a b l e w a t e r s t o r a g e c a p a c i t y (AWSC) f o r s t u d y s i t e s and r e f e r e n c e s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e s i t e s 47 7. A r r a n g e d s p e c i e s by p l o t s m a t r i x f o r t h e s t u d y p l o t s v e g e t a t i o n d a t a . S p e c i e s and p l o t s a r e a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o a x i s 1 o r d e r i n t h e RA o r d i n a t i o n 55 8. S y n o p s i s o f s e r a i v e g e t a t i o n u n i t s r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e s t u d y a r e a 56 9. D i a g n o s t i c c o m b i n a t i o n s o f s p e c i e s f o r t h e s e r a i v e g e t a t i o n u n i t s r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e s t u d y a r e a b a s e d on t h e a n a l y s i s o f u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n 57 10. F o r e s t f l o o r s a m p l e s i z e r e q u i r e m e n t a r r a n g e d by s i t e , l e v e l o f p r e c i s i o n and a l l o w a b l e e r r o r 64 11. M i n e r a l s o i l s a m p l e s i z e r e q u i r e m e n t a r r a n g e d by s i t e , l e v e l o f p r e c i s i o n and a l l o w a b l e e r r o r 65 12. The F - v a l u e s f o r two-way ANOVA w i t h i n t e r a c t i o n f o r b u l k d e n s i t y and c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r f o r f o r e s t f l o o r a r r a n g e d by p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y (PML) and s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e (SMR) 70 13. The r e s u l t s o f S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s r a n g e t e s t f o r f o r e s t f l o o r b u l k d e n s i t y and c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r f o r e a c h s t u d y s i t e 72 v i i 14. The F - v a l u e s f o r two-way ANOVA w i t h i n t e r a c t i o n f o r p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y (PML) and s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e (SMR) f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s ... 73 15. S t u d y s i t e s , most common humus f o r m i n t h e s t u d y s i t e s a r r a n g e d by s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e (SMR) and SMR mean f o r e s t f l o o r p H ( H 2 0 ) 75 16. The r e s u l t s o f S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s r a n g e t e s t f o r f o r e s t f l o o r TC v a l u e s f o r e a c h s t u d y p l o t 76 17. The F - v a l u e s f o r two-way ANOVA w i t h i n t e r a c t i o n f o r b u l k d e n s i t y and c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r f o r m i n e r a l s o i l a r r a n g e d by p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y (PML) and s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e (SMR) 77 18. The r e s u l t s o f S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s r a n g e t e s t f o r m i n e r a l s o i l b u l k d e n s i t y and c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r f o r e a c h s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e (SMR) 77 19. The r e s u l t s o f S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s r a n g e t e s t f o r m i n e r a l s o i l b u l k d e n s i t y and c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r f o r e a c h s t u d y s i t e 79 20. The F - v a l u e s f o r two-way ANOVA w i t h i n t e r a c t i o n f o r p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y (PML) a n d s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e (SMR) f o r m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s ... 80 2 1 . S t u d y s i t e s a r r a n g e d by s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e (SMR) a n d SMR mean v a l u e s f o r m i n e r a l s o i l TC, TN and minN 82 22. The r e s u l t s o f S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s r a n g e t e s t f o r m i n e r a l s o i l TC v a l u e s f o r e a c h s t u d y p l o t 84 23. The r e s u l t s o f S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s r a n g e t e s t f o r m i n e r a l s o i l minN v a l u e s f o r e a c h s t u d y p l o t .... 86 24. The F - v a l u e s f o r two-way ANOVA w i t h i n t e r a c t i o n f o r p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y (PML) and s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e (SMR) f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s 88 25. S t u d y s i t e s a r r a n g e d by s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e (SMR) and SMR mean v a l u e s f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l TC, TN, minN, e x C a , and exK 88 26. The r e s u l t s o f S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s r a n g e t e s t f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l TN v a l u e s f o r e a c h s t u d y p l o t 91 27. The r e s u l t s o f S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s r a n g e t e s t f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l minN v a l u e s f o r e a c h s t u d y p l o t 92 v i i i 2 8. The r e s u l t s o f S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s r a n g e t e s t f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l exMg v a l u e s f o r e a c h s t u d y p l o t 93 29. The F - v a l u e s f o r one-way ANOVA f o r f o r e s t f l o o r , m i n e r a l s o i l , and f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s o f s t u d y s i t e s g r o u p e d by s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e (SNR) 95 30. The r e s u l t s o f S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s r a n g e t e s t f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s o f s t u d y s i t e s g r o u p e d by s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e (SNR) 96 3 1 . The r e s u l t s o f S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s r a n g e t e s t f o r m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s o f s t u d y s i t e s g r o u p e d by s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e (SNR) 97 32. The r e s u l t s o f S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s r a n g e t e s t f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s o f s t u d y s i t e s g r o u p e d by s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e (SNR) ... 98 3 3 . M u l t i v a r i a t e s a m p l e s i z e a n a l y s i s o f f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s 101 34. M u l t i v a r i a t e s a m p l e s i z e a n a l y s i s o f m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s 103 35 . M u l t i v a r i a t e s a m p l e s i z e a n a l y s i s o f f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s 104 36. Summary o f p r o p e r t i e s s e l e c t e d f o r s e p a r a t i o n o f s t u d y p l o t s g r o u p e d by s i t e , p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y , ( P M L ) , s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e (SMR), and s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e (SNR) u s i n g s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s 112 37. Summary o f r a n k i n g o f i m p o r t a n t p r o p e r t i e s f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e (SNR) s e l e c t e d by d i f f e r e n t s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s 113 38 . C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n f o r e s t f l o o r PCA a x i s , v e g e t a t i o n DCA a x e s and c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s 122 39. C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n m i n e r a l s o i l PCA a x e s , v e g e t a t i o n DCA a x e s and c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s 123 4 0 . C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l PCA a x e s , v e g e t a t i o n DCA a x e s and c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s 124 i x 4 1 . C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n f o r e s t f l o o r PCA a x i s , f o l i a r n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n PCA a x e s a nd c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s 131 42. C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n m i n e r a l s o i l PCA a x e s , f o l i a r n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n PCA a x e s and c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s 132 4 3 . C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l PCA a x e s , f o l i a r c o n c e n t r a t i o n PCA a x e s and c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s 133 44. C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n f o r e s t f l o o r PCA a x i s , f o l i a r n u t r i e n t m i l l i g r a m s p e r 100 n e e d l e s PCA a x e s and c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s 139 4 5 . C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n m i n e r a l s o i l PCA a x e s , f o l i a r n u t r i e n t m i l l i g r a m s p e r 100 n e e d l e s PCA a x e s and c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s 140 46. C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l PCA a x e s , f o l i a r n u t r i e n t m i l l i g r a m s p e r 100 n e e d l e s PCA a x e s a nd c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s 141 47. Mean s i t e i n d e x o f D o u g l a s - f i r i n s t u d y s i t e s 146 48. Mean s i t e i n d e x o f D o u g l a s - f i r i n s t u d y s i t e s a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y 146 49. Mean s i t e i n d e x o f D o u g l a s - f i r i n s t u d y s i t e s a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e (SMR) .... 148 50. Mean s i t e i n d e x o f D o u g l a s - f i r i n s t u d y s i t e s a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e (SNR) .... 148 5 1 . C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n s o i l p r o p e r t i e s and s i t e p r o d u c t i v i t y m e a s u r e d by B r u c e ' s s i t e i n d e x (m/50 y r s ) f o r t h e u n f e r t i l i z e d s i t e s 150 52 . Mean and r a n g e o f one s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n ( i n p a r e n t h e s i s ) o f f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e c l a s s e s r e c o g n i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y 153 53 . C o e f f i c i e n t s and t h e c o n s t a n t s u s e d i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f u n c t i o n s f o r t h e f o u r s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e c l a s s e s r e c o g n i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y .... 153 54. C o m p a r i s o n o f n u t r i e n t r e g i m e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s t u d y s i t e s u s i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s s t u d y and t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s f u n c t i o n s p r o p o s e d by C o u r t i n e t a l . ( 1 9 8 5 ) 155 X 55. I n t e r p r e t i v e n u t r i e n t r e g i m e c l a s s , and means o f p H ( H 2 0 ) , C/N, TN and sum o f e x c h a n g e a b l e b a s e s (SEB) f o r t h e f i v e s t u d y s i t e s where s a m p l i n g m e t h o d o l o g y was c o m p a r a b l e t o t h a t o f C o u r t i n e t a l . . (1985) 155 56. I n t e r p r e t i v e n u t r i e n t r e g i m e c l a s s , means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s ( i n p a r e n t h e s i s ) o f p H ( H 2 0 ) , C/N, TN and sum o f e x c h a n g e a b l e b a s e s (SEB) f o r th e s e v e n s o i l g r o u p s c l a s s i f i e d u s i n g d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s f u n c t i o n s by C o u r t i n e t a l . (1985) 157 x i L i s t o f F i g u r e s 1. L o c a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y a r e a 34 2. N i t r o p h y t i c and o x y l o p h y t i c i n d i c a t o r s p e c t r a f o r t h e s t u d y s i t e s 50 3. S o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e i n d i c a t o r s p e c t r a f o r t h e s t u d y s i t e s 52 4. O r d i n a t i o n g r a p h f o r a x i s 1 and a x i s 2 o f t h e DCA o r d i n a t i o n o f u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n d a t a 54 5. O r d i n a t i o n g r a p h f o r a x i s 1 and a x i s 2 o f t h e PCA o r d i n a t i o n o f m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s 107 6. C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s o f s t u d y p l o t s u s i n g a l l f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s 115 7. C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s o f s t u d y p l o t s u s i n g TC, TN, TS and p H ( H 2 0 ) o f f o r e s t f l o o r 115 8. C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s o f s t u d y p l o t s u s i n g TC and TN o f f o r e s t f l o o r 116 9. C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s o f s t u d y p l o t s u s i n g a l l m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s 116 10. C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s o f s t u d y p l o t s u s i n g TC, minN, and exMg o f m i n e r a l s o i l 118 1 1 . C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s o f s t u d y p l o t s u s i n g a l l f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s 118 12. C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s o f s t u d y p l o t s u s i n g minN and exMg o f f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l 120 13 . C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s o f s t u d y p l o t s u s i n g minN and exMg o f f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l and pH(H.20) o f f o r e s t f l o o r 120 14. R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s and u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y s i t e s u s i n g t h e f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s 127 15. R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s and u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y s i t e s u s i n g t h e f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s 128 x i i 16. R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n u n d e r s t o r y f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s and v e g e t a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y s i t e s u s i n g t h e f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s .. 129 17. R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s and f o l i a r n u t r i e n t s ( c o n c e n t r a t i o n ) i n t h e s t u d y s i t e s u s i n g t h e f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s 136 18. R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s and f o l i a r n u t r i e n t s ( c o n c e n t r a t i o n ) i n t h e s t u d y s i t e s u s i n g t h e f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s 137 19. R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s and f o l i a r n u t r i e n t s ( c o n c e n t r a t i o n ) i n t h e s t u d y s i t e s u s i n g t h e f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s 138 20. R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s and f o l i a r n u t r i e n t s (mg/100 n e e d l e s ) i n t h e s t u d y s i t e s u s i n g t h e f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s 144 x i i i L i s t o f A p p e n d i c e s A p p e n d i x A L i s t o f P l a n t S p e c i e s 182 A p p e n d i x B U n d e r s t o r y V e g e t a t i o n T a b l e s 183 A p p e n d i x C O r d i n a t i o n S c o r e s f o r U n d e r s t o r y V e g e t a t i o n A n a l y s e s 186 A p p e n d i x D F o l i a r N u t r i e n t D a t a 193 A p p e n d i x E E n v i r o n m e n t T a b l e s 194 A p p e n d i x F D e s c r i p t i o n o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e S o i l s 198 A p p e n d i x G C o n v e r s i o n f r o m C o n c e n t r a t i o n t o k g / h a 206 A p p e n d i x H F o r e s t F l o o r a n d S o i l A n a l y t i c a l D a t a 208 A p p e n d i x I B a s i c S t a t i s t i c s f o r F o r e s t F l o o r P r o p e r t i e s A r r a n g e d by S a m p l i n g Scheme 218 A p p e n d i x J B a s i c S t a t i s t i c s f o r M i n e r a l S o i l P r o p e r t i e s A r r a n g e d by S a m p l i n g Scheme 225 A p p e n d i x K PCA O r d i n a t i o n S c o r e s and C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i c e s f o r S o i l P r o p e r t i e s 231 A p p e n d i x L C o r r e l a t i o n s Between O r i g i n a l S o i l P r o p e r t i e s a n d C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s f o r V e g e t a t i o n and S o i l P r o p e r t i e s 235 A p p e n d i x M C o r r e l a t i o n s B e t w e e n O r i g i n a l S o i l P r o p e r t i e s , F o l i a r N u t r i e n t s and C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s f o r F o l i a r and S o i l P r o p e r t i e s 239 x i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am v e r y g r a t e f u l f o r t h e g u i d a n c e , s u p p o r t and e n c o u r a g e m e n t w h i c h I h a v e r e c e i v e d f r o m many s o u r c e s d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y . The g e n e r o u s f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e S c i e n c e C o u n c i l o f B.C., t h e B.C. M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s , W e s t e r n E c o l o g i c a l S e r v i c e s L t d . and F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y i s g r a t e f u l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k C I P F o r e s t I n d u s t r i e s f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t . A s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g f i e l d work was p r o v i d e d by S. G r u n d i s o n , A. Kabzems and B. McLeod. The a d v i c e , a s s i s t a n c e , and c o o p e r a t i o n o f R. Lowe, E. W o l t e r s o n , B. Von S p i n d l e r , J . L a n s i q u o t , E. Y i p , and P. C a r b i s d u r i n g l a b o r a t o r y work i s g r a t e f u l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d . D u r i n g d a t a a n a l y s i s t h e a d v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e o f D r . J . P e t k a u , Dr. H. S c h r i e r , B. Wong, J . E m a n u e l , R. S c a g e l a n d D r . G. B r a d f i e l d was i n v a l u a b l e . A s s i s t a n c e a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s was p r o v i d e d by P. C o u r t i n , R. G r e e n , R. L a i r d and C. Ray o f t h e B.C. M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k f e l l o w g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s M. C u r r a n , D. G i l e s , W. K u r z , and P. S a n b o r n f o r t h e i r a d v i c e and comments. The s u p p o r t and g u i d a n c e o f my t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r , D r . K. K l i n k a i s g r a t e f u l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d . I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k my c o m m i t t e e members, D r . T. B a l l a r d , Dr. L. Lowe and D r . J . K i m m i n s f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e a d v i c e d u r i n g a l l s t a g e s o f t h i s s t u d y . F i n a l l y , I w o u l d l i k e t o g i v e v e r y s p e c i a l t h a n k s t o my p a r e n t s , A l f r e d and A u s t r a Kabzems, f o r t h e i r c o n t i n u a l s u p p o r t and e n c o u r a g e m e n t . 1 1. INTRODUCTION W i t h i n a c l i m a t i c r e g i o n , t h e s u p p l y o f a v a i l a b l e s o i l w a t e r and n u t r i e n t s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e s t h e n a t u r e and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e c o s y s t e m s and e c o s y s t e m p r o d u c t i v i t y ( R a l s t o n , 1964; Carmean, 1975; P r i t c h e t t , 1979; M a l c o l m , 1 9 8 1 ) . T r o p h o t o p e and h y g r o t o p e a r e c o n c e p t s u s e d i n b i o g e o c l i m a t i c e c o s y s t e m c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t o c h a r a c t e r i z e a v a i l a b l e n u t r i e n t s a n d m o i s t u r e o f t h e s o i l . T r o p h o t o p e , o r s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e ( S N R ) , i s d e f i n e d a s t h e amount and b a l a n c e o f e s s e n t i a l n u t r i e n t s w h i c h a r e a v a i l a b l e t o v a s c u l a r p l a n t s t h r o u g h r o o t u p t a k e o v e r an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e . T h i s p e r i o d o f t i m e i s i n t h e o r d e r o f s e v e r a l y e a r s ( C o u r t i n et_ a _ l . , 1985) . S i m i l a r l y h y g r o t o p e , o r s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e (SMR), i s d e f i n e d a s t h e amount o f w a t e r a v a i l a b l e t o v a s c u l a r p l a n t s t h r o u g h r o o t u p t a k e o v e r an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e . I n t h e b i o g e o c l i m a t i c s y s t e m , f i v e c l a s s e s a r e u s e d t o c h a r a c t e r i z e SNR and e i g h t c l a s s e s a r e u s e d t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e SMR o f an e c o s y s t e m . The SNR and SMR o f a p a r t i c u l a r e c o s y s t e m h a v e b e e n i n f e r r e d s u b j e c t i v e l y f r o m v e g e t a t i o n and m o r p h o l o g i c a l s i t e f e a t u r e s . The l a c k o f an a b s o l u t e s c a l e and w e l l d e f i n e d c l a s s e s h a s b e e n o f t e n c r i t i c i z e d ( K i m m i n s , 1 9 8 6 ) . The n e e d f o r a c l i m a t i c a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i t h d e f i n e d c l a s s e s h a s b een r e c o g n i z e d ( N u s z d o r f e r and K l i n k a , 1982) and s t u d i e s t o i m p r o v e b o t h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a r e c o n t i n u i n g . An a p p r o a c h t o SMR c l a s s i f i c a t i o n u s i n g v a r i a t i o n s i n a v a i l a b l e 2 w a t e r as i t c h a n g e s w i t h t h e s e a s o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o c l i m a t e and p l a n t g r o w t h was t e s t e d by G i l e s ( 1 9 8 3 ) , and G i l e s e t a l . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . U s i n g t h i s a p p r o a c h a t e n t a t i v e h y g r o t o p e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was p r o p o s e d by K l i n k a e t a l . ( 1 9 8 4 b ) . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f SNR c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p o s e s a c o m p l e x p r o b l e m due t o t h e l a r g e number o f n u t r i e n t f o r m s , t h e many f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y , and t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h o s e f a c t o r s . The s t u d y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n s o i l n u t r i e n t s , v e g e t a t i o n , f o l i a r n u t r i e n t s o f d o m i n a n t s p e c i e s , a n d p r o d u c t i v i t y a r e i m p o r t a n t a d j u n c t s t o t h i s p u r p o s e ( K l i n k a e_t a l . . , 1 9 8 4 a ) . The m a j o r a i m o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e s c r i b e and c l a s s i f y t h e SNR's o f some D o u g l a s - f i r ( P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i v a r . m e n z i e s i i [ M i r b . ] F r a n c o ) e c o s y s t e m s . S p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s s t u d y w e r e : 1) t o d e t e r m i n e i f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n s o i l p r o p e r t i e s r e f l e c t i n g n u t r i e n t s t a t u s b e t w e e n f i e l d - i n f e r r e d SNR c l a s s e s as p r e s e n t l y a s s e s s e d by t h e b i o g e o c l i m a t i c e c o s y s t e m c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m , 2) t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h o f t h e m e a s u r e d s o i l p r o p e r t i e s c o u l d be c h o s e n as d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , 3) t o e v a l u a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n f l o r i s t i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n and s o i l p r o p e r t i e s , 4) t o e v a l u a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n s o i l p r o p e r t i e s and f o l i a r n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t o f D o u g l a s - f i r , and 5) t o d e t e r m i n e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n s i t e p r o d u c t i v i t y ( a s d e t e r m i n e d by s i t e i n d e x o f D o u g l a s - f i r ) and s o i l p r o p e r t i e s . 3 2. SOIL NUTRIENT REGIME 2.1 PREVIOUS APPROACHES TO C L A S S I F I C A T I O N OF SOIL NUTRIENT REGIME A l t h o u g h t h e n u t r i e n t s t a t u s o f a f o r e s t s o i l i s r e c o g n i z e d as an i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r many management d e c i s i o n s , t h e r e a r e m a j o r p r o b l e m s t o overcome i n a s s e s s i n g n u t r i e n t s t a t u s . The f o l l o w i n g l i m i t a t i o n s t o s o i l a n a l y s i s f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y h ave been n o t e d ( P r i t c h e t t , 1979; Mader, 1973; Armson, 1973; Tamm, 1 9 6 4 ) ; 1) d i f f i c u l t y i n s e c u r i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e i n f o r e s t a r e a s due t o t h e s p a t i a l v a r i a b i l i t y o f f o r e s t s o i l s , 2) u n c e r t a i n t y as t o what s o i l h o r i z o n t o s a m p l e , 3) u n c e r t a i n t y a s t o what n u t r i e n t f o r m o r f r a c t i o n t o e x t r a c t , and 4) n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y may be s o i n t e r t w i n e d w i t h o t h e r s i t e f a c t o r s t h a t t h e s e must be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t a t t h e same t i m e , f o r e x a m p l e , m o i s t u r e s t a t u s a n d a e r a t i o n f o r n i t r o g e n m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . C o u r t i n et_ ajL. ( 1 9 8 5 ) l i s t s e v e r a l a u t h o r s who have p u t f o r w a r d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e s b a s e d on a c o m b i n a t i o n o f f o r e s t f l o o r , m i n e r a l s o i l , p h y s i o g r a p h y , p a r e n t m a t e r i a l , and v e g e t a t i o n f e a t u r e s . S e v e r a l e x a m p l e s a r e d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y b e l o w . The f o r e s t l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m d e v e l o p e d by H i l l s ( 1 9 5 2 , 1 9 6 1 , 1976) i n O n t a r i o i s b a s e d on a h o l i s t i c c o n c e p t o f s i t e . The s i t e i s d e f i n e d as t h e i n t e g r a t e d c o m p l e x o f l a n d 4 and f o r e s t f e a t u r e s w i t h i n a p r e s c r i b e d a r e a ( S p u r r and B a r n e s , 1 9 8 0 ) . P h y s i o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s were u s e d as t h e f r a m e w o r k f o r i n t e g r a t i n g and r a t i n g c l i m a t e , m o i s t u r e and n u t r i e n t s . The e l e v e n c l a s s e s o f n u t r i e n t r e g i m e were e s t i m a t e d i n a q u a l i t a t i v e s e n s e by c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p h y s i o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s , s o i l t e x t u r e , s o i l a e r a t i o n , s u r f i c i a l m a t e r i a l s , and t h e m i n e r a l o g y and w e a t h e r a b i l i t y o f p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s ( H i l l s , 1 9 7 6 ) . B a k u z i s ( 1 9 5 9 ) p r o p o s e d a s y s t e m o f s y n e c o l o g i c a l c o - o r d i n a t e s , r e p r e s e n t e d as a x e s w h i c h s u m m a r i z e m o i s t u r e , n u t r i e n t , h e a t and l i g h t r e g i m e s . P l u t h and Arneman ( 1 9 6 5 ) f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n s y n e c o l o g i c a l n u t r i e n t c o - o r d i n a t e s and t o t a l n i t r o g e n , a v a i l a b l e p h o s p h o r u s , e x c h a n g e a b l e p o t a s s i u m , and o r g a n i c m a t t e r c o n t e n t o f some m i n e r a l s o i l h o r i z o n s . T h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s were d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t ( e . g . , a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h a v a i l a b l e s o i l p h o s p h o r u s ) . M u l t i v a r i a t e t e c h n i q u e s were s u g g e s t e d t o be more u s e f u l f o r d e t e r m i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s and f o r e x p r e s s i n g i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( P l u t h and Arneman, 1 9 6 5 ) . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , K r a j i n a ( 1 9 6 9 ) a s s e s s e d SNR by u s i n g i n d i c a t o r p l a n t s and s e l e c t e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o p e r t i e s . K l i n k a e t a l . ( 1 9 8 4 a ) n o t e d t h a t K r a j i n a ( 1 9 6 9 ) c o n s i s t e n t l y a p p l i e d t h e same s c a l e r e l a t i v e t o a r e g i o n a l c l i m a t e . As a r e s u l t , a p a r t i c u l a r SNR c l a s s c o u l d r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t s o i l n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y i n a d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n a l c l i m a t e . W h i l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n v e g e t a t i o n and q u a n t i f i e d n u t r i e n t g r a d i e n t s were s t u d i e d by W a l i and K r a j i n a ( 1 9 7 3 ) , t h e n u t r i e n t g r a d i e n t was n o t d i v i d e d i n t o c l a s s e s . 5 S t a n e k ( 1 9 7 7 ) a t t e m p t e d t o s y n t h e s i z e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f SNR i n r e l a t i o n t o muskeg ( o r g a n i c s o i l s ) i n Canada. He c o n c l u d e d t h a t most w o r k e r s d e f i n e d o l i g o t r o p h i c s o i l s as h a v i n g low n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t , and r e l a t i v e l y low b i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y , g e n e r a l l y f o r m e d on b a s e - d e f i c i e n t p a r e n t r o c k s . S i t e s w i t h h i g h n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t and h i g h b i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y were d e f i n e d as e u t r o p h i c . However, he d i d n o t f i n d a p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n o f SNR c l a s s e s u s i n g q u a l i t a t i v e o r q u a n t i t a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . He n o t e d t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n n u t r i e n t s t a t u s ( e . g . c h a n g e s i n v e g e t a t i o n , humus f o r m , s i t e i n d e x ) r a t h e r t h a n d i f f e r e n c e s i n a n u t r i e n t r e l a t e d p r o p e r t y were t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u s e d f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . More r e c e n t l y , C o u r t i n e t a l . ( 1 9 8 5 ) h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o d e f i n e s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e c l a s s e s . The d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u s e d were pH(H20) and C/N r a t i o o f t h e humus f o r m ; and t o t a l s o i l N ( k g / h a ) a nd sum o f e x c h a n g e a b l e Ca, Mg and K ( k g / h a ) w i t h i n t h e m i n e r a l s o i l r o o t i n g z o n e . T h e s e d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were c h o s e n on t h e b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n t s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i d e n t i f i e d d u r i n g a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , a b i l i t y t o be i n f e r r e d f r o m s o i l m o r p h o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s and r e l a t i v e e a s e o f a n a l y t i c a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n . C l u s t e r and d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d s e v e r a l s o i l g r o u p s . V e g e t a t i o n - s o i l r e l a t i o n s h i p s were u s e d t o a s s i g n t h e s o i l g r o u p s i n t o f i v e n u t r i e n t r e g i m e c l a s s e s . 6 2.2 APPROACH TO SOIL NUTRIENT REGIME C L A S S I F I C A T I O N ADOPTED IN THIS STUDY The SNR i s a f u n c t i o n o f c l i m a t e , r e l i e f , s o i l p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s , o r g a n i s m s , and t i m e ( K l i n k a e t a l . , 1 9 8 4 a ) . Not a l l o f t h e s e f a c t o r s c o u l d be e x a m i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y b e c a u s e o f t h e l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e . A l l s t u d y s i t e s were t o be l o c a t e d w i t h i n one r e g i o n a l c l i m a t e . W i t h i n t h e c l i m a t i c r e g i o n , two p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g i e s w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n b a s e ( C a , Mg, K) s t a t u s were t o be i d e n t i f i e d . W i t h i n e a c h p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y , t h r e e m o i s t u r e r e g i m e s were t o be s a m p l e d . D o u g l a s - f i r w o u l d d o m i n a t e t h e t r e e l a y e r o f e a c h p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y - m o i s t u r e r e g i m e c o m b i n a t i o n . The j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e ab o v e s t u d y d e s i g n was as f o l l o w s . L o c a t i o n o f a l l s t u d y s i t e s w i t h i n one c l i m a t i c r e g i o n w o u l d r e d u c e c o m p l i c a t i o n s due t o c l i m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n s t u d y s i t e s . P a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y has an i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t on s o i l p r o p e r t i e s and n u t r i e n t r e s e r v e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Ca, Mg and K. By s a m p l i n g t h e w i d e s t p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n l i t h o l o g y , i t was assumed t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n n u t r i e n t r e g i m e w o u l d a l s o be p r e s e n t and i d e n t i f i a b l e . M o i s t u r e s t a t u s i s f r e q u e n t l y a c o n f o u n d i n g f a c t o r when d e t e r m i n i n g n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y . S a m p l i n g t h e same m o i s t u r e r e g i m e on t h e two d i f f e r e n t l i t h o l o g i e s w o u l d a l l o w p a i r e d c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h o u t t h e c o n f o u n d i n g o f m o i s t u r e e f f e c t s . The r a n g e o f m o i s t u r e c o n d i t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d w o u l d be l i m i t e d t o 7 t h o s e where no s e e p a g e w a t e r was p r e s e n t d u r i n g t h e g r o w i n g s e a s o n , a v o i d i n g t h e c o m p l i c a t i n g e f f e c t s o f m o i s t u r e and n u t r i e n t i n p u t s . D o u g l a s - f i r i s an e c o n o m i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t s p e c i e s f o u n d o v e r e x t e n s i v e a r e a s o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t , on a w i d e r a n g e o f m o i s t u r e and n u t r i e n t c o n d i t i o n s . U n i f o r m i t y i n t h e t r e e s t r a t a o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n w o u l d s i m p l i f y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n v e g e t a t i o n and s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e . U s i n g t h e methods o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s d e s c r i b e d by K l i n k a e_t a _ l . ( 1 9 8 4 a ) e a c h o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s were t o be c l a s s i f i e d f o r SNR and SMR i n t h e f i e l d . The d a t a c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h e f i e l d p o r t i o n o f t h e s t u d y w o u l d q u a n t i t a t i v e l y o r q u a l i t a t i v e l y d e s c r i b e t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l and v e g e t a t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s o f e a c h s t u d y s i t e . The methods o f s a m p l i n g and c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s w o u l d be t h o s e commonly u s e d by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s and o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t t o a l l o w e a s i e r t r a n s f e r o f i n f o r m a t i o n and u s e i n s u b s e q u e n t s t u d i e s . The s o i l p r o p e r t i e s t o be u s e d i n q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s w ere t h o s e commonly u s e d i n e v a l u a t i o n o f n u t r i e n t s t a t u s o f f o r e s t s o i l s i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t . P r o p e r t y v a r i a b i l i t y w o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d t o a i d i n e v a l u a t i o n o f e a c h p r o p e r t y f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p u r p o s e s . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e and r a n g e t e s t s w o u l d be u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o i l p r o p e r t i e s b e t w e e n s t u d y s i t e s g r o u p e d by p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g i e s , SMR o r SNR. M u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s were t o be u s e d t o e x p l o r e p o s s i b l e 8 i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w e e n s o i l p r o p e r t i e s and t o r e v e a l any u n s u s p e c t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h may e x i s t . C o m b i n a t i o n s o f s o i l p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e d b e t w e e n s t u d y s i t e s and g r o u p s o f s t u d y s i t e s were t o be i d e n t i f i e d . The c o n s i s t e n c y o f s i t e g r o u p i n g s were a l s o t o be e v a l u a t e d . R e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e s o i l p r o p e r t i e s , f l o r i s t i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n , f o l i a r n u t r i e n t s , and f o r e s t p r o d u c t i v i t y o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s were t o be d e t e r m i n e d t o e x a m i n e i f d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o i l p r o p e r t i e s were r e f l e c t e d i n v e g e t a t i o n p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s . I f p o s s i b l e , a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e s r e c o g n i z e d i n t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y was t o be p r o p o s e d . 9 3. METHODS 3.1 S I T E SELECTION AND DESCRIPTION G e o l o g i c a l maps were u s e d t o l o c a t e a r e a s o f g r a n i t i c ( l o w Ca and Mg, h i g h e r K) and v o l c a n i c ( h i g h e r Ca and Mg, l o w e r K) p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y . F i e l d i n s p e c t i o n s were u s e d t o l o c a t e v e r y d r y , d r y and f r e s h s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e s ( K l i n k a e_t a l . , 1984a) w i t h i n e a c h l i t h o l o g y . E a c h p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y - m o i s t u r e r e g i m e c o m b i n a t i o n was d o m i n a t e d ( 8 0 % o r more b a s a l a r e a ) by D o u g l a s - f i r i n t h e t r e e l a y e r . Age o f t r e e s i n s a m p l e s i t e s was b e t w e e n 30 and 70 y e a r s . W i t h i n e a c h D o u g l a s - f i r d o m i n a t e d s i t e w h i c h was as homogenous as p o s s i b l e i n v e g e t a t i o n , p h y s i o g r a p h y , and s o i l a g r o u p o f f o u r 20 m x 20 m s a m p l e p l o t s were s u b j e c t i v e l y c h o s e n . A t o t a l o f 24 p l o t s were s a m p l e d i n t h e s t u d y (2 l i t h o l o g i e s x 3 SMR's x 4 r e p l i c a t e s = 24 p l o t s ) . F o r e a c h p l o t a s i t e d e s c r i p t i o n f o r m was c o m p l e t e d . The f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n was r e c o r d e d : a s p e c t , s l o p e , e l e v a t i o n , s i t e p o s i t i o n ( m a c r o a nd meso) , s i t e s u r f a c e s h a p e , m i c r o t o p o g r a p h y , e x p o s u r e t y p e , s o i l d r a i n a g e , p e r v i o u s n e s s , b e d r o c k t y p e and s t r u c t u r e , c o a r s e f r a g m e n t l i t h o l o g y , p e r c e n t c o v e r o f d e c a y i n g wood, b e d r o c k , c o b b l e s and s t o n e s , m i n e r a l s o i l , o r g a n i c m a t t e r , a n d w a t e r . A l l p a r a m e t e r s were d e s c r i b e d a c c o r d i n g t o W a l m s l e y e t a l . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . The SMR and SNR f o r e a c h s a m p l e p l o t were a s s e s s e d u s i n g t h e methods d e s c r i b e d by K l i n k a e t a l . , ( 1 9 8 4 a ) . 10 3.2 VEGETATION SAMPLING M e t h o d s e m p l o y e d f o r t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f v e g e t a t i o n were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e u s e d by B r o o k e ejt a l . ( 1 9 7 0 ) , and K o j i m a and K r a j i n a ( 1 9 7 5 ) . V e g e t a t i o n a n a l y s i s i n c l u d e d t h e l i s t i n g o f a l l v a s c u l a r p l a n t s , b r y o p h y t e s and l i c h e n s g r o w i n g on t h e f o r e s t f l o o r . S p e c i e s g r o w i n g e x c l u s i v e l y as e p i p h y t e s , on d e c a y i n g wood a n d / o r on r o c k s were n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h i s l i s t . F o r e a c h s p e c i e s an e v a l u a t i o n o f s p e c i e s s i g n i f i c a n c e ( d e t e r m i n e d by a c o m b i n a t i o n o f a b u n d a n c e and d o m i n a n c e ) and v i g o r a c c o r d i n g t o v e g e t a t i o n s t r a t a was d e t e r m i n e d . T h e s e were l a t e r i d e n t i f i e d by D r . V . J . K r a j i n a ( P r o f e s s o r E m e r i t u s , D e p t . o f B o t a n y , U . B . C ) , Dr. K. K l i n k a ( A d j u n c t P r o f e s s o r , F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y , U.B.C.) and Mr. G. O t t o . N o m e n c l a t u r e o f v a s c u l a r p l a n t s f o l l o w e d ( w i t h some e x c e p t i o n s ) t h a t o f T a y l o r and M a c B r y d e ( 1 9 7 7 ) , w h i l e I r e l a n d e t a l . ( 1 9 8 0 ) was f o l l o w e d f o r m o s s e s , S t o t l e r and C r a n d a l l - S t o t l e r ( 1 9 7 7 ) f o r h e p a t i c s , and H a l e and C u l b e r s o n ( 1 9 7 0 ) f o r l i c h e n s . E x c e p t i o n s f o l l o w e d K r a j i n a ejt a _ l . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . A c o m p l e t e l i s t o f p l a n t s p e c i e s f o u n d on t h e s t u d y p l o t s i s g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x A. On e a c h s a m p l e p l o t t h e age a t b r e a s t h e i g h t ( 1 . 3 m) was d e t e r m i n e d f o r f o u r d o m i n a n t and two c o d o m i n a n t t r e e s by c o u n t i n g t h e g r o w t h r i n g s on c o r e s e x t r a c t e d by an i n c r e m e n t b o r e r , and t h e h e i g h t d e t e r m i n e d w i t h a c l i n o m e t e r . S i t e i n d e x ( S I ) o f D o u g l a s - f i r was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e e q u a t i o n s p r o v i d e d by H e g y i ejt a l . ( 1 9 7 9 ) a n d B r u c e ( 1 9 8 1 ) . A p r i s m sweep f r o m t h e c e n t r e o f e a c h p l o t was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e b a s a l a r e a o f t r e e s p e c i e s p r e s e n t . 11 On e a c h p l o t t h e c u r r e n t y e a r ' s f o l i a g e f r o m f i f t e e n d o m i n a n t o r c o d o m i n a n t D o u g l a s - f i r t r e e s was s a m p l e d b e t w e e n 23 S e p t e m b e r and 9 O c t o b e r 1983 f o l l o w i n g t h e g u i d e l i n e s g i v e n by B a l l a r d and C a r t e r ( 1 9 8 3 ) . F o l i a g e s a m p l e s were e i t h e r o v e n d r i e d a t 70°C f o r e i g h t h o u r s on t h e same day as c o l l e c t e d o r s t o r e d a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5°C u n t i l o v e n d r y i n g c o u l d b e g i n . F o l i a r s a m p l e s were n e v e r s t o r e d more t h a n 30 h o u r s b e f o r e o v e n d r y i n g b e g a n . 3.3 SOIL SAMPLING W i t h i n e a c h s a m p l e p l o t , f i f t e e n s a m p l i n g l o c a t i o n s f o r s o i l s were r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d u s i n g a g r i d s y s t e m and random number t a b l e . R o c k s , stumps and r o t t i n g l o g s were n o t c o n s i d e r e d s u i t a b l e s a m p l i n g l o c a t i o n s . I f an u n s u i t a b l e random s a m p l i n g l o c a t i o n was s e l e c t e d , t h e c l o s e s t s u i t a b l e s p o t was s a m p l e d o r a new s a m p l i n g l o c a t i o n was r a n d o m l y c h o s e n . A t e a c h o f t h e f i f t e e n s a m p l i n g l o c a t i o n s , a f o r e s t f l o o r s a m p l e was o b t a i n e d by c u t t i n g a r o u n d t h e edge o f a 25 cm x 30 cm t e m p l a t e w i t h a s h a r p k n i f e . The t o t a l f o r e s t f l o o r was removed f r o m t h e f o r e s t f l o o r s u r f a c e t o t h e m i n e r a l s o i l / f o r e s t f l o o r i n t e r f a c e . The d e p t h s o f t h e L, F and H h o r i z o n s ( i f p r e s e n t ) w e re r e c o r d e d as t h e mean o f t h e m i d p o i n t d e p t h s o f t h e f o u r f a c e s o f t h e e x c a v a t i o n c r e a t e d when t h e f o r e s t f l o o r s a m p l e was r e m o v e d . D e c a y i n g wood w h i c h a p p e a r e d u n a l t e r e d i n s t r u c t u r e t o t h e n a k e d e y e , undecomposed c o n e s , r o c k y m a t e r i a l and r o o t s g r e a t e r t h a n 2 mm i n d i a m e t e r were n o t 12 i n c l u d e d i n t h e sample. B o t h t h e humus form and e a c h sample h o r i z o n were t e n t a t i v e l y c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o K l i n k a e_t a l . ( 1 9 8 1 a ) . The sample was p l a c e d i n a p l a s t i c bag, s e a l e d , l a b e l l e d and t a k e n t o t h e l a b o r a t o r y t o b e g i n a i r d r y i n g on t h e same day as c o l l e c t i o n . At t h r e e o f t h e s a m p l i n g l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n e a c h p l o t , a s o i l p i t was dug down t o a d e p t h o f a t l e a s t 1.2 m u n l e s s p a r e n t m a t e r i a l o r a r e s t r i c t i n g l a y e r was e n c o u n t e r e d a t s h a l l o w e r d e p t h s . S o i l s were d e s c r i b e d and c l a s s i f i e d f o l l o w i n g t h e p r a c t i c e s and t e r m i n o l o g y o f t h e Canada S o i l S u r v e y Committee (CSSC, 1978). Subsamples f r o m s o i l h o r i z o n s were t a k e n f r o m t h e d e s c r i b e d s o i l p i t s f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f e x t r a c t a b l e Fe and A l , as w e l l as a i r - d r y c o l o r . M a t e r i a l e x c a v a t e d f r o m t h e d e s c r i b e d s o i l p i t s was s i e v e d t h r o u g h a 11 mm x 11 mm mesh and weighed i n t h e f i e l d u s i n g a s p r i n g b a l a n c e . C o a r s e f r a g m e n t s were c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e s o i l p i t s f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f l i t h o l o g y . At t h e r e m a i n i n g 12 s a m p l i n g l o c a t i o n s , s m a l l p i t s were dug t o a s u f f i c i e n t d e p t h t o a l l o w c o l l e c t i o n o f a s o i l sample from t h e upper 50 cm o f t h e m i n e r a l s o i l , o r l e s s i f a r e s t r i c t i n g l a y e r was e n c o u n t e r e d . From e a c h o f t h e 15 s a m p l i n g l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n e a c h sample p l o t , a c o m p o s i t e sample o f m i n e r a l s o i l f r o m t h e 0 t o 50 cm d e p t h ( o r l e s s ) was o b t a i n e d f o r a n a l y s i s . A l l samples were s e a l e d i n p l a s t i c b a g s , l a b e l l e d and t a k e n t o t h e l a b o r a t o r y f o r a i r d r y i n g on t h e same day as c o l l e c t i o n . Near t h r e e f o r e s t f l o o r s a m p l i n g l o c a t i o n s i n e a c h p l o t , b u l k d e n s i t y o f f o r e s t f l o o r m a t e r i a l s was d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g t h e 13 g l a s s b e a d d i s p l a c e m e n t method d e s c r i b e d by N u s z d o r f e r ( 1 9 8 1 ) . N e a r t h e t h r e e d e s c r i b e d s o i l p i t s a m p l i n g l o c a t i o n s , s o i l b u l k d e n s i t i e s were d e t e r m i n e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e 0 t o 25 cm and 25 t o 50 cm d e p t h s . A l l m a t e r i a l e x c a v a t e d f r o m a h o l e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1.5 L i n volume was r e t a i n e d . The h o l e was t h e n l i n e d w i t h a t h i n p l a s t i c bag and w a t e r p o u r e d i n t o t h e bag u n t i l t h e h o r i z o n t a l s u r f a c e l e v e l was r e a c h e d . The p l a s t i c bag was t h e n removed f r o m t h e h o l e , i n s p e c t e d f o r l e a k s , and t h e v o l u m e o f w a t e r c o n t a i n e d was d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g a g r a d u a t e d c y l i n d e r . Volume d e t e r m i n a t i o n s were r e p e a t e d i f t h e p l a s t i c b ags l e a k e d . A l l b u l k d e n s i t y s a m p l e s began a i r d r y i n g i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y t h e same day as c o l l e c t i o n . A l l s o i l and f o r e s t f l o o r s a m p l e s were c o l l e c t e d b e t w e e n 1 May 1983 and 1 A u g u s t 1 983. 3.4 SOIL MOISTURE ANALYSIS W i t h i n e a c h s t u d y s i t e t h r e e o r s i x s a m p l i n g l o c a t i o n s w ere e s t a b l i s h e d f o r s o i l m o i s t u r e d e t e r m i n a t i o n u s i n g a n e u t r o n p r o b e . T h e s e were m o n i t o r e d b e t w e e n 2 J u n e and 18 November 1983 w i t h a C a m p b e l l P a c i f i c M o d e l 503 n e u t r o n p r o b e . I n a d d i t i o n , s i x s a m p l i n g l o c a t i o n s i n two s i t e s p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d and s t u d i e d by G i l e s ( 1 9 8 3 ) w ere m o n i t o r e d d u r i n g t h e same t i m e p e r i o d f o r r e f e r e n c e p u r p o s e s . A c c e s s t u b i n g f o r t h e n e u t r o n p r o b e s a m p l i n g l o c a t i o n s was 5.08 cm o u t s i d e d i a m e t e r x 0.123 cm w a l l t h i c k n e s s a l u m i n u m t u b i n g . The b o t t o m o f t h e t u b e was c l o s e d w i t h a s c h e d u l e 14 40 PVC p l u g , s e a l e d i n p l a c e w i t h s i l i c o n e s e a l a n t . The same m a t e r i a l s were u s e d by G i l e s ( 1 9 8 3 ) who n o t e d t h a t t h i s method o f c l o s i n g t h e b o t t o m o f t h e t u b e showed no s i g n i f i c a n t l e a k a g e a f t e r two y e a r s . I n f i v e o f t h e s i x s i t e s o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e a c c e s s t u b e s were i n s t a l l e d by m a k i n g a h o l e by d r i v i n g a 5-cm o u t s i d e -d i a m e t e r , h e a v y - w a l l , open e n d e d p i p e i n t o t h e g r o u n d , w i t h s e v e r a l w i t h d r a w a l s t o remove s o i l i n s i d e t h e p i p e . F o r one s t u d y s i t e ( 4 ) and t h e two r e f e r e n c e s i t e s t h e e x i s t i n g n e u t r o n p r o b e s a m p l e l o c a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d by . G i l e s ( 1 9 8 3 ) were u t i l i z e d . T h e s e a c c e s s t u b e s were i n s t a l l e d u s i n g a 5 cm d i a m e t e r b u c k e t - t y p e a u g e r t o make a h o l e as c l o s e t o t h e a c c e s s t u b e d i a m e t e r as p o s s i b l e ( G i l e s 1 9 8 3 ) . A f t e r i n s t a l l i n g t h e a c c e s s t u b e s by e i t h e r method, any s p a c e s a r o u n d t h e t u b e were b a c k f i l l e d w i t h f i n e s o i l w h i c h was l i g h t l y c o m p a c t e d . To e n a b l e t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f q u a l i t a t i v e l y d e t e r m i n e d SMR c l a s s e s , a s i m p l e w a t e r b a l a n c e a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f G i l e s ejt a _ l . ( 1 9 8 5 ) was u t i l i z e d . S o i l w a t e r c o n t e n t was m e a s u r e d a t 15 cm i n t e r v a l s t o t h e 75 cm d e p t h and 25 cm d e p t h i n t e r v a l s t h e r e a f t e r u n t i l a r e s t r i c t i n g l a y e r o r t h e r o o t i n g d e p t h had been r e a c h e d . On s i t e s where t h e s o i l s had a h i g h c o a r s e f r a g m e n t c o n t e n t i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e o b s t r u c t i o n was b e d r o c k , b a s a l t i l l o r a l a r g e s t o n e . W a t e r c o n t e n t o f t h e f o r e s t f l o o r was n o t d e t e r m i n e d d u r i n g t h e s t u d y . 15 D a t a f o r d a i l y s o l a r i r r a d i a n c e (Kd) measured as b r i g h t s u n s h i n e h o u r s , d a i l y maximum and minimum a i r t e m p e r a t u r e s , and d a i l y p r e c i p i t a t i o n (P) were u s e d from t h e Cowichan Lake R e s e a r c h S t a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary o f t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s u s e d i n t h i s p r o c e d u r e ( f r o m G i l e s , 1983; and G i l e s e_t a l . , 1 9 8 5 ) : Kd = K e t (0.47 n/N + 0.295) (1) where Kd i s t h e a v e r a g e d a i l y s o l a r i r r a d i a n c e ( m e g a j o u l e s m - 2 d a y - 1 ) ' K e t i s t h e i n c o m i n g e x t r a - t e r r e s t r i a l r a d i a t i o n ( m e g a j o u l e s m - 2 d a y - 1 ) , n i s t h e d a i l y a v e r a g e b r i g h t s u n s h i n e h o u r s , and N i s t h e maximum a v e r a g e d a i l y s u n s h i n e h o u r s . Rn = (1-a) Kd + L* (2) where Rn i s d a y t i m e n e t r a d i a t i o n f l u x d e n s i t y ( m e g a j o u l e s m - 2 d a y - 1 ) , a i s t h e canopy a l b e d o (assumed t o be 0.12, J a r v i s e_t a l _ . , 1976), Kd i s t h e a v e r a g e d a i l y s o l a r i r r a d i a n c e c o r r e c t e d f o r s l o p e and a s p e c t a t e a c h s i t e ( a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t a b l e s o f Hay, 1979) ( m e g a j o u l e s m - 2 d a y - 1 ) . L * ± s d a y t i m e n e t longwave i r r a d i a n c e ( m e g a j o u l e s m - 2 d a y - 1 ) and c a l c u l a t e d as f o l l o w s L* = [(107 - Ta) ( 0 . 8 6 4 ) ] [0.2 + 0.8 n/N] (3) where Ta i s t h e a v e r a g e d a i l y t e m p e r a t u r e ( d e g r e e C e l s i u s ) . E max = © s / [ l ( s + Y ) ] R n (4) where E max i s t h e e n e r g y l i m i t e d t r a n s p i r a t i o n r a t e , @ i s t h e e v a p o t r a n s p i r a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t (assumed t o be 0.8, S p i t t l e h o u s e and B l a c k , 1981), s i s t h e s l o p e o f t h e s a t u r a t i o n v a p o r p r e s s u r e c u r v e ( k i l o p a s c a l s p e r d e g r e e C e l s i u s ) , Y t h e 16 p s y c h r o m e t r i c c o n s t a n t a t 100 kPa ( k i l o p a s c a l s p e r d e g r e e C e l s i u s ) , and 1 t h e l a t e n t h e a t o f v a p o r i z a t i o n o f wa t e r ( m e g a j o u l e s p e r k g ) , e a c h e v a l u a t e d a t t h e a v e r a g e a i r t e m p e r a t u r e . sum Emax = Emax f o r e a c h day i n t h e measurement p e r i o d (mm) (5) P = t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r t h e measurement p e r i o d (mm) (6) AWSC = s o i l d e p t h x ( t h e t a max - t h e t a min) (mm) (7) where AWSC i s t h e a v a i l a b l e s o i l w a t e r s t o r a g e c a p a c i t y (mm). S o i l d e p t h i s a v e r a g e r o o t i n g d e p t h o b s e r v e d i n s o i l p i t s i n t h e s t u d y s i t e , p l u s 10% o f t h e r o o t i n g d e p t h . The a d d i t i o n o f 10% t o t h e r o o t i n g d e p t h a t t e m p t s t o a c c o u n t f o r m o i s t u r e w h i c h moves i n t o t h e r o o t i n g zone by c a p i l l a r y r i s e f r o m lower s o i l d e p t h s (D. G i l e s , p e r s . comm.). I f r o o t i n g d e p t h p l u s 10% would be i n a c c u r a t e due t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f a r e s t r i c t i n g l a y e r , d e p t h t o t h e r e s t r i c t i n g l a y e r was u s e d . T h e t a max i s t h e v o l u m e t r i c s o i l w a t e r c o n t e n t maximum measured, and t h e t a min i s c a l c u l a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a ( C l a p p and H o r n b e r g e r , 1978): p s i d ( t h e t a w ) b p s i w ( t h e t a d) where p s i d i s s o i l w a t e r p o t e n t i a l a t -1500 kPa, p s i w i s s o i l w a t e r p o t e n t i a l a t -10 kPa ( f i e l d c a p a c i t y ) , t h e t a w i s v o l u m e t r i c s o i l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t a t -10 kPa ( t h e t a max i n t h i s s t u d y ) , t h e t a d i s s o i l w a t e r p o t e n t i a l a t -1500 kPa, and b i s an e x p o n e n t . The v a l u e f o r b was d e t e r m i n e d t o be 3.4 f o r sandy loams ( s i t e s 1 and 2) and 4.2 f o r loams ( s i t e s 3, 4, 5, 6 ) . The e m p i r i c a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f b i s b a s e d on d a t a f r o m G i l e s (1983) and C l a p p and H o r n b e r g e r ( 1 9 7 8 ) . 17 The v a l u e o f t h e d e f i c i t f o r a g i v e n measurement p e r i o d i s e q u a l t o E max m i n u s t h e sum o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n and t h e r e m a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e s o i l w a t e r s t o r a g e f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s measurement p e r i o d . T h i s d e f i c i t was c o m p u t e d f o r J u n e , J u l y and A u g u s t . I t was assumed t h a t t h e e n t i r e AWSC was a v a i l a b l e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f J u n e . P o s s i b l e s o u r c e s o f e r r o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g s o i l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t w i t h t h e n e u t r o n p r o b e a r e d i s c u s s e d by McGowan and W i l l i a m s ( 1 9 8 0 ) , G r e a c e n e_t a l . ( 1 9 8 1 ) , P r e b b l e e t a l . ( 1 9 8 1 ) , W i l l i a m s , and S i n c l a i r ( 1 9 8 1 ) , and G i l e s ( 1 9 8 3 ) . S i m i l a r t e c h n i q u e s t o t h o s e o f G i l e s ( 1 9 8 3 ) w ere u s e d t o r e d u c e random c o u n t e r r o r s , r e l o c a t i o n e r r o r s , and damage t o s u r f a c e s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n . The m a j o r s o u r c e s o f p o t e n t i a l e r r o r most l i k e l y t o a p p l y t o t h i s s t u d y w o u l d be s o i l v a r i a b i l i t y , and s o i l d i s t u r b a n c e s f r o m c r e a t i n g n e u t r o n p r o b e s a m p l i n g s i t e s . S o i l d i s t u r b a n c e may have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on p r o b e c a l i b r a t i o n . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 70 a c c e s s t u b e s w o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o a c h i e v e a 9 5 % c o n f i d e n c e ' l e v e l w i t h a 10% a l l o w a b l e e r r o r i n a 20 m x 20 m s a m p l e p l o t ( G i l e s , 1 9 8 3 ) . The hammering o f a s t e e l t u b e i n t o t h e s o i l t o c r e a t e t h e n e u t r o n p r o b e s a m p l i n g s i t e s may ha v e b l o c k e d s m a l l s o i l p o r e s , c r e a t e d a i r gaps o r c a u s e d s o i l t o s l o u g h . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e d i s t u r b a n c e s may be p r e f e r e n t i a l w a t e r f l o w a r o u n d t h e n e u t r o n p r o b e s a m p l i n g s i t e a n d u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r e a d i n g s . Maximum v o l u m e t r i c s o i l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t b a s e d on n e u t r o n p r o b e r e a d i n g s was d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g a c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m w r i t t e n 18 by D. S p i t t l e h o u s e ( R e s e a r c h B r a n c h , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s , V i c t o r i a ) . The program i s a v a i l a b l e on t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o m p u t i n g s y s t e m under t h e name NEUTSITE. 3.5 LABORATORY ANALYSIS B u l k d e n s i t y samples were s i e v e d i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y and c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s >2 mm i n d i a m e t e r were w e i g h e d . A s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y v a l u e o f 2650 kg/m3 was used t o c o n v e r t c o a r s e f r a g m e n t w e i g h t t o volume. F o r e s t f l o o r b u l k d e n s i t y samples were oven d r i e d a t 70°C f o r 24 h o u r s and weighed. Roots were removed f r o m m i n e r a l s o i l b u l k d e n s i t y samples and t h e i r volume d e t e r m i n e d by w a t e r d i s p l a c e m e n t i n a g r a d u a t e d c y l i n d e r . S o i l m a t e r i a l <2 mm was oven d r i e d a t 105°C f o r 24 h o u r s and we i g h e d . C o a r s e f r a g m e n t f r e e b u l k d e n s i t y was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e f o r m u l a g i v e n i n N u s z d o r f e r ( 1 9 8 1 ) . When a i r - d r i e d , f o r e s t f l o o r samples were g r o u n d w i t h a W a r i n g b l e n d e r , t h e n s t o r e d i n a i r - t i g h t p l a s t i c c o n t a i n e r s u n t i l c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s was c o m p l e t e . A f t e r a i r - d r y i n g , a l l m i n e r a l s o i l s a mples were c r u s h e d w i t h a wooden r o l l e r , p a s s e d t h r o u g h a 2 mm s i e v e t o remove t h e c o a r s e f r a c t i o n and s t o r e d i n a i r - t i g h t p l a s t i c c o n t a i n e r s u n t i l c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s was c o m p l e t e . F o l i a r s amples were o v e n - d r i e d f o r 8 h o u r s a t 70°C, t h e n g r o u n d f i n e l y i n a Braun model KSM2 c o f f e e g r i n d e r . A subsample o f t h e g r o u n d f o l i a r sample was t h e n o v e n - d r i e d f o r 4 h o u r s a t 70°C and k e p t i n a d e s i c a t o r u n t i l c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s was c o m p l e t e . 19 To a l l o w an a s s e s s m e n t o f p r o p e r t y v a r i a b i l i t y as w e l l as a mean v a l u e f o r e a c h p l o t , t h e f o l l o w i n g c o m p o s i t i n g p r o c e d u r e was u s e d f o r f o r e s t f l o o r and m i n e r a l s o i l s a m p l e s . On one o f t h e f o u r p l o t s w i t h i n a s i t e , e a c h s a m p l e was h a l v e d and one h a l f a n a l y z e d i n d i v i d u a l l y . The p l o t s w i t h i n s i t e s c h o s e n f o r v a r i a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s were s e l e c t e d by t h e p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f h a v i n g s u f f i c i e n t f o r e s t f l o o r and m i n e r a l s o i l s a m p l e m a t e r i a l t o a l l o w a n a l y s i s o f a l l c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . I n t h e c a s e o f f o r e s t f l o o r s a m p l e s f r o m s i t e 6, t h i s was n o t p o s s i b l e and l e s s t h a n 15 s a m p l e s were a v a i l a b l e f o r some c h e m i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y d e t e r m i n a t i o n s ( A p p e n d i x H ) . On a l l f o u r r e p l i c a t e p l o t s w i t h i n a s i t e , t h e f i f t e e n s a m p l e s t a k e n w i t h i n a p l o t were c o m p o s i t e d i n g r o u p s o f f i v e s a m p l e s t o make a t o t a l o f t h r e e c o m p o s i t e s a m p l e s p e r p l o t . F o l i a g e s a m p l e s f r o m a l l f i f t e e n t r e e s s a m p l e d p e r p l o t were c o m p o s i t e d i n t h e f i e l d . H y g r o s c o p i c m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t o f t h e . a i r - d r i e d f o r e s t f l o o r a n d m i n e r a l s o i l s a m p l e s was d e t e r m i n e d by o v e n - d r y i n g an a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 g s a m p l e w e i g h e d t o t h e n e a r e s t .001 g o v e r n i g h t a t 105°C, c o o l i n g i n a d e s i c a t o r and w e i g h i n g t o d e t e r m i n e m o i s t u r e l o s s as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e a i r - d r y w e i g h t . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was u s e d t o c o r r e c t a l l o t h e r p r o p e r t y v a l u e s t o an o v e n - d r y b a s i s . V a l u e s f o r f o r e s t f l o o r pH u s i n g 4.0 g s u b s a m p l e s were m e a s u r e d i n a 1:2 o r g a n i c m a t t e r : d i s t i l i e d w a t e r s u s p e n s i o n by u s e o f a R a d i o m e t e r Copenhagen PHM 29b s t a n d a r d pH m e t e r . M i n e r a l s o i l pH v a l u e s were m e a s u r e d u s i n g 4.0 g s u b s a m p l e s i n 20 a 1:2 s o i l : d i s t i l l e d w a t e r s u s p e n s i o n , and i n a 1:8 s o i l : 0 . 0 1 m o l / L C a C l 2 s u s p e n s i o n w i t h t h e use o f t h e same pH m e t e r . T o t a l c a r b o n (TC) was e s t i m a t e d by use o f a L e c o I n d u c t i o n F u r n a c e and C a n a l y s e r M o d e l No. 521 ( L a b o r a t o r y Equipment C o r p o r a t i o n , S t . J o s e p h s , M i c h i g a n ) t o combust a 0.5 g sub s a m p l e o f m i n e r a l s o i l and a 0.05 g f o r e s t f l o o r s ubsample (Bremner and T a b a t a b a i , 1 9 71). Due t o t h e s m a l l sample s i z e f o r f o r e s t f l o o r m a t e r i a l , a l l f o r e s t f l o o r s amples were done i n d u p l i c a t e , w i t h t h e r e c o r d e d C v a l u e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e mean o f two s a m p l e s . A s c o o p o f o v e n - f i r e d q u a r t z sand was added t o f o r e s t f l o o r samples t o s l o w t h e r a t e o f c o m b u s t i o n ( Q u e s n e l 1 9 8 0). M i n e r a l i z e a b l e n i t r o g e n (minN) was d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g an a n a e r o b i c p r o c e d u r e m o d i f i e d f r o m t h a t o f Powers ( 1 9 8 0 ) . One gram o f a i r - d r i e d m i n e r a l s o i l o r f o r e s t f l o o r m a t e r i a l was combined w i t h 12.5 mL d i s t i l l e d w a t e r i n a 15 x 120 mm g l a s s t e s t tube and s e a l e d w i t h a r u b b e r s t o p p e r . The t e s t t u b e was shaken t o s u f f i c i e n t l y wet t h e sample and t h e n i n c u b a t e d a t 30°C f o r 14 d a y s . A f t e r i n c u b a t i o n t h e sample was sh a k e n and p o u r e d i n t o a p l a s t i c 60 mL screw cap c o n t a i n e r . The t e s t tube was t h e n r i n s e d w i t h 12.5 mL o f 2 m o l / L KC1 and t h e c o n t e n t s added t o t h e 60 mL c o n t a i n e r ( f i n a l s o l u t i o n was 25 mL 1 mol/ L KC1). A f t e r s h a k i n g f o r two h o u r s t h e sample was f i l t e r e d t h r o u g h a Whatman #41 f i l t e r . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f NH 4-N was d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g a T e c h n i c o n A u t o a n a l y z e r I I (Anonymous, 1 9 7 4 ) . The method f o r N d e t e r m i n a t i o n i s b a s e d on t h e B e r t h e l o t ( P h e n o l - h y p o c h l o r i t e ) r e a c t i o n f o r NH 4. A l l m i n e r a l i z e a b l e N 21 (min-N) i n c u b a t i o n s were done i n d u p l i c a t e w i t h r e c o r d e d min-N v a l u e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e mean o f two s a m p l e s . C a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y (CEC) and e x c h a n g e a b l e c a l c i u m ( e x C a ) , e x c h a n g e a b l e magnesium (exMg), e x c h a n g e a b l e p o t a s s i u m ( e x K ) , and e x c h a n g e a b l e manganese (exMn) f o r f o r e s t f l o o r and m i n e r a l s o i l s amples were d e t e r m i n e d by d i s p l a c e m e n t w i t h 1.0 mol/L N a C l b a s e d on t h e method o f C l a r k ( 1 9 6 5 ) . A 1:1 i s o p r o p y l a l c o h o l : d i s t i l i e d w a t e r wash i n s t e a d o f a s t r i c t l y i s o p r o p y l a l c o h o l wash was u s e d d u r i n g t h e c a t i o n e x c h a n g e c a p a c i t y d e t e r m i n a t i o n . A s t r i c t l y i s o p r o p y l a l c o h o l s o l u t i o n d i d n o t wash a l l Na f r o m f i l t e r p a p e r o r samples o f s i l t s i z e q u a r t z . E x c h a n g e a b l e Ca, Mg, K, Mn and Na ( f o r CEC) were measured by a t o m i c a b s o r p t i o n s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t r y ( P r i c e , 1978) w i t h an a c e t y l e n e / a i r f l a m e . T o t a l n i t r o g e n (TN) f o r m i n e r a l s o i l s amples was d e t e r m i n e d by d i g e s t i n g a 4.0 g sample w i t h 15 mL o f c o n c e n t r a t e d H2SO4 a t 420°C f o r 45 m i n u t e s ( L a v k u l i c h , 1 9 7 8). N was d e t e r m i n e d c o l o r i m e t r i c a l l y by use o f t h e T e c h n i c o n A u t o a n a l y z e r I I (Anonymous, 1 9 7 4 ) . The method f o r t o t a l N i s b a s e d on t h e B e r t h e l o t ( p h e n o l - h y p o c h l o r i t e ) r e a c t i o n f o r NH4-N. E x t r a c t a b l e p h o s p h o r u s (exP) f o r a 2.0 g sample o f m i n e r a l s o i l was d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g a m o d i f i e d B r a y PI (0.03 mol NH 4F and 0.025 m o l HC1 p e r L) method ( L a v k u l i c h , 1 9 7 8 ) . Measurement o f P i n t h e e x t r a c t i n g s o l u t i o n was by a s c o r b i c a c i d r e d u c t i o n o f a p h o s p h o - m o l y b d a t e complex as d e s c r i b e d f o r s o i l e x t r a c t s by Watanabe and O l s e n ( 1 9 6 5 ) . C o l o r i n t e n s i t y was r e a d on a G i l f o r d S t a s e r I I a t 700 nm. 22 E x t r a c t a b l e s u l p h a t e S ( S 0 4 ) i n 10 g samples o f m i n e r a l s o i l was d e t e r m i n e d by ammonium a c e t a t e e x t r a c t i o n ( B a r d s l e y and L a n c a s t e r , 1 965). S u l p h a t e S i n t h e e x t r a c t i n g s o l u t i o n was d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g t u r b i d e m e t r y r e a d on a Ba u s c h and Lomb S p e c t r o n i c 20 s e t a t 420 nm. Sodium p y r o p h o s p h a t e e x t r a c t a b l e Fe and A l f o r s o i l h o r i z o n samples were d e t e r m i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r o c e d u r e d e s c r i b e d by L a v k u l i c h ( 1 9 7 8 ) . F o r f o r e s t f l o o r s amples o f 1.0 g, t o t a l n i t r o g e n ( T N ) , t o t a l p h o s p h o r u s ( T P ) , t o t a l c a l c i u m ( T C a ) , t o t a l magnesium (TMg), t o t a l p o t a s s i u m ( T K ) , and t o t a l manganese (TMn) were d e t e r m i n e d by a m o d i f i e d P a r k i n s o n and A l l e n (1975) p r o c e d u r e d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l by C a r t e r ( 1 9 8 3 ) . T o t a l N and P were d e t e r m i n e d c o l o r i m e t r i c a l l y w i t h t h e T e c h n i c o n A u t o a n a l y z e r I I . The method f o r t o t a l N i s b a s e d on t h e B e r t h e l o t ( p h e n o l -h y p o c h l o r i t e ) r e a c t i o n f o r NH 4-N. The method f o r P i s b a s e d on t h e r e d u c t i o n o f t h e ammonium-molybdophosphate complex by a s c o r b i c a c i d (Watanabe and O l s e n , 1965). T o t a l Ca, Mg, K and Mn were measured by use o f a t o m i c a b s o r p t i o n s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t r y ( P r i c e , 1978) w i t h an a c e t y l e n e / a i r f l a m e . T o t a l s u l p h u r (TS) f o r f o r e s t f l o o r s amples and f o l i a r s a mples was d e t e r m i n e d by t h e use o f a F i s h e r S u l f u r A n a l y z e r M o d e l 475 u s i n g t h e p r o c e d u r e d e s c r i b e d by Lowe and G u t h r i e ( 1 9 8 4 ) . F o l i a r s amples were a n a l y z e d f o r N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, A l and Mn by t h e same p r o c e d u r e u s e d f o r f o r e s t f l o o r s a m p l e s . T o t a l K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn were d e t e r m i n e d w i t h a t o m i c a b s o r p t i o n s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t r y w i t h an a c e t y l e n e / a i r f l a m e , 23 e x c e p t f o r A l d e t e r m i n a t i o n where a n i t r o u s o x i d e f l a m e was u s e d . F o l i a r ' a c t i v e 1 Fe (AFe) was d e t e r m i n e d by a d d i n g 10 m l o f 1 m o l / L HC1 t o a 0 . 2 0 g f o l i a r sample i n a 60 mL p l a s t i c b o t t l e and s h a k i n g t h e sample a t slow s p e e d and room t e m p e r a t u r e f o r 24 h o u r s . Samples were f i l t e r e d t h r o u g h Whatman #41 f i l t e r p a p e r . Fe c o n t e n t i n t h e f i l t r a t e was d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g a t o m i c a b s o r p t i o n s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t r y w i t h an a c e t y l e n e / a i r f l a m e . T h i s method i s b a s e d on t h o s e o f Oserkowsky (1933) and Zech ( 1 9 7 0 ) . F o l i a r Cu and Zn were d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g a n i t r i c a c i d d i g e s t p r o c e d u r e . Samples o f 0.7 g were d i g e s t e d w i t h 10 mL o f c o n c e n t r a t e d HNO3 a t 40°C f o r one hour and t h e n a t 140°C f o r two h o u r s . T o t a l Cu and Zn v a l u e s were d e t e r m i n e d on t h e a t o m i c a b s o r p t i o n s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t e r w i t h an a c e t y l e n e / a i r f l a m e . F o l i a r B was d e t e r m i n e d by d r y a s h i n g a 0.50 g sample i n a m u f f l e f u r n a c e a t 600°C f o r one h o u r . Ash c o n t e n t s were w e t t e d w i t h d e m i n e r a l i z e d w a t e r and 10 mL o f 0.36 m o l / L H2SO4, l e t s t a n d one hour and f i l t e r e d t h r o u g h Whatman #41 f i l t e r p a p e r . D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e B c o n t e n t o f t h e f i l t r a t e was done u s i n g t h e a z o m e t h i n e - H method s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f Wolf ( 1 9 7 4 ) . E x c e p t where o t h e r w i s e n o t e d , a l l a n a l y s e s f o r f o r e s t f l o o r and m i n e r a l s o i l s a m p l e s were done o n l y o n c e . Some r e p l i c a t i o n was p e r f o r m e d t o c h e c k on t h e p r e c i s i o n o f r e s u l t s , and where i n d i v i d u a l s amples had v a l u e s w h i c h v a r i e d w i d e l y f r o m v a l u e s o f s i m i l a r s a m p l e s . T h i s a p p r o a c h was u t i l i z e d t o r e d u c e t h e t i m e and e x p e n s e o f a n a l y z i n g s u c h a l a r g e number o f 24 samples i n d u p l i c a t e o r t r i p l i c a t e . A l l f o l i a r a n a l y s e s were done i n d u p l i c a t e and t h e v a l u e s r e p o r t e d r e p r e s e n t t h e mean o f two s a m p l e s . N u t r i e n t d a t a were e x p r e s s e d as c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and on an a r e a l ( k g / ha) b a s i s . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s were c o n d u c t e d w i t h d a t a e x p r e s s e d on an a r e a l b a s i s . E x p r e s s i o n o f n u t r i e n t d a t a on a kg/ha b a s i s p e r m i t s t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f s o i l c h e m i c a l d a t a w i t h s o i l p h y s i c a l d a t a ( L e w i s , 1976) t o o b t a i n a b e t t e r e s t i m a t e o f t h e n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t o f t h e s o i l . The f o r m u l a s u s e d f o r c o n v e r i s o n o f c h e m i c a l d a t a t o kg/ha a r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x G. The b u l k d e n s i t y v a l u e s u s e d f o r c o n v e r s i o n a r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x E. The c o a r s e f r a g m e n t f r e e b u l k d e n s i t y v a l u e s u s e d f o r m i n e r a l s o i l and f o r e s t f l o o r s amples were t h e means o f t h e t h r e e b u l k d e n s i t y samples t a k e n w i t h i n e a c h p l o t . The L h o r i z o n sampled as f o r e s t f l o o r i n s i t e 6 was t o o t h i n t o be measured. A b u l k d e n s i t y v a l u e o f 100 kg/m 3 was u s e d f o r t h i s s t a n d , b a s e d on t h e a v e r a g e f o r e s t f l o o r b u l k d e n s i t i e s m easured i n o t h e r s t u d y s i t e s . 3.6 DATA SUMMARY AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 3.6.1 V e g e t a t i o n B e c a u s e D o u g l a s - f i r d o m i n a t e d t h e t r e e s t r a t a o f a l l s t u d y s i t e s i t was d e c i d e d t o use o n l y s p e c i e s p r e s e n t i n t h e s h r u b , h e r b and moss s t r a t a f o r v e g e t a t i o n a n a l y s i s . As w e l l , s p e c i e s w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n o n l y one p l o t were d e l e t e d f r o m t h e v e g e t a t i o n d a t a s e t . Removal o f s p e c i e s w h i c h o c c u r i n 5% o r 25 less of the sample p l o t s from a vegetation data set g e n e r a l l y improves the i n t e r p r e t a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s without a s i g n i f i c a n t loss i n information (Gauch, 1982). Tabular a n a l y s i s and i n d i c a t o r species a n a l y s i s (EISG) of the e d i t e d data set were conducted using VTAB (Emanuel, 1984a). M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of vegetation was conducted using the p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s (PCA) subroutine i n the MIDAS s t a t i s t i c a l package (Fox and Guire, 1976); r e c i p r o c a l averaging (RA) using the ORDIFLEX (Release B) program (Gauch, 1977); and detrended correspondence a n a l y s i s (DCA) using the DECORANA program of H i l l (1979). 3.6.2 F o l i a r N u t r i e n t A n a l y s i s A n a l y s i s of f o l i a r n u t r i e n t status f o r the study stands was performed with the FNA program w r i t t e n by J . Emanuel (1984b) which i s based on the research and programs of Dr. T.M. B a l l a r d (Department of S o i l Science, and Faculty of F o r e s t r y , U.B.C). The program i s a v a i l a b l e on the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia computing system as F203:FNA. 3.6.3 S o i l P r o p e r t i e s S o i l p r o p e r t i e s were analyzed to determine the number of samples necessary to obtain the mean value of a property with a s p e c i f i e d allowable e r r o r and confidence l e v e l . The c a l c u l a t i o n s were performed by use of an equation presented i n 26 H u s c h e t a l . ( 1 9 7 2 ) . t 2 ( n - 1 ) ( C V ) 2 n = (AE) 2 where n i s t h e number o f s a m p l i n g u n i t s n e e d e d t o e s t i m a t e t h e mean w i t h a s p e c i f i e d a l l o w a b l e e r r o r and p r o b a b i l i t y , t ( n - 1 ) i s t h e v a l u e o f S t u d e n t ' s T d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h n-1 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m ; CV i s t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n ; and AE i s t h e a l l o w a b l e s a m p l i n g e r r o r i n p e r c e n t . The e q u a t i o n was s o l v e d f o r n by an i t e r a t i v e method u s i n g a c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m d e v e l o p e d and w r i t t e n by P. C o u r t i n ( F o r e s t e r , R e s e a r c h S e c t i o n , V a n c o u v e r . R e g i o n , B.C. M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s ) . T h i s t y p e o f a n a l y s i s has b een a p p l i e d t o m i n e r a l s o i l d a t a by G r i e r and M c C o l l ( 1 9 7 1 ) , L e w i s ( 1 9 7 6 ) , S l a v i n s k i ( 1 9 7 7 ) , and C o u r t i n e_t aJL. ( 1 9 8 3 ) ; and t o f o r e s t f l o o r d a t a by Q u e s n e l ( 1 9 8 0 ) , and C a r t e r ( 1 9 8 3 ) . The d a t a were a n a l y z e d f o r two a l l o w a b l e e r r o r s ( 1 0 % and 20%) and a t t h r e e l e v e l s o f c o n f i d e n c e ( 8 0 % , 9 0 % , and 9 5 % ) . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n d a t a f o r t h e v a r i a b i l i t y p l o t was m u l t i p l i e d by a c o n s t a n t t o a l l o w e x p r e s s i o n on an a r e a l b a s i s ( k g / h a ) . S i n c e t h e v a l u e s were m u l t i p l i e d by a c o n s t a n t , t h e CV's and s a m p l e s i z e a n a l y s i s w o u l d be c o m p a r a b l e t o t h o s e f o r c h e m i c a l d a t a o r e l e m e n t a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f o t h e r s t u d i e s . T h r e e d a t a s e t s : f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s , m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s , and f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s , were u s e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n g r o u p s o f s t u d y s i t e s . The f o r e s t f l o o r v a r i a b l e s u s e d were p H ( H 2 0 ) , TC, TN, minN, TP, TS, 27 e x C a , exMg, exK, and exMn. The m i n e r a l s o i l v a r i a b l e s u s e d were p H ( H 2 0 ) , p H ( C a C l 2 ) , TC, TN, minN, e x P , S 0 4 , e x C a , exMg, exK, and exMn. The n u t r i e n t q u a n t i t i e s were e x p r e s s e d on a k g / h a b a s i s , w h i c h b e t t e r r e p r e s e n t s n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y by i n t e g r a t i n g c h e m i c a l and p h y s i c a l d a t a . A t h i r d d a t a s e t was c r e a t e d by summing t h e f o r e s t f l o o r and m i n e r a l s o i l v a l u e s ( k g / h a ) f o r TC, TN, minN, e x C a , exMg, exK, and exMn f o r e a c h p l o t . A l l s o i l a n a l y t i c a l v a l u e s w e re e x p r e s s e d on an a r e a l b a s i s by m u l t i p l y i n g t h e c h e m i c a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n by a c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r ( A p p e n d i x G ) . The c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r f o r f o r e s t f l o o r i n c l u d e d d e p t h and b u l k d e n s i t y . The p l o t a r e a o c c u p i e d by t r e e s was s u b t r a c t e d f r o m t h e t o t a l a r e a , w h i c h d e c r e a s e d f o r e s t f l o o r k g / h a v a l u e s by <1%. F o r m i n e r a l s o i l c a l c u l a t i o n , c o a r s e f r a g m e n t f r e e b u l k d e n s i t y and t h e s a m p l i n g d e p t h o f 50 cm were u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r . Where s o i l d e p t h was l e s s t h a n 50 cm, t h e c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r was d e c r e a s e d . No v a r i a b l e s u s e d i n t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s were d e r i v e d by c a l c u l a t i n g r a t i o s . The s t a t i s t i c a l d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f u s i n g r a t i o s a r e d i s c u s s e d by S o k a l a nd R o l f ( 1 9 7 3 ) , and G r e e n ( 1 9 7 9 ) , who n o t e d t h e i n a c c u r a c i e s w h i c h may r e s u l t p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h e v a r i a b l e s u s e d i n t h e n u m e r a t o r and d e n o m i n a t o r e r r i n o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f f o r e s t s o i l p r o p e r t i e s and t h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s a m p l e s i z e o f t h i s s t u d y , any r a t i o s w h i c h were d e r i v e d may n o t be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o r may n o t h a v e w i d e r a p p l i c a b i l i t y . 28 D u r i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s , s e v e r a l g r o u p i n g s o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s were u t i l i z e d t o e x p l o r e p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The s i x s i t e s were a n a l y z e d as s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s , o r as g r o u p i n g s a c c o r d i n g t o p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y , SMR, o r SNR. The v a r i a b l e s were t e s t e d f o r h o m o g e n e i t y o f v a r i a n c e b e t w e e n s t u d y s i t e s . A l o g + 1 t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was u s e d t o i m p r o v e h o m o g e n e i t y o f v a r i a n c e f o r a l l m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s e x c e p t p H ( H 2 0 ) and p H ( C a C l 2 ) , and a l l f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s . A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e i f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were p r e s e n t b e t w e e n g r o u p s o f s t u d y s i t e s u s i n g UBC ANOVAR ( G r e i g and O s t e r l i n , 1 9 7 8 ) . B o t h two-way ANOVA w i t h l i t h o l o g y o f p a r e n t m a t e r i a l and SMR as f a c t o r s and one-way ANOVA w i t h SNR as t h e f a c t o r were p e r f o r m e d . The S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s (SNK) r a n g e t e s t was a p p l i e d when s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e .05 l e v e l was d e t e r m i n e d . The two-way ANOVA was d e s i g n e d a s f o l l o w s : S o u r c e D e g r e e s o f Freedom S i t e s 5 SMR 2 P a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y 1 I n t e r a c t i o n 2 P l o t w i t h i n s i t e s 18 C o m p o s i t e s a m p l e s w i t h i n p l o t s 48 T o t a l 71 The d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e s i x s i t e s were a s s e s s e d u s i n g t h e ' p l o t w i t h i n s i t e s ' t e r m . The ' c o m p o s i t e s a m p l e s w i t h i n p l o t s ' t e r m was u s e d t o a s s e s s w i t h i n s i t e v e r s u s b e t w e e n s i t e 29 v a r i a b i l i t y ( J . P e t k a u , A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r , U.B.C. S t a t i s t i c s D e p t . , p e r s . comm.). M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e s were u t i l i z e d t o d e t e r m i n e : 1) t h e r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s t o t h e t o t a l v a r i a t i o n b e t w e e n s t u d y s i t e s ( p a r t i t i o n i n g t h e sum o f s q u a r e s , and s p e c i f i c v a r i a n c e u s i n g m u l t i v a r i a t e s a m p l e s i z e a n a l y s i s , MSS), 2) u n d e r l y i n g o r unknown r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e v a r i a b l e s ( p r i n c i p a l c o m p o n e n t s a n a l y s i s , P C A ) , 3) w h i c h v a r i a b l e s i n c o m b i n a t i o n w o u l d b e s t d i s t i n g u i s h t h e p o t e n t i a l g r o u p i n g s o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s ( s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s , DA) , and 4) t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f s t a n d g r o u p i n g s u s i n g c o m b i n a t i o n s o f v a r i a b l e s j u d g e d t o be i m p o r t a n t f r o m p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s ( c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s , C A ) . R a n k i n g e a c h p r o p e r t y by sum o f s q u a r e s and s p e c i f i c v a r i a n c e was c o n d u c t e d u s i n g M u l t i v a r i a t e S a mple S i z e A n a l y s i s (MSS) s o f t w a r e ( E m a n u e l , 1 9 8 4 c ) . The p r o g r a m i s a v a i l a b l e as F405:MSS on t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o m p u t i n g s y s t e m . MSS i s a t e c h n i q u e f o r a s s e s s i n g w h i c h v a r i a b l e s ( p r o p e r t i e s ) i n a m u l t i v a r i a t e s t u d y a r e l i k e l y t o be most u s e f u l . A p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n t e c h n i q u e i s u s e d t o r a n k t h e v a r i a b l e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n e a c h c o n t a i n s a b o u t t h e d a t a s e t , and t h e n u s e s m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e t o remove e a c h v a r i a b l e i n t u r n and d e t e r m i n e t h e r e m a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . The r a n k e d d i s p e r s i o n and s p e c i f i c v a r i a n c e o f e a c h p r o p e r t y were d e t e r m i n e d f r o m a c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x , w h i c h s t a n d a r d i z e s t h e v a l u e s o f e a c h p r o p e r t y i n t h e d a t a s e t ( E m a n u e l , 1 9 8 4 c ) . F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n and an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e d u r e a r e p r o v i d e d i n S c a g e l e t a l . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . 30 P r i n c i p a l c o m p o n e n t s a n a l y s i s (PCA) was c o n d u c t e d u s i n g t h e PCA s u b r o u t i n e i n MIDAS ( F o x and G u i r e , 1 9 7 6 ) . PCA was u s e d t o e x a m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e s t u d y s i t e s . A l l PCA's were c o n d u c t e d u s i n g a c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x , w h i c h c a u s e s a l l v a r i a b l e s t o be s c a l e d e q u a l l y , i n s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n u n i t s ( P i m e n t a l , 1 9 7 9 ) . A random v a r i a b l e i n t r o d u c e s an e i g e n v a l u e e q u a l t o 1 i f a c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x i s u s e d f o r t h e PCA ( L e g e n d r e and L e g e n d r e , 1 9 8 3 ) . A PCA a x i s w i t h an e i g e n v a l u e l e s s t h a n o r e q u a l t o 1 was n o t i n t e r p r e t e d as i t may be d e s c r i b i n g random v a r i a t i o n . The o b j e c t i v e o f d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s (DA) i n t h i s s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e o p t i m a l ' s e p a r a t i o n ' o f g r o u p s o f p l o t s b a s e d on l i n e a r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s and t o i d e n t i f y t h e f e a t u r e s by w h i c h t h e y were s e p a r a t e d . S t e p w i s e j a c k n i f e d d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d u s i n g t h e 7M s u b r o u t i n e o f BMDP ( D i x o n , 1 9 8 3 ) . The j a c k n i f e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n m ethod i s p r e f e r r a b l e t o n o n - j a c k n i f e d methods b e c a u s e i t r e s u l t s i n a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i t h l e s s b i a s ( D i x o n , 1 9 8 3 ) . The j a c k n i f e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n m a t r i x i s c r e a t e d by c l a s s i f y i n g e a c h c a s e ( p l o t ) w i t h a s e r i e s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f u n c t i o n s c o m p u t e d f r o m a l l t h e d a t a e x c e p t f o r t h e c a s e b e i n g c l a s s i f i e d . T h r e e i m p o r t a n t a s s u m p t i o n s o f DA a r e : 1) d i s p e r s i o n s a r e e q u a l , 2) p r i o r p r o b a b i l i t i e s a r e i d e n t i f i a b l e , and 3) means and d i s p e r s i o n s a r e e s t i m a t e d a c c u r a t e l y and p r e c i s e l y ( W i l l i a m s , 1 9 8 3 ) . The v a r i a n c e - c o v a r i a n c e m a t r i c e s o f t h e s t u d y s t a n d s d i d n o t have e q u a l i t y when t e s t e d u s i n g B o x ' s s t a t i s t i c ( F o x and G u i r e , 1 9 7 6 ) . The l a c k o f e q u a l i t y i s 31 common i n e c o l o g i c a l d a t a ( G r e e n , 1979; W i l l i a m s , 1 9 8 3 ) . As t h e numbers o f v a r i a b l e s i n c r e a s e s t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f i n e q u a l i t y o f c o v a r i a n c e m a t r i c e s i n c r e a s e s r a p i d l y ( G r e e n , 1 9 79). When a s s u m p t i o n s a r e c l e a r l y v i o l a t e d , DA, l i k e any o t h e r m a t h e m a t i c a l t e c h n i q u e , s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d as a d a t a -e x p l o r a t o r y p r o c e d u r e ( W i l l i a m s , 1 9 8 3 ) . A v e r a g e d i s t a n c e c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s (CA) was p e r f o r m e d u s i n g UBC CGROUP ( L a i , 1 9 82). CA a s s e s s e s w hether n a t u r a l g r o u p s o c c u r i n a p o p u l a t i o n o f s a m p l e s , b a s e d on v a r i a b l e s measured. In t h i s s t u d y t h e i n t e r e s t was i n t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h c l u s t e r s p r o d u c e d by t h e CA c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e g r o u p i n g o f s t u d y p l o t s s u g g e s t e d by p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s i n c l u d e a dendrogram o f t h e s t u d y p l o t s and t h e e r r o r v a l u e f o r e a c h s t e p . The e r r o r v a l u e s a t e a c h s t e p i s c a l c u l a t e d f r o m t h e f o r m u l a g i v e n i n L a i ( 1 9 8 2 ) . sum o f t h e s q u a r e d d i f f e r e n c e s between c o r r e s p o n d i n g s c o r e s i n t h e p r o p e r t i e s E r r o r v a l u e = number o f i t e m s i n t h e p o t e n t i a l g r o u p The f i r s t g r o u p i n g i s made by c o m b i n i n g t h e two p l o t s ( c a s e s ) w i t h t h e minimum e r r o r v a l u e . A f t e r g r o u p i n g , t h e e r r o r v a l u e s w h i c h r e f l e c t p o t e n t i a l e r r o r f o r c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h t h i s new g r o u p a r e m o d i f i e d . The n e x t g r o u p i n g i s made by d e t e r m i n i n g t h e g r o u p i n g w h i c h y i e l d s t h e s m a l l e s t e r r o r v a l u e . T h i s i s c o n t i n u e d u n t i l o n l y one g r o u p r e m a i n s . 32 3.6.4 R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between S o i l P r o p e r t i e s and V e g e t a t i o n R e l a t i o n s h i p s between u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n and s o i l p r o p e r t i e s and f o l i a r n u t r i e n t s and s o i l p r o p e r t i e s were e x p l o r e d u s i n g t h e c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s s u b r o u t i n e o f SAS (SAS I n s t i t u t e I n c . , 1 9 8 2 ) . C a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s (CCA) i s a m u l t i v a r i a t e t e c h n i q u e w h i c h o p e r a t e s on b o t h s e t s o f v a r i a b l e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ( G i t t i n s , 1 9 7 9). Due t o t h e s m a l l number o f sample p l o t s (24) r e l a t i v e t o t h e number o f v a r i a b l e s i t was n e c e s s a r y t o summarize and r e d u c e t h e number o f v a r i a b l e s . The v e g e t a t i o n d a t a was summarized w i t h DCA axes and t h e s o i l p r o p e r t i e s summarized w i t h PCA a x e s . The DCA and PCA a x e s s c o r e s can be u s e d as new v a r i a b l e s w h i c h a r e c o n t i n u o u s and l i n e a r . C o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e o r i g i n a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s , PCA a x e s , DCA axes and c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s were u s e d t o i n t e r p r e t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e CCA. Redundancy, and v a r i a n c e e x t r a c t e d by e a c h c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e as d e s c r i b e d by G i t t i n s (1979) were a l s o u s e d t o i n t e r p r e t t h e r e s u l t s o f CCA. 33 4. CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF STUDY STANDS In t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r t h e c l i m a t e , b e d r o c k g e o l o g y , management h i s t o r y , s u r f i c i a l m a t e r i a l s , and s o i l s o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s w i l l be d e s c r i b e d . The s o i l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s w i l l be compared t o v a l u e s f o u n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . The s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e s o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s w i l l be a n a l y z e d and c l a s s i f i e d . The f i e l d - a s s e s s e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e s f o r two s t u d y s i t e s w i l l be d e s c r i b e d as an example o f t h e method and f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d . M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s and t a b u l a r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n w i l l be u s e d t o i d e n t i f y m a j o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l t r e n d s among t h e s t u d y s i t e s . The f o l i a r n u t r i e n t s t a t u s o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s w i l l be d e s c r i b e d . 4.1 LOCATION AND MANAGEMENT HISTORY Stu d y s i t e s were l o c a t e d on s o u t h c e n t r a l V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d a r o u n d Cowichan L a k e and i n t h e R o b e r t s o n R i v e r V a l l e y ( F i g . 1) a t e l e v a t i o n s below 700 m. The s t u d y a r e a was t h u s c o n f i n e d t o t h e E a s t V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d V a r i a n t o f t h e D r i e r M a r i t i m e C o a s t a l W e s t e r n Hemlock s u b z o n e (CWHal) ( K l i n k a e t a l . , 1 9 8 4 a ) . A l l s t u d y s i t e s were w i t h i n a 25 km r a d i u s o f t h e Cowichan L a k e R e s e a r c h S t a t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s . A l l s t u d y s t a n d s were d o m i n a t e d by s e c o n d - g r o w t h D o u g l a s -f i r i n t h e t r e e l a y e r , e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r l o g g i n g and f i r e , r a n g i n g i n age between 33 and 68 y e a r s . The o r i g i n a l s t u d y 34 0 20 40 60 80100 W a s h ing ton Figure 1. Location of the study area 35 d e s i g n c a l l e d f o r a l l s t u d y s i t e s s e l e c t e d t o be f r e e f r o m f o r e s t management t r e a t m e n t s s u c h as f e r t i l i z a t i o n and t h i n n i n g . T h i s w o u l d have a v o i d e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f n u t r i e n t i n p u t s by f e r t i l i z e r , and t h e e f f e c t o f management p r a c t i c e s on n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . Due t o t h e r e s t r i c t e d n a t u r e o f p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s d e r i v e d f r o m g r a n i t i c l i t h o l o g y , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o l o c a t e two o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s w i t h i n a r e a s w h i c h had been f e r t i l i z e d a n d t h i n n e d . S t u d y s i t e 2 had been f e r t i l i z e d w i t h u r e a i n 1968 and 1976, s t u d y s i t e 3 had been f e r t i l i z e d w i t h u r e a i n 1968 and 1979. A l l f e r t i l i z a t i o n s had been c o n d u c t e d f r o m f i x e d w i n g a i r c r a f t , w i t h r a t e s o f a p p l i c a t i o n o f 200 k g N p e r ha ( K e n H a r t , F o r e s t e r , C I P F o r e s t I n d u s t r i e s , p e r s . comm.). The amount o f f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i e d t o any one 20 m x 20 m s t u d y p l o t was p r o b a b l y q u i t e v a r i a b l e , and c o u l d n o t be a s s e s s e d d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y . S t u d y s i t e 3 had a l s o b e e n p r e c o m m e r c i a l l y t h i n n e d t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 700 s t e m s p e r ha i n 1979. To a i d i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e s u l t s , e a c h s i t e was g i v e n an i d e n t i f y i n g name b a s e d on p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y and SMR. E a c h r e p l i c a t e p l o t w i t h i n t h e s i t e was numbered f r o m 1 t o 4. The f i e l d a s s e s s m e n t s o f p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y and SMR were t o be c o n f i r m e d by l a t e r a n a l y s e s . S t u d y s i t e s 1 t o 3 r e p r e s e n t e d t h e SMR g r a d i e n t on t h e g r a n i t i c l i t h o l o g y . S i t e 1 b e i n g t h e g r a n i t i c l i t h o l o g y , v e r y d r y SMR c o m b i n a t i o n , GVD. S i m i l a r l y s i t e 2 w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as GD ( g r a n i t i c , d r y ) and s i t e 3 as GF ( g r a n i t i c , f r e s h ) . The same p r o c e d u r e was u s e d t o name s i t e s 4 ( W D ) , 5 (VD) a n d 6 ( V F ) w h i c h r e p r e s e n t t h e SMR 36 Table 1 . Selected c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of study sites Parent S o i l S o i l Site Site Site material moisture nutrient age No. code lithology regime regime (yrs) 1 GVD g r a n i t i c / volcanic 2* GD g r a n i t i c 3** GF g r a n i t i c / volcanic 4 WD volcanic 5 VD volcanic 6 VF volcanic very dry poor 34 dry medium 35 fresh r i c h 33 very dry medium 68 dry r i c h 61 fresh very r i c h 67 * F e r t i l i z e d with 200 kg N/ha, 1968 and 1976. ** F e r t i l i z e d with 200 kg N/ha, 1968 and 1979; and thinned to 700 stems/ha 1979. 37 seq u e n c e on t h e v o l c a n i c l i t h o r e p l i c a t e p l o t i n t h e GD s i t e wa S e l e c t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n T a b l e 1. l o g y . F o r example, t h e t h i r d s r e f e r r e d t o as GD3. the s t u d y s i t e s a r e summarized 4.2 CLIMATE The c l i m a t e o f t h e CWHal v a r i a n t had been d e s c r i b e d as C f b (humid, c o o l m e s o t h e r m a l ) a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s y s t e m o f K o p p e n / T r e w a r t h a ( T r e w a r t h a , 1968) by K l i n k a e_t a l . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . S e l e c t e d c l i m a t i c d a t a f o r t h e CHWal v a r i a n t i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 2. T a b l e 2. S e l e c t e d c l i m a t i c d a t a f o r t h e E a s t V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d V a r i a n t o f t h e D r i e r M a r i t i m e C o a s t a l W e s t e r n Hemlock subzone ( d a t a f r o m K l i n k a e t a l . , 1979) C l i m a t i c v a r i a b l e s Mean a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n (mm) 2060 Mean p r e c i p i t a t i o n A p r i l - S e p t e m b e r (mm) 404 Mean p r e c i p i t a t i o n d r i e s t month (mm) 36 Mean p r e c i p i t a t i o n w e t e s t month (mm) 347 Mean a n n u a l t e m p e r a t u r e (°C) 8.7 Mean t e m p e r a t u r e warmest month (°C) 16.8 Mean t e m p e r a t u r e c o l d e s t month (°C) 0.9 Months w i t h mean t e m p e r a t u r e > 10°C 5.0 Months w i t h mean t e m p e r a t u r e < 10°C 0.0 38 4.3 BEDROCK GEOLOGY AND LITHOLOGY OF PARENT MATERIALS W i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a t h e b e d r o c k i s m a i n l y o f v o l c a n i c o r i g i n ( M u l l e r , 1977; K o r e l u s and L e w i s , 1 9 7 6 ) . The n o r t h s i d e o f L a k e Cowichan i s u n d e r l a i n by r o c k o f t h e S i c k e r Group w h i c h i n c l u d e s b o t h metamorphosed v o l c a n i c ( m a i n l y b a s a l t i c t o r h y o l i t i c l a v a f l o w s ) and v o l c a n i c d e r i v e d metamorphosed s e d i m e n t a r y ( m a i n l y metagreywacke and a r g i l l i t e ) d e p o s i t s . The e a s t e r n end o f t h e L a k e i s u n d e r l a i n by t h e o l e i i t i c v o l c a n i c ( m a i n l y b a s a l t ) d e p o s i t s o f t h e Karmutsen F o r m a t i o n . The s o u t h e r n and w e s t e r n ends o f t h e L a k e a r e u n d e r l a i n by v o l c a n i c ( b a s a l t s and r h y o l i t e s w i t h a n d e s i t e s and d a c i t e s ) d e p o s i t s o f t h e Bonanza Group. W i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a t h e r e i s a l i m i t e d o c c u r r e n c e o f g r a n i t i c r o c k s ( q u a r t z d i o r i t e t o g r a n i t e ) o f t h e I s l a n d I n t r u s i o n s . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s and samples o f b e d r o c k i s summarized i n T a b l e 3. A v e r a g e c h e m i c a l c o n t e n t o f r o c k t y p e s , s i m i l a r t o t h e i d e n t i f i e d samples i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 4. The p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g i e s o f s t u d y s i t e s 1, 2 and 3 were d o m i n a t e d o r c o - d o m i n a t e d by r o c k t y p e s w i t h low Ca and Mg s t a t u s ( I s l a n d I n t r u s i o n s o r r h y o l i t e and r h y o d a c i t e ) . In c o n t r a s t , t h e p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g i e s o f s t u d y s i t e s 4, 5 and 6 were d o m i n a t e d by r o c k t y p e s w i t h g r e a t e r Ca and Mg s t a t u s ( S i c k e r Group o r K a r m u t s e n ) . On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y t h e f i e l d a s s e s s m e n t o f p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y was c o n s i d e r e d c o n f i r m e d . The g r a n i t i c p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y (low Ca and Mg, h i g h e r K s t a t u s ) Table 3. Approximate percent of coarse fragment and bedrock samples* from study sites arranged by local geological unit and lithology Locality Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Site 4 Site 5 Site 6 Bedrock Coarse fragments Bedrock Coarse fragments Coarse Bedrock Coarse fragments fragments Coarse fragments Coarse fragments Local geological unit Lithology 24 35 9 26 Number of samples 28 12 31 31 52 Island Intrusions Quartz monzonite Grano-diorite Quartz diorite Quartz diorite to diorite 75 29 100 15 23 15 8 6 45 20 Bonanza Group Rhyolite Rhyodacite Dacite Andesite 25 29 26 16 12 12 15 2 13 28 25 Karmutsen Tholelitic basalt 100 7 Sicker Group Andesite Andesite 39 16 22 25 44 25 (serpentinitio) Basaltic andesite Greywacke siltstone (andesitic) 3 16 33 30 1 * Samples identified by J. Getsinger, U.B.C. Dept. Geology. T a b l e 4 . A v e r a g e c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n s ( p e r c e n t o f w e i g h t ) o f l i t h o l o g i e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e s t u d y a r e a ( f r o m Hyndman, 1972; a n d M a c D o n a l d , 1972) Rock t y p e s C h e m i c a l G r a n o - Q u a r t z R h y o d a - T h o l e i i t i c d i o r i t e D i o r i t e R h y o l i t e c i t e D a c i t e A n d e s i t e b a s a l t S i 0 2 66.9 T i 0 2 0.6 AI2O3 15.7 F e 2 0 3 1.3 FeO 2.6 MnO 0.1 MgO 1.6 CaO 3.6 N a 2 0 3.8 K2O 3.1 P205 0.2 H 2 0 0.7 66.2 73.6 0.6 0.2 15.6 13.4 1.4 1.2 3.4 0.8 0.1 0.3 1.9 0.3 4.7 1.1 3.9 3.0 1.4 5.4 0.2 0.1 0.7 0.8 66.3 63.6 0.7 0.6 15.4 16.7 2.1 2.2 2.2 3.0 0.1 0.1 1 .6 2.1 3.7 5.5 4.1 4.0 3.0 1.4 0.2 0.2 0.7 0.6 54.2 50.8 1.3 2.0 17.2 14.1 3.5 2.9 5.5 9.1 0.1 0.2 4.4 6.3 7.9 10.4 3.7 2.2 1.1 0.8 0.3 0.2 0.9 0.9 41 c o n s i s t e d o f s i t e s 1, 2 and 3 (GVD, GD, G F ) . The v o l c a n i c p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y ( h i g h e r Ca and Mg, lower K s t a t u s ) c o n s i s t e d o f s i t e s 4, 5 and 6 (WD, VD, V F ) . 4.4 SURFICIAL MATERIALS AND SOILS Maps showing t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n and t y p e o f s u r f i c i a l m a t e r i a l s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a have been p r o d u c e d by t h e E.L.U.C. S e c r e t a r i a t (1975a and 1975b) and K o r e l u s and L e w i s ( 1 9 7 6 ) . T h e s e were u s e d a l o n g w i t h on s i t e o b s e r v a t i o n s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s u r f i c i a l m a t e r i a l s p r e s e n t f o r e a c h s t u d y s i t e . The s o i l m a t e r i a l s o f GVD, GD and WD s i t e s ( 1 , 2, 4) were d e r i v e d f r o m g l a c i a l t i l l . The s o i l m a t e r i a l s o f t h e VD s i t e (5) were d e r i v e d f r o m a m i x t u r e o f c o l l u v i a l and p o s s i b l y a l l u v i a l p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s . The s o i l m a t e r i a l s o f t h e GF and VF s i t e s ( 3 , 6) were g l a c i o f l u v i a l and a l l u v i a l m a t e r i a l s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . K o r e l u s and L e w i s (1976) n o t e d t h a t s o i l t e x t u r e and c o a r s e f r a g m e n t c o n t e n t were somewhat r e l a t e d t o t h e t y p e o f b e d r o c k f r o m w h i c h t h e t i l l was d e r i v e d ; t h e c o a r s e s t t i l l s ( v e r y s t o n y , g r a v e l l y , loamy s a n d s ) were d e r i v e d f r o m t h e i g n e o u s i n t r u s i o n s ( I s l a n d I n t r u s i o n s ) , i n t e r m e d i a t e t e x t u r e d t i l l s ( s t o n y , sandy loams) were d e r i v e d f r o m t h e S i c k e r Group and t h e K a r m u t s e n F o r m a t i o n , and t h e f i n e s t t e x t u r e d t i l l s ( s a n d y loam t o loam, low s t o n e and g r a v e l c o n t e n t ) were d e r i v e d f r o m t h e " s o f t " v o l c a n i c s o f t h e Bonanza Group. The s o i l s o f t h e GVD, GD, GF, W D and VD s i t e s ( 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5) were c l a s s i f i e d as O r t h i c H u m o - F e r r i c P o d z o l s . The s o i l s 42 o f t h e VF s i t e (6) were c l a s s i f i e d as O r t h i c C u m u l i c R e g o s o l s . S o i l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o i l s o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s a r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x F. R o o t i n g d e p t h , c o a r s e f r a g m e n t c o n t e n t , b u l k d e n s i t y and o t h e r s o i l i n f o r m a t i o n a r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x E. S o i l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s a r r a n g e d by s a m p l i n g scheme a r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x I f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s , and A p p e n d i x J f o r m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s . The v a l u e s f o r e a c h sample o f t h e f o r e s t f l o o r and m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s a r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x H. F o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s were compared t o v a l u e s f o r D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d s f o u n d i n C a r t e r ( 1 9 8 3 ) , G r i e r and M c C o l l ( 1 9 7 1 ) , H e i l m a n ( 1 9 7 9 ) , L e w i s ( 1 9 7 6 ) , Lowe and K l i n k a ( 1 9 8 1 ) , K l i n k a e t a l . ( 1 9 8 1 a ) , Roy ( 1 9 8 4 ) , Youngberg ( 1 9 6 6 ) , and Y o u n g b e r g ( 1 9 7 9 ) . The v a l u e s f o r p H ( H 2 0 ) , TC, TN, minN, TP, TS, exCa, exMg and exK were w i t h i n t h e r a n g e o f v a l u e s f o u n d i n t h e r e f e r e n c e s c i t e d above, a l l o w i n g f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n a n a l y t i c a l methods, p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e s u l t s and s a m p l i n g . A l t h o u g h TCa v a l u e s were c o m p a r a b l e t o t h o s e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , TCa v a l u e s were sometimes l e s s t h a n t h o s e f o r exCa ( e g . , s i t e s WD and VD). In g e n e r a l t h e r e i s a p o o r r e c o v e r y o f Ca u s i n g an a c e t y l e n e / a i r f l a m e w i t h t h e a t o m i c a b s o r p t i o n s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t e r due t o i n h i b i t i o n e f f e c t s by o t h e r e l e m e n t s (Dean, 1 9 6 0 ) . In t h e GF s i t e t h e exK v a l u e s f o r t h e c o m p o s i t e s a m p l e s i n t h e v a r i a b i l i t y p l o t were g r e a t e r t h a n t h e TK v a l u e s (25.53 vs 24.04 k g / h a ) . I t was d e c i d e d t o d e l e t e TCa, TMg and TK f r o m f u r t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s , b e c a u s e o f a n a l y t i c a l 43 p r o b l e m s (TCa and p o s s i b l y TK) , and t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e e x c h a n g e a b l e forms o f Ca, Mg and K were more a v a i l a b l e t o p l a n t s . The TMn v a l u e s were much h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e o f C a r t e r ( 1 9 8 3 ) . The h i g h v a l u e s were b e l i e v e d t o be due t o a n a l y t i c a l p r o b l e m s , i n p a r t i c u l a r w i t h t h e s t a n d a r d s u s e d f o r t h e a t o m i c a b s o r p t i o n s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t e r . The f o r e s t f l o o r TMn v a l u e s were n o t u s e d i n f u r t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s . The CEC v a l u e s f o r t h e f o r e s t f l o o r were l e s s t h a n t h o s e o f Q u e s n e l (1980) who u s e d a s i m i l a r a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e (Na d i s p l a c e m e n t ) , b u t s t u d i e d o l d e r and d e e p e r f o r e s t f l o o r s d e v e l o p e d under Tsuga h e t e r o p h y 1 1 a , A b i e s a m a b i l i s , T h u j a  p l i c a t a and C h a m a e c y p a r i s n o o t k a t e n s i s s t a n d s i n t h e CWHb b i o g e o c l i m a t i c s ubzone on n o r t h e r n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . P r o b l e m s w i t h d e t e r m i n i n g CEC u s i n g t h e Na d i s p l a c e m e n t method w i t h i s o p r o p y l a l c o h o l were p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d . I t was d e c i d e d n o t t o use f o r e s t f l o o r CEC v a l u e s i n f u r t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s b e c a u s e t h e y c o u l d n o t be c o n f i d e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . M i n e r a l s o i l c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s were compared t o v a l u e s f o u n d i n B i n k l e y ( 1 9 8 3 ) , C o u r t i n e t a l . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , H e i l m a n ( 1 9 7 9 ) , K l i n k a e t a l . ( 1 9 8 1 b ) , L e w i s ( 1 9 7 6 ) , Roy ( 1 9 8 4 ) , and S l a v i n s k i ( 1 9 7 7 ) . The m i n e r a l s o i l v a l u e s o f t h i s s t u d y were w i t h i n t h e r a n g e o f t h o s e c i t e d above f o r pH(H20), P H ( C a C l 2 ) , TC, TN, minN, exP, S 0 4 , exCa, exMg, exK, exMn and CEC, a l l o w i n g f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e , p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e s u l t s and s a m p l i n g . 44 The CEC v a l u e s f o r m i n e r a l s o i l were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e r e p o r t e d by L e w i s (1976) u s i n g t h e Na d i s p l a c e m e n t method. However, as n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y f o r f o r e s t f l o o r CEC v a l u e s , t h e y were n o t u t i l i z e d i n f u r t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s b e c a u s e o f a l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e t h a t t h e v a l u e s were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f m i n e r a l s o i l c o n d i t i o n s . 4.5 FIELD-ASSESSED SMR AND SNR OF STUDY SITES A c o m b i n a t i o n o f s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (App. E) and i n d i c a t o r p l a n t s p e c i e s were u s e d t o a s s e s s SMR and SNR o f s t u d y s i t e s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f f i e l d work. The a s s e s s m e n t s o f two s t u d y s i t e s a r e g i v e n below as examp l e s . A s i m i l a r a s s e s s m e n t and s y n t h e s i s were a p p l i e d t o t h e o t h e r s t u d y s i t e s . S i t e 1 was on a uppe r s l o p e w i t h a s o u t h w e s t a s p e c t . A t h i n Mor o v e r l a y a w e l l d e v e l o p e d Ae h o r i z o n . The Ae h o r i z o n was n o t a l w a y s p r e s e n t , b u t t h i s was p r o b a b l y due t o s o i l d i s t u r b a n c e d u r i n g l o g g i n g . M i n e r a l s o i l t e x t u r e o f t h e upper h o r i z o n s was loamy san d t o sandy loam w i t h a h i g h c o a r s e f r a g m e n t c o n t e n t . D epth o f m i n e r a l s o i l a v e r a g e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 55 cm and r a n g e d f r o m <10 cm t o 100 cm. C o a r s e f r a g m e n t l i t h o l o g y was v o l c a n i c and g r a n i t i c and t h e u n d e r l y i n g b e d r o c k was g r a n i t i c . U n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n was s t r o n g l y d o m i n a t e d by G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n . A v a r i e t y o f l i c h e n s p e c i e s were p r e s e n t on v e r y s h a l l o w s o i l s . O t h e r s p e c i e s p r e s e n t i n c l u d e d B o s c h n i a k i a h o o k e r i , Hylocomium s p l e n d e n s , and R h y t i d i o p s i s r o b u s t a . Based on a s y n t h e s i s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l and 45 v e g e t a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , t h i s s i t e was c l a s s i f i e d a s b e i n g SMR 1 ( v e r y d r y ) a n d SNR B ( n u t r i e n t p o o r ) . S i t e 4 was on an u p p e r s l o p e w i t h a n o r t h e r n a s p e c t . A Mor o v e r l a y a w e a k l y d e v e l o p e d , d i s c o n t i n u o u s Ae h o r i z o n . M i n e r a l s o i l was a l o a m t o s a n d y l o a m t e x t u r e w i t h a m o d e r a t e c o a r s e f r a g m e n t c o n t e n t . S o i l d e p t h a v e r a g e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 45 cm and r a n g e d f r o m 10 t o 70 cm. C o a r s e f r a g m e n t l i t h o l o g y was d o m i n a n t l y a n d e s i t i c and t h e u n d e r l y i n g b e d r o c k was b a s a l t i c . W h i l e G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n was an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n , t h e r e was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t c o v e r o f M a h o n i a n e r v o s a , H y l o c o m i u m s p l e n d e n s , K i n d b e r g i a o r e g a n a p l u s A c h l y s t r i p h y l l a a nd P o l y s t i c h u m muniturn. B a s e d on a s y n t h e s i s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l and v e g e t a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , t h i s s i t e was a s s e s s e d a s b e i n g SMR 1 ( v e r y d r y ) a n d SNR C ( n u t r i e n t medium). A s i m i l a r s y n t h e s i s and a s s e s s m e n t was a p p l i e d t o c l a s s i f y t h e SMR and SNR t o t h e o t h e r s t u d y s i t e s . W h i l e e v e r y a t t e m p t was made t o h a v e s t u d y s i t e s a s homogeneous as p o s s i b l e , i n two s i t e s w i t h i n - s i t e v a r i a b i l i t y was e v i d e n t . D e p t h t o b e d r o c k i n s t u d y s i t e 1 was v a r i a b l e , and s o t h e t r e e c a n o p y was n o t c o m p l e t e l y c l o s e d i n two o f t h e f o u r p l o t s . S t u d y s i t e 2 was r e s t r i c t e d t o a s m a l l a r e a w h i c h had n o t b een t h i n n e d . As a r e s u l t i t was n e c e s s a r y t o h a v e two p l o t s on t h e g e n t l e r l o w e r s l o p e and two p l o t s f u r t h e r u p s l o p e w i t h a s t e e p e r s l o p e a n g l e . V a r i a t i o n b e t w e e n p l o t s w i t h i n a s i t e was j u d g e d t o be l e s s t h a n v a r i a t i o n b e t w e e n s i t e s . T h e r e f o r e a l l p l o t s w i t h i n a s i t e were g i v e n t h e same p r o v i s i o n a l SMR and SNR r a t i n g . 46 4.6 MEASUREMENTS OF SOIL MOISTURE The a t t e m p t t o q u a n t i f y t h e f i e l d - a s s e s s e d SMR's o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d c a u t i o u s l y , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e l i m i t e d n a t u r e o f t h e s a m p l i n g , t h e a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s u s e d , and t h e p r o b l e m o f s o i l v a r i a b i l i t y . The c u m u l a t i v e g r o w i n g s e a s o n m o i s t u r e d e f i c i t s f o r t h e s t u d y s i t e s and r e f e r e n c e s i t e s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 5. D u r i n g 1983, o n l y t h e GVD and VVD s i t e s had a g r o w i n g s e a s o n m o i s t u r e d e f i c i t . The 9 mm g r o w i n g s e a s o n m o i s t u r e d e f i c i t f o r t h e VVD s i t e d u r i n g 1983 was w e l l below t h e 114 mm a v e r a g e d e f i c i t c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e same s i t e f o r t h e 1964 t o 1982 p e r i o d ( G i l e s e t a l . , 1 9 8 5 ) . In 1983, June and t h e f i r s t h a l f o f J u l y were above a v e r a g e i n p r e c i p i t a t i o n and below a v e r a g e i n s u n s h i n e h o u r s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . T h e t a max, t h e t a min, d e l t a t h e t a , s o i l d e p t h , and AWSC a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 6 f o r t h e s t u d y s i t e s and r e f e r e n c e s i t e s . The GVD s i t e had b o t h a g r e a t e r AWSC and a g r e a t e r g r o w i n g s e a s o n s o i l m o i s t u r e d e f i c i t t h a n t h e VVD s i t e ( T a b l e 6, and 5 ) . The s l o p e (10-15%) and s o u t h w e s t a s p e c t o f t h e GVD s i t e r e s u l t i n g r e a t e r n e t r a d i a t i o n and g r e a t e r E m a x ( p o t e n t i a l e v a p o t r a n s p i r a t i o n ) f o r t h e GVD s i t e compared t o t h e VVD s i t e ( s l o p e 30-40%, n o r t h w e s t a s p e c t ) . On t h e b a s i s o f g r o w i n g s e a s o n s o i l m o i s t u r e d e f i c i t t h e GVD and VVD s i t e s have s i m i l a r a c t u a l SMR's, a l t h o u g h t h e GVD s i t e may e x p e r i e n c e s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r s o i l m o i s t u r e d e f i c i t s . 47 T a b l e 5. C u m u l a t i v e g r o w i n g s e a s o n s o i l w a t e r d e f i c i t s f o r ea c h s i t e between 2 June and 31 A u g u s t , 1983 C u m u l a t i v e g r o w i n g s e a s o n s o i l w a t e r d e f i c i t s (mm) S i t e 1983 1964-1981 a v e r a g e 1 GVD W D 2 GD VD R e f e r e n c e d r y SMR 2 GF VF R e f e r e n c e f r e s h SMR 2 21 9 114 0 0 0 52 0 0 0 (NA) 1 From G i l e s , 1983; and G i l e s e t a l . , 1985. 2 A l s o s t u d i e d by G i l e s , 1983. (NA) n o t a v a i l a b l e . T a b l e 6. C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e t a max, t h e t a min, t h e t a max minus t h e t a min ( d e l t a t h e t a ) , s o i l d e p t h , and a v a i l a b l e w a t e r s t o r a g e c a p a c i t y (AWSC) f o r s t u d y s i t e s and r e f e r e n c e s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e s i t e s T h e t a T h e t a D e l t a S o i l AWSC S i t e max min t h e t a d e p t h (m 3/m 3) ,(m 3/m 3) (m 3/m 3) (m) (mm) GVD .195 .044 .151 .60 91 W D .248 .075 .173 .43 74 GD .253 .058 .195 .96 187 VD .242 .073 .169 .98 166 R e f e r e n c e d r y SMR .237 .072 .165 1.00 165 GF .249 .075 .174 1.03 179 VF .238 .072 .166 1.07 178 R e f e r e n c e f r e s h SMR .235 .074 .161 1.13 182 48 The GD s i t e had a g r e a t e r AWSC t h a n t h e VD s i t e (187 mm vs 166 mm). The s l o p e ( 3 0 - 4 0 % ) , and n o r t h e a s t a s p e c t o f t h e GD s i t e would f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e E m a x d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h t h e VD s i t e w h i c h had a s o u t h e r n a s p e c t . The somewhat h i g h e r AWSC f o r t h e GD s i t e compared t o t h e r e f e r e n c e s i t e (187 mm vs 165 mm) s u g g e s t s t h a t e i t h e r t h e i n f e r e n c e o f p o t e n t i a l SMR was i n a c c u r a t e , o r t h a t t h e AWSC c a l c u l a t i o n s were n o t a c c u r a t e . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e t a min w h i c h i n v o l v e d e m p i r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and a g e n e r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s o i l t e x t u r e , c o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n AWSC between t h e GD and VD s i t e s . Based on AWSC and E m a x v a l u e s , t h e GD s i t e w ould a p p e a r t o be more s i m i l a r t o t h e GF and VF s i t e s t h a n t h e VD s i t e . The GF and VF s i t e s would have v e r y s i m i l a r E m a x v a l u e s s i n c e s l o p e i s r e l a t i v e l y s l i g h t (<5%) i n b o t h s i t e s , w h i c h would m i n i m i z e t h e e f f e c t s o f a s p e c t and s l o p e on n e t r a d i a t i o n . The AWSC v a l u e s f o r t h e GF, VF and r e f e r e n c e F s i t e s a r e v e r y s i m i l a r ( T a b l e 5 ) . On t h e b a s i s o f AWSC t h e GF and VF s i t e s have s i m i l a r a c t u a l s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e s . K e e p i n g i n mind t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e m o i s t u r e measurements, t h e g r o w i n g s e a s o n s o i l m o i s t u r e d e f i c i t s and AWSC f o r t h e s t u d y s i t e s were i n t h e same o r d e r as t h e r e l a t i v e r a n k i n g s o f SMR w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e GD s i t e . T h i s a g r e e s w i t h G i l e s (1983) who a l s o f o u n d t h a t g r o w i n g s e a s o n s o i l m o i s t u r e d e f i c i t s were i n t h e same o r d e r as t h e r e l a t i v e r a n k i n g s o f SMR's. 49 4.7 VEGETATION ANALYSIS AND CLASSIFICATION The s p e c t r a f o r n i t r o p h y t i c and o x y l o p h y t i c i n d i c a t o r s p e c i e s f o r t h e s t u d y s i t e s a r e g i v e n i n F i g u r e 2. O x y l o p h y t i c s p e c i e s were d e f i n e d as t h o s e a d a p t e d t o , o r p r e f e r a b l y g r o w i n g on, a c i d s u b s t r a t e s w i t h pH a p p r o x i m a t e l y <4.5 ( C o u r t i n e t a l . , 1 9 8 5). N i t r o p h y t i c s p e c i e s were d e f i n e d as t h o s e a d a p t e d t o , o r p r e f e r a b l y g r o w i n g on, s u b s t r a t e s w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h s u p p l y o f a v a i l a b l e N, p r i m a r i l y i n t h e f o r m o f n i t r a t e . From t h e GVD s i t e t o t h e VF s i t e , t h e r e was a d e c r e a s e i n o x y l o p h y t i c s p e c t r a and a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e i n n i t r o p h y t i c s p e c t r a ( F i g . 2 ) . N i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z a t i o n o f f o r e s t s i t e s would be e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e t e m p o r a r i l y t h e abundance and v i g o r o f t h o s e s p e c i e s w h i c h would r e s p o n d t o i n c r e a s e d N a v a i l a b i l i t y ( P r i t c h e t t , 1 9 7 9 ) . F e r t i l i z e r e f f e c t s on u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n a r e l i k e l y t o be l e s s i m p o r t a n t i n t h e GD s i t e , where f e r t i l i z a t i o n had o c c u r r e d s e v e n g r o w i n g s e a s o n s b e f o r e t h e s t u d y , compared t o t h e GF s i t e w h i c h had been f e r t i l i z e d t h r e e g r o w i n g s e a s o n s p r i o r t o t h e s t u d y . F o r t h e GD s i t e , as t h e e f f e c t s o f f e r t i l i z a t i o n d e c r e a s e o v e r t i m e , i t would be r e a s o n a b l e t o assume a d e c r e a s e i n t h e n i t r o p h y t i c s p e c t r u m and an i n c r e a s e i n t h e o x y l o p h y t i c s p e c t r u m . T h i s would p r o b a b l y r e s u l t i n t h e n i t r o p h y t i c and o x y l o p h y t i c i n d i c a t o r s p e c t r a o f t h e GD and W D s i t e s becoming-more s i m i l a r . The more r e c e n t l y f e r t i l i z e d GF s i t e c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o have a d e c r e a s e i n t h e n i t r o p h y t i c s p e c t r u m . Over OS 51 t i m e t h e n i t r o p h y t i c and o x y l o p h y t i c s p e c t r u m o f t h e GF s i t e w o uld t h e n more c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e t h e VD s i t e . T h r e e major t r e n d s were n o t e d w i t h t h e SMR s p e c t r a ( F i g . 3 ) . From t h e GVD s i t e t o t h e VF s i t e t h e r e was an i n c r e a s e i n t h e f r e s h t o m o i s t and m o i s t t o wet s p e c t r a . The d r y t o f r e s h s p e c t r u m i n c r e a s e d f r o m t h e W D s i t e , p e aked i n t h e GD s i t e , and d e c r e a s e d t o t h e VF s i t e . The d r y t o m o i s t s p e c t r u m was a t a minimum i n t h e GD s i t e w i t h l a r g e r v a l u e s a t s i t e s GVD and VF. The p r e s e n c e o f v e r y d r y t o d r y s p e c t r u m on t h e W D s i t e w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t i t i s s l i g h t l y d r i e r t h a n t h e GVD s i t e . T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s o i l m o i s t u r e a n a l y s i s . However, t h e o v e r a l l d i f f e r e n c e s i n m o i s t u r e r e g i m e between t h e GVD and W D s i t e s s u g g e s t e d by t h e two a n a l y s e s were r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . O r d i n a t i o n g r a p h s f o r a l l t h r e e c o m b i n a t i o n s o f a x e s ( i . e . a x e s 1 and 2, 1 and 3, 2 and 3) were examined f o r t h e PCA, RA and DCA o r d i n a t i o n s o f t h e u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n . P l o t and s p e c i e s s c o r e s f o r t h e PCA, RA and DCA o r d i n a t i o n s a r e i n A p p e n d i x C. A c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n was d i s p l a y e d by a l l t h r e e m u l t i v a r i a t e t e c h n i q u e s . The p l o t s w i t h i n e a c h s t u d y s i t e f o r m e d an i d e n t i f i a b l e c l u s t e r . Study s i t e s GVD and VF were a l w a y s a t o p p o s i t e ends o f a x i s 1. A l o n g a x i s 1 t h e u s u a l o r d e r i n g o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s was GVD, WD, GD, VD, GF and VF. T h i s a r r a n g e m e n t was i n t e r p r e t e d as r e f l e c t i n g a combined m o i s t u r e - n u t r i e n t g r a d i e n t , w i t h t h e GVD s i t e r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e d r i e r n u t r i e n t - p o o r e r e x t r e m e , and t h e VF s i t e t h e w e t t e r Figure 3. S o i l moisture regime indicator spectra for the study s i t e s 53 n u t r i e n t - r i c h e r e x t r e m e . T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e o r d i n a t i o n o f DCA axes 1 and 2 ( F i g . 4 ) . The W D and GD s i t e s were d i s t i n c t l y s e p a r a t e d a l o n g a x i s 2 o f t h e DCA o r d i n a t i o n ( F i g . 4 ) . T h i s was m o s t l y due t o t h e h i g h e i g e n v e c t o r l o a d i n g s o f H o l o d i s c u s d i s c o l o r and C h i m a p h i l a m e n z i e s i i (App. E ) . A s t u d y p l o t by s p e c i e s m a t r i x a r r a n g e d by RA a x i s 1 s c o r e s i s d i s p l a y e d i n T a b l e 7. A s h o r t e n e d s p e c i e s name w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f t h e f i r s t f o u r l e t t e r s o f t h e genus name and t h e f i r s t t h r e e o f t h e s p e c i e s name i s u s e d . I f one main g r a d i e n t i s i n h e r e n t i n t h e d a t a , t h e a r r a n g e d m a t r i x w i l l have a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f l a r g e r v a l u e s a l o n g t h e m a t r i x d i a g o n a l (Gauch, 1 9 8 2 ) . The m a t r i x d i a g o n a l o b s e r v e d i n T a b l e 7 f u r t h e r s u p p o r t s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a combined m o i s t u r e - n u t r i e n t g r a d i e n t . E a c h m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f t h e u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n p a t t e r n o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s c o n s i s t e n t l y d i s p l a y e d an a r r a n g e m e n t w h i c h was i n t e r p r e t e d as b e i n g a combined m o i s t u r e -n u t r i e n t g r a d i e n t . A r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s a l o n g t h e g r a d i e n t was GVD, WD, GD, VD, GF, and VF. T h i s a r r a n g e m e n t was s i m i l a r t o t h e f i e l d a s s e s s m e n t o f SMR and SNR, i n t h a t t h e two s i t e s o f e q u a l SMR c l a s s were a l w a y s a d j a c e n t ( e . g . GVD, W D ) and p a i r s o f s i t e s w i t h t h e same SNR c l a s s were a l s o a l w a y s a d j a c e n t ( e . g . WD, GD) . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y p l o t s was done a f t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s o f i n d i c a t o r p l a n t and m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n d a t a . A s y n o p s i s and d i a g n o s i s o f t h e d i s t i n g u i s h e d v e g e t a t i o n u n i t s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e s 8 and 9, r e s p e c t i v e l y . GDI G D 2 GD3 GF2 VD2 GF4 VD4 GVD4 VF2 VF3 GF3 GF1 V03 VD1 GVD3 VVD3 GVD1 GVD2 VF4 VVD4 VVD2 vvni AXIS 1 Figure 4. Ordination graph for axis 1 and axis 2 of the DCA ordination of understory vegetation data 55 Table 7. Arranged species by plots matrix for the study plots vegetation data. Species and plots are arranged according to axis 1 order in the RA ordination Species Plot GGGGWW WWWWGGGGWWGGGGWW DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDFFFFFFFF 123421343241142331241324 DICRFUS 43 CLADMUL 422 CLADGRA 222 TRACMEG 6553 POLYCOM 5444 BOSCHOO 2222—1 LI STCOR - 2 5 3 — 1 1 — 2 DICRSCO 432-333 PSEUMEN 6566 3543 HIERALB 1-2 1 RHYTROB 6-535525 FESTOCC 1 2 PELTLEU 122-2-2 2 . PINUMON —24 2 GAULSHA 99999989534-2 544 THUJPLI 665675445664 4 — 44 HYLOSPL 35446668 14545 HOLODIS 66-6 LINNBOR -3-2434 7—1-4 ROSAGYM 6445 4 GOODOBL 2 1 RHYTLOR —3-4-43 334-1 CHIMMEN 2-13-21 MAHONER 113-56666354768722 TSOGHET 5-45335544334454-22-54 — SYMPMOL 44-3 42-3 1 SALISIT 2 3-3 3-3 ELYMGLA -2 2333 VACCPAR 4333544432343455433-4444 KINDORE 6793867999989894 PTERAQU 2-21215233314 RUBUURS . 3-23 — 2-23553443—1-BROMVUL 4433 323 — 2-4 DISPSMI 33 VIOLSEM 3 323 ACHLTRI —234643442869775644668 TRIELAT 1 322 34331-223-2 POLYMUN —3354434443676676779999 STREAMP 22 MAIADIL 21 1 12433 DISPHOO 2 22 TRAOCAR 4-42 TRILOVA 21122 3343323-RANUOCC 2122 GALITRI 33344454434-MYCEMUR 33234334334-ADENBIC 2 1 3143-23-LEUCMEN 2 344 — 43-CAMPSCO 1 11 — 11 RHYTTRI 23-22 — 3 TI ARTRI 3-43 6868 DICEFOR 1 2 PL AG INS 436766 ACERMAC 1 3 ATHYFIL 24333 RUBUSPE 2-3354 DRYOASS 443-TIARLAC 3444 CAREHEN 2434 MONTSIB 114 56 T a b l e 8. S y n o p s i s o f s e r a i v e g e t a t i o n u n i t s r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e s t u d y a r e a O r d e r A l l i a n c e A s s o c i a t i o n S u b a s s o c i a t i o n G a u l t h e r i o - P s e u d o t s u g e t a l i a G a u l t h e r i o - P s e u d o t s u g i o n G a u l t h e r i o - P s e u d o t s u g e t u m §Gaultherio-Pseudotsugetum t r a c h y b r y e t o s u m $ G a u l t h e r i o - P s e u d o t s u g e t u m m a h o n i e t o s u m P o l y s t i c h o - T h u j e t a l i a M a h o n i o - T h u j i o n $ M a h o n i o - P s e u d o t s u g e t u m $ A c h l y d o - P s e u d o t s u g e t u m T i a r e l l o - T h u j i o n §Tiarello-Pseudotsugetum 57 Table 9- Diagnostic combinations of species (t) for the serai vegetation units recognized m the study area based on the analysts of understory vegetation. Order Al1tance A s s o c i a t i o n Subassociation 0-P G-P G-P O-Pt (2) 0-P» M-P M-T P-T A-P T-T T-P S i t e code S1te number GVD 1 WO 4 GD 2 VO 3 GF 3 VF 6 Number of p l o t s 4 4 4 4 4 4 Species Presence c l a s s and mean species s ign f Icance O ) Gaul therto-Pseudotsugetalla. Gaultherlo-Pseudotsugton. Gaultherlo-Pseudotsugetom ( a l l GP) Dlcranum scoparlum (d) (4) Rhyttdtopsus robusta (d.c) P e l t t g e r a leucophlebia (d) G a u l t h e r l a s h a l l o n (dd.c) Hylocontum splendena (d.cd) Linnaea boreal i s ( i c ) $Gaultherlo-Pseudotsugetum trachybryetosum (G-Pt) Cladonta multiformis (d) Cladonia g r a c i l i s (d) Trachybryum megaptllum (d.c) Polytnchum commune (d.c) Boschnlakla hooker 1 (d.c) L i s t e r a cordata (d) SGaultherlo-Pseudotsugeton mahonletosum (G-Pm> Holodiscua d i s c o l o r (d) Rosa gymnocarpa (d.c) Rhytidtadelphus loreus (d) 2 1.1 Mahonia nervosa (dd.c) 4 1.3 Symphortcarpos m o l l i s (d) Klndbergla orogana (d) Rubus ursinue (d) Bromus v u l g a r i s (d.c) T r i e n t a l i a l a t i f o l i a (d) Achlys t r i p h y l l a (d.c) 2 +.3 Polystlchum muni turn (d.c) 3 1.7 + .0 1.0 + .0 8.0 3. 1 1.9 1 .4 P o l y s t i c h o - T h u j e t a l t a (P-T) Achlys t r i p h y l l a (dd.c) Polystlchum muni turn (dd.c) T r i l l i u m ova turn (d) + .3 1 . 7 Menonlo-Thu)Ion (M-T) Mahonta nervosa (d) 4 1.3 9 3 3 3 4 3 3 6 3 3 t 0 Gaultharta shalton (d> 5 9.3 3 8 2 4 3 3 2 + 3 4 3 5 Klndbergla oregana (d.cd) 4 6 2 5 S 8 5 9 5 5 8 0 P t e n d turn aqulllnura (d) 2 * 3 S 1 1 3 3 2 4 2 3 $Mahonio-Psaudotsugetum (M-P) Chlmaphila menziesii (d) 2 + . 3 | 4 i . 4 | 2 + . 0 $Ach1ydo-Pseudotsugetum (A-P) Klndbergla oregana (d.cd) 4 €.2 T r t e n t a l l s J a t l f o l l a (d> 4 1.4 Achlys t r i p h y l l a (dd) 2 +.3 3 4.3 Polystlchum munitum (dd) 3 1.7 5 3.6 Malanthemum dllatatum (d) Galium t r l f l o r u m (d) Mycells mural i s (d) Rubus urslnus (d.c) 4 1.9 T l a r e l l o - T h u j t o n (T-T). $Tfarello-Pseudotsugetum (T-P) T i a r e i l a t r t f o l i a t a (dd.c) Athyrtum f t l l x - f e m l n a (d) P1ag1omn1um 1ns1gne (d.cd) Oryopteris expanse (d) Polystlchum munitum (dd.c) 3 1.7 5 3 . 6 Rubus s p e c t a b i l t s (d.c) T i a r e i l a l a c i n l a t a (d.c) Carex henderaontt (d.c) Mont l a s l b l r t c a (d) (1) The source f o r nomenclature is given in Barkman et a l . 1976. (2) F u l l name of vegetation untts are given tn Table &. (3) Species presence c l a s s e s as % of frequency 1 • 1-20, 2 • 21-40, 3 • 41 - SO. 4 • 61 - 80. and 5 • 81 - lOO. Species s i g n i f i c a n c e for the individual p l o t s i s based on the the ten-clasa abundance and dominance scale of Oomln and K r a j l n a (Mueller-Oombots and Ellenberg. 1974). (4) Diagnostic values for plant species areas follows: c. constant; cd. constant dominant; d. d i f f e r e n t i a l ; dd. dominant d i f f e r e n t i a l ; i c . important companion; (from Pojar et a l . . 1985) 58 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e s u l t s showed t h a t w i t h one e x c e p t i o n t h e l i t h o l o g y - m o i s t u r e s a m p l i n g u n i t s were f l o r i s t i c a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . In T a b l e 9, t h e D i c r a n u m s c o p a r i u m and A c h l y s  t r i p h y l l a s p e c i e s g r o u p s ( r e f e r r e d t o by t h e name o f t h e f i r s t s p e c i e s i n a g r o u p ) s e p a r a t e d t h e p l o t s i n t o two majo r g r o u p s . W i t h i n t h e f i r s t g r o u p ( G a u l t h e r i o - P s e u d o t s u g e t u m a s s o c i a t i o n ) , GVD p l o t s were c l e a r l y s e p a r a t e d f r o m a l l o t h e r p l o t s as w e l l GVD from VVD p l o t s . However, VVD p l o t s showed f l o r i s t i c a f f i n i t i e s t o o t h e r , w e t t e r and p r e s u m a b l y n u t r i e n t - r i c h e r p l o t s . W i t h i n t h e s e c o n d g r o u p ( P o l y s t i c h o - T h u j e t a l i a o r d e r ) , two s u b g r o u p s were r e c o g n i z e d : GD, VD, and GF p l o t s ( M a h o n i o -T h u j i o n a l l i a n c e ) amd VF p l o t s ( T i a r e l l o - T h u j i o n a l l i a n c e ) . GD p l o t s were s e p a r a t e d f r o m VD and GF p l o t s r a t h e r by t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e s p e c i e s i n c l u d e d i n t o t h e K i n d b e r g i a o r e g a n a s p e c i e s g r o u p . Of t h e s i x l i t h o l o g y - m o i s t u r e r e g i m e s a m p l i n g s i t e s , t h e VD and GF were t h e o n l y s i t e s g r o u p e d i n t o a s i n g l e v e g e t a t i o n u n i t d e s p i t e d i f f e r e n t l i t h o l o g y and m o i s t u r e r e g i m e . The f e r t i l i z a t i o n , t h i n n i n g , and s u c c e s s i o n a l s t a g e o f t h e GF s i t e may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e f l o r i s t i c g r o u p i n g o f t h i s s i t e w i t h t h e VD s i t e . D i f f e r e n c e s i n s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e between t h e VD and GF s i t e s s u g g e s t e d by i n d i c a t o r p l a n t a n a l y s i s and s o i l m o i s t u r e a n a l y s i s were n o t r e f l e c t e d i n t h e t a b u l a r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n by t h e T i a r e l l a t r i f o l i a t a s p e c i e s g r o u p s e t t h e VF p l o t s d i s t i n c t l y a p a r t f r o m a l l o t h e r s . The D o u g l a s - f i r e c o s y s t e m s o f t h e s t u d y were i n two d i s t i n c t age c a t e g o r i e s , e a r l y - i m m a t u r e ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 35 y e a r s 59 o l d GVD, GD, GF) and l a t e - i m m a t u r e ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 65 y e a r s o l d VVD, VD, V F ) . P o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s due t o t h e d i f f e r e n t s u c c e s s i o n a l s t a g e s o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s d i d n o t mask t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s w h i c h were r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The GF s i t e had been t h i n n e d t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 700 stems/ ha w h i c h would i n c r e a s e l i g h t a v a i l a b i l i t y i n t h e s i t e . However, d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h i n n i n g d e b r i s c r e a t e d m i c r o s i t e s w h i c h v a r i e d i n t h e amount o f l i g h t p e n e t r a t i n g t o t h e f o r e s t f l o o r . T h i s s o u r c e o f v a r i a b i l i t y may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e l a c k o f f l o r i s t i c s e p a r a t i o n between t h e GF and VD s i t e s . In s p i t e o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t a n d age and management p r a c t i c e s ( f e r t i l i z a t i o n and t h i n n i n g ) , t h e u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s d i s p l a y a c o n s i s t e n t a r r a n g e m e n t , w h i c h r e f l e c t e d a combined m o i s t u r e - n u t r i e n t g r a d i e n t . The p o s i t i o n o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s a l o n g t h i s i n f e r r e d g r a d i e n t was v e r y s i m i l a r f o r e a c h t e c h n i q u e , and c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e f i e l d -a s s e s s e d SNR and a n a l y s i s o f SMR f o r e a c h s i t e . 4.8 FOLIAR NUTRIENT STATUS The f o l i a r n u t r i e n t d a t a f o r e a c h s t u d y p l o t a r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x D. F o r a l l p l o t s , K was t h e m a c r o n u t r i e n t i n l e a s t s u p p l y . The f o l i a r K c o n c e n t r a t i o n was i n t h e v e r y s e v e r e d e f i c i e n c y r a n g e f o r a l l p l o t s , a l t h o u g h t h e K/Ca r a t i o s u g g e s t e d o n l y a p o s s i b l e K d e f i c i e n c y . Ca o r Mg s t a t u s o f a l l s t u d y p l o t s was a d e q u a t e . 60 N was v e r y s e v e r e l y d e f i c i e n t i n t h e VVD and VD p l o t s , and s l i g h t l y t o m o d e r a t e l y d e f i c i e n t i n t h e VF p l o t s . The N f e r t i l i z e d GD and GF p l o t s were s l i g h t l y t o m o d e r a t e l y d e f i c i e n t . I n c r e a s i n g n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y assumed by t h e SNR c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d e d t o d e c r e a s i n g s e v e r i t y o f N d e f i c i e n c y f o r t h e u n f e r t i l i z e d s i t e s . The a n t i c i p a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n Ca, Mg and K s t a t u s due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y were n o t r e f l e c t e d i n t h e n u t r i e n t s t a t u s . As w e l l , a l l SNR c l a s s e s had a d e q u a t e Ca and Mg and were d e f i c i e n t i n K. No m i c r o n u t r i e n t s were i n d i c a t e d as b e i n g d e f i c i e n t i n t h e VVD and VD p l o t s . The Fe and AFe s t a t u s o f t h e GVD p l o t s i n d i c a t e d a l i k e l y Fe d e f i c i e n c y . No o t h e r m i c r o n u t r i e n t was i n d i c a t e d as b e i n g d e f i c i e n t i n t h e GVD p l o t s . GD p l o t s were l i k e l y d e f i c i e n t i n B. The GD4 p l o t had a s l i g h t p o s s i b i l i t y o f Cu d e f i c i e n c y . The GD3 p l o t has a s l i g h t p o s s i b i l i t y o f b o t h Zn and Cu d e f i c i e n c y . The GF p l o t s were a l l l i k e l y d e f i c i e n t i n Fe and Zn. B was s e v e r e l y d e f i c i e n t i n GF3, l i k e l y d e f i c i e n t i n GF1 and GF4; and p o s s i b l y d e f i c i e n t i n GF2. T h e r e was a s l i g h t p o s s i b i l i t y o f Cu d e f i c i e n c y i n GF1 and GF3. The VF1, VF2 and VF3 p l o t s were p o s s i b l y d e f i c i e n t i n B. The VF3 p l o t was l i k e l y d e f i c i e n t i n Fe. T h e r e was a s l i g h t p o s s i b i l i t y o f Zn d e f i c i e n c y i n t h e VF1, VF2 and VF4 p l o t s . The management e f f e c t s o f f e r t i l i z a t i o n (GD, GF) and t h i n n i n g (GF) may have i n d u c e d B a n d / o r Zn d e f i c i e n c i e s i n t h e GD and GF s i t e s . To a l e s s e r e x t e n t t h e VF s i t e may a l s o be a f f e c t e d by B a n d / o r Zn d e f i c i e n c i e s . 61 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The v a r i a b i l i t y o f t h e s o i l p r o p e r t i e s w i l l be examined t o a i d i n a n a l y z i n g p a t t e r n s o f v a r i a b i l i t y between t h e s t u d y s i t e s . U n i v a r i a t e and m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s w i l l be u s e d t o a n a l y z e t h e p a t t e r n s o f v a r i a t i o n i n t h e s o i l p r o p e r t i e s . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t w i l l be d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f w h i c h p r o p e r t i e s , i f any, d i f f e r between g r o u p s o f s t u d y s i t e s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h b e s t d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t h e g r o u p s o f s t u d y s i t e s w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d . R e l a t i o n s h i p s between u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n , f o l i a r n u t r i e n t s t a t u s and p r o d u c t i v i t y o f D o u g l a s - f i r and t h e s o i l p r o p e r t i e s w i l l be examined t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n n u t r i e n t s t a t u s c o r r e s p o n d t o o t h e r s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F i n a l l y , a t e n t a t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e n u t r i e n t r e g i m e s o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s w i l l be p r o p o s e d . T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i l l be compared t o a r e c e n t p r o p o s a l f o r t h e o b j e c t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e s by C o u r t i n ejt a_l. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . 5.1 VARIABILITY OF SOIL PROPERTIES The v a r i a b i l i t y p l o t s f o r e a c h s i t e were c h o s e n by t h e p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e r e was enough sample m a t e r i a l t o c o m p l e t e t h e l a b o r a t o r y a n a l y s e s . B e c a u s e t h e v a r i a b i l i t y p l o t s were n o t c h o s e n r a n d o m l y , t h e y s h o u l d n o t be r e g a r d e d as r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e e n t i r e s i t e ( J . P e t k a u , A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r , S t a t i s t i c s D e p t . , U . B . C , p e r s . comm.). 62 F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f c o m p a r i n g t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s o f v a r i a t i o n (CV) and sample s i z e r e q u i r e m e n t s , i t was d e c i d e d t o c o n s i d e r t h e v a r i a b i l i t y p l o t s as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e s i t e s , w h i l e r e a l i z i n g t h a t t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n o f random s e l e c t i o n was v i o l a t e d . 5.1.1 P o t e n t i a l S o u r c e s o f V a r i a b i l i t y Not D e t e r m i n e d i n t h i s S t u d y A n a l y t i c a l and s u b s a m p l i n g e r r o r were n o t d e t e r m i n e d d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y . However, f o r t h e f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s o f p H ( C a C l 2 ) , TC, TN, TP, exCa, exMg and exK, t h e mean CV was <3.7% i n t h e s t u d y o f Q u e s n e l ( 1 9 8 0 ) . F o r t h e m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s o f p H ( H 2 0 ) , p H ( C a C l 2 ) , TN, exP, exCa, exMg and exK s t u d i e d by S l a v i n s k i ( 1 9 7 7 ) , t h e mean CV was <7.4%. F o r b o t h f o r e s t f l o o r and m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s , pH v a l u e s had t h e l o w e s t mean CV, e x c h a n g e a b l e b a s e s t h e g r e a t e s t , and TC and TN were i n t e r m e d i a t e . S o i l s a m p l i n g was c o n d u c t e d between 1 May and 1 A u g u s t d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y . S e a s o n a l v a r i a b i l i t y o f p r o p e r t i e s c o u l d a l s o be c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e o b s e r v e d v a r i a t i o n between s i t e s . M i n e r a l s o i l s were sampled d u r i n g May, J u l y and September by S l a v i n s k i (1977) t o e v a l u a t e s e a s o n a l v a r i a b i l i t y o f c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t f o r t h e p r o p e r t i e s s t u d i e d , u n d e r t h e c l i m a t e o f c o a s t a l s o u t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a any s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n t h e main g r o w i n g s e a s o n was s m a l l and s u b o r d i n a t e t o s p a t i a l v a r i a t i o n . MinN as d e f i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y would i n c l u d e b o t h e x t r a c t a b l e NH 4-N p r e s e n t a t t h e 63 time o f s a m p l i n g and t h e N m i n e r a l i z e d d u r i n g t h e i n c u b a t i o n p e r i o d . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t s e a s o n a l e f f e c t s on d e c o m p o s i t i o n and u p t a k e o f NH 4-N c o u l d have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e t o t a l v a r i a t i o n o f t h e minN v a l u e s between t h e s t u d y s i t e s . The CV's and sample s i z e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e s t u d y s i t e f o r e s t f l o o r s (App. I, T a b l e 10) compare f a v o r a b l y w i t h t h o s e o f Q u e s n e l (1980) and C a r t e r ( 1 9 8 3 ) . F o r a l l s t u d y s i t e s t h e o v e r a l l o r d e r o f i n c r e a s i n g CV f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s w o u l d be as f o l l o w s : p H ( H 2 0 ) <TC <TN <TS <TP <exMg <exCa <exK <exMn <minN. T h i s i s s i m i l a r t o b o t h Q u e s n e l (1980) and C a r t e r ( 1 9 8 3 ) , who n o t e d t h a t pH, TC and TN were among t h e l e a s t v a r i a b l e p r o p e r t i e s and t h a t Ca, Mg and K were among t h e most v a r i a b l e . The CV's and sample s i z e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e m i n e r a l s o i l s a m ples o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s (App. J , T a b l e 11) were s i m i l a r t o or s l i g h t l y l o w e r t h a n t h e same p r o p e r t i e s s t u d i e d by C o u r t i n e t a l . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . The s l i g h t l y h i g h e r CV and sample s i z e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f C o u r t i n e t a l . (1983) c o u l d p r o b a b l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e 0-30 cm s a m p l i n g d e p t h v e r s u s t h e 0-50 cm s a m p l i n g d e p t h o f t h i s s t u d y . B o t h L e w i s (1976) and S l a v i n s k i (1977) n o t e d t h a t v a r i a b i l i t y o f m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s a t a g i v e n d e p t h d e c r e a s e d w i t h e v e r i n c r e a s i n g d e p t h o f s a m p l i n g . F o r a l l s t u d y s i t e s t h e o v e r a l l o r d e r o f i n c r e a s i n g CV f o r m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s would be as f o l l o w s : p H ( H 2 0 ) = p H ( C a C l 2 ) <TN <TC <exP=exMg <S0 4 <rainN=exK <exMn. T h i s compares t o t h e CWHa low p r o d u c t i v i t y p l o t o f C o u r t i n e t 64 Table 10. Forest f l o o r sample s i z e requirement arranged by s i t e , l e v e l of p r e c i s i o n and allowable e r r o r F o r e s t f l o o r property Level of pH S i t e p r e c i s i o n (H ?0) TC TN minN TP TS exCa exMg exK exMn GVD GD GF WD VD VF 20%@.80 1 1 1 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 20%@.90 1 1 2 5 5 2 4 6 7 6 20%@.95 1 2 2 7 7 3 6 8 9 9 10%@.80 1 1 2 9 9 4 7 12 14 12 10%@.90 2 2 4 15 15 6 12 19 22 20 10%@.95 2 3 5 22 21 9 17 27 31 28 20%@.80 1 1 1 6 1 1 3 2 3 2 20%@.90 1 2 1 10 2 2 5 4 4 4 20%@.95 2 2 3 14 2 2 6 5 6 6 10%@.80 1 2 3 21 3 3 8 7 7 7 10%@.90 2 3 5 34 4 5 13 11 12 12 10%@.95 3 5 6 48 6 7 19 16 17 16 20%@.80 1 1 2 10 1 1 3 2 7 7 20%@.90 1 2 2 16 2 2 5 4 11 12 20%@.95 2 3 3 22 2 3 7 5 15 17 10%@.80 2 3 4 35 3 3 10 7 24 26 10%@.90 3 5 6 58 4 5 16 11 39 43 10%@.95 4 7 9 81 6 8 23 15 55 60 20%@.80 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 20%@.90 1 2 2 5 3 2 3 4 4 4 20%@.95 1 2 3 7 5 3 4 5 6 5 10%@.80 1 2 3 10 6 4 5 7 8 7 10%@.90 2 4 5 16 10 6 8 11 13 11 10%@.95 2 5 7 22 13 9 11 16 18 16 20%@.80 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 2 3 4 20%@.90 1 1 2 5 3 3 4 3 5 6 20%@.95 1 2 2 7 4 4 5 4 6 8 10%@.80 2 3 2 10 6 4 7 6 8 12 10%@.90 3 4 4 16 9 7 11 9 13 19 10%@.95 3 6 5 22 13 10 15 13 19 27 20%@.80 4 1 2 10 1 8 10 9 12 10 20%@.90 7 1 3 16 1 13 16 15 20 17 20%@.95 10 1 4 23 3 18 22 21 28 24 10%@.80 14 1 4 36 3 29 35 34 46 38 10%@.90 23 1 7 60 5 47 57 56 75 61 10%@.95 32 1 10 84 6 67 80 79 106 87 65 Table 11. Mineral s o i l sample size requirement arranged by s i t e , l e v e l of p r e c i s i o n and allowable error Mineral s o i l property Level of pH pH S i t e p r e c i s i o n (H,0) (CaCl,) TC TO minN exP SO exCa exMg exK exMn 20«@.80 1 1 6 5 20 15 4 65 12 7 40 20%@.9O 1 1 10 8 33 24 7 106 19 12 66 20%@.95 1 1 14 11 46 34 10 151 27 16 93 10%§.80 1 1 22 17 76 55 14 256 44 25 158 10%?.90 1 1 36 28 125 91 23 424 72 42 262 10%@.95 1 2 50 39 179 129 32 604 102 59 373 20%@.80 1 1 9 6 9 4 8 17 13 9 12 20%?.90 1 1 14 10 14 6 13 28 21 14 20 20%@.95 1 1 19 13 20 9 19 40 29 20 28 10%@.8O 1 1 30 20 32 13 29 66 47 31 45 10%3.90 1 2 50 33 53 21 48 108 78 51 74 10%@.95 2 2 70 47 74 29 68 154 110 73 105 20%§.80 1 1 5 4 6 10 11 7 7 8 11 20%@.90 1 1 8 6 9 16 18 12 12 14 19 20%@.95 1 1 11 8 13 23 25 17 16 19 26 10%@.80 1 1 16 11 20 36 40 26 26 30 42 10%@.90 1 1 26 18 33 60 66 43 42 49 69 10%@.95 1 2 36 26 46 85 93 60 59 70 97 20%?.80 1 1 7 7 27 17 11 19 13 9 27 20%9.90 1 1 12 12 45 28 18 31 22 14 45 20%@.95 1 1 16 16 63 40 25 43 31 20 63 10S@.80 1 1 26 25 106 65 41 72 50 31 105 10%@.90 1 1 42 41 175 107 67 118 82 50 174 10%@.95 1 1 59 58 250 153 94 168 117 71 248 20%9.80 1 1 4 3 7 6 12 14 9 10 17 20%@.90 1 1 7 5 11 9 20 23 15 17 27 20%@.95 1 1 9 7 16 13 28 32 21 24 39 10%@.80 1 1 14 10 24 20 46 52 33 38 63 10%@.90 1 1 22 17 40 33 75 86 54 62 104 10%@.95 2 2 31 24 56 47 106 122 76 88 148 20%@ .80 1 1 3 3 6 8 8 6 7 20 5 20%(3, .90 1 1 5 6 10 14 13 10 11 33 7 20%? .95 1 1 7 8 14 19 19 13 16 46 10 10%@, .80 1 1 9 11 21 30 30 20 24 76 15 10%@, .90 2 2 15 18 35 49 49 33 40 126 24 10%?, .95 2 2 21 25 49 70 69 47 56 179 34 66 a l . (1983) where: p H ( H 2 0 ) = P H ( C a C l 2 ) <TC=TN=exK <minN <S0 4 <exMg <exP <exCa and f o r t h e h i g h p r o d u c t i v i t y p l o t where: p H ( H 2 0 ) < p H ( C a C l 2 ) <TN <TC <minN=S0 4 <exK <exMg <exP <exCa. S i m i l a r p a t t e r n s o f v a r i a b i l i t y were n o t e d by L e w i s (1976) f o r p o d z o l i c B h o r i z o n s i n t h e CWH zone on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d where pH <TN = TC <exK = exCa, and S l a v i n s k i (1977) f o r t h e 0-20 cm m i n e r a l l a y e r i n t h e CDFb subzone n e a r V a n c o u v e r where pH <TN = TC <exK <exMg <exCa. The p a t t e r n o f v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e above examples i s q u i t e s i m i l a r i n t h a t pH has t h e l o w e s t v a r i a b i l i t y and e x c h a n g e a b l e b a s e s t h e g r e a t e s t . Compared t o t h e o t h e r s t u d i e s t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f exP and exMg was lower t h a n t h a t o f exK, and rninN was among t h e most v a r i a b l e p r o p e r t i e s i n t h i s s t u d y . 5.1.2 T r e n d s i n V a r i a b i l i t y F o r f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s , b o t h Q u e s n e l (1980) and C a r t e r (1983) n o t e d t h a t t h e l e a s t v a r i a b l e h o r i z o n was an L F , w h i l e t h e most v a r i a b l e was an H/Ah. In g e n e r a l L F h o r i z o n s were l e s s v a r i a b l e t h a n H/Ah h o r i z o n s . F o r t h e s i t e s i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e p r e d o m i n a n t f o r e s t f l o o r h o r i z o n s would be L F f o r t h e GVD and GD s i t e s , H f o r t h e VVD, GF and VF s i t e s , and Ah f o r t h e VF s i t e . The Ah h o r i z o n was sampled as p a r t o f t h e m i n e r a l s o i l i n t h i s s t u d y , and o n l y t h e L h o r i z o n p l u s any dead wood w h i c h had been v i s i b l y a l t e r e d was sampled as p a r t o f th e f o r e s t f l o o r i n t h e VF s i t e . At t h e 95% c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l w i t h 10% a l l o w a b l e e r r o r , t h e VF s i t e had t h e most v a r i a b l e 67 f o r e s t f l o o r f o r a l l p r o p e r t i e s ( T a b l e 1 0 ) . T h i s p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t s s a m p l i n g m e t h o d o l o g y , r a t h e r t h a n i n h e r e n t v a r i a b i l i t y o f t h e L h o r i z o n . When t h e s i t e s were r a n k e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e maximum number o f f o r e s t f l o o r samples r e q u i r e d t o a c h i e v e t h e 95% c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l w i t h a 10% a l l o w a b l e e r r o r f o r a l l p r o p e r t i e s , t h e y were r a n k e d as VVD <VD <GVD <GD <GF <VF. T h i s arangement c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as r e f l e c t i n g a number o f f a c t o r s . Time f r o m l a s t d i s t u r b a n c e c o u l d e x p l a i n t h e VVD s i t e b e i n g l e s s v a r i a b l e t h a n t h e y o u n g e r GVD, GD and GF s i t e s . The i n c r e a s i n g a c t i v i t y o f s o i l o r g a n i s m s i n Moders v e r s u s Mors c o u l d e x p l a i n t h e VVD b e i n g l e s s v a r i a b l e t h a n VF and GVD, and GD b e i n g l e s s v a r i a b l e t h a n GF. In a d d i t i o n , t h e d i s t u r b a n c e o f r e c e n t f e r t i l i z a t i o n and t h i n n i n g c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e h i g h e r v a r i a b i l i t y o f f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s f o r t h e GF s i t e . When f o r e s t f l o o r minN v a r i a b i l i t y was compared f o r t h e s t u d y s i t e s , t h e h i g h e s t minN CV' s were f o r t h e r e c e n t l y f e r t i l i z e d GD and GF s i t e s , s u p p o r t i n g t h e above h y p o t h e s i s . The GVD and VVD s i t e s had t h e h i g h e s t sample s i z e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r a l l m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s a t t h e 95% c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l w i t h a 10% t o t a l a l l o w a b l e e r r o r ( T a b l e 1 1 ) . The r a n k i n g i n terms o f i n c r e a s i n g sample s i z e r e q u i r e m e n t was GF <VD <GD <VF <VVD <GVD. The CWHa 'low p r o d u c t i v i t y ' s i t e s o f C o u r t i n ejt a l . (1983) w h i c h may be e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e VVD and GVD s i t e s o f t h i s s t u d y , r e q u i r e d g r e a t e r s a m p l i n g i n t e n s i t y t h a n t h e ' h i g h p r o d u c t i v i t y ' p l o t s f o r minN, exCa, exK, exMg, exP and S 0 4 . In t h i s s t u d y , g r e a t e r s a m p l i n g i n t e n s i t y would 68 o n l y be r e q u i r e d f o r minN, exCa and ExP i n t h e GVD and VVD s i t e s . The GVD s i t e s w ould r e q u i r e t h e l e a s t s a m p l i n g f o r S 0 4 and exK. A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e i n c r e a s e d v a r i a b i l i t y o f S 0 4 i n s i t e s w i t h b e t t e r m o i s t u r e s t a t u s (VF and GF) i s a more s u i t a b l e l e a c h i n g e n v i r o n m e n t f o r t h e m o b i l e s u l f a t e a n i o n . W i t h i n - p l o t CV was compared t o among-plot CV f o r t h e s t u d y s i t e s f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s (App. I ) , and m i n e r a l s o i l (App. J ) . S i m i l a r t o C o u r t i n e t a l . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , c o n s i s t e n t t r e n d s were not f o u n d . F o r m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s i n t h e CWHa subzone C o u r t i n ejt aJL. (1983) n o t e d t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , t h e r e was a g r e a t e r a m o n g - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y f o r t h e h i g h p r o d u c t i v i t y p l o t s , a t t r i b u t i n g t h i s a t l e a s t p a r t l y t o p a r e n t m a t e r i a l h o m o g e n e i t y . They n o t e d t h a t v a r i a b i l i t y among p l o t s on g l a c i o f l u v i a l p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s was g e n e r a l l y l e s s t h a n t h a t among p l o t s on m o r a i n a l p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s w h i c h was l e s s t h a n t h a t among a l l u v i a l p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s . The GF s i t e on g l a c i o f l u v i a l p a r e n t m a t e r i a l was t h e o v e r a l l l e a s t v a r i a b l e s i t e i n t h i s s t u d y . However, some s i t e s on m o r a i n a l p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s (GVD and VVD) were more v a r i a b l e t h a n t h e a l l u v i a l (VF) and c o l l u v i a l (VD) s i t e s i n t h i s s t u d y . A l l f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s e x p r e s s e d as c o n c e n t r a t i o n s c o u l d o n l y be d e s c r i b e d a t t h e 80% c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l , w i t h a 20% a l l o w a b l e e r r o r i n t h i s s t u d y ( T a b l e 1 0 ) . F o r m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s e x p r e s s e d as c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , i n a l l s i t e s o n l y p H ( H 2 0 ) , TC, TN, S 0 4 and exMg, c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d and o n l y a t t h e 80% c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l , w i t h a 20% a l l o w a b l e e r r o r . Of 69 the m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s s t u d i e d by C o u r t i n e t a l . (1983) o n l y TN and S 0 4 q u a n t i t i e s ( k g / ha) t e n d e d t o be more v a r i a b l e t h a n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , b u t c o n s i s t e n t d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t f o u n d f o r minN, exP, exK, exMg and exCa. I t i s l i k e l y t h a t m i n e r a l s o i l and f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s e x p r e s s e d q u a n t i t a t i v e l y i n t h i s s t u d y a r e g e n e r a l l y a t o r below t h e 80% c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l w i t h a 20% a l l o w a b l e e r r o r . In summary, v a r i a b i l i t y o f f o r e s t f l o o r and m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s i n t h i s s t u d y were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f o t h e r s t u d i e s . Lowest v a r i a b i l i t y was f o u n d w i t h p r o p e r t i e s s u c h as pH, TC and TN, w h i l e exCa and exMn were t h e most v a r i a b l e . Compared t o t h e r a n k i n g o f p r o p e r t i e s i n o t h e r s t u d i e s exP and exMg had r e l a t i v e l y l o w e r v a r i a b i l i t y . C o n s i s t e n t t r e n d s i n v a r i a b i l i t y were n o t a p p a r e n t . A l t h o u g h f o r m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s o f minN, exCa and exP t h e GVD and VVD s i t e s were t h e most v a r i a b l e . C o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s t o t h e o b s e r v e d v a r i a b i l i t y p r o b a b l y i n c l u d e p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s , p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y , t i m e s i n c e l a s t d i s t u r b a n c e and p o s s i b l y m o i s t u r e r e g i m e . 5.2 SELECTION OF DIFFERENTIATING CHARACTERISTICS 5.2.1 U n i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s 5.2.1.1 F o r e s t F l o o r B u l k D e n s i t i e s and C o n v e r s i o n F a c t o r s The r e s u l t s o f t h e ANOVA f o r t h e f o r e s t f l o o r b u l k d e n s i t i e s and c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r s f o r p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y and SMR a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 12. The s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n 70 T a b l e 12. The F - v a l u e s f o r two-way ANOVA w i t h i n t e r a c t i o n f o r b u l k d e n s i t y a n d c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r o f f o r e s t f l o o r a r r a n g e d b y p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y (PML) a n d s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e (SMR) P r o p e r t y PML SMR PML x SMR F o r e s t f l o o r b u l k d e n s i t y 6.76** 2.45 1 0 . 2 0 * * F o r e s t f l o o r c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r 1.54 3 2 . 8 2 * * 1 4 . 7 2 * * ** S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l . 71 between p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y and SMR f o r f o r e s t f l o o r b u l k d e n s i t i e s and c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r s does n o t a l l o w i n d e p e n d e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f e i t h e r f a c t o r ( S o k a l and R o l f , 1 9 7 3 ) . The r e s u l t s o f t h e SNK r a n g e t e s t f o r f o r e s t f l o o r b u l k d e n s i t i e s and c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r s on a s t a n d a r d b a s i s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 13. The f o r e s t f l o o r s o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s d i s p l a y a g r a d i e n t o f b u l k d e n s i t y r e f l e c t i n g humus fo r m . The L h o r i z o n o f t h e VF s i t e had t h e l o w e s t b u l k d e n s i t y , w i t h i n c r e a s i n g b u l k d e n s i t y f o r t h e Mors and t h e GVD and GD s i t e s , t h e Moders o f t h e GF and VD s i t e s and t h e g r e a t e s t b u l k d e n s i t y i n t h e Mor o f t h e VVD s i t e . The v a r i a b i l i t y o f b o t h d e p t h and b u l k d e n s i t y o f t h e f o r e s t f l o o r s was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e l a c k o f s e p a r a t i o n between t h e t h i n Mors (GVD, GD) and Moders (GF, VD). 5.2.1.2 F o r e s t F l o o r P r o p e r t i e s F o r e a c h f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t y t h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h i n s i t e v a r i a t i o n ( T a b l e 1 4 ) . T h e r e was a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e SMR and p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y f o r a l l f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s e x c e p t pH(H20). The s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n t e r m i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e two f a c t o r s s h o u l d n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y . The s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e g r o u p i n g o f s i t e s by p a r e n t m a t e r i a l and SMR d i d n o t i d e n t i f y t h e main s o u r c e s o f v a r i a t i o n f o r most f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s . A n a l y s i s o f t h e c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r f o r t h e f o r e s t f l o o r s a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f SMR c l a s s e s d i d n o t show a r e l a t i o n s h i p t o n u t r i e n t q u a n t i t i e s o f f o r e s t f l o o r s . The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between f o r e s t T a b l e 13. The r e s u l t s o f Student-Newman-Keuls range t e s t (1) f o r f o r e s t f l o o r b u l k d e n s i t y and c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r f o r e ach s t u d y s i t e P r o p e r t y S i t e s and V a l u e VF GVD GD GF VD VVD F o r e s t f l o o r b u l k d e n s i t y ( g / c c ) .100 .104 .111 .123 .136 .156 VF GF GVD GD VD VVD F o r e s t f l o o r c o n v e r -s i o n f a c t o r ( x l O 4 ) 1.14 2.78 3.71 3.84 4.19 6.14 (1) U n d e r l i n e d v a l u e s a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . 73 T a b l e 14. The F - v a l u e s f o r two-way ANOVA w i t h i n t e r a c t i o n f o r p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y (PML) and s o i l m o i s t u r e regime (SMR) f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s P r o p e r t y PML SMR PML x SMR P l o t TC 0 .41 43 .73** 17 .75** 20.13** TN 1 .18 19 .62** 19 .95** 19.42** minN 15 .48** 1 .15 20 .94** 7.38** TP 12 .73** 54 .09** 31 .66** 7.05** TS 0 .43 37 .57** 29 .63** 16.34** exCa 1 .84 18 .23** 27 .36** 8.55** exMg 0 .13 12 .67** 11 .28** 10.32** exK 1 .76 45 .20** 10 .78** 4.49** exMn 6 .82* 250 .04** 67 .24** 4.47** p H ( H 2 0 ) 0 .11 48 .61** 3 .17 1.83* * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . ** S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l . 74 f l o o r pH o f SMR c l a s s e s a r e e x p l a i n e d by changes i n humus form w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d t o SMR ( T a b l e 1 5 ) . The VVD and GVD s i t e s i n t h i s s t u d y b o t h had Mors, t h e GD and VD s i t e s a Mor and Moder, r e s p e c t i v e l y and t h e GF and VF s i t e s a Moder and a M u l l , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Most f o r e s t f l o o r n u t r i e n t s had an a r r a n g e m e n t o f p l o t means v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f TC p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 16. The l o w e s t v a l u e s were f o r p l o t s i n t h e VF s i t e , i n t e r m e d i a t e v a l u e s were f o r t h e t h i n Mors and Moders o f t h e GVD, GD, GF and VD s i t e s , w h i l e t h e g r e a t e s t v a l u e s were f o r p l o t s i n t h e VVD s i t e . As was n o t e d f o r t h e c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r , t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t r e f l e c t s d i f f e r e n c e s i n d e p t h and b u l k d e n s i t y o f t h e f o r e s t f l o o r m a t e r i a l s . The v a r i a b i l i t y o f t h e c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s , d e p t h o f f o r e s t f l o o r , and b u l k d e n s i t y o f f o r e s t f l o o r w ould a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e w i t h i n s i t e v a r i a b i l i t y n o t e d f o r e a c h f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t y . The a r r a n g e m e n t o f s t u d y s i t e s u s i n g f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s d i d n o t c o r r e s p o n d t o e i t h e r SNR o r t h e m o i s t u r e - n u t r i e n t g r a d i e n t o f t h e m u l t i v a r i a t e v e g e t a t i o n a n a l y s i s . 5.2.1.3 M i n e r a l S o i l B u l k D e n s i t y and C o n v e r s i o n F a c t o r s The r e s u l t s o f t h e ANOVA f o r m i n e r a l s o i l b u l k d e n s i t y and c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r f o r p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y and SMR a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 17. The i n t e r a c t i o n between p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y and SMR was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . SMR c l a s s e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t w h i l e p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g i e s were n o t . A g e n e r a l t e n d e n c y f o r g r a n i t i c t i l l s t o be c o a r s e r 75 T a b l e 15. S t u d y s i t e s , most common humus f o r m i n t h e s t u d y s i t e s a r r a n g e d by s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e (SMR) and s o i l m o i s t u r e regime mean f o r e s t f l o o r pH(H20) Most common humus f o r m Mean SMR S i t e w i t h i n s t u d y s i t e pH(H20) V e r y d r y GVD, VVD Mor, Mor 4.1 a Dry GD, VD Mor, Moder 4.2 a F r e s h GF, VF Moder, M u l l 4.8 b a-b: V a l u e s i n t h e same column w i t h t h e same l e t t e r a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . 76 T a b l e 16. The r e s u l t s o f Student-Newman-Keuls range t e s t f o r f o r e s t f l o o r TC v a l u e s f o r e a c h s t u d y p l o t VF3, VF1 ' VF4, VF2 GF4, GF2 GF2, GD3, G F l , GD4 GD4, GVD2, GD2, VD1 GVD2, GD2, VD1, GF3 GF3, GVD4, VD4 GVD4, VD4, VD2, GVD3 VD2, GVD3, GVD1 GVD3, GVD1, VD3 GVD1, VD3, GDI GDI, VVD2 VVD2, VVD4 VVD1, VVD3 T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between p l o t s i n t h e same row. V a l u e s a r e a r r a n g e d w i t h l o w e s t i n t h e t o p and g r e a t e s t i n t h e bottom, w i t h i n e a c h row v a l u e s i n c r e a s e from l e f t t o r i g h t . 77-T a b l e 17. The F - v a l u e s f o r two-way 7AN0VA w i t h i n t e r a c t i o n f o r b u l k d e n s i t y and c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r f o r m i n e r a l s o i l a r r a n g e d by p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y (PML) and s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e (SMR) P r o p e r t y PM SMR PML x SMR M i n e r a l s o i l b u l k d e n s i t y 1.25 17.11** 0.72 M i n e r a l s o i l c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r 0.33 15.13** 0.83 ** S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l . T a b l e 18. The r e s u l t s o f Student-Newman-Keuls r a n g e t e s t f o r m i n e r a l s o i l b u l k d e n s i t y and c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r f o r e a c h s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e (SMR) SMR S i t e s B u l k d e n s i t y C o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r ( g / c c ) ( x l O 6 ) V e r y d r y GVD, VVD .622 a 2.81 a Dry GD, VD .515 b 2.57 a F r e s h GF, VF .767 c 3.85 b a- c : V a l u e s i n t h e same column w i t h t h e same l e t t e r a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . 78 t e x t u r e d and t o have a g r e a t e r c o a r s e f r a g m e n t c o n t e n t t h a n v o l c a n i c t i l l s i n t h e Cowichan Lake a r e a was n o t e d by K o r e l u s and L e w i s ( 1 9 7 6 ) . The s m a l l number o f s t u d y s i t e s i n c l u d i n g a v a r i e t y o f s u r f i c i a l m a t e r i a l s and t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f m i n e r a l s o i l b u l k d e n s i t y would e x p l a i n t h e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between p a r e n t m a t e r i a l b u l k d e n s i t i e s i n t h i s s t u d y . The r e s u l t s o f t h e SNK r a n g e t e s t f o r m i n e r a l s o i l b u l k d e n s i t i e s and c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r s a r e i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e 18. The v e r y d r y and d r y SMR c l a s s e s were n o t c o n s i s t e n t l y s e p a r a t e i n c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r v a l u e s b e c a u s e t h e GVD and VVD s i t e s i n c l u d e d p l o t s w i t h l e s s t h a n 50 cm m i n e r a l s o i l , w h i c h would d e c r e a s e t h e v a l u e o f t h e c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r . The f r e s h SMR s i t e s were c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t , due t o t h e g r e a t e r v a l u e f o r b u l k d e n s i t y . When t h e m i n e r a l s o i l b u l k d e n s i t y and c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r s were compared between s i t e s ( T a b l e 1 9 ) , t h e VD s i t e was c o n s i s t e n t l y t h e l o w e s t , w h i l e t h e VF s i t e was c o n s i s t e n t l y t h e h i g h e s t . The low c o a r s e f r a g m e n t - f r e e b u l k d e n s i t y o f t h e VD s i t e was due t o t h e h i g h c o a r s e f r a g m e n t c o n t e n t (App. E ) . W h i l e t h e t r e n d between s i t e s was c l e a r , t h e g r e a t v a r i a b i l i t y o f b u l k d e n s i t y v a l u e s shows t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s i t e s were few. 5.2.1.4 M i n e r a l S o i l P r o p e r t i e s F o r e a c h m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t y e x c e p t minN and p H ( C a C l 2 ) t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h i n s i t e v a r i a b i l i t y ( T a b l e 2 0 ) . T h e r e was a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y and SMR f o r a l l p r o p e r t i e s e x c e p t TC, TN and 79 T a b l e 19. The r e s u l t s o f S t u d e n t - N e w m a n - K e u l s r a n g e t e s t ( 1 ) f o r m i n e r a l s o i l b u l k d e n s i t y and c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r f o r e a c h s t u d y s i t e P r o p e r t y S i t e VD GD GVD VVD GF VF M i n e r a l s o i l b u l k d e n s i t y ( g / c c ) ,508 .521 .602 .642 .721 .813 VD GD VVD GVD GF VF M i n e r a l s o i l c o n v e r -s i o n f a c t o r ( x l O ^ ) 2.54 2.61 2.78 2.85 3.61 4.09 (1) U n d e r l i n e d v a l u e s a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . 80 T a b l e 20. The F - v a l u e s f o r two-way ANOVA w i t h i n t e r a c t i o n f o r p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y (PML) and s o i l m o i s t u r e regime (SMR) f o r m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s P r o p e r t y PML SMR PML x SMR P l o t TC 0.63 12 .41** 3 .21 3.09** TN 20.51** 87.80** 1 .92 3.64** minN 54.35** 131.07** 0 .89 1. 38 exP 58.23** 4.52* 7 .16** 8.80** S 0 4 3.51 9.12** 4 .24* 3.16** exCa 54.75** 94.67** 3 .97* 3 .96** exMg 79.20** 130.38** 30 .36** 3.16** exK 0.01 4.49* 4 .69* 4.00** exMn 13.65** 5.93* 12 .96** 2.94** p H ( H 2 0 ) 56.84** 19.25 20 .14** 3.17** p H ( C a C l 2 ) 49.33* 74.19** 66 .08** 1.47 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l . 81 minN. The s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e g r o u p i n g o f s i t e s by p a r e n t m a t e r i a l and SMR d i d n o t i d e n t i f y t h e main s o u r c e s o f v a r i a t i o n f o r most m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s . The SNK r a n g e t e s t r e s u l t s f o r c o m p a r i n g t h e SMR c l a s s means f o r TC, TN and minN have been i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e 21. The f r e s h SMR i n c l u d e s s i t e s w i t h Moder and i n p a r t i c u l a r M u l l humus f o r m s , w h i c h would i n c o r p o r a t e g r e a t e r amounts o f o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l i n t o t h e m i n e r a l s o i l , r e s u l t i n g i n g r e a t e r q u a n t i t i e s o f C and N. The t r e n d s f o r TC and TN a l s o r e f l e c t t h e c o n f o u n d i n g o f t h e SMR g r a d i e n t w i t h m i n e r a l s o i l b u l k d e n s i t y . The v a l u e s f o r minN a r e d i s t i n c t f o r e a c h SMR, and t h e o b s e r v e d minN i n c r e a s e s p a r a l l e l t h e s o i l m o i s t u r e i n c r e a s e a l o n g t h e SMR g r a d i e n t . The i n c r e a s e i n N a v a i l a b i l i t y ( u s i n g minN as an i n d e x o f N a v a i l a b i l i t y ) c o u l d be due t o an improvement i n s o i l m o i s t u r e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h e n h a n c e s m i n e r a l i z a t i o n o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r and t h e r a t e o f N c y c l i n g . A s i m i l a r i n c r e a s e i n t h e amount o f a v a i l a b l e s o i l N w i t h i n c r e a s i n g s o i l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t was f o u n d d u r i n g a g r e e n h o u s e s t u d y by B r o c k l e y ( 1 9 8 1 ) . The c o v a r i a t i o n o f b o t h a v a i l a b l e N and s i t e m o i s t u r e s t a t u s f o r m e d a complex g r a d i e n t i n t h e f o r e s t c o m m u n i t i e s s t u d i e d by P a s t o r e t a l . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . M i n e r a l s o i l TN was s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r i n t h e v o l c a n i c l i t h o l o g y compared t o t h e g r a n i t i c l i t h o l o g y (3755 kg/ha vs 2860 k g / h a ) . The i m p r o v e d Ca and Mg s t a t u s o f t h e v o l c a n i c l i t h o l o g y may have i m p r o v e d n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y , and s o i l s t r u c t u r e ( r e s u l t i n g i n b e t t e r m o i s t u r e h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y and a e r a t i o n ) , w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n s f o r o r g a n i c .82 T a b l e 21. S t u d y s i t e s a r r a n g e d by s o i l m o i s t u r e regime (SMR) and s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e mean v a l u e s f o r m i n e r a l s o i l TC, TN, and minN TC TN minN SMR S i t e s kg/hc V e r y d r y Dry F r e s h GVD, VVD GD, VD GF, VF 84,795 a 79,538 a 115,381 b 2,332 a 16 a 2,632 a 59 b 5,738 b 156 c a - c : V a l u e s i n t h e same column w i t h t h e same l e t t e r a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . 83 m a t t e r d e c o m p o s i t i o n and enhanced N c y c l i n g . D u r i n g t h e t i m e s i n c e t h e l a s t g l a c i a t i o n , t h i s may have r e s u l t e d i n g r e a t e r t o t a l N i n t h e u p p e r m i n e r a l s o i l o f t h e v o l c a n i c l i t h o l o g y s i t e s . The h i g h m i n e r a l s o i l TN o f t h e VF s i t e ( a p p r o x . 7000 kg/ha) would a l s o r a i s e t h e o v e r a l l a v e r a g e o f t h e v o l c a n i c l i t h o l o g y . T h e r e was i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o a s s e s s t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e f e r t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e GD and GF s i t e s a f f e c t e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n m i n e r a l s o i l TN between the two l i t h o l o g i e s . The g r e a t e r minN v a l u e s f o r t h e v o l c a n i c p a r e n t m a t e r i a l compared t o t h e g r a n i t i c p a r e n t m a t e r i a l (82 k g/ha vs 35 kg/ha) s u g g e s t e d an o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e d N a v a i l a b i l i t y . T h i s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o a c o m b i n a t i o n o f f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g : g r e a t e r TN, b e t t e r Ca and Mg s t a t u s w h i c h improve c o n d i t i o n s f o r N m i n e r a l i z a t i o n by s o i l o r g a n i s m s , and some upward b i a s o f t h e mean by t h e much g r e a t e r minN v a l u e s f o r t h e VF s i t e compared t o a l l o t h e r s i t e s ( A p p e n d i x H). The SNK r a n g e t e s t r e s u l t s f o r m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s a r r a n g e d by p l o t mean d i s p l a y s e v e r a l t r e n d s d e p e n d i n g on t h e p r o p e r t y . For pH(H20) , TC, SO4, exK and exMn t h e r e were v e r y few s t u d y p l o t s w h i c h were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . The few s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between p l o t s and t h e g r e a t w i t h i n s i t e v a r i a b i l i t y was i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f p l o t s f o r m i n e r a l s o i l TC ( T a b l e 2 2 ) . The v e r y low TC q u a n t i t y f o r p l o t VD4 c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e low b u l k d e n s i t y (.346 g / c c , App. E) and t h e r e s u l t i n g d e c r e a s e o f t h e c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r . The TC i n t h e m i n e r a l s o i l was w i t h i n t h e r a n g e f o r o t h e r VD 84 T a b l e 22. The r e s u l t s o f Student-Newman-Keuls range t e s t f o r m i n e r a l s o i l TC v a l u e s f o r e a c h s t u d y p l o t VD4, GDI, GVD1, GD4, VD3, GD3, VVD3, V D l , VVD4, VVD2, VVD1, GVD2, GVD4 ' 2 GDI, GVD1, GD4, VD3, GD3, VVD3, V D l , VVD4, VVD2, VVD1, GVD2, GVD4, GF3, VD2, GF4, GD3, VF3, GF2 GVD1, GD4, VD3, GD3, VVD3, V D l , VVD4, VVD2, VVD1, GVD2, GVD4, GF3, VD2, GF4, GD3, VF3, GF2, GF1, GD2 VVD2, VVD1, GVD2, GVD4, GF3, VD2, GF4, GD3, VF3, GF2, GF1, GD2, VF2 VF3, GF2, GF1, GD2, VF2, V F l , VF4 T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between p l o t s i n t h e same row. V a l u e s a r e a r r a n g e d w i t h l o w e s t i n t h e t o p row and g r e a t e s t i n t h e bottom, w i t h i n e a c h row v a l u e s i n c r e a s e f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t . 85 p l o t s (App. H). The h i g h TC q u a n t i t y f o r GD2 was a t t r i b u t e d t o d i s t u r b a n c e d u r i n g l o g g i n g w h i c h mixed o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l w i t h t h e m i n e r a l s o i l (App. F ) . W h i l e some i n d i v i d u a l p l o t v a l u e s may be e x p l a i n e d by u n i q u e f a c t o r s , t h e o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n f o r TC and t h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d p r o p e r t i e s w i t h s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s was t h a t t h e w i t h i n s i t e v a r i a b i l i t y was h i g h , few i f any s i t e s were d i s t i n c t , and even g e n e r a l t r e n d s were n o t d i s c e r n a b l e w i t h a SNK r a n g e t e s t . The SNK r a n g e t e s t r e s u l t s f o r m i n e r a l s o i l minN ( T a b l e 23) d i s p l a y a w i t h i n s i t e v a r i a b i l i t y t h a t was much l e s s t h a n t h a t f o r m i n e r a l s o i l TC. Where t h e p l o t means o f two d i f f e r e n t s i t e s were 'mixed' ( e . g . t h e GD and VVD s i t e s ) , t h e s i t e s were a s s e s s e d as h a v i n g t h e same SNR c l a s s ( S e c t i o n 4 . 5 ) . The a r r a n g e m e n t o f s i t e s was a l s o s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o r t h e combined m o i s t u r e - n u t r i e n t g r a d i e n t o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n a n a l y s i s ( S e c t i o n 4 . 7 ) . The SNK r a n g e t e s t r e s u l t s f o r exP ( n o t shown) seemed t o r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y . Most v o l c a n i c l i t h o l o g y p l o t s had g r e a t e r q u a n t i t i e s o f exP ( 1 3 . 0 -51.5 kg/ha) t h a n t h e g r a n i t i c l i t h o l o g y p l o t s (3.0-11.5 k g / h a ) . Only t h e VVD2 p l o t (6.6 kg/ha) was s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e o t h e r v o l c a n i c l i t h o l o g y p l o t s . The t r e n d s f o r exMg and exCa ( n o t shown) a l s o r e f l e c t e d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y . G r e a t e r exCa and exMg q u a n t i t i e s were g e n e r a l l y p r e s e n t i n t h e v o l c a n i c l i t h o l o g y e x c e p t f o r t h e GF s i t e . T h i s c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by t h e mixed l i t h o l o g y o f t h e GF s i t e and h i g h m i n e r a l s o i l b u l k d e n s i t y . Between s i t e v a r i a b i l i t y 86 T a b l e 23. The r e s u l t s o f Student-Newman-Keuls r a n g e t e s t f o r m i n e r a l s o i l minN v a l u e s f o r e a c h s t u d y p l o t GVD1, GVD4, GVD2 ' GVD4, GVD2, GVD3, VVD1 GVD2, GVD3, VVD1, VVD3, GDI GVD3, VVD1, VVD3, GDI, VVD2, VVD4, GD3, GD4 VVD3, GDI, VVD2, VVD4, GD3, GD4, GD2, VD4 VVD2, VVD4, GD3, GD4, GD2, VD4, V D l , GF4, VD3, VD2, GF3 GD3, GD4, GD2, VD4, V D l , GF4, VD3, VD2, GF3, G F l GD4, GD2, VD4, V D l , GF4, VD3, VD2, GF3, G F l , GF2 V D l , GF4, VD3, VD2, GF3, G F l , GF2, VF3, VF2 G F l , GF2, VF3, VF2, V F l , VF4 T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between p l o t s i n t h e same row. V a l u e s a r e a r r a n g e d w i t h l o w e s t i n t h e t o p row and g r e a t e s t i n t h e bottom, w i t h i n e a c h row v a l u e s i n c r e a s e f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t . 87 f o r m i n e r a l s o i l exP, exCa and exMg was q u i t e h i g h . T h i s e m p h a s i z e d t h e v a r i a b i l i t y due t o a c o m b i n a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y v a r i a b i l i t y and b u l k d e n s i t y . 5.2.1.5 F o r e s t F l o o r P l u s M i n e r a l S o i l P r o p e r t i e s F o r e a c h f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t y t h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h i n s i t e v a r i a t i o n a t t h e .05 l e v e l ( T a b l e 2 4 ) . T h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s between SMR and p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y o n l y f o r exMg and exMn. The SNK r a n g e t e s t r e s u l t s f o r c o m p a r i n g t h e SMR c l a s s means o f TC, TN, minN, exCa and exK have been i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e 2 5 ) . The SNK r a n g e t e s t r e s u l t s f o r t h e SMR c l a s s means f o r TC, TN and minN have t h e same a r r a n g e m e n t f o r t h o s e o f t h e m i n e r a l s o i l SNK r a n g e t e s t . The r e l a t i v e l y t h i n f o r e s t f l o o r s o f t h i s s t u d y d i d n o t change t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f SMR c l a s s e s n o t e d f o r m i n e r a l s o i l . The same e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between SMR and TC, TN and minN f o r m i n e r a l s o i l would a p p l y t o f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l . The v e r y l a r g e exCa d i f f e r e n c e w h i c h s e p a r a t e t h e f r e s h SMR from t h e o t h e r s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e g r e a t e r m i n e r a l s o i l b u l k d e n s i t i e s o f t h e VF and GF s i t e s , t h e v e r y h i g h exCa v a l u e s f o r t h e VF s i t e , and t h e mix o f l i t h o l o g i e s i n t h e GF s i t e p a r e n t m a t e r i a l . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between SMR c l a s s e s f o r exK r e f l e c t s p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y i n s p i t e o f t h e l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e l i t h o l o g y f a c t o r ( T a b l e 2 4 ) . In s p i t e o f r e l a t i v e l y l o w e r b u l k d e n s i t i e s , t h e p l o t s i n t h e GVD s i t e had l a r g e 88 T a b l e 24. The F - v a l u e s f o r two-way ANOVA w i t h i n t e r a c t i o n f o r p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y (PML) and s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e (SMR) f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s P r o p e r t y PML SMR PML x SMR P l o t TC 1.66 7.82** 1.99 2.97** TN 30.29** 89.18** 3.03 3.07** minN 94.99** 143.98** 2.55 2.94** exCa 73.52** 138.52** 2.53 3.92** exMg 96.56** 120.66** 28.04** 3.23** exK 0.01 3.61* 2.66 3.44** exMn 23.30** 30.83** 10.32** 3.53** * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . ** S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l . 89 Table 25. Study sites arranged by s o i l moisture regime (SMR) and s o i l moisture regime mean values for forest f l o o r plus mineral s o i l TC, TN, minN, exCa, and exK TC TN minN exCa exK SMR Sites kg/ha Very dry GVD, VVD 105,134 a 2837 a 31 a 658 a 183 ab Dry GD, VD 94,645 a 3080 a 74 b 705 a 148 a Fresh GF, VF 124,118 a 6020 b 171 c 3293 b 195 b a-c: Values i n the same column with the same l e t t e r are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at the .05 l e v e l . 90 q u a n t i t i e s o f exK. As a r e s u l t t h e v e r y d r y SMR exK q u a n t i t i e s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e o f t h e f r e s h SMR. P a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y a l o n e does n o t a p p e a r as a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r b e c a u s e o f t h e c o n f o u n d i n g e f f e c t s o f b u l k d e n s i t y and p o s s i b l y l e a c h i n g . The f r e s h SMR had much g r e a t e r b u l k d e n s i t y t h a n t h e o t h e r two SMR c l a s s e s . The f r e s h SMR w ould have a g r e a t e r s o i l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t f o r l o n g e r p e r i o d s t h a n t h e o t h e r SMR c l a s s e s i n t h i s s t u d y . T h e s e would be c o n d i t i o n s s u i t a b l e f o r movement o f r e l a t i v e l y m o b i l e K i o n s below t h e 50 cm s o i l d e p t h sampled i n t h i s s t u d y . The SNK r a n g e t e s t r e s u l t s f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l TN, minN and exMg a r r a n g e d by s t u d y p l o t s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e s 26, 27 and 28. The r e s u l t s f o r TN d i s p l a y a p a t t e r n o f t h e GVD p l o t s a t t h e p o o r e s t extreme w i t h p l o t mean q u a n t i t i e s p r o g r e s s i v e l y i n c r e a s i n g t h e GD, VVD, GF and VF p l o t s . The p l o t s o f t h e VD s i t e were q u i t e s c a t t e r e d . P l o t VD4 had p a r t i c u l a r l y low TN v a l u e s . The w i t h i n s i t e v a r i a b i l i t y o f t h e o t h e r s i t e s was l e s s t h a n t h a t o f t h e VD s i t e . The lower m i n e r a l s o i l b u l k d e n s i t y o f t h e VF3 p l o t (App. E) would a c c o u n t f o r t h e s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower TN v a l u e s compared t o t h e o t h e r p l o t s i n t h e VF s i t e . The s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e GD2 p l o t can be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e c h u r n i n g o f o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l i n t o t h e u p p e r m i n e r a l s o i l d u r i n g l o g g i n g . F o r f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l minN v a l u e s ( T a b l e 27) t h e GVD and VF s i t e s were q u i t e d i s t i n c t a t t h e e x t r e m e s , w h i l e p l o t s f r o m t h e GD and VVD s i t e s and t h e GF and VD s i t e s were m i x e d . The GD and VVD s i t e s were b o t h a s s e s s e d as medium SNR, 91 T a b l e 26. The r e s u l t s o f Student-Newman-Keuls r a n g e t e s t f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l TN v a l u e s f o r ea c h s t u d y p l o t GVD1, GVD2 GVD4, GVD3, GDI, V D 4 1 ' 2 GVD2, GVD4, GVD3, GDI, VD4, GD3, GD4 GVD3, GDI, VD4, GD3, GD4, VVD2, VD1, VD3, VVD1, VVD4, GD2 GD3, GD4, VVD2, VD1, VD3, VVD1, VVD4, GD2, VVD3, VD2 VVD2, VD1, VD3, VVD1, VVD4, GD2, VVD3, VD2, GF3 GF3, GF4, GF2, VF3, G F l VF2, VF4, VF1 T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between p l o t s i n t h e same row. V a l u e s a r e a r r a n g e d w i t h l o w e s t i n t h e t o p row and g r e a t e s t i n t h e b o t t o m row, w i t h i n e a c h row v a l u e s i n c r e a s e f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t . 92 T a b l e 27. The r e s u l t s o f Student-Newman-Keuls r a n g e t e s t f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l minN v a l u e s f o r e a ch s t u d y p l o t GVD2, GVD4, GVD1, G V D 3 1 ' 2 GDI, VVD1, VVD3, VVD2, GD3, GD4, VVD4 VVD1, VVD3, VVD2, GD3, GD4, VVD4, GD2 VVD4, GD2, VD1, VD4, GF4 GD2, VD1, VD4, GF4, VD2, GF3, VD3 VD1, VD4, GF4, VD2, GF3, VD3, G F l , GF2 VD2, GF3, VD3, G F l , GF2, VF3 VF3, VF2 VF2, VF1, VF4 T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between p l o t s i n t h e same row. V a l u e s a r e a r r a n g e d w i t h l o w e s t i n t h e t o p row and g r e a t e s t i n t h e b o t t o m row, w i t h i n e a c h row v a l u e s i n c r e a s e f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t . 93 T a b l e 28. The r e s u l t s o f Student-Newman-Keuls r a n g e t e s t f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l exMg v a l u e s f o r e a c h s t u d y p l o t GDI, GD4, GVD2, VVD2, GVD1, VVD2, GVD2, GVD4, GVD3, VVD1, VVD4, G D 3 1 ' 2 WD2, GVD1, VVD2, GVD2, GVD4, GVD3, VVD1, VVD4, GD3, V D l , GF4, V D l , GF4, VD4, GF3, G F l , GF2, VD2 VD4, GF3, G F l , GF2, VD2, VD3 VF3, VF2 VF1, VF4 T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between p l o t s i n t h e same row. • V a l u e s a r e a r r a n g e d w i t h l o w e s t i n t h e t o p row and g r e a t e s t i n t h e b o t t o m row, w i t h i n each row v a l u e s i n c r e a s e from l e f t t o r i g h t . 94 and t h e GF and VD s i t e s were b o t h a s s e s s e d as r i c h SNR. The o b s e r v e d w i t h i n s i t e v a r i a b i l i t y would s u p p o r t t h e s i m i l a r n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y (SNR) a s s e s s m e n t f o r t h e s e s i t e s . When minN and TN a r e compared, t h e s c a t t e r o f t h e VD p l o t s was l e s s f o r minN. The SNR c l a s s e s c o r r e s p o n d e d more c l o s e l y t o minN r a t h e r t h a n TN f o r t h e s t u d y s i t e s . The f o r e s t f l o o r and m i n e r a l s o i l exMg v a l u e s ( T a b l e 28) d i d n o t have as many s i g n f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between p l o t s as t h e GVD, GD and VVD s i t e s . E x c e p t f o r p l o t s VD1 and GF4, t h e VD and GF p l o t s were s e p a r a t e d f r o m e a c h o t h e r , and t h e VF p l o t was d i s t i n c t . B a s e d on f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l n u t r i e n t q u a n t i t i e s , t h e r e was n o t be much d i f f e r e n c e between t h e p o o r (GVD s i t e ) and medium (GD, VVD s i t e s ) SNR c l a s s e s , w h i l e t h e r i c h (GF, VD s i t e s ) and v e r y r i c h (VF s i t e ) SNR c l a s s e s were d i s t i n c t . 5.2.1.6 U n i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s o f F i e l d - A s s e s s e d SNR A one-way ANOVA w i t h f i e l d - a s s e s s e d SNR as t h e f a c t o r was p e r f o r m e d on a l l f o r e s t f l o o r and m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h i s s t u d y . T h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between SNR c l a s s e s a t t h e .05 l e v e l f o r a l l p r o p e r t i e s e x c e p t f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l exMn ( T a b l e 2 9 ) . The r e s u l t s o f t h e SNK r a n g e t e s t are' i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e s 30, 31 and 32 f o r t h e f o r e s t f l o o r , m i n e r a l s o i l and f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s d i d n o t c l e a r l y s e p a r a t e o r r e f l e c t t h e SNR c l a s s e s . In g e n e r a l t h e l o w e s t q u a n t i t i e s were T a b l e 29. The F - v a l u e s f o r one-way ANOVA f o r f o r e s t f l o o r , m i n e r a l s o i l , and f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s o f study s i t e s grouped by s o i l n u t r i e n t regime F o r e s t f l o o r p l u s F o r e s t f l o o r M i n e r a l s o i l m i n e r a l s o i l P r o p e r t y F - v a l u e s P r o p e r t y F - v a l u e s P r o p e r t y F - v a l u e s TC 8.23** TC 7 .33** TC 4.78* TN 8.36** TN 25.13** TN 24.96** minN 5.28** minN 98.20** minN 133.03** TP 6.29** exP 6.46** exCa 37.95** TS 9.59** SO4 7.69** exMg 149.49** exCa 11.34** exCa 34.94** exK 4.17* exMg 6.84** exMg 154.32** exMn 1.14 exK 9.06** exK 6.27** exMn 5.39** exMn 3.53** pH(H 20) 12.18** pH(H 20) 10.60** CD p H ( C a C l 2 ) 12.65** * S i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l . ** S i g n i f i c a n t a t .01 l e v e l . 96 T a b l e 30. The r e s u l t s o f Student-Newman-Keuls range t e s t f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s o f s t u d y s i t e s g r o u p e d by s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e (SNR) P r o p e r t y SNR TC E D B C TN E B D C minN B E D C TP E B D C TS E B D C exCa E B D C exMg E B D C exK E D C B exMn E D B C p H ( H 2 0 ) C B D E Mean v a l u e s i n c r e a s e f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t . U n d e r l i n e d v a l u e s do n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y a t .05 l e v e l . 97 T a b l e 31. The r e s u l t s o f Student-Newman-Keuls r a n g e t e s t f o r m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s o f s t u d y s i t e s g r o u p e d by s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e (SNR) P r o p e r t y SRN ' TC C B D E TN B C D E minN B C D E exP C B D E S 0 4 E D B C exCa B C D E exMg- C B D E exK C D B E exMn C D E B p H ( H 2 0 ) B C E D p H ( C a C l 2 ) B C E D Mean v a l u e s i n c r e a s e f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t . U n d e r l i n e d v a l u e s do n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y a t .05 l e v e l . 98 T a b l e 32. The r e s u l t s o f Student-Newman-Keuls range t e s t f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s o f s t u d y s i t e s g r o u p e d by s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e (SNR) P r o p e r t y SNR 1' 2 TC D B C E TN B C D E minN B C D E exCa B C D E exMg C B D E exK C D B E exMn NS 1 Mean v a l u e s i n c r e a s e f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t . 2 U n d e r l i n e d v a l u e s do n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y a t .05 l e v e l . NS: F a c t o r o f one way ANOVA n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l . 99 f o r t h e v e r y r i c h ( E) c l a s s , and medium (C) t h e g r e a t e s t ( T a b l e 3 0 ) . T h i s a r r a n g e m e n t o f SNR c l a s s e s f o r f o r e s t f l o o r n u t r i e n t s r e f l e c t e d d e p t h and b u l k d e n s i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s as d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y f o r t h e two-way ANOVA. The pH o f t h e f o r e s t f l o o r was t h e o n l y p r o p e r t y w h i c h was s i m i l a r t o t h e SNR a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s . However, o n l y t h e v e r y r i c h ( E) SNR c l a s s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . The m i n e r a l s o i l n u t r i e n t p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d t h e SNR a s s e s s m e n t were TN and minN ( T a b l e 3 1 ) . To a l e s s e r e x t e n t exCa and exMg r e f l e c t e d SNR b u t t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e poor (B) and medium (C) c l a s s e s . The p H ( H 2 0 ) o f t h e m i n e r a l s o i l a l s o r e f l e c t e d SNR t o some e x t e n t , b u t t h e r e was n o t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e v e r y r i c h ( E ) and r i c h (D) c l a s s e s . The f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l n u t r i e n t q u a n t i t i e s d i s p l a y e d a p a t t e r n v e r y s i m i l a r t o m i n e r a l s o i l f o r SNR. T h e r e was a v e r y c l e a r s e p a r a t i o n o f SNR c l a s s e s i n t h e e x p e c t e d o r d e r f o r TN and minN, and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t w i t h exMg and exCa ( T a b l e 3 2 ) . 5.2.2 M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s The r e s u l t s o f u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s and e x a m i n a t i o n o f s o i l N q u a n t i t i e s (App. H) d i d n o t s u g g e s t t h a t N f e r t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e GD and GF s i t e s had i n c r e a s e d s o i l N q u a n t i t i e s s u f f i c i e n t l y t o p r e v e n t c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e u n f e r t i l i z e d s i t e s . The TN and minN s o i l p r o p e r t i e s were t h e r e f o r e i n c l u d e d i n a l l m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s . 100 5.2.2.1 M u l t i v a r i a t e Sample S i z e A n a l y s i s The r e s u l t s o f t h e m u l t i v a r i a t e sample s i z e a n a l y s i s a r e summarized i n two c omplementary t a b l e s . The f i r s t t a b l e shows t h e sum o f s q u a r e s f o r e a c h v a r i a b l e a c r o s s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x i n d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r . V a r i a b l e s w i t h t h e h i g h e s t sum o f s q u a r e s ( d i s p e r s i o n ) a r e c o n s i d e r e d t h e b e s t c a n d i d a t e s f o r v a r i a b l e s e l e c t i o n . The s e c o n d t a b l e shows the s p e c i f i c v a r i a n c e and r e d u n d a n c y o f e a c h v a r i a b l e and i s s o r t e d i n a s c e n d i n g o r d e r o f r e d u n d a n c y . V a r i a b l e s w i t h h i g h measures o f r e d u n d a n c y can be e l i m i n a t e d . However, a s i n g l e v a r i a b l e w i t h b o t h a h i g h r e d u n d a n c y and a h i g h sum o f s q u a r e s would be t h e most e c o n o m i c a l v a r i a b l e i n terms o f s a m p l i n g e f f o r t . The r e s u l t s o f t h e MSS a n a l y s i s on f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t y p l o t means a r e i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e 33. One v a r i a b l e , TS, a c c o u n t e d f o r a l m o s t 83% o f t h e v a r i a t i o n , and i s a l s o t h e most r e d u n d a n t v a r i a b l e . The v a r i a t i o n between p l o t s would i n c l u d e a l l t y p e s o f v a r i a t i o n , b o t h w i t h i n - s i t e and b e t w e e n - s i t e v a r i a t i o n . The s p e c i f i c v a r i a n c e o f e a c h p r o p e r t y was l e s s t h a n t h e common v a r i a n c e . T h i s i s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s were a l l v e r y h i g h l y i n t e r r e l a t e d . The humus forms o f t h e GVD, GD and VVD s i t e s were Mors and i n t h e VF s i t e o n l y t h e L h o r i z o n was sampled as f o r e s t f l o o r . The p r e d o m i n a n t l i t t e r i n p u t i n a l l s i t e s would be t r e e f o l i a g e , w h i c h would n o t be d i s t u r b e d o r mixed w i t h m i n e r a l s o i l i n Mors o r L h o r i z o n s . The n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t o f b o t h l i t t e r and f o r e s t f l o o r s would r e f l e c t t h e complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between m o i s t u r e and n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y and p h y s i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e t r e e n u t r i t i o n . 101 Table 33. Multivariate sample size analysis of forest floor properties A. Variables Ranked by Dispersion Criterion Rank Property Sum squares % of total 1 TS 8.2567 82.567 2 minN 0.6942 6.942 3 exMn 0.3901 3.901 4 pH(H20) 0.3141 3.141 5 exCa 0.1650 1.650 6 exK 0.0838 0.838 7 exMg 0.0437 0.437 8 TP 0.0324 0.324 9 TN 0.0112 0.112 10 TC 0.0088 0.088 B. Redundancy of Variables and Specific Variance Rank Property Variance Specific Common R-squared Redundancy 1 pH(H20) 1.0000 0.0907 0.9093 0.9093004 90.930 2 minN 1.0000 0.0654 0.9346 0.9346109 93.461 3 exK 1.0000 0.0407 0.9593 0.9593081 95.931 4 exCa 1.0000 0.0344 0.9656 0.9655772 96.558 5 TP 1.0000 0.0308 0.9692 0.9692404 96.924 6 exMn 1.0000 0.0302 0.9698 0.9697605 96.976 7 exMg 1.0000 0.0222 0.9778 0.9777670 97.777 8 TN 1.0000 0.0112 0.9888 0.9888054 98.881 9 TC 1.0000 0.0088 0.9912 0.9911592 99.116 10 TS 1.0000 0.0068 0.9932 0.9931928 99.319 10.0000 965.872 102 The r e s u l t s o f t h e MSS a n a l y s i s on m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t y p l o t means a r e i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e 34. One v a r i a b l e , exCa, a c c o u n t s f o r a l m o s t 56% o f t h e v a r i a t i o n and i s a l s o t h e most r e d u n d a n t v a r i a b l e . The m i n e r a l s o i l v a r i a b l e s a r e a l s o h i g h l y i n t e r r e l a t e d . The h i g h r e d u n d a n c y o f t h e m i n e r a l s o i l v a r i a b l e s may r e f l e c t t h e e f f e c t o f b u l k d e n s i t y on t h e n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s . As was n o t e d i n t h e u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s , t h e GF and VF s i t e s g e n e r a l l y had h i g h e r q u a n t i t i e s o f most n u t r i e n t s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e MSS a n a l y s i s o f f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e 35. One v a r i a b l e , TN, a c c o u n t e d f o r o v e r 58% o f t h e v a r i a t i o n between s i t e s and was a l s o t h e most r e d u n d a n t . The f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s were l e s s h i g h l y i n t e r r e l a t e d t h a n t h e f o r e s t f l o o r o r m i n e r a l s o i l d a t a s e t s . A u n i q u e p a t t e r n o f v a r i a t i o n between t h e s i t e s was c o n t r i b u t e d by exMn, and exK a l s o had a lo w e r r e d u n d a n c y t h a n most o f t h e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . The r e d u n d a n c y o f exMg, minN, exCa and TN s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e p r o p e r t i e s have a s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p i n a l l t h e s t u d y s i t e s . The u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f SNR s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s e v a r i a b l e s had t h e b e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o SNR. W h i l e exMn was r e d u n d a n t f o r m i n e r a l s o i l , i t was t h e l e a s t r e d u n d a n t o f t h e 11 m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t exMn may be c o n t r i b u t i n g u n i q u e v a r i a b i l i t y between t h e s t u d y s i t e s . 5.2.2.2 P r i n c i p a l Components A n a l y s i s The c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x o f a PCA c o n d u c t e d on f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s i s g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x K. The f i r s t PCA a x i s 103 Table 34. M u l t i v a r i a t e sample s i z e a n a l y s i s of mineral s o i l p r o p e r t i e s A. V a r i a b l e s Ranked by Dis p e r s i o n C r i t e r i o n Rank Property Sum squares % of t o t a l 1 exCa 6.1465 55 .877 2 exK 1.4159 1 2 . 8 7 2 3 exMn 1.0703 9 .730 4 S 0 4 0 .9258 8 .416 5 TC 0 .6694 6 .085 6 exP 0 .3876 3.524 7 minN 0.1941 1.764 8 pH(CaCl 2) 0 .1154 1.059 9 pH(H 2 0) 0 .0337 0 .306 10 exMg 0.0283 0 .257 11 TN 0.0131 0 .119 1 1 . 0 0 0 0 100 .000 B. Redundancy of V a r i a b l e s and S p e c i f i c Variance Rank Property Variance S p e c i f i c Common R-squared Redundancy 1 exMn 1 .0000 0 .2016 0 .7984 0 .7984432 79. 844 2 exP 1 .0000 0.1873 0 .8127 0 .8127174 8 1 . 272 3 exK 1 .0000 0 .0777 0 .9223 0 .9223317 92 . 233 4 s o 4 1 .0000 0 .0708 0 .9292 0 .9291790 92 . 918 5 TC 1 .0000 0.0593 0 .9407 0 .9407279 94 . 07 3 6 minN 1 .0000 0 .0459 0 .9531 0.9530702 9 5 . 307 7 pH(CaCl 2) 1 .0000 0 .0356 0 .9644 0 .9643556 96 . 436 8 exMg 1 .0000 0 .0202 0 .9798 0 .9797548 9 7 . 975 9 pH(H 2 0) 1 .0000 0 .0176 0 .9824 0 .9824269 98 . 243 10 TN 1 .0000 0.0131 0 .9869 0 .9869055 9 8 . 691 11 exCa 1 .0000 0 .0074 0 .9926 0 .9926068 9 9 . 261 1 1 . 0 0 0 0 1026.252 104 T a b l e 35 . M u l t i v a r i a t e s amp le s i z e a n a l y s i s o f f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s A . V a r i a b l e s Ranked b y D i s p e r s i o n C r i t e r i o n Rank P r o p e r t y Sum s q u a r e s % o f t o t a l 1 TN 4 .0804 58.291 2 exMn 1.2131 17 .330 3 exK 0 .8484 12 .120 4 TC 0 .3955 5.650 5 exMg 0 .3158 4 .511 6 minN 0.0862 1.231 7 exCa 0 .0607 0 . 8 6 7 7 .0000 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 B. Redundancy o f V a r i a b l e s and S p e c i f i c V a r i a n c e Rank P r o p e r t y V a r i a n c e S p e c i f i c Common R - s q u a r e d Redundancy 1 exMn 1.0000 0 .5762 0. 4238 0. 4238370 42 .384 2 exK 1.0000 0 .4597 0 . 5403 0. 5403381 54 .034 3 TC 1.0000 0 .1516 0 . 8484 0. 8484447 84 .844 4 exMg 1.0000 0 .0895 0 . 9105 0. 9105024 91 .050 5 minN 1.0000 0 .0824 0. 9176 0. 9176357 91 .764 6 exCa 1.0000 0 .0607 0 . 9393 0 . 9393333 93 .933 7 TN 1.0000 0 .0369 0. 9631 0. 9630799 96 .308 7 .0000 554.317 105 a c c o u n t e d f o r n e a r l y 84% o f t h e v a r i a t i o n and was t h e o n l y i n t e r p r e t e d a x i s . The v a r i a b l e s w h i c h were most h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e f i r s t PCA a x i s ( i n d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r ) were TS, TC, TN, exMg, exCa, exK, exMn, ( n e g a t i v e ) p H ( H 2 0 ) and minN. A l l v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e f i r s t PCA a x i s a t t h e .01 l e v e l . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e was one major t r e n d f o r t h e f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s , t h a t o f i n c r e a s i n g n u t r i e n t q u a n t i t i e s and d e c r e a s i n g pH. The PCA was an o v e r a l l summary o f t h e u n i v a r i a t e f o r e s t f l o o r a n a l y s e s - where t h e s i t e s were a r r a n g e d f r o m t h e low n u t r i e n t q u a n t i t i e s b u t h i g h pH o f t h e M u l l ( L h o r i z o n o n l y ) , t o t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e v a l u e s o f t h e t h i n young Mors and t h i n Moders, and t h e g r e a t e s t n u t r i e n t q u a n t i t i e s w i t h t h e w e l l d e v e l o p e d Mor o f t h e VVD s i t e . A l l f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h one PCA a x i s w h i c h s u p p o r t s t h e i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s o f a l l p r o p e r t i e s s u g g e s t e d by t h e MSS a n a l y s i s . The c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x o f a PCA c o n d u c t e d on m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s i s i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x K. The f i r s t t h r e e PCA a x e s were i n t e r p r e t a b l e . The f i r s t a x i s ( 5 7 . 8 % o f t h e v a r i a t i o n ) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d ( i n d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r ) w i t h exCa, exMg, minN, TN, exP, p H ( H 2 0 ) , TC, p H ( C a C l 2 ) , ( n e g a t i v e l y ) S 0 4 , exK, and exMn a t t h e .05 l e v e l . The s e c o n d a x i s ( 1 6 % o f t h e v a r i a t i o n ) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d ( i n d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r ) w i t h exK, ( n e g a t i v e l y ) p H ( C a C l 2 ) , ( n e g a t i v e l y ) p H ( H 2 0 ) and TC a t t h e .05 l e v e l . The t h i r d m i n e r a l s o i l PCA a x i s ( 1 0 . 5 % o f t h e v a r i a t i o n ) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h ( n e g a t i v e l y ) exMn and ( n e g a t i v e l y ) exP a t t h e .05 l e v e l . 106 The f i r s t m i n e r a l s o i l PCA a x i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e was a major t r e n d o f i n c r e a s i n g s o i l n u t r i e n t q u a n t i t i e s and i n c r e a s i n g pH among t h e s t u d y s i t e s . The o n l y e x c e p t i o n was a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h S 0 4 . T h i s p r o p e r t y had i t s g r e a t e s t q u a n t i t i e s i n t h e VVD and GVD s i t e s (App. H ) . The f i r s t m i n e r a l s o i l PCA a x i s was v e r y h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h exCa, exMg, TN and minN i n p a r t i c u l a r . The s e c o n d PCA a x i s summarized t h e l a r g e s t r e m a i n i n g t r e n d among t h e s t u d y s i t e s as i n c r e a s i n g exK v a l u e s , and d e c r e a s i n g pH. The u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no c l e a r a r r a n g e m e n t o f p l o t mean v a l u e s f o r exK. The s m a l l amount o f v a r i a t i o n e x p l a i n e d by t h e s e e c o n d PCA a x i s would s u p p o r t t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The c o r r e l a t i o n o f exMn w i t h b o t h t h e f i r s t and t h i r d PCA axes s u g g e s t e d t h a t m i n e r a l s o i l exMn q u a n t i t i e s were n o t e a s i l y summarized as a l i n e a r f u n c t i o n . To a l e s s e r e x t e n t t h i s would a p p l y t o exP as w e l l . The r e l a t i v e l y low r e d u n d a n c y f o r m i n e r a l s o i l exMn i n t h e MSS a n a l y s i s s u p p o r t s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a complex n o n - l i n e a r p a t t e r n o f v a r i a t i o n among t h e s t u d y s i t e s f o r exMn. The o r d i n a t i o n o f sample p l o t s u s i n g t h e m i n e r a l s o i l PCA a x i s s c o r e s i s g i v e n i n F i g . 5. With t h e e x c e p t i o n s o f p l o t s GDI and VD4, t h e p l o t s w i t h i n s i t e s f ormed i d e n t i f i a b l e c l u s t e r s . A l o n g a x i s 1 t h e GVD and GD p l o t s were mixed, f o l l o w e d by t h e VVD p l o t , a mix o f t h e VD and GF p l o t s and t h e VF p l o t . The major s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e GVD s i t e f r o m t h e GD s i t e a l o n g t h e s e c o n d a x i s c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o lower pH v a l u e s and g r e a t e r exK q u a n t i t i e s i n t h e GVD s i t e . The ' a r c h e d ' 107 GVD3 CVD4 CVD2 GVD1 GD2 GD3 GD4 VVD I VDt GDI VVD3 VVD2 VVD4 VD2 GFl. VD3 GF2 GF3 VFI VF4 VF3 VF2 VD4 ~1 1 1 1— - 1 . 0 1.0 AXIS 1 Figure 5. Ordination graph for axis 1 and axis 2 of the PCA ordination of mineral so i l properties 108 a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s was s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e s i t e s a l o n g t h e combined m o i s t u r e - n u t r i e n t g r a d i e n t o f t h e m u l t i v a r i a t e v e g e t a t i o n a n a l y s i s ( S e c t i o n 4 . 7 ) , GVD, GD, VVD, VD/GF, VF. The ' a r c h e d ' a r r a y o f s t a n d s i n F i g . 5 was a l s o t h e same as f o r SNR a s s e s s m e n t . The p r o p e r t i e s most h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a x i s 1 were exCa, exMg, TN, and minN w h i c h were a l s o t h e v a r i a b l e s w hich c o r r e s p o n d e d b e s t t o SNR c l a s s ( s e e S e c t i o n 5 . 2 . 1 . 6 ) . The l a c k o f s e p a r a t i o n between p o o r and medium SNR c l a s s e s w i t h exCa and exMg ( s e e S e c t i o n 5.2.1.6) was a l s o s u p p o r t e d by t h e o v e r l a p o f t h e GVD ( p o o r ) and GD s i t e s (medium) ( F i g . 5 ) . The c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x f o r t h e sum o f f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s i s i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x K. The f i r s t two a x e s were i n t e r p r e t a b l e . The f i r s t PCA a x i s ( 6 2 . 3 % o f t h e v a r i a t i o n ) w a s - h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d ( i n d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r ) w i t h TN, exCa, exMg, minN, TC, and exK a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . The f i r s t a x i s s u g g e s t e d a t r e n d o f o v e r a l l n u t r i e n t q u a n t i t y i n c r e a s e among t h e s t u d y s i t e s e x c e p t f o r exK and exMn. The m o d e r a t e c o r r e l a t i o n o f exK w i t h t h e f i r s t two PCA axes s u g g e s t e d t h a t exK was n o t w e l l summarized by t h e l i n e a r PCA f u n c t i o n s . The n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n o f exMn w i t h t h e s e c o n d m i n e r a l s o i l PCA a x i s s u p p o r t e d t h e u n i q u e v a r i a t i o n f o r exMn q u a n t i t i e s among t h e s t u d y s i t e s s u g g e s t e d by t h e MSS a n a l y s i s . 5.2.2.3 D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s Ten v a r i a b l e s (TC, TN, minN, TP, TS, exCa, exMg, exK, exMn, p H ( H 2 0 ) ) were u s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e f o r e s t f l o o r 109 d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s e s . F i v e p r o p e r t i e s were u s e d t o m a x i m i z e t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f s t u d y s i t e s . The p r o p e r t i e s and t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h they were u t i l i z e d were exMn, p H ( H 2 0 ) , exCa, TP, and TN. M i n e r a l i z e a b l e N was e n t e r e d a t t h e t h i r d s t e p b u t d e l e t e d a t t h e s i x t h s t e p . A l l p l o t s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d . T h r e e f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s were u s e d t o maximize t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g i e s . The p r o p e r t i e s and t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e y were u t i l i z e d were minN, exCa, and TP. P l o t s GD3 and GD4 were m i s c l a s s i f i e d f o r p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y . T h r e e f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s were u s e d t o m a x i m i z e t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f SMR c l a s s e s . The p r o p e r t i e s and t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e y were u t i l i z e d were p H ( H 2 0 ) , exMn and minN. A l l p l o t s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d f o r SMR. F o u r f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s were u s e d t o m a x i m i z e t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f SNR c l a s s e s . The p r o p e r t i e s and t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e y were u t i l i z e d were p H ( H 2 0 ) , exCa, TN, and exK. F i v e p l o t s were m i s c l a s s i f i e d f o r SNR, GVD4, GD2, GD3, VD1, and VD2. E l e v e n v a r i a b l e s (TC, TN, minN, exP, SO4, exCa, exMg, exK, exMn, p H ( H 2 0 ) , p H ( C a C l 2 ) ) were u s e d f o r t h e m i n e r a l s o i l DA. Seven m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s were u s e d t o maximize t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f s t u d y s i t e s . The p r o p e r t i e s and t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e y were u t i l i z e d were exMg, p H ( H 2 0 ) , exMn, minN, TN, exP, and TC. A l l p l o t s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d . F o u r m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s were u s e d t o m a x i m i z e t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f SMR c l a s s e s . The p r o p e r t i e s and t h e o r d e r i n 110 w h i c h t h e y were u t i l i z e d were TN, minN, exCa, and exP. A l l p l o t s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d . S i x m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s were u s e d t o maximize t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f SNR c l a s s e s . The p r o p e r t i e s and t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e y were u t i l i z e d were exMg, minN, TC, TN, p H ( C a C l 2 ) , and exCa. A l l p l o t s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d . S even p r o p e r t i e s (TC, TN, minN, exCa, exMg, exK, exMn) were u s e d f o r t h e f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l DA. S i x p r o p e r t i e s were u s e d t o m a x i m i z e t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f s t u d y s i t e s . The p r o p e r t i e s and t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e y were u t i l i z e d were exMg, minN, exMn, exCa, TN, and TC. A l l p l o t s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d . T h r e e p r o p e r t i e s were u s e d t o maximize t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g i e s . The p r o p e r t i e s and t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e y were u t i l i z e d were minN, exMn and TN. Four p l o t s were m i s c l a s s i f i e d . P l o t s GVD3, G F l and GF2 were c l a s s i f i e d as v o l c a n i c l i t h o l o g y and VF2 was c l a s s i f i e d as g r a n i t i c l i t h o l o g y . F o u r p r o p e r t i e s were u s e d t o maximize t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f SMR c l a s s e s . The p r o p e r t i e s and t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e y were u t i l i z e d were TN, minN, exMn, and exCa. A l l p l o t s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d . T h r e e p r o p e r t i e s were u s e d t o maximize t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f SNR c l a s s e s . The p r o p e r t i e s and t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e y were u t i l i z e d were exMg, minN and TC. A l l p l o t s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d . I l l Two a d d i t i o n a l DA 1 s were c o n d u c t e d t o s e p a r a t e p l o t s on t h e b a s i s o f SNR. U s i n g t h e f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l v a r i a b l e s w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f p H ( H 2 0 ) o f t h e f o r e s t f l o o r , and m i n e r a l s o i l p H ( H 2 0 ) and p H ( C a C l 2 ) as a d a t a s e t o f t e n p r o p e r t i e s , o n l y exMg, minN and TC were u t i l i z e d t o c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f y a l l p l o t s . S i m i l a r l y w i t h t h e f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l v a r i a b l e s o f exMg, minN, and exMn, p l u s p H ( H 2 0 ) o f t h e f o r e s t f l o o r as t h e d a t a s e t , o n l y exMg and minN were u t i l i z e d t o c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f y a l l p l o t s . The a d d i t i o n o r d e l e t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s f r o m a d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s m i g h t change t h e r e s u l t s , making a s e g r e g a t i o n b e t t e r o r worse ( P i m e n t a l , 1 9 7 9 ) . As a r e s u l t , no two g r o u p s can be p r o v e n i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h i s t e c h n i q u e . However, f o r t h e p l o t s o f t h i s s t u d y exMg and minN q u a n t i t i e s f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l were c o n s i s t e n t l y t h e b e s t p r o p e r t i e s f o r s e p a r a t i n g SNR c l a s s e s . The r e s u l t s o f a l l DA's a r e summarized i n T a b l e 36. 5.2.2.4 C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s A summary t a b l e w h i c h r a n k s i m p o r t a n t p r o p e r t i e s f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g SNR c l a s s e s s e l e c t e d by t h e d i f f e r e n t s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 37. The p r o p e r t i e s c h o s e n u s i n g r e s u l t s o f t h e sample s i z e r e q u i r e m e n t were r a n k e d a c c o r d i n g t o v a r i a b i l i t y . H i g h l y v a r i a b l e p r o p e r t i e s were c o n s i d e r e d o f l e s s v a l u e i n c h a r a c t e r i z i n g an a r e a . ANOVA and SNK r a n g e t e s t r e s u l t s were r a n k e d a c c o r d i n g t o how w e l l t h e i n c r e a s e s i n p r o p e r t y means T a b l e 36. Summary o f p r o p e r t i e s s e l e c t e d f o r s e p a r a t i o n o f s t u d y p l o t s g r o u p e d by s i t e , p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y (PML), s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e (SMR), a n d s o i l n u t r i e n t regime (SNR), u s i n g s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s C o r r e c t D a t a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o u r c e Group P r o p e r t y (%) F o r e s t f l o o r S i t e exMn, pH(H20), exCa, TP, TN 95.8 PML minN, exCa, TP 91.7 SMR pH(H20), exMn, minN 100 SNR p H ( H 2 0 ) , exCa, TN, exK 79.2 M i n e r a l s o i l S i t e exMg, p H ( C a C l 2 ) , exMn, minN, TN, exP, TC 100 PML exP ,95.8 SMR TN, minN, exCa, exP 100 SNR exMg, minN, TC, TN, p H ( C a C l 2 ) / exCa 100 F o r e s t f l o o r S i t e exMg, minN, exMn, exCa, TN, TC 100 p l u s PML minN, exMn, TN 83.3 m i n e r a l s o i l SMR TN, minN, exMn, exCa 100 SNR exMg, minN, TC 100 O r d e r o f v a r i a b l e s e l e c t i o n was l e f t t o r i g h t . T a b l e 37. Summary o f r a n k i n g o f i m p o r t a n t p r o p e r t i e s f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e s e l e c t e d by d i f f e r e n t s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s D a t a s o u r c e S t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e P r o p e r t y F o r e s t f l o o r Sample s i z e r e q u i r e m e n t ANOVA and SNK ra n g e t e s t MSS PCA DA p H ( H 2 0 ) , TC, TN, TS, TP, exMg TC, TN, p H ( H 2 0 ) , exMn TS, TC, TN, exMg, exMn, TP TS, TC, TN, TP, exMg, exCa p H ( H 2 0 ) , exCa, TN, exK M i n e r a l s o i l Sample s i z e r e q u i r e m e n t ANOVA and SNK range t e s t MSS PCA DA p H ( H 2 0 ) , p H ( C a C l 2 ) , TN, TC, exMg, exP TN, minN, exMg, exCa, p H ( H 2 0 ) exCa, TN, p H ( H 2 0 ) , exMg, p H ( C a C l 2 ) , minN exCa, exMg, TN, minN, exP, p H ( H 2 0 ) exMg, minN, TC, TN, p H ( C a C l 2 ) , exCa F o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l ANOVA and SNK ra n g e t e s t MSS PCA DA minN, TN, exCa, exMg TN, exCa, minN, exMg TN, exMg, exCa, minN, TC exMg, minN, TC 1 P r o p e r t i e s a r e r a n k e d i n o r d e r o f d e c r e a s i n g i m p o r t a n c e f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t . 114 c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e assumed i n c r e a s e s i n n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e SNR c l a s s e s . MSS p r o p e r t i e s were s e l e c t e d a f t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f b o t h d i s p e r s i o n and r e d u n d a n c y . The p r o p e r t i e s s e l e c t e d u s i n g PCA were r a n k e d by t h e d e g r e e o f c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e f i r s t PCA a x i s . The DA p r o p e r t i e s were r a n k e d i n t h e o r d e r s e l e c t e d by t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n . The p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h were c o n s i s t e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between SNR c l a s s e s were TC, TN, TS, and p H ( H 2 0 ) o f t h e f o r e s t f l o o r ; and minN, TN, exMg, and exCa f o r m i n e r a l s o i l and f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l ( T a b l e 3 7 ) . The above named p r o p e r t i e s were u s e d i n C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s (CA) as an i n d e p e n d e n t t e s t o f t h e s t a b i l i t y o f p l o t s g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o SNR. The r e s u l t s o f t h e CA u s i n g a l l f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s i s g i v e n i n F i g . 6. T h r e e b r o a d g r o u p s can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d ; 1) p l o t s VVD1 , VVD3 and VVD4 w h i c h were a l l p l o t s w i t h t h i c k Mors, 2) t h e VF p l o t s w h i c h were a l l L h o r i z o n s f r o m M u l l , and 3) a l l t h e r e m a i n i n g p l o t s w h i c h were a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h i n young Mors and Moders e x c e p t f o r VVD2. A s i m i l a r a r r a n g e m e n t o f p l o t s was f o u n d u s i n g TC, TN, TS, and p H ( H 2 0 ) ( F i g . 7 ) . The f i r s t l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n e r r o r came a f t e r r e d u c i n g t h e number o f g r o u p s from t h r e e t o two. The VF p l o t s were a g a i n d i s t i n c t , and t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h i n young Mors and Moders were a g a i n g r o u p e d . T h r e e p l o t s , VVD2, GDI and VD3, w h i c h had been i n t h e l a r g e Mor p l u s Moder gr o u p when a l l v a r i a b l e s were u s e d , were g r o u p e d w i t h t h e VVD1, VVD3 and VVD4 p l o t s . When o n l y TC and TN ( F i g . 8) were u s e d , t h e r e was no Error GG G G V W V W V V G G V G G G G G G V V V V W V V W V DD D D DD D D F FF F DD D D D FF F F DD D 12 3 4 24 1 3 1 32 4 12 4 2 3 13 2 4 13 4 0.0519696 * 0.2633789 * 0.2801777 * I T 0.3034396 0.3680947 0.4431281 O.4952343 0.5551095 0.9393880 1.1279278 * 1.2480745 * 1.3452129 * 1.5394030 2.4973860 2.8934813 3.0674229 4.4969702 5.0296783 7.4893122 11.167793 26.601074 63.761200 104.03383 I IT Figure 6. Cluster analysis of study plots using a l l f o r e s t f l o o r properties G GG G V V V V V V W G V V G G V G G G G V W V G V V V V V Error D D D D D D D D D D F F F F F F F F D D D D D D 1 3 34 2 4 2 34 1 1 32 4 1 32 4 1 23 4 1 3 0 . 0 0 1 2 1 1 4 * 0 . 0 7 2 5 6 0 8 * 0 . 0 8 3 5 5 2 8 * 1 1 1 1 * * * 0 . 0 8 6 3 2 7 7 * 0 . 1 1 8 9 5 1 9 * 0 . 1 3 0 1 7 8 2 * * * * 0 . 1 4 8 6 3 8 7 * 0 . 1 9 1 1 8 9 8 * 0 . 2 2 3 5 8 4 2 * * * * 0 . 2 2 7 3 8 8 1 * 0 . 2 3 8 0 7 0 2 * 0 . 2 4 7 7 7 9 6 * 1 * * * 0 . 5 3 8 6 6 4 6 * 0 . 5 6 2 8 9 1 4 * 0. 6 3 4 9 5 2 1 * * * * 0 . 8 5 4 8 5 6 7 * 0 . 9 9 2 8 3 2 4 * 1.6652079 * * * * 1.9407625 * T 4 . 3 0 6 7 7 6 0 * 6 . 3 9 8 5 2 4 3 * 1 * * *• 2 1 . 6 8 1 3 1 4 * 1 5 5 . 2 5 5 0 3 5 * 1 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Figure 7. Cluster analysis of study plots using TC, TN, TS and pH(H 90) of forest f l o o r 116 G G G G V V V V V V V W G G W G G G G G V W V G W V V V Error D D D DD D F DD D F FD F F FF F D DD D D D 1 3 2 44 2 3 21 3 2 4 4 1 1 32 A 1 23 1 3 4 0.0011235 * 0.0022096 * 0.0088176 * I J I * * * 0.0156229 * 0.0205434 * 0.0217996 * * * 0.0260489 * 0.0432319 * 0.0498590 * * 0.0532628 * 0.0819623 * 0.0990461 * * * * 0.1203927 * 0.1379463 :* 0.2823631 :* T * * 0.3132935 * 0.3782904 I* 0.4753175 ' * * * * 0.7056854 i * 2.0865231 '•* 3.0876245 * 7 * * * 8.8544426 l * * 31.133896 j * [ * * .„.....„...„....„....„..„....„....J..™...J...«. ...... . . . . . . . . « ~ Figure 8. Cluster analysis of study plots using TC and TN o fore s t f l o o r G GG G V V VV V W V G G G G G G G G V y y V V W V W V V Error D DD D D D DD F FF F D DD D D DD D FF F' F 1 24.3 1 2 34 1 2XA.2..M.J...2..J.k.X..^k-^-^ O.3297386 * 0.5485468 * 0.5693364 * 0.7984524 0.8701863 0.8838573 1.0444670 1.1959600 1.7577887 1.9103661 2.2770739 2.6709795 n 3.3667917 3.6402588 3.6518288 4.5196609 i* 5.9843245 !* 10.681262 I* 17.712128 21.009201 22.592041 567374191" 99.540955 h if rr Figure 9. Cluster analysis of study plots using a l l mineral s o i l properties 117 change i n t h e p l o t s w i t h i n t h e t h r e e main g r o u p s . T h i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t humus f o r m d i f f e r e n c e s were c o n s i s t e n t f o r a b r o a d g r o u p i n g o f t h e s t u d y p l o t s . The GDI p l o t was a Mor w h i c h i n c l u d e d some r e s i d u a l a r e a s o f t h i c k e r Mor w h i c h s u r v i v e d d i s t u r b a n c e s and f i r e a f t e r l o g g i n g . The VD3 p l o t was a Moder b u t had g r e a t e r q u a n t i t i e s o f C and N t h a n t h e o t h e r p l o t s i n t h e same s i t e (App. H). The r e s u l t s o f t h e CA u s i n g a l l m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s i s g i v e n i n F i g . 9. E x c e p t f o r VD1 w h i c h was w i t h t h e VVD p l o t s , t h e g r o u p i n g o f p l o t s was a c c o r d i n g t o s i t e . The VD1 p l o t had a l o w e r c o a r s e f r a g m e n t - f r e e b u l k d e n s i t y (App. E) w h i c h would e x p l a i n why a l l n u t r i e n t p r o p e r t i e s were more s i m i l a r t o t h e VVD p l o t s . T h e r e was a l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n e r r o r a f t e r r e d u c i n g t h e number o f g r o u p s from t h r e e t o two. The t h r e e g r o u p s were: 1) t h e VF p l o t s , 2) t h e GVD and GD p l o t s , and 3) t h e GF, VD and VVD p l o t s . The o v e r a l l a r r a n g e m e n t o f p l o t s s u g g e s t a n u t r i e n t g r a d i e n t w h i c h e m p h a s i z e d exCa and exMg c o n t e n t . The r e s u l t s o f t h e CA u s i n g m i n e r a l s o i l TC, minN and exMg a r e g i v e n i n F i g . 10. E x c e p t f o r t h e GD2 and VD4 p l o t s , t h e g r o u p i n g o f p l o t s was a c c o r d i n g t o SNR c l a s s . D i s t u r b a n c e d u r i n g l o g g i n g i n c o r p o r a t e d o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l i n t o t h e m i n e r a l s o i l o f t h e GD2 p l o t . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n g r e a t e r TC and minN v a l u e s , compared t o o t h e r medium SNR p l o t s (App. H). The VD4 p l o t had lo w e r m i n e r a l s o i l TC and minN v a l u e s t h a n o t h e r r i c h SNR p l o t s (App. H) . The r e s u l t s o f t h e CA u s i n g a l l f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s i s g i v e n i n F i g . 11. The p l o t s were g r o u p e d 118 Error 0.0151021 0.0153362 0.0173324 G GG G V V W V W V G G G V V V V V G G G G V G W V W V D DD D D DD D D DD D D FF F D F DD F FF F 1 23 4 1 34 1 2 43 4 2 12 3 2 4 13 1 42 3 0.0301666 0.0347602 0.0568453 •O.1054200 0.1080624 0.1418735 0.2071055 0.2625185 0.3214015 0.4433208 0.4680442 0.4840488 0.7610556 0.9579788 1.8312168 2.6061544 3.1417484 4.2896357 15.234325 40.377335 Figure 10. Cluster analysis of study plots using TC, minN, and exMg of mineral s o i l Error .2374172 .2602515 . 3940279 .4654882 0.5250831 0.6180849 0.9193072 0.9729794 1776085 1834154 .4030895 .3906088 .6047754 4.1601000 4.1672678 4.7979383 5.0635433 6.5652418 11.180333 17.056473 21.529236 41.960754 110.28703 0. 0. O. 0. G G V V D D 1 2 G V GG D DD 4 13 1. V W v w D DD 1 23 V VV V V GV V G GG D DD D D FF F F FF 4 12 3 4 13 2 2 34 V V F F 1.4 I T. Figure 11. Cluster analysis of study plots using a l l forest f l o o r plus mineral s o i l properties 119 a c c o r d i n g t o s t u d y s i t e e x c e p t f o r t h e m i x i n g o f p l o t s f r o m t h e GF and VF s i t e s . The t h r e e major g r o u p s c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o p a r e n t m a t e r i a l f o r t h e GVD, GD, VVD, and VD s i t e s and t h e g r e a t e r n u t r i e n t q u a n t i t i e s o f t h e GF and VF s i t e s . When o n l y minN and exMg were us e d as p r o p e r t i e s t h e CA a r r a n g e d t h e p l o t s a c c o r d i n g t o SNR ( F i g . 1 2 ) . The GVD ( p o o r ) and VF ( v e r y r i c h ) s i t e s were d i s t i n c t , w h i l e t h e p l o t s o f t h e GD and VVD s i t e s (medium) and t h e GF and VD s i t e s ( r i c h ) were m i x e d . The f i r s t m a j o r i n c r e a s e i n e r r o r v a l u e was a f t e r r e d u c i n g t h e number o f g r o u p s f r o m f o u r t o t h r e e . The r e d u c t i o n t o t h r e e g r o u p s was a c h i e v e d by a m a l g a m a t i n g p l o t s w h i c h were i n t h e p o o r and medium SNR c l a s s e s . The n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e p o o r and medium SNR c l a s s e s f o r exMg were n o t e d i n t h e u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e CA u s i n g minN and exMg o f f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l and p H ( H 2 0 ) o f f o r e s t f l o o r a r e g i v e n i n F i g . 13. E x c e p t f o r t h e V D l p l o t , w h i c h was g r o u p e d w i t h t h e VVD and GD p l o t s , t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f p l o t s a l s o r e f l e c t s SNR. The p H ( H 2 0 ) o f t h e f o r e s t f l o o r o f the VVD p l o t was 4.0, w h i c h was c l o s e r t o t h e 4.1 a v e r a g e o f t h e medium SNR p l o t s t h a n t h e 4.4 a v e r a g e o f t h e r i c h SNR p l o t s (App. H). 5.3 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SOIL PROPERTIES AND VEGETATION 5.3.1 U n d e r s t o r y V e g e t a t i o n and S o i l P r o p e r t i e s The r e s u l t s o f c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s (CCA) between v e g e t a t i o n and s o i l v a r i a b l e s a r e summarized i n T a b l e s 1 2 0 Error G G G G V VV V V V V V G G G V W G V G G G V V G V V W V V D D D D D D D D D D D D F F F D D F D D F F F F 1 4 2 31 2 3 4 13 .4 21 2 3 2 34 1 4 14 2 3 0.0054012 0.0057895 0.00S1840 0.0066207 0.0086842 0.0090806 0.0119326 * ,0.0168613 * 0.0259213 * ' J 6 . 6 3 5 4 2 2 1 * ' 0.0485509 * 0.0643763 * 0.0651931 0.0950750 0.1023391 rr zr. 0.1073135 0.1551098 0.2895775 0.5551227 0.5553815 4.4536619 1 1 . 373567 30.001785 Figure 12. Cluster analysis of study plots using minN and exMg of f o r e s t f l o o r plus mineral s o i l G GG G V V W V W V G G V G V V V V G G G G G V V V W V V Error D DD D D DD D D DD D D FF F F DD D FF F F 1 24 3 1 24 4 2 13 1 3 12 3 4 23 4 14 2 3 0.0086842 * 0.0119326 * 0.0236193 * 1 1 1 1 * * * 0.0237190 * 0 .0498570 * 0.053536 1 * * * * 0.0646976 * 0.0784372 * 0.1337891 * 1 * * * 0.1517632 * 0.1625189 * 0.1665547 * * * * 0.1935536 * 0.2769758 * 0.4393532 * * * * 0.5206242 * 0.7308984 * 0.9261627 * I * * * 1.6603174 * 3.3973475 * 6.3310833 * I- * * * 12.932513 * * 43.663025 * | * * * Figure 13. Cluster analysis of study pl o t s using minN and exMg of f o r e s t f l o o r plus mineral s o i l and pHCl^O) of fore s t f l o o r 121 38, 39 and 40. T h e r e were h i g h c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s w h i c h i n d i c a t e d s t r o n g l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s and v e g e t a t i o n ( r = . 9 6 9 ) , f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s and v e g e t a t i o n (r=.968) and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t between f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s and v e g e t a t i o n ( r = , 6 1 9 ) . However, t h e c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s a h i g h l y u n r e l i a b l e i n d e x o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between two d a t a s e t s . As n o t e d by G i t t i n s ( 1 9 7 9 ) , i t can be shown t h a t t h e m a g n i t u d e o f a t l e a s t one c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n must e x c e e d t h e a b s o l u t e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e l a r g e s t o b s e r v e d s i m p l e c o r r e l a t i o n between v a r i a b l e s o f d i f f e r e n t d a t a s e t s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e v a r i a t i o n f o r e a c h d a t a s e t c o u l d be summarized by one a x i s . Only t h e f i r s t c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l f o r t h e v e g e t a t i o n - f o r e s t f l o o r CCA, and t h e v e g e t a t i o n - f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l CCA. The s e c o n d c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f t h e m i n e r a l s o i l v e r s u s v e g e t a t i o n CCA was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l ( r = . 6 6 3 ) . The f i r s t v e g e t a t i o n c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e was most h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s o f exMn, exK and TC (App. L ) . The m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s most h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e f i r s t v e g e t a t i o n c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e were minN, TC, exCa, and exMg (App. L ) . The f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s most h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e f i r s t v e g e t a t i o n c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e were minN, exCa, TN, and exMg (App. L ) . M i n e r a l s o i l exMn was t h e o n l y p r o p e r t y s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h b o t h t h e v e g e t a t i o n and m i n e r a l s o i l s e c o n d 122 Table 38. C o r r e l a t i o n s between f o r e s t f l o o r PCA a x i s , v e g e t a t i o n DCA axes and c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s V a r i a b l e s F f l C a n l h 2w VegCanl h 2 b F f l P C A l 1.000 1.000 .619 .383 V a r i a n c e e x t r a c t e d 1.000 1.000 .619 Redundancy .383 .383 .619 .383 C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s V a r i a b l e s VegCanl ,2 h w F f l C a n l h 2 b VegDCAl .877 .769 .543 .295 VegDCA2 -.486 .236 -.301 .091 VegDCA3 -.152 .023 -.094 .009 V a r i a n c e e x t r a c t e d .343 .343 .131 .131 Redundancy .131 .131 .131 .131 h 2w i s the communality between the v a r i a b l e s of one data set,and the c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s of t h a t data s e t ( i n t r a s e t communality). h^b i s the communality between the v a r i a b l e s of one data set and the c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s of the other data s e t ( i n t e r s e t communality). 123 T a b l e 39. C o r r e l a t i o n s between m i n e r a l s o i l PCA a x e s , v e g e t a t i o n DCA axes and c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s 2 2 V a r i a b l e s M i n C a n l MinCan2 h w V e g C a n l VegCan2 h b M i n P C A l -.952 -.176 .937 -.922 -.117 .881 MinPCA2 .254 .005 .065 .246 .003 .061 MinPCA3 .172 .984 .998 .166 .652 .453 V a r i a n c e e x t r a c t e d .333 .333 .667 .313 .146 .459 Redundancy .313 .146 .459 .313 .146 .459 C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s 2 2 V a r i a b l e s V e g C a n l VegCan2 h w M i n C a n l MinCan2 h b VegDCAl .981 -.193 1.000 .951 -.128 .016 VegDCA2 .167 .950 .930 .162 .630 .397 VegDCA3 .168 .476 .255 .163 .315 .099 V a r i a n c e e x t r a c t e d .339 .389 .728 .319 .171 .490 Redundancy .318 .171 .489 .319 .171 .490 h^w i s t h e c o m m u n a l i t y between t h e v a r i a b l e s o f one d a t a s e t and t h e c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o f t h a t d a t a s e t ( i n t r a s e t c o m m u n a l i t y ) . h^b i s t h e c o m m u n a l i t y between t h e v a r i a b l e s o f one d a t a s e t and t h e c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o f t h e o t h e r d a t a s e t ( i n t e r s e t c o m m u n a l i t y ) . 124 T a b l e 40. C o r r e l a t i o n s between f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l PCA a x e s , v e g e t a t i o n DCA axe s and c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s V a r i a b l e s F m i n C a n l h 2w V e g C a n l h 2 b F m i n P C A l -.969 .939 -.937 .878 FminPCA2 .248 .062 .240 .058 V a r i a n c e e x t r a c t e d .500 .500 .468 .468 Redundancy .467 .467 .468 .468 C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s V a r i a b l e s V e g C a n l n w F m i n C a n l h 2 b VegDCAl .968 .937 .936 .876 VegDCA2 .215 .046 .208 .043 VegDCA3 .217 .047 .210 .044 V a r i a n c e e x t r a c t e d .346 .346 .321 .321 Redundancy .321 .321 .321 .321 h 2w i s t h e co m m u n a l i t y between t h e v a r i a b l e s o f one d a t a s e t and t h e c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o f t h a t d a t a s e t ( i n t r a s e t c o m m u n a l i t y ) . h 2 b i s t h e c o m m u n a l i t y between t h e v a r i a b l e s o f one d a t a s e t and t h e c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o f t h e o t h e r d a t a s e t ( i n t e r s e t c o m m u n a l i t y ) . 125 c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s . T h i s was s i m i l a r t o p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s w h i c h n o t e d t h a t m i n e r a l s o i l exMn d i d n o t f o l l o w t h e p a t t e r n o f most o t h e r m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s . The p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l v a r i a t i o n o f a d a t a s e t w h i c h i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e i s r e f e r r e d t o as t h e v a r i a n c e e x t r a c t e d by t h e c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e ( G i t t i n s , 1 9 7 9 ) . The number o f PCA axes u s e d as v a r i a b l e s i n t h e c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s i n t h e v a r i a n c e e x t r a c t e d o f 1.000 f o r t h e f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s (one PCA a x i s ) , .500 f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l (two PCA a x e s ) , and .333 f o r m i n e r a l s o i l ( t h r e e PCA a x e s ) . Of g r e a t e r v a l u e and i n t e r e s t i n t h i s s t u d y i s t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f r e d u n d a n c y . I n t e r s e t r e d u n d a n c y e x p r e s s e s t h e e x p l a n a t o r y power o f a c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e f r o m one d a t a s e t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e o b s e r v e d v a r i a b l e s o f t h e o t h e r d a t a s e t ( G i t t i n s , 1 9 7 9 ) . The i n t e r s e t r e d u n d a n c y f o r t h e f i r s t f o r e s t f l o o r c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e was .131 ( T a b l e 3 8 ) . F o r t h e f i r s t m i n e r a l s o i l c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e i n t e r s e t r e d u n d a n c y was .319 ( T a b l e 3 9 ) . F o r t h e f i r s t f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e i n t e r s e t r e d u n d a n c y was .321 ( T a b l e 4 0 ) . The i n t e r s e t r e d u n d a n c y o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e was .619 f o r t h e f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s , .468 f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s , and .313 f o r m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s . The v e g e t a t i o n c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e a c c o u n t e d f o r more f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t y v a r i a t i o n t h a n v i c e v e r s a . The f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n - f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l CCA had g r e a t e r i n t e r s e t r e d u n d a n c y t h a n any o t h e r v e g e t a t i o n - s o i l CCA. 126 The o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t v a r i a t e s o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n -f o r e s t f l o o r CCA i s g i v e n i n F i g . 14. T h r e e g r o u p s o f s t u d y p l o t s can be r e c o g n i z e d : 1) t h e VF p l o t s , 2) a mix o f t h e GD, GF and VD p l o t s , and 3) a d i f f u s e g r o u p c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e GVD and VVD p l o t s . The a r r a n g e m e n t o f p l o t s a l o n g t h e f i r s t f o r e s t f l o o r c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e was v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s o f a l l f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s , and t o u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s . The VF p l o t s formed one d i s t i n c t g r o u p , due t o t h e t h i n L h o r i z o n sampled as f o r e s t f l o o r i n t h i s s t u d y ; t h i c k Mors o f t h e VVD1, VVD3 and VVD4 p l o t s were i n a n o t h e r d i s t i n c t g r o u p , and t h e r e m a i n i n g p l o t s f o r m e d an i n t e r m e d i a t e g r o u p . The f i r s t v e g e t a t i o n c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h r e e g r o u p s , 1) t h e VF p l o t s , 2) t h e GF, VD and GD p l o t s , and 3) t h e VVD and GVD p l o t s . T h i s a r r a n g e m e n t o f p l o t s was s i m i l a r t o t h e t a b u l a r a n a l y s i s o f u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n . The o r d i n a t i o n s o f t h e f i r s t v a r i a t e s o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n -m i n e r a l s o i l and t h e v e g e t a t i o n - f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l CCA i s g i v e n i n F i g s . 15 and 16. The a r r a n g e m e n t o f s t u d y p l o t s was s i m i l a r i n b o t h o r d i n a t i o n s . The p l o t s w i t h i n a s i t e f o r m e d a f a i r l y c o h e s i v e g r o u p . The s t u d y s i t e s were o r d e r e d as GVD, GD, VVD, VD, GF, VF w h i c h was v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e GVD, VVD, GD, VD, GF, VF p a t t e r n o f t h e combined m o i s t u r e - n u t r i e n t g r a d i e n t o f t h e m u l t i v a r i a t e v e g e t a t i o n a n a l y s e s . The CCA s u p p o r t s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f n u t r i e n t g r a d i e n t c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a major t r e n d i n t h e v e g e t a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e f i r s t m u l t i v a r i a t e a x i s o n l y a c c o u n t e d f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25-28% (PCA 127 GV02 CVD1 CVD3 VVD2 VVD1 GVD4 0) VVD4 •»-> ca •H ^ -' o i-l ns U • H I. u § • H CO a>o v o l > u VV03 V04 V03 - „ GD3 R T , £ J GD4 G C'F3 V ° 2 GF2 GF4 GD2 GDI VF4 VF3 VF1 VF2 -1 1 1 1 1 • 1.0 0.0 1.0 First forest floor canonical variate Figure 14. Relationship between forest floor properties and understory vegetation in the study sites using the first canonical variates 128 GVDl GVD2 GVD3 GVD4 G02 GD3 GDI GD4 VVD3 VVD2 VD1 VD4 VD2 VD3 GF3 GF1 GF2 GF4 VF1 VF3 VF2 VF4 —1 1 1 1 1 I -0.4 0.4 !.? Firs t mineral so i l canonical variate Figure 15. Relationship between mineral so i l properties and understory vegetation in the study sites using the f i r s t canonical variates 129 GF3 GF1 GF2 GF4 VF3 VF4 VF2 GVD1 GVD2 GVD3 GVD4 GD2 GD1 GD3 VVD3 VVD2 VVD4 VVDt VD1 VD4 y D 2 VD3 GD4 T " -1.2 -0.4 0.4 1.2 First forest floor plus mineral soil canonical variate Figure 16. Relationship between forest floor plus mineral soil properties and understory vegetation in the study sites using the first canonical variates 130 o r RA a x i s 1) o f t h e t o t a l v a r i a t i o n , i t was t h e most i m p o r t a n t t r e n d i n v a r i a t i o n and was c o n s i s t e n t f o r e a c h method. The a r r a n g e m e n t o f s i t e s i n t h e o r d i n a t i o n s was t h e same as t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f SNR. The s i t e s a s s e s s e d as p o o r (GVD) and v e r y r i c h (VF) were a t o p p o s i t e ends o f t h e g r a d i e n t and t h e medium (GD, VVD) and r i c h (GF, VD) c l a s s e s were a d j a c e n t and i n t h e o r d e r assumed by t h e SNR a s s e s s m e n t . 5.3.2 F o l i a r N u t r i e n t s and S o i l P r o p e r t i e s The r e s u l t s o f CCA between f o l i a r n u t r i e n t s e x p r e s s e d as c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and s o i l p r o p e r t i e s a r e summarized i n T a b l e s 41, 42 and 43. The c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e f i r s t f o l i a r c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e and t h e f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s f o r t h e f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s was r=.733, f o r m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s , r=.971, and f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s , r=.966. On l y t h e f i r s t c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l f o r t h e f o l i a r - f o r e s t f l o o r CCA, and t h e f o l i a r - f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l CCA. The s e c o n d c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h e f o l i a r - m i n e r a l s o i l CCA ( r = . 7 1 8 ) . F o l i a r n u t r i e n t s w h i c h had t h e h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e f i r s t f o r e s t f l o o r c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e were Mn, B, Ca, and Zn (App. M). F o l i a r A l , N, Cu, and Mn had t h e h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e f i r s t m i n e r a l s o i l c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e (App. M). F o l i a r A l , N, Cu, and Mn had t h e h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e f i r s t f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e (App. M). 131 T a b l e 41. C o r r e l a t i o n s between f o r e s t f l o o r PCA a x i s , f o l i a r n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n PCA axes and c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s V a r i a b l e s F f l C a n l . 2 h w F o l C a n l h 2 b F f l P C A l 1.000 1.000 .733 .537 V a r i a n c e e x t r a c t e d 1.000 1.000 .537 .537 Redundancy .537 .537 .537 .537 C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s V a r i a b l e s F o l C a n l ,2 h w F f l C a n l l i b F o l P C A l F o l P C A 2 F o l P C A 3 V a r i a n c e e x t r a c t e d Redundancy ,964 ,226 ,139 ,333 ,179 .929 .051 .019 .333 .179 ,706 165 102 ,177 177 .498 .027 .010 .177 .177 h^w i s t h e c o m m u n a l i t y between t h e v a r i a b l e s o f one d a t a s e t and t h e c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o f t h a t d a t a s e t ( i n t r a s e t c o m m u n a l i t y ) . h^b i s t h e c o m m u n a l i t y between t h e v a r i a b l e s o f one d a t a s e t and t h e c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o f t h e o t h e r d a t a s e t ( i n t e r s e t c o m m u n a l i t y ) . 132 T a b l e 4 2 . C o r r e l a t i o n s be tween m i n e r a l s o i l PCA a x e s , f o l i a r n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n PCA axes a n d c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s 2 2 V a r i a b l e s M i n C a n l MinCan2 h w F o l C a n l F o l C a n 2 h b M i n P C A l - . 9 3 0 - . 1 1 8 .879 - . 9 0 3 - . 084 .822 MinPCA2 .343 .073 .123 .333 .052 .114 MinPCA3 - . 1 3 6 .990 .999 - . 1 3 2 .711 .523 V a r i a n c e e x t r a c t e d .333 .333 .667 .315 .172 .487 Redundancy .314 .172 .486 .315 .172 .487 C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s 2 2 V a r i a b l e s F o l C a n l F o l C a n 2 h w M i n C a n l M inCan2 h b F o l P C A l .780 - . 5 8 8 .954 .757 - . 4 2 2 .751 F o l P C A 2 - . 4 0 3 - . 2 0 9 .206 - . 3 9 2 - . 1 5 0 .176 F o l P C A 3 .479 .781 .839 .465 .561 .531 V a r i a n c e e x t r a c t e d .333 .333 .667 .314 .172 .486 Redundancy .314 .172 .486 .314 .172 .486 h 2 w i s t h e c o m m u n a l i t y b e t w e e n t h e v a r i a b l e s o f one d a t a s e t and t h e c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o f t h a t d a t a s e t ( i n t r a s e t c o m m u n a l i t y ) . h^b i s t h e c o m m u n a l i t y b e t w e e n t h e v a r i a b l e s o f one d a t a s e t and t h e c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o f t h e o t h e r d a t a s e t ( i n t e r s e t c o m m u n a l i t y ) . 133 T a b l e 43. C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l PCA a x e s , f o l i a r c o n c e n t r a t i o n PCA a x e s and c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s 2 2 V a r i a b l e s F m i n C a n l h w F o l C a n l h b F m i n P C A l -.948 .899 -.916 .839 FminPCA2 .319 .102 .308 .095 V a r i a n c e e x t r a c t e d .500 .500 .467 .467 R e d u n d a n c y .467 .467 .467 .467 C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s 2 2 V a r i a b l e s F o l C a n l h w F m i n C a n l h b F o l P C A l .788 .621 .761 .579 F o l P C A l -.366 .134 -.353 .125 F o l P C A 3 .495 .245 .478 .228 V a r i a n c e e x t r a c t e d .333 .333 .311 .311 Redundancy .311 .311 .311 .311 h^w i s t h e c o m m u n a l i t y b e t w e e n t h e v a r i a b l e s o f one d a t a s e t and t h e c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o f t h a t d a t a s e t ( i n t r a s e t c o m m u n a l i t y ) . h^b i s t h e c o m m u n a l i t y b e t w e e n t h e v a r i a b l e s o f one d a t a s e t and t h e c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o f t h e o t h e r d a t a s e t ( i n t e r s e t c o m m u n a l i t y ) . 134 The f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s most h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e f i r s t f o l i a r c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e were exMn, TC, exK, and TP (App. M). The m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s most h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e f i r s t f o l i a r c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e were minN, exCa, TN, and exMg (App. M). The f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s most h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e f i r s t f o l i a r c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e were minN, exCa, TN, and exMg (App. M). The f o l i a r ^ n u t r i e n t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h b o t h t h e f o l i a r and m i n e r a l s o i l s e c o n d c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s were N, P, B, and Mn (App. M). The m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h b o t h f o l i a r and m i n e r a l s o i l s e c o n d c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s were exP and exMn (App. M). T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e P and Mn r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e s t u d y p l o t s d i d n o t f o l l o w t h e p a t t e r n o f most o t h e r p r o p e r t i e s . The i n t e r s e t r e d u n d a n c y o f t h e f i r s t f o l i a r c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e was .537 f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s , .467 f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s , and .315 f o r m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s ( T a b l e s 41, 42, 4 3 ) . As w i t h v e g e t a t i o n - s o i l CCA, t h e f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s were t h e d a t a s e t w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d by t h e f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e o f t h e o t h e r d a t a s e t . T h i s c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s o f t h e f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h were w e l l summarized by one l i n e a r f u n c t i o n . F o r t h e f o l i a r - f o r e s t f l o o r CCA i t was l i k e l y t h a t t h e f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s were c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e l i t t e r i n p u t s w h i c h were p r e d o m i n a n t l y f o l i a g e . The i n t e r m e d i a t e i n t e r s e t r e d u n d a n c y o f t h e f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l d a t a can be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e i n c l u s i o n o f f o r e s t f l o o r n u t r i e n t q u a n t i t i e s i n t h e p r o p e r t i e s . 135 The o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e o f t h e f o l i a r - f o r e s t f l o o r CCA i s g i v e n i n F i g . 17. The p a t t e r n o f s t u d y s i t e s was s i m i l a r t o p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s w i t h t h e VF and VVD p l o t s a t o p p o s i t e ends o f t h e o r d i n a t i o n w i t h t h e r e m a i n i n g p l o t s f o r m i n g a l a r g e i n t e r m e d i a t e g r o u p . The p l o t s w i t h i n s i t e s f o r m e d more c o h e s i v e g r o u p s t h a n i n t h e v e g e t a t i o n -f o r e s t f l o o r CCA o r d i n a t i o n . For most s i t e s t h e g r e a t e s t d i s p e r s i o n o f p l o t s was a l o n g t h e f o r e s t f l o o r c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e f o l i a r n u t r i e n t p r o p e r t i e s o f most s t u d y s i t e s were l e s s v a r i a b l e t h a n f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s . The o r d i n a t i o n s o f t h e f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s f o r t h e f o l i a r - m i n e r a l s o i l CCA and f o l i a r - f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l CCA a r e g i v e n i n F i g s . 18 and 19. The a r r a n g e m e n t o f p l o t s i n b o t h o r d i n a t i o n s were v e r y s i m i l a r . E x c e p t f o r t h e GF s i t e , p l o t s w i t h i n a s i t e f ormed a r e c o g n i z e a b l e g r o u p . The a r r a n g e m e n t o f s t u d y s i t e s was t h e same as f o r t h e SNR a s s e s s m e n t (GVD, GD, VVD, VD, GF, V F ) . The f e r t i l i z a t i o n (GD, GF) and t h i n n i n g (GF) o f some s i t e s d i d n o t seem t o a f f e c t t h e o v e r a l l a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s , a l t h o u g h t h e g r e a t e r d i s p e r s i o n o f t h e GF p l o t s may be due t o t h e i r more r e c e n t t h i n n i n g and f e r t i l i z a t i o n . The r e s u l t s o f CCA between f o l i a r n u t r i e n t s e x p r e s s e d i n m i l l i g r a m s p e r 100 n e e d l e s (mg/100 n e e d l e s ) and s o i l v a r i a b l e s a r e summarized i n T a b l e s 44, 45 and 46. The c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e f i r s t f o l i a r c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e and t h e f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s was 136 VVD4 VVD2 VVD3 VVD1 GVD2 GVD3 GVD4 GV01 VD1 VD3 VD2 VD4 GD4 GDI GD2 VF3 VF4 VF2 GD3 VF1 GIGF3 GF4 GF2 -j— , , , , First forest floor canonical' variate Figure 17. Relationship between forest floor properties and foliar nutrients (concentration) in the study sites using the first canonical variates 137 GVD3 GVD2 GVD4 GVDI GD4 GD3 VVD3 GDI GD2 VVD4 VVD1 VVD2 VO! VD2 GFl VD4 GF3 VD3 GF4 GF2 VF4 VF1 VF3 VF2 o.o o.e First mineral soil canonical variate Figure 18. Relationship between mineral soil properties and foliar nutrients (concentration) in the study sites using the first canonical variates 138 GVD3 GVD2 GVD4 GVD1 GDI GFl VD4 GF3 GF4 GF2 VF4 VF1 VF3 VF2 GD3 VVD3 VVD4 VVD1 VV02 VDl VD2 VD3 GD2 GD1 T — I 1 1 1 1 1— - O J o.o o.e i,6 First forest floor plus mineral soil canonical variate Figure 19. Relationship between forest floor plus mineral soil properties and foliar nutrients (concentration) in the study sites using the first canonical variate 139 T a b l e 44. C o r r e l a t i o n s between f o r e s t f l o o r PCA a x i s , f o l i a r n u t r i e n t m i l l i g r a m s p e r 100 n e e d l e s PCA axes and c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s V a r i a b l e s F f l C a n l h 2w F o l m g C a n l h 2 b F f l P C A l 1.000 1.000 .655 .429 V a r i a n c e e x t r a c t e d 1.000 1.000 .429 .429 Redundancy .429 .429 .429 .429 C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s 2 2 V a r i a b l e s F o l m g C a n l h w F f l C a n l h b F o l m g P C A l .570 .325 .373 .139 FolmgPCA2 .740 .548 .485 .235 FolmgPCA3 .358 .128 - .235 .055 V a r i a n c e e x t r a c t e d .333 .333 .143 .143 Redundancy .143 .143 .143 .143 h 2w i s t h e c o m m u n a l i t y between t h e v a r i a b l e s o f one d a t a s e t and t h e c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o f t h a t d a t a s e t ( i n t r a s e t c o m m u n a l i t y ) . h^b i s t h e c o m m u n a l i t y between t h e v a r i a b l e s o f one d a t a s e t and t h e c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o f t h e o t h e r d a t a s e t ( i n t e r s e t c o m m u n a l i t y ) . 140 T a b l e 4 5 . C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n m i n e r a l s o i l PCA a x e s , f o l i a r n u t r i e n t m i l l i g r a m s p e r 100 n e e d l e s PCA axes and c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s V a r i a b l e s M i n C a n l 2 MinCan2 h w F o l m g C a n l Fo lmgCan2 h2 b M i n P C A l - . 7 5 1 - . 6 5 0 .987 - . 6 7 0 - . 5 2 3 .722 MinPCA2 .284 - . 1 5 8 .106 .254 - . 1 2 7 .081 MinPCA3 - . 5 9 6 .743 .907 .531 .599 .641 V a r i a n c e e x t r a c t e d .333 .333 .667 .265 .216 .481 Redundancy .265 .216 .481 .265 .216 .481 C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s V a r i a b l e s F o l m g C a n l 2 Fo lmgcan2 h w M i n c a n l M inCan2 h2 b F o l m g P C A l .400 916 .999 .357 .738 .672 FolmgPCA2 .883 -. 379 .923 .788 - . 3 0 5 .714 Fo lmgPCA3 .245 -. 130 .077 .218 - . 1 0 5 .059 V a r i a n c e e x t r a c t e d .333 333 .667 .265 .216 .481 Redundancy .265 • 216 .481 .265 .216 .481 h^w i s t h e c o m m u n a l i t y b e t w e e n t h e v a r i a b l e s o f one d a t a s e t and t h e c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o f t h a t d a t a s e t ( i n t r a s e t c o m m u n a l i t y ) . h^b i s t h e c o m m u n a l i t y b e t w e e n t h e v a r i a b l e s o f one d a t a s e t and t h e c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o f t h e o t h e r d a t a s e t ( i n t e r s e t c o m m u n a l i t y ) . 141 T a b l e 46. C o r r e l a t i o n s between f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l PCA axes, f o l i a r n u t r i e n t m i l l i g r a m s p e r 100 n e e d l e s PCA a x e s and c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s 2 2 V a r i a b l e s F m i n C a n l h w F o l m g C a n l h b FminPCAl .970 .941 .832 .692 FminPCA2 -.242 .059 -.207 .043 Variance extracted .500 .500 .367 .367 Redundancy .378 .378 .367 .367 C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e s V a r i a b l e s F o l m g C a n l h 2w F m i n C a n l h 2 b F o l m g P C A l -.831 .691 -.713 .508 FolmgPCA2 .518 . 268 .445 .198 FolmgPCA3 -.202 .041 -.173 .030 V a r i a n c e e x t r a c t e d .333 .333 .245 .245 Redundancy .245 .245 .245 .245 h 2w i s t h e c o m m u n a l i t y between t h e v a r i a b l e s o f one d a t a s e t and t h e c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o f t h a t d a t a s e t ( i n t r a s e t c o m m u n a l i t y ) . h^b i s t h e c o m m u n a l i t y between t h e v a r i a b l e s o f one d a t a s e t and t h e c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o f t h e o t h e r d a t a s e t ( i n t e r s e t c o m m u n a l i t y ) . 142 p r o p e r t i e s was r=.655, f o r m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s r=.892, and f o r f o r e s t f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s r=.858. On l y t h e f i r s t c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h e f o l i a r - f o r e s t f l o o r CCA, and t h e f o l i a r -f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l CCA. The s e c o n d c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h e f o l i a r -m i n e r a l s o i l CCA ( r = . 8 0 5 ) . F o l i a r n u t r i e n t s i n mg/100 n e e d l e s w h i c h had t h e h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e f i r s t f o r e s t f l o o r c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e were B, Mn, Zn, and Mg (App. M). F o l i a r Mn, B, P, and A l had t h e h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e f i r s t m i n e r a l s o i l c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e (App. M). F o l i a r P, Mn, B, and A l had t h e h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e f i r s t f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e (App. M). F o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h had t h e h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e f i r s t f o l i a r c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e were exMn, pH(H20), exK, and TC (App. M) ; m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s were minM, exMg and exCa (App. M); and f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s were minN, exCa, exMg and TN (App. M). F o l i a r n u t r i e n t s i n mg/100 n e e d l e s w h i c h had s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e s e c o n d p a i r o f f o l i a r - m i n e r a l s o i l c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s i n c l u d e d Ca, S, N, K, P, and A l (App. M). M i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h had s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e s e c o n d p a i r o f f o l i a r - m i n e r a l s o i l c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s i n c l u d e d exMn, exP, exMg, and exCa (App. M). The i n t e r s e t r e d u n d a n c y o f t h e f i r s t f o l i a r c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e was .429 f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s , .367 f o r f o r e s t 143 f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s and .265 f o r m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s ( T a b l e s 44, 45, 4 6 ) . The i n t e r s e t r e d u n d a n c y f o r t h e f i r s t f o r e s t f l o o r c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e was .143 ( T a b l e 4 4 ) . F o r t h e f i r s t m i n e r a l s o i l c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e i n t e r s e t r e d u n d a n c y was .265 ( T a b l e 4 5 ) . F o r t h e f i r s t f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e i n t e r s e t r e d u n d a n c y was .245 ( T a b l e 4 6 ) . I n t e r s e t r e d u n d a n c i e s f o r t h e s e c o n d f o l i a r -m i n e r a l s o i l c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s were b o t h .216 ( T a b l e 4 5 ) . O v e r a l l , t h e f i r s t f o l i a r - f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s had t h e g r e a t e s t i n t e r s e t r e d u n d a n c y . The r e l a t i v e l y e q u a l r e d u n d a n c i e s o f t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d p a i r s o f f o l i a r - m i n e r a l s o i l v a r i a t e s s u g g e s t s t h a t , u n l i k e t h e o t h e r CCA, t h e r e was an i m p o r t a n t s e c o n d d i m e n s i o n t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e s e d a t a s e t s . The o r d i n a t i o n s o f t h e f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o f t h e f o l i a r - f o r e s t f l o o r CCA and f o l i a r - f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l CCA's were v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e o r d i n a t i o n s w i t h f o l i a r n u t r i e n t s e x p r e s s e d as c o n c e n t r a t i o n and were n o t p r e s e n t e d . The o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s o f t h e f o l i a r - m i n e r a l s o i l CCA i s g i v e n i n F i g . 20. The p l o t s were i n t h r e e d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e g r o u p s , e a c h o f w h i c h was u n i f o r m f o r SMR c l a s s . The f o l i a r n u t r i e n t s most h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d t o t h e f i r s t p a i r o f f o l i a r - m i n e r a l s o i l c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s were Mn, B and P (App M). The m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s most h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d t o t h e f i r s t p a i r o f c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s were minN, TN and exCa (App. M). The GVD and VVD s i t e s had h i g h f o l i a r 144 GVD2 GVD4 GVD3 VVD3 VVD2 VVD1 GVDt CDA GDI \ % VD2 VD4 GD2 GD3 VF< VF2 VF3 GF3 GF1 VF1 GF4 GF2 0.0 Q.8 First mineral soil canonical variate Figure 20. Relationship between mineral soil properties and foliar nutrients (mg/100 needles) in the study sites using the first canonical variates 145 Mn, B and P c o n t e n t (App. D) b u t low m i n e r a l s o i l minN, TN and exCa r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r s t u d y s i t e s (App. H). As n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e m i n e r a l s o i l SMR g r a d i e n t was c o n f o u n d e d w i t h b u l k d e n s i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r TN and exCa. The low f o l i a r B o f t h e GD and GF s i t e s may have been f e r t i l i z e r i n d u c e d ( S e c t i o n 4 . 8 ) . The VF s i t e a l s o had low f o l i a r B l e v e l s (App. D ) . The i n c r e a s e d m i n e r a l s o i l minN v a l u e s were p o s s i b l y r e l a t e d t o i n c r e a s e d m o i s t u r e a v a i l a b i l i t y a l o n g t h e SMR g r a d i e n t . W h i l e t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f s t u d y s i t e s i n F i g . 20 does i n d i c a t e a g e n e r a l n u t r i e n t g r a d i e n t , t h e a r r a n g e m e n t s o f s i t e s d i d n o t c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e SNR a s s e s s m e n t as w e l l as o t h e r a n a l y s e s . 5.3.3 F o r e s t P r o d u c t i v i t y and S o i l P r o p e r t i e s F o r e s t p r o d u c t i v i t y was e s t i m a t e d by d e t e r m i n i n g s i t e i n d e x o f D o u g l a s - f i r . B o t h t h e s i t e i n d e x e q u a t i o n s o f H e g y i e_t a l . (1979) and B r u c e (1981) were u t i l i z e d t o d e t e r m i n e s i t e i n d e x i n m/50 y e a r s . T h e r e were no d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two methods f o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s d e s c r i b e d below. Only t h e B r u c e s i t e i n d e x ( S I ) v a l u e s were r e p o r t e d . S i t e i n d e x i s a u s e f u l e s t i m a t e o f p r o d u c t i v i t y f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y . However, i t has l i m i t a t i o n s as an a c c u r a t e measure o f f o r e s t p r o d u c t i v i t y ( H a g g l u n d , 1 9 8 1 ) . The N f e r t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e GD and GF s i t e s w i l l a l s o l i m i t t h e c o m p a r a b i l i t y o f t h e SI v a l u e s between s i t e s . The mean B r u c e ' s SI f o r a l l s t u d y s i t e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( T a b l e 4 7 ) . The o r d e r i n g o f s i t e s a c c o r d i n g t o i n c r e a s i n g SI c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e o r d e r i n g by SNR. 146 T a b l e 47. Mean s i t e i n d e x o f D o u g l a s - f i r i n s t u d y s i t e s S i t e GVD W D GD GF VD VF S I (m/50 y r s ) 17.8* 22.2 26.4 32.1 35.1 39.1 * A l l v a l u e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T a b l e 48. Mean s i t e i n d e x o f D o u g l a s - f i r i n s t u d y s i t e s a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y L i t h o l o g y G r a n i t i c V o l c a n i c S i t e s GVD, GD, GF WD, VD, VF S I (m/50 y r s ) 25.4* 32.1 * A l l v a l u e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . 147 The two medium SNR s i t e s (VVD, GD) and t h e two r i c h SNR s i t e s (GF, VD) were a d j a c e n t when a r r a n g e d by SI a l t h o u g h SI o f a l l s i t e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . The l ower SI o f t h e GF s i t e compared t o t h e VD s i t e was u n e x p e c t e d c o n s i d e r i n g t h e b e t t e r m o i s t u r e s t a t u s and N f e r t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e GF s i t e . T h i s may be s i m p l y a c h a n c e r e s u l t due t o t h e l i m i t e d number o f s i t e s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The t i m e s i n c e f e r t i l i z a t i o n may n o t have been s u f f i c i e n t t o a l l o w a s i g n i f i c a n t h e i g h t r e s p o n s e t o o c c u r . One p o s s i b l e c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r may be t h e low f o l i a r B and Zn l e v e l s o f t h e GF s i t e (App. D). S i t e i n d e x o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s was a n a l y z e d by t h e two-way ANOVA w i t h i n t e r a c t i o n f o r t h e p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y and SMR f a c t o r s . The i n t e r a c t i o n term was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . The v o l c a n i c p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y s i t e s had s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r SI t h a n g r a n i t i c l i t h o l o g y s i t e s ( T a b l e 4 8 ) . T h i s s u p p o r t s t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t i m p r o v e d Ca and Mg s t a t u s o f t h e v o l c a n i c l i t h o l o g y may i m p rove o v e r a l l n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y and i n d i r e c t l y p r o d u c t i v i t y . I n c r e a s e s i n s o i l m o i s t u r e a v a i l a b i l i t y between SMR c l a s s e s were r e f l e c t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s i n SI ( T a b l e 4 9 ) . The d i f f e r e n c e i n SI between t h e d r y and f r e s h SMR c l a s s e s was l a r g e r t h a n d i f f e r e n c e s i n AWSC would have s u g g e s t e d ( S e c . 4 . 6 ) . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e may have been i n f l a t e d by t h e l i m i t e d number o f s i t e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d y . T h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n SI between SNR c l a s s e s ( T a b l e 5 0 ) . The i n c r e a s i n g a v a i l a b i l i t y o f n u t r i e n t s assumed by t h e SNR c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e 148 T a b l e 49. Mean s i t e i n d e x o f D o u g l a s - f i r i n s t u d y s i t e s a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e (SMR) SMR V e r y d r y Dry F r e s h S i t e s VVD, GVD GD, VD GF, VF SI (m/50 y r s ) 20.0* 30.8 35.6 * A l l v a l u e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T a b l e 50. Mean s i t e i n d e x o f D o u g l a s - f i r i n s t u d y s i t e s a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e (SNR) SNR P o o r Medium R i c h V e r y r i c h S i t e ( s ) GVD GD, VVD GF, VD VF SI (m/50 y r s ) 17.8* 24.3 33.6 39.1 A l l v a l u e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . 149 i n c r e a s e s i n SI when p a i r s o f s i t e s w i t h e q u i v a l e n t m o i s t u r e s t a t u s were compared. The c o r r e l a t i o n s between SI and s o i l p r o p e r t i e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 51. The SI v a l u e s o f t h e u n f e r t i l i z e d s i t e s were u s e d t o a v o i d t h e c o m p l i c a t i o n s due t o f e r t i l i z e r e f f e c t s . The f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s most h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h B r u c e ' s SI were exK (-.811), exMn (-.746) and p H ( H 2 0 ) (.615). In g e n e r a l , as f o r e s t f l o o r t o t a l Mn i n c r e a s e d , SI d e c r e a s e d i n t h e D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d s s t u d i e d by C a r t e r ( 1 9 8 3 ) . F o r e s t f l o o r t o t a l Mn had t h e most c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o SI o f D o u g l a s - f i r , b u t C a r t e r (1983) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s may have been a r e s u l t o f t h e r o l e p l a y e d by w e s t e r n hemlock b o t h i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e growth o f D o u g l a s - f i r and t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f Mn i n t h e f o r e s t f l o o r . The v e r y m i n o r (<10% mean c o v e r ) component o f w e s t e r n hemlock i n t h e s t u d y s i t e s s u g g e s t s t h a t s o i l c o n d i t i o n s a n d/or p h y s i o l o g y o f D o u g l a s - f i r on v e r y d r y s i t e s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e o b s e r v e d h i g h f o l i a r Mn and f o r e s t f l o o r Mn l e v e l s . The s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n o f exK w i t h SI c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . The v e r y low p r o d u c t i v i t y GVD s i t e had r e l a t i v e l y h i g h K s t a t u s due t o t h e K c o n t e n t o f t h e p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y . The low p r o d u c t i v i t y VVD s i t e g e n e r a l l y had t h e h i g h e s t f o r e s t f l o o r n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t due t o h i g h e r b u l k d e n s i t y and g r e a t e r d e p t h o f f o r e s t f l o o r . I n c r e a s i n g pH l e v e l s a r e r e l a t e d t o improvements i n n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y and c o n d i t i o n s f o r s o i l o r g a n i s m s i m p o r t a n t i n T a b l e 51. C o r r e l a t i o n s between s o i l p r o p e r t i e s and s i t e p r o d u c t i v i t y measured by B r u c e ' s s i t e i n d e x (m/50 y r s ) f o r t h e u n f e r t i l i z e d s t u d y s i t e s F o r e s t f l o o r p l u s F o r e s t f l o o r M i n e r a l s o i l m i n e r a l s o i l P r o p e r t y C o r r e l a t i o n P r o p e r t y C o r r e l a t i o n P r o p e r t y C o r r e l a t i o n w i t h B r u c e ' s w i t h B r u c e ' s w i t h B r u c e ' s S . I . S . I . S . I . TC - . 6 3 2 * TC . 436 TC . 319 TN - . 4 3 1 TN . 7 7 4 * * TN . 7 6 6 * * minN . 012 minN . 9 6 3 * * minN . 9 4 4 * * TP - . 4 0 5 exP . 8 4 1 * * exCa . 8 7 1 * * TS - . 5 1 4 * s o 4 - . 7 5 3 * * exMg . 8 7 4 * * exCa - . 5 8 9 * exCa . 9 0 2 * * exK . 037 exMg - . 5 6 4 * exMg . 8 8 5 * * exMn - . 6 9 2 * * exK - . 8 1 1 * * exK . 265 exMn - . 7 4 6 * * exMn . 0 24 p H ( H 2 0 ) . 6 1 5 * pH(H 20) p H ( C a C l 2 ) . 7 0 1 * * . 6 1 4 * * S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . ** S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l . 151 d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r ( P r i t c h e t t , 1978) and i n d i r e c t l y t o p r o d u c t i v i t y . The m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s most h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h SI were minN (.962), exCa (.902), exMg (.885), and exP (.841). The f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s most h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h SI were minN (.944), exMg (.874), exCa (.871), and TN (.766). The p r o p e r t i e s most h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h SI (minN, TN, exCa, exMg) were a l s o t h e p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h b e s t r e f l e c t e d SNR. The e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s i s m i n e r a l s o i l exP. P oor growth o f D o u g l a s - f i r has been n o t e d where P and o t h e r n u t r i e n t s a r e i n low s u p p l y ( K r a j i n a e t a_l. , 1 982), and low s o i l P has been s u g g e s t e d as t h e r e a s o n f o r l a c k o f N f e r t i l i z e r r e s p o n s e i n a r e a s w i t h low a v a i l a b l e s o i l P (Radwan and Shumway, 19 8 2 ) . The v o l c a n i c l i t h o l o g y s t u d y s i t e s have b o t h h i g h e r exP c o n t e n t and h i g h e r S I . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n was i n f l a t e d by t h e s m a l l number o f s t u d y s i t e s . The p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between SI and N m i n e r a l i z e d f r o m humus o f u p p e r m i n e r a l s o i l h o r i z o n s have been d e s c r i b e d f o r s e v e r a l t r e e s p e c i e s ( e . g . Z o t t l , 1960; Powers, 1980; R e h f u e s s and Baum, 19 8 0 ) . In a r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n u s i n g N m i n e r a l i z e d f r o m t h e 0-15 cm d e p t h o f m i n e r a l s o i l and s t a n d d e n s i t y , 86% o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n growth r e s p o n s e o f D o u g l a s - f i r t o N f e r t i l i z e r was a c c o u n t e d f o r (Shumway and A t k i n s o n , 1 9 7 8 ) . F o r D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d s i n W a s h i n g t o n , N m i n e r a l i z e d d u r i n g an a n a e r o b i c i n c u b a t i o n had a .36 c o r r e l a t i o n t o f e r t i l i z e r r e s p o n s e compared t o .14 f o r t o t a l N ( J . Shumway, p e r s . comm. as c i t e d by McNabb, 1984). An i m p r o v e d c o r r e l a t i o n was 152 o b t a i n e d by ' c o r r e c t i n g ' t h e minN v a l u e s f o r c o a r s e f r a g m e n t c o n t e n t . The c o r r e l a t i o n o f m i n e r a l i z e d N w i t h f e r t i l i z e r r e s p o n s e a l s o d i f f e r e d w i t h t h e amount o f e x c h a n g e a b l e b a s e s i n t h e s o i l . The f e r t i l i z e r r e s p o n s e was g r e a t e r when amounts o f e x c h a n g e a b l e b a s e s and o t h e r n u t r i e n t s were g r e a t e r ( J . Shumway, p e r s . comm. as c i t e d by McNabb, 1 9 8 4 ) . The g r e a t e r s o i l N and Ca q u a n t i t i e s o f h i g h l y p r o d u c t i v e D o u g l a s - f i r s i t e s has been p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d ( e g . K l i n k a e t a l . , 1981b; Roy, 1 9 8 4 ) . T h i s w o u l d s u p p o r t t h e i n d i r e c t e f f e c t on N a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r s i t e s w i t h b e t t e r b a s e s t a t u s as s u g g e s t e d p r e v i o u s l y ( s e c . 5 . 2 . 1 ) . 5.4 CLASSIFICATION OF SOIL NUTRIENT REGIMES 5.4.1 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f R e c o g n i z e d C l a s s e s The sum o f m i n e r a l s o i l (0-50 cm d e p t h ) and f o r e s t f l o o r minN, TN, exCa, and exMg e x p r e s s e d on a kg/ha b a s i s were t h e p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h b e s t c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e f o u r SNR c l a s s e s r e c o g n i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y ( T a b l e 5 2 ) . T hese f o u r p r o p e r t i e s have been shown t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h m a j o r t r e n d s i n v a r i a t i o n o f s o i l p r o p e r t i e s ( S e c t i o n 5 . 2 . 2 ) , - v e g e t a t i o n , and f o r e s t p r o d u c t i v i t y f o r t h e s t u d y s i t e s ( S e c t i o n 5 . 3 ) . The v e g e t a t i o n a n a l y s i s and PCA o f m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s i d e n t i f i e d g r o u p s o f s t u d y p l o t s w h i c h were t h e same as t h e f i e l d - a s s e s s e d SNR c l a s s . B o t h DA and CA c o n s i s t e n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t h e SNR c l a s s e s o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s u s i n g f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l exMg and minN. The c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e s e g r o u p i n g s s u g g e s t s t h a t i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e 153 Table 52. Mean and range of one standard d e v i a t i o n ( i n parenthesis) of f o r e s t f l o o r plus mineral s o i l p r o p e r t i e s which c h a r a c t e r i z e the s o i l n u t r i e n t regime cl a s s e s recognized i n t h i s study S o i l n u t r i e n t regime c l a s s Property Poor Medium Rich Very r i c h TN (kg/ha) 2328 (2095-2585) 3193 (2790-3655) 4108 (3123-5404) 7121 (6117-8291) minN (kg/ha) 18 (15-22) 54 (45-65) 113 (95-134) 242 „ (185-315) exCa (kg/ha) 512 (436-602) 609 (409-905) 1660 (1081-2547) 4821 (3729-6234) exMg (kg/ha) 86 (80-93) 86 (76-98) 168 (140-203) 650 (506-834) Table 53. C o e f f i c i e n t s and the constants used i n the c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n functions f or the four s o i l n u t r i e n t regime cla s s e s recognized i n t h i s study Nutrient regime c l a s s Constant C o e f f i c i e n t s exMg minN poor medium r i c h very r i c h -389.14282 -367.93667 -486.82642 -770.02441 206.30174 155.47197 172.06049 240.54950 -49.62115 9.56474 18.54732 -3.82374 154 n u t r i e n t r e g i m e s o f t h e s i x s i t e s c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d u s i n g s o i l p r o p e r t i e s a l o n e . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f SNR f o r s o i l s c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n s t u d i e d i s p r o p o s e d u s i n g t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s and c o n s t a n t s f o u n d i n T a b l e 53. To a s s i g n a s i t e t o a SNR c l a s s , a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c o r e f o r t h a t s i t e must be c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h o f t h e f o u r c l a s s e s . The s c o r e f o r e a c h c l a s s i s c a l c u l a t e d by m u l t i p l y i n g t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s by t h e v a l u e o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s o i l v a r i a b l e , summing t h e s e p r o d u c t s and a d d i n g t h e c o n s t a n t . The c l a s s w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e i s t h e g r o u p t o w h i c h t h e s i t e b e l o n g s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f u n c t i o n s were d e r i v e d f o r v a r i a b l e s w h i c h had been m a t h e m a t i c a l l y t r a n s f o r m e d ( l o g + 1 ) . The p r o p o s e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s b a s e d on a l i m i t e d number o f s t u d y s i t e s i n one c l i m a t i c r e g i o n . F u r t h e r s t u d i e s o v e r a w i d e r r a n g e o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s w i t h a l a r g e r sample s i z e a r e r e q u i r e d . The use o f o t h e r s o i l a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e s ( e . g . d i f f e r e n t i n d e x e s o f N a v a i l a b i l i t y ) s h o u l d a l s o be examined i n t h e f u t u r e . 5.4.2 C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P r o p o s e d by C o u r t i n e t a l . (1985) and T h i s S t u d y The d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s c o e f f i c i e n t s and c o n s t a n t s f o r t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e SNR c l a s s e s p r o p o s e d by C o u r t i n ejt a l . (1985) were us e d t o c l a s s i f y t h e GVD, GD, GF, VVD, and VD s i t e s o f t h i s s t u d y . The c o m p a r i s o n o f SNR c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h e s t u d y s i t e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 54. The s o i l p r o p e r t i e s 155 T a b l e 54. C o m p a r i s o n o f n u t r i e n t r egime c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s t u d y s i t e s u s i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s s t u d y and t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s f u n c t i o n s p r o p o s e d by C o u r t i n e t a l . (1985) N u t r i e n t r egime c l a s s i f i c a t i o n S t u d y s i t e s T h i s s t u d y C o u r t i n e t a l . (1985) GVD p o o r medium (N low, s o i l g r o u p 4) VVD medium medium (N low, s o i l g r o u p 3) GD medium medium (N low, s o i l g r o u p 3) VD r i c h medium (N low, s o i l g r o u p 3) GF r i c h r i c h ( s o i l g r o u p 6) T a b l e 55. I n t e r p r e t i v e n u t r i e n t r e g i m e c l a s s , and means o f pHdioO), C/N, TN and sum o f e x c h a n g e a b l e b a s e s (SEB) f o r t h e f i v e s t u d y s i t e s where s a m p l i n g m e t h o d o l o g y was c o m p a r a b l e t o t h a t o f C o u r t i n e t a l . (1985) S t u d y s i t e s N u t r i e n t r e g i m e c l a s s Humus fo r m M i n e r a l s o i l p H ( H 2 0 ) C/N TN (kg/h SEB a) GVD p o o r 4.3 45 1989 501 VVD medium 4.0 36 2778 676 GD medium 4.1 33 2544 398 VD r i c h 4.2 35 2833 1251 GF r i c h 4.7 31 4827 2350 1 5 6 o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s and t h o s e o f t h e s o i l g r o u p s c l a s s i f i e d by C o u r t i n e t a l . ( 1 9 8 5 ) a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e s 5 5 and 5 6 , r e s p e c t i v e l y . D i f f e r e n c e s i n s a m p l i n g m e t h o d o l o g y between t h i s s t u d y and C o u r t i n e_t a l . ( 1 9 8 5 ) c o m p l i c a t e c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . The Ah h o r i z o n was sampled as p a r t o f t h e humus f o r m by C o u r t i n e t a l . ( 1 9 8 5 ) b u t as p a r t o f t h e m i n e r a l s o i l i n t h i s s t u d y . Due t o t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n s a m p l i n g m e t h o d o l o g y , t h e m u l l humus f o r m o f t h e VF s i t e c o u l d n o t be c l a s s i f i e d u s i n g t h e p r o p o s e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f C o u r t i n e t a l . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . The s o i l p r o p e r t i e s u s e d by C o u r t i n e t a l . ( 1 9 8 5 ) were b a s e d on one s a m p l i n g l o c a t i o n i n a 4 0 0 m 2 p l o t compared t o 1 5 s a m p l i n g l o c a t i o n s i n a 4 0 0 m 2 p l o t i n t h i s s t u d y . S o i l s a m p l e s were c o l l e c t e d t o r o o t i n g d e p t h w h i c h v a r i e d f r o m 1 0 t o 1 5 0 cm, compared t o t h e 5 0 cm ( o r l e s s i f a r e s t r i c t i n g l a y e r was p r e s e n t ) s a m p l i n g d e p t h u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The GVD, VD and GF s i t e s a l l had a v e r a g e r o o t i n g d e p t h s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 9 0 t o 1 0 0 cm (App. E ) . F o r t h e GVD and VVD s i t e s , whose a v e r a g e r o o t i n g d e p t h s were 5 5 cm and 4 3 cm, r e s p e c t i v e l y (App. E) , t h e r e was l i t t l e p o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e due t o s a m p l i n g d e p t h . The n u t r i e n t r e g i m e o f t h e GVD s i t e was c l a s s i f i e d as p o o r i n t h i s s t u d y and medium (N low, s o i l g r o u p 4 ) u s i n g t h e methods o f C o u r t i n e t a^l. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . The humus f o r m v a l u e s f o r t h e GVD s i t e were more s i m i l a r t o t h e medium ( s o i l g r o u p 4 ) SNR t h a n t h e p o o r ( s o i l g r o u p 2 ) SNR. M i n e r a l s o i l v a l u e s f o r t h e GVD s i t e were w i t h i n t h e r a n g e s o f e i t h e r t h e p o o r o r medium SNR c l a s s e s o f C o u r t i n e t J Q . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . 157 T a b l e 56. I n t e r p r e t i v e n u t r i e n t r egime c l a s s , means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s ( i n p a r e n t h e s i s ) o f phUH^O), C/N, TN and sum o f e x c h a n g e a b l e b a s e s (SEB) f o r t h e s e v e n s o i l g r o u p s c l a s s i f i e d u s i n g d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s f u n c t i o n s by C o u r t i n e t al _ . (1985) Humus f o r m M i n e r a l s o i l S o i l N u t r i e n t p H ( H 2 0 ) C/N TN SEB group r e g i m e c l a s s (kg/ha) 1 v e r y p o o r 3.8 73 1743 1386 (0.3) (7) (1786) (1683 2 p o o r 3.6 52 3010 871 (0.3) (5) (2421) (764 3 medium (N low) 3 .8 37 4593 944 (0.3) (4) (2102) (776 4 medium (N low) 4.5 43 2045 795 (0.3) (4) (1268) (346 5 medium (N h i g h ) 4.1 34 12989 1255 (0.6) (7) (3749) (577 6 r i c h 4.5 20 4069 1743 (0.4) (5) (2405) (1088 7 v e r y r i c h 5.0 21 8404 5066 (0.4) (5) (3902) (1961 158 The VVD and GD s i t e s were c l a s s i f i e d as medium i n b o t h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . I n c r e a s i n g t h e s a m p l i n g d e p t h o f t h e GD s i t e m i g h t have i n c r e a s e d t h e TN and SEB v a l u e s , b u t t h e i n c r e a s e p r o b a b l y would n o t have been g r e a t enough t o change t h e n u t r i e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t o r i c h . The n u t r i e n t r e g i m e o f t h e VD s i t e was c l a s s i f i e d as r i c h i n t h i s s t u d y and medium (N low, s o i l g r o u p 4) u s i n g t h e methods o f C o u r t i n e t a l . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . S a m p l i n g t h e e n t i r e r o o t i n g d e p t h o f t h e VD s i t e w ould have i n c r e a s e d TN and SEB v a l u e s , making them more s i m i l a r t o t h e r i c h ( s o i l g r o u p 6, T a b l e 56) SNR c l a s s o f C o u r t i n e t a l . . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . The C/N r a t i o o f t h e VD s i t e was much h i g h e r (35) t h a n t h e C/N r a t i o (20) o f t h e r i c h ( s o i l g r o u p 6, T a b l e 56) SNR c l a s s . The GF s i t e was c l a s s i f i e d as r i c h by b o t h methods. I n c r e a s i n g m i n e r a l s o i l s a m p l i n g d e p t h ' p r o b a b l y would n o t have i n c r e a s e d v a l u e s t o t h e r a n g e of t h e v e r y r i c h ( s o i l g r o u p 7, T a b l e 56) c l a s s . The m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e between t h e GF s i t e and t h e r i c h SNR c l a s s o f C o u r t i n e_t a l . (1985) was t h e C/N r a t i o o f t h e humus fo r m . The o p p o s i n g e f f e c t s o f t h i n n i n g ( p r o b a b l e e f f e c t o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e C/N r a t i o ) and N f e r t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e GF s i t e ( p r o b a b l e e f f e c t o f d e c r e a s i n g t h e C/N r a t i o ) c o m p l i c a t e t h i s c o m p a r i s o n . 159 6. SUMMARY The s t u d y s i t e s were a l l l o c a t e d on s o u t h e r n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f Cowichan L a k e . Second g rowth D o u g l a s - f i r , e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r l o g g i n g and f i r e , between t h e a g e s o f 33 and 67 y e a r s d o m i n a t e d t h e t r e e l a y e r s o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n . The GD s i t e had been f e r t i l i z e d w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200 kg N/ha i n 1968 and 1976. The GF s i t e had been f e r t i l i z e d a t a s i m i l a r r a t e i n 1968 and 1979 as w e l l as b e i n g t h i n n e d t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 700 s t e m s / h a i n 1979. A l l s t u d y s i t e s were w i t h i n t h e E a s t V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d V a r i a n t o f t h e D r i e r M a r i t i m e C o a s t a l W e s t e rn Hemlock subzone (CWHal). The c l i m a t e o f t h e CWHal subzone i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as humid, c o o l m e s o t h e r m a l . Based on c o a r s e f r a g m e n t and b e d r o c k samples t h e s t u d y s i t e s were d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s o f p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g i e s , g r a n i t e and v o l c a n i c . The g r a n i t i c g r o u p i n c l u d e d s i t e s 1, 2 and 3 (GVD, GD, G F ) . The v o l c a n i c g r o u p i n c l u d e d s i t e s 4, 5 and 6 (VVD, VD, V F ) . The f i e l d a s s e s s m e n t s o f p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y were r e t a i n e d . The g r a n i t i c l i t h o l o g y was e x p e c t e d t o be h i g h e r i n K s t a t u s b u t lower i n Ca and Mg t h a n t h e v o l c a n i c l i t h o l o g y . G l a c i a l t i l l was t h e p a r e n t m a t e r i a l o f t h e GVD, GD and VVD s i t e s ; g l a c i o f l u v i a l m a t e r i a l f o r t h e GF s i t e ; c o l l u v i a l / a l l u v i a l m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e VD s i t e ; and a l l u v i a l m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e VF s i t e . The VF s i t e s o i l s were O r t h i c C u m u l i c R e g o s o l s ; t h e s o i l s o f a l l o t h e r s t u d y s i t e s were c l a s s i f i e d as O r t h i c H u m o - f e r r i c P o d z o l s . The 160 v a l u e s o f f o r e s t f l o o r p H (H 20), TC, TN, minN, TP, TS, exCa, exMg, exK, exMn, and m i n e r a l s o i l p H(H 20), p H ( C a C l 2 ) , minN, exP, SO4, exCa, exMg, exK, and exMn were s i m i l a r t o t h e v a l u e s o f t h o s e p r o p e r t i e s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d . The a s s e s s m e n t o f SNR done i n t h e f i e l d was d e s c r i b e d f o r two s t u d y s i t e s . A s i m i l a r p r o c e d u r e was f o l l o w e d f o r a l l s t u d y s i t e s . The a n a l y s i s o f g r o w i n g - s e a s o n s o i l m o i s t u r e d e f i c i t s and AWSC f o r t h e s t u d y s i t e s were i n t h e same o r d e r as t h e r e l a t i v e r a n k i n g s o f SMR w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e GD s i t e . E a c h p a i r o f s i t e s w i t h i n t h e SMR c l a s s had c o m p a r a b l e g r o w i n g - s e a s o n s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e s , w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n s o f t h e GD and VD s i t e s . W i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f t h e methods u s e d , t h e f i e l d a s s e s s m e n t s o f s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e were c o n f i r m e d and r e t a i n e d . The u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s d i s p l a y e d a c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n u s i n g t h r e e t y p e s o f m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s . The a r r a n g e m e n t o f s t u d y s i t e s c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e a s s e s s m e n t SNR and SMR f o r e a c h s t u d y s i t e . F o l i a r n u t r i e n t a n a l y s i s o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t N d e f i c i e n c i e s r a n g e d f r o m v e r y s e v e r e t o s l i g h t . A l l s i t e s were p o s s i b l y d e f i c i e n t i n K, w h i l e Ca and Mg were a d e q u a t e . E x c l u d i n g t h e N f e r t i l i z e d s i t e s , t h e d e c r e a s e i n s e v e r i t y o f N d e f i c i e n c y c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e assumed i n c r e a s e i n N a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e SNR a s s e s s m e n t . F o l i a r Ca, Mg and K s t a t u s d i d n o t r e f l e c t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s e x p e c t e d due t o p a r e n t m a t e r i a l 161 l i t h o l o g y o r t h e SNR c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . B, Zn and Fe d e f i c i e n c i e s may a f f e c t p r o d u c t i v i t y o f t h e GD, GF and VF s i t e s . The two-way ANOVA o f n u t r i e n t p r o p e r t i e s w i t h p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y and SMR was u s e f u l f o r d i s p l a y i n g some t r e n d s . T h e r e were c o n s i s t e n t s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e two f a c t o r s w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t be d i s c u s s e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y . A one-way ANOVA o f f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s u s i n g f i e l d - a s s e s s e d SNR o f t h e s i t e was a l s o an i n a d e q u a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e f o r e s t f l o o r v a r i a t i o n . The f o r e s t f l o o r n u t r i e n t q u a n t i t i e s were b e s t i n t e r p r e t e d by n o t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n t y p e o f humus form, d e p t h o f f o r e s t f o o r , and t i m e s i n c e l a s t d i s t u r b a n c e . P l o t w i t h i n s i t e v a r i a b i l i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a l l p r o p e r t i e s , r e f l e c t i n g t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , f o r e s t f l o o r d e p t h and b u l k d e n s i t y . The m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s o f exP, S 0 4 , exCa, exMg, exK, exMn, p H ( H 2 0 ) , and p H ( C a C l 2 ) a l l had s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e p a r e n t m a t e r i a l and SMR f a c t o r s o f t h e two-way ANOVA. These f a c t o r s d i d n o t a c c o u n t v e r y w e l l f o r t h e p a t t e r n s o f v a r i a t i o n o b s e r v e d , a l t h o u g h t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f p l o t means c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d i n some c a s e s , f o r example, p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y f o r exP. The d i f f e r e n c e s i n TC and TN between SMR c l a s s e s r e f l e c t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n b u l k d e n s i t y , as w e l l as humus form f o r TC, and p o s s i b l y l i t h o l o g y o f p a r e n t m a t e r i a l f o r TN. Only f o r minN d i d t h e SMR g r a d i e n t o f f e r an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r i n c r e a s i n g n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y . T h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between SNR c l a s s e s f o r minN and TN. 162 S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e v e r y r i c h , r i c h , and g r o u p e d p o o r and medium SNR c l a s s e s were a p p a r e n t f o r exCa and exMg. Fo r a l l m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s e x c e p t minN and p H ( C a C l 2 ) t h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h i n - s i t e v a r i a b i l i t y . T h i s was due i n p a r t t o n u t r i e n t v a r i a b i l i t y , and b u l k d e n s i t y v a r i a b i l i t y . However, t h e w i t h i n - s i t e v a r i a b i l i t y a l s o s u p p o r t e d t h e SNR c l a s s a s s i g n m e n t , as p l o t s i d e n t i f i e d as h a v i n g t h e same SNR c l a s s were a d j a c e n t f o r some p r o p e r t i e s ( e . g . , m i n N ) . F o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l n u t r i e n t q u a n t i t i e s d i s p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y - S M R i n t e r a c t i o n f o r exMg and exMn. For TC, TN and minN t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e m i n e r a l s o i l was r e p e a t e d . T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t m i n e r a l s o i l q u a n t i t i e s d o m i n a t e d t h i s a n a l y s i s , due t o t h e t h i n f o r e s t f l o o r s o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s . The d i f f e r e n c e i n exCa a l o n g t h e SMR g r a d i e n t a g a i n r e f l e c t e d how t h e SMR g r a d i e n t was c o n f o u n d e d w i t h a b u l k d e n s i t y g r a d i e n t . The exK v a l u e s p r o v i d e d an example o f t h e c o m p e n s a t i n g e f f e c t s o f b u l k d e n s i t y , p a r e n t m a t e r i a l and s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e s . S i g n i f i c a n t w i t h i n - s i t e v a r i a b i l i t y was p r e s e n t f o r a l l p r o p e r t i e s . W h i l e u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s were u s e f u l f o r d i s p l a y i n g some t r e n d s w h i c h c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d i n l i g h t o f c h a n g e s i n s o i l b u l k d e n s i t y and humus form , i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i a b l e s and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e s were no t c l e a r . A b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e c o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s was o b t a i n e d by i n s i g h t s i n t o c o m p e n s a t i n g f a c t o r s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s u s i n g m u l t i v a r i a t e t e c h n i q u e s . 163 The r e s u l t s o f t h e MSS a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e f o r e s t f l o o r v a r i a b l e s were a l l h i g h l y i n t e r r e l a t e d and TS was t h e most u s e f u l summary o f t h e v a r i a t i o n b e t w e e n f o r e s t f l o o r s o f t h e s t u d y p l o t s . F o r m i n e r a l s o i l , e x Ca was t h e s i n g l e v a r i a b l e w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t d i s p e r s i o n and r e d u n d a n c y . A l l m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s were h i g h l y i n t e r r e l a t e d . T h i s was p r o b a b l y due t o i n c r e a s e s i n b u l k d e n s i t y r e s u l t i n g i n i n c r e a s e d q u a n t i t i e s o f a l l n u t r i e n t s e x c e p t SO4. The p r o p e r t y w i t h g r e a t e s t d i s p e r s i o n and r e d u n d a n c y f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l was TN. U n i q u e i n f o r m a t i o n was p r o v i d e d by exMn and p o s s i b l y by exK. The f o u r v a r i a b l e s (TN, minN, e x C a , exMg) w h i c h were h i g h l y i n t e r r e l a t e d i n t h e f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l d a t a were a l s o t h o s e w h i c h r e f l e c t e d t h e SNR a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s i n t h e u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s . F o r a l l t h r e e d a t a s e t s t h e r e was one PCA a x i s a c c o u n t i n g f o r 5 8 % t o 84% o f t h e v a r i a t i o n b e t w e e n s t u d y p l o t s and w h i c h was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d t o a l m o s t a l l p r o p e r t i e s . The PCA o f f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s was i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e o v e r a l l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s t h a t f o r e s t f l o o r humus f o r m , b u l k d e n s i t y and d e p t h were t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s f o r e x p l a i n i n g t h e v a r i a t i o n among s t u d y p l o t s . The MSS a n a l y s i s and PCA b o t h h i g h l i g h t e d t h e i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s o f t h e f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s . The m a j o r t r e n d f o r m i n e r a l s o i l v a r i a t i o n among t h e s t u d y s i t e s was f o r i n c r e a s i n g s o i l n u t r i e n t q u a n t i t i e s and i n c r e a s i n g pH. E x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s p a t t e r n were S0 4 w h i c h was 164 n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d ( d e c r e a s e d ) w i t h t h e f i r s t PCA a x i s , and t h e u n i q u e v a r i a t i o n o f exMn among t h e s t u d y s i t e s . The o r d i n a t i o n o f s t u d y s i t e s u s i n g t h e f i r s t two PCA axes was i n t e r p r e t e d a s a r r a n g i n g most p l o t s i n a manner s i m i l a r t o t h e m o i s t u r e - n u t r i e n t g r a d i e n t o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n a n a l y s i s and t h e SNR a s s e s s m e n t . The f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l n u t r i e n t p r o p e r t i e s a l s o d i s p l a y e d a t r e n d f o r i n c r e a s i n g q u a n t i t i e s o f TN, exCa, exMg, minN, and TC. The v a r i a t i o n p a t t e r n o f exK r e f l e c t e d a c o m b i n a t i o n o f l i t h o l o g y , b u l k d e n s i t y , s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o l e a c h i n g , and o t h e r f a c t o r s . The v a r i a t i o n p a t t e r n f o r exMn among s t u d y s i t e s was d i s t i n c t f r o m o t h e r n u t r i e n t s . W i t h e a c h o f t h e d a t a s e t s a l l p l o t s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s i t e o f o r i g i n u s i n g DA. However, w i t h e a c h d a t a s e t more v a r i a b l e s were u t i l i z e d t o c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f y s i t e s t h a n were r e q u i r e d f o r p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y , SMR, o r SNR. E a c h s i t e was u n i q u e , b u t o t h e r p o t e n t i a l g r o u p i n g s o f p l o t s u t i l i z e d f e w e r p r o p e r t i e s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e a l t e r n a t i v e g r o u p i n g s o f p l o t s r e v e a l e d i m p o r t a n t s i m i l a r i t i e s . D i f f e r e n c e s between p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g i e s were most c l e a r l y e x p r e s s e d w i t h m i n e r a l s o i l exP. F o r e s t f l o o r TP was a l s o an i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t o s e p a r a t e p l o t s on t h e b a s i s o f l i t h o l o g y . However, t h e m i n e r a l c o n t e n t o f t h e r o c k t y p e s w ould n o t s u g g e s t g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n P ( T a b l e 4 ) . The Ca and Mg s t a t u s o f t h e p l o t s w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o d i f f e r between l i t h o l o g i e s , b u t o n l y i n t h e f o r e s t f l o o r d a t a s e t was exCa 165 u t i l i z e d i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between t h e two l i t h o l o g i e s . The N s t a t u s o f p l o t s was u t i l i z e d t o s e p a r a t e a c c o r d i n g t o l i t h o l o g y . T h i s N d i f f e r e n c e between l i t h o l o g i e s was n o t e d i n t h e u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s f o r m i n e r a l s o i l . A few p l o t s were m i s c l a s s i f i e d f o r p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y i n a l l d a t a s e t s . T h i s was due t o v a r i a b i l i t y o f p r o p e r t i e s o b s c u r i n g s e p a r a t i o n , m i x i n g o f l i t h o l o g i e s i n s u r f i c i a l m a t e r i a l s , and p o s s i b l y t h e i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l i t h o l o g y and t h e p r o p e r t i e s s t u d i e d . The SMR c l a s s e s were w e l l s e p a r a t e d by DA i n a l l d a t a s e t s . However, SMR was c o n f o u n d e d w i t h humus form o f f o r e s t f l o o r and b u l k d e n s i t y o f m i n e r a l s o i l i n t h i s s t u d y . P r o p e r t i e s w h i c h were u t i l i z e d i n two o r more d a t a s e t s t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between SMR c l a s s e s were TN a n d / o r minN, exCa and exMn. SNR c l a s s e s o f s t u d y p l o t s were n o t w e l l s e p a r a t e d i n t h e f o r e s t f l o o r d a t a s e t . The o v e r l a p o f n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t between t h i n Mor (GVD4, GD2, GD3) and Moders (VD1 , VD2) was n o t e d i n t h e u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s . SNR c l a s s e s were n o t w e l l s e p a r a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s e x p r e s s e d q u a n t i t a t i v e l y . S i x m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s were u t i l i z e d t o s e p a r a t e SNR c l a s s e s . However, when f o r e s t f l o o r and m i n e r a l s o i l q u a n t i t i e s were summed, o n l y t h r e e p r o p e r t i e s were r e q u i r e d f o r s e p a r a t i o n . T h i s s u p p o r t s t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f b o t h f o r e s t f l o o r and m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s when SNR a s s e s s m e n t i s made. P r o p e r t i e s w h i c h were c o n s i s t e n t l y u t i l i z e d t o s e p a r a t e SNR were N s t a t u s (TN, minN), b a s e s t a t u s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y exMg, 166 e x C a ) , and pH ( f o r e s t f l o o r p H ( H 2 0 ) , and p H ( C a C l 2 ) o f m i n e r a l s o i l s ) . F o r t h e s t u d y p l o t s , N s t a t u s and b a s e s t a t u s had t h e c l o s e s t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h t h e u n i v a r i a t e a s s e s s m e n t o f SNR. Between a l l d a t a s e t s and p o s s i b l e g r o u p i n g s o f p l o t s , s e v e r a l p r o p e r t i e s were c o n s i s t e n t l y i m p o r t a n t f o r s e p a r a t i n g g r o u p s o f p l o t s u s i n g DA. T hese p r o p e r t i e s were p H ( H 2 0 ) , exCa, TN a n d / o r minN f o r f o r e s t f l o o r ; exP, exMn and exCa a n d / o r exMg f o r m i n e r a l s o i l ; and minN, TN, exMn and exCa a n d / o r exMg f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l . The v a r i a b l e s w h i c h were c o n s i s t e n t l y v a l u a b l e i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between s t u d y p l o t g r o u p i n g s e m p h a s i z e d t r e n d s n o t e d i n p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s . In p a r t i c u l a r t h e p a t t e r n o f v a r i a t i o n o f exMn was u n i q u e . P a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y was r e f l e c t e d a t l e a s t i n d i r e c t l y i n m i n e r a l s o i l exP, and N s t a t u s between s t u d y p l o t s . The CA u s i n g a l l f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s s e p a r a t e d t h e s t u d y p l o t s i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s w h i c h d i f f e r e d i n humus f o r m and t h i c k n e s s . When d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s o f v a r i a b l e s were u s e d , t h e r e were changes i n g r o u p membership f o r t h r e e p l o t s , w h i c h c o u l d a l s o be i n t e r p r e t e d by d i f f e r e n c e s i n humus f o r m and t h i c k n e s s . The r e s u l t s o f CA were i n agreement w i t h p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s w h i c h s u g g e s t e d t h a t humus f o r m and t h i c k n e s s b e s t e x p l a i n e d f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t y d i f f e r e n c e s between p l o t s . The CA u s i n g a l l m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s s e p a r a t e d t h e s t u d y p l o t s i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s w h i c h r e f l e c t e d a n u t r i e n t g r a d i e n t . When minN, exMg and TC were u s e d t h e p l o t s were g r o u p e d i n t o t h e SNR c l a s s e s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f two p l o t s . 167 The CA u s i n g a l l f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s s e p a r a t e d t h e p l o t s i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s w h i c h r e f l e c t e d a c o m b i n a t i o n o f p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y and b u l k d e n s i t y . F o u r g r o u p s w h i c h were t h e same as t h e i r SNR c l a s s were t h e r e s u l t o f t h e CA u s i n g f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l minN and exMg. Only one p l o t was ' i n c o r r e c t l y ' g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o SNR c l a s s i n t h e CA u s i n g f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l minN and exMg p l u s p H ( H 2 0 ) o f t h e f o r e s t f l o o r . F o r t h e s t u d y s i t e s t h e most i m p o r t a n t t r e n d i n v e g e t a t i o n v a r i a t i o n was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e majo r t r e n d i n m i n e r a l s o i l and f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s . The m i n e r a l s o i l and f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h c o r r e l a t e d most h i g h l y w i t h t h e s e t r e n d s were minN, TN, exCa and exMg. The v e g e t a t i o n - m i n e r a l s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n - f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l o r d i n a t i o n s a r r a n g e d t h e s t u d y s i t e s i n t h e same way as t h e SNR a s s e s s m e n t . The f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h v e g e t a t i o n , b u t t h e majo r t r e n d o f v e g e t a t i o n v a r i a t i o n was a much b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r o f f o r e s t f l o o r v a r i a t i o n t h a n v i c e v e r s a . The o r d i n a t i o n o f f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s and v e g e t a t i o n r e f l e c t e d d i f f e r e n c e s between p l o t s w h i c h were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e n o t e d i n p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s o f f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s and a t t r i b u t e d t o humus form, d e p t h o f f o r e s t f l o o r and t i m e s i n c e l a s t d i s t u r b a n c e . The m a j o r t r e n d s i n f o l i a r n u t r i e n t s t a t u s and s o i l p r o p e r t i e s were c o r r e l a t e d . Of t h e t h r e e s o i l p r o p e r t y d a t a s e t s , t h e f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s had t h e l e a s t v a l u e f o r 168 e x p l a i n i n g f o l i a r n u t r i e n t v a r i a t i o n . The o r d i n a t i o n s o f f o l i a r - f o r e s t f l o o r c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s w h i c h a t t r i b u t e d t h e f o r e s t f l o o r p a t t e r n o f v a r i a t i o n t o humus form, d e p t h o f f o r e s t f l o o r and t i m e s i n c e l a s t d i s t u r b a n c e . The f o l i a r - f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l o r d i n a t i o n s a r r a n g e d t h e s t u d y s i t e s i n t h e same way as t h e SNR a s s e s s m e n t . E x p r e s s i o n o f f o l i a r n u t r i e n t s on a mg/100 n e e d l e b a s i s m i g h t have changed r e l a t i o n s h i p s b a s e d on f o l i a r c o n c e n t r a t i o n d a t a i f ' d i l u t i o n ' o r ' c o n c e n t r a t i o n ' a f f e c t s were p r e s e n t ( B a l l a r d and C a r t e r , 1 9 8 3 ) . The a r r a n g e m e n t o f s t u d y s i t e s d i d n o t change w i t h t h e method o f f o l i a r n u t r i e n t e x p r e s s i o n f o r t h e f o l i a r - f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l o r d i n a t i o n s . However, t h e f o l i a r n u t r i e n t s most h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s d i d change. The f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l v a r i a t i o n was c o n s i s t e n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h TN, minN, exMg, and exCa. However, o n l y f o l i a r N e x p r e s s e d as c o n c e n t r a t i o n was h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e . F o l i a r Mn and A l were c o n s i s t e n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e f i r s t f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l v a r i a t e . W i t h i n t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e g r o u p i n g s o f p l o t s b a s e d on s o i l p r o p e r t i e s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h g r o u p i n g s b a s e d on f o l i a r p r o p e r t i e s . However, t h e n u t r i e n t s w i t h w h i c h t h e s o i l g r o u p i n g s were b e s t c o r r e l a t e d (N, Ca, Mg) were n o t t h e same as t h e f o l i a r g r o u p i n g s (Mn, A l ) . 169 The o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e o f f o l i a r d a t a e x p r e s s e d as c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f m i n e r a l s o i l a r r a n g e d t h e s t u d y s i t e s i n t h e same way as t h e SNR a s s e s s m e n t . The o r d i n a t i o n u s i n g mg/100 n e e d l e s f o l i a r d a t a w i t h m i n e r a l s o i l i n d i c a t e d a g e n e r a l n u t r i e n t g r a d i e n t b u t d i d n o t r e f l e c t t h e SNR a s s e s s e m e n t as w e l l as o t h e r a n a l y s e s . The a r r a n g e m e n t o f s i t e s was i n t e r p r e t e d t o r e f l e c t p h y s i o l o g i c a l and s t a n d management f a c t o r s as w e l l as changes i n s o i l n u t r i e n t q u a n t i t i e s . In s p i t e o f p o s s i b l e c o m p l i c a t i o n s due t o f e r t i l i z a t i o n t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f s t u d y s i t e s measured by SI i n c r e a s e d i n t h e same p a t t e r n as SNR a s s e s s m e n t . The s o i l p r o p e r t i e s most h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h SI (minN, TN, exCa, exMg) were a l s o t h e p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h b e s t r e f l e c t e d SNR. The n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f SI w i t h exK and exMn o f t h e f o r e s t f l o o r r e f l e c t e d t h e h i g h c o n t e n t o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s i n t h e d r i e s t , n u t r i e n t - p o o r and l o w e s t p r o d u c t i v i t y s t u d y s i t e s . The f o u r SNR c l a s s e s r e c o g n i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y ( p o o r , medium, r i c h , v e r y r i c h ) were b e s t c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e sum o f f o r e s t f l o o r and m i n e r a l s o i l minN, TN, exCa, and exMg. A m u l t i v a r i a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f SNR u s i n g minN and exMg was p r o p o s e d . The d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f C o u r t i n e t a l . (1985) were u s e d t o c l a s s i f y SNR o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s . D i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were m a i n l y a t t r i b u t e d t o v a l u e s f o r p H ( H 2 0 ) and C/N r a t i o o f t h e humus f o r m . D i f f e r e n c e s i n m i n e r a l s o i l s a m p l i n g d e p t h may a l s o have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d i f f e r i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e VD s i t e . 170 7. CONCLUSIONS T h i s t h e s i s has r e p o r t e d on a p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y whose m a j o r o b j e c t i v e was t o d e s c r i b e and p r o v i d e i n i t i a l d a t a f o r c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e . B a sed on t h i s s t u d y , w h i c h was l i m i t e d t o one c l i m a t i c r e g i o n and a s m a l l number o f s t u d y s i t e s , t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s can be made r e g a r d i n g t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e s . A m u l t i v a r i a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n u s i n g f o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l minN and exMg q u a n t i t i e s was p r o p o s e d f o r t h e f o u r SNR c l a s s e s ( p o o r , medium, r i c h , v e r y r i c h ) r e c o g n i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The f i n a l SNR g r o u p i n g s o f s t u d y s i t e s were t h e same as t h o s e o r i g i n a l l y d e t e r m i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f f i e l d - a s s e s s e d v e g e t a t i o n and s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n a v a i l a b l e (minN) and t o t a l N (TN) e x i s t e d between t h e f o u r i d e n t i f i e d c l a s s e s . The N f e r t i l i z a t i o n o f two s t u d y s i t e s d i d n o t seem t o change s o i l N s t a t u s s u f f i c i e n t l y t o a l t e r t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . T h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n exCa and exMg q u a n t i t i e s f o r t h e p o o r and medium n u t r i e n t c l a s s e s . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y were b e s t d i s t i n g u i s h e d f o r s o i l p r o p e r t i e s when f o r e s t f l o o r and m i n e r a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s e x p r e s s e d on an a r e a l b a s i s were summed. The humus form was an i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r a s s e s s i n g SNR i n t h e f i e l d . However, t h e n u t r i e n t q u a n t i t i e s o f t h e humus form r e f l e c t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n b u l k d e n s i t y , d e p t h and t i m e s i n c e l a s t d i s t u r b a n c e and d i d n o t e f f e c t i v e l y d i s t i n g u i s h between SNR c l a s s e s . 171 The m a j o r t r e n d i n u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n v a r i a t i o n was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h i n c r e a s e s i n n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y . The s o i l p r o p e r t i e s most h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e m a j o r t r e n d i n v a r i a t i o n o f t h e s o i l p r o p e r t i e s were minN, TN, exCa, and exMg. The i n c r e a s e s i n s o i l n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d f o l i a r N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f t h e c u r r e n t y e a r ' s f o l i a g e . A more c o n s i s t e n t c o r r e l a t i o n was f o u n d between i n c r e a s e d s o i l n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y and d e c r e a s e d f o l i a r Mn and A l . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t d i f f e r e n t c h e m i c a l e l e m e n t s measured i n d i f f e r e n t e c o s y s t e m components may be r e f l e c t i o n s o f a c e r t a i n l e v e l o f p l a n t a v a i l a b l e n u t r i e n t s i n t h e e c o s y s t e m . F o r e s t p r o d u c t i v i t y m e asured by s i t e i n d e x o f D o u g l a s - f i r , was s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r on s i t e s w i t h g r e a t e r q u a n t i t i e s o f most n u t r i e n t s ( i n p a r t i c u l a r N, Mg, Ca) when p a i r s o f s i t e s w i t h e q u i v a l e n t s o i l m o i s t u r e s t a t u s were compared. 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Y o u n g b e r g , C.T. 1979. O r g a n i c m a t t e r o f f o r e s t f l o o r s . pp. 137-144 I n : P.E. H e i l m a n , H.W. A n d e r s o n , and D.M. Baumgartner ( e d s . ) . F o r e s t s o i l s o f t h e D o u g l a s - f i r r e g i o n . W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , P u l l m a n , Wash. 298 pp. Z e c h , W. 1970. N a d e l a n a l y t i s c h e U n t e r s u c h u n g e n Uber d i e K a l k c h l o r o s e d e r W a l d k i e f e r ( P i n u s s i l v e s t r i s ) . Z. f . P f l a n z e n e r n a h r . u. Bodenk. Z o t t l , H. 1960. D i e m i n e r a l s t i c k s t o f f a n l i e f e r u n g i n f i c h t e n -und k i e f e r n b e s t a n d e n B a y e r n s . F o r s t w i s s . C b l . 79: 221-236. 182 APPENDIX A LIST OF PLANT SPECIES 1 ABIEAMA Abies amabl11s (Oougl. ex Loud.) Forbes 2 ACERMAC Acer macrophyllum Pursh 3 ACHLTRI Achlys t r i p h y l l a (Sm.) DC. 4 ADENBIC Adenocaulon b i c o l o r Hook. 5 ALNURUB Alnus rubra Bong. 6 ATHYFIL Athyrlum f i l i x - f e m i n a (L.) Roth 7 BOSCHOQ Boschnlakla hookerl Walp. 8 BROMVUL Bromus v u l g a r i s (Hook.) Shear 9 CAMPSCO Campanula scouleM Hook . ex A . DC . 10 CAREHEN Carex hendersonll Ba11ey 1 1 CHIMMEN Chimaph11a menzieslt (R. Br. ex D. Don) Spren 12 CIRCALP Circaea a l p l n a L. 13 CLADGRA Cladonla gract1 Is (L.) W11ld. 14 CLAOMUL Cladonla multiformis Merr. 15 CLAOSQU Cladonla squamosa (Scop.) Hoffm . 16 DICEFOR Dlcentra formosa (Haw.) Walp. 17 DICRFUS Dlcranum fuscescens Turn. 18 DICRSCO Olcranum scoparium Hedw. 19 DISPHOO Disporum hookerl (Torr.) Nicholson 20 DISPSMI Dlsporum smith 11 (Hook.) Piper 21 DRYOASS Oryopterls a s s i m i l l s S.Walker 22 ELYMGLA Elymus glaucus Buck'l . 23 FESTOCC Festuca occidental 1s Hook. 24 GALITRI Gallum tr1florum Michx. 25 GAULSHA Gaultherla s h a l l o n Pursh 26 GOODOBL Goodyera o b l o n g l f o l l a Raf . 27 HIERALB Hleradum a l b i f l o r u m Hook. 28 HOLOOIS Holodlscus d i s c o l o r (Pursh) Maxim. 29 HYLOSPL Hylocomlum splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. 30 HYPNCIR Hypnum c i r e male Hook. 31 ISDPELE Isopterygium elegans (Br id.) Lindb. 32 KINDORE Klndbergla oregana (Sul1 . ) Ochyra 33 LEUCMEN Leuco 1 ep i s itienz 1 es 1 1 (Hook.) Steere ex L. Koc 34 LINNBOR Llnnaea boreal Is L. 35 LISTCAU L l s t e r a caurlna P 1per 36 LISTCOR L l s t e r a cordata (L.) R. Br. in A i t . 37 LONIINV Lonlcera Involucrata (Richards.) Banks ex Spr 38 LUZUPAR Luzula p a r v l f l o r a (Ehrh.) Desv. 39 MAHONER Mahonla nervosa (Pursh) Nutt. 40 MAIADIL Malanthemum dilatatum (How.) Nels. & Macbr. 4 1 MITEPEN Mitel la pentandra Hook. 42 MOWS IB Montla s i b l r l c a (L.) Howel 1 43 MYCEMUR Mycel 1 s fnura 1 i s (L.) Dumort. 44 OSMOCHI Osmorhlza c h i l e n s l s Hook. & Arn. 45 PELTLEU P e l t i g e r a leucophlebia (Hyl.) Gyel. 46 PHYSCAP Physocarpus capitatus (Pursh) Ktze. 47 PINUMON P1nus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don in Lamb 48 PLAGINS Plagiomnium inslgne (Mitt.) Kop. 49 PLAGUND Plagiothedum undulatum (Hedw.) B.S.G. 50 POLYCOM Polytrlchum commune Hedw. 51 POLYMUN Polystichum munltum (Kaulf.) Presl 52 PSEUMEN Pseudotsuga menziesii (M1rb.) Franco 53 PTERAQU Pteridium aquilinum (1.) Kuhn in Decken 54 RANUOCC Ranunculus occidental i s Nutt. in Torr. 8 Gray 55 RHAMPUR Rhamnus purshianus DC. 56 RHYTLOR Rhytidiadelphus loreus (Hedw.) Warnst. 57 RHYTROB Rhytidlopsis robusta (Hook.) Broth. 58 RHYTTRI Rhytidiadelphus t r i q u e t r u s (Hedw.) Warnst. 59 ROSAGYM Rosa gymnocarpa Nutt. in Torr. & Gray 60 RUBUSPE Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s Pursh 61 RUBUURS Rubus ursinus Cham. & Schlecht. 62 SALISCO Sal i x scouleriana Barratt 1n Hook. 63 SALISIT Sal ix s i tchensi s Sanson in Bong. 64 SALISPP Sal 1x spp. (1.) Desf. 65 SMILSTE Smilacina s t e l l a t a 66 STERTOM Stereocaulon tomentosum Fr. 67 STREAMP Streptopus amplexifolius (L.) DC. 68 SYMPMOL Symphoricarpos m o l l i s Nuttal 69 THUJPLI Thuja p i i c a t a Donn ex D. Don In Lamb. 70 TIARLAC T i a r e l l a l a c i n i a t a Hook . 71 TIARTRI T i a r e l l a t r i f o l l a t a L . 72 TRACMEG Trachybryum megaptilum (Sul1.) Schof. 73 TRAUCAR Tr a u t v e t t e r i a carol 1niens 1s (Walt.) Vai1 74 TRIELAT T r i e n t a l i s l a t i f o l l a Hook. 75 TRILOVA Tri11ium ovatum Pursh 76 TSUGHET Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. 77 VACCPAR Vaccinium p a r v i f o l i u m Sm. in Rees 78 VIOLSEM V i o l a sempervirens Greene 79 VIOLSPP V i o l a spp. APPENDIX B. UNDERSTORY VEGETATION TABLES GVD S i t e PLOT 1 AVERAGE 1 RKO 1 RKO 1 RKO I RKO I NUMBER | VALUES 1 001 | 002 | 003 | 004 I ST SPECIES | P MC I P e r c e n t c o v e r , v i g o r B2 C DH PSEUMEN 100 0 15 0 17 4- 7 + 17 + 17 1 THUdPLI 1O0 0 8 1 7 1 3 1 3 1 17 1 TSUGHET 75 0 3 7 3 + 3 1 7 1 PINUMON 50 0 1 1 . 6 + 3 + GAULSHA 100 0 87 5 87 1 87 1 87 1 87 1 THUdPLI 100 0 3 6 3 1 7 1 1 1 1 1 VACCPAR 100 0 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 TSUGHET 75 0 1 5 3 1 .6 1 1 1 MAHONER 75 0 0 5 . 2 1 . 2 + 1 + PSEUMEN 50 0 0 2 . 2 + .6 + SALIS IT 25 0 0 2 .6 1 BOSCHOO 100 0 O 6 . 6 1 .6 2 . 6 1 .6 1 LISTCOR 75 0 2 5 .6 + 7 1 1 1 POLYMUN 50 0 0 8 1 1 1 1 LINNBOR 50 0 0 6 1 1 .6 1 HIERALB 50 0 0 2 . 2 + .6 + ACHLTRI 25 0 0 2 .6 1 ELYMGLA 25 0 0 2 .6 1 FESTOCC 25 0 0 0 . 2 1 TRACMEG 100 0 8 6 17 1 7 1 7 1 1 1 POLYCOM 100 0 4 6 7 1 3 1 3 1 3 + HYLOSPL 100 0 4 1 1 1 7 1 3 1 3 1 RHYTROB 75 0 6 7 17 1 7 1 1 1 DICRSCO 75 0 1 5 3 1 1 1 .6 1 CLADMUL 75 0 1 2 3 2 .6 1 .6 1 CLADGRA 75 0 0 5 .6 + .6 1 .6 1 PELTLEU 75 0 0 4 . 2 1 .6 1 .6 1 DICRFUS 50 0 1 3 3 1 1 1 RHYTLOR 25 0 0 4 1 1 GD S i t e PLOT AVERAGE RKO RKO RKO RKO I NUMBER VALUES 005 006 007 008 I ST SPECIES P MC P e r c e n t c o v e r » v i g o r B1 THUdPLI 100 0 9 . 1 3 1 7 1 7 2 17 1 PSEUMEN 100 0 3 . 6 1 0 7 1 1 0 3 0 TSUGHET 100 0 2 . 6 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 SALIS IT 50 0 0. 8 1 + 1 1 B2 MAHONER 100 0 7 . 6 3" 1 1 1 17 2 7 1 VACCPAR 100 0 1 . 9 3 1 .6 1 1 1 1 1 GAULSHA 75 0 3 . 2 1 + 7 1 3 1 THUdPLI 75 0 1 . 7 3 1 1 1 1 1 \j POLYMUN 100 0 3 . 1 1 + 3 + 3 1 3 1 ACHLTRI 100 0 2 . 4 .6 1 3 1 1 1 3 1 PTERAOU 100 0 0. 4 . 2 + . 2 + .6 1 .6 + TRILOVA 100 0 0. 4 .6 + . 2 + . 6 + .2 1 CHIMMEN 75 0 0. 6 .6 + 1 1 . 2 1 RUBUURS 25 0 0. 2 .6 1 LISTCOR 25 0 0. 0 . 2 1 DH KINDORE 100 0 22 . 4 29 1 41 2 1 + 17 1 I HYLOSPL 25 0 0. 0 . 2 1 I GF S i te VVD S i te PLOT NUMBER AVERAGE VALUES RKO 009 RKO 010 RKO 01 1 RKO 012 ST SPECIES | B1 MC I Percent cover, v igor THUJPLI 50 0 1 8 3 2 3 1 SALIS IT 50 0 0 8 1 1 1 0 PINUMON 25 0 0 2 .6 + TSUGHET 25 0 0 2 .6 + GAULSHA 75 0 3 7 3 1 3 + 7 1 VACCPAR 75 0 1 7 1 1 1 1 3 1 MAHONER 50 0 0 3 .6 2 .6 1 R0SAGYM 25 0 0 9 3 1 RUBUSPE 25 0 0 2 .6 + THUJPLI 25 0 0 2 .6 + TSUGHET 25 0 0 2 .6 1 SYMPMOL 25 0 0 0 . 2 + POLYMUN 100 0 26 2 17 2 29 3 29 2 29 1 ACHLTRI 100 0 14 4 7 2 17 3 29 .2 3 1 GALITRI 100 0 4 6 3 1 7 2 3 1 3 + MYCEMUR 100 0 2 6 1 1 1 1 3 1 3 + RUBUURS 100 0 2 6 3 1 3 2 1 1 1 + TRILOVA 100 0 2 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 MAIADIL 100 0 1 9 3 1 1 1 .6 1 1 + ADENBIC 100 0 1 8 . 2 1 3 2 1 1 1 + RANUOCC 100 0 0 5 . 2 1 .6 + .6 1 .6 1 TRAUCAR 75 0 2 O 3 1 3 1 .6 + PTERAQU 75 0 1 4 .2 1 3 2 1 1 BR0MVUL 75 0 . 1 0 .6 1 1 1 1 1 VIOLSEM 75 0 1 0 .6 1 1 1 1 1 TRIELAT 75 0 0 6 . 2 1 1 1 .6 + DISPHOO 50 0 0 3 .6 1 .6 + STREAMP 50 0 0 3 .6 1 .6 1 CAMPSC0 50 0 0 1 . 2 1 . 2 + LINNBOR 25 0 0 9 3 2 ATHYFIL 25 0 0 2 . G + DICEFOR 25 0 0 0 . 2 1 HIERALB 25 0 0 0 . 2 1 KINDORE 100 0 52 0 62 2 41 2 41 1 62 1 LEUCMEN 75 0 2 2 3 2 3 2 1 1 RHYTTRI 75 0 0 7 1 1 .6 1 .6 1 PLAGINS 50 0 1 3 3 2 1 1 RHYTLOR 25 0 0 0 .2 + PLOT I AVERAGE I RKO I RKO I RKO I RKO I NUMBER | VALUES | 013 | 014 I 015 I 016 I ST SPECIES | P MC I Percent cover, vigor B1 B2 DH THUJPLI 100 0 7 6 7 2 17 2 1 2 3 2 TSUGHET 100 0 4 6 1 2 1 + 7 1 7 1 HOLODIS 75 0 10 7 7 2 17 2 17 2 GAULSHA 100 0 57 3 62 2 62 2 41 2 62 2 MAHONER 100 0 15 0 17 2 7 2 17 2 17 2 ROSAGYM 100 0 8 1 3 1 17 1 3 1 7 2 VACCPAR 100 0 4 6 3 2 7 1 3 2 3 2 SYMPMOL 75 o 2 2 3 1 3 1 1 1 THUJPLI 50 0 2 3 7 1 1 2 HOLODIS 50 0 1 8 3 1 3 1 TSUGHET 25 0 0 2 . 6 1 ACHLTRI 100 0 6 6 3 2 1 2 17 2 3 2 POLYMUN 100 0 4 1 3 1 7 2 3 1 1 1 BROMVUL 100 0 2 6 3 2 3 2 1 2 1 •? TRIELAT 100 0 0 8 1 2 . 2 1 .6 1 . 6 1 LINNBOR 75 0 2 2 1 1 3 2 3 2 RUBUURS 75 0 1 0 1 2 .6 1 1 1 VIOLSEM 25 0 0 4 1 2 ADENBIC 25 0 0 2 .6 1 CHIMMEN 25 0 0 2 .6 2 FESTOCC 25 0 0 2 .6 2 G00D0BL 25 0 0 2 . 6 2 PTERAQU 25 0 0 2 .6 1 BOSCHOO 25 0 0 0 . 2 1 CAMPSCO 25 0 0 0 . 2 1 LISTCOR 25 0 0 0 . 2 1 HYLOSPL 100 0 23 5 17 2 17 2 1 7 2 41 2 RHYTROB 100 0 5 8 7 2 7 2 . 6 1 7 2 KINDORE 75 o 27 3 17 2 29 2 62 2 RHYTLOR 75 0 2 2 3 2 3 2 1 2 DICRSCO 75 0 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 PELTLEU 50 0 0 3 . 6 1 . 6 + LEUCMEN 25 0 0 2 .6 2 S i t e VF S i t e PLOT I AVERAGE I RKO I RKO I RKO I RKO I NUMBER I VALUES | 017 | 018 | 019 | 020 | srsPEciEs"i"""p""iic"j "Percent" "cover","" v i go r c DH TSUGHET 00 0 1 6 •6 1 1 1 •6 1| 3 2| MAHONER 100 O 29 3 29 3 4 1 3 29 3 17 3 VACCPAR 100 0 5 1 1 1 7 1 7 2 3 2 TSUGHET 75 0 2 7 3 2 3 1 3 1 SYMPMOL 75 0 1 5 3 2 1 1 .6 1 GAULSHA 25 0 0 2 .6 + ACERMAC 25 0 0 0 . 2 + ACHLTRI 100 0 37 7 41 3 62 2 29 3 17 2 POLYMUN 100 0 20 4 17 3 17 2 17 2 29 2 RUBUURS 100 0 4 3 .6 2 7 2 7 2 1 1 PTERAQU 100 0 2 9 7 2 1 1 1 1 .6 1 GALITRI 100 0 2 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 ELYMGLA 100 0 1 4 .6 1 1 1 1 1 1 + MYCEMUR 100 0 1 4 1 2 .6 1 1 1 1 1 MAIADIL 100 0 0 3 .6 1 .2 1 . 2 1 .2 1 TIARTRI 75 0 1 7 1 1 3 1 1 1 TRIELAT 75 0 1 7 3 2 1 1 1 1 LINNBOR 50 0 7 3 29 3 . 2 1 DISPSMI 50 0 0 8 1 2 1 1 DISPHOO 25 0 0 2 .6 2 LISTCOR 25 0 0 2 .6 2 TRILOVA 25 0 0 2 .6 1 ADENBIC 25 0 0 0 .2 + CHIMMEN 25 0 0 0 .2 1 GOODOBL 25 0 0 0 .2 1 KINDORE 100 0 87 5 87 3 87 3 87 3 87 2 HYLOSPL 100 0 5 6 3 3 3 3 7 3 7 3 RHYTLOR 75 0 1 7 1 2 3 2 1 2 PELTLEU 25 0 O 2 .6 2 PLOT I AVERAGE I RKO I RKO I RKO I RKO I NUMBER I VALUES | 021 | 022 | 023 | 024 | ST SPECIES | P MC | P e r c e n t c o v e r , v i g o r B1 B2 c DH TSUGHET 50 0 0 8 1 2 1 2 THUJPLI 25 0 0 9 3 2 VACCPAR 25 0 0 4 1 2 RUBUSPE 100 0 3 6 1 2 7 2 1 2 3 2 VACCPAR 100 0 3 1 1 1 3 2 3 2 3 2 TSUGHET 50 0 1 3 3 2 1 1 ACERMAC 25 0 0 4 1 1 POLYMUN 100 0 81 3 87 3 87 3 87 3 62 3 TIARTRI 100 0 29 5 17 3 17 3 41 3 41 3 ACHLTRI 100 0 20 1 3 3 17 3 17 3 41 3 TIARLAC 100 0 3 1 1 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 CAREHEN 100 0 2 4 .6 3 1 2 3 2 3 3 ATHYFIL 100 0 2 1 3 3 1 2 1 2 1 1 DRYOASS 75 0 2 2 3 3 1 2 3 2 GALITRI 75 0 2 2 3 3 3 2 1 3 MYCEMUR 75 0 1 7 1 2 3 2 1 2 MONTSIB 75 0 1 O . 2 2 . 2 2 3 3 TRILOVA 75 0 1 0 1 2 1 2 .6 2 TRIELAT 75 0 0 7 .6 2 1 2 . 6 1 BROMVUL 50 0 1 1 .6 2 3 2 ADENBIC 50 0 0 6 1 2 . 6 2 CAMPSCO 50 0 0 1 . 2 + . 2 1 DICEFOR 25 0 0 2 .6 2 RUBUURS 25 0 0 0 . 2 1 PLAGINS 100 0 20 4 17 3 17 3 29 3 17 2 LEUCMEN 50 0 1 3 1 2 3 3 RHYTTRI 50 0 0 6 .6 2 1 2 KINDORE 25 0 0 9 3 2 186 APPENDIX C EIGENVALUES, EIGENVECTORS AND ORDINATION SCORES FROM  PCA, RA, AND DCA OF UNDERSTORY VEGETATION INDEX C - l E i g e n v a l u e s and e i g e n v e c t o r s f r o m PCA o f u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n 187 C-2 E i g e n v a l u e s f r o m RA a n a l y s i s o f u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n 188 C-3 O r d i n a t i o n s p e c i e s s c o r e s f r o m RA a n a l y s i s o f u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n 189 C-4 O r d i n a t i o n p l o t s c o r e s f r o m RA a n a l y s i s o f u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n 190 C-5 E i g e n v a l u e s and s p e c i e s s c o r e s f r o m DCA o f u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n 191 C-6 E i g e n v a l u e s and p l o t s c o r e s f r o m DCA o f u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n 192 C - l Eigenvalues and eigenvectors from PCA of understory vegetation TEST STATISTIC OF SIGNIF INDEPENDENCE CANNOT BE TESTED EQUI CORRELATION 4656 .6 1769 0 . (1) ( 2 ) COMPONENT 15.492 9.3792 X VARIANCE 25.82 41 . 45 2 PSEUMEN - . 1 8 8 6 0 - . 13067 3 TSUGHET - . 10433 .75119 -1 4 THUJPLI - .18271 - . 37688 -1 5 GAULSHA - . 20527 .42943 -2 6 VACCPAR - .30601 -2 .37694 -1 7 SAL IS IT .11638 - 1 .19332 -1 8 MAHONER - . 64575 -1 .24870 9 HIERALB - .10441 - . 94314 -1 10 FESTOCC - . 77335 -1 . 13882 -1 11 BOSCHOO - .19296 - . 1 2 9 6 5 12 RHYTROB - .17504 - . 4 4 5 4 9 -2 13 CLADGRA - . 17259 - . 13362 14 POLYCOM - . 18707 - . 1 4 6 6 5 15 TRACMEG - . 18792 - . 14683 16 DICRFUS - . 13792 - . 11033 17 HYLOSPL - . 15033 .14041 18 PELTLEU - . 14674 .84613 -2 19 CLAOMUL - . 16558 - .13051 20 DICRSC0 - . 17857 - 28616 - 1 21 LINNBOR - . 54997 -1 .12433 22 LISTCOR - . 14028 - .62951 - 1 23 ELYMGLA - . 23743 -3 .13724 24 PINUMON - . 64673 -1 - . 56604 -1 25 POLYMUN .23213 - .44211 -1 26 RHYTLOR - . 6 0 9 0 0 -1 .16467 27 ACHLTRI . 19316 . 12156 28 PTERAOU .67475 -1 .20969 29 TRILOVA .17034 - . 16238 - 1 30 CHIMMEN - . 36542 -1 .49177 -1 31 KINDORE .77981 -1 .26746 32 RUBUURS .87187 -1 .23394 33 GALITRI .19167 .61507 -1 34 MAIADIL . 11807 . 14115 35 MYCEMUR . 19131 .48794 -1 36 VIOLSEM .66825 -1 .10493 37 TRIELAT .99833 -1 .10707 38 RANUOCC .11311 .71070 -1 39 BROMVUL .49598 -1 .51946 -1 40 STREAMP .70262 -1 .74435 -1 41 ADENBIC . 14812 .12376 - 1 42 LEUCMEN .13546 - . 14665 - 1 43 RHYTTRI .13138 - . 64165 -1 44 RUBUSPE .15841 - . 21269 45 DISPHOO .74965 -1 .78841 - 1 46 TRAUCAR . 10O77 .66067 -1 47 CAMPSC0 .11291 - . 704 70 -1 48 PLAGINS . 17295 - . 20704 49 ROSAGYM - . 45346 -1 .13645 50 OICEFOR .90625 -1 - . 99268 - 1 51 SYMPMOL - . 28218 -1 .18288 52 ATHYFIL .15247 - . 2 1573 S3 HOLOOIS - . 6 1 2 7 0 -1 .10473 54 GOOOOBL - . 25495 -1 .94545 -1 55 TIARTRI .15186 - . 1 6 3 9 0 56 DISP5MI .22462 -1 .11599 57 ACERMAC .7543B -1 - . 11019 58 TIARLAC . 14445 - . 22948 59 DRYOASS . 11556 - . 17089 60 CAREHEN . 1415B - .22714 61 MONTSIB . 10396 - . 18184 N» 24 OUT OF 24 13) ( 4 ) ( 5 ) ( 6 ) .2259 5.4357 3.6697 3.1031 5 3 . 5 0 62 .55 68.67 73.84 1 1547 .11850 - . 11524 - . 54678 -1 13390 .14681 - . 44923 -1 .17530 52490 -1 .97185 -1 - .22411 .40656 -1 5405B -1 .19790 .25475 -1 .22247 -1 23409 .41762 -1 .12041 - .44876 -1 19930 .24918 -1 - .20025 - . 10682 17218 .82967 -1 - . 21659 -1 - .30213 -1 12835 .75092 -2 . 17310 .21310 -1 47568 -1 .23439 .10745 -1 .61192 -1 89499 -1 .25429 -1 .16019 - . 32239 -1 57163 -1 .22328 .74186 -1 .97279 -1 99058 -1 .14644 -1 .21945 - . 51062 -1 10821 .26771 -1 .17423 - . 32529 -1 10846 .22189 -1 .19665 - . 4 0 9 1 3 - 1 80316 -1 .58213 -2 .16258 - . 73068 -1 1651 1 .71011 -1 .17799 .45334 -1 14986 -1 .33409 -1 . 18546 .45704 -1 95822 -1 .21751 -3 .20087 - .52972 -1 30740 -1 .18596 .12786 .21821 -1 42411 -1 .87756 -1 .97516 -1 .72663 -1 62009 -1 .65270 -1 . 12572 .49742 -1 97S46 -1 .23387 .27106 - . 94892 -1 12718 .12320 - 1 .35179 -1 .59604 - 1 70683 -1 .19093 -2 .64901 -1 .91084 -1 13682 .18836 -1 . 17458 .20662 -1 1 1 133 .32458 -1 .86524 -1 - . 10608 68491 -1 .13946 .53981 -1 - . 74266 - 1 21633 .48568 -2 - . 8 3190 -1 .17572 70030 -2 .11648 - . 35225 - .25988 -1 44326 -1 .95919 -1 - . 38743 -1 - . 5 1733 -1 36773 -1 .31953 -1 .19032 - . 63524 -1 1 1762 .65340 -1 .21392 .12556 22715 .14870 - 1 .14730 - . 49338 -1 10597 .61762 -1 .2 1095 .13645 16216 .25843 .10692 -1 - . 38783 -1 16146 .51752 -1 .16432 - .81801 -1 28527 .12282 .50343 -1 - .56321 -1 79340 -1 .36431 - . 72020 -2 - . 1 0560 16073 .10586 .26723 -1 - . 17135 19255 .12262 .78478 -1 .15049 12706 .13698 .74596 -1 .12472 69581 -1 .10268 .28565 -1 - . 24955 8 107 1 -1 .45794 -1 .46550 -1 .82557 -1 17856 .39034 -2 .97558 -1 .12062 25563 .12956 .38959 -1 - . 5 9 5 2 0 -1 38876 -1 . 20303 .32362 -1 - .15271 -2 42360 -1 .42033 -1 .52389 -1 .12963 10282 .30271 - . 42864 -1 .3906 1 -1 52570 -1 .13188 .10823 -1 - . 42752 15209 . 14204 .93179 -1 .12910 87795 -1 . 12982 - 1 .35159 -1 .12233 14901 .29332 - . 41783 -1 .13399 81191 -1 .19142 .51345 -2 .12124 182 13 .51004 -1 .11870 .264 10 - 1 10029 .19130 .17759 - .86964 -1 13655 .53830 -1 .39575 -1 - .39162 13914 .27045 -1 .38031 -1 .68800 -1 84483 -1 .34081 -1 .28691 -1 .32859 14476 .37366 -1 .39939 -1 . 19708 - 1 13864 .83250 -1 .26015 -1 - . 28055 (7 ) I S ) ( 9 ) 1 101 .5752 2.3502 2.0075 1 .7 103 78 13 82 OS 8 5 . 4 0 88 . 25 1 1786 -2 - . 13062 -1 - .541 13 - 1 .62643 -1 11 186 .42103 - 1 - . 1 1 6 1 0 . 11156 54806 - 1 .27205 - 1 - . 36212 -1 . 15973 39027 - 1 .13513 - . 1 1 2 9 5 - 1 .41554 -1 3 1323 .32090 - 1 .79948 - 1 .27690 16277 - . 10658 . 71098 - 1 .35514 24916 -1 - . 3 7 8 9 5 - 1 .21570 -1 .21282 -1 96150 - 1 .11346 - 1 - . 19632 .16583 10O37 - 1 - . 44756 - . 4 6 7 0 0 - 1 .45991 -1 15010 -2 .80852 - 1 - . 99834 -2 .60780 -1 47013 - 1 .32280 - 1 - . 1 7033 . 11715 - 1 4 1329 - 1 - . 81108 - 1 .92898 -1 .52226 -2 22009 - 1 - . 338 19 -2 - . 4 8 0 1 3 - t .53128 -1 33893 - 1 - . 39044 - 1 .48289 -2 .35071 -1 12612 - . 26002 .22751 .30889 -1 28899 -1 .56077 - 1 - . 7 1116 -1 .36410 -1 15755 .21973 .35597 . 14582 - 1 98743 - 1 - . 1 7 2 0 9 .10554 .29985 -1 49974 - 1 - . 10482 .20460 . 15502 - 1 24339 .12798 .4 t861 .73690 -1 21557 .27045 - . 13784 .13224 -1 2252 1 - 1 - . 1 4 6 7 3 .29293 - 1 .58088 -1 11811 .25457 - . 34896 .26271 52969 -2 .67616 - 1 - .36391 - 1 - .21689 -1 65640 -2 .29673 .42697 -3 .30143 -1 49972 -1 .28645 - 1 .41139 - 1 .14832 92547 - 1 .13256 -1 .15787 .32077 69700 -2 .52762 -2 .12748 .25859 -1 896B8 -1 22791 - 1 .25106 .12174 30536 - 1 - . 12062 - . 4 2 7 9 9 -1 .71463 -1 90098 - 1 .81743 - 1 - . 7 8 9 3 0 -1 .32263 -1 67208 - 1 - . 49954 - 1 .12422 - 1 . 1903B - 1 77828 -1 .46280 -2 .47480 - 1 .14643 51 198 - 1 - .47391 - 1 .33721 - 1 .82983 -1 93830 - 1 - . 1 1 8 5 9 - . 1 4978 - 1 .16138 19447 - .1074O - . 18447 .12802 69463 -2 .22075 - 1 - . 8 5 0 2 0 -1 .47489 -1 38919 - 1 .14316 .24912 - 1 11 192 25803 .11889 .16143 .22105 34464 -3 .65649 - 1 - . 69332 - 1 . 12489 21681 .15934 .14632 .14358 33559 -5 .52730 - 1 .39577 -1 .40836 15206 - 1 .19513 - 1 .29519 -1 .16387 39407 - . 34876 - 1 .22088 -1 .64962 -1 49 199 - 1 .35002 - 1 - . 9 6 7 2 3 - 1 .20156 27868 - . 2 0673 - . 17085 .10050 34932 - 1 - . 4 0 6 1 9 -4 - . 20938 - 1 .64891 -1 13290 .17900 .15444 - 1 .32593 -1 6301 1 - | .77093 - 1 - . 63162 -2 .48691 -1 19750 - . 73852 - 1 .85707 -2 .60524 -1 25184 - 1 - . 19025 - 1 - . 7 6 0 8 0 -2 .15567 14898 - 1 .31730 -2 - . 1 2593 .70394 - t 24929 - . 3 0 9 1 5 .53104 - 1 .47719 -1 20332 - i - . 3 5722 -2 . 71072 - 1 .70860 - 1 14409 - . 1 0 7 1 0 - .20931 .45556 -1 1B296 .71259 -2 - . 38019 - 1 .44261 -1 20722 - i .24839 - 1 .5581 1 -1 .35127 -1 16567 .39178 -3 .76742 - 1 .33228 -1 45274 -2 .34554 - 1 .50292 - 1 .55634 -1 15034 .44273 - 1 - . 82949 -3 .7882 1 -1 C - 2 E i g e n v a l u e s f r o m RA a n a l y s i s o f u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n :is E I G E N V A L U E %EV SUM %EV SORT EV S C A L E 1 0 , , 5 5 9 3 3 5 3 1 4 2 E + 0 0 28 . 3 8 9 6 5 28 . 3 8 9 6 5 0 , 7 4 7 8 8 7 3 E + 0 0 9 9 . 9 9 9 9 8 2 0 . . 3 4 5 2 2 0 1 7 4 4 E + 0 0 17 . 5 2 2 0 2 45 .91 167 0 , . 5 8 7 5 5 4 4 E + 0 0 78 . 5 6 1 8 9 3 0 . . 2 1 6 5 7 8 7 1 1 8 E + 0 0 10 . 9 9 2 6 8 56 . 9 0 4 3 4 0 , . 4 6 5 3 8 0 1 E + 0 0 6 2 . 2 2 5 9 7 4 0 . . 1 7 3 4 3 6 7 9 6 6 E + 0 0 8 . 8 0 2 9 7 65 . 7 0 7 3 1 0 4 1 6 4 5 7 4 E + 0 0 55 . 6 8 4 5 1 5 0 . . 1 3 0 5 7 6 3 6 4 1 E + 0 0 6 . 6 2 7 5 4 72 . 3 3 4 8 4 0 , . 3 6 1 3 5 3 5 E + 0 0 4 8 . 3 1 6 5 6 6 0 . 9 6 2 9 7 3 2 5 3 3 E - 0 1 4 . 8 8 7 6 7 77 . 2 2 2 5 0 0 . . 3 1 0 3 1 8 1 E + 0 0 41 . 4 9 2 6 3 7 0 . 8 3 5 5 5 4 9 1 4 7 E - 0 1 4 . 2 4 0 9 5 81 . 4 6 3 4 4 0 . . 2 8 9 0 5 9 6 E + 0 0 38 . 6 5 0 1 6 8 0 . 6 2 1 8 2 1 3 2 8 4 E - 0 1 3 . 1 5 6 1 2 84 . 6 1 9 5 5 0 , . 2 4 9 3 6 3 5 E + 0 0 33 . 3 4 2 3 8 9 0 . 5 4 4 9 3 4 9 1 1 3 E - 0 1 2 . 7 6 5 8 7 87 . 3 8 5 4 2 0 . , 2 3 3 4 3 8 4 E + 0 0 31 . 2 1 3 0 4 10 0 . 4 5 1 4 7 8 3 9 6 8 E - 0 1 2 . 2 9 1 5 3 8 9 . 6 7 6 9 4 0 . . 2 1 2 4 8 0 2 E + 0 0 28 . 4 1 0 7 2 11 0 . 4 3 9 1 2 6 5 4 2 4 E - 0 1 2 . 2 2 8 8 3 91 . 9 0 5 7 6 0 , . 2 0 9 5 5 3 5 E + 0 0 28 . 0 1 9 3 9 12 0 . , 2 8 0 0 9 3 4 2 8 1 E - 0 1 1 . 4 2 1 6 4 93 . 3 2 7 3 9 0 . , 1 6 7 3 5 9 9 E + 0 0 22 . 3 7 7 6 9 13 0 . 2 3 8 9 9 1 9 8 9 2 E - 0 1 1 . 2 1 3 0 3 94 . 5 4 0 4 2 0 . 1 5 4 5 9 3 6 E + 0 0 2 0 . 6 7 0 7 0 14 0 . 2 2 5 6 5 2 9 1 2 3 E - 0 1 1 . 1 4 5 3 2 9 5 . . 6 8 5 7 5 0 . 1 5 0 2 1 7 5 E + 0 0 2 0 . 0 8 5 5 7 15 0 . 1 9 1 5 2 5 4 9 6 3 E - 0 1 0 . 9 7 2 1 1 96 . 6 5 7 8 5 0 . 1 3 8 3 9 2 7 E + 0 0 18 . 5 0 4 4 9 16 0 . 1 7 0 5 5 1 1 0 2 2 E - 0 1 0 . 8 6 5 6 5 97 . . 5 2 3 5 0 0 . 1 3 0 5 9 5 2 E + 0 0 17 . 4 6 1 8 8 17 0 . . 1 1 2 1 8 6 9 7 4 4 E - 0 1 0 . 5 6 9 4 2 98 . 0 9 2 9 1 0 . 1059 1 8 3 E + 0 0 14 . 16234 18 0 . 9 9 2 2 0 0 1 6 2 2 E - 0 2 0 . 5 0 3 6 0 98 . . 5 9 6 5 1 0 . 9 9 6 0 9 2 6 E - 0 1 13 . 3 1 8 7 5 19 0 . 8 5 4 5 4 4 7 6 4 4 E - 0 2 0 . 4 3 3 7 3 9 9 . . 0 3 0 2 4 0 . 9 2 4 4 1 6 2 E - 0 1 12 . 3 6 0 3 7 2 0 0 . 8 0 2 9 4 6 4 6 9 9 E - 0 2 0 . 4 0 7 5 4 9 9 . . 4 3 7 7 7 0 . 8 9 6 0 7 3 0 E - 0 1 1 1 . 9 8 1 3 9 21 0 . 4 7 0 7 7 2 9 8 5 3 E - 0 2 0 . 2 3 8 9 5 9 9 . . 6 7 6 7 1 0 . 6 8 6 1 2 8 7 E - 0 1 9 . 1 7 4 2 3 2 2 0 . 3 5 4 2 6 6 4 2 9 1 E - 0 2 0 . 1 7 9 8 1 9 9 . , 8 5 6 5 2 0 . 5 9 5 2 0 2 9 E - 0 1 7 . 9 5 8 4 6 2 3 0 . 2 8 2 4 2 3 5 1 1 6 E - 0 2 0 . 1 4 3 3 5 9 9 . 9 9 9 8 6 0 . 5 3 1 4 3 5 3 E - 0 1 7 . 1 0 5 8 2 24 0 . 8 3 6 3 6 5 3 9 2 2 E - 1 2 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 9 9 . , 9 9 9 8 6 0 . 9 1 4 5 3 0 1 E - 0 6 0 . 0 0 0 1 2 00 00 T R A C E OF X X ' = 0 . 1 9 7 0 2 0 8 0 2 9 2 5 5 3 6 9 E + 0 1 AND SUM OF EV = 0 . 1 9 7 0 2 0 8 0 2 9 2 5 5 3 7 3 E + 0 1 189 C - 3 O r d i n a t i o n species scores from RA a n a l y s i s of understory vegetation N NAME A X I S 1 2 3 1 P S E U H E N 2 0 0 8 8 0 6 0 6 6 5 9 74 2 7 3 2 2 TSUGHET 45 9 1 2 0 34 6 7 9 0 52 9201 3 T H U J P L I 35 1475 41 6 8 7 8 5 7 1825 4 GAULSHA 2 9 4 2 3 3 42 8 9 8 6 52 2801 6 VACCPAR 52 1973 38 0 6 6 1 51 6 8 0 6 6 S A L I S I T 48 1531 28 2 9 7 9 8 9 6 0 2 8 7 MAHONER 45 7 4 1 7 16 4 4 6 2 46 9 4 2 0 8 H I E R A L B 22 0 9 5 7 70 2 8 9 6 78 7 6 7 4 9 F E S T O C C 24 5 3 4 9 41 0 9 6 4 23 6 1 9 2 10 BOSCHOO 8 7 4 4 3 78 0 6 6 9 67 2911 11 RHYTROB 22 6 3 9 2 46 6 5 8 9 34 3 3 3 9 12 CLADGRA 2 2 7 0 3 8 9 4 6 6 9 72 1030 13 POLYCOM 4 6 8 7 9 86 4 5 4 8 72 3 8 1 0 14 TRACMEG 3 8 5 5 6 87 5 3 9 2 72 3291 15 D I C R F U S 0 0 93 6 7 3 2 74 2 6 7 0 16 H Y L O S P L 35 4 6 8 9 29 3 2 7 3 38 3 1 2 2 17 P E L T L E U 24 5 9 3 5 4 7 1111 46 6 8 0 3 18 CLAOMUL 1 5674 91 2 4 4 0 72 8 5 2 9 19 D I C R S C O 19 1703 53 3064 4 0 0 1 0 5 20 L INNBOR 4 0 8 9 4 8 23 8 8 3 5 44 2 5 2 6 21 L I 5 T C 0 R 18 8 2 1 8 61 6 0 9 4 63 3854 22 ELYMGLA 5 0 1898 16 1 190 54 2 6 6 3 23 PINUMON 26 2481 62 7 4 0 3 8 0 . 3 1 9 2 24 POLYMUN 65 6 1 3 9 39 9 9 0 9 55 5128 25 RHYTLOR 43 1287 17 4 6 0 9 36 8881 26 A C H L T R I 6 3 3704 3 0 5 1 7 9 53 8 4 5 4 27 PTERAQU 56 5 5 7 7 11 4 0 3 0 67 7 0 7 6 28 T R I L O V A 70 0 8 0 6 34 7 187 77 1008 2 9 CHIMMEN 43 4 0 5 7 18 6 5 4 1 67 0 7 7 2 3 0 K INDORE 56 1928 13 6 9 5 7 62 1406 31 RUBUURS 58 9 3 4 9 12 1943 59 5 0 1 9 32 G A L I T R I 73 0 1 4 0 29 6 2 0 9 6 9 8 5 6 6 33 M A I A D I L 66 4 5 8 7 10 8 2 5 4 B4 1678 34 MYCEMUR 73 4 9 1 2 30 8 9 8 5 68 8 2 6 2 35 V I O L S E M 5 9 6 2 2 3 12 5 8 0 9 6 9 6 2 1 4 36 T R I E L A T 64 0 0 9 2 26 9 3 0 9 44 1115 37 RANUOCC 7 0 3 0 9 0 14 8 7 4 5 - 99 9 7 9 4 38 BROMVUL 59 3 6 3 3 31 9 9 6 2 34 651 1 3 9 STREAMP 65 9 6 1 6 8 0 5 7 2 8 9 4561 4 0 ADENB IC 73 5 5 9 0 33 6 0 8 7 73 9 6 2 4 41 LEUCMEN 74 9 7 8 9 39 2 3 5 8 68 2864 42 RHYTTR I s o 2338 46 1606 65 4 3 9 4 43 RUBUSPE 93 8 9 8 3 82 5 2 5 7 46 1949 44 D ISPHOO 6 7 3 9 4 6 15 1569 88 8 2 3 5 45 TRAUCAR 6 9 9 5 1 7 15 2 1 3 9 100 0 0 0 0 46 CAMPSCO 76 9 7 5 6 4 9 5 6 0 9 54 1804 4 7 P L A G I N S 91 1506 74 6 2 3 0 53 0 7 9 4 48 ROSAGYM 42 0 8 3 8 13 1525 2 0 3961 4 9 D I C E FOR 8 9 2 8 3 5 73 4 2 1 0 36 5 3 9 7 5 0 SYMPMOL 47 6 2 2 0 9 8 1 9 9 26 9 3 1 7 51 A T H Y F I L 92 8 7 2 7 7 9 9 8 9 2 47 6 7 6 2 52 HOLOD I S 37 0 0 0 1 13 3 4 3 5 0 0 53 GOOOOBL 42 9 3 3 4 10 8 2 7 4 16 7 3 7 4 54 T I A R T R I 86 6 5 9 2 68 3 6 0 7 4 0 1905 55 D I SPSM I 5 9 5 2 9 4 0 0 5 0 2291 56 ACERMAC 91 3 7 9 2 SO 9 0 6 4 19 794 1 5 7 T I A R L A C 96 62 12 9 0 8 9 7 3 37 2 3 4 9 58 DRYOASS 93 9 5 3 0 84 4 5 7 4 4 7 1406 59 C A R E H E N 9 7 0 7 1 7 92 0 5 6 7 35 1365 6 0 MONTS IB ICO OOOO 10O OOOO 21 8 7 3 8 6 0 . 3 7 5 0 5 6 . 8 6 2 9 4 5 . 1 5 0 4 3 5 . 8 8 4 1 5 0 . 2 4 5 0 4 0 . 9 0 8 5 6 0 . 3 7 6 8 3 6 . 5 4 1 5 1 2 . 6 0 3 3 4 6 . 0 9 5 6 2 8 . 1 2 0 9 4 4 . 7 4 4 7 4 5 . 0 3 9 3 4 4 . 8 2 0 6 4 1 . 8 4 7 1 4 8 . 9 6 6 8 4 4 . 4 0 5 0 4 2 . 4 3 1 1 31 . 6 3 7 6 3 9 . 3 2 5 3 S 2 . 1 6 3 5 8 4 . 1 7 4 9 3 5 . 6 1 6 1 4 7 . 9 6 4 5 5 4 . 3 0 9 4 5 0 . 8 8 2 3 5 7 . 9 9 7 4 3 7 . 7 0 4 2 7 5 . 9 3 6 1 5 2 . 8 0 8 2 4 5 . 7 6 5 8 4 3 . 1 8 3 2 2 9 . 1 2 8 3 4 3 . 3 3 1 4 0 . 5 6 1 1 4 8 . 6 2 9 5 3 . 6 5 0 8 1 9 . 9 7 5 8 3 . 6 9 1 4 1 9 . 3 6 4 5 1 7 . 8 7 5 5 2 6 . 9 4 0 3 4 2 . 6 5 6 8 2 6 . 7 5 0 5 0 . 0 2 0 . 7 1 5 7 3 9 . 8 1 5 9 1 5 . 7 2 9 1 3 1 . 5 9 4 5 4 0 . 7 1 9 0 4 5 . 6 9 6 6 1 1 . 4 8 1 8 2 3 . 7 7 1 7 5 9 . 4 7 6 5 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 5 8 . 4 7 4 0 4 9 . 1 0 1 5 5 0 . 6 2 7 1 4 8 . 8 2 2 9 4 7 . 9 4 13 6 2 . 4 7 9 1 4 8 . 4 9 9 6 5 9 . 1 9 3 6 4 5 . 4 8 0 8 4 4 . 7 5 8 1 8 0 . 7 3 4 1 4 6 . 0 6 9 6 2 4 . 5 9 1 3 4 5 . 0 6 9 5 2 9 . 3 2 9 9 4 2 . 0 6 3 4 1 7 . 4 5 6 5 2 6 . 4 5 2 9 2 3 . 6 0 5 2 1 5 . 5 4 9 1 3 2 . 3 2 0 9 2 7 . 9 2 3 4 1 9 . 5 7 9 4 3 4 . 2 9 9 0 3 1 . 5 3 6 8 3 3 . 5 5 5 5 5 . 2 0 5 0 4 3 . 0 2 1 3 4 4 . 0 0 7 5 2 8 . 7 8 5 5 4 2 . 3 3 6 9 4 1 . 1 5 9 9 5 2 . 3 9 7 3 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 4 5 . 2 2 5 7 2 9 . 2 4 6 9 2 8 . 2 4 8 7 2 4 . 7 8 9 0 2 8 . 2 7 6 5 4 3 . 3 4 3 8 3 2 . 3 8 2 8 3 5 . 2 5 9 6 4 7 . 3 3 0 1 3 5 . 8 7 3 8 3 7 . 7 4 7 1 38 8 1 4 9 3 9 . 7 3 0 3 4 5 . 3 0 3 2 2 6 . 3 1 5 3 4 0 . 1 7 8 3 4 2 . 0 6 2 0 4 3 . 3 9 6 6 SO.2084 5 2 . 1 0 8 7 3 1 . 9 1 4 6 4 3 . 7 2 4 8 5 0 . 6 4 6 5 4 1 . 6 8 4 3 3 6 . 8 2 9 0 0 . 0 4 3 . 0 6 2 1 4 6 . 2 0 5 7 4 4 . 6 1 3 1 4 6 . 3 7 0 2 4 9 . 3 2 B 3 6 4 . 1 5 1 4 6 9 . 8 1 9 4 6 6 . 8 1 3 2 6 5 . 5 8 0 3 6 4 . 5 7 6 7 5 6 . 1 9 4 0 6 4 . 3 9 7 8 6 7 . 2 5 1 3 6 2 . 0 6 0 2 6 4 . 4 3 9 6 6 9 . 4 0 8 0 5 9 . 0 1 5 2 6 3 . 9 7 0 9 6 2 . 2 4 2 0 5 1 . 3 3 6 1 6 6 . 4 2 3 4 6 5 . 4 4 5 0 5 7 . 1 3 9 6 6 2 . 5 1 8 9 6 5 . 3 9 3 4 7 1 . 9 7 1 1 5 9 . 7 9 1 3 7 6 . 4 6 7 9 6 6 . 4 8 8 7 6 7 . 6 4 4 4 6 2 . 2 5 9 9 6 1 . 5 6 6 7 7 1 . 9 8 8 2 6 1 . 8 5 1 7 6 3 . 4 5 6 4 6 3 . 3 1 3 8 7 0 . 6 9 9 0 6 0 . 3 4 3 2 7 1 . 2 8 9 8 5 8 . 2 4 4 6 6 2 . 3 3 2 9 5 8 . 8 6 6 3 5 5 . 4 9 1 3 4 8 . 1 7 3 4 7 2 . 6 3 9 8 7 3 . 0 3 2 3 4 4 . 2 1 3 8 6 8 . 3 8 9 6 6 8 . 8 1 5 8 5 8 . 0 9 6 0 5 7 . 0 8 2 0 7 0 . 8 1 2 8 6 6 . 5 7 0 4 2 . 3 5 3 1 6 8 . 8 0 5 2 7 2 . 2 5 9 8 7 3 . 3 7 5 7 6 8 . 3 1 7 4 6 4 . 9 0 8 3 6 1 . 3 3 7 2 0 . 0 6 8 . 4 2 2 4 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 6 3 . 4 7 5 3 2 1 . 0 4 6 2 5 0 . 7 2 1 6 5 2 . 7 5 5 9 5 5 . 1 4 5 6 5 0 . 5 7 7 1 5 5 . 2 3 9 2 7 0 . 1 4 0 1 5 4 . 9 4 7 3 4 7 . 9 0 B 1 8 4 . 5 6 4 6 4 5 . 9 9 8 2 5 2 . 3 7 4 4 6 9 . 2 1 5 7 4 9 . 1 3 6 0 5 6 . 3 2 7 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 52 . 1195 5 4 . 1 0 7 5 8 0 . 3 4 6 3 6 9 . 7 2 1 4 4 8 . 8 9 5 3 2 2 . 4 1 6 5 5 8 . 8 1 6 7 0 . 0 5 2 . 4 7 B B 4 7 . 8 5 1 0 5 2 . 5 7 2 1 S I . 9 5 9 4 5 6 . 3 1 6 0 6 2 . 2 4 8 6 5 6 . 0 0 9 1 5 2 . 9 6 7 8 5 5 . 7 8 3 7 5 0 . 9 0 8 4 5 6 . 2 4 4 3 5 6 . 2 2 6 3 5 7 . 0 7 8 9 5 1 . 7 3 6 5 5 1 . 7 6 1 4 5 5 . 5 0 1 5 5 3 . 3 3 2 6 5 5 . 4 1 2 3 5 0 . 3 1 7 7 5 3 . 8 3 2 8 4 5 . 2 2 3 2 5 1 . 4 8 3 9 5 1 . 5 6 4 0 5 4 . 5 0 9 3 5 6 . 1 1 8 4 3 9 . 1 4 1 2 5 4 . 2 0 3 0 5 6 . 7 0 8 3 5 7 . 0 2 7 5 5 9 . 9 6 7 7 5 4 . 1 3 9 5 5 8 . 7 3 2 9 3 5 . 7 2 3 3 5 5 . 4 5 0 5 6 5 . 5 9 9 3 5 3 . 8 4 3 6 4 0 . 5 1 9 4 15 D ICRFUS 18 CLADMUL 12 CLADGRA 14 TRACMEG 13 POLYCOM 10 BOSCHOO 21 L I S T C O R 19 D ICRSCO 1 PSEUMEN 8 H I E R A L B 11 RHYTROB 9 F E S T O C C 17 P E L T L E U 23 PINUMON 4 GAULSHA 3 T H U J P L I 16 HYLOSPL 52 HOLODIS 20 LINNBOR 48 ROSAGYM 53 GOODOBL 25 RHYTLOR 29 CHIMMEN 7 MAHONER 2 TSUGHET 5 0 SYMPMOL 6 S A L I S I T 22 ELYMGLA 5 VACCPAR 30 KINDORE 27 PTERAOU 31 RU8UURS 38 BROMVUL 55 D ISPSMI 35 V IOLSEM 26 ACHLTR I 36 T R I E L A T 24 POLYMUN 39 STREAMP 33 MA IAD IL 44 D ISPHOO 45 TRAUCAR 28 TR I LOVA 37 RANUOCC 32 G A L I T R I 34 MYCEMUR 4 0 ADENBIC 4 1 LEUCMEN 46 CAMPSCO 42 RHYTTRI 54 T I A R T R I 4 9 D ICE FOR 47 PLAG INS 56 ACERMAC 51 A T H Y F I L 43 RUBUSPE 58 DRYOASS 57 T I A R L A C 59 CAREHEN 6 0 MONTSIB 0 . 0 1 .5674 2 . 2 7 0 3 3 . 8 5 5 6 4 . 6 8 7 9 8 . 7 4 4 3 1 8 . 8 2 1 8 1 9 . 1 7 0 3 2 0 . 0 8 8 0 2 2 . 0 9 5 7 2 2 . 6 3 9 2 2 4 . 5 3 4 9 2 4 . 5 9 3 5 2 6 . 2 4 8 1 2 9 . 4 2 3 3 3 5 . 1 4 7 5 3 5 . 4 6 8 9 3 7 . 0 0 0 1 4 0 . 8 9 4 8 4 2 . 0 8 3 8 4 2 . 9 3 3 4 4 3 . 1 2 8 7 4 3 . 4 0 5 7 4 5 . 7 4 1 7 4 5 . 9 1 2 0 4 7 . 6 2 2 0 4 8 . 1 5 3 1 5 0 . 1 8 9 8 5 2 . 1 9 7 3 5 6 . 1 9 2 8 5 6 . 5 5 7 7 5 8 . 9 3 4 9 5 9 . 3 6 3 3 5 9 . 5 2 9 4 5 9 . 6 2 2 3 6 3 . 3 7 0 4 6 4 . 0 0 9 2 6 5 . 6 1 3 9 6 5 . 9 6 1 6 6 6 . 4 5 8 7 6 7 . 3 9 4 6 6 9 . 9 5 1 7 7 0 . 0 8 0 6 7 0 . 3 0 9 0 7 3 . 0 1 4 0 7 3 . 4 9 1 2 7 3 . 5 5 9 0 7 4 . 9 7 8 9 7 6 . 9 7 5 6 8 0 . 2 3 3 B 8 6 . 6 5 9 2 8 9 . 2 8 3 5 9 1 . 1 5 0 6 9 1 . 3 7 9 2 9 2 . 8 7 2 7 9 3 . 8 9 8 3 9 3 . 9 5 3 0 9 6 . 6 2 1 2 9 7 . 0 7 17 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 55 D ISPSMI 39 STREAMP 5 0 SYMPMOL 33 MA IAD I L 53 GOODOBL 27 PTERAOU 31 RUBUURS 35 V I 0 L 5 E M 48 ROSAGYM 52 HOLODIS 30 K INDORE 37 RANUOCC 44 D ISPHOO 45 TRAUCAR 22 ELYMGLA 7 MAHONER 25 RHYTLOR 29 CHIMMEN 20 L INNBOR 36 T R I E L A T 6 S A L I S I T 16 H Y L O S P L 32 G A L I T R I 26 ACHLTR I 34 MfCEMUR 38 BROMVUL 40 ADENB IC 2 TSUGHET 28 T R I L O V A S VACCPAR 24 POLYMUN 4 1 LEUCMEN 9 F E S T O C C 3 T H U J P L I 4 GAULSHA 42 RHYTTR I 11 RHYTROB 17 P E L T L E U 46 CAMPSCO 19 D I C R S C O 1 PSEUMEN 21 L I S T C O R 23 PINUMON 54 T I A R T R I 8 H I E R A L B 49 O ICEFOR 47 P L A G I N S 10 BOSCHOO 51 A T H Y F I L 56 ACERMAC 43 RUBUSPE 58 DRYOASS 13 POLYCOM 14 TRACMEG 12 CLADGRA 57 T I A R L A C 18 CLADMUL 59 CAREHEN 15 D I C R F U S 6 0 MONTSIB 0 . 0 8 . 0 5 7 2 9 . 8 1 9 9 1 0 . 8 2 5 4 1 0 . 8 2 7 4 1 1 . 4 0 3 0 1 2 . 1 9 4 3 1 2 . 5 B 0 9 1 3 . 1 5 2 5 1 3 . 3 4 3 5 1 3 . 6 9 5 7 1 4 . 8 7 4 5 1 5 . 1 5 6 9 1 5 . 2 1 3 9 16 . 1 190 1 6 . 4 4 8 2 1 7 . 4 6 0 9 1 8 . 6 5 4 1 2 3 . 8 8 3 5 2 6 . 9 3 0 9 2 8 . 2 9 7 9 2 9 . 3 2 7 3 2 9 . 6 2 0 9 30 5 1 7 9 3 0 . 8 = 8 5 3 1 . 9 9 6 2 3 3 . 6 0 8 7 3 4 . 5 7 9 0 3 4 . 7 1 8 7 3 8 . 0 6 6 1 3 8 . 9 9 0 9 3 9 . 2 3 5 8 4 1 .0964 4 1 . 6 8 7 8 4 2 . 8 9 8 6 4 6 . 1 6 0 6 4 6 . 6 5 8 9 4 7 . 1 1 1 1 4 9 . 5 6 0 9 5 3 . 3 C 6 4 6 0 . 6 6 5 9 6 1 . 6 0 9 4 6 2 . 7 4 0 3 6 8 . 3 6 0 7 7 0 . 2 8 9 6 7 3 . 4 2 1 0 7 4 . 6 2 3 0 7 8 . 0 6 6 9 7 9 . 9 8 9 2 8 0 . 9 0 6 4 8 2 . 5 2 5 7 8 4 . 4 5 7 4 8 6 . 4 5 4 B 8 7 . 5 3 9 2 8 9 . 4 6 6 9 9 0 . 8 9 7 3 9 1 . 2 4 4 0 9 2 . 0 5 6 7 9 3 . 6 7 3 2 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 C - 4 Ordination plot scores from RA analysis of understory vegetation TRANSFORMATION: NONE SAMPLES SCORES N NAME AXIS 1 1 RKO001 0 0 2 RK0002 1 2 3 9 0 3 RK0003 7 0 3 9 3 4 RK0004 13 5349 5 RK0O05 45 8 0 7 0 6 RK0006 41 6614 7 RKO007 40 6568 8 RK0008 43 0 3 2 0 9 RK0009 66 0 4 4 0 10 RK0010 71 0744 11 RK0011 64 5125 12 RK0012 74 8009 13 RKO013 36 9213 14 RK0014 34 8349 15 RK0015 38 4021 16 RK0Ot6 38 7936 17 RK0017 S4 1792 18 RK0018 60 3576 19 RK0O19 60 91 18 20 RK0020 57 5714 21 RK0021 87 3469 22 RK0022 97 6509 23 RKO023 94 4892 24 RK0024 100 0 0 0 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 91 5136 70 6364 37 4865 20 1 183 58 4332 100 0000 85 3043 68 9045 51 4463 3 0680 58 0877 77 2640 78 1688 64 3742 49 6563 19 2676 77 6538 28 0016 71 6278 68 3551 49 5526 39 5264 83 9603 0 0 IB 3629 78 9206 86 8173 93 8360 64 6111 74 9261 24 1486 79 9459 85 2684 100 0 0 0 0 63 9504 69 7725 27 8496 64 1274 79 6619 71 7455 74 2949 50 3706 23 1309 65 6495 77 8236 63 5968 69 0077 55 6243 9 8472 B2 9798 15 1 160 18 0354 59 6434 55 71 12 20 5302 100 0000 1 6575 30 1407 71 8695 49 3179 10 8469 83 7973 0 0 36 1503 51 6223 61 6785 21 7926 96 1850 17 1039 18 0059 72 7865 57 2338 15 2066 2 0283 5 1753 40 2726 71 701 1 68 9624 18 7355 0 0 12 5277 34 4173 79 3153 57 3955 17 6524 28 7294 50 9275 38 4904 67 1946 57 0601 1 1 6407 9 7133 26 9676 37 7303 79 2869 52 9739 8 2482 52 2945 69 0206 12 9822 74 1754 47 6630 5 9179 48 0584 100 0000 3 7698 65 4783 60 3797 a 5840 47 9993 84 2836 9 5472 60 9365 59 2755 0 0 49 0184 96 4028 0 0 68 7048 61 5939 74 3050 48 8584 60 7636 38 0928 100 0000 67 9339 84 4893 49 3650 43 2380 29 1 107 99 16 15 64 1995 83 4337 40 0529 49 0731 31 4672 98 1408 65 0229 100 0 0 0 0 12 6661 50 7296 39 6762 0 0 39 7975 RANKED 1 RANKED 2 1 RK0001 0 0 20 RK0020 0 0 2 RK0002 1 2390 18 RKOO18 5 9179 3 RK0003 7 0393 17 RKOO17 8 2482 4 RK0004 13 5349 19 RKOO19 8 5 8 4 0 14 RK0014 34 8349 9 RK0009 9 8472 13 RKOO13 36 9213 1 1 RK0011 10 8469 15 RKOO15 38 4021 16 RKOO16 1 1 6407 16 RKOO16 38 7936 13 RKOO13 15 2066 7 RK0O07 40 6568 15 RKOO15 17 6524 6 RK0OO6 41 6614 5 RK0005 18 3629 8 RKOOOB 43 0 3 2 0 14 RKOO14 18 7355 5 RK0005 45 8 0 7 0 10 RKOO10 20 5302 17 RKOO17 54 1792 12 RKOO12 21 7926 20 RK0020 57 57 14 8 RK0008 23 1309 18 RKOO18 6 0 3576 6 RK0006 24 1486 19 RKOO19 60 91 18 7 RK0007 27 8496 1 1 RKOO11 64 5125 4 RK0004 71 6278 9 RK0009 66 0 4 4 0 21 RK0021 74 3050 10 RKOO10 71 0744 3 RK0003 78 1688 12 RKOO12 74 8009 23 RK0O23 83 4337 21 RK0021 87 3469 22 RK0022 84 4893 23 RK0023 94 4892 2 RK0002 85 3043 22 RK0022 97 6509 1 RKOOO1 91 5136 24 RK0024 100 0 0 0 0 24 RK0024 100 0 0 0 0 C - 5 Eigenvalues and species scores from DCA of understory vegetation N NAME AX 1 AX2 AX3 AX4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2 RANKED 3 RANKED 4 E I G - 0 . 5 5 9 E I G = 0 . 1 1 0 E I G » 0 . 0 5 2 E I G « 0 . 0 2 9 1 PSEU MEN 394 301 142 10 15 D ICR FUS 507 29 CHIM MEN 477 4 9 D ICE FOR 573 56 ACER MAC 422 2 TSUG HET 239 180 - 1 7 144 18 CLAD MUL 4 9 8 6 SAL I S I T 373 45 TRAU CAR 4 1 0 49 D ICE FOR 324 3 T H U J PL I 311 198 181 1 12 CLAD GRA 494 1 PSEU MEN 301 53 GOOD OBL 400 6 0 MONT S IB 316 4 GAUL SHA 342 2 175 - 3 14 TRAC MEG 486 28 TR IL OVA 225 9 FEST OCC 382 42 RHYT TRI 274 S VACC PAR 193 9 9 72 32 13 POLY COM 481 27 PTER AOU 208 35 V IOL SEM 376 8 H IER ALB 27 1 6 SAL I S I T 223 373 319 - 134 10 BOSC HOO 458 3 T H U J PL I 198 39 STRE AMP 368 9 F E S T OCC 247 7 MAHO NER 241 125 -21 149 21 L I S T COR 401 58 ORYO ASS 185 56 ACER MAC 348 53 GOOD OBL 2 3 9 8 HI ER ALB 383 44 -41 271 19 D ICR SCO 399 2 TSUG HET 180 6 SAL I S I T 319 36 TR IE LAT 189 9 F E S T OCC 369 - 2 1 2 382 247 1 PSEU MEN 394 30 KIND ORE 179 6 0 MONT S IB 297 29 CHIM MEN 177 10 BOSC HOO 458 8 0 86 126 8 H IER ALB 383 55 D ISP SMI 178 37 RANU OCC 292 38 BROM VUL 175 11 RHYT ROB 3 8 0 - 7 9 144 135 11 RHYT ROB 3 8 0 7 MAHO NER 125 42 RHYT TRI 273 55 D I SP SMI 175 12 CLAD GRA 494 39 47 35 9 F E S T OCC 369 24 POLY MUN 115 38 BROM VUL 244 54 T IAR 1RI 172 13 POLY COM 481 54 147 1 17 P E L T LEU 369 23 P INU MON 101 48 ROSA GYM 234 19 D ICR SCO 170 14 TRAC MEG 486 SO 132 11 23 P INU MON 359 5 VACC PAR 99 15 0 ICR FUS 2 t 5 20 L INN BOR 167 15 D ICR FUS 507 58 215 - 161 4 GAUL SHA 342 26 ACHL TRI 98 46 CAMP SCO 208 5 9 CARE HEN 164 16 HYLO SPL 309 - 4 0 - 3 7 30 3 T H U J PL I 311 45 TRAU CAR 95 44 D ISP HOO 204 33 MA IA D I L 158 17 P E L T LEU 369 - 8 42 123 16 HYLO SPL 309 10 BOSC HOO 80 3 THUJ PL I 181 46 CAMP SCO 154 18 CLAD MUL 498 53 172 43 52 HOLO D IS 3 0 0 32 GAL I TRI 77 28 TR IL OVA 180 51 ATHY F I L 152 19 D ICR SCO 399 - 4 9 170 170 2 0 L INN BOR 274 43 RUBU SPE 76 40 ADEN B IC 180 7 MAHO NER 148 2 0 L INN BOR 274 - 5 8 165 167 48 ROSA GYM 266 34 MYCE MUR 75 4 GAUL SHA 175 2 TSUG HET 144 21 L I S T COR 401 20 5 135 53 GOOD OBL 2 6 0 47 PLAG INS 69 27 PTER AOU 173 25 RHYT LOR 141 22 ELYM GLA 209 4 0 - t 6 9 13 25 RHYT LOR 259 15 DICR FUS 58 18 CLAD MUL 172 11 RHYT ROB 135 23 P INU MON 359 101 122 0 29 CHIM MEN 257 41 LEUC MEN 56 19 D ICR SCO 170 21 L I S T COR 135 24 POLY MUN 7B 1 15 82 65 7 MAHO NER 241 13 POLY COM 54 2 0 L INN BOR 165 10 BOSC HOO 126 25 RHYT LOR 259 - 1 0 - 1 0 5 141 2 TSUG HET 239 18 CLAD MUL 53 5 9 CARE HEN 156 17 P E L T L E U 123 26 ACHL TRI 94 98 108 121 5 0 SYMP MOL 227 37 RANU OCC 53 2 9 CHIM MEN 154 26 ACHL TRI 12 1 27 PTER AOU 155 208 173 1 6 SAL I S IT 223 51 ATHY F I L 52 13 POLY COM 147 30 KINO ORE 12 1 28 T R I L OVA 52 2 2 5 180 - 7 5 22 ELYM GLA 209 14 TRAC MEG 50 1 1 RHYT ROB 144 39 STRE AMP 85 2 9 CHIM MEN 257 477 154 177 5 VACC PAR 193 4 0 ADEN B IC 50 52 HOLO D IS 144 24 POLY MUN 65 3 0 KIND ORE 158 179 18 121 30 K IND ORE 158 57 T IAR LAC 45 1 PSEU MEN 142 18 CLAD MUL 43 31 RUBU URS 133 29 - 6 2 1 27 PTER AOU 155 8 HIER ALB 44 14 TRAC MEG 132 57 T IAR LAC 38 32 GAL I TRI 37 77 0 - 4 5 31 RUBU URS 133 22 ELYM GLA 40 50 SYMP MOL 132 12 CLAO GRA 35 33 MA IA DI L 73 13 1 17 158 38 BROM VUL 129 12 CLAD GRA 39 4 1 LEUC MEN 123 5 VACC PAR 32 34 MYCE MUR 34 75 26 - 5 9 35 V IOL SEM 127 31 RUBU URS 29 57 T IAR LAC 123 16 HYLO SPL 3 0 35 V IOL SEN 127 - 8 0 376 - 2 55 D I SP SMI 127 54 T IAR TRI 24 23 P INU MON 122 22 ELYM GLA 13 36 T R I E LAT 9 0 - 2 8 30 189 26 ACHL TRI 94 59 CARE HEN 21 43 RUBU SPE 1 19 47 PLAG INS 13 37 RANU OCC 51 53 292 - 4 2 36 T R I E LAT 9 0 21 L I S T COR 20 33 MA IA D I L 1 17 14 TRAC MEG 1 1 38 BROM VUL 129 - 7 9 244 175 24 POLY MUN 78 44 D ISP HOO 14 47 PLAG INS 112 1 PSEU MEN 10 3 9 STRE AMP 76 - 1 7 368 85 3 9 STRE AMP 76 33 MA IA D I L 13 26 ACHL TRI 108 3 T H U J PL I 1 4 0 ADEN B I C 34 5 0 180 - 2 2 4 33 MA IA D IL 73 4 GAUL SHA 2 51 AIHY F I L 96 13 POLY COM 1 41 LEUC MEN 26 56 123 - 1 7 0 44 D I SP HOO 67 17 P E L T LEU - 8 10 BOSC HOO 86 27 PTER AOU 1 42 RHYT TRI - 3 -31 273 274 45 TRAU CAR 53 25 RHYT LOR - 10 24 POLY MUN 82 31 RUBU URS 1 43 RUBU SPE - 8 4 76 119 - 6 7 28 T R I L OVA 52 3 9 STRE AMP - 1 7 5 VACC PAR 72 23 P INU MON 0 44 D ISP HOO 67 14 204 - 1 1 37 RANU OCC 51 36 TR IE LAT - 2 8 12 CLAO GRA 47 35 V IOL SEM - 2 4 5 TRAU CAR 53 ' 95 4 1 0 - 2 0 4 32 GAL I TRI 37 42 RHYT TRI -31 17 P E L T LEU 42 4 GAUL SHA - 3 46 CAMP SCO 15 - 5 3 208 154 34 MYCE MUR 34 16 HYLO SPL - 4 0 36 TR IE LAT 30 50 SYMP MOL - 8 4 7 PLAG INS - 6 8 6 9 112 13 40 ADEN B IC 34 19 D ICR SCO - 4 9 34 MYCE MUR 26 44 D ISP HOO - 1 1 48 ROSA GYM 266 - 1 0 2 234 - 6 7 41 LEUC MEN 26 46 CAMP SCO - 5 2 54 TIAR TRI 19 37 RANU OCC - 4 2 4 9 D I C E FOR - 5 7 - 7 9 573 324 46 CAMP SCO 15 6 0 MONT S IB - 5 5 30 KIND ORE 18 32 GAL I TRI - 4 5 5 0 SYMP MOL 227 - 1 1 5 132 - 8 42 RHYT TRI - 3 20 L INN BOR - 5 8 21 L I ST COR 5 34 MYCE MUR - 5 9 51 ATHY F I L - 7 8 52 96 152 54 T IAR TRI -41 11 RHYT ROB - 7 9 32 GAL I TRI 0 43 RUBU SPE - 6 7 52 HOLO D IS 300 - 1 9 8 144 - 9 8 4 9 D ICE FOR - 5 7 38 BROM VUL - 7 9 2 TSUG HET - 1 7 48 ROSA GYM - 6 7 53 GOOD OBL 2 6 0 - 2 4 6 4 0 0 239 47 P L A G INS - 6 8 49 D ICE FOR - 7 9 7 MAHO NER -21 28 T R I L OVA - 7 5 54 T I A R TRI -41 24 19 172 . 56 ACER MAC - 6 9 35 VIOL SEM - 8 0 16 HYLO SPL - 3 7 52 HOLO O IS - 9 8 55 D I SP SMI 127 178 - 3 9 7 175 51 ATHY F I L - 7 8 56 ACER MAC - 9 2 8 HIER ALB -4 1 6 SAL I S I T - 134 56 ACER MAC - 6 9 - 9 2 348 422 43 RUBU SPE - 8 4 48 ROSA GYM - 102 31 RUBU URS - 6 2 15 D ICR FUS - 1 6 1 5 7 T IAR LAC - 1 0 0 45 123 38 58 DRYO ASS - 8 4 5 0 SYMP MOL -1 15 58 DRYO ASS - 7 2 4 1 LEUC MEN - 170 58 DRYO ASS - 8 4 185 - 7 2 - 1 8 1 57 T IAR LAC - 100 52 HOLO D IS - 1 9 8 25 RHYT LOR - 105 58 DRYO ASS - 1 8 1 5 9 CARE HEN - 1 0 3 21 156 164 59 CARE HEN - 103 9 F E S I OCC - 2 12 22 ELYM GLA - 169 45 TRAU CAR - 2 0 4 6 0 MONT S IB - 1 2 0 - 5 5 297 316 6 0 MONT S IB - 120 53 GOOD OBL - 2 4 6 55 D ISP SMI - 3 9 7 4 0 ADEN B IC - 2 2 4 C - 6 E i g e n v a l u e s and p l o t s c o r e s from DCA o f u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n DECORANA OPTIONS - - DOWNWEIGHTING 0 RESCALING 4 ANALYSIS 0 SEGMENTS 26 THRESHOLD 0 .0 TRANSFORMATION 0 .0 0 .0 SAMPLE SCORES - WHICH ARE WEIGHTED MEAN SPECIES SCORES N NAME AX 1 AX2 AX3 AX4 RANKED 1 EIG=0.559 RANKED 2 EIG=0.110 RANKED 3 EIG=0.052 RANKED 4 EIG=0.029 1 RKOOO1 376 75 132 40 1 RKOOO1 376 6 RK0006 197 1 1 RK0011 147 24 RK0024 136 2 RK0002 373 62 113 32 2 RK0002 373 5 RK0005 195 24 RK0024 145 18 RKOO18 93 3 RK0003 352 68 89 65 3 RK0003 352 7 RK0007 151 10 RKOO10 134 15 RKOO15 88 4 RK0004 329 87 109 47 4 RK0004 329 8 RK0008 147 1 RKOOO1 132 20 RK0020 81 5 RK0005 209 195 93 59 14 RK0014 253 21 RK0021 101 13 RKOO13 129 17 RKOO17 79 6 RK0006 224 197 106 62 13 RK0013 244 10 RKO010 94 2 RK0002 1 13 19 RKOO19 79 7 RK0007 228 151 90 65 15 RK0015 238 18 RKOO18 93 4 RK0004 109 13 RKOO13 72 8 RK0008 218 147 83 61 16 RK0016 237 20 RK0020 90 9 RK0009 107 3 RK0003 65 9 RK0009 124 70 107 58 7 RK0007 228 12 RKOO12 89 6 RK0006 106 7 RK0007 65 10 RK0010 104 94 134 0 6 RK0006 224 4 RK0004 87 12 RKOO12 104 6 RK0006 62 11 RK0011 130 79 147 20 8 RK0008 218 19 RKOO19 81 14 RKOO14 103 8 RK0008 61 12 RK0012 89 89 104 38 5 RK0005 209 1 1 RK0011 79 5 RK0005 93 5 RK0005 59 13 RK0013 244 0 129 72 17 RK0017 175 22 RK0022 79 7 RK0007 90 9 RK0009 58 14 RK0014 253 5 103 50 20 RK0020 161 23 RK0023 76 3 RK0003 89 21 RK0021 55 15 RK0015 238 63 80 88 18 RKOO18 150 1 RK0001 75 22 RK0022 88 16 RKOO16 52 16 RK0016 237 27 79 52 19 RK0019 148 17 RKOO17 74 8 RK0008 83 14 RKOO14 50 17 RK0017 175 74 61 79 1 1 RK0011 130 9 RK0009 70 23 RK0023 81 4 RK0004 47 18 RK0018 150 93 0 93 9 RK0009 124 3 RK0003 68 15 RKOO15 80 23 RK0023 46 19 RK0019 148 81 31 79 10 RKOO10 104 . 15 RKOO15 63 16 RKOO16 79 1 RKOOO1 40 20 RK0020 161 90 0 81 12 RKOO12 89 2 RK0002 62 21 RK0021 74 12 RKOO12 38 21 RK0021 48 101 74 55 21 RK0021 48 24 RK0024 34 17 RKOO17 61 2 RK0002 32 22 RK0022 7 79 88 21 23 RK0023 19 16 RKOO16 27 19 RKOO19 31 22 RK0022 21 23 RK0023 19 76 81 46 22 RK0022 7 14 RKOO14 5 18 RKOO18 0 1 1 RK0011 20 24 RK0024 0 34 145 136 24 RK0024 0 13 RKOO13 0 20 RK0020 0 10 RKOO10 0 CD CO APPENDIX D FOLIAR NUTRIENT DATA FOR STUDY PLOTS Code* N P Ca Mg K Fe AFe B Al Zn Mn Cu S 100 % ppm ; % need 1 e weight 011111. 879 . 171 .590 .305 . 100 24 380 15 000 14 200 240 000 12 500 1 109 000 3 000 .113 442 02111 1 . 937 . 180 .573 . 289 .095 23 960 10 000 15 290 275 000 17 000 1 1 14 000 3 400 .118 546 031111. 874 . 199 .586 . 254 .098 17 500 10 000 15 750 270 000 10 500 1051 000 3 000 . 109 482 04111 1 . 803 . 180 .535 . 290 .095 14 380 10 000 14 840 230 000 13 500 1237 000 2 900 . 107 543 052122. 1 277 . 163 .625 . 249 . 124 38 000 25 000 8 660 225 000 19 000 367 OOO 4 100 . 120 557 062122. 1 140 . 165 .658 . 254 . 124 33 130 25 000 7 960 225 000 16 000 257 000 5 400 .118 569 072122. 1 202 . 163 .616 . 263 . 133 37 710 28 000 7 450 255 000 14 500 369 000 3 600 .092 537 082122. 1 248 . 178 .703 . 293 . 153 44 380 29 000 8 660 310 000 18 000 431 000 3 900 .113 505 093133. 1 206 . 139 .598 . 351 . 125 22 290 19 000 8 400 95 000 6 000 173 000 3 200 . 101 555 103133. 1 252 . 134 .56 1 . 358 . 101 23 960 24 000 9 290 100 000 7 500 183 OOO 5 400 .094 528 113133. 1 210 . 146 .536 . 339 . 100 20 630 19 000 5 960 85 000 7 000 184 000 3 400 . 106 51 1 123133. 1 248 . 144 .538 . 340 . 108 26 670 19 000 6 050 85 000 7 500 171 000 4 500 . 103 483 134212. 1 081 . 191 .608 .401 . 123 32 920 24 000 16 430 150 000 22 500 1459 000 3 800 . 1 13 441 144212. 1 077 . 190 .606 . 399 . 123 30 420 22 000 19 300 150 000 23 000 144 1 000 4 600 . 124 428 154212. 1 038 . 182 .709 .433 . 143 35 420 19 000 18 890 205 000 20 500 1276 OOO 4 300 . 125 443 164212. 1 104 . 196 .633 .405 . 125 34 170 22 000 20 530 165 000 23 000 1360 000 4 300 . 125 469 175223. 1 076 . 178 .616 .299 . 1 14 42 710 49 000 16 1 10 140 000 15 500 740 000 4 600 .112 409 185223. 1 088 . 168 .564 . 320 . 1 16 37 500 39 000 15 100 135 000 15 000 734 000 4 500 . 120 401 195223. 1 134 . 168 .583 . 325 . 134 36 670 44 000 15 900 125 000 20 OOO 566 000 5 000 ,121 434 205223. 1 154 . 172 .564 . 325 . 141 35 210 34 000 14 370 115 000 18 500 465 000 4 600 . 1 18 421 216234. 1 325 . 160 .536 .312 . 144 32 500 37 000 10 590 85 000 15 000 214 000 5 500 . 103 381 226234 . 1 275 . 160 .498 . 356 . 151 40 000 27 000 10 840 70 000 14 000 221 000 4 800 . 1 14 378 236234. 1 262 . 166 .516 . 329 . 149 27 080 37 000 9 220 85 000 16 500 277 000 5 200 . 120 435 246234. 1 331 . 173 .544 .330 .141 29 790 37 000 12 260 75 000 14 500 212 000 5 500 .115 384 •There is a six numeral code for each study plot. The f i r s t two numerals identify the plot (01-24): the t h i r d numeral i d e n t i f i e s the s i t e (1-6); the fourth numeral i d e n t i f i e s the parent material lithology (1,2), where 1=granitic and 2=volcanic; the f i f t h numeral i d e n t i f i e s the s o i l moisture regime (1-3) where 1=very dry, 2=dry, and 3=fresh; the s i x t h numeral i d e n t i f i e s the s o i l nutrient regime (1-4) where 1=poor, 2=medium, 3=rich, and 4=very r i c h . 194 APPENDIX E ENVIRONMENT TABLES In t h i s a p p e n d i x , s e l e c t e d e n v i r o n m e n t v a r i a b l e s a r e shown i n t a b l e s p r o d u c e d by t h e F405:ENV program (Emanuel, 1 9 8 4 a ) . The code f o r s t u d y p l o t s i s RK0001 - 04, GVD r e p l i c a t e p l o t s ; RK0005 - 8, GD r e p l i c a t e p l o t s ; RK0009 - 12; GF r e p l i c a t e p l o t s ; RK0013 - 16, VVD r e p l i c a t e p l o t s ; RK0017 - 20, VD r e p l i c a t e p l o t s ; RK0021 - 24, VF r e p l i c a t e p l o t s . The f o u r r e p l i c a t e p l o t s were a l l c o n s e c u t i v e l y numbered l e f t t o r i g h t i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l t a b l e s . To u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e t a b l e s , s e v e r a l terms and a b b r e v i a t i o n s must f i r s t be d e f i n e d . These d e f i n i t i o n s a r e as f o l l o w s : 1. SLOPE POSITION: us = u p p e r s l o p e , ms = m i d - s l o p e , Is = l o w e r s l o p e , f l = f l a t 2. HUMUS FORM: r e f e r s t o humus form o r d e r c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o s y s t e m p r o p o s e d by K l i n k a ejt a l . (1981a) where mor = Mor, mod = Moder, mul - M u l l 3. LITHOLOGY AND BASE STATUS: f i e l d a s s e s s m e n t o f p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y and b a s e s t a t u s u s i n g methods d e s c r i b e d i n K l i n k a e_t a l _ . (1984a) where GL = g r a n i t i c l i t h o l o g y , low b a s e s t a t u s , VM = v o l c a n i c l i t h o l o g y , medium ba s e s t a t u s , VH = v o l c a n i c l i t h o l o g y , h i g h b a s e s t a t u s 4. RELATIVE OM CONTENT: f i e l d a s s e s s e m e n t o f m i n e r a l s o i l o r g a n i c m a t t e r c o n t e n t ( K l i n k a e_t a l . , 1984a) where L = low, M = medium, H = h i g h 5. SOIL SUBGROUP: (CSSC, 1978) where HFP = O r t h i c Humo-F e r r i c P o d z o l and CR = O r t h i c C u m u l i c R e g o s o l 6. PARENT MATERIALS: where A = a l l u v i a l , C = c o l l u v i a l , F = f l u v i a l , M = m o r a i n e 7. SOIL TOTAL DEPTH: d e p t h t o r e s t r i c t i n g l a y e r i f f o u n d , 150 was u s e d i f r e s t r i c t i n g l a y e r n o t e n c o u n t e r d 8. ROOTING DEPTH: o b s e r v e d d e p t h from g r o u n d s u r f a c e down t o t h e l e v e l a t w h i c h t h e m a j o r i t y o f r o o t s s t o p p e d 9. COARSE FRAGMENTS > 11 mm: p e r c e n t a g e volume o c c u p i e d by c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s s i e v e d f r o m s o i l p i t u s i n g 11 x 11 mm mesh 10. COARSE FRAGMENTS > 2 mm: p e r c e n t a g e volume o c c u p i e d by c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s i n b u l k d e n s i t y sample ( t h i s would n o t i n c l u d e t h e l a r g e s t c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s o f 9. above) 195 11. COARSE FRAGMENT FREE B.D.: m i n e r a l s o i l b u l k d e n s i t y d e t e r m i n e d as a v e r a g e o f t h r e e 0 - 50 cm d e p t h s a m p l e s ( N u s z d o r f e r , 1981) 12. FOREST FLOOR B.D.: b u l k d e n s i t y o f f o r e s t f l o o r m a t e r i a l s d e t e r m i n e d as a v e r a g e o f t h r e e samples 13. SI (B) : a v e r a g e s i t e i n d e x o f D o u g l a s - f i r on t h e s t u d y p l o t , d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g t h e f o r m u l a s o f B r u c e (1981) 14. SI (H) : a v e r a g e s i t e i n d e x o f D o u g l a s - f i r on t h e s t u d y p l o t , d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g t h e f o r m u l a s o f H e g y i e l b a l . (1979) 196 PLOT RKOO RKOO RKOO RKOO I NUMBER MEAN 13 14 15 16 | ELEVATION (m) 240 240 240 240 SLOPE POSITION . US US US US ASPECT 320 320 320 320 SLOPE GRADIENT (%) 35 40 30 30 HUMUS FORM MOR MOR MOR MOR FOREST FLOOR DEPTH (cm) 4 .02 3 . 8 3.0 4 . 5 4 . 8 LITHOLOGY AND BASE STATUS VH VH VH VH RELATIVE OM CONTENT M M M M SOIL SUBGROUP HFP HFP HFP HFP PARENT MATERIAL M M M M SOIL TOTAL DEPTH (cm) 43 .0 41 . 41 . 48 . 42 . ROOTING DEPTH (cm) 43 .0 41 . 41 . 48 . 42 . COARSE FRAGMENTS > 11 mm (%) 14.8 14 . 22. 1 1 . 12 . COARSE FRAGMENTS > 2 mm (%) 31.5 27 . 39. 27 . 33 . COARSE FRAGMENT FREE B . D . ( g / c c ) 0 .6420 . 682 .547 . 726 .613 FOREST FLOOR B.D. ( g / c c ) 0. 1560 . 175 . 169 . 157 . 123 AGE ( y r s ) 67 . 8 69 . 70. 66 . 66 . SI (B) (m/50 y r s ) 22 . 20 22 .O 20.6 23. 2 23 .0 SI (H) (m/50 y r s ) 25. 10 24 . 9 23.4 26 . 2 25 .9 PLOT RKOO RKOO RKOO RKOO I NUMBER MEAN 17 18 19 20 I ELEVATION (m) 220 220 225 225 SLOPE POSITION MS MS MS MS ASPECT 220 220 210 210 SLOPE GRADIENT (%) 25 25 25 25 HUMUS FORM MOD MOD MOD MOD FOREST FLOOR DEPTH (cm) 3 . 10 3.0 3 . 1 3.5 2 . 8 LITHOLOGY AND BASE STATUS VM VM VM VM RELATIVE OM CONTENT M M M M SOIL SUBGROUP HFP HFP HFP HFP PARENT MATERIAL CA CA CA CA SOIL TOTAL DEPTH (cm) 150.0 150. 150. 150. 150. ROOTING DEPTH (cm) 93 . 8 90. 85 . 105 . 95 . COARSE FRAGMENTS > 11 mm (%) 40 .0 34 . 44 . 39 . 43 . COARSE FRAGMENTS > 2 mm (%) 51.8 44 . 48 . 58 . 57 . COARSE FRAGMENT FREE B . D . ( g / c c ) 0.5085 . 585 . 589 .514 . 346 FOREST FLOOR B.D. ( g / c c ) 0.1362 .112 .131 . 150 . 152 AGE ( y r s ) 61 .0 62 . 6 1 . 62 . 59 . SI (B) (m/50 y r s ) 35 . 13 33 . 3 35. 1 34.6 37 . 5 SI (H) (m/50 y r s ) 38 .60 36 . 7 38.6 38 . 1 41 .0 PLOT RKOO RKOO RKOO RKOO I NUMBER MEAN 21 22 23 24 | ELEVATION (m) 200 200 200 200 SLOPE POSITION FL FL FL FL ASPECT 200 200 200 200 SLOPE GRADIENT (%) 2 2 2 2 HUMUS FORM MUL MUL MUL MUL FOREST FLOOR DEPTH (cm) 1.15 0.9 1 . 5 0.7 1 . 5 LITHOLOGY AND BASE STATUS VM VM VM VM RELATIVE OM CONTENT H H H H SOIL SUBGROUP CR CR CR CR PARENT MATERIAL A A A A SOIL TOTAL DEPTH (cm) 150.0 150. 150. 150. 150. ROOTING DEPTH (cm) 97 . 5 100. 100. 100. 90. COARSE FRAGMENTS > 11 mm (%) 23 . 3 29 . 25. 18 . 21 . COARSE FRAGMENTS > 2 mm (%) 48 . 5 50. 49 . 43. 52 . COARSE FRAGMENT FREE B . D . ( g / c c ) 0.8177 . 837 . 795 .683 .956 FOREST FLOOR B.D. ( g / c c ) 0 .1000 . 100 . 100 . 100 . 100 AGE ( y r s ) 67 .0 68 . 66 . 67 . 67. SI (B) (m/50 y r s ) 39 . 10 39 . 2 38 . 4 38 . 3 40. 5 SI (H) (m/50 y r s ) 42 .60 42.7 41.9 41.8 44 .0 197 P L O T RKOO RKOO RKOO RKOO NUMBER MEAN 01 0 2 0 3 0 4 E L E V A T I O N (m) 4 4 0 4 4 0 4 4 0 4 4 0 S L O P E P O S I T I O N US US US US A S P E C T 2 5 0 2 6 0 2 6 0 2 6 0 S L O P E G R A D I E N T (%) 15 10 15 15 HUMUS FORM MOR MOR MOR MOR F O R E S T FLOOR D E P T H ( c m ) 3 . 6 3 3 . 8 4 . 1 3 . 2 3 . 4 L I T H O L O G Y AND B A S E S T A T U S GL GL GL GL R E L A T I V E OM C O N T E N T L L L L S O I L SUBGROUP HFP HFP HFP HFP P A R E N T M A T E R I A L M M M M S O I L T O T A L D E P T H ( c m ) 6 2 . 3 4 0 . 4 9 . 7 0 . 9 0 . R O O T I N G D E P T H ( c m ) 54 . 8 4 0 . 49 . 55 . 75 . C O A R S E F R A G M E N T S > 11 mm (%) 27 . 0 24 . 31 . 25 . 28 . C O A R S E F R A G M E N T S > 2 mm (%) 48 . 0 47 . 4 2 . 51 . 52 . C O A R S E FRAGMENT F R E E B . D . ( g / c c ) 0 . 6 0 2 0 . 5 3 6 . 5 8 0 . 6 2 0 . 6 7 2 F O R E S T FLOOR B . D . ( g / c c ) 0 . 1 0 4 0 . 1 2 1 . 0 7 2 . 1 19 . 104 AGE ( y r s ) 34 . 3 35 . 34 . 33 . 35 . S I ( B ) ( m / 5 0 y r s ) 17 . 77 1 7 . 6 1 8 . 0 1 8 . 6 1 6 . 9 S I ( H ) ( m / 5 0 y r s ) 2 0 . 27 2 0 . 1 2 0 . 5 2 1 . 2 1 9 . 3 P L O T RKOO RKOO RKOO RKOO NUMBER MEAN 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 E L E V A T I O N (m) 3 9 0 3 9 0 3 9 0 3 9 5 S L O P E P O S I T I O N MS MS MS MS A S P E C T 4 0 3 0 5 0 5 0 S L O P E G R A D I E N T (%) 3 0 35 45 45 HUMUS FORM MOR MOR MOR MOR F O R E S T F L O O R D E P T H ( c m ) 3 . 4 5 4 . 4 2 . 9 3 , 2 3 . 3 L I T H O L O G Y AND B A S E S T A T U S GL GL GL GL R E L A T I V E OM C O N T E N T L H M M S O I L SUBGROUP HFP HFP H F P H F P P A R E N T M A T E R I A L M M M M S O I L T O T A L D E P T H ( c m ) 9 8 . 8 6 5 . 1 0 0 . • 1 1 0 . 1 2 0 . R O O T I N G D E P T H ( c m ) 8 7 . 5 5 0 . 9 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 1 0 . C O A R S E F R A G M E N T S > 11 mm (%) 1 6 . 3 27 . . 14 . 1 0 . 14 . C O A R S E F R A G M E N T S > 2 mm (%) 3 5 . 8 45 . 26 . 3 0 . 42 . C O A R S E F R A G M E N T F R E E B . D . ( g / c c ) 0 . 5 2 1 2 . 4 3 3 . 5 4 0 . 5 6 6 . 5 4 6 F O R E S T FLOOR B . D . ( g / c c ) 0 . 1 1 1 2 . 124 . 124 . 102 . 0 9 5 AGE ( y r s ) 34 . 5 3 5 . 33 . 35 . 35 . S I ( B ) ( m / 5 0 y r s ) 2 6 . 4 0 2 6 . 8 27 . 1 24 . 5 27 . 2 S I ( H ) ( m / 5 0 y r s ) 2 9 . 5 5 3 0 . 0 3 0 . 3 27 . 5 3 0 . 4 P L O T RKOO RKOO RKOO RKOO NUMBER MEAN 0 9 10 1 1 12 E L E V A T I O N (m) 3 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 S L O P E P O S I T I O N L S LS LS LS A S P E C T 3 5 0 3 5 0 3 4 0 3 4 0 S L O P E G R A D I E N T (%) 5 5 5 5 HUMUS FORM MOO MOO MOD MOD F O R E S T FLOOR D E P T H ( c m ) 2 . 27 2 . 2 2 . 4 2 . 7 1 . 8 L I T H O L O G Y AND B A S E S T A T U S GL GL GL GL R E L A T I V E OM C O N T E N T M M M M S O I L SUBGROUP HFP HFP HFP HFP P A R E N T M A T E R I A L F F F F S O I L T O T A L D E P T H ( c m ) 1 5 0 . 0 1 5 0 . 1 5 0 . 1 5 0 . 1 5 0 . R O O T I N G D E P T H ( c m ) 8 8 . 8 1 1 0 . 8 0 . 9 0 . 75 . C O A R S E F R A G M E N T S > 11 mm (%) 1 8 . 5 17 . 19 . 1 3 . 2 5 . C O A R S E F R A G M E N T S > 2 mm (%) 3 1 . 3 4 0 . 32 . 32 . 21 . C O A R S E F R A G M E N T F R E E B . D . ( g / c c ) 0 . 7 2 1 5 . 8 3 6 . 6 3 4 . 6 7 1 . 7 4 5 F O R E S T FLOOR B . D . ( g / c c ) 0 . 1 2 3 2 . 126 . 1 10 . 127 . 130 A G E ( y r s ) 3 2 . 8 33 . 33 . 33 . 32 . S I ( B ) ( m / 5 0 y r s ) 32 . 13 3 0 . 2 3 1 . 3 34 . 3 32 . 7 S I ( H ) ( m / 5 0 y r s ) 35 . 5 2 33 . 5 34 . 7 37 . 8 36 . 1 198 APPENDIX F DESCRIPTION OF REPRESENTATIVE SOILS FROM STUDY SITES S t u d y s i t e : GVD4 ( s i t e 1, r e p . p l o t 4) E l e v a t i o n : 440 m P a r e n t m a t e r i a l : g r a v e l l y sandy loam A s p e c t : 250° g r a n i t i c / v o l c a n i c t i l l L a n d f o r m : m o r a i n a l v e n e e r C l a s s i f i c a t i o n : O r t h i c H u m o - F e r r i c p o d z o l 3.5 - 3.0 Lv l o o s e m i x t u r e o f c o n i f e r o u s and s a l a l l i t t e r ; a b r u p t , smooth bou n d a r y ; 3.0 - 0 Fq v a r i e g a t e d ; compact m a t t e d ; few c o a r s e r o o t s ; a b r u p t , smooth b o u n d a r y ; 0 - 4 Ae l i g h t g r a y (2.5 Y 7/0 d) g r a v e l l y , loamy s a n d ; s t r u c t u r e l e s s , s i n g l e g r a i n e d , v e r y f r i a b l e when m o i s t ; few c o a r s e r o o t s ; c l e a r , smooth b o u n d a r y ; 4 - 13 B f l p a l e y e l l o w (2.5 Y 7/4 d) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; m o d e r a t e , medium s u b a n g u l a r b l o c k y ; v e r y f r i a b l e when m o i s t ; common, f i n e , s p h e r o i d , r e d (2.5 YR 5/6 m) c o n c r e t i o n s , few f i n e r o o t s , v e r y few medium r o o t s ; c l e a r , smooth b o u n d a r y ; 13 - 92 B f 2 w h i t e (2.5 Y 8/2 d) g r a v e l l y sandy loam; m o d e r a t e , medium s u b a n g u l a r b l o c k y ; v e r y f r i a b l e when m o i s t ; common, f i n e , p r o m i n e n t , y e l l o w i s h r e d (5 YR 5/8 m) m o t t l e s ; p l e n t i f u l medium, few f i n e r o o t s , a b r u p t , smooth b o u n d a r y ; 92+ l i t h i c c o n t a c t . 199 S t udy s i t e : GDI, ( s i t e 2, r e p p l o t 1) E l e v a t i o n : 390 m P a r e n t m a t e r i a l : g r a v e l l y sandy loam A s p e c t : 40° g r a n i t i c / v o l c a n i c t i l l L a n d f o r m : m o r a i n e o v e r b a s a l t i l l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n : O r t h i c H u m o - F e r r i c p o d z o l 5 - 4 Lv l o o s e c o n i f e r o u s l i t t e r ; a b r u p t , smooth b o u n d a r y ; 4 - 3 Fq v a r i e g a t e d ; compact m a t t e d ; few f i n e r o o t s ; a b r u p t , smooth bou n d a r y ; 3 - 0 Hd b l a c k (7.5 YR 2/0 m) ; s t r u c t u r e l e s s ; few f i n e r o o t s , v e r y few medium r o o t s ; c l e a r , smooth b o u n d a r y ; 0 - 3 Ae l i g h t g r e y (7.5 YR 7/2 d) ; loamy sa n d ; s t r u c t u r e l e s s , s i n g l e g r a i n e d , v e r y f r i a b l e when m o i s t ; v e r y few medium r o o t s ; c l e a r , smooth b o u n d a r y ; 3 - 38 B f l b r o w n i s h y e l l o w (10 YR 6/6 d) ; g r a v e l l y , loamy s a n d ; s t r u c t u r e l e s s , s i n g l e g r a i n e d ; v e r y f r i a b l e when m o i s t ; v e r y few c o a r s e , v e r y few f i n e r o o t s ; c l e a r , smooth b o u n d a r y ; 38 - 69 Bf2 l i g h t g r e y (2.5 YR 7/2 d ) ; g r a v e l l y , loamy s a n d ; s t r u c t u r e l e s s , s i n g l e g r a i n e d ; v e r y f r i a b l e when m o i s t ; common, f i n e , s p h e r i o d a l , r e d (2.5 YR 5/6 m) c o n c r e t i o n s ; few, medium r o o t s ; c l e a r , wavy b o u n d a r y ; 69+ I I C b r o w n i s h y e l l o w (10 YR 6/6 d) ; g r a v e l l y loamy s a n d ; s t r u c t u r e l e s s , m a s s i v e ; e x t r e m e l y f i r m when m o i s t ; many, medium, p r o m i n e n t , r e d d i s h y e l l o w (7.5 YR 6/6 m) m o t t l e s . 200 Study s i t e : GD2 ( s i t e 2, r e p . p l o t 2) E l e v a t i o n : 390 m o P a r e n t m a t e r i a l : g r a v e l l y sandy loam A s p e c t : 30 g r a n i t i c / v o l c a n i c t i l l L a n d f o r m : m o r a i n e o v e r b a s a l t i l l S l o p e : 35% C l a s s i f i c a t i o n : ( d i s t u r b e d ) H u m o - F e r r i c P o d z o l 2.5 - 2.0 Lv l o o s e c o n i f e r o u s l i t t e r ; a b r u p t , smooth b o u n d a r y ; 2.0 - 0 Fq v a r i e g a t e d ; compact m a t t e d ; v e r y few f i n e r o o t s ; a b r u p t , i r r e g u l a r b o u n d a r y ; 0 - 44 Bmu v e r y p a l e brown (10 YR 7/4 d) ; loam; weak, medium g r a n u l a r ; e x t r e m e l y f r i a b l e when m o i s t ; few f i n e , few c o a r s e r o o t s ; a b r u p t , smooth b o u n d a r y ; 44 - 58 Hdb d a r k r e d d i s h brown (2.5 YR 2.5/4 m); b u r i e d o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l , s t r u c t u r e l e s s ; few f i n e r o o t s ; a b r u p t , smooth bou n d a r y ; 58 - 59 A e j b l i g h t g r e y (2.5 Y 7/0 m); sandy loam; s t r u c t u r e l e s s , s i n g l e g r a i n e d ; l o o s e when m o i s t ; no r o o t s ; a b r u p t , smooth b o u n d a r y ; 59 - 125 BfB b r o w n i s h y e l l o w (10 YR 6/6 d) ; g r a v e l l y , sandy loam; weak, c o a r s e s u b a n g u l a r b l o c k y ; v e r y f r i a b l e when m o i s t ; few f i n e , few c o a r s e r o o t s ; c l e a r , wavy b o u n d a r y ; 125 - 166+ BCb l i g h t b r o w n i s h g r e y (2.7 Y 6/2 m); g r a v e l l y , loamy san d ; s t r o n g s u b a n g u l a r b l o c k y ; v e r y f i r m when m o i s t ; common, f i n e , p r o m i n e n t , y e l l o w i s h r e d (5 YR 5/8 m) m o t t l e s ; v e r y few f i n e r o o t s . 201 Study s i t e : GD3 ( s i t e 2, r e p . p l o t 3) E l e v a t i o n : 390 m P a r e n t m a t e r i a l : g r a v e l l y sandy loam A s p e c t : 50° g r a n i t i c / v o l c a n i c t i l l L a n d f o r m : m o r a i n e o v e r b a s a l t i l l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n : O r t h i c H u m o - F e r r i c P o d z o l 3.5 - 2.5 Lv l o o s e c o n i f e r o u s l i t t e r ; a b r u p t , smooth b o u n d a r y ; 2.4 - 0.5 Fq v a r i e g a t e d ; compact m a t t e d ; v e r y few r o o t s ; a b r u p t , smooth b o u n d a r y ; 0.5 - 0 Hdi v a r i e g a t e d ; s t r u c t u r e l e s s ; i n o r g a n i c i n c l u s i o n s ; v e r y few f i n e r o o t s ; a b r u p t , smooth b o u n d a r y ; 0 - 23 Bmu y e l l o w i s h brown (10 YR 5/4 d) ; g r a v e l l y , s andy loam; weak, medium g r a n u l a r ; v e r y f r i a b l e when m o i s t ; p l e n t i f u l f i n e , p l e n t i f u l medium r o o t s ; g r a d u a l , smooth b o u n d a r y ; 23 - 78 Bf r e d d i s h y e l l o w (7.5 YR 6/6 d ) ; g r a v e l l y , s andy loam; weak, s u b a n g u l a r b l o c k y ; l o o s e when m o i s t ; common, f i n e , s p h e r o i d a l , s t r o n g brown (7.5 YR 5/8 m) c o n c r e t i o n s ; p l e n t i f u l c o a r s e , p l e n t i f u l f i n e r o o t s ; g r a d u a l , smooth b o u n d a r y ; 78 - 100 BC v e r y p a l e brown (10 YR 7/4 d ) ; g r a v e l l y , sandy loam; m a s s i v e ; v e r y f i r m when m o i s t ; common, medium, p r o m i n e n t , s t r o n g brown (5 YR 5/8 m) c o n c r e t i o n s ; p l e n t i f u l c o a r s e ; p l e n t i f u l f i n e r o o t s ; g r a d u a l , smooth b o u n d a r y ; 100+ I I C g r a y i s h brown (2.5 Y 5/2 m); g r a v e l l y , sandy loam; m a s s i v e ; e x t r e m e l y f i r m when m o i s t ; many, c o a r s e , p r o m i n e n t , dusky r e d (2.5 YR 3/2 m) m o t t l e s ; no r o o t s . 202 Study s i t e : G F l , ( s i t e 3, r e p . p l o t 1) E l e v a t i o n : 300 m o P a r e n t m a t e r i a l : g r a v e l l y s a n d t o loam A s p e c t : 350 g r a n i t i c / v o l c a n i c g l a c i o f l u v i a l d e p o s i t s L a n d f o r m : g l a c i o f l u v i a l t e r r a c e S l o p e : 5% C l a s s i f i c a t i o n : O r t h i c H u m o - F e r r i c P o d z o l 1 - 0 Fa v a r i e g a t e d ; compact m a t t e d and g r a n u l a r ; a b r u p t , smooth b o u n d a r y ; 0 - 38 B f l d a r k brown (7.5 YR 4/4 m) ; loam; weak, m o d e r a t e s u b a n g u l a r b l o c k y ; v e r y f r i a b l e when m o i s t ; p l e n t i f u l f i n e , few c o a r s e r o o t s ; a b r u p t , smooth b o u n d a r y ; 38 - 57 Bf2 r e d (2.5 YR 5/8 m) ; loam; m o d e r a t e , c o a r s e s u b a n g u l a r b l o c k y ; f r i a b l e when m o i s t ; p l e n t i f u l medium, few f i n e r o o t s ; c l e a r , wavy boun d a r y ; 57 - 77 Bf3 y e l l o w i s h r e d (5 YR 5/6 m); g r a v e l l y , loamy s a n d ; s t r u c t u r e l e s s , s i n g l e g r a i n e d ; l o o s e when m o i s t ; v e r y few medium r o o t s ; c l e a r , i r r e g u l a r b o u n d a r y ; 77 - 108 Bf4 y e l l o w i s h r e d (5 YR 4/6 m); loamy; medium, m o d e r a t e c o a r s e s u b a n g u l a r b l o c k y ; f r i a b l e when m o i s t ; few, medium r o o t s ; g r a d u a l , b r o k e n b o u n d a r y ; 77 - 108 Bf4 d a r k y e l l o w i s h brown (10 YR 4/6 m); g r a v e l l y s a n d ; s t r u c t u r e l e s s , s i n g l e g r a i n e d ; l o o s e when m o i s t ; no r o o t s ; c l e a r , b r o k e n b o u n d a r y ( o c c u r s as i n c l u s i o n s w i t h i n loamy m a t r i x ) . 203 Study s i t e : VVD4 ( s i t e 4, r e p . p l o t 4) E l e v a t i o n : 240 m P a r e n t m a t e r i a l : g r a v e l l y sandy loam A s p e c t : 320° v o l c a n i c t i l l L a n d f o r m : m o r a i n a l v e n e e r S l o p e : 30% C l a s s i f i c a t i o n : O r t h i c H u m o - F e r r i c P o d z o l 4.5 - 4.0 Lv l o o s e , m a i n l y c o n i f e r o u s l i t t e r ; a b r u p t , smooth b o u n d a r y ; 4.0 - 3.0 Fq v a r i e g a t e d ; compact m a t t e d ; v e r y few f i n e r o o t s ; a b r u p t , smooth b o u n d a r y ; 3.0 - 0 Hd b l a c k (10 YR 1/0); s t r u c t u r e l e s s ; few f i n e r o o t s ; a b r u p t , smooth b o u n d a r y ; 0 - 0.5 Aej g r e y (10 YR 6/1 d) ; sandy loam; s t r u c t u r e l e s s , s i n g l e g r a i n e d ; v e r y few f i n e r o o t s ; a b r u p t , b r o k e n b o u n d a r y ; 0.5 - 45 Bf s t r o n g brown (7.5 YR 5/6 d ) ; g r a v e l l y loam; weak t o m o d e r a t e , m o d e r a t e l y c o a r s e s u b a n g u l a r b l o c k y ; few, f i n e , s p h e r o i d a l , y e l l o w i s h r e d (5 YR 4/6 m) c o n c r e t i o n s ; few f i n e r o o t s ; a b r u p t , wavy b o u n d a r y ; 45 + l i t h i c c o n t a c t . 204 Study s i t e : VD3, ( s i t e 5, r e p . p l o t 3) E l e v a t i o n : 225 m P a r e n t m a t e r i a l : g r a v e l l y sandy loam t o loam A s p e c t : 210° v o l c a n i c c o l l u v i u m / a l l u v i u m L a n d f o r m : c o l l u v i a l and a l l u v i a l d e p o s i t s S l o p e : 25% C l a s s i f i c a t i o n : O r t h i c H u m o - F e r r i c P o d z o l 4 - 3 Lv v a r i e g a t e d ; moss and c o n i f e r o u s l i t t e r ; a b r u p t , wavy b o u n d a r y ; 3 - 0 Hd b l a c k (10 YR 2/1 m); s t r u c t u r e l e s s ; few f i n e r o o t s ; a b r u p t , smooth b o u n d a r y ; 0 - 1 0 B f l v e r y p a l e brown (10 YR 7/4 d ) ; g r a v e l l y sandy loam; m o d e r a t e , medium s u b a n g u l a r b l o c k y and mo d e r a t e t o s t r o n g medium g r a n u l a r ; v e r y f r i a b l e when m o i s t ; few f i n e r o o t s ; c l e a r , smooth b o u n d a r y 10 - 38 Bf2 v e r y p a l e brown (10 YR 7/4 d) ; g r a v e l l y sandy loam; weak, medium s u b a n g u l a r b l o c k y ; v e r y f r i a b l e when m o i s t ; few f i n e and few medium r o o t s ; a b r u p t , smooth b o u n d a r y ; 38 - 74 B f 3 r e d d i s h y e l l o w (7.5 YR 6/6 d) ; g r a v e l l y sandy loam; weak t o m o d e r a t e , medium s u b a n g u l a r b l o c k y ; f r i a b l e when m o i s t ; few medium and v e r y few f i n e r o o t s ; c l e a r , i r r e g u l a r b o u n d a r y ; 74 - 100+ Bm l i g h t y e l l o w i s h brown (2.5 Y 6/4 m) ; g r a v e l l y s a n d ; s t r u c t u r e l e s s , s i n g l e g r a i n e d ; l o o s e when m o i s t ; common, medium, p r o m i n e n t s t r o n g brown (7.5 YR 5/8 m) m o t t l e s ; v e r y few f i n e r o o t s . 205 S tudy s i t e : VF1 ( s i t e 6, r e p . p l o t 1) P a r e n t m a t e r i a l : g r a v e l l y s a n d t o loam a l l u v i a l d e p o s i t s L a n d f o r m : a l l u v i a l f a n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n : O r t h i c C u m u l i c R e g o s o l E l e v a t i o n : 200 m A s p e c t : 200° S l o p e : 2% 1 - 0 0 - 6 Lv Ah 6 - 1 3 Bm 13 66 H C b 66 - 138 v a r i e g a t e d ; c o n i f e r o u s and l i t t e r ; a b r u p t , b r o k e n b o u n d a r y ; h e r b a c e o u s 138 - 140 140+ d a r k g r a y i s h brown (10 YR 4/2 d) ; loam; weak, m o d e r a t e s u b a n g u l a r b l o c k y , and s t r o n g , v e r y c o a r s e g r a n u l a r ; f r i a b l e when m o i s t ; i n c l u s i o n s o f c h a r c o a l and dead wood; p l e n t i f u l f i n e r o o t s ; a b r u p t , i r r e g u l a r b o u n d a r y ; l i g h t y e l l o w i s h brown (10 YR 6/4 d ) ; loam; weak, m o d e r a t e s u b a n g u l a r b l o c k y , and m o d e r a t e t o s t r o n g , c o a r s e g r a n u l a r ; f r i a b l e when m o i s t ; few f i n e r o o t s ; a b r u p t , smooth b o u n d a r y ; brown (10 YR 4/3 m) ; g r a v e l l y , loamy sa n d ; s t r u c t u r e l e s s , s i n g l e g r a i n e d ; l o o s e when m o i s t ; i n c l u d e d l e n s e s o f sandy loam i n m a t r i x ; few f i n e , few c o a r s e r o o t s ; g r a d u a l , smooth b o u n d a r y ; I H C b g r a y i s h brown (10 YR 5/2 m) : g r a v e l l y s a n d ; s t r u c t u r e l e s s , s i n g l e g r a i n e d ; l o o s e when m o i s t ; v e r y few f i n e r o o t s ; a b r u p t , smooth b o u n d a r y ; IVAhjb d a r k brown (7.5 YR 3/2 m) ; g r a v e l l y loam; s t r u c t u r e l e s s , s i n g l e g r a i n e d ; v e r y f r i a b l e when m o i s t ; c h a r c o a l i n c l u s i o n s ; few medium r o o t s ; a b r u p t , smooth b o u n d a r y ; IVCb g r a y i s h brown (10 YR 5/2 m); g r a v e l l y sand; s t r u c t u r e l e s s , s i n g l e g r a i n e d ; l o o s e when m o i s t ; no r o o t s . 206 APPENDIX G  CONVERSION FROM CONCENTRATION TO KG/HA To c o n v e r t t h e q u a n t i t y o f n u t r i e n t "n" f r o m c o n c e n t r a t i o n (ppm, %, o r m.e. p e r 100 g) t o w e i g h t on an a r e a l b a s i s (kg h a - 1 ) f o r a g i v e n s o i l l a y e r , t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e was u s e d . T h i s p r o c e d u r e was m o d i f i e d f r o m L e w i s (1976) by Roy ( 1 9 8 4 ) . 1. C a l c u l a t e t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s o i l f i n e (<2 mm) f r a c t i o n ( f ) w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f n u t r i e n t "n" ( P ) : a) f o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n g i v e n i n ppm -P = ppm n x 10-6 kg o f n mg o f n 1 kg kg o f s o i l f kg o f s o i l f 106 mg b) f o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n g i v e n i n % -P = (%n) x l O " 2 kg o f n (kg o f n 102) l x kg o f s o i l f kg o f s o i l f 1 0 2 c) f o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n g i v e n i n m.e. p e r 100 g -m.e. o f n e q u i v a l e n t x 1 0 3 x w e i g h t x 1 0 ~ 6 1 0 2 g o f s o i l f kg o f n m.e. o f n 1 0 3 g mg n 1 kg x x kg o f s o i l f 1 0 2 g o f s o i l f 1 kg m.e. n 1 0 6 mg (= m.e. o f n e q u i v a l e n t w e i g h t x 1 0 - 5 ) 207 2. C a l c u l a t e t h e w e i g h t o f s o i l f i n e (<2 mm) f r a c t i o n ( f ) on an a r e a l b a s i s f o r t h e same s o i l l a y e r ( C F ) : CF = A x B x C x T H Mf l a y e r — x 1 0 - 3 x 1 0 8 x t h i c k n e s s V t kg o f s o i l f g o f s o i l f 1 kg 1 0 8 c m 2 = x x x cm ha cm 3 o f s o i l 1 0 3 g 1 ha where A i s t h e w e i g h t o f t h e s o i l f i n e f r a c t i o n (Mf) p e r u n i t volume o f whole s o i l ( V t ) B c o n v e r t s A f r o m g o f s o i l f x c m - 3 t o kg o f s o i l f x c m - 3 C c o n v e r t s t h e r e s u l t s o f (A x B) f r o m kg o f s o i l f x era" t o kg o f s o i l f x cm--'- x h a - l TH c o n v e r t s t h e r e s u l t s o f (A x B x C) f r o m kg o f s o i l f x cm~"l x h a - l t o kg o f s o i l f x h a - l 3. C a l c u l a t e t h e w e i g h t o f n u t r i e n t "n" i n t h a t s o i l l a y e r ( N ) : N = P x CF kg o f n kg o f n kg o f s o i l f = x ha kg o f s o i l f ha where P i s t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s o i l f i n e (<2 mm) f r a c t i o n ( f ) w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f n u t r i e n t "n" ( s e e i t e m 1 a b o v e ) C F . i s t h e c o n v e r s i o n f a c t o r w h i c h c o n v e r t s t h i s p r o p o r t i o n t o kg o f n x h a - 1 ( s e e i t e m 2 above) 208 APPENDIX H FOREST FLOOR AND MINERAL SOIL ANALYTICAL DATA F o r e s t f l o o r and m i n e r a l s o i l a n a l y t i c a l d a t a a r e g i v e n i n t h i s a p p e n d i x . The c o d e s u s e d a r e as f o l l o w s : 1. T a b l e s H - l , and H-2 f o r v a r i a b i l i t y p l o t w i t h i n e a c h s i t e , have a t h r e e n u m e r a l code; t h e f i r s t n u m e r a l i d e n t i f i e s t h e s i t e (1 t o 6 ) ; t h e s e c o n d and t h i r d n u m e r a l s i d e n t i f y t h e sample w i t h i n t h e p l o t (01 t o 15) 2. T a b l e s H-3 t o H-4 f o r t h e t h r e e c o m p o s i t e s a m p l e s w i t h i n e a c h p l o t , have a f o u r n u m e r a l code; t h e f i r s t two n u m e r a l s i d e n t i f y t h e p l o t (01 t o 2 4 ) ; t h e t h i r d n u m e r a l i d e n t i f i e s t h e s i t e (1 t o 6 ) ; and t h e f o u r t h n u m e r a l i d e n t i f i e s t h e s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e (1 t o 4 ) , where 1 = p o o r , 2 = medium, 3 = r i c h , 4 = v e r y r i c h 3. T a b l e s H-5 t o H-7 f o r t h e p l o t mean v a l u e s have s i x n u m e r a l c o d e s , t h e f i r s t two n u m e r a l s i d e n t i f y t h e p l o t (01 t o 2 4 ) ; t h e t h i r d n u m e r a l i d e n t i f i e s t h e s i t e (1 t o 6 ) ; t h e f o u r t h n u m e r a l i d e n t i f i e s t h e p a r e n t m a t e r i a l l i t h o l o g y (1 o r 2 ) , where 1 = g r a n i t i c and 2 = v o l c a n i c ; t h e f i f t h n u m e r a l i d e n t i f i e s t h e s o i l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e (1 t o 3) where 1 = v e r y d r y , 2 = d r y , and 3 = f r e s h ; t h e s i x t h n u m e r a l i d e n t i f i e s t h e s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e (1 t o 4 ) , where 1 = p o o r , 2 = medium, 3 = r i c h , 4 = v e r y r i c h INDEX H - l F o r e s t f l o o r v a r i a b i l i t y d a t a 209 H-2 M i n e r a l s o i l v a r i a b i l i t y d a t a 211 H-3 F o r e s t f l o o r c o m p o s i t e sample w i t h i n p l o t d a t a 213 H-4 M i n e r a l s o i l c o m p o s i t e sample w i t h i n p l o t d a t a 214 H-5 F o r e s t f l o o r p l o t mean d a t a 215 H-6 M i n e r a l s o i l p l o t mean d a t a 216 H-7 F o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m i n e r a l s o i l p l o t mean d a t a 217 T a b l e H - 1 . F o r e s t f l o o r v a r i a b i l i t y d a t a Code pH H20 TN % 101 . 102. 103 . 104. 105 . 106. 107. • 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 1 14. 1 15. 201 . 202. 203. 204. 205 . 206. 207. 208 . 209 . 210. 211 . 212. 213. 214. 215. 301 . 302 . 303. 304. 305 . 306. 307. 308. 309. 310. 311 . 312. 313. 314. 315. 401 . 402. 403 . 404 . 405. 406. 407 . 408. 4 5 . 5 3 0 4 3 . 0 5 0 4 3 . 0 3 0 3 6 . 1 5 0 4 1 . 5 4 0 ' 3 9 . 0 8 0 3 8 . 7 4 0 4 1 . 6 4 0 4 2 . 7 8 0 41 .840 3 8 . 8 8 0 4 1 . 3 6 0 4 2 . 3 5 0 3 9 . 4 6 0 4 4 . 1 9 0 4 3 . 1 4 0 4 0 . 3 5 0 3 9 . 6 4 0 3 2 . 3 6 0 3 3 . 1 9 0 3 7 . 6 0 0 3 6 . 1 6 0 3 9 . 3 8 0 4 0 . 5 0 0 3 8 . 3 3 0 3 2 . 1 0 0 3 8 . 2 4 0 3 6 . 1 4 0 3 7 . 2 9 0 3 4 . 5 1 0 4 4 . 4 3 0 4 2 . 0 3 0 4 5 . 5 6 0 4 4 . 4 4 0 4 9 . 4 9 0 4 6 . 6 2 0 4 8 . 2 5 0 2 7 . 4 4 0 4 2 . 7 1 0 4 3 . 7 7 0 4 3 . 4 3 0 4 3 . 3 7 0 4 6 . 0 2 0 4 0 . 5 2 0 41 .280 4 3 . 3 5 0 4 3 . 0 9 0 4 1 . 2 0 0 3 8 . 9 1 0 3 9 . 2 8 0 4 1 . 2 9 0 3 2 . 0 1 0 4 1 . 8 1 0 1 . 194 .967 1 .07 1 1 .082 .911 1 .006 .94 1 .94 1 .998 .876 .933 1 . 162 .990 .914 .991 1 . 40B 1 .204 1 .050 1 .040 1 .063 1 .083 1 .026 1 .075 1 . 123 1 .278 1 .067 1 . 145 1 .358 1 . 146 1 .080 1 .361 1 . 568 1 .285 1 . 129 1.161 1 .390 1 . 448 1 . 162 1 .536 1 . 536 1 . 142 1 .673 1 .624 1 .318 1 .318 1 . 302 1 .322 1 . 107 1 . 126 1 . 166 1 .213 .95 1 1 .096 minN ppm 2 1 6 . 5 8 0 183 .570 3 0 0 . 6 8 0 119 .170 172 .570 194 .800 2 2 5 . 5 1 0 2 6 4 . 1 9 0 2 8 4 . 5 3 0 178 .530 182 .660 2 2 2 . 9 9 0 182 .200 193 .660 2 3 3 . 7 6 0 3 0 3 . 7 9 0 2 7 0 . 3 9 0 2 5 6 . 6 7 0 391 .410 2 8 5 . 2 6 0 2 5 2 . 5 5 0 2 7 7 . 0 3 0 3 0 6 . 3 1 0 2 3 7 . 6 8 0 3 6 7 . 8 5 0 4 1 7 . 7 2 0 2 9 1 . 4 4 0 2 5 9 . 6 4 0 6 1 0 . 3 3 0 5 9 1 . 8 0 0 5 8 0 . 6 2 0 7 0 5 . 3 0 0 2 8 2 . 8 7 0 2 0 2 . 8 4 0 2 2 5 . 1 8 0 2 8 4 . 7 3 0 3 6 8 . 4 7 0 3 0 3 . 3 4 0 8 1 3 . 2 4 0 4 0 9 . 4 10 2 6 6 . 1 2 0 6 2 1 . 5 6 0 3 8 1 . 5 0 0 7 5 7 . 4 1 0 4 8 7 . 5 7 0 3 6 3 . 8 0 0 2 5 6 . 6 9 0 3 8 0 . 4 2 0 4 0 0 . 7 4 0 5 8 7 . 2 6 0 4 3 9 . 5 2 0 3 5 8 . 2 6 0 4 2 6 . 5 9 0 TS TP exMg - ppm CEC exMn meq/IOOg ppm TMg TK % — . 228 . 131 . 1 16 . 101 . 139 . 147 . 131 . 133 . 158 . 113 . 110 . 138 . 123 . 121 . 132 . 160 . 12B . 121 . 133 . 128 . 126 . 120 . 1 16 . 126 . 149 . 140 . 124 . 140 . 153 . 135 . 138 . 137 . 145 . 129 . 106 . 142 . 136 . 113 . 127 . 149 . 119 . 144 . 143 . 122 . 141 . 169 . 152 . 174 . 190 . 145 . 144 . 199 . 187 167 5127 158 6073 162 5686 123 4311 115 6288 130 6631 140 4483 155 5285 164 6073 123 4168 112 6259 160 6273 155 3967 145 7290 155 7419 170 4761 168 6777 145 5833 123 4618 159 5189 134 5504 14 1 5004 160 8178 154 3588 153 5075 117 61 19 152 6662 170 4417 145 5733 130 4703 185 7909 18611049 189 6716 157 5466 164 8592 197 7618 181 7400 119 5350 19411703 198 862 1 154 7400 182 7342 197 7792 18111020. 183 9 1 7 3 . 162 6376 186 5338 124 4039 154 4645 159 6001 164 5482 117 3938 143 4674 .900 .270 .530 .450 . 130 .900 .330 .460 . 270 .210 .480 .800 .680 .790 . 700 .070 .020 . 380 .090 .990 .540 . 130 . 170 .670 .610 .330 .640 .930 .300 . 880 08O .450 .900 .570 .400 .310 .220 .260 .690 .480 .220 .070 .770 . 370 950 .960 . 180 .700 .660 .840 .450 .710 .510 7 1 6 . 1 9 0 9 0 2 . 4 0 0 5 1 5 . 6 6 0 4 0 1 . 0 7 0 4 8 7 . 0 1 0 7 7 3 . 4 8 0 6 5 8 . 8 9 0 8 0 2 . 1 3 0 7 4 4 . 8 4 0 4 4 4 . 0 4 0 6 8 7 . 5 4 0 7 8 7 . 8 1 0 5 0 1 . 3 3 0 7 3 0 . 5 1 0 9 7 4 . 0 2 0 500 .4 10 6 2 9 . 0 9 0 4 5 7 . 5 2 0 4 4 3 . 2 2 0 6 0 0 . 5 0 0 5 2 9 . 0 1 0 4 2 8 . 9 3 0 7 1 4 . 8 8 0 3 8 6 . 0 3 0 3 8 6 . 0 3 0 4 7 1 . 8 2 0 5 0 0 . 4 1 0 6 2 9 . 0 9 0 4 8 6 . 1 2 0 4 5 7 . 5 2 0 8 1 4 . 1 7 0 741 .480 9 4 5 . 0 2 0 6 2 5 . 1 7 0 7 12 .400 8 4 3 . 2 5 0 7 4 1 . 4 8 0 4 9 4 . 3 2 0 1003 .170 6 8 3 . 3 2 0 6 3 9 . 7 1 0 6 5 4 . 2 4 0 9 8 8 . 6 4 0 7 9 9 . 6 3 0 8 1 4 . 170 6 0 5 . 9 6 0 5 0 4 . 9 6 0 3 4 6 . 2 6 0 3 6 0 . 6 9 0 4 9 0 . 5 4 0 4 7 6 . 1 1 0 3 7 5 . 1 2 0 4 0 3 . 9 7 0 1 2 8 9 . 1 4 0 1 4 8 9 . 6 7 0 7 0 1 . 8 6 0 6 4 4 . 5 7 0 7 1 6 . 1 9 0 1 5 7 5 . 6 1 0 1 0 8 8 . 6 1 0 1 1 4 5 . 9 0 0 1 3 7 5 . 0 8 0 8 0 2 . 1 3 0 1 1 6 0 . 2 2 0 9 7 4 . 0 2 0 9 1 6 . 7 2 0 1 3 6 0 . 7 6 0 14 1 8 . 0 5 0 8 4 3 . 7 7 0 6 0 0 . 6 4 0 5 7 2 . 0 5 0 4 0 0 . 4 3 0 6 2 9 . 2 5 0 7 4 3 . 6 6 0 5 2 9 . 1 4 0 5 5 7 . 7 5 0 4 1 4 . 7 3 0 6 1 4 . 9 5 0 4 8 6 . 2 4 0 5 8 6 . 3 5 0 6 0 0 . 6 4 0 5 4 3 . 4 4 0 6 8 6 . 4 5 0 7 5 6 . 2 10 7 2 7 . 1 2 0 1 4 8 3 . 3 4 0 1 0 0 3 . 4 3 0 6 2 5 . 3 3 0 9 5 9 . 8 0 0 7 4 1 . 6 6 0 378 . 100 5 2 3 . 5 3 0 872'. 550 74 1.660 5 6 7 . 1 5 0 7 1 2 . 5 8 0 4 2 1 . 7 3 0 5 6 7 . 1 5 0 7 9 3 . 7 2 0 6 6 3 . 8 3 0 6 0 6 . 1 10 5 9 1 . 6 8 0 6 2 0 . 5 4 0 7 0 7 . 1 3 0 5 9 1 . 6 8 0 7 2 1 . 5 6 0 4 0 . 4 8 0 3 9 . 2 4 0 4 6 . 7 1 0 3 5 . 5 0 0 4 3 . 5 9 0 5 5 . 4 3 0 4 3 . 5 9 0 3 8 . 6 2 0 4 7 . 3 3 0 3 8 . 6 2 0 3 5 . 5 0 0 4 3 . 5 9 0 3 7 . 3 7 0 4 1 . 7 2 0 4 1 . 7 2 0 3 0 . 4 6 0 4 4 . 7 6 0 3 9 . 1 6 0 31 .710 2 7 . 9 8 0 3 1 . 0 8 0 3 9 . 7 8 0 5 2 . 8 4 0 3 8 . 5 5 0 4 1 . 6 5 0 3 8 . 5 5 0 4 6 . 6 2 0 3 8 . 5 5 0 3 7 . 3 0 0 31 .710 4 I .090 53 . 100 3 9 . 8 2 0 2 8 . 4 5 0 4 4 . 2 4 0 3 6 . 0 3 0 3 4 . 1 4 0 3 7 . 3 0 0 6 7 . 0 1 0 4 4 . 8 8 0 3 9 . 2 0 0 4 6 . 7 8 0 4 2 . 9 9 0 5 5 . 6 3 0 5 3 . 7 4 0 4 5 . 7 9 0 4 0 . 1 4 0 3 7 . 6 4 0 3 9 . 5 2 0 4 3 . 2 8 0 4 3 . 9 1 0 3 4 . 5 0 0 3 3 . 8 8 0 2 3 0 6 . 1 2 0 2 2 9 1 . 8 0 0 1 2 3 1 . 8 4 0 1 2 6 0 . 4 9 0 1 6 0 4 . 2 6 0 2 7 3 5 . 8 4 0 1 9 7 6 . 6 8 0 2 0 7 6 . 9 4 0 2 5 0 6 . 6 6 0 1 4 6 1 . 0 2 0 2 0 0 5 . 3 3 0 2 1 4 8 . 5 6 0 1 5 1 8 . 3 2 0 2 5 7 8 . 2 8 0 2 8 6 4 . 7 5 0 7 7 2 . 0 7 0 67 1.980 7 7 2 . 0 7 0 5 4 3 . 3 10 6 1 4 . 7 9 0 8 7 2 . 1 5 0 6 0 0 . 5 0 0 6 2 9 . 0 9 0 5 1 4 . 7 10 7 4 3 . 4 7 0 4 2 8 . 9 3 0 7 8 6 . 3 6 0 5 4 3 . 3 1 0 8 1 4 . 9 6 0 6 2 9 . 0 9 0 5 8 1 . 5 5 0 1046.7901 770 .5501 8 8 6 . 8 6 0 494 .3201 988 .6401 8 8 6 . 8 6 0 1 9 0 1 . 4 0 0 4 2 1 . 6 2 0 1 1 7 1 5 . 5 7 0 8 1 4 . 1 7 0 6 6 8 . 7 8 0 1541.1101 8 2 8 . 7 lO 1 2 0 6 . 7 2 0 1789 .010 9 0 8 . 9 3 0 1 2 4 0 . 7 7 0 1 4 4 2 . 7 5 0 1 1 9 7 . 4 8 0 1 2 2 6 . 3 4 0 1 5 7 2 . 6 0 0 1 1 5 4 . 2 0 0 .673 .627 .811 . 344 . 733 .751 .579 .630 .779 .501 . 499 .619 . 478 .490 . 765 .423 . 526 .420 .300 .280 . 303 . 323 . 735 .400 . 383 . 303 . 672 . 300 .317 . 177 .872 .245 . 285 .753 .044 . 506 . 105 . 305 .605 . 564 . 701 .814 .087 .846 .927 .571 .554 . 436 . 384 . 548 .612 . 179 .427 100 123 140 126 103 109 129 163 126 103 092 149 112 195 155 215 235 237 260 309 269 326 257 229 220 349 203 243 277 303 154 157 1 19 175 148 125 096 288 151 079 250 137 172 192 233 095 107 193 202 173 121 369 202 135 140 109 129 115 158 140 155 143 126 109 126 126 140 143 137 109 112 103 120 120 109 1 14 123 123 120 114 123 120 1 14 099 093 142 108 076 105 084 108 058 061 1 16 087 1 10 0 7 0 102 1 15 104 144 136 121 133 164 153 1 2 . 6 0 0 9 . 7 4 0 1 2 . 6 0 0 1 1 . 4 6 0 1 7 . 5 3 0 1 7 . 1 9 0 1 2 . 3 8 0 1 4 . 3 2 0 1 8 . 9 1 0 1 1 . 8 0 0 1 0 . 6 0 0 1 3 . 5 2 0 8 . 3 1 0 1 4 . 3 2 0 1 9 . 2 5 0 3 . 8 3 0 290 .640 .040 870 320 170 210 230 690 .040 300 800 9 . 150 4 . 5 8 0 ' 430 7 30 770 120 150 720 200 940 300 370 900 3 . 4 9 0 6. 160 6 . 0 8 0 8 . 7 2 0 10. 100 8 . 3 7 0 1 7 . 6 0 0 2 1 . 3 5 0 1 8 . 1 8 0 2 0 . 4 9 0 1 4 . 4 3 0 1 5 . 5 8 0 to o CC 409. 4 4 40 550 1.111 561 400 . 160 . 135 6102 830 504 960 909 170 42 020 1789 0 1 0 551 141 . 153 27 4 10 410 . 4 2 36 030 1 .259 587 260 . 155 . 178 6232 680 476 1 10 533 950 45 160 1558 170 352 222 . 121 24 8 2 0 4 1 1 . 4 1 45 530 1 . 230 439 520 . 162 . 170 6420 240 591 530 1096 770 37 640 1659 160 658 107 . 150 17 310 412. 4 1 43 210 1 . 349 489 380 .215 . 144 6102 830 620 380 837 010 46 420 1803 440 545 156 . 162 21 0 6 0 413 . 4 2 38 450 .988 583 560 .245 . 130 4876 500 389 540 735 990 37 640 1731 300 257 280 . 153 22 510 414. 4 3 36 250 .998 332 4 10 . 209 . 141 5395 890 461 680 750 420 40 780 1284 050 364 222 .14 1 20 200 415. 4 1 37 430 1.412 496 770 .224 . 156 6030 700 548 250 663 830 38 260 1558 170 430 167 . 1 18 24 820 501 . 4 4 35 840 1 .008 358 450 . 140 . 166 6439 400 668 1 10 469 2 10 37 700 995 050 245 887 .117 8 240 502. 4 0 37 290 1 .055 252 910 . 148 . 161 4506 160 483 310 369 680 42 030 597 030 250 614 . 108 7 960 503 . 4 2 33 650 1 .219 374 820 . 143 . 172 7121 720 710 750 469 2 10 48 2 10 938 190 2161 1 14 . 134 8 530 504. 3 6 38 240 1 . 362 394 840 . 139 . 195 4634 090 625 460 597 180 38 320 696 540 282 432 . 100 4 350 505 . 4 2 37 860 1 . 257 578 610 . 199 . 189 5885 010 710 750 739 370 44 500 1023 480 432 500 . 145 6 820 50G. 4 3 37 050 1.17 1 433 050 . 185 . 154 5714 430 61 1 250 440 780 43 880 1051 910 395 660 . 125 10 520 507 . 4 4 28 170 1 .066 352 990 .219 . 133 6510 470 668 1 10 469 2 10 38 320 739 180 1621 274 . 122 1 1 370 508 . 4 7 33 240 1 . 190 420 310 . 189 . 154 6240 390 724 970 398 120 51 9 10 625 460 378 864 . 122 10 230 509 . 4 0 36 810 1 . 190 553 130 . 136 . 160 4932 610 426 450 455 0 0 0 46 970 1236 710 378 432 .111 13 0 8 0 510 . 3 8 32 090 1 .315 578 610 . 209 . 158 4037 060 597 030 483 430 40 790 540 170 188 773 . 122 3 870 5 1 1 . 4 4 35 460 1 .310 433 050 . 169 . 174 7462 880 767 610 61 1 400 46 350 952 410 344 842 . 128 1 1 370 512 . 4 5 38 810 1 .068 482 170 . 141 . 135 5941 870 625 460 540 310 43 260 1009 270 4 18 569 . 1 14 8 530 5 1 3 . 4 4 28 660 1 .077 574 970 . 191 . 120 567 1 790 625 460 455 0 0 0 39 550 668 1 10 230 910 . 122 10 230 514 . 4 6 30 860 1 .058 327 510 . 184 . 125 7192 790 781 830 469 210 43 880 639 680 313 705 . 1 14 13 0 8 0 515. 4 6 35 120 1 . 124 489 450 . 166 . 145 7647 670 838 690 696 7 10 46 350 1009 270 299 864 . 148 1 1 0 9 0 601 . 4 9 47 490 1 . 559 763 060 . 150 . 193 6383 060 959 640 741 730 42 350 276 2601 186 201 . 128 2 210 602 . 4 9 41 650 1 . 299 880 310 . 140 . 189 6615 700 1 192 280 1367 1 10 46 140 421 660 878 346 . 195 2 210 603 . 4 9 44 950 1 . 309 647 670 . 14 1 . 176 6339 440 974 180 945 340 38 560 436 200 814 323 . 151 2 0 4 0 6 0 4 . 44 270 1 . 107 . 156 B93 154 . 3 2 0 1 1 10 605 . 4 8 45 840 1 .275 . 155 1 157 212 . 195 1 8 3 0 606 . 5 0 47 550 1 . 188 675 590 . 136 . 202 6572 080 799 700 1047 150 34 770 265 2101 186 140 . 134 1 5 7 0 607 . 4 9 44 910 1 . 246 604 860 . 148 . 173 6455 760 828 780 1061 690 39 200 335 0 0 0 916 288 . 172 2 4 10 608 . 5 1 48 560 1 .373 774 230 . 152 . 196 57 14 220 814 240 988 970 34 140 223 3301 332 212 . 160 2 120 6 0 9 . 5 0 46 730 1.411 789 1 10 . 144 . 184 4740 040 785 160 901 710 39 830 279 1701 231 186 . 183 1 570 610 . 5 2 45 700 1 .548 720 250 . 171 . 195 6732 020 799 700 B14 450 42 990 335 0001 102 227 . 154 2 560 6 1 1 . 5 1 44 250 1 . 896 580 670 . 137 . 194 5423 420 1090 500 1032 GOO 45 520 251 250 960 273 . 204 1 660 612 . 4 9 46 810 1 .285 359 200 . 147 .203 3082 480 886 940 1614 350 31 600 237 290 945 239 . 343 1 310 6 1 3 . 5 2 47 660 1 .421 759 340 . 195 . 173 5089 000 799 700 1628 900 35 400 279 1701 012 215 .279 1 6 9 0 614 . 4 9 46 630 1 . 246 483 890 . 143 . 175 5845 080 785 160 1 1 19 870 35 400 335 0001 256 189 . 174 1 450 6 1 5 . 4 9 45 530 1 . 245 671 860 . 135 . 191 7051 900 1235 900 1905 230 47 4 10 390 840 974 270 .238 1 800 Table H-2 Mineral s o i l v a r i a b i l i t y data - CODE pH pH TC TN minN exP S04 exCa exMg exK CEC exMn H20 Ca % ppm meq/100g ppm 101 . 4 2 3 a 3 680 .075 2 61 2 19 6 89 16 95 19 56 76 96 3 40 29 99 102. 4 6 4 0 2 200 .046 2 61 1 98 4 80 19 56 13 04 33 91 2 16 37 82 103. 4 9 4 1 5 490 . 113 7 82 1 77 8 24 324 70 46 94 1 17 39 4 54 170 82 104 . 4 6 3 9 2 560 .068 3 91 2 40 5 53 0 16 95 60 00 3 40 15 65 105. 4 5 3 9 3 040 .066 1 30 3 03 4 80 20 86 15 65 61 30 3 17 14 34 106 . 4 7 4 1 2 360 .051 1 30 7 09 5 53 2 13 86 29 99 56 09 3 75 43 03 107. 4 8 4 2 1 150 .031 0 1 46 4 80 1 1 74 7 82 27 39 1 25 2 61 108. 4 6 4 0 2 800 .058 2 61 1 04 3 44 52 16 15 65 43 04 2 38 28 69 109. 4 7 4 2 2 060 .061 6 52 2 92 4 80 27 38 10 43 32 61 1 59 20 86 1 10. 4 5 3 9 2 850 .06 1 1 30 1 36 4 17 97 80 24 78 52 17 3 06 26 08 111. 4 6 3 9 4 010 .098 3 91 2 61 8 97 70 42 35 21 53 48 6 57 44 34 112. 4 8 4 2 2 130 .054 6 52 2 09 5 53 13 04 14 34 76 96 1 93 27 38 113. 4 7 4 0 2 570 .059 5 22 1 67 6 89 37 82 13 04 48 26 2 72 23 47 1 14 . 4 6 4 0 3 060 .064 5 22 3 76 4 80 73 02 26 08 61 30 3 29 74 33 115. 4 6 4 0 2 490 .055 1 30 2 50 4 17 87 37 18 26 62 61 2 84 56 07 201 . 5 0 4 4 1 780 .065 10 43 1 98 3 44 1 18 66 15 65 63 91 1 36 2 61 202. 4 5 4 0 4 310 . 131 15 65 1 88 7 62 58 68 18 26 48 26 2 49 16 95 203. 4 7 4 4 2 120 .070 14 34 1 57 7 62 6 52 5 22 15 65 79 1 30 204 . 4 4 3 9 4 890 . 146 19 56 2 61 4 80 86 06 37 82 49 56 3 86 19 56 205. 4 5 4 0 5 940 . 182 36 51 2 30 7 62 195 60 49 55 87 39 4 08 26 08 206. 4 5 4 0 4 070 . 131 23 47 1 B8 3 44 36 51 13 04 39 13 2 38 9 13 207. 4 6 4 2 4 200 . 131 20 86 2 30 8 24 1 17 36 24 78 54 78 2 61 15 65 208 . 4 6 4 2 3 1 10 .097 10 43 1 67 8 24 13 04 13 04 30 00 1 93 9 13 209. 4 7 4 3 3 1 10 . 1 10 14 34 1 46 1 1 68 87 37 16 95 35 22 2 49 15 65 210. 4 9 4 4 1 670 .064 6 52 2 19 2 7 1 71 72 22 17 82 17 1 70 6 52 211. 4 9 4 4 3 530 . 1 10 22 t7 1 57 7 62 207 34 22 17 35 22 2 16 13 04 212. 4 6 4 1 5 780 . 149 28 69 2 82 5 53 164 30 26 08 33 91 3 17 20 86 213. 4 3 3 8 7 920 .215 33 90 1 46 8 24 93 89 44 34 75 65 4 54 18 26 214. 4 6 4 1 3 710 . 1 19 20 86 1 57 2 09 88 67 15 65 28 70 2 61 1 1 74 215. 4 6 4 1 3 460 . 108' 16 95 94 6 89 73 02 20 86 56 09 3 29 22 17 301 . 5 2 4 7 3 150 . 145 35 21 1 36 4 17 581 58 49 55 31 30 3 96 37 82 302 . 5 4 4 8 2 100 . 107 22 17 1 36 4 80 342 95 24 78 26 09 2 61 13 04 303. 5 S 5 0 2 620 . 131 16 95 1 67 2 71 769 36 59 98 79 56 4 42 29 99 304. 5 1 4 6 3 440 . 137 35 21 2 19 3 44 279 06 22 17 24 78 2 95 20 86 305 . 5 3 4 9 3 350 . 135 33 90 1 25 2 09 453 79 37 82 45 65 4 08 19 56 306. 5 1 4 6 4 780 . 171 52 16 1 15 2 09 619 40 48 25 36 52 4 77 50 86 307 . 5 3 4 6 1 800 .079 22 17 2 61 2 09 302 53 33 90 30 00 2 49 10 43 308. 5 3 4 7 3 140 .110 20 86 2 50 73 582 89 49 55 44 35 3 75 32 60 309. 5 0 4 5 3 4 10 . 167 27 38 3 13 2 09 354 69 40 42 36 52 4 08 32 60 310. 5 1 4 6 3 920 .170 36 51 3 23 3 44 573 76 49 55 44 35 4 19 56 07 311 . 5 1 4 5 1 660 .075 20 86 4 49 73 434 23 53 46 v 23 48 3 75 15 65 312. 5 3 4 7 2 550 . 102 27 38 1 67 2 09 331 22 24 78 22 17 2 72 16 95 313 . 5 0 4 5 2 130 . 1 10 24 78 1 04 5 53 165 61 1 1 74 35 22 1 47 19 56 314. 5 2 4 6 2 160 .098 18 26 1 46 4 17 228 20 18 26 22 17 2 26 19 56 315. 5 1 4 6 2 760 . 126 22 17 2 82 2 71 418 58 44 34 26 09 3 75 27 38 401 . 5 4 4 6 3 220 . 123 22 17 9 81 6 15 251 67 20 86 54 78 2 61 36 51 402 . 5 2 4 4 4 150 . 141 19 56 7 30 2 71 256 89 27 38 45 65 3 17 53 46 403 . 5 1 4 5 2 460 . 116 5 22 6 78 6 15 189 08 19 56 26 35 2 72 27 38 404 . 5 2 4 7 2 350 .094 6 52 3 96 3 44 157 78 15 65 52 17 1 70 1 1 74 405. 5 2 4 7 2 260 .079 6 52 2 92 1 1 06 182 56 15 65 39 13 1 70 9 13 406. 5 3 4 8 2 260 .086 9 13 9 49 10 33 160 39 15 65 27 39 1 93 10 43 407. 5 3 4 5 4 160 . 153 39 12 14 61 2 7 1 264 7 1 22 17 50 87 3 40 82 15 408. 5 3 4 7 2 890 .091 7 82 6 05 10 33 166 91 16 95 35 22 2 04 15 65 409. 5 . 1 4 . 7 1 .850 . 103 1 1 . 74 3 . 13 13 . 77 100 .41 6 .52 35 .22 1 .36 5 .22 410. 5 .0 4 .6 2 .930 . 107 1 1 . 74 8 .55 6 . 15 135 .62 20 .86 58 .69 2 . 16 48 . 25 411 . 5 .0 4 . 4 3 .010 . 121 13 .04 3 .23 1 1 .68 87 .37 10. .43 43 .04 1 . 70 9 . 13 412. 5 .0 4 .2 5 .720 .220 45 .64 17 .94 5 .53 220 .38 29 .99 61 . 30 3 .86 79 .54 413. 5 .2 4 .6 3 .720 .099 9 . 13 - 3 .34 8 .97 264 .71 23. 47 46 .96 2 . 38 15 .65 414. 5 . 4 4 . 5 5 .020 . 1 14 13 .04 3 .65 16 . 48 245. . 15 22 . 17 109 .56 2 .72 28 .69 415. 5 .3 4 . 5 6 .280 .247 45 .64 5 .95 1 1 .06 721 . 1 1 58 .68 84 .78 6 . 12 39 . 12 501 . 5 .2 4 .5 2 .480 .084 31 .30 14 . 19 1 .36 445 .97 63 90 30 .00 4 .08 29 .99 502. 5 .5 4 .5 3 .700 . 134 69 . 1 1 30 .04 2 .71 101 1 .90 105 .62 67 . 83 6 .47 65 .20 503. 5 .4 4 . 4 2 .580 .098 24 .78 20 .86 5 .53 219 .07 48 . 25 36 .52 2 . 72 29 .99 504 . 5 . 4 4 . 5 3 .670 .090 24 . 78 1 1 . 48 3 .44 302. .53 40 .42 56 .09 2 .61 9 . 13 505. 5 .3 4 .4 4 .440 . 166 44 .34 20 .45 1 .36 752 .41 89. 98 82 . 17 5 .56 135 .62 506 . 5 . 3 4. .6 3 .290 . 105 40 .42 14 .61 2 .09 884 . 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. 0 8 7 . 0 7 6 . 1 1 0 . 0 9 6 . 1 0 8 . 0 9 3 . 0 9 9 . 0 9 3 . 0 9 6 . 0 9 6 . 1 18 . 1 4 4 . 1 3 6 . 1 3 6 . 1 2 7 . 1 5 9 ' 1 2 1 . 1 1 8 . 1 3 0 1 3 0 1 4 4 1 5 3 1 14 1 14 0 9 7 1 1 9 1 0 2 . 1 2 2 . 1 0 5 . 1 14 . 1 2 5 . 1 1 1 1 3 4 . 1 0 5 . 1 6 0 . 1 6 6 . 1 5 1 . 1 1 1 . 1 5 4 . 2 2 1 . 1 7 2 . 1 6 0 . 2 5 0 . 1 5 1 . 1 9 2 . 1 4 5 1 2 . 9 5 0 1 2 . 0 3 0 1 2 . 0 3 0 9 . 1 7 0 1 6 . 3 9 0 1 0 . 8 9 0 1 4 . 9 0 0 1 0 . 6 0 0 1 7 . 1 9 0 1 2 . 3 8 0 1 5 . 2 4 0 1 8 0 0 3 0 4 0 0 8 0 0 8 7 0 4 9 0 6 4 0 4 9 0 8 4 0 9 0 0 7 0 0 2 0 0 8 4 0 8 1 0 5 9 0 0 5 0 0 2 0 2 2 0 8 4 0 9 0 0 4 9 0 9 1 0 7 6 0 6 2 0 9 1 0 1 9 . 3 3 0 1 9 . 0 4 0 1 2 . 4 10 1 9 . 6 2 0 1 5 . 8 7 0 1 9 . 0 4 0 1 1 . 5 4 0 1 4 . 4 3 0 1 7 . 8 9 0 1 4 . 4 3 0 2 1 . 6 4 0 2 3 . 0 8 0 8 . 8 1 0 8 . 2 4 0 4 . 6 3 0 9 . 1 0 0 7 . 7 0 0 1 1 . 9 4 0 7 . 3 9 0 1 1 . 3 7 0 1 2 . 2 2 0 6 . 8 2 0 7 . 5 1 0 6 . 9 4 0 2 . 4 4 0 2 . 0 1 0 1 . 9 5 0 2 . 6 5 0 1 . 8 9 0 1 . 8 0 0 1 . 9 2 0 2 . 0 4 0 1 . 6 3 0 1 . 9 5 0 1 . 5 4 0 1 . 8 9 0 214 T a b l e H - 4 . M i n e r a l s o i l c o m p o s i t e s a m p l e w i t h i n p l o t d a t a C o d e pH pH TC TN minN exP S04 e x C a exMg exK CEC exMn H20 C a % ppm m e q / 1 0 0 g ppm 0 1 1 1 . 4 .6 4 .0 3 . 6 0 0 .069 0 2 . 19 4 . 17 92 58 27 .38 84 .78 3 .63 45 .64 011 1 . 4 .7 4 . 1 2 . 9 5 0 .072 6 .52 1 .88 6 .89 57 .38 18 26 62 .61 2 .38 45 .64 0 1 1 1 . 4 .5 4 .0 4 . 160 .084 7 .82 . 2 .30 5 .53 173 . 43 28 69 67 .83 3 .63 20 .86 0211 . 4 .9 4 . 1 4 .040 .083 3 .91 3 34 4 .80 189 .08 24 .78 65 .22 3 .29 59 .98 0211 . 4 .7 4 .0 2 . 4 5 0 .067 2 .61 3 . 13 5 .53 1 16 .06 20 .86 62 .61 2 .95 37 .82 0211 . 4 .9 4 .0 2 . 8 7 0 .069 3 .91 3 .23 5 .53 1 14 75 19 .56 44 .35 2 .95 36 .51 0 3 1 1 . 4 .6 3 .9 3 . 180 .069 3 .91 2 .92 4 .80 1 14 75 27 .38 62 .61 3 .63 75 .63 0 3 1 1 . 4 .6 4 .0 2 .750 .068 5 .22 3 .65 5 .53 56 .07 19 .56 50 .87 3 .06 48 .25 031 1 . 4 .6 3 .9 3 . 350 .076 6 .52 2 .71 5. .53 50 .86 18 26 53 .48 2 .72 62 . 59 041 1 . 4 .6 4 .0 3 .210 .072 3 91 2 . 19 5. .53 53 46 22 17 58 69 3 . 17 54 .77 04 1 1 . 4 .6 4 , 1 2 . 170 .051 1 .30 2 .61 4 . 17 89 .98 19 56 S3 48 2 .49 27 .38 041 1 . 4 .7 4 .0 2 .720 .066 2. .61 2 .30 6 . 15 54. 77 20 86 57 .39 3 . 17 45 .64 0 5 2 2 . 4 .4 4 .0 3 . 140 .089 10 43 1 .67 6 . 15 29 99 19 .56 40 .43 3 . 75 7 .82 0 5 2 2 . 4 .6 4 . 1 3 .030 .095 15 .65 1 .98 4 .80 59 98 22 . 17 45 .65 3 . 17 15 .65 0 5 2 2 . 4 .6 4 , 1 3 .230 .096 10 .43 2 .30 6 . 15 18 26 15 65 32 .61 2 .72 5 .22 0 S 2 2 . 4 .6 4 . 1 4 . 170 . 1 16 24 .78 1 .98 5. .53 86 .06 26 .08 30 .00 2 .49 10 .43 0 6 2 2 . 4 .7 4 .2 3 .690 . 100 19 56 2 .30 6 15 73 .02 22 17 39 13 2 .26 11 .74 0 6 2 2 . 4 .7 4 . 1 5 .320 . 142 23 .47 1 . .77 5. .53 146 .05 31 . 30 52 . 17 4 .08 26 .08 0 7 2 2 . 4 .9 4 .4 2 .420 .072 10 .43 .84 8. 24 97 .80 27 38 49 .56 1 .70 1 1 .74 0 7 2 2 . 4 .8 4 .2 3 . 100 .094 22 . 17 1 36 6 .89 59 98 20 86 56 .09 2 .04 11 . 74 0 7 2 2 . 4 .9 4 .3 2 940 .091 13 .04 1 .57 4 . 17 159 .09 37 82 63 .91 2 . 26 18 .26 0 8 2 2 . 4 .7 4 .3 2 .930 .086 13 .04 1 , .04 5 .53 66 50 19 .56 46 96 1 .70 16 .95 0 8 2 2 . 4 .8 4 .2 2 .600 .089 16 .95 .94 6 . 15 48. .25 18 .26 33 91 2 . 16 3 .91 0 8 2 2 . .4 . 7 4 .2 2 .910 . 102 20 .86 1 .36 2 .71 103 .02 23. .47 70 .43 2 .26 15 .65 0 9 3 3 . 5 .4 4. .9 3 .070 . 140 26 .08 2 . 09 3. .44 562 .02 39. 12 58 69 3 .52 26 .08 0933.. 5 . 1 4. 6 2. 990 . 143 33 90 2 .50 2. 09 513 78 45 . 64 45. .65 3 .75 43 .03 0 9 3 3 . 5 . 1 4 . 6 2. , 160 . 108 23. .47 1 . 77 4 . 80 391 . 20 29 47 36. 52 2. 38 27 .38 1033. 5 .3 4 .7 3 250 . 145 44 34 1 .77 3 44 663 .74 46. .94 46 .96 4 . 19 24 .78 1033 . 5 .3 4 8 3 .640 . 148 40 42 1. .98 2 .71 745 89 53 .46 36 .52 4 . 42 29 .99 1033. 5 .3 4 . 7 3. .370 . 193 39. . 12 1 . 57 2. 09 764 . 14 53 . 46 40. .43 5 .22 23 .47 1 133 . 5 4 4 . 7 2 790 . 126 31 . 30 2 .61 3 . 44 766 75 49 . 55 61 .30 3 .86 20 86 1 133. 5 2 4 . 6 2 6 5 0 . 134 35. 21 2. 4 0 1 . 36 691 12 49 . 55 32 61 4 54 26 08 1 133. 5 . 5 4 . 9 2 . 420 . 105 24. 78 2. 50 1 . 36 532 . 03 32 . 60 32. 61 3. . 17 9 . 13 1233 . S. . 2 4 . 7 2 6 1 0 . 138 27 . 38 2. 30 3. 44 4 0 9 . 46 31 . 30 39 13 3. 06 20 86 1233 . 5 .3 4 . 7 2 230 . 115 20 . 86 1 46 4 . 17 284 27 19 56 27 39 2 49 14 .34 1233. 5 .5 4 . 9 2. 590 . 121 19. 56 1 .77 2 09 6 2 7 . 22 41 . 73 48 26 3 52 15 .65 1342 . 5 . 2 4 . 5 2 . 880 .096 7 . 82 4 . 38 9. 6 0 135. 62 18 26 28 20 2. .26 27 . . 38 1342. 5 3 4. 6 2. 9 2 0 . 105 9. 13 3. 03 9 . 60 161 . 70 18. 26 31 30 2 26 45. 64 1342 . 5. 2 4 . 4 3 . 400 .090 5 . 22 7 . 72 8. 97 192 . 99 26 . 08 49 56 2 .61 67 . 81 1442 . 5. 2 4. 5 3 630 . 117 15. 65 2. 50 10. 33 183 86 19. 56 32. 61 2 . 61 46 . 94 1442 . 5. 3 4 . 6 3. 580 .111 1 1 . 74 2 . 61 6 . 89 195 . 60 22 . 17 45 . 65 2. 38 43. .03 1442 . 5. 3 4 . 4 4 . 140 . 146 16 . 95 3. 76 4 . 80 232 . 1 1 28. 69 41 . 74 3 06 57 . 38 1542. S . 1 4 . 6 2. 440 .082 3 91 3. 34 8 97 140. 83 10. 43 39 13 2 04 15 .65 1542. 5. .2 4. 6 2. 260 .081 9. 13 3. 34 5. 53 1?2 . 58 16. 95 33 .91 1 . 93 15 .65 1542 . 5. . 3 4 . 6 2 . 270 .079 10. 43 5. 84 6. 15 161 . 70 18 . 26 39 13 2 04 27. .38 1642 . 5 . 3 4 . 6 2. 870 .098 16. 95 6. 05 4. 80 268 . 62 26 . 08 52 . 30 2. 16 44 . 34 1642. 5. 2 4 . 6 2. 740 . 102 10. 43 7 . 62 S. S3 192 99 19. 56 45 . 65 2. 04 41 . .73 1642 . 5. 1 4 . 5 4 . 200 . 124 13. 04 4 . 69 8. 97 2 6 6 . 02 2 6 . 08 48 . 26 2 . 84 26. 08 1753 . 5. 3 4 . 3 3. 170 . 102 2 4 . 78 9. 18 4 . 17 161 . 70 4 3 . 03 41 . 74 3 . 17 46 . 94 1753 . S. 3 4 . 5 2. 630 . 105 31 . 30 7 . 51 6. 15 2 8 8 . 18 4 0 . 42 40 . 43 3. 29 37 . 82 1753. 5. 0 4 . 4 2. 6 2 0 . 1 10 24. 78 5. 63 7 . 62 156 . 48 28 . 69 35. 22 2 . 61 39. 12 J 8 5 3 . 5 3 4 . 3 3 . 160 . 126 3 9 . 12 8. 97 2. 09 3 7 5 . 55 5 9 . 98 61 . 30 4 . 19 78 . 24 1853 . 5. O 4 . 2 2 . 9 2 0 . 100 2 8 . 69 8 . 24 2. 71 221 . 68 57 . 38 45 . 65 3. 86 69 . 1 1 1853. 5 .0 4 . 4 2 .880 . 108 28 69 8 66 2 .71 303 .83 52 16 48 26 3 .40 58 .68 1953. 5 .3 4 .5 3 .250 . 123 40 .42 18 .78 4 . 17 618 . 10 76 .94 63 .91 4 .54 54 .77 1953 . 5 . 1 4 .5 3 . 220 . 117 31 .30 17 53 1 .36 534 .64 74 . 33 83 .48 4 .08 53 . 46 1953. 5 .2 4 . ,5 2 810 . 0 9 0 36 .51 23 . 37 .73 445 .97 65 20 73 .04 3 .52 50. .86 2 0 5 3 . 5 .5 4 .5 3 .720 . 127 39 . 12 12 .52 1 .36 555 .50 80 85 36 52 5 .33 45 .64 2 0 5 3 . 5 .6 4 .5 3 900 . 146 54 77 10 .22 2 .09 783 .70 93 .89 48 .26 6 .57 59 .98 2053 . 5 .5 4 ,4 2 .360 .096 31 .30 13 .56 1 .36 457 70 57 .38 44 .35 3 86 36 .51 2164 . 5 .2 4 .5 4 .300 . 196 66 .50 8 .76 2 .71 1353 .55 191 69 69 . 13 8 .39 36 .51 2 1 6 4 . 5 .2 4 6 3 .030 . 168 66 .50 10 .22 1 .36 1431 .79 177 . .34 65 .22 9 .29 35 .21 2 1 6 4 . 5 . 1 4. .4 3 .490 . 185 63 .90 10 .02 2 .09 1027 .55 182 56 53 48 8 .50 36 .51 2 2 6 4 . 5 . 1 4 .4 3 . 300 . 169 56 .07 8 . 35 2 .71 844 .99 1 18 . 66 23 .48 7 . 38 19 56 2 2 6 4 . 5 3 4 6 3 . 270 . 173 45 .64 17 .73 1 .36 1118 83 155 . 18 44 35 8 73 22 17 2 2 6 4 . 5 .4 4 .6 3 .300 .209 63 .90 8 .97 2 .09 1066 .67 14B .66 37 83 8 96 22 . 17 2 3 6 4 . 5 . 1 4 .4 2 . 7 4 0 . 154 44 .34 2 .71 2 .09 874 .98 103 .02 97 .83 6 .24 24 .78 2 3 6 4 . 5 .3 4 .6 3 470 . 174 56 .07 4 .59 2 .09 1366 .59 170 .82 71 .74 7 .94 32 .60 2 3 6 4 . 5 .2 4 .5 3 .040 . 162 44 .34 4 . 17 .73 1001 .47 148 .66 43 .04 7 .38 28 .69 2 4 6 4 . 5 .4 4 .7 3 . 0 7 0 . 140 60 .40 1 1 .06 .73 1379 .63 169 .52 43 .04 8 .50 27 .38 2 4 6 4 . 5 .4 4 .6 2 .330 . 123 46 .47 6 .68 .73 1 187 .94 139 .53 67 .83 7 .48 18 .26 2 4 6 4 . 5 . 1 4 .4 4 .590 .209 78 .81 6 .47 2 .71 1496 .99 199 51 44 .35 10 .78 40 .42 Table H-5. Forest floor plot mean data Code TC TN minN TP TS exCa exMg exK exMn pH K g / n a H20 011111. 17585 .453 398 .977 7 .997 50 .067 52 . 747 317 , 530 30. 853 50. 783 91 . 690 4 . 2 021 1 11. 12727 . 199 275 .056 5 .597 35 ,647 43. . 720 215 , . 763 16 . 447 31 , 777 66 , 767 4. , 3 031 1 1 1 . 16635 .906 372 . 743 7 .887 46 , 483 56. . 243 255 . 047 25 , 160 40. ,013 78 ,923 4 . , 3 041 1 1 1 . 14978 .566 345 .866 7 .543 43 , 200 50 .683 202 . 877 22 , 707 37 , 187 68 . ,633 4 . 3 052122. 19111. .426 560 .083 1 1 .640 56. . 793 68. .873 280. ,870 28 . ,913 37 . ,960 37 , .433 3, . 7 062122 . 12907. .070 394 .530 1 1 .460 44 .700 52 . 700 216. ,003 20, , 270 22 , .490 25 , 380 4 , 2 072122. 10876. .715 327 . 170 13 . 323 41 . 403 42 .493 204 .710 16 , 223 19 .317 20, .550 4 . 4 082122. 11502. .863 356 . 130 9 ,957 44 . 797 45. . 353 185 . , 320 18 . 370 25 , .633 29 . 183 4 .  1 093133. 10960. .430 394 .086 16 .613 37 .927 49. . 130 293 .906 25 . 107 25 .530 21 .633 4 , . 7 103133. 10457. .238 325 .440 17 .497 33 .837 45. .047 266 .020 21 , . 150 28 , . 353 14 , .650 4 , . 8 113133. 13737. .039 399 . 270 13 .520 39 ,943 52 . 307 282 .690 25, .627 23 . 353 28 , . 767 4 , .6 123133. 9090. .855 315 . 296 13 .527 29 .410 41 .007 239 .293 16 ,803 21 . 150 17 .593 4 , . 7 134212. 27217. .855 742 .903 28 .060 101 , .917 96 .427 386 .960 36 .213 54 .020 172 . 190 4 , .0 144212. 21086 .465 571 . 153 18 .530 94 .093 77 .113 288 .096 28 . 133 41 . 723 1 16 . 160 4 . 1 154212. 28813 .305 799 .950 25 . 307 103 .000 108 .097 417 .006 38 . 187 59 .490 161 .870 3 .9 164212. 2301 1 .387 715 . 526 26 .860 99 . 737 89 .060 342 . 700 32 .720 54 . 167 135 .953 4 . 1 175223. 13039. .004 305. .496 1 1 .570 44 .493 47 .853 176 . 167 16 .907 19 .437 35 .867 4 .0 185223. 15691 .441 441 .400 20 . 343 67 .447 56 . 740 231 .467 20 .700 23 .717 37 .823 4 . 2 195223. 18180 .664 619 .413 27 . 197 90 .637 79 .850 367 .840 33 . 147 31 .920 54 .667 4 . 2 205223. 15406. .398 499 . 336 22 . 180 72 . 777 66 . 253 328 .217 28 .450 23 .653 35 .870 4 . 3 216234. 4021 .532 120 .620 7 .403 12 . 760 15 .677 54 .510 7 .090 7 . 133 2 . 240 4 .8 226234. 6978 .949 228 .930 13 .717 22 .600 23 .213 90 .837 12, .647 13 .803 3 .607 4 .8 236234. 3191 .070 92 . 783 4 .087 10 . 160 9 .970 37 .317 6 .010 7 .023 1 . 740 5 .0 246234. 6742 .777 223 .627 1 1 . 557 21 .693 23 . 527 88 . 273 12 .477 14 .643 3 .877 4 .8 T a b l e H - 6 M i n e r a l s o i l p l o t mean d a t a C o d e TC TN m i n N e x P S 0 4 e x C a e x M g e x K e x M n p H p H K g / n a H 2 0 C a 0 1 1 1 1 1 . 7 6 5 6 6 . 8 7 5 1 6 1 0 . 3 6 6 10 . . 2 5 0 4 . 5 5 0 1 1 . . 8 5 3 231 . 1 17 5 3 . , 120 153 . 8 0 7 8 0 . 143 4 . , 6 4 , , 0 0 2 1 1 1 1 . 8 8 6 4 6 . 6 8 8 2 0 7 5 . 3 4 3 9 . . 8 2 3 9 . . 190 1 5 . . 0 2 0 3 9 7 . 7 7 6 61 . . 7 6 7 163 . 107 127 . 2 3 7 4 .8 4 . . 0 0 3 1 1 1 1 . 9 5 9 3 9 . 5 6 3 2 1 9 9 . . 0 6 6 16. . 170 9 . . 5 9 7 16 . 387 2 2 9 . 0 6 7 6 7 . . 3 7 3 172 . . 5 1 7 192 . 6 9 0 4 . 6 3 . . 9 0 4 1 1 1 1 . 8 8 9 6 7 . 7 5 0 2 0 7 2 . . 4 7 7 8 . . 5 8 7 7 . 7 8 7 17 . . 4 0 7 2 1 7 , . 5 5 3 6 8 . . 7 0 0 186 . 1 1 3 1 4 0 . 2 6 3 4 . 6 4 . . 0 0 5 2 1 2 2 . 6 7 8 3 1 . 0 6 3 2 0 1 7 . 6 2 0 2 6 . . 3 5 3 4 . 2 9 0 12 . 3 5 0 78 , . 107 41 . , 4 0 7 8 5 . 6 6 0 2 0 . 7 0 3 4 . 5 4 . . 1 0 6 2 1 2 2 . 1 1 8 6 7 4 . 3 7 5 3 2 2 0 , 3 6 5 61 . 0 2 7 5 . 4 4 7 15 . 4 9 3 274 . 6 2 0 71 . . 5 9 0 109 . 173 4 3 . 4 2 7 4 . 7 4 . . 1 0 7 2 1 2 2 . 7 9 8 0 9 . 2 5 0 2 4 2 0 . . 8 5 0 43 . , 0 5 3 3 . 5 4 3 18 . 2 0 3 2 9 8 . 9 1 3 81 . 190 159 . 9 5 7 39 . 3 6 0 4 . 9 4 . . 3 0 8 2 1 2 2 . 7 6 7 9 9 . 2 5 0 2 5 1 5 . . 6 8 0 4 6 , . 2 8 0 3. . 0 3 7 13 . . 0 9 7 198 , . 170 55 . . 7 7 3 137 . 6 8 3 33 . 2 2 7 4 . 7 4 , . 2 0 9 3 1 3 3 . 1 1 4 5 3 7 . 7 5 0 5 4 5 0 . 7 1 9 1 16 . 2 8 0 8 . 8 6 7 14 . 3 9 0 2 0 4 4 . 0 2 0 159 . 163 196 . 2 7 3 134 . , 4 5 0 5 . 2 4 . 7 1 0 3 1 3 3 . 1 0 8 4 6 7 . 6 8 8 5 1 3 6 . 7 8 5 130 . 9 0 0 1 1 . 4 6 3 8 . 7 0 7 2 2 9 6 . 9 4 6 162 . 5 9 0 130 . 9 3 3 8 2 . . 6 7 3 5 . 3 4 . 7 1 1 3 1 3 3 . 8 9 6 1 4 . 8 1 3 4 0 8 3 . 2 5 9 102 . 0 8 0 8 . 4 0 0 6 . 8 8 3 2 2 2 5 . 3 7 6 147 . 2 9 0 141 . 4 9 0 6 2 . . 7 0 7 5 . 4 4 . 7 1 2 3 1 3 3 . 9 2 2 2 5 . 8 1 3 4 6 3 7 . 191 84 . 197 6 . 8 6 7 12 . 0 4 3 1 6 4 0 . 180 1 14 , 9 6 0 142 . 5 2 0 6 3 . . 147 5 . 3 4 .8 1 3 4 2 1 2 . 8 5 7 5 9 . 6 2 5 2 7 1 2 . 8 1 0 2 0 . 6 6 0 14 . 100 26 . 257 4 5 6 . 9 9 3 58 . 3 4 0 102 . 120 131 . . 2 6 3 5 . 2 4 . 5 1 4 4 2 1 2 . 8 4 8 4 8 . 8 7 5 2 7 9 1 . 9 0 3 . 33 . 143 6 . 6 3 1 16. . 4 5 3 4 5 7 . 193 52 . 6 4 3 8 9 . 7 0 7 1 10, . 157 5 . 3 4 . 5 1 5 4 2 1 2 . 8 1 0 6 8 . 0 6 3 2 8 2 3 . 4 5 0 27 . 2 6 3 14 . 5 4 0 2 3 . . 9 9 3 4 9 3 . 8 0 0 53 . 0 1 3 130 . 3 0 0 6 8 . . 163 5 . 2 4 .6 1 6 4 2 1 2 . 8 4 2 4 5 . 2 5 0 2 7 8 4 . 3 0 3 34 , . 6 9 0 15 . 7 6 0 16. . 5 6 0 6 2 4 . 4 5 3 61 . 5 5 3 125 . 4 7 3 9 6 . 2 4 3 5 . 2 4 .6 1 7 5 2 2 3 . 8 2 0 8 1 . 5 0 0 3 0 9 2 . 0 4 3 78 , . 8 2 7 21 . 767 17 . 4 9 3 591 . 2 0 0 1 0 9 . . 3 4 0 1 14 . 4 5 3 1 2 0 . 7 8 3 5 . 2 4 .4 1 8 5 2 2 3 . 91 142 . 5 6 3 3 2 8 7 . 2 8 0 94 , . 7 3 0 25 . 397 7 . 3 7 3 8 8 4 . 5 4 6 1 6 6 . . 4 1 0 152 . 3 7 0 2 0 2 . . 2 5 3 5 . 1 4 . 3 1 9 5 2 2 3 . 7 9 5 3 7 . 0 0 0 2 8 2 4 . . 0 1 3 92 , . 7 2 0 51 . 103 5 . . 3 6 3 1 3 6 9 . 5 5 6 1 8 5 , , 4 3 7 188 . 8 4 0 1 3 6 . . 2 8 3 5 . . 2 4 . 5 2 0 5 2 2 3 . 5 7 5 7 1 . 0 5 1 2 1 2 9 . . 5 9 0 72 , . 190 2 0 . 9 3 7 2 . . 7 7 0 1036 . 2 2 0 1 3 3 , , 8 5 3 74 . . 4 6 2 81 . 9 6 7 5 . 5 4 . . 5 2 1 6 2 3 4 . 1 5 0 9 1 0 . 8 1 3 7 6 5 4 . 6 8 8 2 7 4 , . 6 8 0 4 0 . . 4 5 7 8 . . 5 8 7 5 3 1 8 . 9 8 8 7 6 9 . 4 6 6 2 6 2 . 0 1 3 1 5 0 . 9 8 3 5 , 2 4 . . 5 2 2 6 2 3 4 . 1 3 0 6 2 1 . 6 2 5 7 2 9 8 . 2 2 7 2 1 9 , . 4 3 3 46 . 4 5 7 8 . . 153 4 0 1 5 , , 4 0 6 5 5 9 . 8 0 6 139 . 9 9 0 84 . 6 6 3 5 . 3 4 . 5 2 3 6 2 3 4 . 1 0 5 3 3 2 . 0 0 0 5 5 8 1 . 2 8 9 164 , . 7 7 0 13. . 0 6 3 5 . . 5 8 3 3 6 9 1 . 6 8 8 4 8 0 , . 9 4 0 2 4 2 . 0 1 7 97 . 9 7 0 5 . 2 4 . .5 2 4 6 2 3 4 . 1 5 9 0 6 9 . 188 7 5 1 2 . 9 8 0 2 9 5 . 8 6 6 38 . 5 6 3 6 , 6 4 7 6 4 7 6 . 2 0 3 8 1 0 , . 3 0 6 247 . 3 1 3 137 . 130 5 . 3 4 .6 T a b l e H-7. F o r e s t f l o o r p l u s m inera l s o i l p l o t mean d a t a Code TC TN mi nN 011111. 94152. ,328 2009. 343 18 . 247 021111 . 101373. 887 2350. 399 15 .420 031111. 112575. 469 2571 . .809 24 .057 04 1 1 1 1 . 03946. .316 2418. . 343 16 . 130 052122. 86942. ,489 2577 . 703 37 .993 062122. 131581. 445 3614. 895 72 .487 072122. 90685. ,965 2748 . .020 56 .376 082122. 88302. ,113 2871 . .810 56 . 237 093133. 125498. , 180 5844 , .805 132 .893 103133. 118924. ,926 5462 . . 225 148 . 397 1 13133. 103351. .852 4482 . . 529 115 .600 123133. 101316. .668 4952 . .487 97 . 724 134212. 1 12977. . 480 3455. ,713 48 . 720 144212. 105935. , 340 3363. .056 51 .673 154212. 109881, , 368 3623 . .400 52 .570 164212. 107256. .637 3499. .829 61 .550 175223. 95120. , 504 3397 . . 539 90 . 397 185223. 106834. ,004 3728. .680 115 .073 195223. 97717. .664 3443 . 426 1 19 .917 205223. 72977. .449 2628. .926 94 .370 216234. 154932, . 345 7775 . . 308 282 .083 226234. 137600. . 574 7527 , , 157 233 . 150 236234. 108523. .070 5674. .072 168 .857 246234. 165811. .965 7736 , ,607 307 .423 exCa exMg exK exMn Kg / ha 548, .647 83. .973 204 , ,590 171 . 833 613, .539 78 . 214 194 , .884 194 . 004 484 , .114 92 . 533 212, , 530 271 . .613 420, . 430 91 .407 223 , . 300 208 . 896 358 , .977 70. .320 123, .620 58. . 136 490, .623 91 , .860 131 , 663 68 . 807 503 .623 97 , 413 179, .274 59. .910 383 . 490 74 , . 143 163, .316 62. . 4 10 2337 .926 184 , .270 221 , .803 156 .083 2562 .966 183 ,740 159. . 286 97 . 323 2508, .066 172 , 917 164 . 843 91 . 474 1879 .473 131 , .763 163 . 670 80 , 740 843 ,953 94 . ,553 156 . 140 303. . 453 745 , 289 80. . 776 131 , 430 226. .317 910 .806 91 . . 200 189 . 790 230. .033 967 . 153 94 . 273 179, ,640 232 . . 196 767 .367 126 .247 133 . 890 156. .650 1116 .013 187 . 1 10 176 . ,087 240. .076 1737 .396 218 ,584 220. . 760 190. . 950 1364 ,437 162. . 303 98 . ,115 1 17. .837 5373 .498 776 . ,556 269 . . 146 153. . 223 4106 .243 572 , ,453 153 . , 793 88 . 270 3729 .005 486 . ,950 249 . .040 99. .710 6564 .476 822 . .783 261 . ,956 141 ,007 218 A p p e n d i x I . B a s i c s t a t i s t i c s f o r f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s a r r a n g e d by s a m p l i n g scheme I n d i v i d u a l s a m p l e s — C o m p o s i t e s a m p l e s V a r i a b i l i t y V a r i a b i l i t y A l l p l o t s p l o t p l o t Number of s a m p l e s 15 3 12 pH GVD x (H20) SD CV A.3 .24 5.61 4.2 . 2 4.76 4.2 . 17 3.96 GD x SD CV 4.3 .25 6.49 4.23 .12 2.73 4.1 .33 12 .60 GF x SD CV 4.5 .36 7.91 4.7 .10 2.13 4.7 . 13 2.72 VVD x SD CV 4.1 .23 5 .46 4.1 .15 3.76 4.0 .18 4.36 VD x SD CV 4.3 .31 7 .27 4.2 . 26 6.30 4.2 . 23 5.45 VF SD CV 5.0 .13 2.51 5.0 .06 1 .16 4.8 .16 3.33 TC GVD x ( k g / h a ) SD CV 14552.80 859.39 5.91 14978.57 614 .90 4.11 15481 .77 2162 .73 13.97 GD x SD CV 13317.42 1147 .14 8.61 12907.07 1033.35 8.01 13599.51 3517.73 25.87 GF x SD CV 11926.56 1386.27 11 .62 10960.43 348.49 3.12 11061.38 1847 . 24 16.70 VVD x SD CV 23397 .03 2058.98 8.80 23011 .39 3171.97 13 .78 25032 . 24 3845. 16 15.36 VD x SD CV 18066.41 1775.34 9.83 18180.66 1176.10 6.47 15579.37 2066.35 13.26 219 V F x SD C V T N G V D x ( k g / h a ) SD C V GD x SD C V G F x SD C V V V D x SD C V VD x S D C V V F x SD C V m i n N G V D x ( k g / h a ) SD C V GD x S D C V G F x SD C V V V D x SD C V V D x S D C V V F x * * SD C V 3181.01 121.42 3.82 351.76 32.49 9.24 408.53 42 . 30 10.36 379.29 50.27 13.25 689.33 81 .39 11.81 607.96 57 .83 9.51 94.29 13.36 14.17 7.41 1 .66 22 . 39 12 .20 4.21 34.49 12.29 5.58 45.43 26.21 6.00 22 .90 22 .99 5.27 22.90 4.64 .97 20.79 3191.07 82.72 2 .59 345.87 23.72 6.86 394.53 26.96 6.83 394.52 27 .08 6.87 715.53 32 .54 4.55 619.41 121.91 19.68 92 .78 3.36 3 .63 7 .54 .99 13.14 11 .46 .91 7.92 16.61 3.11 18.71 26 .86 4.03 15.02 27.20 2 .16 7.94 4.09 .41 4.40 5233.57 1734.70 33.15 348.16 52 .10 14.96 409.48 97 .42 23.79 358.52 43.86 12.23 707.38 94.54 13.36 466.41 135.61 29 .08 166.49 63 .87 38.36 7.26 1 .59 21.97 11 .60 2.16 18.63 15.29 2 .58 16.88 24.69 5.48 22.21 20.32 6.47 31 .83 9.19 4.01 43.58 220 TP GVD x ( k g / h a ) SD CV GD x SD CV GF x SD CV VVD x SD . CV VD x SD CV VF x SD CV TS GVD x ( k g / h a ) SD CV GD x SD CV GF x SD CV VVD x SD CV VD x SD CV VF x** SD CV exCa GVD x ( k g / h a ) SD CV 47 .47 10.47 22 .05 47 .63 4.60 9 .65 36 .57 3 .54 9.68 106.74 18.20 17 .05 89.02 14.68 16.49 10.39 1 .08 10.39 50.83 6.68 13.14 52.92 5.95 11.25 48.98 5 .88 11 .99 88.48 11.62 13.14 81 .47 11.41 14.01 13 .03 .74 5.71 200.45 38.68 19.30 43.20 1 .85 4.29 44.70 .85 1 .90 37.93 2 .59 6.82 99 .74 16.61 16.66 90.64 .69 .76 10.16 .35 3.43 50.68 2 .48 4.90 52 .70 .99 1.86 49.13 1 .39 2.82 89 .06 1.52 1.71 79.85 6.61 8.27 9.97 .70 6.99 202.88 1.52 .75 43.85 6.43 14.67 46.92 7.01 14.93 35.28 5.69 16.13 99.69 10.01 10.04 68.84 19 .90 28.91 16.80 5 .80 34.51 50.85 6.21 12.22 52.36 10.98 20.98 46.87 4.76 10.16 92.67 14 . 25 15.38 62 .67 12 .84 20.49 18.10 6.22 34.37 247 .80 51 .92 20.95 221 GD x SD CV GF x SD CV VVD x SD CV VD x SD CV VF x** SD CV exMg GVD x ( k g / h a ) SD CV GD x SD CV GF x SD CV VVD x SD CV VD x SD CV VF x** SD CV exK GVD x ( k g / h a ) SD CV GD x SD CV 195.80 40.53 20.70 226.23 52 .09 23.02 319.29 49.00 15.35 313.02 58.11 18.56 40.54 7.46 18.39 23.79 6.02 25 .32 18.16 3.42 18 .85 21 .13 3.91 18.53 27 .98 5.23 18 . 70 34 .34 5 .64 16 .43 6.37 1.11 17 .42 39. 13 10.80 27.59 20.99 4.10 19 .54 216.00 17.70 8.20 293.91 40.51 13.78 342 .70 8.34 2 .43 367.84 84.85 23.07 37 .32 7.08 18.96 22.71 1 .82 8.01 20.27 .59 2.91 25. 11 1 .62 6.44 32 .72 1 .29 3 .95 33 .15 4.28 12.92 6.01 .48 7 .96 37 .19 3.43 9.23 22 .49 2.71 12 .04 221 .73 53.29 24.04 270.48 29.44 10.88 358.69 58.47 16 .30 275.92 88.61 32.11 67.73 24.08 35 .55 23.79 6.65 27 .94 20.94 5 .50 26.27 22.17 4.01 18.07 33.81 4.70 13.91 24.80 7.00 28.21 9.65 3.56 35. 15 39.94 8 .22 20.58 26.35 8.34 31 .66 222 GF x SD CV VVD x SD CV VD x SD CV VF x * * SD CV exMn GVD x ( k g / h a ) SD CV GD x SD CV GF x SD CV VVD x SD CV VD x SD CV VF x * * SD CV TCa GVD x ( k g / h a ) SD CV GD x SD CV GF x SD CV 2