UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Urban pest management : decision making and social conflict Czerwinski, Christoph 1984

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1984_A6_7 C94.pdf [ 8.24MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0095995.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0095995-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0095995-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0095995-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0095995-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0095995-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0095995-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0095995-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0095995.ris

Full Text

'1 URBAN PEST MANAGEMENT: DECISION MAKING AND SOCIAL CONFLICT By CHRISTOPH CZERWINSKI B.Sc. ( A g r . ) f The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o lumbia, 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 19 8 4 © C h r i s t o p h C z e r w i n s k i , 1984 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I ag r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f S c h ° ° l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V ancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 A p r i l , 26, 198^ Date DE-6 (2/79) i i ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study i s to d i s s e c t and understand the o r i g i n and nature of c o n f l i c t between a g r i c u l t u r a l agencies and the urban p u b l i c of western North America over Gypsy Moth c o n t r o l i n the urban environment and, based on t h i s understanding, to make recommendations f o r the r e d u c t i o n , or r e s o l u t i o n , of c o n f l i c t i n f u t u r e Gypsy Moth c o n t r o l programs. This i s accomplished through an a n a l y s i s of three case s t u d i e s (Vancouver, S e a t t l e and Santa Barbara) i n which c o n f l i c t o c c u r r e d between the p u b l i c and a g r i c u l t u r a l agencies over Gypsy Moth c o n t r o l . In each case the d e c i s i o n making process and c o n t r o l procedures implemented by the r e l e v a n t p u b l i c agencies, were compared to two sets of c r i t e r i a to assess t h e i r s o c i a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y and s c i e n t i f i c c r e d i b i l i t y . The s o c i a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n i s based on e s t a b l i s h e d standards f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s and the treatment of r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n by key a c t o r s i n the p r o c e s s . C o n t r o l methods were determined to be s c i e n t i f i c a l l y c r e d i b l e i f proved out through p r i o r t e s t i n g and experience, and a c c e p t a b l e to r e l e v a n t c o n t r o l a u t h o r i t i e s . I t was found t h a t : 1. In S e a t t l e and Vancouver, the a g r i c u l t u r a l agencies d i d not adequately inform l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s of the pest, i t s p o t e n t i a l impact and the a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r d e a l i n g with the moth. In S e a t t l e , some of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was i n t e n t i o n a l l y not made a v a i l a b l e . In Vancouver, i t i s not c l e a r i f the agencies had the r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n . i i i 2. In b o t h S e a t t l e and Vancouver, no attempt was made t o make the a g e n c i e s ' i n f o r m a t i o n base a v a i l a b l e t o l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s f o r t h e purpose o f d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . In Santa B a r b a r a t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was made a v a i l a b l e t o a l l o f the i n t e r e s t s . In none of the case s t u d i e s was, however, any e f f o r t made t o a s s i s t t he l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r own p o s i t i o n s on t h i s d a t a , nor were the i n t e r e s t s s u p p o r t e d (through f u n d i n g o r o t h e r means) i n s e e k i n g o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ; 3. Only i n Santa B a r b a r a were l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s c o n s u l t e d (through the EIS s c o p i n g p r o c e s s ) c o n c e r n i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t would be used f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . 4. In S e a t t l e , n e i t h e r b a r g a i n i n g nor n e g o t i a t i o n took p l a c e between the agency and the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s i n o r d e r t o a r r i v e a t a d e c i s i o n . In Vancouver, the C i t y Manager had t o i n t e r v e n e between the opponents because o f the r i g i d , i n f l e x i b l e s t a n d t h a t was t a k e n by b o t h s i d e s . In Santa B a r b a r a , b a r g a i n i n g and c o n s u l t a t i o n between the A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner and the opponents were used t o reduce c o n f l i c t and come t o an a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n ; 5. The c o n t r o l methods d e c i d e d upon i n S e a t t l e ( a e r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of B a c i l l u s t h u r i n g i e n s i s ) and Santa B a r b a r a ( a e r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f B a c i l l u s t h u r i n g i e n s i s and l o c a l i z e d , ground a p p l i c a t i o n o f C a r b a r y l ) were based upon e x p e r i e n c e and pr e c e d e n t and on s h o r t - and lo n g - t e r m c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . In Vancouver, the c o n t r o l method (the random a p p l i c a t i o n of i n s e c t i c i d a l soap and C a r b a r y l ) was not based on e x p e r i e n c e or i v p r e c e d e n t nor on s h o r t - and l o n g - t e r m c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . A l l t h r e e c o n t r o l methods were a c c e p t a b l e t o the l o c a l p u b l i c h e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s . I t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t c o n f l i c t a r o s e i n t h e s e case s t u d i e s because: 1. W i t h the e x c e p t i o n of Santa B a r b a r a , the a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s were unprepared and u n w i l l i n g t o c o n s u l t w i t h l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s ; 2. When l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s demanded f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the p u b l i c h e a l t h e f f e c t s of the c o n t r o l methods, the a g e n c i e s were not f r a n k and open about t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n (or l a c k t h e r e o f ) ; 3. The a g e n c i e s attempted t o p r e v e n t the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . Based on th e s e c o n c l u s i o n s , a s t e p - b y - s t e p p r o c e s s i s p r e s e n t e d , which a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s can f o l l o w t o reduce t h e s e s o u r c e s o f c o n f l i c t w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g s c i e n t i f i c a l l y c r e d i b l e c o n t r o l methods. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a l and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i s based on the l i f e - c y c l e of the Gypsy Moth, so t h a t the time f a c t o r does not become a c o n s t r a i n t . Sources o f c o n f l i c t a re reduced t h r o u g h the development o f on-going forums between the a g e n c i e s and the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s . I n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b i l i t y and d i a l o g u e between the a g e n c i e s and l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s a re the f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h i s p r o c e s s . F i n a l l y , an example i s g i v e n of how some of th e s e i d e a s are b e i n g a p p l i e d i n a new Gypsy Moth i n f e s t a t i o n a r e a near Vancouver. V TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS v LIST OF TABLES i x LIST OF FIGURES x CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1 1. THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 2 2. THE METHODS 2 3. ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS 3 4. ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY 3 CHAPTER I I : THE SOURCE AND NATURE OF CONFLICT 4 1. CONFLICT 4 2. CONFLICT RESOLUTION 5 3. THE ISSUE OVER WHICH CONFLICT OCCURS IN THIS STUDY 7 CHAPTER I I I : THE CASE STUDIES 13 THE GYPSY MOTH IN VANCOUVER (1978-79) 13 THE ACTORS 13 1. The A g r i c u l t u r a l Agencies 13 2. The Greenpeace Foundation 14 3. The C i t y of Vancouver 15 4. The P u b l i c s 15 v i PAGE THE SETTING 16 ACT ONE: SETTING THE STAGE 19 ACT TWO: STALEMATE 2 2 ACT THREE: FINDING A SOLUTION 25 THE GYPSY MOTH IN SEATTLE (1983) 30 THE ACTORS 3 0 1. A g r i c u l t u r a l A g e n c i e s 30 1.1 The U n i t e d S t a t e s - Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e 30 1.2 The Washington S t a t e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e 32 2. The Opponents 3 4 3. The P u b l i c s 36 THE SETTING 3 7 ACT ONE: A GROWING PROBLEM 3 9 ACT TWO: FROM PROBLEM TO CONFLICT 41 ACT THREE: WINDS OF CHANGE 4 5 THE GYPSY MOTH IN SANTA BARBARA (1981-82) 48 THE ACTORS 4 8 1. A g r i c u l t u r a l A g e n c i e s 48 2. Other A g e n c i e s 49 3. E n v i r o n m e n t a l and C i t i z e n s ' Groups 49 THE SETTING 50 ACT ONE: OBSERVING AND QUANTIFYING THE PROBLEM 53 ACT TWO: LEADERSHIP DECISIONS 55 ACT THREE: FACING THE PUBLIC 57 ACT FOUR: DECISION AND IMPLEMENTATION 61 v i i PAGE CHAPTER IV: A FRAMEWORK FOR THE INTERPRETATION OF THE CASE STUDIES FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF REDUCING CONFLICT 6 6 1. INTRODUCTION 66 2. CRITERIA REQUIRED FOR IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES TO MEET THE NEEDS OF SOCIETY 6 8 3. DETERMINATION OF EVALUATION CRITERIA FOR THE INTERPRETATION OF THE CASE STUDIES WITH THE AIM OF REDUCING CONFLICT 73 THE SOCIAL ACCEPTABILITY CRITERION 74 THE SCIENTIFIC SOUNDNESS CRITERION 76 CHAPTER V: EVALUATION OF THE CASE STUDIES USING THE SOCIAL ACCEPTABILITY AND SCIENTIFIC SOUNDNESS CRITERIA 77 EVALUATION BASED ON SOCIAL ACCEPTABILITY 77 EVALUATION BASED ON SCIENTIFIC SOUNDNESS 95 CHAPTER V I : CONCLUSIONS 98 1. ADEQUACY OF THE EVALUATION CRITERIA 9 8 2. SOURCES OF CONFLICT 99 3. CONFLICT RESOLUTION 101 4. A PROCESS THAT AGENCIES CAN FOLLOW TO REDUCE, OR RESOLVE, CONFLICT OVER HOW TO MANAGE THE GYPSY MOTH IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT 103 5. APPLICATION OF THIS PROCESS 106 v i i i PAGE LITERATURE CITED 108 LITERATURE CITED IN CHAPTER I I LITERATURE CITED IN CHAPTER I I I : VANCOUVER CASE STUDY 110 SEATTLE CASE STUDY 113 SANTA BARBARA CASE STUDY 115 LITERATURE CITED IN CHAPTER IV 119 APPENDIX I 121 APPENDIX I I 122 i x L I S T OF TABLES PAGE T a b l e I : Number o f p r o p e r t i e s i n t h e 8 - b l o c k s p r a y z o n e , and t h e t r e a t m e n t t h e y r e c e i v e d 29 X LIST OF FIGURES PAGE F i g u r e 1: Vancouver 17 F i g u r e 2: The K i t s i l a n o I n f e s t a t i o n Area 18 F i g u r e 3: The Ravenna I n f e s t a t i o n Area 37 F i g u r e 4: S e a t t l e 38 F i g u r e 5: Santa B a r b a r a L o c a t i o n 51 F i g u r e 6: Santa B a r b a r a / M o n t e c i t o 52 1 URBAN PEST MANAGEMENT: DECISION-MAKING AND SOCIAL CONFLICT CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION T h i s t h e s i s f o c u s e s on r e s o l v i n g s o c i a l c o n f l i c t s t h a t o c c u r when t h e r e i s a l a c k of consensus on how t o manage i n t r o d u c e d p e s t s i n urban a r e a s . Because of the g r e a t number of v e h i c l e s , goods and p e o p l e t h a t move a c r o s s N o r t h A m e r i c a , the chances of p e s t s moving w i t h t h i s f l o w have i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y . There e x i s t many examples of p e s t s which have been i n t r o d u c e d i n t h i s mariner: E u r a s i a n M i l f o i l , Knapweed, Japanese B e e t l e , M e d f l y and Gypsy Moth are but a few. A c o m p l i c a t i n g f a c t o r i s t h a t many p e s t s , which would have an e v e n t u a l impact on f o r e s t r y or a g r i c u l t u r e , a r e b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d i n t o urban a r e a s . When a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s attempt t o c o n t r o l t h e s e p e s t s , t h e y have t o d e a l w i t h urban c i t i z e n s and groups t h a t may or may not agree w i t h the c o n t r o l methods t h a t the a g e n c i e s propose. The Gypsy Moth, L y m a n t r i a ( = P o r t h e t r i a ) d i s p a r , i s such a p e s t ( f o r an o v e r v i e w of the Gypsy Moth, see the Chapter I I ) . S i n c e the e a r l y 1970's, the Gypsy Moth has been i n t r o d u c e d i n t o C a l i f o r n i a , Oregon, Washington and B r i t i s h Columbia. C o n f l i c t has o c c u r r e d between urban c i t i z e n s , i n t e r e s t groups and a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s i n a l l of t h e s e r e g i o n s over the methods proposed or used t o c o n t r o l the moth. These c o n f l i c t s have caused much b i t t e r n e s s and have tended t o a l i e n a t e the r e s p o n s i b l e a g e n c i e s from the p u b l i c w i t h whom 2 they have to d e a l . The c o n f l i c t s have a l s o j e o p a r d i s e d a c t i o n s to c o n t r o l the Gypsy Moth throughout the P a c i f i c Coast r e g i o n . 1. THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s study are: to d i s s e c t and to understand the nature and o r i g i n of these c o n f l i c t s and, based on t h i s understanding, to make recommendations f o r the r e d u c t i o n , or r e s o l u t i o n , of c o n f l i c t i n f u t u r e Gypsy Moth c o n t r o l programs i n urban areas. The c e n t r a l problem, namely c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n , i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I . 2. THE METHODS The t h e s i s i n c l u d e s three case s t u d i e s (Vancouver, S e a t t l e and Santa Barbara) of c o n f l i c t s over Gypsy Moth c o n t r o l on the West Coast. The case s t u d i e s are developed from c o n s u l t a t i o n s with government agencies, i n t e r e s t groups> p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y and others i d e n t i f i e d as t a k i n g p a r t i n these c o n f l i c t s , and from a review of a v a i l a b l e documents, memoranda and newspaper a r t i c l e s p e r t a i n i n g to each case. I was a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r with the Vancouver s i t u a t i o n , having f o l l o w e d the events of 1979. To b e t t e r understand the s i t u a t i o n s i n S e a t t l e and Santa Barbara, I made two t r i p s to each of these areas f o r the purpose of i n t e r v i e w i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the c o n f l i c t s , and the c o l l e c t i o n of the p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n (see Appendix I f o r a l i s t of p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n t a c t e d ) . In a d d i t i o n , to make the case s t u d i e s as accu r a t e as p o s s i b l e , d r a f t s of these s t u d i e s were sent to p a r t i c i p a n t s i n each event f o r t h e i r comments (see Appendix I I ) . 3 The case s t u d i e s are s u b j e c t e d t o an a n a l y s i s based on e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a d e v e l o p e d from a r e v i e w of the r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e and from an a n a l y s i s of how s c i e n c e - b a s e d i n s t i t u t i o n s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups d e a l w i t h u n c e r t a i n i s s u e s . 3 . ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS I t i s assumed t h a t the t h r e e case s t u d i e s s u f f i c i e n t l y c o v e r the n a t u r e of c o n f l i c t o v e r Gypsy Moth c o n t r o l i n urban a r e a s of Western N o r t h America; t h a t they a r e not a n o m a l i e s . The o b s e r v a t i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n s of t h i s t h e s i s a r e l i m i t e d t o the Gypsy Moth problem on the West C o a s t . A l t h o u g h the recommendations might be used i n o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s ( i n p e s t c o n t r o l and i n o t h e r r e s o u r c e c o n f l i c t s ) , t h ey have been s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d toward the Gypsy Moth problem. 4 . ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY In the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r ( I I ) , c o n f l i c t , c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n and the n a t u r e o f the Gypsy Moth problem, as i t a p p l i e s t o t h i s s t u d y , are d i s c u s s e d . In c h a p t e r I I I the t h r e e case s t u d i e s are p r e s e n t e d w i t h o u t e v a l u a t i v e comment. C r i t e r i a f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of the case s t u d i e s a r e d e v e l o p e d i n c h a p t e r IV. These c r i t e r i a a r e used i n c h a p t e r V t o e v a l u a t e the case s t u d i e s . F i n a l l y , c o n c l u s i o n s a r e made i n Chapter VI c o n c e r n i n g the adeguacy of the e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a , t h e n a t u r e and o r i g i n of c o n f l i c t i n t h e case s t u d i e s , and the r e s o l u t i o n of t h i s c o n f l i c t . T h i s c h a p t e r a l s o i n c l u d e s recommendations f o r the r e d u c t i o n of f u t u r e c o n f l i c t s . 4 CHAPTER I I : THE SOURCE AND NATURE OF CONFLICT T h i s s t u d y d e a l s w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f c o n f l i c t , e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n f l i c t , and i t s r e s o l u t i o n . In o r d e r t o a n a l y s e the c o n f l i c t s t h a t are p r e s e n t e d i n the case s t u d i e s , an o v e r v i e w of c o n f l i c t , the ways i n which i t i s r e s o l v e d and the i s s u e over which c o n f l i c t o c c u r s i n t h i s s t u d y i s r e q u i r e d . 1. CONFLICT C o n f l i c t has been d e f i n e d i n s e v e r a l ways, depending on i t s a p p l i c a t i o n . For the purpose of t h i s s t u d y , the d e f i n i t i o n of c o n f l i c t suggested by Katz and Kahn (1978) w i l l be used: "Two systems ... a r e i n c o n f l i c t when th e y i n t e r a c t d i r e c t l y i n such a way t h a t the a c t i o n s of one tend t o p r e v e n t or compel some outcome a g a i n s t the r e s i s t a n c e o f the o t h e r . " How a c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n a r i s e s , p r o g r e s s e s and ends i s dependent upon a number of v a r i a b l e s . Deutsch (1973) c o n s i d e r s the f o l l o w i n g : "1. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p a r t i e s i n c o n f l i c t ; 2. T h e i r p r i o r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o one a n o t h e r ; 3. The n a t u r e o f the i s s u e g i v i n g r i s e t o the c o n f l i c t ; 4. The s o c i a l environment w i t h i n which the c o n f l i c t o c c u r s ; 5. The i n t e r e s t e d a u d i e n c e s t o the c o n f l i c t ; 6. The s t r a t e g y and t a c t i c s employed by the p a r t i e s i n t h e c o n f l i c t ; 7. The consequences of the c o n f l i c t t o each of the p a r t i c i p a n t s and t o o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s . " 5 E n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n f l i c t i s not d i s s i m i l a r t o o t h e r t y p e s o f c o n f l i c t (Wehr, 1979). The s o u r c e s of c o n f l i c t over e n v i r o n m e n t a l , s c i e n t i f i c or t e c h n o l o g i c a l i s s u e s are numerous, but stem l a r g e l y from c o m p l e x i t y , u n c e r t a i n t y , and on an i n a b i l i t y t o p r e d i c t p r e c i s e l y the consequences of human m a n i p u l a t i o n o f e n t i r e ecosystems ( N e l k i n , 1979) . C o n f l i c t does not have t o be d e s t r u c t i v e , however. I t can h e l p t o form the s o c i a l w i l l . R e i l l y (1983) c o n s i d e r s the b e n e f i c i a l a s p e c t s of c o n f l i c t : "Competing i n t e r e s t s , and d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s about what i s i n the p u b l i c , i n t e r e s t , are not o n l y i n e v i t a b l e i n n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e c i s i o n s , but f r e q u e n t l y c o n t r i b u t e t o the h e a l t h y debate t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . At the same t i m e , d i s p u t i n g p a r t i e s need c o n s t r u c t i v e ways i n which t o communicate t h e i r i d e a s , t o exchange and c h a l l e n g e each o t h e r ' s i n f o r m a t i o n , t o c l a r i f y the i s s u e s , t o d i s c o v e r h i d d e n a r e a s of agreement, and, where p o s s i b l e , t o r e s o l v e t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s . " 2. CONFLICT RESOLUTION S i n c e c o n f l i c t over e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s can be a l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , i t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y d e s i r a b l e t o p r e v e n t or suppress competing v i e w p o i n t s . I t i s the u n d e s i r a b l e , d e s t r u c t i v e a s p e c t s of some of t h e s e c o n f l i c t s which do not l e a d t o s o c i a l l e a r n i n g t h a t r e q u i r e r e s o l u t i o n . Himes (1980) d e f i n e s c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n f o r t h i s purpose: " . . . t h e concept CONFLICT RESOLUTION can be d e f i n e d as p r o c e s s e s of communication and exchange between c o l l e c t i v e a c t o r s engaged i n n o n l e g i t i m a t e c o n f l i c t , w hich are i n i t i a t e d w i t h or w i t h o u t an i n t e r m e d i a t o r , and which seek t o t e r m i n a t e n o n l e g i t i m a t e c o n f l i c t and t o r e s t o r e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s between the a c t o r s t o some l e v e l of l e g i t i m a c y under s p e c i f i c n o r m a t i v e terms." 6 Legitimacy i s r e l a t i v e to the k i n d of r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t the p a r t i e s share. I t i s based on the mixture of c o n f l i c t and c o o p e r a t i o n t h a t e x i s t s between the a c t o r s . Legitimacy occurs when t h i s mixture r e t u r n s to l e v e l s accepted by s o c i e t y . Using t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , c o n f l i c t over environmental i s s u e s becomes l e g i t i m a t e when the a c t o r s begin to develop c o n s t r u c t i v e processes f o r problem s o l u t i o n . There are numerous mechanisms f o r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . Gladwin (1980), r e p o r t i n g the r e s u l t s of the Environmental C o n f l i c t P r o j e c t , i d e n t i f i e s three groups of r e s o l u t i o n mechanisms based on the r e l a t i v e amount of e x t e r n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s : 1. P u b l i c r e s o l u t i o n mechanisms i n which l e g i s l a t i o n , vote or p u b l i c hearings were used; 2. T h i r d p a r t y r e s o l u t i o n mechanisms i n which a u t o c r a t i c governmental d e c i s i o n , a d j u d i c a t i o n , a r b i t r a t i o n or mediation were used; 3. P r i v a t e r e s o l u t i o n mechanisms which i n c l u d e d b a r g a i n i n g , n e g o t i a t i o n , j o i n t problem s o l v i n g and p r i v a t e d e c i s i o n s . He concludes t h a t there i s no "one best way" to manage environmental d i s p u t e s . Johnson (1981), however, argues t h a t environmental d i s p u t e s f r e q u e n t l y focus on the wrong i s s u e ; t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n i s r e s u l t r a t h e r than process o r i e n t e d . Furthermore he s t a t e s : "Processes are not only important, they are c r i t i c a l to producing d e s i r e d r e s u l t s .. . Enough evidence i s now a v a i l a b l e to suggest t h a t the r e s u l t i n g f r u s t r a t i o n cannot be e l i m i n a t e d by means of ' b e t t e r ' programs with ' b e t t e r ' people running them. Instead, i t i s obvious t h a t more 7 a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be devoted t o the i n s t i t u t i o n s and p r o c e s s e s t h a t l e d t o the o r i g i n a l , u n d e s i r a b l e outcome as w e l l as t o the p r o c e s s e s s e t i n motion when we adopt new programs t o s o l v e problems." T h i s concept o f how t o d i r e c t c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d by Sawyer and Casagrande (1983) i n r e l a t i o n t o urban p e s t c o n t r o l problems. They suggest t h a t programs be devel o p e d which reduce the causes r a t h e r than the symptoms of urban p e s t problems. 3. THE ISSUE OVER WHICH CONFLICT OCCURS IN THIS STUDY To b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d the case s t u d i e s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o have a t l e a s t a g e n e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the i s s u e t h a t i s a t the r o o t of c o n f l i c t between e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups and a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s : the Gypsy Moth L y m a n t r i a ( = P o r t h e t r i a ) d i s p a r ) and i t s c o n t r o l . S t a t u s of the Gypsy Moth The Gypsy Moth was i n t r o d u c e d t o Ma s s a c h u s e t t s i n 1869, and s i n c e t h e n i t has w i t h s t o o d man's e f f o r t s a t q u a r a n t i n e and e r a d i c a t i o n . In the e a s t e r n U.S. the Gypsy Moth i s no l o n g e r an i n v a d i n g p e s t . I t i s p r e s e n t l y endemic t o t w e l v e e a s t e r n s t a t e s : Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, C o n n e c t i c u t , Rhode I s l a n d , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , New York, New J e r s e y , P e n n s y l v a n i a , Delaware, Maryland and M i c h i g a n ( G e r a r d i and Grimm, 1979). In a d d i t i o n , the moth has e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f i n p a r t s o f s o u t h e r n O n t a r i o and Quebec (Caron, 1982; Herdy, 1982). 8 From t h i s l a r g e , h i g h l y p o p u l a t e d a r e a , t h e G y p s y Moth has b e e n t r a n s p o r t e d t o o t h e r s t a t e s and p r o v i n c e s . M a l e moths h a v e b e e n t r a p p e d f a r f r o m t h e i n f e s t e d r e g i o n . I n t h e W e s t , C a l i f o r n i a h a s had i n t r o d u c t i o n s s i n c e 1973 (CDFA, 1 9 8 3 ) . O r e g o n , W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a v e s i m i l a r h i s t o r i e s . On t h e E a s t C o a s t , t h e moth has t r a v e l l e d as f a r S o u t h a s F l o r i d a ( A n d e r s o n , 1980) and as f a r N o r t h as N e w f o u n d l a n d ( M o r r i s e t a l . , 1 9 8 2 ) , Nova S c o t i a , New B r u n s w i c k and P r i n c e E d w a r d I s l a n d ( R e i d , 1 9 8 0 ) . Human and n a t u r a l m e a s u r e s h a v e p r e v e n t e d t h e moth f r o m e s t a b l i s h i n g i t s e l f p e r m a n e n t l y o u t s i d e o f t h e e a s t e r n s t a t e s and p r o v i n c e s . F u r t h e r n o r t h e r l y s p r e a d , o r movement i n t o t h e P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s , i s u n l i k e l y b e c a u s e o f c l i m a t i c and e c o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s ( G e r a r d i and Grimm, 1 9 7 9 ) . However, w i t h r e p e a t e d i n t r o d u c t i o n s , t h e G y p s y Moth may i n f e s t b i o t i c a l l y and c l i m a t i c a l l y f a v o u r a b l e r e g i o n s a c r o s s N o r t h A m e r i c a . I m p a c t o f t h e G y p s y Moth The G y p s y Moth i s c o n s i d e r e d a p e s t f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t l y , when t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s h i g h , t h e l a r v a e ( t h e c a t e r p i l l a r l i f e - s t a g e o f t h e moth) become a p u b l i c n u i s a n c e . One o f t h e e a r l i e s t r e p o r t s o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f a d e n s e G y p s y Moth p o p u l a t i o n comes f r o m t h e M a s s a c h u s e t t s S t a t e B o a r d o f A g r i c u l t u r e ( 1 8 9 8 , p . 6 ) : "The r u s t l i n g c a u s e d by t h e i r movements and t h e c o n t i n u a l d r o p p i n g o f e x c r e m e n t i s p l a i n l y a u d i b l e . " M o e l l a r e t a l . ( 1 9 7 9 ) , i n t h e i r s u r v e y o f 540 homeowners i n New Y o r k and P e n n s y l v a n i a f o u n d t h a t t h e n u i s a n c e f a c t o r o f 9 the moth was one of the prime concerns of the homeowners. Secondly, the Gypsy Moth i s a pest because the l a r v a e d e f o l i a t e a l a r g e v a r i e t y of t r e e s (Houston, 1979). The extent of d e f o l i a t i o n v a r i e s from year to year with changes i n p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y . In Co n n e c t i c u t , f o r example, over 650,000 acres were n o t i c e a b l y d e f o l i a t e d i n 1971. D e f o l i a t i o n decreased between 1972 and 1976, u n t i l no d e f o l i a t i o n was recorded i n 1977. However, the p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d again, and the c a t e r p i l l a r s n o t i c e a b l y d e f o l i a t e d over 370,000 acres i n 1980 (Anderson, 1980). The impact of these i n f e s t a t i o n s upon f o r e s t s i s v a r i a b l e . Tree M o r t a l i t y , f o l l o w i n g moth outbreaks, v a r i e s from n e g l i g i b l e to over 60 percent (McManus, 1978). H e i n r i c h s (1982) r e p o r t s t h a t i n Pennsylvania, where the moth d e f o l i a t e d 2 m i l l i o n acres i n 1982, l o s s of growth to f o r e s t s i s estimated at $30 per acre per year. Some t r e e s are more s u s c e p t i b l e to Gypsy Moth d e f o l i a t i o n than o t h e r s . Houston (1979) c l a s s i f i e s t r e e s p e c i e s i n t o f ood-preference c l a s s e s . Although oaks are the most p r e f e r r e d , many other s p e c i e s are att a c k e d , depending on f o r e s t composition and p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y of the moth. D i f f e r e n t t r e e s p e c i e s are fed on by d i f f e r e n t i n s t a r s (stages) of the l a r v a e (Lance and Barbosa, 1982). Human a c t i v i t i e s i n and around the f o r e s t a l s o c o n t r i b u t e to moth d e n s i t y and f e e d i n g h a b i t s (Campbell et a l . , 1976; Houston, 1979). Most h o s t - t r e e s t u d i e s have been done on e a s t e r n f o r e s t s . The C a l i f o r n i a Department of Food and A g r i c u l t u r e (CDFA, 1983) l i s t s h o s t - s p e c i e s more common to the 10 West. Included i n t h i s l i s t are Western Red Cedar, Red and White A l d e r , numerous f i r s , pines and Douglas F i r . C o n t r o l of the Gypsy Moth The f i r s t methods of c o n t r o l a p p l i e d to the moth were c u l t u r a l (egg-mass c o l l e c t i o n , b u r l a p p i n g of t r e e trunks and burning) and chemical ( a r s e n i c a l s ) (Massachusetts State Board of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1898). In 1905, a U.S. program was begun to i n t r o d u c e p a r a s i t e s of the moth. Over 40 s p e c i e s have been in t r o d u c e d s i n c e t h a t time (Simons et a l . , 1979). The program has, so f a r , been u n s u c c e s s f u l . In the 1940's and 1950's, DDT was used to c o n t r o l the Gypsy Moth. DDT helped to e r a d i c a t e c e r t a i n i n f e s t a t i o n s . For example, i n 1954, the moth was e r a d i c a t e d i n three Michigan c o u n t i e s . However, 58,000 pounds of DDT were r e q u i r e d (Hanna, 1982). In 1958, the United States Department of A g r i c u l t u r e stopped u s i n g DDT f o r Gypsy Moth c o n t r o l , and i n 1972 the Environmental P r o t e c t i o n Agency c a n c e l l e d most uses of DDT. Since 1958, s e v e r a l chemical p e s t i c i d e s have been used to c o n t r o l Gypsy Moth. The most important are: C a r b a r y l , T r i c h l o r f o n , Acephate and D i f l u b e n z u r o n . D i f l u b e n z u r o n i n h i b i t s c h i t i n s y n t h e s i s and the other p e s t i c i d e s are nerve poiso n s . A l l four p e s t i c i d e s are e f f e c t i v e , but are c r i t i c i z e d e i t h e r because they are broad-spectrum b i o c i d e s or because they pose p o t e n t i a l h e a l t h problems to humans. E f f o r t s to f i n d a l t e r n a t i v e s to chemical p e s t i c i d e s have provided s e v e r a l other c o n t r o l methods. Monito r i n g and e a r l y 11 d e t e c t i o n o f the moth have improved t h r o u g h the use o f a c h e m i c a l sex pheromone ( d i s p a r l u r e ) t h a t a t t r a c t s males t o t r a p s (Schwalbe, 1979). Attempts have been made t o use d i s p a r l u r e t o c o n f u s e c h e m i c a l communication between the sexes i n o r d e r t o c o n t r o l the moth. The r e s u l t s , however, have been mixed (Cameron, 1973). A more e f f e c t i v e method f o r c o n t r o l may be through the use o f mating i n h i b i t o r s (Carde e t a l . , 1973). B a c i l l u s t h u r i n g i e n s i s (Bt) and the n u c l e a r p o l y h e d r o s i s v i r u s (NPV) are two n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g pathogens t h a t have seen some s u c c e s s i n c o n t r o l l i n g Gypsy Moth l a r v a e . Bt i s a s p o r e - f o r m i n g b a c t e r i u m c o n t a i n i n g a t o x i c c r y s t a l which p a r a l y z e s the i n s e c t ' s gut when i n g e s t e d ( H e i n r i c h s , 1982). NPV a t t a c k s the l a r v a e i n a more g e n e r a l way, e v e n t u a l l y c a u s i n g the l a r v a e t o s t o p f e e d i n g , l o s e body f l u i d and d i e ( G e r a r d i and Grimm, 1979). Campbell e t a l . (1979) f e e l t h a t the i d e a l management system f o r Gypsy Moth would emphasize the p r e v e n t i o n o f o u t b r e a k s r a t h e r than subsequent s u p p r e s s i o n . The development o f I n t e g r a t e d P e s t Management (IPM) s t r a t e g i e s f o r the Gypsy Moth has o c c u r r e d because o f t h i s need t o manage the moth p o p u l a t i o n s so t h a t s u p p r e s s i o n t a c t i c s a re m i n i m i z e d . Doane and McManus (1981) d e s c r i b e c u r r e n t IPM methods f o r the Gypsy Moth a t l e n g t h . However, t h e IPM programs a r e s t i l l i n a development s t a g e . 12 C o n s i d e r a b l e c o n f l i c t has o c c u r r e d i n urban areas of the West Coast of North America over Gypsy Moth c o n t r o l . In the next chapter, three case s t u d i e s are presented i n which c o n f l i c t i n urban areas has occurred because of d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s of the nature of the Gypsy Moth t h r e a t , and the methods proposed to c o n t r o l the pest. 13 CHAPTER I I I : THE CASE STUDIES THE GYPSY MOTH IN VANCOUVER (19 78-79) THE ACTORS 1. The A g r i c u l t u r a l A g e n c i e s A g r i c u l t u r e Canada i s the f e d e r a l agency mandated t o d e a l w i t h i n t r o d u c e d p e s t s . A g r i c u l t u r e Canada p l a y e d the most i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the Gypsy Moth c r i s i s , because i t was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d i s c o v e r i n g the moth, r e p o r t i n g i t s e x i s t e n c e and d e a l i n g w i t h i t . The B.C. M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e , however, s u p p o r t e d A g r i c u l t u r e Canada because the M i n i s t r y i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n t r o l l i n g the spre a d o f p e s t s w i t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The P l a n t Q u a r a n t i n e R e g u l a t i o n s o f the PLANT QUARANTINE  ACT o f Canada g i v e A g r i c u l t u r e Canada the power t o c o n t r o l the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Canada and the s p r e a d i n g w i t h i n Canada o f p e s t s i n j u r i o u s t o p l a n t s . W ith r e s p e c t t o c o n t r o l o f p e s t s w i t h i n Canada, s u b - s e c t i o n s 1, 2 and 3 of s e c t i o n 25 o f the P l a n t Q u a r a n t i n e R e g u l a t i o n s (1976) are the most r e l e v a n t : "25.(1) An i n s p e c t o r may a t any r e a s o n a b l e time e n t e r upon and conduct a s u r v e y o f any a r e a o f l a n d t o determine whether i t i s i n f e s t e d . (2) The M i n i s t e r , upon the r e p o r t o f an i n s p e c t o r s e t t i n g f o r t h a b e l i e f on r e a s o n a b l e grounds t h a t an a r e a d e f i n e d i n the r e p o r t i s an i n f e s t e d a r e a , may, i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t the s p r e a d i n g of the p e s t , d etermine t h a t the are s h o u l d be t r e a t e d . 14 (3) Where the M i n i s t e r , p u r s u a n t t o s u b s e c t i o n ( 2 ) , has d e t e r m i n e d t h a t an a r e a s h o u l d be t r e a t e d , the t r e a t m e n t s h a l l be c a r r i e d out by an i n s p e c t o r or by a p e r s o n approved by an i n s p e c t o r f o r t h a t purpose i n a manner t h a t w i l l be e f f e c t i v e i n p r e v e n t i n g the s p r e a d i n g o f the p e s t c o n s i d e r i n g the type o f p e s t , the g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n of the a r e a and the e x t e n t t o w hich the a r e a i s i n f e s t e d . " The P l a n t Q u a r a n t i n e D i v i s i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e Canada i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n f o r c i n g the R e g u l a t i o n s of the PLANT QUARANTINE ACT. Where the mandate of A g r i c u l t u r e Canada does not p r e v a i l , the B.C. M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e may t a k e a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n as o u t l i n e d i n the PLANT PROTECTION ACT of B r i t i s h Columbia. The r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n of the A c t i s S e c t i o n 3, s u b - s e c t i o n 1: "3.(1) S u b j e c t t o s u b s e c t i o n ( 4 ) , the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may make such r e g u l a t i o n s as are c o n s i d e r e d e x p e d i e n t t o p r e v e n t the s p r e a d i n g w i t h i n the P r o v i n c e o f any i n s e c t , p e s t , or d i s e a s e d e s t r u c t i v e t o v e g e t a t i o n . " S u b - s e c t i o n (4) l i m i t s s u b - s e c t i o n (1) t o those m a t t e r s not c o v e r e d by the D e s t r u c t i v e I n s e c t and P e s t A c t of Canada (now the P l a n t Q u a r a n t i n e A c t o f Canada). Other M i n i s t r i e s or Departments, such as the P r o v i n c i a l P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l Branch ( M i n i s t r y o f Environment) or the M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h , which are concerned w i t h the p e s t or i t s c o n t r o l methods, have an i n f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h A g r i c u l t u r e Canada and the BCMA, based on Memoranda of U n d e r s t a n d i n g . 2. The Greenpeace F o u n d a t i o n The Greenpeace F o u n d a t i o n , or Greenpeace, i s an e n v i r o n m e n t a l group l o c a t e d a t 2623 W. 4th Avenue, i n K i t s i l a n o , Vancouver. Greenpeace was c r e a t e d i n 1970 t o p r o t e s t , the t e s t i n g 15 o f U.S. n u c l e a r bombs i n the A l e u t i a n I s l a n d s . S i n c e t h e n , the o r g a n i z a t i o n has p r o t e s t e d i n s u p p o r t of d i v e r s e causes ( s e a l i n g , w h a l i n g and h u n t i n g p r e v e n t i o n among o t h e r s ) . In Canada, Greenpeace has 15,000 members (Ouston and F i t t e r m a n , 1983). Greenpeace was l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o t e s t i n g the a c t i o n s o f A g r i c u l t u r e Canada. A l t h o u g h o t h e r groups and i n d i v i d u a l s a l s o o b j e c t e d t o A g r i c u l t u r e Canada's a c t i o n s , t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s were l e d by Greenpeace. 3. The C i t y o f Vancouver N e i t h e r the P l a n t Q u a r a n t i n e A c t of Canada, nor the P l a n t P r o t e c t i o n A c t o f B.C. s t i p u l a t e a f o r m a l r o l e i n the p e s t c o n t r o l p r o c e s s f o r c i t y governments. However, C i t y C o u n c i l p l a y e d a c r u c i a l r o l e i n the Gypsy Moth c r i s i s as mediator between Greenpeace and i t s s u p p o r t e r s and A g r i c u l t u r e Canada and i t s s u p p o r t e r s . 4. The P u b l i c s Some r e s i d e n t s w i t h i n the s u s p e c t e d a r e a of i n f e s t a t i o n a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the c r i s i s . A l l r e s i d e n t s p l a y e d a t l e a s t a p a s s i v e r o l e because they l i v e d i n the zone, and because of s e v e r a l house-to-house s u r v e y s conducted by Greenpeace, A g r i c u l t u r e Canada and the C i t y of Vancouver. A l l Vancouver r e s i d e n t s were r e p r e s e n t e d by C i t y C o u n c i l . Other c i t i z e n s of B r i t i s h C olumbia, who may have been a f f e c t e d by a spread of the moth ( i f t h a t would have o c c u r r e d ) , were not r e p r e s e n t e d o t h e r than by the a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s . 16 THE SETTING The Gypsy Moth c r i s i s of 1978/79 took p l a c e i n the K i t s i l a n o d i s t r i c t o f Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. K i t s i l a n o i s a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a , and i s s i t u a t e d on the West s i d e o f the c i t y , c l o s e t o the U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. Most r e s i d e n c e s have gardens c o n t a i n i n g a d i v e r s e m i x t u r e o f t r e e s , shrubs and p l a n t s . S t r e e t s a r e l i n e d w i t h d e c i d u o u s t r e e s . I n c l u d e d i n the p o p u l a t i o n of K i t s i l a n o a re U n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s who l i v e off-campus and what i s l e f t from a former " h i p p i e " community. IGURE 1: VANCOUVER (Source: American A u t o m o b i l e A s s o c i a t i o n ) FT. ROBERTS 19 ACT ONE: SETTING THE STAGE In J u l y , 1978, the P l a n t Q u a r a n t i n e D i v i s i o n (PQD) of A g r i c u l t u r e Canada d i s c o v e r e d f i v e male Gypsy Moths i n pheromone t r a p s (see Chapter I I ) i n the K i t s i l a n o a r e a . F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l o f f i c i a l s t hen met t o form a Gypsy Moth Sub-committee t o determine a c o u r s e of a c t i o n . In Oct o b e r , 1978, t h e i r f i r s t d e c i s i o n was t o sp r a y c r e o s o t e on one b a d l y e g g - i n f e s t e d t r e e . They a l s o c o n s i d e r e d removing o t h e r t r e e s . T h e i r l o n g - t e r m p l a n s i n c l u d e d a e r i a l l y s p r a y i n g a t h r e e t o f o u r b l o c k a r e a w i t h D i m i l i n ( d i f l u b e n z u r o n ) (The Sun, 1978; F o u r n i e r , 1978). In December, 1978, the Vancouver C i t y H e a l t h Department was n o t i f i e d by A g r i c u l t u r e Canada t h a t a Gypsy Moth i n f e s t a t i o n e x i s t e d i n the K i t s i l a n o a r e a and t h a t A g r i c u l t u r e Canada was c o n s i d e r i n g an a e r i a l s p r a y program. However, no f i r m p l a n s had been made. The H e a l t h Department r e q u e s t e d n o t i f i c a t i o n o f any d e c i s i o n a r r i v e d a t by the agency, t o p r o v i d e the H e a l t h Department w i t h adequate time t o a s s e s s both the proposed p e s t i c i d e and the method of a p p l i c a t i o n (Vancouver C i t y Manager, 1979). F u r t h e r m o r e , A g r i c u l t u r e Canada (PQD) a p p l i e d t o the P r o v i n c i a l P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l Branch (B.C. M i n i s t r y of Environment) f o r the a e r i a l s p r a y i n g o f D i m i l i n i n the K i t s i l a n o a r e a (B.C.M.A. and CD.A., 1979). In F e b r u a r y , 1979, PQD 1s p l a n s were p u b l i c i z e d by the Vancouver p r e s s (Farrow, 1979a). The newspaper account emphasized two p o i n t s : F i r s t l y , t h a t K i t s i l a n o would be a e r i a l l y s p r a y e d by h e l i c o p t e r ; and s e c o n d l y , t h a t the p e s t i c i d e proposed, D i m i l i n , was under i n v e s t i g a t i o n by the U.S. E n v i r o n m e n t a l 20 P r o t e c t i o n Agency as a p o t e n t i a l c a r c i n o g e n . An immediate o u t c r y a r o s e from Greenpeace and from o t h e r concerned groups and i n d i v i d u a l s . Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l d i s c u s s e d the problem, and the Deputy Mayor d i r e c t e d the C i t y Manager t o submit a r e p o r t i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the B.C. M i n i s t r y o f Environment, the M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r and o t h e r a p p r o p r i a t e s t a f f (Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l , 1979a). On F e b r u a r y 15, A g r i c u l t u r e Canada withdrew i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o s p r a y D i m i l i n . I n s t e a d , PQD announced t h a t i t was c o n s i d e r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e methods t o c o n t r o l the moth ( A g r i c u l t u r e Canada, 1979a). PQD then d e c i d e d upon a ground-spray program u s i n g the i n s e c t i c i d e C a r b a r y l . On F e b r u a r y 20, Greenpeace proposed a community meeting, t o which a g r i c u l t u r a l o f f i c i a l s were i n v i t e d . However, Ottawa r e f u s e d t o p e r m i t f e d e r a l o f f i c i a l s t o a t t e n d the meeting (Vancouver E x p r e s s , 1979a). N e v e r t h e l e s s , the meeting took p l a c e on F e b r u a r y 24, a t t e n d e d by about 100 l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s d e c i d e d t o ask A g r i c u l t u r e Canada t o o r g a n i z e a " c i t i z e n ' s c r u s a d e " t o a t t a c k the Gypsy Moth, u s i n g e v e r y method e x c e p t c h e m i c a l s p r a y s (Vancouver E x p r e s s , 1979b). D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , the C i t y Manager met w i t h p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l o f f i c i a l s t o d i s c u s s a l t e r n a t i v e methods and t h e i r m e r i t s and dangers, and t o d i s c u s s f u t u r e arrangements f o r p u b l i c meetings ( C i t y o f Vancouver, 1979a). On the e v e n i n g o f March 8, 1979, a p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n meeting was h e l d a t the K i t s i l a n o High S c h o o l . T h i s meeting was o r g a n i z e d by A g r i c u l t u r e Canada and the B.C. M i n i s t r y o f 21 A g r i c u l t u r e . To s t a r t the e v e n i n g , a f e d e r a l b i o l o g i s t p r e s e n t e d a s l i d e show of Gypsy Moth i n f e s t a t i o n s i n s o u t h e r n Quebec. T h i s was w e l l a c c e p t e d by the a u d i e n c e . When r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s proposed t h a t c h e m i c a l p e s t i c i d e s be used t o c o n t r o l the Gypsy Moth i n K i t s i l a n o , v i g o r o u s o p p o s i t i o n ensued. Greenpeace came w e l l p r e p a r e d t o r e f u t e the s a f e t y of the proposed p e s t i c i d e , C a r b a r y l . Greenpeace's p o s i t i o n on the moth i t s e l f was t h a t the c l i m a t e i n Vancouver was not s u i t a b l e f o r the Gypsy Moth and t h a t i t was t h e r e f o r e not p o s s i b l e t h a t i t would r e a c h e p i demic p r o p o r t i o n s . N e i t h e r Greenpeace and i t s s u p p o r t e r s nor the a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s showed any s i g n s of c o - o p e r a t i o n or c o n c i l i a t i o n toward f i n d i n g an a c c e p t a b l e c o n t r o l method. 22 ACT I I : STALEMATE On March 15, the B.C. M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e r e q u e s t e d , from the C i t y o f Vancouver, p e r m i s s i o n t o l o c a t e an i n f o r m a t i o n t r a i l e r on C i t y owned l a n d i n the K i t s i l a n o a r e a ( C i t y o f Vancouver, 1979b). On March 20, A g r i c u l t u r e Canada s e n t a n o t i c e t o p r o p e r t y owners i n K i t s i l a n o , e x p l a i n i n g the p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s of the moth, and ( i n the agency's view) the 'harmlessness' of the i n s e c t i c i d e C a r b a r y l ( A g r i c u l t u r e Canada, 1979b). On March 23, Greenpeace d i s t r i b u t e d i t s own l e t t e r t o r e s i d e n t s o f the a f f e c t e d a r e a . T h i s l e t t e r d i d not deny the p o t e n t i a l damage the moth c o u l d c ause, r a t h e r i t c o n t e s t e d A g r i c u l t u r e Canada's view t h a t C a r b a r y l was h a r m l e s s . In a d d i t i o n , Greenpeace urged the c i t i z e n s t o not a l l o w a g r i c u l t u r a l o f f i c i a l s t o s p r a y t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s , nor the s t r e e t s and b o u l e v a r d s a d j o i n i n g t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s (Greenpeace F o u n d a t i o n , 1979a). There then ensued a p e r i o d o f 'media war', which Greenpeace waged upon the a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s . The a g e n c i e s , meanwhile, were markedly s i l e n t . A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of A g r i c u l t u r e Canada s a i d t h a t the agency was t a k i n g a " w a i t and see" p o s i t i o n (Horwood, 19 7 9 ) . On A p r i l 24, an attempt was made t o r e c o n c i l e d i f f e r e n c e s and come t o a j o i n t p l a n of a c t i o n by Greenpeace and A g r i c u l t u r e Canada. A meeting was h e l d i n which P a t r i c k Moore, p r e s i d e n t of the Greenpeace F o u n d a t i o n , and R a l p h Houghton, head of A g r i c u l t u r e Canada's P l a n t P r o d u c t s D i v i s i o n , met t o d i s c u s s t h e i r v i e w s . The meeting seems t o have been a m i c a b l e , but no changes i n p o s i t i o n were made by e i t h e r group (Farrow, 1979b). 23 The end o f A p r i l and the b e g i n n i n g of May c o n s t i t u t e d a p e r i o d o f g r e a t a c t i v i t y by a l l p a r t i e s concerned i n the Gypsy M o t h - c r i s i s . T h i s was because the C a r b a r y l s p r a y program had been proposed t o b e g i n on May 2. C i t y C o u n c i l heard from the Vancouver H e a l t h Department t h a t the Department c o n s i d e r e d : " t h a t the proposed s p r a y i n g program can be u n d e r t a k e n w i t h no r i s k t o the p u b l i c . " ( C i t y o f Vancouver, 1979c) . The Mayor asked A g r i c u l t u r e Canada t o postpone the s p r a y program f o r 24 h o u r s , so t h a t C i t y C o u n c i l c o u l d hear from concerned i n d i v i d u a l s and g roups. On May 1, the F e d e r a l P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e , Pat Carney, d i s t r i b u t e d a p r e s s r e l e a s e s t a t i n g : "The problem of the Gypsy Moth i s no l o n g e r an e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e . I t has become a s o c i a l i s s u e . " and f u r t h e r : " C o n f r o n t a t i o n i s not the s o l u t i o n . The answer t o t h i s complex problem l i e s i n r e s p o n s i b l e l e a d e r s h i p by the f e d e r a l , c i v i c and community a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d t o d e v e l o p a program t o combat the p o s s i b l e e c o l o g i c a l damage caused by the gypsy moth on terms which l o c a l r e s i d e n t s u n d e r s t a n d and can s u p p o r t , i n t h e i r own back y a r d s . " (Carney, 1979). No a c t i o n , however, was t a k e n by Pat Carney or any o t h e r f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c i a n . T h e i r l a c k o f a c t i o n may have been because both f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c i a n s were f a c i n g e l e c t i o n s , and i t would have been too r i s k y t o i n v o l v e themselves i n t h i s complex i s s u e . On May 2, C i t y C o u n c i l heard from d e l e g a t e s r e p r e s e n t i n g A g r i c u l t u r e Canada and the e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups. C o u n c i l d e c i d e d t o : (1) urge A g r i c u l t u r e Canada t o c a n c e l the s p r a y program; and (2) c r e a t e a t a s k f o r c e t o examine a l t e r n a t i v e approaches t o d e a l 24 w i t h the problem. P a t r i c k Moore, i n h i s s t a t e m e n t , a d v i s e d C i t y C o u n c i l t h a t Greenpeace had launched i n j u n c t i o n p r o c e e d i n g s w i t h t h e F e d e r a l C o u r t o f Canada (Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l , 1979b). That same day, i n response t o C i t y C o u n c i l ' s r e q u e s t , A g r i c u l t u r e Canada announced t h a t the s p r a y program had been i n d e f i n i t e l y postponed. The r e a s o n f o r t h i s d e c i s i o n was g i v e n oy Dr. G. F l e i s c h m a n , S e n i o r A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r , O p e r a t i o n s , A g r i c u l t u r e Canada: "These l o c a l governments, a t t h i s t i m e , are not s u p p o r t i v e o f our e f f o r t s . S i n c e l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s d i r e c t l y r e p r e s e n t the peop l e whose t r e e s and shrubs a r e i n j e o p a r d y , we f i n d i t i n a d v i s a b l e t o proceed w i t h o u t t h e i r f u l l s u p p o r t . " ( A g r i c u l t u r e Canada, 1979c). T h i s d e c i s i o n was f o l l o w e d by a n o t h e r p e r i o d o f 'media w a r 1 . T h i s t i m e , however, A g r i c u l t u r e Canada and i t s s u p p o r t e r s were the i n s t i g a t o r s . Meanwhile, the Gypsy Moth eggs began h a t c h i n g . L a r v a e were foun d , on May 8, by a g r i c u l t u r e o f f i c i a l s on a t r e e near where the o r i g i n a l i n f e s t a t i o n was d i s c o v e r e d . In a d d i t i o n , an A g r i c u l t u r e Canada e n t o m o l o g i s t had hatched some of the Gypsy Moth eggs, and found t h a t the l a r v a e f e d on Douglas F i r n e e d l e s . However, the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , a p o t e n t i a l a l l y of a g r i c u l t u r e , was not impressed by t h e s e f i n d i n g s and the C o u n c i l of F o r e s t I n d u s t r i e s (COFI) s t a t e d t h a t i t was s a t i s f i e d t h a t the moth was not a t h r e a t t o commercial f o r e s t s ( M u l l e n , 1979). Support f o r A g r i c u l t u r e Canada's s p r a y p r o p o s a l began t o grow. On May 11, the B.C. M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e s e n t a t e l e g r a m t o the F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , Eugene Whelan, s t a t i n g : 25 "The B.C. M i n i s t r y f u l l y s u p p o r t s an e f f e c t i v e f e d e r a l government e r a d i c a t i o n program i n the K i t s i l a n o a r e a and s i n c e r e l y hopes t h a t the s c a r e campaign i n i t i a t e d i n the neighbourhood by Greenpeace has not r u i n e d the chances of e r a d i c a t i n g the p e s t i n K i t s i l a n o t h i s y e a r . " (B.C.M.A., 1979). In mid-May, the B.C. F r u i t Grower's A s s o c i a t i o n and the B.C. F e d e r a t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r e a l s o v o i c e d t h e i r c o n c e r n t o the Mayor of Vancouver, Jack. V o l r i c h . T h e i r b r i e f s e x p r e s s e d t h e i r f e a r s o f the consequences t o the f r u i t i n d u s t r y i n the P r o v i n c e i f e r a d i c a t i o n o r c o n t r o l o f the Gypsy Moth was not e f f e c t e d (Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l , 1979c). The Vancouver P a r k s Board a l s o asked C i t y C o u n c i l t o s u p p o r t the F e d e r a l Government program t o s p r a y a l l t h e t r e e s and p l a n t m a t e r i a l i n the d e s i g n a t e d 4 4 - b l o c k i n f e s t e d a r e a i n K i t s i l a n o . The Board wished t o p r o t e c t the t r e e s under i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n , and f e l t t h a t p i e c e - m e a l s p r a y i n g would not be e f f e c t i v e (Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l , 1979d). ACT I I I : FINDING A SOLUTION Throughout t h i s p e r i o d i n e a r l y May, C i t y C o u n c i l attempted t o f i n d a s o l u t i o n t o the on-going problem. At a meeting on May 8, between C i t y C o u n c i l members, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the P a r k s Board, A g r i c u l t u r e Canada, Environment Canada, B.C. M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Greenpeace and v a r i o u s K i t s i l a n o r e s i d e n t s , i t was d e c i d e d t o form a seven member Gypsy Moth Task F o r c e . A f t e r a two-hour meeting, on May 13, an i n t e r i m 7-member Task Force was c r e a t e d c o n s i s t i n g of f o u r government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s (Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l , P a r k s Board, A g r i c u l t u r e 26 Canada and the B.C. M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e ) as w e l l as t h r e e K i t s i l a n o c i t i z e n s (who r e p r e s e n t e d d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n s i n the community about C a r b a r y l ) ( H a r c o u r t , 1979). C i t y C o u n c i l t h e n gave the C i t y Manager the mandate t o o r g a n i z e a s o l u t i o n t o the problem (Vancouver C i t y Manager, 1979b). A program of c o n t r o l f o r the Gypsy Moth, proposed by the Task F o r c e , i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the d i f f e r e n t p a r t i e s , was unanimously a c c e p t e d by C i t y C o u n c i l . The program c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r s t r a t e g i e s : i n f o r m a t i o n , v o l u n t a r y C a r b a r y l s p r a y i n g , m o n i t o r i n g and neighbourhood housekeeping. The ' v o l u n t a r y C a r b a r y l s p r a y i n g ' p r o p o s a l i s w o r t h q u o t i n g , because i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n becomes i m p o r t a n t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g l a t e r a c t i o n s by A g r i c u l t u r e Canada and Greenpeace: "VOLUNTARY CARBARYL SPRAYING: 1. F i e l d workers w i l l be c a l l i n g on a l l houses i n a g i v e n b l o c k d u r i n g the day and i n the e v e n i n g s , and w i l l seek v o l u n t a r y c o n s e n t t o C a r b a r y l s p r a y i n g , but o u t l i n i n g a l s o a l t e r n a t i v e s i f t h e y can not g e t such c o n s e n t . 2. In the most i m p o r t a n t b l o c k s , near the known i n f e s t a t i o n , i f t h ey get over 80% c o n s e n t , then a c o n t r a c t o r t o A g r i c u l t u r e Canada w i l l be asked t o s p r a y the c o n s e n t i n g p r o p e r t i e s . 3. B e f o r e such s p r a y i n g , a l l n e i g h b o u r s w i l l be n o t i f i e d and a d v i s e d of p r e c a u t i o n s t o t a k e . 4. A C i t y H e a l t h I n s p e c t o r w i l l be p r e s e n t a t a l l times t o o b s e r v e and e n f o r c e s a f e t y p r e c a u t i o n s . 5. Such s p r a y i n g would l i k e l y be c a r r i e d out 2 or 3 t i m e s between now and l a t e June. 6. The b l o c k s s e l e c t e d would s t a r t w i t h t h o s e near the known i n f e s t a t i o n , and work out from t h e r e . The t o t a l might w e l l be l i m i t e d t o o n l y about 25 b l o c k s . 7. B o u l e v a r d t r e e s w i l l be s p r a y e d o n l y as and when n e i g h b o u r i n g c o n s e n t i n g p r o p e r t i e s a r e s p r a y e d . " (Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l , 1979c). 27 On May 22, Greenpeace d e c i d e d t o do some s p r a y i n g of i t s own. Based on the r e s u l t s of i t s own household s u r v e y , Greenpeace began s p r a y i n g S a f e r 1 s I n s e c t i c i d a l Soap (composed o f p o t a s s i u m s a l t s and o l e i c a c i d ) on p r o p e r t i e s where h o u s e h o l d e r s w i s h e d the soap t o be a p p l i e d . Meanwhile, A g r i c u l t u r e Canada surveyed h o u s e h o l d e r s r e g a r d i n g C a r b a r y l s p r a y i n g . From t h e i r r e s u l t s , A g r i c u l t u r e Canada o f f i c i a l s e s t i m a t e d t h a t they had r e c e i v e d a p p r o v a l t o s p r a y 83% o f the p r o p e r t i e s where the agency had c o n t a c t e d h o u s e h o l d e r s (Vancouver E x p r e s s , 1979c). T h i s l e d the o f f i c i a l s t o b e l i e v e t h a t they had s u f f i c i e n t c o n s e n t , as r e q u i r e d i n the Task F o r c e ' s recommendation, t o s p r a y C a r b a r y l i n the a r e a s u r v e y e d . So, on May 25, A g r i c u l t u r e Canada p r e p a r e d t o s p r a y C a r b a r y l on City-owned t r a c t s of l a n d and on the p r o p e r t i e s where they had r e c e i v e d p e r m i s s i o n t o s p r a y . However, Greenpeace members p h y s i c a l l y b l o c k e d the s p r a y v e h i c l e s . Greenpeace stopped the program because they c l a i m e d t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l o f f i c i a l s c o u l d not prove t h a t they had completed a p r o p e r s u r v e y , and because the o t h e r r e q u i r e m e n t s of the Task F o r c e ' s recommendations had not been met (Vancouver E x p r e s s , 1979d; Greenpeace F o u n d a t i o n , 1979b). A meeting was then c a l l e d t o o r g a n i z e a program t h a t would be f o l l o w e d by a l l p a r t i e s . On May 28, Mayor Jac k V o l r i c h announced t h a t A g r i c u l t u r e Canada would d e f e r s p r a y i n g f o r two days. The C i t y would s u r v e y the a f f e c t e d r e s i d e n t s ' ' p r e f e r e n c e s on a b l o c k by b l o c k b a s i s . I t would a l s o c r e a t e a n o t i f i c a t i o n 28 system f o r r e s i d e n t s i n a r e a s t o be s prayed and o f f e r i n s e c t i c i d a l soap t o those r e s i d e n t s who r e f u s e d C a r b a r y l ( C i t y o f Vancouver, 1979d) . There f o l l o w e d a s e r i e s of c o n s u l t a t i o n s between the C i t y , A g r i c u l t u r e Canada and Greenpeace, l a r g e l y because the recommendations of the Task Force were i n t e r p r e t e d d i f f e r e n t l y by A g r i c u l t u r e Canada and Greenpeace. F i n a l l y , some changes were made t o the recommendations t h a t were a c c e p t e d by a l l p a r t i e s . These changes r e l a t e d t o how many p r o - s p r a y i n g r e s i d e n t s were r e q u i r e d on a g i v e n b l o c k b e f o r e such r e s i d e n t s ' p r o p e r t i e s would be s p r a y e d . Greenpeace b e l i e v e d t h a t the Task Force recommendations r e q u i r e d t h a t a t l e a s t 80% of the r e s i d e n t s on a g i v e n b l o c k would have t o v o t e f o r t h e s p r a y i n g , b e f o r e s p r a y i n g c o u l d commence on t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s . A g r i c u l t u r e Canada wanted 50% i n s t e a d o f 80%. F i n a l l y , 60% was s e t t l e d upon (Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l , 1979e) . The number of b l o c k s i n q u e s t i o n was a l s o c o n s i d e r a b l y r e d u c e d , from 44 t o 8. The C i t y then commenced t h e i r r e s i d e n t p r e f e r e n c e s u r v e y i n the e i g h t b l o c k s agreed upon t o d e t e r m i n e which p r o p e r t i e s would be s p r a y e d w i t h C a r b a r y l , S a f e r ' s I n s e c t i c i d a l Soap, or not s p r a y e d a t a l l . F i n a l l y , on June 2, 1979, the s p r a y i n g began. Table 1 l i s t s t he number of p r o p e r t i e s s p r a y e d . The Gypsy Moth has not been d i s c o v e r e d s i n c e i n the K i t s i l a n o a r e a , but i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o d e termine i f t h i s was a consequence of the s p r a y program or of some o t h e r unknown f a c t o r s . 29 TABLE I : Number of p r o p e r t i e s i n the 8-block s p r a y zone, and the t r e a t m e n t they r e c e i v e d ( C i t y of Vancouver, 1979e). Treatment No. of P r o p e r t i e s S a f e r ' s I n s e c t i c i d a l Soap C a r b a r y l U n t r e a t e d 94 165 14 273 34.4 60.4 5 . 2 100 % 30 THE GYPSY MOTH IN SEATTLE (1983) THE ACTORS 1. A g r i c u l t u r a l A g e n c i e s 1.1 The U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e (USDA) S e c t i o n 147a ( a ) , 7 USCS, c l e a r l y d e f i n e s the S e c r e t a r y of A g r i c u l t u r e ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l p l a n t p e s t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e Gypsy Moth, i n the U.S.: "147a.CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF PLANT PESTS (a) AUTHORITY OF SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE. The S e c r e t a r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e , e i t h e r i n d e p e n d e n t l y o r i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h S t a t e s o r p o l i t i c a l s u b d i v i s i o n s t h e r o f , f a r m e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s and s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and i n d i v i d u a l s , i s a u t h o r i z e d t o c a r r y out o p e r a t i o n s o r measures t o d e t e c t , e r a d i c a t e , s u p p r e s s , c o n t r o l , o r t o p r e v e n t or r e t a r d the spread o f p l a n t p e s t s . " T h i s does not mean, though, t h a t the USDA a c t u a l l y performs a l l o f the f u n c t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n c o n t r o l l i n g p l a n t p e s t s . When a S t a t e has i t s own department o f a g r i c u l t u r e , t h a t i s c a p a b l e o f d e a l i n g w i t h the p e s t , the USDA works i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the S t a t e . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s c l a r i f i e d i n s e c t i o n 450, 7 USCS: "450. COOPERATION WITH STATE AGENCIES IN ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF LAWS RELATING TO MARKETING OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS AND CONTROL OR ERADICATION OF PLANT AND ANIMAL DISEASES AND PESTS; COORDINATION OF ADMINISTRATION OF FEDERAL AND STATE LAWS: In o r d e r t o a v o i d d u p l i c a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n s , f a c i l i t i e s , and p e r s o n n e l and t o a t t a i n c l o s e r c o o r d i n a t i o n and g r e a t e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s and economy i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of F e d e r a l and S t a t e laws and r e g u l a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the m a r k e t i n g of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s and t o the c o n t r o l or e r a d i c a t i o n of p l a n t and an i m a l d i s e a s e s and p e s t s , the S e c r e t a r y of A g r i c u l t u r e i s hereby a u t h o r i z e d , i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and enforcement o f such F e d e r a l laws w i t h i n h i s a r e a of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , whenever he deems i t f e a s i b l e and i n the 31 p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , t o e n t e r i n t o c o o p e r a t i v e arrangements w i t h S t a t e departments o f a g r i c u l t u r e and o t h e r S t a t e a g e n c i e s charged w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and enforcement of such S t a t e laws and r e g u l a t i o n s and t o p r o v i d e t h a t any such S t a t e agency which has adequate f a c i l i t i e s , p e r s o n n e l , and p r o c e d u r e s , as det e r m i n e d by the S e c r e t a r y , may a s s i s t the S e c r e t a r y i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and enforcement o f such F e d e r a l laws and r e g u l a t i o n s t o t h e e x t e n t and i n the manner he deems a p p r o p r i a t e i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . F u r t h e r , the S e c r e t a r y i s a u t h o r i z e d t o c o o r d i n a t e the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of such F e d e r a l laws and r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h such S t a t e laws and r e g u l a t i o n s whereever f e a s i b l e . However, n o t h i n g h e r e i n s h a l l a f f e c t the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the S e c r e t a r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e under any F e d e r a l law, or any a u t h o r i t y t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h S t a t e a g e n c i e s o r o t h e r a g e n c i e s o r persons under e x i s t i n g p r o v i s i o n s of law, or a f f e c t any r e s t r i c t i o n s of law upon such c o o p e r a t i o n . " The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the USDA and S t a t e departments of a g r i c u l t u r e i s complex. In r e g a r d s t o Gypsy Moth c o n t r o l , the F e d e r a l agency e x e r t s s u b s t a n t i a l i n f l u e n c e over the S t a t e agency's a c t i v i t i e s t h r o u g h f u n d i n g . T h i s o r i g i n a t e s i n s e c t i o n 148c., 7 USCS: "148c. CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS AND PLANT DISEASES; COOPERATION OF STATES In the d i s c r e t i o n of the S e c r e t a r y of A g r i c u l t u r e , no p a r t of any sums a p p r o p r i a t e d t o c a r r y o u t t h e purposes of t h i s j o i n t r e s o l u t i o n [7 USCS s e c t i o n 148 e t seq.} s h a l l be expended f o r the c o n t r o l of i n c i p i e n t o r emergency o u t b r e a k s o f i n s e c t p e s t s o r p l a n t d i s e a s e s i n any S t a t e u n t i l t he S t a t e concerned has p r o v i d e d the o r g a n i z a t i o n or m a t e r i a l s and s u p p l i e s n e c e s s a r y f o r c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the F e d e r a l Government." The P l a n t P r o t e c t i o n and Q u a r a n t i n e (PPQ) d i v i s i o n of the Animal P l a n t H e a l t h I n s p e c t i o n S e r v i c e (APHIS) of the USDA i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o n t r o l o f Gypsy Moth. The ar e a d i r e c t o r of PPQ i s s t a t i o n e d i n S e a t t l e . There are s e v e r a l laws and r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g how the USDA, e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h a S t a t e agency, may 32 p roceed w i t h a p e s t c o n t r o l program. These determine the k i n d s of c o n t r o l methods a p p l i c a b l e t o a p a r t i c u l a r p e s t , the way i n which recommended p e s t i c i d e s may be used, e t c . Under the N a t i o n a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l P o l i c y A c t (NEPA) the USDA i s r e q u i r e d t o pr e p a r e an E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact Statement (EIS) b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h c o n t r o l o f the Gypsy Moth (because of the s i g n i f i c a n t impact t h a t c o n t r o l methods might make on the e n v i r o n m e n t ) . In 1982, the USDA p u b l i s h e d a programmatic EIS i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the USFS, e n t i t l e d : "Programmatic E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact Statement on Gypsy Moth S u p p r e s s i o n " ( P E I S ) . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the v a l i d i t y , a p p l i c a b i l i t y and l e g a l i t y o f the PEIS proved t o be a major i s s u e o f c o n t e n t i o n i n the S e a t t l e c a s e . Another major c r i t i c i s m o f the PEIS, r a i s e d by the op p o s i n g p a r t i e s , was the ina d e q u a t e f u l f i l m e n t of the pr o c e d u r e s r e q u i r e d by NEPA (e.g. t he a v a i l a b i l i t y o f the PEIS f o r p u b l i c r e v i e w , n o t i f i c a t i o n of the h e a r i n g ) . 1.2 The Washington S t a t e Department of A g r i c u l t u r e (WSDA) The agency most d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n c o n t r o l l i n g the Gypsy Moth i n Washington S t a t e i s the WSDA. The most p e r t i n e n t p i e c e of l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t d e t e r m i n e s the a u t h o r i t y o f the WSDA t o c o n t r o l the Gypsy Moth i s s u b s e c t i o n 105 o f RCW 17.24: "17.24.105 AUTHORITY TO APPLY QUARANTINE CONTROL METHODS. The d i r e c t o r o f a g r i c u l t u r e of the s t a t e o f Washington, and the s u p e r v i s o r of h o r t i c u l t u r e of the department of a g r i c u l t u r e o f the s t a t e o f Washington, a re a u t h o r i z e d and empowered t o a p p l y such q u a r a n t i n e c o n t r o l methods as may be n e c e s s a r y t o p r e v e n t the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f i n s e c t p e s t s or p l a n t d i s e a s e s , i n c l u d i n g the v i r u s d i s e a s e known as p o t a t o l e a f r o l l t h a t may be d e s t r u c t i v e t o the a g r i c u l t u r a l o r h o r t i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s o f the s t a t e o f Washington, and t o ap p l y such methods as may be n e c e s s a r y f o r q u a r a n t i n e , and/ 33 or e r a d i c a t i o n , and/or c o n t r o l o f i n s e c t p e s t s o r p l a n t d i s e a s e s t h a t a r e now e s t a b l i s h e d o r l a t e r become e s t a b l i s h e d i n the s t a t e of Washington t h a t may s e r i o u s l y endanger the a g r i c u l t u r a l o r h o r t i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s o f the s t a t e of Washington." Another p e r t i n e n t s e c t i o n of RCW 17.24 i s s e c t i o n 110. T h i s s e c t i o n not o n l y r e l a t e s t o c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the F e d e r a l government, but a l s o t o almost anyone e l s e w i t h the aim of f u l f i l l i n g t he mandate of t h i s law: "17.24.110 DIRECTOR'S COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES. The d i r e c t o r o f a g r i c u l t u r e and the s u p e r v i s o r o f h o r t i c u l t u r e a r e a u t h o r i z e d t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h any i n d i v i d u a l , group o f c i t i z e n s , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and c o u n t i e s of t h e s t a t e o f Washington o r any of i t s experiment s t a t i o n s , and/or w i t h the s e c r e t a r y o f a g r i c u l t u r e of the U n i t e d S t a t e s and such a g e n c i e s as the s e c r e t a r y may d e s i g n a t e , and/or w i t h any o t h e r s t a t e o r s t a t e s , agency o r group the d i r e c t o r o f a g r i c u l t u r e may d e s i g n a t e , t o c a r r y out t he p r o v i s i o n s o f RCW 17.24.105 t h r o u g h 17.24.140." To a i d i n making a d e c i s i o n on how t o c o n t r o l the Gypsy Moth, the D i r e c t o r o f the WSDA formed a 'Gypsy Moth S t e e r i n g Committee': " I f e l t , because the broad spectrum of p o t e n t i a l impact on c i t i z e n s , a g r i - b u s i n e s s and the environment o f Washington S t a t e , t h a t many d i v e r s e and t e c h n i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d s p e c i a l i s t s were needed f o r i n p u t on not o n l y the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n but a l s o f o r f u t u r e g uidance on the c o n t i n u i n g gypsy moth i n t r o d u c t i o n problem. As a r e s u l t , a Gypsy Moth S t e e r i n g Committee was formed t o a c t as a t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n body d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h the gypsy moth problem i n Washington S t a t e . " ( E l l i s , 1983). To h e l p the S t e e r i n g Committee i n i t s s t u d y , the WSDA p r o v i d e d members w i t h a 'Black Book' which c o n t a i n e d a l l o f the i n f o r m a t i o n , c o m p i l e d by the WSDA, on the Gypsy Moth and i t s c o n t r o l methods ( E l l i s , 1983). The S t e e r i n g Committee, convened o n l y once, i n J a n u a r y , 1983. A n o t h e r , ad hoc committee met i n A p r i l , a t the behest of the D i r e c t o r , t o c o n s i d e r what k i n d s o f 34 m o n i t o r i n g were r e q u i r e d f o r the s p r a y program (Smerdon, 1983). J u s t as the USDA i s r e q u i r e d t o f o l l o w the NEPA l e g i s l a t i o n , t he WSDA must comply w i t h the S t a t e E n v i r o n m e n t a l P o l i c y A c t (SEPA). The S t a t e may, however, use the EIS p r e p a r e d by the F e d e r a l agency when c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s a r e f u l f i l l e d . WAC 197.10.650 e s t a b l i s h e s the procedure f o r u t i l i z i n g a F e d e r a l EIS: "WAC 197.10.650 (1) The r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h i s c h a p t e r r e l a t i n g t o the p r e p a r a t i o n of an EIS s h a l l not a p p l y when an adequate f i n a l EIS has been p r e p a r e d p u r s u a n t t o the N a t i o n a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l P o l i c y A c t o f 1969 (NEPA), i n which event such EIS may be u t i l i z e d i n l i e u o f a f i n a l EIS s e p a r a t e l y p r e p a r e d under SEPA. (2) The f i n a l EIS of a f e d e r a l agency s h a l l be adequate u n l e s s : (a) A c o u r t r u l e s t h a t i t i s i n a d e q u a t e ; o r , (b) The a d m i n i s t r a t o r o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n Agency i s s u e s a w r i t t e n comment pu r s u a n t t o the F e d e r a l C l e a n A i r A c t , 42 USC 1857, which d e t e r m i n e s i t t o be i n a d e q u a t e ; o r , (c) The e n v i r o n m e n t a l elements o f WAC 197.10.444, when a p p l i e d l o c a l l y , a r e not a d e q u a t e l y t r e a t e d i n i t . " The WSDA c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t he F e d e r a l PEIS was adequate. The opp o s i n g groups, however, c r i t i c i z e d the v a l i d i t y of u s i n g the PEIS, p r i m a r i l y over c l a u s e 2 ( c ) . 2. The opponents Three main groups can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d as h a v i n g opposed the a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s ' p r o p o s a l s f o r c o n t r o l l i n g the Gypsy Moth i n S e a t t l e : (1) i n d i v i d u a l s a c t i n g on t h e i r own b e h a l f ; (2) groups r e p r e s e n t i n g community and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n t e r e s t s ; and (3) c o u n t y , c i t y , s t a t e and f e d e r a l p o l i t i c i a n s . 35 The community and e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups, w i t h one e x c e p t i o n , e x i s t e d b e f o r e the Gypsy Moth became an i s s u e i n S e a t t l e . The most p r o m i n i n e n t groups i n c l u d e : The Ravenna-Bryant Community A s s o c i a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t Community C o u n c i l , S i e r r a C l u b , Western Washington T o x i c s C o a l i t i o n and F r i e n d s o f the E a r t h . S e a t t l e C i t i z e n s f o r the Safe C o n t r o l o f the Gypsy Moth, composed o f some members from o t h e r groups and concerned i n d i v i d u a l s , was c r e a t e d i n response t o the s i t u a t i o n . I t h e l p e d t o c o o r d i n a t e many of the a c t i v i t i e s launched a g a i n s t the a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s . The p o l i t i c i a n s ( l o c a l , s t a t e and f e d e r a l ) who became e m b r o i l e d i n the Gypsy Moth i s s u e , f o r the most p a r t , had p o l i t i c a l t i e s t o the Ravenna d i s t r i c t . S e v e r a l p o l i t i c i a n s r e s i d e d , o r had homes i n the a r e a . The Mayor o f S e a t t l e formed a Gypsy Moth Task Force t o p r o v i d e a d v i c e i n r e s p o n d i n g t o the moth problem and i t s c o n t r o l . T h i s Task Force was composed o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the K i n g County H e a l t h Department, the Par k s and R e c r e a t i o n Department, o t h e r h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s , c i t i z e n and e n v i r o n m e n t a l group members, and f o r e s t r y / e n t o m o l o g y a d v i s o r s . S e a t t l e C i t y C o u n c i l became i n v o l v e d by making i t ' s own recommendations f o r c o n t r o l o f the moth. S t a t e s e n a t o r s , members o f the S t a t e House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and a U.S. member of Congress p r o t e s t e d , o r took a c t i o n a g a i n s t the WSDA's p l a n s f o r c o n t r o l of the Gypsy Moth. 36 3. The P u b l i c s Because o f the in v o l v e m e n t o f a d i v e r s i t y o f p o l i t i c i a n s , i n t e r e s t groups and p u b l i c a g e n c i e s , most c i t i z e n s of the S t a t e can be seen as h a v i n g been, a t l e a s t , p a r t i a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d . In a d d i t i o n , o ver 2,000 Ravenna r e s i d e n t s s i g n e d a p e t i t i o n , s e n t t o the Governor, the Mayor o f S e a t t l e and the d i r e c t o r of the WSDA, s t a t i n g : "Because o f the p o t e n t i a l dangers t o human h e a l t h and the environment, and i n l i g h t o f the a v a i l a b i l i t y of o t h e r c o n t r o l methods, we j o i n w i t h the SEATTLE CITIZENS FOR SAFE CONTROL OF THE GYPSY MOTH i n opp o s i n g a e r i a l or b l a n k e t ground s p r a y i n g o f c a r b a r y l o r any o t h e r s y n t h e t i c c h e m i c a l p e s t i c i d e a t t h i s t i m e . " (SCSCGM, 1983a). 37 THE SETTING The a r e a a f f e c t e d by t h e ev e n t s o f the Gypsy Moth e p i s o d e o f 1983 was the Ravenna d i s t r i c t o f S e a t t l e ( K i n g C o u n t y ) . The WSDA (1983a) d e s c r i b e s t h e d i s t r i c t , as f o l l o w s : " T h i s i s an urban a r e a o f heavy r e s i d e n t i a l h o u s i n g c o m p r i s e d c h i e f l y o f s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s w i t h many m u l t i p l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s and s e v e r a l apartment complexes, e i g h t s c h o o l s and two r e t i r e m e n t f a c i l i t i e s and a few l i g h t c o m mercial p r o p e r t i e s s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h the a r e a . The t e r r a i n i s f l a t t o r o l l i n g w i t h a deep r a v i n e known as Ravenna P a r k . The f l o r a i s v a r i e d from minor or n a m e n t a l l a n d s c a p e t o undeveloped heavy n a t i v e growth i n the Ravenna Park r a v i n e ; i n g e n e r a l terms the e n t i r e a r e a would be c o n s i d e r e d heavy v e g e t a t i o n w i t h many t r e e s e x c e e d i n g 50 f e e t i n h e i g h t . The a r e a i s d i s s e c t e d near t h e west end by a major e i g h t - l a n e freeway and a s i n g l e , s l o w - r u n n i n g s p r i n g - f e d c r e e k runs t h r o u g h the bottom of Ravenna Park r a v i n e . " FIGURE 3: THE RAVENNA INFESTATION AREA (Source: S e a t t l e P . I . , 1983b) 38 FIGURE 4: SEATTLE (Source: American Automobile A s s o c i a t i o n ) .TO VICTORIA.B.C. A f\ N.E. 116THST. | UANITA, •If i il 1 1 6 \o * \ z J - N . E . 1 1 6 T H S T REDMOND N.E- 40TM ST. tt:/ 3 V EVLJE AK.E HILLS w EAST GATE' 3 2 3 C04Z. CREEK YKENNYDALE VASHON HEIGHTS BENTON- . S S A Q U A H RENTON 39 ACT ONE: A GROWING PROBLEM Gypsy Moth d e t e c t i o n t r a p p i n g , u s i n g pheromone t r a p s , was begun i n 1970 i n Washington S t a t e . The program was a c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t between the WSDA and the USDA (PPQ). The f i r s t moth was t r a p p e d i n 1974, i n the Bryn Mawr a r e a near Renton i n K i n g County. C o n t i n u e d t r a p p i n g i n the same ar e a l e d the a g e n c i e s t o b e l i e v e t h a t Bryn Mawr was i n f e s t e d . A f t e r l a u n c h i n g a p u b l i c -awareness campaign i n 1978, an e r a d i c a t i o n / c o n t r o l program was i n i t i a t e d i n June, 1979, i n the Bryn Mawr a r e a . The program c o n s i s t e d of g r o u n d - s p r a y i n g the i n s e c t i c i d e Orthene ( r e f e r r e d t o as 'Acephate* i n Chapter I I ) on p r o p e r t i e s where the owners had conse n t e d t o the s p r a y i n g . S i n c e t h a t f i r s t e r a d i c a t i o n / c o n t r o l program i n K i n g County, the Gypsy Moth has been found i n f i v e o t h e r c o u n t i e s . V a r i o u s a t t e m p t s have been made t o e r a d i c a t e , c o n t r o l or suppress the moth where i n f e s t a t i o n s have o c c u r r e d i n th e s e c o u n t i e s (WSDA, 1983b). In 1980, 112 male Gypsy Moths were caught i n the Ravenna Park a r e a i n S e a t t l e (King C o u n t y ) . D u r i n g the w i n t e r of 1980/81, i n s p e c t o r s found m u l t i p l e l i f e s t a g e s of the moth (see Chapter I I ) . In 1981, an e r a d i c a t i o n / s u p p r e s s i o n program was begun which c a l l e d f o r the placement of t r a p s i n the i n f e s t e d a r e a . The t r a p p i n g d e n s i t y was 1,800 t r a p s per square m i l e , and the t r a p s c o n t a i n e d the (+) enantiomer of d i s p a r l u r e (see Chapter I I ) . In a d d i t i o n , B a c i l l u s t h u r i n g i e n s i s (Bt) was a p p l i e d t o i n f e s t e d and a d j a c e n t p r o p e r t i e s i n t h e Ravenna Park a r e a . W ith t h i s more i n t e n s i v e t r a p p i n g program, 223 male moths 40 were caught i n 1981. At the c l o s e of 1982, a f t e r a n o t h e r season of m a s s - t r a p p i n g i n Ravenna i n which 400 male moths were c a u g h t , WSDA o f f i c i a l s recommended t h a t the Ravenna Park and t h r e e o t h e r i n f e s t a t i o n s i t e s r e q u i r e d more s t r i n g e n t c o n t r o l measures ( E l l i s , 1983) . P r e s s u r e was a l s o a p p l i e d t o the WSDA t o i n c r e a s e i t s e r a d i c a t i o n e f f o r t s by o t h e r s t a t e s . H a w a i i banned the i m p o r t a t i o n of Washington-grown C h r i s t m a s t r e e s and V i r g i n i a b a r r e d Washington-grown n u r s e r y goods. In a d d i t i o n , on Jan u a r y 1, 1983, C a l i f o r n i a announced t h a t Washington r e s i d e n t s , coming from c o u n t i e s where i n f e s t a t i o n s had been fou n d , would be stopped a t bo r d e r i n s p e c t i o n s i t e s and would have t o have t h e i r v e h i c l e s i n s p e c t e d ( S e a t t l e Times, 1983a) . 41 ACT TWO: FROM PROBLEM TO CONFLICT In January 1983, the p r e s s r e p o r t e d t h a t the WSDA was c o n s i d e r i n g a p l a n which would r e q u i r e the use of a i r c r a f t t o spr a y the i n s e c t i c i d e C a r b a r y l over 960 a c r e s i n the Ravenna Park a r e a ( S e a t t l e Times, 1983a). WSDA o f f i c i a l s , however, s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e were o t h e r o p t i o n s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . They a l s o e x p l a i n e d t h a t p u b l i c meetings would be h e l d b e f o r e the a d o p t i o n o f a p l a n o f a c t i o n . The Department a l s o began, w i t h the h e l p of S e a t t l e ' s Mayor and o t h e r l o c a l o f f i c i a l s , t o form the Gypsy Moth S t e e r i n g Committee ( U n i v e r s i t y H e r a l d , 1983a). E n v i r o n m e n t a l groups i m m e d i a t e l y condemned the a e r i a l s p r a y i n g p r o p o s a l . In r e s p o n s e , F r i e n d s o f the E a r t h and the Western Washington T o x i c s C o a l i t i o n proposed the s p r a y i n g o f Bt i n p l a c e of C a r b a r y l and i n v i t e d l o c a l c i t i z e n s t o c a l l t h e i r o f f i c e s f o r an a l t e r n a t e s o u r c e of i n f o r m a t i o n on the Gypsy Moth problem (U.W. D a i l y , 1983; PCC N e w s l e t t e r , 1983). Other g r o u p s , such as the c o u n c i l o f the Ravenna-Bryant Community A s s o c i a t i o n wished t o know more about the i n s e c t i c i d e and i t s e f f e c t s on human h e a l t h ( S e a t t l e P . I . , 1983a). As f o r the p o p u l a t i o n o f the i n f e s t e d a r e a , r e a c t i o n v a r i e d from condemnation t o i n d e c i s i o n t o a p p r o v a l ( U n i v e r s i t y H e r a l d , 1983b). On F e b r u a r y 24, the Ravenna-Bryant Community A s s o c i a t i o n h e l d a p u b l i c meeting i n a l o c a l c h u r c h , which was a t t e n d e d by about 120 r e s i d e n t s ( S e a t t l e P . I . , 1983b). A l s o a t t e n d i n g the meeting were USDA r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and members o f some 42 e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r o u p s . The m e e t i n g a c t e d e s s e n t i a l l y a s a f o r u m f o r t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t v i e w p o i n t s , t o h e l p t h e a s s o c i a t i o n d e v e l o p a p o l i c y . The f i r s t o f t h r e e S t a t e o r g a n i z e d p u b l i c m e e t i n g s was h e l d on F e b r u a r y 28, i n a Rav e n n a e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l ( S e a t t l e T i m e s , 1 9 8 3 b ) . A b o u t 200 p e o p l e a t t e n d e d . On hand were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e WSDA, t h e USDA and a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s s p e c i a l i s t o f t h e S t a t e a g e n c y . The o f f i c i a l s a n n o u n c e d t h a t a p u b l i c h e a r i n g w o u l d p r e c e d e any f i n a l d e c i s i o n on t h e c o n t r o l method t o be c h o s e n . They a l s o s t a t e d t h a t a e r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f C a r b a r y l w o u l d c o s t c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s ( a b o u t $30,000) t h a n g r o u n d - s p r a y i n g o f t h e i n s e c t i c i d e ( a b o u t $ 1 6 0 , 0 0 0 ) . When members o f t h e a u d i e n c e q u e s t i o n e d t h e o f f i c i a l s on t h e t o x i c o l o g y a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t o f C a r b a r y l , t h e o f f i c i a l s r e s p o n d e d t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be f o u n d i n t h e p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s o r c o u l d be o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n A g e n c y ( S e a t t l e P . I . , 19 8 3 c ) . The s e c o n d m e e t i n g was h e l d on t h e e v e n i n g o f M a r c h 2, i n t h e same s c h o o l ( S e a t t l e T i m e s , 1 9 8 3 c ) . A g e n c y o f f i c i a l s a t t e m p t e d t o a n s w e r some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g C a r b a r y l , b u t n o t t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e e n q u i r e r s . The o f f i c i a l s r e s p o n d e d t h a t more c o u l d be l e a r n e d a t a p r o p o s e d m e e t i n g , t o be a t t e n d e d b y a t o x i c o l o g i s t , on M a r c h 10. The f i n a l p u b l i c m e e t i n g , h e l d by t h e a g e n c i e s , was on M a r c h 3, a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t L i b r a r y . O v e r two h u n d r e d p e o p l e a t t e n d e d t h i s m e e t i n g . T h i s l a r g e a t t e n d a n c e h a d n o t been e x p e c t e d s o h a l f o f t h e c r o w d met w i t h a USDA o f f i c i a l i n one 43 room, w h i l e t he o t h e r h a l f met w i t h a WSDA o f f i c i a l i n a n o t h e r . T h i s meeting was a l s o a t t e n d e d by S t a t e p o l i t i c i a n s , who were becoming concerned about t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s r e a c t i o n t o agency p r o p o s a l s . A g a i n , the p u b l i c wanted more i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e h e a l t h h a zards posed by C a r b a r y l . In response t o th e s e q u e s t i o n s , the WSDA o f f i c i a l a g a i n t o l d t he audience t o a t t e n d the meeting a t which a t o x i c o l o g i s t would d i s c u s s the i s s u e . He i s a l s o quoted by the U n i v e r s i t y H e r a l d (1983c), as s a y i n g : " I am not here t o d i s c u s s t o x i c i s s u e s , I'm here t o i n f o r m you of the Gypsy Moth problem and the l i s t of a l t e r n a t i v e s . S e v i n ( C a r b a r y l ) i s not the o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e . " The o f f i c i a l s , and the departments they r e p r e s e n t e d , were c r i t i c i z e d by members o f the p u b l i c , a S t a t e Senator and a S t a t e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r m i s h a n d l i n g t he p u b l i c m e e tings, and f o r b e i n g p o o r l y p r e p a r e d ( S e a t t l e Times, 1983d; U n i v e r s i t y H e r a l d , 1983c). I t became e v i d e n t t h a t t he major c o n c e r n of thos e r e s i d e n t s and g r o u p s , o b j e c t i n g t o the use o f C a r b a r y l , was h e a l t h and s a f e t y . The t r e a t m e n t of t h i s c o n c e r n was approached i n d i f f e r e n t ways by the a g e n c i e s and the c i t i z e n s ' and e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups. The a g e n c i e s attempted t o reduce the p u b l i c ' s f e a r s over C a r b a r y l by d w e l l i n g on the p o t e n t i a l damage t h a t t h e Gypsy Moth c o u l d i n c u r . The i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , on t h e c o n t r a r y , d w e l t p r i m a r i l y on the h e a l t h s a f e t y i s s u e . On March 10, Dr. D. L. Eaton (a t o x i c o l o g i s t a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington) gave a p u b l i c l e c t u r e on the h e a l t h e f f e c t s o f C a r b a r y l . He d i s c u s s e d the d i f f e r e n t t e s t s t h a t had been done on a n i m a l s , and how t h i s r e l a t e d t o humans. He a l s o 44 c o n s i d e r e d i m p l i c a t i o n s of the dosage t h a t would be a p p l i e d over Ravenna. With r e g a r d t o b i r t h problems and f o e t u s d e f e c t s , Eaton f e l t t h a t the r i s k of w o r r y i n g about the problem would be more h a r m f u l t o pregnant women than the e f f e c t s o f the Ravenna s p r a y i n g ( U n i v e r s i t y H e r a l d , 1983d). He then d i s c u s s e d t he p o t e n t i a l problems t h a t Bt might pose. In the end he suggested t h a t Bt s h o u l d be t r i e d , because he c o n s i d e r e d i t t o be l e s s d e t r i m e n t a l t o o t h e r i n s e c t s than C a r b a r y l . I f the b a c t e r i a proved t o be i n e f f e c t i v e , he suggested C a r b a r y l be used the f o l l o w i n g y e a r ( S e a t t l e Times, 1983e). On March 11, e i g h t of n i n e S e a t t l e C i t y C o u n c i l members sent a l e t t e r t o the WSDA d i r e c t o r , s t a t i n g t h a t they were opposed t o the s p r a y i n g o f C a r b a r y l i n the Ravenna a r e a . The a b s t a i n i n g member d i d not s i g n f o r l a c k of s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n ( S e a t t l e  P . I . , 1983d). D u r i n g t he same p e r i o d , the Washington S t a t e Senate and House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s adopted language i n the new budget which p r o h i b i t e d the WSDA from u s i n g funds f o r the a e r i a l s p r a y i n g o f r e g i s t e r e d c h e m i c a l p e s t i c i d e s over c i t i e s w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s o f 140,000 o r more, o r i n a county w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of 450,000 o r more ( S e a t t l e Times, 1 9 8 3 f ) . The g o v e r n o r , however, v e t o e d t h i s p r o v i s i o n ( S e a t t l e Times, 1983g). 45 ACT THREE: WINDS OF CHANGE On March 17, a p u b l i c h e a r i n g was h e l d by the WSDA a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, near the proposed s p r a y zone. O r i g i n a l l y , t h i s h e a r i n g had been s c h e d u l e d t o o c c u r i n Olympia, but was t r a n s f e r r e d t o S e a t t l e because o f demands from r e s i d e n t s t h a t i t would be more a p p r o p r i a t e t o have the h e a r i n g where the problem e x i s t e d . A c c o r d i n g t o the WSDA (1983c), the purpose of the h e a r i n g was t o ena b l e d i f f e r e n t v i e w p o i n t s t o be heard from concerned groups and i n d i v i d u a l s , so t h a t the d i r e c t o r of the WSDA c o u l d make a d e c i s i o n based on the i n p u t from t h e s e p e o p l e : "The D i r e c t o r o f the Washington S t a t e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e w i l l d e termine a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n o n l y a f t e r complete c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p e r t i n e n t f a c t s based on h i s t o r y , r e s e a r c h , c u r r e n t d a t a , and i n p u t from the f o l l o w i n g (not i n t e n d e d t o be a l l i n c l u s i v e ) : a. USDA APHIS PPQ b. Other s t a t e s and c o u n t r i e s . c. E l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s o f the s t a t e , c o u n t y and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . d. S t e e r i n g Committee, assembled from a broad spectrum o f knowledgeable Washington c i t i z e n s . e. Input from Department o f N a t u r a l Resource i n t e r e s t s . f . Input from c i t i z e n and s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups. g. Input from r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . h. P u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n meetings i n ar e a s of c o n c e r n . i . P u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n h e a r i n g i n Olympia." P r i o r t o the h e a r i n g , the i n t e r e s t groups made a g r e a t e f f o r t t o in d u c e r e s i d e n t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e , as demonstrated by an i n t e r e s t group n e w s l e t t e r (SCSCGM, 1983b): "The p u b l i c o u t c r y has not been a c c i d e n t a l . I n l a r g e p a r t , i t i s t h e r e s u l t o f the hard work put i n by our n e a r l y 100 v o l u n t e e r s : c a n v a s s i n g , t y p i n g , s t a f f i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a l t a b l e s a t s t o r e s and meetings, c o n t a c t i n g media, p o l i t i c a l and community l e a d e r s , t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s and more. 46 Despite the community's o p p o s i t i o n , the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e has not yet backed o f f . THE KEY EVENT IS THE MARCH 17 PUBLIC HEARING. Each of you should be there and speak out a g a i n s t the spray p r o p o s a l . T e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e i s not a p r e r e q u i s i t e . The Department has s a i d i t wants to hear from the community, and we've got to make sure our v o i c e i s heard loud and c l e a r . " Many who t e s t i f i e d at the h e a r i n g were a g a i n s t the s p r a y i n g of C a r b a r y l . Included amongst the d i s s e n t i n g groups were the Ravenna-Bryant Community A s s o c i a t i o n , F r i e n d s of the E a r t h , the Western Washington Toxics C o a l i t i o n , S e a t t l e C i t i z e n s f o r Safe C o n t r o l of Gypsy Moths and the S i e r r a Club. In t h e i r testimony, the F r i e n d s of the E a r t h (1983) not o n l y c r i t i c i z e d the proposal to spray, but a l s o the process that the WSDA used to i n v o l v e the community: "U n f o r t u n a t e l y , we f i n d i t necessary to r e g i s t e r a strong p r o t e s t r e g a r d i n g the manner i n which the Washington Department of A g r i c u l t u r e (WDA) has proceeded i n t h i s matter. The process has been f a r l e s s than adequate. The WDA has been e v a s i v e , has f a i l e d to respond to s i g n i f i c a n t q u e s t i o n s from the p u b l i c , and has run a g r o s s l y d e f i c i e n t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o c e s s . Taken as a whole, the performance of the WDA to date i n t h i s matter suggests to us t h a t you are more i n t e r e s t e d i n manipulating the p u b l i c than p r o v i d i n g f o r a meaningful process and t h a t your d e c i s i o n making to date i n t h i s matter has not been based on a r a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s . " Those who d i d not condemn the s p r a y i n g of C a r b a r y l , d i d not condone i t e i t h e r . Rather, t h i s group was g e n e r a l l y of the view t h a t something had to be done i n Ravenna. For example, a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Washington State S o c i e t y of American F o r e s t e r s warned of the p o t e n t i a l damage that the Gypsy Moth i n high d e n s i t i e s c o u l d i n c u r . However, he had no s p e c i f i c s o l u t i o n s f o r the Ravenna problem ( S e a t t l e P.I., 1983e). 47 A b r i e f from the Mayor o f S e a t t l e urged the WSDA not t o sp r a y C a r b a r y l i n Ravenna. I n s t e a d , the Mayor proposed t h a t the agency use m u l t i p l e a p p l i c a t i o n s o f B t , c o n t i n u e t r a p p i n g t he moth, p r o t e c t t he r e s e r v o i r s i n the a r e a , and educate the p u b l i c about the moth (Royer, 1983) On A p r i l 1, the Governor of Washington announced t h a t the Ravenna a r e a of S e a t t l e would not be sprayed w i t h c h e m i c a l i n s e c t i c i d e s . I n s t e a d , a m u l t i - p h a s e d program would be i n i t i a t e d i n which Bt would be used. Bt would be a p p l i e d a e r i a l l y i n t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e s p r a y i n g s ( S e a t t l e Times, 1983h). The s p r a y s c h e d u l e was o r i g i n a l l y p l a n n e d t o s t a r t on May 1. The WSDA d e c i d e d , however, t o b e g i n on May 13. T h i s caused the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s t o charge t h a t t he Department was d e l a y i n g t he s p r a y i n g , and t h e r e b y j e o p a r d i s i n g t he suc c e s s of the program. A department o f f i c i a l r e p l i e d t h a t the new proposed s p r a y i n g d a t e s were s t i l l i n the e f f e c t i v e time p e r i o d ( S e a t t l e P . I . , 1 9 8 3 f ) . The e n v i r o n m e n t a l and community groups a l s o i n i t i a t e d t h e i r own program of b u r l a p p i n g t r e e t r u n k s t o t r a p l a r v a e . The WSDA d i d not c o n s i d e r t h i s program t o be a p r a c t i c a l c o n t r o l method, but had p o s s i b l e uses as a su r v e y t o o l ( S e a t t l e Times, 1 9 8 3 i ) . The a e r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of Bt began on May 13, 1983. D u r i n g the t r a p p i n g season o f 1983, 30 Gypsy Moth males were caught (WSDA, 1983d). With i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n the t r a p p i n g program, and n a t u r a l l y caused f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the Gypsy Moth p o p u l a t i o n , i t i s s t i l l t oo e a r l y t o t e l l how e f f e c t i v e a c o n t r o l agent Bt has been, a l t h o u g h the r e s u l t s so f a r a re p o s i t i v e . 48 THE GYPSY MOTH IN SANTA BARBARA (19 81-82) THE ACTORS 1. A g r i c u l t u r a l A g e n c i e s The f e d e r a l and s t a t e a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d i n p e s t c o n t r o l i n C a l i f o r n i a , t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a u t h o r i t y and l e g i s l a t i o n can be c o n s i d e r e d , f o r the purposes of t h i s s t u d y , as i d e n t i c a l t o what was found i n Washington S t a t e (see The Gypsy Moth i n S e a t t l e ) . The USDA p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the Santa B a r b a r a case by s u p p l y i n g about 30,000 t r a p s and l u r e s t o mo n i t o r and c a p t u r e male Gypsy Moths. In a d d i t i o n , f o u r USDA s t a f f members p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the a e r i a l s p r a y program. S t a f f members were a l s o a v a i l a b l e t o the C a l i f o r n i a Department o f Food and A g r i c u l t u r e (CDFA) and the County A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y . The CDFA m a i n t a i n s a j o i n t S t a t e / C o u n t y Gypsy Moth program (CDFA, 1983). T h i s program e n t a i l s : b o r d e r s t a t i o n i n s p e c t i o n , i n s p e c t i o n o f goods by County a g r i c u l t u r a l i n s p e c t o r s a t d e s t i n a t i o n , s t a t e w i d e d e t e c t i o n t r a p p i n g , l o c a l i n t e n s i v e t r a p p i n g when moths are d e t e c t e d , egg-mass s u r v e y s , t r e a t m e n t a c t i v i t i e s when i n f e s t a t i o n s a re d i s c o v e r e d , p o s t - t r e a t m e n t m o n i t o r i n g and q u a r a n t i n e . In the Santa B a r b a r a c a s e , the Santa B a r b a r a County A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner p l a y e d the major r o l e i n d e a l i n g w i t h the p u b l i c . The A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r 49 numerous a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the County, and r e p o r t s t o b o t h the County Board o f S u p e r v i s o r s and the CDFA. The Commissioner c o n v i n c e d the CDFA t h a t i t would be b e t t e r f o r the County t o c o o r d i n a t e the E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact Report (EIR) p r o c e s s under the C a l i f o r n i a E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y A c t (CEQA) (County o f Santa B a r b a r a , 1981c) . The S t a t e m a i n t a i n e d i t s o b l i g a t i o n s t o m o n i t o r and a p p l y the t r e a t m e n t d e t e r m i n e d t h r o u g h the EIR p r o c e s s . 2. Other A g e n c i e s W i t h i n the County system, the Resource Management Department i s n o r m a l l y d e l e g a t e d the t a s k of p r e p a r i n g and c e r t i f y i n g EIR's w i t h i n the County. However, as w i l l be shown, t h i s was not done f o r the Gypsy Moth p r o j e c t (County o f Santa B a r b a r a , 1982c). Members of the Resource Management Department s t i l l i n v o l v e d themselves i n the EIR p r o c e s s , however, by c r i t i c i s i n g the D r a f t and F i n a l EIR, and by a t t e n d i n g p u b l i c meetings. 3. E n v i r o n m e n t a l and C i t i z e n s ' Groups Two e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the Santa B a r b a r a s i t u a t i o n from e a r l y 1982. The f i r s t was the S c e n i c S h o r e l i n e P r e s e r v a t i o n Committee of Santa B a r b a r a . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from t h i s group a t t e n d e d the s c o p i n g meeting f o r t h e EIR ( E i s s l e r , 1982a), commented on the d r a f t EIR ( E i s s l e r , 1982b) and were a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the EIR h e a r i n g and o t h e r p u b l i c meetings. 50 The second group was C i t i z e n s For A B e t t e r Environment (CBE) of San F r a n c i s c o . CBE o p e r a t e s i n f i v e major m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s a c r o s s the U.S., and has s c i e n t i f i c and l e g a l r e s o u r c e s t h a t i t can draw from a c r o s s the n a t i o n (CBE, 1982; G i n s b e r g , 1982). Three l o c a l c i t i z e n s groups were formed a f t e r t h e EIR h e a r i n g was h e l d . These were the Concerned C i t i z e n s C o a l i t i o n (CCC), R e s i d e n t s A g a i n s t P e s t i c i d e Dumping and Santa B a r b a r a C i t i z e n s f o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l Defense. The CCC, CBE and the S c e n i c S h o r e l i n e P r e s e r v a t i o n Committee l a t e r j o i n e d f o r c e s i n b e g i n n i n g l e g a l a c t i o n a g a i n s t the County A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner and the CDFA. THE SETTING The C i t y o f Santa B a r b a r a i s s i t u a t e d on the Coast of C a l i f o r n i a , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 m i l e s n o r t h of Los A n g e l e s . The Gypsy Moth i n f e s t a t i o n was l o c a t e d i n M o n t e c i t o , which b o r d e r s on the e a s t e r n boundary of Santa B a r b a r a C i t y . M o n t e c i t o and Santa B a r b a r a l i e between the c o a s t a l Santa Ynez Mountains and the c o a s t . The M o n t e c i t o d i s t r i c t i s comprised of many mansions and v i l l a s and i s m o s t l y r u r a l -r e s i d e n t i a l i n c o m p o s i t i o n ( p o p u l a t i o n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8,000). The i n f e s t a t i o n a r e a , which I v i s i t e d i s f i l l e d w i t h a l u s h , dense growth of p l a n t s , shrubs and t r e e s . 51 FIGURE 5: SANTA BARBARA LOCATION (Source: American A u t o m o b i l e A s s o c i a t i o n ) 52 FIGURE 6: SANTA BARBARA / MONTECITO: L o c a t i o n o f t r a p s c a t c h i n g one o r more male moths (Source: County o f Santa B a r b a r a , 1 9 8 2 f ) . 53 ACT ONE: OBSERVING AND QUANTIFYING THE PROBLEM S i n c e the e a r l y 1970's, the C a l i f o r n i a Department of Food and A g r i c u l t u r e (CDFA) and the USDA have j o i n t l y m a i n t a i n e d a Gypsy Moth t r a p p i n g program t h r o u g h o u t C a l i f o r n i a . The f i r s t male moth was caught i n 1973, i n Alameda County near San F r a n c i s c o (CDFA, 1983). In J u l y , 1979 a s i n g l e moth was caught i n a s t a t e - m o n i t o r e d t r a p i n the C i t y of Santa B a r b a r a . A few days l a t e r , the Santa B a r b a r a County A g r i c u l t u r a l Commission began an i n t e n s i f i e d program of t r a p p i n g t o de t e r m i n e the e x t e n t of the p o s s i b l e i n f e s t a t i o n a r e a . Only one a d d i t i o n a l moth was d i s c o v e r e d i n the 1979 t r a p p i n g season. In 1980, a more i n t e n s i v e t r a p p i n g program, which c o v e r e d f i f t e e n square m i l e s around the 1979 f i n d s , was begun . Two moths were caught i n t h i s a r e a . A d d i t i o n a l t r a p s were de p l o y e d i n o t h e r a r e a s of the c i t y when two moths were caught o u t s i d e o f the i n t e n s i v e l y t r a p p e d zone. In O c t o b e r , 1980, p r i o r t o an egg-mass s u r v e y , 2,400 i n f o r m a t i o n a l l e t t e r s were sen t out t o r e s i d e n t s i n the a r e a where the 1979 and 1980 f i n d s had been made. No f u r t h e r moths, nor any egg-masses were found i n 1980. In the S p r i n g o f 1981, a County e n t o m o l o g i s t and a g r i c u l t u r a l b i o l o g i s t s began v i s i t s t o e l e v e n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n the a r e a where Gypsy Moths had been found. They dev e l o p e d a program c o n s i s t i n g of song and v i s u a l a i d s t o make the s t u d e n t s more aware o f the p e s t , and t o e n l i s t them i n s e a r c h i n g f o r the l a r v a l s t a g e o f the moth. To i n c r e a s e the c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t , b u t t o n s s t a t i n g " I 've Looked f o r Gypsy Moth" were awarded t o each 54 c h i l d s u b m i t t i n g s u s p e c t specimens. In a d d i t i o n , the f i r s t s t u d e n t t o l o c a t e a t r u e specimen was t o r e c e i v e an engraved p l a q u e d e c l a r i n g him or her an 'Honorary B i o l o g i s t ' f o r the County of Santa B a r b a r a (County o f Santa B a r b a r a , 1981a). To b e t t e r i n f o r m r e s i d e n t s of t h e a r e a , over 3,700 Gyspy Moth i n f o r m a t i o n l e a f l e t s were d i s t r i b u t e d . By the end o f the t r a p p i n g season, i n J u l y 1981, f o r t y - o n e male moths had been caught i n pheromone t r a p s . These f i n d s were m o s t l y l o c a t e d i n the M o n t e c i t o d i s t r i c t , t o the e a s t of the C i t y o f Santa B a r b a r a . However, two moths were caught w i t h i n the C i t y i t s e l f . On November 4, 1981, the County A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner announced a new, i n n o v a t i v e t e c h n i q u e f o r the d e t e c t i o n of egg-rnasses: t r a i n e d dogs would be used t o l o c a t e the eggs by the pheromone s c e n t l e f t on the egg-masses by the female (County of Santa B a r b a r a , 1981b). Four egg-masses were d i s c o v e r e d s e v e r a l months l a t e r , i n J a n u a r y and F e b r u a r y 1982, i n a manual s e a r c h (Hardy, 1982a; CDFA, 1982a). 55 ACT TWO: LEADERSHIP DECISIONS In the summer o f 1981, q u e s t i o n s over f u t u r e a c t i o n s began t o a r i s e amongst t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s . Three d i f f e r e n t groups were i n v o l v e d i n t r a p p i n g the moth (CDFA's E x c l u s i o n and D e t e c t i o n U n i t and Emergency and S p e c i a l P r o j e c t s U n i t and t h e County of Santa Barbara) and a need f o r u n i t y o f command was e x p r e s s e d (CDFA, 1981a). The CDFA assumed l e a d e r s h i p , and began t o d e s i g n a t e l i n e s of a u t h o r i t y i n d e v e l o p i n g an E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact Report (EIR) f o r Santa B a r b a r a (CDFA, 1981b). By the end of December, 1981, however, the A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner o f Santa B a r b a r a had c o n v i n c e d t h e CDFA t o a l l o w the County A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner's o f f i c e t o a c t as the l e a d agency f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of an EIR on the Gypsy Moth E r a d i c a t i o n P r o j e c t (County of Santa B a r b a r a , 1981c). The re a s o n f o r t h i s change i n l e a d e r s h i p i s g i v e n by Graydon B. H a l l , the Santa B a r b a r a County A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner (County o f Santa B a r b a r a , 1982a): "The S t a t e was p r e p a r e d t o conduct t h e i r own d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s and t o make the f i n a l d e c i s i o n . I t was o n l y a t my i n s i s t e n c e t h a t t hey agreed t o a l l o w my o f f i c e t o be the Lead Agency and t o be i n the d e c i s i o n making r o l e . I s t r o n g l y f e l t t h a t the peopl e o f Santa B a r b a r a d e s e r v e d t o have the d e c i s i o n made a t the l o c a l l e v e l w hich would a l l o w f o r t h e maximum l o c a l c i t i z e n i n p u t . " On Ja n u a r y 5, 1982, the A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner h e l d a 's c o p i n g meeting' f o r the w r i t i n g of the EIR. T h i s meeting was a t t e n d e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the USDA, CDFA, the County Resource Management Department and the S c e n i c S h o r e l i n e 56 P r e s e r v a t i o n C o n f e r e n c e , I n c . ( E i s s l e r , 1982a). I t was d e c i d e d t o a s s i g n t o Dr. R i c h a r d D o u t t , an e n v i r o n m e n t a l a t t o r n e y and e n t o m o l o g i s t from Santa B a r b a r a , the t a s k o f c o - o r d i n a t i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n o f the EIR. W h i l e the f i r s t d r a f t of the EIR was b e i n g p r e p a r e d , the Resource Management Department and the A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner's O f f i c e d i s c u s s e d how t o proceed w i t h the h e a r i n g and c e r t i f i c a t i o n of the EIR document. N o r m a l l y , the Resource Management Department h o l d s EIR h e a r i n g s , and d e t e r m i n e s whether or not a document can be c e r t i f i e d under S t a t e and County g u i d e l i n e s . In f a c t , the Department had even p r e p a r e d a d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e of how the h e a r i n g would proceed (County o f Santa B a r b a r a , 1982b). However, the A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner c o n s i d e r e d t h a t , i n t h i s p r o j e c t , h i s agency was a c t i n g as the l e a d agency f o r the S t a t e . At a meeting between the Resource Department, the Commissioner and County C o u n s e l , i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t the Commissioner c o u l d choose t o c e r t i f y the document h i m s e l f (County o f Santa B a r b a r a , 1982c). 57 ACT THREE: FACING THE PUBLIC The f i r s t d r a f t o f the EIR was completed a t the end o f J a n u a r y , 1982. Copies were made a v a i l a b l e t o the p u b l i c a t l o c a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t the County, i n c l u d i n g the A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner's o f f i c e s and l o c a l l i b r a r i e s . In a news r e l e a s e , Graydon B. H a l l , the A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner, encouraged a l l i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o r e v i e w the r e p o r t and send t h e i r comments t o h i s o f f i c e (County o f Santa B a r b a r a , 1982d). In a d d i t i o n , i t was announced t h a t a p u b l i c h e a r i n g would be h e l d on F e b r u a r y 25, a f t e r a 30-day comment p e r i o d . In a m e e t i n g , on F e b r u a r y 10, between CDFA o f f i c i a l s and members of the S t a t e Department of H e a l t h S e r v i c e s , i t was made c l e a r t o the CDFA t h a t the H e a l t h S e r v i c e s Department c o u l d n ot r e a c t p o s i t i v e l y t o the recommendations made i n the EIR because the EIR l a c k e d s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the h e a l t h o f f i c i a l s t o e v a l u a t e the program (CDFA, 1982b). The f i r s t comments on the d r a f t EIR r e c e i v e d by the Commissioner were from the County Resource Management Department, and the C i t y o f Santa B a r b a r a E n v i r o n m e n t a l Resource Management Committee (ERMC). T h e i r comments are summarized, as f o l l o w s (County o f Santa B a r b a r a , 1982e; ERMC, 1982): 1. The EIR d i d not g i v e a time-span f o r the p r o j e c t . 2. The d r a f t d e s c r i b e d s e v e r a l means of e r a d i c a t i o n o r s u p p r e s s i o n , but d i d not i d e n t i f y the e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y s u p e r i o r a l t e r n a t i v e . 3. The EIR was b i a s e d i n f a v o u r o f e r a d i c a t i o n , as opposed t o c o n t r o l a l t e r n a t i v e s . 58 4. I t d i d not f u l l y a ddress the e n v i r o n m e n t a l and p u b l i c h e a l t h consequences of each a l t e r n a t i v e . Comments and r e v i e w s o f the d r a f t EIR from the major e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups ( D r e i s t a d t , 1982; D a h l s t e n , 1982; G i n s b u r g , 1982; Stewart-Oaten e t a l . , 1982; E i s s l e r , 1982b) i n c l u d e d the f o u r major p o i n t s r a i s e d by the C i t y and County of Santa B a r b a r a Resource Departments, but a l s o q u e s t i o n e d : 1. the s u i t a b i l i t y o f ' e r a d i c a t i o n ' measures f o r a p e s t t h a t i s c o n s t a n t l y i n t r o d u c e d t o C a l i f o r n i a from the e a s t e r n s t a t e s ; 2. the p o t e n t i a l impact o f the moth; 3. the p o s s i b i l i t y of the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the moth i n C a l i f o r n i a a t l e v e l s e x p e r i e n c e d i n the e a s t e r n s t a t e s . In a l l , 67 w r i t t e n comments were r e c e i v e d by the A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner's o f f i c e . These comments were p r e s e n t e d by i n d i v i d u a l s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from c i t i z e n and e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups, p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s , and County, S t a t e and F e d e r a l A g e n c i e s (County o f Santa B a r b a r a , 1 9 8 2 f ) . The a u t h o r s of t h e s e r e v i e w s were p r i m a r i l y from Santa B a r b a r a , but some were from o t h e r p a r t s o f the S t a t e and from o u t s i d e C a l i f o r n i a . On F e b r u a r y 23, the Commissioner announced t h a t a q u a r a n t i n e of M o n t e c i t o and Santa B a r b a r a would be i n v o k e d t o c o n t a i n the Gypsy Moth w i t h i n the i n f e s t a t i o n a r e a (County o f Santa B a r b a r a , 1982g). The q u a r a n t i n e r e q u i r e d t h a t any a r t i c l e t h a t c o u l d s e r v e as a c a r r i e r f o r Gypsy Moth egg-masses would not be p e r m i t t e d t o l e a v e the q u a r a n t i n e d a r e a u n l e s s i n s p e c t e d and c l e a r e d by p l a n t q u a r a n t i n e o f f i c e r s . These a r t i c l e s i n c l u d e d : 59 m o b i l e homes, r e c r e a t i o n a l v e h i c l e s , horse t r a i l e r s , b o a t s , f i r e w o o d , b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , outdoor household a r t i c l e s , t r e e s and shrubs (Hardy, 1982b). The Gypsy Moth EIR h e a r i n g took p l a c e on F e b r u a r y 25, i n the Santa B a r b a r a County A d m i n i s t r a t i o n B u i l d i n g . The h e a r i n g was d i v i d e d i n t o a morning s e s s i o n and an e v e n i n g s e s s i o n , so t h a t anyone not a b l e t o t e s t i f y d u r i n g the day c o u l d do so i n the e v e n i n g s e s s i o n . The h e a r i n g began w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Gypsy Moth problem i n Santa B a r b a r a . A f i l m about the Gypsy Moth , produced by the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board of Canada, was then shown. A p a n e l of t w e l v e e x p e r t s a i d e d the A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner i n a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s from the a u d i e n c e . T h i s p a n e l was composed of a g r i c u l t u r a l and h e a l t h o f f i c i a l s from the USDA, CDFA and the Commissioner's o f f i c e . Because of the l a r g e number of people who wished t o t e s t i f y , about 100, a f i v e minute l i m i t was p l a c e d on each p r e s e n t a t i o n . From the o u t s e t , the v a l i d i t y of the h e a r i n g was q u e s t i o n e d . F r e d E i s s l e r , r e p r e s e n t i n g the S c e n i c S h o r e l i n e P r e s e r v a t i o n C onference I n c . , i n t e r r u p t e d the Commissioner's opening remarks by demanding an e x p l a n a t i o n o f the Commissioner's a u t h o r i t y t o h o l d the h e a r i n g (County of Santa B a r b a r a , 1982h). The Commissioner e x p l a i n e d t h a t the h e a r i n g was h e l d on b e h a l f of the CDFA, and t h a t he had been g i v e n the a u t h o r i t y t o do so. The p r e s e n t a t i o n s v a r i e d from c r i t i c i s m o f t h e EIR, t o s o l i d a r i t y w i t h the a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s (County of Santa B a r b a r a , 1982h). A l t h o u g h the EIR d i d not c l e a r l y i d e n t i f y a 60 p a r t i c u l a r a l t e r n a t i v e f o r the program, many p r e s e n t a t i o n s presumed the a e r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of chemical p e s t i c i d e s as the method chosen by the Commissioner. Th e r e f o r e , a number of people p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t the use of these p e s t i c i d e s , c i t i n g h e a l t h concerns ( S o l l e n , 1982a). This aspect of concern was emphasized by a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the County Environmental Health S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n who announced h i s r e s e r v a t i o n s about a e r i a l s p r a y i n g of C a r b a r y l and who asked f o r "an independent a n a l y s i s of h e a l t h r i s k s " (Santa Barbara  Newspress, 1982a). Those who were i n favour of whatever method the agencies proposed to use, maintained t h i s p o s i t i o n e i t h e r because they had experienced the Gypsy Moth i n the e a s t e r n U.S., or because they had had previous encounters with the County A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioners o f f i c e r s and f e l t t h a t the Commissioner would choose the most a p p r o p r i a t e method (County of Santa Barbara, 1982h). The h e a r i n g was stormy a t times, but the Commissioner maintained order and allowed everyone a t t e n d i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y to express h i s or her viewpoint. 61 ACT FOUR: DECISION AND IMPLEMENTATION U n t i l the p u b l i c h e a r i n g , the Gypsy Moth problem i n Santa B a r b a r a had been, f o r the most p a r t , an i n t e r - and i n t r a - a g e n c y m a t t e r , w i t h some i n p u t from e n v i r o n m e n t a l and c i t i z e n groups. The p u b l i c i t y c r e a t e d by the h e a r i n g drew, w i l l i n g l y or u n w i l l i n g l y , o t h e r p a r t i e s i n t o the arena o f d e c i d i n g on a s o l u t i o n . On March 2, Governor J e r r y Brown was asked f o r h i s views on the Gypsy Moth problem i n Santa B a r b a r a (Thermos, 1982). He r e p l i e d t h a t he had asked the a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s t o work w i t h the e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups t o f i n d the b e s t s o l u t i o n . C o n c e r n i n g a e r i a l s p r a y i n g , he f e l t t h a t t h i s method s h o u l d o n l y be used as a l a s t r e s o r t . In Santa B a r b a r a , the S u r p e r v i s o r of the F i r s t D i s t r i c t , D avid Yager, a p p e a l e d t o the A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner t o h o l d a d d i t i o n a l p u b l i c meetings t o ensure t h a t the d e c i s i o n a r r i v e d a t would r e f l e c t the needs of the community (County o f Santa B a r b a r a , 1 9 8 2 i ) . The Commissioner responded by e x p l a i n i n g t h a t h i s i n t e n t i o n was t o do what was b e s t f o r the people o f Santa B a r b a r a , and t h a t h i s d e c i s i o n would m a i n t a i n the i n t e g r i t y o f County government i n Santa B a r b a r a (County o f Santa B a r b a r a , 1982J) . On the e v e n i n g o f March 2, about 20 r e s i d e n t s met t o d i s c u s s the Gypsy Moth problem and t o form a new c i t i z e n ' s group, which was named 'Concerned C i t i z e n s C o a l i t i o n ' (CCC) (Walsh, 1982). The meeting was a l s o a t t e n d e d by County o f f i c i a l s from v a r i o u s d e p a r t m e n t s , i n c l u d i n g the Resource Management and P l a n n i n g 62 Departments. Even though the Commissioner had not y e t i n d i c a t e d what h i s d e c i s i o n would be, the main t o p i c f o r d i s c u s s i o n was the e f f e c t of a e r i a l c a r b a r y l s p r a y i n g on p u b l i c h e a l t h ( S o l l e n , 1982b). The group c a l l e d f o r a p u b l i c r a l l y t o be h e l d on March 6. On the day of t h i s r a l l y , the CCC, and two o t h e r p r o t e s t groups which were founded t o combat the Gypsy Moth problem ( R e s i d e n t s A g a i n s t P e s t i c i d e Dumping and Santa B a r b a r a C i t i z e n s f o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l D e f e n s e ) , p l a c e d a f u l l - p a g e a d v e r t i s e m e n t i n a l o c a l Santa B a r b a r a newspaper (Santa B a r b a r a Newspress, 1982b). The a d v e r t i s e m e n t emphasized the p o s s i b l e use of C a r b a r y l by the a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s t o c o n t r o l the Gypsy Moth. R e s i d e n t s were urged t o w r i t e t h e i r l o c a l and S t a t e p o l i t i c i a n s , and t o a t t e n d Santa B a r b a r a C i t y and County meetings t o p r o c l a i m t h e i r d e s i r e t o use non-chemical measures t o c o n t r o l the moth. The r a l l y c a l l e d by the CCC was h e l d i n the County Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y . Among those a t t e n d i n g were S u p e r v i s o r Yager, Santa B a r b a r a C i t y C o u n c i l member Tom Rogers and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from County a g e n c i e s ( S o l l e n , 1982c). A g a i n , the main f o c u s o f co n c e r n was C a r b a r y l s p r a y i n g . The A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner announced h i s d e c i s i o n on March 8, a t a Santa B a r b a r a County Board o f S u p e r v i s o r s meeting. The meeting was a t t e n d e d by over 100 i n t e r e s t e d r e s i d e n t s (Los Angeles Times, 1982). The Commissioner e x p l a i n e d t h a t the res p o n s e s t o the d r a f t EIR had been completed and t h a t h i s d e c i s i o n was based on the F i n a l EIR. The d e c i s i o n was t o use a f i v e - p a r t " I n t e g r a t e d P e s t E r a d i c a t i o n Program ( I P E ) " (County of 63 S a n t a B a r b a r a , 1 9 8 2 k ) . The c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e p r o g r a m w e r e : 1. A e r i a l s p r a y i n g o f B a c i l l u s t h u r i n g i e n s i s o v e r t h e i n f e s t a t i o n a r e a ( a b o u t e i g h t s q u a r e m i l e s ) . 2. L o c a l i z e d g r o u n d - a p p l i c a t i o n o f C a r b a r y l i n t h r e e c o r e i n f e s t a t i o n s i t e s ( e a c h s i t e , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 130 a c r e s ) . 3. H i g h d e n s i t y t r a p p i n g (17,000 t r a p s i n t h e i n f e s t e d z o n e ) . 4. M a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e q u a r a n t i n e . 5. A p u b l i c - a w a r e n e s s p r o g r a m . The d e c i s i o n r e c e i v e d d i v e r s e r e s p o n s e . A l t h o u g h e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r o u p s w ere s a t i s f i e d w i t h a d e c i s i o n n o t t o s p r a y C a r b a r y l a e r i a l l y , t h e y c o n t i n u e d t o p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e u s e o f C a r b a r y l i n any manner ( S o l l e n , 1 9 8 2 d ) . The p r o g r a m , h o w e v e r , was s u p p o r t e d by t h e S a n t a B a r b a r a C o u n t y H e a l t h O f f i c e r , a nd by S t a t e H e a l t h o f f i c i a l s ( C o u n t y o f S a n t a B a r b a r a , 1 9 8 2 1 ) . A s s e m b l y m a n G a r y H a r t ( D - S a n t a B a r b a r a ) a s k e d t h e D e p u t y D i r e c t o r o f t h e CDFA t o p o s t p o n e t h e s p r a y i n g o f C a r b a r y l a t l e a s t 48 h o u r s (Los A n g e l e s T i m e s , 1 9 8 2 ) . The D e p u t y D i r e c t o r , h o w e v e r , d e c l i n e d t o i n t e r f e r e . H a r t t h e n o r g a n i z e d a p u b l i c m e e t i n g f o r t h e e v e n i n g o f M a r c h 9. The f i r s t g r o u n d t r e a t m e n t s o f C a r b a r y l b e g a n on s c h e d u l e , t h e n e x t d a y , M a r c h 9. T h a t e v e n i n g t h e m e e t i n g c a l l e d by A s s e m b l y m a n H a r t t o o k p l a c e i n t h e M o n t e c i t o U n i o n S c h o o l , and a b o u t 200 p e o p l e a t t e n d e d . Many who s p o k e w ere a g a i n s t t h e s p r a y i n g o f C a r b a r y l , b u t a r e p o r t e r g i v e s t h i s a c c o u n t o f an i n d i v i d u a l who was i n f a v o u r o f t h e p r o g r a m ( S o l l e n , 1 9 8 2 e ) : 64 " A r t h u r H e n z e l l , a lawyer who l i v e s i n M o n t e c i t o , drew ap p l a u s e when he s a i d : " I t h i n k you men have done a marvelous j o b " on the c o n t r o l program." A l s o a t t e n d i n g the meeting were the A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner, the Deputy D i r e c t o r o f the CDFA and t h e CDFA 1s s u p e r v i s o r of the Santa B a r b a r a c o n t r o l program. A l l t h r e e answered q u e s t i o n s from the a u d i e n c e . On March 11, the D i r e c t o r o f the County Resource Management Department responded t o the F i n a l EIR by r e q u e s t i n g f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f the o r i g i n a l comments t o the D r a f t EIR (County of Santa B a r b a r a , 1982m). Her s t a f f f e l t t h a t the response t o t h e s e comments i n the F i n a l EIR were not adequate. The Commissioner r e p l i e d t h a t the F i n a l EIR was adequate under t h e C a l i f o r n i a E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y A c t (CEQA) S t a n d a r d s , and t h a t f u r t h e r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f adequacy would have t o be made i n a c o u r t o f law (County o f Santa B a r b a r a , 1982n). On March 12, the A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner announced the enforcement o f the q u a r a n t i n e w i t h i n the i n f e s t e d a r e a (County of Santa B a r b a r a , 1982o). Area r e s i d e n t s were i n d i v i d u a l l y n o t i f i e d by m a i l . At t h i s t i m e , the Commissioner o r g a n i z e d the p u b l i c awareness program. T h i s program i n c l u d e d t e l e p h o n e ' h o t l i n e s ' used t o i n f o r m the p u b l i c about the c o n t r o l program and the q u a r a n t i n e . He a l s o formed an ad hoc c i t i z e n s ' committee, composed of a d i v e r s e s e l e c t i o n of community members, some of whom were f o r , and o t h e r s a g a i n s t the s p r a y i n g o f C a r b a r y l (County o f Santa B a r b a r a , 1982p). A l s o i n c l u d e d on the committee, t o a c t as " l i a i s o n p e r s o n s " , was a member of the Board of 65 S u p e r v i s o r s and a C i t y Councilman. F i n a l l y , t he Commissioner's o f f i c e c o n t a c t e d over one hundred l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , c l u b s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups, p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s , e t c . ) t o i n f o r m them t h a t h i s o f f i c e had sp e a k e r s a v a i l a b l e t o d i s c u s s the Gypsy Moth i s s u e (County o f Santa B a r b a r a , 1982q). Many o r g a n i z a t i o n s a c c e p t e d t h i s o f f e r . . A l t h o u g h the s i t u a t i o n seemed t o be s t a b i l i z i n g , t h e r e s t i l l remained some i m p o r t a n t opponents t o the program. In e a r l y A p r i l , the C i t y of Santa B a r b a r a and a c o a l i t i o n of t h r e e e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups ( S c e n i c S h o r e l i n e P r e s e r v a t i o n Committee, C i t i z e n s f o r a B e t t e r Environment and the C o a l i t i o n o f Concerned C i t i z e n s ) f i l e d s e p a r a t e l a w s u i t s t o f o r c e the A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner t o r e v i s e the EIR (Hankins, 1982; Egan, 1982). The County a l s o c o n s i d e r e d j o i n i n g w i t h the C i t y i n t a k i n g l e g a l a c t i o n . However, because the Commissioner o f f e r e d t o r e v i s e the EIR b e f o r e t a k i n g any f u t u r e a c t i o n s a g a i n s t the Gypsy Moth, the County Board of S u p e r v i s o r s v o t e d unanimously not t o j o i n t he C i t y i n t a k i n g l e g a l a c t i o n (County o f Santa B a r b a r a , 1982r; B o l t o n , 1982; Santa B a r b a r a Newspress, 1982c) . The s u i t s f i l e d by the C i t y and the e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups were withdrawn s e v e r a l months l a t e r because of the Commissioner's promise t o r e v i s e the EIR i f f u r t h e r a c t i o n a g a i n s t the moth was r e q u i r e d . A f t e r t h r e e ground a p p l i c a t i o n s of C a r b a r y l and s i x a e r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s o f Bt (at a c o s t o f over $900,000) the s p r a y i n g ended i n May, 19 82. S i n c e t h e n , two moths have been caught i n Santa B a r b a r a County. These were p r o b a b l y c a r r i e d i n t o the County on v e h i c l e s . The i n f e s t a t i o n , though, no l o n g e r e x i s t s . 66 CHAPTER IV: A FRAMEWORK FOR THE INTERPRETATION OF THE CASE STUDIES FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF REDUCING CONFLICT 1. INTRODUCTION The general purpose of an a g r i c u l t u r a l agency i s to provide s e r v i c e s p r e s c r i b e d by l e g i s l a t i o n . The l e g i s l a t i o n , i n theory, i s d e r i v e d from p o l i t i c a l l y p e r c e i v e d needs of s o c i e t y . I f , however, these needs are not met, the needs change, or i f the needs of s i g n i f i c a n t m i n o r i t i e s are not addressed, problems i n the implementation of s e r v i c e s occur. The pest c o n t r o l d i v i s i o n s of the a g r i c u l t u r a l agencies were cr e a t e d to provide a s e r v i c e to s o c i e t y , i n response to a need f o r p r o t e c t i o n of f o r e s t and a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n from p e s t s . In none of the case s t u d i e s has any evidence been found t h a t t h i s g e neral goal i s c o n t r a r y to the needs of s o c i e t y . I t i s e v i d e n t , from a r e a d i n g of the case s t u d i e s , t h a t the implementation process, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the urban s i t u a t i o n , i s the source of s o c i a l c o n f l i c t . I t i s understandable t h a t members of s o c i e t y can agree with the general goal of p r o t e c t i n g f o r e s t s , parks and a g r i c u l t u r a l systems i n r u r a l areas, but may vehemently d i s a g r e e with the p l a n t p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s and the ways i n which they 67 implement these goals in the urban context. This disagreement i s undesirable because: 1. the agencies lose c r e d i b i l i t y ; 2. individuals within the agencies suffer unnecessarily; 3. needless economic costs may be incurred; 4. members of the public f e e l threatened; 5. the r e s u l t i n g stalemate could lead to a worse problem. The purpose of the following sections i s to review appropriate studies of the requirements for implementation processes to meet the needs of society, and to formulate evaluation c r i t e r i a for the analysis of the case studies with the aim of reducing c o n f l i c t . 68 2. CRITERIA REQUIRED FOR IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES TO MEET THE NEEDS OF SOCIETY Government a g e n c i e s , as b u r e a u c r a c i e s , bear s i m i l a r i t i e s t o a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Thompson (1967) c o n s i d e r s u n c e r t a i n t y t o be the fundamental problem f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s : The t i g h t e r the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s norms of r a t i o n a l i t y , the more energy i t w i l l d evote t o moving toward c e r t a i n t y . The a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s are c l o s e l y t i e d t o the s c i e n c e of a g r i c u l t u r e : They are r a t i o n a l by n a t u r e ; t h e i r s t a f f c o n s i s t s o f s c i e n c e - e d u c a t e d a g r o n o m i s t s , e n t o m o l o g i s t s , e t c . ; many of t h e i r programs o r i g i n a t e i n r e s e a r c h done a t the a g r i c u l t u r a l departments of u n i v e r s i t i e s . The i n f l u e n c e o f s c i e n c e l e a d s t o a b e h a v i o u r , d e s c r i b e d by F r a n c i s (1961), which the s c i e n t i s t f o l l o w s t o m a i n t a i n h i s s t a n d i n g i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l community. For t h i s purpose, he r e q u i r e s r u l e s t o h e l p him i n the d e c i s i o n -making p r o c e s s , and t o reduce e r r o r s . A b u r e a u c r a c y whose s t a f f i s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by ' s c i e n t i f i c b e h a v i o r ' , w i l l behave i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n . Edmunds (1981, p.194) c o n s i d e r s the b e h a v i o r o f b u r e a u c r a c i e s o f t h i s n a t u r e which must d e a l w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems: "Thus, o r g a n i z a t i o n s seek s e l f - c o n t r o l by s e l e c t i n g v a r i a b l e s t h a t c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e i r r a t i o n a l i t y and t h a t a f f i r m the need f o r t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n a l e x i s t e n c e and maintenance. I n q u i r y becomes r e s t r i c t e d t o the b o u n d a r i e s of t h e i r r a t i o n a l domain, and each p i e c e of i n f o r m a t i o n or s e l e c t e d t a s k s u p p o r t s a m o n o l i t h i c a u t h o r i t y network of c e n t r a l i z e d d e c i s i o n making t h a t i s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s seek t o do what t h e y know how t o do and eschew u n c e r t a i n t i e s . " 69 T h i s s e a r c h f o r c e r t a i n t y , even w i t h i n the most u n c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i s t y p i f i e d i n a s t u d y o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g f o r Gypsy Moth c o n t r o l ( V a l e n t i n e e t a l . , 1976): "A d e c i s i o n - m a k e r c o n t e m p l a t i n g f o r e s t i n s e c t c o n t r o l i s i n essence d e c i d i n g whether or not t o m a n i p u l a t e a p e s t - h o s t system. To be c e r t a i n of the outcome o f h i s c o n t r o l d e c i s i o n , the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r must know how the system w i l l be a f f e c t e d by each o f the c o n t r o l t r e a t m e n t a l t e r n a t i v e s . O t h e r w i s e , c o n t r o l d e c i s i o n s would be made under c o n d i t i o n s of u n c e r t a i n t y . " W h i l e the a g e n c i e s attempt t o reduce u n c e r t a i n problems i n t o d i s c r e t e , manageable u n i t s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups emphasize the u n q u a n t i f i a b l e , i n d e f i n i t e a s p e c t s . In f a c t , the u n c e r t a i n t y i n v o l v e d i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s i s a major f a c t o r f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e s e groups. The e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r o u p s , t h e r e f o r e , e n l i s t t he a i d of s c i e n t i f i c a d v i s o r s t o c h a l l e n g e the a g e n c i e s ' a v o i d a n c e o f u n c e r t a i n t y ( i n each o f the case s t u d i e s the major e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups had s c i e n t i s t s on s t a f f , or r e c e i v e d a d v i c e from s c i e n t i s t s ) . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s not uncommon. N e l k i n (1979) d e s c r i b e s a s i m i l a r dilemma i n the n u c l e a r i n d u s t r y and Burgess (1981) c h a r a c t e r i s e s t h i s form of c o n f l i c t : "The mechanism u n d e r l y i n g the c o n t r a d i c t o r y - e x p e r t s p a t h o l o g y i s r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e . I t a r i s e s i n cases f o r which t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s a re unable t o make f i r m p r e d i c t i o n s as t o the consequences of a p a r t i c u l a r a l t e r n a t i v e . Under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e y may f e e l c o m p e l l e d by p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e t o make f i r m but unwarranted p r e d i c t i o n s based upon e i t h e r t h e i r b e s t guess or t h e i r own o p i n i o n o f the b e s t d e c i s i o n f o r s o c i e t y . T r o u b l e a r i s e s when d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s r e s p o n d i n g t o s i m i l a r p r e s s u r e s advance c o n t r a d i c t o r y c o n c l u s i o n s as s c i e n t i f i c f a c t s . T h i s may be f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by e x p e r t s who do not u n d e r s t a n d the d i s t i n c t i o n between f a c t and o p i n i o n . F i n a l l y , t he p a t h o l o g y can be e x a c e r b a t e d s t i l l f u r t h e r when the media misquote o r a s c r i b e undue c e r t a i n t y t o e x p e r t p r e d i c t i o n s . " 70 B e n v e n i s t e (1981, p.43) d i s t i n g u i s h e s a n other major d i f f e r e n c e between v o l u n t e e r , e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups and o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h a t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the case s t u d i e s : "To s u r v i v e , v o l u n t e e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n s t a n t l y m o t i v a t e t h e i r membership t o p r o v i d e s u p p o r t . They have t o keep the team whipped up, and t h i s means t h a t i s s u e s have t o be s e l e c t e d and s i m p l i f i e d t o r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n . The need f o r drama i s always p r e s e n t and the f e r v o r o f s u p p o r t i s a c c e n t u a t e d by the presence of impending d i s a s t e r s and the p o s s i b l i l i t y o f d o i n g something about them. T h i s does not mean t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s are i n t r i n s i c a l l y s a f e or d u l l , but i t does mean t h a t v o l u n t e e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , by the n a t u r e o f t h e i r s u p p o r t , t e n d t o p o l a r i z e i s s u e s and d r a m a t i z e them i n ways t h a t do not always s i m p l i f y the s e a r c h f o r s o l u t i o n s or accomodations. I t a l s o means t h a t v i s i b l i l i t y and the l e v e r a g e o f the mass media a r e i m p o r t a n t . The s e l e c t i o n o f i s s u e s has t o a n t i c i p a t e the k i n d s o f o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and d i s t o r t i o n t h a t the mass-media r e p o r t i n g e n t a i l s . " When e n v i r o n m e n t a l and government o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o l l i d e over a complex i s s u e , l i k e urban p e s t c o n t r o l , t h e i r b e h a v i o u r i s p r e d i c t a b l e as borne out by the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the e a r l y e v e nts of the Vancouver and S e a t t l e case s t u d i e s . The e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups p r e p a r e f o r b a t t l e , w h i l e the a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s p r e p a r e a d e f e n c e . Both groups use s c i e n c e i n t h e i r s u p p o r t : The a g e n c i e s c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e i r c o n t r o l methods a r e p roven and t h a t the p e s t , i f u n c o n t r o l l e d , w i l l cause g r e a t damage; the e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r o u p s , o f t e n u s i n g the same d a t a , r e p u d i a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s and s a f e t y of the c o n t r o l methods, and the p o t e n t i a l s e v e r i t y o f the p e s t . To make d e c i s i o n s more a c c e p t a b l e t o s o c i e t y and t o reduce the burden of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g on i n d i v i d u a l s , a d d i t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s e s t o a c c o r d w i t h the 71 s o c i a l w i l l have been s u g g e s t e d . Fox (1976, p.747) s p e c i f i e s f o u r performance c r i t e r i a r e q u i r e d by water management i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r d e c i s i o n s t o a c c o r d w i t h the s o c i a l w i l l : " a. REPRESENTATION OF LEGITIMATE INTERESTS. The p r i o r i t i e s o f a r e f e r e n t group r e c o g n i z e d by s o c i e t y as l e g i t i m a t e s h o u l d d e t e r m i n e what p o l i c i e s o r c o u r s e s of a c t i o n a r e adopted. In a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y the r e f e r e n t group i s the p u b l i c a t l a r g e . In an e l i t i s t s o c i e t y , t h i s group i s the r e c o g i n z e d e l i t e . The v a l u e frameworks of members o f the r e f e r e n t group determine which a l t e r n a t i v e s . are r e l e v a n t and what i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d f o r d e c i s i o n making. A c h o i c e i s the consequences of n e g o t i a t i o n s and b a r g a i n i n g among groups t h a t a r e a p a r t o f the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s i n a c c o r d w i t h a c c e p t e d r u l e s of the game. T h i s l e a d s t o the f o l l o w i n g performance c r i t e r i o n : t he v a l u e frameworks o f l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t groups s h o u l d d e t e r m i n e which a l t e r n a t i v e s a re c o n s i d e r e d and what i n f o r m a t i o n i s g e n e r a t e d . Each l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t group s h o u l d be a b l e t o be r e p r e s e n t e d i n the n e g o t i a t i o n s t h a t l e a d t o a d e c i s i o n . b. ADEQUACY OF INFORMATION. D e c i s i o n s s h o u l d be based upon good i n f o r m a t i o n about the consequences of a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e s of a c t i o n d e t e r m i n e d t o be r e l e v a n t by the v a l u e frameworks o f members of s o c i e t y . Good i n f o r m a t i o n i s t h a t which can be produced i n a r e a s o n a b l e time w i t h r e a s o n a b l e r e s o u r c e s . I t s h o u l d i n c l u d e feedback from e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n the system and the r e s u l t s o f e x p e r i e n c e e x t e r n a l t o the system. I t s h o u l d r e f l e c t i n n o v a t i v e e f f o r t s . c. EFFICIENCY. The system s h o u l d not be w a s t e f u l of time and r e s o u r c e s i n making and im p l e m e n t i n g d e c i s i o n s . d. EFFECTIVENESS. D e c i s i o n s t h a t a r e made s h o u l d be f a i t h f u l l y implemented; the i m p l e m e n t i n g a c t i o n s s h o u l d not d e p a r t from the o b j e c t i v e s of the d e c i s i o n s t h a t a re adopted." Swainson (1976, p.3) i n h i s a n a l y s i s o f the i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements a s s o c i a t e d w i t h water q u a l i t y management uses s i m i l a r c r i t e r i a , but d i v i d e s them i n t o T e c h n i c a l , Normative and 72 Performance components. V a r i a t i o n s o f t h e s e c r i t e r i a have been d i s c u s s e d by o t h e r s (Stankey, Hendee and C l a r k , 1975; S e w e l l and P h i l l i p s , 1979; Grima, 1977). There may be disagreement over the p a r t i c u l a r s of a component, or how h e a v i l y i t i s emphasized. However, i t i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s e s t o a c c o r d w i t h the s o c i a l w i l l : a f f e c t e d groups must be i n v o l v e d , i n f o r m a t i o n about a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n must be made a v a i l a b l e , and the f i n a l d e c i s i o n must be based on a c o l l e c t i v e i n p u t . 73 3. DETERMINATION OF EVALUATION CRITERIA FOR THE INTERPRETATION OF THE CASE STUDIES WITH THE AIM OF REDUCING CONFLICT In t h i s s e c t i o n , two composite c r i t e r i a f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of t h e case s t u d i e s are f o r m u l a t e d . The c r i t e r i a s uggested by Fox and o t h e r s are too g e n e r a l f o r the purposes o f t h i s s t u d y ; they cannot be r e a d i l y a p p l i e d t o the s p e c i f i c n a t u r e of the Gypsy Moth problem. However, the e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i s m a i n t a i n e d . The two e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a d e v e l o p e d f o r t h i s s t u d y are d e r i v e d from the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s suggested by Fox and o t h e r s , and from the r e v i e w o f how s c i e n c e - b a s e d i n s t i t u t i o n s and v o l u n t e e r groups d e a l w i t h u n c e r t a i n problems. Because the p r o c e s s used t o choose a p e s t c o n t r o l method r e q u i r e s acceptance by the s o c i e t y i n t o which the p e s t has been i n t r o d u c e d , the f i r s t e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i o n w i l l be c a l l e d THE SOCIAL ACCEPTABILITY CRITERION. S i n c e the a g e n c i e s and the e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups use s c i e n c e t o a n a l y z e p e s t c o n t r o l methods, the b e h a v i o u r o f the p e s t and the p o s s i b l e consequences of a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n s , the p r o d u c t of the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s must be s c i e n t i f i c a l l y sound i n the eyes of b o t h p a r t i e s . The second e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i o n i s , t h e r e f o r e , based on t h i s a r e a of agreement, and w i l l be c a l l e d the SCIENTIFIC SOUNDNESS CRITERION. The elements o f the two c r i t e r i a , w hich w i l l be used t o e v a l u a t e the case s t u d i e s , are now c o n s i d e r e d i n d e t a i l . 74 THE SOCIAL ACCEPTABILITY CRITERION: A l l p a r t i e s which have a l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t i n the p e s t problem s h o u l d be a c t i v e l y i n c l u d e d i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . P a r t i e s which have a l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t i n the p e s t problem can v a r y , depending upon the p e s t . In the case o f the Gypsy Moth, t h e s e p a r t i e s i n c l u d e : The r e s i d e n t s i n the i n f e s t a t i o n a r e a . I n d u s t r i e s d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by the p e s t and measures used t o c o n t r o l i t (the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y and v a r i o u s a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s w i l l be i n t e r e s t e d i n the p e s t ; r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of s e n s i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s , l i k e b e e - k e e p i n g , w i l l be concerned about the c o n t r o l method). Other government a g e n c i e s which have an i n t e r e s t i n the p e s t and i t s c o n t r o l methods ( H e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s , E n v i r o n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s , F o r e s t r y , (other) A g r i c u l t u r e and P a r k s Departments). P o l i t i c i a n s who r e p r e s e n t the r e s i d e n t s o r who have an i n t e r e s t i n the f u t u r e s p r e a d o f the p e s t . E n v i r o n m e n t a l groups concerned w i t h the spread of the p e s t and the methods used t o c o n t r o l i t . I n c l u s i o n i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s r e q u i r e s : a. That the l e g i t i m a t e p a r t i e s be i n f o r m e d by the agency of the p e s t and i t s p o t e n t i a l i m p act, the a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r 75 d e a l i n g w i t h the p e s t and the consequences of u s i n g a p a r t i c u l a r a l t e r n a t i v e ( t h i s i n c l u d e s the p u b l i c h e a l t h , economic and e c o l o g i c a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f each a l t e r n a t i v e ) . b. That l e g i t i m a t e p a r t i e s be g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r e p a r e t h e i r own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of s c i e n t i f i c d a t a , and t h a t t h e s e p a r t i e s be a l l o w e d adequate time and s u p p o r t t o g a t h e r t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . c. That a l l p a r t i e s be made aware of o t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f i n f o r m a t i o n or d a t a , i f t hey e x i s t , and t h a t c o n s u l t a t i o n between the l e a d agency and the d i f f e r e n t groups d e t e r m i n e s what d a t a w i l l be used and how i t w i l l be p r e s e n t e d . d. F i n a l l y , the p r o c e s s must i n c l u d e t i m e l y o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r n e g o t i a t i o n or b a r g a i n i n g between the agency and the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s . Because of the u n c e r t a i n n a t u r e of t h e s e problems, unanimous agreement i s not g u a r a n t e e d . However, d e c i s i o n s a r i s i n g from n e g o t i a t i o n and b a r g a i n i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y p r i n c i p l e d b a r g a i n i n g ( F i s h e r and Ury, 1983), are more s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e than t h o s e produced by c e n t r a l i z e d , a u t h o r i t a r i a n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g systems (Lewin, 1948) as p r e s e n t l y used i n urban p e s t c o n t r o l by a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s . 76 THE SCIENTIFIC SOUNDNESS CRITERION: a. The a l t e r n a t i v e chosen s h o u l d be based upon e x p e r i e n c e , i f not p r e c e d e n t . T h i s ensures t h a t the r e s i d e n t s and the government a g e n c i e s a re not s u b j e c t e d t o the r i s k s and c o s t s o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . I t does not mean t h a t i n n o v a t i v e methods, which have been t e s t e d e l s e w h e r e , cannot be used. b. The a l t e r n a t i v e chosen must be based on s h o r t - and l o n g -term c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Because the Gypsy Moth i s c o n s t a n t l y i n t r o d u c e d t o the P a c i f i c r e g i o n from the E a s t , s h o r t - t e r m s o l u t i o n s t o a lo n g - t e r m problem may be c o s t l y i n human h e a l t h , e c o l o g i c a l and economic terms. c. F i n a l l y , the a l t e r n a t i v e must be a c c e p t a b l e t o community h e a l t h o f f i c i a l s . S i n c e the Gypsy Moth i s r e p e a t e d l y i n t r o d u c e d t o the P a c i f i c r e g i o n , a s o l u t i o n a r r i v e d a t i n one community t o d e a l w i t h the moth must c o i n c i d e w i t h the S t a t e - , P r o v i n c e - o r Region-wide program. For t h i s t o o c c u r , soundness and s o c i a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y are c r i t i c a l . These two c r i t e r i a , d e r i v e d from an a n a l y s i s of a g e n c i e s t h a t d e a l w i t h complex e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems and from recommendations f o r s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a re the b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an urban p e s t c o n t r o l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s t o meet the needs o f today's s o c i e t y . They w i l l be used i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n t o a n a l y s e the case s t u d i e s w i t h the aim o f making recommendations t o reduce f u t u r e c o n f l i c t s . 77 CHAPTER V: EVALUATION OF THE CASE STUDIES USING THE SOCIAL ACCEPTABILITY AND SCIENTIFIC SOUNDNESS CRITERIA The S o c i a l A c c e p t a b i l i t y and S c i e n t i f i c Soundness c r i t e r i a f o r m u l a t e d i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , w i l l now be used t o e v a l u a t e the case s t u d i e s . The purpose o f t h i s e x e r c i s e i s t o d e t e r m i n e how w e l l the t h r e e case s t u d i e s f u l f i l t he r e q u i r e m e n t s of each c r i t e r i o n and t o compare the cases t o each o t h e r on t h i s b a s i s . EVALUATION BASED ON SOCIAL ACCEPTABILITY a. That the l e g i t i m a t e p a r t i e s be i n f o r m e d by the agency o f the p e s t and i t s p o t e n t i a l i m p a c t , the a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h the p e s t and the consequences o f u s i n g a p a r t i c u l a r a l t e r n a t i v e ( t h i s i n c l u d e s t h e p u b l i c h e a l t h , economic and e c o l o g i c a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s of each a l t e r n a t i v e ) : i . R e s i d e n t s of the i n f e s t e d a r e a From the time t h a t the Gypsy Moth was d i s c o v e r e d i n K i t s i l a n o , i n J u l y 1978, u n t i l a p u b l i c meeting was h e l d i n March, 1979, the r e s i d e n t s o f K i t s i l a n o were never d i r e c t l y i n f o r m e d o f the Gypsy Moth and i t s c o n t r o l methods by A g r i c u l t u r e Canada. R e s i d e n t s came t o know about the Gypsy Moth and A g r i c u l t u r e Canada's p l a n s t h r o u g h the media. At the p u b l i c m eeting, i n March, A g r i c u l t u r e Canada p r e s e n t e d i t s v i e w o f the p o t e n t i a l impact o f the moth, and the c o n t r o l methods i t c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y t o e r a d i c a t e the moth. 78 From March on, A g r i c u l t u r e Canada and the B.C. M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e took a more a c t i v e r o l e i n i n f o r m i n g the r e s i d e n t s : An i n f o r m a t i o n t r a i l e r was l o c a t e d near the i n f e s t a t i o n a r e a , n o t i c e s were s e n t t o p r o p e r t y owners i n K i t s i l a n o e x p l a i n i n g the a g e n c i e s ' view o f the p e s t and the c o n t r o l methods r e q u i r e d t o d e a l w i t h i t , and door t o door v i s i t s were l a t e r made by o f f i c i a l s t o f u r t h e r i n f o r m r e s i d e n t s , and t o d e t e r m i n e which c o n t r o l method they d e s i r e d . F i n a l l y , t h r e e K i t s i l a n o r e s i d e n t s were i n v i t e d t o j o i n the 7-member Gypsy Moth Task F o r c e . These r e s i d e n t s c o n s u l t e d w i t h the d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s and p a r t o o k i n d e v i s i n g the c o n t r o l program. A g r i c u l t u r e Canada had not plann e d t o comply w i t h what i s r e q u i r e d i n t h i s c r i t e r i o n . The r e s i d e n t s were i n f o r m e d , b u t o n l y a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n f l i c t . The agency c o u l d have i n f o r m e d the p u b l i c a t a much e a r l i e r d a t e , and i n g r e a t e r d epth. The s i t u a t i o n was much the same i n S e a t t l e . Between 1980, when the moth was f i r s t t r a p p e d i n Ravenna, and J a n u a r y , 1983, when the p r e s s r e p o r t e d the WSDA's c o n t r o l p l a n s , the r e s i d e n t s o f Ravenna were not c o n s u l t e d about the Gypsy Moth problem. In the S p r i n g o f 1983, the agency h e l d t h r e e p u b l i c meetings and a p u b l i c h e a r i n g . In a d d i t i o n , agency o f f i c i a l s a t t e n d e d meetings h e l d by l o c a l g roups, and the agency s u p p o r t e d a p u b l i c meeting a t which a t o x i c o l o g i s t p r e s e n t e d h i s views on the h e a l t h e f f e c t s of C a r b a r y l . At the p u b l i c m e e tings, the agency p r e s e n t e d o n l y i t s views c o n c e r n i n g the p o t e n t i a l economic and e c o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f a 79 l a r g e Gypsy Moth i n f e s t a t i o n . I t d i d not address the p u b l i c h e a l t h c o n cerns v o i c e d by r e s i d e n t s . The h e a r i n g e n a b l e d r e s i d e n t s and o t h e r concerned i n d i v i d u a l s and groups t o e x p r e s s t h e i r views t o the WSDA. I t i s c l e a r from the f i r s t two p u b l i c meetings t h a t t he agency attempted t o s t e e r the p u b l i c away from c e r t a i n c o n t r o v e r s i a l s u b j e c t s (such as the t o x i c o l o g y of C a r b a r y l ) . I n i t i a l l y , t he agency a v o i d e d i n f o r m i n g the p u b l i c on thes e s u b j e c t s , but the c o n s t a n t demand f o r i n f o r m a t i o n f o r c e d t he agency t o h o l d the p u b l i c meeting a t which a t o x i c o l o g i s t d i s c u s s e d the p u b l i c h e a l t h c o n c e r n s . The WSDA had, i n f a c t , c o m p i l e d a 'Black Book' c o n t a i n i n g a l l o f i t s d a t a on the Gypsy Moth and on the c o n t r o l a l t e r n a t i v e s ( E l l i s , 1983). T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was made a v a i l a b l e t o the S t a t e ' s Gypsy Moth S t e e r i n g Committee, but was not made a v a i l a b l e t o r e s i d e n t s a t the p u b l i c meetings. F i n a l l y , the WSDA d i d not c i r c u l a t e f o r p u b l i c comment the Programmatic EIS (PEIS) d e v e l o p e d by the USDA, nor d i d i t produce a l o c a l l y a p p l i c a b l e v e r s i o n o f t h i s document. T h i s prompted U.S. Congressman Mike Lowry (1983) t o c o m p l a i n t o the U.S. S e c r e t a r y of A g r i c u l t u r e t h a t : " I note t h a t s u b s t a n t i a l p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s would be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h your p r e p a r a t i o n of a supp l e m e n t a l EIS. By f a i l i n g t o p r e p a r e a supplement, you have e x c l u d e d the p u b l i c from an i m p o r t a n t s t e p i n the p r o c e s s o f c o n s i d e r i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the PEIS i t s e l f i s not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n S e a t t l e o r t h e Ravenna ne i g h b o r h o o d . A PEIS does not s e r v e t o d i s c l o s e e n v i r o n m e n t a l impacts when the PEIS i s d i f f i c u l t f o r a f f e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l s t o o b t a i n . A s a f e program s h o u l d e a s i l y s u r v i v e the g l a r e of p u b l i c s c r u t i n y . The absence of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n o n l y alarms c i t i z e n s even f u r t h e r . 80 No f u r t h e r a c t i o n s h o u l d be t a k e n u n t i l the p u b l i c i s a d e q u a t e l y i n f o r m e d and g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o comment on p u b l i c documents." In c o n t r a s t t o the way i n which the r e s i d e n t s were i n f o r m e d i n Vancouver and S e a t t l e , the r e s i d e n t s of the Santa B a r b a r a i n f e s t a t i o n a r e a were ke p t i n f o r m e d almost from the day the moth was d i s c o v e r e d i n Santa B a r b a r a . The A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner began a p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n campaign as e a r l y as O c t o b e r , 1980, when i t was f i r s t s u s p e c t e d t h a t the Gypsy Moth was e s t a b l i s h e d i n the M o n t e c i t o / S a n t a B a r b a r a a r e a . T h i s campaign c o n s i s t e d of i n f o r m i n g the r e s i d e n t s of the n a t u r e o f the p e s t , and the e f f o r t s t h a t were b e i n g made t o m o n i t o r i t . In a d d i t i o n , c h i l d r e n a t e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s were t a u g h t about t h e Gypsy Moth and e n l i s t e d i n s e a r c h e s f o r i t s l a r v a e . The l o c a l p r e s s was a l s o i n f o r m e d o f the problem, and s e v e r a l newspapers p r i n t e d a r t i c l e s on the Gypsy Moth. In J a n u a r y , 1982, a d r a f t EIR was made a v a i l a b l e t o the p u b l i c f o r comment. The p u b l i c was asked t o r e v i e w the r e p o r t and send t h e i r comments t o the Commissioner's o f f i c e . The EIR r e c e i v e d much c r i t i c i s m , but i t d i d c o n t a i n the A g e n c i e s '  p e r c e p t i o n s o f the p e s t and i t s p o t e n t i a l i m p a c t , a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h the moth and the consequences of u s i n g a p a r t i c u l a r a l t e r n a t i v e (which a l s o i n c l u d e d p u b l i c h e a l t h , economic and e c o l o g i c a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s of each a l t e r n a t i v e ) . The EIR was a l s o s p e c i f i c a l l y w r i t t e n f o r the s i t u a t i o n i n Santa B a r b a r a , i n c o n t r a s t t o the S e a t t l e dependence on a Programmatic EIR. 81 A p u b l i c awareness program was implemented i n March, 1982, t o f u r t h e r i n f o r m r e s i d e n t s o f the c o n t r o l method t h a t had been adopted. C l e a r l y , compared t o the o t h e r case s t u d i e s , t h e p u b l i c awareness program used i n Santa B a r b a r a most c o m p l e t e l y f u l f i l l e d t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of t h i s s u b - c r i t e r i o n . i i . I n d u s t r i e s d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by the p e s t and the measures used t o c o n t r o l i t . The a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s , i n a l l of the case s t u d i e s , were f r e q u e n t l y i n c o n t a c t w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l and o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s which had p o t e n t i a l c o n c e r n f o r the s p r e a d of the moth and the c o n t r o l measures used t o c o n t r o l i t . In f a c t , most of the a g e n c i e s ' a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d i r e c t l y t o t h i s s e c t o r . Through c o n t a c t s w i t h i n the d i f f e r e n t B.C. M i n i s t r i e s , and t h r o u g h c o n t a c t s between the M i n i s t r i e s and the a g r i c u l t u r a l and f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s , a g r i c u l t u r a l and f o r e s t i n t e r e s t s were aware of t h e Gypsy Moth i n K i t s i l a n o . The C o u n c i l o f F o r e s t I n d u s t r i e s (COFI) had i t s own s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n , and was s a t i s f i e d t h a t the Gypsy Moth was not a t h r e a t t o commercial f o r e s t s . The B.C. F r u i t Grower's A s s o c i a t i o n and the B.C. F e d e r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e were k e p t i n f o r m e d t h r o u g h t h e i r c o n t a c t s i n the B.C. M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e , and were q u i t e concerned about a f u t u r e s p r e a d of the moth. The s i t u a t i o n i n S e a t t l e was a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l , t o t h a t i n Vancouver. The a g r i c u l t u r a l and f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s , however, were more concerned w i t h o t h e r Gypsy Moth i n f e s t a t i o n s i n the s t a t e , 82 as q u a r a n t i n e and Gypsy M o t h - f r e e c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s were b e i n g i n v o k e d by o t h e r s t a t e s on p r o d u c t s coming from t h e s e s i t e s . At the p u b l i c h e a r i n g , i n S e a t t l e , f o r e s t and a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , p r e s e n t e d t h e i r concerns over the p o t e n t i a l spread of the Gypsy Moth and p o s s i b l e impacts on t h e i r i n d u s t r i e s . In and around Santa B a r b a r a and M o n t e c i t o a re many n u r s e r i e s (the Commissioner's o f f i c e l i s t s 64 n u r s e r i e s i n the Gypsy Moth i n f e s t a t i o n area) and o t h e r s o u r c e s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . The owners o f t h e s e o p e r a t i o n s were i n f o r m e d o f the Gypsy Moth problem t h r o u g h s e v e r a l c h a n n e l s : the p u b l i c awareness programs, d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h the Commissioner's o f f i c e r s and th r o u g h t h e i r own p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A l s o i n t h i s a r e a a re s e n s i t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r honey p r o d u c t i o n and o r g a n i c f a r m i n g . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s p a r t i c i p a t e d a t the p u b l i c h e a r i n g . They were kept i n f o r m e d of the p e s t and the proposed c o n t r o l methods i n the same way as o t h e r members of the a g r i c u l t u r a l community. I t can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t , i n a l l t h r e e s i t u a t i o n s , the i n d u s t r i e s were a d e q u a t e l y i n f o r m e d o f the p e s t and the measures used t o c o n t r o l i t . i i i . Other government a g e n c i e s which have an i n t e r e s t i n the p e s t and i t s c o n t r o l methods. The B.C. M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e was i n f o r m e d o f the Gypsy Moth d i s c o v e r i e s i n J u l y , 1978. The M i n i s t r y then became f u l l y i n v o l v e d i n the a c t i v i t i e s of A g r i c u l t u r e Canada. In December, 1978, the Vancouver C i t y H e a l t h Department was 83 n o t i f i e d by A g r i c u l t u r e Canada of the Gypsy Moth i n f e s t a t i o n and of t he agency's p l a n s f o r a p o s s i b l e a e r i a l s p r a y program. From th e n on, the H e a l t h Department was kept i n f o r m e d as t o A g r i c u l t u r e Canada's p l a n s . The B.C. M i n i s t r y o f Environment was i n f o r m e d of the Gypsy Moth problem i n December, 1978, when A g r i c u l t u r e Canada a p p l i e d t o t he M i n i s t r y ' s P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l Branch f o r the a e r i a l s p r a y i n g o f D i m i l i n i n the K i t s i l a n o a r e a . In t he S e a t t l e c a s e , the USDA department concerned w i t h the Gypsy Moth (APHIS PPQ) was f u l l y i n f o r m e d o f the Gypsy Moth s i t u a t i o n i n a l l o f Washington S t a t e . In a d d i t i o n , t he USDA s u p p l i e d i n f o r m a t i o n t o the WSDA, and USDA o f f i c i a l s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t he p u b l i c meetings h e l d i n Ravenna. The S e a t t l e - K i n g County P u b l i c H e a l t h Department was kep t i n f o r m e d by a WSDA o f f i c i a l who a c t e d as a source of t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o the Mayor's Gypsy Moth Task F o r c e . The Task Force was c o - c h a i r e d by the D i r e c t o r o f the P u b l i c H e a l t h Department. Other a g e n c i e s , such as the Washington Departments of E c o l o g y , F i s h e r i e s , Game, N a t u r a l Resources and S o c i a l and H e a l t h S e r v i c e s were kept i n f o r m e d and were even r e p r e s e n t e d on the ad hoc Committee c a l l e d t o meet by the WSDA i n A p r i l , 1983 In Santa B a r b a r a , both the USDA and the CDFA were f u l l y aware o f t h e Santa B a r b a r a i n f e s t a t i o n . Both a g e n c i e s h e l p e d the A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner t o c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the EIR, and were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r impl e m e n t i n g the c o n t r o l method d e c i d e d upon by the Commissioner. 84 S t a t e and County h e a l t h o f f i c i a l s were i n f o r m e d o f the i n f e s t a t i o n , and were kept i n f o r m e d o f a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r the moth's c o n t r o l - In a d d i t i o n , the l o c a l m e d i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n made recommendations t o the Commissioner, and a s s i s t e d i n i n f o r m i n g t h e p u b l i c , v i a a m e d i c a l ' h o t - l i n e ' , o f the h e a l t h e f f e c t s o f the p e s t i c i d e s , t r e a t m e n t , symptoms, e t c . (Gilman, 1984). A l l Santa B a r b a r a C i t y and County departments, i n c l u d i n g the County Resource Management Department and the C i t y E n v i r o n m e n t a l Resource Management Committee, were kept i n f o r m e d of the problem by the A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner's O f f i c e . Some members o f these departments took p a r t i n meetings w i t h the Commissioner t o d i s c u s s the c o n t e n t s o f the d r a f t EIR. I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the r e s p o n s i b l e a g e n c i e s , i n a l l o f the case s t u d i e s , made s t r o n g e f f o r t s t o i n f o r m o t h e r a g e n c i e s o f the Gypsy Moth problem, and o f the methods they were c o n s i d e r i n g f o r the c o n t r o l o f the p e s t . 85 i v . P o l i t i c i a n s who r e p r e s e n t the r e s i d e n t s o r who have an i n t e r e s t i n the f u t u r e s p r e a d o f the p e s t . Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l was i n f o r m e d o f A g r i c u l t u r e Canada's p l a n s i n F e b r u a r y , 1979. C i t y C o u n c i l , t h r o u g h the C i t y Manager, e v e n t u a l l y mediated the c o n f l i c t between A g r i c u l t u r e Canada and Greenpeace. T h e r e f o r e , members o f C i t y C o u n c i l had f i r s t - h a n d knowledge of A g r i c u l t u r e Canada's views on the problem and the agency's r a t i o n a l e f o r the c o n t r o l methods proposed. F e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c i a n s were made aware o f the K i t s i l a n o s i t u a t i o n t h r o u g h the growing c o n f l i c t r e p o r t e d i n the p r e s s . The a g e n c i e s d i d not approach t h e s e p o l i t i c i a n s d i r e c t l y t o i n f o r m them of the s i t u a t i o n . I n any c a s e , p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l p o l i t i c i a n s never v e n t u r e d t o ta k e an a c t i v e p a r t i n s o l v i n g the problem. In S e a t t l e , p o l i t i c i a n s a t C i t y , S t a t e and F e d e r a l l e v e l s became i n v o l v e d i n the Gypsy Moth d i s p u t e . P r i o r t o the ev e n t s of 1983, none o f t h e s e p o l i t i c i a n s were i n f o r m e d by the agency of the growing problem i n Ravenna. However, as p r e s s u r e was a p p l i e d by i n t e r e s t groups and c o n s t i t u e n t s , p o l i t i c i a n s a t a l l l e v e l s began t o seek i n f o r m a t i o n on the Gypsy Moth and i t s c o n t r o l methods. Some of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was a c q u i r e d a t the p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , some th r o u g h meetings and w r i t t e n communications w i t h WSDA o f f i c i a l s , and o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n was g a t h e r e d t h r o u g h the Mayor's Gypsy Moth Task F o r c e . In Santa B a r b a r a , p o l i t i c i a n s a t the County and C i t y l e v e l were k e p t f u l l y i n f o r m e d o f the p e s t , i t s c o n t r o l methods, and 86 the a c t i v i t i e s o f the A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner from the time t h a t the i n f e s t a t i o n was d i s c o v e r e d . T h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h i n f o r m a t i o n a l meetings h e l d by the Commissioner, and t h r o u g h an exchange of l e t t e r s w i t h h i s s u p e r i o r s , the Board o f S u p e r v i s o r s . P o l i t i c i a n s a t the s t a t e l e v e l were not i n v o l v e d , i n i t i a l l y . However, a f t e r the EIR h e a r i n g , s t a t e p o l i t i c i a n s from the i n f e s t e d a r e a attmpted t o s t o p the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the c o n t r o l program. These p o l i t i c i a n s had been kept i n f o r m e d t h r o u g h the p u b l i c awareness campaign, and communications w i t h the Commissioner (County of Santa B a r b a r a , 1 9 8 2 i ; Los Angeles  Times, 1982). In Santa B a r b a r a and Vancouver, l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s were kept w e l l i n f o r m e d by the a g e n c i e s , and were c o n t a c t e d b e f o r e c o n f l i c t o c c u r r e d . I n . S e a t t l e , p o l i t i c i a n s were not made aware of the growing Gypsy Moth problem, but became i n f o r m e d as a r e s u l t o f the growing c o n f l i c t . v. E n v i r o n m e n t a l groups concerned w i t h the spread o f the p e s t and the methods used t o c o n t r o l i t . E n v i r o n m e n t a l groups were not i n f o r m e d o f the Gypsy Moth s i t u a t i o n by A g r i c u l t u r e Canada. Greenpeace, the major group, became aware of the Gypsy Moth's e x i s t e n c e i n K i t s i l a n o and A g r i c u l t u r e Canada's p l a n s f o r the moth t h r o u g h the media. No i n f o r m a t i o n a l m e e t i n g s , as s u c h , were h e l d between A g r i c u l t u r e Canada and Greenpeace. A f t e r much c o n f l i c t , though, 87 meetings were h e l d between the two o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the C i t y Manager and o t h e r s . In S e a t t l e , as i n Vancouver, l o c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups were not a c t i v e l y k e p t i n f o r m e d by t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s of the Gypsy Moth problem. S i n c e the Gypsy Moth had been a problem i n o t h e r p a r t s o f the S t a t e , F r i e n d s o f the E a r t h and o t h e r groups were f a m i l i a r w i t h the n a t u r e of the moth and the c o n v e n t i o n a l methods used t o c o n t r o l i t . To a c q u i r e i n f o r m a t i o n used by the WSDA, c o n c e r n i n g the moth and i t s c o n t r o l methods, the s e groups had t o use t h e Freedom o f I n f o r m a t i o n A c t . For a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e s e groups had t o r e l y on t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s . In Santa B a r b a r a , the s i t u a t i o n was q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t i n S e a t t l e and Vancouver. S i n c e the Commissioner i n f o r m e d the p u b l i c a t an e a r l y date t h a t the moth e x i s t e d i n the a r e a , l o c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups were a l s o made aware of the problem. Only one major l o c a l group, the S c e n i c S h o r e l i n e P r e s e r v a t i o n Conference (SSPC), was i d e n t i f i e d by the Commissioner's o f f i c e as b e i n g concerned about the Gypsy Moth i s s u e . The Commissioner, t h e r e f o r e , i n v i t e d a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the SSPC t o a t t e n d the s c o p i n g meeting f o r the EIR. T h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e recommended t h a t the Commissioner make a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n he had on the moth, i t s c o n t r o l methods, e f f e c t s on the environment, e t c . , a v a i l a b l e t o the p u b l i c . He a l s o recommended t h a t the p u b l i c have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o comment on t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , p o s s i b l y a t l o c a l p u b l i c p l a n n i n g s e s s i o n s ( E i s s l e r , 1982a). 88 C i t i z e n s For a B e t t e r Environment (CBE), an environmental group based i n San F r a n c i s c o , was not i n v o l v e d i n the early-stages of the EIR process. However, members of CBE were f r e e to copy the d r a f t EIR, t a l k to o f f i c e r s of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner's O f f i c e and c o n s u l t with SSPC r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to inform themselves of the s i t u a t i o n . They were a l s o g i v e n i n f o r m a t i o n by the CDFA. The l o c a l p u b l i c groups t h a t formed a f t e r the p u b l i c h e a r i n g were kept informed by o f f i c e r s of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner's o f f i c e , who attended meetings h e l d by these groups. Again, the process used i n Santa Barbara to inform l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s , i n t h i s case environmental groups, comes c l o s e s t to what i s c a l l e d f o r r e g a r d i n g t h i s s u b - c r i t e r i o n . In S e a t t l e and Vancouver, no e f f o r t was made by the agencies to a c t i v e l y inform the environmental groups. b. That l e g i t i m a t e p a r t i e s be given the o p p o r t u n i t y to prepare t h e i r own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of s c i e n t i f i c data, and that these p a r t i e s be allowed adequate time and support to gather t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n : Since A g r i c u l t u r e Canada d i d not supply a l l l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s i n Vancouver with the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t they had a v a i l a b l e on the moth and i t s c o n t r o l methods (the agency only s u p p l i e d l e a f l e t s at the p u b l i c meeting, and n o t i c e s to r e s i d e n t s of the i n f e s t a t i o n area) these i n t e r e s t s were not given an o p p o r t u n i t y to i n t e r p r e t t h i s data. As the c o n f l i c t grew, the agencies made some i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e to c e r t a i n l e g i t i m a t e 89 i n t e r e s t s ( C i t y C o u n c i l , the H e a l t h Department, the Task F o r c e ) , however, the s e i n t e r e s t s d i d not have the time nor the r e s o u r c e s t o v e r i f y t h i s d a t a , nor t o seek o t h e r i n f o r m e d v i e w p o i n t s r e g a r d i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n . Through i t s own r e s o u r c e s , Greenpeace p r e p a r e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f a v a i l a b l e d a t a on the Gypsy Moth and i t s c o n t r o l methods. The a g e n c i e s d i d not s u p p o r t Greenpeace, t h r o u g h f u n d i n g or any o t h e r means, f o r the purpose o f i n t e r p r e t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on the moth o r i t s c o n t r o l methods. In the S e a t t l e c a s e , the WSDA s u p p l i e d o n l y some o f the l e g i t i m a t e p a r t i e s w i t h t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n base (members of the S t a t e ' s S t e e r i n g Committee). As has a l r e a d y been mentioned, the WSDA d i d not make the Programmatic E I S , a sour c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n and d a t a , r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o the p u b l i c and i n t e r e s t groups. Most p a r t i e s had t o seek a l t e r n a t e means o f a c q u i r i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n (through the Freedom o f I n f o r m a t i o n A c t t h e y c o u l d get some i n f o r m a t i o n from the WSDA; o t h e r s o u r c e s ) . In a d d i t i o n , the WSDA d i d not g i v e the l e g i t i m a t e p a r t i e s advance w a r n i n g o f the s i t u a t i o n i n Ravenna (the WSDA c o u l d have in f o r m e d the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s o f the growing problem i n Ravenna as e a r l y as 1980). F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t the agency s u p p o r t e d l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s i n g a t h e r i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f d a t a on the Gypsy Moth o r i t s c o n t r o l methods. I n f a c t , t he agency showed a s t r o n g r e l u c t a n c e t o d i s c u s s the k i n d s of d a t a which seemed most i m p o r t a n t t o Ravenna r e s i d e n t s h e a l t h and s a f e t y e f f e c t s . 90 By i n f o r m i n g l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s of the p e s t problem a t an e a r l y s t a g e , and a l l o w i n g t h e s e i n t e r e s t s t o comment on the d r a f t EIR, t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner i n Santa B a r b a r a gave th e l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s an o p p o r t u n i t y , and c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e , t o p r e p a r e t h e i r own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the d a t a t h a t the Commissioner had p r e s e n t e d i n the d r a f t EIR. The Commissioner d i d n o t , however, s u p p o r t t h e s e i n t e r e s t s i n t h e i r endeavor by f u n d i n g t h e i r work, or by h e l p i n g them t o c o l l e c t d a t a or i n f o r m a t i o n from a l t e r n a t e s o u r c e s . T h i s l e d the e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups and o t h e r i n t e r e s t s ( l i k e the County Resource Management Department) t o share i n f o r m a t i o n and t o compare i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the Gypsy Moth problem and the p o s s i b l e c o n t r o l methods. In b o t h S e a t t l e and Vancouver, no attempt was made t o make the a g e n c i e s ' i n f o r m a t i o n base a v a i l a b l e t o l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s f o r the purpose of d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . In Santa B a r b a r a t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was made a v a i l a b l e t o a l l o f the i n t e r e s t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the s c o p i n g e x e r c i s e p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e a c h some agreement on what the most i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s were, i n c o n t r a s t t o the S e a t t l e s i t u a t i o n . In none of the case s t u d i e s was, however, any e f f o r t made t o a s s i s t the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r own p o s i t i o n s on t h i s d a t a , nor were the i n t e r e s t s s u p p o r t e d (through f u n d i n g or o t h e r means) i n s e e k i n g o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . 91 c. That a l l p a r t i e s be made aware of a l t e r n a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f i n f o r m a t i o n o r d a t a , and t h a t c o n s u l t a t i o n between the l e a d agency and the d i f f e r e n t groups d e t e r m i n e s what d a t a w i l l be used and how i t w i l l be p r e s e n t e d : A g r i c u l t u r e Canada d i d not make any p a r t y aware of a l t e r n a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e i r (or o t h e r ) d a t a . At the p u b l i c meeting and i n i n f o r m i n g r e s i d e n t s a f t e r the p u b l i c m e e t i n g , o f f i c i a l s s t r e s s e d the p o t e n t i a l l y d e v a s t a t i n g e f f e c t s o f the moth and ( i n t h e i r o p i n i o n ) the 'harmless' n a t u r e o f the proposed c o n t r o l method. They d i d not make t h e l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s aware o f the s c a n t d a t a a v a i l a b l e on Gypsy Moth s u r v i v a l and damage i n the West Coast environment, nor d i d th e y i n f o r m t h e l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s o f the q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d about the e f f e c t s o f D i m i l i n o r C a r b a r y l on p u b l i c h e a l t h . F u r t h e r m o r e , the agency d i d not c o n s u l t w i t h groups who had d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f i n f o r m a t i o n on the moth or i t s c o n t r o l methods as t o how t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n would be p r e s e n t e d o r i n c l u d e d i n i n f o r m i n g the o t h e r l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s . Greenpeace, t h r o u g h i t s own r e s o u r c e s , i n f o r m e d r e s i d e n t s and the media o f i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the Gypsy Moth and i t s c o n t r o l methods. In S e a t t l e , the e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups ( F r i e n d s of the E a r t h , S e a t t l e C i t i z e n s f o r the Safe C o n t r o l o f the Gypsy Moth, Western Washington T o x i c s C o a l i t i o n , and o t h e r s ) , w hich had t h e i r own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f d a t a on the impact of the moth and the h e a l t h e f f e c t s of t h e d i f f e r e n t c o n t r o l methods, had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r e s e n t t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a t the p u b l i c meetings and a t the 92 h e a r i n g . However, no o f f i c i a l program was o r g a n i z e d by the WSDA f o r the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o a l l o f the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s a t an e a r l y date i n the p r o c e s s . There was a l s o no c o n s u l t a t i o n between the agency and any o t h e r l e g i t i m a t e group t o d e t e r m i n e what i n f o r m a t i o n would be used or how i t would be i n t e r p r e t e d f o r the purpose of i n f o r m i n g a l l l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s o r f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . F i n a l l y , because o f the WSDA's r e l i a n c e on the USDA's Programmatic E I S , l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s d i d not have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r e s e n t t h e i r views i n t h i s document. In Santa B a r b a r a , the A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner c o n t a c t e d a v a r i e t y of i n t e r e s t s ( l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , p u b l i c h e a l t h and e n v i r o n m e n t a l a u t h o r i t i e s , i n d u s t r y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , e t c . ) f o r t h e i r comments on what t h e y wished t o see i n the d r a f t EIR. In a d d i t i o n , the s c o p i n g meeting h e l d b e f o r e the d r a f t EIR was begun gave d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s , , i n c l u d i n g an e n v i r o n m e n t a l group, an o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n f o r m the Commissioner o f the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t they f e l t was i m p o r t a n t f o r d e c i s i o n making. The p u b l i c h e a r i n g was the f i r s t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a l l l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s t o meet t o g e t h e r w i t h the a g e n c i e s , and f o r a l l p a r t i e s t o p r e s e n t and hear a l l a v a i l a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of d a t a and i n f o r m a t i o n . A f t e r the p u b l i c h e a r i n g , an exchange o f i d e a s and views c o n t i n u e d a t meetings o r g a n i z e d by the e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups (which were a t t e n d e d by the Commissioner or h i s o f f i c e r s ) and a t meetings h e l d by the A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner as p a r t o f h i s p u b l i c awareness program. 93 A l t h o u g h , i n S e a t t l e and Vancouver, the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s e v e n t u a l l y were made aware o f the d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f i n f o r m a t i o n , t h i s o c c u r r e d i n a haphazard way. In a d d i t i o n , the i n t e r e s t s r e c e i v e d t h e s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s from d i v e r s e s o u r c e s , and a t d i f f e r e n t time p e r i o d s i n the p r o c e s s . The a g e n c i e s d i d not c o n s u l t w i t h the i n t e r e s t s t o c o - o r d i n a t e what d a t a , and what i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h a t d a t a , would be used t o i n f o r m a l l o f the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s . The Santa B a r b a r a s t u d y shows t h a t t h i s s i t u a t i o n can be a v o i d e d ; t h a t agency o f f i c i a l s can c o n s u l t w i t h l e g i t i m a t e g r o u p s , b o t h i n c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and i n d i s c u s s i n g the m e r i t s o f t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n , f o r the purpose o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . d. The p r o c e s s must i n c l u d e t i m e l y o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r n e g o t i a t i o n or b a r g a i n i n g between the agency and the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s : Because o f the s t a l e m a t e t h a t r e s u l t e d from c o n f l i c t between A g r i c u l t u r e Canada and Greenpeace, the C i t y Manager i n t e r v e n e d t o s e a r c h f o r a s o l u t i o n . A seven member Task F o r c e , r e p r e s e n t i n g the d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s , was c r e a t e d t o d e v i s e a c o n t r o l program t h a t would put an end t o t h e c o n f l i c t . The s o l u t i o n produced by the Task Force was not s u c c e s s f u l , a t f i r s t , as A g r i c u l t u r e Canada i n t e r p r e t e d the Task F o r c e ' s recommendations d i f f e r e n t l y from Greenpeace, and f u r t h e r c o n f l i c t ensued. F i n a l l y , t he C i t y Manager i n t e r v e n e d d i r e c t l y between A g r i c u l t u r e Canada and Greenpeace. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n an agreement between A g r i c u l t u r e Canada and Greenpeace t o a p p l y t h e i r 94 r e s p e c t i v e c o n t r o l methods on p r o p e r t i e s t h a t had been agreed upon. The d i s c u s s i o n s between A g r i c u l t u r e Canada, Greenpeace and the C i t y Manager, however, took p l a c e a f t e r t he i s s u e had become p o l a r i z e d . In S e a t t l e , n e i t h e r b a r g a i n i n g nor n e g o t i a t i o n took p l a c e between the agency and the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s i n o r d e r t o a r r i v e a t a d e c i s i o n . The l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s were not i n v o l v e d i n t he d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , but they a p p l i e d much p r e s s u r e on the WSDA thr o u g h the media and th r o u g h v a r i o u s p o l i t i c i a n s a c t i n g on b e h a l f o f thes e i n t e r e s t s . The c o n t r o l method d e c i d e d upon was the method t h a t had been advocated by the e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups. T h e r e f o r e , d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s i n the WSDA responded t o the p r e s s u r e s t h a t had been a p p l i e d t o th e agency. In Santa B a r b a r a , the p r o c e s s whereby a d e c i s i o n was a r r i v e d a t i n c l u d e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r n e g o t i a t i o n o r b a r g a i n i n g between the A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner and the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s (the i n i t i a l s c o p i n g meeting, the EIR p r o c e s s , the numerous meetings and t h e Commissioners response t o the l a w s u i t s ) . There may a l s o have been some n e g o t i a t i o n between the Commissioner and the CDFA. The c o n t r o l program d e c i d e d upon, combined the a g e n c i e s ' d e s i r e t o maximize the p o s s i b i l i t y o f e l i m i n a t i n g the moth w h i l e a t t e m p t i n g t o m i n i m i z e c o n f l i c t w i t h o t h e r i n t e r e s t s . T h i s program was dev e l o p e d by the Commissioner and h i s s t a f f , based on t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f the Gypsy Moth and i t s c o n t r o l methods, and t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n of the importance o f what o t h e r i n t e r e s t s had e x p r e s s e d . 95 EVALUATION BASED ON SCIENTIFIC SOUNDNESS a. The a l t e r n a t i v e chosen s h o u l d be based upon e x p e r i e n c e , i f not p r e c e d e n t ( T h i s e n s u r e s t h a t the r e s i d e n t s and the government a g e n c i e s a re not s u b j e c t e d t o the r i s k s and c o s t s o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . I t does not mean t h a t i n n o v a t i v e methods, which have been t e s t e d e l s e w h e r e , cannot be u s e d ) : The c o n t r o l method t h a t was used i n Vancouver had two f l a w s t h a t made i t s c i e n t i f i c a l l y unsound. F i r s t l y , i t c o n s i s t e d o f a c o m b i n a t i o n o f two c o n t r o l p r o d u c t s , c a r b a r y l and i n s e c t i c i d a l soap s p r a y i n g . C a r b a r y l i s r e g i s t e r e d f o r Gypsy Moth c o n t r o l , and has been t e s t e d and used f o r t h i s purpose. At the t i m e , i t was c o n s i d e r e d by a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s t o be an e f f e c t i v e Gypsy Moth c o n t r o l p r o d u c t , which had seen c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e v i o u s use. However, the i n s e c t i c i d a l soap, a l t h o u g h r e g i s t e r e d as p e s t i c i d a l and found t o be e f f e c t i v e a g a i n s t c e r t a i n s u c k i n g i n s e c t s ( P u r i t c h and B r o o k s , 1981), had never been t e s t e d o r r e g i s t e r e d f o r Gypsy Moth c o n t r o l . The second weakness i n the c o n t r o l program was the random a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e i n s e c t i c i d e s . T h e r e f o r e , i t was o n l y by chance t h a t C a r b a r y l was e f f e c t i v e , i f i t was a t a l l . In S e a t t l e , the c o n t r o l method t h a t was chosen was the a e r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of B a c i l l u s t h u r i n g i e n s i s ( B t ) . T h i s method had seen p r e v i o u s use, and was g a i n i n g a c c e ptance by a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s as a c o n t r o l method f o r Gypsy Moth. T h i s c o n t r o l method was, t h e r e f o r e , based on e x p e r i e n c e and p r e c e d e n t . 96 In Santa Barbara, the c o n t r o l program was composed of s e v e r a l components: a e r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of Bt over the whole i n f e s t a t i o n a rea, ground a p p l i c a t i o n of C a r b a r y l where m u l t i p l e catches of males had been made or where egg-masses had been c o l l e c t e d , mass-trapping and a qu a r a n t i n e . These were a l l methods t h a t had been used i n other c o n t r o l programs and had been t e s t e d f o r t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . What was n o v e l , was t h a t they were used i n t h i s combination. However, i n s t e a d of d e t r a c t i n g from the o b j e c t i v e of Gypsy Moth c o n t r o l , as i n the method used i n Vancouver, the elements of c o n t r o l i n t h i s combination were complementary and thus r e i n f o r c e d the chance of f u l f i l l i n g the o b j e c t i v e s . b. The a l t e r n a t i v e chosen must be based on s h o r t - and long-term c o n s i d e r a t i o n s (Because the Gypsy Moth i s c o n s t a n t l y r e i n t r o d u c e d to the P a c i f i c r e g i o n from the East, short-term s o l u t i o n s to a long-term problem may be c o s t l y i n human h e a l t h , e c o l o g i c a l and economic terms): Because the c o n t r o l method t h a t was used i n Vancouver was so unusual, i t cannot be determined what the s h o r t - and long-term c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e a l l y were. I t can, perhaps, be seen as a short-term s o l u t i o n to the K i t s i l a n o problem (perhaps j u s t a short-term p o l i t i c a l s o l u t i o n ) , but c e r t a i n l y not as a long-term p r o v i n c i a l program. I f the Gypsy Moth had not disappeared from the area, i t i s not c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t the same program would have seen f u r t h e r use. In S e a t t l e , the a e r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of Bt was a s o l u t i o n that addressed both s h o r t - and long-term c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . By u s i n g Bt, 97 the a g e n c i e s reduced the Gypsy Moth p o p u l a t i o n i n Ravenna (which may l e a d t o an e v e n t u a l e l i m i n a t i o n o f the pe s t ) w h i l e m i n i m i z i n g c o n c e i v a b l e h e a l t h hazards t o the p u b l i c . The c o n t r o l program used i n Santa B a r b a r a a l s o combined s h o r t - and l o n g - t e r m c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The g o a l of the program was t o e r a d i c a t e the moth (a s h o r t - t e r m c o n s i d e r a t i o n ) w h i l e m i n i m i z i n g d i s t u r b a n c e s t o the e c o l o g y and r i s k s t o the p u b l i c h e a l t h ( s h o r t - and l o n g - t e r m c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ) . I t can be argued, however, t h a t C a r b a r y l s h o u l d not have been used a t a l l , as the e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups and the C i t y o f Santa B a r b a r a d i d . c. The a l t e r n a t i v e must be a c c e p t a b l e t o community h e a l t h o f f i c i a l s : In a l l t h r e e case s t u d i e s the p u b l i c h e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s gave t h e i r a p p r o v a l t o the c o n t r o l method t h a t was e v e n t u a l l y used. 98 CHAPTER V I : CONCLUSIONS The f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s of the o r i g i n , n a t u r e and e f f e c t o f c o n f l i c t over Gypsy Moth c o n t r o l i n t h r e e urban a r e a s . The purpose o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s t o c o n s i d e r what f u r t h e r a n a l y s e s might be done t o i n c r e a s e our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h i s problem, and what t h i s s t u d y has r e v e a l e d about the s o u r c e s of c o n f l i c t and c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , based on the knowledge g a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y , a p r o c e s s t h a t a g e n c i e s can f o l l o w t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t over t h i s i s s u e i s p r e s e n t e d . F i n a l l y , an example i s g i v e n of how t h i s p r o c e s s i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g a p p l i e d . 1. FURTHER ANALYSES From the p o i n t o f view of u n d e r s t a n d i n g the o r i g i n and n a t u r e of the c o n f l i c t t h a t o c c u r r e d i n the case s t u d i e s , the e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a h e l p t o p i n - p o i n t g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c s o u r c e s o f t h i s c o n f l i c t . In a d d i t i o n , t hey a r e a b a s i s f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the case s t u d i e s . One a s p e c t of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n f l i c t t h a t i s not i n c l u d e d i n the c r i t e r i a i s the p e r c e p t i o n o f r i s k . A n a l y s i s o f the b e n e f i t s of c o n t r o l programs i n r e l a t i o n t o the r i s k s o f exposure t o p e s t i c i d e s i s a new and i m p o r t a n t s t u d y t h a t can h e l p t o i d e n t i f y the a t t i t u d e s t h a t the p u b l i c w i l l have t o p e s t c o n t r o l programs. I t would be most h e l p f u l , t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d the n a t u r e o f c o n f l i c t o v er Gypsy Moth c o n t r o l , i f s u r v e y s o f t h i s n a t u r e would be done. 99 F u r t h e r a n a l y s e s , f o r the purpose o f r e d u c i n g c o n f l i c t s , s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d toward u n d e r s t a n d i n g how the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s i n f l u e n c e c o n f l i c t . For example, s t u d i e s s h o u l d be done t o determine i f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the a g e n c i e s would improve the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n . The a n a l y s i s of the Vancouver s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e communication and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y problems ( o f f i c i a l s who have the a u t h o r i t y t o make d e c i s i o n s do not n e c e s s a r i l y bear r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r d e c i s i o n s ) between the c e n t r a l o f f i c e i n Ottawa and t h e r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s . In Santa B a r b a r a , the County A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner was q u i t e aware o f t h e s e problems, and c o n v i n c e d the S t a t e agency t o a l l o w h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n t o a c t as the l e a d agency. 2. SOURCES OF CONFLICT With r e g a r d t o the s o u r c e s o f c o n f l i c t i n the case s t u d i e s , , t h i s s t u d y r e v e a l s t h a t : a. With the e x c e p t i o n o f Santa B a r b a r a , the a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s were unprepared and u n w i l l i n g t o c o n s u l t w i t h a l l o f the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s c o n c e r n i n g the n a t u r e o f the Gypsy Moth and i t s c o n t r o l . A l t h o u g h , i n Vancouver and S e a t t l e , the a g e n c i e s c o u l d have i n f o r m e d the i n t e r e s t s o f the growing problem a t an e a r l y s t a g e , they d i d n o t . In b o t h c a s e s , the p r e s s r e p o r t e d the s i t u a t i o n and the c o n t r o l method t h a t had been c o n s i d e r e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n Vancouver, the a g e n c i e s bungled t h e i r way t h r o u g h i n f o r m i n g and i n v o l v i n g the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s . In S e a t t l e , the a g e n c i e s attempted t o 100 m a n i p u l a t e t h e s e i n t e r e s t s i n the way they i n i t i a l l y s c h e d u l e d and o r g a n i z e d p u b l i c meetings and the p u b l i c h e a r i n g , and i n the way i n which they c o n t r o l l e d the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h e y r e v e a l e d . b. When l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s demanded f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the p u b l i c h e a l t h e f f e c t s of the c o n t r o l methods, the a g e n c i e s were not f r a n k and open about t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n (or l a c k t h e r e o f ) . T h i s was common t o a l l of the case s t u d i e s . In Vancouver d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the h e a l t h e f f e c t s o f the p e s t i c i d e s was not made a v a i l a b l e ( i t i s not c l e a r t h a t the a g e n c i e s had ready a c c e s s t o t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n ) . In S e a t t l e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was made a v a i l a b l e t o some i n t e r e s t s , but not t o o t h e r s . I n Santa B a r b a r a , the e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups wanted t o see more d a t a on C a r b a r y l , but t h i s was not made a v a i l a b l e i n the EIR. c. The a g e n c i e s attempted t o p r e v e n t l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . A l t h o u g h t h i s i s common t o a l l o f the case s t u d i e s , d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between the cases i n the way t h i s was at t e m p t e d . I n i t i a l l y , i n Vancouver, the a g e n c i e s made a d e c i s i o n . T h i s was r e j e c t e d by numerous i n t e r e s t s . As c o n f l i c t grew, one i m p o r t a n t group e n t e r e d the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s a f t e r a n o t h e r : f i r s t t he C i t y o f Vancouver government, then Greenpeace and f i n a l l y t he p u b l i c . I n S e a t t l e , the agency managed t o keep a l l l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s out o f the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . However, the d e c i s i o n t h a t was made was a p r o d u c t of the p o l i t i c a l and 101 s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s t h a t came t o bear on the a g e n c i e s ' d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . In Santa B a r b a r a , l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s were i n c l u d e d i n most of the p r o c e s s , but were e x c l u d e d from the f i n a l d r a f t o f the EIR, and the a c t u a l c h o o s i n g of the c o n t r o l method. Through the t h r e a t o f l a w s u i t s , i n t e r e s t s were then a b l e t o i n f l u e n c e f u t u r e developments. These f i n d i n g s are not i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h what was d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I , c o n c e r n i n g the s o u r c e s of c o n f l i c t . In f a c t , the c a s es are c l e a r examples of c o n f l i c t , as d e f i n e d by Katz and Kahn, and s p e c i f i c a l l y o f c o n f l i c t over e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s . 3. CONFLICT RESOLUTION In Chapter I I a d e f i n i t i o n i s g i v e n f o r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n r e q u i r e s a c t o r s t o d e v e l o p l e g i t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s b e f o r e c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n b e g i n s . In S e a t t l e and Vancouver, t h i s ' l e g i t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p ' never d e v e l o p e d . Throughout the c o n f l i c t i n S e a t t l e , the a c t o r s m a i n t a i n e d a 'win or l o s e ' r e l a t i o n s h i p . No a t t e m p t s were made t o r e c o n c i l e d i f f e r e n c e s or c o o p e r a t e f o r the purpose of f i n d i n g m u t u a l l y a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n s . The r e s u l t was t h a t the agency had t o d e f e r t o the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s ' demands. I t was f o r t u n a t e t h a t the c o n t r o l method advocated by the i n t e r e s t s was a v i a b l e , sound method f o r Gypsy Moth c o n t r o l . In Vancouver, the s i t u a t i o n was not q u i t e so d r a s t i c . A g a i n , d i f f e r e n c e s were not r e c o n c i l e d , nor was t h e r e c o o p e r a t i o n f o r the purpose of f i n d i n g a m u t u a l l y a c c e p t a b l e c o n t r o l method. I n s t e a d , the a c t o r s came 102 t o an u n u s u a l agreement i n which each p a r t y a p p l i e d i t s own c o n t r o l t r e a t m e n t . A l t h o u g h t h i s agreement ended the c o n f l i c t , i t d i d not r e s o l v e d i f f e r e n c e s . In a d d i t i o n the r e s u l t i n g c o n t r o l method was not s c i e n t i f i c a l l y c r e d i b l e . In Santa B a r b a r a , a p r o c e s s o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n d i d o c c u r . In c o n t r a s t t o both Vancouver and S e a t t l e , the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s were g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o e n t e r i n t o d i a l o g u e w i t h the l e a d agency f o r the purpose of f i n d i n g a c o n t r o l method t h a t was a c c e p t a b l e t o the agency and t o the i n t e r e s t s . In a d d i t i o n , when c o n f l i c t a r o s e , the agency made e f f o r t s t o r e c o n c i l e d i f f e r e n c e s . The r e s o l u t i o n of t h i s c o n f l i c t was bo t h p r o c e s s and r e s u l t o r i e n t e d . Not o n l y were the symptoms o f c o n f l i c t r e d u c e d , but a l s o the c a u s e s . The t e m p t a t i o n t o recommend t h a t a g e n c i e s s h o u l d not f o l l o w the p r o c e s s e s used by the a g e n c i e s i n the S e a t t l e and Vancouver case s t u d i e s , and t h a t t h e y s h o u l d f o l l o w a p r o c e s s s i m i l a r t o t h a t which was used i n Santa B a r b a r a e x i s t s , but t h i s would be too s i m p l i s t i c a s o l u t i o n t o a complex problem. In a l l t h r e e case s t u d i e s t h e a g e n c i e s used p r o c e d u r e s or d e v i s e d methods (some of which were common t o a l l t h r e e c a s e s ) , i n the hope of f i n d i n g s o l u t i o n s ' t o the c o n f l i c t . These methods i n c l u d e d : a. The use o f m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t t a s k f o r c e s ; b. I n c l u s i o n of l o c a l governments i n the p r o c e s s ; c. P u b l i c m e e t i ngs. I t was i n Santa B a r b a r a t h a t t h e s e methods were used t o d e v e l o p consensus and r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t . 103 4. A PROCESS THAT AGENCIES CAN FOLLOW TO REDUCE, OR RESOLVE, CONFLICT OVER HOW TO MANAGE THE GYPSY MOTH IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT Based on the a n a l y s i s of the case s t u d i e s , the c o n c l u s i o n s drawn c o n c e r n i n g c o n f l i c t and c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n , and the d i s c u s s i o n o f c o n f l i c t and i t s r e s o l u t i o n i n Chapter I I , the f o l l o w i n g p r o c e s s which i s o r g a n i z e d around the l i f e - c y c l e o f the p e s t , has been d e v i s e d t o r e s o l v e f u t u r e c o n f l i c t s over Gypsy Moth c o n t r o l i n urban a r e a s . The m o n i t o r i n g program f o r male Gypsy Moths must c o n t i n u e t h r o u g h o u t t h e P a c i f i c r e g i o n . There i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t t h i s a c t i v i t y , i f p r o p e r l y c a r r i e d o u t , causes c o n f l i c t . I f the m o n i t o r i n g agency d i s c o v e r s male moths i n a p a r t i c u l a r community, the agency must i d e n t i f y the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s which w i l l be concerned about the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s d i s c o v e r y . The c o m p o s i t i o n o f l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s may v a r y from one s i t u a t i o n t o a n o t h e r , however, i t i s suggested t h a t the p a r t i e s suggested i n the f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s i s be c o n s i d e r e d . When an agency d i s c o v e r s the moth i n a p a r t i c u l a r community, o f f i c i a l s s h o u l d b e g i n a program of i n f o r m i n g the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y the r e s i d e n t s on whose p r o p e r t i e s moth t r a p p i n g and l a r v a l and egg-mass s e a r c h e s o c c u r , and l o c a l government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ) of the n a t u r e of the p e s t and the agency's a c t i v i t i e s . D u r i n g t h i s s t a g e , the i n t e r e s t s can be 104 informed through m a i l - o u t s . A p u b l i c meeting i s not necessary. I f the agency f i n d s t h a t an i n f e s t a t i o n has o c c u r r e d , a more e l a b o r a t e system of i n f o r m i n g the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s must be developed. At t h i s p o i n t , the agency should hold e i t h e r p u b l i c meetings or meetings between r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a l l of the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s ( i f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s can be found), and should a d v e r t i s e these meetings through a v a i l a b l e media. At these meetings, the agency should provide the i n t e r e s t s with more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the pest and i t s p o t e n t i a l impact, the a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r d e a l i n g with the pest and the consequences of u s i n g a p a r t i c u l a r a l t e r n a t i v e ( t h i s i n c l u d e s the p u b l i c h e a l t h , economic and e c o l o g i c a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s of each a l t e r n a t i v e ) . T h i s w i l l r e q u i r e t h a t the agency have a source of i n f o r m a t i o n and e x p e r t i s e f o r up-to-date knowledge about the pest, i t s c o n t r o l methods, i t s ecology, h e a l t h concerns, e t c . In a d d i t i o n , an on-going forum should be developed at which the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s can be informed of new developments and at which they can ask q u e s t i o n s , present t h e i r p o s i t i o n s , e t c . The i n f o r m a t i o n meetings h e l d by the agency should begin e a r l y enough f o r i n t e r e s t s to develop t h e i r own p e r c e p t i o n s (based on the i n f o r m a t i o n they have been given by the agency) of the problem and methods f o r s o l v i n g i t . The meetings should begin i n the F a l l , f o l l o w i n g the egg-mass search t h a t determines whether or not an i n f e s t a t i o n e x i s t s (the t i m i n g of events i s dependent upon the development of the Gypsy Moth). T h i s would g i v e s u f f i c i e n t time f o r the process, before a d e c i s i o n would have to be made i n the S p r i n g . 105 I f the i n t e r e s t s are given the i n f o r m a t i o n ( r e q u i r e d above), d u r i n g the F a l l , they would have adequate time to prepare t h e i r own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and to determine i f they r e q u i r e d a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . To develop i t s own p o s i t i o n , a group might r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n or the s e r v i c e s of an o u t s i d e e x p e r t . The agency should attempt to support the group. This might r e q u i r e the agency to provide some f i n a n c i a l support f o r the i n t e r e s t group or f o r the agency to use i t s resources to f i n d the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d by the group. The funding of i n t e r e s t groups f o r the purpose of d e v e l o p i n g p o s i t i o n s may not be p o s s i b l e f o r the agency, e s p e c i a l l y i n austere times. In any case, only support i n the search f o r i n f o r m a t i o n may be r e q u i r e d by a group. In the case s t u d i e s , the main concern of groups opposed to the agencies was f o r adequate i n f o r m a t i o n . These groups had s u f f i c i e n t r esources ( i e . s c i e n t i f i c a d v i s o r s ) to use i n f o r m a t i o n to h e l p them develop p o s i t i o n s . As groups develop t h e i r own p o s i t i o n s on i n f o r m a t i o n , these p o s i t i o n s should be presented a t the on-going i n f o r m a t i o n meetings, so t h a t a l l p a r t i e s become f a m i l i a r with these i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The agency and the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s should then ( t h i s should occur i n December or January) decide what data and which i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the data w i l l be used f o r decision-making. In February or March, the agency and the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s should begin d i s c u s s i n g how the i n f o r m a t i o n and the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n should be used to formulate a 106 m u t u a l l y a c c e p t a b l e c o n t r o l method. The c o n t r o l method s h o u l d be chosen t h r o u g h b a r g a i n i n g o r n e g o t i a t i o n between the agency and the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s . To p r e v e n t p a r t i e s from p r o p o s i n g c o n t r o l methods t h a t are u n a c c e p t a b l e t o the o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s , the agency must i n s i s t t h a t the c o n t r o l method e v e n t u a l l y agreed upon be s c i e n t i f i c a l l y sound. The r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a s c i e n t i f i c a l l y sound c o n t r o l method a r e l i s t e d i n Chapter IV. Once the c o n t r o l method has been agreed upon, the agency must be f a i t h f u l i n i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The on-going forum s h o u l d c o n t i n u e , so t h a t any u n f o r s e e n problems t h a t a r i s e can be r a p i d l y d e a l t w i t h . 5. APPLICATION OF THIS PROCESS: FORT LANGLEY, B.C. I t has been s t a t e d t h a t the Gypsy Moth i s r e p e a t e d l y i n t r o d u c e d t o the West C o a s t . In B r i t i s h Columbia t h e r e are new i n f e s t a t i o n s i n F o r t L a n g l e y and Courtenay. In November, 1983, I was asked by A g r i c u l t u r e Canada t o a t t e n d a meeting of the Gypsy Moth sub-committee i n o r d e r t o h e l p A g r i c u l t u r e Canada and the B.C. M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and Food d e t e r m i n e a p r o c e d u r e f o r the c o n t r o l o f the moth i n F o r t L a n g l e y . At t h a t meeting I p r e s e n t e d some of the r e s u l t s and i d e a s emerging from the p r e s e n t s t u d y . In e a r l y March, 1984, a n o t h e r meeting was h e l d a t which the a g e n c i e s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t hey wished f o r a p r o c e s s t h a t would r e s o l v e any c o n f l i c t s over the p e s t and i t s c o n t r o l . Because o f time c o n s t r a i n t s , meetings w i t h a l l o f t h e l e g i t i m a t e 107 i n t e r e s t s f o r agreement t h r o u g h d i a l o g u e was not p o s s i b l e . I n s t e a d , a s e t of o p t i o n s were d e v e l o p e d which v a r i e d from c o n t i n u e d m o n i t o r i n g o f the moth t o ground a p p l i c a t i o n of Bt t o combined a e r i a l and ground a p p l i c a t i o n of B t . These o p t i o n s were p r e s e n t e d a t a p u b l i c meeting i n F o r t L a n g l e y on A p r i l 5, 1984. A show of hands a t the meeting i n d i c a t e d unanimous agreement f o r the combined ground and a e r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f B t . The r e s i d e n t s a r e p r e s e n t l y b e i n g c o n t a c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r w i s h e s . The a g e n c i e s have s t a t e d t h a t the f i n a l d e c i s i o n depends on the s u p p o r t of the r e s i d e n t s . I f the a g e n c i e s had f o l l o w e d the p r o c e s s suggested above, they would have had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l o r e some o t h e r o p t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the p r o c e s s used i n F o r t L a n g l e y i n d i c a t e s a p o s i t i v e change i n a t t i t u d e and a c t i o n by the a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s from what e x i s t e d d u r i n g the K i t s i l a n o event i n 1979. 108 LITERATURE CITED LITERATURE CITED IN CHAPTER I I Anderson, J.F. 1980. "The Gypsy Moth." F r o n t i e r s o f P l a n t  S c i e n c e . 32:3:2-7. CDFA, 1983. E n v i r o n m e n t a l Assessment of Gypsy Moth and i t s E r a d i c a t i o n i n C a l i f o r n i a : 1983 Program. C a l i f o r n i a Department o f Food and A g r i c u l t u r e . Cameron, E.A. 1973. " D i s p a r l u r e : a p o t e n t i a l t o o l f o r Gypsy Moth p o p u l a t i o n m a n i p u l a t i o n . " B u l l . Entomol. Soc. Am. 19:15-19. C a m p b e l l , R.W., M.G. M i l l a r , E . J . Duda, C.E. B i a z a k and R.J. S l o a n . 1976. "Man's A c t i v i t i e s and Subsequent Gypsy Moth Egg-mass D e n s i t y A l o n g the F o r e s t Edge." E n v i r o n m e n t a l Entomology. 5:2:273-276. Carde, R.T., W.L. R o e l o f s and C.C. Doane. 1973. " N a t u r a l I n h i b i t o r o f the Gypsy Moth Sex A t t r a c t a n t . " N a t u r e . 241:474-475. Caron, A. 1982. "Survey f o r Gypsy Moth: Quebec." Can. A g r i c .  I n s e c t P e s t Rev. 6 0:59. Deu t s c h , M. 1973. The R e s o l u t i o n of C o n f l i c t : C o n s t r u c t i v e and  D e s t r u c t i v e P r o c e s s e s . New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Doane, C.C. and M.C. McManus ( e d s . ) . 1981. The Gypsy Moth: Research Toward I n t e g r a t e d P e s t Management. USDA T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n 1584. pp. 757. G e r a r d i , M. and J . Grimm. 1979. The H i s t o r y , B i o l o g y , Damage  and C o n t r o l o f the Gypsy Moth. London: A s s o c i a t e d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s e s , pp. 233. G l a d w i n , T. 1980. " P a t t e r n s o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n f l i c t over I n d u s t r i a l F a c i l i t i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1970-78." N a t u r a l Resources J o u r n a l . v.20, A p r i l 1980. Hanna, M. 1982. "Gypsy Moth: H i s t o r y of E r a d i c a t i o n E f f o r t s i n M i c h i g a n , 1954-1981." The G r e a t Lakes E n t o m o l o g i s t . 15:3:193-198. H e i n r i c h s , J . 1982. "A Gypsy Moth Omnibus." J . F o r . 80:9:573-578. Herdy, H. 1982. "Survey f o r Gypsy Moth: O n t a r i o . " Can. A g r i c .  I n s e c t P e s t . Rev. 60:59. Himes, J . 1980. C o n f l i c t and C o n f l i c t Management. Athens: The U n i v e r s i t y of G e o r g i a P r e s s . 109 Houston, D.R. 1979. C l a s s i f y i n g F o r e s t S u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o Gypsy  Moth D e f o l i a t i o n . USDA A g r i c u l t u r e Handbook No. 542. Johnson, B. 1981. "The E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o s t s of B u r e a u c r a t i c Governance: Theory and Cases," i n B u r e a u c r a c y v s .  Environment. Ed. Baden J . a n d R. S t r o u p . Ann A r b o r : The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s . K a t z , D. and R. Kahn. 1978. The S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y o f  O r g a n i z a t i o n s . 2d ed. Lance, D. and P. Barbosa. 1982. "Host Tree I n f l u e n c e on the D i s p e r s a l of L a t e I n s t a r Gypsy Moths." O i k o s . 38:1-7. M a s s a c h u s e t t s S t a t e Board o f A g r i c u l t u r e . 1898. Report of the S t a t e Board o f A g r i c u l t u r e on the Work o f E x t e r m i n a t i o n of the Gypsy Moth. Bo s t o n : W r i g h t and P o t t e r P r i n t i n g Co. pp. 139. McManus, M.L. 1978. "Expanded Gypsy Moth Research and Development Program." J . F o r . 76:144-9. M o e l l a r , G.H., R.L. M a r l e r , R.E. McCay and W.B. White. 1977. "Economic A n a l y s i s of the Gypsy Moth Problem i n the N o r t h e a s t . I I I . Impacts on Homeowners and Managers o f R e c r e a t i o n A r e a s . " USDA F o r . S e r v . Res. Pap. NE-360. M o r r i s , R.F., G.L. G r e e n s l a d e and A.G. Raske. 1982. "Notes on the Occurrence o f the Gypsy Moth i n Newfoundland." The Canadian E n t o m o l o g i s t . 114:9:879-880. N e l k i n , D., ed. 1979. C o n t r o v e r s y : P o l i t i c s o f T e c h n i c a l  D e c i s i o n s . B e v e r l y H i l l s : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s . R e i d , W. 1980. "Survey f o r Gypsy Moth i n 1980." Can. A g r i c .  I n s e c t P e s t Rev. 58:44-45. R e i l l y , W. 1983. "Foreword," i n S e t t l i n g T h i n g s . A.R. T a l b o t . Washington: The C o n s e r v a t i o n F o u n d a t i o n . Sawyer, A . J . and R.A. Casagrande. 1983. "Urban P e s t Management: A C o n c e p t u a l Framework." Urban E c o l . 7: 145-157. Schwalbe, C P . 1979. Using Pheromone Traps t o D e t e c t and E v a l u a t e P o p u l a t i o n s o f the Gypsy Moth. USDA A g r i c u l t u r e Handbook No. 544. Simons, E., R.C Reardon and M. T i c e h u r s t . 1979. S e l e c t e d  P a r a s i t e s and H y p e r p a r a s i t e s o f the Gypsy Moth,  W i t h Keys t o A d u l t s and Immatures. USDA A g r i c u l t u r e Handbook No. 540. Wehr, P. 1979. C o n f l i c t R e g u l a t i o n . B o u l d e r : Westview P r e s s . 110 LITERATURE CITED IN CHAPTER I I I : VANCOUVER CASE STUDY A g r i c u l t u r e Canada. 1979a. A g r i c u l t u r e Canada News R e l e a s e . F e b r u a r y 16, 1979. A g r i c u l t u r e Canada. 1979b. N o t i c e t o P r o p e r t y Owners: S p r a y i n g f o r Gypsy Moth C o n t r o l . P l a n t Q u a r a n t i n e D i v i s i o n , A g r i c u l t u r e Canada. March 20, 1979. A g r i c u l t u r e Canada. 1979c. A g r i c u l t u r e Canada News R e l e a s e . May 2, 1979. American A u t o m o b i l e A s s o c i a t i o n ( undated). T r i p t i k . p. 798. B.C.M.A. 1979. B.C. M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e T e l e x t o A g r i c u l t u r e Canada. May 11, 1979. B.C.M.A. and CD.A. 1979. I n f o r m a t i o n Package on Gypsy Moth i n the K i t s i l a n o A r e a . P r e p a r e d j o i n t l y by the B.C. M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and the Canada Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e ( A g r i c u l t u r e Canada). Carney, P. 1979. Pat Carney Campaign Headquarters P r e s s R e l e a s e . May 1, 1979. C i t y o f Vancouver. 1979a. I n t e r - o f f i c e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , C i t y Manager's O f f i c e . Re: Me e t i n g on Gypsy Moths i n K i t s i l a n o . F e b r u a r y 28, 1979. C i t y o f Vancouver. 1979b. I n t e r - o f f i c e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , C i t y Manager's o f f i c e . Re: L o c a t i o n o f I n f o r m a t i o n T r a i l e r on City-owned Land by P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e . March 15, 1979. C i t y o f Vancouver. 1979c. C i t y Manager's R e p o r t . May 1, 1979. C i t y o f Vancouver. 1979d. P r e s s R e l e a s e . May 28, 1979. C i t y o f Vancouver. 1979e. I n t e r - o f f i c e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , C i t y Manager's O f f i c e . Re: Gypsy Moth S p r a y i n g . May 31, 1979. The Columbian. 1979. " F o r e s t I n d u s t r y F e e l s Gypsy Moth Not Yet A T h r e a t . " May 9, 19 79. Farrow, M. 1979a. "Spray Feared H e a l t h P e r i l . " Vancouver  E x p r e s s . 2:41:1. Farrow, M. 1979b. "Greenpeace O p t i m i s t i c K i t s Won't Be Sprayed." Vancouver E x p r e s s . A p r i l 25, 1979. I l l F o u r n i e r , S. 1978. "Moth I n f e s t a t i o n Threatens K i t s i l a n o . " The P r o v i n c e . October 19, 1978. p.4 Greenpeace F o u n d a t i o n . 1979a. P r e s s R e l e a s e . March 23, 1979. Greenpeace F o u n d a t i o n . 1979b. Memo t o members of Vancouver C i t y " C o u n c i l . May 29, 1979. H a r c o u r t , M. 1979. Communication #17, C i t y o f Vancouver. May 15, 1979. Horwood, H. 1979. " K i t s War A l e r t . " The C o u r i e r . A p r i l 10, 1979. p.21 M u l l e n , D. 1979. "Moths T h r e a t e n Economy." The C o u r i e r . May 8, 1979. P.8 Ouston, R. and L. F i t t e r m a n . 1983. " E c o - b u s i n e s s I s Out To Save The World." The Sun. August 6, 1983. p . l , p.10 P l a n t Q u a r a n t i n e A c t o f Canada. P l a n t Q u a r a n t i n e R e g u l a t i o n s as amended November 19, 1976. S e c t i o n 25, S u b - s e c t i o n s 1, 2, 3. P l a n t P r o t e c t i o n A c t o f B r i t i s h C olumbia. 1969. S e c t i o n 3. P u r i t c h , G.S. and B.C. B r o o k s . 1981. " E f f e c t o f I n s e c t i c i d a l Soap Used i n the Gypsy Moth C o n t r o l Program i n K i t s i l a n o on I n s e c t s and V e g e t a t i o n . " Canadian F o r e s t r y S e r v i c e / P a c i f i c F o r e s t R esearch C e n t r e . Environment Canada. The Sun. 1978. " C r e o s o t e L i n k e d With S k i n Cancer." October 19, 1978. Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l . 1979a. F e b r u a r y 13, 1979. p.8 Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l . 1979b. May 2, 1979. pp. 16-17. Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l . 1979c. May 23, 1979. pp. 2-4 Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l . 1979d. May 15, 1979. p. 7 Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l . 1979e. May 29, 1979. p. 28 R e g u l a r C o u n c i l Minutes R e g u l a r C o u n c i l Minutes, S p e c i a l C o u n c i l Minutes R e g u l a r C o u n c i l Minutes R e g u l a r C o u n c i l Minutes Vancouver C i t y Manager. 1979a. C i t y Manager's Report on the H i s t o r y and Treatment o f Gypsy Moth i n K i t s i l a n o . I n : P u r i t c h , G.S. and B.C. B r o o k s . 1981. " E f f e c t of I n s e c t i c i d a l Soap Used i n the Gypsy Moth C o n t r o l Program i n K i t s i l a n o on I n s e c t s and V e g e t a t i o n . " Canadian F o r e s t r y S e r v i c e / P a c i f i c F o r e s t R esearch C e n t r e , pp.22 112 Vancouver C i t y Manager. 1979b. Manager's Report t o C i t y C o u n c i l . May 17, 1979. Vancouver E x p r e s s . 1979a. " O f f i c i a l s Ordered t o S k i p M e e t i n g . " Feb. 26, 1979. p. A6 Vancouver E x p r e s s . 1979b. " K i t s B l i t z P i t s W i t s W i t h N i t s . " Feb. 26, 1979. p. A l Vancouver E x p r e s s . 1979c. "Moth-wash Hogwash Say K i t s Spray B a c k e r s . " May 23, 1979. p. A2 Vancouver E x p r e s s . 1979d. "Consent Now Key o f Spray Program." May 25, 1979. p. A3 113 LITERATURE CITED IN CHAPTER I I I : SEATTLE CASE STUDY American A u t o m o b i l e A s s o c i a t i o n ( undated). T r i p t i k . p. 796. E l l i s , K.M. 1983. "Statement and D e c i s i o n : Gypsy Moth, 1983." Washington S t a t e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . F r i e n d s of the E a r t h . 1983. Testimony P r e s e n t e d t o Washington Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 17 March 1983. mimeo. Lowry, M. 1983. Memorandum t o U.S. S e c r e t a r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e . March 25, 1983. Congress o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s . PCC N e w s l e t t e r . 1983. "Ravenna Might be Doused." F e b r u a r y , 1983 SCSCGM. 1983a. P e t i t i o n . S e a t t l e C i t i z e n s f o r Safe C o n t r o l o f the Gypsy Moth. SCSCGM. 1983b. N e w s l e t t e r . S e a t t l e C i t i z e n s f o r Safe C o n t r o l of the Gypsy Moth. Royer, C. 1983. "Testimony o f Mayor C h a r l e s Royer B e f o r e the Washington S t a t e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . " O f f i c e o f the Mayor. S e a t t l e P . I . . 1983a. "Ways t o E r a d i c a t e Gypsy Moths are S t u d i e d by S t a t e . " J a n u a r y 24, 1983 S e a t t l e P . I . . 1983b. "Spray Ravenna f o r Gypsy Moths, U.S. O f f i c i a l Urges." F e b r u a r y 25, 1983. S e a t t l e P . I . . 1983c. "Ravenna C i t i z e n s Lash S t a t e on Gypsy Moth S p r a y i n g P r o p o s a l . " March 01, 1983. S e a t t l e P . I . . 1983d. "Don't Spray Ravenna, Say 8 on C o u n c i l . " March 11, 1983. S e a t t l e P . I . . 1983e. "Royer Urges S t a t e not t o Use P e s t i c i d e on Ravenna Moths." March 18, 1983. S e a t t l e P . I . . 1983f. " S p r a y i n g f o r Moths i s t o o L a t e . " May 04, 19 83. S e a t t l e Times. 1983a. " S t a t e May Use P l a n e s t o Spray Ravenna A r e a . " J a n u a r y 22, 1983. S e a t t l e Times. 1983b. "Ravenna R e s i d e n t s Charge Fuzzy T h i n k i n g on Gypsy-Moth P l a n . " March 01, 1983. S e a t t l e Times. 1983c. "Tempers Remain Hot a t New T a l k s on Ravenna S p r a y i n g . " March 03, 1983. 114 S e a t t l e Times. 1983d. " L e g i s l a t o r J o i n s Ravenna F i g h t A gains S p r a y i n g . " March 04, 1983. S e a t t l e Times. 1983e. "How t o Deal W i t h Ravenna's Gypsy Moths." March 10, 1983. S e a t t l e Times. 1983f. " S t a t e - b u d g e t P r o v i s i o n Bars A e r i a l Spray of I n s e c t i c i d e . " March 12, 1983. S e a t t l e Times. 1983g. " P o l i t i c a l L o g i c i s Sometimes I l l o g i c a l . " March 21, 1983. S e a t t l e Times. 1983h. "Moths: No I n s e c t i c i d e S p r a y i n g f o r Ravenna A r e a . " A p r i l 01, 1983. S e a t t l e Times. 1 9 8 3 i . " B a t t l e L i n e s Drawn i n Ravenna's Gypsy-Moth War." A p r i l 24, 1983. Smerdon, G. 1983. Minutes o f the ad hoc meeting on Gypsy Moth. Washington S t a t e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . U n i v e r s i t y H e r a l d . 1983a. " S t a t e t o B a t t l e Gypsy Moths." J a n u a r y 26, 1983. U n i v e r s i t y H e r a l d . 1983b. "Ravenna R e s i d e n t s Bugged by Gypsy Moths." F e b r u a r y 02, 1983. U n i v e r s i t y H e r a l d . 1983c. " R e s i d e n t s D i s i l l u s i o n e d With S t a t e Moth M e e t i n g s . " March 09, 1983. U n i v e r s i t y H e r a l d . 1983d. " S c i e n t i s t D i s c u s s e s P e s t i c i d e ' s H e a l t h A f f e c t s . " March 16, 1983. U.W. D a i l y . 1983. " P o i s o n i n Your B a c k y a r d ? " F e b r u a r y 03, 1983 WSDA. 1983a. "Gypsy Moth S i t e S p e c i f i c Summary." Washington S t a t e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . WSDA. 1983b. " H i s t o r y : Gypsy Moth i n Washington S t a t e . " Washington S t a t e Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . WSDA. 1983c. " S t a f f Summary: Gypsy Moth." Washington S t a t e Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . WSDA., 1983d. "1983 E r a d i c a t i o n Treatments: B a c i l l u s  t h u r i n g i e n s i s . " Washington S t a t e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . 115 LITERATURE CITED . IN CHAPTER I I I : SANTA BARBARA CASE STUDY American A u t o m o b i l e A s s o c i a t i o n ( undated). T r i p t i k . p. 866. B o l t o n , T. 1982. "County Seeks S e t t l e m e n t o f Gypsy Moth S u i t . " Santa B a r b a r a Newspress, March 30, 1982. CDFA. 1981a. Memorandum from P r i n c i p a l S t a f f E n t o m o l o g i s t , D i v i s i o n o f P l a n t I n d u s t r y t o A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r f o r P l a n t I n d u s t r y , J u l y 16, 1981. Re: Gypsy Moth. C a l i f o r n i a Department o f Food and A g r i c u l t u r e . CDFA. 1981b. Memorandum from A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , December 21, 1981. Re: Development o f an E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact Assessment f o r Santa B a r b a r a . C a l i f o r n i a Department o f Food and A g r i c u l t u r e . CDFA. 1982a. Gypsy Moth Review M e e t i n g : P r o g r e s s R e p o r t , as o f F e b r u r a r y 17, 1982. C a l i f o r n i a Department o f Food and A g r i c u l t u r e . CDFA. 1982b. Memorandum from U n i t C h i e f , E n v i r o n m e n t a l M o n i t o r i n g and P e s t Management t o A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , F e b r u a r y 17, 1982. Re: Meet i n g w i t h Department of H e a l t h S e r v i c e s (DOHS) on Gypsy Moth. C a l i f o r n i a Department o f Food and A g r i c u l t u r e . CDFA. 1983. E n v i r o n m e n t a l Assessment of Gypsy Moth and i t s E r a d i c a t i o n i n C a l i f o r n i a . C a l i f o r n i a Department of Food and A g r i c u l t u r e . CBE. 1982. " C i t i z e n s For A B e t t e r Environment." (Brochure) C i t i z e n s For A B e t t e r E n v i r o n e m t . San F r a n c i s c o . County of Santa B a r b a r a . 1981a. News R e l e a s e , May 11, 1981. O f f i c e of A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner. . 1981b. News R e l e a s e , November 3, 1981. O f f i c e o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner. _. 1981c. L e t t e r from A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner t o D i r e c t o r o f CDFA. December 24, 1981. O f f i c e o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner. . 1982a. L e t t e r from A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner t o David Yager, S u p e r v i s o r , F i r s t D i s t r i c t , County o f Santa B a r b a r a . March 5, 1982. O f f i c e o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner. 116 . 1982b. Memorandum from Deputy D i r e c t o r , D i v i s i o n o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l Review t o A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner, F e b r u a r y 11, 1982. Re: Proc e d u r e f o r Gypsy Moth EIR h e a r i n g s . Resource Management Department. . 1982c. Memorandum from Deputy D i r e c t o r , D i v i s i o n o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l Review t o A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner, F e b r u a r y 24, 1982. Re: P u b l i c H e a r i n g P r o c e d u r e s . Resource Management Department. . 1982d. News R e l e a s e , J a n u a r y 26, 1982. O f f i c e of A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner. ______ 1982e. Memorandum from Deputy D i r e c t o r , D i v i s i o n of E n v i r o n m e n t a l Review t o A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner, F e b r u a r y 19, 1982. Re: Gypsy Moth E r a d i c a t i o n P r o j e c t . Resource Management Department. . 1982f. F i n a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact R e p o r t . S t a t e C l e a r i n g h o u s e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n No. 82011210. Santa B a r b a r a County Number 8 2 - E I R - l . . 1982g. News R e l e a s e , F e b r u a r y 23, 1982. O f f i c e of A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner. . 1982h. T r a n s c r i p t o f Gypsy Moth EIR H e a r i n g . O f f i c e o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner. . 1 9 8 2 i . L e t t e r from D a v i d Yager, S u p e r v i s o r F i r s t D i s t r i c t t o A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner, March 4, 1982. ( L e t t e r made p u b l i c ) . . 1 9 8 2 j . L e t t e r from A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner t o David Yager, S u p e r v i s o r F i r s t D i s t r i c t , March 5, 1982. O f f i c e of A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner. . 1982k. News R e l e a s e , March 8, 1982. O f f i c e of A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner . 19821 . L e t t e r from A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner t o Board of S u p e r v i s o r s , March 8, 1982. O f f i c e o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner. . 1982m. Memorandum from D i r e c t o r o f Resource Management Department t o A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner, March 11, 1982. Re: Comments on the Gypsy Moth F i n a l EIR. Resource Management Department. . 1982n. Memorandum from A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner t o D i r e c t o r o f Resource Management Department, March 12, 1982. O f f i c e o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner. . 1982o. News R e l e a s e , March 12 , 1982 . O f f i c e o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner. 117 . 1982p. News R e l e a s e , March 17, 1982. O f f i c e o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner. . 1982q. Memorandum from A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner t o L o c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s , March 18, 1982. Re: Gypsy Moth. O f f i c e o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Commssioner. . 1982r. L e t t e r from A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner t o Board of S u p e r v i s o r s , March 29, 1982. O f f i c e of A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner. D a h l s t e n , D. L. 1982. Comments on the Gypsy Moth E r a d i c a t i o n P r o j e c t , County o f Santa B a r b a r a . D r e i s t a d t , S. 1982. Comments on the D r a f t EIR f o r the proposed Gypsy Moth e r a d i c a t i o n p r o j e c t , County o f Santa B a r b a r a . C i t i z e n s f o r a B e t t e r Environment. Egan, L. 1982. " C o u n c i l S e e k i n g Report R e v i s i o n on Gypsy Moth." Santa B a r b a r a Newspress, March 22, 19 82. E i s s l e r , F r e d . 1982a. "Comments on the EIR S c o p i n g f o r the Gypsy Moth E r a d i c a t i o n P r o j e c t , County of Santa B a r b a r a . " S c e n i c S h o r e l i n e P r e s e r v a t i o n C o n f e r e n c e , I n c . Santa B a r b a r a . E i s s l e r , F r e d . 1982b. "Comments on the EIR Gypsy Moth E r a d i c a t i o n P r o j e c t , County o f Santa B a r b a r a . " S c e n i c S h o r e l i n e P r e s e r v a t i o n C o n f e r e n c e , I n c . ERMC. 1982. Review o f the D r a f t EIR on the Gypsy Moth E r a d i c a t i o n P r o j e c t . E n v i r o n m e n t a l Resource Management Committee. C i t y o f Santa B a r b a r a . G i l m a n , R.M. 1984. Comments on Santa B a r b a r a Case Study. P e r s o n a l Communication. H a n k i n s , J . 1982. " L a w s u i t F i l e d i n Moth S p r a y i n g . " Lompac  Record, A p r i l 8, 19 82. Hardy, D. 1982a. "Gypsy Moth Eggs Found i n M o n t e c i t o . " Santa B a r b a r a Newspress, F e b r u a r y 12, 1982, p. A-10. Hardy, D. 1982b. " M o n t e c i t o Area Faces Q u a r a n t i n e . " Santa B a r b a r a Newspress, F e b r u a r y 24, 1982, p. A-1. Los Angeles Times. 1982. "Santa B a r b a r a t o B e g i n A s s a u l t on Moths." March 9, 1982. Santa B a r b a r a Newspress. 1982a. "Moth E r a d i c a t i o n ' R i s k s ' P i n p o i n t e d i n Stormy H e a r i n g . " F e b r u a r y 28, 1982. Santa B a r b a r a Newspress. 1982b. P a i d A d v e r t i s e m e n t from Santa B a r b a r a C i t i z e n s f o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l Defense. March 6, 1982. Santa B a r b a r a Newspress. 1982c. " S u p e r v i s o r s : How They Voted." March 30, 1982. S o l l e n , R. 1982a. " R e s i d e n t s Rap R i s k s of Moth S p r a y i n g . " Santa B a r b a r a Newspress, F e b r u a r y 26, 1982. S o l l e n , R. 1982b. " R a l l y C a l l e d A g a i n s t A e r i a l S p r a y i n g . " Santa B a r b a r a Newspress, March 3, 1982. S o l l e n , R. 1982c. "Gypsy Moth S p r a y i n g Opponents Speak Up a t M e e t i n g . " Santa B a r b a r a Newspress, March 7, 1982. S o l l e n , R. 1982d. "County's War A g a i n s t Gypsy Moth." Santa B a r b a r a Newspress, March 8, 1982. S o l l e n , R. 1982e. "Hart Seeks Changes Over Gypsy Moth Program. Santa B a r b a r a Newspress, March 10, 19 82. Ste w a r t - O a t e n , A., L i n d a S t e w a r t - O a t e n , W.W. Murdoch and J.H. C o n n e l l . 1982. Comments on D r a f t EIR f o r Gypsy Moth E r a d i c a t i o n P r o j e c t , County of Santa B a r b a r a . Thermos, W. 1982. "Raw Deal Seen f o r E d u c a t i o n . " Lompac  Record, March 2, 1982. Walsh, J . 1982. "Has the County M i s h a n d l e d the Gypsy Moth?" Santa B a r b a r a News and Review, March 4, 1982. 119 LITERATURE CITED IN CHAPTER IV B e n v e n i s t e , G. 1981. R e g u l a t i o n and P l a n n i n g : The Case of E n v i r o n m e n t a l P o l i t i c s . San F r a n c i s c o : Boyd and F r a s e r P u b l i s h i n g Co. B u r g e s s , G. 1981. " S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l P a t h o l o g i e s o f R i s k D e c i s i o n Making," i n E n v i r o n m e n t a l P o l i c y F o r m a t i o n . Ed. Dean E. Mann. T o r o n t o : D.C. Heath and Co. pp. 149-159. Edmunds, S.W. 1981. " E n v i r o n m e n t a l P o l i c y : Bounded R a t i o n a l i t y A p p l i e d t o Unbounded E c o l o g i c a l Problems," i n E v i r o n m e n t a l  P o l i c y F o r m a t i o n . Ed. Dean E. Mann. T o r o n t o : D.C. Heath and Co. pp. 191-201. F i s h e r , R. and W. Ury. 1983. G e t t i n g t o Yes: N e g o t i a t i n g Agreement Without G i v i n g I n . New York: Penguin Books. F o r r e s t e r , J.W. 1971. C o l l e c t e d Papers of J a y W. F o r r e s t e r . Forward by Gordon S. Brown. Cambridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s : W r i g h t - A l l e n P r e s s , I n c . p. 252. Fox, I.K. 1976. " I n s t i t u t i o n s f o r Water Managegment i n a Changing World." N a t u r a l Resources J o u r n a l . V o l . 16, pp. 743-758. F r a n c i s , R.G. 1961. The R h e t o r i c of S c i e n c e . M i n n e a p o l i s : The U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a P r e s s . Grima, A.P. 1977. "The Role of P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact Assessment P r o c e s s . " P r o c . Conf.  E n v i r o n . Impact Assessment, pp. 61-76. H e b e r l e i n , T.A. 1972. "The Land E t h i c R e a l i z e d : Some S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g i c a l E x p l a n a t i o n s f o r Changing E n v i r o n m e n t a l A t t i t u d e s . " J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l I s s u e s . 28:4: 79-87. Lewin, K. 1948. R e s o l v i n g S o c i a l C o n f l i c t s . Ed. G.W. Lewin. New York: Harper and Row. N e l k i n , D. 1979. " S c i e n c e , Technology, and P o l i t i c a l C o n f l i c t : A n a l y z i n g the I s s u e s , " i n C o n t r o v e r s y : P o l i t i c s of  T e c h n i c a l D e c i s i o n s . Ed. D. N e l k i n . B e v e r l y H i l l s : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , pp. 9-22. S e w e l l D.R.W. and S.D. P h i l l i p s . 1979. "Models f o r the E v a l u a t i o n o f P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n Programmes." N a t u r a l Resources J o u r n a l . 19: 337-358. 120 Stankey G.H., J.C. Hendee and R.N. C l a r k . 1975. "Commentary: A p p l i e d S o c i a l Research Can Improve P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Resource D e c i s i o n Making." R u r a l S o c i o l o g y . 40:1:67-74. Swainson N.A. 1976. " D e f i n i n g the Problem: The I n s t i t u t i o n a l Arrangements f o r Water Q u a l i t y Management," i n Managing The Water Environment Ed. N.A. Swainson. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s . Thompson, J.D. 1967. O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n A c t i o n . New York: McGraw-Hi11, I n c . V a l e n t i n e , H.T., C M . Newton and R.L. T a l e r i c o . 1976. "Compatible Systems and D e c i s i o n Models f o r P e s t Management." E n v i r o n m e n t a l Entomology. 5:5:891-900. 121 APPENDIX I : R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a g e n c i e s or o r g a n i z a t i o n s who a s s i s t e d i n the development o f the Case S t u d i e s . VANCOUVER: 1. Mr. Jack A r r a n d B.C. M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e V i c t o r i a , B.C. 2. Dr. P a t r i c k Moore D i r e c t o r of Greenpeace, Vancouver, B.C. 3. Mr. Gordon P o w e l l A g r i c u l t u r e Canada New W e s t m i n s t e r , B.C. SEATTLE: 1. Mr. David B r i c k l i n A t t o r n e y - a t - L a w S e a t t l e , Wa. 2. Mr. Eugene H. Davidson USDA (APHIS, PPQ) S e a t t l e , Wa. 3. Dr. J u d i t h Freeman Washington D e p 1 t o f A g r i c u l t u r e O l y m p i a, Wa. 4. Dr. G i l Zemansky F r i e n d s o f the E a r t h S e a t t l e , Wa. SANTA BARBARA: 1. Mr. D. Doutt 2. Mr. S. D r e i s t a d t 3. Mr. R. Gilman 4. Mr. D. Henry E n t o m o l o g i s t Santa B a r b a r a , Ca. C i t i z e n s f o r a B e t t e r Environment San F r a n c i s c o , Ca. A s s i s t a n t A g r i c u l t u r a l Commissioner Santa B a r b a r a , Ca. C a l i f o r n i a D e p 1 t of A g r i c u l t u r e Sacramento, Ca. 122 APPENDIX I I : Comments on D r a f t Case S t u d i e s The f o l l o w i n g l e t t e r s a r e res p o n s e s t o e a r l y d r a f t s o f the Case S t u d i e s . The a u t h o r s , f o r the most p a r t , were d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e ev e n t s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e c a s e s . T h e i r comments, when a p p r o p r i a t e , were i n c l u d e d i n the f i n a l d r a f t s of the case s t u d i e s . L i s t o f commentators: 1. Mr. Jack A r r a n d 2. Dr. P a t r i c k Moore 3. Mr. Gordon P o w e l l 4. Dr. J u d i t h Freeman 5. Mr. David B r i c k l i n 6. Dr. G i l Zemansky 7. Mr. S. D r e i s t a d t 8. Mr. R. Gilman 124 Response t o d r a f t o f Vancouver case s t u d y by Dr. P a t r i c k Moore (Dr. Moore made comments on a copy of the d r a f t case s t u d y , which are p r e s e n t e d h e r e ) : "A v e r y o b j e c t i v e a c c o u n t . You do not mention the main argument put f o r w a r d by Greenpeace which was t h a t the c l i m a t e i n Vancouver was not s u i t a b l e f o r the Gypsy Moth and i t was t h e r e f o r e not p o s s i b l e t h a t i t would r e a c h e p i d e m i c p r o p o r t i o n s . The Gypsy Moth i s from Europe y e t has never been a problem i n B r i t a i n o r o t h e r a r e a s of Europe w i t h a s i m i l a r c l i m a t e . I t seems t o r e q u i r e hot summers t o f l o u r i s h . I s t i l l b e l i e v e the s p r a y program was e n t i r e l y u n n e c e s s a r y and t h a t the c l i m a t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d have been g i v e n more c r e d e n c e . " 129 Response t o d r a f t o f S e a t t l e case s t u d y by Mr. Da v i d B r i c k l i n (Mr. B r i c k l i n made comments on a copy of the d r a f t case s t u d y , w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e ) : " A d m i t t e d l y , my view i s t h a t o f an o r g a n i z e r o f SCSCGM, but n o n e t h e l e s s , I f e e l you downplay SCSCGM's r o l e . As your quote i n d i c a t e s , the r i s i n g a t t e n t i o n t o the s p r a y i n g p o l i t i c i a n s , p r e s s , c i t i z e n s — ;- was not a c c i d e n t a l . C i t y C o u n c i l s have o t h e r t h i n g s t o do than pass r e s o l u t i o n s . The p r e s s and l e g i s l a t o r s have o t h e r demands on t h e i r t i m e . I t was i n l a r g e p a r t because SCSCGM got the word o u t , l o b b i e d p o l i t i c i a n s , made r e p e a t e d c o n t a c t s w i t h the p r e s s , t h a t any o f t h i s o c c u r r e d . On a p o s i t i v e note good a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l ; a c c u r a c y . " 131 Chris, 23 Feb.'84, p. 2 6. I don't have an exact figure, but I believe that over 2,500 Ravenna residents signed p e t i t i o n s against the a e r i a l application of carbaryl (2,000 was an e a r l i e r figure, possibly given at the hearing, and more were submitted l a t e r ) . This was out of an estimated t o t a l population of 10,000. Because of the time constraints i n obtaining the signatures and the l i m i t e d , volunteer e f f o r t made, th i s was extraordinary. Furthermore, more than 2,500 signatures probably represented something on the order of half of the adults l i v i n g i n the proposed spray area who could possibly have signed. I've never heard of an equivalent p o s i t i o n statement being made by the c i t i z e n s of.any urban area. 7. Although there was considerable media attention given to the gypsy moth s i t u a t i o n , the q u a l i t y of i t was open to question. I don't think the news media ever presented a comprehensive synopsis of the issues so that an i n t e l l i g e n t person could have information from which to make an informed opinion. For example, I offered detailed technical material to several reporters and was turned down. They didn't want to look at i t . They told me they were going to cover the issue as a human interest story. Neither did the news media correct errors of fact from i n i t i a l s t o r i e s i n writing followup stor i e s despite documenta-tion about those errors being given to them. S i m i l a r l y , they ignored some pieces of information that appeared to have news value (e.g., a USDA memo which indicated that the USDA and WDA had discussed what to say about the health r i s k s of carbaryl p r i o r to the public meetings of early Mar.'83 and had decided not to bring the topic up and to attempt to defuse any c i t i z e n s who did — these meetings were advertised as being meetings at which the agencies would f u l l y inform the public about a l l aspects of the s i t u a t i o n ) . 8. The setting on page nine should indicate, but does not, that the o r i g i n a l WDA proposal was to spray an area of 931 acres, but shortly before the a p p l i c a t i o n (and long a f t e r the decision had been made) this was expanded by approximately eleven percent to 1,041 acres. This was done for several reasons, including to square-off the area to make i t easier for the helicopter; however, i t had the e f f e c t of adding persons to the spray area at the l a s t minute who had pre-viously thought they weren't d i r e c t l y involved and implied less than adequate WDA planning i n advance of decision making. 9. With regard to the 1979 Renton s i t u a t i o n (page 10), the USDA and WDA f i r s t proposed an a e r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of carbaryl. Due to public opposition and possibly because of agency manipulation for p o l i t i c a l reasons ( i . e . , scare the public into thinking an a e r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n i s planned so that t h e y ' l l more readily accept a ground one — one USDA o f f i c i a l admitted to t h i s strategy), the agencies backed off and went to a ground app l i c a t i o n of acephate. 10. The nature of the "pressure" purportedly applied by other states i s open to question (page 11). With s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l s of gypsy moths i n Delaware, Maryland, and V i r g i n i a already, why would V i r g i n i a be concerned about gypsy moths from Washington state and just how many nursery goods are transported in that direction? Neither i s i t clear why Hawaii would want to ban trees from areas of Washington where there are no known gypsy moth populations or i f either of these "bans" are anything more than "quarantines" i n which trade continues with some l e v e l of inspection. In the case of C a l i f o r n i a , Washington residents have not reported being stopped for detailed inspections at the C a l i f o r n i a border. C a l i f o r n i a has border check stations for other purposes. People I've discussed t h i s with have told me that they received laughs and/or blank looks from C a l i f o r n i a inspectors when they volunteered that they were from King County and asked what type of inspection would take place (the answer was none). 11. Why didn't the WDA inform the public about i t s gypsy moth control plans in the f a l l of '82 (page 12)? We found out about i t through a leak in the system and alerted the news media, leading to a front page story i n late-Jan.'83. Although a public meeting was planned for the Ravenna area, i t was only to be "informational" and there was to be no hearing i n Seattle. This WDA plan was 132 Chris, 23 Feb.'84, p. 3 a highly inadequate public p a r t i c i p a t i o n program. The reaction of Friends of the Earth and W2TC was an informed one based on knowledge of the r i s k s of car-b a r y l and what l i t t l e information that had been obtained about the WDA program. As of that time, the WDA was not being highly receptive towards making informa-t i o n available to the public and we were just s t a r t i n g to obtain copies of relevant records. The Ravenna-Bryant Community Association meeting was held as a panel format. The WDA had been i n v i t e d ; however, the i r representative turned out to be Mr. Jackson of the USDA (he had recently been transferred back to Seattle for the purpose of dealing with t h i s s i t u a t i o n and had been the USDA "point-man" i n a number of controversial chemical i n s e c t i c i d e spraying programs). Dave B r i c k l i n and myself were the other two panel speakers. Dave B r i c k l i n l i v e d i n the pro-posed spray area and had been asked to address the l e g a l aspects of the s i t u a t i o n (he l a t e r became the co-chair of SCSCGM). I represented the environmental view-point. A p o l l was taken which indicated approximately 90% (I don't r e c a l l the precise number) of the people present favored non-chemical approaches. 12. By Feb. '83 public pressure had forced the WDA to schedule additional public meetings i n the Ravenna area (check your figures to see i f i t was 3 or 4). A l l of these meetings turned out to be crowded a f f a i r s . I went to the f i r s t one and i t was SRO. The public hearing for Seattle was also something that was forced on the WDA (page 13). At the meeting, the WDA announced that the costs of carbaryl and B_._t. were approximately the same. The prepared WDA and USDA presentation at the meeting I attented dealt s o l e l y with presenting a case that gypsy moths were a catastrophic problem i n the northeast US and had to be eradicated here or they'd be the same kind of problem. No e f f o r t was made to discuss the s i t e - s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s ecosystem (there are some c r i t i c a l differences) and no e f f o r t was made to serious, discuss a l t e r n a -tives to carbaryl or the public health and environmental r i s k s of chemical i n s e c t i -cides. 13. What i s the word " r i d i n g s " supposed to mean i n the middle of l i n e 3 on page 14? 14. I attended the meeting on 10 March at which Dr. Eaton presented a l e c -ture on the public health r i s k s of carbaryl. During the f i r s t part of h i s presentation he was questioned extensively about s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s i n h i s analysis, lack of data, and information he had overlooked. There were a number of UW scien-t i s t s i n the audience involved i n t h i s questioning. About half way through i t was decided by concensus to forego such questioning i n order to get through the presentation. I t was obvious that i t would take tt>o long otherwise. Although Dr. Eaton presented an argument which minimized the r i s k of carbaryl, I think there are two important q u a l i f i e r s that must be added to any consideration of what he said (in addition to his agreement that I5._t. should be used instead of Carbaryl due to i t s lower environmental hazard p o t e n t i a l ) . These are: (1) he i s a t o x i c o l o g i s t who i s trained to deal primarily with acute health r i s k s rather than chronic ones (the chronic ones such as cancer, mutations, and b i r t h defects are the ones of primary public concern usually i n such cases as t h i s ) ; and (2) i n the f i n a l analysis he stated that he wouldn't allow his wife to be exposed to carbaryl i f she were pregnant. 15. With regard to the Seattle City Council (page 15), the lone holdout changed his mind the next day to make i t unanimous. 16. Any speculation on why the Governor vetoed the l e g i s l a t i v e p r o h i b i t i o n against a e r i a l spraying of chemical pesticides in urban areas? Could i t be that he had already seen the writing on the wall and wanted the p o l i t i c a l mileage out of being able to say that his administration had taken care of the problem through i t s administrative responsiveness rather than the Democratic l e g i s l a t u r e (the Governor's a Republican)? 17. the same hearing which had been scheduled for Olympia took place there (page 16). The Seattle hearing resulted from c i t i z e n pressure for i t through 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0095995/manifest

Comment

Related Items