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An investigation of the feasibility of gooseneck barnacle mariculture (Lepas anatifera) Goldberg, Harry 1985

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AN INVESTIGATION OF THE FEASIBILITY OF GOOSENECK BARNACLE MARICULTURE (LEPAS ANATIFERA) by HARRY GOLDBERG B.Sc.,University Of B r i t i s h Columbia,1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department Of A g r i c u l t u r a l Mechanics We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1985 © Harry Goldberg, 1985 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of /fe^A^ K L C C - T C C / f r ^ t * f t n J * C_S The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Van couve r, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date /IflLJL I 1 / 93 DE-6 (.3/81) i i A b s t r a c t Gooseneck b a r n a c l e s ( P o l l i c i p e s c o r n u c o p i a ) e x c e e d i n g 4 cm i n l e n g t h a r e a f a v o u r i t e s e a f o o d i n S p a i n . In 1978 t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s e a f o o d i n d u s t r y i n t r o d u c e d t h e i n d i g e n o u s s p e c i e s P o l l i c i p e s p o l y m e r u s i n t o t h i s p o t e n t i a l l y l u c r a t i v e m a r k e t . Due t o t h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s s p e c i e s i t s e x p o r t was u n s u c c e s s f u l . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , t o f i l l e i t h e r t h e v o i d l e f t by P o l l i c i p e s  p o l l y m e r u s a n d / o r f u t u r e m a r k e t s , t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s e e d and t h e s u b s e q u e n t s u s p e n d e d c u l t u r e o f t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e , L e p a s a n a t i f e r a , were i n v e s t i g a t e d . L e p a s a n a t i f e r a s u c c e s s f u l l y c o l o n i z e d t h e c u l t c h ( o y s t e r s h e l l s , wooden d o w e l l i n g and r u b b e r ) t h a t was d e p l o y e d a t two l o c a t i o n s o f f t h e west c o a s t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . The s u c c e s s o f t h e c o l o n i z a t i o n o f c u l t c h and t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m a p r e v i o u s s u r v e y s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s e t o c c u r s r e g u l a r l y between t h e m i d d l e o f A p r i l and t h e end o f May o f f t h e west c o a s t of V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . The s u s p e n d e d c u l t u r e o f L e p a s a n a t i f e r a i n d i c a t e d t h a t g r o w t h may be s i t e s p e c i f i c and t h a t a r e a s o f a h i g h p h y t o p l a n k t o n / z o o p l a n k t o n r a t i o may be d e t r i m e n t a l t o g r o w t h and t i m e t o s e x u a l m a t u r a t i o n . A t t h e d e n s i t i e s s t u d i e d , s u r v i v a l seems t o be p r o p o r t i o n a l t o d e n s i t y . C a p i t u l u m g r o w t h and w e i g h t g a i n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a p r o t e c t e d f r o m p r e d a t i o n w i t h i n l a n t e r n n e t s t h a n f o r t h o s e grown e x p o s e d on l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l s and wooden d o w e l l i n g . The a v e r a g e t o t a l l e n g t h ( c a p i t u l u m p l u s p e d u n c l e ) e x c e e d e d 4cm w i t h i n 17 t o 23 weeks. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f T a b l e s i v L i s t o f F i g u r e s v Acknowledgement i x I . INTRODUCTION 1 I I . LITERATURE SURVEY 6 1. ECOLOGY 7 1. MORPHOLOGY 7 2. DISTRIBUTION 9 3. L I F E HISTORY 9 4. ADULT GROWTH 11 I I I . MATERIALS AND METHODS 13 1. SEED ACQUISITION 14 1. 1980 SURVEY 14 2. 1981 CULTCH DEPLOYMENT 17 2. CULTURE PHASE ' 20 1. LONGLINE SYSTEMS 20 2. SAMPLING PROGRAMME 24 3. ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS 25 4. SURVIVAL 26 5. GROWTH 26 6. WEIGHT/LENGTH RELATIONSHIPS 27 7. GONADAL STATE 27 8. MAINTENANCE 27 3. S T A T I S T I C A L ANALYSIS 28 IV. RESULTS 31 1. SEED ACQUISITION 32 1. 1980 SURVEY 32 2. 1981 CULTCH DEPLOYMENT 38 2. CULTURE PHASE 38 1. ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS 38 2. GONADAL STATE 44 3. SURVIVAL 47 4. GROWTH 62 5. WEIGHT/LENGTH RELATIONSHIPS 76 V. DISCUSSION 87 1. SEED ACQUISITION 87 1. 1980 SURVEY 87 2. 1981 CULTCH DEPLOYMENT 88 2. CULTURE PHASE 90 1. ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS 90 2. GONADAL STATE 90 3. SURVIVAL 92 4. GROWTH 93 5. WEIGHT/LENGTH RELATIONSHIPS 95 6. TOTAL LENGTH 96 V I . CONCLUSIONS 97 V I I . RECCOMENDATIONS 99 LITERATURE CITED 102 IV L i s t of T a b l e s I . A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e t i m e i n v o l v e d i n t h e l a r v a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f L e p a s a n a t i f e r a and P o l l i c i p e s p o l y m e r u s . 1 0 I I . A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e g r o w t h r a t e s o f L e p a s a n a t i f e r a and P o l l i c i p e s  p o l y m e r u s . 1 1 I I I D a t e o f d e p l o y m e n t and p o s i t i o n o f s u r f a c e and s u b s u r f a c e b u o y s . 15 IV. S a m p l i n g s c h e d u l e . 25 V. A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e c a p i t u l u m l e n g t h s of g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s f r o m t h e t o p and b o t t o m r e g i o n s o f t h e buoys ( p o s i t i o n 1,2,3,and 4 ) . 35 V I . A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e p e d u n c l e l e n g t h s o f g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s f r o m t h e t o p and b o t t o m r e g i o n s o f t h e buoys ( p o s i t i o n 1,2,3,and 4 ) . 37 V I I . C h i - s q u a r e d v a l u e s f r o m t h e Log Rank and W i l c o x i n s u r v i v a l a n a l y s i s . 54 V I I I . S l o p e v a l u e s 'B' and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g c h i - s q u a r e d v a l u e s f r o m t h e P e a r s o n ' s and t h e L i k e l i h o o d r a t i o g o o d n e s s - o f -f i t t e s t s . 56 IX. P a r a m e t e r v a l u e s (L =°,K,to) and sample s i z e s (N) f rom t h e von B e r t a l a n f f y g r o w t h model f o r t h e c a p i t u l u m g r o w t h o f L e p a s a n a t i f e r a . 63 X. A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e p a r a m e t e r v a l u e s (L °°,K,to) from t h e von B e r t a l a n f f y g r o w t h model f o r t h e c a p i t u l u m g r o w th o f g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s . 70 L i s t o f F i g u r e s A d r a w i n g of t h e e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l anatomy o f L e p a s a n a t i f e r a . Map o f t h e n o r t h P a c i f i c showing t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e buoys s u r v e y e d and t h e c u l t c h p l a c e m e n t . A s c h e m a t i c of t h e geodyne buoy showing t h e p l a c e m e n t o f t h e m e t a l frame u s e d f o r t h e a t t a c h m e n t of c u l t c h and t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f L e p a s a n a t i f e r a ( s e e d ) . Map o f t h e I s l a n d s of t h e Deer G r o u p o p p o s i t e B a m f i e l d I n l e t i n B a r k e l y Sound, i n d i c a t i n g t h e s t u d y s i t e f o r t h e c u l t u r e p h a s e . A s c h e m a t i c of t h e l o n g l i n e s y s t e m u s e d f o r t h e s u s p e n d e d c u l t u r e o f L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a . P l o t o f t h e mean c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) l e n g t h v e r s u s t i m e . P l o t of t h e mean p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h v e r s u s t i m e . P l o t of t h e mean s a l i n i t y v e r s u s t i m e a t t h e c u l t u r e s i t e . P l o t o f t h e mean t e m p e r a t u r e v e r s u s t i m e a t t h e c u l t u r e s i t e . P l o t of t h e mean s e c c h i d e p t h v e r s u s t i m e a t t h e c u l t u r e s i t e . P l o t o f t h e mean s e c c h i d e p t h s v e r s u s t h e mean t e m p e r a t u r e s a v e r a g e d o v e r t h e s u r f a c e and t h e f i r s t t h r e e m e t e r s . P l o t of t h e p e r c e n t of L e p a s a n a t i f e r a b e a r i n g o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e (egg c a s e s ) and t h a t p e r c e n t o f o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e (egg c a s e s ) t h a t a r e b l u e . P l o t o f t h e p e r c e n t of Lep a s a n a t i f e r a , of a l l c u l t c h t y p e s , b e a r i n g o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e (egg c a s e s ) and t h a t p e r c e n t of o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e (egg c a s e s ) t h a t a r e b l u e . P l o t of t h e a c c u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t s u r v i v a l v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a from e a c h of t h e l i n e s of o y s t e r s h e l l s ( 1 - 6 ) . P l o t o f t h e a c c u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t s u r v i v a l v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a from e a c h of t h e l i n e s of o y s t e r s h e l l s ( 7 - 1 2 ) . P l o t o f t h e a c c u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t s u r v i v a l v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a from o f e a c h of t h e l i n e s o f wooden d o w e l l i n g ( 1 - 3 ) . P l o t of t h e a c c u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t s u r v i v a l v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a w i t h i n e a c h of t h e l a n t e r n n e t s ( 1 - 2 ) . P l o t of t h e a c c u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t s u r v i v a l v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a t o t a l e d f o r e a c h o f t h e c u l t c h t y p e s . P l o t o f t h e o b s e r v e d and e x p e c t e d number o f d e a t h s f o r Lep a s a n a t i f e r a of o y s t e r l i n e 8. P l o t o f t h e 'B' v a l u e s ( s l o p e o f t h e m o r t a l i t y ) v e r s u s t h e mean d e n s i t y of L e p a s a n a t i f e r a p e r o y s t e r s h e l l from o y s t e r l i n e s 1 t o 12. P l o t o f t h e 'B' v a l u e s ( s l o p e o f t h e m o r t a l i t y ) v e r s u s t h e mean d e n s i t y of L e p a s a n a t i f e r a p e r wooden d o w e l l i n g from t h e wooden l i n e s (1-3) and l a n t e r n n e t s ( 1 - 2 ) . P l o t o f t h e mean c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) l e n g t h v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a from e a c h of t h e o y s t e r l i n e s (1-6). P l o t o f t h e mean c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) V I 1 l e n g t h v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a f r o m e a c h of t h e o y s t e r l i n e s ( 7 - 1 2 ) . 65 24. P l o t of t h e mean c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) l e n g t h v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a from e a c h of t h e wooden l i n e s ( 1 - 3 ) . 66 25. P l o t o f t h e mean c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) l e n g t h v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a f r o m e a c h o f t h e l a n t e r n n e t s ( 1 - 2 ) . 67 26. P l o t o f t h e mean p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a from e a c h of t h e o y s t e r l i n e s ( 1 - 6 ) . 72 27. P l o t o f t h e mean p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a from e a c h o f t h e o y s t e r l i n e s ( 7 - 1 2 ) . 73 28 P l o t o f t h e mean p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a from e a c h of t h e wooden l i n e s (1 - 3 ) . 74 29. P l o t o f t h e mean p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a from e a c h of t h e l a n t e r n n e t s (1-2) . 75 30. P l o t of t h e wet w e i g h t (grams) v e r s u s c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a f r o m t h e l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l s . 78 31. P l o t of t h e wet w e i g h t (grams) v e r s u s c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a f r o m t h e l i n e s o f wooden d o w e l l i n g . 79 32. P l o t o f t h e wet w e i g h t (grams) v e r s u s c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a f r o m t h e l a n t e r n n e t s . 80 33. P l o t o f t h e l o g wet w e i g h t (mg.) v e r s u s c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a f r o m e a c h o f t h e c u l t c h t y p e s . 81 34. P l o t o f t h e wet w e i g h t (grams) v e r s u s p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a f r o m t h e l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l s . 83 35. P l o t o f t h e wet w e i g h t (grams) v e r s u s p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a f r o m t h e l i n e s o f wooden d o w e l l i n g . 84 v i i i 36. P l o t o f t h e wet w e i g h t (grams) v e r s u s p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a f r o m t h e l a n t e r n n e t s . 85 37. P l o t o f t h e wet w e i g h t (grams) v e r s u s p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a from e a c h of t h e c u l t c h t y p e s . 86 i x Acknowledgement I would l i k e t o a c k n o w l e d g e my t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r D r . J.W. Z a h a r a d n i k , t h e B.C. S c i e n c e C o u n c i l f o r t h e f u n d i n g p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h t h e G.R.E.A.T. F e l l o w s h i p p rogram, and t h e I n s t i t u t e o f Ocean S c i e n c e , P a t Bay, f o r t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n . The crew and t h e o f f i c e r s of t h e C.F.A.V. E n d e a v o u r and t h e C.S.S. P a r i z e a u c o - o p e r a t e d b eyond t h e c a l l o f d u t y . Mr. Bob Baden o f A r c h i p e l e g o M a r i n e R e s e a r c h was o f g r e a t h e l p . And f i n a l l y , my many t h a n k s t o t h e e n t i r e s t a f f o f t h e Department o f B i o - R e s o u r c e E n g i n e e r i n g , e s p e c i a l l y D r . R. B u l l e y and Mr. N. J a c k s o n . 1 1 I . INTRODUCTION Revenues from t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s h e l l f i s h i n d u s t r y have i n c r e a s e d i n t h e p a s t i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e i n t e r e s t f r o m a b r o a d f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s i n d i g e n o u s s p e c i e s . The geoduck ( Panope  g e n e r o s a ) f o r example was an o v e r l o o k e d s p e c i e s u n t i l t h e J a p a n e s e market e x p r e s s e d an i n t e r e s t . P r o d u c t i o n i n 1982 was 1115 t o n n e s f o r a l a n d e d v a l u e of 5.2 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , J . B a r n e s , 1983). The Department of F i s h e r i e s and Oceans, Canada, r e p o r t e d t h a t i n 1978 a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 t o n n e s o f t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e , P o l l i c i p e s p o l y m e r u s , were h a r v e s t e d f r o m C l a y o q u o t Sound n e a r T o f i n o , B.C and e x p o r t e d t o S p a i n ( P r o v e r b s , 1979). T e s t i n g o f t h i s e x p o r t market by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s e a f o o d i n d u s t r y i n 1978-1979 i n d i c a t e d t h e e x i s t e n c e of a p o t e n t i a l a n n u a l market of between t h r e e and f i v e m i l l i o n d o l l a r s ( P r o v e r b s , 1979). The e x p o r t market i n S p a i n emerged b e c a u s e o f d w i n d l i n g i n d i g e n o u s s t o c k s and s u b s e q u e n t government r e s t r i c t i o n s upon h a r v e s t i n g . S i n c e 1970, h a r v e s t i n g i n S p a i n has been p r o h i b i t e d f r o m May t o O c t o b e r . T h i s c l o s u r e was imposed t o p r o t e c t t h e a n i m a l s d u r i n g t h e t i m e a t w h i c h i t i s t h o u g h t t h a t t h e y r e p r o d u c e and t h e l a r v a e s e t t l e ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , F e r n a n d e z - P a t o , 1982). P r o v e r b s (1979) c o n c l u d e d from t h e i n i t i a l s e a s o n and t h e s u b s e q u e n t e x p o r t s t o S p a i n t h a t t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e i n d u s t r y a p p e a r e d c h a r a c t e r i z e d by b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s . The n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s were: 2 1) t h e u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f t h e h a r v e s t i n g s e a s o n , 2) t h e i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f many of t h e s t o c k s , 3) t h e i n t e n s i v e and d a n g e r o u s n a t u r e of t h e l a b o r , 4) t h e p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d w i t h s h i p p i n g t h e p r o d u c t t o S p a i n . However, on t h e p o s i t i v e s i d e i t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t : 1) t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s t o c k s a p p e a r e x t e n s i v e 2) a s t r o n g demand e x i s t s i n S p a i n , 3) t h e v a l u e i s h i g h 4) c o m p e t i n g s u p p l i e s on t h e w o r l d market a r e m i n i m a l . The n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s have t a k e n t h e i r t o l l and as of 1982 t h e h a r v e s t and e x p o r t f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o f P o l l i c i p e s p o l y m e r u s has come t o a s t a n d s t i l l . M a r i c u l t u r e , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e s u s p e n d e d c u l t u r e , o f g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s was p r o p o s e d s i n c e i t may a l l e v i a t e t h e p r o b l e m s stemming from t h e h a r v e s t o f P o l l i c i p e s p o l y m e r u s i n t h e w i l d ; t h e u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f t h e h a r v e s t i n g s e a s o n , t h e i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f many o f t h e s t o c k s , and t h e i n t e n s i v e and d a n g e r o u s n a t u r e o f t h e l a b o r . The s u s p e n d e d c u l t u r e o f m o l l u s c s i s w e l l documented ( Q u a y l e , 1969, 1971, and 1978; Shaw,1969, B a r d a c h , R y t h e r , and M c L a r n e y , 1972, S a n d e r s , 1973, T a g u c h i , 1976, and L e i g h t o n and P h l e g e r , 1976 and 1977). G e n e r a l l y , s u s p e n d e d c u l t u r e t e c h n i q u e s p r o v i d e f o r : 3 1) an i n c r e a s e i n t h e t i m e f o o d i s a v a i l a b l e 2) t h e use of t h e t h i r d d i m e n s i o n , d e p t h , t o enhance growth and p r o d u c t i o n ( Q u a y l e , 1969). 3) a more manageable r e s o u r c e t h r o u g h h u s b a n d r y ( B a r d a c h , R y t h e r , and M c L a r n e y , 1972). F u r t h e r m o r e , t o q u o t e L e i g h t o n and P h l e g e r (1977) " S h e l l f i s h w h i c h f e e d upon p l a n k t o n i c e l e m e n t s and w h i c h l e n d t h e m s e l v e s t o c u l t i v a t i o n i n r e l a t i v e l y h i g h d e n s i t i e s have a p p e a l e c o n o m i c a l l y and e n e r g e t i c a l l y t o m a r i n e a q u a c u l t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e when t h e o r g a n i s m c o n s t i t u t e s a v a l u a b l e f o o d r e s o u r c e " The s p e c i e s c h o s e n as a c a n d i d a t e f o r t h i s s t u d y was not P o l l i c i p e s p o l y m e r u s but L e p a s a n a t i f e r a . The r a p i d growth of L e p a s a n a t i f e r a as compared t o t h a t of P o l l i c i p e s p o l y m e r u s e n c o u r a g e d i t ' s s e l e c t i o n ( E v a n s , 1958, Skerman, 1958a, B a r n e s and R e e s e , 1960, H i l g a r d , 1960, M c l n t y r e , 1966, and L e w i s and C h i a , 1981). In a d d i t i o n , t h e meat from t h e p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) i s e d i b l e and was p r e f e r r e d t o t h a t o f P o l l i c i p e s p o l y m e r u s by t h e H a i d a p e o p l e t h a t had consumed b o t h s p e c i e s ( G i b b o n s , 1964, C o r n w a l l , 1970, and E l l i s and W i l s o n , 1981). T h i s s t u d y c e n t e r e d on two main a r e a s ; 1) t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s e t t l i n g L e p a s a n a t i f e r a ( s e e d ) f r o m t h e w i l d 2) t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e s u s p e n d e d c u l t u r e o f t h e a c q u i r e d s e e d . The s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s f o r e a c h of t h e two a r e a s were: 1) The A c q u i s i t i o n of Seed 1) t o d e t e r m i n e where, when and how L e p a s a n a t i f e r a c a n be a c q u i r e d i n t h e w i l d so f u t u r e a c q u i s i t i o n s may become a p r e d i c t a b l e and manageable a c t i v i t y . 2) t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on g r o w t h o f L e p a s a n a t i f e r a i n t h e w i l d so c o m p a r i s o n s c a n be made w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e and t h e s u b s e q u e n t growth o b s e r v e d d u r i n g t h e s u s p e n d e d c u l t u r e . 2) The Suspended C u l t u r e Phase 1) t o m o n i t o r t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p a r a m e t e r s s a l i n i t y , t e m p e r a t u r e , and s e c c h i d e p t h a t t h e c u l t u r e s i t e and i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s t h e s e p a r a m e t e r s may have on t h e c u l t u r e o f L e p a s a n a t i f e r a . 2) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f c u l t u r e d L e p a s a n a t i f e r a b a s e d on i t s : a) g o n a d a l s t a t e b) s u r v i v a l c ) g r o w t h d) w e i g h t / l e n g t h r e l a t i o n s h i p s 5 3) t o compare t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a grown on e a c h of t h e t h r e e c u l t c h t y p e s ; o y s t e r s h e l l , wooden d o w e l l i n g , and r u b b e r , and t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h c u l t c h and method o p t i m i z e s p e r f o r m a n c e . The u l t i m a t e g o a l o f t h i s s t u d y was t o p r o v i d e a f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e m a r i c u l t u r e o f a s e a f o o d p r o d u c t t h a t may be a c c e p t a b l e f o r e i t h e r t h e c u r r e n t S p a n i s h market o r l a t e n t m a r k e t s t h a t may s u r f a c e i n t h e f u t u r e . 6 I I . LITERATURE SURVEY C u r r e n t l y t h e r e i s no p u b l i s h e d l i t e r a t u r e t h a t d e a l s w i t h t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f m a r i c u l t u r a l t e c h n i q u e s t o g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s . The a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e on P o l l i c i p e s c o r n u c o p i a , t h e c o m m e r c i a l l y u t i l i z e d s p e c i e s i n S p a i n , i s s c a r c e and has o n l y c o v e r e d some o f t h e b i o c h e m i c a l and m o r p h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e r e p r o d u c t i v e s y s t e m ( A c h i t a v and B a r n e s , 1978, K l e p a l and B a r n e s , 1977, and K l e p a l e t a l . 1977). G o l d b e r g (1984) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f s u s p e n d e d c u l t u r e f o r P o l l i c i p e s  c o r n u c o p i a and s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s s p e c i e s would t h r i v e under s u s p e n d e d c u l t u r e c o n d i t i o n s ; b u t t h e f i n d i n g s , t h o u g h p o s i t i v e , were i n c o n c l u s i v e due t o t h e l i m i t e d d u r a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y . P r o v e r b s ' (1979) r e p o r t i s t h e o n l y document t h a t has p r e s e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o m m e r c i a l a s p e c t s of t h e w i l d h a r v e s t o f P o l l i c i p e s p o l y m e r u s f o r t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o a s t . The e c o l o g y o f P o l l i c i p e s p o l y m e r u s and L e p a s a n a t i f e r a i s d i s c u s s e d . The m o r p h o l o g y , d i s t r i b u t i o n , l i f e h i s t o r y and a d u l t g r o w t h a r e p r e s e n t e d t o p r o v i d e t h e r a t i o n a l u s e d i n s e l e c t i n g L e p a s a n a t i f e r a a s t h e c a n d i d a t e f o r m a r i c u l t u r e . 7 1. ECOLOGY 1. MORPHOLOGY F o r a m o r p h o l o g i c a l and a n a t o m i c a l d r a w i n g of L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a see f i g u r e 1. The most a p p a r e n t d i f f e r e n c e between L e p a s a n a t i f e r a and P o l l i c i p e s p o l y m e r u s i s i n t h e number of p l a t e s o f t h e c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) . In L e p a s a n a t i f e r a t h e c a p i t u l u m i s c o v e r e d w i t h t h e f i v e o r i g i n a l b a s i c p l a t e s ; one c a r i n a , two t e r g a , and two s c u t a . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e f i v e b a s i c p l a t e s , P o l l i c i p e s  p o l y m e r u s has s e v e r a l w h o r l s o f a c c e s s o r y p l a t e s a t t h e base o f t h e c a p i t u l u m one of w h i c h , a r o s t r a l p l a t e , comes from t h e a n t e r o v e n t r a l end of t h e c a p i t u l u m ( B a r n e s , 1974). 8 F i g u r e 1. A d r a w i n g of t h e e x t e r n a l m o r p h o l o g y and i n t e r n a l anatomy of Le p a s a n a t i f e r a a f t e r Sherman and Sherman ( 1 9 7 9 ) . (A - whole a n i m a l s . B - w i t h l e f t v a l v e removed t o r e v e a l i n t e r n a l o r g a n s ) 9 2. DISTRIBUTION P o l l i c i p e s p o l y m e r u s i s f o u n d i n t h e m i d - t i d e r a n g e of t h e e x p o s e d r o c k y P a c i f i c c o a s t e x t e n d i n g from B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o B a j a C a l i f o r n i a ( H i l g a r d , 1960, C o r n w a l l , 1970 and L e w i s a,b 1975). L e p a s a n a t i f e r a , on t h e o t h e r hand, i s p e l a g i c and s e t t l e s on f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s i n t h e open o c e a n (Skerman, 1958a,b). G e n e r a l l y , L e p a s a n a t i f e r a i s d i s t r i b u t e d w o r l d - w i d e . A d u l t s a n d / o r l a r v a e have been r e p o r t e d i n t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c and N o r t h Sea ( B o s k e l , 1975), t h e N o r t h - E a s t e r n A t l a n t i c ( B a i n b r i d g e and R o s k e l l , 1966), t h e E q u a t o r i a l A t l a n t i c ( I I ' i n e t a l , 1981), t h e w a t e r s o f f t h e I s l a n d s o f t h e F r e n c h S o u t h e r n and A n t a r c t i c L a n ds ( A r n a u d , 1973), t h e C a r o l i n e I s l a n d s of t h e W e s t e r n E q u a t o r i a l P a c i f i c (Newman, 1972), and t h e New Z e a l a n d c o a s t a l w a t e r s (Skerman, 1958a and b ) . 3. L I F E HISTORY B o t h L e p a s a n a t i f e r a and P o l l i c i p e s p o l y m e r u s a r e h e r m a p h r o d i t i c , but c r o s s f e r t i l i z a t i o n a p p e a r s o b l i g a t o r y ( P a t e l , 1959 and H i l g a r d , 1960). A l t h o u g h b o t h s p e c i e s n o r m a l l y b r o o d t h e i r embryos w i t h i n o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e (egg c a s e s ) i n t h e m a n t l e c a v i t y , an e x c e p t i o n has been r e p o r t e d f o r L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a . S a l e k h a v a (1979) o b s e r v e d j e l l y - l i k e masses f i l l e d w i t h eggs on t h e e x t e r i o r o f L e p a s a n a t i f e r a . A summary o f ' i n v i t r o ' l a r v a l d e v e l o p m e n t f o r b o t h L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a and P o l l i c i p e s p o l y m e r u s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e I . 10 T a b l e I - A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e t i m e i n v o l v e d i n t h e l a r v a l d e v e l o p m e n t of L e p a s a n a t i f e r a and P o l l i c i p e s  p o l y m e r u s . L e p a s a n a t i f e r a P o l l i c i p e s p o l y m e r u s N a u p l i a r S t a g e Day of A p p e a r e n c e from F e r t i l i z a t i o n S t a g e One and Two S t a g e T h r e e S t a g e F o u r S t a g e F i v e S t a g e S i x Cypr i d 1 2 t h 2 2 t h 3 7 t h 5 0 t h 5 9 t h 6 9 t h 2 5 t h 3 4 t h 4 3 t h 4 9 t h 6 4 t h 6 9 - 7 9 t h Note - t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i s summarized f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e of P a t e l , 1959; Moyse, 1960 and L e w i s , 1975a,b. D u r i n g l a r v a l d e v e l o p m e n t ( s t a g e 2-6) p h y t o p l a n k t o n i s consumed ( P a t e l , 1959, Moyse, 1960, Moyse and K n i g h t - J o n e s , 1967, and L e w i s , 1975a and b ) . Though P o l l i c i p e s p o l y m e r u s t e n d t o b r o o d t h e i r embryos l o n g e r t h a n L e p a s a n a t i f e r a , g e n e r a l l y t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e f r o m f e r t i l i z a t i o n t o t h e a p p e a r a n c e of t h e s e t t l i n g s t a g e ( c y p r i d ) i s s i m i l i a r . 11 4. ADULT GROWTH T a b l e I I l i s t s t h e r e q u i r e d t i m e s f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a and P o l l i c i p e s p o l y m e r u s t o a t t a i n a g i v e n c a p i t u l u m l e n g t h and s e x u a l m a t u r i t y . T a b l e II - A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e growth r a t e s of L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a and P o l l i c i p e s p o l y m e r u s . L e p a s a n a t i f e r a P o l l i c i p e s p o l y m e r u s C a p i t u l u m L e n g t h 2.3 cm 1.72 cm a t M a t u r i t y Age a t M a t u r i t y 17 d a y s 5 y e a r s C a p i t u l u m L e n g t h 2.3-4.0 cm > 1.72 cm Age 17-50 d a y s > 5 y e a r s Note - t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i s summarized from t h e l i t e r a t u r e of E v a n s , 1958, Skerman, 1958a, B a r n e s and Reese, 1960, H i l g a r d , 1960, M c l n t y r e , 1966, and L e w i s and C h i a , 1981. I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t i n t h e w i l d L e p a s a n a t i f e r a grows and m a t u r e s a t a much f a s t e r r a t e t h a n d o e s P o l l i c i p e s  p o l y m e r u s . As metamorphosed s e t t l e d o r g a n i s m s , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t L e p a s a n a t i f e r a and P o l l i c i p e s p o l y m e r u s f e e d m a i n l y on a c r u s t a c e a n / z o o p l a n k t o n d i e t as i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e b l u e of t h e i r o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e . The b l u e c o l o r i n g has been a t t r i b u t e d t o a s t a x a n t h i n , a p i g m e n t of c r u s t a c e a n / z o o p l a n k t o n o r i g i n ( P a t e l , 1959 and H e r r i n g , 1971). G e n e r a l l y , t h e m o r p h o l o g i e s and l i f e h i s t o r i e s d i f f e r o n l y m i n i m a l l y . The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f e a c h of t h e s p e c i e s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s e e d would be an o f f s h o r e a c t i v i t y f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a and an i n s h o r e a c t i v i t y f o r P o l l i c i p e s p o l y m e r u s . U l t i m a t e l y , t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r a g r e a t e r g r o w t h r a t e f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a e n c o u r a g e d i t s s e l e c t i o n as t h e c a n d i d a t e f o r m a r i c u l t u r e . 13 I I I . MATERIALS and METHODS I n i t i a l l y a s u r v e y o f s u r f a c e and submerged buoys (50m) was c o n d u c t e d o f f s h o r e d u r i n g l a t e s p r i n g and e a r l y autumn of 1980 t o d e t e r m i n e where and when t h e c y p r i d l a r v a e ( s e e d ) o f L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a s e t t l e . As w e l l , c a p i t u l u m and p e d u n c l e l e n g t h s were r e c o r d e d f r o m samples o f L e p a s a n a t i f e r a t a k e n d u r i n g t h i s s u r v e y t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on g r o w t h i n t h e w i l d . From t h e s u r v e y a s u i t a b l e t i m e and l o c a t i o n were c h o s e n f o r t h e s u b s e q u e n t y e a r ' s a c q u i s i t i o n of s e e d . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f c u l t c h , s u b s t r a t e s on w h i c h s e e d may s e t t l e , were t h e n d e p l o y e d i n t h e same l o c a t i o n and d u r i n g the>same t i m e of y e a r a s t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s s u r v e y . The same t i m e frame and l o c a t i o n s were c h o s e n t o t e s t t h e r e g u l a r i t y o f s e e d s e t s and t h e r e f o r e d e t e r m i n e i f s e e d a c q u i s i t i o n c o u l d become a p r e d i c t a b l e a c t i v i t y . A f t e r t h e s e e d l a d e n c u l t c h were r e t r i e v e d t h e y were t r a n s p o r t e d t o t h e c u l t u r e s i t e and s u s p e n d e d . D u r i n g t h e s u s p e n d e d c u l t u r e ; s a l i n i t y , t e m p e r a t u r e and s e c c h i d e p t h were r e c o r d e d . As w e l l t h e ' p e r f o r m a n c e p a r a m e t e r s ' ; g o n a d a l s t a t e , s u r v i v a l , g r o w t h and w e i g h t / l e n g t h r e l a t i o n s h i p s were d e t e r m i n e d f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a grown on e a c h o f t h e t y p e s o f c u l t c h . T h e s e p a r a m e t e r s f r o m e a c h o f t h e t y p e s o f c u l t c h were t h e n compared t o d e t e r m i n e t h e o p t i m a l c u l t c h t y p e and method t o c u l t u r e L e p a s a n a t i f e r a . 1 4 1 . SEED ACQUISITION 1. 1980 SURVEY A s u r v e y of f o u r s u r f a c e buoys and t h r e e s u b s u r f a c e buoys (50m) was c o n d u c t e d i n May and September of 1980 t o o b s e r v e f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f L e p a s a n a t i f e r a ( f i g . 2 ) . The s u r v e y was c a r r i e d ou t o n b o a r d t h e C.F.A.V. E n d e a v o u r and t h e C.S.S. P a r i z e a u c r u i s e s 80:13-14 i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e I n s t i t u t e o f Ocean S c i e n c e , Pat Bay, Department o f F i s h e r i e s and Oceans, C a n a d a . The m o o r i n g s had a l l been d e p l o y e d w i t h i n t h e f i r s t two weeks o f May 1980 ( T a b l e I I I ) . The s u r f a c e buoy a t p o s i t i o n 3 ( f i g . 2) was f i r s t s a m p l e d J u l y 3 1 s t . 1980. B e f o r e i t was r e d e p l o y e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y one t h i r d o f i t was c l e a r e d of o r g a n i s m s t h a t had p r e v i o u s l y s e t t l e d t o d e t e r m i n e i f a s u b s e q u e n t s e t w o u l d o c c u r . On September 1 5 t h . 1980 a l l t h e m o o r i n g s ( p o s i t i o n 1,2,3,A,B and C) were r e t r i e v e d and s a m p l e d . The samples from e a c h o f t h e s u r f a c e b uoys, w h i c h r a n g e d i n number from 36 t o 77 L e p a s a n a t i f e r a , were o b t a i n e d f r o m two r e g i o n s o f t h e s u r f a c e b u o y s ; t h e t o p and t h e b o t t o m . The t o p r e g i o n was t h a t a r e a of t h e buoy a t t h e water l i n e and t h e b o t t o m r e g i o n was t h a t a r e a b e n e a t h t h e buoy. S p e c i m e n s were l a i d a l o n g a r u l e r and t h e c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) and p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h s were r e c o r d e d t o t h e n e a r e s t 0.1 cm. The c a p i t u l u m was measured a l o n g a l i n e p e r p i n d i c u l a r t o i t s b a s e up t o t h e t i p o f i t s apex ( t e r g u m ) . The p e d u n c l e was measured f r o m i t s b ase t o t h e b a s e o f t h e c a p i t u l u m . T a b l e I I I - Da t e o f d e p l o y m e n t and p o s i t i o n o f t h e f o u r s u r f a c e buoys and t h e t h r e e s u b s u r f a c e buoys u s e d i n t h e 1980 s u r v e y . S u r f a c e Buoys Date D e p l o y e d May 7/1980 May 1/1980 May 7/1980 * May 1/1980 S u b s u r f a c e Buoys May 5/1980 May 8/1980 May 9/1980 P o s i t i o n L a t i t u d e L o n g i t u d e 1 49 21.6 N 1 26 47. 1 W 2 49 10.2 N 127 22. 0 W 3 49 19.2 N 126 42. 2 W 4 48 58.0 N 127 33. 0 W A 49 55.9 N 1 28 17. 0 W B 48 46.9 N 1 27 35. 5 W C 48 58.2 N 127 19. 7 W - r e t r i e v e d and r e d e p l o y e d J u l y 31/1980) 8 0 K M . 128 iW 126°iw F i g u r e 2. Map of the n o r t h P a c i f i c o f f t h e west c o a s t Of V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . (1,2,3 and 4 a r e l o c a t i o n s of s u r f a c e buoys - A,B, and C a r e l o c a t i o n s of s u b s u r f a c e buoys - a l l buoys b o r e L e p a s a n a t i f e r a ) P o s i t i o n s 1 and 2 were t h e l o c a t i o n s t h a t t h e c u l t c h was d e p l o y e d t o a c q u i r e L e p a s a n a t i f e r a . 17 2. 1981 CULTCH DEPLOYMENT C u l t c h was d e p l o y e d on A p r i l 15th 1981 a t two l o c a t i o n s , p o s i t i o n s 1 and 2 ( f i g . 2 ) . A s y s t e m was d e s i g n e d and c o n s t r u c t e d t o s u p p o r t c u l t c h f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s e e d ( f i g . 3 ) . The s y s t e m c o n s i s t e d o f a m e t a l r i n g of 5.08 cm m i l d s t e e l f l a t b a r w i t h g a l v a n i z e d e y e - b o l t s w e l d e d t o i t s p e r i p h e r y . The r i n g was s e c u r e d a b o u t t h e geodyne buoy. S e c t i o n s o f r u b b e r were p o s i t i o n e d between t h e m e t a l and t h e geodyne buoy t o p r o t e c t t h e buoy from a b r a s i o n . O y s t e r s h e l l s ( C r a s s o s t r e a g i g a s ), wooden d o w e l l i n g and t h r e e meter l e n g t h s of b a r e 2.54 cm p o l y p r o p y l e n e l i n e were t e s t e d a s c u l t c h . T h e s e m a t e r i a l s were c h o s e n s i n c e t h e y a r e a l l i n e x p e n s i v e and r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . H o l e s were p u n c h e d i n t h e o y s t e r s h e l l s and t h e y were t h e n s t r u n g on t h r e e meter l e n g t h s o f 0.64 cm p o l y p r o p y l e n e l i n e . L e n g t h s (20 cm.) o f 3.18 cm wooden d o w e l l i n g were s p l i c e d e v e r y 20 c e n t i m e t e r s i n t o t h r e e meter l e n g t h s o f 2.54 cm p o l y p r o p y l e n e l i n e . A s t a i n l e s s s t e e l 2.54 cm s t a p l e was d r i v e n i n t o t h e d o w e l l i n g a b o u t one of t h e s t r a n d s o f t h e p o l y p r o p y l e n e l i n e t o h o l d t h e d o w e l l i n g s e c u r e . T w e l v e l i n e s o f c u l t c h were s u s p e n d e d f r o m e a c h o f t h e two geodyne b u o y s . Two r e p l i c a t e s o f e a c h o f t h e t h r e e c u l t c h t y p e s were s u s p e n d e d h o r i z o n t a l l y and v e r t i c a l l y . To s u s p e n d t h e l i n e s h o r i z o n t a l l y a g i v e n l i n e was p o s i t i o n e d b e n e a t h t h e buoy and e a c h end was s h a c k l e d t o t h e e y e - b o l t s o f t h e m e t a l r i n g . To s u s p e n d e d t h e l i n e s v e r t i c a l l y one end was s h a c k l e d t o t h e m e t a l r i n g and t h e o t h e r was t i e d i n t o t h e eye o f t h e apex of t h e t r i p o d w h i c h r a n down f r o m b e n e a t h t h e buoy. 18 The buoys were r e t r i e v e d May 3 1 s t . 1981 and t h e number of L e p a s a n a t i f e r a from e a c h i t e m of c u l t c h was r e c o r d e d . The s e e d l a d e n c u l t c h were h e l d i n 100 l i t r e p l a s t i c drums. F r e s h s e a w a t e r was c o n t i n u a l l y p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h e drums d u r i n g t h e day t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s were t r a n s p o r t e d a b o a r d t h e C.S.S. P a r i z e a u t o B a m f i e l d M a r i n e S t a t i o n , B a m f i e l d , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Once a t B a m f i e l d M a r i n e S t a t i o n t h e s e e d l a d e n c u l t c h were s u s p e n d e d w i t h i n one hour from t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l l o n g l i n e s y s t e m s . 19 SIDE VIEW TOP VIEW METAL RING F i g u r e 3. A s c h e m a t i c of t h e p l a c e m e n t of t h e a t t a c h m e n t o f c u l t c h and a n a t i f e r a ( s e e d ) . t h e geodyne buoy showing m e t a l frame u s e d f o r t h e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f L e p a s 20 2. CULTURE PHASE 1. LONGLINE SYSTEMS Two l o n g l i n e s y s t e m s o f s i m i l i a r d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n were d e p l o y e d a t M c K e n z i e A n c h o r g e on t h e f o r e s h o r e l e a s e o f A r c h i p e l e g o M a r i n e R e s e a r c h ( f i g . 4 and 5 ) . The l o n g l i n e s y s t e m s c o n s i s t e d o f two f i v e meter l e n g t h s o f 2.54 cm p o l y p r o p y l e n e l i n e s t r u n g i n p a r a l l e l between two 200 l i t r e p l a s t i c drums (main f l o a t s ) . F o u r a n c h o r l i n e s o f 1.27 cm p o l y p r o p y l e n e l i n e r a n f r om e a c h o f t h e main f l o a t s . Two l i n e s r a n d i r e c t l y away from t h e f l o a t s and two r a n p e r p e n d i c u l a r l y f r o m t h e f l o a t s . At t h e ends o f e a c h o f t h e f o u r a n c h o r l i n e s were two 20 Kg c o n c r e t e b l o c k s h e l d i n tandem and t o t h e ends o f e a c h o f t h e a n c h o r l i n e s by a t h r e e meter l e n g t h o f 0.95 cm g a l v a n i z e d c h a i n . The a n c h o r s were sunk i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n m e t e r s o f water w i t h a 3:1 s c o p e f o r t h e a n c h o r l i n e s . The l o n g l i n e s y s t e m s were a m o d i f i c a t i o n f r o m T a g u c h i ( 1 9 7 6 ) . Seed l a d e n c u l t c h was s u s p e n d e d from e a c h o f t h e two l o n g l i n e s y s t e m s . The l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l b e a r i n g L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a c o n s i s t e d of s e e d l a d e n s h e l l s s p l i c e d e v e r y 20 cm i n t o t h r e e meter l e n g t h s o f 0.64 cm p o l y p r o p y l e n e l i n e . The l i n e s o f wooden d o w e l l i n g , a s p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d , were w e i g h t e d a t one end w i t h a 4.5 Kg l e a d cannon b a l l and t h e n s u s p e n d e d . S h e e t s ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 800 cm. 2) o f r u b b e r b e a r i n g L e p a s a n a t i f e r a s e e d were p l a c e d i n t o e a c h one o f t h e t e n compartments o f t h e l a n t e r n n e t s and t h e n t h e l a n t e r n n e t s were 21 s u s p e n d e d . L a n t e r n n e t s , a p r o d u c t of C u l t u r e F i s h e r i e s C o r p o r a t i o n , a r e f l e x i b l e ' a c c o r d i o n - l i k e ' c y l i n d e r s 2 m e t e r s l o n g and 0.5 m e t e r s i n d i a m e t e r . The n e t i s d i v i d e d h o r i z o n t a l l y i n t o t e n 20 cm deep compartments. The main frame and compartment fr a m e s a r e o f v i n y l c o a t e d w i r e . The n e t t i n g m a t e r i a l i s a 3 cm U V - r e s i s t a n t p o l y e t h y l e n e mesh. E a c h o f t h e l i n e s and l a n t e r n n e t s were buoyed w i t h s t y r o f o a m f l o a t s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e y r e m a i n e d s u s p e n d e d from t h e s u r f a c e . In summary t h e n , t h e r e were two l o n g l i n e s y s t e m s i n p l a c e a t t h e c u l t u r e s i t e . S u spended from one of t h e s y s t e m s were s i x l i n e s of o y s t e r s h e l l s ( o y s t e r l i n e s 1-6) and two l i n e s of wooden d o w e l l i n g (wooden l i n e s 1-2) b e a r i n g s e e d , and one l a n t e r n n e t ( l a n t e r n n e t 1) c o n t a i n i n g s e e d . S u s p e n d e d from t h e s e c o n d s y s t e m were a g a i n s i x l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l s ( o y s t e r l i n e s 7-12) but o n l y one l i n e of wooden d o w e l l i n g (wooden l i n e 3) b e a r i n g s e e d . As w e l l t h e r e was one l a n t e r n n e t ( l a n t e r n n e t 2) c o n t a i n i n g s e e d . 22 125di10W i I O I I F i g u r e 4. Map o f t h e I s l a n d s o f t h e Deer G r o u p o p p o s i t e B a m f i e l d I n l e t i n B a r k e l y Sound. M a c k e n z i e A n c h o r a g e was t h e s t u d y s i t e f o r t h e c u l t u r e p h a s e . 5M F i g u r e 5 . A s c h e m a t i c of t h e L o n g l i n e System u s e d f o r t h e s u s p e n d e d c u l t u r e of L e p a s a n a t i f e r a . (The s u r f a c e f l o a t s a r e f o r t h e s u s p e n s i o n o f t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on t h e l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l s and d o w e l l i n g , and w i t h i n t h e l a n t e r n n e t s ) 24 2. SAMPLING PROGRAMME The e n v i r o n m e n t a l p a r a m e t e r s , s a l i n i t y , t e m p e r a t u r e , and s e c c h i d e p t h were n o t o n l y m easured t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e c u l t u r e s i t e b u t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r o l e s t h e y may have p l a y e d i n t h e c u l t u r e o f L e p a s a n a t i f e r a . As w e l l t h e s u r v i v a l of L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a on e a c h o f t h e c u l t c h t y p e s was m o n i t o r e d s i n c e i t would p r o v i d e an i d e a as t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n t h a t may r e s u l t from an i n i t i a l s e t . C a p i t u l u m and p e d u n c l e l e n g t h s were r e c o r d e d o v e r t i m e from e a c h o f t h e c u l t c h t y p e s t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h c u l t c h t y p e and method p r o v i d e d f o r t h e g r e a t e s t g r o w th r a t e . A l s o t h e s e l e n g t h measurements a l l o w e d f o r a c o m p a r i s o n between t h e g r o w t h o f L e p a s a n a t i f e r a under s u s p e n d e d c u l t u r e c o n d i t i o n s and i t s g r o w th i n t h e w i l d . As w e l l w e i g h t / l e n g t h r e l a t i o n s h i p s were f o r m u l a t e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h c u l t c h t y p e and method a l l o w e d f o r t h e most r o b u s t g r o w t h . F i n a l l y , t h e g o n a d a l s t a t e o f L e p a s a n a t i f e r a was i n v e s t i g a t e d . The p r e s e n c e of o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e was u s e d a s an i n d i c a t i o n o f s e x u a l m a t u r i t y and t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f b l u e o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e was c o n s i d e r e d an i n d e x o f 'good h e a l t h ' . The s a m p l i n g programme commenced on June 1 5 t h . 1981 and c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h t o O c t o b e r 1 5 t h . 1981 ( T a b l e I V ) . 25 T a b l e IV - S a m p l i n g S c h e d u l e : I n d i c a t e s t h e f r e q u e n c y , th e number o f d a y s p e r week, o f t h e s a m p l i n g programme Number of Days p e r Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S e c c h i D e p t h T e m p e r a t u r e S a l i n i t y S u r v i v a l G rowth W e i g h t / L e n g t h * G o n a d a l S t a t e * — M a i n t e n a n c e Note - The p r o g r a m was p e r f o r m e d weekly from t h e 15th o f June u n t i l t h e end o f A u g u s t 1981. I t was t h e n m o d i f i e d t o a ccomodate two s a m p l i n g p e r i o d s , September 2 1 s t and O c t o b e r 15th 1981. (* - m o n t h l y samples) 3. ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS S a l i n i t y and t e m p e r a t u r e were r e c o r d e d a t f o u r d e p t h s ; t h e s u r f a c e and a t one, two, and t h r e e m e t e r s . S a l i n i t y was r e c o r d e d 26 t o t h e n e a r e s t 0.1 p p t and t e m p e r a t u r e t o t h e n e a r e s t 0.1 C (YSI model 33, S-C-T m e t e r ) . S e c c h i d e p t h was r e c o r d e d t o t h e n e a r e s t 0.1 meter w i t h a s t a n d a r d 20 cm d i a m e t e r s e c c h i d i s c ( W e t z e l , 1975). 4. SURVIVAL I n i t i a l l y t h e number of g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s , L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a , p e r u n i t c u l t c h were c o u n t e d . Dead g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s were removed as t h e y were r e c o r d e d t o p r e v e n t them from b e i n g r e c o u n t e d i n s u b s e q u e n t s a m p l i n g s . An a n i m a l was c o n s i d e r e d d ead i f i t had a f l a c i d d i s t e n d e d s t a l k and g a p i n g c a p i t u l u m w i t h l i m p c i r r i d r o o p i n g o u t . 5. GROWTH E a c h l i n e o f o y s t e r s h e l l s and wooden d o w e l l i n g , and b o t h l a n t e r n n e t s were s u b s a m p l e d . A maximum of f i v e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s were sampled from e a c h o y s t e r s h e l l and wooden d o w e l . Ten g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s were sampled from e a c h of t h e compartments o f t h e l a n t e r n n e t s . I f t h e r e were l e s s t h a n t h e d e s i r e d sample s i z e s p r e s e n t on a g i v e n s u b s t r a t e a l l t h e i n d i v i d u a l s were me a s u r e d . B o t h c a p i t u l u m and p e d u n c l e l e n g t h s were m e a s u r e d ' i n s i t u ' . The g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s were n o t removed from t h e i r g i v e n s u b s t r a t e . L e n g t h s were measured t o t h e n e a r e s t 0.1 cm. The c a p i t u l u m l e n g t h was m easured a l o n g a l i n e 27 p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o i t s b a s e up t o t h e apex of t h e terg u m . The p e d u n c l e was measured f r o m i t s p o i n t of a t t a c h m e n t up t o t h e bas e of t h e c a p i t u l u m . 6. WEIGHT/LENGTH RELATIONSHIPS M o n t h l y samples of L e p a s a n a t i f e r a r a n g i n g from 28 t o 40 i n number were removed from e a c h of t h e t y p e s o f c u l t c h . The t h r e e s a m p l e s were r e t u r n e d w i t h i n one hour t o t h e l a b o r a t o r y f a c i l i t i e s a t B a m f i e l d M a r i n e S t a t i o n and a n a l y z e d . The c a p i t u l u m and p e d u n c l e l e n g t h s were f i r s t m easured t o t h e n e a r e s t 0.10 cm. Then t h e e p i z o i c g r o w t h was removed, t h e c a p i t u l u m was s e v e r e d f r o m t h e p e d u n c l e , t h e p a r t s were b l o t t e d d r y and w e i g h e d t o t h e n e a r e s t 0.01 g. (wet w e i g h t ) on a M e t t l e r PT320 s c a l e . 7. GONADAL STATE The c a p i t u l u m s from e a c h of t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s u s e d i n t h e w e i g h t / l e n g t h a n a l y s i s were d i s s e c t e d and t h e p r e s e n c e and c o l o r o f o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e (egg c a s e s ) were r e c o r d e d . 8. MAINTENANCE R o u n t i n e l y t h e l i n e s and a n c h o r s o f t h e l o n g l i n e s y s t e m s 28 were i n s p e c t e d f o r wear. F o u l i n g a g e n t s were removed by hand as w e l l a s p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t e n d a n g e r i n g L e p a s a n a t i f e r a . 3. S T A T I S T I C A L ANALYSIS A n a l y s e s were p e r f o r m e d w i t h t h e a i d o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o m p u t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . The a n a l y s i s o f t h e w i l d g r o w t h d a t a from t h e 1980 s u r v e y c o n s i s t e d of c o m p a r i n g t h e c a p i t u l u m and p e d u n c l e l e n g t h s from e a c h o f t h e s u r f a c e b u o y s . B o t h t h e r e g i o n f r o m w h i c h t h e sa m p l e s were t a k e n and t h e t i m e a t w h i c h t h e s a m p l e s were t a k e n were c o n s i d e r e d . The a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d w i t h t h e S t u d e n t ' s ' t ' t e s t a nd an ANOVA t e s t ( L a r k i n , 1979). The o v e r a l l p i c t u r e o f t h e s u r v i v a l e x p e r i e n c e s of g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s from e a c h o f t h e c u l t c h t y p e s was f i r s t i n v e s t i g a t e d . The UBC S:SLTEST ( L e , l 9 8 0 ) was u s e d t o compare t h e a c c u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t s u r v i v a l f o r t h e gooseneck b a r n a c l e s from t h e l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l s and wooden d o w e l l i n g s , and from w i t h i n t h e l a n t e r n n e t s . The n o n p a r a m e t r i c L o g . Rank (Savage) and t h e W i l c o x i n t e s t s ( L a w l e s s , 1982) were u s e d t o compare t h e s u r v i v a l e x p e r i e n c e s of L e p a s a n a t i f e r a on e a c h o f t h e l i n e s of o y s t e r s h e l l s and d o w e l l i n g a n d w i t h i n t h e l a n t e r n n e t s . As w e l l maximum l i k e l i h o o d e s t i m a t e s were d e t e r m i n e d w i t h t h e Newton-Raphson i t e r a t i o n t o o b t a i n e s t i m a t e s o f t h e s l o p e s f o r t h e e x p o n e n t i a l p a r a m e t r i c model u s e d t o d e s c r i b e s u r v i v a l ( L a w l e s s , 1982). 29 Where: P ( T > t ) = EXP (-Bt) t > 0 P ( T > t ) - t h e p r o b a b i l i t y of d e a t h o c u r r i n g a t t i m e " I " B - s l o p e of t h e c u r v e , t h e ' r a t e ' a t w h i c h gooseneck b a r n a c l e s d i e T - Time (week) S u b s e q u e n t l y P e a r s o n ' s c h i - s q u a r e d g o o d n e s s - o f - f i t t e s t and t h e l i k e l i h o o d r a t i o g o o d n e s s - o f - f i t t e s t were c a r r i e d o ut t o e v a l u a t e t h e f i t of t h e model ( L a w l e s s , 1982). U l t i m a t e l y , t h e s l o p e v a l u e s were compared w i t h t h e S t u d e n t ' s ' t ' t e s t ( L a r k i n , 1979) and t h e l i k e l i h o o d r a t i o t e s t ( L a w l e s s , 1982). A m o d i f i c a t i o n of A l l e n ' s (1967) p r o g r a m t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p a r a m e t e r v a l u e s of t h e von B e r t a l a n f f y g r o w t h e q u a t i o n (von B e r t a l a n f f y , 1938) was p r o v i d e d by D r . N.J. W i l i m o v s k y of t h e I n s t i t u t e o f A n i m a l R e s o u r c e E c o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The form of t h e von B e r t a l a n f f y g r o w t h model i s a s f o l l o w s : 1 = L - * ( i - E X P - K * ( t - t o ) where: 1 = t h e mean l e n g t h a t t i m e ' t (cm.) L oo = t h e a s y m p t o t i c l e n g t h 'maximum l e n g t h ' (cm.) K = Growth c o e f f i c i e n t t = t i m e (week) t o = t h e time a t w h i c h t h e l e n g t h i s z e r o i f t h e a n i m a l grows t h r o u g h o u t i t s l i f e a s t h e model d e s c r i b e s growth 30 The S t u d e n t ' s ' t ' t e s t ( L a r k i n , 1979) was u s e d t o compare p a r a m e t e r v a l u e s g e n e r a t e d f r o m t h e von B e r t a l a n f f y g r o w t h e q u a t i o n from t h e l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l s and wooden d o w e l l i n g b e a r i n g L e p a s a n a t i f e r a a n d t h e l a n t e r n n e t s c o n t a i n i n g L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a . A l t h o u g h i t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e p a r a m e t e r s a r e i n f a c t d e p e n d e n t t h e y a r e t r e a t e d h e r e a s i n d e p e n d e n t t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e c o m p a r i s o n of g r o w t h . The r e v i s e d v e r s i o n of t h e UBC S:SLTEST ( L e , l 9 8 0 ) was u s e d t o p e r f o r m t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s and s u b s e q u e n t c o m p a r i s o n s of r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s i n t h e a n a l y s i s of t h e w e i g h t / l e n g t h r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The p r o g r a m ACE:GRAPH ( B o n s e r , 1982) was u s e d t o p r e p a r e t h e f i g u r e s and d e t e r m i n e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s and s t a n d a r d e r r o r s f o r t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s . 31 IV. RESULTS G e n e r a l l y , t h e l o c a t i o n and t i m e of t h e s e t t i n g o f L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a s e e d was d i s c o v e r e d from t h e 1980 s u r v e y . As w e l l i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d on t h e growth of L e p a s a n a t i f e r a i n t h e w i l d . B a s e d on t h e 1980 s u r v e y t h e t i m e frame and l o c a t i o n s were c h o s e n f o r t h e 1981 d e p l o y m e n t o f c u l t c h . S e t t l e m e n t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e same t i m e p e r i o d and a t s i m i l i a r l o c a t i o n s a s i n t h e 1980 s u r v e y and t h e 1981 d e p l o y m e n t of c u l t c h . L e p a s a n a t i f e r a s e t t l e d on b o t h t h e o y s t e r s h e l l and wooden d o w e l l i n g b ut d i d not s e t t l e on t h e b a r e p o l y p r o p y l e n e l i n e . However, L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a d i d s e t t l e s e r e n d i p i t o u s l y on t h e s e c t i o n s of r u b b e r u s e d t o p r o t e c t t h e buoy from t h e m e t a l f r a m e . Next t h e s e e d l a d e n c u l t c h were t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e two l o n g - l i n e s y s t e m s . I n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d on t h e g r o w t h , s u r v i v a l , and m a t u r a t i o n o f L e p a s a n a t i f e r a grown under c u l t u r e c o n d i t i o n s . The t o t a l l e n g t h , c a p i t u l u m p l u s p e d u n c l e , o f L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a f r o m a l l t h e c u l t c h t y p e s e x c e e d e d t h e m i n i m a l h a r v e s t a b l e s i z e of 4 cm by t h e end o f t h i s s t u d y . However g r o w t h was s t i l l l e s s t h a n t h a t o b s e r v e d i n t h e w i l d . L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a grown w i t h i n t h e l a n t e r n n e t s a t t a i n e d t h e g r e a t e s t l e n g t h s and were h e a v i e r f o r a g i v e n s i z e t h a n t h o s e grown on t h e o t h e r c u l t c h . 32 1. SEED ACQUISITION 1 . 1980 SURVEY The 1980 s u r v e y of buoys moored o f f t h e west c o a s t of V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d ( f i g . 2) r e v e a l e d t h a t L e p a s a n a t i f e r a had s e t t l e d b o t h on s u r f a c e ( p o s i t i o n 1,2,3, and 4) and s u b s u r f a c e (50m) ( p o s i t i o n A,B, and C) b u o y s . L e p a s a n a t i f e r a had s e t t l e d d e n s e l y on t h e s u r f a c e buoys t h o u g h o n l y s p a r s e l y on t h e s u b s u r f a c e b u o y s . The s e t t l e m e n t o c u r r e d between t h e f i r s t of May and J u l y 3 1 s t . 1980 s i n c e no r e c o l o n i z a t i o n was o b s e r v e d September 15th on t h e s e c t i o n of t h e s u r f a c e buoy ( p o s i t i o n 3) c l e a r e d J u l y 3 1 s t . 1980. The mean c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) l e n g t h s of g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s from t h e s u r f a c e buoys were measured on J u l y 3 1 s t . ( p o s i t i o n 3) and September 1 5 t h . 1980 ( p o s i t i o n 1,2,3, and 4 ) . The mean c a p i t u l u m l e n g t h s of t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s t h a t were r e c o r d e d J u l y 3 1 s t ( p o s i t i o n 3) were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r t h e t o p and b o t t o m r e g i o n s o f t h e buoy ( f i g . 6 and T a b l e V ) . As w e l l , c a p i t u l u m l e n g t h s t h a t were r e c o r d e d on September 15th were g r e a t e r f o r t h e bo t t o m r e g i o n t h a n f o r t h e t o p ( f i g . 6 and T a b l e V ) . The mean c a p i t u l u m l e n g t h s o f t h e gooseneck b a r n a c l e s from t h e b o t t o m r e g i o n o f t h e buoys ( p o s i t i o n 1,2,3 and 4) when measured on September 15th were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from e a c h o t h e r ( ' F ' c a l d f = 3 , l 7 0 p=0.05 = 2.360). The mean c a p i t u l u m l e n g t h o f t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s f r o m t h e t o p r e g i o n were s i m i l i a r f o r p o s i t i o n s 1, 3, and 4. But t h e mean c a p i t u l u m 33 l e n g t h of g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s f r o m t h e t o p r e g i o n o f p o s i t i o n 2 was s i g n i f i c a n t l y s h o r t e r t h a n t h o s e from p o s i t i o n 1, 3 and 4 (ANOVA t e s t ' F ' c a l df=3,171 p=0.05 = 35.062 and S c h e f f e s t e s t ' F ' c a l = 9.347) . A s i m i l i a r c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e mean s t a l k l e n g t h s does n o t show t h e same p a t t e r n as s e e n f o r t h e c o m p a r i s o n of t h e c a p i t u l u m l e n g t h s ( f i g . 7 ) . The mean s t a l k l e n g t h s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o n g e r f r o m t h e b o t t o m r e g i o n o f t h e buoys ( p o s i t i o n 1,2,3, and 4) t h a n from t h e t o p r e g i o n ( T a b l e V I ) . However, t h e mean s t a l k l e n g t h s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t among t h e f o u r p o s i t i o n s [ANOVA t e s t ( t o p r e g i o n ) ' F ' c a l d f = 3,171 p=0.05 = 87.445 and ANOVA t e s t ( b o t t o m r e g i o n ) ' F ' c a l df=3,170 p=0.05 = 12.639]. The mean c a p i t u l u m l e n g t h s , from t h e t o p and b o t t o m r e g i o n s ( p o s i t i o n 3 ) , on September 15th were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o n g e r t h a n t h e mean c a p i t u l u m l e n g t h s r e c o r d e d on J u l y 3 1 s t i n d i c a t i n g g r o w t h ( f i g . 6 ) ( t o p r e g i o n ' t ' c a l df=127,p=0.05 = 11.044 and b o t t o m r e g i o n ' t ' c a l df=108,p=0.05 = 13.862). The s t a l k l e n g t h s ( f i g . 7 ) were s i m i l i a r from t h e b o t t o m r e g i o n o f t h e buoy ( p o s i t i o n 3) on J u l y 3 1 s t and September 15th ( b o t t o m r e g i o n ' t ' c a l df=108,p-0.05 = 1.636). However, f r o m t h e t o p r e g i o n t h e s t a l k l e n g t h s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y s h o r t e r on September 15th t h a n on J u l y 3 1 s t ( t o p r e g i o n ' t ' c a l df=127,p=0.05 = 7.341). 34 o —o POSITION 3 (T) N-77 N -51 H -+ POSITION 3 (B) N-68 N -41 • POSITION 1 IT) N -42 X POSITION 2 m N -46 • POSITION 4 m N -46 * POSITION 1 (B) N -48 & POSITION 2 (8) N -36 X POSITION 4 (B) N -49 3 1 C O Z U J - r - ~ i — 0 . 0 0 . S - T -1.0 - r -ts —i 1 1 1 r— 2 . 0 Z S 3 . 0 TIME (MONTHS) 3 . S 5 . 0 F i g u r e 6. P l o t of t h e mean c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) l e n g t h v e r s u s t i m e . (T - t o p r e g i o n of buoy and B - b o t t o m r e g i o n of buoy, N-sample s i z e ) ( t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d a r e 0.5, t h e r e m a i n i n g s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s range from 0.3 t o 0.4) Time : 0-5 - r e p r e s e n t s May 1 t o O c t o b e r 1 1980. ( f o r p o s i t i o n s 1,2,3, and 4 r e f e r t o F i g u r e a a ) . 35 T a b l e V - A t a b l e o f t h e c a p i t u l u m l e n g h t s (cm) of gooseneck b a r n a c l e s f r o m t h e t o p and b o t t o m r e g i o n s of t h e buoys from p o s i t i o n s 1,2,3, and 4. The s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s o f t h e S t u d e n t ' s ' t ' t e s t a r e p r o v i d e d f r o m t h e t e s t s o f t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e l e n g t h s a r e e q u a l f r o m t h e t o p and bo t t o m r e g i o n s of e a c h buoy. P o s i t i o n R e g i o n L e n g t h (cm) S.D. df p ' t ' c a l 3 J u l y - 3 1 t o p 2.6 0.5 > 143 .05 3.75 3 J u l y - 3 1 b o t t o m 2.9 0.3 1 S e p t - 1 5 t o p 3.5 0.3 > 88 .05 4.016 1 S e p t - 1 5 b o t t o m 3.8 0.3 2 S e p t - 1 5 t o p 2.9 0.5 > 80 .05 7.125 2 S e p t - 1 5 b o t t o m 3.7 0.4 3 S e p t - 1 5 t o p 3.5 0.3 > 90 .05 3.426 3 S e p t - 1 5 b o t t o m 3.7 0.3 4 S e p t - 1 5 t o p 3.5 0.3 > 93 .05 4.864 4 S e p t - 1 5 b o t t o m 3.8 0.3 36 uS -o o POSITION 3 (T) H + POSITION 3 (B) * POSITION 1 (T) x POSITION 2 «T) D POSITION 1 (B) * POSITION 4 (T) A POSITION 2 (B) x POSITION 4 (B) i— — N-77 N-68 N-51 N-41 N- 42 N-46 N-48 N-46 N-36 N-49 •f-I l —i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i r -O.D 0 . 5 t O 1 .5 2 . 0 Z S 3 . 0 3 . S 4 . 0 4 , 5 SJ) TIME (MONTHS) F i g u r e 7. P l o t of t h e mean p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h v e r s u s t i m e . (T - t o p r e g i o n o f buoy and B bo t t o m r e g i o n of buoy, N-sample s i z e ) ( t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d r a n g e from 1.0 t o 4.0, t h e r e m a i n i n g s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s r a n g e from 2.3 t o 2.6) Time : 0-5 - r e p r e s e n t s May 1 t o O c t o b e r 1 1980. ( f o r p o s i t i o n s 1,2,3, and 4 r e f e r t o F i g u r e a a ) . 37 T a b l e VI - A t a b l e o f t h e p e d u n c l e l e n g t h s (cm) o f g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s from t h e t o p and b o t t o m r e g i o n s of t h e buoys from p o s i t i o n s 1,2,3, and 4. The s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s o f t h e S t u d e n t ' s ' t ' t e s t a r e p r o v i d e d from t h e t e s t s o f t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e l e n g t h s a r e e q u a l from t h e t o p and bo t t o m r e g i o n s o f e a c h buoy. P o s i t i o n R e g i o n L e n g t h (cm) S.D. df p ' t ' c a l 3 J u l y - 3 1 t o p 3.3 1.4 > 143 .05 15.591 3 J u l y - 3 1 bottom 8.7 2.6 1 S e p t - 1 5 t o p 8.5 2.3 > 88 .05 2.680 1 S e p t - 1 5 b o t t o m 9.9 2.6 2 S e p t - 1 5 t o p 3.4 1.0 > 80 .05 13.838 2 S e p t - 1 5 b o t t o m 11.8 3.9 3 S e p t - 1 5 t o p 5.3 1.5 > 90 .05 7.795 3 S e p t - 1 5 bottom 7.9 1.7 4 S e p t - 1 5 t o p 8.7 2.3 > 93 .05 2.516 4 S e p t - 1 5 bottom 9.9 2.6 38 2. 1981 CULTCH DEPLOYMENT The s y s t e m d e s i g n e d t o a c q u i r e s e e d d i d n o t weather w e l l . The h o r i z o n t a l a n d v e r t i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e l i n e s o f c u l t c h were d i s r u p t e d and many o f t h e l i n e s were s e v e r e d and t h e c u l t c h was l o s t . L e p a s a n a t i f e r a s e t t l e d a t b o t h p o s i t i o n 1 and 2 ( f i g . 2 ) . The o y s t e r s h e l l s and wooden d o w e l l i n g p r o v e d t o be s u i t a b l e s u b s t r a t e s f o r t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f L e p a s a n a t i f e r a . S e t t l e m e n t d i d n o t o c c u r on t h e b a r e p o l y p r o p y l e n e l i n e . L e p a s a n a t i f e r a s e t t l e d on t h e wooden d o w e l l i n g m a i n l y a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e d o w e l l i n g and t h e p o l y p r o p y l e n e l i n e . The r u b b e r u s e d t o p r o t e c t t h e geodyne buoys from t h e m e t a l frame p r o v e d t o be a s u i t a b l e s u b s t r a t e f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a . The a v e r a g e number o f L e p a s a n a t i f e r a t h a t s e t t l e d on e a c h o f t h e o y s t e r s h e l l s , wooden d o w e l l i n g and t h e s e c t i o n s o f r u b b e r (800 cm 2) were 27 + 2 5 / o y s t e r s h e l l , 53 + 40/dowel and 125 + 7 0 / s e c t i o n o f r u b b e r . 2. CULTURE PHASE 1. ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS The s a l i n i t y ( f i g . 8 ) , t e m p e r a t u r e ( f i g . 9 ) , and s e c c h i d e p t h ( f i g . 10) were r e c o r d e d a t t h e c u l t u r e s i t e . The s a l i n i t y v a r i e d f r o m a low o f 25 p p t t o a h i g h o f 31 p p t o v e r t h e t h r e e meter d e p t h r a n g e m o n i t o r e d d u r i n g t h e 39 c u l t u r e phase ( f i g . 1 0 ) . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e c u l t u r e phase (June 15 t o J u l y 31) t h e r e was a d i s t i n c t r a n g e o f t e m p e r a t u r e s f r o m t h e s u r f a c e t o a d e p t h of t h r e e m e t e r s . By t h e n i n t h week t e m p e r a t u r e s r a n g e d from a mean low o f 11.4 C a t t h r e e m e t e r s t o a mean h i g h o f 17.6 C a t t h e s u r f a c e . And by t h e e l e v e n t h week t h e water column had become w e l l m i x e d as s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e s d e c r e a s e d . In t h e f i n a l week t h e t e m p e r a t u r e a t a l l d e p t h s was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 13.1 + 0.1 C ( f i g . 9 ) . The s e c c h i d e p t h was a r o u n d 6 m e t e r s u n t i l i t r o s e t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4.5 m e t e r s i n t h e n i n t h and t e n t h weeks. By t h e f i n a l week t h e s e c c h i d e p t h was j u s t o f f t h e b o t t o m a t 9 m e t e r s ( f i g . 9 ) . T h e r e i s a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between mean s e c c h i d e p t h s and t h e mean t e m p e r a t u r e s a v e r a g e d o v e r t h e s u r f a c e and t h e f i r s t t h r e e m e t e r s o f t h e water column ( f i g . 11), where: Y = 24.6 - 1.3(X) c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t = 0.80 s t a n d a r d e r r o r = 0.79 The s h a l l o w e s t s e c c h i d e p t h s accompany t h e h i g h e s t t e m p e r a t u r e s and t h e d e e p e s t s e c c h i d e p t h s accompany t h e l o w e s t t e m p e r a t u r e s . 40 F i g u r e 8. P l o t of t h e mean s a l i n i t y v e r s u s t i m e a t th e c u l t u r e s i t e . Time : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s J u n e 1 t o O c t o b e r 31 1981 . 41 i T 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 T 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 . 0 2 . 0 4 . 0 6 . 0 8 . 0 10.0 1 2 . 0 1 4 . 0 1 6 . 0 1 8 . 0 2 0 . 9 TIME (UEEKS) F i g u r e 9. P l o t of t h e mean t e m p e r a t u r e v e r s u s t i m e a t t h e c u l t u r e s i t e . Time : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s June 1 t o O c t o b e r 31 1981. ' 42 F i g u r e 10. P l o t o f t h e mean s e c c h i d e p t h v e r s u s t i m e a t t h e c u l t u r e s i t e . Time : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s June 1 t o O c t o b e r 31 1 981 . 43 i 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 — i 1 1 1 1 1 1 i I 10.0 11.0 1 2 . 0 1 3 . 0 1 4 . 0 1 5 . 0 1 6 . 0 17 .0 1 8 . 0 1 9 . 0 2 0 . 0 TEMPERATURE ( C) F i g u r e 11. P l o t o f t h e mean s e c c h i d e p t h s v e r s u s t h e means of t h e t e m p e r a t u r e s a v e r a g e d o v e r t h e s u r f a c e and t h e f i r s t t h r e e m e t e r s . 44 2. GONADAL STATE F i g u r e 12 i s a p l o t of t h e p e r c e n t o f t h o s e b a r n a c l e s t h a t b o r e o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e (egg c a s e s ) and t h a t p e r c e n t of t h e o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e t h a t were b l u e f o r g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s f r o m e a c h of t h e c u l t c h t y p e s v e r s u s t i m e . O v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e were f i r s t o b s e r v e d i n L e p a s a n a t i f e r a o f t h e o y s t e r s h e l l s d u r i n g t h e s i x t h week o f t h e c u l t u r e p h a s e . But i t was not u n t i l t h e n e x t s a m p l i n g p e r i o d o f t h e e l e v e n t h week t h a t o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e a p p e a r e d i n t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on t h e wooden d o w e l l i n g and i n t h e l a n t e r n n e t s . The i n c i d e n c e o f egg b e a r i n g i n c r e a s e d t o 50% by t h e e l e v e n t h week and d e c r e a s e d t o 38% by t h e f i n a l week f o r t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on t h e o y s t e r s h e l l s . The i n c i d e n c e of egg b e a r i n g f o r t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s f r o m t h e wooden d o w e l l i n g and l a n t e r n n e t s d i d n o t d e c r e a s e b u t i n c r e a s e d t o 42% and 62% r e s p e c t i v e l y by t h e f i n a l week. A t i m e l a g i s v e r y c l e a r between t h a t t i m e a t w h i c h o v i g e r o u s l a m a l l a e f i r s t a p p e a r e d t o t h a t a t w h i c h a p o r t i o n o f t h e o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e were b l u e . The b l u e o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e d i d n o t a p p e a r u n t i l t h e n i n t h , e l e v e n t h , and f o u r t e e n t h week and i n c r e a s e d t o 38%, 60%, and 75% from t h o s e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s f r o m t h e o y s t e r s h e l l s , l a n t e r n n e t s , and wooden d o w e l l i n g r e s p e c t i v e l y . G e n e r a l l y , t h e r e was a t i m e l a g of s i x weeks from t h e f i r s t a p p e a r a n c e o f o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e t o t h e i n i t i a l o c u r r a n c e o f b l u e o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e ( f i g . 1 3 ) . 45 g o © BEARING BLUE EGGS (0) «, h • BEARING EGGS (0» R" «--—» SEARING BLUE EGGS (D) . x x BEARING EGGS (D; = & Q BEARING BLUE EGGS (Nj s " * - * BEARING EGGS (N; t S- / r-/ T 1 20. D TiriE (UEEKS) F i g u r e 12. P l o t o f t h e p e r c e n t o f L e p a s a n a t i f e r a b e a r i n g o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e (egg c a s e s ) and t h a t p e r c e n t o f o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e (egg c a s e s ) t h a t a r e b l u e . (0 - o y s t e r l i n e s , D - wooden l i n e s , and N -l a n t e r n n e t s ) Time : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s June 1 t o O c t o b e r 31 1 981 . 46 F i g u r e 13. P l o t o f t h e p e r c e n t of L e p a s a n a t i f e r a , o f a l l c u l t c h t y p e s , b e a r i n g o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e (egg c a s e s ) and t h a t p e r c e n t o f o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e (egg c a s e s ) t h a t a r e b l u e . Time : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s J une 1 t o O c t o b e r 31 1981 . 47 3. SURVIVAL F i g u r e s 14 - 17 d i s p l a y t h e a c u m m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t s u r v i v a l f o r g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on t h e o y s t e r s h e l l s , wooden d o w e l l i n g , and i n t h e l a n t e r n n e t s . No m o r t a l i t i e s were o b s e r v e d f o r t h e f i r s t 5 weeks o f t h e c u l t u r e p h a s e . The g r e a t e s t d e c r e a s e i n p e r c e n t s u r v i v a l o c c u r r e d between t h e s i x t h and t e n t h weeks. P e r c e n t s u r v i v a l l e v e l l e d o f f d u r i n g t h e l a s t s e v e n weeks of t h e c u l t u r e p h a s e . D i f f e r e n c e s c a n be o b s e r v e d i n t h e s h a p e s of t h e c u r v e s o f e a c h of t h e f i g u r e s . F o r example t h e c u r v e s o f f i g u r e 16 o f t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on t h e wooden d o w e l l i n g i n d i c a t e t h a t s u r v i v a l was d i f f e r e n t f o r t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s f r o m e a c h o f t h e s e l i n e s . A d i f f e r e n c e c an a l s o be s e e n f o r t h e c u r v e s o f t h e gooseneck b a r n a c l e s i n t h e l a n t e r n n e t s ( f i g . 1 7 ) . I t i s more d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c e r n t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e c u r v e s o f t h e gooseneck b a r n a c l e s o f f i g u r e s 14 and 15. 48 8-a © OYSTER CULTCH 1 •) + OYSTER CULTCH 2 — e OYSTER CULTCH 3 x x OYSTER CULTCH 4 o- CD OYSTER CULTCH 5 • * OYSTER CULTCH 6 e r g -M > 3 o cr U J Q . - 1 1 1 1 1 r 2 . 0 4 . 0 6 . 0 — i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 10.0 1 2 . 0 1 4 . 0 1 6 . 0 1 8 . 0 TIME (UEEKS) a.o r 8 . 0 2 0 . 0 F i g u r e 14. P l o t of t h e a c c u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t s u r v i v a l v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a from e a c h of t h e l i n e s of o y s t e r s h e l l s ( 1 - 6 ) . Time : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s June 1 t o O c t o b e r 31 1981. U? — r -o o OYSTER CULICH 1 h • OYSTER CULTCH 8 o » OYSTER CULTCH 9 x x OYSTER CULTCH )0 o- o OYSTER CULTCH 11 x - — * OYSTER CULTCH 12 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 — 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 19.0 TIflE WEEKS) F i g u r e 15. P l o t o f t h e a c c u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t s u r v i v a l , v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a f r o m e a c h of t h e l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l s ( 7 - 1 2 ) . Time : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s J une 1 t o O c t o b e r 31 1981 . F i g u r e 16. P l o t of t h e a c c u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t s u r v i v a l v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a f r o m e a c h of t h e l i n e s o f wooden d o w e l i n g (1-3 ) . Time : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s J u n e 1 t o O c t o b e r 31 1981 . 51 F i g u r e 17. P l o t of t h e a c c u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t s u r v i v a l v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a w i t h i n e a c h of t h e l a n t e r n n e t s (1 -2) . Time : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s June 1 t o O c t o b e r 31 1981 . 52 G e n e r a l l y , when t h e t o t a l number of d e a t h s a r e c o n s i d e r e d f o r e a c h o f t h e t h r e e t r e a t m e n t s and t h e p e r c e n t a g e s p l o t t e d , s u r v i v a l a p p e a r s t o be t h e same ( f i g . 1.8). A r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s and s u b s e q u e n t c o m p a r i s o n of t h e r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s f i t t e d t o t h e t r a n s f o r m e d p e r c e n t v a l u e s o f weeks f i v e t h r o u g h t o week s e v e n t e e n s u g g e s t t h a t t h e c u r v e s a r e s i m i l i a r ( ' F ' c a l = 1.14 p r o b = 0 . 2 6 4 ) . The common r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n i s : LogY = 2.127 - 0.03275*T where: Y = p e r c e n t s u r v i v i n g a t t i m e 'T' 0.03275 = s l o p e o f t h e c u r v e ' m o r t a l i t y r a t e ' T = t i m e (weeks) T h i s s i m p l i s t i c a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e m o r t a l i t i e s f o l l w e d a s i m p l e e x p o n e n t i a l f u n c t i o n i n d i c a t i n g t h a t 37.2% o f t h e go o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s s u r v i v e d t h e c u l t u r e p h a s e ( F i g . 1 8 ) . 53 F i g u r e 1 8 . P l o t of t h e a c c u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t s u r v i v a l v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a t o t a l e d f o r e a c h o f t h e c u l t c h t y p e s . Time : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s June 1 t o O c t o b e r 31 1981 . 54 A more t h o r o u g h i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e s u r v i v a l of t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s f r o m e a c h of t h e l i n e s and n e t s r e i n f o r c e s t h e i n i t i a l o b s e r v a t i o n s t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d f r o m l i n e t o l i n e among t h e t h r e e t r e a t m e n t s . The Savage Log Rank t e s t and t h e W i l c o x o n s u r v i v a l a n a l y s i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n s u r v i v a l among t h e l i n e s o f g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on o y s t e r s h e l l s , among t h e l i n e s o f g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on wooden d o w e l l i n g , and between t h e gooseneck b a r n a c l e s w i t h i n l a n t e r n n e t s ( T a b l e V I ) . T a b l e VI - C h i - s q u a r e d v a l u e s f o r t h e Log Rank and W i l c o x i n s u r v i v a l a n a l y s i s Log Rank Wi l c o x i n O y s t e r l i n e s 1-6 34.7 31 .8 O y s t e r l i n e s 7-12 28.9 36.6 Wooden l i n e s 1-3 1 29.8 164.2 L a n t e r n n e t s 1-2 1 98.2 301 .6 ( n o t e - i n a l l c a s e s t h e p r o b i l i t y was 0.0 t h a t any of t h e s u r v i v a l between t h e l i n e s were s i m i l i a r ) 55 In o r d e r t o d e f i n e o r d e s c r i b e t h e s u r v i v a l , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o use t h e p a r a m e t r i c model : P ( T > t ) = EXP (-Bt) t > 0 where: P ( T > t ) = t h e p r o b a b i l i t y of d e a t h o c c u r r i n g a t t i m e 'T' T = Time i n weeks B = s l o p e of t h e c u r v e , t h e ' r a t e ' a t w h i c h t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s d i e T h i s model was f i t t e d t o t h e a c t u a l numbers o f dead a t w e e k l y i n t e r v a l s u n l i k e t h e p r e c e e d i n g e x p o n e n t i a l model t h a t was f i t t e d t o t h e p e r c e n t v a l u e s . A maximum l i k e l i h o o d e s t i m a t e o f t h e s l o p e and i t s s t a n d a r d e r r o r were o b t a i n e d f o r e a c h o f t h e l i n e s of g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on t h e o y s t e r s h e l l s , t h e l i n e s o f g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on t h e wooden d o w e l l i n g , and t h e l a n t e r n n e t s c o n t a i n i n g g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s . P e a r s o n ' s c h i - s q u a r e d g o o d n e s s - o f - f i t t e s t and t h e l i k e l i h o o d r a t i o g o o d n e s s - o f - f i t t e s t were p e r f o r m e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e f i t o f t h e d a t a t o t h e model ( T a b l e V I I I ) . 56 T a b l e V I I I - S l o p e v a l u e s , 'B' d e t e r m i n e d by t h e Newton-Raphson i t e r a t i o n , i n i t i a t e d t h e f i r s t (1) and t h e f i f t h week (5) and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g c h i - a q u a r e d v a l u e s from t h e P e a r s o n ' s and L i k e l i h o o d r a t i o g o o d n e s s - o f - f i t t e s t s O y s t e r L i n e 'B' V a l u e s P e a r s o n L i k e l i h o o d 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 0.052 0.093 299 94 243 1 03 2 0.051 0.088 221 62 1 92 69 3 0.067 0. 1 29 263 77 217 94 4 0.065 0. 1 24 187 41 1 67 46 5 0.062 0.116 251 59 226 70 6 0.037 0.061 232 69 215 70 7 0.044 0.074 368 81 380 80 8 0.039 0.063. 94 18 106 18 9 0.045 0.075 506 1 48 477 1 42 1 0 0.047 0.082 183 58 1 55 59 1 1 0.043 0.071 500 128 509 1 37 1 2 0.032 0.050 218 54 238 54 D o w e l l i n g L i n e 1 0. 050 0. 087 905 222 844 235 2 0. 068 0. 1 30 1 1 68 242 1008 253 3 0. 040 0. 066 743 172 403 188 L a n t e r n Net 1 0.064 0.120 1692 495 1419 599 2 0.037 0.059 1707 681 1976 640 57 I n i t i a l l y t h e model was f i t t e d f r o m t h e f i r s t week but t h e o b v i o u s i n d e p e n d e n c e of s u r v i v a l o v e r t i m e d u r i n g t h e f i r s t f i v e weeks i n d u c e s a major e r r o r i n t h e f i t . The b e s t f i t , t h o u g h s t i l l a p o o r one, was o b t a i n e d from i n i t i a t i n g t h e model from week f i v e . F i g u r e 19 i s an example o f a p l o t o f t h e o b s e r v e d number o f d e a t h s and t h e e x p e c t e d number of d e a t h s v e r s u s t i m e g e n e r a t e d f r om t h e m o d e l . E = N[ EXP (-Bt) - EXP (-B(t + 1)] t > 0 (0 r e p r e s e n t s t h e f i f t h week) E = e x p e c t e d number of d e a t h s N = i n i t i a l number o f g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s B = s l o p e ' m o r t a l i t y r a t e ' 58 in _. o OBSERVED VALUES i n + EXPECTED VALUES -<M ~ tn r~" -© + o DEATHS 15.0 0 :R OF 12.5 o m E p + + Z + i n _ o + + o p* ~ o o o »w— i n i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i i I 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 6.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 TIME WEEKS) F i g u r e 19. P l o t of t h e o b s e r v e d and e x p e c t e d number o f d e a t h s f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a o f o y s t e r l i n e 8. Time : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s June 1 t o O c t o b e r 31 1 981 . 59 A l t h o u g h t h e model f i t t e d p o o r l y i t a l l o w e d f o r a f u r t h e r c o m p a r i s o n o f s u r v i v a l . Log l i k e l i h o o d e s t i m a t e s i n d i c a t e t h a t s l o p e s ( i e 'B' v a l u e s ) d i f f e r e d f o r e a c h o f t h e l i n e s of g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on o y s t e r s h e l l s ( c h i - s q u a r e d = 1 3 4 . 5 f o r o y s t e r l i n e s 1-6 and c h i - s q u a r e d = 3 2 . 4 f o r o y s t e r l i n e s 7-12) and f o r e a c h of t h e l i n e s of g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on wooden d o w e l l i n g ( c h i - s q u a r e d = 2 2 3 . 3 f o r wooden l i n e s 1-3). A S t u d e n t ' s ' t ' t e s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s l o p e s d i f f e r e d f o r t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s w i t h i n e a c h o f t h e l a n t e r n n e t s ( ' t ' c a l c u l a t e d = 1 2 . 8 ) . A l t h o u g h s u r v i v a l d i f f e r e d between l i n e s , an e x p l a n a t i o n may now be f o u n d . A p l o t o f t h e mean d e n s i t i e s o f e a c h s u b s t r a t e t y p e ( o y s t e r s h e l l s , wooden d o w e l l i n g , and r u b b e r w i t h i n t h e l a n t e r n n e t s ) from e a c h o f t h e l i n e s and n e t s v e r s u s t h e s l o p e s o f t h e e x p o n e n t i a l model ( i e t h e 'B' v a l u e s ) s u g g e s t s t h a t s u r v i v a l was d e n s i t y d e p e n d e n t . G e n e r a l l y an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between m o r t a l i t y a n d d e n s i t y i s seen ( f i g . 2 0 - 2 1 ) . T h i s i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p , where g r e a t e r m o r t a l i t y r a t e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o w e r d e n s i t i e s , may a c c o u n t f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s o b s e r v e d . 60 o OYSTER LINES 1-6 • OYSTER LINES 7-12 o o to LU _J d > O O • I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I ' 0.0 10.0 2Q.0 30.0 40.0 SO.O 60.0 70.0 60.0 SCO 100.0 MEAN DENSITIES F i g u r e 20. P l o t of t h e 'B' v a l u e s ( s l o p e o f t h e m o r t a l i t y ) v e r s u s t h e mean d e n s i t y o f L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a p e r o y s t e r s h e l l f r o m o y s t e r l i n e s 1 t o 12. 61 in ui _ J m o UOODEN LINES 1-3 • LANTERN NETS 1-2 o o o + 0.0 25.0 50.0 75.0 100.0 12S.0 150.0 175.0 200.0 225.0 2S0.O MEAN DENSITIES F i g u r e 21. P l o t of t h e 'B' v a l u e s ( s l o p e o f t h e m o r t a l i t y ) v e r s u s t h e mean d e n s i t y o f L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a p e r wooden d o w e l i n g f r o m t h e wooden l i n e s (1-3) and l a n t e r n n e t s ( 1 - 2 ) . 62 4. GROWTH C a p i t u l u m Growth The von B e r t a l a n f f y g r o w t h model ( von B e r t a l a n f f y , 1938) was f i t t e d t o t h e mean c a p i t u l u m l e n g t h s o f e a c h o f t h e l i n e s o f g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on o y s t e r s h e l l s , e a c h o f t h e l i n e s of g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on wooden d o w e l l i n g , and e a c h of t h e l a n t e r n n e t s c o n t a i n i n g g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s ( f i g . 2 2 - 2 5 ) . The form o f t h e von B e r t a l a n f f y g r o w t h model i s a s f o l l o w s : 1 = L oo * 0 - E X P - K * ( t - t o ) ) where: 1 = t h e mean l e n g t h a t t i m e ' t ' (cm.) L oo = t h e a s y m p t o t i c l e n g t h 'maximum l e n g t h ' K = Growth c o e f f i c i e n t t = t i m e (weeks) t o = t h e t i m e a t w h i c h t h e l e n g t h i s z e r o i f t h e a n i m a l grows t h r o u g h o u t i t s l i f e a s t h e model d e s c r i b e s g r o w t h F i g u r e s 22 - 25 d i s p l a y t h e mean c a p i t u l u m l e n g t h s v e r s u s t i m e . The p a r a m e t e r s 'L » 'K', and ' t o ' f o r e a c h o f t h e c u r v e s c a n be f o u n d i n T a b l e IX. 63 T a b l e IX - A l i s t of t h e p a r a m e t e r v a l u e s (L °° -cm, K , t o -weeks) and sample s i z e s (N) from t h e von B e r t a l a n f f y g r o w t h model f o r t h e c a p i t u l u m g r o w t h of g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s . P a r a m e t e r V a l u e s L 00 K t o N O y s t e r L i n e 1 3.1 0.11 -3.9 483 2 3.0 0.10 -3.1 509 3 2.9 0.12 -2.3 483 4 3.0 0. 12 -3. 1 521 5 2.8 0.14 -2.9 522 6 3.0 0.11 -3.7 530 7 3.1 0.10 -5.4 540 8 2.8 0.15 -3.2 530 9 2.8 0.14 -5.5 535 10 2.8 0. 15 -2.7 582 1 1 3.1 0.10 -3.9 483 1 2 2.9 0.14 -3.9 647 D o w e l l i n g L i n e 1 3.1 0.11 -3.2 788 2 3.3 0.09 -2.3 854 3 3.0 0.13 -2.2 1 023 L a n t e r n Net 1 6.9 0.02 -8.8 1051 2 4.0 0.05 -7.5 1235 64 V> 1 o o OYSTER LINE 1 H • OYSTER LINE 2 »- « » OYSTER LINE 3 . x x OYSTER LINE 4 o- o OYSTER LINE 5 3- ». * OYSTER LINE 6 H 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I 1 I I 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 I O.D 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 16.0 20.0 TIME (IVEEKS) F i g u r e 22. P l o t o f t h e mean c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) l e n g t h v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a f r o m e a c h of t h e o y s t e r l i n e s ( 1 - 6 ) . ( s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r e a c h mean v a l u e range from 0.2 t o 0.4) Time : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s J u n e 1 t o O c t o b e r 31 1981 . 65 UJ c CO 0 © OYSTER LINE 7 1 + OYSTER LINE 8 « t> OYSTER LINE 9 x x OYSTER LINE 10 o- a OYSTER LINE 11 * * OYSTER LINE 12 x-' •nr-4.0 — r -6.0 - 1 — 8.0 10.0 12.0 TIME (UEEKS) 0.0 i 2.0 I — 0 "T 14.0 - 1 — 16.0 18.0 20.0 F i g u r e 23. P l o t of t h e mean c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) l e n g t h v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a f r o m e a c h of t h e o y s t e r l i n e s ( 7 - 1 2 ) . ( s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r e a c h mean v a l u e range f r o m 0.2 t o 0.4) Time : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s J une 1 t o O c t o b e r 31 1981 . 66 o UOODEN LINE 1 --+ UOODEN• LINE 2 » UOODEN LINE 3 F i g u r e 24. P l o t of t h e mean c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) l e n g t h v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a from e a c h o f t h e wooden l i n e s ( 1 -3) . ( s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r e a c h mean v a l u e range f r o m 0.2 t o 0.3) Time : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s June 1 t o O c t o b e r 31 1981 . 67 F i g u r e 25. P l o t of t h e mean c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) l e n g t h v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a f r o m e a c h o f t h e l a n t e r n n e t s ( 1 - 2 ) . ( s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r e a c h mean v a l u e range from 0.2 t o 0.3) Time : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s J u n e 1 t o O c t o b e r 31 1981. 68 An i n i t i a l o v e r v i e w i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on t h e l i n e s of o y s t e r s h e l l s ( f i g . 22 and 23, T a b l e IX) and wooden d o w e l l i n g s ( f i g . 24 and T a b l e IX) have a s y m p t o t i c l e n g t h s (L o° ) r a n g i n g f r o m 2.80 t o 3.80 cm and 'K' v a l u e s r a n g i n g from 0.09 t o 0.15. The g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s from t h e l a n t e r n n e t s have a s y m p t o t i c l e n g t h s (L °° ) r a n g i n g from 4.0 t o 6.9 cm and 'K' v a l u e s r a n g i n g f r o m 0.02 t o 0.05 ( f i g . 25 and T a b l e I X ) . G e n e r a l l y t h e ' L °° ' v a l u e s f o r t h o s e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s w i t h i n t h e l a n t e r n n e t s a r e d o u b l e t h o s e from t h e l i n e s of o y s t e r s h e l l s and wooden d o w e l l i n g . As w e l l t h e 'K' v a l u e s f o r t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s f r o m t h e l a n t e r n n e t s a r e one t h i r d of t h o s e f o r t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on t h e l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l s and wooden d o w e l l i n g . In summary t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s of t h e l a n t e r n n e t s a t t a i n e d a l a r g e r a s y m p t o t i c l e n g t h a t a s l o w e r r a t e t h a n t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on t h e l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l s and wooden d o w e l l i n g . The c u r v e s o f c a p i t u l u m g r o w t h o f t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on t h e l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l s 1-6 and t h e l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l s 7-12 were compared f o r s i m i l i a r 'L °> ' 'K' and ' t o ' mean v a l u e s . The l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was c h o s e n a t p=0.02 s i n c e t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e mean a s y m p t o t i c l e n g t h s (L °°) were l e s s t h a n o r j u s t g r e a t e r t h a n t h e p r e c i s i o n i n v o l v e d i n m e a s u r i n g t h e l e n g t h s . F o r example the mean ' L °° ' f o r t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s o f t h e l i n e s of o y s t e r s h e l l s 1-6 and 7-12 were 3.00 + 0.09 and 2.91 + 0.14. T h e r e f o r e i t was d e c i d e d t h a t t o be a b l e t o r e j e c t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t 'L =° ' was e q u a l , t h e p r o b a b i l i t y must be e q u a l t o o r more e x t r e m e t h a n p=0.02. S u b s e q u e n t l y t h i s l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was u s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e 69 c o m p a r i s o n s o f mean p a r a m e t e r v a l u e s o f e a c h c u l t c h t y p e . The mean p a r a m e t e r v a l u e s were s i m i l i a r f o r b o t h t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on t h e l i n e s of o y s t e r s h e l l s 1-6 and 7-12 ( T a b l e X ) . Next t h e mean p a r a m e t e r v a l u e s f o r t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on t h e l i n e s of o y s t e r s h e l l s 1-12 were compared t o t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on t h e l i n e s o f wooden d o w e l l i n g 1-3. A g a i n t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( T a b l e X ) . T h e r e f o r e t h e c a p i t u l u m g r o w t h of t h o s e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on t h e l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l s and wooden d o w e l l i n g a p p e a r t o be s i m i l i a r . The p a r a m e t e r s ' L °= ', 'K', and ' t o ' from t h e von B e r t a l a n f f y growth e q u a t i o n f o r t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s o f e a c h of t h e l a n t e r n n e t s were compared. The p a r a m e t e r s 'K' and ' t o ' were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . However, b e c a u s e o f t h e h e t e r o g e n i e t y o f t h e v a r i a n c e s , t h e ' L °= ' v a l u e s c o u l d n o t be compared but i n s p i t e o f t h i s t h e v a l u e s do a p p e a r t o be d i f f e r e n t ( T a b l e X ) . A l t h o u g h t h e c a p i t u l u m g r o w t h o f L e p a s a n a t i f e r a was d i f f e r e n t f o r t h e two l a n t e r n n e t s , L e p a s a n a t i f e r a e x p o s e d on t h e l i n e s of o y s t e r s h e l l s and wooden d o w e l l i n g a t t a i n e d a s h o r t e r a s y m p t o t i c l e n g t h (L °° ) more r a p i d l y ( i e a g r e a t e r 'K' v a l u e ) t h a n L e p a s a n a t i f e r a c o n t a i n e d i n b o t h t h e l a n t e r n n e t s . 70 T a b l e X - A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e p a r a m e t e r v a l u e s (L °°-cm,K,to-weeks) g e n e r a t e d from t h e von B e r t a l a n f f y g r o w t h model f o r t h e c a p i t u l u m g r o w th o f g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s . C u l t c h l i n e s P a r a m e t e r S .D. d f P ' t ' c a l O y s t e r l i n e s 1 -6 L »-3.0 0 . 1 > 10 .02 1 .308 O y s t e r 1 i n e s 7 -12 L °°-2.9 0 . 1 O y s t e r l i n e s 1 -6 K-0.11 0 .015 > 10 .02 1 .308 O y s t e r l i n e s 7 -12 K-0. 13 0 .024 O y s t e r l i n e s 1 -6 t o - 3 . 2 0 .6 > 10 .02 1 .739 O y s t e r l i n e s 7 -12 t o - 4 . 1 0 .5 O y s t e r l i n e s 1 -12 L »-2.9 0 . 1 > 13 .02 2.203 Wooden l i n e s 1 -3 L °°-3. 1 0 . 1 O y s t e r l i n e s 1 -12 K-0.12 0 .020 > 1 3 .02 1.319 Wooden l i n e s 1 -3 K-0.11 0 .020 O y s t e r l i n e s 1 -12 t o - 3 . 6 1 .0 > 1 3 .02 2.227 Wooden l i n e s 1 -3 t o - 2 . 6 0 .55 L a n t e r n n e t 1 L =°- 6.9 0 .4 L a n t e r n n e t 2 L °°- 4.0 0 > . 1 L a n t e r n n e t 1 K-0.002 0 .0017 > OO .02 397.4 L a n t e r n n e t 2 K-0.050 0 .0017 L a n t e r n n e t 1 t o - 8 . 8 0 .2 > oo .02 178.7 L a n t e r n n e t 2 t o - 7 . 5 0 .2 (* - heterogeniety of variance - 'F'cal,df=2,» p=0.025,= 5.007) 71 P e d u n c l e Growth The mean s t a l k l e n g t h s measured a t w e e k l y i n t e r v a l s from June 15 t o O c t o b e r 15 1981 a r e shown i n f i g u r e s 26 - 29. U n l i k e t h e f i g u r e s f o r t h e mean c a p i t u l u m g r o w t h no c l e a r p a t t e r n i s o b s e r v a b l e . G e n e r a l l y t h e c u r v e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an i n i t i a l f l u c t u a t i o n o f s t a l k l e n g t h s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t e i g h t weeks, f o l l o w e d by a more s t a b l e b e h a v i o u r f o r t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e c u l t u r e p h a s e . A n o t h e r f e a t u r e of t h e f i g u r e s o f s t a l k l e n g t h i s t h a t t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s o f t h e l a n t e r n n e t s a p p e a r t o a t t a i n g r e a t e r s t a l k l e n g t h s t h a n t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on t h e l i n e s o f wooden d o w e l l i n g f o l l o w e d by t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on t h e l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l s . An a n a l y s i s of t h e f i n a l mean s t a l k l e n g t h s i n d i c a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h o s e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s f r o m t h e l i n e s of o y s t e r s h e l l s , l i n e s of wooden d o w e l l i n g and t h e l a n t e r n n e t s (ANOVA t e s t , ' F ' c a l d f = 2,°°,p=0.025 =5.0067). 72 o o OYSTER LINE 1 4 • OYSTER LINE 2 « e OYSTER LINE 3 . x x OYSTER LINE 4 o- a OYSTER LINE 5 °" » * OYSTER LINE 6 in _ in - i 1 1 r ~ — i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 TIME (UEEKS) F i g u r e 26. P l o t o f t h e mean p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a from e a c h of t h e o y s t e r l i n e s ( 1 - 6 ) . ( s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d on f i g u r e ) . Time : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s June 1 t o O c t o b e r 31 1981. 73 x _ J tX t— to o o OYSTER LINE 7 H • OYSTER LINE 8 » OYSTER LINE 9 x k OYSTER LINE 10 B- a OYSTER LINE 11 * « OYSTER LINE 12 — i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i r 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 16.0 TIME (WEEKS) 0.0 ~ i 1 r 2.0 20.0 F i g u r e 27. P l o t o f t h e mean p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h v e r s u s t i m e f o r Lepa s a n a t i f e r a from e a c h o f t h e o y s t e r l i n e s ( 7 - 1 2 ) . ( s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d on f i g u r e ) . Time : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s June 1 t o O c t o b e r 31 1981 . 74 o o DOULING LINE 1 A • DOULING LINE 2 V"* 0_ _ <» • DOULING LINE 3 in p> ~ I -V »n \/ — ^ i >*- - -4w o o j ^ — 7 - * STflLJ • — i * » / \ / J / \ U | __ —--i / / in _j , , 1 1 1 1 1 1 — I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 TIHE (UEEKS) F i g u r e 28. P l o t of t h e mean p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a f r o m e a c h of t h e wooden l i n e s ( 1 - 3 ) . ( s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d on f i g u r e ) . Time : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s J u n e 1 t o O c t o b e r 31 1981 . 75 o © LANTERN NET 1 •« • LANTERN NET 2 F i g u r e 29. P l o t of t h e mean p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h v e r s u s t i m e f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a f r o m e a c h o f t h e l a n t e r n n e t s (.1 -2) . ( s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d on f i g u r e ) . Time : 0-20 - r e p r e s e n t s J u n e 1 t o O c t o b e r 31 1981 . 76 5. WEIGHT/LENGTH RELATIONSHIPS C a p i t u l u m The r e l a t i o n s h i p s of c a p i t u l u m wet w e i g h t v e r s u s l e n g t h a r e shown i n f i g u r e s 30 - 32. R e g r e s s i o n l i n e s have been f i t t e d t o e a c h of t h e m o n t h l y c a p i t u l u m measurements. The r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s r a n g e between 0.85 t o 0.97 e x c e p t f o r t h e one low v a l u e o f 0.61 f o r t h e O c t o b e r sample from t h e l i n e s of wooden d o w e l l i n g . G e n e r a l l y t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s of t h e l a n t e r n n e t s and t h e l i n e s of o y s t e r s h e l l s ( f i g . 30 and f i g . 32) d i s p l a y a p a t t e r n of an i n c r e a s i n g s l o p e a c c o m p a n y i n g s u b s e q u e n t s a m p l e s . T h i s same p a t t e r n i s not a p p a r e n t f o r t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on t h e l i n e s o f wooden d o w e l l i n g ( f i g . 3 1 ) . The r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s f o r t h e J u l y , A u g u s t , and September measurements a p p e a r t o be s i m i l i a r . T h i s i s most l i k e l y a r e s u l t of t h e s a m p l e s c o n t a i n i n g a s i m i l i a r s i z e r a n g e of c a p i t u l u m s . When t h e d a t a a r e v i e w e d as a whole t h e e x p e c t e d e x p o n e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a p p a r e n t . The l o g a r i t h m i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e w e i g h t d a t a (Log mg.) and t h e s u b s e q u e n t c o m p a r i s o n o f r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e c u r v e s f o r t h e o y s t e r c u l t c h , wooden d o w e l l i n g , and l a n t e r n n e t s d i f f e r e d ( f i g . 3 3 ) ( ' F ' c a l = 14.67 p r o b = 0 ) . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s would be s i m i l i a r i n t h e a b s e n c e of any i n h i b i t i o n s t o g r o w t h . To e x p l o r e f o r a p o s s i b l e c a u s e o f t h e o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e t h e d a t a were a g a i n compared e x c l u d i n g t h e J une s a m p l e s . The J u n e samples were e x c l u d e d s i n c e t h e y p r e c e d e d t h e s t a r t of t h e o b s e r v e d m o r t a l i t i e s . A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g t h e J u l y t o O c t o b e r d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e c u r v e s f o r t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on t h e l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l s and wooden d o w e l l i n g were s i m i l i a r ( S c h e f f e s t e s t , ' F ' c a l = 0.11 prob=0.73733) , where: L o g . Y = 0.2293 + 0.5388 * X and t h a t t h e c u r v e f o r t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n c l e s f r o m t h e l a n t e r n n e t s d i f f e r e d , where: Log.Y = 0.3892 + 0.6016 * X. 78 o © JUNE •i + JULY « • RUGUST x k SEPTEMBER a- o OCTOBER N Regression Eauation r S. E. 40 Y - -0.57 • 0.61(X) 0.90 0.08 38 T - -1.30 • 1.03(X) 0.87 0.14 39 T - -1.96 • 1.33(X) 0.89 0.18 30 T - -2.60 • 1.56<X) 0.80 0.24 31 T - -4.06 • 2.19(X) 0.93 0.21 Of S 0/ 8 . Is-U J i— I 3.2 0.0 I 0.4 I 0.8 "I 12 T T 1.6 2.0 2.4 SHELL LENGTH (CM.) — i — 2.8 3.6 4.0 F i g u r e 30. P l o t o f t h e wet w e i g h t (grams) v e r s u s c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a f r o m t h e l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l s . 79 o e JUNE -• • JULY • » AUGUST * x SEPTEMBER O- CD OCTOBER N Reqression Eouation r S. E. 40 Y - -0.44 • 0 . 5 2 U ) 0.97 0.04 40 y - - i . 2 2 • 1 . 0 0(X) 0 . 9 3 0 . 0 9 39 y - - i.52 • 1 . 0 9 U ) 0.92 0 . 0 9 28 Y - -1 . 2 9 • 1 . 0 0(X) 0 . 8 6 0.15 39 y - - i . i 2 • i . i K z ) 0.61 0 . 2 6 8 5 3 j 3 ~ • • O o / CD Q -O ° ° a / J o _ i 1 1 1 r 1.6 2.0 2.4 SHELL LENGTH (CM.) F i g u r e 31. P l o t o t t h e wet w e i g h t (grams) v e r s u s c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a f r o m t h e l i n e s o f wooden d o w e l i n g . o o JUNE •• + JULY * • AUGUST x x SEPTEMBER B- D OCTOBER N Regression Eauation r S. E. 36 Y • -0.54 • 0.62U) 0.93 0.08 40 Y - -0.87 • 0.76U) 0.92 0.08 38 Y - -1.84 + 1.29(X) 0.90 0.13 29 Y » -2.83 • 1.64(2) 0.84 0.22 30 Y - -3.42 + 1.98U) 0.87 0.24 3 S . 3 _ I— i — i — i — 2.0 2.4 SHELL LENGTH (CrU 3.2 - 1 — 3.6 0.0 0.4 1.2 I 1.6 "T" 2.8 4.0 F i g u r e 32. P l o t o f t h e wet w e i g h t (grams) v e r s u s c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a f r o m t h e l a n t e r n n e t s . 81 F i g u r e 33. P l o t of t h e l o g wet w e i g h t (mg.) v e r s u s c a p i t u l u m ( s h e l l ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a from e a c h o f t h e c u l t c h t y p e s . 82 P e d u n c l e The r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s a r e f i t t e d t o t h e d a t a o f p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) wet w e i g h t vs l e n g t h ( f i g . 3 4 - 3 6 ) . U n l i k e t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s f o r t h e c a p i t u l u m s , t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e g e n e r a l l y l o w e r and more v a r i e d , r a n g i n g f r o m 0.22 t o 0 . 8 1 . N e i t h e r i s t h e same c l e a r e x p o n e n t i a l p a t t e r n p r e s e n t a s i t was f o r t h e c a p i t u l u m s . A c o m p a r i s o n of t h e t h r e e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s f o r t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s from t h e o y s t e r c u l t c h , t h e wooden c u l t c h and w i t h i n t h e l a n t e r n n e t s i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s ( ' F ' c a l =5.20 prob=0.00579). 83 o e JUNE H + JULY » AUGUST " x x SEPTEMBER B- D OCTOBER N Regression Equation r S. E. 40 T - -0.4.0 + 0.18(X) 0.84 0.07 36 ? - -0.23 + 0.34(X) 0.90 0.22 39 T « -0.25 + 0.45<X) 0.76 0.24 30 T - -0.13 + 0.42U) 0.71 0.19 31 T « -0.18 • 0.51(X) 0.86 0.19 r l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 STALK LENGTH (CM.) i 1 1 1 r 8.0 9.0 1Q.0 F i g u r e 34. P l o t o f t h e wet w e i g h t (grams) v e r s u s p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a from t h e l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l s . 84 N Regression Equation r S. E. o o JUNE 40 T - -0.06 • 0 . 1 7 U ) 0 . 3 6 0 . 0 2 * • JULY 40 . T • -0.13 • 0 . 2 5 U ) 0 . 7 9 0.18 <s • OUGUST 39 T - -0.17 • 0 . 2 0 U ) 0 . 6 6 0 . 1 6 x x SEPTEMBER T • - 0 . 4 5 • 0 . 0 8 U ) 0.22 0 . 2 6 2B o- o OCTOBER 39 I - - 0 . 1 0 • 0 . 3 8(1) 0 . 6 2 0 . 3 0 03 *.U J.U V.u STALK LENGTH (CM.) F i g u r e 35. P l o t of t h e wet w e i g h t (grams) v e r s u s p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a from t h e l i n e s o f wooden d o w e l i n g . 85 o o JUNE 4 • JULY « » flUCUST x x SEPTEMBER o- a OCTOBER CD 3 . 1 - 1 ^ UJ 3 . UJ N Reqression Equation r S. E. 36 T • -0.07 • 0.18(X) 0.81 0.08 40 Y - -0.28 + 0.26(X) 0.77 0.16 38 Y » -0.25 • 0.32(X) 0.76 0.28 29 Y - 0.11 + 0.3KX) 0.76 0.39 30 Y - 0.29 + 0.31(X) 0.82 0.23 »' x a a ° / > i > / ' x C V * ' ' 2 « . x .-^ V* J' • T 1 1 1 1 1 r 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 S.0 STALK LENGTH (CM.) F i g u r e 36. P l o t o f t h e wet w e i g h t (grams) v e r s u s p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a from t h e l a n t e r n n e t s . 86 F i g u r e 37. P l o t o f t h e wet w e i g h t (grams) v e r s u s p e d u n c l e ( s t a l k ) l e n g t h (cm.) f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a f r o m e a c h o f t h e c u l t c h t y p e s . 87 V. DISCUSSION 1. SEED ACQUISITION 1 . 1 980 SURVEY Skerman (1958a) r e p o r t e d t h a t L e p a s a n a t i f e r a had a t t a i n e d c a p i t u l u m l e n g t h s o f 2.15 t o 2.90 cm w i t h i n 39 t o 63 d a y s o f f t h e e a s t c o a s t of New Z e a l a n d . As w e l l Skerman (1958b) o b s e r v e d t h a t t h i s s e t o f f t h e e a s t c o a s t of New Z e a l a n d o c c u r r e d w i t h i n a f o r t n i g h t c o v e r i n g a 32 km f r o n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 km f r o m s h o r e . From t h e s e t o b s e r v e d d u r i n g t h e 1980 s u r v e y on t h e s u r f a c e b uoys, L e p a s a n a t i f e r a c o l o n i z e d a r e g i o n t h a t e x t e n d e d 80 km s o u t h west o f f E s t e v a n P o i n t , V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . As w e l l , i t i s s u g g e s t e d from t h e c a p i t u l u m l e n g t h s r e c o r d e d d u r i n g t h e s u r v e y t h a t t h i s s e t o c c u r r e d w i t h i n a s h o r t t i m e f r a m e . The d i f f e r e n c e n o t e d between t h e mean c a p i t u l u m l e n g t h s o f L e p a s a n a t i f e r a from t h e t o p and b o t t o m r e g i o n o f t h e buoys s u g g e s t s t h a t c o n t i n u a l submergence l e a d s t o i n c r e a s e d g r o w t h . The i n c r e a s e d growth may be a r e s u l t of t h e g r e a t e r amount o f t i m e a v a i l a b l e f o r f e e d i n g . T h e r e f o r e t h e p r o p o s e d s u s p e n d e d c u l t u r e s h o u l d p r o v i d e b e t t e r g r o w t h t h a n a r e g i m e o f t i d a l e x p o s u r e , as has been r e p o r t e d f o r m o l l u s c a n s u s p e n d e d c u l t u r e ( Q u a y l e , 1969, 1971, and 1978; Shaw,1969, B a r d a c h , R y t h e r , and M c L a r n e y , 1972, S a n d e r s , 1973, T a g u c h i , 1976, and L e i g h t o n and P h l e g e r , 1976 and 1977). The d ense c o l o n i z a t i o n o f t h e s u r f a c e buoys i s t y p i c a l o f 88 t h e g r e g a r i o u s n a t u r e of b o t h t h e p e d u n c u l a t e and b a l a n o i d b a r n a c l e s ( K n i g h t - J o n e s and S t e p h e n s o n , 1950). The s p a r s e s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e s u b s u r f a c e buoys was p r o b a b l y due t o t h e i r d e p t h (50 m.) and t h e i r c o a t i n g o f a n t i - f o u l i n g p a i n t . In c o n c l u s i o n , a dense s e t t l e m e n t may o c c u r r e g u l a r l y i n t h e s p r i n g i n t h a t a r e a c o v e r e d i n t h e 1980 s u r v e y . 2. 1981 CULTCH DEPLOYMENT The d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e l i n e s of c u l t c h was most l i k e l y a r e s u l t of t h e v i o l e n t m o t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e geodyne buoys d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f h e a v y s e a s . The o y s t e r s h e l l s , w h i l e a b r a d i n g t h e p o l y p r o p y l e n e l i n e s , p r o b a b l y s e v e r e d them. As w e l l i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e a b r a s i o n o f any of t h e l i n e s by t h e m e t a l a n d / o r t h e ' l e g s ' below t h e buoy u l t i m a t e l y s e v e r e d them. T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t f u t u r e a t t e m p t s a t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s e e d must t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e p o t e n t i a l s e a c o n d i t i o n s . O y s t e r s h e l l s p r o v i d e a s u i t a b l e s u b s t r a t e b e c a u s e t h e y o f f e r a v e r y r o u g h and i r r e g u l a r s u r f a c e t o c y p r i d l a r v a e . The r u g o p h i l i c b e h a v i o u r o f c y p r i d s i s documented f o r b a l a n o i d s ( C r i s p and B a r n e s 1954 ) and p e d u n c u l a t e s (Skerman 1958). The d e n s e r s e t t l e m e n t a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e wooden d o w e l l i n g and t h e p o l y p r o p y l e n e l i n e was p r o b a b l y due t o t h e s h a d i n g p r o v i d e d t h e r e . N e g a t i v e p h o t o t r o p i s m was o b s e v e d by Skerman (1958b) f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e a t t r a c t i v e q u a l i t i e s of t h e r u b b e r were most l i k e l y t h e shade b e n e a t h t h e buoy and i t s d a r k c o l o r . B o t h f e a t u r e s a r e a t t r a c t i v e t o t h e 89 s e t t l i n g c y p r i d l a r v a e of b a r n a c l e s ( V i s s c h e r , 1 9 2 7 and Pomerat and R e i n e r , 1942). F i n a l l y , t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e p o l y p r o p y l e n e l i n e t o p r o v i d e an a t t r a c t i v e s u b s t r a t e may have been due t o some q u a l i t y of i t s 'newness' b e c a u s e L e p a s a n a t i f e r a has been o b s e r v e d s e t t l e d on o l d e r more w e a t h e r e d p o l y p r o p y l e n e l i n e ( p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n ) . The a c q u i s i t i o n of s e e d o c u r r e d sometime between A p r i l 15th and May 3 0 t h 1981 a t t h e same l o c a t i o n s ( p o s i t i o n s 1 and 2) as t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s s e t . T h e s e s i m i l i a r t i m e s and l o c a t i o n s of t h e s e t t l e m e n t s of L e p a s a n a t i f e r a f o r 1980 and 1981 s u g g e s t s t h a t b o t h l o c a t i o n and t i m e of s e t t l e m e n t a r e p r e d i c t a b l e . T h e s e p r e d i c t i v e q u a l i t i e s a r e e n c o u r a g i n g f o r t h e p o s s i b l e f u t u r e a c q u i s i t i o n o f l a r g e amounts o f s e e d . As w e l l , t h e s u c c e s s of t h e c u l t c h t y p e s i n a t t r a c t i n g s e t s o f L e p a s a n a t i f e r a s e e d s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s p r o c e e d u r e need n o t r e q u i r e e x p e n s i v e nor d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n m a t e r i a l s . G e n e r a l l y , t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of l a r g e amounts o f s e e d may be a c c o m p l i s h e d i n e x p e n s i v e l y and e a s i l y i f one r e s p e c t s t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r c e o f t h e s e a . 90 2. CULTURE PHASE 1. ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS L i t t l e c a n be c o n c l u d e d from t h e measurements of s a l i n i t y o t h e r t h a n t h a t i t d i d n o t v a r y g r e a t l y f r o m t h e s a l i n i t y e x p e c t e d i n t h e a r e a of t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of L e p a s a n a t i f e r a , The n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n of s e c c h i d e p t h and t e m p e r a t u r e showed t h a t t h e s h a l l o w e s t s e c c h i d e p t h s o c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e h i g h e s t mean t e m p e r a t u r e s o f t h e water column. A l t h o u g h t h e p h y t o p l a n k t o n b i o m a s s was not measured i t may be p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n an i n d i c a t i o n of i t s abundance i f we assume t h a t t h e t u r b i d i t y was p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e abundance o f p h y t o p l a n k t o n . Then i t can be s a i d t h a t t h e number o f p h y t o p l a n k t o n 'bloomed' when t e m p e r a t u r e s i n c r e a s e d and s u b s e q u e n t l y t h e numbers d e c r e a s e d when t e m p e r a t u r e s f e l l . T h e r e f o r e d u r i n g t h e f i r s t p e r i o d o f t h e c u l t u r e p h a s e p h y t o p l a n k t o n was b e l i e v e d t o be more abundant t h a n i n t h e s e c o n d c o o l e r p e r i o d of September and O c t o b e r . The i m p o r t a n c e of t h i s becomes c l e a r e r when g o n a d a l s t a t e , m o r t a l i t y , and g r o w t h a r e c o n s i d e r e d . 2. GONADAL STATE The a p p e a r a n c e o f o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e (egg c a s e s ) by t h e n i n t h week o f t h e c u l t u r e p h a s e c o r r e s p o n d s t o a n i n e t o f i f t e e n 91 week p e r i o d s i n c e L e p a s a n a t i f e r a had s e t t l e d . L e p a s a n a t i f e r a may become egg b e a r i n g i n as l i t t l e a s two and a h a l f weeks t o e i g h t weeks (Skerman, 1958a, P a t e l , 1959, and M c l n t y r e , 1966). The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e p e r i o d r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e and t h e p e r i o d o b s e r v e d i n t h i s s t u d y may or may n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t . I f t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s s i g n i f i c a n t , t h e n i t c a n be assumed, t h a t c o n d i t i o n s may n o t have been o p t i m a l a t t h e c u l t u r e s i t e . In a d d i t i o n b l u e c o l o r e d o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e were n o t o b s e r v e d u n t i l t h e e l e v e n t h week. B l u e i s t h e n o r m a l c o l o r o f o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e of L e p a s a n a t i f e r a and i s an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e p r e s e n c e of a s t a x a n t h i n ( H e r r i n g , 1971). The o c u r r e n c e o f b l u e o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e and t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l i n c r e a s e of b l u e o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h t h e t i m e d u r i n g w h i c h t h e s e c c h i d e p t h i n c r e a s e d . The i n c r e a s e i n s e c c h i d e p t h , w h i c h i f as p r o p o s e d e a r l i e r i s an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e abundance o f p h y t o p l a n k t o n , s u g g e s t s t h a t i n d e e d t h e b i o m a s s o f p h y t o p l a n k t o n f e l l a s t h e t e m p e r a t u r e s f e l l . And as t h e p h y t o p l a n k t o n biomas f e l l p e r h a p s t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f z o o p l a n k t o n r p h y t o p l a n k t o n i n c r e a s e d . T h e r e f o r e t h e r e t a r d e d a p p e a r a n c e of o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e may have been due i n p a r t t o an i n a d e q u a t e d i e t a v a i l a b l e t o t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s . T h i s may a c c o u n t f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e p e r i o d o f t i m e o b s e r v e d a t t h e c u l t u r e s i t e and t h a t r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e f o r t h e age a t w h i c h L e p a s a n a t i f e r a may be f o u n d b e a r i n g e g g s . 92 3. SURVIVAL G e n e r a l l y t h e f i g u r e s o f p e r c e n t s u r v i v a l i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e f i r s t f i v e weeks were f r e e o f m o r t a l i t i e s , f o l l o w e d by a r a p i d i n c r e a s e and t h e n a l e v e l l i n g o f f by t h e t e n t h and e l e v e n t h weeks. The r e s u l t s s u g g e s t e d t h a t m o r t a l i t y was i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o d e n s i t y . F o u l i n g o f t h e s u b s t r a t e s may be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s phenomenon. I t may have t a k e n t h e f o u l i n g o r g a n i s m s ( a l g a e , b a l a n o i d b a r n a c l e s and M y t i l u s e d u l i s ) t h e f i r s t f i v e weeks t o e s t a b l i s h t h e m s e l v e s b e f o r e s u r v i v a l was a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d . A l o w e r d e n s i t y of g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s would i n c r e a s e t h e s p a c e a v a i l a b l e f o r f o u l i n g o r g a n i s m s . The b a l a n o i d b a r n a c e l s and M y t i l u s e d u l i s would compete f o r f o o d . The a l g a e w o u l d i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e c i r c u l a t i o n o f w a t e r a b o u t t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s . The impedence of water c i r c u l a t i o n may have i n h i b i t e d f e e d i n g and t h e r e m o v a l o f t o x i c waste p r o d u c t s . The l e v e l l i n g o f f o f m o r t a l i t i e s a f t e r t h e e l e v e n t h week may have been t h e r e s u l t o f two f a c t o r s , t h e f o u l i n g a l g a e had begun t o d i e back and a r i c h e r z o o p l a n k t o n d i e t may have become a v a i l a b l e as i s assumed by t h e a p p e a r a n c e of b l u e o v i g e r o u s l a m e l l a e . The d i e o f f o f • t h e a l g a e would have i n c r e a s e d t h e c i r c u l a t i o n of w ater a m i d s t t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s and a l l o w e d f o r i n c r e a s e d f e e d i n g e f f i c i e n c y and r e m o v a l o f t o x i c waste p r o d u c t s . The a v a i l a b i l t y o f a r i c h e r d i e t o f z o o p l a n k t o n would h ave i m p r o v e d t h e h e a l t h o f t h e s u r v i v i n g g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s . P r e d a t i o n i s a n o t h e r f a c t o r t h a t may have a c c o u n t e d f o r m o r t a l i t i e s . P i l e p e r c h ( R h a c o c h i l u s v a c c a ) were o b s e r v e d 93 f e e d i n g on t h e c i r r i of L e p a s a n a t i f e r a . O n l y t h e c i r r i were o b s e r v e d t o be e a t e n . Whether t h e l o s s of c i r r i would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e a t h s i s not known but t h e l o s s would d e f i n i t e l y i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e e f f i c i e n c y of f e e d i n g . T h i s e f f e c t a p p e a r s t o become more e v i d e n t when t h e g r o w t h and t h e w e i g h t / l e n g t h r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e c o n s i d e r e d . G e n e r a l l y , s u r v i v a l and t h e r e f o r e p r o d u c t i o n may be o p t i m i z e d i f o n l y t h a t c u l t c h t h a t i n i t i a l l y h as t h e g r e a t e s t d e n s i t y o f s e e d i s u s e d i n t h e s u s p e n d e d c u l t u r e . C o n t r o l o f f o u l i n g and p r e d a t i o n w i l l i n t u r n i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n . 4. GROWTH C a p i t u l u m Growth The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s f r o m t h e l a n t e r n n e t s had g r e a t e r c a p i t u l u m g r o w t h t h a n t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on t h e l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l s and wooden d o w e l l i n g . A l o w e r a s y m p t o t i c l e n g t h was a t t a i n e d more r a p i d l y f o r t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s on t h e l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l s and wooden d o w e l l i n g t h a n f o r t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s w i t h i n t h e l a n t e r n n e t s . A r e a s o n f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e may have been d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e d a t i o n . The g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s w i t h i n t h e l a n t e r n n e t s were p r o t e c t e d f r o m t h e p r e d a c i o u s p i l e p e r c h w h i c h were o b s e r v e d n i b b l i n g t h e c i r r i of t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s e x p o s e d on t h e 94 l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l s and wooden d o w e l l i n g . The s u b s e q u e n t s h o r t e n i n g o f t h e c i r r i w o u l d t e n d t o d e c r e a s e t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f f e e d i n g and t h e r e f o r e i n h i b i t g r o w t h . The g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s a f f e c t e d by p r e d a t i o n w o u l d have been l e s s l i k e l y a b l e t o o b t a i n s u f f i c i e n t n o u r i s h m e n t f o r o p t i m a l g rowth and t h e r e f o r e would have a t t a i n e d l o w e r a s y m p t o t i c l e n g t h s (L °° ) t h a n t h o s e not a f f e c t e d by p r e d a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e s e e d l a d e n c u l t c h p r o t e c t e d w i t h i n l a n t e r n n e t s i s p r o b a b l y t h e b e s t method t o c u l t u r e L e p a s a n a t i f e r a . I f i t i s assumed t h a t L e p a s a n a t i f e r a f r o m t h e 1981 c u l t u r e s t u d y and t h e 1980 s u r v e y had i n i t i a l l y s e t t l e d t h e same t i m e i n e a c h y e a r , a c o m p a r i s o n of g r o w t h c a n be made between t h e c u l t u r e s t u d y and t h e w i l d . By t h e m i d d l e of September 1980 t h e mean c a p i t u l u m l e n g t h f o r g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s f r o m a l l f o u r s u r f a c e bouys was 3.56 + 0.31 cm. The mean c a p i t u l u m l e n g t h s o f t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s a v e r a g e d o v e r t h e mean c a p i t u l u m l e n g t h s f r o m e a c h o f t h e l i n e s of o y s t e r s h e l l s and wooden d o w e l l i n g , and t h e mean c a p i t u l u m l e n g t h a v e r a g e d from t h e two l a n t e r n n e t s were 2.57 + 0.03 and 2.66 + 0.04 cm r e s p e c t i v e l y . Growth was c l e a r l y l e s s under s u s p e n d e d c u l t u r e c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e s t u d y s i t e t h a n f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a o b s e r v e d i n t h e w i l d . The d i f f e r e n c e i s most p r o b a b l y due t o t h o s e f a c t o r s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d ; f o u l i n g a g e n t s , p r e d a t i o n and t h e i n i t i a l l y p o o r d i e t a t t h e c u l t u r e s i t e . P e d u n c l e Growth The s t a l k l e n g t h v a r i e s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y w i t h d e n s i t y and v a r i e s d e p e n d i n g on i t s d e g r e e o f c o n t r a c t i o n . A l t h o u g h g r e a t e r 95 s t a l k l e n g t h s were a t t a i n e d i n t h e w i l d t h a n a t t h e c u l t u r e s i t e i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a c t u a l l y make t h i s c o m p a r i s o n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e v a r i a b l e n a t u r e of t h e s t a l k . U n l i k e t h e c a p i t u l u m t h e s t a l k i s a p o o r i n d i c a t i o n of growth (Skerman 1958b ). A l t h o u g h s t a l k l e n g t h i s a p o o r i n d i c a t i o n o f growth i t i s t h e s t a l k w h i c h i s t h e e d i b l e p a r t of t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e . P e r h a p s t h e n , t h e b e s t way t o maximize i t s g r o w t h would be t o u t i l i z e o n l y t h e most d e n s e l y s e t t l e d c u l t c h . T h i s s h o u l d n ot o n l y m a x i m i z e s t a l k l e n g t h b u t as p r e v i o u s l y s u g g e s t e d w i l l o p t i m i z e s u r v i v a l and t h e r e f o r e p r o d u c t i o n . 5. WEIGHT/LENGTH RELATIONSHIPS G e n e r a l l y t h e s t a l k wet w e i g h t / l e n g t h r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not as c l e a r a s t h a t o b s e r v e d f o r t h e l o g a r i t h m i c w e i g h t / l e n g t h r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e c a p i t u l u m . T h i s i s due t o t h e v a r i a b l e n a t u r e of t h e s t a l k , i t s e l a s t i c i t y and d e n s i t y d e p e ndency (Skerman 1958a ). The most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e t o a r i s e from t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e w e i g h t / l e n g t h r e l a t i o n s h i p was t h e d i f f e r e n c e o b s e r v e d f o r t h e c a p i t u l u m of t h e go o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s e x p o s e d t o p r e d a t i o n and t h o s e p r o t e c t e d w i t h i n t h e l a n t e r n n e t s . The c a p i t u l u m of t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s w i t h i n t h e l a n t e r n s were h e a v i e r f o r a g i v e n l e n g t h t h a n t h e go o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e s from t h e l i n e s o f o y s t e r s h e l l s a nd wooden d o w e l l i n g . A g a i n t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e l a n t e r n n e t s a r e a p p a r e n t . 96 6. TOTAL LENGTH G e n e r a l l y t h e combined mean a v e r a g e t o t a l l e n g t h ( c a p i t u l u m p l u s s t a l k ) o f L e p a s a n a t i f e r a r a n g e d from 4.2 t o 6.3 cm by t h e end o f t h e c u l t u r e p e r i o d . T h i s r a n g e of mean v a l u e s e x c e e d s t h e m i n i m a l mean h a r v e s t a b l e s i z e o f 4 cm f o r t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e P o l l i c i p e s c o r n u c o p i a c o m m e r c i a l l y u t i l i z e d i n S p a i n ( G o l d b e r g , 1984 ). I f P o l l i c i p e s c o r n u c o p i a i s assumed t o grow a t a s i m i l i a r r a t e a s P o l l i c i p e s p o l y m e r u s , w h i c h i s i n d i g e n o u s t o t h e west c o a s t of N o r t h A m e r i c a , a c o m p a r a b l e s i z e w o u l d n o t be a t t a i n e d i n t h e w i l d f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . P o l l i c i p e s p o l y m e r u s , t h e s p e c i e s t h a t t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s e a f o o d i n d u s t r y e x p o r t e d t o S p a i n , d o e s not a t t a i n s e x u a l m a t u r i t y and c a p i t u l u m l e n g t h s o f 1.72 cm f o r f i v e y e a r s , nor i s i t e x p e c t e d t o a t t a i n f u l l g r o w t h i n l e s s t h a n t w e n t y y e a r s ( B a r n e s and R e e s e , 1960, H i l g a r d , 1960, M c l n t y r e , 1966, and L e w i s and C h i a , 1981). L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a , f r o m t h e t i m e of t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of s e e d t o t h e end of t h e c u l t u r e p h a s e , a t t a i n e d s e x u a l m a t u r i t y w i t h i n n i n e t o f i f t e e n weeks and t o t a l l e n g t h s e x c e e d i n g 4 cm w i t h i n 17 t o 23 weeks. A l t h o u g h g r o w t h was s t i l l l e s s t h a n t h a t o b s e r v e d i n t h e w i l d , L e p a s a n a t i f e r a grew enough u n d e r c u l t u r e c o n d i t i o n s t o e x c e e d t h e m i n i m a l h a r v e s t a b l e s i z e s e t i n S p a i n . 97 V CONCLUSIONS 1. SEED ACQUISITION 1. L e p a s a n a t i f e r a s e t t l e s d e n s e l y i n t h e s p r i n g , from t h e m i d d l e of A p r i l u n t i l t h e end of May, o f f t h e west c o a s t of V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . The p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f b o t h t h e t i m e and t h e l o c a t i o n o f s e t t i n g i s e n c o u r a g i n g f o r f u t u r e a c q u i s i t i o n s of s e e d . A r e l i a b l e s o u r c e o f s e e d i s n e c c e s s a r y f o r a s u c c e s s f u l m a r i c u l t u r e v e n t u r e . 2. O y s t e r s h e l l s , l e n g t h s o f wooden d o w e l l i n g and s h e e t s o f r u b b e r a r e s u i t a b l e c u l t c h , but 'new' p o l y p r o p y l e n e i s n o t . The s u c c e s s o f t h e s e i n e x p e n s i v e and e a s i l y o b t a i n e d m a t e r i a l s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of s e e d need not be a c o s t l y p r o p o s i t i o n . 3. The f a c t o r t h a t may p r o v e t o be t h e most d i f f i c u l t t o d e a l w i t h i s t h e p o t e n t i a l d e v a s t a t i n g f o r c e o f t h e s e a . E q u i p m e n t must be r i g g e d t o w i t h s t a n d v i o l e n t s t o r m s . 2. CULTURE PHASE 1. Growth r a t e may be s i t e s p e c i f i c . Growth a p p e a r s t o have been l e s s under s u s p e n d e d c u l t u r e c o n d i t i o n s a t t h i s s t u d y s i t e t h a n f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a o b s e r v e d i n t h e w i l d . A r e a s of a h i g h p h y t o p l a n k t o n / z o o p l a n k t o n r a t i o may be a d e t r i m e n t t o g r o w t h and 98 t i m e t o s e x u a l m a t u r a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e a more e x p o s e d s i t e may be more b e n e f i c i a l t o g r o w t h . However a m a r i c u l t u r e o p e r a t i o n l o c a t e d a t a p r o t e c t e d s i t e i s more e a s i l i y managed and m a i n t a i n e d b e c a u s e of i t s a c c e s s i b i l i t y and t h e r e d u c t i o n of damage c a u s e d by a d v e r s e w e a t h e r . 3. At t h e d e n s i t i e s s t u d i e d , s u r v i v a l seems t o be d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e number of L e p a s a n a t i f e r a p e r u n i t of c u l t c h . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t o o p t i m i z e p r o d u c t i o n o n l y t h a t c u l t c h t h a t i s most d e n s e l y c o l o n i z e d s h o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e c u l t u r e p h a s e . 4. C a p i t u l u m g r o w th and w e i g h t g a i n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r f o r L e p a s a n a t i f e r a p r o t e c t e d f r o m p r e d a t i o n w i t h i n t h e l a n t e r n n e t s t h a n f o r t h o s e grown e x p o s e d on l i n e s . A l t h o u g h t h e l a n t e r n n e t s i n c r e a s e c o s t s t h e i r use a p p e a r s t o be t h e most s u c c e s s f u l means of c u l t u r i n g L e p a s a n a t i f e r a . 5. The mean t o t a l l e n g t h ( c a p i t u l u m p l u s p e d u n c l e ) e x c e e d e d , w i t h i n 17 t o 23 weeks, t h e a v e r a g e m i n i m a l h a r v e s t a b l e s i z e o f 4 cm f o r t h e g o o s e n e c k b a r n a c l e P o l l i c i p e s c o r n u c o p i a , w h i c h i s consumed i n S p a i n . I t i s e n c o u r a g i n g t h a t a c o m m e r c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e s i z e c an be r e a c h e d i n s u c h a s h o r t t i m e . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t a m a r k e t a b l e s i z e d p r o d u c t c o u l d be a v a i l a b l e a n n u a l l y by l a t e f a l l f r o m s e t s o b t a i n e d i n e a r l y s p r i n g . 99 V I . RECOMMENDATIONS 1. SEED ACQUISITION 1. The t i m e and l o c a t i o n o f s e t s h o u l d be f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d t o a c c u r a t e l y e s t a b l i s h t h e t i m e frame d u r i n g w h i c h L e p a s a n a t i f e r a s e t t l e . In a d d i t i o n l o c a t i o n s s h o u l d be sou g h t w h i c h e m p h a s i z e p r o x i m i t y b o t h t o t h e s h o r e and t o p o t e n t i a l c u l t u r e s i t e s . 2. C u l t c h t y p e s and o r i e n t a t i o n s h o u l d be o p t i m i z e d s t r e s s i n g p r a c t i c a l and i n e x p e n s i v e methods t o d e p l o y and r e t r i e v e e q u i p m e n t . 3. H a t c h e r y t e c h n i q u e s s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d t o a v o i d t h e dependence and l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t may a r i s e from a r e l i a n c e on n a t u r a l s e t s . 2. CULTURE PHASE 1. S i t e s p e c i f i c i t y n e e d s t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d . P a r t i c u l a r l y , an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of p r o t e c t e d v e r s u s e x p o s e d s i t e s i s w a r r a n t e d . 2. The e f f e c t of p h y t o p l a n k t o n v e r s u s z o o p l a n k t o n r i c h media s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d i f , a s p r o p o s e d f r o m t h i s s t u d y , a r i c h p h y t o p l a n k t o n medium i s d e t r i m e n t a l t o g r o w t h and s e x u a l 100 m a t u r i t y . 3. The maximum d e p t h a t w h i c h L e p a s a n a t i f e r a c an be o p t i m a l l y grown s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d t o p e r h a p s a v o i d some o f t h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f o u l i n g . 4. The optimum d e n s i t y a t w h i c h L e p a s a n a t i f e r a c an be c u l t u r e d s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d under c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u r v i v a l and d e n s i t y o b s e r v e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s v a l i d o r m e r e l y an a r t i f a c t . 3. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 1. The m a r k e t a b i l i t y o f L e p a s a n a t i f e r a s h o u l d be v e r i f i e d b e f o r e f u r t h e r b i o l o g i c a l o r e n g i n e e r i n g s t u d i e s a r e i n i t i a t e d . 2. P e r h a p s t h e most i m p o r t a n t c o n c e r n t h a t needs t o be a d d r e s s e d i s n o t one s p e c i f i c t o t h e m a r i c u l t u r e o f L e p a s  a n a t i f e r a but one t h a t f o c u s e s on t h e growth o f t h e i n d u s t r y a s a whole i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The e s s e n c e o f t h i s c o n c e r n f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a can b e s t be f o u n d i n a l i b e r a l p a r a p h r a s i n g o f L a r k i n ' s (1982) v i e w s and h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Nash's (1979) v i e w s ; M a r i c u l t u r e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a s i d e f r o m t h e Salmon Enhancement Programme, i s a c o t t a g e i n d u s t r y w h i c h d e p e n d s f o r i t ' s d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e i n i t i a t i v e s o f many i n d i v i d u a l s . And [ B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ] ( t h i s a u t h o r ' s words) w h i l e p a y i n g l i p s e r v i c e t o t h e a n t i c i p a t e d i m p o r t a n c e and b e n e f i t s o f a q u a c u l t u r e , has not d e c l a r e d p o l i c i e s or p r i o r i t i e s t o make a q u a c u l t u r e a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n f o o d p r o d u c t i o n o r i n t h e r e a l i z a t i o n e x p o r t r e v e n u e s . 102 LITERATURE CITED A c h i t u v , Y., and H. B a r n e s . 1978. S t u d i e s i n t h e b i o c h e m i s t r y of C i r r i p e d e e g g s . 6 c h a n g e s i n t h e g e n e r a l b i o c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n d u r i n g d e v e l o p m e n t o f T e t r a c l i t a squamosa r u f o f i n c t a P i l s b r y , B a l a n u s  p e r f o r a t u s B u r g . , and P o l l i c i p e s c o r n u c o p i a D a r w i n . J . Exp. Mar. B i o l . E c o l . 32 : 315-324 A l l e n , K.R. 1967. Computer programs a v a i l a b l e a t S t . 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