UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

W. Kaye Lamb and the Provincial Archives of British Columbia 1934-1939 Eso, Elizabeth Denham 1984

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1984_A3 E45.pdf [ 3.89MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0096015.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0096015-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0096015-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0096015-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0096015-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0096015-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0096015-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0096015-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0096015.ris

Full Text

W. KAYE LAMB AND THE PROVINCIAL ARCHIVES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1934-1939 by ELIZABETH DENHAM ESO B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES i n THE FACULTY OF ARTS Administered by The School of L i b r a r i a n s h i p and the Department of H i s t o r y We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1984 © E l i z a b e t h Denham Eso, 1984 V In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of U^r^Y a^L SczM^<tf-<^ux^y The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT The s t u d y e x a m i n e s W.K. Lamb's a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m 1934 t o 1939. S u c h a s t u d y i s j u s t i f i e d on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t l i t t l e i s known a b o u t t h e f e w p u b l i c a r c h i v e s t h a t h a d b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e 1 9 3 0 s . D e s p i t e d i f f i c u l t f i n a n c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e time,'.Lamb t r a n s f o r m e d t h e r a t h e r i l l - a d m i n i s t e r e d A r c h i v e s D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y i n t o a d i s t i n c t , v i t a l p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s b y o r g a n i z i n g t h e c o l l e c t i o n s so t h a t t h e y c o u l d be p r o p e r l y u s e d , t h e s t a f f s o - t h e y c o u l d be p r o d u c t i v e a n d t h e f i n a n c e s o f t h e w h o l e d e p a r t m e n t so..that., t h e n e e d s o f t h e work c o u l d be d e m o n s t r a t e d . Lamb's g r e a t e s t c o n c e r n was t o make t h e A r c h i v e s a c c e s s i b l e t o h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h e r s and t h e p u b l i c a t l a r g e . A m a j o r t h r u s t o f h i s e f f o r t s may be f o u n d i n h i s e s t a b l i s h -ment o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y ; u n d e r h i s e d i t o r s h i p i t became a w i d e l y r e s p e c t e d h i s t o r i c a l j o u r n a l w h i c h b r o u g h t r e a d a b l e , s c h o l a r l y h i s t o r y t o a w i d e r e a d e r -s h i p a n d p u b l i c i z e d t h e c o l l e c t i o n s a n d work o f t h e A r c h i v e s . To u n d e r s t a n d Lamb's e f f o r t s i n t h i s r e g a r d , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o e x a m i n e h i s own e a r l y l i f e a n d u n i v e r s i t y s t u d i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a nd E u r o p e . Lamb's e a r l y w r i t i n g s , and h i s r e v i e w s o f h i s t o r i c a l w o r k s g i v e a g o o d i d e a o f Lamb's v i e w o f h i s t o r y and h i s f a v o u r i t e s u b j e c t s . U n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t s o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s a s w e l l a s c o r r e s p o n -- i i i -dence between Lamb and I r e l a n d , Lamb and v a r i o u s amateur h i s t o r i a n s and c o l l e a g u e s t e l l the s t o r y of the development of the A r c h i v e s and the Q u a r t e r l y venture. Interviews w i t h Dr. Lamb h i m s e l f helped s e t the tone f o r the study and f i l l e d i n many gaps i n the r e s e a r c h . - i v -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . i i INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . 1 CHAPTER I : THE STATE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA HISTORY AND ARCHIVES PRIOR TO LAMB'S ARRIVAL AT THE PROVINCIAL ARCHIVES '."...)? ' . . 3 CHAPTER I I : W.K. LAMB AND THE PROVINCIAL ARCHIVES 1934-1939 . . . . . . 14 CHAPTER I I I : REGIONAL HISTORY AND THE FOUNDING OF THE B R I T I S H COLUMBIA HISTORICAL QUARTERLY . . . . . . . . 43 CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . 56 NOTES: CHAPTER I . . . . . . . 61 CHAPTER I I . . . . . . . . 63 CHAPTER I I I . . . . . . . 67 CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . 69 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . 70 APPENDIX: PROVINCIAL ARCHIVES OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA ACCESSIONS 1935-1942 . . . . 76 - v -ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to express thanks to Dr. W. Kaye Lamb for reminiscing with me about his career in V i c t o r i a . INTRODUCTION Dr. W i l l i a m Kaye Lamb's c a r e e r spans f o u r decades. He was P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r i a n and A r c h i v i s t of B r i t i s h Columbia from 1934-1940, C h i e f L i b r a r i a n a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia from 1940-1948, and Dominion A r c h i v i s t from 1948-1968. Sinee h i s r e t i r e m e n t i n 1968, he has w r i t t e n and e d i t e d s e v e r a l h i s t o r i c a l works. A l l i n a l l , but as f a r as t h i s study i s concerned p a r t i c u l a r l y i n h i s f i r s t post i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Lamb's c a r e e r i l l u s t r a t e s the i n d i s t i n c t boundaries t h a t o f t e n e x i s t between h i s t o r y and a r c h i v e s . During h i s tenure as p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v i s t , he e s t a b l i s h e d and e d i t e d the f i r s t j o u r n a l devoted to ., ..• B r i t i s h Columbia h i s t o r y , the B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l  Q u a r t e r l y (BCHQ). Through h i s e a r l y c a r e e r , one can examine the e v o l u t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e g i o n a l h i s t o r i -c a l w r i t i n g and the development of p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s . L i t t l e has been w r i t t e n about the h i s t o r y o f p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s i n Canada i n g e n e r a l , although compara-t i v e l y more e x i s t s i n p r i n t about the development of r e g i o n a l h i s t o r i o g r a p h y . Lamb's c a r e e r has a t t r a c t e d perhaps more a t t e n t i o n than any oth e r i n Canada, as i s a t t e s t e d by a re c e n t volume of essays i n h i s honour.* Yet, none of these * " A r c h i v e s and L i b r a r i e s : Essays i n Honour of W. Kaye Lamb," A r c h i v a r i a Number 15 (Winter 1982-83). - 2 -essays d i s c u s s e s h i s e a r l y c a r e e r i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The 1930s was an important decade i n the development o f the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . In many ways, Lamb remade the i n s t i t u -t i o n i n h i s own image. His prime concern, i n p a r t r e f l e c t e d i n h i s est a b l i s h m e n t of the BCHQ, was to i n c r e a s e the a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f the a r c h i v e s ' h o l d i n g s to r e s e a r c h e r s and the community a t l a r g e , f o r above a l l he saw the a r c h i v e s as an animator of a p p r e c i a t i o n i n r e g i o n a l h i s t o r y . I t i s t h i s theme t h a t w i l l be explo r e d . - 3 -CHAPTER I THE STATE OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA HISTORY AND ARCHIVES PRIOR TO LAMB'S ARRIVAL AT THE PROVINCIAL ARCHIVES (1934) Lamb's c a r e e r i n V i c t o r i a was i n t i m a t e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e s t a t e o f B.C. h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g i n t h e 1 920s a n d 1 9 3 0 s . The h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c a l b a c k g r o u n d i s i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e o f Lamb's e d i t o r i a l w ork and h i s k e e n i n t e r e s t i n p r o v i n c i a l h i s t o r y . T h i s b a c k g r o u n d g i v e s a c l e a r e r i d e a o f t h e f o r c e s e f f e c t i n g Lamb's e a r l y c a r e e r a n d w h a t he f o u n d when he was a p p o i n t e d P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t i n 1934. I n w h a t C a r l B e r g e r c a l l s t h e " m i d d l e p e r i o d " o f C a n a d i a n h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g o f t h e 1 920s and 1 9 3 0 s h i s t o r i a n s s h i f t e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n away f r o m i m p e r i a l c o n c e r n s a n d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y t o b e g i n e x a m i n i n g t h e u n d e r l y i n g s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c b a s i s o f C a n a d i a n h i s t o r y . 1 T h i s s h i f t was s u s t a i n e d by t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t C a n a d i a n h i s t o r y h a d c e a s e d t o be a p a r o c h i a l t o p i c and c o u l d be l o o k e d a t i n t h e c o n t e x t o f l a r g e r c o n t i n e n t a l a n d i n t e r -n a t i o n a l t r e n d s . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h i s t o r i a n s w e r e s l o w e r t o d e v e l o p t h e s e new t h e m e s . H i s t o r i c a l w r i t e r s l i k e E.O.S. S c h o l e f i e l d , J u d g e F r e d e r i c k Howay an d R o b i e R e i d s t i l l e m p h a s i z e d t h e c o l o n i a l p a s t , e s p e c i a l l y t h e f u r t r a d e e r a . F u r t r a d e s o c i e t y , Hudsori':s Bay Company h i s t o r y , a n d e s t a b l i s h -- 4 -ment of the i n s t i t u t i o n s of c o l o n i a l government attracted much attention. In addition, p o l i t i c a l narrative and p o l i t i c a l biography s t i l l had a large place in the h i s t o r i o -2 graphy of B r i t i s h Columbia. E.O.S. Scholefield was the Pr o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t from 1910 to 1919. Scholefield expanded the archival c o l l e c t i o n in V i c t o r i a and contributed to the published h i s t o r i e s available to an interested public. He interviewed pioneers, c o l l e c t i n g written and v i s u a l materials of the i n t e r i o r towns. Scho l e f i e l d began the Archives Memoirs series, a forerunner to Lamb1s B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly. The two i n s t i t u t i o n s indispensible to writers of B.C. history — the Pro v i n c i a l Archives and the L e g i s l a t i v e Library — are monuments to t h e i r creators, Scholefield and his predecessor R.E. Gosnell. The writing of Judge Howay, l i k e that of Scholefield, demonstrated his "regard for the gentleman of refinement and education and longing for the world l o s t . . . V i c t o r i a , the 4 sylvan retreat, i d y l l i c i n i t s s i m p l i c i t y . " Howay and Scho l e f i e l d wrote a four-volume history of B r i t i s h Columbia (1914) which remained the standard reference for many years. Judge Howay was an important figure in the society in which he l i v e d . The New Westminster lawyer was a l i f e -long f r i e n d of Lamb. Howay was an avid c o l l e c t o r of Northwest Coast material^ and was p a r t i c u l a r l y interested i n the maritime fur trade. He and Lamb shared a passion for the - 5 -h i s t o r y o f t h e i r r e g i o n . T h e r e a r e no b r o a d s u r v e y s i n Howay's work b u t h i s r e m a r k a b l e a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l , h i s immense p r o d u c t i v i t y , a n d h i s p e r s o n a l i n f l u e n c e o n l a t e r s c h o l a r s h e l p e d make a p l a c e f o r r e g i o n a l P a c i f i c C o a s t h i s t o r y a t t h e N a t i o n a l s c e n e . Howay's work d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t pre W o r l d War I themes o f C a n a d i a n h i s t o r y w e r e s t i l l b e i n g w r i t t e n i n B.C. i n t h e 1920s a n d 1 9 3 0 s . One o f t h e most p r o l i f i c B.C. h i s t o r i a n s , Howay was s t i l l m o t i v a t e d b y a b e l i e f i n 7 i n d i v i d u a l i s m . He w r o t e numerous a r t i c l e s on p i o n e e r a d v e n t u r e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s u c h a s A l e x a n d e r M a c K e n z i e , G e o r g e V a n c o u v e r , G e o r g e S i m p s o n , a n d D a v i d Thompson. He h o n o u r e d s u c h men i n B u i l d e r s o f t h e West, a Book o f H e r o e s ( 1 9 2 9 ) . L i k e Howay, R o b i e R e i d was a l s o a New W e s t m i n i s t e r l a w y e r i n t e r e s t e d i n w r i t i n g a b o u t t h e h i s t o r y o f h i s r e g i o n . R e i d a n d Howay w e r e l o n g - t i m e f r i e n d s ; i t was R e i d who u r g e d Howay ( i n 1887) t o accompany h i m t o D a l h o u s i e U n i v e r s i t y t o s t u d y l a w . I n 1893 R e i d a n d Howay became l a w p a r t n e r s i n New W e s t m i n s t e r a nd t h e p a r t n e r s h i p c o n t i n u e d f o r t h i r t e e n y e a r s . The b e q u e s t s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n a f r o m Howay and R e i d f o r m e d t h e n u c l e u s o f t h e r e g i o n a l h i s t o r y c o l l e c t i o n s i n t h e S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n o f t h e M a i n L i b r a r y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n 1 9 2 2 , Howay, a l o n g w i t h R e i d a n d W a l t e r Sage 8 f o u n d e d t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . I t - 6 -was to t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n t h a t Reid and Lamb would look when they came to found the B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y i n 1937. Howay l i n k s the amateur and p r o f e s s i o n a l h i s t o r i a n s of B r i t i s h Columbia. In the 1920s a h i s t o r y department was c r e a t e d at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Sage became the f i r s t p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d h i s t o r i a n i n the p r o v i n c e to combine w r i t i n g and r e s e a r c h with a f u l l - t i m e t e a c h i n g post. In 193 2 he was appointed head of the h i s t o r y department and h e l d t h i s post f o r twenty y e a r s . Sage t r i e d t o b r i n g a r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e to the 9 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l h i s t o r y . His approach to h i s t o r y moved away from Howay's emphasis on c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i -t i c a l development, i m p e r i a l t i e s , and self-made men to take i n t o account g e o g r a p h i c a l and economic f a c t o r s . H is s c h o l a r s h i p a l s o demonstrates the r i g o r o u s , d i s c i p l i n e d , and s o p h i s t i c a t e d q u a l i t y which became the mark of Canadian h s i t o r i c a l w r i t i n g i n the 1930s. Although Sage was i n t e r e s t e d i n r e g i o n a l h i s t o r y , h i s search f o r the d i s t i n c t i v e -ness of B r i t i s h Columbia d i d not go f a r beyond h i s predeces-sors."'""'" In 1930, Sage began an M.A. seminar i n B r i t i s h Columbia h i s t o r y but h i s own v e r s i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia s t i l l emphasized the importance of the f r o n t i e r , the go l d rush, the f u r trade, and p i o n e e r s . Sage's major work was an h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e , S i r James Douglas and B r i t i s h Columbia (1930), demonstrating h i s i n t e r e s t i n the f u r trade e r a and the c o l o n i a l beginnings of the p r o v i n c e . L i n k i n g Sage with h i s - 7 -p r e d e c e s s o r s , i n d i v i d u a l i s m s t i l l r e i g n e d . Thus r e g i o n a l h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g was s t i l l f e e l i n g i t s way i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . H i s t o r i a n s n e e d e d t o c r e a t e a p i c t u r e o f B.C.'s p a s t w h i c h h a d a l r e a d y b e e n s k e t c h e d i n f o r c e n t r a l C a n a d a a n d n a t i o n a l c o n c e r n s . I n f a c t , t h e s e e a r l i e r h i s t o r y w r i t e r s h a d a b a s i c s t o r y t o t e l l — who, when a n d w h e r e — b e f o r e t h e y c o u l d move i n t o more s o p h i s t i c a t e d " a n a l y t i c a l " s c h o l a r s h i p . S c h o l e f i e l d , Howay and R e i d w e re t r y i n g t o e x p l a i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . They f e l t t h a t t h e h i s t o r y o f e a c h l o c a l i t y and r e g i o n ^ c o u l d be w r i t t e n f o r i t s own s a k e , e v e n t h o u g h t h e y r e c o g n i z e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s h i s t o r y was l i n k e d w i t h B r i t i s h i m p e r i a l a n d C a n a d i a n h i s t o r y . The w r i t i n g o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h i s t o r y was g r e a t l y a i d e d b y t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l . d o c u m e n t s t h a t G o s n e l l b e g a n a t t h e L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y i n V i c t o r i a . The P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f i n d s i t s o r i g i n s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y when t h e L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y o f t h e Crown C o l o n y o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d v o t e d $1000 f o r t h e f f o r m a t i o n o f a p a r l i a m e n t a r y l i b r a r y . The L i b r a r y was a 12 s i n g l e room u n a t t e n d e d i n t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r y B u i l d i n g s . I n 1893 when R.E. G o s n e l l was named t h e f i r s t p e r m a n e n t l i b r a r i a n he f o u n d 1200 s i n g l e v o l u m e s ( c o m p l e t e l y d i s o r g a - . . ^ . n i z e d ) o f D o m i n i o n a n d P r o v i n c i a l S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , S t a t u t e s , J o u r n a l s , D e b a t e s , O f f i c i a l R e p o r t s a n d m i s c e l l a n e o u s m a t e r i a l s . An A c t p a s s e d i n 1894, u n d e r w h i c h t h e L i b r a r y - 8 -was s t i l l o p e r a t i n g i n Lamb's t i m e i n V i c t o r i a , e s t a b l i s h e d a l i b r a r y u n d e r t h e P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y ' s D e p a r t m e n t f o r t h e u s e o f t h e members o f t h e L e g i s l a t u r e . A n n u a l f u n d s w e r e v o t e d t o m a i n t a i n an e f f i c i e n t r e f e r e n c e l i b r a r y f o r g o v e r n -ment d e p a r t m e n t s and t h e L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y a n d a " s p e c i a l d e p a r t m e n t r e l a t i n g t o B.C., i t s o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s , t h e h i s t o r y o f e a r l i e s t t i m e s and s u b s e q u e n t s e t t l e m e n t , i t s p r o g r e s s a n d d e v e l o p m e n t , c o m p r i s i n g n e w s p a p e r f i l e s , o l d b o o k s and p a m p h l e t s , and a l l o t h e r l i t e r a t u r e o f P r o v i n c i a l 13 i n t e r e s t t h a t may e x i s t . " I t was t h i s c l a u s e i n t h e A c t w h i c h G o s n e l l a n d h i s s u c c e s s o r u s e d t o j u s t i f y e a r l y c o l l e c t i n g o f a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l . I n 1894 G o s n e l l a d d e d 1200 b ound v o l u m e s t o t h e L i b r a r y i n c l u d i n g 200 h i s t o r i c a l w o r k s , t h e n u c l e u s f r o m w h i c h h a s grown t h e c e l e b r a t e d N o r t h w e s t 14 H i s t o r y C o l l e c t i o n . G o s n e l l p l a n n e d t o c o l l e c t a n d p r e s e r v e a r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b u t l a c k o f t i m e p r e -v e n t e d h i m f r o m m a k i n g much p r o g r e s s b e f o r e he was f i r e d i n 1898 and s u c c e e d e d by S c h o l e f i e l d . I n 1897 t h e L i b r a r y moved t o new q u a r t e r s i n t h e new P a r l i a m e n t B u i l d i n g s . T h e r e was an u l t i m a t e c a p a c i t y f o r 22,000 v o l u m e s w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t o n l y a m o d e s t f u t u r e was i n s t o r e f o r t h e L i b r a r y . S h e l f room was a t a p r e m i u m w i t h i n a year."'""' C o n g e s t i o n i n c r e a s e d u n t i l 1915 when s p a c e f o r t h e L i b r a r y was i n c l u d e d i n t h e p l a n f o r e n l a r g e m e n t o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t B u i l d i n g s . G o s n e l l r e t u r n e d a s f i r s t e v e r P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t i n 1908 a n d was g i v e n f u n d s t o r u n t h e d e p a r t m e n t . G o s n e l l ' s - 9 -f i r s t c o n c e r n was t h e c e n t e n a r y o f Simon F r a s e r ' s j o u r n e y down t h e F r a s e r R i v e r . He p l a n n e d an i m p r e s s i v e h i s t o r i c a l e x h i b i t i o n o f 7200 i t e m s o f t h e N o r t h w e s t H i s t o r y C o l l e c t i o n a n d a r o u s e d much p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n t h e A r c h i v e s D e p a r t m e n t . The A r c h i v e s r e c e i v e d many p r i v a t e p a p e r s a n d c o l l e c t i o n s a s a r e s u l t o f G o s n e l l ' s e x h i b i t . E.O.S. S c h o l e f i e l d t o o k o v e r d u t i e s a s P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t i n 1910. From t h i s t i m e on t h e r e i s a b u d g e t f o r a s e p a r a t e A r c h i v e s D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e L i b r a r y . H i s w e r e p r o s p e r o u s y e a r s f o r t h e A r c h i v e s . The P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y a t t h e t i m e was v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n a r c h i v e s a n d l a r g e sums o f money were s p e n t on a c q u i s i t i o n s . S c h o l e f i e l d e n j o y e d c o l l e c t i n g r a r e i t e m s , m a n u s c r i p t s a n d r e c o r d s r e l a t i n g t o B.C. and t h e N o r t h w e s t . I n t h e s i x y e a r s 1912 t o 1917 he a d d e d 50,000 v o l u m e s t o t h e L i b r a r y , d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e t h e t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e on t h e L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s was o v e r $160,000.00 e x c l u s i v e o f s a l a r i e s . T h i s sum was a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e t i m e s w h a t Lamb s p e n t o n t h e L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s i n t h e s i x y e a r s b e t w e e n 1934 and 1939. By 1917 t h e " e r a o f a b u n d a n c e " was o v e r b u t a new l i b r a r y b u i l d i n g , a s u p e r b r e f e r e n c e l i b r a r y , a r c h i v e s o f r e a l i m p o r t a n c e , a n d a N o r t h -w e s t H i s t o r y L i b r a r y w h i c h was r a n k e d a s one o f t h e t h r e e o r f o u r ' b e s t s u c h c o l l e c t i o n s i n e x i s t e n c e r e m a i n e d t o h o n o u r G o s n e l l a n d S c h o l e f i e l d ' s h a r d w o r k . G o s n e l l a n d S c h o l e f i e l d b u i l t an i n s t i t u t i o n c o m b i n -i n g a p a r l i a m e n t a r y a n d h i s t o r i c a l l i b r a r y , an a r c h i v e s , a n d - l o -an a r t g a l l e r y . W h e reas i n O t t a w a t h e r e e x i s t e d a s e p a r a t e p a r l i a m e n t a r y l i b r a r y a nd d o m i n i o n a r c h i v e s a n d no n a t i o n a l l i b r a r y o r g a l l e r y , G o s n e l l and S c h o l e f i e l d c o m b i n e d a l l t h e s e e l e m e n t s on a p r o v i n c i a l s c a l e . As T e r r y E a s t w o o d p u t i t , t h e f i r s t two a r c h i v i s t s . . . t e n d e d n o t t o make f i n e d i s t i n c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e d i f f e r e n t f o r m s i n w h i c h i n f o r m a t i o n c a m e i i n , o r , i n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t o h e s i t a t e t o a c q u i r e a document b e c a u s e i t m i g h t b e l o n g e l s e w h e r e . S u c h t h o u g h t s s i m p l y d i d n o t o c c u r t o them. O f f i c i a l r e c o r d s , m a n u s c r i p t s , maps, p h o t o g r a p h s , p a i n t i n g s and o t h e r a r t , n e w s p a p e r s , b o o k s , p a m p h l e t s a n d e p h emera o f a l l s o r t s f l o w e d i n t o t h e l i b r a r y a n d a r c h i v e s t o f u l f i l l a m a ndate c o n c e i v e d and e x e c u t e d by G o s n e l l and S c h o l e f i e l d w i t h -o u t much r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i r m a s t e r s , who seemed c o n t e n t t o t o l e r a t e t h e g r a n d schemes and f r e e s p e n d i n g w i t h g o o d g r a c e . ^ T h i s s o - c a l l e d " t o t a l a r c h i v e s " a p p r o a c h i s s t i l l i n e f f e c t t o d a y . The L i b r a r y had l o n g b e e n c o n c e r n e d w i t h a w i d e r f i e l d t h a n t h e demands o f t h e L e g i s l a t u r e a n d g o v e r n m e n t 17 d e p a r t m e n t s . I n 1898 M i s s A l m a R u s s e l l , t h e l i b r a r y c a t a l o g u e r , s u g g e s t e d a s y s t e m o f t r a v e l l i n g l i b r a r i e s t o s u p p l y r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l t o p e o p l e i n r e m o t e a r e a s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . T h e s e l i b r a r i e s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d b y t h e P u b l i c L i b r a r y C o m m i s s i o n a f t e r 1919. I n 1897 a r e a d i n g room was o p e n t o t h e p u b l i c b u t f o r many y e a r s t h e l i b r a r y was f o r g o v e r n m e n t r e f e r e n c e p u r p o s e s o n l y ; l o a n s t o t h e p u b l i c w e re d i s c o u r a g e d . Then a c h a n g e was i n s t i t u t e d , i n k e e p i n g w i t h a w i d e r o u t l o o k a n d more p o p u l a r a p p e a l . By 1926 t h e r e w e r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 500 p e o p l e e n j o y i n g t h e p r i v i l e g e o f b o r r o w i n g - 11 -books. The Depression and a r e d u c t i o n i n s t a f f meant a r e d u c t i o n i n p u b l i c borrowing i n 1932. C i t i z e n s o u t s i d e V i c t o r i a c o u l d o n l y borrow a book i f they were "bona f i d e s t u d e n t s " . When Lamb a r r i v e d i n 1934 he took a long look at the q u e s t i o n of p u b l i c loan p r i v i l e g e s and deci d e d the books should be c o n s u l t e d w i t h i n the l i b r a r y o n l y . Many problems such as t h i s one presented themselves f o r c o n s i d e r a -t i o n on h i s a r r i v a l i n V i c t o r i a . The A r c h i v e s Department i n the 1920s and e a r l y 1930s was maintained by the P r o v i n c i a l Government as a r e p o s i t o r y f o r a c o l l e c t i o n of both p r i n t e d books and manuscripts, maps, photographs, r e l i c s and e x h i b i t s i l l u s t r a t i v e of the h i s t o r y of the Provinc e i n p a r t i c u l a r and the Northwest Coast of North America, the Canadian Northwest, A l a s k a , the Yukon and o l d Oregon i n g e n e r a l . The s t a f f worked on c l a s s i f y i n g and c a t a l o g u i n g the books and documents, ind e x i n g the C o l o n i a l and some of the post C o n f e d e r a t i o n newspapers, and s o r t i n g the s e v e r a l thousands of photographs i n the A r c h i v e s . T h e s t a f f answered r e f e r e n c e q u e s t i o n s which came by m a i l o r i n person. T r a n s c r i p t s o f many l e t t e r s , j o u r n a l s and d i a r i e s were made to preserve the o r i g i n a l s from wear and t e a r and to help i n the d e c i p h e r i n g of d i f f i c u l t h a n d w r i t i n g . One room i n the A r c h i v e s Department served as an e x h i b i t i o n room wit h showcases c o n t a i n i n g i n t e r e s t i n g d i s p l a y s . When Lamb a r r i v e d one showcase d i s p l a y e d ambrotypes, daguerreotypes and t i n t y p e s demonstrating the o r i g i n of - 12 -p h o t o g r a p h y f r o m s i l h o u e t t e s a n d m i n i a t u r e s t o t h e p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e 1 9 3 0 s . A n o t h e r c a s e d i s p l a y e d r a r e c o i n s , H udson Bay Company t o k e n s , I n d i a n wampum, b e a d s a nd v e r m i l l i o n u s e d i n e a r l y t r a d e . The P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s p e r f o r m e d a d u a l f u n c t i o n ; i n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g a r e s e a r c h l i b r a r y f o r t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t i t was a l s o a p u b l i c r e c o r d o f f i c e f o r t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Thus t h e i n s t i t u t i o n c o m p r i s e d two d i v i s i o n s : t h e A r c h i v e s p r o p e r a n d t h e N o r t h -w e s t H i s t o r y L i b r a r y . The N o r t h w e s t H i s t o r y C o l l e c t i o n a i m e d a t b e i n g a c o m p l e t e l i b r a r y o f p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s r e l a t i n g t o t h e N o r t h w e s t . I n 1934, t h e L i b r a r y c o n s i s t e d o f 14,000 i t e m s . C e r t a i n s p e c i f i c r e g i o n s o r t o p i c s s u c h a s o l d ^  O r e g o n , Red R i v e r S e t t l e m e n t , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A l a s k a , Y u k o n and A r c t i c e x p l o r a t i o n w e r e p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d . T h e r e w ere e x c e l l e n t l o n g r u n f i l e s o f t h e e a r l y n e w s p a p e r s o f B.C. a n d t h e a d j a c e n t A m e r i c a n s t a t e s . The A r c h i v e s p r o p e r c o n s i s t e d o f 60,000 m a n u s c r i p t s , - 1 4 ; 0 0 O ^ p h o t o g r a p h s and p r i n t s a n d h u n d r e d s o f maps. The m a n u s c r i p t c o l l e c t i o n h a d two m a i n d i v i s i o n s , t h e o f f i c i a l a n d t h e n o n - o f f i c i a l p a p e r s . The o f f i c i a l p a p e r s c o n s i s t e d o f s e r i e s o f g o v e r n m e n t r e c o r d s o f t h e Crown C o l o n y p e r i o d a n d t h e n o n - o f f i c i a l w e r e p r i v a t e p a p e r s ( l e t t e r s , d i a r i e s , j o u r n a l s ) o f p r o m i n e n t p e o p l e , l o g s o f s h i p s v i s i t i n g t h e c o a s t i n t h e e a r l y d a y s , r e c o r d s o f t h e Hudson Bay Company and m i s c e l l a n e o u s m a t e r i a l . - 13 -The P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s c o n t a i n e d t h e s t u f f f r o m w h i c h s c h o l a r s w r o t e t h e i r h i s t o r i e s . S c h o l e f i e l d , Howay, R e i d a nd Sage a n d o t h e r h i s t o r i a n s w e r e f r e q u e n t v i s i t o r s o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . A s t h e h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e . m a t e r i a l was c l a s s i f i e d a n d i n d e x e d , p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d a m a t e u r h i s t o r i a n s a l i k e f o u n d a w e a l t h o f i n f o r m a t i o n o f \ .. t h e h i s t o r y a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t . - 14 -CHAPTER I I W.K. LAMB AND THE PROVINCIAL ARCHIVES 1934-1939 W.K...Lamb 1904-1934 The f i r s t p a g e s o f t h i s c h a p t e r r e s e m b l e any b i o g r a p h y o f an i n d i v i d u a l i n t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e v o t e some s p a c e t o s t u d y Lamb's a n c e s t r y and " r o o t s " . Lamb was b o r n May 11, 1904 i n New W e s t m i n s t e r , B.C., t h e s o n o f A l e x a n d e r a n d B a r b a r a ( M c D o u g a l l ) Lamb. A l e x a n d e r Lamb came t o t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y f r o m S c o t l a n d i n 1888 and t h e M c D o u g a l l 1 s moved t o t h e West C o a s t f r o m O n t a r i o i n 1872. Kaye was named f o r a n u n c l e , J o s e p h Kaye H e n r y , l a t e r a p r o f e s s o r o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e a t t h e - U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . K a y e ' s u n c l e h a d i n h e r i t e d t h e (surname) o f an o l d f a m i l y f r i e n d . Lamb h a s s u r v i v e d t h e " b u r d e n " o f t h i s u n u s u a l name f o r n e a r l y e i g h t y y e a r s . 1 Lamb's e a r l y e x p e r i e n c e s i n t r o d u c e d h i m t o s e v e r a l i n t e r e s t s w h i c h he s t i l l p u r s u e s t o d a y . An e a r l y r e a d e r , he was f a s c i n a t e d b y t h r e e p a r t i c u l a r a r t i c l e s i n t h e E n c y c l o -p e d i a B r i t t a n i c a ( e l e v e n t h e d i t i o n ) o n a r t and p a i n t i n g , o n a r c h i t e c t u r e , a n d on s h i p p i n g . He was e s p e c i a l l y c u r i o u s a b o u t s h i p s a n d s a v e d h i s p e n n i e s t o buy a c o p y o f L l o y d ' s R e g i s t r y o f S h i p p i n g s o t h a t he c o u l d i d e n t i f y v e s s e l s 2 d o c k e d i n t h e p o r t a t t h e R o y a l C i t y . T o d a y , Lamb's West End a p a r t m e n t i s f i l l e d w i t h a r t w o r k s he h a s c o l l e c t e d o v e r - 15 -t h e y e a r s ; he c a l l s h i m s e l f a " c h a s e r o f c a t h e d r a l s " a n d he ha s w r i t t e n e x t e n s i v e l y a b o u t s h i p s . D u r i n g h i s l a t e r c a r e e r a t t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s i n O t t a w a , he s t i l l r e f e r r e d t o a c e r t a i n a r t i c l e o n s h i p p i n g i n t h e E n c y c l o p e d i a . The p a g e s 4 a r e b l a c k w i t h u s e o v e r t h e y e a r s . Lamb's l i t e r a r y a b i l i t i e s made h i s s c h o o l y e a r s e n j o y a b l e . As a s t u d e n t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a he w r o t e a p r i z e - w i n n i n g p l a y , The U s u a l T h i n g : A Comedy i n 5 One A c t , a r o m a n t i c comedy w h i c h was p r o d u c e d o n t h e campus s t a g e i n 1926. A t t e n d i n g t h e U n i v e r s i t y i n t h e 1 9 2 0 s , Lamb d e m o n s t r a t e d h i s e n e r g y a n d e n t h u s i a s m f o r a v a r i e t y o f i n t e r e s t s . He was a c t i v e i n t h e P l a y e r s C l u b , h i s p a p e r s w e r e r e a d b e f o r e t h e L e t t e r s C l u b a n d w e r e a c c l a i m e d a s b e i n g t h e b e s t o f t h e i r k i n d . ^ Lamb was a l s o a c t i v e i n s o c i a l a f f a i r s a n d f r a t e r n i t y l i f e ( P s i U p s i l o n ) . I t was a " w h o p p i n g b i g mark" i n H i s t o r y I a t t h e 7 U n i v e r s i t y t h a t s e t t l e d h i s c a r e e r a s an h i s t o r i a n . P r o f e s s o r F.H. S o w a r d p u r s u a d e d Lamb t o t a k e h i s t o r y h o n o u r s g and he g r a d u a t e d a t t h e h e a d o f h i s c l a s s . O n l y one o f t h e t e n h i s t o r y c l a s s e s Lamb a t t e n d e d a s an u n d e r g r a d u a t e h a d a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h C a n a d a ; t h i s was S o w a r d ' s H i s t o r y I c o u r s e . I n t h e 19 2 0 s i n W e s t e r n C a n a d i a n u n i v e r s i t i e s , many s c h o l a r s f e l t t h a t t h e " t r u e " h i s t o r y was E u r o p e a n h i s t o r y . C a n a d a was " t o o y o u n g " ..to h a v e much o f a p a s t . The c t e a c h i n g o f l o c a l o r r e g i o n a l h i s t o r y was n o t e v e n c o n s i d e r e d , . ' Lamb's i n t e r e s t s p r u n g f r o m h i s p i o n e e r a n c e s t r y a n d h i s - 16 -b o y h o o d f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h t h e p a s t a n d w i t h t h e s h i p s he w a t c h e d i n t h e p o r t . S o w ard s p e c i a l i z e d i n E u r o p e a n h i s t o r y , a n d , l i k e h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s he h e l d i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t c o n v i c t i o n s . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n t h e 193 0 ' s men s u c h a s R o b e r t B o r d e n , Newton R o w e l l ( o f t h e R o w e l l - S i r o i s C o m m i s s i o n ) , a nd h i s t o r i a n s l i k e G.M. Wrong and C h e s t e r M a r t i n ( U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o ) w e re d e d i c a t e d members o f t h e L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s S o c i e t y o f Ca n a d a w h i c h was d e v o t e d t o g e n e r a l p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s . 1 ^ Lamb and Soward became p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t may h a v e e n c o u r a g e d Lamb's b e l i e f i n t h e c o m m o n a l i t y o f h i s t o r y i n a r e g i o n whose p e o p l e s h a r e a s i m i l a r economy. Lamb f e l t t h a t t h e w h o l e o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t C o a s t s h a r e d an e c o n o m i c h i s t o r y a n d w r o t e a b o u t t h i s r e g i o n a s a whole. 1"'" Lamb e c h o e d S o w a r d ' s c o n v i c -t i o n t h a t " t h e N a t i o n . . S t a t e was an i n a d e q u a t e f o r m o f 12 p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , " a n d a p p l i e d i t t o t h e e c o n o m i c h i s t o r y o f t h e c o a s t a l r e g i o n o f h i s b i r t h . Lamb g r a d u a t e d w i t h a B a c h e l o r o f A r t s d e g r e e i n 1927 and b e g a n t e a c h i n g a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . On Sow a r d ' s i n s i s t e n c e , Lamb a p p l i e d f o r a n d won t h e N i c h o l S c h o l a r s h i p . The s c h o l a r s h i p g a v e h i m t h r e e y e a r s ' s t u d y a t t h e S o r b o n n e , U n i v e r s i t y o f P a r i s , t o t h e d e l i g h t o f h i s o l d t e a c h e r who f e l t Lamb was on h i s way t o t h e t r u e c e n t r e o f s c h o l a r s h i p . Lamb was t o s t u d y u n d e r A n d r e S i e g f r i e d , a l e a d i n g F r e n c h a u t h o r i t y o n p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c a n d r e l i g i o u s - 17 -l i f e i n s e v e r a l other c o u n t r i e s . S i e g f r i e d came from a p o l i -t i c a l f a m i l y — h i s f a t h e r was M i n i s t e r of Commerce and a member of the French Chamber of Deputies. S i e g f r i e d h i m s e l f ran f o r a seat i n the Chamber but was defea t e d . From 1920 to 1922, he was C h i e f o f the Economic S e c t i o n of the League of Nations, and t r a v e l l e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n the course o f h i s work. S e i g f r i e d 1 s most famous book, America Comes of Age (1927) r a i s e d q u i t e a s t i r i n the United S t a t e s because of the author's p e n e t r a t i n g , acute s t y l e . For i n s t a n c e , he summed up America's "boom er a " as a "theocracy of e x p l o i t a t i o n . " S i e g f r i e d ' s other books i n c l u d e d Democracy i n New Zealand (1914), Post-War B r i t a i n (1924), France: A Study i n N a t i o n a l -i t y (1930), England's C r i s i s (1931), Impressions o f South  America (1933) and Canada (1937). Lamb was i n t e r e s t e d i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g C o l b e r t ' s c a r e e r as i t r e l a t e s to Canada and although S i e g f r i e d f e l t t h a t there was enough primary source m a t e r i a l i n Ottawa to support the 13 r e s e a r c h , Lamb p r e f e r r e d to study i n P a r i s . Lamb enjoyed the atmosphere i n P a r i s — the s p i r i t u a l home to so many w r i t e r s and s c h o l a r s i n the 1920s. During the wint e r of 1928 to 1929 Lamb worked on the p r i n t e d sources r e l a t i n g to C o l b e r t and attended the c l a s s e s which most appealed t o him. Under P r o f e s s o r P i e r r e Renouvin he s t u d i e d the p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y of France. He was much impressed by the p r o f e s s o r ' s t a l e n t as a l e c t u r e r . Lamb a l s o worked on h i s French, s t r i v i n g to become b i l i n g u a l (which he achieved; Lamb's wif e Wessie - 18 -T i p p i n g Lamb was a t one t i m e a . p r o f e s s o r o f F r e n c h a t U . B . C ) . When Lamb r e t u r n e d home t h a t summer he was q u i t e i l l . I t was e v e n t u a l l y d e c i d e d t h a t he w o u l d n o t be s t r o n g e nough t o r e t u r n t o P a r i s t h e f o l l o w i n g w i n t e r . He r e l u c t a n t l y a b a n d o n e d h i s s t u d i e s i n P a r i s , a n d t o o k up s t u d i e s a g a i n :at t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o w a r d s a M a s t e r o f A r t s i n H i s t o r y . E v e n t u a l l y , D.C. H a r v e y , t h e n h e a d o f t h e H i s t o r y D e p a r t m e n t a nd l a t e r t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t o f Nova S c o t i a , e n c o u r a g e d Lamb t o t a k e h i s d o c t o r a l d e g r e e i n L o n d o n . W i t h t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n , a c a d e m i c p o s t i n g s w e r e d i f f i c u l t t o s e c u r e . H a r v e y f e l t t h a t a d e g r e e f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f L o n d o n w o u l d f a r e b e t t e r i n t h e m a r k e t -p l a c e t h a n one f r o m t h e S o r b o n n e . A t t h e L o n d o n S c h o o l o f E c o n o m i c s , Lamb s t u d i e d u n d e r H a r o l d L a s k i . L a s k i was a b r i l l i a n t p o l i t i c a l t h e o r i s t , a member o f t h e e x e c u t i v e o f t h e F a b i a n S o c i e t y , one o f t h e f o u n d e r s o f t h e B r i t i s h L a b o u r P a r t y , a n d a member o f t h e P a r t y E x e c u t i v e f r o m 193 6 t o 194 9. He p u b l i s h e d o v e r t w e n t y b o o k s o n p o l i t i c a l t h o u g h t , p r o b l e m s o f s o v e r e i g n t y , a n d c o n -s t i t u t i o n a l l a w a n d won s e v e r a l m e d a l s f o r h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o h i s t o r y a n d p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e . Lamb s t u d i e d t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e B r i t i s h L a b o u r P a r t y . T h i s t o p i c was a t i m e l y one a s Ramsay M c D o n a l d h ad /un-j u s t become the. L a b o u r P r i m e M i n i s t e r . Lamb's s t u d y assumed t h a t t h e a d v e n t o f t h e L a b o u r P a r t y was u n d o u b t e d l y one o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l e v e n t s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f G r e a t - 19 -B r i t a i n d u r i n g t h e l a s t h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I n h i s o u t l i n e o f t h e e m e r g e n c e o f t h e p a r t y , he d i d n o t a t t e m p t t o go i n t o e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l t h e o r i e s o f s o c i a l i s m o r i n t o t h e h i s t o r y o f t r a d e u n i o n i s m . Lamb c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e p a r t y ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f s o c i a l i s m was p r a c t i c a l a n d c o n s t i t u -t i o n a l y e t p r o m i s e d an e f f e c t i v e s o l u t i o n t o t h e s o c i a l p r o b l e m s o f t h e d a y . He d i s p e l l e d t h e n o t i o n t h a t M a r x i s m ha d any s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on t h e p a r t y ' s e a r l y d o c t r i n e . Lamb c o u l d n o t h e l p b u t be i m p r e s s e d b y L a s k i ' s w ork b u t he s t i l l f e e l s t h a t h i s p r o f e s s o r must h a v e c o n s i d e r e d h i m a " f a i l u r e " , f o r t h e p r o f e s s o r f a i l e d t o c o n v e r t h i s 15 s t u d e n t t o s o c i a l i s m . A l w a y s f a i r a n d e n c o u r a g i n g o f Lamb's w o r k , L a s k i must h a v e b e e n c o n f i d e n t o f t h e q u a l i t y o f h i s s t u d e n t ' s s c h o l a r s h i p b e c a u s e he s e n t h i m t o t h e b o a r d o f - . e x a m i n e r s w i t h o u t r e a d i n g t h e l a s t f ew c h a p t e r s o f h i s t h e s i s . A s a s e r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r , L a m b ' d e v e l o p e d a k e e n :'. i n t e r e s t i n l i b r a r i e s a n d a r c h i v e s . F o r h i s d e g r e e s , he s t u d i e d a t t h e B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e and t h e L i b r a r y o f t h e Musee S o c i a l e i n P a r i s , i n t h e B r i t i s h Museum L i b r a r y a t Hendon, i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y a t C a m b r i d g e , a n d B i s h o p ' s G a t e I n s t i t u t i o n L i b r a r y , London."*"^ He a l s o h a d s e v e r a l y e a r s i n t e n s i v e s t u d y i n t h e l i b r a r y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( w h i c h he w o u l d l a t e r h e a d ) . Lamb's t r a i n i n g a s an h i s t o r i a n b e g a n i n h i s y e a r s a s an u n d e r g r a d u a t e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a - 20 -b u t h i s i n t e r e s t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i n s h i p s a n d s h i p p i n g , e a r l y e x p l o r a t i o n , a n d i n t h e m a r i t i m e f u r t r a d e s p r a n g f r o m h i s f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d a nd b o y h o o d e x p e r i e n c e i n New West-m i n s t e r . He was n o t d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e h i s t o r i c a l s u b j e c t s w h i c h f a s c i n a t e d S o w a r d , S i e g f r i e d o r L a s k i b u t he was s h a p e d b y t h e i r i n t e l l e c t , t h e i r s c h o l a r s h i p a n d t h e i r d e d i c a t i o n . Lamb's r e a l i n t e r e s t s l a y i n t h e p r o m o t i o n o f r e g i o n a l h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s a n d t h e w r i t i n g o f l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y w h i c h w o u l d a p p e a l t o a w i d e r e a d i n g p u b l i c . I n o b t a i n i n g h i s u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e s Lamb s t u d i e d a b r o a d a n d i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y o f t h e two c o u n t r i e s m o s t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e f o u n d i n g o f C a n a d a . He was an e x t r e m e l y a b l e y o u n g s c h o l a r a n d q u i c k l y l e a r n e d t h e t h o r o u g h r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s a n d t h e c r a f t o f h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g n e c e s s a r y t o make h i s l a t e r p r o f e s s i o n a l w r i t i n g come a l i v e . Lamb a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s 1934-1939 Lamb b r o u g h t the;, p r o f e s s i o n a l h i s t o r i a n ' s p e r s p e c t i v e t o h i s c a r e e r i n a r c h i v e s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . He owed h i s a p p o i n t m e n t a s P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t t o D r . G.M. W e i r , who became P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y i n t h e L i b e r a l g o v e r n m e n t o f T.D. P a t t u l l o i n 1 9 3 3 . W e i r h a d b e e n h e a d o f t h e F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b e f o r e t a k i n g up h i s c a b i n e t p o s t . He b e l i e v e d t h a t p o s t g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s w e r e " g e n e r a l i s t s " who h a d a v a l i d .and u s e f u l p l a c e i n manage-ment p o s i t i o n s i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . B e f o r e t h i s , - 21 -a c a d e m i c s w e r e o n l y h i r e d f o r s p e c i a l i s t j o b s , f o r e x a m p l e a a s m e d i c a l d o c t o r s , n o t f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s t s . W e i r f e l t t h a t a g e n e r a l i s t c o u l d s e r v e s u c c e s s f u l l y and i n 1934 he c h o s e Lamb and f e l l o w g r a d u a t e s G e o r g e D a v i d s o n , A l l a n P e o b l e s , and I a n Cowan f o r v a r i o u s g o v e r n m e n t p o s t i n g s . A l l f o u r men whom W e i r a p p o i n t e d went on t o d i s t i n g u i s h e d c a r e e r s a s p u b l i c s e r v a n t s . D a v i d s o n was s u c c e s s f u l i n numerous p o l i t i c a l p o s t i n g s , i n c l u d i n g D e p u t y M i n i s t e r o f P a r k s C a n a d a . P e o b l e s w e n t on t o s e t up t h e Unemployment I n s u r a n c e scheme i n C a n a d a , and Cowan became an e x p e r t i n t h e z o o l o g i c a l f i e l d a n d museum a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . When Lamb t o o k o v e r t h e o f f i c e o f P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r i a n a n d A r c h i v i s t , M a j o r M a t t h e w s ( C i t y A r c h i v i s t o f V a n c o u v e r ) w r o t e t o h i m : "A m a n t l e o f g r a v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y h a s f a l l e n u pon y o u r s h o u l d e r s . Y o u t h s t e p s upon t h e s t a g e , d o e s i t s " s t u n t " , g r o w s o l d , and s t e p s o f f . May y o u b e a r t h e b u r d e n so t h a t when, i n t h e y e a r s t o come, y o u r t u r n comes t o h a n d t h e l o a d t o a n o t h e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i l l a p p l a u d w i t h t h e same v i g o u r a s t h e y d i d when H o s i e w e n t , a n d s h o u t - ' W e l l 17 d o n e , w e l l d o n e ' . " A t t h e e n d o f Lamb's s i x - y e a r t e n u r e , he d i d d e s e r v e t h e a p p l a u s e a n d p r a i s e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s . D e s p i t e t h e t r e n d o f r e t r e n c h m e n t i n t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f C a n a d a and t h e o t h e r P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s t h r o u g h t h e D e p r e s -s i o n a n d W o r l d War I I , t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o n t i n u e d t o e x p a n d r e s o u r c e s and p r o g r e s s t o w a r d s b e t t e r s e r v i c e t o r e s e a r c h e r s . S e r v i c e s a t t h e P u b l i c - 22 -A r c h i v e s i n O t t a w a w e r e s e v e r e l y h a m pered b y t h e f i n a n c i a l 18 s t r i n g e n c y o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n . The D o m i n i o n A r c h i v i s t , A r t h u r D o u g h t y e v e n h a d t o s t o p u s i n g t h e p h o t o s t a t a n d r e v e r t t o m a n u s c r i p t c o p y i n g f o r r e s e a r c h e r s . The O n t a r i o A r c h i v e s b a r e l y s u r v i v e d i n 1934, when t h e S t a f f was d r a s t i -19 c a l l y c u t b a c k a s p a r t o f g o v e r n m e n t e c o n o m i z i n g . I n many o t h e r p r o v i n c e s , a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t y was n o n - e x i s t e n t o r r u d i m e n t a r y a t b e s t . By c o n t r a s t , t h e A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p u l l e d t h r o u g h t h e f i f t e e n y e a r s o f d e p r e s s i o n a n d war w i t h a new s y s t e m f o r o r g a n i z i n g m a n u s c r i p t s , p h o t o g r a p h s a n d h i s t o r i c a l b o o k s , w i t h t e n t a t i v e s t e p s t o w a r d s r e c o r d s management, w i t h a s u c c e s s f u l new h i s t o r i c a l j o u r n a l , a n d i.:.*:. many i m p o r t a n t new a c q u i s i t i o n s . D u r i n g Lamb's t e n u r e a s P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r i a n many c h a n g e s w e r e made i n t h e A r c h i v e s D e p a r t m e n t . P r o g r e s s may be m e a s u r e d on two p r i n c i p a l c o u n t s — t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e a r c h i v a l h o l d i n g i t s e l f a n d t h e i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e f a c i l i t i e s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e c o l l e c t i o n . Lamb saw t h a t t h e A r c h i v e s D e p a r t m e n t l a c k e d c o h e s i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n . He b e g a n a b r o a d r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e A r c h i v e s t o i n c r e a s e e f f i c i e n c y i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t . The rooms w e r e c o m p l e t e l y c l e a n e d a n d r e n o v a t e d and s h e l v i n g r e a r r a n g e d i n t h e N o r t h w e s t H i s t o r y L i b r a r y t o t h e b e n e f i t o f r e s e a r c h e r s a n d s t a f f . A s e r i e s o f rooms o n t h e t h i r d f l o o r w e r e o p e n e d t o p r o v i d e s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s a n d r e l i e v e c o n g e s t i o n on t h e m a i n f l o o r . Lamb a l s o l o o k e d a t s t a f f i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s a nd r e d i s t r i b u t e d d u t i e s t o i m p r o v e - 23 -e f f i c i e n c y and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . The m a n u s c r i p t d i v i s i o n was e n r i c h e d b y many v a l u a b l e a d d i t i o n s d u r i n g Lamb's t e n u r e . H i s u l t i m a t e a i m , h o w e v e r , was f o r t h e D e p a r t m e n t t o a c t a s t h e c e n t r a l d e p o s i t o r y o f t h e p u b l i c r e c o r d s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . Lamb saw t h e t r a n s f e r o f l a r g e numbers o f d o c u m e n t s f r o m t h e T r e a s u r y , A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l D e p a r t m e n t , P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y ' s D e p a r t m e n t , t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a n d t h e Law C o u r t s . Lamb made e v e r y e f f o r t t o add t o t h e N o r t h w e s t H i s t o r y l i b r a r y ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200 new t i t l e s e a c h y e a r ) . The r e s t o r a t i o n o f H e l m c k e n House was u n d e r w a y when Lamb r e s i g n e d i n 1 9 3 9 , an i m p o r t a n t a d d i t i o n t o t h e A r c h i v e s D e p a r t m e n t . Lamb a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e p u b l i c ' s a w a r e n e s s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t . He p r o m o t e d t h e u s e and v a l u e o f t h e A r c h i v e s o n h i s t r a v e l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e P r o v i n c e and t h e D o m i n i o n . H i s work w i t h t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y a n d t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n a r o u s e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e p a s t and g a v e p u b l i c a u d i e n c e s a b r o a d e r c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e i r h i s t o r y . Lamb p r o v e d t o be a k n o w l e d g e a b l e f r i e n d o f r e s e a r c h e r s i n h i s a b i l i t y t o s e a r c h o u t d o c u m e n t s r e l a t i n g t o t h e i r i n t e r e s t s a n d i n h i s s c h o l a r l y a d v i c e on t h e i r u s e . Lamb's work a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s may be e x a m i n e d c l o s e l y b y l o o k i n g i n t u r n a t t h e A r c h i v e s ' e x p e n d i t u r e s , a c q u i s i t i o n s , r e c o r d s management, a r r a n g e m e n t a nd d e s c r i p t i o n , s t a f f , r e f e r e n c e w o r k , a nd t h e c o p y i n g o f r e c o r d s . - 24 -E x p e n d i t u r e s T h e r e w e r e l i m i t e d f u n d s a t Lamb's d i s p o s a l f o r a r c h i v e s w o r k . The P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s was a d e p a r t m e n t .. w i t h i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y ; o v e r e i g h t y p e r c e n t o f t h e 20 e x p e n d i t u r e s , - i n c l u d i n g s a l a r i e s , was s p e n t on t h e l i b r a r y . The s p e n d i n g o f t h e L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s d i d n o t c h a n g e d r a s -t i c a l l y d u r i n g .the d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s . I n f a c t i f one l o o k s a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r t h e e n t i r e p e r i o d 1893 t o 1939, t h e amount g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e e x t r a -o r d i n a r i l y g e n e r o u s b u d g e t s o f 1 9 1 2 - 1 9 1 7 . S c h o l e f i e l d ' s s p e n d i n g i n 1913 r e a c h e d $ 3 2 , 6 4 1 ; Lamb's a p p r o p r i a t i o n i n 21 1934 was o n l y $8,000. ( T h e s e f i g u r e s do n o t i n c l u d e s a l a r i e s . ) S c h o l e f i e l d s p e n t o v e r $160,000 i n t h e f i v e y e a r s b e t w e e n 1912 and 1916. Much o f t h e i n c r e a s e was due t o A r c h i v e s a n d N o r t h w e s t H i s t o r y c o l l e c t i o n a c q u i s i t i o n s . As t h e new L i b r a r i a n / A r c h i v i s t , Lamb was s u r p r i s e d t o f i n d t h a t t h e r e was no b u d g e t , no b o o k s o r f i n a n c i a l s t a t e m e n t s f o r t h e L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s , o n l y a f i g u r e w h i c h t o l d h i m how much he h a d t o s p e n d . He a s k e d Madge W o l f e n d e n , t h e l i b r a r y c a t a l o g u e r , w h a t t h e L i b r a r i a n d i d when he r a n 22 o u t o f money. "We s t o p p e d s p e n d i n g i t , " s h e r e p l i e d . Lamb p r e p a r e d a b u d g e t b y g o i n g t h r o u g h t h e v o u c h e r s f o r p r e v i o u s y e a r s a n d s e t up f i n a n c i a l b o o k s f o r t h e D e p a r t m e n t . When W i l l a r d I r e l a n d t o o k o v e r h i s p o s t i n 1 9 3 9 , Lamb p r e s e n t e d h i m w i t h c o m p l e t e i t e m i z e d t a b u l a t i o n s f o r s i x y e a r s p a s t . - 25 -Lamb s p e n t t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l m o n i e s on a c q u i r i n g b o o k s a n d p e r i o d i c a l s f o r t h e L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s , on t h e p r i n t i n g o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y a n d o t h e r p u b l i -c a t i o n s , a n d on t r a v e l . I n t h e s i x y e a r s he s p e n t i n V i c t o r i a Lamb was d e t e r m i n e d t o p r o m o t e B.C. h i s t o r i c a l s t u d y , t o make t h e p h o t o g r a p h , m a n u s c r i p t a n d n e w s p a p e r c o l l e c t i o n s more e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e a n d t o g e t the.; g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s i n t e r e s t e d i n p r e s e r v i n g p u b l i c r e c o r d s . A c q u i s i t i o n o f P u b l i c a n d P r i v a t e R e c o r d s A s he s i z e d up t h e s i t u a t i o n o f t h e A r c h i v e s , Lamb c o u l d s e e t h e n e e d t o a c t on v i r t u a l l y a l l f r o n t s t o o r g a n i z e t h e c o l l e c t i o n , a c q u i r e r e c o r d s , b o t h p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e , a n d p r e s e r v e t h e c o l l e c t i o n s a l r e a d y h o u s e d . Lamb w r o t e t o M a j o r M a t t h e w s : "The m a n u s c r i p t s h a v e n e v e r b e e n p r o p e r l y a r r a n g e d a n d c a t a l o g u e d ; we l a c k r e l i a b l e c o p i e s o f much o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n c o l o n i a l g o v e r n o r s a n d t h e I m p e r i a l G o v e r n m e n t ; m o s t o f o u r p r i c e l e s s e a r l y n e w s p a p e r s a r e i n s u c h a l a m e n t a b l e c o n d i t i o n ' t h a t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o u s e them w i t h o u t d a m a g i n g them f u r t h e r . " He a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e l a c k o f a s s i d u o u s m a n u s c r i p t c o l l e c t i n g was a 23 m a t t e r " w h i c h s h o u l d h a v e p r e c e d e n c e o v e r a l l o t h e r s . " A t t h i s t i m e , t h e A r c h i v e s was v e r y much c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r e r r c o n f e d e r a t i o n ( p r e 1871) r e c o r d s . O f t e n , i t was a m a t t e r o f r e s c u i n g ' f r a g m e n t s o f r e c o r d s r a t h e r t h a n , f o r i n s t a n c e , r e l a t e d g r o u p s o f p u b l i c r e c o r d s , a s was - 26 -i l l u s t r a t e d i n a l e t t e r Lamb r e c e i v e d f r o m h i s s u c c e s s o r , W i l l a r d I r e l a n d . "We a r e q u i t e e x c i t e d h e r e t o d a y f o r t h e E l l a d i a r i e s h a v e come i n t o o u r p o s s e s s i o n . They a r e i n r a t h e r p o o r s h a p e a n d a r e i n r e a l i t y o n l y f r a g m e n t s . B o t h w e r e k e p t by (Mr. H.R. E l l a ' s ) m o t h e r , t h e one p r i o r t o h e r m a r r i a g e t o C a p t a i n E l l a c o v e r s 1853-4 and t h e o t h e r 1, 24 1855-6." Of c o u r s e , one c o u l d h a r d l y e x p e c t t o u n c o v e r l a r g e c a c h e s o f e a r l y r e c o r d s a t s u c h a g r e a t d i s t a n c e i n t i m e f r o m t h e i r o r i g i n , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p e r s o n a l , f a m i l y n a t u r e o f many o f t h e e a r l y r e c o r d s . The a p p e n d i x c o n t a i n s a t a b l e o f s e l e c t a c q u i s i t i o n s f o r t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s f r o m 1935 t o 1942. The a c c e s s i o n s h a v e b e e n s e p a r a t e d i n t o p u b l i c r e c o r d s a n d m a n u s c r i p t m a t e r i a l t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n p r e - c o n f e d e r a t i o n r e c o r d s a n d o f f e r some r a w m a t e r i a l f o r a n a l y s i s . I f one e x a m i n e s t h e s e " i m p o r t a n t " a c q u i s i t i o n s t h e c o n t i n u e d i m p o r t a n c e o f p r e - c o n f e d e r a t i o n r e c o r d s shows t h r o u g h w i t h t h e m a n u s c r i p t a c c e s s i o n s . O ut o f t w e n t y - t h r e e m a n u s c r i p t c o l l e c t i o n s , e i g h t e e n c o v e r e d p e r i o d s p r i o r t o B r i t i s h :c;.^ C o l u m b i a j o i n i n g c o n f e d e r a t i o n ; o f t h e t e n p u b l i c r e c o r d g r o u p s , t h r e e a r e d a t e d p r e - 1 8 7 1 , f o u r a r e p o s t - 1 8 7 1 a nd t h r e e g r o u p s c o v e r b o t h p e r i o d s . Lamb was m a i n l y a c q u i r i n g t h e p r i v a t e p a p e r s o f p i o n e e r a d v e n t u r e r s s u c h a s J o h n E v a n s a n d M r s . E l l a a n d t h o s e o f i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c i a n s James D o u g l a s a nd R i c h a r d B l a n s h a r d . T h e r e a r e few c o l l e c t i o n s o f p a p e r s r e l a t i n g t o " o r d i n a r y " p e o p l e u n l e s s t h e y w e r e - 27 -p i o n e e r s a n d no r e c o r d s o f g r o u p s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r s o c i e t i e s p r e - o r p o s t - c o n f e d e r a t i o n e r a . I t c o u l d be t h a t f e w e r p o s t c o n f e d e r a t i o n m a n u s c r i p t s w e re o f f e r e d t o Lamb and t h i s " b i a s " was g e n e r a l t o t h e p u b l i c . P e o p l e came f o r w a r d w i t h e a r l y m a n u s c r i p t s b e c a u s e t h e y c o u l d s e e t h e i r v a l u e . The p u b l i c a s s o c i a t e d a r c h i v e s w i t h r e c o r d s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s e a r l i e s t h i s t o r y . I n a c q u i r i n g m a i n l y p r e - c o n f e d e r a t i o n r e c o r d s Lamb was s e r v i n g h i s r e s e a r c h e r s w e l l b e c a u s e , a s ha s b e e n shown, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h i s t o r i a n s w e r e s t i l l w r i t -i n g a b o u t t h e g r e a t men o f t h e p r o v i n c e who f i r s t e x p l o r e d a n d s e t t l e d t h e l a n d . The-, p r i v a t e m a t e r i a l s a l s o f i t i n w i t h Lamb's f a v o u r i t e t o p i c s : t h e maps r e l a t i n g t o p r o p o s e d r a i l w a y s , t h e m a r i n e r e c o r d s , M r s . E l l a ' s d i a r i e s , M a r c u s S m i t h ' s d i a r i e s , Mayne's j o u r n a l , a n d t h e w a t e r c o l o u r s o f C a p t a i n A l d e n d e a l i n g w i t h e a r l y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The m a n u s c r i p t s o f J o h n E v a n s , Simon F r a s e r , James A l d e n , R.C. Mayne, M a r c u s S m i t h , R.B. M c M i c k i n g a nd C.W. W i l s o n a l l r e l a t e t o e x p l o r a -t i o n a n d s u r v e y i n g . The p u b l i c r e c o r d s a r e e v e n l y d i v i d e d b e t w e e n p r e -an d p o s t - c o n f e d e r a t i o n e r a s . Lamb h a d t o b r e a k some new g r o u n d i n a c q u i r i n g p o s t - c o n f e d e r a t i o n p u b l i c r e c o r d s . I n t h e 1 9 3 0 s , t h e r e w e re no r e g u l a t i o n s i n e f f e c t r e q u i r i n g g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s t o f o r w a r d n o n - c u r r e n t r e c o r d s t o t h e A r c h i v e s . U n t i l 1936, t h e P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r i a n ( A r c h i v i s t ) was n o t c o n s u l t e d when r e c o r d s w e r e t o be d e s t r o y e d . - 28 -The P u b l i c Document D i s p o s a l A c t (1936) was the f i r s t s t a t u t e passed by the p r o v i n c e t o ^ d e a l with the d i s p o s a l of p u b l i c r e c o r d s . Although not e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y to the a r c h i v i s t , the a c t pr o v i d e d f o r a ten year o b l i g a t o r y r e t e n -t i o n p e r i o d f o r a l l r e c o r d s . A f t e r ten years the re c o r d s were t o be di s p o s e d of under r e g u l a t i o n s s et out by L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l . No d i s p o s a l of re c o r d s was supposed to take p l a c e u n t i l the r e c o r d s were l i s t e d and the l i s t presen-ted d u r i n g a s e s s i o n of the L e g i s l a t u r e t o the S e l e c t Standing Committee of the House on P r i n t i n g . These l i s t s had to be approved by the M i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r e c o r d s b e f o r e 25 they c o u l d be destroyed. The Act made i t p o s s i b l e f o r the A r c h i v e s t o become aware of re c o r d s proposed f o r d e s t r u c t i o n , but there was no mechanism to a i d the A r c h i v e s i n a c q u i r i n g 2 6 p u b l i c r e c o r d s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . Some departments d e p o s i t e d t h e i r non-current r e c o r d s i n the A r c h i v e s but oth e r s chose to r e t a i n o l d e r r e c o r d s i n t h e i r own f i l e s . One department had des t r o y e d e v e r y t h i n g p r i o r t o the enact-27 ment of the l e g i s l a t i o n . Lamb had entered i n t o a time when the bulk of modern r e c o r d s made i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r the a r c h i v i s t t o keep e v e r y t h i n g . He was no lon g e r o n l y a c u s t o d i a n of r e c o r d s but had to make d e c i s i o n s about what would be of most value to f u t u r e s c h o l a r s and d e s t r o y the r e s t . L a t e r i n h i s c a r e e r , Lamb saw t o the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of r e c o r d s management i n Canadian A r c h i v e s , the b a s i c aim of which was - 29 -to "reduce volume by c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g to reduce the number of r e c o r d s c r e a t e d and to arrange t h a t r e c o r d s of temporary 2 8 v a l u e are weeded and d i s c a r d e d as soon as p o s s i b l e . " At t h i s stage, however, i t was more a matter of o b s e r v i n g the l e g a l i t i e s necessary f o r d e s t r u c t i o n than implementing re c o r d s management. Today, Lamb f i n d s i t i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t a r c h i v a l ^ . i t h e o r i s t S i r H i l a r y Jenkinson d i d not q u i t e a n t i c i p a t e the whole r e c o r d s management scheme. As he has w r i t t e n , "Jenkinson was l o a t h to see the a r c h i v i s t p l a y an a c t i v e role„in d e s t r u c t i o n . He was anxious to prevent the element of p e r s o n a l judgement i n the p i c t u r e . Jenkinson d i s t r u s t e d the h i s t o r i a n because he d i d not have a detached p o i n t of 29 view." Lamb f e e l s t h a t as an a r c h i v i s t Jenkinson l e f t too much to departmental a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . These a d m i n i s t r a t o r s cannot see t h a t some r e c o r d s are v a l u a b l e f o r purposes ot h e r than those f o r which they were f i r s t c r e a t e d . " A r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n s are r i c h i n documents t h a t have a l l s o r t s of unexpected v a l u e s of t h i s k i n d , and i t i s my c o n t e n t i o n t h a t , by and l a r g e , the a r c h i v i s t i s the person most l i k e l y to 30 p r e c e i v e them." The a r c h i v i s t ' s day to day work wit h r e s e a r c h e r s g i v e s him background a g a i n s t which he can judge the value of the r e c o r d s . In the e a r l y 1930s, Lamb became s e n s i t i v e to the need f o r planned d i s p o s i t i o n of r e c o r d s but he c o u l d not do much at the time. Although the a c t p r o v i d e d some guidance, - 30 -i t d i d . n o t make p r o v i s i o n f o r s c h e d u l i n g a n d r e g u l a r t r a n s f e r o f r e c o r d s , and s t i l l d o e s n o t . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a s l a g g e d b e h i n d i n t h e g e n e r a l i m p r o v e m e n t o f p u b l i c r e c o r d p r o g r a m s w h i c h h a s t a k e n p l a c e s i n c e W o r l d War I I . I n t h e 1930s Lamb was f r u s t r a t e d b y t h e l a c k o f a w a r e n e s s a nd c o o p e r a t i o n by t h e g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s . I n 1940 he w r o t e t o W i l l a r d I r e l a n d ( t h e n P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t ) : " . . . t h e a r c h i v i s t o n l y e n t e r e d t h e [ r e c o r d s management] p i c t u r e a t a l l b e c a u s e I b a r g e d i n ; b u t he h a d no a u t h o r i t y w i t h t h e name and y o u a r e q u i t e r i g h t a b o u t d o c u m e n t s b e i n g . ; d e s t r o y e d by some 31 d e p a r t m e n t s w h e n e v e r t h e y h a v e a m i n d t o do s o . " Lamb c a r r i e d h i s p l a n s a n d c o n c e r n s a b o u t t h e manage-ment o f p u b l i c r e c o r d s f r o m t h e p r o v i n c i a l s c e n e i n t h e 1930s i n B.C. t o t h e f e d e r a l s p h e r e i n t h e 1950s a nd 1 9 6 0 s . And h e r e he was e x t r e m e l y s u c c e s s f u l . He saw t h e f e d e r a l a r c h i v e s 3 2 t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a " f u l l - f l e d g e d p u b l i c r e c o r d o f f i c e " . Lamb b u i l t a h a l f way h o u s e f o r d e p a r t m e n t a l f i l e s c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f C a n a d a . D e p a r t m e n t s w e r e r e q u i r e d t o s e n d a l l r e c o r d s n o t r e q u i r e d f o r d a y t o d a y u s e t o t h e r e c o r d s c e n t r e ( c o m p l e t e d i n J a n u a r y 1 9 5 6 ) . When t h e r e c o r d s w e r e no l o n g e r n e e d e d , t h e y w e r e r e v i e w e d b y A r c h i v e s s t a f f a n d t h o s e o f p e r m a n e n t h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t w e r e t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e A r c h i v e s . The r e s t w e r e d e s t r o y e d . The f a c t t h a t t h e L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s i n B.C. l a c k e d t h e s p a c e t o s t o r e o l d e r r e c o r d s e x p l a i n s Lamb's l i m i t e d s u c c e s s i n a c q u i r i n g many p u b l i c r e c o r d s . J o h n - 31 -A r c h e r , f o r m e r P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t o f S a s k a t c h e w a n a n d a u t h o r I o f a d i s s e r t a t i o n o n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f C a n a d i a n a r c h i v e s , s t a t e s t h a t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h e r e i s "no h i s t o r y o f w a n t o n d e s t r u c t i o n o f p u b l i c r e c o r d s b u t n o t a l l o l d e r r e c o r d s a r e p r e s e r v e d i n t h e A r c h i v e s . The g r e a t e r b u l k o f o l d e r r e c o r d s a r e p r e s e r v e d i n d e p a r t m e n t a l s t o r a g e . The A r c h i v e s h a s n e v e r h a d s u f f i c i e n t s p a c e t o h o u s e a l l r e c o r d s b o r n e f r u i t ( s i c ) . P r o b a b l y t h i s s i t u a t i o n e x p l a i n s why r e l a t i v e l y f e w o l d e r r e c o r d s h a v e b e e n t r a n s f e r r e d d e s p i t e t h e h i g h r e g a r d i n w h i c h 33 t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s i s g e n e r a l l y h e l d . " The P r o v i n c e s t i l l h a s no r e c o r d s c e n t r e f o r i n t e r m e d i a t e s t o r a g e b u t i s g o i n g a h e a d w i t h a r e c o r d s management scheme f o r g o v e r n m e n t r e c o r d s a n d s c h e d u l i n g o f r e c o r d s . A r r a n g e m e n t a n d D e s c r i p t i o n One o f Lamb's l a s t i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o B.C. A r c h i v e s was a r e v i s e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme w h i c h c o v e r e d t h e e n t i r e a r c h i v a l h o l d i n g s — t h e N o r t h w e s t H i s t o r y c o l l e c t i o n o f b o o k s and p a m p h l e t s , t h e m a n u s c r i p t s , p u b l i c r e c o r d s , a n d p h o t o g r a p h s . He d e v i s e d t h r e e s y s t e m s , one f o r e a c h o f t h e c l a s s e s o f m a t e r i a l . The N o r t h w e s t H i s t o r y L i b r a r y , a d e p a r t m e n t o f t h e L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s was c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e b e s t c o l l e c t i o n o f i t s k i n d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . I t i n c l u d e d ( i n 1 9 3 4 ) more t h a n 1 4 , 0 0 0 v o l u m e s ; 1 , 0 0 0 o f t h e s e w e r e r a r e a n d o f immense 34 v a l u e , e v e n i n a c o m m e r c i a l s e n s e . When Lamb a r r i v e d i n 1 9 3 4 , he f o u n d t h a t many o l d b i n d i n g s on n e w s p a p e r s were b r o k e n - 32 -a n d i n some c a s e s i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n s u l t t h e p a p e r s w i t h o u t d a m a g i n g them. T h e s e w e r e t o be r e b o u n d i m m e d i a t e l y 35 b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e i n c o n s t a n t demand. He a l s o r e a r r a n g e d t h e c o l l e c t i o n t o make i t more a c c e s s i b l e a nd show i t t o i t s g r e a t e s t a d v a n t a g e . The r e a r r a n g e m e n t i n v o l v e d a d a p t i n g t h e Dewey D e c i m a l scheme o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t o f i t t h e c o l l e c t i o n . The Dewey D e c i m a l s y s t e m was d e s i g n e d f o r U.S. l i b r a r i e s a n d c o u l d n o t accommodate a l a r g e number o f w o r k s o n a C a n a d i a n r e g i o n . T h i s new c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme, e n t i r e l y i n p l a c e b y 1937, i s s t i l l i n u s e a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s a l m o s t f i f t y y e a r s l a t e r . Lamb's i n n o v a t i o n s i n t h e s e a r e a s o f a r r a n g e m e n t a n d d e s c r i p t i o n came f r o m h i s . b a c k g r o u n d a s an h i s t o r i c a l re-> s e a r c h e r . He w a n t e d b e t t e r a c c e s s t o t h e c o l l e c t i o n . I n 1935 t h e e n t i r e c o l l e c t i o n o f C a n a d i a n D o m i n i o n and P r o v i n c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s w e r e s o r t e d and r e s h e l v e d a l l o w i n g f o r q u i c k r e f e r e n c e and f o r s t a f f t o d i s c o v e r t h e e x t e n t a n d t y p e o f m a t e r i a l i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n . Some m a t e r i a l was d i s p o s e d o f on an e x c h a n g e p r o g r a m w i t h t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n t h e n e x t two y e a r s a l m o s t a l l b o o k s , p a m p h l e t s , a n d g o v e r n -ment p u b l i c a t i o n s w e r e r e a r r a n g e d and r e c l a s s i f i e d . B o o k s on r e l a t e d t o p i c s w e r e b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r , t h o s e on p o p u l a r s u b -j e c t s w e r e p l a c e d o n t h e most c o n s p i c u o u s s h e l v e s a n d c o n g e s t e d s h e l f s p a c e was r e l i e v e d b y e l i m i n a t i n g d u p l i c a t e s . The t h i r d f l o o r was o p e n e d up and d i f f e r e n t g r a d e s o f s h e l v e s b u i l t f o r s t o r i n g d u p l i c a t e n e w s p a p e r s , b o o k s , p a m p h l e t s , m a n u s c r i p t s , p h o t o g r a p h s o r e x h i b i t s . The e x t r a s t o r a g e - 33 -s p a c e g r e a t l y r e l i e v e d c o n g e s t i o n a n d h e l p e d t o w a r d s a more 3 6 u s e f u l a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t 1 s c o l l e c t i o n . By t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 1936, t h e p a m p h l e t c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e N o r t h w e s t H i s t o r y L i b r a r y h a d a l s o b e e n r e a r r a n g e d a nd r e c l a s s i f i e d . O v e r 1400 p a m p h l e t s had. b e f o r e t h i s t i m e b e e n a r r a n g e d a mongst t h e b o o k s i n an " u n s i g h t l y and i n a c c e s s i b l e 37 manner." The p a m p h l e t s w e r e p l a c e d i n l a r g e m a n i l a enver-^ l o p e s w i t h c a l l numbers on t h e o u t s i d e a n d h o u s e d i n d r a w e r s . T h i s was more c o n v e n i e n t f o r r e s e a r c h e r s a n d s t a f f a n d a l s o h e l p e d t o p r e s e r v e t h e p a m p h l e t s . I n 193 5 M i s s Madge W o l f e n d e n was a p p o i n t e d A s s i s t a n t A r c h i v i s t a n d t o o k o v e r t h e d u t i e s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t . B e f o r e t h i s t i m e s he was a c t i n g a s C a t a l o g u e r i n t h e M a i n L i b r a r y . W o l f e n d e n ' s c a t a l o g u i n g a b i l i t i e s w e r e g r e a t l y n e e d e d i n t h e N o r t h w e s t H i s t o r y L i b r a r y . I n 1935, much c a t a l o g u i n g was a c c o m p l i s h e d i n c l u d i n g an i n d e x o f s t a t e p a p e r s d e a l i n g w i t h V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , a n a l y t i c a l s f o r t h e O r e g o n H i s t o r i c a l  Q u a r t e r l y a n d t h e C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w f o r t h o s e s u b -j e c t s d e a l i n g w i t h B.C., a n i n d e x o f Howay's a r t i c l e s on t h e m a r i t i m e f u r t r a d e a n d o v e r 100 i t e m s a d d e d t o t h e B.C. L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n ' s B i b l i o g r a p h y o f B.C. A l l t h e s e p r o j e c t s 38 w e r e c o m p l e t e d i n a d d i t i o n t o r o u t i n e w o r k . T h i s y e a r a l s o saw t h e c o l l a t i n g , m e n d i n g a n d r e - b i n d i n g o f e a r l y C o l o n i s t f i l e s f r o m 1 8 5 8 - 1 8 6 3 . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e g i v e s a g o o d i d e a o f w o r k c o m p l e -t e d i n t h e N o r t h w e s t H i s t o r y L i b r a r y u n d e r Lamb's d i r e c t i o n . - 34 -S t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e N o r t h w e s t H i s t o r y C o l l e c t i o n 1 9 3 5 - 1 9 3 9 * 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 C a t a l o g u e c a r d s made 6893 3323 680 4306 2401 S h e l f l i s t c a r d s 805 525 121 520 182 P r i c e l i s t c a r d s 655 1632 0 0 0 L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s c a r d s a d d e d - 649 258 82 137 C a r d s b r o u g h t u p - t o - d a t e 7099 304 1463 2061 N e w s p a p e r i n d e x c a r d s made - 4375 9975 4404 3570 C a r d s made f o r c l a s s i f . mss. - - - - 1039 T o t a l c a r d s f i l e d 8353 17603 11338 11067 9390 P a m p h l e t s c a t a l o g u e d - 886 69 84 204 B o o k s c a t a l o g u e d , J . l a b e l l e d & s h e l v e d 1229 993 126 1308 479 * C o m p i l e d f r o m R e p o r t s o f t h e N o r t h w e s t H i s t o r y L i b r a r y , P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n t h e A r c h i v e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60,000 m a n u s c r i p t s r e q u i r e d a t t e n t i o n . T h e r e was no c h e c k l i s t o f t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n so Lamb t u r n e d h i s a t t e n t i o n t o p r e p a r i n g a p r e l i m i n a r y c a t a l o g u e o f t h e A r c h i v e s . U n t i l t h i s work was done i t w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e t o s a y what was i n t h e 39 A r c h i v e s . When t h i s l i s t was c o m p l e t e Lamb d e v i s e d an - 35 -a c c e s s i o n s p r o c e d u r e a n d n o t e d e a c h m a n u s c r i p t g r o u p i n a n a c c e s s i o n s r e c o r d b o o k . I n t h e 1938 r e p o r t o f t h e A r c h i v e s D e p a r t m e n t , M u r i a l C r e e n o t e s , "a new p o l i c y o f a c c e s s i o n i n g d o n a t i o n s p r o v i d e s f o r a book b e i n g k e p t by t h e A r c h i v i s t ' s 40 s e c r e t a r y . " Thus Lamb h a d a r e c o r d o f a l l m a t e r i a l s ... a c q u i r e d b y and c o n t a i n e d i n t h e A r c h i v e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y .. t h i s s y s t e m was d i s c o n t i n u e d b y h i s s u c c e s s o r . F o r s e v e r a l y e a r s Lamb w o r k e d o n a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme w h i c h w o u l d make p o s s i b l e t h e c a t a l o g u i n g o f manure s c r i p t s a c c o r d i n g t o a c h r o n o l o g i c a l p l a n . D i v i d i n g t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n b y s u b j e c t and t h e n b y c h r o n o l o g i -c a l d i v i s i o n s o f t i m e made t h e c o m p i l a t i o n s o f a c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n c o d e e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t . ( T h e r e was f o r e x a m p l e " C l a s s A" f o r e a r l y e x p l o r a t i o n w i t h s u b d i v i s i o n s "AA" a n d "AB" f o r m a r i t i m e a n d o v e r l a n d e x p l o r a t i o n a n d so o n . A s y s t e m o f numbers i n d i c a t e d t h e t y p e o f m a t e r i a l w i t h i n e a c h s u b c l a s s . ) H owever, b y t h e end o f 1938 t h i s scheme w h i c h p r o m i s e d t o be s a t i s f a c t o r y h a d b e e n f u l l y w o r k e d o u t , a n d Lamb h o p e d i t w o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o c a t a l o g u e a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f . t h e manu-41 s c r i p t s i n 1939. I n 1940, Lamb w r o t e t o W i l l a r d I r e l a n d : I am v e r y p l e a s e d t o h e a r t h a t y o u w e r e s t a r t i n g on m a n u s c r i p t s . H a v i n g s p e n t f o u r y e a r s g e t t i n g r e a d y t o s t a r t , I l i k e t o h e a r t h a t i t i s b e i n g p u s h e d a l o n g now and t h e n . I f i t i s e v e r , f i n i s h e d , I t h i n k B.C. w i l l h a v e t h e most r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e a r c h i v e s on t h e c o n t i n e n t (a v e r y m o d e s t e s t i m a t e o f my e n t e r p r i s e s , y o u w i l l n o t e ) i f ^ Lamb's m a n u s c r i p t s y s t e m was s t i l l i n u s e u n t i l t h e m i d 1 9 7 0 s . He a l s o d e s i g n e d a s y s t e m f o r p u b l i c r e c o r d s o f t h e c o l o n i e s - 36 -o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The s y s t e m _ o b s e r v e d p r o v e n a n c e by a s s o c i a t i n g r e c o r d s w i t h t h e c r e a t i n g a g e n c y , s o m e t h i n g w h i c h was n o t done b e f o r e Lamb's t i m e . The t h i r d s y s t e m Lamb d e s i g n e d f o r t h e A r c h i v e s c o l l e c t i o n was f o r p h o t o g r a p h s . T h i s scheme was b a s e d on a s y s t e m w h i c h r e c o g n i z e d g e o g r a p h i c a l and c h r o n o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s . I t meant t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e t o s e e i n a moment what p i c t u r e s w e r e a v a i l a b l e o n any g i v e n s u b j e c t . P h o t o -g r a p h s w e r e s t o r e d i n h a n d - p r i n t e d e n v e l o p e s , s h o w i n g t h e s i z e o f e a c h p h o t o g r a p h , number o f c o p i e s , t y p e ( p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e ) a n d a r r a n g e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y b y s u b j e c t — 175 43 p h o t o g r a p h s t o e a c h d r a w e r . The 1939 r e p o r t o f t h e A r c h i v e s m e n t i o n s s i x t e e n d r a w e r s o f p h o t o g r a p h s o f p i o n e e r s , t e n c d r a w e r s o f t o w n s , s t r e e t s a nd p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , one d r a w e r c o f u n i d e n t i f i e d p h o t o g r a p h s w h i c h was g r a d u a l l y s i f t e d o u t a s o l d t i m e r s i d e n t i f i e d them, a d r a w e r o f s h i p s a nd s h i p p i n g , one d r a w e r o f H u d s o n ' s Bay Company f o r t s , one s e c t i o n o f 44 I n d i a n p h o t o g r a p h s and one s e c t i o n o f a l b u m s . T h i s c a t a l o g u i n g s y s t e m e v e n t u a l l y c o l l a p s e d w i t h t h e r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n p h o t o g r a p h i c p r o d u c t i o n , a n d a new s y s t e m , 4 5 a l p h a b e t i c a l b y c o m m u n i t i e s , was w o r k e d o u t . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e s p e e d and e f f i c i e n c y o f r e f e r e n c e w o r k d e p e n d e d o n t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f g o o d c c a t a l o g u e s and i n d i c e s . H o w e v e r , t i m e s p e n t on r e f e r e n c e q u e s t i o n s meant s t a f f t i m e away f r o m c a t a l o g u i n g w o r k . T h i s was one o f t h e p r o b l e m s f a c i n g Lamb a s P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r i a n a n d A r c h i v i s t . R e f e r e n c e S e r v i c e and S t a f f F o r y e a r s t h e l i b r a r y s t a f f h a d b e e n t r y i n g t o b u i l d up a s e r i e s o f i n d i c e s b e a r i n g o n l o c a l q u e s t i o n s and c o n d i -t i o n s b u t r e d u c t i o n o f t h e s t a f f w i t h r e d u c e d L i b r a r y / A r c h i v e s a p p r o p r i a t i o n s b r o u g h t t h i s w ork t o a s t a n d s t i l l i n 46 t h e 1 9 3 0 s . Lamb r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e l i b r a r y was, " i l l -e q u i p p e d t o d e a l w i t h many i n q u i r i e s made. The l i b r a r y n e e d s 47 c o n s i d e r a b l e c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e t o f u l f i l l i t s n e e d s . " One o f t h e ways t o r e d u c e t i m e t h a t t h e s t a f f s p e n t on r e f e r e n c e d u t i e s was t o l i m i t b o r r o w i n g p r i v i l e g e s i n t h e l i b r a r y . Lamb f e l t t h a t e f f o r t s h o u l d be made t o r e s t r i c t t h e number o f b o r r o w e r s a s e v e r y book t a k e n o u r r e d u c e s s t a f f 48 t i m e s p e n t on i n d e x i n g and o t h e r i m p o r t a n t w o r k . J o h n H o s i e , Lamb's p r e d e c e s s o r , h a d r e s t r i c t e d b o r r o w i n g t o "bona f i d e s t u d e n t s " . Lamb f e l t i t was d i f f i c u l t t o r e s t r i c t d i r e c t l o a n s , b e t t e r t o l e t t h e l i b r a r y d e t e r m i n e who s h a l l u s e i t . By r e f r a i n i n g f r o m b u y i n g p o p u l a r o r e p h e m e r a l l i t e r a t u r e o n l y " s e r i o u s " r e a d e r s w o u l d want t o u s e t h e 49 l i b r a r y . I n t h e N o r t h w e s t H i s t o r y L i b r a r y t h e p r o b l e m was more s e r i o u s . The c o l l e c t i o n was o f s u c h v a l u e t h a t i t h a d t o be p r o t e c t e d . No " s e r i o u s " s t u d e n t was r e f u s e d a n y book b u t o n l y modern d u p l i c a t e s c o u l d l e a v e t h e b u i l d i n g . Lamb's r e p o r t o f 1934 n o t e d t h a t " r e f e r e n c e w ork o f t e n i n t e r f e r e d s e r i o u s l y w i t h c a t a l o g u i n g i n t h e A r c h i v e s . Many i n q u i r i e s r e c e i v e d a r e o f l i t t l e o r no p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e y e t t a k e h o u r s - 38 -o f s e a r c h i n g t o a n s w e r . A n o m i n a l c h a r g e may p r e v e n t p e o p l e 50 f r o m a s k i n g f r i v o l o u s q u e s t i o n s . " When Lamb a r r i v e d i n V i c t o r i a he i m m e d i a t e l y n o t e d t h e n e e d f o r a n o t h e r c a t a l o g u e r . I n 1914 t h e L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s h a d f o u r c a t a l o g u e r s o n s t a f f ; i n 1934 t h e r e was o n l y M i s s W o l f e n d e n t o c a t a l o g u e t h e w o r k s i n t h e L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y a n d t h e A r c h i v e s . T h e r e w ere 6,000 u n c a t a l o g u e d b o o k s i n t h e m a i n l i b r a r y a n d 3,000 i n t h e N o r t h w e s t H i s t o r y C o l l e c t i o n . The L e g i s l a t i v e R e f e r e n c e C l e r k s p e n t m o r n i n g s a t t h e i n q u i r y d e s k a nd o n l y a f t e r n o o n s w e r e d e v o t e d t o " r e f e r e n c e work proper"."'"'" Lamb n e e d e d a n o t h e r j u n i o r c l e r k so t h a t e a c h s t a f f member c o u l d s p e n d t h e w h o l e d a y a t t h e same w o r k . He f e l t t h i s t o be an immense s t e p f o r w a r d i n l i b r a r y management. I n 19 35 t h e y . L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s g o t t h e two n e e d e d s t a f f a d d i t i o n s ; A l i c e B e l l was h i r e d a s c a t a l o g u e r a n d H a r o l d W a l k e r a s j u n i o r c l e r k . As m e n t i o n e d , W o l f e n d e n was a p p o i n t e d A s s i s t a n t A r c h i v i s t a n d t o o k o v e r t h e day t o d a y d u t i e s o f t h a t D e p a r t m e n t . Much o f t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s c o u l d be t r a c e d t o t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f p e r s o n n e l . T h e r e was o n l y one s t a f f c h a n g e f r o m 1 9 3 5 - 1 9 3 8 . As W i l l a r d I r e l a n d p u t i t i n t h e A r c h i v e s r e p o r t f o r 1 9 4 0 , " f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e A r c h i v e s i s t h e b e s t g u a r a n t e e o f good „52 s e r v i c e . T r a v e l .and F i e l d Work A l t h o u g h S c h o l e f i e l d h a d t r a v e l l e d w i d e l y f o r t h e A r c h i v e s , i n 1928-29 t h e a n n u a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n e x p l i c i t l y p r o v i d e d t r a v e l l i n g e x p e n s e s f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . I n 1929 J o h n H o s i e v i s i t e d t h e C a r i b o o s e a r c h i n g f o r m a t e r i a l f o r t h e 53 A r c h i v e s . T h i s t r i p a n d s u c c e e d i n g v e n t u r e s p r o d u c e d a g r e a t amount o f e a r l y g o v e r n m e n t r e c o r d s ; r e g i s t e r s o f m i n i n g c l a i m s , d i a r i e s a n d p a p e r s . I n 1933 H o s i e w r o t e : F i e l d w ork — much h a s b e e n done r e c e n t l y on t h e I s l a n d and t h e m a i n l a n d . Armed w i t h due a u t h o r i t y t h e A r c h i v i s t h a s t h o r o u g h l y e x a m i n e d t h e o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s h o u s e d i n many o f t h e o l d e r g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c e s . . . a n d h a s t r a n s f e r r e d l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f v a l u a b l e d o c u m e n t a r y m a t e r i a l t o t h e A r c h i v e s . T h i s m a t e r i a l , much o f i t v i t a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h g o l d r u s h e s o f t h e e a r l y 1 860s i s now i n c o n s t a n t demand and t h e w i s d o m o f r e m o v i n g i t t o t h e A r c h i v e s h a s b e e n c l e a r l y j u s t i f i e d . 5 I n t h e summer o f 1935 Lamb r e s u m e d t h e f i e l d w o rk p r o j e c t s . Many s e c t i o n s o f t h e p r o v i n c e h a d n e v e r b e e n v i s i t e d b y t h e A r c h i v i s t a n d Lamb s e t o u t t o c o l l e c t e a r l y r e c o r d s s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e , p r e s e r v e them a n d make them a v a i l a b l e t o s t u d e n t s . Lamb made many v a l u a b l e p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s w i t h p e r s o n s w i t h a g e n u i n e i n t e r e s t i n l o c a l h i s t o r y . He was c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e s e v i s i t s w e r e an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e a r c h i v i s t ' s d u t i e s a n d e x c e l l e n t i n v e s t m e n t s o n b e h a l f o f 55 t h e d e p a r t m e n t . I n M a r c h o f 1937 Lamb t r a v e l l e d t o t h e I n t e r i o r a n d d e l i v e r e d a d d r e s s e s on h i s t o r i c a l t o p i c s t o P e n t i c t o n , K e l o w n a , V e r n o n a nd K a m l o o p s . I n May and J u n e he t r a v e l l e d - 40 -t o E a s t e r n C a n a d a a nd t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o v i s i t l i b r a r i e s a n d a r c h i v e s . The t o u r was o f g r e a t v a l u e t o h i m i n h i s 56 w o r k . I n O c t o b e r Lamb f o u n d t i m e t o v i s i t P r i n c e R u p e r t , P r i n c e G e o r g e a n d t h e Ok a n a g a n . S p e c i a l P r o j e c t s a n d E x h i b i t s Lamb i n i t i a t e d new p r o j e c t s a n d s p e c i a l e x h i b i t s t o r a i s e p u b l i c a w a r e n e s s o f t h e L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s a n d t o e n c o u r a g e i n t e r e s t i n B.C. h i s t o r y . The m a i n p r o j e c t o f t h i s k i n d was t h e l a u n c h i n g o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l  Q u a r t e r l y , a j o u r n a l w h i c h Lamb e d i t e d f o r t e n y e a r s . The s t o r y o f t h e Q u a r t e r l y w i l l b e c o v e r e d i n d e t a i l i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . I n 1935 Lamb w o r k e d on a s e r i e s o f f i l m s s p o n s o r e d b y t h e Home O i l Company. The Company p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e f i l m s s h o u l d be made i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e A r c h i v e s D e p a r t m e n t i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e P r o v i n c e . T h r e e f i l m s w e r e c o m p l e t e d o u t l i n i n g t h e p a s t a n d p r e s e n t l i f e i n a r e a s s u c h a s V i c t o r i a , V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , V a n c o u v e r a n d t h e F r a s e r 57 V a l l e y , d e p i c t i n g s u c c e s s f u l g r o w t h i n B.C. Home O i l p r e s e n t e d c o p i e s o f t h e f i l m s t o t h e A r c h i v e s . Lamb f e l t t h a t t h e y w o u l d be o f g r e a t v a l u e J . ' f o r s c h o o l u s e . The y e a r 193 5 a l s o saw a s p e c i a l e x h i b i t c e l e b r a t i n g t h e c e n t e n a r y o f t h e l a u n c h o f t h e " B e a v e r " , t h e f i r s t s t e a m s h i p on t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c . The e x h i b i t i n c l u d e d r e l i c s , m a n u s c r i p t s , a n d p h o t o g r a p h s r e l a t i n g t o t h e s t e a m s h i p . Many - 41 -donations were the r e s u l t of t h i s s p e c i a l e x h i b i t , i n c l u d i n g the l a r g e s t timber known to have s u r v i v e d the wreckage. The C i t y of New Westminster c e l e b r a t e d i t s 75th a n n i v e r s a r y and another e x h i b i t was planned to honour the o l d e s t c i t y i n the p r o v i n c e . Copying Records Lamb's main c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada were i n the areas o f r e c o r d s management, i n the growth of the c o l l e c t i o n of post c o n f e d e r a t i o n papers and i n the area of microphotography. He came to f e e l t h a t the i n t r o d u c -t i o n of microphotography was of g r e a t importance to the a r c h i v i s t and the h i s t o r i a n . I t o f f e r e d an inexpensive means of copying e s s e n t i a l r e c o r d s and p r o v i d e d a safeguard a g a i n s t l o s s e s r e s u l t i n g from damage to or d e s t r u c t i o n of o r i g i n a l 58 documents. M i c r o f i l m a l s o made l e n d i n g c o p i e s of documents p o s s i b l e and prevented some problems of r i v a l r y i n a c q u i s i -t i o n s . Although m i c r o f i l m as a medium d i d not become popular u n t i l the 1950s, i t was a v a i l a b l e f o r use i n the 1920s and 1930s. In the 1930s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Lamb r e a l i z e d the advantages f o r a r c h i v e s u s i n g microphotography. He saw t h a t a r c h i v e s c o u l d o b t a i n complete and a c c u r a t e c o p i e s of r e c o r d s 59 so p a i n f u l l y produced by hand c o p y i s t s s i n c e 1880. The work of a c o p y i s t was slow and c o s t l y ; people made mistakes and the ( s a l a r y ) r a t e was so low t h a t they c o u l d not a f f o r d to spend time, on passages t h a t were hard to d e c i p h e r . - 42 -Lamb d i d not have m i c r o f i l m i n g equipment a t h i s d i s p o s a l a t the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s i n the 1930s. He kept up the program of copying r e c o r d s i n London begun by Schole-f i e l d twenty years before., He was Dominion A r c h i v i s t when the A r c h i v e s r e c e i v e d the f i r s t m i c r o f i l m cameras i n 1950 and immediately s e t to work o b t a i n i n g c o p i e s of the records of Great B r i t a i n and France which were e s s e n t i a l to the h i s t o r y of Canada. S t i l l , i n 1941 he was pushing to get microphotography to work i n B.C. Lamb wrote to I r e l a n d t h a t the R o c k e f e l l e r Foundation seemed to be i n t e r e s t e d i n micro-f i l m and Fred Landon had been pushing hard f o r the m i c r o f i l m -ing of key f i l e s o f e a r l y newspapers. "I am keen t o see the Columbian and G a z e t t e - C o l o n i s t f i l e s done, a t l e a s t as f a r as 1871. One c o u l d . p i c k and choose c o p i e s here and there and get a r e a l l y complete s e t wit h l u c k , a t presen t a s e t of n e i t h e r i s r e a l l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e s e a r c h . I would push t h a t 6 0 p r o j e c t hard i f I were you." Lamb foresaw the va l u e o f microphotography years b e f o r e he a c t u a l l y used i t a t the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada. In 1973 Lamb was i n v i t e d to tour the f e d e r a l a r c h i v e s of A u s t r a l i a . In h i s subsequent r e p o r t to the A u s t r a l i a n Government, the use of m i c r o f i l m was one of Lamb's f i r s t recommendations f o r the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s i n Canberra. - 43 -CHAPTER I I I REGIONAL HISTORY AND THE FOUNDING OF THE BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL-QUARTERLY-,, Regional h i s t o r i a n s d i d not make f u l l use of the source m a t e r i a l p r eserved i n the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s i n 1930. They depended on the A r c h i v e s s t a f f to t e l l them what was i n the c o l l e c t i o n and they depended on t h e i r own l i b r a r i e s -or other p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e i r chosen s u b j e c t s . The w r i t i n g of B r i t i s h Columbia h i s t o r y was s t i l l i n i t s i n f a n c y . These e a r l y h i s t o r i a n s needed a l o c a l forum f o r . . t h e i r -writings, and the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s r e q u i r e d a showcase f o r i t s growing c o l l e c t i o n . In the 1930s, Lamb i n i t i a t e d some changes i n the w r i t i n g and p u b l i c a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia h i s t o r y . At the same time ai.number of graduate theses were produced at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. New p r o f e s s i o n a l standards and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r submission of s c h o l a r l y a r t i c l e s of r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t were e v i d e n t i n the B r i t i s h Columbia  H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y . The Q u a r t e r l y was launched i n 1937 with Lamb as e d i t o r , co-sponsored by the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s and the B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . The pages of the j o u r n a l r e f l e c t the growing i n t e r e s t i n B r i t i s h Colum-b i a h i s t o r y , although the m a j o r i t y of a r t i c l e s favoured the f u r t r a d e and g o l d rush e r a s . - 44 -Lamb's h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g a n d e d i t i n g was h i s t o r y w i t h a p u r p o s e . H i s work a i m e d t o "hook" t h e man o n t h e s t r e e t a n d i n t r o d u c e h i m t o t h e p a s t o f t h e r e g i o n o r town i n w h i c h he l i v e d . I n t h i s s e n s e Lamb was a " p o p u l a r i z e r " o f h i s t o r y who a t t e m p t e d t o b r i n g k n o w l e d g e a nd o p i n i o n t o t h e m a s s e s . He d i d n o t b e l i e v e t h a t much a c a d e m i c h i s t o r y was a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e " l a y m a n " i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e h i s t o r y o f h i s l o c a l i t y . The d u l l n e s s o f much p r o f e s s i o n a l w r i t i n g and n a r r o w n e s s o f r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t s s e r v e d t o i s o l a t e t h e p o p u l a t i o n f r o m e n j o y i n g a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p a s t . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y ( h e r e a f t e r BCHQ), a p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s , h a d i t s p r e d e c e s s o r i n e f f o r t s b e g u n b y S c h o l e f i e l d t o p u b l i s h i m p o r t a n t m a n u s c r i p t s a n d mono g r a p h s b a s e d on s o u r c e m a t e r i a l p r e s e r v e d i n t h e A r c h i v e s . I n 1914, t h e f i r s t i n a s e r i e s o f M e m o i r s , a s t h e y w e r e c a l l e d , was p u b l i s h e d b y t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s : The F i r s t C i r c u m n a v i g a t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r  I s l a n d , a m o n o g r a p h b y D r . C.F. Newcombe. I n 1918 t h e f i r s t M i n u t e s o f C o u n c i l o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d was p r i n t e d a s M e m o i r s I I , I I I a n d I V . 1 T h e r e w e r e e i g h t M e m o i r s p u b l i s h e d b e f o r e Lamb's a r r i v a l a t t h e A r c h i v e s : f o u r w e r e h i s t o r i c a l m o nographs p r e p a r e d b y h i s t o r i a n s ( M e m o i r s , I , V I , V I I a n d V I I I ) a n d f o u r w e r e p u b l i c a t i o n s o f d o c u m e n t s i n t h e A r c h i v e s ( M e m o i r s I I , I I I , I V and V ) . The f i r s t f o u r o f S c h o l e f i e l d ' s M e m o i r s s e r i e s w e r e f i n a n c e d b y t h e K i n g ' s P r i n t e r ' s v o t e a n d t h e r e -a f t e r o u t o f t h e A r c h i v e s v o t e . A t t h e t i m e o f Lamb's a r r i v a l , - 45 -e v e n t h o u g h new m a n u s c r i p t s h a d b e e n p r e p a r e d by Howay a n d R e i d , l a c k o f f u n d s h a d s t a l l e d t h e s e r i e s . I n h i s r e p o r t o n t h e s t a t e o f t h e A r c h i v e s when he a r r i v e d , Lamb n o t e d , " t h e a u t h o r s a n d e d i t o r s o f M e m o i r s h a d b e e n g i v e n n o t h i n g f o r t h e i r w o r k b u t a few d o z e n c o p i e s o f t h e c o m p l e t e d 2 b o o k . . . E d i t i o n s o f l a t e r b o o k s was l i m i t e d t o 500 c o p i e s . " A l t h o u g h l a c k o f money p r e v e n t e d a d d i t i o n s t o t h e M e m o i r s s e r i e s , Lamb f e l t t h a t t h e r e was room f o r new c o n -3 s t r u c t i v e p o l i c i e s w i t h r e g a r d t o A r c h i v e s p u b l i c a t i o n s . He f i r s t w a n t e d $500 o f w o r k i n g c a p i t a l a n d h o p e d t o r a i s e i t f r o m t h e s a l e o f M e m o i r s e d i t i o n s a l r e a d y p r i n t e d . Lamb f o u n d o v e r 2,000 c o p i e s o f s e v e n o f t h e s e r i e s a n d a d v e r t i s e d M e m o i r V I I , The A s s a y O f f i c e a n d t h e P r o p o s e d M i n t a t New  W e s t m i n s t e r b y R.L. R e i d t o g e t a n i d e a o f t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t t h a t m i g h t be g e n e r a t e d i n t h e e x i s t i n g p u b l i c a t i o n s . The s u c c e s s f u l s a l e o f Memoir V I I was t h e s t a r t o f t h e BCHQ. Lamb knew t h e e x t r e m e i m p o r t a n c e o f p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s s o r t . He b e l i e v e d h i s i d e a f o r t h e j o u r n a l was p o s s i b l e , e v e n i n t h o s e y e a r s o f d e p r e s s i o n . He f e l t t h a t t h e d e f i c i t w o u l d be s m a l l o r n o n - e x i s t e n t due t o c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n o f a u t h o r s a n d s u b j e c t s t o a p p e a l t o a w i d e p u b l i c . Lamb f e l t t h a t a n : h i s t o r i c a l m a g a z i n e was i n d i s p e n s i b l e t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e g i o n a l h i s t o r y . W r i t e r s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h i s t o r y h a d t o p u b l i s h i n t h e C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l  R e v i e w o r t h e W a s h i n g t o n o r O r e g o n q u a r t e r l i e s , none o f w h i c h c o u l d a f f o r d t o p a y much a t t e n t i o n t o p r o v i n c i a l h i s t o r y . - 46 -B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h i s t o r y c o u l d n o t g e t o f f t h e g r o u n d w i t h o u t l o c a l p r o s p e c t s f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . Lamb had t o c o n v i n c e P.D. W a l k e r , t h e D e p u t y P r o v i n -c i a l S e c r e t a r y , o f t h e v a l u e o f s p o n s o r i n g s u c h a j o u r n a l . W a l k e r h a d a g o o d r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h M i s s H o l m e s , one o f t h e e m p l o y e e s o f t h e l i b r a r y . A l t h o u g h W a l k e r a nd Lamb w e r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e ( W a l k e r h a d an " e a r t h y " s i d e a n d h i s c h o i c e o f l a n g u a g e made Lamb u n c o m f o r t a b l e ) , W a l k e r was an i n s a t i a b l e r e a d e r a n d M i s s Homes and D r . Lamb k e p t h i m i n b o o k s . He t a l k e d t o Mr. W a l k e r a b o u t h i s i d e a f o r a n h i s t o r i c a l j o u r n a l a n d t o l d him. t h a t t h e p r o j e c t w o u l d n o t c o s t v e r y much i f t h e A r c h i v e s c o o p e r a t e d w i t h t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n ( h e r e a f t e r BCHA). W a l k e r came t o l o o k f a v o u r a b l y o n t h e i d e a . A q u a r t e r l y c o u l d s e r v e t o p r o m o t e t h e A r c h i v e s , e n c o u r a g i n g more r e s e a r c h e r s t o u s e t h e v a s t s o u r c e m a t e r i a l a n d r a i s e t h e s t a t u s o f c . t h e D e p a r t m e n t a t t h e s a m e t t i m e . Lamb f e l t t h a t t h e v a l u e o f t h e g r e a t s t o r e o f b o o k s , m a n u s c r i p t s , a n d p i c t u r e s p r e s e r v e d i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s s h o u l d be u s e d a n d a p p r e c i a t e d b y more t h a n a f e w r e s e a r c h s t u d e n t s . The D e p a r t m e n t l a c k e d t h e means o f m a k i n g i t s r e s o u r c e s known t o a w i d e r p u b l i c . Lamb h o p e d t h a t a q u a r t e r l y w o u l d make g o o d t h i s d e f i c i e n c y . He w a n t e d i m p o r t a n t m a n u s c r i p t s p u b l i s h e d i n t h e j o u r n a l a n d h o p e d t h a t t h e " p r o s p e c t o f p u b l i c a t i o n i n p e r m a n e n t f o r m , w h i c h t h e Q u a r t e r l y i s a b l e t o o f f e r , w o u l d e n c o u r a g e t h e w r i t i n g c o f - 47 -w o r t h w h i l e a r t i c l e s u p o n many a s p e c t s o f B.C. h i s t o r y . " Lamb saw t h e n e e d f o r a s u p p l e m e n t t o t h e C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i -c a l R e v i e w . As he p u t i t i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e f i r s t i s s u e : "a p e r i o d i c a l w h i c h d e a l s w i t h t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e e n t i r e D o m i n i o n c a n n o t p o s s i b l y c o n c e r n i t s e l f w i t h s u b j e c t s , h o w e v e r i n t e r e s t i n g , w h i c h a r e p r i m a r i l y o f r e g i o n a l c o n c e r n ; a n d i t i s t o t h e l a t t e r t h a t t h e BCHQ w i l l d e v o t e a l a r g e 5 p r o p o r t i o n o f i t s s p a c e . " To Lamb, p o p u l a r i z i n g h i s t o r y meant p r e s e n t i n g ..  s c h o l a r l y , f a c t u a l d a t a i n a way w h i c h was a u t h e n t i c , i n g ood t a s t e and a p p e a l i n g t o a w i d e p u b l i c . He w a n t e d a r t i c l e s i n t h e j o u r n a l t o show t h e s k i l l e d c r a f t m a n s h i p o f t h e w r i t e r , t o u c h t h e i n n e r m o t i v a t i o n s o f t h e r e a d e r , and c o n v e y t o h i m a s e n s e o f p u r p o s e . H i s o w n w w r i t i n g c o n t a i n s a l l t h e i n g r e d i e n t s o f g ood h i s t o r y w r i t t e n w i t h c l a r i t y a n d s t y l e , i n g r e d i e n t s t h a t Lamb came t o f e e l c o n s t i t u t e d t h e " l a s t a n d m ost d i f f i c u l t m i l e w h i c h , i f l e f t u n r a v e l l e d by t h e h i s t o r i a n c a n p r e v e n t an y w o r k f r o m r e a c h i n g i t s p r o p e r 6 7 d e s t i n a t i o n . " Lamb's own a r t i c l e s on t h e E m p r e s s v e s s e l s a r e e x a m p l e s o f w h a t he was s t r i v i n g f o r a n d e n c o u r a g e d i n o t h e r a u t h o r s . A s one r e v i e w e r w r o t e o f h i s a c c o u n t o f t h e s h i p s : " I t i s a l a b o u r o f l o v e . O n l y one who a d m i r e d t h e E m p r e s s l i n e r s c o u l d h a v e w r i t t e n t h e i r h i s t o r y w i t h s u c h f i d e l i t y t o f a c t and a t t e n t i o n t o c o l o u r f u l d e t a i l . H i s E m p r e s s O d y s s e y i s t h e r e s u l t o f y e a r s o f f a c t f i n d i n g and i s g a t h r i l l i n g a d d i t i o n t o B.C.'s m a r i t i m e h i s t o r y . " - 48 -Lamb w o r k e d t i r e l e s s l y w i t h h i s a u t h o r s . H i s e d i t o r i a l t a l e n t h e l p e d many h i s t o r i a n s w i t h - t h e i r w r i t i n g a n d r e s e a r c h . The r o l e o f t h e e d i t o r i s v i t a l t o t h e s u c c e s s o f a j o u r n a l s u c h a s t h e BCHQ. As James P a r t o n , e d i t o r o f A m e r i c a n H e r i t a g e p u t i t , " t h e r e i s a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n „, b e t w e e n t h e e d i t o r a n d p u b l i s h e r o f a j o u r n a l ; t h e e d i t o r o f a m a g a z i n e i s l i k e t h e c h e f i n a f i n e r e s t a u r a n t , i n f i n i t e l y s k i l l e d a t c o o k i n g a n d s e r v i n g . The p u b l i s h e r i s c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e m a i t r e ' d . He has t o d e c i d e w h a t k i n d o f p e r s o n t o l u r e i n t o t h e r e s t a u r a n t , w h e r e - t o s e a t g u e s t s a n d o t h e r 9 m a t t e r s , i n c l u d i n g how t o p a y t h e r e n t . " Lamb was a u t h o r , e d i t o r a n d p u b l i s h e r i n o n e . He p e r s o n a l l y e d i t e d a n d o f t e n r e - w o r k e d a r t i c l e s s u b m i t t e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . C o u n t l e s s e x a m p l e s o f t h i s a p p e a r i n Lamb's c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h Howay, Sa g e , I r e l a n d and t h e many o t h e r c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h e Q u a r t e r l y . F o r e x a m p l e , he f o u n d h i m s e l f h a v i n g t o r e v i s e \_ t h e work o f e v e n s o e x p e r i e n c e d a w r i t e r a s D r . T.A. R i c k a r d . As he t o l d h i s a s s o c i a t e e d i t o r y e a r s a f t e r t h e f a c t : P r o b l e m s h a v e a r i s e n e a c h t i m e t h a t T.A.R. • [ R i c k a r d ] h a s made a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e Q u a r t e r l y . E v e n t h e a r t i c l e on S p r o a t , w h i c h g r a c e d o u r f i r s t i s s u e , came t o me w i t h o u t a w o r d i n i t r e g a r d i n g s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f S p r o a t ' s l i f e a n d w o r k . I d u g o u t the.'. s t u f f t o f i l l t h e s e i n , a n d when t h e D r . f a i l e d t o r e v i s e i t i n a way t h a t was t h e l e a s t . s a t i s f a c t o r y , I r e w r o t e t h e p a r t s c o n c e r n e d m y s e l f . H e r e we s e e Lamb's p a s s i o n a t e a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l . He i n s i s t e d t h a t a r t i c l e s be t h o r o u g h l y r e s e a r c h e d . He w o u l d n o t l e t h i s c o n c e r n f o r r e a d a b l e h i s t o r y c o m p r o m i s e h i s - 49 -i n s t i n c t s f o r c a r e f u l s c h o l a r s h i p . A l t h o u g h he made c h a n g e s o r a d d i t i o n s t o many o f t h e a r t i c l e s , he a l w a y s s u b m i t t e d t h e c h a n g e s t o a u t h o r s , who r a r e l y c o m p l a i n e d a b o u t h i s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e i r w o r k . I n h i s t e n y e a r s a s e d i t o r , he r e c e i v e d o n l y one s t r o n g o b j e c t i o n t o h i s editing."'""'" As p u b l i s h e r o f t h e BCHQ, Lamb a r r a n g e d t h e a r t i c l e s f o r p r i n t i n g . H i s i n t e r e s t i n f o r m a n d s t y l e a n d h i s a d m i r a -t i o n f o r r e a d a b l e h i s t o r y i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e h i g h q u a l i t y p r i n t a n d a t t r a c t i v e b i n d i n g c h o s e n f o r t h e j o u r n a l . Lamb a l s o h a n d l e d a l l t h e f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e e n d e a v o u r . He s o u g h t s u b s c r i b e r s , r e o r g a n i z i n g a n d p r o m o t i n g t h e BCHA t o t h i s e n d . I n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e a u t h o r s h i p a n d o v e r s e e i n g , a l l t h e d e t a i l w ork i n v o l v e d i n e d i t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g t h e j o u r n a l , Lamb was a s s u r e d o f a q u a l i t y p r o d u c t . The Q u a r t e r l y was p u b l i s h e d b y t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s w i t h t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e - B . C . H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a -t i o n . T h r o u g h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n t h e A s s o c i a t i o n was t o s o l v e two m a j o r d i f f i c u l t i e s . I t h a d b e e n u n a b l e t o p u b l i s h i t s r e p o r t s a n d p r o c e e d i n g s s i n c e 1929. M o r e o v e r , a s no p r o v i -s i o n was made i n t h e A s s o c i a t i o n ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r b r a n c h c h a p t e r s , most o f t h e members w e r e c o n f i n e d t o V i c t o r i a , V a n c o u v e r , and t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s . T h e s e two p r o b l e m s w e r e i n p a r t o v e r c o m e b y t h e p r i n t i n g o f t h e Q u a r t e r l y . A r r a n g e m e n t s w ere made t o ha v e members o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n p a y t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e i r a n n u a l f e e o f two d o l l a r s t o t h e A r c h i v e s i n r e t u r n f o r a s u b s c r i p t i o n t o t h e j o u r n a l . The - 50 -j o u r n a l t h e n p r i n t e d t h e r e p o r t s a n d p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n a n d o u t s t a n d i n g p a p e r s r e a d a t a n n u a l m e e t i n g s . Lamb a l s o w a n t e d t h e A s s o c i a t i o n a n d t h u s t h e Q u a r t e r l y , t o i s e r v e a w i d e r m e m b e r s h i p , and so he a p p r o a c h e d o t h e r l o c a l h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s , t h e n n o t c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e BCHA, t o h a v e t h e i r s o c i e t i e s a f f i l i a t e w i t h t h e BCHA a n d t h e r e f o r e become s u b s c r i b e r s t o t h e BCHQ. He t o l d t h e p r e s i d e n t o f one s o c i e t y , "my o n l y r e g r e t i s t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n m e m b e r s h i p i s c e n t r e d i n V a n c o u v e r a nd V i c t o r i a . I w o u l d l i k e t o make t h e m a g a z i n e p r o v i n c e - w i d e i n o u t l o o k a n d s c o p e . However, I know w h a t a l a r g e sum two d o l l a r s c a s h c a n be o n c e y o u l e a v e 12 t h e l a r g e r c i t i e s b e h i n d . " He was a b l e t o b r i n g l o c a l s o c i e t i e s i n t o t h e f o l d when he was e l e c t e d p r e s i d e n t o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1936. U n d e r h i s g u i d a n c e , t h e A s s o c i a t i o n r e v i s e d i t s b y - l a w s i n o r d e r t o f o r m a f e d e r a t i o n composed o f l o c a l s o c i e t i e s s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e . F i v e o r more members i n g o o d s t a n d i n g o f a l o c a l s o c i e t y c o u l d p e t i t i o n t h e BCHA c o u n c i l f o r a u t h o r i t y t o f o r m a l o c a l s e c -t i o n i n a n y p a r t o f t h e P r o v i n c e . E a c h s e c t i o n e n j o y e d f u l l a u tonomy a s f a r a s t h e management o f t h e i r l o c a l a f f a i r s was c o n c e r n e d . Thus a s a r e s u l t o f Lamb's i n i t i a t i v e , t h e BCHA was made up a l m o s t e n t i r e l y o f t h e m e m b e r s h i p o f l o c a l s o c i e t i e s w h i c h w ere n o t b r a n c h e s b u t autonomous e n t i t i e s . W i t h t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e BCHQ t h e B.C. H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n became l i t t l e more t h a n an u m b r e l l a o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r l o c a l - 51 -s o c i e t i e s . Even Vancouver and V i c t o r i a established t h e i r own autonomous s o c i e t i e s . Lamb had helped to set up the Fraser Canyon H i s t o r i -c a l Association in 1935. His l e t t e r to Mr. Greene of the Association requests a f f i l i a t i o n with the BCHA because "the move would l i n k things up p r o v i n c i a l l y i n a way I think i s most desirable... The issues of the Quarterly w i l l keep us in touch and make us r e a l i z e we are a l l part of something 13 bigger than ourselves." But his promotion of regional .„ history went beyond the BCHQ. He sent the Association a sample constit u t i o n and suggested t h e i r motto, a l a t i n phrase conveying the idea that they were working for the benefit of . . . . 14 future generations. By the time Lamb printed the f i r s t issue of the Quarterly, he had some assurance of a l i s t of paid subscribers through the BCHA. Robie Reid and T.A. Rickard were a great help in getting the journal started. Reid promised to get 150 subscribers, and delivered on his promise by convincing a good many of his fellow Kiwanians in Vancouver to take out subscriptions to the Quarterly before an issue had been 15 published. It i s said that the Quarterly "smacked of Dr. Lamb",16 but i t also smacked of Judge Howay and Robie Reid, es p e c i a l l y in the f i r s t few volumes. Lamb wrote over t h i r t y a r t i c l e s for the journal, Howay submitted sixteen and Reid's name appears twelve times. Mrs. Robie Reid teased Lamb about t h i s - 52 -s i t u a t i o n . " M r s . R e i d w i l l b e amused," Lamb w r o t e , " i f t h e O c t o b e r number m a t e r i a l i z e s a s p l a n n e d . Once b e f o r e , i n J a n u a r y 194 0, t h e t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s r e a d 'Howay-Reid-Lamb' an d she p u l l e d my l e g a b o u t t h e ' f a m i l y c o m p a c t ' o r w o r d s t o t h a t e f f e c t . " 1 7 Many o f t h e s u b j e c t s c o v e r e d i n t h e BCHQ r e f l e c t e d t h e f a v o u r i t e i n t e r e s t s o f Howay, R e i d , and Lamb. P i o n e e r s i n many ways t h e m s e l v e s , t h e s e t h r e e h i s t o r i a n s w r o t e a b o u t t h e p r e - c o n f e d e r a t i o n e r a , a b o u t e a r l y p o l i t i c a l a nd e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s u b j e c t s s u c h a s r a i l w a y s , s h i p s a n d s h i p p i n g , and t h e b u i l d i n g o f r o a d s . T h e r e a r e t h i r t y - s i x a r t i c l e s on t h e f u r t r a d e , t w e n t y - e i g h t on d i s c o v e r y and e x p l o r a t i o n , t w e n t y - n i n e c o n c e r n i n g t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n a n d t w e n t y on t h e H u d s o n Bay Company s t e a m s h i p s . V e r y fe w w r i t e r s c o n c e r n e d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e p o s t 1871 e r a , o r w i t h s o c i a l h i s t o r y s u c h a s t h e h i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s e t h n i c g r o u p s , women, e d u c a t i o n , o r t h e h i s t o r y o f v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The j o u r n a l r e f l e c t e d t h e s t a t e o f h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t s i n t h e " m i d d l e p e r i o d " o f B r i t i s h (:c.i. C o l u m b i a h i s t o r i o g r a p h y . T h e r e was a n o v e r w h e l m i n g b i a s t o w a r d s t h e c o l o n i a l p a s t , t h e d e e d s o f g r e a t men, and t h e m a t e r i a l p r o g r e s s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . F rom t h e b e g i n n i n g , Lamb saw t h e Q u a r t e r l y a s a ; means t o p u b l i c i z e a n d p r o m o t e u s e o f m a t e r i a l i n t h e A r c h i v e s . He e s t a b l i s h e d a "Documents" s e c t i o n t o r e p o r t new a c q u i s i t i o n s and v a l u a b l e c o l l e c t i o n s i n t h e A r c h i v e s . - 53 -L a t e r , he s u g g e s t e d t o W i l l a r d I r e l a n d , t h a t s h o r t , i n t e r e s t -i n g p a r t s o f d o c u m e n t s i n t h e A r c h i v e s c o u l d a l s o go i n t h e Q u a r t e r l y . " I t seems t o me," he w r o t e , " t h a t t h e r e a r e l o t s o f l e t t e r s a n d t h i n g s i n t h e a r c h i v e s t h a t c o n t a i n s h o r t g r a p h i c p a s s a g e s . I am t h i n k i n g o f s u c h t h i n g s a s t h e Spuzzum s t o r y , F r e i s a c h * s a c c o u n t o f t h e b u r n i n g o f t h e Sea 18 B i r d , b i t s f r o m H e l m c k e n ' s r e m i n i s c e n c e s . . . " On a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n he a s k e d , " c o u l d y o u n o t make t h e p r i n t i n g o f t h e maps t h e o c c a s i o n f o r a n o t e on ' E a r l y Maps i n t h e A r c h i v e s ' ? N o t one s u b s c r i b e r i n a h u n d r e d h a s t h e f a i n t e s t i n k l i n g o f t h e r i c h e s y o u h a v e s t o w e d away, a n d i t m i g h t be a c h a n c e t o m e n t i o n t h e f a c t t h a t y o u h a v e a r e a l l y f i n e map c o l l e c t i o n . " 1 The Q u a r t e r l y b e g a n w i t h Lamb a s e d i t o r and r a n f o r o v e r t w e n t y y e a r s . I t was p r i n t e d i n J a n u a r y , A p r i l , J u l y and O c t o b e r e a c h y e a r f r o m 1937 t o 1955. O n l y one i s s u e a p p e a r e d i n 1956 a n d t h e f i n a l v o l u m e (No. 21) r e p r e s e n t e d J a n u a r y 1 9 5 7 - O c t o b e r 1958. Lamb r e t i r e d a s e d i t o r i n 1 947, a f t e r t h e 4 0 t h n u m b e r - o f t h e Q u a r t e r l y , c o m p l e t i n g t h e ... m a g a z i n e ' s f i r s t d e c a d e . E v e n when he l e f t t h e P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y f o r h i s p o s t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Lamb r e m a i n e d a s e d i t o r . W i l l a r d I r e l a n d , h i s s u c c e s s o r i n V i c t o r i a , s e r v e d a s A s s o c i a t e E d i t o r f r o m 1940-1947 a n d t h e n as t h e j o u r n a l ' s e d i t o r u n t i l t h e e n d o f t h e r u n . The BCHQ was v e r y s u c c e s s f u l . A f t e r one y e a r Lamb h a d 434 p a i d s u b s c r i b e r s , t h e l a r g e s t p a i d s u b s c r i p t i o n l i s t f o r a m a g a z i n e o f i t s k i n d i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t . I n 1938 t h e e x p e r i m e n t - 54 -of p u b l i s h i n g a q u a r t e r l y magazine devoted to the h i s t o r y of the province showed even more promise. The number of sub s c r i b e r s was up to 4 74 and the j o u r n a l was recognized as the standard p u b l i c a t i o n i n i t s f i e l d . As proof of i t s success i t was indexed r e g u l a r l y i n the Faxon Magazine Index. Lamb's main purpose i n p u b l i s h i n g the j o u r n a l was to broaden the scope of and i n t e r e s t i n B r i t i s h Columbia h i s t o r y , which he q u i c k l y achieved. S i x years a f t e r coming to the Archives and three short years a f t e r founding the Qua r t e r l y he was commended f o r not only adding immensely to the h i s t o r i c a l data c o l l e c t e d i n the Department but a c h i e v i n g a great deal to make the study of B r i t i s h Columbia h i s t o r y popular. I t was "due to..Lamb's i n i t i a t i v e t hat the p u b l i c a -t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y by which many va l u a b l e records of the province have been made a v a i l a b l e 20 to an i n t e r e s t e d p u b l i c . " Lamb's aggressive e d i t o r i a l work may be c r i t i c i z e d , but.one must put h i s work i n the context of the times. Lamb set high standards f o r the a r t i c l e s appearing i n the BCHQ: he r e q u i r e d t h a t a r t i c l e s be i n t e r e s t i n g , w e l l - w r i t t e n and based on s o l i d , accurate research. He knew i n t i m a t e l y the source m a t e r i a l i n the Archives and recognized gaps i n _ sch o l a r s ' research. C o n t r i b u t o r s to the Qua r t e r l y were mainly amateur h i s t o r i a n s , and Lamb had to play the r o l e of educator to guide untutored hands. His reward was a j o u r n a l of i n t e r e s t to laymen and p r o f e s s i o n a l s a l i k e . Work appear-- 55 -i n g i n i t s p a g e s a p p r o a c h e d t h e h i g h q u a l i t y o f t h a t p r i n t e d i n t h e C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w . The j o u r n a l ' s s u c c e s s . d i d n o t come e a s i l y . Lamb s a c r i f i c e d much o f h i s l e i s u r e t i m e t o t h e e d i t o r i a l w o r k . He was a b a c h e l o r a t t h e t i m e t h e Q u a r t e r l y was l a u n c h e d so was f r e e t o work i n t h e e v e n i n g s . When I r e l a n d became A s s o c i a t e E d i t o r , Lamb w r o t e : I'm s o r r y i f I seem t o be c h a s i n g y o u b u t I mus t a d m i t t h a t I was v e r y g l a d t o g e t y o u r l o n g l e t t e r t h i s m o r n i n g a s i t c l e a r e d up a go o d many m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o t h e Q u a r t e r l y . I d o u b t i f y o u h a v e y e t r e a l i z e d (a) how r a p i d l y t h r e e m o n t h s c a n f l i t b y a n d how l o n g i n a d v a n c e one must s t a r t p l a n n i n g i n d e t a i l a n d (b) t h a t t h e Q u a r t e r l y c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s a F r e n c h C a n a d i a n f a m i l y b y w h i c h I mean t h a t i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y a c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s . 2 1 Lamb saw h i s work a s p u b l i s h e r a n d e d i t o r o f t h e BCHQ as a l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n o f h i s r o l e a s P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t . He saw a way t o p r o m o t e t h e r e s e a r c h a n d w r i t i n g o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h i s t o r y a n d t o make an i n t e r e s t e d p u b l i c a w a r e o f t h e g r e a t s o u r c e m a t e r i a l p r e s e r v e d i n t h e A r c h i v e s . F o r Lamb h i s t o r y a n d a r c h i v e s w e r e i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d a n d a s P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t saw h i s j o b a s b o t h p r e s e r v i n g v a l u a b l e h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s a n d n u r t u r i n g t h e w r i t i n g o f r e g i o n a l h i s t o r y . - 56 -CONCLUSION Lamb h a s l e f t h i s mark a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . He c o n s c i o u s l y t r i e d t o p r o v i d e a s o l i d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b a s e f o r t h e A r c h i v e s D e p a r t m e n t . The A r c h i v e s was no l o n g e r j u s t an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l , a p a r t o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y , b u t a r e f e r e n c e i n s t i t u t i o n o f r e a l i m p o r t a n c e w i t h v i t a l l i n k s t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l c o m m u n i t y . Lamb's work a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s c l e a r l y shows h i s d e v o t i o n t o h i s p l a c e o f b i r t h and h i s s e n s e o f p l a c e a n d f a m i l y . L i k e many d e s c e n d a n t s o f t h e e a r l y s e t t l e r s o f West-e r n C a n a d a , Lamb f e e l s an i m p o r t a n t l i n k w i t h t h e h i s t o r y o f h i s r e g i o n . Lamb's f a m i l y h a s " r o o t s " i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and he h a s b e e n f a s c i n a t e d w i t h t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e P r o v i n c e a l l h i s l i f e . E v e n d u r i n g h i s l a t e r c a r e e r i n O t t a w a , Lamb s t i l l d e d i c a t e d much r e s e a r c h a n d w r i t i n g t i m e t o t h e h i s t o r y o f h i s n a t i v e p r o v i n c e . T h i s f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h i s t o r y was a p r i m e m o t i v a t o r i n Lamb's p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r . L i k e Howay and R e i d , Lamb was i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e " o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r s " i n B.C. h i s t o r y . He i s an i n d i v i -d u a l i s t h i m s e l f — a s t r o n g b e l i e v e r i n t h e power o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o a f f e c t t h e c o u r s e o f h i s t o r y . Lamb i n s i s t e d on g o o d n a r r a t i v e h i s t o r y i n t h e BCHQ. As e d i t o r , he e n c o u r a g e d a m a t e u r h i s t o r i a n s t o make h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s come a l i v e i n t h e i r w r i t i n g . Lamb b e l i e v e d i t was t h e p e o p l e o f t h e p a s t - 57 -i n w h i c h t h e a v e r a g e r e a d e r was i n t e r e s t e d . Lamb was t h e f i r s t u n i v e r s i t y - t r a i n e d h i s t o r i a n t o h e a d t h e P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s . T h r o u g h h i s h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n E u r o p e , he d e v e l o p e d a n a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s o f h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h a n d t h r o u g h t h a t o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o n w h i c h a r c h i v e s w e r e t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d . C e r t a i n l y he d e r i v e d h i s c o n c e r n f o r m a k i n g r e c o r d s a c c e s s i b l e f r o m h i s e x p e r i e n c e a s an h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h e r . Lamb a l w a y s b e l i e v e d t h a t a r c h i v i s t s s h o u l d do some o f t h e i r own h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h i n o r d e r t o g i v e them an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m s f a c e d b y r e s e a r c h e r s . He w a n t e d t h e A r c h i v e s c o l l e c t i o n i n V i c t o r i a t o be more a c c e s s i -b l e t o t h e p u b l i c , t o t h e h i s t o r i a n s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l i k e S o w ard and Sage, t o a m a t e u r h i s t o r i a n s p u r s u i n g t h e i r f a v o u r i s t t o p i c s o f i n t e r e s t , a n d t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . I n t h i s c o n c e r n , Lamb may b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s , none o f whom h a d b e e n a b l e t o d e v i s e a means o f o r g a n i z i n g t h e a r c h i v e s . I n f a c t , w h ere t h e y h a d a t t e m p t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n , s u c h a s t h e C o l o n i a l C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , t h e y h a d t r i e d , w i t h d i s a s t e r o u s r e s u l t s , t o a p p l y l i b r a r y p r i n c i p l e s t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f g o v e r n m e n t r e c o r d s . 1 Lamb d e m o n s t r a t e d s u p e r i o r k n o w l e d g e o f a r c h i v a l s c i e n c e b y r e s p e c t i n g p r o v e n -a n c e ; e a c h r e c o r d s e r i e s was a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o i t s c r e a t i n g a g e n c y . Lamb e s t a b l i s h e d p r o p e r f i n a n c i a l management f o r t h e - 58 -L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s . F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e t h e D e p a r t m e n t was t r u l y a c c o u n t a b l e f o r i t s e x p e n d i t u r e s a n d t h e L i b r a r i a n c o u l d p r o p e r l y m o n i t o r h i s s p e n d i n g . T h i s v e n t u r e e a r n e d t h e r e s p e c t o f t h e d e p u t y m i n i s t e r , P.D. W a l k e r , who a d m i r e d Lamb's c a r e f u l , o r g a n i z e d a p p r o a c h t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t . Lamb was a s s u r e d o f h i g h e r e f f i c i e n c y a n d p r o d u c t i v i t y i n t h e r u n n i n g o f t h e L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s b y f i r m l y d e f i n i n g t h e d u t i e s o f h i s s t a f f . He made M a r j o r i e H olmes and Madge W o l f e n d e n h i s " d e p u t i e s " , p u t t i n g Holmes i n c h a r g e o f t h e L i b r a r y a n d W o l f e n d e n i n c o n t r o l o f t h e A r c h i v e s . Thus t h e d e p a r t m e n t s w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n c o u l d be o p e r a t e d s e p a r a t e -l y , r e s p e c t i n g t h e d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s o f l i b r a r y a n d a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s . Lamb's t a l e n t a s an a r c h i v e s a d m i n i s t r a t o r c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o h i s i n n o v a t i v e y e t p r a c t i c a l n a t u r e , h i s f o r e s i g h t , a n d h i s empathy w i t h a n d deep u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p e o p l e . I n t h e 1 9 3 0 s - i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Lamb was t h e c l a s s i c h i s t o r i a n / a r c h i v i s t . H i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e f i e l d s o f h i s t o r y a n d a r c h i v e s w e r e e q u a l l y g r e a t . Lamb's work c o u l d n o t b e e a s i l y s e p a r a t e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t s l o t s ; t h e f o u n d i n g o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y i s an e x a m p l e o f t h e i n d i s t i n c t b o u n d a r i e s b e t w e e n h i s t o r y a n d a r c h i v e s . Lamb w o u l d l a t e r w r i t e a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n h i s t o r i a n s a n d a r c h i v i s t s , r e c o g n i z i n g c h a n g e s i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s w h i c h - 59 -l e t t o more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r o l e s . B u t a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s i n t h e 1 9 3 0 s , Lamb h a d t h e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l a t h a n d , he knew b e t t e r t h a n a n y o n e e l s e t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e A r c h i v e s . He w a n t e d t o e n c o u r a g e t h e u s e o f t h e A r c h i v e s a n d t h e w r i t i n g o f h i s t o r y a n d s o b e g a n a v e h i c l e f o r p u b l i c a t i o n , t h e BCHQ. The Q u a r t e r l y , w i t h v e r y s t r o n g i n p u t f r o m t h e e d i t o r ( P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t s Lamb a n d I r e l a n d ) , r e a l l y was B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h i s t o r y a t t h i s t i m e . Few b o o k s w e r e b e i n g p r o d u c e d . T h e r e was t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l f o r t h e w r i t i n g o f h i s t o r y b e i n g g e o g r a p h i c a l l y r e m o t e f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A t t h e U n i v e r s i t y , o n l y Sage c o n s i d e r e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h i s t o r y an i m p o r t a n t f i e l d f o r t e a c h i n g a n d s t u d y . And Lamb was, i n e f f e c t , s t r u g g l i n g w i t h a m a t e u r s i n t e r e s t e d i n v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f B.C. h i s t o r y . E v e n S a g e , t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l l y - t r a i n e d h i s t o r i a n , n e e d e d a g r e a t d e a l o f h e l p w i t h h i s a r t i c l e s a n d w i t h t h e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . The P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s was t h e c e n t r e o f B.C. h i s t o r i -c a l w r i t i n g i n t h e 1 9 3 0 s . Lamb was i n c a r e f u l c o n t r o l o f t h e r e a l s o u r c e o f s u p p o r t f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h i s t o r y i n h i s c o n t r o l o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y and t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . F o r t e n y e a r s , f r o m 1937 when t h e Q u a r t e r l y was l a u n c h e d , v : u n t i l 1 947, when Lamb t u r n e d t h e e d i t o r s h i p o v e r t o W i l l a r d I r e l a n d , Lamb was i n v o l v e d i n a l m o s t e v e r y r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t t h a t i n v e s t i g a t e d an a s p e c t o f - 60 -the h i s t o r y o f the r e g i o n . Those i n v o l v e d i n r e s e a r c h i n g and w r i t i n g r e g i o n a l h i s t o r y i n the 1930s were a s m a l l , c l o s e -k n i t c l i q u e c e n t r e d i n V i c t o r i a and Vancouver. Lamb's t a l e n t as e d i t o r , h i s t o r i a n , a r c h i v i s t , a d m i n i s t r a t o r and teacher won him more i n f l u e n c e than any other man who had h e l d the post o f P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t . H is impact on the w r i t i n g of B r i t i s h Columbia h i s t o r y i n t h a t p e r i o d was enormous; he was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f i r s t j o u r n a l d e d i c a t e d to the Pr o v i n c e ' s h i s t o r y , he s u p e r v i s e d the r e s e a r c h i n g and w r i t i n g of count-l e s s a r t i c l e s and guided the pens of amateur and p r o f e s s i o n a l h i s t o r i a n s a l i k e . NOTES CHAPTER I ''"Carl B e r g e r , The W r i t i n g o f C a n a d i a n H i s t o r y ( T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 137. 2 J . F r i e s e n a n d H.F. R a l s t o n , e d s . H i s t o r i c a l  E s s a y s on B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( V a n c o u v e r : Gage P u b l i s h i n g , 1 1 9 8 0 ) , p. i x . 3 I b i d . 4 F r i e s e n a n d R a l s t o n , H i s t o r i c a l E s s a y s , p. x v i i . 5 F r a n c e s Woodwards, " C a r t o g r a p h i c C o l l e c t i o n s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b r a r y , " A r c h i v a r i a 1 3 ( 1 9 8 1 - 8 2 ) : 1 0 0 - 1 0 1 . Sriesen and R a l s t o n , H i s t o r i c a l E s s a y s , p. i x . 7 A l l a n S m i t h , "The W r i t i n g o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r y , " B.C. S t u d i e s 45 ( S p r i n g 1 9 8 0 ) : 27. g Howay was e l e c t e d f i r s t p r e s i d e n t o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n and h e l d t h e p o s i t i o n f o r f o u r y e a r s . He r e s i g n e d i n 1926 o v e r a d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n w h i c h became an o p e n q u a r r e l b e t w e e n h i m s e l f a n d a J u s t i c e o f t h e Supreme C o u r t r e s i d i n g i n V i c t o r i a . The q u a r r e l was a b o u t t h e d a t e o f t h e b i r t h d a y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Howay, a s t r o n g m a i n l a n d e r was adamant i n u p h o l d i n g t h e d a t e , November 19, 1858 a n d t h e p l a c e , F o r t L a n g l e y , B.C. 9 F r i e s e n a n d R a l s t o n , H i s t o r i c a l E s s a y s , p. i x . 1 0 S m i t h , "B.C. H i s t o r y , " p. 28. " ^ F r i e s e n a n d R a l s t o n , H i s t o r i c a l E s s a y s , p. x., 12 [W.K. L a m b ] , " R e p o r t on t h e S t a t e o f t h e L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s , Decembe r!.1934," MS. C/D 3 0 . 8 / L . 16. P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . - 62 -Lamb, "Report," p. 3. 1 5 I b i d . , p. 4. 1 6 T e r r y Eastwood, "R.E. Gosnell, E.O.S. Scholefield and the Founding of the Pr o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h C Columbia, 1894-1918," B.C. Studies 54 (Summer 1982): 59. 1 7Lamb, "Report," p. 12. ^ I b i d . , p. 13. NOTES CHAPTER I I "^Interview with W.K. Lamb, Vancouver, B.C., 26 January 1983. 2 V i c t o r i a C o l o n i s t , 8 February 1936. 3 Int e r v i e w with Lamb. 4 Interview with Lamb. 5W.K. Lamb, The Usual Thing: A Comedy i n One A c t , ( U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1926). Copy i n S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n of the Main L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 6 I n t e r v i e w with Lamb. 7 " H i s t o r i a n by A c c i d e n t , " 22 August 1934 (Newspaper C l i p p i n g ) Matthews C o l l e c t i o n #M514 0, Vancouver C i t y  A r c h i v e s , Vancouver B.C. ( h e r e a f t e r VCA). g Interview with Lamb. 9 Dr. Sage s t a r t e d a seminar i n B.C. h i s t o r y at U.B.C. i n 1930. " ^ C a r l Berger, The W r i t i n g of Canadian H i s t o r y :  Aspects o f E n g l i s h Canadian H i s t o r i c a l W r i t i n g 1900-1970 (Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1976), p. 39. i : LSee W.K. Lamb, "The Pioneer Days of the Trans-P a c i f i c S e r v i c e , " B.C. H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y ( J u l y 1937): 143-164. 12 Berger, W r i t i n g of Canadian H i s t o r y , p. 39. 13 Interview w i t h Lamb. - 64 -14 W . K . Lamb, "The G e n e s i s . o f t h e B r i t i s h L a b o u r P a r t y " ( M a s t e r o f A r t s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 3 0 ) , p. 1. 15 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Lamb. 16 " H i s t o r i a n b y A c c i d e n t " . 17 M a t t h e w s t o Lamb, 19 A u g u s t 193 5. R e c o r d G r o u p 4 F i l e . , 5 , C i t y A r c h i v e s U n i t , VCA. 18 S o c i a l S c i e n c e s a n d H u m a n i t i e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l o f C a n a d a , C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s : R e p o r t t o t h e C o n s u l t a t i v e  G r o u p on C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s ( O t t a w a , 1 9 8 0 ) , C h a p t e r 2. 19 J o h n A r c h e r , "A S t u d y o f A r c h i v a l I n s t i t u t i o n s i n Cana d a " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 9 ) . 20 Lamb t o M a t t h e w s , 19 A u g u s t 193 5. R e c o r d G r o u p 4 F i l e 5, C i t y A r c h i v e s U n i t , VCA. 21 [ W . K . L a m b ] , " R e p o r t o n t h e S t a t e o f t h e L i b r a r y a nd A r c h i v e s , December 1934," MS.C/D 30.87 1 . 1 6 . P r o v i n c i a l  A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . ( H e r e a f t e r P A B C ) . 22 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Lamb. 23 Lamb t o M a t t h e w s , 19 A u g u s t 1 9 3 5 . R e c o r d G r o u p 4 F i l e 5, C i t y A r c h i v e s U n i t , VCA. 24 I r e l a n d t o .Lamb, 25 J u n e 1 9 41. The L i b r a r i a n ' s O f f i c e : W . K . Lamb P a p e r s , Box 9 F i l e 18, S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . ( H e r e a f t e r S C ) . 25 A r c h e r , " A r c h i v a l I n s t i t u t i o n s i n C a n a d a " . 2 6 D i s c u s s i o n s w i t h T e r r y E a s t w o o d , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , M a r c h 1, 1984. 27 A r c h e r , " A r c h i v a l I n s t i t u t i o n s i n C a n a d a " . 2 8 W : K . Lamb, "The F i n e A r t o f D e s t r u c t i o n , " i n A l b e r t H o l l a e n d e r , e d . E s s a y s i n Memory o f S i r H i l a r y J e n k i n s o n ( C h i c h e s t e r , S u s s e x : Moore a n d T i l l y e r , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 52. - 63 -29 30 Lamb, " D e s t r u c t i o n , " p. 53. 31 Lamb t o I r e l a n d , 6 December 1940. Lamb P a p e r s , Box 9 F i l e 17, SC. 32 S o c i a l S c i e n c e a n d H u m a n i t i e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s , C h a p t e r 2. 33 A r c h e r , " A r c h i v a l I n s t i t u t i o n s i n C a n a d a , " p. 424 34 Lamb, " R e p o r t o f t h e L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s , " p. 23-24. 35 I b i d . 3 6 " R e p o r t o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t H i s t o r y D e p a r t m e n t , " S u b m i t t e d J a n u a r y , 1936, MS. C/D 30.1 A r 21.1.. PABC. I b i d . 3 8 " R e p o r t o f t h e N o r t h w e s t H i s t o r y D e p a r t m e n t , " J a n u a r y 1 9 36, PABC. 39 Lamb, " R e p o r t o f t h e L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s , " p. 26. I b i d . 41 Lamb t o I r e l a n d , 28 November 194 0, p. 3. Lamb P a p e r s , Box 9 F i l e 17., SC. 42 Lamb, W.K., "B.C. P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s R e p o r t s ( 1 9 3 6 ) , " L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . ( H e r e a f t e r L L B C ) . 43 Lamb, W.K., " B . C . > P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s R e p o r t s ( 1 9 3 6 ) , " L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . ( H e r e a f t e r L L B C ) . 44 Lamb, "B.C. P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s ... R e p o r t s (193 9 ) , " L L BC. 45 A r c h e r , " A r c h i v a l I n s t i t u t i o n s i n C a n a d a , " p. 228. 46 Lamb, " R e p o r t o f t h e L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s , " p. 20. I b i d . 48 Lamb, " R e p o r t o f t h e L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s , " p. 20. 49 I b i d . , ..p. 22. ^ L a m b , " R e p o r t o f t h e L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s , " p. 26. I b i d . 52 W i l l a r d I r e l a n d , " R e p o r t t o S p e a k e r — L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , December 3 1 , 1940," p. 4., PABC. 53 Lamb, " R e p o r t o f t h e L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s , " p. 27. 54 J o h n H o s i e , " A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n P r o c e e d i n g s , 2 4 t h A n n u a l C o n f e r e n c e , 1 9 3 3 , p. 88. 55 Lamb, "B.C. P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s R e p o r t ( 1 9 3 5 ) , " L L B C . 5 6 I b i d . , ( 1 9 3 7 ) . 57 Lamb, "B.C. P r o v i n i c a l L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s ... R e p o r t s ( 1 9 3 5 ) , " L L B C . 5 8 W.K. Lamb, " P r e s i d e n t i a l A d d r e s s , " C a n a d i a n •-. H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n R e p o r t s ( 1 9 5 8 ) : p. 59 S o c i a l S c i e n c e s a nd H u m a n i t i e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s , p. 25. 6 0 Lamb t o I r e l a n d , 17 S e p t e m b e r 1 9 4 1 , Lamb P a p e r s , Box 9 F i l e 18, SC. 6 1 R . C . Sharman, " A u s t r a l i a n A r c h i v e s i n Lamb's C l o t h i n g , " A r c h i v a r i a No. 2 (Summer 1 9 7 6 ) : p. NOTES CHAPTER III Memoir T l , House of Assembly Correspondence Book, August 12th, 1856 to July 6th, 1859 (Vancouver Island House of Assembly); Memoir II I , Minutes of the Council of  Vancouver Island: Commencing August 30th, 1851 and Terminat- ing with-the Prorogation of the House of Assembly, February  6th, 1858; Memoir IV, Minutes of the House of Assembly of  Vancouver Island, August 12th, 1856 to September 25th, 1858; Memoir V, Menzie's Journal of Vancouver's Voyage, A p r i l to  October, 1792 by C.F. Newcombe, M.D.; Memoir VI, The Early  History of the Fraser River Mines by F.W. Howay; Memoir VII, The Assay O f f i c e and the Proposed Mint at New Westminster by R.L. Reid, K.C.; Memoir VIII^ The Colonial Postal Systems  and Postage Stamps of Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia, 1849-1871 by A.S. Deaville. 2 [W.K. Lamb], "Report on the State of the Library and Archives, December 1934," p. 17- MS C/D 30.8/L.16. Pr o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia. (Hereafter PABC) 3 Ibid. p. 28. 4 W.K. Lamb, "Notes and Comments," B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly 1 (January 1937): 57. 5 I b i d . 6W.K. Lamb, "Pr e s i d e n t i a l Address," Canadian  H i s t o r i c a l Association Report.. (19 55): 11. 7 W.K. Lamb, "Empress Odyssey: A History of the Canadian P a c i f i c Service to the Orient, 1913-1945," B r i t i s h  Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly 12 (January 1948): 1-78; "Empress to the Orient, Part I," B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l  Quarterly 4 (January 1940): 29-50; "Empress to the Orient, Part I I , " B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly 4 (April 1940) 79-110. g "Empress Odyssey," 17 A p r i l 1948 (Newspaper Clipping) Matthews C o l l e c t i o n #M514 0, Vancouver City Archives, Vancouver, B.C. (Hereafter VCA). - 68 -q James P a r t o n , " P o p u l a r i z i n g H i s t o r y a n d D o c u m e n t a r y S o u r c e s , " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 20 ( A p r i l 1 9 5 7 ) : 100. 1 0 L a m b t o I r e l a n d , 27 F e b r u a r y 1 9 4 1. The L i b r a r i a n ' s O f f i c e : W.K. Lamb P a p e r s , Box 9 F i l e 18, S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B.C. ( H e r e a f t e r SC) • ^ I n t e r v i e w w i t h D r . W.K. Lamb, V a n c o u v e r , B.C., 26 J a n u a r y 1 983. 12 Lamb t o G r e e n e , 13 J a n u a r y 1938. F r a s e r C a n y o n H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n C o r r e s p o n d e n c e 1 9 3 5 - 1 9 4 2 , PABC. 13 Lamb t o G r e e n e , 5 November 1936, F r a s e r C a n y o n H i s t o r i c a l C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , PABC. 14 Lamb t o G r e e n e , 8 O c t o b e r 1 9 3 5, F r a s e r C a n y o n H i s t o r i c a l C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , PABC. 15 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Lamb. 1 r Lamb u s e d t h i s t e r m i i n a l e c t u r e t o t h e A r c h i v a l S t u d i e s S t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A p r i l 7, 1982. 1 7 Lamb t o Howay, 27 J u l y 1942, F.W. Howay P a p e r s , Box 4 F i l e 1 3 , SC. 1 8 Lamb t o I r e l a n d , 28 J a n u a r y 1 9 4 1 , W.K. Lamb P a p e r s , SC. 1 9 L a m b t o I r e l a n d , 21 J u n e 1942, SC. 20 " P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s Becomes S e p a r a t e G o v e r n m e n t B r a n c h , " 27 J u l y 1940 (Newspaper C l i p p i n g ) . M a t t h e w s C o l l e c -t i o n #M5140, VCA. 2 1 L a m b t o I r e l a n d , 6 December 194 0, W.K. Lamb P a p e r s , SC. - 69 -NOTES CONCLUSION T e r r y E a s t w o o d , "R.E. G o s n e l l , E.O.S. S c h o l e f i e l d a n d t h e F o u n d i n g o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " B.C. S t u d i e s 54 (Summer 1 9 8 2 ) : 38-62. 2 W.K. Lamb, " P r e s i d e n t i a l A d d r e s s , " C a n a d i a n  H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n R e p o r t ( 1 9 5 8 ) ; " K e e p i n g t h e P a s t Up t o D a t e , " J o u r n a l o f t h e S o c i e t y o f A r c h i v i s t s 2 ( A p r i l 1 9 6 2 ) ; "The A r c h i v i s t a n d t h e H i s t o r i a n , " A m e r i c a n H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w 68 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 6 3 ) . BIBLIOGRAPHY S e c o n d a r y S o u r c e s : A r c h e r , J o h n H. "A S t u d y o f A r c h i v a l I n s t i t u t i o n s i n C a n a d a . " Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n . Queens U n i v e r s i t y , 1969. A r c h i v e s C o m m i t t e e . "The D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e P r o b l e m o f P u b l i c a n d H i s t o r i c a l R e c o r d s i n C a n a d a . " C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l  A s s o c i a t i o n R e p o r t . 25. ( 1 9 4 4 ) : 4 0 - 4 5 . B e r g e r , C a r l . The W r i t i n g o f C a n a d i a n H i s t o r y . O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 4 0 , E x p e n d i t u r e s , P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y ' s O f f i c e . B r o w n , G e o r g e W. " P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s i n C a n a d a . " C a n a d i a n  H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w 1 8 ( 1 9 3 5 ) : 6-12. C a n a d a . S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and H u m a n i t i e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l . C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s : R e p o r t t o t h e C o n s u l t a t i v e G r o u p  on C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s . O t t a w a : M a r c h , 1980. C r i t t e n d e n , C C . " P u b l i c a t i o n P o l i c i e s f o r an A r c h i v a l a n d H i s t o r i c a l A g e n c i e s . " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 3 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 4 0 ) : 245-250. D e l g a d o , D a v i d J . "The A r c h i v i s t a nd P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s . " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 30 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 6 7 ) : 557-564. E a s t w o o d , T e r r y . "R.E. G o s n e l l , E.O.S. S c h o l e f i e l d a n d t h e F o u n d i n g o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " B.C. S t u d i e s 54 (Summer 1 9 8 2 ) : 38-62. F i r t h , E d i t h G. "The P u b l i c a t i o n o f Documents i n C a n a d a . " The C a n a d i a n A r c h i v i s t 1 ( 1 9 6 7 ) : 12-15. F r i e s e n J . a n d R a l s t o n , H.K., e d s . H i s t o r i c a l E s s a y s on B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . V a n c o u v e r : Gage P u b l i s h i n g , 1 9 8 0 , pp. v i i - x x v i . H o s i e , J o h n . " A r c h i v e s o f B.C." P a c i f i c N o r t h - W e s t L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , P r o c e e d i n g s o f 2 4 t h A n n u a l C o n f e r e n c e ( 1 9 3 3 ) : 8 5 - 8 9 . I r e l a n d , W i l l a r d E. "The P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " C u l t u r e . Time 2 ( 1 9 4 1 ) : 8 0 - 8 1 . I r e l a n d , W i l l a r d E. "The P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v a l S c e n e . " C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n R e p o r t . 34 ( 1 9 5 3 ) : 70-76. - 71 -[Lamb, W.K.] " R e p o r t on t h e S t a t e o f t h e L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s , December 1934.V MS. C/L 3 0 . 8 / L . 1 6 . V i c t o r i a , B.C., P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . . " R e p o r t s o n t h e A r c h i v e s a n d N o r t h w e s t H i s t o r y C o l l e c t i o n , 1 9 3 4-1940." P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , o f  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( h e r e a f t e r PABC) . "A W e s t e r n V o i c e , " ( t y p e d r a d i o s c r i p t ) 2 O c t o -b e r 1 940. PABC. . V a n c o u v e r , B.C. I n t e r v i e w , 26 J a n u a r y 1983. . " L e t t e r s t o M a r t h a . " BCHQ 1 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 3 7 ) : 3 3-43. . "The M i t c h e l l L i b r a r y , S i d n e y , H i s t o r i c a l a n d D e s c r i p t i v e N o t e s . " BCHQ 1 ( J u l y 1 9 3 7 ) : 203-206. . "The P i o n e e r Days o f t h e T r a n s - P a c i f i c S e r v i c e . " BCHQ 1 ( J u l y 1 9 3 7 ) : 143-164. . " S e v e n t h R e p o r t o f t h e Okanagan H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y . " BCHQ 1 ( J u l y 1 9 3 7 ) : 2 0 0 - 2 0 1 . . R e v i e w o f By J u a n de F u c a ' s S t r a i t , b y J.G. M c C u r d y . BCHQ 2 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 3 8 ) : 63-64. "The A d v e n t o f t h e B e a v e r . " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y 2 ( J u l y 1 9 3 8 ) : 1 63-184. . R e v i e w o f Y u k o n V o y a g e : u n o f f i c i a l L o g o f t h e S t e a m e r Y u k o n e r , by W.R. C u r t i n . BCHQ 2 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 3 8 ) : 307-308. . " S i r James Goes A b r o a d . " BCHQ 3 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 3 8 ) : 2 8 3 - 2 9 2 . . " E m p r e s s t o t h e O r i e n t , P a r t I . " BCHQ 4 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 4 0 ) : 29-50. . " E m p r e s s t o t h e O r i e n t , P a r t I I . " BCHQ 4 ( A p r i l 1 9 4 0 ) ; 79-110. . R e v i e w o f R o n a l d M a c D o n a l d : A d v e n t u r e r , b y M.L. N i c h o l s . BCHQ 5 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 4 1 ) : 86-87. . R e v i e w o f T a l e s o f t h e K o o t e n a y s , b y F. Smyth. BCHQ 5 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 4 1 ) : 83-84. . " M e m o i r s a nd Documents R e l a t i n g t o J u d g e B e g b i e . " BCHQ 5 ( A p r i l 1 9 4 1 ) : 125-126. - 72 -. "Two N a r r a t i v e s o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r G o l d R u s h . " BCHQ 5 ( J u l y 1 9 4 1 ) : 2 2 8 - 2 3 1 . . "The M y s t e r y o f M r s . B a r k l e y ' s D i a r y . " BCHQ 6 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 4 2 ) : 31-48. . R e v i e w o f P i o n e e r W o o len M i l l s i n O r e g o n , b y A.L. Momax. BCHQ 6 ( A p r i l 1 9 4 2 ) : 1 5 1 - 1 5 2 . . R e v i e w o f V o y a g e s o f t h e " C o l u m b i a " , b y F.W. Howay. BCHQ 7 ( J u l y 1 9 4 2 ) : 2 0 9 - 2 1 1 . . R e v i e w o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , b y Howay, Sage a n d A n g u s . BCHQ 7 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 4 3 ) : 62-64. . "The F o u n d i n g o f F o r t V i c t o r i a . " BCHQ 7 ( A p r i l 1 9 4 3 ) : 7 1 - 9 2 . . R e v i e w o f San J u a n A r c h i p e l a g o , b y D r . M i l l e r . BCHQ 7 ( J u l y 1 9 4 3 ) : 2 23-225. . R e v i e w o f The Panama R o u t e 1 8 4 8 - 1 8 6 9 , b y J.H. Kem b l e . BCHQ 8 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 4 4 ) : 8 9 - 9 1 . . R e v i e w o f C a n a d i a n A m e r i c a n R e l a t i o n s 1 8 7 5 - 1 9 1 1 , b y C C . T a n s i l l . BCHQ 8 ( J u l y 1 9 4 4 ) : 2 5 2 -253. . R e v i e w o f K a - m i - a k i n : L a s t H e r o o f t h e Y a k i m a s , b y A . J . S p l a w n . BCHQ 9 ( A p r i l 1 9 4 5 ) : 173-174. . R e v i e w o f O r e g o n G e o g r a p h i c Names, b y L.A. M c A r t h u r . BCHQ 9 ( A p r i l 1 9 4 5 ) : 1 7 0 - 1 7 1 . . " R o b i e L e w i s R e i d : A Memoir." BCHQ 9 ( A p r i l 1 9 4 5 ) : 79-88. . R e v i e w o f L o c a l H i s t o r y ; How t o G a t h e r i t , W r i t e i t a n d P u b l i s h i t , b y D.D. P a r k e r . BCHQ 9 ( J u l y 1 9 4 5 ) : 241-242. . R e v i e w o f The L i f e o f S i r G e o r g e S i m p s o n , by A.S. M o r t a n . BCHQ 9 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 4 5 ) : 2 9 7 - 2 9 9 . . " F l a g F o l l o w s T r a d e , " B e a v e r ( M a r c h 1 9 4 6 ) : . " B u r r a r d o f B u r r a r d ' s C h a n n e l : BCHQ 10 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 4 6 ) : 273-280. . "Empress O d y s s e y . " BCHQ 12 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 4 8 ) : 1-78. . "The G o v e r n o r s h i p o f R i c h a r d B l a n c h a r d . " BCHQ 14 ( J a n u a r y a n d A p r i l 1 9 5 0 ) : 1-40. . "Some N o t e s on t h e D o u g l a s F a m i l y . " BCHQ 18 ( J a n u a r y a n d A p r i l 1 9 5 3 ) : 41-52. . " P r e s i d e n t i a l A d d r e s s . " C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n R e p o r t 39 ( 1 9 5 8 ) : 1-12. . " K e e p i n g t h e P a s t Up t o D a t e . " J o u r n a l o f t h e S o c i e t y o f A r c h i v i s t s 2 ( A p r i l 1 9 6 2 ) : 285-288. . "The F i n e A r t o f D e s t r u c t i o n . " i n A l b e r t H o l l a e n d e r , e d . E s s a y s i n Memory o f S i r H i l a r y  J e n k i n s o n . C h i c h e s t e r , S u s s e x : M o o re a n d T i l l y e r , 1 962. . "The A R c h i v i s t and t h e H i s t o r i a n . " A m e r i c a n H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w 68 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 6 3 ) : 3 8 5 - 3 9 1 . . "The M o s t I n d i s p e n s i b l e T h i n g on Campus." B.C. L i b r a r y Q u a r t e r l y 29 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 6 6 ) : 52-54. . " A c q u i s i t i o n s P o l i c y : C o m p e t i t i o n o r C o o p e r a t i o n ? " C a n a d i a n A r c h i v i s t 2 ( 1 9 7 0 ) : 21-2. M c A r t h u r , Duncan. " P r e s i d e n t i a l A d d r e s s . " C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l  A s s o c i a t i o n R e p o r t ( 1 9 3 4 ) : 3-17. O l s o n , James C. "The S c h o l a r a n d D o c u m e n t a r y P u b l i c a t i o n . " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 28 ( A p r i l 1 9 6 5 ) : 187-193. O r m s b y , - M a r g a r e t A. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A H i s t o r y . The M a c m i l l a n s i n C a n a d a , 1958. P a r t o n , James. " P o p u l a r i z i n g H i s t o r y a n d D o c u m e n t a r y S o u r c e s . " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t , 20 ( A p r i l 1 9 5 7 ) : 99-109. P o s n e r , A r n s t . A r c h i v e s a n d t h e P u b l i c I n t e r e s t : S e l e c t e d  E s s a y s . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : P u b l i c A f f a i r s P r e s s , 1967. : S a g e , W.N. "Some E a r l y H i s t o r i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " BCHQ 21 ( 1 9 5 7 - 1 9 5 8 ) : 1-14. Sharman, R.C. " A u s t r a l i a n A r c h i v e s i n Lamb's C l o t h i n g . " A r c h i v a r i a 1 (Summer 1 9 7 6 ) : 20-32. S i m p o n , G e o r g e W. " A r c h i v e s i n C a n a d a . " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 2 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 4 8 ) : 358-366. - 74 -S m i t h , A l l a n . "The W r i t i n g o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r y . " B.C. S t u d i e s 45 ( S p r i n g 1 9 8 0 ) : 73-102. T a y l o r , Hugh A. " C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s : P a t t e r n s f r o m a F e d e r a l P e r s p e c t i v e . " A r c h i v a r i a 1 (Summer 1 9 7 6 ) : 3-19. T i m i n g s , E. K e n n e t h . "The A r c h i v i s t a n d t h e P u b l i c . " J o u r n a l  o f t h e S o c i e t y o f A r c h i v i s t s 2 ( A p r i l 1 9 6 2 ) : 1 7 9 -183. P r i m a r y S o u r c e s : V a n c o u v e r , B.C. C i t y A r c h i v e s . Add. Mss. 54, V o l . 14B, F i l e 114. V a n c o u v e r , B.C. C i t y A r c h i v e s . J . S . M a t t h e w s N e w s p a p e r c l i p p i n g s , M5140. "W. Kaye Lamb." V a n c o u v e r , B.C. C i t y A r c h i v e s . R e c o r d G r o u p 4 , . V o l . 1, F i l e 4-5. V a n c o u v e r , B.C. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S p e c i a l  C o l l e c t i o n s . F r e d e r i c k W. Howay P a p e r s . Box 4, F i l e s 9-13. V a n c o u v e r , B.C. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s . The L i b r a r i a n ' s O f f i c e : W.K. Lamb P a p e r s . V a n c o u v e r , B.C. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s . N.A.M. M a c K e n z i e P a p e r s , M a i n C o r r e s p o n d -e n c e . B o x e s 4 9 , 4 9 , 57. V a n c o u v e r , B.C. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S p e c i a l ^ C o l l e c t i o n s . W a l t e r N. Sage P a p e r s . Box 4 F i l e s 2 5 , 26, 35. V i c t o r i a , B.C. L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y . "B.C. P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y a n d A r c h i v e s A n n u a l R e p o r t s 1 9 35-1939." V i c t o r i a , B.C. P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . MS. D/D/30.1 " R e p o r t s o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t H i s t o r y D e p a r t m e n t 1 9 3 5 -19 4 1 . " V i c t o r i a , B.C. P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . MS. Q/H/F86.1 " F r a s e r C a n y o n H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n C o r r e s p o n d e n c e 1 9 3 5 -1942." V i c t o r i a , B.C. "B.C. P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . R e c o r d G r o u p GR263. P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . " - 75 -V i c t o r i a , B.C. P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . Record-Group GR299. Records of the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y , 1919-1943. V i c t o r i a , B.C. P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . Record Group GR543. P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y L e t t e r Books 1934-1936, V o l s . 29-30. V i c t o r i a , B.C. P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . Record Group GR6 51. Record of Ac c e s s i o n s of Government Documents 1934-1935. V i c t o r i a , B.C. P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . Record Group GR975. . " B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . " Boxes 2-3. V i c t o r i a , B.C. P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . V e r t i c a l F i l e s . "Lamb, Dr. W i l l i a m Kaye." Woodward, Frances. " C a r t o g r a p h i c C o l l e c t i o n s a t the Univer-s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b a r a r y . " A r c h i v a r i a 13 (1981-82): 99-107. APPENDIX PROVINCIAL ARCHIVES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA: ACCESSIONS 1935-1942 P u b l i c Records S e r i e s r e c o r d s from Supreme Court M a t e r i a l from B.C. P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e 15,000 l e t t e r s from P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y Department 1880-1900 Minute Book from Old Board of Education 1865-69 and d e p a r t -mental correspondence f o r 1872-73 Land registry.-book of o l d Crown Colony of B.C. S e r i e s p h o t o s t a t - c o p i e s of d i s p a t c h e s to and from C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y i n London ] (to 1858) Department of A t t o r n e y General - m i s c e l l a n e o u s correspondence 189 0-1916. - bench notebooks of judges of v a r i o u s B.C. c o u r t s from 1853 (60 volumes from l a t e C h i e f J u s t i c e Archer M a r t i n 1898-1940) Department of Lands - m i s c e l l a n e o u s correspondence to 1917 Records o f s e n i o r n a v a l o f f i c e r s t a t i o n e d a t Esquimalt 1866-1898 Manuscript M a t e r i a l s P r i v a t e papers of James Douglas John Work l e t t e r book (1841) Tate Papers (pioneer m i s s ionary) L e t t e r book of John Evans and p a r t y of Welshmen to Cariboo i n 1862 Journal.:of Commander R.C. Mayne w h i l e s e r v i n g on H.M.S. Plumper 1857-1869 - 77, -Papers r e l a t i n g to J.S. Helmcken, f i r s t speaker of House of Vancouver Island and to Richard Blanshard ( f i r s t Governor of V.I.) Diaries of Marcus Smith covering period.of Canadian P a c i f i c survey and construction days 1872-85. Si r Henry P.P. Crease Papers ( f i r s t Attorney General of B.C.) Rev. E. Cridge Papers - d i a r i e s and correspondence of a pioneer c l e r i c of Vancouver Island John Dean Papers - d i a r i e s covering period 1877-1937 Mrs. E l l a Papers - d i a r i e s kept during the 1850s on Vancouver Island R.B. McMicking Papers - records of one of the famous over-landers of 1862 Charles Mallandaine Papers - records and d i a r i e s of a pioneer resident of Vancouver Island William Fraser Tolmie Papers - d i a r i e s and l e t t e r s of a pioneer doctor in the employ of the Hudson's Bay Co. C.W. Wilson Papers - journals 1858-62 of a Lieutenant i n the .'..British American Boundary Commission Maps Series of 100 or more Admiralty charts from the l a t e judge in Admiralty Archer Martin Series of maps of projected railways in B.C. Photographs Miss Edith Bristow c o l l e c t i o n : M e r r i t t and v i c i n i t y Herbert Carmichael: Port Alberni and Powell River Howard Chapman: B.C. Edgar Fleming: V i c t o r i a and Esquimalt Edgar Fawcett: Early V i c t o r i a Jones Brothers: V i c t o r i a and Esquimalt - 78 -Mrs. George Kane: Slocan d i s t r i c t Mrs. G e r r a r d Mason: Kootenay C.C. Payne: Nelson and v i c i n i t y Herbert Lethaby Royal Tour c o l l e c t i o n : a s e r i e s of f i v e albums g i v i n g a p i c t o r i a l r e c o r d of the r o y a l t o u r o f 193 9 w i t h autograph a u t h e n t i f i c a t i o n of a l l p i c t u r e s Marine Records MS J o u r n a l of H.M.S. Termagant MS J o u r n a l of H.M.S. Cameleon MS Log Book of S.S. Empress of I n d i a 1900-1903 Source: (Lamb and I r e l a n d ) , "B.C. P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y and Ar c h i v e s Reports, 1935-1942," submitted t o the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of B r i t i s h Columbia. O r i g i n a l r e p o r t s 1935-1939 i n L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y , r e p o r t s 1940-1942 i n P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0096015/manifest

Comment

Related Items