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An investigation of the feasibility of gooseneck barnacle mariculture (Lepas anatifera) Goldberg, Harry 1985

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AN INVESTIGATION OF THE FEASIBILITY OF GOOSENECK BARNACLE MARICULTURE (LEPAS ANATIFERA) by HARRY GOLDBERG B . S c . , U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h  Columbia,1978  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department Of A g r i c u l t u r a l Mechanics  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1985  ©  H a r r y G o l d b e r g , 1985  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s for  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by t h e head o f my  department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  It is  understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s for  f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l n o t be allowed without my  permission.  Department o f /fe^A^  K L C C - T C C  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main M a l l Van couve r , Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (.3/81)  /IflLJL  I 1/  93  / f r ^ t * f t n J * C_S  written  i i  Abstract  Gooseneck cm  in  barnacles  length  British  Columbia  species  a  Due  to  was  the  and/or  subsequent  problems  Lepas  the  survey  middle  Vancouver  of  seems  to  gain from on  west  be  and  coast  with  the  the  the  this  1978  the  indigenous lucrative  species  void  left  by  acquisition of  the  and  rubber)  of  c u l t c h and  the  that  Vancouver the  that  its  Pollicipes  of  seed  gooseneck  the  and  barnacle,  of  set May  cultch  was  occurs off  (oyster  deployed  Island.  information  the  end  culture  site  sexual be  of  of  specific  proportional  within  oyster  to  (capitulum  may  At  the  density.  greater lantern  shells  Lepas and  ratio  maturation.  significantly  length  weeks.  either  culture  suggested  April  predation  lines  total 23  were  In  4  investigated.  phytoplankton/zooplankton to  Spain.  potentially  successfully colonized  suspended may  time  this  exceeding  The  at  two  success  of  obtained  from  regularly  between  the  west  coast  a  of  Island.  The growth  into  markets,  dowelling  c o l o n i z a t i o n of  the  f i l l  future  anat ifera  off  previous  in  introduced  associated  suspended  wooden  locations the  to  a n a t i f e r a , were  shells,  seafood  )  unsuccessful.  pollymerus  Lepas  cornucopia  industry  polymerus  Alternatively,  the  favourite  seafood  Pollicipes  market. export  are  ( Pollicipes  and  plus  for nets  anatifera  that be  indicated  areas  detrimental  of to  a  Lepas than  wooden  peduncle)  for  growth  dowelling. exceeded  4cm  and  survival  and  anatifera those  high  growth  densities studied, Capitulum  that  weight  protected  grown  exposed  The  average  within  17  to  iii  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  Abstract L i s t of Tables L i s t of Figures Acknowledgement I. INTRODUCTION II. L I T E R A T U R E SURVEY 1. ECOLOGY 1. MORPHOLOGY 2. DISTRIBUTION 3. L I F E HISTORY 4. A D U L T GROWTH III. M A T E R I A L S AND METHODS 1. SEED ACQUISITION 1. 1980 SURVEY 2. 1981 C U L T C H DEPLOYMENT 2. CULTURE PHASE ' 1. LONGLINE SYSTEMS 2. S A M P L I N G PROGRAMME 3. ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS 4. SURVIVAL 5. GROWTH 6. WEIGHT/LENGTH R E L A T I O N S H I P S 7. GONADAL S T A T E 8. MAINTENANCE 3. S T A T I S T I C A L ANALYSIS IV. RESULTS 1. SEED ACQUISITION 1. 1980 SURVEY 2. 1981 C U L T C H DEPLOYMENT 2. CULTURE PHASE 1. ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS 2. GONADAL S T A T E 3. SURVIVAL 4. GROWTH 5. WEIGHT/LENGTH R E L A T I O N S H I P S V. DISCUSSION 1. SEED ACQUISITION 1. 1980 SURVEY 2. 1981 C U L T C H DEPLOYMENT 2. CULTURE PHASE 1. ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS 2. GONADAL S T A T E 3. SURVIVAL 4. GROWTH 5. WEIGHT/LENGTH R E L A T I O N S H I P S 6. TOTAL LENGTH VI. CONCLUSIONS VII. RECCOMENDATIONS LITERATURE CITED  i i iv v ix 1 6 7 7 9 9 11 13 14 14 17 20 20 24 25 26 26 27 27 27 28 31 32 32 38 38 38 44 47 62 76 87 87 87 88 90 90 90 92 93 95 96 97 99 102  IV  List I.  II.  III  A comparison the larval a n a t i f e r a and  of  Tables  of the time involved i n development of Lepas P o l l i c i p e s polymerus.  A comparison of Lepas anati fera polymerus.  the  1 0  growth r a t e s of and P o l l i c ipes  Date of deployment and position s u r f a c e and s u b s u r f a c e buoys.  1 1 of 15  IV.  Sampling  V.  A comparison of the capitulum lengths of gooseneck b a r n a c l e s from t h e t o p and bottom regions of the buoys (position 1,2,3,and 4 ) .  35  A comparison of the peduncle lengths of gooseneck b a r n a c l e s from the top and bottom regions of the buoys (position 1,2,3,and 4 ) .  37  C h i - s q u a r e d v a l u e s from the Log and W i l c o x i n s u r v i v a l a n a l y s i s .  54  VI.  VII.  VIII.  IX.  X.  schedule.  25  Rank  Slope v a l u e s 'B' a n d t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g c h i - s q u a r e d v a l u e s from the Pearson's and the Likelihood r a t i o goodness-offit tests.  56  P a r a m e t e r v a l u e s ( L =°,K,to) a n d sample sizes (N) from the von Bertalanffy growth model f o r the capitulum growth of Lepas a n a t i f e r a .  63  A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e p a r a m e t e r v a l u e s (L °°,K,to) f r o m t h e v o n B e r t a l a n f f y growth model for the capitulum growth of gooseneck b a r n a c l e s .  70  List  of Figures  A drawing of the external and anatomy o f Lepas anatifera.  internal  Map of t h e n o r t h P a c i f i c showing l o c a t i o n of t h e buoys surveyed and cultch placement.  the the  A s c h e m a t i c o f t h e geodyne buoy showing the placement o f t h e metal frame used for the attachment of cultch and the a c q u i s i t i o n of Lepas a n a t i f e r a (seed). Map of the I s l a n d s of t h e Deer Group opposite Bamfield Inlet in Barkely Sound, indicating the study s i t e f o r the c u l t u r e phase. A schematic of the l o n g l i n e system used for the suspended culture of Lepas anat i f e r a . Plot of t h e mean length versus time.  capitulum  (shell)  Plot of t h e mean length versus time.  peduncle  (stalk)  Plot of t h e mean s a l i n i t y at the c u l t u r e site.  versus  time  Plot time  of t h e mean a t the culture  temperature site.  versus  Plot time  of t h e mean a t the culture  secchi site.  versus  depth  P l o t o f t h e mean s e c c h i depths versus t h e mean t e m p e r a t u r e s a v e r a g e d o v e r t h e s u r f a c e and the f i r s t three meters.  Plot of the p e r c e n t of Lepas anatifera bearing ovigerous l a m e l l a e (egg cases) and that percent of ovigerous lamellae (egg c a s e s ) t h a t a r e b l u e . P l o t of the percent of Lepas anatifera, of a l l c u l t c h t y p e s , b e a r i n g ovigerous lamellae (egg cases) and t h a t p e r c e n t of o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e (egg c a s e s ) that are blue. Plot of the accumulative percent survival versus time for Lepas anatifera from each of the l i n e s of oyster shells (1-6). Plot of the accumulative percent survival versus time for Lepas anatifera from each of the lines of oyster shells (7-12). Plot of the accumulative percent survival versus time for Lepas anatifera from o f each of t h e l i n e s o f wooden d o w e l l i n g ( 1 - 3 ) . Plot of the accumulative percent survival versus time for Lepas a n a t i f e r a w i t h i n each of the lantern nets (1-2). Plot of the accumulative survival versus time for anatifera totaled f o r each cultch types.  percent Lepas of the  Plot of the observed and expected number o f d e a t h s f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a o f o y s t e r l i n e 8. Plot of the 'B' v a l u e s ( s l o p e o f t h e m o r t a l i t y ) v e r s u s t h e mean density of Lepas anatifera per oyster s h e l l from o y s t e r l i n e s 1 t o 12. P l o t o f t h e 'B' v a l u e s (slope of the mortality) versus t h e mean d e n s i t y o f Lepas a n a t i f e r a p e r wooden dowelling f r o m t h e wooden l i n e s ( 1 - 3 ) a n d l a n t e r n nets (1-2). Plot of t h e mean capitulum (shell) l e n g t h versus time f o r Lepas anatifera f r o m e a c h o f t h e o y s t e r l i n e s (1-6). Plot  of  the  mean  capitulum  (shell)  VI 1  l e n g t h v e r s u s time f o r Lepas from each of the o y s t e r l i n e s 24.  25.  26.  27.  28  29.  30.  31.  32.  33.  34.  35.  anatifera (7-12).  65  Plot of t h e mean capitulum (shell) l e n g t h v e r s u s time f o r Lepas anatifera f r o m e a c h o f t h e wooden l i n e s ( 1 - 3 ) .  66  Plot of t h e mean capitulum (shell) l e n g t h versus time f o r Lepas anatifera from each of t h e l a n t e r n n e t s ( 1 - 2 ) .  67  Plot of t h e mean peduncle (stalk) l e n g t h versus time f o r Lepas anatifera from each of t h e o y s t e r l i n e s ( 1 - 6 ) .  72  Plot of t h e mean peduncle (stalk) l e n g t h v e r s u s time f o r Lepas anatifera from each of t h e o y s t e r l i n e s (7-12).  73  Plot of t h e mean peduncle (stalk) l e n g t h v e r s u s time f o r Lepas anatifera f r o m e a c h o f t h e w o o d e n l i n e s (1 - 3 ) .  74  Plot of t h e mean peduncle (stalk) l e n g t h versus time f o r Lepas anatifera from e a c h o f t h e l a n t e r n n e t s (1-2) .  75  Plot of t h e wet w e i g h t ( g r a m s ) v e r s u s capitulum (shell) length (cm.) for Lepas anatifera from the lines of oyster s h e l l s .  78  P l o t o f t h e wet w e i g h t (grams) versus capitulum (shell) length (cm.) f o r Lepas anat if e r a from the lines of wooden d o w e l l i n g .  79  Plot of t h e wet w e i g h t ( g r a m s ) v e r s u s capitulum (shell) length (cm.) for Lepas a n a t i f e r a from t h e l a n t e r n n e t s .  80  P l o t o f t h e l o g wet w e i g h t (mg.) v e r s u s capitulum (shell) length (cm.) f o r Lepas a n a t i f e r a from each of t h e c u l t c h types.  81  P l o t o f t h e wet w e i g h t (grams) versus p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s anati fera from the lines of oyster shells.  83  P l o t o f t h e wet w e i g h t (grams) versus p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s anati fera from the lines of wooden dowelling.  84  vi i i  36.  37.  P l o t o f t h e wet w e i g h t (grams) versus p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a from the l a n t e r n n e t s .  85  Plot of t h e wet w e i g h t ( g r a m s ) v e r s u s p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s anatifera from each of the cultch types.  86  ix  Acknowledgement  I  would  Zaharadnik, through Ocean  like  t o acknowledge  t h e B.C. S c i e n c e  Council  t h e G.R.E.A.T. F e l l o w s h i p  Science, The  crew  P a t Bay, f o r t h e i r and the o f f i c e r s  C.S.S.  Parizeau  Baden  of  finally,  Archipelego  my  Bio-Resource Jackson.  co-operated  many  thanks  my  the  program,  Dr.  funding  J.W.  provided  and the I n s t i t u t e  of  co-operation.  the c a l l  Research  to the entire  Engineering,  for  supervisor  o f t h e C.F.A.V. E n d e a v o u r  beyond  Marine  thesis  especially  of  was  staff D r . R.  duty.  of great  and the Mr.  Bob  help.  And  of the Department  of  Bulley  N.  and  Mr.  1  1  I.  Revenues increased for  in  British  generosa  1115  for  tonnes  indigenous  expressed  an  B.C  export  were  of  t h r e e and f i v e  between  export  market  stocks  and subsequent  Since  1970, h a r v e s t i n g  October.  This  time  larvae  at  settle  Proverbs subsequent  40  and  harvested to Spain  million emerged  government  in  abroad  (  Panope  until  the  1982  was  dollars  (personal  Canada,  reported  i n Spain  of the gooseneck from  which  i t  i s thought  communication,  to Spain  appeared  from  that  negative  a s p e c t s . The n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s  by  were:  market The  indigenous  from  the animals reproduce  season  Columbia both  in  1979).  Fernandez-Pato,  characterized  of  harvesting.  prohibited  the B r i t i s h  industry  annual  upon  the i n i t i a l  barnacle  Testing  of dwindling  they  near  industry  (Proverbs,  to protect that  Sound  seafood  restrictions has been  barnacle,  1979).  of a p o t e n t i a l  because  imposed  (1979) c o n c l u d e d  Clayoquot  (Proverbs,  dollars  was  exports  million  Columbia  closure  (personal  Production  Oceans,  tonnes  the existence  i n Spain  The geoduck  overlooked species  o f 5.2  by t h e B r i t i s h  indicated  from  have  1983).  and e x p o r t e d market  industry  to the interest  interest.  of F i s h e r i e s  polymerus,  shellfish  species.  an  value  J . Barnes,  1978-1979  the  was  i n 1978 a p p r o x i m a t e l y  Tofino,  Columbia  i n response  example  Department  Pollicipes  this  past  for a landed  communication,  that  the  market  The  the B r i t i s h  Columbia's  )  Japanese  from  INTRODUCTION  May  to  during and the  1982). and  the  gooseneck  positive  and  2  1)  the u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y  2)  the i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y  3)  the  intensive  of the harvesting o f many  and  season,  of the stocks,  dangerous  nature  of the  labor, 4)  the  product  However,  problems  encountered  shipping  the  to Spain.  on t h e p o s i t i v e  1)  the B r i t i s h  2)  a  3)  the value  4)  with  strong  side  i t was  Columbia  suggested  stocks  demand e x i s t s  appear  that:  extensive  i n Spain,  i s high  competing  supplies  on  the  world  market a r e  minimal.  The  negative  harvest has  aspects  and export  come  to a  have  from  taken  their  British  Columbia  specifically  the since  gooseneck  barnacles  was p r o p o s e d  problems  stemming  from  the  the unpredictability  the harvest  inaccessibility  of  dangerous  of the labor.  is  well  1976,  nature  documented  Bardach,  Ryther,  and Leighton  suspended  and as  of  1982  of P o l l i c i p e s  the  polymerus  standstill.  Mariculture,  wild;  toll  culture  many  of  (Quayle, and and  of  i t  may  culture, alleviate  of P o l l i c i p e s  the  harvesting  The suspended  1969,  Phleger,  1971,  season,  culture  and  1978;  1972, S a n d e r s , 1976  provide f o r :  and  of the  polymerus i n  the s t o c k s , and the i n t e n s i v e  McLarney,  techniques  suspended  of  the and  molluscs  Shaw,1969,  1973, T a g u c h i ,  1977).  Generally,  3  1)  an  2)  increase  the  use  enhance 3)  of  growth  a more  (Bardach,  Furthermore,  i n the  time  the  and  food  third  is  available  dimension, depth,  production  (Quayle,  1969).  manageable  resource  through  R y t h e r , and  McLarney,  1972).  to quote  Leighton  and  Phleger  to  husbandry  (1977)  " Shellfish which f e e d upon p l a n k t o n i c e l e m e n t s and which lend themselves to cultivation in r e l a t i v e l y h i g h d e n s i t i e s have a p p e a l e c o n o m i c a l l y and energetically to marine aquaculture, p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e when t h e o r g a n i s m c o n s t i t u t e s a valuable food resource "  The  species  Pollicipes Lepas  polymerus  anatifera  encouraged and  Haida  and  In was  people  Cornwall, This  1)  as  1960,  1981).  edible  but  anatifera. to  (Evans, 1960,  to that  had  and  consumed  Ellis  and  two  acquisition  of  2)  success seed.  for this The of  from of  main  and  the peduncle  species  and  (stalk)  is  polymerus (Gibbons,  areas;  Lepas  anatifera  wild of  the  suspended  culture  of  Barnes  Lewis  1981).  settling  of  polymerus  1958a,  1966,  not  growth  P o l l i c ipes  Pollicipes  both  s t u d y was  rapid  Skerman,  Mclntyre,  Wilson,  on  the  that 1958,  preferred  from  acquired  candidate  t h e meat  (seed) the  Lepas  Hilgard,  study centered  the  a  addition,  that  1970,  as  compared  i t ' sselection  Reese,  Chia,  chosen  the  by  the 1964,  The  specific  objectives  1) T h e A c q u i s i t i o n 1)  of  to  Lepas wild  determine  anatifera so f u t u r e  to  where,  acquisitions  can  secchi  parameters Lepas 2)  of  with  the  i n the  literature  growth  observed  culture.  Phase the  salinity,  investigate  on g r o w t h  made  monitor  depth  a  be  the suspended  parameters  become  so  subsequent  to  the  wild  and  1)  in  the  available  Culture  how  in  information the  and  activity.  information  comparisons  2) T h e S u s p e n d e d  may  and manageable  anatifera  during  when  c a n be a c q u i r e d  obtain  Lepas  o f t h e two a r e a s  Seed  predictable 2)  f o r each  at  may  temperature,  the  the  environmental  culture  possible  have  on  site  effects  the  and and these  culture  of  performance  of  anatifera. to  cultured  determine Lepas  the  anatifera  a)  gonadal  b)  survival  c)  growth  based  state  d) w e i g h t / l e n g t h relationships  on i t s :  were:  5  3)  to  compare  anatifera cultch  grown  types;  dowelling, which  the  of  Lepas  on  the  three  each  oyster  and  cultch  performance  shell,  rubber, and  of  and  to  wooden determine  method  optimizes  performance.  for for  The  ultimate  the  mariculture  either  surface  goal of  the  current  i n the  future.  of a  this  study  seafood  Spanish  was  product  market  or  to  provide  that latent  may  a  foundation  be  acceptable  markets  that  may  6  II.  Currently the  subject  techniques The  of  some  Barnes,  investigated  suspended  of  literature  on  species  Pollicipes  and  i n Spain,  Achitav Klepal  and suggested  Proverbs'  maricultural  i s scarce  Barnes, a l .  that  this  species  is  concerning  duration the  only  and  (1984)  for Pollicipes thrive  of the  the commercial  polymerus  of the  Goldberg  would  only  Klepal  but the f i n d i n g s , though  report  Pollicipes  aspects  culture  the  and has  1978,  1977).  of suspended  due t o t h e l i m i t e d  information of  et  conditions;  (1979)  with  cornucopia,  and  (  deals  barnacles.  the f e a s i b i l i t y  harvest  application  system  inconclusive  wild  that  and morphological  culture  presented  literature  of the biochemical  1977,  cornucopia  commercial  utilized  reproductive  were  the  available  SURVEY  i s no p u b l i s h e d  t o gooseneck  commercially covered  there  LITERATURE  under  positive,  study.  document  that  has  aspects  of  the  f o r the B r i t i s h  Columbia  coast. The  ecology  discussed. growth Lepas  of P o l l i c i p e s  The morphology,  are presented  polymerus  distribution,  to provide  a n a t i f e r a as the candidate  and Lepas life  the rational  anatifera  h i s t o r y and  used  for mariculture.  in  is  adult  selecting  7  1.  ECOLOGY  1.  MORPHOLOGY  For  a  anatifera The  see most  Pollicipes (shell). five  In  In  polymerus  figure apparent  Lepas basic  capitulum  anteroventral  several one end  of  anatomical  difference  between  i s i n the  number  anatifera  the  plates;  addition has  and  drawing  of  Lepas  1.  polymerus  original  scuta.  the  morphological  to  one  these  whorls  of  of  Lepas plates  capitulum carina,  five  accessory  of  which,  a  the  capitulum  of  plates,  (Barnes,  at  plate, 1974).  and  capitulum  terga,  plates  rostral  the  i s covered  two  basic  anati fera  with  the  and  two  Pollicipes  the  base  of  comes  from  the  8  F i g u r e 1. A d r a w i n g o f t h e e x t e r n a l m o r p h o l o g y a n d i n t e r n a l anatomy of Lepas a n a t i f e r a a f t e r Sherman and Sherman (1979). (A - w h o l e a n i m a l s . B - w i t h l e f t v a l v e r e m o v e d t o r e v e a l i n t e r n a l organs )  9  2.  DISTRIBUTION  Pollicipes exposed Baja  polymerus  rocky  Pacific  California  1975).  Lepas  settles  on  1958a,b). Adults and  and/or  larvae Sea  and  et  a l , 1981),  and  Antarctic  Western coastal  3.  Roskell,  (Skerman,  1959  with  eggs A  and  the  North  the  Atlantic  North-Eastern  of  the  1972),  Atlantic  Atlantic  Caroline and  French  (II'in Southern  Islands  of  the  Zealand  New  the  b).  and  but  fertilization  on  the  and  cross  Hilgard,  an  Salekhava  summary  anatifera  in  anatifera  embryos  cavity,  anatifera.  and  and  HISTORY  Lepas  their  1958a  i s pelagic  world-wide.  Islands  (Newman,  a,b  is distributed  Equatorial  1973),  Lewis  to  (Skerman,  the  the  o f f the  Pacific  LIFE  mantle  1975),  open  the  Columbia  and  hand,  of  ocean  reported  1966),  waters  the  British  1970  other  in  been  Equatorial  hermaphroditic,  brood  have  (Arnaud,  waters  the  anatifera  (Boskel,  the  Cornwall,  objects  Lands  Both  (Patel,  on  Lepas  i n the m i d - t i d e range  e x t e n d i n g from  1960,  anatifera,  Generally,  (Bainbridge  coast  (Hilgard,  floating  North  i s found  within  (1979) of  observed Lepas  'in vitro'  Pollicipes  Although both  has  obligatory  species  normally  (egg c a s e s )  reported  jelly-like  are  i n the  for  Lepas  masses  filled  anatifera.  larval  polymerus  been  polymerus  appears  ovigerous lamellae  exception  exterior of  1960).  Pollicipes  development  for both  i s presented in Table  I.  Lepas  10  Table  I - A  larval  comparison  development  of  of  the  time  Lepas  involved  anatifera  and  in  the  Pollicipes  polymerus.  Lepas Naupliar  Stage  anatifera  Day  P o l l i c ipes  of Appearence  from  polymerus  Fertilization  S t a g e One and Two  12th  25th  Stage  Three  22th  34th  Stage  Four  37th  43th  Stage  Five  50th  49th  59th  64th  69th  69-79th  Stage  Six  Cypr i d  Note  - the  information  literature  of  Patel,  presented 1959;  i s summarized  Moyse,  1960  from  and  the  Lewis,  1975a,b.  During consumed 1967,  larval  (Patel,  and Lewis,  to  brood  their  the  length  of  settling  stage  development 1959,  1975a  Moyse,  and  embryos  time  from  (cyprid)  (stage 1960,  b ) . Though longer  than  2-6)  phytoplankton  Moyse  and  Pollicipes Lepas  Knight-Jones,  polymerus  anatifera,  f e r t i l i z a t i o n t o the appearance is  similiar.  is  tend  generally of  the  11  4. A D U L T  Table  II  Pollicipes sexual  GROWTH  lists  polymerus  the required to attain  II  -  anat i f e r a  A  comparison  and P o l l i c i p e s  Lepas  given  a n a t i f e r a and  capitulum  length  and  Age  17 d a y s  Capitulum  Length  Age  -  the  literature  of  Hilgard,  It  rates  Pollicipes  cm  1.72  cm  >  1.72  17-50 d a y s  >  5  2.3-4.0  presented  1958,  that  of  Lepas  is  Skerman,  1966, a n d L e w i s  i n the wild  Lepas  cm  years  summarized  1958a,  polymerus  cm  years  1960, M c l n t y r e ,  i s apparent  growth  5  information Evans,  the  anatifera  2.3  at Maturity  of  polymerus.  Capitulum Length at Maturity  1960,  f o r Lepas  maturity.  Table  Note  a  times  Barnes  from and  and Chia,  anatifera  the Reese,  1981.  grows  and  matures  at  a  much  polymerus.  As  that  anatifera  on  Lepas a  blue  faster  metamorphosed and  settled  Pollicipes  crustacean/zooplankton of  their  been  ovigerous  attributed  than  Pollicipes  it  polymerus  feed  as The  is  (Patel,  is  likely mainly  indicated  by  the  blue  coloring  has  a  pigment  of  astaxanthin,  origin  does  organisms,  diet  lamellae.  to  crustacean/zooplankton  rate  1959  and  Herring,  1971). Generally, only  minimally.  of  the  be  an  species offshore  activity  for  potential  for  encouraged  its  the The  morphologies difference  suggests activity  that for  Pollicipes a  greater  selection  as  in the  and  life  the  distributions  acquisition  Lepas  growth  of  anatifera  polymerus.  the  histories  rate  differ of  seed  and  an  would inshore  Ultimately, for  candidate  Lepas  for  each  the  anatifera  mariculture.  13  III.  Initially conducted to  a  survey  offshore  determine  settle.  recorded  from  survey  a  which and The  year's  may  during same  regularity  After  recorded.  frame  the  growth  for  anatifera  parameters to  determine  anatifera.  from  of  types  and  the  as  each  cultch  lengths  were  during  this  From  the  for  the  and  temperature  each  location  to  determine  retrieved suspended. and s e c c h i  parameters';  of the types  type  same  chosen  relationships  of the types  s u b s t r a t e s on  survey.  test  the  i f  seed  activity.  were  site  the optimal cultch  i n the  therefore  and w e i g h t / l e n g t h on  Lepas  chosen  of c u l t c h ,  were  'performance  grown  of  (seed)  the previous year's  a predictable  culture  1980  wild.  were  deployed  locations  laden  of  taken  the  was  seed.  and  salinity,  well  location  then  sets  in  (50m)  autumn  larvae  anatifera  of year  the  survival, Lepas  and  were  become  culture; As  Lepas  time  seed  to  and e a r l y  the c y p r i d  different  seed  could  transported suspended  year  settle,  of  acquisition  of  time  the>same  time  spring  submerged buoys  c a p i t u l u m and peduncle  acquisition  following  seed  and  i n f o r m a t i o n on g r o w t h  suitable  subsequent The  well,  samples  to obtain  late  a n d when  As  a n d METHODS  of surface  during  where  anatifera  survey  MATERIALS  of c u l t c h  they During depth  gonadal were  and method  the were  state,  determined  of c u l t c h . were  were  then  These  compared  to culture  Lepas  14  1 . SEED  ACQUISITION  1.  A  1980  SURVEY  survey  (50m)  was  of  four  conducted  the  presence of  out  onboard  80:13-14  Science,  Pat  May  1980  to  of  1980.  i t was  determine  1980 and  in  regions  The  top  region  the  bottom  region  along  (stalk)  a  of  organisms  the  buoys  to observe for  survey  was  carried  C.S.S.  Parizeau  Institute  and  of  the  was  36  was  area  that and  were  to  77  the  of  of  the  of  Oceans, first  two  was  first  Ocean  Canada. weeks  of  i t s apex  ( t e r g u m ) . The the  buoy  a  to  t i p of  of  the  line  previously On C)  p e d u n c l e was  capitulum.  obtained  the  bottom. line  Specimens and  nearest  perpindicular  which  were  the water  (shell)  15th.  retrieved  buoys,  t o p and  t h e buoy.  the  were  one  settled  September  surface  at  sampled  approximately  anatifera,  capitulum  along  the base  the  beneath  recorded  had  occur.  Lepas  measured  to  that  buoys;  area  2)  1,2,3,A,B a n d  each  surface  that  (fig.  set would  from  from  3  was  base  the  redeployed  (position  samples  ruler  lengths  capitulum  its  1980  the  Fisheries  was  subsequent  number  two  the  and  deployed within  i t  cleared  The  from  to  of  of  subsurface  2 ) . The  with  at position  Before  i f a  sampled.  laid  buoy  a l l the moorings  ranged  (fig.  conjunction  a l l been  three  September  Endeavour  Department  surface  31st.  third  had  and  and  (Table I I I ) .  The July  in  Bay,  buoys  anatifera  C.F.A.V.  cruises  moorings  i n May  Lepas  the  The  surface  0.1 to  and were  peduncle cm.  The  i t s base  measured  up  from  Table  I I I - Date  four  surface  used  i n t h e 1980  Surface Date  buoys  and p o s i t i o n  of the  subsurface  buoys  and the t h r e e  survey.  Buoys Deployed  Position  Latitude  Longitude  May  7/1980  1  49  21.6  May  1/1980  2  49  10.2 N  127  22. 0 W  May  7/1980  3  49  19.2 N  126  42. 2 W  May  1/1980  4  48  58.0  N  127  33. 0 W  17. 0 W  Subsurface  -retrieved  of deployment  *  N  1 26 4 7 . 1 W  Buoys  May  5/1980  A  49  55.9  N  1 28  May  8/1980  B  48  46.9  N  1 27 3 5 . 5 W  May  9/1980  C  48  58.2 N  and r e d e p l o y e d  July  31/1980)  127  19. 7 W  8 0 KM.  128 iW  Figure 2. Map of the n o r t h coast Of Vancouver Island. locations of surface buoys l o c a t i o n s of s u b s u r f a c e buoys Lepas a n a t i f e r a ) Positions c u l t c h was  126°iw P a c i f i c o f f t h e west (1,2,3 and 4 are A,B, and C are a l l buoys bore  1 and 2 were the l o c a t i o n s that the deployed to acquire Lepas a n a t i f e r a .  17  2.  1981  CULTCH  Cultch positions  was 1  3).  The  flat ring  was  tested  as  and  oyster  shells  of  cm  lengths  2.54  cm  geodyne and  at  two  was  of  welded buoy.  5.08 to  of  cm  and  seed ( f i g . mild  steel  i t s periphery.  Sections  geodyne  locations,  designed  acquisition  ring  the  the  a  the  which  were  cm  of  Two  driven  buoy  The  of  rubber  to  protect  were the  line  other ran  was to  down  tied from  since  strung  on  three  (20  cm.)  the  line  to  20  each  of  the  v e r t i c a l l y . To  each  three  eye-bolts  into  end  the  beneath  was  eye  the  of  the  the metal  shackled of  buoy.  three  the  of  to apex  the  secure. the  cultch  suspend  p o s i t i o n e d beneath the  of  cm  steel  one  dowelling  from the  3.18 into  about  the  lengths  stainless  dowelling hold  in  meter of  were  are a l l  punched  A  and  line  they  centimeters  line.  suspended  v e r t i c a l l y one was  chosen were  every  of  dowelling  Holes  into  and  wooden  polypropylene  Lengths  replicates  shackled lines  were  then  were  horizontally  ), cm  polypropylene  cultch  given  2.54  spliced  polypropylene  was the  bare  line.  were  lines  gigas  available.  they  was  suspended  tripod  and  buoys.  and  the  metal  materials  readily  staple  horizontally  ring  for  1981  system  eye-bolts  of  These  2.54  Twelve  suspended  A  ( Crassostrea  of  of  end  a  metal  polypropylene  meter  each  the  dowelling  geodyne  of  the  lengths  cultch.  inexpensive  were  about  shells  meter  strands  2).  15th  abrasion.  three  wooden  April  cultch  galvanized  between  Oyster  0.64  on  (fig.  support  secured  from  2  consisted  with  positioned buoy  to  system  bar  deployed  and  constructed  DEPLOYMENT  the  two types lines  buoy  and  ring. the of  To  metal the  18  The Lepas laden  anatifera cultch  seawater the  was  gooseneck  Parizeau Once  buoys  at  suspended systems.  were from were  retrieved each  in  were  to Bamfield Marine  within  Marine one  100  passed  barnacles  Bamfield  3 1 s t . 1981  item of c u l t c h  held  continually  May  hour  was  litre  through  a n d t h e number  r e c o r d e d . The  plastic  t h e drums  transported  aboard  the  Station,  Bamfield, British  Station  the  from  the  seed  seed  drums. during  Fresh  t h e day C.S.S.  Columbia.  laden cultch  experimental  of  were  longline  19 SIDE VIEW  TOP  VIEW  METAL  RING  F i g u r e 3. A s c h e m a t i c o f t h e g e o d y n e b u o y showing the placement of the metal frame used f o r t h e attachment of c u l t c h and the a c q u i s i t i o n of Lepas anatifera (seed).  20  2.  CULTURE  1.  LONGLINE  Two were  PHASE  longline  deployed  Archipelego The 2.54  cm  litre  SYSTEMS  systems  at  Research systems  polypropylene  drums line  ran  directly  from  the  floats.  were  two  20  each  of  meters  away  Kg  the  The  water  systems  Seed  from  anchor  chain.  of  longline  At  from  with were  The  anatifera  consisted  of  lines  of  weighted suspended. Lepas  anatifera of  a  end  of  was  of  with  a  two  200  lines  ends  of  of  0.95  cm ten  lines.  The  of  the  bearing every  two Lepas cm  polypropylene line.  The  lead  described,  cannon  each  2  then  the  20  into  and  lines  (1976).  spliced  seed  nets  to  shell  of  lantern  lines  anchor  each  cm. )  the  cm  perpendicularly  anchor  previously  placed  1.27  Two  length  ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 800 were  of  approximately  from  cm  Kg  between  Taguchi  shells  4.5  of  and  in  oyster  as  lengths  four  meter  from  0.64  meter  ran  f o r the  suspended  of  two the  sunk  of  of  floats.  i n tandem  scope  lease  anchor  and  were  laden  foreshore  five  main  three  lines seed  two  a  3:1  construction  5).  the  each  by  the  Four  held  dowelling,  one  Sheets  compartments  of  lengths  wooden at  ends  and  in parallel  a modification  systems.  meter  of  floats  anchors  laden cultch  three  the  lines  longline  into  each  on  4 and  floats).  concrete blocks  the  galvanized  ran  (fig.  strung  (main  design  Anchorge  consisted  polypropylene line plastic  similiar  McKenzie  Marine  longline  of  the  ball  rubber one  lantern  of  were  and  then  bearing the  nets  ten were  21  suspended.  Lantern  Corporation,  are  long  and  0.5  meters  into  ten  20  cm  deep  are  of  vinyl  frames  UV-resistant nets  were  remained  at  flexible  coated  mesh.  with from  wire.  the  the  culture  site.  Suspended  dowelling  lantern  net  second  system  lines  7-12)  bearing  ( l a n t e r n net  but  were only  seed.  containing  As  seed.  well  is divided  the  and  lines  floats  to  meters  horizontally  netting material of  frame  2  The  two  compartment is a  and  ensure  l o n g l i n e systems  from  one  lines 1-2)  containing  again one  cylinders  main  lines  1)  Fisheries  The  Each  were  (oyster  (wooden  Culture  3  cm  lantern that  they  surface.  there  shells  of  net  styrofoam  then,  oyster  The  compartments.  buoyed  wooden  2)  in diameter.  summary  of  product  'accordion-like'  polyethylene  suspended  a  In  lines  3)  nets,  line  six  lines  of  wooden  there  was  one  of  the  1-6)  systems  and  two  bearing seed. of  oyster  six  lines  of  and  one  from  shells  dowelling net  place  were  seed,  Suspended  lantern  in  the  (oyster  (wooden (lantern  line net  22  125 i10W i d  I I I  F i g u r e 4. Map o f t h e I s l a n d s opposite Bamfield Inlet M a c k e n z i e A n c h o r a g e was t h e c u l t u r e phase.  O  of the Deer Group in Barkely Sound. study site for the  5M  Figure 5. A schematic of s u s p e n d e d c u l t u r e of L e p a s (The surface floats are b a r n a c l e s on t h e l i n e s of w i t h i n the l a n t e r n n e t s )  the Longline System used for the anatifera. for the suspension of the gooseneck oyster shells and dowelling, and  24  2.  SAMPLING  The secchi site  environmental depth  but  of  anatifera  an  each  provide  over  type  'good 1981  Lepas  f o r the  to most  anatifera was of  used  as  blue  health'. and  anatifera  i n the  formulated  occurrence  peduncle  As  determine robust was an  well  indication  for a  of  programme  to October  since  from  recorded which  growth  rate. between  culture conditions relationships  type  the  and  method  gonadal  state  presence  of  ovigerous  maturity  and  c o n s i d e r e d an commenced  15th.  i t  result  comparison  cultch  sexual  the Lepas  determine  weight/length  The  of  were  greatest  l a m e l l a e was  sampling  may  to  suspended  investigated.  through  types  Finally,  in  survival  that  and  culture  played  lengths  which  growth.  ovigerous  The  continued  wild.  under  the  monitored  production  allowed  method  the  was  l e n g t h measurements  i t s growth  lamellae  and  of  types  the  have  well  f o r the  of  each  As  temperature,  characterize  may  provided  and  and  Lepas  they  cultch to  to  cultch  growth  of  measured  roles  as  salinity,  the  the  allowed  the  idea  from  these  were  the  set. Capitulum  time  cultch  only  anatifera. of  an  parameters,  not  Lepas  on  initial  Also  were  to determine  culture  would  PROGRAMME  1981  on  index  June  (Table  the of  15th.  IV).  25  Table the  IV  -  number  Sampling of  days  per  1 Secchi  Schedule week,  Number  of  2  3  : Indicates of  the  Days 4  the  frequency,  sampling  per  Week  5  6  programme  7  Depth  Temperature Salinity Survival Growth Weight/Length  *  Gonadal  *  State  —  Maintenance  Note June to  - The until  the  accomodate  October (*  program  - monthly  3.  and  at  of  performed August  sampling  weekly  1981.  periods,  from  I t was  the  then  September  15th  of  modified 21st  and  1981. samples)  ENVIRONMENTAL  Salinity surface  end  two  15th  was  and  PARAMETERS  temperature  one,  two,  and  were three  recorded meters.  at  four  Salinity  depths was  ; the  recorded  26  to  the  model 0.1  nearest 33,  0.1  S-C-T  meter  ppt  and  meter).  with  a  temperature  Secchi  standard  20  number  of  depth cm  to  was  the  nearest  recorded  diameter  to  secchi  0.1  C  the  (YSI  nearest  disc  (Wetzel,  1975).  4.  SURVIVAL  Initially anatifera, barnacles from  per were  being  considered capitulum  5.  they  in  were  counted. recorded  subsequent a  cirri  were  flacid  barnacles,  to  gooseneck  prevent  samplings.  distended  drooping  Dead  Lepas  An  stalk  them  animal and  was  gaping  out.  GROWTH  line  nets  of  were  compartments  were m e a s u r e d  from  barnacles the  sizes  were 'in  removed  from  their  nearest  0.1  cm.  shells  subsampled.  sampled  of  sample  individuals  oyster  were  gooseneck  desired  as  i f i t had limp  gooseneck  cultch  recounted  with  barnacles Ten  unit  removed  dead  Each lantern  the  were  present  measured. situ'. given The  A  each  lantern  and  shell  sampled  from  If  a  there  given  capitulum gooseneck  substrate.  capitulum  of  oyster  on  The  dowelling,  maximum  nets.  Both  wooden  Lengths  length  was  and  five and  gooseneck  wooden  each were  less  substrate and  were  the  than  the  a l l  the  lengths  were  measured  measured  dowel.  of  peduncle  barnacles  both  along  to a  not the line  27  perpendicular peduncle base  t o i t s base  was  measured  from  apex  i t s point  of  the  tergum.  of attachment  The  up t o t h e  of the c a p i t u l u m .  6. W E I G H T / L E N G T H  Monthly number  were  samples  samples removed  were  capitulum nearest  The  color  each  r a n g i n g from  of the types  at  Bamfield  Marine  Station  and  peduncle  lengths  was  cm.  Then  severed  the from  epizoic  0.01  to  growth  g.  the  and first  the peduncle  to the nearest  of c u l t c h .  hour  were  28 t o 40 i n The  three  laboratory  analyzed. measured  was  The t o the  removed,  the  , the parts  were  blotted  (wet w e i g h t )  on a  Mettler  scale.  7.  the  from  anatifera  one  and weighed  PT320  of Lepas  within  0.10  capitulum  RELATIONSHIPS  returned  facilities  dry  up t o t h e  GONADAL  STATE  c a p i t u l u m s from  weight/length  each  analysis  of ovigerous lamellae  8.  of the gooseneck were  dissected  (egg c a s e s ) were  b a r n a c l e s used i n  and the presence and recorded.  MAINTENANCE  Rountinely  the lines  and anchors  of  the  longline  systems  28  were  inspected  f o r wear.  well  as p o s s i b l e  without  3.  STATISTICAL  were  Columbia  The  computing  of comparing  each  the  were 't'  were  considered. test  overall  gooseneck  accumulative the  lines  within  Lepas  dowelling  test  Both  (Larkin, of  from  the  as  University  of  t h e 1980 s u r v e y  survival  region  from  t h e samples with  survival  from  which the  were  taken  the Student's  of  experiences  the cultch  ( L e , l 9 8 0 ) was u s e d f o r t h e gooseneck  shells  lengths  1979).  the  each  S:SLTEST  oyster  and  wooden  types  was  of first  t o compare t h e barnacles  dowellings,  and  from from  nets.  1982) were  and  from  was p e r f o r m e d  percent  anatifera  data  The a n a l y s i s  T h e UBC  of  the a i d of the  growth  buoys.  nonparametric  (Lawless,  by hand  facilities.  picture  the lantern  The  removed  anatifera.  a t which  barnacles  investigated.  Lepas  and the time  a n d a n ANOVA  The  were  the c a p i t u l u m and peduncle  surface  taken  with  of the wild  consisted  samples  endangering  performed  analysis  of  agents  ANALYSIS  Analyses British  Fouling  L o g . Rank  used  on e a c h within  likelihood  e s t i m a t e s were  iteration  to obtain  parametric  model  used  (Savage)  t o compare of  the  the  the survival  lines  lantern  determined  and the W i l c o x i n  oyster  nets.  As the  estimates of the slopes to describe  experiences of  of  with  survival  tests  shells well  and  maximum  Newton-Raphson  f o r the exponential  (Lawless,  1982).  29  Where:  P(T>t)  = EXP  P(T>t)  - the p r o b a b i l i t y  B  - slope  (-Bt) t > 0  of the curve,  of death  ocurring  the 'rate'  a t time " I "  a t which  gooseneck  barnacles die T  - Time  Subsequently likelihood evaluate  (week)  Pearson's ratio  the  chi-squared  goodness-of-fit  f i t of t h e model  slope  values  1979)  and the l i k e l i h o o d A  were  compared  modification  parameter  values  Bertalanffy, Institute  1938)  was  of Animal  Columbia.  The  test  form  (1967)  provided  of  test  and t h e  carried  1982).  (Lawless,  out  (Larkin,  1982). t o determine the  growth  equation  (von  by D r . N . J . W i l i m o v s k y  Ecology,  to  Ultimately, the  't' test  program  Bertalanffy  Resource  were  the Student's  of A l l e n ' s  of the von  test  (Lawless,  with  ratio  goodness-of-fit  University  of the  of  the von B e r t a l a n f f y growth  British  model  i s as  follows:  1  = L  - * ( i - EXP-K*(t  - to)  where: 1  = t h e mean  length  a t time  L  oo = t h e a s y m p t o t i c  length  K  = Growth  t  = time  to  describes  'maximum  length'  (cm.)  coefficient  (week)  = t h e time  animal  ' t (cm.)  a t which  grows growth  the  throughout  length  i s  i t s life  zero as  i f  the  the  model  30  The  Student's  parameter  values  equation  from  bearing  Lepas  anatifera. infact  facilitate  to  the  regression  of  i t  oyster and  is  they  version  of  in  was  von  shells  to  compare  Bertalanffy wooden  growth  dowelling  nets containing  that  treated  used  and  lantern  realized  of  regression  the  the  are  comparison  equations  from  1979)  the  here  Lepas  parameters  as  are  independent  to  growth. the  UBC  analysis the  S:SLTEST and  ( L e , l 9 8 0 ) was  subsequent  analysis  of  used  comparisons  the  of  weight/length  ionships. The  the  lines  Although  the  (Larkin,  generated  anatifera  revised  perform  relat  the  dependent  The  ' t ' test  program  figures  errors  and  f o r the  ACE:GRAPH  (Bonser,  determine  correlation  regression  equations.  1982)  was  used  to  prepare  c o e f f i c i e n t s and  standard  31  IV.  Generally, anatifera  the l o c a t i o n  seed  information  was  was  RESULTS  and time  discovered  obtained  on  of the  from  the  the growth  setting 1980  of Lepas  of  survey.  Lepas As  anatifera  well  i n the  wild. Based chosen  for  during 1980  on  1981 time  and  both  settle  survey  period  the  1981  the  did settle  Next  seed  systems.  survival,  anat if e r a  The from  harvestable was  anatifera lengths other  total  still  grown and  of  less  cultch.  the  than  on  grown  the  anatifera but  of  did Lepas  rubber  this  observed  than  two  the  growth,  under  culture  of  Lepas  the  minimal  study.  However  i n the wild.  attained size  to the  peduncle,  exceeded  of  for a given  in  However,  transferred  plus  types  nets  as  Lepas  line.  anatifera  that  occurred  dowelling  obtained  end  the lantern  heavier  locations  were  frame.  were  was  cultch by  Settlement  the sections  length, capitulum  4 cm  within  were  cultch  of Lepas  a l l the  size  on  the metal  Information  and m a t u r a t i o n  conditions.  growth  laden  locations  of c u l t c h .  polypropylene  from  and  a n d wooden  serendipitously  t h e buoy  the  and a t s i m i l i a r  shell  bare  frame  of c u l t c h .  deployment  the oyster  on  the time  deployment  to protect  long-line  the  the  survey  anatifera used  t h e 1980  t h e same  settled not  on  the those  Lepas  greatest grown  on  32  1.  SEED  ACQUISITION  1 . 1980  The  1980 s u r v e y  Vancouver settled (50m)  Island  both  on  surface  the  subsurface and J u l y  cleared  from  15th  The  1,2,3,  no  west  Lepas  a n d 4)  Lepas  though  settlement  capitulum  September  (shell)  buoys  were  1 5 t h . 1980  lengths  coast  of  anatifera  had  and  subsurface  anatifera  only  ocurred  had  sparsely  between  recolonization  31st (position  and  bottom  measured  (position  3) w e r e  regions  lengths  lengths  of the gooseneck  July  greater  that  on t h e s e c t i o n o f t h e s u r f a c e  the surface  capitulum  buoys  the  settled on  the  the f i r s t was  buoy  of  observed  (position  3)  3 1 s t . 1980.  mean  capitulum  (position  surface  off  revealed  3 1 s t . 1980 s i n c e  July  The  moored  A,B, a n d C) b u o y s .  buoys.  September  and  on  of buoys  ( f i g . 2)  (position  densely  May  SURVEY  were  f o r the bottom  region  gooseneck  on J u l y 1,2,3,  and  4).  that  than  on  The  were  different  V ) . As  September  3)  mean  recorded  f o r the  ( f i g . 6 and T a b l e  recorded  barnacles  31st. (position  barnacles  significantly  o f t h e buoy  that  of  top well,  15th  were  f o r the t o p ( f i g . 6 and  Table  V). The the  mean  bottom  measured each length  capitulum  region  of the  on S e p t e m b e r  other  ('F'cal  for  buoys  1 5 t h were  of t h e gooseneck (position  positions  barnacles 1,  3,  = 2.360). from  and  barnacles  1,2,3  not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  d f = 3 , l 7 0 p=0.05  of the gooseneck  similiar  lengths  the  and  4)  different  T h e mean top  when from  capitulum  region  4. B u t t h e mean  from  were  capitulum  33  length was  of  gooseneck  significantly  (ANOVA  test  'F'cal  =  A show  the  same  However,  the  =  df=3,170  p=0.05  =  The  mean  (position mean  =  region  from  of  position  position  35.062  and  1,  2  3 and  Scheffes  4  test  capitulum  (fig.7) (position  3)  31st  from  the  bottom  4)  than  87.445  ANOVA  and  stalk  region  the  were  lengths  does  not  of  the  lengths  are  comparison  mean  from  lengths  stalk  the  The  lengths,  September lengths  (top  July  were (top  for  [ANOVA  df=108,p-0.05 lengths  mean  7).  top  of  the  region  test  buoys  (Table  significantly  test  from  15th  VI).  different  (top  region)  'F'cal  (bottom  region)  'F'cal  bottom  regions  31st =  the  and  1.636).  significantly region  't'cal  =  top  and  significantly on  't'cal  df=108,p=0.05 from  the  were  recorded  region  similiar on  seen  positions  't'cal  were  the  12.639].  on  (fig.6)  July  top  (fig.  capitulum  3),  region  as  stalk  four  p=0.05  on  of  and  mean  d f = 3,171  stalk  comparison  longer  1,2,3,  the  't'cal  the those  p=0.05  lengths  (position  bottom  than  df=3,171  pattern  significantly  growth  from  9.347) . similiar  among  shorter  'F'cal  capitulum  the  barnacles  July  31st  df=127,p=0.05 13.862).  bottom  September However, shorter  The  15th  on  =  of  top  September  df=127,p=0.05  =  11.044  the  15th  buoy  region  region  7.341).  and  lengths  (bottom  the  than  indicating  stalk  region  from  longer  the than  34  o H  • X  •  * & X  —o POSITION 3 (T) N-77 -+ POSITION 3 (B) N-68 POSITION 1 IT) POSITION 2 m POSITION 4 m POSITION 1 (B) POSITION 2 (8) POSITION 4 (B)  N -51 N N N N  -41 -42 -46 -46  N -48 N -36 N -49  3 1  CO Z UJ  0.0  0.S  - T 1.0  -rts  —i 2.0  1  1  ZS  1  r— 3.0  3.S  -r  -  ~i—  TIME (MONTHS)  Figure 6. Plot of t h e mean capitulum (shell) l e n g t h v e r s u s t i m e . (T - t o p r e g i o n o f buoy a n d B - bottom r e g i o n of buoy, N-sample s i z e ) (the standard deviations i n d i c a t e d a r e 0.5, t h e remaining standard d e v i a t i o n s range from 0.3 to 0.4) Time : 0-5 - r e p r e s e n t s May 1 t o O c t o b e r 1 1 9 8 0 . ( f o r p o s i t i o n s 1,2,3, a n d 4 r e f e r t o F i g u r e a a ) .  5.0  35  Table  V  -  A  table  barnacles  from  positions  1,2,3,  't'  test  the  the t o p and bottom a n d 4. T h e  are provided  lengths  of the capitulum  are  from  equal  lenghts  regions  statistical the tests  from  (cm) o f  of  the  results  Region  3 July-31  top  Length  of the null  t h e t o p and bottom  2.6  (cm)  S.D.  bottom  2.9  0.3  1 Sept-15  top  3.5  0.3  1 Sept-15 2 Sept-15  bottom top  3.8 2.9  0.3 0.5  2 Sept-15  bottom  3.7  0.4  3 Sept-15  top  3.5  0.3  3 Sept-15  bottom  3.7  0.3  4  top  3.5  0.3  bottom  3.8  0.3  Sept-15  4 Sept-15  from  hypothesis  that  regions  each  df  p  't'cal  >  143  .05  3.75  >  88  .05  4.016  >  80  .05  7.125  >  90  .05  3.426  >  93  .05  4.864  0.5  3 July-31  buoys  of the Student's  buoy.  Position  gooseneck  of  36  uS -  o H * x D * A x  o POSITION 3 (T) N-77 + POSITION 3 (B) N-68 POSITION 1 (T) POSITION 2 «T) POSITION 1 (B) POSITION 4 (T) POSITION 2 (B) POSITION 4 (B)  N-51 N-41 N- 42 N-46 N-48 N-46 N-36 N-49  l  i— — •f-  I  —i O.D  1  0.5  1  1  tO  1  1  1.5  1  1  2.0  1  ZS  1  1  3.0  1  1  3.S  1  1  4.0  1  i 4,5  TIME (MONTHS)  F i g u r e 7. P l o t o f t h e mean p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h v e r s u s t i m e . (T - t o p r e g i o n of buoy and B b o t t o m r e g i o n o f buoy, N-sample s i z e ) (the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d r a n g e f r o m 1.0 t o 4.0, t h e r e m a i n i n g standard deviations range f r o m 2.3 t o 2 . 6 ) Time : 0-5 - r e p r e s e n t s May 1 t o O c t o b e r 1 1 9 8 0 . ( f o r p o s i t i o n s 1,2,3, a n d 4 r e f e r t o F i g u r e a a ) .  r  -  SJ)  37  Table  VI  - A  table  barnacles  from  positions  1,2,3,  't'  test  the  lengths  of the peduncle  the  top  a n d 4. T h e  are provided are equal  and  lengths  bottom  (cm)  regions  statistical  of  of the buoys  results  Region  from  the t e s t s  from  the t o p and bottom  regions  (cm)  't'cal  3 July-31  top  Length  of the n u l l  3.3  S.D.  hypothesis  df  p  >  143  .05  15.591  >  88  .05  2.680  >  80  .05  13.838  >  90  .05  7.795  >  93  .05  2.516  1.4  3 July-31  bottom  8.7  2.6  1 Sept-15  top  8.5  2.3  1 Sept-15 2 Sept-15  bottom top  9.9 3.4  2.6 1.0  2 Sept-15  bottom  11.8  3.9  3 Sept-15  top  5.3  1.5  3 Sept-15  bottom  7.9  1.7  4  top  8.7  2.3  bottom  9.9  2.6  Sept-15  4 Sept-15  from  of the Student's  buoy.  Position  gooseneck  of  that each  38  2.  1981  The The  system  designed  to a c q u i r e seed  and  vertical  disrupted  and  many  was  lost.  2).  The  Lepas  oyster  substrates not  the  shells  on  on  protect  the  suitable Lepas wooden  geodyne  1.  The  over  53  settled the  and  both  position  well.  of  cultch  the  cultch  1 and to  Lepas  Settlement  anatifera.  the  line.  at  metal  and  of  of  rubber  125  The  The  each  +  suitable did  anatifera  intersection  frame  anatifera.  sections  Lepas  the  line.  be  2 (fig.  dowelling proved  on  40/dowel  weather  lines  severed  polypropylene  Lepas  the  were  polypropylene  for  +  at  d i d not  rubber  of  used  to  proved  to  be  a  average  number  of  the  oyster  (800  cm )  shells, were  2  7 0 / s e c t i o n of  27  +  rubber.  PHASE  ENVIRONMENTAL  salinity  ( f i g . 10) The  wooden  from  d o w e l l i n g and  CULTURE  settled  buoys  that  shell,  lines  of  dowelling mainly the  substrate  25/oyster  depth  and  anatifera  the  bare  wooden  dowelling  and  arrangement  s e t t l e m e n t of  the  the  of  anatifera  f o r the  occur  settled  ppt  DEPLOYMENT  horizontal  were  2.  CULTCH  ( f i g .8),  were  salinity the  PARAMETERS  three  temperature  recorded at varied meter  from depth  the a  (fig.  culture  low  of  range  25  9),  and  secchi  site. ppt  to  monitored  a  high during  of  31 the  39  culture  phase  During 31) to  a depth  the f i r s t  of three  from  of the culture range  meters.  a mean  low o f  h a d become w e l l  the  final  approximately 6  part  17.6 C a t t h e s u r f a c e .  column In  10).  t h e r e was a d i s t i n c t  ranged of  ( f i g .  meters  and  tenth  the  bottom There  and  the  first  week 13.1  until weeks.  By  C  to approximately week  ( f i g .  Y = 24.6 correlation standard  temperatures t o a mean the  temperatures at  a l l  depth  depth  high water  decreased.  depths  4.5 m e t e r s  the secchi  15 t o J u l y the surface  week  ( f i g . 9 ) . The s e c c h i  was  was around  i n the ninth was  just o f f  9).  temperatures  three meters  from  week  eleventh  temperature  i s a negative correlation mean  ninth  as surface  By t h e f i n a l  a t 9 meters  the  A n d by t h e  the  i t rose  of temperatures  (June  11.4 C a t t h r e e m e t e r s  mixed  + 0.1  phase  between  averaged  of t h e water  column  over  mean  secchi  depths  the surface  and the  ( f i g . 11), where:  1.3(X) coefficient  error  =  The  shallowest secchi  and  the deepest  secchi  =  0.80  0.79  depths depths  accompany accompany  the highest  temperatures  the lowest  temperatures.  40  F i g u r e 8. P l o t o f t h e mean s a l i n i t y v e r s u s t i m e the culture site. T i m e : 0-20 - represents June 1 to October 1981 .  at 31  41  i  0.0  T  1  2.0  1  F i g u r e 9. P l o t at t h e c u l t u r e Time : 0-20 1981. '  1  4.0  1  1  6.0  1  1  8.0  1  1  10.0  1  TIME (UEEKS)  T  12.0  1  1  14.0  1  1  16.0  1  o f t h e mean t e m p e r a t u r e v e r s u s t i m e site. represents J u n e 1 t o O c t o b e r 31  1  18.0  1  1  20.9  42  Figure 10. P l o t o f t h e mean time at the c u l t u r e site. Time : 0-20 represents 1 981 .  secchi June  depth 1 to  versus  October  31  43  i 10.0  1  1  11.0  i  1  12.0  1  1  13.0  1  1  14.0  1  1  15.0  1—i  16.0  TEMPERATURE ( C)  1  1  17.0  1  1  1  18.0  F i g u r e 1 1 . P l o t o f t h e mean s e c c h i depths versus the means of the temperatures averaged over the surface and the f i r s t three meters.  1  19.0  i  I 20.0  44  2.  GONADAL  Figure bore  each  lamellae  sixth  week  week  gooseneck bearing  in  of  barnacles  nets  respectively time  ovigerous  did  not  and  increased  dowelling  from  to  the  shells  during  until  the  ovigerous the  wooden  from  to  final The  the  week  50% by t h e for  incidence wooden  but increased  the  of egg  dowelling  t o 42% and 62%  week. clear  between  appeared blue.  60%,  oyster  that  to that The  the ninth,  38%,  were  on  increased  shells.  barnacles  were  until  lamellae  at which  blue  eleventh,  and shells,  75%  time  at  which  a p o r t i o n of  ovigerous  lamellae  and f o u r t e e n t h  week  from  those  gooseneck  lantern  nets,  a n d wooden  respectively.  Generally, appearance  first  lamellae  appear  bearing  t o 38% by t h e  very  lamallae  ovigerous  barnacles  is  the from  that  barnacles  of  barnacles  not  week  that  nets.  d i d not decrease  by t h e f i n a l lag  eleventh  the oyster  f o r the gooseneck  Ovigerous  B u t i t was  gooseneck  egg  on  percent  f o r gooseneck  time.  the  the  of  that  barnacles  a n a t i f e r a of the oyster  and decreased  lantern  A  period  of those  and  blue  versus  Lepas  incidence  eleventh  were  and i n the l a n t e r n  The  blue  (egg cases)  of the c u l t u r e phase.  appeared  dowelling  of the percent  that  in  sampling  lamellae  the  lamellae  observed  next  and  i s a plot  of the c u l t c h types  first the  12  ovigerous  ovigerous  STATE  there  was  of ovigerous  ovigerous  lamellae  a time  lamellae  l a g o f s i x weeks to  ( f i g .13).  the  initial  from  the  ocurrance  first of  45  g o «, R" . = s  "  © BEARING BLUE EGGS (0)  h • BEARING « - - — » SEARING x x BEARING & Q BEARING * - * BEARING  EGGS (0» BLUE EGGS (D) EGGS (D; BLUE EGGS (Nj EGGS (N;  t Sr-  / /  T  TiriE (UEEKS)  F i g u r e 12. P l o t o f t h e p e r c e n t o f L e p a s anatifera bearing ovigerous lamellae (egg c a s e s ) and t h a t percent of ovigerous l a m e l l a e (egg c a s e s ) that a r e blue. (0 - o y s t e r l i n e s , D wooden lines, and N lantern nets) Time : 0-20 represents J u n e 1 t o O c t o b e r 31 1 981 .  1 20. D  46  F i g u r e 13. P l o t o f t h e p e r c e n t o f L e p a s a n a t i f e r a , of a l l c u l t c h t y p e s , bearing ovigerous lamellae (egg c a s e s ) and t h a t p e r c e n t of o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e (egg c a s e s ) t h a t a r e b l u e . Time : 0-20 represents J u n e 1 t o O c t o b e r 31 1981 .  47  3.  SURVIVAL  Figures for  gooseneck  and  in  first  the  5 weeks  percent  14  -  17 d i s p l a y t h e a c u m m u l a t i v e  barnacles  survival  culture  phase.  curves  of each  occurred levelled  of these  curves It  is  curves  mortalities The  between  o f f during  of the f i g u r e s .  was lines.  barnacles  were o b s e r v e d greatest  the s i x t h the l a s t  of the gooseneck  to  and t e n t h  seven  weeks  i n the shapes  dowelling  f o r the gooseneck  barnacles  barnacles  also  be  of the of  of  indicate  seen  14 a n d  the  figure  for  from the  ( f i g . 17).  t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between  of f i g u r e s  in  weeks.  barnacles  i n the lantern nets  discern  for the  decrease  t h e wooden  can  survival  dowelling,  the curves  A difference  difficult  wooden  F o r example  on  different  of the gooseneck more  shells,  D i f f e r e n c e s c a n be o b s e r v e d  16 o f t h e g o o s e n e c k  each  No  of the c u l t u r e phase.  survival  survival  the oyster  lantern nets.  Percent  that  on  percent  15.  the  48  a •)  8-  x o•  © OYSTER CULTCH 1 + OYSTER CULTCH 2 —e OYSTER CULTCH 3 x OYSTER CULTCH 4 CD OYSTER CULTCH 5 * OYSTER CULTCH 6  erg-  M > 3  o  cr UJ Q.  a.o  -1 2.0  1  1 4.0  1  1 6.0  r  r—  8.0  i  1 10.0  1  1 12.0  1  1 14.0  1  1  1  16.0  TIME (UEEKS)  Figure 14. Plot of the accumulative percent s u r v i v a l v e r s u s time f o r Lepas a n a t i f e r a from each of t h e l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l s (1-6). T i m e : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s June 1 to October 31 1981.  1 18.0  r 20.0  U?  —r-  o o h • o » x x oo x -—*  i  0.0  1  2.0  OYSTER OYSTER OYSTER OYSTER OYSTER OYSTER  1  1  4.0  CULICH CULTCH CULTCH CULTCH CULTCH CULTCH  1  1  6.0  1 8 9 )0 11 12  1  1  8.0  1  1  10.0  1  TIflE WEEKS)  1  12.0  1  1  14.0  1  1  16.0  1  1 —  19.0  Figure 15. Plot of the accumulative percent s u r v i v a l , versus time f o r Lepas a n a t i f e r a from each of t h e l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l s (7-12). T i m e : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s June 1 to October 31 1981 .  Figure 16. Plot of the accumulative percent s u r v i v a l v e r s u s time f o r Lepas a n a t i f e r a from each of t h e l i n e s o f wooden d o w e l i n g (1-3 ) . Time : 0-20 represents J u n e 1 t o O c t o b e r 31 1981 .  51  Figure 17. Plot of the accumulative percent survival versus time f o r Lepas a n a t i f e r a w i t h i n e a c h o f t h e l a n t e r n n e t s (1 -2) . T i m e : 0-20 - represents June 1 to October 31 1981 .  52  Generally, for  each  survival and  of  when  the three  appears  subsequent  transformed seventeen  percent  LogY  treatments  comparison  The  =  number  t o b e t h e same  suggest  prob=0.264).  the t o t a l  weeks  the curves  common  2.127  ( f i g . 1.8). A  of  regression  -  are  considered  and the percentages  of the r e g r e s s i o n  values  that  of deaths  regression lines  five  analysis  fitted  through  are similiar equation  plotted,  ('F'cal  to  the  to  week  =  1.14  is :  0.03275*T  where: Y = percent 0.03275 T  This  that (Fig.  = slope  = time  simplistic  mortalities  surviving  follwed  of the curve  'T' 'mortality  rate'  (weeks)  analysis a  of  simple  37.2% o f t h e gooseneck 18).  a t time  the  data  exponential  suggests function  barnacles survived  that  the  indicating  the culture  phase  53  Figure survival for each Time : 1981 .  18. Plot of the accumulative percent v e r s u s time f o r Lepas anatifera totaled of the c u l t c h types. 0-20 represents J u n e 1 t o O c t o b e r 31  54  A  more  gooseneck  barnacles  the  initial  line  among  the  thorough  barnacles  each  observations  Wilcoxon  that  oyster  The  barnacles  on  barnacles  within  VI  survival  wooden  - Chi-squared  and  nets  Log  concluded among  among  dowelling,  lantern nets  survival  Savage  analysis  shells,  the  differences existed  treatments.  survival  of  of the l i n e s  differences in survival on  Table  from  the three  significant  investigation  the  and  that  lines  between  f o r t h e L o g Rank  Rank  1-6  34.7  31 .8  Oyster  lines  7-12  28.9  36.6  Wooden  lines  1-3  1 29.8  164.2  nets  1-2  1 98.2  301 .6  survival  to  test  and  there  are  of  gooseneck  of  gooseneck  the  gooseneck  and  Wilcoxin  Wi l c o x i n  lines  -  line  analysis  Oyster  (note  from  (Table V I ) .  values  Log  Lantern  reinforces  Rank  the l i n e s  of the  i n a l l cases between  the p r o b i l i t y  the l i n e s  were  was  similiar)  0.0  that  any  of  the  55  In to  use  order the  to  define  parametric  P(T>t)  =  or  describe  model  the  survival,  i t is possible  :  EXP  (-Bt)  t  >  0  =  the  probability  where: P(T>t) occurring T  =  Time  B  =  slope  which  This  model  was  intervals  unlike  fitted  the  to  A error on  were  the  wooden  in  the  the  obtained  dowelling,  Pearson's  likelihood  ratio  'T'  the  curve,  gooseneck  to  the  'rate'  at  die  a c t u a l numbers  of  dead  exponential  model  of  and  at  weekly  that  was  values. estimate of  the  the  the  lines  of  lantern  chi-squared  the  data  to  the  lines  goodness-of-fit  f i t of  the  barnacles  preceeding  shells,  barnacles.  the  of  f o r each  and  death  weeks  likelihood  oyster  determine  time  fitted  percent  maximum  at  of  the  slope of  gooseneck  gooseneck nets  model  standard barnacles  barnacles  containing  goodness-of-fit test  its  on  the  gooseneck  test  and  were  performed  (Table  VIII).  the to  56  Table  VIII  - Slope  iteration, the  initiated  corresponding  Likelihood Oyster  values,  ratio  the  'B' d e t e r m i n e d first  chi-aquared  from  the  week  tests  Pearson  Likelihood  1  5  1  0.052  0.093  299  94  243  1 03  2  0.051  0.088  221  62  1 92  69  3  0.067  0. 1 29  263  77  217  94  4  0.065  0. 1 24  187  41  1 67  46  5  0.062  0.116  251  59  226  70  6  0.037  0.061  232  69  215  70  7  0.044  0.074  368  81  380  80  8  0.039  0.063.  94  18  106  18  9  0.045  0.075  506  1 48  477  1 42  1 0  0.047  0.082  183  58  1 55  59  1 1  0.043  0.071  500  128  509  1 37  1 2  0.032  0.050  218  54  238  54  1  0. 050  0. 087  905  222  844  235  2  0. 068  0. 1 30  1 1 68  242  1008  253  3  0. 040  0. 066  743  172  403  188  1  0.064  0.120  1692  495  1419  599  2  0.037  0.059  1707  681  1976  640  Dowelling  1  5  1  (5) a n d  Pearson's  Line 'B' V a l u e s  Lantern  (1) and t h e f i f t h  values  goodness-of-fit  by t h e N e w t o n - R a p h s o n  5  Line  Net  and  57  Initially obvious weeks  independence  a  poor  five.  number  of  generated  error  o n e , was  Figure deaths from  19  was  fitted  of s u r v i v a l  i n d u c e s a major  still week  the model  over  from  example  and the expected  the f i r s t  time  i n the f i t .  obtained  i s an  from  during  The  plot  number  of  = N[  t  >  E  = expected  N  =  initial  B  =  slope  0  EXP  (-Bt) - EXP  the model the  of deaths  (-B(t + 1)]  (0 r e p r e s e n t s t h e f i f t h number number  of  'mortality  week)  deaths  of gooseneck rate'  five  f i t , though  the model.  E  but the  the f i r s t  best  initiating  of a  week  barnacles  from  observed  versus  time  58  in _ .  o OBSERVED VALUES + EXPECTED VALUES  in  <M ~ ©  tn  +  15.0  o  0  12.5  :R OF DEATHS  r~" -  o +  m E p Z  +  +  o  o  + +  in _ p* ~  o  o  o  »w— in  i  0.0  1  1 2.0  1  1 4.0  1  1 6.0  1  1 6.0  1  1 10.0  1  1 12.0  1  1 14.0  1  1 16.0  1  i 18.0  TIME WEEKS)  F i g u r e 19. number of l i n e 8. T i m e : 0-20 1 981 .  Plot of the observed and expected deaths f o r Lepas a n a t i f e r a of oyster - represents  June  1  to  October  31  i  I  20.0  59  Although comparison slopes  (ie  gooseneck oyster for  the  of  values)  barnacles  of  1-6 the  within  each  of  Although may type  now  be  of  found.  from  was  relationship  associated  with  of  of  nets  model  density  lower  indicate  of  (chi-squared=134.5  for  oyster  and  on  for  the  the  that of  A  mean  lines  7-12)  wooden  Student's  dowelling 't'  gooseneck  lines,  lines the  and  an  d e n s i t i e s of  dowelling,  dependent.  relationship,  further  lines  1-3).  between  (ie  mortality  for  a  test  barnacles  ('t'calculated=12.8).  the  the  each  barnacles  differed  for  estimates  shells  lines  wooden  each  between  inverse  observed.  plot  exponential  survival  This  slopes  lantern  A  for  gooseneck  wooden  shells,  nets)  the  oyster  survival differed  (oyster  lantern  the  i t allowed  likelihood  differed  of  for  the  poorly  chi-squared=32.4  lines  that  Log  on  and  (chi-squared=223.3 indicated  fitted  survival.  'B'  lines  each  model  and  and  nets  'B'  explanation  each  rubber versus  values)  within the  an  i s seen  the  slopes  suggests  Generally  density  substrate  that  inverse  ( f i g . 20-21).  where  greater  mortality  d e n s i t i e s , may  account  for  the  rates  are  differences  60  o OYSTER LINES 1-6 • OYSTER LINES 7-12  o o to LU  _J d >  O •  0.0  I  1 10.0  O  1  1 2Q.0  1  1 1 30.0  1 1 40.0  1 SO.O  1  1 1 60.0  1 1 70.0  1 I 60.0  I ' SCO  MEAN DENSITIES  Figure 20. P l o t o f t h e 'B' v a l u e s (slope ofthe mortality) versus t h e mean density of Lepas anatifera p e r oyster s h e l l from o y s t e r l i n e s 1 t o 12.  100.0  61  o UOODEN LINES 1-3 • LANTERN NETS 1-2  o  in  ui _ J  o  m  o +  0.0  25.0  50.0  75.0  100.0  12S.0  150.0  175.0  200.0  225.0  MEAN DENSITIES  F i g u r e 2 1 . P l o t o f t h e 'B' v a l u e s (slope of the mortality) versus t h e mean density of Lepas a n a t i f e r a p e r wooden doweling from t h e wooden l i n e s (1-3) and lantern nets (1-2).  2S0.O  62  4. GROWTH Capitulum  The was  von B e r t a l a n f f y growth  fitted  gooseneck gooseneck nets the  Growth  t o t h e mean barnacles barnacles  containing  capitulum on  ( von  lengths  oyster  gooseneck  barnacles model  Bertalanffy,  of each  shells,  on wooden d o w e l l i n g ,  von B e r t a l a n f f y growth  1  model  each  1938)  of the l i n e s  of  of the l i n e s  of  and each  ( f i g . 22-25).  of the l a n t e r n The  form  of  i s as follows:  = L oo * 0 - E X P - K * ( t  -to) )  where: 1  = t h e mean  L  oo  =  the  length  a t time  asymptotic  ' t ' (cm.)  length  'maximum  length' K  = Growth  t  = time  = the time  a t which  if  the animal  grows  Figures  curves  (weeks)  to  the  time.  coefficient  22  model  throughout  found  'L » i n Table  'K', IX.  i s  i t s  zero  life  as  growth  - 25 d i s p l a y t h e mean  The p a r a m e t e r s c a n be  describes  the length  and  capitulum 'to'  for  lengths each  versus of  the  63  Table and the  IX  - A  sample capitulum  list  of  sizes  the parameter  (N)  growth  of  from  values  t h e von  gooseneck  Bertalanffy  Oyster  K,to  growth  Values K  to  N  Line 1  3.1  0.11  -3.9  483  2  3.0  0.10  -3.1  509  3  2.9  0.12  -2.3  483  4  3.0  0. 12  -3. 1  521  5  2.8  0.14  -2.9  522  6  3.0  0.11  -3.7  530  7  3.1  0.10  -5.4  540  8  2.8  0.15  -3.2  530  9  2.8  0.14  -5.5  535  10  2.8  0. 15  -2.7  582  1 1  3.1  0.10  -3.9  483  12  2.9  0.14  -3.9  647  1  3.1  0.11  -3.2  788  2  3.3  0.09  -2.3  854  3  3.0  0.13  -2.2  1 023  1  6.9  0.02  -8.8  1051  2  4.0  0.05  -7.5  1235  Dowelling  Lantern  Line  Net  -weeks)  model  barnacles.  Parameter L 00  ( L °° -cm,  for  64  V> 1  ». 3-  H O.D  o H « x o».  1  o OYSTER • OYSTER » OYSTER x OYSTER o OYSTER * OYSTER  1 2.0  I  I 4.0  LINE LINE LINE LINE LINE LINE  1  1 2 3 4 5 6  1 6.0  1  1 8.0  I  1 10.0  I  I 12.0  1  I 14.0  1  1 16.0  1  TIME (IVEEKS) Figure 22. Plot of t h e mean c a p i t u l u m (shell) length versus time f o r Lepas a n a t i f e r a from each of the oyster l i n e s (1-6). (standard deviations f o r e a c h mean v a l u e r a n g e f r o m 0.2 t o 0.4) T i m e : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s June 1 to October 31 1981 .  1 16.0  1  I 20.0  65  0 1 « x o*  © OYSTER + OYSTER t> OYSTER x OYSTER a OYSTER * OYSTER  LINE 7 LINE 8 LINE 9 LINE 10 LINE 11 LINE 12  UJ c CO  x-'  0.0  i  2.0  •nr 4.0  -  —r  -  6.0  -1— 8.0  I— 1 00 10 0..  "T  12.0  14.0  -1— 16.0  TIME (UEEKS)  Figure 23. Plot of t h e mean c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) length versus time f o r Lepas a n a t i f e r a from each of the oyster lines (7-12). (standard deviations f o r e a c h mean v a l u e r a n g e f r o m 0.2 t o 0 . 4 ) T i m e : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s June 1 t o October 31 1981 .  18.0  20.0  66  o UOODEN LINE 1 --+ UOODEN• LINE 2 » UOODEN LINE 3  Figure 24. P l o t of t h e mean c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) l e n g t h versus time f o rLepas a n a t i f e r a from each of t h e wooden l i n e s ( 1 -3) . ( s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r e a c h mean v a l u e r a n g e f r o m 0.2 t o 0.3) T i m e : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s June 1 t o October 31 1981 .  67  Figure 25. Plot of t h e mean c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) l e n g t h versus time f o r Lepas a n a t i f e r a from each of the lantern nets (1-2). (standard deviations f o r e a c h mean v a l u e r a n g e f r o m 0.2 t o 0.3) T i m e : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s June 1 to October 31 1981.  68  An on  the  wooden (L  initial lines  of  to  0.15.  asymptotic values  Generally the  The  and  wooden  dowelling.  and  the  gooseneck  wooden The  on  the  7-12 The  curves  less  of  oyster  from  to  0.05  well  from the  the  the larger  barnacles  cm  lines  one  third  of  the those  shells  asymptotic  length of  oyster  for  oyster  lines  IX). within  of  barnacles  the  'K'  Table  gooseneck  on  and  values  of  have  barnacles  the  are  lines  6.9  and  'K'  l a n t e r n nets on  25  gooseneck  those  As  the  (fig.  those  double  +  to  able  to  0.09  reject  probability  Subsequently  for  this  1-6  of  the  For  the 2.91  the  and  null  the  the  and  of  at  a  the  slower  oyster  than  shells  the  0.14.  oyster  and  'to'  mean  at  the  oyster  must  be  equal  to  or  level  of  significance  the  lengths  ( L °°)  were  more was  involved ' L  shells  1-6  i t was  that  values.  since  mean  Therefore  shells  p=0.02  precision  hypothesis  barnacles  of  asymptotic  example of  gooseneck  lines  'K'  chosen  mean  lines +  of  °> '  'L  was  greater  and  growth  similiar  lengths.  barnacles  3.00  shells  for  just  the  were  the  ranging  4.0  significance  or  measuring  be  values  lengths  from  capitulum  deviations  than  gooseneck  of  of  compared  level  standard  asymptotic  and  dowelling.  lines  were  'K'  IX)  ) ranging  for  a  and  Table  l a n t e r n nets  summary  attained  have  23,  the  barnacles  In  cm  IX)  and  barnacles  from  to  from  nets  than  Table  gooseneck  barnacles  dowelling.  gooseneck  rate  0.02  the  ( f i g . 22  3.80  °°  are  for  lantern  (L  nets  barnacles  wooden  to  °° ' v a l u e s  gooseneck the  and  gooseneck  from ' L  lantern  shells  2.80  lengths  the  shells  ( f i g . 24  from  ranging  indicates that  oyster  dowellings  o° ) r a n g i n g  0.09  overview  'L  used  °° ' f o r and  than  the 7-12  decided  =° ' was  extreme  in  that  equal, p=0.02.  throughout  the  69  comparisons The  mean  gooseneck (Table  the of  X).  Next  on  there  oyster  were  no  and  growth  of  but  different  (Table  lines  shorter value)  in  the  °=  ',  of  compared.  The  different. variances,  the  this  X).  the  from  lines  the  barnacles 'K'  each 'to'  of  could  do  von  of  and  because  values  1-3.  similiar.  'to'  °= ' v a l u e s  the  to  Therefore  on  t o be  parameters  ' L  gooseneck  compared  barnacles  However,  7-12  dowelling  (Table  gooseneck  the  and  f o r the  wooden  and  both  1-6  were  appear  'K',  f o r the  of  1-12  gooseneck  for  shells  values  lines  dowelling  capitulum two  oyster  Lepas  oyster  difference  those  type.  similiar  shells  the  cultch  the  not  appear  to  be be  X).  asymptotic than  on  spite  each  were of  oyster  of  were  the  f o r the of  of  of  parameter  equation  nets  compared  different  mean  'L  significantly  Although  lines  wooden  parameters  lantern  the  significant  growth  shells  heterogeniety  the  lines  values  values  barnacles  was  Bertalanffy the  on the  the  capitulum  The  of  parameter  gooseneck  Again  parameter  barnacles  barnacles the  o f mean  growth  lantern  shells length  anatifera  nets  and  of  Lepas  , Lepas  wooden  ( L °° ) m o r e contained  anati fera  anatifera  dowelling  rapidly i n both  (ie a the  was  exposed  on  attained  a  greater  lantern  'K'  nets.  70  Table  X  weeks)  - A comparison generated  capitulum  growth  of the  from  values  t h e von B e r t a l a n f f y  of gooseneck  Cultch  lines  Oyster  lines  Oyster  1 i n e s 7 -12  Oyster  lines  1-6  K-0.11  Oyster  lines  7 -12  Oyster  lines  Oyster Oyster  Parameter  1-6  parameter  growth  (L  model  S .D.  »-3.0  0. 1  L  °°-2.9  0. 1  df  P  't ' c a l  >  10  .02  1 .308  10  .02  1 .308  K - 0 . 13  0 .015 > 0 .024  1-6  to-3.2  0 .6 >  10  .02  1 .739  lines  7 -12  to-4.1  0 .5  lines  1-12  L  0. 1 >  13  .02  2.203  Wooden  lines  1-3  L  Oyster  lines  1-12  K-0.12  1 3  .02  1.319  Wooden  lines  1-3  K-0.11  0 .020 > 0 .020  Oyster  lines  1-12  to-3.6  1 .0 1 3  .02  2.227  Wooden  lines  1-3  to-2.6  0 .55  OO  .02  397.4  oo  .02  178.7  °°-3. 1  0. 1  >  Lantern  net  1  L  =°- 6.9  0 .4  Lantern  net  2  L  °°- 4.0  0. 1  Lantern  net  1  K-0.002  >  Lantern  net  2  K-0.050  0 .0017 > 0 .0017  Lantern  net  1  to-8.8  0 .2 >  Lantern  net  2  to-7.5  f o r the  barnacles.  L  »-2.9  °°-cm,K,to-  0 .2  (* - h e t e r o g e n i e t y of v a r i a n c e - 'F'cal,df=2,» p=0.025,= 5.007)  71  Peduncle  Growth  The June the  mean  15  to  figures  observable.  lengths  measured  October  15  are  for  mean  culture that attain lines the  of  by  a  of  wooden  lines  Another  of  stalk  indicates  gooseneck  barnacles  wooden  dowelling  df = 2,°°,p=0.025  of  a from  and  =5.0067).  An  for  of  than  intervals  figures  26  no  clear  remainder  the  the by  of  weeks, of  the  lantern nets  appear  to  barnacles  gooseneck the  the on  mean  stalk  between  those  shells, (ANOVA  on  barnacles  final  oyster nets  initial  is  the  lantern  eight  is  length  gooseneck the  Unlike  stalk  difference  of  an  the  figures  from  pattern  first  significant  the  29.  the  a n a l y s i s of  lines  -  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  the  followed  shells.  lengths  are  during  barnacles lengths  in  weekly  growth  behaviour  feature  dowelling  oyster  curves  lengths  stable  at  shown  capitulum  the  gooseneck  greater  1981  stalk  more  phase.  the  the  Generally  fluctuation followed  stalk  lines  test,  of  'F'cal  72  . °"  o 4 « x o»  o OYSTER • OYSTER e OYSTER x OYSTER a OYSTER * OYSTER  LINE 1 LINE 2 LINE 3 LINE 4 LINE 5 LINE 6  in _  in  -i 0.0  1  1 2.0  r ~ — i 1 4.0  1 6.0  1  1 8.0  1  1 10.0  1  1 12.0  1  1 14.0  1  1 16.0  1  1 18.0  TIME (UEEKS) Figure 26. Plot of t h e mean peduncle (stalk) l e n g t h versus time f o r Lepas a n a t i f e r a from each of the oyster l i n e s (1-6). (standard deviations i n d i c a t e d on f i g u r e ) . T i m e : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s June 1 t o October 31 1981.  1  I 20.0  73  o H x B*  o • » k a «  OYSTER OYSTER OYSTER OYSTER OYSTER OYSTER  1 2.0  r —i 4.0  LINE LINE LINE LINE LINE LINE  7 8 9 10 11 12  x  _ J  tX t— to  0.0  ~i  1  1 6.0  1  1 8.0  1  1 10.0  1  1 12.0  1  1 14.0  1  1 16.0  1  i 16.0  TIME (WEEKS)  Figure 27. Plot of t h e mean peduncle (stalk) l e n g t h v e r s u s time f o r Lepas a n a t i f e r a from each of the oyster l i n e s (7-12). (standard d e v i a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d on f i g u r e ) . T i m e : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s June 1 t o October 31 1981 .  r  20.0  74  o  o DOULING LINE 1 • DOULING LINE 2 • DOULING LINE 3  A  V"*  <»  0_ _  in  p> ~  I  -  ^  V »n \/  STflLJ  —  • —  i i* » / \ /  /  >*- - -4w  ooj /  ^ — 7 - * \ U  |  __ —--  J  /  i  in  _j 0.0  ,  , 2.0  1  1 4.0  1  1 6.0  1  1—I 8.0  1 10.0  1  1 12.0  1  1 14.0  1  1 16.0  1  TIHE (UEEKS)  Figure 28. Plot of t h e mean peduncle (stalk) length versus time f o r Lepas a n a t i f e r a from each of t h e wooden l i n e s (1-3). (standard deviations i n d i c a t e d on f i g u r e ) . T i m e : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s June 1 to October 31 1981 .  1 18.0  I 20.0  75  o •«  © LANTERN NET 1 • LANTERN NET 2  Figure 29. Plot of t h e mean peduncle (stalk) l e n g t h v e r s u s time f o r Lepas a n a t i f e r a from each of the lantern n e t s (.1 - 2 ) . ( s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d on f i g u r e ) . T i m e : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s June 1 to October 31 1981 .  76  5.  WEIGHT/LENGTH  RELATIONSHIPS  Capitulum  The shown  in  each  of  relationships figures the  coefficients value  of  the  This  for  the  a  whole  the  that  oyster  i s not  wooden  dowelling  i s most  size  range  expected  and  of  for  nets  differed  that of  of  any the  excluding  the  preceded  comparison October barnacles  of  data on  the  regression  observed  to  the  lines  To  wooden  would  oyster  are  viewed  data  (Log  be  It  similiar for a  shells  including  in  and  wooden  the  possible compared  the  the  and was  since  mortalities.  for  as  mg.)  dowelling,  excluded  curves  be  revealed  were  equations  to  containing  again  observed  of  appear  were  the  on  lines  data  of  the  barnacles  prob=0).  explore  samples  that  samples.  equations  14.67  a  apparent.  weight  June  regression  indicated  =  nets  display  data  regression  wooden  regression  is  low  lantern  the  The  the  the  of  subsequent  The  cultch,  one  lines  gooseneck  the  regression  the  When  equations  start  for  samples  of  growth.  The  the  ('F'cal  the  to  of  d i f f e r e n c e the  samples.  fitted  f i g . 32)  relationship  oyster  (fig.33)  inhibitions  June  of  been  measurements  result  capitulums.  the  and  the  September  comparison  are  of  accompanying  a  length  the  barnacles  ( f i g . 30  exponential  for  from  ( f i g . 31).  likely  versus  have  except  sample  apparent  August,  curves  expected  cause  shells  lines  0.97  logarithmic transformation  the  absence  to  increasing slope  subsequent  lantern  they  an  the  The  0.85  gooseneck  This  similiar  between  weight  measurements.  the  July,  a  capitulum  Generally of  wet  Regression  October  of  similiar.  32.  the  same p a t t e r n lines  capitulum  for  of  the  and  range  lines  pattern  -  monthly  0.61  dowelling. and  30  of  July  A to  gooseneck dowelling  were  similiar  (Scheffes  Log. Y and nets  that  the curve  differed,  test,  = 0.2293  ' F ' c a l = 0.11  + 0.5388  * X  f o r the gooseneck  barncles  where:  Log.Y  = 0.3892  + 0.6016  prob=0.73733) , where:  *  X.  from  the  lantern  78  o •i « x a-  © + • k o  JUNE JULY RUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER  N 40  Regression Eauation Y - -0.57 • 0.61(X)  r 0.90  S. E . 0.08  38  T - -1.30 • 1.03(X)  0.87  0.14  39  T - -1.96 • 1.33(X)  0.89  0.18  30  T - -2.60 • 1.56<X)  0.80  0.24  31  T - -4.06 • 2.19(X)  0.93  0.21  Of  S  0/  8.  IsU J  i—  0.0  I 0.4  I 0.8  "I 12  1.6  T  2.0  T  —  2.4  SHELL LENGTH (CM.)  i—  2.8  I 3.2  3.6  Figure 30. P l o t o f t h e wet w e i g h t ( g r a m s ) v e r s u s c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s anatifera from the l i n e s of o y s t e r s h e l l s .  4.0  79  o -• • * O-  e JUNE • JULY » AUGUST x SEPTEMBER CD OCTOBER  N 40  Reqression Eouation Y - -0.44 • 0 . 5 2 U )  r 0.97  S. E. 0.04  40  y - - i . 2 2 • 1.00(X)  0.93  0.09  39  y - -i.52 •  1.09U)  0.92  0.09  28  Y - -1.29 • 1.00(X)  0.86  0.15  39  y - -i.i2 •  0.61  0.26  i.iKz)  • •  8 5 3  Oo / CD Q -O °  j  3  °  a/  _  Jo  ~  i 1.6  1  1 2.0  1  r 2.4  SHELL LENGTH (CM.)  F i g u r e 3 1 . P l o t o t t h e wet w e i g h t (grams) versus c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s anatifera f r o m t h e l i n e s o f wooden d o w e l i n g .  o •• * x B-  o + • x D  Regression Eauation Y • -0.54 • 0.62U)  r 0.93  S. E . 0.08  40  Y - -0.87 •  0.76U)  0.92  0.08  38  Y - -1.84 + 1.29(X)  0.90  0.13  29  Y » -2.83 • 1.64(2)  0.84  0.22  30  Y - -3.42 + 1.98U)  0.87  0.24  N 36  JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER  3 . S  3  _  I—  0.0  0.4  1.2  I  1.6  "T"  i — i — i — 2.0 2.4  2.8  3.2  SHELL LENGTH (CrU  Figure 32. P l o t o f t h e wet w e i g h t ( g r a m s ) v e r s u s c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a from the l a n t e r n nets.  -1— 3.6  4.0  81  F i g u r e 3 3 . P l o t o f t h e l o g w e t w e i g h t (mg.) versus c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r Lepas anatifera from each of the c u l t c h types.  82  Peduncle  The (stalk)  regression wet  analysis  weight  f o r the  lower  a n d more  same  clear  lines  vs length  are  ranging  exponential  to the data  ( f i g . 34-36).  capitulums,  varied,  fitted  Unlike  the  coefficients  from  0.22  pattern  of  peduncle  the  regression  are  generally  to 0.81. Neither  present  as  i t  was  i s the f o r the  capi tulums. A  comparison  of the  gooseneck  barnacles  and  the lantern  (  within 'F'cal  =5.20  three  from nets  regression  the oyster indicated  prob=0.00579).  equations  cultch,  for  t h e wooden  significant  the  cultch  differences  83  o H x B-  r 0.0  e + » x D  JUNE JULY AUGUST " SEPTEMBER OCTOBER  N 40  Regression Equation T - -0.4.0 + 0.18(X)  r 0.84  S. E . 0.07  36  ? - -0.23 + 0.34(X)  0.90  0.22  39  T « -0.25 + 0.45<X)  0.76  0.24  30  T - -0.13 + 0.42U)  0.71  0.19  31  T « -0.18 • 0.51(X)  0.86  0.19  i l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0  1 1 1 r 8.0 9.0  STALK LENGTH (CM.)  F i g u r e 34. P l o t o f t h e wet w e i g h t (grams) versus peduncle ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a from t h e l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l s .  1Q.0  84  o * <s  o JUNE • JULY • OUGUST  x o-  x SEPTEMBER o OCTOBER  N 40  Regression E q u a t i o n T - -0.06 • 0 . 1 7 U )  r 0.36  S. E . 0.02  40  . T • -0.13 • 0 . 2 5 U )  0.79  0.18  39  T - -0.17 • 0 . 2 0 U )  0.66  0.16  2B  T • -0.45 • 0.08U)  0.22  0.26  39  I - -0.10 • 0.38(1)  0.62  0.30  03  *.U  J.U  V.u  STALK LENGTH (CM.)  F i g u r e 35. P l o t o f t h e wet w e i g h t (grams) versus peduncle ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s anatifera f r o m t h e l i n e s o f wooden d o w e l i n g .  85  o 4 « x o-  o • » x a  JUNE JULY flUCUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER  N 36  Reqression Equation T • -0.07 • 0.18(X)  r 0.81  S. E. 0.08  40  Y - -0.28 + 0.26(X)  0.77  0.16  38  Y » -0.25 • 0.32(X)  0.76  0.28  29  Y - 0.11 + 0 . 3 K X )  0.76  0.39  30  Y - 0.29 + 0.31(X)  0.82  0.23  CD  3  . »' x  1-1  UJ 3  ^ .  UJ  a  a C  V  .-^V*  T 1.0  1 2.0  1  ° / > i > / ' x  * ' ' 2 « . x  J'  1 3.0  1  •  1 4.0  r  S.0  STALK LENGTH (CM.)  F i g u r e 3 6 . P l o t o f t h e wet w e i g h t (grams) versus peduncle ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a from the l a n t e r n nets.  86  F i g u r e 37. P l o t o f t h e wet w e i g h t (grams) versus peduncle ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r Lepas anatifera from each of the c u l t c h t y p e s .  87  V.  1.  SEED  ACQUISITION  1.  1 980  SURVEY  Skerman capitulum the  east  that a  (1958a)  lengths coast  this  of  set  shore.  From  surface  buoys,  80  south  km  New  off  the  survey  that  The Lepas  time  a n a t i f e r a from that  increased  growth  should  exposure, (Quayle, McLarney, Phleger, The  32  as 1969,  1976  Estevan  the  dense  within  occurred  New  the  top  the  may  a  been and  of  the  Therefore growth  1978; 1973,  for  than  Taguchi,  well, the  lengths  of  the  regime  of  buoys growth.  amount  proposed  molluscan  Shaw,1969,  As  increased  a  the  frame.  greater  the  on  during  capitulum  to  from  extended  Island.  region  leads  within  km  that  time  off  observed  survey  recorded  mean  days  50  region  short  bottom  result  reported  Sanders,  a  63  occurred  1980  Vancouver  the  submergence be  a  attained  (1958b)  Zealand  lengths  within  and  to  approximately  Point,  between  39  Skerman  during  capitulum  better  and  of  a n a t i f e r a had  anatifera colonized  provide  1972,  well  observed  feeding.  1971,  As  cm  front  for  has  Lepas  2.90  coast  km  continual  available  culture  a  difference noted  suggests The  set  to  east  off  from  that  Zealand.  set  west  this  2.15  the  Lepas  i s suggested  reported of  fortnight covering  it  DISCUSSION  of  suspended of  suspended  tidal culture  Bardach,  Ryther,  and  1976,  Leighton  and  typical  of  and  1977).  c o l o n i z a t i o n of  the  surface  buoys  is  88  the  gregarious  barnacles  (50 In  the  m.)  spring  was  likely  shells,  them. seed  metal  must  take  very  and  rough  and  qualities buoy  and  for of  the  i t s dark  sparse  probably  due  to  their  paint.  occur  1980  survey.  regularly  in  lines,  the below  the  Negative  a  suitable surface  was  Both  the  any  of  with oyster  severed  the  of  severed  acquisition  cyprid  the due  was  likely are  lines  of  conditions.  larvae. for  wooden to  the  the  shade  they The  balanoids  1958).  The  dowelling  the  obseved  Furthermore,  features  The  probably  (Skerman  probably  most  seas.  documented  phototropism  were  cultch  s u b s t r a t e because to  intersection  of  ultimately  sea  pedunculates  anati fera. rubber  at  potential  is  of  buoy  the  ) and  color.  abrasion  lines  associated  polypropylene  cyprids  line  the  motion  future attempts  the  of  heavy  irregular  at  Lepas  The  of  that  of  1954  polypropylene  (1958b)  1950).  may  violent  periods  provide  and  there.  balanoid  anti-fouling  i n the  the  account  behaviour Barnes  was  arrangement  'legs'  that  settlement  provided  the  the  denser the  of  during  shells  rugophilic (Crisp  into  buoys  settlement  the  i t is likely  suggests  Oyster a  result  and/or  and  Stephenson,  covered  of  abrading  well  This  offer  dense  pedunculate  DEPLOYMENT  buoys  while  them. As  a  and  the  c o a t i n g of  area  CULTCH  geodyne  the  their  in that  both  subsurface  destruction  most  the  the and  1981  The  by  of  conclusion, a  2.  of  (Knight-Jones  settlement depth  nature  by  shading Skerman  attractive beneath  attractive  to  the the  89  settling and  cyprid  Reiner,  line  to  larvae  1942).  provide  some q u a l i t y observed  of  of  barnacles  Finally, an  the  settled  failure  attractive  i t s 'newness' on  (Visscher,1927 the  s u b s t r a t e may  because  older  of  more  Lepas  and  polypropylene  have  been  anatifera  weathered  Pomerat  due  has  to  been  polypropylene  line  between  15th  (personal observation). The and  May  the the  acquisition 30th  1981  previous  at  both  location  and  qualities  acquisition  of  cultch  suggests difficult large easily  large  types  that to  amounts i f one  this  same  in  for  are  encouraging  settlement  of  seed.  attracting need  materials.  r e s p e c t s the  be  times  1980  of  may  (positions  similiar  time  proceedure  seed  sometime  locations  anatifera  amounts  obtain of  ocurred  s e t . These  Lepas  predictive  the  seed  the  year's  s e t t l e m e n t s of  that  of  As  are  well,  possible the  sets  of  Lepas  not  require  force  of  of  These future  success  of  anatifera  seed  expensive  nor  acquisition  inexpensively the  as  suggests  predictable.  G e n e r a l l y , the  potential  2)  locations  1981  f o r the  accomplished  1 and  and  and  April  sea.  of and  90  2.  CULTURE  1.  PHASE  ENVIRONMENTAL  Little other  than  expected negative the  can that  was  of  i n c r e a s e d and  temperatures  culture  phase  i n the  mortality,  2.  The  fell.  of and  this growth  GONADAL  of  i f we of  that  the  during  was  period  the  believed  of  September  clearer  turbidity  Then  i t  can  'bloomed'  period  to  more  and  an was be when  decreased  first be  that mean  obtain  numbers  the  The  phytoplankton to  phytoplankton  subsequently  showed  highest  the  phytoplankton.  of  becomes are  the  possible  assume  salinity  of  abundant  October.  when  gonadal  (egg  cases)  the  The  state,  considered.  STATE  appearance  week  be  salinity  anatifera,  temperature  Although  of  the  Lepas  during  column. may  from  of  and  ocurred  Therefore  cooler  greatly  depth  phytoplankton  second  importance  ninth  number  measurements  acquisition  i t  abundance  the  vary  water  measured  the  from  secchi  depths  the  the  temperatures  of  the  i t s abundance  to  that  not  of  secchi of  proportional  than  did  area  not  indication  when  concluded  correlation  temperatures  said  i t  i n the  shallowest  biomass  be  PARAMETERS  the  of  ovigerous  culture  phase  lamellae corresponds  to a  nine  to  by  the  fifteen  91  week may  period become  eight  since  egg  the  period the  difference  conditions addition  may  blue  of  lamellae  week. Lepas  and  lamellae  earlier suggests  the the in  fell.  p r o p o r t i o n of  to  period  of  an  time  literature  bearing  eggs.  The  And  as  biomass  the  may  at  may  depth,  abundance  observed f o r the  diet  at age  the at  for  of  of  the  blue the  which of  the  Lepas  until  presence ovigerous ovigerous  secchi  i f as  depth  proposed  phytoplankton,  biomas  fell  fell  as  the  perhaps  increased. Therefore  to  have the  difference  site  In  ovigerous  blue  l a m e l l a e may  culture which  of  that  site.  observed  phytoplankton  available  and  assumed,  not  d u r i n g which  1966).  significant.  culture  of  phytoplankton  account  the  to  literature  be  ocurrence  ovigerous  weeks  color  zooplanktonrphytoplankton of  half  be  indication  of  anatifera  Mclntyre,  not  i t can  increase  the  inadequate  This  i s an  Lepas  i n the  normal  time  of the  r e t a r d e d appearance part  and  a  and  l a m e l l a e were  in secchi  indication indeed  or  then  the  the  and  1959,  may  proportional with  two  optimal  1971).  increase  that  barnacles.  the  (Herring,  The  temperatures  is  anatifera  the  i s an  ovigerous  settled.  reported  study  been  Blue  corresponds  increased.  period  have  as  Patel,  is significant, not  astaxanthin  the  had  little  1958a,  in this  colored  eleventh  lamellae of  between  observed  anatifera  i n as  (Skerman,  difference  the  bearing  weeks  The  If  Lepas  and  that  anatifera  been  due  gooseneck between  the  reported in may  be  found  92  3.  SURVIVAL  Generally the  first  rapid  five  increase  eleventh  may  barnacles  density  and  of  the  may  for  of  have  begun  to  available  of  levelling been die as  lamellae.  have  of  The  water  is  Pile  was  waste  the  by  a  tenth  and  mortality  was  substrates  may  of  a  weeks  increase  The  balanoid  food.  may  The  the  algae  to e s t a b l i s h A  lower  the  space  barnacels  would  gooseneck  have  balanoid  affected.  and  interfere  barnacles.  inhibited  mortalities after two  by  f a c t o r s , the zooplankton  the of  amidst  The  feeding  and  • the the  algae  of of  another  a the  diet  and  richer  of  would  gooseneck  the  eleventh  week  fouling  appearance  efficiency  (  five  would  about  richer  health  (algae,  products. of  off  perch  of  that  followed  the  that  adversely  for  water  feeding  the  Predation mortalities.  of  off  die  first  organisms.  availabilty  improved  ) the  compete  and  by  organisms  barnacles  i s assumed  increased  products.  edulis  result  back  The  circulation for  the  off  Fouling  fouling  circulation  toxic  indicated  mortalities,  suggested  density.  the  fouling  water  of  levelling  survival  circulation  survival  phenomenon.  gooseneck  removal The  to  taken  Mytilus  a  free  results  this  e d u l i s would  impedence the  The  for  percent  were  then  before  available  with  and  have  themselves  Mytilus  weeks  proportional  responsible It  f i g u r e s of  weeks.  inversely be  the  may  have  barnacles  of  that  Rhacochilus  may  vacca  )  become  ovigerous  and  of  the  allowed  toxic  zooplankton  have  had  increased  s u r v i v i n g gooseneck  factor  have  blue  removal  diet  algae  waste would  barnacles. accounted  were  for  observed  93  feeding  on  observed  to  the be  responsible definitely appears  cirri eaten.  for  weight/length  density  of  fouling  and  4.  The  the  more  that  seed  is  predation  of  known  efficiency  evident  when  therefore  the  be  loss  would  This  effect  growth  and  production  c u l t c h that  initially  used  suspended  will  would  feeding.  the  were  the  considered.  and  in  cirri  but of  cirri  the  inturn  increase  has  may  the  be  greatest  culture. Control  of  production.  Growth  results  lantern  nets  barnacles  on  indicated that  had the  dowelling A  than  The  of  length  barnacles  reason  predation.  greater  lines  asymptotic  gooseneck  nets.  not  loss  the  GROWTH  Capitulum  lower  is  survival  i f only  a n a t i f e r a . Only the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s are  Generally, optimized  with  become  Lepas  Whether  deaths  interfere  to  of  on  for for  the the  this  from  the  nibbling  the  cirri  capitulum  oyster was  of  of  gooseneck  barnacles  predacious the  and  attained  lines  pile  barnacles  growth  shells  than  more  have  within  within  the  perch  which  gooseneck  gooseneck  rapidly  been  for  A the  and  wooden  the  lantern  differential  lantern  barnacles  the  dowelling.  shells  barnacles  from  the  wooden  oyster  d i f f e r e n c e may  gooseneck  protected  gooseneck  were  nets  were  observed  exposed  on  the  94  lines  of oyster The  shells  subsequent  decrease  gooseneck  less  likely  able  lengths  ( L °° ) t h a n  seed  laden  best  method  each  the  a comparison  and were  clearly  was  than  capitulum 0.03 under for  length  suspended  Lepas  anat i f e r a  discussed;  fouling agents,  Peduncle  Growth  The  stalk  varies  culture  probably  due  be  predation  i s probably  made  the  between  of September  the  1980 t h e  from  a l l  capitulum  and  four  lengths  capitulum wooden  dowelling,  t h e two l a n t e r n  conditions  those  in  of  lengths  nets  r e s p e c t i v e l y . Growth  observed to  Therefore  time i n  from  a n d 2.66 + 0.04 cm  asymptotic  t h e same  t h e mean  averaged  optimal  settled  T h e mean  shells  been  culture  barnacles  over  of oyster  i s most  the culture  cm.  have  t h e 1981  can  gooseneck  nets  growth.  for  lower  to  from  By t h e m i d d l e  averaged  difference  at  anatifera  growth  3.56 + 0.31  barnacles  +  less  of  would  predation.  lantern  had i n i t i a l l y  for  of the l i n e s  2.57  site  length  bouys  t h e mean  Lepas  and the w i l d .  capitulum  each  by  anatifera.  gooseneck  from  attained  to culture  study  surface  have  tend  inhibit  nourishment  within  that  would  by p r e d a t i o n  cultch protected Lepas  cirri  and t h e r e f o r e  not a f f e c t e d  a n d t h e 1980 s u r v e y year,  the  sufficient  would  those  i t i s assumed  culture mean  therefore  of  affected  to obtain  and  dowelling.  of feeding  barnacles  growth  study  shortening  the e f f i c i e n c y  The  If  a n d wooden  at  the  the  study  wild.  factors  was  The  previously  and the i n i t i a l l y  poor  diet  site.  depending  length on  varies  i t s degree  proportionately of contraction.  with  density  Although  and  greater  95  stalk it  lengths  i s difficult  variable a  were  poor  most  t o a c t u a l l y make  nature  i s  part  way  to  densely  length  maximize  5.  settled  WEIGHT/LENGTH  clear  The  1958a most  weight/length capitulum those  of  of the  (Skerman  the  as that  relationship nature  ).  Perhaps  will  optimize  stalk  which i s  then,  be t o u t i l i z e not only  suggested  the stalk i s  Although  should  the  the  only  maximize  the  stalk  survival  and  RELATIONSHIPS  stalk  wet w e i g h t / l e n g t h  observed the  stalk,  for  the  capitulum.  r e l a t i o n s h i p i snot  logarithmic  This  i s  weight/length  due t o t h e v a r i a b l e  i t s elasticity  and  density  dependency  feature  from  the analysis  ). striking  relationship  of t h e gooseneck  protected  gooseneck  within  barnacles  length  than  shells  a n d wooden  nets  cultch. This  considering  i t i s the stalk  would  site  production.  Generally as  1958b  barnacle.  i t s growth  at the culture  the capitulum  (Skerman  of the gooseneck  than  comparison  i n d i c a t i o n of growth  but as p r e v i o u s l y  therefore  this  of the s t a l k . Unlike  a poor  edible  best  i n the wild  i n d i c a t i o n of growth  length the  attained  within  t h e gooseneck  are apparent.  to arise  was  the difference  barnacles  exposed  the lantern  nets.  the lanterns barnacles  dowelling.  Again  from  were  observed  to  of the f o rt h e  predation  The c a p i t u l u m heavier  the  lines  the advantages  fora of  and  of the given oyster  of the lantern  96  6. T O T A L  LENGTH  Generally plus end  s t a l k ) of Lepas  mean  anatifera  mean  P o l l i c ipes 1984  ).  similiar the  cornucopia If  attained  to  Spain,  of  1.72  growth  that  does cm  in less  Hilgard,  than  from  weeks  weeks.  Although  exceed  Lepas  phase,  and t o t a l growth  anatifera  the minimal  utilized i s  i s  lengths  enough  less under  size  by t h e  exceeds the barnacle (Goldberg, grow  at a  indigenous would  to  n o t be  polymerus,  industry  exported  and c a p i t u l u m  lengths  (Barnes  exceeding  still  cm  to  size  nor i s i t expected  attained sexual  harvestable  values  Pollicipes  to attain  and  Reese,  and Chia,  of the a c q u i s i t i o n  grew  t o 6.3  assumed  seafood  maturity  years  (capitulum  i n Spain  which  1966, a n d L e w i s  was  4.2  a comparable  Columbia  years,  twenty  the time  culture  fifteen  wild,  five  length  f o r the gooseneck  years.  sexual  1960, M c l n t y r e ,  anatifera, the  for several  not a t t a i n  from  polymerus,  the B r i t i s h  for  o f 4 cm  America,  total  o f mean  cornucopia  of North  i n the wild  range  commercially  as P o l l i c i p e s  coast  species  size  P o l l i c ipes  rate  west  the  harvestable  average ranged  of the c u l t u r e period. This  minimal  of  t h e combined  of seed  maturity 4 cm  than  culture  set i n Spain.  1960,  1981). to  Lepas  the  within  within  that  full  17  observed  end  nine  to  to  23  i n the  conditions  to  97  V  1.  SEED  ACQUISITION  1. middle  Lepas of  location  of  reliable  the  end  densely  of  May,  off  the  of  both  predictability  i s encouraging source  of  seed  i n the  for  spring, west the  future  i s neccessary  from  the  coast  of  time  and  the  acquisitions  of  for a  successful  venture.  Oyster are  settles  The  setting  mariculture  rubber  until  Island.  A  2.  anatifera  April  Vancouver  seed.  CONCLUSIONS  shells,  suitable  success  of  these  suggests  that  the  l e n g t h s of  cultch,  but  'new'  inexpensive acquisition  wooden  polypropylene  and  of  d o w e l l i n g and  easily  seed  sheets  i s not.  of The  obtained materials  need  not  be  a  costly  proposition.  3. deal  The  with  Equipment  2.  CULTURE  1. been than  is must  the be  that  may  potential rigged  prove  to  be  devastating  to withstand  the  most  force  violent  difficult of  the  to sea.  storms.  PHASE  Growth  less  factor  rate  under  f o r Lepas  may  be  suspended  anatifera  phytoplankton/zooplankton  site  specific.  culture  observed ratio  Growth  conditions at i n the  may  be  a  wild.  appears this  Areas  detriment  to  to  have  study  site  of  a  growth  high and  98  time  to sexual  more  beneficial  located  at  maintained damage  the  by  of  that  However  site  is  culture  of  that  to  densely  colonized  growth  and  f o r those  than  nets  increase  means  The  within  size  4 cm  time.  This  available spring.  grown  be  operation and  reduction  t o be  of  be  directly  per  production  should  costs  total  their  length  17 t o 23 w e e k s ,  f o r the gooseneck  consumed  in  acceptable suggests  that  annually  by  Spain. size  unit only  of that  transferred  to  from  were  significantly  predation on  lines.  use appears  within  the  Although  the  t o be  t h e most  anatifera .  (capitulum  plus  peduncle)  minimal  harvestable  barnacle  Pollicipes  cornucopia,  It  encouraging  the average  can  a marketable late  gain  exposed  of c u l t u r i n g Lepas  mean  exceeded,  commercially  the  anatifera  weight  nets  is  may  managed  seems  optimize  lantern  which  and  Lepas  anatifera protected  of  easiliy  survival  f o r Lepas  5.  mariculture  more  greater  successful  site  phase.  Capitulum  lantern  a  exposed  weather.  number  suggests  i s most  a more  i t saccessibility  adverse  to the  This  4.  growth.  the d e n s i t i e s studied,  proportional  cultch  Therefore  protected  because  At  cultch.  to  a  caused  3.  maturation.  fall  is be  reached sized  from  sets  that  i n such  product obtained  a  a  short  could  be  in early  99  VI.  RECOMMENDATIONS  1. S E E D A C Q U I S I T I O N  1.  The  investigated Lepas which  time  emphasize  types  Hatchery  and  and  t h e time  to the  shore  be  frame  locations  orientation  inexpensive  techniques  and l i m i t a t i o n s  during  should  and  further  be  which sought  to  potential  should  be  optimized  methods  to  deploy  and  should  that  may  be d e v e l o p e d  arise  from  a  t o avoid the reliance  on  sets.  1. S i t e  The  PHASE  specificity  investigation  2.  both  should  equipment.  2. C U L T U R E  an  set  In a d d i t i o n  proximity  practical  dependence natural  settle.  Cultch  stressing  3.  of  sites.  2.  retrieve  location  to accurately establish  anatifera  culture  and  needs  t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d .  of p r o t e c t e d versus  effect  media  should  rich  phytoplankton  of  exposed  phytoplankton  be i n v e s t i g a t e d medium  sites  versus  i f , as proposed  Particularly, i s warranted.  zooplankton  from  this  i s d e t r i m e n t a l t o growth  rich  study,  a  and sexual  100  maturity.  3.  T h e maximum  optimally the  grown  problems  depth  should  cultured  should  determine  i f  3.  1. before  which  at  which  relationship  be  some o f  an  can  be  conditions to  survival  and  density  artifact.  is  t h e most not  one  important specific  focuses  a  in  Columbia.  British  Columbia (1982)  can best views  anatifera  or engineering  b u t one t h a t  Larkin's  avoid  anatifera  controlled  or merely  anatifera  British  Lepas  between  i s valid  biological  Perhaps  whole  can  CONSIDERATIONS  further  addressed  t o perhaps  under  The m a r k e t a b i l i t y o f Lepas  2.  anatifera  fouling.  investigated  study  Lepas  investigated  density  be  the  in this  GENERAL  be  associated with  4. T h e o p t i m u m  observed  at  studies are  concern to  the  on t h e g r o w t h The essence  be  found  and  his  in a  should  that  be  verified  initiated.  needs  mariculture of  to  Lepas  of the industry of t h i s  liberal  be  as  concern f o r  paraphrasing  p r e s e n t a t i o n of Nash's  views;  M a r i c u l t u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia, aside from the Salmon Enhancement Programme, is a cottage i n d u s t r y w h i c h d e p e n d s f o r i t ' s d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e initiatives of many individuals. 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