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An ecological investigation of western redcedar sites on western Vancouver Island Dickinson, Judith Anne 1984

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c AN ECOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF WESTERN REDCEDAR SITES ON WESTERN VANCOUVER ISLAND by JUDITH ANNE DICKINSON B.S., Rutgers University, The State University of New Jersey, 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF FORESTRY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Forestry) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1984 © Judith Anne Dickinson, 1984 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s fo r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis fo r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of ^foAM)J JCJJyA CJL j The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) i i ABSTRACT A pilot study was conducted in which a wide range of sites, dominated by western redcedar, were sampled and described to provide background information on western redcedar sites on western Vancouver Island. A total of 40 sample plots, representing a wide range of environmental conditions, were sampled from 14 study sites in the Bamfield, Ucluelet, and Kennedy Lake areas. Descriptive vegetation data were supplemented with additional environmental information and utilized for classification, interpretation and comparison of the study sites. The classical tabular method of comparing vegetation data was used to classify the sample plots into six associations. An ordination of the sample plots, by species composition, confirmed the classification scheme. The associations have been described and discussed, but must be considered tentative due to the small sample size. The productivity of the study sites, as expressed by site index of western redcedar at age 100, was evaluated against a variety of soil parameters. No significant correlations were found between site index and the concentration of soil nutrients, which included total N (%), available P (ppm), organic C (%), and exchangeable Ca, Mg, Na, and K (meq/lOOg), in the effective and total rooting zones. A significant correlation was found between site index and soil depth, especially the depth to a restrictive layer. This relationship is not surprising since the volume of soil available for rooting integrates many soil factors important to tree growth. i i i The observations and findings based on the sites sampled for this study indicated that productivity of western redcedar is strongly related to edaphic conditions. The most productive of the 14 study sites was characterized by deep, well-drained soils, with a rich nutrient regime as reflected by indicator plant species. Other productive sites were situated either on seepage slopes, where they presumedly received inputs of nutrients through seepage water; or on fertile floodplains with rich nutrient regimes as reflected by indicator plant species. The poorest sites had very shallow soils with a restrictive layer, and poor nutrient conditions (as reflected by indicator plant species), and were situated on either flat depressional areas or rock outcroppings. A new species of earthworm was observed in 11 of the 14 study sites. Results from a preliminary study (Spiers _et_ _§1_. 1983) indicated that these worms break down organic material and improve nutrient availability in west coast ecosystems. This may have important implications for management practices in this region. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i i CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1 Introduction 1 Rationale and Objectives for Present Study 11 Literature Review 12 General Description 12 Ecological Characteristics 13 Life History 20 Growth and Productivity 24 The Study Area 30 CHAPTER 2: METHODS AND PROCEDURES 36 Selection of Study Sites and Sample Plots 36 Field Sampling Procedures for Data Collection 38 Site Information 38 Vegetation Data 38 Mensuration Data 39 Soils Data 39 Soil Sample Preparation 40 Analyses 41 Soil Analyses 41 Soil Data Analysis 43 Mensuration Data Analyses 44 Vegetation Data Analyses 44 Tabular Classification 44 Ordination of Sample Plots 48 Use of Plant Indicators 48 TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont'd) Page CHAPTER 3: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION i 52 Use of Vegetation in Site Classification and Interpretation 52 Classification of Sample Plots 52 Description of Associations 56 Association 1.11: Cladino-Tsugetum 56 Association 2.11: Blechno-Thujetum 61 Association 2.12: Sphagno-Thujetum 74 Association 3.11: Kindbergio-Piceetum 80 Association 3.21: Lysichito-Piceetum 86 Association 4.11: Tiarello-Abietetum 93 Validation of Classification 97 Discussion of Associations 103 Discussion of Site Productivity in Relation to Soil Parameters 106 Assessment of Site Productivity 106 Data Conversion and Analysis 109 Results of Data Analysis 113 Discussion of Earthworms 118 CHAPTER 4: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 125 Conclusions 125 Recommendations • 127 LITERATURE CITED 131 APPENDICES 144 APPENDIX 1: Explanation of terms and symbols used in tables 144 APPENDIX 2: Detailed description of study sites 146 APPENDIX 3: List of plant species observed in sample plots 223 v i TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont'd) Page APPENDIX 4: Description of soil profiles for each sample plot 229 APPENDIX 5: List of soil chemical data for each sample plot 280 APPENDIX 6: List of accidental species for the plant syntaxa recognized in the study area 307 APPENDIX 7: Vegetation tables for the associations recognized in the study area 308 APPENDIX 8: Criteria for differentiating values of plant species in characteristic combination of species 315 4 v i i LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1: Distribution of mature western redcedar in British Columbia 6 Table 2: Annual spring sowing of western redcedar in British Columbia from 1978 to 1980 9 Table 3: Climatic characteristics of two variants of the Wetter Maritime Coastal Western Hemlock Biogeoclimatic Subzone 32 Table 4: Synopsis of edatopic indicator species groups 50 Table 5: Synopsis of syntaxa at the phytocoenotic level 54 Table 6: Characteristic combinations of species for the plant syntaxa recognized in the study area 55 Table 7: Environmental characteristics of Association 1.11, Cladino-Tsugetum (Rock outcrop) 59 Table 8: Environmental chatacteristics of Association 2.11, Blechno-Thujetum (Deer fern-Redcedar) 62 Table 9: Environmental characteristics of Association 2.12, Sphagno-Thujetum, (Sphagnum-Redcedar) 75 Table 10: Environmental characteristics of Association 3.11, Kindbergio praelongi-Piceetum (Fern-Spruce) .. 81 Table 11: Environmental characteristics of Association 3.21, Lysichito-Piceetum (Skunk cabbage-Spruce) .... 89 Table 12: Environmental characteristics of Association 4.11, Tiarello trifoliatae-Abietetum (Herbs-Amabilis-fir) 94 Table 13: Ordination of scores for sample plots, axis 1 100 Table 14: Comparative productivity of the six associations recognized in the study area 101 v i i i LIST OF TABLES (cont'd) Page Table 15: Significant correlations between rooting depth and site productivity of western redcedar 114 Table 16: Compositional changes in woody materials after passage through earthworm gut 122 Table 17: Environment data for stand 818 149 Table 18: Environment data for stand 819 153 Table 19: Environment data for stand 131 158 Table 20: Environment data for stand 144 163 Table 21: Environment data for stand 151 151 Table 22: Environment data for stand 152 172 Table 23: Environment data for stand 109 176 Table 24: Environment data for stand 199 184 Table 25: Environment data for stand 150 190 Table 26: Environment data for stand 300 197 Table 27: Environment data for stand 821 202 Table 28: Environment data for stand 1092 209 Table 29: Environment data for stand 315 215 Table 30: Environment data for stand 513 220 LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1: Comparison of average stumpage price received on redcedar with that on all species from TFL cutting permits between 1966 and 1981 3 Figure 2: Volume of mature timber in British Columbia, by species group 5 Figure 3: Annual total cut of western redcedar and all species in British Columbia from 1965 to 1980 8 Figure 4: Edaphic grids showing isolines of site indices for western redcedar in the biogeocoenotic associations of three mesothermal biogeoclimatic subzones • 27 Figure 5: Location of study sites on western Vancouver Island 31 Figure 6: View of plot 818-1 from Highway 4 57 Figure 7: View of plot 818-2 from Highway 4 57 Figure 8: View of site 819 58 Figure 9: View of stand 152 from Pachena Main Line 63 Figure 10: Downslope view of stand 144 64 Figure 11: Upslope view of stand 144 64 Figure 12: Soil cut near plot 131-3 65 Figure 13: Soil profile 151-3 66 Figure 14: Fine-clayey Orthic Gleysol in plot 109-2 67 Figure 15: Roadcut through stand 151 68 Figure 16: Stand 151 70 Figure 17: Large "candellabra" redcedars in plot 109-2 71 Figure 18: Plot 199-3 at mid-slope 72 LIST OF FIGURES (cont'd) Page Figure 19: Dense patch of salal and vaccinium in plot 109-1 73 Figure 20: View of plot 109-1 73 Figure 21: Soil profile in plot 300-2 76 Figure 22: View of stand 821 (near plots 1 and 2) from Port Albion Road 77 Figure 23: Second view of stand 821 (near plots 1 and 2) from Port Albion Road 77 Figure 24: View of plot 300-1 78 Figure 25: View of dense understory vegetation in plot 300-2 . 78 Figure 26: Large redcedar stump in stand 1092 82 Figure 27: View from within stand 1092 84 Figure 28: Soil profile 315-1 87 Figure 29: Soil profile 315-2 88 Figure 30: View of plot 315-2 91 Figure 31: View of plot 315-1 91 Figure 32: View of plot 513-1 95 Figure 33: Ordination of sample plots 98 Figure 34: Comparison of the edatopic indicator species groups for the six associations recognized in study area 102 Figure 35: A plot of the edatopic indicator species groups for the 2 sample plots of Stand 818 151 Figure 36: A plot of the edatopic indicator species groups for the 2 sample plots of Stand 819 156 LIST OF FIGURES (cont'd) x i Page Figure 37: A plot of the edatopic indicator species groups for the 3 sample plots of Stand 131 161 Figure 38: A plot of the edatopic indicator species groups for the 3 sample plots of Stand 151 170 Figure 39: A plot of the edatopic indicator species groups for the 3 sample plots of Stand 152 174 Figure 40: A plot of the edatopic indicator species groups for the 3 sample plots of Stand 109 181 Figure 41: A plot of the edatopic indicator species groups for the 3 sample plots of Stand 199 188 Figure 42: A plot of the edatopic Indicator species groups for the 3 sample plots of Stand 150 193 Figure 43: A plot of the edatopic indicator species groups for the 3 sample plots of Stand 300 200 Figure 44: A plot of the edatopic indicator species groups for the 3 sample plots of Stand 821 206 Figure 45: A plot of the edatopic indicator species groups for the 3 sample plots of Stand 1092 212 Figure 46: A plot of the edatopic indicator species groups for the 3 sample plots of Stand 315 217 Figure 47: A plot of the edatopic indicator species groups for the 3 sample plots of Stand 513 222 x i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In preparation of this thesis I have received guidance, assistance, encouragement and support from many sources. I would like to acknowledge MacMillan-Bloedel for providing assistance and financial support during the initial stages of this project. In particular, I thank: Dr. E.C. Packee for initiating the project and for his guidance; Ms. C. Kennedy and the staff of the MB soils laboratory for their help with the soil analyses; Mr. D. Gagnon for his assistance with the field sampling and plant identification, and for his generosity in supplying photographs for this thesis; Mr. G. Spiers for providing valuable information regarding earthworm ecology; Mr. M. Palmer for his help with the field work; and my field assistant, Ms. K. Barbour for her dedication, enthusiasm, and for providing much needed companionship, humour, and support. At the University of British Columbia, I gratefully acknowledge Dr. L.M. Lavkulich for his generosity in providing laboratory facilities to conduct the soil analyses; Ms. P. Carbis and V. Miles for their valuable advice and cooperation with the lab work; Mr. R. Roy for his assistance with the vegetation data analyses; Mr. J. Emmanuel for his patience, cooperation and guidance with the computer programming and data analyses; Mr. B. Wong for his help with the computer graphics; and Mr. R. Carter for his advice and assistance with the data analysis and interpretation. I extend special thanks to my committee members: Dr. G. Weetman for his advice; Dr. K. Klinka for his invaluable assistance with the site classification and vegetation data analysis; Dr. R.M. Strang for his x i i i cheerful support and advice; and my supervisor, Dr. J.A. McLean for his guidance and assistance with a l l aspects of the project, and particularly for his patience, kindness, and encouragement. I thank especially my friends and family for their understanding, cooperation, and support. The financial assistance provided by the McPhee and VanDusen Fellowships is gratefully acknowledged. 1 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION The forests of B r i t i s h Columbia are the province's most vast and valuable resource, providing a continual supply of amenities and products, and supporting numerous communities through forest-based industry (B.C. Min i s t r y of Forests 1980b). The wealth of the resource l i e s p a r t i a l l y i n i t s d i v e r s i t y , as each species has unique properties and a t t r i b u t e s . One very important component of B r i t i s h Columbia's forests i s western redcedar, Thuja p l i c a t a Donn. ex D. Don i n Lamb., which hereafter may be referred to as "redcedar". Western redcedar has been valued by man for centuries . It was a f a v o r i t e tree of west coast Indians and was u t i l i z e d for a wide v a r i e t y of purposes: planks were cut from redcedar logs to construct houses and other buildings; large logs were often carved into totem poles or hollowed-out to make ocean-going canoes; the bark was woven into baskets, mats, blankets, thatch, rope, f i s h i n g l i n e and clothing (Sargent 1933; Bowers 1956; Dallimore and Jackson 1967; Bolsinger 1979); roots were made into f i s h hooks, and large twigs served as arrows (Dallimore and Jackson 1967; E d l i n 1968) . Today, western redcedar i s s t i l l prized for i t s b e a u t i f u l , aromatic wood. Wood of old trees is fine and straight-grained, high in extractives but completely free from p i t c h , r i c h l y coloured, r e l a t i v e l y free of knots, lightweight, with a small proportion of sapwood (COFI 1978; Bolsinger 1979). These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s enhance the workability of the wood and the d u r a b i l i t y and attractiveness of i t s products. Redcedar is well known for 2 its superior insulation value, dimensional stability, attractive appearance, exceptional durability and resistance to weathering (COFI 1978). This combination of properties makes redcedar a preferred species for many purposes. Redcedar is primarily cut into lumber, shakes and shingles. Other products include boats, canoes, exterior siding, sashes, doors, window frames, roof decking, caskets, crates, boxes, outdoor furniture, fences, clothes closets and chests, bee hives, rain-gutters, and fish-trap floats (Forest Products Lab 1955; Viereck and Little 1972; Sharpe 1974). Redcedar is unmatched as an exterior siding and is the most important species used in manufacturing wooden shingles and siding in both the United States and Canada (Panshin and de Zeeuw 1970; COFI 1978). Redcedar is also used for interior panelling, posts, poles, pilings, and to a limited extent, pulp. In addition, its leaf oi l and extractives can be used in perfumes, room deodorants, insecticides, fungicides, antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, and shoepolishes (Wethern 1959; Barton 1973); although the market is very limited and extraction is marginally economical at best. Because of its excellent properties and many uses, western redcedar is in constant demand and commands a high price. In the United States, both consumption rates and prices of western redcedar products increased rapidly between 1965 and 1979; more so than for any other west coast species (Bolsinger 1979). Similarly, in British Columbia, redcedar prices rose dramatically from 1975 and peaked in 1979 (Fig. 1). Western redcedar received the highest stumpage price of any species scaled on TFL cutting permits in B.C. in 1979 (B.C. Ministry of Forests 1980a). Although prices Y E A R Figure 1: Comparison of average stumpage price received on redcedar with that on al l species from TFL cutting permits between 1966 and 1981 (compiled from: B.C. Ministry of Forests Annual Reports, 1966 to 1981) 4 have since declined, the stumpage price of redcedar in 1981 was s t i l l higher than the average stumpage price of a l l species (Fig. 1). To meet the continuous demand for redcedar products there must be a constant supply. What is the extent of the redcedar resource in the Pacific Northwest? In the United States, the total volume of western redcedar, in live trees that are at least 25 percent sound, was estimated to be 255 million m3 in 1977 (Bolsinger 1979). Almost half of this resource is found in Washington; particularly on the Olympic Peninsula. Most of the volume is in very large, old trees. British Columbia's supply of western redcedar is over three times that of the United States. In 1979, the total standing volume of mature western redcedar was estimated to be almost 800 million m3 (B.C. Ministry of Forests 1980b). Redcedar constitutes 12 percent of the total volume of mature timber for a l l species in the province (Fig. 2). Most of British Columbia's redcedar is found in coastal areas, with over 80 percent of the total volume of mature redcedar contained in the Vancouver and Prince Rupert Forest Regions (Table 1). Redcedar is a very important component of the forests in these regions. It comprises 17 percent of the total volume of mature timber in the Prince Rupert Region, and 26 percent in the Vancouver Region. Like the United States, most of the redcedar in B.C. Is old growth. In fact, 93 percent of British Columbia's redcedar is in age class 7; greater than 129 years (B.C. Ministry of Forests 1980b). IO E o o o d o o z o > 1 , 6 0 0 -1 , 4 0 0 -1 , 2 0 0 . 1 , 0 0 0 8 0 0 6 0 0 -4 0 0 -ZOO -S P E C I E S G R O U P Figure 2: Volume of mature timber in British Columbia, by species or species group (from: BC Ministry of Forests, Forest and Range Resource Analysis Technical Report, 1980) 6 Table 1: D i s t r i b u t i o n of mature western redcedar i n B r i t i s h Columlbia Forest region Volume of Total volume Percentage Percentage mature of mature redcedar of t o t a l BC redcedar timber redcedar (,000 m3) (,000 m3) resource Vancouver 245,717 930,808 26.4 31.2 Cariboo 24,122 593,513 4.1 3.1 Prince Rupert 412,173 2,467,355 16.7 52.3 Prince George 34,058 1,687,419 2.0 4.3 Nelson 31,568 340,120 9.3 4.0 Kamloops 40,867 526,468 7.8 5.2 Total 788,505 6,545,683 12.0 100.1 * values for the Bulkley-Northwest Forest Region are included i n those given for the Prince Rupert Region, and values for the Peace River Region were added to those for the Prince George Region. (from: BC M i n i s t r y of Forests, 1980, Forest and Range Resource Analysis Technical Report) 7 Western redcedar has continuously been an important component of British Columbia's annual timber harvest- From 1965 to 1980, redcedar averaged 12.4 percent of the total annual cut (Fig. 3). Unfortunately, redcedar has not figured as prominently in the province's annual planting regime. As Table 2 illustrates, only 3.2 percent of the total number of trees sown in 1979 and 1980 were western redcedar. Since there is very li t t l e redcedar in young age classes, the combined effect of this continual harvesting without renewal, means a depletion of the redcedar resource. Although redcedar is naturally restocking some logged areas (Bolsinger 1979), i t has become scarce where extensive areas have been clearcut, burned, and artifically reforested (Minore 1979a). As the area of intensively managed forest increases, the amount of western redcedar is likely to decrease. Estimates indicate that at current rates of use, British Columbia's supply of mature redcedar will last approximately 100 years (Muller 1980). However, predictions for the United States are far more glum. Washington's redcedar is expected to last for l i t t l e more than 30 years, and Oregon's supply should be gone in about 50 years (Bolsinger 1979). This dwindling supply is going to have a widespread economic effect. As redcedar production drops in Washington and Oregon, the States will be looking to Canada for their supply, putting increased pressure on British Columbia's redcedar resource and forcing its price up. 80 -70 . 60 • 50 E O o o_ o" o o z o > 40 -30 -20 -I 0 7, REDCEDAR Figure 3: Annual total cut of western redcedar and a l l species in British Columbia from 1965 to 1980 (compiled from: BC Ministry of Forests Annual Reports, 1965 to 1980) Table 2: Annual spring sowing of western redcedar in British Columbia Year Number of Total number Percentage w. redcedar of trees western trees planted planted redcedar (,000s) (,000s) 1978 1,420 96,848 1.5 1979 3,200 99,022 3.2 1980 3,475 110,583 3.2 (compiled from: B.C. Ministry of Forests Annual Reports, 1978 to 1980) 10 Why is this highly-valued, sought-after tree species not being replanted and managed? The response of timber growers is widespread and clear, "It just isn't economical". Western redcedar is considered to be a relatively slow-growing species and, it is argued that, on many sites, two or even three rotations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) can be grown in the same time period as one crop of redcedar (Bolsinger 1979; Muller 1980). However, this argument may not be valid. Since redcedar has largely been ignored, very li t t l e is known about its capabilities. Consequently, the risks and uncertainties associated with managing redcedar are greater than those for species with which there has been more experience. Sound management practices must be based on a thorough understanding of ecology, physiology, mensuration, and silviculture. Unfortunately, knowledge of western redcedar is seriously lacking in all these areas. It is this lack of knowledge that poses the greatest hindrance to redcedar management. With additional information and experience, the problems associated with managing redcedar could be overcome or avoided. 11 Rationale and Objectives for Present Study In the spring of 1980, Dr. E. Packee of MacMillan-Bloedel Ltd. proposed a pilot study to define the characteristics of productive sites for western redcedar on western Vancouver Island. Information for this region was very limited, but observations seemed to suggest that the region contained ideal habitat for growing western redcedar. The objectives of this thesis are: 1- to review briefly the current literature on the ecology and silvics of western redcedar, and 2- to describe quantitatively and qualitatively a sample of sites, representing a wide range of habitats, in which western redcedar is a major or dominant species on western Vancouver Island. 12 L i t e r a t u r e Review General Description Nomenclature Western redcedar i s the only Thuja species native to western North America. Contrary to what i t s name suggests, redcedar is not a true cedar, but a c t u a l l y a member of the cypress (Cupressaceae) family. The words red and cedar are combined into one word, redcedar, to d i s t i n g u i s h i t from true cedars (Muller 1980). Other common names for western redcedar include giant arborvitae, giant cedar, P a c i f i c redcedar, canoe cedar, shinglewood, and cedar. Form Western redcedar t y p i c a l l y has a conical form with drooping branches that turn upwards at the ends. Old trees tend to be flared or swollen at the base and are often conspicuously f l u t e d , with frequent bark seams (Sudworth 1908; McBride 1959). Many old trees have hollow bases and dead, broken "spiked" tops (Daubenmire and Daubenmire 1968; Sharpe 1974), or "candellabra" tops when several leaders are present (Bowers 1956). Although no-one has determined what causes the candellabra shaped tops of redcedar, E i s (1962) suggested that they are caused by periodic drought and subsequent regeneration of the crown during more favourable years. 13 E c o l o g i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Geographic Range Western redcedar grows along the P a c i f i c coast from southeastern Alaska, with a northern l i m i t of Sumner S t r a i t (Andersen 1953); southward through the coast ranges of B r i t i s h Columbia, Washington, and Oregon where i t i s most abundant and attains i t s largest s i z e ; to Humboldt County i n northern C a l i f o r n i a (Sudworth 1908; Sargent 1933; E l i o t 1948; Boyd 1959; Fowells 1965; Dallimore and Jackson 1967). The range of Thuja p l i c a t a i s made up of two regions: the west coast region, outlined above; and the Inland Empire or northern Rocky Mountain region (Boyd 1959). The inland region of redcedar extends from the i n t e r i o r ranges in southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia, through northeastern Washington, northern Idaho to the mountains of northwestern Montana (Sudworth 1908; Hanzlik 1928; Sargent 1933; Soos and Walters 1963; Dallimore and Jackson 1967; Hitchcock et_ al^. 1969; Sharpe 1974). The easternmost l i m i t of redcedar is the western slope of the Rocky Mountains in northern Montana (Boyd 1959; Fowells 1965). El e v a t i o n a l Range Western redcedar is a r e l a t i v e l y low elevation species. On the coast i t grows from sea l e v e l to 915 m i n Alaska (Viereck and L i t t l e 1972), from sea l e v e l to about 1200 m i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Andersen 1961), and from sea l e v e l to 1500 m i n Washington and Oregon ( E l i o t 1948; Fowells 1965). In the i n t e r i o r , redcedar may be found from 600 to 2,100 m in the mountains 14 (Boyd 1959; Harlow and Harrar 1969). However, at elevations abvove 1,350 m i t is reduced to a shrub, being twisted and stunted by the severe storms and adverse growing conditions (Eliot 1948; Hosie 1979). Its commercial range is limited to about 900 m in the coastal region, and to 1,500 m in the Inland Empire (Sudworth 1908; Hanzlik 1928). Climatic Range Throughout its range, western redcedar is confined almost entirely to areas having abundant precipitation and atmospheric humidity (Sudworth 1908; Hanzlik 1928). Redcedar thrives in the fog belt region of British Columbia and Washington, which extends 48 km inland from the coast (Peavey 1929). Within the fog belt, precipitation varies from 150 to 325 cm per year, with frequent summer rains (Boyd 1959; Fowells 1965). In the inland region, where summers are dry, the distribution of redcedar is often limited to northern slopes and moist valley bottoms (Soos and Walters 1963). Where sufficient precipitation is present, the range of redcedar is apparently restricted by temperature (Minore 1979a). The length of the frost-free period may be another climatic constraint for redcedar, since i t is not very frost resistant (Schmidt 1955; Daubenmire and Daubenmire 1968). The optimum growing conditions for redcedar are found in regions with abundant precipitation, cool summers and mild winters; such as the Olympic Peninsula, Puget Sound area, and parts of Vancouver Island (Boyd 1959; Fowells 1965; Sharpe 1974). Habitats Because of its requirements for abundant moisture and moderate 15 temperatures, redcedar is typically found growing on stream bottoms, river banks, alluvial floodplains, moist flats, terraces, ravines and gulches, and gentle lower slopes (Sudworth 1918; Miller 1927; Sargent 1933; Dallimore and Jackson 1967; Krajina 1969). It is also common in forested swamps and may even be found in shallow sphagnum bogs (Soos and Walters 1963; Harlow and Harrar 1969; Hosie 1979; Minore 1979a). Occasionally redcedar grows on dry slopes and warm sites, but there growth is usually poor and often stunted (Sudworth 1908; Eliot 1948; Harlow and Harrar 1969; Sharpe 1974). It has also been noted that a north aspect is more suitable for redcedar than the relatively drier southern aspect (Boyd 1959; Fowells 1965). Root System In order to understand better the types of sites and soils which redcedar prefers, i t is important to consider the root system of this species. Western redcedar is generally reported to have an extensive, wide-spreading root system (Harlow and Harrar 1969; Leaphart and Grismer 1974; Hosie 1979), with a well-developed network of fine roots and a poorly-developed taproot (Leaphart and Wicker 1966; Eis 1974). Redcedar is considered to be a shallow-rooted species, for its system of fine roots is usually concentrated in upper, organic horizons of the soil profile (Ross 1932; Haig ejt al. 1941; McMinn 1960). Apparently, the rooting depth of redcedar is limited on shallow and wet sites, and in soils of high bulk density, since redcedar has been reported to form deep root systems on deep, moderately dry soils (Forristall and Gessel 1955; Day 1957; McMinn 1960; Minore et al. 1969). 16 Soils Only limited information is available about the optimum soil conditions for redcedar. It is apparently able to tolerate a wide range of soil types, from deep rich loams, wet clayey soils, and peat; to shallow gravelly sands (Knapp and Jackson 1914; Dallimore and Jackson 1967). Packee (1976) reports that redcedar is found on a l l landforms, soil textures and parent materials on Vancouver Island. The optimal soil conditions reported for redcedar are largely based on observation and speculation. It is generally reported that western redcedar prefers neutral to moderately acidic sites, with high levels of available nutrients; particularly nitrogen, calcium and magnesium (Daubenmire 1952; UBC Forestry Club 1959; Krajina 1969). Nevertheless, redcedar does survive and grow, though less productively, on nutritionally-poor soils throughout its range (Krajina et_ al. 1982). Reports of redcedar's nutrient requirements are primarily based on findings from controlled greenhouse experiments in which seedlings have been grown in sand cultures to test the effects of a variety of nutrient deficient solutions on the growth of seeedlings (Gessel e_t al. 1951; Walker et al. 1955; Krajina 1969; Krajina et al. 1973, 1982). It is questionable whether results from such studies provide meaningful information about the nutrient requirements of trees growing in natural forest ecosystems. For western redcedar, the amount of available soil moisture is probably more important than soil depth, texture, or fertility (Sudworth 1908; Knapp and Jackson 1914). However,,fertile soils and abundant 17 moisture are reported to be both necessary for best development (Boyd 1959; Sharpe 1974; Krajina 1969). Redcedar i s able to tolerate a wide range of s o i l moisture conditions, from dry rock b l u f f s to swamps and bogs (Handley 1979). Although redcedar i s r e l a t i v e l y drought tolerant (Minore 1979b), i t s growth is r e s t r i c t e d in dry s o i l s (McMinn 1960), and adequate s o i l moisture during the growing season i s e s s e n t i a l for good growth (Handley 1979; Minore 1979a). At the opposite end of the moisture spectrum, western redcedar is very tolerant of excess s o i l moisture. It can grow over shallow water tables, i n stagnant s i t e s , and in s i t e s subjected to flooding; where other coniferous species often cannot survive (Brink 1954; Minore 1968, 1970; Minore and Smith 1971; Krajina et_ al_. 1982). Although redcedar is well-adapted to such wet conditions, i t s growth is better on deep s o i l s with better drainage (McMinn 1960; Sharpe 1974; Hosie 1979). Shade Tolerance Western redcedar i s considered to be a shade tolerant species because i t can germinate, grow and reach maturity in shade (Boyd 1959; Sharpe 1974). Tolerance varies with age, a l t i t u d e , l a t i t u d e , s o i l moisture and cl i m a t i c conditions (Sudworth 1908). However, growth of redcedar i s retarded i n proportion to the density of the shade (Boyd 1959), for although shade is tolerated to a high degree, i t is not ne c e s s a r i l y required (Sudworth 1908). One exception to t h i s might be r e l a t i v e l y dry habitats, where redcedar is a shade-requiring tree (Krajina et_ al^. 1982). Small redcedar trees can endure suppression for a considerable length of time and respond well in growth rate after release (Schmidt 1955; Boyd 18 1959; Handley 1979). Redcedar's a b i l i t y to survive long periods of suppression may be related to i t s a b i l i t y to produce new root growth in full-shade (Haig 1936), or to root-grafting (Eis 1972). The response of suppressed redcedar trees to an overstory removal i s probably also related to redcedar's extensive root systyem (Leaphart and Grismer 1974). The function of the roots i n this response i s however, unclear. Associates Western redcedar r a r e l y grows i n pure stands to any great extent, but usually occurs i n mixed stands of coniferous and broadleaf species (Sudworth 1908; E l i o t 1948; Boyd 1959; Fowells 1965; E d l i n 1968; Sharpe 1974; Hosie 1979; Eyre 1980). In mixed f o r e s t s , redcedar may form up to 50 percent of the stand (Hanzlik 1928; Harlow and Harrar 1969). Tree species associated with western redcedar vary a great deal according to the l o c a l environmental conditions (Sharpe 1974). In Alaska and northern regions, redcedar grows with Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg., Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr., and Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach ( E l i o t 1948; Fowells 1965). Redcedar has numerous associates along the P a c i f i c Coast including Tsuga heterophylla, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, Picea  s i t c h e n s i s , Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes, A. grandis (Dougl.) L i n d l . , Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, _C. lawsoniana (A.Murr.) P a r i . , Taxus  b r e v i f o l i a Nutt., Alnus rubra Bong., Acer circinatum Pursh., A. macrophyllum Pursh, Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray, and Arbutus menziesii Pursh (Hanzlik 1928; Schmidt 1955; Boyd 1959; Andersen 1961; O r l o c i 1965; Fowells 1965; Harlow and Harrar 1969; Krajina 1969; F r a n k l i n and Dyrness 1973; Sharpe 1974; Packee 1976; Hosie 1979). In C a l i f o r n i a i t s associates are Tsuga heterophylla and Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. (Fowells 19 1965; Sharpe 1974). In the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia and mountainous regions of the Inland Empire, associates of western redcedar include Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr., JJ. heterophylla, Abies amabilis, A. procera Rehd., A., lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. , Picea engelmannii Parry, Pinus monticola Dougl. , P_. contorta Dougl., Pseudotsuga menziesii, Larix o c c i d e n t a l i s Nutt., Populus trichocarpa, P_. tremuloides Michx., and Betula papyrifera Marsh. (Sudworth 1908; Hanzlik 1928; Haig et_ al. 1941; McLean and Holland 1958; Boyd 1959; Harlow and Harrar 1969; Clark 1970; Sharpe 1974; Hosie 1979). Because of i t s wide ec o l o g i c a l amplitude, redcedar exists i n a v a r i e t y of plant communities with a number of associated shrubs, herbs, ferns, and mosses. The reader i s referred to Minore (1979a, 1983) for a detailed account of the major western redcedar communities which have been described i n the l i t e r a t u r e , and t h e i r associated understory species. Successional Status Western redcedar i s generally regarded as being a climax or near-climax species (Schmidt 1955; McLean and Holland 1958). Most of redcedar's associates are more prone to insect and disease attack which tends to hasten the succession of redcedar to climax p o s i t i o n (Schmidt 1955; Boyd 1959; Sharpe 1974). Moisture and s o i l conditions strongly influence the successional status of western redcedar (BC Forest Service 1947; Habeck 1968; Krajina 1969; F r a n k l i n and Dyrness 1973); consequently, redcedar i s often present i n a l l stages of forest succession (Packee 1976; Minore 1979a, 1983). Minore (1979a, 1983) suggests that redcedar should probably be considered an edaphic climax species rather than a c l i m a t i c climax tree. 20 Life History Reproduction Western redcedar is known to produce prodigious amounts of seed (Sudworth 1908; Schmidt 1955; Harlow and Harrar 1969), and is capable of bearing seed at a young age (Bolsinger 1979). Unfortunately, large seed crops for redcedar do not occur every year. The frequency of good seed crops tends to be somewhat erratic (Gashwiler 1969), occurring approximately once every 3 or 4 years (Hanzlik 1928; Haig ejt al. 1941; Hetherington 1965; Clark 1970). The seeds of western redcedar are light and small and are dispersed by wind (Hanzlik 1928). However, the small wing surface of the seed allows i t to fall fairly rapidly, thus limiting the distance of dispersal (Isaac 1930; Boyd 1959; Stewart 1962; Hetherington 1965; Fowells 1965; Clark 1970; Sharpe 1974). On the positive side, the small seeds of redcedar are rarely eaten by small mammals and birds, since larger seeds of associated species are preferred (Isaac 1939; Schopmeyer 1940; Gashwiler 1967, 1970; Sharpe 1974). Seed of western redcedar is reported to have a high rate of germination (Sudworth 1908; Haig et al. 1941; Schmidt 1955; Boyd 1959; Fowells 1965; Bolsinger 1979). The major requirement for successful germination is an abundance of soil moisture (Sharpe 1974). For this reason, redcedar reproduces best where protection from drying winds and sunlight is provided (Hanzlik 1928; Schmidt 1955). 21 Researchers cannot seem to agree on the optimal seedbed conditions for germination of western redcedar. Discrepancies may exist due to differences in moisture conditions. Redcedar is reported to germinate on any natural surface if adequate seedbed moisture is available (Knapp and Jackson 1914; Fischer 1935; Soos and Walters 1963; Harlow and Harrar 1969). Disturbance of the forest floor is reported to be beneficial for the establishment of redcedar (Schmidt 1955; Clark 1970; Minore 1979a). Such disturbance is probably especially critical following logging, when a mineral seedbed would be preferable for redcedar over a potentially droughty organic seedbed. Slashburning after logging may also favour the establishment of redcedar (B.C. Forest Service 1947), since i t probably exposes more mineral soil surfaces (Clark 1970; Minore 1979a). However, slashburning is evidently not a requirement, since redcedar can become established after logging with or without slashburning. Soos and Walters (1963) reported unburned mineral soil to be most favorable for germination of redcedar. The optimal conditions for good growth of western redcedar seedlings are similar to those for germination. The key is, once again, moisture availability. Western redcedar seedlings require a continuous supply of accessible moisture for their survival and growth (Haig et al. 1941). Consequently, seedlings prefer conditions which maintain adequate moisture levels. Such conditions are usually well met on unburned mineral soils, under partial shade (Larsen 1940; Boyd 1959). Unfortunately, even when all the requirements for germination and 22 seedling growth are met, very few redcedar trees become established i n s p i t e of the tremendous number of seeds released. Reproduction f a i l u r e i s p r i m a r i l y due to excessive m o r t a l i t y during germination and early stages of seedling development (Haig £t jal_. 1941; Boyd 1959; Fowells 1965; Harlow and Harrar 1969). Causes of mortality include fungal attack, drought and i n s o l a t i o n i n j u r y , frost-heaving, and browse by deer, elk, and rabbits (Cowan 1945; Worthington 1955; Boyd 1959; Soos and Walters 1963; Fowells 1965; Gockerell 1966; Packee 1975). In large portions of the Queen Charlotte Islands, BC, introduced Sitka b l a c k t a i l deer have greatly reduced redcedar regeneration (Minore 1983). Although redcedar has the c a p a b i l i t y of su c c e s s f u l l y reproducing from seed on open areas, i t is r a r e l y r e l i e d upon to restock logged areas. The problems of infrequent seed crops, l i m i t e d seed d i s p e r s a l , and seedling m o r t a l i t y , are very r e a l . In established stands, the s i t u a t i o n i s not much better. Advanced regeneration of redcedar is often e r r a t i c and absent in undisturbed, commercial forests; even when redcedar i s a major component of the stand (Schmidt 1955). Germination f a i l u r e and seedling mortality are thought to be the major causes (Schmidt 1955; Fowells 1965). I n t e r e s t i n g l y , however, redcedar has been observed to reproduce in young pioneer stands of redcedar scrub (Schmidt 1955). Why redcedar is able to reproduce i n these stands is unclear. In many stands, redcedar is able to reproduce vegetatively; adventitious roots may develop from low-hanging limbs, broken-off branches, and f a l l e n tree trunks that remain a l i v e (Schmidt 1955; Boyd 1959; Fowells 23 1965) . A wet s o i l surface i s necessary for this form of reproduction (Habeck 1968), and growth i s usually very slow (Sharpe 1974). Maximum Size and Age Once established, western redcedar has few natural enemies, so i t can l i v e for several hundred years and a t t a i n large s i z e s . Under favorable growing conditions, i n d i v i d u a l redcedars may reach heights of 45 to 60 m, with diameters above the swelled base of 2.5 to 5m (Hanzlik 1928; Fowells 1965; Dallimore and Jackson 1967; E d l i n 1968; Harlow and Harrar 1969; Hosie 1979). This species is known for i t s longevity: 500 to 1,000 year old i n d i v i d u a l s are common (Hanzlik 1928). In eastern Washington, some redcedars have been reported to be 2,000 years old (Sharpe 1974). Natural Enemies Redcedar i s highly r e s i s t a n t to, or undamaged by, most insects and diseases. Healthy trees are r a r e l y attacked by insects. Hanzlik (1928) suggested that t h i s may be due to the strong aromatic character of the wood, which may be disagreeable to most ins e c t s . More recent studies have shown that redcedar extractives have i n s e c t i c i d a l properties (MacLean 1970; Barton et_ al_. 1972). Redcedar is r a r e l y k i l l e d by pathological attacks; however, root, butt, and trunk rots can cause considerable damage (Hubert 1931; Buckland 1946; US Forest Service 1961; Wallis and Reynolds 1967; Koenings 1969; Hepting 1971; Aldhous and Low 1974). Redcedar is not very frost r e s i s t a n t . Consequently, early and l a t e spring frosts may be very damaging; e s p e c i a l l y in coastal areas (Krajina 1969; Handley 1979; Minore 1979a; Krajina et a l . 1982). Windthrow may also be a problem for redcedar, e s p e c i a l l y on wet s i t e s where the s o i l is shallow (Knapp and Jackson 1914; Sharpe 1974). However, on dry s i t e s , 24 where good anchorage is established, redcedar is quite windfirra (Boyd 1959; Minore 1979a; Steinblums et^ al. 1984). The most serious enemy of western redcedar i s f i r e (Boyd 1959). Redcedar has thin fibrous bark which burns e a s i l y (Sudworth 1908; Dallimore and Jackson 1967; Hitchcock eit al. 1969; Sharpe 1974; Handley 1979); and i t s shallow roots are often scorched and k i l l e d by f i r e (Knapp and Jackson 1914; Harlow and Harrar 1969). One d e f i n i t e advantage for redcedar is that i t usually grows on moist s i t e s which tend not to be flammable; thus reducing both the frequency and severity of f i r e s (Hanzlik 1928; Boyd 1959; Sharpe 1974; Habeck 1978). Growth and Pr o d u c t i v i t y Growth Rate Western redcedar i s considered to be a r e l a t i v e l y slow-growing species, e s p e c i a l l y when compared with i t s associates. However, this g e n e r a l i z a t i o n should not be u n i v e r s a l l y applied since growth rates of redcedar are strongly influenced by s o i l and moisture conditions, stand density and the age of the trees. On moist f e r t i l e s i t e s , redcedar has been reported to grow more ra p i d l y than other conifers (Bolsinger 1979). Packee (1976) studied conifers on Vancouver Island and observed that height growth of redcedar was equal to, and often exceeded, that of western hemlock and Sitka spruce - p a r t i c u l a r l y on wet s i t e s , where i t frequently was greater i n siz e than any of i t s associates. 25 Walters e_t al. (1961) observed that western redcedar seedlings reached breast height faster than Douglas-fir seedlings on good sites in British Columbia. On poor sites, however, the species ranking was reversed. Packee (1976) cited annual radial increments of one to two cm for redcedar on the best moist sites. Hanzlik (1928) reports that under favorable conditions, redcedar makes fairly good growth, attaining a diameter of 48 cm and a height of 30 m in 80 years. On less suitable sites, such as poorer soils and steeper slopes, redcedar may take 100 to 150 years to reach such a size (Hanzlik 1928). McMinn (1960) also observed that growth rates of redcedar were impaired by inadequate moisture, or by highly leached soils. As redcedar matures, its growth rate slows (Sharpe 1974). Maximum diameter and height growth occur during the first 30 years. On good sites, western redcedar has been observed to outgrow Douglas-fir and western hemlock in height during the first 5 years (Smith and DeBell 1973). However, by age 10, Douglas-fir tended to overtake redcedar; and hemlock was able to overtake redcedar by age 15 (Smith and DeBell 1973). Associated conifers tend to hold redcedar in an intermediate position for many years. Although growth of suppressed redcedar stands is not rapid or vigorous, i t is quite uniform and well-sustained for at least two centuries. As mentioned, redcedar is able to outlive most of its associates and responds well to release, even after long periods of suppression. Western Redcedar Site-Productivity Many authors have commented on the type of sites where growth of western redcedar is most vigorous. Eliot (1948) mentioned that redcedar 26 reaches its largest size on bottoms near the coast on Vancouver Island in British Columbia and in the Puget Sound area of northwestern Washington. McMinn (1960) reported that, in the Douglas-fir region on Vancouver Island, growth of western redcedar is near optimum on the fertile, occasionally-flooded soils of the Pseudotsuga-Thuja Adiantum association. At the UBC research forest near Haney, BC, Eis (1962) reported that productivity of redcedar (as measured by site index) was highest in the wetter subzone communities on the transition between the Vaccinium-Moss and the Blechnum association, in sites with the best vigor of Polystichum. From his biomass estimates in northern Idaho, Hanley (1976) reported that the Thuja  plicata-Pachistima myrsinites community identified by Daubenmire and Daubenmire (1968) is very productive for western redcedar. One serious limitation to the findings from the above studies is that they probably should not be extrapolated to sites outside the experimental areas. Krajina (1969) (and more recently) Krajina ejt al. (1982), have reported on the silvics and productivity of tree species native to British Columbia. An edaphic grid technique was applied as an aid to express productivity of each tree species in different forest ecosystems for each biogeoclimatic subzone. The grid is composed of two gradients: a moisture gradient and a nutrient gradient. The moisture gradient is projected on the vertical axis and consists of 9 hygrotopes (0-8). The nutrient gradient is expressed on the horizontal axis and is made up of 5 trophotopes (A-E) (Fig. 4). Thus there are 45 possible combinations of soil nutrient and soil moisture regimes, which are referred to as edatopes. Within a given edatope, a variety of forest ecosystems can exist. These Wetter Maritime Coastal Drier Maritime Coastal Wetter Maritime Coastal Western Hemlock Subzone Western Hemlock Subzone Douglas-fir Subzone A B C 0 E A B C D E > 8 C 0 E 40 • t M n a y y • © m s s s y y y y ^y y y *- • m ® M y / s • s / / s >'. s s y • • y* y y y f • M / / / * / / S M % / y v. \ / / / S ' ' • / / * y • ' ® / » /. ' / / / » / • / • * s M T V 4 / i / A " r / « V / s ®^ " / ' / /.• / » /»/ / »' •/ / / n / » / $ y / • / • , / / 1 A . ; ! 4-®A S 1 » \ \ \ 1 \ \ N \: \'\ \ r ?}; \ *\ \ • 4.1 , =\ \ \ o V \ \ \ V \ Explanatory notes Tree tymbotf end their sizes eccording to growth clatses (site indices m/100 yrs) end tolerance to shade: © ® @ ® ® @ ® @ ® ® ® ® ® ® o © i ;jaj,h,rd;^10;,,;,,„, » t w <m <m l Site index (SI10o) for Thuja plicata is as follows: Hygrotopes (vertical axis): growth class 0 - very xeric. 4 - mesic. meters feet 1 - xeric. 6 - subhygric. la 45-51 150-170 2 - subxeric. 6 - hygric. b 42 140 3 - submesic. 7 - subhydric 11a 39 130 b 36 120 Trophotopes (horizontal axis): Ilia 33 110 A - oligotrophic. b 30 100 B - submesotrophic. IVa 27 90 C - mesotrophic. b 24 80 0 - permesotrophic. Va 21 70 E - subeutrophic to eutrophic b 18 60 c <15 < 50 Figure 4: Edaphic grids showing isolines of site indices for western redcedar in the biogeocoenotic associations of three biogeoclimatic subzones (reproduced from Krajina 1969) 28 ecosystems are differentiated primarily on the basis of their floristic composition, and are termed "biogeocoenoses". The productivity of a tree species in each edatope is expressed by site index. Similar site indices are connected by isolines of productivity. Krajina (1969) reported that maximum growth of western redcedar in British Columbia occurs on the edatope 6/E (hygric/subeutrophic) in three biogeoclimatic units: the Wetter Maritime Coastal Douglas-fir Subzone (CDFb), the Drier Maritime Coastal Western Hemlock Subzone (CWHa), and the Wetter Maritime Coastal Hemlock Subzone (CWHb) (Fig. 4 ) . On such sites, redcedar's growth class is la (SI^QQ=45-51 m). In the Wetter Maritime Coastal Western Hemlock Subzone (CWHb) on the edatope 6/E , growth of western redcedar is best with the biogeocoenoses 30 and 31: 30: Mnio (insignis)-Leucolepido (menzlesii)-Eurhynchio (stokesii)-Polysticho (muniti)-Pseudotsugo-Abieto (amabilis)-Piceo (sitchensis)-Thujetum plicatae on weakly podzolized and strongly gleyed brown wooded soils with accumulation of moder humus (overlain by mor humus). (Gleyed Sombric-Humo-Ferric Podzols). 31: Mnio (insignis)-Leucolepido (menziesii)-Polysticho-Rubo (spectabilis)-Ribeso (bracteosi)-Oplopanaco (horridi)-Abieto (amabilis)-Piceo (sitchensis)-Thujetum plicatae on alluvial floodplain regosols. In both the Coastal Western Hemlock dry subzone and the Coastal Douglas-fir wet subzone, on the edatope 6/E, growth of redcedar is best with the biogeocoenoses 1, la, and 21: 1_: Mnio (insignis)-Eurhynchio (stokesii)-Polysticho (muniti)-Tiarello (trifoliatae)-Pseudotsuga (menziesii)-Abieto (grandis)-Thujetum plicatae with gleyed reddish brown soils (Gleyed Dystric Brunisols)• 29 la: Mnio (insignis)-Eurhynchio (stokesii)-Polysticho (muniti)-Tiarello (trifoliatae)-Syraphoricarpo (albi)-Pseudotsuga (menziesii)-Abieto (grandis)-Thujetum plicatae with alluvial terrace regosols (sand-silt-loam) affected by seepage water. 21: Adianto (pedati)-Symphoricarpo (albi)-Abieto (grandis)-Thujetum plicatae on silty loams of alluvial floodplain regosols. However, within these biogeocoenoses, redcedar is more productive in the CWHa than in the CDFb due to the greater precipitation in the CWHa. While Krajina's work is a major advancement in understanding the productivity of native species in British Columbia, i t should probably be viewed as a series of hypotheses, or a framework for future studies since l i t t l e concrete evidence is offered to support his findings. Krajina (1969) points out that the growth class curves of the edaphic grids are "idealized and smoothened" and need to be "checked and rechecked to provide more accurate knowledge in this research field". 30 The Study Area Sites were sampled on western Vancouver Island in the Bamfield, Ucluelet and Kennedy Lake areas (Fig. 5). All sites were contained in the wet subzone of the Western Hemlock Zone, known as the Wetter Maritime Coastal Western Hemlock Subzone (CWHb) (Krajina 1969). This subzone covers much of Vancouver Island and the Coast Mountains, and extends along the Pacific Coast into Washington and Oregon (Klinka et_ a_l. 1979). The upper elevational limits are 900 m on the windward side of the mountains, and 1100 m on the leeward side. The subzone extends to sea level outside of the rainshadow area (Klinka et_ al. 1979). Based on climatic characteristics, Klinka et_ al. (1979) have subdivided the Wetter Maritime Coastal Western Hemlock Subzone into variants. The sites that were sampled for this study were located in the Estevan and West Vancouver Island Submontane Wetter Maritime Coastal Western Hemlock biogeoclimatic variants. Descriptions of these variants have been detailed in Klinka et^  a_l. (1979). Climatic characteristics have been tabulated in Table 3. The west coast of Vancouver Island is characterized by a perhumid climate, with mild winters, cool summers, abundant precipitation, especially in the winter, and low snowfall (Valentine 1971; Jungen and Lewis 1978; Schaefer 1978). The relative humidity is high year round; especially in the winter, when sea fogs and haze are common. Since precipitation is so plentiful, the soils are constantly moist, and lack of moisture is seldom a limitation to plant growth (Jungen and Lewis 1978; Figure 5: Location of study sites on western Vancouver Island. (Numbers indicate the stand number) 32 Table 3: Climatic characteristics of the Estevan and West Vancouver Island Submontane Wetter Maritime Coastal Western Hemlock Biogeoclimatic Variants Climatic Characteristics Estevan W. Van. Island Submontane Submontane Climate (Koppen-Trewartha) wetter Cfb/c wetter Cfb/c Mean annual precipitation (mm) 3016 (71) 3819 (853) Mean precipitation April-September (mm) 774 (49) 876 (79) Mean precipitation of driest month (mm) 83 (6) 91 (17) Mean precipitation of wettest month (mm) 445 (20) 541 (19) Mean annual temperature (°C) 9.2 (0.4) 7.1 (0.9) Mean temperature of coldest month (°C) 4.6 (0.4) 2.1 (1.0) Mean temperature of warmest month (°C) 14.2 (0.7) 12.4 (1.5) No. of months with mean temperature >10°C 5.1 (0.9) 3.8 (0.9) No. of months with mean temperature <10°C Accumulated degree days over 5.6°C 0.0 (0.0) 0.1 (0.3) 1390 (145) 920 (242) Frost free period (days) 263 (11) 206 (15) Numbers of months with snow 0.0 (0.0) 2.5 (1.3) Maximum snow depth (cm) 0.0 (0.0) 38 (32) Number of months with water deficit 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.0) Water deficit (mm) 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.0) Water surplus (mm) 2485 (73) 3072 (138) Mean radiation during growing season (Ly) 40,300 (310) 39,400 (940) Potential evapotranspiration (mm) 531 (11) 502 (8) Actual evapotranspiration (mm) 531 (11) 502 (8) Actual/potential evapotranspiration (%) 100 (0.0) 100 (0.0) Actual evapotranspiration April-Sept, (mm) 485 (9) 456 (10) February (mm) 4 (1) 4 (1) March (mm) 25 (1) 23 (1) April (mm) 52 (2) 48 (2) May (mm) 88 (2) 83 (3) June (mm) 102 (1) 96 (3) July (mm) 110 (1) 105 (2) August (mm) 83 (1) 80 (3) September (mm) 50 (1) 47 (1) October (mm) 17 (1) 15 (1) (from: Klinka et al. 1979) (numbers in parentheses are standard deviations) 33 Schaefer 1978). In a study of the Tofino-Ucluelet lowlands, Valentine (1971) reported that actual and pot e n t i a l evapotranspiration values matched; and that plants did not suffer from any lack of water. In fa c t , he found the opposite to be true: The main problem for vegetation i s to adjust to a moisture surplus....This is the most important single feature of the climate to be reckoned with when the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of climate, s o i l , and vegetation growth are considered. Klinka et^ a l . (1979) have made some interpretaions from curves of calculated actual evapotranspiration for the Coastal Western Hemlock, Coastal Douglas-fir and Mountain Hemlock Zones. They concluded that in the humid climate of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone, lack of heat l i m i t s vegetation growth since p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s more than adequate to cover p o t e n t i a l evapotranspiration. Most, i f not a l l , of this region has been g l a c i a t e d , r e s u l t i n g in a wide v a r i e t y of g l a c i a l deposits. S u r f i c i a l deposits are comprised of morainal, c o l l u v i a l , f l u v i a l and marine materials. The coastal areas were depressed 50 to 70 m below sea l e v e l by the weight of the i c e . "They l a t e r rose by i s o s t a t i c rebound, leaving behind a complex marine-influenced zone..." (Jungen and Lewis 1978). Outwash sands and gravels were deposited by a r i v e r network emanating from the mountains (Valentine 1971). Widespread areas i n the va l l e y s and lower mountain slopes are covered by morainal deposits. The study s i t e s are contained primarily within the Ferro-Humic Podzol s o i l landscape, and p a r t i a l l y within the Humo-Ferric Podzol and F o l i s o l 34 s o i l landscapes described by Jungen and Lewis (1978). The large surplus of water and lack of heat i n the coastal area contribute to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o i l forming processes which are: mor formation, leaching, i l l u v i a t i o n , e l u v i a t i o n , and g l e i z a t i o n (Krajina 1959, 1965, 1969; Klinka et a l . 1979). The s o i l s t y p i c a l l y have thick surface organic horizons (mor humus) derived from forest l i t t e r ; t h i n e l u v i a l (Ae) horizons; and exceptionally strong podzol B horizons, r i c h i n ir o n , aluminum and organic matter, and dark reddish to yellowish brown i n colour (Jungen and Lewis 1978). Many of the s o i l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those which have developed from morainal or grav e l l y f l u v i a l parent materials, have extremely compact or cemented horizons or pans in the su b s o i l . These may be at various depths, have varying thicknesses, and contain d i f f e r e n t cementing agents. They are given d i f f e r e n t names -o r t s t e i n , p l a c i c , d u r i c , or fr a g i c - according to t h e i r morphology and mode of o r i g i n . They have the common effect of r e s t r i c t i n g root penetration and permeability (Valentine and Lavkulich 1978). As a re s u l t of the abundant p r e c i p i t a t i o n and r e s t r i c t e d permeability, the s o i l s are commonly moist to wet over most of the year. Many s o i l s experience temporary or permanent seepage of water through the lower humus or above a r e s t r i c t i v e layer (Klinka et a l . 1979) . This excess moisture i s often apparent i n the s o i l by a higher organic matter content and d u l l e r p r o f i l e colours (Jungen and Lewis 1978). This region supports some of the most productive forest land i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Mean annual increments of over 20 m 3/ha/yr are reported for some of the best s i t e s (Jungen and Lewis 1978). Western hemlock i s the dominant species i n th i s subzone and i s able to regenerate 35 under most stands. Western redcedar and amabilis f i r occur frequently; while Sitka spruce, Douglas-fir and yellow cedar are also common (Klinka et al. 1979). The characteristic floristic features of zonal ecosystems are: high species significance of western hemlock, low presence of herbs, and a predominance of several mosses (particularly Hylocomium splendens, Rhytidiadelphus loreus, and Plagiothecium undulatum) (Klinka e_t al. 1979). 36 CHAPTER 2: METHODS AND PROCEDURES  Selection of Study Sites and Sample Plots The sites sampled were in the Wetter Maritime Coastal Western Hemlock Subzone on western Vancouver Island. Sites with easy access were chosen in MacMillan-Bloedel's Franklin-Sarita, Sproat Lake, and Kennedy Lake Divisions. Stands were selected in which western redcedar was a major component of the overstory vegetation, often comprising - 50% of the species compostion. An attempt was made to sample what appeared to be "good" (productive) sites and "poor" (unproductive) sites; as well as wet and dry sites. It was thought that these extreme conditions would provide maximum information, particularly for comparison. Stands were selected for sampling from MacMillan-Bloedel cover-type maps which provided estimates of" species composition, site index, and volume. Identifying "good" sites was more difficult than anticipated. The cover-type maps merely served as a guide; recommendations of divisional foresters and other MB personnel were largely relied upon. One problem, which was particularly prevalent in Kennedy Lake Division, was that the best stands of western redcedar had already been logged (and, typically, planted with Douglas-fir). Consequently, only the "best" of the remaining sites could be sampled. In each selected site, three random 50 m^  circular plots were established and sampled. The replication of plots within a site provided an indication of within-site variability. In most instances, a site was 37 defined as a stand, as delineated on a MacMillan-Bloedel cover-type map; and the plots were established within the stand boundaries. Each site is referred to by its stand number. In a few situations; for example, when an area was not represented on a MB map, plots were sampled from similar site types and grouped together. A total of 40 plots were sampled from 14 sites (Fig. 5). Twelve sites have the usual 3-plot replication. However, in two of the sites, only two plots were sampled apiece. These four plots, sampled from rock bluff communities, were originally grouped together to represent one site type. However, the plots were dissimilar enough to separate them into two sites. Of the fourteen sites, twelve were undisturbed, old-growth forest communities- One site in Franklin-Sarita division had been recently logged (although not burned). The stumps were s t i l l intact and could be identified and measured. Another site, in Kennedy Lake Division, had been logged in 1933, and supported a naturally-regenerated stand, of which redcedar was a major component. Both sites had exceptionally large redcedar stumps, indicating that they had at one time supported very large redcedar trees. 38 Field Sampling Procedures for Data Collection Site Information The following site information was recorded for each plot: -plot location -aspect (in degrees to nearest 10°) -elevation (measured with an altimeter in m) -macrosite (apex, face, upper slope, middle slope, lower slope, valley floor, plain) -mesosite (crest, upper slope, middle slope, lower slope, depression, level) -slope angle (measured in % with a clinometer) -surface shape (concave, convex, straight, undulating) -relief position (normal, subnormal, excessive, flat or concave) -microtopography (smooth, micro-mounded, slightly mounded, moderately mounded, strongly mounded, severely mounded, extremely mounded, ultra-mounded) -drainage class (very rapidly, rapidly, well, moderately-well, imperfectly, poorly, very poorly) -moisture regime (very xeric, xeric, subxeric, submesic, mesic, subhygric, hygric, subhydric, hydric) Additional observations, such as evidence of fire and blowdown, were noted. Vegetation Data In each plot the following vegetational data were recorded: -species name (recorded for all overstory and understory vegetation excluding lichens and liverworts) -dbh (measured with a diameter tape to nearest 0.5 cm for a l l trees greater than 10 cm dbh) -canopy position (estimated for each tree >10 cm dbh, as veteran, dominant, codominant or suppressed) 39 -vigor (estimated for each species on a scale from 0=dead to 4=excellent) -saplings (numbers of trees greater than 10 cm dbh and taller than 1.3 m have been approximated) -seedlings (observations of regeneration have been made) -% cover (estimated in % in 1% intervals to 10%, and in 5% intervals beyond 10%, for each shrub, herb, and fern species, and for most common mosses) Mensuration Data As mentioned, dbh was measured for each tree greater than 10 cm dbh in al l plots. In each site, height was measured (in m to nearest 1 m, with a clinometer) for 10 dominant and/or codominant redcedar trees, and for 5 trees of each additional species. Age was estimated from increment cores or cross sections of stumps, for the same number of trees per site as height measurements. It should be noted that the trees which were used for height and age estimates were not necessarily located in the sample plots; they were however, located in the study sites. Soils Data A soil pit was dug in each plot to a depth of 1.6 m or until the water table or an impervious layer was reached. A profile description was made and the following information was recorded for each horizon: -depth and thickness (in cm to nearest 0.5 cm) -volume of coarse fragments greater than 2 mm (estimated visually as a % of total) -structure (grade, class, and kind) -consistency (moist, dry) -mottling (abundance, size, and contrast) 40 -roots (abundance, and size) -horizon boundary (distinctness, and form) Additional observations were made for the organic horizons including: evidence of matting or compaction, abundance and colour of fungal mycelia, abundance of charcoal and/or decayed wood, and the type and abundance of insects and earthworms. Samples of each soil horizon were collected for laboratory analyses. In addition, bulk density measurements of humus samples were made. Little attempt was made to classify the soils at the time of sampling. The horizons were identified as A, B, or C, and samples were numbered sequentially (ie. A2, B21, B22, Cl). The soils were classified according to the Canadian System of Soil Classification (1978) after completion of the laboratory analyses, and the horizons were re-labelled accordingly. Soil Sample Preparation Soil samples were sent to the MacMillan-Bloedel soils laboratory in Nanaimo for preparation. The mineral soil samples were air-dried at room temperature on brown paper, crushed with a wooden rolling pin, sieved for the greater than 2 mm and less than 2 mm fraction and weighed. Organic samples from L, F, and H horizons were air-dried and ground in a Wylie Mill to pass a 2 mm sieve. 41 Analyses S o i l Analyses Colour: Colours of moist and dry mineral samples were determined using a Munsell Colour Chart i n the Nanaimo s o i l s laboratory. Bulk density: The bulk density of humus horizons was calculated i n g/cc from samples c o l l e c t e d i n bulk density t i n s . pH: The pH of mineral samples was determined in both a 1:1 soil:water suspension and i n a 1:1 soil:0.0lM CaCl2 suspension. The pH of organic samples was determined in a 1:4 soil:water suspension and in a 1:4 soil:0.0lM CaCl2 suspension. Carbon: The t o t a l organic matter content of each sample was determined by weight loss on i g n i t i o n . The procedure is described by M i t c h e l l (1932). The organic carbon content of each sample was calculated based on the assumption that s o i l organic matter i s 58% carbon. Sample weights were corrected for moisture content and re s u l t s are reported as percentage of oven-dry weight. Nitrogen: The t o t a l nitrogen content of each sample was determined by the colorimetric procedure (of Black 1965) outlined in the UBC Pedology Laboratory Methods Manual (1978) . Samples were digested i n sulphuric acid and c a t a l y s t s (K2SO4, CUSO4, and Se) and read on an Autoanalyzer II System. Sample weights were corrected for moisture content and N concentrations are reported as a percentage of oven-dry weight. Phosphorus: Available phosphorus of each sample was determined by 42 Bray's procedure which has been described by Jackson (1958) and Black (1965), and is outlined in the UBC Pedology Laboratory Methods Manual (1978). Samples were extracted with 0.03N NH4F in 0.025N HC1. The colour was developed in ammonium molybdate and stannous chloride solutions, and the resulting colour was read at 660mu on a spectrophotometer. Sample weights were corrected for moisture content and results are reported on an oven-dry basis in ppm P. Exchangeable Cations: Exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry after extraction with neutral (pH 7.0) IN NH^ OAc. The procedure is described by Black (1965) and outlined in the UBC Pedology Laboratory Methods Manual (1978). Sample weights were corrected for moisture content and results are reported on an oven-dry basis in meq/lOOg soil. Texture: Soil texture was determined for mineral samples by hand-texturing in the laboratory. It should be mentioned that the chemical analyses for 8 of the sample plots (109-1, 109-2, 151-3, 300-1, 300-2, 315-1, 315-2, 818-2) were done by the technicians at the Nanaimo soils laboratory, because these samples were being used in conjunction with another research project. The samples from the other 32 profiles were analyzed at the UBC pedology laboratory by the author. The methods used by both parties were identical with the following exceptions for the Nanaimo samples: Iron and Aluminum: Fe and Al were determined for samples from B horizons by atomic absorption spectrophotometry after extraction from 43 100-mesh mineral samples using O.lM sodium pyrophosphate (pH 10.0). Results are reported on air-dried soils as %Fe and %A1. Soil texture: Soil texture was determined for mineral samples by the hydrometer method after the organic matter was destroyed by 30% hydrogen peroxide and oven-dry weights were assessed. Hydrometer readings were recorded after 40 seconds and 8 hours. Sand values were checked by wet sieving. The samples were placed in textural classes according to the Canadian Classification System. Organic Samples Nitrogen: Total nitrogen of the organic samples was determined on the 60-mesh sample by digestion in H2O2 and sulphuric acid; and read on an Auto Analyzer II System. Phosphorus: Total (NOT available) phosphorus was determined on the organic samples using the same digestion extract as for total nitrogen. Results have not been reported with the chemical data since there is l i t t l e basis for comparison. Total Cations: Total elements (including K, Ca, Mg, Na) were determined on the organic samples using the same digestion samples used for total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The samples were read by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results, which were reported as % and ppm, were converted to a meq/lOOg soil basis. Soil Data Analysis Analysis of the soils data is discussed in Chapter 3. 44 Mensuration Data Site index: An approximation of site index was calculated for each site. Since the height and age measurements were not always paired observations of the same tree, i t was not possible to calculate site index by the usual method. Instead, site index of the means was estimated as follows: for each major tree species on a given site, a mean height value was calculated from the height measurements taken for dominant and codominant trees. Similarly, a mean age (or usually, a mean minimum age) was estimated for each species on a site from increment cores and cross sections of stumps. Using the mean height and mean age values for a given species on a particular site, coastal site index curves were consulted (Hegyi ejt al. 1979) and a site index value was obtained. Stands older than 300 years were assessed as being 300 years of.age. Results are reported as SI^ oo •'•n m e t r e s ' Basal Area: The basal area of each tree larger than 10 cm dbh in each plot was calculated. From these calculations i t was possible to estimate the total basal area of a l l trees for each plot and for each stand, and the total basal area of each individual species for each plot and for each stand. Results are expressed as m^ /ha. Vegetation Data Analyses Tabular Comparison The Ministry of Forests Computer program VEG (written by K. Klinka and S. Phelps, 1979), and subsequently a revised version of the program 4 5 F405:VTAB (Emanuel 1983) were run on the vegetation data. This is a t r a d i t i o n a l preferred method of tabular comparison for plots which are weakly-structured and species-poor (Ceska and Roemer 1971); as is common for many old growth forest stands i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The computer program was not designed to perform a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of plots into groups (synsystematic u n i t s ) . It produces a set of vegetation tables and a summary vegetation table based on the groups designated by the user; from which c h a r a c t e r i s t i c combinations of species can be selected. The ultimate goal is to i d e n t i f y units i n which mutually exclusive groups of species occur (Klinka and Phelps 1979). Plots were t e n t a t i v e l y grouped into synsystematic units based on information from f i e l d notes ( i e : moisture regime, macrosite, f l o r i s t i c composition, e t c . ) . These groupings were refined through running and re-running the VEG program, and through running a c l u s t e r analysis. To produce vegetation tables, vegetation data for each plot were entered into the computer and included: -the plot number -the species name -the vegetation layer (tree, shrub, herb and fern, and moss) -the species s i g n i f i c a n c e value (based on Krajina 1933), and -the species vigor value (based on Peterson 1964). Species s i g n i f i c a n c e values were obtained by transforming the percent cover values which were estimated i n the f i e l d . Species s i g n i f i c a n c e ratings are based on the 10-point Domin-Krajina scale (Krajina 1933) which combines abundance and dominance as follows: 46 + very sparsely present dominance very small (0.1-0.3%) 1 sparsely present dominance small (0.3 - 1.0%) 2 very scattered dominance small (1.0 - 2.2%) 3 scattered to plentiful dominance 2.2 - 5.0% 4 often present dominance 5.0 - 10.0% 5 often present dominance 10.0 - 25.0% 6 any number of individuals dominance 25.0 - 33.0% 7 any number of individuals dominance 33.0 - 50.0% 8 any number of individuals dominance 50.0 - 75.0% 9 any number of individuals dominance over 75.0% The computer produced a set of vegetation tables which contained a summary of vegetation data for each requested plot group (synsystematic unit), and a vegetation description of each plot within a group. The mean species significance (MS), range of species significance (RS), and presence (P) values were calculated for each species within a group. Presence is defined as the percentage of plots within a group in which a species occurs. Species were arranged vertically in the following order: a) by layer b) by decreasing presence within a layer 47 c) by decreasing mean species s i g n i f i c a n c e value, where presence values were i d e n t i c a l within a layer d) by alphabetical order, where presence values and mean species s i g n i f i c a n c e values were i d e n t i c a l within a layer. The vegetation tables were of assistance in r e f i n i n g the groupings of p l o t s . Once the plot groups were decided upon, a summary vegetation table was produced. The summary table contained an alphabetical l i s t i n g of a l l plant species mentioned i n the vegetation tables, and corresponding mean species s i g n i f i c a n c e values and constancy class values for each synsystematic unit (plot group). Constancy classes are expressed as Roman numerals according to the Braun-Blanquet scale of constancy and presence (Braun-Blanquet 1928,1932) as follows: constancy species occurring d e s c r i p t i o n class on % of plots  I 1-20 r a r e l y present II 21-40 seldom present III 41-60 often present IV 61-80 mostly present V 81-100 constantly present . When a group contains less than 5 plots the constancy class is expressed as an integer rather than a Roman numeral. From the summary table, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c combinations of species were selected for each group of p l o t s . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c combination of species (Braun-Blanquet 1965) i s used to describe a more or less unique combination of plant species which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c for a group of sim i l a r ecosystems. These groups of s i m i l a r ecosystems are i d e n t i f i e d as associations. The association i s the basic unit i n biogeocoenotic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . 48 Ordination of Sample Plots The vegetation data was subsequently run through an ordination program, ORDIFLEX (Gauch 1977), which is an option of the F405:VTAB program (Emanuel and Wong 1983). Reciprocal averaging was the ordination method chosen. Using complex matrix algebra, this technique ordinated the sample p l o t s , with respect to species composition, along a series of imaginary axes. Sample plots which are most s i m i l a r , in terms of species composition, are plotted closer together along an axis than those which are d i s s i m i l a r . The r e s u l t s of the ordination are presented i n Chapter 3, and have been used to v a l i d a t e the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of sample plots and s e l e c t i o n of associations. Use of Plant Indicators i n Site Interpretation The presence, r e l a t i v e abundance, and size of various plant species can be used not only for c l a s s i f y i n g plant associations, but also for i n d i c a t i n g forest s i t e conditions (Husch et_ al_. 1972; Spurr and Barnes 1973; Carmean 1975). Certain diagnostic plant species are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c e r t a i n ecosystems or ec o l o g i c a l conditions. Each species has a more or less d e f i n i t i v e value i n r e l a t i o n to one or more ecosystem c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ( b i o t i c , edaphic, c l i m a t i c ) (Klinka et_ al_. 1984). Thus, the plants can be used to i n d i c a t e these e c o l o g i c a l conditions. Species i n d i c a t i n g the same conditions or s i t e can be grouped into indicator species groups. 49 In southwestern B.C., 18 edatopic indicator species groups (EISG), including a total of 360 species, have been developed to facilitate the use of plants in forest site diagnosis (Klinka et al. 1984). Each edatopic indicator species group contains a variable number of species which have similar distribution modes in relation to absolute hygrotope and absolute trophotope (Klinka et^  al_. 1984). Each edatopic group indicates a certain range of hygrotope and trophotope. Except for the extreme edatopes, most groups indicate two or more classes of hygrotope and trophotope (Klinka et al. 1984). The groups are structured into 3 trophotope categories, which are subdivided into 7 categories of hygrotope (except for the medium trophotope category, in which only 4 categories of hygrotope are recognized). Each group is named by a characteristic plant species, and is further identified by a 2 digit number; the digits indicate the categories of trophotope and hygrotope respectively. The 18 edatopic indicator species groups identified by Klinka e_t j i l . (1984) are listed in Table 4. Using the descriptive vegetation data for a given site in conjunction with edatopic indicator species group information, interpretations can be made regarding the moisture and nutrient conditions of the site as reflected by the plant community. Paul Courtin and Karel Klinka, of the B.C. Ministry of Forests, ran a computer program on the vegetation data from this study, which performed the following calculations: first, only plant species listed in one of the edatopic indicator species groups (EISG) were used in the calculations; species not included in one of the EISG were considered to be "indifferent", and were disregarded; using the 50 Table 3: Synopsis of edatopic indicator species groups (EISG). (reproduced from Klinka et al. 1984) 1. Indicators of nutrient-very poor to medium sites; EISG No. 1.1: Lichen spp. Very dry, nutrient-very poor to poor sites EISG No. 1.2: Chimaphila umbellata Very dry to dry, nutrient-very poor to medium sites EISG No. 1.3: Goodyera oblongifolia Dry to fresh, nutrient-very poor to medium sites EISG No. 1.4: Hylocomium splendens Dry to moist, nutrient-very poor to medium sites EISG No. 1.5: Rhytidiadelphus loreus Fresh-moist, nutrient-very poor to medium sites EISG No. 1.6: Blechnum spicant Moist to wet, nutrient-very poor to medium sites EISG No. 1.7: Sphagnum spp. Wet, nutrient-very poor to medium sites 2. Indicators of nutrient-medium sites: EISG No. 2..1: Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Very dry to dry, nutrient (poor) to medium sites EISG No. 2.2: Amelanchier alnifolia Dry to fresh, nutrient-medium sites EISG No. 2.3: Pyrola asarifolia Dry to moist, nutrient-medium sites EISG No. 2.4: Luzula parviflora Fresh to moist, nutrient-medium sites 3. Indicators of nutrient-medium to very rich sites: EISG No . 3.1: Juniperus scopulorum Very dry, nutrient-medium (to rich) sites EISG No. 3.2: Mahonia aquifolia Very dry to dry, nutrient-medium to very rich sites EISG No. 3.3: Pteridium aquilinum Dry to fresh, nutrient-medium to very rich sites EISG No. 3.4: Achlys triphylla Dry to moist, mutrient-medium to very rich sites EISG No. 3.5: Tiarella trifoliata Fresh to moist, nutrient-medium to very rich sites EISG No. 3.6: Athyrium filix-femina Moist to wet, nutrient-medium to very rich sites EISG No. 3.7: Lysichitum americanum Wet, nutrient-medium to very rich sites 51 presence and mean species significance values from the vegetation tables produced by F405:VTAB, an importance value (Jaeger 1983), and subsequently, a relative species importance (RSI) value, were calculated for each species where: RSI (%) = importance value of a species X 100). sum of importance values for a plot For each plot, the relative importance values for each edatopic indicator species group were summed. These values were plotted to produce a spectrum of edatopic indicator species groups, for use in comparison of sample plots; and were also used to calculate mean RSI values for each EISG for stands and associations. The edatopic indicator species groups combine hygrotope and trophotope on the same scale. To facilitate interpretation, the RSI values were summed for each hygrotope category and each trophotope category separately, and plotted to produce two graphs: one for hygrotope and one for trophotope• 52 CHAPTER 3: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  Use of Vegetation in Site Classification and Interpretation Classification of Sample Plots The 14 study sites and their associated sample plots, described in Appendix 2, represent a wide range of site conditions. Nevertheless, there are similarities between plots which allow plots to be grouped into larger, more distinct units. Vegetation is one feature which can provide a basis for grouping or classifying sample plots into characteristic units. At the phytocoenotic level of the biogeoclimatic system of classification, the units, which include order, alliance, and association, are differentiated by floristic features. The association is actually the basic unit in biogeocoenotic classification which, in addition to vegetation, utilizes edaphic and climatic features for differentiating units. However, these features are not necessary for deriving associations since associations are synthesized from the grouping of similar climatic plant communities and can be differentiated by their characteristic combination of species. From an analysis of the vegetation data (as described in Chapter 2) the sample plots were classified into 6 associations, or groups of similar ecosystems. With the assistance of Dr. K. Klinka the associations were named (following the nomenclature of Barkman ejt al. 1976) and their respective alliances and orders were identified. This information is 53 presented in Table 5. The characteristic combinations of species for the syntaxa (primarily, associations) recognized in the study area were derived following the procedure for determining characteristic combinations of species written by R. Roy (1984). This list of species is presented in Table 6 and the "accidental" species have been listed in Appendix 6. The orders and alliances have been previously identified and described by their respective authorities and therefore require no further discussion. A brief description of the associations is contained in the following section. Detailed descriptions of the individual sites used to derive the associations can be found in Appendix 2. It must be stressed that these associations have been derived from a limited data set and must therefore be regarded as tentative. Furthermore, the differentiating values assigned to the species in the characteristic combinations of species must also be regarded as tentative (particularly the "character-species") since these assignments are likely to change as more data become available for this region. 54 Table 5: Synopsis of syntaxa at the phytocoenotic level. 1. Rhytidiadelpho lorei-Tsugetalia (Krajina 1969) Klinka 1983 1.1 Gaultherio-Tsugion Klinka et al. 1980 1.11 Cladino-Tsugetum Dickinson et Klinka 1984 2. Polysticho muniti-Thujetalia (Brooke in Krajina 1965) Inselberg eit al. 1982 2.1 Blechno-Thujion a l l . nov. prov. 2.11 Blechno-Thujetum Dickinson et Klinka 1984 2.12 Sphagno-Thujetum Dickinson et Klinka 1984 -3. Picetalia sitchensis Cordes et Krajina in Cordes 1972 3.1 Polysticho-Piceion Cordes et Krajina in Cordes 1972 3.11 Kindberglo praelongi-Piceetum Cordes et Krajina in Cordes 1972 3.2 Lysichito-Piceion a l l . nov. prov. 3.21 Lysichito-Piceetum Cordes et Krajina in Cordes 1972 4. Abietalia amabilis order nov. prov. 4.1 Streptopo rosei-Abietion Klinka et al. 1980 4.11 Tiarello trifoliatae-Abietetum Dickinson et Klinka 1984 (where: X.= Order X.X= Alliance X.XX= Association) Table 6: Cha r a c t e r i s t i c combinations of species for the plant syntaxa recognized In the study area Biogeocoenotlc associations Number of sample plots | 1.11 |P 2.11 |r~2.12 l [~3al || 3.21 [ f ' ^ l 1 , l l ~ 1 8 [j 6 || 3 || 3 II 3 -Cladlno-Tsugetum Association Chamaecyparls nootkatensis (co) 3 5.3 Cladlna impexa (co) 2 1.8 Cladlna rangiferlna (co) 2 3.7 Cladlna sp. (co) 2 3.7 Cladonia b e l l l d l f l o r a (co) 2 +.3 Cladonia g r a c i l i s (co) 2 1.1 Cladonia u n c i a l i s (co) 2 1.8 Danthonla splcata (co) 2 +.3 Olcranum scoparlum (co) 2 2.2 III 2.2 Oicranum sp. (co) 2 1.8 Diplophyllum albicans (co) 2 1.1 I +.6 I 1.1 Ditrichum sp. (co) 2 +.3 Caultheria shallon (cd) 5 6.1 V 8.0 V 8.0 5 3.5 5 6.9 Herberta adunca (co) 3 1.3 I +.0 II +.0 Hieracium albiflorum (co) 2 +.3 Hylocomium splendens (cd) 5 5.9 V 5.8 V 7.2 4 1.1 5 3.5 Hypopythys monotropa (co) 2 +.3 Isothecium stoloniferum (co) 2 +.3 I 1.0 2 1.3 Menziesla ferruginea (c) 5 4.5 V 4.6 V 3.1 2 +.5 5 4.9 2 3.1 Mylia t a y l o r i i (co) 2 +.3 I +.0 Phyllodoce empetriformis (co) 2 2.7 I 1.4 Pinus montlcola (co) 3 4.0 I 3.0 Polytrichum commune (co) 2 +.3 I +.5 Polytrlchum pl l i f e r u m (co) 2 +.3 2 2.1 2 +.5 Pseudotsuga menzeisll (e) 4 5.3 I 2.1 Pteridlum aquilinum (co) 2 +.3 Rhacomitrlum canescens (co) 2 2.7 Rhacomitrlum heterostlchum (co) 2 3.7 Rhacomitrlum lanuginosum (co) 2 +.3 Rhytidladelphus loreus (co.cd) 5 6.1 IV 5.1 V 5.7 4 2.6 2 3.1 Saxlfraga ferruginea (co) 2 +.3 Stereocaulon tomentosum (co) 2 +.3 Tsuga heterophylla (cd) 5 6.1 V 5.2 V 6.2 5 7.6 5 4.2 4 5.3 Vaccinium alaskaense (c) 5 4.4 V 4.8 III 3.0 5 5.0 5 6.3 Vacclnium parvifolium (cd) 5 5.1 V 5.4 V 5.2 2 2.1 5 5.7 4 5.4 Blechno-Thujion A l l i a n c e Blechnum splcant (cd) 3 3.8 V 8.9 V 8.2 5 5.7 5 6.0 5 6.0 Gaultheria shallon (cd) 5 6.1 V 8.0 V 8.0 5 3.5 5 6.9 Hylocomium splendens (cd) 5 5.9 V 5.8 V 7.2 4 1.1 5 3.5 Menziesla ferruginea (c) 4.5 V 4.6 V 3.1 2 +.5 5 4.9 2 3.1 Taxus b r e v l f o l i a (co) 2 +.3 III 1.7 IV 2.0 2 +.5 Tsuga heterophylla (cd) 5 6.1 V 5.2 V 6.2 5 7.6 5 4.2 4 5.3 Vaccinium parvifolium (cd) 5 5.1 V 5.4 V 5.2 2 2.1 5 5.7 4 5.4 Blechnum-Thujetum Association Abies amabilis (d) 3 2.8 IV 4 5 - _ _ Polypodium glycyrrhiza (s) 2 +.3 IV 1 5 - 2 +.5 _ Vaccinium alaskaense (d,c) 5 4.4 V 4 8 I l l 3.0 5 5.0 5 6.5 Sphagno-Thujetum Association Boschniakla hookeri (co) II +.5 -Calamagrostis nutkaensis (co) II 1.5 -Cornus unalaschkensls (d.cd) 3 4.0 III 4.6 V 6.7 - 2 2.1 5 7.1 Dlcranum scoparlum (d) 3 2.2 III 2.2 _ Linnaea borealis (p,cd) 3 4.0 II 2.2 V 5.1 -Maianthemum dilatatum (cd) 3 3.0 IV 3.9 V 5.3 _ 5 4.3 4 4.6 Malus fusca (e,cd) V 5.0 -Pinus contorta (p.cd) 3 4.5 " V 5.6 Plagiotheclum undulatum (d,c) 3 1.0 I 1.4 V 3.5 - 5 3.5 Rhytidladelphus loreus (cd) 5 6.1 IV 5.1 V 5.7 - 4 2.6 2 3.1 Sphagnum sp. (p.cd) 3 1.3 III 5.0 V 5.1 -P i c e t a l l a sltchensls Order Athyrium f i l l x - f e m l n a (c) - I +.0 - 4 2.3 5 4.3 5 3.5 Blechnum splcant (cd) 3 3.8 V 8.9 V 8.2 5 5.7 5 6.0 5 3.9 Gaultheria shallon (cd) 5 6.1 V 8.0 V 8.0 5 3.5 5 6.9 Hylocomium splendens (c) 5 5.9 V 5.8 V 7.2 4 1.1 5 3.5 Kindbergla oregana (co,cd) 4 5.2 IV 4.4 IV 4.5 5 6.5 4 3.1 Picea sltchensls (e,cd) - I +.0 - 4 5.1 5 7.4 Pleurozium schreberl (s) 2 1.8 II 2.9 - 5 5.2 2 5.2 Polystlchum muniturn (cd) 2 1.8 II 2.1 - 5 5.0 5 5.5 5 3.1 Rhizomnium glabrescens (co.cd) - IV 5.0 I l l 3.5 5 5.7 5 5.7 4 3.0 T i a r e l l a t r i f o l l a t a (c) - II 2.1 - 5 2.8 5 3.9 5 6.5 Tsuga heterophylla (cd) 5 6.1 V 5.2 V 6.2 5 7.6 5 4.2 4 5.3 Vaccinium ovatum (co,c) 3 4.7 IV 5.1 V 8.5 4 1.1 5 3.6 4 4.2 Klndbergio praelongl-Piceetum Assolcation Dryopterls expansa (co.c) - - 5 3.1 - 4 3.0 Gymnocarpium dryopterls (d) - - • 4 2.3 - 5 5.1 Pleurozium schreberl (d,cd) 2 1.8 II 2.9 5 5.2 2 5.2 -Lysichlto-Piceetum Association Adenocaulon blcolor (co) - - - - 2 1.3 -Blepharostoma trichophyllum (co) - I +.0 I 2.2 - 2 +.5 -Boykinla elata (e) - - - - 4 1.1 -Calypogeia muelleriana (co) - I +.1 - - 2 1.3 -Carex obnupta (s,c) - - II 3.2 - 5 4.7 -Cephalozia bicuspldata (co) - I 2.2 I 2.2 - 2 +.5 -Festuca subulata (co) - - - - 2 +.5 -Galium t r i f l o r u m (e) - - - - 4 2.3 -Hookerla lucens (s) - I +.1 II +.5 - 4 1.1 -Huperizia selago (co) - - - - 2 3.1 -Isopterygium elegans (co) - - - - 2 +.5 -Kindbergla praelonga (e) - - - - 4 5.1 -Leucolepis menziesll (e) - - - - 4 4.2 _ Luzula p a r v i f l o r a (co) - - - - 2 +.5 _ Lysichltum americanum (s,cd) - II 3.1 - - 5 5.8 2 2.1 Maianthemum dilatatum (c) 3 3.0 IV 3.9 V 5.3 - 5 4.3 4 4.6 Menziesla ferruginea (d,c) 5 4.5 V 4.6 V 3.1 2 +.5 5 4.9 2 3.1 P e l l i a neeslana (e) - - - - 4 2.6 _ P l a g i o c h i l a porelloides (e) - I +.6 - - 4 2.6 -Plaglomnium insigne (e,c) - - - - 5 1.5 -Plagiotheclum undulatum (c) 3 1.0 I 1.4 V 3.5 - 5 3.5 -Pogonatum alpinum (s) 2 1.8 I +.0 - - 4 4.9 -Rhytidladelphus loreus (d) 5 6.1 IV 5.1 V 5.7 - 4 2.6 2 3.1 Riccardla l a t i f r o n s (co) - I +.0 - - 2 1.3 -Rubus s p e c t a b i l l s (d,cd) - IV 3.6 I l l 1.7 - 5 6.0 5 5.3 Scapania bolanderi (e) - I +.6 - - 4 2.6 _ Sphagnum henryense (e) - - - - 4 1.1 -Stachys mexicana (co) - - - - 2 3.1 -Streptopus amplexifolius (e) - - - - 4 1.6 -T i a r e l l a l a c i n l a t a (e,c) - I +.0 - - 5 3.2 -Trlsetum cernuum (e) - - - - 4 1.1 -Vaccinium alaskaense (d.cd) 5 4.4 V 4.8 I l l 3.0 - 5 5.0 5 6.5 Vaccinium ovalifolium (e) - I +.0 - - 4 3.0 _ Vaccinium parvifolium (d.cd) 5 5.1 V 5.4 V 5.2 2 2.1 5 5.7 4 5.4 Viola g l a b e l l a (d) - - - 4 1.1 5 7.6 T i a r e l l o trifoliatae-Abietetum Association Abies amabilis (co.cd) 3 2.8 IV 4.5 - - 2 2.1 5 7.6 Achlys t r i p h y l l a (e,c) - - - - 5 4.9 Athyrium f l l i x - f e m i n a (c) - I +.0 - 4 2.3 5 4.3 5 3.5 Blechnum splcant (c) 3 3.8 V 8.9 V 8.2 5 5.7 5 6.0 5 3.8 Cornus unalaschkensls (cd) 3 4.0 III 4.6 V 6.7 - 2 2.1 5 7.1 Gymnocarpium dryopterls (co.cd) - - - 4 2.3 5 5.1 O r t h i l l i a secunda (co) - - - - 2 +.5 Petasites palmatus (e) - - - - 4 3.0 Polystlchum muniturn (c) 2 1.8 II 2.1 - 5 5.0 5 5.5 5 3.1 Rubus s p e c t a b i l l s (cd) - IV 3.6 I l l 1.7 - 5 6.0 5 5.3 Streptopus roseus (s) - II 1.6 - - 2 1.3 4 5.4 T i a r e l l a t r i f o l l a t a (cd) - II 2.1 - 5 2.8 5 3.9 5 6.5 T i a r e l l a u n l f o l i a t a (s,c) - I +.0 - - 2 5.2 5 4.2 T r i l l i u m ovatum (e,c) - I +.0 - - 5 4.9 Vaccinium alaskaense (cd) 5 4.4 V 4.8 I l l 3.0 - 5 5.0 5 6.5 Veratrum v i r i d e (s) - I +.0 II +.5 - 2 +.5 4 3.3 Viola g l a b e l l a (co) - - - - 4 1.1 5 7.6 56 Description of Associations Association 1.11: Cladino-Tsugetum (Lichen-Hemlock) References: Sample plots 818-1, 818-2, 819-1, 819-2; Table 7; Figures 6, 7, 8; Appendices 1-5, 7. This association was synthesized from the 4 sample plots of the Rock Outcrop (819) and Dry Rock Outcrop (818) sites. These ecosystems occur on rocky knolls, rock outcroppings, and exposed bedrock (Figs. 6, 7). The soils are "Lithic Podzols" and Typic Folisols which have developed from weathering of parent materials (bedrock and colluvium) and decomposition of organic matter. They are very thin and sparse, of xeric to subxeric moisture regime, and rapidly drained. Ecosystem characteristics have been compiled and are presented in Table 7. The forests of these ecosystems are comprised of small, slow-growing, stunted trees; the dominant species being western hemlock and western redcedar, with varying admixtures of shore pine, yellow cedar, Douglas-fir, and western white pine (Fig. 8). The forest is very open, with relatively light shrub and herb layers characterized by abundant hemlock and redcedar regeneration. In contrast, the moss layer is very well-developed with a number of characteristic mosses and lichens (App. 7). Fig. 6: View of plot 818-1 from Highway 4. Fig. 7: View of plot 818-2 from Highway 4. Notice small size of 150-450+ yr. old trees. Fig. 8: View of site 819. Notice poor form and small size of trees, and open canopy. 59 Table 7: Environmental characteristics of Association 1.11 Cladino-Tsugetum (Lichen-Hemlock) Characteristic Mean Range Elevation (m) 72 60-78 Aspect (°) 266 (W) 207-335 Macrosite position apex, lower slope Slope gradient (%) 31 30-32 Soil parent material bedrock, colluvium Soil moisture regime xeric to subxeric Soil drainage rapid Soil type "Lithic Podzol" (-•Typic Folisol) Family particle-size class loamy Forest floor thickness (cm) 11 5-20 Total rooting depth* (cm) 18 7-27 Depth to restrictive layer* (cm) 18 7-27 Effective rooting depth* (cm) 18 7-27 Growth class (redcedar) 6, 0 Site index (redcedar)(m/100 yrs) 17 5.6-24.3 Average height (redcedar)(m) 19 6.5-27.3 Basal area (m^ /ha) 40.5 17-63 Relative density (stems/ha) 625 540-720 (* includes depth of organic horizons) 60 The characteristic combination of species for this association consists of the following plant species with their differentiating value (as defined in Appendix 8) shown in parentheses: Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (co) Pinus monticola (co) Pseudotsuga menziesii (e) Tsuga heterophylla (cd) Gaultheria shallon (cd) Menziesia ferruginea (c) Vaccinium alaskaense (c) Vaccinium parvifolium (cd) Danthonia spicata (co) Hieracium albiflorum (co) Hypopythys monotropa (co) Phyllodoce empetriformis (co) Pteridium aquilinium (co) Saxifraga ferruginea (co) Cladina impexa (co) Cladina rangiferina (co) Cladina sp. (co) Cladonia bellidiflora (co) Cladonia gracilis (co) Cladonia uncialis (co) Dicranum scoparium (co) Dicranum sp. (co) Diplophyllum albicans (co) Ditrichum sp. (co) Herberta adunca (co) Hylocomium splendens (cd) Isothecium stoloniferum (co) Mylia taylorii (co) Polytrichum commune (co) Polytrichum piliferum (co) Rhacomitrium canescens (co) Rhacomitrium heterostichum (co Rhacomitrium lanuginosum (co) Rhytidiadelphus loreus i(co,cd) Stereocaulon tomentosum (co) The ecosystems of this association have very low productivity, due moisture stress and severe site conditions, and could not be managed for commercial purposes. 61 Association 2.11: Blechno-Thujetum (Deer fern-Redcedar) Reference: Sample plots 131-1,2,3; 144-1,2,3; 151-1,2,3; 152-1,2,3; 152-1,2,3; 109-1,2,3; 199-1,2,3; 150-1,2,3; Table 8; Figures 9-20; Appendices 1-5, 7. This association was synthesized from 18 sample plots of 6 study sites listed above. As the vegetation data set for stand 144 was incomplete (due to logging) it was not included in the vegetation data analysis. However, the remaining vegetation and other environmental characteristics of these plots suggest that they should be classified in this association. This association covers a wide range of environmental conditions which have been summarized in Table 8. Ecosystems of this association occur on plains (Fig. 9), mid-slope (Figs. 10, 11) and lower slope positions, from 25 to 230 m elevation. The soils are typically Ferro-Humic Podzols or Humic Podzols derived from morainal parent materials (Figs. 12, 13), but include Gleysols (Fig. 14), Brunisols, and glaciofluvial or glaciomarine parent materials. One feature common to almost a l l soils of this association is the presence of compaction or cementation in the lower part of the solum, resulting in restricted rooting and drainage. Some soils experience lateral water flow or have perched water tables (Fig. 15), and many have mottling (Fig. 14). The moisture regime ranges from subhygric to subhydric and drainage is moderately-well to poor. 62 Table 8: Environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Association 2.11 Blechno-Thujetum (Deer fern-Redcedar) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Mean Range Elevation (m) 99 25-230 Aspect SE, E N , E, SE, S, SW, W, N l Macrosite p o s i t i o n mid-slope , p l a i n , lower slope Slope gradient (%) 15 0-35 So i l parent material morainal, ( g l a c i o f l u v i a l , glaciomarine S o i l moisture regime hygric subhygric-subhydric S o i l drainage imperfect moderately well -poor S o i l type FHP, HP, (HG, OG , DB, SB, FP) Family p a r t i c l e - s i z e classy- loamy fC, L, Lsk, S, Ssk Forest f l o o r thickness (cm) 15.8 8-29 Total rooting depth* (cm) 42.4 19-76 Depth to r e s t r i c t i v e layer* (cm) 49.7 19-94 E f f e c t i v e rooting depth* (cm) 26.2 12-47 Growth c l a s s (redcedar) 5 4-6 Site index (redcedar)(m/100 yrs) 28.4 25.2-34.6 Average height (redcedar)(m) 31.8 27.6-38.9 Basal area (m^/ha) 140 60-347 Relative density (stems/ha) 451 240-780 (* includes depth of organic horizons) Fig. 9: View of stand 152 from the Pachena Main Line. 64 Fig. 11: Upslope view of site 144. Notice size of stumps in relation to person in centre of picture. Fig. 12: Soil cut near plot 131-1: Humic Podzol with humimor on morainal material. Notice abundance of roots in thick humus layer, horizontal orientation of roots, and height and density of salal in background. Fig. 13: Soil profile 151-3. Gleyed Ferro-Humic Podzol on morainal veneer over igneous bedrock. (photo courtesy of D. Gagnon) 67 (photos courtesy of D. Gagnon) Fig. 15: Roadcut through stand 151, Sarita Seepage Slope. Notice size of stump in shallow soil over bedrock, and horizontal orientation of roots. 69 Western redcedar dominates these ecosystems; typically comprising over 75% of the total basal area (Figs. 16, 17). Western hemlock is usually abundant, but much smaller in diameter, and often in a codominant or intermediate crown position. Amabilis fir is also common. The shrub layer is characterized by a tall dense layer of salal (Fig. 18), with admixtures of various Vaccinium species and false-azalea. Deer fern dominates the herb layer which is otherwise poorly developed (Fig. 20). The moss layer contains a variety of species (App. 7) and is well-developed. The characteristic combination of species for this association consists of the following plant species with their differentiating values (as defined in Appendix 8) in parentheses: Abies amabilis (d) Gaultheria shallon (cd) Taxus brevifolia (co) Menziesia ferruginea (c) Tsuga heterophylla (cd) Vaccinium alaskaense (d,c) Vaccinium parvifolium (cd) Blechnum spicant (cd) Polypodium glycyrrhiza (s) Hylocomium splendens (cd) The productivity of western redcedar in this association varies with site position; from poor (SI=25.2) on flat, poorly drained plains, to medium (SI=34.6) on seepage slopes. 70 Fig. 16: Large, old redcedar trees in Stand 151. 72 Fig. 18: Plot 199-3, mid-slope. Notice height and density of salal in relation to person wearing orange hardhat. Fig. 19: Dense patch of salal and vacciniums in plot 109-1. 74 Association 2.12: Sphagno-Thujetum (Sphagnum-Redcedar) References: Sample plots 300-1, 300-2, 300-3, 821-1, 821-2, 821-3; Table 9; Figures 21-25; Appendices 1-5, 7. This association was synthesized from the 6 sample plots of the Port Albion Bog (821) and Ucluelet Scrub (300) sites. Ecosystems of this association occur on flat coastal plains at an elevation of 25 to 80 m (Table 9). The soils are Humic Podzols or Orthic Gleysols which have derived from fluvial or glaciomarine sediments over morainal t i l l (Fig. 21). The soils are shallow, with a hardpan or compacted t i l l occuring close to the surface. As a result of the impervious layer, the soils are poorly drained and of subhydric moisture regime. Abundant mottling of high chroma indicates periods of prolonged saturation. Rooting is confined almost entirely to the organic horizons. The presence of charcoal in the soils suggests that fire played a role in stand origin. These ecosystems have a very open forest canopy and are comprised of numerous small stunted trees (Figs. 22, 23). Western redcedar dominates the main canopy, with admixtures of western hemlock and shore pine. Western crab apple and western yew are minor but characteristic understory species. The shrub layer is extremely dense and t a l l , and is dominated by Vaccinium species and salal (Figs. 24, 25). The herb and moss layers are also well-developed (App. 7). Regeneration of western redcedar is abundant in these ecosystems. 75 Table 9: Environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Association 2.12 Sphagno-Thuj etum (Sphagnum-Redcedar) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Mean Range Elevation (m) 46 25-80 Aspect N/A Macrosite p o s i t i o n p l a i n Slope gradient (%) 0 (0-15) So i l parent material fluvial-glaciomarine/morainal S o i l moisture regime subhydric S o i l drainage poor S o i l type Humic Podzol, Orthic Gleysol Family p a r t i c l e - s i z e class loamy, loamy s k e l e t a l Forest f l o o r thickness (cm) 15 5-22 Total rooting depth* (cm) 37.5 13-74 Depth to r e s t r i c t i v e layer* (cm) 44 16-74 E f f e c t i v e rooting depth* (cm) 20 13-27 Growth class (redcedar) 8, 0 Site index (redcedar)(m/100 yrs) 15.1 13.9-16.3 Average height (redcedar)(m) 17 15.6-18.3 Basal area (m^/ha) 56 32-77 Relative density (stems/ha) 777 580-1060 (* includes depth of organic horizons) 76 Fig. 21: Soil profile in plot 300-2: Fine-loamy Orthic Gleysol. Notice band of bright orange mottles. (photo courtesy of D. Gagnon) Fig. 22: View of stand 821 (near plots 1 and 2) from Port Albion Road. Notice spindly shape of redcedar in background; and abundant redcedar regeneration in foreground. Fig. 23: Second view of stand 821 (near plots 1 and 2) from Port Albion Road. Notice scrubby appearance and poor form of pine and cedar trees. Fig. 24: View of plot 300-1. Notice dense, t a l l understory of salal, vacciniums, and redcedar regeneration; and poor form of trees. Fig. 25: View of dense understory vegetation in plot 300-2. (photos courtesy of D. Gagnon) 79 The characteristic combination of species for this association consists of the following plant species with their differentiating values (as defined in Appendix 8) in parentheses: Pinus contorta (p,cd) Malus fusca (e,cd) Taxus brevifolia (co) Tsuga heterophylla (cd) Blechnum spicant (cd) Boschniakia hookeri (co) Calamagrostis nutkaensis (co) Cornus unalaschkensis (d,cd) Linnaea borealis (p,cd) Maianthemum dilatatum (cd) Gaultheria shallon (cd) Menziesia ferruginea (c) Vaccinium parvifolium (cd) Dicranum scoparium (d) Hylocomium splendens (cd) Plagiothecium undulatum (d,c) Rhytidiadelphus loreus (cd) Sphagnum sp. (p,cd) The productivity of this association for western redcedar is very low (SI=15.1), primarily due to the shallow, wet soils. This association is slightly more productive for Pinus contorta (SI=17.8), but nevertheless these ecosystems could not be managed for commercial purposes. 80 Association 3.11: Kindbergio praelongi-Piceetum (Fern-Sitka spruce) Reference: Sample plots 1092-1, 1092-2, 1092-3; Table 10; Figures 26, 27; Appendices 1-5, 7. The three sample plots of site 1092 have been grouped together and tentatively assigned to the Kindbergio praelongi-Piceetum Association, which has been previously recognized by Krajina and Cordes and described in Cordes (1972). There are some dissimilarities between the "association" identified in this study and that described in Cordes. Many of these discrepancies are undoubtedly due to a difference in the ages of the sampled stands. Cordes sampled old growth stands, whereas stand 1092 was only 48 years old at the time of sampling. Ecosystems of this association occur on relatively inactive floodplains, commonly situated a fair distance from a main river channel. The soils have developed from fluvial parent materials and are typically classified as Dystric Brunisols, but may include Cumulic Regosols, due to weak profile development (Table 10). A characteristic feature of the soils of this association is the presence of a gravel layer, which is important for both drainage and underground flooding (Cordes 1972). The soils are moderately well drained and of subhygric moisture regime. Forest stands of this association are comprised of a mixture of western redcedar, Sitka spruce and western hemlock (Fig.26). The stands described by Cordes are dominated by Sitka spruce with highly variable 81 Table 10: Environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Association 3.11 Kindbergio praelongi-Piceetum (Fern-Sitka spruce) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Mean Range Elevation (m) 3 1-5 Aspect N/A Macrosite p o s i t i o n p l a i n Slope gradient (%) 0 S o i l parent material f l u v i a l (glaciomarine?) S o i l moisture regime subhygric S o i l drainage moderately well S o i l type Dystric Brunisol (Cumulic Regosol) Family p a r t i c l e - s i z e class fragmental to sandy Forest f l o o r thickness (cm) 13 8-21 Total rooting depth* (cm) 89 69-126 Depth to r e s t r i c t i v e l a y e r * (cm) N/A E f f e c t i v e rooting depth* (cm) 49 44-55 Growth class (redcedar) 4 Site index (redcedar)(m/100 yrs) 33.4 Average height (redcedar)(m)** 22.3 Basal area (m^/ha)** 50 38-57 Relative density (stems/ha)** 872.7 716-1062 (* includes depth of organic horizons) (** estimated from a second-growth (48 yr. old) stand) Fig. 26: Large redcedar stump in stand 1092 with second-growth stand of western redcedar, western hemlock, and Sitka spruce in background. 83 amounts of western redcedar, and a minor component of western hemlock. The hemlocks are numerous, but relatively small. In contrast, stand 1092 (as described in App. 2) is dominated by western hemlock and western redcedar, with a minor component of Sitka spruce. It is difficult to compare the two situations since i t is unclear how the structure of stand 1092 will change with time, and whether i t will approach that described by Cordes. The understory vegetation in ecosystems of this association consists of a well-developed herb layer dominated by several fern species (Fig. 27), and an abundant coverage of mosses (App. 7). It is possible that some of the Kindbergia oregana recorded for the sample plots of stand 1092 was misidentified and should include Kindbergia praelonga. Cordes (1972) reported a well-developed shrub layer for this association, which "forms a dense growth in openings in the tree canopy and is quite sparse beneath areas of closely-spaced trees". The closed canopy of stand 1092 probably accounts for its poorly-developed shrub layer. The characteristic combination of species for this association (as synthesized from the sample plots of stand 1092) consists of the following plant species with their differentiating values (as defined in Appendix 8) shown in parentheses: Picea sitchensis (e,cd) Gaultheria shallon (cd) Tsuga heterophylla (cd) Vaccinium ovatum (co,c) Athyrium filix-femina (c) Hylocomium splendens (c) Blechnum spicant (cd) Kindbergia oregana (co,cd) Polystichum muniturn (cd) Pleurozium schreberi (s) Tiarella trifoliata (c) Rhizomnium glabrescens (co,cd) Dryopteris expansa (co,c) Gymnocarpium dryopteris (d) 84 Fig. 27: View from within stand 1092. Notice vigorous understory of ferns; large, old western redcedar stump; and size of 48 year old second-growth trees. 85 This association is fairly productive for a l l 3 of the major tree species. The gravel layer in the soil undoubtedly contributes to this productivity, as i t promotes drainage, and also provides an additional source of moisture and nutrients through underground flooding. The site indices reported for this association are as follows: this study Cordes (1972) western redcedar 33.4 35.4 western hemlock 41.3 31.7 Sitka spruce 35.3* 46.0. However, i t must be remembered that the productivity of this study site may have been enhanced as a result of disturbances from logging, and therefore may not be directly comparable to that of an old-growth stand. (* limited sample size, n=2) 86 Association 3.21: Lysichito-Piceetum (Skunk cabbage-Sltka spruce) Reference: Sample plots 315-1, 315-2, 315-3; Table 11; Figures 28-31; Appendices 1-5, 7. This association was synthesized from the 3 sample plots of stand 315. It has been previously recognized by Krajina and Cordes and described in Cordes (1972). An ecosystem of this association typically occurs on a poorly drained floodplain along a stretch of river, often bordering a swamp. The sites of this type have fairly high water tables and experience periodic flooding. The ground water is slow moving and low in oxygen, resulting in anaerobic conditions. The soils have developed from fluvial parent materials and are most commonly Orthic Humic Gleysols (Figs. 28, 29). They are poorly to very poorly drained and also poorly aerated. Rooting is primarily restricted to the upper horizons of the profile. The soils sampled in this study were fairly fine-textured: silty loam to silty clay loam (Table 11); whereas Cordes (1972) reported coarser soils: fine sandy loam to fine sand. Forest stands of this association are dominated by Sitka spruce and western redcedar with a minor component of western hemlock. The relative density of these stands is fairly low, although individual trees are often quite large. In some sites the trees grow in clumps on the better drained microsites. 87 Fig. 28: Soil profile of plot 315-1: Loamy Humic Gleysol on fluvial deposits. Notice mottling, and water at bottom of soil pit. (photo courtesy of D. Gagnon) 88 Fig. 29: Soil profile of plot 315-2: Fine-silty Humic Gleysol on fluvial deposits. (photo courtesy of D. Gagnon) Table 11: Environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Association 3.21 Lysichito-Piceetum (Skunk cabbage-Sitka spruce) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Mean Range Elevation (m) 22 Aspect N/A Macrosite p o s i t i o n p l a i n Slope gradient (%) 0 So i l parent material f l u v i a l S o i l moisture regime subhydric (to hydric) S o i l drainage poor S o i l type Humic Gleysol Family p a r t i c l e - s i z e class fine t s i l t y to loamy Forest f l o o r thickness (cm) 9 5-15 Total rooting depth* (cm) 77 52-97 Depth to r e s t r i c t i v e l a y e r * (cm) 92 70-115 E f f e c t i v e rooting depth* (cm) 59 47-73 Growth class (redcedar) 4 Site index (redcedar)(m/100 yrs) 34.7 Average height (redcedar)(m) 38.6 Basal area (m^/ha) 216.7 179-247 Relative density (stems/ha) 313.0 280-340 (* includes depth of organic horizons) 90 The understory is very well developed with a dense shrub layer dominated by salmonberry, blueberry, huckleberry, salal, and false-azaela (Fig. 30). The herb and moss layers are very diverse, containing numerous characteristic species (Fig. 31, Table 7). The characteristic combination of species for this association consists of the following species with their differentiating values (as defined in Appendix 8) shown in parentheses: Picea sitchensis (e,cd) Tsuga heterophylla (cd) Gaultheria shallon (cd) Menziesia ferruginea (d,c) Rubus spectabilis (d,cd) Vaccinium alaskaense (d,cd) Vaccinium ovalifolium (e) Vaccinium ovatum (co,c) Vaccinium parvifolium (d,cd) Adenocaulon bicolor (co) Athyrium filix-femina (c) Blechnum spicant (cd) Boykinia elata (e) Carex obnupta (s,c) Festuca subulata (co) Galium triflorum (e) Huperizia selago (co) LuzUla parviflora (co) Lysichitum americanum (s,cd) Maianthemum dilatatum (c) Polystichum muniturn (cd) Stachys mexicana (co) Streptopus amplexifolius (e) Tiarella laciniata (e,c) Tiarella trifoliata (c) Trisetum cernuum (e) Viola glabella (d) Blepharostoma trichophyllum (co) Calypogeia muelleriana (co) Cephalozia bicuspidata (co) Hookeria lucens (s) Hylocomium splendens (c) Isopterygium elegans (co) Kindbergia oregana (co,cd) Kindbergia praelonga (e) Leucolepis menziesii (e) Pellia neesiana (e) Plagiochila porelloides (e) Plagiomnium insigne (e,c) Plagiotheclum undulatum (c) Pleurozium schreberl (s) Pogonatum alpinum (s) Rhizomnium glabrescens (co,cd) Rhytidladelphus loreus (d) Riccardia latifrons (co) Scapania bolanderi (e) Sphagnum henryense (e) Fig. 30: View of plot 315-2. Notice sunlight penetrating through forest canopy and lush understory of salmon-berry, vacciniums, and hemlock regeneration. Fig. 31: View of plot 315-1. Notice vigorous understory of salmonberry, skunk cabbage, and sword fern. (photos courtesy of D. Gagnon) 92 This association is fairly productive for western redcedar (SI=34.7, this study; 34.1, Cordes (1972)). Productivity of Sitka spruce in ecosystems of this association is variable. On sites sampled for this study, the site index for spruce was very high (SI=51.2). Whereas Cordes reported "moderate to poor" growth rates for spruce and an average site index of 35.1. 93 Association 4.11: Tiarello trifoliatae-Abietetum (Herbs-Amabilis fir) Reference: Sample plots 513-1, 513-2, 513-3; Table 12; Figure 31; Appendices 1-5, 7. This association was synthesized from only one study site (513), which is situated much farther inland than the other study sites; perhaps contributing to its uniqueness. As only 3 plots were sampled, this association should be regarded as tentative. This association occurs on mature (inactive) floodplains. The soils are typically deep, fine-loamy Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzols which have developed from fluvial deposits. There are no coarse fragments or restrictive layer. The soils are well drained and of mesic moisture regime (Table 12). The forests are dominated by western redcedar and amabilis f i r , with a minor component of western hemlock and occasionally Sitka spruce. The redcedars are very large in size (Fig. 32), but small in number; whereas Amabilis f i r is very abundant but much smaller in diameter. Perhaps the most interesting floristic characteristic of this association is the lack of salal. The shrub layer is fairly light and patchy, and is comprised primarily of Vaccinium spp. and salmonberry. The herb layer is very well-developed and diverse; containing numerous ferns and wildflowers (App. 7). The moss layer, in contrast, is very poorly developed. 94 Table 12: Environmental characteristics of Association 4.11 Tiarello trifoliatae-Abietetum (Herbs-Amabilis fir) Characteristic Mean Range Elevation (m) 221 215-227 Aspect N/A Macrosite position valley floor Slope gradient (%) 0 Soil parent material fluvial Soil moisture regime mesic - (subhygric) Soil drainage well - (moderately-well) Soil type Ferro-Humic Podzol -(Humo-Ferric Podzol) Family particle-size class^ fine-loamy Forest floor thickness (cm) 8 2-14 Total rooting depth* (cm) 128 80-153+ Depth to restrictive layer* (cm) 128+ 80-153+ Effective rooting depth* (cm) 74 34-105 Growth class (redcedar) 1 Site index (redcedar)(m/100 yrs) 45.7 Average height (redcedar)(m) 51.3 Basal area (rn^ /ha) 141.7 82-199 Relative density (stems/ha) 340 280-420 (* includes depth of organic horizons) Fig. 32: View of plot 513-1. Notice large redcedars 96 The characteristic combinations for this association consists of the following plant species with their differentiating values (as defined in Appendix 8) in parentheses: Abies amabilis (co,cd) Rubus spectabilis (cd) Vaccinium alaskaense (cd) Achlys triphylla (e,c) Athyrium filix-femina (c) Blechnum spicant (c) Cornus unalaschkensls (cd) Gymnocarpium drypoteris (co,cd) Orthilia secunda (cd) Petasites palmatus (e) Polystichum muniturn (c) Streptopus roseus (s) Tiarella trifoliata (cd) Tiarella unifoliata (s,c) Trillium ovatum (e,c) Veratrum viride (s) Viola glabella (cd) This association is the most productive of the 6 described in this study for western redcedar (SI 45.7). Undoubtedly the deep, loamy soils, which provide good rooting and drainage, contribute to the high productivity of these ecosystems. 97 Validation of Classification As mentioned in Chapter 2, an ordination technique was run on the vegetation data set to verify the results from the tabular method of grouping sample plots. As Figure 33 illustrates, the ordination confirms the classification scheme presented in Table 5. The sample plots which are most similar in terms of species composition have been plotted closest together. The sample plots of the three floodplain associations have been plotted on the left side of the graph (Fig. 33). The Kindbergio-Piceetum and Lysichito-Piceetum associations, which are in separate alliances, but in the same order; have been plotted closer together than the Tiarello-Abietetum association, which is in a different order. The ordination also supports the decision to separate sites 1092 and 315 into separate associations. The sample plots from the Blechno-Thujetum and Sphagno-Thujetum associations have been plotted close together, as would be expected, since these associations are not only in the same order, but also in the same alliance. Furthermore, the plots from the Blechno-Thujetum association which have been plotted closest to those of the Sphagno-Thujetum association are from Stand 152. This site had the wettest hygrotope (App. 2) of the stands in this association, and could probably be regarded as being somewhat transitional between the two associations. Figure 33: ORDINATION OF SAMPLE PLOTS X AX IS = AXIS I SCORES FOR S A M P L E P L O T S F R O M R A ORDINATION Y A X I S = A X I S 2 S C O R E S FOR S A M P L E P L O T S F R O M R A OROINATION 100 A S S O C I A T I O N S I < C L A D I N O - T S U G E T U M 2 - B L E C H N O * T H U J E T U M 3 = S P H A G N 0 - T H U J E T U M 4 = K I N D B E R G I O " P I C E E T U M 9 = L Y S I C H I T 0 " P I C E E T U M 6= T I A R E L L O - A B I E T E T U M CO 99 The sample plots of the Cladino-Tsugetum association are somewhat scattered on the graph (Fig. 33). However, the vegetation data for this association (App.7) provides an explanation. The two plots from the dry rock outcrop site (818) were plotted on the far right side of the graph. In fact, the point representing plot 818-2 was situated so far away from a l l the others that i t was removed from the ordination. The points representing site 819 have been plotted near those of the Blechno-Thujetum association. This is because they are very similar in terms of their species composition (App. 7). However, environmentally, site 819 is very different from the sites of the Blechno-Thujetum association, and is very similar to site 818. Thus i t was logical to classify i t in the Cladino-Tsugetum association. This situation illustrates the importance of using environmental data in conjunction with vegetation data for classification. Due to compensating effects, different combinations of environmental properties may produce very similar effects on vegetation (Klinka et al. 1984). The axis 1 ordination of sample plots, based on the variation of their species composition, strongly reflects a decreasing trend in site productivity and nutrient availability (Table 13). The floodplain sites, which have the highest site indices (Table 14) and the most favourable nutrient regimes (as reflected by the EISG, Fig. 34), have been ordinated at one end of the axis. Whereas, the sites with the lowest site indices and poorest edaphic conditions (the Dry Rock Outcrop, 818; and the wet/ bog, 300,821, sites), have been ordinated at the opposite end of the axis. 100 Table 13: Ordination scores for sample plots, axis 1 Association Plot no. Axis Score Site Index Tiarello-Abietetum 513-1 0.0 45.7 Lysichito-Piceetum 315-1 2.6 34.7 Tiarello-Abietetum 513-2 4.5 45.7 Tiarello-Abietetum 513-3 9.7 45.7 Lysichito-Piceetum 315-2 13.7 34.7 Lysichito-Piceetum 315.3 17.9 34.7 Kindbergio-Piceetum 1092-2 18.9 33.4 Kindbergio-Piceetum 1092-3 31.0 33.4 Kindbergio-Piceetum 1092-1 33.5 33.4 Blechno-Thujetum 199-1 40.4 25.2 Blechno-Thujetum 151-3 42.6 34.6 Blechno-Thujetum 150-3 46.7 28.1 Blechno-Thujetum 109-1 46.8 28.9 Blechno-Thujetum 150-1 48.6 28.1 Blechno-Thujetum 150-2 52.2 28.1 Blechno-Thujetum 144-1 52.9 — Blechno-Thujetum 144-2 55.2 — Blechno-Thujetum 151-1 55.8 34.6 Blechno-Thujetum 109-2 55.9 28.9 Blechno-Thujetum 199-3 58.5 25.2 Cladino-Tsugetum 819-2 58.5 24.3 Blechno-Thujetum 144-3 58.7 — Blechno-Thujetum 109-3 59.4 28.9 Blechno-Thujetum 151-2 59.9 34.6 Blechno-Thujetum 199-2 62.5 25.2 Blechno-Thujetum 131-2 62.7 28.3 Blechno-Thujetum 131-1 62.9 28.3 Cladino-Tsugetum 819-1 64.0 24.3 Lysichito-Thujetum 300-1 64.1 16.3 Blechno-Thujetum 152-1 66.0 25.2 Blechno-Thujetum 131-3 67.8 28.3 Blechno-Thujetum 152-3 70.2 25.2 Lysichito-Thujetum 300-2 71.5 16.3 Lysichito-Thujetum 300-1 74.5 16.3 Blechno-Thujetum 152-2 75.1 25.2 Lysichito-Thujetum 821-3 78.3 13.9 Lysichito-Thujetum 821-2 82.3 13.9 Lysichito-Thujetum 821-1 84.8 13.9 Cladino-Tsugetum 818-1 100.0 13.9 Cladino-Tsugetum 818-2 100++ 5.6 101 Table 14: Comparative productivity of the six associations recognized in the study area Associaton Mean SI Redcedar (m at 100 yrs) Mean BA (all species) (m2/ha) Average Height Redcedar* (m) Association 4.11 Tiarello-Abietetum Association 3.21 Lysichito-Piceetum Association 3.11 Kindbergio-Piceetum Association 2.11 Blechno-Thujetum Association 2.12 Sphagno-Thujetum Association 1.11 Cladino-Tsugetum 45.7 34.7 33.4 28.4 (25.2-34.6) 15.1 (13.9-16.3)-17 (5.6-24.3) 141.7 (82-199) 216.7 (179-247) 50** (38-57)** 140 (60-347) 56 (32-77) 40.5 (17-63) 51.3 38.6 22.3** 31.8 (27.6-38.9) 17 (15.6-18.3) 19 (6.5-27.3) * dominants and codominants ** estimated from a second growth (48 yr. old) stand () range of values indicated in parentheses 102 A S S O C . I.II C L A O I N O -T S U 6 E T U M (4 p l o t * ) 4 0 - | S? 5 0 -- 2 0 to or 10 VO D OF D M F M MW 60 _ 6 0 -_ 4 0 -cn « 2 0 -0 V P P M M MR A S S O C . 2.11 B L E C H N O -T H U J E T U M (18 p l o t s ) 40 6? 30 to 2 0 V D D DF DM F M MW 8 0 ' 6 0 ' 4 0 -tn or 2 0 -0 V P P M M M R A S S O C . 2 . 1 2 S P H A G N O -T H U J E T U M (6 p l o t s ) A S S O C . 3.11 K I N D B E R G I O -P I C E E T U M (3 p l o t s ) A S S O C . 3 . 2 1 L Y S IC HI T 0 -P I C E E T U M ( 3 p l o t s ) 3 0 20H 10 0 4 0 3 0 -20-10-0 3 0 20 10-0-VD D DF DM F M MW V D D DF DM F M MW W 8 0 5 6 0 - | _ 4 0 co •= 2 0 0 V P P M M MR 6 0 - | co * 2 0 • V P P M M MR V D D DF DM F M MW W S? 4 0 £ 2 0 - | 0 V P P M M MR A S S O C . 4.11 T I A R E L L O -A B I E T E T U M ( S p l o t s ) 30H 40' §°30. oi or 2 0 ' 1 0 -O - r -V D D DF DM F M MW W H Y G R O T O P E 6 0 3 £ 4 0 -£ 2 0 V P P M M MR T R O P H O T O P E F i g . 34: A comparison of the edatopic i n d i c a t o r species groups f or the 6 associations recgonized i n the study area, as expressed by r e l a t i v e species importance (RSI), i n r e l a t i o n to hygrotope and trophotope, where: VD=very dry, D=dry, DF=dry to fresh, DM=dry to moist, FM=fresh to moist, MW=moist to wet, W=wet, VP=very poor, PM=poor to medium, M=medium, and MR=medium to r i c h . 103 This suggests that the species composition of sites may be useful in assessing site productivity, and lends support to the use of indicator plant species (EISG) in site diagnosis and interpretation. Discussion of Associations If we consider the productivity of western redcedar (in terms of SI and BA) on an association basis, i t is evident that the "floodplain" associations (4.11, 3.21, and 3.11) are the most productive for redcedar (Table 14). The spectra of EISG for these sites reflect favourable nutrient regimes (Fig. 34). The ecosystems of these three associations have fairly productive soils which have developed from fluvial parent materials. The soils are relatively well drained and receive inputs of nutrients through periodic flooding or underground seepage. They generally have thinner organic layers than the other sites, suggesting more rapid decompostion and nutrient cycling. The most productive of these three associations (in terms of SI for redcedar) is the Tiarello-Abietetum association, which has deeper, more highly developed, and better drained soils than the other two associations. Furthermore, its indicator plant species reflect a richer nutrient regime (Fig. 34). The spectra of EISG for associations shows that Associations 1.11, 2.11, and 2.12 have similar nutrient regimes; with over 80% of the indicator plants contained in the poor-medium category (Fig. 34). Differences in productivity of redcedar between these three associations appears to be related to soil depth and drainage. 104 Association 2.11 (Blechno-Thujetum) covers a large portion of the study area and contains a majority of the sample plots. Soils of ecosystems of this association have developed from morainal parent materials and characteristically have a hardpan, compacted t i l l , or some other restrictive layer in the subsoil. Productivity of western redcedar in this association is variable and appears to be related to site position. The two sites which seem to be most productive (site 151, SI=34.6; site 144, BA=347 m^ /ha) are situated on slopes. The slope position facilitates drainage and provides moisture and nutrient inputs through seepage water, which flows on top of the restrictive layer. These ecosystems appear to be even more productive for redcedar than some of the sites of the floodplain associations (Table 14). The least productive site in this association is Stand 152, which is situated on a flat site with restricted drainage. The ordination of sample plots suggests that this site may be transitional between the Blechno-Thujetum and the Sphagno-Thujetum associations (Fig. 33). As would be expected, the two associations which occur on the most severe sites ("driest" and wettest") have the lowest productivity for western redcedar (Table 14). Association 1.11 (Cladino-Tsugetum), which is comprised of rock outcrop communities has a slightly higher site index for redcedar than the bog/forest communities of association 2.12 (Sphagno-Thujetum). However, there is a much wider range of productivity in the rock outcrop association than in the bog/forest association. Consequently, the "best" and "worst" sites of the rock outcrop association have 105 considerably higher and lower site index values than the "best" and "worst" sites of the bog/forest association (SI=27.3 vs SI=18.3; and SI=6.5 vs SI=15.6). The ecosystems of these two associations not only have poor nutrient regimes (Fig. 34), but they also have the most limited volume of available soil for rooting. The Cladino-Tsugetum association is characterized by shallow soils with areas of exposed bedrock. Ecosystems of the Sphagno-Thujetum association are situated on flat areas and have soils with a restrictive layer. Consequently, drainage is impaired, the soils become saturated, and the volume of soil favourable for rooting becomes very limited. 106 Site Productivity in Relation to Soil Parameters Assessment of Site Productivity Site productivity is a function of many environmental variables and their interactions. Of the numerous environmental factors influencing tree growth, the important relationship between soils and tree growth has been so apparent that attention has been directed to i t for a long time (Husch et al. 1972). Numerous studies have been conducted in which a number of soil, and other environmental, characteristics that influence tree growth have been selected and combined into estimating equations which predict productivity (in terms of site index) (Steinbrenner 1979). Douglas-fir has repeatedly been the subject of these soil-site studies, but there appears to be no information of this type available for western redcedar. Although i t was not the intent of this thesis to develop a soil-site estimating equation for redcedar, the data have been checked for possible trends and relationships between the soil parameters measured and the estimated site productivity. One of the major difficulties of this study, and one which is encountered by foresters and researchers alike, was the accurate assessment of site productivity. Productivity is generally measured in terms of timber yield (or volume) per unit area, which is a function of both the growth rate of the trees and the number of trees on the area (Steinbrenner 1979). The most useful tree-size characteristic for site evaluation is tree height since i t is considered to be the one measure most closely related to the capacity of a site to produce wood (Husch et al. 1972; 107 Spurr and Barnes 1973). In addition, height growth for most species is uniform over a wide range of densities (Steinbrenner 1979). Diameter is a less reliable measure of site quality since It is sensitive to stand density. For comparative studies, site index, or the average height of the dominant and codominant trees at a specified index age, is generally regarded as the most useful indicator of potential productivity (Eis 1962; Steinbrenner 1979; Lowe and Klinka 1981). As mentioned in Chapter 2, the site index of western redcedar was estimated for the study sites. For a number of reasons, this estimate of site productivity is very limited. First, site index is intended to be used for "evaluating site quality for even-aged stands of single species of nearly pure composition" (Husch e_t al. 1972). The stands evaluated in this study were decadent, old-growth (thus, uneven-aged) stands of mixed species composition. In uneven-aged stands of several species, height in relation to age cannot be used to express site quality (unless stem analysis is used), since the height growth of a species in this type of stand is not closely related to age but more to the varying stand conditions by which i t has been affected during its life (Husch et_ al. 1972). The total height at a given age of a tree is an expression of all past growing conditions, and may be influenced by conditions that prevailed for a few years, such as drought or competition (Spurr and Barnes 1973). Second, the BC Ministry of Forests site index curves which were utilized (Hegyi e_t al. 1979) were developed for "coastal western redcedar" and may not be valid for redcedar under the environmental conditions on western Vancouver Island. Spurr and Barnes (1973) mention that 108 "...height growth curves should be based upon actual measured growth of trees on specific soils or site-types and not upon the harmonized method of averaging together height and age values from plots for the entire or regional range of sites upon which the species is found."; and furthermore "...height growth patterns are known not only to vary in different parts of the range of a species but also in local areas of contrasting soil and topography.". Third, estimating site index requires an accurate assessment of tree height and age. This was a very difficult task in old, decadent redcedar stands since many of the trees characteristically have broken, spiked or candellabra tops, or have experienced die-back, creating wide variability in tree height. To reduce this variability in tree height, a much larger number of height measurements would need to be taken. In addition, many old redcedar trees are rotten in the centre, thus obscuring growth rings and making an accurate assessment of age impossible. In most instances, height and age were probably underestimated. However, the underestimation of age may be irrelevant since BC site index curves for coastal western redcedar tend to level off after approximately 200 years, and only continue to 300 years. It was assumed that the curves remain relatively constant beyond year 300, and therefore stands older than 300 years were actually assessed as being 300 years old. In spite of its limitations, site index was utilized since there are very few alternatives for estimating site productivity. As a comparison, basal area was considered. Since basal area is directly related to volume, 109 it should be indicative of site quality. Unfortunately, basal area is als a measure of stand density. Stand density is more a reflection of the stand history (ie: initial stocking, competition, natural catastrophies, stand age, etc) than the site quality. The basal area of the stands from this study were often highly variable, largely due to blowdown of very large old trees and natural stand break-up associated with overmaturity. In addition, the basal area of standing dead trees was not measured and this resulted in an underestimate of total basal area for some sites. Data Conversion and Analysis In evaluating the soil chemical data for relationships with site productivity, i t was decided to express the nutrient data on an areal basi (kg/ha), as well as by concentration in the less than 2mm soil fraction. For forest soils, there tends to be great variation in the physical soil properties that affect nutrient status; such as stone and gravel content, bulk density, and effective soil depth (Lewis 1976). The expression of nutrient status on an areal basis is useful for forest soils since i t integrates both chemical and physical soil data. To express soil nutrient status on an areal basis i t was necessary t convert the nutrient values of concentration in the less than 2mm soil fraction to values of kilograms per hectare for the whole soil. The following equation, presented by Lewis (1976), was utilized: 110 N n . DIL . BD . d . 108 . 1/103 kg N g of n . g of soil <2mm . g soil • cm . cm^  . kg soil ha g of soil <2mm g of whole soil cm3 soil ha g soil where: N is the amount of nutrient "n" on an areal basis, n is the concentration of nutrient "n" in the 2mm soil fraction, DIL is the proportion of the 2mm fraction to the whole soil, inclusive of gravel and stones, BD is bulk density of the whole soil, and d is the depth of the soil horizon. "DIL" expresses the dilution effect of gravel and stone content on the effective soil volume (Lewis 1976). It should be mentioned that this value was derived from the weight of the soil sample taken to the lab, which did not include large stones, cobbles, and boulders. However, a far more serious limitation was the lack of bulk density measurements for the mineral soil horizons. Since bulk densities of the mineral horizons were not measured, i t was necessary to derive estimates for these missing values. Utilizing data from his west coast ecosystem study (unpublished) and from Valentine (1971), Chatterton (pers. comm.)1 found a direct relationship between the inverse of bulk density and the concentration of carbon for mineral soils on the west coast of Vancouver Island. It is questionable whether the concentration of carbon is consistently related to the bulk density of British Columbia Forest Products Resource Planning Group, Crofton, BC Ill rocky west coast podzols, since the presence of coarse fragments, which l a r g e l y influences bulk density, i s not expressed by or related to the concentration of carbon. Nevertheless, i t was decided to u t i l i z e Chatterton's equation: 1/BD = 0.59409 + (0.14925 X %C), to estimate the bulk densities of the mineral horizons, since l i t t l e bulk density information i s available for mineral s o i l s of th i s region. Estimating bulk density values for the organic horizons was less d i f f i c u l t . Bulk density measurements had been taken for the humus horizons of 28 out of the 40 sample p l o t s , and these values were used for t h e i r respective p l o t s . Following Chatterton's (pers. comm.)^ approach, a regression was run between the inverse of bulk density and concentration of carbon for these 28 humus horizons, and a p o s i t i v e l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p was found, with a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t (r) of 0.63. The derived equation, 1/BD = 0.1257 + (3.0408 X %C) was used to estimate bulk densities for the remaining 12 humus horizons. The re l a t i o n s h i p between bulk density and carbon concentration i s probably much more r e l i a b l e for organic s o i l s than mineral s o i l s since there are no coarse fragments i n the organic horizons to a f f e c t bulk density. The following values from Carter's (pers. comm.)2 observations were used as bulk density estimates for the L,F,LF, and LFH horizons: L = 0.085 g/cm3 F = 0.120 g/cm3 LF = 0.1025 g/cm3 H(i) = 0.150 g/cm3 (l=light) H( h) = 0.180 g/cm3 (h=heavy). 2 Research Associate, Faculty of Forestry, Univ. B.C., Vancouver, BC 112 To check for relationships and trends in the data between site productivity estimates and soil parameters, scattergrams were produced and correlations run for the following: productivity variables: -site index -for western redcedar (m/100 yrs.)> -basal area -total live-standing BA for each plot (m^ /ha), -average height -of dominant and codominant redcedar trees in each site (similar to SI, but not referenced back to age 100), vs. soils variables: -average concentrations of organic C (%); total N (%); available P (ppm); and exchangeable K,Ca,Mg,Na (meq/lOOg); in the effective rooting zone and in the total rooting zone (averages weighted by horizon thickness), -total kg/ha of organic C; total N; available P; and exchangeable K,Ca,Mg,Na in the total rooting zone and in the effective rooting zone, -total thickness of organic horizons (L,F,H) (cm), -depth to restrictive layer (cm), -depth of effective rooting zone (cm), -depth of total rooting zone (cm). Subsequently, i t was decided to run correlations between site index and soil nutrient concentrations of just the humus horizons. In addition to the above-mentioned nutrient concentrations, the following soil parameters were included: pH in H2O; pH in CaCl2> and organic C/total N ratio. 113 Results of Data Analysis In reviewing the correlation matrices and scattergrams, some problems were discovered in the soils data which had been converted to kg/ha. For example, slight negative correlations were found between concentration of carbon and kg/ha of carbon. This does not make biological sense, since a positive correlation is expected. Apparently, the use of carbon for estimating bulk density was not valid for the mineral horizons, and resulted in skewing the converted data set. Consequently, i t was decided to disregard the results which included mineral soils data in kg/ha. No significant correlations or trends were found between the site productivity and soil nutrient variables, regardless of how they were expressed (ie: by effective rooting zone, total rooting zone, or humus horizon). However, positive correlations were found between site productivity (as expressed by site index and average height) and rooting depth (Table 15). These results are in general agreement with those found in the literature. Several authors have reviewed North American soil-site studies, and have reported that most soil factors that correlated with site productivity were those which influenced the quality and quantity of growing space for tree roots; or in other words, the effective depth of the soil (Coile 1952; Forristall and Gessel 1955; Spurr and Barnes 1973; Carmean 1975; Pritchett 1979). "Root growing space, measured as depth of soil above some root restricting layer or water table, has been used as an indicator of site productivity more than most physical factors because it Table 15: Significant correlations between rooting depth and site productivity of western redcedar Variable No. of r for r for Plots SI Avg.Ht. effective rooting depth 38 0.639 0.537 total rooting depth 38 0.676 0.541 depth to restrictive 38 0.685 0.572 layer All correlations significant at the P<0.01 level. 115 can be measured with some accuracy in the field, and it is an integrator of many other soil factors important to tree growth." (Pritchett 1979). Soil depth itself, has litt l e direct influence on tree growth, except in very shallow soils. However, indirectly it affects many chemical and physical soil properties important to tree growth, such as nutrient availability, moisture supplies and aeration. As illustrated in Table 15, the strongest correlation was between site index and the depth to a restrictive layer. Carmean (1975) cautions that correlations cannot be accepted as evidence of cause and effect relations, but are useful for interpreting and speculating about the basic physiological reasons for site quality differences. Considering the environmental and climatic conditions of the study area, it is not suprising that the depth of the soil to a restrictive layer influences site productivity. As mentioned in the association descriptions, many of the soils have a hardpan or compacted layer which impedes rooting. This restrictive layer defines the rooting zone which is available for plants to obtain their nutrients, moisture, oxygen, and support. Not only does this layer restrict rooting, but it also impedes drainage, which is undoubtedly very important in this region since the major problem for plants is to adjust to excess moisture (Valentine 1971). Thus, on flat sites with a hardpan, water would collect and saturate the soil above the impermeable layer, further restricting the volume of soil suitable for rooting. The importance of drainage to productivity has been previously discussed for associations. 116 The lack of c o r r e l a t i o n between s o i l nutrient parameters and s i t e p r o d u c t i v i t y estimates is not su r p r i s i n g due to: the problems associated with accurately assessing s i t e p r o d u c t i v i t y discussed previously; the in t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the s i t e and s o i l v a r i a b l e s ; the inherent v a r i a b i l i t y of the s o i l nutrient parameters; additional sources of nutrients not measured i n the s o i l ; and e f f i c i e n t i n t e r n a l c y c l i n g of nutrients by the trees. Previous studies have shown that relationships between tree growth and s o i l nutrient status may not be detectable because of short range s o i l v a r i a b i l i t y (Mader 1963; Blythe and McLeod 1978). S u f f i c i e n t samples must be co l l e c t e d i n order to properly characterize the s o i l component of a forest s i t e (Carter 1983). Since l i t t l e s o i l s information i s av a i l a b l e for the west coast of Vancouver Island, i t i s not known what the extent of the v a r i a b i l i t y is for various nutrient parameters within a given s i t e , or how many samples would be required to reduce t h i s w i t h i n - s i t e v a r i a b i l i t y . However, Carter (1983) from his findings, and i n hi s l i t e r a t u r e review of Douglas-fir stands i n the P a c i f i c Northwest, indicated that a r e l a t i v e l y large number of samples i s needed for most s o i l parameters to reduce w i t h i n - s i t e v a r i a b i l i t y . In this study, only three s o i l p i t s were sampled i n each s i t e . Consequently, i f a p a r t i c u l a r nutrient had a large inherent v a r i a b i l i t y , i t would be useless for r e f l e c t i n g differences i n pro d u c t i v i t y between s i t e s . In addition, there are many complex interactions and interdependencies between s i t e and s o i l v a r i a b l e s , which make i t d i f f i c u l t to i s o l a t e i n d i v i d u a l variables influencing tree growth. L a s t l y , the nutrient status of the s o i l s may not be related to s i t e p r o d u c t i v i t y because the s o i l s may not be the only, or 117 the most important source of nutrients for plants on these sites. Additional sources of nutrients may include: seepage water (particularly on slopes with a restrictive layer); fog drip; salt spray (for sites in close proximity to the ocean); and periodic flooding (for areas adjacent to streams and rivers). In these old-growth stands, which are not actively growing, efficient internal cycling of nutrients may negate the need for large supplies of available nutrients. The thin litter layer, characteristic of most of the sites, suggests long-term foliage retention, since rapid decomposition is not likely. This implies that the trees are conserving nutrients by retaining their foliage and cycling nutrients internally. Although effective soil depth has been used in developing regression equations for estimating site quality; no attempt was made to develop such a predictive equation from the results of this study, since the sampling was not designed for this purpose. To develop an estimating equation properly, sample plots must include and be equally distributed over the full range of site quality and soil features occurring in the study area. "The reason is that a proper description of the relations between site quality and site features depends not only on an adequate sampling of average conditions, but also on an adequate representation of extremes." (Carmean 1975). The sample plots from this study represent a wide range of site condiditons and site quality, but they are not well distributed over this range of conditions. The extreme conditions (ie: very productive, very unproductive, very dry, and very wet sites) were not well sampled, and as illustrated by the association grouping of plots, the majority of plots are very similar. Consequently, the data from this study are not suitable for developing a predictive equation. 118 Discussion of Earthworms Earthworms were observed in most (11 out of 14) of the study sites. This was considered to be unusual since earthworms are generally uncommon in acidic soils under conifers (Brady 1974). Also, i t was believed that all the native earthworm populations on Vancouver Island had been eliminated during the last ice age. Existing populations were thought to have been introduced by settlers and thus, should only be common near inhabited areas, not in remote forests (Gates 1976; Reynolds 1977). During the summer of 1981, a research crew (Gagnon and Spiers) doing ecological classification for MacMillan-Bloedel on western Vancouver Island noted earthworms in over 90 study plots located throughout the entire area outlined in Figure 5 (D. Gagnon and G. Spiers, pers. comm.)3. Earth-worms collected from these study sites have been identified as a new species, Arctiostrotus simplicigaster vancouverensis (McKey-Fender and Fender 1982). More specifically, they are a newly discovered subspecies of an earthworm found In the Olympic Mountains of Washington. These worms were found in a wide variety of sites, from sea level to 625 m elevation (Spiers et al. 1983). Gagnon (pers. comm.)3 observed that they seemed to prefer sites where redcedar was dominant, and where most of the effective rooting took place in the organic horizons. They generally were not found in dry sites or sites with evidence of fire. Department of Biological Sciences, Univ. Quebec, Montreal, Quebec; and Department of Soil Science, Univ. Alberta, Edmonton; respectively. 119 Brady (1974) reported that earthworms generally prefer a moist, well-aerated habitat; and are not common in droughty sands or poorly drained lowlands. Observations from the present study tend to support this claim. Earthworms were not found in the sites with the most extreme moisture regimes: the dry rock outcrop (818) and Port Albion bog (821) sites. Moreover, Spiers (pers. comm.)3 has observed that the worms appear to be most observable and active during April, May, and June. During warmer, drier periods, and other unfavourable times, they burrow down into the mineral soil, tie themselves into a ball, and aestivate. Unlike many species of earthworms, these worms do not function in the intermixing of organic material and mineral soil. They are active primarily, i f not exclusively, in the organic horizons; and serve to break down organic materials, including wood from rotting logs. They are very tolerant of low pH. The pH (H2O) of the humus horizons in which earthworms were found in the present study ranged from 3.5 to 5.9, with and average of 4.0. Interestingly, Cotton and Curry (1982) observed that surface-active species of earthworms were the most abundant colonizers of acidic peat (overlying mineral soil) in Dublin; soil-burrowing species were scarce. They suggested that pH tolerance ranges of earthworms may be wider in peat than in mineral soils where, below pH 5, there may be the additional stress of aluminum, iron, or manganese toxicity to biological systems (Donahue e_t aT. 1977). In general, earthworms are reportedly favoured by high levels of exchangeable bases and a high pH (Brady 1974). Worms observed in the present study were most abundant in plot 199-1, which had the highest 120 pH (5.9) and levels of exchangeable calcium (52.4 meq/lOOg). However, from their study of 112 sites, Spiers eit al. (1983) recorded the highest population of worms at a site where the pH (H2O) was 2.9. This suggests that the ecological range of the earthworm described here is not specific to a narrow range of pH (Spiers et al^. 1983). Gagnon (pers. comm.)3 has correlated earthworm abundance with a variety of site and soil characteristics (Spiers et al. 1983). He found a highly significant negative correlation (correlation coefficient = -0.53) between earthworm abundance and effective rooting depth. (The correlation coefficient is based on 97 plots, and is significant at the 0.05 level.) In other words, sites with large populations of earthworms tended to have fairly shallow rooting, concentrated in the organic horizons. This phenomenon was observed in sites from the present study. Those sites in which earthworms were found typically had a dense mat of fine roots concentrated in the humus. Spiers et aJ.. (1983) has found from closer (microscopic) inspection, that this humus, which often just appears as a dense mat of roots, is composed largely of earthworm casts. Similar rooting behaviour has been reported by New Zealand researchers studying the effects of earthworms on ryegrass plants (Sharpley et al. 1979; Sprigett and Syers 1979; Mansell et al. 1981). In both greenhouse and field experiments, ryegrass roots were observed to grow upward out of the soil into cast material which had been recently added to the surface (Sharpley et al. 1979; Sprigett and Syers 1979; Mansell et al. 1981). From microscopic examination Spiers et al. (1983) has observed that 121 root hairs actually penetrate the worm casts; suggesting an increased availability of plant nutrients therein (Brady 1974). Using ^ % as a tracer, he confirmed that these earthworms eat and process wood from hemlock logs (Spiers e_t aJL. 1983). He then analyzed woody material of hemlock logs before and after passage through earthworms, and found that the earthworm casts were higher in total nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, pH; and had a lower C/N ratio (Table 16) (Spiers et al. 1982). He suggested that these results reflect negative elemental enrichment as a result of carbon utilization by either the worms and/or their gut bacteria (Spiers et al. 1983). Although no one has studied this particular species of earthworm before, results from research on other earthworms (primarily on pasture land in New Zealand) lend support and interpretation to the findings of Spiers et_ al_. (1983). Many authors have reported earthworm casts to be richer in total nitrogen, exchangeable NH4 and NO3, available phosphorus; and to have a lower C/N ratio (Brady 1974; Sharpley and Syers 1976, 1977; Syers et al. 1979; Mansell et al. 1981). Furthermore, the nutrients contained in casts (particularly N and P) are often present in forms which are more readily available for plant uptake than those in soil or litter (Barley and Jennings 1959; Brady 1974; Sharpley and Syers 1976, 1977; Abott and Parker 1981; Mansell eic ajL. 1981). Earthworms not only decompose organic material themselves, but they also stimulate the activity of other decomposers (Barley and Jennings 1959). Plant material which has been subjected to chemical and physical changes during passage through an 122 Table 16: Compositional changes in woody materials after passage through earthworm gut Elemental Composition Element Wood Fecal Actual (%) Material Change " Change (%) C 49.40 48.68 -0.72 1.5 N 0.87 1.29 0.42 48.3 C/N 57 38 pH 4.1 4.6 ug.gm -1 P 127 510 383 302 Ca 2597 2133 -439 20.6 K 198 255 57 28.8 Mg 610 720 110 18 (reproduced from Spiers et al. 1983) 123 earthworm gut, is readily attacked by other decomposers (Barley and Jennings 1959); contains increased microbial populations (Parle 1963), bacteria (Brady 1974), and mycelia (Spiers et al. 1983); and exhibits increased rates of mineralization and nitrification (Parle 1963; Syers et al. 1979), compared with soil and organic materials. To summarize, previous studies indicate that earthworms have very favourable effects on soil productivity by stimulating biochemical activities and increasing nitrogen and phosphorus cycling (Syers e_t al_. 1979; Abbott and Parker 1981; Mansell et al. 1981; Ross and Cairns 1982). The function and importance of earthworms in west coast forest ecosystems is not clearly understood. The results from Spiers e_t al. (1983), and those from other earthworm studies reported in the literature, suggest that earthworms on these sites play a very important role in decomposition and nutrient cycling. The nutritional status of many soils on western Vancouver Island is characteristically very poor. The mineral horizons are heavily leached by the excessive rainfall of the region. Thick layers of organic matter accumulate on the surface and immobilize nitrogen and other nutrients. Many decomposing agents, such as nitrifying bacteria, are very limited or absent in these organic horizons due to the unfavourable, acidic conditions. Consequently, decomposition and nutrient cycling are very slow. "It is known that with increase of accumulation of organic material, podzolization increases. It is also known that with increase of podzolisation the site index decreases." (Eis 1962). It follows then, that any agent which promotes the continuous breakdown of organic matter, and subsequent release of nutrients, is vital to the productivity of these sites. 124 The maintenance of existing earthworm populations is dependent upon careful silvicultural practices. On a site which had been recently slashburned (with a fairly hot fire), Spiers (pers. comm.)3 found l i t t l e or no evidence of earthworms, except under a log where the humus had been protected from the fire. In that one log length area, he found 6 earthworms. This would suggest that forest managers should attempt to conserve humus layers i f they want to maintain earthworm populations. In addition, the use of insecticides and other chemicals which may be . harmful to earthworms should be avoided. The treatment of a pasture in New Zealand with the insecticide carbaryl depleted the existing earthworm population and, in the absence of earthworm activity, resulted in increased litter production (Sharpley et al. 1979). As mentioned, the breakdown of organic matter is important in nutrient cycling and influences site productivity. 125 CHAPTER 4: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  Conclusions The observations and findings from this study on the site requirements of redcedar are in general agreement with those presented in the literature. The amount of available soil moisture is reported to be the most important criterion for redcedar growth (Sudworth 1908; Knapp and Jackson 1914). On western Vancouver Island, where precipitation is abundant and lack of soil moisture is rarely a limitation to plant growth, redcedar was found growing on virtually all sites - from wet bogs to rock outcrops. Reports found in the literature claim that the best development of redcedar occurs on deep, fertile soils, with abundant moisture and adequate drainage (Boyd 1959; McMinn 1960; Krajina 1969; Sharpe 1974; Hosie 1979). Findings from this study support this claim. Of the 14 sites sampled, the best productivity of redcedar (as estimated by SI) was found on a floodplain site with deep, rich, well-drained soils (sites 513 with SI=45.7). The lowest productivity of redcedar occurred on rock outcroppings and boggy sites (sites 818, 300, and 821) which had shallow, infertile soils and extreme moisture conditions (SI=9.1, 16.3, and 13.9, respectively). Furthermore, the productivity of western redcedar,'as estimated by site index, was found to be correlated with soil depth (ie: depth to a restrictive layer, total rooting depth, and effective rooting depth). In this region, where rainfall is excessive, and many soils are 126 underlain by a compacted layer, drainage is often a critical problem. Deep soils, with no restrictive layer, permit drainage, are well-aerated and provide a large zone for rooting, nutrient cycling and anchorage. Whereas shallow soils on flat sites, with a restrictive layer near the surface, had impeded drainage; saturated, anaerobic conditions; limited decomposition and nutrient cycling; and poor anchorage. Although no correlations were found between site productivity and soil nutrients measured by chemical analyses, results from this study indicated that productivity of redcedar is strongly related to nutrient conditions. The most productive sites were situated either on seepage slopes, and presumedly received inputs of nutrients through seepage water (sites 151, 144); or were situated on fertile floodplains and had rich nutrient regimes as reflected by indicator plant species (sites 513, 315, 1092). The indicator plants on the unproductive sites reflected poor nutrient conditions. The function and importance of a new species of earthworm found on the study sites is not yet clearly understood. However, the results from Speirs ej^  j l _ . (1983), and those from other earthworm studies reported in the literature, suggest that these earthworms play a very important role in decompostion and nutrient cycling. In western Vancouver Island, silvicultural practices which enhance earthworm populations may be important for maintaining site productivity. 127 Recommendations The assessment of site productivity was a difficult task, primarily due to the age and structure of the stands being studied, and the lack of information available for this species and region. Future soil/studies of this nature may be more successful i f : 1) a more reliable estimate of productivity is obtained by: a) sampling even-aged, second-growth stands, b) conducting stem analyses, c) validating existing site index curves or developing new curves for this region; 2) better measures of the factors controlling productivity are obtained, which might involve: a) foliar analysis of nutrients, b) estimating bulk density of soil horizons in the field, to allow soil nutrients to be expressed in terms of kg/ha, c) analysis of soil samples for mineralizable nitrogen, in addition to total nitrogen; and 3) the sample plots are evenly-distributed over the entire range of site conditions. For quick site diagnoses, this study has suggested that the assessment of indicator plant species, physical soil characteristics and site position may provide the most useful information. 128 Evaluation of the best opportunities available for future development of forestry in B.C. has led silviculturists at MacMillan-Bloedel to suggest that western redcedar is one of our most valuable species. Current knowledge of the silviculture of redcedar is minimal. The growth and yield of redcedar and its associates need to be studied on a variety of sites, under different silvicultural regimes to determine the effects of stand density, species composition, fertilization, and thinning on productivity. Studies should include, but not be limited to those sites on which redcedar is reported to be most productive. Redcedar is able to adapt to a wide range of edaphic and physiographic conditions and i t is often relatively productive on sites which are unsuitable for other species. These sites need to be identified since they provide an opportunity for redcedar management. The following are further suggestions of work that should be conducted for western redcedar: -initiate a tree improvement program, -improve current methods of propagation and nursery culture, -determine factors which contribute to regeneration failure, -develop regional site index tables or validate existing ones, -determine the quality and quantity of wood that can be produced under different silvicultural regimes, and -determine the long-term effects of various management practices on site productivity for western Vancouver Island. 129 In addition to conducting formal research, operational t r i a l s should be implemented. Some operational t r i a l s are being conducted on northern Vancouver Island which may provide some very important information (Nuszdorfer, pers. comm.)^. The redcedar which is being planted on western Vancouver Island should be c a r e f u l l y monitored. Advantage should be taken of every opportunity which may provide information about redcedar. Methods of propagating, growing and managing western redcedar should not be limited to the conventional practices used for other species. Redcedar i s very adaptable and r e s i l i e n t and lends i t s e l f to new techniques. Ideas may be obtained from studying practices which have been developed i n other countries. In Japan, c l o n a l plantations of Sugi, Cryptomeria japonica, have been grown successfully for over 400 years (Weetman, pers. comm.)^. Redcedar, with i t s inherent resistance to disease and insect attacks may be well-suited for such propagation. In the B r i t i s h I s l e s , poles and p i l i n g s are being produced from plantation grown redcedar ( E d l i n 1962). Minore (1979) suggests that in mixed conifer stands, redcedar could provide an interim pole crop that would help to carry Douglas-fir and western hemlock to f i n a n c i a l maturity. Bolsinger (1979) suggested that redcedar be grown i n long rotations i n narrow stream-side protection zones, and logged s e l e c t i v e l y to minimize streambank disturbance. Such a management scheme would provide stream protection, esthetic forest cover, and production of high q u a l i t y redcedar wood for s p e c i a l products. ^ Forest E c o l o g i s t , BC M i n i s t r y of Forests, Vancouver Forest Region 5 Faculty of Forestry, Univ. of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. 130 The option for western redcedar as a viable plantation species in British Columbia should be developed. Success will only be achieved with much additional research, an innovative management philosophy, and a commitment from government and industry to grow this species. 131 LITERATURE CITED Abbott, I. and C.A. Parker. 1981. Interactions between earthworms and their soil environment. Soil Biol. Biochem. 13:191-197. Alban, D.H. 1969. 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Stn., Portland, Oreg. 144 APPENDIX 1 Explanation of terms and symbols used i n tables Drainage Classes VR - very r a p i d l y R - r a p i d l y W - well MW - moderately-well IMP - imperfectly P - poorly VP - very poorly S o i l Parent M a t e r i a l FL - f l u v i a l GF - g l a c i o f l u v i a l W - marine GW - glaciomarine M - morainal L - l a c u s t r i n e C - c o l l u v i a l S o i l Moisture Regimes S o i l Texture VX - very x e r i c S - sand X - x e r i c LS - loamy sand sx - subxeric SL - sandy loam SM - submesic SCL - sandy clay loam M - mesic SiL - s i l t loam SHG subhygric L loam HG - hygric SiCL - s i l t y clay loam SHD - subhydric CL - clay loam HD - hydric SiC s i l t y clay Org. - organic sk - s k e l e t a l f r a g . - fragmental f - f i n e Absolute Hygrotope Categories VD - very dry D - dry DF - dry to fresh DM - dry to moist FM - fresh to moist MW - moist to wet W - wet Absolute trophotope categories VP - very poor PM - poor to medium M - medium MR - medium to very r i c h 145 APPENDIX 1 (cont'd) Soil Type HP — Humic Podzol OHP - Orthic Humic Podzol OT.HP - Ortstein Humic Podzol DHP - Duric Humic Podzol PHP - Placic Humic Podzol FHP - Ferro-Humic Podzol OFHP - Orthic Ferro-Humic Podzol GFHP - Gleyed Ferro-Humic Podzol OT.FHP - Ortstein Ferro-Humic Podzol GHFP - Gleyed Humo-Ferric Podzol HG - Humic Gleysol OHG - Orthic Humic Gleysol OG - Orthic Gleysol SB - Sombric Brunisol OSB - Orthic Sombric Brunisol DB - Dystric Brunisol ODB - Orthic Dystric Brunisol OR - Orthic Regosol Growth Classes (Krajina 1969) SI-| nn redcedar 1 - >43.1 2 - 39.1 - 43.0 3 - 35.1 - 39.0 4 - 31.1 - 35.0 5 - 27.1 - 31.0 6 - 23.1 - 27.0 7 - 19.1 - 23.0 8 - 15.1 - 19.0 9 - <15.0 Site Classes (Hegyi et al. '79) SI-| nn redcedar good - >39.6 medium - 27.5 - 39.6 poor - 15.3 - 27.4 low - <15.2 effective rooting depth - the total depth of organic and mineral horizons to which roots have and abundance value of "few or greater total rooting depth - the total depth to which roots extend from the surface into the organic and mineral horions 146 APPENDIX 2: DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY SITES The following appendix contains a description of each of the 14 study sites. Since there is a volume of data and information, much of i t has been tabulated and is found in the appendices. The main purpose of the appendix is to summarize and highlight the Information for each site; and to discuss, where relevant, the important differences (ie. variability) between plots within each site. The following appendices should be referred to as a supplement to this chapter: Appendix 1: Explanation of terms and symbols used in tables Appendix 3: List of plant species observed in sample plots Appendix 4: Description of soil profiles Appendix 5: Tables of soil chemical data Appendix 7: Vegetation tables for associations The site descriptions have been organized by associations in the following order: Stand 818 : Dry Rock Outcrop Stand 819 : Rock Outcrop Stand 131 : Sarita Beaver Pond Stand 144 : Sarita Clearcut Stand 151 : Sarita Seepage Slope Stand 152 : Pachena Main Line Stand 109 : Grice Bay Stand 199 : Ucluelet Slope Stand 150 : Mercantile Creek Stand 300 : Ucluelet Scrub Stand 821 : Port Albion Bog Stand 1092 : Kennedy Second Growth Stand 315 : Kennedy Floodplain Stand 513 : Sproat Lake . 147 Study Sites of Association 1.11 : Cladino-Tsugetum STAND 818 : Dry Rock Outcrop Reference: Sample plots 818-1, 818-2; Table 17; Figures 6, 7, 35; Appendices 1, 4, 5, 7. Stand 818 is not actually a stand, but rather two plots with many similar site characteristics, that were grouped together to represent one site type. Originally these two plots were going to be grouped with plots 819-1 and 819-2 to represent rock outcrop communities. However, there was considerable dissimilarity between the four plots, so i t was decided to describe them as two separate sites. Plot 818-1 is situated on a rock outcrop along Highway 4, east of Kennedy Lake, but west of site 819. The site is strongly sloping, with a southwest aspect, at an elevation of 60 m. Plot 818-2 is also situated on a rock outcrop along Highway 4, west of site 819 and plot 818-1. It overlooks a small lake which is located near the point where the Kennedy River joins the Kennedy Lake. This site has a northwest aspect, is very strongly sloping, and is at an elevation of 75 m. Of the four plots on rock bluffs, this plot is situated on the most severe site. Due to the severe site conditions, the trees on these plots are very small, stunted, and slow-growing. The trees on plot 1 are approximately 250 years old, but average only 15 m in height. The trees on plot 2 are even more stunted, averaging 6.5 m in height at ages of 150 to 450+ years. 148 In spite of the difference in tree height between the two plots, their basal areas and relative densities are similar (Table 17), indicating similar tree diameters. The basal area for this site is the lowest of the fourteen study sites: 17.8 m2/ha. One very noticeable difference between this site and site 819 is the species composition. The main tree species are Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (yellow cedar), Thuja plicata, and Tsuga heterophylla, which make up 28%, 27%, and 22% of the basal area respectively. Shore pine (Pinus contorta var. contorta) is very dominant In plot 1, but accounts for only 8% of the combined basal area of the two plots. Western white pine is a minor component of both plots. The tree canopy is quite open, so the understory vegetation receives some direct sunlight. The understory layers are not dense, but they are well-developed- The shrub layer is fairly light and consists of salal, vacciniums, and false azaela. The dominant species in the herb layer are bunchberry, twinflower, and false lily-of-the-valley. Mosses and lichens are very abundant and include Rhytidiadelphus loreus, Hylocomium splendens, Dicranum scoparium, Cladina spp. and Cladonia spp. (App. 7). Regeneration in this site is very abundant. Western redcedar is exceptionally prolific in both the herb and shrub layers. Regeneration of western hemlock, shore pine, and yellow cedar is also present. The soils of site 818 are very similar to those of site 819: very shallow and sparse, with exposed bedrock covering approximately 35% of the surface area. They can be classified as Typic Folisols and "Lithic Podzols" over bedrock. They are rapidly to very rapidly drained and have a xeric moisture regime. 149 Table 17: Environmental data for stand 818 Characteristic 818-1 818-2 Elevation (m) 60 75 Aspect (°) 207 316 Slope gradient (%) 30 32 Macrosite position lower slope apex Mesosite position mid-slope upper slope Microtopography (moundedness) ultra- extremely Surface shape undulating undulating Soil parent material bedrock,colluvium bedrock,colluvium Soil moisture regime xeric xeric Soil drainage class rapid very rapid Soil type Typic Folisol "Lithic Podzol" Family particle-size class organic loamy skeletal Forest floor thickness (cm) 9 5 Depth of Ah horizon (cm) — 20 Total rooting depth* (cm) 7 20 Depth to restrictive layer* (cm) 7 0-40 Depth to bedrock* (cm) 7 0-40 Effective rooting depth* (cm) 7 20 Basal area (rn^ /ha) 20 17 Relative density (stems/ha) 540 640 (* includes depth of organic horizons) 150 The soils of plot 1 consist only of organic horizons; thus, the classification of Typic Folisol. There is a thin (1-3 cm) litter layer, which is made up largely of wood from fallen trees. The humus is dry, felty, sawdust-like, with white and yellow fungal mycelia and abundant roots. It varies in thickness from 5 to 8 cm. The soils in plot 2 have an Ae horizon in addition to organic layers similar to those described above; thus, they can be classified as "Lithic Podzol". The Ae horizon has a high content of cobbles and stones; and varies in depth from 0 to 40 cm. This site could not be considered for commercial forest production. The site is highly unproductive due to the severe lack of moisture and subsequent slow rates of decomposition and nutrient cycling. The poor moisture and nutrient conditions are reflected by the indicator plant species. This is the only site which has plants contained in the very dry and very poor edatope categories (Fig. 35). Tree heights, as mentioned, are very low. The site index for redcedar was calculated as 13.9, for plot 1; and 5.6, for plot 2. Both plots are growth class 0 for redcedar. Plot 1 is site class (high) low, and plot 2 is site class (low) low for redcedar. Figure 35: A plot of the edatopic indicator species groups for the 2 sample plots of Stand 818, as expressed by relative species importance (RSI), in relation to (a) hygrotope. and (b) trophotope. 152 STAND 819 : Rock Outcrop Reference: Sample plots 819-1, 819-2; Table 18; Figures 8, 36; Appendices 1, 4, 5, 7. Site 819 is a rock outcrop located east of Kennedy Lake, along Highway 4 (between Port Alberni and Ucluelet) (Fig. 5). Only two plots were sampled in this site. Plot 1 is situated behind a bluff which overlooks the highway and the Kennedy River. Plot 2 is located south of plot 1, farther back from the highway. The site is not necessarily on MacMillan-Bloedel land. The site is situated at the base of a mountain. It is very strongly sloping, with a northwest aspect, at an elevation of approximately 77 m (Table 18). The topography is very irregular; extremely mounded and broken. Approximately 20% of the surface area is covered by exposed bedrock and very large boulders (colluvium). The existing forest, probably of fire origin, consists of numerous (660 stems/ha) small-sized trees. Many of the trees are of poor form, with broken or spiked tops. The basal area is low (62.2 m2/ha) due to the small tree-size and semi-open canopy. Western redcedar forms a major portion of the main canopy and accounts for 39% of the basal area. Western hemlock is the most abundant tree on the site (253 stems/ha). It outnumbers redcedar two to one, but only makes up 27% of the total basal area, due to its small diameters. There are only a few (27 stems/ha), veteran (350+ yrs) Douglas-fir trees scattered throughout the stand; but 153 Table 18: Environmental data for stand 819 Characteristic 819-1 819-2 Elevation (m) 78 75 Aspect (°) 207 335 Slope gradient (%) 30 32 Macrosite position lower slope lower slope Mesosite position crest crest Microtopography (moundedness) ultra- severely Surface shape undulating undulating Soil parent material bedrock,colluvium bedrock,colluvium Soil moisture regime subxeric subxeric Soil drainage class rapid rapid Soil type "Lithic Podzol" "Lithic Podzol" Family particle-size class loamy loamy Forest floor thickness (cm) 19 20 Depth of Ah horizon (cm) 8 3 Total rooting depth* (cm) 27+ 18 Depth to restrictive layer* (cm) 27 18 Depth to bedrock* (cm) 27 18 Effective rooting depth* (cm) 27 18 Bulk density, humus (g/cc) 0.12 0.18 Basal area (m^ /ha) 62 63 Relative density (stems/ha) 720 600 (* includes depth of organic horizons) 154 they are very large, and comprise 31% of the basal area. Amabilis f i r is a very minor component of the stand. The understory vegetation is sparse and scattered. The shrub layer is light and consists of salal, Vaccinium alaskaense, V. parvifolium, and Menziesia ferruginea. There are only a few fern species in the undeveloped herb layer: deer fern, sword fern and licorice fern. Mosses are very abundant. Many of the large boulders are covered with a dense carpet of moss- The most common species are Hylocomium splendens, Rhytidiadelphus  loreus, and Kindbergia oregana. Regeneration of western hemlock is extremely abundant on this site. Western redcedar and amabilis fir seedlings are also very numerous. The soil is very shallow and sparse, with areas of exposed bedrock. It has developed from weathering of parent materials (bedrock and colluvium) and decomposition of organic matter. The soil may be classified as loamy "Lithic Podzol"; and consists of a thin litter layer; a humus layer, 0-15 cm thick; and a thin, discontinuous Ae horizon (0-5+ cm). Although the bedrock is very close to the surface, the soil and rooting continue to greater depths through cracks and fissures in the rock. The fine roots are concentrated in the humus; which is dry, light, and fluffy; similar to sawdust or peatmoss. Earthworms were observed in the humus, and are probably responsible for some intermixing between the humus and Ah horizon. Due to the relief position of the site, drainage is rapid and the soil is of subxeric moisture regime. Moisture is undoubtedly limiting to plant growth during parts of the growing season. Vegetation is most vigorous in depressions where moisture is conserved in accumulated organic matter. 155 The indicator plant species on this site reflect a somewhat moister hygrotope than site 818, with no plants in the very dry or dry categories (Fig 36). They also indicate a relatively poor nutrient regime. In spite of the severe site conditions, productivity (as measured by site index) of western redcedar was surprisingly good. A site index value of 24.3 was estimated for redcedar from average height (27.3 m) and age (231+ yrs) values. This corresponds to site class (high) poor and growth class 6 for redcedar. From the few (3) Douglas-fir trees which were measured, the site index of fir was found to be higher than that of redcedar. The site index of Douglas-fir was estimated as 32.3 from average height and age values of 34.5 m and 336+ years. Thus, site 819 can be classed as site class (low) medium and growth class 6 for Douglas-fir. Nevertheless, productivity would be much too low for commerial purposes, and the site is fragile and would require careful management practices. 60-, Figure 36: A plot of the edatopic indicator species groups for the 2 sample plots of Stand 819, as expressed by relative species importance (RSI), in relation to (a) hygrotope, and (b) trophotope. 157 Study Sites of Association 2.11 : Blechno-Thujetum Association STAND 131 : Sarita/Beaver Pond References: Sample plots 131-1, 131-2, 131-3; Table 19; Figures 12, 37; Appendices 1, 4, 5, 7. Stand 131 is located in MacMillan-Bloedel's Franklin-Sarita division. The area is gently to moderately sloping, at an elevation of 125 m (Table 19). Plot 1 is somewhat depressional, plot 2 is relatively flat, and plot 3 is slightly upslope. Stand 131 is an overmature forest characterized by very large, old trees of low vigor (poor to fair). Western redcedar dominates the upper canopy and accounts for over 78% of the total basal area of 151 m^ /ha. Many of the redcedars are old, decadent veterans (482+ yrs) of poor form; often with candelabra, forked or spiked tops. Western hemlock makes up 14% of the stand basal area and is present in all canopy layers. There are a few large, scattered western white pine and Douglas-fir trees in the main canopy, and some suppressed amabilis fir and western yews. Western white pine may, at one time, have been an important component of the stand. Presently, most of the pines are dead or dying; probably victims of the white pine blister rust. The forest canopy has some openings due to a number of large blowdowns. This allows some sunlight to penetrate to the forest floor which is largely covered with acidic, decaying coniferous wood. Such 158 Table 19: Environmental data for stand 131 Characteristic 131-1 131-2 131-3 Elevation (m) 122 125 130 Aspect (°) 121 90 103 Slope gradient (%) 10 7 14 Macrosite position mid-slope mid-slope mid-slope Mesosite position lower slope mid-slope upper slope Microtopography (moundedness) moderately slightly moderately Surface shape concave straight convex Soil parent material morainal morainal morainal Soil moisture regime hygric hygric hygric Soil drainage class imperfect imperfect imperfect Seepage water absent absent present Soil type OT.HP OHP OT.HP Family particle-size class loamy sk. loamy sk. loamy Forest floor thickness (cm) 13 17 8 Depth of Ah horizon (cm) — — 8 Depth of Ae horizon (cm) 7 12 14 Total rooting depth* (cm) 19 69 36 Depth to restrictive layer* (cm) 19 81+ 36 Effective rooting depth* (cm) 12 27 16 Basal area (rn^ /ha) 185 129 137 Relative density (stems/ha) 500 380 780 (* includes depth of organic horizons) 159 conditions favour regeneration of western hemlock (Krajina 1969; Inselberg et al. 1982). Hemlock is the most abundant tree species in the shrub and herb layers. Its numbers are approximately twice those of western redcedar. Western yew and amabilis fir are, at most, incidental in the shrub and herb layers. Regeneration is only a minor component of the shrub layer. Gaultheria  shallon (salal) is the dominant shrub species. It is extremely dense and very tall; often reaching a height of over 2 m. Other common, but less abundant species in the shrub layer include Vaccinium parvifolium, V. alaskaense, V_. ovatum, and Menziesia ferruginea. The herb layer is dominated by deer fern (Blechnum spicant) which is quite vigorous, and has a wide coverage (75%). Licorice fern (Polypodium  glycyrrhiza) is sparse, but grows on some trees in each of the three plots. A complete lis t of the species and their respective coverages can be found in the vegetation tables in Appendix 7. The soils of the three sample plots have been described and analyzed (App. 4 and 5). The soils have developed on morainal material, and may be classified as loamy-skeletal (Ortstein) Humic Podzol. The colour of the B horizon(s) suggests that these soils are Ferro-Humic Podzols, but they do not meet the requirement of 5% organic carbon in the B horizon. The B horizons are cemented (ortstein?) and contain approximately 40% gravels and cobbles, by volume. This restrictive layer is largely responsible for the imperfect drainage and subhygric to hygric moisture regime of the site. In addition, i t limits rooting almost entirely to the organic horizons. Some roots extend into the Ae horizon, but few or no roots can penetrate the B horizons. The organic component of the soils consists of a very thin litter 160 layer; a sparse, discontinuous F horizon; and a thick (2-25 cm) humus layer. The humus can be classified as humimor humus (Klinka et al. 1981). It is very strongly acidic (pH 3.5 (H2O)) due to the abundance of decaying wood and has a high moisture holding capacity. In spite of the acidity, the humus was observed to support an active population of soil fauna, including earthworms. They undoubtedly play a key role in decompostion and nutrient cycling. It is no surprise that the majority of the redcedar feeding roots are concentrated in the humus, since this layer contains the highest levels of nutrients (App. 5), and is probably the most active region of nutrient cycling in the soil solum. The mineral horizons are not only physically poor, due to cementation; but also nutritionally poor, due to heavy rains and consequent leaching. The mineral soil contains very low levels of organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and exchangeable cations (App. 5). The indicator plant species on this site reflected the poor nutrient regime, with almost all of the species contained in the poor-medium trophotope category (Fig. 37). The edatopic conditions of the three plots appear to be very similar, as suggested by the spectrum of edatopic indicator species groups (Fig. 37). The site index for western redcedar on this site was estimated to be 28.3. This value was obtained from coastal site index tables ; using the mean height value (32 m) for dominant and codominant redcedars measured in the stand; and the mean age of redcedar (397+ yrs), was estimated from increment cores and ring counts of stumps. From this site index, Stand 131 can be classified as growth class 5, and site class (low) medium. Figure 37: A plot of the edatopic indicator species groups for the 3 sample plots of Stand 131, as expressed by relative species importance (RSI), in relation to (a) hygrotope, and (b) trophotope. 162 STAND 144 : Sarita Clearcut Reference: Sample plots 144-1, 144-2, 144-3; Table 20; Figures 10, 11; Appendices 1, 4, 5, 7. Stand 144 is located in MacMillan-Bloedel's Sarita division, above the Pachena River, off branch road 417B. The plots are situated in a mid-slope position on a strong slope (21%), of southeast aspect,at an elevation of approximately 110 m (Table 20). Prior to sampling, the stand was clearcut, but not burned. Consequently, l i t t l e or no standing vegetation remained. However, it was possible to identify and measure the stumps, as they were intact. Of the fourteen study sites, stand 144 has the highest basal area (233.5 m2/ha). This figure may even be slightly underestimated since some stumps were probably buried, covered with slash, or destroyed by the logging operation, and thus not measured in the sample. The high basal area is predominantly comprised of a relatively small number (347 stems/ha) of extremely large individual trees. In fact, some stumps measured over 2.5 m in diameter. Western redcedar had been the dominant tree species of the stand, accounting for over 83% of the total basal area. Most of the redcedar stumps were very large, indicating that redcedar had probably dominated the main canopy of the stand. Western hemlock and amabilis fir made up 10% and 7% of the basal area, respectively, and probably held a codominant and/or intermediate crown position. Their diameters were generally much smaller than those of the redcedar stumps. 163 Table 20: Environmental data for stand 144 Characteristic 144-1 144-2 144-3 Elevation (m) 115 108 105 Aspect (°) 120 125 148 Slope gradient (%) 22 24 17 Macrosite position mid-slope mid-slope mid-slope Mesosite position depression mid-slope depression Microtopography (moundedness) slightly slightly slightly Surface shape concave straight concave Soil parent material morainal morainal morainal Soil moisture regime subhygric subhygric sybhygric Soil drainage class mod. well mod. well mod. well Soil type GFHP GFHP GFHP Family particle-size class sandy loamy sk. loamy Forest floor thickness (cm) 8 18 29 Depth of Ae horizon (cm) 12 3 12 Total rooting depth* (cm) 60 76 54 Depth to restrictive layer* (cm) 60 76 73 Effective rooting depth* (cm) 41 20 36 Basal area (m^ /ha) 347 182 171 Relative density (stems/ha) 460 340 240 (* includes depth of organic horizons) 164 The redcedar trees were not only very large, but also very old. Growth rings were counted from 11 large redcedar stumps. The average age was over 450 years, and one individual was 849 years old. It was not possible to describe accurately the understory vegetation as it had been since most of it was destroyed by the logging operations. However, the remaining vegetation indicated that the site probably had an understory similar to stand 131: a shrub layer dominated by salal with admixtures of Vaccinium parvifolium, _V. alaskaense, Menziesia ferruginea, and Taxus brevifolia; and a herb layer comprised mainly of deer fern. All three tree species were observed to be regenerating, but it was not possible to determine if this regeneration was advanced or recent. The soils of stand 144 are similar to those of stand 133. They have developed on rubbly morainal deposits, and can be classified as Gleyed Ferro- Humic Podzol with Humimor humus. The soils are characterized by a well-developed eluviated A horizon; mottled, podzolic B horizons, enriched with organic matter (possibly a result of lateral seepage); and a cemented, cobbly C horizon. The effective rooting depth is deeper than that of stand 133 as cementation occurs in the C, rather than the B horizon. Nevertheless, rooting is most abundant in the organic and Ae horizons. Although the forest floor has been disturbed by logging, the components are s t i l l recognizable. The organic profile is almost identical to that of stand 133: with a thin litter layer; no obvious F horizon; and a relatively deep humus layer. The humus, which appears to be well-worked by insects and earthworms, is light, porous and well-aerated; thus creating a favourable rooting medium. This horizon contains the highest levels of nutrients, including nitrogen, phosphorus, and exchangeable cations; which 165 are relatively low in the mineral horizons (App. 5). Stand 144 has many similarities to stand 133, but i t probably has a higher potential productivity, due to its site position. The slope position and greater soil depth provide better drainage conditions (moderately well) and a more favourable moisture regime (subhygric). Furthermore, the soils probably receive an additional supply of nutrients through seepage water. Unfortunately, since the stand was clearcut, i t was impossible to measure any tree heights or determine the site index. 166 STAND 151 : Sarita Seepage Slope Reference: Sample plots 151-1, 151-2, 151-3; Table 21; Figures 13, 15, 16, 38; Appendices 1, 4, 5, 7. Stand 151 is located in MacMillan-Bloedel's Sarita division, south of the Pachena Main Line. Plots 1 and 3 are situated below branch road 431A, while plot 2 is accessible from branch road 428A. The site is moderately to strongly sloping and has a northwest exposure. Plots 1 and 3 are at mid-slope position at an elevation of approximately 180 m. Plot 2 is farther downslope at 112 m elevation (Table 21). Stand 151 is an overmature stand characterized by many large blowdowns• Western redcedar is the dominant species, accounting for 73% of the total basal area of 143 m^ /ha. Many of the redcedars are very large, old veterans. The oldest measured redcedar was 640 years of age. The stand has an admixture of amabilis fi r and western hemlock, in about equal propotions (15% and 12% of the basal area respectively). Individuals of these species are present, in all layers of the canopy, and tend to be much smaller in diameter than redcedar. Regeneration of western hemlock is abundant, probably due to the favourable conditions created by an accumulation of acidic, decaying wood on the forest floor. There are also a few scattered western redcedar, amabilis f i r , and western yew seedlings and saplings. The understory vegetation is fairly open and easy to walk through. Salal is the dominant shrub species, but its coverage (25%) is relatively 167 Table 21: Environmental data for stand 151 Characteristic 151-1 151-2 151-3 Elevation (m) 178 112 189 Aspect (°) 345 319 314 Slope gradient (%) 15 15 30 Macrosite position mid-slope lower slope mid-slope Mesosite position mid-slope upper slope mid-slope Microtopography (moundedness) slightly moderately moderately Surface shape concave concave concave Soil parent material morainal morainal morainal Soil moisture regime subhygric subhygric sybhygric Soil drainage class IM -MW IM -MW mod. well Free water seepage perched perched Soil type GFHP GFHP GFHP Family particle-size class loamy sandy sk. loamy sk. Forest floor thickness (cm) 16 16 8 Depth of Ae horizon (cm) 16 4 2 Total rooting depth* (cm) 30 56 54 Depth to restrictive layer* (cm) 43 62 94 Depth to water table* (cm) . 30 64 90 Effective rooting depth* (cm) 14 38 22 Bulk density, humus (g/cc) 0.09 0.13 — Basal area (m2/ha) 123 186 115 Relative density (stems/ha) 360 380 520 (* includes depth of organic horizons) 168 low and scattered. It is often growing close to the ground, and is not nearly as dense or as tall as in stand 131. Vaccinium parvifolium, and Menziesia ferruginea are also important components of the shrub layer. Deer fern is abundant (60% coverage) in the herb layer, but other herb species are generally lacking. There is a sparse, but uniform coverage of mosses over the forest floor. The dominant species are Kindbergia oregana, Hylocomium splendens, and Rhizomnium glabrescens. A detailed species list is presented in the vegetation tables in Appendix 7. The soils of stand 151 are Gleyed Ferro-Humic Podzols which have developed from morainal veneer over igneous bedrock. The derived soils are of a subhygric to hygric moisture regime, and are moderately well to imperfectly drained. They are relatively shallow (Fig. 15) and receive seepage along the bedrock interface (plot 3) (or cemented horizon), and through the mineral horizons (plot 1). The soils are similar to those of stand 144, except that the B horizons have a much higher content of organic matter; probably from inputs in seepage water. The soils are characterized by an eluviated A horizon; and gleyed B horizons (Fig. 13) with a high content (20%-60% by volume) of sub-angular and sub-rounded coarse fragments. The B horizon underlying the Ae horizon has a high content (18-22%) of organic matter and is noticeably higher in total nitrogen than the other mineral horizons; and considerably higher than many other soil profiles (App. 5). Nevertheless, rooting is primarily contained in the organic horizons, which have the higher concentrations of nutrients. The organic horizons consist of very thin L and F layers, and a deep (5-20 cm) humus layer. The humus is light in weight, full of roots, and 169 appears to be well-worked by insects and earthworms. Some white fungal mycelia are present; probably associated with the decomposition of the abundant decaying wood. The site index of redcedar was estimated from average height (38.9 m) and average age (368+ yrs) values, to be 34.6. This places stand 151 in site class (mid) medium and growth class 4 for redcedar. Of the 13 study sites for which the site index of western redcedar was calculated, this site had the second highest value. This relatively high productivity is probably a function of the site position. Drainage is improved due to the slope position, and in addition, supplies of organic matter and nutrients are received in seepage water. In spite of the favourable site position, the majority of the indicator plant species are contained in the poor-medium trophotope category; although they do reflect a slightly improved nutrient regime compared with Stand 133 (Fig. 38). 170 Figure 38: A plot of the edatopic indicator species groups for the 3 sample plots of Stand 151, as expressed by relative species importance (RSI), in relation to (a) hygrotope, and (b) trophotope. 171 STAND 152 : Pachena Main Line Reference: Sample plots 152-1, 152-2, 152-3; Table 20; Figures 9, 39; Appendices 1, 4, 5, 7. Stand 152 is located in MacMillan Bloedel's Sarita division, along the Pachena Main Line toward Bamfield. The site is a flat, relatively level plain at an elevation of 30 m (Table 22). The forest is made up of relatively small, overmature trees of poor form (scrubby, spike tops, etc.) and low vigor (poor to fair). The canopy is fairly open due to incomplete crown closure and numerous large blowdowns. The stand basal area is quite low (86.1 m^ /ha) due to the relatively small size of the trees. Western redcedar dominates the main canopy, but is present in all canopy layers. It makes up 66% of the total basal area. Western hemlock is even more abundant than redcedar (213 vs 206 stems /ha), but only accounts for 16% of the basal area, due to much smaller tree size. Hemlock is common in the intermediate and suppressed layers of the tree canopy. There are a few, large old western white pine trees scattered throughout the stand. Regeneration of western hemlock and redcedar is very abundant; especially where blowdowns have created large openings in the canopy. All layers of the understory are well-developed and diverse. The shrub layer is very dense and tal l ; dominated by salal, with admixtures of Vaccinium ovatum, V. parvifolium, V. alaskaense, and Menziesia ferruginea. There are a variety of species in the herb layer, but deer fern (Blechnum spicant), bunchberry (Cornus unalaschkensis), and false lily-of-the-valley 172 Table 22: Environmental data for stand 152 Characteristic 152-1 152-2 152-3 Elevation (m) 32 31 30 Aspect (°) N/A N/A N/A Slope gradient (%) 0 0 0 Macrosite position plain plain plain Mesosite position level level depression Microtopography (moundedness) slightly slightly slightly Surface shape straight straight concave Soil parent material morainal morainal morainal Soil moisture regime hygric hygric hygric Soil drainage class poor poor poor Free water perched perched perched Soil type OT.FHF OHP OT.HP Family particle-size class loamy loamy loamy Forest floor thickness (cm) 19 11 14 Depth of Ah horizon (cm) 12 — — Depth of Ae horizon (cm) — 11 14 Total rooting depth* (cm) 54 20 24 Depth to restrictive layer* (cm) 54 36 30 Depth to water table* (cm) 54 37 28 Effective rooting depth* (cm) 30 20 24 Bulk density, humus (g/cc) Ae — 0.14 0.44 0.12 0.86 Basal area (m2/ha) 95 73 90 Relative density (stems/ha) 620 420 500 (* includes depth of organic horizons) 173 (Malanthemum dllatatum) are most abundant. Skunk cabbage (Lysichitum  amerlcanum) is present in water-filled depressions. Mosses, particularly Sphagnum spp. and Hylocomium splendens, are common on the forest floor. A detailed species lis t is presented in Appendix 7. The soils have developed on morainal deposits, and may be classified as loamy (Ortstein) Humic Podzol to Ferro-Humic Podzol. The soils are characterized by a well-developed Ae horizon; a podzolic Bh or Bhf; underlain by a cemented (ortstein?) Bfc; and compacted t i l l (Cc). There is lateral water flow created by a perched water table, which flows on top of the cemented Bfc or Cc horizon. This results in poor soil drainage and a hygric moisture regime. Rooting is restricted to approximately 35 cm, and is most abundant in the humus and Ae horizons. The organic horizons consist of a thin litter layer underlain by a deep (8-23 cm) humus. The humus is wetter and, consequently heavier than that from stands 131 and 144. Nevertheless, i t is fairly loose and appears to be well-worked by insects and also earthworms, which are very abundant. The indicator plant species on this site reflect the poor, wet site conditions (Fig. 39). The trophotope spectrum of EISG is similar to that of Stand 151 (Fig. 38), with the majority of species contained in the poor-medium category. However, the hygrotope spectrum reflects wetter conditions than either Stand 131 or 151 (Figs. 37, 38). The site index of Stand 152 is 25.2 for western redcedar. This value was obtained using the average height (28.3 m) and age (292+ yrs) estimates for redcedar. Stand 152 can be classified as site class (high) poor and growth class 6 for redcedar. 174 Figure 39: A plot of the edatopic indicator species groups for the 3 sample plots of Stand 152, as expressed by relative species importance (RSI), in relation to (a) hygrotope, and (b) trophotope. 175 STAND 109 : Grice Bay Reference: Sample plots 109-1, 109-2, 109-3; Table 23; Figures 14, 17, 19, 20, 40; Appendices 1, 4, 5, 7. Stand 109 is located in the Grice Bay area of MacMillan-Bloedel's Kennedy Lake division. The sample plots are not actually located in stand 109, but rather, in stands 108 and 105. All three stands (109, 108, and 105) are recorded on the MacMillan-Bloedel cover-type map as having the same cover-type, stand age, site index, volume, and volume class. So, the three plots were grouped together to represent one site. The area is a relatively flat plain with a few small localized hills, which rise sharply from the general level of the plain (Valentine 1971). Plot 1 is situated on one i f these hills, at an elevation of 51 m. The site has a strong, but short slope which faces due west. Plot 3 is located in the same stand as plot 1 (108), but on a very long, gentle, nearly level, southwest facing slope, at an elevation of 40 m. Plot 2 is situated in stand 105. The area is nearly level, at an elevation of 37 m, with a slight southwest aspect (if any) (Table 23). The present overmature forest probably originated from fire, as indicated by charcoal in the soil profile. There are many large old, fallen trees, which have created openings in the canopy, and serve as nurse logs. 176 Table 23: Environmental data for stand 109 Characteristic 109-1 109-2 109-3 Elevation (m) 51 37 40 Aspect (°) 270 254 210 Slope gradient (%) 22 0-5 5 Macrosite position plain plain plain Mesosite position mid-slope level level Microtopography (moundedness) strongly strongly slightly Surface shape undulating straight straight Soil parent material GF / M gl.marine (GF)/M Soil moisture regime subhygric subhygric subhygric Soil drainage class MW - IM IM - P imperfect Free water (in humus) absent absent Soil type OFHP 0G GFHP Family particle-size class loamy sk. fine-clayey loamy Forest floor thickness (cm) 14 19 15 Depth of Ae horizon (cm) 0-2 none 0-9 Total rooting depth* (cm) 36 53 47 Depth to restrictive layer* (cm) 63 53 60 Effective rooting depth* (cm) 16 20 24 Bulk density, humus (g/cc) 0.12 0.12 0.09 Basal area (m^ /ha) 186 104 187 Relative density (stems/ha) 400 320 320 (* includes depth of organic horizons) 177 Western redcedar dominates the main canopy of the stand and accounts for 77% of the total basal area of 158.7 rn^/ha. The individual trees are very large and old; typically 1.5 m in dbh, and up to 2.7 m dbh. One large, old fallen redcedar was estimated from ring counts as being over 650 years old. The remainder of the stand basal area is made up of amabilis fi r and western hemlock, in almost equal proportions (12% and 10% respectively). These species occupy all layers of the canopy, and are much smaller in diameter than redcedar. The understory vegetation is vigorous, but not particularly dense. Salal, the most abundant shrub species, typically reaches a height of 3 m. Vaccinium parvifolium is also common, and very tall (4.5 m). Deer fern has wide coverage in the herb layer, and there are numerous other incidental herb species (App. 7). The moss layer is very well-developed and consists primarily of Hylocomium splendens, Rhizomnium glabrescens, RhytidiadelphUs  loreus, Plagiothecium undulatum, CephalOzia bicuspidata, and Kindbergia  oregana. Western hemlock regeneration is very abundant; probably a function of the acidic, decaying wood which has accumulated on the forest floor. Western redcedar seedlings are also common, but not nearly as numerous as hemlock. The soil parent materials of this area consist of marine and fluvio-glacial sediments which were deposited during and immediately after glaciation (Valentine 1971; Jungen and Lewis 1978). Ferro-Humic Podzols occur on the coarse-textured materials and/or the better drained sites. Gleysols are present on the level to depressional areas of the marine 178 clays (Jungen and Lewis 1978). Due to the differences in site positions, the soils of the three sample plots will be described individually. The soil of plot 1 is very shallow and contains a high percentage (90%) of rounded cobbles and stones. The parent material is probably morainal t i l l modified by water action (fluvioglacial), as suggested by the rounded-shape of the coarse fragments. The soil may be classified as a loamy-skeletal Orthic Ferro-Humic Podzol. The profile consists of a thin, poorly-developed Aej horizon; a podzolic Bhf horizon, high in organic matter, extractable iron and aluminum; a Bh horizon enriched with organic matter and high in available phosphorus; and a stony C horizon (App. 5). Rooting is most abundant in the organic and Ae horizons, being restricted by the high concentration of large boulders and stones, which often extend close to the surface. The organic portion of the profile consists of a LF horizon, 3 to 5 cm in thickness; and a thick (5-14 cm) humus layer. The humus is somewhat sticky, plastic and greasy. Both earthworms and white fungal mycelia are agents of decomposition. The soil is of subhygric moisture regime and is moderately-well to imperfectly drained. The soil of plot 3 is very similar to that of plot 1. It is imperfectly drained, of subhygric moisture regime, and probably originated from morainal parent material (compact t i l l ) . However, the coarse fragment content (15%) is much lower than plot 1; and the fragments are smaller (gravels) and sub-angular. The soil may be classified as a loamy, Gleyed Ferro-Humic Podzol (like plot 1), but without knowing the concentration of 179 extractable iron and aluminum in the podzolic B horizon, i t Is not possible to differentiate i t from a loamy Orthic Humic Podzol. The colour (10 YR 2/2) of the podzolic B horizon suggests that the soil is an Orthic Humic Podzol: high in organic matter, low in iron and aluminum. Mottling is present in all the mineral horizons, possibly a result of restricted drainage by the compacted (cemented?) C horizon. Unfavourable drainage may also influence the rooting, which is concentrated in the organic and Ae horizons. The LF, H and Ae layers are similar to, but thicker than, those of plot 1. The humus is light; appears to be worked by insects and earthworms; contains appreciable amounts of decayed wood; and is slightly plastic, slippery and greasy. The soil of plot 2 is much different from that of plots 1 and 3. The silty-clay texture suggests that i t originated from glaciomarine sediments. The soil can be classified as a fine-clayey Orthic Gleysol. The profile is fairly deep (75+ cm) and consists of four Bg horizons (no A horizon). The Bgl horizon has extraordinary mottling and contains rounded coarse fragments. There are no coarse fragments in the other mineral horizons. There are black Mg deposits in the Bg3 and Bg4 layers. Rooting is most abundant in the organic horizons, but extends into the Bgl and Bg2 layers. It is probably limited at lower depths by excessive moisture. The soil is imperfectly to poorly drained and of subhygric to hygric moisture regime. In addition, the concentration of organic matter and total nitrogen drops considerably below the Bgl horizon. The humus is similar to that of plots 1 and 3. A large portion of the humus is derived from decayed wood; and is light, crumbly and peat 180 moss-like. The rest of the humus is clumped, plastic and greasy. White fungal mycelia was very abundant and earthworm casts were observed. In spite of the differences in soils between plots 1 and 2, the indicator plant species reflect similar moisture and nutrient conditions (Fig. 40). The spectrum of edatopic indicator species groups is similar to that of Stands 133 and 151 (Figs. 37, 38), with the majority of plants contained in the poor-medium trophotope category. The average height of 10 dominant and codominant redcedar trees on this site was 32.5 m; and the average age, as measured from increment borings from 12 redcedar trees, was 265+ years. From these values the site index of redcedar was estimated to be 28.9. This site index value corresponds to growth class 5 and site class (low) medium for redcedar. 181 60-. Figure 40: A plot of the edatopic i n d i c a t o r species groups for the 3 sample plots of Stand 109, as expressed by r e l a t i v e species importance (RSI), i n r e l a t i o n to (a) hygrotope, and (b) trophotope. 182 STAND 199 : Ucluelet/Slope Reference: Sample plots 199-1, 199-2, 199-3; Table 24; Figures 18, 41; Appendices 1,4,5,7. Stand 199 is located in MacMillan-Bloedel's Kennedy Lake division, on the Ucluth Peninsula beside Highway 4, across from the Ucluelet Inlet. The peninsula is fairly narrow (400-800 m) at this point, so the stand is not far from the Pacific Ocean. Although the overall area is a plain, there is a "low narrow ridge immediately inland from the coast" (Valentine 1971). The three sample plots are situated on the eastern slope of this ridge. Plot 1, which is slightly depressional, is located on the lower slope at an elevation of 25 m. Plot 2 is situated at the crest of the upper slope at 45 m elevation. The surface shape is convex, and the area slopes strongly in al l directions. Plot 3 is at a mid-slope position at 35 m elevation. The site slopes very strongly and faces due east-The forest is an overmature stand of western redcedar and western hemlock with a minor component of amabilis f i r . Western redcedar is the dominant species, accounting for 79% of the total basal area of 118.4 m^ /ha. Many of the redcedar trees are very large, old veterans with spiked or candelabra tops. Western hemlock is present in all canopy layers and, although i t is far more abundant than redcedar (206 vs 133 stems/ha), it comprises only 16% of the basal area. Amabilis f i r occurred in only 1 of the 3 sample plots (plot 1). It makes up the remaining 5% of the basal area. 183 The Influence of slope position is reflected in the vegetation. Plot 1, at lower slope, and plot 3 at mid-slope, have comparatively similar basal areas and relative densities (Table 24). However, plot 2, at the upper slope position, has much smaller and more numerous trees than plots 1 and 3. Its relative density is twice as large, and its basal area almost half that of either plots 1 or 3. The"most striking floristic feature of this stand is the change in understory vegetation along the slope gradient. At the lower end of the slope, the understory vegetation, particularly the herb layer, is very rich and diverse. The diversity of understory species decreases as the elevation increases. Plot 1 is positioned on the lower slope. The shrub layer is very dense and t a l l , often exceeding 3 m in height. The dominant speices are salal, salmonberry, and vacciniums. There are many vigorous flowering plants and ferns in the well-developed herb layer; including Maianthemum  dilatatum, Tiarella trifoliata, Polystichum muniturn, Lysichitum americanum, Blechnum spicant, Galium boreale, Streptopus roseus, and Athyrium felix-femina. Sword fern is very vigorous, with fronds of 2 m in length. There is a carpet of mosses covering approximately 50% of the forest floor. The dominant species are Rhyzomnium glabrescens, Kindbergia oregana, RhytidiadelphuS triquetrus, R. loreus, and Sphagnum spp. At approximately 30 m elevation, there is a boundary where many of the herb species drop out of the understory. Plot 3 is located at 35 m elevation, just above this boundary. The shrub layer is similar to plot 1, except that salal is much more abundant and salmonberry is very sparse. The herb layer differs markedly: deer fern is dominant and other herb 184 Table 24: Environmental data for stand 199 Characteristic 199-1 199-2 199-3 Elevation (m) 25 45 35 Aspect (°) 112 N/A 90 Slope gradient (%) 13 19 35 Macrosite position plain plain plain Mesosite position lower slope crest mid-slope Microtopography (moundedness) slightly slightly strongly Surface shape concave convex undulating Soil parent material morainal morainal morainal Soil moisture regime hygric hygric hygric Soil drainage class IM - P imperfect imperfect Free water present present seepage Soil type OSB GFP GDB Family particle-size class sandy sk. loamy loamy Forest floor thickness (cm) 29 23 15 Depth of Ah horizon (cm) 20 — — Depth of Ae horizon (cm) — 6 23 Total rooting depth* (cm) 54 29 36 Depth to restrictive layer* (cm) 54 29 46 Depth to water table* (cm) 60 29 48 Effective rooting depth* (cm) 47 29 46 Bulk density, humus (g/cc) 0.09 0.13 0.11 Basal area (m2/ha) 108 64 183 Relative density (stems/ha) 260 560 280 (* includes depth of organic horizons) 185 species are inconsequential or absent. The moss layer is less diverse. Plot 2 is situated at the upper part of the slope at 45 m elevation. Its understory is similar to that of plot 3, with even fewer herb species present. Both western hemlock and western redcedar were regenerating in a l l three plots. Hemlock was more abundant than redcedar in plots 2 and 3. Redcedar was somewhat more common in plot 1. As would be expected, the soils are also influenced by the slope position, and differ amongst the 3 plots. The soil parent material is morainal; compacted and/or cemented, loamy to sandy, gravelly t i l l . The soil of plot 1, at the lower slope position, is very unique. It is characterized by a deep (25-28 cm), rich humus with an abundant population of earthworms. In spite of the presence of (acidic?) decaying wood, the humus has an unusually high pH (5.9 (H2O) ) ; the highest value for humus pH of the 40 sample plots. Underlying the humus is a thick (18-22 cm) Ah horizon enriched with organic matter, and relatively high in pH, total N, and exchangeable cations. Rooting is confined almost entirely to the humus and Ah layers. The Bh horizon is a thin (5-10 cm) sandy layer with a high coarse fragment content (40%), enriched with organic matter and high in pH. Beneath i t is a cemented, gravelly C layer. All horizons have unusually high levels of calcium, which would account for their associated high pH values. The calcium content is probably, at least partially, a result of nutrient-rich seepage water, which flows on top of the compacted t i l l . The drainage of this site is imperfect to poor and the moisture regime is hygric (to subhydric). Due to the thick Ah horizon the soil can be classified as an Orthic Sombric Brunisol. 186 The soil of plot 3, at the mid-slope position, is much different from that of plot 1. The humus horizon is only half as thick, and i t is much more acidic (pH 3.9 vs 5.9). It is fairly light and appears to be well-aerated and insect-worked, although no earthworms were observed. Slugs and snails were present. There is no Ah or Ae horizon, but rather, a series of B horizons with weak to prominent mottling, and low levels of nitrogen and cations (App. 5). The lowest B layer is enriched with organic matter, probably from seepage water flowing on top of the cemented C horizon; but nevertheless, nitrogen and cation levels are low. Rooting extends into the upper B horizons, but is most abundant in the humus. The soil is imperfectly drained and has a hygric moisture regime. It is difficult to classify this soil without knowing the Fe and Al content of the mineral horizons, but i t can probably be classed as a Gleyed Dystric Brunisol. Since plot 3 was situated just above the boundary where the herbs and ferns dropped out of the understory, a second 'mid-slope' humus sample was taken for comparison, 5m downslope from plot 3, inside the zone of rich understory vegetation. This sample was labelled 199-4. Although a complete profile description was not done, the horizon sequence was noted to be very different from plot 3 and similar to that of plot 1: LF, HI, H2, Ah, Bh, Cc The humus strongly resembled that of plot 1; with abundant earthworms and high in calcium and pH. Water was seeping through, or on top of, the Bh horizon. The soil of plot 2, situated at the top of the slope, is very shallow and can (almost) be classified as a loamy "Gleyed Folisolic Podzol", (the LFH horizons are not 40 cm thick, as required for this classification). 187 The mineral solum is poorly developed; consisting of a thin (2-9 cm) eluviated A horizon with weak mottling, overlying compacted t i l l . The humus makes up the greatest portion of the rooting medium. It is 19-23 cm thick and compares chemically to the humus of plot 3; with a pH value of 3.9. Although earthworms were present; they were smaller in size and number than those in plot 1. Snails and grubs were also observed. The soil is imperfectly drained and has a hygric moisture regime. It experiences seepage through the Aegj horizon. The differences in edatopic conditions between the 3 plots, especially in trophotope, are reflected by the indicator plant species (Fig. 41). As mentioned, the understory vegetation changes dramatically along the slope gradient. The diverse species compostion of plot 1 indicates fairly rich nutrient conditions; which is probably a function of seepage inputs and relatively rapid decomposition of organic matter by the large population of earthworms. By contrast, the indicator plant species of plots 2 and 3 reflect a poor-medium nutrient regime, similar to Stand 133 (Fig. 37). The hygrotope spectra of EISG for the 3 plots are fairly similar (Fig. 41). As would be expected, plot 2, the uppermost plot on the slope, appears to have a slightly drier hygrotope than the other 2 plots; although the difference is slight. In spite of the nutrient-rich seepage water, the productivity of this site is relatively low. The site index of western redcedar was estimated as 25.2, from an average height value of 27.6 m and average age of 225+ years. Site 199 can be classified as growth class 6 and site class (high) poor for redcedar. 188 Figure 41: A plot of the edatopic indicator species groups for | the 3 sample plots of Stand 199, as expressed by ' relative species importance (RSI), in relation to (a) hygrotope, and (b) trophotope. 189 STAND 150 : Mercantile Creek Reference: Sample plots 150-1, 150-2, 150-3; Table 25; Figure 42; Appendices 1, 4, 5, 7. Stand 150 is located in MacMillan-Bloedel's Kennedy Lake division, off branch road 552. The stand is situated at the mid-slope position on a strong slope which drains into the Mercantile Creek, below. The site has a southeast aspect and an elevation of approximately 225 m (Table 25). The stand is covered with an overmature forest of western redcedar with an admixture of western hemlock and amabilis f i r . Most of the trees are very old (350+ yrs), and poorly formed, with spiked and candelabra tops. Blowdowns are common and litter the forest floor with debris. The relative density of trees is fairly high (613 stems/ha), and yet the basal area is quite low (92.2 m^ /ha). This suggests that most of the trees are small in diameter; however, there are some large (100 cm dbh) redcedars. Western redcedar, which is present in a l l layers of the canopy, dominates the main canopy and accounts for 85% of the stand basal area. Western hemlock is very abundant, but individual trees are small in diameter, so i t comprises only 9% of the basal area. Amabilis fir is a minor component of the stand, making up 4% of the basal area. Western yew and red alder are sparse and scattered in the understory. The understory vegetation is fairly light. The dominant shrub species are salal, vacciniums, false-azaela and salmonberry. In some places these species grow to 2 or 3 m in height, but typically, they are sparse and 190 Table 25: Environmental data for stand 150 Characteristic 150-1 150-2 150-3 Elevation (m) 225 . 220 230 Aspect (°) 113 133 161 Slope gradient (%) 22 27 13 Macrosite position mid-slope mid-slope mid-slope Mesosite position mid-slope lower slope mid-slope Microtopography (moundedness) moderately moderately strongly Surface shape undulating undulating undulating Soil parent material morainal morainal morainal Soil moisture regime hygric HG - SHG hygric Soil drainage class IM - P poor IM - P Free water seepage present (seepage) Soil type DHP 0G-0HG 0HG Family particle-size class loamy sk. sandy sk. loamy sk. Forest floor thickness (cm) 12 12 22 Depth of Ah horizon (cm) — 8 — Depth of Ae horizon (cm) 5 11 9 Total rooting depth* (cm) 23 30 36 Depth to restrictive layer* (cm) 23 42 36 Depth to water table* (cm) 23 42 36 Effective rooting depth* (cm) 15 30 36 Bulk density, humus (g/cc) 0.09 0.08 0.23 Basal area (m^ /ha) 60 120 97 Relative density (stems/ha) 540 700 600 (* includes depth of organic horizons) 191 growing near the ground. The herb layer contains a wide variety of species, of which, deer fern is the most abundant, although i t is not particularly vigorous. Other herb species include Lysichitum americanum, Streptopus roseus, Tiarella trifoliata, Cornus unalaschkensis, and Linnaea  borealis. The moss layer contains Hylocomium splendens, Rhizomnium  glabrescens, Rhytidiadelphus loreus, Sphagnum sp., and Kindbergia oregana. Regeneration of western hemlock is very abundant in both the herb and shrub layers. Western redcedar is also present in the understory, but there are only a few scattered saplings. The soils of this site have developed from morainal material: compacted or cemented t i l l . They are loamy to sandy in texture and contain a high content of sub-rounded gravel in the mineral horizons. Cobbles and stones increase with depth. The sub-rounded shape of the coarse fragments and their stratification by depth suggests that the soil parent material may have been modified by water (ie: glaciofluvial). The cemented t i l l restricts drainage, which is imperfect to poor, and contributes to a hygric (to subhydric) moisture regime. The soils vary between the three plots, so they will be described separately. The soil of plot 1 may be classified as either a loamy-skeletal Orthic Gleysol or a loamy-skeletal Duric Humic Podzol. It is difficult to classify without knowing the Fe and Al content of the mineral horizons. The colours of the B horizons suggest that the soil is a podzol. The solum consists of an eluviated A horizon, with prominent mottles; two thin, mottled B horizons, with lateral water flow between them; a distinctly mottled and cemented (duric ?) BC horizon, with a high content of gravel 192 and cobbles; and a C horizon (App. 4). Rooting is restricted almost entirely to the organic horizons, which consist of thin L and F layers, and a 10 cm thick humus layer. The humus has a relatively high pH (4.7 (H2O)) in spite of the presence of acidic (?) decaying wood. As with plot 1, i t was difficult to classify the soil of plot 2 without knowing the iron and aluminum concentrations of the B horizons. Plot 2 appears to be wetter than plot 1 (Fig. 42). The low chroma values for the mineral soil samples suggest that the soils are gleysols rather than podzols. Two soil profiles (150-2a and 150-2b) were described and sampled in this plot to provide a means for comparison (App. 4). The two profiles are similar, but there are some differences. Both soils are shallow (37-44 cm), contain a high content of coarse fragments (15-50%), and experience rapidly-flowing seepage water. The soil of pit 150-2a is a sandy-skeletal Orthic Humic Gleysol. The profile consists of thick Ah (17 cm) and Ae (10 cm) horizons; and a Bh horizon enriched with organic matter. The bottom of the pit smells of SO2, indicating anaerobic conditions. The soil of pit 150-2b is a sandy-skeletal Orthic Gleysol. It is similar to 150-2a, except that i t lacks an Ah horizon, and has a BC layer beneath the Bh. The Bh horizons of both soils are enriched with organic matter and contain relatively high levels of calcium (App. 5). Rooting is concentrated in the organic, Ah and Ae horizons. The organic layers are similar to those of plot 1, except that the humus has lower pH (3.9-4.0), and much lower levels of total nitrogen (App. 5). 193 60-i 100-, Figure 42: A plot of the edatopic indicator species groups for the 3 sample plots of Stand 150, as expressed by-relative species importance (RSI), in relation to (a) hygrotope, and (b) trophotope. 194 The soil of plot 3 has very deep (22 cm) mineral-organic surface horizons (App. 4). Originally, these horizons were designated as H, Ahl and Ah2. However, the Ah samples were found to contain very high levels of organic matter (44.8% and 53.1%), so they were re-labelled as Hil and Hi2. The soil may be classified as a loamy-skeletal Orthic Humic Gleysol. The profile consists of an eluviated Aeg horizon with prominent mottles; a thin (5-8 cm), black B horizon; underlain by a thin orange band; and a cemented, mottled, C horizon, with a high gravel content (50%). The B horizon is wet; probably from a perched water table, or seepage above the cemented C horizon. Unlike the Bh horizon of the Orthic Humic Gleysol of plot 150-2a, this B horizon is very low in organic matter. Rooting extends through the B horizon, but is most abundant in the thick organic layers, which contain high levels of total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and exchangeable cations (App. 5). These favourable nutrient conditions may explain the increased abundance and diversity of herbs in this plot (App. 7). The slight differences in nutrient and moisture conditions between the 3 plots are reflected by the spectrum of EISG (Fig. 42). Overall, the edatopic conditions of the 3 plots are quite similar, and are comparable to those of Stand 151 (Fig. 38). Most indicator species are contained in the poor-medium trophotope category. However, there are some medium and medium-rich indicators, which are probably reflecting the nutrient inputs through seepage water. The hygrotope spectrum of EISG (Fig. 42) suggests that this site experiences somewhat wetter conditions than Stand 151 (Fig. 38), but not as wet as Stand 152 (Fig. 39). 195 The productivity of this site as measured by site index for western redcedar, was similar to that of Stand 131 in the Franklin-Sarita division. The site index for redcedar was estimated as 28.1, from average height and age values of 31.5 m and 239+ years. This places site 150 in growth class 5 and site class (low) medium for western redcedar. From five height measurements and 6 age estimates, the site index of western hemlock was calculated as 33.6. This would place site 150 in growth class 5 and site class (mid) meduim for western hemlock. 196 Study Sites of Association~2.12 : Sphagno-Tsugetum STAND 300 : Ucluelet Scrub Reference: Sample plots 300-1, 300-2, 300-3; Table 26; Figures 21, 24, 25, 43; Appendices 1, 4, 5, 7. Stand 300 is located in MacMillan-Bloedel's Kennedy Lake division along Highway 4, across from stand 199, just north of the Ucluelet Inlet. The site is situated on the coastal plain at an elevation of 25 m (Table 26). The stand is covered by a scrubby, overmature forest of western redcedar, western hemlock, and shore pine. The presence of charcoal in the soil suggests that the stand is of fire origin. Most of the trees are very old (200-500 yrs.), and of poor form with crooked, twisted stems; and broken, spiked and forked tops. Although the number of trees is very high (820 stems/ha), tree diameters are small, resulting in a low stand basal area (68.5 m2/ha). The average height of the dominant trees is only 18.3 m. Western redcedar, the dominant tree species on the site, is present in a l l layers of the canopy, has the highest relative density (373 stems/ha), and accounts for 55% of the total basal area. Western hemlock, another major component of the stand, is also found in all canopy layers, and makes up 31% of the basal area. Shore pine (Pinus contorta var. contorta), forms a significant portion of the main canopy; for although i t is minor in terms of both relative density and basal area, i t is present only in the dominant crown position. 197 Table 26: Environmental data for stand 300 Characteristic 300-1 300-2 300-3 Elevation (m) 25 25 25 Aspect (°) N/A N/A N/A Slope gradient (%) 0 0 0 Macrosite position plain plain plain Mesosite position level level level Microtopography (moundedness) moderately strongly strongly Surface shape straight straight straight Soil parent material FL-(GW)/M FL-(GW)/M FL-(GW)/M Soil moisture regime subhydric subhydric subhydric Soil drainage class poor poor poor Free water (in H) (in H) (in H) Soil type 0G 0G OG Family particle-size class fine loamy fine loamy loamy Forest floor thickness (cm) 22 19 18 Depth of Ae horizon (cm) 7 7 13 Total rooting depth* (cm) 74 22 43 Depth to restrictive layer* (cm) 74 49 49 Effective rooting depth* (cm) 24 22 13 Bulk density, humus (g/cc) 0.13 0.10 0.12 Basal area (m^ /ha) 72 77 57 Relative density (stems/ha) 1060 740 660 (* includes depth of organic horizons) 198 The semi-open canopy allows sunlight to penetrate through to the understory, which is very dense and t a l l . The shrub layer is dominated by salal, Vaccinium ovatum and V_. parvifolium, which reach heights of 2.5 to 3 m. Western crab apple (Malus fusca) is also an important species in the shrub layer, and grows to 5 m in height. The most abundant herbs include Blechnum spieant, Cornus unalaschkensis, Maianthemum dilatatum, and Linnaea  borealis. The moss layer is well-developed and consists primarily of Hylocomium splendehs, Rhytidiadelphus loreus, Kindbergia oregana, Sphagnum spp., Rhizomnium glabrescens, and Plagiothecium undulatum. Western redcedar is successfully regenerating on this site. It is abundant in both the herb and shrub layers. Western hemlock seedlings and saplings are also present, but to a much lesser extent. The soil is a shallow, loamy Orthic Gleysol which has developed from a complex interaction of processes, and appears to include beach, fluvial or glaciomarine deposits over compacted (morainal) t i l l . The compacted t i l l , at a depth of approximately 50 cm, contributes to the poor drainage and subhygric moisture regime of the site. The soil is characterized by a gleyed B horizon with prominent mottles of high chroma, indicating periodic or prolonged saturation with water and reducing conditions. The wet conditions of the mineral soil horizons restrict rooting almost entirely to the organic layers. There is a LF layer, 3 to 8 cm thick; and a deep, 12 to 20 cm humus horizon. The humus is somewhat plastic and greasy; with abundant decayed wood and a high water holding capacity. Fine roots and white fungal mycelia are plentiful; creating a matted appearance near the surface. Soil fauna, including earthworms, grubs, and weevils were observed. 199 The spectrum of EISG (Fig. 43) is similar to that of Stand 152 (Fig. 39), and reflects the poor, wet conditions. Due to the unfavourable moisture regime and shallow soil, this site has very low productivity. A site index value of 16.3 for western redcedar was estimated from a mean height value of 18.3 m and a mean age of 220+ years. Site 300 can be classified as site class (low) poor and growth class 8 for redcedar. From 6 height measurements and 5 age estimates of Pinus contorta, a site index value of 19.1 was calculated. Thus, this site is slightly more productive for shore pine than redcedar, and can be classified as site class (low) medium for shore pine. 200 60-] 40-Figure 43: A plot of the edatopic indicator species groups for the 3 sample plots of Stand 300. as expressed by relative species importance (RSI), in relation to (a) hygrotope, and (b) trophotope. 201 STAND 821 : Port Albion/Bog Reference: Sample plots 821-1, 821-2, 821-3; Table 27; Figures 22, 23, 44; Appendices 1, 4, 5, 7. Three plots were sampled in a scrub forest, bordering a bog, along the Port Albion Road, just north of Port Albion. The plots were grouped together to represent one site type, and referred to as 'Stand 821'. Plots 1 and 2 were sampled in the forest on the west side of the Port Albion Road. The area is a flat, level coastal plain at an elevation of approximately 60 m. Plot 3 was sampled in the forest on the east side of the road. The area is gently sloping, with a southwest aspect, at an elevation of 80 m (Table 27). This stand Is similar to stand 300. The presence of charcoal in the soil suggests that i t too, probably originated from (or has survived) a fire. The open forest is composed of many small, scrubby, old (300-450+ years) trees of low vigor and very poor form (Figs. 22, 23). In spite of the large number of trees (733 stems/ha), the stand basal area is very low (43.2 m /ha) due to the small tree diameters. Western redcedar, the dominant tree species, is present in all layers of the canopy. It accounts for 65% of the basal area and has the highest relative density (420 stems/ha). Western hemlock makes up 24% of the basal area and is also present in all canopy layers. It is approximately half as dense as redcedar. Shore pine has a low basal area and relative density, but s t i l l contributes to the main canopy, since i t is only found in the 202 Table 27: Environmental data for stand 821 Characteristic 821-1 821-2 821-3 Elevation (m) 70 50 80 Aspect (°) N/A N/A 230 Slope gradient (%) 0 0 15 Macrosite position plain plain plain Mesosite position level level lower slope Microtopography (moundedness) moderately moderately strongly Surface shape straight straight undulating Soil parent material GW-GF/M GW-GF/M GW-GF/M Soil moisture regime subhydric subhydric subhydric Soil drainage class poor poor IM - P Free water (in H) (in H) — Soil type PHP PHP 0HP Family particle-size class loamy sk. loamy sk. loamy sk. Forest floor thickness (cm) 10 14 5 Depth of Ae horizon (cm) 6 10 3 Total rooting depth* (cm) 13 22 51 Depth to restrictive layer* (cm) 32 31 53 Effective rooting depth* (cm) 13 22 27 Bulk density, humus (g/cc) 0.11 0.10 0.10 Basal area (m2/ha) 32 63 35 Relative density (stems/ha) 720 900 580 (* includes depth of organic horizons) 203 dominant crown position. A few, scattered western yews occur in the intermediate and suppressed tree layer. Western crab apple is not large enough in diameter to be classified as a tree, but nevertheless, i t is abundant in the understory tree layer. The understory vegetation is extremely dense; undoubtedly a function of the open tree canopy. The thick shrub layer is approximately 2.5 m tall and consists primarily of Vaccinium ovatum, salal and V. parvifolium. The herb layer is dominated by deer fern, bunchberry, false lily-of-the-valley, and twinflower; but also includes such characteristic species as Coptis  asplenifolia, Ledum groenlandicum, and Phyllodoce empetriformis. The moss layer is well-developed, and the most abundant species are Hylocomium  splendens, Rhytidladelphus loreus, and Sphagnum spp. Regeneration of western redcedar is exceptional in this site. Both seedlings and saplings are very abundant. Western hemlock regeneration is also present, but its numbers are less than half that of redcedar. The soils of this site are very similar to those of the Wreck Bay series described by Valentine (1971), in his soil survey of the Tofino-Ucluelet lowland. The soils are shallow, loamy-skeletal Humic Podzols, which have developed from sandy and gravelly glaciomarine and/or glacio-fluvial outwash sediments. In many places, large stones occur very near the surface. The soils are poorly drained and of subhydric moisture regime. Evidence of fire and windfall is present throughout the site. The soils of plots 1 and 2 are similar to the Placic Humic Podzol described by Valentine (1971). The soils are characterized by an eluviated A horizon, underlain by a thin dark band of mineral soil enriched with 204 organic matter (Bh). Below the Bh horizon is a thin, cemented, orange-coloured iron-pan (placic horizon, Bhfc). This iron pan probably formed from iron, aluminum and humus which leached from the Ae horizon and precipitated into the B horizon as a thin band. A cemented, podzolic B horizon (Bfcg(j)) is found beneath the iron-pan. It is characterized by the presence of mottles and, as noted by Valentine (1971), a much higher content of coarse fragments (45% sub-angular gravel) than the overlying mineral horizons. The iron-pan and cemented B horizon are impermeable to both roots and water, resulting in saturated soil conditions and restricted rooting. Rooting extends into the Ae horizon, but is most abundant in the organic layers. The thick humus (2-14 cm) has an abundance of decaying wood and a high water holding capacity. It is very heavy and wet; like a big sponge. It is possible that most plant nutrients are derived from the organic matter in the humus horizon. The mineral solum not only has poor physical properties, but also poor chemical properties. It is strongly acid, and low in basic cations, total N, and available P. The H horizon, containing over 90% organic matter, is adequately endowed with basic cations, although total N is somewhat low. The organic matter not only supplies plant nutrients to the soil, but increases the cation-exchange-capacity thus enabling the soil to retain some of these nutrients in a form more available to plants (Valentine, 1971). The soil of plot 3 differs slightly from that of plots 1 and 2. There is no obvious Bh horizon or placic iron-pan above the podzolic B. Moreover, the podzolic B is thicker, and i t is not cemented. It does, 205 however, have a high content (30%) of coarse fragments and distinct mottles. There is a dark band (charcoal?) below the podzolic B, overlying a cemented C horizon (compact t i l l ) . The organic layers are similar to, but much thinner than those of plots 1 and 2. It is difficult to differentiate the L,F, and H horizons. A snail shell was observed in the humus: an indication of the wet soil conditions. The indicator plant species on this site reflect edatopic conditions similar to those of Stands 300 and 152 (Figs. 44, 43, 39). The majority of the plants are in the poor-medium trophotope category. The wet moisture regime is also reflected. The productivity of this site is very low, primarily due to the shallow, impenetrable soil strata and periods of prolonged saturation. The site index for western redcedar was estimated as 13.9, from average height (15.6m) and age (306++ yrs.) values. Only the dry rock outcrop site (818) has a lower site index for redcedar. Site 821 can be classified as growth class 0 and site class (high) low for redcedar. Like stand 300, this site is also somewhat more productive for shore pine than redcedar. The site index of pine was calculated as 16.6, from an average (17.0 m) of 4 height measurements, and 5 age estimates (288+ yrs.). This site index corresponds to site class (mid) poor for shore pine. 206 50-, 40-TROPHOTOPE Figure 44: A plot of the edatopic i n d i c a t o r species groups f o r the 3 sample plo t s of Stand 821, as expressed by r e l a t i v e species importance (RSI), i n r e l a t i o n to (a) hygrotope, and (b) trophotope. 207 Study Sites of Association 3.11 : Kindbergio-Piceetum STAND 1092 : Kennedy/Second Growth Reference: Sample plots 1092-1, 1092-2, 1092-3, (PSPs 715,716,717); Table 28; Figures 26,27,45; Appendices 1,4,5,7. Stand 1092 is located in MacMillan-Bloedel's Kennedy Lake division, near stand 315, off branch road 500A. The site is a level to slightly sloping plain which borders, to the south and east, on a rocky beach on Barkley Sound. The elevation ranges from 1 to 5 m. MacMillan-Bloedel established 3 permanent sample plots (PSPs) in this stand in 1967 for growth and yield studies. The plots are square, 1 chain by 1 chain in dimension, and .0405 ha. in area. They have been sampled 3 times since establishment; in 1967, 1972, and 1976. The dbh and height was measured for all trees greater than 10 cm dbh. In addition, age estimates were made from increment cores of several dominant trees in each plot. The data from the most recent sampling (1976) was used for this study. The PSPs correspond to the sample plots as follows: PSP 717 = 1092-1, PSP 715 = 1092-2, PSP 716 = 1092-3. The old-growth forest on this site was logged (clearcut) in 1933. There are many very large redcedar stumps and logs on the site (Figs. 26), indicating that the previous stand contained many large redcedar trees. The presence of fire scars and charcoal suggests that the stand was slashburned following logging. The site currently supports a naturally-regenerated second-growth 208 stand of western redcedar, western hemlock, and Sitka spruce. The relative density is quite high: 873 stems/ha (Table 28). The percent stocking of this stand (115%), as listed on the MacMillan-Bloedel cover-type map (92 C/14 9), indicates that the site is over-stocked. Western redcedar, with 476 stems/ha, and western hemlock, with 320 stems/ha, are the most abundant species. They account for 43% and 45% of the total basal area (49.8 m /ha) respectively. Sitka spruce only makes up 12% of the stand basal area, but some individuals are quite large. The understory vegetation is very sparse, possibly due to insufficient sunlight as a result of the closed canopy. The shrub layer is light and poorly-developed. Salal is the most abundant species and there is a small percentage of red huckleberry, evergreen blueberry, and false-azaela. The herb layer is denser than the shrub layer, and is dominated by deer fern, sword fern, spiny shield fern, foamflower, lady fern and oak fern. Mosses, which include Kindbergia oregana, Rhyzomnium glabrescens and Hylocomium  splendens, are fairly abundant, and commonly occur In patches. The soils of this site have developed from fluvial parent materials. The soils characteristically contain very high contents of stratified, rounded, gravel in the upper mineral horizons; underlain by layers of sand. The permeability of the gravel and sand contributes to a subhygric moisture regime and moderately well drained soils. It is difficult to classify the soils without knowing the iron and aluminum concentrations of the mineral horizons. The soils may be podzols, regosols or brunisols. The soil of plot 1 contains very high levels of organic matter in the upper horizons, which are predominantly gravel (50%). Initially, these 209 Table 28: Environmental data for stand 1092 Characteristic 1092-1 1092-2 1092-3 Elevation (m) 1 3 5 Aspect (°) N/A N/A (123) Slope gradient (%) 0 0 0-10 Macrosite position plain plain plain Mesosite position level level lower slope Microtopography (moundedness) moderately moderately strongly Surface shape undulating straight undulating Soil parent material FL (GW) FL (GW) FL (GW) Soil moisture regime subhygric subhygric subhygric Soil drainage class mod. well mod. well mod. well Seepage water (slight) (slight) present Soil type C. Regosol EDB ODB Family particle-size class frag ./sandy sandy sandy sk. Forest floor thickness (cm) 21 10 8 Depth of Ah horizon (cm) 48 — — Depth of Ae horizon (cm) — 7 1 Total rooting depth* (cm) 69 126 73 Depth to water table* (cm) — — 75 Effective rooting depth* (cm) 44 55 47 Bulk density, humus (g/cc) 0.16 0.10 0.13 Basal area (rn^ /ha) 38 57 55 Relative density (stems/ha) 716 840 1062 (* includes depth of organic horizons) 210 horizons were designated as B21, B22, and B23. However, analysis revealed that the samples from the B21 and B22 layers were actually organic (> 30% organic matter), so they were re-labelled as Hil, Hi2, and Bm. The gravel in these horizons is egg-shaped, and sorted with depth. Underlying the Bm horizon are two sandy Bm layers, with no coarse fragments. Rooting is confined to the organic layers and gravelly Hil (which is high in total N). The organic horizons consist of thin L and F layers, with a dense mat of fine roots; and a thick (15-23 cm) humus layer, which is predominantly decaying wood. The humus contains charcoal, white fungal mycelia, and earthworms. The soil may be classified as a fragmental over sandy, Cumulic Regosol. The soil of plot 2 contains a much thinner layer of gravel than plot 1, has a well-developed eluviated Ae horizon, and does not have an organic-mineral surface horizon (App. 4). The mineral horizons are not enriched with high levels of organic matter, and generally, have lower levels of exchangeable cations (App. 5). Nevertheless, rooting continues to a much greater depth. The organic horizons are similar to those of plot 1, but are thinner. White fungal mycelia was plentiful, and earthworms were observed in both the humus and Ae horizons. The soil is probably a sandy, Eluviated Dystric Brunisol. The soil of plot 3 has similarities to that of both plots 1 and 2. The profile consists of a thin, discontinuous Aej horizon; and a sequence of black mineral horizons, which contain a high percentage (45%) of rounded coarse fragments. The upper mineral horizons are enriched with organic matter, but not to nearly the extent of those in plot 1. The water table was encountered at a depth of approximately 75 cm. Rooting extends 211 through the solum to the water table, but is most abundant in the organic and upper mineral horizons. The organic component of the profile is approximately 10 cm thick, and resembles that of plots 1 and 2. The soil can probably be classified as a fragmental Orthic Dystric Brunisol. The indicator plant species on this site reflect very favourable nutrient and moisture conditions (Fig. 45). The majority of plants are contained in the medium trophotope category; which is richer than most of the study sites, but not as rich as Stands 513 and 315 (Figs. 47, 46). The hygrotope spectrum of EISG reflects somewhat drier conditions than most of the study sites, but not nearly as dry as Stands 818 and 819 (Figs. 17, 18). This may be a function of the high percentage of coarse fragments in the soil, which promote relatively rapid drainage; particularly compared to soils with restrictive layers. The soils, with their good drainage, enrichment with organic matter, and lateral water-flow, enhance the productivity of the site. In addition, the productivity of this site may have been improved from the disturbances of logging. The site index for western redcedar was calculated as 33.4, from average height and age values of 22.3 m and 48 years. This site index corresponds to site class (mid) medium and growth class 4 for redcedar. The average height of western hemlock (29.8 m) and its corresponding site index (41.3) were considerably higher than those of redcedar. Site 1092 can be classified as growth class 3 and site class (lo) good for western hemlock. 100-n Figure 45: A plot of the edatopic indicator species groups for the 3 sample plots of Stand 1092, as expressed by relative species importance (RSI), in relation to (a) hygrotope, and (b) trophotope. 213 Study Site of Association 3.21 : Lysichito-Piceetum STAND 315 : Kennedy Floodplain Reference: Sample plots 315-1, 315-2, 315-3; Table 29; Figures 28, 29, 30, 31, 46; Appendices 1, 4, 5, 7. Stand 315 is located in MacMillan-Bloedel's Kennedy Lake division off branch road 500A. The site is a level floodplain at 22 m elevation, and has a stream flowing through i t . Of the three sample plots, plot 1 is situated farthest upstream. It is the wettest plot and contains some depressions with open, standing water. The wet conditions of plot 1 are reflected by the hygrotope spectrum of edatopic indicator species groups (Fig. 42). The stream flows through plots 2 and 3, and makes up approximately 20% of the surface area of each plot. The site is covered by an overmature forest comprised of very large, old (350-450+ yrs.) Sitka spruce and western redcedar trees. Of the 14 study sites, this site has the lowest relative density (313 stems/ha) and yet, the second highest basal area (216.7 m2/ha); indicating that the individual trees are quite large- The presence of charcoal in the soil suggests that the stand was probably established after a fire. Sitka spruce and western redcedar dominate the main canopy and account for 45% and 48% of the basal area, respectively. Western hemlock, which is present in the codomimant, intermediate and suppressed positions; has the highest relative density (113 stems/ha), but only makes up 5.3% of the basal area due to its small diameters. The stand also contains a very minor component of amabilis f i r and western yew. 214 The understory is very well-developed and rich in species diversity. The shrub layer is quite dense and is dominated by salal, salmonberry, vacciniums and false-azaela. Salmonberry reaches heights of 3-4 m. The herb layer contains a wide range of species including deer fern, skunk cabbage, sword fern, slough sedge, false lily-of-the-valley (Maianthemum  dilatatum), lady fern, and foamflower. There are numerous moss species present- The most abundant ones are Rhizomnium glabrescens, Hylocomium  splendens, Plagiothecium undulatum, Plagiomnium insigne, and Kindbergia  praelonga. Regeneration of western hemlock is abundant in both the herb and shrub layers of all three plots. Sitka spruce and western redcedar seedlings are also common, but are not nearly as numerous as hemlock. Much of the regeneration occurs on nurse logs. The soil of this site has developed from fluvial processes. It is characterized by a well-developed mineral-organic surface horizon (H or Ah), and a sequence of gleyed B horizons with features indicative of periods of prolonged saturation. The soil may be classified as loamy to fine-silty Humic Gleysol. The soil is poorly to very poorly drained and has a subhydric to hydric moisture regime. The water table was encountered at a depth of approximately 80 cm in plots 1 and 2 (Table 29); and the lower mineral horizons of a l l three plots smelled strongly of SO2, indicating anaerobic conditions. Rooting was confined to the upper horizons. The organic horizons are very thin (0-4 cm) and i t is difficult to differentiate the L,F, and H horizons from the underlying Ah- Earthworms were found in all three plots, and probably assist in breaking down the 215 Table 29: Environmental data for stand 315 Characteristic 315-1 315-2 315-3 Elevation (m) 22 22 22 Aspect (°) N/A N/A N/A Slope gradient (%) 0 0 0 Macrosite position plain plain plain Mesosite position level level level Microtopography (moundedness) extremely severely moderately Surface shape undulating straight undulating Soil parent material fluvial fluvial fluvial Soil moisture regime hydric subhydric subhydric Soil drainage class very poor poor poor Free water present present — Soil type HG HG HG Family particle-size class fine loamy fine silty fine silty Forest floor thickness (cm) 15 5 6 Depth of Ah horizon (cm) — 7 10 Total rooting depth* (cm) 52 83 97 Depth to restrictive layer* (cm) 70 90 115 Depth to water table* (cm) 70 90 115 Effective rooting depth* (cm) 47 58 73 Bulk density, humus (g/cc) — 0.29 0.11 Basal area (m^ /ha) 247 224 179 Relative density (stems/ha) 320 340 280 (* includes depth of organic horizons) 216 organic matter and incorporating i t in the upper mineral horizon. A mat of white fungal mycelia was present near the surface of the organic horizons. The indicator plant species on this site reflect a fairly rich nutrient regime (Fig. 46); similar to, but not quite as fertile as that of Stand 513 (Fig. 47). However, the soil analyses did not reveal particularly high concentrations of nutrients (App. 5). The soil probably receives additional inputs of nutrients from lateral seepage and periodic flooding. The site index for western redcedar was calculated as 34.7 from average height and age values of 38.6 m and 216++ years. Of the 13 sites for which the site index of redcedar was claculated, stand 315 had the third highest value. This site index places stand 315 in growth class 4 (almost 3), and site class (mid) medium for western redcedar. However, redcedar was not the most productive species on this site. The site index for Sitka spruce was calculated as being 51.2, from average height (53.5 m) and age (250-H- yrs.) values. Thus, this site can be classified as growth class 1 and site class (high) good for Sitka spruce. BO -i 100-, Figure 46: A plot of the edatopic indicator species groups for the 3 sample plots of Stand 315, as expressed by relative species importance (RSI), in relation to (a) hygrotope, and (b) trophotope. 218 Study Site of Association 4.11 : Tiarello-Abietetum STAND 513 : Sproat Lake Reference: Sample plots 513-1, 513-2, 513-3; Table 30; Figures 32, 47; Appendices 1, 4, 5, 7. Stand 513 is located in MacMillan-Bloedel's Sproat Lake division, off branch road 513, near Highway 4. Of the fourteen study sites, this stand is the farthest inland. It is a flat, valley bottom bordering the Kennedy River, at an elevation of 220 m. The stand is covered by a mature (300+ yrs) forest of very large, widely spaced trees, and numerous blowdowns. Although the stand is classed as Balsam/Hemlock on the MacMillan-Bloedel cover-type map, it was sampled because there are pockets of huge western redcedars. Thus, the results may be somewhat biased since the areas with redcedar were favoured for sampling. The redcedars measured in the sample plots were all in the dominant canopy layer. They were small in number (53 stems/ha), but very large in size; and accounted for 51% of the total stand basal area of 141.5 m2/ha. Amabilis fir was present in al l canopy layers and made up 40% of the basal area; but its numbers were large (253 stems/ha) and diameters small. Western hemlock was present in all layers of the canopy and made up the remaining 9% of the basal area. Sitka spruce was not present in the sample plots, but was scattered throughout the stand. The understory is characterized by a relatively light shrub layer and a very well-developed layer of vigorous herbs. The shrubs are densest in 219 areas where fallen trees have created openings in the canopy. Vaccinium species are the dominant species, especially y_. alaskaense, and reach a height of over 2 m. Rubus spectabilis is also common. Salal was not sighted. Twenty-two herb species were observed in the stand (App. 4). They included (in order of decreasing abundance), Viola glabella, Cornus  unalaschkensis, Tiarella trifoliata, T_. unifoliata, Gymnocarpium  dryopteris, Achlys triphylla, Trillium ovatum, Blechnum spicant, Athyrium  felix-femina, and Polystichum muniturn. Regeneration of western hemlock and amabilis f i r was also abundant in the herb layer. Numbers of hemlock seedlings and saplings were exceptionally high. The site is a mature (inactive) floodplain, and the soils have developed from fluvial deposits. The soils of plots 1 and 2 are very deep (150+ cm), very fine sandy loams with no coarse fragments (Table 30). They are well-drained and of mesic moisture regime. Rooting is unrestricted, and is common to a depth of approximately 90 cm. The soil is characterized by a thin, discontinuous Ae horizon; deep B horizons, high in organic matter (6.4-13.4%); and C horizons with mottling at a depth of 140 cm. The organic matter content of the B horizons contributes to the nitrogen ond phosphorus levels, which are slightly higher than for most of the sampled stands. The soil may be classified as a fine loamy Orthic Ferro-Humic Podzol. The organic horizons consist of very thin L and F layers, and a humus of 3-18 cm thickness. The humus is very dry, lightweight, crumbly and feels felty. It contains a dense mat of fine roots, and some white fungal mycelia. An earthworm was observed in the stand, but not in the sample plots. 220 Table 30: Environmental data for stand 513 Characteristic 513-1 - 513-2 513-3 Elevation (m) 227 215 220 Aspect (°) N/A N/A N/A Slope gradient (%) 0 0 0 Macrosite position valley floor valley floor valley flooi Mesosite position level level depression Microtopography (moundedness) smooth slightly slightly Surface shape straight straight concave Soil parent material fluvial fluvial fluvial Soil moisture regime mesic mesic subhygric Soil drainage class well well mod. well Free water absent absent present Soil type OFHP OFHP GHFP Family particle-size class fine loamy fine loamy fine loamy Forest floor thickness (cm) 7 15 3 Depth of Ah horizon (cm) — — 7 Depth of Ae horizon (cm) thin, discon. thin, discon 6 Total rooting depth* (cm) 153+ 150+ 80 Depth to restrictive layer* (cm) 153+ 150+ 80 Depth to water table* (cm) — — 80 Effective rooting depth* (cm) 83 105 34 Bulk density, humus (g/cc) Ah 0.21 0.25 0.26 0.44 Basal area (m^ /ha) 144 82 199 Relative density (stems/ha) 280 320 420 (* includes depth of organic horizons) 221 Plot 3 is situated on, what appears to be, an old dried-up streambed. Consequently, the soil differs from plots 1 and 2. The indicator plant species on this plot reflect a slightly moister hygrotope than plots 1 and 2 (Fig. 47). The organic horizons are very thin (0-3 cm), and are underlain by well-developed Ah and Ae horizons. The B horizons are mottled, and contain less organic matter (3.7-8.5%). The water table was reached at a depth of 93 cm. Nevertheless, like plots 1 and 2 , the soil is very deep (107+ cm), loamy-textured, and contains no coarse fragments. This soil may be classified as a fine loamy Gleyed Humo-Ferric Podzol. The soils, with their good drainage, enrichment of organic matter, and deep rooting, greatly enhance the productivity of the site. The indicator plant species on this site reflect the favourable moisture and nutrient conditions (Fig. 47). This is the only study site in which the majority of indicator species are contained in the medium-rich trophotope category. Of the 13 sites for which the site index of redcedar was estimated, this site had the highest value. The site index of western redcedar was estimated as being greater than 45.7, from average height (51.3 m) and age (267+ yrs) values. This site index value places stand 513 in site class (high) good and growth class 1 for western redcedar. 222 60 - i 40 — 30 H 20-10 VD (a) DF DM FM HYGROTOPE MW W 100 80 ^ 60 CO 40 -20-i i (b) VP PM TROPHOTOPE M MR Plot Number 513-1 WM 513-2 EZ) 513-3 Figure 47: A plot of the edatopic i n d i c a t o r species groups f o r the 3 sample plots of Stand 513, as expressed by r e l a t i v e species importance (RSI), i n r e l a t i o n to (a) hygrotope, and (b) trophotope. APPENDIX 3 List of Plant Species Abies amabilis (Dougl. ex Loud.) Forbes Pacific silver fir Achlys triphylla (Smith) DC. American vanilla leaf Adenocaulon bicolor Hook. Trailplant Adiantum pedatum L. Maidenhair fern Alnus rubra Bong. Red alder Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth. Common lady fern Bazzania denudata (Torr. ex Gott. et al.) Trev. Blechnum splcant (L.) Roth. Deer fern Blepharostoma trichophy1lum (L.) Dum. Boschniakia hookeri Walpers Vancouver groundcone Boykinia elata (Nutt.) Greene Coast boykinia Calamagrostis nutkaensis (Presl) Steudel Pacific small reed grass Calypogeia muelleriana (Schiffn.) K. Muell. Carex obnupta Bailey Slough sedge Cephalozia bicuspidata (L.) Dum. Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach. Yellow cedar Cladina impexa (Harm.) B. de Lesd. Nomenclature for vascular plants follows Taylor and MacBryde (1977), Ireland et al. (1980) for mosses, Hale and Culberson (1970) for lichens, and Stotler and Crandall-Stotler (1977) for liverworts. Cladina ranglferina (L.) Harm. Cladonia bellidiflora (Ach.) Schaer. Cladonia gracilis (L.) Willd. Cladonia uncialis (L.) Wigg. Coptis asplenifolia Salisb. Spleenwort-leaved goldthread Cornus nuttallii Audub. ex Torr. & Gray Western flowering dogwood Cornus unalaschkensis Ledebour Western cordilleran bunchberry Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv. ex Roemer & Schul. Poverty oat grass Dicranum fuscescens Turn. Dicranum scoparium Hedw. Diplophyllum albicans (L.) Dum. Diplophyllum plicatum Lindb. Ditrichum sp. Dryopteris expansa (Presl) Fraser-Jenkins & Jermy Spiney shield fern Equisetum sp. Horsetail Festuca subulata Trin. in Bong. Bearded fescue Galium boreale L. Northern bedstraw Galium triflorum Michx. Sweet-scented bedstraw Gaultheria shallon Pursh. Salal Goodyera oblongifolia Raf. Large-leaved rattlesnake orchid Gymnocarpium dryopteris (L.) Newm. Oak fern Herberta adunca (Diks.) S.F. Gray Hieracium albiflorum Hook. White hawkweed Hookeria lucens (Hedw.) Sm. Huperizia selago (L.) Bernh. ex Schrank & Mar. Fir club-moss 225 Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. Hypnum circinale Hook. Hypopythys monotropa Crantz Fringed pinesap Isopterygium elegans (Brid.) Lindb. Isothecium stoloniferum Brid. Kalmia microphylla (Hook.) A.A. Heller Western swamp kalmia Kindbergia oregana (Sull.) Ochyra Kindbergia oregana (Hedw.) Ochyra Ledum groenlandicum Ceder Common Labrador tea Lepidozla reptans (L.) Dum. Leucolepis menziesii (Hook.) Steere ex L. Koch Linnaea borealis L. Northern twinflower Listera cordata (L.) R. Br. in Ait. Heart-leaved twayblade Luzula parviflora (Ehrh.) Desv. Small-flowered wood rush Lycopodium clavatum L. Running club-moss Lysichitum americanum Hulter & St.John American skunk cabbage Maianthemum dilatatum (Wood) Nels. & MacBr. Two-leaved false Solomon's seal Malus fusca (Raf.) Schneider Pacific crab apple Menzlesia ferruginea Smith Rusty Pacific menziesla Mylia taylorii (Hook.) S.F. Gray Nardia scalaris S. Gray Orthilia secunda L. Few-flowered one-sided wintergreen Pellia neesiana (Gott.) Limpr. Petasites palmatus (Ait.) Gray Palmate colt's foot Phyllodoce empertiformis (Smith) D. Don Red mountain-heather Picea sltchensls (Bong.) Carr. Sitka spruce Pinus contorta var. contorta Dougl. ex Loud. Shore pine Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don in Lamb. Western white pine Plagiochila porelloides (Torr. ex Nees) Lindenb. Plagiomnium insigne (Mitt.) Kop. Plagiotheclum undulatum (Hedw.) B.S.G. Pleurozium schreberl (Brid.) Mitt. Pogonatum alpinum (Kindb.) Mac. & Kindb. Polypodium glycyrrhiza D.C. Eaton Licorice fern Polystichum munitum (Kaulf.) Presl. Western sword fern Polytrichum commune Hedw. Polytrichum piliferum Hedw. Prenanthes alata (Hook.) D. Dietr. Western rattlesnakeroot Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco Coast Douglas-fir Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn in Decken Western bracken fern Rhacomitrlum canescens (Hedw.) Brid. Rhacomitrlum heterostichum (Hedw.) Brid. Rhacomitrlum lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid. Rhamnus purshianus D.C. Cascara Rhizomnium glabrescens (Kindb.) Kop. Rhytidladelphus loreus (Hedw.) Warnst. Rhytidladelphus triquetrus (Hedw.) Warnst. Ribes sp. L. Gooseberry or current Riccardia latifrons Lindb. Rubus spectabills Pursh Salmonberry 227 Salix sp. Willow Saxifrage ferruginea Grah. Alaska saxifrage Scapania bolanderi Aust. Sphagnum girgensohnii Russ. Sphagnum henryense Stachys mexicana Bentham Mexican hedge-nettle Streptopus amplexifolius (L.) DC. in Lam. & DC. Cucumberroot twistedstalk Streptopus roseus Michx. Simple-stemmed twistedstalk Stereocaulon tomentosum Fr. Taxus brevifolia Nutt Western yew Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don in Lamb. Western redcedar Tiarella laciniata Hook. Cut-leaved foamflower Tiarella trifoliata L. Trifoliate-leaved foamflower Tiarella unifoliata Hook. Unifloiate-leaved foamflower Trisetum cernuum Trin. Nodding trisetum Trillium ovaturn Pursh Western white trillium Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. Western hemlock Vaccinium alaskaense Howell Alaska blueberry Vaccinium ovalifolium Smith in Rees Oval-leaved blueberry Vaccinium ovatum Pursh Evergreen huckleberry Vaccinium parvifolium Smith in Rees Red huckleberry Veratrum viride Ait. Green false-hellebore Viola glabella Nutt. in T. & G. Yellow wood violet ( 228 The following latin names were changed, as follows, to agree with the nomenclature of Taylor and MacBryde (1977): Kalmia polifolia = K.microphylla Lycopodium selago = Huperizia selago Petasites speciosa = P_. palmatus Pogonatum macounli = P. alpinum Polytrichum alpinum = Pogonatum alpinum Pyrola secunda = Orthilia secunda Also, note that the genus Stokesiella has been renamed Kindbergia (Ochyra 1981); and that Dryopteris assimilis (Walker) has been renamed D_. expansa ((Presl) Fraser-Jenkins & Jermy). 229 APPENDIX 4 : DESCRIPTION OF THE SOIL PROFILES Plot no.: 818-1 Location: Dry Rock Outcrop Associated soil: Typic Folisol with Humimor over bedrock Horizon Depth Description (cm)  LF 9- 7 Plentiful decayed wood; 1-3 cm thick; pH 4.2 (H20), 4.1 (CaCl2). H 7-0 Dry to moist; composed of mosses and decayed wood; flakey, sawdust-like, felty; very abundant white mycelia, few yellow mycelia; abundant decayed wood; very abundant all-sized roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 5-8 cm thick; pH 3.7 (H20), 3.1 (CaCl2). Bedrock no mineral horizons present. 230 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 818-2 Location: Dry Rock Outcrop Associated soil: Loamy-skeletal "Lithic Podzol" over bedrock Horizon Depth Description (cm)  LFH 5- 0 Very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2 d); very friable, non-plastic; plentiful, fine and medium roots; non-distinct wavy boundary; 0-8 cm thick; pH 3.8 (H2°), pH 4.1 (CaCl2). Ae 0-15 Dark grayish brown to light brownish gray (10YR 4/2 m, 6/2 d); cobbley silt loam; friable (m), soft (d); non-plastic; abundant, all-sized roots; 50% rounded cobbles, 25% stones; non-distinct wavy boundary; 0-40 cm thick; pH 3.8 (H20), 3.2 (CaCl2). Bedrock 231 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 819-1 Location: Rock Outcrop Associated soil: Loamy "Lithic Podzol" with Humimor over bedrock Horizon Depth Description (cm)  LF 19-15 Abundant fine roots; 2-6 cm thick; pH 3.8 (H20), 3.4 (CaCl2). H 15- 0 Wet; composed of mosses and decayed wood; lightweight, clumps held together by fine roots; somewhat slippery; plentiful decayed wood; charcoal present; plentiful white mycelia, few yellow mycelia; earthworms observed; very abundant all-sized roots; 10-40 cm thick; pH 3.6 (H20), 3.2 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.120 g/cc. Ae 0- 8 Very dark grayish brown to light brownish gray (10YR 3/2 m, 6/2 d); very fine sandy loam; moderate, medium to coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); plentiful, all-sized roots; 5% sub-angular gravel, 5% cobbles; few charcoal particles; 2-18+ cm thick; pH 3.8 (H20), 2.9 (CaCl2). Bedrock 232 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 819-2 Location: Rock Outcrop Associated soil: Loamy "Lithic Podzol" with Xeromor over bedrock Horizon Depth Description (cm) L 20-15 3-7 cm thick; pH 4.4 (H20), 4.1 (CaCl2). FH 15- 0 Dry to moist; composed of mosses, decayed wood, and coniferous litter; lightweight, fluffy, sawdust-like; plentiful decayed wood; few charcoal particles; plentiful white mycelia, few yellow mycelia; very abundant, all-sized roots; 40% angular gravel; 10-20 cm thick; pH 3.9 (H20), 3.3 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.180 g/cc. Ae 0- 3+ Dark brown to grayish brown (10YR 3/3 m, 5/2 d); gravelly loam; structureless, single-grained; friable (m), loose (d); abundant, all-sized roots; 20% angular gravel, 10% cobbles; 0-3+ cm thick; pH 3.8 (H20), 3.2 (CaCl2). Bedrock 2 3 3 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 131-1 Location: Sarita Beaver Pond Associated soil: Loamy-skeletal Ortstein Humic Podzol with Humimor on morainal deposits. Horizon Depth Description (cm)  L 13-12 Coniferous litter, moss and wood; abrupt wavy boundary; 1-2 cm thick; pH 4.6 (H 2 n), 4.3 (CaCl2). H 12- 0 Moist; few white mycelia; plentiful insects; decayed wood present; abundant, fine roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 2-25 cm thick; pH 3.5 (H20), 3.1 (CaCl2). Aeg 0- 7 Dark gray to light gray (10YR 4/1 m, 6/1 d); fine, sandy loam; common to few, fine mottles; moderate to strong, coarse, sub-angular blocky; very friable to friable (m), slightly hard (d); 5% sub-rounded gravel; few, fine to medium roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 5-9 cm thick; pH 3.5 (H20), 3.1 (CaCl2). Bhgc 7-20 Dark brown (7.5YR 3/4 m, 4/6 d); gravelly sandy loam; few, fine mottles; strong, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); 30% sub-angular gravel; cemented (ortstein?); clear, smooth boundary; 12-14 cm thick; pH 4.7 (H20), 4.6 (CaCl2). Bgc 20-33+ Dark brown to brownish gray (7.5YR 3/4 m, 10YR 6/8 d); very gravelly sandy loam; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; few, fine mottles; friable (m), slightly hard (d); cemented or compacted; 45% sub-rounded gravels and cobbles; pH 4.9 (H20), 5.1 (CaCl2). 234 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 131-2 Location: Sarita Beaver Pond Associated soil: Loamy-skeletal Orthic Humic Podzol with Humimor on morainal deposits. Horizon Depth Description (cm)  L(F) 17-15 Coniferous litter; abrupt wavy boundary; 2-3 cm thick; pH 3.1 (H20), 4.3 (CaCl2). H 12- 0 Moist; few white mycelia; abundant roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 10-20 cm thick; pH 3.5 (H20), 3.1 (CaCl2). Ae 0-12 Very dark grayish brown to grayish brown (10YR 3/2 m, 5/2 d); sandy loam; moderate to strong, coarse, sub-angular blocky; moderately friable (m), slightly hard (d); 10% sub-angular gravel; plentiful roots; abrupt broken boundary; 8-16 cm thick; pH 4.3 (H20), 3.5 (CaCl2). B21g 12-31 Dark yellowish brown to yellowish brown (10YR 3/6 m, 5/6 d); gravelly sandy loam; common mottles; moderate, medium, sub-angular blocky; moderately friable (m), soft (d); 40% sub-angular gravels and cobbles; few roots; clear, wavy boundary; 8-30 cm thick; pH 4.9 (H20), 5.0 (CaCl2). B22g 31-43 Dark yellowish brown to yellowish brown (10YR 3/4 m, 10YR 5/6 d); gravelly sandy loam; abundant mottles; moderate, medium, sub-angular blocky; moderately friable (m), soft (d); 40% sub-angular gravels and cobbles; very few roots; clear wavy boundary; 8-15 cm thick; pH 5.0 (H20), 5.4 (CaCl2). BCg 43-54 Dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/6 m, 4/4 d); gravelly sandy loam; abundant mottles; moderate, medium to coarse, sub-angular blocky; moderately friable (m), soft (d); 30% sub-angular gravels and cobbles; very few, fine roots; clear smooth boundary; 10-12 cm thick; pH 5.0 (H20), 5.0 (CaCl2). Cg 54-64+ Very dark brown to olive brown (10YR 2/2 m, 2.5Y 4/4 d); very gravelly loamy sand; friable (m), soft (d); 50% gravels; 10+ cm thick; pH 5.1 (H20), 4.5 . (CaCl2). 235 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 131-3 Location: Sarita Beaver Pond Associated soil: Loamy Ortstein Humic Podzol with Hemihumimor on morainal deposits. Horizon Depth (cm) Description H Hil Ae AB Bgc 17-16 Moist; coniferous litter; very abundant decayed wood; abrupt wavy boundary; 1-2 cm thick; pH 4.5 (H20), 4.4 (CaCl2). 16-14 Moist; white and yellow mycelia present; slight matting and/or compaction; very abundant all-sized roots; 2-3 cm thick; (sampled with L). 14- 8 Very moist; fairly lightweight and porous; few earth-worms; very abundant, all-sized roots; clear wavy boundary; 5-7 cm thick; pH 3.6 (H 2 n), 3.0 (CaCl2). 8- 0 Black to dark gray (10YR 2/1 m, 4/1 d); loamy sand; common mottles; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), hard (d); abundant, all-sized roots; abrupt, wavy boundary; 6-10 cm thick; pH 4.2 (H20), 3.3 (CaCl2). 0-14 Very dark grayish brown to light brownish gray (10YR 3/2 m, 6/2 d); silty clay loam; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); few, fine roots; 5% sub-angular gravels and cobbles; abrupt wavy boundary; 12-16 cm thick; pH 4.0 (H20), 3.3 (CaCl2). 14-20 Black to dark grayish brown (10YR 2/1 m, 4/2 d); gravelly loam; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); very few, fine roots; 5% sub-angular gravel; abrupt broken boundary; 2-8 cm thick; pH 4.3 (H20), 3.7 (CaCl2). 20-34 Very dark brown to olive brown (10YR 2/2 m, 2.5Y 4/4 d); gravelly loam to gravelly sandy loam; common mottles; moderate, medium to coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), soft (d); 45% sub-rounded gravels and cobbles; cemented hardpan; abrupt wavy boundary; 11-16 cm thick; pH 4.8 (H20), 4.1 (CaCl2). (/. . . ) 236 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 131-3 (cont'd) Horizon Depth Description (cm)  BCgc 34-40 Dark yellowish brown to olive brown (10YR 3/4 m, 2.5Y 4/4 d); gravelly loamy sand; few mottles; moderate, medium, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), soft (d); 15% rounded gravel and cobbles; cemented impermeable hardpan; abrupt smooth boundary; 5-7 cm thick; pH 4.8 (H20), 4.2 (CaCl2). 237 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 144-1 Location: Sarita Clearcut Associated soil: Sandy gleyed Ferro-Humic Podzol with Humimor on morainal deposits. Horizon Depth (cm) Description H Ae Bhfgj 12-35 Bfg BC 8- 6 Coniferous litter and decayed wood; abrupt wavy boundary; 0-3 cm thick; pH 4.3 (H20), 3.7 (CaCl2). 6- 0 Moist; abundant decayed wood; sub-angular; very friable; appears well-worked by insects; very abundant, all-sized roots; 0-12 cm thick; pH 3.6 (H20), 3.1 (CaCl2). 0-12 Dark grayish brown to light brownish gray (10YR 4/2 m 6/2 d); loamy sand; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); very abundant all-sized roots; 20% sub-angular gravels and cobbles; abrupt, wavy boundary; 1-23 cm thick; pH 3.7 (H20), 3.1 (CaCl2). Very dark brown to dark yellowish brown (10YR 2/2 m, 3/6 d); gravelly loamy sand; few mottles; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), soft (d); plentiful roots; 35% sub-angular cobbles and stones; abrupt wavy boundary; 14-32 cm thick; pH 4.6 (H20), 4.0 (CaCl2). 35-47 Dark yellowish brown to yellowish brown (10YR 3/6 m, 5/6 d); gravelly sandy loam; common mottles; weak to moderate, medium, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), soft (d); few roots; 30% sub-angular gravel; abrupt broken boundary; (horizon is sporadic, found in pockets); 10-14 cm thick; pH 4.9 (H20), 4.7 (CaCl2). 47-54 Black to dark grayish brown (10YR 2/1 m, 4/2 d); very gravelly loamy sand; weak to moderate, medium sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), soft (d); very few fine roots; 30% sub-rounded gravel; abrupt smooth boundary; 4-11 cm thick'; pH 4.5 (H20), 3.8 (CaCl2). Cc 54+ not sampled. 238 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 144-2 Location: Sarita Clearcut Associated soil: Loamy-skeletal Gleyed Ferro-Humic Podzol with Humimor on morainal deposits Horizon Depth (cm) Description H Ae Bhfg Bfg BC 18-17 Coniferous litter and very abundant decayed wood; 1-2 cm thick; pH 4.1 (H20), 3.7 (CaCl2). 17- 0 Moist; very abundant decayed wood; lightweight and porous; appears well-worked by insects (millipedes, mites, and spiders observed); very abundant roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 10-24 cm thick; pH 3.7 (H20), 3.2 (CaCl2). 0- 3 Dark grayish brown to light gray (10YR 4/2 m, 7/1 d); loamy sand; weak to moderate, medium, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); plentiful roots; 30% sub-angular cobbles; abrupt, wavy boundary; 1-5 cm thick; pH 3.7 (H20), 3.0 (CaCl2). 3-34 Dark yellowish brown to brownish yellow (10YR 4/6 m, 6/6 d); very gravelly sandy loam; common mottles; moderate, medium to coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), soft (d); few roots; 50% sub-angular gravel,cobbles and stones; abrupt wavy boundary; 28-35 cm thick; pH 4.9 (H20), 5.0 (CaCl2). 34-43 Dark yellowish brown to brown (10YR 3/4 m, 5/3.d); gravelly loam to gravelly sandy loam; common mottles; moderate, medium, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); very few fine roots; 35% sub-rounded gravel; abrupt broken boundary; 8-10 cm thick; pH 5.1 (H20), 4.8 (CaCl2). 43-59 Dark yellowish brown to yellowish brown (10YR 3/6 m, 5/6 d); very gravelly loamy sand; weak to moderate, medium, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), soft (d); very few fine roots; 50% sub-angular gravels and cobbles; abrupt smooth boundary; 13-19 cm thick; pH 4.9 (H20), 4.7 (CaCl2). Cc 59+ cemented, cobbly (not sampled). 239 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 144-3 Location: Sarita Clearcut Associated soil: Loamy Ferro-Humic Podzol with Lignohumimor on morainal deposits Horizon Depth (cm) Description H Ae Bhfg Bfgj BC 29- 24 Coniferous litter and very abundant decayed wood; abrupt wavy boundary; 1-10 cm thick; pH 3.9 (H20), 4.0' (CaCl2). 24- 0 Moist; very abundant decayed wood; lightweight and porous; appears well-worked by insects (insects and earthworms plentiful); very abundant all-sized roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 16-32 cm thick; pH 3.7 (H20), 3.2 (CaCl2). 0-12 Dark grayish brown to gray (10YR 4/2 m, 6/1 d); gravelly sandy loam; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); abundant, medium and fine roots; 10% sub-angular cobbles; abrupt, wavy boundary; 10-15 cm thick; pH 4.3 (H20), 3.2 (CaCl2). 12-30 Very dark brown to olive brown (10YR 2/2 m, 2.5Y 4/4 d); gravelly loamy sand; common mottles; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), soft (d); few, fine roots; 5% sub-rounded gravel; charcoal present; abrupt wavy boundary; 7-30 cm thick; pH 4.5 (H20), 3.9 (CaCl2). 30- 40 Dark brown to brown (10YR 3/3 m, 5/3 d); gravelly sandy loam; very few mottles; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), soft (d); 20% sub-rounded gravels and cobbles; abrupt broken boundary; 10-11 cm thick; pH 4.5 (H20), 4.0 (CaCl2). 40-49 Very dark brown to dark brown (10YR 2/2 m, 4/3 d); gravelly fine sandy loam; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), soft (d); 10% sub-rounded gravels and cobbles; abrupt wavy boundary; 8-10 cm thick; pH 4.6 (H20), 4.0 (CaCl2). (/. . . ) 240 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 144-3 (cont'd) Horizon Depth Description (cm) Cc 49-56+ Dark yellowish brown to olive brown (10YR 3/4 m, 2.5Y 4/4 d); loamy sand; moderate to strong, coarse, sub-angular blocky; firm to friable (m), soft (d); 10% gravels; abrupt smooth boundary; 5-10+ cm thick; pH 4.8 (H20), 4.3 (CaCl2). 241 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 151-1 Location: Sarita Seepage Slope Associated soil: Loamy Gleyed Ferro-Humic Podzol with Lignohumimor on morainal veneer Horizon Depth Description (cm) L(F) 16-14 Coniferous litter; abrupt wavy boundary; 1-3 cm thick; pH 4.4 (H20), 4.1 (CaCl2). H 14- 0 Moist; abundant decayed wood; lightweight; appears well-worked by soil fauna, earthworms and centipedes observed; very abundant, all-sized roots; 9-18 cm thick; pH 4.0 (H20), 3.4 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.089 g/cc. Aeg 0-16 Dark brown to light brownish gray (10YR 3/3 m, 6/2 d); gravelly loam; few, coarse, prominent (black and orange) mottles; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); few, fine roots; 5% sub-angular gravel; seepage water present; abrupt, wavy boundary; 10-21 cm thick; pH 4.3 (H20), 3.5 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.667 g/cc. Bhfg 16-29 Very dark brown to dark brown (10YR 2/2 m, 3/3 d); very gravelly loam; common, medium, distinct (orange) mottles; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); 10% sub-angular gravels, 20% cobbles; seepage water present; abrupt wavy boundary; 10-16 cm thick; pH 4.6 (H20), 4.0 (CaCl2). BCc 29-31 Dark yellowish brown to light olive brown (10YR 3/4 m, 2.5Y 5/4 d); gravelly sandy loam; very friable (m), slightly hard (d); cemented; 10% sub-rounded gravel, 10% sub-angular cobbles; abrupt smooth boundary; 1-3 cm thick; pH 5.1 (H20), 4.4 (CaCl2). 242 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 151-2 Location: Sarita Seepage Slope Associated soil: Sandy-skeletal Gleyed Ferro-Humic Podzol with Humimor on morainal veneer Horizon Depth (cm) Description L(F) 16-14 H 14- 0 Ae 0- 4 Bhfg 4-24 Bfg 24-42 BCg 42-48 Moist; coniferous litter; abrupt wavy boundary; 1-3 cm thick; pH 4.5 (H20), 4.2 (CaCl2). Moist; decayed wood present; white fungal mycelia present; appears worked by soil fauna and fungus; very abundant, all-sized roots; 8-20 cm thick; pH 3.7 (H20), 2.9 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.125 g/cc. Dark grayish brown to light gray (10YR 4/2 m, 7/1 d); sandy loam; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); plentiful, medium roots; 5% sub-angular gravel, 10% cobbles; abrupt, wavy boundary; 1-7 cm thick; pH 3.6 (H20), 2.9 (CaCl2). Very dark brown to dark yellowish brown (10YR 2/2 m, 3/4 d); gravelly loamy sand; common, medium, distinct mottles; moderate to strong, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); plentiful fine roots; 5% sub-angular gravel, 5% cobbles, 30% stones; abrupt wavy boundary; 12-28 cm thick; pH 4.3 (H20), 3.9 (CaCl2). Dark yellowish brown to yellowish brown (10YR 3/6 m, 5/6 d); gravelly loamy sand; many, medium, distinct, mottles; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); few, fine roots; 5% sub-angular gravel, 5% cobbles, 30% stones; abrupt Irregular boundary; 12-25 cm thick; pH 5.2 (H20), 4.7 (CaCl2). Dark yellowish brown to light olive brown (10YR 3/4 m, 2.5Y 5/4 d); gravelly sandy loam; common, medium, distinct mottles; moderate, medium, sub-angular blocky; friable ,(m), slightly hard (d); 30% sub-angular gravel, 5% cobbles; abrupt smooth boundary 5-7 cm thick; pH 4.9 (H20), 4.6 (CaCl2). Cc 48+ cemented, gray hardpan (not sampled). 243 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 151-3 Location: Sarita Seepage Slope Associated soil: Loamy-skeletal Gleyed Ferro-Humic Podzol with Hemihumimor on morainal veneer Horizon Depth (cm) Description L(F) 8- 6 Moist; coniferous litter; diffuse smooth boundary; 1-2 cm thick; pH 4.3 (H20), 3.9 (CaCl2). H 6-0 Abundant, medium to fine roots; non-distinct, smooth boundary; 5-8 cm thick; pH 4.4 (H20), 3.9 (CaCl2). Aegj 0- 2 Grayish brown to light gray (10YR 5/2 m, 7/2 d); loam; few, fine, faint mottles; very weak, fine to medium platey; very friable (m), slightly hard (d), sticky; few fine roots; 10% rounded gravel, 10% cobbles; clear, wavy boundary; 0-3 cm thick; pH 4.3 (H20), 3.7 (CaCl2). Bfgj 2-16 Strong brown to brownish yellow (7.5YR 4/6 m, 10YR 6/8 d); gravelly loam; few, fine, faint, mottles; very weak, fine to medium, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), slightly hard (d), slightly sticky (w); plentiful, fine roots; 10% rounded gravel, 10% cobbles; diffuse wavy boundary; 10-18 cm thick; pH 4.7 (H20), 4.1 (CaCl2). Bhf 16-23 Dark reddish brown to dark yellowish brown (5YR 3/3 m, 10YR 4/6 d); gravelly loam; structureless; soft (d) slightly sticky (w); few fine roots; 10% rounded gravel, 30% cobbles; clear smooth boundary; 5-8 cm thick; pH 4.6 (H20), 4.1 (CaCl2). Bfg 23-48 Dark brown to yellowish brown (7.5YR 3/4 m, 10 YR 5/6 d); gravelly to very gravelly loam; common, medium, distinct mottles; weak, medium, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d), sticky (w); very few fine roots; 5% rounded gravel, 25% cobbles, 10% stones; seepage water; clear smooth boundary; 25+ cm . thick; pH 5.0 (H20), 4.6 (CaCl2). (/. . . ) 244 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 151-3 (cont'd) Horizon Depth Description (cm)  BCgl 48-68 Strong brown to yellowish brown (7.5YR 4/6 m, 10YR 5/6 d); gravelly to very gravelly loam; many, medium, prominent, dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4 m) to dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4 d) mottles; structureless, massive; slightly hard (d), slightly sticky (w); 5% rounded gravel, 25% cobbles, 30% stones; seepage water present; clear smooth boundary; 20+ cm thick; pH 4.9 (H20), 4.5 (CaCl2). BCg2 68-88+ Very dark brown to brown (10YR 2/2 m, 4/3 d); very stony sandy loam; many, medium, prominent, dark reddish brown to strong brown (5YR 3/3 m, 7.5YR 4/6 d) mottles; structureless, massive; slightly hard (d), slightly sticky (w); 5% rounded gravel, 25% cobbles, 30% stones; seepage water present; clear smooth boundary; 20+ cm thick; pH 5.3 (H20), 4.9 245 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 152-1 Location: Pachena Main Line Associated soil: Loamy Ortstein Ferro-Humic Podzol with Humimor on morainal materials Horizon Depth Description (cm)  L 19-18 Coniferous litter; 1-2 cm thick; pH 4.7 (H20), 4.3 (CaCl2). H 18- 0 Moist; some decayed wood; very abundant all-sized roots, forming a mat; appears well-worked by soil fauna, earthworms abundant; abrupt wavy boundary; 12-23 cm thick; pH 3.9 (H20), 3.3 (CaCl2). Ah 0-12 Black to dark gray (10YR 2/1 m, 4/1 d); loam; moderate coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), very hard (d); plentiful fine roots; 5% sub-rounded gravel; abrupt wavy boundary; 9-14 cm thick; pH 4.2 (H20), 3.4 (CaCl2). Bhfg 12-36 Dark yellowish brown to light olive gray (10YR 3/4 m, 2.5Y 5/4 d); gravelly, very fine sandy loam; common mottles; friable (m), slightly hard (d); few fine roots; 20% sub-rounded gravels and cobbles; abrupt, smooth boundary; 21-28 cm thick; pH 5.0 (H20), 4.5 (CaCl2). Bfcgj 36-48 Dark grayish brown to light gray (2.5Y4/2 m, 2.5Y 7/2 d); gravelly, silt loam; strong, coarse, sub-angular blocky; firm to very firm (m), hard (d); (slightly cemented); seepage water present; abrupt wavy boundary; 9-14 cm thick; pH 5.0 (H20), 4.8 (CaCl2). Cc 48+ Cemented or compacted (not sampled). 246 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 152-2 Location: Pachena Main Line Associated soil: Loamy Orthic Humic Podzol with Humimor on morainal materials. Horizon Depth Description (cm)  L 11- 9 Coniferous litter and sphagnum moss; 1-2 cm thick; abrupt wavy boundary; pH 4.2 (H20), 3.8 (CaCl2). H 9-0 Very moist; fairly loose; very abundant all-sized roots; appears worked by soil fauna; abrupt wavy boundary; 8-10 cm thick; pH 4.1 (H20), 3.3 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.142 g/cc. Ae 0-11 Very dark gray to gray (10YR 3/1 m, 5/1 d); sandy clay loam; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), slightly hard (d); plentiful fine roots; 5% sub-angular gravel; abrupt wavy boundary; 9-13 cm thick; pH 4.5 (H20), 3.8 (CaCl2). Bhg 11-27 Very dark grayish brown to light yellowish brown (2.5Y 3/2 m, 6/4 d); sil t loam to silty clay loam; many, coarse, prominent mottles; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), slightly hard (d); 10% sub-angular gravel; abrupt, smooth boundary; seepage water flows on top of Cc; 13-19 cm thick; pH 5.1 (H20), 4.3 (CaCl2). Cc 27+ Dark grayish brown to light gray (2.5Y 4/2 m, 7/2 d); sandy clay loam; moderate, medium, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); cemented or compacted; 15% coarse fragments; pH 5.2 (H20), 4.5 (CaCl2). 247 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 152-3 Location: Pachena Main Line Associated soil: Loamy Ortstein Humic Podzol with Humimor on morainal materials. Horizon Depth Description (cm)  L 14-12 Coniferous litter and sphagnum moss; 1-2 cm thick; abrupt wavy boundary; pH 4.1 (H20), 4.3 (CaCl2). F Very abundant decayed wood; very abundant roots; horizon is a dense mat of roots; (combined with H for chemical analysis) H 12- 0 Moist to wet; fairly loose; very abundant all-sized roots; appears worked by soil fauna; abrupt wavy boundary; 10-13 cm thick (including F); pH 3.6 (H20), 3.0 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.116 g/cc. Ae 0-12 Dark gray to light gray (10YR 4/1 m, 7/1 d); sandy loam; moderate to weak, medium, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), slightly hard (d); plentiful fine roots; 10% sub-angular gravels and cobbles; abrupt wavy boundary; 8-15 cm thick; pH 3.9 (H20), 3.1 (CaCl2). Bh 12-18 Black to dark grayish brown (10YR 2/1 m, 4/2 d); sandy loam; moderate to weak, medium, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), slightly hard (d); few, fine roots; 20% sub-rounded gravel; abrupt, wavy boundary; seepage water flows on top of Bfgc; 5-7 cm thick; pH 4.2 (H20), 3.7 (CaCl2). Bfgc 18-31 Very dark gray to light olive brown (10YR 2/2 m, 2.5Y 5/4 d); gravelly loam; common, medium, distinct, mottles; moderate to strong, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); 30% sub—angular gravel; abrupt wavy boundary; 10—15 cm thick; pH 4.7 (H20), 4.7 (CaCl2). Cc 31-44+ Olive to light yellowish brown (5Y 4/4 m, 2.5Y 6/4 d); sandy loam; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), soft (d); cemented; 20% sub-rounded gravel; 13+ cm thick; pH 4.8 (H20), 4.6 (CaCl2). 248 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 109-1 Location: Grice Bay Associated soil: Loamy-skeletal Orthic Ferro-humic Podzol with Hemihumimor on glaciofluvial/morainal deposits Horizon Depth Description (cm)  L(F) 14-10 Coniferous litter; plentiful fine and medium roots; non-distinct wavy boundary; 3-5 cm thick; pH 4.6 (H20), 4.3 (CaCl2). H 10- 0 Moist; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2 d); sticky (w), plastic, slightly greasy; plentiful decayed wood; white mycelia present; very abundant all-sized roots; earthworms present; non-distinct wavy boundary; 5-14 cm thick; pH 3.8 (H20), 3.4 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.121 g/cc. Aej 0- 2 Black to very dark grayish brown (10YR 2/1 m, 3/2 d); friable (m), slightly hard (d); plastic; plentiful, fine and medium roots; 10% rounded cobbles; 80% rounded stones; few charcoal particles; non-distinct wavy boundary; 0-5 cm thick; sporadic, discontinuous horizon; pH 4.2 (H20), 3.7 (CaCl2). Bhf 2-22 Dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4 m, 4/6 d); stony loam; reddish yellow (5YR 6/8 m) mottles present; very friable (m), soft (d); plastic; few, fine and medium roots; 40% rounded cobbles, 80% stones; few charcoal particles present; non-distinct broken boundary; 0-40 cm thick; pH 4.4 (H20), 4.0 (CaCl2). Bh 22-49 Black to very dark grayish brown (10YR 2/1 m, 3/2 d); stony clay loam; reddish yellow (5YR 6/8) mottles present; friable (m), hard (d); very plastic; 10% rounded cobbles, 80% stones; few charcoal particles present; non-distinct broken boundary; 20-35 cm thick; pH 4.6 (H20), 3.8 (CaCl2). C 49+ 100% very large cobbles and stones (not sampled). 249 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 109-2 Location: Grice Bay Associated soil: Fine-clayey Orthic Gleysol with Humimor on glaciomarine deposits Horizon Depth (cm) Description L(F) 20-15 Coniferous litter; plentiful fine and medium roots; non-distinct wavy boundary; 3-5 cm thick; pH 4.3 (H20), 4.0 (CaCl2). H 15- 0 Moist; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2 d); humus primarily formed from decayed wood - lightweight, peatmoss-like remainder of humus is slightly sticky (w), plastic, very greasy; very abundany white mycelia; very abundant decayed wood; very abundant all-sized roots; earthworm droppings present; non-distinct wavy boundary; 10-17 cm thick; pH 3.8 (H20), 3.1 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.115 g/cc. Bgl 0-15 Dark yellowish brown to yellowish brown (10YR 3/6 m, 5/6 d); very gravelly clay; many, coarse, prominent, reddish-yellow (7.5YR 6/8 m) mottles; firm (m),very sticky (w); plastic; few, medium to coarse roots; 2% rounded cobbles; non-distinct wavy boundary; 12-19 cm thick; pH 4.2 (H20), 3.6 (CaCl2). Bg2 15-33 Dark yellowish brown to yellowish brown (10YR 3/6 m, 5/6 d); s i l t clay; many, coarse, prominent, reddish-yellow (7.5YR 6/8 m) mottles; firm (m), hard (d); plastic; very few, medium roots; gradual wavy boundary; 11-16 cm thick; pH 4.6 (H20), 3.8 (CaCl2). Bg3 33-57 Dark yellowish brown to yellowish brown (10YR 4/6 m, 6/6 d); silty clay; many, coarse, prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/8 m) mottles; firm (m), hard (d); plastic; black Mg deposits; abrupt boundary; pH 4.7 (H20), 3.8 (CaCl2). Bg4 57-79+ Olive brown to light yellowish brown (2.5Y 4/4 m, 6/4 d); silty loam; many, coarse, prominent, yellowish brown (10YR 5/8 m) mottles; firm (m), hard (d); plastic; black Mg deposits; pH 4.7 (H20), 3.8 (CaCl2). 250 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 109-3 Location: Grice Bay Associated soil: Loamy Orthic Humic Podzol with Hemihumimor on (glaciofluvial)/morainal deposits Horizon Depth (cm) Description L(F) 15-10 Coniferous litter; abundant fine roots; 2-7 cm thick; pH 4.3 (H20), 3.9 (CaCl2). H 10- 0 Moist; slightly slippery, greasy; slightly plastic lightweight; very abundant decayed wood; white fungal mycelia present; charcoal particles present; appears worked by soil fauna; earthworms, mites, and spiders observed; very abundant all-sized roots; 2-19 cm thick; 2-19 cm thick; pH 3.5 (H20), 2.9 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.091 g/cc. Aejg 0- 9 Black to dark brown (10YR 2/1 m, 3/3 d); sandy clay loam to clay loam; common, medium, prominent, mottles; moderate, medium to coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m),slightly hard (d); plentiful, medium roots; 5% sub-angular gravel; charcoal particles common; gradual irregular boundary; 2-15 cm thick; pH 4.0 (H20), 3.3 (CaCl2). Bhg 9-32 Very dark brown to olive brown (10YR 2/2 m, 2.5Y 4/4 d); gravelly sandy loam; many, coarse, prominent, mottles; weak to moderate, medium, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), slightly hard (d); few, fine roots; 10% sub-angular gravel; charcoal particles common; gradual wavy boundary; 16-29 cm thick; pH 4.8 (H20), 4.2 (CaCl2). BCg 32-45 Dark yellowish brown to light olive brown (10YR 3/4 m, 2.5Y 5/4 d); gravelly fine sandy loam; few, fine faint, mottles; weak to moderate, medium, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), slightly hard (d); 10% sub-angular gravel; few charcoal particles, (charcoal layer between BCg and Ccg);abrupt smooth boundary; 9-16 cm thick; pH 5.0 (H20), 4.4 (CaCl2). Ccg 45-48+ Olive brown to light yellowish brown (2.5Y 4/4 m, 6/4 d); gravelly sandy clay loam; few, fine, faint mottles; moderate to strong, fine, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), slightly hard (d); cemented or compacted; 35% sub-angular gravel; 3+ cm thick; pH 5.3 (H20), 4.0 (CaCl2). 251 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 199-1 Location: Ucluelet Slope Associated soil: Sandy-skeletal Orthic Sombric Brunisol with Leptomoder on morainal deposits Horizon Depth Description (cm)  L 29-27 Coniferous and herbaceous litter; abrupt wavy boundary; 1-3 cm thick; pH 3.7 (H20), 4.4 (CaCl2). H 27- 0 Moist; very well-worked by soil fauna; very abundant earthworms; decayed wood present; abundant all-sized roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 25-28 cm thick; pH 5.9 (H20), 5.5 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.093 g/cc. Ah 0-20 Black (10YR 2/1 m, d); sand; moderate, very coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), very hard (d); abundant all-sized roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 18-22 cm thick; pH 5.4 (H20), 5.1 (CaCl2). Bh 20-27 Black to very dark brown (10YR 2/1 m, 2/2 d); gravelly sand; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); very few, fine roots; 15% angular gravel; 15% cobbles, 10% stones; abrupt wavy boundary; 5-10 cm thick; pH 6.0 (H20), 5.5 (CaCl2). Cc 27+ Gravelly cemented layer; water table reached; (no sample taken). 252 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 199-2 Location: Ucluelet Slope Associated soil: Loamy "Gleyed Folisolic Podzol" with Hydromor on morainal deposits Horizon Depth Description (cm)  L 23-21 Coniferous and herbaceous litter; abrupt wavy boundary; 1-3 cm thick; pH 4.9 (H20), 4.5 (CaCl2). H(OH) 21- 0 Moist; few earthworms; very abundant decayed wood; white fungal mycelia present; dense mat of fine roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 19-23 cm thick; pH 3.9 (H20), 3.3 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.129 g/cc. Aegj 0- 6 Black to gray (10YR 2/1 m, 5/1 d); gravelly loam; few, medium, distinct black mottles; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); plentiful all-sized roots; cemented or compacted; 15% sub-angular gravel, 10% cobbles, 5% stones; water flowing through and/or beneath Aegj; abrupt wavy boundary; 2-9 cm thick; pH 4.1 (H20), 3.4 (CaCl2). 253 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 199-3 Location: Ucluelet Slope Associated soil: Loamy Gleyed Dystric Brunisol with Humimor on morainal deposits Horizon Depth (cm) Description Bhfjgl 0-16 Bhfjg2 16-23 Bhfjg3 23-30 Bhfjg4 30-33 Cc 15-13 Coniferous and herbaceous litter; 1-3 cm thick; pH 4.9 (H20), 4.8 (CaCl2). 13- 0 Moist; lightweight, well-aerated; appears worked by soil fauna; plentiful decayed wood; few white fungal mycelia; very abundant all-sized roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 8-18 cm thick; pH 3.9 (H20), 3.4 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.105 g/cc. Dark yellowish brown to yellowish brown (10YR 3/4 m, 5/4 d); gravelly clay loam; many, coarse, prominent, orange mottles; moderate, very coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), hard (d); plentiful medium roots 15% sub-angular gravel, 5% cobbles; abrupt wavy boundary; 9-24 cm thick; pH 4.3 (H20), 3.6 (CaCl2). Dark grayish brown to light brownish gray (10YR 4/2 m, 6/2 d); gravelly silt loam; few, fine, distinct orange mottles; moderate, very coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); few, fine roots; 15% sub-angular gravel, 5% cobbles; abrupt wavy boundary; 4-10 cm thick; pH 4.8 (H20), 3.4 (CaCl2). Very dark grayish brown to light brownish gray (10YR 3/2 m, 6/2 d); gravelly loam; weak to moderate, medium to coarse, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), slightly hard (d); 20% sub-angular gravel, 5% cobbles; abrupt wavy boundary; 4-9 cm thick; pH 4.4 (H20), 3.7 (CaCl2). Black to very dark grayish brown (10YR 2/1 m, 3/2 d); gravelly sandy loam; moderate to strong, very coarse, sub-angular blocky; firm (m), slightly hard (d); abrupt smooth boundary; 1-4 cm thick; pH 4.7 (H20), 3.7 (CaCl2). 33+ Cemented hardpan; water slowly seeping on top; not sampled. 254 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 150-1 Location: Mercantile Creek Associated soil: Loamy-skeletal Duric Humic Podzol on morainal deposits. Horizon Depth Description (cm) L 12-10 Coniferous litter; abrupt wavy boundary; 1-3 cm thick; pH 4.3 (H20), 3.9 (CaCl2). FH 10- 0 Moist; slightly slippery, greasy; decayed wood present; very abundant all-sized roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 9-11 cm thick; pH 4.7 (H20), 4.2 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.089 g/cc. Aeg 0- 5 Very dark grayish brown to gray (10YR 3/2 m, 6/1 d); sandy clay loam to loam; few, medium, prominent orange mottles; weak to moderate, very coarse, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), hard (d); plentiful medium to fine roots; 5% sub-rounded gravel; abrupt wavy boundary; 4-7 cm thick; pH 4.3 (H20), 3.7 (CaCl2). Bhg 5-13 Very dark grayish brown to dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2 m, 4/2 d); gravelly sand; few, medium, prominent orange mottles; moderate, medium, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), soft (d); very few, fine roots; 35% sub-rounded gravel; abrupt wavy boundary; 6-8 cm thick; pH 4.8 (H20), 4.0 (CaCl2). Bg 13-19 Olive brown to light yellowish brown (2.5Y 4/4 m, 6/4 d); gravelly sandy loam; many, coarse, prominent, orange mottles; moderate, medium to coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); 25% sub-rounded gravels, 5% cobbles; abrupt wavy boundary; seepage water present; 4-8 cm thick; pH 5.3 (H20), 4.8 (CaCl2). BCcg 19-40 Olive gray to light brownish gray (5YR 4/2 m, 2.5Y 6/2 d); gravelly loam; common, medium, distinct, orange mottles; strong, medium to coarse, sub-angular blocky; very firm (m), slightly hard (d); 15% sub-rounded gravel, 25% cobbles; cemented or compacted; abrupt wavy boundary; 15-28 cm thick; pH 5.5 (H20), 4.6 (CaCl2). (/. . . ) 255 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 150-1 (cont'd) Horizon Depth Description (cm)  C 40-63+ Olive gray to light olive gray (5Y 4/2 m, 6/2 d); gravelly, very fine sandy loam; medium to strong, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); 20% sub-rounded stones; 22-24 cm thick; pH 5.7 (H20), 4.7 (CaCl 2). 256 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 150-2a Location: Mercantile Creek Associated soil: Sandy-skeletal Orthic Humic Gleysol on morainal deposits Horizon Depth (cm) Description L 10- 8 Coniferous litter; 1-3 cm thick; pH 4.6 (H20), 4.7 (CaCl2). FH 8- 0 Moist; slightly slippery; decayed wood present; very abundant all-sized roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 5-11 cm thick; pH 4.0 (H20), 3.6 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.079 g/cc. Ah 0-17 Black (10YR 2/1 m, d); sand; weak to moderate, massive, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), hard (d); abundant, all-sized roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 15-18 cm thick; pH 4.3 (H20), 3.8 (CaCl2). Ae 17-27 Black to very dark brown (10YR 2/1 m, 2/2 d); very gravelly loamy sand; weak, fine to medium, sub-angular blocky; loose (m), soft (d); plentiful, fine roots; 40% sub-rounded gravel, 5% cobbles; abrupt wavy boundary; 9-11 cm thick; pH 4.6 (H20), 3.2 (CaCl2). Bh 27+ Black to dark brown (10YR 2/1 m, 3/2 d); very gravelly loamy sand; weak, fine, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), soft (d); 40% sub-rounded gravels, 5% cobbles, 5% stones; pH 4.6 (H20), 4.0 (CaCl2). bottom of pit smells of S02« 257 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 150-2b Location: Mercantile Creek Associated soil: Sandy-skeletal Orthic Gleysol on morainal deposits Horizon Depth Description (cm)  L 14-12 Coniferous litter; 1-3 cm thick; pH 4.6 (H20), 4.7 (CaCl2); sampled with 150-2a. FH 12- 0 Moist; slightly slippery; moderate, medium, coarse sub-angular blocky; abundant, firm to hard, decayed wood present; white fungal mycelia present; very abundant all-sized roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 10-13 cm thick; pH 3.6 (H20), 3.0 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.088 g/cc. Ae 0-12 Very dark grayish brown to gray (10YR 3/2 m, 5/1 d); gravelly loam to gravelly sandy loam; moderate, very coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); plentiful, medium roots; 5% sub-rounded gravel, 5% cobbles, 5% stones; abrupt wavy boundary; 10-14 cm thick; pH 3.9 (H20), 3.9 (CaCl2). Bh 12-24 Black to dark grayish brown (10YR 2/1 m, 4/2 d); gravelly loamy sand to gravelly sand; weak to moderate, medium, sub-angular blocky; firm (m), slightly hard (d); 10% sub-rounded gravel, 5% cobbles, 10% stones; abrupt wavy boundary; 7-16 cm thick; pH 4.1 (H20), 3.5 (CaCl2). BC 24-32+ Very dark brown to dark grayish brown (10YR 2/2 m, 4/2 d); very gravelly sand; structureless, single-grained; very friable (m), soft (d); 30% sub-rounded gravels, 5% cobbles, 5% stones; 8+ cm thick; pH 4.5 (H20), 4.1 (CaCl2). water rapidly flowing into pit. 258 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 150-3 Location: Mercantile Creek Associated soil: Loamy-skeletal Orthic Humic Gleysol with Humimor on morainal deposits Horizon Depth (cm) Description H Hil Hi2 Aeg Bgj Ccg 22-20 Coniferous litter; 1-3 cm thick; pH 4.3 (H20), 3.9 (CaCl2). 20-12 Moderately dry; coarse, moderate, sub-angular blocky; crumbly; very abundant, all-sized roots, forming mat; plentiful white and yellow fungal mycelia; 6-9 cm thick; pH 4.1 (H20), 3.6 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.227 g/cc. 12- 6 Black to dark gray (10YR 2/1 m, 4/1 d); fine sandy loam; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), hard (d); abundant, all-sized roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 4-7 cm thick; pH 4.2 (H20), 3.6 (CaCl2). 6- 0 Black to very dark gray (10YR 2/1 m, 3/1 d); loamy sand; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), hard (d); abundant, all-sized roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 4-7 cm thick; pH 4.2 (H20), 3.6 (CaCl2). 0- 9 Very dark grayish brown to light brownish gray (10YR 3/2 m, 6/2 d); silty clay loam; few, medium, prominent, orange mottles in root channels; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), hard (d); abundant, medium roots; 5% sub-angular gravel; 5-13 cm thick; pH 4.3 (H20), 3.5 (CaCl2). 9-16 Black to dark grayish brown (10YR 2/1 m, 4/2 d); wet, very gravelly loamy sand; weak to moderate, medium to coarse, sub-angular blocky; slightly hard (d); plentiful fine roots; 30% sub-rounded gravel; abrupt wavy boundary; 5-8 cm thick; pH 4.5 (H20), 3.9 (CaCl2). 16-29+ Very dark grayish brown to grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2 m, 5/2 d); very gravelly loam; common, medium, distinct, orange mottles; strong, very coarse, sub-angular blocky; very firm (m), hard (d); cemented or compacted; 50% sub-angular gravel; 13+ cm thick; pH 4.9 (H20), 4.2 (CaCl2). 259 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 300-1 Location: Ucluelet Scrub Associated s o i l : Fine Loamy Orthic Gleysol with Hemihydromor on glaciomarine or f l u v i a l deposits over morainal t i l l Horizon Depth (cm) Description L(F) 22-16 Coniferous and herbaceous l i t t e r , moss, and decayed wood; smells of fungus; p l e n t i f u l , a l l - s i z e d roots; gradual wavy boundary; 3-8 cm thick; pH 3.8 (H2O) , 3.3 ( C a C l 2 ) . H 16- 0 Wet; Very dusky red (2.5YR 2/2 pm); s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c , s l i p p e r y ; s l i g h t y clumped from mat of roots; p l e n t i f u l decayed wood; very abundant a l l - s i z e d roots; 12-20 cm thick; pH 3.5 (H 20), 3.0 ( C a C l 2 ) ; bulk density 0.135 g/cc. Ae 0- 7 Dark grayish brown to gray (10YR 4/2 m, 6/1 d); s i l t loam; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; s l i g h t l y hard (d), firm (m), s t i c k y (w); very p l a s t i c ; few, medium and coarse roots; 5% rounded gravel; non-d i s t i n c t wavy boundary; 5-8 cm thick; pH 4.0 (H 20), 3.3 ( C a C l 2 ) ; dark humic deposits between Ae and Bgl Bgl 7-24 Light o l i v e brown to l i g h t brownish gray (2.5Y 4/2 m, 6/2 d); s i l t y clay loam; many, coarse, prominent, dark yellowish-brown (10YR 4/6 m) mottles; strong, medium sub-angular blocky; hard (m); very firm (d), s t i c k y (w); non-plastic; few, coarse roots; 2% rounded gravel; gradual wavy boundary; 10-20 cm thick; pH 4.9 (H 20), 4.0 ( C a C l 2 ) . Bg2 24-50 Olive brown to l i g h t yellowish brown (2.5Y 4/4 m, 6/4 d); sandy loam; many, coarse, prominent, yellowish brown (10YR 5/8 m) mottles; moderate to strong, medium to coarse, sub-angular blocky; hard (d), firm (m), s t i c k y (w); s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c ; very few, coarse roots; 5% rounded gravel; non-distinct, i r r e g u l a r boundary; 20-35 cm thick; pH 5.1 (H 20), 3.9 ( C a C l 2 ) . C 50+ Olive brown to l i g h t o l i v e brown (2.5Y 4/4 m, 5/4 d); s i l t y loam; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; s o f t (d), f r i a b l e (m), s l i g h t l y s t i c k y (w); non-p l a s t i c ; 5% rounded gravel; black Mg deposits present; pH 5.4 (H 20), 4.2 ( C a C l 2 ) . 260 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 300-2 Location: Ucluelet Scrub Associated soil: Fine-loamy Orthic Gleysol with Hydromor on glaciomarine or fluvial deposits over morainal t i l l Horizon Depth Description (cm)  L(F) 19-15 Coniferous and herbaceous litter, moss, and decayed wood; plentiful, fine and medium roots; non-distinct wavy boundary; 3-5 cm thick; pH 4.5 (H20), 3.8 (CaCl2). H 15- 0 Wet; Dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2 pm); sticky (w); very plastic, plentiful decayed wood; plentiful white fungal mycelia; very abundant all-sized roots, forming dense mat on top; non-distinct, wavy boundary 12-20 cm thick; pH 3.7 (H20), 3.2 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.103 g/cc. Ae 0- 7 Very dark gray to gray (10YR 3/1 m, 5/1 d); silty loam; slightly hard (d), very sticky (w); very plastic; plentiful, medium and coarse roots; 5% rounded gravel; non- distinct wavy boundary; 7-8 cm thick; pH 4.2 (H20), 3.5 (CaCl2); dark humic deposits between Ae and Bhfg. Bhfg 7-28 Very dark brown to brown (10YR 2/2 m, 5/3 d); clay loam; many, coarse, prominent, yellowish-red (6YR 5/8 m) mottles; slighty hard (d), friable (m); plastic; 5% rounded gravel, 5% stones; gradual irregular boundary; 17-26 cm thick; pH 4.7 (H20), 3.9 Bg 28-32 Gray to grayish brown (10YR 5/1 m, 2.5Y 5/2 d); gravelly loam; common, coarse, prominent, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6 m) mottles; firm (m), very sticky (w); very plastic; 10% rounded gravel; non-distinct, wavy boundary; 3-10 cm thick; pH 5.0 (H20), 4.5 (CaCl2). 261 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 300-3 Location: Ucluelet Scrub Associated soil: Loamy Orthic Gleysol with Hemihydromor on glaciomarine or fluvial deposits over morainal t i l l Horizon Depth (cm) Description L(F) 18-13 Coniferous and herbaceous litter, moss, and decayed wood; 2-7 cm thick; pH 4.5 (H20), 4.1 (CaCl2). H 13- 0 Wet; medium to coarse blocky; greasy, powdery (silty?); slightly plastic, plentiful decayed wood; very abundant white fungal mycelia forming discontinuous mat, few yellow mycelia; very abundant all-sized (especially fine) roots; earthworm observed; 7-20 cm thick; pH 3.8 (H20), 3.2 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.117 g/cc. Ae 0-13 Black to grayish brown (10YR 2/1 m, 5/2 d); loam to clay loam; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); few, fine roots; few charcoal particles present; 5% sub-rounded gravel; abrupt, irregular boundary; 6-21 cm thick; pH 4.0 (H20), 3.3 (CaCl2). Bg 13-30 Very dark brown to olive brown (10YR 2/2 m, 2.5Y 4/4 d); loamy sand; many, coarse, prominent, orange mottles; strong, coarse, sub-angular blocky; very firm (m), slighty hard (d); very few, fine roots; 30% sub-rounded gravel; plentiful charcoal particles; abrupt wavy boundary; 3-38 cm thick; pH 4.9 (H20), 4.5 (CaCl2); (orange continuous band on bottom of horizon). BC 30-36 Very dark grayish brown to olive brown (2.5Y 3/2 m, 4/4 d); gravelly loamy sand; structureless, single-grained; very friable (m), soft (d); 25% sub-rounded gravel; abrupt, discontinuous boundary; 0-12 cm thick; pH 4.8 (H20), 4.6 (CaCl2). Ccg 36-39+ Dark grayish brown to light brownish gray (10YR 3/4 m, 2.5Y 5/4 d); very gravelly, fine loamy sand; cemented or compacted; many, coarse, prominent orange mottles; friable (m), slightly hard (d); 50% sub-rounded gravel; 3+ cm thick; pH 5.0 (H20), 4.6 (CaCl2). 262 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 821-1 Location: Port Albion Bog Associated soil: Loamy-skeletal (Ortstein) Humic Podzol with Hemihydromor on glaciomarine or glaciofluvlal over morainal deposits Horizon Depth (cm) Description LF H Ae Bh Bhfcg Bfcg 10- 7 Coniferous and herbaceous litter, moss, and decayed wood; 2-4 cm thick; pH 4.5 (H20), 4.2 (CaCl2). 7- 0 Wet; very slippery, slightly gritty; very abundant decayed wood; white fungal mycelia present; very abundant all-sized roots; abundant charcoal particles present; 2-12 cm thick; pH 3.6 (H20), 3.0 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.113 g/cc. 0- 6 Very dark grayish brown to gray (10YR 3/2 m, 6/1 d); clay loam; moderate, medium to coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); abundant, fine to medium roots; 15% sub-angular gravel; abrupt, wavy boundary; 3-10 cm thick; pH 3.8 (H20), 3.2 (CaCl2). 6- 9 Dark humic deposits forming a thin horizon, (sampled with Bhfcg). 9-13 Dark yellowish brown to yellowish brown (10YR 3/8 m, 5/6 d); gravelly sandy loam; many, coarse, prominent, mottles; cemented (or compacted?); strong, very coarse, sub-angular blocky; very firm (m), sllghty hard (d); 45% sub-angular gravel (plus large boulder at bottom of horizon); abrupt wavy boundary; 0-7 cm thick; pH 4.7 (H20), 4.1 (CaCl2). 13-22+ Dark yellowish brown to light yellowish brown (10YR 3/4 m, 2.5Y 6/4 d): gravelly loam; common, fine, distinct mottles; cemented or compacted; moderate, medium, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); 30% sub-angular gravel; 9+ cm thick; pH 4.1 (H20), 5.0 (CaCl2). 263 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 821-2 Location: Port Albion Bog Associated soil: Loamy-skeletal (Placic) Humic Podzol with hydromor on glaciomarine or glaciofluvial over morainal deposits Horizon Depth (cm) Description LF H 14-12 12- 0 Ae 0- 6 Bh 10-12 Bfcgj 12-17+ Coniferous and herbaceous litter, moss, and decayed wood; 2-3 cm thick; pH 4.5 (H20), 4.1 (CaCl2). Wet; very slippery, slightly gritty; plentiful decayed wood; white fungal mycelia present; very abundant all-sized roots; plentiful charcoal particles present; 9-14 cm thick; pH 3.7 (H20), 3.1 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.104 g/cc. Very dark grayish brown to light brownish gray (10YR 3/2 m, 6/2 d); gravelly loam to gravelly sandy loam; weak to moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), slightly hard (d); plentiful, all-sized roots; 15% sub-angular gravel; very few charcoal particles present; abrupt, wavy boundary; 7-12 cm thick; pH 3.8 (H20), 3.2 (CaCl2). Very dark brown to dark grayish brown (10YR 2/2 m, 4/2 d); sandy loam; weak to moderate, fine, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), slightly hard (d); 10% sub-angular gravel; (placic horizon?); plentiful to few charcoal particles present; abrupt wavy boundary; 1-2 cm thick; pH 4.3 (H20), 3.7 (CaCl2). Dark yellowish brown to yellowish brown (10YR 3/6 m, 5/6 d); gravelly sandy loam; common, medium, faint mottles; cemented (or compacted?); strong, medium, sub-angular blocky; very firm (m), slighty hard (d); 45% sub-angular gravel; 5+ cm thick; pH 5.0 (H20), 4.7 (CaCl2). 264 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 821-3 Location: Port Albion Bog Associated soil: Loamy-skeletal Orthic Humic Podzol with hemihydromor on glaciomarine or glaciofluvial over morainal deposits Horizon Depth Description (cm)  LF 5-3 Coniferous and herbaceous litter, moss, and decayed wood; 1-2 cm thick; pH 4.4 (H20), 4.3 (CaCl2). H 3-0 L,F, and H very thin, difficult to separate into individual horizons; wet to moist; loose, crumbly; slightly slippery, felty; slightly matted and/or compacted; plentiful decayed wood; white fungal mycelia present; very abundant all-sized roots, forming a mat; plentiful charcoal particles present; 1-4 cm thick; pH 3.7 (H20), 3.2 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.099 g/cc. ' Ae 0-3 Dark brown to light brownish gray (10YR 4/3 m, 6/2 d); sandy loam; few, medium, distinct, mottles; moderate, medium to coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); abundant all-sized roots; 10% sub-angular gravel; few charcoal particles present; abrupt, wavy boundary; 1-5 cm thick; pH 3.9 (H20), 3.9 (CaCl2). Bhgl 3-24 Dark brown to dark yellowish brown (7.5YR 3/4 m, 10YR 5/8 d); gravelly loamy sand; many, medium, distinct mottles; weak to moderate, medium to coarse, sub- angular blocky; very friable (m), soft (d); plentiful, medium to fine roots; 10% sub-rounded gravel, 20% cobbles; gradual wavy boundary; 21-27 cm thick; pH 4.7 (H20), 4.6 (CaCl2). Bh Dark brown discontinuous horizon, sampled with Bhgl. Bhg2 24-48 Dark brown to yellowish brown (7.5YR 3/4 m, 10YR 5/6 d); gravelly sandy loam; common, coarse, distince, mottles; weak, medium, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m); few, medium to fine roots; few charcoal particles present; 5% sub-rounded gravel, 25% cobbles; abrupt wavy boundary; 16-32 cm thick; pH 4.9 (H20), 5.0 (CaCl2); (dark band on bottom of horizon, may be charcoal (?)). Cc 48+ Compacted or cemented, not sampled. 265 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 1092-1 Location: Kennedy Second Growth Associated soil: Fragmental over sandy Cumulic Regosol with Lignohumimor on fluvial deposits Horizon Depth Description (cm)  L 21-19 Very abundant matting of roots; decayed wood and charcoal present; abrupt wavy boundary; pH 4.2 (H20), 3.9 (CaCl2). (F)H 19-18 Humus is primarily decaying wood and charcoal; light-weight and crumbly, slightly greasy; white fungal wood 18- 0 mycelia present; plentiful earthworms; abundant roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 10-30 cm thick; pH 3.8 (H20), 3.3 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.162 g/cc. Hil 0-19 Black (10YR 2/1 m, d); very gravelly sand; structureless, single-grained; firm (m), hard (d); abundant, fine and medium roots; 50% rounded gravel; abrupt, wavy boundary; 15-23 cm thick; pH 4.3 (H20), 3.6 (CaCl2). Hi2 19-48 Black (10YR 2/1 m, d); very gravelly sand; structureless, single-grained; friable (m), slightly hard (d); 30% rounded gravel, 20% sub-rounded cobbles; very few roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 23-35 cm thick; pH 4.9 (H20), 4.2 (CaCl2). Bml 48-64 Black to very dark grayish brown (10YR 2/1 m, 3/2 d); very gravelly sand; structureless, single-grained; loose (m), loose (d); abrupt wavy boundary; 14-19 cm thick; pH 4.9 (H20), 4.1 (CaCl2). Bm2 64-81 Black to very dark brown (10YR 2/1 m, 2/2 d); sand; weak to moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), soft (d); abrupt wavy boundary; 14-20 cm thick; pH 5.3 (H20), 4.3 (CaCl2). Bm3 81-91+ Black to very dark gray (10YR 2/1 m, 3/1 d); sand; weak, medium, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), soft (d); 10+ cm thick; pH 5.3 (H20), 4.3 (CaCl2). 266 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 1092-2 Location: Kennedy Second Growth Associated soil: Sandy Eluviated Dystric Brunisol with Humimor on fluvial deposits Horizon Depth (cm) Description L H Ae Bml Bm2 Bm3 Bm4 10- 8 Abrupt wavy boundary; pH 4.5 (H20), 4.2 (CaCl2). 8- 0 Slightly moist; coarse, sub-angular blocky; crumbly, slightly slippery; plentiful white fungal mycelia; present; decayed wood present; earthworms present; very abundant all-sized roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 7-10 cm thick; pH 3.9 (H20), 3.3 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.103 g/cc. 0- 7 Very dark gray to dark grayish brown (10YR 3/1 m, 4/2 d); sand to loamy sand; weak, medium, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), soft (d); 5% sub-rounded gravel; abundant, all-sized roots; abrupt, wavy boundary; 2-12 cm thick; pH 4.7 (H20), 3.9 (CaCl2). 7-22 Very dark brown to dark yellowish brown (10YR 2/2 m, 3/4 d); sand; weak to moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), loose (d); plentiful, medium to fine roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 10-20 cm thick; pH 5.6 (H20), 4.4 (CaCl2). 22-47 Black to very dark brown (10YR 2/1 m, 2/2 d); very gravelly sand; structureless, single-grained; loose (m), loose (d); 45% sub-rounded gravel, 5% cobbles; plentiful, medium roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 19-31 cm thick; pH 5.3 (H20), 4.4 (CaCl2). 47-62 Black to very dark brown (10YR 2/1 m, 2/2 d); coarse sand; weak to moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), loose (d); very few, very fine roots; 7% sub-angular gravel (dense layer of gravel 4-7 cm thick between B23-B24); abrupt wavy boundary; 10-19 cm thick; pH 5.4 (H20), 4.5 (CaCl2). 62-72+ Very dark brown to dark yellowish brown (10YR 2/2 m, 3/4 d); sand; weak to moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), loose (d); very few, fine roots; 5% rounded gravel; abrupt, broken boundary; 9-11 cm thick; pH 5.6 (H20), 4.7 (CaCl2). ( / . . . ) 267 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 1092-2 (cont'd) Horizon Depth (cm) Description IIC1 72-84 Very dark grayish brown to olive brown (2.5Y 3/2 m, 4/4 d); sand; weak, medium to coarse, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), loose (d); very few, fine roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 11-14 cm thick; pH 5.7 (H20), 4.8 (CaCl2). IIC2 84-95 Very dark brown to dark yellowish brown (10YR 2/2 m, 3/6 d); sand; weak, medium to coarse, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), loose (d); very few, very fine roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 10-12 cm thick; pH 5.6 (H20), 4.6 (CaCl2). IIC3 95-106 Very dark grayish brown to dark yellowish brown (2.5Y 3/2 m, 10YR 3/6 d); sand; weak, medium, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), soft (d); abrupt wavy boundary; 10-12 cm thick; pH 6.3 (H20), 4.7 (CaCl2). IIC4 106-118+ Very dark grayish brown to olive brown (2.5Y 3/2 m, 4/4 d); sand; weak, medium to coarse, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), loose (d); very few, very fine roots; 12+ cm thick; pH 5.6 (H20), 4.8 (CaCl2). 268 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 1092-3 Location: Kennedy Second Growth Associated soil: Sandy-skeletal Dystric Brunisol on fluvial deposits. Horizon Depth Description (cm)  L 8-6 Abrupt wavy boundary; 1-3 cm thick; pH 4.1 (H20), 3.7 (CaCl2). H 6-0 Dry to moist; crumbly, loose, lightweight, peat-moss like; very abundant, all-sized roots form dense mat; abundant decaying wood; white fungal mycelia present; charcoal present; abrupt wavy boundary; 4-8 cm thick; pH 3.4 (H20), 3.2 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.127 g/cc. Aej 0- 1 Broken, sporadic horizon; abundant roots; insufficient for sample. Bml 1-17 Black to very dark brown (10YR 2/1 m, 2/2 d); very gravelly sand; structureless, single-grained; loose (m), loose (d); 20% sub-rounded gravel, 5% cobbles; abundant, all-sized roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 13-19 cm thick; pH 4.7 (H20), 3.8 (CaCl2). Bm2 17-41 Black to very dark brown (10YR 2/1 m, 2/2 d); very gravelly sand; structureless, single-grained; loose (m), loose (d); plentiful, fine to medium roots; 30% sub-rounded gravel, 15% cobbles; abrupt wavy boundary; 19-30 cm thick; pH 5.4 (H20), 4.8 (CaCl2). Bm3 41-67 Black (10YR 2/1 m); very gravelly sand; structureless, single-grained; loose (m), loose (d); few, fine roots; 40% sub-rounded gravel, 5% cobbles; abrupt wavy boundary; seepage water flowing through Bm3 and C; 21-32 cm thick; pH 5.5 (H20), 5.0 (CaCl2). C 67-89+ Black (10YR 2/1 m,d); very gravelly coarse sand; structureless, single-grained; loose (m), loose (d); 40% sub-rounded gravel; abrupt wavy boundary; seepage water flowing through Bm3 and C; 17-28+ cm thick; pH 6.3 (H20), 5.5 (CaCl2). 269 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 315-1 Location: Kennedy Floodplain Associated soil: Fine Loamy Humic Gleysol with Hemihumimor on fluvial deposits Horizon Depth (cm) Description LF H Bgl Bg2 Bg3 15-10 Non-distinct, wavy boundary; few,fine roots; pH 4.6 (H20), 4.2 (CaCl2). 10- 0 Black to very dark grayish brown (10YR 2/1 m, 3/2 d); organic; firm (m), sticky (w); very plastic; abundant all-sized roots; earthworm present; gradual, irregular boundary; 9-12 cm thick; pH 4.0 (H20), 3.7 (CaCl2). 0-12 Dark brown to dark grayish brown (10YR 3/3 m, 4/2 d); silty clay loam; firm (m), sticky (w); very plastic; plentiful, all-sized roots; gradual, irregular boundary; 10-15 cm thick; pH 4.3 (H20), 3.7 (CaCl2). 12-37 Dark grayish brown to light brownish gray (2.5Y 4/2 m, 10YR 6/2 d); loam; many, coarse, prominent, yellowish-red (5YR 5/8 m) mottles; friable (m), very sticky (w); very plastic; plentiful coarse roots; many fine concretions; diffuse smooth boundary; 23-26 cm thick; pH 4.7 (H20), 4.0 (CaCl2). 37-67 Very dark grayish brown to grayish brown (10YR 3/2 m, 5/2 d); sandy loam; friable (m), very sticky (w); very plastic; anaerobic (S02 smell); water table present; pH 4.8 (H20), 4.1 (CaCl2). 67+ Very dark grayish brown to grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2 m, 5/2 d); very gravelly loamy sand; very friable (m), soft (d); 90% rounded gravel; pH 5.0 (H20), 4.2 (CaCl2). 270 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 315-2 Location: Kennedy Floodplain Associated soil: Fine-silty Humic Gleysol with Mullmoder on fluvial deposits Horizon Depth (cm) Description LFH 3- 0 Moist; humus very thin, non-distinct; crumbly, plastic; matted and/or compacted; plentiful white fungal mycelia; decayed wood present; very abundant, all-sized roots; non-distinct wavy boundary; 2-3 cm thick; pH 4.4 (H20), 4.0 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.285 g/cc (F,H,Ah). Ah 0- 7 Dark brown to dark grayish brown (10YR 3/3 m, 4/2 d); silty clay loam; slightly sticky (w), firm (m), soft (d); plastic; abundant all-sized roots; diffuse, wavy boundary; 20-25 cm thick; pH 4.4 (H20), 3.8 (CaCl2). Bgl 7-29 Dark yellowish brown to olive brown (10YR 3/4 m, 2.5Y 4/4 d); silty clay loam; firm (m), soft (d); plastic; plentiful, medium and coarse roots; diffuse wavy boundary; 20-25 cm thick; pH 4.4 (H20), 3.8 (CaCl2). Bg2 29-55 Dark brown to brown (10YR 3/3 m, 5/3 d); sil t loam to silty clay loam; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8 m) mottles; friable (m), slightly hard (d); very plastic; plentiful, medium and coarse roots; non-distinct wavy boundary; 22-29 cm thick; pH 4.5 (H20), 3.9 (CaCl2). Bg3 55-60 Very dark brown to dark grayish brown (10YR 2/2 m, 4/2 d); silt loam to silty clay loam; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8 m) mottles; firm (m), slightly hard (d); very plastic; few, coarse roots; abundant, fine charcoal particles; non-distinct wavy boundary; 3-8 cm thick; rounded gravel; pH 4.5 (H20), 3.8 (CaCl2). Bg4 60-80 Dark grayish brown to light brownish gray (2.5Y 4/2 m, 6/2 d); sil t loam; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8 m) mottles; firm (m), hard (d); very plastic; few, coarse roots; water table present (90cm); pH 5.3 (H20), 4.4 (CaCl2). 271 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 315-3 Location: Kennedy Floodplaln Associated soil: Fine-silty Humic Gleysol with Mullmoder on fluvial deposits Horizon Depth Description (cm)  LF(H) 3- 0 pH 4.5 (H20), 3.9 (CaCl2) H (Ah) 0-10 Dry; crumbly, cloddy, hard; mat of white fungal mycelia on surface; decayed wood present; very abundant, all-sized roots; charcoal present; earthworms present; 8-13 cm thick; pH 4.5 (H20), 3.9 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.108 g/cc; (originally sampled as H, but classified as Ah since 0rg.C=12.1%). Bgl 10-24 Very dark grayish brown to olive brown (2.5Y 3/4 m, 4/4 d); silty clay loam to silt loam; moderate to strong, medium, sub-angular blocky; firm (m), hard (d); plentiful all-sized roots; clear wavy boundary; 13-16 cm thick; pH 4.4 (H20), 3.8 (CaCl2). Bg2 24-45 Dark yellowish brown to light olive brown (10YR 3/4 m, 2.5Y 5/4 d); clay loam to silty clay loam; firm (m), hard (d); plentiful, all-sized roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 19-23 cm thick; pH 4.7 (H20), 3.9 (CaCl2). Bg3 45-70 olive brown to pale brown (2.5Y 4/4 m, 10YR 6/3 d); silty clay loam; common, coarse, distinct orange mottles; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), hard (d); plentiful, medium roots; gradual wavy boundary; 24-26 cm thick; pH 4.6 (H20), 3.8 (CaCl2). Bg4 70-90 Dark grayish brown to light brownish gray (2.5Y 4/4 m, 6/2 d); silt loam; moderate, very coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable(m), slightly hard (d); few, medium roots; gradual wavy boundary; 19-21 cm thick; pH 5.0 (H20), 4.0 (CaCl2). Bg5 90-94 Very dark grayish brown to light brownish gray (10YR 3/2 m, 6/2 d); silty clay loam to silt loam; many, coarse, prominent, orange mottles; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); few, medium roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 4-5 cm thick; pH 5.1 (H20), 4.0 (CaCl2). ( / . . . ) 272 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 315-3 (cont'd) Horizon Depth Description (cm)  Cbl 94-112 Black to dark grayish brown (10YR 2/1 m, 4/2 d); silty loam to clay loam; weak to moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); common charcoal; buried wood present; abrupt smooth boundary; 18-19 cm thick; pH 4.8 (H20), 4.1 (CaCl2). Cb2 112-130 Dark grayish brown to light brownish gray (10YR 5/4 m, 6/2 d); clay loam; weak to moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; firm (m), hard (d); few charcoal particles, and dead (buried) plants present; anaerobic (S02 smell); 18+ cm thick; pH 4.8 (H20), 4.4 (CaCl2). 273 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 513-1 Location: Sproat Lake Associated soil: Fine-loamy Orthic Ferro-Humic Podzol on Fluvial deposits Horizon Depth (cm) Description FH Aej B21h B22 B23 B24c B25 7- 5 Coniferous and herbaceous litter; 1-2 cm thick; pH 4.4 (H20), 4.2 (CaCl2). 5- 0 Very dry; massive, flat clumps; very lightweight, crumbly, felty; slightly sandy; very dense mat of roots; abundant fine-very fine roots; very abundant white mycelia; abundant decayed wood; pH 3.9 (H20), 3.3 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.207 g/cc. 0- 3 Very thin, discontinuous layer, (not sampled) 3- 7 Olive brown (2.5Y 4/4 m, d); loam; moderate, coarse sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); plentiful all-sized roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 2-11 cm thick; pH 4.9 (H20), 4.1 (CaCl2). 7-14 Very dark grayish brown to olive brown (2.5Y 3/2 m, 4/4 d); very fine sandy loam; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); plentiful, all-sized roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 4-11 cm thick; pH 4.8 (H20), 4.0 (CaCl2). 14-25 Olive brown to dark olive brown (2.5Y 4/4 m, 3/4 d); fine sandy loam; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); plentiful, all-sized roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 10-12 cm thick; pH 4.6 (H20), 4.0 (CaCl2). 25-34 Dark yellowish brown to light olive brown (10YR 3/4 m, 2.5Y 5/4 d); very fine sandy loam; moderate, medium to coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); plentiful, all-sized roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 8-10 cm thick; pH 4.5 (H20), 4.0 (CaCl2). 34-45 Dark brown to dark yellowish brown (7.5YR 3/4 m, 10YR 4/6 d); fine, sandy loam; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); plentiful, all-sized roots; abrupt broken boundary; 8-13 cm thick; pH 4.5 (H20), 4.0 (CaCl2). 274 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 513-1 (cont'd) Horizon Depth Description (cm) B26 45-64 Dark yellowish brown to light yellowish brown (10YR 3/4 m, 2.5Y 6/4 d); loam; moderate, coarse sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); plentiful all-sized roots; abrupt irregular boundary; 17-21 cm thick; pH 4.7 (H20), 4.1 (CaCl2). B27 64-78 Dark yellowish brown to light olive brown (10YR 3/4 m, 2.5Y 5/4 d); loam; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); plentiful, all-sized roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 12-16 cm thick pH 4.6 (H20), 4.1 (CaCl2). BC 78-93 Very dark grayish brown to olive brown (2.5Y 3/2 m, 4/4 d); fine sandy loam; moderate, medium to coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), soft (d); few, medium to fine roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 12-17 cm thick; pH 4.9 (H20), 4.5 (CaCl2). CI 93-109 Olive to pale olive (5Y 4/4 m, 6/4 d); loamy sand; moderate, medium to coarse, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), soft (d); few, medium to fine roots; clear wavy boundary; 13-20 cm thick; pH 5.1 (H20), 4.4 (CaCl2). C2 109-131 Olive (5Y 4/4 m, 5/3 d); loamy, fine sand; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), soft (d); few, medium to fine roots; clear wavy boundary; 16-27 cm thick; pH 4.9 (H20), 4.7 (CaCl2). C3g 131-148+ Olive brown (2.5Y 4/4); loamy fine sand; few, fine, distinct mottles; moderate, coarse to very coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), soft (d); few, fine roots; clear wavy boundary; 17+ cm thick; pH 4.9 (H20), 4.6 (CaCl2). 2 7 5 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 513-2 Location: Sproat Lake Associated soil: Fine-loamy Orthic Ferro-Humic Podzol with Mycohumimor on fluvial deposits Horizon Depth (cm) Description LF H Aej B21 B22 B23 B24 B25 15-12 Coniferous and herbaceous litter; 1-3 cm thick; pH 4.2 (H20), 4.0 (CaCl2). 12- 0 Dry; firm, cloddy to crumbly, felty; slightly matted; roots; abundant fine roots; abundant white mycelia; decayed wood present; pH 3.8 (H20), 3.1 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.247 g/cc. 0- 3 Very thin, discontinuous layer, (not sampled) 3-10 Dark yellowish brown to light olive brown (10YR 3/4 m, 2.5Y 5/6 d); very fine sandy loam; moderate, very coarse, sub-angular blocky; firm (m), soft (d); abundant all-sized roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 3-16 cm thick; pH 4.5 (H20), 3.9 (CaCl2). 10-18 Dark yellowish brown to light olive brown (10YR 3/4 m, 2.5Y 5/4 d); very fine sandy loam; moderate, very coarse, sub-angular blocky; firm (m), soft (d); abundant all-sized roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 5-12 cm thick; pH 4.6 (H20), 4.1 (CaCl2). 18-25 Dark yellowish brown to light olive brown (10YR 3/4 m, 2.5Y 5/4 d); very fine sandy loam; weak to moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; firm (m), soft (d); abundant all-sized roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 4-9 cm thick; pH 4.9 (H20), 4.4 (CaCl2). 25-37 Olive brown to light yellowish brown (2.5Y 4/4 m, 6/4 d); very fine sandy loam; moderate, very coarse, sub-angular blocky; firm (m), soft (d); plentiful roots; abrupt irregular boundary; 5-18 cm thick; pH 4.9 (H20), 4.3 (CaCl2). 37-43 Very dark brown to yellowish brown (10YR 2/2 m, 5/4 d); very fine sandy loam; weak to moderate, medium, sub-angular blocky; firm (m), soft (d); plentiful roots; abrupt broken boundary; 3-10 cm thick; pH 4.8 (H20), 4.1 (CaCl2). ( / . . . ) 2 7 6 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 513-2 (cont'd) Horizon Depth (cm) Description B26 43-49 Dark yellowish brown to light olive brown (10YR 3/6 m, 2.5Y 5/4 d); very fine sandy loam; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; firm (m), soft (d); plentiful roots; abrupt irregular boundary; 3-9 cm thick; pH 4.6 (H20), 4.2 (CaCl2). B27 49-56 Very dark grayish brown to olive brown (2.5Y 3/2 m, 4/4 d); very fine sandy loam; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; firm (m), slightly hard (d); plentiful roots; abrupt broken boundary; 4-10 cm thick; pH 4.8 (H20), 4.2 (CaCl2). B28 56-60 Very dark brown to olive brown (10YR 2/2 m, 2.5Y 4/4 d); fine sandy loam; moderate, medium, sub-angular blocky; firm (m), slightly hard (d); plentiful roots; abrupt broken boundary; 0-7 cm thick; pH 4.8 (H20), 4.2 (CaCl2). B29 60-68 Dark yellowish brown to light olive brown (10YR 3/4 m, 2.5Y 5/4 d); fine sandy loam to loam; moderate, very coarse, sub-angular blocky; firm (m), slightly hard (d); plentiful roots; clear wavy boundary; 5-12 cm thick; pH 5.0 (H20), 4.3 (CaCl2). B30 68-77 Olive brown to light yellowish brown (2.5Y 4/4 m, 6/4 d); fine sandy loam to loam; weak to moderate, medium to coarse, sub-angular blocky; firm (m), slightly hard (d); plentiful roots; clear wavy boundary; 7-10 cm thick; pH 4.8 (H20), 4.4 (CaCl2). B31 77-90 Very dark grayish brown to light olive brown (2.5Y 3/2 m, 5/4 d); very fine sandy loam; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; firm (m), slightly hard (d); plentiful roots; abrupy wavy boundary; 10-16 cm thick; pH 4.8 (H20), 4.4 (CaCl2). B32 90-100 Dark yellowish brown to light olive brown (10YR 3/6 m, 2.5Y 5/4 d); very fine sandy loam; moderate, medium to coarse, sub-angular blocky; firm (m), slightly hard (d); few roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 8-13 cm thick; pH 4.6 (H20), 4.4 (CaCl2). ( / . . . ) 277 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 513-2 (cont'd) Horizon Depth Description (cm)  CI 100- Very dark grayish brown to grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2 m, 5/2 d); loamy fine sand; moderate, coarse,' sub-angular blocky; firm (m), slightly hard (d); few, very fine roots; gradual wavy boundary; 35+ cm thick (C1+C2); pH 4.6 (H20), 4.6 (CaCl 2). C2 -135+ Very dark grayish brown to light yellowish brown (2.5Y 3/2 m, 6/4 d); very fine sandy loam; few, fine, faint mottles; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; firm (m), slightly hard (d); few, very fine roots; 35+ cm thick (C1+C2); pH 5.3 (H20), 4.6 (CaCl 2). 278 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 513-3 Location: Sproat Lake Associated soil: Fine-loamy Gleyed Humo Ferric Podzol on Fluvial deposits Horizon Depth (cm) Description FH 3- 1 1- 0 Ah 0- 7 Aeg 7-13 B21g 13-33 B22g 33-49 B23g 49-64 Coniferous and herbaceous litter; .5-2 cm thick; pH 4.7 (H20), 4.6 (CaCl2). Moist; primarily decaying coniferous wood; crumbly, slightly greasy; few, white fungal mycelia; FH forms a thin mat covering Ah; plentiful fine roots; pH 4.2 (H20), 3.9 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.257 g/cc. Very dark grayish brown to grayish brown (10YR 3/2 m, 5/2 d); silty loam; moderate, very coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); abundant a l l -sized roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 6-8 cm thick; pH 4.6 (H20), 4.2 (CaCl2); bulk density 0.442 g/cc. Olive brown to light yellowish brown (2.5Y 4/4 m, 6/6 d); sandy clay loam; common, coarse, prominent orange mottles; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); plentiful all-sized roots; abrupt wavy boundary, (mixed with B21g in some places); 2-8 cm thick; pH 4.8 (H20), 4.3 (CaCl2). Olive brown to olive yellow (2.5Y 4/4 m, 6/6 d); silty loam; many, coarse, prominent orange mottles; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); plentiful medium roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 18-22 cm thick; pH 4.9 (H20), 4.6 (CaCl2). Olive brown to light yellowish brown (2.5Y 4/4 m, 6/4 d); silty loam; common, medium, faint orange mottles; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); few fine roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 12-20 cm thick; pH 5.2 (H20), 4.7 (CaCl2). Olive brown to light yellowish brown (2.5Y 4/4 m, 6/4 d); very fine sandy loam; few, medium, faint orange mottles; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), slightly hard (d); few, fine roots; abrupt wavy boundary; 13-16 cm thick; pH 5.3 (H20), 4.8 (CaCl2). 279 APPENDIX 4 (cont'd) Plot no.: 513-3 (cont'd) Horizon Depth (cm) Description B24g 64-79 Olive brown to light olive brown (2.5Y 4/4 m, 5/4 d); very fine sandy loam; common, medium, faint orange mottles; moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; friable (m), soft (d); very few, fine roots; abrupt wavy boundary, 14-17 cm thick; pH 5.4 (H20), 4.9 (CaCl2). B25g 79-93 Dark yellowish brown to olive brown (10YR 3/6 m, 2.5Y 6/6 d); fine sandy loam; many, coarse, prominent orange mottles; weak to moderate, coarse, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), soft (d); water table encountered, water rapidly filling pit; abrupt wavy boundary; 13-15 cm thick; pH 5.3 (H20), 5.1 (CaCl2). Cg 93-107+ Olive to light olive gray (5Y 4/3 m, 6/2 d); fine sandy loam; common, coarse, prominent, orange mottles; moderate, very coarse, sub-angular blocky; very friable (m), soft (d); 16+ cm thick; pH 5.1 (H20), 4.8 (CaCl2). APPENDIX 5 LIST OF SOIL CHEMICAL DATA FOR EACH SAMPLE PLOT Soil Chemical Analysis : Stand 818 Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) K Ca Mg Na Plot 818-1: Typic Folisol over bedrock LF 9- 7 4.2 4.1 35.8 61.7 0.72 49.7 37.6 3.09 25.50 6.52 0.32 H 7- 0 3.7 3.1 20.7 35.7 0.31 66.3 18.3 0.39 5.07 1.77 0.16 Plot 818-2 : Loamy-skeletal "Lithic Podzol" over bedrock LFH 5- 0 3.8 3.4 42.1 72.6 0.62 73.1 3.87 31.77 12.97 2.64 Ae 0-15 3.8 3.2 6.2 10.6 0.15 41.6 0.5 0.18 0.43 0.40 0.07 Bf 5.4 4.7 9.9 17.1 0.29 37.3 2.7 0.13 1.01 0.16 0.06 Soil Chemical Analysis : Stand 819 Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) K Ca Mg Na Plot 819-1; Loamy "Lithic Podzol" over bedrock LF H Ae 19-15 15- 0 0- 8+ 3.8 3.6 3.8 3.4 3.2 2.9 53.5 40.9 6.0 92.3 70.5 10.3 0.60 0.70 0.11 88.9 57.9 56.1 64.8 46.9 5.1 2.08 1.07 0.17 19.54 3.24 0.12 4.93 4.72 0.36 0.29 0.38 0.08 Plot 819-2 : Loamy "Lithic Podzol" over bedrock L FH Ae 20-15 15- 0 0- 3+ 4.4 3.9 3.8 4.1 3.3 3.2 55.5 30.7 7.4 95.7 53.0 12.8 0.66 0.47 0.12 83.8 65.2 60.7 70.6 35.4 7.2 2.37 0.80 0.22 28.11 7.66 0.87 8.62 2.05 0.40 0.18 0.20 0.09 oo r o Soil Chemical Analysis : Stand 131 Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) K Ca Mg Na Plot 131-1 : Loamy-skeletal, Ortstein Humic Podzol, with Humimor on morainal deposits L 13-12 4.6 4.3 25.9 44.6 0.84 31.0 57.5 3.61 45.15 10.73 0.58 H 12- 0 3.5 3.1 35.7 61.6 1.04 34.4 45.1 0.82 12.39 5.82 0.49 Aeg 0- 7 3.8 2.9 1.6 2.8 0.04 43.2 0.7 0.04 0.23 0.33 0.04 Bhgc 7-20 4.7 4.6 4.0 6.8 0.11 37.4 0.8 0.02 — 0.03 0.04 Bgc 20-33+ 4.9 5.1 3.0 5.1 0.07 41.7 0.2 0.01 0.04 0.02 0.03 Plot 131-2 : Loamy-skeletal, Orthic Humic Podzol, with Humimor on morainal deposits L(F) 17-15 3.1 4.3 38.4 66.2 0.74 51.8 64.3 2.73 14.88 9.09 0.76 H 15- 0 3.5 3.1 28.3 48.7 0.76 37.1 19.2 0.96 6.41 7.22 0.94 Ae 0-12 4.3 3.5 3.2 5.6 0.10 32.3 1.6 0.05 0.01 0.21 0.05 B21g 12-31 4.9 5.0 2.7 4.6 0.10 27.3 0.5 0.06 — 0.03 0.05 B22g 31-43 5.0 5.4 2.5 4.2 0.04 67.6 0.9 0.01 — 0.01 0.03 BCg 43-54 5.0 5.0 3.5 6.1 0.06 59.3 2.0 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.04 Cg 54-64+ 5.1 4.5 1.9 3.3 0.05 40.4 5.3 0.01 0.14 0.05 0.03 r o Oo Co Soil Chemical Analysis : Stand 131 (cont'd) Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) K Ca Mg Na Plot 131-3 : Loamy Ortstein Humic Podzol, with Humimor on morainal deposits L(F) . 17-14 4.5 4.4 39.9 68.9 0.59 67.5 34.8 2.03 27.48 8.09 0.37 H 14- 8 3.6 3.0 25.8 44.4 1.01 44.1 40.3 1.09 5.67 5.40 0.55 Hil 8- 0 4.2 3.3 22.2 38.3 0.79 28.2 34.3 0.28 1.08 0.94 0.23 Ae 0-14 4.0 3.3 4.5 7.7 0.12 36.9 3.2 0.05 0.07 0.24 0.09 AB 14-20 4.3 3.7 4.6 7.9 0.13 35.4 8.5 0.04 0.14 0.03 0.07 Bgc 20-34 4.8 4.1 3.6 6.2 0.07 52.2 2.8 0.01 — 0.03 0.03 BCgc 34-40 4.8 4.2 1.7 2.3 0.04 41.5 4.0 0.02 — 0.01 0.03 Soil Chemical Analysis : Stand 144 Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) K Ca Mg Na Plot 144-1 : Sandy Gleyed Ferro-Humic Podzol, with Humimor on morainal deposits L 8- 6 4.3 3.7 38.0 65.5 0.75 50.5 35.4 0.98 13.21 4.47 0.41 H 6- 0 3.6 3.1 19.0 32.8 1.03 18.4 20.7 0.94 5.38 3.40 0.38 Ae 0-12 3.7 3.1 2.3 4.1 0.08 29.9 1.6 0.07 0.02 0.22 0.09 Bhfgj 12-35 4.6 4.0 5.9 10.2 0.29 20.7 1.2 0.13 -- 0.14 0.09 Bfg 35-47 4.9 4.7 2.6 4.6 0.08 32.1 0.6 0.02 — 0.02 0.03 BC 47-54 4.5 3.8 2.0 3.4 0.13 15.9 8.8 0.04 -- 0.08 0.05 Cc 54+ not sampled Plot 144-2 : Loamy-skeletal Gleyed Ferro-Humic Podzol, with Humimor on morainal deposits L 18-17 4.1 3.7 39.5 68.1 0.56 . 70.7 37.7 1.33 20.85 5.39 0.34 H 17- 0 3.7 3.2 26.2 45.2 0.94 28.0 27.0 0.81 10.60 4.34 0.41 Ae 0- 3 3.7 3.0 2.2 3.9 0.06 37.3 2.0 0.07 0.23 0.42 0.06 Bhfg 3-34 4.9 5.0 4.9 8.4 0.12 41.2 0.5 0.04 — 0.04 0.04 Bfg 34-43 5.1 4.8 3.1 5.4 0.06 50.0 0.7 0.05 — 0.02 0.08 BC 43-59 4.9 4.7 7.1 12.3 0.15 47.0 1.4 0.04 0.07 0.07 0.06 C 59+ not sampled ho CO Soil Chemical Analysis : Stand 144 (cont'd) Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) K Ca Mg Na Plot 144-3 : Loamy Gleyed Ferro-Humic Podzol, with Humimor on morainal deposits L 29-24 3.9 4.0 38.6 66.6 0.56 68.6 36.9 2.36 20.49 6.11 0.50 H 24- 0 3.7 3.2 26.8 46.3 0.82 32.7 25.5 0.80 9.45 6.49 0.48 Ae 0-12 4.3 3.2 1.4 2.5 0.04 31.8 0.8 0.05 0.31 0.23 0.08 Bhfg 12-30 4.5 3.9 4.6 8.0 0.14 33.8 1.6 0.09 0.77 0.34 0.11 Bfgj 30-40 4.5 4.0 2.8 4.9 0.10 28.3 0.7 0.09 0.49 0.23 0.07 BC 40-49 4.6 4.0 3.1 5.3 0.12 25.0 1.2 0.08 0.43 0.20 0.06 Cc 49-56+ 4.8 4.3 0.9 1.5 0.04 21.9 5.5 0.09 0.09 0.05 0.04 ro OO ON Soil Chemical Analysis : Stand 151 (cont'd) Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations Fe Al (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) % % K Ca Mg Na  Plot 151-3: Loamy-skeletal Gleyed Ferro-Humic Podzol on morainal veneer LF 8- 6 4.3 3.9 53.3 91.8 0.91 65.2 2.06 27.27 8.07 0.86 H 6- 8 4.4 3.9 48.7 83.9 1.41 38.7 2.01 9.54 2.24 1.51 Aegj 0- 2 4.3 3.7 4.6 7.9 0.15 32.2 2.0 0.11 0.77 0.35 0.07 Bfgj 2-16 4.7 4.1 13.0 22.3 0.33 43.0 4.1 0.16 0.57 0.38 0.07 2.69 2.17 Bhf 16-23 4.6 4.1 12.0 20.6 0.46 26.1 1.8 0.17 0.46 0.28 0.11 2.36 2.76 Bfg 23-48 5.0 4.6 11.0 19.0 0.19 64.3 1.6 0.04 0.01 0.03 0.04 0.79 2.05 BCgl 48-68 4.9 4.5 14.2 24.5 0.31 51.4 1.7 0.04 0.02 0.06 0.05 1.85 2.85 BCg2 68+ 5.3 4.9 8.9 15.3 0.23 42.0 2.5 0.04 0.99 0.11 0.04 0.78 1.77 ro OO Soil Chemical Analysis : Stand 151 (cont'd) Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations Fe Al (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) % % K Ca Mg Na  Plot 151-3: Loamy-skeletal Gleyed Ferro-Humic Podzol on morainal veneer LF 8- 6 4.3 3.9 53.3 91.8 0.91 65.2 2.06 27.27 8.07 0.86 H 6- 8 4.4 3.9 48.7 83.9 1.41 38.7 2.01 9.54 2.24 1.51 Aegj 0- 2 4.3 3.7 4.6 7.9 0.15 32.2 2.0 0.11 0.77 0.35 0.07 Bfgj 2-16 4.7 4.1 13.0 22.3 0.33 43.0 4.1 0.16 0.57 0.38 0.07 2.69 2.17 Bhf 16-23 4.6 4.1 12.0 20.6 0.46 26.1 1.8 0.17 0.46 0.28 0.11 2.36 2.76 Bfg 23-48 5.0 4.6 11.0 19.0 0.19 64.3 1.6 0.04 0.01 0.03 0.04 0.79 2.05 BCgl 48-68 4.9 4.5 14.2 24.5 0.31 51.4 1.7 0.04 0.02 0.06 0.05 1.85 2.85 BCg2 68+ 5.3 4.9 8.9 15.3 0.23 42.0 2.5 0.04 0.99 0.11 0.04 0.78 1.77 co co Soil Chemical Analysis : Stand 152 Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) K Ca Mg Na Plot 152-1 : Loamy Ortstein Ferro-Humic Podzol, on morainal materials L 19-18 4.7 4.3 35.6 61.3 0.62 57.2 32.0 2.04 32.30 16.15 0.74 H 18- 0 3.9 3.3 23.8 41.1 1.15 20.6 27.8 0.77 2.39 2.25 0.45 Ah 0-12 4.2 3.4 10.8 18.7 0.29 37.6 5.3 0.06 0.35 0.33 0.12 Bhfg 12-36 5.0 4.5 6.0 10.3 0.07 83.3 2.2 0.45 0.21 0.05 0.06 Bfcgj 36-48 5.0 4.8 1.9 3.3 0.02 95.0 7.9 0.05 0.13 0.04 0.05 Cc not sampled Plot 152--2 : Loamy Orthic Humic Podzol, on morainal materials L 11- 9 4.2 3.8 39.9 68.7 0.67 59.5 27.3 1.70 20.28 8.54 0.51 H 9- 0 4.1 3.3 23.7 40.9 0.69 34.2 28.9 0.39 1.05 2.86 0.33 Ae 0-11 4.5 3.8 6.2 10.7 0.22 27.9 3.6 0.07 — 0.10 0.07 Bhg 11-27 5.1 4.3 3.3 5.8 0.07 45.2 2.5 0.03 — 0.02 0.04 Cc 27+ 5.2 4.5 1.9 3.3 0.03 73.1 20.2 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.04 ro OO VO Soil Chemical Analysis : Stand 152 (cont'd) Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) K Ca Mg Na Plot 152-3: Loamy Ortstein Humic Podzol, on morainal materials L 14-12 4.1 4.3 30.4 52.5 0.56 54.8 26.3 2.02 22.35 8.16 0.43 (F)H 12- 0 3.6 3.0 40.2 69.4 0.72 56.1 23.4 0.95 4.32 6.33 0.49 Ae 0-12 3.9 3.1 2.4 4.1 0.08 30.0 2.9 0.04 0.04 0.27 0.06 Bh 12-18 4.2 3.3 5.0 8.5 0.13 37.3 6.7 0.04 0.16 0.29 0.07 Bfgc 18-31 4.7 4.7 4.5 7.7 0.06 70.3 3.9 0.01 — 0.02 0.03 Cc 31-44+ 4.8 4.6 1.6 2.7 0.02 72.7 11.2 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 O Soil Chemical Analysis : 109 Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations Fe Al (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) % % K Ca Mg Na  Plot 109-1: Loamy-skeletal Orthic Ferro-Humic Podzol on glaciofluvial/morainal deposits LF 14-10 4.6 4.3 53.5 92.3 0.95 62.5 3.44 47.47 12.70 0.64 H 10- 0 3.8 3.4 48.1 82.9 1.05 45.8 1.79 30.91 8.98 2.21 Aej 0- 2 4.2 3.7 10.5 18.0 0.31 35.5 3.7 0.21 0.57 0.41 0.12 Bhf 2-22 4.4 4.0 7.5 13.0 0.21 38.1 2.5 0.12 0.05 0.11 0.12 2.27 1.73 Bh 22-49 4.6 3.8 11.4 19.6 0.40 30.4 23.6 0.10 0.25 0.21 0.07 0.31 1.61 C 49+ not sampled Plot 109-2: Fine-clayey Orthic Gleysol on glaciomarine deposits LF 20-15 4.3 4.0 55.1 95.1 0.87 69.8 3.70 33.43 9.46 0.60 H 15- 0 3.8 3.1 33.3 57.5 0.72 46.4 3.96 6.44 14.23 2.19 Bgl 0-15 4.2 3.6 7.2 12.4 0.22 34.6 1.6 0.24 0.15 0.69 0.12 1.93 1.31 Bg2 15-33 4.6 3.8 4.4 7.6 0.07 69.8 1.4 0.17 0.04 0.47 0.10 0.70 1.05 Bg3 33-57 4.7 3.8 3.4 5.9 0.06 63.0 10.1 0.18 0.16 0.60 0.11 0.29 0.85 Bg4 57-79+ 4.7 3.8 2.8 4.9 0.05 59.6 5.6 0.25 0.53 1.13 0.12 0.19 0.67 Soil Chemical Analysis : Stand 109 (cont'd) Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) K Ca Mg Na Plot 109-3: Loamy Orthic Humic Podzol on glaciofluvial/morainal deposits LF 15-10 4.3 3.9 51.3 88.5 0.74 69.0 41.1 2.04 22.27 6.65 0.60 H 10- 0 3.5 2.9 50.2 86.5 1.00 50.1 21.1 0.69 5.81 4.91 0.51 Aejg 0- 9 4.0 3.3 6.7 11.6 0.21 32.4 1.2 0.12 — 0.35 0.13 Bhg 9-32 4.8 4.2 8.5 14.7 0.18 48.0 0.2 0.06 — 0.04 0.08 BCg 32-45 5.0 4.4 2.1 3.6 0.08 25.0 4.8 0.03 —— 0.02 0.07 Ccg 45-48+ 5.3 4.0 1.1 1.9 0.03 42.3 5.6 0.05 0.45 0.28 0.12 r-o VO NJ Soil Chemical Analysis : Stand 199 Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) K Ca Mg Na Plot 199-1; Sandy-skeletal Orthic Sombric Brunisol on morainal deposits L 29-27 3.7 4.3 37.6 64.9 0.94 39.9 70.7 2.48 23.51 7.26 0.92 H 27- 0 5.9 5.5 46.6 80.3 0.20 239.0 5.1 0.42 52.39 5.27 0.60 Ah 0-20 5.4 5.1 13.1 22.6 1.16 11.3 1.5 0.15 22.52 1.95 0.37 Bh 20-27 6.0 5.5 8.5 14.7 0.28 30.2 1.5 0.09 12.41 1.04 0.23 Cc 27+ not sampled Plot 199--2 : Loamy "Gleyed Folisolic Podzol" on morainal deposits L 23-21 4.9 4.5 46.5 80.3 0.67 69.9 52.6 1.74 24.28 9.79 1.14 H(0H) 21- 0 3.9 3.3 51.9 89.5 0.88 59.2 18.2 1.87 14.19 14.21 2.33 Aegj 0- 6 4.1 3.4 5.0 8.6 0.22 22.8 4.4 0.06 1.27 0.98 0.20 Plot 199--3 : Loamy Gleyed Dystric Brunisol on morainal deposits L 15-13 4.9 4.8 39.4 67.9 0.80 49.1 48.9 2.41 22.59 12.39 0.88 H 13- 0 3.9 3.4 52.3 90.1 1.06 49.4 22.4 1.12 12.68 7.90 0.77 Bhfjgl 0-16 4.3 3.6 5.1 8.7 0.12 43.2 0.9 0.03 0.89 0.93 0.16 Bhfjg2 16-23 4.8 3.4 2.3 3.9 0.09 24.5 2.1 0.05 0.40 0.21 0.13 Bhfjg3 23-30 4.4 3.7 3.4 5.9 0.11 29.8 2.0 0.04 0.60 0.52 0.12 Bhfjg4 30-33 4.7 3.7 5.9 10.1 0.13 44.7 0.7 0.04 0.49 0.28 0.09 Cc 33+ not sampled Soil Chemical Analysis : Stand 150 Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) K Ca Mg Na Plot 150-1 : Loamy-skeletal Duric Humic Podzol on morainal material L 12-10 4.5 3.9 42.2 72.8 FH 10- 0 4.7 4.2 34.9 60.3 Aeg 0- 5 4.3 3.7 6.1 10.5 Bhg 5-13 4.8 4.0 3.0 5.3 Bg 13-19 5.3 4.8 2.3 4.0 BCcg 19-40 5.5 4.6 1.2 2.1 C 40-63+ 5.7 4.7 0.7 1.2 Plot 150-2a : Sandy-skeletal Orthic Humic Gleysol L 10- 8 4.6 4.7 35.2 60.7 FH 8- 0 4.0 3.6 -52.3 90.1 Ah 0-17 4.3 3.8 17.0 29.3 Ae 17-27 4.6 3.2 8.2 14.2 Bh 27+ 4.6 4.0 10.0 17.3 0.62 68.2 28.9 1.67 29.12 7.61 0.28 1.15 30.3 16.8 0.68 9.44 4.60 0.43 0.27 22.4 6.5 0.13 1.12 0.57 0.12 0.11 27.3 5.1 0.03 0.58 0.24 0.06 0.04 65.7 8.6 0.03 0.24 0.07 0.05 0.01 85.7 22.0 0.04 0.77 0.12 0.07 0.01 77.8 29.4 0.03 0.43 0.05 0.07 i morainal material 0.78 45.1 36.6 1.34 27.79 8.69 0.37 0.15 344.1 21.6 1.39 1.94 7.53 0.61 0.17 100.6 8.2 0.30 3.70 2.02 0.41 0.19 42.7 17.7 0.05 0.82 0.32 0.09 0.20 50.5 20.1 0.03 1.00 0.36 0.08 Soil Chemical Analysis : Stand 150 (cont'd) Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) K Ca Mg Na Plot 150-2b: Sandy-skeletal Orthic Gleysol on morainal material L 14-12 same as 150-2a FH 12- 0 3.6 3.0 37.9 65.3 0.13 293.8 25.4 1.26 11.48 8.67 0.70 Ae 0-12 3.9 3.9 6.4 11.0 0.23 28.4 4.0 0.12 0.26 0.46 0.12 Bh 12-24 4.1 3.5 13.5 23.3 0.41 33.3 4.7 0.21 2.29 3.05 0.22 BC 24-32+ 4.5 4.1 3.7 6.3 0.14 27.2 4.8 0.06 2.41 0.81 0.09 Plot 150-3 : Loamy-skeletal Orthic Humic Gleysol on morainal material L 22-20 4.5 4.2 38.1 65.7 0.68 56.1 37.3 2.03 15.56 8.64 0.29 H 20-12 4.1 3.6 16.3 28.1 1.10 14.9 9.1 0.53 2.70 1.36 0.36 Hil 12- 6 4.2 3.6 26.0 44.8 1.28 20.4 10.9 0.81 2.92 1.95 0.31 Hi2 6- 0 4.0 3.8 30.8 53.1 1.29 23.9 7.8 0.32 4.15 2.16 0.34 Aeg 0- 9 4.3 3.5 4.1 7.1 0.16 25.3 2.3 0.07 0.79 0.38 0.12 Bgj 9-16 4.5 3.9 1.3 2.3 0.14 9.2 4.9 0.07 0.76 0.39 0.09 Ccg 16-29+ 4.8 4.2 2.8 4.9 0.05 58.3 18.9 0.03 0.21 0.08 0.06 Soil Chemical Analysis : 300 Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations Fe Al (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) % % K Ca Mg Na  Plot 300-1: Fine Loamy Orthic Gleysol on fluvial or glaciomarine over morainal deposits LF 22-16 3.8 3.3 53.6 92.4 0.81 72.7 3.15 21.51 11.45 1.28 H 16- 0 3.5 3.0 53.8 92.7 0.94 57.0 2.05 6.67 25.28 1.48 Ae 0- 7 4.0 3.3 3.2 5.5 0.13 25.6 3.9 0.11 0.18 0.67 0.08 Bgl 7-24 4.9 4.0 3.0 5.1 0.04 69.8 11.5 0.16 0.08 0.19 0.09 0.24 0.61 Bg2 24-50 5.1 3.9 2.5 4.3 0.03 92.6 1.2 0.23 0.14 0.73 0.15 0.18 0.38 C 50+ 5.4 4.2 1.2 2.0 0.02 70.6 21.4 0.12 0.91 0.40 0.11 0.09 0.18 Plot 300-2: Fine-loamy Orthic Gleysol on fluvial or glaciomarine over morainal deposits LF 19-15 4.2 3.8 50.9 87.8 0.68 142.1 4.79 26.23 15.30 2.24 H 15- 0 3.7 3.2 53.7 92.6 0.96 97.0 2.10 17.16 19.79 1.83 Ae 0- 7 4.2 3.5 6.3 10.9 0.31 36.1 2.8 0.13 1.12 1.47 0.15 Bhfg 7-28 4.7 3.9 7.0 12.1 0.14 90.3 7.5 0.06 0.05 0.08 0.06 1.39 1.48 Bg 28-34 5.0 4.5 2.7 4.6 0.05 92.0 17.8 0.04 0.08 0.03 0.05 0.34 0.84 BCcg 34+ not sampled VO ON Soil Chemical Analysis : Stand 300 (cont'd) Horizon Depth PH PH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) K Ca Mg Na Plot 300--3: Loamy Orthic Gleysol on fluvial or , glaciomarine over morainal deposits L(F) 18-13 4.5 4.1 53.8 92.7 0.81 66.7 43.0 2.04 25.07 8.70 1.13 H 13- 0 3.8 3.2 52.9 91.2 1.06 49.9 38.3 0.98 10.62 8.10 1.01 Ae 0-13 4.0 3.3 2.7 4.6 0.15 18.6 0.7 0.05 0.41 0.57 0.13 Bg 13-30 4.9 4.5 3.7 6.3 0.06 62.7 4.1 0.02 — 0.02 0.04 BC 30-36 4.8 4.6 2.3 4.0 0.03 67.6 9.7 0.02 — 0.02 0.04 Ccg 36-39+ 5.0 4.6 1.3 2.2 0.01 92.8 14.2 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 Soil Chemical Analysis : Stand 821 Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) K Ca Mg Na Plot 821-1 : Loamy-skeletal Placic Humic Podzol on glaciomarine or glaciofluvial/morainal deposits LF 10- 7 4.5 4.2 51.6 89.0 0.64 81.8 27.7 2.07 37.59 12.98 0.38 H 7- 0 3.6 3.0 52.5 90.6 0.74 71.1 18.8 0.82 6.27 7.25 0.61 Ae 0- 6 3.8 3.2 1.8 3.1 0.12 14.9 1.4 0.07 — 0.29 0.08 Bh not sampled Bhfcg 6-13 4.7 4.1 9.1 15.6 0.12 74.0 0.5 0.02 — 0.05 0.04 Bfcg 13-22+ 5.1 5.0 3.3 5.7 0.07 49.2 1.4 0.02 0.02 0.03 Plot 821-2 : Loamy-skeletal Placic Humic Podzol on glaciomarine or glaciofluvial/morainal deposits LF 14-12 4.5 4.1 54.1 93.3 0.59 91.1 19.2 1.33 22.31 7.20 0.55 H 12- 0 3.7 3.1 53.9 92.9 1.23 44.0 16.7 0.84 7.54 9.34 0.80 Ae 0-10 3.8 3.2 4.4 7.6 0.17 25.6 5.9 0.05 0.42 0.37 0.10 Bh 10-12 4.3 3.7 6.9 11.8 0.17 39.9 3.9 0.05 0.07 0.24 0.08 Bhfc not sampled Bfcgj 12-17+ 5.0 4.7 1.3 2.1 0.02 54.2 7.1 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.03 Soil Chemical Analysis : Stand 821 (cont'd) Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) K Ca Mg Na Plot 821-3 : Loamy-skeletal Orthic Humic Podzol on glaciomarine or glaciofluvial/morainal deposits L 5- 3 4.3 4.3 37.6 64.9 0.66 57.0 17.8 1.67 23.42 10.28 0.88 FH 3- 0 3.7 3.2 44.7 77.1 0.68 65.9 19.5 1.52 6.46 9.27 0.17 Ae 0- 3 3.9 3.3 3.3 5.6 0.05 70.2 1.2 1.42 0.17 0.29 0.07 Bhgl 3-24 4.7 4.6 5.8 10.0 0.15 38.2 0.4 0.08 — 0.09 0.06 Bhg2 24-48 4.9 5.0 9.3 16.0 0.14 64.6 0.6 0.06 — 0.04 0.05 Cc 48+ not sampled Soil Chemical Analysis : Stand 1092 Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) . K Ca Mg Na Plot 1092-1 : Fragmental over sandy, Cumulic Regosol on fluvial deposits L 21-19 4.2 3.9 35.3 60.8 1.03 34.4 57.6 2.02 20.60 7.16 0.84 FH 19- 0 3.8 3.3 46.3 79.9 1.43 32.4 40.3 0.54 19.57 8.18 0.87 Hil 0-19 4.3 3.6 18.6 32.0 0.51 36.8 4.0 0.17 2.76 2.12 2.12 Hi2 19-48 4.9 4.2 25.0 43.2 0.77 32.5 2.4 0.21 3.64 2.60 0.47 Bml 48-64 4.9 4.1 9.7 16.7 0.25 39.3 2.0 0.06 1.44 0.85 0.17 Bm2 64-81 5.3 4.3 2.8 4.8 0.08 36.8 2.3 0.03 0.48 0.19 0.06 Bm3 81-91+ 5.3 4.3 2.9 3.0 0.09 30.9 5.4 0.03 0.71 0.23 0.07 Plot 1092-2 : Sandy Eluviated Dystric Brunisol on fluvial deposits L 10- 8 4.5 4.2 30.7 53.0 1.10 27.8 55.2 2.38 21.66 8.52 0.92 H 8- 0 3.9 3.3 49.3 85.0 0.18 267.9 43.5 0.69 16.45 9.20 1.76 Ae 0- 7 4.7 3.9 2.5 4.3 0.11 22.1 2.6 0.05 1.28 0.77 0.18 Bml 7-22 5.6 4.4 2.1 3.7 0.08 25.0 1.9 0.04 1.10 0.43 0.18 Bm2 22-47 5.3 4.4 4.2 7.2 0.16 27.1 2.3 0.05 1.66 0.53 0.19 Bm3 47-62 5.4 4.5 1.4 2.4 0.04 32.5 1.1 0.04 1.03 0.24 0.13 Bm4 62-72 5.6 4.7 1.7 2.9 0.05 32.1 1.9 0.03 1.07 0.22 0.11 IIC1 72-84 5.7 4.8 1.2 2.1 0.05 25.0 1.8 0.05 0.88 0.20 0.13 IIC2 84-95 5.6 4.6 1.1 1.8 0.02 47.8 2.2 0.02 0.89 0.31 0.09 IIC3 95-106 6.3 4.7 1.0 1.7 0.02 100.0 2.3 0.03 0.71 0.11 0.10 IIC4 106-118+ 5.6 4.8 1.0 1.7 0.01 153.8 1.9 0.02 0.51 0.09 0.08 Soil Chemical Analysis : Stand 1092 (cont'd) Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) ___ K Ca Mg Na Plot 1092-3 : Sandy-skeletal Orthic Dystric.Brunisol on fluvial deposits L 8- 6 4.1 3.7 56.4 97.2 0.78 72.5 74.1 1.69 15.58 6.44 0.89 H 6- 0 3.7 3.1 47.7 82.2 0.16 296.3 108.2 0.81 10.71 8.47 0.81 Aej 0- 1 too small to sample Bml 1-17 4.7 3.8 5.6 9.7 0.19 29.8 3.8 0.05 0.71 0.27 0.11 Bm2 17-41 5.4 4.7 8.1 14.0 0.23 34.6 3.9 0.05 3.99 1.14 0.22 Bm3 41-67 5.5 5.0 2.8 4.9 0.11 26.7 9.4 0.02 5.14 0.81 0.11 C 67-89+ 6.3 5.5 1.3 2.3 0.03 46.4 11.5 0.01 6.29 0.62 0.09 Soil Chemical Analysis : 315 Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations Fe Al (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) % % K Ca Mg Na  Plot 315-1: Fine Loamy Humic Gleysol on fluvial deposits LF 15-10 4.6 4.2 42.3 72.8 0.99 46.5 9.19 32.67 19.47 4.23 H 10- 0 4.0 3.7 26.2 45.1 0.80 34.8 17.7 1.87 11.33 5.96 0.91 Bgl 0-12 4.3 3.7 8.3 14.3 0.28 31.2 3.7 0.37 1.20 1.23 0.31 1.02 0.60 Bg2 12-37 4.7 4.0 3.8 6.6 0.11 35.5 9.4 0.10 0.38 0.36 0.13 0.53 0.60 Bg3 37-67 4.8 4.1 2.8 4.9 0.12 24.8 32.3 0.04 0.30 0.33 0.13 0.10 0.46 C 67+ 5.0 4.2 1.7 2.9 0.04 43.6 27.9 0.04 0.37 0.48 0.08 0.10 0.28 Plot 315-2: Fine-silty Humic Gleysol on fluvial deposits LFH 3- 0 4.4 4.0 37.1 64.1 0.76 52.8 11.29 26.31 23.50 4.75 Ah 0- 7 4.0 3.6 14.9 25.7 0.59 26.6 17.0 0.46 1.94 2.29 0.36 Bgl 7-29 4.4 3.8 6.0 10.4 0.27 22.8 3.3 0.32 0.39 0.86 1.39 1.10 0.64 Bg2 29-55 4.5 3.9 5.1 8.7 0.19 48.1 3.9 0.11 0.15 0.23 0.12 1.08 0.68 Bg3 55-60 4.5 3.8 6.1 10.5 0.23 27.7 7.0 0.10 0.19 0.26 0.13 0.39 0.59 Bg4 60-80 5.3 3.4 3.6 6.2 0.12 30.3 11.4 0.08 2.56 0.93 0.13 0.29 0.40 Soil Chemical Analysis : Stand 315 (cont'd) Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) K Ca Mg Na Plot 315-3; Fine-silty Humic Gleysol on fluvial deposits LFH 3- 0 4.7 4.3 50.0 86.2 0.89 56.2 62.9 1.02 11.26 3.38 0.79 Ah 0-10 4.5 3.9 12.1 20.8 0.40 30.2 8.3 0.51 7.06 2.87 0.35 Bgl 10-24 4.4 3.8 3.1 5.3 0.24 13.0 2.9 0.18 1.45 0.79 0.18 Bg2 24-45 4.7 3.9 3.9 6.7 0.16 24.8 2.3 0.13 0.33 0.39 0.17 Bg3 45-70 4.6 3.8 1.3 2.2 0.08 16.3 3.3 0.05 0.08 0.18 0.12 Bg4 70-90 5.0 4.0 2.9 5.0 0.11 26.9 6.7 0.04 0.19 0.16 0.11 Bg5 90-94 5.1 4.0 2.7 4.6 0.10 26.7 13.1 0.05 1.06 0.49 0.17 Cbl 94-112 4.8 4.1 5.4 9.3 0.49 10.9 12.5 0.03 2.57 0.84 0.21 Cb2 112-130+ 4.8 4.4 2.7 4.7 0.08 32.5 10.3 0.03 2.81 0.85 0.20 o Soil Chemical Analysis : Stand 513 Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) <,%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) K Ca Mg Na Plot 513-1 : Fine-loamy Orthic Ferro-Humic Podzol, on fluvial deposits L 7- 5 4.4 4.2 38.5 66.5 0.99 39.0 59.8 2.03 29.91 5.59 0.23 FH 5- 0 3.9 3.3 26.2 45.2 0.77 34.1 10.9 0.79 6.22 1.88 0.22 Aej not sampled B21h 0- 7 4.9 4.1 5.6 9.7 0.13 44.1 1.0 0.06 0.01 0.12 0.09 B22 7-14 4.8 4.0 6.6 11.4 0.18 36.7 2.4 0.02 — 0.06 0.06 B23 14-25 4.5 4.0 7.1 12.2 0.20 35.5 1.3 0.03 — 0.07 0.07 B24c 25-34 4.5 4.0 7.6 13.1 0.15 51.7 1.2 0.01 — 0.05 0.06 B25 34-45 4.5 4.0 7.7 13.3 0.19 40.7 1.1 0.04 — 0.08 0.05 B26 45-64 4.7 4.1 7.6 13.1 0.16 46.6 1.7 0.03 — 0.05 0.06 B27 64-78 4.6 4.1 6.8 11.7 0.14 47.5 0.8 0.02 — 0.03 0.05 BC 78-93 4.9 4.5 4.1 7.1 0.09 44.1 2.7 0.01 — 0.01 0.02 CI 93-109 5.1 4.7 2.0 3.4 0.04 57.1 6.4 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 C2 109-131 4.9 4.7 1.8 3.1 0.04 42.9 10.6 0.01 0.01 — 0.02 C3g 131-148+ 4.9 4.6 2.0 3.5 0.05 41.7 15.0 0.01 0.04 — 0.02 o Soil Chemical Analysis : Stand 513 (cont'd) Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) K Ca Mg Na Plot 513-2 : Fine-loamy Orthic Ferro-Humic Podzol, on fluvial deposits LF 15-12 4.2 4.0 32.5 56.1 0.79 41.2 61.3 2.03 27.29 5.59 0.31 H 12- 0 3.8 3.1 20.1 34.7 0.61 33.2 4.0 0.18 0.99 0.74 0.11 Aej not sampled B21 - 0-10 4.5 3.9 6.7 11.5 0.16 42.1 1.5 0.03 — 0.14 0.05 B22 10-18 4.6 4.1 7.8 13.4 0.17 45.3 2.3 0.01 — 0.12 0.05 B23 18-25 4.9 4.4 5.0 8.6 0.10 52.6 1.4 0.01 — 0.03 0.05 B24 25-37 4.9 4.3 3.7 6.4 0.06 59.7 2.3 0.01 — 0.02 0.03 B25 37-43 4.8 4.1 4.3 7.4 0.10 42.6 1.2 0.01 — 0.03 0.04 B26 43-49 4.6 4.2 7.2 12.5 0.13 55.4 1.3 0.01 — 0.06 0.05 B27 49-56 4.8 4.2 5.4 9.4 0.12 46.9 0.9 0.03 — 0.03 0.05 B28 56-60 4.8 4.3 6.6 11.4 0.05 124.5 1.0 0.03 — 0.03 0.05 B29 60-68 5.0 4.3 6.6 11.4 0.14 46.8 1.1 0.02 — 0.03 0.05 B30 68-77 4.8 4.4 5.4 9.3 0.14 37.8 2.3 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.05 B31 77-90 4.8 4.4 5.7 9.9 0.13 43.8 1.1 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.05 B32 90-100 4.6 4.4 5.1 8.9 0.11 46.8 1.1 0.01 — 0.03 0.04 Cl 100- 4.6 4.6 3.6 6.1 0.09 39.6 3.0 0.04 0.14 0.02 0.03 C2g -135+ 5.3 4.6 3.8 6.6 0.10 37.6 4.0 0.01 0.05 0.02 0.03 o Soil Chemical Analysis : Stand 513 (cont'd) Horizon Depth pH pH Org. C O.M. Tot. N Org. C Av. P Exchangeable Cations (cm) (cm) (H20) (CaCl2) (%) (%) (%) Tot. N (ppm) (meq/100 g) K Ca Mg Na Plot 513-3 : Fine-loamy Gleyed Humo-Ferric Podzol, on fluvial deposits L 3- 1 4.7 4.5 40.7 70.1 0.84 48.3 44.7 2.37 33.97 5.59 0.95 FH 1- 0 4.2 3.9 26.8 46.1 1.07 25.0 24.0 0.54 12.05 2.39 0.14 Ah 0- 7 4.6 4.2 7.3 12.5 0.45 16.3 23.4 0.16 2.50 0.39 0.07 Aeg 7-13 4.8 4.3 3.4 5.9 0.19 18.2 7.5 0.04 4.80 0.07 0.04 B21g 13-23 4.9 4.6 4.9 8.5 0.16 31.0 1.8 0.04 0.40 0.06 0.05 B22g 33-49 5.2 4.7 4.1 7.2 0.14 28.9 2.0 0.03 0.35 0.05 0.05 B23g 49-64 5.3 4.8 3.5 6.1 0.13 28.0 4.0 0.03 0.39 0.05 0.04 B24g 64-79 5.4 4.9 2.2 3.7 0.07 29.7 6.3 0.01 0.21 0.02 0.03 B25g 79-93 5.3 5.1 2.3 3.9 0.09 25.8 7.5 0.02 0.16 0.01 0.04 Cg 93-107+ 5.1 4.8 0.8 1.4 0.05 16.3 18.3 0.01 0.09 — 0.02 APPENDIX 6 : List of accidental species for the plant syntaxa recognized in the study area Biogeocoenotic associations 1.11 2.11 2.12 3.11 3.21 4.11 Number of sample plots 4 18 6 Adiantum pedatum I +.0 Alnus rubra - I 1.1 -Bazzania denudata - I +.0 -Coptis asplenifolia - I +.9 II 2.7 Cornus nuttallii - I 2.0 -Dicranum fuscescens - - I +.0 Diplophyllum albicans 2 1.1 I +.6 II 1.1 Equisetum sp. — I +.0 — Galium boreale — I +.0 — Goodyera oblongifolia - I +.0 -Hypnum circinale — — I +.0 Kalmia microphylla - — I 1.4 Ledum groenlandicum — — I 1.4 Listera cordata - I +.3 — Lycopodium clavatum - I +.0 -Prenanthes alata — — — Rhamnus purshianus - I +.0 -Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus — I 1.1 — Salix sp. — I +.0 — Thuja plicata 5 7.2 V 9.0 V 8.3 2 3.1 5 7.9 2 2.1 2 +.5 5 7.8 5 7.4 i5 W S| O H X o APPENDIX 7: VEGETATION TABLES FOR ASSOCIATIONS abbreviations: P = presence MS = mean significance RS = range of significance 3 0 9 VEGETATION TABLES FOR ASSOCIATIONS ASSOCIATION 1.11 CLADINO -TSUGETUM PLOT I AVERAGE I KL8| KL8| KL8| KL8I NUMBER I VALUES 182 |l81 I 191 I 192 | SPECIES | P MS RS | SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE AND VIGOR THUJA PLICATA 100 .0 7 .2 5-8 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA 100 .0 6 . 1 5-6 6 1 5 1 6 1 6 1 PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII 75 0 5 .3 0-7 2 1 7 1 5 1 CHAMAECYPARIS NOOTKATENSIS 50 0 5 .3 0-7 5 1 7 1 PINUS CONTORTA 50 .0 4 .5 0-6 6 1 2 1 PINUS MONTICOLA 50 0 4 0 0-5 3 1 5 1 ABIES AMABILIS 50 0 2 8 0-4 1 1 4 1 TAXUS BREVIFOLIA 25 0 + .3 0-1 1 1 GAULTHERIA SHALLON 100 0 6 1 5-7 5 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 VACCINIUM PARVIFOLIUM 100 0 5 1 3-5 3 1 4 2 5 2 5 3 MENZIESIA FERRUGINEA 100 0 4 5 2-5 3 1 4 1 2 1 5 3 VACCINIUM ALASKAENSE 100 0 4 4 1-5 1 1 3 2 4 2 5 2 VACCINIUM OVATUM 50 0 4 7 0-5 5 1 5 2 CORNUS UNALASCHKENSIS 50 0 4 0 0-5 3 1 5 2 LINNAEA BOREALIS 50 0 4 0 0-5 3 1 5 2 BLECHNUM SPICANT 50 0 3 8 0-5 1 2 5 2 MAIANTHEMUM DILATATUM 50 0 3 0 0-4 2 1 4 2 PHYLLODOCE EMPETRIFORMIS 25 0 2 7 0-4 4 1 POLYSTICHUM MUNITUM 25 0 1 8 0-3 3 1 DANTHONIA SPICATA 25 0 + 3 0-1 1 1 HIERACIUM ALBIFLORUM 25 0 + 3 0-1 1 1 HYPOPYTHYS MONOTROPA 25 0 + 3 0-1 1 1 POLYPODIUM GLYCYRRHIZA 25 0 + 3 0- 1 1 2 PTERIDIUM AOUILINUM 25 0 + 3 0- 1 1 3 SAXIFRAGA FERRUGINEA 25 0 + 3 0-1 1 1 RHYTIDIADELPHUS LOREUS 100 0 6 1 5-7 5 1 5 3 6 3 7 3 HYLOCOMIUM SPLENDENS 100 0 5 9 4-7 4 1 5 3 6 3 7 3 KINDBERGIA OREGANA 75 0 5 2 0-6 5 3 6 3 4 2 DICRANUM SCOPARIUM 50 0 2 2 0-3 3 1 2 2 HERBERTA ADUNCA 50 0 1 3 0-2 2 1 1 1 SPHAGNUM SP. 50 0 1 3 0-2 1 1 2 2 PLAGIOTHECIUM UNDULATUM 50 0 1 0 0-1 1 1 1 1 CLADINA RANGIFERINA 25 0 3 7 0-5 5 1 CLADINA SP. 25 0 3 7 0-5 5 3 RHACOMITRIUM HETEROSTICHUM 25 0 3 7 0-5 5 1 RHACOMITRIUM CANESCENS 25 0 2 7 0-4 4 3 CLADINA IMPEXA 25 0 1 8 0-3 3 1 CLADONIA UNCIALIS 25 o 1 8 0-3 3 1 DICRANUM SP. 25 o 1 8 0-3 3 1 PLEUROZIUM SCHREBERI 25 0 1 8 0-3 3 1 P0G0NATUM ALPINUM 25 0 1 8 0-3 3 2 CLADONIA GRACILIS 25 0 1 1 0-2 2 1 DIPLOPHYLLUM ALBICANS 25 0 1 1 0-2 2 1 CLADONIA BELLIDIFLORA 25 0 4- 3 0- 1 1 1 DITRICHUM SP. 25 0 + 3 0-1 1 1 ISOTHECIUM STOLONIFERUM 25 0 + 3 0-1 1 1 MYLIA TAYLORII 25 0 + 3 0-1 1 1 POLYTRICHUM COMMUNE 25 0 + 3 0-1 1 1 POLYTRICHUM PILIFERUM 25 0 + 3 0-1 1 1 RHACOMITRIUM LANUGINOSUM 25 0 + 3 0-1 1 1 STEREOCAULON TOMENTOSUM 25 0 + 3 0-1 1 1 VEGETATION TABLES FOR ASSOCIATIONS ASSOCIATION 2.11 BLECHNO-THUJETUM PLOT KL 11 KL1 I I AVERAGE I FSI I F S l I F S l I K i l l KL11 KL1I F S l I FS11 F S l I F S l I FS11 FS1I KL1I KL1I K L l I KL 11 NUMBER I VALUES |51t |S12 |S13 |091 |o92 |093 |311 |312 |313 |521 |522 |523 |991 |992 |993 |501 |502 |503 SPECIES | P MS RS | S P E C I E S SIGNIFICANCE AND VIGOR THUJA PLICATA 100 0 9 0 6-9 9 1 8 1 8 1 9 1 8 1 9 1 9 1 8 1 9 1 9 1 8 1 8 1 9 1 6 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA 100 0 5 2 3-6 4 1 4 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 3 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 4 1 6 1 S 1 4 1 4 1 4 1 A B I E S AMABILIS 77 8 4 5 0-6 4 1 6 1 4 1 4 1 5 1 4 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 3 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 2 1 TAXUS B R E V I F O L I A 50 0 1 7 0-3 + 1 3 1 2 1 + 1 2 1 3 1 * 1 * 1 3 1 PINUS MONTICOLA 16 7 3 0 0-5 4 1 5 1 5 1 PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII 1 1 1 2 1 0-5 5 1 3 1 ALNUS RUBRA 1 1 1 1 1 0-4 * 1 4 1 CORNUS NUT TALL 11 5 5 4 0 0-1 1 1 P I C E A SITCHENSIS 5 5 4 0 0-2 2 t GAULTHERIA SHALLON 100 0 a 0 5-9 7 3 6 2 5 2 a i 9 1 7 2 9 3 9 3 9 3 7 2 7 2 8 3 7 3 8 3 8 3 5 1 7 2 5 2 VACCINIUM PARVIFOLIUM 100 0 5 4 3-6 6 3 5 3 5 3 S 1 3 1 5 1 4 3 4 3 S 2 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 1 5 1 5 2 MEN2IESI A FERRUGINEA 100 0 4 6 1-5 4 2 4 3 1 2 3 1 1 1 5 1 2 2 2 3 2 1 5 3 5 3 5 3 3 3 5 3 4 3 3 1 4 2 5 2 VACCINIUM ALASKAENSE S3 3 4 8 0-6 5 2 4 2 3 1 5 1 5 1 4 3 3 3 1 2 5 3 3 2 6 3 5 3 4 1 3 1 4 1 VACCINIUM OVATUM 66 7 5 1 0-B 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 1 1 5 2 6 3 B 3 6 3 7 3 7 3 1 1 RUBUS S P E C T A B I L I S 61 1 3 6 0-7 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 5 2 7 3 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 VACCINIUM OVALIFOLIUM 1 1 1 4 0 0-1 1 1 1 1 CORNUS NUTTALL11 5 5 1 9 0-5 5 2 RHAMNUS PURSHIANUS 5 5 • 0 0-1 1 1 S A L I X SP. S 5 * 0 0- 1 1 1 BLECHNUM SPICANT 100 0 e 9 5-9 9 3 8 3 7 3 8 1 B 1 9 2 9 3 9 3 9 3 9 3 9 3 9 3 5 2 9 3 9 3 9 1 7 1 8 1 MAIANTHEMUM DILATATUM 66 7 3 9 0-7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 5 3 5 3 4 2 7 3 1 2 1 2 1 1 POLYPODIUM GLYCYRRHIZA 61 1 1 5 0-3 •1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 CORNUS UNALASCHKENSIS 55 5 4 6 0-9 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 9 3 6 3 3 2 5 2 1 2 LYSICHITUM AMERICANUM 38 9 3 1 0-5 * 1 5 3 1 2 3 3 1 2 5 1 4 2 POLY ST I CHUM MUNITUM 27 8 2 1 0-5 1 1 1 1 5 3 1 3 2 2 STREPTOPUS ROSEUS 27 8 1 6 0-4 1 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 4 2 LINNAEA BOREALIS 22 2 2 2 0-4 4 2 4 2 3 2 3 1 T I A R E L L A T R I F O L I ATA 22 2 2 1 0-5 5 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 L I S T E R A COROATA 16 7 + 3 0-2 1 1 1 1 2 2 C O P T I S A S P L E N I F O L I A 11 1 • 9 0-3 3 2 2 2 GOODVERA OBLONGIFOLIA 1 1 1 4 0 0- 1 1 1 1 1 ADIANTUM PEDATUM 5 5 0 0- 1 1 2 ATHYRIUM F I L I X - F E M I N A 5 5 + 0 0- 1 1 3 EOUISETUM SP. 5 5 • 0 0- 1 1 2 GALIUM BOREALE 5 5 • 0 0-2 2 2 LYCOPODIUM CLAVATUM 5 5 4 0 0- 1 1 1 T I A R E L L A L A C I N I A T A 5 5 + 0 0- 1 1 1 T I A R E L L A UNIFOLIATA 5 6 4 0 0- 1 1 2 T R I L L I U M OVATUM 5 5 • 0 0- 1 1 1 VERATRUM VIRIDE 5 5 • 0 0- 1 1 2 HYLOCOMIUM SPLENDENS 94 4 5 8 0-9 1 1 4 2 1 1 4 1 4 1 S 1 RHYTIDIADELPHUS LOREUS 72 2 5 1 0-7 6 3 1 1 3 1 5 2 RHIZOMNIUM GLABRE5CENS 61 1 5 0 0-7 6 3 2 1 3 1 3 1 5 1 KINDBERGIA OREGANA 61 1 4 4 0-7 1 1 4 2 4 1 4 1 4 1 SPHAGNUM SP. 55 5 5 0 0-8 1 1 1 4 PLEUROZIUM SCHREBERI 33 3 2 9 0-5 CEPHALOZIA BICUSPIDATA 16 7 2 2 0-4 4 1 4 1 4 1 PLAGIOTHECIUM UNDULATUM 16 7 1 4 0-3 3 1 3 1 3 1 ISOTHECIUM STOLONIFERUM 16 7 1 0 0-3 3 1 2 1 1 1 RHYTIDIADELPHUS TRIOUETRUS 11 1 1 1 0-3 3 2 OIPLOPHYLLUM ALBICANS 1 1 ( 4 6 0-3 1 1 3 1 PLAGIOCHILA PORELLOIDES 11 1 • 6 0-3 3 1 1 1 SCAPANIA BDLANDERI 11 1 • 6 0-3 1 1 3 1 CALYPOGEIA MUELLERIANA 1 1 1 4 1 0-2 2 1 1 1 HOOKE RIA LUCENS 11 1 + 1 0-2 2 1 1 1 BLEPHAROSTOMA TRICHOPHYLLUM 1 1 1 4 0 0-1 1 1 1 1 POLYTRICHUM COMMUNE 5 5 4 5 0-3 3 1 8AZZANIA DENUDATA 5 5 4 0 0- 1 1 t OIPLOPHYLLUM PLICATUM 5 5 4 0 0- 1 1 1 HERBERT A ADUNCA 5 5 4 0 0- 1 1 1 POGONATUM ALPINUM 5 5 • 0 0- 1 1 1 RICCARDIA LATIFRONS () 0- 1 1 1 311 VEGETATION TABLES FOR ASSOCIATIONS ASSOCIATION 2.12 SPHAGNO-•THUJETUM PLOT I AVERAGE I KL3| KL3| KL3| KL8| KL8I KL8| NUMBER | VALUES 1001 1002 1003 | 211 I 212 | 213 | SPECIES | P MS RS | SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE AND VIGOR THUdA PLICATA 100 0 8 3 7-8 7 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA 100 0 6 2 5-7 6 1 5 1 7 1 6 1 5 1 6 1 PINUS CONTORTA 83 3 5 0 0-5 5 1 5 1 4 1 4 1 5 1 TAXUS BREVIFOLIA 66 7 2 0 0-3 2 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 VACCINIUM OVATUM 100 0 8 5 5-9 7 1 8 1 5 3 9 2. 9 3 9 3 GAULTHERIA SHALLON 100 0 8 0 6-9 9 1 8 1 7 2 6 1 7 2 7 2 VACCINIUM PARVIFOLIUM 100 0 5 2 3-5 5 1 3 3 5 3 4 1 5 2 5 2 MENZIESIA FERRUGINEA 100 0 3 1 1-3 3 1 3 1 3 3 1 + 1 1 3 2 MALUS FUSCA 83 3 5 0 0-5 5 1 5 1 5 + 4 + 3 + VACCINIUM ALASKAENSE 50 0 3 0 0-4 3 1 3 1 4 1 RUBUS SPECTABILIS 50 0 1 7 0-3 1 1 1 1 3 2 BLECHNUM SPICANT 100 0 8 2 7-8 8 1 8 1 7 1 8 2 8 2 7 2 CORNUS UNALASCHKENSIS 100 0 6 7 3-8 5 1 5 1 3 2 7 3 7 3 8 2 MAIANTHEMUM DILATATUM 100 0 5 3 3-6 3 1 3 1 4 2 6 3 6 2 5 2 LINNAEA BOREALIS 100 0 5 1 1-7 1 1 4 1 1 1 5 2 4 1 7 2 CAREX OBNUPTA 33 3 3 2 0-5 1 1 5 1 COPTIS ASPLENIFOLIA 33 3 2 7 0-4 4 2 3 2 CALAMAGROSTIS NUTKAENSIS 33 3 1 5 0-3 1 1 3 1 BOSCHNIAKIA HOOKERI 33 3 + 5 0-1 1 1 1 1 VERATRUM VIRIDE 33 3 + 5 0-1 1 1 1 2 KALMIA MICROPHYLLA 16 7 1 4 0-3 3 2 LEDUM GROENLANDICUM 16 7 1 4 0-3 3 2 PHYLLODOCE EMPETRIFORMIS 16 7 1 4 0-3 3 1 HYLOCOMIUM SPLENDENS 100 0 7 2 4-8 4 1 4 1 7 3 7 2 8 2 8 2 RHYTIDIADELPHUS LOREUS 100 O 5 7 5-7 5 1 5 1 5 2 5 2 5 2 7 2 SPHAGNUM SP. 100 0 5 1 1-6 1 1 5 1 5 2 6 2 4 2 3 2 PLAGIOTHECIUM UNDULATUM 83 3 3 5 0-4 4 1 3 1 4 2 1 2 3 2 KINDBERGIA OREGANA 66 7 4 5 0-6 6 1 4 1 4 2 3 1 RHIZOMNIUM GLABRESCENS 50 0 3 5 0-5 3 1 1 1 5 2 DICRANUM SCOPARIUM 50 0 2 2 0-3 1 1 3 3 3 2 DIPLOPHYLLUM ALBICANS 33 3 1 1 0-2 2 1 1 1 HERBERTA ADUNCA 33 3 + 5 0-1 1 1 1 1 HOOKERIA LUCENS 33 3 + 5 0-1 1 1 1 1 BLEPHAROSTOMA TRICHOPHYLLUM 16 7 2 2 0-4 4 1 CEPHALOZIA BICUSPIDATA 16 7 2 2 0-4 4 1 CLADINA SP. 16 7 1 4 0-3 3 2 DICRANUM FUSCESCENS 16 7 + 0 0- 1 1 1 HYPNUM CIRCINALE 16 7 + 0 0-1 1 1 MYLIA TAYLORII 16 7 + 0 0-1 1 1 _ 312 V E G E T A T I O N T A B L E S FOR A S S O C I A T I O N S A S S O C I A T I O N 3.11 KINDBERGIO P R A E L O N G I - P I C E E T U M PLOT AVERAGE KLO KLO KLO I NUMBER V A L U E S 921 922 923 j S P E C I E S P MS RS S P E C I E S S I G N I F I C A N C E AND VIGOR T H U J A P L I C A T A 100 0 7 . 9 7-8 8 1 7 1 7 1 TSUGA H E T E R O P H Y L L A 100 0 7 . 6 6- 8 7 1 6 1 8 1 P I C E A S I T C H E N S I S 66 7 5. 1 o-6 4 1 6 1 G A U L T H E R I A S H A L L O N 100 0 3. 5 3- 3 3 1 3 1 3 1 V A C C I N I U M OVATUM 66 7 1 . 1 0- 1 1 1 1 1 V A C C I N I U M P A R V I F O L I U M 33 3 2 1 0- 3 3 1 M E N Z I E S I A F E R R U G I N E A 33 3 +. 5 0- 1 1 1 BLECHNUM S P I C A N T 100 0 5 7 5-6 5 1 5 1 6 2 P O L Y S T I C H U M MUNITUM 100 0 5 0 4- 5 4 2 5 2 4 2 D R Y O P T E R I S EXPANSA 100 0 3 1 1-3 1 1 3 2 3 1 T I A R E L L A T R I F O L I A T A 100 0 2 8 1-3 1 2 3 3 2 1 A T H Y R I U M F I L I X - F E M I N A 66 7 2 3 0- 3 3 1 1 1 GYMNOCARPIUM D R Y O P T E R I S 66 7 2 3 0- 3 1 1 3 1 K I N D B E R G I A OREGANA 100 0 6 5 5- 7 5 2 6 3 7 3 RHIZOMNIUM G L A B R E S C E N S 100 0 5 7 5- 6 6 3 5 3 5 3 P L E U R O Z I U M S C H R E B E R I 100 0 5 2 4- 5 5 3 5 3 4 2 HYLOCOMIUM S P L E N D E N S 66 7 1 1 o- 1 1 2 1 3 313 V E G E T A T I O N T A B L E S FOR A S S O C I A T I O N S A S S O C I A T I O N 3 . 2 1 L Y S I C H I T O - P I C E E T U M P L O T NUMBER I AVERAGE I K L 3 | KL3 I K L 3 | I V A L U E S I 151 I 152 |153 | S P E C I E S | P MS RS | S P E C I E S S I G N I F I C A N C E AND VIGOR T H U J A P L I C A T A P I C E A S I T C H E N S I S TSUGA H E T E R O P H Y L L A A B I E S A M A B I L I S T A X U S B R E V I F O L I A G A U L T H E R I A SHALLOW RUBUS S P E C T A B I L I S V A C C I N I U M P A R V I F O L I U M V A C C I N I U M A L A S K A E N S E M E N Z I E S I A F E R R U G I N E A V A C C I N I U M OVATUM V A C C I N I U M O V A L I F O L I U M BLECHNUM S P I C A N T L Y S I C H I T U M AMERICANUM P O L Y S T I C H U M MUNITUM CAREX OBNUPTA ATHYRIUM F I L I X - F E M I N A MA IANTHEMUM D I L A T A T U M T I A R E L L A T R I F O L I A T A T I A R E L L A L A C I N I A T A G A L I U M T R I F L O R U M S T R E P T O P U S A M P L E X I F O L I U S B O Y K I N I A E L A T A T R I S E T U M CERNUUM V I O L A G L A B E L L A T I A R E L L A U N I F O L I A T A STACHYS MEXICANA CORNUS U N A L A S C H K E N S I S PRENANTHES A L A T A ADENOCAULON B I C O L O R S T R E P T O P U S ROSEUS F E S T U C A SUBULATA L U Z U L A P A R V I F L O R A POLYPODIUM G L Y C Y R R H I Z A VERATRUM V I R I D E RHIZOMNIUM G L A B R E S C E N S HYLOCOMIUM S P L E N D E N S P L A G I O T H E C I U M UNDULATUM PLAGIOMNIUM I N S I G N E K I N D B E R G I A PRAELONGA POGONATUM A L P I N U M L E U C O L E P I S M E N Z I E S I I K I N D B E R G I A OREGANA P E L L I A N E E S I A N A P L A G I O C H I L A P O R E L L O I D E S R H Y T I D I A D E L P H U S LOREUS S C A P A N I A BOLANDERI HOOKERIA L U C E N S SPHAGNUM HENRYENSE P L E U R O Z I U M SCHREBERI H U P E R I Z I A S E L A G O C A L Y P O G E I A M U E L L E R I A N A I S O T H E C I U M S T O L O N I F E R U M R I C C A R D I A L A T I F R O N S BLEPHAROSTOMA T R I C H O P H Y L L U M C E P H A L O Z I A B I C U S P I D A T A I S O P T E R Y G I U M E L E G A N S 100 0 7 8 5 - 8 5 1 8 1 8 1 100 0 7 4 6 - 8 8 1 6 1 6 1 100 0 4 2 3 - 4 3 1 4 1 4 1 3 3 3 2 1 0 - 3 3 1 33 3 + 5 0 - 1 1 1 100 0 6 9 5 - 8 5 1 8 1 5 2 100 0 6 0 5 - 7 5 1 5 1 7 3 100 0 5 7 5 - 6 5 1 5 1 6 3 100 0 5 0 4 - 5 4 1 4 1 5 3 100 0 4 9 3 - 5 3 1 4 1 5 3 100 0 3 6 1-4 3 1 1 1 4 1 6 6 7 3 0 0 - 3 3 1 3 1 100 0 6 0 5 - 7 5 1 7 1 5 1 100 0 5 8 4 - 7 7 1 4 1 5 3 100 0 5 5 4 - 6 6 1 5 1 4 3 100 0 4 7 1-5 4 1 1 1 5 3 100 0 4 3 1-5 1 1 2 1 5 3 100 0 4 3 2 - 5 2 1 2 1 5 1 100 0 3 9 3 - 4 4 1 3 1 3 2 1O0 0 3 2 2 - 3 3 1 2 1 3 2 6 6 7 2 3 0 - 3 1 1 3 1 6 6 7 1 6 0 - 2 1 1 2 1 6 6 7 1 1 0 - 1 1 1 1 1 6 6 7 1 1 0 - 1 1 1 1 1 6 6 7 1 1 0 - 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 5 2 0 - 7 7 2 3 3 3 3 1 0 - 4 4 2 33 3 2 1 0 - 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 1 0 - 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 0 - 2 2 1 33 3 1 3 0 - 2 2 2 33 3 + 5 0 - 1 1 1 3 3 3 + 5 0 - 1 1 1 3 3 3 + 5 0 - 1 1 2 3 3 3 + 5 0 - 1 1 1 100 0 5 7 5 - 6 5 1 5 1 6 3 100 0 3 5 2 -4 2 1 2 1 4 3 100 0 3 5 3 - 3 3 1 3 1 3 3 100 0 1 5 1-1 1 1 1 1 1 3 6 6 7 5 ,1 0 - 5 5 1 5 1 6 6 7 4 9 0 - 6 1 1 6 3 6 6 7 4 2 0 - 5 5 1 1 1 6 6 7 3 1 0 - 4 1 1 4 2 6 6 7 2 6 0 - 3 2 1 3 1 6 6 7 2 6 0 - 3 2 1 3 1 6 6 7 2 6 0 - 3 2 1 3 1 6 6 7 2 6 0 - 3 3 1 2 1 6 6 7 1 1 0 - 1 1 1 1 1 6 6 7 1 1 0 - 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 5 2 0 - 7 7 3 3 3 3 3 1 0 - 4 4 3 3 3 3 1 3 0 - 2 2 1 3 3 3 1 3 0 - 2 2 1 3 3 3 1 3 0 - 2 2 1 3 3 3 + 5 0 - 1 1 1 3 3 3 5 0 - 1 1 1 3 3 3 + 5 0 - 1 1 1 314 V E G E T A T I O N T A B L E S FOR A S S O C I A T I O N S A S S O C I A T I O N 4 . 1 1 T I A R E L L O T R I F O L I A T A E - A B I E T E T U M P L O T NUMBER I AVERAGE I S L 5 | S L 5 | S L 5 | | V A L U E S |131 I 132 [ 1 3 3 | S P E C I E S | P MS RS | S P E C I E S S I G N I F I C A N C E AND VIGOR A B I E S A M A B I L I S 100 0 7 6 6 - 8 7 1 8 1 6 1 T H U J A P L I C A T A 100 0 7 4 5 - 8 7 1 5 1 8 1 TSUGA H E T E R O P H Y L L A 6 6 7 5 3 0 - 6 5 1 6 1 V A C C I N I U M A L A S K A E N S E 100 0 6 5 5 - 7 6 3 7 3 5 3 RUBUS S P E C T A B I L I S 100 0 5 3 2-7 3 2 2 2 7 3 V A C C I N I U M P A R V I F O L I U M 6 6 7 5 4 0 - 7 7 3 4 3 V A C C I N I U M OVATUM 6 6 7 4 2 0 - 5 1 1 5 3 M E N Z I E S I A FERRUGINEA 3 3 3 3 1 0 - 4 4 2 V I O L A G L A B E L L A 100 0 7 6 6 - 8 8 3 7 3 6 3 CORNUS U N A L A S C H K E N S I S 100 0 7 1 5 - 8 6 3 8 3 5 3 T I A R E L L A T R I F O L I A T A 100 0 6 5 5 - 7 5 3 7 3 6 3 GYMNOCARPIUM D R Y O P T E R I S 100 0 5 1 2-5 2 2 5 2 5 3 ACHLYS T R I P H Y L L A 100 0 4 9 3 - 5 5 3 4 3 3 3 T R I L L I U M OVATUM 100 0 4 9 3 - 5 4 3 3 3 5 3 T I A R E L L A U N I F O L I A T A 100 0 4 2 1-5 1 1 1 1 5 2 BLECHNUM S P I C A N T 10O 0 3 9 3 - 4 3 2 3 2 4 1 ATHYRIUM F I L I X - F E M I N A 100 0 3 5 3 - 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 P O L Y S T I C H U M MUNITUM 100 0 3 1 1-3 3 2 1 2 3 2 S T R E P T O P U S ROSEUS 6 6 7 5 4 0 - 7 7 3 4 3 MA IANTHEMUM D I L A T A T U M 6 6 7 4 6 0 - 5 4 3 5 1 VERATRUM V I R I D E 6 6 7 3 3 0 - 4 2 3 4 3 D R Y O P T E R I S EXPANSA 6 6 7 3 0 0 - 3 3 3 3 3 P E T A S I T E S PALMATUS 6 6 7 3 0 0 - 3 3 3 3 3 C O P T I S A S P L E N I F O L I A 3 3 3 3 1 0 - 4 4 3 L Y S I C H I T U M AMERICANUM 3 3 3 2 1 0 - 3 3 1 O R T H I L I A SECUNDA 3 3 3 + 5 0 - 1 1 1 PRENANTHES ALATA 3 3 3 + 5 0 - 1 1 2 RHIZOMNIUM G L A B R E S C E N S 6 6 7 3 0 0 - 3 3 3 3 2 R H Y T I D I A D E L P H U S LOREUS 3 3 3 3 1 0 - 4 4 3 315 APPENDIX 8 Criteria for differentiating values of plant species in Characteristic Combinations of Species (modified from Inselberg et al., 1982) Name (symbol) Description  Character-species: exclusive (e) Displays a distribution exclusively, or almost exclusively, restricted to a particular syntaxon; presence class -IV, species significance variable; may be rarely associated with other syntaxa within the same rank, but only when these syntaxa are geographically adjacent, and the species' presence class in these syntaxa is =1 selective (s) Displays a distribution which is strongly associated with a particular syntaxon; presence class -IV, species significance variable; may be infrequently associated with other syntaxa within the same rank, but only when these syntaxa are geographically adjacent, and the species' presence class in these syntaxa is -II preferential (p) Displays a distribution which is definitely associated with a particular syntaxon; presence class -IV, species significance variable; may be associated with other syntaxa within the same rank, but only when these syntaxa are geographically adjacent, and the species' presence class in these syntaxa is -III companion (co) Displays a distribution which shows an association to a particular syntaxon; presence class -II and at least one presence  class higher than in a l l other (geographically adjacent) syntaxa of the same rank, species significance variable Differential-species: differential (d) Displays a distribution which shows an association to a particular syntaxon; presence class -III and at least two presence classes  higher than in all other syntaxa within the same rank and circumscription, species significance variable Constant-species: constant-dominant (cd) A species with presence class =V and species significance -5.0 in a particular syntaxon constant (c) A species with presence class =V and species significance <5.0 in a particular syntaxon Accidental-species: accidental (a) Displays a distribution which does not meet with any of the above criteria; such species do not appear to be allied to any particular syntaxon and should not be used In a Character Combination of Species 

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