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Corporate transfers : factors affecting the transferred employee’s spouse’s willingness to move Chu, Thompson Shuk-Hon 1984

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CORPORATE TRANSFERS: FACTORS AFFECTING THE TRANSFERRED EMPLOYEE'S SPOUSE'S WILLINGNESS TO MOVE by THOMPSON SHUK-HON CHU B.B.A. (Honours) Acadia U n i v e r s i t y , 1979 M.B.A. ( D i s t i n c t i o n ) INSEAD, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in Business Administration i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Commerce and Business Adm i n i s t r a t i o n ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1984 © THOMPSON SHUK-HON CHU , 1984 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of CommZKcXL and Bu.Aine.AA kdminiAtlation The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date May 10, 1984 3E-6 (2/79) ABSTRACT The numerous m u t u a l b e n e f i t s t h a t c a n r e s u l t f r o m a s u c c e s s f u l c o r p o r a t e t r a n s f e r e x p e r i e n c e a r e a d d r e s s e d h e r e . The r e a s o n s f o r r e f u s a l by an i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e number o f e x e c u t i v e s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s t o be t r a n s f e r r e d a r e e x a m i n e d i n a d d i t i o n t o an e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e s u b s t a n t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , p e r s o n a l and f a m i l i a l c o s t s t h a t a r e u s u a l l y i n c u r r e d i n an u n s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s f e r . The e f f e c t s o f t r a n s f e r on a s p o u s e ' s f a m i l i a l , c a r e e r and s o c i a l r o l e s a r e d i s c u s s e d . I t i s b e l i e v e d and w e l l s u p p o r t e d t h a t a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s e a s p e c t s w o u l d have a g r e a t i m p a c t on t h e o u tcome o f t h e t r a n s f e r i t s e l f . T h u s , i t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t w i t h a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a w a r e n e s s o f s p o u s e s ' n e e d s and t h e p r o b l e m s f a c i n g them i n e v e n t o f t r a n s f e r s , g r e a t e r c a r e c a n be e x e r c i s e d i n s e l e c t i n g t h o s e s p o u s e s who, b e c a u s e o f t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o move, w o u l d s u f f e r minimum r o l e d i s r u p t i o n s . C e n t r a l t o t h i s p r o p o s a l a r e t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h o s e e c o n o m i c , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and o t h e r f a c t o r s w h i c h c a u s e t r a u m a i n c a s e s o f c o r p o r a t e t r a n s f e r , and t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e s e f a c t o r s t o t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f s p o u s e s t o a c c e p t t h e i r h u s b a n d s ' t r a n s f e r s . A s a m p l e o f 164 s p o u s e s who had been t r a n s f e r r e d a t l e a s t o n c e w i t h t h e i r h u s b a n d s s e r v e d a s t h e s a m p l e f o r t h e p r i n c i p a l s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . A n o t h e r g r o u p o f 176 s p o u s e s who had a l s o b e en t r a n s f e r r e d a t l e a s t o n c e w i t h t h e i r h u s b a n d s s e r v e d as t h e sample f o r c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n purposes. M u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s and t e s t s f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n means were used i n both groups ( i . e . working and non-working spouses) to e x p l a i n the v a r i a n c e i n the spouses' w i l l i n g n e s s to move. In the working spouse group, spouses' s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r present l o c a t i o n appears to be the primary p r e d i c t o r of t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to move, while the l o c u s of c o n t r o l of the non-working spouses seems to be the primary p r e d i c t o r of t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to move. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS C h a p t e r P age I . INTRODUCTION 1 A. B e n e f i t s G a i n e d f r o m C o r p o r a t e T r a n s f e r s 1 B. C o s t s I n c u r r e d f r o m C o r p o r a t e T r a n s f e r s 3 C. G r o w i n g R e l u c t a n c e t o A c c e p t G e o g r a p h i c a l T r a n s f e r s . 4 D. R e s i s t a n c e t o T r a n s f e r : A M a t t e r f o r C o n c e r n 5 E. The P u r p o s e o f T h i s S t u d y 15 I I . EFFECTS OF TRANSFERS ON SPOUSES: LITERATURE REVIEW 17 A. Why an I n c r e a s i n g Number o f C o r p o r a t e W i v e s R e s i s t T r a n s f e r 18 B. The E f f e c t s o f T r a n s f e r s on t h e R o l e s o f W i v e s 22 Summary o f L i t e r a t u r e R e v i e w 27 I I I . HYPOTHESES AND METHOD 28 A. W o r k i n g S t a t u s o f t h e S p o u s e : A G e n e r a l H y p o t h e s i s . 29 B. S p e c i f i c H y p o t h e s e s f o r t h e W o r k i n g G r o u p 30 C. S p e c i f i c H y p o t h e s e s f o r t h e N o n - W o r k i n g G r o u p 34 D. Common H y p o t h e s e s f o r B o t h G r o u p s 35 E. Summary o f H y p o t h e s e s t o be T e s t e d 42 M e t h o d o l o g y 45 S u b j e c t s 45 M a t e r i a l s 46 P r o c e d u r e s 63 V Page I V . RESULTS 65 V. DISCUSSION 76 A. H y p o t h e s e s S u p p o r t e d by t h e D a t a i n t h e P r e s e n t S t u d y 76 B. C r i t i q u e o f t h e P r e s e n t S t u d y 79 C. C o n c l u s i o n 84 APPENDIXES 'A. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e R e s p o n d e d t o by t h e E x e c u t i v e s 85 B. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e R e s p o n d e d t o by t h e S p o u s e s 86 C. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e R e s p o n d e d t o by t h e E x e c u t i v e s ( R e v i s e d V e r s i o n ) 87 D. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e R e s p o n d e d t o by t h e S p o u s e s ( R e v i s e d V e r s i o n ) 88 E. l . I n t r o d u c t o r y L e t t e r f r o m t h e R e s e a r c h e r 89 E.2. L e t t e r f r o m a S e n i o r P e r s o n n e l E x e c u t i v e o f t h e Company 91 E.3. L e t t e r i n t h e S e c o n d M a i l i n g 92 E.4. F o l l o w - u p L e t t e r f r o m t h e R e s e a r c h e r 93 BIBLIOGRAPHY 94 VI LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS FOR MAJOR VARIABLES 66 2(a). INTERCORRELATIONS AMONG PREDICTOR VARIABLES (WORKING GROUP) 67 2(b). INTERCORRELATIONS AMONG PREDICTOR VARIABLES (NON-WORKING GROUP) 68 3. SCALE RELIABILITIES - ALPHA COEFFICIENTS 69 4. PEARSON CORRELATIONS BETWEEN THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES AND THE DEFENDENT VARIABLE 71 5. MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF PREDICTORS OF TRANSFERRED EMPLOYEE'S SPOUSE'S WILLINGESS TO MOVE 73 v i i L I S T OF FIGURES F i g u r e P a ge 1. The P r o v i s i o n o f F r i n g e B e n e f i t s f o r t h e R e l o c a t i n g E m p l o y e e 8 2. I t e m C o n t e n t o f L o d a h l ' s and K e j n e r ' s J o b - I n v o l v e m e n t S c a l e 48 3. I t e m C o n t e n t o f B a b a and J a m a l ' s Company Commitment S c a l e 50 4. I t e m C o n t e n t o f Upward M o b i l i t y S u b - S c a l e o f t h e SWV .. 52 5. I t e m C o n t e n t o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a F S c a l e 53 6. I t e m C o n t e n t o f t h e P i t t s b u r g h S c a l e o f S o c i a l E x t r a v e r s i o n / I n t r o v e r s i o n 56 7. I t e m C o n t e n t o f R o t t e r ' s I-E L o c u s o f C o n t r o l D i f f i c u l t / E a s y S u b - S c a l e 59 8. I t e m C o n t e n t o f P i n d e r ' s A s s i s t a n c e P r o v i s i o n s S c a l e .. 61 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am i n d e b t e d t o P r o f e s s o r C r a i g P i n d e r , my t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r , and P r o f e s s o r L a r r y Moore who s u b s t i t u t e d f o r P r o f e s s o r P i n d e r d u r i n g h i s s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e , f o r t h e i r g e n e r o u s c o u n s e l and s u p p o r t . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o e x t e n d my t h a n k s t o P r o f e s s o r C r a i g P i n d e r f o r p e r m i t t i n g me t o u s e h i s r e s e a r c h d a t a on c o r p o r a t e t r a n s f e r . S p e c i a l t h a n k s must be e x t e n d e d t o J e a n n i e Chow and Nancy G i n f o r t h e i r d e v o t e d a s s i s t a n c e i n t y p i n g t h e f i n a l d r a f t o f t h i s t h e s i s . M o s t i m p o r t a n t l y , I w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s my d e e p a p p r e c i a t i o n and g r a t i t u d e t o my w i f e , I d a , who p r o v i d e d me w i t h h e r u n c o n d i t i o n a l l o v e , p a t i e n c e and v a l u a b l e s u p p o r t and a s s i s t a n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e t h e s i s . F u r t h e r m o r e , I w o u l d l i k e t o c o n v e y my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o P r o f e s s o r s C r a i g P i n d e r , M e r l e A c e and Norm C a r r u t h e r s f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l comments, c r i t i c i s m and e n c o u r a g e m e n t . - 1 -CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Many c o m p a n i e s i n t o d a y ' s c o m p l e x economy a r e d e p e n d e n t upon a h i g h l y m o b i l e w o r k i n g f o r c e . T r a n s f e r s h ave become a f a m i l i a r p a r t o f c o r p o r a t e l i f e f o r b o t h o l d e r e x e c u t i v e s who work f o r b i g c o m p a n i e s and f o r y o u n g e r managers i n many o r g a n i z a t i o n s . E a c h y e a r , more t h a n 300,000 e m p l o y e e s i n t h e U.S. a l o n e a r e t r a n s f e r r e d by t h e i r c o m p a n i e s ( S t i l l m a n , 1 9 7 9 ) . Numerous b e n e f i t s and c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o r p o r a t e t r a n s f e r s h a v e been w e l l a d d r e s s e d b o t h i n t h e p o p u l a r p r e s s and i n m a n a g e m e n t - o r i e n t e d l i t e r a t u r e ( P e r h a m , 1970; I n d u s t r y Week, 19 7 1 , 1 9 7 3 a ; S c h e i n , 1971; B u s i n e s s Week, 1972; J a f f e , 1972; T i g e r , 1974; E d s t r o m and G a l b r a i t h , 1977; P i n d e r and D a s , 1 9 7 9 ) . A. B e n e f i t s G a i n e d f r o m C o r p o r a t e T r a n s f e r s J a f f e (1972) m a i n t a i n s t h a t t r a n s f e r s h a v e been u s e d t o f u l f i l l t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p l i c i t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s : (1) To meet manpower n e e d s w h i c h a r i s e as a r e s u l t o f m e r g e r s , a c q u i s i t i o n s , p r o d u c t d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e a l i g n m e n t , and c h a n g e s i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e a n d / o r t e c h n o l o g y . - 2 -(2) To p r o m o t e t h e " c r o s s - f e r t i l i z a t i o n " r e q u i r e d f o r s u c c e s s i n h i g h e r - m a n a g e m e n t / d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p o s i t i o n s . (3) To a l l o w new o r g r o w i n g b u s i n e s s e s some f l e x i b i l i t y i n s t a f f i n g and i n c o p i n g w i t h e x c e s s and u n n e c e s s a r y t a l e n t s a s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f o p e r a t i o n s . (4) To i n c r e a s e e m p l o y e e s ' c o m p e t e n c e by b r o a d e n i n g t h e i r e x p e r i e n t i a l b a s e . (5) To g e n e r a t e a g r e a t e r commitment and l o y a l t y on t h e p a r t o f t h e e m p l o y e e s t o w a r d t h e i r c o m p a n i e s . I n a d d i t i o n , J a f f e (1972) s t a t e s t h a t t r a n s f e r e e s h ave an o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x t e n d t h e i r i n s i g h t and t o d e v e l o p t h e i r s k i l l s t h r o u g h t r a n s f e r s s o t h a t t h e y c a n b e t t e r p r e p a r e t h e m s e l v e s f o r i n t r a - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a d v a n c e m e n t . The p r o c e s s e s t h r o u g h w h i c h c o r p o r a t e t r a n s f e r s may i n t e r a c t w i t h p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t were w e l l d i s c u s s e d by P i n d e r and W a l t e r ( 1 9 8 4 ) . H o w e v e r , t h i s c o n v e n t i o n a l w i sdom l i n k i n g t r a n s f e r s and d e v e l o p m e n t has r e c e n t l y been c h a l l e n g e d by B r e t t ( 1 9 8 4 ) , who a r g u e s t h a t l i t t l e p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t r e s u l t s f r o m j o b t r a n s i t i o n s b e c a u s e one t e n d s t o s e e k t h e e a s i e s t way o u t o f t h e r o u t i n e d i s r u p t i o n s by r e - e n a c t i n g o l d r o u t i n e s . I n summary, b e n e f i t s may be g a i n e d b o t h by t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and by t h e e m p l o y e e as a r e s u l t o f a s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s f e r . A s p o i n t e d o u t by J a f f e ( 1 9 7 2 ) , H e i z e r (1976) and F o e g e n ( 1 9 7 7 ) , c o r p o r a t e t r a n s f e r s meet a number o f m u t u a l o b j e c t i v e s i n t h e manpower and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m s o f many c o r p o r a t i o n s , and p r o m o t i o n - o r i e n t e d e m p l o y e e s o f t e n a c c e p t t h e n e c e s s i t y o f f r e q u e n t r e l o c a t i o n . - 3 -B. C o s t s I n c u r r e d f r o m C o r p o r a t e T r a n s f e r s W h e t h e r c o r p o r a t e t r a n s f e r p o l i c i e s j u s t i f y t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and human c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them i s now b e i n g q u e s t i o n e d i n many a r e a s , and c e r t a i n s t e p s a r e b e i n g t a k e n t o a l l e v i a t e t h e more o b v i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t a r i s e as a r e s u l t o f e m p l o y e e r e l o c a t i o n . The e s t i m a t e d c o s t t o a t y p i c a l company o f r e i m b u r s i n g an e m p l o y e e and h i s f a m i l y f o r m o v i n g e x p e n s e s , i n c l u d i n g s a l e o f t h e f a m i l y ' s home, i s a b o u t $16,000 ( A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  Management, 1 9 7 9 ) . The a c t u a l c o s t o f t r a n s f e r r i n g an e m p l o y e e f r o m one c i t y t o a n o t h e r i n c r e a s e s y e a r l y , a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f i n f l a t i o n on m o v i n g c o s t s . The p e r s o n a l c o s t s a r e a l s o h e a v y . G r e e n e (1972) s t a t e s t h a t t h e s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r a i n s t h a t accompany a move a r e s e v e r e and h a v e a d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t on an e m p l o y e e ' s w e l l - b e i n g , p e r s o n a l s t a b i l i t y , and o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e t r a n s f e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , a manager and h i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n may have c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y a d a p t i n g t o a new co m m u n i t y ; r e s u l t i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s and f r u s t r a t i o n s may g i v e r i s e t o s e r i o u s p e r s o n a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s , and e v e n c r e a t e " p e r f o r m a n c e o b s t a c l e s " ( G r e e n e , 1 9 7 2 ) . A d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o s t now o c c u r s : l o s s as a r e s u l t o f i n e f f e c t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e ( I n d u s t r y Week, 1 9 7 1 a , N a t i o n ' s B u s i n e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) . T h i s c o s t , l e s s o b v i o u s t h a n t h a t o f d i r e c t t r a n s f e r e x p e n s e s , i s a m a j o r c o n c e r n b o t h t o t h e c o r p o r a t i o n and t o t h e e m p l o y e e . Some t r a n s f e r e e s wonder w h e t h e r t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s and r e w a r d s f o r t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r - 4 -f a m i l i e s t h a t may r e s u l t f r o m t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o move o u t w e i g h t h e e m o t i o n a l c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u c h an u p r o o t i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , some t r a n s f e r s a r e i n e v i t a b l e , and many c o r p o r a t i o n s a r e t r y i n g t o make moves a s p a i n l e s s as p o s s i b l e . A v a r i e t y o f m o n e t a r y i n d u c e m e n t s a r e o f f e r e d by numerous c o m p a n i e s . I n a d d i t i o n , more and more c o m p a n i e s a r e t u r n i n g t o o u t s i d e r e l o c a t i o n s e r v i c e f i r m s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e i n o r d e r t o make g e o g r a p h i c r e l o c a t i o n as q u i c k and e a s y as p o s s i b l e . P r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e b u y i n g e m p l o y e e s ' h o m e s , . t r a n s p o r t i n g t h e i r h o u s e h o l d g o o d s , and h e l p i n g them s e l e c t a new home i n t h e i r new l o c a t i o n ( S t i l l m a n , 1 9 7 9 ) . H o w e v e r , t h e s e e f f o r t s a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o p r o m o t e a move i f t h e e m p l o y e e and h i s f a m i l y h a v e d e c i d e d , on o t h e r g r o u n d s , n o t t o move ( F o e g e n , 1977; Wong and H a l p i n , 1 9 7 7 ) . C. G r o w i n g R e l u c t a n c e t o A c c e p t G e o g r a p h i c a l T r a n s f e r s Many e x e c u t i v e s show an i n c r e a s i n g r e l u c t a n c e t o a c c e p t j o b t r a n s f e r s i n v o l v i n g a move t o a new l o c a t i o n ( M u r r a y , 1 9 7 1 ; I n d u s t r y Week, 1973b; U.S. News and W o r l d R e p o r t , 1975; B u s i n e s s  Week, 1976; Howard and B o y d , 1 9 7 6 ) . A s u r v e y o f 617 m a j o r A m e r i c a n f i r m s i n 1975 f o u n d some 42 p e r c e n t o f t h e c o m p a n i e s u n d e r s t u d y e x p e r i e n c e d r e f u s a l s , an i n c r e a s e o f t e n p e r c e n t i n one y e a r ( M a y n a r d and Z a w a c k i , 1 9 7 9 ) . More and more e x e c u t i v e s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s a r e r e f u s i n g t o be u p r o o t e d , e v e n when t h e t r a n s f e r l e a d s t o p r o m o t i o n and i n c r e a s e d s a l a r y . A t one t i m e , h o w e v e r , an u p - a n d - c o m i n g e x e c u t i v e n e v e r t u r n e d down a r e q u e s t on t h e p a r t o f h i s c o p o r a t i o n t o t r a n s f e r , b e l i e v i n g ( r i g h t l y o r - 5 -w r o n g l y ) t h a t s u c h r e f u s a l w o u l d r e s u l t i n a l i m i t a t i o n o f h i s p o t e n t i a l f o r f u r t h e r s u c c e s s . Now more managers a r e w i l l i n g t o r i s k d i s a p p r o b a t i o n ; i n c r e a s i n g l y t h e y c h o o s e t o l e a v e a company r a t h e r t h a n a g r e e t o a t r a n s f e r ( T i m e , 1 9 7 8 ) . I n a s t u d y f o r t h e D e t r o i t F r e e P r e s s i n 1 9 7 4 , E. J e n n i n g s o b s e r v e d t h a t b e t w e e n o n e - t h i r d and o n e - h a l f o f a l l m a n a g e r s p r e f e r r e d t o s t a y i n t h e i r p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n s , an o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t i s c o n f i r m e d i n a r e c e n t s t u d y c o n d u c t e d w i t h one o f C a n a d a ' s l a r g e s t c o m p a n i e s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e C a n a d i a n s t u d y (Howard and B o y d , 1976) showed t h a t 48 p e r c e n t o f t h e manag e r s and s u p e r v i s o r s s u r v e y e d were u n w i l l i n g t o move f r o m t h e i r c u r r e n t l o c a t i o n s . C o s t e l l o (1976) b e l i e v e s t h e p e r c e n t a g e s t o be up s h a r p l y f r o m p r i o r y e a r s . D. R e s i s t a n c e t o T r a n s f e r ; A M a t t e r f o r C o n c e r n Why do e m p l o y e e s t u r n down o f f e r s t h a t w o u l d u s u a l l y be a s t e p up t h e c o r p o r a t e l a d d e r ? I n t h e p a s t , t h e m a j o r r e a s o n f o r t h e r e l u c t a n c e o f e m p l o y e e s t o a c c e p t t r a n s f e r was t h o u g h t t o be an e c o n o m i c o n e , c a u s e d by t o o f r e q u e n t r e l o c a t i o n s and by t h e f i n a n c i a l p i n c h r e s u l t i n g f r o m c o u n t l e s s u p h e a v a l s and r e s e t t l i n g ( M u r r a y , 1971; I n d u s t r y Week, 1973b; U.S. News and W o r l d R e p o r t , 1975; B u s i n e s s Week, 1976; Howard and B o y d , 1 9 7 6 ) . The e c o n o m i c f a c t o r r e m a i n s i m p o r t a n t ( D i D o m e n i c o , 1 9 7 8 a ) . B u t a g r o w i n g l i t e r a t u r e a c k n o w l e d g e s t h a t much o f t h e r e l u c t a n c e t o move stems f r o m p e r s o n a l and f a m i l y c o n c e r n s ( P i n d e r , 1 9 7 8 ) . P o s s i b l y i n r e s p o n s e t o t h i s , - 6 -more c o m p a n i e s a r e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e a d e q u a c y o f t h e i r t r a n s f e r p o l i c i e s ( Perham, 1970; B u s i n e s s Week, 1972; T i g e r , 1 9 7 4 ) , and t h e y a r e no l o n g e r p l a c i n g t o t a l e m p h a s i s upon e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s ( P i n d e r , 1 9 7 8 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e many r e a s o n s f o r t h e i n c r e a s i n g r e s i s t a n c e t o t r a n s f e r , t h r e e a r e a s o f c o n c e r n a r e b e l i e v e d t o be t h e m a j o r f a c t o r s : (1) C h a n g i n g v a l u e s . I n t h e p a s t i t was t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d t h a t an a s p i r i n g e x e c u t i v e w o u l d u p r o o t h i s f a m i l y i n o r d e r t o b e n e f i t f r o m t h e c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t a t r a n s f e r o f f e r e d . The r e q u e s t t o t r a n s f e r was s e e n as r e c o g n i t i o n o f a h i g h l e v e l o f c o m p e t e n c e , and i m p l i e d p r o m i s e s f o r p r o m o t i o n and u l t i m a t e s u c c e s s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , c o r p o r a t e t r a n s f e r s were r a r e l y r e f u s e d . H o w e v e r , t h i s s i t u a t i o n a p p e a r s t o be c h a n g i n g as y o u n g e r e x e c u t i v e s and t h e i r s p o u s e s r e v o l t a g a i n s t t h e s t r e s s and i n s e c u r i t y o f t h e m o b i l e s o c i e t y . S u c h a c h a n g e r e f l e c t s a f u n d a m e n t a l s h i f t i n v a l u e s (Howard and B o y d , 1 9 7 6 ) . G r a s s (1978a) s t a t e s t h a t e m p l o y e e s u n d e r age 35 ha v e a d i f f e r e n t s e t o f p r i o r i t i e s f r o m t h e i r o l d e r c o u n t e r p a r t s , who s t i l l m a r c h t o t h e company drum and a c c e p t t r a n s f e r s as a means o f r i s i n g t h r o u g h t h e r a n k s . Young e x e c u t i v e s a r e n o t w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t t h e d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e i r l i v e s r e s u l t i n g f r o m t r a n s f e r s . James E. W a l l , V i c e P r e s i d e n t o f C e l a n e s e C o r p o r a t i o n , d e s c r i b e s t h i s new s e t o f a t t i t u d e s as i t p e r t a i n s t o A m e r i c a n c o r p o r a t i o n s : "The b a l a n c e has d e f i n i t e l y s h i f t e d - 7 -away f r o m s a l u t i n g t h e company and m a r c h i n g o f f t o T i m b u c t u t o w a r d a g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s on f a m i l y and l i f e s t y l e " ( T i m e , 1 9 7 8 ) . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e new b r e e d o f e x e c u t i v e s h a s an i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e . Money i s no l o n g e r t h e p a r a m o u n t c o n c e r n . S u c h a s p e c t s a s l o c a t i o n and p e r m a n e n c e demand c o n s i d e r a t i o n ; a s t a b l e home l i f e and a s a f e e n v i r o n m e n t r a n k h i g h on t h e l i s t o f p r i o r i t i e s . (2) E c o n o m i c c o s t s . B u t v e r y o f t e n t h e e c o n o m i c s a r e n o t f a v o u r a b l e . One o f t h e most f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d c o n c e r n s i s t h e f i n a n c i a l c o s t o f m o v i n g . V e r y o f t e n t h e i n c r e a s e i n s a l a r y i s q u i c k l y consumed by t h e c o s t o f r e l o c a t i n g e v e n when a company p r o v i d e s a l l t h e f r i n g e b e n e f i t s l i s t e d i n F i g u r e 1. A r e c e n t s t u d y o f one l a r g e C a n a d i a n company showed a g r e a t r e l u c t a n c e among e m p l o y e e s t o c h a n g e l o c a t i o n s when t h e company's r e i m b u r s e m e n t s f o r m o v i n g were s e e n as i n a d e q u a t e , o r when t h e move was t o a h i g h e r c o s t l o c a t i o n and no i m m e d i a t e o r a d e q u a t e a d j u s t m e n t i n s a l a r y was o f f e r e d ( B u s i n e s s Week, 1 9 7 6 a ) . Howard and B o y d (1976) a l s o f o u n d t h a t t h e two i t e m s most o f t e n c i t e d i n t u r n i n g down a t r a n s f e r were f i n a n c i a l . D i D o m e n i c o (1978a) s t a t e s t h a t an e m p l o y e e w i t h a p r o v e n and r e s p e c t a b l e t r a c k r e c o r d , who h a s a l r e a d y c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s u c c e s s and p r o f i t o f t h e company, d e s e r v e s t h e most c o m f o r t a b l e t r a n s f e r t h e c o r p o r a t e t r a n s f e r b u d g e t w i l l a l l o w . V a r i o u s a t t e m p t s h a v e been made t o compare d i f f e r e n c e s i n h o u s i n g c o s t s b e t w e e n s p e c i f i c c i t i e s , b u t s u c h d a t a a r e - 8 -B e s i d e s p a c k i n g and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f h o u s e h o l d g o o d s , a g e n e r o u s company w i l l a l s o p r o v i d e o t h e r a s s i s t a n c e . W h i l e t h e f o l l o w i n g l i s t i s n o t e x h a u s t i v e , i t i s s u g g e s t i v e o f t h e k i n d s o f a s s i s t a n c e o f f e r e d . To move a s e c o n d a u t o m o b i l e a t company e x p e n s e . To move a b o a t a t company e x p e n s e . To move b e l o n g i n g s f r o m a s e c o n d r e s i d e n c e ( i . e . , summer home) To move an u n l i m i t e d w e i g h t o f b e l o n g i n g s . To move o b j e c t s o f h i g h v a l u e , s u c h a s s t a t u e s o r p a i n t i n g s . To move p e t s . To move r e c r e a t i o n and l a w n e q u i p m e n t . To move s u c h t h i n g s as a n t i q u e s , m o t o r c y c l e s , c a m p e r s , e t c . To s t o r e some p o s s e s s i o n s . To p r o v i d e m a i d s e r v i c e a t e i t h e r t h e o l d o r t h e new home. To g u a r a n t e e s a l e o f t h e e m p l o y e e ' s f o r m e r r e s i d e n c e . To p u r c h a s e e m p l o y e e ' s h o u s e i f no b u y e r c a n be f o u n d i n a r e a s o n a b l e t i m e . To r e f u n d a n y v a r i a n c e b e t w e e n p r i c e o f t h e f o r m e r h o u s e and t h e p r i c e o f s i m i l a r h o u s e i n t h e new c i t y . To p a y f o r d r a p e s , c a r p e t i n g , e t c . i n t h e new h o u s e , i f s u c h c a n n o t be moved. To p a y f o r a l t e r a t i o n s t o d r a p e s , c a r p e t i n g e t c . i f moved t o new c i t y . To p a y e m p l o y e e t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n f o r m e r r e n t and s i m i l a r new r e n t a l q u a r t e r s , i f a p p l i c a b l e . To r e i m b u r s e any i n c r e a s e d i n c o m e t a x i n c u r r e d as a r e s u l t o f move. To s u p p l y o t h e r a i d ( i . e . , h e l p w i t h m o r t g a g e l o a n s , o t h e r l o a n s , r e a l t o r ' s f e e s , b o n u s ) . F i g u r e 1. The P r o v i s i o n o f F r i n g e B e n e f i t s f o r t h e R e l o c a t i n g E m p l o y e e - 9 -d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n and measure on an o b j e c t i v e b a s i s . With many v a r i a b l e s (neighbourhood, d i s t a n c e to schools and shopping, etc.) a f f e c t i n g housing p r i c e s , and with s u b j e c t i v e judgements i n v o l v e d , few r e l o c a t i o n p o l i c i e s can meet or respond to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s needs (DiDomenico, 1978a). And r e g r e t a b l y few Canadian companies make an a p p r o p r i a t e e f f o r t to help t h e i r employees a d j u s t to the more obvious d i f f i c u l t i e s of t r a n s f e r . Only 14 percent of the 350 companies s t u d i e d by the Conference Board i n Canada pay o u t r i g h t housing s u b s i d i e s fo r l o c a t i o n a l p r i c e d i f f e r e n t i a l s i n comparable f a c i l i t i e s , and only 7 percent of the companies provide rent s u b s i d i e s i n the same l o c a t i o n (Grass, 1978). (3) Heavy human c o s t s . Although new c h a l l e n g e s i n new surroundings may broaden an i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n s i g h t and enhance h i s growth p o t e n t i a l , a t r a n s f e r can have negative e f f e c t s on employees and on t h e i r wives and c h i l d r e n . (a) Consequences f o r the T r a n s f e r r e d Employee - The employee himself experiences f u r t h e r harassments i n a d d i t i o n to those mentioned above. He o f t e n l a c k s an understanding of what the move means i n terms of h i s career because he has had l i m i t e d involvement i n h i s career p l a n n i n g . In a d d i t i o n , he has to ad j u s t to the demands of h i s new job, a process both - 10 -t a x i n g and c h a l l e n g i n g , and one which can l e a d to severe s t r a i n i f the employee f a i l s to cope adequately with h i s new m i l i e u or i s d i s t r a c t e d by f a m i l y a n x i e t y . Murray (1971) s t a t e s that adjustment can be e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t i n widely d i v e r s i f i e d companies. Managers moving to company headquarters f r e q u e n t l y f e e l they have l o s t a u t h o r i t y and independence when they move from a rather independent r o l e to an interdependent r o l e as p a r t of the top management team (Schein, 1971; M a r s h a l l and Cooper, 1976). Not only must the manager l e a r n about h i s new j o b , he must a l s o become f a m i l i a r with the s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c l i m a t e of h i s new work environment. B r e t t (1981) s t a t e s that the t r a n s f e r i t s e l f d i s r u p t s o l d r o u t i n e s and r e q u i r e s the establishment of new ones. Although the c o s t s of s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l readjustment are d i f f i c u l t to determine a c c u r a t e l y , they are considered to be s u b s t a n t i a l ( T i g e r , 1974). Some managers face another dilemma once they accept the o f f e r of t r a n s f e r : they are o f t e n expected to move some months before t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Because such s e p a r a t i o n o f t e n poses a c o n f l i c t between the manager's own needs to develop competence at the new job and the needs of h i s f a m i l y as i t copes with the a n x i e t i e s r a i s e d by the prospect of t r a n s f e r , g e o g r a p h i c a l t r a n s f e r f r e q u e n t l y causes m a r i t a l c r i s e s . The f i n d i n g s of M a r s h a l l and Cooper (1976) co n f i r m that f a m i l y s e p a r a t i o n i s a c r i s i s p o i n t i n marriage. However, B r e t t ' s study (1982) found t h a t mobile husbands and wives were more s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r married l i f e than s t a b l e ones. I t i s not c l e a r whether t h i s i s - 11 -i n c o n s i s t e n t with M a r s h a l l and Cooper's f i n d i n g s or whether c r i s i s p o i n t s r e s u l t i n more s t a b l e marriages. Although some employers are aware that the m u l t i p l e a n x i e t i e s of s e p a r a t i o n and t r a n s f e r i n t e r f e r e with job performance, others a c t u a l l y encourage t h i s p e r i o d of s e p a r a t i o n . The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s i s that a temporary s e p a r a t i o n causes l e s s d i s t r e s s to job e f f e c t i v e n e s s than the eroding a c t i o n of f a m i l y harangues duri n g the p e r i o d of upheaval. Such reasoning o v e r l o o k s the pressure on an employee who i s s e n s i t i v e to the i s o l a t i o n and trauma experienced by h i s t e m p o r a r i l y abandoned f a m i l y . (b) Consequences for C h i l d r e n - The n e c e s s i t y of a d j u s t i n g to new and complex environments as a r e s u l t of a geographic t r a n s f e r can be a c h a l l e n g i n g and s t i m u l a t i n g growth experience. C h i l d r e n who do b e n e f i t from t h e i r experience of a t r a n s f e r perform b e t t e r i n s c h o o l than non-mobile c h i l d r e n (Inbar, 1976). However, most c h i l d r e n n e i t h e r a p p r e c i a t e nor b e n e f i t from the developmental o p p o r t u n i t y provided by a t r a n s f e r . Parents i n M a r s h a l l and Cooper's study (1976) reported t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n were r e s e n t f u l and r e b e l l i o u s about moving. While a l l c h i l d r e n s u f f e r from d i s r u p t i o n of the household and p a r e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , c h i l d r e n between the ages of 6 and 19 are l e s s t o l e r a n t of t r a n s f e r s than t h e i r younger s i b l i n g s . In g e n e r a l , school-aged c h i l d r e n are more opposed to c o r p o r a t e t r a n s f e r s than e i t h e r of t h e i r p arents. T h e i r negative a t t i t u d e - 12 -r e f l e c t s t h e i r c o n c e r n f o r a c c e p t a n c e by t h e i r p e e r s i n a new l o c a t i o n , and an amorphous f e a r as t o t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e q u i r e m e n t s t o be met a t a new s c h o o l . I n a d d i t i o n , O l i v e e t a l . (1976) m a i n t a i n t h a t m o v i n g i s most d i s t r e s s i n g when i t comes a t t h e t i m e o f o t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t a l c r i s e s s u c h as e s t a b l i s h i n g b o y - g i r l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d / o r s t r i v i n g f o r an i d e n t i t y . The damage o f t r a n s f e r t o c h i l d r e n i s b e s t summed up by T i g e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) : " A m e r i c a n b u s i n e s s i s d i s e n c h a n t i n g t h e s o n s and d a u g h t e r s o f i t s own e x e c u t i v e s , and i n some d e g r e e i m p a i r i n g p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e e x e c u t i v e s t h e m s e l v e s . " More and more p a r e n t s a r e aware o f t h e damage t o t h e c h i l d r e n r e s u l t i n g f r o m a t r a n s f e r . T h e y w o r r y a b o u t w h e t h e r t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i l l be a d m i t t e d i n t o t o p - r a n k i n g u n i v e r s i t i e s a f t e r g r a d u a t i n g f r o m h i g h s c h o o l s w i t h q u e s t i o n a b l e s t a n d a r d s ( B u s i n e s s Week, 1 9 7 6 ) . S t u d e n t (1976) has f o u n d a h i g h d e g r e e o f s t r e s s and t e n s i o n i n f a m i l i e s n o t s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s o f t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s . S i n c e a c h i l d ' s a t t i t u d e w i l l a f f e c t t h e w h o l e f a m i l y , c h i l d r e n ' s o b j e c t i o n s t o m o v i n g may w e l l h a v e an i m p a c t on t h e i r p a r e n t s ' d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g a c c e p t i n g a t r a n s f e r . (c) C o n s e q u e n c e s f o r S p o u s e s - Whenever t h e company d e c i d e s t o move an e x e c u t i v e t o a n o t h e r l o c a t i o n , t h e w i f e , u n l i k e h e r h u s b a n d who t a k e s h i s p r e s t i g e w i t h him when t r a n s f e r r e d , must s t a r t o v e r t o e s t a b l i s h h e r s e l f i n a - 13 -new c o m m u n i t y . * I n a d d i t i o n , s h e h a s t o c o p e w i t h a l l t h e u p h e a v a l s r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e t r a n s f e r , t o be a t t i m e s b o t h m o t h e r and f a t h e r t o c h i l d r e n i f t h e t r a n s f e r r e q u i r e s a p e r i o d o f s e p a r a t i o n f r o m h e r h u s b a n d and a t t h e same t i m e g i v e s u p p o r t t o h e r h u s b a n d ( O l i v e e t a l . , 1976; V a n d e r v e l d e , 1 9 7 9 ) . B r e t t (1981) comments t h a t g e o g r a p h i c t r a n s f e r a c c o m p a n i e d by s o c i a l m o b i l i t y ( i . e . t h e move f r o m b e i n g , s a y , a l o w e r m i d d l e c l a s s u r b a n w i f e t o an up p e r m i d d l e c l a s s s u b u r b a n w i f e ) , i m p l i e s a more d r a s t i c d i s c o n t i n u i t y t h a n mere g e o g r a p h i c t r a n s f e r , and c r e a t e s a s u b s t a n t i a l l y g r e a t e r a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m f o r t h e w i v e s . Many w i v e s a r e w i l l i n g t o go t h r o u g h t h e s t r e s s and p a i n o f r e a d j u s t i n g b e c a u s e t h e y b e l i e v e t h a t t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f a t r a n s f e r w i l l mean p r o g r e s s f o r t h e i r h u s b a n d s w i t h i n t h e company and t h a t t u r n i n g down a t r a n s f e r w i l l c o n s e q u e n t l y damage t h e i r c a r e e r s ( J o n e s , 1973; O l i v e e t a l . , 1976; B r e t t and W e r b e l , 1 9 7 8 ) . T r i e b a l (1972) e x p l a i n s t h a t some s o u r c e s o f s t r e s s i m p o s e d on s p o u s e s by a t r a n s f e r l i e i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e s , f u n d a m e n t a l o r c o n d i t i o n e d , b e t w e e n men and women i n w e s t e r n s o c i e t y . The " n e s t - b u i l d i n g " i n s t i n c t , common t o many women, m o t i v a t e s them t o make t h e i r h o u s e s t h e f o c u s o f t h e f a m i l y , a warm, s e c u r e f o r t r e s s i n an a l i e n w o r l d . H o w e v e r , V a n d e r v e l d e (1979a) p o i n t s o u t t h a t e v e n t u a l l y t h e e m o t i o n a l r e s e r v e r e q u i r e d by t h i s a c t i v i t y * F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , a l l t r a n s f e r e e s ' s p o u s e s w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as b e i n g f e m a l e s i n c e 96% o f t h e t r a n s f e r e e s ' s p o u s e s i n t h e s a m p l e were f e m a l e . - 14 -becomes exhausted; the i n s t i n c t becomes traumatized by constant r e p e t i t i o n . S t i l l m a n (1979) i d e n t i f i e s another major reason f o r e x e c u t i v e s t u r n i n g down t r a n s f e r s d e s p i t e a high l e v e l of p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e : working spouses whose career development would be a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by t h e i r husbands' t r a n s f e r s . Working wives u s u a l l y have to f o r f e i t t h e i r jobs when husbands are t r a n s f e r r e d (U.S. News and World Report, 1975). T i g e r (1974) s t a t e s that these wives s u f f e r i n new jobs because they l a c k s e n i o r i t y and because they are unable to provide t h e i r employers with the c o n t i n u i t y they may seek i n higher management. T r a n s f e r d i f f i c u l t i e s are i n c r e a s i n g l y insurmountable as a spouse a t t a i n s e x e c u t i v e s t a t u s i n her own f i e l d . Stoess (1973) found that many o r g a n i z a t i o n s b e l i e v e t h a t the e x e c u t i v e ' s wife i s extremely important to the success of the e x e c u t i v e and of the company. T h i s a t t i t u d e i s borne out by a survey which found t h a t the i n a b i l i t y of the w i f e to adapt was among the s i x major causes of job f a i l u r e of overseas managers (Ivancevich, 1969). C o s t e l l o (1976) found that three of the ten reasons given most f r e q u e n t l y by e x e c u t i v e s who d e c l i n e d a geographic t r a n s f e r are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to f a m i l y a f f a i r s , and t h a t two out of these three reasons concern the spouses. A c c o r d i n g l y , o r g a n i z a t i o n s should evaluate the wife's w i l l i n g n e s s to move as a matter of regular company p o l i c y when - 15 -c o n s i d e r i n g o f f e r s o f t r a n s f e r . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , h o w e v e r , l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h h a s been done t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t o f t h e e c o n o m i c , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l i m p a c t o f t r a n s f e r p o l i c i e s on t h e t r a n s f e r r e d e m p l o y e e s ' s p o u s e s o r t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e t h e s p o u s e s ' w i l l i n g n e s s t o be t r a n s f e r r e d . Many o r g a n i z a t i o n s seem t o be i n g r e a t need o f t h i s t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n : B a k e r (1976) r e p o r t e d t h a t 53 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n h i s s t u d y s t a t e d t h a t an a t t e m p t was made t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e w i f e was w i l l i n g t o go o v e r s e a s , b u t o n l y one r e s p o n d e n t f i r m c o n f i r m e d t h a t i t a d m i n i s t e r s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t t o t h e w i f e o f a c a n d i d a t e f o r o v e r s e a s a s s i g n m e n t . E. The P u r p o s e o f T h i s S t u d y O r g a n i z a t i o n s whose s t a f f i n g p o l i c i e s h ave grown on t r a n s f e r as a s t r a t e g y f o r manpower p l a n n i n g o r as a means o f c o m p e n s a t i n g f o r p o o r manpower p l a n n i n g must f i n d a b e t t e r way t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e o b j e c t i v e s a t minimum c o s t s . T h e s e c o s t s have an u l t i m a t e b e a r i n g upon o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l i f e , upon o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t i n u i t y , and upon t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o r e a p t h e b e n e f i t s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e t r a n s f e r o f t h e e m p l o y e e s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . A l t h o u g h many s u g g e s t i o n s a r e made i n a r t i c l e s r e g a r d i n g t h e a l l e v i a t i o n o f t r a n s f e r t r a u m a , g r e a t e r c a r e i n s e l e c t i n g t h o s e t o be t r a n s f e r r e d r e m a i n s a c o n t i n u i n g c h a l l e n g e t o o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o t e s t h y p o t h e s e s r e l a t i n g t h e m a j o r d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s i n g f r o m t r a n s f e r s t o s p o u s e s ' - 16 -w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c c e p t t r a n s f e r . The u l t i m a t e a i m o f t h e s t u d y i s t o e s t a b l i s h a method o f a p p r a i s i n g n e e d s and p r o b l e m s t h a t a r e . m o r e s e n s i t i v e t h a n t h e s y s t e m i n c u r r e n t u s e . The s t u d y w i l l e x a m i n e e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e on e m p l o y e e t r a n s f e r and w i l l d e v e l o p and t e s t a m u l t i v a r i a t e m o d e l d e s i g n e d t o p r e d i c t s p o u s e s ' w i l l i n g n e s s t o move. C h a p t e r Two r e v i e w s t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e e f f e c t s o f t r a n s f e r on s p o u s e s and g e n e r a t e s s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , w h i c h t o g e t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e need f o r t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . C h a p t e r T h r e e d e v e l o p s a number o f h y p o t h e s e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s p o u s e s ' w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c c e p t t r a n s f e r s , a l o n g w i t h a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e g r o u p s and metho d s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . C h a p t e r F o u r r e p o r t s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y . F i n a l l y , C h a p t e r F i v e d i s c u s s e s r e s u l t s and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o m p a n i e s who t r a n s f e r t h e i r e m p l o y e e s , and i t p r e s e n t s some p o s s i b l e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l s h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h e s t u d y . - 17 -CHAPTER TWO EFFECTS OF TRANSFERS ON SPOUSES: LITERATURE REVIEW How t r u e i s i t t h a t most c o r p o r a t e w i v e s a r e w i l l i n g t o go t h r o u g h t h e s t r e s s and p a i n o f r e a d j u s t i n g t o a n o t h e r l o c a t i o n i n o r d e r t o accommodate t h e i r h u s b a n d s ' n e e d s as w e l l as t h e w i s h e s o f t h e c o r p o r a t i o n ? On t h e one h a n d , B r e t t and W e r b e i ' s (1978) f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t most c o r p o r a t e w i v e s s t i l l h a v e a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t r a n s f e r s . F o r e x a m p l e , o n l y 14 p e r c e n t o f B r e t t and W e r b e l ' s s a m p l e s a i d t h e y w o u l d d i s c o u r a g e t h e i r h u s b a n d s f r o m a c c e p t i n g a g e o g r a p h i c t r a n s f e r , and o n l y 3 p e r c e n t o f t h e same s a m p l e w o u l d e n c o u r a g e t h e i r h u s b a n d s t o l e a v e t h e i r p r e s e n t j o b s i f t h e y were a s k e d t o move a g a i n . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , B u r k e ' s (1974) f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e i s s u b s t a n t i a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n r e g a r d i n g t r a n s f e r s on t h e p a r t o f c o r p o r a t e w i v e s . When q u e s t i o n e d a b o u t t h e i r f e e l i n g s on c o r p o r a t e t r a n s f e r s , f o r e x a m p l e , 51 p e r c e n t o f B u r k e ' s s a m p l e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d r e a c t n e g a t i v e l y t o a t r a n s f e r , and 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e w i v e s s a i d t h e y w o u l d e n c o u r a g e t h e i r h u s b a n d s t o l e a v e t h e company i f t h e y were a s k e d t o r e l o c a t e . T h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e s u p p o r t e d by o t h e r r e s e a r c h , w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t w i v e s a r e r e l u c t a n t t o go a l o n g w i t h t h e i r h u s b a n d s ' d e c i s i o n t o a c c e p t a t r a n s f e r ( S e i d e n b e r g , 1973; F o e g e n , 1977; M u l l a l l y , 1979; V a n d e r v e l d e , 1 9 7 9 ) . T h u s , t h e m a j o r i t y o f e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t - 18 -few wives endorse t h e i r husband's job t r a n s f e r u n r eservedly, and few see a t r a n s f e r as being a great o p p o r t u n i t y f o r which they are w i l l i n g to be uprooted. A. Why an I n c r e a s i n g Number of Corporate Wives R e s i s t T r a n s f e r Vandervelde (1979b) s t a t e s that a t y p i c a l c o r p o r a t e wife i s a woman whose own needs and happiness w i l l be f u l f i l l e d p r i m a r i l y through her husband. Her husband's career equates d i r e c t l y with her own f i n a n c i a l and emotional s e c u r i t y . T h e r e f o r e , when her husband decides to accept h i s company's o f f e r of a geographic t r a n s f e r , she moves with her husband a u t o m a t i c a l l y a c c o r d i n g to h i s d e s i r e s and needs. Seidenberg (1973) examined the pressures from f a m i l y and the community th a t prompt a spouse to ma i n t a i n the s t a t u s quo. Her f a i l u r e to l i v e up to the e x p e c t a t i o n s of a t y p i c a l c o r p o r a t e wife exposes a spouse to p e r s e c u t i o n from her husband's f a m i l y and from her own, from f r i e n d s and even from her c h i l d r e n on the grounds that she has f a i l e d to support her husband and has, i n e f f e c t , deserted him. Thus, she can no longer c l a i m support from him. In summary, the t r a d i t i o n a l wife not onl y does not have a career of her own, she behaves ac c o r d i n g to the s t r i c t u r e s imposed on her by her community and supports her husband without q u e s t i o n . Although the " t y p i c a l " e x e c u t i v e wife i s s t i l l very much i n evidence, many corpora t e wives demand more say i n - 19 -d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g t h e i r own l i v e s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n has r e s u l t e d f r o m c h a n g e s i n a t t i t u d e s among p r e s e n t - d a y women. (1) New c o n c e r n s and r o l e m o d e l s . Women's new s e n s e o f i n d e p e n d e n c e has r e c e n t l y s u r f a c e d a s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r b e h i n d t h e i r r e l u c t a n c e t o move. The f o l l o w i n g c o n c e r n s a p p e a r t o be i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t : (a) t h e nee d t o make i n d e p e n d e n t d e c i s i o n s g o v e r n i n g h e r way o f l i f e . (b) t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o c h a n n e l h e r t a l e n t s and a b i l i t i e s i n t o a r e a s o t h e r t h a n d o m e s t i c o n e s . (c) t h e a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l h e r home and work e n v i r o n m e n t . (d) t h e d e s i r e t o s h a r e f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and h o u s e h o l d r o u t i n e s e q u i t a b l y w i t h h e r h u s b a n d . (e) t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f h e r c o n c e r n s b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d and c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n h e r h u s b a n d ' s c o r p o r a t i o n . T h e s e c o n c e r n s a r e s o i m p o r t a n t t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n s s h o u l d c o n s i d e r them t h o r o u g h l y when f r a m i n g t r a n s f e r p o l i c y . Women's c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e i r new r o l e m o d e l l e a d s c o r p o r a t e w i v e s t o q u e s t i o n c e r t a i n c o r p o r a t e t r a d i t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y c o r p o r a t e t r a n s f e r p o l i c i e s . B e r k w i t t (1972) m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e c o r p o r a t e w i v e s ' r e s i s t a n c e t o m o v i n g i s p r o b a b l y t h e most o b v i o u s s i g n r i g h t now o f t h e i r s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n . T h i s r e s p o n s e o f s p o u s e s r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e c o r p o r a t e w o r l d s e e c o r p o r a t e w i v e s - 20 -n o t s i m p l y as an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e i r h u s b a n d s b u t as i n d e p e n d e n t p e o p l e . (2) D u a l - c a r e e r c o u p l e s . G i n z b e r g (1977) m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e s i n g l e , most o u t s t a n d i n g e c o n o m i c phenomenon o f o u r c e n t u r y i s t h e l a r g e number o f women who a r e e i t h e r a l r e a d y i n t h e work f o r c e o r c u r r e n t l y e n t e r i n g t h e work f o r c e . The p r e s e n t l a b o u r f o r c e i s composed o f a s u b s t a n t i a l l y g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f women t h a n a t any t i m e i n t h e p a s t (Waldman, 1 9 7 0 a ) . S u r v e y s c o n d u c t e d by S t a t i s t i c s C a n ada c o n f i r m t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e r e h a s been a marked d i f f e r e n c e i n work f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s o f f e m a l e s i n r e c e n t y e a r s . I n t h e p e r i o d b e t w e e n 1966 and 1976, t h e work f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e o f women r o s e f r o m r o u g h l y 34 p e r c e n t t o 45 p e r c e n t w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e i n t h e age g r o u p o f 25 t o 45. The p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e o f t h i s age g r o u p i n t h e work f o r c e i n c r e a s e d by 59 p e r c e n t o v e r t h e same p e r i o d and a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e b u l k o f t h e o v e r a l l work f o r c e i n c r e a s e ( S t a t i s t i c s o f  C a n a d a , 1 9 7 9 ) . T h i s i n c r e a s e i s p r i m a r i l y a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e i n c r e a s e d t e n d e n c y o f m a r r i e d women u n d e r f o r t y - f i v e y e a r s o f age t o e n t e r t h e work f o r c e . A l t h o u g h i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t i m a t e t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f m a r r i e d p r o f e s s i o n a l women i n t h e work f o r c e , t h a t p e r c e n t a g e p r o b a b l y p a r a l l e l s t h e g e n e r a l t e n d e n c y o f i n c r e a s e d numbers o f women e n t e r i n g t h e t o t a l work f o r c e . M a y n a r d and Z a w a c k i (1979) d e f i n e t h e d u a l - c a r e e r c o u p l e as one i n w h i c h b o t h p a r t n e r s p u r s u e c a r e e r s a s w e l l a s f a m i l y r o l e s . M o s t o f t h e s e c a r e e r s i n v o l v e o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t r e q u i r e a - 21 -h i g h d e g r e e o f commitment, have a d e v e l o p m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r and c o n f e r s u b s t a n t i a l p e r s o n a l r e w a r d s . D u a l - c a r e e r c o u p l e s have become i n c r e a s i n g l y common f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : (a) The p r o p o r t i o n o f y o u n g c o u p l e s ( w i t h o r w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n ) who p r e f e r two p a y c h e q u e s h a s i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f s e r i o u s i n f l a t i o n . The e t h i c o f " q u a l i t y o f l i f e " s t i m u l a t e s t h e t r e n d o f d u a l - c a r e e r c o u p l e s b e c a u s e two i n c o m e s c a n be a k e y t o l i b e r a t i o n and new l i f e / c a r e e r c h o i c e s . (b) The g r o w i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f women's i n d e p e n d e n c e h a s r e c e n t l y s u r f a c e d a s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r b e h i n d t h e d u a l - c a r e e r c o u p l e t r e n d . Many women, w h i l e a p p r e c i a t i n g t h e i r h u s b a n d ' s c a r e e r i n v o l v e m e n t , e x p e c t r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r own c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , an i n c r e a s i n g number o f women a r e b e c o m i n g c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d and a r e b e g i n n i n g t o l o o k o u t s i d e t h e i r homes and t h e i r h u s b a n d s ' c a r e e r s f o r p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t . ( c) Women a r e b e t t e r e d u c a t e d t h a n t h e y were t h i r t y y e a r s a g o . M u l l a l l y (1979) s t a t e s t h a t a l o n g w i t h f i n d i n g a h u s b a n d w h i l e a t c o l l e g e , m o s t e x e c u t i v e w i v e s a l s o g e t t h e i r d e g r e e . I n a d d i t i o n , many yo u n g women e n t e r c o l l e g e w i t h a s t r o n g commitment t o a p r o f e s s i o n and c o n t i n u e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n t o t h e p o s t - d o c t o r a l l e v e l . Now, t o o , more women a r e u p d a t i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n t o q u a l i f y f o r s p e c i f i c c a r e e r s . A s u r v e y done by H a r o l d L a z a r u s , P r o f e s s o r o f Management a t New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y ' s G r a d u a t e S c h o o l - 22 -o f B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , shows t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f women 35 y e a r s o l d and o v e r i n t h e m i d d l e - and u p p e r - i n c o m e g r o u p r e t u r n t o s c h o o l . A s a r u l e , e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t m e a s u r e d i n y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g h a s a d i s t i n c t i n f l u e n c e on t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f w i v e s i n t h e work f o r c e . One o f t h e w i v e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n M u l l a l l y ' s (1979) s t u d y a s k e d , "Why c o v e r a l l t h a t t a l e n t w i t h a b u s h e l b a s k e t ? And i f y o u a r e e d u c a t e d , why s u p p r e s s i t ? " I n summary, t h e r e i s a c l e a r t r e n d o f i n c r e a s e d l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by m a r r i e d women. More and more e m p l o y e d men and women a r e p a r t o f d u a l - c a r e e r f a m i l i e s . M a y n a r d and Z a w a c k i (1979) m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e p r o b l e m o f g e o g r a p h i c t r a n s f e r r e m a i n s a c r i t i c a l i s s u e f o r d u a l - c a r e e r f a m i l i e s . B. The E f f e c t s o f T r a n s f e r s on t h e R o l e s o f W i v e s Whenever t h e company d e c i d e s t o move a m a r r i e d m a l e e m p l o y e e t o a new l o c a t i o n , t h e g e o g r a p h i c t r a n s f e r may a f f e c t t h e w i f e ' s f a m i l y r o l e , c a r e e r r o l e , and s o c i a l r o l e . The e f f e c t s o f a t r a n s f e r on t h e t r a n s f e r r e d e x e c u t i v e ' s s p o u s e h a v e r e c e i v e d a g r e a t d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n f r o m t h e p o p u l a r p r e s s , b u s i n e s s m a g a z i n e s and s c h o l a r l y j o u r n a l s ( B e r k w i t t , 1972; T r i e b a l , 1972; B e n s a h e l , 1975; B e l l , 1977; P r i c e , 1979; V a n d e r v e l d e , 1 9 7 9 a ; 1979b; B r e t t , 1 9 8 1 ; B r e t t , 1 9 8 2 ) . (1) E f f e c t s on h e r f a m i l y r o l e . When a t r a n s f e r r e q u i r e s t h e f a t h e r t o be s e p a r a t e d f r o m h i s f a m i l y f o r a - 23 -p e r i o d o f t i m e , t h e w i f e h a s t o be b o t h m o t h e r and f a t h e r t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n . I n o t h e r w o r d s , s he t a k e s on t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h e r h u s b a n d ' s r o l e : c h o r e s , d e c i s i o n m a k i n g ( e s p e c i a l l y s o c i a l d e c i s i o n s ) and c h i l d r e n ' s d i s c i p l i n e . One e f f e c t o f e n f o r c e d s e p a r a t i o n i s t h a t t h e w i f e on h e r own becomes more p r a c t i c a l b e c a u s e she h a s t o c o p e w i t h p r o b l e m s t h a t she n o r m a l l y w o u l d n o t s e e t o when h e r h u s b a n d i s p r e s e n t . I f she i s u n c e r t a i n a s t o an a c t i o n , s h e w i l l o f t e n h a v e t o s e e k h e l p f r o m e x p e r t s , who a r e u s u a l l y s t r a n g e r s . I f she i s s h y , she must o v e r c o m e i t . Her new r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s may l e a d t o c h a n g e s i n h e r a t t i t u d e s and s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s . And when she j o i n s h e r h u s b a n d , t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r and how she s h o u l d r e l i n q u i s h t h e r o l e s she h a s a d o p t e d i n h i s a b s e n c e c r e a t e s f r u s t r a t i o n s and u n c e r t a i n t i e s . B r e t t (1981) s t a t e s t h a t t h e d i s r u p t i o n o f l e a r n e d and v a l u e d b e h a v i o u r as a r e s u l t o f s e p a r a t i o n and r e i n t e g r a t i o n i n t h e e v e n t o f a t r a n s f e r may c a u s e t h e c o r p o r a t e w i f e t o have f e e l i n g s o f l o s s o r o f l a c k o f c o n t r o l , w h i c h w i l l h ave t o be r e s o l v e d b e f o r e a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e move c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d . T r a n s f e r s c a n a l s o a f f e c t a w i f e ' s e x t e n d e d f a m i l y r o l e . When a t r a n s f e r r e d woman h a s t o move away f r o m a g i n g o r i l l p a r e n t s , s he may e x p e r i e n c e g u i l t and r o l e c o n f l i c t . (2) E f f e c t s on h e r c a r e e r r o l e . T h e r e i s c o n f l i c t i n g e v i d e n c e a b o u t t h e e f f e c t s o f a t r a n s f e r on t h e c o r p o r a t e w i f e ' s c a r e e r r o l e . On one h a n d , t h e r e s p o n s e s made by w o r k i n g - 24 -women i n both Burke's study (1974) and B r e t t and Werbel's study (1978) suggested that working was not r e l a t e d to t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward t r a n s f e r s because those who were working were no more negative about f u t u r e moves than those who were not working. And B r e t t ' s study (1982) i n d i c a t e s that mobile wives b e l i e v e they have b e t t e r chances f o r promotion than s t a b l e wives. However, i n t e r p r e t i n g t h i s r e s u l t i s d i f f i c u l t s i n c e they a l s o were repor t e d to b e l i e v e what seems to be i n c o n s i s t e n t with t h i s , t h a t they are l e s s secure i n t h e i r j o b s . On the other hand, many res e a r c h e r s argue that working women experience almost t o t a l career r o l e d i s r u p t i o n as a r e s u l t of job t r a n s f e r s (Pahl and Pa h l , 1971; Schein, 1971; Seidenberg, 1973; M a r s h a l l and Cooper, 1976; Pinder, 1981). And many urge companies to recog n i z e the s p e c i a l problems of a working wife i n the event of a t r a n s f e r (Foegen, 1977; Maynard and Zawacki, 1979; M u l l a l l y , 1979; S t i l l m a n , 1979). B r e t t (1981) b e l i e v e s that these rather incongruous data must be i n t e r p r e t e d i n the context of the way working women d e f i n e t h e i r primary r o l e s . T r a n s f e r does not seem to be a problem f o r those who consid e r t h e i r "wife and mother" r o l e s to be more important than t h e i r p e r s o n a l and career r o l e s . However, t r a n s f e r i s a d e f i n i t e problem for those wives who are committed to b u i l d i n g t h e i r own c a r e e r s . Working wives who are p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d must commit themselves to s e v e r a l years i n one p o s i t i o n . Frequent, hasty moves because of t h e i r husbands' t r a n s f e r s make i t d i f f i c u l t and very o f t e n impossible for them to f i n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n - 25 -employment that are commensurate with t h e i r t r a i n i n g and experience. Young wives who have j u s t entered a career f i e l d and who are c a l l e d upon to move f i n d d i s r u p t i o n at such an e a r l y stage a hinderance to advancement. One a l t e r n a t i v e to the t r a n s f e r problem mentioned by Maynard and Zawacki (1979) i s to have a "commuter marriage" i n which the d u a l - c a r e e r couples take jobs i n d i f f e r e n t c i t i e s . Not only are commuter marriages not easy, but they a l s o e n t a i l s t r o n g l i a b i l i t i e s . A s a t i s f a c t o r y commuter marriage c a l l s for a l e v e l of commitment and m a t u r i t y that few couples can pr o v i d e , and a l a r g e number of such marriages that have occurred as a r e s u l t of t r a n s f e r end i n d i v o r c e (Maynard and Zawacki, 1979). (3) E f f e c t s on her s o c i a l r o l e . Packard (1972) maintains t h a t mobile women develop few s o c i a l attachments (such as with s c h o o l s , churches, neighbours) and few c l o s e f r i e n d s i n order to p r o t e c t themselves a g a i n s t t h e i r i n e v i t a b l e l o s s when they move. However, i n B r e t t and Werbel's study (1978), the more mobile women belonged to a grea t e r number of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s than the l e s s mobile women. I t i s suggested that there i s no r e a l c o n f l i c t between these two f i n d i n g s : s i n c e a more mobile woman w i l l r e c o g n i z e through experience the need to e s t a b l i s h her i d e n t i t y i n a new community, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that she belongs to more s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s than the l e s s mobile woman. At the same time, s i n c e they know they may be u n s e t t l e d w i t h i n a few months, - 26 -they probably w i l l not be i n c l i n e d to " s e t t l e i n " . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , then, to see them avoid developing f r i e n d s h i p s when they are faced with the prospect of s t a r t i n g a l l over again i n another strange p l a c e . T h e r e f o r e , the crux of the matter i s not how many s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s these women belong t o, but rather how much they f e e l that they belong to those o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Burke (1972) found t h a t 34 percent of the wives i n h i s sample f e l t they had not made any c l o s e or l a s t i n g f r i e n d s i n t h e i r new neighbourhoods, a f i n d i n g which c l e a r l y demonstrates the e f f e c t s of t r a n s f e r s on women's s o c i a l r o l e . And B r e t t ' s study (1982) confirms t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Many h i g h l y mobile wives are a l s o faced with the problem d e s c r i b e d by a wife i n Seidenberg's book (1973): I t takes about a year r e a l l y to get i n t o a new place and make some f r i e n d s , so i f I s t a r t r i g h t away, there could be about three years to enjoy the f r u i t s of my e f f o r t s . I f we're t r a n s f e r r e d again a f t e r a year or so, those e f f o r t s w i l l have been i n v a i n , but i f I don't t r y and we're not t r a n s f e r r e d , i t would mean another four years of i s o l a t i o n . (P.18) (4) E f f e c t s on her mental and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h . While some newspaper and magazine a r t i c l e s (Packard, 1972; Seidenberg, 1973) c l a i m that mobile wives s u f f e r more mental and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h problem than s t a b l e wives, B r e t t ' s study (1982) i n d i c a t e s t h at t h i s i s not a problem. - 27 -Summary of L i t e r a t u r e Review T h i s review i n d i c a t e s t h a t there i s a r e l u c t a n c e on the p a r t of c o r p o r a t e wives to accept t h e i r husbands' t r a n s f e r s and t h a t the f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h i s r e l u c t a n c e are numerous and d i v e r s e . But to date, no thorough study has been made of p r e c i s e l y what those f a c t o r s are. Chapter Three i d e n t i f i e s a number of such f a c t o r s and develops hypotheses r e l a t i n g them to the w i l l i n g n e s s of spouses to accept husbands' t r a n s f e r s . - 28 -CHAPTER THREE HYPOTHESES AND METHOD K e r l i n g e r (1979) d e f i n e s a hypothesis as a c o n j e c t u r a l statement about the r e l a t i o n s between two or more v a r i a b l e s . Hypotheses are generated here r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the w i l l i n g n e s s of the t r a n s f e r r e d employee's spouse to move again (which serves as the dependent v a r i a b l e i n the study) and the f o l l o w i n g independent v a r i a b l e s : the spouse's working s t a t u s , the spouse's t o t a l number of t r a n s f e r experiences, the importance of a c c e p t i n g the t r a n s f e r to the t r a n s f e r r e d employee, the spouse's o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n with the company's t r a n s f e r p o l i c y , the l e n g t h of settlement i n her c u r r e n t r e s i d e n c e , her s a t i s f a c t i o n with her present l o c a t i o n , the presence i n the household of school-aged c h i l d r e n , and her scores on i n d i c e s measuring job involvement, company commitment, e x t r a v e r s i o n - i n t r o v e r s i o n , upward s t r i v i n g , a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , and l o c u s of c o n t r o l . The chapter begins with a d i s c u s s i o n of the t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r a g e n e r a l hypothesis and f o r each of the independent v a r i a b l e s i n each of two p o p u l a t i o n s (working spouses and non-working spouses). T h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s followed by a b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n of the c onceptual j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r p o s i t i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p between each independent v a r i a b l e and the dependent v a r i a b l e . F i n a l l y , a summary of hypotheses to be t e s t e d i s - 29 -presented. The independent v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d f o r the purpose of t h i s study are intended to be of use i n understanding what f a c t o r s determine the " w i l l i n g n e s s " of the spouse to move again. I t i s assumed that the l e s s l i k e l y a spouse i s to be a f f e c t e d by f a m i l i a l , p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n s , the more w i l l i n g she i s to be t r a n s f e r r e d with her husband. A. Working S t a t u s of the Spouse*: A General Hypothesis Many re s e a r c h e r s support the common view that working wives no longer w i l l i n g l y g i v e up t h e i r jobs j u s t because t h e i r husbands are t r a n s f e r r e d , and those who concur with t h e i r husband's d e c i s i o n s to move i n order to save t h e i r marriage, o f t e n experience almost t o t a l career r o l e d i s r u p t i o n (Pahl and Pa h l , 1971; Schein, 1971; Seidenberg, 1973; M a r s h a l l and Cooper, 1976). Foegen (1977) f u r t h e r s t a t e s that these working wives o f t e n have a d i f f i c u l t time r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r c a r e e r s or simply f i n d i n g a job i n a new community because they l a c k s e n i o r i t y and because they w i l l be unable to provide t h e i r employers with the d e s i r e d c o n t i n u i t y . For these reasons, a working wife w i l l be l e s s l i k e l y to welcome an o f f e r to move than a non-working w i f e . A c c o r d i n g l y , i t was hypothesized that working wives would be l e s s w i l l i n g to move than non-working wives. * T h i s v a r i a b l e a l s o serves as a moderator v a r i a b l e to d i v i d e the sample i n t o two groups (working spouses and non-working spouses) i n order to allow f o r i n d i v i d u a l a n a l y s i s of each group i n r e l a t i o n to the dependent v a r i a b l e . F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s p o i n t can be found i n the next major s e c t i o n , "Methodology." - 30 -B. S p e c i f i c Hypotheses for the Working Group * E i g h t of the twelve hypotheses i n the working group w i l l be d i s c u s s e d under the s e c t i o n "Common Hypotheses for Both Groups." The remaining four hypotheses are p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t to the working group and are d i s c u s s e d below. (1) Job Involvement The extent to which an i n d i v i d u a l ' s work i s a s s o c i a t e d with s e l f - c o n c e p t , m o t i v a t i o n , ego f e e l i n g s , and the f u l f i l l m e n t of p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs (e.g., a f f e c t i o n , l o v e , etc.) has been d i s c u s s e d widely by o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t h e o r i s t s and s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s (Maslow, 1954; McGregor, 1960; Vroom, 1964). T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was f u r t h e r explored by Lodahl and Kejner (1965), who developed a t h e o r e t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n for i t . They l a b e l l e d t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p "job involvement," d e f i n e d as "the degree to which a person i s i d e n t i f i e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y with h i s work, or the importance of work i n h i s t o t a l s e l f image" (Lodahl and Kejner, 1965, p. 24). Thus, a j o b - i n v o l v e d i n d i v i d u a l may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a person " f o r whom work i s a very important p a r t of l i f e , and as one who i s a f f e c t e d very much p e r s o n a l l y by h i s whole job s i t u a t i o n : the work i t s e l f , h i s co-workers, the company, e t c . " (Lodahl and Kejner, 1965, p. 25). In c o n t r a s t , a non-job-involved person "does h i s l i v i n g o f f the job. Work i s not an important p a r t of h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i f e . H i s i n t e r e s t s are elsewhere, and the love of h i s sel f - i m a g e , the e s s e n t i a l p a r t of h i s i d e n t i t y i s not g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by the kind of work he does or how w e l l he does i t " (Lodahl and Kejner, 1965, p. 25). - 31 -Katz and Kahn (1966) conclude that an i n d i v i d u a l who prepares to accept f u l l y the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l demands placed upon him by h i s membership i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n must be j o b - i n v o l v e d . I t was t h e r e f o r e hypothesized that a j o b - i n v o l v e d working wif e would be more conscious of her own o r g a n i z a t i o n a l demands and would hence be l e s s w i l l i n g to accept her husband's t r a n s f e r . (Here, we assume that the d u a l - c a r e e r couple do not work f o r the same o r g a n i z a t i o n and are not t r a n s f e r r e d to the same l o c a t i o n at the same time.) (2) Company Commitment P o r t e r , S t e e r s , Mowday and B o u l i a n (1974) d e f i n e "company commitment" as "the s t r e n g t h of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with, and involvement i n , a given o r g a n i z a t i o n " (p. 18). Jamal (1975) d e f i n e s a company-committed person as one who i s concerned about h i s company and w i l l i n g to put i n e x t r a work. Accor d i n g to Porter et a l . (1974) a company-committed person has the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (p. 604): (a) A s t r o n g b e l i e f i n , and acceptance o f , the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s goals and v a l u e s . (b) A w i l l i n g n e s s to exert c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t on behalf of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . (c) A d e f i n i t e d e s i r e to m a i n t a i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l membership. - 32 -The more committed a working wife i s to her company, the more she w i l l comply with the demands her company makes upon her. In f a c t , i f she i s committed to the goals of the company, she w i l l have i n t e r n a l i z e d the values c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the company, and she w i l l want to ma i n t a i n her l o y a l t y to "her" company. A c c e p t i n g a t r a n s f e r o f f e r e d by " h i s " company would c o n t r a d i c t her values and would show a l a c k of concern f o r the f u t u r e of her company. T r i e b a l (1972) s t a t e s that the more a working woman's i d e n t i t y merges with her company, the more r e s i s t a n t she w i l l be to any move suggested by the husband's company. I t was t h e r e f o r e hypothesized that a working woman who i s committed to her company would be l e s s w i l l i n g to accept any t r a n s f e r o p p o r t u n i t y o f f e r e d by her husband's company. (3) Upward S t r i v i n g Wollack, Goodale, W i j t i n g and Smith (1971) developed the Survey of Work Values (SWV), a s e r i e s of s c a l e s measuring a t t i t u d e s toward work, based on a number of dimensions of the P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c . Although c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t has been devoted to c o n s t r u c t i n g instruments f o r the purpose of measuring work values (Super, 1957; 1962) and o c c u p a t i o n a l values (Rosenberg, 1957; K i l p a t r i c k , Cummings & Jennings, 1964), Wollack et a l . (1971) argue t h a t these s c a l e s are too g l o b a l ; they maintain that the SWV i s d i r e c t e d toward separate areas of values and i s l i m i t e d to the c o n s t r u c t of s e c u l a r i z e d P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c s with which work values seem to be c l o s e l y l i n k e d . Upward s t r i v i n g i s regarded as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c , and i s a - 33 -sub-scale of the SWV. Wollack et a l . (1971) d e f i n e t h i s c o n s t r u c t as "the d e s i r e to seek c o n t i n u a l l y a higher l e v e l of job and a b e t t e r standard of l i v i n g . " The more a working wife i s concerned with achievement and power i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l or business r o l e of her own, the harder she w i l l work to advance her own c a r e e r . I t was t h e r e f o r e hypothesized that a working wife who i s upwardly s t r i v i n g would be l e s s w i l l i n g to accept any move suggested by her husband's company because i t would j e o p a r d i z e her own chances for advancement. (4) A u t h o r i t a r i a n P e r s o n a l i t y Adorno et a l . (1950) d e s c r i b e an a u t h o r i t a r i a n person as having s t r o n g needs not o n l y of domination, but a l s o of submission, and thus having great r e s p e c t for a u t h o r i t y . T h i s r e s p e c t for a u t h o r i t y would help an i n d i v i d u a l r e c o n c i l e any moral c o n f l i c t r e s u l t i n g from the i n j u s t i c e t h at companies commit at times (Presthus, 1962). Hence, an i n d i v i d u a l s c o r i n g high on a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m f i n d s i t e a s i e r to l e g i t i m a t e the e x i s t e n c e of a company as a system i n which a u t h o r i t y , s t a t u s , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y are not always e q u a l l y shared. The a u t h o r i t a r i a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s aim i s to achieve the company's goals of growth, p r o f i t , s u r v i v a l and power; and she f e e l s that i f she i s to succeed, she must accept such values with u t t e r commitment. As a r e s u l t of such f e e l i n g s , an i n d i v i d u a l would do as she i s t o l d f o r the sake of the o r g a n i z a t i o n and f o r her own p e r s o n a l success. Thus, when an a u t h o r i t a r i a n working wife i s confronted - 34 -with demands from her company to stay put while her husband is faced with a corporate transfer, she is unlikely to comply with the request of her husband or his company. Therefore, i t was hypothesized that a working wife scoring high on authoritarianism would be less w i l l i n g to move with her husband. C. S p e c i f i c Hypotheses for the Non-Working Group There are no counterparts for the two independent variables "job-involvement" and "company-commitment" in the non-working group, so they have been deleted, leaving a t o t a l of ten hypotheses for the non-working group. Two s p e c i f i c hypotheses for this group w i l l be discussed in the following section; the other eight hypotheses w i l l be covered in the section dealing with hypotheses common to both groups. ( 1 ) Upward S t r i v i n g A non-working wife, who usually sees her husband's career development as being an integral part of her l i f e , w i l l seek a better standard of l i v i n g through a higher l e v e l of job achievement by her husband. I t was therefore hypothesized that those non-working wives who were upwardly s t r i v i n g would be more w i l l i n g to move than those who were not. (2) Authoritarian Personality A non-working wife scoring high on authoritarianism would probably be more amenable to a transfer. She would l i k e l y see her husband as head of the household and thus place his needs above - 35 -hers and be w i l l i n g to do what he wanted. I t was t h e r e f o r e hypothesized that an a u t h o r i t a r i a n non-working wife would be more w i l l i n g to r e l o c a t e i f her husband were to r e c e i v e a t r a n s f e r o p p o r t u n i t y . D. Common Hypotheses fo r Both Groups (1) I n t r o v e r s i o n / E x t r a v e r s i o n H i l g a r d , A t k i n s o n and A t k i n s o n (1971) d e s c r i b e a t y p i c a l s o c i a l i n t r o v e r t as a person who tends to withdraw, e s p e c i a l l y i n times of emotional s t r e s s or c o n f l i c t , an i n c l i n a t i o n toward shyness, and a preference f o r working alone. A t y p i c a l s o c i a l e x t r a v e r t seeks the company of other people, e s p e c i a l l y when under s t r e s s . C h a r a c t e r i z e d as being very s o c i a b l e , easy-going, c o n v e n t i o n a l , w e l l - d r e s s e d and out-going, an e x t r a v e r t p r e f e r s to d e a l with people rather than with t h i n g s . Since the i n t r o v e r t tends to withdraw and p r e f e r s to stay i n i s o l a t i o n when confronted with a s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n (such as a g e o g r a p h i c a l t r a n s f e r ) , the s t r e s s f u l aspects of t r a n s f e r s leave the i n t r o v e r t e d i n d i v i d u a l i n a s t a t e of s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n . As many s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s have po i n t e d out, the p s y c h o l o g i c a l consequences of t u r n i n g away from the b a s i c s o c i a l nature of s o c i e t y can be harmful. The problem becomes p a r t i c u l a r l y severe when the w i f e has to move i n t o a new environment with few or no p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d c o n t a c t s to help ease the s t r a i n s of a s s i m i l a t i o n . Seidenberg (1973) claims that the husband, because of h i s s k i l l and c r e d e n t i a l s , i s o f t e n immediately accepted at - 36 -work, and furthermore he may have a l r e a d y acquired c o n t a c t s t h e r e . Thus, he can become a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the new environment long before h i s wife gets to know her neighbours. One of the mobile women i n V e l s e y ' s study (1972) s t a t e s that "the woman who goes out and does something i s going to ad j u s t b e t t e r than the one who s i t s around and f e e l s s o r r y f o r h e r s e l f . " The s o c i a l e x t r a v e r t w i l l f i n d i t e a s i e r to face the task of b u i l d i n g a new s o c i a l l i f e and a new p e r s o n a l community f o r h e r s e l f without a predetermined r o l e i n the new environment than w i l l the i n t r o v e r t . I t was t h e r e f o r e hypothesized that e x t r a v e r t e d wives would be more w i l l i n g to move than i n t r o v e r t e d wives. (2) Locus of C o n t r o l Some i n d i v i d u a l s tend to a t t r i b u t e events to t h e i r own a c t i o n s , w hile others tend to a t t r i b u t e events to e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s t h a t are beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l . Rotter (1954) proposed a s c a l e f o r measuring t h i s p e r s o n a l i t y dimension. An i n d i v i d u a l ' s s t a n d i n g on the s c a l e r e v e a l s the extent to which he sees events as being c o n t r o l l e d i n t e r n a l l y ( i . e . , by h i m s e l f ) , r a t h e r than e x t e r n a l l y ( i . e . , by other f a c t o r s ) . C o l l i n s (1974) s t a t e s that "the I-E s c a l e measures a response b i a s , s t e r e o t y p e , or i m p l i c i t p e r s o n a l i t y theory; i t r e f l e c t s constant b i a s i n the observer's judgements re g a r d i n g the cause of good and bad th i n g s that happen to him" (p. 381). Thus, an i n d i v i d u a l s c o r i n g " i n t e r n a l " on I-E s c a l e tends to b e l i e v e t h a t events occur as a consequence of h i s - 37 -pe r s o n a l a c t i o n s and are under h i s pe r s o n a l c o n t r o l . Conversely, an i n d i v i d u a l s c o r i n g " e x t e r n a l " tends to b e l i e v e that the occurrence and outcome of events are t o t a l l y u n r e l a t e d to h i s p e r s o n a l a c t i o n s and are beyond h i s p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l . While four s u b - s c a l e s i n the I-E s c a l e measure o v e r a l l p e r c e p t i o n of l o c u s of c o n t r o l , o n l y one of these i s r e l e v a n t to t h i s study, the d i f f i c u l t - e a s y world s c a l e . C o l l i n s (1974) s t a t e s that an i n d i v i d u a l s c o r i n g " e x t e r n a l " on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s u b -s cale would b e l i e v e t h a t "the reinforcement schedule i n h i s world i s complex and d i f f i c u l t — that i s , he l i v e s i n a d i f f i c u l t world" (p. 387). Hence, i f such a wife i s o f f e r e d an o p p o r t u n i t y to move with her husband, she w i l l most l i k e l y see the o p p o r t u n i t y as l e a d i n g to unnecessary d i f f i c u l t i e s which she would rather not c o n f r o n t , so she w i l l show a negative r e a c t i o n when confronted with t r a n s f e r - r e l a t e d d i f f i c u l t i e s . I t was t h e r e f o r e hypothesized that a person s c o r i n g " e x t e r n a l " on the d i f f i c u l t - e a s y dimension would be l e s s w i l l i n g to move than one s c o r i n g " i n t e r n a l . " (3) Length of Settlement I t takes time for most people to develop a sense of belonging to s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and to become known i n a new community. Thus, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g f o r a r e c e n t l y t r a n s f e r r e d w i f e to f i n d t h a t her s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s u p e r f i c i a l and c o n s t r a i n e d . Most non-working women e s t a b l i s h t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s through t h e i r commitment to community a c t i v i t i e s , a c t i v i t i e s which - 38 -demand time and energy that a newly t r a n s f e r r e d spouse must i n i t i a l l y spend on her f a m i l y . T h e r e f o r e , she cannot a f f o r d the involvement necessary to ensure community i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The longer a spouse s t a y s i n one p l a c e , the deeper her f r i e n d s h i p s w i l l become and the more community i d e n t i f i c a t i o n she w i l l have. Consequently, when a woman has e s t a b l i s h e d h e r s e l f i n the community and makes c l o s e f r i e n d s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r her to give t h i s up when her husband's company wants him to move. I t was t h e r e f o r e hypothesized that the longer the f a m i l y has l i v e d i n i t s p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n , the l e s s w i l l i n g the spouse would be to accept a t r a n s f e r . (4) T o t a l Number of T r a n s f e r s Experienced by the Spouse Jones (1973) maintains that there i s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r growth i n the moving experience. Some t r a n s f e r r e d employees* spouses i n t h i s study r e p o r t e d t h a t , as a r e s u l t of ext e n s i v e t r a n s f e r experience, they had become more adept at coping with s t r e s s , had become more f l e x i b l e and adaptable, had broadened t h e i r range of i n t e r e s t s , had developed s k i l l s at meeting people and making f r i e n d s , and had become more understanding and ac c e p t i n g of other people, c u l t u r e s and customs. The d i f f e r e n c e i n the responses of those who were accustomed to moving about and those who were new to i t i s pronounced. A f r e q u e n t l y t r a n s f e r r e d spouse w i l l , because of her experience at a d j u s t i n g to new circumstances, f i t i n t o new surroundings f a s t e r than a spouse who i s l e s s experienced. Consequently, more f r e q u e n t l y - 39 -t r a n s f e r r e d spouses welcome a t r a n s f e r more e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y than l e s s f r e q u e n t l y t r a n s f e r r e d spouses. I t was t h e r e f o r e hypothesized that the more t r a n s f e r s a spouse has experienced, the more w i l l i n g she would be to move again. (5) Spouse's O v e r a l l S a t i s f a c t i o n with the Company's T r a n s f e r  P o l i c y Although an i n c r e a s i n g number of employees are r e j e c t i n g t r a n s f e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s for p e r s o n a l and f a m i l i a l reasons (Pinder and Das, 1979), the economic f a c t o r s of the company's t r a n s f e r p o l i c y remain very important (DiDomenico, 1978b). A recent study of one l a r g e Canadian f i r m showed that there was a great r e l u c t a n c e to move when the t r a n s f e r r e d f a m i l y ( p a r t i c u l a r l y the spouse) was not s a t i s f i e d with the company's expense allowance f o r moving, and when the f a m i l y ' s standard of l i v i n g was lower due to moving to a h i g h e r - c o s t l o c a t i o n , with no immediate or adequate adjustment i n s a l a r y (Business Week, 1976b). While the t r a n s f e r r e d employee i s moving out of h i s o l d o f f i c e and e s t a b l i s h i n g himself i n h i s new working environment, the spouse has to take on the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of s e l l i n g the house, t r a n s p o r t i n g the f a m i l y ' s household goods, and s e l e c t i n g a new house i n the new l o c a t i o n . A l l these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s can be arduous and can a l i e n a t e her from the idea of moving, even though she l i k e d the idea i n i t i a l l y . S t i l l m a n (1979) s t a t e s that many companies have turned to o u t s i d e r e l o c a t i o n s e r v i c e firms f o r - 40 -a s s i s t a n c e w i t h t h e s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n o r d e r t o make t h e t r a n s f e r as q u i c k and e a s y as p o s s i b l e f o r t h e t r a n s f e r r e d s p o u s e . I f t h e s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s s o l v e h e r m o v i n g p r o b l e m s , and i f she i s happy w i t h t h e m o n e t a r y i n d u c e m e n t s o f f e r e d by t h e company i n e x c h a n g e f o r a m o v e , she seems t o be more w i l l i n g t o move . I t was t h e r e f o r e h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e more s a t i s f i e d t h e s p o u s e i s w i t h h e r h u s b a n d ' s c o m p a n y ' s t r a n s f e r p o l i c y , t h e more w i l l i n g she w o u l d be t o a c c e p t a t r a n s f e r . (6) I m p o r t a n c e t o t h e T r a n s f e r r e d E m p l o y e e o f A c c e p t i n g T r a n s f e r s A n e m p l o y e e may a c c e p t a t r a n s f e r f o r a n y o f t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : (a) He w a n t s t o h a v e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x t e n d h i s i n s i g h t i n t o h i s company and t o d e v e l o p h i s s k i l l s t h r o u g h t h e t r a n s f e r s o t h a t he c a n b e t t e r p r e p a r e h i m s e l f f o r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n t r a - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a d v a n c e m e n t . (b) He i s a m b i t i o u s and r e a l i z e s t h a t t r a n s f e r p r o b a b l y w i l l l e a d t o p r o m o t i o n and s t a t u s . (c) He b e l i e v e s t h a t h i s r e f u s a l o f an o f f e r t o t r a n s f e r w o u l d r e s u l t i n a l i m i t a t i o n o f h i s p o t e n t i a l f o r f u r t h e r s u c c e s s i n t h e c o m p a n y . S i n c e a h u s b a n d ' s j o b i s o f t e n t h e m a j o r s o u r c e o f i n c o m e f o r t h e f a m i l y , a s p o u s e may be w i l l i n g t o g i v e up some o f h e r r i g h t s i n o r d e r t o accommodate a t r a n s f e r i f t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e t r a n s f e r i s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e h u s b a n d . I t was t h e r e f o r e - 41 -hypothesized that the more important the t r a n s f e r i s p e r c e i v e d to be by the husband, the more w i l l i n g the spouse would be to go along with her husband's d e c i s i o n to accept the t r a n s f e r . (7) S a t i s f a c t i o n With Present L o c a t i o n Burke (1972) concluded from h i s study about the e f f e c t s of job t r a n s f e r on engineers' wives that the more fa v o u r a b l e the wife's f e e l i n g s were toward the present community, the more unfavourable her r e a c t i o n would be to her husband's announcement that he was being t r a n s f e r r e d . On the other hand, i f the spouse i s l i v i n g i n a town or c i t y which l a c k s f a c i l i t i e s and amenities she d e s i r e s (e.g., r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t o p p o r t u n i t i e s and a s s o c i a t i o n s , the type of s c h o o l i n g she wants for her c h i l d , and the type of s p e c i a l medical care she may r e q u i r e or l i k e ) , she would welcome a move, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the new l o c a t i o n would provide the d e s i r e d a m e n i t i e s . Pinder (1977) found that i n d i v i d u a l s moving to a new l o c a t i o n p e r c e i v e d by them to be more d e s i r a b l e than t h e i r former l o c a t i o n tended to be more s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r t r a n s f e r . I t was t h e r e f o r e hypothesized i n t h i s study that the more d i s s a t i s f i e d a wife i s with her present l o c a t i o n , the more w i l l i n g she would be to accept a t r a n s f e r . (8) School-Aged C h i l d r e n (6-19) O l i v e et a l . (1976) found that school-aged c h i l d r e n are more negative about moving than e i t h e r of t h e i r parents. Seidenberg (1973) e x p l a i n s t h a t , s i n c e most of us i n growing up - 42 -c a n n o t a f f o r d t o l o s e t h e p e e r s u p p o r t s t h a t we h a v e , t h e r e i s l o n e l i n e s s and e v e n d e s p a i r when t h e s e s u p p o r t s a r e t a k e n away a s a r e s u l t o f a g e o g r a p h i c t r a n s f e r . The s i t u a t i o n i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by f a c t o r s o f d a t i n g and m a t i n g , w h i c h become i m p o r t a n t i n t h e t e e n y e a r s . More and more p a r e n t s a r e b e c o m i n g aware o f t h e damage t o c h i l d r e n r e s u l t i n g f r o m a t r a n s f e r ; t h e r e i s i n c r e a s i n g e v i d e n c e t h a t e v e n p a r e n t s who t h e m s e l v e s p u t more e m p h a s i s on t h e c o r p o r a t i o n t h a n on t h e c o m m u n i t y a r e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e e f f e c t s o f f r e q u e n t t r a n s f e r s and moves on t h e i r c h i l d r e n ( S e i d e n b e r g , 1973; B u s i n e s s Week, 1 9 7 6 a ; M a r s h a l l and C o o p e r , 1976; S t u d e n t , 1976; B r e t t , 1 9 8 1 ) . The e f f e c t o f any one c h i l d ' s a t t i t u d e c a n be s t r e s s f u l f o r t h e w h o l e f a m i l y , and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e m o t h e r . I t was t h e r e f o r e h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t i f t h e s p o u s e had s c h o o l - a g e d c h i l d r e n , s h e w o u l d be l e s s w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t a t r a n s f e r . E. Summary o f H y p o t h e s e s t o be t e s t e d W o r k i n g S t a t u s - A w o r k i n g w i f e w o u l d be l e s s w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t h e r h u s b a n d ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l demand t o t r a n s f e r t h a n a n o n - w o r k i n g w i f e . S p e c i f i c H y p o t h e s e s f o r t h e W o r k i n g S p o u s e G r o u p J o b I n v o l v e m e n t - A more j o b - i n v o l v e d w o r k i n g w i f e w o u l d be l e s s w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t h e r h u s b a n d ' s t r a n s f e r t h a n a w o r k i n g w i f e who - 4 3 -i s l e s s j o b - i n v o l v e d . Company Commitment - A working wife who i s more committed to her company would be l e s s w i l l i n g to accept a t r a n s f e r o p p o r t u n i t y o f f e r e d by her husband's company than would a working wife who i s l e s s company committed. Upward S t r i v i n g - A working wife who i s more upwardly s t r i v i n g would be l e s s w i l l i n g to accept any move suggested by her husband's company than would a working wife who i s l e s s upwardly s t r i v i n g . A u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m — A working wife who scores high on a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m would be l e s s w i l l i n g to move with her husband than a working wife who i s low on a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m . S p e c i f i c Hypotheses for the Non-Working Spouse Group Upward S t r i v i n g - Those non-working wives who are more upwardly s t r i v i n g would be more w i l l i n g to move than those wives who are l e s s upwardly s t r i v i n g . A u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m - An a u t h o r i t a r i a n wife would be more w i l l i n g to accept her husband's o r g a n i z a t i o n a l demand for t r a n s f e r than a woman who i s l e s s a u t h o r i t a r i a n . - 44 -Common Hypotheses f o r Both Groups (. I n t r o v e r s i o n / E x t r a v e r s i o n - E x t r a v e r t e d wives would be more w i l l i n g to move than i n t r o v e r t e d wives. Locus of C o n t r o l - Wives s c o r i n g " e x t e r n a l " on the d i f f i c u l t - e a s y dimension would be l e s s w i l l i n g to move than wives s c o r i n g " i n t e r n a l . " Length of Settlement - The longer the wife has stayed i n one p l a c e , the more u n w i l l i n g she would be to accept a t r a n s f e r . T o t a l Number of T r a n s f e r s Experienced by the Spouse - The more t r a n s f e r s the wife has experienced, the more w i l l i n g she would be to move. Spouse's O v e r a l l S a t i s f a c t i o n with Her Husband's Company's  T r a n s f e r P o l i c y - The more s a t i s f i e d a wife i s with her husband's company's t r a n s f e r p o l i c y , the more w i l l i n g she would be to accept a t r a n s f e r . Importance to the T r a n s f e r r e d Employee of A c c e p t i n g the T r a n s f e r -The more important the t r a n s f e r i s p e r c e i v e d to be by her husband, the more w i l l i n g the wif e would be to go along with the husband's d e c i s i o n to accept the t r a n s f e r . - 45 -S p o u s e ' s S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h Her P r e s e n t L o c a t i o n - The more s a t i s f i e d t h e w i f e i s w i t h h e r p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n , t h e more u n w i l l i n g she w o u l d be t o a c c e p t a t r a n s f e r . S c h o o l - A g e d C h i l d r e n (6-19) - A w i f e w i t h s c h o o l - a g e d c h i l d r e n w o u l d be l e s s w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t a t r a n s f e r t h a n a w i f e w i t h o u t s c h o o l - a g e d c h i l d r e n . M e t h o d o l o g y S u b j e c t s A t o t a l s a m p l e o f 750 i n d i v i d u a l s was r a n d o m l y drawn f r o m a p o p u l a t i o n o f e m p l o y e e s ( m o s t l y m a n a g e r s ) who had been t r a n s f e r r e d a t l e a s t o n c e by t h e i r p r e s e n t e m p l o y e r s . The s u b j e c t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y were t h e s p o u s e s ( m o s t l y w i v e s , s e e f o o t n o t e , p. 13) o f t h e s e e m p l o y e e s who w o r k e d f o r s i x l a r g e C a n a d i a n c o m p a n i e s i n i n d u s t r i e s where p e r s o n n e l t r a n s f e r s a r e common ( t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , p e t r o l e u m and r e t a i l s a l e s ) . T h e s e s p o u s e s had been moved t o and f r o m many d i f f e r e n t c i t i e s and t o w n s , a s w e l l a s i n t o and o u t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . Two s e p a r a t e s u r v e y s o f t h r e e c o m p a n i e s e a c h were c o n d u c t e d . The f i r s t s u r v e y c o n s i s t e d o f 295 m a i l i n g s ; t h e s e c o n d s u r v e y , 455 m a i l i n g s . M i n o r a d d i t i o n s were made t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a f t e r t h e f i r s t s a m p l e o f t h r e e c o m p a n i e s was s u r v e y e d i n 1975 and b e f o r e t h e s e c o n d s u r v e y o f t h r e e c o m p a n i e s i n 1 9 7 6 . The d a t a f r o m t h e f i r s t s u r v e y were u s e d f o r - 46 -s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s ; the data from the second survey were used merely f o r c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n . One hundred and n i n e t y - s i x usable s e t s of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , or 66 percent of the f i r s t sample, and 209 usable sets of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , or 46 percent of the second sample, were returned by the t r a n s f e r r e d employees. T h e r e f o r e , the 405 responses represent a 54 percent o v e r a l l response r a t e . E i g h t y - f o u r percent of the respondents i n the f i r s t survey had spouses who returned usable q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (n = 164), and c o i n c i d e n t a l l y 84 percent of the respondents i n the second survey had spouses who returned usable q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (n = 176). The mean age of the responding spouses was 36.1 years (S.D. = 8.76 years) i n the f i r s t survey and 41.0 years (S.D. = 9.4 years) i n the second survey. Mater i a l s The survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e s designed to gather the data were developed a f t e r Dr. Pinder had conducted extensive i n t e r v i e w s with s e v e r a l personnel managers who had a great d e a l of experience i n d e a l i n g with t r a n s f e r s as w e l l as with a c t u a l former t r a n s f e r e e s . In a d d i t i o n , the content of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was i n f l u e n c e d by e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h of P a h l and Pahl (1971), Burke (1972; 1974) and Glueck (1974). Two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were developed: one was s p e c i f i c a l l y designed for the t r a n s f e r r e d employee (see Appendix A), while the other was developed f o r the employee's spouse (see Appendix B). The second v e r s i o n s of these two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , used i n the second survey, - 47 -c a n be f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x C and A p p e n d i x D, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The i t e m s i n c l u d e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r t h e s p o u s e s were b a s e d l a r g e l y on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n e d f o r t h e t r a n s f e r r e d e m p l o y e e s ; some s c a l e s f o u n d i n t h e t r a n s f e r r e d e m p l o y e e s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were n o t a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e s p o u s e s , and were t h u s e l i m i n a t e d f r o m t h e s p o u s e s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s W o r k i n g S t a t u s - The w o r k i n g s t a t u s o f t h e s p o u s e was m e a s u r e d by r e s p o n s e s t o a s i n g l e q u e s t i o n : " S i n c e y o u r t r a n s f e r , h a v e y o u b een e a r n i n g any i n c o m e ? " A "Yes/No" r e s p o n s e f o r m a t was p r o v i d e d . J o b I n v o l v e m e n t - L o d a h l and K e j n e r (1965) d e v e l o p e d a L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e t o m e a s u r e t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i m e n s i o n o f j o b i n v o l v e m e n t . Over 100 s t a t e m e n t s r e l a t i n g t o j o b i n v o l v e m e n t were i n i t i a l l y d e v e l o p e d b a s e d on i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m i n t e r v i e w s , p r e v i o u s q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , and a s s o c i a t e s i n t h e f i e l d . A f t e r c a r r y i n g o u t i t e m a n a l y s i s , L o d a h l and K e j n e r r e d u c e d t h e t o t a l s e t o f i t e m s t o 20. S u b s e q u e n t l y , W e i s s e n b e r g and G r u e n f e l d (1968) d e v e l o p e d a s h o r t e r v e r s i o n o f t h e s c a l e . T h e r e a r e now o n l y s i x i t e m s i n t h e s h o r t e n e d s c a l e , w h i c h a p p e a r s i n F i g u r e 2. The r e s p o n s e c h o i c e s r a n g e f r o m 7 ( S t r o n g l y A g r e e ) t h r o u g h t o 1 ( S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e ) . I t e m 80 i s s c a l e d i n r e v e r s e o r d e r . The - 48 -S t r o n g l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 75. The major s a t i s f a c t i o n i n my l i f e comes from my job. 76. The most important t h i n g s t h a t happen to me i n v o l v e my job. 77. I l i v e , eat, and breathe my job. 78. I am very much i n v o l v e d p e r s o n a l l y i n my work. 79. I'm r e a l l y a p e r f e c t i o n i s t about my job. 80. Most t h i n g s i n l i f e are more important than work. F i g u r e 2: Item Content of Lodahl's and Kejner*s Job-Involvement S c a l e - 49 -t o t a l s c o r e , which i s the sum of the responses to the s i x s c a l e items, i n d i c a t e s the degree of job involvement. P o s s i b l e scores on t h i s s c a l e range from a minimum of 6 to a maximum of 42 p o i n t s . Company Commitment - To measure company commitment, Baba and Jamal (1976) compiled a s c a l e , a l s o presented i n a L i k e r t - t y p e format, which c o n s i s t s of only four items. These are found i n F i g u r e 3. They developed Items 91 and 93 through t h e i r own r e s e a r c h , but drew Items 90 and 92 from P o r t e r ' s O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Commitment S c a l e (1971), and subsequently modified them to the present form. Each item i s s t a t e d i n such a way that a response i n d i c a t i n g strong agreement with the s t a t e d item a f f i r m s a f e e l i n g of company commitment. The c h o i c e s of response can be from 7 (Strongly Agree) through to 1 ( S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e ) . A high t o t a l score, being the sum of the responses to the four s c a l e items, i n d i c a t e s a high degree of company commitment. The range of the scores i s from a minimum of 4 to a maximum of 28 p o i n t s . Upward S t r i v i n g was measured by a sub-scale of the Survey of Work Values (SWV), which measures the extent of one's a s p i r a t i o n to move upward i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n (Wollack et a l . , 1971). A t o t a l of 91 statements, r e p r e s e n t i n g each s u b - s c a l e , were formulated on the b a s i s of a review of the l i t e r a t u r e and suggestions from f a c u l t y and graduate students, a l l of whom had i n d u s t r i a l e xperience. Item analyses were c a r r i e d out, r e s u l t i n g i n s i x s u b - s c a l e s , each c o n t a i n i n g nine items. The method of - 5 0 -S t r o n g l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 90. I don't mind p u t t i n g i n ex t r a time i f the company needs me to do. 91. I am w i l l i n g to work ex t r a hard at my job i n order to h e l p t h i s company be s u c c e s s f u l . 92. I r e a l l y care about the f a t e of the company. 93. I t bothers me very much to be absent from work. F i g u r e 3: Item Content of Baba's and Jamal's Company Commitment S c a l e - 51 -r e a l l o c a t i o n was used to demonstrate that the s i x work values were d i s c e r n a b l y d i f f e r e n t from one another and that the items of the "Upward S t r i v i n g " s u b - s c a l e measured the p s y c h o l o g i c a l dimension that i t was intended to measure. The "Upward M o b i l i t y " sub-scale of the SWV was used i n i t s e n t i r e t y i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r c o l l e c t i n g data f o r t h i s study. The s u b - s c a l e , c o n s i s t i n g of nine items, which a l s o appears i n a L i k e r t - t y p e format, i s shown i n F i g u r e 4. The response choice ranges from 7 (S t r o n g l y Agree) through to 1 (St r o n g l y D i s a g r e e ) . The t o t a l score f o r upward s t r i v i n g i s the sum of responses to each of the nine items. The range of the p o s s i b l e scores i s from a minimum of 9 to a maximum of 63. A u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m - Adorno et a l . (1950) developed the C a l i f o r n i a F (Fascism) S c a l e , to measure the p s y c h o l o g i c a l dimension c a l l e d " A u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m " . Since the o r i g i n a l F s c a l e c o n s i s t e d of items tapping e t h n i c p r e j u d i c e , such items were e l i m i n a t e d from the s c a l e employed i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r the purpose of t h i s study. Thus, there are now twelve p a i r e d statements which are dichotomous i n nature i n the shortened s c a l e , shown i n F i g u r e 5. These statements are l a b e l l e d "A" or "B" for each of the 12 numbered items. The s e l e c t i o n of statement "A" f o r items 120, 121, 122, 123, 125 and 128 shows the s u b j e c t ' s agreement with a statement d e s c r i b i n g the a u t h o r i t a r i a n t r a i t and are each assigned one p o i n t . L i k e w i s e , the s e l e c t i o n of statement "B" for the remaining items a l s o d e p i c t s the s u b j e c t ' s endorsement of a - 52 -S t r o n g l y Agree S t r o n g l y Disagree 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 81. Even i f a man has a good jo b , he should always be l o o k i n g f o r a b e t t e r j o b . 82. In choosing a job, a man ought to co n s i d e r h i s chances f o r advancement • as w e l l as other f a c t o r s . 83. A man should always be t h i n k i n g about p u l l i n g h imself up i n the world and should work hard with the hope of being promoted to a h i g h e r - l e v e l j o b . 84. I f a man l i k e s h i s job, he should be s a t i s f i e d with i t and should not push for promotion to another j o b . 85. The t r o u b l e with too many people i s that when they f i n d a job i n which they are i n t e r e s t e d , they don't t r y to get a b e t t e r j o b . 86. A worker who turns down a promotion i s probably making a mistake. 87. A promotion to a higher-l e v e l job u s u a l l y means more wo r r i e s and should be avoided f o r t h a t reason. 88. A w e l l paying job that o f f e r s l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r advancement i s not a good job f o r me. 89. A worker i s b e t t e r o f f i f he i s s a t i s f i e d with h i s job and i s not concerned about being promoted to another j o b . F i g u r e 4: Item Content of Upward M o b i l i t y Sub-Scale of the SWV - s a -i l ? . A. I t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h at a s t r o l o g y w i l l ever be able to e x p l a i n anything. B. Someday i t w i l l probably be shown that a s t r o l o g y can e x p l a i n a l o t of t h i n g s . 118. A. I f i t weren't fo r the r e b e l l i o u s ideas of youth there would be l e s s progress i n the world. B. Young people sometimes get r e b e l l i o u s ideas, but as they grow up they ought to get over them and s e t t l e down. 119. A. I t would be a good t h i n g i f people spent more time t a l k i n g about ideas j u s t f o r the fun of i t . B. I f people would t a l k l e s s and work more, everybody would be b e t t e r o f f . 120. A. What a youth needs most i s s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e , rugged d e t e r m i n a t i o n , and the w i l l to work and f i g h t f o r f a m i l y and country. B. In the long run i t i s b e t t e r f o r our country i f young people are allowed a great d e a l of p e r s o n a l freedom and are not s t r i c t l y d i s c i p l i n e d . 121. A. Nowadays more and more people are p r y i n g i n t o matters that should remain p e r s o n a l and p r i v a t e . B. There are times when i t i s necessary to probe i n t o even the most p e r s o n a l and p r i v a t e matters. 122. A. The businessmen and the manufacturer are much more important to s o c i e t y than the a r t i s t and the p r o f e s s o r . B. The a r t i s t and the p r o f e s s o r are probably more important to s o c i e t y than the businessman. 123. A. Obedience and r e s p e c t f o r a u t h o r i t y are the most important v i r t u e s c h i l d r e n should l e a r n . B. One of the most important t h i n g s c h i l d r e n should l e a r n i s when to disobey a u t h o r i t i e s . F i g u r e 5: Item Content of the C a l i f o r n i a F S c a l e - 54 -124. A. M o s t h o n e s t p e o p l e a d m i t t o t h e m s e l v e s t h a t t h e y h a v e s o m e t i m e s h a t e d t h e i r p a r e n t s . B. T h e r e i s h a r d l y a n y t h i n g l o w e r t h a n a p e r s o n who d o e s n o t f e e l g r e a t l o v e , g r a t i t u d e and r e s p e c t f o r h i s p a r e n t s . 125. A. The w i l d s e x l i f e o f t h e o l d G r e e k s and Romans was tame com p a r e d t o some o f t h e g o i n g s - o n i n t h i s c o u n t r y e v e n i n p l a c e s where p e o p l e m i g h t l e a s t e x p e c t i t . B. I n s p i t e o f what y o u r e a d a b o u t t h e w i l d s e x l i f e o f p e o p l e i n i m p o r t a n t p l a c e s , t h e r e a l s t o r y i s a b o u t t h e same i n any g r o u p o f p e o p l e . 126. A. I t ' s n o b o d y ' s b u s i n e s s i f someone i s a h o m o s e x u a l as l o n g as he d o e s n ' t harm o t h e r p e o p l e . B. H o m o s e x u a l s a r e h a r d l y b e t t e r t h a n c r i m i n a l s and o u g h t t o be s e v e r e l y p u n i s h e d . 127. A. When a p e r s o n h a s a p r o b l e m o r w o r r y , i t i s b e s t t o f a c e i t and t r y t o t h i n k i t t h r o u g h , e v e n i f i t i s s o u p s e t t i n g t h a t i t k e e p s h i m f r o m c o n c e n t r a t i n g on o t h e r t h i n g s . B. When a p e r s o n h a s a p r o b l e m o r w o r r y , i t i s b e s t f o r him n o t t o t h i n k a b o u t i t , b u t t o k e e p b u s y w i t h more c h e e r f u l t h i n g s . 128. A. E v e r y p e r s o n s h o u l d have c o m p l e t e f a i t h i n some s u p e r n a t u r a l power whose d e c i s i o n s he o b e y s w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n . B. I t ' s a l l r i g h t f o r p e o p l e t o r a i s e q u e s t i o n s a b o u t e v e n t h e most s a c r e d m a t t e r . F i g u r e 5: C o n t i n u e d - 55 -s t a t e m e n t i n d i c a t i n g a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , and e a c h one i s a s s i g n e d one p o i n t . The t o t a l s c o r e f o r t h e C a l i f o r n i a F S c a l e i s t h e sum o f t h e p o i n t s o b t a i n e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l . The s c o r e may r a n g e f r o m a minimum o f 0 t o a maximum o f 12. S o c i a l E x t r a v e r s i o n - I n t r o v e r s i o n - T h e r e h a v e been numerous m e a s u r e s ( i . e . , s u b - s c a l e s ) o f E y s e n c k ' s (1959) M a u d s l e y P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y , G u i l f o r d ' s and Zimmerman's Temperament S u r v e y , and D r a k e ' s (1946) M i n n e s o t a M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y c l a i m i n g t o m e a s u r e t h e c o n s t r u c t " S o c i a l E x t r a v e r s i o n - I n t r o v e r s i o n . " H o w e v e r , B e n d i g (1962) a r g u e d t h a t no r e l i a b l e and f a c t o r i a l l y v a l i d s c a l e m e a s u r i n g t h e s o c i a l e x t r a v e r s i o n - i n t r o v e r s i o n f a c t o r had been d e v e l o p e d . A f t e r p e r f o r m i n g a n a l y s i s on t h e e a r l i e r I n v e n t o r i e s , B e n d i g c o m p i l e d an i n v e n t o r y composed o f i t e m s f o u n d i n p r e - e x i s t i n g s c a l e s m e a s u r i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t and d e v e l o p e d t h e 3 0 - i t e m s o c i a l e x t r a v e r s i o n - i n t r o v e r s i o n s c a l e known as t h e P i t t s b u r g h S c a l e o f S o c i a l E x t r a v e r s i o n - I n t r o v e r s i o n . B e n d i g (1962) m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e P i t t s b u r g h s c a l e o f S o c i a l E x t r a v e r s i o n - I n t r o v e r s i o n was an a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e a more r i g o r o u s m e a sure o f t h e b r o a d s e c o n d - o r d e r p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r o f s o c i a l e x t r a v e r s i o n -i n t r o v e r s i o n ( S E I ) . The s c a l e o f S E I c o n s i s t s o f 15 i t e m s f r o m E y s e n c k ' s MPI I s c a l e , t e n i t e m s f r o m t h e MMPI's s o c i a l e x t r a v e r s i o n - i n t r o v e r s i o n s c a l e , and f i v e i t e m s f r o m G u i l f o r d and Zimmerman's GZTS. The P i t t s b u r g h S c a l e o f S E I h a s been u s e d i n i t s e n t i r e t y i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u s e d f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a f o r t h i s s t u d y , and i s shown i n F i g u r e 6. - 56 -129 I am happiest when I get i n v o l v e d i n some p r o j e c t that c a l l s f o r r a p i d a c t i o n . 130. I u s u a l l y take the i n i t i a t i v e i n making new f r i e n d s . 131. I would r a t e myself as a l i v e l y i n d i v i d u a l . 132. I would be very unhappy i f I were prevented from making numerous s o c i a l c o n t a c t s . 133. I am i n c l i n e d to keep i n the background on s o c i a l o c c a s i o n s . 134. I l i k e to mix s o c i a l l y with people. 135. I am i n c l i n e d to l i m i t my acquaintances to a s e l e c t few. 136. I l i k e to have many s o c i a l engagements. 137. I g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r to take the le a d i n group a c t i v i t i e s . 138. I would r a t e myself as a happy-go-lucky i n d i v i d u a l . 139. I am i n c l i n e d to keep q u i e t when out i n a s o c i a l group. 140. I can u s u a l l y l e t myself go and have a h i l a r i o u s l y good time at a p a r t y . 141. Other people regard me as a l i v e l y i n d i v i d u a l . 142. I would r a t e myself as a t a l k a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l . 143. I am a good mixer. F i g u r e 6: Item Content of the P i t t s b u r g h S c a l e of S o c i a l E x t r a v e r s i o n - I n t r o v e r s i o n - 57 -144. I l i k e to go to p a r t i e s and other a f f a i r s where there i s l o t s of loud fun. 145. I l i k e to f l i r t . 146. I should l i k e to belong to s e v e r a l c l u b s or lodges. 147. At p a r t i e s I am more l i k e l y to s i t by myself or with j u s t one other person than to j o i n i n with the crowd. 148. I love to go to dances. 149. I enjoy s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s j u s t to be with people. 150. I enjoy the excitement of a crowd. 151. My worries seem to disappear when I get i n t o a crowd of l i v e l y f r i e n d s . 152. I l i k e p a r t i e s and s o c i a l s . 153. I am a c a r e f r e e i n d i v i d u a l . 154. I make d e c i s i o n s on the spur of the moment. 155. I l i k e w i l d enthusiasm, sometimes to a p o i n t b o r d e r i n g on rowdyism, at a f o o t b a l l or b a s e b a l l game. 156. I g e n e r a l l y f e e l as though I haven't a care i n the world. 157. I u s u a l l y say what I f e e l l i k e saying at the moment. 158. I n e a r l y always have a "ready answer" for remarks d i r e c t e d at me. F i g u r e 6: Continued - 58 -The s u b j e c t must i n d i c a t e f o r each of the 30 items whether he b e l i e v e s i t i s a true or f a l s e statement. One p o i n t i s given f o r each "True" response for a l l items except 133, 135, 139 and 147. For these items, one p o i n t i s given for each " F a l s e " response. The range of the t o t a l score on the s c a l e i s from a minimum of 0 to a maximum of 30, with a low score denoting i n t r o v e r s i o n and a high score denoting e x t r a v e r s i o n . I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l - There have been a number of s c a l e s developed by Rotter to tap the l o c u s of c o n t r o l p e r s o n a l i t y dimension. R o t t e r ' s (1966) I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l (I-E) f o r c e d - c h o i c e s c a l e i s employed most f r e q u e n t l y by r e s e a r c h e r s . A f t e r an a n a l y s i s of R o t t e r ' s I-E s c a l e , C o l l i n s (1974) i d e n t i f i e d four d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e and r e l a t i v e l y orthogonal s u b - s c a l e s : (1) the d i f f i c u l t - e a s y world; (2) the j u s t - u n j u s t world; (3) the p r e d i c t a b l e - u n p r e d i c t a b l e world; and (4) the p o l i t i c a l l y r esponsive-unresponsive world. Only the f i r s t s u b - s c a l e was employed i n t h i s study; the other three s u b - s c a l e s were expected to be i r r e l e v a n t . T h e r e f o r e , the form of R o t t e r ' s I-E Locus of C o n t r o l S c a l e used i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n c l u d e s o n l y the D i f f i c u l t / E a s y Sub-scale c o n s i s t i n g of e i g h t L i k e r t - t y p e items, as shown i n F i g u r e 7. A l l items are p o s i t i v e l y s t a t e d , and response c h o i c e s range from 5 ( S t r o n g l y Agree) to 1 ( S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e ) . A high t o t a l s c o r e , being the sum of the responses to the e i g h t items, i n d i c a t e s an e x t e r n a l score on t h i s dimension of the S t r o n g l y U n - S t r o n g l y A g r e e A g r e e D e c i d e d D i s a g r e e D i s a g r e e 5 4 3 2 1 9 4 . I h a v e o f t e n f o u n d t h a t w h a t i s g o i n g t o h a p p e n w i l l h a p p e n . 9 5 . W i t h o u t t h e r i g h t b r e a k s o n e c a n n o t b e a n e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r . 9 6 . M a n y t i m e s I f e e l t h a t I h a v e l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e t h i n g s t h a t h a p p e n t o me. 9 7 . Who g e t s t o b e t h e b o s s o f t e n d e p e n d s o n who was l u c k y e n o u g h t o b e i n t h e r i g h t p l a c e f i r s t . 9 8 . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s w o r t h o f t e n p a s s e s u n - r e c o g n i z e d no m a t t e r how h a r d h e t r i e s . 9 9 . S o m e t i m e s I f e e l t h a t I d o n ' t h a v e e n o u g h c o n t r o l o v e r t h e d i r e c t i o n my l i f e i s t a k i n g . 1 0 0 . G e t t i n g a g o o d j o b d e p e n d s m a i n l y o n b e i n g i n t h e r i g h t p l a c e a t t h e r i g h t t i m e . 1 0 1 . M o s t p e o p l e d o n ' t r e a l i z e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e i r l i v e s a r e c o n t r o l l e d b y a c c i d e n t a l h a p p e n i n g s . F i g u r e 7: I t e m C o n t e n t o f R o t t e r ' s I - E L o c u s o f C o n t r o l D i f f i c u l t / E a s y S u b - S c a l e . - 60 -I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l t r a i t . The sub-scale score may range from a minimum of 8 to a maximum of 40. Length of Settlement - The l e n g t h of the spouse's settlement i n her present l o c a t i o n was measured by a quest i o n which read, "How many months has i t been s i n c e you a c t u a l l y moved because of your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? " T o t a l Number of T r a n s f e r s Experienced by the Spouse - T h i s was computed as the sum of the number of t r a n s f e r s the spouse had experienced s i n c e she was a c h i l d . T h i s was measured by responses to two q u e s t i o n s : "How many times have you been t r a n s f e r r e d by your spouse's company or by your own company?" and "When you were a c h i l d , how o f t e n d i d you move with your f a m i l y from one home to another? (This i n c l u d e s moves w i t h i n and between c i t i e s . ) Estimate the number of moves your f a m i l y made (while you l i v e d with them) as a c c u r a t e l y as you can." Spouse's O v e r a l l S a t i s f a c t i o n with a Company's T r a n s f e r P o l i c y -Pinder (1978) i d e n t i f i e d f o u r t e e n a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i s i o n s made by companies to o f f s e t the inconvenience of t r a n s f e r . The l i s t i s by no means exhaustive of the usual a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i s i o n s f o r t r a n s f e r s , but i t i s adequate f o r measuring a spouse's s a t i s f a c t i o n with the t r a n s f e r p o l i c y of her husband's company. They are l i s t e d i n F i g u r e 8. The spouse's o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n V e r y Somewhat Un- V e r y S a t i s f i e d S a t i s f i e d U n d e c i d e d S a t i s f i e d U n s a t i s f i 58. T r a v e l a l l o w a n c e s t o l o o k f o r new home 59. T e m p o r a r y l i v i n g e x p e n s e s a t new l o c a t i o n 60. T r a v e l a l l o w a n c e s t o o l d l o c a t i o n a f t e r move 61. A l l o w a n c e s t o move f a m i l y / h o u s e h o l d g o o d s 62. A s s i s t a n c e i n f i n d i n g new home 63. A s s i s t a n c e i n s e l l i n g o l d home 64. Time o f f t o move 65. P u r c h a s e agreement i f c a n ' t s e l l o l d home 66. F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n b u y i n g new home 67. Payment o f c l o s i n g c o s t s on new home 68. Payment o f d e c o r a t i n g c o s t s i n new home 69. The r a i s e s g i v e n a t t i m e o f t r a n s f e r 70. Payment o f d i f f e r e n c e i n m o r t g a g e r a t e s 7 1 . T ime t o p r e p a r e f o r t h e move " F i g u r e 8: I t e m C o n t e n t o f P i n d e r ' s A s s i s t a n c e P r o v i s i o n s S c a l e - 62 -with the company's t r a n s f e r p o l i c y was measured on a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e ranging from 5 (Very S a t i s f i e d ) to 1 (Very U n s a t i s f i e d ) . Importance to the T r a n s f e r r e d Employee of A c c e p t i n g the T r a n s f e r -T h i s was measured by asking the t r a n s f e r r e d employee to i n d i c a t e on a seven-point s c a l e ranging from 7 (Extremely Important) to 1 (Not Important at A l l ) h i s answer to the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : "In your o p i n i o n , how important i s a c c e p t i n g a t r a n s f e r as a means of moving upward i n your company?" Spouse's S a t i s f a c t i o n with Her Present L o c a t i o n - This c o n s t r u c t was measured by asking the spouse to i n d i c a t e on a s c a l e ranging from 7 (Extremely S a t i s f i e d ) to 1 (Extremely U n s a t i s f i e d ) her answer to the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : "In g e n e r a l , how s a t i s i f e d are you ( p e r s o n a l l y ) with your new l o c a t i o n ? " School-Aged C h i l d r e n (6-19) - T h i s was measured by responses to two qu e s t i o n s : "How many c h i l d r e n d i d you have at the time of your l a s t t r a n s f e r ? " and " L i s t the ages of your c h i l d r e n at the time of your l a s t move ( i n y e a r s ) ? " I f there i s one or more c h i l d r e n whose age i s between s i x and nineteen, t h i s v a r i a b l e was coded 1; otherwise, i t was coded 0. The Dependent V a r i a b l e : W i l l i n g n e s s of the T r a n s f e r r e d Employee's Spouse to Move Again - T h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l dimension was assessed by the spouse's responses to the f o l l o w i n g two i t e m s : "How happy w o u l d y o u be i f y o u r s p o u s e were t r a n s f e r r e d a g a i n by h i s ( o r h e r ) company?" and "What w o u l d y o u s a y a r e t h e c h a n c e s i n t e n (10) t h a t y o u w o u l d want y o u r s p o u s e t o l e a v e t h e company r a t h e r t h a n t r a n s f e r a g a i n ? " T e n - p o i n t r e s p o n s e f o r m a t s were o f f e r e d f o r e a c h o f t h e s e two i t e m s , r a n g i n g f r o m " E x t r e m e l y Happy" t o " E x t r e m e l y Unhappy" ( f o r t h e f i r s t i t e m ) and " 1 " t o "10" ( f o r t h e s e c o n d i t e m ) . The two i t e m s were s c a l e d i n o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s and were i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d ( r = - . 3 3 , n = 154, p < . 0 0 1 ) . S c o r e s on t h e s e two i t e m s were a g g r e g a t e d t o y i e l d a s i n g l e i n d e x . P r o c e d u r e s A l t o g e t h e r , f o u r s e p a r a t e m a i l i n g s were made t o e a c h r e s p o n d e n t a t h e r home a d d r e s s . The f i r s t m a i l i n g c o n t a i n e d a p r e l i m i n a r y l e t t e r f r o m D r . P i n d e r ( s e e A p p e n d i x E . l ) and a l e t t e r f r o m a s e n i o r p e r s o n n e l e x e c u t i v e f r o m h e r h u s b a n d ' s company ( s e e A p p e n d i x E.2) and was made a p p r o x i m a t e l y one week b e f o r e t h e m a i l i n g o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The p u r p o s e s o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s l e t t e r w e r e : (1) t o a c q u a i n t t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h t h e p r o j e c t and w i t h t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y ; (2) t o e x p l a i n t h e p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s t h e r e s e a r c h w o u l d have and t h e b e n e f i t s p o t e n t i a l l y g a i n e d by t h e company and by i n d u s t r y i n g e n e r a l ; (3) t o s t r e s s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n was v o l u n t a r y i n n a t u r e ; and (4) t o e m p h a s i z e t h a t a l l d a t a w o u l d be anonymous and u s e d i n a c o n f i d e n t i a l manner. The p u r p o s e o f t h e p e r s o n n e l e x e c u t i v e ' s l e t t e r was t o i n f o r m t h e s u b j e c t s o f t h e company's e n d o r s e m e n t o f t h e p r o j e c t and t o u r g e t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . - 64 -The second m a i l i n g contained a l e t t e r from the researcher (see Appendix E.3), which reviewed b r i e f l y the purpose of the study and requested the t r a n s f e r r e d employee and spouse to complete t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s independently; the two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ; and a stamped envelope addressed to the re s e a r c h e r . Subsequently, two follow-up l e t t e r s (see Appendix E.4) were sent at i n t e r v a l s of one week to a l l s u b j e c t s . They were reminded not to s i g n t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s so as to a i d i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of frank and r e l i a b l e responses. T - t e s t s were used to t e s t the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e between the mean " w i l l i n g n e s s to move" scores of spouses who were working as opposed to those who were not, and between the groups of spouses with and without school-aged c h i l d r e n . The sample from the f i r s t survey was d i v i d e d by the v a r i a b l e "working s t a t u s " i n t o two groups (working spouse and non-working spouse) i n order to allow f o r step-wise r e g r e s s i o n s on each i n d i v i d u a l group. F i n a l l y , s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s from the f i r s t survey were c r o s s - v a l i d a t e d i n the sample from the second survey. - 65 -CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS Table 1 presents the means and standard d e v i a t i o n s of the dependent v a r i a b l e and each of the independent v a r i a b l e s f o r the t o t a l sample and for both the working and non-working subsamples. In g e n e r a l , the mean scores on a l l v a r i a b l e s responded to by both the working spouses and non-working spouses were s i m i l a r to one another. Table 2 presents Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r these v a r i a b l e s f o r both subsamples. Although l a c k of s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between most of the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s a t t e s t s to t h e i r r e l a t i v e independence, there were high i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between a few of the independent v a r i a b l e s . T able 3 presents alpha c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each of the p e r s o n a l i t y independent v a r i a b l e s c a l e s i n both working and non-working groups. Although the mean score on " w i l l i n g n e s s to move again" was found to be higher among the 81 non-working spouses (M = 14.91; S.D. = 4.01) than among the 53 working spouses (M = 13.42; S.D. = 4.42), t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was not s i g n i f i c a n t by a o n e - t a i l e d t e s t (t = 1.54; N.S.). S i m i l a r l y , the 73 spouses - 66 -TABLE 1 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS FOR MAJOR VARIABLES Sample T o t a l Working Group Non-working Group Mean S. D. Mean S. D. Mean S. D. W i l l i n g n e s s to move again 14 .32 4. 29 13.42 4. 42 14.91 4. 01 Job involvement 20 .99 6. 70 . 20.57 7. 19 -Company commitment 22 .19 4. 46 21.21 5. 12 -Upward s t r i v i n g 39 .27 6. 74 39.08 6. 82 39.40 6. 72 I n t r o v e r s i o n & E x t r a v e r s i o n 14 .77 5. 71 15.28 5. 45 14.43 5. 88 Locus of C o n t r o l 22 .40 5. 01 22.13 5. 77 22.57 4. 47 Author i t a r ianism 4 .31 2. 10 4.06 2. 21 4.48 2. 03 S a t i s f a c t i o n with t r a n s f e r p o l i c y 3 .90 0. 94 3.59 0. 86 4.10 0. 93 Length of settlement 25 .61 15. 91 29.74 15. 98 22.91 15. 36 Pe r c e i v e d b e n e f i t s 6 .09 1. 18 5.96 1. 27 6.19 1. 10 Number of t r a n s f e r exper iences 6 .15 4. 84 5.57 3. 66 6.53 5. 45 S a t i s f a c t i o n with present l o c a t i o n 5 .27 1. 48 5.28 1. 47 5.27 1. 49 School-Aged C h i l d r e n (6-19) 0 .52 0. 50 0.53 0. 50 0.51 0. 50 n 134* 53 81 * Number of o b s e r v a t i o n s f o r v a r i a b l e s i n the complete sample v a r i e s somewhat i n the case of some v a r i a b l e s , due to m i s s i n g v a l u e s . TABLE 2(a) INTERCOPJ^LATIONS AMONG PREDICTOR VARIABLES (WORKING GROUP) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1) Job Involvement 1.0 .38** .01 .10 -.14 .02 -.00 .07 .03 -.06 .01 -.19 2) Company commitment 1.0 .19 -.24* -.20 .11 .11 .05 .08 -.07 -.03 -.07 3) Upward striving 1.0 .04 .09 .02 .13 .02 .04 .08 -.10 -.02 4) Introversion/ Extraversion 1.0 .06 .02 -.28** -.20 .08 .08 .16 -.01 5) Locus of Control 1.0 .16 .07 .19 .05 .14 .20** .10 6) Authoritarianism 1.0 .05 .15 -.24* -.16 -.12 .00 7) Satisfaction with transfer policy 1.0 .03 .11 -.03 .14 .04 8) Length of settlement 1.0 -.29** .07 -.07 .33** 9) Perceived benefits 1.0 .04 .04 -.03 10) Number of transfer experiences 1.0 .16 .30** 11) Satisfaction with present location 1.0 -.19 12) School-Aged Children (6-19) 1.0 * p < .05 ** p < .01 TABLE 2(b) INTERCDRREIATIONS AMONG PREDICTOR VARIABLES (NON-WCStfONG GROUP) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1) Upward striving 1.0 .11 .25** .22** .05 .05 .01 .11 .10 .03 2) Introversion/ Extraversion 1.0 -.05 -.03 -.09 -.06 -.08 .06 .11 -.01 3) Locus of Control 1.0 .13 .09 .13 .07 .15 .22* -.10 4) Author i tar ianism 1.0 .08 -.01 .11 .07 .13 .30** 5 > Satisfaction with transfer policy 1.0 -.12 .28** .15 .21* -.08 6) Length of settlement 1.0 -.06 -.15 .16 .11 7) Perceived benefits 1.0 .03 .09 -.04 8) Number of transfer experiences 1.0 .22* -.01 9) Satisfaction with present location 1.0 -.08 10) School-Aged children 1.0 (6-19) * P < .05 ** p < .01 - 69 -TABLE 3 SCALE R E L I A B I L I T I E S - ALPHA COEFFICIENTS S c a l e A l p h a S c a l e s R e s p o n d e d t o by t h e W o r k i n g S p o u s e s ; J o b I n v o l v e m e n t .82 Company Commitment .87 A u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m .64 E x t r a v e r s i o n / I n t r o v e r s i o n .79 L o c u s o f C o n t r o l - D i f f i c u l t / E a s y S u b - S c a l e .75 Upward S t r i v i n g .47 S c a l e s R e s p o n d e d t o by t h e N o n - W o r k i n g S p o u s e s : A u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m .57 E x t r a v e r s i o n / I n t r o v e r s i o n .84 L o c u s o f C o n t r o l - D i f f i c u l t / E a s y S u b - S c a l e .72 Upward S t r i v i n g .54 - 70 -who d i d not have school-aged c h i l d r e n tended to have a higher mean score on " w i l l i n g n e s s to move again" (M = 14.52; S.D. = 4.07) than the 81 spouses who had school-aged c h i l d r e n (M = 14.06; S.D. = 4.66). However, t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was a l s o i n s i g n i f i c a n t by a o n e - t a i l e d t e s t (t = .65, N.S.). In order to determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the independent v a r i a b l e s and the w i l l i n g n e s s of a spouse to move again, Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed between each independent v a r i a b l e and the dependent v a r i a b l e . These r e s u l t s are shown i n Table 4. Among the working spouses, three v a r i a b l e s — " s a t i s f a c t i o n with present l o c a t i o n " , " l o c u s of c o n t r o l " and "number of t r a n s f e r experiences" — were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to w i l l i n g n e s s to move, whereas f o r the non-working group, two v a r i a b l e s — " l o c u s of c o n t r o l " and " a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m " — were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d . "Locus of C o n t r o l " was the o n l y v a r i a b l e found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with " w i l l i n g n e s s to move again" i n both the working group (r = -.241; p < .05) and the non-working group (r = -.273; p <^  .05). The c o r r e l a t i o n ' s negative s i g n i n d i c a t e s that an i n d i v i d u a l s c o r i n g " i n t e r n a l " on the lo c u s of c o n t r o l dimension would be more w i l l i n g to move than would an i n d i v i d u a l s c o r i n g " e x t e r n a l " on th a t dimension. Thus, the r e l a t i o n s h i p i n both groups suggests t h a t the more i n t e r n a l the wife p r e c e i v e s the l o c u s of c o n t r o l , the more w i l l i n g she would be to move again. A s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between " s a t i s f a c t i o n - 71 -TABLE 4 PEARSON CORRELATIONS BETWEEN THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES AND THE DEPENDENT VARIABLE P r e d i c t o r V a r i a b l e s Dependent V a r i a b l e A. Working Spouses 1. Job Involvement 0 .112 2. Company Commitment 0 .113 3. Upward S t r i v i n g 0 .039 4. I n t r o v e r s i o n / E x t r a v e r s i o n -0 .097 5. Locus of C o n t r o l -0 .241* 6. Author i t a r ianism 0 .003 7. S a t i s f a c t i o n with company t r a n s f e r p o l i c y -0 .149 8. Length of settlement -0 .088 9. Pre c e i v e d b e n e f i t s 0 .177 10. Number of t r a n s f e r experiences 0 .243* 11. S a t i s f a c t i o n with present l o c a t i o n -0 .551** 12. School-Aged C h i l d r e n (6-19) 0 .031 Non--Working Spouses 1. Upward S t r i v i n g 0 .108 2. I n t r o v e r s i o n / E n t r a v e r s i o n 0 .063 3. Locus of C o n t r o l -0 .273* 4. A u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m 0 .169* 5. S a t i s f a c t i o n with company t r a n s f e r p o l i c y 0 .093 6. Length of settlement -0 .098 7. Pr e c e i v e d b e n e f i t s 0 .138 8. Number of t r a n s f e r experiences 0 .109 • 9. S a t i s f a c t i o n with present l o c a t i o n -0 .115 10. School-Aged C h i l d r e n (6-19) 0 .067 * P4..05 ** p <.01 - 72 -w i t h p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n " and " w i l l i n g n e s s t o move a g a i n " (r = - . 5 5 1 ; p <.01) i n t h e w o r k i n g g r o u p . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e f a c i l i t i e s , f r i e n d s , n e i g h b o u r s , r e l a t i v e s , t h e s p o u s e ' s j o b and h e r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h e r p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n i n f l u e n c e h e r w i l l i n g n e s s t o move a g a i n . The c o r r e l a t i o n ' s n e g a t i v e s i g n i n d i c a t e s t h a t a s p o u s e e x h i b i t i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h e r p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n w o u l d be l e s s w i l l i n g t o move t h a n w o u l d a s p o u s e e x h i b i t i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h e r p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n . A n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t , t h o u g h weak, r e l a t i o n s h i p emerged b e t w e e n "number o f t r a n s f e r e x p e r i e n c e s " and " w i l l i n g n e s s t o move a g a i n " (r = .243; p < .05) i n t h e w o r k i n g g r o u p . The c o r r e l a t i o n ' s p o s i t i v e s i g n s u g g e s t s t h a t a w o r k i n g s p o u s e w i t h more t r a n s f e r e x p e r i e n c e s w o u l d be more w i l l i n g t o move t h a n w o u l d a w o r k i n g s p o u s e w i t h l i t t l e o r no t r a n s f e r e x p e r i e n c e . The P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t , t h o u g h weak, r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e n o n - w o r k i n g s p o u s e ' s a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m and h e r w i l l i n g n e s s t o move a g a i n (r = .169, p < . 0 5 ) . The c o r r e l a t i o n ' s p o s i t i v e s i g n s u g g e s t s t h a t a n o n - w o r k i n g s p o u s e e x h i b i t i n g a h i g h d e g r e e o f a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m w o u l d be more w i l l i n g t o move t h a n w o u l d a n o n - w o r k i n g s p o u s e e x h i b i t i n g a l o w d e g r e e o f a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m . T a b l e 5 g i v e s t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d b e t a c o e f f i c i e n t s f r o m t h e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s . The b e t a c o e f f i c i e n t s g i v e t h e amount o f i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e i n t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e p e r u n i t i n c r e a s e i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . T h e s e c o e f f i c i e n t s r e f l e c t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s i n t h e e q u a t i o n h a v e a l l b een c o n t r o l l e d . Of t h e 12 i n d e p e n d e n t T a b l e 5 MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF PREDICTORS OF TRANSFERRED EMPLOYEE'S SPOUSE'S WILLINGNESS TO MOVE P r e d i c t o r V a r i a b l e s W o r k i n g G r o u p (n = 53) N o n - w o r k i n g G r o u p (n = 81) s t a n d a r d i z e d b e t a s t a n d a r d i z e d b e t a S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n -0. 44* -0. 24 L o c u s o f c o n t r o l -0. 22 -0. 3 1 * P e r c e i v e d b e n e f i t s 0. 17 0. 09 Number o f t r a n s f e r e x p e r i e n c e s 0 12 0 .14 I n t r o v e r s i o n & E x t r a v e r s i o n -0. 12 0 06 J o b i n v o l v e m e n t 0 .08 -S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t r a n s f e r p o l i c y -0. 08 0 .14 A u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m 0 .06 0 .27* L e n g t h o f s e t t l e m e n t 0 03 0 .09 Company commitment 0 .006 -Upward s t r i v i n g 0 .005 0 .05 S c h o o l - A g e d C h i l d r e n (6-19) 0 .004 0 .04 M u l t i p l e R ( a d j u s t e d ) 0 .58 0 .45 * p < . 0 1 - 74 -v a r i a b l e s i n t h e w o r k i n g m o d e l , a n a l y z e d u s i n g a s t e p - w i s e m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s , o n l y one — " S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n " — was f o u n d t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r o f w o r k i n g s p o u s e ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o move a g a i n ( y i e l d i n g a b e t a c o e f f i c i e n t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l ) . The P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n " S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n " and t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i n t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e was s i g n i f i c a n t ( r = .25 p < . 0 5 ) , and t h u s showed t h a t t h e r e s u l t c o u l d be c r o s s -v a l i d a t e d . The " l o c u s o f c o n t r o l " was s i g n i f i c a n t i n b o t h g r o u p s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n s r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 4. B u t t h e b e t a c o e f f i c i e n t o f " l o c u s o f c o n t r o l " was f o u n d t o be i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s o f t h e w o r k i n g g r o u p . The b e t a c o e f f i c i e n t o f "number o f t r a n s f e r e x p e r i e n c e s , " w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l l y had a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , was a l s o f o u n d t o be i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s o f t h e w o r k i n g g r o u p . Of t h e 10 i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s o f t h e n o n - w o r k i n g m o d e l , a n a l y z e d u s i n g a s t e p - w i s e m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s , o n l y two were f o u n d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r s o f n o n - w o r k i n g s p o u s e s ' w i l l i n g n e s s t o move ( y i e l d i n g a b e t a c o e f f i c i e n t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l ) . T h e s e two w e r e , i n t h e o r d e r o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e , " l o c u s o f c o n t r o l " and " a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m . " The P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n " l o c u s o f c o n t r o l " and t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i n t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e was s i g n i f i c a n t ( r = . 2 1 , p - < . 0 5 ) , and t h u s showed t h a t t h e r e s u l t s c o u l d be c r o s s - v a l i d a t e d . H o w e v e r , a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m c o u l d n o t be c r o s s - v a l i d a t e d . - 75 -T a b l e s 2 (a) and (b) showed t h a t t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n " l o c u s o f c o n t r o l " and " s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n " w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t i n b o t h t h e w o r k i n g and n o n - w o r k i n g g r o u p s . H o w e v e r , when t h e e f f e c t o f " l o c u s o f c o n t r o l " was a d j u s t e d f o r t h e w o r k i n g g r o u p , t h e p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t b e t w e e n " s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n " and t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e was - . 5 3 ; when t h e e f f e c t o f " s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r e s e n t l o c a t o n " was a d j u s t e d f o r t h e n o n - w o r k i n g g r o u p , t h e p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t b e t w e e n " l o c u s o f c o n t r o l " and t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e was - . 2 5 . T h u s , t h i s p o s t hoc a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s were n o t a f f e c t e d by t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e two v a r i a b l e s " l o c u s o f c o n t r o l " and " s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n . " To s u m m a r i z e , t h e w o r k i n g s p o u s e ' s d e g r e e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h e r p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n a p p e a r s t o be t h e p r i m a r y p r e d i c t o r o f h e r w i l l i n g n e s s t o move a g a i n , w h i l e t h e n o n - w o r k i n g s p o u s e ' s b e l i e f r e g a r d i n g l o c u s o f c o n t r o l seems t o be t h e p r i m a r y p r e d i c t o r o f h e r w i l l i n g n e s s t o move a g a i n . - 76 -Chapter V DISCUSSION In d i f f i c u l t economic times, the f i n a n c i a l and human co s t s a r i s i n g from the c o r p o r a t e t r a n s f e r experience have a bea r i n g not only on an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s a b i l i t y to reap the b e n e f i t s a t t r i b u t e d to r e l o c a t i n g employees, but a l s o on i t s a b i l i t y to s u r v i v e . O r g a n i z a t i o n s need to know t h e i r employees and t h e i r spouses b e t t e r i n order to determine which couples are w i l l i n g to be t r a n s f e r r e d . The present study focuses on understanding f a c t o r s t hat might i n f l u e n c e a spouse's w i l l i n g n e s s to be t r a n s f e r r e d . I t i s assumed that a spouse who i s amenable to a t r a n s f e r w i l l experience a minimal degree of p e r s o n a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and f a m i l i a l d i s r u p t i o n . A. Hypotheses supported by the Data i n the Present Study Only two hypotheses were supported by the data. Given the observed importance of the " l o c u s of c o n t r o l " and " s a t i s f a c t i o n with present l o c a t i o n " as p r e d i c t o r s of t r a n s f e r e e ' s spouse's w i l l i n g n e s s to move, post hoc comparisons on the dependent v a r i a b l e were c a r r i e d out between those working spouses who were s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r present l o c a t i o n and those who were not, and between the " e x t e r n a l " non-working spouses and the " i n t e r n a l " non-working spouses. T - t e s t s were used to make - 77 -t h e s e c o m p a r i s o n s by t e s t i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e mean " w i l l i n g n e s s t o move" s c o r e s o f t h o s e w o r k i n g s p o u s e s who were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n as o p p o s e d t o t h o s e w o r k i n g s p o u s e s who were n o t , and o f t h o s e " e x t e r n a l " n o n - w o r k i n g s p o u s e s as o p p o s e d t o t h o s e " i n t e r n a l " n o n - w o r k i n g s p o u s e s . The m e d i a n s p l i t t e c h n i q u e was e m p l o y e d t o c r e a t e t h e two a f o r e m e n t i o n e d g r o u p s . The mean s c o r e i n " w i l l i n g n e s s t o move a g a i n " was f o u n d t o be l o w e r among t h e 27 w o r k i n g s p o u s e s who were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n (M = 11.37; S.D. = 4.66) t h a n t h e 33 w o r k i n g s p o u s e s who were n o t (M = 15.42; S.D. = 3 . 8 8 ) . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t by a o n e - t a i l e d t e s t * ( t = - 3 . 6 8 ; p < . 0 1 ) . The mean s c o r e i n " w i l l i n g n e s s t o move a g a i n " was a l s o f o u n d t o be l o w e r among t h e 49 " e x t e r n a l " n o n - w o r k i n g s p o u s e s (M = 13.96; S.D. = 4.25) t h a n t h e 43 " i n t e r n a l " n o n - w o r k i n g s p o u s e s (M = 15.84; S.D. = 3 . 7 2 ) . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t , t h o u g h w e a k e r , by a o n e - t a i l e d t e s t ( t = - 2 . 2 4 ; p «C.02). T h e s e r e s u l t s s u p p o r t e d t h e f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d i n C h a p t e r 4. * The r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s and t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e were e x p l o r e d u s i n g a o n e - t a i l e d t e s t s i n c e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s were h y p o t h e s i z e d t o be d i r e c t i o n a l . The n u l l h y p o t h e s e s f o r e a c h s t a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s a y t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e and t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e = 0 ( i . e . no r e l a t i o n s h i p ) . The a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s e s s t a t e t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n and g i v e t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e i n d e p e n d e n t and d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ( e . g . t h o s e w o r k i n g s p o u s e s who a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n a r e l e s s w i l l i n g t o move a g a i n t h a n t h o s e w o r k i n g s p o u s e s who a r e n o t ) . - 78 -From these r e s u l t s , the personnel manager who s e l e c t s c andidates f o r geographic t r a n s f e r may assume the f o l l o w i n g : when the working spouse i s not s a t i s f i e d with her present l o c a t i o n , she w i l l see the geographic t r a n s f e r as a d e s i r a b l e o p p o r t u n i t y l e a d i n g to f u r t h e r growth and experience of a b e t t e r l i f e s t y l e and q u a l i t y of working l i f e . Thus, her husband i s the p r e f e r r e d s e l e c t i o n f o r corpora t e t r a n s f e r over an employee with a working spouse who i s s a t i s f i e d with her present l o c a t i o n and the career o p p o r t u n i t y that she experiences there. U n l i k e the working spouse, who may be able to use her experience, p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s and co n t a c t s i n her new l o c a t i o n , the non-working spouse must s t a r t over again to e s t a b l i s h h e r s e l f i n the new community with l i t t l e or no support from her past. In a d d i t i o n , any geographic t r a n s f e r i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with v a r i o u s r o l e d i s r u p t i o n s on the pa r t of the spouse. These r o l e d i s r u p t i o n s , as d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter Two, may cause her to have f e e l i n g s of l o s s , u n c e r t a i n t y , and/or l a c k of c o n t r o l i f she tends to a t t r i b u t e the coming of events as a r e s u l t of the move to e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s t h a t are beyond her c o n t r o l . Thus, i f a non-working spouse scores " e x t e r n a l " on the d i f f i c u l t - e a s y dimension of l o c u s of c o n t r o l , she i s l e s s w i l l i n g to move again than the " i n t e r n a l " non-working spouse, because the " e x t e r n a l " non-working spouse sees the o p p o r t u n i t y as l e a d i n g to unncessary d i f f i c u l t i e s , which she would rather not c o n f r o n t . - 79 -B. C r i t i q u e o f t h e P r e s e n t S t u d y (1) Age D i s t r i b u t i o n and P o s s i b l e P o p u l a t i o n B i a s o f t h e Sample The mean s c o r e o f t h e s p o u s e s ' w i l l i n g n e s s t o move a g a i n was 14.32 (S.D. = 4.29) o u t o f 20. The s a m p l e ' s r e l a t i v e l y h i g h w i l l i n g n e s s t o move m i g h t have been b i a s e d by i t s age d i s t r i b u t i o n and t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . (a) Age D i s t r i b u t i o n - The mean age o f t h e r e s p o n d i n g s p o u s e s was 36.1 y e a r s (S.D. = 8.76 y e a r s ) i n t h e f i r s t s u r v e y and 41.0 y e a r s (S.D. = 9 . 4 y e a r s ) i n t h e s e c o n d s u r v e y * . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e age d i s t r i b u t i o n r e v e a l s t h a t an o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s were r a i s e d i n t h e g e n e r a t i o n i n w h i c h c o r p o r a t e s p o u s e s were more w i l l i n g , i n g e n e r a l , t o c o n s i d e r t h e demands o f t h e i r h u s b a n d s ' c a r e e r s above a l l e l s e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e h u s b a n d s , who had a mean age o f 37.59 y e a r s (S.D. = 8 . 2 0 ) , w o u l d be c a u g h t i n t h e m i d s t o f what E r i k s o n (1963) has t e r m e d t h e " m i d - l i f e c r i s i s . " P a h l and P a h l (1971) have f o u n d p e r s o n s o f t h i s age g r o u p l e s s w i l l i n g t o t a k e r i s k s . T h u s , t h e m a j o r i t y o f h u s b a n d s may n o t be w i l l i n g t o r i s k t h e i r c o r p o r a t e f u t u r e s by r e f u s i n g t o t r a n s f e r , and t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s p o u s e s w o u l d p r o b a b l y be w i l l i n g t o move a r o u n d a s t h e i r h u s b a n d s a r e t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m one company l o c a t i o n t o a n o t h e r i n t h e i r c l i m b up t h e management l a d d e r . * B e c a u s e t h e s e s a m p l e s were t a k e n e i g h t y e a r s a g o , t h e mean a g e s a r e now 44.1 y e a r s and 49.0 y e a r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . - 80 -(b) P o p u l a t i o n B i a s - The r e s u l t s of a survey of 289 Canadian companies conducted by the Conference Board (1977) show th a t the petroleum products i n d u s t r y , the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y and the r e t a i l trade i n d u s t r y are the three s e c t o r s of the economy with the highest r a t e s of t r a n s f e r . R e l o c a t i o n i s frequent when companies are n a t i o n a l and among the l a r g e s t companies i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s p o s s i b l e that the p o p u l a t i o n s t u d i e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h i s biased through i t s over-exposure to the occurrence of frequent t r a n s f e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when a c c e p t i n g t r a n s f e r o f f e r s u s u a l l y r e s u l t s i n promotion. I t seems l o g i c a l to assume t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , committed spouses of those i n d i v i d u a l s who remain w i t h i n the employment of such companies would be more w i l l i n g to be t r a n s f e r r e d than would employees i n other i n d u s t r i e s . Those spouses who are not w i l l i n g to move would not be a p a r t of the p o p u l a t i o n because they would be i n c l i n e d to d i s a l l o w t h e i r husbands to enter such t r a n s f e r - p r o n e i n d u s t r i e s . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t a d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of spouses' w i l l i n g n e s s to move would have been obtained i f the sample had been a more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c r o s s - s e c t i o n of companies i n which i n c i d e n c e of t r a n s f e r spanned the spectrum from frequent to i n f r e q u e n t , and i f a c o n t r o l group t h a t lacked exposure to t r a n s f e r experience had been used. (2) V a r i a b l e S c a l e R e l i a b i l i t i e s In g e n e r a l , the alpha c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each of the p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s i n both working and non-working groups were - 81 -c o m p a r a t i v e l y l o w . (The r e s u l t s were r e p o r t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . ) W h e r e a s an a l p h a s c o r e s h o u l d r e a c h t h e l e v e l o f .80 i n o r d e r t o r e f l e c t a c c e p t a b l e i n t e r n a l h o m o g e n e i t y , o n l y a few o f t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y met o r a p p r o a c h e d t h i s l e v e l . T h u s , t h e i n t e r n a l h o m o g e n e i t y o f t h e s c a l e s e m p l o y e d i n t h e s t u d y was f r e q u e n t l y t o o l o w t o p r o v i d e an a d e q u a t e t e s t o f t h e m easurement o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e t r a i t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r t o e v a l u a t e t h e i m p a c t on t h e i r l i k e l y c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e c r i t e r i o n . T h i s somewhat d i s a p p o i n t i n g r e s u l t l e d t o e x a m i n i n g t h e t r a i t a p p r o a c h t o d e v e l o p i n g t h e s e s c a l e s . A r g y l e and L i t t l e (1972) wonder i f p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s a r e t h e u l t i m a t e c a u s e o f c o n s i s t e n t b e h a v i o u r and s u b s e q u e n t l y have h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t b e h a v i o u r i s a f u n c t i o n n o t o n l y o f t h e p e r s o n b u t a l s o o f t h e s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e b e h a v i o u r o c c u r s . A r g y l e and L i t t l e (1972) and o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i s t s ( K e l l y , 1955; M i s c h e l , 1968) c o n s i d e r t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o g n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t i m u l i as c e n t r a l t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f p e r s o n a l i t y i t s e l f , as a m a j o r m o d e r a t o r v a r i a b l e i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n s and b e h a v i o u r , and a s t h e m a j o r f a c t o r f a c i l i t a t i n g f l e x i b l e b e h a v i o u r a c r o s s v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s . E v e n t u a l l y , t h i s c o g n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n w i l l m a n i f e s t i t s e l f i n i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l and h i s s i t u a t i o n . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e c r i t i q u e o f t h e t r a i t a p p r o a c h f o r t h i s s t u d y a r e s u b s t a n t i a l b e c a u s e t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e t r a n s f e r r e d e m p l o y e e ' s s p o u s e t o move was h y p o t h e s i z e d t o be - 82 -d e t e r m i n e d by a number o f t h e s p o u s e ' s p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . P a r t i c u l a r l y , t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f h y p o t h e s e s r e s t s upon t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e v a r i o u s p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s s t u d i e d a r e t h e s o u r c e s o f s t a b l e p a t t e r n s o f a t t i t u d e s , w h i c h t h e s p o u s e h o l d s c o n s i s t e n t l y a c r o s s a l l s i t u a t i o n s . M o r e o v e r , w h i l e t h e l o w c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y , w h i c h i n d i c a t e weak a s s o c i a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s and t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , may be p a r t i a l l y due t o t h e weak s c a l e r e l i a b i l i t i e s , t h e p o o r r e s u l t may a l s o be p a r t i a l l y due t o t h e f a i l u r e t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n p e r s o n and s i t u a t i o n . T h u s , t h e d e s i g n o f any f u t u r e s t u d y s h o u l d t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o g n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r s t i m u l u s , c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e t r a n s f e r e x p e r i e n c e and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . K e l l y ' s (1955) P e r s o n a l C o n s t r u c t T h e o r y and t h e R e p e r t o r y G r i d m e t h o d o l o g y may p r o v i d e an i n t e r a c t i o n a l d e s i g n f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f an a l t e r n a t i v e r e s e a r c h f o r m a t . A l t h o u g h i t i s b e y o n d t h e s c o p e o f t h i s t h e s i s t o p r e s e n t and c l a r i f y how t h e s e m e t h o d s c o u l d be u s e d , i n t e r e s t e d r e a d e r s s h o u l d c o n s u l t G o l d b e r g ( 1 9 7 9 ) . (3) C o n s t r u c t V a l i d i t y o f t h e D e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e Schwab (1980) d e f i n e s c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y as t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n t h e c o n c e p t u a l d e f i n i t i o n o f a v a r i a b l e ( i . e . , c o n s i d e r a t i o n , d e l e g a t i o n , c o e r c i o n , e t c . ) and t h e o p e r a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e u s e d t o m e a s u r e o r m a n i p u l a t e t h a t v a r i a b l e . The m e a s u r e o f a s p o u s e ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o move u s e d - 83 -here may not have met the demands of c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . For example, i n the f i r s t item of the s c a l e , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between w i l l i n g n e s s and happiness c o u l d be questioned: an i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d be w i l l i n g , yet unhappy. (The same argument can a l s o apply to the second item of the w i l l i n g n e s s s c a l e : an employee would not n e c e s s a r i l y have to leav e the company i f he i s u n w i l l i n g to move; some companies have other a l t e r n a t i v e s i n t h e i r manpower planning.) Thus, i t i s p o s s i b l e that the s c a l e employed i n t h i s study does not, i n f a c t , measure the w i l l i n g n e s s of the t r a n s f e r r e d employee's spouse to move again. I f t h i s i s so, the degree of va r i a n c e i n the scores might not be due to the va r i a n c e i n the w i l l i n g n e s s of the spouse to move again. (4) C o n s t r u c t V a l i d i t y of the Independent V a r i a b l e s - "Working  S t a t u s " One spouse can earn $100 per month, while another can earn $10,000 per month. The d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r incomes c o u l d be due to t h e i r d i f f e r i n g a b i l i t i e s , types of job, commitment and e f f o r t l e v e l s . Thus, the "yes and no" qu e s t i o n which reads, " s i n c e your t r a n s f e r , have you been earning any income?" i s of dubious value i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between a career spouse and a par t - t i m e working spouse. In view of the i n t e n t i o n to prove that a career spouse would be l e s s w i l l i n g to move than a non-career spouse i n the event of g e o g r a p h i c a l t r a n s f e r , the d i f f e r e n c e s between a "c a r e e r " and a "job" should be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and the questions should r e f l e c t these d i f f e r e n c e s . For example: the spouse - 84 -s h o u l d be a s k e d , " A r e y o u w o r k i n g f u l l t i m e o r p a r t - t i m e ? " , "What i s y o u r income as a p e r c e n t a g e o f o r i n c o m p a r i s o n t o y o u r h u s b a n d ' s i n c o m e ? " C. C o n c l u s i o n A l t h o u g h t h e b a s i c c r i t e r i a f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t r a n s f e r e e s h ave i n t h e p a s t f o c u s e d on t h e n e e d s o f t h e company, t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t h e t r a n s f e r - a s s o c i a t e d c o s t s , i t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s be c o m p l e m e n t e d by a t h o r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r a i s a l o f t h e t r a n s f e r e e s ' s p o u s e s ' n e e d s and p r o b l e m s . T h i s s t u d y i s an a t t e m p t t o i n v e s t i g a t e p o s s i b l e p r e d i c t o r s o f t r a n s f e r e e s ' s p o u s e s ' w i l l i n g n e s s t o move, i n o r d e r t o e n a b l e a company t o e x e r c i s e g r e a t e r c a r e i n s e l e c t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s f o r c o r p o r a t e t r a n s f e r . I t s r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s p o u s e ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e l o c u s o f c o n t r o l and h e r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n a f f e c t h e r w i l l i n g n e s s t o move. T h e s e r e s u l t s i m p l y t h a t c o m p a n i e s s h o u l d t a k e s t e p s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s p o u s e i s c o n s u l t e d a b o u t t h e p r o p o s e d t r a n s f e r , s o she f e e l s she h a s some c o n t r o l o v e r t h e d e c i s i o n and a b o u t t h e p r o p o s e d t r a n s f e r l o c a t i o n , s o t h a t h e r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h e r p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n d o e s n o t make h e r u n w i l l i n g t o move. - 89 -APPENDIX E . l INTRODUCTORY LETTER FROM THE RESEARCHER Dear Employee: I am undertaking a l a r g e - s c a l e survey o f Canadian em-ployees who have been t r a n s f e r r e d by t h e i r companies a t l e a s t once, from one c i t y to another. The purpose o f the study i s t h r e e - f o l d : 1. To study employees' a t t i t u d e s toward t r a n s f e r s ; 2. To study the d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r o v i s i o n s made i n the t r a n s f e r p o l i c i e s of d i f f e r e n t Canadian c o r p o r a t i o n s , and how these d i f f e r e n c e s a r e r e -f l e c t e d i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p o s t - t r a n s f e r a t t i t u d e s and adjustment of the t r a n s f e r e e and h i s (or her) f a m i l y ; 3. To study the comparative c o s t s and b e n e f i t s to the company of i t s p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s r e -garding employee t r a n s f e r s . Your company'has expressed i n t e r e s t i n my r e s e a r c h and has agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e . (See the enclosed l e t t e r from you company.) Consequently, they have given me the names and a'' dresses of approximately 200 employees who have been t r a n s f e r r e d i n recent years. Your name appeared i n t h e i r sample, so I am r e q u e s t i n g your support f o r my study. Let me hasten to make two or three c r u c i a l promises to you. Should you agree to p a r t i c i p a t e i n my r e s e a r c h , I w i l l p e r s o n a l l y guarantee the f o l l o w i n g : 1. No member o f your company w i l l be t o l d whether o r not you p a r t i c i p a t e d 2. No member o f your company (or anyone e l s e beyond myself and my r e s e a r c h s t a f f ) w i l l r e c e i v e any in f o r m a t i o n about your i n d i v i d u a l responses. In order t o gather r e l i a b l e and meaningful data, we must have your confidence i n our han d l i n g o f your responses - o n l y then w i l l you provide honest and frank answers 3. Your company and o t h e r s i n your i n d u s t r y should b e n e f i t g r e a t l y by your support and p a r t i c i p a -t i o n . I i n t e n d to p r o v i d e a l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g com-panies with c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s and suggestions - 90 -regarding t h e i r t r a n s f e r p o l i c i e s , based on the aggregated f i n d i n g s of the study 4. F i n a l l y , i f what we l e a r n i n t h i s research i s used to improve the t r a n s f e r p o l i c i e s of Canadian corporations, i n d i v i d u a l t r a n s f e r e e s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s should b e n e f i t . Altogether, we are gathering data from employees from seven d i f f e r e n t corporations (approximately 1000 people, a l -together) . I b e l i e v e the research should be of considerable value to Canadian management, t r a n s f e r e e s , and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . I w i l l be mailing a l a r g e envelope to you i n the near f u t u r e . Enclosed w i l l be the f o l l o w i n g things: 1. a questionnaire f o r you to complete; 2. a questionnaire f o r your spouse to complete; 3. a stamped envelope, addressed to me, p e r s o n a l l y , at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. I would appreciate i t i f you would complete and return the questionnaires to me as soon as i s convenient f o r you. The questionnaire for you should require 60-90 minutes to com-pl e t e ; the one f o r your spouse should not r e q u i r e as much time. I hope you w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n my study, and I thank you f o r your time. C o r d i a l l y , C r a i g C. Pinder A s s i s t a n t Professor of O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Behaviour. - 91 -APPENDIX E.2 LETTER FROM A SENIOR PERSONNEL EXECUTIVE OF THE COMPANY Dear S i r or Madam: Professor Craig Pinder from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia has i n v i t e d our company to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a study concerning the use of t r a n s f e r p o l i c i e s i n the development of our managers and executives. The study w i l l focus on t r a n s f e r s from two points of view: that of the company and that of the manager. Dr. Pinder i s i n t e r e s t e d i n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a s s e s s i n g the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s from the company's perspective of our t r a n s f e r p o l i c i e s as well as the e f f e c t s of t r a n s f e r s on the managers and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . As you know, our t r a n s f e r p o l i c y i s an important part of our management development and o r g a n i z a t i o n s t a f f i n g programs. Con-sequently, we have agreed to cooperate with Dr. Pinder i n his research. We have provided Professor Pinder with a l i s t of c o r -porate and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n sector management who have been t r a n s -f e r r e d during 1975. From t h i s l i s t your name was randomly se l e c t e d . In a l l , 500-600 managers from our company and other Canadian com-panies w i l l be asked to p a r t i c i p a t e by completing the question-n a i r e which you w i l l be r e c e i v i n g s h o r t l y . Let me assure you that your d e c i s i o n concerning whether or not to p a r t i c i p a t e i s completely voluntary and that no one other than Dr. Pinder and h i s s t a f f w i l l have access to the responses you provide. However, we expect that our company and the other p a r t i c i p a t i n g companies w i l l b e n e f i t from what i s learned from the combined data from the study. I t r u s t that you w i l l respond to the survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r the mutual b e n e f i t of our company and a l l f u t u r e t r a n s f e r e e s . In the event that you have any p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n a r i s i n g from your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study which would be answered by an examina-t i o n of the r e s u l t a n t report, the D i r e c t o r Personnel Development, Room 152, Windsor S t a t i o n , would be'happy to respond to such questions. Yours t r u l y , - 92 -APPENDIX E.3 LETTER FROM THE RESEARCHER ENCLOSED IN THE SECOND MAILING Dear Employee: By now you should have re c e i v e d a l e t t e r I sent t o you announcing a nationwide survey I am conducting on the t o p i c of employee t r a n s f e r s . In the same envelope as that l e t t e r was a second l e t t e r from a senior executive of your company e x p l a i n i n g the b e n e f i t your company hopes to d e r i v e from my study. As you r e c a l l from those Letters, your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s v o l u n t a r y , but we hope you w i l l complete my questionnaires and r e t u r n then to me. Let me repeat my personal guarantee of the anonymity of your personal responses. Your company w i l l r e c e i v e only the com-bined data from your fellow t r a n s f e r e e s . Enclosed are two questionnaires: one f o r you and one f o r your spouse; plus a stamped envelope addressed to me at the Uni-v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Please complete your questionnaire and have your spouse complete the "Spouse's Questionnaire," and r e t u r n them to me d i r e c t l y . We have found that the employee's questionnaire takes 60-90 minutes to complete; the spouse's questionnaire i s shorter. Please ask your spouse to complete h i s (or her) questionnaire alone, independently of the answers you provide to your questionnaire. For the b e n e f i t I hope to provide the p a r t i c i p a t i n g companies and t h e i r employees, I b e l i e v e the e f f o r t you w i l l invest by p a r t i c i p a t i n g w i l l be well spent. Thank you f o r your help. Yours t r u l y , C r a i g C. Pinder A s s i s t a n t Professor F a c u l t y of Commerce and Business Administration U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Enclosures - - 93 -APPENDIX E.4 FOLLOW-UP LETTER FROM THE RESEARCHER Dear Employee: I hope that by now you w i l l have re c e i v e d the que s t i o n -naires f o r my study on the reac t i o n s of Canadian employees to t h e i r companies' t r a n s f e r p o l i c i e s . This l e t t e r i s to remind you to complete and return the questionnaires to me d i r e c t l y at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, using the stamped envelope I en-cl o s e d i n the package I sent you. Again, l e t me repeat my guar-antee f o r the privacy of the responses you provide i n completing the questionnaires. If you have already completed and returned your question-n a i r e s , l e t me thank you f o r your a s s i s t a n c e . I hope the r e s u l t s of my study w i l l enable Canadian companies to l e a r n more about the c o s t s and be n e f i t s of t h e i r t r a n s f e r p o l i c i e s , f o r the mutual b e n e f i t of the companies and t h e i r t r a n s f e r r i n g employees. C o r d i a l l y , C r a i g C. Pinder F a c u l t y of Commerce and Business Administration U.B.C. BIBLIOGRAPHY A c u f f , F .L. A w a r e n e s s L e v e l s o f E m p l o y e e s C o n s i d e r i n g O v e r s e a s R e l o c a t i o n . P e r s o n n e l J o u r n a l , 1 9 7 4 , November, 53, 8 0 9 - 8 1 2 . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Management. C o s t o f T r a n s f e r s , 1 9 78, F e b r u a r y , 39, p. 14. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Management. 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